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Full text of "A universal history of the United States of America : embracing the whole period, from the earliest discoveries, down to the present time : giving a description of the western country, its soil, settlements, increase of population, &c : in three parts"

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SETTLKMKNT or JAMKSTOWK, in Virginia. The fir 

manent English sett foment in North America, commenced 
by 105 persons, 13th of May, 1607. Seepage 13. 




LANDINW OF THE PILGRIMS at Plymouth, Dec. 21d, 1620. 
The first settlement in the New- England States, commenced 
by John Carver, and ahoul twenty others from Plymouth, 
England. Page 28. 



:v 

* 




Death of King Philip, August 12, 1676. Page 84. 



Major Waldron falling upon his own sword, 1696. P. 94. 




Punishment of a m'm from Billerica, who purchased a gun 
from a British soldier in Boston, March, 1775. P. 161. 




BATTLE OF LEXINGTON. The first blood spilt in the Amer. 
icon Revolution, on the 19th of April, 1775. P. 162. 




Ticonderoga taken by the Americans, May 10, 1776. p. 164. 




Sergeant Jasper rescuing the American flag at Charleston, 
June 26th, 1776. P. 177. 




CAPTURE OF ANDRE, the British Spy, at Tarrytown, by three 
Militiamen, 2lst of September, 1780. P. 219 




GKNEKAL WAYNE'S VICTORY over the Indians, on the banks 
of the Miami, in 1794. P. 245. 



-J-V, v- 




Major Crogharta defence at Lower Sandusky, Ohio, August 
2dj 1813. Page 283. 




Death of Tecumseth, Oct. 5th, 1813. Page 290 



. 




Buffalo. JV. F. Burned by the British, December 30th, 1813 




Battle of Plattsburg and MacdonougKs Victory ', Sept. llfA, 
1814. 




LANDING OF GENERAL LA FAYETTE at Castle Garden, in New- 
York, August IGth, 1824. Page 401. 




COL. DANIEL BOON, the first settler of Kentucky, exploring the 
country in 1769. Page 459. 




SETTLEMENT OF MARIETTA, the first town of importance settled 
in the state of Ohio, April 1788. Page 467. 




FATHER HENNEPIN-, a Catholic Missionary from Canada, sail- 
ing down the Mississippi, in 1680. The first European who 
passed down this river : settlement of St. Louis, Missouri. 
Page 475478. 




FIRST BUILDING AT DETROIT, was a fortification erected by a 
party of French soldiers, about the year 1680. Pages 480, 481. 




Sergeant Major Champ's Adventure. P, 499. 




Adventure of Gen. Putnam. Page 505 




General Atkinson's victory over BLACK HAWK on the banks oj 
r.fcl 1833. 



UNIVERSAL HISTORY 



OP THE 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



EMBRACING 



THE WHOLE PERIOD, 



PROM THE 



EARLIEST DISCOVERIES, 



DOWN TO 



THE PRESENT TIME. 



GIVING A DESCRIPTION OP THE WESTERN COUNTRY, ITS SOIb 
SETTLEMENTS, INCREASE OP POPULATION, fcC. 



IN THREE PARTS. 



BY C. B. TAYLOR. 



NEW-YORK: 

PUBLISHED BY EZRA STROWG, 

Stereotyped by James Conner. 

1836. 









I 



Southern District of blew- York, sa. 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the 21st day of July, A. D. 1830, in the 
65th year of the Independence of the United States of America, Ezra Strong, of 
Ihe said District, hath deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereuf 
tic claims as proprietor, in the words followin-g, to wit: 

"A Universal History of the United States of America; embracing the whoh 
period, from the earliest discoveries, down to the present time. Giving a descrip- 
tion of the Western country, its soil, settlements, increase of population, tic. In 
Three Parts. By C. B. Taylor." 

In conformity to the act of Congress of the United States, entitled " An act for 
the encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, a:ni 
Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the time therein men- 
tioned.'' And also to an act, entitled, "An act, supplementary to an act, entitled, 
an act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, 
and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the th;ies tiierrin 
mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, 
and etching historical and other prints." 

FRED. J. BETTS, 
Clerk of the Southern District of New- York. 



PREFACE. 



IN collecting materials for this work, the author has, 
as may be seen from the copiousness of his table of con- 
tents, studied brevity of style. This, from the multi- 
plicity of subjects contained in the volume, he deemed 
essentially necessary. Another important design of the 
author has been to exhibit, in a strong point of light, 
those principles of political and religious freedom, to 
secure which many of our ancestors sacrificed their 
homes, their fortunes, and even their li ves. 

We cannot but admire the courage, perseverance, and 
virtues of our progenitors, when we contemplate the ob- 
stacles surmounted by them, the hardships endured, and 
the unshrinking firmness of purpose which turned a 
wilderness into fruitful fields, established a government 
of equal laws, and provided an asylum for the oppressed 
of all nations. 

Having learned, at least to some extent, to appreciate 
the value of those blessings which have 'descended to 
the posterity of the pilgrims, the author would now con- 
tribute his mite for the benefit of the present and future 
generations. 

This work is designed for a family and school book ; 
and is also intended as a substitute for those more volu- 
minous works, that find their way to the few only whose 
resources are sufficient to procure them. The size of 
the type on, which this volume is printed, has enabled 

P185IS3 



4 PREFACE. 

the publisher to present to his readers more matter than 
was originally intended for the work ; and to give in a 
duodecimo form, the quantity of reading commonly found 
in an octavo volume. Although presented to the public 
in a condensed form, it will be found to contain the most 
important events in the general history of this country. 

The comparative population, wealth, resources, and 
progressive improvement in the states and territories, 
have been particularly noticed, and will be found a source 
of useful information to those who may design to change 
their present places of abode. 

One entire chapter of this work is devoted to a view 
of the western states and territories, giving a description 
of the face of the country, the soil and productions, situ- 
ation and extent, rivers, increase of population, settle- 
ments, &c. This is designed by the author to convey a 
useful table of information to all of his readers, but is 
inserted more particularly for the benefit of those who 
intend to emigrate. 

C. B. T. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Birth, Education, and early Life of Columbus. His dis- 
covery of America, and discoveries by Cabot, Hudson, 
and others. 

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, or Columbo, as the name is 
written in Italian, was born in the city of Genoa, about 
the year 1435, of poor but reputable and meritorious pa- 
rentage. He was the son of Domenico Colombo, a wool 
comber, and Susanna Fontanarossa, his wife ; and his an- 
cestors seem to have followed the same trade for several 
generations in Genoa. Attempts have been made to 
prove him of illustrious descent, and several noble houses 
have laid claim to him since his name has become so re- 
nowned as to confer rather than receive distinction. It 
is possible some of them may be in the right, for the 
feuds in Italy in those ages had broken down and scat- 
tered many of the noblest families, and while some 
branches remained in the lordly heritage of castles and 
domains, others were confounded with the humblest po- 
pulation of the cities. The fact, however, is not mate- 
rial to his fame ; and it is a higher proof of merit to be 
the object of contention among various noble families, 
than to be able to substantiate the most illustrious line- 
age. His son Fernando had a true feeling on the subject. 
" I am of opinion," says he, " that I should derive less 
dignity from any nobility of ancestry, than from being 
the son of such a father." 

Columbus was the oldest of four children ; having two 
brothers, Bartholomew and Giacomo, or, as his name is 
translated into Spanish, Diego, and one sister, of whom 
nothing is known, excepting that she was married to a 
person in obscure life, called Giacomo Bavarello. 
A3 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

While very young, Columbus was taught reading, wri- 
ting, grammar, and arithmetic, and made some proficien- 
cy in drawing. He soon evinced a strong passion for 
geographical knowledge, and an irresistible inclination 
for the sea ; and in after life, when he looked back upon 
his career with a solemn and superstitious feeling, he re- 
garded this early determination of his mind as an impulse 
from the deity, guiding him to the studies, and inspiring 
him with the inclinations, proper to fit him for the high 
decrees he was destined to accomplish. His father, see- 
ing the bent of his mind, endeavoured to give him an edu- 
cation suitable for maritime life. He sent him, therefore, 
to the university of Pa via, where he was instructed in 
geometry, geography, astronomy, and navigation ; he ac- 
quired also a familiar knowledge of the Latin tonjrio, 
which at that time was the medium of instruction, aad 
the language of the schools. He remained but a. short 
time at Pa via, barely sufficient to give him the rudimerts 
of the necessary sciences ; the thorough acquaintance 
with them which he displayed in after life, must have 
been the result of diligent self-schooling, and of casua! 
hours of study, amidst the cares and vicissitudes of a i\\y 
ged and wandering life. He was one of those men r.f 
strong natural genius, who appear to form themselves 
who, from having to contend at their very outset witf> 
privations and impediments, acquire an intrepidity in bra- 
ving, and a facility in vanquishing difficulties. Such men 
learn to effect great purposes with small means, supply- 
ing the deficiency of the latter by the resources of their 
own energy and invention. This is one of the remarka- 
ble features in the history of Columbus. In every under- 
taking, the scantiness and apparent insufficiency of his 
means enhance the grandeur of his achievements. 

Shortly after leaving the university, he entered into 
nautical life, and, according to his own account, began 
to navigate at fourteen years of age. A complete obscu- 
rity rests upon this part of his history. It is supposed 
he made his first voyages with one Colombo, a hardy cap- 
tain of the seas, who had risen to some distinction by 
his bravery, and who was a distant connexion of his 
family. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

The seafaring life in those days was peculiarly full of 
hazard and enterprise. Even a commercial expedition 
resembled a warlike cruise, and the maritime merchant 
had often to fight his way from port to port. Piracy was 
almost legalized. The frequent feuds between" the Ita- 
lian states ; the cruisings of the Catalonians ; the arma- 
das fitted out by noblemen, who were petty sovereigns 
in their own domains ; the roving ships and squadrons 
of private adventurers ; and the holy wars waged with 
the Mahometan powers, rendered the narrow seas to 
which navigation was principally confined, scenes of the 
most hardy encounters and trying reverses. Such was 
the rugged school in which Columbus was reared, and 
such the rugged teacher that first broke him in to naval 
discipline. 

There is an interval of several years, during which we 
have but one or two shadowy traces of Columbus, who is 
supposed to have been principally engaged in the Medi- 
terranean, and up the Levant, sometimes in voyages of 
commerce, sometimes in warlike contests between the 
Italian states, sometimes in pious and predatory expedi- 
tions against the infidels, during which time he was often 
under the perilous command of his old fighting relation, 
the veteran Colombo. 

Columbus arrived at Lisbon about the year 1470. He 
was at that time in the full vigour of manhood, and of an 
engaging presence ; and here it may not be improper to 
draw his portrait, according to the minute descriptions 
given of him by his contemporaries. He was tall, well 
formed, and muscular, and of an elevated and dignified 
demeanour. His visage was long, and neither full nor 
meagre ; his complexion fair and freckled, and inclined 
to ruddy ; his nose aquiline, his cheek bones were rather 
high, his eyes light gray, and apt to enkindle ; his whole 
countenance had an air of authority. His hair, in his 
youthful days, was of a light colour, but care and trouble 
soon turned it gray, and at thirty years of age it was 
quite white. He was moderate and simple in diet and 
apparel, eloquent in discourse, engaging and affable with 
strangers, and of an amiableness and suavity in domestic 
life, that strongly attached his household to his person. 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

His temper was naturally- irritable ; but he subdued it 
by the magnanimity of his spirit, comporting himself 
with a courteous and gentle gravity, and never indulging 
in any intemperance of language. Throughout his life, 
he was noted for a strict attention to the offices of reli- 
gion. The Sabbath was to him a day of sacred rest, on 
which he would never sail from a port, unless in a case 
of extreme necessity. 

While at Lisbon, he became acquainted with a lady of 
rank, named Dona Felipa, who resided in the convent. 
The acquaintance soon ripened into attachment, and end- 
ed in marriage. 

When Columbus had once formed his theory, it became 
fixed in his mind, \vith singular firmness. He set it down 
as a fundamental principle, that the earth was a terra- 
queous globe, which might be travelled round from east 
to west, and that men stood foot to foot when on oppo- 
site points. 

This great man, when about forty years of age, formed 
the idea of reaching the East Indies by sailing westward. 
His fortune being small, and the attempt requiring ef- 
fectual patronage, he laid his plan before the senafe of 
Genoa, desirous that his native country should profit if 
he was successful ; the scheme, however, appearing chi- 
merical, was rejected. He then repaired to the court 
of Portugal ; and although the Portuguese were at that 
time distinguished for their commercial spirit, and John 
II. who then reigned, was a discerning and enterprising 
prince, yet the prejudices of the great men in his court, 
to whom the matter was referred, caused Columbus final- 
ly to fail in his attempt there also. He next applied to 
Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Arragon and 
Castile, and at the same time sent his brother Bartholo- 
mew (who followed the same profession, and who was 
well qualified to fill the immediate place under such a 
leader) to England, to lay the proposals before Henry 
VII. which likewise, very fortunately for the future well 
being of the country, met with no success. Many were 
the years which Christopher Columbus spent in ineffec- 
tual attendance at the Castilian court ; the impoverished 
state into which the finances of the united kingdom were 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

reduced by the war with Grenada, repressed every dis- 
position to attempt great designs. But the war being 
at length terminated, the powerful mind of Isabella broke 
through all obstructions ; she declared herself the pa- 
troness of Columbus, while her husband, Ferdinand, de- 
clining to partake as an adventurer, in the voyage, only 
gave it the sanction of his name. Thus did the superior 
genius of woman effect the discovery of one half of the 
globe ! 

The ships sent out on this important search were only 
three in number, two of them very small, with ninety 
men, victualled for a year's voyage. Although the expense 
of the expedition had long remained the sole obstacle to 
this undertaking, yet, when every thing was provided, 
the cost did not amount to more than sixteen thousand 
five hundred dollars, for which purpose the queen dis- 
posed of her jewels to raise the amount. 

Columbus set sail from the port of Palos in the pro- 
vince of Andalusia, August 3d, 1492: He proceeded to 
the Canary Islands, and thence directed his course due 
west, in the latitude of about 28 N. In this course he 
continued for two months, without falling in with any 
land, which caused such a spirit of discontent and mutiny 
to arise, as the superior address and management of the 
commander became uneqiial to suppress, although for 
those qualities he was eminently distinguished. He was 
at length reduced to the necessity of entering into a so- 
lemn engagement, to abandon the enterprise and return 
home, if land was not discovered in three days. Proba- 
bly he would not have been able to retain his men so 
long from acts of violence and outrage, in pursuing so 
untried and dreary a course, had they not been sensible 
that their safety in returning home, depended very much 
on his skill as a navigator, in conducting the vessel. 

About midnight of the llth of October, 1492, the cry 
was, land, land, which proved to be one of the Bahama 
islands, which Columbus named "San Salvadore ; it was 
only three deg. 30 min. lat. to the south of the island of 
Gomora, one of the Canaries, whence he took his depar- 
ture. This navigator was still so confident in the opinion 
he had formed before he undertook the voyage, that he 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

believed himself then to be on an island which was situa- 
ted adjacent to the Indies. Proceeding towards the S. he 
saw three other islands which he named St. Mary, Ferdi- 
nand, and Isabella. At length he arrived at a very large 
island, and as he had taken seven of the natives of San 
Salvadore on board, he learned from them that its name 
was called Cuba, but he gave it the name of Juanna. He 
next proceeded to an island which he had called Espa- 
fiola, in honour of the kingdom by which he was employ- 
ed, and it still bears the name of Hispaniola. 

Here he built a fort, and formed a small settlement ; he 
then returned home, having on board some of the native? 
whom he had taken from the different islands, on the pas 
sage. He was overtaken by a storm which had nearl) 
proved fatal. During the storm, Columbus hastily en- 
closed in a cake of wax, a short account of his voyage 
and discovery, which he hoped, should he perish, might 
fall into the hands of some navigator, or be cast ashore, 
and thus the knowledge of his discovery be preserved to 
the world. But the storm abated, and he arrived safe in 
Spain, March 15th, 1493, having been seven months and 
eleven days on this most important voyage. 

On his arrival, letters patent were issued by the king 
and queen, confirming to Columbus and to his heirs, all 
the privileges contained in an agreement w r hich had been 
enacted before his departure. 

Not only the Spaniards, but the other nations of Europe, 
seem to have adopted the opinion of Columbus, in con- 
sidering the countries which he had discovered as a part 
of India ; whence Ferdinand and Isabella gave them the 
name " Indies" in the ratification of their former agree 
ment with Columbus ; even after the error was detected, 
the name was retained, under the appellation of " West 
Indies." Nothing could possibly tend more effectually 
to rouse every active principle of human nature, than the 
discoveries which Columbus had made ; no time was lost 
or expense spared, in preparing a fleet of ships, with 
which this great man should revisit the countries he had 
made known. 

Seventeen ships were made ready in six months, and 
fifteen hundred persons embarked on board of them, 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

among whom were many noble families, who had filled 
honourable stations. Ferdinand, now desirous of securing 
the benefits of these discoveries, applied to the Pope to be 
invested with a right in their newly discovered country, 
as well as to all future discoveries in that direction ; 
but as it was necessary that there should be some favour 
of religion in the business, he founded his plea on a de- 
sire of converting the savage natives to the Romish faith, 
which plan had its desired effect. 

Columbus sailed from the port of Cadiz, on the 25th of 
September, 1493. When he arrived at Espafiola, he 
had the affliction to find that all the Spaniards whom he 
had left there, amounting to thirty-six in number, had 
been put to death by the natives in revenge for the insults 
and outrage which they had committed. After tracing out 
the plan of a town in a large plain near a spacious bay, and 
giving it the name of Isabella, in honour of his patroness, 
the queen of Castile, and appointed his brother to preside 
as deputy governor in his absence, Columbus, on the 
24th of April, 1494, sailed with one ship and two small 
barks, to make further discoveries in the seas. In this 
voyage he was employed five months, and fell in with 
many small islands on the coast of Cuba, but none of any 
importance except the island of Jamaica. 

Soon after his return to Hispaniola, he resolved to 
make war with the Indians, who amounted to 100,000 
men ; they having experienced every lawless act of vio- 
lence from their invaders, were rendered extremely in- 
veterate, and thirsting for revenge, a disposition which 
appears to have been foreign to their natures. Having 
collected his whole force, he attacked them by night, 
while they were assembled on a wide plain, and obtained 
a most decisive victory, without the loss of a single man 
on his part. The effect of cannon and fire arms, the noise 
of which was appalling, employed against a numerous 
body of Indians, closely drawn together, was in the high- 
est degree destructive. Columbus had brought over with 
him a small body of cavalry. 

The Indians, who had never before seen such a crea- 
ture, imagined the Spanish horses to be rational beings, 
and that each, with its rider, formed but one animal ; they 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

were astonished at their speed, and considered their im- 
petuosity and strength as irresistible. Numbers were 
slain, and many made prisoners, who were immediately 
consigned to slavery. 

At the departure of Columbus from Spain, he was ap 
pointed governor of the new world ; but by false repre 
sentations of his enemies, the king was persuaded to ap- 
point another in his place. The king also gave orders 
that Columbus should be seized and sent to Spain ; this 
was executed, and the heroic Columbus returned to Spain 
in irons. He was set at liberty by the king on his arri- 
val, but never recovered his authority. After his return 
from his fourth voyage, finding Isabella, his patroness, 
dead, he sunk beneath his misfortunes, and died May 
20th, 1506, in the seventieth year of his age. 

In 1497, John Cabot and his son commenced a voyage 
of discovery, and on the 24th of June discovered the island 
of Newfoundland, which they gave the name of Prima 
Vesta. Leaving this, they fell in with a small island, which 
they called St. Johns. The French attempted no disco- 
veries until 1524. In 1584, Sir Waller Raleigh, under 
commission of Queen Elizabeth, arrived in America, en- 
tered Pamplico Sound, now in North Carolina, and sailed 
thence to Roanoke ; of this country he took possession, 
and on his return to England gave so splendid a descrip- 
tion of it, that Queen Elizabeth bestowed upon it the 
name of Virginia, in allusion to her being unmarried. 

In 1602, Bartholomew Gosnold discovered some part 
of New-England. He first touched on its eastern coast, 
in about 43 degrees of north latitude ; he made some dis- 
coveries of the adjacent ports, and gave them the name 
of Cape Cod, and Martha's Vineyard. 

In 1603, the French made some small discoveries, and 
began to settle at Port Royal, on the Bay of Funda. 

In 1608, Henry Hudson discovered Long Island ; he 
also discovered and gave name to Hudson River, which 
retains this name to the present time. 

NOTE. The birth, parentage, and the early education of Columbus, 
has been extracted from that valuable work which has recently appeared 
from the able pen of Washington Irving. 



UNIVERSAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

UNITED STATES. 



PART FIRST. 



CHAPTER II. 

Prom the settl ment of Jamestown to the embarkation of 
the Plymouth Company. 

THE discovery of America by Columbus, gave a new 
: mpulse to that bold spirit of adventure which character- 
ized the hardy age in which he lived. Although several 
men of rank and fortune were concerned in the companies 
which had been formed in England for colonising America, 
their funds appear to have been very limited, and their 
first efforts were extremely feeble. The first expedition 
for the southern colony consisted of one vessel of 100 tons, 
and two barks, with 105 men, destined to remain in the 
country. The command of this small fleet was given to 
Captain Newport, who sailed from the Thames the 19th 
of December, 1606. At the time his instructions were 
given, three packages, sealed with the seal of the council, 
were delivered, one to Captain Newport, one to Captain 
Bartholomew Gosnald, and the third to Captain John Rat- 
clifTe, containing the names of the council for the colony. 

They were directed not to open these packages within 34 
hours after their arrival on the coast of Virginia, and the 
names of his majesty's council were then to be proclaim- 
ed. The council were then to proceed in the choice of 
a president, who should have two votes. To this singu- 
lar and unaccountable concealment, have been in a great 
degree attributed the dissensions which distracted the colo- 
nist? on their passage, and which afterwards considerably 
impeded the progress of their infant settlement. Newport, 

2 



14 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

whose place of destination was Roanoke, took the circuit- 
ous route by the West India islands, and had a long pas- 
sage of four months. The reckoning had been out for 
three days, without perceiving land ; and serious proposi- 
tions were made for returning to England; when they 
were overtaken by a storm, which fortunately drove them 
to the mouth of the Chesapeake. 

On the 26th of April, 1607, they discerned Cape Henry, 
and soon after Cape Charles. Impatient to land, a party 
of about 30 men went on shore at Cape Hejpry, but they 
were immediately attacked by the natives, wno considered 
them as enemies, and in the skirmish which ensued, seve- 
ral were wounded on both sides. The first employment 
of the colonists, w r as to explore the adjacent country, with 
the appearance of which they were greatly delighted, and 
to select a spot on which their settlement should be made. 
They proceeded up a large, beautiful river, called by the 
natives Powhattan, and to which they gave the name of 
James ; on a peninsula, on the northhside of which they 
immediately agreed to make the first establishment of their 
colony. 

This place, as well as the river, they named after their 
king, and called it Jamestown ; there they debarked on 
the 13th of May, and the sealed packets being opened, Mr. 
Wingfield was, by the council, elected their president ; but 
under frivolous and unjustifiable pretexts, they excluded 
Smith from taking his seat among them John Smith, 
whose courage and talents seem to have excited their envy, 
and who on the passage, had been imprisoned on the im- 
probable and unsupportable charge of intending to mur- 
der the council, usurp the government, and make himself 
king of Virginia. 

The colonists soon found themselves embroiled with 
the Indians, who attacked them suddenly, while at work , 
but were frightened by the fire from the ship, and in a 
short time, a temporary accommodation with them was ef- 
fected. Although Newport was named of the council, he 
was ordered to return with the vessel to England, and the 
time of his departure approached. The accusers of Smith, 
affecting a degree of humanity which they did not feel, 
proposed that lie should return with Newport, instead of 



THE UNITED STATES. 15 

being prosecuted in Virginia ; but with the pride of con 
ddous innocence, he demanded his trial, and being he 
aourably acquitted, took his seat in the council. About 
the 15th of June, Newport sailed for England, leaving be- 
hind him one bark, and about 100 persons, the only Eng 
lish then on the continent of America. 

Thus, about one hundred and ten years after this conti 
nent had been discovered by Cabot, and 22 years after a 
colony had been conducted to Roanoke by Sir Richard 
Grenville, the English possessions in America, designed 
soon to become a mighty empire, were limited to a penin- 
sula of a few thousand acres of land, held by a small body 
of men, who with difficulty maintained themselves against 
the paltry tribes which surrounded them, and looked in a 
great measure to the other side of the Atlantic for the 
bread on which they were to subsist. The stock of pro- 
visions for the colony had been very improvidentially laid 
in ; it was entirely inadequate to their wants, and in addi- 
tion to this original error, it had sustained great damage in 
the holds of their vessels, during their long passage. 

On the departure of Newport, (during whose stay they 
managed to partake of the superfluity of sailors,) they 
were reduced to the necessity of subsisting on the distri- 
butions from the public stores. These were, at the same 
time, scanty and unwholesome. They did not amount to 
more per man than a pint of worm eaten wheat, and bar- 
ley boiled in a common kettle. This wretched food in 
creased the malignity of the diseases generated by a hot, 
and, at that time, (the country being entirely uncleared 
and undrained,) a damp climate, among men exposed, from 
their situation, to all its rigours. Before the month of 
September, 50 of the company, and among them Bartholo- 
mew Gosnald, who had originated the expedition, and so 
much contributed to wards its being carried on, were buried. 

This scene of distress was heightened by internal dis- 
sension. The president was charged with having embez- 
zled the best stores of the colony, and of feasting at his 
private table with beef and bread, then deemed luxuries 
of the highest order, while famine and death devoured his 
r ellow adventurers. No crime, in the public opinion, 
could have been more atrocious. In addition to this, he 



16 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

was detected in an attempt to escape from them and their 
calamities, in the bark which had been left by Newport 
The general indignation could no longer be restrained 
He was deposed, and Ratcliffe chosen to succeed him 
Misfortune is not unfrequently the parent of moderation 
and reflection, and this state of misery produced a system 
of conduct towards the neighbouring Indians, which, for 
the moment, disarmed their resentment, and induced them 
to bring in such supplies as the country at that season 
afforded, and thereby preserved the remnant of the colony. 
It produced another effect, not less important. Their sense 
of imminent and common danger, called forth and com- 
pelled submission to those talents which were fitted to the 
exigence, and best calculated to extricate them from the 
difficulties by which they were surrounded. 

Captain Smith, who had been imprisoned and expelled 
from the council by the envy of those who felt and hated 
his superiority, and who, after evincing his innocence, had 
with difficulty been admitted to the station assigned, pre- 
served his health unimpaired, his spirits unbroken, and hig 
judgment unclouded, amidst this general misery and de- 
jection. In him, by common consent, all actual authority 
was placed, and he, by his own example, soon gave energy 
and efficiency to others in the execution of his com- 
mands. 

He immediately erected, at Jamestown, such rude for- 
tifications as were necessary to resist the sudden attack of 
the savages, and, with great labour, in which he always 
took the lead, completed the construction of such dwell- 
ings as could shelter the people from the weather ; con- 
tributed to restore and preserve their health, while his ac- 
commodation gave place to all others. In the season of 
gathering corn, which, with the Indians, is the season of 
plenty, putting himself at the head of small parties, he pene- 
trated into the country, and, by presents and caresses to 
those that were well disposed, and attacking with open 
force, and defeating those who were hostile, he obtained 
for his countrymen the most abundant supplies. While 
thus actively and usefully employed abroad, he was not 
permitted to withdraw his attention from the domestic 
concerns of the colony. However unfit men may be for 



THE UNITED STATES. 17 

command, there are few examples of their descending 
willingly from exalted stations once filled by them, arid it 
is not wonderful that the late president saw with displea- 
sure another placed above him. 

As unworthy minds most readily devise unworthy means, 
he sought, by intriguing with the factious, and fomenting 
their discontents, to regain his lost authority ; and when 
their attempts were disconcerted, plans were laid, first by 
Wingfield and Kendal, and afterwards by the president 
himself, in conjunction with Martin, the only remaining 
member of the council, except Smith, to escape in the 
bark, and thus abandon the country. The vigilance 01 
Sri i ilk detected all these machinations, and his vigour de- 
feated them. The hope was now indulged of preserving 
tiie colony in quiet and plenty, until supplies could be re- 
ceived from England, with the ships which were expected 
in the spring. This hope was, in a considerable degree, 
defeated, by an event which threatened, at first, the most 
disastrous consequences. 

In an attempt to explore the head of Chickahominy 
river, Smith was discovered, and attacked by a numerous 
body of Indians, and, in endeavouring to make his escape, 
after a most gallant defence, his attention being directed 
to the enemy, whom he still fought in retreating, he sunk 
up to his neck in a swamp, and was obliged to surrender. 
Still retaining his presence of mind, he showed them a 
mariner's compass, at which, especially at the playing of 
the needle, and the impossibility of touching it, although 
they saw it so distinctly, they were greatly astonished; 
and he amused them with so many surprising stories of its 
qualities, as to inspire them with a degree of veneration, 
which prevented their executing their first design of killing 
him on the spot. They conducted him in triumph through 
several towns to the palace of Powhatan, the most potent 
king in the country. 

There he was doomed to be put to death by laying his 
head upon a log, and beating his brains out with clubs. 
He was led to the place of execution, and his head bowed 
down for the purpose of death, when Pocahontas, the 
king's daughter, then about thirteen years of age, whose 
entreaties for his life had been ineffectual, rushed between 

2* 



18 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

him and the executioner, and folding his head in her arms, 
and laying hers upon it, arrested the fatal blow. Her fa- 
ther was then prevailed on to spare his life, and after a 
great many savage ceremonies, he was sent back to James- 
town. On his arrival thither, having been absent seven 
weeks, he found the colony reduced to 38 persons, most 
of whom seemed determined to abandon the country, which 
appeared to them so unfavourable to human life. He 
was just in time to prevent the execution of this design 
Alternately employing persuasions, threats, and even vio- 
lence, he, at length, with much hazard to himself, induced 
the majority to relinquish the 'intentions they had formed, 
and then turning the guns of the fort on the bark, on 
board of which were the most determined, compelled he 
to remain, or sink in the river. 

By judicious regulation of their intercourse with the 
Indians, among whom Smith was now in high repute, he 
preserved plenty in the colony until the arrival of two 
vessels, which had been despatched from England under 
the command of Captain Newport, with a supply of pro- 
visions, instruments of husbandry, and with a reinforce- 
ment of 120 persons ; consisting of many gentlemen, a 
few labourers, and several refiners, goldsmiths, and jewel- 
lers. The joy of the colony on receiving this accession 
of force, and supply of provisions, was extreme. But the 
influence of Smith disappeared with the danger which had 
produced it. and an improvident relaxation of discipline, 
productive of the most pernicious consequences, succeed- 
ed to it. Among the unwise practices which they tole- 
rated, an indiscriminate traffic with the natives was per- 
mitted, in the course of which some obtained for their 
commodities much better bargains than others, which in- 
spired those who had been most hardly dealt by, and who 
thought themselves cheated, with resentment against the 
English generally, and a consequent thirst for revenge. 

About this time was found, washed down by a small 
stream of water, back of Jamestown, a glittering earth, 
which, by the colonists, was mistaken for gold dust. All 
that raging thirst for gold which accompanied the first Eu- 
ropeans who visited the American continent, seemed re- 
excited by this incident. Mr. Stith, in his history, ?sys, 



THE UNITED STATES. 10 

"here was nothing thought of but to dig gold, wash gold, 
refine gold, and load gold. And, notwithstanding Cap- 
tain Smith's warm and judicious representations, how ab- 
surd it was to neglect all other things of immediate use 
and necessity, to load such a drunken ship with gilded dust, 
yet was he overruled, and her returns were made with a 
parcel of glittering dirt, which is to be found in various 
parts of the country, and which they very sanguinely con- 
cluded to be gold dust. 

One vessel returned in the spring of 1608, the other 
the 2d of June, laden, one with dust, the other with cedar. 
This is the first remittance ever made from America by an 
English colony. The effects of this fatal delusion, were 
such as might have been foreseen, and were soon felt. 
The colony began to suffer the same distress from scarcity 
of lood, which had before brought it to the brink of ruin. 
The researches of the English settlers had not yet extend 
ed beyond the countries adjacent to James River. Smith 
had formed the bold design of exploring the great bay of 
Chesapeake, examining the mighty rivers which empty 
into it, opening an entrance with the nations inhabiting 
them, and acquiring a knowledge of the state of their cul- 
tivation and population. 

This hardy enterprise he undertook, accompanied by 
Doctor Russell, in an open boat of about three tons bur- 
then, and with a crew of 13 men. On the 2d of June, he 
fell down the river, in company with the last of Newport's 
two vessels, and parted with her at the Capes. Beginning 
his survey at Cape Charles, he examined with immense 
fatigue and danger, every river, inlet, and bay, on both 
sides of the Chesapeake, as far as the mouth of the Rap- 
pahannoc, from whence, their provisions being exhausted, 
he returned to Jamestown. He reached the place on the 
21st July, and found the colony in the utmost confusion 
and disorder. Those who had arrived last, with Newport, 
were all sick, and general scarcity prevailed ; an universal 
discontent with the president, whom they charged with 
riotously consuming the stores, and unnecessarily fati- 
guing the people, with building a house of pleasure for 
himself in the woods. 

The seasonable arrival of Smith, prevented their fury 



20 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

from breaking out in acts of personal violence. Their 
views were extended, and their spirits revived, by the ac- 
counts he gave of his discovery. They contented them- 
selves with deposing their president, and Smith was urged, 
but refused, to succeed him. 

Having made, in three days, arrangements for obtain 
ing regular supplies, and for the government of the colony 
his firm friend, Mr. Scrivner, was appointed vice presi- 
dent, and on the 14th of July, he again set out, with 12 
men, to complete his discoveries. 

From this voyage, he returned on the 7th of Septembei 
He had ad ventured as far as the River Susquehannah, and 
visited all the countries on both sides of the river ; he en 
tered most of the large creeks, and sailed up many of the 
great rivers to their falls. 

When we consider that he sailed above 300 miles in an 
open boat, when we contemplate the dangers and the 
hardships he encountered, and the fortitude, courage, and 
patience, with which he met them ; when we reflect on 
the useful and important additions which he made to the 
stock of knowledge respecting America, then possessed 
by his countrymen, we shall not hesitate to say that few 
voyages of discovery, undertaken at any time, reflect more 
honour on those engaged in them, than this does on Cap- 
tain Smith. It may not be entirely unworthy of remark, 
that about the bottom of the bay, Smith went with a par- 
ty of Indians from St. Lawrence, coming to war with those 
of that neighbourhood; and that he found among Indians 
on the Susquehannah, hatchets obtained originally from 
the French in Canada. 

On the 10th of September, immediately after his return 
from his expedition, he was chosen president by the coun- 
cil, and accepted the office. 

Soon after Newport arrived with an additional supply 
of inhabitants ; among whom were the two first females 
who had ventured into the country ; but he came without 
provisions. The distinguished, judicious, and vigorous 
administration of the president, however, supplied their 
wants, and restrained the turbulent. Encouraged by his 
example, coerced by his authority, a spirit of industry and 
subordination appeared to be created in the colony, which 



THE UNITED STATES. 21 

was the parent of plenty and peace. In the mean time, 
the company in England became excessively dissatisfied 
with their property in America. They had calculated on 
discovering a passage to the south sea, and mines of the 
precious metals, which might afford to individuals me 
same sudden accumulation of wealth which had been ac 
quired by the Spaniards in the south. In all their hopes 
they had been grievously disappointed, and had as yet 
received scarcely any advantage for the heavy expenses 
they had incurred ; yet hope did not altogether forsake 
them, and they still indulged in golden dreams of future 
wealth. 

On the 23d of May, 1609, a new charter was granted 
them, some of the first nobility, and gentry of the country, 
and most of the companies of London, with a numerous 
body of merchants and tradesmen, were now added to the 
former adventurers, and they were all incorporated, by 
the name of the Treasurer and Company of Adventurers 
of the city of London, for the first colony in Virginia. To 
them was granted, as their property, the lands extending 
from Cape or Point Comfort along the sea coast, 200 miles 
northward, and from the same point along the sea coast 
200 miles southward. 

The corporation was authorized to own, under its com- 
mon seal, particular portions of these lands to subjects or 
denizens, on such conditions as might promote the inten- 
tions of the grant. The powers of the president and 
council in Virginia were abrogated, and a new council in 
England was established and ordained in the charter, with 
power to the company to fill all vacancies therein by elec- 
tion. This council was empowered to appoint and renew 
all officers for the colony, and to make all ordinances for 
its government, provided they be not contrary to the laws 
of England. 

License was given to transport all persons that were 
willing, and to export merchandise free from custom to 
Virginia, for seven years. There was also granted, for 
twenty-one years, freedom from all subsidies in Virginia, 
and from all impositions on importations and exportations, 
from or to any of the king's dominions, except only the 
five pounds in the hundred due for custom. The company 



- UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

being now enlarged, was enabled to take more efficient 
measures than heretofore for the settlement of the coun 
try ; they soon fitted out nine ships with 500 emigrant, 
and such supplies as were deemed necessary for them 
Lord Delawar was constituted governor and captain ge 
neral for life, and several other high sounding ana useless 
offices were created. The direction of the expedition 
was again given to Captain Newport, George Somers, 
and Thomas Gates. Power was severally granted to 
govern the colony until the arrival of Lord Delawar. 

With singular indiscretion, the council omitted to esta- 
blish precedence among these gentlemen, and being totally 
unable to settle this point between themselves, they 
agreed to embark on board of the same vessel, and to be 
companions during the voyage. They were parted from 
the rest of the fleet in a storm, and driven on Bermudas, 
having on board 150 men, a considerable portion of the 
provisions, and the new commission and instructions of 
the council. The residue of the squadron arrived safe ia 
Virginia. 

The great part of the new company consisted of unruly 
sparks packed off by their friends to escape worse desti- 
nies at home, and the rest chiefly made up of poor gen- 
tlemen, broken tradesmen, rakes and libertines, footmen, 
and such others as were more ruinous to the common- 
wealth, than to help to raise or maintain it. They as- 
sumed to themselves the power of disposing of the go- 
vernment, and conferred it sometimes on one, and some- 
times on another. To-day the old commission must rule, 
to-morrow the new, and next day neither. So all was 
anarchy and distraction. 

The judgment of Smith was suspended but for a short 
time. He soon determined that his own authority was 
not legally revoked until the arrival of the new commis- 
sion, and, therefore, resolved to continue its exercise. He 
boldly imprisoned the chief promoter of the sedition, 
and thereby restored for a time regularity and obedience. 
Having effected this, he detached 100 persons to the falls 
of James River, under the command of West, and thf 
same number to Nansemond, under the command of Mar- 
tin. These settlements were conducted with so little 



THE UNITED STATES. 23 

judgment, that they soon converted all the neighbouring 
Indians into enemies, had several parties cut off, and found 
themselves in need of the support and direction of Smith. 
These were always afforded, until a melancholy accident 
deprived the colony of the aid of a man, whose talents 
had more than once rescued it from that desperate condi- 
tion into which folly and vice had plunged it. 

Returning from the company at the falls of James 
River, his powder bag, while he was asleep in the boat, 
took fire; he was wounded so as to be confined to his 
bed. Being thus wounded, and unable to obtain the aid 
of a surgeon in the colony, he determined to return to 
England, for which place he embarked about the begin- 
ning of October. At his departure the colony consisted 
of about 500 inhabitants ; they were furnished with 3 
ships, 7 boats, 10 weeks' provisions in the public store, 
mares and a horse, a large stock of hogs and poultry, 
with some sheep and goats ; utensils for agriculture, nets 
for fishing, 100 trained and expert soldiers, well acquaint- 
ed with the Indians, their language and habitations ; 24 
pieces of ordnance, and three hundred muskets, with a 
sufficient quantity of other arms and ammunition. 

The present fair prospect was soon blasted. The In- 
dians understood that the man whose conduct and vigour 
they had so often experienced, and so much dreaded, no 
longer remained in the country ; they fell upon them. 
Captains West and Martin having lost their boats, and 
nearly half of their men, were driven back to Jamestown; 
the stock of provisions was lavishly wasted, and a famine, 
the most dreadful with which they had ever been afflicted, 
ra-jed among them. After devouring the skins of their 
horses, and the Indians they had killed, the survivors fed 
on those of their companions who had sunk under such 
accumulated calamities. This period was long remem- 
bered by the name of the Starving Time. 

In six months the colony was reduced to 60 persons, 
who were so feeble and dejected that they could not sur- 
vive ten days longer. In this calamitous state, they were 
relieved by Thomas Gates, George Somers, and Captain 
Newport, who arrived from Bermuda 24th of May, 1610. 
It was immediately determined to abandon the country ; 



24 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

and for this purpose the wretched remnant of the colony 
embarked on board the vessel just arrived from Bermuda, 
and set sail for England. None dropped a tear, because 
none had enjoyed one day of happiness. But they met 
Lord Delawar in the river, with three ships, and a recruit 
of new settlers and persons from England, who prevailed 
on them to return, and.on the 10th of June, re-settled them 
at Jamestown. 

On the 10th of May, 1611, Sir Thomas Dale, who bad 
been appointed to the government, arrived with fresh 
supplies of men and provisions, and found the colony re- 
lapsing into its former state of idleness and penury. It 
required all the authority of the new governor to maintain 
public order, and to compel the idle and dissolute to labour. 
Some conspiracies having been detected, he proclaimed 
martial law, and instantly executed it, by punishing the 
most guilty. These severities, which, in the ordinary 
state of society, would not, and ought not to have been 
submitted to, were then deemed necessary, and are spoken 
of as having probably saved the settlement. 

In the beginning of August, Sir Thomas Gates, who 
had been appointed to succeed Thomas Dale, arrived with 
six ships, and a considerable supply of men and provi- 
sions. The colony being now greatly strengthened, began 
to extend itself up the James River, and several new set- 
tlements were made. In March, 1612, a new charter was 
issued, granting to the treasurer and company all the 
islands situate in the ocean, within three hundred leagues 
of the coast of Virginia. 

It was ordained that four general courts of adventurers 
should be holden annually, for the determination of affairs 
of importance, and weekly meetings were appointed for 
the transaction of common business. 

To promote the settlement, which had already cost such 
considerable sums, license w r as given to open lotteries in 
any part of England. These lotteries, which were the 
first ever drawn in England, brought twenty-nine thou- 
sand pounds into the treasury of the company. Captain 
Argal arrived from England with two vessels, and was 
sent round to the Potomac, for a cargo of corn. Here he 
understood that Pocahontas, who had saved the life of 



THE UNITED STATES. 25 

Smith, and ever had been steadfast in her attachments to 
the English, having absented herself from her father's 
house, now lay concealed. 

By bribing some of those in whom she had confided, 
Captain Argal prevailed on her to come on board his ves- 
sel, where she was detained respectfully, and brought to 
Jamestown. His motive was, the hope that the posses- 
sion of Pocahontas would give the English an ascendancy 
over her father, Powhatan. In this, however, he was 
disappointed. Powhatan offered corn and friendship, if 
they would first restore his daughter, but would come to 
no terms until reparation was made for what he resented, 
as an act of unhandsome treachery. 

During her detention at Jamestown, she made an im- 
pression on the heart of Mr. Rolfe, a young gentleman of 
estimation in the colony, who also succeeded in gaining 
her affections. They were married, with the consent of 
Powhatan, who ever after continued to be a sincere friend 
to the English. This led to a treaty with the Chiccaho- 
minies, a brave and powerful tribe, who submitted to the 
English, and became their tributaries. In 1613, Sir Tho- 
mas Dale divided a considerable portion of the lands into 
lots of three acres each, and granted one of these to each 
individual in full propriety. 

Although they were still required to devote a great por- 
tion of their labour to the public, yet a sudden change 
was made in the appearance and habits of the colony. 
Industry advanced with rapid strides, and the colonists 
were no more fearful of. wanting bread, either for them- 
selves or the emigrants, who came annually from England. 
Early in the year 1614, Sir Thomas Gates returned to 
England, leaving the government again with Sir Thomas 
Dale. In 1615, fifty acres of land were allotted to each 
individual, which was actually laid off and delivered to the 
persons having titles to them, who were permitted to ex- 
ercise over them, in such a manner as was agreeable to 
themselves, all the rights of ownership. About the same 
time, tobacco was first cultivated in Virginia. 

This plant was detested by the king, who used all his 
nfluence to prevent its use. He even wrote a pamphlet 
against it, which he styled the counterblast. It was dis- 

3 



26 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

(countenanced by the leading members of parliament, and 
also by the company, who issued edicts against its culti- 
vation. And, although on a first experiment, it was un- 
pleasant in its taste, and disagreeable in its effects, it sur- 
mounted all difficulties, and has, by an unaccountable ca- 
price, been brought into general use, and become one of 
the most considerable staples of America. 

In the spring of 1616, Sir Thomas Dale sailed for Eng 
land, having placed the government in the' hands of George 
Yeardly, his deputy, who after a very lax administration 
of one year, was succeeded, in May, 1617, by Captain 
Argal, who had been appointed deputy governor by the 
company. 

He was a man of great talents and energy of mind, but 
selfish, haughty, and tyrannical.- He provided with abili- 
ty for the wants of the colony. Martial law was continu- 
ed during a season of peace ; and Mr. Brewster, who was 
tried under this arbitrary system, for contemptuous words 
spoken against the governor, was sentenced to suffer 
death. A respite of execution was with difficulty obtain- 
ed, and on an appeal to the council in England, the sen- 
tence was reversed. While martial law was, according 
to Stith, the common law of the land, the deputy govern- 
or seems to have been the sole legislator. His edicts 
mark the severity of his rule, but some of them evince an 
attention to the public safety. 

He ordered, that merchandise should be sold at the ad- 
vance price of 25 per cent., and tobacco taken in payment 
at the rate of three shillings a pcftind, under the penalty 
of three year's servitude to the company ; that no person 
should traffic with the Indians, or teach them the use of 
fire arms, under pain of death ; that no person should 
hunt deer or hogs without leave from the governor ; that 
no person should shoot, unless in his own defence, until a 
new supply of ammunition arrived, on pain of a year's 
personal service ; that no one should go on board the 
ships without the governor's leave; that every person 
should go to church on Sundays, under the penalty of 
slavery during that present week, for the first offence ; a 
month for the second, and a year for the third. 

The rigour of this administration necessarily excited 



THE UNITED STATES. 27 

much discontent, and the complaints of the Virginians at 
length made their way to the company. Lord Delawar, 
being now dead, Mr. Yeardly was appointed captain- 
general, with instructions to examine with attention the 
wants of the people, and to redress them. 

The new governor arrived in April, 1619, and soon 
after, to the inexpressible joy of the inhabitants, declared 
his intentions to convoke a colonial assembly. This is an 
important era in the history of Virginia. Heretofore, all 
legislative authority had been exercised, either by the 
corporation in England, or by their officers in this coun- 
try. The people, either personally or by their represen- 
tatives, had no voice in the government of themselves, and 
their most important concerns were decided by persons 
unacquainted with their situation, and always possessing 
interests different from theirs. 

This first assembly met at Jamestown on the 19th of 
June, 1619. The colony was not then divided into coun- 
ties, and the members were elected by the different bo- 
roughs, amounting to seven in number. The assembly, 
composed of the governor, the council, and burgesses, 
met together in one apartment, and there debated all mat- 
ters thought conducive to the general welfare. The laws 
then enacted, which, it is believed, are no longer extant, 
were transmitted to England for the approbation of the 
treasurer and company, and were said to have been judi- 
ciously formed. 

The emigrations from England continued to be very 
considerable, and were made at great expense to the com- 
pany ; but as yet few females had ever crossed the Atlan- 
tic. Men without wives could not contemplate Virginia 
as a place of permanent residence, and proposed, after 
amassing some wealth, to return to their native land. To 
put an end to a mode of thinking in its effects so ruinous 
to the colony, it was proposed to send out 100 maids as 
wives for the colony ; 90 young girls were transported in 
the beginning of the year 1620, and 60 more in the sub- 
sequent year. They were immediately disposed of to the 
young planters. 

The price of a wife was estimated first at one hundred, 
and afterwards at one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco, 



28 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

then selling at three shillings per pound ; and a debt so 
contracted was made of greater dignity than any other. 
The education of the children was likewise attended to, 
and several steps were taken towards founding a college, 
afterwards completely established by William and Mary. 
About the same time, the company received orders from 
the king to transport to Virginia 100 idle and dissolute 
persons, then in the custody of the Knight Marshal. These 
men, dispersed through the colony, became a useful and 
acceptable addition of labourers, and were the first con- 
victs transported to America. 



CHAPTER III. 

From the embarkation of the Plymouth Company to the 
close of the Pequot War. 

WE have seen with what slow and difficult steps the 
first, or southern colony, although supported by individu- 
als of great wealth and influence in the nation, advanced 
to a firm and secure establishment. Let us now employ 
our attention in viewing the establishment of the Plymouth 
Company. King James first granted Letters Patent to 
this company, in 1606, to possess all the lands in America 
lying between 34 and 45 degrees of north latitude. They 
applied for leave to go under the royal sanction, but were 
refused. 

At length they obtained permission from the Virginia 
company to make a settlement near the mouth of Hudson's 
River. It was resolved that part of the congregation should 
remove first, and the remaining part, with their pastor, 
after the new settlement had commenced. This produced 
a scene at parting not to be described. They took their 
leave of one another, which proved to be their last leave, 
Urith many of them. They sailed from Holland to South- 
ampton, in England, where they met the other ships, and 
their friends who were to accompany them from England, 
in July, 1620. 

On the fifth of August they sailed from Southampton, 



THE UNITED STATES. 29 

but, on account of bad weather, and the leakiness of one 
of their vessels, they were obliged twice to put back. 
The poorer vessel they were compelled to leave, while as 
many as could be accommodated, one hundred and one 
persons of the adventurers, entered on board the other 
ship, and took their last leave of the land of their fathers 
on the sixth of September. Called to go out into a place 
which they should after receive for an inheritance, they 
obeyed ; and they went out, not knowing whither they 
went. 

After a tedious voyage, safely housed in the ark which 
God in his providence had directed them to prepare, pro- 
tected by Him who directs the storm, on the tenth of No- 
vember they arrived at Cape Cod. The Dutch, intend- 
ing to keep Hudson's River, had bribed the ship master 
lo carry these adventurers so far northward, that they 
should not find their intended place of residence. They 
nad found land, and it was too late in the season to put to 
sea again; they were in a good harbour, but on a most 
barren and inhospitable shore. 

On their arrival, they stepped upon the strand, and with 
bended knees, gave thanks to God, who had preserved 
their number entire, and brought them in safety to these 
unhallowed shores. Being without the limits of their pa- 
tent, as to civil government, they were in a state of na- 
ture. They therefore procured and signed a civil com- 
pact, by which they severally bound themselves to be 
obedient to all ordinances made by the body, acknowledg- 
ing the King of Great Britain to be their lawful sovereign. 

They say, in the preamble, " Having undertaken, for 
the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, 
and honour of our king and country, a voyage, to plant 
the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia, do, by 
these presents," &c. This instrument was executed on 
board their ship, on the eleventh of November. Mr. John 
Carver, a man of distinguished abilities and eminent piety, 
was chosen their governor. 

The prospects now before them, were such as to appal 
any other than our fathers. In a most howling wilder- 
ness, inhabittfl by pagan savages and wild beasts, a drea- 
ry winter approaching, no shelter from the tempest, and 



SO UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

as yet, no place of abode. They had one resting place, 
and that was all. Their trust was in Him who hath said 
to his chosen, The eternal God is thy refuge, and under- 
neath are the everlasting arms ; and he shall thrust out 
the enemy from before thee, and shall say, destroy them. 

After several unsuccessful attempts to find a convenient 
place for their residence, a party sent out for discovery, 
entered the harbour of Plymouth. In a severe storm, on a 
December night, having, with their little bark, narrowly 
escaped a shipwreck, they w r ere cast upon an island in the 
harbour. This was on Friday night. The next day, they 
dried their clothes, concluding to remain on this little 
island till after the Sabbath. This little band, about twen* 
ty in number, observed "the next day as a Sabbath, which 
was the first Sabbath ever observed in a religious manner 
on the New-England shore. 

Having examined the harbour, they returned to the ship, 
which weighed anchor, and brought their consecrated car* 
go in safety. Here these pious pilgrims landed on the 
twenty-second of December, 1620. They called the place 
Plymouth, the name of the town from which they last sail- 
ed in England. They now had a country and a home* 
but they had a better country on high. 

They had now to contend with the inclement seasons^ 
with innumerable privations, in a constant fear of a savage 
foe. But God had prepared their way before them. A 
desolating plague, which prevailed among the natives 
about three years before, had nearly depopulated those 
parts of the country. On this account, they received very 
little molestation from the savages for many years. Had 
they been carried to Hudson's River, according to their 
intention, where the savages were numerous, there is 
much reason to believe the little colony would have been 
cut off. Infinite wisdom directed their course to their 
prepared habitation. We have heard with our ears, O 
God, our fathers have told us, how thou didst drive out the 
heathen with thy hand, and planted them. 

The severities of the season, their unwholesome food, 
and their incessant labours, brought upon this little flock 
a general and very mortal sickness, so th* forty-six of 
their number died before the opening of the ensuing 



THE UNITED STATES. 31 

spring. Of those who survived, the most had been se- 
verely sick. Who can contemplate this little band, in an 
uncultivated wilderness, with no promise of support from 
their mother country, exposed to the inclement skies of 
a dreary winter, with scanty supplies of food, utterly un- 
skilled and destitute of the means for the cultivation of a 
new country, with no security for future harvests ; sur- 
rounded with a savage enemy, whose seats and prowess 
they could not know ; visited with a raging disease, com- 
mitting, at times, two or three in a day to the grave ; of 
the living, scarcely enough who had strength to perform 
the rites of sepulture ; without despondency, firmly de- 
termined to abide the just appointments of Heaven and 
not admire a virtue which the religion of the Lord Jesus 
alone can furnish, and a patriotism to which the canonized 
heroes of Rome could never attain? 

Had their object been to obtain a property for them- 
selves, and for their posterity, or to obtain a name among 
the heroes of enterprise, they had sunk under their suf- 
ferings. Their souls were strengthened with other pros- 
pects. They confided in the wisdom of Heaven ; they 
firmly believed that the Most High would here plant and 
maintain his church ; that he would make the American 
wilderness like Eden, and her desert like the garden of 
the Lord. 

Buoyed up by faith, strengthened by the promises, ob- 
stacles vanished before them. They knew God had often 
led his church into the wilderness, but he had never for* 
snken her. He raised up the righteous man from the 
east, brought him to a strange country, the Canaanite was 
then in the land, but he gave them as the dust to his 
sword, and as driven stubble to his bow. 

On the fifth of April, after their arrival, the Plymouth 
Company were called to mourn the loss of their excellent 
governor, and a deacon of the church, Mr. Carver. Mr. 
Bradford, a gentleman of distinguished worth, was chosen 
to succeed him, and, excepting four years, he was annu- 
ally elected to the office till his death, in 1657. A little 
before the death of Mr. Carver, the Indian Sachem, Mas- 
sasoit, came into Plymouth in a friendly manner, and en- 
tered into a treaty of friendship with the colony, r hich 



32 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

he observed inviolably till his death. He was father oi 
the famous Sachem, King Philip. 

After the first desolating sickness, the people of Ply- 
mouth were, generally, very healthy, and the most of the 
first planters who survived that epidemic, lived to old age. 
Their privations, however, and their sufferings, insepara- 
ble from the circumstances of their situation, were grout 
in the extreme. Their property was, principally, held in 
common stock for the support of the whole. And the 
wants of the few first years, consumed most of their stores. 
Through fear of the natives, having received some threat- 
ening intimations from some of the tribes, they wore ne* 
cessitated to erect a fort, to empale their whole village, 
and to keep a constant guard. 

In their excursions to find a proper place for settlement, 
while their ship lay at the cape, they found about ten 
bushels of Indian corn which had been buried, for which 
they afterwards paid the owners, which helped to pre- 
serve their lives the first winter, and afford them seed for 
planting in the ensuing spring. Some, friendly Indians 
taught them the manner of raising their corn, but their 
crop was very unequal to their necessities. Mr. Hutch*- 
inson is of opinion, that no English grain was raised in 
the colony previous to the year 1633, when a few ears of 
rye were produced. 

The first domestic cattle were brought to the colony in 
1624; previous to which they had none for milk or labour. 
The most credible historians affirm, that these pilgrims 
subsisted, in repeated instances, for days and weeks toge- 
ther, without bread, feeding upon the wild nuts of the 
woods, and shell fish. Their difficulties for clothing were 
equally great. Some of the ancient writers intimate, 
that the great mortality in the first winter appears to have 
been the means, under a wise Providence, of preserving 
the colony from perishing by famine. 

The second summer after their arrival, the settlement 
was threatened with a famine by a severe drought. From 
the third week in May, to the middle of July, there was 
no rain. Their corn, for ^vhich they had made their 
utmost exertions, withered under the heat of a scorching 
sun ; the greater part of it appeared irrecoverably lost. The 



THE UNITED STATES 33 

Indians, seeing their prospects, observed they would soon 
be subdued by famine, when they should find them an 
easy prey. 

A public fast was appointed and observed with great 
solemnity. The morning, and most of the day, was clear 
and hot, but, towards evening, the clouds collected, and 
like the gracious influences of God, the rain descended in 
moderate, yet copious showers. This revived their expi- 
ring crop, and produced a plentiful harvest. After which, 
they observed a day of public thanksgiving. I believe 
this to be the origin of our annual thanksgivings. This 
event made an astonishing impression on the minds of 
the natives, who saAv and acknowledged that the God of 
Christians was great, and good, and a hearer of prayer.* 

In the autumn of 1621, the plantation received an ac- 
cession of settlers of about thirty-five, of their friends from 
Holland. In the year 1(525, their venerable and beloved 
pastor, the Rev. Mr. Robinson, died at Leyden, in the 
fiftieth year of his age. He was^ thus prevented from 
ever seeing his much loved American church. After his 
death, the most of his congregation came over to Ply- 
mouth. 

The planters who first came to Plymouth were accom- 
panied by Mr. William Brewster, a ruling elder in the 
church, who supplied, in a good degree, the absence of 
their pastor. He was a man of abilities and learning, 
having been liberally educated at the University of Cam- 
bridge, and of great piety. Being an able and useful 
preacher, he served the congregation in that capacity the 
greater part of the time till his death, about twenty-three 
years after the first settlement. The congregation, how- 
ever, enjoyed the labours of other ministers during this 
period. 

This little colony continued for many years in harmo- 
ny, and were, perhaps, as eminent as any people which 
have appeared in modern time, for continuing steadfastly 
in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking 
of bread, and in prayers. 

In 1621, the Virginia company passed an ordinance 

* See Morton, and others. 



34 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

establishing the constitution of the colony. This pro- 
vided, that henceforth there should be two supreme coun- 
cils in Virginia, the one to be called the council of state, 
to be appointed and displaced by the treasurer and com- 
pany, and to assist the governor with advice on executive 
subjects ; the other to be denominated the general assem- 
bly, and to consist of the governor, the council, and two 
burgesses, to be chosen for the present by the inhabitants 
of every town. 

The assembly was empowered to consult and determine 
on matters respecting the public weal. It was declared, 
that no acts passed by the assembly should be in force 
until confirmed by the general court in England, and the 
ratification returned under its seal, and that, on the 
other hand, no order of the general court should bind 
the colony until assented to by the assembly. In 162^, 
the controversy which had for some time existed be- 
tween the crown and the company, concerning the im- 
portation of tobacco, was at length adjusted by amicable 
agreement. 

The king had demanded high duties on that article, 
while he admitted its importation from the dominions of 
Spain, and had also restrained the company from trans- 
porting it directly from Virginia to their warehouses in 
Holland, to which expedient his exactions had driven 
them. It was now agreed, that they should enjoy the 
sole right of importing that commodity into the kingdom, 
for which they should pay a duty of nine pence per pound, 
in lieu of all charges, and that the whole productions of 
the colony should be brought to England. The industry 
of the colony had now greatly increased. At peace with 
the Indians, their settlements had extended not only along 
the banks of James and York rivers, but to the Rappa- 
hannoc, and even to the Potowmac. 

It now became extremely inconvenient to bring all 
causes to Jamestown before the governor and council. 
Thus originated the present county courts of Virginia. 
In this year the cup of prosperity, of which the colony 
now began to taste, was dashed from their lips, by an 
event which shook to its foundation, and nearly destroyed 
the colony. In the year 1618, Powhatan, the most pow~ 



THE UNITED STATES. 35 

erful of the Indian kings in Virginia, who, after the mar- 
riage of his daughter to Mr. Rolfe, had remained faithful 
to the English, departed this life, and was succeeded by 
Opechancanough, a bold and cunning chief, remarkable 
for his jealousy and hatred of the new settlers ; but for a 
considerable time the general peace remained undisturbed. 

The Indians were furnished with fire arms, and taught 
the use of them ; they were admitted at all times freely 
into '^e habitations of the English, as harmless visitants ; 
were fed at their tables, and lodged in their chambers. 
The 22d of March, was designated as the day on which all 
the English were to be at the same instant attacked. 
Thus, in one hour, and almost at the same instant, fell 
347 men, women, and children. The massacre would 
have been still greater, had not information been given 
the preceding night, to a Mr. Pace, by an Indian, who 
disclosed to him the plot. He immediately carried the 
intelligence to Jamestown, and the alarm was given to 
some of the nearest settlements, which were thereby 
saved. 

As soon as intelligence reached England of these cala- 
mities of the sufferers, relief was ordered. Arms from 
the tower were delivered to the treasurer and company, 
and several vessels were immediately despatched with ar- 
ticles for their relief. While the Virginians were mourn- 
ing their losses, the Plymouth company began to experi- 
ence the distress of famine. By the time their planting 
was finished, 1623, their provisions were so far exhausted, 
that they had neither bread nor corn, for three or four 
months. A drought continued from May until some time 
in July. Under these afllictions, they appointed a day of 
fasting and prayer, to humble themselves before God. 
But a plentiful harvest soon followed, which was noticed 
by a day of thanksgiving. 

Mr. White, a non-conformist minister at Dorchester, 
who had prevented some few of his countrymen who had 
settled around the Bay at Massachusetts, from returning 
to England, by his assurances of procuring tl-em relief and 
assistance, formed by great exertions an association of 
several gentlemen, who had imbibed puritanical opinions, 
for the purpose of conducting thither a co) >v ind ren- 



36 UNIVERSAL HISTORY CF 

(lering it an asylum from the persecution of his own per- 
suasion. In prosecution of their views, a treaty was con- 
cluded with the council of Plymouth, for the purchase of 
part of New-England ; and that corporation, in March, 
1627, conveyed to Sir Henry Roswell, and others, all that 
pait of New-England lying three miles to the south of 
Charles River, and three miles north of Merrmiack River, 
and extending from the Atlantic to the south sea. 

A small number of planters and servants were soon af- 
terwards despatched under Endicot, a- deep enthusiast, 
who, in September, 1628, laid the foundation of Salem, 
the first permanent town in Massachusetts. In the year 
1629, soon after the organization of the company, under 
the sanction of the royal charter, they resolved a second 
embarkation for their new colony, to support the expenses 
of which, it was resolved, that every person who should 
subscribe fifty pounds, should be entitled to two hundred 
acres of land, as the first dividend. 

Five ships were provided for the purpose, and bein- 
laden with cattle and other necessaries, for the supply of 
the colony, with three hundred persons, men, women. 
and children, they sailed from the Isle of "Wight, in May. 
and arrived at Salem in June, where they found Endicot. 
to whom they brought a confirmation of his commission 
as governor. The colony now consisted of three hundred 
persons, of whom one hundred removed and settled the 
town of Charlestown ; and the remainder continued at 
Salem. Mr. Hugginson and Mr. Skelton, distinguished 
for their learning and piety, both of them, resolved to lend 
important services in laying the foundation of the Ameri- 
can Church. These faithful servants of Christ cordially 
engaged in the great design ; they embarked with the se- 
cond party, and arrived at Salem in 1629. 

Early in the following year, John Winthrop, who had 
been appointed governor, and Thomas Dudley, deputy 
governor, with one thousand five hundred persons, em- 
barked on board of seventeen vessels, at an expense of 
upwards of twenty thousand pounds, and arrived at 
Salem in July, 1630. Dissatisfied with this situation, they 
explored the country in quest of a better station, and sel- 



THE UNITED STATES. 37 

tied in many places around the bay ; and laid the founda* 
tion of several towns ; among others, of Boston. 

On the arrival of Gov. Winthrop, in July, who was 
from that time to his death, the head and father of the co- 
lony, he found the plantation in a suffering state. In the 
preceding autumn, the colony contained about three hun- 
dred inhabitants ; eighty of them died, and a great part of 
the survivors were in a weak, sickly state. Their supply 
of corn was not sufficient for more than a fortnight, and 
their provisions nearly exhausted. Friday, February 6th, 
was appointed as a day of fasting and prayer ; but on the 
fifth of February, a ship arrived with provisions, and a 
day of thanksgiving was appointed by the governor. 

The succeeding winter commenced in December, with 
great severity ; few of the houses which had been erected 
were comfortable. Unused to such severities of climate, 
the people suffered severely from the cold. Many of them 
died from the cold. On the opening of the spring of 1631, 
health was generally restored in the settlements ; but the 
colony was greatly impoverished. All the provisions 
that were brought from England, were purchased at a very 
high rate. By the length of the passage, and the severity 
of the winter, the greater part of their cattle died. The 
materials for building, and implements of labour, were ob- 
tained with great difficulty and expense. This year, great 
exertions were made for a crop of Indian corn, which was 
their whole dependance ; and it pleased God to give them 
an abundant harvest. 

In the commencement of all the individual settlements, 
the planters were mindful of their great errand into the 
wilderness ; and directed their first exertions to the esta 
blishmentofthe church of Christ, and the institution of the 
gospel. The first church after the one at Salem was 
gathered at Charlestown, August 27th, 1630. Soon after 
this a church was organized at Dorchester. The next 
was at Boston, one at Roxbury, one at Lynn, and one at 
Watertown. In less than two years from the organiza- 
tion of the first church in Salem, there were in the colon? 
seven churches, which were indeed golden candlesticks. 

In 1633 came over Mr. Haynes, afterwards the first 
governor of Connecticut, and Mr. Stone, Mr. Booker, 

4 



38 UNIVERSAL nusTORY OF 

and Mr. Cotton, three of the most eminent lights of the 
New-England churches. 

On the 21st of February, an order was made by the 
king in council, to stop the ships at that time ready to 
sail, freighted with passengers and provisions for New- 
England. But this order seems never to have been strictly 
executed, as the emigrations still continued, without any 
sensible diminution. 

Let me now call the attention of the reader to the set 
tlement of Connecticut. The first discovery of the coun- 
try of Connecticut River was made by the enterprising 
people of Plymouth, in 1633. The Plymouth people de- 
termined to undertake the enterprise at their own risk. 
Preparations were made for erecting a trading house, and 
establishing a small company upon the river. 

In the mean time, the master of a vessel from Massa- 
chusetts, who was trading at New-Netherlands, showed 
to the Dutch Governor the commission the English had to 
trade and settle in New-England ; and that the king had 
granted these parts to his own subjects ; he also desired 
that the Dutch would not build in Connecticut. The 
Dutch governor requested that the English would not set- 
tle in Connecticut until the affair should be determined be- 
tween them. This appears to have been a piece of po 
licy in the Dutch governor, to keep the English back until 
the Dutch had got a firm footing upon the river. 

In September, several vessels went into Connecticut 
River to trade. John Oldham, from Dorchester, with a 
few men, travelled through Connecticut, to view the coun- 
try and trade Avith the Indians. He found that the In- 
dian hemp grew in great abundance in the meadows, and 
purchased a quantity of it, which, upon trial, was found to 
exceed that which grew in England. William Holmes, 
of Plymouth, with his company, having prepared the frame 
of a house, and boards and materials for covering it, imme- 
diately put them on board a vessel, and sailed for Con- 
necticut. 

When he came into the river, he found that the Dutch 
had got in before him, and made a light fort, and planted 
two pieces of cannon at the mouth of the little river since 
called Hartford. The Dutch forbade Holmes going up 



THE UNITED STATES. 39 

the river stood by their cannon, and ordered him to strike 
his colours, or they would fire upon him ; but he was a 
man of spirit, and assured them that he had a commis- 
sion from the governor of Plymouth, to go up the river, 
and go he \vould. They still threatened, but he pro- 
ceeded landed on the west side of the river, and erected 
his house a little below the mouth of the little river in 
Windsor. 

This was the first house erected in Connecticut. It 
was covered with the utmost despatch, and well fortified. 
The Sachems, who were original owners of the soil, had 
been driven from this point of the country by the Pe- 
quots, and were now carried home on board Holmes' ves- 
sel. The Dutch, about the same time, erected a trading 
house at Hartford. It was with great difficulty that 
Holmes and his company erected and fortified their house, 
ind kept it afterwards. The Dutch, before the Plymouth 
people took possession of the river, had been invited to 
trade with them at Connecticut ; but when they found that 
they were preparing for a settlement there, they repented 
of the invitation, and did all in their power to prevent 
them. 

On the 8th of June, the Dutch purchased about twenty 
acres of land at Hartford, of a Pequod captain. Of this 
the Dutch took possession ; they pro tested against Holmes, 
the builder of the trading house. Some time afterwards, 
the Dutch governor dispatched a reinforcement from fort 
Amsterdam to Connecticut, designing to drive Holmes 
and his company from the river. A band of seventy 
men assaulted the Plymouth house ; but they found it too 
well fortified, and gave up their design. 

In November and December, the small pox raged 
among the Indians ; two Sachems, with a great part of 
their Indians, died. When their own people forsook 
them, the English, who lived near them, went to their wig- 
wams, and ministered to them. Some families spent al- 
most their whole time with them. One Englishman 
buried thirty of their dead in one day. 

In 1634, at a meeting of the General Court in Sep- 
tember, the people of Newtown made application for 
liberty to remove to Connecticut river. Mr. Hooker, 



40 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

acting as principal advocate for the people, the court re- 
fused to give their consent; and the design was given 
over. In 1635, permission was granted, on condition 
that the new settlement should continue subject to the ju- 
risdiction of Massachusetts. The people of Newtown, 
Dorchester, and Watertown, now began to prepare for 
their new habitation. In the course of the season, seve- 
ral people went to Connecticut river; some by water, 
some through the wilderness. 

The Dorchester men sat down at Windsor, near the 
Plymouth trading house. They purchased the building 
and land owned by the Plymouth people. The people 
from Newtown, of whom but few removed till the follow- 
ing year, settled at Hartford. The Watertown settlers 
began the town of Wethersfield. In 1636, about one 
hundred persons, men, women, and children, led by the 
Rev. Messrs. Hooker and Stone, together with their 
horses, cattle, and swine, commenced their journey through 
the wilderness to Connecticut River. They travelled 
about two weeks on foot, during which time they lived 
npon the milk of their cows. 

By the 25th of November, Connecticut River was frozen 
over ; heavy falls of snow succeeded, and the season was 
very severe. Several small vessels, which had been laden 
with their furniture and provisions, sailed from Boston, 
and were wrecked on the coast. By the last of Novem- 
ber provisions began to fail in the settlements on the river, 
and death looked them sternly in the face. Thirteen in 
one company, driven by hunger, attempted their way in 
this severe season. In passing the river one of their 
company fell through the ice, and was drowned, the., other 
twelve were kept from perishing by the Indians, and ar- 
rived in Massachusetts in ten days. 

Their distress was so great, that by the first of Decem- 
ber a considerable part of the men settlers were obliged 
to abandon their habitations. As the only means of pre- 
serving their lives, about seventy persons, men, women, 
and children, left their settlements, and went down the 
river, in hopes of meeting with their provisions. As 
their expectation failed, they went on board the Rebecca, 
lying near the mouth of the river. This, but two days 



THE UNITED STATES. 41 

before, was frozen in twenty miles up the river, but was 
released by the falling of a small rain, and reached Boston 
in five days. Had it not been for a very quick passage, 
the people must have perished. 

The people that kept their situations on the river suf- 
fered extremely. After all the help they were able to 
obtain by hunting, and from the Indians, they were obliged 
to subsist on acorns, malt, and grain. The number of 
cattle that could not be got over before winter, living 
upon what they found in the woods and meadows, win- 
tered better than those which were brought over ; how- 
ever, a great number of them perished. Early in the 
spring, those who went from Connecticut to spend the 
winter with their friends, began to return to their new 
habitations. 

The first court held in Connecticut, was held at New- 
town, April 26th, 1636. 

Towards the last of the year 1635, Mr. Winthrop, son 
of the Massachusetts governor, the worthy character who 
afterwards procured the Connecticut charter, arrived at 
Boston, with a commission from Lords Say and Seal, 
Lord Brook, and others, to take possession of Connecti- 
cut River, and build a fort, which they had named Say- 
brook. 

In a few days a Dutch vessel appeared off the harbour, 
sent to take possession of the entrance of the river, and 
erect fortifications; but the English had by this time 
mounted two cannon, and prevented their landing. Thus, 
providentially, was this fine tract of country preserved for 
onr venerable ancestors, and their posterity. 

In September, 1636, Mr. Pynchion, with a part of the 
people of Roxbury, began the settlement of the town of 
Springfield; but no sooner had the English begun to 
trade, and make settlements in Connecticut, than the Pe- 
quods began to murder, and kill their cattle. In 1634 
they murdered Captains Stone and Norton, with their 
whole crew, consisting of eight men ; they then plunder- 
ed and sunk the vessel. 

In November following, the Pequods sent a messenger 
to Boston, for the purpose of obtaining peace with the 
English. He made an offer of a great quantity of beaver 

4* 



42 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

skins, to persuade the governor to enter into a league with 
them. The governor assured them that the English were 
willing to make peace, on condition that they would give 
up the murderers of Captain Stone and his men ; the In- 
dians assured him that the murderers were all dead but 
two, and they would give them up to justice ; they offered 
to give up their right at Connecticut river, if the English 
desired to settle there, and engaged to assist them as far 
as was in their power, in making settlements ; they also 
agreed that they would give the English forty beaver, and 
thirty otter skins. The governor and council entered 
into a treaty with them on the conditions they proposed. 
Whatever their designs were at that time, they soon after- 
wards became more and more mischievous, hostile and 
bloody. 

In 1636, John Oldham was murdered near Block 
Island. He had with him two boys, and two Narraganset 
Indians ; these were taken and carried off. John Gallup, 
as he was going from Connecticut to Boston, discovered 
Mr. Oldham's vessel full of Indians, and saw a canoe go 
from her laden with goods. Suspecting they had murder- 
ed Mr. Oldham, he hailed them, but received no answer. 
Gallup was a bold man ; and although he had but one man 
and two boys with him, he immediately bore down upon 
her, and fired duck shot so thick among them, that he 
soon cleared the deck. 

The Indians all got under the hatches. He then stood 
off, bore down upon her, with a brisk gale, and nearly 
overset her, which so frightened the Indians that several 
jumped overboard, and were drowned ; he then stood off, 
and, running down upon her the second time, raked her 
fore and aft with his shot, and, running down upon her a 
third time, he gave her such a shock, that five more jump- 
ed overboard and were drowned. He then boarded her, 
and took two of the Indians and bound them. Two or 
three others, armed with swords, in a little room below, 
could not be driven out. Mr. Oldham's corpse was found 
on board ; his head split, and the body mangled in a bar- 
barous manner. 

Gallup ancj his men, then, as decently as possible, put 
the corpse into the sea. After taking her rigging and 



THE UNITED STATES, 43 

goods, which had not been carried off, they were obliged 
to let her go adrift, and she was lost. The Indians who 
committed the murder were chiefly Block Islanders and 
Narragansets. The governor and council of Massachu- 
setts despatched Captain Endicott, with ninety volunteers, 
to avenge the murder. 

The Narraganset Sachems sent home Mr. Oldham's 
two boys, and made peace with them ; but the other In- 
dians made no compensation. Captain Endicott was 
ordered to proceed to Block Island, put the men to the 
sword, and take possession of the island, but to spare the 
women and children. They sailed from Boston 25th of 
August. When they arrived at Block Island, forty or 
fifty Indians appeared on shore, and opposed his landing. 
After a short skirmish, the Indians fled to the woods. 

After the English had spent two days on the islands, 
burning the wigwams, destroying the corn, and staving 
their canoes, they sailed for the Pequot country: when 
they had arrived in Pequot harbour, Captain Endicott ac- 
quainted the Pequots with his design ; in a few hours 
about three hundred Pequots appeared upon the shore ; 
but as soon as they were fully informed of his business, 
they began to withdraw into the woods. He landed his 
men on both sides of the harbour, burnt their wigwams, 
destroyed their canoes, killed one or two Indians, and re- 
turned to Boston. 

This measure, instead of allaying, seemed to increase 
their hostility ; several persons were taken near Saybrook 
fort, and tortured with savage barbarity. About the be- 
ginning of October, the enemy concealed themselves in 
the grass in the meadow, and surprised five of the garri- 
son at Saybrook, as they were carrying home their hay. 
One Butterfield was taken and tortured to death, the rest 
made their escape. Eight or ten days after, Joseph Fil- 
ley, a master of a small vessel, was taken as he was going 
down the Connecticut River. He came to anchor about 
three miles above the fort, and taking a canoe, and one 
man with him, went a fowling. 

No sooner had he discharged his piece, than a large 
number of Pequots, arising from their concealment, took 
him, and killed his companion. The Indians used him in 



44 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the most barbarous manner, first cutting off his hands 
and then his feet, thus torturing him to death. As he did 
not groan, they pronounced him a stout man. 

In March, 1627, Lieutenant Gardiner, who commanded 
the fort at Saybrook, going out with about twelve men to 
burn their marshes, was waylaid near a narrow neck of 
land ; the enemy rose upon him, killed three of his men, 
and wounded several. The enemy pursued them in great 
numbers to the fort, and compassed it on all sides. They 
challenged the English to come out and fight; they 
boasted that they could kill the English-men all one 
flies ; mocked the groans of the wounded. But the can- 
non being loaded with grape shot was fired among them, 
which caused them to groan in reality. 

Soon after, the enemy, in a number of canoes, beset a 
shallop, going down the river, with three men on board ; 
the men fought bravely, but were overpowered by num- 
bers, and taken. The Indians ripped them up from the 
bottom of their bellies to their throats, and cleft them down 
their backs. They then hung them upon trees beside the 
river, in full view of the English, as they passed up and 
down, on the river. 

At a court holden at Hartford, it was decreed that the 
plantation of Newtown should be named Hartford, and 
that Watertown should be named Wethersfield, and that 
Dorchester should be called Windsor. 

In April, the Indians waylaid the people at Wethers- 
field, as they were going into the fields to labour, and kill- 
ed six men and three women ; two maids were taken cap- 
tive, twenty cows killed, and other damages done to the 
inhabitants. 

The court holden at Hartford, May 1st, 1637, resolved 
to prosecute the war with the Pequots ; that ninety men 
should be raised ; forty-two from Hartford, thirty from 
Windsor, and eighteen from Wethersfield. Massachu- 
setts determined to send two hundred, and Plymouth for- 
ty men, to assist Connecticut in prosecuting the war. 

On Wednesday, the 10th of May, the troops fell down 
the river, for the fort at Saybrook. They consisted of 90 
Englishmen, and about 70 Mohegan and River Indians. 
They embarked on board a pink, a pinnance, and a shal- 



THE UNITED STATES. 45 

lop. The Indians were commanded by Uncas, sachem of 
the Mohegans. The whole was commanded by Captain 
John Mason, who had been bred a soldier in the old coun- 
tries. The Rev. Mr. Stone, of Hartford, went their chap- 
lain. On Monday, the 15th, the troops arrived at Say- 
brook fort. As the water was low, this little fleet several 
times ran aground. The Indians, impatient of delays, de- 
sired to be set on shore, promising to join the English at 
Saybrook. The captain, therefore, granted their request. 
On their march they fell in with about forty of the enemy, 
near the fort, killed seven, and took one prisoner. 

The prisoner had been a perfidious villian. He had 
lived in the fort some time before, and could speak Eng- 
lish well. But after the Pequots commenced hostilities 
against the English, he became a constant spy upon the 
garrison, and acquainted Sassacus with every thing he 
could discover. He had been present at the slaughter of 
all the English who had been killed at Saybrook. 

Uncas, and his men, insisted upon executing him ac- 
cording to the manner of their ancestors ; and the English, 
in the circumstances in which they then were, did not judge 
it prudent to interpose. The Indians, kindling a large 
fire, violently tore him limb from limb. Barbarously cut- 
ting his flesh in pieces, they handed it round from one to 
another, eating it, singing and dancing round the fire, in 
their violent and tumultuous manner. The bones, and 
such parts of their captive, as were not consumed in this 
dreadful repast, were committed to the flames, and burnt to 
ashes. 

This success was matter of joy, not only as it was a 
check upon the enemy, but it was an evidence of the fide- 
lity of Uncas, and his Indians, of which the English had 
been before in doubt. There were other circumstances, 
however, which more than counterbalanced this joy. The 
army lay wind bound until Friday, and Captain Mason and 
his officers were entirely divided in opinion, with respect 
to the manner of prosecuting their enterprise. The court, 
by the commission and instructions which it had given, 
enjoined the landing of the men at Pequot harbour, and 
that from thence they should advance upon the enemy. 

The captain was for passing by them, and sailing to the 



46 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Narraganset country. He was fixed in this opinion, be- 
cause that, expecting the army at Pequot harbour, they 
kept watch upon the river night and day. Their number 
of men greatly exceeded his. He was informed,' at Say- 
brook, that they had sixteen fire arms, with powder and 
shot. The harbour was compassed with rocks and thick- 
ets, affording the enemy every advantage. They were 
upon the land, and exceedingly light-footed. He was 
therefore of the opinion, that they would render it very 
difficult and dangerous to land, and that he might sustain 
such loss, as would discourage his men, and frustrate the 
design of the expedition. 

If they should make good their landing, he was sure, 
that while they directed their march through the country, 
to the enemy's forts, they would waylay, and attack them 
with their whole force, at every difficult pass. Besides, 
if they should find, on trial, that they were not able to de- 
feat the English, they would run off to swamps and fast- 
nesses, where they could not be found ; and they should 
not be able to effect any thing capital against them. He 
was not without hopes, that, by going to Narraganset, 
he might surprise them. There was also some prospect 
that the Narragansets would join him in the expedition, 
and that he might fall in with some part of the troops from 
Massachusetts. 

His officers and men in general were for attending 
their instructions, and going at all hazards directly to the 
forts. The necessity of their affairs at home the danger 
of the Indians attacking their families and settlements in 
their absence, made them wish at once to despatch the 
business on which they had been sent. They did not re- 
lish a long march through the wilderness. They also 
imagined that they might be discovered, even should they 
determine to march from Narraganset to the attack of the 
enemy. In this division of opinion, Mr. Stone was de- 
sired by the officers most importunately to pray for them, 
that their way might be directed, and that, notwithstand- 
ing the present embarrassment, the enterprise might be 
crowned with success. 

Mr. Stone spent most of Thursday night in prayer, and 
the next morning visiting Captain Mason, assured him, 



THE UNITED STATES. 47 

that he had done as he was desired ; adding, that he was 
entirely satisfied with his plan. The council was again 
called ; and, upon a full view of all the reasons, unani- 
mously agreed to proceed to Narraganset. It was also 
determined that twenty men should be sent back to Con- 
necticut, to strengthen the infant settlements, while the 
rest of the troops were employed in service against the 
enemy ; and, that Captain Underbill, with nineteen men, 
from the garrison at Saybrook fort, should supply their 
places. 

On Friday, May 19th, the captain sailed for Narra- 
ganset bay, and arrived on Saturday at the desired port. 
On Monday, Captain Mason and Captain Underbill marched 
with a guard to the plantation of Canonicus, and ac- 
quainted him with the design of their 'coming. A mes- 
senger was immediately dispatched to Miantonimoh, the 
chief sachem of the Narragansetts, to acquaint him also 
with the expedition. 

The next day Miantonimoh met them, with his chief 
counsellors and warriors, consisting of about 200 men. 
Captain Mason certified him that the occasion of his 
coming with armed men into his country, was to avenge the 
intolerable injuries which the Pequots, his as well as their 
enemies, had done the English; and that he desired a 
free passage to the Pequot forts. After a solemn con- 
sultation in the Indian manner, Miantonimoh answered, 
That he highly approved of the expedition, and that he 
would send men. He observed, however, that the En- 
glish were not sufficient in number to fight with the 
enemy. He said the Pequots were great captains, skilled 
in war, and rather slighted the English. 

Captain Mason landed his men, and marched just at 
night to the plantation of Canonicus, which was Ap- 
pointed to be the place of general rendezvous. That 
night there arrived an Indian-xrunner in the camp, with a 
letter from Captain Patrick, who had arrived with his party 
at Mr. William's plantation in Providence. Captain Pat- 
rick signified his desire that Captain Mason would wait 
until he could join him. Upon deliberation, it was de- 
termined not to wait, though a junction was greatly de- 
sired. The men had already been detained much longer 



48 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

than was agreeable to their wishes. When they had ab- 
solutely resolved the preceding day to march the next 
morning, the Indians insisted that they were but in jest ; 
that Englishmen talked much, but would not fight. 

It was, therefore, feared that any delay would have a 
bad effect upon them. It was also suspected that, if they 
did not proceed immediately, they should be discovered, 
as there were a number of squaws who maintained an in- 
tercourse between the Pequot and Narraganset Indians 
The army, therefore, consisting of seventy-seven En- 
glishmen, sixty Mohegan and River Indians, and about 
two hundred Narragansets, marched on Wednesday morn- 
ing, and that day reached the eastern Nihantic, about 
eighteen or twenty miles from the place of rendezvous 
the night before. This was a frontier to the Pequots, 
and was the seat of one of the Narraganset sachems. 

Here the army halted at the close of the day. But 
the sachem, and his Indians, conducted themselves in a 
haughty manner towards the English, and would not suf- 
fer them to enter within their fort. Captain Mason, there- 
fore, placed a strong guard round the fort, and as the In- 
dians would not suffer him to enter it, he determined that 
none of them should come out. Knowing the perfidy of 
the Indians, and that it was customary among them to 
suffer the nearest relatives of their greatest enemies to 
reside with them, he judged it necessary, to prevent their 
discovering him to the enemy. 

In the morning a considerable number of Miantoni- 
moh's men came on and joined the English. This en- 
couraged many of the Nihanticks also to join them. They 
soon formed a circle, and made protestations how gal- 
lantly they would fight, and what numbers they would 
kill. When the army marched, the next morning, the 
captain had with him nearly five hundred Indians. He 
marched twelve miles, to the ford in Pawcatuck River. 

The day was very hot, and the men, through the great 
heat, and a scarcity of provision, began to faint. The 
army, therefore, made a considerable halt, and refreshed 
themselves. Here the Narraganset Indians began to 
manifest their dread of the Pequots, and to inquire of 
Captain Mason, with great anxiety, what were his real 



THE UNITED STATES. 49 

designs. He assured them, that it was his design to at 
tack the Pequots in their forts. At this they appeared to 
be panic struck, and filled with amazement. Many ot 
them drew off, and returned to Narraganset. 

The army marched on about three miles, and came to 
Indian corn fields, and the captain, imagining that he 
drew near the enemy, made a halt : he called his guides 
and council, and demanded of the Indians how far it wa:$ 
to the forts. They represented, that it was twelve miles 
to Sassacus's fort, and that both forts were in a manner 
impregnable. Wequosh, a Pequot captain or petty sa- 
chem, who had revolted from Sassacus to the Narragan- 
sets, was the principal guide, and he proved faithful. 

He gave such information respecting the distance of 
the forts from each other, and the distance which they 
were then at from the chief sachem's, as determined him 
and his officers to alter the resolution which they had be- 
fore adopted, of attacking them both at once, and to make 
a united attack upon that at Mistic. He found his men 
so fatigued, in marching through a pathless wilderness, 
with their provisions, arms, and ammunition, and so af- 
fected with the heat, that this resolution appeared to be 
absolutely necessary. One of Captain Underbill's men 
became lame, at the same time, and began to fail. The 
army, therefore, proceeded directly to Mistic, and, con- 
tinuing their march, came to a small swamp between two 
hills, just at the disappearing of the daylight. 

The officers, supposing that they were now near the 
fort, pitched their little camp between or near two large 
rocks in Groton, since called Porter's Rocks. The men 
were faint and weary, and though the rocks were their 
pillows, their rest was sweet. The guards and sentinels 
were considerably advanced, in the front of the army, 
and heard the enemy singing at the fort, who continued 
their rejoicings even until midnight. They had seen the 
vessels pass the harbour some days before, and had con- 
cluded that the English were afraid, and had not courage 
to attack them. They were, therefore, rejoicing, singing, 
dancing, insulting them, and wearying themselves, on 
this account. 

The night was serene, and, towards morning, the moon 
5 



50 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

shone clear. The important crisis was now come, when 
the very existence of Connecticut, under Providence, 
was to be determined by the sword in a single action, 
and to be decided by the good conduct of less than eighty 
brave men. The Indians who remained were now sorely 
dismayed, and though, at first, they had led the van, and 
boasted of great feats, yet were now all fallen back in the 
rear. 

About two hours before day the men were roused with 
all expedition, and briefly commending themselves, and 
their cause, to God, advanced immediately towards the 
fort. After a march of about two miles, they came to the 
foot of a large hill, where a fine country opened before 
them. The captain, supposing thav the fort could not be 
far distant, sent for the Indians in the rear to comejip. 
Uncas and Wequosh at length appeared. He demand- 
ed of them where the fort was. They answered, on the 
top of the hill. He demanded of them, where were the 
other Indians. 

They answered, that they were much afraid. The cap- 
tain sent to them not to fly, but to surround the fort, at any 
distance they pleased, and see whether Englishmen would 
fight. The day was nearly dawning, and no time was to 
be lost. The men pressed on, in two divisions, Captain 
Mason to the northeastern, and Captain Underbill to the 
western entrance. As the object which they had been so 
long seeking came into view, and while they reflected they 
were to fight not only for themselves, but their parents, 
wives, children, and the whole colony, the martial spirit 
kindled in their bosoms, and they were wonderfully ani- 
mated. 

As Captain Mason advanced within a rod or two of the 
fort, a dog barked, and an Indian roared out, Owanux ! 
Owanux ! That is, Englishmen ! Englishmen ! The 
troops pressed on, and as the Indians were rally ing,, pour- 
ed in upon them, through the pallisadoes, a general dis- 
charge of their muskets, and then wheeling oft' to the prin- 
cipal entrance, entered the fort sword in hand. Notwith- 
standing the suddenness of the attack, the blaze and thun- 
der of their arms, the enemy made a manly and desperate 
jresi stance. Captain Mason, and his party, drove the In- 



THE UNITED STATES. 51 

dians in the main street towards the west part of the fort, 
where some bold men, who had forced their way, met 
them, and made such slaughter among them,, that the 
street was soon clear of the enemy. They secreted them- 
selves in and behind their wigwams, and taking advan- 
tage of every covert, maintained an obstinate defence. 

The Captain, and his men, entered the wigwams, where 
they were beset with many Indians, who took every advan- 
tage to shoot them, and lay hands upon them, so that it 
was with great difficulty that they could defend themselves 
with their swords. After a severe conflict, in which ma- 
ny of the Indians were slain, some of the English killed, 
and others sorely wounded, the victory still hung in sus- 
pense. The Captain, finding himself much exhausted, 
and out of breath, as well as his men, by the extraordinary 
exertions which they had made ; in this critical state of ac- 
tion, had recourse to a successful expedient. He cries 
out to his men, We must burn them. 

He immediately entered a wigwam, took fire, and put it 
into the mats, with which the wigwams were covered. 
The fire, instantly kindling, spread with such violence 
that all the Indian houses were soon wrapped in flames. 
As the fire increased, the English retired without the fort, 
and compassed it on every side. Uncas, and his Indians, 
with such of the Narragansets as yet remained, took cou- 
rage from the example of the English, and formed another 
circle in the rear of them. 

The enemy were now seized with astonishment, and 
forced by the flames from their lurking places, into open 
light, became a fair mark for the English soldiers. Some 
climbed the pallisadoes, and were instantly brought down 
by the fire of the English muskets. Others, desperately 
sallying forth from their burning cells, were shot, or cut 
in pieces with the sword. Such terror fell upon them, 
that they would run back from the English into the very 
flames. Great numbers perished in the conflagration. 

The greatness and violence of the fire, the reflection of 
the light, the flashing and roar of the arms, the shrieks 
and veilings of the men, women, and children, in the fort, 
and the shoutings of the Indians without, just at the dawn-- 
ing of the morning, exhibited a grand and awful scene. In 



52 , UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

a little more than an hour, this whole work of destruction 
was finished. Seventy wigwams were burnt, and fhte or 
six hundred Indians perished, either by the sword or in 
the flames.* A hundred and fifty warriors had been sent 
on the evening before, who that very morning were to 
have gone forth against the English. Of these, and all 
who belonged to the fort, seven only escaped, and seven 
were made prisoners. It had been previously concluded 
not to burn the fort, but to destroy the enemy, and take 
the plunder ; but the captain afterwards found it the only 
expedient to obtain the victory, and save his men. Thus 
parents and children, the sannup and squaw, the old man 
and babe, perished in promiscuous ruin. 

Though the victory was complete, yet the army were 
in great danger and distress. The men had been ex- 
ceedingly fatigued, by the heat and long marches through 
rough and difficult places, and by that constant watch and 
guard which they had been obliged to keep. They had 
now been greatly exhausted, by the sharpness of the ac- 
tion, and the exertions which they had been necessitated 
to make. Their loss was very considerable. Two men 
were killed, and nearly twenty wounded. 

This was more than one quarter of the English. Num- 
bers fainted by reason of fatigue, the heat, and want of 
necessaries. The surgeon, their provisions, and the ar- 
ticles necessary for the wounded, were on board the ves- 
sels which had been ordered to sail from the Narraganset 
bay the night before, for Pequot harbour ; but there was 
no appearance of them in the Sound. They were sen- 
sible that, by the burning of the fort, and the noise of 
war, they had alarmed the country, and therefore were 
in constant expectation of an attack, by a fresh and nu- 
merous enemy from the other fortress, and from every 
quarter whence the Pequots might be collected. 

