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Full text of "Universal geography; or, A description of all the parts of the world on a new plan, according to the great natural divisions of the globe, accompanied with analytical, synoptical and elementary tables. Improved by the addition of the most recent information, derived from various sources"

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I Q 

f* * AN 
















Its Physical Geography. Seas, Lakes, Ri- 
vers, and Mountains. 


Introduction, .... 1 

Limits of Europe. Superficial Extent. 
Dimensions, .... 2 

Centre. Atlantic Ocean. White Sea. 
North or German Sea. Jutland Chan- 
nel, 3 

Katte Gat. The Baltic. British Chan- 
nel. Bay of Biscay. The Mediterra- 
nean. Italian Sea. Adriatic Sea. 
Archipelago, . . . . 4 

Black Sea. Currents in the Mediterra- . 
nean. Caspian Sea. Coasts of Europe, 5 

LAKES. Scandinavian Lakes. . Lakes to 
the South of the Baltic. Alpine lakes, 6 

Italian lakes. Irish lakes. The pro- 
portion between the Basin. The six 
largest Rivers in Europe. EDKOJPEAN 

The Dofrine Mountains. The Caledo- 
nonian Mountains. Great Northern 
Plain. The Alps. The Appenines, 8 

Dinarian Alps. Jura, Vosges. The Ce- 
vennes. Pyrenees. The Alpugarras. 
Mount Hemus. Olympus, Pindus, &c. 
Carpathian and Hercyniun, . 9 

EUUOJ?EAX PLAINS. Upper and Lower 
Europe, . . . . . 10 

Table of different Rivers in Europe, 1114 

Height of the Principal Mountains in 
Europe, .... 1426 

Height of buildings, . . , 26 


Climate. Distribution ofJlnimals and Plants. 

Prejudices concerning Climate. False 
Notions of the learned. Causes of 
the European Climates. Modified by 
Asia '"27 

Eust winds. Modified by Africa. South 
winds. Oceanic influence. Conflict 
between the maritime and continental 
winds, . 28 

Insular Climates. South-west winds. 
Succession of the Spring. European 
Climates, .... 29 

Elevation of the Sun. Snow Line. Le- 
vel of Central Europe. Level of the 
Sarmatian Plains, . .30 

Isothermal Lines. Curvative of the Iso- 
thermal Lines in Europe, . 31 

Humidity- of the Atmosphere. Salu- 
VOL. IV. a 


brity of the Air. Vegetation of the 
Oceanic Climate, ... 32 

Vegetation under the Asiatic Climate. 
Effects of the Caspian Climate. Vege- 
tation of the Mediterranean Climate, 33 

Difference between the Vegetation of 
the West and East. Levels of Vege- 
tation. Grain, . . .34 

The Vine. Hops. Wine and Beer. 
Oil and Butter. Fruit Trees, . 35 

Lint and Hemp. Trees and Shrubs. 
Changes produced by Culture, 36 

Animals in the Central Countries of Eu- 
rope. In the Alps, &c. in the South, 37 

Table of European Sections, 3843 

Table of Mean Temperature according 
to the Centigrade Thermometer, 44 


Remarks on the Political Geography of Eu- 
rope. Nations, Languages, Religion, Po- 
litical Divisions, Governments, Popula- 
tion, &fc. 

Origin of European States, . 44 

European Languages. European Peo- 
ple. Greeks. Albanians. Turks, 45 

Nations indigenous to Europe. Slavo- 
nians and Finns. Wallachians. Bul- 
garians. Finns, ... 46 1 

Teutonic Nations. Germans. Scandi- 
navian Nations. English. Ancient 
People of the west and the south, 47 

Basques. Native Irish, Highlanders. 
Belgians. Latin Language. Con- 
nexion between these languages and 
the number of inhabitants. Different 
Tribes, . .- . . 48 

Religion. Greek Church. Latin Church. ! 
Reformed Church. Mahometans/ 
Idolaters. Governments, . . 49 

Despotic states. Republics. Principal 
powers. Physical relations between 
States, . . . .50 

Constituent parts of Empires. Popu- 
lation, . . . . 51 

Causes of these results. Maritime 
Countries, ... 52 

Increase of Population. Necessity of 
Emigration. The limits that Popula- 
tion may attain in some Countries. 
Future Migrations of States, . 53 

Rank. Agriculturists. Nobility. Mid- 
dling Classes. Authors. Working 
Classes, . 5 



Agriculturists and Husbandmen. Value 

of an Individual. REMARKS, . 55 

Value of the Military service. North- 
ern States more powerful, . 56 
Synoptical Tables of ancient and modern 
European states, their origin, lan- 
guages, . . . 57-72 


Physical description of Turkey in Europe. 

CHAINS or MOUNTAINS. Hemus Proper. 

Rhodope. Dardanian Mountains. Pin- 
dus, 73 

Olympus. Parnassus. Insular chains, 
Mountains in the Island of Andros, 74 

Pontus Euxinus. Hypothesis concern- 
ing the Bosphorus. Archipelago, 75 

Rivers and Streams. Vale of Tempe, 
Ancient Thessalonian Lake, - 76 

Physical changes in Beotia. Earth- 
quakes, >'' ' 

Volcanic Islands. Eruptions. CAVERNS, 78 

Cavern in Antiparos. Cave of Tropho- 
nius, - 79 

CLIMATE. Climate of the Mountains. 
Greece, - 80 

Etesian, - 81 

Ornithian winds. Range of Tempera- 
ture, - 82 

Forests on the North and the South of 
Hemus. Fruit Trees. Vineyards, 83 

Transition of Plants. ANIMAI, KINGDOM. 
Animals Extinct, 84 

Mineral Kingdom. Gold Mines. Marble. 
Islands, - 85 

Bitumen, , v -' - * 86 


Portion of European Turkey to the south of 
Mount Hemus and the east of Pindus. 

Ordinary Division. Constantinople, dif- 
ferent names. Port. Circumference, 86 

Situation. Fanar. Seraglio. Buildings, 87 

Commerce. Pera, Galata. Neighbour- 
ing Country. Adrianople, . 88 

North-west of Romania. Passes. Zagora. 
Paulianistes. Subterranean Town, 89 

Bay of Bourgas. Tekeri-Dag. South- 
ern Coasts. Macedonia. Mountains, 90 

Rivers. Mines. Fruitfulness of the Soil. 
Cotton and Tobacco. Salonica. 
Towns in the south. Different 
Tribes, .... 91 

Mount Athos. Towns in the North- 
east. Towns in the North-west. Cen- 
tral Towns, ... 92 

Different Tribes. Thessaly. Trading 
Towns. Meteora, . 93 

|pulfofVolo< .Greece Proper. Mount 


Parnassus. Athens. The Pelopon- 
nesus, or Morea, . 94 

Character of the Modern Greeks. 
Greek Church, . . 95 

Maniotes. Cacovouniotes. Candia, or 
Crete. Mountains, . . 96 

Climate. Productions. Towns. Spa- 
chiotes. The Cyclades, . 97 

Islands in the Gulf of Athens. Hydra. 
Continuation of the Cyclades. Ne- 
groponte, or Egripo, . . 98 

Sporades. Seven Ionian Islands. Corfu. 
Paxo. Santa Maura. Cephalonia, 99 

Ithaca. Zante. Cerigo. Ionian Re- 
public, . . . . . 100 


Turkey. Western Provinces. Albanians and 

Albano-Dalmatian Mountains. Moun- 
tains of Albania, . . 101 

Central Ridge of Dalmatia. Plain of 
Kosovo. Climate, vegetation, . 102 

Lower Albania or Epirus. Animals. 
Valley of Janina. Wallachians on 
Mount Pindus, . . . 103 

Suliotes. Paramithiotes. Parga. Phi- 
lates, . . . . 104 

Basin of the Aous. Nymphaeum. Cen- 
tral Albania. Mirdites, . . 105 

Lake of Ochrida. Upper Albania, Sco- 
dra. The Guegues or Guikhes, 106 

Character of the Albanians. Religion,. 107 

Origin of the Albanians, their Language. 
Albanian Language, . . 10$ 

Sanscrit Geographical Terms. Con- 
nexion between the Albanian and 
Aeolian, . . . 109 

Names of Macedonian Months. Con- 
nexion with the Pelasgic. Names of 
the Pelasghi. Connexion with the 
Hellenic, . . . 110 

Connexion with the Latin. Celticisms 
and Germanisms, , , v * ' . Hi 

Albanians, Sklpitars, &c. . , , 112 

Albanian Grammar, & . . 113 

Albanian Alphabet, ',*.4tY . 114 

Cettas and Pharas. Superstitions. Novel 
method of Fishing. Montenegro, 115 

Notions. Dalmatia or Herzgovina. 
Towns and Fortresses. Rivers with- 
out embouchures, . . 116 

Bosnia and Turkish Croatia. Vegetable 
Productions. Corn, . . 117 

Forests. Animals. Mines and Minerals. 
Salt, . . . . 118 

Climate. Springs and Rivers. Principal 
Towns. Residence of the Pacha, 119 

Language, Manners, . . 120 

Condition of the Women. Religion. 
Other Districts. Rascia, . 121 

Servia. Mountains and Rivers. Produc- 
tions. Inhabitants. Rights, . 122 

Towns of Lower Servia. Monuments. 



Towns in the interior. Tomb of Amu- 
rath I., . . . .123 

Proto-Slavonians. Proto-Slavonian tribe 
in Thrace. Proto-Slavonians in Pan- 
nonia, . . ... 124 

Religious Customs. Arrival of the Sla- 
vonians. Invasions of the Serbi. 
Croatian Invasions. . . 125 

Conclusion, . . O. '. 126 


European Turkey. North-east Provinces. 
Wallachians. Zigeunes or Gipsies. 

The Bulgarians, their Origin and Migra- 
tions, . ,. . . 126 
Productions. Towns and Remarkable 

Places, . . . . 127 

Dobrudscha. Wallachia. Origin of the 

Wallachians, . '. 128 

Names of the Wallachians, - 129 

Numbers. Hospodars. - ''; \ 130 

Divan. Condition of the Peasantry. 

Classes. Privileges. Clergy, 131 

Natural Advantages. Productions, 132 
Revenue, Taxes, and Exports. Divi- 
sions. Towns, . . . 133 
Towns in Little Wallachia. Passes'. 

Climate, . . .134 

Productions. Animals. Cattle, 135 

Towns and Burghs. Jassy, the Capital, 136 
Government. Revenue. Character and 

Manners, . . ;"* 137 

Oungaraines. Zigeunes. Gipsies, or 

Bohemians. Trades, Arts, &c. . 138 
Number. Different Names of the Gip- 
sies. Traditions, " ' ' . 139 
Language, . . . . 140 
Indo-European Origin. Sigynes, . 141 
Sinties or Sindi. Hindoo Nations of Eu- 
rope. Conclusion, . . 142 
Increase and decline of the Turkish 

power, . . . . 143 

TABLE* The divisions of European Tur- 
key according to Hddgi-Khalfa and 
Hisar Fenn y compared -with those of 
Ricaut and Marsigli, . 143-152 

Table of the Divisions of the Morea ac- 
cording to M. Pouqueville, . 153 
Table of the Population in European 
Turkey according to M. Hassel, 
(1823,) . ' .-'.* . 153-155 



Hungary and its Appendages; Physical Geo- 


Carpathian Proper. Fatra. The Fatra. 
Alps of Liptau, . . 156 

Hegy-Allya. Lowering of the Carpa- 
thian Mountains. Opinion of M. Beu- 
dant. Opinion of M. Kitaibel, . 157 

Transylvanian mountains. Mountains of 

the Bannat. Intermediate Mountains. 

Western Mountains, . . 158 

PLAINS. Lakes. Lake of Neusiedel, 159 
MARSHES. Their extent. RIYERS. The 

Danube, . . . 160 

TheTheiss, . . .161 

The Save. The Drave. Climate of 

the Mountains. Climate of the Hills. 

Climate of the Plains, . . 162 

Land and Rocks. Rock Salt, . 163 
Ancient Lake or Mediterranean. Sand- 
stone. Basalts. Metals, . 164 
Iron Mines. Copper Mines. Different 

Metals, &c., . . .165 

Marbles and Precious Stones. Coal. 

Vegetable Kingdom. Grain. Wines. 

Tokay, . . .166 

Different Plants, Forests, ' . 167 

Cattle. Sheep. Horses. Hogs, 168 

Game. Fish. . . 169 


Hungary and the adjacent Provinces, Towns, 
and Divisions, &c. 

Central Towns, . . .169 

Plain of Rokasch. Towns in the North- 
west. Royal Hill; Schutt. Towns 
of the Mines, . . .170 

Caverns. Different Curiosities. The 
Sixteen Towns in the County of 
Zips, . v 171 

Northern Towns. Caverns in Torna, 172 

Vineyards. Towns in the North- 
east. Different Nations in Northern 
Hungary. Slovacs, . . 173 

Kopaniczares. Character. Costume. 
Dialect of the Slovacs. Numbers, 
Rousniacs. Manners and Customs. 
Marriages, &c. . . 174 

Towns on the Plain. Debrec. Towns 
in the Bannat of Temeswar. Caverns, 
Veterani, . . .175 

Hungarian Wallachians. Funerals. Su- 
perstitions, . . . 176 

Remarks. Wallachian Fraternity. 
Towns between the Danube and the 
Theiss. District of the Tchaikistes, 177 

Great and Little Cumania. Cumans. 
Origin, . . . .178 

Trans-Danubian Circle. Towns, &c. 179 

Towns continued. German Inhabi- 
tants. Vandals. Croatia and Slavo- 
nia. Physical Divisions, . ^ 180 

Produce. Slavonia. Produce. Agri- 
culture, ... 

Population. Character, &c. 

Towns. Caroline Way, . . 183 

Kingdom of Dalmatia. Dalmatia Pro- 
per, : 184 

Islands, .... 185 

District of Poglitza. Ragusa. Towns. 
Remarkable places, 

Towns. Bocchese. Transylvania, 187 




Divisions. Towns. Kronstadt. Foun- 
dation of the Saxon colony, . 188 
Constitution. Morals. Name. Coun- 
try of the Szeklers. Country of the 
Hungarians, f *' 

Name of the Carpathian Mountains, 190 


Hungary' concluded. Researches on the ori- 
gin of the Hungarians. Remarks on the 
Province* annexed to Hungary. 

HOOABIANS, . . 190 

Character. Nobles. National Charac- 
ter. Peasants, - . . 191 
Hungarian or Magian Language. Re- 
semblance between the Hungarian 
and Armenian, . 




Government. Political 
Hungarian Diet, 

Provincial Administration. Condition 
of the Peasants. Urbarium, . 194 

Religious Liberty. Different Sects in 

Civil and Political Institutions. Indus- 
try. Manufactures. Commerce. Jea- 
lousy of Austria, 196 

Army. Military Limits. Origin of the 
Hungarians," . . 197 

Historical Summary. Relation with the 
Finns, . . . . 198 

Conclusion. Magiar Traditions, 199 

Remarks on the Hungarian Traditions. 
Dates. Rise of the Hungarian Mo- 
narchy, . . 200 

Its Fall. Civil Wars, . . 201 

Synoptical Table of the Political and Mi- 
litary Divisions of Hungary, Vc. 201-206 

Population, . . . 206-208 


European Russia. First Section. Southern 

Rivers, the Dneister. Russian Molda- 
via, .. . 208 

Towns. Bessarabia. Physical Geogra- 
phy. Towns, . . . 209 

Great Roman Wall. Different Nations 
that have inhabited the Country, 210 

System of M. de Sestrenzevitch. The 
Dneiper. Islands in the Dneiper, 211 

Towns on the River. Physical Geogra- 
phy, .... 212 

Country between the Dneiper and the 
Sea of Azof. Towns. New Russian 
Colony. Duchoborzes. Kurgans. 
The Crimea of Taurida, . 213 

Putrid Sea. Mountains. Southern Val- 
lies, 214 

Agriculture. Obstacles by which Culti- 
. vation is Retarded. Towns and Re- 
markable Places, . . 215 

The Criou-Metopon, . . 216 

Character, Manners. Husbandmen. His- 
tory of the Cossacks, - - 217 

Origin of the name. Cossacks of Little 
Russia. . Cossacks of the Russian 

Zaporogues. Government, 

Country of the Cossacks on the Black 
Sea. Clay Volcanoes. Cossacks on 
the Don, . . .220 

Country of the Donian Cossacks. Man- 
ners. Habitations. Political Liberty, 221 

Towns. The Don. Sea of Azof, 

Russian Calmucks. Isthmus of the Cas- 
pian. The Wolga. Breadth, 

Polumna or Lungs of the Wolga. Name 
of the Wolga. Physical Description 
ofAstracan, . 224 

Ridge of Rynpeski. Fertile Districts. 
Excess of Heat and Cold. Towns, 225 

Country of the Uralian Cossacks. Fishe- 
ries on the Ural. Towns, Manners, 
&c 226 

Historical Remarks. Their Expeditions 
in Asia, . . . . 227 


Eastern Russia. Finno-Hunna or Uralians. 

Finno-Hunnic Race, - 227 

Connexion between the Scythians and 
Finns, - ... 228 

Connexion between the Finns and 
Hunns. Progressive Discoveries, 229 

Temple of Joumala. Finno-Uralians, 230 

Tribes of lougoria. Western Finns. 
Laplanders. Wolgaic Finns, -231 

Description of the Country. Govern- 
ment of Orenburg. Iron and Copper 
Works. Obstchei Sirt. Granite 
Islands, - - 232 

Sulphur Lake. River of Milk. Town 
of Orenburg. Commerce with Asia, 233 

Eagles. Other Towns. Baschkirs. 
Mechtscheriaikes. Tephaires. Go- 
vernment of Saratow, - 234 

German colonies. Towns. Zarew-Kur- 
gan. Government of Kasan. Town 
ofKasan, - - 235 

Manners of the People. Tchouvasches 
Mythology. Tcheremisses, - 236 

Mythology. Manners and Customs. 
Mordvines, - - 237 

The Tartars of Kasan. Government of 
Wiatka. Ridge. Towns, - 238 

Wotiaikes, Mode of Life. Names of 
Divinities. Government of Permia 
or Perm, - 239 

Western Uralian Mountains. Ores. 
Climate. Vegetation. Towns. Per- 
mians and Siriaines, - 240 

Ancient Monarchy of the Tchoudes. 
Alphabet. Superstition, - 241 


VI 1 





European Russia. Third Section. Northern 
Russia. Countries on the White Sea. 


Aspect of the Country. Country on the 
East of the White Sea. Rivers, 242 

Dwina. Climate. Soil and Produc- 
tions. Horses and Oxen. Shrubs, 243 

Archangel. Fisheries. Wologda and 

Manners of the Inhabitants. Other 
Towns. Udoria, &c. lotun-Heim, 245 

Samoyedes, their Name. Tribes of the 
Samoyedes. Different animals. Pro- 
duce of the Country, 

Physical character. Dwellings. Su- 
perstition. Government of Olonetz. 
Olonetz Hills. Gold, . . 247 

Towns. Island of Solowetskoy. Rus- 
sian Lapland. Mountains, r_ ''... 248 

Metal. Rivers and Lakes. Appearance 
of the Country, . . 249 

Climate. Maritime Region. Climate of 
the Central Ridge, . . . 250 

Vegetation. Flora Laponica. Mosses. 
Rein-deer's Lichen. Bear*s Moss, 251 

Pastures. Animals, the Rein-deer. 
Electricity of the Rein-deer, V! .' 

Other Animals. Birds. Name. Appear- 
an e, .... 

Character. Life of the Rein-deer Shep- 
herds. Tents. Manner of Travelling, 
Sledges, ':..," '"'V''- 

Burning of the Forests. Dress. Industry, 255 

Feasts, Songs. Diseases, Medicine. 
Languages, . 256 

Superstition of the Laplanders. Names 
of the gods. Two families of gods, 257 

Worship. Idols. Holy Places, . 258 

Magic. Gulf of Magicians, 





European Russia. Fourth Section. Provinces 
Round the Baltic Sea. 

General Survey, . . .259 

Finland. Physical Description. Moun- 
tains. Central Ridge. Giant's Cal- 
drons, . .260 
Ores. Rivers and Lakes. Enclosure of 
Rocks. Different Climates. Sceneiy. 
Soil, . . . .261 
Animals. Forests. Fruit trees. Method 

of tilling the Ground, . . 262 

Provinces and Towns. Carelia, . 263 
Manner of Fighting. Kuopio. Basins of 

the Lakes. Heinola, . . 264 

Tavastland. Remarkable Places. Forts 

ofSveaborg, . . .265 

Finland Proper. Towns. Islands, Aland, 266 

Ostrobothnia. Wasa. Towns, . 267 

Castle of Hysis. Inhabitants. Finland- 

ers, . . 268 


Ymes. Kyriales. Mythology. Magic, 269 
Finnic Orpheus. Finnic Language. 
Dialects. Runic Characters. Charac- 
ter, .... 270 
Government. Schools. Poetry and 
Music. Habitations. Vapour Baths, . 271 


European Russia. Fourth Section. Descrip- 
tion of the Provinces on the Baltic t continu- 
ed and concluded. 

Gulf of Finland. Inundations of the 
Neva. Lake Ladoga. Lake Onega. 
Ingria, . . . .272 

Climate, Seasons. Petersburgh, . 273 

Different quarters. Population Archi- 
tecture, . '. . 274 

Statue of Peter the Great. Trade of 
Petersburgh, . . 275 

Neighbourhood of Petersburgh. Pa- 
laces. Cronstadt. Narva. German 
Provinces. Inhabitants, . . 276 

Successive Inhabitants. Bremish Expe- 
ditions. Scandinavians. Crusades on 
the Baltic, . . . 277 

Order of Knighthood. Swedish Wars. 
Russian Conquests, . . 278 

Physical Geography. Hills. Climate. 
Plants, . .279 

Animals. Lakes. Rivers. Duna. Topo- 
graphical details. Towns, . 280 

Livonia. Town of Riga. Trade. Forti- 
fications, ... . . 281 

University of Dorpt. Courland. Climate. 
Productions. Towns, . . 282 

Sinking of the Land. Headland of Do- 
mesnes. Esthonian Archipelago. 
Island of Oesel. Dago. Inhabitants 
of the Provinces. Nobility. . 283 

Burgesses. Peasantry. Esthonians, 284 

Language. Religion. Sacred Fountains 
and Rivers. Catholic Traditions, 285 

Holy Places. Monuments. Rangers, ^285 

Calendars. Character of the Esthonians, **>v 
Lettons or Lettonians, . '.'', 287 

Lettonian Superstitions, . ;.>. 288 


European Russia. Fifth Section. Central 
Provinces or Great Russia. 

Preliminary Remarks. Central Ridge. 
Height of Volchonski. Calcareous 
hills, . . . . 289 

Chalk banks. Hills of Waldai. Ridge 
on the north-east. Wolgaic chain. 
Climate, four zones, . . 290 

Plants and Trees. Forests. Agriculture, 291 

Method of drying Wheat. Fruit Trees. 
Asiatic Apples. Horticulture. Gar- 
deners of Rostow. Animal Kingdom, 292 




Horses. Government of Novgorod. 
History of the Town of Novgorod, 293 

Government of Pleskow and Witepsk. 
Inhabitants. White Russians. Classes, 294 

Government of Smolensko. Towns, 295 

Government of Twer. Towns. Govern- 
ment of Moscow. Produce. Industry. 
Commerce. Towns. Moscow. Ex- 
tent, appearance, , , )t . 296 

Number of houses. Kremel or Kremlin. 
Bells, .... 297 

Kitaigorod. Beloigorod. Semlanoigorod. 
Other towns. Monasteries, . 298 

Government of Wladimir. Rivers. In- 
dustry and Agriculture, . 299 

Lake Poganovo. Government of Jaros- 
law. Towns. Industry. Government 
of Kostroma. Government of Nisch- 
nei-Novgorod, . < , , % 300 

Town of Nischgorod. Government of 
Penza. Variety of the Horse, . 301 

Government of Tambof. Produce. Po- 
pulation. Towns. Steppes. Govern- 
ment of Rixsan. Lakes in the District 
of legoriewesk. Gardening, . 302 

Tartars in Kasimow. Town of Rixsan. 
Government of Toula. Wixtitches, 303 

The Town of Tula. Nobles. Govern- 
ment of Kaluga. Government of Orel, 304 

Government of Kursk. Towns. Itinerant 
Merchants, . . 305 

Government of Woronesch. Climate 
and Productions. Town of Woro- 
nesch. The Dwini-Gori. Fossil Bones, 306 


Sixth' Section. Provinces of Little Russia. 
Manners and Customs of the Russians. 

Historical Remarks. Physical Descrip- 
tion. Plains and Ridge, . 307 

Hills. Rivers. Climate and Productions. 
Inhabitants, . - . .-' 308 

Topographical Description. Govern- 
ment of Charkof. Grapes in the Gar- 
dens of Isium, . . . 309 

Government of Pultava. Towns. Monu- 
ments. Government of Tchernigof. 
Trade of Nejin. Government, . 310 

Government of Podolia. Animals. Go- 
vernment of Volhynia. Towns, 311 

Territory of the Order of Malta. Differ- 
ence between the Great and Little 
Russians. Freedom and Slavery. 
Force and Patience of the Russians, 312 

Appearance. Women. Marriage Cere- 
monies. Funerals, . . 313 

Religious Festivals. Heathen Ceremo- 
nies. Dress. Dress of the Women. 
Use of Rouge, . . .314 

Dwellings. Furniture. Food. Diseases. 
Remedies. Baths, . . 315 

Vapour Baths, known to the Ancients. 
Amusements. Russian Mountains. 
Domestic industry. House-Market, 316 

Different Classes of Peasants. Merchants 

and Tradesmen. Dress, . 
Clergy. Marriage of the Priests. Nobles, 318 
Bad Government. Progress of Know- 
ledge. Court Intrigues, . 319 
Actual Improvement. Language and 

Dialects. Vital Fire, , .320 

Divinities of the Spring. Testimony of 
Procopius. Supposed Duelism. Tem- 
ples and Holy Places, . , . 321 


European Russia. Seventh Section. LMhua- 
nian Provinces. 

Origin of the Lithuanians. Chronicles. 
Russian Chronicles. Formation of the 
Grand Dutchy, - . . 322 

Jagellon. Act of 1559. Result, - 323 

Russian Governments. Samogitia. Phy- 
sical Description. Towns and 
Houses. Samogitians, - - 324 

Manners. Ancient Worship. Honours 
rendered to the Dead, - - 325 

Lithuania. Physical Details. Climate. 
Animals. Productions. The Niemen. 
Lithuanians, - - 326 

Lithuanian Language, - 327 

Towns. Monastery, - - 328 

Tartars. Lithuanian Russia. Physical 
Description. Agriculture, - 329 

Condition of the People. Towns in 
White Russia. Moldavian Colony. 
Towns in Black Russia. Polesia, 330 

Oginski Canal. Towns in Polesia. Pro- 
vince of Bialystock, : - .* 331 


Russia concluded. Origin, Rise, and Re- 
sources of the Russian Empire. 

Origin of the Slavo Russians. Ware- 
gueans. Settlements of the Ware- 
gueans, - - 332 

Extension of the Russian Name. Nu- 
cleus of the Russian Nation. Succes- 
sive Additions, - { ' ' - 333 

Inland Resources. Muscovites of the 
Sixteenth Century. Efforts of Peter 
the First, - - 334 

Revolutions under his Successors. In- 
surrection of the Nobles, 335 

Military Glory. Political Intrigues. Ac- 
cessions made by Catherine. Division 
of Poland, - - 336 

Policy of Catherine. Alexander. Acces- 
sions made by Alexander. Natural 
Limits of Russia. Annual Increase in 
the Population, - - 337 

Progress of Industry. Rearing of Cat- 
tle. Agriculture, Produce, &c. Mines, 338 




Fisheries. Chace, &c. Manufactures. 
Spirits, - - 339 

Revenue, - - - 340 

Expenditure. Land Forces. Military Co- 
lonies. Navy. Form of Government. 
Council of the Empire. Senate. Holy 
Synod, - - - 341 

M. Hassel's Table of the Population in 
Russia, Poland, and the Vassal States, 
1st January, 1823, 342-344 

Critical Observations on the Preceding 
Table, - - - 344-346 

Table of the Population of the Different 
Nations in the Russian Empire, 346-348 

Table of the Principal Towns in the 
Russian Empire, - no*! 348-349 


Kingdom of Poland Republic of Cracotv. 

Division of Poland. Name, .."fy' % 349 

Sarmatian Plain. Cavities. Division of 
the Waters, - 350 

Rivers and Streams. Climate of Upper 
Poland. Climate of the Plains, - 351 

Seasons of Vegetation. Extreme Varia- 
tions. Meteors. Mists. Water, - 352 

Minerals. Mines of Upper Poland. Quar- 
ries*, - 353 

Agriculture. Forests. Bees. Fish. Birds, 354 

Quadrupeds. On the Existence of the 
Urus. Inaccuracy of Names, - 355 

Poles. Diseases. Small Pox. Syphilis. 
Plica, - - T" 356 

Unknown Cause. Effects of Disease. 
Origin of Plica. Departments, - 357 

Warsaw. Quarters of the Town. Massa- 
cre at Praga. Library of Zaluski'. 358 

Public Buildings. Neighbourhood of 
Warsaw. Other Towns in Masovia. 
Waiwodat of Kalisch. Waiwodats of 
Cracow and Sendomir, - - 359 

Ridge of Little Poland. Waiwodat of 
Lublin. Remarkable Castles, - 360 

Waiwodat of Podlachia. Waiwodat of 
Plock. Towns, &c. Waiwodat of Au- 
gustowo. Surface and Population, 361 

Constitution. Republic of Cracow. As- 
pect of the Country. Town-Monu- 
ments. Commerce, University. 362 

Tomb of Queen Venda. Baths of Krzes- 
zowice, - - - 363 


Kingdom of GalHcia, or Austrian Poland 
Polish Language and Antiquities. 

Names of Galitzia and Lodomiria, 363 

Historical Dates. Hungarian Influence, 364 
Physical Description. Hills. Climate. 
Productions. Grain, - - 365 


Cattle, &c. Salt Lands. Mines of Boch- 
nia and Wieliezca, - - 366 

Details. Different Kinds of Salt, - 367 

Town of Lemberg. Manner of Life. Po- 
lish part of Gallicia. Towns, - 368 

Gorales. Manner of Life. Food. Lon- 
gevity, - - 369 

Costume. Rousniak portion of Gallicia. 
Russini or Rousniaks, - - 370 

Churches. Houcoules. State of the 
Country. German Colonies. Peasant- 
ry. Nobles, - - 371 

Progress of Industry. Exports. Military 
Force. Revenue. Bukowine. Climate, 
Produce. Towns. Inhabitants, 372 

Historical Details. Polish Language. 
Origin of the Poles, - - 373 

Szlachics. National Divinities. Discus- 
sion on the Sarmatians, - 374 

Origin of the Name. Sarmatian Migra- 
tions. Extinction of the Sarmatians, 375 

Sarmatians of the Fourth Century, 376 

Statistical Table of Gallicia, - 376 



Kingdom of Prussia and the Great Dutchy of 
Posen. Historical account of the ancient 
Pruczi and the Teutonic Knights. 

Pruczi. Etymology of their name. The 
different tribes. Language of the an- 
cient Pruczi. Hierarchy. TheKriwe, 377 

Different priests. Asiatic customs. 
Gods, different classes of divinities, 378 

Feasts and sacrifices. Sacred oaks and 
lime trees. Manners, government, &c. 379 

History. Missionaries. Conquest of 
Prussia. Change of government, 38Q 

Rise and fall of the Order. Luxury and 
wealth. Assassination of Lezkau, 381 

Subjection of the Order. Extinction of 
the Order. Protestant religion. Royal 
title. State of the kingdom. Division 
of Poland, - 382 

Present extent of Prussia. Description 
of Prussia. Rivers, . . 383 

Maritime lakes. The Frisch-Haf. Cu- 
risch-Haf. Changes in the appearance 
of the lakes. Succin, or amber, 384 

Opinions concerning the origin of am- 
ber. Use and Value. Locality. Agri- 
cultural produce, . . . . 385 

Forests. Animals. Koenigsberg, 386 

Banks of the Frisch-Haf. Towns on the 
Pregel. Towns on the Memel. 
Towns in the interior. Dantzic, 387 

Harbour and road. Commerce. Werd- 
ers, . . . 388 

Other towns on the Vistula.* Different 
inhabitants, . . . .389 

Nobles. Burgesses. Burgesses of Dant- 
zic. Republican spirit, . . 390 

Great Dutchy of Posen. Rivers and 
marshes. Peasantry. Catholic clergy, 391 

Population, colonists. Millers and Ger- 


Poznan or Posen. Manufac- 

turing towns, 
Protestant colonies, 




Germany Pint Section Physical Descrip- 
tion of Germany. 

General divisions, '. . jG , .394 

Mountains. Hercynio-Carpathian moun- 
tains. General character, . . 395 

Gesenker-Gebirge. Riesen-Gebirge. 
Thuringer-Wald. Porta Westpha- 
lica. The Hartz, . . .396 

The Alb. Plains, . 397 

Rivers. The Danube. The Lech and 
Isar. The Inn. Eddies of the Danube. 
Ens. Morawa. Rhine. Hypothesis 
concerning its ancient course, . 398 

Falls of the Rhine. The Aar. Neckar. 
Maine. Moselle. The Ruhr and the 
Lippe. Delta of the Rhine, . 399 

The Ems. The Weser. The Aller. 
The Elbe. TheMoldawa. TheSaale 
and the Havel. The Oder, . 400 

Wartha. Embouchure of the Oder. 
Lakes. Climate. First zone. Second 
general zone, . .401 

Mineral Water. Minerals. Bohemia and 
Saxony. Thuringia, . . 402 

The Hartz. Westerwald. Tyrol, &c. 
Styria. Vegetable kingdom. Forest 
trees. Central zone. Northern plains, 403 

Alpine zone. Flowers. Grain, 404 

Vegetables. Gardening. Useful plants. 
Vineyards, . , . .}.. .405 

Animals. Oxen. Poultry, Game, &c. 406 

Sea-fishing. Fish in the rivers. Wild 
animals, ,;..,. .,,.,.. ..-.-. .407 


Germany. Second Section, Prussian Stales 
on the Oder and the Elbe. 

Silesia, position, Etc. Name. Silesia 
under the Poles, . . . 408 

Submission to Bohemia. Religious per- 
secution. Prussian conquest. Soil, 409 

Mountains. Meadows and marshes. 
Rocks. Granite. Gneiss. Schistus, 410 

Serpentine. Conglomerates. Stratified 
limestone, . . . .411 

Sandstone. Useful productions. Coal. 
Copper. Lead. Iron, . . 412 

Gold and Silver. Corn. Fruit. Lint, 
Hemp, . . . 413 

Forests. Wool. Fish. Industry, 414 

Linen, cloth. Climate. Inhabitants. 
Germans, . . . .415 

Wendes. Slavonian!}. Religion. Causes 
of the decrease of the Catholics, 416 

Nobility. Towns, . .417 

Towns in the mountainous districts. 
Ancient inhabitants, . 418 

Mount Landscrone. Brandenburg. Po- 
sition. Limits. Ancient inhabitants. 
Origin of the Margraviates, . . 420 

Soil. Lakes. Agriculture, . . 421 

Corn. Sugar. Cattle. Silkworm. Bees, 422 

Fish. Industry. Minerals. Climate. 
Inhabitants, '..V- . 423 

Public spirit. Language. Towns, 424 

Potsdam. Ancient name, . . . 425 

Berlin, . . . .426 

Number of streets and houses. Palaces. 
Arsenal.. Churches. Squares, . 427 

Gates. Libraries, collections, &c. 
Academies, . . 428 

Walks. Elevation of the soil. Rents of 
the Houses. National Guard. Manu- 
factures. Brandenburg, . 429 

Fisheries on the Havel, . . 430 

Pomerania, position, &c. Ancient in- 
habitants. Kingdom of the Wendes. 
Ancient worship, . -. . 432 

Soil. Climate, . . 433 

Fish. Different animals. Island of Hu- 
ge n. Hiddensee, Humantz, Ruden, 434 

Ancient Inhabitants. Industry. Bergen. 
Hertha or Erde, S " . 435 

Thermal springs. Usedom. Towns. 
Stralsund. Towns in the same circle, 436 

Circle of Stettin. Stettin. Neighbour- 
hood. Trade. Stargard, . . 437 

Colberg. Province of Saxony, . 438 

Ancient inhabitants. Soil. Shell-fish. 
Bituminous schistus, . . 439 

Successive deposites. Mountains. Agri- 
cultural produce. Manufactures. Re- 
ligious sects. Foreign principalities, 440 

Wittemberg. Tombs of Luther and Me- 
lancthon. Industry. Other towns. 
Tomb of Catherine Bora. Naumburg, 441 

Hussites. Environs of Naumburg. Banks 
oftheSaale. Merseburg. Tomb of 
Rodolphus of S wabia. Neighbouring 
country, . . . . 442 

Halle. Mines of rock salt. Wettin. 
Luther, . . . 443 

His house. Heststaed. Erfurt Lu- 
ther's cell, . . 444 

Meeting of sovereigns at Erfurt. Nord- 
hausen. Anniversary of Luther. . EU 
rick. Cavern of Kelle. Langensalza. 
Remains of Elephants. Osteocoles. 
Magdeburg, . . 445 

Quedlinburg. Tomb of Henry the First. 
Wernigerode. Halberstadt. Spiegel- 
berge. Gleim and the inventor of 
beer. Kalbe, Barby. Magdeburg, 446 

Public buildings. La Fayette's dungeon. 
Trade. Burg, Stendal. Deaths and 
births, . . .447 

Increase of population. Crimes. Mur- 
ders. Thefts. Universities, . 448 

Berlin saving bank. Assurances against 
fire. Commerce. Imports and Ex- 
ports. Wool. Sugar, Coftee, . 449 





Phyticat Geography. Seas, Lakes, Rivtrs and Mvuntaint* 

is inconsiderable in comparison of Asia, America or the | 
compact surface of Africa. A mere adjunct of the immense Asiatic continent, 
the whole peninsula could hardly contain a basin large enough for the Nile, 
Ihe Kiang or the Amazons.* Its loftiest mountains cannot be compared in height 
or in extent to the Andes or Himalahs. If all its downs and uncultivated lands 
were added to the sandy plains of Africa, the augmentation might be wholly imper- 
ceptible. The European archipelagos are much inferior to the vast labyrinths 
in other regions of the earth. The productions of the animal, the vegetable and 
mineral kingdoms, confined to the same continent are few and insignificant. Its 
mines do not abound in gold, the diamond is not found among its minerals. There 
are not more than fifteen or twenty species of quadrupeds that belong exclusively 
to Europe, and these are not of the most useful kind. Some animals, as the 
horse, the ox, the sheep and the dog, have been greatly improved by the care and 
industry of man; but the most valuable natural productions have been imported 
from other quarters of the world. The silkworm was brought from India, fine 
wool from Mauritania, the peach from Persia, the orange from China, and the 
potato from America. If we are rich, our wealth has been derived from the pro- 
duce or spoils of other countries. 

Such is the power of the human mind that our barren, rugged and wild region, 
which nature had only covered with forests or enriched with iron, has after a lapse 
of 4000 years, been completely changed by its inhabitants. Their civilization, it is 
true, lias been more than once interrupted, but it has been found impracticable to 
extinguish it or set limits to its progress. We attempt in vain to separate the gifts 
of nature from the discoveries of art; climate is modified by cultivation ; naviga- 
tion has put within our reach the produce of every zone. Europe, in which the 
beaver built in security its habitation on the banks of solitary rivers, has become 
the seat of powerful empires ; its fields yield rich harvests ; its cities are adorned 

* M. Malte-Brun means by the baain of a river, all the countries over which iti branches 



with palaces ; our small peninsula extends its sway over the rest of the earth ; it is 
the lawgiver of the world ; its inhabitants are spread over every country ; a whole 
continent has been peopled by its colonists. The barbarism of Africa, its deserts 
and burning sim cannot much longer obstruct the progress of our travellers. Eu- 
ropean customs and institutions have been transplanted to Oceanica ; European 
armies have almost subdued the continent of Asia, British India and Asiatic Rus- 
sia must ere long be coterminous; the immense but feeble empire of the Chinese 
may resist the arms, but not the influence of Europe. The ocean is the exclusive 
patrimony of Europeans or their colonists. The inhabitants of the most polished 
nations in other parts of the earth seldom venture beyond their coasts ; our mari- 
ners sail fearlessly to the most distant seas. 

We shall endeavour to describe this part of the earth differently from others less 
changed by the genius of their inhabitants ; the progress of improvement is natu- 
rally associated with historical recollections ; but it is necessary at the outset to 
make some observations on its physical geography. 

Limits of EU- I The limits of Europe have been considered in a former part of this 
rope * I work; we have shown that the chain of the Ural mountains, the 

river of the same name, the Caspian Sea and the lowest level of the isthmus be- 
tween it and the sea of Azof, (a level indicated by the course of the Manytch, and 
the Kuma,) are the boundaries between Europe and Asia in the part in which 
they are contiguous. That frontier terminates at the Tanais or Don, which for 
a short space separates the two continents. The remaining limits are more easily 
determined; they are the sea of Azof, the Black Sea, the Bosphorus, the Pro- 
pontis and the Hellespont. The line is taken across the Archipelago; Tenedos, 
Mitylene, Chio, Sambs, Nicaria, Cos and Rhodes belong to Asia; Naxos, 
Stampalia and Scarponto to Europe. The Mediterranean divides Africa and Eu- 
rope; but it is not ascertained whether Malta, Gozo, Comino, Lampedosa and 
Linosa are African or European islands. The question, inasmuch as it is con- 
nected with the colonial administration of these settlements, has been agitated 
in the British parliament, and the geographical arguments on both sides appear 
equally plausible. 

It has been seen that the Canaries, Madeira and the Azores are in a physical 
point of view appendages of Africa, being parts of a submarine continuation from 
the chain of Mount Atlas. 

The new continent was unknown, when Iceland, a dependence of Greenland, 
was discovered, and geographers placed it among the islands in the neighbourhood 
of Europe. The same opinion was maintained by historical and political writers; 
but it is not difficult to prove that Europe terminates on the northwest, at the 
Feroe islands. The arctic regions, whether they consist of islands or peninsulas 
that are separated from our continent by the ocean, form part of North America. 
superficial ex- Enclosed within the limits that have been described, the surface of 
tent ' Europe is at least equal to 500,000 square leagues, twenty-five of 

which are equivalent to an equatorial degree the population of the same continent 
amounts to 200,000,000 sovils. We have stated these conclusions in round num- 
bers ; but from our want of information concerning the extent of particular coun- 
tries and the number of their inhabitants, our results cannot be considered very 
accurate. The annual increase in the European population is not, according to 
the lowest estimates, less than a million. 

Dimensions. | We subjoin those dimensions of Europe that appear to us most 
worthy of notice. 

Length from Cape St. Vincent to the Ural mountains near Ekaterine- 

burg, - 1215 

From Brest to Astracan, .... ggo 

Breadth, (Spanish Peninsula) from Cape Gades to Cape Ortegal, 210 
From Port Vendre to Bayonne, (Isthmus of the Pyrenees, first angus- 

tation,) - .... ... 95 

From Cape Colonna in Calabria, to Cape Wrath in Scotland, - 615 

From the Adriatic to the North Sea, (second angustation,) - - 210 




From Cape Matapan in Greece, to Cape North, (the greatest breadth 

of Europe,) - - - - - . 870 

From the Black Sea to the Baltic, (third angustation,) - 268 

From the Caspian to the White Sea, (fourth angustation,) - 485 

Warsaw is the most central of the large European towns; but the | Centre, 
basin of Bohemia is the physical centre, since it bounds on the north of the great 
range of mountainous districts, which, as we shall afterwards see, form what may 
be called the Upper Countries of Europe. The seas and numerous gulfs that 
bathe our peninsula, distinguish it from other parts of the earth. So great masses 
of water placed between different countries, are not to be found in Asia, Africa, 
New Holland, or even in the greater part of America. They modify the tempe- 
rature by rendering it humid and variable, promote commerce by facilitating the 
intercourse from one place to another, are favourable to the freedom of nations, 
for like mountainous chains, they form natural ramparts that have, unfortunately 
been too often neglected. 

The western or Atlantic ocean washes Europe on the west and the 
north. It is needless to distinguish the sea to the north of the British 
isles, between Greenland and Norway, by the name of the northern ocean, which 
has been bestowed on it by some navigators. The name of the frozen sea is also 
inapplicable to any in Europe, even to the one between Cape North and Waigatz 
Strait, because it is seldom covered with ice to any great extent. The constant 
agitation of these open seas is the chief advantage that they possess over those in 
Siberia and America. 

The White Sea, a gulf that receives the fresh streams of three con- | white sea. 
sjderable rivers, is more liable to freeze than any of the rest. We allude in par- 
ticular to the western part of it, in which rocks and islands are most thickly scat- 
tered. Its shores are in general low, and abound in barren rocks or turbid marshes; 
like the sea of Nova Zembla, it is subject to violent tempests, which setting out 
from the north-east, impel against the northern extremities of Europe all the un- 
known seas to the north of Siberia. 

We enter, after having doubled Cape Stat or the western point of 
Norway, the gulf which has been called the north or the German sea. 
It extends from the Shetland islands to the strait at Calais, and from the shores 
of England to the entrance of the Jutland channel. Its coasts, formed by rocks in 
Norway and Scotland, become gradually very low; in many places they are co- 
vered with sand or full of ooze, and exposed to inundations or encroachments of 
the sea. The coast in the lower part of Scotland and in Yorkshire is protected 
by hills; but in the small gulf called the Wash, the sea flows frequently to the dis- 
tance of a mile into the land; and the submarine woods on the shores of Lincoln- 
shire are the undoubted monuments of its former ravages. The Nore or the 
mouth of the Thames is exposed to the same devastations, but in a less degree. 
All the coasts in the Low Countries bear the marks of them, and are only main- 
tained in their present state by the inhabitants, who have erected dikes where the 
billows have not formed barriers against their advances. The shores of Holstein 
and Sleswick have been more than once inundated; the ruins in the island of Nord- 
strand, which was overwhelmed in 1634, are proofs of the revolutions that have 
reduced Heligoland to its present narrow limits. But the land has been enlarged 
by the fertile alluvial deposits in that part of the sea which mariners call the 
Gulf of Hamburgh.* The coasts of Jutland to the north of these countries, wero 
perhaps in ancient times more exposed ; but they are now guarded by a double 
rampart of banks and sandy hills. We have often seen dense mists rising from 
that sea, break into fantastical shapes, extend on the shore, and fall at last in the 
form of saline particles; the growth of trees was thus checked, but the grass 
assumed a fresher verdure. 

The English and the Dutch have given the name of the sleeve to 
that part of the sea between Norway and Jutland. It is sometimes, 

* The mouth of the Elbe, 

North or Ger- 

.Tutland Chan- 


but incorrectly, styled Skager Rack, a term which signifies merely the passage of 
Rack ; it might be better denominated the Norway or Jutland channel. It is very 
deep near its northern shores, and contracted on the south by the vast and sandy 
promontory of Jutland, which is surrounded by gravel banks or rocks, that are 
considered very dangerous even by the mariners of the country. 
Kme.Gt. | Another channel, the Katte-Gat, to the south of the extremities of 
Jutland, near Cape Skagen, is narrower than the former; it is crowded with islands 
and rocks, separates Jutland from Sweden, and is terminated by three straits, the 
Sound, the Great and Little Belts, of which the numerous windings encompass 
the Danish archipelago. 

The Baltic. | All these straits enter the Mediterranean of the north, or as it is 
generally called, the Baltic ; but it has been named the Eastern Sea by the Scan- 
dinavians and Germans. Its basin on the south is surrounded by sandy plains or 
by low mounds of chalk ; the eastern coast of Sweden and the southern coast of 
Finland are encompassed by rocks or quick-sands ; there are no hills near these 
shores; the water in the vicinity is shallow, very salt and frequently covered with 
ice. That sea receives the superfluous water of all the lakes in Finland, Ingria 
and Livonia, the greater number of rivers in Holland and Eastern Germany, and 
the numerous streams in the north of Sweden, swollen by the snow or the torrents 
on the Dofrine mountains. So many tributary streams enter into no sea of the 
same size ; on that account it resembles a lake, and the melting of the snow in 
summer determines the course of a current which runs into the North Sea by the 
Sound and the Belts. At other seasons the currents are regulated by the prevail- 
ing winds. The Gulf of Bothnia, which is like a separate lake, and the Gulf of 
Finland, that has been compared to a river, discharge their currents throughout 
almost the whole of the year into the great basin of the Baltic. Impelled in the 
direction of the current, the masses of ice in the interior of the Baltic, often unite 
and remain in the straits of Denmark. 

We return by the north sea, and observe the Straits of Dover or the 
Pas de Calais, and the British Channel or the Manche. Shallow and 
confined, it is subject, from its communication with the Atlantic, to high and im- 
BayofBUcay. | petuous tides. The Bay of Biscay or the Gulf of Gascony, need not 
be distinguished from the Atlantic, of which it forms a part. We may remark the 
contrast between it and the sea of Newfoundland situated exactly under the same 
parallel ; the Polar ice, driven by the currents on these shores, occasions in summer 
thick and dark fogs ; but floating ice cannot enter the Bay of Biscay from the con- 
figuration of the coast ; and the humidity common to maritime countries is in a 
great measure checked by the continued motion of the atmosphere. 
The Mediter- The Strait of Gibraltar leads into the Mediterranean, that series of 
raneau. inland seas equally interesting from their situation, their physical cha- 

racter and historical celebrity. The first basin of the Mediterranean terminates at 
Cape Buono and the Strait of Messina. It is divided into two unequal parts by 
Corsica and Sardinia ; but the Gulfs of Genoa and Lyons are the only places that 
are at present generally designated. The depth of the basin is about a thousand or 
fifteen hundred fathoms, near the shores where the sea washes the base of the 
Pyrenees, the Alps and the Appenines. 

Italian Sea. | The eastern part may be denominated the Italian Sea, numerous vol- 
canic islands, such as the Lipari, Pontia and many others are scattered over it; and 
all of them are connected with the same subterraneous fires that rise from Etna and 
Vesuvius. The second basin is nearly twice as large, but very few islands or rocks 
have been observed on it. It extends from the coasts of Sicily and Tunis to the 
shores of Syria and Egypt, and forms in the north two separate basins renowned 
in history, and well adapted to excite the attention of the physical geographer. The 
Adriatic sea. | first is the Adriatic, its bed, if carefully examined, appears to be com- 
posed of marble and lime mixed with shells. The second is the Archipelago or 
Archipelago. | White Sea of the Turks, its numerous and picturesque islands are all 
of volcanic origin. The Gulf of the Great Syrtes on the south penetrates into 
Africa ; its sandy coasis are lower than most others in the Mediterranean ; its vast 

British Chan- 

Currents in the 


marshes in the midst of moving sands are of variable extent, and seem to confound 
the limits of the land and sea. But the most remarkable basin in the Mediterra- 
nean is without doubt that of the Black Sea. Its entrance is formed | Black Sea. 
by the strait of the Dardanelles, the Propontis or the sea of Marmora, and the 
Bosphorus or the narrow channel of Constantinople. It is fed by the greatest 
rivers in central Europe, and receives by the strait of Caffa or the Cimmerian 
Bosphorus, the turbid waters of the Palus-Meotis, which the moderns have so inac- 
curately denominated the sea of Azoph. Such are at present the limits of those 
inland seas which separate Europe from Asia and Africa, and facilitate the com- 
munication between the ancient continents. It is not perhaps improbable that a 
former strait, gradually obstructed in the course of ages by the gravel and alluvial 
deposits from the torrents of Caucasus, connected, long after the last physical 
revolutions that happened in our globe, the sea of Azof and consequently the Black 
Sea with the Caspian. 

The deep waters in the Mediterranean arrive chiefly from the Nile, 
the Danube, the Dneiper and other rivers that enter the Black Sea, and 
also from the Po, the Rhone, and the Ebro. Thus it receives the torrents formed 
by the melting of the snow in Abyssinia, Switzerland, Caucasus and Mount Atlas. 
But although its feeders are so abundant, it has been generally believed that the 
quantity of water which enters the Mediterranean from the Atlantic is greater than 
that discharged from it into the same ocean. It has been alleged in support of this 
supposition, that a constant and large current flows into the middle of the Strait of 
Gibraltar, whilst only two feeble and lateral currents issue from it. But that ap- 
parent influx of the ocean is to be attributed to the pressure of a greater fluid mass 
on a smaller body of water ; a pressure, which from the force of its impulsion, must 
necessarily displace the upper strata in the lesser mass. If an anchor be cast in 
the strait, a lower current may be discovered, which carries to the ocean the super- 
fluous water of the interior sea. The principal motion of the Mediterranean is 
from east to west, but the reaction of its water against the coast occasions several 
lateral and adverse currents. The straits too from their position give rise to many 
very variable currents. Those near Cape Fkaro in Messina, or the Charybdis of 
the ancients, and the Euripus, between the continent and the island of Negropont, 
are the most remarkable. The tides are in most places hardly perceptible, but 
they may be observed in the Adriatic and in the Gulf of the Syrtes. 

We consider that part of the Caspian from the mouth of the Kuma | Caspian sea. 
to that of the Jaik, situated in Europe ; but as two-thirds of its circumference belong 
to Asia, it has been described in our account of that continent. The greater num- 
ber of rivers enter it from the side of Europe. Its level is 1680 feet lower than 
that of the ocean. 

The seas that have been mentioned form in Europe a coast line of Coast$ of Eu . 
5500 leagues, the extension of the same line in Asia is not more than r pe. 
880. These seas are of immense advantage to Europeans ; they separate them on 
the north from the frozen regions of the Arctic Pole, and protect them on the 
south against the scorching heats of Africa ; they increase the resources of com- 
merce and navigation, and place, if we may so speak, the inhabitants of Europe in 
the neighbourhood of the other continents. They abound in a great variety of fish, 
which might afford sufficient nourishment for a fifth part of the European popula- 
tion. Their superficial extent may be estimated in the following manner : 


Square Leagues. 

Twenty-five equal 

to a Degree. 

1. Western part to Cape Buono and the Strait of Messina, - 42,680 

2. The Adriatic, .... . 8,180 

3. The Archipelago and the Propontis, - - 10,120 

4. Great Basin or Eastern part, - - 71,000 

Total Superficies of the Mediterranean, 131/960 


Square Leagues. 

The Black 8ea and the sea of Azof, 

The Caspian Sea, - - 18,600 

The White Sea, .... - 5,000 

The Baltic, - - - 1^,680 

Gulf of Bothnia, - .... - 5,100 

Gulf of Finland, 2,300 

The Katte-Gat, the Sound, the two Belts, the branches of the sea 
between the Danish and Holstein islands, and the channel be- 
tween Denmark and Norway to Cape Lindeness, - 2,680 
The German Ocean, limited by Cape Stat in Norway, the Shetland 

islands, and Cape Lindeness, *- 32,000 

The Irish Channel, - - - 3,400 

The British Channel, - * - ' '' * > - V '- - - - - 3,700 

The great number of fresh water lakes in several countries of Europe | takes, 
forms another characteristic of its physical geography ; all the lakes, it is true, are 
not equal in extent to those in North America. The first of these regions lies to 
the south of the Wolga, the west of the Baltic and the south-east of the White Sea. 
The following are the principal Lakes : 

Square League*. 

Lake Ladoga, ^ f -. .-*"* - * - 830 

Onega, ***. - - ..-. ^-u /A . > i . . 430 

Bielo Osero, - ' -> *> 70 

Kubensk, Latscha and Woja, - - .- .y/*** . 80 

Five others between Kargapol and the White Sea, - 75 

Lakes, Wig, Seg, Ando, and seven to the north-west of the Onega, - 100 

Lake Peipus, - ' '* " '' " :*'*' HO 

Huron, - - .^M - - - - ' . *>' 36 

Wirtz, * . - *** '"** v * v 10 

Five in the government of Plescow, . - . - v*L.f 10 

Lake Saima in Finland, - 210 

Kuopio, .-' ? >.. ' 80 

Lexa, - - '*v- >-."'.> - I4i|tipto ( 30 

Kolkis, >4-k<! -' ;..>:-.> . 70 

Tavastie, - ,^< '-* - '*? >,'-'^ ' l - * 20 

Ulea, \**^'-.* ..' * -'."' . 30 

Twelve others, ' 60 

Sum total of square leagues, 2,251 

The surface of them all is nearly equal to that of the gulf of Finland. 
Scandinavian I ^ ne ^ a ^ es m Scandinavia are not so large, but more numerous than 
fckefc I those which have been now enumerated. The extent of Wener is about 

280, of the Weter 110, of the Moelar 100, and of the Scandinavian lakes, from 
700 to 800 square leagues. They are, with the exception of one or two, placed 
on the southern and eastern sides of the mountainous chain that traverses the 
country. Those in northern Russia, on the contrary, are situated on the western 
sides of the mountains. All of them flow into the Baltic, and are the sources which 
supply that inland sea. Many small lakes are scattered over the coun- 
tries to the south of the Baltic. More than four hundred have been 
counted in Mecklenburg, Ukraine, in the interior of Pomerania and eastern Prussia. 
Some of them which have no outlet to the sea, arc not unlike marshes, they lie in 
low valleys, formed by the sinking of argillaceous and sandy laud. There are fewer 
Alpine lake*, j in the Alpine chain than in the Scandinavian mountains. W r e observe 
on the southern sides of the Alps, the lake Maggiore about 20 square leagues in 
circumference, those of Lugano, Como, Lecce, Iseo and Garda, the surface of the 
last is equal to 24 ; their whole superficial extent, together with that of others less 
considerable^ may amount to 80 square leagues. The lakes on the northern sides 
of the Alps are mote numerous ; that of the Four Cantons occupies a space of 

Lakes to the 
south of ihc 


about 1.3 square leagues ; among others we may mention thoee of Thun, Brientz, 
Neufchatel, which is not less than 15, those of Biel, Zug, Sursee, Zurich, Wallen- 
stadt, Greiffensee and Constance, of which the superficies is more than 38. There 
are five or six in Upper Suabia, twelve in Bavaria, the most remarkable are the 
lakes of Amner and Chiem ; lastly, we have to notice those in Austria or the lakes 
of Atter, Abend, Hallstadt and others to the east of Salzburg. Their surfaces may 
be estimated at 180 square leagues. The lakes of Geneva and Annecy are situated 
on the western side of the Alps, the former covers an area of 44 square leagues ; 
the rest are too insignificant to merit attention. 

There are four or five small lakes in the peninsula of Italy, in the | Italian lakes, 
middle of the chain of the Appenines, and all of them are of a circular form and 
encompassed by steep rocks. The Italian geologists consider them the monu- 
ments of a volcanic revolution which must have taken place in the centre of the 
peninsula. The number of lakes in the western parts of Europe is inconsiderable, 
particularly in Portugal, Spain, France and England. The contrast in | Irish lakes. 
Ireland is striking; one of the Irish lakes is not less than that of Zurich; ten or 
twelve others exclusively of the fens or bogs which shall afterwards be more fully 
described, occupy a hundredth part of the territory in that island. 

The European rivers have been compared in a table added to this I Jg P^PO^ 
book, some of the general results which are there presented, may now | SbuSu 6611 
be mentioned. 

If all the rivers in Europe be taken as - - 1.000 

Those which flow into the Black Sea are, - - ( 0.273 

Into the Mediterranean, including the Archipelago and the Adriatic, 0.144 
Into the Atlantic Ocean, - - - 0.131 

Into the North Sea, - ;-* - - - - 0.110 

Into the Baltic, -'"" '' *' , <'** - - 0.129 

Into the Northern Ocean, ''**' * * - - - 0.048 

Into the Caspian, < - - - -0.163 

Some conclusions may be derived concerning the six largest rivers 
in Europe, from the hydrographical works that have been published 
concerning our continent. 

The water discharged from the Wolga, - - * 0.144 

From the Danube, 'V. ?*/t^ - - - * 0.124 

From the Dneiper, - ^ - - - - '* 0.061 

From the Don, ***/ * v v, '*> - 0.052 

From the Rhine, * '< - * - - - 0.030 

From the Dwina, - - - - - - 0.021 

These results depend on the course of each river and that of its feeders ; it is 
necessary however to take into consideration the lakes that flow from them ; but 
without reference to that circumstance, our calculation as to the six largest rivers 
in Europe may be considered sufficiently accurate. The other rivers next to those 
which have been enumerated, are the Po, the Rhone, the Ebro, the Guadalquiver, 
the Tagus, the Loire, the Elbe and the Vistula, but all of them united are not equal 
to the Wolga. The Kama, a mere feeder of the Wolga, and one that is little known, 
is not less than the Rhine, a river celebrated in history. The Seine, with all its 
tributary streams, does not make up 0.009 of all the European rivers. 
We pass from our imperfect account of the rivers to that of the Eu- 
ropean mountains ; the Ural range, which is common to us with Asia, 
has been described in a preceding volume. It does not form a continuous line on 
the side of Europe, but resembles a number of hills rising insensibly from the 
centre of Russia in an eastern and north-eastern direction ; although their summits 
are broken or ill-defined, they are placed on an elevated base, and their absolute 
level is not less than that of the mountains in Silesia and Saxony ; their greatest 
height is equal to 7000 feet. The hills or rocks that traverse Russia are not 
visibly connected with the Ural or any European range. 

The table-land of Waldai, from which the Wolga descends to the Caspian, the 
Dwina to the Baltic and the Dneiper to the Black Sea, is ft lofty plain crowned with 

The six largest 
rivers in Eu- 



hills from twelve to thirteen hundred feet above the level of the sea. Il becomes 
much lower on the side of Poland ; the sources of the Beresina, the Neimen and 
the Pripetz are situated on a plain of which the inclination is imperceptible, and the 
height not more than two hundred feet above the sea at the mouth of these rivers. 
The elevation of the granite rocks which are connected with the Carpathian moun- 
tains and divide the course of the Dneiper, is also very low ; it cannot be distin- 
guished near the shores at the sea of Azof. 

TheDofrine The Dofrines, or the Scandinavian Alps, are better marked than the 

mountain*. Ural chain, but as completely isolated from the other mountains in Eu- 
rope. The whole range extends from Cape Lindeness or the southern point of 
Norway, to Cape North in the island of Mageroe. The central mountains are 
more closely connected. Lapland and the south-west of Norway are crowned by 
two separate chains. Sleep rocks, frightful precipices, high cataracts, and glaciers 
recall to our recollection the lofty mountains on our globe; the same range abounds 
in picturesque beauties ; but its most elevated summits are not more than seven 
or eight thousand feet above the level of the sea. The Seves, an inland branch, 
which bound Norway and Sweden, enter into the latter kingdom and terminate in 
a number of hills. Others which traverse Lapland and are connected with Finland, 
are lost round the numerous lakes in that country. 

The caiedoni- I The Grampian or Caledonian mountains form, like those in Wales, 
an mountain*. | a separate group of several small and parallel chains, their greatest 
elevation does not amout to 5000 feet. These chains are without doubt connected 
by a submarine continuation with the rocks in the Orkney, Shetland and perhaps 
the Feroe islands ; their general direction is from southwest to northeast. 

The Cambrian mountains in the principality of Wales, and those in the north- 
west of England, are lower than the Caledonian range. 

Great north- &. plain extends on the north and the east of Europe, two distinct 
em plain. | chains, those of Caledonia and Scandinavia rise above it. The south 
and the centre of the same continent present a very different character. All the 
mountains, from the pillars of Hercules to the Bosphorus, from Etna to Blocks- 
berg are so many parts of the same series. We shall however both on account of 
several physical considerations and in conformity to the common method, divide 
them into four ranges. 

The Alps. I That of the Alps is the most remarkable and most central of them 
all. Mount Blanc, the highest mountain in Europe, is situated in the principal 
Alpine chain. The length of the line from Mount Yenloux in Dauphiny to Mount 
Kahlenberg in Austria, is about 600 miles. The height of the summits is from ten 
thousand to fifteen thousand feet ; that of the passages across the principal chains 
is generally from five to six thousand. But the elevation of the plains on the north 
of the Alps, in Switzerland and Bavaria, is about a thousand, and in some places 
two thousand feet, while those in Lombardy and Hungary, which bound the Alpine 
range on the south and the east, are not much higher than the level of the sea. 
Perpetual ice commences at an elevation between seven and eight thousand feet, 
and forms in the centre of the Alps frozen seas like those at the poles. The ice 
disappears at a height above 10,800 feet, the atmospheric vapour is congealed as 
it descends, and covers the ground with eternal snow. The great depth of the 
Alpine lakes is peculiar to these mountains, one of them, the lake of Achen is not 
less than 1800 feet in depth. The phenomena which the structure of the Alps 
exhibits, the imposing beauties which their different aspects present, their influ- 
ence on climate and on the movements of waters, cannot at present occupy our 
attention ; it is only our object to determine their position. 

The Appe- The Appenines on the south and the chains connected with them, 

| which may be called the Sub Jlppcnines, form the southern branch of 
the Alpine series, of which the height is from four to nine thousand feet ; but some 
of the mountains in the neighbouring islands are higher than 10,000. Those 
in Sicily are evidently connected with the Appenines, and the elevation of the 
highest, or of Etna, is partly to be attributed to volcanic eruptions. But it is as 
yet uncertain whether or not there are mountains of an equal height in Sardinia ; 

The Alpu . 


the connexion between the Corsican and Sardinian chains is also imperfectly 

An eastern branch of the Alps passes between the feeders of the | Dinarian Alps. 
Danube and the Adriatic Sea, and unites the chain with that of Mount Hemus. 
These mountains are very narrow in many parts of Carniola and Dalmatia ; the 
height of their summits is from seven to ten thousand feet. 

The northern branch of the Alps includes the chain of Jura from | Jura, vosge* 
Geneva to Bale, and that of Vogeses or Yosges, from Langres to the neighbour- 
hood of Mayence. The last of these is connected with the mountains in central 
Germany, and consequently with the Carpathian range, which joins the Alps in 

The chain of Cevennes and its dependences, the volcanic mountains | TheCevennes. 
of Auvergne, are considered a branch of the Alps, although they are united to the 
Pyrenee^ by the Black mountain, and separated from the Alps by the narrow valley 
of the Rhone. 

The peninsula of the Pyrenees is formed by a central plain of | Pyrenees. 
about 1000 or 1500 feet in height, and on it are placed groups of mountains and 
different chains Distinctly marked. The Pyrenees in the north, and the Alpujarras 
or the Sierra Nevada, in the south, may be compared to the two outer 
bulwarks' of the base. The elevation of the first, or the Pyrenees, is 
about 9000 or 10,000 feet, the second are from 10,000 to 11,000, near the centre. 
But that height does not extend to' a great distance, as in the Alps ; and the Py- 
renees are hot nearly equal to them in breadth ; on that account the phenomena of 
ice and perpetual snow are not so remarkable. The mountains in Gallicia and in 
Asturias are imperfectly known, the intermediate chains, or the Guadarama, be- 
tween the two Castilles, the Sierra Morena to the north of Andalusia, and the 
Estrelhas in Portugal, are not higher than 5000 or 6000 feet. "We shall examine 
in our description of the particular countries in which they are situated, their mutual 
positions and supposed relations, for some of them, it may be remarked, have not 
been determined. It is sufficient to observe at present, that we are not entitled to 
conclude that there is any connexion between the Pyrenees and Mount Atlas, or 
even between the Azores and the Canaries. 

Mount Hemus and its branches arfe situated at the other extremity | Mount Hemu* 
of Europe, in a peninsula not so well defined as that of Spain. In the present 
defective state of our knowledge, the Despoti-Dag or the ancient Scomius, 
north of Macedonia, may be considered the centre from which four chains ex- 
tend. The first is that of the Albano-Dalmatian mountains, which are attached 
to the Alps ; the second, or the range of Hemas, stretches out in an eastern 
direction until it is abruptly lost in the waters of the Euxine ; the third, or the 
inland chain of Rhodape, separates Thrace from the .ZEgean sea; the I oiympus, 
fourth is distinguished by the poetic names of Olympus, Pindus, Oeta, | raw*** 
Parnassus, Helicon and Lycceus, it crosses Greece and passes into the islands of 
the Archipelago. As the Hellenic mountains have never been accurately measur- 
ed, it is impossible to determine whether or not they are higher than the Appe- 
nines ; we are, however, inclined to believe that they are, from the long continu- 
ance of snow on them. 

The Carpathian and Hercynian mountains are separated from the 
Alps and Hemus by the Danube, and in two places, the first in Austria, 
the second between Servia and Walachia, the branches of these mountains con- 
tract the bed of the river, and form several narrow passes. The whole range may 
be supposed the forepart of the Alps, the highest summits that have been measured, 
are not more than 9000 feet ; but the general elevation is from four to five thou- 
sand, or, in other words, the same as the passages across the Alpine chain. Their 
breadth is considerable, they bound immense plains or enclose high valleys, such 
as those of Bohemia and Transylvania. No other mountains in Europe are so 
rich in gold, silver and copper. Their height is not comparatively great, no glaciers 
have been observed on them ; they are not very steep, and there are none of these 
cavities which serve as reservoirs for the deep lakes in the Alps and the Dofrines. 

and Hercy- 



The TransyJvankm mountains form the principal part of the range; they are not at 
present distinguished by any particular name ; in ancient times they were called the 
Bastarnian Alps ; the other parts are the Carpathian or Crapack mountains be- 
tween Hungary and Poland, the Sudetes, or the hills of the giants, between Silesia 
and Bohemia, the metallic mountains, or the Ertzburge, between the last country 
and Saxony, and lastly, the different small chains in central Germany, formerly 
included in the Hercynian forest. 

It is not improbable that it may be .one day shown that the Carpathian moun- 
tains and the chain of Hemus are adjuncts of the great Alpine range. The Py- 
renees, on the other hand, may be considered a separate chain, distinguished by 
the central and lofty plain which resembles that in Asia Minor; but the correctness 
of this hypothesis can only be ascertained by a, greater number of observations; a 
change of classification at present might be tiresome ; at all events it could not be 
attended with any advantage. . 

European It is not easy to discover in what the plains of Europe diner from 

piia. many in other parts of the earth, unless it be that they are in general 

smaller than those in Asia, Africa and America. The most extensive are Wa- 
lachia and Bulgaria, or those on the lower Dajiube and the Hungarian plain on the 
same river, which, as it must have been at one time the basin of a salt water lake, 
is perhaps the most remarkable in the world. The valley of the Po occupies th 
third place as to size; but its rich cultivation has been in few countries equalled, 
and in none surpassed. The plain of the Rhine between Bale and Mayence is of 
an elliptical shape, and the circular basin of Bohemia may be compared to the 
famous valley of Cashmere. The valleys on the plain of the Upper Rhine are 
the largest of any 6n what is strictly termed the Alpine chain; but the valley 
of Carinthia, although less celebrated in romance, does not yield to it in pic- 
turesque scenery. We might anticipate our particular account of different coun- 
tries, were we to enumerate other plains less extensive; but it may be remarked, 
that the valleys in Norway and Scotland are generally circumscribed by long and 
narrow outlines, and near the centre of many of them are situated lakes of the 
same form. 

upper and We are led to conclude from this summary of European orogra- 

urope< I phy, that our quarter of the world is naturally divided into two parts, 
the upper and the lower, and that division is not less important in physical geo- 
graphy than in its relation to the history of man. A vast plain, from London and 
Paris to Moscow and Astrican, lies open to the invasions of Asiatic nations; it is 
subject to the alternate influences of Siberian and Oceanic atmospheres; itslowness 
renders it warmer and more habitable than the table-land of Tartary, which is placed 
<>nder the same parallel. A continuation of elevated land extends from Lisbon to 
Constantinople, and the direction of its heights and declivities is very different in 
different places; some parts are exposod to cold and northern winds, others are 
visited by the genial and refreshing breezes of the south. Nations are every where 
separated by natural barriers, defiles must be crossed, and gulfs must be passed. 
That remark is especially applicable to our continent; were it not for the roads on 
which so much labour has been employed, the communication must have been very 
difficult between the countries on the north and south of the Alps, in every season 
of the year. But, on the other hand, no .natural obstacles impede during the win- 
ter, the heavy wagon or the light carriage in the plains of lower Europe ; on that 
account perhaps, the inhabitants of the north are more addicted to travelling than 
the people in the south. Both are favoured by nature. But all the productions of 
our continent are united in upper Europe; the northern -declivities and the elevated 
points on the central chains bear the plants that are found in the highest latitudes 
of lower Europe; that portion of the same continent does not yield such variety of 
produce, but its plains are more extensive, and its culture is more uniform. We 
shall reserve, however, such discussions for the next book, and close our obser- 
vations with the following remark. If the ocean rose fifteen or sixteen hundred 
feet, northern Europe would be submerged, the Euxine and the Caspian would 
join the Baltic and the north sea; southern Europe, on the contrary, being higher 



than the level of the waters, might form one or two large and high islands. The 
contrast, however, is not complete; the distinction between the European divisions 
might be destroyed by the two great valleys of Hungary and Lombaidy, and two 
mountainous countries, Norway and Scotland. 

Some of "the results connected with the physical geography of Europe are 
marked in the subjoined tables. 

Table of different Rivers in Europe. 




I. North-west declivity of ) T> . 

TT , . . } " etzora. 

e Ural mountains. j 

I the 

PEAN PART OP I H> Northern declivity of the \ Metzen, 
THE FROZEN 1 Russian rld S e > basin of the C ? wina > 




) j> ana 
j ' 

White Sea. ) Onega, 

III. North-east of Scandi- 

I. Eastern inclination of ") Torneo, 
Scandinavia, and western of I Liusua, 
Finland. Basin of the Gulf of f Dala, . v ;^ 

Bothnia. J Ten or twelve others, 

Coune. Milri. 

;." 450 

v," 800 
. 210 



TT .,- .. ,. ,. f"} Neva, the Bosphorus of La- 
II. Southern inclination of JU . 

3rn 'inclination of] 
fester of Ingria* > 
Gulf of Finland, j 

Finland. Wester 

Basin of the Gulf of Finland. 

III. Western declivity of 
the central chain of Russia. 

IV. Northern declivity of 
the Sudetes and Carpathian- 
mountains. , { , 

V. Southern Coasts of Swe- 

I. Southern inclination of \ 
Norway, western of Sweden, > 
north-east of Denmark, &c. 

II. 'Northern declivity of the 
Sudetes and the Hercynian^ 
mountains, or northern Ger- 

III. Western part of Ger- 
many, northern of S wisserland, 
eastern and northern of France 
and Holland. 

IV. Eastern part of Great 

V. Western of Nonvay. 


Kymene, outlet of the Fin- 

I Dwina or Duna, . 


1 Niemen, 




Bug, .... 






Wartha, . . 




I Outlets of different lakes. 

1 Glomma, . . 


> Gotha, Clara, and lake Ve- 

> ner, ' .' . -' >*. 


'Elbe, \?4 > .,U***-. 


Saale, 1 


Spree and Havel, i i ; 


W'e^, -'..";- . *VH 


^er, ^V>* 


^Ems, , . -.v.-#4s>. 


"Rhine, f 4^ ^. 














Meuse, .... 






Trent or Humber, 


LTay, .... 




Table continued. 



Course. MHet. 

' I. Western eide of Great \ q pvpm 


Britain. ) 

II. Western of Ireland. Shannon, 


'Somme, *\ . . 


Seine, . . *\ 


Marne, . . . 


'-*' , British Channel 

Vilaine, ' 


north-west of France. 

Loire, . .' v 




Cher, ... .- ! 


L Vienne, 



' Charente, ' i', 
Garonne, . . ' 



IV. Western part of France.- 

Lot, . ... 




. Adour, ' . . . . 


' Small rivers. 

V. North of Spain. 

JVlinho, ': . . f 
Douro, . ' -.- ' ''' 


.Esla, . . . 


TTagus, . , 


TTT i*r rax. J Guadiana, . .:< 
TI. West of Spate. ^ Gaudalquiver, IV . 


[.Xenel, . - < 




I V"-. /** 


I. East of Spain. < [* ' 
I Ebro, , . . 

* \,\J 


L Segra, , ; . . . 



f Rhone, t "jfc . i . 



1 Saone, 



II. South of France. ' <{ Doubs, . ,* . 



I Isere, .. . 



L Durance, . .-. 


III. Western declivities "| Arno, 


of the Appenines and their / Tiber, 


branches. J Volturno, . 


I. Eastern declivity of the \ f^c 
Appenines. lto > ' 


Po, .... 




II. South-east declivity of 

Tessino, and lake Tessino, 



the Alps. 

Jidda, ... 
Oglio, .... 




III. Southern part of Dal- 

Narenta, . . . 



Boyano and Moraca, 


IV. Western inclination of 

Northern Dwina, . 


^ Humus. 





Table continued^ 



I. Southern side of Sicily, ) 
Calabria, and the Morea. J 

II. Archipelago, Eastern and 
Southern regions of Greece, 
Macedonia, &c. 


Course. Miles. 



I. Eastern declivity of the 
Alps, southern of the Sudetes^ 
and Carpathian mountains. 

Mpheus, Eurotas, &c. 
Vardar or Jixius, 
Maribra or Hebrus, 
Strymon, . v^V 
Peneus, .... '^ . 
Danube, ,'*v- " 
Lech, ' : Y r v 
/sere, ' . '../ 
Inn, . 

JVLorawa, in Moravia, 
Wag, . . 

Dratie, ''-' 

II. Southern part of Russia 
and central Poland. 

III. Basin of the Sea of 
Azof, southern inclination of- 



I. Southern declivity of cen- 
tral Russia, southern and east--< 
ern of the Ural mountains. 

. 225 

. 170 
. 1710 

. 180 

. 150 

. 360 

, 330 

. 495 

. 300 

, 390 

. 1050 

. 210 

. 420 
. 300 

. 420 
. 270 

. 270 

. 330 

. 450 

. 300 

Ural or Jaik, the boundary, 
of Europe on the east, 1020 

Sare, . .. 
JVLorawa in Servia, 
Theisse, '' K VJ 
Maresch, v ' , 
Alula, ^ : *\' t ''\ , 
Dneiper, . 
Sem, V'i 41 '. ; ! 
Desna, . 

PriepetZj . . 









Suba, . 








Basin of the Wolga, 














German Square Milei. 














328. The 

The last Table is taken from Lichinstein's Cosmography, vol. i. p 
author contrasts the superficial extent of these basins with that of others in differ- 
ent parts of the world. 

German Square Milei. 

- - - 63,776 



Basin of the Aby, ' 


St. Lawrence, 


La Plata, 




Pawdinskoi Kamen, 




Table Land of Waldai, 


Thalian chain. 
Western Nor- 


Glacier of Hallingdal. 





Sogne-field, . ' 



Snow Dome, 

Elevated base of the chain, 




_ _. K ( above the Cas- 
6 ' 715 \ plan. 

above the 

6 > 632 < ocean. 
9,061 doubtful. 
8,133 ibid. 

220 i Hagelstan's phy- 
( sical map. 


perpetual snow. 




3,524 f eastern extremi- 

2,864 \ ties of the base. 



Dofrine chain. 
Central Norway. ^ 
North-west of 

f Passage of Lessee, 
Passage of Jerken, 

Snee Hcettan, or Snow Hat, 

Keel-field, - 
Tran field, 

Areskuta, - (* 

Sulitelma, (Lapland) 
Saulo, - 
L Linayegna, 

The Severnoi, or 

Sevous, between! Translrand, 

Norwayand Swe- ] Mount Seva, 

I The desert of Swartburg, - 
Island of Waag, Glacier, - 

Maritime chain 
of Lapland. 

Mountains of 
Southern Swe- 

Joke-field, (Peninsula) 


Seyland, (Island of) Glacier 


.. Cape North, 

'Lake of Foemund, chain of the 

Mios, Middle of Norway, - 

Silian, middle of Dalecarlia, 

Stor, central plain of Jemptland, 
. Torneo, (Lapland) 
f Kinekulle, (West Gothland) 
| Lake Venner, 
j Lake Vetter, 
1 Talberg, (Smoland) 
I Ramsgilla, (Idem) 
(, Lakes of Wexiae, from 4,264 to 

Island of Bornholm, 







( according to M. 
( Esmark 7,523. 





( extremity of a 
( secondary chain. 









| supposed to be 
( higher. 
























Beri Nevis, 








Cross-fell, (Cumberland) 


Snowden, (Wales) 



4,380 Jameson, &c, 















Benledi, ... 

Cader Idris, 


Macgellicuddy's Reeks, (Ireland) 


Chroug Patrick, - - 


Goat Fell, (isle of Arran) 

Snea Fell, (Isle of Man) 

Summit of Hoy Island, (Orkneys) 

Mount Skaling, (Feroe Islands) 

St. Kilda, (Island of) - 

Ronaberg, (Shetland Islands) 


Mount Merin, source of the Loire, 



Puy de Montoncelle, 

Pila, (near Lyons) 

La Croix, Touttee, 

Mountains of Charolais, 

Mount Salvy, (near Uhotlcz) 

Rhodez, - 



Puy Mary, -< 

Mount Courlande, 

Puy du Dome, 

Puy Mareith, 

Puy de Saucy, (M. d'Or) - 

Puy Ferrand, - 

Puy Paillet, 

The town of Clermont, 







Mount Posatz, - 

Mount Perdu, 


Cylindrc du Marbor6, 


Breche de Roland, 

Pic du midi de Bagnenes, 

Idem de Pace, 

Pic de Montaigne, 

Mount Moncal, - 

Mount St. Barthelcmi, 



Port do Pinede, 



3,944 doubtful 
























11,384 Vidal and Reboul. 

10,681 Cordier. 

10,952 Vidal and Reboul. 

11,257 Ramond. 

11 ,.002 Vidal and Reboul. 






7,794 Ramond. 


9,213 Cassini. 

9,127 Mechain. 

8,255 Ramond. 



Col de Navaure, 


Iberian chain. 

Sierra Morenna. 

Chain of the 

|" El Mulhacen, (Sierra Nevada) 

IPicacho de Veletta, 
The Alpujarras, - - 

Anti-Pyrenees. ^ Sierra de Gador, (Alpujarras) 
1 Cerrajon de la Muerta, 
I Sierra de Lujar (south of Grenada) 
L Granada, town of, - 

' Sierra de Molina, 

Muela de Arias, 


Collado de Plata, 

S. of Espadan, 
L Silla Torellos, (Majorca) 


Puerto de Rey, 

Rapids of the Guadiana, 

Foya, (Algarva) 
.Cape St. Vincent, 
r San Ildefonso, 

Penalara, summit of Guadarama, 
< Madrid, town of, 
I Estrelha, (Beira) 
I Idem, - 

"Gaviara, (Minho) 

Pennas of Europa* (Asturias) 
from 8,528, to 

Passage of Lunada, 

Estella, .(Catalonia) - 

Puig-se Calm-Rodos, (idem) 

Morello, (idem) 

Montjouy, (idem) 
. Rock of Gibraltar, 

Colmo de Lecco, (Bochetta) 

Monte Simone, 

San Pelegrino, 
Alpe de Doccia, | .'.'/ 
Monte Barigazo, ^ - 
Basco Lemgo, 
Sasso Simone, 
Monte Amiata, 
Sienna, (town of) 
Viterbo, (town of) 
M. Soracte, 

M. Cappanna, (island of Elba) 
M. Velino, - 
M. Sybilla, - 

Gallician chain. 



7,648 Ramond. 

11,812 Clemente Rojas. 
9,168 Pluer. 
7,870 Rojas. 
5,358 Idem. 
6,922 Idem. 
2,465 Belencourt. 
3,837 Antillon. 

4,082 Franzini. 


2,630 Antillon. 
6,883 Franzini. 
7,647 Balbi. 

9,594 conjectural. 
4,711 J. Penalver. 
5,805 Delambre. 

671 ;, 

3,390 Schow. 

f Almanach 
> y7S Vde Genes. 









f Sasso d'ltalia, 
M. Amaro, 
M. Catria, 

M. Pennine, - . 

.M. Cavo, (near Frosinone) 
rMlGennaro, _, 

1 RocadiPapa, '--.' 

J Vesuvius, 

J Epomeo, (island of Ischia) 
(. Anacapri, 

M. Balgario, (near Salemi,) - ~.\- 

M. Calvo, 

Sila, (Calabria) . - - 

Etna, (Sicily) 

Pizzo di Case, (idem) 

Caro di Mofera, (idem) 

Portella dell Arena, (idem) 

Piano di Troglie, (idem) 

M. Cuccio, near Palermo, 

Guiliano, (Eryx) 

M. S. Michael, 

Montagnuolo, (island of Felicudi) 

Monte Rotondo, (Corsica) 

Monte d'Oro, (idem) - - 




3,735 Gay-Lussac,lS05. 

4,940 doubtful. 

Maritime chain between Piedmont and France. 

Caoume, (near Toulon) ... 
St. Pilon, .... 

Mount de Lure, ... 

Mont Venteux, 

Charence, (near Gap) * 

Le col de Tende, ' 

Parpaillon, (near Barcelonette) 

Siolane, - 

Le Col, between Maurin and Laclapire, 

Coal-mines, (near St. Gulp) 

Le Chalol le Vieux, - '* *> 

Loucira, ^ ;' 

Loupilon, v*.'m 

Joselmo, * 

Pelou de Valoumse, ! * 

Mont Viso de Ristolas, - - 

Mont Viso, (another summit) - . 

Source of the Po, - - 

Mont Genevre, 

Col de Mont Genevre, - r - ' !' ' - 

Cenis, (Rock St. Michel) ' - : ' 

Passage across Mount Cenis, 

Lake on Mount Cenis, 











14,436 doubtful. 
14,128 idem. 
14,056 Farmond. 

13,138 Morazzo. 
13,828 De Zach. 






Pic de Pelladone, .... 10,232 

Chevalier, .... g,742 






Mont Iseran, - - " .' ' 


Passage of Little St. Bernard, 

Summit, - - - 

Col de la Seigne, 

Col de Bonhomme, 

Cramont, - 

Col de Geant, - - 

Mont Blanc, 

L' Alice Blanche, - - 
Priory of Chamonay, 
Le Buet, 

Aiguille de PArgentiere, 
Great St. Bernard, 

Passage across the great St. Bernard, 

Mount Rosa, 

Mount Cervin or Malterhorn, 

Passage across Cervin, 

Breithorn, ' - 

Road across the Simplon, 


Petchiroa, (one of the summits) 

Pettina, (idem) 

Fienda, (idem) 

Passage of St. Gothard, 

Furca, - 


Piz Pisoc, 

Source of the Rhone, 


The Aar near Grimselberg, 



13,278 Welden. 


9,594 Saussure. 

8,046 ' 



f Saussure, 
15,766 ] Trallesand 

I Pictet. 


f Zumstein and 
< fur ,, 
\ Welden. 













Grimselberg, - 

Lake of the Dead oh the Grimsel, 



Wetterhorn, * 



Monch, (monk) 

Jungfrau, (Virgin) 




Passage of Gemmi, 



14,094 Trallcs. 
14,038 Oriani. 
12,176 Tralles. 




Oldenhorn, 10,266 

Diablerets, - - - " -7- 1> 732 

Deut de Morcle, -' ~ /- 9 , 5 41 

- - VL ' V ; X ,:.:.- 7 ' 82 


Muthorn, - - 10,446 Escher, Ebel, &o 

Gallenstock, - 12,068 

Sussenhorn, - - 11,629 

Spitzli, ';-* - - H,389 

Titlis, - - - .- 11,416 


Steinberg, - - - - 9,950 

Bisistock, 6,941 

Jauchlistock, - 7,957 

Scheinberg, 6,518 

Hoch-Gant, - 7,258 

Mount Pilat, near Lucerne, 7,546 


Schlossberg, - - - - 10,408 

Wollenstock, - - 8,618 

Wendistock, - 10,134 

Church of Engelsberg, - 3,424 


Trithorn, - - - .. , , ., 

Ober Alpstock, 10,918 

Crespalt, 6,874 

Piz Hussein, - - - - 13,858 { ^ on of the 


Dcedi, . ^ . _ ^ 11,765 

Ristenberg, .> '..' 10,265 

Hausstock, . ' ; .i':* ; . - 9,454 

Hohe Kisten, - 10,964 


Martinsloch, . - '- .-.. . 10,112 

Scheibe, j-.* f . . ,, , L '" 9,986 

Twistols, . . 10,418 

Great Kuhfirst, -*\ ;^.. .. 7,308 

Kamar, . . ; 5,772 

Hochsentis, . 8,111 

Leistkamm, 6,873 

Schnee Alp, 4,301 

Silter near Appencell, '- 2,275 

Mount Zurich, 2,385 





Ross Stock, 


Ruffi or Rossberg, 

Rigi, - 




Passage, of Airolo at Medel, 


Muschelhorn, ... 

Aporthorn, - 

Forest of the Rhine, 

Bernhardin, ... 

Tombahorn, ... 

Passage of Splugen, 


Longino, - * 

Passage of the Julier, 

Err, summit of the Julian mountains, 




Lake Refen, 

Greiner, ... 

Scheneiberg (near Sterzing) 



7,192 near Stella. 

10,948 M. Mayer. 
10,956 M. Adule. 



9,594 approximation. 



IQ QKO f founded on 

13.858 < , ,.,. 

( tradition. 

12.859 Weldon. 




6,463 M. de Buch. 



Orisons, Bavaria, Salzbourg. 




Kamm (near Magenfeld) 

Coire (town of) 

Piz Linard from 


- 9,813 

12,800 to 13,850 









Lake of Zegern, 

St. Bartholomew, 

Town of Munich, 






9,655 M. de Buch. 









Sasso del Fero, near Lavenno, - 3,230 

Pizzo de Onsera, .... 3,206 

Lake of Lugano, - V>-' - 930 

Como, - - ... - 636 

Milan, - - - "r : / 517 


M. Gario near Bormeo, 11,756 

Legroucino, ,-W: : ,v! - - 6,204 

M. Lignone, & . - - - 8,666 

M. Baldo, $&,, '>" . 7,406 

M. Magiore, - 7,209 

M. di Nago, ; ^ . - - 6,810. 


f M.Moll, sup- 
The Great Glockner, '-. - 13,713 < posed to be 

I overrated. 

Village of Heiligenblut (Carinthia) 4,484 

Hohenvvart, .... 11,076 

Wisbach Horn, '' - ' 11,519 

Gross-Kogel, - - 9,700 

Taurn of Rauris, 8,592 


Hahe Varr, - - . - 11,334 

Rauh-Eckberg, . . - 7,831 

Wilden Kogel, '- . - 5,813 

Salzburg (town of) - V 1,391 

Thorstein, . - 9,632 r Upper Austria, 

Kappenkarstein, - . '. ' . 8,076 j (Marcel de 

Kalmberg, - - - 5,926 ] Serres, Schultes, 

Lake of Hallstedt, - - - 1,660 Land others.) 

Grossemberg, - - 8,932 


Summits of Winnfeldj / \V - 8,583 

Hoch-Gailing, SJ . 6,204 

Schneberg, >,-* ; ; ., \ , t . . . - - 6,952 

Kahlenberg, 'v^> '. '-"' - - ' 1,433 

Semmering, . * , - ?' 4,704 


Venice Carniola Croatia. 

M. Marero, 5,038 

Source of the Tagliamento, 4,412 

Piave, - . ' , - 4;140 

Kranneriegen, - - 6,227 

Terglow, - - 9,906 

Karst, to the north of Trieste - 1,580 

Suisnik, or Snowy mountain, 7,056 

Kleck, - - 6,692 

Plissavisza, .... 5,755 



Mount Bardani, - - 4,374 
Biocava, - vV - 5,101 


First Chain of Jura. 

TheReculet, 'V- - - - 6,177 

Dole, :-;> .!>"< , *. . '-%. - 6,151 

Chasseral, % : '':.,., - - - 5,229 

Lake of Joux, - 3,202 

Mount of Or, - - - - 4,797 

Hassemate, (Soleure) ... 4,774 

Rothifluh, - - - - 4,610 

Moron, (Delemont) - -, - 4,412 

Second Chain of Jura. 

La Sule, (Bellelay) - : " *-'*'' - 4,406 

Gros Taurean, (Pontarlier) ... 4,324 

',,,.'. Chain between Jura and Vosges. 

Mount Sapeau, - - 2,902 
Hircey, - - 2,295 


Mountains connected with the Alps of Bern. 

Mount Pelerin, . - ' - - 4,083 

Tour de Gourze, - - - - 2,936 

Lo Cole, >> - 2,888 

Lausanne, (town of ) - '- - - 1,668 


Tete d'Ours, -<*- - - - 4,580 

Presson, - - . 4,266 

Ballon de Guchwillier, - . - 3,956 

Ballon de Giromagny, - - 3,516 

Balion d'Alsace, - 4,124 

Haut de Honee, - - - 4,400 

Grand Ventron, - - 3,160 

Donnersberg, *>> "*";' - 2,556 

Hesselberg, (near Bingen) - - - 1,622 

COTE D'OR, &c. 

Mont Mareiselois, (Langres) - - 1,663 Schuckburg. 

Disjunction of the rivers near Langres, - jj y. 2,548 

Source of the Seine, - - V 1,424 

Top of Tasselot, ^- 1,962 

Dijon (town of) - - - 664 

Feldberg, - ... 4,901 Stein. 


Boelchen, - - - - 4,656 

Kandel, - 4,168 

Kohlgarten, - - - 3,930 

LakeofEichen, - 1,561 





Castle of Hohenzollern, 

Lake of Thun, 


' Lucerne, 




Beat, - f. 







Western Carpathian JLlps. 

Ruska Poyana, 


Buthest, (Transylvania) 

Idem, (Walachia) 



Retirzath, (high valley) 


Kronstradt, (town of) 
Sural, (Szural) 

Kriwan of Thureiz, 


Presiba, * 

Green Lake, 
Babia Gora, 
Czerna Gora, 

Eastern Carpathian Chain. 



9,594 Idem. 


6,892 M. Lerchenfield, 







7,274 . 


ft 4fift / Wahlenberg, 

B ' 4t] \ Thompson, &c. 







Alt Vater, 


Source of the little Oppa, 




Lissa Hora, near Teschen, 

Hohe Eule, (Glatz) 


4 802 I MM * Kalu P a 
4>8 ' \ and Mosch. 




Schneeberg, - V 


Sturnhaube, - & - .. 





Zobtenberg, .... 


Valleys of Gal tz, 


Tafelfichtc, ... 


Lenehberg, (Basaltic) - 



Lausche, - ., * * 


Anersberg, ..... 


Schneekopf, - . - 


Fichtelberg, - ... 



Hoeltsch, (Mittelgebirge) ... 


C Kermann and 

Donnerberg, (idem) 


Vineyards of Mel nick, &c. ... 


Prague, (the observatory of) ... 


Budweiss, (Town of) 


Kreutzberg, (between Bohemia and Moravia) 


Rotschotte, (idem) .... 


Brunn, (Town of) 





Postling, (near Linz on the Danube) 


1 Kermann and 
\ David. 

Steinberg, (rock of) 


Ploeckenstein, * 




Rhoen, (Bohemia) 


Lusen, - 


Source of the Moldava 






Schneiberg, (Franconia) 


Fichtelberg, (Franconia) 




Beerberg, ..... 
Schneekopf, .... 


) Forest of Thu- 

Inselbcrg, .... 


J nngi 

Observatory of Seeberg, 


Brocken or Blocksberg, 


( Range of the 
\ Hart/,. 

Bruchberg, . - ' ;V 


Winterberg, - ,..,.- 




Dammersfeld, ... 



Meisner, (Basaltic) - - - ~>* 


Feldberg, ... 






Saltzburger Kopf, 






High Veen, to the west of the Rhine, - 2,294 
Eiftel, idem. 

The Ardennes, 1,694 
Heights in the department of the Orne, from 960 to 1,066 

Cape Stubbenkammer, (Ragen) 600 

Perleberg, (Mecklenburg) - 682 

Galtgarbe, (Eastern Prussia) - 540 

Himmelbierg, (Jutland) - 1,278 

Monts Aree, (Britanny) ... 996 

Noirs,(idem) - - - 816 

The Seine at Paris, .... 108 


Mountains of Croatia, &c. - from 

Orbelos, north of Macedonia, - 





Monte Nero, (Cephalonia) 

Ligrestosowo, (White Mountains of Crete) 

Psilorit, (Ida) - 

Vrisina, (Crete) 

Kentros, (idem) 

Lassite, (idem) 

Mount Jupiter, (Naxos) 

Cocyla, (Scyros) 

Delphi, (Scopelos) 

Mount St. Elias, Milos) 

Idem, (Paros) 

Idem, (Thera) 
Veglia, (Astypaloea) 

rMarsliy ridge 
J between the 
I Meuse and the 
I Moselle. 

6,396 to 

7,462 See above. 


9,600 to 11,730 


6,376 to 7,462. 


6,522 doubtful. 



7,460 to 8,520 




7,572 Sieber. 


7,674 Idem. 




3,665 Idem. 


7,462 Idem, 


3,300 Gauttier. 


2,588 Idem. 


2,295 Idem, 

2,556 Idem. 


2,524 Idem. 


1,924 Idem. 



Cross of St. Peter's, - 

Minster, (Strasburg) 

Summit of the Pantheon at Paris, 


( above the base 
\ of the church. 

463 Idem. 

355 Idem. 




Climate. Distribtition of Animals and Plants, 

THE inhabitants in different parts of Europe boast of their genial [ Prejudice* 
climate, the rich produce of their fields, and are sometimes vain j cKS*. 1 " 8 
enough to suppose that an intellectual superiority is in a certain degree the re- 
sult of these natural blessings. The Spaniard sits under the shade of his olive 
tree, and is thankful that his country is rich'in oil. The Frenchman talks with 
contempt of the beer-drinkers in Germany, and insists gravely that the mists in 
England have some effect on the moral character of the people. A learned 
Greek, extolling the pure sky and the fine figs of Attica, insinuates that a 
clouded atmosphere and coarse fare have impaired the intellectual acuteness 
of the Ultramontanes. Travellers may have spread more correct notions on 
such subjects among the higher classes, but many errors still exist, which they 
have been unable to eradicate. We conceive with difficulty the beneficial re- 
sults attending an order of events different from that which we are accustomed 
to observe. It may perhaps be unnecessary to cite the example of a Sicilian 
baron, who told an Englishman that there could be no oxen in his country, 
since grass, never grew in England on account of the extreme cold. But some 
well-informed persons cannot easily comprehend that each European climate 
has its advantages. The Italian, shivering at the mere mention of a tempera- 
ture which freezes rivers and the arms of seas, doubts the description which 
the Dane gives of the incomparable verdure of the forests that limit the Sound. 
We ourselves have lately seen two French travellers, who, having unfortunately 
observed the uncultivated state of some Italian districts, condemned the whole 
region to the south of the Alps, its climate, its edifices, and even its women. 

Physicians, in the innumerable dissertations on their science, Fa i renotion> 
have applied to all the regions of the earth, some local aphorisms of ihe learned, 
of Hippocrates, applicable only to Greece, Asia Minor, -and a few adjacent 
countries. The natural philosopher discovers general laws to account for phe- 
nomena which cai> only be explained under certain modifications. The more 
numerous relations are rejected, because, not having been sufficiently observed, 
they cannot be submitted to calculation. Thus a needless erudition, and a 
premature science, ill adapted to illustrate the* true theory of European cli- 
mates, have added to the mass of popular errors. The peninsu- Europ S >au tI di- 
lar climate of Europe is subject to many more exceptions than any mates." 
other on our globe. The distribution of solar heat is certainly the chief cause 
of the difference in European climates; but if that cause existed only, England 
must have been as cold as Poland, arid France as Germany. A rapid progres- 
sion of heat must have, commenced at the forty-fifth degree of latitude, and its 
effects must have been felt at Constantinople and at Rome. But astronomical 
climates are modified in our part of the world by three leading physi- Modified by 
cul causes. Europe, throughout a space equal to almost the whole of Asia. 
its breadth, is contiguous on the east to Northern Asia, which, from the ele- 
vation of its central ridge, and other causes already indicated in this work, 
is as cold as North America. That frigid temperature must have been com- 
municated to Europe, had our continent, like that of America, been attached 
to the polar regions. The same consequence must have followed, had there 
been on the south lofty mountains, or a table land like that of Thibet. But, 


ZMtwimk. | as it is, the cold air of Siberia is wafted by a continued east or 
north-east wind across the vast plains of Russia and Poland. Italy is sheltered 
from these sudden changes of temperature by the Alps and Appenines; and in 
all the countries that are protected from them, the climate is less^ rigorous ; 
thus the vine flourishes in Bohemia, and in Upper Hungary. That single 
cause produces remarkable effects even in the north, the climate of Christiana 
in Norway is rendered milder than that of Berlin or Warsaw, and much 
more so than that of Petersburg. No barrier interrupts the east wind's course 
on all the plains of eastern Europe ; and for that reason, one half of our conti- 
nent is much colder than the western regions under the same parallels. Greece, 
although protected by Mount Hemus, is sometimes exposed to the winds of 
Scythia, hence the great inequalities in the winters and summers in that coun- 
try, compared with those of Italy. 

Modified by I If the cold of our climates is rendered more intense by the winds 
Africa. I of Asia, the opposite effect is produced by those of Africa. South 
and south-east winds, which warm the shores of southern Europe, arrive from 
the burning deserts of the immense Sahara, and the arid rocks of Nubia and 
Egypt; these sultry blasts might be still more oppressive, were they not tem- 
pered during their passage by the exhalations which rise from the Mediterra- 
south winds. I nean. The plague of Athens, according to Hippocrates, was pro- 
duced by a south wind ; the sirocco which advances sometimes to the foot of the 
Alps, diffuses in these regions its baneful influence. The great projection 
formed by northern Africa, from which the numerous chains of Mount Atlas 
rise, destroys partly the influence of the winds from the Sahara; these winds, 
refreshed and cooled, are changed into zephyrs on the western coasts of Italy. 
But Spain, from its vicinity to the African continent, and particularly to the 
desert which separates the states of Algiers from Morocco, is exposed to the 
Solano, a sultry and unwholesome wind; the short range of the Sierra Nevada 
affords only shelter to some valleys. We may conclude that the African winds, 
although broken and modified by the interposition of seas and mountains, warm 
and dry the whole mass of the European atmosphere in the southern portion 
of our peninsula. If the Mediterranean were broader, or the range of Mount 
Atlas higher, and the snows which cover them more durable, the coasts of 
Greece, Italy, and Spain would be obscured by mists and rain, but the trees 
might then be clad with a thicker foliage, and the plants adorned with a fresher 
verdure. If, on the other hand, Africa were nearer our shores, or the chain 
connected with Mount /Vtlas lower, the southern regions of Europe might be 
compared to Persia, a country in which the cold of the north is'almost conti- 
guous to the oppressive heat of the south, because the chill winds from the 
ridge of central Asia encounter the sultry blasts from the deserts of Arabia. 
Oceanic in- I The third leading cause which modifies our climate is the vicinity 
flueuce. I of the Atlantic and Northern Oceans. The continual motion of 
that immense collection of water along the western coasts of Europe, prevents 
the ice of the Polar seas from 'obstructing or even approaching these shores. 
Two facts may enable us to appreciate this advantage. Newfoundland, at the 
50th degree of latitude, is surrounded with ice, or covered with hoar-frost. 
The climate of Ireland, Cornwall, and the rest of Great Britain, although hu- 
mid, is temperate. The gulfs of Norway, at ten or fifteen degrees higher, are 
almost always open; the coast of Greenland, exactly opposite these gulfs, is 
frequently rendered inaccessible by barriers of fixed or floating ice. That 
movement of the waters ceases beyond Cape North, or is modified by local 
positions as yet imperfectly known; and the seas in that part of Europe are 
blocked with ice. 

conflict be- I The atmosphere above the surface of the Atlantic ocean is sub- 
Mritime e ind J ec * * rc & u ^ {ir movements, which modify the climate of Europe in 
continental two different ways. While it retains the cokl temperature of win- 
ter, it is often attracted to the European continent, and fills the 
space of an atmosphere rarefied by heat. These changes happen frequently 
during our premature springs, and that sort of atmospheric tide is the general 

CLIHAl'E. &) 

cause of those returns of winter, disagreeable to man and hurtful to plants, but 
common to the whole of western Europe, particularly to the north-west of 
France, Holland, and Denmark. If, after such ^jlux of the frigid and moist 
atmosphere of the ocean, a dry and cold east wind arrives from northern Asia 
and Russia, we experience that rude temperature, the frequent recurrence of 
which, in the time of our ancestors the Celts and Germans, was partly owing 
to the uncultivated state of their countries. Russia and Poland are now better 
cultivated and reflect a greater quantity of heat; the east winds are probably 
milder; but as many of the forests in France, Germany, and England, have 
been destroyed, the same obstacles for the last four or five centuries have not 
been exposed to the course both of the east and the west winds. Thus it may 
be shown that the climate of the countries situated between the Pyrenees and 
the Dofrines has become warmer, but at the same time more variable. We 
are also enabled to explain why the vine, a plant that cannot resist the sudden 
changes of climate, was cultivated during the twelfth and even the fifteenth 
century, in Lusatia and England; and by the care and patience of the monks 
succeeded at least to their satisfaction in sheltered spots of which the tempera- 
ture was then more regular. In the same places at present, the grape never 
arrives at maturity. Other plants, better adapted for our climates and the 
sudden changes of the spring, have been cultivated in later ages in the northern 
countries of Europ.Q. 

The influence of the oceanic atmosphere varies in its intensity I insular cii. 
and character according to the latitudes. The same wind is salutary | mate> 
and agreeable in Portugal, and accumulates in some narrow Norwegian gulfs a 
dense and unwholesome air. The British islands, wholly exposed to the cli- 
mate of the ocean, are liable. in a. less degree to the sudden effects of the great 
conflict between the maritime arid continental winds; their temperature, always 
variable, is .never subject to excessive heat or extreme cold. 

The atmosphere of the Atlantic ocean^ after it loses its wintery 1 somh-west 
temperature, is driven above the western coasts of Europe by south- [ WIn * s ' 
west winds, the course of which may perhaps be attributed to certain modifi- 
cations of a general movement in the air from the tropics to the poles; vapours 
then fall in refreshing showers, fertilize our fields, expand the germs of plants, 
and fill the air with an aromatic fragrance. 

The spring passes from south to north into western or oceanic 
Europe, but never quits wholly the shores of the Mediterranean. 
Its appearance in the north-east of Europe is fleeting and of short duration, 
hence result several differences in the great European divisions. The forests 
and gardens in the south retain always some degree of life, but we anticipate 
in vain that complete and rapid resuscitation of nature, which takes place in 
northern latitudes. The western maritime countries passess in some degree 
both these advantages. The inland regions connected with Asia exhibit the 
horrors of winter, the stillness of frozen lakes, ever-verdant pines, and the 
repose of vegetation and nature. 

The three great European climates may be represented by a 
triangle, of which the three sides meet at Cape St. Vincent, Cape _ 
North, and at the north of the Caspian Sea. 6n the first side the temperature 
becomes lower in winter as we advance from south to north, and on the second 
it decreases with irregular variations as we approach eastwards ; on the third 
it remains almost stationary as we pass from south to north. The summer's 
heat is subject to other general laws; in the north its intensity is augmented 
by the length of the day, and moderated on the oceanic side of the triangle by 
the temperature of the sea; it becomes oppressive on the Asiatic side, on ac- 
count perhaps of the sudden transition from the severe cold of winter; lastly, 
it varies greatly on the side next the Mediterranean, according to the direc- 
tion of winds or other local causes, and diminishes on the whole towards the 

To have a more detailed view of the causes which modify the climate of 
Europe, a heptagon may be substituted for the triangle. The first side may be 

Succession of 
the spring. 

chraates - 

30 BOOK x IN cry- FIFTH. 

drawn towards Africa, from Gibraltar to Crete; the second towards Taurus 
and Caucasus, from Crete to the sea of Azof ; the third towards the Caspian 
and the deserts in its vicinity; the fourth to the Ural mountains and Siberia; 
the fifth to the Frozen Sea, from the Straits of Waygatz to Cape North; the 
sixth towards the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean, from Cape North to 
Ushant; and the seventh towards the central part of the Atlantic. This sep- 
tenary division may be useful in classifying almost all the local influences 
which modify the continental climates, those of the islands must be considered 
apart. We believe that, from a careful examination of these figures, our cli- 
mates may be better understood than from any classification or description. 
Elevation of I These general phenomena depend on the movements of the atmo- 
*** * un ' | sphere; but we have also to consider the effects occasioned by the 
elevation of the sun. Esmark observed that in the north and north-east sides 
snow line. | of the Dofrines, on which the solar rays fell obliquely,. the snow line 
descended to 3000 feet above the level of the sea, while on the south and 
south-east sides, where the action of the solar rays was more direct, the snow 
line reached an elevation of 7000. Wahlenberg and De Buch calculated the 
limit of perpetual sno\v in the maritime part of Lapland at S300. It does not 
fall so low in the interior of the country, but that circumstance must be attri- 
buted to local causes. The cold winds that descend from the Dofrines render 
the winters of Jutland very severe, and influence also the climate of Sweden. 
The snow line varies between seven and eight thousand feet in Switzerland at 
the 46th degree of latitude. That country is colder from the great extent of 
its mountainous chain; in some ravines inaccessible to the direct action of the 
solar light, perpetual ice is observed at 5000 feet above the level of the sea. 
The immense masses of ice with which these mountains are covered, fall some- 
times on the valleys, and, by remaining on them, occasion considerable varia- 
tions in the temperature. But on the other hand, the force of the summer's 
heat destrovs more rapidly the snows of winter, and the increase and diminu- 
tion of ice are nearly the same from one year's end to another. The snow 
line commences in the Pyrenees at 8400 feet, and that elevation is lower than 
we might have supposed, from taking only into consideration the latitude of 
these mountains. Etna is always covered with snow at the height of 9000 feet, 
but it may be believed thut islands and peninsulas being comparatively narrow 
and of small extent, emit a less quantity of heat. 