A number of friendly Indians had been wounded, and 
they were so distracted with fear, that it was difficult even 
to speak with their guide and interpreter, or to know any 
thing what they designed. The English were in an ene- 

* Captain Mason, in his history, says, six or seven hundred. From 
the number of wigwams, and the reinforcement, the probability is, that 
about six hundred were destroyed. 



THE UNITED STATES. 53 

my's country, and entire strangers to the way in which 
they must return. The enemy were far more numerous 
than themselves, and enraged to the highest degree. An- 
other circumstance rendered their situation still more 
dangerous ; their provisions and ammunition were nearly 
expended. Four or five men were so wounded that it 
was necessary to carry them ; and they were also obliged 
to bear about twenty fire arms, so that not more than 
forty men could be spared for action. 

After an interval of about an hour, while the officers 
were in consultation what course they should take, their 
vessels, as though guided by the hand of Providence, to 
serve the necessities of these brave men, came full in 
view, and, under a fair gale, were steering directly into 
the harbour. This, in the situation of the army at that 
time, was a most joyful sight. 

Immediately upon the discovery of the vessels, aboui 
three hundred Indians came on from the other fort. Cap- 
tain Mason, perceiving their approach, led out a chosen 
party to engage them, and try their temper. He gave 
them such a warm reception, as soon checked and put 
them to a stand. This gave him great encouragement, 
and he ordered the army to march for Pequot harbour. 
The enemy, upon this, immediately advanced to the hill 
where the fort stood ; and viewing the destruction which 
had been made, stamped, and tore their hair from their 
heads. After a short pause, and blowing themselves up 
to the highest transport of passion, they leaped down the 
hill after the army, in the most violent manner, as though 
they were about to run over the English. 

Captain Underbill, who, with a number of the best 
men, was ordered to defend the rear, soon checked the 
eagerness of their pursuit, and taught them to keep at 
more respectful distance. The friendly Indians who ha 
not deserted, now kept close to the English ; and, it was 
believed, that after the enemy came on, they were afraid 
to leave them. The enemy pursued the army nearly six 
miles ; sometimes shooting at a distance, from behind the 
rocks and trees, and, at other times, pressing on more 
violently, and desperately hazarding themselves in the 
~^en field. 

5* 



54 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

That the English might be enabled to fight, Captain 
Mason soon hired the Indians to carry the wounded men 
and their arms. The English killed several of the ene- 
my while they pursued them, but sustained no loss them- 
selves. When they killed a Pequot, the other Indians 
would shout, run, and fetch his head. At length the ene- 
my, finding that they could make no impression upon the 
army, and that wounds and death attended their attempts, 
gave over the pursuit. 

The army then marched to the harbour, with their co- 
lours flying, and were received on board the vessels, with 
great mutual joy and congratulation, 

In about three weeks from the time the men embarked 
at Hartford, they returned again to their respective habi- 
tations. They were received with the greatest exultation. 
As the people had been deeply affected with their danger, 
and full of anxiety for their friends, while nearly half the 
effective men in the colony were in service, upon so 
hazardous an enterprise, so sudden a change, in the great 
victory obtained, and in the safe return of so many of their 
children and neighbours, filled them with exceeding joy 
and thankfulness. Every family, and every worshipping 
assembly, spoke the language of praise and thanksgiving. 

Several circumstances attending this enterprise were 
much noticed by the soldiers themselves, and especially 
by all the pious people. It was considered as very pro- 
vidential, that the army should march nearly forty miles, 
and a considerable part of it in the enemy's country, and 
not be discovered until the moment they were ready to 
commence the attack. It was judged remarkable, that 
the vessels should come into the harbour at the very hour 
in which they were most needed. 

The life of Captain Mason was very signally preserved. 
As he entered a wigwam for fire to burn the fort, an In- 
dian was drawing an arrow to the very head, and would 
KTr e killed him instantly ; but Davis, one of his sergeants, 
cut tne bow-string with his cutlass, and prevented the 
fatal shot. Lieutenant Bull received an arrow into a hard 
piece of cheese, which he had in his clothes, and by it 
was saved harmless. Two soldiers, John Dyer and Tho- 
mas Stiles, both servants of one man, were shot in the 



THE UNITED STATES. 55 

knots of their neckcloths, and by them preserved from 
instant death. 

Few enterprises have ever been achieved with more 
personal bravery or good conduct. In few instances have 
so great a proportion of the effective men of a whole 
colony, state, or nation, been put to so great and imme- 
diate danger. In few have a people been so deeply and 
immediately interested, as the whole colony of Connecti- 
cut was in this, in that uncommon crisis. In these re- 
spects, even the great armaments and battles of Europe, 
are, comparatively, of little importance. In this, under 
the divine conduct, by seventy-seven brave men, Connec- 
ticut was saved, and the most warlike and terrible Indian 
nation in New-England, defeated and ruined. 

The body of the Pequots, returning frdm the pursuit of 
Captain Mason, repaired to Sassacus, at the royal fortress, 
and related the doleful story of their misfortunes. They 
charged them all to his haughtiness and misconduct, and 
threatened him, and his, with immediate destruction. His 
friends and chief counsellors interceded for him ; and, at 
their entreaty, his men spared his life. Then, upon con- 
sultation, they concluded that they could not, with safety, 
remain any longer in the country. They were, indeed, 
so panic struck, that, burning their wigwams, and destroy- 
ing their fort, they fled and scattered into various parts of 
the country. Sassacus, Mononotto, and seventy or eighty 
of their chief counsellors and warriors, took their route 
towards Hudson's river. 

Just before Captain Mason went out upon the expedi- 
tion againt the Pequots, the Dutch performed a very 
neighbourly office for Connecticut. The two maids, who 
had been captivated at Wethersfield, had, through the hu- 
manity and mediation of Mononotto's squaw, been spared 
from death, and kindly treated. The Dutch governor, 
receiving intelligence of their circumstances, determined 
to redeem them at any rate, and despatched a sloop to 
Pequot harbour for that purpose. Upon its arrival, the 
Dutch made large offers for their redemption, but the Pe- 
quots would not accept them. Finally, as the Dutch had 
a number of Pequots on board, whom they had taken, and 
finding that they could do no better, they offered the Pe- 



56 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

quots six of their own men for the two maids. These 
they accepted, and the Dutch delivered the young women 
at Saybrook, just before Captain Mason and his party ar- 
rived. Of them he received particular information re- 
specting the enemy. 

An Indian runner, despatched by Mr. Williams, at 
Providence, soon carried the news of the success of Con- 
necticut against the Pequots, to the Governor of Massa- 
chusetts. The governor and his council, judging that the 
Pequots had received a capital blow, sent forward but a 
hundred and twenty men. These were commanded by 
Mr. Stoughton, and the Rev. Mr. Wilson, of Boston, was 
sent as his chaplain. 

This party arrived at Pequot harbour the latter part of 
June. By the assistance of the Narraganset Indians, the 
party under Captain Stoughton surrounded a large body 
of Pequots in a swamp. They took eighty captives. 
Thirty were men; the rest were women and children. 
The men, except two sachems, were killed, but the wo- 
men and children were saved. The sachems promised to 
conduct the English to Sassacus, and for that purpose were 
spared for the present. 

The court of Connecticut ordered, that forty men should 
be raised forthwith for the further prosecution of the wai 
against the Pequots, to be commanded by Captain Mason. 

The troops from Connecticut made a junction with the 
party under the command of Captain Stoughton, at Pe- 
quot. Mr. Ludlow, with other principal gentlemen from 
Connecticut, went also with the army, to advise with re- 
spect to the measures to be adopted in the further prose- 
cution of the war. Upon general consultation, it was con- 
cluded to pursue the Pequots, who had fled to the west- 
ward. The army marched immediately, and soon disco- 
vered the places where the enemy had rendezvoused, at 
their several removes. As these were net far distant from 
each other, it appeared that they moved slowly, having 
their women and children with them. They also were 
without provisions, and were obliged to dig for clams, 
and to range the groves for such articles as they afforded. 

The English found some scattering Pequots, as they 
scoured the country, whom they captivated, and from 



THE UNITED STATES. 57 

whom they obtained intelligence relative to the Pequots 
whom they were pursuing. But finding that the sachems, 
whom they had spared, would give them no information, 
they beheaded them, on their march, at a place called 
Menunkatuck, since Guilford ; from which circumstance, 
the spot on which the execution was done, bears the name 
of Sachem's Head to the present time. In three days, 
they arrived at New-Haven harbour. The vessels sailed 
along the shore, while the troops marched by land. 

At New-Haven, then called Quinnipiack, a great smoke, 
at a small distance, was discovered in the woods. The 
officers supposing that they had now discovered the ene- 
my, ordered the army immediately to advance upon them ; 
but were soon informed that they were not in that vicinity. 
The Connecticut Indians had kindled the fires whence the 
smoke arose. The troops soon embarked on board the 
vessels. After staying several days at New-Haven, the 
officers received intelligence from a Pequot, whom they 
had previously sent to make discovery, that the enemy 
were at a considerable distance, in a great swamp, to the 
westward. Upon this information, the army marched 
with all possible despatch to a great swamp in Fairfield, 
where were eighty or a hundred Pequot warriors, and 
nearly two hundred other Indians. 

The swamp was such a thicket, so deep and boggy, that 
it was difficult to enter it, or make any movement without 
sinking in the mire. Lieutenant Davenport, and others, 
rushing eagerly into it, were sorely wounded, and several 
were soon so deep in the mud, that they could not get out 
without assistance. The enemy pressed them so hard, 
that they were just ready to seize them by the hair of their 
head. A number of brave men were obliged to rescue 
them sword in hand. Some of the Indians were slain, 
and the men were drawn out of the mire. The swamp 
was surrounded, and after a considerable skirmish, the 
Indians desired a parley. 

As the officers were not willing to make a promiscuous 
destruction of men, women, and children, and as the sa- 
chem and Indians of the vicinity had fled into the swamp, 
though they had done the colonies no injury, a parley was 
granted. Thomas Stanton, a man well acquainted with 



58 UNIV-ERSAL HISTORY OF 

the manners and language of the Indians, was sent to' 
treat with them. He was authorized to offer life to all the 
Indians who had shed no English blood. Upon this offer, 
the sachem of the place came out to the English, and one 
company of old men, women, and children, after another, 
to the number of about two hundred. 

The sachem of the place, declared for himself and his 
Indians, that they had never shed the blood of the Eng- 
lish, nor done them any harm. But the Pequot warriors 
had too great a spirit to accept of the offer of life, declar- 
ing, that they would fight it out. They shot their arrows 
at Stanton, and pressed so hard upon him, that the soldiers 
were obliged to fly to his rescue. The fight was then re- 
newed, the soldiers firing upon them whenever an oppor- 
tunity presented. But by reason of an unhappy division 
among the officers, a great part of the enemy escaped. 
Some were for forcing the swamp immediately, but this 
was opposed, as too dangerous. Others were for cutting 
it down, as they had taken many hatchets, with which 
they were of the opinion it might be effected. Some others 
were for making a pallisado and hedge around it, but nei- 
ther of these measures could be adopted. 

As night came on, the English cut through a narrow 
part of it, by which the circumference was greatly les- 
sened ; so that the soldiers, at twelve feet distance from 
each other, were able completely to compass the enemy. 
In this manner they enclosed and watched them until it 
was nearly morning. A thick fog arose just before day, 
and it became exceedingly dark. At this juncture, the 
Indians took the opportunity to break through the Eng- 
lish. They made their first attempt upon Captain Pa- 
trick's quarters, yelling in their hideous manner, and 
pressing on with violence, but they were several times 
driven back. As the noise and tumult of war increased, 
Captain Mason sent a party to assist Captain Patrick. 
Captain Trask also marched to reinforce him. 

As the battle greatly increased, the siege broke up. 
Captain Mason marched to give assistance in the action. 
Advancing to J;he turn of the swamp, he found that the 
enemy were pressing out upon him ; but he gave them so 
warm a reception, that they were soon glad to retire. 



THE UNITED STATES. 59 

While he was expecting that they would make another 
attempt upon him, they faced about, and, falling violently 
on Captain Patrick, broke through his quarters and fled. 
These were their bravest warriors, sixty or seventy of 
whom made their escape. About twenty were killed, 
and one hundred and eighty were taken prisoners. The 
English also took hatchets, wampum, kettles, trays, and 
other Indian utensils. 

The Pequot women and children, who had been capti- 
vated, were divided among the troops. Some were car- 
ried to Connecticut, and others to the Massachusetts. 
The people of Massachusetts sent a number of the wo- 
men and boys to the West-Indies, and sold them for 
slaves. It was supposed that about seven hundred Pe- 
quots were destroyed. The women who were captivated, 
reported, that thirteen sachems had been slain, and that 
thirteen yet survived. Among the latter were Sassacus 
and Mononotto, the two chief sachems. These, with 
about twenty of their best men, fled to the Mohawks. 
They carried oflf wampum to the amount of 500 pounds. 
The Mohawks surprised and slew them all, except Mono- 
notto. They wounded him, but he made his escape. The 
scalp of Sassacus was sent to Connecticut in the fall, and 
Mr. Ludlow, and several other gentlemen, going into 
Massachusetts, in September, carried a lock of it to Bos- 
ton as a rare sight, and a sure demonstration of the death 
of their mortal enemy. 

Among the Pequot captives were the wife and children 
of Mi nonotto. She was particularly noticed, by the 
English, for her great modesty, humanity, and good sense. 
She made it as her only request, that she might not be 
injured, either as to her offspring or personal honour. As 
a requital of her kindness to the captivated maids, her 
life, and the lives of her children, were not only spared, 
but they were particularly recommended to the care of 
Governor Winthrop. He gave charge for their protec- 
tion and kind treatment. 

After the swamp fight, the Pequots became so weak 
and scattered, that the Narragansets and Mohegans con- 
stantly killed them, and brought in their heads to Wind- 
sor and Hartford. Those who survived were so hunted 



60 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

and harrassed, that a number of their chief men repaired 
to the English, at Hartford, for relief. They offered, it 
their lives might be spared, that they would become the 
servants of the English, and be disposed of at their plea- 
sure. This was granted, and the court interposed for 
their protection. 

Uncas and Miantonimoh, with the Pequots, by the 
direction of the magistrates of Connecticut, met at Hart- 
ford ; and it was demanded by them, how many of the 
Pequots were yet living ? they answered, about two hun- 
dred, besides women and children. The magistrates then 
entered into a firm covenant with them, to the following 
effect ; that there should be perpetual peace between Mi- 
antonimoh and Uncas, and their respective Indians ; and 
that all past injuries should be remitted, and for ever bu- 
ried; that if any injuries should be done, in future, by one 
party to the other, that they should not immediately re- 
venge it, but appeal to the English to do them justice. It 
was stipulated, that they should submit to their determi- 
nation, and that if either party should be obstinate, that 
then they might enforce submission to their decisions. It 
was further agreed, that neither the Mohegans, nor Nar- 
ragansets, should conceal nor entertain any of their ene- 
mies, but deliver up or destroy all such Indians as had 
murdered any English man or woman. 

The English then gave the Pequot Indians to the Nar- 
ragansets and Mohegans, eighty to Miantonimoh, twenty 
to Ninnigret, and the other hundred to Uncas, to be- re- 
ceived and treated as their men. It was also covenanted 
that the Pequots should never more inhabit their native 
country, nor be called Pequots, but Narrag-msets and Mo- 
hegans. It was also further stipulated, that neither the 
Narragansets nor Mohegans should possess any part of 
the Pequot country without the consent of the English. 
The Pequots were to pay a tribute at Connecticut, annu- 
ally, of a fathom of wainpumpeag for every sannup s , of 
half a fathom for every young man, and of a hand for 
every male papoose. On these conditions the magis- 
trates, in behalf of the colony, stipulated a firm peace 
with all the Indians. 

The conquest of the Pequots struck all the Indians in 



THE UNITED STATES. 61 

New-England with terror ; and they were possessed with 
such fear of the displeasure and arms of the English, that 
they had no open war with them for nearly forty years. 

This happy event gave great joy to the colonies. A 
day of public thanksgiving was appointed ; and, in all the 
churches of New-England, devout and animated praises 
were addressed to Him, who giveth his people the vic- 
tory, and causeth them to dwell safely. 

The war with the Pequots led to the discovery of Quin- 
napiack, (now New-Haven.) Mr. Eaton, Mr. Hopkins, 
Mr. Davenport, and several others, commenced a settle- 
ment; and on the 18th of April, 1638, they kept the first 
sabbath in that place. They assembled under a large 
spreading oak, and Mr. Davenport preached to them from 
Matthew vi. 1. 

On the first of June, about three or four o'clock in the 
afternoon, was a great earthquake throughout New-Eng- 
land. The shock was so great, that a number of chim- 
neys were thrown down ; the earth by turns was unquiet 
for fifteen days. 

In addition to the town of New-Haven, several other 
towns were soon commenced, which were included in this 
colony. In 1639, commenced the towns of Guilford and 
Milford. Stamford was settled in 1641 ; soon after began 
the town of Branford. Some settlements on Long Island 
were included in the colony of New-Haven. 

The colony of New-Hampshire, which now holds a 
distinguished rank among the New-England states, though 
its settlement began at a very early period, did not be- 
come a separate colony till many years after that settle- 
ment commenced. Captain Smith, of Virginia, who 
sailed along the shore of New-England, in 1614, and pub- 
lished a chart of the coast, with some account of the 
country, discovered the River Piscataqua. He iound the 
river to be large, the harbour capacious and safe, and gave 
a favourable representation of the place as a site for a new 
plantation. 

Gorges and Mason, two members of the council of Ply- 
mouth, in England, having obtained from the council a 
grant of that tract of country, attempted the establish- 
ment of a colony and fishery at the river Piscataqua. In 

6 



62 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the spring of the year 1623, they sent over a few persons 
for this purpose, who sat down on the south side of the 
river, near its mouth , and there fixed a temporary resi- 
dence. This was the beginning of the excellent and 
flourishing town of Portsmouth. The same year, two 
of the company erected a fish-house at the place of the 
present town of Dover. 

These settlements, for several years, were small, and 
scarcely permanent. In 1629, some of the settlers about 
the Massachusetts Bay, wishing to unite with the settle- 
ment at Piscataqua, they assembled the chiefs of several 
Indian tribes at Squamscot falls, now Exeter, and, for a 
valuable consideration, made a purchase of an extensive 
tract of land. In the instrument of conveyance, the na- 
tives express a. " desire to have the English come and 
settle among them, as among their countrymen in Massa- 
chusetts." After this purchase, the plantation had a mo- 
derate increase, but no new settlements were made till the 
year 1638, which was the beginning of the towns of Exe- 
ter and Hampton. 

The people at Dover early erected a convenient meet- 
ing-house, which was afterwards improved as a fortifica- 
tion. A church was soon organized, of a character simi- 
lar to the churches in the neighbouring colonies ; and Mr. 
William Leverich, a worthy and able puritan divine, came 
from England in 1633, and became their minister. The 
settlement at Portsmouth, in their infant state, erected a 
house for divine worship, and enjoyed, successively, the 
labours of several faithful ministers. The ministry of 
one of these, Mr. Jarnes Parker, was attended with much 
success. But the town had no settled minister till a num- 
ber of years after its settlement. 

The people who made the settlement of Exeter, in 
1638, were mostly from Boston. Having been regularly 
dismissed from the church in that town, they immediately 
united in a church relation, on the principles of their 
mother church. As they judged their settlement to be 
without the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, they formed 
themselves into a body politic, chose rulers and assistants, 
who were sworn to the proper execution of their respec- 
tive offices, and a correspondent oath of obedience was 



THE UNITED STATES 63 

taken by the people. In this political compact, we have 
an instance of civil government in its simplest, perhaps, 
in its purest form. The magistrates, who were few, were 
vested with legislative, judicial, and executive authority. 

The settlements at Portsmouth and Dover, for several 
years, were governed, principally, by agents sent over by 
the proprietors in England. Having experienced many 
inconveniences from this mode of government, they, sepa- 
rately, forming a civil compact, after the example of their 
neighbours at Exeter, enacted and enforced their own 
laws. The combination at Dover was similar to the one 
at Exeter ; at Portsmouth they had a chief magistrate, 
annually elected, styled a governor. 

These settlements, for many years, lived peaceably with 
the natives, and, from their great advantages for fishery, 
experienced less of the evils of famine than the neighbour- 
ing colonies. Placed in distinct civil communities, they 
soon found themselves exposed to a variety of difficulties, 
and peculiarly defenceless in the event of trouble from an 
enemy. Their corporations were necessarily weak, and 
exposed to the, intrusion of vagrants and outlaws, who 
would not submit to the steady government which was 
maintained in the colonies of Massachusetts and Plymouth. 
Had these political combinations been left to the manage- 
ment of their original framers, and their posterity, they 
might have exhibited an example of the finest republics 
on historic record. But the constant influx of emigrants, 
and of demagogues invited by their weakness, rendered 
this expectation hopeless. These considerations induced 
the settlement to desire a union with the colony of Mas- 
sachusetts. 

The subject having been for some time in agitation, in 
the year 1641, the settlements on and near the Piscata- 
qua, submitted to the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, on 
condition of enjoying equal privileges with the people of 
that colony, and having a court of justice maintained 
among themselves. They were cordially accepted by 
that government, and thus, by a solemn compact, became 
a part of the colony of Massachusetts. From this time, 
the settlements advanced in a more rapid progress, and in 
greater security ; and their civil and ecclesiastical history 



64 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

becomes one with the colony of which they now consti- 
tuted a respectable portion. This union continued till 
the year 1679, when, by the authority of the King of Great 
Britain, New-Hampshire was separated from the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts, and became a royal province. 

One of the most prominent characters in the early his- 
tory of New-England, was Roger Williams. He was a 
man of considerable ability and learning, active and dili- 
gent in his pursuits, humane and benevolent in his cha- 
racter, ever fond of novelty and change. Previous to his 
coming to America, Mr. Williams was a minister in the 
church of England. He came to New-England in the 
year 1631, and resided two years at Plymouth. He there 
exercised his ministerial functions, occasionally, to good 
acceptance. 

During his residence at Plymouth, his conduct was in- 
offensive, and his character naturally mild, so that he ever 
after retained the esteem of the people of that colony. In 
1633, he removed to Salem, and, on the death of their 
excellent minister, Mr. Skelton, the church in that town 
invited Mr. Williams to become their pastor. During his 
connexion with the church at Salem, Mr. Williams incul- 
cated many opinions which were disapproved by the go- 
vernment and churches of the colony, which it was 
thought \vould prejudice their interests in the view of the 
mother country, and destroy that system of civil and 
ecclesiastical polity on which the colony existed. 

After much faithful and friendly dealing, Mr. Williams 
being unwilling to renounce or conceal the sentiments 
which he entertained, in 1635, he was directed by the go- 
vernment to depart from the jurisdiction of Massachu- 
setts. He removed with a few followers, and sat down 
within the Plymouth jurisdiction, in the present town of 
Rehoboth. The year following, at the desire of Gover- 
nor Winslow, lest the government of Massachusetts should 
take umbrage at his remaining within the Plymouth ju- 
risdiction, he crossed the Pawtucket River, and, with 
about twenty settlers, laid the foundation of the present 
opulent and flourishing town of Providence. 

These dissentions were conducted in such a manner, 
that no personal alienation appears to have taken place 



THE UNITED STATES. 65 

between Mr. Williams and Governor Winthrop ; and a 
constant interchange of good offices existed between the 
Providence Plantation and the Massachusetts and Ply- 
mouth Colonies. In the war with the Pequots in 1637, 
there was a cordial co-operation of all the plantations 
against the common enemy. Probably no individual of 
the age made greater and more successful exertions to 
maintain the peace of the colonies with the natives ; and, 
living in the vicinity of several powerful tribes, he was 
vigilant in discovering their designs, and gave the other 
colonies timely notice of their hostile machinations. 

Mr. Williams, for some years, established no particular 
church order, inviting persons of all religious sentiments 
to unite with his rising plantation. After a few years, he 
and several of his people renounced the baptism of their 
infancy, were re-baptized, and united in a church, which 
was, I believe, the first Baptist church in New-England. 
On account of differences of sentiment which subse- 
quently prevailed in the church, in the year 1653, it was 
divided, and became two churches. Mr. Williams pur- 
chased the lands of his plantation of the Indian proprie- 
tors, and no man enjoyed their confidence in a higher de- 
gree. He was the father of the colony, and, for some 
time, he appears to have possessed and exercised the prin- 
cipal powers of government which existed. In some of 
the first years of the Providence Plantation, the people 
suffered very sensibly from scarcity. The product of 
their forests and rivers saved them from perishing by fa- 
mine. The most of the fathers of New-England expe- 
rienced the evils of war and famine, in a degree of which 
their posterity are unable to form any adequate conception. 

At the time of the banishment of Mrs. Hutchinson from 
Massachusetts, several people who had favoured her reli 
gious opinions, and, of course, differed in principle from 
the prevailing sentiments of the churches, chose to re- 
move from the colony. One of these was Mr. William 
Coddington, a gentleman of education and affluence, who 
had been for several years an assistant, and one of the 
most worthy magistrates of the Massachusetts govern- 
ment. In the year 1638, Mr. Coddington, with a few 
others, removed to Narraganset Bay, and commenced the 

6* 



66 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

settlement of Rhode Island. These planters immediately 
united in a civil compact, to which Mr. Coddington and 
seventeen others subscribed their names. 

This infant plantation furnishes an instance of some- 
thing of the simplicity and natural existence of a patriar- 
chal government. Mr. Coddington, a man of great virtue 
and natural dignity of charactei, possessing the confi- 
dence of all, was created their magistrate, to whom was 
delegated the necessary powers of civil government. By 
the friendly assistance of Mr. Williams, he purchased the 
island of the Indians ; and, in consequence of its plea- 
santness and fertility, in a few years it became a flourish- 
ing settlement. In the year 1644, a Baptist church was 
formed in Newport, which was afterwards divided into 
two. A congregational church was formed in Newport, 
in 1720; and a second one in 1728. These two churches 
afterwards enjoyed the ministry of the most eminent 
American divines of the last century President Stiles 
and Dr. Hopkins. 

These settlements being destitute of any chartered 
government from the mother country, in 1643 Mr. Wil- 
liams went to England, and by the assistance of Mr. Vane, 
who had been governor of Massachusetts, obtained a libe- 
ral charter of incorporation of Providence and Rhode- 
Island Plantations. The form of government provided 
by this incorporation was essentially similar to that esta- 
blished in the adjacent colonies. Mr. Williams lived to 
a great age, and was chosen several times governor of the 
colony. 

As early as the year 1607, some of the Patentees of the 
northern colony of Virginia began a settlement at the 
mouth of the River Sagadahock, now Kennebeck. They 
laid the plan of an extensive and opulent state. But in 
consequence of the death of the principal patrons, and the 
severities endured by the planters, the settlement broke 
up the following year, and those who were living returned 
to England. The first permanent settlements made with- 
in the District of Maine, commenced about the year 1630. 
The, oldest towns are Kittery and York. 

In the year 1635, Sir Ferdinando Gorges obtained from 
the council of Plymouth a 'grant of the tract of land Jying 



THE UNITED STATES. 67 

between the Rivers Sagadahock and Piscataqua. It is sup- 
posed that he instituted civil government in the province. 
Courts were held as early as 1636, who appear to have 
exercised legislative and judicial powers. In 1639, Gorges 
obtained from the crown a charter, conveying the amplest 
powers of jurisdiction. He appointed a governor and 
council, who administered justice to the people to their 
general satisfaction, for a number of years. 

After the death of the proprietor, these powers of go- 
vernment were generally supposed to have expired. The 
different settlements formed some kind of voluntary com- 
pacts, and elected their own rulers. But the people, soon 
perceiving the inconveniences of this state of things, in 
the year 1652, united with the government of Massachu- 
setts, and became an integral part of that colony. 

In the first settlements, churches were early established, 
who enjoyed the labours of some of the worthiest ministers 
of their time. In general, their early civil and religious 
institutions were very similar to those of Massachusetts. 

No part of New-England has suffered so much from the 
hostility of the natives, as the District of Maine. Many 
ferocious tribes of savages were settled on the rivers with 
which the country abounds, and from the small progress 
made by the settlements for a long period, they were un- 
able to subdue their power, or prevent their predatory in- 
cursions. From the proximity of that district to Canada, 
in all the wars between England and France for a century 
after its first settlement, they were exposed to the hostile 
incursions of the savages, stimulated by a most artful and 
unfeeling enemy. Many of their towns have been pillaged 
and burnt, and many of the people made captives and 
slain. So late as the war of 1745, many of the towns suf- 
fered severely from savage hostility. 

The state of Vermont, the youngest of the New-Eng- 
land States, has advanced in population and wealth more 
rapidly than either of the others, and holds a respectable 
rank in their number. The tract of country composing 
that state, lying between the states of New-Hampshire 
and New- York, to which both laid an imperfect claim, re- 
mained long unoccupied. 

In the year 1724, in the time of a severe Indian war, 



68 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the government of Massachusetts erected Fort Dummer- 
\vithin the present town of Brattleborough, and commenced 
a small settlement near the fort. This was then supposed 
to be within the limits of Massachusetts ; but, on running 
the province lines in 1741, it fell within the state of Ver- 
mont. In the year 1731, the French from Canada erect- 
ed the well-built fort at Crown Point, on the west side of 
Lake Champlain, and, soon after, began a settlement on 
the eastern side of the lake, opposite to the fort. 

From the time in which the provincial line between 
Massachusetts and New-Hampshire was ascertained, till 
after the peace of 1763, when it became a subject of con- 
troversy, the territory of Vermont was considered as be- 
longing to New-Hampshire. The town of Bennington, 
as it is one of the best, is considered the oldest town in the 
state. This township was granted to certain proprietors, 
in the year 1749, by the Governor* of New-Hampshire, 
and called after his name. Soon after this grant, the set- 
tlement of that town commenced. 

In four or five of the following years, a few other towns 
were granted by the government of New-Hampshire, on 
the western side of Connecticut River. The war of 1755, 
put a stop to these grants and settlements. In the pro- 
gress of the war, the territory of Vermont became the 
scene of military operations. These events produced a 
general acquaintance with many parts of the country, and 
towards the conclusion of the war, extensive grants oi 
townships were made by the New-Hampshire government, 
and numerous openings were made in the wilderness. 

From 1764 to the commencement of the American war, 
the new settlers were harassed with conflicting claims to 
their territory, maintained by the provinces of New- 
Hampshire and New-York. Notwithstanding these em- 
barrassments, the infant settlements gradually increased 
by emigrations from the several New-England provinces. 
At the commencement of the war of 1775, the people of 
Vermont warmly espoused the American cause, and, du- 
ring its continuance, performed many important services. 
As the authority of the royal governments became disa- 

* Benning- Wintworth. 



THE UNITED STATES. 69 

vowed, the people finding themselves wholly destitute of 
any bonds of civil government, public sentiment naturally 
adverted to the necessity of some political regulations for 
the general safety. 

There having been several conventions of committees 
of towns, to deliberate on measures to be pursued, in 
January, 1777, a convention of delegates from the respec- 
tive towns, held at Westminster, resolved that the terri- 
tory now included in that state, should " be considered 
as a free and independent jurisdiction of state : to be for 
ever hereafter called, known, and distinguished, by the 
name of New-Connecticut, alias Vermont." From this 
period, Vermont became an independent state ; and, in 
1791, was admitted a member of the American union. 

The settlers of Vermont were mostly emigrants from 
Connecticut, and, for several years after the peace of 1783, 
their number increased with an unprecedented rapidity. 
Their civil and religious institutions were generally copied 
from those existing in Connecticut. A congregational 
church was early established at Bennington, and continued 
many years under the ministry of the pious and worthy 
Mr. Dewey. In most of the towns, churches were esta- 
blished at an early period of their settlement, who have 
enjoyed the labours of many able and faithful ministers 
of Christ. 

The churches and ministers in Vermont have been re- 
markable for uniformity in religious sentiment and prac- 
tice, conformable to the Calvinistic system, and to the 
doctrines of the gospel so ably vindicated by several New- 
England divines of the last century. The late Dr. Job 
Swift, who has been styled the Apostle of Vermont, not 
more distinguished for abilities and piety, than for inde- 
fatigable labours, was an eminent instrument of orga- 
nizing and establishing the churches and religious institu 
tions of the state, and was an unshaken pillar of divine 
truth, in the midst of his labours in the service of his Mas- 
ter and his fellow men, was suddenly removed to his eter- 
nal rest. The churches and people of the state have 
been favoured with many gracious manifestations of the 
special influences of the Holy Spirit, in reviewing the in- 



70 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

terests of vital religion, and bringing many souls into the 
holy kingdom of the Redeemer. 

Probably no instance can be found in the history of 
men, where all public institutions of a civil, moral, and 
religious character, are held so entirely under the constant 
control of public sentiment, as in the -state of Vermont. 
It is earnestly hoped, that through the merciful favour ol 
Heaven, that people maybe long worthy <5f the possessioi 
of the many privileges which they now enjoy. 

Remarks upon the Religion of the Colony. 

It is a very singular fact, that while the English govern- 
ment, and all the ecclesiastical authority, were using their 
most vigilant exertions to suppress evangelical religion, 
and put an effectual stop to the progress of puritanism, 
and while the New-England colonies were formed for the 
express purpose of the promotion of these objects, they 
were suffered to proceed with very little molestation. 
The company that formed the settlement of Plymouth, 
having long experienced the severities of ecclesiastical 
tyranny, were fearful of forming a settlement in any of the 
dominions of the British king, without a promise that they 
should not be obstructed in the free exercise of their reli- 
gion. Frequent and earnest solicitations were made to 
the royal court for such a permission. 

But as such a concession would not comport with the 
maxims of a bigoted prince, and a persecuting prelate, it 
was never obtained. The adventurers, therefore, com- 
mitted their case to the protection of God, and they were 
not disappointed. The succeeding companies, though 
many important civil privileges were secured to them by 
patent, could obtain no more than indirect intimations that 
they might enjoy liberty of conscience in the services of 
religion. They hoped, indeed, that the God whom they 
served, would remember their wants, and that the distance 
of three thousand miles would mitigate the rage of per- 
secution. 

The religious order which they established was directly 
opposed to the sentiments of the government, and was 
such as they had long laboured to suppress. But through 



THE UNITED STATES. 71 

the interference of various causes, in which the hand of 
Qod was peculiarly visible, they were left undisturbed, till 
their churches had become firmly established. Archbi- 
shop Laud resolved, at length, to interfere, and subject the 
colonies to the same ecclesiastical order as the mother 
country. But his death soon put an end to his design. 

The long period of the civil wars, and the common- 
wealth which then succeeded, enabled the ecclesiastical in- 
stitutions of the colonies to acquire such a consistence as 
could not easily be dissolved. That remarkable interval 
in the English monarchy, of which there has been no 
equal in ten centuries, was the occasion of the establish- 
ment of the gospel order in the New-England churches. 
How unsearchable and holy are the appointments of God ! 

In 1656, Quakers made their first appearance in the 
Massachusetts colony ; but the legislature passed laws 
for their banishment: that any Quaker, returning from 
banishment to renew his practices against the colony, 
should be put to death. Under this law four persous were 
executed. 

Any master of any vessel that should bring any of this 
sect into the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, should be sub- 
ject to a fine of one hundred pounds. Notwithstanding 
this arbitrary law, it appears that this sect continued to n 
crease, even down to the present time, and holds a very 
respectable station among other honourable societies. 

The Roman Catholics first came to America in 1632. 

The first Baptist church in America was formed at Pro- 
vidence, in 1639. 

Manners and Customs. The laws of the colonies, in 
1639, prohibited the custom of drinking healths. In 1651 , 
the legislature passed laws, prohibiting all persons whose 
estate did not exceed two hundred pounds, from wearing 
any gold or silver lace, or any bone lace, that cost above 
two shillings per yard. The selectmen were authorized 
to take notice of the fashions, the apparel of the people, 
especially in wearing of ribands and great boots. 

In 1647, it was ordered, that no person under the age 
of twenty years, should use any tobacco, unless he should 
bring a certificate from a physician that it was useful to 
him 



72 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Agriculture was first attended to by clearing the forests, 
by cutting down the trees, and digging up the stumps, 
before tillage. The first neat cattle were brought into 
New-England by Mr. Winslow, in 1624. In 1633, the 
cattle in Virginia had increased to about 1000 head, 
They also raised a large quantity of wheat and rye, some 
peas, beans, flax, and hemp. 

Commerce. The colony imported all their merchan- 
dise from England, and exported thither peltry, tobacco, 
beef, pork, grain, and fish. The importations from Eng- 
land much exceeded the exports thither. The skins ot 
deer, elk, buffalo, and the furs of otters, hare, fox, musk- 
rat and beaver, were purchased of Indians, for rum, blank- 
ets, &c. and exported to England. 

Arts and Manufactures. In 1620, 100 persons came 
from England, to carry on the manufacture of silk, pot- 
ash, tar, pitch, glass, and salt, but did not succeed. All 
cordage, sail cloth, and mats, came from England. Brick 
and framed houses were soon built in- large towns. The 
first mill was a wind-mill, built near \Vaiertown. The 
first vessel was built in Massachusetts, which was called 
the Blessing of the Bay. In 1633, a ship of 60 tons was 
built at Medford. In 1641, one was built at Salem, of 300 
tons, and another of 160 tons, at Boston. 

Printing was first introduced in 1639. The first thing 
printed was a Freeman's Oath ; the next an Almanac ; 
the third a collection of Psalms. 

Education. Scarcely had the people opened the for- 
est, and constructed habitations, before they directed their 
attention towards the education of their children. Schools 
were free to all classes of people ; the poor had the 
same advantage in educating their children as the rich. 

Population of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode- 
Island, New-Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont, was esti- 
mated at about 75,000. 

But it is impossible to ascertain very exactly the popu- 
lation of the Amerxcan colonies at the close of this period. 
The estimates made by writers, are vague, and often con- 
tradictory. It is worthy of particular notice, that so 
small a population, scattered over such an extent of coun- 
try, shoukl have been able to conquer so many Indians, 
and thereov save themselves from savage destruction. 



UNIVERSAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

UNITED STATES. 



PART SECOND. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Discovery and Progress of the Middle and Southern 
States. 

NEW-YORK. 

The reader's first attention in this second part, will be 
directed to the settlement of New- York. 

Captain Henry Hudson, commissioned by the king, in 
1 608, sailed in the employment of several London mer- 
chants, to North America. He came upon the coast, in 
about forty degrees of north latitude, and made a disco- 
very of Long-Island and Hudson River. He proceeded 
up the river, as far as the latitude of forty-three, and call- 
ed it by his own name. 

About two years after, he made a second voyage to the 
river, in the service of a number of Dutch merchants ; 
and some time after, sold his right to them. The right to 
the country, tyowever, belonged to King James, by virtue 
of the discovery which Hudson had made under his com 
mission. The English protested against the sale. Bu 
the Dutch, in 1614, built a fort, nearly on the same ground 
where Albany now stands, which they called Fort Au- 
ranea. 

Sir Thomas Dale, governor of Virginia, directly after 
despatched Captain Argall to dispossess the Dutch, and 
they submitted to the king of England, and under the g* - 
vernor of Virginia 

7 



74 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

But, receiving a reinforcement the next year, they again 
asserted the right of Holland to the country, and erected 
Fort Amsterdam on the south of the island. The Eng- 
lish, for many years, did not interfere. 

In 1621, an extensive territory on both sides of the Hud- 
son, was granted to the Dutch West India Company, and 
called New-Netherlands. The boundaries were consider- 
ed by the company as including Connecticut River on the 
north, and Delaware River on the south. In 1623, they 
erected a fort on the Delaware, which they called Nassau ; 
and, in 1633, they erected another on Connecticut, which 
they called Good Hope. Near the former the Swedes 
had a settlement ; and a quarrel arose between the set- 
tlers, which continued for many years, which terminated 
in the subjugation of the Swedes. 

NEW-JERSEY. 

The first settlement of New- Jersey was made by the 
Danes, about the year 1624. Soon afterwards, several 
Dutch families seated themselves in the vicinity of New- 
York. In 1626, a company was formed in Sweden, under 
the patronage of King Gustavus Adolphus, for the pur- 
pose of planting a colony in America. 

The next year a number of Swedes and Finns came 
over, and made a settlement on the west bank of the Dela- 
ware River. 

In 1640, the English began a plantation on the eastern 
bank. The Swedes, in concert with the Dutch, who pos- 
sessed New- York, drove them out of the country. 

DELAWARE. 

This state was settled by a company of Swedes and 
Finns, under the patronage of King Gustavus Adolphus. 

In 1627, they landed at Cape Henlopen, and were so 
charmed with its appearance, that they gave it the name 
of Paradise I'omt. The country tney called New-Sweden, 
and the River Delaware, New-Swedeland Stream. They 
purchased of the Indians, the lands on both sides of that 
riv*ar, from the sea to the falls, and seated themselves at 



THE UNITED STATES. 76 

the mouth of Christian Creek, near Wilmington. Being 
frequently molested by the Dutch, who claimed a right- to 
the country, they, for their protection, built forts at Chris- 
tian, Lewiston, and Tinicum. The last was their seat 
of government, and John Printz, their governor, erected an 
elegant mansion at this place, which he named Printz Hall 

MARYLAND. 

This state was settled by one Calvert, who sailed for 
America near the close of 1633, accompanied by about 
two hundred emigrants, chiefly Roman Catholics. 

They arrived in February, 1634, at the mouth of the 
River Potomac. At a conference with the Indians, who 
dwelt on the shore, they purchased Yoamaco, a consider- 
able village, the site which St. Mary's now occupies. 

This colony, as well as all others, in the early period of 
their existence, was afflicted with troubles ; they were 
principally caused by one William Clayborne. While a 
member of the Virginia council, he had obtained a license 
from the king to traffic in those parts of America where 
no other person enjoyed the exclusive right of trade. Un- 
der this license he had made a small settlement on the 
island of Kent, and when the grant was made to Lord 
Baltimore, refused to submit to his authority. He per- 
suaded the natives that the new comers were Spaniards, 
and enemies to the Virginians. 

An Indian war was the consequence, which continued 
for several years with great distress. Clayborne was in- 
dicted, and convicted of murder, piracy, and sedition, and, 
fleeing from justice, his estate was confiscated. He ap- 
plied to the king for redress, but did not succeed. When 
the civil war between the king and parliament began, he 
embraced the cause of the latter, returned to Maryland, 
a ad, by his intrigues, fomented, in 1645, a rebellion against 
its rulers, who were attached to the royal cause. Calvert, 
the governor, was compelled to fly to Virginia, and the 
insurgents seized the reins of government. The next 
year, however, the revolt was suppressed, and tranquillity 
restored. 



76 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

In 1630, Charles I. granted to Sir Robert Heath all the 
territory between the 30th and 36th degrees of north lati- 
tude, and extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the South 
Sea, by the name of Carolina. Under this grant, no set- 
tlement was made. In 1640, some person fled from Vir- 
ginia, and without license from any source, occupied that 
portion of North Carolina north of Albemarle Sound. In 
1661, another settlement was made near the mouth of 
Clarendon River, by adventurers from Massachusetts. 
The land being sterile, and the Indians hostile, they soon 
abandoned it. 

In June, a patent was granted by the king, conveying 
to twenty-one trustees, the territory now constituting the 
state of Georgia, which was to be apportioned gratuitously 
among the people, and donations were made for the pur- 
pose of conveying them thither, and for their support the 
first season. 

In November, one hundred and thirty emigrants em- 
barked for Georgia : in January, they arrived at Charles- 
ton. The Carolinians gave the adventurers a cordial wel- 
come ; they supplied them with provisions and boats to 
carry them to the place of their destination ; and on the 
9th of February, they erected the first house, where Sa- 
vannah now stands. 

History of the whole Colonies of America co7nbined, from 
1661. 

Before the session of the General Assembly of Con- 
necticut, in October, 1662, the charter was brought over. 
Upon the day of the election, it was publicly read to the 
freemen, and declared to belong to them and to their suc- 
cessors. They thqn proceeded to make choice of Mr. 
Wyllys, Mr. Talcott, and Mr. Allen, to receive the char- 
ter into custody, and keep it in behalf of the colony. 

In 1663, a tax of three hundred pounds was levied upon 
the colony. A day of fasting and prayer was appointed. 
The colony was much in debt ; many were dissatisfied 



THE UNITED STATES. 77 

with the governor, and refused to pay any thing for his 
support. 

No sooner did the officers begin to distrain the rates of 
those who refused to pay, than it produced the most alarm- 
ing consequences. The gentlemen from Connecticut re- 
monstrated against collecting taxes from those who had 
been taken under the protection of that colony, and desired 
New-Haven to suspend the affair for further consideration. 

Colonel Nichols arrived at Boston, with a fleet and 
troops under his command, July 23, 1664. He immedi- 
ately communicated his commission to the colonies, and 
requested the troops to assist him against the Dutch. He 
then sailed for New-Netherlands, and on the 20th of Au- 
gust made a demand upon the town and forts upon the 
Island of Manhadoes. Governor Winthrop, with several 
gentlemen from Connecticut, joined him, according to his 
wishes. Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor, was an old 
soldier, and had he been prepared, doubtless would have 
made a brave defence. He was extremely opposed to a 
surrender of the fort and town, but the opposition party 
outnumbered him, and he was obliged to submit on the 
27th of August. 

After the reduction of the Dutch, Colonel Nichols fixed 
his residence at New-York, to manage the affairs of go- 
vernment. About 1664, a settlement commenced on the 
east side of Connecticut River. In 1667, Lyme was made 
a distinct town. In this and the next year, several new 
settlements were made, and new towns incorporated. On 
the 20th of May, 1662, a purchase was made of the Indians, 
and East Haddam settled by twenty-eight persons. In 
the session of May, 1670, it was enacted that Massacoe 
should be called Simsbury. 

At the same term, New-Haven village was incorporated, 
and made a town, by the name of Wallingford. In 1643, 
war had been declared in England against the Dutch. 
The colony was put into a state of defence, and it was or- 
dered that a troop of horse should be raised in each county. 
On the 30th of July, a small Dutch fleet arrived at New- 
York. One John Manning, who commanded the fort and 
island, treacherously delivered them to the enemy, with- 
out firing a gun or attempting the least resistance. 

7* 



78 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Scarcely had the colonies recovered from their calami- 
ties, before new and more terrible alarm and destruction 
presented themselves to all the colonies of New-England. 
On the first of July, 1674, the Duke of York commissioned 
Sir Edmund Andross to be governor of New-York, and 
all New-England. Sir Edmund was a tyrant over the 
people, but New-England refused to submit to this man 
as their ruler. It was soon discovered that Sir Edmund 
Andross was about to make a hostile invasion on the co- 
lony, and to demand its surrender. Detachments from 
the military were sent to New-London and Saybrook. 
Captain Thomas Bull, of Hartford, commanded the party 
at Saybrook. 

About the 9th of July, 1675, the people of that town 
were surprised by the appearance of Major Andross, with 
an armed force in the sound, making directly for the fort. 
The fort was soon manned, and militia called out for its 
defence ; at this moment Captain Bull arrived, which gave 
them fresh courage. On the llth, Major Andross hoisted 
the king's flag on board, and demanded a surrender of 
the fortress and town ; Captain Bull raised his majesty's 
colours, and prepared for defence. The major did not 
like to fire on the king's colours, and thought it would be 
a bloody affair to reduce the town by force. Early in 
the morning of the 12th, Sir Edmund desired to be ad- 
mitted on shore. 

Captain Bull met the major at his landing, and re- 
quested a treaty. The major rejected the proposal, and 
commanded, in his majesty's name, that the Duke's pa- 
tent and his commission should be read. Captain Bull, 
in his majesty's name, commanded him to forbear read- 
ing. When his clerk attempted to proceed, Captain Bull 
again repeated his command with such energy, that it 
convinced the major it was not safe to proceed. The 
captain then acquainted him that he had an address from 
the assembly, and read his protest. 

Governor Andross, pleased with his bold and soldier- 
like appearance, said " What is your name ?" He re- 
plied, " My name is Bull, sir." " Bull," said the gover- 
nor," It is a pity your horns are not tipped with silver." 



THE UNITED STATES. 79 

Finding he could make no impression upon the people, he 
soon sailed for New-York. 

In the year 1675, began the famous Indian war, which 
was termed King Philip's war. 

The leading one was Philip, sachem of the tribe living 
within the boundary of Plymouth, Rhode Island. His 
brother, being suspected of plotting against the whites, 
was seized by a detachment of soldiers. Philip ever 
sought to revenge the treatment of his brother. He suc- 
ceeded in forming a confederacy able to send into action 
between three and four thousand warriors. 

The immediate cause of the war was the execution of 
three Indians by the English, whom Philip had excited to 
murder one Susaman, an Indian missionary. Susaman, 
being friendly to the English, had informed them that 
Philip, with several tribes, were plotting their destruction. 

The execution of these Indians roused the anger of 
Philip, who immediately armed his men, and commenced 
hostilities. Their first attack was made June 24th, upon 
the people of Swanzey, in Plymouth colony, as they \\ ere 
returning home from public w r orship, on a day of humi- 
liation and prayer, under the apprehension of the ap- 
proaching war. Eight or nine persons were killed. 

The country was immediately alarmed, and the troops 
of the colony flew to the defence of Swanzey. On the 
28th, the company of horse and company of foot, with 
one hundred and ten volunteers from Boston, joined the 
Plymouth forces at Swanzey. The next morning, an at- 
tack was made upon some of Philip's men, who were pur- 
sued, and five or six of them killed. This resolute con- 
duct of the English made a deep impression on the ene- 
my. Philip with his forces left Mount Hope the same 
night ; marking his route, however, w.ith the burning o 
houses, and the scalping of the defenceless inhabitants. 

It being known that the Narragansets favoured the 
cause of Philip, he having sent his women and children 
to them for protection, the Massachusetts forces, under 
Captain Hutchinson, proceeded forthwith into their coun- 
try, to renew a treaty with them, or to give them battle. 
Fortunately, a treaty was concluded, and the troops re- 
turned. 



80 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

On the 17th of July, news arrived that Philip, with his 
warriors, was in a swamp at Pocasset, now Tiverton. 
The Massachusetts and Plymouth forces immediately 
marched to that place, and the next day resolutely charged 
the enemy in their recesses. As the troops entered the 
swamps, the Indians continued to retire. The English, in 
vain pursued, till the approach of night, when the com- 
mander ordered a retreat. Many of the English were 
killed, and the enemy seemed to take courage. 

It being impossible to encounter the Indians with ad- 
vantage in the swamps, it was determined to starve them 
out ; but Philip, apprehending their design, contrived to 
escape with his forces. 

He now fled to the Nipmucks, a tribe in Worcester 
county? Massachusetts, whom he induced to assist him. 
This tribe had already commenced hostilities against the 
English ; but, in the hope of reclaiming them, the gover- 
nor and council sent Captains Wheeler and Hutchinson 
to treat with them. But the Indians, having intimation of 
their coming, lurked in ambush for them, fired upon them 
as they approached, killed eight men, and mortally wound- 
ed eight more, of whom Captain Hutchinson was one. 

The remainder of the English fled to Quaboag, Brook- 
field. The Indians, however, closely pursued them into 
the town, and burnt every house excepting one, in which 
the inhabitants had taken refuge. This house at length 
they surrounded. " For two days they continued to pour 
a storm of musket balls upon it, and although countless 
numbers pierced through the walls, but one person was 
killed. With long poles, they next thrust against it brands, 
aad rags dipped in brimstone ; they shot arrows of tire ; 
they loaded a cart with flax and tow, and with long poles 
fastened together, they pushed it against the house. De- 
struction seemed inevitable. The house was kindling, and 
the savages stood ready to destroy the first that should 
open the door to escape. At this awful moment a torrent 
of rain descended, and suddenly extinguished the kind- 
ling flames." 

August 4th, Major Willard came to their relief, raised 
the siege, and destroyed a considerable number of the as- 
sailants. 



THE UNITED STATES. 81 

During the month of September, Hadley, Deerfield, and 
Northfield, on Connecticut river, were attacked ; several of 
the inhabitants were killed, and many buildings consumed. 
On the 18th, Captain Lathrop, with several teams, and 
eighty young men, the flower of the county of Essex, were 
sent to Deerfield to transport a quantity of grain to Had- 
ley. On their return, stopping to gather grapes at Muddy 
Brook, they were suddenly attacked by near eight hundred 
Indians. Resistance was in vain, and seventy of these 
young men fell before the merciless enemy, and were bu- 
ried in one grave. Captain Mosely, who was at Deerfield, 
hearing the report of the guns, hastened to the spot, and, 
with a few men, attacked the Indians, killed ninety-six, 
and wounded forty, losing himself but two men. 

Early in October, the Springfield Indians,- who had 
hitherto been friendly to the English, concerted a plan, 
with the hostile tribes, to burn that town. Having, under 
cover of night, received two or three hundred of Philip's 
men into their fort, with the assistance of these, they set 
fire to the town. The plot, however, was discovered so 
seasonably, that troops arrived from Westfield in time to 
save the town, excepting thirty-two houses already con- 
sumed. 

Soon after hostilities were commenced by Philip, the 
Tarrenteens began their depredations in New-Hampshire, 
and the province of Maine. They robbed the boats, and 
plundered the houses of the English. In September they 
fell on Saco, Scarborough, and Kittery, killed between 
twenty and thirty of the inhabitants, and consigned their 
houses, barns, and mills, to the flames. 

Elated with these successes, they next advanced towards 
Piscataqua, committing the same outrages at Oyster River, 
Salmon Falls, Dover, and Exeter. Before winter, sixty 
of the English, in that quarter, were killed, and nearly as 
many buildings consumed. 

The Indians in those parts, however, had real ground of 
complaint. Some seamen, hearing it reported that In- 
dian children could swim by instinct, overset the canoe of 
Squando, sachem of the Saco Indians, in which were his 
squaw and infant child. This act Squando could not over- 
look, especially as, some time after, the child died, and, as 



82 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the sachem believed, on account of some injury that it then 
received. Besides this, several Indians had been enticed 
on board a vessel, carried off, and sold into slavery. To 
redress these wrongs, the Indians commenced hostilities. 

Notwithstanding the Narragansetts had pledged them- 
selves, by their treaty, not to engage in the war against the 
English, it was discovered that they were taking part with 
the enemy. It was deemed necessary, therefore, for the 
safety of the colonies, early to check that powerful tribe. 

Accordingly, Governor Winslow, of Plymouth, with 
about one thousand eight hundred troops from Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut, and one hundred and sixty friendly 
Indians, commenced their march from Pettyquamscot, 
on the 19th of December, 1675, through a deep snow, 
towards the enemy, who were in a swamp about fifteen 
miles distant. 

The army arrived at the swamp at one in the afternoon. 
Some Indians, at the edge of the swamp, were fired upon, 
but fled. The whole army now entered, and pursued the 
Indians to their fortress. 

This stood on a rising ground' in the middle of the 
swamp. It was a work of great strength and labour, being 
composed of palisades, and surrounded by a hedge about 
sixteen feet in thickness. 

One entrance only led to the fort, through the surrounding 
thicket. Upon this the English providentially fell ; and, 
without waiting to form, rushed impetuously towards the 
fort. The English captains entered first. The resistance 
of the Indians was gallant and warlike. Captains John- 
son and Davenport, with many of their men, fell at the 
entrance. At length the English gave back, and were 
obliged to retreat out of the fort. 

At this crisis, the army being on the point of a fatal re- 
pulse, some Connecticut men, on the opposite side of the 
fort, discovered a place destitute of palisades ; they in- 
stantly sprang into the fort, fell upon the rear of the In- 
dians, and, aided by the rest of the army, after a desperate 
conflict, achieved a complete victory. Six hundred wig- 
wams was now set on fire The scene was awful. Deep 
volumes of smoke rolled up to heaven, mingling with the 



THE UNITED STATES. 83 

dying shrieks of mothers and infants, while the aged and 
infirm were consuming in the flames. 

Even at this distant period, we cannot recal this scene 
without pain, and can justify this severity of our ances- 
tors, only by admitting its necessity for self-preservation. 

The Indians in the fort were estimated at four thousand ; 
of these seven hundred warriors were killed, and three 
hundred died of their wounds ; three hundred wre taken 
prisoners, and as many women and children. The rest, 
except such as were consumed, fled. 

The victory of the English, complete as it was, was pur- 
chased with blood. Six brave captains fell ; eighty of 
the troops were killed, or mortally wounded, and one 
hundred and fifty were wounded, who recovered. 

From this defeat the Indians never recovered. They 
were not yet, however, effectually subdued. During the 
winter they still continued to murder and burn. The 
towns of Lancaster, Medfield, Weymouth, Groton, Spring- 
field, Northampton, Sudbury, and Marlborough, in Massa- 
chusetts, and Warwick and Providence, in Rhode-Island, 
were assaulted, and some of them partly, and others 
wholly destroyed. In March, Captain Pierce, with fifty 
English, and twenty friendly Indians, were attacked, and 
every Englishman, and most of the Indians, were slain. 
In April, Captain Wadsworth, marching with fifty men to 
the relief of Sudbury, was surrounded, and all either killed 
on the spot, or reserved for long and distressing tortures. 

The success of the Indians, during the winter, had been 
great ; but, on the return of spring, the tide turned against 
them. The Narraganset country was scoured, and many 
of the natives were killed, among whom was Canonchet, 
their chief sachem. 

On the 12th of August, 1676, the finishing stroke was 
given to the war in the United Colonies, by the death of 
Philip. After his flight from Mount Hope, he had at- 
tempted to rouse the Mohaw r ks against the English. To 
effect his purpose, he killed, at several times, some of that 
tribe, and laid it to the English. But hjs iniquity was dis- 
covered, and he was obliged hastily to flee. He returned 
at length to Mount Hope. 

Tidings of his return were brought to Captain Church, 



84 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

a man who had been of eminent service in this war, and 
who was better able than any other person to provide 
against the wiles of the enemy. Captain Church immedi- 
ately proceeded to the place of Philip's concealment, near 
Mount Hope, accompanied by a small body of men. On 
his arrival, which was in the night, he placed his men in 
ambush round the swamp, charging them not to move till 
daylight, that they might distinguish Philip, should he at- 
tempt to escape. Such was his confidence of success, that, 
taking Major Sandford by the hand, he said, " It is scarcely 
possible that Philip should escape." At that instant a 
bullet whistled over their heads, and a volley followed. 

The firing proceeded from Philip, and his men, who 
were in view. Perceiving his peril, the savage chief, des- 
perately snatched his powder horn and gun, and ran fierce- 
ly towards the spot where an Englishman and Indian lay 
concealed. The English soldier levelled his gun, but it 
missed fire ; the Indian fired, and shot Philip through the 
heart. 

Captain Church ordered him to be beheaded, and quar- 
tered. The Indian who executed this order, pronounced 
the warrior's epitaph, " You have been one very great 
man. You have made many a man afraid of you. But 
so big as you be, I will now chop you to pieces." 

Thus fell a savage hero and patriot of whose trans- 
cendant abilities our history furnishes melancholy evi- 
dence. The advantage of civilized education, and a wider 
theatre of action, might have made the name of Philip of 
Mount Hope, as memorable as that of Alexander or Caesar. 

After the death of Philip, the war continued in the pro- 
vince of Maine, till the spring of 1678. But westward, 
the Indians having lost their chiefs, wigwams, and provi- 
sions, and perceiving further contest vain, came in singly 
by tens, and hundreds, and submitted to the English. 

Thus closed a melancholy period in the annals of New 
England history ; during which, six hundred men, the 
flower of her strength, had fallen; twelve or thirteen towns 
had been destroyed, and six hundred dwelling houses con- 
sumed. Every eleventh family was houseless, and every 
eleventh soldier had sunk in his grave. So costly was 
the inheritance which our fathers have transmitted to us. 



THE UNITED STATES. 85 

Never was peace more welcome ; for never had war 
been more distressing. The whole population was mourn- 
ing for their relatives slain. The colonies had contracted 
a large debt, which their resources, having been so much 
diminished, they found an almost insupportable burden , 
yet they forebore to apply to their mother country for as- 
sistance, which excited jealousy. " You act," said" a privy 
counsellor, " as though you were independent ; although 
poor, you are proud." 

In 1680, it appears that there were twenty-six towns in 
New-England ; that the militia, including horse and foot 
consisted of two thousand five hundred and seven men ; 
that the annual exports were about nine thousand pounds. 
There were in the colony about twenty small merchants, 
trading to Boston, New- York, Newfoundland, and the 
West-Indits ; and the shipping consisted of four ships, 
three pinks, eight sloops, and other small vessels, amount- 
ing to about twenty-seven in number, the tonnage of which 
was only one thousand and fifty. The number of inhabi- 
tants was nearly twelve thousand. 

In 1(582, East- Jersey passed from Carteret to William 
Penn, and twenty-three associates, mostly of the Quaker 
persuasion. 

In April, Penn published a frame of government. The 
chief object was declared to be, to support power and re- 
verence among the people. This year, William Penn 
laid out Philadelphia for his capital, which grew rapidly. 
In 1683, Penn held the second assembly in his new capi- 
tal, and presided in the council." The lasting prosperity 
of Pennsylvania, the foundation of which must be traced 
to his wisdom and benevolence, is an eloquent eulogium 
upon his character. 

In 1684, King James established a temporary govern- 
ment over the colony, first appointing Joseph Dudley 
and in 1686, he appointed Sir Edmund Andross to be go- 
vernor of New-England. Sir Edmund had been govern- 
or of New-York, and it was known that his conduct there 
had been arbitrary and tyrannical. In October, Sir Ed 
mund, with a guard of about sixty regular troops, went to 
Hartford. 

The assembly met, as usual, in October, and the go- 
8 



86 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

vernmerit continued according to charter, until the last of 
the month. About this time, Sir Edmund, with his suit, 
and more than sixty regular troops, came to Hartford, 
when the assembly were sitting, demanded the charter, 
and declared the government under it to be dissolved. 
The assembly were extremely reluctant and slow with re- 
spect to any resolve to surrender the charter, or with re- 
spect to any motion to bring it forth. The tradition is, 
that Governor Treat strongly represented the great ex- 
pense and hardships of the colonists, in planting the 
country the blood and treasure which thoy had expend- 
ed in defending it, both against the savages and foreign- 
ers ; to what hardships and dangers he himself had been 
exposed for that purpose ; and that it was like giving up 
his life, now to surrender the patent and privileges, so 
dearly bought, and so long enjoyed. 

The important affair was debated and kept in suspense, 
until the evening, when the charter was brought and laid 
upon the table, where the assembly was sitting. By this 
time, great numbers of people were assembled, and 
men sufficiently bold to enterprise whatever might be ne- 
cessary or expedient. The lights were instantly extin- 
guished, and one Captain Wads worth, of Hartford, in the 
most silent and secret manner, carried off the charter, and 
secreted it in a large hollow tree, fronting the house of 
the Hon. Samuel Wyllys, then one of the magistrates of 
the colony. The people appeared all peaceably and or- 
derly. The candles were officiously re-lighted ; but the 
patent was gone, and no discovery could be made of it, 
or of the person who had conveyed it away. Sir Ed- 
mund assumed the government, and the records of the 
colony were closed in the following words : 

"At a general court at Hartford, October 31st, 1687, 
his excellency, Sir Edmund Andross. knight, and captain- 
general and governor of his majesty's territories and do- 
minions in New-England, by order from his majesty, 
James the Second, Iving of England, Scotland, France, 
and Ireland, the 31st of October, 1687, took into hia 
hands the government of the colony of Connecticut, il 
being, by his majesty, annexed to Massachusetts, and 
other colonies under his excellency's government." 



THE UNITED STATES. 87 

Sir Edmund appointed officers, civil and military, 
through the colony, according to his pleasure. He had a 
council, at first, consisting of about forty persons, and af- 
terwards, of nearly fifty. Four of this number, governor 
Treat, John Fitz Winthrop, Wait Winthrop, and John 
Allen, Esquires, were of Connecticut. 

Sir Edmund began his government with the most flat- 
tering professions of his regard to the public safety, and 
happiness. He instructed the judges to administer justice 
as far as might be consistent with the new regulations, ac- 
cording to the former laws and customs. It is, however, 
well observed by Governor Hutchinson, that " Nero con- 
cealed his tyrannical disposition more years, than Sir Ed- 
mund and his creatures did months." He soon laid a re- 
straint upon the liberty of the press, and then one far more 
grievous upon marriage. 

This was prohibited, unless bonds were previously gi- 
ven, with sureties, to the governor. These were to be 
forfeited, in case it should afterwards appear, that there 
was any lawful impediment to the marriage. Magis- 
trate only were allowed to join people in the bands of 
wedlock. The governor not only deprived the clergy of 
the perquisite from marriages, but soon suspended the 
laws for their support, and would not suffer any person 
to be obliged to pay any thing to his minister. Nay, he 
menaced the people, that, if they resisted his will, their 
meeting-houses should be taken from them, and that any 
person who should give two pence to a non-conformist 
minister, should be punished. 

The fees of all officers, under this new administration, 
were exorbitant. The common fee for the probate of a 
will was fifty shillings. The widow and fatherless, how 
distant soever, were obliged to appear at Boston, to trans- 
act all business relative to the settlement of estates. This 
was a grievous oppression of the poor people, especially 
of the fatherless and widow. 

Sir Edmund, without an assembly, nay, without a ma- 
jority of his council, taxed the people at pleasure. He 
and Randolph, with four or five others of his creatures, 
who were sufficiently wicked to join with him, in all his 
oppressive designs, managed the affairs of government 



88 % UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

as they pleased. But these were but the beginnings of 
oppression and sorrow. They were soon greatly in- 
creased, and more extensively spread. 

In 1688, Sir Edmund was made governor of New-York, 
as well as of New-England, and the same kind of govern- 
ment was exercised in that department. As the charters 
were now either vacated, surrendered, or the government 
under them suspended, it was declared that the titles ot 
the colonists to their lands were of no value. Sir Edmund 
declared, that Indian deeds were no better than " the 
scratch of a bear's paw." Not the fairest purchases, and 
most ample conveyances from the natives, no dangers, 
disbursements, nor labours, in cultivating a wilderness, and 
turning it into orchards, gardens, and pleasant fields, no 
grants by charter, nor by legislatures constituted by them, 
no declarations of preceding kings, nor of his then present 
majesty, promising them the quiet enjoyment of their 
houses and lands, nor fifty or sixty years undisturbed pos- 
session, were pleas of any validity or consideration with 
Sir Edmund and his minions. 

The purchasers and cultivators, after fifty and sixty 
years improvement, were obliged to take out patents for 
their estates. For these, in some instances, a fee of fifty 
pounds was demanded. Writs of intrusion were issued 
against persons of principal character, who would not 
submit to such impositions, and their lands were patented 
to others. Governor Hutchinson observes, with respect 
to Massachusetts, that " men's titles were not all ques- 
tioned at once. Had this been the case, according to the 
computation then made, all the personal estate in the co- 
lony would not have paid the charge of the new patents." 

The governor, and a small number of his council, in the 
most arbitrary manner, fined and imprisoned numbers of 
the inhabitants of Massachusetts, and denied them the 
benefit of the act of habeas corpus. All town meetings 
were prohibited, except one in the month of May, for the 
election of town officers, to prevent the people from con- 
sulting measures for the redress of their grievances. No 
person, indeed, was suffered to go out of the country, with- 
out leave from the governor, lest complaints should be 
carried to England against his administration. At the 



THE UNITED STATES. * 89 

same time, he so well knew the temper and views of his 
royal master, that he feared little from him, even though 
complaints should be carried over against him. Hence 
he and his dependants oppressed the people, and enriched 
themselves without restraint. 

The most humble petitions were presented to his ma- 
jesty, from corporations of various descriptions, beseech- 
ing him that the governor's council might consist of none 
but men of considerable property in lands ; that no act 
might be passed to bind the people, but by a majority of 
the council ; and that he would quiet his good subjects in 
the enjoyment of all property in houses and lands.* But 
in the reign of James the Second, petitions so reasonable 
and just could not be heard. 

The prince at home, and his officers abroad, like greedy 
harpies, preyed upon the people without control. Ran- 
dolph was not ashamed to make his boast, in his letters, 
with respect to Governor Andross and his council, " that 
they were as arbitrary as the great Turk." All New- 
England groaned under their oppression. The heaviest 
share of it, however, fell upon the inhabitants of Massa- 
chusetts and New-Plymouth. Connecticut had been less 
obnoxious to government than Massachusetts, and as it 
was further removed from the seat of government, was 
less under the notice and influence of those oppressors. 

Governor Treat was a father to the people, and felt for 
them, in their distressed circumstances. The other gen- 
tlemen, who were of the council, and had the principal 
management of affairs, in Connecticut, were men of prin- 
ciple, lovers of justice, and of their fellow subjects. They 
took advantage of Sir Edmund's first instructions, and, as 
far as they possibly could, consistently with the new re- 
gulations, governed the colony according to the former 
laws and customs. The people were patient and peace- 
able, though in great fear and despondency. They were 
no strangers to what was transacted in the neighbouring 

* Sir Edmund, with all his vigilance, could not prevent the carrying- 
over of complaints against him. Mr. Increase Mather got on board a 
ship, and sailed to England, for this very purpose, and delivered the 
complaints, which he carried over, into his majesty's hands. 

8* 



90 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

colonies, and expected soon fully to share with them, in 
all their miseries. 

It was generally believed that Andross was a papist ; 
that he had employed the Indians to ravage the frontiers, 
and had supplied them with ammunition ; and that he was 
making preparations to deliver the country into the hands 
of the French. All the motives to great actions, to in- 
dustry, economy, enterprise, wealth, and population, were 
in a manner annihilated. A general inactivity and lan- 
guishment pervaded the whole public body. Liberty, 
property, and every thing which ought to be dear to men, 
every day grew more and more insecure. The colonies 
were in a state of general despondency, with respect to 
the restoration of their privileges, and the truth of that 
divine maxim, " when the wicked beareth rule, the peo- 
ple mourn," was, in a striking manner, every where ex- 
emplified. 

In 1690, war was declared between France and Eng- 
land. Count Frontinac was appointed governor in Cana- 
da. In January, he despatched several parties against 
the English settlements. One of them was sent against 
Albany, but resolved to attack Schenectady. The inha- 
bitants of this village got information of their danger, but 
they judged it impossible for the enemy to march several 
hundred miles in the depth of winter, and disregarded the 
intelligence. No regular watch was kept, nor military 
order observed. 

The French and Indians arrived near the town on the 
8th of February. On Saturday night, at eleven o'clock, 
they entered the gates, which they found open : universal 
silence reigned. In a few moments, all the houses were 
in flames. Women were butchered, and children thrown 
alive into the flames ; sixty persons perished in the flames; 
twenty -five persons made prisoners ; while the rest of the 
inhabitants fled naked. A furious storm came on. Alba- 
ny, their only refuge, was at a distance. A part arrived 
in safety ; twenty -five lost their limbs by the severity of 
the cold. No tongue can express the cruelties which 
were committed. The second party directed their course 
to New-Hampshire, burned the village at Salmon Falls, 
killed twenty-six of the bravest men, and took fifty pri- 



THE UNITED STATES. 91 

soners. The third party destroyed Casco, in Maine, and 
killed and captured ninety-five people. 

To avenge these barbarities, and others perpetrated in 
New-England, a combined expedition against Canada was 
proposed. An army was raised in New-York and Con- 
necticut, which proceeded as far as the head of Lake 
Cham plain, but not finding boats to cross the lake, were 
obliged to return. Sir William Phipps, with a fleet of 
about 30 vessels, sailed from Boston into the St. I aw- 
rence, and landing a body of troops, made an attack by 
land and water upon Quebec ; but was unsuccessful. 

This year, 1691, Colonel Henry Sloughter succeeded 
Colonel Leisler, governor of New-York. Leisler, when 
informed of this appointment, ought to have relinquished 
the authority he had exercised. Although twice requi- 
red, he refused to surrender the fort. Sloughter caused 
Leisler and Milborne to be arrested and executed for 
high treason. 

In July, 1691, Peter Schuyler, at the head of three 
hundred Mohawks, made a sudden and bold a-ttack upon 
the French settlements at the north end of Lake Cham- 
plain. An army of eight hundred men was despatched 
from Montreal to oppose him. With them he had seve- 
ral singular, but successful conflicts, in which he killed a 
greater number of the enemy than his whole party. 

In 1692, Colonel Fletcher succeeded governor Slough- 
ter, and was authorized by his commission, to take com- 
mand of the militia of Connecticut. This power having 
been given by the charter to the governor of the colony 
of New-England, he determined not to relinquish it, and 
was supported by the people. 

On the 26th of October, Colonel Fletcher came to Hart- 
ford, while the assembly was sitting, and in his majesty's 
name, demanded their submission of the militia to his 
command, as they would answer it to his majesty ; and 
that they would give him a speedy answer in one word, 
Yes or no. He subscribed himself his majesty's lieutenant, 
and conimander-in-chief of the militia, and of all the 
forces by sea or land, and of all the forts and places of 
strength, in the colony of Connecticut. He ordered the 



92 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

militia of Hartford under arms, that he might beat up foi 
volunteers. 

It was judged expedient to call the trainbands in Hart- 
ford together ; but the assembly insisted, that the com- 
mand of the militia was expressly vested, by charter, in 
the governor and company; and that they could, by no 
means, consistently with their just rights and the com- 
mon safety, resign it into any other hands. They insinu- 
ated, that his demands were an invasion of their essential 
privileges, and subversive of their constitution. 

Upon this, Colonel Bayard, by his excellency's command, 
sent a letter into the assembly, declaring, that his excel- 
lency had no design upon the civil rights of the colony; 
but would leave them, in all respects, as he found them. 
In the name of his excellency, he tendered a commission 
to Governor Treat, empowering him to command the mi- 
litia of the colony. He declared that his excellency in- 
sisted, that they should acknowledge it an essential right, 
inherent in his majesty, to command the militia ; and 
that he was determined not to set his foot out of the co- 
lony, until he had seen his majesty's commission obeyed : 
That he would issue his proclamation, showing the means 
he had taken to give ease and satisfaction to his majes- 
ty's subjects of Connecticut, and that he would distin- 
guish the disloyal from the rest. 

The assembly, nevertheless, would not give up the 
command of the militia, nor would Governor Treat re- 
ceive a commission from Colonel Fletcher. 

The trainbands of Hartford assembled, and, as the tra- 
dition is, while Captain Wadsworth, the senior officer, 
was walking in front of the companies, and exercising 
the soldiers, Colonel Fletcher ordered his commission and 
instructions to be read. Captain Wadsworth instantly 
commanded, " Beat the drums ;" and there was such a 
roaring of them that nothing else could be heard. Colo- 
nel Fletcher commanded silence. But no sooner had 
Bayard made an attempt to read again, than Wadsworth 
commands, " Drum, drum, I say." The drummers un- 
derstood their business, and instantly beat up with all the 
art and life of which they were masters. " Silence, si- 
lence," says the colonel. No sooner was there a pause. 



THE UNITED STATES. 93 

than Wadsworth speaks with great earnestness, " Drum, 
drum, I say ;" and turning to his excellency, said, " If I 
am interrupted again, I will make the sun shine through 
you in a moment." He spoke with such energy in his 
voice, and meaning in his countenance, that no further at- 
tempts were made to read or enlist men. Such numbers 
of people collected together, and their spirits appeared 
so high, that the governor and his suite judged it expedi- 
ent soon to leave the town, and return to New-York. 

No pen can describe the cruelties which were practised 
during the French and Indian war. Women, soon ex- 
pecting to become mothers, were ripped up, and their un- 
born offspring dashed against a stone or tree. Infants, 
when troublesome, were dispatched in the same manner. 
Some of the captives were roasted alive ; others received 
deep wounds in the flesh, and sticks on fire thrust into 
them, and were thus tormented to death. 

1694. Upon the solicitations of Governor Fletcher 
and Sir Willam Phipps, agents, with a number of troops, 
were sent to attend a treaty with the Five Nations. The 
expense of it was about four hundred pounds. 

December 10th, 1697, closed the horrid scene, by a 
treaty of peace between Great Britain and France. 

The winter of 1696 was unusually severe. Never had 
the country sustained such losses in commerce, nor had 
provisions ever been so scarce, or borne a higher price. 

The surprise of Dover, in New-Hampshire, was attend- 
ed by circumstances of the most shocking barbarity. 
That the natives had been cruelly injured by Major Wal- 
dron, the principal citizen, may account for it, if not ex- 
tenuate their ferocity, in obtaining revenge. Having de- 
termined upon their plan of attack, they employed more 
than their usual art to lull the suspicions of the inhabi- 
tants. So civil and respectful was their behaviour, that 
they often obtained permission to sleep in the fortified 
houses in the town. 

On the fatal evening they assembled in the neighbour- 
hood, and sent their women to apply for lodgings at the 
houses devoted to destruction ; they were not only admit- 
ted, but were shown how they could open the doors, 
should they have occasion to go out in the night. When 



94 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

all was quiet, the doors were opened, and a signal given. 
The Indians rushed into Mr. Waldron's house, and has- 
tened to his apartment. Awakened by the noise, he 
seized his sword, and drove them back ; but when return- 
ing for his other arms, he was stunned with a hatchet, and 
fell. 

They then dragged him into the hall, seated him in 
n elbow chair, upon a large table, and insultingly asked 
nim, " who shall judge Indians now ?" each one, with 
his knife, cut gashes across his breast, saying, " I cross 
out my account." When weakened with the loss of 
blood, he was about to fall from the table, his own sword 
was held under him, which put an end to his misery. 

At other houses, similar acts of cruelty were perpe- 
trated. In the whole town twenty-three persons were 
killed, twenty-nine carried prisoners to Canada, and sold 
to the French. 

The details of individual sufferings that occurred during 
this war, were they faithfully recorded, would excite the 
sympathies of the most unfeeling bosom. One instance 
only will serve to confirm the remark. 

In an attack, by a body of Indians, upon Haverhill, 
New-Hampshire, in the winter of 1697, the concluding 
year of the war, a party of the assailants, burning with 
savage animosity, approached the house of a Mr. Dustan. 
Upon the first alarm, he flew from a neighbouring field to 
his family, with the hope of hurrying them to a place of 
safety. Seven of his children he directed to flee, while 
he himself went to assist his wife, who was confined in 
her bed with an infant a week old ; but before she could 
leave the bed the savages arrived. 

In despair of rendering her assistance, Mr. Dustan flew 
to the door, mounted his horse, and determined in his own 
mind to snatch up the child which he loved best. He 
followed in pursuit of his little flock, but, on coming up 
with them, he found it impossible to make a selection. 
He determined, therefore, to meet his fate with them ; 
to defend and save them from the knife of the pursuing 
savages, or die by their side. 

A body of the Indians soon came up with them, and, 
from short distances, commenced a fire upon him and his 



THE UNITED STATES. 95 

little company. For more than a mile he continued to 
retreat, placing himself between the fire of the Indians and 
his children, and returned their shots with great spirit 
and success. At length he saw them all safely lodged 
from their bloody pursuers, in a distant house. 

It is not easy to find a nobler instance of fortitude and 
courage, inspired by affection, than is exhibited in this 
heroic act. Let us ever cultivate the influence of those 
ties of kindred, which are capable of giving so generous 
and elevated a direction to our actions. 

As Mr. Dustan quitted his house, a party of Indians 
entered it. Mrs. Dustan was in bed, but they ordered her 
to rise instantly, and, before she could finish dressing, 
obliged her, and the nurse, who had in vain attempted to 
escape with the infant, to quit the house, which they plun- 
dered and burnt. 

In these distressing circumstances, Mrs. Dustan began 
her march, with other captives, in the wilderness. The 
air was keen, and their path led through snow and deep 
mud, and their savage conductors delighted rather in then 
affliction, than in alleviating their distress. 

The company had proceeded but a short distance, when 
an Indian, thinking the infant an incumbrance, took it 
from the arms of the nurse, and violently terminated its 
life. Such of the other captives as became weary and in- 
capable of proceeding, the Indians killed with their toma- 
hawks. Feeble as Mrs. Dustan was, both she and ht * 
nurse sustained, with wonderful energy, the fatigues and 
misery attending a journey of one hundred and fifty miles. 

On their arriving at the place of their destination, they 
found the wigwam of the savage who claimed them, to be 
inhabited by twelve Indians. In the ensuing April, this 
family set out, with their captives, for an Indian settle- 
ment, still more remote. The captives were informed, 
that on their arrival at the settlement, they must submit 
to be stripped, scourged, and run the gauntlet between 
two files of Indians. This information carried distress to 
the minds of the captive women, and led them promptly 
to devise some means of escape. 

Early in the morning of the 31st of April, Mrs. Dustan 
awaking her nurse, and another fellow prisoner, they dis- 



96 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

patched ten of the twelve Indians, while they were 
asleep ; the other two escaped. The women then com- 
menced their difficult and dangerous journey through the 
wilderness, and at length arrived, safe at Haverhill. Sub- 
sequently they visited Boston, and received from the 
general court a handsome consideration for their extraor- 
dinary sufferings and heroic conduct. 

In 1698, the Earl of Bellamont was appointed governor. 
He was particularly instructed to clear the American 
seas of the pirates who infested them, and who, it was sus- 
pected, had even received encouragement from Governor 
Fletcher. 

The government declining to furnish the necessary na- 
val force, the earl, with others, engaged in a private un- 
dertaking against them. The association procured a ves- 
sel of war ; gave the command of it to a Captain Kidd, 
and sent him to cruise against the pirates. He had been 
but a short time at sea, when, disregarding his instruc- 
tions, he made a new contract with his crew, and on the 
Atlantic and Indian Ocean became himself a daring, atro- 
cious, and successful pirate. Three years afterwards, he 
returned, burned his vessel, and appeared publicly in Bos- 
ton. He was apprehended and sent to England, where 
he was tried, and executed. 

When Governor Bellamont had settled the affairs of 
that government, he returned to New-York, where he 
died in 1701, greatly lamented. 

Scarcely had the colonies recovered from the war 
which ended in 1697, before they were again involved in 
the horrors of another war with the French, Indians and 
Spaniards, which continued from 1702 to March 31, 1713. 

In February, 1704, Deerfield, in Massachusetts, was 
surprised in the night. About 40 persons were killed, and 
150 made prisoners, among whom were, Mr. Williams, 
the minister, and his family. They came to the house of 
Mr. Williams, forced open the doors, and entered the room 
where Mr. Williams was sleeping. Awakened by the noise, 
he seized his pistol, and snapped it at the first Indian, but 
it missed fire, the house was then plundered, and two of 
his children and the black female servant, were butchered 
before his eyes The savages at length suffered his wife 



THE UNITED STATES. 97 

and himself, with five children, to put on their clothes, 
and prepare for a long journey. Every house but the one 
next to Mr. Williams' was consumed. 

" One house still remains, as a painful memento to pos- 
terity. The front door was hacked and hewn with hatch- 
ets, until the savages had cut a hole through it ; through 
this hole, they fired into the house ; this door, which still 
bears its ancient wounds, and the hole, (closed only by a 
board, tacked on within,) remains now as the savages left 
it, and is a most interesting monument. 

" Through the windows they also fired, and one bullet 
killed the female head of the family, sitting up in bed, 
and the mark of that bullet, as well as of four others, is 
visible in the room ; in one of the holes in a joist, another 
bullet remains to this day. This family were all killed or 
carried into captivity." 

The second day, Mrs. Williams began to fail, and could 
go no farther. Her husband requested permission to re- 
main with her; but they plunged a "hatchet into her head, 
and compelled him to proceed. Before the termination 
of their journey, twenty more shared the same fate. 
Those who reached Canada, were treated with humanity 
by the French. 

At the end of two years, Mr. Williams, and fifty-seven 
others, were redeemed, and he returned to Deerfield, 
where he continued his labours in the ministry twelve 
years, and died. His eldest daughter was married to an 
Indian in Canada, where she lived many years. She came 
into New-England once or twice, with her sannup and 
children, to visit her friends, and at her death left a nu- 
merous family. 

In 1707, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New-Hamp- 
shire, despatched an armament against Port Royal, in 
Nova-Scotia, which was in possession of the French. 
The expedition consisted of one thousand men ; but re- 
turned without accomplishing its object. 

General Nicholson visited England, and proposed an 
expedition against Canada. In June, 1711, Admiral Wal- 
ker, with a fleet of fifteen ships of war, and forty trans- 
ports, arrived at Boston, and taking on board two addi- 
tional regiments, he sailed from Boston the last of July 
9 



98 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

At the same time, General Nicholson proceeded from 
Albany, at the head of four thousand men, from Connec- 
ticut, New- York, and New-Jersey, against Canada. 

The fleet had advanced about ten leagues up the river 
St. Lawrence, when the river became foggy. Different 
opinions arose concerning what course to take ; the Eng- 
lish pilots recommended one course, the Americans an- 
other. The admiral, like all other English officers, 
adopted the advice of his own pilots ; and, about mid- 
night, nine transports were driven upon the rocks, and 
dashed to pieces. About one thousand men sunk to rise 
no more. 

Not a single American was lost. The admiral returned 
to England, and, on the 15th of October, his ship blew 
up, and four hundred seamen perished. The New-Eng- 
land troops returned home, and when Nicholson, who had 
advanced as far as Lake George, learned the fate of the 
fleet, he led back his troops to Albany. The next year, 
1713, France and England made peace at Utrecht ; this 
relieved the northern part of the country, and in the same 
year peace Avas concluded with the Indians. 

Such was the destruction of lives in this war, that the 
population of New-England was sensibly decreasing. 
The expenses were great, which obliged them to issue 
bills of credit, or paper money, which perplexed the go- 
vernment in all their transactions. 

In 1716, Samuel Street, a colonel in the army of the 
celebrated Duke of Marlborough, was appointed gover- 
nor. On his arrival in the province, he found the people 
divided into parties ; one in favour of a public bank, which 
had just been established; the other for a private bank. 

He joined the former; the latter became hostile, and, 
led by a Mr. Cook, opposed with virulence all his mea- 
sures. 

In 1715, after several years of profound peace, an In- 
dian war broke out in South Carolina. All the tribes, 
from Florida to Cape Fear, had been long engaged in a 
conspiracy against the whites. On the morning of the 
15th of April, the first blow was struck at the settlements 
around Port Royal. Ninety persons were massacred. 
Some of the inhabitants escaped by embarking on board 



THE UNITED STATES. 99 

a vessel which then lay in the harbour, and sailed directly 
for Charleston. At a plantation on Goose Creek, seventy 
whites, and forty faithful negroes, being protected by a 
breast-work, determined to maintain their post; but on 
the first attack, their courage failed them, and they agreed 
to surrender. The instant they fell into the power of the 
enemy, all were barbarously murdered. 

Governor Craven, from North Carolina, at the head of 
one thousand men, marched against the savages. He dis- 
covered several small parties, who fled before him. At 
Saltcatchers, he found them all assembled, and there an 
obstinate and bloody battle was fought. The whites were 
victorfous, and compelled the enemy to leave the province. 
Most of them fled to Florida, and were kindly received 
by the Spaniards. 

In 1719, at a general review of the militia at Charles- 
ton, occasioned by a threatening invasion of the colony 
from Florida, the officers and soldiers bound themselves 
by a solemn compact, to support each other in resisting 
the tyranny of the proprietors ; and the assembly, which 
was then in session, requested the governor, by a respect- 
ful address, to consent to administer the government in 
the king's name. He refused, and by proclamation dis- 
solved the assembly. The members immediately met, 
and elected Colonel James Moore their governor. He 
was a bold man, and exceedingly well qualified for a po- 
pular leader, in a turbulent season. He accepted the ap- 
pointment, and administered the affairs of the colony. 

The conduct oFthe proprietors, and people, was brought 
before his majesty's council. After a full hearing, it was 
decided, that both colonies should be taken under the pro- 
tection of the crown. In 1719, Hunter, Governor of New- 
York, quitted the province, and his authority devolved on 
Peter Schuyler. The next year, William Burnet, son of 
the celebrated bishop, was appointed governor. Turning 
his attention towards the wilderness, he perceived that 
the French, in order to secure themselves the Indian trade, 
and confine the English to the sea coast, were erecting 
forts, from St. Lawrence to the Mississippi. He endea- 
voured to defeat these designs, by building a trading house 
and fort at Oswego, on Lake Ontario. But the French 



100 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

applied with great activity in accomplishing their object; 
they launched two vessels upon the lake, and erected a 
fort at Niagara ; they had previously erected Fort Fronti- 
nac, commanding the outlet. 

The peace of 1713, was of short duration. In 1722, 
the eastern Indians began to be hostile, murdering seve- 
ral persons, and burning the town of Brunswick. In 1723, 
Dover was surprised, and several persons killed, and a 
number carried into captivity ; and in 1724, repeated at- 
tacks were made, and the English kept in a continual 
alarm. Numbers were killed. The English in their turn 
made an attack upon Norridgeway ; killed Railed, the Je- 
suit, and about eighty-seven Indians. The war now raged 
with violence, until 1726, when peace was restored. This 
treaty was greatly applauded, and under it, owing to the 
more pacific feelings of the Indians, and more faithful ob- 
jervance of the English, the colonies experienced unu- 
sual tranquillity for a long time. 

* 

The Settlement of Georgia, in June, 1732. 

Several benevolent gentlemen in England, suggested a 
plan of conveying all the indigent subjects of Great Bri- 
tain thither. To a project springing from motives so no- 
ble, the people and the government extended their pa- 
tronage. In November, 1732, one hundred emigrants 
embarked for Georgia. The next year, five hundred per- 
sons arrived at that place. But it was soon discovered, 
that these people had become poor by their idleness, and 
were not fitted to fill the groves of Georgia. 

The trustees therefore offered to receive such as had 
become poor by unavoidable misfortune, and grant to each 
one who should repair to the colony, fifty acres of land. 
This offer brought more than four hundred persons into 
Georgia. 

In 1738, a disturbance was created among the negroes 
in South Carolina. A number of them assembled at 
Stono, surprised and killed two white men who had the 
charge of a ware-house, from which they took guns and 
ammunition. They then chose a captain, and with drums 
proceeded southward, burning every house, and killing 



THE UNITED STATES. 1*01 

all the whites that fell in their way, and compelled all the 
negroes to join them. Governor Bull, who was returning 
from the southward, accidently met them, hastened out of 
the way, and spread the alarm. 

The news soon reached "Wiltown, where a large con- 
gregation were attending divine service. The men, ac- 
cording to the law, brought their arms to the place of 
worship, and marched directly in quest of the negroes. 
While in an open field, they were dancing with frantic 
exultation at their late success, they were suddenly at- 
tacked by the whites ; a number were killed, some fled, 
and the remainder taken. They who had been compel- 
led to join them were pardoned ; but all the leaders suf- 
fered death. About twenty whites were murdered. 

In 1744, war again broke out between England and 
France, and the colonies were involved. Their com- 
merce and fisheries suffered great injury from privateers 
fitted out at Louisburg, a French port on Cape Breton. 
Its situation was important. Nearly six millions of dol- 
lars had been expended on its fortification. It was of 
great importance that the colonies should destroy or take 
possession of this strong hold, although it was consider- 
ed impossible. Having exacted of the general court an 
oath of secrecy, the governor, in January, 1745, commu- 
nicated to them the project. Many heard it with amaze- 
ment. 

So srtrcng was the place, and so weak were the colo- 
nies, that the thoughts of attacking it seemed rash and 
presumptuous. The secret was disclosed by an honest 
member, who prayed for divine blessing on the attempt, 
if it should be made. The people were instantly struck 
with the advantage of possessing the place. When the 
decision was made known, a petition, signed by a large 
number of merchants, was presented to the general court, 
praying them to comply with the governor's proposals. 
The subject was again discussed, and the vote in favour 
of the expedition was only one majority. 

The question was now decided, and all who were be- 
fore averse to the enterprise, united heartily with the sup- 
porters, to carry it into execution. The other New- 
England colonies agreed to furnish assistance, and a boat 
9* 



102 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

was despatched to Commodore Warren, in the West In- 
dies, to invite him to their assistance. In two months, 
an army of more than four thousand men were enlisted, 
clothed, victualled, and equipped for service, in the four 
New-England colonies, which did not contain four hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants. 

On the 23d of March, the despatch boat returned from 
the West Indies, with information that Commodore War- 
ren declined furnishing any aid, without orders from Eng- 
land. This intelligence was kept a secret. About the 
19th of April, the troops, together with those from Con- 
necticut and New-Hampshire, arrived safely at Canso. 
Commodore Warren had but just despatched his answer, 
when he received orders to repair to Boston, with such 
ships as he could spare, and concert measures with Go- 
vernor Shirley, for his majesty's service in North Ameri- 
ca. He sailed immediately, but learning that the trans- 
ports had sailed for Canso, he steered directly for that 
place. He added much to the naval strength. 

Several vessels of war, which had been sent to cruise 
before Louisburg, had captured several French ships, and 
prevented any intelligence of the expedition from reach- 
ing them. Those vessels were daily within sight of the 
place, bu-t were supposed to be privateers, and caused no 
alarm. The appearance of the fleet on the 30th of April, 
gave the French the first intimation of their danger. The 
troops immediately landed, and the next day, four hun- 
dred marched around the hills, approached within a mile 
of the grand battery, setting fire to all the houses and 
stores on the way. Many of these contained tar and 
pitch, which produced a thick smoke, that completely en- 
veloped the invaders. The fears of the French were in- 
creased by their uncertainty. They imagined all the ar- 
my was coming upon them, and throwing their powder 
into a well, destroyed the battery, which the English took 
without loss. 

This was uncommon good fortune ; but the most diffi- 
cult labour of the siege remained to be performed. The 
cannon were to be drawn nearly two miles, over a deep 
morass, in plain view, and within gunshot of the enemy's 
principal fortification. For fourteen nights, the Droops, 



THE UNITED STATES. 103 

with straps over their shoulders, and sinking to their 
knees in mud, were employed in the service. By the 
20th of May, they had erected five batteries, one of 
which mounted five forty-two pounders, and did great 
execution. 

Meanwhile, the fleet cruised in the harbour, and was 
equally successful. It captured a French ship of sixty- 
four guns, loaded with stores for the garrison, to whom 
the loss was distressing. English ships of war were 
continually arriving, and added such strength to the fleet, 
that a combined attack upon the town was resolved upon. 
The enemy, discovering this design, deemed it unwise to 
run the hazard of an assault. On the 15th of June, the 
French commander proposed a cessation of hostilities, 
and on the 17th capitulated. 