Other effects, occasioned by the height of European countries, 
may be shortly examined in this part of our work. A great part 
of central Europe, on the north and west of the Alps, descends by a continued 
inclination towards the Baltic, the North Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean. The 
natural effects attributed to the proximity of the pole, are counterbalanced in 
the lowest level of th northern boundary of that inclined plane. Normandy 
is not much colder than Burgundy, and the winter in Denmark is not much 
longer than the same season in Bohemia. Hardy plants, the oak, the mountain 
ash, the lime, and different kinds of grain thrive in many countries in that part 
of Europe, although they are removed from each other by six or seven degrees 
of latitude. The descent from the Cevennes and the Alps towards the western 
basin of the Mediterranean and the Gulf of Venice is very rapid, and the level 
sinks as much in the space of one degree of latitude as it does in six or seven 
degrees on the other side. The traveller may walk on perpetual snow in the 
morning, and lie down in the evening among olives and myrtles. In the rapid 
transition from the climate of Lapland to that of Italy, we cannot expect to 
find a constant temperate zone, and consequently the vegetation of that zone 
in all its beauty. The frees of the north, on the southern sides of the Alps, 
do not form so magnificent forests as those in the northern plains. These 
remarks are only applicable to Germany, France, Lombardy, the Low Coun- 
tries, and Denmark; the other transversal sections of Europe present a very 
^iff el>cnt appearance. The level of ancient Poland is nearly uniform 
in the line formed by Memel, Pinsk, and Chcrson. The climate 
on the shores of the Euxinc sea, and those of the Baltic ought to differ exactly 

Level of cen- 
tral Europe. 


in the ratio of their latitudes. But as the first is nearer the elevated land of 
Asia, it'does not enjoy all the advantages that might otherwise result from its 
position. Another section of Europe, taken between the White and the Black 
Sea, by Archangel, Moscow, and Cherson, exhibits an immense plain, which 
rises gradually towards the centre ; but it is not crowned by any range of hills, 
so that the cold in the centre increases with the elevation of the level, and 
extends freely in all directions. We observe a remarkable phenomenon in the 
section from Petersburg to Astracan, in other words, the Caspian sea is lower 
by 150 feet than the Baltic and the ocean. That difference is too inconsiderable 
to occasion any great change in the climate; still, however, the temperature in 
summer could not be so high at Astracan, were that town on the level of 
Moscow or Lemburg, and the intense cold which succeeds the warm weather 
could not be so severely felt in a low plain, and at the 46th degree of latitude, 
if these countries were sheltered by a chain of mountains on the north. Such 
are the principal sections which tend to modify the climate of Europe. The 
striking exceptions that the Greek, Spanish, and Scandinavian peninsulas 
present, shall be afterwards considered. 

These causes, which influence European climates, explain suffi- j isothermal 
ciently the principal phenomena that physical geographers have | hnes * 
observed. M. de Humboldt has attempted to reduce them to geometrical 
formula in his method of isothermal lines, which indicate the mean temperatures 
of summer and of winter, and are therefore termed isotherical and isohyemal 
That method, so well adapted for the purposes of terrestrial physics, may pro 
bably, like all the others of that distinguished philosopher, be of great use in 
geography. But the application of it cannot as yet be attempted, for the method 
has not been fully explained by its celebrated inventor.* We shall cite, how 
ever, an example. The isothermal lines in the north and in the ' 
centre of Europe form curves which descend in the south as we 
advance eastwards, or in other words, the mean temperature of 
the places in the same latitude becomes lower towards the east. Thus, 

Curvature of 
the isothermal 
lines in Eu- 

Upsala is . : . 4.5 

Copenhagen ..... 6.1 

Brussels . . . .8.8 

St.Malo 9.8 

Petersburg . . . . 3.0 
Moscow ..... 3.6 
Prague .... 7.7 

Vienna . . .8.2 

The cause of the diminution of temperature in the. two first instances must 
be ascribed to the proximity of Siberia and the higher lands in Tartary. In 
the others-, the same cause is to be attributed to the higher level of Bohemia and 
Austria. Thus there is a disadvantage in the method of isothermal lines when 
applied to elementary geography, for it unites under one point of view results 
very different in their nature and causes; it abounds in apparent irregularities, 
of which the explication is not unfolded. Our remarks may be illustrated by 
another example. The mean temperature of Lisbon is 12, and that of Naples, 
which lies in a more eastern and northern situation, 13.5. This anomaly is 
easily accounted for, if it be recollected that Lisbon is influenced by the oceanic 
climate, and Naples by that of the Mediterranean; these two places, then, 
cannot, according to the new method, be contrasted with each other. The 
climates of Gibraltar, Malaga, Valencia, Palermo, Naples, Rome, Athens, Thes- 
salonica, and Constantinople, may be compared, and if attention be paid to 
local causes, after all the requisite materials have been obtained to enable us 
to trace two isothermal lines between these points, we believe that they might 
form two very irregular curves. The method in the present state of our know- 
ledge, may be considered an ingenious theory, which merits the attention of 
physical geographers, but it does not as yet afford a principle of classification 
applicable to the geography of climates. 

* M. de Humboldt has given an outline of his theory in the Transactions of the Society of 
Arcuil, but he intends to explain it more fully in a treatise on climatology. 


j It remains for us to consider the humidity of the atmosphere, a 
I subject not less important than that which has been last examined. 
M. Schow fixes at 25 inches the ordinary quantity of rain which falls annually 
in that part of Europe on the north of the Alps; the corresponding quantity on 
the south of these mountains is calculated at 35 inches; but it is very probable, 
if the snow be taken into consideration, that the equilibrium may be esta- 
blished, and that all the European atmospheres, in a period of three, or at most 
ten years, is subject to the same degree of humidity. It is true that the oceanic 
climate of Europe is sometimes, as in 1817, more than usually humid, a fact 
that must be attributed to the melting; of the floating ice driven occasionally to 
the 45th degree of latitude. The climate of the Mediterranean, on the other 
hand, is, from long continued south winds, subject to great droughts ; some plains 
in the Asiatic climates may be affected in the same manner by the dry winds 
from the de'serts on the east of the Caspian; but these differences disappear in 
a period of no very great duration. M. Schow remarks, correctly, that the rain 
descends more slowly and uniformly in the countries to the north of the Alps 
than in those to the south ; the torrents which burst suddenly from the clouds in 
that part of Europe recall to our mind the phenomena of the rainy season in the 
torrid zone. The number of rainy days in the north may amount throughout 
the year to 150 or 160; those in the south do not exceed 90 or 100. If the days 
in which snow falls be added to the first number, the difference between the 
tvro climates might appear still more striking. It is on that account that the 
small gramineous plants in the north, which are fertilized by frequent and 
gentle showers, have so rich a verdure, the absence of which, in southern coun- 
tries, the Italians confess that they regret. From the continuance of the vernal 
temperature and other local causes, the leaves of the Fagus Sylvatica have that 
pale emerald tint which the same plants lose in the south. 

The steepness of the ground in many parts of southern Europe causes the 
rain, which descends in torrents, either to flow too rapidly or to remain stag- 
nant; hence the number of fertile fields, naked rocks, and uncultivated marshes 
at the base of the Appenines, Olympus, and Parnassus. The lands in the north, 
though less fruitful, are at least more equally watered, and retain longer their 
strata of vegetable mould. 

If the heat accumulated in the long days of summer, and the more regular 
distribution of rain be considered, it may be concluded that the countries in thd 
north-west of Europe possess advantages relative to climate, equally great, 
though different from those in Italy and Greece.* 

salubrity of I Kurope is perhaps, on the whole, more healthy than any othef 
the air. | portion of the earth. The fevers -common in the marshes on thd 
banks of the Don, in the Bannatof Temeswar, in the neighbourhood of Rome, 
and in the island of Walcheren, the pestilential vapours in some Sardinian 
valleys, and the unwholesome fogs near some Norwegian gulfs, are only local 
evils. Other epidemic diseases, such as the plague in Turkey, the yellow fever 
in Spain, and the plicauf Poland, are not to be attributed to natural causes, but 
to the defects of governments or the habits of the people. We are unable, 
from our ignorance of medicine, to classify the prevailing diseases of Europe, 
according to the three great divisions of the eastern, western, and southern cli- 
mates. Such a subject might merit the attention of physicians; but it may, 
however, be affirm eu, that in eve*y part of Europe, men who lead a frugal life 
arrive sometimes to a very advanced age. Instances of this sort are as nume- 
rous on the mountains of Sicily as on those of Norway. The physical strength 
of the inhabitants in the north and in the south of Europe, does not appear to 
us to vary in the ratio of climates, but according to the origin of different races. 
Jh?oSc f I European plants are subject to the influence of three prevailing 
dfmtic. I climates. The temperature of the north of Europe is not fatal to 
plants which perish under the same parallel in every other corresponding part 
of our globe j thus different kinds of grain, particularly barley and oata, are 

Schow's comparison between the north and the south of Europe. Copenhagen, 1822. 

under the 

Po observe 


cultivated in Norway at the 70th degree ; whilst in the opposite coasts of 
America, such cultivation ceases at the 52d. The other gramineous plants 
which cover the meadows of Europe, grow in the northern regions of America, 
but never appear in the same luxuriance. 

Trees are never seen in every other part of the world at the 60th degree of 
latitude ; in Europe the fir and the pine rise to a great height; and the tender 
beech which adorns the forests of Russian Poland at the 50th or 51st parallel, 
grows in greater perfection in Norway at the 59th. The Italian laurel thrives 
in the open air on the western coasts of France, and some vegetables, which 
were until lately believed to be confined to Portugal, have been transplanted 
on the hills in the neighbourhood of Plymouth. Many plants, however, require 
a warm and a dry climate ; thus, if we set out from the departments of Gironde 
or Charente, it may be observed that the vine succeeds in the interior of the 
continent, or in that part of it which does not'extend to the 50th degree. 

Two distinct phenomena mark the influence of the Asiatic climate 
on the vegetation of Europe. The length of winter in the north 
and the centre of Russia, is fatal to several trees and plants which 
thrive under the same parallels in Germany and Scandinavia, 
correctly the Flora of Denmark, Mecklenburg and Holstein, we must descend 
towards Kiow, Orel, and the Ukraine.* In these countries, the culture of 
wheat is certain, and the oak arrives at perfection. But on the other hand, 
the plants of the Scandinavian peninsula, and even of Lapland, are not un- 
known in Lithuania and in central Russia, under a parallel comparatively 
low; thus the lichen of Lapland is frequently seen in the plains at the 54th, 

Such are the modifications produced by the Siberian climate. But I c^fa,, ^ 6 
the sandy and saline plains which bound Europe towards the Gas- | mate'. 8 "' 
pian sea, are influenced by the dry and sometimes burning winds that blow 
from the deserts which bound Bucharia on the north, and surround the Aral 
lake. To that cause, and to the quality of the soil, must be ascribed the ab- 
sence of the European forests towards the Don, the Lower Wolga, and the 
Ufa. A scanty vegetation, consisting of saline plants or lowly shrubs, covers 
these dismal plains. 

The third side of the European triangle presents to the African 1 Vegetation of 

, . . r , , . . , . f . , i r .1 .11 l ' ie Mediterra* 

climate a series ot declivities, terminated on the north by a very | nean climate- 
lofty chain of mountains. The vegetation of that part of Europe is confined 
to a range of coasts and to some peninsulas and islands in the south. The 
traveller who enters these regions for the first time, views with delight, land- 
scapes that are never seen in the finest countries to the north of the Alps. The 
vine entwined round the elm, forests of olive, almond or fig-trees, and the ma- 
jestic symmetry of the cypress are the first indications of this genial climate. 
The scarlet flowers of the pomegranate, the elegant myrtle, and the fragrant 
exhalations of oranges, obscured under a dark green foliage, convince the stran- 
ger that he is in the garden of Europe. Other differences, though less striking, 
cannot escape his observation ; the gladiolus, the varied coloured convolvulus, 
and the narcissus are seen in the fields, and the banks of streams are sheltered 
by groves of the. rose laurel. The cistus grows on the sides of calcareous hills, 
and the acanthus among the ruins of ancient buildings. The botanist observes 
species of plants wholly unknown in more northern countries, as the psoralea, 
the cercis, and the biscerrula. Different families abound in a greater variety 
of species, as the aristolochia and the rnalva; others, as the medicago and 
anthyllis, attain to a greater height than they ever reach in the north. Some 

* The Ornithogalum luteum et n-.itans, the Oenothera biennis, the "Ranunculus lanugi- 
nosus, the Cytisus htmrnum et nigricans, the Dianthus superbus, the Hyacinthus comosus, 
the Cornus sanguinea, the Cyperus f'uscus, the Panicum sanguinale, the Festucafluitans, the 
Pimpineria anisum, and ihe Brass ica rapa and arvensis are the species which establish a re- 
markable resemblance between the plants- of Denmark, Volhynia, the Lesser Russia, and 
the banks of the Don. This analogy is perhaps to be attributed in some respects, to the 
migrations of the Goths. 

between the 
vegetal ion of 
tJie wet and 


of the grasses and seeds exhibit a ne'vr character ; the flowers of the Cunna 
taccharina, of the Lygeum sparlum, and Lagurus ovatus, display the bright 
hues of the tropics. The Jlrunda donax is almost equal in height to the bam- 
boo, the chamoerops may give a faint idea of the lofty palm. 

The plants nearer the mountains which limit the horizon on the south resem- 
ble those of central Europe; and, from the elevation of the soil, they may be 
compared to the productions of northern countries. The ultramontane blasts 
strip many Italian trees of their foliage, but the shores of the sea are covered 
with verdant plants, the laurel, the myrtle, the rosemary, the holm oak and the 

As we advance southwards to the plains of Sicily or Andalusia, 
the vegetation assumes an African character ; the stiff foliage of the 
aloe appears on the massy trunk of the Indian fig-tree, and in some 
fields the slender date tree is seen waving in the air. But, in Greece, the atmo- 
sphere is cooled by the winds which descend from Hemus and Taurus, and the 
European vegetation is modified by that of Asia or rather Caucasus. The 
eastern plane, the sycamore, and the cedar are common to the European and 
Asiatic shores of the Archipelago ; and the linden, the oak, and the beech, seem 
to connect the German and Carpathian forests with those of Caucasus, which 
are separated from the woods of Russia by the naked plains on the Don and 
the lower Dneiper. The interior ridge of Thrace is not, perhaps, widely dif- 
ferent as to its vegetation from Moravia; and, according to modern botanists, 
for every plant in the Greek Flora that is common to Italy, three are common 
to Scandinavia. The orange and the olive trees thrive in some sheltered spots 
under the rocks of Taurida, on the north of the Black Sea, and in a latitude 
higher than that of Lombardy. 

These are some of the causes which characterize the vegetation on the three 
sides of Europe ; other causes, that depend on the nature of the ground, and its 
elevation, are now to be considered. The influences which particular soils may 
have on vegetation, can, in the present state of chemistry and geology, be very 
imperfectly determined. Such influences are modified by too many mechani- 
cal causes, or by others wholly unconnected with them. The effects of the ele- 
vation of the soil may be more easily ascertained. 

Forests of birch trees grow in Norway under the polar circle, at 
an elevation of 1483 feet. The willow, or Salix lanigera, reaches 
nearly to the snow line, and the birch is only removed from it by a distance 
equal to 924 feet. In southern Norway, different firs thrive at the height of 
3000 feet above the level of the sea, and several kinds of apples ripen at 1000. 
Some valleys exposed to the sun are cultivated at the height of 1800 feet. 

Cultivation is not continued in the Sudetes above 3300 feet; the forests in 
the Carpathian Mountains terminate at 4200, but the Pinus pumilio grows at 
height of 5000. There exists probably a wide difference between the northern 
side, which fronts Russia, and the eastern opposite the Euxine Sea, and the 
southern above the Hungarian plains; but these differences have not as yet 
been sufficiently observed. The Alpine forests reach generally to an elevation 
of 5000 feet, the fir, 5500, and the green alder, 6120., Saussure observed the 
Daphne cneorum at 10,680, and Ramond found the same shrub on the highest 
summits of the Pyrenees. The heights in which these trees and plants flourish 
on the Italian side of the Alps are greater by 6 or 700 feet. The culture of 
grain ceases about the level of 7300, and that of the vine at 1700. The lofty 
trees of the Pyrenees are seldom seen beyond 6900, or at most 7200; the Scots 
fir grows 200 feet above them. Few observations have hitherto been made in 
southern Spain and in Greece. The Sierra Nevada in particular, demands the 
attention of the naturalist from its elevation and its proximity to Africa. As 
to peninsular Greece, we are assured that the tops of the highest moun- 
tains are covered with fine trees, but no inference can be derived from that fact, 
for the height of these mountains ie still unknown. 

The same subject may be considered in a different point of view, 

Lt-veU of 

Wine and 

CL1MATB. 35 

or in its relation to the culture of trees and plants necessary for the subsfetence 
of man, or useful in the employment of his industry. These plants are com- 
monly found in plains, or countries of mean elevation; the different kinds of 
grain which have contributed so much to our civilization, ripen in the whole 
of Europe. Secale* grows in Finland at the 64th degree of latitude, but yields 
more abundant harvests under a lower parallel. Wheat is cultivated at the 
62d degree, but thrives between the 36th and 50th; its ears are ten or twelve 
times larger in Calabria than in Germany. Maize, which has been brought to 
our continent from America, succeeds at the 50th degree; and rice, which was 
originally imported from Asia, grows at the 47th. The potato, first introduced 
in the year 1620, is now spread over the whole of the European peninsula. 

We have already spoken of the vine and the causes which have | ihevine. 
retarded its culture. At the 45th degree it flourishes in every exposure onwards 
to the 50th; it decays in the neighbourhood of the North Sea, and thrives in 
inland countries, if their climate be not subject to great variations. It is cul- 
tivated above the 50th parallel in Saxony and Bohemia, but that anomaly is 
owing to the great uniformity of the temperature; its fruits, not sufficiently 
warmed by the solar rays, are comparatively acid. 

Extensive plantations of hops are observed beyond the regions of | Hop?, 
the vine; they cover a very large tract of land between the 50th and 60th de- 
grees of latitude. 

Thus from the distribution of the alimentary plants which we 
have .mentioned, some inferences may be derived concerning the 
different kinds of food consumed by the people in Europe. A line consisting 
of several curves, drawn from the south of England across French Flanders, 
Hesse, Bohemia, the Carpathian Mountains, Odessa, and the Crimea, marks 
nearly the limits between the countries in which wine or beer is generally 
drunk. To the south of the same line, bread is commonly made of wheat; 
but rye is substituted in the north, and in some southern but mountainous 

The countries in which oil or butter is used, may be separated | on and butter. 
by another line extending along the Pyrenees, the Cevennes, the Alps and 
Mount Hemus. On the one side the pasturage is better, cattle abound, and a 
greater quantity of the food which they supply is consumed. If there be a 
great difference in the physical qualities of the man who lives habitually on 
animal food, beer, milk or butter, and another whoso ordinary diet consists of 
bread, wine and meats dressed with oil, it must be confessed that the contrast 
is only obvious between the inhabitants of widely distant countries, as the 
Spaniard and Italian on one side, and the Swede and the Russian on the other. 
As to the intermediate states, the effects of different diet are not easily dis- 
covered. Wine is common in Normandy, but the Norman eats as much as 
the Englishman, and the Bavarian consumes more beer than his neighbour in 
Suabia. The food of the lower orders has been much changed by the intro- 
duction of the potato; and the great consumption of tea in England has per- 
haps diminished that of beer even among the common people. The higher 
classes live almost everywhere in the same manner, and elude the effects of 
climate by obtaining the produce of every land. Many conclusions which 
have been deduced from the different kinds of food used in European coun- 
tries, appear to us unsatisfactory or erroneous.! 

The cherry and the plum resist the severity of northern climates; | Fruit trees, 
the first ripens near Trondheim in Norway, and Jacobstadt in Finland at the 
63d degree ; it is seldom seen in Russia beyond the 60th, becomes rare in Italy, 
and grows only in the mountains of Sicily. The apple flourishes and ripens 
at the 55th degree, but in more northern* latitudes it hardens suddenly, and 
never arrives at maturity; if, on the contrary, it be transplanted on the sou- 
thern confines of Europe, it loses its flavour and agreeable taste. The goose- 
berry and other fruit-bearing shrubs succeed rarely in the south. The apricot 

' Rye. f Boastelten, L' Homtne du Kord et du Midi. 


and the peach have been cultivated with great advantage at the 50th parallel!; 
these fruits are indigenous to the mountains of Armenia and the cold provinces 
of Persia. The fig ripens beyond the 50th degree, but the countries best 
adapted for it are those in the southern extremities of Europe. Although the 
olive resists the severe winters and cold winds of the Alps, the decay or fre- 
quent destruction of the plantations beyond the 44th degree, shows clearly 
that the best region for it is that near the shores of the Mediterranean, below 
the elevation of 1200 or 2000 feet. In like manner the country of the orange 
does not extend beyond 43 degrees and a half, and commences in Tuscany or 
at the Hieres. The olive plantations near San Remo, and in some northern 
districts, like the date trees in the neighbourhood of Bordighiera, may be con- 
sidered local exceptions, accounted for by the shelter that these plants receive 
from the Appenines. The palm, the cactus, the aloe, and some other plants 
indigenous to the two Indies, succeed near Lisbon., in Andalusia, and in Sicily 
below the 40th degree. The sugar-cane has never been cultivated in Europe 
beyond the same parallel ; it is not long since much labour was bestowed on 
it in Grenada, Majorca, and Sicily. 

lantamihemp. | Two very useful plants, lint and hemp, may be raised throughout 
the greater part of Europe ; the first thrives best in northern climates and its 
culture extends to Finland; but it is seldom observed in Ostrobothma or in 
Russia beyond Kostroma and Jurostan ; the second flourishes in Poland, the 
Russian Ukraine, Alsace, Valencia, and Calabria. . Cotton grows in the south 
of Europe, but does not yield such harvests as in America and India. 
Trees and We have considered, in our account of the three European cli- 

mates, the general distribution of trees and plants. The fir or 
Pinus abies is found in the whole of Europe within the sixty-seventh parallel ; 
the loftiest trees grow in the north. The sandy shores of the south are cover- 
ed from the forty-sixth degree with the sea pine and the Pinus pinea, the lat- 
ter grows to a great height and forms extensive forests on the Alps, the Py- 
renees and the banks of the Tagus. The wild pine is scattered throughout 
most countries in Europe below the sixty-eighth parallel ; the Scots fir or Pi- 
nus picea is seldom seen beyond the sixtieth degree. The common oak does 
not grow in Dalecarlia, and never arrives at its ordinary height in Finland 
under the sixty-second parallel, it decays, on the other hand, in the southern 
extremities of Europe ; the Esculus of Pliny supplies its place in these regions, 
and adorns the picturesque scenery of the south. The Suber extends across 
Portugal, Spain and Italy. The beech ceases near the sixtieth degree, the 
lime near the sixty-third; and both are found in great perfection towards the 
south of the Baltic, and on the islands in that sea. The ash, the alder, the 
mountain ash, the black and white poplars never arrive beyond the sixtieth 
and sixty-first parallels. 

The Populus ircmula or the aspen tree, and the birch extend beyond the 
verge of the Arctic circle, and enliven the solitary regions of Lapland. The 
sorb and different kinds of willow thrive in the most northern districts; the 
light seeds of the larch are driven by the wind, and take root near the line of 
perpetual snow. It is a remarkable fact that the large elder tree cannot resist 
the climate above the fifty -seventh parallel, while the delicate lilach displays 
its fragrant flowers on the banks of the Neva, and among the dismal rocks 
near Fahlun in Dalecarlia. The same plant, according to Haller, exists in a 
wild state in Switzerland, and is considered indigenous to Europe. 
di'miTcuT- Much care has been bestowed in the north on some trees of the 
ture. south ; but with all the aid of culture, their progress has been slow. 

The Italian poplar reaches but a little way beyond the latitude of Denmark. 
The eastern plane, and the maple tree, which arrive at such perfection in 
Greece, degenerate in the north of the Alps. The Fraxinus mammifera ap- 
pears in great beauty in Calabria, but does not succeed beyond the forty^fourth 
degree. The same latitude may be considered the natural limit of the laurel, 
the myrtle, the mastich,the cypress, the terebinthine and box trees, all of them 


flourish best in the neighbourhood of the Mediterranean. The laurel, the olive, 
and the vine were introduced by Greek colonists into the Crimea. 

The uncultivated districts of the south, particularly those below the fortieth 
parallel, are covered with thyme, rosemary, jessamine and other odoriferous 
shrubs, but the caper bush is almost the only one which bears fruit. The rocks 
and marshes of the north, or those in particular above the sixtieth parallel, are 
covered with many fruit shrubs, as the currant bush, the Vitis idaea, the Myr- 
lillus, and the JRubus chamtemorus. 

The animal kingdom in Europe is still less varied than the vege- | Animals, 
table. The same animals may be considered common to the southern and 
north-east regions of our continent. The white bear and the blue fox appear 
from time to time on the shores of the Frozen Sea. The rein-deer is found at 
the sixty-first parallel in Scandinavia, and six or seven degrees lower in Rus- 
sia. The Marinata lemnus or lemming continues its migrations in straight 
lines from east to west, between the fifty-fifth and sixty-fifth parallels; the 
glutton is observed in the same region. The elk is generally found below the 
polar circle ; it frequents Lithuania and even some parts of Prussia. The 
Arabian sheep, which is common to the same countries, is distinguished by the 
form of its horns and the coarseness of its wool. 

The naked plains that bound the sea of Azoph and the Caspian are fre- 
quented by some animals common to Asia. The Bactrian camel pastures in 
these lands, rich in saline herbs; the Circassian sheep are observed near the 
Oca and the Dneiper. The Tartars have brought to that part of Europe their 
fleet horses, and the fierce jackal has migrated thither in quest of prey. 

The strongest horses and oxen are found in the great and verdant I Jjjjj^fjf* 1 
plains which extend from the Ukraine and Moldavia to Denmark | Europe? 80 
and Flanders. These animals have probably existed a long time in a wild 
state. The urus or the our-ochs, (words which signify literally ancient or 
primitive oxen,) are still occasionally seen in Poland. We observe in these 
regions, and in the whole of central Europe, a breed of sheep originally the 
same as that in Spain and in England, but it has been improved in different 
countries by natural or artificial causes. The ass, whkh cannot be considered 
indigenous to the mean European zone, has been brought to it, and has de- 

The wild goat, the chamois and the marmot frequent the great 
mountainous chains of Europe, the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Ce- 
vennes, the Carpathians and Hemus. 

The animals that are found in the mean zone are for the most | in the south, 
part common to the south. The ox and the horse in Italy, if they be well 
fed, are as stout as any in the Ukraine or in Holstein. The Arab horse was 
brought into the south during the invasions of the Moors and the Turks ; and 
from it, have perhaps sprung the Andalusian and other varieties; but it is not 
unlikely, from observations which we have made, that the Andalusian breed is 
the same as the norbagge or small Norwegian horse; and consequently, that 
both of them are descended from a common stock, and one in all probability 
indigenous to Europe. It is still less doubtful that the buffcilo, an animal not 
found in the north of Hungary, has been imported from Asia to southern 
Europe. A particular species of sheep in Sardinia, and the slrepsiceros in 
Candia, are supposed to be indigenous to Europe. If the ass in the southern 
part of the continent be not so too, it has been introduced from Asia Minor 
and Syria, 

In the Alps, 



Table of European Sections. 



Lat. 5161. 
Lon. 6776. 



Lat. 5970. 
Lon. 55 80. 


Lat. 5666. 
Lon. 4955. 

Countries included. 

The east of European 
Russia, including the Uralian 
Mountains and their branches 
between 51 and 61. The 
basins of the Kama, the Viat- 
ka, the Ufa, and the Beilaia. 
The mountainous districts on 
the basin of the Uralsk, (wes- 
tern part) as far as the borders 
of the Caspian steppes; lastly, 
the eastern bank of the Wolga 
froro the Unscha to the neigh- 
bourhood of Saratow. 

See Sections II. VI. VII. 

The north-east of European 
Russia to the east of the One- 
ga, Scheksna, and the Wolga, 
including the basins of the 
Dwina, the Suchona, the Wit- 
scheda, the Mezen, the Pet- 
chora, the Ousa, and the 
western sides of the Ural 
mountains from the 61st de- 
gree of latitude. 

See Sections I. III. and VI. 

Finland, governments of 
Petersburg, Olonetz, Novo- 
gorod, Plescow, Livonia and 

Lands on the south-east; 
the ridge of Waldai, and dif-' 
ferent mountains on the north- 
east, the river Onega. 

See Sections II. IV. and 

Physical Characters. 
' Elevation of the mountains 
from 6 to 8000 feet. Level of 
the Wolga near Kasan 580 feet. 
Frosty east wind. South wind 
chill on the mountains, hot and 
dry en the plains. Mean tem- 
perature at Solikkamski 1.85. 
Mercury is often malleable at 
Catherinburg at two leagues be- 
yond the Ural. Snow remains 
six months on the ground at 
Perm ; two months without frost. 
Heat and extreme drought at 
Orenburg. The gram and le- 
guminous plants are often frozen 
near Orenburg. Rein-deer grain 
in the valleys ; nu( trees on the 
. Kama. 

The Uralian mountains be- 
come gradually lower. 

Ice on the banks of rivers to 
the 1st of June. Thunder very 

Variations of wind and tem- 

Mean temperature. 

Mercury is often malleable at 

The Dwina is frozen from the 
1st of November to the 1st of 

Agriculture ceases about the 
60th degree. 

Rein-deer. Fruit shrubs in 
great numbers. 
. Pine trees cease at 61 or 62. 


Mean temperature -f- 4 
Petersburg -f 3.8 

Umeo -f 0.7 

Abo -f 4.8 (Reaumur.) 
Greatest cold at Petersburg 

Frosty weather, 112 days in 
the year. 

No snow, 60 days. 
Rye, barley, &c. throughout 
the coasts on the Baltic ; they 
do not always ripen in the inte- 
rior towards Olonetz at the 61. 
Wheat ripens frequently at the 
60 in Finland. 


Table continued^ 


Countries included. 


Lat. 6472. 
Lon. 3258. 


Lat. 5566. 
Lon. 2337. 

Mountainous regions of 
Lapland. Western Bothnia 
to the river Umea. Nord- 
land of Norway. Norwegian 
and Russian Lapland as far- 
as the shortest line between 
the Gulf of Bothnia and the 
White Sea. 

See Sections III. and VII. 

Scandinavian peninsula to 
the south of a line drawn from 
the island of Donnse. 


High country or Norway. 

Sweden to the north of the 
lakes Vener, &c. Gothland or 
Sweden to the south of the 

See Sections IV. and X. 



Lat. 5060. 

Lon. 5067. 

Higher districts on the ba- 
sins of the Dneiper and the 
Don. All the basins of the 
Occa and its tributary streams. 
The western basin of the Wol- 
ga, those of the Mologa and 
Sura to Saratow. 

Physical Characters. 

The mountains of Norway 
become lower at the 67 

Maritime chain of Lapland, 
elevation from 3000 to 4000 

The other ridge, from 2000 to 
2300 feet. 

Many lakes continue frozen 
to the month of June. 

The frost ceases on the gulfs 
of the North Sea about the 10th 
of May. 

Mean temperature at Cape 
North, 0.0. 

At Wadsce (towards the north- 
east,) 0.77. 

At Enontekies, -f 2.8. 

Mean temperature during the 
summer at Cape North, -f- 6.3 ; 
at Enontekies, -f 12.7. 

Barley and oats cultivated in 
some districts. 

Pines and firs to the 67. 
L Rein-deer, fruit shrubs. 

Mountains, 8000 feet. 

Base, 3000 

Direction, south and south- 

Mean temperature at Stock- 
holm, -f 5. 7 ; at Christiana, + 
6 ; at Trondheim, -f 4.4. 

Wet and cold climate of the 
ocean : lowest temperature at 
Bergen, 12. 

Idem. Serene but stormy on 
the Baltic ; lowest temperature 
at Upsal, 22. 

Grain cultivated throughout 
the whole section. Fruit trees 
rare above the 60. Pine and 
fir forests to the 66. 
L Oaks near the 60. 

Elevated ridge of Waldaifrom 
1000 to 1250 feet. Open country. 

Mean temperature, -j- 4 to 5. 

Thermometer below zero dur- 
ing 177 days in the year ; 179 
at Moscow. 

Mercury was malleable 3d of 
February, 1S03, at Saratow. 

The Wolga, near Nischogo- 
rod, freezes the 25th of Novem- 
ber, and continues frozen till the 
25th of April. Idem, near Ka- 
.san, from the 1st of November 








Lat. 5143. 
Lon. 4070. 



Lat. 5058. 
Lon. 2182. 

Table continued. 

Countries included. 

f Limits on the west, the 

I Beresina and the Dneiper; 

on the south, the steep lands 

^ from the falls of the Dneiper - 

I to Tzaritzin. 

See Sections I. II. III. VII. 
I VIII. and IX. 

The plain which extends 
between the base of the Ural 
Mountains and Caucasus, wa- 
tered by the lower Wolga, the 
Kuma, and the Manytch. The 
same plain, forms the lower 
part of the basins of the Don, 
the Donetz, and the Dneiper. 


Caspian plain. 
Plain of Pontus. 
Taurida forms a separate 

Silesia, the countries be- 
tween the Oder and the Duna. 
Poland according to its pre- 
sent dimensions. Prussia and 
Lithuania as far as the division 
between the Vistula and the 
Niemen on one side, and the 
Dneiper and the Dneister on 
the other ; beyond that line, 
the marshes of Polesia and 
the plains of Volhynia, Podo- 
lia, and Kiow, to the cataracts 
of the Dneiper. 

See Section VI. VII. and 

Physical Characters, 
to the 25th of April. The Oka 
freezes near Orel the 25th of No- 
vember, and continues so until 
the 20th of March. Rye, bar- 
ley, &c. 

Apple and pear trees at the 

Sandy and argillaceous plains 
impregnated with salt, higher in 
the 2d subdivision. Mountains 
of Taurida, isolated in that sec- 

The Wolga freezes during 
two months. 

Lowest temperature at As- 
trachan, 23.7. (See Upsal.) 
Highest temperature, + 36. 

Lowest temperature at Odes- 
sa, 31 in 1803. 

Mean temperature, (probably) 
+ 7.5. 

The inundations of the Wolga 
do not fructify the soil. Trees 
and different kinds of grain be- 
come more rare as we advance 
eastwards. Fertile and oozy 
soil on the banks of rivers. 

Horses and oxen, the camel 
n the south. 

Sandy and argillaceous plain, 
wet and fertile. 

Level of the banks of the Vis- 
tula, (Warsaw) 588 feet. 

Ridge of eastern Prussia 600 

Division of the waters be- 
tween the Black Sea and the 
Baltic, (a low plain.) 

Volhynia rises in a contrary 
direction, or in that of the Dnei- 
per. Numerous rivers towards 
the Black Sea. Mean tempera- 
ture at Warsaw -f 9.2 : at Wilna 
-f 8.7. Lowest temperature at 
Warsaw 15.9. 

Forests of oak and pine trees 
as far as the coasts of the Baltic. 

Many small lakes near the 
Baltic, within twenty leagues of 
its shores. Commencement of 
the vine. Grain. Horses and 







Lat. 50-57 
Lon. 1932. 




Lat. 4061 

LOH. 719 




Lat. 4652. 
Lon. 2544. 



Lat. 48$ 43. 
Lon. 3447. 

Table continued. 
Countries included. 

The basin of the Rhine from 
Coblentz, Lower Belgium, 
Holland, the whole of North- 
ern Germany, to the north of 
the Hartz mountains, the 
countries between the Elbe 
and the Oder, Jutland and the 
Danish islands on the Baltic. 

Physical Characters. 

Argilaceous plains. Heights 
of 1200 feet in Jutland, of 600 
in Mecklenburgh. Every kind 
of grain. The forests extend to 
five or ten leagues from the Ger- 
man Sea. 

Prevailing north-west winds 
hurtful to vegetation. 

Mean temperature at Brussels, 
+ 10.5 ; at the Hague, 9.8 ; at 
Berlin, 8.2 ; at Copenhagen, 

Low temperature common at 
Brussels, 10.1; at Franecker, 
24; at Berlin, 12.6; at 
Copenhagen, 11.9. 

Mountains above 4000 feet 
in the north-west. Calcareous 
plains in the south. Lakes in 
Scotland. Bogs in Ireland. 

Mean temperature at London, 
-f 10.2; (Reaumur,) at Dublin, 
-f 9.5; at Edinburgh, + 8.8. 

Climate everywhere variable ; 
humid and mild in Ireland ; un- 
certain winters. 

Grain and forests as in section 
IX. towards the north ; towards 
.the south as section XIV. 

Elevation of the Sudetes above 
5000 feet. 

Carpathian, 8000. 

Dacian Alps, 9000. 

Ridges of Saxony, 600 feet ; 
of Bohemia, 1200; of Hungary 
and Transylvania, 1900. Fo- 
rests, numerous rivers, few lakes. 

Low temperature at Lemberg 
from 22 to 28 ; at Prague, 
17.2, (Reaumur.) 

Temperature of Prague, + 

The vine grows in favourable 
exposures to the 51 lat. 

Oats, the only grain on the 

Pinus cembra et pumilio grow 
at a greater height on the same 
I mountains than any other shrubs. 
f Branches of the Alps and Car- 
Lower Austria, almost the pathians in the first subdivision, 
whole of Hungary, part of | Two narrow valleys or passes, 
Bosnia and Servia, Bulgaria,^ the first to the north of Buda, the 
Wallachia, Moldavia, Bessa- I second near Orsova. Elevation 
rabia. I of Vienna, 478 feet, of Seralin, 

1290. Immense marshes on the 

Plain of England. 
Cambrian mountains. 
Caledonian mountains. 

The Faroe Islands at 62 
lat. may be included. 

The mountains and ridges of 
Westerwald opposite Coblentz; 
those of Hesse, Thuringia, 
Franconia, Electoral Saxony; 
the Sudetes, Upper Silesia, 
Moravia, the Carpathians, and 
a part of Galicia, Upper Hun- 
gary and Transylvania. 

1 . Hercynian region, 
mountainous countries 
Franconia, Hartz, &c. 

2. The Sudetes, Bohemia, 

3. The Carpathians, Upper 

4. Dacian mountains, or 











Lat. 4349. 
Lou. 2034. 

Table continued. 
Countries included. 

1. Central plains on the 

2. Plains on the lower 

3. Hills on the southern 
declivities of the Carpathians. 

4. Id. on the northern of 

5. Id. on the eastern of the 
Dacian mountains. 

See Sec. VII. XL XIII. 


Lat. 41$. 
Lou. 1323. 

1. Alps, higher valleys, as 
Savoy, the Valais, Uri, the 
Grisons, Tyrol, &c. 

Sub-Alps of Germany on 
the north, Berne, Zurich, Up- 
per Suabia, Bavaria, Upper 
Austria, Stiria. 

m 2. Sub-Alps of Italy on the . 
} south-east. All the valley of 
the Po, of the Adige, and the 
Piave, &c. 

4. Sub-Alps of France, or 
of the south-west, the basins 
of the Saone, the Rhone, the 
Durance, the Garule, the He- 
rault, &c. 

Basins of the Seine, the 
Loire, and the Garonne, and 
all the secondary and interme- 
diate rivers. 

Physical Characters. 

Danube. Mean temperature of 
Vienna, +10.3; of Buda, 10.3; 
of Galatch in Moldavia, 8.9. 

Exaessive heat in the plains 
of Hungary. Severe cold in Bos- 
nia on the northern declivity. 
The lower Danube continues 
frozen a long time. Vines, wheat 
on the hills, rice, and buffaloes 
on the lower part of the 2d and 
3d subdivisions. 

Elevation of the mountains 
from 10,000 to upwards of 15,000 
feet. Ridges of Bavaria, Suabia, 
from 1200 to 1500 feet; of Pied- 
mont, 1000 feet, ofVienne,idn. 
Plain of Lombardy 200 feet. 
Numerous lakes on the north- 
west and south-east of the Alps. 
Mean temperature of the Alpine 
region; at Berne, + 9.4; Zu- 
rich, -f 8.8; Geneva, 9.6. Idem 
of the northern sub-Alps, at Ra- 
tisbon, 8.9. Idem of the western 
sub-Alps, at Dijon, 11.2; at 
Vienne, 12.3; at Marseilles, 15. 
Idem of the south-eastern at Mi- 
lan, 13.2. The lagoons of Ve- 
nice freeze rarely. Productions 
of all the European climates on 
the southern sides, according to 
the levels. Flora of Lapland on 
the summits, palm trees near the 
sea shore. The sub-Alps of Ger- 
many are higher, and, being ex- 
posed on the north, lie without 
L-the region of the vine. 

The summit of the section is 
an elevated ridge of 1200 or 1800 
feet, crowned with mountains 
from 5000 to 6000 feet. The 
rest of the section consists of 
plains interspersed with hills ; 
few lakes. Mean temperature 
at Paris, -f 10.6; at Laon, -f 
8.5; at St. Malo, 12.3 ; at 
Nantes, 12.6.; at Bourdeaux, 
13.6 ; at Clermont, + 10. Mean 
temperature of the coldest month 
at Bourdeaux, -f 5: at Nants, 
+ 3.9.; at Clermont, 2.2. 
The vine passes beyond the 49, 
but avoids the neighbourhood 
of the sea. Laurels near Brest. 
Wheat at an elevation of 3000 




Countries included. 




Lat. 35 43. 
Lon. 3546. 


Lat. 3644$ 
Lon. 2535. 


Lat. 36 43 . 
Lon. 8 21. 

Mountains of Dalmatia, 
Macedonia, and Romania. 
Peninsulas and islands of^ 
Greece, including Crete. 

The state of Genoa, Tus- 
cany, the states of the Pope, 
Naples, Sicily, Malta, Sardi- 
nia, Corsica. 

Spain and Portugal. 

1. Region of the Ebro. 

2. Idem of the Acterian 
mountain (Cantabria.) 

3. Idem of the Douro, 
(Duriana. ) i 

4. Idem of the central ridge, 
(Celtiheria. ) 

5. Idem of the lower Tagus, 

6. Idem of the Guadalqui- 
ver, (Boetica.) 

Physical Character*. 

Height of the mountains for 
the most part unknown. Snow 
falls sometimes in the midst of 
summer on Mount Hemus, and 
in the island of Andros. East 
wind fresh and salubrious. South 
and south-east winds unwhole- 
some in several places. Olive 
and orange trees and myrtles to 
the south of Mount Hemus. 
Vines near the sea shore. 

Different climates in different 

Constantinople is placed be- 
tween Taurus and Hemus, and 
the winter is colder there than at 

The northern and eastern 
sides of the Appenines are much 
colder than the western and 

Mean temperature of Rome 
+ 15, coldest month -f 5.7, 
nearly the same as at Montpe- 
lier. Excessive heat occasioned 
by the sirocco. Unwholesome 
exhalations in Sardinia, the Pon- 
tine marshes, &c. Vines as in 
Section XV. Sugar cane in Ca- 
labria and Sicily. 

Mountains lower than the 
Alps. Eternal snow on the Py- 
renees, the Sierra Nevada and 
Pentata, and some mountains in 
Galicia. Humidity of the north- 
ern coasts. Dryness of the cen- 
tral ridge. Salubrity of Valencia 
and Murcia. Lowest temperature 
at the base of the Pyrenees 6 ; 
at Madrid 3; at Cadiz -f 7. 
High temperature in the Asturias 
-f 24; at Madrid -f- 27; at Cadiz 
-f 31. Mean temperature at Lis- 
bon -f 16.5. The yellow fever 
does not ascend above the level 
. of 600 feet. 



Table of mean Temperatures according to th* Centigrade Thermometer. 













+ 1.92 

+ 2.99 

+ 1.16 



+ 7.18 

+ 10.78 








+ 0.65 










+ 3.64 


































































































+ 2.08 




+ 11.31 



+ 5.47 




+ 9.13 


























+ 7.42 



+ 9.79 +8.73 



+ 16.77 



Remarks on the Political Geography of Europe Nations, Languages, Religion, 
Political Divisions, Governments, Population, $c. 

Origin of 

IT is not our design to enter into discussions concerning the origin 
j of European states ; such a subject might require a separate work. 
Many learned and ingenious theories have been advanced on it ; but all of them 
are involved in difficulties which cannot now be solved ; the proofs on which they 
depend have long since perished. Some light may perhaps be thrown on these 
discussions in our accounts of particular countries, but it is sufficient at present to 
relate succinctly such facts as appear least liable to doubt.* 

We must keep in view some principles that have been already stated in our 
observations on the history of geography. The names given to European states 
by the Greeks and the Romans are as vague and insignificant as the Indian names 
collected by European travellers, or the Mogul terms of the orientalists. Ancient 
languages are the only authentic sources by which we can expect to derive any 
knowledge on such subjects ; the names of rivers and mountains may supply us 

The reader may examine the table at the end of this book. 


with information, if the epochs at which these names were fixed can be ascertained. 
But it is vain to suppose that all the elements of civilization, or the movements of 
states emanated from one common centre ; the migrations of different people are 
not to be believed unless they be established by positive proofs, and even then, not 
beyond the limits which result from such evidence. Population has not been much 
affected by the removal of Asiatic hordes, and different languages still less. The 
migrations of European states may be compared to the expeditions of conquering 
armies, by which dialects have been modified and different families or tribes raised 
into power. It is needless to seek in Asia or in Ethiopia, the obscure origin of 
different nations, and to disregard facts better authenticated and within our reach. 
It may be shown that, about the time in which the ancient Greeks were making 
advances in civilization, its progress was not confined to their country, but extended 
almost over the whole of Europe, particularly among the Turdetani, the Celts, the 
Scandinavians, and the Etruscans. Many ancient nations, and more especially 
the Etruscans, the Thracians, and Scythians, consisted of ruling tribes, and under 
them were servile tribes, or vassals, of which the origin was in many instances 
very different. The language of the priests, confined at first to the temples, was 
the means of forming and improving the barbarous dialects of ancient Europe ; it 
is well known that the priests or sacerdotal tribes communicated with one another 
at great distances. In those ages, concerning which we can derive little informa- 
tion from history, there existed many small but powerful tribes or families, often at 
variance with each other, hostile or friendly, according to their wants or caprice. 
Some monuments of that period are now inexplicable, as the relations between 
roots, nouns, and grammatical forms. These obscure data are not unworthy of at- 
tention ; to explain them fully is a hopeless task. 

European languages may be divided into two great classes ; the 
first consists of those which resemble one another, and have some affi- 


nity with the Sanscrit and Persic ; the second comprises those in which such resem- 
blance does not exist, or at all events is faint and indistinct. In the first class may 
be distinguished the Greek and partly the Latin, the Slavonic and its branches, the 
German and Scandinavian: in the second, the Finnic, the Celtic, and the Basque or 
Biscayan. It is impossible to determine whether such radical differences are to 
be attributed to two different Asiatic invasions, or to two separate periods of civi- 

Ten distinct races exist still in Europe, but the most ancient are on European 
the whole the least numerous ; thus in a forest, the oldest trees perish, P e P le - 
while the younger extend afar their wide spreading branches. The time may per- 
haps come when these ten races may be reduced to five or six. 

The Greeks, of whom the Pelasgi were a very ancient branch, after | Greeks, 
having peopled with their colonists the most of the coasts on the Mediterranean, 
now exist in some provinces of Turkey, chiefly in the Archipelago and the Pelo- 
ponnesus. The modern Greek language is sprung from the ancient ; although 
changed by slavery and misfortune, the barbarous Turks are not insensible to its 

The Albanians are the descendants of the Illyrians, who mingled | Albanian*, 
formerly with the Pelasgic Greeks, and at a later period with the modern ; enough 
of their ancient language remains to enable us to discover its European character, 
and its connexion with the German and Slavonic. k No trace is left of the ancient 
people that are supposed to have inhabited Thrace and the countries adjacent to 
the Danube ; they were probably composed of different races, as the Phrygian, the 
Slavonic, the Celtic and the Pelasgic ; perhaps too what is strictly called the 
Thracian language was the common source of the Phrygian, the Greek, the 
Illyrian and even the Dacian or Dake. It is towards Thrace, Mount Hemus, and 
the Lower Danube, that we can discover the earliest origin of European states ; 
but these indications disappear if we traverse Asia Minor, or travel by the nortlj 
round the Euxine Sea. 

The Turks, the modern rulers of the Greeks, belong to the same | TU*.. 

FinnY* nd 


family as the Tartars, and are scattered throughout Russia from the Crimea to 
Kasan ; one of their colonies is established in Lithuania. That people, foreign 
to Europe, or who only occupied in ancient times the Uralian confines, are now 
domiciled in our peninsula, and probably fixed in it for ages ; they are incorporated 
with the Greek races, and with the ancient nations of Asia Minor and Thrace. 
The Turcomans, of whom a branch is settled in Macedonia, have preserved in- 
corrupted their Asiatic origin. 

Two & reat races have probably existed in the north-east of Europe 
for some thousand years. The vain Greeks and proud Romans 
despised the obscure names of Slavonians and Finns, (Slavi and 
Fiani;*} but these populous tribes have occupied from the earliest dawn of history 
all the countries comprehended under the vague and chimerical names of Scythia 
and Sarmatia. Almost all the topographical names of these countries are derived 
from the Slavonic and Finnic ; a very small number owe their origin to the short 
empires of the Scythians, the Sarmatians, the Ostrogoths, and the Huns, the suc- 
cessive conquerors and rulers of these immense plains. It is probable that a 
Scythian nation, sprung from the Medes, ruled over the Finns and Slavonians, who 
formed the agricultural and pastoral tribes. The Sarmatians, who appear to have 
been of Tartar descent mixed with the Scythians and their vassals ; the Huns 
were another horde of the same people; both the one and the other came from 
the banks of the Wolga and the shores of the Caspian Sea. It is certain that, at 
the time in which they appeared in these countries, the banks of the Vistula and 
the Dneiper were peopled by Slavonic and Finnic tribes. 

The Slavonic nations are divided, according to their dialects, into three branches ; 
first, the eastern Slavi including the Russians, a people descended from the Roxe- 
lans or Roxolani,t the Slavi and Scandinavians, the Roumiacs in Galicia, the Ser- 
vians or Slavi on the Danube, the Sclavonians, the Croatians and others ; secondly 
the western Slavi or the Poles, Bohemians, Hungarian Slavi, and the Sorabs or 
Serbs of Lusatia ; thirdly, the northern Slavi or the Venedes of the Romans, the 
Wends of the ancient Scandinavians, a very numerous tribe, earlier civilized, but at 
the same time earlier incorporated in different states than the other two. The 
same tribe comprehends the remains of the German Wendes or Polabes, the Obo- 
trites and Rugians, long since confounded with their conquerors the Germans ; it 
also includes the Pomeranians, the Kassubs, subdued by the Poles ; the ancient 
Prussians or Prutzi, exterminated or reduced to disgraceful slavery by their Teu- 
tonic conquerors ; and lastly, the Lithuanians, the only branch which has retained 
some traces of its ancient language, although mixed with the Scandinavian and 

waiiachiam. | The Wallachians in the ancient Dacia and the adjacent countries, 
are the descendants of the Getae, the Slavi and the Romans ; their language resem- 
bles the Latin. 

Bulgarian.. | The Bulgarians are a Tartar tribe, that migrated from the neighbour- 
hood of Kasan, and perhaps ruled over Finnic vassals ; after having reached 
Mount Hemus, they mingled with the Slavi on the Danube and partly adopted 
their language. 

Fion*. | The Finns, whom Tacitus/lesignates under the name of Finni and 

Strabo under that of Zoumi, wandered probablyjfrom time immemorial in the plains 
of eastern Europe. Some of their tribes having mixed Jwith other nations, were 
included by the Greeks among the European Scythians. Their descendants were 
subdued and driven to the north and east by the numerous hordes of Slavonians. 

According to Jornandes and Procopius, the Slavi derived their name'ffrom Slava, a 
Sarmatian word, which signifies glory or renown. Thus the Slavi were the glorious or re- 
nowned ; but the signification of Slavi has been strangely altered in the lapse of ages. The 
English word slave, is derived from Slavonian ; the French, esclave, from Slavonian or Escla- 
von ; and the Italian, schiave, from the same source. 

f Ptolemy places the Roxolani on the banks of the Tanais. Jorntndes, de Rebus Goth, 
c. xxiv. calls them gins infuta. 


It is probable that the branches of the Finnic race are the Laplanders, who are 
also perhaps connected with the Huns, the Esthes, or ancient Esthonians and 
Livonians ; the Permians incorporated with the Scandinavians, particularly the 
Norwegians, the last people founded a powerful state in the tenth century ; lastly, 
the Hungarians and Magyars who were composed of Finnic and Turkish tribes, 
and governed by Persians or Bucharians. 

Such are considered the ramifications of the Finnic race, or as it is called in 
Russia, the Tclioude. There are without doubt many reasons that may induce 
some to regard the Hungarians as a separate branch, or at all events a mixed, though 
ancient people. 

The Samoides, the Siriaines, the Morduates, and other tribes, appear to have 
been wandering hordes that migrated from Asia, and being subdued at different 
times by the Bulgarians, the Hungarians and Permians, their language was gradu- 
ally changed ; their origin is now uncertain. 

The Teutonic nations, of which the most important are the Ger- I Teutonic 
mans, the Scandinavians, and the English are situated to the west of | natlons - 
of the Slavonians and Finns, in the western and central regions of Europe. The 
Germans, on account of their different dialects, may be divided into | Germans, 
two classes ; the inhabitants of the mountains on the south, and those of the plains 
on the north. The high German, and its harsh and guttural dialects, are spoken in 
Switzerland, Suabia, Alsace, Bavaria, the Austrian states, Silesia and Transyl- 
vania. The softer dialects, or the low German, may be again divided into Dutch 
and Flemish, or into all that remains of the ancient Belgian, which extended from 
the Zuider-zee to Sleswick ; and into low or old Saxon, which was spoken from 
Westphalia and Holstein to eastern Prussia. We ought, lastly, to mention the 
Saxon, as holding an intermediate place between these two German dialects, almost 
as different from each other as the Italian and the French. The Saxon is the 
language of Franconia, and of the higher orders in Livonia and Esthonia ; in the 
form of the words, it resembles the high German, and the low in the softness of 
its pronunciation. 

The Scandinavian nations, or the Swedes, Goths, Norwegians, 
Danes and Jutlanders form a distinct race from the German nations, 
and were separated from them at a remote period. Still, however, there is some 
resemblance between them and the Dutch, the Frieslanders and the low Saxons. 
All that remains of the ancient Scandinavian, as it was spoken in the ninth century, 
is retained in the Dalecarlian, the old Norwegian of the valleys of Dofre, in the 
dialect of the Feroe islands, and the Norse, the language of the Shetland islanders. 
Two others, or rather modern dialects, the Swedish and the Danish, are both of 
them branches of the ancient Scandinavian ; but in the progress of civilization they 
have lost much of their strength and even of their copiousness. A third dialect, that 
of Jutland, retains the marks of the old Anglo-Saxon, which has some affinity with 
the ancient Scandinavian. 

The English and Scots in the lower part of Scotland, are sprung | English. 
from Belgians, Saxons, Anglo-Saxons, Jutlanders,and Scandinavians. Their dif- 
ferent dialects united and modified, formed the old English or the Jlnglo-Dano- 
Saxon, a language which was corrupted by the sudden introduction of barbarous 
Latin and barbarous French at the Norman invasion ; but its ancient character 
was not thus destroyed ; it was afterwards slowly but gradually improved. It 
must be confessed, however, that the dialects spoken in Suffolk, Yorkshire, and in 
the low counties of Scotland, bear a stronger resemblance than the English to the 
Teutonic tongues. 

The languages derived from the Latin are now spoken in the west I pie C f"h e p ^ 8 " t 
and the south of Europe ; but it is necessary to make, in connexion | and the south, 
with the subject, some remarks on certain nations that were oppressed and subdued. 
No distinct trace remains of the Etruscans, the Ausonians, the Osci and other 
indigenous states or such at least as were anciently settled in Italy. The words 
Celts and Iberians arc no longer used in France, Spain, and Britain ; but under 


Native Irish, 


other denominations we may discover the descendants of these great and ancient 


Basque*. | The Basques, confined to the western base of the Pyrenees still 

retain one of the most original languages in our part of the world; it has been proved 

that it is a branch of the Iberian, which was spoken in eastern and southern Spain, 

and was common also in Aquitanian Gaul. 

The Celts, one of the primitive European races, were most widely scattered in 
different countries. We may learn from the earliest histories of Europe, that they 
were settled at a remote epoch on the Alps and in the whole of Gaul, from which 
they migrated into the British islands and the central and western regions of Spain ; 
at a later period they inundated Italy, Thrace, and Asia Minor. The 
Hibernians are an old branch of the same people ; and according to 
some authors, the highlanders of Scotland are a colony of the native Irish. The 
Erse or Gaelic, is the only authentic monument of the Celtic language : but it may 
be readily admitted that a nation so widely extended must have been incorporated 
with many states whose dialects are at present extinct. 

Beldam. | Belgium was at one period inhabited by Celts and Germans, but it 
may be proved that the earlier inhabitants were of Celtic origin ; the Belgians hav- 
ing conquered part of England and Ireland, mingled with the native Celts, and 
were afterwards subdued by the Anglo-Saxons of Wales, Cumberland, and Corn- 
wall; from these districts they returned to the continent, and peopled lower^Brittany. 
The'Gaw/ow or Gallic that is still spoken, is derived from the Belgian, which is very 
different from the Celtic, and the more modern dialect of lower Brittany is com- 
posed of several others ; the Gauls called their language the Kumraigh or the 
Kymri, and the Latin authors of the middle ages denominated the people Cam- 
brians ; some geographical writers have incorrectly styled them Cimbres. 
Latin ian- Such are the three native and ancient races of western Europe, 

guage*. I The i an g ua g e o f the Romans, particularly the popular dialect or 
Romano, Rustica came gradually into use in different countries ; it was thus 
mixed with native languages, and gave rise to provincial idioms; the purer 
Latin was spoken in the towns and churches. The irruption of the northern states 
all of them, or almost all of them of Teutonic origin, introduced new confusion and 
new idioms into the Latino-Gallic and Latino-Iberian dialects ; the language of 
the Troubadours, of which the seeds had been sown in a very remote age, appeared 
about the same time in western Europe. From it emanated the Italian, the 
Lombard, Venetian and Sicilian dialects, and also the Provenfal, the Oc or Occi- 
tanian,* the Limosin and Catalonian. The old French and some of its dialects, 
as the Walloon and that of Picardy, must have existed for many centuries before 
the French name was known ; to the same source must be attributed the modern 
Spanish, or the Castillian and Gallician. 

We are entitled to conclude from this imperfect account of the 
ancient European languages, that the three most populous races were 
the Romano-Celtic in the south and west ; the Teutonic in the centre, 
the north and north-west ; and the Slavonic in the east. 

The Greek, the Albanian, the Turkish, and the Finnic languages in the east ; 
the Basque, the Celtic or Erse, and the Gaelic or Kymric, however interesting to 
tho philologist, are considered secondary by the political arithmetician. These 
seven languages are not spoken by more than twenty-five or twenty-seven millions 
in Europe, whilst the three great races comprise a European population of more 
than a hundred and seventy-five millions. 

Different Europe reckons among its inhabitants the descendants of Arabians ; 

I they are distinguished in the island of Candia by the name of Jlbadiotes, 

and are confounded with the natives in the south of Spain. There are also two 

The ancient Occitania included Languedoc, or, according to some, writers all the pro- 
v'r.ces beyond the Loire. "Quidam," says Dominici, Occitaniam, allii provinciam linguae 
*>ccitanz vocitant. Haec autem divisio Francis facta est duas in linguas, quod Vascones, 
Oothi sive Septimani, Provinciates, Delfinates aliiqux lingue tort* populi praecipue Gothi pro 
ita utique oe dicere consueverunt ; id est hoc. Cxteri Francix incolae ou*." 


between thee 
languages and 
number of 



tribes of Kalmucs, who lead a wandering life between the Wolga and the Don. 
We may likewise mention the Jews that are dispersed throughout Europe, the 
Zigeunes or gypsies, an ancient Indian caste, and other tribes of the same sort 
that are treated with greater or less severity. 

Christianity, in its various forms, is spread almost over the whole of Re ] 5 ; on . 
Europe. The Greek or eastern church, which owes its origin to the Greek church, 
ancient church of the eastern empire, prevails still in Greece, and in part of Albania 
and Bulgaria, in Servia, Slavonia, Wallachia, Moldavia and Russia. The number 
of members belonging to it in Europe amounts to fifty millions. The | Latin church* 
Latin church, or, as it has been styled, the Catholic, is established in the south, 
the west, and in some central countries of Europe, Spain, Portugal, Italy, nine- 
tenths of France, four-fifths of Ireland, the low countries which belonged formerly 
to Austria, the half of Germany and Switzerland, and three-fourths of Hungary and 
Poland, submit to the dogmas of the Roman church, and acknowledge the autho- 
rity of the pope or sovereign pontiff. There are some members of the same church 
in England, in Holland, and in Turkey ; its sway extends over 98 or 99 millions of 
Europeans. The protestant countries of our continent are those in | Reformed 
the north-east; that church, in conformity with its principles of liberty | church - 
is divided into different sects, of which the Lutheran predominates in the two 
Saxonies, Wirtemburg, Hesse, and other provinces of Germany, in the whole 
of Scandinavia, in the Baltic provinces of Russia, and in Prussia. Calvin- 
ism or Presbyterianism extends over Switzerland, western Germany, Hol- 
land, and Scotland. The Anglican church is almost exclusively confined to 
England ; but its oppression is severely felt in Ireland. There are also reformed 
churches in France, Hungary, Transylvania, and in the valleys of Piedmont. The 
total number of Protestants in Europe is not much more than 43 or 44 millions. 
We may mention, in addition to these three great ecclesiastical divisions of Europe, 
some smaller and distinct sects, as the Socinians in Transylvania, the Quakers in 
England, the Anabaptists in Holland, and the Arminians in Turkey ; the Moravian 
brothers, or the Herrenhutians, cannot be ranked amongst them, for they are only 
distinguished from the Lutherans by their rules or mode of discipline. 
The Mahometans in Europe may amount to four or five millions, 

they are chiefly composed of Turks, Tartars, and Bosnians. The 


confines of our continent in the neighbourhood of Asia are inhabited by idolaters ; 
their number, if we include the Laplanders, the Samoides, the Tcherernitzi, the 
Wogoloski, the Kalmucs and two or three other wandering tribes, may be equal to 
half a million. The Jews are scattered in every country of Europe except Nor- 
way and Spain ; but they are only numerous in Poland, Turkey, Germany, and 
Holland ; their total number, according to the highest calculation, is not more than 
three millions. 

The European governments are now very different from what they | GoTtrnmenu. 
were thirty years ago. Flourishing republics, such as Holland, Venice, Genoa, and 
Ragusa, a Germanic empire made up of three hundred small feudal, municipal 
or ecclesiastical states; a sovereign, military, end religious order, that of the 
Knights of Malta or St. John of Jerusalem, and a great elective monarchy,* have 
all of them disappeared during the revolutions that happened during that short but 
eventful period. European governments may be divided into two sorts, such as 
are governed by absolute princes, according to fixed laws, and a system of taxation 
seldom subject to change ; secondly, such as are governed by a limited monarchy, 
and by representative assemblies, having the power of enacting laws and regulating 
taxation. The first are most numerous in the south and in the east of Europe, 
the second in the west and the north. Of the former we may mention Russia, 
Austria, Naples and Spain; of the latter, France, the Low Countries, Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland, Sweden and Norway. The two kinds are mixed in the central 
countries ; Sardinia, the states of the church, Tuscany, Electoral Hesse and 
Denmark are pure monarchies ; Bavaria, Wirtemburg, Baden, Hanover and 


5() BOOK NiNKt V-S1X TM. 

Satony are constitutional states. The kingdoms of Hungary and Poland, although 
attached to absolute monarchies, enjoy the advantages of a representative govern- 
ment; by public treaties and the sacred word of kings, national representatives are 
guaranteed to every part of the Germanic confederacy. 

I Thus it appears that limited monarchy is the most common form of 
""** t> * I government in Europe ; the exceptions to it are not many, the Ottoman 
is the only reul despotic state in our quarter of the world, unless indeed we add 
Republic*. | with a late traveller, the small principality of Monaco. The Helvetic 
Confederation, on the other hand, forms the only independent republic;* for the 
four free towns of Cracow, Lubeck, Hamburg, Frankfort and the municipality 
Principal ^ $ an Marino acknowledge the protection of different powers. It is 

powers. not easy to determine the preponderance of particular nations in Eu- 

rope ; France, England, Russia, Austria and Prussia are at present denominated 
the five great states ; hut the last i.s much inferior to any of the rest in the number 
of its subjects, and in the extent of its revenues and resources. Of these five 
kingdoms, the European population amounts to 140 millions; aperpetual alliance 
has been formed by some of them, the avowed object of that great league is to 
maintain inviolable certain constitutions and dynasties and also the present estab- 
lished forms of the Christian religion. The world is still ignorant of the princi- 
ples, the deliberations and reciprocal guarantees of an alliance which is to super- 
sede the famous system of the balance of power. 

Siojirbe*" I Geography, however, may establish independently of human con- 
twerastatei. | ventions, some physical relations between those portions of land that 
are denominated states. We shall indicate such as appear to us evident from an 
examination of the map ; Russia encroaches on Turkey, Austria, Prussia and 
Sweden, all these countries may be thus exposed to formidable attacks, but Prus- 
sia is more so than any of the rest ; the range of Hemus and the Carpathian chain 
protect Constantinople and Vienna; Scandinavia now united to Denmark, might, 
from its position and the resources of its inhabitants, resist the invasions of a Rus- 
sian army, flngland or France might successfully oppose Russia, the one by 
entering into an alliance with Turkey and the Scandinavians, could confine the 
Russian navy and its commerce to inland seas ; the other might support Austria, 
or assist Prussia. Were the German confederacy really united with Austria and 
Prussia, it might concentrate against its most formidable enemy the immense re- 
sources of the German nations. If we consider the secondary German states a 
so many small but independent, powers, and it is equally the interest and the wish 
of the inhabitants to secure their independence, they might form a neutral country 
between Austria and France. The disjunction between the last two kingdoms 
would be complete, if Switzerland and Sardinia were better organized. Masters 
of the moat important military positions in central Europe, the inhabitants of the 
minor states must either derive great benefit from such advantages, or suffer their 
country to be the theatre of foreign wurs. France has few or no natural advan- 
tages which can facilitate its invasions ; Austria, on the contrary, commands from 
the Upper Tyrol and the Valle-Telino several entrances into Bavaria and Swit- 
zerland. The Austrian empire having arrived at its natural limits in Transylvania 
may still add Bosnia to its dominions, but it is naturally the ally, not the enemy of 
the Ottomans. The same power commands the Adriatic and the Po, and rules 
over the finest portion of Italy ; for that reason, Austria has ever been most hos- 
tile to Italian independence. France, confined within its ancient limits, must re- 
main at peace with the neighbouring states ; if the line of fortifications at present 
building in the Low Countries be a barrier against the attacks of the French, the 
frontiers of every other country are sufficiently strong to resist their aggressions ; 
on the other hand, although Prussia has extended its territories into Lorraine, 
Franca has not much to fear from any of its neighbours. The small number of 
French sea ports, the tides which limit their utility, their great distance from one 

* It mii'si be confessed that the independence of Switzerland is merely nominal. There 
ia no- need-to prove that melancholy fact, it has been already done by a hundred Italian and 
Austrian chiles. 

parts of 


another, and their situation on two different seas are likely to check the naval am- 
bition of the French. If Spain and Portugal vvero united by better institutions, 
they might defy every foreign invasion ; had Providence intended to secure to 
humanity many ages of peace, such positions as those in Spain and Portugal had 
been more numerous on our globe. 

We may conclude, from a view of the Map, that Russia occupies 
more than a half of the superficies of Europe, and possesses more 
than a fourth part of its population. There are, beyond the limits of that vast 
empire, twelve millions of Slavonians and three millions of Greeks, who, exclu- 
sively of the policy of the Russians, are attached to them from the fact, that they 
either speak the same language, or are devoted to the same worship. The sub- 
jects of other European empires are too widely scattered, or so different in their 
habits and pursuits, that it is in vain to form from such elements a national cha- 
racter. What legislator would attempt to unite under the same laws, the vine 
dresser on the banks of the Moselle and the fisherman on the shores of the Bal- 
tic ! The language of both is however the same. It is difficult to imagine men 
more dissimilar than the Hungarians near the Ural mountains, and the Italians, 
the Germans or Slavonians. What resemblance can be discovered between the 
Turk and the Greek, between the rude barbarian and the descendants of the most 
intellectual people 1 although other countries are better situated, still many of the 
provinces in France and in Spain are neglected frora the effects of a complicated 
and injudicious administration. Some of the great empires may possess in time 
the whole of Europe, or terminate in a universal monarchy after the Roman or 
Chinese fashion. If providence remove that danger, the most formidable to the 
progress of civilization, it may perhaps reserve for us ages of war, migrations and 
revolutions, which after much bloodshed may bring about freedom, patriotism and 
national industry. 

Population forms one of the elements in the strength of states, but the political 
value of men varies greatly in the ratio of their concentration, their intelligence 
and courage. The following are some of the facts connected with that branch of 
political geography. 

The actual population of Europe is at least 200,000,000, and it is | Population, 
not likely to be overrated at 205 millions ; that number, which forms probably a 
fourth part of the human race, is very unequally distributed in our part of the 
world, and the inequality does not follow a constant progression from north to 
south. Some. of the results derived from the correct and valuable tables of M. 
Batbi,* may be indicated. 


Sweden and Norway, per square league, - 82 

Russia, - 1S1 

Denmark, - 616 

Prussia, (all the monarchy of) - - 792 

England, - 1457 

Low Countries, - 1829 

Saxony, (kingdom of ) . ,, {:.. 1252 

Bavaria, - . . 968 

Wurtemburg, 1502 

Switzerland, - - - - 783 

France, - - 1063 
Hungary - ....... 750 

Lombardy, Venitian kingdom, 1711 

Sardinia, (states of ) - - 1122 (1085) 

Lucca, (dutchy of) - ... - 2509 

Tuscany, . - . - . 836 (931) 

States of the church, - 1043 

* See the Tables at the end ef the work, 



Naples and Sicily, - - 747 

Portugal, - 892 

Spain, - - - 641 

Ionian islands, - 1770 

Turkey, - ,^1, 324 


It is in the centre of Europe that the population is greatest, and it 
is in the same part of the continent that states are best governed ; on 
that account it has been said, and perhaps not unjustly, that mankind increases 
under good governments. Some exceptions, however, may be observed ; but they 
depend on physical and other causes. Extensive countries, which include great 
and not very fruitful provinces, and necessarily less populous than small and fertile 
states. Thus the number of inhabitants in Portugal must be proportionably 
greater than in Spain, on the supposition that there is not much difference in the 
governments of these two kingdoms. Tuscany, which is infinitely better go- 
verned than the Roman states, is not however so well peopled ; but the lands in 
the territory of Bologna, in Romagnu and the Marches of Ancona may be com- 
pared as to their fertility and cultivation to the plains of Lombardy. The extent 
of cultivated land in Switzerland and Norway is confined by mountainous chains ; 
if allowance be made for that circumstance, these states must be considered very 
populous. History may enable us to discover some of the causes which affect 
population in particular countries ; there are not more, for instance, than 750 in- 
habitants to the square league in Hungary ; but, in Galicia or the mountainous 
part of Poland, the number amounts to 2600 ; one cause of so great a difference 
is that the districts in the neighbourhood of Lemberg and Cracow were much less 
infested by the Huns, Turks and Tartars. The increase of population is retarded 
in Turkey by the plague ; were it not for that cause, it might be considerable. An 
epidemic disease of the same kind depopulated in the year 1340, the north of 
Europe, the native country of so many warlike hordes. 

It may excite our surprise, that the wretched and oppressed inhabitants of some 
countries multiply their species with so extraordinary rapidity ; population in Ire- 
land has increased in a greater ratio than in Scotland. An intelligent man dreads 
poverty, the attendant of a numerous offspring, a savage or a slave has no fears 
for the morrow.* 

Maritime I It has been generally observed that the means of subsistence on 
I islands and in the neighbourhood of coasts are greater than in inland 
countries ; thus in Denmark, the islands of Arroe and Zeland, the peninsula of 
Eyderstedt and Dithmarsen are as thickly peopled as England, the Low Countries 
or Lombardy ; Jutland, on the contrary, is not more populous than southern Swe- 
den. The same, or a greater difference exists between the maritime districts of 
France and Spain, and the central provinces of Berri and Castile. It has been 
found that the number of inhabitants in the Spanish provinces on the sea coast 
are as 904 to the square; league, and that the number in the interior does not 
exceed 507 ;| but that rule is subject to many exceptions. Wirtemburg, a cen- 
tral and not very fertile country, which has only enjoyed the blessings of a 
good government for a short period, has become so populous that annual migra- 
tions are almost indispensable. Corsica, Sardinia and even Sicily are not so well 
peopled as Italy. 

The most remarkable exception to the rule may be discovered in Russia ; its 
population is concentrated in the inland provinces ; in some of them the num- 
ber is as 400, in others as 900 to the square league ; but in the provinces on 
the Baltic it varies between 80 and 300, and in those on the White and Black Seas 
it descends to 40, and in some places to 2. Can the cause of this phenomenon 

Laws have been enacted in Switzerland by which penalties are enforced against the 
parents of natural children. 

\ Asiillon, Geografu tie Espagna. 


be traced in the history of these nations, or can it be supposed that the Sla- 
vonic race is more prolific than the Finnic and the Tartar? The last hypothesis 
appears very probable ; these countries are most likely to be populous, the inhabi- 
tants of which are thoughtless, social, improvident and regardless of intellectual 
enjoyment; and resemblance in these qualities is discernible between the Slavo- 
nians, especially the Russians, and the Celtic nations, particularly the Irish. 

Whatever be the causes on which these phenomena depend, the 
mean annual increase of the whole European population cannot, ac- 
cording to the lowest estimation, be less than a million, so that before the year 
1900 it may amount to three hundred millions. The augmentation is more rapid 
in the north than in the centre, the south or the west. Russia, with a population of 
58 millions, adds to it annually, five or six hundred thousand. It is supposed that 
there are thirty millions of inhabitants in France, but the yearly increase is less 
than two hundred thousand. The population of Austria amounts to twenty-nine 
millions, and increases nearly in the same ratio as that of France. Italy and Spain 
remain almost stationary ; Turkey appears to be retrograde. 

Increase of 

Necessity of 

The limit* 
(bat popula- 
tion may 
attain in some 

It has been feared lest the population of Europe become so great 
before the lapse of no very distant period that subsistence or even 
sufficient space may be wanting for its inhabitants ; but it is probable that several 
ages must elapse before such an evil can excite serious alarm. The soil of Europe 
might afford enough of food for a thousand millions of inhabitants ; on the other 
hand, it cannot be doubted that in some districts in a province or in a kingdom, the 
means of subsistence may be inadequate to the population ; thus the necessity of 
emigration is felt in Wirtemburg and iri Switzerland. If the population of Norway 
were doubled, it might amount to three millions ; in that case it might be impos- 
sible to raise in Norway, or to receive in exchange for its produce, a quantity of 
food sufficient for the wants of its inhabitants ; but there are many countries to 
which they could migrate. The following calculations may throw some light on 
the subject. 

If the whole of Italy were as well peopled as Lombardy, it might 
contain twenty-six millions of individuals, and the dutchy of Lucca is, 
in proportion to its size, more populous than Lombardy. If all Spain 
were peopled in the same manner as the district of Guipuscoa, or in other words, 
in the ratio of 2009 to the square league, its inhabitants would amount to 30,146,000, 
a number nearly three times as great as, its present population. Were the same 
country as populous as the Asturias, or as 1180 to the square legua, and the Astu- 
rias are not well cultivated, the total number of individuals would be equal to 
17,735,900. Portugal is much less than Spain, and throughout its whole extent 
nearly of equal fertility ; Alentejo, one of its provinces, contains only 431 inhabi- 
tants to the square league ; Entre-Douro and Minho contain 2700. If the whole 
kingdom were peopled like the first, the number of inhabitants could not exceed 
1,481,533 ; if it were peopled like the second, they might amount to 10,707,813. 
The actual population is not more than three millions, but it might, without much 
inconvenience, be increased to six. 

To believe, however, that the redundant inhabitants of one country can pass 
quietly into another, presupposes a degree of wisdom as well as union among 
mankind, which we are not entitled to expect. 

It is evident, therefore, that the increase of the human race in the 
north may occasion at last a new migration of states to the south, an 
event which, in the course of time, is very likely to happen. The natives of northern 
states are intelligent, enterprising and not loath to quit their rude climates for 
southern countries, which it is true, might be possessed by more courageous and 
enlightened inhabitants. 

Such an invasion is rendered more probable from the fact, that the increase of 
population is greater and more uniform in the countries that are least exposed to 
the plague, the yellow fever and other epidemic diseases, that from time to time 
depopulate the south of Europe. It may be urged that, with the exception of Nor- 
way, Switzerland, and some high valleys in Sweden and Hungary, the recurrence 

Future migra- 
tions of states. 


of famine is very rare in the northern and central regions of Europe. The grana- 
ries that have been established in local states by public authority, must tend to 
diminish greatly the chances of local famine. 

There is, besides, another reason, independent of the means of subsistence, 
which excites the people in different states to migration ; it is the desire of enjoy- 
ment, of indulging in luxury or gratifying ambition. That desire is increased by 
the accounts of travellers, and by a few examples of great wealth amassed in a 
short period. It is to that tendency, natural to the most civilized people in every 
epoch, that must be ascribed the colonies of the ancient Greeks, of the Spaniards 
in the 15th century, and of the English in our own times. Portugal and the Low 
Countries rose into importance from their settlements ; the same course of glory 
and prosperity is not shut against enterprising nations. The form only of 
colonization has been changed, and it has been discovered to be most advantageous 
at present not to found colonies but independent states, and by that means to form 
outlets for an abundant population, marts for industry and security for national 
liberty against hostile invasions. 

ank. | It might not be an unprofitable task to arrange the inhabitants of 

Europe according to their rank, their occupations and fortune ; but that subject 
belongs more exclusively to political economy, or rather to statistics, which is 
closely connected with it. The two hundred and five millions that inhabit Europe, 
submit to fifty-three reigning families, of which the relatives or younger branches 
may amount to 1200 individuals, their appendage, independently of their private 
incomes, exceeds 11,340,000; the greatest part of that sum is consumed in 
Agriculturist*. | in maintaining the splendour and dignitaries of courts. The acknow- 
ledged equality between kings is in reality destroyed by the preponderance of four 
or five monarchs ; the princes of Schwartzburg and Hohenzollern, although sove- 
reigns, and of ancient and illustrious origin, are unable to exert such influence or 
display such pomp as an Austrian or English minister. 

Nobility. | It might have formerly been worth while to ascertain the number of 
noble families in Europe, or even the individuals who composed them ; but that 
order is no longer distinguished by u chivalrous spirit or an illustrious birth ; a 
political nobility exists in several great states ; individual merit may sometimes 
obtain that dignity, but it is more frequently lavished by the favour of kings ; be- 
sides a barrier has been raised between the ancient and the modern nobility. A 
Spanish grandee considers himself much superior to a poor hidalgo, and the Rus- 
sian odnodworsi, although of a more ancient origin than the knictis, are hardly 
acknowledged as freemen. Thus, although we were in possession of sufficient 
data to calculate the number of noble families in Europe, we doubt if instruction 
or amusement could be derived from the result. 

Middling I The constant and uniform increase of the middling classes, whose 
"** I education is at least equal if not superior to that of the nobles, forms 

a subject well deserving of inquiry, but the means of gaining information are still 
wanting. That active and influential class amounts at least to three millions, but 
it is very unequally scattered over Europe ; it is weak, although protected in Rus- 
sia, powerful and peaceable in England, numerous but divided in France. 
Authors.) I Men distinguished by their intellectual attainments, form a fhird 
class ; the authors in our part of the earth are sufficiently numerous to people a 
small state. The number of living writers in Germany, France, and in England, 
exceeds 12,000; such a body were it not divided against itself might govern the 
world ; but the republic of letters is paralyzed by three contending principles, at- 
tachment to particular sects in Germany, party-spirit in England, and self-interest 
in France. A republic so ill composed might have been compared to Poland, had 
working I that state not been annihilated by the great powers. The manufactur- 
eiaue*. | j n g population is a modern phenomenon, and one of the most remark- 

able ; fifteen or sixteen millions of Europeans are at present solely indebted for 
the means of subsistence to their manual labour. If the outlets of commerce 
were obstructed or diminished by prohibitions, tens of thousands might people the 


hospitals, or add to the emigrations of twenty thousand individuals who pass yearly 
from Europe to the western Continent. These industrious proletarii* abound in 
England, and some parts of France, in the Low Countries, Germany and Switzer- 

The agricultural class comprehends about two-thirds of the Euro- 
pean population ; its number is inconsiderable in England, but very 
great in Russia ; it may be remarked that the one hundred and forty millions, of 
whom that class consists, are acquiring daily additional knowledge. 

The soldiers in the service of different governments make up a body 1 y*ie of an 
of two millions, or one hundredth part of the total mass ; their pay | !ndividui11 ' 
amounts to two-fifths of the public revenue in the most of the European states* 
The political value of an individual who contributes to the exigencies of his country, 
varies remarkably in different kingdoms ; it is of the highest importance to ascertain 
that variation, as it enables us to appreciate the strength of states, the events of 
our own times, and such as are likely to happen. Every one contributes to the 
public revenue in the following proportions : 

British possessions in Europe, - -. 







Low Countries, 

..;;, - jr " 




Bavaria and Wirtemburg*, - 



Denmark and Saxony, - - 











- - 



Austria and Austrian Poland, 















Sardinian states, 






Roman states, 



The two Sicilies, 




__ ._.-, v . 



. .-< >i -j-<- - .-' >'' - 

It may be seen from the above table, that the wealth, the energy | Remarks. 

and public spirit of a state, may be estimated from the contributions of the indi- 
viduals who compose it. Constitutional governments are dear, despotic ones are 
cheap ; it is far from our intention to assert that the difference in the sum paid for 
these two kinds of government is proportionate to the value of the one above that 
of the other. It may also be observed, from a perusal of the table, that some states 
with slender revenues are well governed; Tuscany is one of them, but that fact 
need not excite surprise ; very few troops are maintained in Tuscany, because it 
is in reality under the protection of a. great empire bene qui latuit bene vixif. Some 
governments, loaded with an immense public debt, are reduced to the necessity of 
taxing their subjects beyond the natural proportion of their means and resources. 
It is well known that such is the case in England ; but if an Englishman were to 
contribute in the form of taxation twice as much as a Frenchman, both nations 
might be nearly on a footing of equality. It must have been observed, that the 
revenues payable in money, are scanty in some kingdoms of eastern Europe, par- 
ticularly in Russia, but the deficiency is supplied by prcestaiiones in natura; these 
sources of emolument it is difficult to calculate. 

Some of the republics and free towns have been hitherto omitted, it was thought 

* The proletarii composed the lowest order of Roman citizens. They were so called, 
because, with the exception of their offspring, they contributed nothing to the state. 


best to consider them apart. The portion of each individual amounts to the fol- 
lowing sums. In 

Frankfort, ^260 

Bremen, - 1 3 4 

Lubcck, - - 126 

Hamburg, - - - - 1 10 

Ionian Islands, 14 2 

San Marino, - 11 8 

Cracow, - 092 

mu"r/ tbc I If the same rules be applied to determine the value of the military 
rric? I service in all the European states, the difference might appear still 
more remarkable ; but it is not easy to express that difference in numbers, because 
the effective condition of armies varies ; secondly, because we must include the 
naval force that is generally disbanded in time of peace ; lastly, the same number 
of combatants does not represent the same physical strength or courage in the 
field of battle. 

It is likely, however, that the proportion which every European state might 
adopt without exhausting its resources, or even without taking away any useful 
hand from agriculture, is that of one soldier for every hundred inhabitants. It 
will be seen that several great and small military states go beyond that proportion, 
while others of a different description fall short of it. 

In England, the ratio is as one soldier to 140 inhabitants. 

In France, . 110 

In Austria, . 100 

In Russia, 90 

In Bavaria, - 69 

Tn Prussia, - 68 

In Poland. - 60 

In Wirtemburg, - 59 

In Sweden, - 58 

In Denmark, - 57 

The two Messes, - 49 

The proportions in other states are much lower. 

In the two Sicilies, ' - 190 

In Tuscany, 200 

In the Roman states, '' - " 1/: -- * '" " 300 

states more 

It is impossible to derive any accurate conclusion from these results; 
for we cannot separate the warlike character of nations and the ex- 
traordinary efforts of governments. One fact however is certain the political, 
military and financial value of the states in the north of Europe, is double, treble, 
or even four times greater than that of states equally populous in the south. If it 
be supposed that Switzerland or Denmark and the two Sicilies were nearer one 
another, and that during a war between them the other European powers remained 
neutral, the result of the contest might be easily predicted. It is probable that the 
Neapolitans would first sue for peace, and give up Sicily to satisfy the Danes; the 
kingdom of Naples might be as easily conquered by the Swiss, if they were united 
and under the command of experienced officers. But the population of Naples is 
four times greater than that of Switzerland or Denmark, its territory twice as ex- 
tensive, and its agricultural produce ten or twelve times more valuable. The 
inhabitants in the south of France cannot endure the fatigues of war so well as 
those in the north, and the character of the Spaniards forms no exception to the 
general rule. If Europe be divided by the Rhine and the Alps, or by a line drawn 
from Amsterdam to Venice, it may be found that the number of troops in the north 
mnd in the east, amounts to twelve or fourteen millions, and that it does not exceed 


cix or seven in the south and in the west. The revenues are divided in an inverse 

In the north and in the east, ' '. i.>u/i. -fe..<A !: -> 71,400,000 
In the south and in the west, V - 138,600,000 

Synoptical Tables of ancient and modern European States, their Origin, Language*.* 


A. Thracian Branch, (Adelung. Vater. Gatterer.) 

1. Phrygians in Asia, Bryges in Europe, t 

2. Lydians, a colony in Etruria ? 

Lydias, a district of Macedonia. 
Tyrrheni of Macedonia. 

3. Trojans, their migrations. 

4. Bythinians, from whom are descended the Thyni. X (Mannert.) 

5. The Carians, some colonies in Laconia, &c. f. (R. Rochette.) 

6. Thracians proper, (See Slavonians, &c.) 

Maidi in Thrace, (a branch of the Medes) ?. (M.B.) 
Pelagones in Macedonia; Pehluwan 1 (M.B.) 

B. Ulyrian Branch. 

1. Mysror Mcesi, a mixed people. 

2. Daces or Getes? X (See Wallachians. ) 

3. Dardani ? X 

4. Ancient Macedonians, at least a number of them x. 

5. Ancient Illyrii x. (See Albanians.) 

, Parthini, or the White in Albanian. 

, Taulantii. 

y, Molossi. 

^, Ardioei (Eordcei, in Macedonia.) 

, Dalmatse. 

6. Pannonians or Pceones f. (Mannert.) ?. 

7. Venetes, or Ulyrian colony in Italy x. (Freret.) 

8. Siculus, idem x. 

9. Japyges, idem |. 

C. Pelasgo- Hellenic Branch. 

1. Pelasges or Pelarges, the aborigines of Greece and Italy x (from pc/a, a rock 
or stone.) 

2. Leleges, an Asiatic colony, that came into Greece f. (R. Rochette.) 

3. Curetes, idem 1 "f. 

4. Perrhebes, Pelasges of Thessaly. | 

5. Thesprotes, idem in Epiras. f 

6. JEtoli, (probably Illyrians.) 

7. Hellenes, called formerly Graeci in Epirus, and Graei in Thrace. 

*, Achsei or Achivi, in other words, the inhabitants on the banks of riven. 
C, lones or laones, archers or shooters of darts, 
y, Dores or Dorians, men armed with spears. 

Doubtful and uncertain opinions are marked by the sign (?). Nations now extinct, and 
dead languages or those of which there remains no living branch are indicated by the sign 
(f). Those of which we can discover some obscure traces, or are obviously mixed with 
others, are denoted by the sign (X). Lastly, in making mention of certain opinions, we have 
affixed the names of the authors who first supported them. To such hypotheses as we our- 
elves think likely, and which are not mentioned by others, are added the lettem M.B. 


^, Aioli or Eolians, wanderers. 

8. Arcadians, Pelasges of the Peloponnesus, x 

9. Oenotres, emigrants in Italy. X 

10. Tyrrhenes, idem, idem x (R. Rochette.) 


A. Thracian Languages, -f or x ? 

1. Thracian proper, connected with the Persian in the names of individuals. 

2. Phrygian, one of the sources of the Greek, the Illyrian or Albanian. 

3. Lydian, probably a dialect of the Phrygian. 

4. Caiian, a mixed dialect composed probably of Pelasgian and Phenician. 

The Lycaonian of St. Paul. 

B. Illijrian Languages. 

1. Illyrian proper, one of the sources of the Albanian. 

2. Getan known before the conquests of the Slavonian nations. 

* The Sigynne, a Median or Hindoo tribe, ancestors of the Gypsies or Zi- 
guenes, they spoke probably an Asiatic dialect. 

C. Hellenic Languages, ancient Greek, (Thiersch and M.B.) 

1. Ancient Hellenic, connected with the Pelasgian. 

a. Arcadian. | 

b. Thessalonian and the ancient Macedonian Greek x ? 

c. Oenotrian, spoken in Italy and mixed with the Latin x. 

2. Hellenic language during the historic times. 

a. Old Eolian, connected with the Oenotrian, (language of the gods in 


b. Ancient Dorian, descended from the Eolian, (language of Sappho, Pin- 

dar, &c.) 

*, Laconian a separate dialect. 
, Dorian of Syracuse, (language of Theocritus.) 

c. Ancient Ionian, or the Hellenic, polished by commercial nations, (language 

of Homer, classical in epic poetry.) 

ee, Asiatic Ionian still more polished ; (language of Herodotus.) 
/8, European Ionian, more energetic than the others, the Attic dialect forms 
its principal branch, (the classic language of orators and tragedians.) 

d. Greek or the Attic dialect purified and modelled by the grammarians of 

Alexandria, the common language of the whole of Greece, of the East, 
and of the higher classes at Rome to the time of the Barbaric invasions. 

e. Local dialects, little known. 
*, Vulgar Alexandrian. 

0, Syro-Greek, (language of the New Testament.) 


1. Aborigines or Opici (children of Ops, the earth) Generic names, (M.B.) 

a. Euganei, anterior to the Veneti f . 

b. Ligurians, divided into numerous tribes. 
. Etrusci, the mass of the Etrurian nation. 

* The Etrurian nation appears to have been composed t)f castes or tribes. 
, Caste of the nobles, Larthes in Etruscan ; Tyrani or Tyrheni, in Eolian 

or Pelasgian. 

/B, Caste of the priests. Tusci or sacrifices 
y, Warlike caste, Rasenae? See below. 

*, Tribe of the people. 
r c 


d. Piceni and Sabini. 

e. Marsi, &c. &c. 

f. Umbri, (Dionysius of Halicarnassus.) 

g. Samnites, perhaps Samones, mountaineers (Samos,) divided into, 

1. Hirpini, or (wolf hunters.) 

2. Caudini, (armed with trunks of trees!) 

3. Pentri, (from peenus, a point.) 

4. Caraeeni, (wearing the caraca.) 

5. Frentani, (armed with slings.) (M.B.) 
h. Latini, &c. x 

i. Ausones, X 

k, Siculi, according to Dionysius. 

1, Lucani and Brutti or Bretti. 
2. Colonies to which some allusion is made in history. 

a .^Eastern, the following : 

, Pelasgians of Arcadia, (1400 years before. Christ.) | 
/3, Ancient Graeci and Pelasgians of Thessaly, (idem.) "f 
y, Oenotri divided into, 

1. Oenotri proper (the vine dressers.) 

2. Chonii, (the husbandmen.) 
, Daunian, lapyges, &c. 

^, Tyrrheni, (in Macedonian Lydia.) 

, Trojans, whose language was the ancient Eolian, (900 years before 

Christ.) (M.B.) 
*, Achean colonies, Doric, Chalcidian in Sicily, and Magna Grecia. 

b. Northern colonies : 

et y The Siculi, according to the Moderns, x ? 
/3, The Venetes, or Illyrians, or Slavonians, 
y, Rhasense (Rhsetes ;) the warlike tribe of Etruria? 
^, Peligni, (Pela, a rock in the Macedonian language.) 
Western colonies : 

, Celtic colonies, x. (Freret) 

1. Umbri. (See above.) 

2. Senones. 

3. Ligures ? See above. 

4. Insubres, (Isombri.) 

5. Volscians, (Volcse) ? ^ * ifi 
/S, Iberian or Bask colonies. 

1. Sicani. 

2. Osques,* 

3. Corsi, x 

4. Ilienses in Sardinia. (See G. Humboldt.) 

5. Balari, &c. &c. 


A, Italian Languages. (Merula and M.B.) 

J. Etruscan language, divided probably into the sacred, the vulgar, and other dia- 
lects, as: 
a. Rhetick. 
bi Falisk. 

c. Umbrian. 

2. Opsic, language of central Italy. 

We must not confound the Opici or Opsci with the Osci, a colony of the Osques, Eusques 
or Vasques from Spanish Vescetania, settled in the Vescetania of Italy, or Campus Vescitanus. 
The two names have been long confounded, and have given rise to many errors. 


a.- Sabelline. 

b. Sabine. 

c. Latin. 

3. Ausonian, Sicilian, Lucanian. 

B. Languages not connected with the Italian, 

1. Celtic and Illyrian dialects. 

a. The Ligurian. 

b. Dialect of the Cisalpine Gauls. 

c. Idem of the Veuetes. 

d. Volscian. 

o. Dialect of the Japyges. 

2. Iberian dialects. (See G. Humholdt.) 

a. Osc, (Eusck or Basque. 

b. Sicanian, &c. 

3. Hellenic dialects. 

a. Dorian. (Merula.) 

1'. Syracusan or Siciliote. 
2. Tarentine. (Laconian.^ 

b. Acheo-Ionian. (M.B.) 

1. Sybaritan. 

2. Crotoniate. 

c. Eolo-Dorian. 

1. Locrian. 


1. Modern Greek, (Romeika, Aplo-Hellenica.) 

1. Modern Eolo-Dorian. 

2. Tzakonite, branch of the Dorian. 

3. Cretan or Candiote. 

4. Greek, (Epirote and Albanian.) 

5. Wallachian and Bulgarian Greek, &c. (F. Adelung.) 

2. Albanians or Schypetars, mixed with the ancient Iltyrians, Greeks, and Celts, 
(Masci and M.B.) Schype or Albanian language. 

a. Albanian proper. 

*, Dialect of the Guegues. 
0, --- Mirdites. 
y, --- Toskes. 
^, ---- Chamouhft. 
--- lapys. 

b. Albanian mixed. 

, Albanian of Epirus. 

/9, Italo- Albanian of Calabria. 

y, Albanian of Sicily. 

3. Wallachians or Roumouni, a people that mixed with the Thracian and Dacian 
peasants, the Roman military colonists, the Slavonian and others. Wallachiau 
language, or Slavo-Latin, or Daco-Roman. 

a. Romounaick or Wallachian proper. 

b. Moldavian. 

c. Wallachian of Hungary and Transylvania. 

d Kutzo- Wallachian, or Wallachians of Thrace and Greece. 

4. Italian. \ 

6. French. S Sec Celto-Roman nations. 
. Spanish. ) 


Languages Celto-Latin. 

a. Italian. 

b. Provencal. 

c. French. 

d. Spanish. ltf . 


1. Scythians divided into castes and tribes. (M.B.) 

a. Royal Scythians, the ruling tribe, who spoke the Zend or another dialect 
of Upper Asia. 

* Fourteen Medo- Scythian words found in Herodotus. 

b. Scythians, employed as husbandmen. Vassals, probably Slavonian tribes, 
sold as slaves. 

* Scythian dialect, not unknown to Aristophanes. Words in Pliny. In- 

scriptions at Olbia. 

Ci Scythian shepherds, vassal tribes, probably Finnic or Tchoudes. (Bayer, 

2. Sarmates, a conquering horde, resembling in their physiognomy the Mongol 

Tartars. (M.B.) 

a. Sarmates, proper. 

b. Jaxamates, (perhaps the same as the Jf zyges. ) 

c. Exomates. 

d. Thisomates, (inscription of Protagoras. ) 

3. Ostro-Goths, conquerors of the Sarmatians. See below. 

B. Ancient Slavonian Nations. 

1. Southern Slavonians. 

a. Henetes in Paphlagonia ? j-. (Sestrencewicz.) 

b. Cappadocians ? (Idem.) 

c. Crobizy, (Chrowitzy,) in Thrace, x. (M.B.) 

d. Bessi, idem, x 

e. Triballes, (Drewaly?) f 

f. Dardani, from darda, a dart ? (M.B.) 

g. Different tribes on the mountains of Greece, 
h. Carni and Istri. 

i Veneti, according to some authors. 

2. Northern Slavonians. 

a. The Serbi and the Vali, near the Rha. (Wolga.) 

b. Roxolani, X called afterwards Ros. 

c. Budini, a Gothic or Slavonic people. | 

d. Bastarnae and Peucini. 

e. Daces, the people that gave to the Dacian towns the Slavonic termina- 

tions in ava. x 

f. Olbiopolites of the second century, mixed with the Greeks, t I 

g. Pannonii, (Pan, a Lord ?) 

h. Carpi, in the Carpathian mountains. 

i. Biessi, in the Biecziad mountains. 

k. Sabogues, &c. 

1. Lygii, afterwards Lioechi, &c. &c. 

m.Mougilones, and others mentioned by Strabo. 

n. Venedi or Venedae, called afterwards Wendes, near the mouths of the 


o. Semnones, between the Oder and the Elbe? x. 
p. Vindili, mentioned by Pliny. 
q. Osi, mentioned by Tacitus, (Otschi, fathers.) 



A. Eastern and Southern* Branch, (Dobrowski, Vater.) 

1. Russians, mixed with the Roxolans, Slavonians, and Goths. 

a. Great Russians of Novgorod, Moscow, Susdal, &c. 

b. Little Russians of Kiow and the Ukraine. 

c. Rusniacs, or Orosz, in Galicia and Upper Hungary. 

d. Cossacks, mixed with the Tartars. 


<*, Great Russian, (written language.) 

/3, Dialect of Susdal, the most heterogeneous of any. 

y, Dialect of Ukraine, or Little Russia. 

^, Rusniac, a very ancient dialect. 

, Russo-Lithuanian, derived from the Kriwitz ? See Wende. 

<f, Russian Cossack. 

2. Servians, or Slavonians, on the Danube. 
Servian Language. (Serbska.) 

a. Servian proper, (a written and polished dialect.) 

Ancient Slavonian, language of the Russian Church, almost the same as 
the Servian. 

b. Bosnian dialect. 

c. Dalmatian dialect, mixed with Italian. 

d. Dialect of Montenegri. 

e. Uscoque, mixed with Turkish. 

f. Slavonian, pure. 

g. Bulgaro-Slavonian, &c. 

3. Croatians, or Chrobates, or Slavonians of Noricum. 
Croatian Language. 

a. Croatian, or Chrobate dialect, or dialect of the mountains. 

b. Slovene, spoken in the west of Lower Hungary, (a written dialect.) 

c. ' Winde, spoken by the southern Windes, a mixed people. 

*, Winde of Carniola, dialects of Karstes, Tziszches, Poykes, &c. 
/3, Winde of Styria end Corinthia. 

d. Dialect of the Podluzakes in Moravia, and perhaps of the Charwates. 

B. Central and Western Branch. 

1. Poles or Liaiches. 

Polish (a written language.) 
a. Dialect of Great Poland, 
b. Little Poland. 

c. The Mazures in Mazovia and Podlachia. Mazure, a mixed dialect. 

d. The Goralis in the Krapack mountains. 

e. The Kassubes in Pomerania. 

f. The Silesian Poles, Medziborian dialect, old Polish mixed with German. 

2. Bohemians or Czeches, (Tchekes.) 

a. Czheches, properly called. 

b. Czheches of Moravia. 

* Czeche language, few or no dialects. 

3. Slowaques or Slavons of Northern Hungary. 

a. Slowaque dialects confined to the mountains, "j 

b. Dialects on the banks of the Danube. Derived from the Mah- 

c. Hanaque dialect in Moravia. Vrawany or Slavonic of Great 

d. Straniaque, idem. idem. [ Moravia. 

e. Schelagschaque, (idem.) &c. 


II. Wendians or Slavonians on the Baltic. 
A. Wendes proper (Vindili? Winidae.) 

a. Wagrij (Eastern Holstein) X. 

b. Obotriti or Afdrede (Mecklenburg) X. 

c. Rani |. 

d. Rugeans mixed with Scandinavians x. 

e. Lutitzi. "1 

g.Wefaiabi. j> Brandenburg x. 

h. Havelli, &c. J 

i. Milzieni. ) ^ 

k.SerbesorSorabi. ] S on J: 

1. Wendes of Altenburg. 

m. Regio Slavonum in Franconia. 

n. Luzinki. > T 

o.Zpriawam.f Lusace - 

p. Polabes or Linones X- 

B. Lithuanian Wmdxs. (Venedse, JEstyi.) 

1. Pruczi or Gothic Wendes (Gudai.) 

Prucze language f 1683. 

2. Litwani or Lithuanians 

a. Litewka, a written language. 

1. Dialect of Wilna. 

2. Schamaite dialect, or that of Samogitia. 

3. Prussian dialect. 

b. Kriwitze dialect in White Russia. 

c. Lotwa. 

1. Lotwa of Livonia. 

2. Semegal in Semigallia. 

3. Dialect of the Rhedes, Tamneckes, &c. 


Ancient Nations that have inhabited the Countries of the Finns. 

1. European Scythians. See above; j 200 years after C. 

2. Sarmates ? t 40 after c - 

3. lazyges, (the latwinges mentioned in the history of Poland;) | 1268. 

4. Fenni of Tacitus, Zoumi (Suome of Strabo.) (M.B.) 

5. JEstii or Ehstes ? See above. 

6. Scyri, Heruli, &c. 1 (Lelewel.) 

7. European Huns, Ounni and Chuni of the ancient geographers. 

a. Turco-Mogul race. 

8. Unknown races conquered by the Huns. 


A. Pure Finnic Race. (Adelung, Porthian, Pallas.) 

1. Finnic or Suome. 

a. Finnic dialect, confined to the south. 

b. Twastian , divided into 

<*, Twastiap. 

/3, Satacundian. 
V, Ostrobothnian. 


c. Carelian or Kyriala, divided into 
, Dialect of Savolux. 

p t Ingria. 

y, Rautalamb. 

f, Carelia and Olonetz, &c. 

i, Cayanian. 

2. Ehstes, probably the descendants of the JEitii. 

a. Ehste proper, divided into 

*, Dialect of Revel or Harria. 

/3, Dorpat or Unganian. 

y, Oesel. 

b. Liwes or Livonians. 
<*, Old Lieve dialect. 
/3, Krevinian. 

B. Mixed Finnic Race. 

1. Permiakes or Biarmians, a race little known, mixed with the Finns and Scan- 


Bairmain language divided into two dialects. 
*, Bairmain proper. 
, Siraine. 

2. Hungarians or Magyars, Finns subdued by the Turks, and by an unknown 

race from the Ural mountains (Gyarmathy Sainovicz.) 

Magyar a written language. 
a. Dialect of Raab in the west. 

b. Debretzin in the east. 

c. the Szekles, a tribe of Transylvania. 

. Laplanders, a Finnic branch, mixed with a tribe of the Huns, (Huns of Scan- 


4. Teutonic branch on the Rhine and the Danube. 


Bastarnse X 1 1 Unknown dialect See Slavonian*. 

Suevi or wanderers, Ancient Suevic, now unknown. 

Marcomanni, * 

Quadi, > High Teutonic dialect. 


Boiowarii, A mixed dialect. 

Istcevones, more recently denominated Franci, \ 

Hermunduri or Hermoines, \ Franck (Gley.) 


Alemanni, Germanic, (Hebel.) 


1. Swiss (descendants of the Helvetian Celts.) 

a. Dialect of Bern and Argovia. 

b. of the valley of Hash. 

c. of Friburg. 

d. of Mistenlach. 

e. of Apponzefl. 

f. of the Grisons. 

2. People on the Rhine. 

a. Dialect of Alsace. 


b. Dialect of Suabia. 

*, of the Black Forest, or Upper Suabia. 

/3, of Baar. 

y, of the valley of Neckar or Wurtemburg. 

^, of Vindelicia, (Augsburg, Ulm, &c.) 

c. Dialect of the Palatinate. 
*, German Wasgovian. 

/8, Dialect of Westerwald. 

3. People on the Danube. 

a. Bavarians. 

, Dialect of Munich. 

, of Hohen-Schwangen. 

y, of Saltzburg. 

b. Tyrolian. 

*, Dialect of the valley of Zell. 

/B, valley of Inn. 

y , of Lientz. 

c. Austrian. 

, t)ialect of Lower Austria, (four varieties.) 

/3, of Upper Austria. 

y> of Styria, (six varieties, among others, those f the valleys of 

Ens and Murr.) 

^, of Carinthia. 

, of Carniola. 

, of the Gottschewarians. 

d. Bohemo-Silesian. 

*, Silesian and several varieties. 
/3, Bohemo-German. 
y, Moravo-German, (four varieties.) 
^, Hungaro-German, (Idem.,) 

4. Franco-Saxons, or central Germans. 

a. Living Dialects. 

*, Dialect of Hesse. 

/3, of Franconia, (Nuremberg, Anspach, &c.) 

Y t . of the Rho3n Mountains, &c. 

^, of Eichsfeld. 

, of Thuringia* 

^, of Ertzgeberg. 

i, : of Misnia, (or modern Upper Saxony.) 

0, of Livonia, and Esthonia. 

/, of the Saxons of Transylvania. 

b. Written language, High German, or the modern dialect of Misnia. 

B. Cimbro- Saxon Nations on the Plains and the Shores of the Baltic and 

North Seas. 


Cimbri, x (according to others, Scandinavian lotes, 

Saxones, (Ingaevones of the Romans.) 
Heruli ? t ? 

Longobardi, or the Vinuli of Cimbria, x 
Vinulic Dialect. 

Semnones ? x ? (rather Slavo-Wendes.) 
Cherusci, (mixed with the Francs.) 


Bucteri and Chauci, Idem, x 


Batavi, according to the Romans, a colony of the Chatti. 

Menapii, 8cc. X. 



1. Saxons or Low Germans. 

a. Saxon or the Dialect of Lower Saxony. 
*, Polished dialect of Hamburg: 
/8, - of Holstein. 

y, --- of Sleswick, between the Sley and the Eyder. 
of the Marsches or Low Country. 

Hanoverian, (several varieties.) 

f, --- of the Hartz Miners. 

u, ---- of Pregnitz, (derived from the Longobardo-Cimbric.) 

b. Eastern Saxon. 

, Dialect of Brandenburg. 

0, -- modern Prussian since the year 1400. 

y, . - modern Pomeranian. 

^, - Rugian. 

c, - Mecklenburg. 

c. Westphalian or Western Saxon. 
, Dialect of Bremen. 

0, -- Centra4 Westphalia. 

y t - the ancient Duchy of Engern, probably the Angrivarian X 

(M. Weddigen.) 
^, Dialect of Cologne. 
, - Cleves, &c. &c. 
2. Frieslanders. 

* Ancient Frieslandic. 
Modern Dialects. 

a. Pure Frieslandic. 

*, Frieslanders of the north, or Cimbria, dialects of Bredsted, Husum, 

Eyderstedt t, the islands. 
p, Frieslanders of Westphalia, tribes and dialects of Rustringen, Wur- 

sten, Saterland. 
y, Frieslanders of Batavia, tribes and dialects: 1st, Frieslandic; 2d, 

Frieslandic of Molckwer (Anglo-Frieslandic ;) 3d, Frieslandic of 


b. Modern Batavian. 

*, Dutch, a written and polished language. 

/3, Flemish, idem idem. 

y, Dialect of Gueldres. 

^, - of Zealand and Dutch Flanders. 

1, - of Kemperland, mixed with Teutonic or High German. 
{, - of Bois-le-Duc. 

C. Scandinavian or Normanno- Gothic Branch* 


lotes. 1 c* f **i^ f Ancient lotic, Low Scandina 

Goths. L J vian > ancien * G thic ' Hi g h Scandi 

. nnav 

Mannes. f ocanuinav a. <j navian source of modern languages. 

Vanes, Scc.J (Alvismal.) (^ Manheimic> Va ndal ic ? 



Alani ? 

Rhos or Roxolani ? 

Gothones (Gulay of 
the Lithuanians.) 

Heruli. (M.deSuhm.) 


Longobardi or Vinuli, 




People of 
origin, mixed 
with the Sla- 
vonians, '* 
Wendes, and 
other con- 
quered na- 

Alanic, similar to the Gothic t. 

a. Rhos Alanic (x Vater.) 
Ancient Gothic. 

a. Ostrogothic (x in Ukraine 
and Italy.) 

b. Visigothic in Poland and 

e. Mesogothic. 

Herulic, little known, mixed, ac- 
cording to some writers, with the 

Longobardic, probably an [otic or 
Cimbrian dialect. Burgundian, per- 
haps a Norman dialect, mixed with 
Lthe Wendes. 


Norman or the general language of the eighth and ninth centuries, (Alt- 
Nordisch of Grimm.) 

1. Norwegian, (Norrena) of the tenth and eleventh centuries. 

a. Islandic, written language of the Sagas. 

b. Norwegian of the central valleys. 

c. Western Dalecarlian, or (Dalska.) 

d. Dialect of the Faroe Islands. 

e. Norse of the Shetland Islands. 

2. Swedish (Swensk) since 1400. 

a. Swedish, a written language. 
, Dialect of Upland. 

/3, of Norland. 

y, Eastern Dalecarlian, (a more recent dialect.) 
^, Swedish dialect of Finland, and other varieties. 

b. Modern Gothic. 
<*, Westro-Gothic. 
0, Ostro-Gothic. 

y, Dialect of Werneland, Dal. 

^, of Smoland. 

* of the island of Runae in Livonia. 
5. Danish, (Dansk) since 1400. 

a. Danish. 

, Dialects of the Danish islands. 
/3, of Scania, to 1660. 

Y> - of the island of Bornholm, (the ancient dialect in the 12th 


^, Modern Norwegian, (Norsk) in the towns and low valleys. 

b. Jutlandic or modern lotic. 

*, Normanno-Iotic in the north and west 

/3, Dano-Iotic. 

y, Anglo-Iotic in the district of Anglen. 

D. Anglo-British. 


Curabri. \ See below ' Celtic nation. 
Gauls, Romans. Romana rustica x . 


Ancient Germans, or > Ancient Gallic or Scandinavian dialect. 
Scandinavians. > 


100 years before C. x 
, "| Anglo-Saxon, 449900 x. 

I Anglian, north of the Thames. 
n Saxon > south of the Thames. 

Danes. Dano-Saxon, 800 1040 x. 

Normans. French dialect Neustrian, from 1066 


of Oxford and the central counties. 

of Somersetshire. 

of Wales. 

of the Irish. 


of Berkshire. 
ot, Dialect of Yorkshire. 
/3, ^ of Lancashire. 
y, -^ of Cumberland and Westmoreland. 

c. Scots, Anglo-Scandinavian. 
, Lowland Scots. 

/3, Border dialect. 

y, Scottish dialect in Ireland (Ulster.) 

i", ' in the Orkney Islands. 

d. Anglo-American. 