Intelligence of this event spread like lightning through 
the country. The French flag was still standing upon the 
walls of Louisburg, which decoyed several India ships, 
supposed to be worth six hundred thousand pounds. 
Well might the citizens of New-England be elated with 
these glad tidings. Without even a suggestion from the 
mother country, their commerce and fisheries were now 
secure. 

France, fired with resentment at her loss, made extra- 
ordinary exertions to retrieve it, and to inflict chastise- 
ment on New-England. The next summer, she des- 
patched to the American coast a powerful fleet, carrying 
a large number of soldiers. The news of its approach 
spread terror throughout New-England. But an uncom- 
mon succession of disasters, which the pious of that time 
attributed to the special interposition of Providence, de- 
prived it of all power to inflict injury. After remaining 
a short time on the coast, it returned to France ; having 
lost two admirals, both of whom, it was supposed, put an 
end to their lives through chagrin ; having also, by tem- 
pest, been reduced to one half its force, and effected no- 
thing. 

In 1748, peace was concluded; each party restored all 
its prisoners and conquests; a striking, but not uncom- 
mon illustration of the folly of war. Louisburg, though 
conquered by the colonies, was exchanged by Great Bri- 



104 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

tain for territories which she had lost in Europe. New 
England murmured at this injustice, but what avail the 
murmurs of the weak ? 

In 1750, an act was passed, prohibiting the exportation 
of hats out of the plantations of America, and to restrain 
the number of apprentices taken by hat makers ; also, 
an act providing a penalty of one hundred pounds for 
the erection of any mill for slitting or rolling of iron, or 
any plating forge to work with a tilt hammer. 



CHAPTER V. 

French and Indian War, which commenced in 1756, and 
continued to 1763. 

The war which ended in 1748, for a short period, gave 
peace to America, and the population in the thirteen co- 
lonies, amounted to one million and one hundred thou- 
sand. Scarcely had the colonies time to reap the benefits 
of peace, before their prospect was clouded, and the sound 
of war filled the land with general anxiety and distress. 
In 1756, the 18th of May, Great Britain declared war 
against France. 

The general cause leading to this war, commonly call- 
ed the French and Indian war, was the encroachment of 
the French upon Nova-Scotia, which had been ceded to 
Great Britain by the 12th article of the treaty of Utrecht. 
About this time, a company of English traders established 
trading houses on the banks of the Ohio. 

The French seized some of the traders, and conveyed 
them prisoners to Canada. A tribe of Indians in Ohio, 
among whom the English had been trading, resented the 
seizure, and by way of retaliation, took several French 
traders, and sent them to Pennsylvania. The Ohio com- 
pany complained to Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia, who 
laid the subject before the assembly, which ordered a 
messenger to be despatched to the French commander in 
Ohio, and require him to withdraw his troops. 

Our beloved Washington happening to hear of it, in- 



THE UNITED STATES. 105 

stantly waited on his excellency, and offered his services, 
but not without being terribly afraid lest his want of a 
beard should go against him. However, the governor 
was so charmed with his modesty and manly air, that he 
never asked him a syllable about his age, but after thanking 
him for " a noble youtli" and insisting on his taking a 
glass of wine with him, slipped a commission into his 
hand. The next day, accompanied by an interpreter 
and a couple of servants, he set out on his expedition, 
which was, from start to pole, as disagreeable and danger- 
ous as any thing Hercules himself could have wished. 
Soaking rains, chilling blasts, roaring floods, pathless 
woods, and mountains clad in snows, opposed his course, 
but opposed in vain. The glorious ambition to serve his 
country imparted an animation to his nerves, which ren- 
dered him superior to all difficulties. 

Returning homewards, he was waylaid and shot at by 
a French Indian, and though the copper coloured ruffian 
was not 15 steps distant when he fired at him, yet not 
even so much as the smell of lead passed on the clothes 
of our young hero. On his return to Virginia, it was 
found that he l\ad executed his negotiations, both with 
the French and Indians, with such fidelity and judgment, 
that he received the heartiest thanks of the governor and 
council for the very important services he had done his 
country. 

He was now (in the 20th year of his age) appointed 
major and adjutant-general of the Virginia forces. Soon 
after this, the Indians continuing the encroachments, or- 
ders Avere given by the English government, for the colo- 
nies to arm and unite in one confederacy. Virginia took 
the lead, and raised a regiment of four hundred men, at 
the head of which she placed her darling Washington. 

With this handful of brave fellows, Col. Washington, 
not yet 23 years of age, boldly pushed out into the Indian 
country, and there for a considerable time, Hannibal-like, 
maintained the war against three times the number of 
French and Indians. At the Red-Stones he came up with 
a strong party of the enemy, whom he engaged and effec- 
tually defeated, after having killed and taken thirty-one 
men. From his prisoners he obtained undoubted intelli- 



106 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

gence, that the French forces on the Ohio consisted of 
upwards of a thousand regulars, and many hundreds of 
Indians. 

But notwithstanding this disheartening advice, he still 
pressed on undauntedly against the enemy, and at a place 
called Little Meadows, built a fort, which he called Fort 
Necessity. Here he waited, hourly and anxiously look- 
ing for succours from New- York and Pennsylvania ; but 
he looked in vain nobody came to his assistance. Not 
long after this his small force, now reduced to three hun- 
dred men, were attacked by an army of 1100 French and 
Indians. Never did the true Virginian valour shine more 
gloriously than on this trying occasion. 

To see three hundred young fellows commanded by 
a smooth-faced boy all unaccustomed to the terrors of 
war far from home, and from all hopes of help shut 
up in a dreary wilderness, and surrounded by four times 
their number of savage foes, and yet, without sign of fear, 
without thought of surrender, preparing for mortal com- 
bat. Oh ! it was a noble sight ! Scarcely since the days 
of Leonidas, and his three hundred deathless Spartans, 
had the sun beheld its equal. With hideous whoops and 
yells the enemy came on like a host of tigers. The 
woods, and rocks, and tall tree tops, (as the Indians, climb- 
ing to the tops of the trees, poured down their bullets into 
the fort,) were in one continued blaze and crash of fire- 
arms. 

Nor were our young warriors idle, but, animated by 
their gallant chief, plied their rifles with such spirit, that 
their little fort resembled a volcano in full blast, roaring 
and discharging thick sheets of liquid fire, and of leaden 
deaths among their foes. For three glorious hours, Sala- 
mander like, enveloped in smoke and flame, they sustained 
the attack of the enemy's whole force, and laid two hun- 
dred of them dead on the spot. Discouraged by such 
desperate resistance, the French general, the Count de 
Villiers, sent in a flag to Washington, extolling his gallan- 
try to the skies, and offering him the most honourable 
terms. It was stipulated that Col. Washington, and his 
little band of heroes, should march away with all the ho- 



THE UNITED STATES. 107 

nours of war, and carry with them their military stores 
and baggage. 

The conduct of the French against the Ohio company, 
soon reached England. The English were convinced, 
that their claims to the country through which that river 
flows must be relinquished, or maintained by the sword. 
They soon chose the latter, and early in the spring of 
1755, they despatched General Braddock with a respecta- 
ble force to America, to expel the French, and keep pos- 
session of the territory. 

In April, Braddock met the governors of several pro 
vinces to confer upon the plan of the ensuing campaign. 
Three expeditions were resolved upon ; one against Du 
Quesne, to be commanded by General Braddock; one 
against forts Niagara and Frontinac, to be commanded by 
Governor Shirley, and one against Crown Point, by Ge- 
neral Johnson. This last expedition was to be executed 
by troops raised in New-England and New- York. 

In the spring of 1755, Washington, while busied in the 
highest military operations, was summoned to attend 
Gen Braddock, who, in the month of February, arrived 
at Alexandria with two thousand British troops. The 
assembly of Virginia appointed eight hundred provincials 
to join him. The object of this army was to march 
through the country by the way of Will's Creek, to Fort 
Du Quesne, (now Pittsburgh, or Fort Pitt.) As no person 
was so well acquainted with the frontier country as Wash- 
ington, and none stood so high in military fame, it was 
thought he would be infinitely serviceable to General 
Braddock. 

At the request of the governor and council, he cheer- 
fully quitted his own command, to act as volunteer aid-de- 
camp to that very imprudent and unfortunate general. 
The army, nearly three thousand strong, marched from 
Alexandria, and proceeded unmolested within a few miles 
of Fort Pitt. On the morning of the day in which they 
expected to arrive, the provincial scouts discovered a 
large party of French and Indians lying in ambush. 
Washington, with his usual modesty, observed to Gen. 
Braddock what sort of enemy he had now to deal with. 
An enemy who would not, like the Europeans, come for 



108 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ward to a fair contest in the field, but, concealed behind 
rocks and trees, carry on a deadly warfare with their rifles. 
He concluded with begging that Gen. Braddock would 
grant him the honour to let him place himself at the head 
of the Virginia riflemen, and fight them in their own way. 
And it was generally thought that our young hero, and his 
eight hundred hearts of hickory, would very easily have 
beaten them too, for they were not superior to the force, 
which (with only three hundred) he had handled so roughly 
a twelve month before. 

But Gen. Braddock, who had all along treated the Ame- 
rican officers and soldiers with infinite contempt, instead 
of following this truly salutary advice, swelled and red- 
dened with most unmanly rage. " High times, by G d," 
he exclaimed, strutting to and fro, with arms a-kimbo, 
" High times ! when a young buckskin can teach a British 
general how to fight!" Washington withdrew, biting 
his lips with grief and indignation, to think what numbers 
of brave fellows would draw short breath that day, 
through the pride and obstinacy of one epauletted fool. 
The troops were ordered to form, and advance in columns, 
through the woods ! ! In a little time, the ruin which 
Washington had predicted ensued. This poor devoted 
army, pushed on by their mad-cap general, fell into the 
fatal snare which was laid for them. All at once a thou- 
sand rifles began the work of death. The ground wa 
instantly covered with the dying and the dead. 

The British troops, thus slaughtered by hundreds, and 
by an enemy whom they could not see, were thrown irre- 
coverably into panic and confusion, and, in a few minutes, 
their haughty general, with 1200 of his brave but unfor- 
tunate countrymen, -bit the ground. Poor Braddock 
closed the tragedy wffh great decency. He was mortally 
wounded in the beginning of the action, and Washington 
had him placed in a carl ready for retreat. Close on the 
left, where the weight or the French and Indian fire prin- 
cipally fell, Washington, and his Virginia riflemen, dress- 
ed in blue, sustaineu the shock. At every discharge of 
their rifles, the wounded general cried out, " O my brave 
Virginia blues ! Would to God I could live to reward 
yor "or such gallantry." But he died. Washington 



THE UNITED STATES. 109 

buried him in the road, and, to save him from discovery, 
and the scalping knife, ordered the wagons, on their re- 
treat, to drive over his grave ! O, God ! what is man ? 
Even a thing of nought ! 

Amidst all this fearful consternation and carnage, 
amidst all the uproars and horrors of a rout, rendered 
still more dreadful by the groans of the dying,-* the 
screams of the wounded, the piercing shrieks of the 
women, and the yells of the furious assaulting savages, 
Washington, calm and self-collected, rallied his faithful 
riflemen, led them on to the charge, killed numbers of 
the enemy who were rushing on with tomahawks, check- 
ed their pursuit, and brought off the shattered remains of 
the British army. 

With respect to our beloved Washington, we cannot 
but mention here two very extraordinary speeches that 
were uttered about him at this time, and which, as things 
have turned out, look a good deal like prophecies. A 
famous Indian warrior, who assisted in the defeat of Brad- 
dock, was often heard to swear, that Washington was not 
born to be killed by a bullet ; " for," continued he, " I 
had seventeen fair fires at him with my rifle, and, after all, 
I could not bring him to the ground." And, indeed, who- 
ever considers that a good rifle, levelled by a proper 
marksman, hardly ever misses its aim, will readily enough 
conclude, with this unlettered savage, that some invisible 
hand must have turned aside his bullets. 

The Rev. Mr. Davies, in a sermon occasioned by Gen. 
Braddock's defeat, has these remarkable works " I beg 
leave to point the attention of the public to that heroic 
youth, Colonel George Washington, whom I cannot but 
hope providence has preserved for some great service to 
this country." 

Governor Shirley proceeded to Oswego, on Lake On- 
tario. His army was poorly supplied with provisions, and 
the rainy season approaching, he abandoned the expedi- 
tion, and returned to Albany. The army under Gen. 
Johnson arrived at the south end of Lake George, the 
latter part of August, when he received information that 
iwo thousand of the enemy, commanded by Barou Dies- 

TO 



110 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

kau, were marching against Fort Edward. Accordingly, 
Colonel Williams was detached to intercept him. 

Colonel Williams' party, which left the camp between 
eight and nine o'clock in the morning of Sept. 8th, 1755, 
very unexpectedly fell in with the army of Baron Dieskau ; 
the two armies met in the road, front to front ; the Indians 
of Dieskau's army were in ambuscade, upon both declivi- 
ties of the mountains, and thus it was a complete surprise, 
for Col. Williams had unhappily neglected to place any 
scouts upon his wings. A bloody battle ensued, and a 
deadly fire was poured in upon both flanks. 

Col. Williams, endeavouring to lead his men against 
the unseen enemy, was instantly shot through the head, 
and he and hundreds of his party, including old Hendrick, 
the chief of the Mohawks, and forty Indians, were slain. 
The remainder of the party, under the command of Col. 
Whiting, retreated into the camp. They came running 
in, in the utmost confusion and consternation, and pet- 
haps owed their safety, in a great measure, to another 
party, which, when the firing was heard, and perceived 
to be growing louder and nearer, was sent out to succour 
them. 

Nor did this battle terminate the fighting of this bloody 
day. The remains of Dieskau's army retreated about 
four miles, to the ground where Colonel Williams had 
been defeated in the morning the rear of the army were 
there sitting upon the ground, had opened their knapsacks, 
and were refreshing themselves, when Captain M'Ginnies, 
who with two hundred men, had been despatched from 
Fort Edward to succour the main body, came up with this 
portion of the French army, thus sitting in security, and 
attacked and totally defeated them, although he was him- 
self mortally wounded. Thus were three battles fought 
in one day, and almost upon the same ground. 

The neighbouring mountain, in which the French so 
suddenly made their appearance, is to this day, called 
French mountain ; and this name, with the tradition of 
the fact, will be sent down to the latest posterity. I was 
shown a rock by the road, at which a considerable slaugh- 
Utr look place. It was on the east side of the road, near 



THE UNITED STATES. Ill 

where Colonel Williams fell, and I am informed, is to this 
day, called Williams' Rock. 

Just by the present road, and in the midst of these bat- 
tle grounds, is a circular pond, shaped exactly like a bowl ; 
it may be two hundred feet in diameter, and was, when I 
saw it, full of water, and covered with the pond lily. Alas ! 
this pond, now so peaceful, was the common sepulchre of 
the brave ; the dead bodies of most of those who were 
slain on this eventful day, were thrown, in undistinguished 
confusion, into this pond; from that time to the present, 
it has been called the Bloody Pond ; and there is not a 
child in this region but will point you to the French 
Mountain and the Bloody Pond. I stood with dread upon 
its brink, and threw a stone into the unconscious waters. 
After these events, a regular fort was constructed at the 
head of the lake, and called fort William Henry. 

Early in the spring, 1756, the enemy, invited by the 
success of the preceding year, made another irruption 
into the inhabited country, and did great mischief. The 
number of troops on the regular establishment, was totally 
insufficient for the protection of the frontier. The Indians, 
divided into small parties, concealed themselves with so 
much dexterity, as seldom to be perceived until the blow 
was struck. These murders were frequently committed 
in the very neighbourhood of the forts, and the detachments 
which were employed in scouring the country were gene- 
rally eluded, or attacked to advantage. In one of these 
skirmishes in the neighbourhood of a stockade, the Ame- 
ricans was totally routed, and Captain Mercer killed. 

The smaller forts were frequently assaulted and attack- 
ed. The people either abandoned the country, or at- 
tempted to secure themselves in small stockades, where 
they were in great distress for provisions, arms, and am- 
munition. Lord Loudon arrived in America, in July, 
1756, as commander-in-chief. He was clothed with the 
highest civil authority, having been appointed governor 
of the colony. A complimentary address from the regi- 
ment, stating their pleasure at his arrival and appoint- 
ment, and the readiness with which they would execute 
his commands, was presented to him ; also a statement of 



112 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the distress of the colony, and a particular description of 
the situation of the military points. 

An army was raised, of about twelve thousand men, 
which was better prepared for the field than any army 
that had been assembled in America. But the change of 
commanders delayed the operations of the English army. 
The French were active, and on the 12th of July, Gene- 
ral Abercrombie received intelligence that they meditated 
an attack upon Oswego, a post of the utmost importance. 
Gen. Webb was ordered to prepare to march with a regi- 
ment to support the defence of that place, but was de- 
tained until the 12th of August. Before he had proceeded 
far, he learned it was too late. 

By the loss of Oswego, all the western country was laid 
open to their ravages. There was reason to fear that the 
frontier posts would be swept away, one after another, 
and that all the preparations which had been made for an 
early attack on the enemy, would be lost with them. Be- 
sides, the enemy would have another year to fortify and 
strengthen their posts, and to render the reduction of 
them much more hazardous and difficult. 

The colonies were obliged to submit, and Lord Loudon 
sailed from New-York for Halifax, with six thousand land 
forces, and there made a junction with Holbourn and 
Hopson. Here was now an army of twelve thousand 
men, exclusive of officers, aided by a powerful fleet ; but 
they were so dilatory in their measures, that before they 
were ready to sail, the Brest fleet, with seventeen sail of 
the line, besides frigates and transports, arrived at Louis- 
burg. The garrison was so reinforced as to amount to 
nine thousand men. On the reception of this intelligence, 
it was judged inexpedient to proceed, and the expedition 
was given up. 

liad the Earl of Loudon been a man of enterprise 
had he wished to distinguish himself in his majesty's ser- 
vice, or to have rendered himself popular in the colonies, 
he might have conducted this powerful army to Ticonde- 
roga, and carried all before him in that quarter. At least, 
he might have sent on large detachments for the defence 
of the frontiers. With his Prussian majesty, an Amherst, 
or a Wolfe, these would have been but natural and com- 



THE UNITED STATES. 113 

mon achievements. But he returned leisurely to New- 
York, and effected nothing. 

The British generals in America did more, in two years, 
by the pusillanimity, weakness, and inconsistency of their 
councils, to injure the colonies, than the French could 
hav r e done with all their force. The provincials would, 
probably, have advanced to Crown Point the last year, 
and made themselves masters of the country south of Lake 
Champlain. They would undoubtedly have kept their 
own posts, and prevented the evils which followed. The 
British generals and officers not only lost Oswego, but 
they destroyed the fortifications at the great carrying 
place, and filled Wood Creek with logs and trees. They 
cut off all communication between the colonies and the 
Five Nations, the only body of Indians which preserved 
the appearance of friendship to them. They abandoned 
their whole country to the mercy of the enemy. Nothing 
could be done to prevent their collecting the Indians, 
from all quarters, to act against the colonies. 

Monsieur Montcalm did not neglect to improve the ad- 
vantages he had gained, and which the conduct of the 
British generals afforded him. Finding that the troops 
were drawn off to Halifax, he at once determined on the 
siege of Fort William Henry, and the destruction of the 
vessels, boats, and batteaux, at the south landing of Lake 
George. Bodies of Indians, with his whole force, were 
collected for this purpose. 

Colonel Monroe, who commanded at Fort William Heri- 
ry, having intelligence that an advanced party of the ene- 
my lay at Ticonderoga, detached Colonel Parker, with 
four hundred men, to surprise them. Having landed at 
night, not far distant from the enemy, he sent three boats 
to reconnoitre, directing them where to meet him in a 
general rendezvous. The enemy, waylaying and inter- 
cepting the boats, obtained a perfect knowledge of the 
colonel's designs, and concerted measures to decoy him 
into their hands. They laid an ambush behind the point 
where they knew he designed to land ; and having been 
reinforced to nearly double his numbers, they sent three 
boats to the place appointed for the general rendezvous. 
The colonel, mistaking them for his own boats, eagerly 

10* 



114 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

put to shore, and was instantly surrounded by the enemy. 
They attacked him on all sides with such incessant vio- 
lence, that seventy privates and two officers only made 
their escape. 

Elated with this success, Monsieur Montcalm hastened 
to the siege of Fort William Henry. Having drawn to- 
gether all his forces from Crown Point, Ticonderoga, and 
the adjacent posts, with a greater number of Indians than 
the French had ever employed on any other occasion, he 
passed the lake, and regularly invested the fort. The' 
whole army consisted of nearly eight thousand men. The 
garrison consisted of about three thousand, and the forti- 
fications were said to be good. At Fort Edward, scarcely 
fourteen miles distant, lay General Webb, with four thou- 
sand troops. The regular troops at the two posts, were 
probably more than equal to the regular force of the 
enemy. 

A considerable proportion of their army consisted of 
Canadians and Indians. Yet, in about six days, was this 
important post delivered up into the hands of the enemy. 
All the vessels, boats, and batteaux, which, at so much 
expense and labour, had been for two years preparing, 
fell into the power of the enemy. Though General Webb 
had timely notice of the approach of the enemy, yet he 
never sent to alarm the country, and bring on the militia. 
He never reinforced the garrison, nor made a single mo- 
tion for its relief. So far was he from this, that he sent 
a letter to Colonel Monroe, who commanded the fort, ad- 
vising him to give it up to the enemy. 

Montcalm intercepted the letter, and sent it into the 
fort to the colonel. He had acted the part of a soldier, 
and made a brave defence ; but, having burst a number of 
his cannon, expended a considerable part of his ammuni- 
tion, and, perceiving that he was to have no relief from 
General Webb, he capitulated on terms honourable for 
himself and the garrison. It was, to march out with 
arms, baggage, and one piece of cannon, in honour to 
Colonel Monroe, for the brave defence he had made. The 
troops were not to serve against the most Christian king 
under eighteen months, unless exchanged for an equal 
number of French prisoners. 



THE UNITED STATES. 115 

The French and Indians paid no regard to the articles 
of capitulation, but, falling on the English, stripped them 
of their baggage and few remaining effects ; and the In- 
dians in the English service were dragged from the 
ranks, tomahawked and scalped. Men and women had 
their throats cut, their bodies ripped open, and their 
bowels, with insult, thrown in their faces. Infants and 
children were barbarously taken by the heels, and their 
brains dashed out against stones and trees. The Indians 
pursued the English nearly half the way to Fort Edward, 
where the greatest number of them arrived in a most for- 
lorn condition. It seems astonishing, that between two 
and three thousand troops, with arms in their hands, 
should, contrary to the most express stipulations, suffer 
these intolerable insults. 

When it was too late, General Webb alarmed the coun- 
try, and put the colonies to great expense in sending on 
large detachments of the militia for the defence of the 
northern frontier. The sudden capture of the fort, the 
massacre made by the enemy's Indians, and suspicions of 
General Webb's treachery, and an apprehension that Ge- 
neral Montcalm would force his way to Albany, put the 
country into a state of great alarm and consternation. 
People were never more alarmed during the war. At the 
same time, there was never a more general and manly 
exertion. 

Connecticut detached, and sent on, in a few days, about 
five thousand men. She had raised and sent into the 
field, fourteen hundred before, which was more than her 
proportion. Large reinforcements were marched on to 
Albany, and Fort Edward, from New-York, and the other 
colonies. General Webb, notwithstanding the great num- 
bers of men with which he was reinforced, did not make 
any effectual provision for the defence of the frontier set- 
tlements. No sooner was one expedition finished by the 
enemy, than another was undertaken. Soon after the 
reduction of Fort William Henry, the enemy, with fire 
and sword, laid waste the fine settlements at the German 
Flats, and on the Mohawk River. 

On the American station there were nearly twenty thou- 
sand regular troops, and a large number of provincials in 



116 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

service ; and yet one fortress find settlement after another 
were swept away, and every where the enemy rioted 
and triumphed with impunity. The army spent the re- 
mainder of the campaign in inactivity. The provincials, 
as the season for winter quarters approached, returned to 
their respective colonies. The regular troops were sta- 
tioned at Albany and Fort Edward. Thus ended the in- 
glorious campaign of 1757. 

By this time, under the repeated losses they had sus- 
tained, the colonies had very much lost their confidence 
in the British commanders in America. They, for two 
years, had witnessed their dilatory measures, their incon- 
sistency, want of foresight, and a spirit of enterprise, and 
had such bitter experience of the consequences, that 
they considered them as utterly disqualified for the im- 
portant command which they held. To their incapacity 
and pusillanimity, wholly did they impute the loss of Os- 
vvego, Fort William Henry, and their other losses on the 
frontiers. 

Notwithstanding all the reinforcements which France 
had sent to Canada, they, every campaign, had a force 
much superior to the enemy. Had they been men of 
military genius, skill, and enterprise, instead of the losses 
they sustained, they might have led on their troops to 
conquest and glory. Had the colonies been left to them- 
selves, they would probably have done better. 

The first year of the war, when left to themselves, 
their achievements were honourable and useful to the na- 
tion ; but now they had sustained two years of great ex- 
pense, which had been worse than lost. Indeed, such 
were the ministry, and the men whom they employed, 
that misfortune and disaster attended them in almost 
every quarter of the globe.* A British historian ob- 
serves, with respect to this third campaign in America, 
" That it ended to the eternal disgrace of those who then 
commanded the armies, and directed the counsels of 
Great Britain." 

By this time, the disputes relative to the Ohio, Crown 

* There was one exception : Admiral Watson and Colonel Clive 
acted with great magnanimity and success upon the Ganges, in the 
East Indies. 



THE UNITED STATES. 117 

Point, and territory in America, had involved a great part 
of Europe in the flames of war. It had kindled in both 
the Indies, and extended its destructive influence beyond 
the Ganges. The disappointments and losses of the 
British nation for a succession of years, and its present 
exigencies, absolutely demanded a change of men and 
measures. Men of capacity and enterprise were neces- 
sary to retrieve its honour, and prevent its ruin. 

By a most happy turn in Providence, those incompara- 
ble men, Mr. Pitt, Mr. Leg, and their friends, had been 
chosen and established in the ministry, and had time to 
concert their measures, and choose the men to carry them 
into execution. Now, therefore, every thing relative to 
the nation, in Europe and America, took a new and sur- 
prising turn. Now men were brought forward, upon 
whose fidelity, skill, and spirit of enterprise, confidence 
might be placed. 

Notwithstanding the disappointments and losses of the 
past years, they determined on the reduction of Louis- 
burg, with a view of cutting off the communication be- 
tween France and Canada, of destroying the French fishe- 
ry, and of securing the trade and fisheries of Great Bri- 
tain, and her colonies in America. At the same time, to 
gratify the colonies, and to draw forth their whole 
strength into exertion, they also determined on expedi- 
tions against Crown Point and Fort Du Quesne. 
. Intimations of his majesty's design, and of his expec- 
tations from the colonies, were, at an early period, given 
to them by letters from the Right Honourable Mr. Pitt. 
These were written in a style which animated their cour- 
age, and drew forth their most spirited exertions. The 
people of Connecticut, in particular, exerted themselves 
in an extraordinary manner. 

A special assembly was convened, on the 8th of March, 
at New-Haven, when the Right Honourable Mr. Pitt's let- 
ter was communicated to the legislature, importing, that 
his majesty had nothing more at heart than to repair the 
losses and disappointments of the last inactive and un- 
happy campaign, and by the most vigorous and extensive 
efforts, to avert, by the blessings of God upon his arms, 
the dangers impending over North America and not 



118 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

doubting but his faithful and brave subjects here would 
cheerfully co-operate with and second, to the utmost, the 
large expense and extraordinary succours supplied by his 
kingdom, for their preservation and defence ; and that 
his majesty, judging that his colony, together with Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, New-Hampshire, Rhode-Island, New- 
York, and New-Jersey, were able to furnish twenty thou- 
sand men, to join a body of the king's forces for inva- 
ding Canada, and carrying the war into the heart of the 
enemy's possessions ; and that it was his majesty's plea- 
sure, that, with all possible despatch, there be raised as 
large a body of men as the number of inhabitants would 
allow, to begin the operations of the campaign, as soon 
as practicable. And that no encouragement might be 
wanting to so great and salutary an attempt, that strong 
recommendations would be made to parliament, to grant 
compensation for the expenses of said provinces, accord- 
ing as their active vigour and strenuous efforts should ap- 
pear justly to merit. 

The legislature resolved, That, notwithstanding this 
colony, when acting with the several provinces aforesaid, 
in the three several expeditions undertaken the preceding 
years, against Crown Point, hath raised a much greater 
number of men than its just proportion, in comparison 
with what they then raised, by means of which the num- 
ber of men is greatly diminished, and its strength much 
exhausted, yet that nothing be wanting on the part of 
this colony, to promote the great and good design pro- 
posed by his majesty, and relying on his royal encourage- 
ment, five thousand good and effective men, including of- 
ficers, shall be raised within this colony, as soon as may 
be, for the service aforesaid. It was resolved at the same 
time, that the assembly is sensible, that it is really more 
than the number of men this colony can allow, without 
great difficulty ; and much exceeds this colony's propor- 
tion, even of twenty thousand men, when compared with 
the other provinces. 

It was resolved, that the said five thousand men should 
be formed into four regiments, consisting of twelve com- 
panies in each regiment ; that there should be one colo- 
nel, one lieutenant-colonel, one major, and one chaplain 



THE UNITED STATES. 119 

to a regiment. The honourable Phinehas Lyman, Esq. 
who had a general's command in 1755, Nathan Whiting, 
Esq. Eliphalet Dyar, Esq, and John Read, Esq. were ap- 
pointed colonels, to command the respective regiments.* 
The Rev. Messrs. George Beckwith, Joseph Fish, Benja- 
min Pomeroy, and Jonathan Ingersoll, were appointed 
chaplains. 

To encourage the speedy enlistment of men for the 
service, the bounty was increased much beyond what it 
had been in former years. All proper measures were 
adopted to raise the troops with expedition, and to have 
them seasonably in the field. 

To provide for the expenses of such a number of troops, 
the assembly enacted that thirty thousand pounds, lawful 
money, in bills of credit, at five per cent, interest, should 
be immediately printed : and that for a fund for the sink- 
ing of said bills, a tax of eight pence on the pound should 
be levied on the grand list of the colony, to be brought in 
Anno Domini 1760. It was provided, however, that 
such moneys as should arrive from Great Britain, for the 
reimbursement of the expenses of the war, should be ap- 
plied, by the treasurer, for the purpose of sinking the said 
bills, and that if a sufficient sum should arrive before 
the time fixed for the payment of said tax, to sink the 
whole, that then said tax should not be levied, and that 
the act respecting it should be null and void. 

That the treasurer might be able to pay the troops on 
their return from the public service, the assembly laid a 
tax of nine pence on the pound on the whole rateable es- 
tate of the colony, according to the list brought into the 
assembly in October last, and ordered that it should be 
collected by the last of December then following. And 
as it was uncertain whether money would arrive, suffi- 
cient to reimburse the expenses of the colony, in season, 
a committee was appointed to borrow the sum of twenty- 
five thousand pounds, to be paid before the 20th of May 

* Each colonel was allowed forty pounds for his table, and the decent 
support of his chaplain. Their wages, as colonels, and captains for one 
company, was fifteen pounds per month. The bounty for each man 
who would equip himself for the field, was four pounds. The wages 
were the same as in the preceding year. 



120 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

1761. For an ample fund to repay the sum to be bor- 
rowed, a tax of five pence on the pound was levied on the 
list which should be brought into the assembly in 1759, 
to be paid into the treasury by the last of December, 
1760. 

It was enacted also, that any of the notes given for the 
money borrowed, might be received in payment of said 
tax. But, as considerable sums of money were expected 
from England, for provisions, furnished for the troops un- 
der Lord Loudon, in 1756, it was enacted that said money, 
as fast as it should arrive, should be applied to discharge 
the notes given for the money borrowed ; and that, if a 
sufficient sum should seasonably arrive to discharge all 
the notes, that then said tax should not be collected. 

That nothing might be left undone, which could be at- 
tempted for his majesty's service, the commissioners ap- 
pointed in October, to meet those from the other colonies, 
were now authorized to meet them at Hartford on the 
19th of April, or as near that time as might be, to consult 
on measures for the general safety, and to excite the se- 
veral colonies to the most vigorous and united exertions 
to carry his majesty's designs into execution.* As it ap- 
peared by Mr. Pitt's letter, that Major General Aber- 
crombie was chief commander of the troops for the north- 
ern expedition, the governor was desired to give him 
the earliest information of the measures adopted by the 
colonies, and their vigorous preparations for an early and 
successful campaign. 

While the colonies were employing the most vigorous 
exertions for an early campaign, such effectual measures 
had been pursued in England, that, in February, the ar- 
mament designed for the reduction of Louisburg, was in 
readiness, and sailed for America. Admiral Boscawen 
commanded the naval, and General Amherst the land ope- 
rations. Under General Amherst, was Brigadier General 
Wolfe. These were men of singular characters. Gene- 
ral Amherst had the coolness and abilities of the Roman 
Fabius, while General Wolfe possessed the magnanimity 
and fire of the Scipios. From such men, great achieve- 

* Records of the Colony for March 8lh, 1753. 



THE UNITED STATES. 121 

ments might reasonably be expected ; and their successes 
equalled the most sanguine expectations. 

Admiral Boscawen, and General Amherst, with the ar- 
mament under their command, arrived safely in America; 
and, on the 28th of May, the whole fleet, consisting of 
one hundred and fifty-seven sail, with about fourteen 
thousand troops on board, took its departure from Halifax, 
and, on the second of June, appeared before Louisburg. 

For six days the landing of the troops was impractica- 
ble. The surf was so great, that no boat could live near 
the shore. On every part of the coast where a landing 
was judged practicable, the enemy had made entrench- 
ments ; and, in places most convenient for the purpose, 
they had erected batteries, and mounted cannon. During 
the whole time after the discovery of the fleet, until the 
landing of the troops, the enemy employed themselves in 
strengthening their lines. These they manned with nu- 
merous infantry. General Amherst, with a number of 
his officers, reconnoitered the shore. 

On the eighth the weather became more favourable, 
though there was yet a great swell and surf. The Gene- 
ral, determining not to a lose moment, seized the oppor- 
tunity. Before the break of day, the troops were em- 
barked in three divisions. The admiral and general made 
their dispositions with consummate judgment. To distract 
the enemy, and draw their attention to different parts, the 
dispositions were made in this manner : The divisions 
on the right, and in the centre, were designed only for 
feints, while that on the left was appointed for the real 
attack. This was commanded by General Wolfe. Be- 
fore the landing, five frigates, and some other ships of 
var, commenced a furious fire, not only on the centre, but 
on the right and left of the enemy, to rake them in their 
flanks. When these had fired about fifteen minutes, Ge- 
neral Wolfe pressed to the shore. The enemy reserved 
his fire until the boats were nearly in shore, and then 
pouied upon them the united blaze and thunder of their 
musketry and cannon. Many of the boats were overset, 
and others dashed in pieces. Some of the men were 
thrown, and others leaped into the water; and while 
some were killed, and others drowned, the main body, 

11 



122 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

supported and animated by the noble example and con- 
duct of their commander, pushed to the land, and with 
such order and resolution rushed on the enemy, as soon 
put them into confusion, and drove them from their en- 
trenchments. When General Wolfe had made good his 
landing, the centre division having moved to the left, and 
the right following the centre, the landing was completed 
in excellent order. 

For many days the weather was so bad, and the swell 
and surf so great, that scarcely any of the artillery or 
stores could be landed. It was with great difficulty that 
even the tents, provisions, and implements for the siege, 
were got on shore. The weather was so bad at the time 
of landing, and during the siege, that a hundred boats 
were lost in the service. The enemy had five ships of 
the line, and one or more frigates, in the harbour, and 
could bring their guns to bear upon the troops, in their 
approaches. The ground was exceedingly bad ; in some 
places rough, in others boggy, wet, and miry. These ob- 
stacles, with a brave resistance from the enemy, caused 
the seige for some time to proceed slowly. 

But no discouragements w r ere judged insurmountable, 
by such generals as Amherst and Wolfe. By the twelfth 
of June, General Wolfe had secured the point called the 
light-house battery, and all the posts in that quarter. On 
the twenty-fifth, he had silenced the island battery ; but 
the shipping in the harbour kept up the fire upon him 
until the twenty-first of July. One of the ships then took 
fire and blew up. This set two others on fire, which 
burnt to the water's edge. This was to the enemy an ir- 
reparable loss. 

By this time, Gen. Amherst had made his approaches 
near to the city ; so that he was in good forwardness 
to make lodgements on the covered way. The town, in 
many places, was consumed to the ground, and in others, 
was much damaged. The fire of the enemy greatly lan- 
guished, )*et no proposals of capitulation were made. 
One bold action more was necessary to bring them to 
terms. That was to destroy, or bring off, the ships re- 
maining in the harbour. 

For this purpose, the admiral sent in a detachment of 



THE UNITED STATES. 123 

six hundred men, under the command of two enterprising 
young captains, Laforey and Balfour. Between the 25th 
and 26th of the month, under the darkness of the night, 
they made their way through a terrible fire of cannon and 
musketry, and sword in hand, took the two ships. One 
ran aground, and was burnt ; the other they rowed out of 
the harbour, in triumph. 

The next morning, the governor proposed terms of ca- 
pitulation. The garrison, consisting of five thousand se- 
ven hundred and thirty-seven men, surrendered prisoners 
of war. One hundred and twenty-one cannon, eighteen 
mortars, and large quantities of stores and ammunition, 
were taken. The enemy lost five ships of the line and 
four frigates, besides other vessels. St. Johns, with 
Louisburg, was given up, and the English became mas- 
ters of the whole coast, from the St. Lawrence to Nova- 
Scotia. This was the most effectual blow to France, which 
she had received since the commencement of the war. It 
was a deep wound to her navy, and especially to her co- 
lonies and interests in America. It very much cut off her 
communication with Canada, and greatly facilitated the 
reduction of that country. 

As the reduction of Ticonderoga and Crown Point was 
a favourite object with the northern colonies, they made 
early and great exertions for carrying it into effectual exe- 
cution. Besides the assistance which they gave to the re- 
duction of Louisburg, they furnished about ten thousand 
troops for the northern expedition. These, in conjunction 
with between six and seven thousand regular troops, had, 
by the beginning of July, got into Lake George more 
than a thousand boats and batteaux, a fine train of artille- 
ry, provisions, and every thing necessary for an attack on 
the fortresses of the enemy. 

On the fifth of July, the army, consisting of fifteen 
thousand three hundred and ninety effective men, embark- 
ed in nine hundred batteaux, and one hundred and thirty- 
hve whale boats, for Ticonderoga. Besides, there were 
a number of rafts, on which cannon were mounted to co- 
ver the landing of the troops. Early next morning, they 
landed at the north end of Lake George, without oppo- 
sition. The army formed in four columns, and began 



124 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

their march for Ticonderoga. But as the woods were 
thick, and the guides unskilful, the troops were bewilder- 
ed, and the columns falling in one upon another, were en- 
tirely broken. 

In this confusion, Lord Howe, advancing at the head 
of the right centre column, fell in with the advanced 
guard of the enemy, consisting of a battalion of regulars 
and a few Indians, who had deserted their advanced camp, 
near the lake, and were precipitately fleeing from our 
troops ; but had lost their way, and were bewildered in 
the same way as they were. The enemy discharged, and 
killed Lord Howe the first fire. The suddenness of the at- 
tack, the terribleness of the Indian yell, and the fall of 
Lord Howe, threw the regulars, who composed the cen- 
tre columns, into a general panic and confusion; but the 
provincials, who flanked them, and were acquainted with 
their mode of fighting, stood their ground, and soon de- 
feated them. The loss of the enemy, was about three 
hundred killed, and one hundred and forty-eight taken. 
The loss of the English was inconsiderable as to numbers, 
but in worth and consequences, it was great. The loss 
of that gallant officer, Lord Howe, was irreparable. 

From the day of his arrival in America, he had con- 
formed himself, and made his regiment to conform, to 
that kind of service which the country required. He was 
the first to endure hunger and fatigue, to encounter dan- 
ger, and to sacrifice ail personal considerations to the pub- 
lic service. While be was rigid in discipline, by his affa- 
bility, condescending and easy manners, he conciliated 
affection, and commanded universal esteem. Indeed, he 
was considered very much as the idol and life of the ar- 
my. The loss of such a man, at such a time, cannot be 
estimated. To this, the provincials attributed the defeat 
and unhappy consequences which followed. 

As the troops for two nights had slept little, were 
greatly fatigued, and needed refreshment, the general or- 
dered them to return to the landing place, where they ar- 
rived at eight in the morning. 

Colonel Bradstreet was soon after detached with a 
strong corps, to take possession of the saw mill, about 
two miles from Ticonderoga, which the enemy had aban- 



THE UNITED STATES. 123 

doned. Towards the close of the day, the whole army 
marched to the mill. The general, having received in- 
formation that the garrison at Ticonderoga consisted of 
about six thousand men, and that a reinforcement of 
three thousand more was daily expected, determined to 
lose no time in attacking their lines. He ordered his en- 
gineer to reconnoitre the ground and intrenchments of 
the enemy. It seems that he had not so approached and 
examined them as to obtain any proper idea of them. He 
made a favourable report of their weakness, and of the 
facility of forcing them without cannon. On this ground- 
!; > report, a rash and fatal resolution was taken, to at- 
tack the lines without bringing up the artillery. 

The army advanced to the charge with the greatest in- 
trepidity, and for more than four hours, with incredible 
obstinacy, maintained the attack. But the works where 
the principal attack was made, were eight or nine feet 
high, and impregnable even by field pieces ; and for 
nearly an hundred yards from the breast-work, trees were 
felled so thick, and so wrought together, with their limbs 
pointing outward, that it rendered the approach of the 
troops, in a great measure, impossible. In this dreadful 
situation, under the fire of about three thousand of the 
enemy, these gallant troops were kept, without the least 
prospect of success, until nearly two thousand were killed 
and wounded. They were* then called off. To this rash 
and precipitate attack succeeded a retreat equally unad- 
vised and precipitate. By the evening of the next day, 
the army had retreated to their former encampment at the 
south end of Lake George. 

Nothing could have been more contrary to the opi- 
nions, or more mortifying to the feelings of the provin- 
cials, than this whole affair. They viewed the attack up- 
on the lines without the artillery as the height of mad- 
ness. Besides, it was made under every disadvantage to 
the assailants. The enemy's lines were of great extent, 
nearly three quarters of a mile. On the right of the 
common path towards south bay, and especially on the 
north, they were weak and of little consideration. In 
both these quarters they might have been approached un- 
der the cover of a thick wood. 

11* 



126 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OP 

The army was sufficiently numerous to have attacked 
the lines in their whole extent at once, or at least in a 
very great part of them* and to have drawn their atten- 
tion to various parts of their lines. But, unhappily, the 
attack was made upon a small part of them where they 
were far the strongest and most inaccessible. As no at- 
tacks or feints were made in other parts, the enemy were 
left to pour their whole fire on a small spot, while the 
whole army could not approach it. Besides, the general 
never approached the field, where his presence was in- 
dispensably necessary, but remained at the mill, where he 
could see nothing of the action, nor know any thing, 
only by information at a distance of two miles. By rea- 
son of this, the troops, for hours after they should have 
been called off, were pushed on to inevitable slaughter. 

But especially did the provincials reprobate the retreat. 
They considered themselves as more than a match for the 
enemy, should their pretended reinforcements arrive. 
The army, after this bloody affair, consisted of fourteen 
thousand effective men. After all the pompous accounts 
of the numbers of the enemy, they amounted to little 
more than three thousand. When the general retreated, 
he had more than four effective men to one of theirs. 
He had a fine train of artillery, and there were strong 
grounds on which he might have encamped with the 
utmost safety. There were eminences which commanded 
all the works of the enemy, whence he might have enfi- 
laded their front, and poured destruction on their whole 
lines and camp. 

The provincial officers were, therefore, clearly of the 
opinion, that there was the fairest prospect of success, 
notwithstanding their misfortune, could the expedition 
only be prosecuted with energy and prudence. But the 
general took his own way, without advising with them, 
and appeared to retreat with the utmost perturbation. 

The general never had been high in the estimation of 
the provincials after the loss of Oswego ; but now he 
sunk into contempt. They generally called him Mrs. 
Nabbycrombie, importing that petticoats would much 
better become him than breeches. To repair, as far as 
might be, the disaster at Ticonderoga, the general detach- 



THE UNITED STATES. 127 

ed Colonel Bradstreet, with three thousand provincials, 
on an expedition against Fort Frontenac. 

With these troops Bradstreet sailed down the Ontario, 
landed within a mile of the fort, opened his batteries, and, 
in two days, forced this important fortress to surrender. 

While these events were taking place in the northern 
department, General Forbes, who had been appointed to 
command the expedition to the southward, was advancing 
with great activity and labour, to the conquest of Fort Du 
Quesne. About eight thousand men had been assigned 
to this service. In June, the general inarched from Phi- 
ladelphia for the Ohio. 

An attack, however, was needless, the fort having been 
deserted by the garrison the evening before the arrival 
of the army. General Forbes took quiet possession of 
the place, and repaired the fort, and named it Fort Pitt, 
in honour to Secretary Pitt. 

The incredible fatigues of this campaign so broke the 
constitution of this vigilant and brave commander, that 
he returned to Philadelphia in a very enfeebled state ; 
where, after languishing a short time, he died, universally 
lamented. 

When General Amherst arrived with his troops at the 
lakes, the season was so far advanced, and such a body 
of troops had been drawn off, for the expedition under 
Colonel Bradstreet, that he judged it unadvisable to make 
any further attempts against the enemy during that cam- 
paign. 

Notwithstanding the defeat at Ticonderoga, the cam- 
paign closed with great honour and advantage, not only to 
the colonies, but to the nation in general. In this, the 
fourth year after the commencement of hostilities, the 
English had not only reduced Louisburg, St. Johns, and 
Frontenac ; but had made themselves the undisturbed 
possessors of that fine tract of country, the contention 
for which had kindled the flames of war in so general 
and destructive a manner. Success had attended the 
British arms, not only in America, but in almost every 
quarter of the globe. The successes in America, besides 
many other important advantages, paved the way for that 



128 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OP 

series of successful events, which terminated in the entire 
reduction of Canada. 

Another favourable occurrence of this year, which had 
its influence in that great event, was a general treaty aftd 
pacification with all the Indian nations, inhabiting between 
the Appalachian mountains and the lakes. This was 
completed at Easton, on the eighth of October. 

1759. It was proposed to attack Canada, and it was de- 
termined, that three powerful armies should enter the 
country by different routes, and commence an attack at 
the same time. General Amherst, who commanded one 
division, in his route attacked Ticonderoga. The garri- 
son soon surrendered, as the principal part of them had 
retired to Crown Point. General Amherst proceeded 
against this place, and took possession of it, but the ene- 
my, before their arrival, fled to Isle aux Noix, in the north- 
ern part of Lake Champlain. The second party, com- 
manded by General Prideaux, was destined against Nia- 
gara, but he was killed by the bursting of a cohorn. Sir 
William Johnson, on whom the command now rested, 
successfully put in execution the plans of his lamented 
predecessor ; and on the twenty-fourth of July, a gene- 
ral battle took place. The action was warm and bloody, 
and the carnage was great ; but the conflict was short, 
which placed Niagara in the hands of the English. 

An expedition against Quebec was the most daring and 
important. That place was so well strengthened, that all 
expeditions against it had failed. It was commanded by 
Montcalm, who was posted below the town, with a strong 
force, and the town was covered by an army of 10,000 
men. General Wolfe was determined to try his skill in 
this case. He soon took possession of Point Levi, on 
the southern bank of the St. Lawrence, and erected bat- 
'.eries. By means of these, he destroyed many houses, 
but made little impression on the fortifications of the 
town ; he resolved to quit his post. 

General Wolfe made several attempts to reduce the 
place, but they all proved unsuccessful. He also at- 
tempted to destroy the shipping ; this attempt also proved 
abortive. Stung with chagrin at his own disappointment, 
General Wolfe determined to ascend a precipice of about 



THE UNITED STATES. 129 

one hundred and seventy-five feet, by which he might 
gain the heights of Abraham. 

On the 12th of September, one hour after midnight, 
General Wolfe, with his army, leaving the ships, embark- 
ed in boats, and silently dropped down with the current, 
intending to land a league above Cape Diamond, and thus 
to gain the heights of Abraham. But, owing to the ra 
pidity of the current, they fell below their intended place, 
and disembarked at what is now called Wolfe's cove, a 
mile, or a mile and a half, above the city. The operation 
was a most critical one they had to navigate in silence, 
down a rapid stream to hit upon the right place for a 
landing, which, in the dark, might be easily mistaken 
the shore was shelving, and the bank to be ascended was 
steep and lofty, and scarcely practicable, even without 
opposition. Doubtless, it was this combination of cir- 
cumstances which lulled the vigilance of the wary and 
discerning Montcalm ; he thought such an enterprise ab- 
solutely impracticable, and therefore had stationed only 
sentinels and picket guards along this precipitous shore. 

Indeed, the attempt was in the greatest danger of being 
defeated by an occurrence, which is very interesting, as 
marking much more emphatically, than dry official ac- 
counts can do, the very great delicacy of the transaction. 

One of the French sentinels, posted along the shore, 
challenged the English boats in the customary military 
language of the French ; " Qui vitT' who goes there ! to 
which a captain of Frazer's regiment, who had served in 
Holland, and was familiar with the French language and 
customs, promptly replied, " la France" The next ques- 
tion was much more embarrassing, for the sentinel de- 
manded, " a quel regiment ?" " to what regiment." The 
captain, who happened to know the name of one of the 
regiments which was up the river with Bougainville, 
promptly rejoined, " de la Reine" " the queen's." The 
soldier immediately replied, " passe," for he concluded 
at once, that this was a French convoy of provisions, 
which, as the English had learned from some deserters, 
was expected to pass down the river to Quebec. 

The other sentinels were deceived in a similar manner, 
but one, less credulous than the rest, running down to the 



130 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

water's edge, called out, " Pourquoi est ce que vous ne 
parlez plus haut ?" " why don't you speak louder ?" The 
same captain, with perfect self-command, replied, "Tai, 
toi, nous serons entendues !" " hush, we shall be over- 
heard and discovered." The sentry, satisfied with this 
caution, retired. The British boats were on the point of 
being fired into by the captain of one of their own trans- 
port ships, who, ignorant of what was going on, took 
them for French; but General Wolfe, perceiving the 
commotion on board, rowed along side in person, and pre- 
vented the firing, which would have alarmed the town, 
and frustrated the enterprise. 

General Wolfe, although greatly reduced by a fever, to 
which a dysentery was superadded, was, nevertheless, the 
first man to leap ashore. The rugged precipices, full of 
projections of rocks, and of trees, and shrubs, growing 
every where among the cliffs, into which the bank was 
broken, presented a most forbidding appearance, and Ge- 
neral Wolfe, familiarly speaking to an officer who stood 
by, said, " I don't believe there is any possibility of get- 
ting up, but you must do your endeavour." 

There was only a narrow path, leading obliquely up 
the hill ; this had been rendered by the enemy impassable, 
in consequence of being broken up by cross ditches, and 
there was, besides, an entrenchment at the top, defended 
by a captain's guard. This guard was easily dispersed, 
and the troops then pulled themselves up by taking hold 
of the boughs and stumps of the trees, and of the projec- 
tions of the rocks. 

This precipice (which may be, in different places, from 
one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet high) is still 
very rude and rugged, but probably much less so than in 
1759 ; it can now be surmounted, without very great diffi- ' 
culty, by men who are unmolested. 

Wolfe staked all upon a very hazardous adventure ; 
had he been discovered prematurely, through a spy, a 
deserter, or an alarmed sentry, his army would have been 
inevitably lost ; but, having gained the heights, he formed 
his troops, and met the enemy in good order. 

When Montcalm first received information that the 
English occupied the heights of Abraham, he was greatly 



THE UNITED STATES. 131 

surprised. He saw that a battle was inevitable, and pre- 
pared to fight. The French advanced briskly ; the Eng- 
lish reserved their fire until the enemy were near, and 
then gave it with decisive effect. Early in the engage- 
ment, Wolfe received a slight wound in his wrist, but, 
binding his handkerchief around it, he continued to en- 
courage his men. 

Soon after this, he received another in his groin. This 
he also concealed, and continued to urge on his troops, 
until a third ball pierced his breast, which obliged him to 
quit the command, which fell on Monckton. He was 
soon wounded, and the command devolved upon Towns- 
hend. At this moment, Montcalm, fighting at the head 
of his men, was mortally wounded, and General Jenne- 
zergus, his second in command, also fell. The loss of 
their commanders caused the French to give way. Wolfe, 
who was reclining his head on the arm of an officer, was 
aroused by the cry of " they fly they fly !" the hero 
eagerly asked, " who fly ?" being informed the French 
were routed, " then," said he, " I die in peace," and ex- 
pired. 

This death, says Professor Stillman, has furnished a 
grand and pathetic subject for the painter, the poet, the 
historian, and, undoubtedly? considered as a mere military 
glory, it is one of the most sublime that the annals of war 
afford. In five days after the battle the city surrendered, 
and received an English garrison. 

In September, 1760, Montreal fell into the hands of the 
English, and, soon after, all the French posts in Canada 
fell into their power. Thus ended a war which had con- 
tinued six years, which had cost many thousand lives, 
and much distress. In 1763, Nova Scotia, Canada, the 
Isie of Cape Breton, and all other islands in the gulf, and 
near the St. Lawrence, were ceded to the British crown. 

REMARKS ON PART SECOND. 

Manners and Customs. The rapid increase of wealth 
began to introduce among the colonies the tastes and 
fashions of the European countries, but their continuance 
was short among the Americans. 



132 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Religion. The Dntch reformed religion generally pre- 
vailed in New- York ; during this period, Shakers and 
Friends arrived in America. During the French and 
Indian war, infidelity was introduced into the army by 
the English officers and soldiers who came into this coun- 
try, and from the army it spread through society gene- 
rally. Population, 2,500,000. 



UNIVERSAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

UNITED STATES. 



FART THIRD. 



CHAPTER VI. 

A Summary View of the Causes that led to the American 
Revolution. 

ALTHOUGH the narrow and illiberal policy of the British 
government towards her North American colonies, from 
their first settlement, was calculated to alienate the affec- 
tions of the colonies from the parent country ; yet from 
their exposed situation, and habitual loyalty, this unworthy 
conduct, long persevered in, produced no sensible impres- 
sion on the Americans ; their loyalty and attachment to 
the interest of Britain were not in the smallest degree im- 
paired, down to the period of the peace of Paris, in 1763. 
Never had they shown so much zeal, or made such great 
sacrifices in the cause of their country, as during the pre- 
ceding war ; having lost more than twenty-five thousand 
men, expended all the revenues they could raise, and in- 
volved themselves deeply in debt. 

Almost the whole burdens of the war in America, had 
fallen on the colonies ; and their exertions were altoge- 
ther disproportionate to their means, and tended greatly 
to impoverish and distress them. After eight years' ardu- 
ous struggles, attended with the greatest sacrifices, the 
successful termination of the war the dominion of France 
in America being relinquished forever occasioned uni- 
versal foy throughout the colonies ; they forgot their suf- 

12 



134 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ferings and distresses, in the fair prospects which the 
peace afforded. 

But these prospects were of short duration ; the peace 
of Paris formed a new era in the views and conduct of 
Great Britain towards her colonies in America. The pos- 
sessions of France, in America, having been ceded to 
Britain, and having no longer any fear of her power in 
this hemisphere, a system of measures was pursued to- 
wards the colonies, originating in jealousy, and tending to 
despotism. As soon as the colonies had fought their way 
to a condition which afforded the prospect of rapidly in- 
creasing in population and wealth, attempts were made 
to restrict their commercial and political privileges, and 
gradually to reduce them to the most wretched state of 
colonial vassalage. 

For a century and a half, the colonies had been left to 
themselves as to taxation ; their own local assemblies had 
provided the necessary revenues to defray the expenses 
of their governments ; and the parliament of Great Britain 
had neither directly nor indirectly ever attempted to de- 
rive a dollar of revenue from America; although various 
acts had from time to time been passed, regulating the 
trade and commerce of the colonies, yet none of these 
were designed or regarded, either in Britain or America, 
as revenue laws. 

But in an inauspicious moment, the British ministry 
conceived the idea of taxing the colonies, under the pre- 
tence of providing for their protection, but in reality to 
relieve the nation from the immense debt, the weight of 
which hung heavily upon it. This iniquitous scheme, 
originating with the cabinet, was easily introduced into 
parliament ; and in March, 1764, as a prelude to the me- 
morable Stamp Act, the house of commons resolved : 

" That towards further defraying the necessary expen- 
ses of protecting the colonies, it may be necessary to charge 
certain stamp duties upon them ;" and this resolution was 
followed by what was commonly called the Sugar Act, 
passed on the 5th of April, and introduced by the follow- 
ing truly alarming preamble : " Whereas it is just and 
necessary that a revenue be raised in America, for de- 
fraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and secu- 



THE UNITED STATES. 135 

ring the same ; we, the commons, &c. towards raising 
the same, give and grant unto your majesty, after the 
29th day of September, 1764, on clayed sugar, indigo, 
and coffee, of foreign produce, [and various other articles,] 
the sum of," &c. This was the first act adopted by par- 
liament, for the avowed object of raising a revenue in the 
colonies. 

The justice of this measure, which appeared so clear 
to the British parliament, was regarded in America as 
oppression and tyranny, and occasioned great excitement 
and alarm. The deceptive pretension, that the revenue 
was to be raised for the purpose of protecting the colo- 
nies, was only adding insult to injustice ; as the colonies 
supposed that they were capable of protecting themselves, 
and they apprehended that the object was rather under 
the pretence of affording them protection, to maintain a 
military force in America, for the purpose of dragooning 
them into submission, and enforcing an unconstitutional 
system of taxation ; thereby rendering them the instru- 
ments of forging their own chains. 

This act was rendered more disgusting by a provision 
that the money raised by it must be paid in specie, and 
another, that those charged with having violated the re- 
venue laws, might be prosecuted in the courts of admi- 
ralty ; whereby they were deprived of the privilege of 
trial by a jury, and were liable to be condemned by .a sin- 
gle officer of the crown, whose salary was to be paid from 
the very forfeitures decreed by himself. And this was 
not all, or even the worst ; as the trial was conducted on 
such principles, that the accused, contrary to the well 
known maxims of the common law, and repugnant to 
every idea of justice, was obliged to prove himself inno- 
cent, or suffer the penalties of the law. These iniquitous 
proceedings destroyed all security of property, and left 
every one at the mercy of the minions of the British 
crown. Their pernicious influence was soon felt exten- 
sively in the colonies ; they no longer regarded Great Bri- 
tain as an affectionate mother, but viewed her in the light 
of a selfish, cruel, and imperious step-mother. 

The designs of the ministry were penetrated, and oc- 
casioned great alarm, which spread wider and wider, until 



136 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

it became universal. The press, that great engine of 
truth and liberty, was called into requisition ; the subject 
was ably and elaborately discussed, and the more it was 
discussed, and the better it was understood, the more 
strong and determined the opposition became. All the 
colonies petitioned and remonstrated against these ob- 
noxious measures, and most of them appointed agents to 
present their memorials to parliament, or the king. 

But, notwithstanding the opposition and excitement in 
America, and the remonstrances of the colonies, Mr. 
Grenville, who was at the head of the treasury, prepared 
the stamp bill, and introduced it into parliament in Febru- 
ary, 1765; and, although opposed with all the powers of 
eloquence, by Alderman Beckford, Mr. Jackson, Colonel 
Barre, Sir William Meredith, and others, it was adopted 
by a great majority, fifty only voting in opposition, out of 
about three hundred members who were present. 

On the second reading of the bill, various petitions, not 
only from the colonies, but from the London merchants 
interested in the American trade, were presented; but 
the petitions were not even received, being refused, on 
the plea that no memorial could be received on a money 
bill. Having passed both houses of parliament, on the 
22d of March, the stamp act received the royal assent. 
Dr. Franklin, then in England, as agent for Pennsylva- 
nia, wrote to Charles Thompson, afterwards secretary of 
congress " The sun of liberty is set ; you must light up 
the lamps of industry and economy." Mr. Thompson, 
in a spirited reply, observed, " That he thought other 
lights would be lighted up to resist these unconstitutional 
measures." It is unnecessary to add, that this prediction 
was soon fulfilled. 

This unjust and impolitic act was the first great cause 
which led to the American revolution ; indeed, it was sub- 
stantially the first scene in the bloody drama of that revo- 
lution. It was passed in parliament, on the 7th of Fe- 
bruary, 1765, under the ministry of Lord Grenville, and 
was repealed on the 18th of March, 1766, from the influ- 
ence of Mr. Pitt. This period of thirteen months was 
the most eventful and tumultuous of any which had 
hitherto occurred ; the apprehensions of the people were 



THE UNITED STATES. 137 

roused to the highest pitch, and the most determined spi- 
rit of opposition prevailed throughout the colonies. 

The Americans had not believed that the act would be 
passed, and on receiving the intelligence, every one was 
struck with astonishment, and filled with consternation ; 
they looked at each other with amazement, and, for a 
short interval, hesitated what course to pursue ; but soon 
recovering from their consternation, they determined not 
to submit to such a flagrant outrage on their rights. In 
Boston, the ships in the harbour, in token of the deepest 
mourning, suspended their colours half mast high ; the 
bells were wrung muffled ; and the obnoxious act, with a 
death's head in front of it, with the motto " The folly of 
England, and the ruin of America" was carried in 
solemn procession about the streets. 

The discontents soon spread throughout the colonies, 
and the opposition became general and determined ; the 
spirit of the people gave a tone to the colonial assem- 
blies, and bold and decided resolutions were adopted 
against the iniquitous scheme of parliamentary taxation. 
Virginia took the lead, and on the 28th of May, 1765, 
Patrick Henry introduced his celebrated resolutions into 
the house of burgesses, which declared that the inhabi- 
tants of that colony were entitled to, and had possessed 
and enjoyed, all the rights, liberties, and privileges, of 
the people of Great Britain ; that the general assembly of 
the colony had always exercised, and alone possessed, the 
power to levy taxes and imposts on the inhabitants of 
the colony, and that they " were not bound to yield obe- 
dience to any law or ordinance whatsoever, designed to 
impose any taxation whatever upon them, other than the 
law and ordinances of the general assembly." So bold 
and unexpected were these resolutions, that whilst they 
were reading, one of the members cried out " treason ! 
treason !" 

These resolutions were communicated to all the colo- 
nies, and the spirit they breathed spread from one legis- 
lature to another, and their sentiments were reiterated in 
resolutions adopted by the legislatures, and the freemen 
in public meetings. Committees were appointed, by the 



138 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

assemblies of the colonies, to correspond with each other, 
and to meet for consultation ; the object of which was to 
secure harmony of feeling and concert of action. These 
measures had a very happy effect ; in the mean time, the 
press teemed with constant publications, vindicating the 
rights of the colonies ; and many of them were of a 
highly inflammatory character, calculated to raise the 
public mind to the highest pitch. The pulpit, also, parti- 
cularly in New-England, laboured in the same cause, with 
great zeal and effect ; the flame of liberty kindled from 
breast to breast, and spread from provinca to province, 
until the conflagration became general. The spirit of 
opposition ran so high, as to break out into acts of tumult 
and disorder. 

In Boston, the effigy of Mr. Oliver, the stamp master, 
was burnt, and his house assailed, partly demolished, and 
his furniture destroyed; and soon after, the house of 
William Storer, deputy-register of the court of admi- 
ralty, was attacked, and the books and files of the court 
destroyed ; and the house of Benjamin Hallowell, comp- 
troller of the customs, shared the same fate. These out- 
rages were followed by a more bold and daring attack 
upon the dwelling of Mr. Hutchinson, lieutenant-gover- 
nor of the province ; he was obliged to flee to save his 
life, and his house was entirely demolished, except the 
walls, and every thing in it destroyed or carried oft'. Si- 
milar outrages were committed in other places. 

In Connecticut, Mr. Ingersoll, the stamp officer, was 
burnt in effigy in many towns ; and whilst he was pro- 
ceeding from New-Haven to Hartford, where the assem- 
bly was in session, he was pursued and overtaken by a 
large concourse of people, some from more than thirty 
miles, and compelled to resign his office, which was fol- 
lowed by three hearty cheers of liberty and property. 
This took place at Weathersfield, from whence the peo- 
ple, who were headed by militia officers, proceeded to 
Hartford, where Mr. Ingersoll was compelled to read his 
resignation in the hearing of the assembly, which was 
succeeded by loud acclamations of liberty and property. 
In New- York, the stamp officer was compelled to resign, 
and Lieutenant-Governor Golden was burnt in effigy, 



THE UNITED STATES. 139 

with a stamp bill in his hand, suspended from his own 
coach, and the whole was consumed together. 

In the southern colonies, the public feeling did not lead 
to the same excesses ; but in all of them, means were 
found to compel the stamp officers to resign ; and in all 
the colonies the assemblies adopted resolutions in oppo- 
sition to the stamp act, although, in many of them, the 
royal governors prorogued and attempted to stop their 
proceedings. The members of the colonial assemblies 
were animated and encouraged by the people, who, in 
most of the towns, instructed them to oppose the stamp 
act. But the most important measure to unite the colo- 
nies, and give energy and effect to their opposition, was 
convening a continental congress, consisting of deputies 
appointed by each colony. This measure was first pro- 
posed by the assembly of Massachusetts. The meeting 
was appointed to be holden in New- York, in October, 1765. 

All the colonies, except New-Hampshire, Virginia, 
North Carolina, and Georgia, sent deputies ; the three last 
of these colonies were prevented by their governors, and 
the first excused itself on account of its peculiar situa- 
tion. The congress, after mature deliberation, adopted 
a declaration of rights, and a statement of the grievances 
of the colonies, and asserted, in the strongest terms, their 
exemption from all taxes not imposed by their own re- 
presentatives. It also prepared a petition to the house of 
commons. 

As the first of November, the time when the stamp act 
was to go into operation, approached, public feeling be- 
came still stronger, and was excited to the utmost to pre- 
vent the execution of the law. In New-York, ten boxes 
of stamps, which had arrived there for Connecticut, were 
seized by the populace and burned ; and in other ports, 
the masters of vessels, which brought out stamps, were 
compelled to return with their detestable cargoes, or deli- 
ver them up to the people to be destroyed. In Boston and 
many of the principal towns, the first of- November was 
kept as a day of mourning and deep distress ; all the 
shops were shut, the bells were tolled muffled, and the 
effigies of the authors and abettors of the act were car* 



140 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ried in procession through the streets, and then torn to 
pieces, and consumed by the flames. 

The lawyers of the supreme court in New- Jersey, re- 
solved that they would not purchase the stamps in their 
professional business, and that they would relinquish their 
practice as a sacrifice to the public good ; and the princi- 
pal merchants in the colonies, and great numbers of other 
classes of the inhabitants, entered into solemn engage- 
ments not only to refuse to use the stamps, but also not 
to import any more goods from Great Britain until the 
stamp act should be repealed. Associations were formed, 
called the " Sons of Liberty," the object of which was, 
to assist and protect with force, if necessary, every one 
who might be in danger from his resistance or opposition 
to the stamp act. This bold association originated in 
New- York, and prevailed throughout New-England, and, 
had not the act been repealed, must have led to civil 
war. 

The restrictive measures produced distress and tumults 
in England ; large numbers of the manufacturers being 
thrown out of employment, and more than forty thousand, 
with black flags, appeared in the streets in London, and 
surrounded the royal palace and parliament house. For- 
tunately a change of ministry took place, in consequence 
of what was called the regency bill, and Lord Grenville 
was succeeded by the Marquis of Rockingham, as first 
lord of the treasury, and the Duke of Grafton and Gene- 
ral Conway were appointed secretaries of state. 

In January, the parliament met ; the affairs of America 
occupied the principal attention, and the first talents of 
the house were engaged in the discussion. Mr. Pitt, who 
had been confined to his bed by sickness, when the stamp 
act was passed, now came forward as the great champion 
of the rights of the Americans, and with his manly and 
all powerful eloquence, opposed the unjust, unconstitu- 
tional, and dangerous measure ; he even justified the 
Americans in their resistance of an act of tyranny and 
oppression. After a long and animated discussion, the 
act was repealed, accompanied, however, with a declara- 
tion, " that the king and parliament had, and of right 
ought to have, full power and authority to make laws and 



THE UNITED STATES. 141 

statutes of sufficient force to bind the colonies, and his 
majesty's subjects in them, in all cases whatever." An 
act of indemnity was also passed. 

The repeal of the obnoxious act occasioned universal 
joy, both in Great Britain and America ; the ships in the 
Thames displayed their colours, and the whole city of 
London was illuminated ; and in the colonies, notwith- 
standing the declaratory act, asserting the principle of tax- 
ation, the joy and rejoicings were universal ; the non-im- 
portation resolutions were rescinded ; animosities, ill 
treatment, and every thing past, were forgotten, and com- 
mercial intercourse with Great Britain, was resumed with 
greater activity than ever before had been witnessed. The 
colonies hoped and believed, that harmony would now be 
restored, and did every thing in their power to promote 
this desirable object. 

But the officers of the crown, the minions of power, 
and the expectants of place, kept up a correspondence 
with the officers of the British government at home, and 
attempted to promote their own selfish views by misre- 
presenting their countrymen. Governor Bernard, of 
Massachusetts, was the head of this party, which contri- 
buted so much to breed difficulties, and bring matters to a 
crisis. Notwithstanding that the declaratory act still 
hung over the heads of the colonies, like a portentous 
cloud, it was not generally expected that the British go- 
vernment would very soon make another so dangerous an 
experiment. But these reasonable expectations, however, 
soon proved to be fallacious, and all reliance on the justice 
or liberality of Britain, was found to be deceptive and 
dangerous. 

Notwithstanding the distraction into which the colonies 
had been thrown, by the stamp act, within a few months 
after its repeal, and before the wounds it had occasioned 
had had time to heal, the chancellor of the exchequer, 
Charles Townshend, came forward with a new scheme of 
taxing America, and was so sanguine in his views, that he 
pledged his character for the success of the project. The 
new revenue scheme was, to take off the duties on teas 
which were paid in Great Britain, and to levy three pence 



142 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

per pound on all that was purchased in America, and also 
a duty on paper, glass, and several other articles. 

A board of customs was established, and commission- 
ers appointed to set in Boston to collect the duties ; and 
the custom officers were to be paid from the revenue thus 
raised ; and the governor, judges of the superior court, 
and other officers in Massachusetts, who had hitherto 
been dependant for their salaries on the assembly, /Lo ren- 
der them independent of the people, and more devoted to 
Great Britain, were also to be paid from these revenues 
And to carry the iniquitous system into effect (as unjust 
laws can only be enforced by unjust means) the powers ol 
the court of admiralty were greatly extended, so as to de 

Erive the people of trial by jury in prosecutions for vio- 
iting the revenue laws. Writs of assistance, as they 
were called, issued by the governor, or any officer of the 
revenue, authorized searching the house of the most re- 
spectable inhabitant in the province, on suspicion of the 
concealment of contraband or smuggled goods. 

When intelligence of these new parliamentary regula- 
tions reached America, they occasioned universal asto- 
nishment, and revived all the excitement and alarm which 
prevailed during the stamp act. In the minds of reflect- 
ing men, they were regarded as more dangerous than that 
obnoxious act, as an indirect and disguised system of tax- 
ation had a more certain and fatal tendency to undermine 
the liberties, and enslave the people, than direct taxes. 
The colonies, assailed by the same injuries, had recourse 
to their former measures of complaint and supplication; 
but their petitions were not even read, and their remon- 
strances treated with contempt, thus adding insult to in- 
justice. 

These accumulated injuries and indignities aroused the 
fears and spirit of the colonies ; and a circular letter, ad- 
dressed to the other colonies, by the assembly of Massa- 
chusetts, contributed to diffuse the flame, and lead to con- 
cert of action. This letter was dated the llth of Febru- 
ary, 1768, and the sentiments it contained were reiterated 
by most of the colonial assemblies. From the bold and 
determined conduct of the assembly of Massachusetts, it 
was prorogued by the governor. Another assembly was 



THE UNITED STATES. 143 

cozened in May following, to which the governor, in his 
first communication, insolently demanded of them, as re- 
quired by the British secretary of state, to rescind the 
resolutions of the preceding assembly, which led to the 
circular letter, and intimated, that unless they complied 
immediately, they would be dissolved at once. 

But the assembly acted with a firmness which became 
the defenders of liberty; and, instead of complying with 
this haughty mandate, petitioned the king for the removal 
of the royal governor, and charged upon him a long cata- 
logue of crimes. The governor, exasperated at their 
conduct, immediately dissolved the mutinous assembly, 
and applied to the commander in chief of the king's 
troops, then in New- York, to have several additional re- 
giments sent to Boston. Alarmed at these circumstances, 
the inhabitants of Boston besought the governor to con- 
vene another assembly ; but he treated their request with 
contempt. 

The crisis required something to be done without de- 
lay, and, accordingly, letters were written to every town 
in the colony, requesting the appointment of delegates to 
meet in convention at Boston, before the arrival of the 
troops. Delegates from ninety-six towns met on the 22d 
of September. The governor instantly sent them an 
angry message, commanding them to disperse, threaten- 
ing, in case of refusal, that they would suffer the conse- 
quence of their temerity. The convention, however, was 
not frightened into submission, but gave their reasons for 
convening, continued their deliberations, and prepared a 
petition to the king. 

On the first of October, the troops arrived, and landed; 
and, sword in hand, paraded through the streets of Bos- 
ton, which were filled with vast crowds, who, with sullen 
silence, denoting the deepest resentment, witnessed this, 
the first act in the great and bloody drama about to be 
performed. No tumult or resistance, however, ensued, 
notwithstanding the troops were quartered in the houses 
of the inhabitants. The assembly met in May, 1769, and 
immediately adopted several spirited resolutions ; that the 
placing an armed force where the legislature was con- 
vened, to overawe their deliberations, was a breach of 



144 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

privilege, and that the quartering of troops on the inl^i- 
tants in time of peace, was illegal, and a violation of the 
rights and liberties of British subjects. 

A standing army was now stationed in the capital oi 
Massachusetts, for the avowed object of coercing the in- 
habitants into submission; their commerce fettered, theii 
characters traduced, the assembly prevented from meet- 
ing, and the petitions of all classes to have the assembly 
convened, treated with contempt by an insolent governor, 
who threatened to augment the troops, and enforce, at all 
hazards, his arbitrary and tyrannical measures, it cannot 
be surprising that the fears and exasperations of the peo- 
ple exceeded what had ever been witnessed before. At 
this alarming conjuncture, something must be done, and 
there was no other alternative but submission or resist- 
ance, as petitions had been treated with such contempt, 
that to memorialize any branch of the British government 
would be equivalent to submission ; and there were but 
two ways of resistance, either an appeal to the sword, or 
an entire suspension of all commercial intercourse with 
Great Britain, which, as was said by Mr. Pitt in his 
speech, furnished the means whereby Britain had carried 
on the war with France, and which, if continued, would 
afford the means of their own oppression. 

As all the colonies were involved in one common dan- 
ger, they readily entered into the most solemn engage- 
ments, that no British, or India goods, should be imported, 
except a few specified articles of necessary use. The 
effects of these arrangements were soon felt in England, 
and produced clamours, and even tumults, in some parts 
of the kingdom. But the partizans of the crown in Ame- 
rica, endeavoured, by their correspondence, to induce the 
ministry to persevere in their oppressive measures, and 
represented in the strongest 'terms, that the interruption 
of commerce was only an effort of desperation, which 
could not last long. They advised the ministry to pur- 
chase large quantities of goods, designed for the American 
market, and also to allow trie merchants engaged in the 
American trade, a premium equal to the profits of their 
stock in business. " If these measures are adopted," 
said Mr. Oliver, secretary in Massachusetts, in one of his 



THE UNITED STATES 145 

letters, " the game will soon be up with my country- 
men" 

The assembly which convened at Boston in May, set 
several weeks without doing any business, as they refused 
to act as long as an armed force was quartered in the 
town, and surrounded the house where they were in ses- 
sion ; they were finally adjourned to Cambridge. They 
sent several messages to the governor to have the troops 
removed, but, after evading the matter for some time, he 
declared that he had no authority over the king's troops ; 
thus admitting that the military was above the civil power 
in the province. Governor Bernard sent a provoking 
message, stating the expenditures of quartering the troops 
on the town, and requesting that provision be made for 
the same, and also for their future support; the assembly 
were thus called on to maintain the instruments by which 
they were to be oppressed and enslaved. 

But instead of complying with this request, they passed 
several spirited resolutions, censuring the conduct of the 
governor and General Gage, for their rash and oppressive 
measures, their wanton violations of the constitution, the 
introduction of a standing army in time of peace, and 
their encroachments on the liberties of the citizens and of 
the province. The governor had received an order to re- 
pair to England, and lay before the king the state of the 
colony, which he communicated to the assembly, with a 
request that his salary might be continued during his ab- 
sence, as his office would remain. 

But the assembly informed him in decided terms, that 
they could not comply with either of his requests. On 
receiving this answer, he immediately, after a short, an- 
gry, and threatening speech, prorogued the legislature. 
He soon after set sail for Europe, then little thinking that 
he should never return to a country, that by his violent 
temper and arbitrary conduct, he had brought to the brink 
of civil war. His reception at court convinced the Ame- 
ricans of the truth of what they feared, that the gover- 
nor had been sent for as a mischievous emissary, rather 
than for an impartial inquiry into the real situation of the 
province, or an investigation of his own conduct. 

Thomas Hutchinson, the lieutenant-governor was fp 
13 



146 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

pointed to succeed Governor Bernard. Hutchinson 
a native of Boston, and had run a career of popularity , 
whilst, however, he was courting the people at home, he 
was not less assiduous in ingratiating himself into the fa- 
vour of the British government, by misrepresenting his 
countrymen. He was artful and plausible, and possessed 
of popular talents ; but was insidious, dark, intriguing 
and ambitious ; and the extreme of avarice marked every 
feature of his character. His appointment was announ- 
ced at the close of the year 1769. 

He immediately assumed a more haughty tone, and 
aimed at more high handed measures than his predeces- 
sor, and commenced his administration by informing the 
assembly that he was independent of them and the peo- 
ple, as his majesty had made provision for his salary. Se- 
cure of the favour of his sovereign, he treated the peo- 
ple and the assembly with contempt, and answered their 
repeated solicitations to remove the troops from the capi- 
tal, by withdrawing the garrison from a strong fortress in 
the harbour of Boston, who were in the pay of the pro- 
vince, and replacing them by two regiments of the king's 
troops. 

The ebullitions of popular feeling were so high as to 
occasion great alarm with the leading patriots, that it 
would break out into acts of violence, which might in- 
jure the cause of the people. The miserable minions of 
power in America, endeavoured to promote this result, 
and openly avowed, " that the only method to restore 
tranquillity, was to take off the original incendiaries, 
whose writing had instilled the poison of sedition into the 
people." James Otis, the most active, bold, and influen- 
tial patriot of the day, having published, under his proper 
signature, some severe strictures on the conduct of the 
officers of the crown, was assaulted in a public room, by 
a band of hired ruffians, with swords andbludge-ons, and 
being covered with wounds, was left for dead. The as- 
sassins made their escape, and took refuge on board the 
king's ships in the harbour. Mr. Otis survived, but the . 
lamp of his understanding, which had glowed with such 
effulgence, was overcast with clouds and darkness. Mr. 
Tohn Adams says, that he "laid the foundation of the 



THE UNITED STATES. 147 

American revolution, with an energy, and with those 
masterly talents, which no other man possessed ;" and he 
is justly considered as the first martyr to American li- 
berty. 

The insults which the inhabitants constantly experi 
enced from the soldiers, increased their animosity towards 
them to such a degree, as to lead to violence and blood- 
shed. On the second of March, 1770, an affray took 
place between a party of soldiers of the 29th regiment, 
and some rope-makers, in front of Mr. Gray's rope-walk. 
This was followed by a more alarming outrage on the 
5th ; the indignant populace pressed upon and insulted 
the soldiers, while under arms, and assailed them with 
clubs, sticks, and snow-balls covering stones. Being dared 
to fire by the mob, six of the soldiers discharged their 
muskets, which killed three of the citizens, and wound- 
ed five others. 

The effect of this was electric ; the town was instantly 
in commotion, and the mass of the people were so exas- 
pe^ated, that it required the utmost exertions to prevent 
their rallying and driving the British myrmidons out of 
town ; and nothing but an assurance that the troops should 
be withdrawn, prevented this resort to force. The cap- 
tain of the party and eight men were brought to trial ; 
two of the men were found guilty ; the captain and the 
other men were acquitted. A general meeting of the 
inhabitants was immediately assembled in Fanueil Hall, 
who unanimously resolved, that no armed force should 
be suffered longer to reside in the capital; and a com- 
mittee was appointed to wait on the governor, and re- 
quest the immediate removal of the troops. The go- 
vernor refused to act, under pretence of want of autho- 
rity; but Colonel Dalrymple, alarmed at the state of 
things, proposed to withdraw the 29th regiment, which 
was more culpable than any other ; but he was informed 
that not a soldier should be left in town ; he was reluc- 
tantly compelled to comply, and within four days not a 
Red-coat remained. 

This tragical affair produced the deepest impressions 
on the minds of the people ; and the anniversary of the 
massacre of the 5th of March, 1770, was commemorated 



148 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

for many years, and orations delivered, which unfolded 
the blessings of civil liberty, the horrors of slavery, the 
dangers of standing armies, and the rights of the colonies. 
These annual orations administered fuel to the fire of liber- 
ty, and kept it burning with an incessant flame, and in nc 
small degree promoted the cause of the colonies, in a 
manner that served to give a deeper glow to the flame of 
liberty. In the spring of 1773, the schooner Gaspee was 
stationed at Providence, to prevent smuggling ; and the 
conduct of the commander having exasperated the inha- 
bitants, two hundred men entered on board the schooner 
at night, and compelled the captain and crew to go ashore, 
and then set fire to the vessel. 

The government offered a reward of five hundred pounds, 
for the apprehension of any of the persons engaged in 
this outrage ; but such was the spirit and unanimity of the 
people, that this pecuniary inducement produced no effect, 
and the authors of the outrage could not be discovered. 
About this period, the letters of Governor Hutchinson and 
Mr. Oliver, to their friends in England, urging the govern- 
ment to adopt more decisive and vigorous measures, to 
coerce the colonies into submission, were discovered and 
sent back to America, by Dr. Franklin, which, being pub- 
lished by the assembly of Massachusetts, greatly contri- 
buted to inflame the public mind, and exasperate the peo- 
ple against these officers of the crown, who were justly 
charged with having shamefully betrayed their trust, and 
the people, whose rights it was their duty vigilantly to 
guard. 

Whilst the other duties were repealed, that on tea was 
retained, for the sole and avowed object of maintaining 
the power, which piarliament had asserted, of collecting a 
revenue in America. The ministerial scheme was cun- 
ning and artful ; but did not, in the least degree, deceive 
the vigilance of the Americans. The object was to cheat 
the colonies out of their rights, by collecting an indirect, 
imperceptible duty, little more than nominal in amount, 
which, however, if acquiesced in, would have been an ad- 
mission of the principle or yi s^lit of Britain to raise a reve- 
nue in America. It was an attempt to obtain, covertly 
and by fraud, what they had attempted, but failed to ob- 
tain, openly by force. 



THE UNITED STATES. 149 

In the first place, measures were adopted, openly and 
explicitly, for taxing the colonies, the duties to be paid 
directly by the consumer ; but being unable to enforce 
this act, it was repealed, accompanied with a declaration 
of the right of parliament to tax the Americans, in all 
cases whatsoever. This naked assertion of a right, when 
the application of it had been attempted and abandoned, 
did not give the Americans much concern ; they would 
not have cared, if the British had kept that assertion of a 
right to do wrong on their statute-book, as long as the 
two countries existed, provided they had not attempted to 
exercise their assumed right. 

But the advocates of American taxation seemed to be 
sensible, that the bare assertion of a right, after an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to enforce it, would amount to but little, 
and that conclusions, obviously following the abandon- 
ment of the first attempt to tax the Americans, would be 
left in their full force. Under the circumstances in which 
the two countries were placed, therefore, the right must 
oe enforced, or it must be considered as virtually aban- 
doned. But this had been once attempted without suc- 
cess ; a more ingenious mode, therefore, must be devised, 
or one less likely to give alarm to the colonies. The 
stamp duties were a direct tax, as the duty constituted 
the entire value of the sum paid ; but a trifling impost 
would not. be perceived, as the duty would scarcely make 
any sensible difference in the price of the article. The 
bitter pill which it was intended to make the 6olonies 
swallow, was gilded with sugar. 

The duty was more artfully disguised than a single im- 
post. It was, in fact, no additional burdefl on the con- 
sumers of tea, it being only a different mode of collecting 
the duty which had before been paid ; yet this alteration 
of the mode involved the right and power of parliament 
to establish a revenue system in America. According to 
the former regulations, the teas of the India Company 
were first brought to England, where a duty was paid be- 
fore they were sent to the colonies. The scheme was 
merely to change the place and mode ?f collecting the 
duty ; it was to be paid in America, instead of England ; 
for which purpose custom regulations w"ere established, 



150 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

and officers appointed. A duty of three pence on a pound 
of tea, would not be felt by the people, and this, or, rather, 
a greater duty, had been paid before in England ; so that, 
instead of the burdens of the people being increased, they 
were rather lightened by this new regulation. So artfully 
disguised was this scheme. 

It is a maxim with many politicians, and too generally 
correct, that the people will not be alarmed or excited by 
aily principle, however it may be fraught with danger ; 
that they must feel and suffer, before their fears will 
arouse them into action. But this maxim did not hold 
true with the Americans ; they saw the danger, and re- 
solved to resist, at the hazard of their lives, a principle, 
calculated to undermine the foundation of their liberty ; 
although its operation at the time was not felt in the 
slightest degree. The resistance of the Americans to the 
scheme of collecting a duty on tea in America, instead of 
England, was the resistance of the principle which that 
scheme involved, solely ; as no additional burden was 
thereby imposed on the people. 

It is believed that this is the only instance in history, of 
an entire people being roused to resistance, from measures 
which were not burdensome or oppressive in their imme- 
diate operations, and dangerous only from a principle on 
which they were founded. This consideration affords the 
highest evidence of the intelligence of the Americans, as 
well as of their extreme jealousy and vigilance, in guard- 
ing their rights. That the experienced politician should 
foresee the ultimate design and tendency of measures, 
not immediately oppressive, is natural enough ; but that 
the common people, or rather the entire population of a 
country, should be aroused to resistance, on account of 
measures not burdensome or oppressive, but dangerous 
only from the principle on which they were founded, is 
unparalleled. 

It is not, however, to be supposed, that the colonists 
would have been so alarmed and aroused to such a spirit 
of resistance, by the new regulations as to tea, had it not 
been for *the previous measures of the parent country, 
evincing, in the clearest manner, a settled design to exer- 
cise the power of taxation over them. They considered 



THE UNITED STATES. 151 

the new regulations as to tea, as an artful and disguised 
revenue system, although it imposed no additional duty, 
and they were determined not to be cheated out of their 
liberties, as they had before resolved not to be frightened 
out of them. 

Measures were immediately adopted to prevent the in- 
troduction of the tea into the country, so as to avoid the 
payment of the duty ; and such was the strength and una- 
nimity of public opinion, that without the aid of law, or 
rather in opposition to law, they were enabled to render 
their measures efficient, solely by the force of public sen- 
timent, although measures of all others the most difficult 
to enforce, as interfering both with the interests and the 
established habits of the people. 

In most of the towns from New-Hampshire to Geor- 
gia, the people assembled, and resolved to discontinue the 
use of tea, which was now regarded as an herb (however 
agreeable as a beverage) noxious to the political constitu- 
tion. In the large commercial towns, regulations were 
adopted to prevent the landing of tea ; committees were 
appointed to inspect merchant's books, propose tests, and 
make use of other means to defeat the designs of Britain. 
Where it could be done, the consignees of the teas were 
persuaded or compelled to resign, or to bind themselves not 
to act in that capacity. The cargo sent to South Caro- 
lina, was stored, the consignees being constrained to en- 
ter into an engagement not to offer any for sale ; and in 
many of the colonies, the ships were compelled to return 
without discharging their cargoes. So vigorously were 
these measures enforced, that during one year eighty-five 
pounds was the whole amount of duties received. 

The teas consumed in the colonies, were principally 
smuggled into the country, by the Dutch and French, 
who were favoured by the inhabitants in evading the re- 
venue laws. During the four or five years that the new 
system had been in existence, very trifling quantities of 
teas had been introduced into the colonies ; and instead 
of the restrictive measures being relaxed as was expected 
in England, they increased in vigour and efficacy, and the 
quantity of tea introduced had constantly diminished. 

As had been the case with other matters of difference 



152 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

between the two countries, the principal struggle, grow- 
ing out of the regulations as to tea, occurred at Boston. 
The other provinces had avoided the alternative which 
was reserved for this, of either suffering the teas to be 
disposed of, or to destroy them by violent means. 
Knowing the spirit of the inhabitants of Boston, the In- 
dia Company had been more cautious as to the cargoes 
shipped for that port, than those sent to the other provin- 
ces : and the zeal of Governor Hutchinson, and the other 
officers of the crown there, greatly surpassed that of 
the crown officers in the other colonies, and was calcula- 
ted to frustrate the measures of the inhabitants. The 
tea ships destined to Boston were all consigned to the 
sons, cousins, and persons who were the merest tools of 
Governor Hutchinson. When called on to resign, the 
only answer they would give was, " that it was not in 
their power." 

As the consignees could not be induced or frightened to 
resign, the next plan was, to compel the vessels to return 
without landing their detestable cargoes ; but the collect- 
or refused to give a clearance without the vessels were 
discharged of dutiable articles, and the governor refused 
to give a pass for the vessels, until they were properly 
qualified from the custom house ; and to guard against 
the vessels being taken possession of, and conducted out 
of the harbour, the governor ordered Admiral Montague, 
who commanded the naval force, to keep a vigilant look 
out, and to suffer no vessel, coasters excepted, to pass the 
fortress from the town, without a pass signed by himself. 
The rigorous adherence to these measures, afforded great 
satisfaction to the governor and his minions, and all the 
British party ; they flattered themselves that the " Sons 
of Liberty," after all their clamour, resolutions, and 
schemes to resist the tea system, were outmanaged, and 
that it would be impossible for them to prevent the land- 
ing and sale of the obnoxious cargoes. 

Their measures "had been planned so wisely, and their 
execution was intrusted^to agents of such known fidelity 
to the crown, and who were under the immediate influ- 
ence and control of the governor, they thought there was 
not a loop-hole, whereby the rebellious Americans could 



THE UNITED STATES. 153T 

escape paying the hateful tax. They did not even dream 
that an attempt would be made to destroy or throw over- 
board the offensive article, which covered a tribute to 
Britain ; for if they had, the vessels would have been 
guarded. The governor, after all he had witnessed and 
experienced, judging rather from his feelings than his 
knowledge, was entirely ignorant of public sentiment, 
and of the spirit of the people : he had no idea that they 
had determined to resist the obnoxious measure, at every 
hazard, even that of life. Nothing short of this bold 
step could prevent the deep laid scheme against the liber- 
ties of the country from succeeding. 

It had been rendered impossible that the vessels should 
return with their cargoes ; and to suffer the tea to be 
landed, and trust to the spirit and unanimity of the inha- 
bitants not to purchase it, would have been to yield the 
point ; for a small portion of the citizens were in favour 
of the British, and would, of course, consume the article, 
and by fair means or foul, it would have been distributed 
among others. And it would have been equally imprac- 
ticable to prevent the tea from being landed ; the most 
unwearied watching, day and night, could not prevent 
this, as it might be conveyed ashore by small quantities in 
the night season, and at such places as to escape the 
utmost vigilance. Every other measure had been attempt- 
ed without success ; the consignees had been urged to de- 
cline the commission, and a numerous public meeting of 
the citizens had been held, who presented a remonstrance 
to the governor, and urged him to order back the ships 
without suffering any part of their cargoes to be landed. 
But his answer satisfied them that he was the adviser of 
the measure, and determined to carry it into execution. 
The parties were at issue on the great question, on which 
the liberties of the country hung suspended; whether 
Great Britain should exercise the power of taxing the 
Americans in any way or not. 

This question depended on the landing of a few car- 
goes of tea, which had become contaminated with an un- 
constitutional tax. The colonists were determined that 
they would not pay the tax, and the British party were 
determined to carry into effect the tea regulation, and to 



154 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

frustrate the plans of the Americans. Both parties had 
taken their measures, and the British party were confi- 
dent of success ; the contest was advancing to a crisis ; 
alarm and dismay prevailed ; the deepest anxiety was de- 
picted in every countenance ; had an invading army been 
in the neighbourhood threatening to sack the town, or 
had the pestilence which walks in darkness ravaged its 
pavilions, greater gloom could not overspread the town, 
or stronger indications been exhibited, of a pending event 
big with the fate of three millions of people. 

During this deep and awful suspense, a report was 
started, which spread with the rapidity of lightning 
through the town, that Admiral Montague was about to 
seize the ships, and dispose of their cargoes, at public 
auction, within twenty-four hours ; w T hich was believed to 
be a cunning device of Hutchinson, as this would as effec- 
tually have secured the duties, as if the teas had been sold 
at the stores of the consignees. This rumour was like an 
electric shock ; leaving their' employments, the people 
rushed into the streets, and, with amazed and terrified 
countenances, every one seemed to say, what shall we do 
to prevent ^the consummation, in so bold and daring a 
manner, of this iniquitous scheme. 

In a few moments, as from an instinctive impulse, a 
vast crowd repaired to one of the most spacious churches 
in Boston, and organized themselves into a public meet- 
ing. Previously to taking any other step, a message was 
sent to the governor and the consignees, who with diffi- 
culty could be found, as they were afraid to encounter 
even the looks of an indignant and injured people. No 
satisfactory answers were returned ; but instead of com- 
plying with their wishes, whilst the assembled multitude 
were quietly, notwithstanding the excitement which pre- 
vailed, consulting on their critical situation, and the mea- 
sures proper to be adopted, the sheriff entered with an 
order from the governor, styling them an illegal and sedi- 
tious assembly, and ordering them immediately to dis- 
perse. 

But he did not bring with him the posse comitatus, as 
the power of the county was already assembled, and it 
was that the sheriff was ordered to disperse ; this man- 



THE UNITED STATES 155 

date was treated with deserved contempt, and the sheriff 
hissed out of the house, mortified and chagrined, and a 
confused murmur followed, not only in the house, but 
among the vast multitude from without ; but soon order 
was restored, and the meeting adjourned, without adopt- 
ing any vote or resolution. The leaders probably sup- 
posed, that such a meeting was not the place to discuss 
and devise measures to meet the crisis. 

The bold measure was now conceived, and immedi- 
ately proposed for execution, which surprised and agitated 
the two countries, and hurried on that memorable revo- 
lution which made them " enemies in war, and in peace 
friends." The success of it, as well as the danger at- 
tending it, required secrecy and despatch. It has never 
been known with certainty, either who contrived or exe- 
cuted this bold expedient ; but there is no reason to doubt, 
but that Mr. Samuel Adams, and many of the leaders in 
the political affairs of the day, were its contrivers, and it 
is known, that the hall of council was in the back room 
of Edes and Gill's printing office, at the corner of the 
alley leading from Court-street to Brattle-street church 
It is a singular circumstance, that the daring and despe- 
rate measure, for the maintenance of the liberties of the 
country, should have been counselled and contrived in an 
editorial closet of a newspaper, which was one of the or- 
gans of the public voice, and a vigilant sentinel of the li- 
berties of the people. Since this period, many political 
schemes have originated in the " back rooms" of print- 
ing offices, but in general of a very different character. 

In a few hours after the adjournment of the public 
meeting, the bold measure, on the success of which the 
great question of taxation hung suspended, was contri- 
ved, matured, and ripened for execution ; and the public 
were surprised with the sudden appearance in the streets, 
of a large number of savages, or persons disguised, clad, 
and every way counterfeiting the aborigines of the coun- 
try : armed with a tomahawk in one hand, and a club 
over the shoulder ; who, in a silent and solemn manner, 
not a voice being heard, marched in Indian file, through 
the streets, amidst a crowd of astonished spectators, who 
knew not what to think of so unexpected and strange an 



156 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

exhibition ; and its novelty, and the surprise which it oc- 
casioned, may have prevented any steps being taken to 
oppose their design. 

The Indians, whilst strongly attached to tobacco, in 
this instance, at least, appear to have had a mortal antipa- 
thy to tea ; and, as though attracted by its noxious quali- 
ties, they proceeded directly towards the wharves where 
he tea ships lay ; boarded them, demanded the keys, and 
without the least hesitation or delay, knocked open the 
chests, and emptied their contents, duties and all, into the 
ocean, comprising several thousand weight of the finest 
teas. The deed was done in the face of the world ; and, 
although surrounded by the king's ships, no opposition 
was made or attempted all was silence and amazement. 
Thus the teas, which were designed as a means of ex- 
torting tribute from the Americans, became an offering to 
the " spirits of the vasty deep," and a sacrifice to the li- 
berties of the country. The " Indians," having effected 
their object, showed no marks of triumph ; no savage 
warwhoop was heard ; nor did they commit any other 
violence or disorder, but in the same silent, solemn, and 
orderly manner, marched back through the town, follow- 
ed by a vast crowd. No movements on the part of the 
government, or disturbance by the people, followed this 
event ; and it was observed at the time, that the stillest 
night succeeded, which Boston had enjoyed for several 
months. 

No persons assisted the savages in the destruction of 
the tea, except some boys or young men, who had assem- 
bled on the occasion, and voluntarily took a part in what 
\vas going on ; one of these youths collected the tea 
which fell into his own shoes, and those of several of bis 
companions, put it in a phial, and sealed it up, which is 
now in his possession, containing the same obnoxious 
tea, which, in this instance, was considered as more dan- 
gerous to the political health and constitution of the peo- 
ple, even than strong drink. The number of savages, 
manufactured for the occasion, has been variously estima- 
ted from sixty to eighty ; although several persons have 
been mentioned as among the number, none of them have 
ever been known with certainty ; there are many and ob- 



THE UNITED STATES. 157 

nous reasons, why secrecy then, and concealment since, 
were necessary. Not any of those who, it has been con- 
fidently asserted, were of the party, have admitted the 
fact, except some of the boys. 

Nearly all of the disguised persons have left this scene 
of strife, and their secret has died with them ; and what 
few remain, if any, will probably be as prudent as those 
who have gone before them, and like them, will suffer 
their knowledge to be buried with them, so that the great- 
est secret will shortly be beyond the reach of human re- 
search. The success of this bold and daring measure, 
astonished Governor Hutchinson and the British party, 
and seemed to convince him that the " Sons of Liberty" 
were not quite so contemptible as he had ijepresented 
them in his letters to the ministry ; and it even astonished 
the whigs in the other colonies, and contributed to fan the 
flames of liberty, and give them a deeper glow, and more 
intense heat. 

When the intelligence of this event reached England, 
accompanied with all the exaggeration and colouring 
which Hutchinson could give to it, it produced the ut- 
most excitement and indignation with the ministerial 
party, and even the opponents of the American revenue 
system, could not justify so rash and desperate a measure. 
Parliament at once determined to crush the devoted town, 
which was the seat and cause of this high-handed resist- 
ance to its supremacy. Its omnipotent power, and all the 
terrors of its wrath, were to be concentrated and directed 
against this rebellious town. A bill w r as immediately in- 
troduced to " discontinue the landing and discharging, 
landing and shipping, of goods, wares, and merchandise, 
at the town of Boston, or within the harbour." 

This bill, called the " Boston Port Bill," passed on the 
25th of March, 1774, and when it was known, threw the 
inhabitants into the utmost consternation. A general 
meeting was called, and spirited resolutions adopted, ex- 
pressive, in strong terms, of their sense of the oppressive 
measure, and they requested all the colonies to unite in an 
engagement to discontinue all importations from Great 
Britain ; and most of the colonies resolved to make com- 

14 



158 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

mon cause with Massachusetts, in her opposition to the 
unconstitutional measures of parliament. 

The first of June, when the port-bill was to go into ope- 
ration, was appointed to be kept as a day of fasting and 
prayer. This act was soon followed by another, " for the 
better regulating government in the province of Massa- 
chusetts Bay ;" the object of which was to alter the char- 
ter, so as to make the judges and sheriffs dependant on 
the king, and removeable at his pleasure. And this act 
was soon succeeded by another, which provided, that any 
persons indicted for murder, or other capital offence, com- 
mitted in aiding the magistrates in enforcing the la\vs, 
might be sent by the governor, either to any other colony 
or to Great Britain, for his trial. 

- The Quebec bill followed in rapid succession, enlarg- 
ing the bounds of that province, and conferring many 
privileges on the Roman Catholics ; the design of which 
was to secure the attachment of that province, and pre- 
vent its joining with the colonies in their measures of re- 
sistance. These measures, instead of intimidating the co- 
lonies into submission, only confirmed their fears of the 
settled designs of Great Britain, to deprive them of their 
chartered rights, and reduce the colonies to the lowest 
state of political degradation and oppression. A sense of 
common danger led to an extensive correspondence, 
which resulted in the opinion, that it was expedient to 
convene a general congress, to consist of deputies from all 
the colonies. This congress met at Philadelphia, on the 
5th of September, 1774 ; and comprised among its mem- 
bers, some of the most distinguished patriots, statesmen, 
and orators in this country, or perhaps in any other. Not- 
withstanding the ferment which prevailed in most of the 
colonies, their proceedings were characterized by cool- 
ness, unanimity, and firmness. 

They published along and solemn declaration of rights, 
as British subjects, and maintained in the strongest terms, 
their exemption from taxation by parliament; besides 
which, they prepared a petition to the king, which was re- 
fused to t>e answered; an address to the people of Great 
Britain another to the people of America. These docu- 
ments were drawn up with a masterly hand, and exhibited 



THE UNITED STATES. 159 

great dignity and ability, and were, in every respect, 
worthy of the men who had confided to them the liber- 
ties of their country, and the destinies of three millions of 
their countrymen, threatened with slavery. 

The proceedings of congress did not tend to allay pub- 
lic feeling, and as the royal agents in Massachusetts seem- 
ed determined to push matters to extremities, and reduce 
the people to unconditional submission, by arbitrary and 
forcible means, every thing now wore the appearance of 
civil war. A new council, and new judges, were appoint- 
ed by the crown ; and the latter attempted to enter upon 
the execution of their offices ; but the juries refused to be 
sworn under them ; the people in some counties assem- 
bled to prevent their proceedings, and in Berkshire suc- 
ceeded in thus setting an example, which was afterwards 
followed by Shays' men, in violation of the laws of the 
state. About this time, the famous " Tree of Liberty,'* 
in Boston, which had been pruned and ornamented with 
so much pride and care, " fell a victim to British ven- 
geance, or to some individual to whom its shade had be- 
come offensive." 

Previously to this period, General Gage had succeeded 
Hutchinson as governor of Massachusetts ; and, appre- 
hending danger from a general muster of the militia, he 
caused the magazines and ammunition at Charlestown 
and Cambridge, to be removed to Boston, and fortified 
the neck of land which joins Boston to the main land, at 
Roxbury. These measures occasioned a universal panic ; 
delegates from all the towns in the county of Suffolk met, 
and spirited resolutions, and a remonstrance to the go- 
vernor, were adopted. 

The general assembly had been summoned to meet at 
Salem ; but, from the turbulence of the times, the governor 
issued his proclamation, countermanding their meet- 
ing ; yet, in defiance of the governor's mandate, ninety 
members met, resolved themselves into a provincial con- 
gress, chose Mr. Hancock president, and adjourned to 
Concord, nineteen miles from Boston. They fearlessly 
proceeded to business; after addressing the governor, and 
reiterating their grievances, in the face of British law and 
British troops, they proceeded to adopt the first measures 



100 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

which were taken, directly and avowedly, preparatory to 
an appeal to the sword, in defence of their rights and 
liberties. They regulated the militia, made provision for 
furnishing the people with arms, and for supplying the 
treasury ; and such was the enthusiasm of the people, 
that their recommendations had the force of law. Go- 
vernor Gage was filled with rage at these daring proceed- 
ngs, and issued a proclamation, in which he insinuated 
that they amounted to rebellion. 

Early in 1775, parliament passed the fishery bills, 
which prohibited the colonies from trading in fish with 
Great Britain, Ireland, and the West Indies, and from 
taking fish on the banks of Newfoundland. These acts 
were intended to operate on the town of Boston, which 
had become the devoted object of ministerial wrath. 
The various statutes which were passed, occasioned deep 
and general distress in Boston and its vicinity ; but their 
brethren in the other colonies sympathized with them, and 
promptly supplied them with provisions of every descrip- 
tion for the relief of the sufferers. 

This policy of the British government was not only 
oppressive, but mean and contemptible. Partial legisla- 
tion is always odious and tyrannical; yet it consisted 
with the justice and dignity of the British nation ; and 
a series of acts were passed, and the power of the nation 
exerted, to crush the town of Boston, because it had 
shown a more determined spirit of resistance to their 
oppressive and unconstitutional measures than had ap- 
peared in other places. The ministry were not sensible 
that the colonies considered themselves all engaged in a 
common cause ; they were in hopes to humble and crush 
the rebellious inhabitants of that devoted town, which 
they thought would be such a terrific example as would 
frighten all the colonies into submission. But their wick- 
ed designs recoiled on the heads of their authors ; for 
these oppressive measures towards the Bostonians only 
served to exasperate the people throughout all the colo- 
nies, who regarded them as cruel and detestable. 

In March, 1775, the public indignation was greatly ex- 
cited by the following base, and most shameful transac- 
tions : 



THE UNITED STATES. 161 

" The people from the country, whose business called 
them into Boston, were suspected by the officers of pur- 
chasing guns from their soldiers. In order to furnish an 
opportunity to inflict punishment, and to raise occasion 
for a serious quarrel, Lieutenant Colonel Nesbit, of the 
forty-seventh regiment, ordered a soldier to offer a coun- 
tryman an old rusty musket. A man from Billerica was 
caught by this bait, and purchased the gun for three dol- 
lars. The unfortunate man was immediately seized by 
Nesbit, and confined in the guard-house all night. Early 
next morning they stripped him entirely naked, covered 
him over with warm tar, and then with feathers, placed 
him on a cart, and conducted him through the streets as 
far as liberty tree, where the people began to collect in 
vast numbers, and the military, fearing for their safety, 
dismissed the man, and retreated to their barracks. The 
party consisted of about thirty grenadiers, with fixed 
bayonets, twenty drums and fifes playing the rogue's 
march, headed by the redoubtable Nesbit with a drawn 
sword ! What an honourable deed for a British field offi- 
cer, and grenadiers ! The select men of Billerica remon- 
strated with General Gage respecting this outrage, but 
obtained no satisfaction." 

The breach between Britain and the colonies had now 
become so wide, as, with the mass of the people, nearly 
to exclude all ideas of conciliation ; and both parties be- 
gan to make preparations for an appeal to the sword. 
No alternative was left the Americans but slavery, or 
resistance by force ; measures were adopted for training 
the militia to the use of arms, to encourage the manufac- 
ture of gunpowder, and for collecting all kinds of milita- 
ry stores ; and committees of public safety were appoint- 
ed in all the towns in the province. The British go- 
vernment sent out a reinforcement of troops to Boston, 
and in the mean time, Governor Gage attempted to coun- 
teract the designs and measures of the provincials, and 
particularly to seize and destroy their military stores, and 
thus deprive them of the means of resistance. 

To destroy their military stores at Concord, General 
Gage despatched, in a secret manner, a regiment of gre- 
nadiers, who undertook to disperse, and fired upon a party 

14* 



162 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

of militia at Lexington, several of whom were killed, 
which was the first blood spilt in that memorable war and 
revolution, that separated Great Britain and America for- 
ever, and gave to the latter, not only a rank amono- the na- 
tions of the earth, but what only can exalt a nation Li- 
berty and free institutions j which are the durable foun- 
dations of its glory and rising prosperity its tranquillity 
and happiness, its increasing population and wealth, the 
rapidity of which is unexampled in the annals of the 
world. 

Thus, dear reader, I have given you a summary view 
of the causes which led to the American revolution. I 
shall commence the revolution by giving you an account 
of the battle of Lexington. 

On the 18th of April, 1775, Lieut. Colonel Smith and 
Major Pitcairn left Boston, with 800 chosen men from <he 
British army, for the purpose of destroying the Ameri- 
can stores at Concord. On their arrival at Lexingtc n, 
they found about seventy militia under arms upon the 
green. Major Pitcairn, seeing the Americans on parade, 
rode up to them, and exclaimed, disperse, you rebels, 
throw down your arms, and disperse. His orders, no 
being instantly obeyed, he discharged his own pistol, anc? 
ordered his men to fire. His orders were obeyed, and 
three of the Americans were killed. The detachment 
proceeded to Concord. 

The militia of that town had also assembled to oppose, 
them, but their number was so small that they retired and 
waited for aid from the neighbouring towns. The British 
destroyed all the stores that were to be found, and then 
began their retreat towards Lexington. But the whole 
country was in arms, and pressed upon their rear. The 
Americans kept up a continual lire from behind hedges 
stone walls, &c. Major Pitcairn, fearing his carcass 
would be picked from his horse, dismounted, and led his 
division on foot; but his horse and equipments were ta- 
ken by the provincials. At sunset, the regulars, over- 
come with fatigue, secured their retreat over Charlestown 
neck, and found on Bunker's Hill a place of security ana 
repose. 

The loss of the British, in killed, wounded, and taken 



THE UNITED STATES. 163 

prisoners, amounted to 273, while the American loss in 
killed, wounded, and missing, was only 88. 

The battle of Lexington spread like a conflagration, 
and aroused the hardy sons of the country to a manful 
resistance. The agriculturalist left his plough in the fur- 
row, and the mechanic dropped his tools in the shop, and 
trie great mass of the people repaired to Boston with such 
arms as could be found. Within a few day 3 a large army 
was collected, under the command of Generals Wrrd and 
/'utiiam. This alarmed General Gage for the safety of 
nis garrison. When the tidings of these events reached 
ehe south, the population were aroused to the contest with 
the same animated zeal which had been displayed at the 
north, and the alarm spread far and wide through the 
country. 

On the 28th of April, 1776, the provincial congress of 
Massachusetts issued the following general circular : 

" We conjure you, by all that is dear, by all that is sa- 
cred, that you give all possible assistance in forming an 
army, in defence of the country. Our all is at stake. 
Death and destruction are the certain consequences of 
delay. Every moment is infinitely precious ; an hour 
lost may deluge your country in blood, and entail perpe- 
tual slavery upon the few of your posterity that survive 
the carnage. We beg and entreat, as you will answer it 
to your country, to your consciences, and, above all, as 
} ou will answer it to your God, that you will hasten, by 
a! possible means, the enlistment of men, to form an 
army, and send them forward to head quarters, at Cam- 
bridge, with that expedition, which the vast importance 
ariu instant urgency of the affairs demand." 

This, as might be expected, aroused the energies of the 
country, and inspired the people with the most heroic 
feelings. The call was promptly obeyed, and the sons of 
libei iy enlisted themselves with the greatest alacrity for 
the defence of their rights. 

The responsibilities which now rested on the fathers of 
the revolution were great, and their services important. 
They nad to embody and discipline new and inexperi- 
enced troops, bring order out of confusion, and to supply 
both atms and ammunition, being without funds, and 



164 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

almost without authority to resist them. Besides this, ta 
army was to be supplied with provisions, in the face of a 
formidable, well disciplined, and well furnished enemy 
But the zeal and ability of the officers were equal to the 
crisis. Of some it is even recorded, that for a succession 
of days and nights, they were constantly at the head of 
their respective guards, without a change of raiment. 

At this critical epoch, General Ward directed Colonel 
Ethan Allen to raise four hundred Green Mountain Boys, 
on the New-Hampshire grants, since then composing the 
state now called Vermont. With this force he was to 
surprise the garrisons of the English on Lake Champlain. 
The colonel raised two hundred and thirty of the number, 
with which force he repaired to Castleton, where he met 
one hundred and seventy-two more, by concert with cer- 
tain officers of the militia. In this plan, Dean, Wooster, 
and Parsons, with others in Connecticut, co-operated, 
and sentinels were posted on the different routes to Ti- 
conderoga, to intercept intelligence of the intentions of 
the Americans. 

About this time, Colonel Benedict Arnold, who had 
arrived to assist in the enterprise, consented to act in con- 
cert with Colonel Allen, and no- unnecessary delay pre- 
vented them from moving forward to the object which 
they determined to accomplish. 

Colonel Allen crossed the lake on the 10th of May, 
with a detachment of only eighty-three men, with which 
he attacked Fort Ticonderoga early in the morning. 
With this small number he rushed into the fort while the 
garrison was asleep. Captain Delaplace was ordered to 
surrender the garrison instantly, as he would save them 
from immediate destruction. The captain inquired by 
what authority, to whom Colonel Allen replied, " In the 
name of the Great Jehovah, and the continental Con- 
gress." The fort was imr icdia^ely surrendered, and the 
soldiers paraded without arms. The prisoners consisted 
of four officers, forty-four privates, with several women' 
and children, who were sent into Connecticut for security. 

The fruits of this victory were 120 iron cannon, 50 
swivels, more than three tons of balls, two ten inch mor- 
tars, and a quantity of shells, flints, gun carriages, powder, 



THE UNITED STATES. 165 

flour, pork, &c. with two brass cannon, and many other 
valuables. 

With the remainder of the party, Colonel Seth War- 
ner, a native of Connecticut, crossed the lake, and took 
the fortress of Crown Poin- y surprise, with more than 
one hundred pieces of camion. Colonel Arnold, who 
had embarked on the lake in a small schooner, captured 
an English armed vessel, and returned to Ticonderoga 
with his prize. Thus was a free communication with 
Canada secured by the command of the lake. 

While the tide of success thus waited on the American 
arms in the north, General Gage contemplated an attack 
upon the American troops at Roxbury, under the com- 
mand of General Thomas. The number of troops at 
this place amounted, in all, to but seven hundred militia, 
and they were nearly destitute of both arms and ammuni- 
tion. What was wanting in force, however, was supplied 
by stratagem. The Americans were marched round a 
hill in full view of the enemy, and displayed to such ad- 
vantage through the day, that the British general was 
completely hoaxed, and the attack was not made. Rein- 
forcements soon arrived, and the place was saved. 

The success which attended the American arms in 
their frequent skirmishes with the foraging parties of the 
British, among the small islands which abound in Massa- 
chusetts Bay, gave them confidence and courage to face 
the English forces with confidence and success in more 
important undertakings. 

On the 25th of the month, the three British generals, 
Hu tve, Clinton, and Burgoyne, arrived at Boston. They 
were able and experienced, and to them was committed 
the task of putting down all opposition, and of bringing 
the revolted colonists to a state of absolute and uncondi- 
tional submission, during the first campaign. 

Two days after this, the provincials, under Putnam and 
Warren, defeated a strong force of the enemy on the 
islands, and destroyed the vessel, armed and stationed for 
their defence. The same success attended their arms on 
the 30th, and the British were greatly distressed by a re- 
moval of the cattle from the islands, and the communica- 
tion with Boston was now closed. 



166 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

On the part of the continentals, the sufferings were 
severe. The small pox had been communicated from 
Boston, and raged in the army to an alarming degree. 
Money was exceedingly scarce ; and the whole force, 
including officers and soldiers, did not exceed eight thou- 
sand. Under all their discouragements, and in their 
undisciplined state, nothing could keep them together 
ut the most ardent zeal for the cause of their common 
country. 

A proclamation was issued by General Gage, on the 
12th of June, in the king's name, offering a general am- 
nesty, excluding only John Hancock and Samuel Adams. 
Those who should refuse these gracious offers, or corres- 
pond with, or aid and assist the refractory, were denounced 
as rebels, and threatened to be treated as such. Martial 
law was also declared in the province. 

The proclamation was very properly considered as a 
public declaration of war, and the precursor of hostile 
operations, and the enemy was watched with the utmost 
vigilance. Colonel Prescott, with a detachment of one 
thousand men, was ordered to fortify Bunker's Hill, in 
Charlestown but as the operation was in the night, he 
fortified a place which lay contiguous to !', called Breed's 
Hill, which was nearer to Boston. The boldness of this 
movement both perplexed and astonished General Gage, 
who saw that it jeopardized his own safety in Boston. 
He determined to dislodge them from this position without 
delay ; and, on the 17th, about noon, he detached a train 
of artillery, ten companies of grenadiers, and four batta- 
lions of infantry, for this purpose. 

On this occasion. Major General Howe, and Brigadier 
General Pigot, commanded. At Charlestown, a reinforce- 
ment was added to their numbers, and the force amount- 
ed to three thousand men. This force formed on the 
beach, and, marching in battle array, a terrible cannonade 
was commenced. The first shock of the battle was firmly 
sustained by Colonel Prescott, aided by Colonel Stark of 
New-Hampshire, and Captain "Norton, of Connecticut. 
The detachment was soon joined by Generals Putnam, 
Warren, and Pomeroy, who imparted enthusiasm and 
energy to the conflict. Charlestown was wrapped in 
flames as the British advanced. 



THE UNITED STATES. 167 

In imitation of the heroes on the plains of Abraham, 
the fire of the Americans was reserved until the English 
arrived to within seventy yards. A well directed fire of 
musketry was then opened, which spread destruction in 
the ranks of the assailants, and kept them in check. 
The discharge of the musketry was dreadful, and the 
enemy fled in disorder. The chagrin and mortification 
of the officers was extreme, and the men were rallied to 
another charge. They were again repulsed, cut to 
pieces, and put to the rout. At this crisis, General Clin- 
ton came up, and, the troops being once more rallied, re- 
newed the charge, and the carnage became dreadful. 
The time was a critical one. The powder of the provin- 
cials was nearly expended, and the cartridge boxes of the 
dead were searched, that the fire might be continued, 
when their wings were outflanked by the enemy, and the 
trenches were exposed to a raking fire from the British 
artillery. 

A terrible cannonade was now commenced from the 
British ships and batteries, and the exertions of the ene- 
my were redoubled. The troops were pressed on by 
the swords and bayonets in the rear, and the points of 
British bayonets were met by clubbed muskets, until 
numbers prevailed, and the Americans were compelled 
to retire. The retreat was conducted in good order, and 
the camp at Cambridge was regained, under a well di- 
rected fire from the ships and batteries, which raked them 
severely as they crossed over the neck at Charlestown. 

Of this battle, it may be said, that in all the records of 
British valour, not one action occurred, in which they were 
met by a more dauntless courage, or a more obstinate re- 
sistance, or in which they obtained a harder victory. 

In this battle, the Americans lost 139 killed, 278 wound- 
ed, and 36 missing ; in all 453. Among the killed, were 
Gen. Warren, Col. Gardner, Lieut. Col. Parker, and Ma- 
jors Moore and M'Claney, whose loss to the nation was 
severely felt, and shed a gloom over the country. 

The British loss, as reported by General Gage, was 226 
killed, nineteen of whom were commissioned officers, 
and seventy officers wounded. Total loss of the British, 
1054. 



168 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

The result of the American loss in this battle, is said to 
equal that of Wolfe in the capture of Quebec, but in the 
loss of officers, it stands as eighteen to thirteen in killed, 
and as seventy to sixty-six in wounded. From this some 
estimate can be made of the comparative resistance in 
the two conflicts. 

On the 10th of May, the day on which Col. Allen de- 
manded the surrender of Ticonderoga in the name of the 
American Congress, that illustrious body assembled in 
Philadelphia, and commenced its session. The Hon. 
Peyton Randolph was re-appointed President, and Charles 
Thompson, Secretary. 

In June, by a special resolve, the Congress interdicted 
all intercourse with the enemy, and assumed the style of 
the Twelve United Colonies, under sanction of which, a 
day of fasting was appointed for the 30th of July follow- 
ing. On the 15th, General Washington, then a member 
from Virginia, was appointed to the responsible station of 
Commander in Chief of the American forces. He ac- 
cepted the trust with great diffidence. In reply to the 
President, after accepting the appointment, he added 
" But lest some unlucky event should happen unfavourable 
to my reputation, I beg it may be remembered, by every 
gentleman in the room, that I this day declare with the 
utmost sincerity, I do not think myself equal to the com- 
mand I am honoured with. 

" As to pay, sir, I beg leave to assure the Congress, 
that as no pecuniary consideration could have tempted 
me to accept this arduous employment, at the expense of 
my domestic ease and happiness, I do not wish to make 
any profit from it. I will keep an exact account of my 
expenses. Those, I doubt not, they will discharge, and 
that is all I desire." 

On presenting this special commission to Gen. Wash- 
ington, a resolution was unanimously adopted, that " they 
would maintain and assist him, and adhere to him, with 
their lives and fortunes, in the cause of American liberty." 
Immediately after this, was the appointment of four Ma- 
jor Generals, Artemas Ward, Charles Lee, Philip Schuy- 
ler, and Israel Putnam; and eight Brigadier Generals, 
Seth Pomeroy, Richard Montgomery, David Wooster, 



THE UNITED STATES. 169 

William Heath, Joseph Spencer, John Sullivan, and Na- 
thaniel Greene. 

On the 2d of July, fifteen days from the date of his 
commission, Washington arrived at Head Quarters, in 
Cambridge, accompanied by General Lee, and several 
other gentlemen. The sentiment felt and expressed 
throughout the country was, that "under God, Washing- 
ton must be the saviour of his country." What was their 
presentiment, is now historically recorded. 

General Washington entered on the duties of his new 
office, under the most discouraging circumstances. He 
was, indeed, at the head of 14,000 men, but without dis- 
cipline, without order, and nearly destitute of military 
stores, and of most of the conveniences necessary to the 
well being of an army. New efforts and new energies 
became necessary, and they were applied with effect. 

At this time, General Howe commanded the main body 
of the British army, which was posted on Bunker's Hill. 
Another division was securely stationed near Roxbury. 
The fleet covered the reserve and Boston. 

The main body of the American army was posted at 
Cambridge, under the guardianship of the commander- 
in-chief. The right rested on Roxbury, under General 
Ward, and the left was securely posted on Prospect Hill, 
under General Lee. About 3000 men filled the interme- 
diate spaces, under the command of General Putnam and 
others. The American army, thus posted, held a con- 
trolling power, which left the British in a state of siege, 
or at least of a land blockade. 

On the 14th and 22d of June, Congress ordered a bat- 
talion of riflemen to be raised in Virginia and Pennsylva- 
nia, and such was the spirit of patriotism in these states, 
that on the 7th of August, they were raised, accoutred, 
and embodied with the army, without drawing on the 
public treasury for a single cent. 

At this time, the wants of the army were truly embar- 
rassing, and exposed the Americans to great danger, in 
the event of an attack, which was anticipated. Among 
the most important, were the want of ammunition and 
bayonets. Camp equipage and engineers were in great 
request, and the disaffection of officers, occasioned by 

15 



170 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

certain appointments of Congress, were truly distressing. 
Added to this, that many of the troops were to be dis- 
banded in November, and the longest term of service 
would close with the year. But the zeal, which was the 
fruit of a righteous cause, prevailed, and they were ena- 
bled to conquer their difficulties. Had the enemy known 
their vulnerable points, the result might have been very 
different. 

The American force had lately been augmented by a re- 
inforcement of 8000 men ; and the commander-in-chief of 
course called a council to settle on a plan of operations 
for the summer campaign. This council determined on 
a blockade, as the want of ammunition precluded the idea 
of an assault on the town. Of the British force, it had 
been well ascertained, that since the"19th of April, 2500 of 
the army had, by various means, been lost, and it was 
thought that before the recruits should arrive in the spring, 
the army would be much weakened. 

About this time, an invitation was sent to New-York* 
by General Gage, to enlist, as volunteers, the foreign sea- 
men who might be there. In October, Falmouth, in 
Massachusetts, was burnt by order of the English govern- 
ment, which directed that the towns on the sea-coast 
should be laid waste for the sin of rebellion. But the 
step was as impolitic as it was inhuman. The flames of 
Falmouth, like those of Charlestown, roused the spirit of 
the colonies afresh, and called forth more union and great- 
er exertions. Frigates and privateers were fitted for sea, 
and commissioned against the commerce of the enemy, 
and two battalions of marines were raised for that ser- 
vice. Cruisers were sent out, to intercept supplies, for the 
British^ a spirit of adventure was raised, and success at- 
tended it. Captain Manley, of the privateer Lee, took a 
rich store-ship, laden with supplies for the army in Bos- 
ton, which encouraged the Americans, in proportion as it 
disheartened and distressed the enemy, for whose use the 
supplies were much needed. 

On hearing tidings of the battle at Lexington, the spi- 
rit of South Carolina awakened to the situation of the 
nation. Her provincial congress was convened, and the 
following covenant was passed by an unanimous resolu- 
tion : 



THE UNITED STATES. 171 

" Thoroughly convinced, that under our present dis- 
tressed circumstances, we shall be justified before God 
and man, in resisting force by force : We do unite our- 
selves, under every tie of religion and honour, and asso- 
ciate as a band of brothers, in defence of our injured 
country, against every foe ; hereby solemnly engaging, 
that whenever our continental or provincial councils shall 
decree it necessary, we will go forth and be ready to sa- 
crifice our lives and fortunes to secure her defence and 
safety. This covenant to continue in force, until a re- 
conciliation shall take place between Great Britain and 
America, upon constitutional principles ; an event which 
we most heartily desire. And we will hold those persons 
criminal to the liberty of these colonies, who shall refuse 
to subscribe to this association." 

The result of this resolution was such as might be ex- 
pected. Two regiments of infantry, and one of rangers, 
was raised for common defence, and the language of the 
day was in unison with that of the other colonies, nearer 
the seat of danger. Having organized their affairs with 
a view to the situation of the country, they adjourned. 
But we must here remark, that South Carolina was not. 
alone in the spirit of resistance. The king's governors 
were removed from office in the neighbouring colonies, 
and the people assumed the responsibility of self-govern- 
ment. Committees of safety were appointed, and means 
taken to attend to their own business in their own way. 

The efforts of the colonies, generally, were directed to 
the supplies wanted by the army near Boston. Powder 
was purchased in foreign ports some was obtained .from 
Bermuda, and about three and a half tons was received 
by General Washington from the British forts on the 
coasr of Africa. The colonies, also, set about the manu- 
facture of this article. 

Intelligence was received at head quarters, that the Ca- 
nadians had received the addresses from Congress in a 
favourable manner, and that they would not act against 
the colonies. An expedition was sent out for Quebec, on 
the 19th of September, consisting of one thousand men, 
under Col. Arnold, by way of Kennebec. He arrived at 
his place of destination on the 9th of November, after 



172 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

traversing a pathless wilderness, and encountering the 
greatest hardships and privations. 

About the same time, General Montgomery entered Ca- 
nada by way of Lake Champlain, in company with Gene- 
ral Schuyler. He laid siege to St. John's, on the 8th of 
October. Sir Guy Carleton, governor of Canada, with 
eight hundred men, went to the relief of the place, but 
the Green Mountain Boys, under Colonel Warner, de- 
feated him. Chamblee was surprised and taken, with six 
tons of powder, by Brown and Livingston, which was 
used to reduce St. John's, which surrendered on the 2d 
of November, and the garrison was made prisoners. 
During the siege, Col. Allen invested Montreal, but was 
defeated, taken prisoner, and sent to England in irons, to 
be tried for treason. 

General Montgomery entered Montreal in triumph, on 
the 12th of November, and but five days afterwards, ele- 
ven sail of vessels, General Prescott, several other offi- 
cers, and one hundred and twenty privates, a large supply 
of Hour, beef, butter, &c. cannon, small arms, and mi- 
litary stores, were taken. All of these were useful in 
the prosecution of the war. In the night, Governor 
Carleton escaped in a canoe, with muffled paddles, and 
shaped his course for Quebec, where he arrived in safety. 

On the first of December, General Montgomery form- 
ed a junction with Col. Arnold, before Quebec, and ope- 
rations to carry it by storm were commenced on the fifth. 
The garrison of this second Gibraltar, consisted of fif- 
teen hundred men, under command of the governor. 
Trenches were opened in the depth of a Canadian winter, 
and the siege was commenced. A council of war was 
now called, which acceded to the views of the general, 
and were nearly unanimous in resolving to take the city 
by assault. 

Arrangements were made, and on the morning of thg 
31st, the signal was given for the attack, by a discharge 
of rockets. The soldiers advanced with firmness, but 
the rockets had given warning, and the garrison were pre- 
pared to receive them. The first division, commanded by 
General Montgomery, attempted to enter the lower town 
by the margin of the river. The first battery was car- 



THE UNITED STATES. 173 

ried, and the guard dispersed. The discharge of a single 
gun from the abandoned battery, killed General Montgo- 
mery, Captains Macpherson and Cheesman, with several 
others ; and the troops being appalled, retired, and the 
enterprise was abandoned. The second division was 
commanded by Colonel Arnold, who entered the lower 
town, on the opposite side of the city. 

A solitary field-piece, mounted on a sled, commanded 
by Captain Lamb, next entered, and the main body 
brought up the rear. Colonel Arnold was wounded by a 
musket ball in the leg, at the head of the brave band, 
while forcing the first barrier. The bone was fractured, 
and he retired from the combat. Colonel Morgan now 
took the command, carried the first barrier by storm, and 
assaulted the second, with a prospect of success, not 
knowing the fate of General Montgomery. 

Majors Bigelow and Meigs now came up with about 
two hundred men. The second barrier was charged, 
amidst a shower of musketry, and the barrier was mount- 
ed. But to their astonishment, a forest of bristly bayo- 
nets forbade their entering. On the advance, death 
was certain, and the danger of a retreat was great. 
They retired into adjacent buildings, and defended them- 
selves until overpowered by numbers, wheji they were 
compelled to surrender. The general was killed, about 
four hundred men killed and wounded, and, after all their 
labours and privations, the daring enterprise entirely fail- 
ed. The loss of General Montgomery was severely felt 
by the nation, and congress voted to erect a monument to 
his memory, which was accordingly done, and may be 
seen in St. Paul's Church, New-York. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Revolution continued. 

IN October, 1775, Gen. Gage was succeeded by General 
Howe, in command of the British troops at Boston, which 
had been blockaded through the winter by the army under 

15* 



174 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Washington. Congress being desirous to support the 
views of the commander-in-chief, resolved, " That if Ge- 
neral Washington, and his council of war, shall be of 
opinion, that a successful attack may be made upon the 
troops in Boston, he should make it in any manner he 
might think expedient, notwithstanding the town, and 
property in it, might be destroyed." 

In the reply of the general, he thus speaks : " It is 
not in the pages of history to furnish a case like ours. To 
maintain a post within musket shot of the enemy, for six 
months together, without ammunition, and at the same 
time to disband one army, and recruit another, within 
that distance of twenty odd British regiments, is more 
than probably ever was attempted; but if we succeed in 
the latter, as we have done in the former, I shall think it 
one of the most fortunate events of my whole life." , 

That we may be able to judge of the means at this time 
possessed by Washington, for offensive operations, it is 
merely necessary to observe, that his whole force consist- 
ed of less than nine thousand men, two thousand of whom 
were utterly destitute of arms. The general pressed 
congress to raise a regular army for a stipulated time, as 
a safe project on which the country might securely rely. 
The propriety of this step was seen by congress, and, on 
the first of March, the army numbered fourteen thousand, 
and was soon reinforced by six thousand of the militia, 
amounting, in all, to twenty thousand. His operations 
now commenced in good earnest. The detachment at 
Roxbury was ordered to take possession of Dorchestei 
Heights, while the commander-in-chief was to cover this 
motion by a bombardment of the town. On the night of 
the fourth of March this was accomplished, and works 
thrown up which would secure them from the guns of the 
enemy. 

The light of day opened the eyes -of the commanding 
general to the danger of his situation. One of two things 
must be done, and that immediately. Either the Ameri- 
can troops must be dislodged, or Boston must be evacu- 
ated. The English admiral saw that the fleet was at the 
mercy of the provincials, and the general determined to 
attempt a dislodgement. Three thousand men were de- 



THE UNITED STATES. 175 

tached for the service, and Lord Percy, who was to com- 
mand the expedition, actually embarked for the execution 
of the project. He was, however, providentially prevent- 
ed from the attempt, by the roughness of the weather. In 
expectation of this, however, Washington had made pre- 
parations to attack Boston the moment the British general 
should commence a hostile step in this quarter. 

Gen. Howe, finding himself very unpleasantly situated, 
sent a flag of truce to the American head-quarters, noti- 
fying General Washington of his intention to evacuate 
Boston, but threatened to destroy the town, in case he 
should be molested. On the 16th, at night, the British 
troops embarked, and the next day sailed for Nantasket 
Roads, and, in a few days, the whole fleet set sail for 
Halifax. Immediately after the evacuation of the Eng- 
lish army, Washington entered the town, and spread joy 
through the colonies. 

The joy of the inhabitants was excessive, and the gene- 
ral was received with every demonstration of gratitude. 
They were now relieved from the abuses of an insolent 
soldiery, and from the distresses occasioned by hunger. 
A resolution was passed in congress, expressing the 
thanks of the nation, and a gold medal was ordered to 
be struck, with an appropriate device, commemorating 
the event, which should be presented to the commander- 
in-chief. 

In the mean time, the royal governors at the south 
were not idle. Lord Dunmore, of Virginia, endeavoured 
to counterwork the revolution. But he was compelled 
by the patriots of that state to relinquish the attempt, and 
to go on board the fleet for safety. Chagrined at his de- 
feat, he determined to avenge the affront, and, on the night 
of the first of January, 1776, he caused fire to be set to 
Norfolk, which was destroyed. These depredations were 
continued until they disgusted the most loyal of his party, 
when he departed with his booty of about one thousand 
negroes, for Florida and the Bermudas. In North Caro- 
lina, the governor attempted the same play, but his plot 
was defeated, and the insurrection was suppressed by the 
patriotism and intelligence of the people. 

About the middle of February, the American navy, 



1 76 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

under Commodore Hopkins, set sail from Cape Henlopen, 
and soon surprised and dismantled a fort in New-Provi- 
dence, taking off forty pieces of iron ordnance, and fif- 
teen brass mortars. The governor, lieutenant governor, 
and one counsellor, fell into the power of the Commo- 
dore. In the fore part of March, the fleet captured a 
British schooner, and, the next day, took a bomb brig, 
laden with arms and military stores. On the day prece- 
ding, the fleet engaged a sloop of war carrying 20 guns, 
but night separated them, and the next day the sloop 
escaped into Newport. 

When the intelligence of the two first battles between 
the British and the colonists reached Great Britain, with 
the information that General Washington was appointed 
commander-in-chief, the impressions on the people and 
the government were very serious. The king and the 
ministry, however, determined to carry on the war. On 
the 26th of October the parliament was convened, and 
the speech of the king evidently supported the unnatural 
controversy. In both houses the opposition was strong, 
but the ministry prevailed, and the supplies were granted. 
Sir Peter Parker, and Earl Cornwallis, sailed from Ports- 
mouth in December, for Ireland, with the ships Acteon 
and Thunderbomb, as a convoy for the transports, with 
four thousand troops, intended for service in the colonies. 
In this fleet came Colonel Allen, who had been confined 
in Pendinnis Castle, Cornwall, and treated with much 
severity. A subscription was opened for him, and his 
companions, in Ireland, which was the first humane atten- 
tion he had received since his imprisonment. 

About this time, the bargain with the King of England, 
for 17,000 men to be employed in this war, by the Prince 
of Hesse Cassel, the Duke of Brunswick, and other 
German princes, was sanctioned in parliament, by a vote 
of 242 to 88. In the spring of 1776, two divisions of 
these mercenaries sailed to America. The estimate for 
the service against the liberties of America, amounted to 
60,000 men. 

The Cork fleet* under the convoy of Admiral Parker, 
arrived in Cape Fear River on the 3d of May, where 
they were joined by General Clinton, from the northern 



THE UNITED STATES. 177 

army. On the 5th, the offer of pardon, on certain con- 
ditions, was published by the general, but, finding his 
efforts to stem the tide of popular feeling of little avail, 
the fleet sailed for Charleston, S. C., and anchored off 
Sullivan's Island about the first of June. The siege of 
Charleston was opened by the offer of pardon, as in 
North Carolina, and with equal effect. The day of pro- 
clamations and smooth words had come too late. 

Governor Rutledge had prepared for a vigorous de- 
fence, and the militia cheerfully rallied around the flag of 
their country. At this critical moment General Lee ap- 
peared at the head of some northern regiments, and took 
the command of Charleston. The enemy crossed the 
bar on the 26th of June, with a number of ships and fri- 
gates, and operations were commenced with little delay. 
The fire from the American fort and batteries, however, 
was too galling, and the squadron was compelled to with- 
draw, after the loss of one fifty gun ship, and a damage 
to others, which rendered them for the present useless. 
One may form an estimate of the contest, by learning the 
fact that 7000 loose balls were picked up on Sullivan' 
Island after the battle. 

The garrison in the fort consisted of about three hun- 
dred and seventy-five regulars, and a few militia, com- 
manded by Colonel Moultrie. The fortification mounted 
but twenty-six nine pounders, and the British had two 
ship's of fifty guns each, four frigates of twenty-eight 
guns each, and some smaller vessels. 

This severe repulse obtained a respite from the cala- 
mities of war, for more than two years, in the southern 
states. 

Of those who deserve an honourable notice in this ac- 
tion, Sergeant Jasper must not be forgotten. During the 
heat of the engagement, the flag-staff was shot away, and 
fell into the ditch. The inhabitants of Charleston consi- 
dered this as a token of submission. When the intrepid 
sergeant discovered it, he jumped into the ditch, seized 
the flug, secured it to a sponge-staff, and erected it again 
in the heat of the action. For this act of bravery, the 
< -vernor, the next day, presented him a sword. 

of this battle led to the declaration of inde- 



178 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

pendence. It had blown the spark of liberty into a steady 
flame, and prepared the minds of the people for an event 
to which many looked with the deepest solicitude. The 
spirit which lived in congress, was united by instructions 
from the colonies, and the country now seemed ripe for 
entire separation from the mother country. A resolution 
was moved in congress by Richard Henry Lee, and se- 
conded by John Adams, in the following words, wfflteh 
passed unanimously. 

" Resolved, that these United Colonies are, and of right 
ought to be, free and independent states ; and that all po- 
litical connexion between them and Great Britain is, and 
ought to be, dissolved." 

In defence of this motion, Mr. Lee addressed the house 
in a very animated strain, which he closed in the follow- 
ing language : " Why then do we longer delay why 
still deliberate ? Let this happy day give birth to the 
American republic. Let her arise, not to devastate and 
conquer, but to re-establish the reign of peace, and of the 
laws. The eyes of Europe are. fixed upon us ; she de- 
mands of us a living example of freedom, that may con- 
trast, by the felicity of the citizens, with the ever increas- 
ing tyranny which desolates her polluted shores. She 
invites us to prepare an asylum, where the unhappy may 
find solace, and the persecuted repose. She entreats us 
to cultivate a propitious soil, where that generous plant, 
which first sprang up and grew in England, but is now 
withered by the poisonous blasts of Scottish tyranny, 
may revive and flourish, sheltering, under its salubrious 
and interminable shade, all the unfortunate of the human 
race. 

" This is the end presaged by so many omens, by our 
first victories, by the present ardour and union, by the 
flight of Howe, and the pestilence which broke out 
amongst Dunmore's people, by the very winds which baf- 
fled the enemy's fleets and transports, and that terrible 
tempest which ingulfed seven hundred vessels upon the 
coast of Newfoundland. If we are not this day wanting 
in our duty to our country, the names of the American 
legislators will be placed, by posterity, at the side of 
those of Theseus, of Lycurgus, of Romulus, of Numa, 



THE UNITED STATES. 179 

of the three Williams of Nassau, and of all those whose 
memory has been, and will be, for ever dear to virtuous 
men, and good citizens." 

The members of congress from Pennsylvania and Ma- 
ryland, were not present, and the deliberations on the 
subject were postponed to the first of July. On that day 
the discussion was renewed, and, on the fourth of July, 
1776, the report of the special committee was adopted, 
dissolving the allegiance of the colonies to the British 
crown, and declaring them free and independent^ under 
the style of the Thirteen United States of America. 
The committee who drafted this instrument, consisted of 
Messrs. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Roger Sherman, and Philip Livingston. 

This declaration was signed by all the members of con- 
gress, whose names, and the states to which they respec- 
tively belonged, were as follows : 

John Hancock, President, from Massachusetts. 
NEW-HAMPSHIRE. William Paca, 

Josiah Bartlett, Thomas Stone, 

William Whipple, Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

Matthew Thornton. VIRGINIA. 

MASSACHUSETTS. George Wythe, 

Samuel Adams, Richard Henry Lee, 

John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, 

Robert Treat Paine, Benjamin Harrison, 

Elbridge Gerry. Thomas Nelson, Jr. 

RHODE ISLAND. Francis Lightfoot Lee, 

Stephen Hopkins, Carter Braxton. 

William Ellery. NEW-YORK. 

CONNECTICUT. William Floyd, 

Roger Sherman, Philip Livingston, 

Samuel Huntington, Francis Lewis, 

William Williams, Lewis Morris. 

Oliver Wolcott. NEW-JERSEY. 

DELAWARE. Richard Stockton, 

Caesar Rodney, John Witherspoon, 

George Read. Francis Hopkinson, 

MARYLAND. John Hart, 

Samuel Chase, Abrahams lark. 



180 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

PENNSYLVANIA. Joseph HeW6S, 

Robert Morris, John Penn. 

Benjamin Rush, SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Benjamin Franklin, Edward Rutledge, 

John Morton, Thomas Hay ward, Jr. 

George Clymer, Thomas Lynch, Jr. 

James Smith, Arthur Middleton. 

George Taylor, GEORGIA. 

James Wilson, Button Gwinnett, 

George Ross. Lyman Hall, 

NORTH CAROLINA. George Walton. 
William Hooper, 

This declaration was received by the people with trans- 
ports of joy. Public rejoicings took place in various 
parts of the Union. In New- York, the statue of George 
III. was taken down, and the lead, of which it was coin- 
posed, was converted into musket-balls. In Boston, the 
garrison was drawn up in King's-street, which, from that 
moment, took the name of State-street, and thirteen sa- 
lutes, by thirteen detachments, into which the troops 
were formed, were fired ; the bells of the town were 
rung, in token of felicitation, and the evening concluded 
with the tearing in pieces and burning the ensigns of roy- 
alty lions, sceptres, and crowns. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Revolution continued. Capture of New-York. 

ON the evacuation of Boston by General Howe, Wash- 
ington suspected that the possession of New- York would 
be a favourite object. To prevent this, if possible, he 
determined to make that city his head-quarters, and thus 
to prevent its occupation by the British general. He ac- 
cordingly soon removed to that city, with the principal 
part of his army. 

On the 28th of June, General Howe arrived at Sandy- 
Hook, near New- York, with his armament from Halifax, 
where he was joined by his brother, Lord Howe, on the 



THE UNITED STATES. 181 

I2th of July, with another armament. By the latter ar- 
rival, the two brothers were clothed with powers to treat 
with the United States, collectively or separately. A 
flag was despatched to Amboy, to announce his commis- 
sion. This circular was communicated to Congress by 
General Washington. 

The American army at New-York amounted to little 
more than seventeen thousand men, apart of which force 
was encamped at Brooklyn, on Long Island. The com- 
bined forces of the British amounted to twenty-four thou- 
sand, which weie landed near the Narrows, nine miles 
from the city, on the 2d of August. On the 27th, the 
British forces, under Sir Henry Clinton, Percy, and 
Cornwallis, attacked the American camp at Long-Island, 
which was defended by Brigadier-General Sullivan, 
who was defeated, with the loss of more than a thousand 
men, while the loss of the British was less than four 
hundred. Brigadier-Generals Lord Stirling and Wood- 
hull fell into the hands of the English. General Wash- 
ington perceived with anguish, what would be the result 
of the battle, but he dare not draw off more troops from 
the city, as he would not even by that measure, be able 
to cope with the British. On both sides, this battle was 
expected. On the 22d, the British effected a landing at 
Utrecht, near the Narrows, under cover of the ships, and 
every preparation was made to meet them manfully. 
Colonel Hand was ordered to the high ground, in order to 
protect the pass leading to Flatbush. Lord Cornwallis 
was ordered to secure this pass, if it could be done with- 
out an engagement. He halted at the village, finding that 
the pass was secured by the Americans. On this occasion, 
Washington issued the following orders : 

" The enemy have now landed upon Long Island, the 
hour is fast approaching in which the honour and success 
of this army, and the safety of our bleeding country, de- 
pend. Remember, officers and soldiers, that you are free- 
men, fighting for the blessing of liberty ; that slavery will 
be your portion, and that of your posterity, if you do not 
acquit yourselves like men. Remember how your courage 
has been despised and traduced by your cruel invaders, 
though they have found by dear experience at Boston, 

16 



182 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Charlestown, and other places, what a few brave men can 
do in their own land, and in the best of causes, against 
hirelings and mercenaries. Be cool, be determined. Do 
not fire at a distance, but wait for orders from your officers." 

Preparations were now made for a pitched battle. The 
American camp was strengthened by six additional regi- 
ments, and all things put in readiness for an immediate 
ttack. The result of the battle has already been related. 
It left the American camp in the power of the British, 
who might easily have taken it by an assault, which 
was threatened. 

On the night of the 28th, the British invested the camp 
in due form. General Washington spent the next day 
in camp, and on the night of the 29th, effected a most 
masterly retreat to New- York, under cover of a dense fog. 
The rear guard only was discovered by the British, and 
too much advanced to be affected by the shot. 

On the 2d of September, two regiments of Americans 
evacuated Governor's Island, near New-York, with their 
arms and stores, within a quarter of a mile of the British 
fleet, with the loss of only an arm bv one man. 

This was indeed an eventful crisis* The fate of America 
appeared suspended on the issue of a single battle. The 
reverses experienced wrought upon the feelings of the 
soldiers. The militia deserted their colours, and abandon- 
ed their general. Sickness and desertion reduced the 
army, and dispirited the officers. Those whose term of 
service had expired, left the duties of the camp, and re- 
turned to their homes, and a gloom was gathering over 
the just risen hopes of America. Washington passed two 
days and nights without sleep or rest, principally on horse- 
back, superintending every movement, and watching every 
event. 

On the contrary, the late success elated the British in 
proportion to the despondency' of the Americans. The 
movements of the British threatened lo cut off the retreat 
of the continentals. General Washington was led to 
abandon his unsafe position in the city, and after some 
successful skirmishes retired to White Plains, in West 
Chester County, about thirty miles from New-York. 
The enemy landed, and took possession of the city, a 



THE UNITED STATES. 183 

the Americans retreated. A garrison was left at Fort 
Washington; about ten miles from the city, on the Island. 

General Howe, being reinforced by a division or two 
of Germans, marched towards the American army, en- 
camped at White Plains. On the 28th of October, a 
general skirmish commenced between the advanced par- 
ties. On the 29th, the general moved in columns to the 
support of his van, and to bring on a general engage- 
ment. General Washington kept him at bay until the 
3 1st, when he retired to higher ground, and left a strong 
rear guard to cover White Plains. The British now aban- 
doned the enterprise, and on the 8th of November drew 
off his army towards Kingsbridge. On the 15th, he sent 
a summons to Colonel Magraw, commanding Fort Wash- 
ington, and the next day stormed the fort, and put the 
garrison to the sword. 

General Washington beheld the awful scene, and wept 
with the feelings of a compassionate father. The shock 
was felt with the keenest sensibility throughout the Ame- 
rican army, and even General Lee wept with indignation 
at the news of the merciless butchery, and cursed the 
unrelenting foe. 

On the 18th, Lord Cornwallis moved to the attack of 
Fort Lee ; but General Greene drew off the garrison, 
abandoned the fort, and joined General Washington. On 
the 22d, General Washington crossed North River, and 
retired to Newark, where he found himself almost aban- 
doned by the army, and left to the mercy of a victorious, 
pursuing enemy, with only about three thousand five hun- 
dred men to accompany him in his flight. On the 28th, 
General Washington retired to Brunswick, and Lord 
Cornwallis entered Newark with his victorious army. 
His lordship pursued to Brunswick, and General Wash 
ington retired to Princeton, December 1st. Lord Corn 
wallis halted one whole week at Brunswick, agreeable to 
orders : and, in, the mean time, General Washington saw 
himself abandoned by the Jersey and Maryland brigades 
of militia, whose terms of service then expired. 

On the 7th, his lordship pursued to Princeton, and 
General Washington retired to Trenton. The next day 
his lordship entered Trenton, just at the critical moment 



184 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

that General Washington, with his remnant of an army, 
had crossed the Delaware,* and secured the boats to pre- 
vent his passing,! December 8th, 1770. 

General Howe had joined Lord Cornwallis at Newark, 
and now made a s'tand at Princeton, and issued the pro- 
clamation of the king's commissioners, proffering pardon 
and peace to all such as should submit in sixty days. 

Such were the distresses of the army, and the country, 
when they saw their liberties about to expire under the 
pressure of an overwhelming foe, that men of the first 
distinction, in great numbers, in that, part of the country, 
embraced the overture, and made their submission. 

To add to the distresses of this most trying scene, Ge- 
neral Lee, who had harassed the rear of the British army, 
with about three thousand men, was now surprised in his 
quarters, and taken by the enemy, December 13th. The 
troops of General Lee, now under the command of Gene- 
ral Sullivan, joined General Washington. 

During the delay of General Howe at Trenton, Gene- 
ral Washington, with the assistance of General Mifflin, 
collected a body of Pennsylvania militia, and resolved to 
make a stand, to recover, if possible, the spirits of the 
army and nation. * 

On the night of the 25th, General Washington, under 
cover of a violent snow storm, recrossed the Delaware, 
commenced an attack upon the British army, and gained a 
signal victory ; took about one thousand prisoners, inclu- 
ding an entire regiment of Germans, with their whole en- 
campment, and secured his position at Trenton. 

The enemy soon recovered their shock by large rein- 
forcements, and General Washington retired to Prince- 
ton by a circuitous march, triumphed over the enemy 
again, and pursued them to Brunswick. Lord Cornwal- 
lis collected all his forces at Brunswick, and made a stand. 
General Washington took up his position at Morristown, 
and watched the motions of the enemy. 

During these operations in New-Jersey, the British 

* General Washington could muster only two thousand two hundred 
men at this time. 

t The same day General Prescott, with a strong- British force, took 
possession of Newport, (Rhode Island.) 



THE UNITED STATES. 185 

army had thrown up the rein, and given full scope to the 
brutal passions. This roused the indignation of the peo- 
ple, and rekindled the fire of Lexington, which spread 
like lightning through the country. New-Jersey then 
exhibited a scene which was considered but the miniature 
of what the nation would exhibit should Britain prevail. 
Husbands saw the fate of their wives ; parents of their 
daughters ; and the nation became most seriously alarmed 
for their safety, and more immediately alive to the inte- 
rest of the common cause. New-Jersey felt the wound 
she had received, and roused to the combat, to avenge 
her wrongs upon the brutal foe. 

General Washington surprised Lord Cornwallis at Eliza- 
bethtown, and he retired to Amboy, where he was 
closely invested through the winter. In June following, 
General Howe drew off his army to Staten Island, and 
the Jerseys were cleared. 

In April, General Howe detached Governor Tryon, 
with the command of a major-general of provincials, at 
the head of about two thousand men, to destroy the Ame- 
rican stores at Danbury. The general executed this com- 
mission, and destroyed one thousand eight hundred bar- 
rels of beef, two thousand bushels of wheat, eight hun- 
dred barrels of flour, one thousand seven hundred tents, 
one hundred hogsheads of rum, &.c. with the loss of 
about four hundred men, killed, wounded, and taken by 
the Americans. 

But this expedition cost the British a severe loss. 
Three generals were in the neighbourhood, Wooster, 
Arnold, and Sullivan. About six hundred militia were 
collected in great haste, and followed in pursuit about two 
miles, during a heavy rain. The next morning the troops 
were divided. 'Wooster fell in the rear of the enemy, 
while Arnold was posted' at Ridgefield, in their front. 
W ooster attacked the enemy, and was mortally wounded 
in the contest ; the troops had to retreat. Arnold gave 
them a severe reception at Ridgefield, and was repulsed, 
but renewed the attack during the next day. 

The yeomanry of the country through which they pas- 
sed towards the Sound, constantly annoyed them, and 
they made a precipitate retreat to their ships, which con- 
16* 



186 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

veyed them to New-York. They lost, in killed, wound- 
ed, and missing, about one hundred and seventy ; while 
the loss of the Americans did not exceed one hundred. 
General Wooster lingered until the 2d of May, and ex- 
pired in his seventieth year. A monument was voted to 
his memory by Congress, and a horse, splendidly capari- 
soned, was presented to Arnold, as a token of respect for 
his intrepidity and good conduct. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Evacuation of Canada Capture of Burgoyne, and fall 
of Philadelphia. 

WE must now return to the affairs in the north. Ge- 
neral Montgomery fell at Quebec, and the command de- 
volved on Colonel Arnold, who had been badly wounded. 
But he was removed to Montreal, and was succeeded by 
General Thomas. He soon died, and General Sullivan 
was appointed in his place. The small pox, with other 
diseases, reduced the number of men to four hundred. 
The siege was raised, and this handful of men was com- 
pelled to retreat for Montreal. 

A reinforcement had arrived from England, and the 
army in Canada was now thirteen thousand strong. With 
this force Governor Carleton, with Generals Burgoyne, 
Frazer, Phillips, and Reicfesel, advanced in different di- 
visions, in pursuit of Sullivan. General Frazer took 
post at Trois Rivieres, when the Americans attempted a 
surprise, but it miscarried, and General Thompson was 
left in the hands of the English. Carleton pursued with 
his whole force, but the retreat of Sullivan was secured, 
and he reached the River Sorel in safety, where he was met 
by Arnold from Montreal. The troops, baggage, and 
cannon, were embarked, and they made a stand at Crown 
Point, on the 15th of June, 1776. 

In the fore part of July, General Sullivan left the com- 
mand of the northern army, and was succeeded by Gene- 
ral Gates. The army was diminished more than 5000, 



THE UNITED STATES. 187 

and the ravages of the small pox were dreadfully alarm- 
ing. About three hundred sick were removed to Fort 
George. The exertions of Governor Carleton to prepare 
his fleet to meet the Americans on the lake, were great 
and unceasing. Early in October, troops were embarked, 
and operations commenced. A sharp action ensued 
near Valicour island, and much valour was displayed on 
both sides. But the Americans were overpowered, dis- 
persed, taken, or destroyed, which enabled the enemy 
to approach Ticonderoga, on the llth of October. But 
this victory was not followed up with spirit. Hostile 
operations were suspended for the season, and the go- 
vernor retired into Canada. To the honour of the go- 
vernor we would here record his humanity to his prisoners, 
who were often dismissed with kindness, and furnished 
with necessaries to reach their friends in the United 
States. These traits in his character are worthy of per- 
petual remembrance and gratitude. 

General Gates discharged the militia, and the campaign 
was closed. 

General Burgoyne succeeded to the command after 
Carleton, in the spring of 1777. Operations -were com- 
menced early at the head of ten thousand men, English 
and German, commanded by Generals Phillips, Frazer, 
Powel, Hamilton, and by the German generals, Reidesel 
and Spicht. The army was well appointed, and well 
supplied with every facility to ensure a successful cam- 
paign. The troops were in line health and high spirits. 
To this powerful armament were attached several tribes 
of Indians, who were to take the field on conditions of 
humanity ; they were not to scalp the wounded, nor their 
prisoners; but a bounty was to be given for every pri- 
soner taken and brought in alive. In June the army ar- 
rived at Crown Point, and on the 19th, operations were 
commenced against Ticonderoga. 

General Gates was succeeded in his command by Gene- 
ral Schuyler, who placed this fortress in good order for 
defence, and gave the command to General St. Clair. 
The fort was approached on the right wing of the Ameri- 
can army on the 2d of July, and possession taken of 
Mount Defiance. This lies contiguous to Ticonderoga, 



188 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

and overlooks the fortress. This mount had hitherto 
been deemed inaccessible, and had remained unoccupied. 
Cannon were hoisted by Cackles, until the force was suffi- 
cient to dislodge the garrison. To save the men, the fort 
was now abandoned, and the American force retired to 
Hubbardston, and thence to Castleton, where a stand was 
made, about thirty miles from Ticonderoga. 

General Frazer, supported by General Reidesel, com- 
menced a pursuit in the morning, with the light troops 
of the British and Germans, and overtook the American 
rear guard under Colonel Warner, at Castleton, and com- 
menced an attack on the 7th, which became sharp and 
bloody. The British were routed at first, with loss ; but 
finding that Colonel Warner was not supported by Gene- 
ral St. Clair, they rallied to the combat, and with the bayo- 
net, charged and dispersed the American rear with the 
loss of about three hundred men ; and Colonel Warner 
retired with the remainder of his troops to Fort Ann. 

General Burgoyne, with the main body of the British 
army, sailed from Ticonderoga, in pursuit of the Ameri- 
can fleet ; destroyed and dispersed the whole, and land- 
ed at Skeensborough, now Whitehall. He there detached 
Lieutenant Colonel Hill, with a strong party, to dislodge 
the Americans from Fort Ann. The garrison marched 
out on the morning of the 6th, and commenced an attack 
upon the detachment, which was sharply supported by 
both parties, for about two hours, with apparent success 
on the part of the Americans ; but a party of Indians ap- 
peared and joined Colonel Hill, and the Americans with- 
drew from the field, abandoned the fortress, and retired 
to Fort Edward, July 12th. The whole force at this time, 
at Fort Edward, did not exceed 5000 men. 

The operations of both armies, were now commenced 
with vigour. In his retreat, the American general destroy- 
ed bridges, and obstructed the roads, to impede the pur- 
suit of Burgoyne; but all these difficulties were surmount- 
ed, and on the 30th, the British force reached Fort Ed- 
ward, which had been abandoned by Schuyler on the 27th. 
He retired to Saratoga, and on the first of August, re- 
moved to Stillwater, only twenty-five miles north of 
Albany. The nation saw with deep regret, that this rem- 



THE UNITED STATES. 189 

nant of an army was compelled to flee before a victorious 
enemy, and that those important fortresses were abandon- 
ed. These events greatly depressed the spirits of our 
countrymen, while the foe exulted in the triumph. 

On the 3d of August, Colonel St. Ledger was detached 
by General Burgoyne against Fort Stanwix, as a diver- 
sion. To relieve the fort, the general was ordered down 
with eight hundred militia. Near the fort he fell into an 
Indian ambush, and was killed in a most severe action. 
The garrison sallied out, decided the sanguinary contest, 
drove the Indians, and relieved the fortress. The colo- 
nel sent a summons to the fort to surrender, but Colonel 
Gansevoort returned a prompt and spirited reply, and St. 
Ledger withdrew precipitately, and returned to the lake. 

During these movements, General Washington detach- 
ed General Lincoln to the northward, to take command 
of such eastern militia as might join the northern army. 
General Lincoln arrived at Manchester, on the 2d of Au- 
gust, where he took the command of six hundred militia, 
and on the 6th, he was joined by General Stark, with 
eight hundred more. 

General Stark was a soldier of merit, and had deserved 
well of his country, by his distinguished services in the 
famous battle of Bunker's Hill; but he had felt himself 
wounded by the neglect of Congress, after the battle, and 
retired from service. He engaged at this time in the ser- 
vice of his country, upon the express condition that he 
should not be constrained to serve under a continental 
officer ; he accordingly resisted the pressing solicitations 
of General Schuyler, to join him in checking the progress 
of General Burgoyne. 

Congress interposed in this controversy; and at this 
eventful moment, General Burgoyne detached Colonel 
Baum, with five hundred Germans, and one hundred In- 
dians, to seize on the American stores at Bennington, to 
enable him to pursue his march to Albany. General 
Stark was apprised of this movement, and sent expresses 
to collect the neighbouring militia, and marched to meet 
the enemy on the 14th, supported by Colonels Warner, 
Williams, and Brush. The advance parties of the two ar- 
mies met, and commenced a skirmishing, that continued 
through the day. 



190 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

On the 15th, all operations were suspended by the ex- 
cessive rains that fell ; but on the 16th, General Stark was 
joined by the Berkshire militia, under Colonel Symonds, 
and he detached Nichols to take post in the rear of the 
enemy, on the left ; Colonel Hendrick to take post in the 
rear of his right, to be supported by Colonels Hubbard 
and Stickley, still further on the right. About 3 o'clock 
in the afternoon, General Stark commenced an attack 
upon the enemy, strongly intrenched, and supported by 
two field pieces. The attack became general, and was 
valiantly supported on both sides ; the Indians fled ; the 
Germans were overpowered, forced from their intrench- 
ments, and put to flight. The militia, flushed with the suc- 
cesses of the day, abandoned the pursuit, and gave them- 
selves up to plunder. 

At this eventful moment, Lieutenant- Colonel Breyman 
joined Colonel Baum with a reinforcement ; they rallied 
to the charge, and renewed the combat. Colonel Warner 
led on his regiment of continentals, at this critical mo- 
ment, and supported the action until the militia could re- 
cover their order, and advance to the charge. The ac- 
tion soon became general, and continued through the day. 
The Germans again gave way, and secured their retreat 
under cover of the night, leaving their artillery, baggage, 
&c. with two hundred slain, and seven hundred prisoners, 
among whom was colonel Baum. This was an important 
action, and proved ruinous to General Burgoyne. 

This action was highly applauded, and a brigadier's 
commission was made out for Colonel Stark, in the conti- 
nental service. This success gave fresh courage to the 
Americans, and the public pulse beat high with expec 
tation. General Gates now took command of the ar 
my, and the militia joined the army with alacrity. On 
the rear of the British army was an American force under 
General Lincoln, and on the 18th, General Brown de- 
stroyed the British stores at Lake George, releasing a 
number of American prisoners. Successful operations 
were also commenced against Ticonderoga, and Skeens- 
borough, now Whitehall. General Burgoyne had crossed 
the Hudson, and finally took post at Still water, but three 
miles from General Gates. 



THE UNITED STATES. 191 

On the 18th of September, General Gates detached 
about 3000 men to offer the enemy battle ; but he decli- 
ned the combat. On the 19th, the scouting parlies of 
the two armies commenced a skirmishing, that led to a 
general action, which continued through the day, and was 
supported with great zeal and intrepid bravery. Night 
closed the scene, and the two .generals drew oil" their ar- 
mies, to protect their camps, and waited with impatience 
the returning day. 

In this action, the American loss was about three hun- 
dred, and that of the English about five hundred. 

The American strength W 7 as now about seven thousand, 
not including about two thousand under General Lincoln, 
who were then at Bennington. The Indian allies of 
Great Britain were deserting the standard of General 
Burgoyne since the late contest, and four of the six na- 
tions favoured the cause of America, and furnished one 
hundred and fifty warriors. The troops under General 
Lincoln now added to the force under General Gates, and 
revived the spirits of the army. 

Until the 7th of October, the armies were within com- 
mon shot, and skirmishes were frequent and severe. The 
armies were harassed and alarmed. The situation of 
Burgoyne was becoming critical, and he applied to Sir 
Henry Clinton for relief. The latter had just received 
two thousand men from Europe, and commenced opera- 
tions by the capture of West Point, a strong fortress on 
the Hudson. He was then enabled to clear the obstruc- 
tions on the river, and leave a free passage for his ship- 
ping. Of all this General Burgoyne had intelligence, but 
too late to render him any service. 

As General Burgoyne determined on a retreat, he sent 
forward a strong party on one side, while he headed 
another, supported by General Frazer, and a contest was 
commenced immediately, and lasted through the day. 
Victory perched on the American standard, and they were 
successful at all points. General Arnold fought despe- 
rately, and received a wound in the action. General 
Frazer,* and Sir James Clark, were mortally wounded, and 

* In the heat of the action, Colonel Morgan, (the future hero of the 
battle of Cowpens,) selected several of his sharp shootersj and pointing 



192 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the latter became a prisoner. General Burgoyne chang- 
ed his position in the night, and the Americans spoiled 
the British camp. 

The British now expected a momentary attack, and 
were under arms all the day on the 8th, and at sunset, the 
last honours were paid to the remains of the much lament- 
ed Frazer. On the 9th, the English army was so closely 
invested, that the commander resolved on a retreat to Sa- 
ratoga. This was effected with no other loss than that of 
his hospital of sick and wounded, which he was compelled 
to abandon to the mercy of General Gates, who did ho- 
nour to his character, in the display of his benevolent 
feelings in behalf of the sufferers. 

General Burgoyne now perceived that all the passes in 
his rear were strongly guarded, and that further retreat 
was next to impossible. In this difficulty, he called a 
council, on the 13th. While the council was delibera- 
ting, an eighteen pound shot crossed the table, and they 
resolved unanimously to propose terms with General 
Gates. The proposals of General Gates were rejected, 
and General Burgoyne then sent in terms on which the 
capitulation was finally made. 

The news of the capture in the Highlands, is said to 
have arrived at this juncture, which led General Bur- 
goyne to hesitate, in expectation of relief from Sir Henry 
Clinton. General Gates, seizing the critical moment, 
drew up his army in battle array, and sent in a flag, de- 
manding a reply in ten minutes. The responsibility was 
great, and Burgoyne felt it. The treaty was signed, and 
returned in due time. 

The whole British army marched out of their lines, 
deposited their arms, and became prisoners of war. Ge- 
neral Gates marched in under the tune of Yankee Doodle, 
and took quiet possession. General Gates ordered sup- 
plies to be issued to the British army, who were destitute, 
and the solemn scene was closed. 

them to a British officer who appeared most conspicuously active in hia 
duty, at the head of his division, mounted upon an iron gray charger, 
thus addressed them : " That gallant officer is General Prazer ; I ad- 
mire and respect him ; but it is necessary that he should die ; take your 
station in that wood, and do your duty." It is unnecessary to add, that 
General Frazer soon fell, mortally worlnded. 



THE UNITED STATES. 193 

Such, and so various are the scenes of life, and the fates 
of men ; such, and so fickle is the fortune of war ; but 
firm and unshaken is the providence of God ; wisdom, 
and might, and strength, are His. 

Sir Henry Clinton detached Sir James Wallace, and 
General Vaughn, with a flying squadron, carrying 3600 
troops, to penetrate, if possible, to the, camp of Bur- 
goyne, or make a diversion in his favour ; but learning 
the situation of General Burgoyne, at Esopus, on the 13th, 
they set fire to the village, and consumed it. Had they 
proceeded to Albany, they might have destroyed the 
place, with the American stores, and Burgoyne might 
have been relieved. The inquiry has often been made, 
why this unnecessary de.lay ? But no other answer can be 
given, than this ; it was the special providence of God. 

l^he army of General Burgoyne was marched directly 
to Boston, where they were detained as prisoners of war. 

Having thus restored tranquillity in the north, the army 
under General Gates marched to support General Putnam 
at Kingston, and guard the country from the incursions of 
the British. The alarm was taken, and the enemy hasten- 
ed back to New- York. 

We will now take a look at the transactions of the con- 
quering army of New-York. About the time that victory 
perched on the British standard on Lake Champlain, un- 
der the direction of Burgoyne, General Howe embarked 
with about sixteen thousand troops, with two hundred 
and sixty sail, and on the 23d of July, went to sea on a 
private expedition, to make a diversion at the south. 
General Washington then made a movement towards De- 
laware, that he might cover Philadelphia. General 
Howe, manoeuvred on the coast some days, and finally 
entered the Chesapeake. Washington advanced to meet 
him. The British troops were landed at Elk River ferry 
and the two armies met at Chad's Ford, on the Brandy- 
wine, where an action was fought on the llth of Septem- 
ber. Victory declared for the English, and,Washington 
retired to the high grounds, to watch the enemy. Phila- 
delphia was entered on the 26th, when Congress retired to 
Lancaster. 

About this time the Marquis La Fayette arrived in the 



194 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

United States, and tendered his services to Congress, and 
he received a commission as brigadier general in the ser- 
vice. He joined the army, and served at his own ex- 
pense, and soon became the companion and the friend of 
Washington. His talents as a soldier were first display- 
ed at Chad's Ford, where he received a wound in the leg, 
the effects of which he still carries. The Count Pulaski, 
Polish gentleman, also distinguished himself in the battle, 
and was honoured with the commission of Major General. 

The fleet of Lord Howe was now ordered into the De- 
laware, that his communication with the ocean might re- 
main secure. 

While the fleet was thus employed, Washington at- 
tempted to cut off the main body of the British army, en- 
camped at Germantown, seven miles from the city. The 
attack was well concerted, and executed promptly. 

The British were completely surprised, at break of day, 
October 4th ; at sunrise, the action became warm, and the 
Americans were successful at all points, until they at- 
tempted to dislodge a battalion of the British, who, in their 
flight, had thrown themselves into a stone house ; this 
occasioned a delay, broke the pursuit, and gave the enemy 
time to recover from their surprise, and rally to the charge ; 
the action soon became warm and bloody. A thick fog 
arose, which covered the combatants, and caused some 
confusion; the enemy took advantage of this, the Ameri- 
cans retired, and abandoned the victory they had so fairly 
gained. 

The losses of the parties were about equal ; but it 
proved a lesson of caution to General Howe. He col- 
lected his army at Philadelphia, where he was closely in- 
vested by General Washington, through the winter; which 
occasioned the remark of Dr. Franklin : " Philadelphia 
has taken Howe." 

The privations of the American army were truly dis- 
tressing; without clothes, shoes, stockings, and even 
breeches and blankets ; more than two thousand were 
marched through the snow, imprinting the roads with their 
blood-stained steps ; yet all this was endured with a firm- 
ness worthy of those valiant sons of liberty. 

Dr. Benjamin Franklin hao^nowbeen more than a year 



THE UNITED STATES. 195 

in France, urging the government of that country to ac- 
knowledge our independence, and to enter into a treaty 
of alliance. These .objects were effected, after the fall of 
Burgoyne had manifested the probability that the Ameri- 
cans could maintain their independent stand single hand- 
ed. A treaty was signed on the sixth of February, by 
which it was agreed, that " neither of the contracting 
powers was to make war or peace, without the formal 
consent of the other." The treaty was soon known in 
London, and the British government determined to eva- 
cuate Philadelphia, and concentrate the royal forces in 
New-York. On the 18th of June, the royal army crossed 
the Delaware on the road to New- York. But Washing- 
ton had foreseen this, and prepared the militia of New- 
Jersey to give the British a troublesome march. 

He crossed the Delaware in pursuit, and the hostile 
armies met at Monmouth on the 28th, sixty-four miles 
from Philadelphia. The contest was severe, and the 
weather so hot, that numbers of both armies perished 
from that cause, and the use of water, when it could be 
obtained. The American army remained on the battle 
ground, intending to renew the contest in the morning, 
but the enemy made good a retreat. The loss of the 
Americans was eight officers, and sixty-one privates kill- 
ed, and one hundred and sixty wounded. The British 
loss, in killed, wounded, and missing, was three hundred 
and fifty-eight men, including officers. One hundred pri- 
soners were taken, and the loss by desertion was one 
thousand. Sir Henry retired, by forced marches, to 
Sandy Hook, where he was taken on board the fleet, and 
embarked the army for New-York. 

General Lee has been censured by a court-martial for 
disobedience of orders on this occasion. It appears that 
he first declined a particular command, and then asked 
for it. Washington directed him to commence the at- 
tack, " unless there should be powerful reasons to the 
contrary," and his disobedience, " and doubtful move- 
ments," appear to have marred the expected success, and 
justified the event, in depriving him of his command. 

The French government, by the terms of the treaty, 
had now entered into the war. 



196 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

On the 8th of July, Count D'Estaing entered the capes 
of the Delaware, with the Toulon fleet, after a passage 
of eighty-seven days ; Lord Howe had been gone only 
eleven days, and Sir Henry Clinton had evacuated Phila- 
delphia only one month before, and was now embarking 
his army at Sandy Hook,*fbr New- York. The French 
fleet was about double the force of the English, both in 
the number of ships, and weight of metal. 

Count D'Estaing landed Mr. Gerard, French minister 
to the United States, who was most cordially received by 
congress, and on the 9th set sail for Sandy Hook, where 
he arrived on the llth, and blockaded the English squad- 
ron in the harbour. The count made all possible efforts 
to attack the English fleet in the harbour, but found it im- 
practicable to cross the bar with his heavy ships, and, on 
the 22d, agreeable to advice from General Washington, 
he set sail for Newport, to co-operate in the destruction 
of the British fleet and army, at Rhode Island. 

Admiral Byron's squadron arrived at Sandy Hook a 
few days after the departure of the French fleet, in a very 
broken, sickly, dismasted, distressed situation. The pro- 
vision ships from Cork, arrived also, and entered the har- 
bour of New- York in safety, to the inexpressible joy of 
the British army, who were in great want of supplies. 

Count D'Estaing arrived off Point Judith on the 29th 
of July, and such was the joy upon the occasion, that it 
diffused the fire and zeal of 1775, and 1776, throughout 
New-England. Volunteers, by thousands, flocked to the 
standard of their country to join General Sullivan, and 
co-operate with their illustrious allies in the reduction of 
Rhode Island. 

General Washington had * detached the Marquis La 
Fayette, and General Greene, with two thousand men, to 
join the general enterprise. The American force was 
now about ten thousand strong. 

Sir Robert Pigot, who commanded at Newport, had 
been reinforced with five battalions, which rendered his 
force about six thousand strong. Thus balanced, the par- 
ties commenced their operations. 

The Count D'Estaing entered the harbour of Newport 
on the 18th of August, without opposition ; General Pigot, 



THE UNITED STATES. 19t 

having destroyed the English shipping on the 5th, to pre- 
vent they* falling into the hands of the French. 

On the 9th, at eight in the morning, General Sullivan 
began to cross over with his army from Tiverton, the 
enemy having abandoned their works at the north end of 
the island. At two in the morning, Lord Howe appear- 
ed off Point Judith, with a fleet of twenty-five sail of the 
line, where he anchored for the night. 

On the 10th, Count D'Estaing, eager to meet the Bri- 
tish fleet, took advantage of the wind, and put to sea. 
The two fleets mamBuvred through the day, without co- 
ming to action. On the llth, a violent gale sprang up, 
arid continued through the 12th and 13th, which parted 
the fleets, dismasted the French Admiral's ship, destroyed 
her rudder, and greatly damaged several others. 

On the 14th, the gale abated, and close and severe ac- 
tions commenced between several single ships of the two 
fleets, but nothing decisive. The Count, having collected 
six of his ships, covered his disabled fleet, and stood in 
for Newport, and came to anchor. 

General Greene and the Marquis La Fayette went on 
board the Admiral's ship, and pressed him to enter the 
harbour of Newport, and complete the enterprise ; but 
the fleet was so shattered by the storm, and the officers 
were generally so averse, that the Count concluded to 
sail for Boston. 

The troops under General Sullivan had gained the 
north end of the island, and marched down upon the ene- 
my's lines, ready to co-operate with the French fleet, and 
commence the attack ; but their sufferings in the storm 
were so severe, that the troops were in a deplorable state. 

On the 15th, the American army had recovered from 
their misfortunes, and were again prepared for action. 
In this situation, they continued 'anxiously waiting the 
movements of the Frencli fleet, to join in the general at- 
tack ; but. to their grief and astonishment, they saw them 
weigh and stand oft' for Boston, on the 24th. The mor- 
tification of General Sullivan was greater than the pride 
of an American soldier could sustain, and he expressed 
himself unguardedly, in his general orders, on the occa- 
sion. 

17* 



198 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

On the 28th, Count D'Estaing wrote to Congress, from 
Boston, and explained his movements, to the satisfaction 
of that honourable body. 

General Sullivan soon saw himself abandoned by most 
of the volunteers, which reduced his army to a standard 
below that of the enemy, and he hastened to secure his 
retreat. 

On the 25th, General Sullivan sent off his heavy can- 
non, and on the 29th, he retired to the north end of the 
island. General Pigot pursued with his whole force, to 
intercept his retreat. The advance guard of the enemy 
was soon engaged with the rear guard of the Americans, 
and a severe action ensued, that continued through the 
day. The next day, General Sullivan learnt that Lord 
Howe was again at sea, and that the French fleet was not 
expected to return to Newport, and he hastened to evacu- 
ate the island. 

General Sullivan, with the advice and assistance of 
General Greene, and the Marquis La Fayette, conducted 
his retreat in the presence of a superior foe, whose sen- 
tries were not more than 400 yards distant from the Ame- 
rican sentries ; and on the morning of the 1st of Septem- 
ber, 1778, the retreat was accomplished without the loss 
of a man, or any part of the artillery or baggage. 

The same day, Sir Henry Clinton arrived off Newport, 
on board of the fleet under Lord Howe, with four thou- 
sand troops, to cut off the American retreat ; but learn- 
ing the departure of the French for Boston, and the re- 
treat of the Americans, he set sail for Boston, in pursuit 
of the French. On the morning of the 3d, he discovered 
the French fleet in the harbour of Boston, strongly post- 
ed, and returned to New- York. On the 5th, Lord Howe 
commenced an attack upon the American shipping in Bed- 
ford harbour, and destroyed about seventy sail, besides 
small craft, stores, dwelling houses, and vessels on the 
stocks, together with the magazine, to the amount of 
20,OOOZ. sterling. 

His lordship next commenced an attack upon Martha's 
Vineyard, destroyed all the vessels, and carried off the 
arms of the militia, the public money, 300 oxen, and 
10,000 sheep, and returned to New- York. 



THE UNITED STATES. 199 

The following extract of a letter from General Wash- 
ington, shall close the chapter : 

" It is not a little pleasing, nor less wonderful, to con- 
template, that after two years manoeuvring, and under- 
going the strangest vicissitudes that perhaps ever attend- 
ed any one contest since the creation, both armies are 
brought back to the very point they set out from, and the 
offending party, in the beginning, is reduced to the spade 
and pick-axe for defence. The hand of Providence has 
been so conspicuous in all this, that he must be worse than 
an infidel that lacks faith, and more than wicked, that has 
not gratitude enough to acknowledge his obligations." 



CHAPTER X. 

Operations of the Revolutionary War Continued. 

\ 

THE British, finding the instability of their dependence 
on the success of their arms, determined to accomplish 
their object by the arts of diplomacy. An attempt was 
made to bribe a Mr, Reed, and other members of con- 
gress, to assist in reconciling the Americans to the Eng- 
lish government. The instrument of this attempt was 
George Johnston, Esq. one of the British commissioners. 
Mr. Reed replied " I am not worth buying, but such as 
I am, the King of England is not rich enough to do it." 
The facts were disclosed to congress, and excited consider- 
able feeling. 

Congress then resolved, that all letters addressed to 
members of congress by British commissioners, or agents, 
or any subjects of the King of Great Britain, of a public 
nature, should be laid before that body. To this resolu- 
tion, a spirited reply was made from New-York by John- 
ston, and a total disavowal of the facts, on the part of ir 
Henry Clinton, Lord Carlisle, and Mr. Eden. At the same 
time, a ratification of the convention of Saratoga was 
tendered, that the troops of Burgoyne might be suffered 
to embark for England. This was declined by congress, 
unless ratified by the British government. 



200 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

The commissioners then appealed to the people, and 
this was favoured by congress, trusting that the good 
sense of the inhabitants would treat it with contempt, and 
cover the authors with lasting disgrace. Chagrined by 
their failure in this insidious measure, they denounced 
the American government in a manifesto, threatening the 
American people with destruction, if determined to per- 
severe in their rebellion, and adhere to their alliance with 
France. This idle threat was fairly met by congress, by 
a developement of the mode of warfare adopted by the 
enemy, and was thus concluded : 

" If our enemies presume to execute their threats, or 
persist in their present career of barbarity, we will take 
such exemplary vengeance as shall deter others from a 
like conduct. We appeal to that God who is the searcher 
of hearts, for the rectitude of our intentions, and in his 
holy presence declare, thai as we are not moved by any 
light or hasty suggestions of anger or revenge, so, through 
every possible change of fortune, we will adhere to this 
our determination." 

Dr. Franklin, till now a commissioner at the French 
court, was appointed minister plenipotentiary to the court 
of Versailles, with instructions to negotiate for an expe- 
dition to Canada. About this time, the Sieur Gerard de- 
livered his credentials to congress, and was recognised as 
a minister from the French court. 

The Marquis La Fayette, at this time, requested leave 
to return to France, to which congress readily consented, 
and directed the president to express to him, by letter, the 
thanks of congress, for that disinterested zeal that led 
him to America, as well as those services he had rendered 
the United States, by the exertions of his courage and 
abilities, on many signal occasions. They also directed 
Dr. Franklin to cause an elegant sword to be made, with 
proper devices, and presented to the marquis, in the name 
of the United States. Congress, at the same time, ad- 
dressed a letter to the King of France, expressive of the 
high sense they entertained of the talents and services oi 
the marquis. He took his leave of congress by letter, re- 
paired to Boston, and embarked for France. 

Pending these movements, the Indians, in concert with 



THE UNITED STATES. 201 

the tories, began their ravages upon the Susquehannah, 
entered the settlements in a body of about sixteen hun- 
dred ; defeated Colonel Butler, at the head of about four 
hundred men, and cut off his party with a terrible slaughter. 
They took one small fort at Kingston, and then carried 
Fort Wilkesbarre ; butchered the garrison, and burnt the 
women and children in the barracks. They next proceed- 
ed to lay waste the settlements with fire and sword, and 
destroyed the cattle in the most wanton and barbarous 
manner; but spared the persons and property of the tories. 

Sir Henry Clinton detached Captain Ferguson, with 
about three hundred men, upon an expedition to Little 
Egg-Harbour, under a strong convoy, to destroy the Ame- 
rican shipping and privateers ; but these being removed, 
Captain Ferguson proceeded up to Chesnut Neck, where 
he destroyed such vessels as were there, together with the 
whole village, and laid waste the adjacent country, arid 
rejoined the squadron. October 5th. 

On the 15th, the convoy, with the troops, moved round 
to another landing place not far distant, and landed two 
hundred and fifty men under the command of Captain Fer- 
guson, who advanced into the country in the silence of 
night, and surprised Count Pulaski's light infantry; killed 
the Baron De Base and Lieutenant De la Broderic, with 
fifty privates. These were mostly butchered in cold 
blood, begging for mercy, under the orders of no quarters, 
as before ; but Count Pulaski closed this horrid scene, by 
a sudden charge of his cavalry, that put to flight the mur- 
derous foe, and thus saved the remnant of his infantry. 
Captain Ferguson made a hasty retreat, embarked his 
party, and returned to New-York. 

Admiral Graves arrived at New- York, on the 16th of 
October, in a most shattered condition, by a violent storm 
which detained him the remainder of the month, to repair 
the fleet. About the first of November he put to sea, and 
appeared off the harbour of Boston, on a visit to the Count 
D'Estaing ; but a violent storm here overtook him, scat- 
tered his fleet, destroyed the Somerset of 64 guns, on the 
shores of Cape Cod, and forced the rest into Rhode Island 
for shelter. 

From this time the war assumed a most savage aspect, 



202 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

and exhibited the most unrelenting barbarity. Except in 
few instances, the rules of civilized warriors seemed hardly 
to be known, and the combatants seemed mutually deter- 
mined on a war of extermination. The war was carried 
anew into the Susquehannah country. Col. Wm. Butler, at 
the head of a Pennsylvania regiment, with a band of rifle- 
men, led an expedition to the Indian villages, which he de- 
stroyed, and af*er enduring the greatest hardships, re- 
turned in safety in sixteen days. To avenge this incursion, 
Colonel John Butler, at the head of a strong party, sur- 
prised Colonel Alden at Cherry Valley, who was killed, and 
the greatest cruelties were perpetrated. Fifty or sixty men. 
women, and children, were killed or made captives, and 
even the dead were made monuments of savage barbarities. 

All further designs against the north, seemed now to be 
abandoned. Clinton and Prescott, who commanded in 
East Florida, concerted a plan of operations against Geor- 
gia. Before this could be carried into effect, two parties 
entered Georgia from Florida, one by land, and the other 
by water. The latter advanced to Sunbury, and sum- 
moned the place to surrender, but receiving a spirited re- 
ply from Colonel Mackintosh, the attempt was abandoned. 
The other party made for Savannah, but being firmly op- 
posed by General Screven and Colonel Elbert, nothing 
was effected, if we except the plundering of negroes and 
cattle, and the commission of the most wanton barbarities. 
Colonel Screven was killed in the defence. 

On the 27th of November, 1778, Colonel Campbell em- 
barked at Sandy Hook, at the head of one regiment, two 
battalions of regulars, and four of tories, with a detach- 
ment of artillery, in all about twenty-live hundred men. 
and arrived at the mouth of the Savannah, the latter part 
of December, and soon landed his troops. General R. 
Howe was posted in this place, at the head of about 
eight hundred militia and regulars, worn down by a fruit- 
less expedition against Florida. He chose a judicious po- 
sition to cover Savannah, but was out-generaled, sur- 
prised in camp, and routed with a considerable loss of 
men and arms. The fort, with its contents, forty-eight 
pieces of cannon, twenty-three mortars, all the shipping, 
a large store of provisions, and the capital of the state, 



THE UNITED STATES. 203 

fell into the hands of the victors. The defenceless in- 
habitants were bayonetted in the streets, and the remnant 
of the troops escaped to South Carolina. About this 
time, Sunbury fell into the hands of General Prescott, 
who marched to Savannah, and took command of the 
royal army. The inhabitants were directed to lay down 
their arms, or use them in support of the royal cause. 

On the 25 th of September, General Lincoln was ap- 
pointed to the command of the southern army, but he did 
not arrive at Charleston until the 4th of December. He 
was joined by General Ashe and Rutherford, with about 
two thousand North Carolina militia, destined to act in de- 
fence of South Carolina. 

As Georgia was the point of attack, General Lincoln 
raised something less than a thousand men, and joined 
the remains of the troops under Colonel Elbert, establish- 
ing his head quarters at Purysburg. Here he found him- 
self at the head of but fourteen hundred men, and even 
this small force destitute of arms, cannon, tents, and al- 
most of powder and lead. The militia of South Caroli- 
na were without discipline or subordination, and on the 
21th of January, 1779, they had generally returned to 
their homes. About eleven hundred militia from North 
Carolina supplied their place, and the whole force was 
about twenty-four hundred. 

General Prescott had taken possession of Port Royal 
Island, South Carolina, and General Moultrie, at the head 
of the Charleston militia, attacked the island, dislodged 
the enemy, and compelled the Colonel to retire into Geor- 
gia, with much loss. He took post at Augusta, and by 
fomenting divisions, and encouraging insurrections, 
caused much distress. But a party from the district of 
Ninety-six, under Colonel Pickens, pursued the banditti, 
which they overtook, routed, killed, or dispersed, and 
their leader, Colonel Boyd, was slain. The remainder 
threw themselves on the clemency of the state. Seventy 
were tried, convicted, and sentenced to death, but the sen- 
tence was executed on five of the principals only, and the 
remainder were pardoned. 

General Lincoln determined to dislodge the enemy from 
Georgia, and directed General Williamson to take a strong 



204 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

position near Augusta, to watch the motions of Colonel 
Campbell ; and General Ashe was ordered to the support of 
General Williamson, with about two thousand men. On 
receiving the intelligence of this junction, the British re- 
tired about fourteen miles down the river. Measures 
were concerted by the American generals, and the plan 
of operations settled. 

About this time, Colonel Provost gained the rear of 
the American camp by a circuitous march, and commen- 
ced a furious attack. The continentals advanced to the 
charge, to check the invaders ; but the militia were panic 
struck, and flight ensued. The regulars, under General 
Elbert, were cut to pieces, and the militia, under General 
Ashe, never returned. The Americans lost one hundred 
and fifty killed, and one hundred and sixty-two captured. 
The wounded not numbered. About four hundred and 
fifty rejoined General Lincoln. Georgia now belonged to 
the enemy, and a free communication was opened with 
the tories of South Carolina. 