1. Celts on the Danube. Dialects now unknown. 

a. Helvetiit. 

b. Boii X. 

c. Scordiscit. 

d. Albani in Illyria ? Celtic words in the Albanian language, 

e. Cotini in Sarmatia, (Tacitus.) 

2. Celto Italians, x. Dialects little known. 

a. Ligures or Ligyes, as far as the Rhone. 

b. Insubri, Cenomani, Sec. 

c. Rhasenae or Etrurians ? 

d. Ombri, &c. &c, 

See above, Pelasgo-Italians. 

3. Celto-Gauls. Celtic language. 

a. Salyes. 

b. Allobroges, &c. (Tribes of the Alps.) 

c. Volcae, perhaps Beiges. 

d. Arverni, (ausi Latio se dicere fratres.) 

e. JEdui, Sequani, llelvetii. 

f. Bituriges, &c. &c. 

g. Pictones, Santones, &c. 
h. Veneti, &c. 

i. Carnutes, Cenomani, Turones, &c. (Celtic of the Druids.) 
k. Colonies in the British Islands. 

', < \zi( 



1. Colonies in Spain. Celtiberian language. 
<*, Celtiberians divided into six tribes. 

Berones. Lusones. 

Pelendones. Belli. 

Arevaci. Ditthi. 

/3, Celtici on the Anas. 

4. Celto-Hibernians. 

a. lerni (Iverni, Hiberni) in Ireland. Ancient Erse ? 

b. Scoti, settled in Scotland. 

c. Silures, in South Wales. X 

d. Damnonii in Cornwall. X 

e. The Celts of Galicia. 

,,' , Artabres or Arotrebes. 

/3, Nerii. 
y, Prsesamarcse. 
^, Tamarici. 

f. The Oystrimnes. 

5. Celto-Germans or Belgians. Belgic language, or Celto-Germanic. 

a. Continental Beiges. 
#, Beiges. 

/3, Treveri, Leuci, &c. 

y, Nervii. 

J", Morini. 

e, Menapii, Tungri, &c. (See above.) 

b. Insular Beiges or Celto-Britons, or CumbresX Language. Celto-Bre- 

ton or Cumbrian or Cambrian. 
<*, Belgse. of Wiltshire, Atrebates, &c. 
/3, Cantii. 

y, Brigantes, Parisii, &c. 
}, Menapii, Cauci, &c. of Ireland. 

c. Galates or Gauls of Asia. (St. Jerome.) 


a. Celts. The Irish 

or Ires. 

b. Caledonians or 

Gallic language. 

2. Kumbres or Celto-Belgians. 
a. Welsh. 

a. Erse dialect or Erinach. 
b. Caldonach. 

, In the Highlands. 

/3, In Ulster. 

y, Manck, in the Isle of Man. 

Walden in Essex. 

Welsh language. 

a. Dialect of Wales. 

b. of Cornwall. 


1. Turdetani. 

2. Konii, (Cynetes, Cynesii.) 
* Concanni. 

3. Lusitani. 

4. Kallaiki or Gallacci. 

5. Astures. 

6. Vaccaei. 

Unknown dialect, spoken about 6000 
years ago. (Strabo.) 

Unknown dialect.| 

Probably an unknown branch of the 

Celts. X 


) Probably an unknown branch of the 

7. Vettones. } Celtg + 

8. Carpetani. "j 

9. Oretani. 1 Unknown dialects of the Iberian lan- 

10. Editam. > guage.X 

11. Bastetani. 

12. Contestani. J 

13. Ilergetes. Dialect of the Bask.j (M. B.) 
* Vescitania, Oaca. 

14. Ilercaones. ) 

15. Laletani. > Unknown Iberian dialects. 

16. Cerretani. ) 

17. Aquitani. Bask. 

18. Cantabri. Idem. 

19. Vascones. Idem. (Humboldt.) 


* Romana Rustica, the common source of many languages. 

1. Italo-French dialects. 

a, Dialect of Piedmont. 

/8, of Friuli, Fassa, Livina-longa. 

b. Liguro-Italian dialects. 
, Genoese or Zenese. 
/3, Dialect of Monaco, 
y, of Nice. 

^, of Estragnolles. 

c. Lombard dialects. 

at, Milanese and some others. 

/3, Bergamask. 

y, Brescian. 

J", Modenese. 

e, Bolognese. 

?, Paduan. 

2. Dialect of the south and east of Italy. 

, Venetian, (a written and polished dialect.) 

/3, Dalmatian-Italian. 

y, Corfiote. 

^> Zantiote. 

i, Italian as spoken in some islands of the Archipelago. 

b. Tuscan dialects. 

, Pure Tuscan, confined to the learned and higher classes. 

/3, Vulgar Florentine. 

y, Siennese or Sanese, (written and polished.) 

^, Pisan. 

i, Luchese. 

C> Pistoyan. 

ii t Arrezan and several varieties. 

* Dialects of Ombria and the Marches. 

c. Ausonian dialects. 

, Roman, a polished dialect. 

* Transteverine, a vulgar jargon. 
/3, Sabine. 

y, Neapolitan, (a written dialect) 

^> Calabrian. 

, Apulian. 

f > Taratine, or Greco- Apulian. 

, Dialect of Bit on to. 


3. Insular Italian. 

a. Sicilian. 

, Sicilian of the 12th century, (a written language, adapted for poetry.) 
* Dialects little known. 

b. Sardinian. 

, Sarde, divided into two dialects. 

1. Campidanese, (a written dialect.) 

2. Al Capo di Sopra. 

p, Tuscan of Sassari, Sec.) 
y, Algarese. (D'Algheri.) 

c. Corsican. 

Romanic. (Proven$al, Occitanic.) 

a. Romanic of the Alps. 

1. Rhetian or Romanic of the Grisons and the Tyrol. 

*, Dialect of the mountainous districts in the Grisons. 1st, of Schams; 

2d, of Heinzenburg ; 3d, of Domlesch; 4th, of Oberhalbstein : 5th, of 


/3, The Rumonic, spoken in the plains and the mountains. 
y, The Ladinum at Coire. 
^ Gardena in the valley of Groden. 

2. The Valaisan, an ancient Celto-Roman dialect (Low Valais.) 

3. Helvetian of Friburg. 

a, Gruverin in the upper districts. 

/3, Quetzo in the centre. 

y, Broyar in the low districts. 

b. Proven9al. 

1. Proven9al (a written language.) 

*, Dialect of Aire. 
/3, of Berry. 

2. Languedocian. 

, Dialect of Toulouse, or the Moundi; (a written language.) 

/3, of Nisme. 

y, of Nice and the neighbourhood. 

^, Rovergat. 
, Valayen. 

3. Dauphinese, mixed with the Celtic (a written language.) 

, The Bressan. 

/3, Dialect of Rugey. 

4. Gascon. 

, Gascon of Gascony. 

|3, Tolosan ; spoken by the common people ; different from the Moundi. 

y, Bearnais. 

^, Limosin and Perigourdin. 

c. Romanic Iberian. 

1. Ancient Limosin. 

2. Catalonian. 

3* Valencian (a written language.) 
4. Dialect of Majorca. 

* Lingua Franca, a mixed dialect, of which the Catalonian, Limosin, Sici- 
lian, and Arabian, formed the greatest part. 

C. (Spanish,) divided into two branches. 

a. Castilian, (a written and polished language, called in the provinces, el 

1. Dialect of Toledo, (the purest.) 

2. of Leon and the Asturias. 


3. Aragonian. 

4. Andalusian. 

5. Murcian. 

b. Galician or Galego. 

1. Galego. 

2. Portuguese, (a written language.) 

3. Dialects of Alentejo, Beira and Minho. 

4. -- Algarva. 

D. French. 


a. Celto- Latin of the north, (language of the Troveres.) x 

b. Celto-Latin of the west and the centre. X 

ci Vulgar Celto-Latin, (language of the common people in Gascony.) x 
d. Pure Celto-Latin or ancient proven$al, (language of the Troubadours.) X 


1. French, (social language of Europe.) 

a. Ancient dialects in the north of France. 

1. WaUonRouchi at Namur and Liege. 1 Branches of the Franco Ce l- 

L ; . ft 

. 1 
2. French Flemish. f 

3. -- of Picardy and Artois. 

b. Modern dialects of the north. 

1. Norman. 

2. Vulgar French, (Isle of France.) 

3. Burgundian. 

4. French of Orleans. 

5. Angevin. 

6. Canadian French (from the banks of the Loire.) 

c. Dialects of the central and western provinces. 

1. Dialect of Auvergne. "1 

2. - of Poitou, or Pictavium. I The Celtic pronunciation is still 

3. - of La Vendee. [ retained in these dialects. 

4. Low Breton. J 

5. Dialect of Berri. 

6. Bordelais and other Gascon dialects. 

d. Eastern dialects. 

1. Dialect of Franche Comt6. 

2. Vaudois or Reman (Roman.) 

3. Dialect of Savoy. 

4. - of Lyons. 

5. - of the towns in Dauphiny. 



Physical Description of Turkey in Europe. 

IT is time to give an account of those countries from which science, letters and 
the fine arts have been spread over Europe. Greece may be considered the native 
country of the human race, for its philosophers, patriots and men of genius, have 
by their writings or their virtues contributed to the civilization of the world. Every 


friend of humanity must deplore the lamentable condition of that fertile peninsula 
watered by the Danube on the north, by the Euxine on the east, the Egean and 
the Mediterranean on the south, and the Adriatic on the west. Mount Hemus is 
still covered with verdant forests ; the plains of Thrace, Macedonia and Thessaly 
yield abundant and easy harvests to the husbandman ; a thousand ports and a 
thousand gulfs are observed on the coasts, the peninsulas and islands ; the calm 
billows of these tranquil seas bathe the base of mountains covered with vines and 
olive trees. But the populous and numerous towns mentioned by ancient writers 
have been changed into deserts under a despotic government. Ruins and moun- 
tains attest the existence of ancient Greece. 

Four or five chains extend from the regions of Upper Macedonia; | chains of 
the first passes northwards and reaches the banks of the Danube in | mounta ' 1M - 
the neighbourhood of Orsova, or joins by means of the rocks which confine the 
bed of that river a branch of the Transylvanian mountains ; it connects likewise 
the Carpathian range with that of Hemus. The second and the most consider- 
able extends eastwards, and separates Bulgaria from Romania or Thrace ;* its 
steep rocks bound part of the Black Sea, one of its branches reaches towards 
Constantinople and the Dardanelles ; it is what is strictly called the chain of He- 
mus, the Emine-Dag or Balkan of the Turks. A third chain commences in a 
south-east direction at the central ridge of Upper Macedonia, forms the Rhodope 
of the ancients, or the Despoti-Dag of the Turks ; a very elevated plain connects 
its base with that of Hemus, and the Hebrus flows along that valley. A fourth 
chain, which is little known, extends towards the west, it is the Albius or Albanus 
of the ancients, and consists of the mountains of Bosnia and Dalmatia ; lastly, 
a fifth branch, which bends towards the south and the south-west, is connected 
with all the mountains in Epirus, Greece Proper and the Archipelago. 

It is at present impossible to describe correctly the greater number j Hemus pro- 
of these chains : the notices left us by the ancients are much too J per * 
vague. Mount Hemus is compared with the Alps, but under the name of Hemus 
the ancients included all the mountains which separate the feeders of the Danube 
and Adriatic from the waters that flow into the Archipelago. Ptolemy traces 
Hemus in this manner from the south-west to north-east ; modern travellers have 
observed many steep rocks and intricate passes in Hemus Proper or the Balkan ; 
but according to their accounts none of them are.higher than the Appenines, and 
as the snow melts on the summits, the elevation cannot exceed seven or eight 
thousand feet. The ascent is gentle on the north-west side to the Gate of Trajan, 
a famous pass between Sophia and Philippopoli, but the descent towards the south- 
east is steep and rugged. 

Rhodope or Despoti-Dag is steep and difficult of access ; its top is | Rhodope. 
covered with verdant meadows and forests, the weary traveller reposes under their 
shade, f 

The highest mountains are situated to the north of Macedonia in I Dardanian 
the ancient Dardania. The Scomius, at present the Dupindcha, the | mountains - 
Scardus which the moderns call indifferently Schar-Dag and Monte Argentaro, 
form a chain, of which one writer says that he saw two summits, the Wysoka and 
the Rulla, that are covered with perpetual snow ; J another author insists that the 
range has been called Argentaro from the lustre of its sides, which are composed 
of selenite; the statements of both must be considered doubtful, until more cor- 
rect observations are made in these countries. It is probable that Upper Mace- 
donia forms, like Transylvania, a table land of an elevation from two to three 
thousand feet, that it is crowned on one side by the chain already mentioned, and 
that it terminates at Mount Bora. The fertile basin of Salonica is encompassed 
with heights which are a continuation of the same table land ; Atlas, a separate 
and majestic mountain, is not higher than 5000 feet. 

Pindus, now Metzova, is probably the nucleus of the mountains in ' 

Strabo, book VII. f Paul Lucas, p. xxvi. xxvii. 

* Driesch, Embassy to Constantinople. 4 Brown, chap. 15. 


the Greek peninsula ; its rocks, forests and poetic fountains have of late given 
rise to many interesting observations, but its elevation -is still unknown. The nu- 
merous valleys on its sides are covered with trees ; snow falls generally during the 
month of October on all its summits, and two of them, Dokimi and Peristera, are 
covered with snow almost the whole year ;* their height may be vaguely estimated 
at eight or nine thousand feet. The mountains of Epirus extend to the shores of 
the sea ; Thessaly is encompassed with hills, and forms an amphitheatre on which 
seventy-five towns were in ancient times built."f 

oiympui. | Olympus or themodern Lacha is not, "according to Xenagoras, more 
than 5760 feet; according to Bernoulli it is 6120; its rugged and precipitous 
rocks give it a picturesque and sublime appearance ; the pass of Platamona on 
the north of Olympus, is encompassed with perpendicular rocks, that rise to the 
height of 3000 feet ; the famous pass of Thermopylae is not so imposing, but 
neither can vie with the one in the ancient Megaris, between the Scironian rocks 
and the Salonic gulf. Dark and steep rocks hang above the sea, the waves re- 
sound beneath their base, the traveller walks along a narrow path near these pre- 
cipices, and appears suspended between the ocean and the sky.J 
Parnassus. | The erect and steep summits of the ancient Parnassus or the pre- 
sent Liakoura are very lofty, but although they have been seen by many travellers, 
they have been measured by none. The middle districts of the Peloponnesus 
form an elevated ridge, and several mountainous groups arise from it ; of these 
Culmos, or the ancient Cyllene is said to bo the highest central point, and Cape 
Matapan or the ancient Tasnarus, which extends farthest to the south, forms the 
southern extremity of the European continent. 

The coasts of Albania descend gradually towards the gulf of Drino, and rise 
suddenly near the entrance of the Adriatic. Hocks are heaped above rocks, their 
summits reach to the clouds, their sides are rent by lightning, the sea which washes 
them is always tempestuous, and the shores are covered with the wrecks of ves- 
eels. Such are the Acroceraunian mountains, so much dreaded by the ancients ; 
they are now better known by the name of the Monte de Chimera. 

The coasts of the Ionian islands are for the most part very steep; the calcareous 
rocks of Leucade rise from the bottom of a deep and stormy sea ; they were the 
cause of much alarm to mariners in'the time of JEneus and Ulysses ; they are con- 
sidered dangerous even in the present day. 

insiflar chains. | The island of Candia or Crete is supposed to be a continuation of 
the mountainous districts which extend along Greece and the Peloponnesus, and 
the Cyclades are said to be the scattered fragments of two small chains, the one 
of which extends from Athens, the other from Euboea ; thus, as we remove from 
Hemus, the range becomes gradually irregular, or terminates in detached hills and 
abrupt rocks ; the marks of those changes and revolutions which have altered the 
surface of our globe are apparent in the south of Greece. 

thfTuknd of 1 ^ nas ^ ecn maintained that there are some very high mountains in 
Andros. | the Archipelago ; a learned Greek physician declares that the summits 
of the mountains in the island of Andros are covered all the year with snow.|| If 
that statement were correct, it might be concluded that the most elevated points 
in the whole of Greece are situated in that island ; philosophers might expect to 
find there the remains of an immense volcano, an Etna that has been extinguished 
for ages. So extraordinary a fact requires to be confirmed by better evidence 
before it can be generally believed ; the author may have perhaps confounded 
these mountains with others in Euboea. 

The seas and waters which surround and intersect Greece shall be enumerated 
before we enter into any details concerning its soil and climate. 

Pouqueville, Deuxieme Voyage, t.II. 178, 233; t. III. 46, &c. 
t Pliny, lib. IV. cap. VII. 

* The length of the pass is ubout two miles and a quarter; Spon. Voyage, t. IT. p. in. 
Chandler, chap. XLIV. p. 198. Wheeler, p. 437. Pliny, lib. II. cap. 47. Tausanias, lib. I. 
cap. 45. Chateaubriand, &c. 

Ponqueville, iv. 335, 349. B Zallony, Voyage, p. 34. 


The Pontus Euxinus is now probably in the same state that it was I p ontugEuX i. 
in the earliest historic age ; the western part is shallow, but the east- j nus - 
ern, which is very deep, has been attempted to be fathomed in some places without 
success.* The water of that sea is in many places as fresh as that of the rivers 
which flow into it.f The evaporation of the fresh water facilitates the formation 
of ice, which is not uncommon ;J the congelation is thus occasioned by the fresh- 
ness of the water, and that large sea is sometimes frozen to a considerable dis- 
tance from the shore. Shoals of fish arrive there in the spring of the year from 
the extremity of the Mediterranean, and deposit their spawn in the muddy and 
fresh water of the Euxine, where animals of prey never enter ; the same shoals 
return to the Mediterranean at the approach of winter. [| 

The Pontus Euxinus is nothing more than a vast lake ; it bears all the marks 
of one; flows like those in North America through a kind of a river which forms at 
first the narrow channel of Constantinople or the Thracian Bosphorus, it then as- 
sumes the appearance of a small lake that is called Propontis, or the sea of Mar- 
mora, IT passes towards the south-west, and takes anew the form of a large river 
which has been termed the Hellespont, or the Dardanelles. These channels re- 
semble many other outlets of lakes ; the great body of water that flows through 
so narrow an opening need not excite wonder, although it has given rise to various 

According to M. Olivier, a range of schistus hills covered with I Hypothesis 
trees, and broken only by some fertile valleys, extends along the | fheBosphorus. 
channel of Constantinople or the Bosphorus to the village of Buyak-Dere,** but 
beyond it in the direction towards the Black Sea, both sides bear evident marks of 
their volcanic origin. " I observed every where," says that writer, " rocks more 
or less changed by decomposition, jaspers and cornelians in confused heaps, veins 
of agate and chalcedony amidst porphyry altered in the same manner. A sub- 
stance not very solid, and in many places almost decomposed, is formed by frag- 
ments of trap cemented in calcareous spar ; lastly, a continuation of solid trap 
extends to the distance of more than half a league." It is there that Olivier and 
Choiseul-Gouffier place the remains of a volcano which must have opened a pas- 
sage for the Black Sea. It has been proved that the substances above mentioned 
are not volcanic by M. Faujas-Saint-Fond, who analyzed the specimens sent to 
Paris ; the only probable change, therefore, that has happened in the Bosphorus 
is either the gradual sinking or sudden demolition of a barrier of rocks like that at 
the falls of Niagara. Such a revolution must have been anterior to the commence- 
ment of profane history ; since that time, it may be shown from the details of 
Scylax, and the accounts of the Argonauts, that the circumference of the Pontus 
Euxinus has remained the same. 

The Bosphorus forms the neck of the Egean Sea, which has been | Archipelago, 
incorrectly called the Archipelago ;|"f the calcareous coasts that bound the greater 
part of it are every where very steep ; the rocks of which the strata are placed ver- 
tically, as if they had been overturned, are one of the many indications of the suc- 
cessive changes or physical revolutions in that part of Greece. The gulfs of 
Salonica, Athens and several others, intersect the neighbouring continents ; such 
phenomena may serve to illustrate the theories or reasonings of geologists, but 
some Greek naturalists seem to have forgotten that whatever physical changes 

Aristotle, Meteor, lib. I. cap. XII. 

t Arrian, Periplus, ap. Geog. Minores Hudsomi, t. I. p. 8. Isidorus ex Sallustio, lib. XIII. 
c. XVI. Senec. in Medea, act II. 

* Ammian. Marcelin. lib. XXH. Mem. de 1' Academic des Inscrip. lib. XXXH. p. 639. 
Chardin, Voyages. 

Herod, ap. Macrob. lib. VII. Tournefort, t. II. p. 130. 

H Aris. Hist. Amm. lib. VI. cap. XVII lib. VII. c. XIX. Plin. IX. cap. XV. Fac. Annal. 
XII. cap. LXIII. .Elian, lib. IX. cap. XLIX. 

t Probably from the Greek word ^ag^a/pa, resplendeo. 

Olivier, Voyage, &c. 1. 1. p. LXI. 

If Archipelago is perhaps an ancient and popular name, A$yvw *r\a^c, the G cck or, 
according to others, Ag^/ ?m*>of, the principal or royal wa. 


may have happened on these seas, few or none have taken place since the time at 
which history begins to dawn, or during a period of 3000 years. The ruins of 
buildings, harbours or quays have blocked the narrow strait on which Cyzicus was 
built, and changed the island of Cyzicum into a peninsula.* Similar changes 
have been produced by littoral deposits that cannot be carried off by any current 
in small, narrow and shallow seas, like the one at the pass of Thermopylae. 

No alterations can be discovered on the southern coasts of the Mediterranean, 
because that sea is immense, if contrasted with the Archipelago ; the rocks of the 
Strophades remain erect, and the port of Pylos is neither blocked nor contracted ; 
the narrow isthmus of Leucade has been cut by the labour of man. f If any isles 
among the Echinades are now joined to the continent, the cause must be attribu- 
ted to the alluvial deposits carried down by the Aspro-Potamo. 
Riven and The Dasm f the Danube includes more than a third part of Turkey 

streams. in Europe ; the Drino in Bosnia, and the Morawa in Servia, enter the 

Danube before it reaches the cataracts of Tachtali and Demir-Kapi ; ten other 
feeders descend from Hemus ; but the only considerable rivers, as the Aluta in 
Wallachia, the Pruth and Sereth in Moldavia, flow from the Carpathian mountains. 

The Albanian Drino discharges itself into the basin of the Adriatic, and the 
southern branch of that river, or the Black Drino, receives the waters of the lake 
Ochrida. The Boina serves as an outlet for the picturesque and large lake of 
Scutari. The Aous or the Voyoussa flows from Pindus to the Adriatic. 

The basin of the Maritza, or the ancient Hebrus, occupies the greater part of 
Romelia ; there is only one outlet in that elevated plain and the Hebrus escapes 
by it, and after crossing a marshy lake from which its modern name is derived, 
enters the Archipelago. The Axius or the Vardar of the moderns, and all the 
rivers of Macedonia except the Stryraon meet in the gulf of Salonica, a kind of 
delta which is formed by means of their concourse increases gradually above the 
gulf. The rivers in the southern peninsula or in Greece are inconsiderable, but 
their classical celebrity entitles them to notice. 

vale of I The plain of Thessaly is surrounded in every direction except the 
Tempe. | south-east with high mountains, and it is asked why the Peneus does 
not pass along the lowest side ; the cause must without doubt be attributed to 
some local obstacle by which its course is diverted towards the lofty heights of 
Olympus ; it then descends by the deep and narrow valley of Tempe into the 
sea. The vale extends from the south-west to the north-east,J its length is about 
forty stadia or a league and a half; its breadth, although in general a stadium and 
a half, is in one place not more than a hundred feet.|| The calm streams of the 
Peneus water the valley under the shade of poplars or plane trees, near rocks 
overspread with ivy, and green and fertile hills ; several verdant and beautiful 
islands have been discovered on the river, but its banks are suddenly contracted, 
rocks are confusedly heaped on rocks, and its streams are precipitated with a loud 
noise across a narrow pass, but beyond it the waters resume their tranquil course, 
and mingle with the sea. 

The following traditibn was very generally believed in ancient times, 
the Peneus, it is said, having at one period no outlet, formed a great 
lake, which covered a part of Thessaly, particularly the Pelasgic plain to the south 
of Larissa. The valley of Tempe was opened by an earthquake, the lake flowed 
into the sea, and the dry land gradually appeared.lT The inhabitants of that region 
instituted a festival to commemorate an event by which the face of their country 
had been changed.** But Theophrastus having observed that the climate of Thes- 
saly was colder in his time, attributes it to the artificial channels, by means of 

Strabo, liber XII. p. 396. f Idem, liber I. p. 41. 

r * Pococke, vol. HI. p. 152. Pliny, vol. HI. lib. i. 44. c. vi. 

I Plin. vol. in. -Elian. Var. Hist. 1. III. c. I. Voyage d'Anacharsis, III. c. XXXV. p. 367 
third edition. 

1 Herodot. 1. VII. c. CXX1X. Strabo, 1. IX. p. 296. Senec. Quxst. Natur. 1. VI. 

'* Athcn. 1. XIV. p. 639. -Elian. Var. Hist. 1. HI. c. I. Meursii Graecia, in voce Pelori*. 

Ancient The*- 
salonian lake. 


which the stagnant waters had been drained ;* some of the poets corroborate that 
opinion, and claim for Hercules the glory of having opened a passage for the Pe- 
neus. According to some authors, the deluge in the time of Deucalion extended 
over the whole earth ; it is more generally supposed to have been a partial inunda- 
tion of Thessaly, which lasted three months ; it may be accounted for by admitting 
that the channel of the Peneus was blocked either by an earthquake during which 
some rocks were overturned, and thus formed an effectual barrier for its course, 
or by excessive rains, which occasioned a sudden and extraordinary augmentation 
of its waters. t 

The probability of these different traditions, which are interesting in their rela- 
tion to physical geography, can only be determined by new observations made in 
that part of Greece. 

changes in 

The small basin which forms the greater part of Beotia, may give 
rise to inquiries of a different nature. The rivers or rather the streams 
unite in a marshy lake called in ancient times the Copais ; it is surrounded on all 
sides by mountains, and has no apparent issue ; had not concealed passages for 
the flux of its water been formed by nature and the efforts of man, it might have 
covered perhaps the whole of Beotia. J The Copais terminates on the side next 
the shore in three bays that extend within a foot of Mount Ptous, which is situ- 
ated between the lake and the sea. From the bottom of each bay a number of 
channels extend along the mountain, some of them are thirty stadia in length, or 
more than a league, others are still longer. Deep pits have been dug at equal 
distances on the mountain, by that means the channels are cleared and the waters 
have a free passage. These works, immense as they are, must have been com- 
pleted at a very remote epoch ; no information as to the period can be obtained 
from the earliest history or tradition. Strabo says that it was generally admitted 
in his time that the ground now covered by the lake was formerly very fertile, and 
that its culture was a source of wealth to the inhabitants of Orchomenus.|| The 
same writer has described the whole district. " The people in that part of Beotia 
are exposed to great inconvenience from the many deep caverns and clefts below 
the ground ; the subterranean issues are sometimes obstructed by dreadful earth- 
quakes, or by the same cause new passages are opened. The streams are diverted 
into concealed channels, or changed by the sinking of the surface into marshes 
and lakes. Thus some towns have been observed on the banks of a lake, which 
were formerly situated in the middle of a plan ; some too have been nearly over- 
whelmed by inundations, and abandoned by their inhabitants, who built others of 
the same name." 

These local revolutions have given rise to many fables concerning the deluge 
in the time of Ogyges, king of Beotia. 

Similar phenomena may be observed on the central ridge of the Peloponnesus; 
many of the high valleys are completely enclosed ; the Alpheus, the Erasmus, the 
Stymphalus and other rivers, for want of an outlet, fall into whirlpools, or enter 
subterraneous channels and re-appear at a considerable distance on the surface of 
the ground.ff 

The changes produced by the action of subterraneous heat, have | Earthquakes. 
been for the last three thousand years, local, insignificant and wholly inadequate 
to account for the great devastations attributed to them in the systems of hypo- 
thetical geology. Earthquakes were not uncommon throughout Laconia, and at 
one time the proud Lacedemonians were forced to implore their hated rivals of 
Athens to assist them in building the fallen walls of Lacedemon.** Helice was 

* Theophr. de Causis Plant. 1. V. c. XX. 

f Freret, Memoire sur les Deluges d'Ogyges et de Deucalion, Acad. des Inscript. t. 
XXIII. p. 129. 

* Strabo, 1. IX. p. 280. Wheeler's Journey through Greece. 
B Strabo,!. IX. p. 286. 

7 Pausan. 1. VII. c. CXXIV. p. 587. Diod. Sic. 1. XV. p. 365. Edit, Wessel. Plin. I. 
II. c. XCII. 
Pausan. 1, VIII. c. VII. XIV. XXir, XXUI. 


onco a flourishing city about twelve stadia from the gulf of Corinth, but in one 
night it was laid in ruins and all its inhabitants destroyed. The buildings were 
overthrown by repeated shocks, the sea advanced beyond the shore and inundated 
the city; the earth sunk to a great depth; the tops of the highest houses were seen 
above the water.* 

The changes that took place in the neighbourhood of Trsezena are still more 
extraordinary. Strabo informs us that a plainnear Methana of seven stadia in ex- 
tent, rose from the bottom of the sea, an igneous vapour exhaled from the ocean, 
and spread around a sulphureous and disagreeable odour. f 

The soil in the island of Melas or the modern Milo is hollow and spungy; crys- 
tallizations of alum are suspended from the roofs of the caverns, the clefts in the 
rocks are filled with fragments of native sulphur, warm mineral springs flow in 
every direction, a sulphureous vapour rises from all the marshes ;J such is the 
account which Pliny gives of the island, and the accuracy of his description has 
been confirmed by modern travellers. The island of Argentera is wholly com- 
posed of volcanic matter ; we are led by every appearance to believe that the 
small group in the vicinity was at one time the summit of a volcano, 
volcanic Another group, of which the modern Santorin or the ancient Thera 

islands. | j s the largest island, has been very often mentioned in the accounts of 

volcanoes; Pliny, who supposes that Thera was formed by a volcanic eruption, 
has been triumphantly refuted by Father Hardouin in his Commentaries on Hero- 
dotus, abundant proofs however are not wanting as to the existence of an ancient 
volcano, the crater of which occupied all the basin between Santorin and the 
smaller islands; the mouth of the crater has been partly overthrown and the aper- 
ture enclosed by the accumulation of dust and ashes, several isles have been thus 
formed, Thera itself has been often shaken. The lava, the ashes and pumice 
stone discharged from that volcano have covered part of the island ;|| but the 
greater portion, which consists of a large bed of fine marble, has never been in 
any way changed by the action of volcanic fire. IT 

Eruptions. | A few rocks, geographers are not agreed as to their names, have 
been raised or overturned by these eruptions ; and it is certain that the appear- 
ances exhibited by them must have been fully as grand as any recorded in modern 
times. Seneca has given a minute account of one eruption, which he copied from 
the writings of the learned Posidonius.** " The sea was suddenly troubled, dense 
volumes of smoke ascended the clouds, a passage was opened for the flames, 
which appeared from time to time like flashes of lightning ; heaps of stones fell in 
every direction, heavy rocks were discharged from the deep, others partly con- 
sumed by the action of subterraneous fire, were light as pumice stones. The 
summit of a mountain was at last seen and rose to a considerable height, it in- 
creased gradually in size and formed an island. The depth of that part of the sea 
is about two hundred paces." 

The most minute observations wore made on the effects of the eruptions that 
happened in 1707 and 1712. The new island frequently sunk and gave way in 
one direction, while it rose and became larger in another ; several rocks were 
sometimes seen above the surface of the water, and fell again below it, at last they 
reappeared and remained It is evident from these statements that 
the small islands thus formed must be considered the craters of submarine vol- 

cavern*. | The changes occasioned by volcanoes, if rightly estimated, are 
less extraordinary than others produced by the gradual sinking of the ground in 

Strabo, 1. VFII. p. 253. Thucid. 1. I. c. CI. Plut. in Cim. p. 489. 
f Bougainville, Mem. de I'Academie des Inscrip. t. XXIX. p. 40. 

* Herod. 1. IV. c. CXLV. Hardouin in notis ad Plin. 1. II. c. XXIV. 
Memoires de Trevoux, 1715, Septembre. 

B Memoirs de Trevoux, 1715, Mois de ieptembre. 
T Tournefort, Voyages, 1. 1. p. 21. 
Senec. Qusest. Nat. II. c. XXVI. 
\\ Mem. des Missionaries de la Compaigne de Jesus dans le Levant, f. I. p. 133. 

Cavern in 


different countries ; some well-known caverns in Greece may be mentioned to 
corroborate this opinion. The labyrinth of Gortyna in the island of Crete is, ac- 
cording to Tournefort,* a vast cave, which passes by a thousand windings under 
a hill in the neighbourhood of Mount* Ida, and extends to the south through an 
immense number of alleys to which there are no outlets ; a comparatively large 
passage has been discovered, it leads to a spacious hall about 1200 paces in 
length, and seven or eight feet in height, its flat roof, like the most of the strata 
in these mountains, is formed by a bed of horizontal rocks, the floor is level, the 
walls have been cut perpendicularly in some places, in others they consist of huge 
stones which obstruct the entrance, and are heaped together without order ; many 
lateral alleys terminate on both sides of the passage, and in one part the traveller 
must advance more than a hundred yards on his hands and knees. The cavern, 
which now affords shelter for bats and other animals, is very dry, no water or 
moisture has been observed on its sides. 

The labyrinth cannot be considered a quarry as Belon supposes, it was originally 
formed by nature, and afterwards enlarged by the inhabitants, who used it as a 
place of refuge in time of war ; Diodorus says expressly that the Cretans lived at 
first in caves and caverns, f 

The cavity in the island of Antiparos, which is perhaps one of the most remark- 
able in the world, has been fully described by M. Tournefort ; the 
traveller enters first into a cavern, but after having advanced a short 
distance, frightful precipices surround him on every side; the only way of descend- 
ing these steep rocks is by means of ropes and ladders which have been placed 
across wide and dismal clefts, below them at the depth of 300 fathoms from tho 
surface, is situated a large grotto filled with beautiful stalactites ; the height of the 
grotto is about forty fathoms, its breadth about fifty. Tournefort, who saw all the 
works of nature with the eye of a botanist, imagined that he had discovered a 
crystalline garden, which afforded him most satisfactory evidence in support of a 
new hypothesis on the vegetation of minerals. 

There is a remarkable cave in the small island of Polycandro, all the concre 
tions in it are ferruginous and of a reddish colour, they resemble so many spiculd) 
and are very sharp and brittle, the sides, the roof, and ground of the cave ard 
covered with them, some are dark, others glitter like gold. 

The cave of Trophonius, a long time the abode of superstition, is 
still to be seen in Beotia,J and that of Corycius is situated to the 
north of Delphi; although very deep, almost the whole of it is illumined by the 
light of day ; it is so large that all the inhabitants of Delphi went to it for shelter 
during the invasion of Xerxes. Every part in the neighbourhood of Mount Par- 
nassus abounds in caverns, which were held in great veneration by the common 
people ; it has been supposed that mephitical vapours issued from the spirracles 
near the celebrated cave of the oracle, above which the pythoness sat on the 
sacred tripod ; the natural effect of the exhalations was to occasion convul- 
sions and those exstasies which have accompanied in every age the gift of pro- 

The lofty chains of Hemus, Scardus, and Pindus, have not been examined by 
modern travellers ; the barbarism of the inhabitants renders it dangerous to visit 

It is said that near the torrents of Macedonia, many bones not unlike those of 
the human body but much larger, have been discovered ; in all probability they 
are the fossil remains of some huge animals that existed in the antediluvian world. 
Other discoveries more important perhaps might be made, if the virgin soil in 
the districts of Greece were explored by geologists ; no mention is made in his- 

* Tournefort, Voyage du Levant, 1. 1. p. 65, &c. Belon. Observ. 1. I. c. VI. Savary, Lettres 
sur la Greece, p. 219. 

t Diod. Sic. 1. V. p. 334, edit. Weasel. 

* Gordon's Geography, p. 179. Pausan. I. IX. p. 791. edit. 1696. 

Herod. 1. VIII. c. XXXVI. Pausan. 1. X. c. XXXII. Eschyl. in Eumen. V. 23. 

Cave of 


lory of any actual volcano, but the numerous warm and bubbling springs on the 
mountains seem to indicate their volcanic origin. 

ciimtte. | It has been seen that the elevation of the different parts of Greece 
is very unequal. " It results from so great an inequality;" says Hippocrates, 
" that the region of winter is sometimes separated from that of summer by a single 
stadium." The heat is oppressive at the base of Mount Olympus, the cold is ex- 
treme at its summit,* and spring is the prevailing season on the sides of Pelion 
cKmate of the I and Ossa.| The soil of Greece rises in the direction of Hemus, thus 
mountains. j rjpper Macedonia and Thrace are considered cold countries, and in 
former times the ancients fixed there the residence of Boreas. The same moun- 
tains were once inhabited by brave and independent men, their descendants re- 
sisted despotism more effectually than the rest of the Greeks ; such facts con- 
nected with the history and the character of nations are not uninstructive ; the 
Sarres or the people of the mountains in Thrace retained their freedom for a long 
time ; hordes of Turcomans, who cannot be said to have ever submitted to a 
foreign power, now inhabit these districts and Macedonia. The Illyrians resisted 
the Macedonian kings and the Roman legions ; if the Arnauts or Albanians who 
wander in the same regions, be not regularly paid, the Turks cannot depend on 
their service. The Christian Albanians of Souli, rendered themselves illlustrious 
by their heroic achievements during a war that lasted ten years ; although the 
Greeks at Constantinople and Salonica are effeminate and degraded, the moun- 
taineers are not so easily subdued, their ancient courage is not wholly lost, their 
love of freedom is not extinct. It is needless to mention the Maniote band so 
often cited to confirm what has been said, but it is not perhaps generally known 
that the brave and industrious inhabitants of Ambelakia, an insignificant town on the 
side of Ossa, have often repelled the Ottoman troops, and never suffered a Turk 
to remain in their district. The Sphachiotes, or the people of the White moun- 
tains of Crete, have recently yielded to their enemies ; their subjugation was the 
effect of civil dissensions, not of the Turkish arms ; had the ardour and impetu- 
osity of such men been restrained, had they been better disciplined before they 
raised the banner of independence, the liberators of Greece might have descend- 
ed from its mountains. The other inhabitants of the same districts are the fierce 
and mercenary Albanian, the fanatic Mussulman of Bosnia, and the Servian, ready 
to defend his own possessions, but indifferent about his neighbour's ; it is consola- 
tory amidst such disadvantages to reflect that a country like Greece, intersected 
with mountains, numerous passes and gulfs, contains within itself the elements of 

Greece. | Greece is situated between two seas, and is not for that reason ex- 
posed to excessive droughts ; but the cold is often more intense than in Italy or 
Spain, and the cause is owing to its being connected on two sides with the great 
range of the continent, the temperature of which in equal parallels is always lower 
towards the centre, and also to its proximity to two great mountainous chains, 
Hemus and Taurus. The ancients have left us a full account of the prevailing 
winds in Greece, and of their influence on the seasons ; according to Aristotle, 
none is so prevalent, so dry and cold as the north wind ; it is often the forerunner 
of hail, and sometimes of storms ; but, although dry in the rest of Greece, it is 
considered a rainy wind in the neighbourhood of the Hellespont and on the coasts 
of Cyrenaica ;J it arrives in these two countries from the seas in the immediate 
vicinity of the Hellespont ; the same wind is cold and boisterous on the sides of 
Mount Ida ; the ancients thought that it checked the epidemical diseases which 
devasted Eytelene, and were attributed to the continuance of the south and north- 
west winds. The north-east wind prevails about the vernal equinox, it drives 
the clouds slowly before it, and is the harbinger of rain in Attica, and in the 

* Sonnini, Voyage, t. II. p. 294. 
f Felix Beaujour, Tableau, &c. 1. 1. p. 326. 
t Arist. Meteor., I. II. c. VI. probl. 26. 
Vitruv. 1. 1. c. VI. 


islands of the Archipelago ; surcharged with the mists that rise from the Euxine v 
it passes above cold countries, and is often accompanied with frost in Wallachia 
and Moldavia ; the east wind, on the contrary, is announced by gentle and re- 
freshing breezes. The south-east wind blows about the winter solstice ; warm 
and dry at first, it becomes gradually humid, and at last brings on rain ; Lucretius 
considered it the cause of the plague which desolated Attica under the reign of 
Cecrops.* The south wind arrives in Greece about the end of autumn, after the 
winter solstice and at the beginning of spring ; some of the ancients supposed it 
favourable to vegetation, others thought it unhealthy, and the forerunner of pesti- 
lential diseases 5 at all events, it is followed by violent and continued showers. 
Empedocles had observed that the flames of Etna were always most vivid while 
the wind blew from the north, and that they became dull and obscure as soon as the 
dark clouds indicated the approach of southern blasts.| Dense vapours rise from 
the Mediterranean ; the excessive moisture brought by the south wind in Greece 
and Italy is collected in its passage above that sea; the same breezes that proceed 
from Mount Atlas and other inland chains are cold and dry in some parts of 

The zephyr is generally associated with the descriptions of the Greek writers ; 
Aristotle calls it the gentlest of the winds ;"[ according to Homer, it reigns in the 
Elysian fields inhabited .by the blessed, governed by Rhadamanthus, and never 
exposed to the cold of winter ; but the same poet, in another part of his writings, 
places the zephyr near Boreas, and considers it stormy and unhealthy. That ap- 
parent contradiction is reconciled by the concurring testimony of the ancients 
and the moderns ; it has been shown that the zephyr near the entrance of the 
Hellespont or the scene of the Iliad is frequently boisterous ; the storms occasion- 
ed by it have been fatal to seamen. 

Hippocrates declares that the zephyr is a very unwholesome wind in the island 
of Thasos, and is commonly accompanied with rain on the coasts of Greece ;|| 
Vitruvius says expressly that the north-west wind, which is not far removed from 
the zephyr, and included by the ancients under the same denomination, brings 
thick mists on the Archipelago, and is unhealthy on the coasts of Lesbos opposite 

The north-west wind is very different in different parts of Greece, cold and dry 
at Chalcis in Euboea, where it blows a shbrt time before or after the winter sol- 
stice ; it scorches vegetation and burns the trees more effectually than the summer's 
heat ;** it proceeds to Euboea from Olympus, and is 'sometimes called by the name 
of that mountain ; but its qualities are changed in its passage across the Egean 
sea ; according to Theophrastus it is rainy at Cnidus and in the island of 

The etesian were considered by the ancients the most remarkable | Etesian, 
of the periodical winds in Greece; Aristotle and Lucretius tell us that these re- 
freshing breezes are felt about the summer solstice, and at the rising of the Canis 
Minor :ft m western climates their course is towards the south-west, but they ad- 
vance in the direction of the south-east in eastern countries. Aristotle says that 
they blow during the night, and cease during the day, from which it might be in- 
ferred that they ate land winds ; Posidonius affirms that they are common within 
that part of the Mediterranean between Spain and Sardinia ;JJ Pliny assigns them 
the same course in Spain and Aia; Aulus Gellius observing the contradictory 

Lncret. de Rcrnm Nature, V,I. verse 1136. 
f Strabo, Geog\ 1. VI. p. 190. 

* Arist. Proh!. 1. XXVI. 16, 51. Herodot. 1. VI. Aulus GeH. 1. VI. c. II. Lucan. Phars. IX. 

Iliad. IX. v. 5; Odyss. v. 295. Tbid. XU. 239. 
|| Hippocr. Kpid. 1. sect. 2. n. 12, 8tc. 
1 Vitmv. 1. VI. c. VI. 

* Theophrast. Hist. Plant. 1. IV. c. XVI. etde Causis Plant. 1. V. c. VI. 
ft Arit. Meteor. 1. 11. c. V. and Vt. Lucret. V. 741. Polyb. 1. IV. Died, Sic. 1. L 
Posidonius, quoted by Stvabo, 1. III. p. 99. 
. IV. L 


statements of certain authors on the subject, seta them all right, and concludes 
that the etesian winds blow sometimes from different directions.* 
o-nithian The ornithian winds are so called, because about the time they 

wid. begin, many birds of passage arrive in Greece ; these sea breezes 

commence in spring about seventy days after the winter solstice ; they are mild, 
variable, and of shorter duration than the etesian winds ; it appears from Pliny's 
description that the Greeks comprehended by the ornithian winds, all the breezes 
from the Mediterranean ; their direction varying according to that of the coasts 
might include several points of the compass between the west and south-east. 

The narratives of modern travellers accord on the whole with the ancient ac- 
counts which have been now stated ; one example shall be cited. " During the 
summer," says Galant,f " a west wind prevails in the neighbourhood of Smyrna, 
it begins about ten in the morning, and continues increasing till four in the even- 
ing ;" (that sea-breeze must be nearly the same as the ornithian zephyrs described 
by Pliny ;) " in the same season the tramontane or north winds are felt throughout 
the Archipelago." Such are the common etesian winds by which Tournefort was 
carried in nine days from Marseilles to Canea.J 

Rnge of The temperature of Greece varies greatly in different districts, it 

temperature. | nag b een 8a j ( j tnat fae climates of all the regions in Europe are con- 
centrated in that country ; the waters of the Danube and the Hebrus are frozen in 
winter; the Russians who crossed Mount Hemus had recourse to their .furs to pro- 
tect them against the cold ; but on the other hand, spring and summer are the only 
seasons on the coast of Attica. " The notes of the nightingale are heard in ver- 
dant plains where the cold of winter is unknown, and rude blasts never felt; the 
branches of fruit trees encircled with ivy, or the tendrils of the vine shelter these 
valleys from the burning rays of the sun. Bacchus and his joyous votaries wander 
in the groves ; the narcissus and the glittering crocus, which adorn the wreaths of 
the gods, are always in flower. Venus and the muses meet on the magic banks of 
the Cephisus ; its winding streams, flowing through a thousand channels, water 
fertile meads. "|| 

Plin. 1. II. A. GeHius, Noct. Attic. 1. XI. c. XXIT. 

t Hist, de 1'Academie des Sciences de Paris, 1688, t. II. p. 38. 

* Tournefort, Voyage au Levant, t. I. lettre I. 
Travels of the Russian Embassy. 

|J Such is Mr. B.'s translation of a passage in Sophocles. We subjoin the more correct 
and literal version by Potter. 

STJIO.'I. Where sadly sweet the frequent nightingale 
ImpassionM pours her evening song, 
And charms with varied notes each verdant vale, 
The iv>*s dark -preen boughs among; 
Or shelterM 'midst the clustering vine, 
Which high above to form a bow'r 

Safe from the sun or stormy show'r, , . 

Loves its thick branches to entwine; 
Where frolic Bacchus always roves, 
And visits with his fost'ring nymphs the groves. 

Aims. I. flatbed in the dew of heaven each morn. 
Fresh is the fair Narcissus born ! 
Of these great pow'rs the crowns of old 
The crocus glitters robed in gold. 
Here restless fountains ever murm'ring glide : 
And as their limpid streamlets stray 
Tt> feed, Cephisus, thy unfailing tide, 
Fresh verduve'marks their winding way ; 
And as their pure streams roll along 
O'er the rich bosom of the ground, 
Quick spring the plants, the flow'rs around \ 
Here oft to raise the tuneful song, 
The virgin band of muses deigns; 
And car-born Venus guides her golden reins. 

CEnipvs AT 

Forests on the 
north and the 
south of 


ff the island of Milo be excepted, which is renderrd unhealthy by sulphurous 
vapours, the climate of the Archipelago is perhaps the finest in Europe ; the tem- 
perature is more uniform than on the continent, and the corn is sooner ripe in the 
island of Salamis than in Attica ; although Crete is situated under the 35th paral- 
lel, it is only exposed to excessive heat while the south wind prevails, it often hap- 
pens that these winds are not sufficiently strong to cross the mountains which 
shelter the island, when that is the case, the weather is delightful; Savary tells us 
that the greatest range of the centigrade thermometer from the month of March to 
November was between 20 and 27 above zero. Snow or ice was never seen in 
the plains, in the month of February the fields are covered with flowers and har- 

A great difference may be observed in the vegetable productions of 
the provinces included within the basin of the Danube, and of those 
on the south of Mount Hemus ; in the southern provinces the moun- 
tains' sides are crowned with forests ; travellers have remarked among the nume- 
rous trees the common fir, the yew, the larissio pine, the cedar, the holm, scarlet 
and common oak, the lofty eastern plane, the maple, the carob, the sycamore, the 
beech, the walnut and chesnut No accurate observations have hitherto been 
made concerning the levels at which each plant begins ; it is probable that the 
zones of vegetation bear some resemblance to those in Italy and Sicily, but the 
northern flora descends lower in the south than on the Appenines. The forests on 
Mount Hemus do not exhibit the same variety of. speqieE ; the most common 
trees towards the north are the oak, the mountain ash, and the lime ; the carob, 
the sycamore and the plane never grow unless they be forced by artificial means 
or cultivation. The heights on the Danube are clad with apple, pine, cherry, and 
apricot trees, whole forests of them may be seen in Wallachia ; they ex- | Fruit trees, 
tend beyond the chain of Hemus, and cover the high hills in Thrace, Macedonia, and 
Epirus. The olive and the orange trees thrive beyond the 40th parallel near the sea, 
but never flourish in the interior, the cold of the mountains is too severe ; the cli- 
mate to the south of the same parallel is wholly different. The apple and pear 
trees disappear; the olive now becomes the most common fruit tree, and the 
extensive plantations which adorn the coast of Attica and Crete are interspersed 
with the laurel and the large-leaved myrtle; The orange, the fig, the pistachio, 
the mastich, or Pistachio, terebinthus, the mulberry, and the pomegranate, grow in 
rich luxuriance ; some of them, as well as. that variety of the olive which was ob- 
served by Tournefort on the sides of Mount Ida, are supposed to be indigenous to 
Greece. f 

The shrubs assume a different character, the finest are the rose laurel and the 
caper bush, the one follows the winding course of streams, the other is seen in 
groups among the rocks ; the cherry laurel and two kinds of arbutus, the Unedo 
Andrachne are frequently observed in the same part of the country; The soil of 
Greece is in many places calcareous, and the plants best adapted for that kind of 
ground are most abundant; thus the mountains of Crete are covered with the 
Stachijs crelica, the thistle leaved acanthus, the prickly endive, the Origanum 
dictamnus, the dictamnus of Crete, and the astragalus tragacanthus, which yields a 
valuable resin; the genuine laudanum of the east is obtained from the Cistus 
creticus, which is cultivated and grows in a wild state on the islands of the Archi* 
pelago. Aromatic and resinous plants are mot abundant, the lentisk and mastich 
trees appear nowhere in such profusion or in so great perfection as in the island of 
Delos. The carnation shrub, the Lichen parellus, from which the inhabitants 
extract archil, a delicate rouge, and many other shrubs that cannot be enumerated 
in a geographical work, are considered indigenous to the Archipelago and the 
neighbourhood of Constantinople. It may however be remarked, that | Vmeyardi. 
the grapes are very different on the banks of the Danube and on the shores of the 
Archipelago, in the latter country they contain a great quantity of saccharin mat* 

Savary, leltre XXXI. f Voyage dam 1 Levant, torn, L p, 19. 


ter, those of JTallachiu are wutery and acid ; strong and generous wine might be 
obtained from the vineyards in Servia and Hertzegovina, they are sheltered from 
the cold of winter and the scorching heat of summer ^ were greater attention and 
more labour bestowed on the cultivation of the grape, the vineyards in European 
Turkey might not be inferior to the finest in the world. 

Tramiiion The ve g ela ble productions of the south and north, appear near each 

ofpiantfc I other on the shores of the Bosphorus. According to JY1. Olivier, the 
most common plants are the large chesnut tree, the qucrcns racemosa of Lamark, 
the cypress, the lime, the arbutus and genista. The convolvulus Persica and the 
Dyosporus lotus flourish on the low arid sandy plains ; the latter is considered a 
delicacy by the Turks. The coasts of Gallipoli are covered with the Clemuti* 
cirrhosa, the Daphne crelica, a beautiful shrub, and the Sparliutn parvijiorum, 
which grows generally to the height of five feet. The transition between -the 
vegetation in the north and south of Turkey, might be best observed in the interior 
of Thrace and Macedonia, but these provinces have not as yet been visited by 
botanists. It is besides very difficult to distinguish the plants that have been 
added by cultivation from such as are indigenous; the names made known to us 
by ancient writers are of doubtful signification ; M. Olivier states that a palm tree 
is marked on the reverse of several of the medals that have been found on the 
island of Nio ; the same writer is unable to account for that fact, and without 
doubt the palm is not at present a production of the island ; that plant has been 
observed in few places throughout the Archipelago, and those that grow at Naxos 
and near Scio in Crete never bear fruit.* The Greeks borrowed some of the 
impressions in their pieces of money from the Phenicians, others were intended 
to illustrate their mythology ; at all events, the stamp of a palm troe has no con- 
nexion with the flora of the Archipelago. 

Animal I ^ ls not our P ur P ose to examine minutely the animal kingdom in 
kingdom. | European Turkey, it might be a difficult task to classify the different 
species. The Thessalian horses were prized for their symmetry and strength, 
the Turks imported a Tartar breed, and by crossing these two kinds both have 
been improved ; a great many horses are bred in Moldavia, but those in the 
mountains are the most valuable ; although small, they are not inferior in strength 
and speed to the Russian horse ; those on the plains are larger but not so swift; 
herds of wild horses roam on the frontiers, many of them are killed to supply the 
inhabitants with food. The cattle in Wallachia and Greece are large and strong ; 
more than thirty thousand oxen are annually exported from Wallachia to Bosnia, 
and the most of them from the last country to Constantinople. The pastures and 
meadows are of a rich and excellent quality ; many thousand oxen and numerous 
flocks of sheep belonging to the inhabitants of neighbouring states are fattened on 
them every year. 

Sheep abound in Wallachia, Macedonia, Thessaly and Livadia ; but the goat is 
a more valuable animal to the people on the mountains. The best feathers on the 
Turkish arrows were taken from the plumage of the large eagles which are so 
numerous in the neighbourhood of Babadagi. The wild boar, the roe and fallow 
deer frequent the forests and the mountains, the carniverous animals are the fox, 
the wolf and the bear ; a species of wolf, smaller than that on the hills has been 
observed on the plains ; it haunts the banks of the Danube and finds shelter near 
the marshes or among the reeds on the sides of the lakes that communicate with 
the river. The partridge and the bustard abound in the neighbouring valleys ; 
although game is not so plentiful in Greece and the islands, they are well supplied 
with different kinds of fish. 

Anfmb I The ^ on was not uncommon at one period in the same country ; it 
extinct. | frequented, in the time of Aristotle, the region between the Achelous 
in Acarnania and the Nessus in Thrace, which is by no means the warmest part 
of Greece ; the natives might have prevented it from extending beyond these 
districts, and at last succeeded in destroying it, but it is not improbable that tho 

Tteophr. Hist Plant. III. c. V, 


Greek lion belonged to a different species peculiar to Greece and Asia Minor. 
A particular sort of bee in Wallachia is smaller than the common one, its wax, 
which is of a greenish colour, is different from the ordinary kind, it is deposited 
on shrubs by these industrious insects, candles and tapers are made of it, and they 
emit in burning an aromatic fragrance. 

The moderns know little of the mineral productions in Turkey, the | M; nera , 
Ottomans have no relish for such pursuits ; small pieces of gold are | kingdom, 
found in the beds of the Waliachian rivers and collected by the Gypsies or Zi- 
guenes ; ihe same province abounds in fossil salt, and the minerals of Wallachia 
and Moldavia are analogous to those on the Carpathian mountains. Mines rich 
in iron extend aloni Kemus, Scardus, the Albanian and Bosnian chains; these 
mountains may be considered a continuation of the range in Syria or the ancient 
Noricum, their component parts are ptobably the same. Some rocks consisting 
of mica, talc, and copper, have been vaguely indicated by.travellers ; and ancient 
writers have informed us that the precious metals were worked in .some places on 
these mountains, it is likely that the ore extracted from them was copper mixed 
with gold arid silver. 

Mount Pangeus in Macedonia was famed for its gold and silver | Gold mines. 
mines which extended to Peonia or beyond the river Axius, the Peonian husband 
men have turned up pieces of gold with the plough.* The silver mines of Lariunr 
which Xenophon considered inexhaustible, and which were exhausted before tho 
time of Strabo,| lie near the sea shore at the extremity of the Attic peninsula ; fe\\ 
rich mines have been discovered in such situations. 

The best ancient marble, or at least that which was most prized, | Marble. 
was taken from the quarries on Mount Marpesus in the island of Paros, largo 
blocks of it used in erecting the public monuments in. the Greek towns have re- 
mained entire for. many ages; the front of the labyrinth in Egypt was built of that 
marble, J which was exported to different countries, the ancient sculptors preferred 
it, to every other kind : if, however, we. judge of it from the accounts of modern 
travellers, its quality does not correspond with its celebrity. The crystalline fibres 
of which its grain is composed, fly asunder at the stroke of the chisel ; its great 
lustre, its pure vshiteness, and other advantages are perhaps more than sufficient 
to compensate that defect. In some of the ancient statues, a kind of marble has 
been observed not unlike ivory, it has not been discovered in its native state in 
Greece or any other 'country by .the moderns. The Peeteliari marble derives its 
name from a mountain in the neighbourhood of Athens ; it is at present distin- 
guished by the green veins that separate the masses from each other. Mount 
Hyrnetus is at a short distance from Mount Peeteles, its marble is of a whitish 
gray colour; it was used by the Greek statuaries. 

The bole or terra sigillata of Lemnos, is an ochreaus argil formerly used in 
medicine; cimofite or the potter's clay of Cimolo is also an argil of a whitish 
colour, but becomes red by being exposed to the air ; Hawkins found it in the 
island of Argenieria, or the ancient Cimolo ; it was exported by the Greeks, and 
employed in lulling and whitening different kinds of cloth, a purpose for which it 
is admirably adapted. || 

Mines of copper mixed with iron were wrought in the island of | Mands. 
Euboea; the gold and silver mines of Siphnos or the modern Siphanto have been 
gradually covered by the sea. IT The same island is rich in lead, i!s smooth and 
gray ore is seen in many places after continued showers ; in appearance, says 

Htrocl. I. V. c. XVI. &c. 1. VII. c. CXMI. Tbucid. 1. It. Stib. 1. VII. Epist. Ovid. Fast. 1. 
HI. verse 7i9. Some emeralds and pieces of silver which had been taken from one of these 
mines were shown to La Condamine in 1781. Abreg. des em. de 1'Acad. des Sciences, t. 
VII. p. 45. 

t Xenophon, p. 924, edition de Paris, 1629. Strabo, 1, IX. p. 275. 

* I'lin. 1. XXXVI. c. V. and XIII. Stepli. de Urbibus, in Marpes. Strabo, J. XL p. 335. 
Tournefort, Voyage, t. h p. 202. Hauy, Traite" de Minerologie, t. II. p. 163 and 164. 

|| Hauy, t. IV. p 446. Olivier considers "it a porphyritic rock, nearly decomposed, 1. 1. p. 
323. Plin. Hist. Nat. 1. XXXV. c. XVII. Hill on Theophrastus, p. 204, Paris, 1754. 
1 Pausan. 1, X. c. II, Steph, de Urbibus, in Siphno. 


Pococke, the metal resembles tin ;* the island of Thasos was remarkable not only 
for its fine marble quarries but for a famous gold mine ; and a promontory on 
Naxos was called Cape S/neriglio, because emery of the best quality was obtained 
from it. Asbestos sufficiently long and flexible to be converted into incombusti- 
ble cloth, was extracted from the quarry of Mount Ocha.f 

Bitumen. | Bituminous springs are observed in many parts of Greece ; but the 
one most worthy of notice is situated in the island of Zante or the ancient Zacyn- 
thus ; the land appears to be hollow and resounds under the feet of the passenger; 
two basins from fifteen to twenty feet in diameter are partly filled with cold and 
limpid water ; liquid bitumen rises from each of them, and floats on the surface ; a 
centigrade thermometer was plunged by Spallanzani into one of the pools, its tem- 
perature before immersion indicated 24, but it descended immediately afterwards 
to 17; the same spring was visited by Hero'dotus 2300 years ago. 



Portion of European Turkey to the south of Mount Hemut and the ea*t of Pindut. 


^ T is unnecessary to adhere to the divisions established by the Turks 
i n our account of the provinces which compose the Ottoman empire, 
such divisions are artificial, and for that reason ill adapted for a geographical 
work. Moldavia, \Vallnchia, Servia, and Bosnia, are each of them separate states, 
and at the same time political and natural divisions ; Bulgaria is also a natural and 
ethnographical division, but not a political one. Thrace Proper corresponds with 
Romania as it is marked on the maps, but in the present day neither the one nor 
the other forms a political or ethnographical region ; they shall however be consi- 
dered distinct countries in their relation to physical geography, the same may be 
said of Macedonia, Albania, and Greece ; the tables at the end of the book may 
throw some light on the subject of Turkish statistics. 

Tie celebrated town of Constantino is the capital of the empire; it 
has been seen in the history of 'geography that it was first a Thracian 
village known by the name of Lygas, then the Greek settlement of Byzantium, and 
afterwards the new capital of the Roman empire under the pompous title of JVea 
Roma, but custom or servility has substituted that of Konstantinou-Polis y which 
it still retains. The peasants in the neighbourhood, while they repair to Con- 
stantinople, say in vulgar Greek that they are going es tan bolin or to the town;J 
the Turkish troops have given it in the name of Estamboul, but the more polished 
or less barbarous inhabitants call it frequently Konstantinia. It is denominated 
i.i the Russian annals Zaregorod or the royal city, and the Bulgarians and Wal- 
!achiana term it at present Zaregrad. The Lslandic nations and the Scandinavian 
tribes have named it since the tenth century Myklagard or the great town, and it 
uas been distinguished by the venerable title of Islarn-Bol, a half Turkish and half 
Hreek term, which signifies the city of the faith. Constantinople is built on a trf- 
fcngular promontory and divided by seven hills which are washed on the south by 
'ort. | the sea of Marmora, and bounded on the north by a small gulf or the 

ancient Golden Horn, that forms a safe anchorage for twelve hundred ships. 
Circumference. | The walls round the town arc in the same position as those which 

Pococke, book III. c. XXIII. f Strabo, X. p. 304. 

t Scott and Maitaire. The Dorian was spoken by the Byzantines. 


the consul Cyrus Constantinus built by command of Theodosius the Second, 
Chalcondglas supposes their circumference to be 111 stadia, Gyllius about thirteen 
Italian miles, but according to the best modern plans of Constantinople, it is not 
less than 19,700 yards.* The ancient Byzantium was forty stadia in circum- 
ference, it extended towards the interior to Besestan or the great market ; the 
same town when improved by Constantino the Great was as large as it is at pre- 
sent ; it has now twenty-eight gates, fourteen on the side of the port, seven towards 
the land, and as many on the Propontis.f 

The view round the town has been much admired, its elevated posi- | situation, 
tion, the great number of trees, houses and minarets, the majestic entrance of the 
Bosphorus, the spacious harbour surrounded by the suburbs of Galata, Pera and 
St. Dimitri, the large city of Scutari in front, the verdant hills "behind it, the Pro- 
pontis and its picturesque islands, Mount Olympus on the back ground, its snowy 
summits and the fruitful fields of Asia and Europe on every side present a succes- 
sion of the finest landscapes. The stranger observes not without emotion the 
natural beauties in the neighbourhood, and admires the excellent position of a city 
that may be so quickly supplied with provisions and so easily defended in the 
event of a siege; from its safe and commodious harbour, it seems destined by 
nature to reign over two seas and two continents, but the first impression is soon 
effaced by examining the interior. Constantinople is ill built, the streets are 
narrow and no part of them is well paved ; its irregular and pitiful houses are like 
Turkish barracks or clay and wooden cottages ; conflagrations are of ordinary 
occurrence, and the pleague breaks out every year. The moral feelings of the 
stranger are outraged, the haughty and solemn air of the Mussulman is contrasted 
with the humble, timid and lowly mien of the Jew ; a foreigner, before he is aware 
of the difference in the dress, may discover from a man's appearance whether he 
is a Mussulman or a raja. The Fanar, which forms a part of the | Fanar. 
town, is inhabited by the wretched descendants of the Byzantine families ; these 
degraded men crouch under the Mussulman's sword, assume the titles of princes 
and cheapen the temporary sovereignties of Wallachia and Moldavia; faithful 
representatives of the Low-Empire, submissive to every power, to amass wealth 
is the sole business of their lives, by honest or dishonest means is to them equally 

The seraglio or the principal palace has been considered a great | Sersgiio. 
ornament to the town, it must be confessed that the view from the sjde near the 
Bosphorus is romantic, but the building is a confused mass of prisons, barracks 
and gardens ; it forms a separate city, the Beat of Asiatic debauchery and African 
slavery ; honour, generosity, compassion, the best feelings of our nature are 
banished from its walls. 

One venerable monument of antiquity, the church dedicated to | Buildings. 
divine wisdom by the emperor Justinian in the sixth century, now vulgarly called 
Saint Sophia, has fortunately been spared ; but it is certain that it must have been 
demolished had it not been converted into a mosque ; its effect is imposing al- 
though the style of architecture is much inferior to that which distinguishes the 
classical epoch. The ancient Hippodrome is now a public walk, the Cyclobion 
or the modern castle of the seven towers is but a weak citadel in which the 
ambassadors of the powers at war with the Porte are confined. The most re- 
markable mosques are those of the Sultan Achmet and the Sultana Valide, and 
another called the Solimami ; such are the principal edifices; they are seen to the 
greatest advantage when the whole town is illumined; they might add perhaps to 
the beauty of a landscape, but when examined singly they appear without ma- 

* Pet. Gill, Topograph. Constant. 1. iv. Hammer, Constantinopolls und der Bosphores, 
Vienna, 1821. 

f Ducange says that there are thirty-three gates, but he counts some of them twice, his 
details are inaccurate. M. Le Chevalier on the other hand takes no notice of several new 
gates. Hammer, I. p 100. 

* Zallony,lesFanariotes, (Paris, 1824) 

$ Helling, Vues de Constantinople. Chateaubriand, Itineraire 


jesty and without grace. We are apt from their frail and clumsy appearance, to 
connect them with the works of men in the pastoral state. 

Dalloway supposes that there are 88,185 houses and 400,000 inhabitants in 
Constantinople, Eton diminishes the last number to 230,000, Kinsbergen in- 
creases it to 600,000, but includes the population of Galata and Pera, Adreossy 
concludes from the consumption of bread, that the number of souls amounts to 
597,700 ; it is obvious, however, that these calculations are founded on uncertain 
or imperfect data. It is said that there are 130 public baths in the town, 600 
mosques, 518 Medressed or schools, and 35 Katlub-chans or public libraries. The 
above statements are taken from the work of a learned orientalist, but it appears 
from his own researches that they cannot be considered accurate.* 
Commerce. It*is stated that before the last war the value of the wool annually 

exported to Marseilles from Constantinople amounted in some years to ^662,500, 
and in others to 34,000. It was brought to the Porte from the Bosphorus, the 
Propontis, the Hellespont, Anatolia, Romelia, Bulgaria, Bessarabia and the 
southern coasts of the Black Sea. The merchants of -Constantinople sent every 
year to the same place 600 bales of cotton, 6000 buffalo skins and about two or 
three thousand hides of oxen. England is at present the great mart for these 
articles, some of them, but the number is inconsiderable, are exported to Austria. 
l"he silk used in the manufactories of Constantinople and Scio is sent from Bul- 
garia and the neighbourhood of Adrianople; a small quantity is imported by the 
French ; the other exports are wax, box-wood, copper from Asia Minor, orpiment, 
deers' horns, fur, hair, gall-nuts and corn. The Turks import sugar from Egypt 
and prefer it to that from the West Indies.f 

PC, Gaiau. | Pera and Galata, two large suburbs, are situated beyond the harbour 
of Constantinople, which is about 6000 yards in length, and from 300 to 500 in 
breadth. Pera is built on a height ; it is the residence of the foreign ambassadors 
and the Europeans who are net permitted to remain at Constantinople ; the great 
warehouses and granaries are situated at Galata, which is near the port and the 
custom-house ; it is surrounded with ditches and walls flanked with bastions. 
The inhabitants of these suburbs consist chiefly of foreigners from all nations; 
their number is so great that Pera and Galata have been compared to the tower 
of Babel; the languages spoken are the Turkish, Greek,' Hebrew, Armenian, 
Arabian, Persian, Russian, Wallachian, German, French, Italian and Hungarian. 
The degenerate Greeks surpass all the strangers in espionage and political 

Neighbouring I ^ great many villages almost concealed by lofty trees are scattered 
country. | along the shores of the Bosphorus ; it is there that Beckick-Tadch or 
the summer palace of the Sultan is situated, Belgrade appears at a distance be- 
hind it and is inhabited in one season of the year by the roost wealthy Christian 
families in Pera and Galata ; it is sheltered from excessive heat, the air is pure 
and salubrious, an extensive plantation of fruit trees, verdant meadows and limpid 
streams adorn the immediate vicinity ; the town is not exposed to the plague or 
the frequent fires that happen in the capital ; if the country were under a better 
government, almost every part of it might be as d.elightful as the neighbourhood 
of Belgrade. The suburb of Agoub lies beyond two portions of Constantinople 
allotted to the Greeks and the Jews, and at no great distance from the Fresh 
Water walk, one of the finest near the city ; the harbour there is comparatively 
narrow, and the gulf is not unlike a large liver. 

Adritnopie. | It is unnecessary to give so full an account of the other Thracian 
towns ; the numerous minarets of Adrianople or Ederineh, the second city of tho 
empire, rise above groves of cypress and gardens of roses \ the Hebrus increased 
by many tributary streams descends from the central ridge, turns southwards and 
flows past the town, of which the population is not less than 100,000 souls. 
" The Maritza, such is the modern name of the river, waters a sandy soil ; the 

* Hammer, passim. 

f Olivier, Voyage dans 1'Kmpire, 4to. p, 19, 193, 196, 198, &c. 


Arda runs westwards through a rocky country, and the Tundscha through light 
but not unfruitful lands, all these rivers overflow their banks in winter."* This 
is all the information we have derived from the most celebrated Turkish writer, 
information which may convince us of the darkness that envelopes the modern 
geography of Thrace : but that country is rich in vineyards, corn, and wood, the 
ancients extolled its mountains more than any on the earth ;| at present there are 
not more than five or six public roads in the whole region. 

The towns on the road which extends towards Sophia, or the north- I Nor th-wetof 
west are Filibe or Philippopolis, and Tartar-Bazardgik, the first, ac- | Romania, 
cording to Palma, is a flourishing and commercial city with a population of 
30,000 souls, its trade consists in woollen goods ; the second is peopled by 10,000 
individuals ; both these towns are built in a large and very fertile valley, the fields 
and orchards are watered by the numerous feeders of the Hebrus ; the 
pass which Ammianus Marcellinus calls Succi, and the Turks Sulu- | Passei. 
Derbend, is skuated at the junction of Mount Rhodope and Hemus, it separates 
Thrace from Bulgaria. The descent towards the plains of Filibe is much steeper 
than on the side of Sophia, the ruins of a gate which Trajan erected, are still to 
be seen in that part of the country ;J another pass, or the Kis-Derbend, leads by 
the south- west to Samakow in Upper Macedonia, a place famous for its iron mines. 
Such are the great military and central positions which command European Tur- 
key; the base of the mountains is marked by many thermal springs of a very high 

Several. paths extend to the north from Adrianople and cross Mount Hemus, 
which on that side is not very lofty; these roads are surrounded by rocks or ver- 
dant and sloping plains, snow has never been seen in any part of the journey by 
the modern travellers who repair from Constantinople to Schumla, and the defiles 
are fortified by natural walls. The pass of Demir-Kapu, or the Iron Gate, and 
the one between Kaisanlik and Lofdcha are situated between high mountains ; 
Zagora, a country wholly unknown to the moderns, is encompassed [ zagora. 
by these branches of the Hemus, it has been peopled since the ninth century by 
the Bulgarians, and a Itoman road passed through it in a direction nearly parallel 
to the mountains.. The descendants of the Paulianistes, a Bulgarian | Pauiianistei. 
and catholic peojfle, reside probably in the valleys of Zangora, and it is not a 
little remarkable that no traveller of the present day has visited a country so in- 
teresting on account of its ancients monuments and historical associations. The 
towns to the north of Adrianople are Tchirmen, the residence of a Sand-jak, and 
Eski-Sagra, which contains 10,000 souls ; the fields of Selimnia are covered with 

Hemus becomes lower towards the north-west and forms the range of Strands- 
chea, or a continuation of calcareous heights, which separates the inland ridge of 
Thrace from the shores of the Black Sea. Kirk-Kilissi, a considerable town, 
partly peopled by a colony of Jews who speak bad German, and supply the mar- 
ket of Constantinople with butter and cheese, is situated on the side of the moun- 
tains next the interior, || and the Turkish geographer places Indchiguis on the 
hills of the Strandschea, which extend in the direction of Constantino- I subterranean 
pie ; it is inhabited by Troglodytes, its numerous dwellings are cut in | town * 
solid rocks, stories are formed in the same manner, and many apartments that 
communicate with each other; few such places exist in the world, it is more re- 
markable than those of the same description in Sicily, but the travellers who pass 
by the neighbourhood seldom go out of their way to visit it.1f The eastern sides 
of the Strandschea mountains rise above the inhospitable shores of the Euxirie or 

* Hadgi Khalf'a, Romelia, translated by Hammer. 

f Lucian, Drap. "Rigore fertilis," says Pliny, XVII. 4. 

* Ammian. Marcell XXI. 10. Driesch, Voyage a Constantinople. Another pass on the 
north is known by the name of Capouli-Derbend, it branches from Sulu-Derbend. 

$ Delisle's Atlas. || Sturmer, Esquisses, p. 203. 1 Hadgi-Khalfa, Romelia. 



B.y of I Midiah, many intricate caverns have been discovered in the ancient 
Bourgas. | Salmydessus, but the coast is destitute of harbours, and the mariner 
cannot find a safe anchorage before he reaches the gulf of Bourgas, which runs 
into the interior between Hemus and Strandschea, and is surrounded on every side 
with small ports. 

TekinDag. Some branches extend from the last chain towards the Thracian 

Chersonesus, and unite with a lofty group, the ancient Ganos, or the modern 
Tekiri-Dag. The Hebrus changes in that high country its first direction towards 
the Propontis and is increased by many tributary streams, among others the 
Engine, which, like the Teara admired by Darius, retains its old Thracian 

southern I Selivria and Rodosti are two flourishing Greek cities on the coast 
COMU. I of the Propontis under the government of the Captain Pacha ; Galli- 

poli, a town of 17,000 inhabitants, is situated on the strait, which is but feebly 
guarded by the castles on the Dardanelles, a more convenient entrance might be 
made into the Propontis, if a canal were cut across the Isthmus from the gulf of 
Saros. The small town of Enos stands near the mouth of the Hebrus, Demotica, 
the residence of the heroic exile from Pultowa, has been built above it, in a fertile 
valley on the banks of the same river. The rugged pass along the ancient Mount 
Ismarus, which extends from Rhodope, and is called Gurtchine by a modern tra- 
veller, lies to the west of the Hebrus.* lenidscher is situated near the marshes at 
the embouchure of the Nestus or Karasou ; beyond it are the ruins of Abdon, and 
the famous pass of Kavala, or the ancient Stcena Sapseorum, which was fortified 
by Brutus and Cassius a short time before the battle that put an end to Roman 
liberty. Our imperfect account of Thrace ends with these memorable places, 
near which the rich gold mines on Mount Pangseus excited in past ages the avidity 
of the Thracians and Macedonians. The vast territory between Kavala, Philip- 
popoli, Adrianople and Enos, all the land watered by the Nestus, all the poetic 
valleys of Rhodope form at present a terra incognita inhabited probably by Bulga- 
rian, Albanian, and Thracian tribes. 

Macedonia. | Macedonia is surrounded by mountains on the north-east, the south, 
the west, and south-west ; it extends on the south-east between the gulfs of 
Salonica and Contessu, and forms a peninsula bounded by thre> promontories of 
which Athos is the largest. It is divided by its mountains into many sloping 
valleys, and intersected by numerous passes ; the natives say that the traveller 
may see in their country many lofty cataracts and the ruins of many ancient tem- 

Mountains. | The range to the east of Strymonf has not as yet been designated 
by the moderns ; Mannert considers it the Orbelus of the ancients, or at least the 
highest part of that chain, in which a late writer places the Arapnitza mountains. J 
The continuation of lofty heigh.ts on the north is sometimes called Argentaro, that 
term, according to Brown, has been applied to it from the lustre of its white mica 
rocks, and has no connexion with its silver mines ; it might be urged that the word 
Argentaro, which is of vague signification, was first for want of a better name 
marked in the maps of the 17th century; the silver mines were in all probability 
situated on the Dysoros, which formed a part of the ancient Orbelus. Mount 
Scardus on the north-west, has partly retained its ancient name under the Turkish 
one of Schar-Tag, but it is difficult to find any term either ancient or modern for 
the western chain between Macedonia and Albania ; it may perhaps be more cor- 
rectly considered a high country crowned with a number of heights and some de- 
tached mountains. Ssodrus, the Bernus of the ancients, and the Candavian moun- 

* Paul Lucas, Voyage, t. I. p. 25, 47. 

f Carte de M. RiedT. The words Strymon, Struma, Strumien, are perhaps generic terms 
in the Slavonic and Gothic languages, and, like the modern word Kara-son, have been ap- 
plied to many rivers. Some information may be obtained on the subject from the travels of 

* Mines d'Orient, t. V. p. 440. 


tains are separate groups. The word Bernus is probably connected with the Ty- 
rolian Brenner, and without doubt the Pyrennees, a name which a Byzantine 
writer applies to the whole chain, is one of its derivatives.* The Bora of Livy 
and Pouqueville appears to be an inland branch, which includes the sloping heights 
between middle ^Macedonia and the highest ridge. f 

All the mountainous ranges in the south terminate in the ancient Pindus or the 
modern Mezzovo between Epirus and Macedonia ; Olympus, a separate chain on 
the east has been styled by some travellers Lacha, by others Olimbos; Vermion 
(Bermius) and Verghitission (Bercelesius) or Zero-livado which means literally a 
barren meadow, are situated in the interior and descend on the west towards the 
central plain ; the Kerkina and perhaps the Bertiscus of the ancients extend in a 
different direction from the north-east to the south, but it is impossible to deter- 
mine all these localities, or even to point out the course of the rivers. | Rivers. 
The Strymon, which issues from its seven lakes on Mount Scomius and receives 
the Karasou, a large feeder from the west, has perplexed many geographers, that 
river, after having formed the lake Kadakar or the ancient Prasias, discharges 
itself into the gulf of Contessa. The Axius signified probably in the ancient Ma- 
cedonian, the river of wood-cutters, but its name was changed during the Low 
Empire into that of Bardarius or Vardar which is very likely a generic word in 
the ancient Dardanian ; the Axius flows from Scardius and receives the Eriganon 
or Vistritza. The small delta formed by the ancient Haliacmon at present the 
Indge-Karason is apt to be confounded with that of the Vardar ; many rivers in 
the interior of Macedonia were unknown to the ancients and are still unknown to 
the moderns. 

The mines of Karatova in the same province are still worked and | Mine?. 
yield copper ore mixed with silver ; the mountains of Dupindscha are covered the 
greater part of the year with snow, the iron mines on them are inferior in the 
quality of the metal, and not so rich as those of Varna or Uivarina ; a great quan- 
tity of salt is taken from the lake laidschiler, but all these articles are not nearly 
so valuable as the agricultural produce of the country. The soil of I Fruitfuiness of 
Macedonia is more fruitful than the richest plains in Sicily, and there j the soilt 
are few districts in the world so fertile as the coast of Athos or the ancient Chalci- 
dis ; the land in the valleys of Panomi and Cassandria, when grazed by the 
lightest plough, yields a more abundant harvest than the finest fields in the depart- 
ment between the Eure and Loire or the granary of France, if the wheat in its 
green state be not browsed by sheep or cut with the scythe it perishes from too 
much luxuriance.J 

The culture of cotton and tobacco is found to be more profitable 1 cotton and 
than that of corn throughout the north of Greece, on that account new | tobacco ' 
land is daily brought into cultivation. The district of Seres is more fruitful in cot- 
ton than any other, the value of that article in Macedonia alone amounts to seven 
millions of piastres ; two varieties of tobacco, the Nicotiana latifolia and the JYV- 
cotiana rustica are produced in the same country, the land on which they grow is 
not less than one-eighth of the whole in cultivation ; employment is thus furnished 
to 20,000 families, the average crop of tobacco is supposed to be about a hundred 
thousand bales, and the gross revenue derived from it four millions of piasters. 
Macedonia is also famous for its wines, some of which are equal to those of Bur- 
gundy, corn and different leguminous plants are profitably cultivated in the interior, 
where the climate has been less changed than in the maritime country by the de- 
molition of forests and other artificial means, but in many enclosed valleys the heat 
is oppressive and the plants are sometimes destroyed. 

The town 'of Salonica is situated on an amphitheatre formed by. the 
gulf of the same name in the centre of the country; its population amounts 
to 70,000 inhabitants, its trade is extensive, it still retains many monu- 

* Georg. Acrop. c. LXXXI. 

t Pouqueville, Voyage, 1. 1. p. 315 ; t. II. p. 365, 407, 413. 

* Felix Beaujbur, Tableaux, &c. 1. 1. 

sS. s " 


ments of its ancient splendour, among others different triumphal arches, one which 
is still nearly entire, was erected in honour of the emperor Antonine, the church of 
St. Demetrius and several others are now converted into mosques. The bay is 
not sheltered against every wind, but the harbour, built by Constantino the Great, 
may safely contain three hundred ships. The town is supplied with water by 
means of aqueducts from Mount Hortasch. " It is disgraceful," says Hadgi- 
Khalfa, " that so many Jews are allowed to remain in Salonica ; the excitement 
thus given to trade is apt to blind true believers ; the Jews," continues the same 
writer, " employ many workmen in their different manufactories, support a num- 
ber of schools, in which there .are not fewer than two hundred masters ; the cara- 
vans that travel from Salonica to Semlin, Vienna and Leipsic are loaded with cot- 
ton, tobacco, carpets, and leather." 

Mount AUK*. | The other parts of the Chalcidian peninsula are insignificant in 
comparison of Mount Athos, the Hagion Oros or the holy mountain, but its name 
has been corrupted into Ayonouri ; it rises in the form of an insolated pyramid, on 
its sides are twenty-two convents, five hundred chapels, many villages, cells, and 
grots, peopled by at least four thousand monks ; the hermits live in caves, their 
number does not exceed twenty, the rest are mere monks, and among them aro 
individuals of every nation. They cultivate olives and vines, or work during their 
leisure hours as carpenters, masons, and weavers. These romantic and seques- 
tered shades, in former ages the retreats of philosophy, are now the haunts of 
superstition ; Philostratus says in his life of Apollonius, that many Greek phi- 
losophers used to retire to Mount Athos that they might be better able to contem- 
plate the heavens. The monks have several farms in the peninsula, and their 
mendicant brethren levy a considerable tribute in the neighbouring districts ; they 
carry on a lucrative trade at Karkis or the largest town on the mountain, and at the 
strong harbour of Alavara. 

Town* in the I Seres is one of the towns in the country watered by the Strymon 
north-east. | an( j tne p ontuS) j ts population is not less than 30,000 souls, but many 
of the inhabitants on account of its unhealthiness repair during the summer to the 
neighbouring mountains. Drama is famous for its canvass, Ostromeza or Stru- 
mitza for its medicinal springs, and Kistendel or Gioustendil for its warm and sul- 
phurous baths. Many valuable monuments might be discovered in these retired 
spots ; the monks in the convent of St. John guard religiously the remains of the 
patriarch Gennadius, but they threw about twenty years ago five hundred Greek and 
probably ancient manuscripts, into the river ; an ancient colossal head supports at 
present a modern edifice in Drama.* 

Towns in the I ^ ne town f Uskub which stands on the basin of the Upper Vardar, 
north-wen. | i s the ancient Scopia, that signifies a place commanding a distant 
view ; in the time of the Low Empire it was denominated one of the keys of Ma- 
cedonia, and Hadgi-Khalfa informs us that it is styled in an ancient Greek writing 
the young bride of Greece, the same writer adds, that the great clock in the town 
may be heard at the distance of two leagues. The traveller who descends the 
Axius, leaves on the left the valley on which is the town of Istib, or the ancient 
Stobi, and observes the Koukia Karasou, or the Erigon on the right ; Bitolia or 
JVfonasftr, is the principal town in the district near the last river, it is peopled by 
15,000 inhabitants, and its governor possesses the title of Komeli- V alley ; his 
jurisdiction extends over the whole of Romelia, but the place is not as M. Pou- 
queville supposes, the capital of the province,! ^ i g subject to the government of 
the Captain Pacha. J The whole country is well wooded, fertile in corn, and rich 
in pasturage. 

Centwltoww. | -RJ. Pouqueville has enabled us to distinguish the basfn of the Eri- 
gen, (the Osaphagtis of Livy,) from that of the Eord&us or Patava, which have 

N. Manuscript by a native. 

f PouqueTille, Voyages, t. II. p. 306, 307; I. 192. 

t Hadgi.Khalfa, Rumili, &c. See the translation of Hammer. 



been frequently confounded by the learned and laborious Mannert, who has thus 
in his attempt to correct, added to the number of D'Anville's errors, and shown 
the impossibility of illustrating ancient geography without a careful examination 
of modem maps. Palma was the first who put an end to the numerous discussions 
concerning the geography of that part of Greece ; he marked even more accu- 
rately than Pouqueville the two passes that confine the valley of the Erigon. As 
we descend the numerous lakes on the plain of the Eordseus, we arrive at the ad- 
mirable site of the ancient Edessa, the first capital of Macedonia and a place of 
refuge for its monarchs, it is now known by the Slavonic name of Vodina, the 
river divides itself into four branches, and forms several romantic cascades ; near 
the ho'uses shaded by lofty plane trees the water assumes a silver tinge and is seen 
afar off, according to some writers even at Salonica. Jenidsche is situated below 
Edessa near the ruins of Pella, which have been lately examined by Barbie du 
Bocage ; feudal estates extend from the last place to Stromza, these possessions 
belong to the Ghavrini, the only family in Turkey except the Othmans, that pos- 
sesses heritable privileges which have been solemnly recognised.* 

Castoria is situated near the winding course of the Haliacnon on a fine lake, 
which is large in winter, but its waters are marshy and partially drained in summer. 
Servia is built on' a public road that crosses Olympus and Kara Veria or the an- 
cient Bersea in the low grounds, many of its industrious inhabitants are employed 
in working an extensive quarry of red marble. Niausta or as the natives term it 
Pompeiopolis, a town in the midst of many rivulets has been recently destroyed ; 
it was famed for its wines. 

The Yeuruks or the Konarides, a numerous tribe in Macedonia are 
descended from the Turcomans of Konieh, who were removed to keep 
in subjection a tributary population scattered in mahalets or villages, they still en- 
joy important privileges. These inhabitants in the mountains of Macedonia 
weave a coarse cloth, which is used for clothing to the poor in many parts of 
Greece ; but the Bulgarian and Albanian tribes lead a pastoral life in the high dis- 
tricts ; the description which Strabo gives of the Dardanians may still be applied 
to the people on the Oulac lakes near the sources of the Vardar, and the Kasta- 
reses are a tribe made up of Servians and Wallachians ; they inhabit the country in 
the neighbourhood of Castoria. * .tf'X>" 

The large valley of the Peneus is bounded by well-known mountains, Olympus, 
Pindus, Octa, and Pelion, which enclose the Thessalian amphitheatre. | Thessaiy. 
The breed of horses in the province is not the best in Greece, but it abounds in oil, 
wine, cotton, silk, and wool ; Larissa, or lenischehre, the capital, is situated on 
Peneus, and surrounded by a country fruitful in oranges, lemons, citrons, and 
pomegranates; the same district produces fine figs, excellent melons, grapee, 
almonds, olives, and cotton ; the Turks who inhabit it, are more barbarous than the 
rest of their countrymen ; Larissa owes its importance and comparatively exten- 
sive commerce to its leather, tobac*co, and famous red dye ; its population amounts 
to 25,000 souls. The Greeks of Ambelaika in the vale of Tempe, Trafrmg 
those of Zagora in a district of ancient Magnesia, have a long time towns 
escaped Turkish oppression ; the best kind of silk is^produced in the last district, 
and the manufactories in the town furnish occupation to many of the inhabitants. 
Cotton is the great article of commerce at Tournavos, a small town about three 
leagues to the north-west of Larissa, but it is the celebrated dye, or as it is termed 
ia different countries, the red of the Levant, that renders the manufactures of 
Tiiessaly more valuable than those in the rest of Greece ; the excellence of that 
dye lias been attributed to the superior quality of the alyzari, a species of madder 
which is most common in Anatolia and Beotia. The passes of Agrafa might be 
easily defended, they lead to Epirus, and are situated near Tricala Tirhala, a con- 
siderable town ; the Meteora, or high places, are a line of monasteries | Meteora. 
on stc i p and probably basaltic rocks, which the monks ascend by means of 

' N. MS. by a native. 


ropes and baskets, these heights extend to the mountainous chain of Maina. The 
inhabitants of Pharsaia have not forgotten that near their town an eventful battle 
was fought, or that the oppressed world was avenged when the Romans turned 
their arms against each other. 

oaif of voio. | Volo, or the gulf of the same name, retains but little of the splen- 
dour of the ancient Demetrius, the naval station, which, together with Chalcis and 
Corinth, was supposed to command Greece ; the bay is extensive, but the anchor- 
age is unsafe, the harbour in the town of Triketi at the entrance of the gulf, is 
commodious and well frequented.* 

The ancient Sperchius waters the valley that in the remotest antiquity was 
called Hellada ; the modern towns of Patratchick and Zeitoun have been built 
on it. 

Greece I The traveller, after having crossed the heights of Thermopylae, 
Proper. | en t e rs into Greece Proper ; the climate is more oppressive, water is 
scarcer, but the soil is fruitful ; oil is the most valuable production in the southern 
provinces, and that of Attica is superior to every other, but a thick hoar frost rises 
occasionally from the Archipelago and is destructive to plants, it falls in the form 
of dew and penetrates into the roots and sap, the leaves become yellow, the 
flowers decay, or if they ripen, the fruit is of little use. The oil exported annually 
from Attica is calculated to be worth 300,000 plasters ; that from the Morea about 
400,000. Corinth is still famed for its raisins, Arcadia for its cheese, and Mount 
Hymettus for its honey. The soil, of Attica is covered with aromatic plants, and 
that circumstance enables us to account for the excellence of its honey, it is 
sweeter than that of other countries, retains its aromatic fragrance, and, although 
of a red colour, is perfectly transparent. The same country might rival Spain in 
the fineness of its wool, the goat thrives on its hills, the uncultivated lands are 
overrun with thyme, serpillum, and majoram, the Albanian shepherds lead their 
flocks in summer to these pastures. The breed of goats was improved in the 
time of the Bysantine emperors by the mixture of the African and Asiatic race, 
but it has not since been sufficiently crossed ; the breed of sheep in Livadia and 
Arcadia is the best, that of Attica the worst. 

Mount I ^ ne y i ew fr m M unt Parnassus is extensive, a traveller saw from 

Parmuiui. j it Olympus, the Ionian Islands and the Cyclades ; he might have ob- 
served beneath him the town and gulf of Lepanto, the marshes near which Misso- 
longhi and Anatolica have become the residence of freemen, and on the east 
amidst flowery meads, the populous town of Livadia in the province of the same 

Athens. | We pass the Helicon, the Kithairon of which the present barbarous 
names are unknown, and through Thebes or Thives, and arrive at Attica. The 
population of Athens is not greater than 12,000 souls, but its ancient monuments 
are the most magnificent and renowned in the world. The peristyle of the Par- 
thenon, the temple of Theseus, the Facile or Irfntern of Demosthenes, the tower 
of the winds, Adrian's gate, and a wall of the theatre are still entire. Strangers 
hasten on their arrival at Athens to visit the Acropolis, that rock inaccessible on 
three sides rises above the .old and new town. It was there that Cecrops and 
Theseus assembled the inhabitants of Attica, and Themistocles surrounded it with 
walls after his victory at Salamis ; on the same rock is built the the temple of Mi- 
nerva, the Parthenon, a monument of the genius of Pericles and the art of Phidias. 
It was spoiled by the Venetians, the work of destruction has been continued by 
the Turks and Greeks, both disfigured it and used the materials in building 
houses, a Corinthian chapter is sometimes seen in the side of a cottage ; the 
frieze was lately stripped of its statues by Lord Elgin, a Scotsman. 

Corinth, its two gulfs and rocky isthmus, which so many sove- 
reigns have in vain endeavoured to cut, still command the entrance 
into the Peloponnesus or Morea, which has been styled by the Slavonic tribes 

* Barlholdi, Voyage, p. 19. 

The Peloi>on- 
netus or 



who penetrated into it during the Byzantine empire, the maritime country. Wo 
observe in that region the agreeable town of Argos and Napoli de Romania, or 
as it is sometimes called, the Gibraltar of Greece, three hundred vessels may 
ride at anchor in its harbour, Napoli de Malvoisia and its great inland bay, the 
populous town ofJWisitra, on the valley of the Eurotas, the present Vasili-Potamo, 
or royal river, and Tripolitza, where a pacha resided with impunity near the ruins 
of Mantinea. The towns on the south-west coast are Calatnetta on the fruitful 
plains of Messenia, Navarino which still retains its admirable harbour, Gastouni 
towards the west in the fertile fields of Elis ; but Patras, a place of greater trade 
than any of them tjontains 8000 souls. Mega-Spileon, a convent partly cut in a 
rock, the gloomy lake of Stymphali, and many other places renowned i history 
are situated in the interior of that rich peninsula, of which the produce in corn, 
grapes, figs, wine, oil, cotton, silk, and many other articles amounts to fifteen mil- 
lions of piasters.* The number of inhabitants according to the lowest calculation 
is not less than 250,000, and according to the highest not more than 400,000; 
but as the Peloponnesus has now become the country of the independent Greeks,, 
and many strangers have repaired to it, its population is probably equal to 800,000. 
While we write, Egyptian armies burn the cities, devastate the fields, and massacre 
the inhabitants of the Morea; other barbarians ravage the plains of Tempe and the 
banks of the Cephisus ; the towns which we have mentioned are perhaps at pre- 
sent reduced to ashes. 

The Greeks who wander among the ruins of their ancient glory, I {JfJUSJ* 
have at last endeavoured to shake off the Turkish yoke ; heroic deeds | Greeks, 
both on land and sea, convinced every one that they had awaked from their Jong 
lethargy, but as in ancient times, their efforts have been enfeebled by internal dis- 
cord, the modern Greeks have unfortunately inherited the vanity, inconstancy, 
and treachery of their fathers. Nature has not denied them high intellectual en- 
dowments^ poets and orators are born amongst them, but their natural abilities are 
not improved by cultivation ; sarcasm and raillery supersede argument, and in their 
deliberations, a frivolous expression, a single word or gesture is sufficient to make 
them unmindful of their most important interests. The Moraites are less volatile 
than the townsmen of Romelia, and better fitted to enjoy the blessings of freedom 
under a good government. The Athenians have not lost their ancient urbanity, 
their accent is more harmonious than any other in Greece, their language is less 
diffuse and for that reason more energetic. Their appearance is nearly the same 
as that of their ancestors, the women of Athens are still distinguished by their light 
figures, the oval form of the face, the regular contour, the straight line that marks 
the profile, full black eyes, high forehead, red lips, small hands and feet ; they are 
equally graceful in the mournful dance of Ariadne, and in the rapid mazes of the 
Romeika. The simplicity of the ancient dress is in some degree retained ; a 
white tunic descends from the neck, a mantle covers the arms and falls over the 
shoulders, a handkerchief tied loosely round the head does not conceal their jet- 
black hair ; but the barbarous empire is typified in a clumsy and ill-placed girdle, 
red trowsers, and a heavy Turkish cloak. 

The Greeks are still in possession of their church and clergy, but I Greek 
the former is oppressed and the dignities which the latter enjoy are | church, 
publicly sold by the Turks. The secular ecclesiastics fill the offices of readers, 
choristers, deacons, priests, and archpriests, but they cannot obtain higher prefer- 
ment ; the monks may become bishops, metropolitans, archbishops, and patriarchs. 
Curates and priests are permitted to marry before their ordination, but they are not 
allowed to espouse a widow or to enter into second nuptials, many Greek clergy- 
men have lately fallen martyrs to civil and religious liberty ; it might be fortunate 
for the nation at large, if the clergy were at the head of that party whose great ob- 
ject is to instruct the people. 

* Pouqueville, t. v. 23, 48. &c. 


The Greeks keep annually five fasts; on these occasions they may eat salt or 
dried fish seasoned with olive oil, the same indulgence is granted every Friday, 
and they are not apt to abuse it, for many consider robbery or even murder a less 
heinous crime than breaking an hebdomadal fast. Some of the Greeks have en- 
tered into a coalition with the Roman Pontiff, but without acceding to the doctrine 
of clerical celibacy or giving up the rites of the eastern church ; the union has 
been of little advantage to the Pope, and unfavourable to the formation of an inde- 
pendent and national character in Greece. 

Mainotes. | Many of the Laconian peasants are settled on the sides of Mount 
Taygetus, and enjoy that freedom which was so dear to the Lacedemonians, their 
forefathers ; the Mainotes are accustomed from their infancy to the use of arms, 
and are ever ready to employ them against the Turks, although their courage is 
little removed from rashness, their accurate knowledge of the country, its different 
passes and advantageous positions enables them to retain their independence, the 
tribute which the Turks receive from them is almost nominal. The Mainotes are 
implacable in their resentment, their country is often desolated by civil broils, and 
their cottages frequently stained with blood ; peace and order can only be restored 
by the aged, who are held in veneration by all the people ;* their counsels are re- 
ceived like the ancient oracles; the old men regulate in their synodes the public 
expense, and determine the best means of securing the public safety, their measures 
are concerted in the assemblies of the captains, and laid before a bey or chief, who 
puts them in execution. The council elects its chiefs, who are confirmed in the 
dignities of their office by the Turkish government : the Mainotes acknowledge 
at present the doubtful authority of the Greek republic. The people who have 
resisted so long the Ottoman troops are not numerous, the total population of the 
country does not exceed 6,0,000 souls, and the' number of men fit to bear arms is 
less than 15,000. 

The produce and principal articles of commerce are oil, rye, honey, wax, gall- 
nuts, cotton, kermes, undressed leather and wool. Agriculture has been of late 
years improved, the northern districts are gradually becoming more fruitful, and 
some of the harbours into which the largest vessels can enter, are likely ere long to 
be more frequented. 

Cacovooniotes. | The Cacovouniotes who have been frequently confounded with the 
Mainotes, are settled near Cape Matapan, and live chiefly by piracy, they are the 
the most barbarous and cruel of the Greeks ;| the Bainotes in the interior of the 
district live by plunder. 

cmndia or Candia or Crete, is the first island in the east of Greece at the en- 

crete. | trance of the Archipelago, that large and important settlement might 

serve to fix the doubtful limits between the Archipelago and the Mediterranean. 
Mountains. | The White Mountains rise on the west of Crete, Strabo tells us that 
they extend to the distance of 300 stadia, or 11 leagues, and are not lower than 
the highest summits in the Peloponnesus. J These mountains, it is said, have 
been called white, because the snow remains on them always, but it is only on the 
valleys exposed to the north that the snow never melts. Ida is situated in the 
centre of the island, the circumference of its base is not less than twenty-five 
leagues,|| it consists of a group of hills heaped one above another in a pyramipV 
cal form. The climate of the first heights is temperate, and the sides are covered 
with lofty forests or clad with verdant pastures,^ the wind murmurs round the 

* Respect for old age is a virtue common to them with their ancestors. 

f Clergymen used to accompany them in their piratical excursions, who replied to those 
that objected against their being at the same time pirates and jmests, that they went to 
bless the spoils and divide the tithes. 

* Strab. 1. X. p. 327, Sieber, Voyage, 1. 1. p. 191. 

* Tournefort, 1. 1. p. 28, edit. 1717, in 4. Theoph. Hist. Plant. 1. III. c. II ; 1. IV. c. I. 
Plin. 1. XVI. c. XXXIH. Savary, Lettres sur la Greece, 1. XXXVI. p. 322. 

Or 600 stadia. Strab. 1. X. p. 325. 

U Sieber, Voyage, t. If. p. 61. Meursim, Creta, 1. II. c. III. Belon, Observat. 1. I. c, XVI. 


barren summits, and in some places the snow remains throughout the year. k 
The distribution of plants is remarkable; one part is covered with forests, 
consisting chiefly of maple trees and evergreen oaks; the arbutus, the an- 
dracne, cistus, and phylleria grow on the southern sides; cedars, pines, and 
cypresses adorn the eastern plains; the part towards the west is nearly 
perpendicular, and forms a line of steep rocks, which it is impossible to 
scale. There is a third chain of mountains on the east of- the island; it is 
not so well known as the others; the most of them are calcareous or cre- 
taceous; but the mountain of Malava near the gulf of Suda is composed 
of schistus; granite is found in great quantities above its base. The cli- 
mate of Crete, and all the islands in the Archipelago, is teni- CJhnatc 
pered in summer by the wind which the natives call enbat; it ' 
blows from the north from eight o'clock in the morning till evening. The 
rivers on the island may be compared to mountain torrents; the north-east 
coast is sinuous, but on the south there is not a harbour or road where 
vessels can anchor in safety. The vallies or sloping plains are Produ( , tioM 
very fertile; the greater portion of the land is not cultivated, ' 
but it might produce sugar-cane, excellent wine, and the best kinds of 
fruit; the exports are salt, grain, oil, honey, silk and wool; Crete abounds 
in wild fowl and different kinds of game. 

Olivier informs us that there are ten or twelve thousand T 
Turks and two or three thousand Greeks in the town and har- .' 
bour of Candia; the fortifications erected by the Venetians have been re- 
paired, the houses which the same people built, are now fallen into decay. 1 
Rhetymo is situated on the ruins of the ancient Rhitymnse; its population 
does not exceed five or six thousand souls, and the number of Greeks is 
nearly equal to that of the Turks. Canea, which is encompassed by a 
strong wall and a broad ditch, is peopled by four thousand Turks, two or 
three thousand Greeks, and some Jews; these three towns are the capitals of 
three pachaliks into which the island is divided. The Turks in Crete lead 
a pastoral life; the Abdiotes or the descendants of the Saracens possess 
about a twentieth part of the villages on the south of Mount Ida, although 
the number of individuals is not much more than four thousand; they are 

independent of the Turks: the Spachiotes are sprung from the _, 

..,,. ., 1 . , "iiil Spacmotes. 

ancient inhabitants, and retain their freedom; they are included ' 

in the puchalik of Candia; they elect their own chiefs, and occupy the high 
mountains which extend to the west from the province of Felino to that of 
Amari; their trade is carried on at the small port of Spachia, their capital; 
some of them are addicted to piracy, but the shepherds, farmers and artisans 
are the most industrious people in Crete. 

The Archipelago is covered with islands; a thousand clear j dadcg 

channels reflect the images of white rocks, verdant hills and ' 
sloping vineyards; the whole still exhibits the picture that Virgil has 
drawn, but if Horace. were now to personify the ship that carried his 
friend, he might inform it that pirates were more dangerous than winds or 

Naxos, the largest of the Cyclades, contains about ten thousand inhabi- 
tants; high mountains extend across it; their base is composed of schistus 
and granite, white marble or hard limestone rests above the schistus, and 
from these rocks issue a great many springs that water and fertilize the 
plains; 1 " the produce of the island consists of wines, wheat, barley, oil, 
oranges, lemons, peaches and figs, cheese, which is exported to Constanti- 
nople, cotton, honey, and wax; the vintage was one year so abundant that 
the people were obliged to pour their wines into the cisterns of the Capu- 
chins;" the island has no harbour nor good anchorage. Amorgo and Stam-^ 

* Diod. Sic. 1. V. p. 388. edit. Wessel. 1746. Tournefort, Voyage, t. 1. p. 53. Savary, 

Lettres sur la Grece, p. 242. i Olivier, Voyages, t. I. p. 338. m Tournefort, 

t. I. p. 213. Olivier, 1. 1. p. 313. " Villoison, MS. Annales des Voyages, II. p. 152. 



palia are situated on the south-east of Naxos, the one is famed for its 
vineyards, the other for its orchards ; they are provided with safe harbours, 
and the rocks on both of them are covered with cedars and mastich trees. 
Nanphi abounds in partridges; Santorini, the volcanoes of which we have 
already endeavoured to describe, lies to the west of it; the ancient Thera is 
not now covered with ashes and pumice stones; it is fertile in corn, strong 
wine, and cotton, which is not, as in the other islands, planted every year; 
its population amounts to 10,000, and all the inhabitants are Greeks. Pa- 
ros, which is situated further towards the west, is peopled by two thousand 
souls; the island is known on account of its marble; its arid soil is fertilized 
by heavy dews; the harbour is the best in the Archipelago. We have al- 
ready taken notice of the caves in Antiparos and Policandro, and the ex- 
tinguished volcanoes in Milo; the last island is unhealthy, but fruitful in 
maize, cotton, melons and coloquinteda; its port is commodious, and pro- 
tected at its entrance by basaltic rocks. The subterranean galleries in 
Milo are probably the remains of an ancient labyrinth; a fine clay, (terra 
cimolita) is almost the only production of Kimoli or Argentera. 

As we return from these islands towards Attica, we pass on the right 
the healthy Siphante, whose inhabitants cultivate their fields and neglect 
their mines; on the same side is Seripho or the head of Medusa, on which 
all who looked were changed into stone; its natural productions may ex- 
plain the origin of the fable. 1 ' Thermia derives its name from its warm 
springs, and is fertile in corn and fruit; Zea, although diminished by earth- 
quakes, still retains its good harbour; it was on that island that the Parian 
marbles were discovered; and a Danish traveller has lately collected on it 
many valuable monuments. 

islands in the I Colour!, or, as it is always called in history, Salamis, is situ- 
Guifof A- I ated near the same coasts of Greece; Engia or jEgina, once a 
dra ' I populous island, is now uninhabited ; Hydra, though nowise fa- 
mous in ancient times, has become the residence of an industrious and 
free people; their trading vessels sailed formerly to all the ports in the 
Mediterranean; the inhabitants are now fighting in the foremost ranks 
against Turkish oppression; the most of the people reside in the town, 
which is one of the finest in Greece; the total population is not much more 
than 40,000; Spezia is a small island in the neighbourhood of Hydra. 
Continuation I Miconi lies to the north of Naxos, and is peopled by 4000 
ofthecy- mariners and pirates; Syra, though moist and cold, is fertile 
' in grain; the barren heights of Delos rise between the two last 
islands; all the Greeks once repaired thither to celebrate the games in 
honour of Apollo; it is now uninhabited, and overrun with rabbits. Tenas, 
one of the most delightful islands in the Archipelago, produces silk, figs, 
oranges and wine, but not enough of corn for the consumption of its in- 
habitants, who amount to 20,000. Andros, on the other hand, although 
very fertile, is said not to contain more than 12,000; it is well watered, and 
its mountains are covered with forests. 

Negroponteor i The strait of Bocca Silota, in which the Greek fleet was lost 
Egripo. I on its return from Troy, separates the Cyclades from Negro- 
ponte or Egripo, the ancient Euboea, an island that still abounds in flocks, 
corn and wine. The. olive thrives on it; its thick forests supply the inha- 
bitants with naval timber, and surround, as in the time of Chrysostom, ro- 
mantic and solitary vallies; r the irregular movements in the Euripus, the 
strait that separates the island from the neighbouring continent, have been 
already mentioned; a bridge has now been erected from Euboea to the 
mainland; Negroponte or Egripo, the capital, one of the keys of Greece, is 
well fortified and peopled by 16,000 souls. 

D'Urville, Nouv. Ann. des Voyages, t. XXVII. p. 145. P Tacitus, Annal. IV. c. XXL 
Tournefort, I. p. 179. i Brondsted, Voyage en Grece. r Dio Cbrysost. In orat. Eub- 



The islands on the northern part of the Archipelago are , Sporades 
placed at greater distances from one another; Scopelo is cover- ' 
ed with vineyards, and Scyros is well known on account of its valuable and 
extensive marble quarries; Skiathos has a large and safe anchorage; 3 the 
monks of Athos export from Sarakina or the ancient Peparethos the rich 
wine, so much prized by the ancients;* the inhabitants of Thasos on the 
coast of Thrace, work in their quarries or cultivate their vines; Lemnos 
or Stalimene is provided with a good harbour, and its population is not 
less than 8000 souls; travellers have observed the remains of a volcano, by 
which, it is supposed, a promontory and a small adjoining island were 
destroyed. 11 Samodraki or the ancient Samothrace, once celebrated for its 
mysteries, is now peopled by villagers, and in many places covered with 

Some other islands are situated near the continent of Greece; , seven Ionian 
they were lately united into a separate state under the protec- ' islands. 
tion of England and under the name of the Ionian republic; they have been 
for a long time freed from the Ottoman yoke, and were successively pos- 
sessed by the Venetians, the French and the Russians. These islands are 
refreshed by gentle zephyrs; the spring is of long duration, and the heat 
of summer is not excessive; the soil is for the most part rocky and arid, 
but wherever there is enough of earth, it is covered with olive, lemon, 
orange and fig trees, that display throughout the year their fruits, flowers 
and foliage. In some places the vintage is gathered four times in the year, 
and the rose appears in luxuriance in the midst of winter. 

Corfu is the most important of these islands; a range of hills . Corf 
extends across it from north to south; San Stephano or their sum- ' 
mit is not higher than 1400 feet; the island is about seventy miles in length 
by thirty in breadth, and contains a population of 70,000 souls ; the olive 
arrives at greater perfection than in any other part of Greece, but the oil 
obtained from it is acrid. Corfu was for a long time considered the strong 
hold of Italy against the attacks of the Mussulmans; the capital of the same 
name, the only important station on these settlements, is regularly fortified, 
its inhabitants amount to 16,000 ; the island is separated from the continent 
of Epirus, by a strait not broader than two miles, and on one part of it 
there is a safe and convenient harbour ; the country is peopled by Greeks, 
some Italian families reside in the town. 

The small island of Paxo lies six miles to the south of Corfu ; 
no fresh water spring has been discovered on it ; the land does ' 
not yield much corn or pasture, but is fruitful in oil and wine; it is peopled 
by six or seven thousand Greeks. 