In this state of alarm, John Rutledge was appointed 
governor of the state, and to him and the council was gi- 
ven a dictatorial power. A large body of militia was as- 
sembled at Orangeburg, near the centre of the state, to 
act as might be required. General Williamson sent par- 
ties into Georgia to distress and plunder the enemy. 
On this, General Lincoln remarked to the governor, that 
the innocent and the guilty, the aged and infirm, women 
and children, would be equally exposed to the effects of 
this order. General Lincoln was now reinforced at his 
camp, Black Swamp, and advanced into Georgia, leaving 
a strong guard under General Moultrie, at Purysburg. 
Prescott permitted the Americans to advance one hun- 
dred and fifty miles, that he might surprise General Moul- 
trie. Moultrie eluded the attack, by a change of position. 

General Lincoln, learning the movements of Prescott, 
moved by forced marches in support of Moultrie, and to 
cover Charleston. The governor took alarm by the 
movements of Prescott, and destroyed the suburbs, that 
he might guard against the advance of the enemy. The 
neighbouring militia were called in to join his troops in 
defence of Charleston. 



THE UNITED STATES. 205 

On the llth, General Prescott crossed the ferry, and 
appeared before Charleston, on which day the Count Pu- 
laski arrived, and entered into the defence of this city 
with spirit. The object of General Prescott was, to carry 
the town before General Lincoln could arrive, and his 
operations were conducted with such vigour, that the civil 
authority sent out the following proposition. 

" South Carolina will remain in a state of neutrality till 
the close of the war, and then follow the fate of her 
neighbours, on condition the royal army withdraw." To 
which General Prescott replied : " The garrison are in 
arms, and they shall surrender prisoners of war." 

Before General Prescott could accomplish any thing of 
importance, General Lincoln arrived, and the enemy with- 
drew to Beaufort, and thence to Georgia. Plunder and 
devastation marked their steps. Slaves to the number of 
three thousand were taken, and sent for sale to the West- 
Indies. 

An expedition was fitted out by Sir Henry Clinton, 
under Sir George Collier, and General Matthews, from 
New-York, who took possession of Portsmouth, and the 
remains of Norfolk, in Virginia, in May, 1779. On the 
same day a detachment was sent to Suffolk, and destroy- 
ed provisions, naval stores, and vessels, leaving the town 
in ashes, and gentlemen's seats, as well as plantations, 
were burnt and ravaged. On the coast the same ravages 
were committed by the fleet. About one hundred and 
thirty vessels were destroyed or captured, with about 
three thousand hogsheads of tobacco. 

About this time a successful attempt was made against 
Stoney Point and Verplank, by Sir Henry Clinton, after 
which he went forward to the Highlands. 

Previous to these operations. Sir Henry Clinton had 
concerted measures with the tories and British under his 
command, to assume a general system of predatory war 
in America, and submitted his plans to the British minis- 
try, who expressed their approbation. This plan soon 
reached the American commission, at Paris, and was com- 
municated to Governor Trumbull, of Connecticut, on the 
6th of April, 1779. 

Sir Henry Clinton detached General Trvon, (late Go- 
18 



< 

206 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

vernor of New-York,) with 2600 land forces, protected by 
a squadron under Sir George Collier, and supported by 
General Garth, to begin their depredations in Connecti- 
cut. On the 4th of July, the armament moved into the 
Sound, and the commanders issued their proclamation to 
the citizens of Connecticut, offering pardon and protec- 
tion to all such as would return to their allegiance, but 
hreatening ruin and destruction to all who should reject 
his overture. On the morning of the 6th, General Tryon 
landed his division at East-Haven ; General Garth landed 
at the same time at West-Haven, and proceeded directly 
to New-Haven, and gave up the town to promiscuous pil- 
lage. The militia collected so fast on the next day, that 
the enemy abandoned the town in haste, burnt several 
stores on long wharf, and embarked their troops. 

The infamous Tryon next proceeded to the plunder of 
East-Haven, and then sailed for Fail-field. The town and 
vicinity were laid in ruins, and the enemy embarked for 
Norwalk, which was next laid in ashes. He then return- 
ed to New- York. 

In this incursion, four houses for public worship, near 
one hundred dwellings, eighty barns, about thirty stores, 
seventeen shops, four mills, and five vessels, were burnt. 
And, in addition to this destruction of property, the great- 
est acts of brutality were perpetrated. Women were in- 
sulted and abused, while their apparel was robbed, and 
desks, trunks, and closets, were rifled. 

But a plan was concerted by General Washington, 
which kept in check this hero of rapine and conflagration. 
This plan issued in the capture of "Stoney Point, on the 
Hudson. 

General Wayne commenced his movements against 
Stoney Point, on the 15th, at noon ; and, after having 
crossed the mountains, through dangerous and difficult 
defiles, he approached the fort about eight of the same 
evening. Having reconnoitered the position of the ene- 
my, the general put himself at the head of his brave 
troops, and, at twenty minutes past twelve precisely, on 
the night of the 16th, entered the fort with screwed bayo- 
nets, amidst a most tremendous fire of musket and grape, 
and carried the fortress without firing a gun. Lieute- 



THE UNITED STATES. 207 

nant-Colonel Fleury entered the fort with his division, 
upon the opposite side, at the same time, and both parties 
met in the centre ; but the garrison was spared and made 
prisoners of war, to the number of five hundred and for- 
ty-three. General Wayne dismantled the fort, and 
brought off the cannon, stores, &c. agreeable to orders. 

Congress passed a vote of thanks to General Washing- 
ton, General Wayne, and the officers and soldiers under 
their command, for the masterly exploit in the capture of 
Stoney Point. 

The English, having persuaded the six nations, except- 
ing the Oneidas, to take up the hatchet against the United 
States, General Sullivan was sent with a detachment of 
'from four to five thousand men to chastise them. He 
marched up the Susquehannah, and attacked them in their 
fortifications, which were well constructed The resist- 
ance was obstinate, but they were compelled to yield, and 
took to flight. According to his instructions, their coun- 
try was devastated, and one hundred and sixty thousand 
bushels of corn were consumed. 

The attention of the reader will now be turned to the 
ocean, where the brilliant achievements of our hardy tars 
struck with terror " the mistress of the seas." 

About the last of July, the American captain, John 
Paul Jones, sailed from port L'Orient, in France, on a 
cruise, on board the French ship, the Bon Homme Rich- 
ard, of forty guns, and 375 men, accompanied by the fri- 
gates Alliance, of thirty-six guns, Pallas, thirty-two guns, 
and the Vengeance, an armed brig of twelve guns, and a 
cutter. Commodore Jones^ cruised off the coast of 
Scotland, with his little squadron, until he fell in with the 
homeward bound Baltic fleet, under the convoy of the 
Serapis, Captain Pierson, and Countess of Scarborough, 
Captain Pearcy. When Captain Pierson discovered Com- 
modore Jones, he made sail to cover the convoy, and 
gave signal at the same time for the Countess of Scarbo- 
rough to join him, which was immediately done, Sept. 23. 

Commodore Jones immediately laid his ship along side 
of the Serapis, and commenced an action, which soon 
became desperate ; but the Serapis appeared to reap ad- 
vantage from her superior management. To obviate this, 



208 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Commodore Jones laid his ship across the bow of the 
Serapis, and the ships grappled, yard arm and yard arm, 
and the muzzles of their guns were nearly in contact. In 
this position they lay, vomiting forth death, and strewing 
the decks with carnage and destruction, about two hours. 
Both ships were frequently on fire, but the Serapis not 
less than ten or twelve times. 

The Alliance attempted to co-operate in the action, and 
with some good effect, until the darkness of the evening 
rendered it impossible to distinguish correctly, when she 
killed eleven men, and wounded several others, on board 
the Bon Homme Richard. At this critical moment the 
Serapis struck, and closed the sanguinary scene. The 
Bon Homme Richard, at the close of the action, was so 
much of a wreck as to have seven feet of water in her 
hold, which rendered it necessary to remove the crew 
onboard the Serapis, and the wounded on board the Pal- 
las. On the 24th, her pumps were closely plied ; but on 
the 25th, she went down; fortunately no lives were lost. 

The Pallas engaged and took the Countess of Scarbo- 
rough, at the same time, and Commodore Jones sailed 
with his prizes for the coast of Holland, and anchored 
off the Texel. 

We shall now return to the operations in the southern 
states. 

Instead of pursuing General Prescott in his retreat to 
Georgia, General Lincoln devoted all his powers and 
strength to the defence of Charleston, against any fur- 
ther attack. After learning the success of the Count 
D'Estaing in the West Indies, Governor Rutledge, Gene- 
ral Lincoln, and the French Consul, wrote to the count, 
inviting him to co-operate with the Americans in the re* 
duction of Savannah. The invitation was accepted, and 
on the first of September he arrived off Charleston, with 
a fleet of twenty sail of the line, two of fifty guns, and 
eleven frigates. A British eighty gun ship and three fri- 
gates were taken by surprise. 

On the arrival of the count, General Lincoln marched 
with all his troops for Savannah. The fleet sailed to join 
him ; the French troops were landed in ten or twelve 
days, and Count D'Estaing summoned the town to surreti- 



THE UNITED STATES. 209 

der to the arms of the King of France. General Lin- 
coln remonstrated against this, as the Americans were 
acting in concert. The Count persisted, and General 
Prescott demanded a cessation of hostilities for twenty- 
four hours, to deliberate, which was granted. During 
this time, seven or eight hundred troops arrived from 
Beaufort, and General Prescott determined to defend the 
town to the last extremity. The count saw his error, 
and consulted General Lincoln, and they united their 
efforts to carry the town by a regular siege. 

On the 23d of September the allies broke ground, and 
commenced their operations. On the 4th of October, 
they opened their batteries, and began to play upon the 
town with nine mortars, and fifty-four pieces of cannon, 
which continued four or five days without intermission* 
but without any apparent effect. On the morning of the 
8th, the enemy sallied out, and attempted to set fire to 
the abattis ; but the materials were green, the weather 
moist, and the attempt failed. General Prescott next re- 
quested, that the women and children might be removed ; 
but this w r as refused, and the allies resolved to carry the 
town by storm. 

The morning of the 9th was the time agreed upon, and 
the assault commenced. The attack was well concerted, 
and bravely executed, by the allies ; yet the fire of the 
enemy was so destructive, that the troops gave way, after 
having planted the French and American standards upon 
the British redoubts. At this eventful moment the brave 
Count Pulaski fell, mortally wounded, at the head of his 
legion, when charging the enemy in their rear, in the full 
career of victory. The allies supported this desperate 
conflict fifty-five minutes, under a deadly fire from the 
enemy's batteries, and then made good their retreat, with 
the loss of six hundred and thirty-seven French, and two 
hundred and thirty-four continentals^ killed and wounded. 

The defence of the place was well conducted by Gene- 
ral Prescott, and he certainly deserved the applause of his 
king and country. 

In consideration of the bravery of Count Pulaski, the 
congiess resolved that a monument be erected to his 
memory 

18* 



210 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

The Count D'Estaing soon embarked, and seven ships 
were ordered for the Chesapeake, one of which only ar- 
rived at the place of destination, tlie fleet having; been 
dispersed by a storm. The remainder steered for the 
West Indies. 

As Sir Henry Clinton expected an attack on New- 
York by the French fleet, General Pigot was ordered 
to evacuate Rhode-Island, which order was accomplish- 
ed, and the troops repaired to head-quarters at New- 
York. 

Near the close of December, as the coast was still 
clear, Sir Henry planned an expedition to South Caro- 
lina. He embarked seven thousand live hundred troops, 
under convoy of Admiral Arbuthnot, and about the last 
of January, 1780, he appeared off Charleston. As one 
ordnance ship, and several transports, had been wrecked 
and lost on the passage, and several taken by the Ameri- 
cans, he was not prepared to effect a landing until Febru- 
ary llth, Avhenhe landed on the south side of John's 
Island, thirty miles from the city. 

* But this expedition had been foreseen by congress, and 
preparations were made to meet it. Three continental 
frigates were to sail for the port, and a trusty officer was 
despatched to the Havanna, in order to obtain ships and 
troops for the defence, promising, as a return, two thou- 
sand men to co-operate with the Spaniards in the reduc- 
tion of St. Augustine. 

To the force of seven or eight thousand men, General 
Lincoln could oppose but two thousand four hundred, 
near half of whom were militia ; yet with them he hoped 
to defend the city. The continental frigates arrived, and, 
landing their crews, guns, and equipments, prepared to 
act on the defensive. The British admiral entered the 
harbour with all the ships which could pass the bar. 

On the 10th of April, the town was summoned to sur- 
render, which the commander refused. On the 12th, Sir 
Henry opened his batteries on the town, and his fire wa > 
promptly returned during eight successive days. On the 
18th, a reinforcement arrived from New-York, of three, 
thousand men, and Sir Henry approached within three 
Hundred vards of the American lines. A council of war 



THE UNITED STATES. 211 

was now called, by General Lincoln, of which the follow- 
ing was the result. 

" A retreat would be attended with many distressing 
inconveniences, if not altogether impracticable, for the 
undermentioned causes. 

1. The authority is averse to it, and would counteract 
the measure. 

2. It must be performed in the face of a superior enemy, 
across a river three miles wide. 

3. The passes are occupied by the enemy, which must 
be forced. 

4. All these obstacles being overcome, the Santee must 
be crossed without boats, in the face of a pursuing enemy. 
We, therefore, advise to make immediate terms with the 
enemy." 

General Lincoln, however, determined to continue the 
defence ; but, on the 26th, General Lincoln again sum- 
moned another council of war, and at the eventful mo- 
ment, the flag of the enemy was seen to wave on the walls 
of Fort Moultrie. Sullivan's Island fell into the hands of 
the enemy on the 6th of May. 

Sir Henry Clinton pushed his approaches, and on the 
8th, he opened a correspondence with General Lincoln ; 
renewed his summons, offered terms, &c. and threatened 
to renew hostilities at 8 o'clock. The eventful hour ar- 
rived, and awful, solemn silence ensued ; neither party 
fired a gun ; all was anxious suspense for an hour, yet 
neither party moved a proposition. At 9, the besieged 
opened a fire upon the enemy, who, in their turn, opened 
their batteries upon the town, which threatened to bury 
it in ruins. The town was repeatedly on fire, and many 
houses were burnt ; at the same time, Sir Henry advanced 
his last parallel to the distance of twenty yards, and pre- 
pared for a general assault, by sea and land. 

The critical moment had now arrived ; the people, by 
their leaders, called on General Lincoln to renew the con- 
ference, and make terms with the enemy. The lieutenant- 
governor and council enforced the request. The militia 
threw down their arms, and all was submission. 

General Lincoln renewed the conference with Sir Henry, 
and accepted his terms. Sir Henry complied, and the 



212 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

next day the garrison, with all such as nad borne arms, 
marched out, and became prisoners of war, May 12th. 

The French consul, and the subjects of France and 
Spain, were, with their houses and effects, to be protect- 
ed; but they themselves were to be considered prisoners 
of war. 

At this time, Colonel Buford was advancing through 
the upper country, with a party of 300 Virginians, to the 
relief of Charleston. When Colonel Tarleton learnt the 
position of this party, he advanced with about 700 ca- 
valry and mounted infantry, by a forced march of 105 
miles, in fifty-four hours, and surprised them at the Wax- 
haws, and summoned the colonel to surrender. A parley 
ensued ; and during the conference, Colonel Tarleton 
surrounded the party, and cut them to pieces, while beg- 
ging for mercy. Thirty-seven only were made prisoners, 
and the remainder were either killed or wounded in the 
butchery. Lord Cornwallis highly applauded the act, 
and recommended Colonel Tarleton specially to the fa- 
vour of his sovereign. With this blow, the state of South 
Carolina was subdued, and a regular British government 
was organized. 

General Gates, then in Virginia, was appointed to suc- 
ceed General Lincoln, in the southern command. 

'Georgia and South Carolina were now wholly subdued, 
and the enemy saw his way clear, to advance into North 
Carolina. 

To counteract these movements of Tarleton, and keej 
up the spirits of the people, Generals Marion and Sump 
ter, at the head of their flying parties; kept up a system 
of predatory warfare, that greatly harassed and annoyed 
the enemy. So sharp and desperate were their attacks, 
that, in one instance, General Sumpter reduced the Prince 
of Wales' regiment, from the number of 278 to nine. 

While the brave Sumpter was thus harassing the enemy, 
and animating the zeal of the inhabitants, a considerable 
force was traversing the middle states south ward, for the 
relief of the British troops. 

On the 6th of June, Generals Kniphausen, Robertson, 
Try on and Sterling, crossed over from S tat en Island into 
New-Jersey, at the head of 5000 regulars. On the 7th, 



THE UNITED STATES. 213 

they advanced to Connecticut Farms, distant about five 
miles, in quest of the Rev. James Caldwell, whose patri- 
otic zeal had rendered him peculiarly obnoxious ; wan- 
tonly shot his wife in her own house, then burnt the house 
and meeting-house, .with about a dozen other dwelling 
houses. The royal army next attempted to advance to 
Springfield, but were checked by Colonel Dayton, sup- 
ported by General Maxwell^ and they fled in disorder. 

General Washington considered this movement as a 
feint in Sir Henry Clinton, to open the way for an attack 
upon West Point. He accordingly detached General 
Greene, at the head of a strong party, to watch the mo- 
tions of the enemy. General Washington, learning from 
General Greene, that Springfield was their object of des- 
tination, sent forward a detachment to support General 
.Greene. 

The enemy advanced upon Springfield, at five in the 
morning of the 23d of June. General Greene disputed 
every pass valiantly, but obstinate bravery was constrained 
to yield to superior numbers ; General Greene retired to 
the high grounds, and the enemy gained the town, which 
they destroyed. 

The commander-in-chief, sensible of the worth afcd 
talents of General Greene, returned the thanks of himself 
and his suffering country, to him and the men under his 
command. But this skirmish was not to pass offso lightly. 
The militia rallied in considerable force, and drove the 
enemy to Staten Island, in a precipitate retreat. 

The Marquis La Fayette, who had been to France on 
leave of absence, now returned to head quarters. He had 
negotiated for supplies from the French government, and 
an armament was soon to follow him. On the 10th of 
July, the armament arrived at Newport, Rhode Island, 
consisting of two ships of eighty guns, ofle of seventy- 
four, four of sixty-four, twa frigates of forty, a cutter of 
twenty, an hospital ship, pierced for sixty-four, one bomb- 
ship, and thirty-two transports, under the command of 
the Chevalier de Ternay. Also, four old regiments of land 
forces, together with the legion of de Lauzern, and a bat- 
talion of artillery ; in the whole, about 6000, under the 
command of Lieut. General Count de Rochambeau. 



214 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

General Heath received the count at his landing, and 
put him and his troops in possession of the island, where 
they were handsomely accommodated. The General 
Assembly, then in session at Newport, by their special 
committee, presented the count with a complimentary 
address, to which the count replied, with assurances that 
a much greater force would soon follow him, and that his 
whole powers would be devoted to the service of the 
United States. 

" The French troops," added the count, " are under 
the strictest discipline, and, acting under the orders of 
General Washington, will live with the Americans as bre- 
thren. I am highly sensible of the marks of respect shown 
me by the Assembly, and beg leave to assure them that, 
as brethren, not only my life, but the lives of the troops 
under my command, are devoted to their service." 

The marquis witnessed these respectful attentions to his 
countrymen, and, in honour to our French allies, Wash- 
ington directed, in his general orders, that black and white 
cockades should be worn as a compliment. 

But the wants of the country were pressing, and Con- 
gress directed, that bills to the amount of twenty-five 
thousand pounds sterling should be drawn on Dr. Frank- 
lin, at the French court ; and that bills to the same amount 
should be drawn on John Jay, minister at the court of 
Spain, and that the money should be immediately applied 
to the use of the troops. 

After the fall of Charleston, Sir Henry committed the 
care of the southern states to Lord Corn wall is, at the 
head of four thousand men, and returned to New-York. 

The arrival of the fleet under the Chevalier Ternay, at 
Rhode Island, gave Admiral Arbuthnot considerable 
alarm. His whole force amounted to but four ships of 
the line. Bui0*he was joined by Admiral Graves, with 
six line of battle ships, and felt himself secure from at- 
tack in New- York. With this reinforcement Sir Henry 
concerted an attack on the French fleet at Newport, and 
immediately embarked eight thousand troops. The fleet 
put into Huntington Bay, on Long Island. The country 
was alarmed, and the militia turned out in force. But 
General Washington made a diversion, by moving his 



THE UNITED STATES. 215 

whole force down to Kingsbridge, and threatening New- 
York. The plan succeeded, and Sir Henry returned to 
New- York in haste. 

In the south, Lord Cornwallis, having settled the go- 
vernment of South Carolina, prepared to subdue the re- 
bellious spirit of the North Carolinians. This was seen 
by Ihe Americans, and General Gates, with the shadow of 
an army, moved across Deep River, on the 27th of July, 
to watch the motions of the enemy. On the 6th of Au- 
gust, he was joined by General Caswell, at the head of a 
fine body of North Carolina militia, who were in good 
spirits, but under bad discipline ; and he encamped at the 
Cross Roads, on his way to Camden. On the 13th he 
noved forward his army to Clermont, where he was 
joined by Brigadier-General Stevens, with about seven 
hundred Virginia militia. An express also arrived, in- 
forming him that Colonel Sumpter would join him at Cam- 
den with a detachment of South Carolina militia, and that 
an escort of clothing, ammunition, and stores, was on its 
way from Charleston to Camden, for the use of the garri- 
son posted there. 

General Gates immediately detached Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Woodford, at the head of the Maryland line, consist- 
ing of one hundred infantry, a company of artillery, with 
two brass field pieces, and about three hundred North 
Carolina militia, to join Colonel Sumpter, reduce the 
forts, and intercept the convoy. General Gates prepared 
to support Colonel Sumpter with his whole force ; total 
about four thousand. 

But Cornwallis had anticipated this movement, and en- 
tered Camden the day previous, and an attack was medi- 
tated on General Gates, in his camp at Clermont. Both 
generals put their armies in motion early in the evening 
of the 15th, and their advance parties met in the woods 
about two o'clock in the morning of the 16th; a conflict 
ensued, the Americans gave way in some disorder, but 
they soon recovered, and a skirmishing continued through 
the night. 

When morning appeared, both generals made their dis- 
positions to contest the field. An action commenced ; 
the regular troops were firm, but the militia being over- 



216 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

powered by the British bayonets, gave way, and dispersed 
as they fled. The victory w r as complete, and the general 
and his regulars were abandoned to their fate. Several 
parties of militia, who were advancing to join the army, 
turned their arms against the fugitives, and thus completed 
the overthrow. The pursuit continued for more than 
twenty miles, and the road was strewed with the frag- 
ments of this routed army, together with the wounded, 
the dead, and the dying. A party of horse, supported by 
200 infantry, at the distance of more than eighty miles 
from the scene of action, upon the first intelligence, aban- 
doned their ground, and sought safety by flight. 

The brave Baron de Kalb fell in this action, much and 
deservedly lamented. He was at the head of the Mary- 
land troops, and second in command. Congress ordered 
that a monument should be raised to his memory at 
Annapolis. 

The advantages of this victory were not great. The 
losses, and want of supplies, in a sickly season, compelled 
Cornwallis to return to Camden. 

General Greene now arrived, and succeeded General 
Gates in the command of the southern army. 

The country still continued to sufler by the ravages oi 
Tarleton, who was detached, at the head of his cavalry, to 
dislodge General Morgan from his position at the Cow- 
pens. 

He commenced his operations with his usual impe- 
tuosity ; traversed the country for several days, laying 
waste every thing in his course, until he arrived at Mor- 
gan's position, and commenced an action with the same 
impetuosity ; the Americans were dislodged with some 
disorder, but they rallied to the charge, and were victori- 
ous in turn. Tarleton was defeated, his army routed, his 
artillery and baggage taken, and he, with the mounted fu- 
gitives, fled to Lord Cornwallis, January ?th, 1781. 

This defeat roused his lordship ; he commenced a pur- 
suit, and the American* inured. General Greene had 
the address to harass his iorqship, and yet avoid a general 
action, until he arrived at Guilford, near the coniines of 
Virginia, where he made a stand and gave him battle. 
General Greene, with his little at iv, had hopes of sue- 



THE UNITED STATES. 217 

cess against his lordship's pursuing forces, though greatly 
superior. The movements were well concerted, and well 
executed, and the conflict was sharp and bloody ; but the 
militia gave way, the regulars were overpowered, and 
General Greene drew off his troops in good order, and 
took a strong position. 

The severity of the action occasioned his lordship to 
make a retrograde movement to recover his losses. 

Sir Henry had detached a fleet from New- York, with 
fifteen hundred troops on board, to co-operate with Corn- 
wallis. The troops were landed in Chesapeake Bay, and 
committed the most alarming depredations. Ineffectual 
attempts were made to dislodge them. A movement was 
now made by General Greene towards South Carolina, 
which had become an enemy's country. He boldly ad- 
vanced, and gave battle to Lord Rawdon, who was in the 
vicinity of Camden. A desperate contest ensued, and 
victory was doubtful. Both withdrew from the conflict, 
and left the field covered with the dead. Lord Rawdon 
retired to Camden, and strengthened his position. 

General Greene advanced, and by a desperate assault, 
was on the point of carrying the strong fortress of Nine- 
ty Six, the reduction of which would have recovered all 
South Carolina, except Charleston. 

At this critical moment, Lord Rawdon retired in person 
to Charleston; put himself at the head of 1700 fresh 
troops, then arrived from Ireland, and, by forced marches, 
advanced to the relief of Ninety Six. The approach 
of his lordship compelled General Greene to abandon the 
assault, when engaged hand to hand with the enemy, and 
when victory was ready to decide in his favour. The ge- 
neral drew off his army towards Camden in good order, 
and his lordship pursued ; but General Greene eluded his 
lordship, by filing off towards Charleston, and taking a 
strong position upon the hills of Santee. Lord Rawdon 
retired to Charleston. 

The war, during these operafl&ns in the south, raged 
in Virginia, under the command of General Phillips, 
through the month of April, and the ravages of the ene- 
my exceeded ail description. At Petersburg, they de- 
stroyed all the shioping, and about four hundred 

19 



218 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

heads of tobacco. At Osborn's Mills, they took two 
ships and ten smaller vessels, laden with cordage, flour, 
<fec. Four ships and a number of smaller vessels were 
burnt or sunk, besides many others destroyed by the Ame- 
ricans, to prevent their falling into the hands of the ene- 
my, together with about three thousand hogsheads of to- 
bacco, April 27. On the 30th, they penetrated to Man- 
hester, destroyed 1200 hogsheads more, thence they pro- 
ceeded to Warwick, and laid waste the shipping, both in 
the river and on the stocks; also, extensive rope walks, 
tanneries, warehouses, and magazines of flour, mills, 
&c. in one general conflagration, and then embarked on 
board their shipping. 

The Baron Steuben opposed this party, but his force 
was insufficient to make any serious impressions. The 
Marquis La Fayette was detached with troops to succour 
the town; but such was the state of the military funds, 
that when he arrived at Baltimore, he was obliged to bor- 
row two thousand guineas, on his own responsibility, to 
enable him to proceed. On the strength of this, he ad- 
vanced to Richmond, where he joined the baron, with the 
Virginia militia, and covered Richmond. Here he watch- 
ed the movements of the enemy, though too weak to 
check all their operations. On the 9th of May, General 
Phillips entered Petersburg, where he died on the 13th. 

Of the sufferings of the southern army we may form 
some estimate, by reading an extract of a letter from 
General Greene to the marquis : 

" You may depend upon it, that nothing can equal the 
sufferings of our little army, but their merits. Let not 
the love of fame get the better of your prudence, and 
plunge you into a misfortune, in too eager a pursuit after 
glory. This is the voice of a friend, not of a" general." 

Lord Cornwallis had advanced from Guilford to Wil- 
mington, and left General Greene in the rear. From Wil- 
mington he advanc<?w! to join General Phillips, in Peters- 
burg. The general was dead, but he found eighteen hun- 
dred troops, and, being thus reinforced, he advanced to- 
wards Richmond, in order to dislodge the marquis. Flush- 
ed by recent triumphs, in a letter to Sir Henry, he thus 
wrote, ' the boy cannot escape me." The marquis did 
escape, however, and evacuated the place on th** 27th. 



THE UNITED STATES. 219 

On the 7th of June, General Wayne joined the marquis 
with eight hundred of the Pennsylvania militia. While 
on the march, however, supposing the main army of Corn- 
wallis had crossed the River James, he attacked what he 
supposed to be the rear guard, when, to his surprise, he 
found the general at the head of the army ready to re- 
ceive him. Finding no time was to be lost, he advanced 
to the charge at the head of his column in gallant style. 
The conflict was sharp, and, availing himself of his first 
impression, he hastily withdrew, leaving the general as 
much astonished as he found him. He retreated in good 
order, without pursuit, as Cornwallis probably concluded 
that it was an ambuscade. His lordship retired in the 
night, and marched to Portsmouth. 



CHAPTER XL 

Treason of Arnold Major Andre taken. 

Immediately after the fall of Charleston, in May, Sir 
Henry Clinton returned to New- York to commence the 
operations of the season. 

About the middle of September, 1780, General Wash- 
ington retired from head-quarters (near New- York) with 
his suite, General Knox, and the Marquis La Fayette, to 
meet Admiral Ternay, and Count Rochambeau, at Hart- 
ford, '(Connecticut,) agreeable to appointment; and about 
the 21st, the parties met accordingly. The avowed ob- 
ject of their conference was to concert measures for the 
reduction of New-York. 

In the midst of this conference, an express arrived from 
West Point, on the Hudson, announcing the traitorous 
designs of General Arnold. The council was immediately 
closed ; the parties retired, and General Washington wenf 
to the relief of West Point. On his arrival, he found thtf 
fortress dismantled, the cannon dismounted, and that 
Arnold had fled, and taken refuge on board the British 
sloop of war Vulture, then lying in the river. 

Whilst his excellency was employed in repairing the 



220 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

fortress, a prisoner was announced, who proved to be the 
unfortunate Major Andre, who had volunteered his ser- 
vices to Sir Henry Clinton, to negotiate the treacherous 
design. His character was that of a spy ; his fate was 
death ! Let us pass over this distressing scene. The 
righteous sacrifice greatly interested the feelings, and 
touched the sympathy of every American breast. 

The feelings of General Washington upon this event- 
ful occasion, may be seen in the following extract from 
his private correspondence of October 1 3th : 

" In no instance since the commencement of the war, 
has the interposition of Divine Providence appeared more 
remarkably conspicuous, than in the rescue of the fort 
and garrison at West Point. Andre has met his fate, and 
with that fortitude that was to have been expected from 
an accomplished man, and a gallant officer ; but I am mis- 
taken if Arnold is not undergoing, at this time, the tor- 
ments of a mental hell." 1 

In the month of October, 1780, Sir Henry Clinton de- 
tached General Arnold on a marauding expedition, into 
Virginia, with about 1600 men, and a number of armed 
vessels ; he laid waste the country upon James River, in 
several predatory excursions, until his progress was ar- 
rested by the appearance of the French squadron from 
Newport. This fleet put an end to the ravages of Ar- 
nold, by capturing and destroying a very considerable 
part of his fleet ; and would have caused the destruction 
of the traitor, had not a British fleet appeared from New- 
York, for the relief of Arnold, and by a naval engagement 
off the capes of Virginia, with the French fleet, afforded 
him an opportunity to escape to New-York. The French 
returned to Newport. 

On the 18th of December, the Chevalier Charles Louis 
de Ternay, Knight of St. John of Jerusalem, late governor 
of the Isles of France and Bourbon, and commander of 
the French squadron in the American seas, died in New- 
port, and was interred in Trinity church-yard the next 
day, with military honours. 

The frequent changes in the army, owing to short en- 
listments ; the want of pay, clothing, provisions, &c. 
had repeatedly distressed the army, and were at last ac- 



THE UNITED STATES. 221 

companied with the revolt of the Pennsylvania line, ex- 
tfepting three regiments. In defiance of all the efforts of 
General Wayne and all the other officers, they seized on 
six field pieces, and took up their march for Princeton, 
January, 1781. 

Sir Henry Clinton, upon the first intelligence, made 
some important movements from Staten Island, and sent 
spies at the same time, to countenance and encourage the 
revolters. A committee from congress visited the mu- 
tineers at Princeton, with liberal assurances, to persuade 
them to return to their duty ; but General Washington sent 
a strong force, and compelled them to return. A general 
arrangement was soon made to supply the armies, both 
with foreign and domestic aid and resources. 

On the 14th of May, information was given to Wash-* 
ington, that Colonel Greene, with his whole detachment, 
had been cut off by Delancy's troops, near Croton river, 
about forty miles north of New- York. Colonel Greene 
had been wounded and captured, and was afterwards mur- 
dered, and Major Flagg was killed in his quarters. 

About this period, General Washington wrote to the 
governors of the northern states : 

" On the calculations I have been able to form in con- 
cert with the most experienced French and American offi- 
cers, the operations in view, will require, in addition to 
the French army, all the continental battalions from New- 
Hampshire to New-Jersey, to be completed." He after- 
wards added, " As we cannot count upon their being full, 
and as a body of militia will also be necessary, I have 
called upon several states to hold certain numbers in 
readiness, to move within one week of the time I may 
require them." 

These despatches were intercepted, and gave consider 
able alarm to Sir Henry, who renewed his exertions for 
the defence of the city. 

On the 14th of June, a junction was effected before New- 
York, between General Washington, and a body of fif- 
teen hundred French troops lately arrived in Boston. 

On the 21st, General Washington wrote to the French 
admiral at Newport, as follows : " I hope there will be 
no occasion for a movement to the southward, for th* 

19* 



UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

want of force to act against New-York, as I flattered my- 
self that the glory of destroying the British squadron at 
New-York, is reserved for the king's fleet under your 
command, and that of the land forces, at the same place, 
for the allied armies." 

On the evening of the 18th, precisely at eight o'clock, 
the allied armies commenced a grand movement, and 
marched from their encampments down to New- York, and 
at four the next morning, they were drawn up in order 
of battle, while General Washington and Count Rocham- 
beau, with all the general officers and engineers, recon- 
noitered the enemy's works throughout their whole line. 
The next day they renewed their reconnoitering, and, in 
the afternoon, drew off their troops and returned to their 
encampments. 

These movements, together with the removal of the 
heavy cannon and mortars, left at Boston in 1776, across 
the country to North River, and down to the army before 
New- York ; as well as the intercepted correspondence, 
confirmed Sir Henry Clinton in his fears, and led him to 
withdraw a very considerable force from Lord Cornwallis, 
for the defence of New- York. 

At this eventful moment, Count de Grasse announced 
his arrival in the Chesapeake bay, with a fleet of twenty- 
four ships of the line, frigates, &c. The allied comman- 
ders forwarded assurances that they would put their troops 
in immediate motion, to co-operate with him. 

Count de Grasse landed 3,300 troops, under the com- 
mand of the Marquis de St. Simon, to reinforce the Mar- 
quis la Fayette. 

Monsieur de Barras, at the same time, sailed from 
Newport with the French squadron, to join Count de 
Grasse. 

General Washington committed the command of the 
forces before New-York to General Heath, and put him- 
self at the head of the allied armies, and by a rapid move- 
ment, marched to Philadelphia, and thence to the head of 
the River Elk. 

Sir Henry Clinton, in the mean time, despatched Ad- 
miral Graves in quest of Count de Grasse. On the 5th of 
September, he discovered the French fleet in Lynnhaven 



THE UNITED STATES. 223 

Bay. At sight of the English fleet, Count cle Grasse slip- 
ped his cables, and put to sea, and at 4 o'clock an action 
commenced. The French were victorious, and regained 
the bay ; but the English retired to New-York to repair. 

At this eventful moment, De Barras entered the bay 
and joined De Grasse, who sent up their transports to 
convey the allied armies down the bay. The allied com- 
manders, at the same time, held an interview with the 
Count de Grasse, on board the Ville de Paris, to settle the 
plan of operations. 

The allied armies, amounting to twelve thousand men, 
formed a junction with the Marquis, while Lord Corn- 
wallis fortified himself at Yorktown, in Virginia. The 
militia of Virginia took the field under Governor Nelson, 
and the movement seemed to portend some important re- 
sults. 

On the 27th of September, General Washington issued 
the following orders. " If the enemy should be tempted 
to meet the army on its march, the general particularly 
enjoins it upon the troops to place their principal reliance 
upon the bayonet, that they may prove the vanity of that 
boast which the British make, of their peculiar prowess 
in deciding battles with that weapon." 

The next morning, the whole army encamped about a 
mile from Yorktown, and lay on their arms through the 
next night. At the earnest solicitations of the command- 
er in chief and the marquis, Count de Grasse moved with 
his fleet up to the mouth of York River, and closely invest- 
ed Cornwallis. 

On the 6th of October, the trenches of the allies were 
opened upon his lordship, at the distance of 600 yards. 
On the 9th, the American line began to play upon York- 
town, with twenty-four eighteen and ten inch mortars, 
which continued through the night. The next morning, 
"tk? French opened a destructive fire from their batteries, 
witnXU intermission, for about eight hours ; and on the 
succeeVng night, a terrible fire was kept up from the 
whole line, without intermission, until morning. The 
horrors of this scene were greatly heightened by the con- 
flagration of two British ships, set on fire by the shells of 
the allies, and consumed in the night. The next morn- 



224 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ing, October llth, the allies opened their second parallel, 
at the distance of two hundred yards, and another British 
ship was consumed by their shells. 

On the 14th, General Washington ordered two batta- 
lions to advance to the second parallel, and begin a large 
battery in the centre, and in advance. The enemy met 
this movement with an incessant fire from two redoubts, 
n advance of their works, as well as from their whole 
line, that continued through the night. 

General Washington detached the Marquis La Fayette 
in the morning, at the head of the American light infan- 
try, supported by the Baron Viominel, from the line of 
the French, to advance and storm these redoubts, which 
had so annoyed them through the night. Lieut. Col. Ha- 
milton commanded the van of the corps of the Marquis 
La Fayette. The redoubt was promptly carried by La 
Fayette, at the point of the bayonet, but the captives 
were spared. The Marquis sent his aid, Major Barbour, 
through the whole line of the enemy's fire, to notify the 
Baron Viominel of his success, and inquire where he was, 
to which the Baron replied, " I am not in my redoubt, 
but shall be in five minutes ;" in five minutes his redoubt 
was carried. 

General Washington was highly gratified with the suc- 
cesa.of this exploit, and commended the officers and sol- 
diers engaged in it, in the highest terms, in the following 
general orders : 

" The Marquis La Fayette's division will mount the 
trenches to-morrow. The commander in chief congratu- 
lates the allied army on the success of the enterprise, last 
evening, against the two important redoubts on the left of 
the enemy's works. He requests the Baron Viominel, 
who commanded the French grenadiers, and the Marquis 
La Fayette, who commanded the American light infantry, 
to accept his warmest acknowledgments for the excel- 
lence of their dispositions, and for their own gallant con- 
duct on the occasion. And he begs them to present his 
thanks to every individual officer, and to the men of their 
respective commands, for the spirit and rapidity with 
which they advanced to the points of attack assigned 
them* and for the admirable firmness with which they 



THE UNITED STATES. 225 

supported them, under the fire of the enemy, without re- 
turning a shot. The general reflects, with the highest 
pleasure, on the confidence which the troops of the two 
nations must hereafter have in each other ; assured of 
mutual support, he is convinced there is no danger which 
they will not cheerfully encounter, no difficulty which 
they will not bravely overcome." 

On the morning of the 16th, his lordship detached Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Abercrombie, at the head of four hundred 
men, upon a sortie, to destroy two batteries the allies had 
erected in the night ; the enterprise succeeded, and he 
spiked the cannon. The French suffered severely in the 
defence of these works ; but the British gained no per- 
manent advantage. On the afternoon of the same day, 
the allies opened their batteries, covered with about one 
hundred pieces of heavy cannon, and such was their de- 
structive fire, that the British lines were soon demolished 
and silenced. Alarmed for his safety, his lordship now 
began to prepare to retire ; his boats were collected, and 
a part of his army was embarked across to Gloucester 
Point, opposite to Yorktown, then under the command of 
Lieutenant Colonel Tarleton ; but a violent storm sud- 
denly arose, which defeated the plan, and it was with the 
greatest difficulty that his lordship could recover his 
boats, and restore the division. 

His lordship now seeing that all hope of succour or 
escape was vain, and that there was no alternative, to 
avoid the tremendous fire of the allies, but submission, 
requested a parley on the 18th, for twenty-four hours, 
and that commissioners might be appointed to arrange 
articles of capitulation. General Washington consented, 
and commissioners were appointed accordingly.* On 
the 19th the articles were signed, and his lordship, with 
the whole British army, marched out, prisoners of war 
The ships were the conquest of France. The same terms 
were prescribed by the commissioners to Lord Cornwallis, 
that had been prescribed to General Lincoln at Charles- 

* The commissioners on the part of the allies were the Viscount de 
Noailles, and Lieutenant Colonel Laurens, whose father had been sent 
out by congress, as minister to the court of Versailles, and who wag 
captured on his passage by the British, and confined in the tower of 
London, where he then remained in close confinement. 



226 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ton, just eighteen months before; he was refused the 
honours of war, and General Lincoln was deputed to re- 
ceive the sword of his lordship. Thus the mission of the 
Marquis La Fayette to France, in the winter of 1779 
1780, was consummated by the fall of the hero of the 
south, at Yorktown. 

The noble generosity of the French officers to those of 
he British, after the capitulation, called forth the follow- 
ing acknowledgment of his lordship : 

" The deliberate sensibility of the officers of his most 
Christian majesty towards our situation, their generous 
and pressing offers of money, both public and private, to 
any amount, has really gone beyond what I can possibly 
describe." 

Lord Cornwallis pressed hard for permission to em- 
bark the British and German troops to Europe, under 
suitable engagements, not to serve during the war ; also, 
that the tories might be protected ; but both were refused. 
His lordship was, however, indulged with the permission, 
that the Bonetta sloop of war might pass unsearched ; 
and many of the most obnoxious tories escaped from the 
rage of their injured and insulted countrymen. 

Seven thousand troops under the command of Earl 
Cornwallis, with 1500 seamen, were the subjects of this 
convention; together with one frigate of twenty-four 
guns, besides transports, (twenty of which had been sunk 
or otherwise destroyed,) seventy-five brass, and sixty-nine 
iron ordnance, howitzers and mortars. Also a military 
chest containing 2,113/. 6s. sterling, which, trifling as it 
was, could not fail to be acceptable to the army. 

His excellency, General Washington, closed this glori- 
ous scene at Yorktown, by publishing to the army, both 
officers and soldiers, in general orders, the grateful effu- 
sions of his heart, and ordered the whole to be assembled 
in divisions and brigades, to attend to divine service, and 
render thanks to that God who had given them the victory. 

Congress received the letter of General Washington 
on the 24th, announcing the capture of the British army, 
with the most cordial satisfaction, and immediately re- 
solved to move in procession at 2 o'clock, to the Luthe- 
ran church, and return thanks to Almighty God, for 



THE UNITED STATES. 227 

crowning with success the allied arms of America and 
Prance. Congress next resolved, that a proclamation be 
issued for the religious observance of the 13th of De- 
cember, then next, as a day of public thanksgiving and 
prayer, throughout the United States. 

Thus joy, gratitude, and praise to God were united, and 
became universal, and swelled with transports every pa- 
triotic breast, throughout United America. 

Congress resolved on the 29th, " That thanks be pre- 
sented to General Washington, Count de~ Rochambeau, 
Count de Grasse, and the officers of the different corps, 
and the men under their command, for their services, in 
the reduction of Lord Cornwallis." 

They next resolved, " That a marble column be erect- 
ed at Yorktown, adorned with emblems commemorative 
of the alliance between the United States and his most 
Christian Majesty, and inscribed w r ith a succinct account 
of the surrender of the British army." 

Congress next resolved, " That two stands of colours 
be presented to General Washington, and two pieces of 
ordnance be by him presented to Count de Rochambeau, 
as trophies of their illustrious victory; and that the 
Chevalier de la Luzerne, be requested to inform his most 
Christian Majesty, that it was the wish of Congress that 
Count de Grasse might be permitted to accept the same 
testimonials with the Count de Rochambeau. 

General Rochambeau, with his army, took up his win- 
ter quarters in Virginia ; but the troops under the com- 
mand of the Marquis de St. Simon were embarked for 
the West Indies, and the American troops returned to 
their former stations, excepting such cavalry and infantry 
as were necessary to the service of General Greene ; these 
were sent forward in November, under the command of 
General St. Clair, toco-operate in the southern war. 

The French fleet, under the Count x de Grasse, sailed at 
the same time for the West Indies, and the operations of 
the_season were generally closed. 

His excellency, General Washington, retired to Phila- 
delphia, to give repose to his mind, as well as to confer 
with Congress upon the future exigencies of the nation. 

One universal expression of gratitude and applause 



228 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

burst forth from all parts of the country, to the allied he- 
roes who fought under Washington, and triumphed over 
Britain. Ministers at the altar, of all denominations, 
caught the sacred flame, and the temples of Almighty 
God resounded with gratitude and praise to his great name 
throughout United America. 

This signal and decisive victory over Cornwallis, 
blasted the hope of the British government as regarded 
the subjection of the revolted colonies to their former 
allegiance. During nearly three months after the 12th 
of December, 1781, motions were frequently made in 
parliament for closing hostile operations against this 
country. On the 4th of March, 1782, the commons re- 
solved, " That the house would consider as enemies to 
his majesty and to the country, all those who should ad- 
vise or attempt the further prosecution of offensive war 
on the continent of North America." As one earnest of 
the sincerity of this resolution, the command of the Bri- 
tish forces was taken from Sir Henry Clinton, and given 
to Sir Guy Carleton, who was directed to advance the 
wishes of the British government, for an accommodation 
with the United States. 

Agreeable to his instructions, Sir Guy proposed a cor- 
respondence with congress, and solicited of the com- 
mander in chief, a passport for his secretary. This was 
however refused, as the United States had stipulated not 
to negotiate without the consent of the French govern- 
ment. 

As soon as information of the capture of Cornwallis 
was received at the French court, the government pro- 
posed to congress the immediate appointment of com- 
missioners to treat of peace. John Adams, Benjamin 
Franklin, John Jay, and Henry Laurens, were according- 
ly chosen. These were met by Mr. Fitzherbert, and Mr. 
Oswald, at Paris, on the part of Great Britain. Provi- 
sional articles were signed on the 30th of November, 
1782, and the definitive treaty was concluded in Septem- 
ber following. 

On the 18th of April, General Washington announced 
the cessation of hostilities between the two countries, in 
the following general orders : 



THE UNITED STATES. 229 

"The Commander in Chief orders the cessation of hos- 
tilities, between the United States of America and the 
King of Great Britain, to be publicly proclaimed to-mor- 
ro.v at twelve o'clock, at the New Building; and the pro- 
clamation which will be communicated herewith, be read 
to-morrow evening, at the head of every regiment and 
corps of the army ; after which, the chaplains, with the 
several brigades, will render thanks to Almighty God for 
all his mercies, particularly for his overruling the wrath 
of man to his own glory, and causing the rage of war to 
cease among the nations. 

" The Commander in Chief, far from endeavouring to 
stifle the feeling of joy in his own bosom, ofiers his most 
cordial congratulations on the occasion, to all the officers 
of every denomination to all the troops of the United 
States in general, and in particular to those gallant and 
persevering men, who had resolved to defend the rights 
of their invaded country so long as the war should con- 
tinue ; for these are the men who ought to be considered 
as the pride and boast of the American army, and who, 
crowned with well-earned laurels, may soon withdraw 
from the field of glory, to the more tranquil walks of civil 
life. 

" While the General recollects the almost infinite va- 
riety of scenes through which we have passed with a mix- 
ture of pleasure, astonishment, and gratitude while he 
contemplates the prospects before us with rapture, he 
cannot help wishing that all the brave men, of whatever 
condition they may be, who have shared in the toils and 
dangers of effecting this glorious revolution, of rescuing 
millions from the hand of oppression, and of laying the 
foundation of a great empire, might be impressed with a 
proper idea of the dignified part they have been called to 
act, under the smiles of Providence, on the stage of hu 
man affairs ; for happy, thrice happy, shall they be pro- 
nounced hereafter, who have contributed any thing, who 
have performed the meanest office in erecting this stu- 
pendous fabric of Freedom and Empire, on the broad 
basis of independency ; who have assisted in protecting 
the rights of human nature, and establishing an asylum for 
the poor and oppressed of all nations and religions. 
20 



230 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

" The glorious task for which we first flew to arms, 
being thus accomplished, the liberties of our country being 
fully acknowledged and firmly secured, by the smiles of 
Heaven on the purity of our cause, and the honest exer- 
tions of a feeble people, determined to be free, against a 
powerful nation disposed to oppress them ; and the cha- 
racter of those who have persevered through every ex- 
tremity of hardship, suffering; and danger, being immor- 
talized by the illustrious appellation of the Patriot Army, 
nothing now remains but for the actors of this mighty 
scene to preserve a perfect, unvarying consistency of cha- 
racter through the very last act ; to close the drama with 
applause ; and to retire from the military theatre with the 
same approbation of angels and men, which have crowned 
all their former virtuous actions. 

" For this purpose, no disorder or licentiousness must 
be tolerated ; every considerate and well disposed sol- 
dier must remember it will be absolutely necessary to 
wait with patience, till peace shall be declared, or con- 
gress shall be enabled to take proper measures for the 
security of the public stores, &c. So soon as these ar- 
rangements shall be made, the general is confident there 
will be no delay in discharging, with every mark of dis- 
tinction and honour, all the men enlisted for the war, who 
will then have faithfully performed their engagements 
with the public. The general has already interested him- 
self in their behalf, and he thinks he need not repeat the 
assurances of his disposition to be useful to them on the 
present, and every other proper occasion. In the mean 
time, he is determined that no military neglects or ex- 
cesses shall go unpunished, while he retains the command 
of the army. 

" The adjutant-general will have such working parties 
detailed to assist in making the preparation for a general 
rejoicing, as the chief engineer, with the army, shall call 
for, and the quarter-master-general will also furnish such 
materials as he may want. The quarter-master-general 
will, without delay, procure such a number of discharges 
to be printed as will be sufficient for all the men enlisted 
for the war ; he will please to apply at head-quarters for 
the form. An extra ration of liquor to be issued to every 



THE UNITED STATES. 231 

man to-morrow, to drink perpetual peace, independence, 
and happiness, to the United States of America" 

It is not a little remarkable, that these general orders 
of the commander-in-chief were read to the army, just 
eight years from the battle of Lexington. The farewell 
orders of the general were issued to the army on the 2d 
of November, from which the following is a selection. 

" A contemplation of the complete attainment, at a 
period earlier than could have been expected, of the ob- 
ject for which we contended, against so formidable a 
power, cannot but inspire us with astonishment and gra- 
titude. The disadvantageous circumstances on our part, 
under which the war was undertaken, can never be for- 
gotten. The signal interpositions of Providence, in our 
feeble condition, were such as could scarcely escape the 
attention of the most unobserving, while the unparalleled 
perseverance of the armies of the United States, through 
almost every possible suffering and discouragements for 
the space of eight long years, was little short of a stand- 
ing miracle." His closing words are, " and being now 
to conclude these his last public orders, to take his ulti- 
mate leave, in a snort time, of the military character, and 
to bid adieu to the armies he has so long had the honour 
to command, he can only again offer in their behalf his 
recommendations to their grateful country, and his prayers 
lo the God of armies. May ample justice be done them 
here, and may the choicest of Heaven's favours, both 
here and hereafter, attend those who, under the divine 
auspices, have secured innumerable blessings for others ! 
With these wishes, and this benediction, the Commander 
in Chief is about to retire from service. The curtain of 
separation will soon be drawn, and the military scene to 
him will be for ever closed." 

The army was now disbanded by the proclamation 01 
congress, of which Dr. Thatcher gives the following 
sketch, with the parting scene between General Washing- 
ton and his officers. 

" Painful, indeed, was the parting scene ; no descrip 
tion can be adequate to the tragic exhibition. Both offi 
cers and soldiers, long unaccustomed to the affairs of pri- 
vate life, turned loose on the world to starve, and to be- 



UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

come a prey to vulture speculators. Never can that me- 
lancholy day be forgotten, when friends, companions for 
seven long years in joy and in sorrow, were torn asun- 
der, without the hope of ever meeting again, and with 
prospects of a miserable subsistence in future. 

" Among other incidents peculiarly affecting on this oc- 
casion, were the lamentations of women and children, 
arnestly entreating that those with whom they had been 
connected in the character of husband and father, would 
not withdraw from them the hand of kindness and pro- 
tection, and leave them in despair ; but, in several in- 
stances, the reply was, l no, we took you as companions 
during the war, and now we are destitute of the means 
of support, and you must provide for yourselves.' 

" November 2&th. The British army evacuated New- 
York, and the American troops under General Knox 
took possession of the city. Soon after, General Wash- 
ington, and Governor Clinton, with their suite, made 
their public entry into the city on horseback, followed by 
the lieutenant governor, and the members of council, for 
the temporary government of the southern district, four 
abreast. General Knox, and the officers of the army, 
eight abreast ; citizens on horseback, eight abreast the 
speaker of the assembly, and the citizens on foot, eight 
abreast. The governor gave a public dinner, at which 
the commander in chief, and other general officers, were 
present. The arrangements for the whole business were 
so well made and executed, that the most admirable tran- 
quillity succeeded through the day and night. On Mon- 
day the government gave an elegant entertainment to the 
French ambassador, the Chevalier de la Luzerne ; Gene- 
ral Washington, the principal officers of New-York stale, 
and of the army, and upwards of a hundred gentlemen, 
were present. Magnificent fireworks, infinitely exceed- 
ing every thing of the kind before seen in the United 
States, were exhibited at the Bowling Green in Broad- 
way, on the evening of Tuesday, in celebration of the 
definitive treaty of peace. They commenced by a dove 
descending with the olive branch, and setting fire to a 
marron battery. 

On Tuesday noon, December 4th, the principal officers 



THE UNITED STATES. 233 

of the army assembled at Francis' tavern, to take a final 
leave of their much loved commander in chief. Soon 
after his excellency entered the room. His emotions 
were too strong to be concealed. Filling a glass, he turned 
to them and said, ' With a heart full of love and gratitude, 
I now take leave of you. I most devoutly wish that your 
latter days may be as prosperous and happy as your for- 
mer ones have been glorious and honourable.' Having 
drank, he added, ' I cannot come to each of you to take 
my leave, but shall be obliged to you, if each of you will 
come and take me by the hand.' General Knox being 
nearest, turned to him. Incapable of utterance, Wash- 
ington, in tears, grasped his hand, embraced and kissed 
him. In the same affectionate manner he took leave of 
each succeeding officer. In every eye was the tear of dig- 
nified sensibility, and not a word was articulated to inter- 
rupt the eloquent silence and tenderness of the scene. 

Leaving the room, he passed through the corps of light 
infantry, and walked to White Hall, where a barge waited 
to convey him to Paulus' Hook. The whole company 
followed in mute and solemn procession, with dejected 
countenances, testifying feelings of delicious melancholy, 
which no language can describe. Having entered the 
barge, he turned to me company, and, waving his hat, 
bade them a silent adieu. They paid him the same affec- 
tionate compliment, and, after the barge had left them, re- 
turned in the same solemn manner to the place where they 
had assembled. The passions of human nature were 
never more tenderly agitated than in this interesting and 
distressful scene." 

Congress was now in session at Annapolis, to whom, 
on the 23d of December, the commander in chief resign- 
ed his .commission. " The governor, council, and legis 
lature of Maryland, several general officers, the Consu* 
General of France, and numerous citizens of Annapolis 
were present. Congress were seated, and covered, as re- 
presentatives of the sovereignty of the union ; the spec- 
tators were uncovered, and standing. The general was 
introduced to a chair by the secretary, who, after a 
decent interval, ordered silence. A short pause ensued, 
20* 



234 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

when the honourable Thomas Mifflin, the president, in- 
formed the general, that " the United States, in congress 
assembled, were prepared to receive his communications." 
On which he rose, with dignity, and delivered this ad- 
dress : 

" Mr. President The great events on which my resig- 
nation depended, having at length taken place, I now have 
the honour of offering my sincere congratulation to con- 
gress, and of presenting myself before them, to surrender 
into their hands the trust committed to me, and to claim 
the indulgence of retiring from the service of my country. 

" Happy in the confirmation of our independence and 
sovereignty, and pleased with the opportunity afforded 
the United States, of becoming a respectable nation, I 
resign with satisfaction the appointment I accepted with 
diffidence ; a diffidence in my abilities to accomplish so 
arduous a task, which, however, was superseded by a 
confidence in the rectitude of our cause, the support of 
the supreme power of the union, and the patronage ot 
Heaven. 

"The successful termination of the war has verified the 
most sanguine expectations, my gratitude for the inter- 
positions of Providence, and the assistance I have received 
from my countrymen, increase with every review of the 
momentous contest. 

" While I respect my obligations to the army in gene- 
ral, I should do injustice to my own feelings, not to ac- 
knowledge in this place, the peculiar services and distin- 
guished merits of the persons who have been attached to 
my person during the war. It was impossible the choice 
of confidential officers, to compose my family, should 
have been more fortunate. Permit me, Sir, to recommend 
in particular, those who have continued in the services to 
the present moment, as worthy of the favourable* notice 
and patronage of congress. I consider it as an indispen- 
sable duty to close this last solemn act of my official life, 
by commending the interests of our country, to the pro- 
tection of Almighty God, and those who have the super- 
intendence of them to his holy keeping. 

"Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire 
from the great theatre of action ; and bidding an affec- 



THE UNITED STATES. 235 

donate farewell to this august body, under whose orders 
I have long acted, I here offer my commission, and take 
my leave of all the employments of public life." 

When accepting his commission, congress, through 
their president, expressed in glowing language to Wash- 
ington, their high sense of his wisdom and energy, in con- 
ducting the war to so happy a termination, and invoking 
the choicest blessings upon his future life. 

President Mifflin concluded as follows : " W r e join you 
in commending the interest of our country to the protec- 
tion of Almighty God, beseeching Him to dispose the 
hearts and minds of its citizens to improve the opportu- 
nity afforded them of becoming a happy nation. And 
our prayers for you, sir, that your days may be happy, 
and He will finally give you that reward which this world 
cannot give." 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Of the Confederation. Formation and adoption of the 
present Constitution of the United States. 

ON the 12th of July, 1777, articles of confederation and 
perpetual union were drawn up by congress, and ratified 
Ijy twelve of the states in the December following. This 
instrument was so imperfect as to be termed by some " a 
rope of sand." Brittle as it was, however, it carried the 
people through a perilous war, and what it lacked in ener- 
gy, was supplied by the spirit of the times. But when 
The olive branch of peace succeeded to the clarion of war 
and the din of arms when private interest took prece 
dence of public spirit, and intrigue usurped the place of 
national virtue, the wants of the country called for a more 
energetic compact, and the cause of republican America 
required a more efficient safeguard. 

To effect this object, a convention was proposed, which 
held its session in Philadelphia. In this august body Ge- 
neral Washington had a seat, and was chosen president. 
On the 17th of September, 1787, the finishing hand was 



236 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

put to the Constitution, which was submitted to the differ- 
ent states, and ratified, at first, but by eleven, North Caro- 
lina and Rhode Island refusing their assent. The former 
assented to it in 1789, and the latter in 1790. 

In 1789, General George Washington was elected first 
president of the United States. 

It was with great reluctance that he accepted this of- 
fice. His feelings, as he said himself, were like those of 
a culprit, going to the place of execution. But the voice 
of a whole continent, the pressing recommendation of 
his particular friends, and the apprehension that he 
should otherwise be considered as unwilling to hazard 
his reputation in executing a system which he had as- 
sisted in forming, determined him to accept the appoint- 
ment. In April he left Mount Vernon to proceed to 
New-York, and- to enter on the duties of his high office. 
He every where received testimonies of respect and love. 
At Trenton, the gentler sex rewarded him for his success- 
ful enterprise, and the protection which he afforded them 
twelve years before. On the bridge over the creek, 
which passes through the town, was erected a triumphal 
arch, ornamented with laurels and flowers, and supported 
by thirteen pillars, each encircled with wreaths of ever- 
green. On the front of the arch was inscribed, in large 
gilt letters, 

THE DEFENDER OF THE MOTHER WILL BE THE PRO- 
TECTOR OF THE DAUGHTERS. 

At this place he was met by a party of matrons, leading 
their daughters, who were dressed in white, and who, 
with baskets of flowers in their hands, sung, with exqui- 
site sweetness, the following ode, written for the occa- 
sion : 

Welcome, mighty chief, once more 
Welcome to this grateful shore ; 
Now no mercenary foe 
Aims again the fatal blow, 
Aims at THEE the fatal blow. 

Virgins fair and matrons grave, 
Those thy conq'ring 1 anns did save. 



THE UNITED STATES. 237 

Build for thf-e triumphal bowers ; 
Strew, ye fair, his way with flowers, 
Strew your HERO'S way with flowers. 

At the last line, the flowers were strewed before him. 
After receiving such proofs of affectionate attachment, he 
arrived at New-York, and was inaugurated first President 
of the United States, on the thirtieth of April. In ma 
king the necessary arrangements of his household, he 
publicly announced, that neither visits of business nor of 
ceremony would be expected on Sunday, as he wished to 
reserve that day sacredly to himself. 

In an impressive address to both houses of Congress, 
he declared, with characteristic modesty, his " incapacity 
for the mighty and untried cares before him," and offered 
his " fervent supplications to that Almighty Being whose 
providential aid can supply every human defect, that his 
benediction would consecrate to the liberties and happi- 
ness of the people of the United States, a government 
instituted by themselves for these essential purposes ; and 
would enable every instrument, employed in its adminis- 
tration, to execute, with success, the functions allotted to 
his charge." 

At the close of the revolution, the people anticipated 
independence and peace ; but they were somewhat disap- 
pointed ; debts, contracted during the war, bore heavily 
upon the people. 

To remedy these evils, Congress applied to the states 
for a grant of the power to regulate commerce, and to 
collect a revenue from it. New-York alone refused ; but 
as unanimity was requisite, her single negative defeated 
the project. In the mean time the distress increased, 
and in Massachusetts, where it w r as the greatest, urged to 
insurrection a portion of the inhabitants. Near the close 
of the year 1786, they assembled to the number of two 
thousand, in the northwestern part of the state ; and 
choosing Daniel Shays for their leader, demanded that the 
collection of debts should be suspended, and that the le- 
gislature should authorise the emission of paper money 
for general circulation. 

Two bodies of militia, drawn from those parts of the 
state where disaffection did not prevail, were immediately 



238 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

despatched against them, one under the command of Ge- 
neral Lincoln, and the other of General Shepherd. They 
were easily dispersed ; and afterwards abandoning their 
seditious purposes, accepted the proffered indemnity of 
the government. 

It was a question whether the general government 
should be supported or abandoned, or whether the object 
of the revolution should be realized or lost. 

In May, 1787, commissioners were appointed and as- 
sembled at Philadelphia ; George Washington was una- 
nimously elected president. They deliberated with closed 
doors, and happily it was agreed to sacrifice local interest 
on the altar of public good. 

An abstract of this constitution, with its several subse- 
quent amendments, follows : it is extracted from Mr. Web- 
ster's Elements of Useful Knowledge. 

Of the Legislature. " The legislative power of the 
United States is vested in a congress, consisting of two 
houses or branches, a senate, and a house of representa- 
tives. The members of the house of representatives are 
chosen once in two years, by the persons who are qualified 
to vote for members of the most numerous branches of 
the legislature, in each state. To be entitled to a seat in 
this house, a person must have attained to the age "of 
twenty-five years, been a citizen of the United States for 
seven years, and be an inhabitant of the state in which he 
is chosen. 

Of the Senate. " The senate consists of two senators 
from each state, chosen by the legislature for six years. 
The senate is divided into three classes, the seat of one of 
which is vacated every second year. If a vacancy hap- 
pens during the recess of the legislature, the executive of 
the state makes a temporary appointment of a senator 
until the next meeting of the legislature. A senator must 
have attained to the age of thirty years, been a citizen of 
the United States nine years, and be an inhabitant of the 
state for which he is chosen. 

Of the powers of the two Houses. " The house of re- 
presentatives choose their own speaker, and other officers, 
and have the exclusive power of impeaching public offi- 
cers, and originating bills for raising a revenue. The 



THE UNITED STATES. 239 

vice-president of the United States is president of the 
senate ; but the other officers are chosen by the senate. 
The senate tries all impeachments ; each house determines 
the validity of the elections and qualifications of its own 
members, forms its own rules, and keeps a journal of its 
proceedings. The members are privileged from arrest, 
while attending on the session, going to, or returning from 
the same, except for treason, felony, or breach of the 
peace. 

Of the powers of Congress. " The congress of the 
United States have power to make and enforce all laws, 
which are necessary for the general welfare as to lay 
and collect taxes, imposts, and excises ; borrow money, 
regulate commerce, establish uniform rules of naturaliza- 
tion, coin money, establish post roads and post offices, 
promote the arts and sciences, institute tribunals inferior 
to the Supreme Court, define and punish piracy, declare 
war and make reprisals, raise and support armies, pro- 
vide a navy, regulate the militia, and to make all laws ne- 
cessary to carry these powers into effect. 

Of Restrictions. " No bill of attainder, or retrospec- 
tive law, shall be passed ; the writ of habeas corpus can- 
not be suspended except in cases of rebellion or inva- 
sion ; no direct tax can be laid, except according to a 
census of the inhabitants ; no duty can be laid on exports ; 
no money can be drawn from the treasury, unless ap- 
propriated by law ; no title of nobility can be granted, 
nor an any public officer, without the consent of con- 
gress, accept of any present or title from any foreign 
prince or state. The states are restrained from emitting 
bills of credit, from making any thing but gold or silver 
a tender for debts, and from passing any law impairing 
private contracts. 

Of the Executive. " The executive power of the Uni 
ted States is vested in a president, who holds his office foj 
four years. To qualify a man for president, he must have 
been a citizen at the adoption of the constitution, or must 
be a native of the United States ; he must have attained 
to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a 
resident within the United States. The president and 
vice-president are chosen by electors designated in such a 



240 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

manner as the legislature of each state shall direct. The 
numbers of electors, in each state, is equal to the whole 
number of senators and representatives. 

Of the powers of the President. " The president of 
the United States is commander in chief of the army and 
navy, and of the militia, when in actual service. lie 
grants reprieves and pardons ; nominates, and, with the 
consent of the senate, appoints ambassadors, judges, and 
other officers; and, with the advice and consent of the 
senate, forms treaties, provided two thirds of the senate 
agree. He fills vacancies in offices which happen during 
the recess of the senate. He convenes the congress on 
extraordinary occasions, receives foreign ministers, gives 
information to Congress of the state of public affairs, 
and, in general, takes care that the laws be faithfully exe- 
cuted. 

Of the Judiciary. " The judiciary of the United States 
consists of one supreme court, and such inferior courts as 
the Congress shall ordain. The judges are to hold their 
office* during good behaviour, and their salaries cannot 
be diminished during their continuance in office. The ju- 
dicial power of these courts extends to all cases in law 
and equity, arising under the constitution or laws of the 
United States, and under treaties ; to cases of public mi- 
nisters and consuls ; to all cases of admiralty and mari- 
time jurisdiction ; to controversies between the states, and 
in which the United States are a party ; between citizens 
of different states ; between a state and a citizen of an- 
other state, and between citizens of the same state claim- 
ing under grants of different states ; and to causes between 
one of the states or an American citizen, and a foreign 
state or citizen. 

Of Rights and Immunities. " In all criminal trials, 
except impeachment, the trial by jury is guaranteed to the 
accused. Treason is restricted to the simple acts of le- 
vying war against the United States, and adhering to their 
enemies, giving them aid and comfort; and no person 
can be convicted, but by two witnesses to the same act, or 
by confession in open court. A conviction of treason is 
not followed by a corruption of blood, to disinherit the 
heirs of the criminal, nor by a forfeiture of estate, except 



THE UNITED STATES. 241 

during the life of the offender. The citizens of each 
state are entitled to all privileges and immunities of citi- 
zens in the several states. Congress may admit ne%v 
states into the Union ; and the national compact guaran- 
tees to each state a republican form of government, to- 
gether with protection from foreign invasion and domes- 
tic violence. 

It has already been stated, that in April, 1789, General 
Washington took the chair as the first president of the 
United States, Messrs. Jefferson, Hamilton, and General 
Knox, appointed secretaries, and Edmund Randolph, at- 
torney-general. 

The secretary of the treasury was directed to prepare 
a plan for the support of public credit, and report the 
same at their next meeting. 

After the adjournment of congress, the president made 
a tour through New-England, where he was received by 
the inhabitants with an affection bordering on adoration. 
People of all classes crowded to behold the man whose 
virtues and talents exalted him, in their view, above the 
heroes of ancient and modern times ; and to present to 
him the undissembled homage of their grateful hearts. 
But to none did his visit give more exquisite pleasure than 
to the officers and soldiers of the " patriot army," who 
had been his companions in suffering and in victory, who 
were endeared to him by their bravery and fidelity in 
war, and by the magnanimity with which, in peace, they 
endured unmerited neglect and poverty. 

At the next session of congress, which commenced in 
January, 1790, Mr. Hamilton, the secretary of the trea- 
sury, made his celebrated report upon the public debts 
contracted during the- revolutionary war. Taking an 
able and enlarged view of the advantages of public cre- 
dit, he recommended that, not only the debts of the con- 
tinental congress, but those of the states, arising from 
their exertions in the common cause, should be funded 
or assumed by the general government ; and that provi- 
sion should be made for paying the interest, by imposing 
taxes on certain articles of luxury, and on spirits distilled 
within the country. 

Upo this report, an animated debate took place. Its 
21 



242 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

recommendations were opposed by that party who had 
seen, or thought they had seen, in the constitution, many 
features hostile to freedom, and who remembered that 
Mr. Hamilton, when a member of the convention, had 
proposed that the president and senate should be ap- 
pointed to hold their offices during good behaviour. They 
now expressed their fears, that the assumption of these 
debts would render the government still stronger, by 
drawing around it a numerous and powerful body of pub- 
lic creditors, who, in all the contests with the states or 
the people, would be bound, by the strongest of all ties, 
that of interest, to support it, whether right or wrong. 
This party, existing principally in the southern states, 
and professing an ardent attachment to the equal rights of 
man, took the name of republican. 

Mr. Madison proposed, that whenever the public se- 
curities had been transferred, the highest price wnich 
they had borne in the market should be paid to the pur- 
chaser, and the residue to the original holder. After an 
eloquent debate, this proposition was rejected. The party 
denominated federal, and existing principally in the north- 
ern states, supported throughout, with great ability and 
force of reasoning, the plans of the secretary ; but on tak- 
ing the vote in the house of representatives, they were 
rejected by a majority of two. 

Afterwards this national measure was connected, as is 
too frequently the case in legislative bodies, with one 
which had excited much local feeling. It was understood 
that, should the seat of government be fixed for ten years 
at Philadelphia, and afterwards permanently at a place to 
be selected on the Potomac, some southern members 
would withdraw their opposition to the funding system. 
A law to that effect was accordingly enacted. The for- 
mer discussion was then resumed. The plans of the se- 
cretary were adopted in the senate, and afterwards in the 
house, two members representing districts on the Potomac 
changing their votes. The debt funded amounted to a 
little more than seventy-five millions of dollars ; upon a 
part of which three per cent., and upon the remainder six 
per cent, interest was to be paid. 

The effect of this measure was great and rapid. The 



THE UNITED STATES. 343 

price of the public paper, which had fallen to twelve or 
fifteen cents on the dollar, suddenly rose to the sum ex- 
pressed on the face of it. This difference was gained, in 
most instances, by purchasers of the securities, who, feel- 
ing indebted, for this immense accession of wealth, to the 
plans of the secretary, regarded him with enthusiastic at- 
tachment. But in others, this wealth, suddenly acquired 
without merit, excited envy and dissatisfaction. These 
joined the republican party ; who fancying they were wit- 
nessing the fulfilment of their prediction, became more 
active in their opposition. 

The recommendation of the secretary to impose addi- 
tional duties, was not acted upon until the next session 
of congress. Those on distilled spirits were proposed in 
order to render the burdens of the inhabitants beyond the 
Allegany mountains, where no other spirits were con- 
sumed, equal to those of the inhabitants on the sea coast, 
who consumed most of the articles on which an impost 
duty was paid. In the beginning of year 1791, they were 
laid as proposed. A national bank, recommended also 
by the same officer, was in the same year incorporated. 
Both measures met a violent opposition from the republi- 
can party. 

When the new government was first organized, but 
eleven states had ratified the constitution. Afterwards, 
North Carolina and Rhode Island, the two dissenting 
states, adopted it; the former in November, 1789, the 
latter in May, 1790. In 1791, Vermont adopted it, and 
applied to congress to be admitted into the union. The 
territory of this state, situated between New-Hampshire 
and New-York, was claimed by both, and both had made 
grants of land within its limits. 

In 1777, the inhabitants, refusing to submit to either, 
declared themselves independent. Although not repre- 
sented in the continental congress, yet, during the war, 
they embraced the cause of their brethren in the other 
states, and to them their aid was often rendered, and was 
always efficient. Agreeably to their request, an act was 
now passed, constituting Vermont one of the members of 
the union. An act was also passed, declaring that the 
district of Kentucky, then a part of Virginia, should be 






244 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

admitted into the union on the first day of June, in th 
succeeding year. 

In 1791, was completed the first census or enumera- 
tion of the inhabitants of the United States. They 
amounted to 3,921,326, of which number 695,655 were 
slaves. The revenue, according to the report of the 
secretary of the treasury, amounted to 4,771,000 dollars, 
the exports to about nineteen, and the imports to about 
twenty millions. A great improvement in the circum- 
stances of the people began at this period to be visible. 
The establishment of a firm and regular government, and 
confidence in the men whom they had chosen to adminis- 
ter it, gave an impulse to their exertions, which bore them 
rapidly forward in the career of prosperity. 

In 1790, a termination was put to the war, which, for 
several years, had raged between the Creek Indians and 
the state of Georgia. Pacific overtures were also made 
to the hostile tribes inhabiting the banks of the Scioto and 
the Wabash. These being rejected, an army of 1400 
men, commanded by General Harmer, was despatched 
against them. Two battles were fought near Chilicothe, 
in Ohio, between successive detachments from this army, 
and the Indians, in which the latter were victorious. 

Emboldened by these successes, they made more vigo- 
rous attacks upon the frontier settlements, which suffered 
all the distressing calamities of an Indian war. Addi- 
tional troops were raised, and the command of the whole 
was given to General St. Clair. With near 2000 men, he 
marched, in October, into the wilderness. By desertion 
and detachments, tbis force was reduced to fourteen hun- 
dred men. On the third of November they encamped a 
few miles from the villages on the Miami, intending to 
remain there until joined by those who were absent. 

But, before sunrise the next morning, just after the 
troops were dismissed from the parade, they were attack- 
ed unexpectedly by the Indians. The new levies, who 
were in front, rushed back in confusion upon the regu- 
lars. These, who had been hastily formed, were thrown 
into disorder. They, however, with great intrepidity, ad- 
vanced into the midst of the enemy, who retired from 
covert to covert, keeping always beyond reach, and again 



THE UNITED STATES. 245 

returning as soon as the troops were recalled from pur- 
suit. 1$ these charges, many brave and experienced offi- 
cers were killed ; the loss of men was also great, and no 
permanent impression was made upon the enemy. 

At length, after a contest of three or four hours, St. 
Clair, whose ill health disabled him from performing the 
active duties of commander, determined to withdraw 
from the field the remnant of his troops. The instant 
that the directions to retire were given, a disorderly flight 
commenced. Fortunately for the survivors, the victorious 
Indians were soon recalled from pursuit to the camp, by 
their avidity for plunder ; and the vanquished continued 
their retreat unmolested to the frontier settlements. 

In this battle, the numbers engaged on both sides were 
supposed to be equal. Of the whites, the slaughter was 
almost beyond example. Six hundred and thirty were 
killed and missing, and two hundred and sixty were 
wounded a loss which proves at once the obstinacy of 
the defence, and the bravery of the assailants. On re- 
ceiving information of this disaster, congress, resolving 
to prosecute the war with increased vigour, made provi- 
sion for augmenting, by enlistment, the military force of 
the nation to 5000 men. 

About the first of August, 1794, General Wayne ad- 
vanced upon the banks of the Miami, at a distance of 
about thirty miles from the enemy's fort, where he re- 
ceived an additional force from Kentucky under the com- 
mand of General Scott. 

The general made one more effort to settle a peace with 
the Indians, by inviting them to meet him in a council ; but 
failing in this, he marched against them with his whole 
force down the Miami, until he reached the rapids, when 
his advanced guard, under Major Price, fell into an Indian 
ambuscade. \ 

A rapid and vigorous charge roused the savages from 
their coverts, and they were driven more than two miles 
at the point of the bayonet. Broken and dismayed, they 
fled without renewing the combat. The general returned 
to his former station by easy marches, and laid waste the 
Indian villages and cornfields. 

By means of this victory over the Miamis, a general 
21* 



246 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

war with the Six Nations, and all the tribes northwest of 
the Ohio, was prevented. The Americans had thirty- 
three killed, viz. 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 3 sergeants, 28 
privates. Wounded 4 captains, 2 lieutenants, 1 ensign, 
4 sergeants, 3 corporals, 2 musicians, 84 privates. Total, 
one hundred. 

We learn, by a deserter from the fort to General 
Wayne, that a counsel of Indians was held a few days 
after the defeat, in which the British agents endeavoured 
to persuade them to risk another action ; but this they re- 
fused to do, expressing a willingness to bury the bloody 
hatchet, and return to their homes. 

Their loss they declared to be 200 killed, besides a large 
number wounded and missing. 

The brave and heroic conduct of every officer and pri- 
vate belonging to the American army, merit the approba- 
tion of every American citizen. 

In the autumn of 1792, General Washington was again 
unanimously elected president of the American republic, 
and in March, 1793, was inducted into office. Mr. Adams 
was re-elected vice-president, in opposition to George 
Clinton, of New-York. In the progress of these elec- 
tions, but little party feeling was exhibited ; the repose of 
society was not disturbed, but the citizens raised to posts 
of the highest honour, those whom their judgments and 
affections designated as the most worthy. 

Early in April, information was received of the decla- 
ration of war by France, against England and Holland. 
The United States were greatly interested for the success 
of France, which had assisted us during our revolution. 

The French people, at the same time, regarded the 
Americans as their brethren, bound to them by the ties of 
gratitude ; and when the kings of Europe, dreading the 
establishment of republicanism in her borders, assembled 
in arms to restore monarchy to France, she looked across 
the Atlantic for sympathy and assistance. The new go- 
vernment, recalling the minister whom the king had ap- 
pointed, despatched the citizen Genet, of ardent temper, 
and a zealous republican, to supply his place. In April, 
1793, he arrived at Charleston, in South Carolina, where 
he was received, by the governor and the citizens, in a 



THE UNITED STATES. 347 

manner expressive of their warm attachment to his coun- 
try, and their cordial approbation of the change in her 
institutions. 

Flattered by his reception, and presuming that the na- 
tion and the government were actuated by similar feel- 
ings, he assumed the authority of expediting privateers 
from that port to cruise against the vessels of nations who 
were enemies to France, but at peace with the United 
States, a procedure forbidden by the laws of nations, and 
derogatory to the government of the country. Notwith- 
standing this illegal assumption of power, he received, on 
his journey to Philadelphia, extravagant marks of public 
attachment; and, on his arrival there, "crowds flocked 
from every avenue of the city, to meet the republican 
ambassador of an allied nation." Intoxicated by these 
continued and increased demonstrations of regard, he per- 
sisted in forming and executing schemes of hostility 
against the enemies of France. 

Mr. Hammond and the American cabinet disapproved 
of these proceedings, and laid them before the president, 
who appealed to the French government, and they re- 
solved that Genet should be succeeded by Mr. Fauchet, 
and Mr. Monroe was sent out to France to succeed Mr. 
Morris. The first day of January, 1794, Mr. Jefferson, 
the secretary, resigned, and was succeeded by Edmund 
Randolph. 

Ever since the peace of 1783, the United States and 
Great Britain complained of each other as violating the 
stipulation contained in the treaty. The latter was accu- 
sed of carrying away negroes, and the former for pre- 
venting the loyalists from regaining possession of their 
estates, and British subjects from recovering the debts 
contracted before the commencement of hostilities. Mr. 
John Jay was appointed envoy extraordinary to the court 
of Great Britain, and succeeded in negotiating a treaty 
with the court of St. James, in June, 1795. 

Mr. Hamilton retired from the office of secretary, and 
was succeeded by Oliver Wolcott, of Connecticut. 

As the time for a new election of president approached, 
Washington signified his intention to retire from public 
life, and published, at the same time, his farewell addrew 



848 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OP 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Adams's Administration. 

In February, 1797, John Adams was declared to be 
elected president for the term of four years, commencing 
4th of March, and Mr. Jefferson, vice-president. Wash- 
ington retired to Mount Vernon, having established his 
fame as the greatest hero, and most distinguished states- 
man of the age. He there devoted his time to the culti- 
vation of an extensive farm, and to the enjoyment, once 
more, of the sweets of private life. 

March 4th, Mr. Adams entered upon the duties of his 
office. The numerous tribes of Indians on the western 
territories, had been taught, by arms and justice, to re- 
spect the United States, and continue at peace. Trea- 
ties had been formed with Algiers and Tripoli, so that the 
Mediterranean was opened to American vessels. 

The administration of Mr. Adams was met at the 
threshold, by open indignity on the part of France, in 
her refusing to accept Mr. Pinckney in exchange for Mr. 
Monroe. This refusal roused the sensibilities of Mr. 
Adams, and he immediately nominated two others, Mr. 
Marshall and Mr. Gerry, who were sent out to France to 
co-operate with Mr. Pinckney, if possible, to settle an 
accommodation with the directory. 

To command the armies of the United States, Presi- 
dent Adams, with the unanimous advice of the senate, ap- 
pointed George Washington. He consented, but with 
great reluctance, to accept the office ; declaring, however, 
that he cordially approved the measures of the govern- 
ment. 

No opportunity was presented of testing the skill and 
courage of the American troops. At sea, a desperate ac- 
tion was fought between the frigate Constellation, of 38 
guns, commanded by Commodore Truxton, and the 
French frigate L'Insurgente, of 40 guns. The latter, al- 
though of superior force, was captured. The same in- 
trepid officer, in a subsequent action, compelled another 
French frigate of 50 guns to strike her colours, but she 
afterwards escaped in the night. 



THE UNITED STATES. 249 

The United States, in arms at home, and victorious on 
the ocean, commanded the respect of their enemy. 
The directory made overtures of peace. The president 
immediately appointed ministers, who, on their arrival at 
Paris, found the executive authority in the possession of 
Bonaparte as first consul. They were promptly accredit- 
ed, and in September, 1800, a treaty was concluded satis- 
factory to both countries. 

While this negotiation was in progress, the whole 
American people were overshadowed with gloom, by the 
sudden death of the father of his country. On the 14th 
of December, 1799, after an illness of one day only, Ge- 
neral Washington expired. Intelligence of this event, as 
it rapidly spread, produced spontaneous, deep, and unaf- 
fected grief, suspending every other thought, and absorb- 
ing every different feeling. 

Congress, then in session at Philadelphia, immediately 
adjourned. On assembling the next day, the House of 
Representatives resolved, " that the speaker's chair should 
be shrouded in black, and the members wear black during 
the session ; and that a joint committee should be ap- 
pointed to devise the most suitable manner of paying ho- 
nour to the memory of the MAN, first in war, first in peace, 
and first in the hearts of his countrymen." 

The senate, on this melancholy occasion, addressed a 
letter of condolence to the president of the United States. 
" This event," they observe, " so distressing to all our 
fellow citizens, must be particularly heavy to you, who 
have long been associated with him in deeds of patriotism. 
Permit us, sir, to mingle our tears with yours. On this 
occasion, it is manly to weep. To lose such a man, at 
such a crisis, is no common calamity to the world. Our 
country mourns a father. The Almighty Disposer of hu- 
man events has taken from us our greatest benefactor and 
ornament. It becomes us to submit with reverence to 
HIM who maketh darkness his pavilion. 

" With patriotic pride we review the life of our 
WASHINGTON, and compare him with those of other 
countries who have been pre-eminent in fame. Ancient 
and modern names are diminished before him. Greatness 
and guilt have too often been allied ; but his fame is 



250 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

whiter than it is brilliant. The destroyer of nations 
stood abashed at the majesty of his virtues. It reproved 
the intemperance of their ambition, and darkened the 
splendour of victory. 

" Such was the man whom we deplore. Thanks to God, 
his glory is consummated. Washington yet lives on earth 
in his spotless example his spirit is in heaven. Let his 
countrymen consecrate the memory of the heroic general, 
the patriotic statesman, and the virtuous sage : let them 
teach their children never to forget that the fruits of his 
labours, and of his example, are their inheritance." 

Agreeably to the report of the committee, and the una- 
nimous resolves of congress, a funeral procession moved 
from the legislative hall to the German Lutheran Church, 
where an oration was delivered by General Lee, a repre- 
sentative from Virginia. The procession was grand and 
solemn, the oration impressive and eloquent. Through- 
out the union similar marks of affliction were exhibited. 
A whole bereaved people appeared in mourning. In every 
part of the republic, funeral orations were delivered, and 
the best talents of the nation were devoted to an expres- 
sion of the nation's grief. 

In 1800, congress removed from Philadelphia to a place 
which had been previously selected ; and public buildings 
were erected on the Potomac, a few miles above Mount 
Vernon, to which the name of Washington was given, and 
congress commenced its session for the first time at this 
place in November. 

President Adams' first term was drawing nigh to a 
close, and the people were to give their votes for the next 
president. 

The federalists supported Mr. Adams, and General 
Pinckney ; the republicans, Mr. Jelferson and Colonel 
Burr. 

The strife of the two parties during the time of elec- 
tioneering, was spirited. Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Burr re- 
ceived a very small majority, and their votes were equal, 
each having seventy-three. The house of representatives 
was called to make a decision. After thirty-five trials, 
Mr. Jefferson was chosen president, and Mr. Burr vice- 
president. At this period the population amounted to 



THE UNITED STATES. 251 

5,319,763, having increased about one million four hun- 
dred thousand, in ten years. 

Mr. Jefferson entered upon the duty of president 
March 4th, 1801. Mr. Jefferson took a bold and decided 
stand, as may be seen by the following extract from his 
message : 

" Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state 
or persuasion, religious or political, peace, commerce, 
and honest friendship, with all nations, entangling alli- 
ances with none ; the support of the state governments 
in all their rights, as the most competent administration 
for our domestic concerns, arid the surest bulwarks against 
anti-republican tendencies : the preservation of the ge- 
neral government in its whole constitutional vigour, as the 
sheet anchor of our peace at home, and safety abroad: 
a jealous care of the right of election by the people, a 
mild and safe corrective of abuses which are lopped by 
the sword of revolution where peaceable remedies are 
unprovided : absolute acquiescence in the decisions of 
the majority, the vital principle of republics, from which 
is no appeal but to force, the vital principle, and im- 
mediate parent of despotisms : a well-disciplined militia, 
our best reliance in peace, and for the first moments of 
war, till regulars may relieve them : the supremacy of 
the civil over the military authority : economy in the 
public expense, that labour may be lightly burthened. 

" The honest payment of our debts, and sacred preser- 
vation of the public faith : encouragement of agricul- 
ture, and of commerce as its hand-maid : the diffusion 
of information, and arraignment of all abuses at the bar 
of public reason : freedom of religion ; freedom of the 
press ; and freedom of person, under the protection of 
the habeas corpus : and trial by juries impartially se- 
lected." " These principles," added Mr. Jefferson, 
" should be the creed of our political faith and should 
we wander from them in moments of error or of alarm, 
let us hasten to retrace our steps, and to regain the road 
which alone leads to peace, liberty, and safety." 

In 1802, Ohio was admitted as an independent state 
into the union. It derived its name from the River Ohio, 
which sweeps the southern border of the state, Louisi- 



UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ana was purchased by the United States in April, 1803 
for the sum of fifteen millions of dollars. 

The Tripolitan cruisers continued to harass the ves- 
sels of the United States, and congress determined to act 
with greater vigour against them. Accordingly, a squad- 
ron was fitted out, and the command given to Commodore 
Preble. On arriving before Tripoli, Captain Bainbridge, 
in the frigate Philadelphia, of 44 guns, was sent into the 
harbour to reconnoitre. While in eager pursuit of a smab 
vessel, he unfortunately advanced so far that the frigate 
grounded, and all attempts to remove her were in vain. 
The sea around her was immediately covered with Tripo- 
litan gun-boats, and Captain Bainbridge was compelled to 
surrender. The officers w r ere considered as prisoners of 
war ; but the crew, according to the custom of Barbarv 
were treated as slaves. 

At the capture of this frigate, the enemy rejoiced and 
exulted beyond measure. Lieutenant Stephen Decatur 
conceived the design of retaking, or destroying her. 
Commodore Preble, applauding the spirit of the youthful 
hero, granted him permission to make the attempt. In 
February, 1804, he sailed from Syracuse, in a small 
schooner, having on board but seventy-six men, entered 
undiscovered the harbour of Tripoli, x and, advancing 
boldly, took a station alongside the frigate. Perceiving 
the crew in consternation, Decatur sprang on board, his 
men followed, and, with drawn swords, rushed upon the 
enemy. The decks were soon cleared, some being killed, 
and others driven into the sea. 

A heavy cannonade upon the frigate, from the batte- 
ries on shore, and the corsairs near, was now commenced, 
and several vessels of war were seen approaching. She 
was set on fire and abandoned, none of the party being 
killed, and but four wounded. Throughout all the pira- 
tical states, this brilliant exploit exalted the reputation of 
the American arms. The president, in reward of his ad- 
dress and bravery, promoted Lieutenant Decatur to the 
rank of post-captain in the navy. 

The Bashaw, who might well be compared to the toad 
which wished to swell itself to the size of an ox, reposed 
in fancied security. He cast a malignant glance at the 



THE UNITED STATES. 253 

little squadron in which Decatur was one of the distin- 
guished leaders. He saw in the bay, spreading before his 
city, his batteries, and his castles, a noble American fri- 
gate, (the Philadelphia,) and the pride of the American 
navy, upon which the " star spangled banner" once tri- 
umphantly waved, now added to his naval force, manned 
by a double crew of Tripolitans, and Avith the Turkish 
crescent waving on its mast. He saw its once gallan 
crew, miserable slaves in his own gloomy dungeons ; and, 
in anticipation, feasted his cannibal appetite upon all the 
victims which the American squadron could add to his 
list of Christian slaves. 

The American squadron obliged the Bashaw to smell 
their powder, and taste their lead, so frequently, that he 
was obliged to offer favourable terms of peace, which 
were accepted, and the war in the Mediterranean ended. 

In June, 1804, Colonel Burr challenged Mr. Hamilton 
to settle some trifling offence by a duel, in which the lat- 
ter was killed. 

This year Mr. Jefferson was re-elected president, and 
George Clinton, vice-president ; and their term of office 
commenced in March, 1805. This year Michigan be- 
came a government of the United States, and General 
Hull was appointed by Mr. Jefferson the first governor. 

Burr, notwithstanding his brilliant talents, now sunk, 
for a time, into merited obscurity. His future conduct 
showed, however, that, while unobserved by his fellow- 
citizens, he had not been idle. In the autumn of 1806, 
his movements in the western country attracted the no- 
tice of government. He had purchased and was build- 
ing boats on the Ohio, and engaging men to descend that 
river. His declared purpose was to form a settlement 
on the banks of the Washita, in Louisiana ; but the cha- 
racter of the man, the nature of his preparations, and the 
incautious disclosures of his associates, led to the suspi- 
cion that his true object was either to gain possession of 
New-Orleans, and erect into a separate government the 
country watered by the Mississippi and its branches, or 
to invade, frorr the territories of the United States, the 
rich Spanish province of Mexico. 

From the first moment of suspicion, he was closely 
22 



254 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

watched by the agents of the government. At Natchez, 
while on his way to New-Orleans, he was cited to appear 
before the supreme court of the Mississippi territory. 
But he had so enveloped his projects in secrecy, that suffi- 
cient evidence to convict him could not be produced, and 
he was discharged. Hearing, however, that several per- 
sons, suspected of being his accomplices, had been arrest- 
ed at New-Orleans and elsewhere, he fled in disguise frorr 
Natchez, was apprehended on the Tombigbee, and con- 
veyed a prisoner to Richmond. Two indictments were 
found against him, one charging him with treason against 
the United States, the other with preparing and commen- 
cing an expedition against the dominions of Spain. 

In August, 1807, he was tried upon those indictments, 
before John Marshall, the chief justice of the United 
States. Full evidence of his guilt not being exhibited, lie 
was acquitted by the jury. The people, however, be- 
lieved him guilty ; and by their desertion and contempt, 
he was reduced to a condition of the most abject wretch- 
edness. The ease with which his plans were defeated, 
demonstrated the strength of the government ; and his 
fate will ever be an impressive warning to those who. in 
a free country, listen to the suggestions of criminal ambi- 
tion. 

In June, 1807, an event occurred, which, for a time, 
concentrated upon one of the several nations the whole 
weight of popular indignation. 

On the 22d of June, the Chesapeake weighed anchor 
and proceeded to sea. She passed the British ships Bel- 
lona and Melampus, lying in Lynnhaven bay, whose ap- 
pearance was friendly. There were two other ships that 
lay off*Cape Henry, one of which, the Leopard, Captain 
Humphreys, weighed anchor, and in a few hours came 
alongside the Chesapeake. 

A British officer immediately came on board,- and de- 
manded the deserters. To this, Captain Barron replied, 
that he did not know of any being there, and that his duty 
forbade him to allow or any muster of his crew, except 
by their own omcera. 

During this imerview, Barron noticed some proceed- 
ings of a hostile nature on board the adverse ship, but 



THE UNITED STATES. 255 

he could not be persuaded that any thing but menace was 
intended by them. After the British officer departed, he 
gave orders to clear his gun deck, and after some time, 
he directed the men to their quarters secretly, and with- 
out beat of drum; still, however, without any serious ap- 
prehensions of an attack. 