Santa Maura, the ancient Leucadia, is about thirty miles long , Santa Maura 
and sixteen broad, and contains a population of 22,000 Greeks; ' 
some writers maintain that it was formerly united to the continent by an 
isthmus, which was cut by the Corinthians; it is at present joined to it by 
sand banks and a series of wooden bridges; Amaxichi or the principal 
town contains about 6000 souls; travellers remarked, among the antiquities 
of the island, an aqueduct with three hundred and seventy arches built 
after the Roman manner; it rested on the sand banks between the island 
and the continent, and communicated at its extremity with the town of 
Amaxichi; it has been lately destroyed by an earthquake. 

Cephalonia, although in a political point of view less impor- Cg halonia 
tant than Corfu, is more extensive and nearly as populous; it is ' 
about 170 miles in circumference, and contains sixty or seventy thousand 
individuals. The inhabitants are courageous, shrewd and intelligent, but 
revengeful, and indifferent about the means by which their ends may be 

Annales des Voyages, X. p. 219. l Villoison, Annales des Voyages, II. 157. 

u Buttmann, Memoire sur le volcan de Lemnos. Ann. des Voyages, VI. 160. Dureau de 
la Malle, Memoire sur Tile de Chryse, ibid. IX. p. 51. 


accomplished ; a traveller says that Ccphalonia has produced more than 
one Ulysses. 

An excellent harbour is situated between the two small towns of Argos- 
toli and Luxuri; it has sometimes contained one hundred and fifty trading 
vessels ; the country is hilly, but fertile in grapes, and yields a great quan- 
tity of oil and wine; the summit of Mount Aimos rises to the height of 
4000 feet above the level of the sea. 

. Teachi is believed to be the ancient Ithaca; it lies near the 

last island, and is sometimes called little Cephalonia; it is fifty 
miles in circumference, studded with villages, and its population amounts 
to six or seven thousand souls. 

Zante, the largest of them all after Corfu and Cephalonia, is 
' not more than twelve miles distant from the last ; it is twenty- 
four miles in length and nineteen in breadth, and inhabited by 40,000 
Greeks, who still re tarn in a greater degree than their neighbours, the 
manners and customs of their illustrious ancestors; much, however, has 
been said of their perfidy, vindictive disposition and great corruption; 
Zante, the capital, is the largest town in the Ionian islands ; it is peopled 
by 20,000 inhabitants, and the Jews make up a twelfth part of that number. 
Different parts of it have been frequently visited by earthquakes ; its pro- 
ductions are Corinthian raisins, oil, cotton and wine ; it is called by the 
Venetians the t /?or di JAvante. 

Ccr . I Cerigo or the ancient Cythera lies to the south of the Morea 

' and at a considerable distance from the other islands; it belong- 
ed at one time to the Venetians, at present it forms a part of the new 
republic ; the land is stony, but on the other side of the rocks which sur- 
round the island, there are many well-watered plains, fertile corn fields and 
rich pastures; the inhabitants are Greeks, and most of them lead a rural 
life; their number is equal to nine or ten thousand. Some curious and 
rare plants are enumerated in the flora of Cerigo. 

loniau rejmb- i The Ionian rq^ublic is peopled by 220,000 inhabitants; its re- 
lie - ' venue amounts to nearly 100,0007. and its national militia to 

four or five thousand men. Some frigates display the British flag on these 
islands, and England maintains on them 2400 soldiers. 

The English government expends annually 50,000/. in keeping up the 
fortifications and in paying part of the military establishment; it is thus 
enabled to command the Adriatic and to guard the Archipelago. The 
lonians are divided into nobles, burgesses and agriculturists ; their politi- 
cal institutions are of an aristocratic character ; the Greek religion is now 
that of the state, but the clergy, who were kept in ignorance by the Vene- 
tians, are not at present desirous of improvement; Lord Guildford has 
founded a college at Corfu ; were his example imitated, the light of know- 
ledge might again be diffused over Greece. 


Turkey. Western Provinces. Albanians and Proto- Slavonians. 

THE Solimans and Amuraths consider the Adriatic Sea the boundary of 
the Turkish empire ; it is fortunate that it does not extend to its natural 
limit; the progress of Ottoman usurpation has been checked by the spirit- 
ed resistance of the Albanians, Bosnians and Servians; these three nations 
do not obey implicitly the dictates of the Porte; surrounded by despotic 


states, they are free, or at all events possess many important privileges. 
The islands and the maritime country were under the protection of Ve- 
nice, once the mistress of the Adriatic; Ragusa and Montenegro have re- 
tained their independence; the possessions of England and Austria form a 
barrier against the inroads of the Crescent. The Austrian frontier com- 
mencing at Orsova, extends along the Danube and the Save across the 
Croatian mountains, and, with the exception of two interruptions, encom- 
passes by its numerous windings the whole of Dalmatia, Ragusa and 
Cattaro; the length of the line thus formed is 230 leagues, whilst that of 
the frontier from Cattaro across Servia is not more than ninety ; these 
artificial boundaries shall be disregarded; they are insignificant in com- 
parison of those established by nature. 

It is true that tbe western mountains in Turkey are not well known; 
we have already had occasion to make a similar observation in speaking 
of the chains which separate Albania and Epirus from Macedonia and 
Thessaly. It has not hitherto been determined whether they , 

P * i i i -i f ! \ AlDano- , 

form a continuous range or an elevated .ridge crowned at dit- Dalmatian 
ferent distances by lofty hills ; it is impossible from the want of ' Mountains - 
measurements to arrive at any accurate decision on the subject, but it is 
certain that numerous branches extend from these mountains eastwards ; 
some of them, such as the Tomourki, from which the Voiourra descends, 
and the Kimara or Acroceraunians, whose rugged rocks project over the 
sea, are not less than 4000 feet in height. The whole of Epirus or the 
lower Albania is covered with mountains, the most of them calcareous 
and furrowed by deep ravines ; but travellers have given us no informa- 
tion concerning the country to the north of the Aous or Voiourra. Shall 
we imitate the profound silence of geographers, or try to discover, the na- 
ture of the land from some incidental and detached data left byhistorians, 
and the indications, derived from Albanian and Slavonic names? Our 
rash attempt may perhaps awaken the curiosity of future travellers. 

We observe several extensive plains on the maps of Mean Mountains of 
and Upper Albania; the lofty chain of Scardus or Scodrus ' Albania. 
under the names of Gliubotin and Nissava-Gora, appears to form a great 
semicircle which encompasses the spacious basins of the double Drino and 
the Moraca. We shall show that the country so ill represented on the 
maps is as mountainous near the sea as it is in the interior; Caesar speaks 
of the lofty and rocky coast round Dyrrachium or Durazzo, and the steep 
banks of the Apsus; a Lucan calls the Gemnus an impetuous torrent. b If 
these facts be connected with the details into which the historian of Scan- 
derbeg enters concerning the rocky nature of the land in the country of the 
Mirdites, and with the descriptions of the passes of Candavia, c a region 
continuous to that of the Mirdites, it must follow that there are two dis- 
tinct ranges in Albania; the precipitous and bold rocks of the one rise from 
the ocean ; the other commencing at four or five leagues from the sea, joins 
the lofty mountains near the lakes of Achrida and Malik. The steep coast 
near Dulcigno and Antivari indicates the height of the plain of Scutari, 
and on the north of its lake, the names of Poclgoritza and Gouri mark a 
second degree of elevation. The inaccessible heights of Montenegro and 
the steep rocks round the gulf of Cattaro lead us to suppose that the inte- 
rior of southern Dalmatia is crowned by a high ridge; the position of the 
Roman road in that country is now unknown, but Berziminium signifies a 
place in the neighbourhood of precipices. d The most frequented moun- 
tains in Austria and Dalmatia extend to the sea, and terminate in steep cal- 
careous rocks, which, together with the islands at no great distance from 
them, are probably of the same formation as the chain or high country 
between Bosnia and Turkish Dalmatia; in that lofty region are situated 

Caesar, B. Civ. XT. Lucan, Phars. V. 465. ' Lucian, VI. 331. Senec. Ep. III. 
d Birziminium is derived from the ancient Albanian word Brezimenuem. 


the Albanian mountains of Ptolemy, or the Albians of Strabo, or the pre- 
sent Vitoraga, Radussa, Planitza and Ranick; it exhibits the phenomenon 
of an extensive range without an outlet, a fact which has hitherto escaped 
the attention of geographers. 

central ridge i The ridge commences below Mount Vitorogo near the marsh- 
ofDaimatia. I es o f Czcrmi-Lug to the west of Glamocz; it extends by Livno 
and Jmoski to Mount Czerlievisca on the north of Vergoras; its length is 
about sixty English miles, its breadth varies from ten to twenty; there are 
within the space enclosed by it eight lakes or marshes, of these the Kutcho- 
Blaton, the Proloza and nine small rivers have no issues; other stagnant 
waters are situated near them; rain is of rare occurrence in the districts, 
the little that falls is absorbed in the land. That singular configuration of 
the high country between Bosnia and Dalmatla appears anew near the 
sources of the Drinna in the White Plains, (Bielopoli) and more remark- 
Plain of i ably on the large and celebrated plain of Kosovo near the sources 
KOSOVO. I o f ti ie Ibar, and not far from, those of the Vardar. The outlets 
to the sea correspond with the character of the country; a river, which falls 
after a course of fifty miles into a gulf, waters the almost maritime vallies 
of Popovo. The mountains are without doubt similar to those in Carniola, 
in other words, they form a calcareous ridge bounded by sloping plains, 
and are in many places cut by caverns. Bosnia and Servia are mountainous 
regions, but the hills are not exclusively calcareous; schistus and granite are 
occasionally observed, and the course of the rivers proves that the form 
of the vallies is different; all of them terminate in the great plain of the 
Danube. Few topographical works have been published concerning these 
countries; the information in the few that exist is very scanty; the height 
of mountains is not mentioned, the geological index is imperfect. The word 
Nissava-gora or the Slavonic term for the heights 6 between the Moraca 
and the Drinna, may indicate a lower level than that of Scardus ; but almost 
all the Bosnian mountains have derived their names from the trees which 
grow on them ; and as the Slavonian terms of the middle ages have been 
mixed with ancient Illyrian or Albanian, it is useless to analyze them. 
Mount Balle is indeed, as its Albanian name signifies, the head of a small 
group in Dalmatia, but other points of greater importance cannot be so 
easily explained. 

Some writers insist that there are basaltic columns on the Stolacz range, 
others maintain the contrary. The mounts Czemerno are situated in the 
heart or middle of Servia/ and are marked as a lofty chain in the map of 
Bield, but it is doubtful if they be correctly represented. We may expect 
that ere long the geography of these regions will be better known. 
Climate, i The climate may be more easily determined; the countries 
vegetation. I on t he Adriatic, or Albania and Dalmatia, are subject not only 
to the warm temperature of Italy, but to droughts and sudden and violent 
north winds. The territory included within the basin of the Danube, 
(Bosnia and Servia,) resembles Austria and Transylvania as to climate; 
it is exposed to the north wind; its elevation is considerable. The 
cold and damp weather that prevails in the high districts during four 
months in the year, is to be imputed in a great degree to the position of 
the mountains on the south of Trawnik, and on the east of Bosnia. The 
Albano-Dalmatian flora is connected with the Italian, but the Bosno-Ser- 
vian with those of Austria, Hungary and Transylvania; the plants have only 
been carefully examined in a few districts. The vine thrives on the banks 
of the Danube and the Save, the olive rises from the shores of the Adriatic 
to the first heights in Dalmatia and Albania; two low regions are thus 
marked by the limits of vegetation; the high country between them is noted 

* It corresponds with the Moravian term Gesenkergebirge, f Zemera in Albanian 

signifies the heart. 


for its fertile fields, excellent pasturage, lofty forests, and mines rich in 
gold and iron. Such at least is the description that Strabo gave when he 
advised the Romans to cultivate and civilize it ;* and his account of the 
Illyrian regions is perhaps the best that has hitherto appeared. 

The lower Albania or the ancient Epirus lies to the south of Lower Aiba- 
the fortieth parallel; we shall consider it on that account as ' nia or Epirus. 
a distinct region; its climate is colder than that of Greece, the spring 
does not set in before the middle of March, and the heat of summer 
is oppressive in July and August; in these months many streams and 
rivers are drained, the grass and plants are withered. The vintage begins 
in September, and the heavy rains during December are succeeded in 
January by some days of frosty weather. h The oak trees, and there is al- 
most every kind of them, arrive at great perfection ;* the plane, the cypress 
and* manniferous ash appear near the sea-coast beside the laurel and the 
lentisk; but the forests on Pindus consist chiefly of cedars, pine, larch and 
chesnut trees. k Many of the mountains are arid and sterile; such as are 
sufficiently watered, are verdant or covered with the wild vine and thick 
groups of elders; in spring their sides are clad with flowers, the violet, the 
narcissus and hyacinth appear in the same profusion as in the mild districts 
of Italy. The inhabitants cultivate cotton and silk, but the olive, for want 
of proper care, does not yield an abundant harvest; the Amphilochian 
peach, the arta nut, and the quince grow in a wild state in the woods and 
uncultivated land. Epirus was once famous for its oxen ; the Animalg 
breed was improved by King Pyrrhus; 1 it has now degenerated, ' 
they are small, stunted and ill shaped. The horses of the same country, 
says Virgil, are swift in the race; they are not large, but spirited and active. 
The Malapian shepherd dog is strong, courageous, vigilant and faithful. 
The bear is a harmless inmate of the forests in Pindus, but the wolf and 
the jackal are seen amidst the ruins, and pursue their prey in the deserts. 
Numerous flocks of water-fowl hover round the lakes, and the Ambracian 
gulf abounds in shell-fish and mollusca. 

Janina, m the capital of Epirus, and a place of considerable vaiieyof 
trade, is peopled by 40,000 inhabitants ; it is situated on the ' J anina. 
basin of the ancient Hellopia, and on the banks of the lake Acherusia, 
the waters of which are discharged into a subterranean abyss. Lord 
Byron viewed the valley from the monastery of Zitza; the scenery has 
been described by the English poet; Pouqueville gives an account of its 
fruitfulness, and forms some conjectures about the existence of volcanoes 
from the red colour of the clay, and the sulphurous odour that emanates 
from the dried turf or peat; if these be indications of volcanoes, there must 
be subterranean fires beneath most marshes. The mpuntains, like all those 
in Epirus, are calcareous, cavernous, and probably placed between the ridges 
of granite that rise from a common base; the ancient Acheron or the pre- 
sent Glikis has been considered, from the remotest antiquity, the subterra- 
nean outlet of the lake Acherusia; and the Velchi, a feeder of the Kalamas 
or ancient Thyamis, issues from beneath a mountain, and receives the 
waters of the lake Labdistas, which communicate with the lake Janina. n 

The snow that begins to fall on Mount Pindus in the begin- i Wa iiachiaiw 
ning of September supplies the sources of three rivers, the on Mount 
Aspro-Potamo or Achelous, the Arta or ancient Arachtos or ' 
Arethon, and the Voioussa or Aous; these regions were formerly inhabited 
by the Mhamanes and Perhwbi, and are at present by the Wallachians, 
who, it is likely, have possessed the mountains a longer time than is gene- 

s Strab. VII. p. 219, ed. Casaub. . h Pouqueville, t. II. p. 263265. j Theoph. 
Hist. Plant. II. 3. k Pouqueville, II. p. 186, p. 274; IV. p. 412. ' Plin. VII. 44. 

Arist. Anim. III. 16. m The ancient Euroca. n Carte des environs de Janina, 

par Barbie du Bocage. 


rally believed, although it must be admitted that the name of Megalo- 
vlachie was first applied to the country by the Byzantines ; the principal 
villages are Mezzovo and Calarites; the inhabitants are industrious, and 
the greater number are engaged in trade ; sumptuary laws are in force 
amongst them; their happiness consists in a frugal and laborious life. 

Arta is situated on the river of the same name, and at the place where 
it begins to be navigable for boats; the inhabitants carry on a trade in wheat, 
cotton and woollen stuffs ; the ancient Ambracia has been transported by 
some geographers to the banks of the small river Charadrus or Rhogus, 
but it cannot be reasonably doubted that it was built on the present site of 
Arta, or in a fertile valley near the harbour of Salagora on the large gulf 
of Arta, which, if its numerous windings be included, is at least equal to 
thirty or forty leagues in circumference; some convenient harbours, fish- 
ing stations and promontories covered with trees are situated on the sides 
of the gulf; Prevesa commands its narrow entrance, by which vessels 
that do not draw more thao twelve feet and a half of water can pass ; the 
same town fronts the ancient Actium. 

The Acheron waters the rugged and rocky district of Souli, 
' which resisted a long time the arms of Ali-Pacha; the Suliotes 

have, since the death of that tyrant, recovered their liberty, and repeopled 

their villages ; the town of Parimithi lies to the west of Souli, 
* ' and its name has been extended to a pastoral tribe that sub- 
sist chiefly by plunder; their total number amounts to 15,000, and there 
are amongst them nearly as many Christians as Mussulmans. Parga 

stands on a rock, a harbour is attached to it; the place has been 
' abandoned by its inflexible inhabitants, who sacrificed their 

possessions, and carried away the bones of their ancestors, rather than be- 
come subject to the Turks. England was compelled to fulfil a solemn 
treaty into which it had entered, but the ignorance or simplicity of its am- 
bassadors was unworthy the representatives of a European kingdom. 

, Many flourishing villages are scattered throughout the valley 
' of Kalamas; the Philatesor the inhabitants cultivate their gar- 
dens, olive trees and corn fields, and pay a tribute that they may be de- 
fended against the aggressions of the Arnauts or Albanians. Butrinto, an 
old Venetian fortress, and Delvino, the residence of a Sanjak, are situated 
in an arid country, which is bounded by the Acroceraunian or Chimara 
mountains; the savage Chimariots earn a wretched and precarious live- 
lihood by piracy and plunder; the large harbour of Aulona, a town cele- 
brated for its manufactures, lies beyond the mountains. 

" Ambracia was 80 stadia distant from the gulf, (Scylax) and 180 from Argos Amplii- 
lochicum." (Polybius.) Arta is the only place with which these two measurements cor- 
respond. " Ambracia is encompassed on the east by hills, and its citadel stands on one 
of them; it is surrounded on the west by open plains and the river Aracthus or Arethon." 
(Tit. Liv.) M. Pouqueville must admit that the above description is wholly inapplicable to 
any place on the Rogous. D'Anville considers the Inachus a branch of the Achelous, an 
absurd hypothesis, and one that is wholly refuted by the ancient maps of Palma and Pou- 
queville, but Ueichard adheres to the supposition of D'Anville. Paulmier de Grentesme- 
nil believes the Inachus, the Arachtus or Arethos to be one and the same river, and that 
it descends from the heights of Pindus. (Grace. Antiq. p. 148, 320, 321.) Mannert sup- 
poses the Inachus a torrent in the neighbourhood of Argos Amphilochicum, but that it 
has been confounded with the sources of the Arachtus and Achelous. Grentesmenil and 
Mannert might have cited in corroboration of their opinion the author de Fluminibus, who 
alludes to the Inachus under the remarkable name of the Haliacmon. It is only necessary 
to read these authors to be convinced of the error which M. Pouqueville has committed 
in applying the name of the Aracthus or Arta to the Kogous, and that of the Inachus to 
the Arachtus. It may be added, that the word Ralous in Strabo ought perhaps to have 
been written Ragous, the letters r and T might have teen easily confounded by the tran- 
scriber. If this opinion be admitted, it would follow that the Rhogus mentioned by Gren- 
tesmenil is the present Louro or the ancient Charadrus. The Greek word %a.*<ii>x, signi- 
fies a torrent, %u*ftv<TQm, to full like a torrent ', >, signifies a preeipice, and all these terms 
are descriptive of the Louro or Rogous. 


We shall return to Pindus, and survey the plain of the , 
Voioussa, such is the present Albanian name of the river, and JJ,e Si JJ u f s 
it means a never-failing current; but the Turkish geographer, ' 
Hadgi-Khalfa, calls it the Vedis, a word which in the hymns of Orpheus 
is synonymous with water, and not unlike the corresponding terms in Al- 
banian, Slavonian and some Gothic dialects ; these two words were first 
applied by the Illyrians or- ancestors of the present Albanians, but the 
substantives, aous, avis and aias are derived from an ancient Greek dialect, 
in which aa signifies water. The town of Konitza, perhaps the ancient 
Antigonia, stands in a green valley surrounded on the upper basin of the 
river with high mountains ;P the other towns are Premithi, the ancient 
Brebeta, and Kleissura; the last is built on an important pass that has been 
sometimes confounded with the one near the sources of the Aous. The 
river crosses the defiles of Kleissoura, and receives the tributary streams, 
which derive their name from the town of Argyrokastron or the ancient 
Argyas. Tepelen is situated below it in a desert and gloomy valley; it 
claims the doubtful honour of having given birth to Ali-Pacha, who was 
a long time the dreaded tyrant, the severe master and merciless executioner 
of the Albanians. 

M. Pouqueville, discovered the Nymphaeum at the confluence 
of the Suchista and Aous; the ancients inform us that flames ' ymi 
in the midst of streams and verdant meadows issued from that extensive 
bed of fossil pitch; such phenomena are at present rare; the flames when, 
they are seen are not very vivid. 4 

Central Albania, or as it was called by the natives, Musachi, , 
is watered by the Ergent or Krevasta, the ancient Apsus and 
Artanes. r The important town of Borat, which rises near 
olive woods and vineyards, was known in the middle ages by the Bulgaro- 
Slavonian names of Beligrad and Balagorod or White Town. 8 The fertile 
but ill-cultivated country is covered with flocks and herds, and the Zi- 
gennes or gipsies kindle their fires in the woods. Eibassan, which is 
situated on the Scombi or ancient Genusus, and Durazzo, a maritime town, 
are peopled by freebooters and pirates. 

The Mati or the ancient Mathis waters a mountainous coun- ,. 
try, which is inhabited by the Mirdites, an Albanian and chris- ' 
tian people, in some measure independent, more civilized and less dishonest 
than their neighbours; they are indebted for these advantages, which they 
retain in the midst of barbarians, to a virtuous and enlightened priesthood. 
The Mirdites have the right of managing the affairs of their own country, 
and of imposing taxes, but they are obliged to furnish a certain number 
of men for the Ottoman armies; the catholic religion predominates in their 
territory} the Christian population is not less than 250,000 souls; 1 they 
are governed by two prinks or chiefs, one spiritual, who is the mitred abbot 
of Orocha, the other temporal, who is sprung from the family of the Lechi. 
Dion-Cassius calls the Mirdites the Merdi, and places them on Mount 
Scardus; the famous Castriota or Scander-Beg, so long the terror of the 
Ottoman armies, was a native of the country; he was born in the town of 
Croya or Crouia, which signifies the metropolis; his ashes rest within the 
walls of Alessio; his countrymen have bestowed on him the extraordinary 

P Pouqueville, I. 171. <? Pouqueville, I. 272. 

r Commena uses the word Chanssgies for Artanes; from the last are derived Arzanes and 
Argenta, which have the same meaning as Artanes in Bythinian, Arda and Arzus in Thra- 
cian, and Arzanius in Armenian. 

8 Palmier de Grentesmenil observes rightly that the Byzantine term Tat E.*ttypt<nt t is 
probably an imitation of the Greek Pulcheriopolis; the Illyrian name is unknown. It is 
possible that it might have been the Parthenia of Polybius, the Parthenorum oppidum of 
Caesar; and as Barthe or Ibarthe signifies white in Albanian, Ptolemy might have called it 
the Albanopolis of the Albani, 

1 Pouqueville, II. p. 548, 

VOL. IV. .0 


surname of the Albanian Dragon; his mighty deeds are still recorded in 
their songs. 

The valley of the Black Drino extends beyond these coun- 
LakeofOchri- tr i eSj an( \ tne \^ c of Ochrida or Achrida is situated on the high- 
est part of the basin which forms the common centre of Albania 
and Macedonia ; a town of the same name has been built on the banks of 
the lake in a fertile district that abounds in fruit, rich pastures, and silver 
and sulphur mines. Geographers and travellers have entered into long 
discussions about the position of the town; it is doubtful if another Achri- 
da was situated on a hill, and also if that ancient Achrida occupied the site 
of the Greek town Lychnidus, which was destroyed by an earthquake; its 
ruins, it is said, are still to be seen on the south-east of the lake; it is un- 
certain whether Lychnidus or Tauresiurn was the same place as the Justi- 
niana Prima. We may add to the list of these difficulties, it has not been 
determined if the shady vale of Gheortcha joins, as M. Pouqueville sup- 
poses, the basin of the Scombi or the ancient Genusus, or if the Devol en- 
ters the lake Achrida by the river of Bogradessi. Anne Comnena says 
expressly that "the Dryman issues from the district of Deabolis, crosses 
the lake Lychnidus, and is enlarged by impetuous torrents ; the account 
given by the Byzantine Princess is not contradicted in the learned researches 
of M. Pouqueville. The Black Drino flows from Ochrida across the dis- 
tricts on the upper and lower Dibra, the native country of barbarous sol- 
diers, some of whom have distinguished themselves in the Algerine armies, 
and ascended the throne of the Deys. The river continues its course 
northwards, and is joined near Stana'by the White Drino, that descends 
in an opposite direction from the almost unknown region in which is situ- 
ated the town of Perserendi or the birthplace of Justinian, and, according 
to the natives, the Justiniana Prima; but the barbarism of the inhabitants, 
who are almost as unsocial as the bears and wolves on their mountains, 
renders the place inaccessible. The united streams of the Drinos water 
the fertile and romantic plain in which travellers seek for the town of 
Dukagin; the district of Za-Drina and its thirty-two villages are situated 
near the embouchure of the river, and peopled by fierce Albanians, who 
still retain their independence. 

I The valley of the Drino forms a part of Upper Albania, a 
Jiafscofrau' I country that has been seldom visited by travellers; Scutari or 

' Scodra, which the Turks have capriciously called Iskenderiah 
or Alexandria, holds the first rank among the towns in their empire, and 
is considered its bulwark on the west; it lies between the Boyana and the 
Drinassa, at the place where the first issues from the lake of the same 
name and receives the waters of the second; it is defended by two or three 
fortresses and an extensive rampart; the inhabitants amount to sixteen or 
twenty thousand, many of them are Greeks, some of the catholic, others of 
the eastern church; the people are employed in making arms, manufactur- 
ing woollen stuffs, building ships and in fishing on the lake. The Boyana 
is not navigable beyond Polna, but Dulcigno and Antivari are provided 
with good harbours on the Adriatic; that part of the coast is called Kraina 
or the land by its inhabitants, the most of them are Slavonians; Antivari 
was peopled in the middle ages by Italian colonists. 1 

I The Guegues or red Albanians occupy the whole of theinte- 
or GuiEf 8 r i r towards the sources of the two Drinos and the Moraca, 

' which is the name that the Byoaca receives before it enters the 
lake of Scutari or the Zenta. The country and its inhabitants are little 
known ; M. Pouqueville* mentions the Zogs, the Murdes and the C/iiscands 
in the neighbourhood of the Zenta., It is also stated that the Bardi, who 
inhabit the territory of Zadrina on the east, are probably descended from 
the Vardiaeij z the other tribes, of which we know nothing but the names, 

u Culscedra Arbenit. (Ibarthe.) * Tyr. Bell. sac. II. c. xvii. y Pouqueville, 

II. 512. z Qrtelius, the word Varalii. 


are the Koutchioti or fowlers, the Liaiporosches or eaters of hares, the 
Mousselims or tribe of Mossul, the Boukmirs or bread-eaters, the Darcles 
or descendants of the Dardanians, the Drivastes or a number of robbers in 
Rascia, and the Grouemirs or people in the country of beautiful women. 
The land on the east and north of Zadrina, between the Boyana and the 
Zem which falls into the lake Scutari, is peopled by the Pontali and the 
Choti, who are divided into the tribes of the Mogouls, Castrati, Bagous, 
and Siwans or Soans. The Pascoli, whom the Turks call Kolbans or shep- 
herds, inhabit the country on the west, and the Scodrans possess the land be- 
tween the Moraca and the Tara; these two rivers, it has been asserted, unite 
at Limi and form the Zem. The Pannani are the neighbours of the Colas- 
cinians or fierce mountaineers, whose bands have often desolated Herzgo- 
vina and Bosnia ; their country extends perhaps from the mountains of 
Ibali to the sources of the White Drino. The districts between the rivers 
which flow into the Zenta and the western feeders of the Drino are peopled 
by the dementi, a catholic tribe whose bishop resides at Saba or Sarda; 
the position of these places is almost unknown; many more villages are 
marked in the map of Upper Albania, published at Rome in the year 1692 
by the college de Propaganda fide, -than in any other of later date. The 
courses of the Moraca and the Zem are so imperfectly known that it is 
impossible to say which is the principal river. No geographer has deter- 
mined the extent of Jlrnaoutlik, a country that borders on Rascia, Mace- 
donia and Bosnia, and is peopled by Servian and Albanian savages. 

The Albanians might become formidable to the Ottoman 
empire; their hireling sword is at present its chief support; 
the rugged and mountainous nature of their country tends to 
confirm them in their warlike habits. " Every man born in Albania,*', says 
Pouqueville, "may be distinguished by his physiognomy, temperament 
and character from the Greeks and the Turks." Strong, active, and patient 
of fatigue, they were the soldiers of Pyrrhus, y Scander-Beg and Ali-Pacha. 
"The Albanian troops endure the utmost rigours of winter; while day- 
light lasts, they are employed in their camp in wrestling or other warlike 
exercises; their temperance and sobriety are so great that a very small 
ration of bread, wheat or maize, black olives or salted pilchards is sufficient 
for them ; the happiness of the Turk consists in indolence, that of the Al- 
banian in action ; but the latter is not excited by glory or patriotism; unless 
he be bribed, he seldom leaves his rugged mountains.'* Their leaders are 
as much venerated as ever were highland chieftains by their clans ; and 
the services of these mercenary captains and their numerous dependents, 
may be purchased by any government. 

The women in the same country are strong and healthy ; their temperate 
and frugal diet secures them against many diseases ; they are not so early 
marriageable as the women in southern Greece; they retain their looks 
longer, and give birth to children at a more advanced age. 

Although the most of the Albanians profess Mahometanism, . 
many of them are not very scrupulous about its precepts; few ' 
have more than one wife, and the contrary custom observed by some 
wealthy chieftains, is more a matter of fashion than of conscience. Al- 
though ignorant of the sciences, they know how to cut canals and bring 
water into their towns; unprovided with mathematical instruments, they 
can measure heights and distances with as much accuracy as a geometer; 
Mahomet-Ali and Ali-Tepelenli have shown what the genius of the Alba- 
nians could effect in a state of ignorance and barbarism; the devoted and 
heroic fidelity of Mustapha Bairactar to the 'emperor Selim is a proof that 
the Albanian character, is not incompatible with exalted virtue. 

The Albanians are probably a tribe of the ancient Illyrians, that migrated 
from the inland and mountainous countries, and became known when the 
weakness of the Roman empire compelled the mountaineers and shepherds 


to trust to their own strength for the defence of their possessions; but it is 
not to be imagined that a primitive tribe, or one which remained unmixed 
during two thousand years, exists in a country like European Turkey, 
peopled by different nations that are confounded with each other. 

It has been shown from the language of the Albanians, that 
they have inhabited Europe as long as the Greeks and Celts, 
with whom they appear to have been connected; it is not un- 
likely that the Illyrians, whose language resembles the one 
spoken by the primitive tribes of the Pelasghi, Dardani, GraiJd and Make- 
dones, inhabited before the time of history, the Albanian mountains that 
were governed by hereditary chiefs, and situated near some tribes of that 
race which has been since called Slavonic. The Illyrians sent numerous 
colonies into Italy, but at the period of the great Celtic invasion into 
Greece and Asia, some Illyrians, among others the Albani, were sub- 
dued by warlike Celts and Germans in the same manner, and much about 
the same time, that the conquest of Galatia was effected. The Romans 
and Italians who made themselves masters of Illyria in a later age, were 
incorporated with the inhabitants of towns, and from that period the pas- 
toral tribes were distinguished by the Celtic name of Albani; their lan- 
guage was partly retained, but increased and corrupted by the addition of 
words and phrases in the vulgar Italian or Romano, rustica and military 
jargon of the legions. These changes, and the fact that, in ancient times, 
the ^olian, the Pelasgian, and perhaps the Illyrian, had some affinity with 
the Italian, enable us to explain how the Albanian, the Daco-Latin, or mo- 
dern Wallachian, originally formed from Dacian languages now unknown, 
were connected with the rustic and military dialects of the Romans; but 
the one and the other were again altered in the tenth century, when nume- 
rous hordes of Carpathian Slavonians, commanded chiefly by princes of 
the Gothic race, repeopled the south of Illyria. 

It is thus that a new system may be established, of which Leibnitz* and 
Palmier de Grentesmenil b were not ignorant; it was in some degree eluci- 
dated by Masci c and Thunn>ann, d but involved in numerous difficulties by 
Dolci and Sestrencewitz. e Had it been connected with the researches of 
orientalists, much additional light might have been thrown on the history 
and ancient geography of Greece, Italy and Asia Minor. As the Albanian 
language is the living monument on which the whole depends, we shall 
examine it more fully; if we enter into a digression, it cannot be considered 
out of place in a geographical work. 

I It is admitted, nay, it has been partly proved by philologists, 
that a number of languages spoken in different countries, which 
extend from the banks of the Ganges to the shores of Iceland, 
bear some resemblance to each other. If that fact be kept in view, the 
mixed nature of the Albanian language cannot be thought a local and par- 
ticular phenomenon, as it was considered in the time of Leibnitz, but it 
may be accounted for by the analogy that pervades all the Indo-Gothic 
tongues. Thus the word gneri signifies a man in Albanian, and corresponds 
with aner in Greek, nar in Persian, Sanscrit and Zend, and with nero, a 
strong man, nerienne, virile strength, in the Sabine or ancient Italian dialect; 
another remarkable instance may be adduced; ziarm is the Albanian word 
for heat, tjerm the Armenian, thermos the Ionian, tharmos the Iolian,ga/V7i 
the Persian, and warm the German. These examples show that the words 
are similar, but it cannot be determined that any one of them is derived 
from any other; in the same manner reg, a king in Albanian, is not unlike 
rex in Latin, rix in Celtic, rtgin in Islandic, radja in Sanscrit, and other 

* Leibnitz, Collect. VI. p. 2, p. 138. Annal. des Voyages, HI. 157. b P. de Grentes- 
menil, Graecia Antiqua, p. 213, &c. c Masci, Essai stir les Albanais. Annales des 

Voyages, III. 145. d Thunmann, Untersuchungen uber die oestliche vcelker. e Dolci. 
de prjestantia Linguae lllyricae, Sestrencewitz, Uecherches sur les Slaves, &c. 


synonymes, the primitives of which it is impossible to ascertain; the same 
remark is applicable to the grammar of the Albanian language; if it be in 
many respects like those of the Greek and Latin, it is a proof of its relation 
or connexion with these tongues, not of its derivation from them ; it is cer- 
tain that there must have been grammatical systems in Phrygia, Thrace 
and Illyria at the same time, or even at an earlier age than in Greece. II- 
lyria as well as Beotia may claim the inventions of Cadmus. 

Some Sanscrit words of a geographical nature must be re- Sangcrit aco . 
marked by every one who studies the Albanian. Mail, a moun- I graphical 
tain, (hence maina in Thessaly and the Peloponnesus,) and gour, ' terms * 
a rock or hill, are common terms in Albania; Candahar and Candavia have 
the same signification; these instances are by no means exceptions to the 
rule; with equal probability we may derive from the Sanscrit, and much 
more readily than from the Greek, the words Hemus, Pindus, (Bindhia or 
Vindia,) Parnassus, (Paranischa,) and Kynthos/ it follows from these and 
other examples of the same kind, that a connexion subsists between all the 
Japhethic languages, of which the high districts in Armenia might have 
been the common centre. 

As to the character of the Albanian, it may be affirmed that more than 
a third of its primitives are Greek roots reduced to their primitive, bar- 
barous and monosyllabic form; it is equally true that the Greek words in 
the Albanian are most closely allied to those in the JEolic dialect, which 
does not differ radically from the ruder and older language of the Pelasghi,s 
that was mixed with the ancient Macedonian, Thessalian and Beotian; thus 
the Albanian might have been partly the same as an ancient semi-Greek 
dialect that was spoken before the time of Homer; the other third of the 
roots appears to be common to the Latin, Sabine, Italo-Celtic, German 
and Slavonic, or to the languages that were spoken in the central and 
western regions of Europe. But no reason has yet been alleged, which 
could enable us to determine whether all its relations with these languages 
of ancient date, existed at the epoch when most of the European families 
inhabited the high countries in the peninsula of Hemus and Pindus, or 
whether they are later modifications resulting from different causes, among 
others, from the changes introduced by the Roman military colonies. The 
remaining roots have not been traced to their source; but from the analo- 
gy of geographical names, it is probable that they are not widely different 
from others in the ancient languages of Thrace and Asia Minor. We shall 
subjoin the proofs of these assertions, from which it may be inferred that 
the Albanianjanguage is not only one of high antiquity, but serves to illus- 
trate others of Pelasgo-Hellenic origin. 

The -/Eolic roots may be shown by the application of the di- 
gamma, the metathesis of the letter R, or by other transpo- 
sitions peculiar to the ^Eolic dialect. Thus the Greek word 
tragein, to eat, becomes in the Molic form of the infinitive, 
tragen, and by the metathesis of the R, targen; hence the Albanian term 
darkem^ to eat. The pronoun I is expressed in the Albanian by oun and 
oune, which are the same as the ion and ionga of the Beotians, and the egon 
of the ^.olians. The head or bale in Albanian corresponds with the bala 
of the Macedonians, and ihephalaof the Beotians, which are both jEolisms 
that were used instead of Kephala. The Albanian name for Slavonia is 
Schienia, the country of strangers, from skenos, the JEolic form of xenos; 
the jEolic word skiphos, a sword, may account for Skipatar, an Albanian 
name of which the meaning has not been explained. The digamma appears 
in many words; thus vraam, to kill or injure, from raiein; vel, oil, from 

Kynthos in the island of Delos, Zakynthos, the island of Arakynthos in Attica, Anakyn- 
thos in Acarnania, Berekynthos in Crete, Idem in Phrygia, from Kyntha, a sacred hill. 
e See Palmier de Grentesmenil, Grxcia Antiqua, p. 54, 55. 

Connexion be- 
tween the Al- 
banian and 


elaion; verbuem, to bereave, orbare (Latin;) verra, fine weather, from ear or 
er, the spring; in like manner Voioussa, the name of u river, the ancient 
Ma I Apus or A i us The Albanian is by means of its ^Eolic charac- 
SS ter connected with the Macedonian; Loos, the Macedonian 
month* I name for tlie month of August, corresponds with the Loonar of 
the Albanians; the first and second brit, the names of two months in Al- 
banian, recall to our recollection the beritios and hyperberitios in the Mace- 
donian calendar. Krios, a word used by the Macedonian peasants, is 
analogous to the Albanian kirsouer* for ouer signifies a season.' 1 We have 
entered on a subject, which cannot at present be fully treated; no vocabu- 
lary of the Albanian language exists; the indigenous names of all the 
months have not hitherto been collected. 

, The Pelasgic character has been evinced by a curious and 

Connexion o >.-, ,,....' ,. 

with the PC- important fact; the names of several Greek divinities, according 
' to Herodotus, are derived from the Pelasgic. Thus in the 
Albanian language, deet signifies the sea; hence probably Tethys the god- 
dess of the ocean; dee the earth, hence Deo and Demeter, surnames of Ceres; 
htre, the air, Here, Juno ; dieli, the sun, Delios, a surname of Apollo, the 

fod of the sun ; vranie, a cloud, uranos, the heavens. Herodotus mentions 
uno only among these divinities; but it is enough to show that the most 
ancient Greek words have been preserved in the Albanian language ; be- 
sides, Herodotus, from his own confession, was ignorant of the Pelasgic ; 
having said that the Pelasghi were of a different origin from the Greeks, he 
tells us in another part of his work that they were the ancestors of the 
Athenians, Arcadians, and Thessalonians; it may therefore be reasonably 
believed that the historian has accommodated the mythology of the Pelas- 
ghi to that of the Egyptians and Lybians. The Pelasghi were supposed 
in ancient times to have been the first who ruled over Greece; they inha- 
bited Pindus at a very early period ; the Pelasgic Dodona was the centre 
of their worship, and their descendants were the people who styled them- 
Namesof the i selves Mutochtones or Aborigines. It is not wonderful that an old, 
Pelasghi. I rude, and monosyllabical dialect, although of semi-Greek ori- 
gin, appeared unintelligible to an Ionian like Herodotus; the very name of 
the Pelasghi, as well as those of Pella, Pellene, Pelion, Peligni, and twenty 
others of places and people, may explain the old Macedonian and Thessa- 
lonian word pela, a rock or stone. 1 It is vain to regard the hypothesis of 
different writers, or to make the Pelasghi come from the sources of the 
Nile, the summits of Caucasus, or the tower of Babel; they were in reality 
the ancestors of the Greeks, the people of the old rock, the stone builders; 
their worship was wholly European, and founded on the belief of a supreme 
being and inherent powers in nature. 

The names which geography, and particularly physical geography, have 
consecrated, may be considered the most important documents of primi- 
tive history, or of history anterior to chronology. Men, long before they 
thought of computing years, or arranging events according to the order of 
their dates, designated by local denominations, taken from the dialects in 
which they spoke, all the objects that surrounded them; the mountains 
that bounded their horizon, the rivers in which their thirst was quenched, 
the village that gave them birth, and the family or tribe to which they 
belonged; had that geographical nomenclature been preserved pure and 
entire, a map of the world might have been obtained, more valuable far 
than all the universal histories. 

Connexion I * l * s ^ est ' * n or< ^ er to discover the Hellenic structure of the 

with the lid Albanian language, to compare words that are not of common 

' occurrence, or such as are used in dialects little known; thus 

#roua, a woman, corresponds with Graia, a Grecian woman ; kourm, the 

h See Usserius, de Maced. et anno solari. ' Sturtz, de Lingua Macedonia. Tzetrcs, 

Chiliad. II. c. XVII. 


body, with kormos, a throne or trunk of a tree; khunde, the nose, with chon- 
dros 9 cartilage; dora, the hand, with doron, the palm of the hand; ziza, a 
nipple, with tithe, a nurse; groust, the fist, with gronthos; cambe, the foot, with 
kampe, flexion; ngrane, to nourish, with graien ; flacha, a flame, with phlox; 
krupa, salt, with kruos, crystal; stepei, a house, with stephos 9 a roof or cover- 
ing; brecheir, hail, with brechein, to wet, and with eir, a tempest or thunder ; 
iourte, prudent, with iotes, prudence (Homer ;) iri, young, with ear or er, 
the spring; koitou, I remember, with kotheoo, I think; ve, an egg, with oveon, 
a word used in the Cretan dialect; chata, poverty, with chatein, to want; 
skepetim, thunder, with skepto, I fall with force ; phare, a division or tribe, 
with pharas, the pars of the Latins ; prink, a father or chief, with prin, be- 
fore (primus;) frike, fear, vrithphrix, trembling; bastakes, a Beotian term 
for a farm, with bastine, a rural domain in Albanian. We have cited such 
examples as are not very obvious: the relation between them is not at first 
discovered ; but a great number of analogies more evident and more easily 
traced, must strike those who study the language. Many Albanian and 
Greek words differ only in their grammatical forms; thus piim and piein, 
to drink, pounouem and ponein, to labour, zieim and zeein, to boil; luem, to 
anoint, laam, to wash, and louein, to bathe; pituem, to ask, and pythesthai; 
prim and proienai, to go before; the prepositions, fide, within, (endo,) paa, 
without, and apo, from, me and meta, with; the adverbs mo and me, not; 
and other instances too numerous to be adduced. 

It is observable that some Albanian terms are Hellenic compounds, al- 
though there are no single words corresponding with them in the Greek. 
Panoni, the Albanian term for anarchy, is formed from the preposition pa, 
which is not different from the Greek apo, and nomos, law; it .may therefore 
be considered the same, as the old or obsolete Greek term aponomia. The 
Greek word hippos, a horse, was probably derived from the Albanian verb, 
hippune, to mount or leap; the names of mountains and people in primitive 
Greece, were perhaps of Albanian origin. 

The Albanian words derived from the Latin might have been , Connexion 
introduced at different epochs; at all events it is not easy to with the 
determine the relation between these two languages; some ety- ' Lat1 "' 
mologists observe an analogy in the jEolic, the Albanian and ancient Latin; 
but much of the resemblance between the two last may be attributed to the 
mixture of the Celtic with the Albanian and old Italian dialects; besides, 
the Roman military colonies must have disseminated the Romana rustica 
in Illyria and Epirus. If the history of the Tyrrhenians and other Italian 
tribes were not involved in obscurity, more accurate notions might be 
formed on the subject, but it is easy to adduce several instances, by which 
it must appear that the Albanian is connected with the dialects of ancient 
Italy. Kiel, the heavens, caslum; lioume, a river, flumen; mik, a friend, ami- 
cus; sok, a companion or ally, socius; lake, a marsh or lake, lacus; flochcte, 
\\zir, floccus; lufta, war or struggle, lucta; pisch, a fish, piscis; peeme and 
poma, fruits; remb, a branch, ramus; fakie, the face, fades; martuem, to 
marry, maritare; turbuem, to trouble, turbare; pulchitem, to please, placere; 
desciruem, to desire, desiderare; kiam, to cry, (chiamar;} vape, moderately 
warm, vapidus; Spess, thick, spissus; cundra, against, contra; per, by or 
through, per. It may be remarked that the Latinisms or Italianisms in the 
Albanian are very like those in the Wallachian, or Daco-Roman; that cir- 
cumstance alone may, in some measure, show how long the Albanian has 
been connected with the Latin. The w'ord mi expresses the comparative 
in the Albanian, and is analogous to the irregular comparatives minor and 
melior of the Latins. Ssum, the term for the superlative, (or according to 
its pronunciation, schoume) appears to be the same as summe. 

To ascertain the Celticisms and Germanisms in the Albanian , celticisms 
is by no means an unprofitable task ; they cannot be attributed f"i German- 
to accidental causes, for these words form a part of a numerous ' 


class in different languages; thus lart/i in Albanian, lard in French and En- 
glish; lardtan in Latin, far, fat in Celtic, and /ana:, laeriche, larch, laerke, a 
resinous tree in Latin, German, English and Danish, indicate a resem- 
blance between the northern and western tongues. Bret, a king, breteri, a 
kingdom, brii, a horn, bar, grass, bres, a girdle, droe, dread; brittunc, to 
diffuse or radiate, and bleem, to buy, are evidently Celto-Gallic words. 
Miel, flour, buck, bread, hethe, fever, goistie, a feast, chierra, a car; cam?, an 
angle ; gind, kind, tim, smoke, (dimma in Swedish) sim, a shower, nata, 
night, dera, a gate,n7, a star in the dialect of Epirus; (ild, fire in Danish,) 
Mr, a son; tern, bairns, children in Danish and Scotch; oulk, a wolf, s/ow, 
eyes, ve, an oath, and many others are almost literally German or Gothic. 
It is difficult to account for these facts from the migrations of different 
people, but they may be easily explained, if we admit that the ancient popu- 
lation of Hemus was made up of Celtic, Slavonic and German tribes, as 
well as Pelasgian, Hellenic and Asiatic. 

We now come to the third division of the Albanian language, which 
consists of unknown roots, or at least of such as have not hitherto been ex- 
plained; we might at first have been apt to leave the examination of the 
subject to orientalists, and to suppose that these words were exclusively 
of Asiatic origin, because they are apparently foreign to every known Eu- 
ropean language. But as we have occasionally been able to account for some 
of these roots, and to connect them, in spite of their irregularity, with the 
Hellenic and other European dialects, we were led to conclude that the 
primitives of a pure and indigenous language like the Albanian, must have 
been at one time common to the Thracian, Illyrian, Phrygian and Lydian^ 
and that the unknown roots are not the least valuable part of each or all 
these languages. The Albanian, according to this hypothesis, might be- 
come as useful, in an historical point of view, as the language of Orpheus 
or Deucalion, and might enable us to explain the meaning attached to the 
names of many ancient people and places. We have been able in the pre- 
sent imperfect state of our information to interpret some of these words; 
thus, it is likely that Mount Scard us has been so called from its indented 
peaks, for scarra and card signify a saw, (sierra.)* The Scomius is a high 
mountain (scume mal;} the passes of Succi in Hemus extend across small 
hills, (sukhe.) The Oeagrius, or Hebrus, is the river near wild woods, the 
Pontus abounds in marshes, the Dryn is shaded with forests. Vedi, (Aous) 
signifies water, and the Voioussa, a never-failing stream. Mount Bora 
has derived its name from its snows, (bora or bdorej and the Bernus pro- 
bably from perrune, a torrent; Candavia is a rugged country, and in ancient 
times it was traversed by winding or angular roads, (candoign.) But, 
without entering into more minute details, if the names of the districts, 
mountains, and rivers in the country between the Achelous on the south, 
Mount Balle on the north-west, and Scomius on the north, are for the most 
part of Albano-Illyrian origin, it may be allowed that the study of the 
Albanian is connected with that of geography. It might furnish us, too, 
with some interesting ethnographical indications, and serve to explain the 
different names that have been applied to the Albanians. 

A native of the country calls himself an .flrvenesce, according 
to Ib arth, and a Skipitar, according to Thunmann. The last 
name, it has been said, is derived from skip, which denotes the 
language ; hence Skipitar, he who speaks Skip, and Skiperi, the country in 
which Skip is spoken; but no signification has been assigned to the word 
itself. Ancient geographers describe the Albanians as a mountainous and 
wandering people; early historians inform us that .they became afterwards 

k Diction. Epirot, Blanche, (Ibarthe) incorrectly called Biondi by Major Leake. See 
vocabulary in Leake's Researches in Greece, and those by Thunmann and Pouqueville. 
MS. glossary in the library of the king of France, MS. Grammars Idem. 


a warlike nation, hence it may be thought more probable that Skipitar 
means an armed man, or one provided with a sword, or s/dphos. The word 
Albanian, though long 1 forgotten, is perhaps as ancient; the mount Albanus 
of Ptolemy is the Albia or Albion of Strabo; and the commentators are 
not to be commended, who effaced the Albani and Albanopolis from the 
text of Ptolemy; with equal justice, all the Albas and Albani in Italy, Gaul 
and Spain might have been obliterated from the ancient maps of these 
countries. Albhain in Gaelic, and Alb in Germanic, signify mountain pas- 
turage ; from such facts it may be inferred that the name of the Albani is 
indigenous and of very ancient date/ it is also likely that Arbenesce, or as 
it is written by the Byzantine historians, Arvanitse, is a corruption of Al- 
banitae. The Turkish term Arnaut is perhaps derived from the Slavo- 
Illyrian arvania, war or combat; if that be the case, Arnaut is a literal 
translation of Skipitar or Schypetar. 

The names of the Illyrian tribes appear to be of Albanian origin; the 
Parthini or Parthyni in Illyria, were the white or fair people, (i barthe,) 
and wholly distinct from the Parthians; the Dassaretes were isolated tribes, 
the Dalmates or Delmates, signify the young. There is a meaning in the 
names of many Albanian towns and districts; the port Eled or Elet. describ- 
ed by Scylax, is the genitive of Elea, which is mentioned by other writers. 
If so many geographical terms can be explained by means of the language 
still spoken in ancient Illyria, why should its origin be sought in Caucasus? 
It may be of use to compare these indications with others obtained from 
the ancient Macedonian, and it may be better to confine our inquiries to 
the countries known to thfc Greeks than to examine the regions beyond the 
Euphrates, from which it is not likely much information can be gained 
concerning different European states, as the Msedi, Lydi, Pelasghi, Phry- 
ges or Vrighes. 

The unknown primitives in the Albanian are perhaps ancient Illyrian 
words; and if that opinion be correct, the inquiry may be limited to the 
countries within and near the boundaries of Illyria. It has been already 
seen that several Thracian words were not in use in Illyria and Macedonia, 
among others bria, a town, and para, a height or elevated place ; it may be 
added that the terminations in issos, itza, dava, and ava, are most common 
in the Thraco-Getan dialects; and the Illyrian, if it did not form a separate 
class, was a distinct branch of.the Thracian. It is not easy to account for 
the introduction of Strymon, a Slavonic word, and the name of a river, 
(Strzumien, in Polish; Slrcem, Strcemmen, Straum, &c. in Scandinavian;) to 
trace its connexion with the Albanian is like an attempt to discover the 
original form of an edifice wholly in ruins. The Dardano-Illyrians, who, 
according to an ancient tradition, were the ancestors of the tribes dispersed 
in Troas, Epirus, and Italy, 1 " might have been of Albanian origin; Ilion 
is an Albanian word which signifies a high place; there was not only a 
small town in Macedonia, but a mountain of that name in Laconia; it is as 
rash to reject these indications as to found any conclusion on them, in the 
present state of our knowledge or ignorance; much greater information 
must be obtained, before it can be determined whether the early population 
of Italy were descended from the Ombrici and Siculi of ancient Illyria, or 
connected with the Toskes of modern Albania. 

The Albanian language has been considered in its relation 
to geography; some remarks may be made on its grammatical 


1 Tou, itar, and atar, are Albanian terminations, which denote a profession or trade; and 
they correspond with the ariusand tor of the Latins: 

m Homer, Virgil, Pliny, Lycophron, &c. I am aware that the learned M. Niebuhr con- 
sidered the migration of jEneas a fable; but the migrations of the Uardani might have been 
true, independently of the poetical fictions with which they have been mixed. 

n Osservazione Grammatical, by F. M. Lecce, Rome, 1716. Leake, Researches in Greece. 
Vater, Tables comparatives, &c. 1822. Vellara, Fragmens. MS. 



The. Albanian has some resemblance to the Latin, the Greek and Sla- 
vonic; but it is not so rich as the two first, and its constructions are less 
varied than those in the last; it abounds in auxiliary words; thus to ex- 
press the adjective idle, it is necessary to say, Te paa pune, (literally in 
Greek outoi apo ponou,) those without occupation. Its compound substan- 
tives are of two forms ; the one corresponds with the arius or tou of the 
Latins; the other with the erei or erie of the Germans. Thus from lufta, 
war is derived, luftetar, a warrior; and from bret, a king, breteteri, a king- 
dom ; but the most of the compound'substantives are infinitives, preceded 
by the neuter article; te pym, signifies a drink, and is the same as if we 
said in Italian,?'/ bevere, or in French, le boire. The physical terms are more 
numerous and more varied than we might be apt to conclude from perus- 
ing the printed treatises on the subject; but there are comparatively few 
words that indicate the faculties or operations of the mind. 

The article is generally put at the end of the substantive; thus groue, 
woman,gr0Meza, the worn an, gour, stone, gouri, the stone, barck, belly, barckou, 
the belly; but the same rule is not applicable to the adjective; mir, signifies 
good, and t mir, e mir, te mir, are the same word with the masculine, femi- 
nine, and neuter articles prefixed to it. The declension of the pronouns 
is regular, the first and second persons are in some respects analogous to 
the Latin. There are ten conjugations, but that number may be reduced 
to eight; they are distinguished by the infinitive; four terminate in am, 
em, im, and oum, or in the same manner as the four present tenses in the 
Armenian ; two in ane and oune, and two in le and re. The most of the 
present tenses end in agn, egn, ign, and ogn, and the greater number of pre- 
terites in ava, eva, iva, and ova. It is not unlikely that the Albanian verb 
is made up of two distinct formations, introduced at different periods; the 
first or earliest ends in the four vowels, a, e, , 0, the second must be attri- 
buted to successive additions or innovations; to distinguish the Pelasgo- 
Molic from the Thracian terminations is the great difficulty in the study 
of the language. The infinitive is always preceded by the article me, when 
the sense is active, and by meou, when the sense is passive or reciprocal. 
The imperfect, perfect, future, conditional, imperative and infinitive are 
formed by inflections, and the other tenses by means of the auxiliary verbs 
to have, and to be. The passive is formed by the verb to be and the infinitive 
of the active voice, which is changed into a supine by the omission of the 
article mi. 

The Albanian grammar is remarkable for its originality; it may be con- 
sidered a monument of the simplicity of the nation for which it was framed; 
such might have been the grammatical systems of Orpheus, Linus and 

. The Albanian books published at Rome by the College de 
phXct an * Propaganda fide, are printed in modern Italic characters with 
' the addition of four other letters; the Albanians themselves make 
use of the modern Greek alphabet and the same four letters. But there is, 
if we may so term it, an ecclesiastical alphabet, which consists of thirty 
letters; and many of them are not unlike the Phenician, Hebrew, Arme- 
nian and Syriac .characters; few of them have any resemblance with the 
Bulgarian or Mesogothic, and we look in vain for the Pelasgic, Etruscan 
or Runic letters. The ancient Albanian alphabet might have been altered 
by Christian priests, either in the second century, when Christianity was 
introduced into the country, or in the ninth, when the Albanian church was 
united with that of Rome; but it is evident that the alphabet, even in its 
present shape, is derived from another much more ancient, and which at 
one period was used in Illyria, Macedonia and Epirus. 

The national Albanian songs are illustrative of the manners of the peo- 
ple; it might be worth while to know them, although they are for the most 
part written after the time of Scanderbeg. An examination of the inscrip- 


tions which in all likelihood exist in Upper Albania, might throw addition- 
al light on the history and languages of ancient nations. 

It is in the country of the Mirdites or in the town of Scutari, that the 
traveller may reasonably expect to gain information concerning the man- 
ners and barbarous customs which the Illyrians have transmitted to their 
descendants, the Albanians. The divisions by cetlas and pharas , 
were mixed with feudal customs by the Christian Albanians, jgjj.^ 
who migrated into the kingdom of Naples; but in Albania itself ' 
these institutions are more connected with the character of a democracy. 
All the cettas in the mountains of Upper and Mean Albania join in punish- 
ing murder, rape, and adultery; these crimes can only be avenged by the 
blood of the guilty; but theft is not a capital offence ; he who steals an ox 
may escape punishment by paying a sum of money. In the rural assemblies, 
of the cettas the members often deliberate with their swords in their hands; 
some of the individuals mark their skin with gunpowder, that they may 
more readily know the cetta to which they belong; a similar practice 
existed among their ancestors, the Illyrians. The sacrifice of a , s stitiong 
young woman, a wife and a mother, is recorded in their national * 
songs. Three brothers founded the town of Scutari, and interred their sister 
alive near the castle; the rural genii had assured them, if that condition 
were fulfilled, the town would be always abundantly supplied with provi- 
sions. The victim implored her husband (and he too was her brother) 
that she might be permitted to nurse her infant ; her milk flowed miracu- 
lously through an aperture in the grave; and afterwards a never-failing foun- 
tain, efficacious in the cure of all diseases, rose from her ashes. The 
Schypetar converses occasionally with the Mires or good goddesses, and the 
mountaineer in the interior of Upper Albania believes, like the Servian, in 
supernatural prophetesses or Vyles;? witches, though greatly feared, are 
well known under their ancient Latin, and perhaps Thessalian name, of 
striga. Christian and Mahometan women in Albania attend funeral pro- 
cessions, and make the air resound with their inhuman yells. The Alba- 
nian hunters and shepherds have many traditions concerning wild beasts, 
the habitations of souls banished from eternal repose; but it is possible 
by means of enchantments and anathemas to dislodge these wretched spirits 
from their prison house. 

The fishermen in the north of lake Scodra take a kind of fish, 
Which they call scoranza, in the following manner: a species 
of crow that is held sacred, arrives in great flocks at certain sea- 
sons of the year ; the fishermen cast their nets in the rivers and lakes; 
the Iman or Greek priest pronounces his benediction ; the crows, it is 
said, remain while that ceremony lasts, at the edge of the water or on the 
branches of trees without making the least noise. The consecrated grain 
is afterwards thrown into the stream; it floats on the water, and attracts 
many fish to the surface; then, and not till then, the crows dart on them 
with hoarse-sounding cries, and the frightened fish are easily caught in 
the nets ; a portion of the draught is regularly set apart for the crows and 
priests ; and these animals seldom fail to accompany the fishermen. 

The district of Montenegro or the Slavonic Czerna-Gora, j 
the Turkish Kara-Tag or the Albanian Mal-Isi, is about 150 ' 

These divinities have been considered the Mupxi or fates of the ancient Greeks, the 
names of both are pronounced in the same manner. Although the Mires worshipped by 
the Athenians and the inhabitants of Hellas might have been the Motpett, it does not follow that 
they were the same with the lllyrian Mires. Mir, with the articles, zV e, te, affixed to it, is 
the Albanian adjective for bonus, a, urn, and corresponds with the ancient Greek word 
tfjutfot or tjutpot, desirable. 

P Vyle is of the same class as Si-bylla, or according to the Greek pronunciation, si-vylla; 
si is an abbreviation of sio, an MoYic word, which signifies theo; si-bylle is then a divine or 
godlike vyle. Wyll or gwyll is a Welsh word for a spectre or sorceress. Vala, of which 
the genitive is vcela, means, in Icelandic, a supernatural being with the gift of prophecy. 


square leagues or 1350 square miles in superficies; it is inhabited by a 
robust, warlike and turbulent population of 58,732 individuals; but in that 
number are included the inhabitants of five Servian-Greek villages, or 
13,600 souls, and of five Albanian catholic villages, or 6880 persons. These 
villagers are the allies of the Montenegrines; thus the inhabitants on a sur- 
face of 96 square, leagues or 864 square miles in that district, are not more 
than 38,252. The territory is divided into four najas,* and governed by a 
sovereign council; the members are the captains or sardars of each no/a, 
the knez or chiefs of every village, and those among the aged, who are 
most revered by the community. The assembly meets in the burgh of 
Cettina; the vladika or president does not possess much power, and is often 
restrained in the exercise of his just rights by the bishop of the diocese, 
who resides at the fortified convent of Stagnovich in the country that once 
belonged to the Venetians, and is at present attached to the Austrian em- 
pire. 1 " All the men in the district, from the bishop to the shepherd, are 
soldiers, and all of them are provided with fire-arms. The ambitious Mah- 
moud-Pacha was slain by Montenegrine troops, who have often defeated 
the Ottoman satraps of Scutari. The present bishop, observing Austria 
and France divide the spoils of Venice, made himself master of the town 
and harbour of Budua, but being unable to contend against these powers, he 
relinquished his conquest. The Montenegrines are vindictive, jealous, and 
barbarous, but they are hospitable; their intercourse with one another is 
frequent, for they are all engaged in the same profession; patriotism is 
Notions I not un known amongst them; they believe in communications 
' with a world of spirits, and hold converse with the shades of 
their ancestors who wander in the clouds. The people are Slavonians by 
birth, they speak a Servian dialect, and form, to the great regret of the 
patriarch of Constantinople, a part of the Servian and Russian church. 
Their mountains are fertile in pasture, and in many places covered with 
flocks, which are exported into neighbouring countries; the plains do not 
yield much corn, but a great quantity of wine. The allied districts on the 
north of the lake Scutari are more fruitful, the mountains are better wood- 
ed, and the rivers better stored with fish; the inhabitants are not so dis- 
persed as the Montenegrines; the former live near one another, the others 
reside on their farms or domains. The free country which we have de- 
scribed is of small extent, but it and Servia may perhaps accelerate the 
dissolution of the Ottoman empire in the west. 

I Some remarks have' been already made on the physical geo- 
graphy of Dalmatia, which is divided into two parts; the inland 
is possessed by the Ottomans, the maritime by the Austrians; 
an account of the one shall be given in our description of Hungary; the 
other or the Turkish territory has successively been called the kingdom 
of Roma and the dutchy of St. Saba, hence the terms hertzegovina, a dutchy, 
and AerseA-, a duke, have been introduced into geography. The north-east 
extremity, where the Moraca waters its solitary -valley, is inaccessible to 

I travellers; but Tribunia is built in a calcareous and fertile coun- 
try that is better known; its population amounts to 9000 souls; 
the most of the inhabitants were at one time Serbes, they have 
since become Mahometans ; so great is their fanaticism, that the Catholic 
Rivera with- I bi sn P f tne city is compelled to reside at Ragusa. There 
outembou I are no outlets for the rivers in the districts o Trebigny and 
' Popovo; the latter is fertile in oil, corn and wine. The Tre- 
binitza, after having received the waters of the Kliutch, throws itself into^ 
the river of Popovo, or, as appears to us more likely, it is then known by 

1 1vellio, Montenegrin, Annales des Voyages, t. II. p. 381. Adrien Dupre, sur le Montene- 
gro, ibid. t. XV. p. 119. 

T Notice sur le Montenegro, dans les Annales des Voyages, t. IV. p. 220. Viala, Voyage 
dans le Montenegro. 


that name, and directs its course towards Narenta; obstructed by the 
mountains, it loses itself in a small lake or gulf; that supposition, how- 
ever, is at variance with the opinions of the Ragusans, who maintain that 
the Ombla forms a subterranean passage for the lake of Popovo. 8 The whole 
of the water is not discharged into the gulf; the fields in the neighbourhood 
are inundated during the winter season 5* a pestilential vapour rises from the 
marshes on the upper banks of the Narenta ; and at no great distance from 
them is situated the flourishing but ill-fortified town of Mostar, which is 
peopled by 12,000 inhabitants; its trade consists in arms; the swords of 
Mostar are not inferior to those of Damascus. The place has derived its 
name from a stone bridge of a single arch fifty yards in width; it was built 
on the river according to the plan of a joiner, a native of the town, after 
the Turkish architects had given it up in despair. 11 The country in the 
vicinity of Mostar is covered with orchards, olive trees and vineyards. The 
town of Livno or Hliuno is situated in the high districts; it is surrounded 
by a rampart and a ditch, defended by three castles, and commands the 
most important entrance into Bosnia ; kullas or forts are built at regular 
distances along the roads, which are very bad; x independently of their 
natural disadvantages, they are in many places strewed with trees or ob- 
structed by mounds; carabines are fired on every side at the approach of 
strangers, a sort of salutation with which they would willingly dispense; 
the Turco-Bosnian garrisons are the most barbarous troops in the pay of 
the Sultan. 

Bosnia is watered by a great many rivers ; the most of them , Bosnia and 
flow towards the Save, and divide the country into a number of Turkish 
narrow valleys; the land, although not much assisted by art, for ' 
the inhabitants are indolent and barbarous, produces abundant crops; the 
most fertile districts are those on the banks of the Drinna, the Verbagna 
and Korovitza; the soil in Bosnia Proper, Croatia and Rasciais almost every 
where of .a fine quality; the vallies and the sides of the hills are covered 
with a thick layer of vegetable mould; the land, is lighter on the summits, 
but not unfruitful. 3 " Such are the remarks of a French traveller, but they 
have been modified by a German author who frequently visited the country, 
and concluded from, his observations that the greater part of the land in 
Bosnia is better adapted for the rearing of cattle than the culture of corn. 
Thyme, rosemary and other aromatic plants cover the rocky 
summits of the mountains; cherries, plums, pears, quinces, 
nuts and walnuts grow in the northern part of the country; apri- 
cots, peaches, figs, and almonds are the productions of the southern dis- 
tricts. The trees, though seldom cut, and never grafted, produce fruit of 
a good quality ; the pears and apples in particular are remarkable for their 
size and agreeable taste. The grape seldom arrives at maturity in the 
mountainous districts, but it ripens in the country on the banks of the 
Drinna. Slivovitza or a strong drink made of plums, is taken by Chris- 
tians and Turks, as a substitute for wine ; and all the lands in the neigh- 
bourhood of the villages are planted with plum trees. Pekmes, a sweet 
juice of the consistence of honey, is extracted from pears. 

The vegetables cultivated in the gardens are cucumbers, gourds, red and 
white beetrave, beans, onions and melongena; cabbage is the chief article 
of food during winter ; it is kept in casks in a state of fermentation. The 
different kinds of corn are wheat, maize and barley; the quanti- , Com 
ty produced exceeds greatly what is necessary for the consump- ' 
tion of the people, and the surplus, of which the value amounts nearly to 

The Ombla, the rival of the Timavus, is called the Arion by Pouqueville, but the Arion 
was probably confounded with another river by the copyist of Scylax. 

Busching, t. II. p. 734. Hadgi-Khalfa, Roumili, p. 176. Most is a Slavonic word, 

which signifies a bridge. * Riedl's map. r Chaumette Desfosses, la Bosnie, p. 10. 


20,000/., is sold in Dalmatia and the Austrian states. z Oats are cultivat- 
ed in few places throughout Bosnia, but millet is a very common crop; 
bread is made of it, and the inhabitants declare that it may be kept longer 
than any other grain ; it is said in support of their opinion that during a 
great famine which happened in the year 1791, the vizier commanded the 
officers in the fortresses to distribute among the people, the provisions 
set apart for the garrisons; a granary full of millet was discovered in the 
strong hold of Banialouka, and, although it had been there forty-two years, 
it still retained its freshness and nutritive qualities. 
Forests. I Bosnia is, in proportion to its size, more populous than the 

' other provinces in European Turkey, but it might, if its culti- 
vation were extended, support three or four times the number of its present 
inhabitants; the richest vallies or hills are only cultivated, the rest of the 
country is covered with lofty forests. The oak, the ash, the poplar, the 
maple, the hornbeam, the aspen and the birch grow on the sides of the 
mountains; the summits are crowned with larches, firs and yews. A great 
navy might be built of the timber in the forests; the late emperor of the 
French was aware of the advantages that might be derived from them; by 
his directions, tools were forged in the country, and workmen were em- 
ployed in cutting a road by which the French legions might penetrate into 
Illyria, and the Bosnian oaks be transported to the harbours on the Adri- 
A *mais I at * c * ^ e r i cn meadows and pastures are grazed by numerous 

' herds of oxen ; though not so large or so well shaped as those 
in Hungary, they are probably of the same race. Wool forms an impor- 
tant article of exportation; the Bosnians are not indifferent about the breed 
of their sheep, which appear to be the same as the Hungarian. 

Teal and wild ducks frequent the lakes and the banks of rivers; the most 
common fresh water fish are trouts, pikes, carps and eels. 

The beaver is sometimes seen in the islands on the Save, and all the 
rivers are well stored with crayfish. The adder is perhaps the only nox- 
ious reptile in the country.. 

. If Bosnia were well governed, its mines might become a 
minerals" 1 source of wealth; it was probably at Slatnitza, a place on the 

' road to Scopia, and six miles from Traunick, that the Romans 
worked their famous gold mines; the excavations still remain; but so great 
is the superstition of the inhabitants that they never approach them. There 
are, according to a tradition, which in all probability is correct, gold mines 
on several mountains near Zvornick and Varech; particles of native gold 
are rolled down the Bosna, the Verbatch, the Drina and the Latchva; but 
the Turks seldom suffer any to be collected; it is alleged as the motive of 
their conduct, that they do not wish to excite the avidity of the Christians. 
Many silver mines were worked in the time of the catholic kings before 
the arrival of the Turks, but all of them have been long since neglected. 
The richest are situated in the neighbourhood of Rama or Prezos, Foinitca 
and other towns or villages, which on account of their productions are 
called Sreberno, Srebernik and Srebernitza. An ore containing quicksilver 
is found near the convent of Kressevo; but the iron mines are the most 
valuable of any in Bosnia; they have contributed most to the resources of 
the country, they are the principal channel to which national industry is 
directed ; two thousand men, a third part of whom are Christians, are 
constantly employed in these mines, which contain, besides iron, arsenic 
and orpiment. A lead mine was discovered near Olovo between Kladain 
and Varech. 

Although salt is imported into Bosnia, it may be obtained in 


several districts; there are at least seventy or eighty salt pits 

in the valley at Touzla-Velika; their diameter for the most part is about 

* Desfoss^s, p. 128. 


six feet, and water is generally found at the depth of four or five. The 
water is boiled in large caldrons until it passes off in vapour, and the sedi- 
ment left is white salt of the best kind; a small quantity only is collected, 
and from its high price the use of it is exclusively confined to the rich; 
forty or fifty pits of the same sort have been dug in another valley about 
eight miles from the former; the mines of rock salt in the neighbourhood 
of Tartchin might be profitably worked, but no labour has as yet been be- 
stowed on them. 

The climate of Bosnia is variable and modified by the dif- CJimate 
ference in the height of different districts ; the winters are mild ' 
on the fruitful plains near the banks of the Drina; the cold is severe in 
Croatia, and the mountainous country ; the land in that part of Bosnia is, 
during six months in the year, covered with snow to the depth of several 
feet; the centigrade thermometer has been frequently observed between 
twelve and eighteen degrees below zero. a The heat of summer is seldom 
oppressive, but in that season the northern districts are warmer than the 
southern. The forests on the mountains collect the clouds, and the weather 
is often tempestuous between the beginning of June and the 1 5th of August, 
but the great rains during these months fertilize the ground; the spring 
begins in the high country about the end of April, and continues till June; 
the heat of summer then commences and lasts to the beginning of Septem- 
ber; snow falls generally before the end of the same month, and is not en- 
tirely dissolved. until the middle of May. Bosnia is on the whole a very 
healthy country, it is well supplied with water, the air is salubrious, and 
the marshes are almost exclusively confined to the banks of the Save. 

Many streams rise from the mountains; the stranger cannot i springs and 
travel half a league in any direction without crossing a rivulet; ' rivers - 
they are seen on the hills at every hundred yards. This extreme profusion 
of nature is attended with inconvenience, the roads are in many places im- 
passable in the middle of summer; the Turks, it is true, never attempt to 
change the direction of the currents. The Drina or the eastern boundary 
of the province, the Bosna, which waters the Central districts and gives 
its name to the country, and the Verbaz on the east, are navigable for 
boats of fifty tons burden ; the Unna, which is to a considerable distance 
the boundary between Austrian and Turco-Bosnian Croatia, cannot be navi- 
gated on account of its numerous shallows ; all these rivers discharge them- 
selves into the Save. 

Travellers have enumerated, in addition to the principal towns , Principal 
in Bosnia, twenty-four fortresses, and nineteen forts or castles, ' town8 - 
which were built in the middle ages. b Serajevo or Bosna- Serai is the capital 
of the country; its inhabitants are almost independent, at all events the Beyler- 
bey or vizier of the province is only allowed to reside amongst them three 
days in the year; the houses are adorned with gardens ; on all sides are mina- 
rets, bastions and turrets; the whole is surrounded by well-wooded hills, 
watered by the Miliaska and other feeders of the Bosna; the population is not 
less than 60,000 souls, and a third part of the inhabitants follow the rites of 
the Greek church. The forts in the high town or Grad are each flanked by 
four small turrets, and the walls, it is said, are twelve feet thick. It may 
be concluded, from the extensive trade in arms and jewellery, and from 
the numerous caravans which pass to Constantinople, that the inhabitants 
are as industrious as any in the Turkish dominions. Trawnick , Residence of 
lies to the west of the capital on the Laschwa, a feeder of the ' fcpFWia.' 
Bosna; its citadel, which, according to M. Desfosses, is of little importance, 
and according to M. Petuisier, almost impregnable, is the residence of the 
vizier-pacha or governor of the province, on whom the Porte confers the 

a Desfosses, p. 15. Pouqueville, ii. 465, 472. b Stoever, Archives d'Ethnographie, 

1. 1. p. 120. 


vain title of vizier of Hungary; his revenue, owing to his exorbitant exac- 
tions, amounts sometimes to 100,000/.; all the offices enjoyed by the ancient 
courtiers exist still in the court of the vizier; and under him are two 
pachas in partibus infidelium, the one of Knin, the other of Clissa in Dal- 
matia ; but the guardian in the west of the empire is changed every three 
years, and is often, before that period expires, deprived of his dignities at 
the request of the Bosnians. The towns of Vrandouk and Maglay on the Bos- 
na are remarkable for their strong citadels. Jaicza, c once a famous city on 
the basin of the Verbaz, and the ancient abode of the Bosnian kings, has 
fallen into decay. Banialaka, a large and commercial town, is situated 
below it at the confluence of the Bania; the houses, including those in the 
citadel, are not fewer than 4200; the garrison is composed of 6000 men, 
the place is defended by three strong redoubts ; the number of Christian 
families is about 1800. 

Biliacz, Novi, and Dubieza, three small fortresses on the Unna, resisted 
in 1789 the united efforts of an Austrian army; and Berbir or the Turkish 
Gradisca on the Save, one of the strongest places in the country, was for- 
tified in 1774 by French engineers. The population of Zwornick, a town 
on the basin of the Drina, amounted at one time to 14,000 souls, at present 
it is less than 6000; the place consists of a low and high town or grad; 
although the walls and old towers are all that remain of the latter, the Ser- 
vians were unable to take it. Vischegrad lies beyond it; there too the Ser- 
vian invaders have been more than once repulsed. 

Bosnia is admirably defended by nature; it could only be conquered 
in the way attempted by prince Eugene in 1697, or in other words, by 
bringing a powerful army from the Save on Bosna-Serai, but it might be 
necessary at the same time to occupy Herzgovina, a district, of which the 
positions are imperfectly known. It appears from the memoir of an Aus- 
trian officer,' 1 that the roads in the country are bad; cannon or artillery 
could only be transported on few of them ; and the Turks, in the event of 
an invasion, might convey the greater part of the provisions in Bosnia into 
their strong holds; the vizier could easily raise 80,000 troops, thirty thou- 
sand of them might be sufficient for the defence of the forts, and the re- 
maining fifty thousand might be employed in the campaign. The Bosnian 
army was composed of Janizaries^ Seimens, Serdentjeztis, Spahis and Ne- 
phers. The names of the Janizaries inscribed in the different lists amounted 
to 78,000 ; all of them were armed burgesses, and not more than sixteen 
thousand received pay. The Seimens are light armed infantry, equipped 
and maintained at the expense of government. The Serdentjeztis are troops 
hastily levied and ill disciplined; they maintain themselves by plundering 
the countries in which they make war. The Spahis in Bosnia and in the 
other Turkish dominions are horsemen, each of whom possesses a fief. 
The Nephers are light cavalry, chiefly employed in devastating the dis- 
tricts through which they pass. The great difficulty in the conquest of 
Bosnia must be attributed to its numerous passes and thick woods, its 
castles, kullas or forts, and also to the known courage of the Bosnians when 
they combat in their own land, and to the necessity of protecting an immense 
frontier against the incursions and attacks of light armed-troops. 
Language, j T ne crescent need not fear a Bosnian invasion, but it is me- 
manners. I naced by dangers of a different kind; the most of the people are 
devoted to the Mussulman worship, but they differ wholly from the Turks 
in their manners, habits and interests. Bosnia is a feudal nation, which 
from contingent events has become tributary to the Ottoman empire. The 
thirty-six hereditary captains, and the ayans or deputies of the people in 
the towns, exercise a power founded on custom and opinion, but which is 
amply sufficient to balance the power of the vizier, pachas and ridjals or 

' The naval city, literally the city of the egg. d Posselt, Annales politiques. 


governors appointed by the Porte; the whole province is more independent 
of Turkey, than Hungary is of Austria. If the people complain against 
their rulers, the pachas are deprived of their dignities; and the application 
of the revenue to the military defence of the country is one advantage which 
the Bosnians derived from their fidelity during the insurrection in Servia. 
The Bosnian language, a dialect of the Servian, is generally spoken; the 
Turks seldom think of acquiring it, and are considered strangers. Polyga- 
my is almost unknown in Bosnia; both sexes enjoy the privilege Condition of 
of choosing their companions for life; an unmarried woman ' the women, 
appears without a veil; respect is shown to the mother of a family; and all 
these customs distinguish the people from the inhabitants of eastern coun- 
tries. The Bosnians are said to be infidels by the Mussulmans of Con- 
stantinople; they are descended from the warriors of a northern race, and 
are not as yet sullied by effeminate vices, by venality or corruption; their 
barbarism must be imputed to an intellectual separation from the rest of 
Europe; if they were enlightened, if the Christian religion were preached 
in its gospel purity amongst them, they might soon become an independent 

It is unfair to blame the inhabitants of the province for their j 
attachment to Mahometanism; their Christian neighbours are ' eh s ion 
the members of a corrupt church; those of the Greek persuasion on the 
Drina and the Save, those of the Catholic on the Verbaz from Jaicza to 
Banialouka, and on the frontier of Herzgovina, are infected with the su- 
perstition, ignorance and prevailing errors of the middle ages; their ances- 
tors adopted the declared heresy of the Paternians; their present descendants, 
the slaves of a degenerate priesthood, excite the contempt of the Mahome- 
tan Bosnians. The position of the CathoJic villages marks the unfortunate 
division in the ancient kingdom between the eastern and western churches j 
the one was supported by the Croatian spear, the other by the Servian 
sword. It may be doubted if the Turks with all their barbarity could unite 
them ; the priests thunder in the present day their anathemas against each 

The part of Bosnia which has been mentioned is well known; Other aistr icta 
the. other districts beyond the Drina are seldom visited, but 
some valuable information has been lately obtained from the itineraries of 
French travellers. Podrinna and the government of Obrach are situated 
in that quarter of the province; these districts are either incorrectly mark- 
ed or omitted in the maps published at a later period than those of Coro" 
nelli. The Drina, the White Drina, and the Zem rise probably at no great 
distance from one another in the Chemerno mountains, which must not be 
confounded with the range of the same name in Servia. The town of 
Fotschia lies in the same part of the country ; Hadgi-Khalfah makes its 
population amount to 10,000 souls, and considers it an appendage of Herz- 
govina ; Buschiang believes that it is governed by the Sangiac of Obrach; 
some of the different writers who mention it, place it on the White Drina, 
others on the Moraca, and others on the Zem; lastly, in the same district 
is situated the church attached to the convent of Miloseva, and in it are 
deposited the ashes of Saint Saba, the first bishop of Servia; hence the name 
of St. Saba, which is applied to the whole of Herzgovina. 

We follow in countries imperfectly known, the itinerary of Rasda 
M. Pouqueville from Bosnia to Macedonia, and arrive at Novi- ' 
Bazar, or, according to its Turkish name, Jeni-Bazar, a populous town, of 
which the Sangiac is governor of Rascia, a dependence of Bosnia, but very 
different from that province in its climate and productions ; although its 
elevation above the level of the sea is considerable, it yields strong wine ; 
the ox is not seen, but the buffalo is common. It is not as yet determined 
whether these changes are occasioned by more southern latitudes or by an 
extensive opening in the mountainous chains. The inhabitants are of 



Servian origin, the greater number are members of the Greek church. 
The neighbourhood of Novi-Bazar is visited on account of its thermal 
springs, which are of the same kind as those scattered throughout the 
range of Hemus and Scardus. 

I It is probable, from the accounts which different authors 

'have given of Servia, that it resembles Bosnia; but the hills on 
the south are bounded by open and more temperate plains. The moun- 

tains in the middle of the province, Czemerno, Sclie/iana, and 
Kopauneg, form apparently a very elevated group. Two large 

' plains meet near Kruschevacz, the one extending in an easterly 
direction from Nissa, the other westwards from Ussitza ; they are situated 
to the north of the range or boundary of the mountainous districts in Upper 
Servia; the first is watered by the eastern Morava, which Hows from the 
base of Mount Scomius, and winds round a country little known and the 
lofty ridge in the south. The western Morava passes through the other 
valley, but that river is not so great as the eastern, and it receives its prin- 
cipal streams from the I bar, which descends from the same ridge or rather 
from the plain of Cossova. The two Moravas after their union turn to the 
north and traverse the chain of Kaplan in Lower Servia; at its base is 
situated the ancient bannat of Mazovia. 

Part of the chain which stretches across all the country to the south- 
west of the Timok, derives its name from the Hayduks or banditti, who 
perhaps still inhabit its arid summits and numerous caverns; the same 

i mountains confine the channel of the Danube. The silver mines 

Productions. XT , ., . . , . 

1 near Nova-Berda, and the iron mines- near Saphina, are better 
known; but gold mines were worked in that part of the country by the 
Romans, and travellers assure us that it abounds in salt. The vast forests 
are chiefly composed of pines and oaks; the wild beasts that frequent them 
are the bear, the lynx, and the wolf; the natives hunt the chamois or the 
gaiza on the high mountains. Vineyards descend from the woods; they 
were first planted by the Emperor Probus; the wine produced from them 
is superior in strength and flavour to any in Wallachia.* The inhabitants 
are wretched agriculturists, but wheat, maize and millet amply repay the. 
labours of the husbandman. Tobacco, lint and hemp are exported every 
year; the fruits of the south are rarely seen, but whole districts are covered 
inhabitants I w ^ 1 ^ a PP^ e P e ^r and cherry trees. The Servians are a strong 

' and active race of men; in their national songs are recorded their 
victories over the Mussulmans, the miracles of St. Saba and St. Andrew, 
the adventures of Prince Mark, and many Bosnian, Servian and Albanian 
traditions;' their dialect is perhaps the purest and most harmonious of any 
connected with the Slavonic. The people are of the Greek church; they 
acknowledge, as their spiritual head, a dignitary, who is supposed to re- 
side at Peach or Pekia in an unknown district of Upper Albania ;* but we 
are informed by the best authorities, that the individual is the archbishop 
Ri hts I ^ Semendria and primate of Servia. More civilized and in- 

' dustrious than the Bosnians, the Servians are not less renowned 
for their courage; they have recently obtained under the command of 
Czermi-George, important privileges, which are now confirmed in a treaty 
guaranteed by Russia. The Turks who are not connected with govern- 
ment, are rarely permitted to settle in the cpuntry ; the fortresses only are 
defended by Ottoman garrisons; in short, the Servians, though tributary 
to the Mussulmans, are governed by their own laws; they as well as 
the Bosnians and Albanians might easily free themselves from the yoke of 
a feeble empire. The Servians may be considered a simple, not a barba- 

e Kamensky, Putetchestwie w* Molclai i Serbii. Moskwa, 1810. Eutrop. "Rrev. IX. IT. 
{ Narodnesrpske Piesme, collected by XV. Stephauowitch Kaiadgitch. Lipitski, 
vol. K Dupre" Annal. des Voyages, XV. 93. 


rous people; the most of them can write; their language is nearly the same 
as the Russian, and many young men are sent to study in the Russian uni- 
versities. The Servian senate' regulates the administration of justice, 
presides over the police, and extends its jurisdiction in the ecclesiastical 
courts. The nation pays a fixed tribute, and furnishes, in the event of war, 
a force of 12,000 men to the Porte. 

Belgrade 11 is famous in the annals of war, taken and re-taken 
by the Austrians and the Turks, the crescent still floats on its J r rv?a f . low " 
ramparts, but it ought to have remained in the possession of the ' 
brave Servians, who took it during an insurrection. The fortress com- 
mands from the summitof a rock the town of water, which is encompassed 
with walls and extends along the Danube, the town of the Raitzes or Servi- 
ans on the Save, and a great part of the suburbs ; the whole is peopled by 
30,000 inhabitants, and amongst them are nearly as many Armenians as 
Jews, who are attracted to the place, by the expectation of gain; it is the 
principal mart between Germany and Hungary on one side, and Constan- 
tinople and Salonica on the other. Semendriya, or, as it is vulgarly called, 
Smedreno, but more correctly Sent-Andriya or St. Andrews, is the capital 
of Servia ; its population does not exceed 10 or. 12,000 souls. Sabacz and 
Hassan-Palanka are tw.o Turkish fortresses situated on an island in the 
Danube near the north-east extremity of the province. The same river, 
a short way above the important fortress of Orsova, flows between steep 
rocks, and its waters rush in foaming eddies near the pass of Demir-Kapi; 
at no great distance below it, the remains of columns and arches, which 
are still seen on the banks of the Danube, mark the site of i Monumentg 
Trajan's famous bridge; Hadrian, envious of his great predeces- ' 
sor, is accused by historians of having destroyed the work, but it is doubt- 
ful if it was ever finished in the way it is represented on Trajan's pillar. 1 
A traveller has discovered many remarkable ruins on Mount Haloga or 
Havalla, about two German or nearly seven English miles to the south of 
Belgrade; the ruins, it is supposed, are the remains of a Gothic town; the 
name of the place renders that opinion probable, but it requires to be con- 
firmed by additional evidence. 

The towns towards the interior are Kruchevacz, or the Turk- Towns in the 
ish Mladja-Hissar; it is the most central city in the province; ' in t eri r - 
its fine castle was formerly the residence of the Servian kings; Ussitza 
lies to the west of the last town; it is a place of some trade, and contains 
about 6000 inhabitants; the vast orchards in the vicinity are productive; 
and the Turkish geographer considers the position of the town not unlike 
that of Mecca ; k to the east is situated the fortress of Nissa, the birth-place 
of Constantine the Great; it was embellished and adorned by that emperor, 
but no trace of its magnificence is left; its low houses or cottages are built 
of clay and covered with shingles. The towns on the higher banks of the 
eastern Morava and its feeders are little known; the trade of Orkup or the 
ancient Precopia is not wholly destroyed; the site of Kratowo, the ancient 
burying-place of the Servian kings, cannot be determined; its name ought 
probably to be written Kralowa, or the royal city. Nova-Berda is built 
near valuable mines, but the neighbouring country is the retreat of bandits. 
M. Pouqueville, on his return from Novi-Bazar, passed through the south- 
ern extremities of the province; he found the country in a state of complete 
anarchy ; the roads were infested with robbers, fires blazed from the forests? 
the same traveller was not permitted to remain long at Pristina or Guis- 
tendel, the supposed birth-place of Justinian. He visited, not Tomb of 
without danger, the famous plain known by the different names ' Amurathi. 
of Merles, Cossovo-Poli and Rigomezo, where, in the year 1389, the sultan 

b Biyogrod in Servian; Nandos-feyer-var in Hungarian. ' l Mannert, Expedition dft 

Trajan, Annal. des Voyages, XXI.- * Hadgi-Khalfa, p. 155. 


Amurath I. was slain by a Bosnian noble in an obstinate battle against the 
united armies of Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria. A mausoleum was erected 
by the victorious soldiers in memory of their king; lamps are continually 
burning in it; they are guarded by a number of clcrvises. The Bosnian 
was put to death; a stone has been placed over his grave, which is still re- 
vered by his countrymen. Fifty years afterwards, Amurath II. routed in 
the same place a Hungarian arnvy ; the fate of empires may be again de- 
cided on these memorable plains. 

Proto-siavo- i It has often been a matter of wonder how the Slavonians, 
niaM. 1 worn out by so many destructive wars, could have peopled all 

Illyria with their numerous hordes; the Servians and Bosnians, it is 
thought, found and mingled with an ancient nation of the same origin as 
themselves, on their arrival in the country, during the sixth century. Dolce 
maintains boldly that Illyria was the native country of the people, whose 
colonists now occupy the whole of Poland and Russia; his arguments were 
too hastily rejected by the celebrated Adelung. 1 The Albanians are the de- 
scendants of the Illyrians; other nations existed, perhaps, in the earliest 
historical age, near the Thracians and Illyrians ; their names indicate some 
sort of connexion between them and the Slavonic tribes; they may, there- 
fore, be denominated the Proto-Slavonians. 

FrotovSiavo- I The Herietes are supposed to be homonymous with the Ve- 
ntan tribe in I netes; they have been mentioned since the dawn of history, but 

the information, obtained in later times, is imperfect and doubt- 
fuL No conclusion can be formed from the names of Slavonic origin, in 
Paphlagonia; the age in which they were introduced is unknown; but the 
history of the Thracians may guide us in the inquiry; their country was, 
undoubtedly, the abode of a numerous race, that spoke a different language 
from the Phrygians, Hellenes and Illyrians, but they were connected with 
all these nations. It has been supposed that the Thracians were Medes, 
because their country has been called Zend; that they were Celts, because 
bria means a town, and sometimes a bridge; that they were Germans, be- 
cause perga signifies a mountainous tract. Vague hypotheses have been 
raised on these absurd data; a faint resemblance may Ire traced, not only 
between the Thracians, but every ancient people and different nations; it 
appears, however, from various indications, that the Slavonians were re- 
lated to many tribes in Thrace, to the Trausi on the Travus, m their neigh- 
bours the Cicones," the Krobjzi on Mount Hemus, the Bessi on Orbelus, 
and, at a later period, in Bessarabia; 1 " the Dolonces in the vallies of Rho- 
dope, a and many others. It may be added that the Strymon has always 
retained a Slavonic name; r many other terms, of the same kind, might be 
discovered in the maps of ancient and classical Greece. 8 The lake of 
Proto-siavo. I ^irknitz was called Lugeus at the time it is first mentioned 
nians in Pan- I in history; now that word is the same as the Luka or Lug in 

' the Slavonic dialects; the country near its banks is peopled by 
the Garni, whose Slavo-Roman name has existed for ages; the same re- 
mark may be applied to the Save, the Drave, the Kulpa and the Piave; 
mounts Ocro, Karouankes and several towns. The Panonii were, as their 
name indicates, the lords* or powerful men of Croatia and Slavonia, who 
drank strong beer; the Mazovias on the Vistula and the Danube have been 
called from the Mazoei or one of their tribes. It is probable from so many 

1 Mithridates, t. II.p. 633. From trava, pasture or grass, hence tratvnik in Bos- 

nia, and trove in Wagria. > Cicones, the tranquil or peaceful, from Cicouchny. 

From Krowity, a neat-herd. P flics, a devil or wicked man, Biezen, to run. The 

Biessi in Sarmatia and in the Biecziad mountains. i Dolina, a valley. r In Polish, 

Strzuemin or Strumien; in Bulgarian Struma. VoIustana in Thessaly; the lake 

Nizeros in Acarnania, &c. * Pan, a lord; panowy, that which belongs to a lord. 

u Sabayam from Zapiam, a Slavonic word. See Hieron. Comment, in Isai. c. xix. Amm. 
Marcell. xxvi. & 


Slavonic terms in the countries to the north of the gulf of Venice, that the 
Veneti were originally a Slavonian tribe ; if that opinion be adopted, it 
may enable us to account for their commercial relations with the Venedi 
and JEsty, or sellers of amber. It is difficult to suppose how they could 
have so easily crossed the continent, had they not found a number of tribes 
of the same origin, and who spoke the same language as themselves. 

We do not mean to affirm that the Proto-Slavonians, scattered in Thrace, 
Illyria and Pannonia, were not distinguished by their manners, customs 
and language from the Venedi, Lygii, Vindili, Karpi and other northern 
Slavonic states. They might have differed from them as much as the 
Pelasghi differed from the Hellenes, the Etruscans from the Latins, and 
the Romans, in the time of Romulus, from those in the age of Augustus; 
they might have lived among the Thracian nations, or mixed with the 
Illyrian Romans, or been oppressed by the powerful Celtic hordes; but 
the existence of the Proto-Slavonians, both in the countries watered by the 
Save and the Drave, and in those near the Strymon and the Hebrus, is a 
fact, of which history affords abundant evidence. 

The Hyperboreans who remained faithful to the Pelasgic and Religious eua- 
Hellenic worship, formed probably part of those tribes; from I. 10 " 18 - 
their country several Greek divinities, among others 6/oora, found their 
way into the Olympus of the Wends.; they adored lacchus or Bacchus 
under the title of lako-Bog or god of the dead; x the same divinity was known 
to the ancient Italians by the name of Vragus.y The resemblance in the 
manners, customs and mythology of the Italian and Hellenic states on the 
one side, and the Slavonic and Illyrian on the other, might, if carefully ex- 
amined, throw additional light on the primitive history of Europe; but little 
valuable information could be gained on that important branch of compara- 
tive geography without much labour, patience, and research. 

The Roman emperors induced the Slavines or Slaves to repeo- Arrival of the 
pie Illyria during the incursions of the conquering Goths and ' Slavonians. 
devastating Huns; the Byzantine historians record their names and exploits. 
The Serbi or Serbli migrated from the Great or White Servia, one or other, 
but which of the two it is difficult to determine; 2 the country is supposed 
to be the present Galicia. The people were divided into the Red and White 
Serbi; they remained for some time in Macedonia, where the town of Ser- 
vitza is still a monument of their invasion, and settled afterwards on the 
banks of the Morava and the Drina. Some of them howeverMid not re- 
move from Macedonia, and their flourishing, rich and warlike state braved 
all the power of Byzantium. One of their colonies advanced , invasions of 
into the Peloponnesus, and was in time confounded with the ' theSerb - 
ancient inhabitants. The Red Servians not only occupied the whole of 
Servia, of which a part was called Rascia, but founded in Dalmatia the 
dutchy or zupania of Zacholmia, the petty states of Terbun and Narenta, 
and the town of Dioclea, the birth place of the emperor Diocletian, who 
adorned it with temples and palaces, which have been since" overwhelmed 
in the marshy waters of the lake Lignesler. The White Servians possessed 
the whole of Bosnia to the banks of the Verbaz, and divided it into small 
principalities and republics, that were oppressed at different periods, by 
the Bulgarian and Hungarian kings. Bosnia from being a Servian Zupa- 
nia became a Hungarian province; and the bannat of Mazovia was formed 
in the north of Servia by the monarchs of Hungary. While the Servians 
were scattered in the interior of Illyria, a number ofPolish-Sla- , croatianinva- 
vonians migrated from the Great Chrobatia on the Carpathian ' Bions - 

* See Dolcl, de Linguae Illyricx vetustate et amplitudine. >' Festus, p. 143. "Orcum 
quern dicimus, ait Verrius, ab antiquis dictum Vragum." Vrag, a demon in Slavo-lllyrian; 
wrog, idem in Polish; vraam, to kill in Albanian. z Bell is pronounced veli by the 

Byzantines, it may signify ttcli, white, or well, great. 


mountains, and placed themselves at the head of the ancient population of 
Pannonia; strengthened by the assistance of the inhabitants, they conquered 
the western part of Dalmatia and the countries to the west of the Verbaz. 
The Croatians or Horwaths were of a different tribe, and spoke a different 
language; they embraced the Latin, the Servians adhered to the Greek 
church. The Croatians, from their connexion with the west, retained all 
the chivalry and barbarism in the feudal laws and customs; the Servians 
on the Haliacmon and the Danube were like the Russians, brave and in- 
dustrious; both were addicted to similar superstitions, which they did not 
wholly lay aside after their admission of Christianity; like brothers born 
in different climates, they met in the ancient and long-forgotten countries 
of their forefathers. 

Conclusion I Thus two distinct invasions, the one of the western, the other 
' of the eastern Slavonians, were made by the children of the 
Proto-Stavonic tribes. The descendants of 1 these invaders, are the Slavo- 
Illyrians or the Slavonic nations on the south of the Danube; their popula- 
tion in the Austrian, Hungarian and Ottoman territories, amounts to nearly 
4,000,000 of strong, active and brave men, naturally intelligent, and well 
fitted to make progress in the arts of peace and war. Is the example of 
Stephen Duscian likely to be followed, who, with such men, proclaimed 
himself emperor of the Romans, and marched against Constantinople at the 
head of 80,000 warriors? 


European Turkey. North-east Provinces. Wallachians. Zigeunes or Gipsies. 

THE savage nations on the banks of the Ohio chose a vast plain for their 
field of battle, its trees were levelled with the ground; he who tilled it was 
punished with death; it was stained with the blood of contending tribes; 
but in the revolution of ages its destiny has been changed, the savages 
were conquefed by a new race, and a thousand flourishing villages are now 
scattered throughout the fertile Kentucky and the fold of death. The coun- 
tries on the banks of the majestic Danube near its entrance into the Black 
Sea, might for many ages have been compared to Kentucky; the flowery 
plains and woody hills of Moldavia, Wallachia and Bulgaria have for time 
immemorial been a high road and field of battle for all the barbarians who 
migrated from Asia into Europe. The light Sarmatian horsemen fought 
against the heavy Roman legions, and the Hun^ more brutal than the Sar- 
matian, pursued the scattered Goths. Many other people established an 
ephemeral empire; the Bulgarians only retained their possessions, but at 
the price of their liberty; the Osmanli Turks displayed their victorious 
banners, the white Polish eagle fled before them, but for the last half cen- 
tury, the victors have been threatened by Russia. 

The Wallachians, the Moldavians and Bulgarians, the subjects or rather 
the slaves of so many masters, still inhabit these countries, and drag out 
a precarious and wretched existence. 

The Bulgarians or Voulgarians are an ancient Turkish or 
Tartar nation, which in the fourth century was settled on the 
Wolga; the ruins of their former capital may still be seen in 
the neighbourhood of Casan. They removed afterwards to the 
countries between the Don and the Bog, and called their new territories 
the Second Bulgaria. They passed the Danube in 539, made themselves 

The Bulgari- 
ans, their ori- 
gin and 


masters of the coasts on the Black Sea as far as Mount Hemus, subdued 
seven Slavonic tribes in 678, and formed the kingdom of Black Bulgaria, 
the capital of which was Presthlaba or Perejaslaw. The Slavonians that 
submitted to them were those of Severiaon the Sem and the Desna. More 
numerous than their masters, their language in time prevailed; it was, as 
the name of the capital indicates,* connected with the dialects spoken by 
the Antes or Russians. The Bulgarians penetrated into Thrace, Macedo- 
nia and Thessaly; one of their hordes settled in the dutchy of Benevento, 
and a fugitive band of the same people were destroyed in Carinthia. Their 
wars with the Greek empire were very sanguinary; whole provinces were 
changed into deserts, or, as they were then called, Bulgarian forests; it is 
true, their example was imitated by the Greeks, who in one day put out the 
eyes of fifteen thousand Bulgarian prisoners. The kingdom or empire of 
the Bulgarians, which extended its sway in 1010, over Macedonia, Albania 
and Servia, was destroyed by the emperor Basil the II., and the dispersed 
tribes found refuge in Turkey in 1 185. The Wallachians or rather Kutzo- 
Wallachians on the south of the Danube, and the Bulgarians who remain-, 
ed in Black Bulgaria, planned a revolt, and founded the Waliachian and 
Bulgarian kingdom, which became sometimes the ally and at other times 
the vassal of the Byzantine empire; it was finally conquered by the Otto- 
mans about the middle of the fourteenth century. 

The Bulgarians, accustomed to the labours and occupations of a country 
life, are now an industrious, quiet and hospitable people; the greater num- 
ber are members of the Greek church and under the superintendence of 
different patriarchs. Their Slavonic dialect differs little from the Servian 
but several Tartar words have been introduced by such of them as still 
adhere to Mahometanism. b Bulgaria is a country highly fa- 
voured by nature; the cold is sometimes as severe as in Servia, ' 
but it is sheltered on the north by its heights, and the common tempera- 
ture is sufficiently mild to ensure the cultivation of the vine, corn, tobacco, 
and various fruits. The banks of the Danube on the Bulgarian side are 
not so marshy as in Wallachia, and the fertile pastures on the sides of the 
mountains are covered with herds of oxen and flocks of sheep. Many horses 
are bred in the same districts, the Tartar hordes eat the flesh of these ani- 
mals. The appearance of the extensive forests is varied by different trees, 
the beech, the pine and the oak. A number of thermal springs flow from 
the heights; those on Mount Suha are sulphureous and of a red colour; a 
warm fountain on the frontier of Servia near the sources of the Nissava, 
rises in the form of a pillar about the thickness of a man's arm; a cold and 
crystal spring issues from the foot of the same hill; the water in both is 

Sophia, or, according to its Bulgarian name, Triaclitza, is the . Tovvnsand 
chief town in the country; situated on the road between Bel- remarkable 
grade and Constantinople, it communicates with Serres and ' places - 
Salonica; its trade is extensive. The river Isker winds in the valley, and 
one of its branches waters the numerous gardens and orchards in the town; 

The Bulgarian town was probably called from Perejaslaw in the government of Pul- 
tawa. b See the travels of Boscovich and Reimers. 

c A fine description in Homer, may be applied to these streams. 
Next by Scamander's double source they bound, 
Where two fam'd fountains burst the parted ground, 
This hot through scorching clefts is seen to rise, 
With exhalations streaming- to the skies; 
That the green bank in summer's heat o'erflows, 
Like crystal clear, and cold as winter snows. 
Each gushing fount a marble cistern fills, 
Whose polish'd bed receives the falling rills; 
Where Trojan dames (ere yet alarmed by Greece,) 
Washed their fair garments in the days of peace. Iliad, book 22d. 


its population has been vaguely estimated at 50,000 souls; the Beylerbcy of 
Romelia generally resides at Sophia. Tirnovo, formerly the residence of 
the last Bulgarian kings, and at present of a metropolitan who is entitled 
the primate and patriarch of Bulgaria, is built on a hill and surrounded 
with gardens on the banks of the lantra. Svetiwhora or the holy mountain 
rises on the south-east of the town; its forests are* held sacred, and accord- 
ing to ancient traditions it is dangerous to cut them down; the fountains 
are cooled by their shade, and the flocks sheltered from the sun's heat. d 
Schumna, a Turkish and military town, is situated in the mountainous 
districts; it was there that the Ottoman armies against the Austrians 
used to meet; a magnificent tomb is erected in the same place in honour 
of Hassan-Pacha, whose bravery saved the tottering empire in the wars 
against Catherine the Second. 6 The towns on the banks of the Danube in 
the direction from west to east are Wklin, perhaps the most important 
fortress in Turkey, Nicopoli, an open town with a strong castle, Silistria, 
a commercial and a walled city, Ruscek or Rusczuk, which is well fortified, 
and peopled by 30,000 inhabitants; many of them are employed in manu- 
facturing wool, muslin, and in dressing Morocco leather. 
DO ds h I ^ e c untr y that extends from .Schumna and Silistria, be- 
' tvveen the Danube and the Black Sea, is called Dobrudscha; it is 
covered with many hills, and intersected by the lake Ramsin and some 
others: it is ill wooded, but abounds in excellent pastures, and the small 
horses that feed on them are highly prized in Turkey; their pace is steady 
and uniform, and it is said that they seldom stumble. Babadaghi, the 
station at which the Ottoman armies met in their wars against the Russians, 
Varna, a port on the Black Sea, and Isakdchi on the Danube, are th places 
most worthy of notice in the country. Amurath the Great proved at the 
battle of Varna in 1444, the superiority of the Ottoman arms, and coin* 
pleted the conquest of European Turkey. Mr. Hammer has tried in vain 
to discover Tomisvar, which is supposed to be near the site of the ancient 
Tomi, a place rendered illustrious by the exile of Ovid. The Tartars in 
Dobrudscha are divided into two hordes, (the Orak and the Orumbet;) they 
practise religiously the duties of hospitality prescribed in the Koran. If 
3 stranger enters any of their villages, it is not uncommon for the most 
respectable inhabitants to dispute about the honour of receiving him, and 
it is customary to entertain him gratuitously during three days. The peo- 
ple have plenty of poultry, milk and honey. 

Waiiachia | Waiiachia is situated on the other side of the Danube; it 
origin or the may be shown from the language of the Getae and Dacians, the 
' most ancient people in these countries, that they were, in all 
probability, connected with the Slavonic tribes, or the Carpi, Lygii and 
Venedi, who inhabited, from time immemorial, the Carpathian mountains 
and the plains on the Vistula; almost all the names in the ancient geogra- 
phy of Dacia end in ava, a Polish termination; many of them may be 
explained by different words in the Slavonic dialects; and as the Walla- 
chian language is chiefly composed of Slavonic and Latin, it may be inferred 
from these two facts, that the Wallachians are the descendants of the 
ancient Getae or Dacians, who mingled with the numerous Roman colonies 
sent by the emperor Trajan to the new province. The other tribes that 
settled in Waiiachia and Moldavia left but few traces of their language 
and customs. Such is the conclusion at which historians have arrived; 
but we might enter into researches relative to the identity or difference 
between the Getae and Dacians; their total or partial migrations ; the 
duration of different geographical nomenclatures; the nature of the Walla- 
chian dialects; and the local position of different tribes in the Wallachian 
nation. The same people exist, not only in Transylvania and the north' 

d Hadgi-Khalfa, p. 42. Hammer's Notes on the work of Hadgi-Khalfa, p. 37. 


west of Hungary, but in Pindus and Scare! us, perhaps in Dalmatia, Rho- 
dope and Hemus. It has been asked, since the people occupied so many 
countries, if the formation of the Daco-Latin can be attributed only to the 
Roman colonies. What reason can be assigned why the primitive lan- 
guages of the Trikalles, the Dardani and Thracians had not, like the 
Albanian, some resemblance to the ancient Italic dialects, and particularly 
the Romano, rustica, the source of many modern tongues? It is difficult 
to imagine any other way, by which a Roman dialect could extend to Mesia 
and Dacia, or prevail among all the pastoral tribes in the central moun- 
tains of Turkey. The analogy between the Wallachian and Albanian may 
be accounted for by this hypothesis; but it might be necessary to compare 
all the Wallachian dialects with all the varieties of the Albanian, in order 
to determine in what the analogy consists. Other difficulties might arise 
from the distinction which Strabo established between the Getse and Da- 
cians; and from the total migration of the last people, who retreated beyond 
the Carpathian mountains, after their war against Trajan. It is not easy 
to explain in the ancient Daco-Getic, the names of men, plants, or Getic 
divinities, because such names have no connexion with the modern lan- 
guage; but these difficulties may, perhaps, be removed by the supposition, 
that the Getae were not long dominant in that part of Europe; that their 
power was transmitted to the Daki, who did not make up all the popula- 
tion of the country. Ancient history affords us many examples of the 
preponderance of one tribe over a number of others sometimes very dif- 
ferent; little attention has been paid to such examples; incorrect inferences 
have often been deduced from them. Who were the Getse? it is said. 
Herodotus tells us they were Thracians; such at least was the information 
he obtained by travelling amongst them, and by examining their country. 
But the Thracians, it is urged, inhabited part of Asia. Although the 
Asiatic languages furnished us with an explanation of the names of the 
divinity Gebeleisis, (the power that presides over high places,) and of the 
Getae, (the keepers of herds and flocks,) although the five prayers and the 
seven choristers in the Dacian superstition may have been borrowed from 
similar customs among the star worshippers in the east, although Dakia, 
a temple in Cappaclocia, was dedicated to Dagon or Jupiter; every hypo- 
thesis, formed from such data, must be as improbable as the one, ac- 
cording to which the Dai, Persians or Scythians came from the Caspian 
Sea to found a Daghistan in Europe/ or the other in which the original 
country of the Getae is placed in the centre of China.* It may be proved 
that the modern Wallachian is formed like the French, Italian and Spanish, 
and is comparable in point of harmony and richness to any that are derived 
from the Latin. h The Wallachians call themselves Roumouni Name? of the 
or Romans; their right to do so may have been founded on the ' Waiiachians. 
edict of Caracalla, by which all the inhabitants in the empire could claim the 
title of Roman citizens; but it is certain that the Turks, Bulgarians and 
Albanians have applied the term Vlach^ or, as it is pronounced, Velach, to 
their neighbours in Wallachia. Authors have wasted much time in at- 
tempting to derive that word from Asiatic languages; the Polish word Vlach 
signifies an Italian or a Roman, and is pronounced as if it were written 
Volaugh. The Lithuanian is an ancient Wendo-Slavonic dialect; the corre- 

f Strahlenberg maintains that hypothesis in his Nord und Ost-Europa, p. 328. 