Before these orders could be executed, the Leopard 
commenced a heavy fire. This fire unfortunately was 
very destructive. In about thirty minutes, the hull, rig- 
ging, and spars of the Chesapeake were greatly damaged, 
three men were killed, and sixteen wounded ; among the 
latter was the captain himself. Such was the previous 
disorder, that during this time, the utmost exertions were 
insufficient to prepare the ship for action, and the captain 
thought proper to strike his colours. 

The British captain refused to accept the surrender of 
the Chesapeake, but took from her crew, Ware, Martin, 
and Strachan, the three men formerly demanded as de- 
serters, and a fourth, John Wilson, claimed as a runaway 
from a merchant ship. 

This insolent attack upon a national ship, this wanton 
exercise of a claim derogatory to national honour, aroused 
the spirit of the republic. The distinctions of party were 
forgotten ; numerous meetings of the citizens w r ere held, 
and all concurred in the expression of a determination to 
support the government of their country in its efforts to 
obtain, whether by negociation or war, satisfaction for 
this insulting outrage. 

The president, by proclamation, prohibited all British 
ships of war from continuing in or entering the harbours 
of the United States. He sent instructions to the minister 
at London to demand satisfaction for the insult, and se- 
curity against future aggression. He summoned congress 
to meet and decide what further measures should be adopt- 
ed. The British government, promptly disavowing the 
act of its officer, the hostile feelings which had been ex- 
cited began to subside ; but delaying to render satisfaction, 
and refusing to adopt adequate measures to prevent a con- 
tinuance of aggression, they were not extinguished nor ap- 
peased. 

On the 6th of November following, the Emperor Napo- 



256 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

leon issued his Berlin decree, which declared all the Bri- 
tish isles in a state of blockade. This decree was in direct 
violation of the treaty between France and the United 
States, as well as of the law of nations. 

On the 7th of January, 1807, the British government 
met this decree by an order in council, declaring " all 
vessels coasting from one port to another on the coast of 
France, or that ef her allies, liable to seizure and condem- 
nation." 

On the llth of November, Great Britain repeated her 
orders in council, by way of retaliation upon the French 
decrees, " declaring all nations at war with Great Britain, 
and all ports from which the British flag is excluded, to be 
under the same restrictions in point of trade and naviga- 
tion, as if the same were in a state of blockade." 

To retaliate upon Great Britain for her orders in council, 
the French emperor issued his Milan decree, declaring 
" all vessels denationalized, which shall have submitted 
to a search from a British ship, and every vessel a good 
prize, which shall sail to or from Great Britain, or any of 
her colonies or countries occupied by British troops," 
December 17th, 1807. 

On the 22d, congress laid an indefinite embargo. 

Thus balanced, America began to feel more immediately 
the convulsions of Europe, and to find herself involved in 
the contest. One grand system of intrigue now pervaded 
all Christendom, and paved the way for the calamities that 
followed. 

Mr. Jefferson, being desirous of confirming the example 
of Washington, declined a re-election. James Madison 
was elected president, and George Clinton re-elected vice-, 
president, March, 1809. 

Great Britain continued to violate the laws of peace 
She had ships of war stationed before the principal bar 
bours- of the United States. American merchantmen 
were boarded, searched, and many of them sent to British 
ports as legal prizes. 

Commodore Rodgers, commanding the frigate Presi- 
dent, was fired upon by the British sloop of war Little 
Belt, of 18 guns ; but the President being a superior force, 
the Little Belt was soon silenced with considerable loss. 



THE UNITED STATES. . 357 

Congress, in November, 1811, passed a law to increase 
the regular army to 35,000 men ; empowered the presi- 
dent to accept the services of volunteers, and to borrow 
eleven million dollars. 

Congress continued to make preparations for war, yet 
still cherishing the hope, that a change of policy in Eu- 
rope would render unnecessary an appeal to arms. On 
the 20th of May, 1812, the Hornet arrived from London, 
bringing information that no prospect existed of a favour- 
able change. On the first of June, the question in con- 
gress was, whether they should continue to endure their 
wrongs, or resort to arms. 

The British government had been told, in plain terms, 
that if they continued to drag the American seamen from 
their ships, and rob the vessels of their goods, war would 
be inevitable. 

Congress, after sitting a number of days with closed 
doors, declared war against Great Britain, on the 18th of 
June, 1812; and, on the following day, war was publicly 
proclaimed. 

The president was authorized to receive 50,000 volun- 
teers, and to call out one hundred thousand militia. Go- 
vernor Hull, at the head of about two thousand men, was 
on his march to Detroit, with a view of putting an end to 
the Indian hostilities, when he received information of the 
declaration of war. This little army marched to Spring 
Wells, within a few miles of Detroit, July 5th ; there 
they had some small skirmishes with the Indians, but soon 
compelled them to retire, and Hull proceeded, without 
molestation, to Sandwich. Here he was met by a supe- 
rior force, under the command of General Brock. Gene- 
ral Hull hastened back to Detroit. 

On the 14th, the British took a position opposite to De- 
troit, and erected batteries. The next day they began a 
cannonade upon the American fortifications, which was 
returned with precision and effect. On the 16th, the 
enemy crossed the river, taking post about three miles 
above the town, and advanced towards the fort in close 
columns, twelve deep. The hearts of our soldiers now 
beat high at their approach, expecting to regain their cre- 

22* 



258 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

dit. But who can describe the chagrin and mortification 
which took possession of these troops. 

At the very moment the destruction of the enemy was 
certain, orders were given not to fire. The troops were 
ordered to stack their arms, and, to the astonishment of 
all, a white flag, in token of submission, was suspended 
from the walls. Words are wanting to express the feel- 
ings of the Americans on this occasion ; they considered 
themselves basely betrayed, in thus surrendering to an 
inferior force, without firing a gun, when they were firmly 
convinced the enemy were in their power. 

General Hull was exchanged for thirty British prison- 
ers, brought before a court martial, charged with treason, 
cowardice, and unofficer-like conduct, was sentenced to 
death. The sentence was remitted by the president, but 
his name was ordered to be struck from the rolls of the 
army. While the nation was overspread with gloom in 
consequence of this disaster, they were suddenly consoled 
in the most pleasing manner. A new and glorious era 
burst upon our country, and upon the world. 

At the moment of the declaration of war, a squadron 
under Commodore Rodgers, had rendezvoused under the 
order of the government, off Sandy Hook, consisting of 
the frigates President, Congress, United States, and the 
brig Hornet. On the 21st of June they put to sea, in 
pursuit of a British squadron, which had sailed as the 
convoy of the West India fleet the preceding month. 
While thus engaged, the British frigate Belvitlera was dis- 
covered, to which they instantly gave chase. The chase 
was continued from early in the morning until past four 
in the afternoon, when the President, outsailing the oth^r 
vessels, had come within gun shot, she opened a fire with 
her bow guns, intending to cripple the Belvidera, which 
returned it with her stern-chasers. 

The firing was kept up for ten minutes, when one of the 
guns of the President burst, killed and wounded sixteen 
men, and fractured the leg of the commodore. By this ac- 
cident, and the explosion of the passing box, the decks 
were so much shattered, as to render the guns on that side 
useless. The ship was then put about, and a broadside fired, 
but without the desired effect, though considerable injury 



THE UNITED STATES. 359 

was done the Belvidera. This vessel, having thrown 
overboard every thing she could spare, now gained ground. 
The chase was continued until eleven o'clock at night, be- 
fore it was deemed hopeless. The squadron then con- 
tinued in pursuit of the convoy, which it did not give over 
until within sight of the British channel ; then stood for 
the island of Madeira, and thence passing the Azores, 
stood for Newfoundland, and thence by Cape Sable, ar- 
rived at Boston the 30th of August, having made prize of 
several British vessels ; but owing to the haziness of the 
weather, they were less successful than might have been 
expected. 

The frigate Essex went to sea from New-York, on the 
third of July; the Constitution sailed from the Chesa- 
peake on the 12th ; the brigs Nautilus and Vixen were at 
the same time cruising off the coast ; the sloop of wai 
Wasp was at sea, on her return from France. 

The Constitution, Captain Hull, had sailed from An- 
napolis on the 5th of July. On the morning of the 17th, 
off Egg Harbour, she was chased by a ship of the line, 
the Africa, and the frigates Shannon, Guerriere, Belvi- 
dera, and ^Eolus. These vessels were approaching ra- 
pidly, with a fine breeze, while it was nearly a calm about 
the Constitution. At sunrise the next morning, escape 
from the enemy was almost hopeless, as they were then 
within five miles. The Constitution was therefore cleared 
for action, determined to make a desperate resistance. 
The enemy still drawing near, Captain Hull resolved to 
make another effort to escape. Boats were sent ahead, 
with anchors, for the purpose of warping ; there prevail- 
ing almost a calm. The others finding the Constitution 
gaining upon them, resorted to the same expedient. The 
chase continued in this manner for two days, partly sail 
ing with light breezes, and partly warping, until the 20th, 
when the squadron was left entirely out of sight. This 
escape, from so great a disparity of force, was considered 
as deserving a high rank in naval exploits, and was much 
admired at the time, as evincing superior nautical skill. 
The advantage to the British, in this chase, was consider- 
able, when we reflect that their foremost vessel had the 
assistance of all the boats of the squadron, for the pur- 



260 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

pose of towing. The superiority of Captain Hull was 
that of seamanship alone. This superiority was some- 
time afterwards proved in a most remarkable manner ; 
while naval history lasts it will not be forgotten. 

The Constitution again put to sea, on the second of 
September. On the nineteenth, a vessel hove in sight, 
and a chase instantly commenced. It was soon disco- 
vered to be the Guerriere, one of the best frigates in the 
British navy, and which seemed not averse from the ren- 
contre, as she backed her maintopsail, waiting for the Con- 
stitution to come down. This was a most desirable oc- 
currence to our brave tars, as this frigate had for some 
time been in search of an American frigate, having given 
a formal challenge to all our vessels of the same class. 
She had at one of her mast heads a flag, on which her 
name was inscribed in large characters, by way of gas- 
conade, and on another, the words " not the Little Belt," 
in allusion to the broadsides which the President had gi- 
ven that vessel before the war. 

The Guerriere had looked into several of our ports, and 
affected to be exceedingly anxious to earn the first laurel 
from the new enemy. The Constitution being made rea- 
dy for action, now bore down, her crew giving three 
cheers. At first it was the intention of Captain Hull to 
bring her to close action immediately ; but on coming 
within gunshot, she gave a broadside and filled away, then 
wore, giving a broadside on the other tack, but without 
effect. They now continued wearing, and manoeuvring 
on both sides, for three quarters of an hour, the Guer- 
riere attempting to take a raking position ; but failing in 
this, she bore up, under her topsail and jib. The Consti- 
tution perceiving this, made sail to come up with her. 
Captain Hull, with admirable coolness, received the ene- 
my's fire, without returning it. 

The enemy, mistaking this conduct on the part of the 
American commander, for want of skill, continued to pour 
out his broadsides, with a view to cripple his antagonist 
From the Constitution not a gun had been fired. Already 
had an officer twice come on deck, with information that 
several of the men had been killed at their guns. The 
gallant crew, though burning with impatience, silently 



THE UNITED STATES. 361 

awaited the orders of their commander. The moment 
so long looked for, at last arrived. Sailing Master Ayl- 
win, having seconded the views of the captain with admi- 
rable skill, in bringing the vessels exactly to the station 
intended, orders were given, at five minutes before five, 
P. M. to fire broadside after broadside in quick succession. 
The crew instantly discovered the whole plan, and enter- 
ed into it with all the spirit the circumstance was calcu- 
lated to inspire. Never was any firing so dreadful. For 
fifteen minutes the vivid lightning of the Constitution's 
guns continued one blaze, and their thunder roared with 
scarce an intermission. 

The enemy's mizenmast had gone by the board, and he 
stood exposed to a raking fire, which swept his decks. 
The Guerriere had now become unmanageable ; her hull, 
rigging, and sails, dreadfully torn ; when the Constitution 
attempted to lay her on board. At this moment, Lieute- 
nant Bush, in attempting to throw his marines on board, 
was killed by a musket ball, and the enemy shot ahead, 
but could not be brought before the wind. A raking fire 
now continued for fifteen minutes longer, when his main- 
mast and foremast went, taking with them every spar, ex- 
cepting the bowsprit. On seeing this, the firing ceased, 
and, at twenty-five minutes past five, she surrendered. 
" In thirty minutes," says Captain Hull, " after we got 
fairly alongside of the enemy, she surrendered, and had 
not a spiar standing, and her hull, above and below water, 
so shattered, that a few more broadsides must have carri- 
ed her down. 

The Guerriere was so much damaged, as to render it 
impossible to bring her in ; she was, therefore, set fire to 
the next day, and blown up. The damage sustained by 
the Constitution, was comparatively of so little conse- 
quence, that she actually made ready for action when a 
vessel appeared in sight the next day. The loss on board 
the Guerriere was fifteen killed, and sixty-three wounded ; 
on the side of the Constitution seven killed, and seven 
wounded. It is pleasing .to observe, that even the British 
commander, on this occasion, bore testimony to the hu- 
manity and generosity with which he was treated by the 
victors. The American frigate was somewhat superior 



262 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

in force, by a few guns, but this difference bore no com- 
parison to the disparity of the conflict. The Guerriere 
was thought to be a match for any vessel of her class, and 
had been ranked among the largest in the British navy. 
The Constitution arrived at Boston on the 28th of August, 
having captured several merchant vessels. 

On the 7th of September, Commodore Porter, of the 
Essex, fell in with a fleet of merchantmen, and at night 
cut out a brig with a hundred and fifty soldiers on board, 
which was ransomed for 14,000 dollars. On the 13th of 
August, the Essex fell in with the Alert, sloop of war, 
and captured her in eight minutes. 

On the 8th of October, a squadron, consisting of the 
President, the United States, Congress, and the Argus, 
sailed from Boston on a cruise. On the 13th, the United 
States and Argus parted from the rest in a gale of wind. 
A few days afterwards, the President and Congress had 
the good fortune to capture the British packet Swallow, 
with 200,000 dollars on board ; and, on the 30th of De- 
cember arrived at Boston, after a very successful cruise. 

The Argus was not less fortunate : after parting from 
the squadron, she cruised in every direction, between the 
continent and the West Indies, and, after being out nine- 
ty-six days, she returned to New- York with prizes to the 
amount of two hundred thousand dollars. She made va- 
rious hairbreadth escapes ; at one time, she was chased 
by a British squadron for three days, and several times 
almost surrounded ; she was one moment within pistol 
shot of a seventy-four, and yet, in the midst of all this 
peril, she actually captured and manned one of her 
prizes. 

The United States, commanded by that distinguished 
officer, Commodore Decatur, soon after her separation 
from the squadron, had the good fortune to add another 
victory to our Naval Chronicle, not less glorious than that 
of the Constitution. On the 25th of October, off the West- 
ern Islands, she fell in with the Macedonian, Capt. Car- 
den, a frigate of the largest class, carrying 49 guns and 
300 men. The Macedonian, being to windward, she had 
it in her power to choose her distance, and at no time 
were they nearer than musket-shot ; from this circum- 



THE UNITED STATES. 263 

stance, and the prevalence of a heavy sea, the action lasted 
nearly two hours. Thfe superiority of the American gun- 
nery, in this action, was very remarkable, both for its 
greater rapidity and effect. From the continued blaze of 
her guns, the United States was, at one moment, thought 
by her antagonist to be on fire ; a mistake of very short 
duration. 

On board the Macedonian there were 36 killed and 68 
wounded. She lost her mainmast, her main-topmast, and 
main yard, and was much cut up in her hull. The United 
States suffered so little, that a return to port was not ne- 
cessary ; she had only five killed, and seven wounded. 
Among the killed, \vas Lieutenant Funk, of whom the com- 
modore spoke in the highest terms. Lieutenant Allen was 
on this occasion highly applauded. The commodore ar- 
rived at New- York on the 4th of December, with his prize. 
Commodore Decatur, already a universal favourite, expe- 
rienced the same demonstrations of gratitude as were 
shown to Capt. Hull ; nor was there denied him that new 
species of praise, which the generous conduct of our he- 
roic seamen has uniformly drawn forth, the praise of the 
enemy ; all the private property belonging to the men 
and officers on board the Macedonian, was restored to the 
captured, with the most rigid exactitude ; and their treat- 
ment was the most polite and humane. 

An act of generosity and benevolence on the part of 
our brave tars, of the victorious frigate, deserves to be 
honourably recorded. The carpenter, who was unfortu- 
nately killed in the conflict with the Macedonian, had left 
three small children to the care of a worthless mother. 
When the circumstance became known to the brave sea- 
men, they instantly made a contribution amongst them- 
selves, to the amount of eight hundred dollars, and placed 
it in safe hands, to be appropriated to the education and 
maintenance of the unhappy orphans. 

The feelings of the nation had scarce time to subside, 
when the welcome news of another victory was received; 
a victory over an enemy most decidedly superior in force, 
and under circumstances the most favourable to him. 
This was the capture of the brig Frolick, of 22 guns, by 
the sloop of war Wasp. Captain Jones had returned from 



264 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

France two weeks after the declaration of war, and on the 
13th of October again put to sea. On the 16th, he expe- 
rienced a heavy gale, in which the Wasp lost her jib-boom 
and two men. On the evening of the following day, the 
Wasp found herself near five strange sail, and as two of 
them appeared to be ships of war, it was thought proper 
to keep at a distance. 

At day-light on Sunday morning, they were discovered 
to be six merchant ships, from Honduras to England, undei 
strong convoy of a brig and two ships, armed with six- 
teen guns each. The brig, which proved to be the Frolic, 
Capt. Winyates, dropped behind, while the others made 
sail. The Wasp, being prepared-for action, at 32 minutes 
past 11 o'clock, came down to the windward in handsome 
style, when the action was begun by the enemy's cannon 
and musketry. This was returned, and approaching still 
nearer the enemy, brought her to close action. In five 
minutes the main-topmast of the Wasp was shot away, and 
falling down with the main-topsail yard across the larboard 
fore and fore-topsail, rendered her head yards unmanagea- 
ble during the rest of the action. In two minutes more her 
gaft and mizzen top-gallaritmasts were shot away. The 
sea being exceedingly rough, the muzzles of the Wasp's 
guns were sometimes under water. 

The English fired as their vessel rose, so that their 
shot was either thrown away, or touched the rigging of 
the Americans ; the Wasp, on the contrary, fired as she 
sunk, and every time struck the hull of her antagonist. 
The Wasp now shot ahead, raked her, and then resumed 
her position. The Frolic's fire had evidently slackened, 
and the W^asp gradually neared her, until, the last broad- 
side, they touched her side with their rammers. It was 
determined to lay her by the board. The jib-boom of 
the Frolic came in between the main and mizzen-mast 
rigging of the Wasp, and, after giving a raking fire, which 
swept the whole deck, they resolved to board. 

Lieutenant Biddle sprang on the rigging of the enemy's 
bowsprit, where he was at first somewhat entangled, and 
Midshipman Barker, in his impatience to be on board, 
caught hold of Biddle's coat, and fell back on the deck, 
but in a moment sprang up and leaped on the bowsprit, 



THE UNITED STATES. 

where he found one Lang, and another seaman. His sur- 
prise can scarcely be imagined, when he found no person 
on deck except three officers, and the seaman at the wheel. 
The deck was slippery with blood, and presented a scene 
of havoc and ruin, such as has been seldom witnessed. 
As he advanced the officers threw down their swords in 
submission. The colours were still flying, there being no 
seamen left to pull them down. Lieutenant Biddle leap- 
ed into the rigging, and hauled them down with his own 
hands. 

Thus, in forty-three minutes, complete possession was 
taken of the Frolic, after one of the most bloody conflicts 
any where recorded in naval history. The condition of 
this unfortunate vessel was inexpressibly shocking. The 
birth deck was crowded with the dead, the dying, and the 
wounded ; and the masts, which soon after fell, covering 
the dead, and every thing on deck, leaving her a most 
melancholy wreck. Captain Jones sent onboard his sur- 
geon, and humanely exerted himself in their relief, to the 
utmost of his power. The loss on board the Frolic was 
thirty killed, and fifty wounded ; on board the Wasp, five 
killed, and five slightly wounded. This was certainly the 
most decisive action fought during the war. The Wasp 
and Frolic were both captured that very day by a British 
seventy-four, the Poictiers, Captain Beresford. 

On the 4th of March, 1813, Mr. Madison entered upon 
the second term of his office, Mr. George Clinton was 
elected vice-president, but soon after died, and was suc- 
ceeded by Elbridge Gerry. 

So great was the desire of the citizens of the western 
country to regain possession of the territory of Michigan, 
that, in order to effect it, General Harrison resolved to 
undertake a winter campaign. General Winchester, with 
a portion of the western army, proceeded in advance to 
Frenchtown, a village on the River Raisin, not far from 
Detroit. A British party, stationed in the village, was 
attacked, routed, and entirely dispersed. 

The Americans encamped near the field of battle, a part 
of them being protected by close garden pickets. Al- 
though near an enemy's post, but little precaution was 
taken to present a surprise. Early in the morning of the 

23 



206 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

22d of January, they were attacked by a large force of 
British and Indians, the former commanded by Colonel 
Proctor, the latter by the Chiefs Roundhead and Splitlog. 
The troops in the open field Avere thrown into disorder. 
General Winchester, and other officers, made an ineffec- 
tual attempt to rally them. They fled, but, while attempt- 
ing to escape, were mostly killed by the Indians. The 
eneral, and Colonel Lewis, were made prisoners. 

The troops behind the pickets maintained the contest 
with undaunted bravery. At length Colonel Proctor as- 
sured General Winchester, that if the remainder of the 
Apiericans would immediately surrender, they should be 
protected from massacre ; but otherwise he would set fire 
to the village, and would not be responsible fpr the con- 
duct of the savages. Intimidated by this threat, General 
Winchester sent an order to the troops to surrender, 
which they obeyed. 

Colonel Proctor, leaving the wounded without a guard, 
marched back immediately to Maiden. The Indians 
accompanied them a few miles, but returned early the 
next morning. Deeds of horror followed. The wound- 
ed officers were dragged from the houses, killed and scalp- 
ed in the streets. The buildings were set on fire. Some 
who attempted to escape, were forced back into the flames. 
Others were put to death by the tomahawk, and left shock- 
ingly mangled in the highway. The infamy of this butch- 
ery should not fall upon the perpetrators alone. It must 
rest equally upon those who instigated them to hostility, 
by whose* side they fought, who were able and were bound 
by a solemn engagement to restrain them. 

The battle and massacre at Frenchtown, clothed Ken- 
tucky and Ohio in mourning. Other volunteers, indig- 
nant at the treachery and cruelty of their foes, hastened 
to the aid of Harrison. He marched to the rapids of the 
Miami, where he erected a fort, which he called Fort 
Meigs, in honour of the governor of Ohio. On the first 
of May, it was invested by a large number of Indians, and 
by a party of British troops from Maiden, the whole com- 
manded by Colonel Proctor. 

Five days afterwards, General Clay, at the head of 1200 
Kentuckians, made an attempt to raise the siege. Divi- 



THE UNITED STATES. 267 

ding his force into several parties, and making an impe- 
tuous onset, he drove the besiegers from their works. 
His troops, supposing the victory complete, and disre- 
garding the orders of their commander, dispersed into 
the woods. The enemy, returning from their flight, ob- 
tained an easy victory. 

Of the Americans, two or three hundred escaped into 
the fort ; about three hundred were killed or made pri- 
soners ; the remainder fled to the nearest settlements. The 
enemy sustained considerable loss. The fort continued 
to be defended with bravery and skill. The Indians, un- 
accustomed to sieges, became weary and discontented. On 
the 8th of May, notwithstanding the entreaties of their 
chief, Tecumseh, they deserted their allies. On the 9th, 
the enemy, despairing of success, made a precipitate re- 
treat. General Harrison, leaving General Clay in com- 
mand, returned to Ohio for reinforcements ; but in this 
quarter active operations were not resumed, until a squad- 
ron had been built and prepared for action on Lake Erie. 

At Sackett's Harbour, on the northern frontier, a body 
of troops had been assembled, under the command of 
General Dearborn, and great exertions were made, by 
Commodore Chauncey, to build and equip a squadron, on 
Lake Ontario, sufficiently powerful to contend with that 
of the enemy. By the 25th of April, the naval prepara- 
tions were so far completed, that the general, and 1700 
troops, were conveyed across the lake to the attack of 
York, the capital of Upper Canada". 

On the 27th, an advanced party, led by Brigadier-Ge- 
neral Pike, who was born in a camp, and bred a soldier 
from his birth, landed, although opposed at the water's 
edge by a superior force. After a short but severe con- 
flict, the enemy were driven to their fortifications. The 
rest of the troops having landed, the whole party pressed 
forward, carried the first battery by assault, and were mo- 
ving towards the main works, when the enemy's maga- 
zine blew up, with a tremendous explosion, hurling upon 
the advancing troops immense quantities of stone and tim- 
ber. 

Numbers were killed ; the gallant Pike received a mor- 
tal wound ; the troops halted for a moment, but recover- 



268 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ing from the shock, again pressed forward, and soon 
gained possession of the town. Of the British troops, 
one hundred were killed, nearly three hundred were 
wounded, and the same number made prisoners. Of the 
Americans, three hundred and twenty were killed and 
wounded, and nearly all of them by the explosion of the 
magazine. The flag which waved over the fort, was car- 
ied to the dying Pike ; at his desire it was placed under 
his head, when, with the smile of triumph on his lips, he 
expired. 

The object of the expedition attained, the squadron and 
troops returned to Sackett's Harbour, whence the wound- 
ed and prisoners being landed, and other troops taken on 
board, it sailed to Fort George, at the head of the lake. 
After a warm engagement, the enemy abandoned, and the 
Americans entered the fort. The fugitives retired to the 
heights at the head of Burlington Bay. On their retreat, 
they were joined by a detachment from Fort Erie and 
Chippeway. Two brigades, under Generals Chandler 
and Winder, were despatched in pursuit. On the evening 
of the 5th of June, they encamped at Stoney Creek, in 
the vicinity of the enemy, who, considering their situa- 
tion desperate, turned upon their pursuers, and attacked 
them in the night. 

The Americans received them with coolness ; but such 
was the darkness, that General Chandler, intending to 
place himself at the head of his artillery, threw himself 
into the midst of a British party. A few minutes after- 
wards, the same mistake was committed by General Win- 
der. Satisfied with the capture of these officers, and a 
few other prisoners, the enemy made a precipitate retreat. 
The American troops returned to Fort George. The 
misfortune was soon followed by another. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Boerstler, having been sent, with five hundred 
men, to disperse a body of the enemy collected at the 
Beaver Dams, was surrounded, and the whole detachment 
made prisoners. 

While the greater part of the American army was thus 
employed in Canada, the British made an attack upon the 
important post of Sackett's Harbour. On the 27th of 
May, their squadron appeared before the town. Alarm 



THE UNITED STATES. 269 

guns instantly assembled the citizens of the neighbour- 
hood. General Brown, of the New-York militia, com- 
manded in chief, his whole force amounting to about one 
thousand men. By his orders, a slight breast-work was 
hastily thrown up, at the only place where the enemy could 
land. Behind this he placed the militia, the regulars un- 
der Colonel Backus forming a second line. 

On the morning of the 29th, one thousand British 
troops landed from the squadron. They advanced to- 
wards the breastwork. The militia, seized with a sudden 
panic, fled in confusion. Colonel Mills, in a vain attempt 
to rally them, was mortally wounded. The regulars, af- 
ter a spirited resistance, were compelled to retire towards 
the town, but in their retreat they took possession of the 
houses on the road. From these coverts they poured so 
destructive a fire upon the British column, that it halted 
and fell back. 

General Brown, by a stratagem, converted this slight 
check into a precipitate flight. Collecting the panic 
struck militia, he directed their course along a road, which, 
while it led from the village, appeared to the British com- 
mander to lead to the place of landing. Perceiving them 
marching with great speed, he supposed that their object 
was to cut off his retreat, and re-embarked so hastily as 
to leave behind most of his wounded. General Brown, in 
recompense for his services, was appointed a brigadier in 
the regular army. 

Meanwhile, upon the sea coast, a distressing and pre- 
datory war was carried on, by a large detachment from 
the powerful navy of Great Britain. One squadron, sta- 
tioned in Delaware bay, captured and burned every mer- 
chant vessel which carne within its reach. The inhabit- 
ants of Lewiston, in the state of Delaware, having refused 
to sell provisions to the enemy, the village was bombarded, 
and severaj attempts were made to land, but they were 
defeated by the militia. 

On the fourth of February, a squadron consisting of 
two ships of the line, three frigates, and other vessels, 
made its appearance in the Chesapeake, apparently stand- 
ing for Hampton Roads. The alarm was immediately 
caught at Norfolk, and the militia called in from the upper 



270 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

part of the state. No attempt, however, was made upon 
the town, the enemy contenting himself with destroying 
the smaller vessels employed in the navigation of the bay, 
and effectively blockading its waters. About the same 
time, another squadron under the command of Commo- 
dore Beresford, appeared in the Delaware, consisting of the 
Poictiers, the Belvidera, and some other vessels, which in 
the same manner destroyed a number of small trading ves- 
sels, and attempted several times to land some of their men, 
who w r ere as often repulsed by the militia, hastily collected. 

On the 10th of April, Sir John Beresford made a de- 
mand on the people of the village of Lewiston, for a 
supply of provisions, which was spiritedly refused by Co- 
lonel Davis, commanding at that place. Captain Byron, 
of the Belvidera, was ordered to move near the village and 
bombard it, until the demand should be complied with. 
This was obeyed, but without effect ; after a cannonade 
of twenty hours, they were unable to make any impression 
on the place. Their fire had been returned from some 
batteries, hastily thrown up on the bank, with considera- 
ble effect. On \he 10th of May, the same squadron sent 
out their barges in the neighbourhood of Lewiston, to 
procure water. Major George Hunter was detached by 
Colonel Davis, with one hundred and fifty men, to oppose 
their landing, which the major did with so much gallantry, 
that he compelled them to hasten to their shipping. The 
squadron soon after returned to Bermuda, where sir J. 
Borlace Warren, who commanded on this station, was 
engaged in fitting out a more considerable armament, for 
the attack of our sea coast during the summer. 

Soon after the departure of the squadron, the Spartan, 
and some other frigates, entered the Delaware. One of 
their vessels, the Martin, was discovered on the twenty- 
ninth of July, slightly grounded on the outer edge 01 
Crow's Shoals. A detachment of the gun-boat flotilla 
immediately moved, and, anchoring in a line about three 
quarters of a mile from the sloop, opened a destructive 
fire upon her. The Junon frigate soon after came off to 
her relief; a cannonade was kept up during an hour, be- 
tween the gunboats and these two vessels, in which the 
latter suffered great injury. Finding it impossible to 



THE UNITED STATES. 271 

drive off this musqueto fleet, they manned their launches, 
tenders, and cutters, to cut off the gun-boats at the ex- 
tremity of the line. No. 121, commanded by Sailing 
Master Head, was unfortunately taken, after a desperate 
resistance against eight times her number. The British 
soon after made sail, the Martin having been extricated 
from her situation. 

Scenes of a different kind were, in the meanwhile, act- 
ing in the Chesapeake. The squadron, which returned in 
February, still continued to carry on a predatory war 
along the shores and inlets. It was here that one Cock- 
burn, by some means an admiral in the service of the 
king of England, exhibited the first of those exploits, for 
which he afterwards became so highly celebrated, and of 
which he may justly claim to be the originator. At first 
they were directed against the detached farm houses, and 
seats of private gentlemen, unprepared for, and incapa- 
ble of defence ; these were robbed, and the owners treat- 
ed in the rudest manner. The cattle which could not be 
carried away, were doomed to wanton destruction ; the 
slaves were armed against their owners, and persuaded to 
follow the example of their new friends, to attack their 
master's defenceless families, and to engage in pillaging 
them. 

It was impossible to station a force at each farm house, 
to repel these miserable and disgraceful incursions ; yet, 
in several instances, Cockburn and his ruffians were 
bravely repelled by a collection of the neighbours, with- 
out authority, and under no leader. The spirited citizens 
of Maryland formed bodies of cavalry, which were sta- 
tioned at intervals along the shore, to be drawn out at a 
moment's warning, for the purpose of repelling the sud- 
den inroads of the enemy. Cockburn took possession of 
several islands in the bay, particularly Sharp's, Tilgh- 
man's, and Poplar islands, whence he could seize the op- 
portunity of making a descent upon the neighbouring 
shores, when the inhabitants happened to be off their 
guard. 

Encouraged by his success against the farmers, and his 
rapacity increasing by the booty which he had already 
obtained, Cofckburn now resolved to undertake something 



272 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

of a more bold and adventurous character, in which his 
thirst for plunder, and his love of mischief, might be gra- 
tified in a higher degree. He, therefore, directed his 
attention to the unprotected villages and hamlets along 
the bay, carefully avoiding the larger towns, the plunder- 
ing of which might be attended with some danger. The 
first of these exploits was against the village of French- 
town, containing six dwelling houses, two large store- 
houses, and several stables. It was important, however, 
as a place of deposite on the line of packets and stages 
from Philadelphia to the city of Baltimore, and Cockburn 
rightly conjectured, that here there might be private pro- 
perty to a considerable amount. 

He accordingly set out on this expedition, from his ship, 
the Marlborough, in barges, with five hundred marines ; 
a sufficient number to have carried the town on their 
backs. Some show of resistance was made by a small 
party of militia collected from Elkton, but which moved 
off as the admiral approached. The storehouses were 
destroyed, together with the goods they were unable to 
carry off, to an immense amount. Amongst other objects 
of wanton destruction, was an elegant drop-curtain, in- 
tended for the theatres of the cities before mentioned. 
The brand was applied to some of the private dwelling 
houses, and to several vessels lying at the wharf; after 
achieving this glorious victory, the admiral, fearing the 
approach of the militia, hastily retired to his ship. 

The next exploit of the admiral was of still greater 
importance. The town of Havre de Grace is situated 
on the Susquehannah, about two miles from the head o. 
the bay, and is a neat village, containing twenty or thirty 
houses. An attack on this place was the next object 
which entered into the plan of the admiral's operations. 
Accordingly, on the third of May, before day-light, lii, 
approach was announced by a few cannon shot, and the 
firing of rockets. The inhabitants, roused from their 
sleep, leaped up in the greatest consternation, and the 
more courageous repaired to the beach, where a few small 
pieces of artillery had been planted on a kind of battery 
for the purpose of defence against the smaller watering 
or plundering parties of the enemy. 



THE UNITED STATES. 273 

After firing a few shots, with the exception of an old 
citizen of the place, of the name of O'Neill, they all fled 
on the approach of the barges, abandoning the village to 
the mercy of Cockburn. O'Neill alone continued to 
fight, loading a piece of artillery, and firing it himself, 
until by recoiling it ran over his thigh> and wounded him 
severely. He then armed himself with a musket, and 
limping away, still kept up a retreating fight with the ad- 
vancing column of the British, who had by this time land- 
ed and formed; after which he moved oflf to join his five 
or six comrades, whom he attempted in vain to rally. 

The ocean, in the mean time, had been the theatre of 
sanguinary conflicts, in which the victors gained untar- 
nished laurels. Captain Lawrence, in the sloop of war 
Hornet, discovering, in the neutral port of San Salvador, 
a British sloop of war of superior force, challenged her 
commander to meet him at sea. The challenge being 
declined, Captain Lawrence blockaded the port, until for- 
ced by a ship of the line to retire. 

Soon after, on the 23d of February, the Hornet met 
the British brig Peacock, of about equal force. A fierce 
combat ensued. In less than fifteen minutes, the Pea- 
cock struck her colours, displaying, at the same time, a 
signal of distress. The victors hastened to the relief of 
the vanquished, and the same strength which had been 
exerted to conquer was now exerted to save. Their ef- 
forts were but partially successful. She sunk before all 
her crew could be removed, carrying down nine British 
seamen and three brave and generous Americans. In 
the battle, the loss of the Hornet was but one killed and 
"two wounded ; that of the Peacock was never ascertained. 

On his return to the United States, Captain Lawrence 

was promoted to the command of the frigate Chesapeake, 

then in the harbour of Boston. For several weeks, the 

British frigate Shannon, of equal force, but having a se- 

ected crew, had been cruising before the port ; and Cap- 

ain Broke, her commander, had announced his wish to 

meet, in single combat, an American frigate. Inflamed 

by this challenge, Captain Lawrence, although his crew 

was just enlisted, and his officers were strangers to him 



274 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

and to each other, set sail, on the first of June, in pursuit 
of the Shannon. 

Towards evening of the same day, they met, and in- 
stantly engaged, with unexampled fury. In a very few 
minutes, and in quick succession, the sailing master of 
the Chesapeake was killed, Captain Lawrence and three 
lieutenants were severely wounded ; her rigging was so 
cut to pieces that she fell on board the Shannon ; her chest 
of arms blew up ; Captain Lawrence received a second 
and mortal wound, and was carried below ; at this instant, 
the position of the ships being favourable, Captain Broke, 
at the head of his marines, gallantly boarded the Chesa- 
peake, when every officer who could take command being 
killed or wounded, resistance ceased, and the American 
flag was struck by the enemy. 

That fortune favoured the Shannon cannot be doubted. 
That the event would have been -the same had fortune fa- 
voured neither, is rendered probable by the astonishing 
effect of her fire. This unexpected defeat impelled the 
Americans to seek for circumstances consoling to their 
pride ; and in the journals of the day, many such were 
stated to have preceded and attended the action. But 
nothing could allay their grief at the fall of the youthful m 
and intrepid Lawrence. His previous victory and mag- 
nanimous conduct had rendered him the favourite of the 
nation, and he was lamented with sorrow, deep, sincere, 
and lasting. When carried below, he was asked if the 
colours should be struck. " No," he replied, " they shall 
wave while I live." When the fate of the ship was de- 
cided, his proud spirit was broken. He became delirious 
from excess of mental and bodily suffering. Whenever 
able to speak, he would exclaim, " Don't give up the 
ship !" an expression consecrated by his countrymen ; 
and he uttered but few other words during the four days 
that he survived his defeat. 

This victory was not achieved without loss. Of the 
crew of the Shannon, twenty-four were killed, and fifty- 
six wounded. Of that of the Chesapeake, forty-eight 
were killed, and nearly one hundred wounded. Great 
was the exultation of the enemy. Victories over the fri- 
gates of other nations, were occurrences too common to 



THE UNITED STATES. 275 

excite emotion ; but the capture of an American frigate 
was considered a glorious epoch in the naval history of 
Great Britain. The honours and rewards bestowed upon 
Captain Broke, were such as had never before been re- 
ceived but by the conqueror of a squadron. These de- 
monstrations of triumph were inadvertent confessions of 
American superiority ; and were, to the vanquished them- 
selves, sources of triumph and consolation. 

The next encounter at sea was between the American 
brig Argus, and the British brig Pelican. The latter was 
of superior force, and was victorious. Soon after, the 
American brig Enterprise, commanded by Lieutenant Bur- 
rows, captured the British brig Boxer, commanded by 
Captain Blyth. These vessels were of equal force, but 
the great effect of the fire of the Enterprise, furnished to 
the Americans another proof of the superior skill of their 
seamen. Both commanders were killed in the action, 
and were buried, each by the other's side, in Portland. 

Commodore Porter had been cruising in the Pacific for 
nearly a year, in the course of which he had captured 
several British armed whale ships. Some of these were 
equipped as American cruisers and store ships ; and the 
Atlantic, now called the Essex Junior, of twenty guns 
and sixty men, was assigned to Lieutenant Downes. The 
prizes which were to be laid up, were convoyed by this 
officer to Valparaiso. On his return he brought intelli- 
gence to Commodore Porter that a British squadron, 
consisting of one frigate, and two sloops of war, and a 
store ship of twenty guns, had sailed in quest of the 
Essex. The commodore took measures immediately to 
repair his vessel, which, having accomplished on the 12th 
of December, 1813, he sailed for Valparaiso, in company 
AV ith the Essex Junior. 

" It was not long after the arrival of Commodore Por- 
ter at Valparaiso, when Commodore Hillyar appeared 
there in the Phoebe frigate, accompanied by the Cherub 
sloop of war. These vessels had been equipped for the 
purpose of meeting the Essex, with picked crews, in 
prime order, and hoisted flags bearing the motto, ' God 
and our country, British, sailors' best rights ; traitors of- 
fend them. 1 



276 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

" This was in allusion to Porter's celebrated motto, 
* Free trade and sailor's rights ;' he now hoisted at his 
mizzen, ' God, our country, and liberty: tyrants offend 
them.' On entering the harbour, the British commodore 
fell foul of the Essex, in such a situation as to be placed 
completely in the power of the latter ; the forbearance of 
Commodore Porter was acknowledged by the English 
ommander, and he passed his word and honour to ob- 
serve the same regard to the neutrality of the port. 

" The British vessels soon after stood out, and cruised 
off the port about six weeks, rigorously blockading the 
Essex. Their united force amounted to eighty-one guns, 
and about five hundred men, about double that of the 
Essex ; but the circumstance of this force being divided 
in two ships, rendered the disparity still greater, and was 
by no means counterbalanced by the Essex Junior. Com- 
modore Porter being prevented, by this great disparity 
of force, from engaging, made repeated attempts to draw 
the Phoebe into action singly, either by mahceuvreing or 
sending formal challenges ; but Commodore Hillyar care- 
fully avoided the coming to action alone. The American 
commander, hearing that an additional British force was 
on its way, and having discovered that his vessel could 
outsail those of the British, determined to sail out, and, 
while the enemy was in chase, enable the Essex Junior to 
escape to a place of rendezvous previously appointed. 

" On the twenty-eighth of March, the w r ind coming on 
to blow fresh from the southward ; the Essex parted her 
starboard cable, and dragging her larboard anchor to sea. 
Not a moment was lost in getting sail on the ship, as it 
was determined to seize this moment to escape. In en- 
deavouring to pass to the windward of the enemy, a squall 
struck the American vessel, just as she was doubling the 
point, which carried away her main-topmast ; both ships 
immediately gave chase, and being unable to escape in 
his crippled state, the commodore endeavoured to put back 
into the harbour ; but finding this impracticable, he ran 
into a small bay, and anchored within pistol shot of the 
shore ; where, from a supposition that the enemy would 
continue to respect the neutrality of the port, he thought 
himself secure. He soon found, however, by the manner 



THE UNITED STATES. 277 

in which they approached, that he was mistaken. With 
all possible despatch, therefore, he prepared his ship for 
action, and endeavoured to get a spring on his cable, which 
he could not accomplish before the enemy commenced 
the attack, at fifty-four minutes past three. 

" At first the Phoebe placed herself on his stern, and the 
Cherub on his larboard bow ; but the latter soon finding 
herself exposed to a hot fire, changed her position, and 
with her consort, kept up a raking fire under his stern. 
The American, being unable to bring his broadside to 
bear on the enemy, his spring cables having been three 
times shot away, was obliged, therefore, to rely for de- 
fence against this tremendous attack, on three long twelve 
pounders, which he ran out of the stern ports, which were 
worked with such bravery and skill, as in half an hour to 
do so much injury to the enemy, as to compel them to 
haul off and repair. 

"It was evident that Commodore Hillya?r meant to risk 
nothing from the daring courage of the Americans ; all 
his manoeuvres were deliberate and wary; his antagonist 
was in his power, and his only concern was to succeed 
with as little loss to himself as possible. The situation 
of the Essex was most vexatious to our brave countrymen; 
many of whom were already killed and wounded, and 
from the crippled state of their ship, they were unable to 
bring her guns to bear upon the enemy. Her gallant 
crew were not disheartened ; aroused to desperation, they 
expressed their defiance to the enemy, and their determi- 
nation to hold out to the last. 

" The enemy having repaired, now placed himself, with 
both ships, on the starboard quarter of the Essex, where 
none of her guns could be brought to bear ; the commo- 
dore saw no hope but in getting under way ; the flying- 
jib was the only sail he could set ; this he caused to be 
hoisted, cut his cable, and ran down on both ships, with 
the intention of laying the Phoebe on board. For a short 
time he was enabled to close with the enemy, and the fir- 
ing was tremendous ! the decks of the Essex were strewed 
with dead, and her cockpit filled with the wounded ; she 
had been several times on fire, and was, in fact, a perfect 
wreck. 

24 



278 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

" At this moment, a feeble hope arose, that she might 
still be saved, in consequence of the Cherub being com- 
pelled to haul off on account of their crippled state ; she, 
however, kept up her fire at a distance with her long guns. 
The Essex was unable, however, to take advantage of 
the circumstance, as the Phoebe edged off, and also kept 
up, at a distance, a destructive fire ; the former being 
totally bereft of her sails, could not bring her to close 
quarters. 

" Commodore Porter, finding the greater part of his crew 
disabled, at last gave up all hope, and attempted to run 
his vessel on shore, the wind at that moment favouring 
his design ; but it suddenly changed, drove her close upon 
the Phoebe, exposing her to a raking fire. The ship was 
totally unmanageable, but as she drifted with her head to 
the enemy, Commodore Porter again seized a faint hope 
of being able to board. At this moment Lieutenant Dovvnes 
came on board to receive orders, expecting that his com- 
mander would soon be a prisoner. His services could be 
of no avail in the present deplorable state of the Essex, 
and finding from the enemy's putting 'up his helm, that 
the last attempt at boarding would not succeed, Downes 
was directed to repair to his ship, to be prepared for de- 
fending and destroying her, in case of an attack. 

" The slaughter on board the Essex now became horri- 
ble, the enemy continuing to rake her while she was una- 
ble to bring a single gun to bear. Still her commander 
refused to yield while a ray of hope appeared. Every 
expedient, that a fertile and inventive genius could sug- 
gest, was resorted to, in the forlorn hope, that he might 
be able, by some lucky chance, to escape from the grasp 
of the foe. A hawser was bent to the sheet anchor, and 
the anchor cut from the bows, to bring the ship's head 
around. This succeeded; the broadside of the Essex 
was again brought to bear ; and, as the enemy was much 
crippled, and unable to hold his own, the commodore 
thought she might drift out of gunshot before he disco- 
vered that the Essex had anchored ; but, alas ! this last 
expedient failed ; the hawser parted, and with it went the 
last lingering hope of the Essex. 

" At this moment her situation was awful beyond descrip- 



THE UNITED STATES. 279 

tion. She was on fire both before and aft, the flames 
were bursting up her hatchway, a quantity of powder ex- 
ploded below, and word was given that fire was near her 
magazine. Thus surrounded by horrors, without any 
chance of saving his ship, he turned his attention to the 
saving as many of his gallant companions as he could ; 
the distance to the shore not exceeding three quarters of a 
mile, he hoped that many of them would save themselves 
before the ship blew up. His boats being cut up, they 
could only hope to escape by swimming ; by some this 
was effected, but the greater part of his generous crew 
resolved to stay by the ship, and share the fate of their 
commander. 

" They now laboured to extinguish the flames and suc- 
ceeded ; after this, they again repaired to their guns, but 
their strength had become so much exhausted, that this 
effort was in vain. Commodore Porter summoned a con- 
sultation of the officers of the divisions, when, to his as- 
tonishment, only one acting Lieutenant, Stephen Deca- 
tur M'Nighi, appeared. The accounts from every pa*t of 
the ship were deplorable indeed ; she was in imminent 
danger of sinking, and so crowded with the wounded, 
that even her birthdeck could hold no more, and several 
were killed under the surgeon's hands. In the mean time, 
the enemy, at a secure distance, continued his fire ; the 
water having become smooth, he struck the hull of the 
Essex at every shot. 

" At last, despairing of saving his ship, the commodore 
was compelled, at twenty minutes past six, to give the 
painful orders to strike the colours. The enemy, proba- 
bly not seeing that this had taken place, continued to fire 
for ten minutes after, and Porter was about to give orders 
that the colours should again be hoisted, under a belief 
that the enemy intended to give no quarters, when the 
firing ceased. The loss on board the Essex was fifty-eight 
killed, thirty-nine wounded severely, twenty-seven slightly, 
and thirty-one missing. The loss on board the British 
vessels was five killed and ten wounded ; but they were 
both much cut up in their hulls and rigging ; the Phoebe 
could scarcely be kept afloat until she anchored in the 
port of Valparaiso next morning. 



UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

" Commodore Porter was paroled, and permitted to re- 
turn to the United States in the Essex Junior, which was 
converted into a cartel for the purpose. On arriving off 
the port of New-York, the vessel was detained by the 
Saturn razee, and, to the disgrace of the British navy, al- 
ready dishonoured by the base attack upon this gallant 
officer, he was compelled to give up his parole, and de- 
clare himself a prisoner of war, and, as such, he inform- 
ed the British officer that he would attempt his escape. 
In consequence of this threat, the Essex Junior was or- 
dered to remain under the lee of the Saturn ; but the 
next morning Commodore Porter put off in his boat, 
though thirty miles from shore, and notwithstanding the 
pursuit by those of the Saturn, arrived safely in New- 
York."* 

In the spring of 1814, Commodore Barney took the 
command of a small flotilla of gunboats, to protect the 
inlets and small rivers that fall into the Chesapeake Bay. 
About the 1st of June, the enemy entered the Chesa- 
peake Bay, and renewed their ravages, with greater seve- 
rity than they had done the last year. Sharp and frequent 
rencounters took place, upon the water, and upon the 
land ; but the enemy succeeded in laying waste the coun- 
try, and carrying off the negroes, through the month of 
June and July. 

In the midst of the various occurrences of the war, on 
the northern frontier, on the sea-board, and on the ocean, 
important preparations were making to the westward; 
and, although the spring and summer had passed away 
without any incident in this quarter worthy of being re- 
corded, they had not passed inactive. The general atten- 
tion was now turned towards it with much anxiety, and 
the armies of the Niagara and St. Lawrence remained 
almost with folded arms, awaiting the issue of Harrison's 
campaign, and the result of the contest for the mastership 
of Lake Erie. 

The British, aware of the consequence of a defeat, had, 
with great assiduity, laboured to strengthen themselves. 
The reinforcements continually arriving at Fort George, 

* Brackenridge. 



THE UNITED STATES. 281 

were evidently destined to follow up the advantages which 
Proctor might gain, in conjunction with the commander 
on the lake. In the meanwhile, in the neighbouring states 
of Kentucky and Ohio, the people were excited in a most 
surprising degree ; had it been necessary, they would have 
risen en masse ; almost every man capable of bearing a 
musket, uas anxious to march. The governor of Ohio 
had scarcely issued his proclamation, calling on volun 
teers, (for the obligations of law to render military ser- 
vice were no longer thought of,) than fifteen thousand 
men presented themselves, completely armed and equip- 
ped more than five times the number required. 

The venerable governor of Kentucky, Shelby, a revo- 
lutionary her*-, and the Nestor of the present war, made 
it known that I- e would put himself at the head of the in- 
jured citizens of that state, and lead them to seek revenge 
for the murder of their relatives and friends, but limited 
the number of Vvdunteers to four thousand. The state 01 
Kentucky, called by the natives, " the dark and bloody 
ground," forty years ago was an uninhabited forest, pos- 
sessed by no tribe of Indians, but, from time immemorial, 
the theatre of sanguinary wars. At this day, it blooms 
beneath the hand on agriculture, it is filled with beautiful 
towns and villages, and is the abode of peace, opulence, 
and refinement. The inhabitants are descended from the 
planters of Virginia and North Carolina, and emigrants, 
composed of the enterprising and intelligent of the other 
states. 

Living in abundance, and at their ease, and more remote 
from the seats of commerce, they have imbibed less of 
foreign attachments or feelings than any of our people, 
and are, perhaps, more enthusiastically devoted to the 
institutions of freedom. They have not a little of the 
manners of chivalry in their generous and hospitable de- 
portment. Fearless of danger, regarding dishonour more 
than death, but, with these qualities, a benevolence and 
humanity which has scarcely a parallel. Had the elder 
brethren of this confederacy acted like this younger mem- 
ber, the Cailadas would have been ours, and Britain would 
never have dared to insult us with her unwarrantable pre- 
tensions. 

24* 



282 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

The transactions which are now to be related, may 
justly rank amongst the most pleasing to our feelings and 
national pride, of any which took place during the con- 
test. The campaign opened with an affair, which, though 
comparatively of smaller consequence than some others, 
is, in its circumstances, one of the most brilliant that occur- 
red during the war. This was the unparalleled defence ot 
Fort Sandusky, by a youth of twenty-one years of age. 
In August, and before the arrival of the Ohio and Ken- 
tucky volunteers, which did not take place until the fol- 
lowing month, threatening movements had been made 
upon all the different forts established by the Americans 
on the rivers which fall into Lake Erie. After the siege 
of Fort Meigs, the British had been considerably rein- 
forced by regulars, and an unusual number of Indians, 
under their great leader Tecumseh. It was all important 
to reduce these forts before the arrival of the volunteers. 

Major Croghan, then commanding at Upper Sandusky, 
having received intimation that the enemy were about to 
invest the fort of Lower Sandusky, had marched to this 
place with some additional force, and had been occupied 
with great assiduity in placing it in the best posture of 
defence. But the only addition of importance which the 
time would allow him to make, was a ditch of six feet 
deep, and nine feet wide, outside the stockade of pickets, 
by which these hastily constructed forts are enclosed, but 
which can afford but a weak defence against artillery. He 
had but one six pounder, and about one hundred and 
sixty men, consisting of regulars, and detachments of the 
Pittsburgh and Petersbiirgh volunteers. General Harri- 
son, not conceiving it practicable to defend the place, or- 
dered young Croghan to retire on the approach of the 
enemy, after having destroyed the works. This, our 
young hero, taking the responsibility upon himself, deter- 
mined to disobey. 

On the first of August, General Proctor, having left a 
large body of Indians, under Tecumseh, to keep up the 
appearance of a siege of Fort Meigs, arrived at Sandusky 
with about five hundred regulars, seven hundred Indians, 
and some gun-boats. After the general had made such 
dispositions of his troops as to cut off the retreat of the 



THE UNITED STATES. 383 

garrison, he sent a flag by Colonel Elliot and Major Cham- 
bers, demanding a surrender, accompanied with the usual 
base and detestable threats of butchery and cold blood 
massacre, if the garrison should hold out. A spirited 
answer was returned by Croghan, who found that all his 
companions, chiefly striplings like himself, would sup- 
port him to the last. 

When the flag returned, a brisk fire was opened from 
the gun-boats and howitzer, and which was kept up du- 
ring the night. In the morning, they opened with three 
sixes, which had been planted under cover of the night, 
within two hundred and fifty yards of the pickets, but not 
with much effect. About four o'clock in the afternoon, it 
was discovered that the enemy had concentrated his fire 
against the northwest angle, with the intention of making 
a breach. This part was immediately strengthened by 
the apposition of bags of flour and sand, so that the pick- 
ets suffered but little injury. During this time, the six 
pounder was carefully concealed in the bastion, which 
covered the point to be assailed, and it was loaded with 
slugs and grape. 

About five hundred of the enemy now advanced in 
close column to assail the part where it was supposed the 
pickets must have been injured : at the same time making 
several feints, to draw the attention of the besieged to 
other parts of the fort. Their force, being thus divided, 
a column of three hundred and fifty men, which were so 
enveloped in smoke as not to be seen until they approach- 
ed within twenty paces of the lines, advanced rapidly to 
the assault. A fire of musketry from the fort, for a mo- 
ment threw them into confusion, but they were quickly 
rallied by Colonel Short, their commander, who, now 
springing over the outer works into the ditch, command- 
ed the rest to follow, crying out, " give the d d Yan- 
kees no quarter ?" Scarcely had these detestable words 
escaped his lips, and the greater part of his followers land- 
ed in the ditch, when the six pounder opened iipon them 
a most destructive fire, killing and wounding the greater 
part, and amongst the first the wretched leader, who was 
sent into eternity before his words had died upon the air. 



284 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

A volley of musketry was, at the same time, fired up-^n 
those who had not ventured. 

The officer who succeeded Short, exasperated at being 
thus treated by a few boys, formed his broken column, and 
again rushed to the ditch, where he, and those who dared 
to follow him, met with the same fate as their fellow sol- 
diers. The small arms were again played on them the 
whole British force was thrown into confusion ; and, in 
spite of the exertions of their officers, fled to the woods, 
almost panic struck, whither they were soon followed by 
the Indians. Thus were these men, confident of success, 
and detestable in the intended use of victory, most sig- 
nally chastised, under Providence, by a force scarce a 
tenth of their numbers. Terror indescribable took pos- 
session of* the assailants, and they retreated towards their 
boats, scarcely daring to cast their eyes towards the fatal 
spot, while they were followed by their allies in sullen 
silence. 

If this gallant defence deserves the applause of the 
brave, the subsequent conduct of the besieged deserves 
the praise of every friend of humanity. The scene 
which now ensued, deserves to be denominated sublime. 
The little band, forgetting in a moment that they had been 
assailed by merciless foes, who sought to massacre them, 
without regarding the laws of honourable war, now felt 
only the desire of relieving wounded men, and of admi- 
nistering comfort to the wretched. Had they been friends, 
had they been brothers, they could not have experienced 
a more tender solicitude. 

The whole night was occupied in endeavouring to as- 
suage their sufferings; provisions and buckets of water 
were handed over the pickets, and an opening was made, 
by which many of the sufferers were taken in, who were 
immediately supplied with surgical aid ; and this, although 
a firing was kept up with small arms by the enemy, until 
some time in the night. The loss of the garrison amount- 
ed to one killed and seven wounded ; that of the enemy, 
it is supposed, to be at least two hundred. Upwards of 
fifty were found in and about the ditch. It was discovered 
next morning, that the enemy had hastily retreated, leav- 
ing a boat, and a considerable quantity of military stores 



THE UNITED STATES. 

Upwards of seventy stand of arms were taken, besides a 
quantity of ammunition. The Americans were engaged 
during the day, in burying Jthe dead with the honours 4?f 
war, and providing for the wounded. 

This exploit called forth the admiration of every party 
in the United States. Croghan, together with his compa- 
nions, Captain Hunter, and Lieutenants Johnson, Bayley, 
and Meeks, of the seventeenth ; Anthony, of the twenty- 
fourth ; and ensigns Ship and Duncan, of the seventeenth, 
together with the other oflicers and volunteers, were 
highly complimented by the general. They afterwards 
received the thanks of Congress. Croghan was promoted 
to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and presented with an 
elegant sword by the ladies of Chilicothe. 

Soon after this affair, Tecumseh raised the siege of fort 
Meigs, and followed Proctor to Detroit ; all hope was now 
given up by the enemy of reducing these forts, until they 
could gain the ascendency on the lake. 

The utmost exertions had been made in the meanwhile 
by Captain Perry, to complete the naval armament on 
Lake Erie. By the 4th of August, the fleet was completed ; 
but several of the vessels were with difficulty got over the 
bar, on which there are but five feet water. He sailed in 
quest of the enemy, but not meeting him, returned on the 
8th, and after receiving a reinforcement of sailors, brought 
by Captain Elliot, sailed again on the 12th, and on the 15th 
anchored in the bay of Sandusky. Here, after taking in 
about twenty volunteer marines, he again went in quest 
of the enemy ; and after cruising off Maiden, returned to 
Put-in-bay, a distance of thirty miles. 

His fleet consisted of the brig Lawrence, of 20 guns ; 
the Niagara, Captain Elliot, of twenty ; the Caledonia, 
Lieutenant Turner, three ; the schooner Ariel, of four 
the Scorpion, of two ; the Somers of two, and two swivels 
the sloop Trippe, and schooners Tygress and Porcupine, 
of one gun each ; making a lleet of nine vessels and fifty- 
four guns. On the morning of the 10th of September, the 
enemy was discovered bearing down upon the American 
squadron, which immediately got under weigh, and stood 
out to meet him. 

Superiority was decidedly in favour of the British ; the 



286 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

* Americans had three more vessels, but this was much 
more than counterbalanced by the size of those of the 
enemy, and the number of their guns. Their fleet con- 
sisted of the Detroit, Captain Barclay, of nineteen guns, 
and two howitzers ; the Queen Charlotte, of seventeen 
guns, Captain Finnis ; the schooner Lady Provost, Lieu- 
tenant Buchan, of thirteen guns, and two howitzers ; the 
brig Hunter, of ten guns ; the sloop Little Belt, of three ; 
and the schooner Chippewa, of one gun and two swivels; 
in all, six vessels and sixty-three guns. 

When the Americans stood out, the British fleet had 
the weather gage ; but the wind soon after changed, and 
brought the American fleet to windward. The line of 
battle was formed at eleven, and fifteen minutes before 
twelve, the enemy's flag ship, the Queen Charlotte, open- 
ed her fire upon the Lawrence, which she sustained for 
ten minutes, before she could approach near enough for 
her carronades to return. She therefore bore up, ma- 
king signals for the other vessels to hasten to her sup- 
port, and about twelve, brought her guns to bear upon 
the enemy. 

Unfortunately, the wind being too light, the remainder 
of the squadron could not be brought up to her assistance, 
and she was compelled to contend, for two hours, with 
two ships of equal force. The contest was, notwithstand- 
ing, kept up with unshaken courage, and a degree of cool- 
ness which deserves admiration. By this time the brig, 
which had so long borne the brunt of the whole of 
the British force, had become entirely unmanageable ; 
every gun was dismounted, and, with the exception of 
four or five, her whole crew either killed or wounded. 
Perry now, with admirable presence of mind, and which 
drew forth the praise of the gallant officer to whom he 
was opposed, resolved to shift his flag, leaped into his 
boat, and heroically waving his sword, passed unhurt to 
the Niagara. 

At the moment he reached the Niagara, he saw with 
anguish the flag of his ship come down ; she was utterly 
unable to make further resistance, and it would have been 
a wanton waste of the remaining lives to continue the 
contest ; the enemy was not able to take possession of 



THE UNITED STATES. 387 

her. Captain Elliot, seconding the design of the com- 
modore, volunteered to bring up the rest of the fleet ; for 
at this critical moment the wind had providentially in- 
creased. Perry now bore down upon the enemy with a 
fresh ship ; and passing ahead of the Detroit, Queen 
Charlotte, and Lady Provost, poured a destructive broad- 
side into each from his starboard, and from his larboard 
into the Chippewa and Little Belt. In this manner, cut- 
Jng through the line, he was within pistol shot of the 
Lady Provost, which received so heavy a fire as to com- 
pel her men to run below. At this moment the Caledo- 
nia came up, and opened her fire ; several others of the 
squadron were enabled soon after to do the same. For a 
time, this novel and important combat mingled with in- 
describable violence and fury. 

The issue of a campaign, the mastery of a sea, the glory 
and renown of two rival nations, matched for the first 
time in squadron, were the incentives to the contest. But 
it was not long before the scale turned in favour of Perry, 
and his ship, the Lawrence, was again enabled to hoist 
her flag. The Queen Charlotte, having lost her captain 
and all her principal officers, by some mischance ran foul 
of the Detroit, and the greater part of the guns of both 
ships were rendered useless. They were now compelled to 
sustain, in turn, an incessant fire from the Niagara, and 
the other vessels oi the squadron. The flag of Captain 
Barclay was soon after struck, and those of the Queen 
Charlotte, the Lady Provost, the Hunter, and the Chip- 
pewa, came down in succession ; the Little Belt attempt- 
ed to escape, but was pursued by two gun boats and cap- 
tured. 

Thus, after a contest of three hours, was this unparal- 
leled naval victory achieved, in which every vessel of the 
enemy was captured, the first occurrence of the kind ever 
recorded. If any thing could heighten this glorious vic- 
tory, it was the modest and yet sublime manner in which 
it was announced by the incomparable Perry : WE HAVE 
MET THE ENEMY, AND THEY ARE OURS. Britain had been 
beaten in single combat she was now beaten in squad- 
ron, where she had conceived herself invincible. The 
loss in this bloody affair was very great, in proportion to 



288 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the numbers engaged. The Americans had twenty-seven 
killed, and ninety-six wounded ; amongst the first were 
Lieutenant Brooks, of the marines, and Midshipman 
Laub ; amongst the latter were Lieutenant Yarnell, sail- 
ing-master Taylor, purser Hamilton, and Midshipmen 
Claxton and Swartwout. 

The loss of the British was about two hundred in killed 
and wounded ; and the number of prisoners amounted to 
six hundred, exceeding the whole number of the Ameri- 
cans. Commodore Barclay, a gallant officer, who had lost 
an arm at the battle of Trafalgar, was severely wounded, 
and the loss of officers, on the side of the British, was 
unusually great. Among the officers particularly spoken 
of on this occasion, were Captain Elliot, Lieutenants Tur- 
ner, Edwards, Forest, Clark, and Cummings, besides these 
already mentioned. 

The victory of Commodore Perry left the Americans 
in peaceable possession of Lake Eric, but Detroit and 
Maiden still remained in possession of the British. The 
triumph of the American arms seemed to unite conflict- 
ing parties ; and the kindness extended to the British cnp- 
tives, reflected the brightest glory on our country. But 
the territory still occupied by the enemy was to be reta- 
ken. For the accomplishment of this purpose, Colonc) 
Johnson, with a body of his faithful Kentuckians, were 
destined to act against Detroit, and General Harrison was 
to march against Maiden. 

Finding Maiden untenable, the British general destroy- 
ed, and then evacuated it. On the 2d of October, Gene- 
ral Harrison, with about 3,500 men, commenced a pur- 
suit, and on the 5th, the enemy was overtaken. Colonel 
Johnson, who had formed a junction with General Harri- 
son, was sent forward to reconnoitre the British and In- 
dian forces, gave intelligence that the enemy were prepa- 
red for action, at the distance of a few miles. On their 
left was the river, and their right consisting of Indians, 
under Tecumseh, rested on a swamp. 

The American force consisted of Ohio militia, and four 
thousand Kentuckians, tne flower of their state, com- 
manded by Governor Shelby, who arrived at the camp of 
Harrison, on t!fi 7th of September. When the 






THE UNITED STATES. 23 J 

troops approached the River Raisin, which had been the 
scene to such wanton barbarities, they halted to contem- 
plate for a while the tragic spot. With feelings which 
language must fail to describe, they gathered up the un- 
distinguishable bones of friends and foes, and consigned 
them to one common grave, with affecting demonstrations 
of grief. 

The enemy was drawn up under cover of the beech 
trees by which the narrow strip of land was covered. 
The Americans were soon formed in battle array. Gene- 
ral Trotter's brigade formed the front line, supported by 
Desha's divisions on the left. The brigade of General 
King formed the second line, in rear of General Trotter's, 
and Chile's acted as a corps of reserve, both under the 
command of Major General Henry. The brigades ave- 
raged five hundred men each. Governor Shelby occu* 
pied the angle formed by the brigades of Trotter and 
Deslia. The regular troops, numbering only one hun- 
dred and twenty men, were formed into columns, and oc- 
cupied the narrow space between the river and the road, 
for the purpose of seizing the artillery, should the enemy 
be repulsed. The order of General Harrison was, to form 
Colonel Johnson's mounted men in two lines, in front of the 
Indians, but the underwood being too close for cavalry to 
be effective, he determined on a new mode of attack. 

Knowing the dexterity of the backwoodsmen in riding 
through forests, and the little inconvenience to them of 
carrying their rifles in such a situation, he determined to 
refuse his left, to the Indians, and charge on the regulars 
drawn up among the beech trees ; the mounted regiment 
was accordingly drawn up in front. The army moved on 
but a short distance in this way, when the mounted men 
received the enemy's fire, and were instantly ordered to 
charge. The horses in front of the column at first re 
coiled from the fire, but soon after got in motion, and im- 
mediately at full speed broke through the enemy with 
irresistible force. In one minute the contest was over in 
front. The mounted men instantly formed in the rear, 
and poured a destructive fire, and were about to make 
another charge, when the British officers, finding it impos- 
sible to form their broken ranks, immediately surrenderee! 



290 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Upon the left the onset was begun by Tecumseh with 
great fury. Colonel R. M. Johnson, who commanded on 
that flank of his regiment, received a galling fire, which 
he returned with effect, while the Indians advanced to- 
wards the point occupied by Governor Shelby ; and at 
first made an impression on it; but the aged warrior 
brought a regiment to its support. The combat now 
aged with increasing fury ; the Indians, to the numbei 
of twelve or fifteen hundred, seemed determined to main- 
tain their ground to the last. 

The terrible voice of Tecumseh could be distinctly 
heard encouraging his warriors ; and although beset on 
every side, excepting on that of the morass, they fought 
with more determined courage than had ever been wit- 
nessed in these people. An incident soon occurred, how- 
ever, which decided the contest. Colonel Johnson rush- 
ed towards the spot where the warriors, clustering around 
their undaunted chief, appeared resolved to perish by his 
side ; in a moment a hundred rifles were aimed at the 
American, whose uniform, and white horse which lie 
rode, rendered a conspicuous object ; his holsters, dress, 
and accoutrements, were pierced with bullets, his horse 
and himself receiving a number of wounds. At the in- 
stant his horse was about to sink under him, the daring 
Kentuckian, covered with blood from his wounds, was 
discovered by Tecumseh ; the chief having discharged his 
rifle, sprang forward with his tomahawk, but struck with 
the appearance of the warrior who stood before him. 
hesitated for a moment, and that moment was his last. 
The Kentuckian levelled a pistol at his breast, and they 
both, almost at the same instant, fell to the ground. The 
Kentuckians rushed forward to the rescue of their leader, 
and the Indians, no longer hearing the voice of Tecum- 
seh, soon after fled. Near the spot where this scene oc- 
curred, thirty Indians were found dead, and six whites. 

Thus fell Tecuinsen, the most celebrated Indian war- 
rior that ever ra:se<4 the tomanawk against us, and with 
him fell the last nope of our Indian enemies. This 
mighty warrior was the determined foe of civilization, and 
had for years been labouring to unite all the Indian tribes 
in opposing the progress of the settlements to the west- 



THE UNITED STATES. 291 

ward. Had such a man opposed the European colonists 
on their first arrival, this continent, in all probability, 
would still have been a wilderness. To those who pre- 
fer a savage, uncultivated waste, inhabited by wolves and 
panthers, and by men more savage still, to the busy city, 
to the peaceful hamlet and cottage, to science and the 
comforts of civilization, to such it may be a source of re- 
gret that Tccurnseh came too late. 

But if the cultivation of the earth, and the cultivation 
of the human intellect and the human virtues, are agreea- 
ble in the sight of the Creator, it maybe a just cause of 
felicitation that this champion of barbarism was the ally 
of Great Britain, at a period when he could only draw 
down destruction on his own head, by savagely daring 
what was beyond his strength. But Tecumseh fell, re- 
spected by his enemies as a great and magnanimous chief. 
Although he seldom took prisoners in battle, he treated 
well those that had been taken by others ; and at the defeat 
of Dudley, actually put to death a chief whom he found en- 
gaged in the work of massacre. He had been in almost 
every engagement with the whites since Harmer's defeat, 
although, at his death, he scarcely exceeded forty years 
of age. 

TecumseK bad received the stamp of greatness from 
the hand of nature , and had his lot been cast in a differ- 
ent state of society, he would have shone as one of the 
most distinguished of men. He was endowed with a 
powerful mind, with the soul of a hero. There was ai_ 
uncommon dignity in his countenance and manners ; by 
the former he could be easily discovered even after death, 
among the rest of the slain, for he wore no insignia of 
distinction. When girded with a silk sash, and told by 
General Proctor that he was made a brigadier in the Bri- 
tish service, for his conduct atBrownstown and Magagua, 
he returned the present with respectful contempt. Born 
with no title to command but his native greatness, every 
tribe yielded submission to him at once, and no one ever 
disputed his precedence. Subtle and fierce in war, he 
possessed uncommon eloquence, his speeches might bear 
a comparison with those of the most celebrated orators of 
Greece and Rome. His invective was terrible, as we had 



292 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

frequent occasion to experience, and as may be seen in 
the reproaches which he applied to Proctor, a few days 
before his death, in a speech which was found amongst 
the papers of the British officers. His form was uncom- 
monly elegant, his stature about six feet, his limbs per- 
fectly proportioned. He was honourably interred by the 
victors, by whom he was held in much respect, as an in- 
veterate, but a magnanimous enemy. 

The loss of the Americans, in this engagement, was 
more than fifty killed and wounded, among whom was 
Colonel Whitely, a revolutionary soldier, killed. The loss 
of the British was nineteen killed, and fifty wounded. Six 
hundred were taken prisoners ; of the Indians, one hun- 
dred and twenty were left on the field. Several pieces of 
cannon, taken in the revolution, and which had been sur- 
rendered by General Hull, were trophies of this victory. 
General Proctor fled when the charge was made, and es- 
caped down the Thames, by means of fleet horses, though 
closely pursued. His carriage, together with his private 
papers, was left in his haste to retreat. 

The time was now come, which would prove whether 
the stigma past upon the chivalrous people of Kentucky, 
by the infamous Proctor, in order that his own atrocious 
conduct might escape notice, was founded in truth. It 
was now seen whether, to use the words of this monster, 
they were a ** ferocious and mortal foe, using the same 
mode of warfare with the allies of Britain." The recol- 
lection of the affair of the River Raisin might have justi- 
fied revenge : and what is more, the instruments who 
perpetrated those horrid deeds were now at their dispo- 
sal ; bereft of hope by this signal defeat, and the loss of 
their great leader, the savages sued for peace ; and as an 
earnest of their sincerity, offered to raise their toma- 
hawks on the side of the United States, and to inflict 
upon the British prisoners, the same abominable cruellies 
they had practised on the Americans. 

But the Kentuckians, to their honour, far from giving 
way to the passions of revenge, forebore even a word, or 
look of insult ; there was not even an allusion to the 
murder of their brothers and friends ; the prisoners were 
distributed in small parties, in the interior towns, and al 



THE UNITED STATES. 293 

though extremely insulting in their deportment, were not 
merely treated with humanity, but in many places actually 
caressed and fed with dainties by the compassionate inha- 
bitants. This treatment was carried to an excess, which 
might properly deserve the name of folly, were it not a 
noble mode of revenge for what our countrymen at that 
moment endured in the British dungeons on the land, 
and in the floating prisons on the sea, where they under- 
went every species of distress, wretchedness, and torture. 

The Indian war now ceased, and our frontier rested in 
security. Most of the volunteers returned home. Gene- 
ral Harrison stationed General Cass at Detroit, with 
about one thousand men, and proceeded with the remain- 
der to join the central army at Buffalo. About this time, 
at the request of General Vincent, a correspondence was 
opened between him and General Harrison, relative to 
the treatment of the British prisoners. After assuring 
the British general that the request to treat his prisoners 
with humanity, was unnecessary, he referred him to the 
treatment experienced by American captives, and referred 
him to the scenes which had transpired at the River Rai- 
sin, the Miami, others of a similar complexion, and wish- 
ed to be informed whether the Indians should be permit- 
ted to repeat those cruelties. His words are worthy of 
remembrance. 

" Use, then, I pray yon, your authority and influence to 
stop the dreadful effusion of innocent blood which pro- 
ceeds from the employment of those savage monsters, 
whose aid, as must now be discovered, is so little to be 
depended on when most wanted, and which can have so 
trifling an effect on the issue of war. The effect of their 
barbarities will not be confined to the present generation. 
Ages yet to come will feel the deep rooted hatred and 
enmity which they must produce between the two na- 
tions." 

The reply of General Vincent was not unlike that of 
Sir Sidney Beckwith, vague and evasive. He expressed 
himself perfectly satisfied on the score of the treatment 
of the prisoners, but, with respect to the other topics, he 
declined saying any thing ; it was beyond his power to 
give an explicit answer; but he pledged his honour, that, 

25* 



294 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

to the iltmost of his power, he would join with General 
Harrison in alleviating- the calamities of war. Although 
General Harrison pledged himself to produce proofs of 
every thing which he stated, General Vincent chose to be 
silent upon the subject; neither disavowing that such acts 
*rere sanctioned by the British government, nor calling 
the truth of them in question. 

The successes of the northwestern army, and the vic- 
tory on Lake Erie, prepared the way for the invasion of 
Canada. A more formidable force was collected on the 
frontier than heretofore, under more experienced officers, 
and the Indians had declared against the enemy. The 
public mind was elated, and a lit opportunity presented 
for the invasion of Canada. 

General Armstrong was at the head of the war depart- 
ment, and much was expected from his experience and 
zeal. Improvements were introduced, especially in the 
selection of officers. The secretary proceeded to the 
northern frontier to put his plans into operation. The 
plan was, perhaps, judicious, but the season was too far 
advanced to accomplish his intentions. 

General Dearborn resigned, and General Wilkinson 
was called from the southern army to supply his place. 
He issued an order, which gave general satisfaction, and 
much was expected from his military science. The force 
directly under his command, amounted to eight thousand 
men, and he expected to be joined in October by the 
force under General Harrison. General Hampton com- 
manded about four thousand men at Plattsburg. The 
plan was, to descend the St. Lawrence, pass the British 
posts above, form a junction with General Hampton, and 
invade Montreal. 

The army, which had been distributed in different 
corps, and stationed at various points, was now to be con- 
centrated at some place most convenient for its embarka- 
tion. For this purpose Grenadier's Island, which lies be- 
tween Sackett's Harbour and Kingston, was selected on 
account of its contiguity to the St. Lawrence, as the most 
proper place of rendezvous. On the second of October, 
General Wilkinson left Fort George, with the principal 
body of the troops, and 'soon reached the island, w r here 



THE UNITED STATES. 295 

he occupied himself incessantly in making the necessary 
preparations for the prosecution of his enterprise. He 
several times visited Sackett's Harbour, at which place 
the troops first arrived, and, after receiving their neces- 
sary supplies, proceeded to the place of rendezvous. 
Colonel Scott, whom he had left in command at Fort 
George, was ordered to embark with his regiment of ar- 
tillery, and Colonel Randolph's infantry, on board a ves- 
sel of the squadron, and proceed to the island. Colonel 
Dennis was left in the command of Sackett's Harbour ; 
and the general having provided a sufficient number of 
boats to transport the artillery through the St. Lawrence, 
proceeded to put the troops in motion. By the twenty- 
third, the troops thus collected exceeded seven thousand 
men, and were composed of Colonel Porter's light artil- 
lery, g few companies of Colonel Scott's and Macomb's 
regiments of artillery, twelve regiments of infantry, and 
Forsythe's rifle corps. 

General Brown, now a brigadier in the service of the 
United States, was ordered to take the command of the 
advance of the army at this place. On the first of No- 
vember, a British squadron made its appearance near 
French Creek, with a large body of infantry; a battery 
of three eighteen pounders, skilfully managed by Cap- 
tains M'Pherson and Fanning, soon forced them to re- 
tire. The attack was renewed the next morning, but 
with no better success ; and as the other corps of the 
army now daily arrived, the enemy thought proper to 
move off. 

On the sixth the army was put in. motion, and in the 
evening landed a few miles above the British fort Pres- 
cott. After reconnoitering the passage at this place, and 
finding that the fort commanded the river, General Wil 
kinson directed the fixed ammunition to be transported 
by land to a safe point below, and determined to take ad- 
vantage of the night to pass with the flotilla, while the 
troops were marched to the same point, leaving on board 
the boats merely a sufficient number to navigate them. 
Availing himself of a heavy fog which came on in the 
evening, the commander endeavoured to pass the fort un- 
observed ; but, the weather clearing up, and the moon 



296 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

shining, he was discovered by the enemy, who opened a 
heavy fire. 

General Brown, who was in the rear with the flotilla, 
thought it prudent to land for the present, until the night 
should grow darker. He then proceeded down the river, 
but not without being discovered, and again exposed to a 
severe cannonade ; notwithstanding which, not one of 
hree hundred boats suffered the slightest injury. Before 
ten o'clock the next day, they had all safely arrived at the 
place of destination. A messenger was now despatched 
to General Hampton, informing him of the movement of 
the army, and requiring his co-operation. 

The enemy having discovered the design of the Ameri- 
cans, determined to counteract it. Parties were posted 
where they could annoy our boats by musket shot, and 
the illness of the commander in chief augmented ajarm- 
ingly. 

The army was delayed for half a day in extricating 
two schooners loaded with provisions, which had been 
driven into a part of the river near Ogdensburgh, by 
the enemy's fire. A corps d'elite of twelve hundred 
men, under Colonel Macomb, being despatched to re- 
move the obstructions to the descent of the army, at 
three o'clock he was followed by the main body. On 
passing the first rapids of the St. Lawrence, the barge of 
the commander in chief was assailed by two pieces of 
artillery, but without any other injury than cutting the 
rigging. The attention of the enemy was soon diverted 
by Lieutenant Colonel Eustis, who returned their fire from 
some light barges, while Major Forsythe, at the same 
time, landed some of his riflemen, attacked them unex- 
pectedly, and carried off three pieces of their artillery. 
The flotilla came to about six miles below, and the dra- 
goons attached to the first divisions of the enemy, had 
been collected at a place called the White House, at a 
contraction of the river ; to which point the flotilla was 
ordered the next morning to proceed. On arriving at 
this place on the eighth, General Brown was ordered to 
go forward with his brigade, to reinforce Colonel Macomb, 
and take command of the advance, while the commander 
in chief directed the transportation of the dragoons 



THE UNITED STATES. 297 

across the St. Lawrence. The last was completed during 
the night. 

The British now determined to harass the Americans. 
On the 9th, a skirmish occurred between .the American 
riflemen and a party of militia and Indians. In the course 
of the day, the cavalry and four pieces of artillery? under 
Captain M'Pherson, were ordered to clear the coast as far 
as the head of the Longue Saut ; and in the evening the 
army arrived at the place called the Yellow House, which 
stands near the Saut. As the passage of this place was 
attended with considerable difficulty, on account of the 
rapidity of the current and of its length, it was deemed 
prudent to wait until the next day, and in the meanwhile 
it became necessary to use the utmost precaution. 

On the morning of the tenth, General Brown, with the 
troops under his command, excepting two pieces of artil- 
lery, and the second regiment of dragoons, was ordered 
to march in the advance of the army. A regard for the 
safety of the men, had induced the commander in chief to 
retain as few of the troops in the boats as possible, on ac- 
count of the exposure to which they would be subject, in 
the long and dangerous passage of these rapids, and where 
the enemy had in all probability established batteries for 
the purpose of impeding their descent. The second regi- 
ment of dragoons, and a considerable portion of the other 
brigades, which had been withdrawn from the boats, were 
ordered to follow, under General Boyd, the steps of Ge- 
neral Brown, to prevent the enemy, who were still hang- 
ing on the rear of the army, from making any advantageous 
attack. 

General Brown now commenced his march at the head 
of his troops, consisting principally of Colonel Macomb's 
artillery, and a part of Scott's regiment of light artillery, 
the riflemen, and the sixth, fifteenth, and twenty-second 
regiments. It was not long before he found himself en- 
gaged with a strong party at a block house near the Saut, 
which, after a contest of a few minutes, was repulsed by 
the riflemen under Forsythe, who was severely wounded. 

About the same time, some of the enemy's galleys ap- 
proached the flotilla, which had landed, and commenced a 
fire upon it, by which a number of boats were injured ; 



298 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

two eighteen pounders, however, being hastily run on 
shore, a fire from them soon compelled the assailants to 
retire. The day being now too far spent to attempt the 
Saut, it was resolved to postpone it until the day fol- 
lowing. 

At ten o'clock on the eleventh, at the moment that the 
flotilla was about to proceed, and when, at the same time, 
the division under General Boyd, consisting of his own, 
and- the brigades of Generals Covington and Swartwout, 
were drawn up in marching order, an alarm was given, 
that the enemy was discovered approaching in column. 
The commander in chief and General Lewis, being both 
too much indisposed to take the command, General Boyd 
was ordered to face about and attack the approaching army. 

The enemy's galleys had at the same time approached 
for the purpose of attacking the rear of the American flo- 
tilla. General Boyd now advanced with his detachment 
formed in three columns, and ordered a part of General 
Swartwout's brigade to move forward, and bring the ene- ' 
my to action. Colonel Ripley, accordingly, at the head 
of the 2 1st. regiment, passed the wood which skirts the 
open ground called Chrystler's field, and drove in several 
of the enemy's parties. On entering the field, he met the 
advance of the British, consisting of the forty-ninth and 
the Glengary fencibles. Colonel Ripley immediately 
ordered a charge, which was executed with surprising 
firmness, so that these two regiments, nearly double his 
numbers, were compelled to retire ; and on making a 
stand, were a second time driven before the bayonet, and 
compelled to pass over the ravines and fences, by which 
the field was intersected, until they fell on their main body. 

General Covington had, before this, advanced upon the 
right of the enemy, where his artillery was posted ; and 
at the moment Colonel Ripley had assailed the left flank, 
the right was forced by a determined onset, and success 
appeared scarcely doubtful. Unfortunately, however, 
General Covington, whose activity had rendered him con- 
spicuous, became a mark for the sharp shooters of the 
enerny, stationed in Chrystler's house, and he was shot 
from his horse. The fall of this gallant officer arrested 
the progress of the brigade, and the artillery of the ene- 



THE UNITED STATES. 299 

<ny threw it into confusion, and caused it to fall back in 
disorder. The Britisli commander now wheeled part of 
his line into column, with the view of capturing some pie- 
ces of artillery, jnrhich were no longer supported. A bo- 
dy of dragoons, under the Adjutant-General Walbach, at* 
tempted, in a very gallant manner, to charge the British 
column, but from the nature of the ground was not suc- 
cessful. 

At this critical moment, Colonel Ripley, who had been 
engaged with the enemy's left flank, threw his regiment 
between the artillery and the advancing column, and frus- 
trated their design. The British fell back with precipi- 
tation. The regiments which had broken, had not reti- 
red from the field, but still continued to keep up an irre- 
gular fight with various success ; and the twenty-first ha- 
ving by this time expended its ammunition, and being 
much exposed, was withdrawn to another position, and 
in the meanwhile the enemy again attempted to possess 
themselves of the artillery. One piece was unfortunately 
captured by them, in consequence of the death of Lieu- 
tenant William S. Smith, who commanded it ; the others 
were brought off by the coolness and bravery of Captain 
Armstrong Irvine. The action soon after ceased, having 
been kept up for two hours, by little better than raw troops 
against an equal number of veterans. The British force 
consisted of detachments from the forty-ninth, eighty- 
fourth, hundred and fourth, the Voltigeurs, and the Glen- 
gary regiment. The enemy soon after retired to their 
camp, and the Americans to their boats. 

In this battle, the loss of the Americans in killed and 
wounded, amounted to three hundred and thirty-nine, of 
whom one hundred and two were killed ; among these 
were Lieutenants Smith, Hunter, and Olmstead ; among 
the wounded were General Covington, who afterwards 
died ; Colonel Preston ; Majors Chambers, Noon, and 
Cummings ; Captains Townsend, Foster, Myers, Camp- 
bell, and Murdock ; and Lieutenants Heaton, Williams, 
Lynch, Pelham. Brown, and Creery. The British loss 
could not have been less than that of the Americans. 

This appears to have been a drawn battle ; the British 
and Americans both leaving the ground. On the 1 1th, 



300 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the army joined the advance near Barnhart. The com* 
mander in chief received information from General Hamp- 
ton, which piit an end to the design against Montreal. 

On the sixth, a few days before the battle of Chrystler's 
field, the commander in chief had given orders to Gene- 
ral Hampton to meet him at St. Regis ; but soon after 
this order, a letter was received from General Hampton, 
in which, after stating that from the disclosure of the state 
of General Wilkinson's supply of provisions, and the 
situation of the roads to St. Regis, which rendered it im- 
possible to transport a greater quantity than could be car- 
ried by a man on his back, he had determined to open a 
communication from Plattsburgh to Conewago, or by any 
other point on the St. Lawrence, which the commander 
in chief might indicate. 

General Hampton, some time before this, with a view 
to a further movement of troops, had descended the Cha- 
teaugay river, about the same time that the army was con- 
centrated on Lake Ontario. Sir George Prevost, per- 
ceiving this movement towards Montreal, had collected 
al^ ms force at this point to oppose the march of Hamp- 
ton. On the twenty-first of October, this officer crossed 
the line, but soon found his road obstructed by fallen tim- 
ber, and the ambuscade of the enemy's militia and In- 
dians. A wood of considerable extent would have to be 
passed, before they could reach the open country ; and 
while the engineers were engaged in cutting their way 
through, Colonel Purdy was detached with the light 
troops, and one regiment of the line, to turn their flank, 
and then seize on the open country below. In this he 
succeeded, and the army by the next day reached the po- 
sition of the advance. 

But it was discovered, that about seven miles further 
there was a wood which had been felled, and formed into 
an abattis, and that a succession of breastworks, some of 
them well supplied with artillery, had been formed by the 
main body of the enemy. Colonel Purdy, on the 25th, 
was ordered to march down the river on the opposite 
side, and, on passing the enemy, to cross over, and attack 
him in his rear, whilst the brigade under General Izard 
would attack him in front. Colonel Purdy had not march- 



THE UNITED STATES. 301 

ed far when his orders were countermanded ; but, on his 
return, he was attacked by the enemy's infantry and In- 
dians, and at first thrown into confusion, but the assailants 
were soon after repulsed ; they came out at the same mo- 
ment in front, and attacked General Izard, but were com- 
pelled to retire behind their defences. 

General Hampton, finding that the enemy was gaining 
strength, determined to retreat. A council of officers 
was called by the commander in chief, and the army re- 
tired to winter quarters at French Mills. 

Thus determined a campaign which gave rise to dissa- 
tisfaction, proportioned to the high expectations which 
had been indulged ; this unexpected turn of affairs ap- 
peared to cast a shade upon all the brilliant series of suc- 
cess which had preceded. Opinion was much divided as 
to the causes of the failure, and as to the parties who 
ought to bear the blame. 

While these things were taking place on the land, the 
commander of our squadron on the lake was not idle. 
Commodore Chauncey, it has been seen, after his first at- 
tempt to bring the enemy to action, returned to Sackett's 
Harbour, for the purpose of obtaining a fresh supply of 
provisions. After being reinforced by a new schooner, 
he again sailed on a cruise ; and, on the seventh of Sep- 
tember, discovered the British squadron near the Niagara, 
and immediately stood for it. Sir James, on perceiving 
the Americans, made sail to the northward, and was pur- 
sued during four days and nights ; but owing to the dull 
sailing of a greater part of the pursuers, he was enabled 
to keep out of their reach. 

On the fourth day, off Genessee River, Commodore 
Chauncey, having a breeze, while Sir James lay becalmed, 
endeavoured to close with him ; this he was not able to 
accomplish, the enemy taking the breeze also, when the 
American squadron had approached within half a mile. 
After a running fight of more than three hours, the Bri- 
tish escaped, but the next morning ran into AmherstBay, 
whither the American commodore, for want of a pilot, 
did not think it prudent to follow, but contented himself 
^yith forming a blockade. In the running fight the Bri- 
tish sustained considerable injury ; that of the Americana 

26 



302 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

was very trifling. The blockade was continued until the 
seventeenth of September, when, in consequence of a 
heavy gale which blew from the westward, the commo- 
dore was compelled to leave his station, and the British 
escaped into Kingston. 

After remaining but a short time in Sackett's Harbour, 
Commodore Chauncey again sailed towards Niagara, 
Where he arrived on the 24th, having passed Sir James at 
the False Ducks, without noticing him, intending to draw 
him into the lake. A few days after, the American com- 
modore received information, that the enemy was in the 
harbour of York ; he, therefore, made sail to that place, 
as fast as his dull sailing schooners would permit ; and, on 
the twenty-seventh, early in the morning, discovered the 
enemy in motion in the bay, and immediately stood foi 
him. This being perceived by Sir James, he stood out. 
and endeavoured to escape to the southward, but finding 
that the American was close upon him, tacked his squad- 
ron in succession, and commenced a well directed lire at 
the Pike, in order to cover his rear, and attacking the 
rear of his opponent as he passed to leeward ; this was 
prevented by the skilful manoeuvring of Chauncey, by 
bearing down in line on the centre of the enemy's squad- 
ron, which was thrown into confusion ; Yeo immediately 
bore away, but not before his ship had been roughly hand- 
led by that of the commodore. In twenty minutes, the 
main and mizentopmast, and mainyard of the Wolfe, were 
shot away ; the British commander set sail upon his fore- 
mast, and keeping dead before the wind, was enabled to 
outsail the greater part of Chauncey's squadron. The 
chase was continued until three o'clock, the Pike having 
the Asp in tow, and, during the greater part of this time, 
within reach of the enemy's shot. Captain Crane, in the 
Madison, and Lieutenant Brown, of the Oneida, used every 
exertion to close with the enemy, but without success, 
The chase was at length reluctantly given up, as it came 
on to blow almost a gale, and there was no hope of clo- 
sing with the enemy before he could reach the British bat- 
teries, and without great risk of running .ashore. The 
commodore was justly entitled to claim a victory in this 
affair ; although the enemy were not captured, they were 



THE UNITED STATES. 303 

certainly beaten ; two of his vessels were at one moment 
completely in the commodore's power ; but from his ea- 
gerness to close with the whole fleet, they effected their 
escape. In addition to the general policy of Sir James 
Yeo, the late affair on Lake Erie had rendered him parti- 
cularly careful to avoid an engagement. The loss on 
board the Pike was considerable, Bowing to her having 
been so long exposed to the fire of the enemy's fleet ; 
the most serious, however, was occasioned by the burst- 
ing of one of her guns, by which twenty-two men were 
killed and wounded ; the total amounted to twenty-seven. 
The vessel was a good deal cut up in her hull and rig- 
ging- 

Shortly after this affair, the commodore having com- 
municated with General Wilkinson on the subject of the 
expedition then on foot, was advised to continue to watch 
the enemy's squadron ; and, if possible, to prevent its re- 
turn to Kingston. About the beginning of October, the 
commodore again chased the enemy's fleet for several 
days, and forced it to take refuge in Burlington Bay ; the 
next morning, on sending the Lady of the Lake to recon- 
noitre, it was discovered that Sir James had taken ad- 
vantage of the darkness of night, and escaped to Kings- 
ton. Much pleasantry was indulged at this time, at the 
shyness of the British knight, and his ungallant escape 
from the Lady of the Lake. The chase was now renew- 
ed, and, favoured by the wind, the commodore came in 
sight of seven schooners, 'and captured five of them, in 
spite of their efforts to escape by separating. Before sun- 
down, three of them struck to the Pike, and another to 
the Sylph and the Lady of the Lake, and a fifth was af- 
terwards captured by the Sylph. They turned out to be 
gun vessels, bound to the head of the lake as transports. 
Two of them were the Julia and Growler, which had 
been lost by the Americans. On board were three hun- 
dred soldiers belonging to the De Watteville regiment. 
It was ascertained that the ship of Sir James Yeo, and the 
Royal George, had suffered very considerable injury, as 
well as loss in killed and wounded. Commodore Chaun- 
cey remained master of the lake during the remainder of 
the season. 