De Guignes. Hist, des Huns, t. I. Fart I. p. 58, 184; Part 11. p. 41, 326, 503; Part HI. 
p. 321, 323, &c. &c. 

h Thunmann's eastern countries of Europe. The author examines minutely the Kutzo- 
Wallachian dialect, which is mixed with the Albanian spoken in Thrace and Macedonia. 
Researches on the different Roumunian or Wallachian tribes on the south of the Danube 
by Constantine Roscha. Pesth, 1808. Sinkay's Daco-Roman grammar, Pesth, 1805. Vater's 
Collection, Leipsick, 1816. An Italian poem is translated verbatim into the Wallachian 
by M. Vater, and every word in his translation is a Latin primitive. 



spending word in it is Walakus, and Italy is called Walaku-ziame. If it be 
remembered that Val in Albanian means a low country, and that the Italians 
are denominated Walsches by the Germans, it must be admitted that Wal- 
lachian is synonymous with Roumoune or Roman. 

The Wallachians dispersed in Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary 
' and Transylvania may amount to two or three millions; they 
were the subjects of the Bulgarian and Hungarian monarchies, and form- 
ed an independent state in 1290, not long after the death of Ladislaus. 
Their first king was Rodolphus the Black; one of their colonies settled in 
Moldavia, under the government of prince Dragosch in 1350; but, although 
protected by Hungary and Poland, these states never rose into importance, 
and were compelled to submit to the Ottomans after the unfortunate battle 
of Mohacz in 1526. The Turks committed to them the internal govern- 
ment of their country, but the hospodars were obliged to acknowledge them- 
selves the vassals of the Porte, to pay an annual tribute, to purchase the 
right of investiture, to furnish auxiliary troops, and to admit Turkish gar- 
risons into several strong holds. The geographical position of Dacia, be- 
tween the Ottoman empire on one side, and Hungary, Poland and Russia 
on the other, has been the cause of many calamities to its inhabitants, 
calamities from which other Turkish provinces have escaped. Wallachia 
and Moldavia have been, at the commencement of every northern campaign, 
the meeting place of the Ottoman armies; if the troops were defeated, the 
Christian legions entered the provinces, and the inhabitants were forced 
to furnish provisions for the conquerors and the conquered. The country 
has, besides, been agitated by civil wars; the boyars or Wallachian and 
Moldavian lords formed themselves into two parties; the timid declared 
in favour of their powerful masters, others more bold took the part of their 
secret friends, the enemies of the Porte. The usual consequences of peace 
after such revolts were confiscation, exile, imprisonment and death. Such 
is, in a few words, the mournful history of these countries, for the last 
two hundred years. The Wallachians and Moldavians cherished the faint 
hope, while any belonging to the ancient royal family remained, of obtain- 
ing a national existence, an independent and hereditary kingdom; that 
hope, however unlikely to be realized, consoled them in their misfortunes; 
but, for a long time past, the Porte has sent every seven years into their 
country, and often within a shorter period, a Greek chosen from the Drog- 
mans, a class of men whose character is ably and correctly drawn in the 
travels of Choiseul-Gouffier. Thus the degradation of the inhabitants 
must be attributed to the effects of an arbitrary power, changing almost 
every year, committed to a stranger, who brings along with him a retinue 
of other strangers, or needy and abject courtiers. Dignities and offices 
are sold to the highest bidder; the thrones of Wallachia, Moldavia, and 
every other pachalick are publicly bought at Constantinople. 

I The hospodars have not at their disposal the military force 
' of the Turkish pachas, otherwise there might be little differ- 
ence between them; they retain the ducal cap or coronet, and the three-tailed 
standards; their courts are modelled after that of the Byzantine emperors. 

They must recover from their oppressed subjects the purchase money 
of their office, pay an annual tribute to the Porte, appease by continual pre- 
sents the governors of Ibrailow and Giourgiew, in order that the commanders 
of these fortresses may not lay waste the country; it is besides necessary 
to bribe the boyars and drogmans in Constantinople, otherwise they might 
inform against them; money must be transmitted to the members of the 
Divan, who, in spite of the solemn treaties with Russia, have always the 
power of denouncing and frequently of getting them decapitated. 

The Wallachians and Moldavians are governed by a code of laws com- 
piled from that of Justinian, and adapted to the habits and customs of the 
people; but by an absurd imitation of the Roman proconsuls and Mussulman 


pachas, the prince is supreme judge; any litigant may appeal to him; his 
decrees are irrevocable ; as he does not know the laws, he is not supposed 
to decide according to law, but according to his conscience; the decisions 
of one prince are not always precedents for his successor. 

The prince disposes of the great offices in the province; the , Diyan 
individuals hold them no longer than a year; it is on that account ' 
that they seldom take any active part in the business of the Divan or the 
supreme legislative and administrative assembly. The Greeks that come 
from Constantinople,monopolize as many places as they can; every hospodar 
has brothers, sisters, nephews and cousins, in his retinue. These stran- 
gers, although they insist that the Wallachians are incapacitated by natural 
dulness or want of education from filling high political stations, do not 
disdain the offices of ispraunik, or tax-gatherers, the duties of which may 
be performed by persons of very ordinary intelligence. 

The public safety is intrusted to a body of native militia, consisting of 
about 1200 men, and commanded by the great spathar, a Byzantine title 
that is still retained; but the soldiers are not sufficiently numerous or suffi- 
ciently warlike to ensure the public safety; a body of Albanians has lately 
been added to the troops. 

The Wallachian and Moldavian peasants are a submissive condition of 
and patient race of men; without these virtues it would be almost * ^ peasantry. 
impossible for them to exist in the midst of so many evils. They are sober, 
gentle, and religious or superstitious; they are indolent, because they can- 
not call the produce of their industry their own. The milk of their cows, 
a small quantity of pork or bacon, millet and bad beer, are sufficient to 
supply their wants; and if they themselves are satisfied, it is a matter of 
indifference whether European travellers are offended at their humble cot- 
tages, and the wicker enclosures in which their corn is kept; were they to 
build granaries, they must submit to additional taxation. The Wallachian 
peasants think it better to dance to the sound of the pipe on the banks of 
a calm lake, or under the shade of their woods, than to labour for Turkish 
oppressors. Their country, they say, is a fine desert it would be a pity 
to spoil it by cultivation. 

The peasants are no longer legally the bondsmen of theboyars; , C]aggeg 
Constantine Maurocordati abolished servitude in 1735, and by ' 
way of indemnity granted to every boyar a number of socotelniki, or tributary 
servants, each of whom was bound to pay his lord twenty piasters every 
year, or to labour in his service so many days in lieu of that sum; some 
peasants are free, they are composed of the poluiniki, or recent colonists 
that migrated from Bulgaria, Servia, and some of the Austrian provinces. 

The lands of the boyars and the priests are, according to law, , privileges, 
exempt from taxation. The clergy possess a third part of the ' Clei sy- 
landed property in the country, and the annual income of the metropolitan 
is equal to 400,000 piasters. The abbeys and dioceses are exposed to sale, 
and the price is put into the coffers of the hospodar, who extorts from time 
to time immense sums from the richest monasteries. It may be conjec- 
tured from the superstitions of the priesthood that their knowledge is very 
limited ; it is customary to open the sepulchres every seven years; if the 
body has not after that period returned to its kindred dust, the being who 
once animated it is in a state of condemnation, or changed into a vampyre. 
The relatives of the unfortunate wretch are compelled to purchase an im- 
mense number of expiatory prayers; the priests sanction the delusion, they 
are the only men that gain by it. The truth of the above statement is 
attested by several travellers, but it is difficult to reconcile such a custom 
with what has been said concerning the sincere virtue and great worth of 
the present archbishop Ignatius, the chief of the Wallachian clergy, and 
the founder of many schools. No middling classes exist in the country; 
the mechanical arts are almost exclusively confined to wandering troops of 


gipsies ; the commerce of Bucharest is in the hands of the Armenians; the 
retail trade is engrossed by the Jews, who, although occasionally exposed 
to the scourges of the common people, pursue their calling with indomitable 

No germ of civilization can be discovered in these provinces, no centre 
from which the light of knowledge can emanate; the barbarism of the 
inhabitants is the consequence of corruption and effeminate indolence; it 
is vain to think that they could be roused by extraordinary political revo- 
lutions, or by the destruction, sooner or later inevitable, of powerful neigh- 
bouring empires. 

Natural ad- j Nature seems to solicit human industry; in few countries 
vantage* 1 have her blessings been so profusely lavished; the finest river 
in Europe waters the southern frontiers, forms an outlet not only for the 
produce of fruitful Hungary, but of all Austria, and opens by the Black 
Sea a communication between Asia and Europe ; still a single vessel is a 
sight of rare occurrence; the mariner dreads rocks or shallows, Turkish 
garrisons, or the plague. Other large rivers descend from the Carpathian 
range, and enter the Danube the only advantage derived from them is a 
sufficient supply of fish during Lent; wholly neglected in every season of 
the year, they threaten to inundate the banks, which, with a moderate de- 
gree of care and labour, they might enrich or fertilize. No large vessels, 
a few flat boats only sail on the Aluta, the lalovitza, and the Ardschis. 
_ , . Lower Wallachia is unhealthy from its extensive marshes ; 

Productions. .^-^ ii-i-i- e * 

1 intermittent and bilious levers are the common diseases of the 
country. The mountains and several islands on the Danube are covered 
with lofty forests of oak, pine and beech trees ; but in place of being used 
in building ships, they are cut into small pieces and strewed instead of 
stones on the roads and streets ; the people, from indolence or want of skill, 
are unable to work the immense blocks of granite and lime-stone in different 
parts of the Carpathian mountains. The height of Mount Butchez is 
greater than 6000 feet, and all the mineral riches of Transylvania are found 
in Upper Wallachia ; copper mines were once worked at Baya di Rama, 
and iron mines in the neighbourhood of Zigarescht, in the district of Gorsy. 

The small pieces of gold found by the gipsies in the Aluta and other 
rivers, indicate the existence of gold mines as valuable as any in Transyl- 
vania; no attempt, however, has been made to discover them. The salt 
mines are worked, and 7500 tons are annually taken from the one at Okna 
Teleaga. The climate of Wallachia is more temperate than that of the 
neighbouring countries, but the inhabitants are exposed to two months of 
cold in winter, and to two of excessive heat in summer. The pastures are 
fertile in aromatic plants, all the Wallachian flocks and others from the 
adjoining provinces, are fattened on them; they might supply a sufficient 
quantity of food for a much greater number of cattle. The Wallachian 
wool is very valuable; the number of sheep in the country exceeds 2,500,000; 
there are three different kinds, the Zigay, the Zarkam, and the Tartar; the 
Zigay wool is short and fine, the Zarkam long and coarse, and the Tartar 
is not so fine as the first or so coarse as the second. Oxen and horses are 
exported from the provinces. The fields of maize, wheat and barley, the 
quantity of fine melons, the variety of fruits, the woods of apple, plum and 
cherry trees, are undoubted proofs of the productive qualities of the soil. 
The wines are strong and generous; if the vineyards were well cultivated 
they might be equal to any in Hungary. A thousand other instances of 
the munificence of nature might be mentioned, but all is of little use to a 
people without industry and without knowledge. 

Mr. Wilkinson, the English consul, supposes the population of Wal- 
lachia greater than a million, and that of Moldavia about 600,000; his 
estimate is higher than what has been hitherto believed ; but the same 
writer is of opinion that these provinces, after ten or fifteen years' peace 


under a good government, might afford subsistence to at least double the 
number of inhabitants. Were the right of property held sacred, twice the 
quantity of corn might be produced, twice the number of cattle might be 
reared, without any extraordinary efforts incompatible with the Revenue 
habits or intelligence of the people. 1 Not more than a sixth taxes, and 
part of the land in Wallachia is cultivated, and it seldom yields exports ' 
less than 1,250,000 quarters of wheat, but of these 187,500 must be sent 
to Constantinople; the inhabitants are likewise obliged to supply the same 
capital every year, with 3,000 horses and 25,000 sheep. Another tax, the 
numi, or tribute in money, is rigorously exacted; two millions of Turkish 
piasters are thus levied in Wallachia, and one million in Moldavia. The 
tributary peasants are arranged according to their wealth or poverty, into 
foods or classes; the number of individuals in each lood varies from five to 
ten; there were in 1817, according to the register of the Great Vestry, 18,000- 
loads, and the sum paid by them, was 10,800,000 Turkish piasters, or 
360,000/. A poll tax is imposed on 100,000 merchants and hucksters, 
mostly Jews, Armenians and foreigners, from different countries. The 
other taxes yield a revenue of 2,730,000 piasters; 600,000 are raised on 
salt, 380,000 at the custom-house, 420,000 from the couriers and post-office* 
The vinarit, the oyarit, and the dysonarit, or the duties on wine, mutton, 
and pork, amount to 1,380,000. These sums may appear incredible, but 
they are paid before they become due by a company of revenue farmers* 
It is not likely that commerce can flourish in a country where there are 
so many taxes and tax-gatherers. The principal imports are German 
cloth, English muslin, and French cambric; the exports consist among 
other articles of 500,000 hare skins, 600,000 okas* of rhamnus infectorius^. 
a grain useful in dying, and 1,760,000 okas of excellent wool. 

The subdivisions, and the manner in which the subdivisions Divigiong 
are governed, shall be explained in the tables; it may be re- 
marked that the country is divided into Wallachia Proper, on the east of 
the Aluta, and Little Wallachia or the bannat of Krayowa on the west of 
the same river. The last portion has for some time been in the possession 
of Austria. 

The towns may be shortly described; in reality there is only j Towns 
one; in it the hospodar holds his court, and the boyars crowd ' 
round his throne; if the viceroy changes his residence, the town is ruined; 
thus Ardschis retains only its fine church and marble columns. If Busco 
can be compared to a small provincial town, it owes that advantage to its 
bishop, its priests and its friars. No ramparts, palaces or houses, inhabited 
by couriers, can be seen in Tergowischti; but the air is still salubrious and 
the position delightful; it was peopled at one time by 30,000 individuals, 
at present it does not contain 5000 inhabitants. Bucharest is now the 
favoured spot; how long it may continue so is uncertain; the houses, or 
rather cottages, are, for the most part, built of clay, and near them are 
several large convents, numerous towers, and sixty Greek churches in the 
midst of gardens, groves and public walks. The population amounts to 
60,000 souls. The boyars ride in gilt carriages, play at pharao, pay their 
court to the prince, appear at the reviews of the Albanian guard, attend 
the German theatre, and long for the opening of the Italian opera, which 
cannot, it is thought, be much longer retarded, as the building is now 
nearly finished. The Greeks from Constantinople manage the financial 
department, and are adepts in all the corruption and vices of the court. 
The youth are instructed in the ancient gymnastic exercises ; and some 
Greek physicians, educated in Germany, retain the studious habits which 

* Wilkinson's Account of Wallachia and Moldavia; or Tableau de la Valachie et de la 
Moldavia, par M. Wilkinson, traduit avec des additions importantes par M. de la Roquette. 
k The oka is nearly equal to a pound. 


they acquired in the universities of that country. The languages spoken 
by the higher classes are modern Greek, bad Italian, and worse French. 
The women are not so closely watched as in other Turkish countries; they 
are more intelligent ; their manners are more agreeable; but although they 
are not excluded from social amusements, their condition is by no means 
enviable. Marriages are made without consulting the inclinations of the 
parties; if a lady has a number of suitors, the wealthiest amongst them, 
or the one who agrees to marry her with the least dower, is always pre- 
ferred by her parents; but the most serious evil is the scandalous facility 
by which divorces can be obtained, or rather by which marriages may be 
declared null. A rich man can at any time repudiate his wife; the disci- 
pline of the Greek church in Wallachia is shamefully relaxed. 

Some other towns may be briefly enumerated; Fokschani is situated on 
the road that passes by Busco from Bucharest to Moldavia; it is peopled 
by 6000 souls, adorned with a great many churches, and the neighbouring 
fields are covered with vineyards. Ployesti is resorted to on account of its 
fair. Philipecti has fallen into decay; some boyars still reside in its castles. 
The merchandise of Cronstadt in Transylvania is deposited in Kimpina. All 
these towns are situated to the north of Fokschani in a mountainous but 
populous country. Kimpolung^ a burgh in the north-west of the province, 
retains its immunities, but has lost its commerce. Slobojat is the only town 
worthy of notice on the plains of the Danube, the theatre of so many wars. 
Oraschul, 1 or the town of the waves, on the same plains, is not likely to re- 
cover its former grandeur. The crescent floats on the ramparts of Giurgiew 
and Brailow, the fortresses from which the Turkish troops issue to pillage 
the fields, and carry off the flocks. The protection of Russia, granted in 
1771 and renewed in 1812, is no security against the incursions of bar- 

Towns in Lit- i Krayowa, the capital of western or Little Wallachia, is regu- 
tie vvaiiachia. I i ar jy ^ u \\^ an( j peopled by 8000 inhabitants, of whom a great 
proportion are tradesmen and artisans; and Izlas, at the junction of the 
Aluta, is likely from its position to become a commercial town. It was at 
the village of Balta- Wierda that the Tartars assembled to divide their spoils, 
after a successful campaign against Austria. An old tower which is still 
shown at Kimpul- Sever inulici, another village, is believed to be the remains 
of a bridge built on the Danube by the emperor Severus. 

j The passes between Wallachia and Transylvania are highly 
' important, in a political and military point of view; they form 
advantageous military stations and commercial roads for the Austrians. 
The most remarkable are those of Botza and Torzburg, Vulcan or Wolkan 
and the Red Tower, where the Carolinian way begins, the immense but now 
neglected work of M. Stainville, a French engineer in the service of Austria- 
Moldavia, at present limited by the Pruth, a great tributary river that 
enters the Danube, is the most northern province in the Ottoman empire; 
it extends between the Russian and Austrian dominions, like a promontory 
between two boisterous seas threatening to overwhelm it. Although the 
country is situated on the eastern sides of the Carpathian mountains, the 
interior forms an extensive plain, intersected by the Pruth and the Sereth. 
The bold and steep banks of these rivers appear at a distance like a range 
of lofty hills ; but the stranger who leaves Jassy must travel twenty-eight 
Climate I ^ ea S ucs before he comes in sight of the Carpathian chain. The 
' Moldavian winters are in general intensely cold; in 1788 Rea*u- 
mur's thermometer stood at 21 below zero."* The summers on the con- 
trary are very warm; the grape is ripe by the end of July, and the vintage 

1 Oraschul is generally, but incorrectly, written Orasch. 

m If the above statement be correct, the degree of cold must have been equal to 14 -f 
3-4th below zero of Fahrenheit. 


is over in the month of September. Moldavia is exposed to frequent earth- 
quakes, but they are never violent; 11 the same country abounds in mines of 
every description, all of them are neglected ; were the inhabitants to work 
them, the produce of their labour would, without doubt, be sent to Constan- 
tinople; on that account no wealth is now derived from the famous mines 
near Baya, on the Moldava. Salt is obtained in great quantities; , Productions 
7500 tons are taken from the pits at Okna, and at no great dis- 
tance is a large rock formed by a mass of crystalline salt.? The principal 
trade of Soroko on the Dneister consists in saltpetre; the process used 
in making it is very defective; a considerable quantity is exported by the 
Polish Jews, who receive brandy in exchange. Sulphureous springs have 
been discovered near Grosseschti, and not far from the Sirelh, on the road 
between Baken and Roman. The Bistritza rolls its golden sand ; the dis- 
trict of Niamz abounds in ferruginous springs. Wheat and barley are 
cultivated throughout the country; the barley is given to horses; millet too 
is a very common crop, it is roasted and made into talk, a Tartar substitute 
for coffee. Buck-wheat was at one time almost the only kind of grain in 
the province, but prince Nicolas Maurocordato introduced the culture of 
maize in 1710; from one or other of these two plants, Mamaliga, a gela- 
tinous substance, is made, and forms the principal food of the country people 
in Moldavia, Servia and Wallachia. The best maize grows on the lands 
in the neighbourhood of Husch and PasJcan, a village on the Sireth. 

The cultivation of fruit trees and esculent plants is not in a very advanced 
state; such as are in most common use, are the Solanum melongena and the 
Hibiscus esculentusi the melon thrives throughout the province, and the 
grape is the most valuable of the Moldavian fruits. A great quantity of 
wine is exported to Poland and Russia, or Nishegorod; the annual average 
duty, levied during the vintage, amounts to 380 purses or 190,000 piasters; 
now, as a piaster is imposed on ten buckets or eymers of wine, it follows 
that the number of eymers obtained annually is not less than 1,900,000.1 
That estimate, however, is much too low; the boyars, who collect the tax, 
always underrate the produce of their own lands; besides, more than a tenth 
of the vineyards are in the hands of the clergy; their portion is exempt 
from imposts; many individuals enjoy the same privilege; so that the quan- 
tity of wine produced in an ordinary season is more than double what has 
been stated. The Odokescht is considered the best Moldavian wine, next 
to it is the Kotnar, which is like, but inferior to, champagne; different sorts 
of a good quality are made in the neighbourhood of Huscht, Nikorescht 
and Jassy. Vermouth and other kinds of brandy are common in the country. 
The cultivation of the vineyards and the art of making wine might be 
greatly improved; one of the clumsy methods to which the inhabitants 
have recourse, consists in exposing a great many barrels to the winter's 
frost; the crust of ice is perforated with a red-hot iron; in this way the aque- 
ous particles are more freely disengaged, and a stronger liquor flows from 
the cask. 

Many districts are covered with rich pastures or extensive 
forests; numerous herds of swine are fattened on acorns in the ' A 
woods, and a species of which the hoof is not cleft, is common, says M. 
Wolf, in the district of Orhei. The Moldavians pay great attention to 
their horses ; several boyars have nofewer than four or five hundred ; these 
animals are highly valued in Austria and Prussia, and are mostly used by 
the light cavalry; but beyond the Pruth, in that part 6f the country ceded 
to the Russians, the horses are stronger and as active. The oxen , 
are of a better kind than the Wallachian, and great numbers ' 

n Wolff, Memoires sur la Moldavia. Baya y in Moldavian, and Banya, in Hungarian, 
signify a mine. P Sulzer. Transalpin. Dazien, t. I. p. 146. 

< The eymer varies in different countries; it amounts, probably, in Moldavia to nine 


are exported every year to Silesia and Bohemia. The goat and the sheep 
abound in the provinces the number of goats is not less than 3,248,000, 
but the people are compelled by law to sell a certain number to the Turks, 
at a price fixed by the prince or governor, who, to gain popularity at Con- 
stantinople, makes the price almost nominal. 

The forests are well stocked with deer, wild boars, chamois and hares ; 
there are besides a great many bears, wolves,- foxes and martens, of which 
the skins are exported to different parts of Europe. Peacocks, pintados 
and hawks are kept at the country seats of the nobles; it is customary to 
send every year twenty-four falcons to the Grand Seignior. Few countries 
are better supplied with bees; these insects cost but little trouble; the hollow 
trunk of a tree is closed at one end, and thus converted into a hive; all the 
swarms are destroyed in October by the vapour of charcoal; the hives are 
then covered with straw or hay, and deposited in cellars during winter; 
before the division of the province, the prince derived a revenue of 60,000 
piasters from the tithe on honey and green aromatic wax. Moldavia is 
overrun with grasshoppers; in one season these insects destroyed all the 
fields of maize. 

Towns and i No towns of any note are situated in Russian Moldavia on 
burghs.. I the east of the Pruth; the Russians desired and obtained the 
three fortresses of Chotzin, Sender and hmael. Boluschani, a commercial 
town, peopled by four or five thousand inhabitants, Pialra, where several 
fairs are held in the course of the year, and Niamtsch with its monastery, 
the residence of 500 kalogeris, who boast of possessing a miraculous and 
silver image of the Virgin, are the most important places in the high 
districts. The name of Niamtsch is not derived from Niemelz, a Ger- 
man, but from Niam, a Slavonic divinity that was adored at Niamtsch 
or Nimtch in Silesia. The ruins of Semendrowa or St. Andrew, a Sla^- 
vonic city near Roman on the Sireth, once the capital of Servia, are still 
visited by strangers. Some notion may be formed of the condition of the 
people from the description which Mr. Wolf gives of a Moldavian burgh, 
"Small houses made of wood and covered with clay, ill-cultivated gardens, 
narrow and dirty streets, a large inn, where travellers tormented with 
insects, can obtain no other food than coarse mamaliga, no other drink 
than bad wine, are the common defects, not of one, but of every small town 
in the country. The wind circulates freely in the house of an ispraunik; 
the paper windows may be easily torn, but it is very difficult to keep the 
doors shut; the habitations of the isprauniks are, of course, superior to the 
dwellings of those who pay tribute." 

Jaesy.the i Jassy, the capital, is situated on the side of a hill, in a fertile 
capital. I country; but the river Bakloui, which is not unlike a continua- 
tion of marshes, and the miasms that rise from the drains in every street, 
render the town unhealthy. The only villas in the neighbourhood, are 
two near the vineyards of Kopo; they belong to the Waiwode. The five thou- 
sand houses in Jassy are placed together without any regularity; five hun- 
dred are built of stone, and fifty consist of more than a single story. The 
ancient palace, which is supposed to have been built by the Romans, under 
Trajan, was formerly the largest and finest edifice in the town; it was burnt 
in 1783; it has not since that time been rebuilt. The wealth of the inhabi- 
tants is displayed in their dress and ornaments, not in their feasts or en- 
tertainments. The wife of a rich boyar exhibits sometimes on her person, 
jewels and precious stones, worth about twenty or thirty thousand pias- 
ters ; but foreign wine is rarely seen on the tables of the nobles. The coun- 
try, the towns, and, above all, the capital, are crowded with mendicants. 
The genius of Catherine, and the cowardice of the vizier, whom Charles 
the Twelfth insulted, were the means of saving the Czar and the Russian 
army at Huscht, on the banks of the Pruth. 


Galacz, a town of seven thousand inhabitants, is the most commercial of 
any in Moldavia or Wallachia ; its port, which can admit ships of 300 tons, 
is always crowded with Austrian, Russian and Ottoman vessels. It might 
become the Alexandria of the Danube, if the three great powers could 
establish a lasting peace among themselves, or were politic enough to erect 
an intermediate kingdom on the Lower Danube. The Wallachians send 
a great part of their produce across the mountains to Transylvania, and 
also to the harbour of Varna; the exports for both the principalities pass 
by Galacz. The Greek Jews in the town deal in cloth, wool, silk and fur; 
but the real children of Israel confine themselves to trinkets and jewels; 
the Russian sells hides and tobacco; the grave Mussulman brings his fine 
Morocco leather, spices and aromatics, one of which, odogatch, a resin 
that is extracted from the rfgallochum verum, is very valuable, an ounce is 
sold for a ducat; the rich perfume their beards with this unguent, and it is 
customary when people of distinction visit them to put a small quantity in 
their pipes. It is difficult to say whether the Wallachian or , 
Moldavian government is the worst. The prince or the vassal 
of the Turks exercises despotic authority over the boyars, whom the Greeks 
call archontes, and the Moldavians kokons or lords. The manner in which 
justice is dispensed, is as imperfect as any other branch of the executive 
department; a uniform system of legislation is rendered impracticable from 
the frequent removals of the princes, and the right which they have of 
abrogating all the decrees of their predecessors. If the court have any 
difficulty about deciding a case, the Divan consults an abridgment of the 
Roman code by Armenopolus, a writer that was contemporary with Alex- 
ander the Good, whose reign began in 1401 and terminated in 1433; before 
that time there were no written laws in Moldavia. The decisions of the 
Divan are always arbitrary; the few statutes that are in force, are falsely 
interpreted; hence arise many complicated law-suits, which the prince or 
subordinate judges can unravel with incredible despatch, if either party is 
prudent or rich enough to bribe them beforehand. 

The revenue of the governor is chiefly derived from the birr, , 

, . . . ' i_ I Revenue. 

a tax that is exacted every month, because the viceroy is un- 
Certain how long he may hold his situation. Duties are levied on cattle 
and different articles of consumption; it appears from authentic documents, 
which Mr. Wolf was permitted to examine in the country, that the taxes 
and imposts raised in Moldavia amount annually to 2,430,000 piasters. 
It is thus obvious how greatly Sulzer and Carra were mistaken, when they 
computed the total revenue to be 250,000 piasters. The prince must raise 
325 purses or 162,500 Turkish piasters as a tribute for the Porte. The 
presents for the Sultan, his relatives and ministers, the expenses of trans- 
port, and the pay of the public functionaries, are not less than 230,000 pias- 
ters. To cover all these expenses without diminishing his own revenue, the 
governor uses every pretext to extort money from his subjects. Thus, it 
often happens that one waiivode, supplanted by a greater adept in intrigue, 
returns to Constantinople with full coffers, in the company of Turkish 
usurers, who advanced him money when a successful candidate, and fol- 
lowed him to his government in the expectation of receiving exorbitant 
interest. The Turks participate sometimes in the plunder of a deposed 
prince, by borrowing from him large sums, which if he refuses to lend, 
charges of mal-administration are raised against him, his wealth is confis- 
cated, and he himself sent into exile. To obviate such difficulties, the wai- 
wodes take the first opportunity of investing in foreign funds the money 
which they gain in the province. 

The good qualities of the people are stifled by oppression. , character and 
Prince Demetrius Kantemir declaims against the pride, avarice, ' inanlltjrs - 
and ignorance of his subjects and countrymen; but he himself was not free 
from these vices. Mr. Wolf, the German consul, reprehends them with 



equal severity. Although given to hospitality, the higher classes are 
haughty and harsh to the lower, crouching to their superiors ; medh, pliant, 
suspicious, vindictive, and as jealous as the Turks. According to Count 
Karaizaj, the men are strong and well made; their intelligence and ingenuity 
cMiable them, in some degree, to supply the want of machinery and manu- 
i'ucturcs; their greatest vices are drunkenness, idleness, and an inveterate 
attachment to established customs. The women in their youth, are gay 
and cheerful, in the married state they soon bear the marks of premature 
old age; the wives of the peasants, the mothers of families, are condemned 
to labour like slaves; few hours of joy or amusement vary the dull monotony 
of their lives. 

, Many Wallachians migrated from Transylvania or Hungary, 
' and settled in Moldavia; the native considers himself above 
them, and calls them Oungaraines; the difference in their manners and 
dialects is hardly perceptible. 

Zigennes I ^ e sna ^ conclude our account of European Turkey with 
some observations on a different people, not the Turks, or 
' haughty rulers of all these provinces. We have endeavoured, 
in another part of this work, to describe that degenerate nation, its man- 
ners, government, power, and resources. r It is necessary to descend still 
lower in the chain of civilization, and to examine a people scattered like 
the Jews in every country, but without the distinction of a peculiar religion. 
4< They have wandered through the world, and in every region, and among 
every people, they have continued equally unchanged by the lapse of time, 
the variation of climate, and the force of example. Their singular phy- 
siognomy and manners are the same. in every country. Their complexion 
receives no darker shade from the burning sun of Africa, or any fairer 
tint from the milder climates of Europe. They contract no additional 
laziness in Spain; they acquire no habits of industry in England. In 
Turkey, they behold the mosque and the crescent with the same indiffer- 
ence that they look on a catholic or protestant church in Europe. In the 
neighbourhood of civilized life, they continue barbarous, and near cities 
and settled inhabitants, they live in tents and holes in the earth, or wander 
from place to place like fugitives and vagabonds.'* These people are 
lively, fickle, and faithless to every one, even to their own caste; addicted to 
sensuality? and, like savages, indifferent about the choice of their food. If 
an ox die of disease, and they can obtain its carcass, men, women and 
children hasten to the feast, and after their brandy or strong drink is ex- 
hausted, they pursue their journey, or take up their quarters for the night.* 
The women may be distinguished by their dark and sparkling eyes, tanned 
complexion, oval visage, white teeth and jet-black hair. They deal in 
prostitution, wanton dances and fortune-telling; the mother trains her 
daughter in vice, and the daughter is scarcely grown before she follows 
the example of her mother. Although their clothes hardly hang together, 
a stranger perceives sometimes part of a military coat, the fragment of a 
lace cap, a torn handkerchief, or paltry trinket; their gait and deportment, 
when thus adorned, evince a more than ordinary share of vanity. 
Tradey, art*, i The wandering tribe of Zigeunes find occupation in some 
' countries as smiths and tinkers; they mend broken plates, and 
sell wooden ware; a class of them in Moldavia and Wallachia lead a 
settled life, and gain a livelihood by washing or searching for gold, in the 
beds of rivers; 1 those in the Bannat of Hungary are horse-dealers, and are 
gradually obeying the enactments of Joseph the II., by which they are 
compelled to cultivate the land; but the great majority in Europe abhor 

'Vol. II. 

9 A gipsy, when censured on account of his taste, replied that a beast which God kills, 
must be as good as any killed by man. 
' These people are called Zingunis by the Wallachians and Moldavians. 


a permanent residence and stated hours of labour. The women abuse the 
credulity of the German and Polish peasants, who imagine that they cure 
their cattle by witchcraft, and predict fortunate events by inspecting the 
lineaments of the hand. It is lawful for the wives of 'the Tchinganes^ in 
Turkey, to commit adultery with impunity. Many individuals of both 
sexes, particularly throughout Hungary, are passionately fond of music, 
the only science in which they have as yet attained any degree of perfection; 
they are the favourite minstrels of the country people; some have, arrived 
at eminence in cathedrals, and in the choirs of princes. Their guitar is 
heard in the romantic woods of Spain; and many gipsies, less indolent than 
the indolent Spaniards, exercise in that country the trade of publicans. 
They follow willingly whatever occupation most men hate or condemn; 
in Hungary and Transylvania they are flayers of dead beasts, and execu- 
tioners of criminals the mass of the nation is composed of thieves and 

The total number of these savages in Europe has never been Number 
considered less than 300,000, or than 150,000 in Turkey, 70,000 ' 
in Wallachia and Moldavia, 40,000 in Hungary and Transylvania, the rest 
are scattered in Russia, Prussia, Poland, Germany, Jutland, Spain, and 
other countries. Persia and Egypt are infested with them; they have ap- 
peared in Spanish America. 

The race of the gipsies, however abject, has been the sub- j Different 
ject of numerous researches, and from some of them consider- names of the 
able information may be gained on the origin and classification ' Glpsies - 
of different states." It might be thought, from their various names, that 
all the tribes are not of the same origin; they call themselves Romi, Ma- 
nusch and Gadzi, each of these appellations is connected with a separate 
language, the first with the Copt, the second with the Sanscrit, and the 
third with the Celtic. It has been lately proved by a careful *and unpre- 
judiced writer, that sinte, a plural noun, is the only national name recog- 
nised by those of Prussian Lithuania. The title next to it in importance 
is the Polish one of Zingani, which corresponds with the Zigonas of the 
Lithuanians, the Zingani of the Wallachians,the Zingari of the Hungarians 
and Italians, the Ziguene of the Germans, the Tchinganes of the Turks, and 
the Atchingam of some writers that lived during the middle ages. Such 
are the names by which, at present, they are most commonly designated; 
it may be remarked, however, that the English words, Gipsies or Egyp- 
tians, and the Spanish term Gi/#n0s,.are corruptions from Pharoumi, a 
name by which a horde of these vagrants distinguished themselves in the 
dark ages. They passed through Bohemia into Germany and France, 
and have for that reason been styled Bohemians. The Persians call them 
Sisech Hindou, or Black Indians. 

The historical traditions concerning the tribe, are reduced m 

i ,, . /, .11 i I Traditions. 

to the vague recollection ot an ancient and happy people under ' 
princes of their own race, that inhabited a country which, according to 
the doubtful assertion of a writer of the fifteenth century, the first Zigeunes 
called Little Egypt. It is also affirmed that when they first appeared, 
they were conducted in their migrations by dukes, princes, and even by 
kings. All the knowledge derived from their history is, that they have 
wandered for many ages. No trace of their worship or religious belief, if 

All the researches anterior to the year 1787, have been united by Grellman in his his- 
tory of the Zigeunes. The vocabulary in the same work was written by Buttner. The 
other works on the subject are, an account of the Prussian Zigeunes, written by M; 
Krause and M. Zippel, in the Berliner Monathschrift, 1793; February and April. Com- 
parative Vocabularies by Adelung, Mithridates, 1. 1. p. 244. Extracts from the manuscript 
grammar of M. Krause, by M. Vater, in his supplement to Mithridates; and lastly, Richard* 
son's account of the Bazigurs. Asiatic Researches, vol. VII. 


they have any, can be discovered. They follow the customs of the coun- 
tries in which they reside. 

. The only information which can be obtained concerning them, 
' must be founded on the nature of their language; but the dialect 
of such a tribe, it may be supposed, is made up of the cant terms of beg- 
gars and pickpockets, or not Unlike the rothwelsch of the German banditti, 
or the jargon of the Kataphiani, the itinerant physicians in Turkey. Such, 
however, is not the case, and a people without a country, an asylum, laws, 
or religion, spealc a regular language, furnished with grammatical forms. 
Not less than two or three hundred of its principal roots have been shown 
to be the same with as many in the Sanscrit and other eastern languages; 1 
in short, it is a branch of that Indian family, in which the Sanscrit is not 
the source, as many term it, but the most common and the best known; 
in the tents of these wanderers, are spoken the dialects of the Vedas, the 
Pur anas, the JBrachmans, and the Budahs. The above fact was confirmed 
by Buttner; it need not, therefore, excite surprise if the language of the 
Zigeunes, from their migrations or common origin, is connected with 
many others different from any yet enumerated. Thus its relation with 
the Persic may be easily explained; y it has been demonstrated that it con- 
tains about forty Slavonic words, the most of them expressive of natural 
objects,* and we have lately observed in it as many Finnic, Permiak, Wogoul 
and Hungarian terms. a These discoveries cannot be considered useful 
until the means have been obtained of classifying the different hordes, and 
marking the distinctions by which they are separated. The structure of 
the auxiliary verb is the same as others in the Indo-Pelasgic tongues, but 
the pronouns have a remarkable analogy with the Persic, and the declen- 
sion of nouns with the Turkish." 

What conclusion can be drawn from all these facts? The learned Grell- 
man, and h>is friend Buttner, have not hesitated to affirm that the Zigeunes 
are one of the low Indian castes, expelled from their country during some 
great political revolution, and in consequence of that event, now accus- 
tomed and habituated to a wandering life. The Hindoo character of their 
language, their physical qualities, and the name of Sinte, by which they 
are often called, are three strong arguments in favour of the hypothesis, 
at present generally admitted. Several writers have attempted to ascer- 
tain the period of their migrations and the region which they formerly 
inhabited. The devastations committed in India, by Tamerlane, about the 
year 1400, afford a plausible pretext for their flight. It may too be kept 
in view that their country should be sought in the western part of India, 
near the banks of the Indus or the Sinde. Pallas infers from their dialect, 
that their ancient country is Moultan, and their origin the same as that 
of the Hindoo merchants at present at Astrakhan. Bartolomeo believes 
they came from Guzurate^ perhaps from'the neighbourhood of Tatta, where 
a horde of pirates called Tchinganes still reside.* Lastly, Richardson boasts 

* Thus, farm, the sun; sohon, the moon; bku, the earth; ag, fire; pani t water; sonknm, 
gold; rup, silver; iakh, an eye; kan t an ear; /o/o,red; kufa, black; kamela, love; schiva, life; 
raich, night; schero, a head, &c. &c. It may be seen from these and other examples, that 
the Zigeunian is not widely removed from the Sanscrit and eastern languages, like the 
Greek, Latin, Slavonic and Gothic, but is chiefly a Hindoo dialect. 

r We observe an analogy between the Persic and the Gothic in the verb to make; Kr, 
make; me kira-vn, I make; and me kerdum, \ did make. 
Adelung and Vater ; Mithridates, II. 247; IV. 85. 

* For example, sea, sero, zig. sam, perm, sarz, Wog.; Mountain, hedjo t zig. hegy, Hung.; 
a hill, dombo, zig. domb> Hung. ; heart, sie, zig. syo, Finn.; sziv, Hung.; oats, dachov, zig. 
zab, Hung.; town, forius, zig. varos, Hung.; mist, koeddo, zig. kced, Hung.; knee, tchangu, 
zig. tchanlcliiy Wog. ; old, puro, zig. pyras, perm. &c. &c. 

b Sinte, the Zigeunes; ablative, Sintenden, like erlerden in Turkish. 
c Pallas, Neue nordische beitrxge, 111. p. 96. Paulin de St. Bartolomeo, Voyage 

II. p. 197". French translation. 


of having found them among the Bazigurs, a wandering tribe of minstrels 
and dancers. If it be necessary to trace their descent from the inferior 
Hindoo castes, none, in our opinion, resembles the Zigeunes more than a 
tribe of the Soudras, or " the Correvas, who have no fixed abode, but lodge 
in tents; they live by selling baskets, or mending kettles, and their women 
gain money by fortune-telling.*" Such employments are descriptive of the 

Few objections of any importance can be raised against the general 
hypothesis, but the details connected with it are not so easily explained. 
Thus if the Zigeunes were Farias, they might in all probability have been 
the objects of Tamerlane's persecution, but it is not less likely that they 
would at once have professed Islamism as they now do in Turkey. If they 
were Tchinganes, the ingenious supposition may be admitted that they 
fled by sea and arrived in Egyptj but it is necessary to account for the 
change in their character; these warlike pirates are now mendicants and 
poltroons. If the Zigeunes were originally a branch of the Soudras or 
the Banians from Moultan, how happens it that no trace of their super- 
stition is left? If it be answered that the Carrewas and other low castes 
were as ignorant and as wretched as the Farias, then it must be shown 
why people so obscure were expelled from a country in which their neigh- 
bours and equals were permitted to remain. 

Another objection of a more general kind may be urged against the 
supposition that the Zigeunes migrated from Indostan about the year 
1400. Numerous and thickly scattered hordes inhabited Wallachia, Hun- 
gary and Poland, in the year 1433, while only a few detached bands ap- 
peared in Persia, Turkey and Caucasus. 

The celebrated M. Hasse, the author of a different hypothe- t indo-Eum- 
sis,*has proved that for the last 3000 years there have been in ' P 6 origin - 
Europe wandering tribes that bore the names of Segynes or Zigeunes, and 
Sinties or Sinti; the same writer considers the modern gipsies, the Zi- 
geunes or Sintis, the descendants of these ancient hordes. A Polish geo- 
grapher, M. Lelewel, has clearly shown that Hindoo nations have been 
settled since the dawn of history on the shore of the Cimmerian Bospho- 
rus and in Europe, particularly in Thrace. h The merits of both these 
systems may be shortly examined, 

A tribe whose name was almost the same as that of the Zi- | sigynee. 
geunes, is mentioned in the most ancient profane history. " The Sigynes, 
who resemble the Medes in their dress, live on the north side of the Ister, 
(Danube,) in a country which seems to be desert, at least they are the only 
inhabitants of whom I have received any information. They have little 
horses with long hair, which are not strong enough to carry men, but able 
to draw cars with great rapidity. Their frontiers extend to those of the 
Heneti, a people on the Adriatic. They call themselves a colony of Medes, 
a point concerning which I cannot decide, though it may be true, if we 
make allowance for the lapse of ages. The Ligurians give the name of 
Sigynes to travelling merchants, the Cyprians to javelins or spears." 1 
Such is the testimony of the father of profane history. Strabo describes 
a people bearing the name of Siginii, and inhabiting the Hyrcanian moun- 
tains on the south side of the Caspian sea. " They resembled the Per- 
sians in their manners, and had little horses with long hair, not fit for 
riding, but useful in drawing chariots. " k In the Argonautics of Apollo- 

e Asiatic Researches, VII. p. 451. t Valentyn, Oud-and Nieuw-Ostindien, Vol. A., 

p. 88. (Kust Choromandel; ., Derde book, Tweede hoofdstuck.) 

* Die Zigeuner in Herodot. by J. G. Hasse, Kcenigsberg, 1803. The same hypothesis 
was first maintained by Behr, Zusxtze zur allg. Welthistor III. sec. 54. 

h Lelewel, badania starozytnoci geographii, &c. (Researches on ancient geography,) 
Wilna, 1817. ' Herod, p. 183, Ed. Stephani. See Sturtz. de lingua Maced. p. 46. 

k Strabo XI. p. 520. Ed. 1620. 


nius the Sigynnae are placed at the mouth of the Danube, 1 and in the poems 
ascribed to Orpheus, in Pontius. 1 " 

Sufficient evidence of their ancient migrations is afforded by their set- 
tlements in these three distant countries. The description of their horses 
corresponds with that of the same animal in Baskiria, and on the plains 
of Scythia." We cannot determine whether the Caucasian Zingi of Pliny, 
or the Indian Singse of the same author, were not different as to their origin 
from the Zigeunes or Zinganes ; or if any traces of these ancient and 
errant tribes existed in Cappadocia, and in the town of Zingana. 

I Different hordes of the same people are probably descended 
I from the Sindi or Sinti, the former inhabitants of Sindica, a 
country near the Cimmerean Bosphorus. It is supposed from the ancient 
manuscripts that the name of that region is Indica; the words Sind^ Hind 
and Ind are almost synonymous, and generally confounded by orientalists. 
Hesychius reconciles at all events the opinions of the ancients, and calls 
the Sindi an Indian people. The traditions concerning the commercial 
industry of these tribes, their cowardice, their submitting to the lash of 
Scythian masters, the prostitution of their women, whose name became a 
term of reproach, are so many proofs of their common origin with the 
Zigeunes or Sinties of the present day. 1 ' It is a curious fact, and one 
maintained by Stephen of Byzantium, that the Sindi used to carry on 
solemn occasions a figure of the lingam;^ the same custom prevailed in 
Indostan. Different branches of the same people were scattered through- 
out Macedonia, a country in which we observe a Sintic district, and in 
Lemnos, where the Sinties were the workmen of Vulcan; such employment 
is still the chief occupation of the Zigeunes. 

Hindoo nations i The Sinties and Sigynnii are not the only Asiatic people dis- 
of Europe. I persed in Europe or on its confines. The Scythians of the royal 
tribe were Mede's by birth; a knowledge of their language may enable us 
to explain the ancient geographical names of Scythia. The opinion of 
D'Anville concerning the Tartar origin of the Getae is now generally re- 
jected; it is expected that ere long additional information may be obtained 
from the researches of M. de Saint Martin on the European India of the 
Armenian writers. It is known that the lowtir Danube was anciently 
called Matous, a name supposed to have been derived from the Indian 
hero, Madhou, the antagonist of Krischna, or from the word marf/mr, which 
signifies fresh water. Scylax mentions the town of Aigypsos, Ovid calls 
it Aigyptos, and adds that it was founded by a Caspian on the delta of the 
Danube; 1 " from that place, in all probability, the Zigeunes obtained the title 
of Egyptians or Gipsies. The existence of the Indi in Asia Minor is at- 
tested in the history of the Machabees, and completely proved in a differ- 
ent work. " 8 

conclusion. | It may be concluded from these detached facts, that tribes 
of the Hindoo race have been wandering or settled in Europe or its con- 
fines from the earliest historical age. It is for the historian and oriental- 
ist to examine how they came thither, whether they migrated in an age of 
which no record is left, or were the enemies of Khrisna, a supposition that 
might explain their singular pretension of having formerly rejected Christ, 
or if they were a branch of the Hindowan Berber, that Schah Name places 
in the hyperborean regions, or colonies transported from the Indus by the 

1 Argonautic, IV. 220. Orph. Arg. V. 754. 

n Georgi, Russisches tteich III. sixth section, p. 1659. 

o Herodotus IV. 28. Ed. Wessel. p. 293, note 7, p. 321, note 19. M. Lelewel has pub- 
lished a map of India polnocznia or northern India. 

P Notes by Dureau de Lamalle, on Valerius Flaccus. n Organs of generation. 

T Ovid. Pont. I. Eleg. 9, IV. Eleg. 7. 

* 1. Machab. chap. viii. verse 8. Claudius on the Indians of Asia Minor, in Repertor. f. 
biblische Litteratur., XI. 


despots of Persia. The geographer has discovered that there existed at 
an ancient period in Europe, tribes from which the Zigeunes or Sintes 
appear to have been descended. It is unnecessary for him to extend his 
inquiries beyond that remarkable fact, or to explain why these petty hordes 
remained so long unknown in the midst of so many wanderers and savages 
during the Roman empire in the east. They might have called themselves 
Roma, from being the subjects of the Romans, they might have wandered 
near the marshes of Lower Wallachia and Little Egypt, where they are 
said to have formed a state, situated perhaps in the neighbourhood of 
jEgypsos. The Zigeunes, the Sintes, the Gipsies, Bohemians and Tchin- 
ganes are probably so many tribes distinguished by their dialects and local 


The reader will find, in the second volume of this work, a general view 
of the Ottoman empire;* but we thought it better to postpone to this pe- 
riod the observations we had to make on the increase and decline of the 
Ottoman power. 

The rapid progress and still more rapid decline of the Ottoman or 
Turkish power are among the most interesting phenomena in the history 
of Europe. The Turks are descended from a horde of Tartars, who emi- 
grated from the countries contiguous to the Caspian Sea, about the year 
850, and who, for several centuries after, interfered with decisive effect 
in the contests and revolutions of the Saracen Asiatic nations. Othman, 
the chief of the Oguzian Tartars, is reckoned the real founder of the 
Turkish empire. He succeeded his father in 1289, his dominions being 
then confined to the lordship of Siguta in Bithynia, and a small tract of 
adjoining territory. But the talent of Othman, and the bravery and zeal 
of his followers, enabled him to add greatly to his paternal inheritance, 
and to bequeath the whole of Bithynia and Cappadocia to his son and suc- 
cessor. From this period the tide of Turkish conquest began to roll for- 
ward with a force that could not be checked by the feeble resistance of 
the Greeks. In 1338 the Ottomans first obtained a footing in Europe. In 
1362Amureth, the grandson of Othman, instituted the Janizaries, the first, 
and for a long period the most powerful, numerous, and best disciplined 
standing army established in modern times. The conquests of Timour 
threatened to subvert the Turkish power; but it soon recovered from the 
shocks it had sustained ; and in 1453, Mahomet II. entered Constantinople 
sword in hand, and established himself on the throne of Constantine and 
Justinian! But the undisturbed possession of all the countries from Mount 
Amanus to the Danube, did not satisfy the restless and insatiable ambi- 
tion of the Turks. Selim, the grandson of Mahomet II., added Syria and 
Egypt to the dominions of his ancestors ; and Solyman the Magnificent, 
the contemporary of the Emperor Charles V. and the most accomplished 
of all the Ottoman princes, conquered the greater part of Hungary, and 
in the east extended his sway to the Euphrates. At this period the Turk- 
ish empire was unquestionably the most powerful in the world. " If you 
consider," says the historian Knolles, who wrote about two centuries since, 
"its beginning, its progress, and uninterrupted success, there is nothing 
in the world more admirable and strange; if the greatness and lustre 
thereof, nothing more magnificent and glorious; if the power and strength 
thereof, nothing more dreadful and dangerous; which, wondering at no- 
thing but the beauty of itself, and drunk with the pleasant wine of per- 
petual felicity, holdeth all the rest of the world in scorn." Nor had this 
mighty power even then reached its greatest height. Solyman was suc- 

1 Volume II. Book XXIX. 


ceeded by other able princes; and the Ottoman arms continued to main- 
tain their ascendency over those of Christendom, until the famous John 
Sobieski, king of Poland, forced them to raise the siege of Vienna in 1683. 
This event marked the era of their decline. For a while they continued 
to oppose the Austrians and Hungarians with doubtful fortune and va- 
rious success; but the victories of Prince Eugene gave a decisive superi- 
ority to the Christians. The Crescent, instead of recovering its former 
lustre, fell like a star plucked from its plac*e in heaven. And the existence 
of the Ottoman empire for the last sixty or seventy years, has depended, 
not on its own strength, but on the mutual animosities and jealousies of 
the different European powers. 

When considered with attention, it does not seem difficult to discover 
the causes of these apparently anomalous and inexplicable results. The 
Turks, like their Tartar ancestors, are naturally a brave, patient, and 
hardy race. After their emigration from Scythia, they were long exposed 
to the greatest difficulties and privations. Pressed on all sides by the 
Mongols, Turkmans, Saracens, and Greeks, they could not maintain their 
footing in Asia Minor without waging incessant hostilities with their 
neighbours. They were thus early inured to habits of pillage and blood. 
And, after they embraced the Mahometan faith, they found in the law of 
the prophet, not a license only, but a command, to desolate the world, and 
to propagate their religion and empire by violence. The peculiar tenets 
and leading doctrines of the Koran, made a profound impression on the 
ferocious, ignorant, and superstitious minds of the Turks, who early be- 
came the most zealous apostles of a religion of which implicit faith and 
unconquerable energy are the vital principles. Their fanaticism knew no 
bounds. They literally believed that the sword was the key of heaven 
and hell, and that to fall fighting in defence of the true faith, was the most 
glorious of deaths, and was followed by the largest portion of eternal fe- 
licity. Firm and unshaken believers in the doctrine of predestination, 
assured that no caution could avert, and no dangers accelerate their in- 
evitable destiny, they met their enemies without fear or apprehension. 
All their animal and intellectual energies were thus made to converge, as 
it were, to a single point, and produced the most astonishing exertions. 
Tribute, slavery, and death to unbelievers, 'were the glad tidings of the 
Arabian prophet; and have been loudly proclaimed by his followers over 
half the Old World. The Ottomans did not, like the Crusaders, require 
an impulse from pontiffs or preachers to stimulate them to engage in the 
great work of conquest and conversion; the precept was in their law, the 
principle in their hearts, and the assurance of success in their swords! 

To such desperate energies, wielded by a succession of sultans distin- 
guished for various and consummate ability, the Greeks had nothing to 
oppose but dispirited troops, and generals destitute alike of courage and 
capacity. From the age of Justinian the Eastern Empire had been gradu- 
ally sinking. The emperors were alternately prodigal and avaricious, 
cruel, profligate, and imbecile. The people were a prey to all the evils 
of civil and ecclesiastical tyranny. Their bodies were emaciated by fast- 
ing; and their intellectual powers dissipated in theological controversies, 
alike futile and unintelligible. The total defeat of Bajazet, the great- 
grandson of Othman, afforded an opportunity which, had it been rightly 
improved, might have enabled the Greeks to expel the Turks from Europe. 
But the Greeks were totally incapable of profiting either by this or any 
other event: and the schism of the west, and the factions and wars of 
France, England, and Germany, deprived them of all foreign assistance, 
and enabled the Turks to repair their shattered fortunes, and again to be- 
come the terror and the scourge of Christendom. 

But the same cause to which the Turks principally owed their success, 
the intolerant bigotry and fanaticism of their religion, proved also the 


principal cause of their decline. It isolated them from the rest of Europe, 
and taught them to look down with contempt and aversion on the arts, 
sciences, and attainments of the infidel world. " There is," said they, 
" but one law, and that law forbids all communication with infidels." 
The more the surrounding nations have distinguished themselves by their 
advances in civilization and literature, the more determined have the mass 
of the Turkish people become to resist their example, to keep within the 
pale of their own faith, and to despise their progress. The fiery and im- 
petuous zeal by which they were distinguished in the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth centuries, has long since subsided; but had it continued to burn 
with undiminished force, it could no longer have rendered them really 
formidable. The invention of gunpowder, and the various improvements 
that have been made in the modern art of war, have opposed an invincible 
obstacle to the success of multitudes without discipline, and of courage 
without skill. That fanatical fervour, that contempt of danger, and that 
superiority of numbers and bodily strength, which formerly gave so decided 
a superiority to the Ottoman troops, could not enable them to contend with 
the science, the cool deliberate courage, the artillery, and tactics of the 
troops of Austria, or of Russia. The Turks have degenerated both in 
their civil and military institutions; but their present weakness is to be 
ascribed more to their not keeping pace with the progress of their neigh- 
bours, than to their positive decline. Haughty, confiding, and illiterate, 
they have experienced all the fatal consequences of ignorance without 
once suspecting its cause. Resolved to employ no other means than force, 
they sunk into despondency when force could no longer avail; and having 
now almost abandoned the hope of recovery, they present to their own 
astonishment. and the mockery of Europe, the umbra magni nominis the 
mighty shadow of unreal power: " We effected our conquests," said the 
Mufti to the Baron de Tott, " without any aid from European tactics, and 
we do not now stand in need of them- Our defeats are not the effects of 
human force; they are the chastisement of our crimes; the decree of hea- 
ven has reached us, and nothing can avert the wrath of Omnipotence!" 

The unmitigated despotism of the Sultans has been another cause of the 
rapid decline of the Turkish power. The Sultan is at the head/ of both 
church and state. He is universally regarded as the vicegerent of God, 
or rather of the Prophet; and the most unresisting and passive obedience 
to his word is inculcated as a primary religious duty. For awhile the 
extraordinary exaltation of the power of the Sultan was productive of no 
bad effects. The perilous circumstances under which the Turks were 
originally placed, and the difficulties and dangers with which they had to 
struggle, obliged their chiefs to exert all their faculties. Having to rule 
over bold and fanatical subjects to act as their generals in war and their 
legislators in peace it was necessary for them to practise the military 
and the peaceful virtues ; to inspire confidence by superior knowledge and 
resolution; attachment by kindly conduct; respect by dignity; emulation 
by discernment in the bestowing of rewards; and discipline and good 
order by a steady adherence to one uniform system. We do not say that 
nothing is to be ascribed to the personal character of the sovereign; but 
if we reflect, that except in a single instance, a period of nine reigns, and 
of two hundred and sixty-four years, is occupied from the elevation of 
Othman to that of Solyman, by a series of warlike and able princes/ it 
must be allowed that something more than chance, that the necessities of 
the times had produced this long line of able monarchs. No sooner, 
however, had the tide of Turkish conquest been stopped by the determined 
resistance of the Hungarians and Germans, and the administration of the 
provinces been reduced by Solyman into a defined and regular system; no 

r Gibbon, vol. XII. p. 57. 


sooner, in short, had the demand for great princes ceased, than the Otto- 
man monarchs sunk below the level of mediocrity. Instead of being edu- 
cated in the council or the field, the heirs of royalty, and of almost omni- 
potent power, were brought up in the slothful luxury of the palace. Shut 
up constantly in their Seraglios, ignorant of public affairs, benumbed by 
indolence, depraved by the flattery of women, eunuchs, and slaves, their 
minds contracted with their enjoyments, their inclinations were vilified by 
their habits, and their government grew as vicious, as corrupt, and as 
worthless as themselves. When the Sultans held the reigns of government 
in their own hands, their personal wishes led them to take a warm interest 
in the prosperity of their empire; but the moment they intrusted them to 
mercenary slaves, they separated their own from the public interests. 'In 
the first instance, the Sultans, guided by the necessity of affairs, employed 
only men of ability and experience, and the administration, even in the 
lowest departments, partook of the care and energy of the sovereign; but 
in the last, influenced by those mean and often base and unworthy affections 
which accompany human nature on a throne as well as in a cottage, they 
committed the administration to favourites without merit or experience; 
and the incapacity of the first mover pervaded and paralyzed the whole 
state machine. 8 

The vast extension of the Turkish empire was another cause of its de- 
cline. It multiplied the enemies, not the subjects, of. the state. To ani- 
mate all the various and discordant classes of people comprehended in its 
widely extended limits with the same spirit, and to give them one common 
interest, would have required an intimate acquaintance with the science 
of government, and the adoption of a liberal and enlarged system of policy. 
But to act in this manner, was utterly repugnant to the maxims of the 
Ottoman legislators. Submission to their power averted the stroke of 
death, but nothing short of embracing the religion of the Prophet could 
save the vanquished from extortion and slavery. ** The conquered peo- 
ple," says Mr. Thornton, "if they obstinately refused the offer of conver- 
sion, became, together with their possessions, their industry, and their 
children, virtually the property of their masters. Their substance, says the 
law, is as our substance, their eye as our eye, their life as our life. In such 
a state of subjection, their claim to justice and protection was little better 
than an empty sound, and their lives and fortunes were made subservient 
to the necessities of the state, and the interests of the superior and privi- 
leged class, who strove by every means, however rigorous and insulting 
to their feelings, to suppress, instead of exciting their energies, to debili- 
tate their minds to the level of slavery, and to insure their submission to 
the forms of government established by themselves."* 

."All the officers of government," says the same accurate and well in- 
formed writer, " owe their appointment to the sole favour of the Sultan, 
without respect to birth, talents, services, or experience. They are de- 
posed or punished without the liberty of complaint or remonstrance; and 
at their death, the Sultan inherits their property. Such is the constitu- 
tion of arbitrary power; but the immediate appointment must necessarily 
be confined within the narrow .circle of his personal acquaintance, which 
scarcely extends beyond the limits of the palace; the nomination to offices 
is consequently delegated to his ministers and favourites. It is a fact, of 
public notoriety, that governments of every description are openly sold at 
the Porte; they are held for the term of one year only, and at the ensuing. 
bairam, the leases must be renewed or transferred to a less parsimonious 
competitor. In the public registers, the precise value of every important 
post under government is recorded; and the regular remittance of the 

Volney's Considerations on the War with the Turks. 4 Present State of Turkey, 

vol. II. p. 60. 


taxes and tribute is the only acknowledged criterion of upright adminis- 
tration. If the stipulated revenue duly enters into the coffers of govern- 
ment, no inquiry is made whether it has been collected by harsh or by 
lenient measures, whether it has been extorted by tyranny and oppres- 
sion from a wretched and diminished population, or willingly contributed 
from the superabundance of private wealth, as a homage to virtuous ad- 
ministration. When the inhabitants of a city or province are dissatisfied 
with the Pacha, they present their complaints in a petition at the Porte; 
but unless they accompany it with a larger -sum than the Pacha finds it 
convenient to give for his appointment, they seldom succeed in their ap- 
plication for his removal. Contestations of this public nature, as well as 
those between private individuals, are determined, not by the evidence of 
facts, or the force of argument, but by the. specific quantity of gold which 
either party can produce in support of his cause."" 

When a Pacha thinks he can establish his independence by his wealth 
or his troops, he rebels, that is, he sends no remittances to the Porte ; 
and if the Sultan cannot subdue him by force, a sort of contest in cunning 
takes place between them, the Sultan trying to assassinate the Pacha, 
the latter to destroy the assassin. It is not uncommon for the Sultan to 
send an executioner with orders, that, in the event of his not being able 
to effect the destruction of the Pacha, he should load him with additional 
honours! By these means, suspicion is not unfrequently lulled asleep; and 
the Pacha is rendered an easier prey to that inextinguishable thirst for 
revenge which can never be appeased, except by the blood of those who 
have presumed to contemn the authority of the vicegerent of the Prophet. 

The licentiousness and want of discipline that prevails amongst the 
soldiery, is another cause of the low state of the Turkish power. The 
Janizaries, from their great services and reputation, their peculiar privi- 
leges, their being constantly near the person of the sovereign, and their 
union under one commander, were early inspired with high notions of 
their own importance; and from their station in the capital during the 
intervals of foreign war, they acquired a preponderating influence in do- 
mestic affairs. Their insolence and pretensions occasioned considerable 
uneasiness to the ablest Sultans during the zenith of their power; and 
sagacious observers had then remarked, that it was most probable, should 
the empire fall into feebler hands, that the Janizaries would perform the 
same part at Constantinople that the Pj*etorian bands had done at Rome. x 
This conjecture has been to a considerable extent verified. The disorders 
among the Janizaries have increased according as the ancient strictness 
and severity of their discipline has been relaxed; and they have repeatedly 
insulted the majesty of the throne, and even imbrued their hands in the 
blood of their monarchs. 

The Sultans seem to have been aware, for a considerable period, that 
the inferiority of their troops to those of the European nations with whom 
they have had to contend, has resulted chiefly from the inferiprity of their 
tactics, and the laxity of their discipline; and several vigorous efforts have 
been made to introduce the warlike system of the Europeans, and^to reform 
or abolish the Janizaries. But difficulties, that seem to be insuperable, 
oppose all such projects. Thle Turkish government is founded entirely 
on the principles and dogmas of the Mahometan religion. It contains 
within itself no principle of improvement; and cannot be easily accom- 
modated to any species of reform. The Sultan, and some of the principal 
officers of his court, may become sensible of the necessity of changing 
the organization and discipline of the army, and of reforming some of the 
abuses that paralyze all the energies of government; but their efforts to 
accomplish such objects can hardly fail to appear to the great majority of 

u Present State of Turkey, pp. 162 and 185. * Robertson's Charles V. vol. 1. p. 475. 


their subjects, as unhallowed attempts to subvert principles established 
by ancient usage, in conformity with the unalterable precepts of the Koran; 
and it is difficult to suppose how, under such circumstances, they can be 
successful. We therefore have very little expectation that the attempts 
of the present Sultan to remodel the military force of the empire will have 
any better fate than those of his predecessors, Mustapha, Selim, Sec., who 
paid with their lives the forfeit of their rashness, in presuming to inter- 
fere with institutions sanctioned by the will of the Prophet! We are not 
in possession of any accounts that can be relied on concerning the events 
that have lately taken place relative to the suppression of the Janizaries. 
But with such a mass of deep-rooted religious prejudices to encounter, 
we should be sanguine indeed, if we supposed that any considerable re- 
form could take place, without the intervention of such a revolution as 
would change the whole constitution, and, perhaps, even the religion of 
the empire. So long as the Turkish government continues to exist on its 
present footing, so long will the Pachas continue, as they have [hitherto 
done, to pillage and waste the provinces. The Sultan will in his turn 
strangle, and then plunder the Pachas. The Turks will be exclusively 
actuated by pride and fanaticism, their vassals by hatred and revenge. 
Their generals will oppose brute force to science and military skill; and 
every abuse will be aggravated until this incoherent fabric of despotism 
and superstition fall a sacrifice to intestine commotion or foreign aggres- 


The Divisions of European Turkey according to Hadgi-Khalfa and Hisar- 
Fenn, compared with those of Ricaut and Marsi 


I. Ejalet Roumili. (Country of the Romans.)* 

Istambol and Edrenih Thrace or Romania. Istambol, (Constanti- 
capitals.* nople.) 

Edrenih (Adria- 

1. Wisa. Idem, eastern part. Wisa. 

2. Kirkkilissa. Idem, id. Kirkkilissa. 


3. Silistra. Bulgaria, Dobrudscha, Silistra. 

&c. Brailow. 


T The vizier, pacha, and beylerbey of Romelia, who enjoys the title of Roumily-Valicy, 
or lieutenant of the Sultan in Romelia, holds commonly his court at Sophia. He has 
lately chosen Monastir or Bitolia for his head-quarters against the Greeks. Schumla was 
selected for the same purpose against the northern powers. He may fix his residence in 
any part of his dominions. 

* Sandjak or Sangiac, means literally a banner. The office of pacha is not limited by 
special functions; hence the uncertainty of the limits of the pachaliks, which vary ac- 
cording to their military force. 

Places of administration without any other sangiac or banner than that of the Sultan. 



4. Nicopoli. 

5. Widin. 

6. Sofia. 

7. Tschirmen. 

8. Kostendil. 

9. Uskub. 
10. Salonik. 

11. Tirhala. 

12. Janina. c 

13. Delonia. 
14* Aulona. d 

15. Ochrida. 

16. Ilbessan. 

'til | j">> * Jf *i ' 

\7. Iskendria. 

18. Dukagin. 

19. Perserin. 

20. Veldschterin. 

21. Aladschahissar; 

22. Semendra. 

Central Bulgaria. 

Western Bulgaria. 
South of Bulgaria and 
Western Thrace. 

Thrace, northern part, 
Macedonia, north-east. 

Idem, north-west. 
Idem, centre.* 



Idem, and part of 
middle Albania. 

Inland Macedonia. 

Central Albania. 
Upper Albania. 

:4< '! ','* *; >- 
Upper Albania. 


Upper Servia, west. 

Idem, east. 
Lower Servia. 




Filibe (Philippopo- 


Nischa (Nissa.) 






Sirus (Serres.) 

lenischer (Larissa.) 
Janina Narda (Arta.) 
Delonia (Delvino.) 


Berat (Arnaouth 



Alescho. e 

Iskenderia (Scutari, 

Olgun (Dulcigno.) 

Bar (Antivari.) 

Ipak. (Pekia.) f 
Perserin (Ppisrendi.) 


Nova Berda. 


* The districts of Monastir or Bitolia, Kesria, (Castorca) Servidche, Ostrova, and some 
others included in the sangiac or government of Salonik and Ochri, are dependencies of 
the sangiac of the Captain Pacha. It is impossible to reconcile the accounts of the Turki 
ish geographers with the existence of the sandjak of Roumily-Valicy. 

c The Sandjac of Karli-lli, (Acarnania) although marked by Hadgi-Khalfa, appears to 
have been abolished. 

* Mouchtar, son of Ali-Pacha, although only bey of Musachi, a district in which Berat 
is the chief town, obtained the title of Beylerbey, and ruled over the whole government. 
Ibrahim, his father-in-law, was prisoner in the hands of Ali; but the systems of the Turk- 
ish geographers need not be changed on account of these temporary usurpations. 

* The district of the Mirdites is in reality a dependence of Ochrida, and not of Ilbessan, 
or Elbessan; but so long as Ali lived, he obtained troops from the district. 

f The northern limits of these governments are not known. 


23. Banyaluka. 

24. Trawnik. 

25. Srebernik. 

26. Iswornik. 

27. lenibazar. 

28. Hersck. 


29. Tripolitza. 

30. Mistra. 

II. EjaletBosna. (Country of Bosnia.) 

Turkish Croatia. 

Central Bosnia. 
Western Bosnia. 
Bosnia, north-east. 

Turkish Dalmatia. 


Iswornik (Zwornik.) 
lenibazar (Novi-Ba- 



Ejalet Morah. (Country of the Morea.) 

Peloponnesus, centre, Tripolitza. 
north and east. Anaboli (Napoli di 


Laconia and Messenia. Misitra. 

IV. Ejalet Dschesair. (Country of the Islands and Coasts.) 

31. Galiboli. 

32. Egribos. 

33. Ainabacht. 

34. Midillii. 

a. II Midillii. 

b. Muskonisu 

c. Taschos. 

d. Samadrek. 

e. Imrus. 

f. Lymia. 

g. Skopelo. 
h. Schkiri. 

Southern Thrace. 

Euboea, Beotia, 
Phocis, 8cc. 
Western Hellade. 

Mitylene, Sec. 

Lesbos or Mitylene. 







Galliboli (Gallipoli.) 
Rodostchik (Rodos- 

Isdin (Zeitun.)* 
Istifa (Thebes.) 
Atina. 1 

Ainabachti (Lipanto.) 

Midillii (Castro.) 

Same name. 

Same name. 

B It is very difficult to fix the limits of the governments or sandgiacats in Bosnia. 
Hadgi-Khalfa mentions besides, Klis and Kirka, but these include Austrian Dalmatia. The 
Sangiacs are pachas in partibus injidelium. The beylerbey of Bosnia retains the title of 
beylerbey of Buda in Hungary. 

M. Desfoss^s marks the divisions, or rather classifies the functionaries, in the following 
manner: 1st, the beylerbey residing at Trawnik: 2nd and 3d, two pachas residing near 
him, but who are not attached to any sangiacat; 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th, the pachas com- 
manding the sangiacats of Banyaluka, Strebernitza, Jeni-Bazar, and Trebigni (Hersek.) 
The last four appointments are at the disposal of the beylerbey; 8th and 9th, the pachas 
nominated by the Porte over Posavina or Iswornik and Klissa, now transferred to Scopia. 
If Desfosse"s be compared with Hadgi-Khalfa, it will be found that they agree as to the 
number of sangiacs, with the exception of two, those over Trawnik and Kirka, but pro- 
bably the two pachas residing at Trawnik may claim the rank without holding the title 
of sangiacs. The geographical divisions depend on the number of these governors. 

1 Athens was a fief attached to the office of chief of the eunuchs, and under the military 
protection of the sangiac of Egribos. 





Northern Cyclades. 

a. Andra. 



b. Istendil. 


St. Nicolo. 

c. Mykoni. 


Same name. 

d. Ilegi. 


e. Syra. 

Same name. 


f. Thermia. 

Same name. 

Same name. 

g. Morted. 

Ceos or Zia. 


h. Djamlidsi. 





Southern Cyclades. 

a. Nakscha. 



b. Bara. 



c. Amorgo. 



d. Istampolia. 


P. St. Andrew. 

e. Nanfi. 


f. Dgirmenlik. 

Santo rini. 



g. Nio, 



h. Sikino. 


i. Polikandro. 



k. Milo. 



1. Kimoli. 



m. Siphno. 


n. Serf. 


V. Ejalet 

Kirid or Kandia. (Country 

of Crete.) 



The centre and east. 




The west. 








I. Wallachia. 


Subdivisions into Zinutz. Towns. 

(Wallachian names.) 


a. Great Wallachia. 

"Ilfowul. . 




Zara of Schoss. 













Zara of Suss. 







Kurte of Ardschisch. 

s Oltul. 


'Dolschi, or Schiul 

of Schoss. * 


b. Little Walla- 



chia. < 



Gorzy, or Schiul of. 



Dolschi and Gorzy are evidently Slavonic words; the first is derived from do/, a valley^ 



II. Moldavia. 

l.Zara of Schoss. 

2. Zara of Suss. 



Same name. 


Same name. 




Same name. 

Same name. 

















. ' Kingdom of Servia in the eleventh century. 

Servia Proper, on the Danube. Dutchy of Mazovia in 1271. 
Romania, or eastern Servia. 

Rascia. "| ("County of Chelm or Zachlumia in the 

Dioclea. ! thirteenth century. 

Terbunia. | ] Dutchy of St. Saba,in the fifteenth century. 

Zachlumia.J LHertzegovina, or Turkish Hersek. 

A small part of Dalmatia. 

Kingdom of Bosnia, thirteenth century. 

Province of Czernik. 

- Moclritza. i 

- Ussora. | Sangiac of Banyalouka. 

- Krakowo. J 

- High Sala. 1 

- Low Sala. i- Sangiac t)f Bosna-Serai,(Trawnik) and Sre- 

- Varosch. J bernik. 

- Posavina. Sangiac of Swornik. 

- PodrhTa \ 


the south - east of Bosna-Serai. 


Seigniory of Chulm, (Zachlumia Proper. See above.) 
-- Banno. 

- Clinovo (Captaincy of Hliuno or Livno, Hertzegovina.) 
-- Cettina, (in Austrian Dalmatia.) 

- Gliubuski, (Captaincy of Laubouchka, in Hertzegovina.) 

- Nevesik, (Captaincy of Nevesign, Idem.) 

- Narentva,(Mostar.) 
-- Verbosania. 
-- Gliubina., s 

- Rudina. 

- Trebigna. (Terbunia, see above. Captaincy of the same 


the second from gora, a mountain. Suss in Wallachian corresponds with the sursum of 
the Latins. Schoss (sub) is a root common to the Wullachian, Slavonic and Gothic. 


Table of the Divisions of the Morea according to M. Pouqueville. 1 

Ancient Divisions. 

Modern Districts. 


Value of Agri- 
cultural produce 
in 1814. 


Corinthia, Syconia, 

Epidauria, See. 




Western Argolis. 




Eastern Argolis, Tre- 

zinia, Hermione. 





San Petro. 



Central Laconia. 




Laconia, eastern coast. 




Laconia, south-west, m 

Country of Magna. 























302, 30Q 

Triphylia, Sec. 





Gastouni. 11 



Western Achaia. 




Eastern Achaia. 
Arcadia, north. 


25 > 


Arcadia, east. 




Id. west and centre. 




Id. south-west. 






Table of the Population in European Turkey according to M. Hassel, (1823.) 


German For each German 

Square Miles, p Inhabitants. Square Mile, 

Roum Hi, 4776 5,543,000 1160 

Bosna, 1062 560,000'i 527 

Morah, 402 790,000 r 1963 

Dschesair, 1079 907,000 840 

i Tome 1H. p. 491494; tome V. p. 2326, 176. 

* M. Pouqueville compares the country of Magna with Eleuthero-Laconia; but that 
division comprehended all the towns of the Peri&ci (circum-habitantes,) who, during the 
war of the Romans against the Spartans, joined the former, and, as a reward for their revolt, 
were declared independent of Sparta. These towns, twenty-four in number, at the time 
that Augustus made them free, were situated round the sea-coasts of Laconia, and not ex- 
clusively on Mount Taygetus. 

n Tala, a village inhabited by a horde of Albanian banditti, has been taken by the Greeks; 
it is included in the villages of Gastouni. 

The taxes and contributions levied in the Morea amount to 12,808,045 piasters; of 
that sum four millions are set apart for the vizier and a two-tailed pacha at Naupli. 

P The German mile varies in different countries, and in different parts of the Austrian 
empire; it is in some places equal to four English miles; on that supposition, the German 
square mile is equal to sixteen English square miles; but in other places it amounts only 
to 3-|-$English miles, and the square mile is therefore equal to ll-f-1-9 English square miles. 

1 M. Liechtenstein calculates the population at 900,000 individuals, of whom two-thirds 
are of Slavonic origin. 

r The Morea, since it has shaken off the yoke, has become a place of refuge for the 
Macedonian Greeks. The numbers, however, may be overrated. 
VOL. IV. -U 


German For each German 

Square Miles. Inhabitants. Square Mile. 

(European part.) 

Kirid, 188 270,000 1436 

Wallachia and 

Moldavia, 2100 1,400,000 666 

9607 9,470,000 6592 

a. Primitive Inhabitants. 

Hellenes, - 3,090,000 

Slaves, - 1,440,090 s 

Arnauts, 460,000* 

Wallachians, - - 1,375,000 

b. Foreigners. 

Osmanlis, or Turks, - 2,350,000 

Tartars, 275,000 

Abadiotes, 4,000 

Armenians, 85,000 

Jews, - 312,000 

Zigeunes or Gipsies, - 80,000 U 

Franks, - 5,000 

3, 1 1 1,000 


Mussulmans, - 2,889,000 

Greek Christians, n , T - 5,880,000 

Catholics', 310,000 

Armenians, 85,000 

Jews, - 312,000 


Hellenes. Osmanlis. 

Roum, 1,640,000 1,806,000 

Bosna, 157,000 

Morah, 710,000 50,000 

Dschesair, (Europe,) 600,000 200,000 

Kirid 141,600 124,000 

Wallachia and Moldavia, 5,000 

Table of the Ottoman armies according to M. Hammer. x 

Infantry 100,000 men, namely, 

lenidescheri, (Janizaries, two hundred ordas,) 80,600 

I believe that M. Hassel and his guides have estimated the inhabitants of Bosnia and 
Servia too low by a half; and it is likely that the^Slavonic population, (including the Wal- 
lachians or Bulgaro-Slavo Wallachians of Pinclus*) is at least equal to two millions. 

1 The number of Arnauts or Albanians cannot be less than 700,000. 

The above estimate is too low by more than a third. The Gipsies are thickly scattered 
on Mount Hemus and Scardus. 

x M. Hammer mentions only the number of troops paid and maintained by the Porte 5 to 


Dgebedgis, (armourers,) 6,000 

TopdscMs, (matrosses,) 10,000 

Top-Arabadschi in the train of artillery, - 3,000 

Koumbaradschi, (bombardiers,) 600 

Lagoumdschi, (miners,) 400 

* Nisaml Dgedid, regular new troops, (lately suppressed) 

Regular cavalry, 24,000, namely, 

Sipahis, horsemen, y efflo 't 1 1,000 

Silihdars, horse police, 1 1,000 

Ouloufedschiani, mercenaries, 1,000 

Gouroubai, foreigners, 1,000 

Irregular feudal cavalry, 100,000. 

Standing army in time of peace, 79,500.*" 


(i':.?> ./. ?.', ::'Vl > i:-iv;**'f r. **;'" '.'"' f ;j * '/" ''-M ^ '. - f v - 


Description of Europe continued. Hungary and its appendages; physical 

geography, fyc. 

WE pass from the soil of barbarism and the crescent, to a , 

. , . . . . . , , , *J. . I Introduction. ' 

country whose inhabitants participate in the blessings ot Chris- ' 
tianity and European civilization. Different nations are united in Hungary 
round the ancient cross of St. Stephen, the Magiars came thither on 
their swift horses, from the banks of the Wolga, the Slowak descended 
from the Carpathian mountains, or Norican Alps, the Germans and Wal- 
lachian shepherds advanced along the Danube; all of European origin, 
although distinguished by their national and picturesque costumes, all 
Christians,although differing from each other in their rites and observances. 
Transylvania is governed by independent laws, and composed of the same 
civil and religious elements; they cannot, therefore, be considered apart. 
Croatia and Dalmatia, it is true, belong to a different physical section, but 
in a science so much connected with history as geography, systematic 
arrangements must give place to common divisions, and small portions 
of land must be annexed to great masses, in a way best adapted to assist the 
memory of the reader. It is necessary for these reasons to include in one and 
the same description, the Carpathian or Krapack mountains that surround 
the vast plain which forms the principal part of Hungary, and in which 
the Danube appears to stand still in the midst of its course, Transylvania, 
that comprehends three great vallies, on the east of that plain, between 
the branches of the Carpathian range, Slavonia on the west, between the 
Drave and the Save, Croatia, which is still more remote, and joins the 
extremities of the Julian Alps, and lastly, Dalmatia, that descends to the 
shores of the Adriatic. Some account shall'be first given of the physical 
geography of these provinces. 

The Carpathian range extends along a semicircular line of Mountains 
200 leagues; it does not form a chain, but rather a table-land ' 

his table ought to be added the forces which each pacha and several provinces support. 
Thus, the vizier of Egypt, if his Negro and Arab regiments be included, has an army of 
30,000 soldiers. 

* Servia must furnish 12,000 men. Bosnia has its provincial troops. 

y M, de Hammer, Etat de 1'Empire Turc, II. p. 273. 


crowned with isolated groups, connected in many parts by small chains, 
and bounded on the north-west and south-east by a numlter of mountains." 
car athian i Those on the norih-west are the Carpathian Proper, or 6V- 
Projcr. I pack, the others on the south-east are the same as the Bastar- 

nian or Dacian Alps. If the narrative of M. Beudant, a distinguished 
French geologist, be combined with the remarks of M. Kitaibel, a Hunga- 
rian botanist," several groups, chains, and detached hills, not unlike fore- 
lands, may be discovered in the first section. 

. The group of Tatra is more elevated than any of the rest; its 
I summits reach to the height of 8,000 feet; it extends from east 
to west, and rises abruptly on the east above the plains of Kesmark, and 
the sandy mountains that separate Hungary from eastern Galicia. It is 
situated between the Poprad, which rises in the south, and turns suddenly 
to the north, the Dunojec, that takes its source in the north, and the Waag 
and the Arva, that separate it on the south and the west from the neigh- 
bouring mountains. Two groups to the north-west of the last, form the 
natural limits between Hungary, Galicia and Moravia. One of them, the 
Baszkid, rises between the rivers Arva, Waag, Klszucza, and the sources 
of the Vistula; the other, or the lavornik,* passes in a south-west direction 
from the Kiszucza to Presburg; they are separated from each other by 
the defiles of Jablunka. 

All the mountains abounding in mines, from the Waag or Vag to the 
vicinity of Kaschau, are termed in Hungary the Fatra; but the same 
name is applied to the mountain of Koenigsberg and its continuations, and 
to two others, the great Fatra on the confines of Thurocz and Liptau, and 
the little Fatra in the county of Arva. It might be better if the districts 
and mountains were marked by geographical limits. A small chain ex- 
tends in the direction of north-east to south-west from Predmir to Frey- 
stadt, and is enclosed by the. Vag, the Nyitra and the Thurocz. Another 
range parallel to the last, rises between the Nyitra and the Gran, com- 
mences at Nyitra, and terminates at Kremnitz; it consists of three small 
groups, of which the .Klak is the most remarkable. The chain, strictly 
The Fatra 1 termec ^ tne Fatra, is situated between Rosenberg and Neusohl. 
' A range extending from west to east from Prossiva to Kralova- 
hora in a direction parallel to the Tatra, between the Vag and the Gran, 
has been called the Alps of Liptau by the German inhabitants. It appears 
Alps of Lip- i to be connected with a number of mountains between the Sajo 
tau. I an( j tne Hernat, which flow in the plains of Leutchau. Many 

mountains, that make up so great a number of detached groups as to 
render every attempt to classify them very difficult, are situated in the 
south, on the left of the Gran, and terminate at the banks of the Sajo and 
the Ipoii, which run in contrary directions, the one to the east, the other 
to the west. M. Beudant mentions some of them. " Mount Polanaberg 
is the centre of the first, another is attached to Mount Fepor* a third is en- 
closed by the Rima, the Sajo, and eastern part of the Gran; a fourth rises 
between the higher banks of the Sajo, the Hernat and the Bodva; a fifth 
between the lower Sajo and the Bodva." It must be a hard task to recollect 
all these divisions, more particularly as the geologist has not thought it 
necessary to name one of thqm, The Szisna, or the sixth, corresponds with 
"the group of Schemnitz between the Gran, the Szlatina and Krupina. A 
Oslroky is the centre of the seventh, between the Krupina and the Ipolyj 

"Voyage en Hongrie par Ueudant, torn. I. p. 21 26. The carte geognostique in the 
atlas, by the same author, is a valuable addition to the work. 

b Topographical description of Hungary. Prefixed to the work Comitis Waldstein, &c. 
et Pauli Kietaibel, M. D. Uescriptiones et Icones plantarum rariorum Hungariw, Vol. 1. 
Vienna, 1802. 

c See the maps of Lipsky and Liechtenstein. 

d Hassel, volst. Handbuch. vol. II. p. 492. 


there the districts on the south of the Ipoly and the Sajo, are lower, and 
several hills, none of which are very high, may be observed on the large 
vallies watered by these rivers. Other hills, on the left of the Ipoly, where 
it winds from west to south, before it joins the Danube, terminate at Na-> 
gyszal, which commands the town of Waitzen. A group, of which the 
mountains of Cserhal and Karancs are a part, is situated between the Ipoly 
and Zagyva, and extends to the right of the Rima and the Sajo. The Ma- 
tra is detached from all of them, and rises suddenly to a great height above 
the plain bounded by the Zagyva and the Tarna. The small mountainous 
district between the Tarna and the Sajo, has been called Osztra or Buk- 

"An extensive and distinct group," says M. Beudant, | Hegy Allya 
extends in the direction of north to south, from Eperies to ' 
Tokay, between the Hernat, the Topla and the Bodrog, and is encompass' 
ed on every side by vast plains." We have found, by referring to the map, 
that the author means what might be more correctly termed a chain than- 
a group, the Hegy-*ftllya or lower mountains, the southern sides of which 
are covered with the finest vines in Europe. Fekety-Hegy is higher than. 
any of the rest, and the hills of Tokay form the south-east extremity. A 
detached group, that of Vihorlet, rises on the plains, to the north of the 
Hegy-Allya, in front of the sandy mountains or limits of eastern Galicia, 
and is surrounded by the Laborcza and the Ungh. 

It is difficult to determine whether or not the Carpathian Lowering ef 
range is separated from the Transylvanian Alps, or if Hungary the earp & athi- 
is bounded on the north-east by a low ridge above Galicia; but ' 
historical and political considerations of the highest importance depend on 
the solution of that problem in phj^ical geography. If Hungary is of easy 
access on that side, the Goths, (particularly the Visigoths,) the Sarma- 
tians and the Huns might have penetrated by this way, as well as by others 
into Europe. The Rousniacs might, in like manner, have migrated to 
Hungary, and the Magiar obtained an easy entrance into his new posses- 
sions. If the Carpathian mountains are so low, where is the bulwark of 
the Austrian empire? The numerous armies of Russia cannot be confined 
by imaginary Alps. It may be worth while to examine the statements 
of two ocular and contradictory witnesses. 

"The sandy hills, or the limits of eastern Galicia, form a opinion of M. 


sort of talus or regular declivity from one extremity to the 
other, but they are broken by low and gradually sloping ridges, which 
in many places may be confounded with the plains. The peaks and rocks 
that rise from the sand in different parts of the range, indicate a conti- 
nuation of the Transylvanian Alps on one side, and the heights of Tatra 
on the other. The two great masses of mountains in Hungary and Tran- 
sylvania, may be compared to two citadels at the entrance of an immense 
gulf. The hills on the north-east between them are much lower, their 
greatest height not being equal to half the elevation of the others; their 
summits are rounded, they are not difficult of ascent; almost all of them 
are composed of fine sand, more or less consolidated. The opening be- 
twixt the lofty mountains, by which the plains of Hungary might have at 
one time communicated with those of Poland, has for many ages been 
blocked by alluvial and arenaceous deposits. " f 

" The Tatra mountains are comparatively low on the east- t opinion of M, 
ern side, near the valley by which the Poprad descends into ' Kiuubei. 
Galicia." The same author describes in a different part of his work, the 
mountains on the north-east in the counties of Ungh, Beregh and Marma- 
rosch. "They extend eastward from the river of Latorcza, intersect in 
different directions the district of Marmarosch, and like others in Beregh, 

e J3uk, a beach, and Hegy, a hill or mountain. f Beudant, Voyage en Hongrie, p. 23. 


are little lower than the Alps. The mountains of Bersava or Polonyina 1 
tower above the rest. The traveller, who wishes to observe the connexion 
between the different groups, must ascend Mount Cutlin, which is not far 
from Kapnyk-Banya> and from its top the view is most extensive. I ob- 
served distinctly all the mountains in Marmarosch, but those which mark 
the boundaries of Galicia and Bukowine appeared to me still more ele- 
vated. The mountains of Pop-Ivan, Farky, Czerna-JHora, Homrel, Qusky 
and Pietrosa, are as lofty as the heights of Tatra; but they are not so steep, 
nor covered with so many bare and huge rocks; they rest on a broader 
base, their summits are not so sharp or pointed."* 

It is not easy to reconcile these varying testimonies. The measure- 
ment of the Snizny-Kamen by Wahlenberg, is by no means a proof that 
the sinking is general; and the height of the Pietrosa, (if it be accurately 
measured,) tends to confirm the opposite opinion. M. Beudant, in his zeal 
to correct the errors of geographers, may have fallen into others of a dif- 
ferent kind, and the depression of the Carpathian ridge may not extend 
beyond the counties of Saros and Zemplin ; it rises to the east of these dis- 
tricts, and although perhaps less elevated than the Tatra range, forms an 
uninterrupted continuation of the Transylvanian Alps. 
Tran iva I ^ ne mounta i ns m Transylvania consist of well-marked chains 
nianmoun- near different groups, that cannot be so easily defined. A great 
' number are situated at the eastern extremity, and from them, 
the Maros, the Kukullo, the Aluta, the Szasmos, the Moldavian Bisztritz, 
and the Moldava, derive their source. The elevation of the hills is not in ge- 
neral proportionate to their breadth. A detached chain extends westwards, 
near the Szamos and the Theiss, in that part of the country where the fron- 
tiers of Hungary, Transylvania, and Bukowine meet; its summits are lofty, 
and probably none of them more so than the Rosaly.. Another and a great- 
er chain, divided by the Aluta, bounds Transylvania and Wallachia; the 
highest mountains are perhaps situated in this range; they have not how- 
ever, as yet, been measured with sufficient accuracy; the western extremity 
Mountains of i or tn e mountains of the Bannat, are apparently connected by 
theBannat I steep rocks, which impede the course of the Danube to the 
base of the heights in Servia. 

Such are the summits that form an irregular curve on the eastern and 
southern frontiers of Transylvania; the central districts are lower ; almost 
all the rocks in that part of the country are arenaceous, and rich in salt 
mines ; the rivers that descend from them roll fragments of gold. The 
ridge, intersected by several small chains, risd^ to a considerable height 
intermediate i above Lower Hungary, and forms ort the west two mountain- 
mountains. I ous ranges. The first is situated near the western branch of 
the Szasmos, the sources of the Kraszna, the Bereltyo, and the Rapid 
Kcerces; it includes the Bihary-Hegy, the Czaf^ the Vaskho, and many 
other distinct groups. The second extends between the Maros on the 
south, and the Aranyos on the north; the White Kocroes rises from it; the 
principal mountains are the Gaina, and the Kladowu, and it terminates at 
the Villages; but the country that separates Transylvania and Lower Hun- 
gary, is imperfectly known; Kitaibel compares it to the Carpathian dis- 

Western i Two branches of the Styrian Alps penetrate into Hungary 
mountain*. 1 on tne W est; the one in the direction of the north-west com- 
prehends the Bakony mountains on the north of Lake Balaton, and ends at 
Mount Pilicz near the Gran ; the other follows the course of the Drave to- 
wards the south-east, is almost lost on the plain of Slavonia, rises in Syr- 
mia, and forms the picturesque hills of Fruska-Gora. 

The Julian Alps commence in Carniola, intersect Hungarian Dalmatia 

Kitaibel, p. 48. 


and Croatia towards Venetian Dalmatia, and join the Albano-Dalmatian 
chain, a branch of Mount Hemus. 

Hungary contains two of the greatest plains in Europe; the , plaing 
one about forty leagues in length, and twenty-five in breadth, ' 
includes that part of western Hungary, bounded by the Austrian mountains 
on the west, those in the county of Nertia on the north, and the Bakony 
on the south-east; the other is about a hundred and twenty leagues long, 
and eighty broad; it forms lower Hungary, and a great part of it is a sa- 
line and sandy desert, limited by the Danube, the Theiss and immense 
marshes. The level of the low plain is not more than 140 feet above that 
of the sea; the other is supposed to be 31 feet higher, but it rises almost 
imperceptibly towards the countries which surround it, and is not subject 
like the former to oppressive and scorching heat. The greater plain may 
be compared to an African region; the eye is fatigued by a vast and un- 
varying horizon; the mirage produced by a burning sun mocks with its 
phantastic illusions the traveller, who is sometimes enveloped in total dark- 
ness by dense and noxious mists; he may hear the lowing of cattle, 
grope for the hut of the shepherd, or wander among reeds and marshes. 

The largest lakes in Hungary are the Balaton, h and the Lafe 
Neusiedel; i the first is situated between Szala and Sumegh; ' 
its greatest extent is about 48 miles from south-west to north-east, and its 
greatest breadth about nine miles, but in many places it is much narrower, 
and in some not more than two: it is almost blocked near its north-east 
extremity by a hilly peninsula which stretches out to the distance of a 
league beyond its banks. The surface of the Balaton and the surrounding 
marshes is not less than 24 German square miles, or 384 English square 
miles; its principal feeder is the Szala, but all the water it receives ap- 
pears inconsiderable relatively to its superficial extent, and the quantity 
lost in evaporation. Thus there is no outlet for the lake; the Sio, which 
seems to issue from it, and enters the Danube, is in reality a marsh com- 
municating with the southern bank, nor does it become a river until it 
receives the streams from the eastern mountains in the district of Sumegh. 

The lake of Neusiedel lies between the counties of Adem- Lake of Neu- 
burg and Wieselburg; it is about seventeen miles and a half in ' aiedel - 
length from north to south, and although very narrow at the centre, it is 
more than seven in breadth near the two extremities; it is contiguous on 
the south to large marshes that extend eastwards, and after being increased 
with many streams, flow into the Raab. The evaporation at the surface 
of the lake and marshes is perhaps nearly equal td the additions which 
they gain from different streams; at all events, the Raab is not so great a 
river as might be supposed from the number of its feeders. The water 
in the lake is medicinal, and contains in solution sulphate of soda. 

The lake of Neusiedel is not the same as the Peiso of Pliny, the Pelso 
of Aurelius Victor, or the Pelsodes of Jornandes, in Pannonia Prima. The 
Emperor Galerius, it is said, partially drained the Peiso, and obtained, 
by cutting a canal between it and the Danube, a considerable tract offer- 
tile land. No information relative to the position of the Neusiedel is to 
be found in the table of Peutinger, in the itineraries, or any ancient geo- 
graphical work. A river called Ferto is mentioned in an act passed in 
1339, and in another act, dated nearly about the same year, notice is taken 
of certain villages in the land now covered by the lake, and in its imme- 
diate vicinity; It is not unlikely from these facts, and others of the same 
kind, that it began to be formed in the tenth or eleventh century by the stag- 
nation of river water, and by repeated inundations, for which there was no 
outlet. k The land in the neighbourhood of Neusiedel sunk in 1725, and 

h The Hungarian name is Balaton~Tava, the German, Platt 'en-Sec. 

i Fcrta-Tava in Hungarian. 

k Bredetzky, Beytrscge Zur Topographic, &c. Vol. 111. Artie. II. 


it has been affirmed that the water was not so salt or brackish before that 
time; it appeared in a state of ebullition after an earthquake in 1763. 1 If 
the above hypothesis be correct, the site of the Pelso must be sought in a 
different part of the country. It has been stated by some writers that the 
traces of it may still be discovered between St. George and Landsitz; 
others, and their opinion is at least more probable, consider it the same 
as the Balaton, of which not more than a very small portion has been 
drained, and on that portion the marks of ancient and modern labour are 
discernible; besides, it cannot be supposed that the ancients were ignorant 
of so great a lake, neither can it be confounded with the Ulkea of Dion 
Cassius or the Hiulkas of Zozimus. m 

It is not easy to distinguish the other lakes from the marshes that sur- 
round them ; such is the Palics near Theresienstadt; " its depth is not less 
than 18 feet, and its hard and solid bed is covered with a layer of alkaline 
salt." Many others in the midst of the plain, although marked on the map, 
are only morasses, the most of them are dry in summer. 
Manheo I Although the word sea in Hungarian is of Turkish impor- 

tation, the language abounds in vocables that denote different 
kinds of marshes; if the surface of any is covered with a floating bed of 
aquatic plants, it is termed a lap, and those of which the lutulent soil is 
favourable to the growth of rushes and reeds are called motsars.* 
Their extent I ^ he marsnes * n Hungary are very large; the most extensive 

' are situated near the middle of the large plain, on the banks of 
the Theiss and the Danube, and in the wide vallies watered by the Save and 
the Drave. The Baron of Liechtenstein considers the country rendered 
useless by the marshes not less than 300 square leagues, or 108 square 
German miles, or 1,732,800 English acres; his calculation, it has been 
since ascertained, is incorrect; the superficial extent is greater. Besides, 
as the banks of several rivers are very low, many parts of the vallies are 
covered after inundations with stagnant water. The inhabitants are 
anxious to diminish the number of marshes; it might be the means of ob- 
taining not only an immense accession of rich land, but of protecting them 
against the noxious miasms so common in many districts where scurvy 
and intermittent fevers are prevailing diseases. The country subject to 
these malignant influences is greater than 300 square leagues, but more 
than 15,000 square leagues, or 135,000 square miles, remain in the Hun- 
garian states, and there the climate is as salubrious as that of Germany 
or France. ...*r 

Rivers, the i The Danube,* the second river in Europe, passes into Hun- 

gary at the burgh of Deven, immediately after it is joined by the 

Danube. I 

March or Morave; it is crowded with islands below Presburg, and divides 
itself into three branches, of which the greatest flows in an east south-east 
direction; the second and third form two large islands, and the second 
having received from the south the waters of the Laita and the Raab, 
unites with the first; the third, increased by the streams of the Waag, 
falls into the main channel at Komorn. More than a hundred eddies have 
been counted on the Vag or Waag within the distance of thirty-six miles. 
The Danube flows eastwards from the town of Raab, receives on the left the 
waters of the Ipoly and the Gran, and becomes narrower as it approaches 
the mountains between which it passes beyond Esztergom ; it makes se- 
veral sinuations round the rocks, reaches the burgh of Vartz, where it 
turns abruptly towards the south, and waters the base of the hills of St. An- 
drew and Buda. Its declivity from Ingoldstadt to Buda is not more than 
eight feet; the sudden change in its direction is determined by the position 

1 Busching, Erdbeschreibung II. p. 360. 

m Mannert's Greek and Latin Geography, p. 664. n Kitaibel. 

Beudant, I. p. 41. II, p. 146. r Uunait in German, Dunn in Hungarian. 


of the hills connected with Mount Czerath, and hy the level of the great plain. 
The river expands anew in its course through the Hungarian plains, forms 
large islands, and passes through a country of which the inclination is 
not more than twenty inches in the league. Its banks are covered with 
marshes in the southern part of Pest, in the districts of Bacs and Tolna 
towards the confluence of the Drave. It extends in a southern direction 
to the frontiers of Slavonia, where the first hills in Fruska-Gora retard 
its junction with the Save; it then resumes its eastern course, winds round 
the heights, turns to the south-east, receives first the Theiss, then the 
Save at Belgrade, the Temes at Pantsova, and flows with greater rapidity 
to the base of the Servian mountains. Its bed is again contracted, its im- 
petuous billows crowd on each other and escape by a narrow and steep 
channel, which they appear to have formed between the heights in Servia 
and the Bannat. It issues from the Hungarian states at New-Orsova; 
and, having crossed the barriers that oppose its passage, waters the im- 
mense plains of Wallachia and Moldavia, where its streams unite with the 
Black Sea. 

The Theiss, next to the Danube, the largest river in the king- , The Thdsg 
dom, rises at the limits of Bukowine, crosses the vast marshes I 
in the counties of Szathmas and Szabolcs, turns southwards after a circuit- 
tous course into the plains of Hungary, flows towards the Danube, and 
falls into it between Semlin and Peterwardin. The Theiss receives all 
the streams of Transylvania and the greater number of those from the 
northern mountains in Hungary. Among the first may be remarked the 
Szamos, that divides itself into two currents; the larger comes from the 
eastern mountains in the principality, and the Kceroes, whose different 
branches, the Rapid, the Black and the White Koeross, rise from the range 
or boundaries between Transylvania and the county of Bihar. A consi- 
derable river is formed by their union, which, after having received all the 
streams from the western sides of the mountains on the frontiers of Tran- 
sylvania, enters the Theiss opposite Czongrad. The country through 
which these rivers pass is very marshy; the Baron of Vay supposes the 
extent of land inundated by the Rapid Koeroes only, not to be less than 
55,000, and probably not more than 70,000 acres. The Maros^ is also one 
of the large Hungarian rivers; it rises in the western mountains of Czik 
in Transylvania, receives the JLranijos and the two Kukullos^ of which the 
sources are situated in the eastern part of the province, and joins the 
Theiss opposite Szegedin. The Bodrog, increased by all the streams in 
the counties of Zemplen, Ungh and Beregh, enters it below Tokay. The 
Hernat too is a feeder of the same river; it rises in Zips, receives by the 
Tarczal all the waters in the district of Saros, and by the Sajo all the 
streams in the neighbourhood of Gomos and Torna. The Erlan and 
Zagyra convey to the Theiss the mountain torrents from Matra and Czer- 

Thus a large river flows in the middle of the Hungarian plains. The 
Maros at its junction near Szegedin, is not less than 600 feet in breadth. 
The Theiss abounds in fish, and like the Maros, the Koros, the Szamos 
and the Bodrog, is navigable to a great distance. It might be wished 
that it were enlivened by an active commerce, but the low banks bounded 
by inaccessible marshes, hinder too frequently the communication from 
one place to another. Vessels cannot ascend the Theiss above Szegedin, 
boats may sail to Szigeth. Thus it can merely be said to communicate 
with the interior of Transylvania by means of the Maros, which is naviga- 
ble to Karlsburg. A low but dry plain separates the Theiss from the 
Danube, and the French canal, which has been cut across it, is about fifty- 
six miles in length; 1061 boats ply on it. 

i Mureschul in Wallachian. T fCiickoI, German, Toeruava, Wallachian. 



. The Save forms, to a certain extent, the southern boundary 
The Save. | Q ^ t ^ e j utl g ar i an states. It rises from the mountains in Car- 
niola, crosses Styria, and enters Hungary near Zagrab; its feeders are the 
Kulpa, the Unna, the Verbas, the Bosna and the Drina; it overflows its banks 
from the inconsiderable inclination of its channel, and inundates the low 
plains that surround it, where the water remains stagnant in many places 
throughout the year. Although a number of embankments have been 
raised in different parts of the country, these barriers are often borne 
down or rendered useless by the swelling of the river. The Save, by which 
the grain and tobacco of Hungary are transported into Dalmatia and Italy, 
is navigable in the greatest part of its course. The boats ascend to Szis- 
fceg, pass by the Kulpa to Carlstadt, and the produce is conveyed from the 
last town by land. 

Dravo I ^^ e ^ rave r i ses lli ^ ie Tyrol, flows in a south-east direction, 
' and falls into the Danube below Eszeck. It may be consider- 
ed the natural limit between Hungary and the two provinces of Croatia 
and Slavonia. The Mur, the principal feeder, passes to it from Styria. 
The course of the Drave is retarded beyond Legrad, and in Slavonia, 
where the country is still more level, the streams are diffused on the val- 
lies and form extensive marshes near its confluence. 

One small river, the Poprad, refuses the Danube the tribute of its waters; 
it rises from the southern base of the mountains of Tatra in the district 
of Zips, and turns abruptly northwards to enlarge a feeder of the Vistula 
or the Dunajec, the sources of which are situated in Galicia on the north- 
ern declivities of the Tatra. 

The Aluta may be mentioned on account of its irregular course; it is^ 
sues from the eastern mountains in Transylvania, crosses from north to 
south an Alpine valley, turns northwards to the frontiers of JCronstadt, 
changes its direction to the west, reaches the district of Hermanstadt, 
winds to the south, traverses Wallachia, and falls into the Danube. 
Climate of the i The climate of Hungary varies according to the elevation of 
mountains. | ^ Q ^'^ The Tatra mountains are always covered with snow; 
on several others, even on some in Transylvania, the snow remains to the 
month of July. The mountains in northern Hungary are not so high, but 
that region is exposed to the cold climate of the two lofty chains that ap- 
proach it. Winter continues in all its rigour during six months .of the 
year in the counties of Arva, Liptau and Zips on the north-west, and in 
Marmarosch on the north-east. Snow falls sometimes in September in 
these districts, and remains frequently till the first days in June; the corn 
is hardly in ear about the twentieth of the same month; it is ripe by that 
Climate of i time on the plains. A climate may be said, to a certain extent 
the hiiis. I at least, to become milder, in the ratio of the distance from the 
mountains. A curve drawn from Neitra by Hont, to Karchau, bounds the 
region where the oak, the beech, different fruit trees and corn begin to 
thrive. Another curve passing by Vacz, Gyongyos and Tokay, marks the 
climate where the vine appears in rich luxuriance, and where the fields are 
not exposed to the burning heat or the humid mists that rise from the lower 
plains. The elevation of these hills, which may be compared to verdant 
banks that surround a gulf of plains, is from 600 to 900 feet above the 
Black Sea. 8 The mountains that separate Transylvania from the vallies of 
lower Hungary, modify the temperature, and render it. more severe. Thus 
the wine in that part of the province is of inferior quality, although the 
level of Mediasch is not more than 666 feet, that of Schasburg 882 above 
the Black Sea, and the latitude, two degrees to the south of Tokay. 
riimateoftiie i The higher plain is sheltered from excessive heat by the 
plains. I well-wooded chain of Bakony; its climate is mild, in many 

Gyonygos is 581 ; Erlau, 675; the town of Tokay, 442. - 


places salubrious, and its sides are covered with vineyards. But the large 
islands on the Danube, between Presburg and Comorn, and the extensive 
marshes of Hansag on the east of lake Ferto, occasion mists unwholesome 
to man, and hurtful to plants. The low plain, or central and lower Hun- 
gary, is wholly different as to climate. The heat is oppressive in the day 
time, the nights are cold and humid; exhalations rise from nitrous lands 
or water covered with plurites; dense and frequent mists are thus formed 
like those from the surface of a vast lake. The peasant, in the middle of 
these boundless meadows, never sees a mountain, and wonders that frag- 
ments of ice are borne down by the Danube. 

The low plains are unhealthy, but not so much so as might have been 
inferred from the accounts of travellers. The general statement cannot be 
denied, and the causes of the evil are so little subject to human control, 
that it is not likely to be soon diminished; still, however, the frequent 
occurrence of different endemical diseases, must be partly attributed to the 
carelessness and habits of the people. Mephitic and unhealthy exhalations 
rise from the marshes during the excessive heat of summer; yet it may be 
doubted if a more numerous or a more industrious population could avert 
the course of the waters which descend from 'the surrounding countries. 
The saline or nitrous marshes in certain districts infect so completely all 
the streams, that no water fit for domestic purposes can be obtained with- 
out repeated filtrations. The native Hungarians resist the prevailing ma- 
ladies of the country better than the Germans or Slavonians. It was thought 
by the physicians of the last century, that the immoderate use of animal 
food was the chief cause of many diseases, but it has been since proved by 
more recent and more numerous observations, that the Wallachians are 
the people most liable to such diseases, and it is well known that, in con- 
formity to the precepts of their religion, they abstain from butcher-meat 
two hundred and thirty-eight days in the year. The same maladies often 
prove fatal to the women in the lower orders of society, although they 
drink water, and live for the most part on vegetable diet.* 

It is unnecessary to give a minute geological account of the Land and ! ; 
country, but some facts worthy of notice may be collected from ' rocks - 
the works of MM. Beudant, Kitaibel, Esmark and Lefebvre. Granite rocks 
are most common in the group of Tatra, and in the eastern mountains of 
Marmarosch. The summits of Tatra consist of naked granite, but at no 
great distance below them, the same rock is concealed by extensive beds of 
primitive and compact limestone, which are covered in many places by 
layers of argillaceous schistus. tt Grauwacke covers or surrounds the base 
of the granite mountains in Transylvania. An immense mass of compact 
limestone on the south of the great chain, separates Wallachia from the 
Bannat, confines the bed of the Danube, and passes into Servia and Bos- 
nia. 1 The statements of geologists concerning the secondary countries, 
are, according to their custom, contradictory. " The direction "of the 
mean chains," says one, " is transversal to that of the great; they are com- 
posed of porphyritic sienite, or granular limestone. The metallic riches 
which nature has so liberally bestowed oh Hungary and Transylvania, are 
deposited in these mountains. The metals appear in the form of layers or 
strata in the porphyry, and of veins in the limestone." 1 ' Immense , RocksjaU 
deposits of rock-salt are observed between these heights, and ' 
at the base of the primitive calcareous chain. Their extent is not known, 
but they may be observed in Poland and Galicia, or on the other side of 
the Carpathians." Heights, like so many promontories that jut into the 

* Gocmeri, de indole seris Hungarici, Vienna, 1765. Schrand, (Proto-medicus Hungari- 
cus?) Notice sur le Scorbut, 1803. 

" Esmark, Journal des Mines, No. XLVII. p. 819. Lefebvre, same journal, XII. 39, 

* Beudant's Geological Map of Hungary. y Esmark, Journal des Mines, 815. 

* Fichtel, Histoire du sel gemtne, passim. 


plains, are situated beyond the regions of metal and salt ; they are mostly 
composed of calcareous rocks of the second formation, and mixed -with 
the remains of marine animals. Their sides are covered with layers of 
light land, and abound in fossil deposits and petrified bitumen.* The as- 
pect of the plains is very different; more than 300 salt springs rise between 
the hills, others are impregnated with nitre; they appear in different di- 
rections from Szasmos to the neighbourhood of Vienna, and from the Car- 
pathians to the banks of the Drave and Danube. Lakes, or rather marshes, 
which contain anatron or carbonate of soda, are scattered over all the 
plains, but are most numerous in the district of Bihor; they are dry dur- 
ing summer, and a white efflorescence is formed on the surface of these 
vast chasms. 6 We may mention besides the uniform arrangement of all the 
salts, the marshes of anatron encompassed but not mixed with sulphated 
magnesia; the aluminous and nitrous lands separated by parallel layers, 
the alternate strata of white and brown salt near Thorda y and in the cen- 
Ancicntiake, | tre ^ tne cou ^try, a level plain incrusted with shells. Now, as 
or Mediterra. 1 one narrow pass is the only outlet from that plain, for the Tran- 
' sylvanian and Servian mountains approach each other on the 
south of Hungary, and are connected with the Alps in Dalmatia, it may 
be natural to suppose that lower Hungary has been at one period a lake, 
and that the saline or alkaline crystallizations with which the soil is im- 
pregnated, are deposited in its ancient bed. The marine animals, of which 
the shells or remains are so abundant, must have existed in that lake or 
inland sea, and have perished at the time of the revolution by which the 
water was drained, and the channel of the Danube opened or enlarged. 

It is the province of travellers to refute or confirm this hypothesis from 
a more careful observation of the phenomena on which it depends. We 
shall state other facts of a different nature, relative to some isolated moun- 
tains or particular districts. M. Beudant who is more methodical than 
his predecessors, has shown that the porphyritic sienite near Schemnitz 
and Kremnitz is surrounded by a great quantity of trachytes, a new term 
introduced by that writer, which corresponds with the porphyritic trap of 
Esmark. The same rock is found in Matra, Hegy-Allya, Vihorlet, and in 
the lower branch of the Transylvanian range on the east; it is also common 
in all the mountains of mean elevation throughout the country. The low 

hills in the north of the province consist of sandstone, and the 
' lofty heights or peaks near them, of limestone and grauwacke. 

Sandstone is obtained in all the central districts of Transylvania, and fos- 
Basaita I s ^ sa ^ isfoufld in greater abundance than in Poland. The me- 

* talliferous range round Schemnitz is crowned in many places 
with basaltic rocks, and a vein of charcoal runs across a part of Mount Cal- 
vary, a detached cone of 2735 feet in height.* The same appearances are 
observed in the country to the north of the Matra, near the sources of the 
Ipoly and the Zagyra; but the most remarkable group is situated among 
the mountains on the north-west of the Balaton lake. No marks of the ac- 
tion of fire can be discovered in Hungary, unless the basalts be considered 
the effects of volcanic revolutions. MM. Beudant and De Buch suppose 
the trachytic lands to have been formed by a fire under the waters of the 
ancient sea, but a spark might as well be compared to a conflagration, as 
Metais I t * ie act i n f sucn a fi fe to tnat f an ordinary volcano. We 

' shall leave these subjects in which ingenuity has been exer- 
cised in forming vague hypotheses, and give an account of the abundant 
and valuable productions that Hungary has received from nature. Metals 
of every kind are found in the Carpathian mountains, but the gold mines 

a Schedius, Journal de Hongrie, No. III. art. VI. b Different Memoirs in the An- 

nales de Qhimie de Crell. c Esmark, loco citato, page 820. 

d Bois car/ionise are the words Esmark, Journal de Mines, XLVII. p. 806. 


near Schemnitz and Kremnitz have lost much of their ancient wealth. The 
massive gold obtained at present is inconsiderable; not more than three or 
four drachmas are extracted from a hundred weight of ore. The annual 
produce amounts to two or three thousand marks of gold, and eighty or 
ninety thousand marks of silver. The deepest mine at Schemnitz is about 
1200 feet below the ground, still it is 972 feet above the level of the sea. 
The mines of Felsse and Nagy-Banya, in the district of Szathmar, are pro- 
ductive; the gold of Botza, in the county of Lipto, is found in a gray 
schistus mixed with silver; it is considered the finest of any in Hungary, 
or even in Europe. The same metal is carried down all the rivers in Tran- 
sylvania, and the largest pieces are found in the Aranyos. Some of the 
forty mines in the country are situated in the sandstone heights near Ve- 
raespatax, others in the hornstein rocks of Fazebay. The mine of Nagyag 
was remarkable for the richness of its ore; it yielded from 45 to 170 ounces 
of silver in the hundred weight, and from two hundred to two hundred 
and ten pennyweights of gold in the mark of ore; thus the quantity of sil- 
ver amounted to two-thirds, and that of gold to a third. 6 Although these 
mines returned at first a clear profit of 20,000 florins a month, the produce 
at present is not sufficient to defray the expenses of working them. None 
of these ores have been observed, though some writers affirm the contrary, 
in volcanic rocks; they are found in porphyritic sienite in a very decom- 
posed state; the veins cross each other in a great many directions. In some 
of them at Nagyag, M. Kitaibel first discovered the new metal tellurium/ 
The gold washings on the Drave at the confines of Croatia, Hungary, and 
Styria, yield annually about 1,800 marks, and more than 12,000 are obtain- 
ed from the rivers in the county of Temesch, a part of the Bannat. The 
remains of several ancient works prove that the Romans were not ignorant 
of the metallic treasures in Transylvania and the bannat of Temeswar, 
both of which were included in the ancient province of Dacia. 

Iron is obtained in the palatinates of Gomor, Sol, Klein-Hunt, 
Veszprin, Zips and Abruiwar. The annual produce of Wagda, ' 
Hunyad, Donsatra, Transylvania, and the bannat of Temeswar, is not less 
than 694,000 hundred weight. 

Copper is worked in the mines of Neusohl, Herrunprund, Ro- 

"V, i i <"' Tti i- i T-k i TT I Copper mines. 

senau, Schmolmtz, Cinsiedel Goellnitz, and Dobsau in Hunga- ' 
ry ; at Dognatza and Orawitza, in the bannat of Temeswar; at Dewa, We- 
sel and Gurasatul, in Transylvania. Thirty-four thousand hundred weight 
of a better than ordinary quality are obtained every year in Hungary. If 
Siberia be excepted, the same metal is not found in such abundance in any 
other country. 

Lead, quicksilver, antimony, orpiment, cinnabar, sulphur, Different me- 
zinc, alum, arsenic, and chrysocolla, are among the other pro- ' tais,&c. 
ductions of the provinces. The quantity of quicksilver obtained from the 
different mines is not very great, but one of them at Zlatna in Transylva- 
nia, yields 760 hundred weight. 6 Mineral alkali or natron appears in the 
form of a light efflorescence on the sandy plains in the neighbourhood of 
Debretzin and Gros-Waradin; the lake of Kis-Maria is sometimes covered 
with it, and the yearly produce is not less than 500 tons. 

Immense deposits of fossil salt extend along the mountains of the se- 
cond formation, and seem, like them, to have been once covered by the 
waters of the sea. h Although almost every rock in that region is a mass 
of salt, it is watered by limpid and fresh streams, but on the plains be- 

e The mine is situated at Szekerembe, about a mile and a half from Nagyag. The ore is 
found in white quartz and in rose-coloured braunstein, which becomes brown by being ex- 
posed to the sun. The mine was probably worked by the Romans; but it was discovered 
anew by a Wallachian in 1747. 

' Schedius, Journal de Hongrie, I. p. 275. s Hassel, Statist. d'Autriche, p. 120. 

h Fichtel, llistoire du sel-gemme. 


low it, innumerable brackish and salt springs rush from the base of the 
hills. Rock salt and saline springs. abound in Transylvania, or Torda, 
Vizaka, Kolos, Szeck, Dees and Para. The annual produce from the last 
district amounts to more than 1,000,000 hundred weight; there are six 
mines in it, one hundred and twenty pits, and twenty-five places in which 
undoubted indications of salt have been discovered. The salt of Rhona 
Szeck in Marmarosch, is believed to be the best in Hungary, and at no 
great distance are the mines of Nagy-Bosca and Szlatina. The quantity 
obtained yearly from the last district is about 20,000 tons. 1 Government 
derives an immense sum from that article, according to some writers, not 
less than 10,000,000 florins. 

Marbles and I Precious stones and different kinds of marble are found in 
precious the country. The red marble of Gros-Wardein and Dotis is 

' highly prized, and Dobschau is famous not only for its alabas- 
ter, but green fibrous asbestos. Rock-crystal in double sexilateral pyra- 
mids is sold for diamonds in more than one part of Hungary/The copper 
mine at Dognatza is rich in garnets, and that of Czerwentitza near Kas- 
chau, is said to be the only one in Europe in which topazes, amethysts, 
iris, and yellow-coloured opals, and other precious stones are found. Coal 
CoaJ i may be mentioned among the other and more valuable produc- 

1 tions. It does not abound in the country; the greatest quantity 
sold at the works of CEdenburg in one year, was 16,000 tons. 
vegetable i The vegetable kingdom is as rich and varied as the mineral. 
kingdom. I The husbandman is rewarded for his labour by immense har- 
vests of wheat, millet, rice, and maize. The best wines in Europe are 
produced from the vineyards, and as many herds are fed on the pastures 
as on any in the Ukraine. Rural economy, it is true, is not so well under- 
stood as in Germany, but the Hungarians are indebted to the extreme fer- 
tility of the soil, and to the excellence of the climate, for advantages that 
Grain I are ' rarel y un i te< ^ * n other countries. It must not be inferred 

' that all the provinces are equally fruitful; wheat is rare in the 
mountainous districts in the north, and the inhabitants, like those of Nor- 
way and the Highlands in Scotland, make use of oaten bread. The central 
plains on the Danube are comparatively sterile, but ikrista, a species of 
secale, brought originally from Moravia, thrives in different parts of the 
country. The greatest quantity of wheat is raised in the county of Bihar, 
and the southern provinces abound in kykurutza^ a variety of maize, the 
spikes of which are about a foot in length. Rice was of late years intro- 
duced into the Bannat, j and that plant, so well adapted for the marshy dis- 
tricts, is now cultivated in Hungary. 

wines, . I The wine of Tokay is generally believed to be the best in Eu- 
Tokay. I rO p e . t h e vineyards from which it is obtained, are situated in 
the counties of Zemplin and Tokay, on Mount Mezes-Male^ and near the 
village of Tarczal. It is by no means common in the country; the light 
and soft land most favourable for it, ferments with acids. The inhabitants- 
collect the ripe "grapes, which are dried, and in that state an essence is 
extracted from them, in appearance not unlike treacle, in taste resem- 
bling honey. A certain portion of it is mixed with the ordinary wine of 
the country, and thus changed into genuine Tokay, of which there are two 
kinds, one called ausbruch, and the other masklass. The first is sold in an- 
tah)* the second in barrels that hold two antals; the only difference between 
the wines consists in the quantity of essence with which they are mixed; 
for each part put in the masklass, two are put into the ausbruch. All the wine 
which, in commerce, is called Tokay, is produced in the vineyards of Ke- 
restur, Salor-Wilidy, Tallya, Mada, Toltswa, Sator-rflya, and other places 

1 Demian. I. 187. Fichtel, &c. J Struve's Travels and Adventures, a German work, 
quoted by Demian. k An antal Is a Hungarian measure nearly equal to thirty-two quarts. 


in the neighbourhood. The Tarczal and Mada are sweeter than the rest; 
the Tallya and Zombor are stronger; the Szegy and Zsadany have the 
most aromatic flavour. The vineyards in Hungary were improved by the 
care of king Bela IV. ; by his directions plants which had been selected 
from the best in Italy and Greece, were imported in 1241. Fourmint^ a 
particular kind of grape, is said to have been brought from the hills near 
Formiae, that were covered with the vineyards from which, according to 
Horace, the table of his patron Maecenas was supplied with wine. Other 
plants were brought by the Venetians from Malvasia. The prelates who 
repaired to the Council of Trent, and the pope himself, pronounced the 
Hungarian wines to be superior to any in Italy or France. It might have 
been well if the controversies for which they met, had been as impartially 
decided. The learned Hermann-Conring commended these wines about 
the year 1576, although they were not generally known, and although the 
best way of making them was not discovered before 1650. The annual 
produce of the district is considerable; the actual quantity is not less than 
240,000 eimers; 1 the most of it is sent to Vienna and Warsaw. 

Other wines of a good quality are produced in Hungary; that of Me- 
nesch is little inferior to Tokay, and equal to it in strength and aromatic 
flavour. Busching says the wine of Rust, on the lake of Neusiedel, burns 
like alcohol. The vines near Oldenburg, Wersitz in the Bannat, and the 
mountains round Buda, are not inferior to the best in Burgundy. The 
wine of Schirak resembles Champagne. But, if Tok^ay be excepted, the 
best is obtained from the western part of .Slavonia or Syrmia; the red 
wines in that district are as good as the Monte Pulciano, The vineyards 
on Mount Alma are the oldest of any in the country; the first plants were 
put into the ground by the emperor Probus in the year 270. All the wines 
in Slavonia and Croatia lose their qualities by being transported into fo- 
reign countries; those in Transylvania retain them, but are hardly worth 
the expense of carriage. The vineyards in Hungary occupy an extent of 
851,690 acres, and the average annual produce is about 18,230,000 eimers. 

Lint and hemp succeed best in the Bannat, in the counties of Different 
Arwe, Eisenburg, Zips and Scharosch. Woad and madder ' P lants - 
are cultivated near Apatin, in the district of Borschod, and in different 
parts of the Bannat. Melons, arbute berries, plums, and cherries, are 
common throughout the country. The quantity of tobacco exported year- 
ly is not less than 200,000 hundred weight. The cultivation of saffron 
furnishes employment to the peasants in the north of Hungary, who are 
generally denominated safraniczi. 

The north and west of Hungary and different parts of Trail- i 
sylvania are covered with lofty forests, but no wood grows on ' 
the large plain in which the rivers meet. The forest of Bakony, the largest 
of any in the province, is remarkable for the size of its oaks; some of them 
are as lofty and as straight as the finest firs. The Carpathian mountains 
are covered with Pinus pumilio^ or, as it is called by the inhabitants, krum- 
holZ) and a resin known by the name of Hungarian balsam is extracted from 
that plant. The yew and the Corylus coturna, L. are well adapted for house- 
hold furniture, and the white lime which was supposed to belong exclu- 
sively to America, grows in different districts. The forest trees in the 
country cover about 7,452,280 acres. 

We shall conclude this sketch of the vegetable kingdom by mentioning 
different zones which a distinguished botanist has marked in the following 
order. 1st, The plain rich in corn and fruit trees, that extends to the first 
hills, or to the height of nearly 1500 feet above the level of the sea. 2nd, 

1 An elmer is equal to thirty-two quarts. 

m Notitia Hist. pol. occon. montium viniferorum comit. Zemplin, by M. Szermay. Kas- 
chau, 1798. Uber Tokais wcin bau, by Deresen, Vienna, 1795. 


The hills on which the oak, beech, and chesnut trees thrive; their eleva- 
tion is supposed to be 4000, or more correctly, 3935 feet. 3d, The subal- 
pine region, from 4000 feet (above which the ash does not grow,) to 4600, 
where the fir disappears ; it is covered with coniferous trees, and the birch 
is not observed as in Scandinavia, at a higher elevation than the fir. 4th, 
The lower Alpine region, from 4600 to 5600 feet; ihePinus mughus is rare- 
ly seen; it is the country of Alpine plants, coniferous shrubs, and a few 
stunted and isolated firs. 5th, The higher Alpine region, which may be 
divided by two belts, the one at the elevation of 6500 feet, where the tra- 
veller perceives occasionally an Alpine plant, or a half-grown Pinus mu- 
ghusj the other belt extends to the height of the mountains, or to 8000 feet, 
and the rocks on the summits are covered with dark lichens. 11 

The classification might without doubt be altered and improved by the 
first intelligent traveller that visits Hungary and the interior of Transyl- 
vania, a country in which vegetation may be modified by the coldness of 
the temperature and the mountainous fence that surrounds it. M. Wahlen- 
berg has perhaps committed an error in confounding the two plains; the 
higher is in many respects different from the lower, in the latter the nenu- 
phar of the Nile is seen floating on every stream. But it might be most 
important to observe the connexion or difference between the plants on the 
Carpathians and those on the mountains in Bosnia, Croatia, Styria, and the 
south-west of Hungary. The flora of Pannonia derives its particular cha- 
racter from the latitude, the nature of the soil, and the extensive strata of 
calcareous and other rocks. 

The largest oxen in Europe are bred in Hungary; they are 
' of the strongest race, and are distinguished by the length of 

their horns and their gray colour. The numerous herds on the great plains 
between Debrezin, Gyula, Temeswar and Pesth, are, perhaps, inferior to 
those on the verdant hills of Transylvania. The number of oxen through- 
out Hungary, in the year 1786, was 2,394,000; it is not likely that they 
have increased since that time. No fewer than 150,000 are exported 
every year to Austria and Italy. The extent of meadow land in Hungary is 
not less than 1,486,098 acres, and 120,000,000 stones of hay are produced 
on it. 

The sheep indigenous to the country is of a particular kind; 

I it is the same as the Ovis strepsiceros of Linnaeus, and is distin- 
guished by its large size, spiral horns, coarse and short wool. It nas been 
crossed with the Turkish sheep; the breed is very common in the south of 
Hungary. Spanish sheep were first imported into the county of Raab, 
and the western districts; their wool is sold for three times the price of 
the ordinary wool in the province. p 

The nobles pay little attention to their horses, which are 
I small, swift, and light-made. There were in the year 1795 

upwards of ten thousand in the royal stud, near Mezcehegyes, in the coun- 
ty of Czanad. The common people in Hungary have not many, and those 
they have are very bad. Austria cannot muster, in all its dominions, a 
sufficient number for its heavy cavalry. The nobles keep Neapolitan horses 
for the saddle; others for wagons or carriages are brought from Holstein 
Ho g , and Denmark. An immense number of hogs, not less than 

'several millions, are fed in the central districts, but many of 
them are bought in Servia and Bosnia for the purpose of being fattened 
in Hungary. The Hungarian hog is of the common sort, that of Servia, 
or the mongonlitza, is covered with long bristles. The poultry in Hungary 
are bought by the Turks and Austrians; the geese, which are exported 

n Wahlenberp, Flora Carpathorum, LXVII. p. 308. 

Grelmann, Eclaircissemens de Statistique. r Michael Nemeth, Journal of Hungary, 
4804, Nq. 1. 


and sold in different countries, are said to be Styrian, or Bohemian; the 
fraud is rarely detected, and it is a common proverb among the common 
people, that a name may add to the value of a goose. 

Hungary and the adjacent provinces abound in every kind of , _ 

. rr>, f 1111 i I Game, Flsa. 

game. The forests are haunted by deer, chamois, marmots, ' 
bears, wolves, otters, martens and lemmings. The birds that frequent 
them are eagles, vultures, grouse, partridges, land and water rails, wood- 
cocks, pheasants, wild ducks, bustards and pelicans. The rivers, the in- 
numerable lakes and marshes teem with fish. Caviar is obtained from the 
large sturgeon of the Danube; pearls are often found in muscles and dif- 
ferent shell fish; carps weighing two or three pounds were sold in 1798 
for eight shillings the hundred, or for less than a shilling the dozen. Tur- 
tles and frogs are imported to Vienna. 

Hungary, from the great variety of its resources, might be compared to 
the finest countries in the world, but the progress of civilization is retarded 
by the indolence of the inhabitants, and the defects of a feudal administra- 
tion. The mountainous districts might be as productive as any of the 
northern provinces in France, and a great part of the plains equal to those 
in Lombardy. Such changes could not be brought about without a more 
numerous and more industrious population, a greater number of canals, 
fewer privileges, and, above all, fewer restrictions on the navigation of the 
Danube, the only natural outlet for the produce of the country. 



Hungary and the adjacent Provinces, Towns and Divisions, fyc. 

THE provinces, towns and memorable places in Hungary, or in the 
countries connected with it, are, according to the order of our arrange- 
ment, to be next described. To render the topographical details less tedious, 
it may be best to illustrate them with observations on the character of the 
people that inhabit different districts, or rather such portions of land as 
are separated by natural boundaries, and, in some instances, by political 
divisions. As every town in Hungary has at least two names, and some 
of them five, viz. a Hungarian, Latino-Hungarian, German, Slavonian, and 
Wallachian, it may be necessary, independently of every precaution, to 
request the indulgence of those who are apt to consider repetition of this 
sort useless, or at m all events prolix. It shall be more clearly shown in the 
remaining part of this work that such names are connected with the mi- 
grations of states and the successive inhabitants of different countries. 

0/erc, (Hung.) or Buda, (Slav.) a free and royal town, the , central 
ancient capital of Hungary, is situated on the right bank of the ' towns - 
Danube; although long inferior to Presburg, it has of late recovered its 
privileges, but not its ancient splendour. The Hungarian crown is kept 
at Buda, and the whole nation consider it a sort of palladium. Joseph II., 
who took it to Vienna, was obliged to return it a few days before his death. 
The court of the royal lieutenancy, or the supreme administrative body of 
Hungary, has since that time been held at Buda. The same place is sup- 
posed to have been the residence of Attila or the Etzelburg of the German 
and Scandinavian sagas; having remained in the hands of the Ottomans from 
the year 1529 to 1686, it still bears the marks of Turkish devastation; its 
warm baths, which are much admired, were built by the Turks. Buda serves 



as a fortress to the free and royal town of Pesth, which is directly opposite 
to it on the left bank of the Danube, and both places communicate with 
one another by a bridge of boats three-quarters of a mile in length. Pesth 
is worthy of notice on account of its different tribunals, government offices, 
a richly endowed university, a fine museum of natural history, and a large 
but antiquated library. The most remarkable public buildings are the 
infirmary, the -theatre, and the houses or palaces of some noble families. 
The town is not strengthened by fortifications; its trade is more extensive 
than that of any other in Hungary; the inhabitants call it their Vienna, 
and the population is not less than 53,000, while that of Buda is only 
32,000. The amount in both is equal to 85,000, which is not much below 
the average number of inhabitants in the capitals of the secondary states. 
Plain of RO- i T ne famous valley of Rokasch is not far from Pesth; it was 
kasch. I there that the Hungarian nation assembled to elect its kings; 

no fewer than 80,000 tents have on some occasions been pitched on the 
plain, and in them were encamped all the nobles in the kingdom. 

At no great distance to the north of these central towns, are Vacz or 
Waitzen, a populous burgh on the Danube, opposite the fruitful island of 
St. Andrew, Gcedoello or the palace of prince Grassalkowitz, Vissegrad, 
a royal castle once inhabited by Matthias Corvin,but now fallen into ruins, 
and Gran, a royal city, of which the archbishop or primate of Hungary 
resides at Presburg. Gran has many names; it is called Estergom in Hun- 
garian, Ostrihom in Slavonian, and Strigonium in official Latin. It was 
celebrated for its warm baths, but an English traveller is of opinion that 
the frogs derive greater benefit from them than theunhabitants. 
Towns in the i We shall nrtw enumerate the towns on the north 6f the Cis- 
nortn-west. I flanubian circle or as it is generally styled Lower Hungary, an 
administrative but absurd term, for the country is situated nearer the 
mountains. The first place of consequence is Presburg or P0sowy,(Hung.) 
which was long the capital of the kingdom, indeed it is not many years since 
it retained that dignity.* The prosperity of Presburg depends on its com- 
merce on the Danube, its manufactures and its proximity to Vienna. The 
castle is not more than three or four hundred yards from the town, and 

I tne r y a ^ n *^ * n tne vicinity is visited by every stranger. The 

' kings ascended it after the ceremony of their coronation, drew 
the ancient sword of St. Stephen, and brandished it towards the four 
quarters of the earth, to indicate their willingness to defend the monarchy 
against all its enemies, 
scimtt, I r ^^ ie ^ ar S e i s l an( l f Schutl or Czallokcez (Hun.) extends to the 

south of Presburg; although fertile in fruits and pastures, the 
dense mists are unfavourable to corn, the inhabitants are subject to goitres. 
The district of Szek-Vaika is a small and separate state in the territory of 
the archbishop of Gran. The lands are held in fief by petty nobles, who 
are denominated predialists, and live under a distinct administration. Ko- 
morn or Komarom, (Hung.) an ancient town of 1 1,000 inhabitants, although 
situated on the island, is included in the Trans-Danubian circle; its citadel 
has never been taken, but Charlemagne entered the island, and defeated 
the Huns. Tyrnauor Nagy-Szombath^ (Hung.) is one of the towns in the 
north of Presburg; it is well built, its trade is flourishing, but its situation 
unhealthy. Landsitz, though not very large, has been remarked on ac- 
count of a fine castle which belongs to the Esterhazy family. The other 
places are Leopoldstad, a small fortress, Miava, a town of 10,000 inhabi- 
tants, and the villages or burghs of Pcesleny, Rvjecs and Teplitz, all of 
which are famed for their thermal springs. 
Towns of the i The towns in the country of the mines may be next men- 

' tioned. Kremnitz, the residence of the council that preside 

a Buda was declared the capital in 1790. 


over the mining districts, is situated in the lowest part of a gloomy valley; 
many ducats were at one time struck in its mint, the number is now much 
diminished. 6 Schemnitz, from its population, and the industry of its in- 
habitants, must be considered the first mining town in Hungary; its posi- 
tion is perhaps more cheerful than that of Neusohl, Herrengrund, Kcenigs- 
berg and other places of the same kind. Although the people are religious, 
frugal and industrious, although almost all of them are employed in the 
mines, their appearance indicates poverty and wretchedness.* 5 The par- 
ticular nature of their occupation and the severity of the climate may- 
have retarded their improvement. Their habitual sadness or melan- 
choly may perhaps be attributed to the same causes, but their honesty, 
frugality and indifference about the wealth that surrounds them, may ex- 
cite the admiration of the stranger. Their civility to foreigners, parti- 
cularly to those who take an interest in their labours, is another trait in 
their character; they are always ready to descend with any one who wishes 
to visit their subterranean galleries. The towns on the confines of the 
mining districts are Rima-Szombalh, or in German Gros-Steffelsdorff, a 
place of some trade, St. Nicolas, where the Jesuits established a college, 
St. Martin, Skleno, and other large burghs. 

Immense cavities, which terminate in numerous caverns, are , CavemB> 
observed between the horizontal strata on the calcareous moun- ' 
tains in the counties of Thurocz, Arva and Liptau. The most remark- 
able are those near Demanova or Demien-Falva. Some writers declare that 
they have seen in them, the bones of gigantic animals and different fossil 
remains; other travellers could only discover the stalactites. The Dragon's 
den d is supposed to be the one in which these curiosities are most com- 
mon ; many too, it is said, have been found in the cave of Okno." The 
subterranean water in the czierna or black cavern, has been changed by 
its congelation into pillars and other phantastic shapes; their lustre forms 
a striking contrast with the gloomy and dismal vaults. 

Other wonders are observed by the traveller that ascends . Different curi- 
towards Tatra. A river near Triztina, that draws blood from ' osities - 
every man that enters it, is much less frightful than might have been sus- 
pected from its name; it is nothing more than a turbid stream, in which 
some mineral held in solution, is believed to be hurtful to those who are 
forced during the hay season to remain long on the cold meadows in the 
neighbourhood. The small and solitary village of Szulyo is enclosed in 
an amphitheatre formed by perpendicular rocks, and near it are three 
lakes, the black, the green and the white, their names are derived from the 
nature of their channels, or from the colour reflected by the neighbouring 
rocks. Some part of the green lake is of a black colour, but springs rush 
with impetuosity from a bed of white sand, and form in several places a 
greenish tint. f 

We pass from these phenomena to the circle on the side of , The sixteen 
the Theiss, which forms part of Upper Hungary. The Ger- gSjfl^S 
man inhabitants of sixteen free towns in the county of Zips, ' zips.. 
are probably the descendants of a colony from German Silesia, established 
by king Geysa nearly about the time of the Transylvanian settlement. 
These townsmen are distinguished by their honesty and perseverance, 
but they are very averse to the least innovation or alteration in their an- 
cient customs; they still retain in matters of little or no moment, the 
fashions of their ancestors. The men, however, agreed, after long delibe- 

b Ksermses-Banya is the Hungarian name of Kremnetz. 

e Selmes-Banya, (Hung.) Sstavnitza, (Slav.) 

d Bredetzki, Beytrxge zur topog. I. p. 140. Ungarisches Magazin, VI. 43 49, 279, 430. 

c Sartori, Naturwunder, IV. p. 186. f Beudant, Voyage, II. p. 216220. 


ration, to adopt the Hungarian pantaloon, but the women determined not 
to give up their old-fashioned head dress. Their manners are grave, 
their conversation formal and ceremonious, and their character as singu- 
lar as their deportment. They spend the greater part of their time in 
worldly pursuits and religious duties. The different members of a family 
are industrious in the lint field and devout in the church. The girls pre- 
pare with much care the materials which their brothers convert into webs. 
They plant roses, carnations and a variety of flowers in every garden or 
plot of ground, and adorn themselves on Sundays with these simple orna- 
ments. The word Szasz or Saxon, which is applied in Hungary to the 
Germans in Zips and ; Transylvania, is the generic name of all the German 
nations. The industrious mountaineers in Thuringia and the colonists 
in Zips resemble each other in their manners and dialect, but that is no 
argument against the Thuringian origin which has been assigned them.* 
Neudorfor Jglo is tire most agreeable, Bela, the most gothic of the sixteen 
towns, and Kesmark, a populous burgh, is the favourite station of travel- 
lers. The privileged district of the ten lancers was so called from a feudal 
institution, by which the nobility that inhabited it were obliged to furnish 
a guard of lancers attached to the person of the king. 
Northern i We descend the Carpathians towards Eperies, Kaschau, Er- 
Towns. I lau and the plain through which the high road passes from 
Poland to Buda and Pesth. The supreme tribunal of the circle on this side 
of the Theiss is held in the royal town of Eperies or Bressowa, (Slav.) it is 
well fortified and retains its Lutheran college. Sawar or Salzburgh has risen 
into importance from its salt-works, but Kascbau, Kasa (Hung.) or Kossice 
(Sla.) is considered the capital of Upper Hungary; it was distinguished 
in the civil wars ; its university is one of the best in the country, and its 
population not less than 10,000 souls; the site was formerly unhealthy, 
but the unwholesomeness of the air has been corrected by the draining of 
the marshes. Lentschau is an inconsiderable town near the mountains on 
the west of the public road, its inhabitants carry on a trade in hydromel. 
No copper mine in Hungary is so productive as the one in the large burgh 
of Schmcelnitz; the water is impregnated with vitriol, the ground is 
strewed with marcasites, and the quantity of copper obtained yearly is 
supposed to be more than 1000 hundred weight. Rosenau derives its wealth 
from its bleach-fields, and Dobschau from its mines, in which are found 
garnets and asbestos. 

caverns in I Torna is the smallest county in Hungary ; it abounds in ca- 
Toma. i yems, but two of them are considered by the common people 
much more wonderful than the rest. The one or that of Jlgtelek has ex- 
cited curiosity from its immense extent, its numerous labyrinths and sta- 
lactites, the other or Szilitza from its temperature being cold in summer, 
and warm in winter; the inhabitants are supplied with ice from it in the dog- 
days, and in winter it affords a place of shelter for flies,bats,hares and foxes. 
It must be confessed that the cause of the phenomena has not been clearly 
understood, an old explanation is perhaps as probable as any of the modern. 
The changes in the temperature of the cave are so slow that a long time 
must elapse before it can be modified by different seasons. The water fil- 
ters through the roof of the cavern in summer, is exposed to a colder at- 
mosphere, congeals and remains frozen. The air becomes gradually 
milder after the summer's heat and the warm south winds that prevail 
about the beginning of autumn, the ice then melts, and is not formed again 
before the end of spring, for not until then is the temperature changed by 
the cold of winter and of the neighbouring lands that are frozen in Fe- 
bruary. 11 

s Adelung, Mithridates, IF. 219, Suppl. p. 374. Ungarisches Magazin, II. 480. 
h Hamburgh Magazine, IV. p. 60. Busching, II. p. 94. 


Mlskolcs is a town of thirteen or fourteen thousand inhabi- , yine ardg 
tants in the hilly country near Kaschau, the neighbourhood is ' 
covered with vineyards and melon-fields. Guyangios, a large burgh in 
the same district, with a population of 8000 souls, is not less agreeably 
situated. Erlau, though not so flourishing as it once was, contains still 
16,000 souls; the chief trade of the place consists in wine and cloth. An 
English traveller 1 not being] fortunate enough to get any of the famous 
Erlau wine at the inns in the town, has not spoken of the inhabitants with 
his usual impartiality or good humour; his account might have perhaps 
been different, had he dined at Fuorconstrati, the palace of the bishop of 
Erlau, which is about a league from the city; it is known by the Hunga- 
rian, Slavonian and Latin names of Eger, lager and Jtgria. 

The traveller who leaves Erlau and proceeds in a north-west direction, 
passes Ui-Hely with its 300 cellars cut in a solid rock, and Tokay, which 
besides its mines boasts of precious stones, among others, the cornelian 
and sapphire-lynx. Sarospatak is peopled by 8000 inhabitants, and the 
college in the town is attended by more than 1 200 theological and pro- 
testant students; it contains also a Catholic seminary with a library of 
20,000 volumes. The college was endowed by Ragoczi, the illustrious chief 
of the insurgents, after the plan of Comenius, a laborious philologist. 

The next towns are those in the mountainous districts of i Towns in the 
the Upper Theiss or in that part of the country inhabited by the ' north-east. 
Hungarians when they entered the kingdom. Ung-Var, a fortified place, 
was one of the first Hungarian settlements. The strong citadel of Mun- 
katsch, which is now converted into a state prison, stands on a solitary 
and almost inaccessible rock; it was three years defended against the 
attacks of the Austrians by the wife of the patriot Tekeli. Huszt and its 
strong castle are situated in the circle on this side of the Theiss. Szigeth, 
another town in the same department, is peopled by 7000 inhabitants, who 
are for the most part employed in importing the salt from the mines of 
Rhonaszek into different parts of the country. The small town of Nagy- 
Karoly is built near the fine gardens and residence of Count Karowly. A 
large mint and other public buildings have been erected in Nagy-Banya, 
which signifies the great mine, but the burgh of Felsx-Banya or the high 
mine is more populous than the royal city. Szathmar is surrounded with 
walls and inhabited by 10,000 individuals; a great quantity of soda is ob- 
tained in the neighbourhood from the extensive marshes of Eczed. 

Having enumerated all the towns of any consequence in north- , Djff erentna . 
ern Hungary, some remarks may be offered concerning the tions in north- 
different nations that inhabit them. The descendants of the ' ernHun g ar y- 
Slovacks or ancient Slavonians, the subjects of the Moravian kings, have 
peopled all the north-west districts; they are scattered along the northern 
confines. The Rousniacs or Red Russians possess almost exclusively the 
country on the north-east. The Magiars are less numerous than either of 
the other two, they are confined to the frontiers on the plains, the hills 
round Presburg, Erlau and Szathmar; they have also penetrated into the 
mountainous districts near Torna, Gaemseer and Kaschau, and some of them 
still remain in the counties of Unghvar and Beregh. Thus the two domi- 
nant nations are branches of the great Slavonic race. 

The Slovacks make up nearly the whole population in the , 
counties of Nyira, Trentzin, Thurocz, Arva, Liplo, Zolyom, Zips, ' 
Barsch, and Sarosch. They form about the half in those of Presburg, 
Hont, Neograd, Gaemser, Torna, Maujivar, and Zemplin; they have passed 
southwards into Gran, and in the north-east into Unghvar. More active 
and industrious than the Hungarians, they have increased in latter times, 
and established even in our own days several colonies in the low districts. 

1 Townson. 


If the Slavonians settle in any place inhabited by the Hungarians or Ger- 
mans, the latter never flourish afterwards; they lose their language, are 
confounded with the Slavonians, or become extinct. Thus all the mining 
towns, which were at one time possessed by Germans, are now wholly 
peopled by Slavonians; the German names of these towns are still suffered 
to remain, and are almost the only proof of the existence of their former 

The Slovacks are in general well made, and the inhabitants 
I of the mountains, or the Kopaniczares^ are remarkable for their 
I ^fry stature< They are gay, inconstant, adroit, and widely 
' different from the Germans. Addicted to pleasure, and of a 
sanguine temperament, they want the honesty of the Germans, the reserve 
or dignity of the Hungarians, and the kind hospitality of both. They were 
long degraded by slavery; their language, which is ill adapted for intel- 
lectual improvement, has not been much cultivated, but their quickness 
in learning different branches .of agriculture, the mechanical arts, and ma- 
thematics in its application to these arts, renders them, very useful sub- 
Costume 1 J ects< Their wealth, the produce of their industry, enables 
' them to dress better than the other inhabitants; their costume 
consists in summer, of light cloth pantaloons, an open vest without sleeves, 
a shirt with broad ruffles at the breast and wrists, and a leathern girdle 
"with a pouch for a steel, flint, ama-dou, tobacco and a pipe. A cloth or 
sheep-skin great coat defends them against the winter's cold. The dialect 
Dialect of the i f tne Slovacks is little different from the Slavonian spoken in 
siovacks. I Bohemia and Moravia, but the discourses from the pulpit, par- 
ticularly the protestant sermons, are delivered in Bohemian or pure Czeche. 
The Slovack books which we have seen, are printed in German charac- 
I ters. The total number of Slavonians, without including the 
' Rousniacs, Szotaks and Croatians, amounts to 2,900,000 indi- 

Rousniacs I ^^ e R usn i acs or Kuthenians^ who are sometimes called 
' Greeks on account of their religion, are natives of Red Russia or 
eastern Galicia, from which they were driven by civil wars, changes in 
dynasties, and feudal oppression. They settled in Hungary about the 12th 
century; they now form the greater part of the population in the counties 
of Saras, Beregh, Ugots, Ungh, Zemplin, and perhaps Marmarosch. Thus 
placed on the borders of their native soil, they mix with their countrymen 
in Galicia, and in the circles of Stanis, or with the Slavonians of Stry and 
Sambos. The same people have migrated to Bukowine, and even to Tran- 
sylvania; in the last country they are confounded with the Wallachians. 
The number of them in Hungary is not fewer than 360,000. 
Manners and i The Rousniacs belong to one of the demi-savage tribes in Eu- 
customs. I rope. Averse to labour and industry, they have continued in- 
dolent and poor; fugitives on their arrival in the country, they still live 
apart from the other inhabitants. Although their language is a Slavonic 
dialect, they have not associated with their neighbours ; that circumstance, 
it is true, may be partly ascribed to their religion. Some of them are mem- 
bers of the united Greek church, others adhere to the eastern rites. Their 
Marriages, i marriage ceremonies are singular; a girl is generally betrothed 
&c - ' at the age of five or six, and brought up from that time until 

she arrives at womanhood, in the house of her mother-in-law. It often 
happens that the young men carry away the girls that remain with their 
parents. A market of young women is held three times every year in 
the village pf Krasnibrod, near a monastery of the order of St. Basil. Thou- 
sands of Rousniacs resort to it on these .occasions; the maidens are seen 
with loose and flowing hair, the widows are adorned with a crown of 

k Literally, the workers with spades. 


green leaves. When a man resolves to unite himself with any one of the fair 
sex around him, he attempts to carry her to the cloister in spite of the real 
or feigned resistance, which she or her relatives may offer ; if he succeed 
in getting her beyond the threshold of the church, she is at that moment 
betrothed. The friends of both parties are invited to the marriage; the 
bride endeavours to conceal herself in the chamber or in the church, and is 
discovered by the women, who present her to her husband. A German 
writer on statistics, has declaimed against these customs ; although it must 
be confessed that they are incompatible with the habits of polished nations, 
it is not less certain that they may throw some light on the manners of 
pastoral tribes, and on that period of barbarism or civilization, in which 
poetry and romance have flourished. Much interesting information might 
be derived from a residence among the aborigines of the Carpathian moun- 
tains, in all probability, the first country of the Servians; 1 but it would be 
necessary for the traveller to study their language, to collect their national 
songs, and to observe their customs and superstitions. The Slovacks, the 
Rousniacs, and Magiars, in the district of Zemplin, are all of them con- 
founded under the general name of Szotaks. 

We leave the Carpathian mountains and descend towards t Towns on the 
the plains of southern Hungary. The town of Debreczin is plain 
situated in a fertile, but in some places marshy country, on ' 
the north of the Marosch. It is the most commercial town in Hungary, 
and the most populous after Pesth ; but there are no fresh water springs 
in its neighbourhood, no wood for fuel, no materials for building. The 
wealth of the people depends solely on their manufactures or woollen stuffs, 
leather, rosaries, and ornamental heads for tobacco pipes. It resembles an 
overgrown village rather than a town; many of the houses are covered with 
straw, and none of the streets are paved. The inhabitants, though rich, 
have no relish for social or intellectual enjoyments. The gloom that per- 
vades the place, the forbidding qualities of the people, may be partly 
the effects of their sedentary occupations, and the rigid doctrines of Cal- 
vinism. The only public institution worthy of notice, is a protestant uni- 
versity with a library of twenty thousand volumes. Nagy- Varad, or according 
to its German name Gros Waradin, a fortress and town on the Kceroesch, 
of 7000 inhabitants, is also situated on the great plain; its seminary is well 
attended, and it is the residence of se^ve^ral public functionaries. The other 
places are Nemet-Gyula, Szarvas and Oroshaza, all of them large burghs 
or rather towns, for the population of each is not less than six or eight 
thousand souls. New Jlrad is built on the Marosch, and in the town of 
Fasarhely a society is established, of which the object is, to diffuse the 
knowledge of physical science. The villagers of Menes boast of their 
wine, which by some judges is preferred to Tokay. All these plains, fer- 
tile in pastures, corn and wine, are inhabited by Hungarians and Walla- 

The country beyond the Marosch or the Bannat of Ternes- Town8 in the 
war, belonged -to the Turks in 1718, and was formally united -I Bannat of Te- 
to Hungary in 1799. Temeswar,or the capital of the province, meswar< 
is a large and regular fortress, its streets are broad and straight, the houses 
are built like those in Italy; the marshes which surround it may be of ad- 
vantage for its defence, but they are hurtful to the health of the inhabit- 
ants. WersitZ) a burgh consisting of a thousand houses, is peopled by 
Raitzes and Germans; it is situated in a district famous for its wines. Lip- 
pa, Carnasebes, Lugos, Meadia, Uj-Palanka and Pantchowa, are so many 
fortified places that rose into notice during the wars against the Turks, 
but none of them is susceptible of a regular defence. 

The temperature of the baths of Hercules, near Meadia, is caverns, 
never lower than 48 of Reaumur, * and the cavern of Veterani ' veteran!., 

' Memorabilia provincial Cretnick by Bartholomai, 1799. 
m 48 of Reaumur is equal to 140 of Fahrenheit. 


is memorable from the bravery of a few soldiers, who defeated there an 
Ottoman army. The soil in the Bannat and in the military limits is humid, 
but fertile; warmed by a burning sun, it yields immense harvests of corn, 
maize, rice, and tobacco. The inhabitants are Wallachians, Servians, 
German, and Hungarian colonists. 

Hungarian i The Wallachians are scattered not only throughout the Ban- 
waiiachiane. 1 nat? Dut t h e counties of Marmarosch, Szathmar, Bihar, and 
Arad. They form in these districts a population of not less than 600,000; 
their number in Transylvania is probably greater; according to M. Liech- 
tenstein, it is equal to 800,000; those in Bukowine cannot be estimated 
lower than 200,000, so that if the Zinzares or Macedonian Wallachians be 
included, there are not fewer in the Austrian dominions than 1,600,000. 
All of them belong to the Greek church, but their religion is confined to 
the strict observance of frequent fasts and holy-days, which make up a 
great part of the year. The fasts are seldom broken; even the robber re- 
strains his appetite, thinking that God may bless his exploits. The priests 
are very ignorant, and possess in an eminent degree the monkish virtue of 
intolerance; a popish writer remarks, that they surpass in that respect all 
the other Greek schismatics. It is needless to consider the members of 
any sect, schismatics, or to adopt the prejudices of the Vatican against the 
patriarchal church; had that rule been adhered to, the Austrians might 
have written more impartially concerning the Wallachians. If any of 
them, it is said, enter a Catholic church by mistake, and sprinkle them- 
selves with holy water, they repair to one of their own priests, who, for a 
stipulated sum, performs the ceremony of lustration, which consists in re- 
peating many exorcisms and in drenching them with good holy water. The 
same priests have borrowed perhaps from the Jesuits, the right of pardoning 
what are called involuntary murders, such as are committed in the heat of 
passion, to avenge an affront, or to vindicate offended honour. These 
crimes are not uncommon, and the indulgences thus obtained are added 
to the revenue of the clergy, who, adhering to the ceremonial law, " abstain 
from things strangled and from blood;" the, women on that account are 
prohibited from killing a fowl in the ordinary way. 

F ncrais I The Germans ral * against their funeral rites. Deafening 
' shrieks are heard over the body of the deceased, the same yells 
are continued at intervals until the fyxly is put into the grave; all the 
mourners then ask him with a loud'voice, why he died, more particularly 
as he had either so many children, or so many friends, so many oxen, or 
so many sheep. A large stone and a cross, effectual charms against vam- 
pyres, are laid near the coffin, perfumes are spread over the tomb, liba- 
tions of wine are poured on the grave. The attendants eat wheaten bread, 
a duty believed to be most grateful and flattering to the defunct, and then 
repair to a feast, which corresponds in magnificence with the wealth of 
him whom they deplore. The relations return several times to the grave, 
moisten it with wine, shriek horribly, interrogate the departed as to his 
motives for. dying, and allege either that he acted unwisely, or ought to 
have changed his mind. The widow honours the memory of her husband 
by erecting on his tomb, a pole, on which are suspended a garland of flow- 
ers, the wing of a bird, and a piece of cloth. These customs; however 
barbarous, are the expressions of natural and kindly feelings; the libations, 
the perfumes, and the garlands, are pagan, but affecting ceremonies, which 
were partly retained by the primitive church. 

su crstitkms I ^ Wallachian rarely touches a beech tree, because its sap in 
' spring is of a reddish or a bloody colour, and because the 
Turks cut it into stakes with which they empale the Christians. An 
eclipse is a combat between the sun and dragons let loose from hell. A 
great noise is made, guns are fired, that the sun may not be devoured by 
the dragons. No mode of execution is more disgraceful than the gallows, 


it is more dreaded than any which refined cruelty has devised; the reason 
alleged, is that the soul of a man with a rope round his neck, cannot ema- 
nate from his mouth. 11 

Such are some of the statements made by the German writers , 
concerning the moral condition of the Wallachians in Hunga- ' 
ry. A French traveller believes their vices to be inseparable from slavery, 
ignorance and poverty, and the natural consequence of an oppression even 
less rigid than that to which they submit. But their frugality and industry 
are so great, and in these qualities the women are fully equal to the men, 
that the Wallachian population increases rapidly, and is now spread over 
countries lately desert. If the Wallachians settle in a district inhabited 
by the Rousniacs, the latter are in time confounded with the former, and 
lose gradually their language, manners and customs. Several noble fami- 
lies are of Wallachian origin, and two heroes, John Hunyad and his son 
Matthias Corvin. 

When two friends resolve to remain faithful to each other Wallachian 
through life, bread, salt, and a cross are put into a vase; they ' fra temity. 
eat together, drink out of the same glass, and the cross, the bread 
and the salt, (pe cruce,pe pita, pe sare,) that their friendship shall only ter- 
minate at their death. The individuals are ever afterwards called/race de 
cruce or brothers of the cross. The Scandinavian heroes observed similar 
customs, and they were common throughout Europe in chivalrous times. 

No mention has hitherto been made of the towns in the plain , Towns be- 
between the Danube and the Theiss or the southern districts J^Knd'the 
of the Cis-Danubian circle. Pesth may still be considered the ' Theiss. 
central point. Ketskemet, or the largest town in that part of Hungary, is 
peopled by 25,000 souls} it gives its name to extensive downs covered 
with sand, shells, and stones which are composed of sandy particles ce- 
mented together. .The population of Nagy-Kszr&es is not less than 12,000; 
and the neighbouring country is fruitful in vines. A castle built by prince 
Eugene is the only remarkable edifice at Ratskeve itj Czepel, an island oa 
the Danube. Eugeniusberg was another residence of the same great gene- 
ral; it was there that he devoted his leisure hours to agriculture; he is sup- 
posed to have been the first man who imported the Arabian sheep into 
Hungary, by which the breed in the country was improved. Kolocza, an 
ancient but not very flourishing city, is the residence of a bishop, who 
holds the highest rank after the primate. Theresienstadt, which is situ- 
ated in the interior, was formerly a mere burgh ; it possesses at present, 
with a population of 24,000 Hungarians, Croatians and Servians, the pri- 
vileges of a free and royal town. The commercial industry of the inhabi- 
tants is surpassed by the townsmen of Ketskemet, and the prosperity of the 
place is attributed to a colony of Servians, who were induced to settle in 
it by the promise of valuable immunities. Its rural territory is about 
160,000 Hungarian acres or 240 English square miles; many parts of it 
are well adapted for vineyards, and so great an extent of land is attached 
to no other town in the Austrian dominions. The fortress of Szegeilin 
stands at the confluence of the Theiss and the Maros; on the south of it is 
the free and royal town of Sombor, which obtained its privileges in 1751. 
Neo-Planta is the Graeco-Latin name of a free town, that the Hungarians 
call Ui-Videk) and the Germans Neu-satz; its population in 1770 amounted 
only to 4000^ it is now greater than 14,000. Many of the inhabitants were 
originally Servians and Armenians. 

Titulis the principal place in the district of the Tchaikistes \ District of tiio 
or Illyrians, who keep up a fleet on the Danube. The vessels ' Tchwkisus. 
are gallies or tchaikes that carry from four to twelve guns, more than 1200 

n It is supposed that it escapes by a more ignoble passage. 
Beudant, Voyage de Ilongvie, i. 73. 


men are employed in the service, and they are commanded by a chief, 
who must be an Illyrian by birth. A portion of land has been assigned 
to them between the Danube, the Theiss and a line drawn from Carlowitz 
to the north-east. The dock yards, the arsenal and the houses of the staff 
officers are built in Titul, and near the same place are the remains of a 
Roman intrenchment, which extended from the banks of the Danube to 
the Theiss, and served probably to protect an establishment similar to 
that of the Tchaikistes. Prows of ancient vessels, Roman tools for build- 
ing; ships, and pieces of money have been found in the neighbourhood? 
the most of -them are deposited in the arsenal of Titul. 
GreatandLit- i The plain of Great Cumania or Nagy-Kunsag extends along- 
tieCiunania. I tne Berettyo between Pesth and Debreczinjits surface is equal 
to twenty Hungarian square miles, and it is inhabited by 32 or 33,000 in- 
dividuals, mostly protestants. The country is fruitful in wheat and wine"; 
Kardzag, the largest town on the plain, is peopled by 8400 inhabitants. 
Little Cumania or Kis-Kunsag is formed by two vallies between the Pesth, 
Theresienstadt, the Danube, and the Theiss; it is twice as large as the 
other, and peopled by .42,000 Catholics and Protestants. Fekgy-Haza or 
the chief town is inhabited by a population of 9500. The whole district 
is a plain of ordinary fertility; corn fields, orchards and vineyards are 
scattered over immense pastures destitute of trees or shrubs, several lakes 
of natron or soda may be observed in many parts of it. The mirage is 
often seen in the hot days of summer; it is the deli baba or fairy of the 
south, it tantalizes the shepherd and his thirsty flock with the sight of 

, azure lakes crowned with forests, palaces and ruins. The Cu- 
Cumans. . ^ ., . ' " . i i 

1 manians, a Tartar tribe, rose into importance in the eleventh 

and twelfth centuries; they invaded, devastated and ruled over the coun- 
tries between the Wolga and the Danube. Although subdued by the Mon- 
gols in 1237, their numerous tribes were mentioned at a later period by 
Carpini and Rubruquis. Some of them found refuge in Hungary so early 
as the year 1086, and a greater number in the* time of Gengiskan. They 
mixed in many civil commotions, and it was not until the year 1440 that 
they adopted the manners and language of the Hungarians; they professed 
Christianity much about the same period. Their ancient dialect is now 
forgotten, the last individual that recollected a few words in it, was a bur- 
gess of Kardzag, who died in 1770. Some sermons however have been 
preserved, and its affinity with the Tartar or Turkish has thus been 
Origin J P rove ^* p ^ * s unnecessary to enter into the doubtful discus- 

' sions to which the history of this people has given rise, to in-, 
quire whether they were Ouzes, Polowzes, a tribe of the Petchenegues, or 
an ancient branch of the Great Hungarian nation. It is equally difficult 
to determine whether they founded the town of Magyar in the steppes of 
Kuma, or mixed with the Awares of Caucasus. Such inquiries might 
form the subject of separate treatises, but it is probable from the learned 
researches of M. Klaproth., that the origin of the Cumans is different from 
any hitherto assigned them. The river Kama is synonymous with Kuma 
in the Permiake and Siriaine. The Finnic tribes in the Great Hungary 
of the middle ages called themselves Komi, and kum in the Wogal idiom 
signified people. The Cumans might have been originally a Finnic nation 
on the banks of the Great Kuma; if that opinion be correct, it is likely that 
they became powerful during the migrations of the Hungarians or Ma- 
giars, mixed afterwards in the course of their distant expeditions and po- 
litical vicfssitudes with Turkish tribes, or the Chazares, the Ouzes and 

An Hungarian mile is about 4 English miles, consequently the surface of the district 
ia nearly equal to 320 English square miles. 

P Thunmann, Acta Jablonov. Soc. vol. IV. Ethelka by Dugonics, vol. II. p. 384, &c. &c. 
See Mithridates, 1. 480. <) Klaproth, Asia polyglotta. Text, p. 187, 192. 


Petcheneguts, adopted partly the dialects of these strangers, came after 
many wanderings to the new country of the Magiars, and settled among 
their kinsmen. r 

lazygia or the country of the lasses, -(lasz-Orszag, Hung.) is situated 
to the north-west of the Great, and to the north of the Little Cumania. It 
is a fruitful plain covered with corn fields, vineyards and pastures, but it 
is not varied by woods or trees. lasz-Bereny, although it contains 12,000 
individuals, has the appearance of a large village; its inhabitants are igno- 
rant and slothful; few artisans or tradesmen are found amongst them. 
The lasz possess a district of 18 Hungarian square miles, 8 and their 
number is not supposed to be less than 42,000. They are not, as their 
official Latin designation seems to indicate, the descendants of the Sar- 
matian lazyges, but a tribe of Cumans, who served in the foremost ranks 
as archers. Their Hungarian name is expressive of their former employ- 
ments, they are called Balistarii, in the language of different tribunals, 
and by some Hungarian authors, Philistcei. 

The three Cuman tribes enjoy important privileges. Subject to the 
direct authority of the palatine, they have their separate laws, modified 
taxes, and a special deputation at the diet. The Haydouques, to whom 
.several immunities have also been granted, are only a distinct military 
body ; their villages extend to the north-east of Great Cumania between. 
Debreczin and Tokay. 

The portion of Hungary on the west of the Danube, is offi- , Trans _D anu . 
cially styled the Trans-Danubian circle; it forms a sort of quad- ' bian circle. 
rangle bounded on three sides by the Danube and the Drave, and conti- 
guous on the fourth to the mountainous districts of Styria and Austria. 
We may be supposed to travel from Buda across the well- , 
wooded hills of Pilis. The following towns are worthy of notice. ' 
Dotis, or Tata, contains nearly 10,000 inhabitants, and is frequent- 
ed on account of its thermal and medicinal springs. Szent-Marton stands 
at the foot of a hill, which the benedictines call the sacred mount of Pan- 
nonia; these monks possess still the rich abbey founded by King Geysa. 
Raab or Gyor is situated on the banks of a river of the same name, and at 
the place where it joins the Danube; its population amounts to 14,000 
souls; it is well fortified and the best built town in the circle. Oedenburg 
(Soprony, Hung.) is a manufacturing and trading town; its lands occupy 
an extent of 1,920,000 square klafters, or more than four times the number 
of square yards, many of the fields are covered with vineyards. Eisenstadt 
(Kis-Marton, Hung.) is adorned with a large castle belonging to the Ester- 
hazy family; the ministers of their large principality reside in the town. 
Rust is famous for its wines, Neusiedel is built on the northern banks of 
its lake, and JEsterhaza is the Versailles of the princes who have derived 
their name from it. To the south of these places are the free and royal 
town of Gunz, the seat of the supreme tribunal in the circle, and Slein- 
am-Jlnger or the rock on the plain, (Szombat-Hely, Hung.) a populous 
burgh on the river Gunz, the birth-place of St. Martin, bishop of Tours. 
The small town of Kesthely is the residence of the Festetics, a noble family, 
the founders of the Georgicon, an excellent seminary for agriculture and 
rural economy. Saint Gothard or Szent-Goth is memorable from the de- 
feat of the Turks in 1664, and Stridova is the native town of St. Jerome, 
a father of the church, and a man of genius. The countries on the south and 
south-east of lake Balaton are fruitful, but thinly peopled, and the inhabi- 
tants are more barbarous than their neighbours. Kanischa was once for- 
tified, its ramparts are now in ruins. Sigeth is rendered illustrious by 

r Horvath has almost proved, by other arguments, that the Cumans and Hungarians are 
the same. See his work, De Jazigurn et Cumanorum. Ini. et Moribus. Pesth, 1803. 
* About 288 English square miles. 


the heroic defence of Count Zrini, the Hungarian Leon id as. Fimfkirchen 
or Pecs is a small town at a short distance from the Drave. Mohacz on 
the Danube, is famous on account of a victory obtained over the Hunga- 
rians in 1526, and from the no less signal defeat of the Turks in 1687. 
Towns con- i Simonsthurn on the Shor, Tolna on the Danube, and Hwgises 
tinued. I are insignificant burghs, but on the north is- the free and royal 

town of Stuhl-Weissembourg, (Szekes Feyer-Var, Hung. Bieligrad, Slav.) 
with a population of 13,000 individuals. The ancient kings of Hungary 
were crowned and interred in the city ; in the neighbourhood are public 
walks, summer-houses and gardens. Vesprim, an episcopal city, is at no 
great distance from the northern extremity of the Balaton lake; its nume- 
rous fairs are resorted to by the peasants in the adjoining districts, who 
appear in their varied and picturesque costumes. 

German in- j The Magiars or Hungarians form three-fourths of the popu- 
habitants. J i at i on j n tne Trans-Danubian circle; and the western frontiers 
are chiefly inhabited by Germans. The industrious natives of Styria and 
Austria have introduced their system of husbandry into the counties of 
Wieselburg^, Oedenburg and Eisenburg. The other inhabitants, who are 
still distinguished by their harsh and guttural dialects, migrated at a later 
period from Swabia. 

j The Vandals are most numerous in the counties of Szalad 
' and Szumeg; some of them are scattered over different parts 
of Oedenburg and Eisenburg; they occupy in all 160 villages; they, settled 
first in Bellatinz; Turnischa, or their chief town, is situated in that seigniory. 1 
Their name has excited attention from the fact that the ancient Vandals, 
who fled for refuge to Pannonia, continued, during forty years, citizens of 
Rome; they committed, afterwards, dreadful devastations, but according 
to the general opinion they were of Gothic origin. u The Vandals of Hun- 
gary call themselves Slovenes; their dialect is almost the same as that of 
other Slavonic tribes; they appear to have been a colony of the Windes 
or Wendes in Styria, and differ at present from them only by their ad- 
herence to protestantisms The Hungarian jurists may have distinguished 
them by the celebrated name of Vandals, which was supposed to be synony- 
mous with that of Wendes by the Latinists of the middle ages. 
Croatia and . The ancient kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia are now at- 
phylSfdivi- tached to Hungary. The first may be divided into three dis- 
sions. I tinct physical regions, or into the country intersected with the 

hills and plains, watered by the Drave, the Save and the Kulpa; 2ndly, the 
ridge formed by different branches in the mountainous chains of Kapel- 
la, Wellebit and others; lastly, the maritime districts of Hungarian Dalma- 
tia, at present united to Croatia. The phenomena most interesting to 
the physical geographer are to be found in the second of these three divi- 
sions. The calcareous mountains of which it is formed are lofty; the top 
of Plissiviiza is about 5550 feet above the level of the sea; and the princi- 
pal summit of mount Wellebit reaches to the height of 54-00; the elevation 
of several others varies from 3500 to 4000; the Kapella are not higher 
than 2500 feet. Immense masses of limestone, rent in every direction, 
and separated by huge caverns or frightful precipices, may be observed 
on all of them. Vallies enclosed on every side extend in different parts of 
the ridge, particularly in the south; some are watered by rivers that have 
no outlet, or are lost in caverns, from which they arrive, perhaps, by sub- 
terranean passages at the channel of the Kulpa. Their streams, often 
swollen by heavy rains, do not flow with sufficient rapidity under the ground, 
and then the plains are inundated or changed into lakes. 1 The districts 
of Licavia and Corbavia are the most remarkable of these vallies; they are 

Busching, Erdbeschreibung, ii. 486. Hieronym, Opp. i. p. 26, 93. 

Anton, Litterarisch. Anzeiger, 1797. No. 81. They are confounded with the Ger- 
mans in the statistics of Schwartner. * Racquet's Travels, Leipzik, 1785. 


peopled by rude tribes, whose manners and customs shall be mentioned 
in a different part of the work. 'The Gyula wd-Sluinchicza, in addition to 
the Lica and Corbava^ may be included among the rivers that have no ap- 
parent outlet; the last, before it ingulfs itself, forms forty-three fine cas- 
cades, which move an equal number of mills. The division is, on the whole, 
barren, still many small and well-cultivated vallies are fruitful; it abounds 
in excellent and various kinds of marble, with which the bridges and 
parapets on the Caroline way, and the houses at Zeng, Porto-Re and Fiume 
are built. y 

These countries are exposed to the Barrator to a north wind accompanied 
with intense cold; so great is its violence that 'large stones are carried in 
its course, and dashed to pieces in their fall. The district o^Rudaicza is 
thus rendered uninhabitable and almost inaccessible, ^he narrow border 
between the mountains and the sea, or the gulf of Guarnero, is, in many 
places, protected against the borra, and the climate is as mild in these shel- 
tered spots as in Italy; the fig, the lemon, and other fruits of the south, 
ripen in the open air. 

A great part. of Croatia, or the country watered by the Drave 
and the Save, yields abundant harvests of maize, oats and rye; ' 
produces a great quantity of fruit, and is covered in some districts with 
large forests of lofty oaks. A German writer calculates that 3,700,000 
metzen 7 - of corn are raised on it every year, and that 7400 hundred weight 
of copper are extracted from the mines of Szamobor. The whole region 
resembles, in many respects, the southern districts of Slavonia. 

The hills of Carievitza traverse Croatia between the Drave , 
and the Save, and pass into Slavonia; their height, in some ' 
parts of that province, is considerable. The Papuk is 2748 feet above the 
level of the Save; other summits covered with lofty forests add to the 
beauty of many landscapes in the country, and of none more so than the 
one near Possega, where the hills become gradually lower, and join ex- 
tensive plains. The plants, from the heat and humidity of the climate, 
are green eight months in the year; every day new flowers expand, or fruits 
arrive at maturity. a When the water collected during winter disappears, 
different kinds of wild trefoil and other nutritive herbs rise on the meadows; 
and the oxen of Slavonia are as large as those in Hungary, or the largest 
in Europe. M. Taube tells us that the number of sheep fed on these 
pastures exceeds two millions and a half; although his calculation appears 
too high, its inaccuracy is as yet problematical. The wool of the country 
has been greatly improved by the labours of an agricultural society at 

Agriculture is little aided by the lights of science, but the , produce, 
husbandman is rewarded in Slavonia by rich harvests. Maize ' Agriculture. 
yields from a hundred to two hundred-fold; wheat too is generally culti- 
vated, but it is mixed with a great quantity of bad grain; the inhabitants 
are too indolent to hoe the ground or to sift the corn. It is generally 
supposed that all the grain crops, raised throughout Slavonia, amount, on 
an average, to four millions of metzen, or to twelve millions of bushels. 
But, besides those that are cultivated, there is another sort very common 
in many parts of the country; the people call it manna; it is the same as 
the Fcstuca fluitans of Linnaeus. Almostevery kind of fruit tree thrives 
in the province; the peach, the almond, the plum and the chesnut are the 
most numerous. The plantations of plum trees have been compared to 
forests. German writers assure us that daki or sliva-vilcha, a strong drink 
made of plums, is far superior to brandy or rum. The tobacco near Pos- 
sega is as good as any in Turkey, and its culture is a source of wealth to 

y Demian's Statistics, ii. 182, Borra. * A measure equivalent to three bushels. 

a Taube's description of Slavonia and Hungary, a German work in three volumes? it is 
ably analyzed by Busching. 


the inhabitants. The white mulberry tree appears in luxuriance, conse- 
quently the silk must be of the finest quality. The quince grows in a wild 
state; the Austrians, who brought some from the gardens of Schrenbrunn, 
were surprised on finding them inferior to those in the country. The Sla- 
vonian truffles are equal to any in Piemont, but hogs feed on them, the 
people do not take the trouble to collect them; for the same reason, the 
Fraxinus ornus or flowering ash is neglected; but it yields in Calabria a 
precious manna, and, like the Italian poplar, succeeds as well in Slavonia 
as at the base of the Appenines. 

. t Such are the natural riches of the two provinces which are 
' denominated kingdoms, although Slavonia does not contain 
more than 540,000 inhabitants, and Croatia 68,000, or at most, inclusively 
of the military district, 700,000. Few Hungarians are settled in either 
country; the number of Servians is comparatively great. The Creates, the 
Chrobaies or mountaineers, the ancient Horwatheror Horwathes, make up the 
population of their country; they are a branch of the great Slavonic family, 
but their language is much more harsh and guttural than the Servian dia- 
lects; the eastern Slavonians or Russians may be thus distinguished from 
the western or Polish Bohemians. The Croatian dialect is connected with 
those of the Bohemians and Slovacks in Hungary, -and it is not unlikely 
that the inhabitants migrated from the Carpathian mountains about the 
seventh century. They were invited by the emperor Heraclius, to deliver 
Dalmatia from the yoke of the Abares or Awares. Some ancient tribes of 
Proto-Slavonic origin, perhaps the ancestors of the Wendes, might have in 
this way been subdued. The Croatians, thus increased in number, found- 
ed the dutchies or principalities, which they called the Zupanias of Carin- 
thia, Friuli, Liburnia or Croatia Proper, Jadra in Dalmatia, Slavonia, and 
others. These petty states yielded to Charlemagne, but were in general 
the allies of the Greek empire. The pope retained his spiritual authority 
over them after the schism between the eastern and western churches, and 
they borrowed from the Germans their feudal institutions. Crescimir or 
their first archizupan flourished in the tenth century; his son, Dircislav, took 
the title of king, and Croatia comprehended at that time the western part 
of Dalmatia and Bosnia. JBeligrad, or its capital, appears to have been 
situated on the shores of the Adriatic sea, at the place now called Zara- 
Vecchia by the Venetians, and Biograd by the people in the country. 11 
Other writers suppose, however, that it might have been a different town, 
that of Biograd, Belligrad or Bielgrad, situated on the banks of the Pliva, a 
small river that falls into the Verbas opposite Jaicza. 
character, i The Croatians, formerly a very warlike people, continued af- 
&c. I ter the middle of the 18th century to lay waste the Ottoman 

territory by petty incursions, from which they returned in triumph to 
their villages. 11 Although compelled by the Austrian government to relin- 
quish these amusements, they still prefer the chances of war to the labours 
of peace. Those that live at a distance from the Turkish frontiers have 
acquired more industrious habits. Rude and unpolished, their good quali- 
ties are obscured by the vices of savage nations, still some of them are 
capable of generous and exalted sentiments, and all of them are remarkable 
for their fidelity to a government which accommodates itself to their pre- 
judices. They revolted against Austria in consequence of administrative 
innovations in ,1755, and it was impossible to restrain their fury when 
their country was ceded to France in 1809. Their houses, without win- 
dows or chimneys, may be compared to large barns, where men, women, 
oxen, and pigs, live under the same roof, yet a late traveller commends 

b Kruse's Historical Atlas. Busching, IV. 220. 

c Busching, Erdheschreib, II. 429. The author refers to documents in the work of Lu- 
cius de regno Dalmat. 
d Letters on Croatia, Stats-anzeigen, I. p. 360374. 


them for their cleanliness. It is probable that he only visited those in the 
south-west of the Trans-Danubian circle. 6 The women are fond of orna- 
ments, and love to deck themselves in the most varied and glaring colours. 
The greater number of Croatians reside in the military limits, which shall 
be afterwards described. It might be inferred from the habits, customs, 
and occupations of these men, that they belonged to an army stationed in 
its quarters, or suddenly impeded in its march. A journey to their coun- 
try might not be unprofitable to him who would write the history of the 
warlike nations in the middle ages. 

Mgramj or the capital of Croatia, is built on a hill on the banks 
of the Save, and is known by the Croatian and Italian names of * 
Zagrab and Sagabria; it was also at an earlier period called GreczQY Graetz, 
which signifies a castle or a strong-hold; it is now a free and royal city, 
the residence of the viceroy of Croatia and Slavonia. The bishop is obliged 
to maintain a regiment, and the colonel, who must be chosen from the ca- 
nons, enjoys the triple office of commander of the fort Dubitza. The popu- 
lation of Agram amounts to 17,000 individuals; most of them are nobles. 
Warasdin is a small fortified town on the Drave; Kseres-Vasarhely, in Croa- 
tian, Krisevczi, and in German, Kreuz, claims the title of capital. If the 
chroniclers of the country can be believed, two brothers Czech and Lech, 
left the burgh of Krapina; and founded the Polish and Bohemian monarch- 
ies. Carlstadt, a fortress on the Kulpa, is the most 'important of any in an 
extensive station commanded by a general, who is governor of Kostanitza, 
Petrina, and a number of others, for in Croatia, as in Bosnia and Dalmatia, 
every hill, however small, is crowned with some kind of fort. Bellovar, 
a town lately built, is the most agreeable of any in Croatia, and the head 
quarters of a general who is appointed over the fortresses of Kaproncza^ 
Zuanitz, and all those in the station of Warasdin. 

The narrow country that has been sometimes called Hungarian Dalma- 
tia, and more correctly the coast of Illyria or Croatia, contains some towns 
worthy of notice;. among others, Fiume, or in German St. Veit-am-Pflaum, 
and in Croatian Rekari; it has flourished even since a communication was 
opened into the interior by means of the Caroline way. That , Carolin 
road is 65,000 yards in length, and terminates at Carlstadt; ! 
rocks levelled, abysses filled up, and precipices joinecj by bridges, remind 
the traveller of the great works accomplished by the Romans. The port 
of Fiume holds from 1200 to 1500 vessels, and the value of the commercial 
exchanges exceeds four millions of florins. It is the Trieste of Hungary, 
and like Trieste, the customs, the language spoken by the higher orders, 
and in the theatre, are Italian. The access to it is rendered difficult, some- 
times dangerous, by the impetuous winds and storms on the Gulf of Quar- 
nero. The Zbiztri inhabit the countries round Fiume; some writers suppose 
them the descendants of the ancient Garni, others of the Liburnians, and 
it is likely that they spoke a Slavonic dialect, which has been since 
changed for Italian. The other sea-ports, or Segni, Buccari, Porte-Re and 
Carlobago, are less important, although the last is situated at the extremity 
of the Josephine way, a road cut at a great expense, on mountains former- 
ly impervious, but on which carriages and artillery can now pass. The 
distances are marked by white marble pyramids, and on the top of each 
of them a sun dial is placed; a refreshing fountain gushes from the base. 
We cannot leave this part of the country without mentioning the small dis- 
trict of Turopolia, or the plain of Turo ; it consists of thirty-three villages, 
and there is not an individual in them of ignoble origin. All the inha- 
bitants and all their descendants were ennobled by Bela the IVth. They 
send a special deputy to the Hungarian diet, and live under a separate go- 
vernment, at the head of which is a landgrave or comes terrestris* 

e Beudant, Voyage, I. 66, 


The form and position of the Croatian coast have been twenty times 
changed by ministerial caprice; as often has the situation of the towns and 
ports naturally dependent on Croatia, been altered by the German statis- 
tical writers; to enter into such minutiss is now unnecessary; the country 
has become a dependence of Hungary. 

Essek, a fortified town in Slavonia, is situated on the Drave, and sur- 
rounded by marshes, which render it unwholesome. It was there that So- 
lyman the Great constructed, in 1 566, a wooden bridge, or rather a number 
of bridges and moles, 2855 yards in length; the work during more than a 
century, was the boast of the Turks, and the terror of the Hungarians. 
Possega is a royal town; Vukovar, Diakovar, and Pakratz, are large, but ill 
built burghs. Ratschka^ Brod, Mt-Gradisca, and other insignificant for- 
tresses have been erected on the banks of the Save. Semlin is situated in 
Syrmia, or the lowest district of Slavonia; it was a burgh in 1739, it has 
since become the second commercial town in Hungary. All the goods sent 
from Constantinople to Vienna pass through Semlin; its population, which 
is rapidly increasing, amounts at present to 9000 inhabitants; its trade is 
likely to be more extensive from its position on the Danube, and its vici- 
nity to three or four feeders which fall into that river. A medical board 
that is established in the town, has the power of subjecting vessels and 
strangers to quarantine. Peterwaradin or Petervaras, another town on the 
Danube, is important from its fortifications. Prince Eugene obtained there 
a signal victory over the Turks in 1716. The same people were twice 
routed at Salankemen, once in 1697, and the second time in 1716. The 
Greek patriarch of the Illyrian nation in Hungary, resides at Carlowitz, a 
small town, where a truce was concluded in 1699 between Austria, Venice, 
Poland, and Turkey. A perpetual peace, one of the improvements or dis- 
.coveries in our own times, was not then formed; it was judged wiser, con- 
sidering the vicissitudes of human affairs, to enter into a truce for twenty- 
five years. Mitrowitz, a large village, is about two miles from the ancient 
Syrmium, or the chief town of Illyricum, in the time of the Romans. Twelve 
Greek convents of the ordei* of St. Basil, have been built in the romantic 
vallies of Fruska Gora. 

Kingdom of i Three districts on the Adriatic, at present under the Austri- 
Daiioatia. I an government, are now called the kingdom of Dalmatia; they 
are connected with Croatia and- Slavonia by the language and origin of 
their inhabitants, and they form the maritime part of the physical section 
in which Albania and Bosnia have been included. The districts are dis- 
tinguished by their calcareous rocks, arid land, marshes and stagnant wa- 
ter, by the climate of Italy in some places, and in others by the cold blasts 
of the Bond, winter is unknown, continued rains last for six weeks. The 
numerous gulfs abound in different kinds of fish. The most delicate flow- 
ers and shrubs ripen in the open air, the plants and fruits on the coast are 
olives, Corinthian grapes, and vineyards that yield sweet and strong wines. 
The first district is the Ex- Venetian Dalmatia^ the second, the former ter- 
ritory of Ragusa, the third, the Bocche of Cattaro. 

Dalmatia i Two rivers in the Ex- Venetian Dalmatia have been remark- 
rroix*. I e d on account of their romantic and picturesque course. The 
Kerka rises from a grotto, divides itself into many small cascades, which 
unite and form five large cataracts; the Cettina is more sombre, two of its 
sources issue from dark caverns, it rolls between frightful precipices, and 
falls from the height of 150 feet into an abyss near Velika-Gubovitza. The 
different provincial courts are held at Zara, its harbour is well fortified, its 
trade consists in rosoglio, silk and wool. Zara- Vechia or Biograd is be- 
lieved to have been the residence of the Croatian kings. Sebenico is adorn- 
ed with a magnificent cathedral, and its large harbour is protected by the 
fort St. Nicolas. Spalato, a fortified town, is enclosed in the vast ruins of a 
palace, built by Diocletian ; it is provided with a large harbour, and peopled 


by nearly 7000 inhabitants. The maraschino of Spalato is imported into 
different countries. No fresh water streams, but many sulphureous and 
warm springs have been discovered in the neighbourhood, and at no great 
distance from it are the ruins of Salona, a large Roman town. These are 
the principal places in the Dalmatian continent. The islands i Iglandg 
may be next enumerated; we shall begin with those on the ' 
north and -advance southwards. Veglia is a long range of rocks, but in the 
interior are some lofty woods, extensive orchards, fruitful vineyards, and 
valuable quarries of red marble. Cherso is a large calcareous hill, of which 
the sides are covered with vineyards and olive plantations. Osero, an island 
of the same kind, is separated from the former by a channel not more than 
five yards in breadth; the town of Osero was built on the island of the same 
name ; every part of it is now situated in Cherso. Numerous flocks of 
sheep graze on the fertile pastures of Jlrbe, but even these animals are 
sometimes destroyed by the borra or cold north wind. Pago may be com- 
pared from its many sections to a number of small peninsulas; its salt mines 
are productive; when in the possession of the French, they yielded annu- 
ally about 120,000 hundred weight. All these five islands lie in the stormy 
gulf of Quarnero; the three first are dependencies of Croatia. Grossa 
abounds in vines and olives, Caronata exports its cheeses, Morter is a place 
of refuge for pirates, and Jlua is remarkable for its wells of asphaltos. The 
large island of Brazza-is peopled by twelve or thirteen thousand inhabi- 
tants, it produces 45,000 tuns of wine, a great quantity of oil, fruit, mas- 
tich, saffron, and silk. Le$ina or the ancient P/iaria is still larger, but not 
so populous; it is rich in wine, and the profits derived from its sardel fishe- 
ries amount annually to 80,000 ducats. Its fine marbles, its ports, its fields 
fragrant with rosemary and other aromatics, render it perhaps more 
agreeable than any other island on these shores. Lissa is situated at a 
greater distance from the coast; it is fruitful, and its wool is valuable; but 
the great importance of the island depends on the harbour built and forti- 
fied by Napoleon, the late emperor of the French. Curzola is ill provided 
with water; its wealth is derived from its naval timber.* 

The Dalmatians are not an industrious people, their chief occupation 
is that of ship-building, they possessed in 1816 three thousand vessels and 
barks that plied as far as the Archipelago. Two great roads have of late 
years been opened; the one from Zara to Kirin and onwards to Sign, the 
other along the coast. An extensive trade is carried on in rosoglio and ma- 
raschino, which is made from the juice of acid cherries cultivated in differ- 
ent parts of the country, and a spirituous liquor extracted from the fruit of 
the arbutus tree, the most common plant on the uncultivated islands. The 
ordinary quantity of wine exported yearly, is said to be 650,000 Austrian 
eimers.z The gross -profits from the sardine, thunny, and mackarcl fishe- 
ries are not less than 449, 950/. or 17,910,000 Venetian lire. 

The indigenous Dalmatian, like the Bosnian, is of Slavonic origin, but 
the inhabitants of the towns under the protection of Venice since the eighth 
century, adopted the Italian language, and have not wholly lost the cus- 
toms, devotional ceremonies and jealousy of the old Italians. The Mor- 
lacks are a separate tribe in the interior of Dalmatia; they call themselves 
Vlach or Wallachians, but it is not likely that they are sprung from that 
people. Those who dwell in the north, on the banks of the Kerka, differ 
from the other Dalmatians by their fair complexion, light blue eyes, and 
the form of their features; it might be thought from their appearance that 
they were the descendants of Goths and Tartars. Such as reside in the 
south, near the Cettina and Narenta, may be known by their dark com- 
plexion, long visage, and black hair; both speak a Slavonic dialect, mixed 
with Latin and Wallachian. Two hypotheses have been formed concern- 

f Germar, Voyage en Dalmatic, 1817. * Liechtenstern, Statistics, III. p. 1830. 

VOL. IV. A a 


ing their origin. M. Engel supposes them a colony of Bulgarians that 
mingled with the Wallachians, who migrated to Dalmatia about the year 
1019, and were denominated Mo re- Vlaques or maritime Wallachians. h M. 
Mannert traces them from the Awares, a people subdued in the seventh 
century, by the Slavonic Croatians or Chrobates. Some of the vanquished 
remained with the conquerors, their descendants are still distinguished 
by the physiognomy of their forefathers. 1 It is obvious that the subdivi- 
sion of the Morlaques into two distinct tribes, is not accounted for by the 
one or other supposition, and both for that reason appear to be incorrect; 
the subject may perhaps excite the attention of future travellers. Poglitza, 
District of i a district of Dalmatia on the north-east of Spalato, retains its 
Pogiiua. I republican forms under the Austrian monarchy; it is inhabited 
by Morlaques, Hungarian and Bosnian nobles, and their number amounts 
to 16,000 individuals. The magistrates are chosen by the people, who 
meet for that purpose in the sbor or assembly. Hungarians only are eli- 
gible to the office of Great Count,. or the highest dignity in the state. All 
the Poglitzans are bred to arms, and pay a fixed tribute to the Austrian 

The republic of Ragusa is now added to Dalmatia. The 
' ancient Epidaurus was situated in its territory, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Molonta.* Ragusa Vecchia was founded by old Roman colo- 
nists, but they were compelled by repeated earthquakes to remove to the 
present town, and there, during the dark ages, the inhabitants made rapid 
advances in civilization, commercial industry and policy worthy of a more 
extensive theatre. Ragusa, under an aristocratic government, rivalled 
Venice in its fleets, trade and manufactures; it possessed .the Dalmatian 
and Bosnian mines, it produced poets, geometers, painters and historians, 
and obtained the title of the Slavo-Illyrian Athens. 1 Conquered at last by 
the Venetians, having sacrificed its navy in consequence of its devoted con- 
stancy to Spain, it was visited at a later period in 1687, by a tremendous 
earthquake, and has never since risen into importance. It remained under 
the protection of the Porte, and was destroyed, like Genoa and Venice, 
during the great European- invasion of the French; from their hands it 
passed into the power of Austria. 

The territory of Ragusa extends over a surface of 78 square leagues, 
or 702 square miles; it consists of a narrow, arid and rocky tract on the 
coast; some of its hills and vallies are covered with vines, olives and a 
great variety of fruit. The country on the north terminates in a peninsula, 

and is bounded by several islands. Ragusa, (Dobrovnik, Slav.) 
' is built in the Italian style, and does not differ from the towns 

in Italy by the customs or language of its inhabitants. The ancient palace 
of the republic is still suffered to remain. The townsmen carry on a trade 
in silk and rosoglio; the population, including that of the suburbs, amounts 
probably to 15,000 individuals. The harbour of Ragusa is small, but the 
docks and warehouses of the Ragusans have been built at Gravosa, and a 
line of country houses extends from the capital to that port. 
Remarkable i The district of Canali is fertile in orchards, and overtopped 
places. I k v M OUI U Sniecznicza, on which snow is sometimes seen. The 

valley of Ombla is covered with villas, and the small town of Stagno is 
situated on two gulfs, and receives from the northern the unwholesome 
exhalations that rise above the marshes of the Narenta. The peninsula 
of Sabicncello is peopled by good mariners, and the island JJgosto is defended 
by natural ramparts; the inhabitants boast of their grottos and Pheni- 

h Mithrtdates, II. p. 642. ' Mannert's Ancient Geography of the Greeks and Ro- 

mans, vol.-VII. p. 395. * Mannert, VII. p. 350. 

1 Appending Notizie istoriche critiche, &c. Ragusa, 1802. There is an extract from 
the above work by M. Depping in the Annales des Voyages. 


cian inscriptions. St. Paul, it is supposed, was shipwrecked on the island 
of Meleda; tho pilgrims who resort to it, admire its woods and romantic 
lake. The small island of Giupana or Scipan possesses a fine harbour and 
abounds in fruit. Our limits prevent us from describing the festival of 
St. Blaise, the tutelar saint of the republic, or the laws of the Druczina, a 
fraternity of young nobles, or the patriarchal marriages of the peasants, 
and many other ancient Roman and Slavonic customs, that still exist in a 
territory of which the population is not greater than 52,000 souls. 

The deep gulf of Cattaro penetrates in a winding direction between 
steep rocks, and receives no other feeders than mountain torrents; the 
declivities are covered with vineyards, fig, olive and many fruit treesj 
villages are interspersed throughout fertile and verdant hills, and the ro- 
mantic landscape is bounded by the thick woods of Montenegro. The 
summers in the valley near the gulf are as warm as at Naples; the orange 
and the lemon tree thrive in the open air; snow is never seen, winter is not 
a cold but a rainy season, and even then the fields and gardens are covered 
with vervain, the passion flower, and many tender plants. Cattaro, a for- 
tified town, is built near the inmost recess of the gulf; its in- Towng 
habitants are distinguished by their hospitality; the fashions, ' 
manners and customs of Italy have been introduced amongst them. Debrota 
is entitled the most catholic, and its townsmen never marry with strangers. 
Persagno is remarkable for its fine buildings, and Perasto for its site in a 
natural amphitheatre. Rizano, once the chief town on the gulf, was for 
along time peopled by pirates; their descendants, like the Scots high- 
landers, are not a polished people, but they still wear the ancient Roman 
costume. So great was at one time the dread of piratical invasions, that 
almost all the habitations were confined within the Strait of the chain, a na- 
tural barrier that may be defended by infantry; even at present the only 
dwellings on the shores of the outer gulf are the village of Theodo, which 
consists for the most part of country houses, and the fortified but dismal 
town of Castel-Novo. The district of Zuppa, and the large ports of Traste 
and Pastrovich on the south of the Bacche, are peopled by an active race of 
men, who generally carry on predatory wars against the Montenegrines. 

Hungary claims the southern extremity of these maritime , Bocchese 
provinces, which, though under the Austrian government, ' 
possess a separate administration. The Bocchese unite with the vigorous 
constitution of the Slavonians, the vivacity, bigotry and jealousy of the 
Italians. Eager after gain, accustomed to a sea-faring life, they quit the 
helm or the oar for the musket, and retain in some degree the rude fero- 
city of barbarous nations. Their notions of justice are very vague, blood 
for blood appears to be their great rule, but such is their superstition, that 
so late as 1802, some young women, who were seduced and became preg- 
nant before marriage, were stoned to death. Each district has its feudal 
privileges; all of them do not contain more than 30,000 individuals, yet a 
state so insignificant is divided by Catholic and Greek factions, hence pro- 
bably, and from the general character of its inhabitants, it has been styled 
the Austrian Albania. 

It only remains for us to crive a short account of Transylva- m 

, . , f ,. . .. b ->, T-k i I Transylvania. 

ma, which forms politically a separate state or Great Dutchy, ' 
but naturally and geographically a continuation of Upper Hungary. Sie- 
benburgen or the German name of the province has been the theme of many 
discussions, some writers maintaining that it signifies seven mountains, 
others seven burghs; it has also been derived from seven Hunnic chiefs, 
who settled in the country, and from the same number of groups or de- 
tached heights on the banks of the Rhine; some philologists insist that 

m Tableau des Douches clu Cattaro, par un officier autrichien, avec un carte. (Annales 
des Voyages, IV. 145.) 


an ancient people, the Sibyni, left obscure traces of their settlements, for 
example, the word Szcbenor Cibinium, the name of an important town. It 
is difficult to arrive at any conclusion on the subject, but it is certain that 
the Hungarians called the province Erdehj from its relative situation to 
their own land; instead of that word, its Latin synonyme, Ultra Syhania 
was first used, and afterwards changed into Transylvania. The physical 
geography of the country has already been considered; its Alps, rivers, 
productions, and climate have been described from the scanty materials 
afforded us by travellers and geographers, but it is to be regretted that no 
full or accurate account of Transylvania has hitherto appeared. 

jij.; Three nations, represented in the Transylvanian diet, are 

' situated in different parts of the principality. The northern 
and western portion belong chiefly to the Hungarians; the country of the 
Szeklers extends along the eastern frontiers, and the Saxons possess the 
lands in the south. The Wallachians make up, perhaps, one-half of the 
population; but no particular territory has been assigned to them; they 
are most numerous in the central and eastern districts. 

I The Saxons inhabit Hermans tadt, a town of 16,000 souls, re- 

' gularly built, encompassed with walls, the capital of the Saxon 
nation in Transylvania, the residence of a military governor, and the seat 
of the public authorities. Among its institutions are a Lutheran seminary 
and gymnasium, and a learned society whose researches are confined to 
subjects connected with history. It was called Hermanstadt from Hermann 
of Franconia, a chief of the Saxon or German colony, and the reputed 
founder of the town ; but we know no document from which it has obtained 
its Hungarian and Latin names, or Szeben and Cibinium." 

The gate of the Red Tower is a famous pass at no great distance from 
Hermanstadt; the Aluta flows into it, and is precipitated into the plains 
of Wallachia. Reps, Heltan, Rosinar, Gross~Schenk 9 Hermanstadt and other 
large burghs are situated in the Jlltland, the old country or ancient colony. 
Schesburgh (Segesvar, Hung.) Medwisk, and Birthalm are the most remarkable 
places in the Weinland, or wine country. Mullenbach, Reismarkt and Broos 
are the principal towns in a district, which, according to the signification 
of its name, fronted the forests. 

Fogaras is a well-built town in a county that belongs to the Saxons in 
virtue of a lease; that fact may appear strange to the national lawyers of 
France or England, but it should be remembered that acquired rights are 
Kronstadt I st ^ respected in one antiquated corner of Europe. Kronstadt, 

' (Brassau, Hung.) the first town in Transylvania, both in point 
of the wealth and number of its inhabitants, contains 25,000 souls; it is 
partly fortified, possesses a catholic and Lutheran college; and it is said 
that the valu.e of the goods bought and sold in the town, amounts to 
7,000,000 florins; of that sum five millions are placed to the account of the 
Greek Company; its manufactures are not exported to foreign countries. 
Burzenland," or the tempestuous district, of which Kronstadt is the metro- 
polis, forms the eastern extremity of Transylvania; it is partly peopled by 
60,000 Wallachians. Nosen or Bistritz, a neat town with a Calvinistic col- 
lege, is the capital of a detached county near the frontiers of Bukowine. 
Foundation of I ^ ^ e formation and existence of a German state, surrounded 
the sax-m by Slavonic, Wallachian and Hungarian nations, have excited 

' the attention of geographers and historians. King Geysa the 
Second, invited, in 1 143, many German families, chiefly from Franconia, 
Westphalia and Thuringia, to occupy the deserts on the east of Hungary, 
and to defend the kingdom on that side from barbarous invasions. But 
it is said, on the other hand, that Hermann, the founder of the town, which 

n Comes Chibiensis occurs in a diploma granted by king Andrew the Second. 
From Burza, a tempest in Slavonic; it is not unlikely that the Slovacks on the Carpa- 
thian mountains occupied the district. 


bears his name, assisted at the nuptials of Stephen the I. in the year 1002 
or 1003. Andrew the II. granted by a diploma, in 1224, to his Teutonic 
hosts (hospites nostri theutonici,) certain immunities and privileges, by 
which a distinct state was formed, exercising its own political and muni- 
cipal rights. These grants were the cause of many struggles and wars, 
raised and carried on by despots, from the time of Bathory to Joseph the 
II. who declared, but in vain, that the Saxon nation was extinct. It is not 
known if the German colonists mingled in their new country with any 
descendants of the Goths, or observed any Slavonic villages; certain it is 
that they received, from a liberal monarch, not only the forests of the Blaches, 
(Wallachians,) and Bissenes (Petchenegues,) but the said Blaches, and the 
said Bissenes themselves. The colonists employed these people to tend their 
flocks; no feudal burden was imposed on them; the Germans resolved to 
sanction no hereditary aristocracy in their settlement. The 

. . it. j -i i-i il Constitution. 

people now enjoy the blessings ot civil liberty in a greater cle- * 
gree than the inhabitants of most states, and they participate, by means of 
their representatives at the Transylvania diets, in the political freedom of 
the Hungarians. * Several curious laws, calculated to repress j 
immorality among all classes of men, and luxury or effeminacy * 
among the rich, may be found in their municipal enactments. The peo- 
ple are divided into fraternities, neighbourhoods and tithings; reciprocal 
duties are assigned to the members of these corporations. Dress, ceremo- 
nies and feasts are all regulated, and in many instances with much skill 
and wisdom. The higher ranks, from an eager desire of innovation, have 
resisted these decrees, but the Christian religion, is still taught in its ancient 
purity, and the children learn the element&of their language in the writings 
of the evangelists. These Germans' call themselves Teutsche, Na 
and the Magiars denominate them by the official Latin name ' 
of the Saxons, which has been probably handed down from the time of 
their Finnic ancestors." 1 

The Sicules or Szeklers inhabit a country in which there are few , country of 
towns, but many burghs and villages, as Szent Miklos* with its ' theSzekiere. 
fine Armenian church, Udvarhely with a population of 6,000 souls; Szent 
Gyorgy, Miklos-Var and others. 8 Maros+Vasarhely, however, is an exception; 
it enjoys the privileges of a royal city, and one family* possesses a palace 
and a library of 60,000 volumes. The country of the Szeklers is moun- 
tainous, and, although fertile in grain and fruit, many individuals in the 
district of Czik are compelled to migrate for a subsistence. The people, 
who are probably a branch of the Patzinakites, now speak the Hungarian. 
Accustomed to the occupations of war, living on the produce of their 
fields, they are still rude and ignorant, some of them were guilty of the 
atrocities committed at Rastadt. 

The other towns are inhabited by Wallachians, Hungarians , Countryof 
and Saxons. Clausenburg, (Kolos-Far, Hung.) the second city theHunga. 
in Transylvania, is peopled by 20,000 souls; it is the place at nans ' 
which the diets of the principality are usually held$ and possesses a catho- 
lic university and two seminaries, the one under the direction of the Cal- 
vinists, the other belonging to. the Socinians or Unitarians. Matthias 
Corvin was born in the town. Szamos-Falva is protected by two citadels, 
and Apafi-Falva was the birth-place of the Apafian princes, the last monarchs 
of Transylvania.' Thorda is inhabited by 6,500 individuals, and is situated 
in the vicinity of a valuable salt mine. Szent-Miklos on the Kokol is defended 

P See the Memoir entitled Der Verfassungs-Zustand der sachsischen nation in Sieben- 
burgen; Hermannstadt,1790. There is an analysis of the above article by Schlaetzer, Staats- 
Anzeigen, (Political Journal,) vol. XVF. p. 468, &c. 

i The Germans were known to the Finns by the name of Saxa-Lainen; Germany was 
called Saxan-Maa. Juslenii Fennici Lexici Tentamen,p. 332. , 

r Saint Michael. Saint George. t Count Teleky. 


by two castles. Zalatna or Zlatna is built in a fruitful country. Enyed, or, 
according to its German name, Strasburg, has still its Calvinistic academy 
and gymnasium. Torosko and Korces-Banya are mining towns in a district 
rich in gold. The flourishing burgh of Leva is not far from the Iron Gate 
or Vas-Kapa.) a well-known pass, that leads to the plain of Temeswar. 
Karlsburg is an important strong hold near Weissenberg; in the fort are 
the tombs of the Hunyades or Corvins; in the burgh are a college and an 
astronomical observatory. 11 The court that presided over the mines in 
Transylvania was for a long time held at Abrud-Banya or Gross-Schlatten. 
Szamos-Uivar or Armenianstadt is mostly peopled by Armenians. Ruins 
and heaps of stones near Gradichtie mark the site of the ancient capital of 
Dacia, the Sarmizagethusa of the Dacians, and the Ulpia-Trajana of the 

Name of the I Having concluded these topographical details, we shall make 
Carpathian one or two observations on the name of the Carpathian moun- 
lins ' I tains; that name, first mentioned in the writings of Ptolemy, 
was not unknown to the earliest geographers of Greece. The island of 
Karpathos and the adjacent sea are described in the poems of Homer; and 
it is worthy of remark, that the word has undergone the same metathesis 
in Greek and in the Slavonic dialects. Thus the Poles and Bohemians 
say Krapac, which is pronounced in the same manner as Krapatz, while 
the Russians and Servians, if they had been the inhabitants of these^ re- 
gions, must, from the nature of their language, have called them Karpat. 
The same term has perhaps some analogy to chrebet, (mountains in Rus- 
sian,) or chrapierii to ascend, and chropawy, uneven in Polish, to the names 
of the- Chrobates, Chorwates and other states. The Greek name of the Ri- 
phean range might have been at one time synonymous with it. We do not 
affirm the truth of these statements, but many of them are very probable, 
and it is certain that some Greek traditions relative to the Riphean moun- 
tains are not inapplicable to those in Hungary and Transylvania. 


Hungary concluded. Researches on the Origin of the Hungarians. Remarks 
on the Provinces annexed to Hungary. 

SOME account has been given of the different states subject, united or 
added to Hungary. Little has hitherto been said concerning the origin or 
migrations of the Hungarians; it was thought best to defer the considera- 
tion of that subject, from the conviction that it is as intricate as any in the 
geography of nations. 

Hun ariana I ^e Hungarians entered the basin of the Theiss and the 
' Danube by the plain now protected by the forts of Ungh-Var 
and Munkatsch; they invaded all the low country, and left the mountainous 
districts on the north and north-west to the Slovacks, once the subjects of 
the Moravian or Maravanian monarchy. They advanced on the south-west 
to the base of the Styrian and Croatian mountains, and met in these regions 
Slavonic tribes, the Wends and Croatians. The Hungarians were accus- 
tomed to a pastoral life, and possessed numerous flocks and herds, for 

" Busching, II. 580. Recent geographers have confounded the fort and the town. 


which the large plains were well adapted. The same country had been 
successively subdued by the Pannonians, Sarmatians, Huns and Awares; 
but several Hungarian tribes inhabited, probably at an earlier period, the 
mountains in the north-west of Transylvania, or the basin of the two Sza- 
mos, which was called Black Hungary in the year 1002, or at the time of 
its union with Hungary Proper. It has been seen that the Szecklers in the 
eastern part of Transylvania are an Hungarian or semi-Hungarian tribe, that 
have existed in their present country since the ninth century. The popu^ 
lation of the whole nation, including the Cumanians and Jazyges, amounts 
to four millions, of whom nearly 500,000 are settled in Transylvania. 

The Hungarians are not a tall race of men, but active, mus- , Chaiacter . 
cular, and robust; the people, the nobles, all the Magiars, are ' 
renowned for martial valour and patience in enduring the fatigues of war. 
Their g;ayety or mirth is not that of polished nations, but the effect of mi- 
litary habits and imperfect civilization. 

The higher classes, who are not strangers to European re- . Nob]eg 
finement, possess immense revenues, and are attached, by their ' 
connexion or titles, to the court of Vienna. They imitate whatever may 
dazzle the multitude in the customs or fashions of the German, French, 
and English nobles. They vie with each other in the pomp and magnificence 
of their feasts, and in the number of their retinue, affect patriotism in imi- 
tation of the English, ride in more costly carriages than the German cour- 
tiers, and distinguish themselves in the diets by an energetic, or, at all 
events, a noisy opposition against the Austrian cabinet. But it is evident 
that they can gain nothing from a political change, and that there is really 
little difference between them and the Galician or Austrian nobility. The 
poorer nobles form a separate class, residing from choice or necessity 
in the country. They cultivate their farms, speak the national language, 
maintain the national privileges, and desire eagerly that they may be 
strengthened and increased. The most of them are protestants, and the 
protestants are divided into Calvinists and Lutherans. 

All the Hungarian nobles, rich and poor, are distinguished National 
by their frankness and hospitality. The lord of a wide domain, ' character. 
and the baron who cultivates his own acres, receive the stranger with the 
same cordiality. A traveller that can speak the language, might traverse 
the whole kingdom without entering an inn; but he must lay aside the ma- 
gisterial gravity of the Germans, and the haughty reserve of the English, 
he must drink wine out of the same glass as his host, partake of national 
dishes, and smoke a pipe after dinner. The Austrians are prejudiced 
against the Hungarians, and those who visit Hungary live in inns, which 
are in general very bad, a natural inconvenience in a country rarely fre- 
quented by travellers. Some German towns may form an exception to the 
rule; in them the fashions of other lands prevail. But whoever remains 
with the Hungarians, accommodates himself to their customs, converses 
with them in their language, is likely to become their friend; he may share 
in their joy, their calamities are not concealed from him. 

The peasantry form the great mass of the people, their cos- 
tume is well fitted for a cold climate and a pastoral life. The ' 
guba, a large woollen cloak, defends them against the inclemencies of the 
season; and the kalpak or felt cap, which is now worn by horsemen, and 
even by kings, still retains among the peasants its ancient Tartar or Finnic 
shape. A wallet hangs from the shoulder, and every man carries the va- 
laska, a small hatchet with a long handle, an instrument which they wield 
dextrously. a No alteration has perhaps taken place in the dress of the 
louhasz or peasants, since the time they fought in the armies of Attila. 

They still retain their Tartar customs, and rarely if ever enter an inn; 

Bredetzky, Beitrxge, II. 8. 


when travelling, they sleep in the open air, in their carts, or near their 
flocks; at home, a bench or a heap of hay serves for a bed. The hogs, 
which supply them with food, are kept in the same house, and only sepa- 
rated by a trellis from their owners. The epidemic diseases and fevers so 
prevalent in Lower Hungary, may depend perhaps as much on the peo- 
ple's manner of living as on the climate ; but whatever may be the cause of 
the diseases, they are less fatal to the natives than to foreigners. 

The gay and mirthful character of the Hungarians is evinced in their fre- 
quent and noisy meetings, in their dances, some of which are intricate, 
others of a dramatic character. Their songs are not unlike what the Greeks 
called amoibaea; they consist of questions and answers well adapted for the 
condition of the persons that sing them. Although neither their dances 
nor their songs can be compared with tkose of Arcadia or the vales of 
Tempe, an Hungarian Theocritus might derive from them the materials of 
a pastoral poem. 

Hungarian or I Ic 1S to be regretted that so few facts characteristic of the 
Magianian- nation can be collected from the writings of travellers ; we shall 
' endeavour to supply their want of information on the subject 
of the Magiar language, which is not, as has been affirmed, a medley of all 
the Asiatic and European tongues, or a virgin without a mother and without 
kindred. It and the sister dialects may be traced from the shores of Lapland 
to the countries'beyond the Uralian mountains, and the lands on the banks 
of the Wolga. The language is allied to the Finnic, Permiac, Wogul, 
and others that are included under the general name of the Tchoudeor Fin- 
nic, a vague and inapplicable term, which has not hitherto been substituted 
by a better. Comenius, Stralenberg, and Fischer, -were not ignorant of the 
connexion between these tongues, but the fact was completely proved by 
Sainovics, who accompanied Hell the Jesuit, in his astronomical mission 
to Cape North, in 1769. The Hungarian traveller observed with surprise 
that he could partly make out what the Laplanders said, and that they were 
often able to understand his meaning. M. Sainovics then began to study 
a Laponic Grammar written by M. Leem, a Dane, and some other works 
published in the north. He proved afterwards the identity of several voca- 
bles, showed that a striking resemblance subsisted between others, and 
concluded that the Hungarian and Laplandic dialects were the same;" but 
his incorrect hypothesis was fully refuted by M. Gyarmathy, an Hunga- 
rian. The analogy is not confined to words, but is observable in the gram- 
matical forms, in the declensions of substantives, in the relations of pos- 
sessive pronouns, and in the position of conjunctions and interrogatives by 
suffixa or syllables added to the end of words. The same language has been 
compared by M. Klaproth, with the dialects of the Ostiaks, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Berezow, and of other tribes between the Ural mountains and 
the river Obi. d The ancient longouria was peopled by these tribes, and 
their descendants retained many Hungarian words, which were unknown 
to more polished Finnic nations. M. Klaproth has collected several of the 
words used by the Samoydes, which correspond with others in Hungarian. 
Resemblance The connexion between the Hungarian and the Turkish is 
not nearly so remarkable as its grammatical resemblance with 
the Armenian. The plural nominatives in k are formed in the 
two languages in the same manner, and produce the same ca- 
cophony; the termination of the datives are not unlike, and the perpetual 
repetition of the harshest consonants is more grating to the ear in the 
Hungarian than in the Armenian verb. The words, it is admitted, are very 
different; how comes it then, that the grammatical structure is so much 

b Demonstratio idioma Hungarorum et Laponum idem essc, by Sainovics; Copenhaguen, 

c Affinitas Linguae Hungaricae cum linguis finnicx onginis grammatice demonslrata; 
Goettingae, 1799. d Asia polyglotta, &c. Finnic languages, p. 188. 

between the 
and Arme- 


alike; particularly as it accords ill with a language in other respects so 
harmonious as the Hungarian? We have lastly to mention a connexion 
hitherto unknown, that subsists between the Hungarian and Scandinavian, 
which have been considered wholly foreign to one another; we have how- 
ever been able to discover a great many words common to both, and such 
as could not have been introduced by civilized nations or in later times, 
but in those early ages, when the Huns, Goths, lotes, and Magiars, assem- 
bled round the altars of Wodin. 6 Thus the Hungarian, though connected 
with other tongues, is not on that account less interesting. It is harmoni- 
ous, rich, flexible, and admirably adapted for the natural eloquence of the 
people who speak it. Several literary and scientific journals are at present 
published in the country; historians and poets might be,enumerated among 
the Hungarian writers. It is the ordinary language of the diet; the Aus- 
trians, it is true, wish to continue the Latin, which was supposed to he 
better understood by the German and Slavonian inhabitants. 

The nobles may be divided into two classes, the lords of ex- , Govermnent 
tensive domains, and others who cultivate their farms. The po'iucai inmi 
priesthoo.d is composed of archbishops, bishops, abbots, deans ' umons 
and commendataries. The inhabitants of free and royal towns, privileged 
burghs, and the members of some petty corporations are represented. 
The body politic, or what is styled in the language of the diet, the Popu- 
lus Hungaricus, is made up of these classes; they have the right of electing 
a king, if the reigning family become extinct, and possess in common with 
their sovereign the power of making laws. All the taxes are regulated 
in the diets, which must be assembled every three years. The rest of the 
people or the Misera conlribuens plebs pay imposts and enjoy no political 
privileges. The monarch may make peace or war, but he must first hear 
the opinion of the nation; he can command the nobles to take up arms on 
any emergence, but every extraordinary contribution must be granted by 
the diet.' The king swears to maintain the constitution, and signs the 
diploma of king Andrew, but protests against the article which renders it 
lawful for the Hungarians to have recourse to arms, if their privileges be 
infringed. 5 The sovereign is obliged to confirm the decisions of the ju- 
dicial courts; and it is unlawful for him to punish or impose a penalty on 
any individual, unless he be legally tried. He must defend the kingdom 
against every hostile invasion, and restore such of its ancient provinces as 
may be gained by the chance of war; in short, Hungary is an independent 
and mixed monarchy. 

The Hungarian diet consists of two chambers or tables. The , Hungarian 
peers and the clergy are the members of the one, the deputies ' diet - 
of the 52 counties or varmegyes, and the representatives of the free towns, 
sit in the other. Each county sends two members to the diet, and they 

' We shall cite a few examples, in which the Hungarian words are printed. in Italics, 
and the Scandinavian in Roman characters; ag, a river; aa, id.; aszoni, a woman; asynia, a 
goddess; alunni, to sleep; lugn, luun, tranquillity, repose; bar, wine; bior, beer; fg, hea- 
ven, eyglo, sun, (Fotic,) ey, everlasting 1 ; elet, life; elem, I live; el, to beget; essae, rain; oese, 
to rain; elein, an elk, elend in German, els in Danish; estwe, evening; sol-est, sunset in Jut- 
landic, (Normanno-Iotic;)/a, a tree; vallarfax, a forest ; fceld, the earth; fold, \(.\.-, felsee and 
fell, lofty; fiell, a mountain: feyer, white, fagr in Scandinavian, hence the English word 
fair; fekele, black; feigr and feikr, (Solarliod, str. 36;) /, a man; fir, id.; (Edda:) hay, 
hair; hour, id.; had, war; had, hatred, a feud; hegy, a mountain; hoey, a hill; heves, warm; 
hver, a warm spring, (Islandic;) hold, the moonj hvel, a wheel or circle; id, good; iont, 
goodly, (Jut.;) level, a leaf; loev, foliage; magas, high, great, magt, megin, power, &c.; 
menny, the heavens; manning, the ceiling, (Jut.;) nyak, the neck; nakke, id.; cesz, au- 
tumn; hoest, harvest; szarv, a horn; skaur, a peak, and skarp, sharp; ezulum, I speak; thu- 
la, a discourse, and thulr, an orator; tel, winter; toel and tiela, land covered with ice; var, 
a strong castle; varde, a high and fortified station. Several German words, introduced into 
the Hungarian at a later period, are collected in the Mithridates of Adelung. 

' Diploma granted by Leopold, art. 13. Articles of 1608, art. 2. e Diploma Andrea:, 

art. 31. Quod si vero nos, &c. 

VOL. IV. B b 


are elected by the nobles. Tbe absent peers avail themselves of an ancient 
abuse, and send substitutes, who represent them in the lower house. The 
diet is divided into four classes or orders; the members vote in the class 
to which they belong, and all questions are carried or rejected in each 
order by a majority. The deputies must act conformably to the instruc- 
tions of their constituents. 