304 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

The consequence of leaving a large force of the ene- 
my in the rear, and withdrawing the troops from Niagara 
were soon felt. General Harrison arrived at Buffalo soon 
after the departure of the commander in chief, but could 
not follow for want of transports. He embarked after the 
main body had gone into winter quarters. The fort was 
left under command of General M'Clure, who command- 
ed militia whose term of service had nearly expired. 
This force was soon reduced to a handful of men, and the 
place was no longer tenable. The enemy was in march 
with a large force. The fort was blown up, and the few 
troops crossed the river, just in time to escape the British. 
But this retreat was preceded by an act which every Ame- 
rican ought to condemn. Newark, a handsome little vil- 
lage, near the fort, would greatly favour a besieging ar- 
my ; and orders were given by the secretary, that if ne- 
cessary for the defence of the fort, the village should be 
destroyed, to prevent the enemy from taking shelter in it. 
By an astonishing misconception of these orders, the ge- 
neral gave notice to the inhabitants to retire, and left the 
village in flames. The act was promptly disavowed by 
the government. The order, so misconceived, was soon 
enclosed to Sir George Prevost, expressing regret, and 
declaring the act unauthorized. 

Sir George Prevost, however, did not wait for the disa- 
vowal of the American government; he had already in- 
flicted a retaliation sufficient to satisfy the vengeance of 
the fiercest enemy. At daylight, on the nineteenth of 
December, Fort Niagara was surprised by Colonel Mur- 
ray, with about four hundred men ; and the garrison, 
nearly three hundred in number, and principally invalids, 
was put to the sword ; not more than twenty being able 
to escape. The commanding officer, Captain Leonard, 
appears to have been shamefully negligent, or perhaps 
bought by the enemy : he was absent at the time, and had 
used no precautions against an assault. Having possess- 
ed themselves of this place, they soon after increased 
their force, and immediately proceeded to lay waste the 
Niagara frontier Avith fire and sword. The militia, hastily 
collected, could oppose no resistance to a large body of 
British regulars and seven hundred Indians. A spirited, 



THE UNITED STATES. 305 

but unavailing attempt, was made by Major Bennett to de- 
fend Lewistown ; this village, together with that of Man- 
chester, Young's Town, and the Indian village of the Tus- 
caroras, were speedily reduced to ashes, and many of the 
inhabitants butchered. 

Major Mellory advanced from Slosser, to oppose the 
invaders, but was compelled by superior numbers to re- 
treat. On the thirtieth, a detachment landed at Black 
Rock, and proceeded to Buffalo ; General Hall had or- 
ganized a body of militia, but on the approach of the ene- 
my, they could not be induced to hold their ground. 
Great exertions were made by Majors Staunton and Nor- 
ton, and Lieutenant Riddle, but to no purpose. The vil- 
lage was soon after reduced to ashes, and the whole fron- 
tier, for many miles, exhibited a scene of ruin and devas- 
tation. Here was indeed ample vengeance for the burn- 
ing of Newark. ' Even the British general was satisfied, as% 
appears by his proclamation of the twelfth of January : 
" the opportunity of punishment has occurred, and a full 
measure of retribution has taken place:" and he declared 
his intention of "pursuing no further a system of warfare 
so revolting to his own feelings, and so little congenial 
to the British character." 

We think indeed it was time to stop, and we are well 
persuaded that those who venerate the lex talionis, must 
be satisfied that the measure of vindictive vengeance was 
full to overflowing. 

About this time a very interesting subject was submit- 
ted to the consideration of congress. Twenty-three Ame- 
rican soldiers taken at the battle of Queenstown, in the 
autumn of 1812, were detained in close confinement as 
British subjects ; and sent to England to undergo a trial 
for treason. On this being made known to our govern 
ment, orders were given to General Dearborn to confine 
a like number of British prisoners taken at Fort George, 
and to keep them as hostages for the safety of the Ameri- 
cans ; which was carried into effect, and soon after made 
known to the governor of Canada. The British govern- 
ment was no sooner informed of this, than Governor Pre- 
vost was ordered to place forty-six American officers and 
26* 



306 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF * 

non-commissioned officers in confinement, to ensure the 
safety of the British soldiers. 

This subject was the theme of very immediate debate 
in congress, which Avas at this time in session. 

The result of this debate was, a determination to main- 
tain with firmness the position which the administration 
had taken ; and if Great Britain persisted in the fell reso- 
lution of rendering the war bloody beyond the example 
of modern times, the United States must, reluctantly, pur- 
sue a course to be lamented by every man of common 
humanity. 

Notwithstanding the intemperate opposition on the 
floor of congress, the war was evidently gaining ground ; 
the conduct of the enemy in the prosecution of hostilities, 
was such as to awaken the feelings of every American ; 
and the rejection of the Russian mediation staggered many, 
who confidently predicted its prompt acceptance. The 
victories which we had obtained at sea, came home to 
the feelings of the whole nation, and were claimed ex- 
clusively by the opposition, as having alwa)-s been the 
best friends to the navy. The British actually complain- 
ed that those whom she considered her friends in Ame- 
rica, should rejoice in her misfortunes : and accused them 
of faithlessness and inconstancy, because they permitted 
their love of country to overcome their hatred for the 
men in power. But this was a delightful proof of nation- 
ality, such as might have been expected from Britain her- 
self, or from France, though not from a nation so recently 
composed of independent jarring states, not yet perfectly 
cemented. 

It becomes every virtuous man to rejoice in the good 
fortune of his country, however he may dislike the pre- 
sent rulers. This sentiment was gradually gaining ground ; 
the warlike appearances every where displayed, interested 
the ardent minds of the young and enterprising, and the 
feats of arms daily recounted, awakened the desire of 
being distinguished. The contagion of military pursuits 
was rapidly spreading. The habits of a people who had 
been thirty years at peace, and constantly occupied in 
their industrious avocations, could not be changed sud- 
denly. But man is every where by nature warlike, and 



THE UNITED STATES. 307 

cannot exist long in the midst of martial scenes and pre- 
parations, without catching their spirit. It would not 
have been difficult to predict, that the foreign enemy, 
which was at first regarded only as the enemy of a party, 
would soon become the enemy of the country. 

Our affairs in the southward had assumed a serious 
aspect, and no sooner had the northern armies retired 
into winter quarters, than the public attention was kept 
alive by the interesting events which transpired in the 
country of the Creeks during the winter. That ill fated 
people had at length declared open war. 

In consequence of the threatening appearances to the 
south, and the hostilities which already prevailed with 
the Indians inhabiting the Spanish territory, Governor 
Mitchell, of Georgia, was required, by the secretary at 
war, to detach a brigade to the Oakmulgee river, for the 
purpose of covering the frontier settlements of the state. 
Governor Holmes, of the Mississippi territory, was, at 
the same time, ordered to join a body of militia to the 
volunteers under General Claiborne, then stationed on 
the Mobile. In the course of the summer, the settlers in 
the vicinity of that river, became so much alarmed from 
the hostile deportment of the Creeks, that the greater 
part abandoned their plantations, and sought refuge in the 
different forts ; while the peace party amongst the Creeks 
had, in some places, shut themselves up in forts, and were 
besieged by their countrymen. 

The commencement of hostilities was witnessed by one 
of the most shocking massacres that can be found in the 
history of our Indian wars. The settlers, from an im- 
perfect idea of their danger, had adopted an erroneous 
mode of defence, by throwing themselves into small forts 
or stations, at great distances from each other, on the va- 
rious branches of the Mobile. Early in August, it was 
ascertained, that the Indians intended to make an attack 
upon all these stations, and destroy them in detail. The 
first place which they would attempt, would probably be 
Fort Minis, in which the greatest number of families had 
oeen collected. 

Towards the latter part of August, information was 
brought that the Indians were about to make an attack on 



308 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

this post, but unfortunately too little attention was paid to 
the warning. During the momentary continuance of the 
alarm, some preparations were made for defence, but it 
seems that it was almost impossible to rouse them from 
their unfortunate disbelief of the proximity of their dan- 
ger. The fort was commanded by Major Beasley, of the 
Mississippi territory, (a brave officer, and, as a private 
citizen, highly respected,) with about a hundred volun- 
teers under his command. By some fatality, notwith- 
standing the warnings he had received, he was not suffi- 
ciently on his guard, and suffered himself to be surprised 
on the thirtieth, at noon-day. 

The sentinel had scarcely time to notify the approach 
of the Indians, when they rushed, with a dreadful yell, 
towards the gate, which was wide open; the garrison was 
instantly under arms, and the major flew towards the gate, 
with some of his men, in order to close it, and, if possible, 
expel the enemy ; but he soon after fell mortally wound- 
ed. The gate was at length closed, after great slaughter 
on both sides ; but a number of the Indians had taken 
possession of a block house, from which they were ex- 
pelled, after a bloody contest, by Captain Jack. The as- 
sault was still continued for an hour on the outside of the 
pickets ; the port holes were several times carried by the 
assailants, and retaken by those within the fprt. 

The Indians now for a moment withdrew, apparently 
disheartened by their loss, but, on being harangued by 
their chief, Weatherford, they returned with augmented 
fury to the assault; having procured axes, they proceeded 
to cut down the gate, and, at the same time, made a breach 
in the pickets, and possessing themselves of the area of 
the fort, compelled the besieged to take refuge in the 
houses. Here they made a gallant resistance, but the 
Indians at length setting fire to the roofs, the situation of 
these unfortunate people became altogether hopeless. 
The agonizing shrieks of the unfortunate women and 
children at their unhappy fate, would have awakened pity 
in the breasts of tigers ; it is only by those who have 
some faint idea of the nature of Indian warfare, that the 
horror of their situation can be conceived. The terror 
of the scene had already been sufficient to have bereft 



THE UNITED STATES. 309 

them of their senses ; but what heart does not bleed at 
the recital of its realities. Not a soul was spared by these 
monsters ; from the most aged person to the youngest in- 
fant, they became the victims of indiscriminate butchery ; 
and some, to avoid a worse fate, even rushed into the 
flames. A few only escaped by leaping over the pickets, 
while the Indians were engaged in the work of massacre. 

About two hundred and sixty persons, of all ages and 
sexes, thus perished, including some friendly Indians, and 
about one hundred negroes. The panic caused at the 
other posts or stations, by this dreadful catastrophe, can 
scarcely be described ; the wretched inhabitants, fearing 
a similar fate, abandoned their retreats of fancied securi- 
ty in the middle of the night, and in their endeavours to 
escape to Mobile, encountered every species of suffering. 
The dwellings of these settlers, (who were probably as 
numerous as the whole tribe of Creeks,) were burnt, and 
their cattle destroyed. 

On the receipt of this disastrous intelligence, the Ten- 
nessee militia, under the orders of General Jackson and 
General Cocke, immediately marched to the country of 
the Creeks. On the second of November, General Cof- 
fee was detached, with nine hundred men, against the 
Tallushatches towns, and reached the place about day- 
light the next morning. The Indians, apprised of his 
approach, were prepared to receive him. Within a short 
distance of the village, the enemy charged upon him, with 
a boldness seldom displayed by Indians. They were re- 
pulsed, and after a most obstinate resistance, in which they 
would receive no quarters, they were slain almost to a 
man, and their women and children taken prisoners. 
There were nearly two hundred of the warriors killed 
in this affair. The loss of the Americans was five killed 
and forty wounded. 

Late in the morning of the seventh, a friendly Indian 
brought intelligence to General Jackson, that about thirty 
miles below his camp, were a number of Creeks collected 
at a place called Talledega, where they were engaged in 
besieging a number of friendly Indians, who must inevi- 
tably perish unless speedily relieved. This officer, whose 
resolutions were as rapidly executed as they were formed, 



310 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

marched at twelve o'clock the same night, at the head of 
twelve hundred men, and arrived within six miles of the 
place the next evening. 

At midnight he again advanced by seven o'clock was 
within a mile of the enemy, and immediately made the 
most judicious arrangements for surrounding them. Ha- 
ving approached in this manner almost unperceived, within 
eighty yards of the Indians, the battle commenced on 
their part with great fury ; but being repulsed on all sides, 
they attempted to make their escape, but soon found them- 
selves enclosed ; two companies having at first given way, 
a space was left through which a considerable number of 
the enemy escaped, and were pursued to the mountains 
with great slaughter. In this action, the American loss 
was fifteen killed and eighty wounded. That of the 
Creeks was little short of three hundred ; their whole 
force exceeded a thousand. 

General Cocke, who commanded the other division of 
the Tennessee militia, on the llth detached General 
White from Fort Armstrong, where he was encamped, 
against the hostile towns on the Tallapoose river. After 
marching the whole night of the seventeenth, he surprised 
a town at daylight, containing upwards of three hundred 
warriors, sixty of whom were killed, and the rest taken 
prisoners. Having burnt several of their villages, which 
had been deserted, he returned on the twenty-third, with- 
out losing a single man. 

The Georgia militia, under General Floyd, advanced 
into the Creek country, about the last of the month. 
Receiving information that a great number of Indians 
were collected at the Autossee towns, on the Tallapoose 
river, a place which they called their beloved ground, 
and where, according to their prophets, no white man 
could molest them ; General Floyd, placing himself at 
the head of nine hundred militia, and four hundred friend- 
ly Creeks, marched from his encampment on the Chata- 
houchie. On the evening of the twenty-eighth, he en- 
camped within ten miles of the place, and resuming his 
march at one o'clock, reached the towns about six, and 
commenced an attack upon both at the same moment. 
His troops were met by the Indians with uncommon 



THE UNITED STATES. 311 

bravery; and it was not until after an obstinate resistance, 
that they were forced, by his musketry and bayonets, to 
fly to the thickets and copses in the rear of the towns. 
In the course of three hours the enemy was completely 
defeated, and the villages in flames. Eleven Americans 
were killed and fifty wounded, among the latter the gene- 
ral himself; of the enemy, it is supposed that beside the 
Autosse and Tallasse kings, upwards of two hundred were 
killed. 

This just retribution, it was hoped, would bring these 
wretched creatures to a proper sense of their situation ; 
but unfortunately it had not this effect ; they still persisted 
in their hostilities against us. In the month of December, 
General Claiborne marched a detachment against the 
towns of Eccanachaca, on the Alabama river. On the 
twenty-second, he came suddenly upon them, killed thirty 
of their warriors, and after destroying their villages, re- 
turned with a trifling loss. 

After the battle of Talledega, General Jackson was left 
with but a handful of men, in consequence of the term of 
service of the militia having expired. On the fourteenth 
of January he was fortunately reinforced by eight hundred 
volunteers from Tennessee, and soon after several hun- 
dred friendly Indians. 

He was also joined by General Coffee with a number 
of officers, his militia having returned home. On the 
seventeenth, with a view of making a diversion in favour 
of General Floyd, and at the same time of relieving Fort 
Armstrong, which was said to be threatened, he penetra- 
ted the Indian country. On the evening of the twenty- 
first, believing himself, from appearances, in the vicinity 
of a large body of Indians, he encamped with great pre- 
caution, and placed himself in the best attitude for defence 
?^ome time in the night, onp of his spies brought information 
that he had seen the enemy a few miles off, and from their 
oeing busily engaged in sending away their women and 
children, it was evident they had discovered the Ameri- 
cans, and would cither escape or make an attack before 
morning. 

While the troops were in this state of readiness, they 
u ere vigorously attacked on their loft fiank about day- 



312 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

light ; the enemy was resisted with firmness, and after a 
severe contest, they fled in every direction. This was 
however soon discovered to be a feint ; General Coffee 
having been despatched with four hundred men, to de- 
stroy the enemy's camp, with directions not to attack it, 
if strongly fortified, returned with information that it would 
not be prudent to attempt it without artillery ; half an hour 
had scarcely elapsed, when the enemy commenced a fierce 
attack on Jackson's left flank. It seems they had intend- 
ed, by the first onset, to draw the Americans into a pur- 
suit, and by that means create confusion ; but this was 
completely prevented by Jackson's causing his left flank 
to keep its position. 

General Coffee, with about fifty of his officers, acting 
as volunteers, assailed the Indians on the left, while about 
two hundred friendly Indians came upon them on the 
right. The whole line giving them one fire, resolutely 
charged ; and the enemy being disappointed in their plan, 
fled with precipitation. On the left flank of the Indians 
the contest was kept up some time longer ; General Cof- 
fee was severely wounded, and his aid, A. Donaldson, 
killed ; on being reinforced by a party of the friendly In- 
dians, he compelled the enemy to fly, leaving fifty of their 
warriors on the ground. 

General Jackson, being apprehensive of another attack, 
fortified his camp for the night ; the next day, fearing a 
want of provisions, he found it necessary to retreat, and 
before night reached Enotachopco, having passed a dan- 
gerous defile without interruption. In the morning he 
had to cross a defile still more dangerous, where he might 
expect that the enemy had formed an ambuscade ; he 
therefore determined to pass at some other point. The 
most judicious arrangements having been made for the 
disposition of his force in case of attack, he moved for- 
ward towards the pass which he had selected. The front 
guard, with part of the flank columns, together with the 
wounded, had scarcely crossed the creek, when the alarm 
was given in the rear. 

Jackson immediately gave orders for his right and left 
columns to wheel on their pivot, and crossing the stream 
above and below, assail the flanks and rear of the enemy, 



THE UNITED STATES. 313 

and thus completely enclose them. But, to his astonish- 
ment and mortification, when the word was given for these 
columns to form, and a few guns were fired, they precipi- 
tately gave way. This unaccountable flight had well 
nigh proved fatal ; it drew along with it the greater part 
of the centre column, leaving not more than twenty-five 
men, who, being formed by Colonel Carrol, maintained 
their ground for a time against overwhelming numbers. 
All that could now be opposed to the enemy, were the 
few who remained of the rear guard, the artillery com- 
pany, and Captain Rupel's company of spies. Their 
conduct, however, was admirable. Lieutenant Armstrong, 
with the utmost coolness and intrepidity, dragged, with 
the assistance of a few more, the six pounder up the hill, 
although exposed to a heavy fire ; and having gained his 
position, loaded the piece with grape, and fired it with 
such effect, that, after a few discharges, the enemy was 
repulsed. 

The Indians were pursued for several miles by Colonel 
Carrol, Colonel Higgins, and Captains Elliot and Pipkins. 
Captain Gordon, of the spies, had partly succeeded in 
turning their flanks, and, by this impetuous charge, con- 
tributed greatly to restore the day. The Americans now 
continued their march without further molestation. In 
these different engagements, about twenty Americans 
were killed, and seventy-five \vounded ; in the last, about 
one hundred and eighty of the Creeks were slain. 

Meanwhile, General Floyd was advancing towards the 
Indian territory, from the Chatahouchie river. On the 
twenty-seventh of January his camp was attacked by a 
large body of Indians about an hour before day. They 
stole upon the sentinels, fired upon them, and then rushed 
with great impetuosity towards the line. The action 
soon became general ; the front of both flanks was close- 
ly pressed, but the firmness of the officers and men re- 
pelled their assaults at every point. As soon as it became 
sufficiently light, General Floyd strengthened his right 
wing, and formed his cavalry in the rear, then directed a 
charge ; the enemy were driven before the bayonet, and 
being pursued by the cavalry, many of them were killed. 
The loss of General Floyd was seventeen killed, and one 

27 



314 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

hundred and thirty-two wounded. That of the Indians 
could not be ascertained ; thirty-seven of their warriors 
were left dead on the field, but it is thought their loss 
was very considerable. 

By this time it might be supposed that the Creeks had 
been satisfied with the experiment of war, but they appear 
to have been infatuated in a most extraordinary degree. 
From the influence of their prophets over their supersti- 
tious minds, they were led on from one ruinous efibrt to 
another, in hopes that the time would at last arrive, when 
their enemies would be delivered into their hands. 

General Jackson, having received considerable rein- 
forcements from Tennessee, and being joined by a num- 
ber of friendly Indians, set out on an expedition to the 
Tallapoose River. He proceeded from the Goose on the 
twenty-fourth of March, reached the southern extremity 
of the New-Youca on the twenty-seventh, at a place call- 
ed the Horse-shoe-bend of the Goose. Nature furnishes 
few situations so eligible for defence ; and here the 
Creeks, by the direction of their prophets, had made their 
last stand. Across the neck of land they had erected a 
breastwork of the greatest compactness and strength, 
from five to eight feet high, and provided with a double 
row of port holes artfully arranged. In this place they 
considered themselves perfectly secure. The assailants 
could not approach without being exposed to a double 
and cross fire from the Indians who lay behind. The 
area thus enclosed by the breastworks was little short of 
one hundred acres. The warriors from Oakfuskee, Oak- 
shaya, Hilebees, the Fish Ponds, and Eupata towns, had 
collected their force at this place, in number exceeding a 
thousand. 

Early in the morning of the twenty-seventh, General 
Jackson, having encamped the preceding night within 
six miles of the bend, detached General Coffee, with the 
mounted men, and nearly the whole of the Indian force, 
to pass the river at a ford about three miles below their 
encampment, and to surround the bend in such a manner 
that none of them should escape by attempting to cross 
the river. With the remainder of his force, General 
Jackson advanced to the point of the breastwork, and at 



THE UNITED STATES. 315 

half past ten planted his artillery on a small eminence, 
within eighty yards of the nearest point of the work, and 
within two hundred and fifty of the farthest. A brisk 
cannonade was opened upon the centre, and a severe fire 
was kept up with musketry and rifles, when the Indians 
ventured to show themselves behind their defences. 

In the meantime, General Coffee, having crossed below, 
had advanced towards the village ; when within half a mile 
of that which stood at the extremity of the peninsula, the 
Indians gave their yell ; Coffee, expecting an immediate 
attack, drew up his men in order of battle, and in this 
manner continued to move forward. The friendly In- 
dians had previously taken possession of the bank, for 
the purpose of preventing the retreat of the enemy ; but 
they no sooner heard the artillery of Jackson, and the ap- 
proach of Coffee, than they rushed forward to the banks ; 
while the militia, apprehending an attack from the Oak- 
fuskee villages, were obliged to remain in order of bat- 
tle. 

The friendly Indians, unable to remain silent spectators, 
began to fire across the stream, about one hundred yards 
wide, while some plunged into the river, and swimming 
across, brought back a number of canoes ; in these the 
greater part embarked, landed on the peninsula, then ad- 
vanced into the village, drove the enemy from their huts 
up to the fortifications, and continued to annoy them du- 
ring the whole action. This movement of the Indians 
rendered it necessary that a part of Coffee's line should 
take their place. 

General Jackson, finding that his arrangements were 
complete, at length yielded to the earnest solicitations of 
his men to be led to the charge. The regular troops, led 
by Colonel Williams and Major Montgomery, were in a 
moment in possession of the nearest part of the breast- 
works; the militia accompanied them with equal firm- 
ness and intrepidity. Having maintained, for a few mi- 
nutes, a very obstinate contest, muzzle to muzzle, through 
the port holes, they succeeded in gaining the opposite side 
of the works. The event could no longer be doubtful. 

The enemy, although many of them fought with that 
kind of bravery which desperation inspires, were cut to 



316 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

pieces. The whole margin of the river which surround 
ed the peninsula, was strewed with the slain. Five hun- 
dred and fifty-seven were found, besides those thrown into 
the river by their friends, or drowned in attempting to es- 
cape. Not more than fifty could have escaped. Among 
their slain was their great prophet Manahoe, and two 
others of less note. About three hundred women and 
children were taken prisoners. Jackson's loss was twen- 
ty-six white men killed, and one hundred and seven 
wounded; eighteen Cherokees killed, and thirty-six 
wounded; and five friendly Creeks killed, and eleven 
wounded. 

This most decisive victory put an end to the Creek 
war. The spirit and power of these misguided men were 
completely broken ; Jackson soon after scoured the coun- 
tries on the Coose and Tallapoose. A party of the ene- 
my, on the latter river, on his approach fled to Pensacola. 
The greater part of the Creeks now came forward, and 
threw themselves on the mercy of the victors. A detach- 
ment of militia from North and South Carolina, under 
the command of Colonel Pearson, scoured the country 
on the Alabama, and received the submission of a great 
number of Creek warriors and their prophets. 

In the course of the summer, a treaty of peace was dic- 
tated to them by Jackson, on severe but just terms. 
They agreed to yield a portion of their country as an in- 
demnity for the expenses of the war ; they conceded the 
privilege of opening roads through their country, toge- 
ther with the liberty of navigating their rivers. They also 
stipulated to hold no intercourse with any British or 
Spanish post or garrison, and to deliver up the property 
they had taken from whites or friendly Indians. The ge- 
neral, on the part of the United States, undertook to 
guarantee their territory, to restore all their prisoners, 
and in consideration of their destitute situation, to furnish 
them gratuitously with the necessaries of life, until they 
could provide for themselves. They also engaged to es- 
tablish trading houses, and endeavour to bring back the 
nation to their former state. 

It has already been stated, that after the failure of the 
campaign against the British provinces, the army retired 



THE UNITED STATES. 317 

into winter quarters. It remained inactive till the latter 
part of February. The Secretary of War gave orders to 
withdraw to Plattsburgh, and that two thousand men - 
should be marched to Sackett's Harbour, under General 
Brown, with a proportion of field pieces and battering 
cannon. The general destroyed his barracks, and retired 
to the place assigned him. The British detached a large 
force under Col. Scott, who destroyed the public stores, 
and pillaged the citizens. 

Towards the latter end of March, General Wilkinson 
determined to erect a battery at a place called Rouse's 
point, where his engineer had discovered a position from 
which the enemy's fleet, then laid up at St. John's, might 
be kept in check. The ice breaking up on Lake Cham- 
plain sooner than usual, defeated his plan ; a body of the 
enemy, upwards of two thousand strong, on discovering 
his design, had been collected at La Colle mill, three 
miles from Rouse's point, for the purpose of opposing 
him. With a view of dislodging this party, and at the 
same time of forming a diversion in favour of General 
Brown, who had marched against Niagara, the commander 
in chief, at the head of about four thousand men, crossed 
the Canada lines on the thirtieth of March. 

After dispersing several of the enemy's skirmishing par- 
ties, he reached La Colle mill, a large fortified stone house, 
at which Major Hancock commanded. An eighteen 
pounder was ordered up, but owing to the nature of the 
ground over which it had to pass, the transportation was 
found impracticable ; a twelve pounder and a five inch 
howitzer, were therefore substituted. These pieces, un- 
der the direction of Captain M'Pherson, and Lieutenants 
Larabee and Sheldon, were posted at the distance of two 
hundred paces from the house, and covered by the second 
brigade, with part of Colonel Clark's command, under 
General Smith on the right ; and the third brigade, under 
General Bissel, on the left. Colonel Miller was ordered 
to take a position with the twelfth and thirteenth regiments, 
in order to cut off the enemy's retreat ; while the reserve, 
composed of four select corps of the first brigade, was 
placed under the command of General Macomb. 

These arrangements being made, the battery opened 
27* 



318 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

upon the house, and the fire was promptly returned. The 
different corps were greatly exposed to the fire from the 
house ; it was found impossible to effect a breach, although 
the guns were managed with great skill. Captain M'Pher- 
son was wounded at the commencement of the attack, but 
continued, notwithstanding, at his post, until a second shot 
had broken his thigh, his next officer, Larabee, was shot 
hrough the lungs ; Lieutenant Sheldon kept up the fire 
until the end of the affair, and behaved in a manner which 
drew forth the praise of his general. 

The British commander, perceiving that the Americans 
persisted in bombarding the house, made a desperate sor- 
tie, and several times charged upon the cannon, in which 
he was repulsed by the covering troops, and compelled 
to retire to his fortress with loss. It being now found 
impracticable to make an impression on this strong build- 
ing, whose walls were of unusual thickness, the comman- 
der in chief, calling in his different parties, fell back in 
good order. The loss of the Americans in this affair was 
upwards of one hundred and forty in killed and wounded; 
that of the British is not ascertained. 

Many were the difficulties under which the army la- 
boured. Lack of system, a severe climate, sickness, un- 
foreseen expenses, abuses in every department, and want 
of experience and education in the subalterns ; and the 
disgraceful conduct of many of the frontier inhabitants, in 
supplying the enemy with provisions, are among the num- 
ber of misfortunes under which the country laboured. Be- 
sides which, the enemy was regularly informed of every 
thing which transpired on the American side. 

Shortly after the affair of La Colle, the greater part 
of the British force was collected at St. John's and the 
Isle Aux Noix, for the purpose of securing the entrance 
of the squadron into Lake Champlain, on the breaking up 
of the ice. This was effected early in May. Some time 
before this, on the suggestion of General Wilkinson, Com- 
modore M'Donough had fortified the mouth of Otter 
River, so as to secure a passage for his flotilla, which then 
lay at Vergennes, higher up the river, waiting for its ar- 
mament. This precaution proved of great service. The 
commodore had laboured, with indefatigable industry, to 



THE UNITED STATES. 319 

provide a naval force on this lake, to cope with that of 
the enemy ; the vessels had been built during the autumn 
and winter, but their armament did not arrive before 
spring. 

The first object of the enemy, when they found the 
navigation open, was to attempt the destruction of the 
fleet, before it could move upon its element, prepared to 
meet them. On the 12th of May, not long after the erec.. 
tion of the battery on the cape, at the entrance of the 
river, a bomb vessel, and three large gallies, were station- 
ed by the enemy across the creek, for the purpose of block- 
ading the squadron, and, at the same time, to intercept 
naval supplies, which it was supposed would be sent by 
water, for the purpose of completing its armament. Cap- 
lain Thornton, of the light artillery, and Lieutenant Gas- 
sin, with a number of sailors, were ordered to the defence 
of the battery. Indications being, at the same time, dis- 
covered, of an attempt by the enemy to assail the battery 
in the rear, General Davis, of the Vermont militia, called 
part of his brigade, in order to oppose the landing. 

At day-break, on the 14th, the enemy commenced an 
attack upon the works, but were so effectually resisted, 
that they were compelled to withdraw from their position 
with the loss of two gallies, which they were obliged to 
abandon. Soon after, the whole squadron moved down 
the lake, but not without some skirmishing with General 
Wright, of the militia, as they passed Burlington. Com- 
modore M'Donough had attempted to bring some of the 
American vessels to the mouth of the river, but the Bri- 
tish squadron had disappeared before he could attain his 
object. 

While the naval preparations were making on Lake 
Champlain, the winter and spring were taken up with the 
preparations for a contest of superiority on Lade Ontario. 
The British converted it, however, into a contest in build- 
ing the greatest number, and the largest ships. At King- 
ston a ship of extraordinary size was building ; for the 
enemy no longer trusted, as they had done with other na- 
tions, to superior seamanship and valour. Commodore 
Chauncey was under the necessity of building additional 
vessels, for the purpose of maintaining, as nearly as possi- 



330 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ble, an equality of force. The enemy was, however, not 
satisfied in endeavouring to conquer us in ship building; 
they made numerous attempts to destroy, by insidious 
means, those already built by the Americans. On the 
twenty-fifth of April, three of the enemy's boats, provided 
with the means of blowing up the vessels, succeeded in 
getting close into Sackett's Harbour undiscovered, but 
before they could execute their purpose, they were de- 
tected, and fired upon by Lieutenant Dudley, the officer 
of the guard, on which they threw their powder into the 
lake, and pulled off. Failing in all these attempts, from 
the vigilance of the Americans, they next formed the de- 
termination to intercept the naval stores on their way 
from Oswego, where they had been deposited. Thither 
Sir James proceeded with his whole fleet, and having on 
board a large body of troops under General Drummond, 
proceeded, on the fifth of May, with the determination of 
storming the town, and capturing the equipments destined 
for the new vessels. 

The British commenced a heavy bombardment, which 
was kept up for several days ; the unexpected and gallant 
resistance of the garrison, consisting of three hundred 
men under Lieutenant Colonel Mitchell, was in vain 
against such superior force. The schooner Growler, then 
in Oswego Creek to receive the cannon, was sunk, to pre- 
vent her from being taken, and all the tents that could be 
procured were pitched on the village side, to give the ap- 
pearance of a large force of militia. The sailors of the 
Growler, under Lieutenant Pearce, were added to the 
garrison; the shore battery was commanded by Captain 
Boyle, seconded by Lieutenant Legate. At one o'clock, 
fifteen barges, filled with troops, moved towards the shore, 
preceded by several gun-boats, while a heavy cannonade 
was commenced by the larger vessels. They were so 
warmly received by the battery on shore, that the boats 
were twice repulsed, and one of the largest fell into the 
hands of the Americans. 

The squadron now stood oflf, but this was evidently for 
the purpose of renewing the attack, in such a manner as 
to render it effectual. They again approached on the 
sixth, having resolved to land under cover of her ships ; 



THE UNITED STATES. 321 

they accordingly kept up a heavy fire for three hours, 
while their land forces, two thousand in number, under 
General De Watteville, succeeded in gaining the shore, 
after being gallantly opposed by Lieutenant Pearce and 
his seamen. Colonel Mitchell now abandoned the fort, 
and joining his corps to the marines and seamen, engaged 
the enemy's flank, and did great execution. Finding fur- 
ther resistance useless, he fell back, formed his troops, 
and took up his inarch to the falls of Oswego, destroying 
the bridges in his rear. 

Hither, to the inexpressible disappointment of the 
British, the naval stores had been removed, and all their 
trouble, and the loss which they sustained, procured them 
nothing more than a few barrels of provisions and some 
whiskey. This was purchased with the loss of two hun- 
dred and thirty-five men, in killed and wounded ; they 
were certainly entitled to the victory, but they never 
thought proper to claim it. The loss of the Americans 
was sixty-nine in killed, wounded and missing ; among 
the first, a promising officer, Lieutenant Blaney. 

On the evening of the same day, a part of the force 
proceeded to Pultneyville, and demanded the public 
stores. The inhabitants were unable to repel the inva~ 
ders* who indulged themselves in their usual depredations; 
when General Swift, of the New-York militia, opportunely 
arriving, with a part of his brigade, put them to flight. The 
British, soon after, hearing that the Superior, which had 
lately been launched, had received her equipments from 
the interior, broke up the blockade and returned to 
Kingston. 

Another new ship, the Mohawk, was at this time on the 
stocks, and as she would have to be supplied with her 
equipments from the same place, it was determined, since 
the British had disappeared, to transport them by water, 
and avoid the expense and delay of land transportation. 
To deceive the enemy, who had numerous gunboats ho- 
vering about the different creeks, a report was circulated 
that it was intended to forward the stores to the Oneida 
lake. Nineteen barges were loaded at Oswego, and Ma- 
jor Appling was despatched by General Gaines, with a 
detachment to aid Captain Woolsey, in their defence. 



322 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

On the 28th of May, Captain Woolsey, finding the coast 
clear, reached the village by sunset, and taking advantage 
of the darkness of the night put into the lake. The next 
day they reached Sandy creek, and ascending it a few 
miles, despatched a boat to look out for the British on the 
lake ; this boat was discovered by some gun vessels, and 
immediately chased. Major Appling and Captain Wool- 
sey determined to draw them into an ambuscade. As had 
been anticipated, the enemy pushed their gunboats and 
cutters up the creek, while a party landed and ascended 
along the bank. 

The Americans now rushed suddenly upon them, and 
in a few moments, after one fire, by which a number of 
them were killed and wounded, the whole party was taken 
prisoners, consisting of four lieutenants of the navy, t\vo 
lieutenants of the marines, and one hundred and thirty 
men, together with all their boats and cutters. Major 
Appling, for this affair, was brevetted, and his officers, 
Lieutenants Smith, M'Intosh, Calhoun, M'Farland, and 
Armstrong, and Ensign Austin, were publickly thanked. 
The conduct of Captain Woolsey and his officers was not 
less applauded. 

" The consequences of this affair, were severely felt by 
the British ; they lost a number of their best seamen and 
officers, and Commodore Chauncey was once more master 
of the lake. He accordingly sailed out, and several times 
presented himself before Kingston, but Sir James did not 
think it prudent to stir out, until his large ship of one hun- 
dred and twelve guns, then on the stocks, should be com- 
pleted. This mode of warfare was exceedingly expensive, 
but more to the British than to the Americans ; it is as- 
certained that it cost the former more than twice what was 
expended by the Americans, in consequence of their 
greater difficulties of transportation. 

" General Brown had, in the mean time, reached the 
Niagara frontier, and it was expected that the enemy 
would be immediately expelled from the American terri- 
tory; but his situation did not permit the attempt, and 
with the exception of a few partial encounters, tranquil- 
lity prevailed along the Niagara frontier during the sum- 
mer. It would be improper to pass over in silence, how- 



THE UNITED STATES. 323 

ever, an affair which took place in this quarter. Colonel 
Campbell crossed the lake from Erie, with about five hun- 
dred men, and landing at Dover, a small village on the 
Canada side, proceeded to destroy the mills, together 
with the greater part of the private dwellings. The ex- 
pedition was undertaken without orders, and his conduct 
in this affair, though otherwise a meritorious officer, was 
greatly reprobated ; a court of inquiry, at which General 
Scott presided, was instituted. The court decided, that 
the destruction of the distilleries and mills might be jus- 
tified by the usages of war, as they furnished the British 
troops with their necessary supplies ; but with respect to 
the other part of his conduct, although excused, in some 
measure, by the example of the enemy, in the destruc- 
tion of the villages on the Niagara, it was nevertheless 
condemned. 

Early in the spring, intelligence was received that a 
jody of regulars, militia, and Indians, was collected on 
ihe River Thames. Captain Lee succeeded in gaining 
their rear, and made prisoners of several officers, and 
among them Colonel Baubee, who commanded a party of 
Indians in their depredations on the frontier of New- 
York. 

** A gallant affair was soon after achieved by Captain 
Holmes, a youth of the most promising talents, and bro- 
ther to the governor of the Mississippi territory. With a 
party of obout one hundred and sixty rangers and mount- 
ed men, he proceeded, on the twenty-first of February, 
against some of the enemy's posts. About the beginning 
of March, he received intelligence that a British force, 
which afterwards proved to be double his own, was de- 
scending the River Thames. 

Captain Holmes, finding himself not in a situation to 
g.ve battle, from the fatigues which his men had already 
encountered, and his ignorance of the strength of the 
enemy's party, fell back a few miles, and chose a strong 
position, where he was confident of being able to defend 
himself until he could obtain the necessary information of 
the British. He despatched a small body of rangers fojr 
this purpose, but which soon returned, pursued by tns 
enemy, but without being able to learn his strength. The 



324 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

British, perceiving the strength of Captain Holmes' posi- 
tion, resorted to stratagem for the purpose of drawing 
him from it. They feigned an attack, and then retreated, 
taking care not to show more than sixty or seventy men ; 
Captain Holmes now pursued, but with caution ; and af- 
ter proceeding about five miles, discovered their main 
body drawn up to receive him, on which he immediately 
returned to his former position. Having disposed of his 
troops in the most judicious manner, he firmly waited for 
them ; being protected in front by a deep ravine, and the 
approaches on the other side somewhat difficult. 

The attack was commenced at the same moment on 
every point, with savage yells, and the sound of bugles, 
the regulars charging up the heights from the ravine ; the 
other sides were rapidly assailed by militia and Indians. 
The first approached within twenty paces of the Ameri- 
can lines, against a very destructive fire ; but the front 
section being cut to pieces, those who followed, severely 
wounded, and many of their officers cut down, they re- 
tired to the woods, within thirty or forty paces, and the 
firing continued with great spirit on both sides. The 
American regulars being uncovered, were ordered to 
kneel, that the brow of the heights might assist in screen- 
ing them from the enemy ; but the enemy's covering was 
insufficient, a single tree affording no shelter even to one, 
from the extended line of the Americans, much less to 
the squads that stood together. 

On the other sides, the attack was sustained with equal 
coolness* and with considerable loss to the foe ; the Ame- 
ricans had, on three sides, thrown together some logs has- 
tily, and no charge being made, they could aim their pieces 
it leisure, with that deadly certainty which belongs to the 
backwoodsman. The British, after an hour of hard fight- 
ing, ordered a retreat; and as the night approached, Cap- 
tain Holmes thought it not advisable to pursue ; besides, his 
men were much fatigued, and many of them had nearly 
worn out their shoes on the hard frozen ground. The Ame- 
rican loss on this occasion <lid not amount to more than 
six killed and wounded. According to the statement of 
the British, their loss was sixty-five killed and wounded, 
besides Indians. In consemience of his good conduct in 



THE UNITED STATES. 325 

this affair, Captain Holmes was promoted to the rank of 
major. 

The northern sea coast, which had thus far experienced 
little molestation from the enemy, became the object ol 
attack early in the spring. On the seventh of Aprilv 
body of sailors and marines, to the number of two hun- 
dred, ascended the Connecticut River, as far as Saybrook, 
where they spiked the cannon, and destroyed the ship- 
ping ; they proceeded thence to Brockway's ferry, where 
they did the same ; and afterwards, unapprehensive of 
attack, carelessly remained twenty-four hours. In the 
meantime, a body of militia, together with a number of 
marines and sailors, under Captain Jones, and Lieutenant 
Diddle, had collected for the purpose of cutting off their 
retreat ; but the British, taking advantage of a very dark 
night, and using muffled oars, escaped to their'fleet, after 
having destroyed two hundred thousand dollars worth of 
shipping. 

About this time the coasting trade was almost destroy- 
ed by a British privateer, the Liverpool Packet, which 
cruised in the sound. Commodore Lewis sailed with a 
detachment of thirteen gun-boats, and succeeded in 
chasing her off. On his arrival at Saybrook, he found 
upwards of fifty vessels bound to the eastward, but afraid 
to venture out. The commodore consented to take them 
under convoy, but was not able to promise them protec- 
tion against the squadron then blockading New-London. 
They, however, being disposed to run the risk, he sailed 
with them on the twenty-fifth, and, m the afternoon of the 
same day, was compelled to throw himself between his 
convoy and a British frigate, a sloop of war and a tender, 
and kept up a contest until the coasters had safely reached 
New-London. 

Having attained his object, he determined to try what 
he could do with his gun-boats against the f -aemy'g ship*. 
Furnaces being hastily constructed, he began to throve not 
balls at the enemy's sides, and repeatedly set their ships 
on fire, without receiving any injury himself. The sloop 
soon withdrew, and the fire was principally directrd 
against the frigate. One shot passed through her ve \ 
near her magazine : her lieutenant, and a srem, number *tt 

28 



326 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

her men were already killed; her captain was on the 
point of striking, when he observed that the gun-boats 
had ceased firing. The night soon after coming on, the 
gun-boats desisted from the attack, determined to wait 
until morning. At daylight they perceived the squadron 
towing away ; it was resolved to pursue them, but several 
other frigates soon made their appearance, and put a stop 
to this design. This affair, together with that of Crancy 
Island, revived the discussion on the utility of gun-boats 
in the defence of harbours, and the coast. Great ser- 
vices had been rendered by Captain Lewis, on this, as 
well as on many other occasions. 

Formidable squadrons were kept up before the ports of 
New- York, New-London, and Boston ; and the whole 
eastern coast was exposed to the enemy. The war was 
carried on here in a very different manner from that at 
the south. Commodore Hardy would not permit any 
wanton outrages upon private property, or upon defence- 
less individuals. In spite, however, of his general de- 
meanour, there were particular instances of the contrary 
on the part of the officers commanding smaller parties, 
and actuated by a thirst for plunder. At the towns of 
Wareham and Scituate, they burned all the vessels at 
their moorings ; and, at the former, they set fire to an 
extensive cotton manufactory. At a place called Booth- 
bay, they met with a spirited resistance, and were repeat- 
edly repulsed in various desperate attacks. 

An invasion of a more serious nature was made in 
July. On the eleventh of that month. Sir Thomas Hardy, 
with a strong force, made a descent on Moose Island, 
and after taking posses&iuu ui i^astport, declared all the 
islands and tovvus on me eastern side of Passarnaquoddy 
Bay, to appertain to nis I3ritannic majesty, and required 
the inhabiiams to appear within seven days, and take the 
oath of allegiance. About two thirds of the inhabitants 
submitted ; but, in the month of August, the council of 
the province of New-Brunswick declared, that notwith- 
standing the oath of allegiance, they should be consider- 
ed as a conquered people, and placed under military go- 
vernment, iiiastport was soon after strongly fortified ; 
tut it was found extremely difficult for the enemy to sub- 



THE UNITED STATES. 327 

sist his troops, and the desertions were so frequent as to 
render it almost impossible to keep up a garrison. * 

The commodore soon after sailed with a part of his 
squadron, for the purpose of attacking Stonington. The 
appearance of this force excited much alarm, which was 
not diminished when they received a message from the 
commodore, to remove the women and children, as he 
had received orders to reduce the place to ashes. The 
inhabitants, although with very trifling means of defence, 
determined to make an attempt to save their property. 
The handful of militia of the place repaired to a smal^ 
battery erected on the shore, and to a breastwork thrown 
up for musketry, and at the same time despatched an ex- 
press to obtain assistance from General Gushing, com- 
manding at New-London. 

In the evening, five barges and a large launch, filled 
with men, approached the shore, under cover of a heavy 
fire from the ships. The Americans, reserving their 
fire until the enemy were within short grape distance, 
opened their two eighteen pounders, and soon compelled 
the invaders to retire out of the reach of their battery. 
They next proceeded to another part of the town, which 
they supposed defenceless ; but a part of the militia be- 
ing detached thither with a six pounder, the barges were 
again repulsed ; the enemy then retired to their ships, but 
determined to renew the attack in the morning; and, in 
the meantime, kept up a bombardment until midnight. 
The next morning it was discovered, that one of the ene- 
my's vessels had approached within pistol shot of the bat- 
tery, and the barges advanced in still greater numbers 
than the day before ; these were again gallantly repulsed, 
and the vessel driven from her anchorage. The squad- 
ron then renewed the bombardment of the town, but with- 
out effect ; and on the twelfth, the commodore though 
proper to retire. 

The inhabitants, after this gallant defence, which, con- 
sidering the means with which it was effected, and the 
great disparity of force opposed to them, deserve much 
praise, once more occupied their dwellings in security. 
It was not long after this that the British occupied all that 
part of the district of Maine, between Penobscot river 



338 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

and Passamaquoddy Bay, and declared it to be held as a 
colony. 

On the first of September, the Governor of Nova Sco- 
tia and Admiral Griffith entered the Penobscot River, and 
took possession of Castine, which the garrison had pre- 
viously evacuated. A proclamation was then issued, de- 
claring that possession of that part of the province of 
Maine, east of the Penobscot, was formally taken in the 
name of his Britannic majesty. The country, which con- 
tained about thirty thousand inhabitants, was then gradu- 
ally occupied, and possessed until the conclusion of the 
war. 

The naval incidents of eighteen hundred and fourteen, 
are as grateful to American feelings as those of the two 
former years. An occurrence took place in the very be- 
ginning of the year, which afforded to us as much cause 
for triumph, as of mortification to the enemy. In the 
month of February, Commodore Rodgers, on his return 
from a cruise in the President, found himself off' Sandy 
Hook, within a short distance of three large British ships 
of war, the nearest of which was the Plantagenet, a se- 
venty-four. Believing that an engagement with one or 
all of them was unavoidable, he cleared his ship for ac- 
tion, determined not to surrender, without selling his 
ship as dearly as he could. But notwithstanding lie fired 
several guns to windward, as a proof of his willingness 
to engage, the British vessels did not think proper to ap- 
proach, and he safely reached New-York. Captain Lloyd 
of the Plantagenet, after returning to England, accounted 
for his conduct, by alleging a mutiny in his ship, and se- 
veral of his sailors were executed on the charge. 

Another affair took place soon after, which furnished a 
still stronger proof of the now acknowledged superiority 
of America upon the ocean, an acknowledgment more 
strongly expressed than by words. In the month of 
April, Captain Stewart was also on his return in the Con- 
stitution, after a cruise, when he was chased by two 
British frigates and a brig, but escaped, by superior sea- 
manship, into Marblehead. Some time before, after cap- 
turing the public schooner Pictou, he fell in with the Bri- 
tish frigate La Pique, Captain Maitland, who fled on the 



THE UNITED STATES. 329 

approach of the Constitution, and finally escaped during 
the night, after a long chase. Captain Maitland was com- 
plimented by the board of admiralty, for thus obeying 
their instructions, in not fighting an American frigate sin- 
gly ; it having been determined, that not less than two 
frigates could be a match for an American. 

The enemy had become equally shy of the gun-boat 
flotilla. Commodore Lewis repeatedly beat off the Bri- 
tish vessels near Sandy Hook, and facilitated the return 
of the American ships. The Regent, loaded with a very 
valuable cargo, was chased by the Belvidera, when Com- 
modore Lewis, throwing himself, with eleven of his gun- 
boats between them, the frigate moved off without re- 
turning the shot of the gun-boats. 

That brave and adventurous seaman, Commodore Por- 
ter, terminated this year his glorious cruise in the Pacific. 
From Lima, in the neighbourhood of which he had chas- 
tised the pirates of the ship Nereyda, he proceeded to the 
Gallipagos, where he cruised from April, 1813, until Oc- 
tober ; and, in the course of that time, captured twelve 
British armed whale ships, carrying, in all, one hundred 
and seven guns, and three hundred and two men. 

Several of these were equipped as American cruisers 
and store-ships ; and the Atlantic, now called the Essex 
Junior, of twenty guns, and sixty men, was assigned to 
Lieutenant Dovvnes. The prizes which were to be laid 
up, were convoyed by this officer to Valparaiso. On his 
return, he brought intelligence to Commodore Porter, 
that a British squadron, consisting of one frigate, and two 
sloops of war, and a store ship of twenty guns, had sailed 
in quest of the Essex. The commodore, having been 
almost a year at sea, with little intermission, found it ab- 
solutely necessary that his ship should undergo consider- 
able repairs. With this view he steered to the island of 
Nooaheeva, or Madison's Island, which he so named in 
honour of the President. 

Here he found a fine bay, and a situation in every re- 
spect suitable to his wishes, the inhabitants apparently 
friendly. But it was not long before he found that his 
situation would be unsafe, in consequence of a war which 
prevailed between the inhabitants of a neighbouring vil 
28* 



330 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

lage, and those among whom he had been received. 
These insisted upon his joining them in their wars, and 
threatened to drive him away if he did not. The com- 
modore was compelled, by a regard to his own safety, to 
send a party of sailors with the natives, who, by their as* 
sistance, defeated their enemies ; and, by the interference 
of the commodore, a peace w r as brought about between 
them. In consequence of this the natives erected a vil- 
lage for the commodore, freely traded with him for pro^ 
visions, and for some time the greatest harmony prevailed. 

His safety was again threatened by the conduct of the 
Typees, an inland tribe, one of the most warlike on the 
island, and which still continued hostile, and who were 
continually urging the friendly Indians to destroy the 
strangers. 

The commodore found his situation" growing every day 
more critical. He, therefore, resolved to pursue the course 
necessary to ensure his safety, and which has always 
been held justifiable in our intercourse with uncivilized 
men, who are only to be restrained from violence and in- 
justice, by terror. He had succeeded thus far by peace- 
able means, and, by the permission of the natives, in 
placing his vessel in a state to be repaired ; but should the 
tribes around him become inimical, (and what confidence 
can any one repose in the faith of a savage, who regards 
only force,) he might be in greater danger in his present 
situation. 

He was very unwilling to engage in war with them ; to 
prevent the necessity he sent them a present, and request- 
ed that they would remain quiet, and be at peace. This 
had no other effect than to increase their insolence to the 
Americans, whom they represented as a cowardly race$ 
or they would not have condescended to beg for peace. 
This enmity was naturally enough engendered by their 
jealousy of the tribes who had the benefit of the traffic 
with the whites, and by this means obtained articles from 
them, according to their estimation, of great value. 

The commodore now discovered that his safety depend- 
ed entirely upon making these people feel his strength, as 
it was impossible for him, in his present situation, to 
leave the island until his vessel could be repaired, and 



THE UNITED STATES. 331 

while the greater part of his effects were actually on shore. 
He therefore set off. at the head of thirty-five men, against 
these people, determined to give them battle, and, by 
showing the efficacy of his weapons, compel them to be 
at peace. The tribes, heretofore friendly, were on the 
point of breaking out into hostilities, and were only in- 
duced to wait the result of this expedition, of which they 
were little more than silent spectators. The commodore 
had in vain endeavoured to convince them of the destruc- 
tive nature of his fire-arms, by shooting at rocks and 
trees ; war was absolutely unavoidable. But the small 
force with which he marched, was insufficient to make any 
impression. 

Their country being exceedingly mountainous, and 
abounding in thickets, rendered it easy for them to es* 
cape. The commodore was therefore- compelled to re- 
turn in a worse situation than before. To prevent the 
friendly Indians from rising, he found it necessary to inform 
them that he would proceed the next day with the greater 
part of his men. A large body was now marched across 
the mountains, notwithstanding the extreme difficulties of 
the route, and penetrated into their valley ; but the natives, 
as usual, took refuge in their inaccessible fastnesses. The 
only mode of causing them to feel the consequences of 
their conduct, was in the destruction of their villages ; 
nine of them were accordingly burnt, after which the party 
retreated. 

The Typees now gladly accepted terms of peace, and 
all the tribes on the island, soon after, were recon- 
ciled to each other ; a circumstance which the oldest 
amongst them did not recollect to have seen ; and they 
vied with each other in friendship towards the whites 
while the commodore remained. 

We have now to record a most singular fact, and one 
which speaks volumes for the prowess of our little navy. 

During the third year, every naval combat, without a 
single exception, Avhere there was any thing like an 
equality of force, terminated in favour of the Americans. 
The sloop of war Peacock, launched in October, performed 
a cruise during the winter, and on her return was chased 
into St. Mary's. She soon after put to sea again, and on 



332 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the twenty-ninth of April discovered the brig of war Epef- 
vier, Captain Wales, having several vessels under con- 
voy. Captain Warrington engaged the Epervier, while 
the others were making their escape. At the first broad- 
side, the foreyard of the Peacock was totally disabled by 
two round shot in the starboard quarter. By this she w r as 
deprived of the use of her fore and fore-topsail, and was 
obliged to keep aloof during the remainder of the action, 
which lasted forty-two minutes. In this time she received 
considerable damage in her rigging, but her hull was not 
at all injured. 

The Epervier struck, having five feet water in her hold, 
her topmasts over her side, her main boom shot away, her 
foremast cut nearly in two, her rigging and stays shot away, 
her hull pierced by forty-five shot, twenty of which were 
within a foot of her water line. Eleven of her crew Avere 
killed, and her first lieutenant and fourteen men wounded. 
She was immediately taken possession of by Lieutenant 
Nicholson, first olficer of the Peacock, who, with Lieu- 
tenant Vorhees, of the same ship, had been already dis- 
tinguished in another naval action. The sum of one hun- 
dred and eighteen thousand dollars in specie was found in 
her, and transferred to the Peacock. Captain Warrington 
immediately repaired, with his prize, to one of the south- 
ern ports. 

The day following, the captain discovered two frigates 
in chase. At the suggestion of Lieutenant Nicholson, he 
took all the prisoners on board the Peacock, and leaving 
a sufficient number on board the Epervier for the purpose 
of navigating her, he directed her to seek the nearest port. 
By skilful seamanship the captain succeeded in escaping 
from the enemy's ships, and reached Savannah, where he 
found his prize. Lieutenant Nicholson, by his good ma- 
nagement, had brought her in, after encountering very 
great difficulties. 

The new sloop of war Wasp, Captain Blakeley, sailed 
from Portsmouth on the first of May, and after capturing 
seven merchantmen, fell in with the British brig of war 
the Reindeer, Captain Manners, which she captured after 
an action of eighteen minutes. On the sixth of July, be- 
ing in chase of two vessels, he discovered the Reindeer 



THE UNITED STATES. 333 

and immediately altered his course, and hauled by the 
wind in chase of her. At fifteen minutes past one, Cap- 
tain Blakeley prepared for action ; but it was not before 
fifteen minutes after three, in consequence of their ma- 
noeuvring, and the endeavours of the Reindeer to escape, 
that they approached sufficiently near to engage. Seve- 
ral guns were fired from the Wasp before her antagonist 
could bring her guns to bear; her helm was then put 
alee, and at twenty-six minutes after three, Captain 
Blakeley commenced the action with his after carronades 
on the starboard side, and fired in succession. Shortly 
after, the larboard bow coming in contact with the Wasp, 
Captain Manners gave orders to board, but the attempt 
was gallantly repulsed by the crew of the Wasp, and the 
enemy was several times repelled; at forty-four minutes 
past three, orders were given to board in turn. Throw- 
ing themselves with promptitude upon her deck, they 
succeeded in the execution of their orders ; and, at forty 
minutes past four the flag of the enemy's ship came 
down. She was almost cut to pieces, and half her crew 
was killed and wounded. The loss of the Wasp was five 
killed, and twenty-one wounded ; among the latter, Mid- 
shipmen Langdon and Toscan, both of whom expired 
some days after. The Reindeer having been found alto- 
gether unmanageable, was blown up, and Captain Blakeley 
steered for L'Orient, to provide for the wounded of both 
crews. 

After leaving L'Orient, and capturing two valuable Bri- 
tish merchantmen. Captain Blakeley fell in with a fleet of 
ten sail, under convoy of the Armada seventy-four, and a 
bomb ship. He stood for them, and succeeded in cutting 
out of the squadron a brig laden with brass and iron can- 
non, and military stores, from Gibraltar ; after taking out 
the prisoners, and setting her on fire, he endeavoured to 
cut out another, but was chased off by the seventy-four. 
In the evening, at half past six, he descried two vessels, 
one on his starboard, and one on his larboard bow, and 
hauled for that which was farthest to windward. At 
seven she was discovered to be a brig of war, and at 
twenty-nine minutes past nine she was under the lee bow 
of the Wasp. An action soon after commenced, which 



UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

lasted until ten o'clock, when Captain Blakeley, supposing 
his antagonist to be silenced, ceased firing, and demanded 
if he had surrendered. No answer being returned, he 
commenced firing, and the enemy returned broadside for 
broadside for twelve minutes, when, perceiving that the two 
last were not returned, he hailed again, and was informed 
that she was sinking, and that her commander had struck. 

Before the Wasp's boat could be lowered, a second 
brig of war was discovered : the crew were instantly sent 
to their quarters, and the Wasp was standing to for the 
approach of the stranger, w r hen two other brigs appeared; 
he now made sail, and endeavoured to draw the first one 
after him, but without effect. The name of the prize has 
since been ascertained to have been the Avon, Captain 
Arbuthnot, of the same force as the Reindeer. She sunk 
immediately after the last man had been taken out of her. 
She had eight killed, and thirty-one wounded, including 
her captain, and several other officers. 

The Wasp soon repaired her damage, and continued 
on her cruise. On the twenty-first of September, she 
captured, off the Madeiras, her thirteenth prize, the Bri- 
tish brig Atalanta, of eight guns, and the only one she sent 
into port. The return of this vessel, after her brilliant 
cruise, was for along time fondly looked for by our coun- 
try ; but all hope has at last vanished of ever seeing her 
again. There is but little doubt that the brave comman 
der, and the gallant crew, have found a common grave in 
the waste of ocean ; but they will always live in the fond 
gratitude and recollection of their country. 

The loss of the frigate President was severely felt at 
the time, of which the following is an unvarnished tale. 

The blockade of Commodore Decatur's squadron, at 
New-London, having been continued until after the sea- 
son had passed in which there existed any prospect of 
escape, the ships were ordered up the river, and dispersed, 
while the commodore, with his crew, were transferred to 
the President, then at New- York. A cruise was contem- 
plated, in conjunction with the Peacock, the Hornet, and 
the Tom Bowline store ship. The commodore, thinking 
it more safe to venture out singly, appointed a place of 
rendezvous, and ordered the other vessels to follow. In 



THE UNITED STATES. 335 

consequence of the negligence of the pilot, the President 
struck upon the bar, and remained there thumping for two 
hours, by which her ballast was deranged, and her trim 
for sailing entirely lost. The course of the \vind pre- 
vented from returning into port ; he put to sea, trusting to 
the excellence of his vessel. At daylight he fell in with 
a British squadron, consisting of the Endymion, Tenedos 
and Pomone frigates, and the Majestic razee. In spite 
of every exertion they gained upon him ; the foremost, 
the Endymion, got close under his quarters and com- 
menced firing. The commodore determined to bear up 
and engage her, with the intention of carrying her by 
boarding, and afterwards escaping in her, and abandon- 
ing his own ship. In this he was prevented by the ma- 
nceuvering of the enemy, who protracted the engagement 
for two hours, until the rest of the squadron were fast 
gaining upon them. 

He now assailed the Endymion, and in a short time 
completely silenced her, leaving her a wreck. The Pre- 
sident was also considerably damaged, having lost twenty- 
five men, killed and wounded ; among the former, Lieu- 
tenant Babit and Hamilton, and acting Lieutenant Howell ; 
among the latter, the commodore himself, and midship- 
man Dale, who afterwards died. On the approach of the 
squadron, the gallant commodore, unwilling to sacrifice 
the lives of his men in a useless contest, on receiving the 
fire of the nearest frigate, surrendered. On this occasion 
we cannot pass in sile'nce the dishonourable conduct of 
the British officers of the navy, where such ought least to 
have been expected. 

The generous and heroic character of Decatur is ac- 
knowledged wherever the American flag is known, and 
requires no testimony in its support, for the British therr- 
selves have often declared their admiration of this chival- 
rous officer. The commodore was taken on board the 
Endymion, for the purpose of acting the miserable farce 
of surrendering his sword to the officer of a frigate of equal 
size, but which would have fallen into the hands of the 
commodore, but for the approach of the squadron. De- 
catur indignantly refused to give up his sword to any 
one but the commander of the squadron. Another arti 



336 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

fice was actually resorted to, in order to satisfy the 
good people of England that the President was a se- 
venty-four in disguise : she was lightened, laid in dock, 
along side of an old seventy-four, diminished to appear- 
ance by being deeply laden. Thus, it seems, a British 
frigate had captured an American seventy-four. The 
naval superiority of Great Britain was therefore no longer 
doubted. 

The following account of several naval victories seems 
almost incredible, but they are too well authenticated to 
leave a doubt on the mind of those who are willing to 
credit on the best of human testimony. 

Not the least among the exploits of our naval heroes, 
was the capture of two of the enemy's ships of war by 
the Constitution, Captain Stewart. Having sailed on a 
cruise, he discovered two ships, one of which bore up for the 
Constitution, but soon after changed her course, to join her 
consort. The Constitution gave chase to both, and at six 
P. M. ranged ahead of the sternmost, brought her on the 
quarter, her consort on the bow, and bpened a broadside, 
which was immediately returned. An exchange of broad- 
sides continued until both ships were enveloped in smoke, 
upon the clearing away of which, the Constitution finding 
herself abreast of the headmost ship, Captain Stewart or- 
dered both sides to be manned, backed topsails, and drop- 
ped into his first position. 

The ship on the bow backed sails also. The Constitu- 
tion's broadsides were then fired from the larboard batte- 
ry, and in a few moments the ship on the bow, perceiving 
her error in getting sternboard, filled away with the in- 
tention of tacking athwart the bows of the Constitution, 
while the other fell off entirely unmanageable. The Con- 
stitution then filled away in pursuit of the former, and 
coming within a hundred yards, gave her several raking 
broadsides, and so crippled her that no further apprehen- 
sions were entertained of her ability to escape ; the cap- 
tain therefore returned to the first which immediately 
struck. Possession was then taken of her ay L aitenant 
Hoffman, and proved to be the frigs*p *>* Captain 
Gordon Falcon, of thirty-four guns. 

Captain Stewart then steered in pursuit ^ it e other 



THE UNITED STATES. 337 

vessel, and after a short resistance, in which*she suffered 
considerably, she struck, with five feet water in her hold. 
She proved to be the sloop of war Levant, of eighteen 
thirty-two pound carronades. The loss on board the two 
ships amounted to about eighty in killed and wounded ; 
on board the Constitution there were four killed and ele- 
ven wounded ; but the ship received a very trifling injury. 
On the tenth of March, Captain Stewart entered the har- 
bour of Port Praya with his prizes, and on the eleventh, 
a British squadron of two sixty gun ships and a frigate 
appeared off the entrance of the harbour ; Captain Stew- 
art, having no faith in his security in this neutral port, 
made sail with his prize, the Cyane, and though closely 
pursued, had the good fortune to escape into the United 
States. The Levant was recaptured in a Portuguese 
port, in contempt of the neutral state. These are acts of 
injustice in which no nation can ever prosper. 

The Peacock, Hornet, and Tom Bowline, left New- 
York a few days after the President, without having re- 
ceived information of her capture. On the 23d of Janu- 
ary, 1815, the Hornet parted company, and directed her 
course to Tristan d'Acuna, the place of rendezvous. On 
the 23d of March, she descried the British brig Penguin, 
Captain Dickinson, of eighteen guns and a twelve pound 
carronade, to the eastward and southward of the island. 
Captain Bicldle hove to, while the Penguin bore down ; 
at forty minutes past one, the British vessel commenced 
the engagement. The firing was hotly kept up for fifteen 
minutes, the Penguin gradually nearing the Hornet with 
the intention to board, her captain having given orders 
for this purpose, but was killed by a grape shot ; her lieu- 
tenant then bore her up, and running her bowsprit be- 
tween the main and mizzen rigging of the Hornet, gave 
orders to board. His men, however, perceiving the crew 
of the Hornet ready to receive them, refused to follow him. 

At this moment, the heavy swell of the sea lifted the 
Hornet ahead, and the enemy's bowsprit carried away 
her mizzen shrouds and spanker boom, and the Penguin 
hung upon the Hornet's quarter., with the loss of her fore- 
mast and bowsprit. Her commander then called out that 
he had surrendered ; and Captain Biddle ordered his men 

29 



338 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

to cease firiftg. At this moment an officer of the Hornet 
called to Captain Biddle, that a man was taking aim at him 
in the enemy's shrouds ; he had scarcely changed his po- 
sition, when a musket ball struck him in the neck, and 
wounded him severely. Two marines immediately level- 
led their pieces at the wretch, and killed him before he 
brought his gun from his shoulder. The Penguin had. 
by that time, got clear of the Hornet, and the latter wore 
round to give the enemy a fresh broadside, when they 
cried out a second time that they had surrendered. It 
was with great difficulty that Captain Biddle could re- 
strain his crew, who were exasperated at the conduct of 
the enemy. 

In twenty-two minutes after the commencement of the 
action, she was taken possession of by Lieutenant Mayo, 
of the Hornet. The Penguin was so much injured, that 
Captain Biddle determined on taking out her crew and 
scuttling her ; and afterwards sent off his prisoners by 
the Tom Bowline, which by this time had joined him with 
the Peacock. The enemy lost fourteen in killed, and 
twenty-eight wounded ; the Hornet, one killed and eleven 
wounded ; among the latter, her Lieutenant, Conner, dan- 
gerously. 

Captain Biddle, being compelled to part from the Pea- 
cock by the appearance of a British ship of the line, after 
being closely pursued for several days, effected his escape 
into St. Salvador, where the news of peace soon after ar- 
rived. The capture of the Cyane, the Levant, and the 
Penguin, took place before the expiration of the time li- 
mited by the second article of the treaty of peace. 

The exploit? of the privateers continued to rival those 
of our national vessels. In one instance the enemy was 
compelled to pay dearly for his disregard of the sanctua- 
ry of a neutral port. The privateer Armstrong lay at 
anchor in the harbour of Fayal, when a British squadron, 
consisting of the Carnation, the Plantagenet, and the 
Rota, hove in sight. Captain Reid, of the privateer, dis- 
covering, by the light of the moon, that the enemy kad 
put out his barges, and was preparing to attack him, 
cleared for action, and moved near the shore. Four 
boats, filled with men, approached, and making no answer 



THE UNITED STATES. 339 

on being hailed, a fire was opened upon them, which was 
returned, but they soon called out for quarters, and were 
permitted to haul off. They then prepared for a more 
formidable attack; the privateer was now anchored within 
a cable's length of the shore, and within pistol shot of the 
castle. 

The next day they sent a fleet of boats, supported by 
the Carnation, which stood before the harbour, to prevent 
the escape of the privateer. At midnight the boats ap- 
proached a second time, to the number of twelve or four- 
teen, manned with several hundred men. They were 
suffered to approach along side of the privateer ; and, 
without waiting an attack, they were assailed with such 
astonishing fury, that, in forty minutes, scarcely a man of 
them was left alive. During these attacks the shores 
were lined with the inhabitants, who, from the brightness 
of the moon, had a full view of the scene. The gover- 
.nor, with the first people of the place, stood by and saw 
the whole affair. After the second attack, the governor 
sent a note to the commander of the Plantagenet, Cap- 
tain Lloyd, requesting him to desist, but was answered, 
that he determined to have the privateer at the risk of 
knocking down the town. 

The American consul having communicated this infor- 
mation to Captain Reid, he ordered his crew to save their 
effects as fast as possible, and to carry the dead and 
wounded on shore. At daylight the Carnation stood close 
to the Armstrong, and commenced a heavy fire ; but being 
considerably cut up by the privateer, she hauled off to re- 
pair. Captain Reid now thinking it useless to protract 
the contest, on her re-appearance, scuttled his vessel, and 
escaped to shore. The British loss amounted to the 
astonishing number of one hundred and twenty killed, 
and one hundred and thirty wounded ; that of the Ameri- 
cans was only two killed and seven wounded. Several 
houses in the town were destroyed, and some of the in- 
habitants wounded. 

Before closing this chapter, it may not be improper to 
make a few remarks on war generally. In its most civi- 
lized modes of destruction, it is, indeed, a dreadful 
scourge. The distress which it occasions is incalculable 



340 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

and immeasurable ; and we may venture a declaration, 
that all the benefit ever derived from the practice of mu- 
tual destruction, can never balance the evils, even could 
they be realized. 

That the mode of savage warfare is more dreadful than 
that of the more civilized, is undoubted ; but the inference 
is not, therefore, in favour of hostilities in any degree. 
That the loss of blood, and treasure, and moral feeling, 
are more than a fair equivalent for any supposed benefits 
in expectation, is evident to every reflecting mind, even 
without bringing int$ the account the dreadful inroads 
which it makes in the domestic circle. But, if we add to 
this the violence which it does to the principles of the 
Christian religion, who shall fathom it ? 



CHAPTER XV. 

Operations of the Army on the Frontiers. 

General Brown, and his officers, .were employed in dis- 
ciplining the troops, and collecting forces, destined to dis- 
lodge the British from the American posts which they 
still occupied. In the beginning of July, the' American 
forces amounted to but two brigades of regulars, and one 
of New-York volunteers, under Generals Porter and 
Swift, with a few Indians. 

In the meantime, the force of the enemy, under Gene- 
ral Drurnmond, had been greatly increased, by the addi- 
tion of a number of veteran regiments, which, since the 
pacification of Europe, Great Britain had been enabled to 
send to this country. 

The first attack was on Fort Erie, which was garrisoned 
by one hundred and seventy men, which was taken by 
surprise. The second attempt was upon Major General 
Riall, who occupied an entrenched camp at Chippewa. 
This led to the first regular pitched battle during the war, 
and victory declared for the Americans, and the British 
were compelled to retire into the camp. 

The events of the war now began to thicken, and its 



THE UNITED STATES. 341 

character assumed the most sanguinary aspect. The vic- 
tory already obtained by the Americans over men supe- 
rior in numbers and discipline, enraged General -Drum- 
mond to madness. But the enemy was obliged to fall 
back to Queenstown, and finally took post at Burlington 
Heights. The flush of victory on one side, and the pride 
of military glory on the other, led to deeds of intrepid 
daring unexampled in the former progress of the war. 
Skirmishing was constant and severe, and every move- 
ment seemed to be of a decisive character. In these ren- 
contres, the loss on both sides, especially of officers, was 
very great. 

A specimen of the obstinate perseverance of the Ame- 
rican troops, was exhibited near the cataracts of Niagara, 
\vhich has few parallels. The enemy occupied an emi- 
nence well fortified, and defended by thrice the number 
of men mustered by the Americans, while the latter sus- 
tained the unequal conflict more than an hour, when 
orders were given to advance, and charge the enemy's 
heights, and break the British line. But the order was 
countermanded. 

The British now pressed forward on the ninth, which, 
with wonderful firmness, withstood the attack of their 
overwhelming numbers ; but reduced at length to nearly 
one half, and being compelled, at every moment, to repel 
fresh charges of the British, Colonel Leavenworth de- 
spatched a messenger to General Scott, to communicate 
its condition. The general rode up in person, roused the 
flagging spirits of his brave men with the pleasing intelli- 
gence that reinforcements were expected every moment, 
and besought them to hold their ground. 

Lieutenant Riddle, already well known as a reconnoi- 
tering officer, was the first to come to the assistance of 
his fellow soldiers, having been drawn to the place by the 
sound of the cannon while out with a scouting party. 
The same circumstance induced General Brown to pro- 
ceed rapidly to the scene of action, giving orders to Ge- 
neral Ripley to follow with the second brigade. On his 
way he was met by Major Jones, and, from his informa- 
tion, he was induced to order up General Porter, with the 
volunteers together with the artillery. 

29* 



342 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

So far, the Americans had repelled every attack with 
the most unyielding courage, but the situation of the bri- 
gade was very critical. The desperate efforts of the 
troops led General Riall to overrate the numbers to which 
he was opposed, and he sent to General Drummond for 
reinforcements. 

About this time an awful pause ensued between the two 
armies ; for a time no sound broke upon the stillness of 
the night, but the groans of the wounded, mingling with 
the distant din of the cataract of Niagara. The shattered 
regiments were consolidated into one brigade, and placed 
as a reserve under Colonel Brady, who, though severely 
wounded, refused to quit the field. The silence was once 
more interrupted by the arrival of General Ripley's bri- 
gade, Major Hindrnan's artillery, and General Porter's 
volunteers, and, at the same time, of General Drummond, 
with reinforcements. 

In the meantime, that accomplished young officer, 
Major Jessup, who had been ordered, in the early part of 
the action, to take post on the right, had succeeded, during 
the engagement, after encountering great difficulty, in 
turning the left flank of the enemy. At the present mo- 
ment, taking ad vantage -of the darkness of the night, and 
the incaution of the enemy, he threw his regiment in the 
rear of their reserve, and, surprising one detachment after 
another, made prisoners of so many of their officers and 
men, that his progress was greatly impeded. The laws 
of war would have justified him in putting them to death; 
" but the laurel, in his opinion, was most glorious when 
entwined by the hand of mercy;" he, therefore, spared 
them, under circumstances where they certainly would 
not have spared him. 

One of his officers, Captain Ketchum, had the good 
fortune to make prisoner of General Riall, and of the aid 
of General Drummond ; the latter a most fortunate cir- 
cumstance, as it prevented the concentration of the Bri- 
tish force, contemplated by that officer, before the Ameri- 
cans were prepared for his reception. After disposing of 
his prisoners, Major Jessup felt his way to the place 
where the hottest fire was kept up on the brigade to which 
he belonged, and drew up his regiment behind a fence on 



THE UNITED STATES. 343 

the side of the Queenstown road, but in the rear of a 
party of British infantry, drawn up on the opposite side 
of the same road ; he suddenly gave them a destructive 
fire, on which they broke and fled. " The major," says 
General Brown, "showed himself to his own army in a 
blaze of fire." He was ordered to form on the right of 
the second brigade. 

The following instance of generalship, by which this 
sanguinary contest was decided, is of so daring a nature, 
and so completely developes the American character, that 
it will be inserted entire. 

General Ripley's brigade had by this time been formed 
for action, when orders were given for it to advance to the 
support of General Scott, against whom a fire w T as now 
directed, which he could not long withstand. General 
Ripley, with the quick discernment which characterizes 
the real commander, seeing that too much time would be 
lost before he could make his way through the skirt of 
the woods in the darkness of the night, decided at once, 
upon his own responsibility, to adopt the only measure 
from which he saw a hope ; and which being made known 
to the commander in chief, he instantly sanctioned. 

The enemy's artillery occupied a hill, which was the 
key to the whole position, and it would be in vain to hope 
for victory, while they were permitted to retain it. 

Addressing himself to Colonel Miller, he inquired, 
whether he could storm the batteries at the head of the 
twenty-first, while he would himself support him with 
the younger regiment, the twenty-third. To this the 
wary but intrepid veteran replied, in an unaffected phrase, 
I WILL TRY, SIR ; words, which were afterwards given 
as the motto of his regiment. 

The twenty-third was formed in close column, under 
its commander, Major M'Farland, and the first regiment, 
under Colonel Nicholas, was left to keep the enemy in 
check. The two regiments moved on to one of the most 
perilous charges ever attempted ; the whole of the artil- 
lery opened upon them as they advanced, supported by a 
powerful line of infantry. The twenty-first advanced 
steadily to its purpose ; the twenty-third faltered on re- 
ceiving the deadly fire of the enemy, but was soon rallied 



344 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

by the personal exertions of General Ripley. When 
within a hundred yards of the summit, they received an- 
other dreadful discharge, by which Major M'Farland was 
killed, and the command devolved on Major Brooks. To 
the amazement of the British, the intrepid Miller firmly 
advanced, until within a few paces of their line, when he 
impetuously charged upon the artillery, which, after a 
short but desperate resistance, yielded their whole bat- 
tery, and the American line was in a moment formed in 
the rear, upon the ground previously occupied by the Bri- 
tish infantry. 

During the charge, General Riall was taken prisoner, 
and the effect may easily be imagined. But this brilliant 
exploit seemed to spur on the enemy to redoubled exer- 
tions. Being reinforced, the British marched with quick 
step on the Americans, who reserved their fire until it 
could become deadly. The whole British division came 
within twenty paces of the lines, when the well directed 
fire from our troops put them into confusion. But they 
rallied to the attack, and the conflict became tremendous. 
But the enemy yielded, and retired down the hill. The 
contest was, however, soon renewed by the British, with 
the same results. 

Disheartened by these repeated defeats, the British were 
on the point of yielding the contest, when they received 
fresh reinforcements from fort Niagara, which revived 
their spirits, and induced them to make another and still 
more desperate struggle. After taking an hour to refresh 
themselves, and recovering from their fatigue, they ad- 
vanced with a new and more extended line, and with con- 
fident hopes of being able to overpower the Americans, 
who thus far had been denied both refreshment and re- 
pose. 

Our countrymen had stood to their arms during all this 
time, their canteens exhausted, and many almost fainting 
with thirst ; and, from the long interval, they had begun 
to cherish hopes that the enemy had yielded. In this 
they were disappointed ; but on discovering the approach 
of the British, their courageous spirit returned, and they 
resolved never to yield the glorious trophies of their vic- 
tory, until they could contend no longer. 



THE UNITED STATES. 345 

The British delivered their fire at the same distance as 
on the last onset, which was returned by the Americans 
with the same deadly effect; but they did "not fall back 
with the same precipitation; a fresh line supplied the 
place of the first, and the whole steadily advanced. 

A conflict, dreadful beyond description, ensued ; the 
twenty-first, under its brave leader, firmly withstood the 
shock. The right and left repeatedly fell back, but were 
again rallied by the general, by Colonels Miller, Nicholas, 
and Jessup. At length the two lines closed with each 
other on the very summit of the hill, which they contested 
with terrific violence at the point of the bayonet. 

Such was the obstinacy of the contest, that many bat- 
talions, on both sides, were forced back, and the contend- 
ing parties became mingled with each other. Nothing 
could exceed the desperation of the conflict at the point 
where the cannon was stationed. The enemy having 
forced himself into the very midst of Major Hindman's 
artillery, this officer was compelled to spike two of his 
pieces, and was warmly engaged across the carriages and 
guns. General Ripley now pressing upon the enemy's 
flanks, compelled them to give way, and the centre soon 
following the example, the whole British line fled a third 
time, and no exertions of their officers could restrain them, 
until they placed themselves out of the reach of the mus- 
ketry and artillery. The British being now completely 
beaten, retired beyond the borders of the field, leaving 
their dead and wounded. 

The loss on this occasion was in proportion to the ob- 
stinacy of the conflict, the whole being seventeen hundred 
and twenty-nine; of which the British amounted to twenty- 
seven more than the Americans. 

The intention of the American commander was to re- 
new the action in the morning, but finding that he had but 
fifteen hundred men fit for duty, and that the British were 
drawn up in considerable force, General Ripley determin- 
ed not to commence an attack. He then retreated to Erie, 
and extended its defences. Having been reinforced by a 
thousand men, the enemy appeared before Fort Erie'on 
the 3d of August, and commenced with regular approaches. 
By the 7th, the defences were sufficient to keep the enemy 



346 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

at bay. Until the 14th, the cannonade was incessant, and 
the enemy gained ground, but in skirmishes, the Ameri 
cans were generally victorious. 

General Gaines now commanded at Erie, and Colonel 
Drummond was preparing to assail him. At half-past two 
in the morning, the attack was commenced by three co- 
lumns. On the second attempt, the British gained the pa- 
apet, and the enemy received the orders of Colonel Drum- 
mond, to " give no quarter /" The order was faithfully 
executed, and a terrible strife ensued. Colonel Drum- 
mond was shot in the breast, but the enemy still main- 
tained their position ; but they were finally defeated. 

The British loss in this assault was two hundred and 
twenty-two killed, including fourteen officers of distinction; 
one hundred and seventy-four wounded, and one hundred 
and eighty-six prisoners. The Americans lost seventeen 
killed, fifty- six wounded, and ten prisoners. 

Nothing further of particular importance transpired, 
until the seventeenth of September, when General Brown, 
observing that the enemy had just completed a battery, 
which could open a most destructive fire, the neyt day 
planned a sortie, which has been considered a military 
chef d'oeuvre. The British force consisted of three bri- 
gades, of one thousand five hundred men each, one of 
which was stationed at the works in front of Fort Erie, 
the other two occupied a camp two miles in the rear. 
The design of General Brown was to " storm the batteries, 
destroy the cannon, and roughly handle the brigade on 
duty, before those in reserve could be brought up." A 
road had previously been opened by Lieutenants Riddle 
and Frazer, in a circuitous course through the woods, 
within pistol shot of the flank of the line of batteries, 
and with such secrecy as to have escaped the notice of the 
enemy. 

At two o'clock, the troops were drawn up in readiness 
to make the sortie. The division commanded by General 
Porter, was composed of riflemen and Indians under 
Colonel Gibson, and two columns, one on the right, com- 
manded by Colonel Wood, the left commanded by Gene- 
ral Davis, of the New-York militia ; this was to proceed 
through the woods, by the road which had 6een opened, 



THE UNITED STATES. 347 

while the right division of the troops, in the ravine 
already mentioned, was to be stationed between the fort 
and the enemy's works, under General Miller, with orders 
not to advance until General Porter should have engaged 
their flank. 

The command of General Porter advanced with so 
much celerity and caution, that when they rushed upon 
the enemy's flank they gave the first intimation of their 
approach. A severe conflict for a moment ensued, in 
which those gallant officers, Colonel Gibson, and Colonel 
Wood, fell at the head of their columns, and the com- 
mand devolved on Lieutenant Colonel M'Donald, and Ma- 
jor Brooks. In thirty minutes possession was taken of 
both batteries in this quarter, together with a block-house 
in the rear, and the garrison made prisoners. Three 
twenty-four pounders were rendered useless, and their 
magazine blown up by Lieutenant Riddle, who narrowly 
escaped the effects of the explosion. 

At this moment the division of General Miller came 
up ; General Brown having heard the firing had ordered 
it to advance. In conjunction with Colonel Gibson's co- 
lumn, he pierced between the second and third line of 
batteries, and, after a severe contest, carried the first of 
these. In this assault General Davis fell, at the head of 
his volunteers. The whole of these batteries, and the 
two block houses, being in the possession of the Ameri- 
cans, General Miller's division inclined to the more formi- 
dable batteries toward the lake shore. At this moment 
they were joined by the reserve under General Ripley. 
Here the resistance was more obstinate, the work being 
exceedingly intricate, from the successive lines of en- 
trenchments, contrived with studied complexity ; a con- 
stant use of the bayonet was the only mode of assailing 
them ; the enemy had, also, by this time, received consi- 
derable reinforcements. General Miller continued to 
advance, although suffering severe loss in some of his 
valuable officers : Colonel Aspinwall was badly wounded, 
and Major Trimble dangerously. The twenty-first, under 
Lieutenant Colonel Upham, forming a part of the reserve, 
and part of the seventeenth, uniting with the corps of 
General Miller, ch-irged rapidly upon the remaining bat- 



348 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

tery, which was instantly abandoned by the British infan- 
try and artillery. 

General Ripley now ordered a line to be formed, for 
the protection of the detachments engaged in destroying 
the batteries, and was engaged in making arrangements 
for following up, against the rear of General Drurnmond, 
the success which had so far transcended expectation, 
when he received a wound in the neck, and fell by the 
side of Major Brooks ; he was immediately transported 
to the fort. The objects of the sortie having been com- 
pletely effected, General Miller called in his detachments, 
and retired in good order, with the prisoners, and the 
trophies of this signal exploit. The American loss in 
this affair was five hundred and eleven, that of the enemy 
upwards of a thousand, besides their cannon. 

On the eighteenth of October, a detachment of nine 
hundred Americans was ordered to destroy some stores 
at Lyon's Creek, which they effected, after encountering 
a party of twelve hundred. The object was effected, 
after the loss of sixty-seven killed, wounded and missing. 

During the season several expeditions were planned, 
but to little purpose. Major Croghan commanded one 
destined to regain Michilimackinack, but the main object 
was unsuccessful. He effected a landing, but his force 
was too feeble, and the plan was given up as hopeless. 
He merely destroyed the establishments at St. Mary's 
and St. Joseph. General M'Arthur made an incursion 
into Canada, dispersing some detachments, destroying 
their stores, and taking one hundred and fifty prisoners, 
returned without loss. 

In the spring of 1814, Commodore Barney took the 
command of a small flotilla of gunboats to protect the 
inlets, and small rivers, that fall into Chesapeake Bay. 
About the 1st of June the enemy entered the Chesapeake 
Bay, and renewed their ravages with greater severity 
than they had done the past year. Sharp and frequent 
rencounters took place upon the water, and upon the 
land ; but the enemy succeeded in laying waste the coun- 
try, and carrying off the negroes, through the months of 
June and July. 

About the middle of August, the British entered the 



THE UNITED STATES. 349 

Chesapeake with a fleet of about sixty sail, including 
transports, under Admiral Cockburn, and landed about six 
thousand men at Benedict, on the Patuxent, under the 
command of General Ross. 

On the 22d, General Ross reached the Wood-yard, (so 
called) twelve miles from Washington, where Commodore 
Barney caused a large flotilla of gunboats to be destroyed, 
to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy. 

On the 23d, General Ross reached Bladensburgh, six 
miles from Washington, where he dispersed the militia, 
after a short resistance, and advanced to the city. Com- 
modore Barney had assembled a small force in defence of 
the capital, with several eighteen pounders, and made a 
stand ; but he was soon overpowered by numbers, wound- 
ed and taken prisoner, and the capital fell into the hands 
of the enemy. The navy yard was destroyed. 

By order of General Ross, the capitol, the president's 
house, and executive offices, were burnt. The enemy re- 
tired on the night of the 25th, by rapid marches, regained 
their ships, and embarked. 

The American ladies, always conspicuous in the history 
of America, for their patriotic conduct in times of diffi- 
culty and danger, never appeared so lovely in their zeal 
for their country. 

The first object of attack, it was rightly conjectured, 
would be Baltimore. The cities of Philadelphia and 
New- York waited the result with as much anxiety, as if 
their fate depended upon its successful issue. In this 
they perhaps had reason ; for should Baltimore fall, during 
the panic which succeeded the capture of Washington, 
and before the other cities would have time to place them- 
selves in an attitude of defence, they could make but a 
feeble resistance. 

After the first moment of despondency, occasioned by 
the capture of Washington, had subsided in Baltimore, and 
it was discovered that the place would not be assailed 
immediately, the inhabitants set about making prepara* 
tions for defence. Under the direction of General Smith, 
a ditch was opened, and a breastwork thrown up by the 
inhabitants, on the high ground to the north-east, (to effect 
which every class of people united,) so as completely to 
30 



350 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OP 

protect the town in the only quarter in which it was ac 
cessible by land forces. 

In a few days, a considerable number of militia arrived 
from Pennsylvania and Virginia ; and the spirits of the 
inhabitants were greatly animated by the arrival of the 
naval veteran, Commodore Rogers, with his marines, who 
took possession of the heavy batteries on the hill. 

A brigade of Virginia volunteers, together with the 
regulars, was assigned to General Winder, and the city 
brigade to General Striker ; the whole under command 
of Major-General Smith ; the two latter, distinguished 
revolutionary officers. General Striker had served from 
the commencement to the conclusion of that Avar, and 
shared in many important battles. The approach to the 
city by water, was defended by Fort M'Henry, commanded 
by Major Armistead, with about sixty artillerists, under 
Captain Evans, and two companies of sea fencibles, under 
Captains Bunbury and Addison ; of these, thirty-five were 
on the sick list. 

As this number was insufficient to man the batteries, 
Major Armistead was furnished with two companies of 
volunteer artillery, under Captain Berry and Lieutenant 
Pennington, and a company under Judge Nicholson, 
(chief justice of Baltimore county,) which had tendered 
its services. Besides these, there was a detachment of 
Commodore Barney's flotilla, under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Stewart and Major Lane, consisting of detachments from 
the twelfth, fourteenth, and thirty-sixth regiments of the 
United States troops, which were encamped under the 
walls of the fort. The total amounted to about one thou- 
sand men. 

Two batteries on the right of Fort M'Henry, upon the 
Patapsco, to prevent the enemy from landing during the 
night, in the rear of the town, were manned, the one by 
Lieutenant Newcomb, with a detachment of sailors ; the 
other, by Lieutenant Webster, of the flotilla ; the former 
was called Fort Covington, the latter, the City Battery. 

It was equally important to the safety of the city, that 
in the event of an attack by land and naval forces, both 
should be repelled ; for in case Fort M'Henry was silenced 
by the shipping, there would be nothing to prevent the 



THE UNITED STATES. 351 

destruction of the town ; and if the land forces of the 
enemy were successful, the fort could no longer be of any 
avail, and would even be untenable. To the defence of 
Fort M'Henry, and to the repulse of the British from the 
lines, the inhabitants looked for safety. Independently 
of the devastating rrders of Cochrane, and the recent 
scenes at Washington and Alexandria, this city was a se- 
lected object of the vengeance of the enemy, in conse- 
quence of her active and patriotic exertions during the 
war. No one can imagine to himself a just picture of 
the state of anxious feeling, among fifty thousand people 
of all ages and sexes, for the approaching crisis y which 
would determine the safety or destruction of their city. 

And even in case of successful resistance, the most 
painful incertitude hung over the fate of those who were 
to risk their lives in its defence ; not strangers or merce- 
naries, but their bosom friends, their brothers, their sons 
and husbands : every one, even old men and boys, who 
could wield a musket, were found in the ranks. 

The committee of safety, composed of those advanced 
in life, and the most influential citizens, (among whom 
was the respectable Colonel Howard, a hero of the revo- 
lution,) took a large share in the preparations to meet the 
approaching danger. 

The British army having re-embarked on board the 
fleet in the Patuxent, Admiral Cochrane moved down the 
river, and proceeded up the Chesapeake ; and, on the 
morning of the eleventh of September, appeared at the 
mouth of the Patapsco, about fourteen miles from the city 
of Baltimore, with a fleet of ships of war, and transports, 
amounting to fifty sail. 

On the next day, the land forces, to the number of at 
least six thousand men, the veterans of Wellington, de- 
barked at North Point, and, under the command of Gene- 
ral Ross, took up their march for the city. 

General Strieker claimed, for the city brigade under 
his command, the honour of being the first to meet the 
invader, and was accordingly detached by General Smith, 
in anticipation of the landing of the British troops. On 
the eleventh General Strieker proceeded on the road to 
North Point, at the head of three thousand and two hun- 



352 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

dred effective men, consisting of the fifth regiment, under 
Lieutenant Colonel Sterett, five hundred and fifty strong; 
six hundred and twenty of the sixth, under Lieutenant 
Colonel M'Donald ; five hundred of the twenty-seventh, 
under Lieutenant Colonel Long ; five hundred and fifty 
of the thirty-ninth, under Lieutenant Colonel Fowler ; 
seven hundred of the fifty-first, under Lieutenant Colonel 
Amey ; one Jiundred and fifty riflemen, under Captain 
Dyer ; one hundred and fifty cavalry, under Lieutenant 
Colonel Biays ; and the Union Artillery, of seventy-five 
men, and six four pounders, under Captain Montgomery, 
(attorney general of the state.) A light corps of riflemen 
and musketry, under Major Randal, taken from General 
Stanbury's brigade, and the Pennsylvania volunteers, 
were detached to the mouth of Bear Creek, with orders 
to co-operate with General Strieker, and to check any 
landing which might be effected in that quarter. 

At six o'clock, P. M. General Strieker reached the 
meeting-house, near the head of Bear Creek, seven miles 
from the city. Here the brigade halted, with the excep- 
tion of the cavalry, who were pushed forward to Gor- 
such's farm, three miles in advance, and the riflemen, 
who took post near the blacksmith's shop, two miles in 
advance of the encampment. 

The next morning, (the twelfth,) at seven o'clock, in- 
formation was received from the videttes, that the enemy 
were debarking troops under cover of their gun vessels, 
which lay off the bluff at North Point, within the mouth 
of the Patapsco River. The baggage was immediately 
ordered back under a strong guard, and General Strieker 
moved forward the fifth and twenty-seventh regiments, 
and the artillery, to the head of Long Log Lane, resting 
the fifth with its right on the head of a branch of Bear 
Creek, its left on the main road, while the twenty-seventh 
was posted on the opposite side of the road, in a line 
with the fifth. The artillery was posted at the head of 
the lane, in the interval between these two regiments. 
The thirty-ninth was drawn up three hundred yards in 
the rear of the twenty-seventh, and the fifty-first the same 
distance in the rear of the fifth ; the sixth regiment was 



THE UNITED STATES. 353 

drawn up as a reserve, within sight, half a mile in the 
rear of the second line. 