The different classes in the nation enjoy different privileges. The noble, 
as citizen of the state, may possess land in any part of the kingdom, but 
the burgess, as citizen of a town, can only acquire heritable property with- 
in the jurisdiction of a burgh. When the heirs male of a domain are 
extinct* it returns to the crown, but so long as these heirs remain, any of 
them, like the manorial lords in Norway, can buy back the land sold by 
their ancestors at the price given for it; thus the improvement of agricul- 
ture and the circulation of capital are impeded by an absurd law of the 
northern states. The nobles cannot be arrested without the warrant of a 
judge, and then only for capital crimes. They are exempt from every 
ordinary contribution, and are the only class in the kingdom eligible to 
every office in the state. ; 

Provincial mi i The government of the provinces is, in a great measure, in- 
inimsiration. I dependent of the crown. Thirteen palatines or ispans possess 
their dignities by hereditary right, and those who hold the highest offices 
in the counties, are elected and paid by the provincial congregations or as- 
semblies. The towns have their municipal privileges and supreme courts. 
Every office must be filled by a native; foreigners can only be naturalized 
by the diet. 

condition of i The Hungarian peasants, the descendants of wandering shep- 
the peasants. 1 herds, cultivated the ground and retained their freedom; they 
might quit the land of one lord and settle in the domain of another; that 
privilege was confirmed by many enactments;* 1 but personal and perpetual 
servitude was the punishment inflicted on the revolted peasantry. Fre- 
quent opportunities were not wanting of enforcing the law and increasing 
the number of bondsmen on the estates of the nobles, during the rebellions 
in the reign of Uladislaus. The great majority of the country people re- 
mained, however, in the condition of hired labourers or farmers. Many 
entered into contracts, by which they agreed to till the ground, some for 
their maintainance, others for a stipulated sum, and it was unlawful for 
them to leave the land until the advances made by the proprietors had 
been paid, nor could they be turned out of their farms until they were in- 
demnified for their labour. Thus the dependence was reciprocal, and the 
peasants in different countries of Europe were exposed to privations un- 
known to the servants or tenantry of an upright Hungarian landlord. But 
it frequently happened that the contracts were incorrectly interpreted from 
Urban I l ^ ie va S ue manner * n which the mutual obligations were speci- 

' fiecl. The labour, which, according to this system, supersedes 
monied rent, is regulated and determined in the Urbarium, a rural code 
published under the auspices of Mary Theresa in 1764. Personal servi- 
tude was abolished by a decree of Joseph the II. in 1795, and the diet 
re-established under Leopold in the exercise of its privileges, ratified gene- 
rously all the enactments, of which the object was to protect the peasantry, 
or to better their condition. It did not sanction the right of acquiring 
heritable property, granted to every Hungarian by Joseph II., much less 
did it agree to equalise the imposts on all the lands. "These differences," 
said the nobles, " constitute our privileges; they may be taken away from 
any amongst us guilty of a capital crime; but what crime have we com- 
mitted? The kingdom of Hungary is as independent of Austria, as Hatio- 

h " Jus liberre emigrationis." Decrees of Sigismond, 1405, Ferdinand the First, in 1541 
jxn.l 1550, Maximilian the First, in 1566. 


ver is of England. We obey no emperor; Joseph the II. is not our king; 
he has not taken the oaths, he has not been crowned, he is an usurper." 1 
Such were the respectful remonstrances that the philosophic despot heard 
on his death-bed; he revoked his decrees, abolished his reforms, and gave 
up his plan in despair. But the nation, now in the full possession of all 
its prerogatives, may, perhaps, consider the evil consequences of a system, 
by which landed property is exclusively confined to nobles or state-citizens; 
it may, at last, learn how much the value of land and its products has 
been increased in other countries where the husbandmen enjoy civil rights, 
and have a greater interest in the fields that they labour. The nobles 
boast of imitating the English ; and it can hardly be supposed that the 
abuses committed by their stewards, the vexatious oppression of village 
justices, and the arbitrary exactions of tax collectors, are concealed from 
them. It is certain that the rights and privileges which place them so 
high above all their neighbours, might be rendered more durable if they 
were extended to every order of the community. / v 

The Hungarians are in possession of religious liberty; more . Religious 
than a half of the population profess the catholic faith, and the ' llber V 
dignitaries of that church enjoy many valuable political rights ; places are 
assigned to them in the diets, and they are considered in these assemblies 
the great pillars of the court party. The archbishop of Gran possesses an 
annual revenue of 30,OOQ/. ; the metropolitan of Kolocza has not more than 
a seventh part of that sum. The income of the bishop of Erlau is about 
20,OOQ/., the see of Gros-Waradin is worth nearly 8400/. and the average 
annual'value of the dioceses is from 4000/. to 4200/. It may be easily be- 
lieved that the first families in the country canvass for these offices. A king 
passed a law by which the bishopric of Erlau was set apart for the fourth 
son of the reigning prince. Many bishops are governors of the provinces 
in which they reside, and others possess monopolies on wine and salt. But 
although the catholic clergy have so many advantages, they are not actuat- 
ed by Christian charity towards the other sects. Enemies of religious free- 
dom, they oppose every privilege claimed by heretics; but it must not be 
imagined that they are sufficiently powerful to oppress them, or destroy 
their lawful rights. The Protestants are mostly Calvinists; among those 
of that persuasion are many noble families, and the doctrines of the Gene- 
vese reformer are preached in every part of the kingdom. The Lutheran 
creed is chiefly confined to the miners and German artisans, and exists in 
all the rigour of the sixteenth century. The Lutheran ministers cannot 
conceal their animosity against the Calvinistic preachers. The Catholic 
party avails itself of their strifes and contentions, and the remonstrances 
of Protestants to the diet are as numerous and ineffectual as the Catholic 
petitions that are presented to the British parliament. It is evident from 
the sermons of the priests, the diocesan charges, and the public edicts of 
the bishops, that they deplore the spread of evangelical doctrines. The 
Greek or eastern church, by which the seeds of Christianity were first sown 
in Hungary, has been for a long time in a state of decay; more than a 
third of its members have apostatized to the Roman faith, but it still re- 
tains a majority of the inhabitants in the most southern provinces. The 
united Greek rites are observed by the Rousniacs and their neighbours the 

Transylvania is represented by a separate diet; its members , Difforcn , spr . tg 
are Szecklers, (all of whom without distinction of birth are in Trayivii- 
eligible,) the deputies of the free Saxon nation, and some Hun- ' ma 
garian nobles. Catholics, Calvinists, and Lutherans are represented, and 
a Unitarian church, the only one in the world, which has existed since 
the time of Socinus, is acknowledged by law in Transylvania. Most of the 

' Schlxtzer, Staats Anzeigen, vol. XIV. p. 121, XV. 336, he, 


Waliachians, the greater number of inhabitants in the province, profess 
the united Greek religion, but from some strange caprice their church is 
only tolerated. 

civil and po- I ^ ne institutions in Hungary retain all the vigour and all the 
litical iustiiu- inflexibility of the middle ages. Changes or improvements can- 

I not without much difficulty be introduced. Little or no altera- 
tion has been made in the universities, gymnasia, or schools. The influence 
of an ignorant priesthood is exerted in all the Catholic seminaries, and 
monks have their doubts on the propriety of using astronomical instruments 
made by heretics. The danger of innovation, the fear of misapplying, or 
of eventually losing the funds left by pious individuals for benevolent pur- 
poses, paralyze the efforts of the Protestants, still knowledge advances; 
the Hungarian patriots are animated by a noble zeal, the poor are instruct- 
ed without the aid, sometimes in defiance of authority; improvements 
made in oUier countries are adopted, libraries are formed for the use of 
the common people. 

industry, ma- i H industry be still in its infancy, it must be imputed to long 
mifacuu'ce. I intellectual darkness, and to the restrictions imposed by corpo- 
rations on individual talent. If articles of primary necessity be excepted, 
and to these may be added goubas or woollen cloaks, zischmas or Hunga- 
rian boots, tobacco pipes and chaplets, the other products of industry are 
few and insignificant; the cloth, glass, and stone-ware of Hungary are 
much inferior to the same articles in Austria. But good soap is made in 
the country, and the dressing of 'leather furnishes employment to a great 
many men. The linen manufactured by the burgesses in Upper Hxingary 
proves the superiority of the German artisans, and a very lucrative trade 
in that article is carried on in the county of Zips. The climate of Hun- 
gary is well adapted for silk, but the quantity produced is inconsiderable. 
We have already taken notice of the brandy, maraschino, and other spi- 
rituous liquors made in Slavonia and Dalmatia; the inhabitants are equally 
skilled in extracting balsams and odoriferous resins from different herbs. 
The workmen and individuals who live by trade in Hungary, amount, ac- 
cording to a recent calculation, to 40,000, but the number is daily in- 
Commerce I ^ le natura ^ productions of the country, its oxen, corn, wine, 

' wool, and metals, afford the materials of an extensive com- 
merce, but there is no sure outlet for it except Austria, and the provinces 
attached to the Austrian empire. Thus the wines are sent to Poland, and 
the corn to Italy. The Hungarians have no commercial dealings with their 
neighbours. The Galicians do not require wheat or cattle, the Turks are 
well enough provided with them in their own country. The Austrians 
have fettered the Hungarian corn trade, and the people can only export a 
small quantity of grain. The distance and the state of the roads between 
a great part of Hungary and Trieste, preclude the interchange of commo- 
dities. The carriage duties, and other expenses, are equal to the value of 
the merchandise. It may be urged that Hungary is watered by many fine 
rivers; unfortunately, however, their course is contrary to the direction of 
its commerce; had the Danube flowed westwards, or had its navigation 
been free and not obstructed by. the Turks, additional channels might have 
been created for the produce of labour. The conquest of Bosnia, by open- 
ing the communication with Venetian Dalmatia, might be the means of 
increasing the commerce of Hungary. But of all these impediments, the 
restrictions imposed by Austria are the most effectual. The Austrians, 
unable to make the Hungarians relinquish their freedom or national privi- 
leges, console themselves by treating them as foreigners in all the custom- 
houses throughout the empire. 

Jeaio^y of j "Hungary," says the Austrian cabinet, "may be considered 
a depot for our raw materials, and an outlet for our manufac- 


tures." In conformity to that principle, the Hungarian is not only forced 
to purchase different articles of Austrian manufacture, which he might 
have at a cheaper rate and of a better quality in other countries, but when 
he sends his own goods to Vienna, he must pay higher and more exorbi- 
tant duties than those exacted from the Poles. It is not difficult to show 
the fatal consequences of so bad a system. The Hungarians see their rich 
pastures covered with cattle, their cellars filled with wine, and their gra- 
naries stored with corn, but, as these articles must be sold at whatever 
price is put upon them at Vienna, they are not solicitous of improving the 
agriculture of their country. The noble is satisfied if his revenue cover 
his expenditure, and never thinks of making his land more productive. 
The peasant labours merely to provide for his immediate wants. The 
Hungarian patriots accuse the reigning family of ingratitude to a people 
that have often been their only defence, and whose love of independence 
is never formidable but when they are unjustly treated. The Austrians 
hear such complaints, and reply to them: " Our monarchy consists of 
several federal states, and each retains its privileges, rights, and institu- 
tions. If these concessions were granted to Hungary, a country so highly 
favoured by nature, all the wealth and resources of the empire might be 
concentrated in a single province." The exports from Hungary amount to 
24,000,000 florins, its imports to 18,000,000. The internal taxation, which 
the Austrian financiers think much too low, is regulated by the diet. The 
taxes paid by the farmers or peasantry are oppressive; they are said to be 
about 5,000,000 florins. . The regal rights on salt yield 6,000,000, the net 
produce of the custom-house is equal to 4,000,000, and the total revenue 
is not less than 20,000,000. 

The military establishment in Hungary is made up of 46,000 i 
infantry, and 17,000 hussars; but it might faise on any emer- ' > ?' 
gence a hundred thousand good troops, and to that number Transylvania 
might add twenty thousand. A long line of frontier from Dal- Military 
matia to Bukowine, is guarded by a sort of perpetual camp; ' lirnits - 
these districts are called the military limits, all the inhabitants are soldiers, 
and at the same time husbandmen. The lands which they cultivate are 
hereditary possessions, that cannot be subdivided. A family or a number 
of families forms a house or society, in which the oldest member exercises, 
under the title of gospodar, a patriarchal power. The money, flocks* and 
moveables of a society, are held in common by all the members; and if a 
girl marries any one of a different house than that to which she belongs, 
she can claim no more than a wedding garment for her dower. Every 
member must contribute by his labour to the common stock. The num- 
ber of merchants, or rather hucksters and priests, is limited by the laws, 
and whoever absents himself without the permission of his gospodar, is 
considered a deserter. The people are clever, sprightly, but ill informed, 
and the nature of their military government is unfavourable to civilization. 
The country forms a part of Hungary or Transylvania; for that reason, 
the towns in the military limits have been mentioned in our account of 
these provinces. 

It is not easy to trace the origin of the Hungarians, or to dis- , origin of the 
cover from what part of Asia or Europe they came to the banks ' Hungarians. 
of the Danube. The Hungarian language is an undoubted proof that the 
mass of the nation consisted of Finno-Uralian tribes; that psw&of the same 
language which is not connected with the Finnic dialects, might hay.Q been 
introduced by other tribes, the Turks, Mongols, or Huns, that mixed \vitl| 
the Magiars. All these opinions have been ably supported.* Some writers 

k Bel, de vera origine Hunnorum, Avar, et Hunger. Leipsic, 1757. Fischer, Quses- 
tioncs Petropolit. 1770. Desguignes, Histoire des Huns; Pray, Annales Hunnorum, disser- 
tatio quarta. 


have penetrated into the mysterious east, and one Hungarian has main- 
tained that his countrymen are of Egyptian origin; 1 he might have con- 
cluded with equal probability that they have migrated from the Maghada^ 
the banks of the Ganges, or the country of the Magi in Persia. Leaving 
these doubtful conjectures, we shall endeavour to draw some inferences, 
which have not hitherto been deduced, from the facts stated by historians 
and geographers concerning the early migrations of the Hungarians or 

Historical i The Otmi inhabited the northern shores of the Caspian sea in 
summary. I the first century of the Christian era, and a hundred years after- 
wards they were settled on the banks of the Borysthenes. These people 
were in all probability the Huns, who rendered themselves illustrious in 
the fourth and fifth centuries; they occupied the same countries, they were 
distinguished by the same names. Of a different origin from the Goths, 
they waged continual war with the fair Alani and Ostrogoths. The Huns, 
according to Jornandes, the Herodotus of the Goths, were sprung from 
demons of the forests and Gothic sorceresses, driven from their homes, 
and exiled by their countrymen. If this tradition be interpreted, it means 
that the Huns lived in forests, and were addicted to magic. Such was the 
character given by Tacitus of the Finns, and, if there be a well-attested 
fact in the semi-fabulous history of the Scandinavians, the same arts were 
practised by the people that inhabited forests and caverns in the countries 
Relation with i to the north of the Goths. The Huns were not Slavonians ; the 
tbe Finns. 1 latter revolted and took up arms against them; unless then they 
be of a different origin from any of these people, they must be considered a 
branch of the Finns or Tchoudes. The descriptions left by historians of 
their personal deformities, are more illustrative of the Mongols than the 
Tchoudes ; but some allowance must be made for the terror and alarm ex- 
cited 'by the devastating Huns, and, at all events, the historical statements 
are only applicable to one dominant Mongol tribe, and many others com- 
posed of Finnic vassals. Whatever is known concerning the early migra- 
tions of the Huns and Hungarians, may in this way be easily explained. 
The rapid power of the first cannot be attributed to a sudden, mysterious 
and inconceivable invasion, but to a union of all the ancient tribes in Rus- 
sia against the fair sons of Wodin, who branded their enemies with the 
reproachful epithet of dogs or hunds 9 a corruption of their national name, 
khun or people. It is not wonderful if many hordes remained after the 
death of Attila in the provinces of his empire. Jornandes mentions the 
Hunni-Var in the north-east of Hungary, who may be considered the 
founders of the Hungarian nation. 1 " The Magiars were sent for in the 
eighth century to combat the Moravians, and they found the country peo- 
pled by their brethren. Thus it is easy to account for the immense num- 
ber t of these barbarians, which cannot be explained according to any other 
hyp'othesis. The Sabiri, another horde of the same race, remained in the 
north of Caucasus. A Byzantine writer mentions their destructive inva- 
sions into Asia, but calls them the Samen, which corresponds with the 
word Suomen, or the name given by all the Finnic nations to the countries 
they inhabited. 11 The assertion of another Byzantine author is not impro- 
bable; according to him, the Awares consisted chiefly of Ougres or Hun- 
garians, that made up so many vassal tribes. The Hunugari were Hunnic 
vassals, or the same as the Ougres; their descendants, the inhabitants of 
lougoria, a country between the Uralian mountains and the river Obi, were 
subdued by the Russians of Novgorod about the year 1150. Many Hun- 
garian words are still retained in the dialect of the Wogulitzes and Osti- 

1 Thomx, Conjecture de origine, prima sede et migrationibus Hungarorum, Pestli, 1802. 
"' Jornandes, de Reb. Get. Bel. prodrom. Hung. 1. 11. sect. 1. 

n Theophanes, Corp. Byzant. VI. p. 110. Malala culls them Ugiri. Ibid. XXIV. part ii. 
p. 44. Theophilact. Corp. Byzant. 111. p. 259. lib. vii. cap. 8. 


akes, the present inhabitants. The Huns, although of Finnic origin, were 
connected with the Turks of Mount Altai; it cannot now be ascertained 
whether they conquered, or were subdued by that people; but if they form- 
ed part of the Turkish empire or Tu-Kiou^ they must have been denomi- 
nated Turks. Hence the mixed nature of their language, and the name 
applied to them by the Byzantine historians,* and the Scandinavian tradi- 
tions concerning the Turks that were confounded with the Huns y whose 
hordes, it is said, penetrated into Scandinavia.* 1 The Turkey or Tyrkland 
of the Islandic writers, was situated on the south and south-east of Biar- 
maland or Permia, and the high mountains that limit great Svithiod.* The 
great Hungary, described by travellers of the middle ages, and particularly 
by Roubruquis, included the countries on the southern Uralian mountains; 
but at an unknown epoch, anterior to the power of the Turks of Altai, 
Hungary must have extended further on the north and south-east. The 
lougouria, mentioned in Russian history, formed a part of the country. 
The town of Egregia or Egrygaya, the stumbling-block of the commenta- 
tors on Marco Paulo, retains its Hungarian name, which is at present com- 
mon to several burghs in the kingdom. 

The Ougres, Ungres or Hungarians were then a branch of 
the Hunnic confederacy and of the Uralian race, which, for want 
of a better name, has been termed Finnic; in the same manner the Saxons 
are of Teutonic origin, but are included by historians among the Germans, 
from their connexions with that people. 

It may be worth while to observe, if the Hungarian traditions accord 
with the conclusions derived from the testimony of historians and geo- 

We learn from the old national songs of the Magiars, that Magiar tradi- 
three countries are situated in the heart of Scythia, Dent or tions - 
Dentu, Moger or Magar and Bostard. The inhabitants of these regions are 
clothed in ermine; gold and silver are as common as iron; the channels of 
the rivers are covered with precious stones. Magog, the eastern neighbour 
of 'Gog, was a grandson of Japheth, and the first king of Scythia. Accord- 
ing to a different tradition, Magor and Hunor, 8 the first Scythian monarchs, 
left a hundred and eight descendants, the founders of as many tribes. 
Ethde or Attila was sprung from Japheth, and Ugek from Attila. The 
second migration of the Hungarians from Scythia took place under the son 
of Ugek or Almus, whose birth was foretold in a dream; the first happened 
in the time of Attila. 1 A redundant population was the cause of these 
migrations. Two thousand men departed from every one of the 108 tribes, 
and the total number amounted to 216,000, who were divided into seven 
armies, each of which was made up of 3,0857 warriors, commanded by seven 
princes or dukes, the Hetou Moger or the seven Magiars. The names of 
the leaders, which are still preserved, were Mmus, Eleud, Kundu, Ound, 
Tosu, Tuba and Tuhutum.* The Hungarians passed the Wolga, near the 
town of Tulbora, and marched on Sousdal, which might have been the same 
as Susat, the ancient capital of Attila's empire. They removed from that 
place and settled in Lebedias, probably in the neighbourhood of Lebedian^ 
a town in the government of Varonez (Woronesch.) They were invited 
from their new territory by king Arnolphus of Germany to combat Svia- 

P The Byzantine writers call them Turks. 

* Suhm Origine des peuples du Nord, H, 60, 72, 381, &c. 

r Svithiod hin Mikla shall be more fully mentioned in another part of our work. 

s Their names signify literally lords (or and our) of the Magiars and Huns. 

1 Anonymous Belae, Not. cap. 1. 3, 5, 11, 14, 16, 44, 46. Schwadner, Scriptor, rer. Hun. 
gar. t. i. Thurocz, Chroilica Hung. Pray. Annales Hunn. Avar, et Hungar. p. 340. 

u Some of these names denote the tribes. Kunda and Oundja are well known rivers. 
Tuba is a considerable feeder of the Jenisii. But Eleud is not to be confounded with 
Ekuthcs or Oeloct, the word may be otherwise explained in the Hungarian language. 


topolk, king of Great Moravia. Duke Almus put himself at the head of 
an army, passed through the country of the Slavonians in Kiovia (Kiow,) 
defeated the troops that opposed him, and reached the confines of Hunga- 
ry by the Russian principality of Lodomiria or Wladimir. Arpad, his 
son, crossed the Carpathian mountains, and invaded the country on the 
Upper Theiss, which is now protected by the fortress of Ungh-Var, that 
was built in 884. But according to another account the Hungarians en- 
tered Transylvania in 862, and were driven from it in 889 by the Patzina- 
kites or Petchenegues. These tribes, however, were not, perhaps, under 
the dominion of Arpad. 

Remarks on 1 Such is the history of the Hungarian migrations according 
theTungarian to their own traditions, which unfortunately are disregarded 

' and rejected by the monks, the only persons who could have 
preserved them entire. The conclusions at which we formerly arrived, are 
not invalidated by what has been now stated. The three regions, Dentu, Ma- 
gcr and Bastard were Tenduch or Turfan, Great Hungary or the country of 
the'Magiars, and Baschirs or Bashkurst, the Pascatir of Roubruquis. The 
first was ruled by kings of the Unghs, and the second was the earliest 
known country of the Magiars. It follows from these statements that the 
Hungarians must have occupied, at one .time, a very extensive country; 
but the details are not for that reason incorrect; on the contrary, other 
facts, independently of the seven princes and the seven tribes, appear to 
corroborate them. When compared with the statements of different his- 
torians, and combined with our hypothesis concerning the Huns and Finns, 
the migrations of the Hungarians across Russia, then peopled by hordes 
of the same race, and their settlements in the Hunni-Var, cannot be thought 

I improbable or fabulous. The epoch of the migration, which 

' is said to have taken place before the year 800, may not be ac- 
curately known; but it may be maintained, without inquiring whether the 
early exploits of the Huns under Attila were confounded with the achieve- 
ments of the Magiars, that the latter possessed Lebedias longer than is 
generally believed. The passages in Constantine Porphyrogenetes con- 
cerning the respective countries of the Mazares, Chazares and Russians in 
the early part of the tenth century, are very obscure; still, according to 
the text, and exclusively of every arbitrary correction, they prove, in our 
opinion, that the Magiars inhabited the banks of the Upper Don after the 
Ougres, whom the Byzantines confounded with the Turks, were settled in 
the Hunni-Var. AS we cannot enter into the long discussions tp which 
the subject might lead, it only remains for us to state briefly the causes 
or events by which the limits of Hungary have at different times been 

Rise of the I The irruptions of the Hungarians into Germany and Italy 
Hungarian were finally checked by the victories of Henry the I. at Merse- 

' burg in 933, and of Otho the I. at Augsburg in 955. The Hun- 
garians were then a barbarous people, addicted to superstition and magic, 
like the Finns; eating horse-flesh at their religious feasts like the Scan- 
dinavians. The names of their divinities are now unknown. 

Christianity began to be established about the year 973; the people imi- 
tated the example of their king Gheysa, whose son Stephen was baptized 
in 983; he ascended the throne in 1000, and was ranked after his death 
among the number of the saints. Twenty princes, descendants of St. 
Stephen, were successively kings of Hungary. One of them, perhaps the 
most illustrious, was Ladislaus the holy, who conquered Croatia, Slavonia 
and Dalmatia. Transylvania was civilized by numerous German colonies 
in the time of Gheysa the Second. Bela the Third made himself master 
of Galicia, Servia and the dutchy of Chulm in Dalmatia. Andrew, the 
Second passed a law in 1222, by which the Hungarians might take up arms 
against their kings, if they infringed their just rights. The nation was 


compelled to renounce that privilege in 1688. Bulgaria became tributary 
to Hungary under the same dynasty, but in the last reigns of these princes 
Hungary was exposed to the invasions of the Mongols. The reigning 
house became extinct in 1301, and twelve kings of different families ruled 
afterwards over Hungary. Lewis the First, one of these monarchs, united 
to his dominions the whole kingdom of Dalmatia, which was more than 
once taken by the Venetians; he conquered Lodomiria or Red Russia, Ser- 
via, Bulgaria, Wallachia and Moldavia. The same sovereign was elected 
king of Poland, and the Hungarian monarchy under his reign was equal, 
if not greater in extent, than the present Austrian empire. His success- 
ors were unable to retain his dominions. Sigismond, defeated by the 
Turks at Nicopolis in 1396, ceded to Poland the provinces on the east of 
the Carpathians. Matthias Corvin, who occupies a distinguished place 
in Hungarian history, wrested Silesia and Moravia from the Bohemians. 
Lewis the Second, the Hungarian Justinian, lost the battle of Mohacz, and 
was slain by the Turks. The "kingdom, afterwards invaded . Itgfou 
almost on every side by the Turks, became a field of battle, in ' 
which Christian and Mussulman armies massacred each other during a 
century. To regain Transylvania, separated from Hungary after the death 
of Lewis the Second, in 1526, was the pretext for these wars. Luther's re- 
formation, adopted by some, and proscribed by others,was the cause of fresh 
commotions and civil broils. It was the object of a numerous , CiviJ warg 
party to raise John Zapolya, the waiwode of Transylvania, to the ' 
Hungarian throne; and the war between him and Ferdinand of Austria, 
his rival, was terminated by a treaty, which guaranteed to Zapolya the 
possession of Transylvania and the greater part of Hungary. It had ever 
been the policy of the Turks to support the Transylvanian princes against 
the Austro-Hungarian kings. The illustrious men who figured in these 
troublous times, and displayed all the great qualities and defects of their 
nation, were the two Bathorys, Bethlen Gabor, Stephen Botskai, the cpn- 
queror of Upper Hungary, Gabriel Bethlen, who for some time ruled over 
the whole kingdom, Rakotsky, the terror of the Austrians and Poles, and 
Tekeli, who achieved heroic exploits, and died an exile in Natolia. The 
slow and methodical policy of Austria triumphed in 1713, and the here- 
ditary rights of its emperors have, since that time, been acknowledged. 
The attempts to reconquer Servia produced no lasting change; the Polish 
provinces, though claimed and retaken by the Hungarians, form a separate 

Synoptical Table of the Political and Military divisions of Hungary, &c. 
I. Kingdom of Hungary. (Madjiar-Orszag.) 

{1. Cis-Danubian circle on the east 
of the Danube. 
2. 1 rans-JDanubian circle on the 
west of the Danube. 
3. Cis-Tibiscan circle on this side 

other side of the Theiss. 

B. Eastern or Upper Hungary. << . f the , e ! ss ' 

4. L rans-libiscan circle on the 

VOL. IV. C c 



Counties. Gespannschaft, (Ger.) Varmegye, (Hung.) Stolica, (Slav.) Comi- 
tatus, (official Latin.) 


German Names. Hungarian Names. 

G. of Arwe. V. 

of Arva.* 






















Zolyom. a 

Statistical Details. 
"Free and Royal towns, 
" Episcopal towns, 


Villages and hamlets, 





Different inhabitants classed according to the towns, 
burghs, hamlets, be. 

Slavonians, 1,840 

Hungarians, - 655 

Germans, 1 36 

Servians, 74 

Rousniacs, 2 

.Wallachians, - - 2 


G. of Stuhlweissenburg. V. Feyer. h 
Barania. Baranya. 

Eisenburg. Vas. c 










TFree and Royal towns, 

I Episcopal towns, 

| Burghs, 

(^Villages and hamlets, 


Komarom. d 

















Servians, - 
LVandals (Wendes) 


V. Abauji. 

"Free and Royal towns, 

Episcopal towns, 


Villages and hamlets, 


Houses, - 

Inhabitants, fyc. 


Hungarians, - 



J>oles, e - .;, ' 

- 8 













- 120 

- 505 







* Orawska Stolica, (Slav.) 

y Tyekowska, (Slav.) TyeJcow is the Slavonic name for the ancient Royal town of O-Bart, 
or Old Bar. 

* Ostrihomska Slolica, (Slav.) = Zsolenska Stolica, (Slav.) 

"Comitatus Albensis, in Latin, from Alia, fiegia, the Latin name of the chief town. 

* Zelezna Stolica, (Slav.) 

* Comitatus Jaurinensis, from Jaurinum. In the small town of Pudlein. 







Arad. V. 






















Tree and Royal towns, 

Episcopal towns, 


Villages and hamlets, 










Croatia, (Hung.) Horvath Orszag. 
Slavonia, (Hung.) Toth Orszag. 
Dalmatia, "I 

Galicia, V Claimed by the Hungarian diet. 
Lodomiria, J 














"Free and Royal towns, 





V. Kserses. 




Varasd. < 



A gram. 




Inhabitants) &c. 


- 1,148 


"Royal towns, 









Szerem. < 


Inhabitants, <>c. 

- 35,189 









Germans, - 





IJazygia, (Ger.$) Jaszag, (Hung. 5) 3 burghs, 8 vil- 
n lag f S ^ XT IT i u 

Great Cumania. Nagy-Kunsag, l burgh, 5 vil- 
Little Cumania. Kis-Kunsag, 3 burghs, 5 villages. 
Privileged villages of the Haydoucks, 3 burghs. f 
Trading coast, 2 burghs 
Towns of Zips, 16 burghs. h 

f Oppida Haydmicalia. We are not aware that the above division was restored 

in 1814. h Oppida Scepusiensia. , 



Under the Arch- C Seat (Sedes) of Vaika. C Praedialists, noble vas- 
bishop of Gran. of Verebel. sals of the Archbishop. 

pr VinCial \ District of Turopolia, 33 villages, 8 hamlets. 1 


1. Under the military government of Croatia. 

Cap tain ry of Carl-^ 

Legiment of Licania, 2 burghs, 105 villages. 

Ottoschatz, 1 town, 1 burgh, 79 villages. 
Ogulin, 1 burgh, 95 villages. 
Szluin, 2 burghs, 315 villages. 

Captainry of Va- C Regiment of Kreutz, 1 burgh, 191 villages, 
rasdin. St. George, 2 burghs, 71 villages. 

2. Under the ban of Croatia. 

5 Regiment 1st, 1 burgh, 140 villages. 
Regiment 2nd, 4 burghs, 138 villages. 

3. Under the military government of Slavonia. 

"Regiment of Gradisca, 1 town, 1 burgh, 131 villages. 

Brod, 1 town, 1 burgh. 

Petervaradin, 1 town, 3 burghs, 131 vil- 

District of the Tchaikistes, 13 villages. 

Under the military government of the banat. 

C German Regiment, 1 burgh, 45 villages. 
{ Wallacho-Illyrian, 1 burgh, 1 1 1 villages. 

I. Hungarian Counties. (Magyar ok-Resze.) 


G. Lower Weissenburg. 

Upper Weissenburg. 






Szolnok, inland, 




V. Alsae Feyer, (Comitatus Alben- 

sis, Latin.)* 

Kolos, (Kluss in Wallachian.) 

DISTRICTS, (Videke.) 


' We do not know that the privileges of the district were restored after 1814. 

k 1 believe that the following are all the names by which the town of Weissenburg or 
Karlsburg has been distinguished. Alba-Julia, Alba-Carolina, Carolopolis, Karoly -Fey er- 
ror, Weissenburg or the low town, Harlsburg, (the fortified town,) Belgrad. 


II. Country of the Szeklers. (Szekelyek-Resze.) 1 

Aratiyosch. Aranyos. 

Tchik. Czik. 

Haromszek. Haromszek (Sedes Trisedinen- 

sis.) m 

Maros. Maros. 

Udvarhely. Udvarhely. 

..EiJ^Oi'M' V(Vz},'>.' '"' ' 

III. Country of the Saxons. (Szaszok-Resze.) 

Hermanstadt. Szeben(Comitatus Cibiniensis.) 

Mediasch. Medgyes. 

Reismarkt. Szerdahely (Sedes Mercurien- 

ses.) a 

Reps. Kae-kalom (Sedes Rupenses.) 

Muhlenbach. Szasz-Sebes. 

Schassburg. Seges-Var. 

Gross-Schenk. Nagy-Sink. 

Broos. Szasz-Varos. 

Leschkirch. Ui-Egyhaz. 


Bistritz. Besztercz or Nsesen. 

Kronstadt. Brasso. 


n CpS * c u 

Weinland, (wine country,) \ 

f Muhlenbach. 
Land vor dem Walde, (in front of the forests.) s Reismarkt. 

(_ Broos. 
Burzen Land, (land of tempests. ) Kronstadt. 

IV. Military Limits. 

1st Wallachian regiment. In the south of Hunyad and Her- 


2nd Wallachian regiment. Kronstadt. 

1st regiment of the Szeklers. In the south of Czik. 

2nd regiment of the Szeklers. Haromszek. 

Regiment of Szekler hussars. Different villages. 

1 Para Siculorum (official Latin.) 

m Harom means three, and the seat or jurisdiction of Harom is formed by the junction 
of three others. 

n The burgh of Szef dahely is called Mereurium in some ancient documents, dated about 
the year 1200. 

o The old country appears to have been the same as the Fundus Regius Saxonicus, or 
the Comitatus Cibiniensis in the Royal Diplomas. 



(Claimed by the States General of Hungary.) 


1. Zara. 

2. Spalato. 

3. Makarska. 

4. Ragusa. 

5. Cattaro. - 

"Ancient county of Zara or Kotar. 

Counties of Sebenico, Knin, &c. 
Ragusan territory. 
Bocche of Cattaro. 


Census of 1820, according to Czaplowitz, 8,643,627 

Increase in five years, 250,000 

Amount in 1825, 8,893,627 

Census, according to the Vaterlandische Blatter, in 1816, 8,200,000 

Different Classes of Inhabitants, according 

to Hceberlin, in 1802. 

Nobility, (males,) 162,495 

Clergy, 13,728 

Servants of government, 4,396 

Manufacturers, artisans, Sec. 8,356 
Burgesses, - 511,66l(?) 

Peasants, - 584,326 

Servants and workmen, 788,414 

According to Vaterland. Blatt. in 1811. 

m m m 



- 643,215 


Division according to the Origin of the Inhabitants. 

f Magiars proper, 
Magiars, < Kumans, 


Slavi. < Vandals, 













P The Schokzes are Wallachians mixed with Slavonians. 


Germans, - - 500,000 

Wallachians, - f$&> - - 550,000 

Greeks, - - '"*'/ " * ; '. 500 

Maceclo- Wallachians, or Zinzares, - 900 

Armenians, - - 1,000 

Jews, f- -.,550,000 

Zigeuenes, (gipsies,) 30,000 

Different inhabitants, - - 500 
(Czaplovicz, Vaterland. Blatt. 1820, p. 409, &c.) 


Catholics, 4,756,095 

United Eastern Church, - 635,300 

Eastern Church, 1,097,800 

Armenians, 1,000 

Different Protestants, 1,285,816 

Lutherans, 822,989 

Jews, 150,000 
(Czaplovicz, Vaterland. Blatt. p. 27.) 


Census of 1811, according to M. Benigni, 1,501,406 
Annual increase, 15,000, - - 210,000 

Census of 1825, - - 1,711,406 


Magiars and Szeklers, - 460,000 

Saxons, ^ 420,000 

Wallachians, 800,000 

Zigeunes, or gipsies, 70,000 

Slavi, or Slavonians, 7,000 

Armenians, 5, 500 

Italians, - 1,800 


Catholics, - 120,000 

United Greek Church, 100,000 

Eastern Church, - 916,500 

Lutherans, 168,000 

Other Protestants, - 210,000 

Unitarians, (Socinians.) 44,000 


Census in 1815, - ;< i- ? ;.' - 940,568 
Annual Increase, 3,600, 

Present Population, 976,598 

Men fit for the military service, 135,824 


Slavi, 728,173 

Wallachians, - - 121,062 

Magiars, 79,363 



Germans, 9,000 

(Heitzinger's Statistics of the military limits, 1817.) 


Hungarian Square Miles.* 
Hungary, 4,169 

Transylvania, 865 

Military Limits, 863 

Dalmatia, -,.'; 274 


Square Leagues.* 








European Russia. First Section. Southern Russia. 

WE pass from the countries on the south-east of Europe, to the immense 
plains which extend from the Carpathian to the Ural range, a distance of 
500 leagues, and throughout the whole of it, no mountain interrupts the 
unvaried horizon, or opposes a barrier to the winds. This half of Europe 
forms only the European part of the Russian empire. It might be neces- 
sary to repeat what has been already stated in the introduction to this vo- 
lume, and in the comparative tables of the seventeen sections, of which 
European Russia forms eight, were we to generalize the physical geogra- 
phy of so great an extent of country. All the Scythian plains form what 
is generally termed southern Russia, and in that region is also included a 
narrow frontier, connected with the basin of the lower Danube. 
Rivers, the i The Dneister issues from a lake on the base of the Carpa- 
Dneister. I thians, waters Galicia or Austrian Poland, flows with impe- 
tuosity across rocks, and forms cataracts near lampol, so that boats can- 
not ascend it. But as the river descends, its course becomes less violent, 
and it terminates in a large liman or lake united to the sea, which is now 
called the lake of Ovidovo or the ewes. On that account the Russians ima- 
gine that the places rendered illustrious by the exile of Ovid, are situated 
in their empire. The modern Turla is built on the site of the ancient 
Tyras, and the new Russian government of Bessarabia extends over the 
whole of that province, and the part of Moldavia on the east of the Pruth. 
Russian Moi- i The numerous hills on the north of eastern Moldavia are 
davia. I overspread with oak, lime, and beech trees, and the fields are 

covered with maize, millet, vineyards and orchards. But as we descend 
the two rivers, the hills unite with the plains, wood is not so common, and 
the appearance of the country resembles that of Ottoman Moldavia. All 
the inhabitants are Moldovenys or Moldavians; they are governed by a 
Christian prince, are less barbarous than they once were, less slothful and 
less addicted to drunkenness; they are now beginning to cultivate that 
fertile land, which under the double tyranny of the Hospodars and the 
Mussulmans was neglected, or used exclusively for the rearing of cattle. 

i The Hungarian square mile is equal to sixteen English square miles. 

r The square league varies from six one-fourth to nine English square miles. 


The peasants were obliged to serve their lords and masters without wages; 
the evil still exists, but not in so great a degree; gratuitous labour is now 
much reduced, and the profession of the same religion is a bond of union 
between the Russians and Moldavians. The Wallachian or Daco-Roman 
dialect of the people is little different from the one spoken in Western 

Khotim^ or, according to the Polish orthography, Choczin, . 
was formerly the most northern fortress in the Ottoman em- ' 
pire, of which it was considered a bulwark. The citadel was built ac- 
cording to the plan of French engineers, and the town was peopled at one 
time by 20,000 inhabitants, it does not contain at present a fourth part of 
that number. Kischenau is the residence of the ecclesiastical and civil 
authorities in the government; among its edifices are a well-built syna- 
gogue, and three large marble fountains. Orhey is situated near a lake, 
in the middle of which is a thickly wooded island, and Soroka lies at no 
great distance from excavations abounding in nitre; both are ill peopled, 
the townsmen are indolent and poor. The inhabitants of the forest of 
Kigiesch on the ancient confines of Bessarabia and Moldavia, call them- 
selves Kodrems, and speak the Moldavian. 

Bessarabia forms physically the lower part of Moldavia. No Bessarabia . 
trees, a few shrubs only, are observed near the rivers; the lakes Physical 
or stagnant water are covered with reeds, and in the plains ' Pv?' ' 
between the mar-shes, the ox, the buffalo and the bison wander among ver- 
dant pastures, where the herbage reaches to the height of their horns. b 
In the cultivated land, millet yields a hundred-fold, and barley sixty. The 
finest peaches in Europe grow in the country round Babahda^ and Ismael 
is noted for its apricots. Such is the heat or drought of summer, that all 
the streams between the two great rivers are drained, and the inhabitants 
are then compelled to take their water from the fountains, which were 
dug by the Tartars, and guarded by the same people, with religious vene- 
ration. Continued rains set in during the autumn, and in that season 
many rivers, marshes and lakes appear in different parts of the country. 
The horse and the sheep exist in a wild state; deer, chamois, hares and 
wolves abound in Bessarabia. The limans or gulfs at the mouths of rivers 
are stored with sterlets, belougas, large carps and various kinds of fish. 
Numerous flocks of cranes, storks and different aquatic birds, haunt the 
rivers and the gulfs. The country, in other respects, resembles Moldavia. 

Bender or Tighin (Moldavian) is an important fortress on T 
the banks of the Dneister; it is peopled by. 10,000 individuals, ' 
who, for the most part, are engaged in trade, and many of the lower orders 
are employed in tanning leather. Kawschani was once a Tartar and a com- 
mercial town, but its 0,000 inhabitants have disappeared since the Rus- 
sian conquest. Charles the XII. and a few of his faithful soldiers de- 
fended themselves at Warnitza against a Turkish army. Jlk-Keirman is 
ill fortified; its public buildings are large, and its fine harbour is formed 
by the liman of the Dneister; the population amounts to 10,000 or 14,000 
inhabitants, who carry on a lucrative trade in salt. KiHa, a town of some 
consequence on the embouchure of the Danube, is likely from its position 
to be at some future period, very flourishing. Ismael, a fortified place, 
was peopled in 1789 by 30,000 individuals, but all of them were destroyed 

a Observations SUP la Moldavia Orientale, Ephem. Geogr. XXXIV. B. 133. 

b Busching, Erdbeschreibung, II. 795. 

c The town is built on the site of the ancient Tyras of Ptolemy and Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus; it corresponds with the Aspron of Constan'tine Porphyrogenetes (the town built 
with white stones.) Its Slavonic name is Bialogrod, its Wallachian and Moldavian, Tchi- 
tate Mba. We do not know on what authority it has been called a Koman colony or Alba* 
Julia. The Turkish syllable ak means white. 

VOL. IV. D d 


on the day that Souwarof took the town by assault, and changed its mosques 
and bazar into a heap of ruins. 

Great Romn i Tne Romans were not indifferent about the possession of 
I these regions; they are said to have built an immense wall, the 
remains of which extend from Kischenau to Taurida, but the present in- 
habitants are of opinion that it was the work of engineers, and served to 
protect the maritime towns against the incursions of wandering and pastoral 

Dim-rent im. , Bessarabia was peopled in ancient times by Scythians, Sar- 
!!E!i!iVlhe e matians, Getae, and Bastarnians; and it became, after the 
country. I death of Attila, a place of refuge for the dispersed Huns; but 
Hungarians and Bulgarians, who served probably in the armies of Attila, 
entered the country so early as 469, and by them the Huns proper were 
driven beyond the Danube. It was in the year 635, that a prince of the 
Hungarians and Bulgarians freed his nation from the yoke of the Awares, 
and conquered several Slavonic tribes, among others the Tiverzi or Twerzi, 
and the Lutitsches, that were settled between the Dneister and the Dneiper. 
The Bulgarians retained their lands until the year 882, when the Magiars 
invaded their country, and founded an ephemeral The conquer- 
ors were subdued in their turn by the Pctchenegues and the Comans. The 
last people, though vanquished by the Mongols in 1241, settled in these 
regions under princes of their own race. They took from Bessarab, one 
of their rulers, the name.of Bessarabeni or Bessarabians, and their new de- 
signation appeared for the first time in a public act of 1259, which was 
quoted by the anonymous archdeacon of Gnesne, who wrote his chronicle 
about the year 1395. d Oldamur, one of their kings, planned the invasion 
of Hungary in 1282; his subjects then inhabited Moldavia, and the Hun- 
garian frontiers were exposed to their incursions. Bali-Khan^ another 
prince who resided in Karabuna, sent an army to the assistance of Anne 
of Savoy, a Byzantine empress. Almost all the inhabitants had, in the 
early part of the fourteenth century, embraced Christianity, and, although 
surrounded on all sides by Greek Christians, some Franciscan monks, 
whom the pope sent into the country, accomplished the end of their mis- 
sion, and the nation remained faithful to the western church. 6 Their ad- 
herence to that form* of faith may have contributed to the decline of their 
power. It is certain that about the end of the fourteenth century, the 
Wallachians and Moldavians possessed nearly the whole of Bessarabia. 
The same country was tributary to Hungary under queen Hedwige, and 
Uladislaus transferred it in 1393 to Wtod, a prince of Wallachia. The 
fief passed to his son Mirza, and Alexander of Moldavia conquered it in 
1412. .The states of Alexander were divided by the Hungarians and the 
Poles, his children retained Bessarabia. JDracul, a warlike prince of Wal- 
lachia, ruled over the province from 1469 to 1474, and was then obliged 
to give it up to the victorious Mahomet the Second. The Moldavians 
took it under Stephen the Great, but two years afterwards the crescent 
was hoisted on the turrets of Kilia and Akerman. A colony of 30,000 
Nogay-Tartar families migrated from the banks of the Wolga and the 
kingdom of Astrakhan to Bessarabia, then depopulated by so many changes 
and destructive wars. These settlers were called Budziaks. Though 
accustomed to a pastoral life, many of them becatnc husbandmen, and by 
the industry of its new inhabitants, the country continued to flourish until 
the Russians destroyed the feeble monarchy of the Khans in the Crimea. 
Some of the Budziaks, having put themselves under the protection of 
Russia, emigrated to the banks of the Kuban, the rest fled to the south of 
the Danube in 1812, when Bessarabia was added, by the treaty of Bucha- 

* Sommereberg, Scriptores rerum Silesiac. I. 82. II. 73, 92, 

Gebhardi, Weltgeschichte, XV. Part IV. p. 299, p. 512. 


rest, to the dominions of the Czar. The number at present in the pro- 
vince is reduced to 80,000. It is said that an Hungarian priest, who 
visited the country in 1706, had the satisfaction of seeing many that re- 
mained faithful to the Catholic church/ The Polish and Russian colonists, 
who settled lately on the banks of the Kogoulnick, complain of the cold 
and severe winters. 

Many treatises have been written on the origin, and even on , g ystemof]vr 
the name of the Bessarabians. It has been clearly proved that I desestrenze* 
the ancient Besses or Biesses, (a people whom we have included ' Vllch ' 
among the Proto-Slavonians,) inhabited the countries near the mouths of 
the Danube, from the first to the fourth century. An historian informs 
us, that in the year 376, the same people were the neighbours of the Antes. 
or eastern Slavonians^ It is not unlikely that they were the same as the 
Biesses, whom Ptolemy places in Sarmafcia, and on the upper banks of the 
Dneiper; perhaps their name was applied to two distinct people of Slavo- 
nic origin; at all events, the Biessenes inhabited in the eighth century, Bi- 
essenici) a country near the mouths of the Danube. It has been supposed 
that these people were branches of the Patzinacitae, but it may be main- 
tained with equal probability, that they were the descendants of the an- 
cient Besses. One writer affirms that Muamed, the khakan of the Arabians, 
made an irruption into the Roman provinces, about the end of the seventh 
century, and that his Arabs mingled with the Besses. The assertion re- 
quires to be confirmed by additional evidence; and the examination of the 
arguments relative to the continuance of the Besses, might lead us into an 
inquiry incompatible with the limits of this work. 

The Dneiper, or the Borysthenes, waters three Russian go- , TbeDnei 
vernments; lekaterinoslav, Kherson, and Taurida, which made ' 
up formerly Little Tartary. The physical geographer observes two re- 
gions in that country, the continental plain, and the peninsula of Taurida, 
or the Crimea. The first is bounded on the north by the last hills in the 
central ridge of Russia. The elevation of the terrace that extends from the 
neighbourhood of Moscow, Kalouga, and Toula, towards the Black Sea, 
is about fifteen or sixteen hundred feet. The Dneiper winds through these 
heights amidst rocks of granite, and forms many cataracts and whirlpools, 
but all of them disappear during the heavy rains in the spring, and the 
inhabitants can then ascend the river in their canoes. The same river rises 
from a marsh at the base of the ridge of Waldai, receives from the right, 
the Beresina and the Pripetz, from the left, the Sosna, the Desna, the 
Psiol, and many other streams. It waters a large and fertile country, and 
communicates by means of canals with the basins of the Duna and the 
Niemen. Its numerous falls, the shallowness of its feeders, the masses of 
ice with which it is covered above Kievv, from the first of November to the 
first of April, and in other places from the middle of December to the be- 
ginning of March, but above all, the want of .intelligence and industry in 
the people, diminish its commercial importance. The water of the Dnei- 
per, like that of its feeders, passes through beds of chalk, and marshes, 
and is not very fresh or limpid; still the sturgeon, the carp, the shad, the 
pike, and a variety of fish abound in its turbid streams. Serpents swarm 
in all the islands that are not inundated by the swelling of the islands on the 
river, but Kortitzkaia has been partly cultivated by the labori- ' Dneiper. 
ous efforts of a colony of Mcnnonites. The Cossakki-sa'Parovi established 
their military settlements on the islands between the falls (prorogues) and 
the confluence of the Bazoulouk; they fixed near the last place, their setcha 
or principal camp. The ancient names of the cataracts on the Dneiper are 

{ Busching. Hist. Gcog. Magazin, HI. p. 560. Sulzer, Transalp. Dacien, II. 83. 
e Jornandes, C. V. C. XLVill. Stritter, Memoriae, t. I. p. 161. Some of them were 
baptized about the year 390. 


preserved in the writings of the Byzantines, and as they are of Gothic de-- 
rivation, it is probable that the Ostrogoths, the warlike adventurers that 
issued from Scandinavia, conquered these countries in the course of their 

Towns on the i The present towns on the river are lekatennoalav and Kherson, 
river. I they are the capitals of two large governments, and the last 

contains a population of 100,000 souls. The greater part of the fleet on the 
Black Sea has been built in its dock yards, where seven ships of war may 
be constructed at one time. Oczacof or Otchakofwzs formerly an import- 
ant Turkish fortress; it is now a station for merchant vessels; and the for- 
tress of Kinburn, which is opposite to it, is, in a political point of view, 
equally insignificant. Odessa is the most flourishing town in that part of 
the Russian empire; its growing prosperity may be attributed to many 
fortunate, but contingent events, 'and to the able protection of the duke of 
Richelieu. It is at present peopled by 40,000 souls, and from it are ex- 
ported all the Corn, hides, wood, and wax of the Ukraine, and all the mer- 
chandise that is borne down the Dneister and the Bog: its imports are the 
wines and fruits of the Mediterranean, the leather, silk, and productions 
of the Levant. The value of its exports in 1816, amounted to 49,364,704 
rubles, and that of the corn only was supposed to be worth 14 millions. 11 
It cannot, on the other hand, be denied that its trade must be uncertain, so 
long as the Ottoman power is established on the Bosphorus. 

hlisawetgrad (Elisabeth grad^) a town in the interior, is built on a fertile 
plain watered by the Ingul, and its population is not less than 12,000 indi- 
viduals, who, for the most part, profess the Greco-Russian religion, and 
many are of Servian origin. The new city of Nikolaiefis situated at the 
confluence of the Ingul and the Bog; it is the seat of an admiralty; it is 
peopled by 9000 inhabitants, and, although adorned with fine edifices, it is 
ill provided with wood and materials for building. The neighbourhood 
of Ilinskaia on the liman of the Bog, is covered with the ruins of Olbai, an 
ancient Milesian colony. 

The country between the Dneister and the Dneiper may be 
divided into two distinct regions. The hills in the northern are 
partly covered with lofty forests of oaks, limes, and poplars. The southern 
plains, though well adapted for corn, and not incumbered with trees, are 
almost wholly neglected; numerous flocks and herds feed on them, but the 
pastures are sometimes scorched by arid and burning winds. The soil, 
when it is first broken by the plough, appears to be impregnated with 
nitre, a substance deleterious to vegetation, yet as soon as it is removed or 
diminished, Albanian wheat, millet, and the arbute melon may be cultivated 
with great success. The farinacious fruit of the cratsegus aria is, made into 
bread, and used by the poor. The Greek poplar grows on the banks .of 
rivers, and the gardens in the neighbourhood of the towns yield almost 
every sort of fruit; thus there are seven kinds of grapes, but the wine is 
weak and acid. 

The animals indigenous to the country are the myoxus, the mus-citillus, 
ihe'arctomys or Russian marmot, the mustela sarnwtica, and the saiga. The 
heaths, the brushwood, and the steppes, abound in partridges, quails, and 
woodcocks; and whenever the grasshoppers are not devoured by sea swal- 
lows, the whole or the greater part of the harvest is consumed by these 
destructive insects. The cold of winter is intense, and the streams are 
dried by the summer's heat. 1 

The above remarks are strictly applicable to the country between the 

* Nouv. Ephem. G6ogr. VI. p. 228. 

1 Meyer, Opisanie Otchakowcki Semlii, 1794. Boeber's account of lekaterinoslav. See 
the Transactions of the Economical Society of St. Petersburgh. Pallas's Travels. 


Dneiper and the sea of Azof. The well wooded hi^ls form a country be- 
narrow frontier, the steppes are more extensive, the soil is com- gj^pwand 
paratively barren, and the husbandmen live at greater distances the sea of 
from one another. Brackish lakes and marshes, heiths, and Azofl 
sandy downs are thickly scattered through the plains. : 

All the towns, with the exception of Bachmuth, which is fa- , Vvtrw 
mous for its horses, are situated on the sea of Azof. 7iganrok, ' 
the most important of any, is built on a promontory; its harbour may con- 

tain from thirteen to fourteen hundred small vessels: 

the furs of eastern 

Russia are sent from it into different countries, and ttie other exports are 
the same as those of Odessa. Peter the Great wished to make it one of 
his capitals, and the place is memorable from the death of Alexander the 
First, who visited it in his journey through the provinces, and was there 
seized with the fever of the Crimea. 

Nachitchevan, a town of 13,000 or 14,000 souls, is peopled by an Arme- 
nian colony. It is situated in a district attached to the government of 
lekaterinoslav, and surrounded by the territory of the Cossacks. The trade 
consists chiefly in silk and cotton; the neighbouring country is thickly 
planted with mulberry trees, and the houses are built in the eastern style. 
./Zzo/was once included among the cities of Asia; its fortifications have 
fallen into decay, but its gardens and fruit trees are now more numerous 
than ever. 

All that extent of land, together with Taurida, is sometimes , N CW Russian 
called New Russia; it may be considered an acquisition wrested ' colony. 
from nature by the efforts and industry of the Tartars. The greater part 
of the inhabitants are at present composed of Russian husbandmen; but 
the imperial government invited colonists from every nation, and the 
great population of Little Russia is no where more abundant than on the 
banks of the Dneiper. Servians, Wallachians, and Albanians have inha- 
bited, since 1754, the district between the Dneiper and the Ingul, which 
has been long known by the name of New Servia. The colonists are now 
confounded with the Russians. Some Poles sought refuge in the neigh- 
bourhood of Odessa, after the annihilation of their country, and the Greeks 
have increased on the banks of the Berda. Few settlers have migrated to 
the Steppes of Nogay. Ten villages to the south-east of these districts are 
peopled by Duchoborzes or. Russian Quakers, and 30,000 Nogay _ 

*L . J . . ... '. v- I Duchoborzes. 

Tartars burnt their travelling wagons near these European set- ' 
tlements, and fixed their abode in seventy-three villages. 1 

The colonists are in many places ill provided with timber 
for building; they live under the ground, and the hillocks, which ' 
are so common in the country, and which served in ancient times for graves 
or monuments of the dead, are now converted into houses ; the vaults are 
changed into roofs, and beneath them are subterranean excavations. Kur- 
gan is the Tartar name for these tumuli; they are scattered throughout 
New Russia; they were raised at different times by the different people 
who ruled over that region. The Kurgans are not all of the same kind; 
some are not unlike the rude works of the early Hungarians, others are 
formed of large and thin stones, like the Scandinavian tombs. It is to be 
regretted that the different articles contained in them have been only of late 
years examined with care. Many inscriptions, long concealed in ruins, 
prove the existence of Greek* colonies from the banks of the Danube to 
the Borysthenes. Other and more frequent traces of the same people 
still remain on the coasts of Taurida. 

A gulf on the Black Sea, and another on the sea of Azof, The Crimea 
are divided by a narrow isthmus, and limit on the north the 'or Taurida. 

k Tanker's Account of the Country between the Dneiper and the Don. Mailer's Histo- 
rical Memoirs of the Hussian Empire, volume IX. 
1 Nouyelles Annales des Voyages, t. I. p. 249. 


peninsula of Taurida, or the Crimea. The eastern part is washed by the 
sea of Azof, and separated from Asia by the strait of Yenikali, or the 
Cimmerian Bosphorus, and the southern and western coasts border on the 
Black Sea. The part to the north of the river Salghir is an immense plain, 
of which the western extremity is barren and covered with sand, and the 
northern or the country near the isthmus of Perecop abounds in salt and 

salt marshes, but the part on the south is arable and fertile. 

' When the wind is easterly, the Siwash or eastern gulf, and the 
Putrid Sea or Gnild More receive by a narrow opening the waters of the 
sea of Azof; but at Dther times the ooze, the filth and mud that cover the 
beds of these marshes may be seen to the distance of ten versts. m The 
noxious exhalations that rise from them, render the country unhealthy be- 
yond Perecop. Salt, sheep, and Albanian wheat are the riches of the plains. 
But the air is mixed with unwholesome vapours, and the husbandmen that 
settle in the country, are subject, on their arrival, to dangerous diseases. 
. . The southern region is very different; a mountainous range of 

' no great extent rises in front of the Black Sea. The mari- 
time, or highest part, is formed by strata of calcareous rocks and madre- 
pores; the inland chain is also composed of limestone mixed with shells, 
and their horizontal beds descend beneath the plains. The highest sum- 
mit is situated in the neighbourhood of Symferopol and Baktchisarai; it 
has been distinguished by the Russian name of Tchetyr-Dag, because its 
shape is not unlike a tent. The traveller takes three hours to ascend it; 
but he is rewarded for his toil by the view from the top; he can see the 
whole of that fine peninsula, which was at one time covered with flourish- 
ing cities under the dominion of the Tartars. Perecop is distinctly seen 
on the north, the Black Sea extends to the south and the west, and the 
distant prospect is bounded on the east by the sea of Azof." The caverns 
in these rocks are filled with snow ; from them the Salghir takes its rise, 
and a thousand rivulets wind in every direction. The streams form a 
great number of cascades before they reach the base of the mountain; the 
water is intensely cold, and so transparent that a small stone or a piece of 
silver may be easily observed at the depth of seventy fathoms. The 
caverns are situated in many parts of the calcareous hills; those of Boba- 
tag served as an asylum for the ancient inhabitants. The mildest and 
most fruitful region in all the Russian empire is that continuation of val- 
lies arranged in natural amphitheatres, at the southern base of Taurida, 
Southern vai- i along the coasts of the Black Sea. The climate is little differ- 
lics - ' ent from that of Anatolia and Asia Minor; winter is hardly felt; 

the primrose and the crocus appear above the ground in the month of 
January, and the oak retains its green foliage throughout the year. "No 
part of Taurida, perhaps of the whole empire, affords the botanist a great- 
er variety of plants, or the husbandman richer harvests. The ever-verdant 
laurel grows beside the olive, the pomegranate, the fig or the date tree, 
which might have been brought to the country in ancient times by Greek 
colonists.' The mammiferous ash, the mastich, the sumach, the bladder- 
nut, the sage-leaved cistus, the emerus and the arbute of Asia Minor 
flourish in the open air. The walnut and almost every kind of fruit tree 
thrive in the woods or rather the natural gardens in the vallies. The 
caper bush is scattered along the coast; the wild vine reaches to the tops 
of the highest trees; descends again to the ground, and forms with the 
viburnum festoons and garlands. High hills, masses of rocks, streams 
and cataracts, verdant fields and woqds, and the sea that bounds the hori- 

m The verst, a Russian measure of length, is equal to 3520 English feet, consequently 
three versts are equal to two English miles. 

n The height of the summit is 1200 feet according to Pallas, and 6600 according to 

Pallas, Tableau Physique de la Tauridc. 


zon, render the landscape equal to any imagined or described by poets. 
The simple life of the good Tartars, their cottages cut in the solid rock, 
and concealed by the thick foliage of surrounding gardens, the flute of 
the shepherd,* his flocks scattered on solitary hills, remind the stranger of 
the golden age. The traveller leaves the people with regret, and envies 
the destiny of mortals ignorant of war, the frauds of trade, and luxury ac- 
companied with all its vices." 

These are the words of the learned Pallas, who left the court of Peters- 
burg to spend the remainder of his days in the Crimea. 

The valuable plants of southern Europe and Asia Minor, ' 

might be cultivated in Taurida, and thus contribute to the ' 
wealth of Russia. "The most delicate fruits,*' continues M. Pallas, 
"arrive at maturity, many exist already in the province; olives and fig 
trees need not be exported from other regions; there is no scarcity of 
sesamum, a plant rich in oil; and the orange, the lemon and the citron, 
if a little labour be bestowed on them, resist the cold of winter. The 
grape might be much improved, if a judicious selection of the best vines 
were made in other countries, and if they were cultivated on different soils, 
the effect of which on the quality of the fruit had been previously ascer- 
tained. It might be necessary, too, to pay greater attention to the vintage, 
to the making of the new wine, and the preserving of the old. Druggists 
might obtain from the same country, many valuable simples and plants 
useful in dying, such as those generally exported from the islands in the 
Archipelago, Greece, Asia Minor and Persia. Some of these plants are 
already found in a wild state, as the mammiferous ash and the sunflower, 
that yields a rich blue dye. The same country is well adapted for the 
growth of different-coloured and hard timber, or for the wood employed 
in marquetry, for the Cyprus, the cork and the oaks from which gall-nuts 
and kermes are obtained, and the acorns used in dressing Morocco leather." 

The advantages which M. Pallas enumerated to his sove- 'obstacles by 
reign, are not likely to be soon "realized. It. is not denied that J^ion i^e- 
the germs of a future vegetation exist in the royal gardens at ' tarded. 
Nikita and other places, but the judicious labours of M. Steven are feebly 
seconded by the industry of the inhabitants. The Tartar gardeners con- 
fine themselves to the cultivation of melons, arbutes, and ordinary vegeta- 
bles. Apple, pear and cherry trees grow on the mountains; the peach, 
the fig and the pomegranate thrive on the southern coast, but the olive is 
neglected, and the plantation of mulberry trees in the neighbourhood of 
Staroi-Krim is the only one in the country. The fourteen different kinds 
of grapes in Taurida are mostly consumed on the tables of the rich, and 
the quantity of wine produced is comparatively insignificant. The vine- 
yards of Sudak form an exception; more than 30,000 eimers of wine are 
every year obtained from them. The Russian nobles for some time past 
have purchased land on that coast; its cultivation is thus improved, and 
the new proprietors expect ere long to raise Burgundy and Champaigne on 
their own estates, and to eat oranges from their own groves. But the 
nature of the climate, the vernal frosts, and the excessive heat of summer, 
if not insuperable obstacles, can only be surmounted by a civilized and 
industrious pppulation. 

Perecop, a fortified place, consisting only of three houses, is , Towns and 
not calculated to give the stranger a favourable opinion of the remarkable 
Crimean towns. The suburbs is three versts or two English ' plac 
miles distant; although peopled by a thousand individuals, who carry on 
a trade in salt, it is very ill built. The places to which the name of towns 
is least inapplicable, are situated on the district watered by the Salghir. 
That part of the country on which Jlkmetcket or the capital stands, is not 
fruitful; it is ill provided with water, and the inhabitants are exposed to en- 
demical fevers. The town has been called Sympheropol by the Russians, 


since they became masters of the peuinsula, but it is only known in the 
country by the name which it received from the Tartars. The population 
is not less than 20,000 souls; the inhabitants are indolent, and the place is 
without commerce. . The distance from Akmetchet to Bdktchi- Sarai, is 
not more than thirty versts, or twenty English miles. It was once the re- 
sidence of the Khan, and the Tartar capital of the Crimea. It is built on 
the craggy side of a large natural moat, between two mountains, and sur- 
rounded with fountains, streams, terraces, hanging vineyards, and groves 
of black poplars near rocks and precipices. The vast palace of the Khans 
still remains, but many other edifices have been destroyed by the victori- 
ous Russians. r The number of inhabitants is npw reduced to seven or 
eight thousand; their principal trade consists in cutlery and morocco lea- 
ther. Tchufut-KaliS an ancient fortress erected by the Genoese on a lofty 
precipice, is not more than five versts from the last town. It is now a place 
of refuge for 1200 Jews, of the sect Karai. The character of the Karaites 
is very different from that of their brethren in other countries; they live 
without reproach, their honesty is proverbial in the Crimea, and the word 
of a Karaite is said to be as good as another man's bond. They still adhere 
to the law of Moses, they have rejected the Talmud, every Rabbinical doc- 
trine, and all interpolations of scriptural texts. 1 Koslow, which was for a 
short time distinguished by the name of Eupatoria, is situated on the west- 
ern coast; its port is the most commercial of any in the peninsula; its po- 
pulation amounts to 12,000 inhabitants, many of whom are brewers of 
bouza, the Mussulman ale, that is drunk on the banks of the Sennaar. 
Jikhtiar or Sevastopol, a large naval arsenal, and a temporary station of the 
Russian fleet, from which it can sail in twenty-four .hours to the Bospho- 
rus, is built on the southern extremity of the same coast. We observe 
after having doubled the capes of the Chersonesus and St. George, the 
narrow entrance of the port JBalaklava, where two thousand Greeks gain a 
subsistence by trade, and the produce of their mackerel fisheries. All the 
rocky and steep coast from Cape Aw to C*pe 'Jlitvdoro, is, in our opinion, 
TheCriou- i the/ronf of the ram, or the Criou-Metopon of the ancients. Tra- 
Metopon. I yellcrs remark at the base of the mountains, or the Byzantine 
Klimatcti the romantic towns of Nikita, Aloutchti, Soudak, and its small har- 
bour, and loursof, with a castle belonging to the governors of Taurida. 
Caffa, or the ancient Theodosia, is situated at the extremity of the moun- 
tains on the bay of Caffa. It covers the southern side of the gulf, and rises 
like a vast theatre of mosques and minarets near all the hills which enclose 
that part of the bay. It merited, and obtained in past times, the appella- 
tion of the Lesser Constantinople; it contained 36,000 houses within its 
walls, and not fewer than 8000 in the suburbs. It must be confessed, how- 
ever, that the ruins do not indicate a space proportionate to so great a 
number. Mahomet II. having made himself master of the Bosphorus, took 
the town in 1475. It continued to flourish under the Tartars, but its in- 
habitants, like those throughout the Crimea, abandoned their possessions 
at the approach of the Russians, and the Genoese and Tartar monuments 
were destroyed by the barbarous troops of the czar. u . The present popu- 
lation is less than 4000. *Kertsh^ once the residence of Mithridates, and 
the capital of the Bosphorian kings, and Yenicale, a small fortress that 
commands the strait, are situated on the eastern peninsula; near the for- 
mer is the tomb of Mithridates, and a magnificent sarcophagus at Yeni- 
cale is now changed into a reservoir. The Altyn Obo, or highest hill in 
that part of the Crimea, is about four versts distant from Kertsh; it con- 
tains, according to tradition, a treasure guarded by a virgin, who spends 

i Wsevoloiski's Dictionary, article Sympheropol. r Clarke's Travels, vol. I. p. 464. 
* Tchufut was originally a name of reproach bestowed on the Jews. Kald signifies a 
fort. t Clarke, vol. I. p. 482. Clarke's Travels, chapters 18 and 19. 


her nights in lamentations. It was from the ancient citadel of the Bospho- 
rians, on the precipice above the sea, that Mithridates threw his son Xi- 
phanes into the waves; at least there is no other spot connected with the 
site of Panticapceum,* which from its eminence corresponds with the text 
of Appian, who says, that the mother stood on the other side of the strait, 
and witnessed the murder of her* son. y 

We shall not enter into any inquiry concerning the Scythians, Tauro- 
Scythians, Cimmerians, or the other ancient inhabitants of the Crimea. 
The Tartars, (many of whom have. now left their country,) are sprung 
from the Turks, Grseco-Scythians, and Nogays of the great horde, the 
founders of the khanat of Kaptschak. They are divided into many distinct 
classes, but there are no slaves or servile tribes amongst them. The 
estates of the lords are cultivated by farmers or hired labourers, whose 
condition is by no means wretched, and the nobles are the only individu- 
als in the community that can possess land. Each village is still governed 
by its Mursaj or elective chief, who enforces the laws, and is at the head 
of the rural authorities. The dwellings of the Tartars exhibit the rudeness 
and simplicity of early ages. Stakes or branches of trees are placed with- 
out regularity above one another, the chinks or interstices are covered 
with moss, and the spaces thus enclosed form the habitations of the pea- 
sants. The houses of the nobles are equally superficial, and consist only 
of a single story. The outer ornaments are light wooden pillars, painted 
in green, red, or yellow; the rooms are not provided with chairs or tables, 
but a number of large pillows, placed round each apartment, serve the dou- 
ble purpose of seats and beds. A large space is left behind the wainscot, 
and all the necessary articles of household furniture are kept in it. 

The Tartars, like all the neighbouring subjects of the em- character, 
pire, hate their masters, their customs, and institutions. The ' manners. 
Russians have done little to allay such prejudices; they have done much 
to increase them. If aversion to despotic rulers be considered a heinous 
offence in the conquered, it must be admitted that they have many redeem- 
ing virtues; for every traveller that has visited the Crimea, speaks in high 
terms of their strict honesty and integrity. The same people are generous 
and hospitable, a patriarchal simplicity prevails among them, and houses 
set apart for the reception of strangers, are attached to the dwellings of the 
wealthy. Travellers make mention of a convent of Tartar nuns at Batchi- 
sarai; their dress too is said not to be very different from that worn by the 
white penitents during their religious processions. 

The improvement in the culture of the vine and the mulber- _ 

_. _. . I Husuandmcn. 

ry has not been greatly advanced by the Greek or German hus- ' 
bandmen, and their assistance has not been of much value in the different 
manufactures. The Slavonic husbandmen are a thriving colony, they are 
now accustomed to the climate, their number is rapidly increasing, but 
they are ignorant and ill educated. 

It may be as well to take a short survey of the history of the i History of the 
Cossacks on the Don and the Black Sea, before we attempt to ' Cowac^. 
describe their country. Although the territory belonging exclusively to 
that people is equal in extent to 4600 square miles, 8 or 12,800 square 
leagues, it contains few towns, and is ill calculated to excite the attention 
of the geographer. Little Russia is the native country of the Cossacks. 
The Slavonians of Kiow formed a distinct colony from those of Novgo- 
rod; the nature of their government was not the same, their destiny has 
been widely different. Separated from each other for more than three centu- 
ries, they have been at last united; but their language, manners, and even phy- 
sical constitution are so many marks of a distinct people. The Malo-Rus- 

* The Modern Kertchy. ? Clarke, chapter 18. 

2 Fifteen of these miles are equal to a degree. 
VOL. IV. E e 


sians or inhabitants of Lil'tle Russia, are at present settled in the Ukraine, 
or in the governments of Kiovv, Tchernigow, Novgorod-Severski, Kursk, 
origin of the i Orel, and Tambof. All the military peasants in these provinces 
name. I a re denominated Cossacks, but in* the last age the same name 

was generally applied to a number of warlike freebooters, who lived under 
a separate government. The word is o? Tartar origin, and signifies an 
armed man; it was adopted by the Russians at the time when they began 
to reside in the places which the Tartars inhabited, or when the conquer- 
ors mixed with the few of the vanquished that remained, and became ha- 
bituated to the same sort of life. Constantine Porphyrogenetes mentions 
Kasachia, a country at the base of Mount Caucasus, between the Black and 
the Caspian- sea. According to the Russian annals, Mitislaf, prince of 
7\noutarakan, and son of the Great Vladimir, gained a signal victory in 
1201 over the Kosaki, a people that appear to be the same as the one men- 
tioned by the Greek emperor. They were of Tartar origin, and their name 
was perhaps derived from their mode of fighting, in the same manner as 
the Kir guises- Kaisaks have been so called from their light armour. Fre- 
quent mention is made of the Tartar-Cossacks in Russian history, parti- 
cularly during the reign of Ivan the First. The Cossacks- Or dinski were 
distinguished much about the same time from the Cossacks of Azof; the 
former belonged to the great Orda or horde, the principal settlement of the 
Tartars on the Wolga. These two branches are the last remains of the 
Tartar empire in Russia. The people were destroyed by the conquerors, 
many of them fled on their arrival, and joined other Tartar tribes. 
Cossacks of i T ne Cossacks of Liule Russia are not mentioned before the 
Little Russia. I y ear 1-320, when Gedemin, great duke of Lithuania, conquered 
Kiow. The origin of their military republic has been ascribed to the ter- 
ror excited by the victories of that prince. Swarms of fugitives left their 
country, assembled at the embouchure of the Dneiper, and formed a petty 
state. They were compelled, in order to resist the aggressions of their 
neighbours, to live under a military government, and to submit to military 
laws. Their number was considerably augmented after Kiow was a second 
time laid waste by the Tartars in 14 15, and they increased still more rapid- 
ly when that large principality was united to Lithuania and Poland. The 
new colony was called Little Russia, and thus distinguished from the great 
empire. The inhabitants extended gradually to the banks of the Dneister 
and the Bog, and occupied all the country between these rivers and the 
Dneiper. The Cossacks built towns and burghs, in which they resided with 
their families during winter, but in summer as many as were able to bear 
arms wandered in the steppes, or, like the knights of St. John of Jerusa- 
lem, waged continual war against the Tartars and Turks. Poland was thus 
protected against its most formidable enemies, and the Poles, far from 
checking the power of the rising republic, did all they could to promote 
it. King Sigis.mond ceded for ever to the Cossacks in 1750, the countries 
above the cataracts of the Dneiper. Stephen Bathory improved their mili- 
tary government, appointed their hetman or chief, and granted them an 
extensive territory; but his successors did not act with the same policy. 
The Cossacks were prohibited from continuing their incursions against 
the Turks, and it was not imagined that their warlike institutions were 
thus effectually destroyed. Poles settled in their country, and to them the 
highest offices in the state were committed. Their clergy too were com- 
pelled to renounce the spiritual authority of the patriarch, and to acknow- 
ledge the supremacy of the pope. The Cossacks, after an obstinate war, 
shook off the yoke, and submitted to the czars. That event happened in 
1654, about three centuries and a half after the first separation of the Cos- 
sacks of the great horde from the Russian nation. 

I Many of the Cossacks left the eastern banks of the Dneiper, 
ancl m ^S ratecl to tne southern provinces of Russia during their 

1 wars with the Poles. They settled in a fertile region, and re- 



tained a stratocracy in their new possessions. Such is the origin of the 
Slobades or the Cossacks in the Russian Ukraine. Their country had been 
formerly attached to the great dutchy of Kiow, but it had remained uncul- 
tivated and desert since the first invasion of the Tartars. 

The branch of the Zaporogues, which is much more ancient, Za ^ ^ 
is perhaps the most remarkable of any. It was determined, ' 
in order to defend the Cossacks in the Ukraine from the invasions of the 
Tartars, that a number of young unmarried men should occupy the south- 
ern frontiers, where the Don discharges itself into the Black Sea. Warlike 
youths flocked from every direction to that station, which soon became a 
military school; and so great was the attachment of the Cossacks to their 
new country, that they refused to leave it, although exposed on every sid-e 
to hostile incursions. ' The colonists were from time to time increased by 
the arrival of their countrymen, who fled from the oppression of the Poles. 
It was about the commencement of the seventeenth century that they 
separated wholly from the Cossacks of Little Russia, whose hetman they 
had until that time obeyed. They then formed a distinct military state, 
and elected a chief, the kochevoi-ataman or commander of the camp. Their 
setcha or principal station was a fortified camp, and although its position 
was often changed, it remained always near the cataracts of the Dneiper, 
the place from which they derived their name. 

The nature of their military government* is not unworthy of 
notice. War was the sole object of their union; they neglected ' 
agriculture and the rearing of cattle; fishing and the chase were their 
amusements, not sources of emolument, or the means of gaining a subsis- 
tence. All the members of' the society were obliged to remain in a state 
of celibacy, and although they generally carried off the wives of their 
neighbours, it was unlawful to bring a woman within the limits of the 
setcha. To prevent their population from being impaired, they captured 
and took away many boys in the course of their expeditions; and their 
numbers were increased by the accession of criminals or outlaws from 
every kingdom, and almost all the European languages were spoken in 
their tents. 

The ataman was chosen every year, and no dignity or mark of distinc- 
tion was conferred on him after the expiration of his office. Every mem- 
ber in the community was eligible to the highest place in the republic. 
They had no written laws, custom superseded their necessity, and little 
inconvenience arose from the want of them in .the administration of jus- 
tice. Criminals were judged with impartiality, and punished with extra- 
ordinary* severity. The murderer was buried alive in the same grave with 
him whom he had destroyed. Robbers were confined three days in the 
stocks, and condemned to suffer so many stripes that most of them pe- 
rished under the lash. These Cossacks had all the virtues and vices of 
freebooters. They were brave, barbarous and hospitable; sober and active 
in their military expeditions, indolent and drunken in their houses or 
tents. The number of those fit to bear arms amounted sometimes to forty 

Their state, though not subdued, recognised at different times the au- 
thority of the Poles, the Tartars, the Porte and Russia. Peter the Great 
demolished their setcha when they joined the revolt of Mazeppa, the het* 
man of the Cossacks in the Ukraine. They lived afterwards under the 
protection of the Crimean khans, and were admitted in 1737 among the 
number of the Russian vassals. All the service they had to perform to 
the czar was to appear in campaigns when they were required, and on 
these occasions they were treated and paid like the other Cossacks. They 
were guilty of rebellion in the war against the Turks, which terminated in 
1774; it was then they declared themselves independent, and when colo- 
nies were established in the conquered countries on the banks of the 


Dnciper," the Cossacks maintained that the territory was their own, 
harassed the settlers, and by force or stratagem took fifty thousand cap- 
tives. The empress resolved to punish the rebels and to annihilate a state, 
which, under more favourable auspices, might have become a second 
Lacedemon. A Russian army surrounded their camp and disarmed them 
in 1775. A manifesto was published, and they were permitted to leave 
the empire, or abandon their military institutions. A few betook them- 
selves to agriculture, the rest repaired in crowds to the-Turks and Tartars. 
Countryof the ^ ne descendants of these Cossacks still exist under a differ- 
cossackson ent name and in a different country. Catherine, by an ukase of 
the 30th of June, 1792, ceded to the Zaporogues, who had dis- 
tinguished themselves in the last war against the Turks, the peninsula of 
Taman, and all the land bounded by the Feia and the Laba, between the 
Kuban and the sea of Azof. The extent of that territory is not less than 
16,272 square miles. b The people were from that time called the Tcher- 
nomorski, or the Cossacks on the Black Sea; they had the privilege of 
choosing their ataman, and fifteen thousand inhabitants of Little Russia 
were allowed to migrate with them to the new settlement. But they have 
voluntarily renounced their ancient customs, marriage is no longer unlaw- 
ful, and the predatory warriors are now husbandmen and shepherds. 
Three thousand, who have enlisted in the service of Russia, make up at 
present six regiments. Their* country, according to the limits to which 
we adhere, forms a part of Asia; it is contiguous to Circassia on the south, 
and the steppes of Astrakan on the east. The soil is fruitful and well 
watered, and if the banks of the Kuban be exempted, the climate is not 
unhealthy. But it is on these banks that the Tchernomorski settled and 
founded hkaterinodar, their capital, near rich pastures covered with un- 
ciayvoica- ] wholesome mists. The peninsula of Taman is sometimes 
noeo. I changed into an island by the inundations of the Kuban, arid is 

almost always exposed to pestilential vapours. In some parts of the same 
region, showers of viscous mud rise occasionally from the ground; they 
are denominated volcanoes by the Russians. The town of Taman is built 
on the site of the ancient Phanngoria, it is officially called Tmoutaracan, the 
name which it bore in the middle ages, when the capital of a small king- 

I The Cossacks on the Don form another great branch of the 
I same people. They are not, as M. Muller supposes, descend- 
ed from the Russians of. Novgorod and Moscow; their language is not 
different from that of the Little Russians. It is likely that they settled 
gradually in the countries from which the Tartars were expelled. It may 
be inferred too that the new colonists obtained the Tartar name of Cos- 
sacks from their mode of life and their connexions with the former in- 
habitants, while those of Little Russia were so denominated, because they 
adopted the same military institutions. It is not improbable that some 
Tartars remained in these countries, mingled with the Russians, spoke in 
time their language, and became converts to the Greek church. The rapid 
increase of the population of the republic, the Tartar words still retained 
by the Cossacks on the Don, and the difference in their physiognomy tend 
to corroborate our opinion. The colonists formed a considerable state 
a short time after their migration. Many young men fled from the slavery 
which was then introduced in Russia, and added to their numbers. All 
were admitted into the rights of citizens, even the prisoners of war might 
share the same privileges. It was in the year 1570, after the campaign of 
the Turks against Astrakan, that the colonists fixed their capital at Tsher- 
kasky which is 70 versts distant from the fortress of Azof. They took 
from their new residence the name of Tsherkaski. 

* These countries were at that time called New Servia. 
k Geographical miles, sixty of which arc equal to a degree. 


Their nation was then one of the bulwarks of the empire, and they were 
protected by the czars, in the same way as the Cossacks of Little Russia 
had been protected by the kings of Poland. Privileges were conferred on 
them, land exempt from every impost was assigned to them on the fron- 
tier, but the emperors wished to subject them to a sort of military vas- 
salage. The Cossacks on the Don were seen for the first time in the 
Russian armies in the year 1579; since that period, many battles have 
been decided by their courage; still their love of independence, and their 
avidity of plunder, have on some occasions excited them to revolt. 

The Cossacks on the Don inhabit at present the plains wa- , country of the 
tered by that river, and their country extends between the I DomanCo*- 
governments of Saratof, Astrakan, Woronesch or Voronez, > 
and lekaterinoslav to the sea of Azof. Their territory is about 57,600 
geographical square miles in extent; it was formerly larger, but, after an 
insurrection in 1708, a part was added to the neighbouring provinces. 
The settlers obtained the privileges they desired, and retained their mili- 
tary customs. The territory of the Donian Cossacks is an immense plain, 
wholly destitute of hills. Some parts of it are as fruitful as the Ukraine, 
but the soil in general is barren; the inhabitants have made little progress 
in the useful arts, and agriculture is neglected. The wealth of the fierce 
and indolent Cossack consists in cattle, and some subsist by their fisheries. 
The fish and caviar exported annually from the country, amount in value 
to 500,000 roubles. The culture of the ground, and rural labour, are 
committed to Russian peasants, whom the Cossack hires for very mode- 
rate wages. The greater part of his time is spent in taking care of his 
horse, and the tabounes or herds of the rich are made up of five hundred 
or a thousand head, but the saddle horses only are sheltered in winter from 
the inclemency of the season. The Cossack horse, though small and lean, 
is swift and almost indefatigable. Whenever many of the Cossacks are 
gathered together, horse racing is almost their sole amusement. 

The women weave linen and cloth; they make pelisses, man- . Manners, ha- 

' ' 

tles and stockings; they take care of the gardens,. the orchards, 
and even the vineyards, which are more numerous in their country than 
in any other Russian province. The dwellings of the Cossacks are clean, 
and evince a degree of refinement which we look for in vain in the greater 
part of Russia. The houses are white, and provided with windows and 
chimneys; the inmates never shut their doors against the stranger, all of 
them practise the virtue of hospitality. Costly articles of furniture are 
seen in the houses of the wealthy, who are now desirous of acquiring 
knowledge, and many of them send their children to study at Petersburgh. 
A seminary, which is much frequented, has been established at Tcher- 
kask, the chief town in the country. The principal church is adorned 
with many standards and other trophies collected in most parts of Europe. 
The inhabitants enjoy civil and political liberty, the monopolies of the 
crown are not felt, the people may make and sell as much brandy as they 
please, they pay nothing to the excise, they are exempt from the poll tax, 
the militia or conscription. If their presence is requisite on any extra- 
ordinary emergence, they must rise in mass; but the Cossacks are never 
unwilling to join the Russian armies, war is an amusement, not a hard- 
ship. The Cossack is never happier than on horseback, he is valiant in 
the battle, he delights in plunder. 

The Russian secretary of war signifies his instructions to . poiuicaiii- 
the ataman or hetman, the chief or general of the military na- ' bert y- 
tion. The propositions of government are made known to the people, who 
decide by a majority of votes, whether or not the requisition ought to be 
obeyed, and in what manner \t should be put in execution. Examples are 

c A rouble is equal to four shillings and twopence. 


on record, in which the majority have opposed the views of government. 
The czars have sometimes ceded to their wishes, in other instances the 
slightest opposition has been construed into a revolt. To form an aristo- 
cracy, or to attach the wealthiest families by honourable and hereditary 
distinctions, is the great object of the Russian cabinet; in this way, it is 
thought, the democracy may be undermined, or placed on a level with the 
other Russian governments. 

. The .villages of the Cossacks are called stantitzas; they con- 
' tain from 150 to 400 houses; tfach stantitza has its elective ma- 
gistrate, and forms a military company. There are few places in the 
country that merit the name of towns, and the few that do so, resemble 
large villages. Tcherkask d or the capital, which we have already men- 
tioned, is built on a marsh, and supported on piles. The inhabitants sail 
in spring from house to house. The city is divided into eleven stantitzas, 
and contains fifteen thousand individuals. The number of habitations may 
amount to three thousand, and five persons may be allowed on an average 
for each house. The great quantity of timber used in the town for bridges, 
houses, and streets, is brought by the Wolga; a sufficient supply could not 
be obtained by the Don. Some of the inhabitants are anxious to remove 
to Novoi-Tcherkask, which is officially designated the capital, but the 
greater number are loth to quit their present residence, although it is ad- 
mitted to be unhealthy. 6 Tziemlianskaia is noted for its vineyards, and their 
produce is compared to Burgundy. The other Cossack grapes are mostly 
white, the wines from many of them are sparkling, and although few are 
of a good quality, the people are not indifferent about drinking them. Two 
great fairs are held at Urupinskaia and Luganskaiat, 

Th The country of the Donian Cossacks is watered by the Don 

' and its feeders, of which the Donetz -or Danaetz is the most 
considerable. Some writers suppose the last river. the same as the Tanais 
of the ancients, but it is more likely that the incorrect notions which the 
ancients had of the Wolga, led them to confound it with the Tanais. The 
Don issues from the lake Iwanow, and waters a hilly and fruitful country 
until it reaches Woronesch/ It is enclosed on the left, from that town to 
the confluence of the Donetz, by steep banks of chalk, but as it proceeds 
in its course, it enters an immense and unvaried plain; its streams are not 
confined by rocks, nor broken by cataracts. Its depth even in these plains 
is not less in winter than six or seven feet, but the water does not rise in 
summer to the height of two feet above its sandy bed. Navigation is thus 
prevented, and the water of the Don, like that of its feeders, is so bad that 
the inhabitants themselves can hardly drink it. Much advantage, it is 
thought, might result if the river were united to the Wolga by means of 
the Medweditza, or rather the Ilawla, but few boats could sail by such a 
passage from the want of water in the Don, and from the difference in the 
level, which is fifty feet higher on the side of the same river than on that 
of the Wolga. 6 The former receives from the Caspian steppes the Ma- 
nytach) of which the almost stagnant waters seem to mark the position of an 
ancient strait between the Caspian and the sea of Azof. 

Sea of Azof I The sea of Azof was more correctl y styled the Palus Meotis 
1 by the ancients; it is formed by the Don and other rivers, and 
is not a sea, but a marshy lake, on a sandy, and, in-some places, an oozy 
channel. No rock has been observed in any part of it; its turbid waters* 
are well stored with fish, but they are shallow to a great distance from the 
banks. The surface is about twelve inches higher in spring than in the 
rest of the year. That branch of the lake which is called the Putrid Sea, 
has been already mentioned. 

d The town is called Tscherchaskoy by Dr. Clarke. < Clarke, Chap. xiii. 

f Voroncz. e Lowitz, cited by Georgi, Beschreibung, t. I. p. 290. . 

h Its waters are brackish, but not salt. 


A horde of Calmucks inhabit the country on the east of the Russian cai- 
Donian Cossacks, and are in some respects under the dominion ' mucks. 
of the military republic. They occupy the steppes by which the sea of 
Azof is separated from the Caspian; their territory is bounded by the Ma- 
nytsch and the Kouma, and watered on the east by the Sarpa, a small feed- 
er of the Wolga, which flows in a contrary direction from the principal 
river. The chain of hills that divide the basins of the Don and Wolga, 
extends across the steppe. The declivities on the side of the Wolga are 
steep, but a lafge and sloping plain descends gently towards the Don. The 
level of the Caspian sea at Astrakan, is admitted to be lower isthmus of 
than the sea of Azof by 150 feet; the Manytsch has, at least, an J the Caspian, 
inclination of ten feet, and the hills on the banks of that river are not per- 
haps higher than 200 or.300 feet above the Caspian, and 50 or 100 aboye 
the Palus Meotis. It follows, therefore, that by deepening the bed of the 
Manytsch, it might be easy tcr form a communication between the two seas. 
Limestone abounds in the rocks on the steppe, which is mostly covered 
with verdant pastures, but -some places on the east are unfruitful; a few 
oaks, mountain-ashes, or willows, display in that part of the country their 
scanty foliage. The wolf, the fox, a great variety of rats and mice, the 
marten andfelischaus* or wild cat of- the marshes, the stag and hare, many 
kinds of clucks, and lastly, the, dangerous scorpion-fly, are the wild animals 
on the steppe. The number of Calmucks is not more than 30,000; they 
live between the Wolga and the Jaik or Ural; they belonged to that horde, 
the most of which fled in 1770 to Chinese Tartary, rather than submit to 
the vexatious oppression of Russia; such as remained faithful, agreed to 
cross the Wolga. * >'-*' 

We have now arrived on the banks of the Wolga, and in the , Tle ' w f 
ancient kingdom ovkhanat of Astrakan. We shall only describe ' 
in this place the lower part of it, or the steppe, which corresponds nearly 
with the Russian .government of the same name, but extends on the east 
into the province of Suratow. The Wolga, or the largest river in Europe, 
flows through that country into the Caspian sea. A rivulet rises in the 
forests of the Waldaic chain, in ihe neighbourhood of Wolchino-Wercho- 
via, crosses the lakes Oselok, Piana, and Wolga, receives the waters of 
the lake Scliger, and becomes navigable near Rjev-Wolodornirow, at 
which place its breadth is not less than 95 feet. It then flows eastwards to 
Kasan, where it is enlarged by the Kama, a very great river, turns to the 
south, and makes apparently for the sea of Azof; but, unfortunately for the 
commerce of the Russians, its course is determined by the position of the 
Wolgaic hills, and it discharges itself into the Caspian sea-. Be- . Breadth , 
fore it receives the Kama, its breadth is upwards of 600 feet, ' 
and it is more than 1200 after* its junction with that river. It encompasses 
many islands in the vicinity of Astraltan, and its width there is about four- 
teen English miles. M. Guldenstced supposes its inclination on an average 
to be equal to six inches and a half in every four versts of its course;J 
hence, it may be calculated, that the lakes which form its source, are little 
more than 330 feet higher than its embouchure. The depth of its current 
varies from seven to eighteen feet. Its water, though not good, is drink- 
able, and it abounds with several varieties of the sturgeon, and different 
kinds offish. The valley of the Wolga from Ostaschow, is an extensive 
flat, from one to twenty versts in breadth, bounded by sloping plains from 
twenty to eighty feet in height, which are formed by layers of argil, marl, 
gypsum, sandstone, and coal, or of the same substances as the neighbour- 
ing ridge. The course of the Wolga is regular and calm, but the river has 
made a passage for itself near Nischnei-Novgorod, and, by the sinking of 

1 Nomadische Streifereien by B. -Bergmann. Nouv. Ann. deS Voyages, t. XII. p. 253, 
&c. Four versts are equal to 2 + 2-3 English miles. 


the ground thus occasioned, several large buildings in the town have been 

The Wolga is speedily swollen by excessive rains, and by the melting 

of snow, so that the streams are diverted into the channels of the feeders, 

, and the flux of their waters is thus impeded. The river during 

Polumna, or . . . . r 

lungsofihe part of the winter is covered with ice, but there are always 
' many apertures in the south, from which currents of air escape, 
hence they are termed the lungs of the Wolga. The polumna often change 
their position, and travellers are thus exposed to imminenftJ anger. Car- 
riages pass on the Wolga two months in the year, and in summer it is 
crowded with boats. More than. five thousand barks, constructed in the 
well-woocjed countries of Northern Russia, descend the river, and are load- 
ed with all kinds of commodities, but as these vessels cannot easily return 
or sail against the stream, the most of them are sold at Astrakan; and it IB 
thought by government, that the forests may in this way be speedily ex- 
hausted. The ladia, one sort of these barks, carry sometimes 100,000 
pouds of salt.* The ordinary burthen of the Kayoulki is about 35,000 
pouds; they are laden with grain, and the Nosedi with timber. The Wolga 
encloses the central ridge of Russia, and receives the streams of the Oka, 
the principal river in that fertile region; it communicates in the upper 
part of its course by the canal of Wyschnei-Wolotchok with the lakes Ladoga 
and Newa; lastly, the Kama conveys to it all the waters of eastern Russia. 
That large river may thus be considered the great outlet for the inland 
commerce of the empire. The town of Astrakan may be supposed an Alex- 
andria on a Scythian Nile; but the river enters an inland sea; it does not 
communicate with the ocean, and the countries waters, are inhabit- 
ed by barbarous nations; still, however, the advantages which human indus- 
try may derive from the majestic courses of the Wolga and the Danube, 
are not as yet realized. 

Name of the j The word Wolga, says M. Georgi, signifies great in the Sar- 
Woiga. I matian; it might have been as well had the writer explained 
what is meant by the Sarmatian, language. If the old Slavonic, or rather 
the Proto-Slavonic, which was spoken by the vassal tribes of the ancient 
Scythians, be understood by that incorrect term, we think the etymology 
not unlikely, althougl) its accuracy cannot now be ascertained. 1 The Fin- 
nic tongues furnish us With a more easy explanation; Volgi sigqies a val- 
ley; now the bed of the Wolga extends in the great valley of Russia. The 
Tartars called the W^olga the Ethele or Itel, which, according to some phi- 
lologists, means liberal or profuse: according to others, merely the river* 
The last name is still retained by the Tartars under the form of Ichtil-gad. 
The most ancient designation is that of the Rha or Rhas, which has been 
thought a corruption of the Araxes, a river in Armenia, although the two 
words are radically different in the Armenian language. The Morduates, 
a Finnic tribe, still term it the Rhaou, a name which in their dialect was 
probably expressive of rain-water. 11 All the etymolcfgies are involved in the 
darkness of a remote antiquity. 

Physical de- I ^ ne fertility of Lower Egypt depends on the overflowing 
scriptionof of the Nile; but the province of Astrakan is not much bene- 
I fitted by the inundations of the Wolga. The last river does 
not bring along with it a rich alluvial deposit, and its waters do not fruc- 
tify the ground. The country that is not inundated by the Wolga cpnsists 
chiefly of heaths and downs, which, if they be not wholly sterile, are ill 
adapted for agriculture. As it seldom or never rains in that part of Russia, 

k The poud is equal to 40 pounds. 

1 Wolkoi, feminine Wolkoia or Wolkaia, might have been in ancient times synonymous 
with Weliki. 

* Stint Martin, Mem. sur 1'Armanie, I. p. 38, 39, 63< II. p. 228, 403. 
Busching, Erbheachreibung, I. 770. Klaproth, Asia Polyglotta. 


the people are obliged to water artificially every field that is cultivated on the 
banks of the river. It must be admitted, however, that the dry and arid 
heaths are covered about the beginning of spring with fine flowers and use- 
ful herbs, with asparagus, capers, onions, and liquorice. The stem of the 
last plant grows to the height of three feet and a half, and its roots, though 
sometimes as thick as a man's arm, are by no means of an inferior kind. 
Salsola or glass-wort grows in profusion, and its quality is such as might 
have been anticipated from a soil so much impregnated with salt. Masses 
of saline crystals are observed on the beds of lakes Etsen, Bagd and several 
others, and the mountain of Bogd-Ola is overtopped by a salt-hill. There 
are two steppes in which the same substance predominates, the one situated 
between the Don, the Wolga and Caucasus, is called the Step-Astrukanskia, 
the other lies between the Wolga and the Ural, and is termed the Step- 
Kalmytzkaia, because it was formerly inhabited by the Calmucks. 

Both of these immense plains, according to M. Pallas, must have been 
at one time covered with the waters of the Caspian Sea. A Ridge of Ryn- 
sandy but verdant ridge extends in the eastern Steppe above ' P eski - 
the downs formed by argillaceous and saline deposits. The Calmucks 
call it Naryn, and the Russians Rynpeski. The animals that frequent them 
are the tarantula, the bustard, the pheasant and pendulino, the cony and 
the saigak, a species of wild goat, of which the horns are not opaque but 
transparent; it outstrips the swiftest dogs. 

The fruitful country in the government of Astrakan is not Fertile dig- 
large, it includes only the low districts on the banks of the ' tricts - 
Wolga, the Ural and Terek. The vegetable productions arrive at an ex- 
traordinary size, and they consist of arbutes, gourds and cucumbers nearly 
two feet in length, roots and potherbs of every kind, peaches, apricots, 
mulberries and grapes. All these fruits are very large, a fact that is often 
repeated by the Russian writers, and the country of Astrakan is, according 
to them, a terrestrial paradise. But the panegyrists are commissioned by 
government to persuade husbandmen to migrate to the province; foreigners 
may, therefore, judge more impartially, they may speak the truth without 
disguise. The great expansion of plants and fruits is not wonderful, be- 
cause they are abundantly watered by artificial means; secondly, because 
the soil is impregnated with saline and bituminous substances; and lastly, 
because the heat is excessive during two months in the year. The dis- 
agreeable, watery and insipid taste by which all the vegetable productions 
in Astrakan are distinguished, may be accounted for by the same causes. 
The Delta of the Wolga may one day be a valuable acquisition to the in- 
dustrious Russians, but they have to struggle at present against natural 
disadvantages. The heat is most oppressive; the thermometer j Excessof heat 
rises sometimes so high as 103 of Fahrenheit. The air in a ' andcold - 
great part of the government is unwholesome from the saline exhalations 
with which it is surcharged. The north winds are often the harbingers 
of so intense a cold, that the thermometer falls to 22 below zero. The 
principal arm of the Wolga, which is 2300 feet in breadth, is frozen in 
winter; heavy sledges are dragged on it, and the ice remains about two 
months. The town of Astrakan found the expense of keeping up its vine- 
yards too great, and it was decreed that they should be divided and sold in 
lots. The grapes are very large and very watery, the little wine made from 
them is drunk by the common people. The attempts to cultivate the olive 
have failed, and the apricot does not succeed unless much labour be bestow- 
ed on it; the trees are often destroyed by severe frosts. Thus excessive 
heat and extreme cold are the great disadvantages of the climate. 

The town of Astrakan is inhabited by 40,000 individuals; but , Towns 
in the fishing season the population amounts sometimes to ' 
70,000. It is built on one of the islands formed by the Wolga; its nume- 
rous churches, its orchards and vineyards, its large suburbs and citadel, 

VOL. IV. F f 


which, like those of Kasan, Nischnei-Novgorod, and Moscow, is called 
the Krem or Kremlin, give it an imposing appearance; but the houses are 
for the most part built of wood; the streets are dirty and unpaved; the 
ooze and the putrid fish that are left on the land during the vernal inun- 
dations, render the air disagreeable and unhealthy. The trade with Persia 
and India is considerable, and many of the people are employed in the 
manufacture of cotton, or in dressing Morocco leather. Russians, Arme- 
nians, Tartars, Indians and Persians might be mentioned among the in- 
habitants. The followers of Brahma form a society of bachelors; they 
reside in a large wooden building without windows; their refectories are 
clean, and well provided with fruits and pastry. The greater number live 
by usury. The Tartars are retail traders, but many of them are much in 
debt to the Indians, and they are often compelled to impignorate and grant 
the usufruct of their wives to their creditors. The Achrichamki are sprung 
from the Indians and the Tartar women. Krasnoiar and lenotaievsk, two 
other towns on the Wolga. are comparatively of little consequence; Kisliar, 
a place of trade, and Mosdok are more important, but they are built on the 
Terek or narrow frontier, which, according to our division, is situated be- 
yond the limits of Europe. 

countrvofthn I '^ ne countl T f tne Uralian Cossacks lies on the other side 
Uruiian Co*-"* I of the Steppe which separates the Wolga from the Ural; it 
wriw. I f orms a long and narrow belt, consisting chiefly of sandy and 

marshy land, and extends along the course of the last river. The Ural 
descends from the Ural mountains, and it is so called in conformity to a 
decree of Catherine II. Its waters flow in a channel without rocks, and 
are sufficiently deep to be navigable for small vessels; but its solitary banks 
are covered with reeds ; the noise and bustle of trade have not been heard 
FiBheheson i since the destruction of Saraitschik, a Tartar city." The Cos- 
iheiirai. I sacks still repair to the fishing stations at fixed 'seasons of the 
year, and it is a curious spectacle to see them assembled when the river 
is frozen. Some thousand fishermen arrive in sledges at a place appointed; 
and every man is provided with a spear, several poles, and other instru- 
ments. They arrange themselves in a long line, and if those in the rear 
should attempt to take the place of the others before them, their instru- 
ments are instantly broken by the guards of the station. The men, how- 
ever, evince often a great degree of impatience, and the same feeling 
appears to be communicated to the horses which are trained for these 
expeditions. As soon as the hetman of 'the fishers departs in his sledge, all 
the rest fly after him with the rapidity of the wind. The ice is cut, their 
spears are cast, and a forest of poles rises on the river. Fishmongers, 
assembled even from the interior of the empire, purchase the fish before 
they are taken out of the water; and in a short time the sturgeon, the huso 
and sewruga quiver on the ice. The couriers of " the great Uralian army" 
travel at full gallop, and deposit the spoils at the court of Petersburg!!. 
The value of the fish (including that of the caviar and isinglass) imported 
into the interior, amounts to two millions of roubles; and the duties im- 
posed by the "ministers of the army," is not less than 100,000, a sum by 
which the fund accumulated by that administration is principally formed. 
Towns, man- j The Uralian Cossacks, enriched by the sale of their fish, and also 
nH,t<. I O y t ] ie i r cat ti e< horses and wool, live in affluence; their houses, 
at least those in Uralsk or the capital, are commodious and clean ; stran- 
gers are hospitably received; the dress of the inmates corresponds with 
their fortune, and the turbans or head-dresses of the women are adorned 
with pearls. These Cossacks belong to the sect of the Koskolniki y and for 
that reason they abhor tobacco, and retain their beards. 

Heyn, quoted by Georgi, Ueschreib, II. p. 947. P It is called Saracanco by 



The people are now at peace with the Russians, but their , Historical re 
history is filled with the recital of wars and bloodshed. Free- ' marks. 
booters separated from the Donian Cossacks, and settled along the course 
of the lower Wolga; travellers, merchants and ambassadors, were alike 
exposed to their attacks. Ivan II. sent an army against them, and those 
that were made prisoners suffered dreadful torments; they were suspended 
by the sides to hooks of iron. Driven from the Ural, they laid waste the 
snores of the Caspian Sea, and having taken Saraitchik, they put every in- 
habitant to the sword, plundered the houses, and opened the graves in the 
vain expectation of finding concealed wealth. Their independent republic, 
founded on the banks of the Ural, then the Jaik, submitted to the protec- 
tion of Russia, and preserved its privileges. But the sanguinary revolt of 
Pugatschew was not viewed with indifference by these fierce and restless 
men; they flocked to his standard, and obeyed him as their chief. Van- 
quished at last by the Russians, their national assemblies were abolished, 
and their artillery destroyed. The present population is supposed not to 
exceed 30,000 individuals of both sexes. 

The same'people undertook in the sixth and in the beginning Their expedl . 
of the seventh century, two remarkable expeditions; in the ' tionsinAsia. 
first they demolished Urganz, a great commercial city near the Aral lake; 
in the second they took Khivah, and kept possession of it for more than a 
twelvemonth, it was then retaken by surprise, and in consequence of the 
negligence of the guard. In both the one and the other, they have left a 
memorable example of what may be achieved by a few brave and resolute 


Eastern Russia. Flnno-Huns or Uralians. 

WE shall examine the northern and eastern countries in European Rus- 
sia, after having made some remarks on the ancient race that appears to 
have inhabited the whole of that region. The Laplanders, Finns, Estho- 
nians, Biarmians, IVotiaks, Woguls, Ostiaks, Tchuwaches, Tcheremisses and 
some other tribes, are sprung from one and the same people. Their phy- 
siognomy, language and customs, are sufficient proofs of their relationship; 
at the same time, it cannot be denied that such differences exist amongst 
them, as to entitle us to infer that the early history of the people is mixed 
with fable, or involved in obscurity. Asiatic hordes might have governed 
the country, mingled with the conquered, and by their inter- Finno-Hunnic 
course, and by the usurpation of a dominant tribe, the national ' race, 
character of the people might have been modified. The Finns were settled 
during the age of Tacitus and Strabo in the central provinces of Poland; 
they were denominated the Fenni by the historian, and the Zoumi by the 
geographer. The accuracy of the accounts given by these writers has 
been since confirmed, and the language still spoken in Lithuania is a mo- 
nument of its former inhabitants. The Wiatitches, an ancient tribe in the 
government of Orel, were, according to Nestor, of Finnic origin. It has 
been seen that the Hungarian is connected with the Finnic tongues; and 
the migrations to central Russia, which are recorded in the history of 
that once powerful and numerous people, might have been discovered by 

Connexion be- 
tween the 
Scythians and 


the names of Sousdal, the river Ugra and the town of Lebedian. Manx 
geographical terms indicate the wide dispersion of the Finnic tribes. The 
word ioug, which denotes a river, is common to more than one feeder of 
the Don; the name of the Wolga is probably of Finno-Hungarian origin; 
the Ural mountains were for ages called the Poyas, a Finnic noun, that 
signifies summits. It is very likely that the particular division of the 
horizon in use among the Finlanders, is a part of an astronomical system 
which must have been formed between the fortieth and fiftieth parallels, 
and consequently the civilization of the Finns must have commenced on 
the shores of the Black and Caspian Seas. a But although it be demon- 
strated that Finnic tribes peopled northern, eastern and southern Russia, 
at a very remote epoch, it does not follow that they occupied exclusively, 
or even ruled over that immense region, and it is almost superfluous to 
add, that several questions connected with the subject cannot be readily 

Thus it has been asked if the Scythians were Finns. Although 
no certain information can be obtained, it is in our opinion more 
probable that the former people were composed of numerous 
hordes; some of which led a wandering life, others cultivated 
the ground, and both were in a state of vassalage, or under the dominion 
of a ruling tribe. Such has ever been the political condition of the Asiatic 
nations in the centre and the west. The introduction of castes might have 
taken place after the union of tribes, at all events the system of castes is 
less applicable than that of aggregate tribes to the conquering Scythians, 
who, according to the testimony of Herodotus, migrated from Media. It 
is thus that the seemingly contradictory statements of the ancients con- 
cerning the Scythians may be best reconciled. The dominant tribe in 
Europe on the Tanais and the Borysthenes was the same as the one that 
ruled in Asia on the banks of the Oxus and laxartes; hence the identity of 
their national name, a circumstance that cannot be attributed to chance. 
The people who submitted to their empire were not all of the same race, 
they consisted probably of Finns on the Tanais, and Slavonians on the 
Borysthenes. The resemblance observed in their language and in some 
words cited by Aristophanes and Pliny may illustrate our hypothesis. b 
The royal Scythians, the rulers of the empire, spoke neither the Slavonic, 
Finnic, Gothic nor German. The primitives in their language were con- 
nected with others in the ancient Zend, Persian and Sanscrit. Exampiaios, 
which Herodotus tells us, signifies a sacred road, may be derived from the 
Zend adjective eschae, pure, luminous, holy, and/>ador pai, a road; the last 
word is a root common to the Persian and Sanscrit. Jirima.^ one, is oima 
in Zend, and Mropata, " the women who murder men,'* or the Scythian 

a Mnemosyne, Journal de Finlande. 

b Skolotes, or the true name of the Scythians, is derived from a Zend word signifying a 
head or chief. 

A soldier of the Scythian guard, which was intrusted with the police of Athens, is intro- 
duced in the Thesmo-phores of Aristophanes. The Scythian cannot pronounce the pit 
or/, but confounds it with the/?; now, no Polish words that are not of foreign importation, 
commence with an/. The same person changes frequently the masculine and feminine 
genders into the neuter, and adds o to the last syllable, a letter which is still a common 
termination of the Russian neuter nouns. Lastly, the Scythian, like the Slavonian, uses 
the / instead of the theta or th of the Greeks. These are striking indications of the Sla- 
vonic character of the Scythians who were sold to the Athenians. But that people were 
not the same as the royal Scythians, they were their serfs or vassals, who were brought 
into Greece as slaves and mercenaries. Their inability to pronounce not only the theta 
but the ^ or c/t of the Greeks and Germans, proves at least that they were not Goths; and 
we believe that none of the Scythian words cited by Herodotus are of Gothic origin. Sills 
or the Scythian name of the Tanais is derived from the Slavonic adjective, Siltn, the strong 
<>r powerful. Slavonic roots and compounds may be traced in the names of the kings on 
the Bosphorus, and the chiefs of Olbia. The Scythians were probably confounded with 
the mass of the nations over which they ruled. 

Connexion be- 
tween the 
Finns and the 


denomination of the Amazons, is compounded of aior^ a man, or air in the 
Armenian and Zend, or weyor in some Caucasian dialects, and pata, which 
signifies equally to kill and to subdue. Oito-Syros or the Scythian Apollo 
seems to have derived his name from aita, father, and surya, light, and 
Tamimasades or their Neptune means the son of the billows. Our researches 
cannot be presented to the public in their present shape, they were inter- 
rupted by the death of a friend who gave us access to all the treasures in 
his library; still we believe in the conclusion at which we have arrived; 
and the subject may, ere long, be ably elucidated by a distinguished philo- 

Were the Huns of Finnic origin ? That question, which is 
more intricate than the former, has only been lately agitated, 
and it is not likely to be soon resolved Yet it may be one day 
answered in the same way as the other concerning the Scythians. 
All the hereditary deformity of the Mongols or Calmucks, the dominant 
tribe, was united in the person of Attila; but the Chuni and the Ounni of 
the Greek geographers, the Kuns of the Hungarians, the European Huns, 
and a race connected with the Finnic tribes, made up the great body of 
the army, and the Hunnic nation. 

We now pass to an easier task, that of indicating the geographical po- 
sition of the Finno-Hunnic people. The race is dispersed from Scandina- 
via to the north of Asia, and from the last region to the Wolga and the 
Caspian Sea. Their red or yellow hair, prominent cheek bones and sallow 
complexion, the thin beard and large occiput are characteristic of their 
physiognomy; but the Woguls and some Laplanders may be distinguished 
by their flat features, and dark and coarse hair. Forests and places in 
the neighbourhood of marshes were for a long time their principal abodes, 
hunting and fishing their favourite occupations. The Russians always 
called them Tchoudes or strangers; the Scandinavians and Goths termed 
them Finne, a word which is probably derived from Fiende, an enemy, or 
Fen, a marsh. The name of Fenni cannot be of modern date, since it was 
used by Tacitus; but it remained wholly unknown to the people to whom 
it was applied. The ancient national name of the Finns is now lost, it is 
even doubtful if they had any. They style themselves at present the 
Sami, Soumi and Souomi-Lainen, or the people of the country. The early 
part of their history is uncertain and fabulous; indeed, with the exception 
of the Huns and Magiars or Hungarians, none of these nations, although 
very ancient, populous and widely scattered, have ever become powerful. 
Their national existence has been transitory, never permanent. No con- 
queror was ever sprung from them ; on the contrary, in those ages, the 
history of which is faithfully recorded, they have always been the victims 
or dupes of more active and enterprising neighbours. No annals of their 
achievements were ever written, their history can only be collected from 
that of their conquerors the Scandinavian Goths and Russians. 

Additional facts relative to the Finns, Permians, Laplanders , progressive. 
and other tribes that are now extinct, or exist no longer under ' discoveries. 
the same name, have been discovered since the ninth and tenth centuries 
in the Saga and in some Russian and Scandinavian monuments. The 
Finnic nations settled on the banks of the Wolga and in Siberia, were un- 
known to the Russian and Scandinavian monuments. The Finnic nations 
settled on the banks of the Wolga and in Siberia, were unknown before 
the conquest of these countries by the Russians. The same people, it is 
said, were mentioned in the Edda, the ancient system of Icelandic and 
Runic mythology. " They were the dwarfs who lived under ground, ex- 
tracted metals from the depths of the earth, practised sorcery and magic, 
and often deceived the gods of Asgard." Their religious notions were 
those of a barbarous people; their credulity converted eyery natural object 
into an idol. Joumala was the name of the supreme being; and they con- 


secrated, like the Germans, their forests and mountains. The Permians 
appear to have been the only tribe amongst them, that had a large temple, 
or, at least, a sacred enclosure adorned with altars. The Icelandic his- 
torians denominate that people, the Biarmians, and the Russians call them 
the Permiaki. It is known, however, that in the middle ages, the Scan- 
dinavian pirates gave the name of Permia to the whole country between 
Temple of i the White Sea and the Ural. To plunder the temple of Joumala 
joumaia. I was the great end of the Scandinavian piratical incursions, and 

the same edifice was the subject of poetical descriptions, which are proba- 
bly much exaggerated. According to these accounts the temple was con- 
structed with much art; the wood was of a rare quality, it was inlaid with 
gold and precious stones, of which the lustre was reflected on every sur- 
rounding object. A golden crown, embellished with twelve diamonds, was 
placed on the head of the god; his collar was worth 300 marcs of gold, and 
the rest of his dress exceeded in value three Greek vessels richly laden. A gold 
vase rested on the knees of the statue; it might have held as much water 
as would have quenched the thirst of four men, but it was filled with pre- 
cious stones and costly metals. So much wealth attracted all the corsairs 
of the north; and it was thought a proof of bravery to have carried away 
an ornament from the temple. Many men set out every year from Heligo- 
land, and several kings of Norway' went to pillage Permia, and returned with 
a rich booty. But Scandinavian mariners, who were not addicted to piracy, 
visited the coasts for commercial purposes. The Permians were wealthy, 
and their country was the theatre of an extensive commerce. The Per- 
sians and Indians transported their merchandise on the Caspian, ascend- 
ed the Wolga and the Kama to the ancient town of Tcherdyn on the Kolva, 
a place of great trade, from which the Permians carried the goods to the 
banks of the Petchora, or the shores of the Frozen Sea, where they ex- 
changed them for pelisses and other articles that were sold in the east. 
Many of their towns, now in ruins, prove, at least, that they were once 
inhabited by flourishing and civilized people. The caravans of the Per- 
sians, Armenians and other Asiatic nations repaired to Bolgar, the ancient 
capital of the Bulgarians. That fact cannot now be disputed; it has been 
placed beyond a doubt by the inscriptions on the coins, and by several 
Arabic monuments that have been from time to time discovered.* Permia 
was not exposed to the incursions of the Norwegians after the year 1217; 
but before that period, (probably in the eleventh or twelfth century,) the 
country was conquered by the republicans of Novgorod, and Russian 
colonists were sent by them to keep the inhabitants in subjection. Chris- 
tianity was introduced amongst them in 1372 by Stephen, a monk, and 
afterwards a bishop. The town of Novgorod and the Great Duke Vas- 
sile Dmitrivich contended about the possession of Permia in the end 
of the fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth century, and the townsmen 
were at last compelled to relinquish all their claims. The Permians re- 
tained for some time the liberty of choosing their magistrates. But Ivan* 
the First appointed a governor in 1543, and the subordinate offices were 
FinnoUra j held by the most distinguished of the natives. The descendants 
nans I O f t h at populous and flourishing nation, are now reduced to 

an insignificant tribe, that has lost in a great degree its national character 
by its union with the Russians. The Siriaines or the people in the govern- 
ment of Wologda do not differ from the Permiaks, and, like them, are 
called Komi. The Woliaki or the ancient Woti of the Novgordians may 
be included with these tribes. Such are the three branches of the Finno- 

r Saga of Saint-Olaf, cli. cxlii. See the Heims-l&ingla by Snorron. 
d Rasmussen, Memoires sur les relations commerciales des Arabes avec la Scandinavia 
a travers la Russie. 
' Ivan or I\van is in Russian synonymous With John. 


The Woguls inhabited the confines of Asia, on the east, or Tribes of ion- 
rather on the north-east of the Finno-Uralians; and, as their ' 8 ria - 
language abounded in Hungarian words, they have been considered the 
ancestors of the Magiars. But we are apt to suppose them of Calmuck 
origin from their personal deformity. They might have been subdued 
by the Hungarians in ancient times, or they might have mixed with them, 
and thus acquired their language. The Hanoverians have left us an ex- 
ample of the same kind, relatively to the Wends of Dannenberg. The Os- 
tiaks of Obi are a tribe of the same sort; their history is unknown, and it 
is only by their dialect that their connexion can be proved with the Finns^ 
generally, and the Hungarians in particular. The lougourian or Ougou- 
rian tribes constituted a part of the Magiar empire; but the nucleus of that 
empire, or the first country of the Hungarians, must be sought in more 
southern latitudes, in less sterile and more populous regions. 

The second branch of the nation is made up of the western western 
Finns or the Finns on the Baltic, who were successively disco- ' Finns - 
vered during the expeditions of the Swedes and the Danes, which were 
continued at different intervals from the ninth to the fourteenth century. 
Their principal tribes, the Quaines or Cayanians^ the Ymis, lemes or Haimes, 
the Wesses, Kyriales, Esthes and Lives appear to have been less civilized 
than the Permians; but they had, however, their religious notions; some 
national songs, and were not, perhaps, ignorant of the art of writing in 
Runic characters. Many Gothic words, it may be easily supposed, might 
have been introduced into their language, a natural consequence not only 
of their intercourse with the Swedes, Danes and Germans, but of their 
more ancient connexion with the Goths themselves. Their customs and 
mythological traditions might have been partly borrowed from the same 
people. These tribes, though harassed, and in a great measure subdued 
by the Scandinavians, escaped (thanks to their position) the more degrading 
and oppressive yoke of the Mongol-Tartars and Russian conquerors. Thus, 
notwithstanding the influence of the Goths and Germans, they still retain 
the most characteristic qualities of the Finnic race. They consist at pre- 
sent of the Lives, or descendants of the ancient inhabitants of Livonia, the 
Esthes in Esthonia, the Ischores in Ingria, the Finlanders or Finns proper 
in the country to which they have given their name, the Quaines or Caya- 
nians, who form only a northern subdivision of the Finlanders, and are 
now scattered on the shores of Norwegian Lapland, and the Carelians or 
Kyriales or people under the dominion of a king, f whose country extended 
to Olonetz, and who were in ancient times connected with the Wotiakes 
and Siriaines. 

The geographer observes on the north of the western Finns, 
and in the northern extremity of Europe, a people of pygmies ' 
mixed with some families of an ordinary size; but the personal deformity of 
the Woguls predominates, and their language resembles the Hungarian 
more than the other western Finnic dialects. The cause of the anomaly 
shall be examined in its proper place. 

The Finns on the Wolga, or the Bulgarian Finns, form the , woigaic 
third great branch of the nation. They are sprung from the ' Finns - 
aborigines, or, at all events, from the earliest known inhabitants of the re- 
gions watered by the great river of Russia. They were in ancient times 
oppressed not only by the Huns and Roxolani, who were perhaps of Gothic 
origin, but by the Hungarians and Petchenegues or Patzinakites. The 
Bulgarians and Chazares founded empires in these countries, but their his- 
tory is little known. The Mongol-Tartars flocked thither, and the Russian 
czars extended their dominions and Slavonic system of colonization over 
the confused mass of nations. It is not wonderful that the physical cha- 

f From Knralaus, a king in Lithnanian and probably in ancient Slavonic; or from Kyros, 
the Greek title of the Czars. 


racter or moral condition of a people so often subdued and so often op- 
pressed by conquering hordes, has been modified or changed. The Wol- 
gaic Finns are not unlike the Tartars, but the marks of their ancient origin 
are not wholly lost. The Tcheremisses call themselves Mari, and reside in 
the government of Casan; their dialect is mixed with the Tartar. The 
Tchouvaches, or, according to ancient travellers, the Souiasches, adored Thor, 
the god of the Scandinavians. The Morduates, who inhabited the govern- 
ments of Nisihgorod and Casan, were divided into two distinct people, that 
spoke different dialects ; but although they have now mixed with each 
other, the one tribe is called Mokschad and the other Ersad. All these 
states form a part of the Wolgaic Finns. The Meschtcheriakes are com- 
posed of Finns and Turks, but their Finnic character is very imperfectly 
preserved. The Teptiaires, another mixture of the same people, may still 
be considered a Finnic branch. The ancient identity between the Basch- 
kires and Hungarians is founded on the testimony of Rubruquis, a travel- 
ler of the fourteenth century; but that tribe, though of mixed origin, is not 
now different from the Tartar hordes. 

Description of i All the Finnic nations at present in Russia, form a popula- 
te country. I ti on of nearly three millions. The western Finns amount to 
1,800,000, the Uralian Finns to 220,000, and the Wolgaic to 900,000. 
Government i Having mentioned briefly the nations in eastern Russia, we 
ofOrenburg. I shall attempt to describe the countries which they inhabit. 
The governments are so extensive that they may be considered so many 
separate regions or physical subdivisions. The large government of Oren- 
burg or Ufa is not less, nay, it is larger than the whole Prussian mo- 
narchy; but a great part of it is uninhabited, and its population does not 
exceed a million of individuals. The Bielaia^ a feeder of the Kama, waters 
the inland and northern districts, and its white and turbid streams flow in 
a bed of marl. It passes between limestone rocks, and is confined near its 
confluence by calcareous and argillaceous hills. The bones of huge ani- 
mals, now extinct, have been discovered on its banks, or in adjacent ca- 
verns; its waters are, for the most part, exhausted in summer, and are ill 
adapted for navigation. The Sim, another river in the same country, wa- 
ters calcareous districts, and is wholly lost during summer in a subterra- 
nean lake. One of its feeders flows during the spring in an open channel, 
and is enlarged by the principal river at the distance of a verst and a half 
beyond its entrance into the cavern. Some notice has been already taken 
of the Ural, or the river in the southern countries of the government. The 
northern part of the same region is crowned by the southern chains of the 
great Uralian range, which has been included in our account of Siberia. 
iron and cop- i These chains abound in iron and copper; a great quantity of ore 
per works. 1 j s obtained from them, and it is not many years since 4110 
workmen were employed in forging iron, and 4,970 were engaged in the 
copper works. The mountains become gradually lower beyond the summit 
of Pawdinskoi-Kamen, which is 6,800 feet above the level of the Caspian 
Sea. The Baschkirian Urals form a long ridge of hills on the west of the 
Ural, but none of their summits are distinctly marked; they are covered 
with a thin layer of earth, some stunted birch, alder, and asp trees. The 
hills descend on one side towards the channel of the Ural, and on the other 
towards the great plain of the Wolga. The only name by which they are 
obstcnei sin I known, ^ s tnat f Obstchei-Sirt^ a term that signifies mountains 

' common to all, and serves to distinguish them from the other 
Ural districts in which the forests are set apart for the use of the mines. 
Beds of freestone, calcareous rocks, shells, and sandstone mixed with argil 
and marl, are the component parts of the ridge, which extends to the go- 
vernment of Astrakan, and terminates in the sandy hills of Rynpeski. 
Granite i Each basin and each group might form the subject of geolo- 

' gical remarks in a detailed system of physical geography, but 


we must choose from such a variety, and confine ourselves to what appears 
most worthy of notice. A series of hi 1] s near the river Dioma exhibits the 
phenomenon of isolated masses of fine and compact granite, rising in the 
form of immense crystals. The workmen of the mines point them out to 
strangers, and call them the islands. There are many grottoes and caverns 
in the basin of the Ik, in which sandstone, calcareous rocks, and alabaster 
predominate. The basin of the Sok passes into the government of Simbirsk, 
and a chain of hills (the Socolo-Gori,) extends in a direction parallel to its 
course, and follows the river to the Wolga; although they appear to oe 
transition rocks, springs impregnated with sulphur rush from their sides. 
Twelve large sulphur springs were observed by M. Pallas within the dis- 
tance of thirty versts; all of them were situated in the neighbourhood of 
Sergiewsk, near the banks of the Surgot, a small river, and the Schumbut, 
a rivulet that falls into it. These springs are never frozen, and so much 
sulphur is deposited from them, that mines were formerly worked in the 
district. A large stream enters, a deep basin, and forms the . s u i p imr 
Sulphur Lake or Sernoie-Ozera, which is five versts distant from ' Lak e* 
the village of Ischtulkina. The water of the lake is transparent, and strata 
of yellow and olive-coloured sulphur, are observed i,n its channel. The 
surrounding atmosphere, even at the distance of two versts, is infected 
with a very disagreeable odour. A brook that issues from it, 
is so turbid and white that the Tartars have given it the de- ' 
scriptive name of Urian-Ly or curdled milk; the Russians call it Molaschnai- 
reka, or the river of milk. Beds of ashes and calcined stones were disco- 
vered in the vicinity by M. Pallas. A large spring of liquid asphaltos rises 
near Semenovo; pits are dug beyond it in the direction of Sergiewsk, and 
the same substance is extracted from them. The steep banks of the Wolga 
near Kostitchi abound in bitumen, which is now made into sealing wax. 
The same calcareous banks near Sernoi-Gorodok are mixed with crystals 
of 'sulphur as transparent as amber. It is unfortunate that such a country 
has not been more frequently visited by physical geographers, s 

Orenburg is the only town of much importance in the go- Townpf 
vernment; it forms a point of contact between Asia and Europe; ' Orenburg. 
its population exceeds 20,000 souls; it is surrounded with fortifications, 
and is thus a place of defence against the incursions of the independent 
Tartars. The Russian caravans that repair to Bucharia, and the Bucha- 
rian caravans, by which the merchandise of Asia is conveyed into Russia, 
pass through the town. The Russians and Bucharians strive to cheat each 
other, and to monopolize the trade; the Armenian has engaged in the con- 
test, but the Israelite has not hitherto taken any active part. The Bucha- 
rians traverse in their caravans almost the whole of Asia, from . commerce 
one end to the otherj China, India, Persia, and Russia, are ' with Asia. 
some of the countries that they visit. Gold dust, Persian pieces of money, 
lapis lazuli, and precious stones from India, raw and dressed cotton, sheep 
skins, and many other articles are conveyed by these traders into Russia. 
The Bucharians travel in caravans of thirty or forty merchants; each indi- 
vidual has from five to ten camels loaded with goods, but some of their 
caravans consist of four or five hundred camels. They are obliged to pass 
the territory of the Kirguis-Cossacks, who exact from them two ducats for 
every camel; the merchants receive in exchange an escort of cavalry, but 
the guard is not always a security against their being pillaged. 

The Kirguis are styled the subjects of the czar, an honour of which they 
are wholly unworthy; they bring every year to Orenburg sixty thousand 
sheep, and ten thousand horses; they export different kinds of cloth, coarse 

Pallas, Voyages, I. p. 180, 195. Memoires sur 1'histgire de Russle, par M. Muller, t. IV. 
451. Rytsckow, Topographia Orenhmrgskaia, Petersburgh, 1762. See the German trans- 
lation of the last work by Buschinff. 

VOL. IV, G g 


linen, tin, glass, coral beads, and other frivolous ornaments, which serve 
to adorn their women or horses. 

. They likewise purchase a great many eagles ; these birds are 
Eg'* I highly prized by the Kirguis, who train them to hunt the wolf, 
the fox, and the gazelle. Every eagle is not of the same value; a good 
judge knows from its appearance, and certain marks, whether it can be 
easily trained; he will part with a swift horse for one, and not give a sheep 
for another. 

, The imports of all the towns in the district, and in a small 
""* I part of Siberia, amount to 3,000,000 rubles; the exports do not 
exceed a third part of that sum. The town of Orenburg is a place of ba- 
nishment, and one of its largest buildings is the workhouse erected by 
Reimsdorf, the philanthropic governor; more than a thousand criminals 
are sometimes confined in it. Oufa, once the capital of the government, 
is situated in the centre of the country, and peopled by 6000 souls. Troizsk 
is a commercial town, and the Kirguis in the interior repair to it. The 
only other places of any consequence are Tschelebinsk^ a small town, with a 
population of 1000 inhabitants, and Kargala, a large burgh, at which the 
Tartars of Casan carry on a flourishing trade. 

All the people in the government amount to 1,000,000; one 
""' ' half of them are Russians, and members of the Greek church; 
the rest are Mahometans, and differ little from the Tartars in their man- 
ners and customs. The Baschkirs, however, may be distinguished from 
their neighbours; they are sprung from the Hungarians and Tartars, and 
their Mussulman rites are mixed with the ceremonies of a primitive and 
rude worship. Sacrifices are offered to the sun, the head of a horse is 
placed above their hives, and the festival of the plough is not widely dif- 
ferent from a religious observance of the Chinese. The Mollah or priest, 
who officiates at the marriage ceremony, presents an arrow to the bride- 
groom, and inculcates the necessity of bravery to enable him to protect Kis 
wife. No traces of their ancient language are left, and a Tartar dialect is 
now .spoken by all of them. Their wealth consists in cattle, horses, and 
bees; their food in winter is butcher-meat, cakes, and honey. A large bot- 
tle filled with koumiss, a strong drink made from mare's milk, is the great 
ornament of their dirty cottages. They drink the juice of the birch tree 
in spring, a liquor which purifies the blood, and restores them to health; 
they become fat, like their flocks, in the fine weather; their principal suste- 
nance is then fresh milk, and their days are spent in rural amusements or 
pastoral labour. The bear is very fond of honey, and many of these animals 
are caught in the well-contrived snares with which the Baschkirs surround 
their innumerable hives. The troops that they furnish to the Russian 
armies are armed with a bow, a lance, a helmet, and a coat of mail. The 
Mechtache- i Mechtscheriaikes settled in the fourteenth century, near the em- 
riaikes. I bouchure of the Oka, and in the neighbourhood of Nischnei- 
Novgorod; some of them live in the country of the Baschkirs, but they 
may be easily distinguished from the other inhabitants by their barbarous 
tc tiaires I anc ^ sm S u l ar dress, which is made of horses' hides. h The Tep- 

l tiaires are a number of Tartars, Wolgaic Finns, and Baschkirs, 
who united with each other after the destruction of the kingdom of Casan. 
Statute labour is exacted from them by the Russians, but they are exempt 
from taxes. 

Government I The government of Saratow is made up of two distinct coun- 
of Saratow. I tries. The part oft the east of the Wolga forms the extremity 
of the saline and sandy steppe which has been already mentioned in our ac- 
count of Astrakhan. The quantity of salt taken every year from the lake 
of Elton is not less than five millions of pouds. 1 The western part of the 

h Klaproth, Asia Polyglotta. ' Two hundred millions of pounds. 


government differs little from thef other regions in central Russia; it pro- 
duces rye and tobacco, but is ill adapted for the vine. The desert appear- 
ance of the country along the Wolga has been changed by the , German coio- 
industrious colonists from Germany; the number of these in- ' es. 
habitants is not fewer than 1 10,000, and the most of them belong to the 
reformed church. 

The town of Saratov) on the Wolga is a place of trade; the 
salt of lake Elton is carried thither, but the population does 
not exceed 7000 souls. Serepta, or the settlement of the Moravian brothers, 
is a cheerful town; all the inhabitants are artisans or shopkeepers; they 
have manufactories of velvet, cotton and linen; many of them are employed 
in weaving stockings, making hats, dressing leather, and preparing to- 
bacco. Several Tartar tribes are supplied with all their utensils and 
articles of household furniture from the town of Serepta. Royal manu- 
factories have been^established at Ma, its tapestry is sent to Petersburgh, 
and the population is rapidly increasing. k 

The government of Simbirsk may be compared to the last, but the cli- 
mate is colder, the vine disappears, and the arbute does not ripen; still it 
is fertile in grain and pasture. The more equable temperature is favour- 
able to the health of the people, the inhabitants are not so widely scattered, 
they have made greater advances in civilization. Grain and fruits are 
exported, a great quantity of wheat is raised, and extensive orchards form 
thick woods in the neighbourhood of the villages. 1 

Simbirsk, which is peopled by 15, 000 souls, and Sysran with . Towng 
a population of 9000, are the largest towns in the government. ' 
The Kasimof Tartars sell at Samara the lamb skins which they purchase 
from the Kirguis, and which are much valued by the Russians. zarew-Kur- 
An ancient tumulus is situated near the town; according to tra- ' " 
clition, it contains the ashes of a very powerful Tartar monarch, but his 
name is now. forgotten. The hill or tumulus is called Zarew-Kurgan, and 
large serpents, some of them six feet in length, are frequently seen among 
the old trees that grow on its summit. Mstny reptiles of the same kind 
appear to have congregated in the royal tombs. 

The angle which the Wolga forms at Samara, marks the southern 
limit of the Uralian and the commencement of the Caspian climate. Ex- 
cessive heat is seldom felt, the succession of the seasons becomes regular, 
and plants are in blossom before the middle of April; the fields are then 
covered with the Siberian pasque-flower, and the wild tulip abounds in 
the woods. 

The Kama enters the Wolga in the government of Kasan, Government 
and the extensive plain near the confluence of the two rivers are ' of Kasan. 
fruitful in rye, barley, buck-wheat and lint. The forests on the south and 
west of the. Wolga, consist mostly of oaks, but the opposite banks are 
planted with pines and beech trees. The lint crops are sometimes de- 
stroyed by the severity of the weather, and the fruits in the orchards are 
of a very ordinary quality. The climate resembles that of northern Russia, 
not in the excess, but rather in the duration of the cold, in the keen air of 
spring, and in the frequent recurrence of morning frosts. 

Kasan, Kosan and Osan are the different names of a town . Town of Ka. 
of 50,000 inhabitants, and one of the most important in the ' *>an. 
Russian empire. Its Tartar kremlin, its fifty churches and eleven con- 
vents, are placed on a number of hills, on which the greater part of the 
town is built. The meadows that surround it on three sides are inun- 
dated in spring by the Wolga, and it then appears like an island on a lake. 

k Notes sur la statistique du gouverneraent de Saratow dans Hermann. Journal de Sta- 
tistique, Premiere partie, t. I. p. 72, 250. 

1 Description of the government of Sembirsk, in the Statistical Journal of Russia, 3d 
year.. Vol. H. p. 103. Kasan is a Tartar word; it signifies a chaldron. 

Manners of 
the people. 


The houses are built of wood, the streets 'are paved with timber, and the 
stranger observes all the defects of the Russian towns. But Kasan is dis- 
tinguished by the industry of its inhabitants, and the Russian and Tartar 
townsmen are enriched by their commerce with. Siberia, and by their 
trade in Russian and Morocco leather. The university does all it can to 
promote the diffusion of knowledge; several of its members have been 
sent on scientific expeditions into the interior. A seminary for the educa- 
tion of missionaries and priests is established in the convent of Silandovo, 
and the children of the Tartars, Tcheremisses and Mordvines resort to it. 
Kasan was the ancient capital of a Tartar kingdom, which was taken by 
the Russians in 1552; the wealthy repair to it in winter, and they rival 
the nobles of Moscow in the luxury of the table, and in sumptuous enter- 
tainments." The other towns iri the government, such as Kosmodemiansk 
and Tcheboksary, each of which contain 5000 souls, are not of much im- 
portance. Busching tells us that the extensive ruins of Briaikhimova or 
olgari t the ancient metropolis .of Great Bulgaria, are situated in the pro- 
vince. Arabic and Armenian inscriptions, pieces of money, and many 
remains of ancient splendour have excited the curiosity of travellers. 

The three governments that have been last mentioned, are 
inhabited by different people, who are not of Russian origin. 
The Tehouvasches, whom Bremnejr denominates the Souiaski^ 
differ from the other inhabitants by their black hair, the thin 
beard, which* descends to a point under the chin, their prominent cheek 
bones, sunk eyes, and the stupid expression of the Calmucks. 1 Their 
language contains but few Finnic words, it is equally different from the 
Tartar, and is probably a dialect 'of the ancient Hunnic. It is a remark- 
Mjthoiogy 1 able ^ act in thc m y tnol gi c al history of the tribe, that Tor 
' or Tora, the supreme divinity, was known by the same name 
to the Scandinavians, and worshipped as the god of thunder. This is not a 
solitary instance; the secondary deities of the Tchouvasches were called 
JBorodon, a name that corresponds with Bora in the Edda. The malevolent 
principle, the wicked god, the enemy of Thor, is termed Sdta, but it has 
been incorrectly affirmed that Seita was the same as the Satan of eastern 
nations, for the word signifies in Scandinavian a sorcerer or wizard, and 
it is expressly said in the Edda, that Thor in his journey through the east 
slew the magicians, or, in other words, erected the Wodinic worship on. 
the magical altars of the Finns. The Ividies were the Dryads of the Scan- 
dinavians, and the Tchouvasches worshipped their rural divinities, the 
beings that roamed among the trees or ivos. The same tribe adored the 
sun, and sacrificed a white horse during the festival of the great luminary. 
They surrounded the tombs of their parents with pillars, and offered an- 
nual victims to their manes. The ierik was a bunch of fifteen rose branches, 
it was suspended in the huts or kils, and worshipped as an idol. The 
priests were called iomma, a word that recalls the Finnic name of the su- 
preme power, and an Ecldaic surname of the horses of the sun. It is 
indeed a pity that a people whose rites were so much connected with those 
of other nations, was not earlier observed by men versed in the history of 
ancient worships. The civil customs of the Tchouvasches were not dif- 
ferent from those of barbarous tribes; the father^ sold his daughter, and 
she became the slave of her husband or purchaser; all the neighbours of 
the different proprietors assisted them in collecting the harvest, and par- 
took of a feast at the end of their labour; the same fraternal assistance and 
other good offices were performed gratuitously to widows and orphans. 

The Tcheremisses inhabit the governments of Simbirsk, Kasan, Wiatka 
and Nischneigorod, and although they resemble the Tchouvasches in the 

n Erdmann's Beitrxge. 

Lepekhin, Voyage, first part. Frehn, Narrative of Ibn-Foslan. 

P Bremner, Epiu Mosis Armeni, p. 10r. i Muller, Memoires pour 1'Histoire Russie. 


h fraii'"" 

form of their features', they are a stronger and finer race of men. Their 
dialect is more nearly allied to the Finnic ; they call themselves Man or 
men, and distinguish the Tchouvasches by the compound name of Kurk- 
Mari, or mountaineers. Like the Mordvines, they are indigenous to the 
country, and their names are in all probability derived from rivers and 
mountains. The Russians were encouraged and assisted by the Tchere- 
misses in the conquest of Kasan, but many of the latter continued faithful 
to the Mahometan worship. The privilege of having four wives at the 
same time is not abolished, and heathen prayers to thejfamily idol precede 
the marriage ceremony of those who have embraced Christianity. The 
Pagans amongst them adore the Finnic divinity louma and^his M ^ holo 
wife louma-nava, and conciliate their favour by cakes or other ' 
offerings. Jlquebarem, or the god of the harvest, is devoutly worshipped, 
and his aid is implored in one of the three great festivals. A sorrel horse 
is sacrificed in the festival of the spring, and a white horse is slain on the 
grave of a rich man by a moukschan or magician. 1 " Some trees are cut in 
thick woods, the ground is levelled, and. the place is thus changed into a 
keremet or sanctuary. The country is not so large as it once was, a great 
part of it is inhabited by Russians; and the Tcheremisses live no longer 
as hunters or wandering shepherds, but are now devoted to agriculture, 
many are good husbandmen, they possess much corn and numerous flocks. 
The men have adopted the costume of the Russian peasants, Manners and 
but they still shave their heads; and the women retain-their ' customs. 
large cylindrical bonnets, which are covered with fringes, glass beads, or 
pieces of money. Their dress in summer is very light, it consists of a 
single shift above a pair of trowsers, but the baubles and bells, of which 
the fair Tcheremisses are so fond, announce their approach at a great 
distance. An historian maintains incorrectly that the Tcheremisses 
have no calendar, for M. Pallas has shown that their year commences in 
the month of March. 9 None of them can write, and the memory of past 
events is preserved by certain marks cut on a piece of wood; still, it i& 
said, they possessed formerly written books, which no one could under- 
stand, and which were in later times devoured by the Great Cow. 

Although the Mordvines or Morduates are more numerous in j M rd . 
Pensa and Nischneigorod than in the governments on the eastern ' 
Wolga, they cannot be considered apart from the two people last men- 
tioned. They have mingled with the Russians, but they are sprung from 
the Finns, and consist at present of three classes, the Mokschanis, Erzanis 
and Kamtai. The last is the least populous of the three, and the two first, 
it was believed, spoke dialects so widely Different, that persons of either 
tribe could hardly understand each other, an assertion which is com- 
pletely refuted in the valuable tables of M. Klaproth, yet that distinguished 
scholar included the Erzanis only in the tribe of the Mordvines. Their 
name has been derived from Eriem, a province of the Patzinakites, and 
also from mfa?, an Hungarian word, which signifies a forest. The only 
difference between the Erzanians and Mokschani consists in the compa- 
ritively barbarous state of the former; fewer amongst them have embraced 
Christianity, all are more impatient of restraint, and less accustomed to a 
settled life. The Mordvines are probably the descendants of the Mordens, 
who, according to Jornandes, were the vassals of the Goths under Herma- 
naric.* They once occupied a wider country, and the town of Muron on the 
Oka, says Nestor, was the residence of their princes. They have neither, 

T Muller, M^moires sur 1'Histoire de Russie, III. p. 332, 345, 382, 410. Strahlenberg, 
p. 346. 

Levesque, Histoire de Russie, VII. 366. Pallas, Voyage, VII. p. 28. 

1 They are called Mordens and Mordensimmis, but the termination simmis is the Slavo- 
nic word for country. 


adds M. Pallas, temples nor idols, and schamanism n in its simplest form 
is the religion of these wandering tribes. They adore a supreme and invi- 
sible being, but their magicians or schamans can conciliate his favour and 
disarm his wrath. 1 We are inclined to place more confidence in the ac- 
count of M Lepekhin, who declares they worship the sun, and offer sacri- 
fices at the new moon. T 

The Tartars k. Tne Tartars, or according to the more correct denomination 
of Kasan. r o f M. Klaproth, the Turks of Kasan, enjoy in a greater degree 
the blessings of civilization. Industrious, sober and generous, the con- 
quered people^are superior far to the Russian conquerors. Their phy- 
siognomy is very different; though not a tall race of men, they may be 
easily distinguished from the Russians by their long beards, commanding 
features, dark and piercing eyes. Strict observers of religious ordinances, 
abstaining from wine and whatever is not sanctioned in the Koran, they 
are nevertheless tolerant, hospitable and kind to Christians. Their women 
appear before strangers, and M. Erdmann was able to describe, for he had 
seen a Tartar marriage. The dress of the men resembles that of eastern 
nations, but it is necessarily modified by the nature of the climate. The 
women adorn themselves with pearls and jewellery, and their costume 
varies according to fashion. The corruption inseparable from great cities 
is unknown, the men are honest and the women are chaste. A family is a 
patriarchal monarchy, of which the husband is king. Polygamy is per- 
mitted^by the laws, but few of the Tartars have more than one wife, 
a natural consequence of civilization. It sometimes happens, however, 
when the mistress of the house is old, that her lord takes a young bride, 
who shares his bed; still the first wife reigns, and the second claims no 
share of the d6mestic honours. These Tartars speak the Turkish or their 
native language very purely; and many of them are well acquainted with 
the Russian and Bucharo-Persian. Their commercial activity, numerous 
schools, and different institutions, place them far above the other inhabi- 

Government I The two large governments of Wiatka and Perm are the 
of Wiatka. I coldest, highest and most northern, but not the most sterile por- 
tion of the central Uralian region. A large plain of argillaceous land in the 
first government, slopes gently from the north-east to the south-west, and 
its inequalities are mostly occasioned by the course of rivers. The heights 
near Sarapul and lelabula contain copper ore and beds of schistous sand* 
Rid e I stone * The Woloks or carrying stations between the sources of 

' the Kama and the Wiatka on one side, and the Dwina and 
Petchora on the other, form an extensive plain, which rises imperceptibly, 
and reaches the height of 620 feet above the banks of the Wolga in the 
neighbourhood of Kasan, or of 120 feet above the sea; an elevation equal 
to a f6urth part of the ordinary altitude of the Ural mountains. Rye, bar- 
ley, lint and hemp thrive in the southern districts, but the country near 
the sources of the two rivers is not so productive, the climate is too severe, 
and in many seasons the inhabitants are compelled to mix acorns or the 
bark of the mountain-ash and fir tree with their flour. The population 
throughout the government of Wiatka amounts to 1,300,000, but many 
individuals emigrate for a time, and serve in the boats that ply on the 
Towns I Wiaitko, a place of trade, is peopled by 12,000 persons, and 

' its grain and other agricultural produce are conveyed by the 
Dwina to Archangel. The inhabitants of Sarapul on the Kama send their 
vessels to Astrakan, and exchange their commodities with the Samoyedes 
on the Petchora. Sarapul was built by Finnic or Tartar tribes, and 

u Schamanism is the religion of the schamans or the Tartar priests and magicians. 

* Pallas, Voyage, I. p. 91123. 

* Lepekhin's Journal, I. p. 100. German translation. 


Wiaitko was first known by the Russian name of Chlinow^qf Klinof. 
Slobdosk is peopled by 5,000 souls, and carries on a great trade in iron 
and copper. The ruins of many ancient Finnic towns are situated in the 
same province, and although the remains of the one^near Schestakow are 
the most extensive, they are less remarkable than those of Tschartova-Go- 
rodeschte or the Devil's town in the district of lelabuga. 

The Wotiaikes are a Finnic tribe, and one which is not much , Wotiaikeg 
mixed with foreigners. They are a weak and ugly race of men, ' 
most of them haye re;d or yellow hair, and little or no beard. We might 
be apt from their physiognomy, to consider them a branch of the Votes, 
who formerly inhabited the neighbouring country on the \yest, which was 
subject to the republic of Novgorod. Some Tcheremissan, Wogul, and 
even Gothic z words have been introduced into their dialect; in other re- 
spects it is almost the same as the Permian. The people call themselves 
Oudi or Oud-Murt, and the Tartars distinguish them by the name of .fln. a 
Their territory commences at the Tanyp, a feeder of the Bielaia, in the 
governmentof Orenburg, and the opposite frontiers are not far from Sara- 
pul. It thus includes Kam-Kossip or the districts between the lower Kama 
and the Wiatka, and extends on the upper bank of the last river to the 
country near Orlow, and the sources of the Kama in the vicinity of Kai. 
The town of Jlrsk in Kasan, was once inhabited by princes of the same 
nation; it was likewise the residence of nobles, at present it is peopled by 
villagers. The peaceable Wotiaikes earn a subsistence by till- Modeof life 
ing the ground and by rearing bees; their industrious wives ' 
prepare coarse cloth, felt, hides and whatever is, necessary for the dress of 
their families. Some of the men work as wrights or turners, and make 
use of a particular varnish, which not only imparts a bright lustre, but 
hardens and improves the quality of the wood. Few have more than two 
wives, and as every girl is sold, he who cannot aflford to buy his bride, 
tries to carry her off. If the fair one consents or yields to the, wishes of 
her lover, she may be purchased at a very cheap rate; but if she refuses, 
or if the adventurous youth is caught by her parents, he receives many 
stripes, and the commercial value of the maiden is nowise impaired. 

The names of their divinities are different from those of the Namesef <n- 
other Finnic nations. The supreme being is called In-Mar or ' vinities - 
the Man in the Heavens,* his mother is Mouma-Kaltsina or the universal 
principle of fecundity, and his wife is Chounda-Mouma or the mother of 
the sun, the stars and the inferior gods. Their festivals, sacrifices, priests 
and holy places differ little from those of the Wolgaic Finns; but other 
parts of their superstition are more connected with the creed of the Cal- 
mucks and the Lamas. While the Tchouvasches change the wicked after 
death into so many skeletons that roam in a frozen desert, the Wotiaikes 

Elace them in caldrons of burning pitch. The same barbarians keep their 
jast every year on the tombs of their forefathers, and the stomach, blood 
and entrails of the victims are reserved for the infernal gods. 

The government of Perm is partly situated in Asia, the Eu- , Government 
ropean portion includes the countries watered by the higher ofPermiaor 
Kama, but the lofty plains in the government of Wiatka ex- ' 
tend to Tcherdyn, Solikamsk and Krosno-Ufimsk. The same line may be 
considered the limit of what has been called the promontories of the Uralian 
mountains, most of which form sloping plains or detached hills. Calca- 
reous rocks of the second formation are found among beds of sandstone, 
argil and marl. The numerous caverns abound in stalactites, and the one 
near Koungour is divided into four large apartments. The sinking of the 

* JLr, a year; suser, an eldest sister; schondi, the sun. 

a The first of these names signifies hospitable, the second remote. Klaproth, Asia Po- 
lyglotta, p. 185. i> From in or ien^thc heavens, and mar or murt, man. 

c Georgi, Nations Russes, p. 43, 59. 



ground is frequently caused by subterranean waters, which undermine the 
marshy land, and the beds of many small lakes are thus formed. The first 
western Un- i or western chains in the Ural range consist of limestone, and 
iian moun- ' | in a few places that substance is mixed with petrifactions. Be- 
' tween these chains and the granite heights or summits of the 
range, are metalliferous mountains composed of hornblende rocks, argilla- 
i ceous schistus, gneiss and lamcllated granite. It is from these 
1 mountains that the. rich ore is extracted, which furnishes con- 
stant employment for 50,000 workmen, and a greater, supply of iron than 
is necessary for the whole Russian empire. Copper jis not so abundant, 
but the quantity obtained is not less than 125,000 pouds, and the gold 
washings which are situated in the Asiatic. part of the government, have 
become much more productive of late years. All the salt marshes lie in 
the vicinity of limestone and gypsum hills; and in the beds of the lakes are 
observed strata of shells, and the fossil remains of elephants and other ani- 
mals.' 1 The number of workmen who live by exporting salt amounts to 

. The extent of the forests is to that of the ground in cultiva- 
' tion as seventeen to one, and the climate, which is cold and 
humid by reason of the latitude, is rendered more so by thick shades, nu- 
merous springs, and masses of eternal snow or ice collected in caverns and 
ravines. The rivers near Solikamsk are frozen about the end of October 
or beginning of November, and sledges or skates are used six months in 
the year. The hills in the south of the government, are, on the contrary, 
Vc<re i exposed to the burning winds from the Caspian steppes. Ve- 

' getation varies greatly, but the birch is the most common tree 
in the forests on the high country, and next to it are the pine and different 
kinds of fir; the larch and cedar of Siberia are of rare occurrence. The 
mountain-ash, the lime, the maple and the sorb are seen in the plains and 
fruitful districts. Corn does not always ripen in the northern part of the 
province, and the inhabitants consume, in addition to bread, a great 
quantity of spirits distilled from grain. As we descend southwards, we 
observe different fruit trees, and the melon and the arbute grow on the 
Asiatic side of the Urals. 

. The industry of the government is concentrated in the 
' sawodes or villages of the mines, in the forges and foundries. 
The towns, on the other hand, are principally inhabited by merchants, not 
by the working classes, and most of them are neither large nor populous. 6 
Perm, the capital, does not contain more than 6,000 inhabitants, and Kan- 
gari, which boasts of its tan-pits and soap works, is only peopled by 7,000. 
A great trade in salt is carried on in the ancient town of Solikamsk, but 
its population does not amount to 5,000 souls. The large burgh or Slabode 
of Nischnti-Neviansk f is inhabited by 1,200 Roskolniki or members of the 
ancient Greek church, and is a place of some importance from its trade 
and manufactures, but it ought to have been mentioned in our description 
of Asia; for, according to the limits to which we adhere, it is situated in 
that continent. 

Pcrmians and i The Permians and Siriaines are two tribes of the same peo- 
Biriaines. pie; their customs, manners and dialect are not different. The 
former reside on the banks of the Kama, the second inhabit the countries 
towards the north, and are scattered on the Witchegda and the Mezen in 
the governments of Wologda and Archangel. Both call themselves Komi- 

c Nouv. Ann. des Voyages, Novembre, 1825. 

d Me* moire sur les Productions Naturelles de Perm, dans la Description Economique, 
&c. de M. de Moderach. 

e Hermann's Memoires de Statistique, HI. p. 55. 

' The adjective Nischnei, which is prefixed to the names of several Russian towns, sig- 
nifies lower. 


Murt or the people of the country. The Permians are sometimes distin- 
guished by the name of Sudai, but at present there is little difference be- 
tween them and the Russians, and the greater number speak the language 
of that people. Their mythology and history are little known, the one and 
the other have been imperfectly handed down by oral tradition. It has 
been proved by some documents and records, exclusively of, Ancientmo- 
the numerous ruins, that Permia or Perm was once a kingdom, narchy ofthe 
which comprehended perhaps all the countries on the White ' 
Sea, the Urals and the Obi. It is uncertain whether that Finnic monarchy 
or Tchordskoy-Tzarstwo, as it is termed by Russian antiquaries, existed in 
the time of Augustus, and ended in the fourth and fifth centuries after the 
invasion of the Huns, or whether the monuments of ancient splendour and 
industry are merely the remains of the Biarmian kingdom, which was 
known to the Scandinavians during the middle ages, visited by Persians 
and Arabians, and finally subdued by the Russians in 1472. The last sup- 
position is, in our opinion, very probable, but we do not mean to deny the 
anterior existence of a Finnic, particularly an Hungarian or Magiar king- 
dom, which might have been destroyed after the migration of its most 
powerful tribes to central Russia and the banks of the Danube. The true 
history of the country begins in the time of St. Stephen, the t AJ habct 
apostle of the Permians, who invented an alphabet in 1375. 1 
The inventor wrote several books in the new characters, converted an im- 
mense number of heathens, and established the first metropolitan see in 
Perm, near the convenbof Oust-TPymsk. It is melancholy to add that the 
missionary was aided in the work of conversion by the arms of barbarians, 
and the torch of incendiaries. His labours were rendered easy by a Rus- 
sian army, and the frightened heathens with their children and idols fled 
for safety to the rocks of the Woguls and the frozen marshes of the Sa- 
moyedes. St. Stephen died in 1396, and a short time afterwards his life 
was written by the monk Epiphanes, a work of which a small part only is 
now extant. The writings of the Saint were lost by the negligence of the 
priests, and his alphabet, it is said, resembled the one invented by Cyril, 
but none of the characters are at present known. 6 M. de Moderach dis- 
covered some ancient records in the archives of Tcherdyn, and the names 
of fourteen princes and princesses who ruled over Great Permia are men- 
tioned in these documents. All of them were Christians, and when the 
male dynasty became extinct, the succession passed to females. Tcherdyn, 
says M. de Moderach, is built on the site of Great Perm, but, according 
to other authors, it is situated on the north-west of that town, at the con- 
fluence of the Witchegda and the Wym. 

Some monuments of an ancient religion, once common to all , gu u 
the Finnic nations, still remain in the forests of Permia. Dif- * 
ferent keremetsor consecrated enclosures have been lately examined, metal- 
lic idols have been found and destroyed. Herberstein mentions a gold 
statue, which was probably an object of Permian superstition; it repre- 
sented an old woman with a child in her arms; the whole was surrounded 
with tubes and spiracles, and the wind in passing through them produced 
harmonious sounds. h The spot on which the temple of the Solataia-Baba 
stood, is now unknown, but it is supposed to have been erected on the north- 
east of Tcherdyn, near a feeder of the Sosva. 

Klaproth, Asia Polyglotta, p. 188. h Adelung's Life of Herberstein, p. 385. 

VO-L. IV. H h 




European Russia. Third Section. Northern Russia. Countries on 
.the White Sea. 

Aspectofthe i THE country, from the Ural mountains to the shore of the 
country. I White Sea, is cold and unfruitful; the climate is of such a na- 
ture that the industry of man can hardly contend against the elements, and 
the scanty produce of his labour enables him merely to lengthen out a 
painful and sometimes precarious existence. The vivifying principle of 
heat is diminished, corn withers, and the marshy meadows are covered 
with rushes and mosses. Trees disappear on the sterile plains, the plants 
are stunted, and the whole of vegetable nature proclaims the vicinity of 
the pole. The cold soil is not fructified by the solar.rays in the long days of 
summer; but in this almost uninhabitable region man has established his 
ministerial arrangements and political divisions. The governments of Wo- 
logda, Archangel and Olonetz make up the countries which we are about to 
describe; still we shall be guided rather by the limits that seas and rivers 
afford us, than by such as are of a conventional character. The provinces 
on the east and the south of the White Sea form what has been already 
termed the maritime Uralian region, those on the west may, for the most 
part, be included in the Laponic countries. The topographical details 
that are contained in the statistical accounts of Russia, may be naturally 
arranged un4er these two physical sections.* 

country on I ^he * anc * on tne east * s an immense plain, which descends 
the east of the from the sources of the Petchora, the Mezen, Witchegda, Dwi- 

1 na and Onega to the shores of the White Sea. The low hills 
by which the course of the rivers is determined, are the only objects that 
vary the prospect. The sources of the Petchora and Witchegda are not 
more than 1200 feet above the level of the sea, those of the Mezen are 
about 600, and the greatest height of the Onega is less than 300. Some 
hills are situated in the southern part of the countries watered by these 
rivers; but few rocks are scattered in the northern districts, which con- 
sist of vallies and marshes. The large plain is bounded on the east by the 
Kammenoy-PoyaS) a chain connected with the Ural range, and probably a 
continuation of the primitive calcareous heights, in which the subterranean 
strata are not so deep as in the collateral chains. Its greatest elevation 
does not exceed 3600 feet, and its utmost breadth is supposed to be equal 
to ten versts. It descends and disappears near the sources of the Ousa. 
Rivera I ^ he P etcnora the Mezen and the Dwina are the three great 

1 rivers in the country on the east of the White Sea. The first, 
though of no great celebrity, is not inferior to the Loire in the length of 
its course, but it flows through the most solitary deserts in the Russian 
empire. A hunter is rarely seen in the woods, a Samoyedan seldom brings 
his rein-deer to pasture on its banks. The Kammenoy-Poyas extends to a 
certain distance in a direction parallel to the course of the river, and its 
steep calcarcpus banks are broken by caverns and ravines.* It is enlarged 
by (he Ousa, and passes after its junction through a very different country, 
vrhere its low banks are surrounded by immense heaths. Few fish are 

* See the tables of the physical sections in Europe. 

k Petchora is the Russian word for a cavern; hence the name of the river. The convent 
of Petachori is situated in the government of Pleskow. 


found in its clear water, and those in the Frozen Sea are, perhaps, prevent- 
ed from ascending its channel by two very salient promontories. The 
Mezen is nowise remarkable, and the country which it waters, contains 
but few objects likely to attract the attention of the physical geographer. 
The Double Dwina is formed near Weliki-Oust-Ioug, by the June- 
tion of the loug and the Suchona or the outlet of the lake Kouban. 
It is there that the Dwina is known by its name, but it does not become 
a large river before it reaches the confluence of the Witchegda, which 
flows from the east, in a direction opposite to the Suchona. It is naviga- 
ble, and abounds in fish; its breadth is about 200 yards, and the ice re- 
mains on it from the end of November to the beginning of April. The 
Onega does not issue from the lake Onega, but from several others, which, 
although in the neighbourhood, are not connected with it. The Vaga, 
a western feeder of the Dwina, and the Vlg and Sig, which fall int6 the 
White Sea, are still distinguished by their Scandinavian names. 

The temperature varies little in different districts, for all of , Climate 
them are exposed to the north wind. The humid forests on the ' 
south, and a frozen sea on the north, render the winters long and severe. 
The heat is at intervals oppressive during the long days of summer, but so 
sudden is the transition produced by a northern breeze, that the workmen 
sometimes appear in the same hour with their light dresses and the thick 
furs of Siberia. The mornings in June are generally frosty, and they are 
always so in the month of September. Ice may be constantly found beyond 
the 67th parallel, at the depth of a few feet below the ground. But the great- 
est degree of cold has been observed in Wologda and Oustioug; it is un- 
certain, at all events it has not been proved by thermometrical observations, 
that the temperature diminishes in more northern latitudes. 

The whole region may be divided into forests, heaths, and soil and pro- 
rocks, for the cultivated land and the natural meadows occupy ' dictions. 
so small an extent that they need not be taken into account. The forests in 
the three governments are very large; the pine, the fir, and the larch pre- 
dominate, and the war ships at Archangel are made of the last tree. The 
inhabitants export planks, staves, and tar. The soil is marshy and ill adapt- 
ed for agriculture; still, a small quantity of barley is sown, and in some 
years reaped. The potatoes are much below the ordinary size, and all the 
grain and farinaceous plants are inadequate to the consumption of a scanty 
population. The deficiency is supplied by lichens, by the roots' of the 
Calla palustris, and the ground bark of the fir. Rye succeeds sometimes 
near Wologda and Olonetz, but it is notunfrequently destroyed by a single 
night's frost. The horses are strong, and the oxen are well t Horses and 
shaped; but the sheep is not a valuable animal, the mutton in ' Oxen - 
the country is hardjy eatable, and the wool, which is of an inferior sort, is 
only used in making wadmal, or a coarse cloth worn by the peasantry. 

Venison, grouse, and different kinds of game are exported from Wolog- 
da; among the other commercial articles may be mentioned rischikes, or a 
species of small mushroom, which is considered a great delicacy by the 
Russians; a bottle of them is sold for two roubles. Traces of metal have 
been observed, but it is no where found in great quantities. The salt pits 
at Sol-tFytchegotskai, Segora, and more particularly in the neighbourhood 
of Totma, on the Kouda and Lesenga, are productive. The banks of the 
Wym are covered with petrified shells, and the bones of elephants arc oc- 
casionally found on the Petchora. 

The fruit-bearing shrubs are the most valuable gifts which i ghrubi 
nature has bestowed on the wretched inhabitants of these bleak ' 
regions. The moroschka or Norwegian chamoemorus, is a powerful anti- 

e Schisening's Origin of the Norwegians, p. 105. Edcla, Grimmis-Mal, Str. 27, 28, 29. 


scorbutic, and of an agreeable taste. The red and black whortleberry, wild 
cherries, gooseberries, and different fruits of the same sort, are very com- 
mon. The vegetables which are cultivated are radishes, turnips, white 
cabbages, onions, and garlic. 

Archangel or Gorod-Jtrchangelskoi, the convent of the saint 

' and archangel Michael, is the most commercial town in these 
provinces. It is situated on the banks of the Dwina, at the distance of 
ninety versts from the White Sea, and according to a late measurement, it 
is about three miles and a half in length, and less than two in breadth. 
The population consists of 15,000 souls; yet all the houses, and there are 
nineteen hundred 1 , all the churches, eleven of which are reserved for the 
Graeco-Russians, and one for the Calvinists, are built of wood; in short, 
the commercial hall is the only brick building in the city. The English 
carried on a lucrative trade in that part of Russia during the sixteenth cen- 
turyj before that time these shores were never visited by trading nations. 
The navigation of the White Sea may therefore be said to have been disco- 
vered by British traders about the year 1553. The Dutch and Hamburgh- 
ers followed the example of the English, and the town of Archangel was 
built in 1584, near the convent of the holy Michael. It was for a long time 
the only port in Russia; but its commerce was nearly destroyed when Pe- 
ter the First made the town that bears his name, the principal harbour of 
the empire. Before the decree of the czar was announced, Archangel was 
the great mart of the goods that passed into Siberia, and from the last 
country into Europe. Several articles of exportation are still sent thither 
from different parts of European Russia by Wologda and Oustioug-We- 
liki ; and the foreign vessels which arrive at Archangel, receive in exchange 
grain, lint, fish-oil, wood, tar, tallow, wax, linen, iron bars, and edder 
down. The value of the articles exported amounts to six millions of rou- 
bles, and the town is also the capital of a naval station. As there are nei- 
ther husbandmen nor flocks in the neighbourhood, the ordinary articles of 
food are brought from a distance. Cod and ling may be easily caught, and 
the people consume a great quantity of fish. Several vessels are employed 
Fisheries I ever . v y ear * n fi snin l? sea-cows near Spitzbergen and Nova-Zem- 

' bla, and in the herring fisheries on the White Sea; many of the 
fishermen winter at Spitzbergen. Bacstrom, a Dutch navigator, who visit- 
ed the Russians in their winter quarters, says they were well provided with 
every thing. Their houses or cottages were made of wood, they lived by 
hunting, and killed plenty of white bears, blue foxes, and rein-deer. Such 
were their amusements during the dreary winters, and in summer they 
were more profitably employed in fishing, and shooting edder-ducks. No 
trees grow on the islands of Spitzbergen, and the fishermen might perish 
from cold if timber were not thrown on the coasts; but a quantity sufficient 
for building a house is often found on the shore. The exercise which the 
Russian hunters take, is the best preventive against many maladies. Storch 
affirms, that they abstain from spirituous liquors, but his assertion is con- 
tradicted by the testimony of Bacstrom. Vapour baths are resorted to as a 
remedy against scurvy; the coasts are covered with plants and shrubs, 
which are salutary in the same disease, and the fishermen are generally 
provided with a certain quantity of moroschka. The heated blood of the 
rein-deer is given to invalids, an antidote which has been borrowed from 
the Samoyedes. 

Wdogda and | Two other towns, Wologda and Oustioug-Weliki, may be 
Ouetioug-We- shortly described. The first is peopled by 14,000 inhabitants, 

' who are as industrious as any in the Russian empire ; they have 
manufactories of silk, cloth, and linen, porcelain, glass, crystal, and mine- 
ral dye; many of the people are employed in dressing leather, and others 
are occupied in making paper, sealing wax, oil, tallow, and turpentine. 
The industry of the ancient Novgorod is now transferred to Wologda; its 

Manners of 
the inhabi- 


commerce is very important; all the productions of the province, all the 
manufactures which have been enumerated, are sent from it to Archangel 
and Siberia; whatever is exported from Petersburgh to Perm, Wiatka, or 
Siberia, passes through the same place. The different articles which are ex- 
ported to the port of Archangel from the interior, are all conveyed by the 
Wologda, the Suchona, and the Dwina. It is the mart of the Siberian furs, 
of the teas and nankeens of Kiachta; its merchants travel into Siberia, and 
have their agents in China. Oustioug-Weliki, a town of 12,000 souls, is 
peopled by a colony from Wologda; it is situated on the Suchona, and on 
the great road between Archangel and Siberia; consequently, the merchan- 
dise destined for that country is brought to Oustioug from Wologda, 
Petersburgh, and Archangel. The inhabitants do not live solely by export- 
ing goods; many of them make enamel, and different kinds of jewellery, 
and there are soap, candle, and tallow-works in the town. The 
merchants of the same place retain the simplicity of ancient 
customs; brothers, nephews, and cousins, reside together in 
the same establishment, some superintend the workmen, or sell the differ- 
ent goods, others travel to Petersburgh, Tobolsk or Irkulsk, and are 
deputed with full powers from the common house. These travellers are 
called gosti or guests, and they enjoy certain privileges in the different 
places that they visit. Totma contains 3000 inhabitants, and , 
carries on a trade with Siberia. The other towns are insigni- ' 
ficant, but their topography may serve to illustrate some phenomena 
worthy of notice. Thus, the vegetation of the lime ceases near Nikolsk, 
the larch is not seen beyond Jarensk, and the last nut tree nourishes in the 
neighbourhood of Olischew 9 about 58 30', north latitude. A solitary and 
sheltered oak grows near the convent of Preluk, at no great distance from 
Wologda. Oustsysolsk, a burgh where many fairs are held, is situated in 
a country of which the pinus cembra is almost the only plant; hence the cli- 
mate is not widely different from that near the line of perpetual snow. 4 
Timber is exported from Onega in the government of Archangel. Khol- 
mogory, the ancient metropolis of the country on the Dwina, appears to be 
the same as the Holmgard of the Icelanders; it was once the capital of a 
Scandinavian state; it is built on an island or holm on the river. Mezen is 
the chief town of a very large department, part of which is , 
called Udoria. The frontiers of lougoria lie on the east of the ' 
Uralian mountains, and Lucomoridis a general name for the maritime plain 
of Obdoria, or the country near the mouths of the Obi. Many caverns are 
observed in the desert regions on the Petchora, and the natural entrances 
to most of them are cut or altered so as to admit of doors; a fact which 
seems to prove that they were at one time used for the dwellings of men. 
It is said that old caldrons, and the remains of coarse household furniture, 
nay, more, that human bones have been taken from some of them. Accord- 
ing to the common tradition of the Samoyedes, the ancient inhabitants of 
their country were of gigantic size, and perished by the plague. 6 The 
popular notion coincides remarkably with the description of the lotes in 
the Eddaic poems, for that people are frequently called lettes or giants, 
and often compared or confounded with the Rises, Thuses, and other bar- 
barians of lofty stature and fierce manners. Iotun*Heim, or the , 
country of the lotes, is generally marked, as M. Schisening has ' Ic 
shown, on the east and north-east of Scandinavia. All the lotes were sup- 
posed to reside in caverns, and each man, it is affirmed, had a large caldron. 
Their dialect was little different from others in Scandinavia, and their re- 
ligious traditions were more ancient than the worship of Wodin. The 

A M^moires StatJstiques sur Wologda, in the Nouvelles Ephmeredes geogr. XII. p. 15. 
See Storch, Materialen, I. p. 305. 
* Klaproth, Asia Polyglotta. 


name of Thor or Thorum, by which the Samoyedes designate the supreme 
being, is no proof against the hypothesis; for although it be allowed that 
the lotes were the enemies of Thor, other branches of the Scandinavians, 
the conquerors and successors of that people, might have disseminated the 
religion of Wodin's son among the vassal tribes. 

samoyedea, i The Samoyedes are the men who eat each other; such, at least, 
their name. I i s the meaning of the Russian word, and it has the same sig- 
nification in Polish. It is, indeed, a matter of wonder that such a name 
has been applied to an innocent race of men who live on the flesh of their 
rein-deer, and who at most deserve the epithet of Syroiedzi or eaters of raw 
food, a term by which they are occasionally styled in official documents. 
As it is vain to suppose the meaning of the word different, we must con- 
clude that they were called Samoyedes or anthropophagi by the inhabitants 
of more southern countries, whose prejudices against certain tribes were 
by no means uncommon. The Melanchlxni^ Cimmerians and the lotes them- 
selves may be cited by way of example; some were believed by the Greeks, 
and others by the Wodinian Scandinavians, to be inhospitable, fierce 
and addicted to bloodshed. The same erroneous notions concerning an- 
cient tribes may have passed to their successors, and the harmless Sa- 
Tnbesofthe i moyedes may have thus been classed among cannibals. It is 
Samoyedes. I now generally admitted that the Samoyedes form a distinct 
race, which is divided into several tribes, and scattered from the sources of 
the lenissei to the Frozen Ocean, and along the shores of that sea, from the 
Anabara on the east, to the Mezen on the west. f The most southern tribe 
is that of the Ourongkhai or Soyotes, who are subject to the Chinese, and 
reside on the Saganian mountains. They are evidently the same as the 
Orangheys of Rubruquis, whom he commends for their dexterity in skating 
and pursuing their game on the ice. The continuation of the Samoyedan 
tribes is interrupted near the central banks of the lenissei; but as many as 
inhabit Europe call themselves Ninetz and Chasowo, two words, which 
signify men. They are divided into several branches, and the Wanoitai 
on the Petchora, the Ousa, the Korotaicha and the Kara, are the most 
numerous. The country on the east of the Petchora is called by the same 
people, the Arka-Ira or Great Land. Much uncertainty prevails concern- 
ing the number and subdivisions of the European Samoyedes 
Different am- . The principal wealth of the inhabitants consists in the num- 
duce'ofthe' ^ er ^ tne i r rein-deer; some of them possess more than a thou- 
country. I sand, and few have less than ten. The price of a rein-deer 
varies from two to ten roubles. The hunters kill the animals that are 
found on the plains and. the mountains, or bears, wolves, foxes, squir- 
rels, ermines, martens and wild rein-deer. The different birds that fre- 
quent the marshes are wild geese, ducks, swans, the larus parasiticus and 
the hssmatopus ostrologus or oyster-catcher. The fisheries are confined 
to the rivers, at least those on the sea afford a scanty suppljj. The 
most valuable fish are the salmo-migratorius, the salmo-neleuco, the cyprinus 
rutilus and several kinds of shad and perch. The frost continues to the 
middle of May, and the rivers are only open two or three months in the 
year. . The Petchora is blocked with ice before the end of October, and 
the Ousa is frozen by the beginning of September; still its banks are cover- 
ed with firs, birch trees, alders, willows, sorbs and brushwood. The bar- 
berry, the moroschka or chamcemorus, and the red whortleberry, grow near 
Pustosersk. It follows from the above statement, 'which is attested by the 
natives themselves, that their polar country is susceptible of great im- 
provement. 8 

f Klaproth, Asia Polyglotta. 

* Interrogatoire des Samoyedes. See the Me"moires Mensuels de PAcad^mie de F^ters- 
bourg, Janvier, FeVrier, Mars, 1787. 


The European Samoyedes are, for the most part, about the physical cha- 
middle size; few of them are very tall or of gigantic stature. ' racter - 
They may be distinguished by their flat visage, small eyes, and sunk nose; 
the last feature is nearly on a level with the upper jaw. To complete the 
picture, we may add a long mouth, thin lips, large ears, black and shining 
hair, which falls in plaits over the shoulders. They have no beards, and 
are, for the most part, of a swarthy complexion. The women are mar- 
riageable at ten years of age, and cease to bear children after thirty. Po- 
lygamy is permitted, but few men have more than two wives; all the girls 
are purchased, a hundred or sometimes a hundred and fifty rein-deer are 
given for a bride. The fair sex do not enjoy much freedom, and though 
strictly watched by their husbands, they give them little cause of jealousy. 
The Samoyedes are a very dirty people, a man rarely washes himself, unless 
threatened with diseases arising from excessive filth. Scurvy, we have 
learnt with surprise, is not a common complaint, and many, it is said, are 
carried off by fevers. A Samoyedan cannot resist the temptation of ardent 
spirits, and death is often the consequence of intoxication. The blood of 
the rein-deer is warmed, and considered an agreeable and wholesome be- 
verage; the flesh of the same animal, and raw fish, are their principal arti- 
cles of food. Hunting or fishing is the sole occupation of the people, and 
from their great practice, they are swift runners and dexterous bowmen. 
It is owing to the same cause that these savages can see and hear much 
better than more civilized men; a good eye and a quick ear are indispensa- 
ble to the hunter, who subsists on game. 

The tents of the Samoyedes are of a pyramidical form, they Dw 
are made of the branches and bark of trees, and covered with ' 
rein-deer skins. The women can take clown or erect a tent in a few hours. 
Every part of domestic economy, all the labours of the household, and ? 
other burdens are imposed on the weaker sex; their religion too subjects 
them to grievous and extraordinary purifications. 

The Samoyedans believe in two beings that regulate the af- 

. 7 , ...... < i I Superstition, y 

tairs ot men; the good divinity is not adored, tor he is ready ' 
to diffuse his blessings without hearing the prayers of his creatures; the 
wicked is never worshipped, because he cannot be made to relent by the 
lamentations of the wretched; the immortality of the soul is a sort of 
metempsychosis. Although their creed is so simple, the priests possess 
considerable authority; the kedesnicks and sadibeis hold communion with 
the evil spirit, and are consulted whenever the calamities of an individual 
remind him of a hellish power. The same people have no laws, custom 
supersedes in some measure their necessity; thus a man rarely marries 
more than one individual of the same family. The tribute of furs exacted 
by the Russians is willingly paid, and it is the only acknowledgment of 
submission claimed by the czar. 

The government of Olonetz extends on the south to the lati- . Government 
tude of Petersburgh, and on the north to the White Sea; thus it ' of Olonetz. 
separates the province of Archangel from the circle of Kola or Lapland. 
The Olonetz hills are formed by granite rocks from 300 to 500 f-. Q 
feet in height; they are the prominent parts of a granite ridge, ' 
which occupies apparently all the space between the White Sea and the 
gulfs on the Baltic. The number of lakes in the government is supposed 
to be 1998, and the rocks by which the water is precipitated into the lakes 
Onega, Ladoga and the White Sea, are all composed of granite. The same 
substance is covered with masses of trap, ophites and schistus. The gold 
veins of Woitz, which were first observed by a peasant, extend , Go|d 
on a bed of gneiss that forms one of the superincumbent strata; ' ' 
no advantage is now derived from the discovery, although the gold is of a 
very bright colour, and contains comparatively little alloy. ' Specimens of 
copper ore have been collected in many parts of the country, but it exists 


no where in sufficient abundance to indemnify the labour of working it. 
Iron is more productive, and the quantity obtained annually from the go- 
vernment exceeds 200,000 pouds. Mineralogists have examined in an island 
on the lake of Puck, a stratum of schistus, which is impregnated with 
vitriol, and, from its decomposed state, not unlike chalk. Marble is ex- 
ported to Petersburgh, from the quarries of Olonelz. The oak and the 
beech succeed rarely, but the fir and the larch grow to the height of a hun- 
dred feet in the circle of Kargapol. 

Pelrosavodsk, the metropolis of the government, contains 3000 

Towns. I . , , . I 5 . . 

1 inhabitants, many of whom labour in the iron works and im- 
perial founderies. Kargapol, another small town, possesses a flourishing 
trade, and Olonetz is not unworthy of notice, for it was there that Peter 
the Great first attempted to build a ship of war. The circle of Powenetz 
is noted for its good hemp, and many of its inhabitants are Roscolniki or 
Russians of the ancient Greek church. The monks in the different con- 
vents appear with long beards, and that appendage of which they boast, is 
said to be essential to their faith. Several large rivers flow in the depart- 
ment of eastern Kemi, towards the western coast of the White Sea; their 
water is coloured by the sphagnum palustre and other plants, and dashed 
in golden foam from the summits of steep granite rocks. The Laplander 
and his rein-deer are seen in many extensive tracts, on which the trees are 
never lofty, and the crops always uncertain. Although under the same 
parallel as Ostrobothnia, the climate is as severe as in central Lapland. The 
population of the government consists chiefly of Carelian Finns; their 
language is mixed with the Russian, and a barbarous and irregular dialect 
is thus produced. 11 

island of so- i A town and a convent have been built on the island of Solowet- 
lowetakoy. I S fc y^ vv hich is situated on the White Sea, and belongs to the 
government of Archangel. The convent was visited by many pilgrims, 
and the town sustained a siege during four years against a body of Stre- 
litzans. Large tablets of Muscovy talc are sent from the island to differ- 
ent parts of the empire. 

Russian Lap- i The circle of Kola and the northern part of eastern Kemi 
land. I made up at one time Russian Lapland ; but by later treaties, 

two extensive districts, all the Lapmark of western Kemi, and the greater 
part of the Lapmark of Torneo, have been ceded to Russia. Thus nearly 
two-thirds of the regions peopled by Laplanders are within the dominions 
of the emperor. We shall, therefore, give, in this part of our work, some 
account of that singular people, and the country they inhabit. Lapland 
Mo main I * s not i ntersecte d by Alps or very high mountains, as has been 

' affirmed by a German geographer. 1 The whole region, from 
Nordland onwards, is a table land, crowned only on its western frontier with 
a mountainous chain that forms the extremity of the Scandinavian Alps, and 
descends from Sulitielma, of which the elevation is 6000 feet, to the heights 
of Norwegian Finmark, that are about 3600 on the continental coast, and 
nearly 4000 on some islands. The interior is intersected by ravines and 
vallies; the elevation of the highest plains may be about fifteen or sixteen 
hundred feet; but they uniformly descend towards the east and the south. 
The rocks and hills that rise from the table land are not lofty; they vary 
to the east of 18 longitude, from five to six hundred feet above their base, 
or from 2000 to 2400 above the level of the sea. These hills do not form 
a continuous chain, but a number of isolated groups, and at twenty leagues to 
the south of them, near the base of Mount Salvasvado, at the level of 1300 
feet, the streams and rivers separate in different directions between the north 

h Campenhausen's Statistical and Geographical Essays. Storch's Journey round the 
lakes Ladoga and Onega, Materialim, I. p. 211. 
; Ruhs, Sweden, p. 124. 


sea and the Bothnian gulf, and between the gulfs of Alten and Torneo.* 
We conclude from the information afforded us by travellers, that the cen- 
tral ridge descends without interruption to the entrance of the White Sea, 
and instead of a continuous chain, that part of the country consists of ex- 
tensive marshes and sandy plains studded with rocks varying from 300 to 
400 feet in height. The hills on the higher part of the table land are com- 
posed of granite and gneiss; such, at least, were those examined by M. 
de Buch on the banks of the Muonio. Silver is found on the Three islands, 
and on the Bear's island, near the eastern extremity of Russian Lapland, 
but their component parts are in other respects! the same. M. de Buch 
observed during his excursion towards the gulf of Bothnia, a succession 
of calcareous and schistous rocks. The same substances abound in the 
country between the last gulf and that of Kandala; and although the land 
is furrowed with ravines, its elevation is inconsiderable. The whole region 
rests probably on a base of red decomposable granite, or, as it is generally 
called by the natives, rapakivi. 1 

Metal is found in abundance throughout the greater part of , 
western Lapland, and there are whole mountains of rich iron ' 
ore in the provinces still attached to Sweden. Traces of copper and sil- 
ver have been discovered, but the indications disappear gradually as we 
approach the White Sea. The marshy lands are impregnated with iron, 
but the want of hands, the scarcity of timber, and the great difficulty of 
conveying goods, are insurmountable obstacles against working mines in 
the inland and eastern parts of the country. The natives rejoice that these 
treasures are suffered to remain in the earth; their rulers might otherwise 
compel them to labour; at all events, it is certain that the Laplander, who 
showed rich mines and metallic veins to the Russians, was considered a 
traitor by his countrymen. Rock crystal is a very common mineral, and 
the inhabitants sell it sometimes for amethysts and topazes. 

The Alien or Alata, which traverses by a series of waterfalls , Rivers and 
the mountains in Finmark, is included in Norway, and the Tor- * lakes - 
neo and Muonio mark the limits of Sweden. The Bothnian Kemi flows 
in the Russian provinces, and of all its imposing and terrific cataracts, the 
Taival Koski, or the fall of the heavens, is the only one which the adventurous 
boatmen never attempt to cross. The Tama, which abounds in excellent 
salmon, forms, to a certain extent, the boundary between Norway and 
Russia, and surrounds on the east the maritime chain of Finmark. Small 
islands and rocks are scattered on the Passe or holy stream, the outlet of 
the great lake Enara. The Tuloma falls from a great height, before it 
enters the Russian town of Kola; but the course of the Ponoi, which waters 
all the eastern declivities in the same circle, is not accurately known. 
The large lake of Imandra is discharged into the gulf of Kandala, and its 
level is 400 feet above the sea. 

Tha foaming cataract, the lofty precipice, islands covered Appearanccof 
with pines, and rugged rocks of a thousand varied forms, sel- ' "e country. 
clom attract travellers to a bleak and desert country. The stranger is rare- 
ly exposed to the rays of a midnight sun, and as rarely reposes on the 
white elastic moss which grows along the banks of solitary rivers, near the 
silent shades of rocks and forests. The rich Laplander does not often 

* Section from Altengaard to Torneo. See the Voyages en Laponie by the Baron de 

1 Wahlenberg, Topographic de la Laponie de Kemi. De Buch, Voyage, II. 238-277. 
We have collected the different words by which the Laplanders denote mountains, rivers 
and lakes. Wara, a mountain, Tuoddar, a mountainous chain covered with snow. Kaissc, 
an isolated summit. lagna or legna, a glacier. Tierno, a well- wooded mountain. Meto, 
a round hill. Korr, a peak. Pakte, a rock. Pello, a plain. Trsesk, a lake covered with 
sphagnum, and other plants. Jcerfri, a lake. Jaure, a marsh. Faule, a lake through 
which a river passes. loki or lok, a river. 

Hermelin, Essai d'une histoire mine'rale de la Laponie. 

VOL. IV. I i 


visit the plains; his rein-deer quench their thirst at the springs and moun- 
tain streams; but the poor man repairs to the rivers, casts his net across 
them during the day, and at night, (when there are nights in Lapland) 
he kindles his pine torch, and spears the fish that are attracted by the 
light to the surface of the water. Waterfalls, lakes, rivers and rocks are 
held sacred by the superstitious natives; and the operations of nature are 
supposed to be very mysterious in a country where her empire is not dis- 
puted by the art of man. We shall afterwards return to the same subject, 
but it may be remarked at present that the industrious and hardy Finns 
or Qu&nes, a flourishing colony, and far tnore numerous than the Lapland- 
ers, try to open communications between different provinces; their boats 
descend many of the torrents, and trees cut in the most remote forests are 
borne down precipitous rocks. The simple but clean cottages of the la- 
borious Swedes are situated near the base of the cataracts, or on the lowest 
declivities of the high country; but the crops which these settlers have 
introduced, are often destroyed by the inclemency of the seasons. The 
traveller, who leaves the country of wandering tribes, hunters and fishers, 
is suddenly surprised by the appearance of civilization. Smoke rises from 
the forges, the anvil resounds to the stroke of the hammer, the grating 
noise of saw-mills assails the ear, and the novel sight of clocks and steeples 
announces the religion of Christians. Such is the appearance of Torneo, 
at present a Russian town. But on the side of the White Sea, almost 
the whole country is one continued desert; some Russian hamlets, some 
white cabbage gardens, and a few fur storehouses near the mouths of soli- 
tary rivers, are the only marks of human industry. 

Lapland was the coldest country visited in past times by the 

travellers in western Europe, and its climate has thus obtained 
an unfortunate celebrity; still it is milder than that of any other region on 
the same parallel. Let it be compared for instance with the country of the 
Samoyedes, or the coasts of Siberia, which, though two or three degrees 
to the south, are never open until the end of July, while the coasts of 
Norwegian Lapland or Finmark are freed from ice in the month of May. 
Maritime re- i An open, and ever-agitated sea, is one great cause' of the com- 
gion. I paratively mild temperature on the" northern coast of Norwe- 
gian Lapland, but the dense and humid mists must be attributed to the 
same cause, and it is only near the interior of gulfs sheltered from mari- 
time winds, or in districts at the elevation of seven or eight hundred feet, 
that the culture of grain succeeds, and that all the force of the heat accu- 
mulated in a day, which lasts two months, is concentrated." The maritime 
climate is much colder on the other side of cape North, and the harbours 
on the coast of eastern Lapland are sometimes blocked in the middle of 

i The central ridge is more habitable than any other polar re- 
centrai ridge. I gi on j n the same latitudes; its climate too has been better ob- 
served. Rye and barley are sown, ripened, and reaped, within the space 
of sixty-six days, but during the whole of that time there is no night. The 
short summer is enlivened by the songs of birds, the earth is in some 
places covered with flowers, but the coolness of evening is never felt, and 
the light is never succeeded by darkness. The summer may be contrasted 
with a rigorous winter, that continues eight months in the year; the cold 
is excessive, and mercury freezes frequently in the open air. The chilling 
blast penetrates the wretched huts of the Laplanders, but the provident 
Quaenes are sheltered in their pserrtes or oven-cottages. The settlers admit 
that a terrestrial paradise is not to be found in Lapland; but the cold is 
perhaps more intense at Archangel than at Enontekis, and strangers suffer 
less inconvenience from the temperature of the central ridge, than from 

Other causes are enumerated in the article Norway. 


boisterous winds, and the chaotic confusion occasioned by the thawing of 
the wide rivers which intersect the plains. 

The vegetation of Norwegian and Swedish Lapland has been Vg etation 
carefully examined by Wahlenberg and De Buch, and it is to ' 
be regretted that similar observations have never been made in the ancient 
Russian provinces. But as a great part of the Swedish territory has been 
added to the Russian, it may be as well to' mention some of the facts stated 
by these able botanists. M. Wahlenberg distinguishes the following zones. 
First, The lower region of the forests , in which the fir, the trifolium pratense, 
the convallaria majalis, and the nymphae alba flourish; it rises from the level 
of the sea to the height of 500 feet. Second, The higher region of the fo- 
rests, from 500 to 800 feet, the fir still succeeds, but the other plants dis- 
appear. Third, The region of pines from 800 to 1200 feet, the fir is rarely 
if ever seen. Fourth,"The subalpine region, .from 1200 to 1800 feet, the co- 
niferous trees do not grow, they give place to the birch. Fifth, The alpine 
region or the country of the dwarf birch, from 1800 to 2500 feet. Sixth, 
The higher alpine or the region of perpetual snow, from 2500 to 3300 feet. 
These divisions are only applicable to the southern declivities of Lapland. 
M. de Buch has marked the vegetable scale in Norwegian Lapland or Fin- 
mark, the most northern country in Europe. The following table is in- 
tended for 70 north latitude. Limit of the red pines, 730 feet; of the 
birch, 1483; of the vaccinium myrtillus, 1908; of the dwarf birch, 2576; of 
the salix myrsinites, 2908; of the salix lanata, 3100; and of perpetual snow, 

Plants are not so profusely scattered in the country on the east of the 
Tana and the Kemi; but as the level is lower, there is probably no limit to 
the growth of the pine, much less to that of the birch. It is stated by Wah- 
lenberg that not only the birch, but the pine and the fir flourish through- 
out the marshy plains near Iwala-Iocki in the parish of Enara, where the 
waters diverge towards the Frozen Ocean and the Bothnian Sea. Thus the 
zones of all these trees are confounded, or pass into each other. 

Most plants observed in the temperate regions of Europe , Flora Lapo- 
are not common to the high latitudes of Lapland, and the num- ' nica - 
ber of species which make up the Flora Laponica is inconsiderable. We 
do not maintain that the few plants supposed to belong exclusively to Lap- 
land, in other words, that the rubus arclicus, the salix laponica, the ranuncu- 
lus lap. et hyperboreus, the diapensia lap., the andromeda cserulea, the pedicu- 
laris lap., the orchis hyperborea, and others, may not be found at a future 
period in different parts of the globe. Although the species are few in 
number, they abound in individuals, and the vegetation of Lapland is far 
superior to that of the other countries round the Frozen Ocean. The 
lofty plains and rocks, higher than 1000 feet, are covered with , Moseea 
mosses and lichens. The rein-deer's lichen is of a bright yel- Rein-deer'* 
low colour, but as it dries or withers, it becomes as white as ' 
snow; indeed the. illusion could hardly be discovered, were it not for the 
verdant bushes and tufted trees which interrupt the uniformity. The same 
plant thrives better near the forests of fir than in the neighbourhood of the 
birch, and the Laplanders themselves are well aware that their lands might 
be more productive if their birch woods were destroyed. A plain sur- 
rounded by rocks, and covered with the rein-deer's moss, forms a Laplandic 
meadow. The oxen are fattened on this winter fodder, and the inhabitants 
extract from the lichen a sort of flour, which, if its taste be not very 
agreeable, is at least nutritive and wholesome. The Laplanders , , 

i *' /> i i i r^il Bear s "oss. 

learnt from the instinctive sagacity of the bear, the use of the ' 
muscus polytrichum or bear's moss. Wherever it grows, every other kind 
of vegetation decays, but it furnishes rich pastures, and is applied to dif- 
ferent purposes. Thus the moss and the coherent tissue of its roots are 
dug from the ground, the particles of earth are disengaged, and it is made 


into beds and mattresses, which almost all travellers prefer to any in the 
civilized countries of Europe. Plants useful in dying are common in the 
same country, and if the people were more industrious, bright colours 
might be extracted from the different lichens which are found in Lapland. 
The rocky country is the region of the cryptogamia, and the 
' traveller observes on leaving it, the sharp leaves of the carez, 
some of which are collected and dried in summer, and the cloaks or pe- 
lisses of the Laplanders are lined with them. The rubus chamcemorus and 
the vaccinium myrti/lus, grow near the extensive marshes, but few reeds or 
aquatic plants rise from the gelid waters of the lakes and rivers. The best 
pastures in Lapland are covered with alpine herbage. The root of the 
angelica and the stem of the/onc/ms are used as food, and of all the grains, 
barley is the one which thrives best; but the potato yields a surer harvest, 
and if its culture were general, it might afford sufficient sustenance for all 
the inhabitants. If the cultivation of the cabbage and turnip has been at- 
tended with success, it must be attributed to the persevering industry of 
the Russian and Finnic peasants in Kola and Ponoi. But in this region the 
fruit-bearing shrubs are the nobles of the vegetable kingdom. The berries 
of the rubus arcticus, although of a delicate flavour, are perhaps surpass- 
ed by those of the rubus chamcemorus^ which cover an extent of about 2400 
square miles, and are doubly valuable from their healing virtue. The vac- 
cinium oxycoccus, and similar species, arrive at perfection in a country 
from which most fruits appear to be banished. 

Animals, the i None of the quadrupeds in Lapland are so useful to man as 
rein-deer. I t h e rein-deer; indeed, were it not for that animal, the life of the 
polar tribes must have been most wretched. It is the stag, the horse, and 
the cow of these countries; its milk is of so rich a quality that it must be 
diluted in water; its flesh is far superior to that of the sheep; it is so hardy 
as to be almost insensible to cold; it is so easily maintained that it finds its 
food among the snowy wastes of the north. But the possession of this 
valuable animal is very uncertain; the wandering herds are sometimes dis- 
persed in the woods, they disregard the voice of the shepherd, and his 
dogs cannot always collect them. They are not easily milked, and yield 
a very small quantity at a time. Thus, to have abundance of milk and 
meat, the Laplander must have a numerous flock and extensive pastures, 
for the rein-deer does not thrive in confinement, it loves to roam at large; 
it seeks in one season the freshness of the mountain air, and in another a 
place of shelter against the glacial winds. To speak strictly, the rein-deer 
belongs only to the central' ridge of Lapland ; it does not thrive in summer 
on the coast of the Bothnian gulf, or in winter on the hazy islands of Fin- 
mark. The horse is terrified by the rein-deer, and runs away at its ap- 
proach; the cow evinces still greater horror, it cannot be driven into any 
Electricity of i place where their recent footmarks are impressed. 1 * If it be 
the rein-deer. I recollected that a crackling noise from the bones of the leg 
announces at a distance the coming of the rein-deer, an effect that can hard- 
ly be imputed to any other cause than a powerful electricity which is some- 
times detected on the skin, it may be natural to suppose that the aversion 
of other quadrupeds towards an animal graceful in its motions and sym- 
metrical in its proportions, proceeds only from an instinctive knowledge 
of its electrical qualities. The same fact may perhaps enable us to account 
for some of the diseases to which the rein-deer is subject, and from which 
other quadrupeds are exempt; certain it is, that in a few days, the patri- 
archal wealth of the richest and most fortunate Laplander, is sometimes 
destroyed. Then the shepherd king descends from his mountains to the 
banks of rivers, depends for a precarious subsistence on the produce of his 

The lilies, according to Linnaeus, were the nobles of nature. 

f This popular opinion has been confirmed by the learned De Buch. 


nets, and drags out a wretched existence among tribes of fishers, whom he 
formerly despised. The greatest danger to which the shepherds are ex- 
posed, are general and sudden thaws followed by as sudden frosts. The 
snow is thus covered with a crust of ice, which the rein-deer cannot pene- 
trate, and consequently cannot open a passage to the lichens necessary for 
its existence. Famine then rages, and if it were not of short duration, all 
the animals might perish. The rein-deer is harnessed to a sledge, which 
it draws during seven or eight hours with extraordinary rapidity, but at 
the end of that time, it falls down from exhaustion. The Laplander calls 
these animals by as many names as the Arab gives his horse; the male is 
generally termed potso, and the female vaiea. 

The Swedish, Norwegian, and Russian peasants, introduced t other ani- 
horses, oxen, and sheep, into Lapland; the last have succeeded. ' mals - 
The oxen lose their horns, and the cows become white. Few elks frequent 
the forests, and the beaver is seldom seen on the rivers; but the bear, the 
glutton, the wolf, and other carniverous animals, pursue the squirrels, 
martens, hares, and the curious lemming-rats, which, it is said, always 
advance in straight lines from north to south, and are not diverted from 
their course by lakes or rivers, but try to cross them, although thousands 
are drowned in the attempt. If this opinion, admitted by naturalists, be 
correct, the followers of Pythagoras may conclude that the souls of meta- 
physicians and geometers inhabit the bodies of rats. 

The forests, shrubs and brushwood in the solitary regions 
of Lapland afford shelter to birds of passage, which arrive in ' 
flocks every summer. The shores of some islands are almost covered 
with the eggs of aquatic fowl, and the interior abounds in different species 
of game, the grouse, the white partridge and the snow hen. The mota- 
cilla sueccia is the nightingale of Lapland, and it is called from its melo- 
dious notes the satakielinen or "the bird of a hundred., tunes." The 
chantress of the desert feeds on the insects of Lapland, its neck is adorned 
with an azure plumage, and it never lives any length of time in more tem- 
perate regions. The rivers are stored with salmon and a variety offish; 
but, about a month in the year, from the fourteenth of July to the fourteenth 
of August, insects as numerous as in the countries on the torrid zone, 
torment the traveller and the rein-deer; a day is the common period of their 
existence, and the soil is enriched by innumerable heaps of their dead 

The productions of Lapland have been minutely observed by such men 
as Linnaeus, De Buch and Wahlenberg; we have been induced to mention 
them more fully on that account, and because the physical geography of 
the same region is connected with that of all the countries on the east of 
the White Sea, which have hitherto been only visited by Russian travel- 
lers. We shall, for the same reason, examine without prejudice the most 
authentic narratives concerning the Laplanders themselves, a people who 
are generally considered a type of all the polar wandering tribes. 

The Laplanders call themselves Sabine and Same; to that , 
word the termination lads or lain, which signifies people or ' Name ' 
inhabitants, is generally added. They were first denominated Finns by the 
Scandinavian nations, but Saxo called them Lappes in the twelfth century; 
and they are always styled Lepori in the Russian annals; a name, which is 
probably derived from some obsolete Finnic word. A Lap- 
lander may be known by his short stature, generally from four ' Appcai 
and a half to five feet, his large visage, hollow cheeks, sharp chin, thin 
beard, dark and coarse hair, and sallow complexion. A higher stature, a 
whiter skin, and hair of a different colour, are exceptions to the common 
character, or proofs of a mixture with other tribes. Hardened by his rude 
climate, the Laplander is strong and active; a young man can outstrip on 
his skates the fox and the wolf; the rigid bow yields to his nervous arm, 


and in his old age he carries heavy burdens, or swims across rivers. But 
no instance of great longevity can be cited; on the contrary, few of them 
live longer than fifty or sixty years, and although they are very cleanly in 
character I the * r ha ^^ ts manv suffer much from disease. They are at once 
' passionate and timid ; their choler may be easily excited, but 
their fear prompts them to dissemble or suppress it. Every stranger is 
considered a spy, whose object is to discover their wealth, that a heavier 
impost may be exacted. Paper money was attempted without success to 
be introduced amongst them; fathers then concealed their gold and silver 
in the cavities of rocks, and forgot sometimes to tell their children where 
the wealth was deposited. This distrust is accompanied with great ava- 
rice and selfishness; he who has any thing to sell, always tries to cheat the 
purchaser; and the cunning Russian is often the dupe of the Laplander. 
Without pity and without compassion, they rarely assist the poor or 
wretched; without honour, they frequently acquire wealth by dishonest 
means. Their marriages are contracts of sale, and, in many instances, 
ill adapted to dispel the tedium of a solitary life. Relatives and kindred 
entertain each other, yet their hospitality is not disinterested, and the 
brandy bottle is the only talisman by which a stranger can be admitted into 
the hut or tent of a Laplander. 

It ought, on the other hand, to be remarked that the nation has been 
long degraded by a superstitious worship, in which nothing like morality 
was ever enjoined, and the people, independently of that cause, have not 
been improved by their intercourse with rude sailors and avaricious tra- 
ders. It is not much more than thirty years since paganism was ostensibly 
abolished. Spirituous liquor may still be conveyed into the country with 
too much facility. The fishermen spend in this way the half of their in- 
come, and shepherds repair to the spirit shops, and drink together a whole 
day until they are stretched on the ground in the sleep of drunkenness, 
from which they often pass into that of death. 

Life of the I The Laplanders are divided into two classes, and the shep- 
rein deer herds are superior in many respects to the fishermen. The 

' care of tending the flocks devolves on all the members of the 
family, who have separate dogs, that obey only the voice of their master. 
The rein-deer are marked in different ways on the ear, such as give milk 
or nourish young, are thus distinguished from others that draw the sledge 
or are fattening for the butcher. A good shepherd can observe by glancing 
on his numerous flock, if any be missing. It is a fine sight to see a 
whole family and a thousand rein-deer returning to the fold, and the young 
girls milking the rein-deer, while the boys hold them by ropes bound 
round the head. The pastures are quickly consumed, and the Laplanders 
are frequently obliged to migrate. Changes of this sort are sometimes 
I indispensable almost every month in winter. The shepherds 
' live in tents, which consist of stakes placed in the form of a 
pyramid, and covered with thick and coarse cloth. The smoke escapes 
from an aperture in the top, and pots and kettles are suspended over the 
fire from chains attached to the same opening. Rein-deer skins stretched 
on branches of birch trees, are, during the day, the seats of about twenty 
individuals, and at night the beds of the same number. It is there that 
the Laplanders, seated on their heels after the manner of eastern nations, 
spend in the beatitude of idleness all the moments they can spare from 
their pastoral labour. It is there that fathers, mothers, children, servants, 
dogs and travellers, if there are any, sleep. The tent or kota is encom- 
passed with stakes, the different provisions are kept in boxes attached to 
them, and chests are ranged on the inside round the cloth or covering, but 
these precautions are often unavailing against the impetuosity of the blast. 
Manner of i The sledge of a Laplander is not unlike a small wherry, and 
travelling, the person within it must keep himself in equilibrium. The 
' rein-deer draws from the head, and performs frequently a 


journey of fifty or sixty miles, but it sometimes stops from want of wind, or 
quits its direction in quest of moss ; and at the end of three days the best of 
them are unfit for service. A family of Laplanders travel in a number of 
sledges, which are divided into raids or lines, the father, the mother and 
each child guide a rein-deer. Different articles of trade are transported 
by the poorest inhabitants in the same manner. The Laplander has re- 
course to his snow shoes in winter, and travels or pursues his game on the 
ice with much boldness and extraordinary rapidity. In summer he often 
walks and loads his rein-deer with his merchandise; he makes use too of 
a frail bark, which is moved on wheels from lake to lake, and as many of 
the lakes are situated near each other, this is the best method of travelling 
in several parts of the ridge. A journey into the interior in the midst of 
summer, during a perpetual day, is attended with much inconvenience; 
the transport of goods is then more difficult, the rivers are so many bar- 
riers, the insects are troublesome, the heat is oppressive, and , Burning of the 
the forests are occasionally on fire. Linnaeus mentions one of ' forests. 
these fires produced by lightning. " The devastation extended to the dis- 
tance of several Swedish miles. 11 The part which I crossed was not less 
than three-quarters of a mile, all the wood was consumed, in other places 
the trees were still burning. The wind rose suddenly, the flames were 
rekindled, and a noise was heard in the half consumed forest, like the 
shock of two conflicting armies. It was fortunate that my companions 
and myself were not crushed by the trees that fell on every side around 
us." r 

The Laplanders cover themselves with cloaks of the rein- , Dregg 
deer's skin; their pantaloons and boots are made of the same ' 
substance, which is dressed in different ways according to the seasons. 
The women put on short trowsers in winter, but they wear a lighter sort 
during the short summers. The same persons are the only tailors in the 
country, and they spare no pains in adorning themselves. Their dress is 
showy and somewhat like that of savages; the shape of the bonnet varies 
in different districts, but it is every where covered with tufts of tin thread. 
A girdle thickly studded with tin or silver ornaments, is a part of the cos- 
tume; and a purse hangs from it which contains tobacco, needles, scis- 
sors, a knife, silver and tin chains ; their numerous rings too, are generally 
kept in it. It appears from the Sagas, that the ancient Finns , Indugt 
manufactured several articles, which they now purchase; even ' 
the goddesses of the Scandinavian Asgard were indebted for their jewels 
to the magical art of the dwarfs in Finmark. The modern Laplanders 
make very fine thread from the nerves and entrails of rein-deer, strong 
cord from roots, horn spoons and snuff boxes, that are prized in Sweden, 
and the wooden figures which they carve on some of the sledges might 
perhaps merit the attention of antiquaries. The shepherds live well, and 
the stranger is sometimes invited to partake of good soup, an excellent 
roast, bear's ham and a dish of kappatialme, or rich cream and delicate 
conserves. A cheese made from the milk of the rein-deer is at least equal, 
if not superior, to any other, but the butter is so bad as to be hardly eat- 
able. The care of the kitchen has, since the introduction of Christianity, 
been committed to the women, who were formerly supposed to be pol- 
luted and unworthy of the office. 

The life of the fishermen is very different from that of the shepherds; 
the former have associated so much with the Finno-Qusenes, that they have 
forgotten their original dialect, and are likely, ere long, to become a 
wholly distinct tribe from the real Laplanders. Their wooden and clay 
cottages are built near the fishing stations on the banks of rivers, their 
boats are constructed of light planks bound together with cordage made 

i A Swedish mile is equal to 4 -{- 1-6 English miles. r Lachesis Laponica. 


of roots; but if we judge from the nets that are stretched across the 
streams to impede the salmon, or from the cod hooks that are used in the 
gulfs, their knowledge of the arts must be very imperfect. Provisions are 
often exhausted in winter, and many are then reduced to live on the ground 
bark of the pine tree, kneaded with rein-deer's lard. It is affirmed, that 
all the women in Finmark manufacture different woollen goods, but much 
accurate information has not hitherto been obtained concerning the fishing 
tribes on the coasts of the Frozen and White Sea. 

Feasts, I Tne Laplanders assemble occasionally at feasts, and seldom 
wngs. ' depart before the whole repast is consumed. The puolem-vine, 

or brandy brought from Flensborg, circulates freely, and mirth is evinced 
in noisy loquacity. All the guests thunder the wild discord of their jolias 
or national songs, and the amusement is sometimes varied by cards, which 
are made from the bark of trees, and coloured with the blood of the rein- 
deer. Hundreds meet at marriage feasts, and remain perhaps longer than 
the bride or bridegroom would wish. Children are brought up without 
much trouble; as soon as a son is born, several rein-deer are set apart 
for him, these are his property, and he receives afterwards his share in 
the succession. 

Diseases me- I ^ ne study of the diseases to which savages are subject, and 
dicine. I of the remedies which they employ, leads often to unexpected 

results. Thus the oullem or colic occasioned by the vapid and heated 
water of lakes and marshes, could hardly be supposed a disease of polar 
countries, but it is not uncommon in Lapland, and the specific employed 
against it, is a sort of fungus that grows on birch trees; small fragments 
are set on fire, applied to the part affected, and allowed to burn slowly. 
Lan uaes I ^ he lan g ua g e f tne Laplanders is a Finlandic dialect, but 
' it contains so many words which are obsolete or foreign to the 
mother tongue, that the inhabitants of the two nations require an inter- 
preter to explain their meaning. The individuals of different tribes among 
the Laplanders themselves, cannot understand each other without much 
difficulty. It follows from these facts that the grammars and vocabularies 
published by the Danish and Swedish missionaries may throw some light 
on the general character of the language, and the identity or difference 
between several vocables. The numerous cases, the varied terminations 
of nouns and compound verbs, the method of expressing pronouns by affixa 
joined to verbs, and lastly, the negative conjugations, are characteristics 
equally applicable to the languages of Finland, Esthonia and Lapland. The 
last is, in some respects, still poorer than the other two; thus there are five 
words for snow, seven or eight for a mountain, but honesty, virtue and con- 
science must be expressed by a periphrasis. 8 The Laponic has been mixed, 
perhaps still more than the other Finnic tongues, with the German and Scan- 
dinavian, which were spoken by the conquerors, who were too often the 
tyrants of the Finnic race.* It is remarkable that some old Hungarian 
roots are to be found in the same dialect, and not in the others connected 

Leem's Grammatica Laponica, Copenhagen, 1748, (dialect of Porsanger.) Idem, De 
Laponibus Finmarchiac, eorumque lingua, 1767. Ganander's Grammatica Laponica, 1743. 
(dialect of Kemi.) H&gstrsem's Description of Swedish Lapland, p. 69-86, (dialect of the 
mountains and the north-west.) Lexicon Laponicum by Lindkal&nd. Oehrling. 

1 Klaproth found Germanic words in the Finnic dialects. The proportion out of a num- 
ber amounting to two hundred and twenty, was as one to twenty; had the same philologist 
sought Scandinavian words, he might have found twice as many. Thus Gambel, old, cor- 
responds with gammel. Skautia, a beard, with skuti, prominent in Icelandic. Wselia, 
a brother, with fielleds, common in Danish, fellow, a Danish and English word, and Felaa, 
a brother in Albanian. Kos, a cow, with ko. Nuor, young, with noor, an infant, in Danish. 
Kera-suat, love, with kier-lighed in Danish, and, perhaps, karitas in Latin, ftokohem, a 
mist, with raukur, darkness in Icelandic. Loma, shelter, with lummig, sheltered in 
Swedish, &c. &c. 


with it. tt It has been inferred from that fact, and from a resemblance 
between the Woguls and other lougorian tribes, that the Laplanders are 
the descendants of a Hunnic mixed with a Finnic people, or, perhaps, a 
distinct branch of the great Finno-Hunnic race, whose country, according 
to the fabulous history of Scandinavia, was the same as the one inhabited 
by the Laplanders, and included also lemtia, Dalecarlia, Osterdal and 
Wermeland. It is certain that the principal roots and derivatives in the 
Laponic bear less affinity with those in the languages of Upper Asia, than 
any other Finnic dialect. It rs, perhaps, a monument of the barbarous 
tongues spoken by the primitive tribes of eastern Europe ; and its origin 
is lost in that obscure but interesting period, in which our continent, like 
Africa and America in later times, was overrun in every direction by wan- 
dering tribes. 

Many instances of human we.akness might be collected from Sl , pcrst j tion 
the superstition of the Laplanders a universal idolatry,in which ottheYap. 
the elements were typified, and a polytheism, by which every ' landcia - 
object in nature was changed into a god, formed the basis of their worship, 
which, it is true, has often been misrepresented by merchants and even by 
injudicious missionaries. One ludicrous error may be mentioned, the 
Laplanders, it is asserted, adore several idols that are termed Stor-iun-kare> 
or, by interpretation, young noblemen and men of fashion, for such is the 
double meaning of that Norwegian word. The supposed resemblance 
between the Scandinavian Thor and the Laponic Tiernies may have ori- 
ginated from the confusion of tribes, or from their connexion with stran- 
gers. At all events, the most valuable information on the subject is 
contained in a work which has not been rightly understood by the Ger- 
man writers. 1 

Radien-Jithsie, the creator of the universe, and Radien-Kiedde, t Names of the 
his son, who governed in the name of his father, reigned in the ' gods - 
highest heavens. These divinities soared in the werald or ethereal space, 
interfered seldom in the affairs of mortals, and were almost unknown ex- 
cept to the Nottiadas or men above the skies. y We pass to the powers in 
the visible heaven, Baiwe the goddess of the sun had under her command 
three inferior genii, that ruled on Friday, Saturday and Sunday. Twofamiiiea 
The air was the residence of an immense number of deities; ' tgods. 
they governed the elements, and were divided into two families. The 
one branch was sprung from Joumala or the good principle, that dwelt 
both in the clouds and in the water. The Seites were the offspring of Per- 
/ra/, the infernal king, who assisted the wizards and all the enemies of hu- 
manity. The Swedish writers might have committed fewer errors had they 
always attended to the above distinction, 56 which does not, however, obviate 
every difficulty. On the contrary, there are many that it is impossible to 
explain, because the signification attached to the names of the different 
divinities in different districts is now unknown. Hora-Galles is, perhaps, 
the same as Tiermes and Toraturos; he darts the thunder, breaks the rocks, 
and overwhelms the magicians with his double hammer. The same pow- 
er presides over the seasons, the fruits of the earth, and the produce of 
the chase; but according to some traditions he was originally a mischie- 
vous genius, descended from Pcrkal,and afterwards educated and sanctified 
byJoumala. R Jlyeke or the aged is his surname, and his seven-coloured 

u See Sainovicz and Klaproth. We shall mention one example, vagy, a valley, corre- 
sponds with volgy, a valli-y, in Hungarian. 

* lessen on the Heathenism of the Norwegian Laplanders. See the continuation of 
JLeem's Description of ''inniark. 

y Werald is a Scandinavian word, hence the English word world. Kdtx signifies second 
in Hungarian, Wogol and Ostiakc! Noaiad appears to he of Samoyedan origin, from noa 
and nob, the heavens. 

z Schefler, Lap. 61, 91, 92, 96. lixgslrom's Lapland, 195, 196. a Tomer, De 

origine Fennorum. 

VOL. IV. -K k 


bow shines in the heavens. Biag-Olmai, the lord of the winds and tem- 
pests, and Licb-Olmai, the god of hunters, appeared often in human forms, 
and wandered on the holy mountains. 11 The Saiwos or the wicked spirits 
received in caverns the souls of bad men, or of all those that were not in- 
vited by Radien-Athsie to the higher heavens. The condemned were brought 
before Jabme-Jlkko,* the mother of the dead, who delivered the most guilty 
to frightful torments, which were inflicted on them by Rota, a hellish fiend, 
whose name was all that he possessed in common with one of the Wodi- 
nian Valkyrias. 

I Such was the mythology of the Laplanders. We have given 
' an account derived from scattered fragments, the system itself 
no longer exists. Whatever may be the worship of wandering barbarians, 
the advantages expected by their religious lawgivers are rarely if ever 
realized. Good and bad genii, whose power was exerted for the benefit 
or destruction of man, have been the objects of Laponic devotion since 
their country was first visited by travellers. Tiermes, the protector of 
vivifying nature, was loved and adored in the cottage and the tent; the 
great Seite, the chief evil spirit, was worshipped and feared in solitary 
forests or on almost inaccessible rocks; and Baiwe^ the goddess of the sun, 
had her sacred table near the huts. Sacrifices of male and fully grown 
rein-deQr were offered to Tiermes; the same victims, together with dogs, 
cats and poultry, bled to avert the wrath of the Seite; but the goddess of 
light accepted only the offerings of young and female rein-deer, and while 
the altars of the two former divinities were adorned with branching horns, 
the bones of her victims were placed in a circle round the sacred table. 
I No images were erected in honour of Baiwe, but that of Tier- 
' mes was made of wood, and changed every year. It was mere- 
ly the trunk of a birch tree, part of which was rudely emblematic of the 
head; a hammer and a flint, the symbols of the god, lay near the clumsy 
statue. Seite had a stone for his idol, and according to the fancy of the 
worshippers, the figure of a man, a quadruped or a bird was cut on it; 
but a stone that had been irregularly -hollowed by the water of a cataract, 
was chosen in preference to every other. Some ancient idols are still to 
be seen in the island of Darra, which is situated near the edge of the great 
lake Torneo; although the place is of dangerous access, it was often stain- 
ed with the blood of victims. The priests determined every year to which 
of the three powers the great sacrifice should be offered. The magical 
ring was made to revolve on a drum, and if it fell opposite an idol, the 
question was settled; but if all the gods refused the victims, the worship- 
pers predicted some dire .disaster. 

i The holy ground in ancient Lapland mierht have formed an 

Holy places. I . . MM i 7 

1 extensive district. 1 he adjectives passe or sacred, and ayeka 
or divine, are still added to the names of a great many places. The pic- 
turesque banks of a lake, the rock which projected over a foaming cata- 
ract, the gloomy valley or ravine, and the island crowned with aged fir 
trees, were all of them consecrated to reli-gious terror. d Many stone 
and' wooden idols and alcoves from two to five feet* above the ground, the 
places on which the victims bled, have been observed in Russian Lapland 
by modern travellers. 8 It was customary to carve figures on sacred trees, 
some of them still remain. The Laplanders passed before their gods in 
profound silence; and the women, supposing themselves unclean, turned 
aside their eyes, or covered their faces with a veil.' Great men were 
deified after death, their souls became powerful spirits, that were propi- 
tiated by sacrifices. The sledge which bore a corpse was overturned, and 
the rein-deer that drew it was slain on the tomb or near a pile of stones. 

b Olma signifies a man. e Jlkjco, a mother, corresponds with ank in Samoyedan. 

* Schefler's Laponia, p. 102. Georgi, Nations Russes. 

' Leem's Description of Finmark, Chap. xx. 


The navigators of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
have related many wonderful stories about the magic of the 
Finns and the Finno Lappes^ who sold wind contained in a cord with three 
knots. If the first were untied, the wind became favourable, if the second, 
still more so, but if the third were loosed, a temp'est was the inevitable 
consequence. The people in the interior had light and elastic balls made 
of wool, and gans or charms not much larger than flies. It was thought 
that the wizards could throw these weapons through the air, and strike 
the individual on whom they wished to inflict a lingering or mortal dis- 
ease. The word gan or gand is common to the Finnic, Celtic, Scandi- 
navian and German languages; it means generally deceit, illusion or ma- 
gic;* hence Gand wick or the Gulf of Magicians, a name given Gulf of Magl 
by Scandinavian navigators to the White Sea, because all its ' ans. 
coasts were at one time inhabited by Finnic nations. The drum was the 
great instrument of the magician, idols were fixed on it, the arpa or sacred 
rings moved to the strokes of his hammer, and from its motions he was 
able to foretell future events and the will of the gods. h The wizard fell 
sometimes on the ground and counterfeited death; his colour fled, his re- 
spiration ceased; his spirit was supposed to travel into distant countries, 
frequently into the other world. When the soul returned after a long 
absence into the body, the priest told the spectators what places he had 
visited, what he had learnt; remedies were prescribed, sacrifices enjoined, 
and whatever the sorcerer commanded, was implicitly obeyed. The 
Schamans of central Asia exercised the same arts; they had their drums, 
and fell into similar ecstacies. The wizards of Lapland exhibited their 
tricks to intelligent Swedes, and these foreigners, though convinced of the 
imposture, confessed themselves unable to detect it. Different theories 
have been advanced, and the prophetic transes have been considered the 
effects of excessive intoxication and animal magnetism. 

All the Swedish and Norwegian Laplanders are now members of the 
reformed church, they are Christians ashamed of their former supersti- 
tions and idols; but those in the ancient Russian territory are ill instructed 
in divine truths by the eastern priests, they profess Christianity and retain 
their heathen ceremonies. 




European Russia. Fourth Section. Provinces round the Baltic Sea. 

THE modern capital of the Russian empire is at no. great , General BW- 
distance from the polar deserts. Strangers may travel to Pe- ' vey. 

e Gand or gan signifies magic or witchcraft in ancient Scandinavian. See Landnama- 
JBoJc, vocabulum, Worm. Specimen lexici Runici, p. 83. Gand-reid, magical equitation, 
Ibid. Gand-alfur, spirits and magicians that pass through the water on enchanted staffs. 
Gan-cslta and gan-hid, a box for magical instruments, Ibid. Ganas, is a word still used in 
Lower Brittany for deceiver or enchanter, (Bullet.) Enganno, deceit in Spanish; Inganno, 
the same signification in Italian. Ganner, a sharper in German. M. Roquefort need not have 
rejected the opinion of Bullet, who has clearly proved that the gamtton of the chivalrous 
romances, that betrayed the twelve peers of France at Ronscevallos, and delivered them 
to the Saracens, was merely a magician. See the vrordgime in the Glossaire de la langue 
11 The drum was called quobdas or gobodet, kannus or ganwch. 


tersburgh on frozen lakes, without putting off their Laponic furs, or leaving 
their sledge, or unharnessing their rein-deer. The Russian provinces 
round the Baltic were inhabited by Finnic tribes, that fled before the Goths 
and Germans, who were forced to submit to the colossal power of Russia. 
The soil is barren, and the climate is cold, but palaces and temples are 
built on fens and marshes; and merchant fleets and naval squadrons are 
seen from the neighbouring rocks. The Russian cabinet, which is en- 
veloped in fogs or covered with hoar-frost, forms its political schemes, 
and extends its sway on the banks of the Danube, and the central regions 
of Asia. It is from these provinces that the Russian observes with indif- 
ference the wars and revolutions in Europe. Alas, for what purpose have 
Charles and Gustavus subdued the Finns, or the Waldemars displayed the 
danebrog in Esthonia," or the Teutonic knights planted the cross in the 
blood of the Lives and Koures? The czar of Muscovy issued from his un- 
known forests, and seized the fruits of so many heroic achievements. 

The provinces are naturally subdivided by the Neva and the Gulf of 
Finland 1 Finland. ^ ne present great dutchy of Finland comprehends, 
' besides the former Swedish province of the same name, all the 
government of Wiburg, or the ancient Russian Finland. It makes up on 
the north-west about a third part of that remarkable region of great lakes 
to which we have already called the attention of our readers." We shall 
now offer some remarks on its physical geography and political history. 
If we enter into any details, it is because we consider them not destitute 
of interest, and because much useful information may be derived from the 
works of statistical and ethnographical writers. 6 

Physical dc- I Finland is nearly as broad as the isthmus formed by the 
scripikm. I White Sea and the Baltic, an isthmus which connects Scan- 
dinavia and Russia, although its physical character is different from both 
these countries. The range of the Scandinavian mountains 

Mountains. . i <*\.T *- 

1 terminates on the north ot Norway, and the heights in Finland 
are inconsiderable and detached. If any of them retain the appearance of 
a chain, it is those between Ostrobothnia on one side, and Savolax, Ta- 
vastland and Finland on the other. These heights consist chiefly of slate 
and hard limestone, they extend towards the town of Biorneborg, and ter- 
minate at the coasts of the Bothnian gulf. But they are merely a conti- 
nuation of the interior ridge, and perhaps of the eastern part of the chain 
Manselka. Their name signifies the division of the land, but none of them 
have hitherto attracted attention. The southern confines of the same ridge 
are still lo\ver, they are composed of granite, and below that rock are 
calcareous strata and fine marble in some places on the north of the lake 
Central rid I Ladoga. The middle of Finland is thus a plain or ridge from 

' four hundred to six hundred feet above the level of the sea. 
That part of the country abounds in lakes, and is covered with rocks, 
none of which form lofty chains, and they are generally composed of a red 
granite/ which is termed rapa-kivi, in Finland, and decomposes with ex- 
traordinary rapidity. M. Gadd, a Swedish naturalist, maintains that the 
decomposition is most rapid when the granite contains a small portion of 
quartz, a great quantity of red feldspar, and a variety of ferruginous and 
sulphureous micaj^till, however, the white feldspar granite is subject to 
the same spontaneous decomposition. 
Giants' eoi- 'i . The circular or rather spiral excavations in some rocks in 

' Finland, are called by the natives the iette-grytor or giants' cal- 
drons. Different naturalists suppose them to have been formed not by a 
former but the present sea, yet many are situated in the interior, and 
others on the shore. 

a The Danebrog was a banner p