Thus judiciously posted, the general determined to 
wait an attack, having given orders that the two regiments 
composing the front line, should receive the enemy, and, 
if necessary, fall back through the fifty-first and thirty- 
ninth, and form on the right of the sixth, posted in re- 
serve. 

,The general now learned, that the British were moving 
rapidly up the main road ; and at the'mcment when he 
expected their approach to be announced by the riflemen, 
stationed in the low thick pine and furs, in advance, great- 
ly to his chagrin, he discovered this corps falling back 
upon the main position, having listened to a groundless 
rumour, that the enemy were landing on Back river, to 
cut them off. This part of the general's plan having been 
frustrated, he placed the riflemen on the right of his front 
line, by this means better securing that flank. The vi- 
dettes soon after bringing information that a party of the 
enemy were, in a careless manner, carousing at Gorsuch's 
farm, several of the officers offered their services to dis- 
lodge him. Captains Levering's and Howard's compa- 
nies, from the fifth, about one hundred and fifty in num- 
ber, under Major Heath, of that regiment; Captain Ais- 
quith's, and a few other riflemen, in all about seventy ; a 
small piece of artillery, under Lieutenant Stiles, and the 
cavalry, were pushed forward, to chastise the insolence of 
the enemy's advance, and to evince a wish on the part of 
the American army to engage. 

The detachment had scarcely proceedod half a mile, 
when they came in contact with the main body of the 
enemy; a sharp skirmish ensued, in which Major Heath's 
horse was shot under him, and several of the Americans 
killed and wounded, but not unrevenged, for in this affair 
the enemy lost their commander in chief, General Ross. 

This officer had imprudently proceeded too far, for the 
purpose of reconnoitering, when he was killed by one of 
the company of Captain Howard, who was in the advance. 

After the death of Ross, the command devolved on 
Colonel Brook, who continued to push forward, notwith- 
standing this occurrence. The American detachment fell 

30* 



UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

back; and the general conceiving the two companies of 
Howard and Levering to be too much fatigued to share in 
the approaching conflict, they were ordered to form on 
the reserve, not without a request on their part to be per- 
mitted to share in the perils of their townsmen. 

At half past two o'clock, the enemy commenced throw- 
ing rockets, which did no injury ; and immediately Cap- 
tain Montgomery's artillery opened their fire upon them, 
which was returned by a six pounder and howitzer upon 
the left and centre. The fire was brisk for some minutes, 
when the general ordered it to cease on his side, with a 
view of bringing the enemy into close canister distance. 

Perceiving that the efforts of the British were chiefly 
directed against the left flank, the general brought up the 
thirty-ninth into line on the left of the twenty-seventh, 
and detached two pieces of artillery on the left of the 
thirty-ninth; and still more completely to protect this 
flank, which was all important, Colonel Amey, of the fif- 
ty-first, was ordered to form his regiment at right angles 
with the line, resting his right on the left of the thirty- 
ninth. The movement was badly executed, and created 
some confusion in that quarter, but was soon rectified with 
the assistance of the general's aids and Major Stevenson, 
and the brigade majors, Calhoun and Frailey. 

The enemy's right column now displayed, and advanced 
upon the twenty-seventh and thirty-ninth. Unfortunately, 
at this juncture, the fifty-first, from some sudden panic, 
after giving a random fire, broke and retreated in such 
confusion as rendered it impossible to rally it, and occa- 
sioned the same disorder in the second battalion of the 
thirty-ninth. 

The fire by this time became general, from right to left ; 
the artillery poured an incessant and destructive stream 
upon the enemy's left column, which endeavoured to 
shelter itself behind a log house, but this was instantly in 
a blaze ; Captain Sadtler having taken the precaution to 
fire it, as soon as it was abandoned by him and his yagers. 

About ten minutes past three, the British line came on 
with a rapid discharge of musketry, which was well re- 
turned by the fifth, the twenty-seventh, and the first bat- 
talion of the thirty-ninth, who maintained their ground 



THE UNITED STATES. 355 

in spite of the example set by the intended support on 
the left. 

The whole of the general's force with this diminution, 
scarcely amounted to fourteen hundred, to which was 
opposed the whole of the enemy. The fire was inces- 
sant, until about twenty-five minutes before four o'clock, 
during which time General Strieker gallantly contended 
against four times his numbers ; but finding that the une- 
qual contest could be maintained no longer, and that the 
enemy was about to outflank him, in consequence of the 
flight of the fifty-first, he was compelled to retire upon 
his reserve, which he effected in good order. Here he 
formed his brigade, but the enemy not thinking it advi- 
sable to pursue, he fell back, and took post on the left of 
the line, half a mile in advance of the intrenchments, 
where he was joined by General Winder, who had been 
stationed on the west side of the city, but was now or- 
dered with the Virginia brigade, and Captain Bird's Uni- 
ted States dragoons, to take post on the left of General 
Strieker. 

The conduct of the Baltimore brigade, with the excep- 
tion of the fifty-first, and the second battalion of the thirty- 
ninth, who were seized with the panic to which raw troops 
are so much subject, deserved the highest praise. Vete- 
rans could not have done more. Their loss, in killed 
and wounded, amounted to one hundred and sixty-three, 
(amongst whom were some of the most respectable citi- 
zens of Baltimore,) about an eighth of the force engaged. 
Adjutant James Lowry Donaldson, of the twenty-seventh, 
(an eminent lawyer,) was killed in the hottest of the fight. 
Major Heath and Major Moore, and a number of other 
officers, were wounded. The loss of the British was 
nearly double that of the Americans, according to their 
own acknowledgment, and probably much greater. This 
unexpected resistance had a happy effect upon the enemy; 
in their official statements, they computed the American 
force at six thousand, a great proportion of regulars, and 
estimated our loss at one thousand, from which we may 
infer their opinion o the manner in which they were 
received. 

In the mean time the naval attack had already com- 



356 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

menced from five bomb vessels, at the distance of two 
miles ; when finding themselves sufficiently near, they 
anchored, and kept up an incessant bombardment, while 
they were at such a distance as to be out of the reach of 
the guns of the fort. The situation, although painfully 
inactive, was highly perilous ; yet every man stood to his 
post without shrinking. One of the twenty-four pound- 
ers, on the south-west bastion, under Captain Nicholson, 
was dismounted, and killed his second lieutenant and 
wounded several of his men. The enemy now approach- 
ed somewhat nearer, so as to be within striking distance 
A tremendous fire was instantly opened from the fort, 
which compelled him precipitately to gain his former po- 
sition. The bombardment was kept up during the whole 
day and night. The city, thus assailed on both sides, 
awaited the result with death-like silence, and yet no eye 
was closed in sleep. 

Suddenly, about midnight, a tremendous cannonade was 
heard in the direction of the fort, and the affrighted popu- 
lation believed that all was over. Their fears were soon 
quieted, by the information that some barges of the ene- 
my, the number not known, had attempted to land, but 
were compelled to draw off with all possible haste, after 
great slaughter, by Lieutenants Newcomb and Webster, 
who commanded the city battery and Fort Coving-ton. 
By the next morning the bombardment ceased, after up- 
wards of fifteen hundred shells had been thrown ; a large 
portion of which burst over the fort, and scattered their 
fragments amongst its defenders ; a great number fell 
within the works, and materially injured two of the pub- 
lic buildings, and two slightly. 

The enemy, not willing to abide such rough handling, 
retreated under cover of a dark and stormy night, and in 
the morning General Winder was detached in pursuit, 
but the time which had elapsed was sufficient for embar- 
kation, and the rear could not be cut off. The next day 
the fleet descended the bay, to the great joy of the inha 
bitants of Baltimore. 

We shall now return with our readers to the operations 
on the northern frontier. About the first of September, 
Sir George Prevost led his army to Plattsburgh, while 



THE UNITED STATES. 357 

the fleet proceeded up the lake on his left, to make & 
simultaneous attack by land and water. Before this, lit- 
tle of consequence had transpired in this quarter. 

The peace in Europe permitted the English govern- 
ment to transport large bodies of troops, and they had 
already sent on a considerable army to Canada. Four- 
teen thousand of these were organized under Sir George, 
and the remainder were sent to oppose General Brown 
on the Niagara. 

To oppose this overwhelming force, General Macomb 
had but iifteen hundred regulars, including new recruits 
and invalids. The works were in no state of defence, 
and the stores and ordnance were in great disorder. The 
British force took possession of Champlain on the third 
of September, and, from the proclamations and impress- 
ments of wagons and teams in this vicinity, it was soo'n 
discovered that their object was an attack on Plattsburgh. 
Not a minute was to be lost in placing the works in a 
state of defence ; and in order to create an emulation and 
zeal among the officers and men, they were divided into 
detachments, and stationed in the several forts; the gene- 
ral declaring, in orders, that each detachment was the 
garrison of its own work, and bound to defend it to the 
last extremity. At the same time he called on General 
Mooers, of the New-York militia, and arranged with him 
plans for calling out the militia en masse. The inhabi- 
tants of Plattsburgh fled with their families and effects, 
excepting a few men, and some boys, who formed them- 
selves into a company, received rifles, and were exceed- 
ingly useful. 

In this extremity General Mooers collected about seven 
hundred militia, and small detachments were posted so 
as to watch and harass the enemy. Trees were felled, 
and every impediment put in the way of their march, 
and some skirmishes ensued. At daylight, on the sixth, 
it was ascertained that the enemy were advancing in two 
columns by each of the roads, dividing at Sampson's, 
a little below Chazy village. The column on the Beck- 
man road approached rapidly ; the militia skirmished a 
little with its advanced parties, but which, with the excep- 
tion of n few brave men, soon broke, and fled in the great- 



358 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

est disorder. A detachment of two hundred and fifty 
men, under Major Wool, had been marched to their sup- 
port, and to show them an example of firmness ; but it 
was found unavailing. 

Finding that the enemy's columns had penetrated 
within a mile of Plattsburgh, orders were received for 
Colonel Appling to return from his position at Dead 
Creek, and fall on the enemy's right flank. The colonel 
fortunately arrived just in time to save his retreat, and to 
fall in with the head of a column debouching from the 
woods. He poured a destructive fire from his riflemen, 
and continued to annoy the column until he formed a 
junction with Major Wool. Notwithstanding that con- 
siderable execution was done by the field pieces, the 
enemy still continued to press forward in column ; con- 
siderable obstructions were, however, thrown in their way 
by the removal of the bridge, and by the fallen trees; a 
galling fire was also kept up from the galleys as they 
passed the creek. 

Plattsburgh is on the northeast side of the Saranac, 
near its entrance into Lake Champlain, directly opposite 
the American works. The town was of course abandon- 
ed, and occupied by the British. Attempts were made 
to take possession of the bridge, but it was resolutely 
guarded by the Americans. When our troops had passed 
the bridge, the planks were raised, and used for a breast- 
work. 

The enemy, now masters of the village, instead of 
attempting to carry the American works on the opposite 
side of the river, which their vast superiority of force 
might have enabled them to do, contented themselves 
with erecting works, whence they continued to annoy the 
Americans, and constantly skirmishing at the bridges and 
fords. By the eleventh, the fifth day of the siege, a con- 
siderable force of New- York and Vermont militia, which 
had been continually collecting, lined the Saranac, and 
repelled the attempts of the British to cross, while, at the 
same time, a considerable body was sent to harass their 
rear. There was scarcely an intermission to the skir- 
mishes which took place between them and the militia, 
who acted, after the first day, with great intrepidity 



THE UNITED STATES. 359 

The American regulars, at the same time, laboured inces- 
santly to extend and strengthen their works. During 
this time, a handsome affair was achieved by Captain 
M'Glassin, who, crossing the river in the night, assailed 
the British regulars, more than three times his number, 
stationed at a masked battery, which had been for some 
days preparing, drove them from their posts, and demo- 
lished their works. 

The principal cause of delay, which was fortunate for 
the Americans, was the momentary expectation of the 
fleet, which was intended to co-operate. On the morn- 
ing of the eleventh, at eight o'clock, the look out boat of 
Commodore M'Donough announced its approach. It 
consisted of the Confiance, carrying thirty-nine guns, 
twenty-seven of which were twenty-four pounders ; the 
brig Linnet, of sixteen guns ; the sloops Chub and Finch, 
each carrying eleven guns; thirteen galleys, five of which 
carried two, and the remainder one gun. The commo* 
dore at this moment lay at anchor in Plattsburgh bay, 
and intended in that situation to receive the enemy. His 
fleet consisted of the Saratoga, carrying twenty-six guns, 
eight of which were long twenty-four pounders ; the 
Eagle, of twenty guns ; the Ticonderoga, of seventeen, 
the Preble, seven; and ten galleys, six of which carried 
two, and the remainder one gun. Beside^ the advantage 
which the enemy possessed, in being able to choose their 
position, their force was much superior. The number of 
guns in the British fleet amounted to ninety-five, and of 
men to upwards of a thousand; while that of the Ameri- 
cans was eighty-six, and the number of men less by two 
hundred. One of the American vessels had been built 
with despatch almost incredible. Eighteen days before, 
the trees of which it was constructed, were actually gro\> 
ing on the shores of the lake. 

The American vessels were moored in line, with five 
gunboats arid gallies on each flank. At nine o'clock, 
Captain Downie, the British commander, anchored in line, 
abreast of the American squadron, at about three hundred 
yards distance, the Confiance opposed to the Saratoga; 
the Linnet to the Eagle ; the British galleys, and one of 
the sloops to the Ticonderoga, Preble, and the left divi- 



360 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OP 

sion of the American galleys ; the other sloop to the right 
division. 

The importance of the contest which was now impend- 
ing, will justify us in a particular description. 

In this situation the whole force on both sides became 
engaged ; and at the same moment, as if this had been the 
signal, the contest commenced between General Macomb 
and Sir George Prevost. One of the British sloops was 
soon thrown out of the engagement, by running on a reel 
of rocks, whence she could not be extricated, while one 
division of the enemy's galleys was so roughly handled, 
as to be compelled to pull out of the way. But the fate 
of this interesting day, on which the two rivals for naval 
superiority were for the second time matched in squad- 
ron, depended chiefly on the-result of the engagement be- 
tween the two largest ships. 

The American commodore maintained the unequal con* 
test for two hours ; but the greater weight of the ene- 
my's battery seemed to incline the scale of victory, al- 
though he suffered prodigiously. The chances against 
the Saratoga were accidentally increased by the comman- 
der of the Eagle, who not being able to bring his guns to 
bear as he wished, cut his cable, and anchored between 
the Ticonderoga and Saratoga, by which this vessel was 
exposed to a galling fire from the enemy's brig. The 
guns on the starboard side had, by this time, been either 
dismounted or become unmanageable ; the situation of 
the enemy was but little better ; to both, the fortune of 
the day depended ou the bAecution of one of the most 
difficult naval manosuvie* 10 wind their vessel round, and 
bring a new broaasnie 10 oear. 

The Confiance aasnvea it iu vain, but the efforts of the 
Saratoga were successiui ; a stern anchor was let go, the 
bovver cable cut, and the ship winded with a fresh broad- 
side on the frigate, which soon after surrendered. A 
Broadside was then sprung to bear on the brig, which 
surrendered in fifteen minutes after The sloop opposed 
to the Eagle had struck to Captain Henley sometime be- 
fore, and drifted crown the line. Three of the galleys 
were sunk, the others escaped ; all the rest of the fleet 
fell into the hands of Commodore M'Donough. By the 



THE UNITED STATES. 361 

time this bloody contest was over, there was scarcely a 
mast in either squadron capable of bearing a sail, and the 
greater part of the vessels in a sinking state. There were 
fifty round shot in the hull of the Saratoga, and in the 
Confiance one hundred and five. The Saratoga was 
twice set on fire by hot shot. 

The action lasted two hours and twenty minutes. The 
commander of the Confiance was killed, with forty-nine 
of his men, and sixty wounded. On board the Saratoga 
there were twenty-eight killed, and twenty-nine wounded. 
Of the first was Lieutenant Gamble; and on board the 
Ticonderoga, Lieutenant Stanbury, (son of General Stan- 
bury, of Maryland.) Among the wounded were Lieu- 
tenant Smith, acting Lieutenant Spencer, and midship- 
man Baldwin. The total loss in the American squadron 
amounted to fifty-two killed, and fifty-eight wounded. 
The loss of the enemy was eighty-four killed, one hun- 
dred and ten wounded, and eight hundred and fifty-six 
prisoners, which actually exceeded the number of their 
captors. 

This engagement, so deeply interesting to the two rival 
nations, took place in sight of the hostile armies. But 
they were by no means quiet spectators of the scene ; a 
hot engagement was kept up during the whole time ; the 
air was filled with bombs, rockets, sharpnels, and hot 
balls. Three desperate efforts were made by the British 
to cross over and storm the American works, in which 
they were as often repulsed, with considerable loss. An 
attempt to force the bridge was bravely defeated by a de- 
tachment of regulars, and Captain Grosvenor's riflemen. 
They attempted a ford about three miles above, but were 
so briskly assailed by a body of volunteers and militia 
posted in a wfcod, that the greater part of the detachment 
was cut to pieces. 

The efforts of the enemy naturally relaxed, after wit- 
nessing the painful sight, so little expected, of the entire 
capture of their fleet. The firing was, however, kept up 
until night ; at night the enemy withdrew their artillery, 
and raised the siege. The plans of Sir George Prevost 
were completely frustrated, since the Americans had now 
the command of the lake : even if he were to possess 

31 



362 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

himself of the American works, it would not serve him 
any; further design ; in the meantime, he would be exposed 
to great danger from the hourly augmentation of the 
American forces. 

Under the cover of the night, he, therefore, sent off all 
his baggage and artillery, for which he found means of 
transportation; and, before day the next morning, his 
whole force precipitately retreated, leaving behind their 
sick and wounded. Vast quantities of military stores, 
and munitions of war, were abandoned by them, and still 
greater quantities were afterwards found hid in marshes, 
or buried in the ground. They were hotly pursued, a 
number of stragglers were picked up, and upwards of five 
hundred deserters came in. 

Those of the British army and navy who fell, were in- 
terred with the honours of war. The humane attention 
of the Americans to the wounded, and the politeness and 
generous attention to the prisoners, were acknowledged 
in grateful terms by Captain Pryng, (who succeeded Cap- 
tain Downie,) in his official despatch to the admiralty 

Thus was this portentous invasion most happily repel- 
led, and another of our inland seas made glorious by the 
victories of free Americans. The " star spangled ban- 
ner" waved in triumph on the waters of Champlain, as it 
did on Erie and Ontario. These noble features in our 
great empire will henceforth be viewed with a very diffe- 
rent interest from what they heretofore excited. 

The effect of this victory tended to allay party spirit, 
and produce unanimity in the national legislature. The 
great cause of bitter complaint against the administra- 
tion, French influence, was at an end, and the recent con- 
duct of Great Britain towards this country, rendered it 
impossible for any one to say that she wa^not wantonly 
pursuing hostilities, when these causes no longer existed. 
No one could now be the advocate of Britain. 

But, in addition to other circumstances, the neglect ex- 
perienced by our ministers in Europe, and the shuffling 
policy of Great Britain, which procrastinated a final ad- 
justment ol differences, were well understood, and had 
their proper effect on our citizens. Our sincere desire 
for peace was met by the demand for a surrender of ? 






THE UNITED STATES. 303 

large portion of territory, and a total relinquishment of 
the lake shores, a sine qua non. To these conditions it 
is evident our government could not accede, and few were 
so weak as to believe that the proposition was made with 
any other view than to prolong the negotiations, and take 
advantage of circumstances which might intervene. 

About this epoch, a convention, composed of delegates 
from several of the New-England states, met at Hartford, 
the members of which were opposed to the war. This 
step occasioned much excitement, and was the subject of 
many speculations. It was charged with the design of 
sundering the union of the states ; but after a brief ses- 
sion, terminated in an address and remonstrance, or peti- 
tion to congress, enumerating several objections to the fe- 
deral constitution. It was presented to several states for 
approbation, but was uniformly rejected. As to the con- 
stitutional right of assembling for the purpose of discuss- 
ing national subjects, we can have but one voice, unless 
we abandon republican principles ; but whether the mo- 
tives, the time, and the expected results of this conven- 
tion, were correct and judicious, is problematical. In the 
legislature of, Pennsylvania, in which the memorial was 
discussed, the conduct of the memorialists was severely 
censured. 

Our finance now appeared to revive, under the indefa- 
tigable industry and great abilities of Mr. Dallas, whom 
the president selected at this critical moment to fill the 
office of secretary of the treasury. His plans were cha- 
racterized by the greatest boldness, but were unfolded in 
so luminous a manner, as to carry conviction to every 
mind. He may be said to have plucked up the sinking 
credit of the nation by the locks. The duties of the se- 
cretary at war were, at the same time, discharged by Co- 
lonel Monroe, in "addition to his other avocations ; in 
which undertaking he exhibited no small courage, for it 
had become a forlorn hope of popularity ; he was happily 
rewarded by the most fortunate success in all his mea- 
sures, and by the universal applause of *his country. 

While the American congress was thus occupied, the 
public attention was awakened by a most alarming state 
of affairs to the southward. The Creek war was renew- 



364 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ed, and a powerful invasion of Louisiana was threatened, 
General Jackson, after concluding a treaty with the 
Creeks, moved his head quarters to Mobile. Here, 
about the latter end of August, he received certain infor- 
mation, that three British ships of war had arrived at 
Pensacola, and had landed a large quantity of ammuni- 
tion and guns, for the purpose of arming the Indians, 
and had, besides, marched into the fort with three hundred 
troops. He was also informed that the fleet of Admiral 
Cochrane had been reinforced at Bermuda, and that thir- 
teen ships of the line, with transports, were daily ex- 
pected, with ten thousand troops, for the purpose of inva- 
ding some of the southern states. On the receipt of this 
information, he immediately wrote to the governor of 
Tennessee, calling for the whole quota of that state. 

On the fifteenth of September, three vessels of war 
from Pensacola, appeared before fort Boyer, which com- 
mands the entrance to Mobile Bay. A proclamation was 
issued by Colonel Nichols, commanding his majesty's for- 
ces in Florida, addressed to the inhabitants of Louisiana, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee, inviting them to aid the Bri- 
tish. He likewise made a proposition to a nest of pirates 
which infested one of the lakes which communicates with 
the gulf, to assist in the operations against the Americans 
in that quarter. This nest of desperadoes amounted to 
five or six hundred, and their commander, Lafitte, had 
been outlawed by the American government. In the sum 
mer, the establishment had been broken up by Commo- 
dore Patterson, but had again organized, and would be a 
dangerous force, if employed by our enemies, for which 
service they had large offers. 

But what was most humiliating to those who could 
stoop so low, this alliance was indignantly rejected. 
Lafitte at first dissembled, until he had drawn from the 
colonel important information, when he dismissed him 
with disdain, and immediately dispatched a messenger to 
Governor Claiborne, who had some time before offered 
five hundred dollars for his apprehension, and laid before 
him incontestible proofs of the truth of his declaration. 
The governor was agreeably surprised at this unexpected 
trait of generosity, but at first hesitated as to the course 



THE UNITED STATES. 365 

to be pursued ; on the approach of danger, however, he 
issued his proclamation, in which he pledged himself, that 
those engaged in this illicit course of life should be for- 
given, provided they would come forward and aid in the 
defence of the country. This was joyfully accepted by 
the Barratarians, as they were called, who tendered their 
services, and were found eminently useful. 

General Jackson having in vain remonstrated with the 
governor of Pensacola for his unprecedented conduct, 
determined to march against that place. Having re- 
ceived a reinforcement of two thousand Tennessee militia, 
which had marched through the Indian country, he ad- 
vanced to Pensacola to demand redress. On the sixth of 
November he reached the neighbourhood of that post, and 
immediately sent Major Peire with a flag to communicate 
the object of his visit to the governor ; but he was forced 
to return, being fired on from the batteries. Jackson 
then reconnoitered the fort, and finding it defended both 
by British and Indians, he made arrangements for storm- 
ing it the next day. 

The troops were put in motion at day light, and being 
encamped to the west of the town, the attack would be 
expected from that quarter ; to keep up this idea, part of 
the mounted men were sent to show themselves on the 
west, whilst the remainder of the troops passed to the rear 
of the fort, undiscovered, to the east of the town. His 
whole force, consisting of a few regulars, a body of militia, 
and some Choctaw Indians, appeared in view when within 
a mile of the fort, and advanced firmly to the enemy's 
works, although there were seven British vessels on their 
left, and strong batteries of cannon in front. On entering 
the town, a battery of two cannons, loaded with ball and 
grape, was opened on the centre column, composed of 
regulars, and a shower of musketry was poured from the 
houses and gardens. The battery was soon carried and 
the musketry silenced. 

The governor now made his appearance with a flag, 
begged for mercy, and offered to surrender the town im- 
mediately. This was granted, and every protection af- 
forded to the persons and property of the inhabitants. 
The commandant of the fort refused to surrender until 

31* 



366 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

midnight, when he evacuated it with his troops, just as the 
Americans were preparing to make a furious assault. The 
British withdrew their shipping, and Jackson, having ac- 
complished his purpose, returned to Mobile. 

Notwithstanding the negotiations for peace, prepara- 
tions were made for a formidable invasion of Louisiana, 
and Governor Claiborne ordered the two divisions of mi- 
litia to hold themselves in readiness to repel an attack. 
He also called on the inhabitants to turn out en masse, for 
the defence of their liberties and their homes. 

In New-Orleans, the citizens, from the commencement 
of the war, as if sensible of the feeble help which they 
could expect from the general government, manifested 
the greatest alacrity in qualifying themselves for taking 
the field against an invader. Every man capable of bear 
ing arms, had become a soldier, and perhaps in none was 
there such frequent and elegant displays of well disci- 
plined volunteer companies dressed in uniform. The 
wonderful aptitude of the French for the profession of 
arms, was never more fully exhibited. There were in- 
termingled with them, a number of men who had served 
in the French armies. 

The free people of colour, a numerous class, were per- 
mitted, as a privilege of which they were proud, to form 
volunteer companies, and wear their uniform ; some of 
these were natives, but the greater part had been refugees 
from St. Domingo. The American and French inhabi- 
tants, although sometimes at variance with each other, on 
this occasion united heartily in dislike to the English, and 
in a disposition to frustrate their designs. 

Hearing of the danger of New-Orleans, General Jack- 
son repaired thither for its defence, and arrived there on 
the second of December. He put in requisition all the 
powers of his mind, and took the most active measures to 
prevent the effects of an expected invasion. 

Batteries were constructed in important situations, and 
every obstruction put in the way of the invaders. He 
called on the legislature for resources, which were prompt- 
ly supplied. Colonel Monroe, acting secretary of war, 
had already forwarded military supplies, and called on the 
neighbouring governors for a considerable force. 



THE UNITED STATES. 367 

About the fifth of December, certain intelligence was 
received, that the British fleet, consisting of at least sixty 
sail, was off the coast to the east of the Mississippi. Com- 
modore Patterson immediately despatched five gun-boats, 
under the command of .Lieutenant Catesby Jones, to 
watch the motions of the enemy. They were discovered 
in such force off Cat Island, as to induce the lieutenant to 
make sail for the passes into Lake Ponchartrain, in order 
to oppose the entrance of the British. The Sea Horse, 
Sailing Master Johnson, after a gallant resistance, was 
captured in the bay of St. Louis. 

On the fourteenth, the gun-boats, while becalmed, were 
attacked by nearly forty barges, and twelve hundred men, 
and, after a contest of an hour, with this overwhelming 
force, the flotilla surrendered. The loss of the Americans 
was forty killed and wounded ; among the latter, Lieu- 
tenant Spidden, who lost an arm : Lieutenant Jones and 
M'Keever were also wounded. The loss of the enemy 
was estimated at three hundred men. 

This loss was severely felt, as the enemy was thereby 
enabled to choose his point of attack, and we were, in a 
great measure, prevented from watching his motions. 
But the exertions for defence were neither paralyzed nor 
abated. The legislature appropriated money, and offered 
bounties which induced numbers to serve on board the 
schooner Caroline, and the brig Louisiana. An embargo 
was laid for three days, and martial law was declared. 

Lafitte and his Barratarians, about this time, joined the 
American forces. The city now exhibited an interesting 
spectacle ; all classes cheerfully preparing for the recep- 
tion of the invader, and^reposing the utmost confidence 
in Jackson. All was life and bustle, and the female part 
of the society seemed emulous to share in this affecting 
scene. 

All the principal bayous which communicate with the 
lake, and the narrow strip of land on the borders of the 
Mississippi, through the swamps, had been obstructed. 
There was, however, a communication with Lake Borgne, 
but little known, called the bayou Bienvenu, used by 
fishermen ; its head near the plantation of General Vil- 
lere, seven miles below the city. Major Villere had re- 



368 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ceived orders from his father to guard this bayou, and he 
accordingly stationed a guard near its entrance into the 
lake, at the cabins of some fishermen. 

It afterwards appeared, that these wretches had been in 
the employment of the British. On the twenty-second, 
guided by them, the enemy came suddenly upon the Ame- 
rican guard, and took them prisoners. The division under 
General Keane, by four o'clock in the morning, reached 
the commencement of Villere's canal, and, having disem- 
barked, and rested some hours, proceeded through the 
cane-brake, and, by two o'clock, reached the bank of the 
river. General Villere's house was suddenly surrounded, 
as also that of his neighbour, Colonel La Ronde ; but this 
officer, as well as Major Villere, was so fortunate as to 
effect his escape, and, hastening to the head-quarters, com- 
municated the intelligence. 

The alarm gun was fired, and the commander in chief, 
with that promptitude and decision for which he is so re- 
markable, instantly resolved on the only course to be pur- 
sued, which was, without the loss of a moment's time, to 
attack the enemy. Coffee's riflemen, stationed above the 
city, in one hour's time were at the place of rendezvous ; 
the battalion of Major Plauche had arrived from the 
bayou, and the regulars and city volunteers were ready to 
march. By six o'clock the different corps were united on 
Rodrigue's canal, six miles below the city. The schooner 
Caroline, Captain Henley, at the same time dropped down 
the river. The command of General Coffee, together 
with Captain Beale's riflemen, were placed on the left, 
towards the woods; the city volunteers, and men oi 
colour, under Plauche and Duquin ; the whole under the 
command of Colonel Ross, were stationed to the right of 
these ; and, next to them, the two regiments of regulars, 
the seventh and forty-fourth ; the artillery and marines, 
under Colonel M'Rea, occupied the road. The whole 
scarcely exceeded two thousand men. 

The British force, at this time, amounted to three thou- 
sand, and instead of pushing directly towards the city, 
had bivouacked, fully convinced that the most difficult 
part of the enterprise was already achieved. 

Carroll's force was posted on the Gentilly road, to pro- 



THE UNITED STATES. 369 

vide against an attack from that quarter. Coffee was di- 
rected to turn their right, which rested on the wood, at 
the distance of half a mile from the river, while the ge- 
neral assailed their strongest position near it. Commo- 
dore Patterson, who had gone on board the Caroline, 
dropped down at the same time, and was to open his fire 
upon the enemy as a signal of attack. The first intima- 
tion of the approach of the Americans was a raking broad- 
side from the schooner ; their fires extending from the 
river, enabled the assailants to take deliberate aim. Cof- 
fee's men, with their usual impetuosity, rushed upon the 
right, and entered their camp, while Jackson's troops in 
front, advanced upon them with great ardour. 

The enemy, although taken by surprise, and having se- 
veral hundreds suddenly killed and wounded, soon form- 
ed, and their fires being extinguished, came into action. 
A thick fog, which arose shortly after, producing some 
confusion in the different American corps, Jackson pru- 
dently called off his troops, lay on the field that night, and 
at four in the morning took a position on the other side 
of the canal of Rodrigue, which formerly had been a 
mill-race. 

The American loss was twenty-four killed, one hun- 
dred and fifteen wounded, and seventy-four prisoners, 
among whom were many of the principal inhabitants of 
the city. Colonel Lauderdale, of Tennessee, a brave 
soldier, fell, much lamented. That of the British was es- 
timated at four hundred, in killed, wounded, and missing. 
They had intended to proceed to New-Orleans the next 
day, but were induced to be more cautious, having esti- 
mated Jackson's force at fifteen thousand men. 

The general set to work immediately to fortify his po- 
sition. This was effected by a simple breastwork, from 
the river to the swamp, with a ditch in front. To hasten 
the construction of these works, cotton bags were used, 
as the cheeks of the embrazures. As the enemy was 
still annoyed by the Caroline, they set to work in con- 
structing batteries to attack her, and on the twenty-se- 
venth, threw hot shot, by which she was set on fire and 
blown up, about an hour after she was abandoned by her 
crew. The Louisiana, which then took her station, sus- 



370 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

tained the fire of all the batteries, until in imminent dan- 
ger. In losing her, the whole co-operative naval force 
would be lost. Her commander. Lieutenant Thompson, 
after encountering many obstacles, finally succeeded in 
bringing her near Jackson's position. 

After the destruction of the Caroline, Sir Edward Pack- 
enham, the British commander in chief, having landed the 
main body of his army, with a sufficient train of artillery, 
superintended in person the arrangements for fortifying 
his position. 

On the twenty-eighth, the British general advanced up 
the levee in force, with the intention of driving Jackson 
from his entrenchments ; and at the distance of half a 
mile, commenced an attack with rockets, bombs, and a 
heavy cannonade, as he approached the American works, 
which were yet unfinished. The Louisiana, discharging 
her broadside upon the enemy's column, caused great de- 
struction ; the fire from the American batteries was not 
less destructive ; and after a violent struggle of seven 
hours, the British general retired. 

The loss of the Americans was seven killed and eight 
wounded ; among the former, Colonel Henderson, of Ten- 
nessee. That of the British, much more considerable. 

On the morning of the first of January, 1815, Sir Ed- 
ward Packenham was discovered to have constructed bat- 
teries near the American works, and at daylight commen- 
ced a heavy fire from them, which was well returned by 
Jackson. A bold attempt was, at the same time, made to 
turn the left of the Americans ; but in this the enemy was 
completely repulsed. The British retired in the evening 
from their batteries, having spiked their guns, and leaving 
behind a quantity of ammunition. The loss of the Ame- 
ricans, on this occasion, was eleven killed and twenty- 
three wounded. 

On the fourth, General Jackson was joined by two 
thousand five hundred Kentuckians, under (General Adair ; 
and on the sixth, the British were joined by General Lam- 
bert, at the head of four thousand men. The British 
force now amounted to little short of fifteen thousand of 
the finest troops ; that of the Americans to about six 
thousand, chiefly raw militia, a considerable portion un- 



THE UNITED STATES. 371 

armed, and, from the haste of their departure, badly sup- 
plied with clothing. All the private arms which the in- 
habitants possessed were collected, and the ladies of New- 
Orleans occupied themselves continually in making diffe- 
rent articles of clothing. The mayor of the city, Mr. 
Girod, was particularly active at this trying moment. 

The British general now prepared for a serious attempt 
on the American works. With great labour he had com- 
pleted, by the seventh, a canal from the swamp to the 
Mississippi, by which he was enabled to transport a num- 
ber of his boats to the river. It was his intention to make 
a simultaneous attack on the main force of General Jack- 
son on the left bank, and crossing the river to attack the 
batteries on the right. 

The works of the American general were by this time 
completed. His front was a straight line of one thousand 
yards, defended by upwards of three thousand infantry 
and artillerists. The ditch contained five feet water, and 
his front, from having been flooded by opening the levees 
and frequent rains, was rendered slippery and muddy. 
Eight distinct batteries were judiciously disposed, mount- 
ing, in all, twelve guns, of different calibres. On the 
opposite side of the river there was a strong battery of 
fifteen guns, and the entrenchments were occupied by 
General Morgan, with the Louisiana militia, and a strong 
detachment of the Kentucky troops. To guard against 
an attack from any other quarter, Colonel Reuben Kem- 
per, with a few men, encountering infinite difficulties, 
had explored every pass and bayou, and, on this sub- 
ject, had placed at ease the mind of the commander in 
chief. 

On the memorable morning of the eighth of January, 
General Packenham, having detached Colonel Thornton, 
with a considerable force, to attack the works on the right 
bank of the river, moved, with his whole force, exceeding 
twelve thousand men, in two divisions, under Major Ge- 
nerals Gibbs and Keane. and a reserve under General Lam- 
bert. The first of these officers was to make the princi- 
pal attack ; the two columns were supplied with scaling 
ladders and fascines. 

Thus prepared, the Americans patiently waited the 



372 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

attack, which would decide the fate of New-Orleans, and 
perhaps of Louisiana. 

The British deliberately advanced in solid columns, 
over an even plain, in front of the American entrench- 
ments ; the men carrying, besides their muskets, fascines, 
and some of them ladders. 

A dead silence prevailed until they approached within 
reach of the batteries, which commenced an incessant and 
destructive cannonade ; they, notwithstanding, continued 
to advance in tolerable order, closing up their ranks as 
fast as they were opened by the fire of the Americans. 
When they came within reach, however, of the musketry 
and rifles, these joined with the artillery, and produced 
such dreadful havoc that they were instantly thrown into 
confusion. 

Never was there so tremendous a fire as that kept up 
from the American lines; it was a continued stream; 
those behind loading for the men in front, enabled them 
to fire with scarcely an intermission. The British columns 
were literally swept away ; hundreds fell at every dis- 
charge. The British officers were now making an effort 
to rally their men, and, in this attempt, their commander, 
a gallant officer, General Packenham, was killed. 

The two generals, Gibbs and Keane, succeeded in pusn- 
ing forward their columns a second time ; but the second 
approach was more fatal than the first ; the continued 
rolling fire of the Americans resembled peals of thun- 
der. It was such as no troops could withstand. The 
advancing columns broke, and no effort to rally them 
could avail : a few platoons only advanced to the edge of 
the ditch, to meet a more certain destruction. An una- 
vailing attempt was made to rally them a third time, by 
their officers, whose gallantry, on this occasion, deserved 
a better fate, in a better cause. Generals Gibbs and 
Keane were carried away, severely wounded, the former 
mortally. 

The plain between the front of the British, and the 
American lines, was strewed with dead ; so dreadful a 
carnage, considering the length of time, and the numbers 
engaged, was perhaps never witnessed. Two thousand, 
at the lowest estimate, pressed the earth, besides a num- 



THE UNITED STATES. 373 

ber of the wounded, who were not able to escape. The 
loss of the Americans did not exceed seven killed and 
six wounded. General Lambert was the only general 
officer left upon the field ; being unable to check the 
flight of the British columns, he retired to his encamp- 
ment. 

In the meantime, the detachment under Colonel Thorn- 
ton succeeded in landing on the right Jbank, and immedi- 
ately attacked the intrenchment of General Morgan. The 
American right, believing itself outflanked, abandoned its 
position, while the left maintained its ground for some 
time ; but finding itself deserted by those on the right, 
and being outnumbered by the enemy, they spiked their 
guns and retired. Colonel Thornton was severely wound- 
ed, and the command devolved on Colonel Gobbins, who, 
seeing the fate of the assault on the left bank, and receiv- 
ing orders from General Lambert, recrosscd the river. 

On the return of General Lambert to his camp, it was 
resolved, in consultation with Admiral Cochrane, to retire 
to their shipping. This was effected with great secrecy; 
and during the night of the eighteenth, their camp was 
entirely evacuated. From the nature of the country, it 
was found impossible to pursue them ; they left eight of 
their wounded, and fourteen pieces of artillery. Their 
loss in this fatal expedition was immense ; besides their 
generals, and a number of valuable officers, their force 
w r as diminished by at least five thousand men. 

It was in vain, as in other instances, to conceal the truth 
of this affair ; and the sensations which it produced in 
Great Britain, are not easily described ; the conduct of 
the ministry was regarded as shamefully dishonourable, 
in thus stretching forth one hand to receive the olive, 
which was tendered by America, and at the same time 
secretly wielding a dagger with the other. 

Commodore Patterson despatched five rjoats, under Mr. 
Shields, purser on the New-Orleans- station, in order to 
annoy the retreat of the British. This active and spirited 
officer succeeded in capturing several of their boats, and 
in taking a number of prisoners. 

The glorious defence of New-Orleans, produced the 
most lively joy throughout the United States, mingled, 

32 . 



374 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

0| 

however, with pity for a brave enemy, who had encoun- 
tered so disastrous a defeat. 

The British fleet had, at the same time, ascended the 
Mississippi, for the purpose of bombarding Fort 5>t. Phi- 
lip, which was commanded by Major Overtoil ; but with- 
out being able to make any impression. 

There is but little doubt, that the object of Great Bri- 
tain was, to possess herself of Louisiana, and obtaining a 
cession from Spain, draw a cordon round the United 
States, and by that means strangle this young Hercules, 
as it were, in the cradle. It is well known, that on board 
the fleet, they had brought all the officers necessary for 
the establishment of a civil government, even a collector 
of the port ! 

An American must tremble for his country, when he 
looks back at the danger we have escaped. That the Bri- 
tish intended to deliver the city of New-Orleans to be 
sacked by their soldiery, is very doubtful ; and from the 
high character of Sir Edward Packenham, it is highly 
improbable that he would have given, as the watchword 
of the occasion, beauty and booty ; this was more proba- 
bly spoken by some of the inferior officers, with a view 
of producing an excitement among the soldiery. 

We have given the events of this battle in detail, be- 
cause it may be considered as the most important in its 
consequences, of any which occurred during the war. 
As it will always occupy a conspicuous place in the an- 
nals of our country, we were unwilling to bring it into a 
compass so small as necessarily to omit many of its fea- 
tures. 

We turn now from this grand spectacle to the ravages 
of the contemptible Cockburn, who was pursuing a less 
dangerous, but more profitable occupation, in robbing the 
defenceless inhabitants of the Carolinas and Georgia. 
The produce of the plantations, household furniture, and 
negroes, were the trophies of his prowess. Let a dark 
mantle shade his memory from the light of military and 
naval renown. 

The momentous intelligence of the defeat of the Bri- 
tish at New-Orleans, had scarcely ceased to operate upon 
the feelings of the people of the United States, when they 



THE UNITED STATES. 375 

received the welcome news of peace. These two events 
were joyfully celebrated, by illuminations throughout this 
land of freedom and independence. 

To us the war is pregnant with important lessons. We 
have acquired a knowledge of our weakness and of our 
strength. Our confederation will rise like a pyramid, its 
base eternal. Our best policy is peace, if honourable ; 
fair and honourable policy to all nations, preferring jus- 
tice to profit. One lesson we have been taught, which 
was worth the sum we have paid for the war : THAT WE 

ARE WEAK IN THE PURSUIT OF CONQUEST, BUT ALL POW- 
ERFUL IN DEFENCE. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

General View of the United States. 

Having now brought the history of our country down 
to the close of the war for "free trade and sailors' rights," 
we may be allowed to take a glance at the progress which 
we have made in the acquisition of territory by treaty 
and purchase, and of the prospects which open before us. 
We now number-twenty-four states, one district, and six 
territories, the boundaries of which follow. 

The boundary on the side of the Spanish dominions, 
according to the treaty with Spain, ratified in 1821, begins 
on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth of the River Sabine, 
and proceeds along the west bank of that river to the 33d 
degree of N. lat. ; thence, by a line due north, to Red 
River ; thence up that river, to the meridian of 100 de- 
grees W. Ion. ; thence due north along that meridian to 
the River Arkansas ; thence along the south bank of the 
Arkansas to its source ; thence due north or south as the 
case may be, to the parallel of 42 degrees N. lat., and 
thence along that parallel to the Pacific Ocean. On the 
side of the British dominions, the boundary begins in the 
Atlantic Ocean, at the mouth of the River St. Croix, and 
proceeds up that river to its source ; thence due north to 
the highlands, which separate the waters falling into the 



376 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

St. Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic, 
thence along those highlands in a S. W. direction, to the 
parallel of 45 degrees N. lat. ; thence along that parallel 
to the River St. Lawrence ; and thence up that river and 
the great lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and Superior, to 
the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods. 
By the treaty with Great Britain, in 1819, the boundary 
ine proceeds from the last mentioned point, due north or 
south, as the case may be, to the parallel of 49 degrees 
N. lat., and thence due west along that parallel to the 
Rocky Mountains. The boundary between the Rocky 
Mountains and the Pacific Ocean remains unsettled. 

The states are arranged according to their location, 
thus: Eastern Maine, New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, 
Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, six. Middle 
New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Ma- 
ry land, five. Southern Virginia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, se- 
ven. Western Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Missouri, six. District of Columbia, the seat 
of the general government, a tract of ten miles square. 
Territories Michigan, Northwest, Arkansas, Missouri, 
Oregon, Florida, six. States, District, and Territories, 
in all thirty-one. The extent from south to north is 24 
degrees, comprehended between 35 and 49 degrees N. 
lat., and from east to west, 58 degrees 11 minutes W. Ion. 
included between 66 degrees 49 minutes, and 135 degrees. 
The whole containing two millions of square miles. 

By the census of 1820, the whole population was nine 
millions, six hundred and forty-one thousand, seven hun- 
dred and eighty-four. The District of Columbia, being 
of small extent, and embracing three populous places, 
Washington, Alexandria, and Georgetown, contains the 
most dense population, and averages three hundred and 
thirty on a square mile. Next in population is Massachu- 
setts, which has seventy-two on the square mile. Con- 
necticut fifty-eight, and Rhode Island fifty-three. Dela- 
ware thirty-four ; New-York thirty ; Maryland twenty- 
nine ; New-Hampshire twenty-six ; Vermont and Penn- 
sylvania twenty-three ; South Carolina twenty ; Virginia 
seventeen ; Ohio fifteen ; Kentucky and North Carolina 



THE UNITED STATES. 3T7 

thirteen ; Tennessee eleven ; Georgia six ; Louisiana and 
Alabama three ; Mississippi two ; Illinois and Missouri 
one; Michigan contains one inhabitant to about five 
square miles ; northwest unknown ; Arkansas, Missouri, 
and Oregon, contain a million of square miles, and the 
first more than fourteen thousand inhabitants. Florida 
has about one inhabitant to three square miles. 

With a knowledge of the qualities of the soil, healthi- 
ness of the clime, water privileges and communications, 
those who wish to emigrate, can determine on the most 
eligible situation with a tolerable degree of accuracy, ac- 
cording to the business which they propose to pursue. 

Another consideration with those who wish to change 
their place of residence, may sometimes be taken into the 
account, and this is the prevalence of religious opinion. 
Taking the whole of the Union collectively, the principal 
religious denominations are Presbyterians and Congrega- 
tionalists, who have, together, more than 2500 congrega- 
tions ; the Baptists, who have more than 2000 congrega- 
tions ; the "Friends, who have more than 500 societies ; 
and the Episcopalians, who have about 300. The Metho- 
dists, also, are very numerous. The Baptists and Metho- 
dists are found in all parts of the United States ; the 
Congregationalists are almost w r holly in New-England ; 
the Presbyterians are scattered over the middle and 
southern states ; the Friends are most numerous in Penn- 
sylvania, and the adjoining states, and the Episcopalians 
in New-York, Connecticut, Maryland, and Virginia. Ger- 
man Lutherans, German Calvinists, and Moravians, are 
also numerous in the middle states. 

But, besides these, the Unitarians are a fast increasing 
sect, of which a majority of the Congregational societies 
in Boston are known to be, and, more or less, the doc 
trine is spreading through the United States, though the 
principal part of the societies are supposed to be in New- 
England. The Universalists are also numerous in Maine, 
Massachusetts, New-Hampshire, and Vermont; and in 
the western counties of New-York they abound. In New 
York city and Philadelphia, are several churches, and in 
South Carolina, Ohio, Alabama, and Georgia, they are 
fast increasing. 

32* 



378 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Next to religious opinions, the sort of people among 
whom we purpose to fix a permanent abode, may very 
properly be considered. Of the United States, the inha- 
bitants consist of whites, negroes, and Indians. 

The negroes are generally slaves, and are principally 
confined to the states south of Pennsylvania, and the 
River Ohio. All the whites are of European origin; 
principally English. The New-Englanders. Virginians, 
and Carolinians, are almost purely English. Next to the 
English are the Germans, who are very numerous in the 
middle states, particularly in Pennsylvania. Next to the 
Germans are the Dutch, who are most numerous in New- 
York. The French constitute nearly half the population 
of Louisiana. The Irish and Scotch are found in the 
middle states, in the back parts of Virginia, and in all the 
principal cities of the Union. Very little is known about 
the Indians west of the Mississippi. The four principal 
tribes on the east of the Mississippi are the Creeks, Choc- 
taws, Cherokees, and Chickasaws. These tribes live 
within the chartered limits of Georgia, Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, and Tennessee. 

In a country of such great extent, the habits, manners, 
and general occupations of the people, will, of course, 
differ materially. The eastern, or New-England states, 
in the interior portions, have, until lately, devoted their 
attention principally to agriculture, confined to such arti- 
cles as are of prime necessity in sustaining life. The 
cities and towns on the seaboard, have attended to the 
fisheries and commerce generally. Lately they have 
been led to manufactures, particularly of cloths and cot- 
ton, for which their various streams are well adapted. 
The restrictions on commerce, if continued, will probably 
direct most of the capital hitherto occupied in foreign 
commerce, into this channel. The immense forests in 
some of the states, will, however, occupy numbers in the 
lumber trade, for yeaj*s to come. 

New-England undoubtedly holds the first rank in lite- 
rature, commerce, enterprise, and wealth, but in grandeur 
and sublimity, and the natural means of wealth, the west- 
ern states are more than successful rivals. The plains 
and mountains, and rivers and forests of the newly settled 



THE UNITED STATES. 379 

parts of the new world, have no parallel in the eastern 
continent. The following description of the prairies of 
Louisiana is extracted from Niles' Register, a work not 
exceeded in this country for the extent and value of its 
communications. 

The districts of Attakapas and Oppelousas, which 
stretch along the Mexican gulph, from the Attchaffallaya 
to the Sabine, are scarcely known to geographers, though 
they form a most interesting portion of the republic. The 
fertility of the soil, the value of its products the immense 
natural meadows which cover five eighths of the country, 
and their peculiar fitness for feeding cattle, are all worthy 
the attention of the shoals of emigrants who are seeking 
wealth or liberty, to the west and south. The accounts 
published by Brackenridge and Darby are most to be re- 
lied on ; but neither of those writers have been sufficiently 
explicit, though each enjoyed opportunities of acquiring 
better information. The following statement may, per- 
haps, be perused with some interest by such as are pleased 
to note the rapid inarch which our country is making to 
power, and give the reader some idea of the vast resources 
of Louisiana. 

About the year 1755, a few French traders commenced 
a traffic for peltry with the Indians, who inhabited those 
prairies. They were soon followed by others, who, re- 
marking the great profits to be realized from stock raising, 
introduced horned cattle into the country. Their success 
encouraged others to adventure ; and we find from the 
census of 1785, that Attakapas and Oppelousas then con- 
tained 2408 inhabitants. In the year 1801, their popula- 
tion was rated at 7250, of which 3500 were slaves. Up 
to the last named epocha, stock raising formed the almost 
exclusive occupation of the inhabitants. They supplied 
New-Orleans and the Mississippi coast with beef, at the 
rate of one cent and a fourth per pound ; but even at this 
price, many had amassed money enough to purchase slaves 
and commence farming establishments. The American 
government, which took place early in 1804, gave new 
stimulus, and induced the inhabitants to turn their atten- 
tion more to planting. 

The soil and climate uniting with their exertions and 



380 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

industry, have secured to the first planters of those dis- 
tricts a most enviable independence. A few years ago 
they were a horde of shepherds, consequently a hardy 
and virtuous race. Of late their plan of life has changed, 
and their means rapidly increased, without introducing 
the thousand fictitious wants, which usually travel in the 
train of wealth. Even now it is no uncommon sight to 
see a planter of those countries, owning, perhaps, seventy 
or eighty slaves, clad in the product of his wife's loom, 
attending to his horses., oxen, or crop, with more assi- 
duity and attention, than characterizes a Carolina over- 
seer : yet, if a stranger visits him, he will find his table 
crowded with the best wines of the world, and no lack of 
intelligence or any thing else which forms good cheer. 

Riches here, appear to add only to the comfores of 
their possessor, without forming the invidious distinc- 
tions among men which exist in other parts of the world. 
The ease with which they are acquired, may be the rea- 
son of this but the detached situation of the country ac- 
counts for it more rationally. Besides the population is 
as yet quite thinly scattered over an immense territory, 
and wherever this is the case, we do not usually find so 
many of those little presuming animals, wearing the shapes 
of men, which are such great nuisances in thickly inhabit- 
ed countries. 

In 1810, Attakapas and Oppelousas, contained 13,774 
souls. For two years after the census was taken, there 
was a great emigration to the country. It was stopped 
early in 1813, by the pressure of the war ; but since the 
peace, it has recommenced. At present, (Sept. 1817,) I 
feel confident the population would be estimated too low 
at 20,000. 

It is the custom for the rich and gay young people of 
Louisiana and Mississippi, to spend their carnival at New- 
Orleans. The health enjoyed by the young ladies of the 
prairies, added to their active and industrious habits, 
gives them bloom and beauty, which cast the belles oi 
other districts into the shade. It is a singular fact, that 
for thirteen winters past, the reigning toast in the Orleans 
ball rooms, has been almost always from Attakapas or 
Oppelousas. 



THE UNITED STATES. 381 

The topography of those countries are pretty accu- 
rately delineated in Darby's map of Louisiana. His book 
is a very inferior production to his map, and not much to 
be relied on as useful information. I will here add a few 
words concerning the soil and its productions ; but as 
these vary in an extent of country, containing about 
300,000 square miles, I will consider the districts sepa- 
rately. 

Oppelousas, lying to the northwest of Attakapas, is 
well calculated for a grazing country. Its prairies are 
xvery extensive, and the greater parts of the land second 
and third rate. The lands of the best quality in this 
country, are in its southwest corner, consisting of a strip 
about twenty-six miles long, and eight wide. In this tract 
are situated many large plantations, which yield immense 
profits to their proprietors. The northern part of the 
country, bordering on Rapide district, is poor land, and 
the western section, which skirts the gulph and the River 
Sabine, is little better. Those lands, however, produce 
tolerable corn, and a coarse luxuriant grass, which can 
feed cattle enough to supply the home and West India 
markets. 

Attakapas is divided into two parishes, St. Mary and 
St. Martin. The Vermillion River rises in Oppelousas, 
and on entering St. Martin's, becomes a considerable 
stream. The lands on its banks are high, and generally 
of the best quality. After a course of ninety miles in 
this parish, it falls into the bay of the same name, near the 
30th degree of north latitude. Between the Vermillion 
and the Minton, (the western limit of Attakapas,) lies a 
prairie country, which in soil is nothing icmarkable, but 
affords excellent pasturage. 

The Tesche, likewise, rises in Oppelousas, near the 
source of the Vermillion. Its general course is to the 
south east, piercing the western sections of St. Mar- 
tin and St. Mary. It meets the Attchaffallaya at Berwick's 
Bay, and is navigable for seventy miles from its mouth 
for the largest boats, and for smaller craft almost to its 
source. From the line of Oppelousas to Berwick's Bay, 
a distance of more than ninety miles, there is no soil on 
its banks which is not first rate. As it approaches the 



382 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

sea, however, the land is thought to improve, and the cli- 
mate certainly becomes more favourable to the culture of 
sugar. Between the upper part of the Tesche and the 
Vermillion, in the parish of St. Martin, lies a rich tract 
of country, principally prairie. It is as yet very partial- 
ly settled, owing to the scarcity of wood. 

This cannot form a permanent impediment, as trees, 
when planted in those meadows, and shielded from the ver- 
nal burnings of the grass, thrives faster than any soil I 
have ever seen. Several persons have already tried the 
experiment, and find four or five years sufficient to grow 
any supply of firewood they may want. Besides, there 
is not any part of the rich meadows of Attakapas more 
than five miles distant from plenty of wood. The climate 
is, at the same time, so mild, that fuel is little wanted but 
for the kitchen. 

The good lands of Oppelousas and St. Martin's are 
best adapted to the culture of cotton. They sent to New- 
Orleans last year 6,000 bales of fine cotton ; and if the 
whole of their rich soil was cultivated, might produce an- 
nually more than sixty thousand bales. About five thou- 
sand steers are each year exported from those districts, 
which sell at home for twelve dollars each. 

The parish of St. Mary's, being the southern part of 
the tract of country under consideration, is well adapted 
for the culture of sugar. This was doubted, until some 
of the enterprizing American emigrants tested it, in the 
last two years, by the most successful experiments. It is 
found to succeed as well, if not better, than on the Mis- 
sissippi, and the cane is certainly brought to maturity with 
less labour. Cotton also succeeds remarkably well, but 
will soon give way to sugar. In the year 1816, this pa- 
rish, with a population of about 3,000 souls, sent to mar- 
ket 2,500 bales of cotton, 900 hogsheads of sugar, and 
800 beef cattle, which sold for 350,000 dollars. 

Some sugar has been cultivated in Oppelousas and St. 
Martin's, but, owing to mismanagement or the climate, it 
has not succeeded well. 

The parish of St. Mary is in no place more than ten 
miles wide, having the sea on one side, and Lake Platt 
and the Attchaflallaya on the other, which may have an 



THE UNITED STATES. 383 

influence on the early frosts, and protect the cane crop 
till it reaches maturity. 

The Tesche lands lie mostly from ten to fifteen feet 
above the highest swells produced by the Mississippi 
floods. In the year 1813, and 1815, when there were 
very great freshets, the lakes between the prairies and the 
Mississippi, and with them the Tesche, rose about eight 
feet above their common level. But a recurrence of this 
can scarcely be expected, as the levees on the Great River 
are rapidly extending, which will prevent its waters 
from flowing into the lakes. But even if the levees 
should be demolished, the prairies are too high ever to be 
inundated. 

The Vermillion is never affected by the Mississippi. 
The lands on its banks (and, indeed, in every other part of 
the country except the Tesche) are from 30 to 100 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

Sloops of 100 tons can ascend the Tesche to Nova 
Iberia, 600 miles from its mouth ; though the produce of 
the country is seldom carried direct to the ocean, the 
Tesche, and AttchafTallaya communicate with the Missis- 
sippi by the Lafourch and Plaquamine ; a voyage from 
any part of those rivers can be easily made to New-Or- 
leans in nine days. 

Along the coast of Attakapas are found four islands, 
viz. Belle Isle, Cole Blanche, Grand Cote, and Petite 
Ance, which bear no resemblance to the main land, and 
appear to be remnants of some ancient continent. They 
rise several hundred feet above the tides, and I would 
suppose originally belonged to a high diversified coun- 
try Be this as it may, they have a very fertile soil, and 
produce the best sugar and cotton of Louisiana. The 
four islands contain about 7000 superficial acres of good 
land. There are sugar establishments on all but Belle 
Isle. There are other islands lying in the Attchaffallaya, 
or Berwick's Bay, which have a very good soil, but once 
in ten or fifteen years have been liable to be overflowed 
by the heaviest swells of the Mississippi. 

In Oppelousas about one third of the population is 
Americans. In St. Martin's one fifth, and in St. Mary's 
more than a moiety. The rest are principally French. 



384 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Lands throughout the whole country are to be had at a 
very low rate, though they are rising every day in value. 
JGood tracts in the parish of St. Mary's, with plenty of 
wood, may be had for two and three dollars the acre. 

With a salubrious climate, a rich soil, and industrious 
population, Attakapas, and Oppelousas, will soon not only 
be called the richest counties of Louisiana, but outstrip 
in agriculture any section of the union. Such a country 
is worthy of observation, and with the hope that the re- 
marks I have made may result to the advantage of emi- 
grants, I submit them to my countrymen. 

Comparative Estimate of the 

POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The northern and eastern sections of the Union are far 
less favoured by nature for the production of the fruits of 
the earth, than the southern and western. And hence 
emigrations are frequent, and the drain of inhabitants 
great. And yet the fact is evident, that in New-England 
the population is constantly and rapidly increasing. By 
comparing the census of 1810 with that of 1820, we per- 
ceive a very regular progression, and with very few ex- 
ceptions, an increase equal to that which might be ex- 
pected, even without the loss of emigrants. During the 
ten years mentioned, in Maine, the most barren state in 
New-England, the net gain of inhabitants was near 70,000, 
being an additioa of nearly one third of its former num- 
bers. The increase was in all the counties. 

In the same time New-Hampshire gained about 30,000, 
being an increase of more than one ninth of her former 
numbers, and no loss in either of her counties. In Ver- 
mont, the increase was about 18,000, and no loss in any 
section of the state. In Massachusetts, the gain was 
51,000, being an increase of about one eighth. Berkshire 
county lost two hundred and seventeen, and Duke's county 
gained but two. In Rhode Island, the gain was much 
less than might be expected, considering* the flourishing 
state of manufactures, and the encouragement held out 
to enterprise. The whole increase was but about 6,000, 



THE UNITED STATES. 385 

being one twelfth of her former population. In New- 
port county, the loss was about five hundred. In Con- 
necticut, the gain was 14,000, being an increase of about 
one twentieth of its former numbers. Thus the net in^ 
crease in the New-England states, during ten years, was 
183,000. 

"We come now to the great state of New-York, which 
is divided into four large districts, viz. South, Middle, 
Eastern, and Western. The gain of inhabitants in the 
South, during ten years, was nearly 39,000, of which New- 
York city and county received about 27,000. The gain 
in the Middle district was 37,000. In the Eastern, the 
increase was 23,000, in which is Washington county, 
which lost during this time, nearly six thousand. The 
greatest increment was in the Western district, which 
nearly doubled in the aggregate, and some of the counties 
of which, more than tripled their former numbers. St. 
Lawrence, Courtland, Broome, and Ontario doubled ; and 
Genesee increased more than four fold. The whole gain 
in the state was 413,763, which is an addition to the cen- 
sus of 1810, of one half, wanting a fraction. The popu- 
lation of the state may now be fairly estimated at sixteen 
hundred thousand. 

New- Jersey exhibits a regular progression, having added 
to her population but thirty-two thousand, each of the 
counties having contributed about a fair proportion. The 
addition is about one seventh in ten years. Pennsylvania 
exhibits a considerable increase during this period, but 
the result in the different counties is very unequal. Clear- 
field, Erie, Jefferson, M'Kean, Tioga, and Warren, have 
about doubled, and some of them more than tripled their 
numbers, while Cumberland, Dauphin, and Northampton, 
have lost thousands, and Northumberland alone, twenty- 
one thousand, being three thousand more than half its 
former inhabitants. The whole increment to the state 
during ten years, was 239,307, of which Philadelphia city 
and county claim nearly twenty-six thousand. Delaware 
had gained but seventy-five during this time, the whole 
population in 1820, amounting to less than 73,000. In 
Maryland, the following counties diminished about thir- 
teen thousand in ten years, viz. Charles, Montgomery, 

33 



386 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Harford, Queen Ann, and Dorchester. The whole gain 
in the state, however, was near twenty-seven thousand, 
the whole population being more than four hundred and 
seven thousand. 

Having now come in course to the District of Columbia, 
a particular description may be desirable, at least so far 
as the principal city is worthy of note. 

Washington city, the metropolis of the United States, 
is pleasantly situated on the north-east bank of the River 
Potomac, at the point of land formed by the junction of the 
Eastern branch, 300 miles from the mouth of the river, 
and three miles below the head of the tide. It is sepa- 
rated from Georgetown on the N. W. by Rock Creek, and 
Tyber Creek passes through the middle of the city. Wash- 
ington is regularly laid out in streets running clue north 
and south, intersected by others at right angles. Besides 
these streets, which are from 80 to 110 feet, wide, there are 
avenues, from 130 to 160 feet broad, which diverge from 
centres in various parts of the city, crossing the other 
streets transversely. At the points from which the ave- 
nues diverge are spacious squares. The ground embraced 
in the plan of the city is very extensive, but only a small 
portion of it is yet occupied with buildings. 

The principal public buildings and establishments are, 
1. The Capitol, which is finely situated on an eminence, 
commanding a view of every part of the city, and a con- 
siderable portion of the adjacent country. According to 
the original plan, it is to be composed of a central edifice 
and two wings. The two wings were in a state of con- 
siderable forwardness in 1814, when the British army, 
under General Ross, gained possession of the city, and 
destroyed them, together with the President's house and 
other public structures, and an extensive library, which 
had been purchased for the use of congress. The wings 
of the capitol are now rebuilt, and the central building 
has been commenced. The wings are each 100 feet 
square, and the whole building, when completed, will be 
a magnificent edifice, presenting a front of 362 feet. 2. 
The President's house, situated about a mile and a half 
west of the capitol, on the avenue leading to Georgetown. 
It is 170 feet by 85, and two stories high. 3. Four spa- 



THE UNITED STATES. 387 

cious buildings, erected in the vicinity of the president's 
house, for the accommodation of the heads of the great 
departments of government. 4. An extensive navy-yard, 
situated on the eastern branch, which forms a safe and 
commodious harbour. 5. A fort, which, from the ex- 
treme southern point of the land on which the city stands, 
commands the channel of the Potomac ; and, 6. the gene- 
ral post-office, a brick edifice, about a mile W. N. W. of 
the capitol. The style of the architecture of the capitol 
is Corinthian, and that of the president's house Ionic ; and 
both buildings are constructed of free stone. The capi- 
tol square is enclosed by a strong and handsome iron rail- 
ing ; and being planted with trees, and otherwise orna- 
mented, will afford a delightful walk for the inhabitants and 
visiters of the city. The amount expended by the Uni- 
ted States on the public buildings, previously to their de- 
struction by the British, in August, 1814, was $1,214,291, 
and there have been appropriated, towards rebuilding the 
same, $1,207,788. 

Besides the buildings and establishments above enume- 
rated, Washington contains a city hall, a theatre, a col- 
lege, 4 banks, several manufacturing establishments, and 
12 houses for public worship, 3 for Presbyterians, 2 for 
Episcopalians, 2 for Baptists, 2 for Methodists, 2 for Ca- 
tholics, and 1 for Friends. There is a bridge about one 
mile long, over the Potomac, three over the eastern branch, 
and two over Rock Creek. The population of Washing- 
tori, in 1800, was 3,210 ; in 1810, 8,208 ; and in 1820, 
13,247, of whom 3,741 were blacks. 

The whole gain in the district, during ten years, was 
nine thousand. 

The southern states, except Alabama, Mississippi, and 
Louisiana, afford but small inducements for the settlement 
of emigrants. The two former have considerably in- 
creased, and the latter nearly doubled her numbers in ten 
years. Tennessee has increased in the same ratio, and 
Kentucky has gained more than fifteen thousand annually, 
numbering, at the last census, nearly six hundred thou- 
sand. But in point of gain in numbers, Ohio takes the 
lead of all her sister states, having increased, from 1810 
to 1820, 350,674 ; and, at the last census, was noted down 
at 518,434. 



388 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Having now digressed a little from the track of histo- 
ry, without entirely losing our way, we shall return to 
the thread of our work, as connected more particularly 
with the doings of our government. 



CHAPTER XVII, 

President Monroe's Administration. 

Mr. Monroe was sworn into office as President of the 
United States, on the fourth of March, 1817, and entered 
on his duties under favourable auspices. On his acces- 
sion to the presidency, the country was in a prosperous 
state. War had ceased, and with it much of the asperity 
of political excitement and party bickering. But to re- 
pair the losses of the war, and to regain the commercial 
prosperity, which had been nearly annihilated, was not 
the work of a moment. Much of the commerce to which 
our attention had been turned, had fallen into other hands, 
and ship building, excepting for the navy, had been nearly 
forgotten. Our country was inundated by foreign fabrics, 
and the specie, which had been borrowed at a great pre- 
mium, was fast leaving the country. But still the inau- 
gural address of the president was encouraging, and he 
anticipated a return of our former prosperity. 

During the summer and autumn of 1817, the president 
made a tour through the northern and eastern sections of 
the Union, where his presence was welcomed with the 
greatest cordiality, and party feeling seemed merged in 
national patriotism. But, in this journey, the national 
interests were a principal object. Large sums had been 
appropriated by the national legislature for the defence of 
the sea-coast, the safety of our inland frontier, the in- 
crease of the navy, and the establishment of national 
docks, the superintendence of which was committed to 
the president. That he might discharge his duties with 
fidelity and judgment, he determined to obtain the neces- 
sary information by personal observation. 

From Washington, which he left on the first of June 



THE UNITED STATES. 389 

he went by land to Boston, passing through the principal 
cities on his route, amidst the congratulations and bene- 
dictions of a happy people. From Boston, where he 
spent several days, he passed through Salem, Newbury- 
port, and Portsmouth, to Portland, whence his course was 
directed to Pittsburgh, New-York. This important post 
occupied his attention several days. His course thence 
was directed to Detroit, through Ogdensburg and Sack- 
etts' Harbour. On the 17th of September he arrived at 
Washington, having travelled three thousand miles in 
little more than three months. 

On the first of December congress convened, and the 
message of the president stated, that our national credit 
was rising, and that the defences of the country were in a 
state of_ forwardness ; that arrangements were made with 
Great Britain, to reduce the naval force of the two coun- 
tries on the lakes ; that each country M as to retain pos- 
session of the islands as before the late war, and that our 
foreign relations were of a pacific character. He also 
specially recommended the officers and soldiers of the 
revolutionary army, to the notice of congress, and press- 
ingly advocated a repeal of the internal duties, as need- 
less to be continued any longer. 

Mississippi was admitted into the union as an indepen- 
dent state on the eleventh, with the usual formalities. In 
the course of the same month, an expedition, which had 
been set on foot against Florida, by foreign adventurers, 
was checked by the troops of the United States. The 
actors claimed authority under the colonies of South 
America, and had formed an establishment at Amelia 
Island, a Spanish province. The American government, 
therefore, saw proper to take possession of the island, 
and break up the haunt of a lawless banditti. 

Another establishment, similar in its profession and 
practices, was formed at Galvezton, an island on the Texas 
coast belonging to the United States. Slaves, in consider- 
able numbers, were thus smuggled into the country, and 
importations of goods were made through the same chan- 
nel, in a clandestine manner. A naval force, with troops, 
was jent against them, and the island surrendered without 
loss of blood. 

33* 



390 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

During this session several important bills passed the 
ordeal of congress, particularly that for the relief of revo- 
lutionary officers and soldiers. In April, 1818, Illinois 
adopted a state constitution, and, in December following, 
was admitted into the Union. 

In May, 1818, the president left Washington to" view 
the extensive shores of the Chesapeake Bay, and embark- 
ing at Annapolis, examined the coast and waters, with a 
view of ascertaining the propriety of establishing a naval 
depot in that vicinity; and having accomplished the object 
of his visit, returned through Virginia to the seat of go- 
vernment, which he reached on the 17th of June. He 
every where experienced the same welcome reception 
which he met in his tour through the northern states 
during the preceding year. 

On the 27th of May, the president and senate ratified 
the treaty concluded between Mr. Russel and the Swedish 

Government, and the same was ratified by the king of 
vveden on the 24th of July following. 

The Seminole Indians, urged on, as is supposed, by 
foreign emissaries who resided among them, commenced 
hostilities, and several murders were committed; but the 
Indians refused to give up the guilty, alleging that the 
whites were the original aggressors. In consequence of 
this refusal, General Gaines was ordered to remove, dis- 
cretionally, such Indians as were still on the lands ceded 
by the Creeks to the United States. 

In the execution of this order, one man and woman was 
killed, and two women made prisoners. Soon after this 
the Indians fired on a second detachment, who resisted 
them, and a skirmish ensued, in which several were killed 
and wounded. 

Shortly after this event, Lieutenant Scott, with a de- 
tachment of forty men, seven women, and some chil- 
dren, ascending the Appalachicola, with supplies for the 
garrison at Fort Scott, was attacked, and the whole par- 
ty killed, excepting six men, who made their escape, and 
a woman, who was taken prisoner. 

From this time the war became serious. The Indians, 
in considerable numbers, were embodied, and an open at- 
tack was made on Fort Scott, to which General Gaines, 



THE UNITED STATES. 391 

with about six hundred regular soldiers, was for a time 
confined. Information of this state of things being com- 
municated to the department of war, General Jackson 
was ordered, December 26, to take the field, and directed, 
if he should deem the force with General Gaines, amount- 
ing to one thousand eight hundred men, insufficient to 
cope with the enemy, " to call on the executives of the 
adjacent states, for such an additional militia force as 
he might deem requisite." On the receipt of this order, 
General Jackson prepared to comply ; but instead of 
calling on the executives of the neighbouring states, espe- 
cially on the governor of Tennessee, who lived near his 
residence, he addressed a circular to the patriots of West 
Tennessee, inviting one thousand of them to join his 
standard. 

At the same time he wrote to the governor of Tennes- 
see, M'Minn, informing him of the appeal he had made to 
the men whom he had led to victory on the plains of Tal- 
ledega, Emuckfau, and Tohopeko, and added, " should 
the appeal prove inefficacious, I will embrace the earliest 
opportunity of making the requisition on you for a like 
number of drafted im'litia." The call of General Jack- 
son was promptly obeyed ; and the thousand volunteers, 
officered by the general, or by the volunteers themselves, 
were ordered to Fort Scott. 

Before taking up his march, he wrote, January 12th, to 
the secretary of war, apprising him of the appeal he had 
made to the Tennesseans, assigning as his reason for such 
a step, that he deemed the force with General Gaines, 
one thousand eight hundred, insufficient, and " that the 
greater portion of this number were drafted militia from 
Georgia, who might apply fur their discharge at the expi- 
ration of three months from the time they were muster- 
ed," about the time he should probably reach Fort Scott. 
To this communication the secretary replied " I have 
the honour to acquaint you of the entire approbation of 
the president, of all the measures which you have adopt- 
ed, to terminate the rupture with the Indians." 

Believing that the Seminoles could not be subdued, un- 
less they were followed into Florida, General Jackson 
marched upon St. Marks, a weak garrison, where a por- 



392 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

tion of them had taken refuge. Possession of the fon 
was taken easily, and occupied by Jackson as an Ameri- 
can post. The main army then marched to Suwaney Ri- 
ver, where they consumed an Indian village. At this 
time the court martial was held, at which Alexander Ar- 
buthnot, and Robert C. Ambrister, were tried and con- 
demned to death. Two Indian Chiefs were hung without 
trial. The following is extracted from the doings of the 
court. 

" The court, on examination of evidence, and on ma- 
ture deliberation, find the prisoner, Robert C. Ambrister, 
guilty of the first and second charges, and do therefore 
sentence him to suffer death by being shot. The mem- 
bers, requesting a reconsideration of the vote on this sen- 
tence, and it being had, they sentence the prisoner to re- 
ceive fifty stripes on his bare back, and be confined with a 
ball and chain, to hard labour, for twelve calendar months. 
The commanding general approves the finding and sen- 
tence of the court, in the case of A. Arbuthnot, and ap- 
proves the finding and first sentence of the court, in the 
case of Robert C. Ambrister, and disapproves the recon- 
sideration of the sentence of the honourable court in this 
case. 

"It appears from the evidence and pleading of the pri- 
soner, that he did lead and command within the territo 
ry of Spain, (being a subject of Great Britain,) the In 
dians in war against the United States, those nations be- 
ing at peace. It is an established principle of the laws of 
nations, that any individual of a nation, making war 
against the citizens of any other nation, they being at 
peace, forfeits his allegiance, and becomes an outlaw and 
pirate. This is the case of Robert C. Ambrister, clearly 
shown by the evidence adduced. 

"The commanding general orders that Brevet Major 
A. C. D. Fanning, of the corps of artillery, will have, be- 
tween the hours of eight and nine o'clock, A. M., A. Ar 
buthnot suspended by the neck with a rope, until he is 
dead, and Robert CX Ambrister to be shot to death, agree- 
ably to the sentence of the court." 

General Jackson soon received information, that the 
governor of Pensacola favoured the Indians ; on the know- 



THE UNITED STATES. 393 

ledge of which, he took up the line of march for the capi- 
tal, where he arrived at the end of twenty days. The 
place was taken with hardly a show of resistance. The 
governor having escaped to Barancas, a fort six miles dis- 
tant, it was invested by the American troops, and taken 
after a resistance of two days, the troops being transported 
to Havana. A military government was instituted, of 
which information was given to the secretary of war. 
The president, however, soon restored the country to the 
Spaniards, giving the reasons for its occupation. 

The singular steps taken by the commanding general 
in this affair excited considerable sensations in the minds 
of Americans, and the subjects of complaint were brought 
before congress. A military committee censured his con- 
duct, but the house did not concur. 

In January, 1819, a convention between the United 
States and Great Britain, was sanctioned by the president, 
and ratified by the prince regent in November following. 
The first article of this instrument, gave liberty to the 
citizens of the United States, to take fish on the northern, 
western, and southern banks of Newfoundland. By the 
second, the northern boundaries of the United States, 
from the Lake of the Woods to the Stoney Mountains, 
were established. The fourth extended the term of 
the convention of 1815, relative to commerce, ten years 
longer. 

In February following, East and West Florida, with 
the adjacent islands, were ceded to the United States by 
Spain. This treaty settled the boundaries between the 
two countries. But the ratification of this treaty was de- 
layevl by the king of Spain, under pretence that an ex- 
pedition against Texas had been fitted out by the United 
States. The necessary explanations were made by the 
president, and a bill was introduced into congress, to take 
possession of Florida, but the step was not taken, and in 
October, the treaty was ratified by the king of Spain. 
Formal possession was given to the United States in July 
following. 

In the spring of 1819, Arkansas was constituted a ter- 
ritory by an act of the congress. During the summer, the 
president visited the southern section of the United States 



394 UNIVERSAL HISTOXY OF 

with a view to the great interests of the nation. He passed 
through Charleston, Savannah, Augusta, Nashville, the 
Cherokee nation, Louisville, Lexington, and thence re- 
turned to Washington. In December, Alabama was ad- 
mitted into the union. This territory having long been 
a bone of contention, we add the following : 

After the peace of 1783, Georgia laid claim to this ter- 
ritory, and exercised jurisdiction over it, until the begin- 
ning of the present century. In 1795, an act passed the 
legislature of Georgia, by which twenty-five millions of 
acres, of its western territory, were sold to companies 
for five hundred thousand dollars, and the purchase money 
was paid into the treasury. The purchasers of these 
lands soon after sold them at advanced prices. The sale 
of the territory excited a warm opposition in Georgia, and 
at a subsequent meeting of the legislature, the transaction 
was impeached on the ground of bribery, corruption, and 
tinconstitutionality. 

The records respecting the sale were ordered to be 
burnt, and the five hundred thousand dollars to be refund- 
ed to the purchasers. Those who had acquired titles of 
the original purchasers, instituted suits in the federal 
courts. In 1802, however, Georgia ceded to the United 
States all her western territory, for one million two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars. On this event the pur- 
chasers of the Yazoo land petitioned congress for redress 
and compensation. After considerable opposition, an act 
passed for reimbursing them with funded stock, called the 
Mississippi stock. 

In the following year, Maine, which had formerly be- 
longed to Massachusetts, was erected into an indepen- 
dent state, and joined the federal union. The separa- 
tion from the parent state was on the most amicable 
terms. 

Mr. Monroe having been re-elected president, took the 
usual oath of office on the 5th of March, 1821, and Mr. 
Tompkins was again elected vice-president. On the 10th 
of August, the proclamation of the president announced, 
that Missouri was admitted into the federal compact as an 
integral part. 

Upon the cession of Louisiana to the United States, 



THE UNITED STATES. 395 

the district, which now forms the state of Louisiana, 
was separated from the territory, and made a distinct go- 
vernment, by the name of the territory of Orleans. In 
18 il the territory of Orleans became a state, by the name 
of Louisiana. The remaining part of the original pro- 
vince of Louisiana, extending to the Pacific, was erected 
into a territorial government, and called Missouri. In 
1818 19, application was made to congress, by the peo- 
ple of this territory, to form a state constitution. A bill 
was accordingly introduced for the purpose, a provision 
of which forbade slavery, or involuntary servitude. The 
bill, with this provision, passed the house of represen- 
tatives, but was rejected in the senate, and, in conse- 
quence of this disagreement, the measure, for the time, 
failed. 

In the session of 1819 20, the bill was revived, and, 
after long and animated debates, a compromise was effect- 
ed, by which slavery was to be tolerated in Missouri, and 
forbidden in all that part of Louisiana, as ceded by France, 
lying north of 3() 30' north latitude, except so much as 
was included within the limits of the state. In the mean 
time, the people of Missouri had formed a state constitu- 
tion. When this constitution was presented to congress 
in 1820 21, a provision in it, which required th legis- 
lature to pass laws " to prevent free negroes and mulat- 
toes from coming to, and settling in, the state," was 
strenuously opposed, on the ground that it violated the 
rights of such persons of that description as were citi- 
zens of any of the United States. 

The contest occupied a great part of the Cession, and 
it was finally determined, by a small majority, that Mis- 
souri should be admitted, upon the fundamental condi- 
tion, that the contested clause should not be construed to 
authorize the passage of any laws excluding citizens of 
other states from enjoying the privileges to which they are 
entitled by the constitution of the United States. It was 
also provided, that if the legislature of Missouri should, 
by a solemn public act, previously to the fourth Monday 
of November, 1821, declare the assent of the state to this 
fundamental condition, the president should issue his pro- 
clamation, declaring the admission complete On the 



396 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

24th of June, 1821, the legislature of Missouri assented 
to the fundamental condition; and, on the 10th of Au- 
gust following, the president's proclamation was issued,, 
declaring the admission complete. 

During the first session of the seventeenth congress, 
a territorial government was established for Florida. At 
the opening of the second session, the president informed 
congress, that, in June, a convention of navigation and 
commerce, resting essentially on a basis of reciprocal 
and equal advantage to the two countries, had been con- 
cluded between France and the United States ; that the 
prohibition which had been imposed on commerce be- 
tween the United States and the British colonies, in the 
West Indies, and on this continent, had been removed, 
and that the ports of those colonies had been opened to 
the vessels of the United States, by an act of the British 
parliament. 

In a second message, a few days subsequently, the pre- 
sident introduced to the notice of congress, the interest- 
ing subject of the " multiplied outrages and depredations 
recently committed on our seamen and commerce, by 
pirates in the West Indies, and Gulf of Mexico," and re- 
commended the immediate organization of an efficient 
force to suppress them. A bill was accordingly intro- 
duced, authorizing the president to provide such a force, 
and to despatch it immediately to the protection of our 
persecuted seamen. 

Immediately after the passage of the above bill, Com- 
modore Porter was appointed to this service, and, soon 
after, hoisting his broad pennant on board the Peacok f 
stretched his way, with a respectable force, to chastise 
those miscreants, that regard no law, and that feel no 
mercy. 

This session closed on the 3d of March, 1823, in 
which little business of general importance had been 
transacted. 

At the opening of the first session of the eighteenth 
congress, in December, the president spoke in high terms 
nf the prosperous state of the finances, and of our ami- 
sable relations with foreign nations. In relation to the 
efforts of the executive to stop the depredations of thr 



THE UNITED STATES. 397 

pirates on the national commerce, the president stated, 
that in the West Indies, and the Gulf of Mexico, the 
naval force had been augmented, according to the provi- 
sions of congress. " This armament," said he, " has 
been eminently successful in the accomplishment of its 
pbject. The piracies by which cur commerce, in the 
neighbourhood of the Island of Cuba, has been afflicted, 
have been repressed, and the confidence of the merchants, 
Li a great measure, restored." 

In allusion to the Greek revolution, the president has 
the following judicious remarks ; and though his half- 
prophetic wishes are not yet realized, the prospect that 
they will soon be is certainly a bright one. " A strong 
hope has been long entertained, founded on the heroic 
struggle of the Greeks, that they would succeed in their 
contest, and resume their equal station among the nations 
of the earth. It is believed that the whole civilized world 
takes a deep interest in their welfare. 

" Although no power has declared in their favour, yet 
none, according to our information, has taken part against 
them. Their cause, and their name, have protected them 
from dangers which might, ere this, have overwhelmed 
any other people. The ordinary calculations of interest, 
and of acquisition, with a view to aggrandizement, which 
mingle so much in the transactions of nations, seem to 
have had no effect in regard to them. From the facts 
which have come to our knowledge, there is good cause 
to believe that their enemy has lost, for ever, all dominion 
over them that Greece will again become an independent 
nation. That she may obtain that rank, is the object of 
our most ardent wishes." 

Speaking of Spain and Portugal, in relation to the at- 
tempts of the " Holy Alliance" to extend their political 
system to South America, the executive observed, " but, 
on this topic, the citizens of the United States cherish 
sentiments the most friendly in favour of the liberty and 
happiness of their fellow men on that side of the Atlan- 
tic. In the wars of the European powers, in matters re- 
lating to themselves, we have never taken any part, nor 
does it comport with our policy so to do. 

" It is only when our rights are invaded, or seriouslj 



398 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

menaced, that we resent injuries, or make preparation for 
our defence. With the movements in this hemisphere, 
we are, of necessity, more immediately connected, and 
by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and 
impartial observers. The political system of the allied 
powers is essentially different, in this respect, from that 
of America. This difference proceeds from that which 
exists in their respective governments. And to the de- 
fence of our own, which has been achieved by the loss oi 
so much blood and treasure, and matured by the wisdom 
of our most enlightened citizens, and under which we 
have enjoyed unexampled felicity, this whole nation is 
devoted. We owe it, therefore, to candour, and to the 
amicable relations existing between the United States and 
those powers, to declare, that we should consider any 
attempt, on their part, to extend their system to any 
portion of this hemisphere, as dangerous to our peace 
and safety. 

" With existing colonies, or dependencies of any Eu- 
ropean power, we have not interfered, and shall not in- 
terfere. But with the governments who have declared 
their independence, and maintained it, and whose inde- 
pendence we have, on great consideration, and on just 
principles, acknowledged, we could not view any inter- 
position for the purpose of oppressing them, or control- 
ling, in any other manner, their destiny, by any European 
power, in any other light than as the manifestation of an 
unfriendly disposition towards the United States. In the 
war between those new governments and Spain, we de- 
clared our neutrality at the time of their recognition, and 
to this we have adhered, and shall continue to adhere, 
provided no change shall occur, which, in the judgment 
of the competent authority of this government, shall 
make & corresponding change on the part of the United 
States, indispensable to their security." 

To this language, so temperate, just, and independent, 
every good citizen responded amen. His remarks on the 
state of the country, in the same message, are too valua- 
ble to be omittea. 

" If we compare the present condition of our Union, 
with its actual state at the close of our revolution, the 



THE UNITED STATES. 399 

history of the world furnishes no example of a progress 
in improvement in all the important circumstances which 
constitute the happiness of a nation, which bears any re- 
semblance to it. At the first epoch, our population did 
not exceed three millions. By the last census it amount- 
ed to about ten millions; and what is more extraordinary, 
it is almost altogether native, for the emigration from 
other countries has been inconsiderable. At the first 
epoch, half the territory within our acknowledged limits, 
was uninhabited and a wilderness. Since then, new ter- 
ritory has been acquired, of vast extent, comprising with- 
in it many rivers, particularly the Mississippi, the naviga- 
tion of which, to the ocean, was of the highest import- 
ance to the original states. 

" Over this territory our population has expanded in eve- 
ry direction, and new states have been established, almost 
equal in number to those which formed the first bond of 
our union. This expansion of our population, and ac- 
cession of new states to our union, have had the happiest 
effect on all its higher interests. That it has eminently 
augmented our resources, and added to our strength and 
respectability as a power, is admitted by all. But it is 
not in these important circumstances only that this happy 
effect is felt. It is manifest that, by enlarging the basis of 
our system, and increasing the number of states, the sys- 
tem itself has been greatly strengthened in both its 
branches. Consolidation and disunion have thereby been 
rendered equally impracticable. Each government, con- 
fiding in its own strength, has less to apprehend from the 
other ; and, in consequence, each enjoying a greater free- 
dom of action, is rendered more efficient for all the pui 
poses for which it was instituted." 

The sympathy expressed by the president for the suf- 
ferings of the Greeks, called forth a resolution from Mr. 
Webster, providing for the expenses of an agent to 
Greece, whenever the executive should deem the ap- 
pointment proper and expedient. In offering the reso- 
lution, Mr. Webster stated, it was far from being his wish, 
in any manner, to commit the house, in this or any of the 
political contests of Europe ; but the President of the 
United States having, in his message to congress, not 



400 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

only expressed a belief that the Greek nation, in its pre- 
sent struggle with its opposers, had the good wishes of 
the whole civilized world, but also advanced the opinion 
that the Turkish dominion over that country was lost for- 
ever ; he thought that if such were the fact, it was im- 
portant that congress should act upon the subject. 

The main object in view was to obtain from the house 
an expression, responsive to the sentiment of the mes- 
sage, in reference to the sacrifices and sufferings of that 
heroic people sacrifices and sufferings, which ought to 
excite the sympathy of every liberal minded man in Eu- 
rope, as well as in this country. But whatever might be 
the case with other nations, we certainly ought not to be 
restrained from expressing, with freedom, what are our 
views in relation to the Greek cause, so far as maybe done 
without committing ourselves in the contest. And he real- 
ly did hope that we should show to the world, that there 
is, at least, one government which does entertain a proper 
view of that barbarous despotism, which, under the eyes 
of Europe, has been permitted, by a system of the foul- 
est atrocity, to attempt to crush an interesting Christian 
nation. 

In most of our large towns and literary institutions, 
meetings were held in reference to this subject, and reso- 
lutions adopted, expressive of sentiments alike honoura- 
ble to our citizens as members of a free community, and 
as friends of humanity. They spoke a language worthy 
of the cause which called them forth, and such as the cir- 
cumstances of the age require. They are a proof, too, 
of the existence and the energy of that principle in the 
American people, which removes /them farther from the 
supporters of legitimacy than the breadth of the Atlan- 
tic, and is a safer bulwark than its billows. 

From that time to the present, large contributions 
have been made in the United States, and forwarded to 
the proper authorities of that oppressed and ill-fated coun- 
try. At present, the armies of Russia threaten the capital 
of Turkey, and little doubt remains of the emancipation 
of the Greeks. 

The session of congress closed in May, in 1824 ; the 
most important bills which passed, being one to abolish 



THE UNITED STATES. 401 

imprisonment for debt, and the other establishing a tariff 
of duties on imports. The latter of these occupied the 
time of Congress during ten weeks, and at last passed by 
a majority of five only, two members being absent. 

On the 16th of August, the Marquis La Fayette, ac- 
companied by his son, and M. La Vasseur, his secretary, 
landed in New- York, where he was welcomed in a man- 
ner which* evinced a sense of national gratitude, never 
surpassed. 

From New-York, La Fayette passed through the 
country to Boston, constantly receiving the most enthu- 
siastic congratulations of the people. Not only at every 
place where he stopped, but as he passed along the road, 
thousands came to catch a glimpse of him, and bid 
" Welcome La Fayette." Having visited most of the 
principal to\vns in Massachusetts, New-Hampshire, Rhode 
Island, and Connecticut, he again returned to New- York. 
During this tour, it is impossible to convey, in general 
terms, an adequate idea of the excitement into which the 
country w r as thrown. Committees were constantly ar- 
riving from distant towns at the places where he stopped, 
to solicit the honour of receiving him, and to know on 
what day, and at what hour, his arrival might be expected. 
In some instances, gentlemen residing at a distance from 
his route, directed the news of his approach to be sent 
them by expresses. Meantime the general was so oblig- 
ing as to allow himself to be transported with the utmost 
rapidity from place to place, often travelling most of the 
night, so as not to disappoint the anxious expectations of 
the people. From New-York the general went to Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, Washington, &c, constantly receiv- 
ing from the people the same cordial welcome, and 
witnessing the same demonstrations of joy wherever he 
went. 

But the feelings of the nation demanded that something 
more should be done for General La Fayette, than could 
be expressed by acclamation alone. His love of liberty 
had been the means of depriving him of a great propor- 
tion of his fortune. When, during our revolution, the 
country was so exhausted as to be unable to clothe or 
feed her little army, La Fayette not only gave all his pay 

34* 



402 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OP 

to government, but advanced money which never was re- 
funded : so that, in addition to the debt of gratitude, the 
nation owed him for advancements made during her ne- 
cessities. It was the exercise of the same leading princi- 
ple, (the love of liberty,) which occasioned the confiscation 
of his estates in France, when the Jacobin faction con-> 
trolled the kingdom. 

Under every consideration, the nation was bound to 
show La Fayette and the world, that in the prosperity of 
his adopted country, his former services were remembered 
with too much gratitude to be passed over without some 
permanent mark of national beneficence. 

The president of the United States, therefore, in his 
message to congress, at the opening of the last session, 
recommended, in appropriate terms, the consideration of 
General La Fayette's eminent services to the country, 
and requested that the legislative body of the nation would 
devise some means of making him at least a partial remu- 
neration. Agreeably to this recommendation, congress 
appointed a committee to deliberate on the subject, and 
on the 20th of December, " Mr. Hayne, from the commit- 
tee appointed on so much of the president's message as 
relates to making provision for the services of General La 
Fayette, reported the following bill : 

" Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Represert.ta* 
tives of the U/iited States, in Congress assembled, That 
the sum of two hundred thousand dollars be, and the same 
is hereby granted to Major General La Fayette, in com- 
pensation for his important services and expenditures 
during the American Revolution ; and that for this pur- 
pose a stock to that amount be issued in his favour, 
dated the 4th of July, 1824, bearing an annual interest of 
six per cent, payable quarter yearly, and redeemable on 
the 31st of December, 1834. 

" Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That one complete 
township of land be, and the same is, hereby granted 
to the said Major General La Fayette ; and that the presi- 
dent of the United States be authorized to cause the said 
township to be located on any of the public lands which 
remain unsold; and that patents be issued to General 
La Fayette for the same." 



THE UNITED STATES. 403 

On the 21st this bill was made the order of the day in 
the Senate, and the following debate on it, extracted from 
the journals of congress, will tend to show with how 
much reason the bill was passed : 

Senate, Tuesday, December 21. 

" The Senate proceeded, as in committee of the whole, 
to the consideration of the bill making provision for the 
services and expenditures of General La Fayette. 

" Mr. Hayne, (of S. C.) in reply to Messrs. Macon and 
Brown, who objected to the bill, remarked, that the obser- 
vations made by the honourable gentlemen rendered it 
his duty, though it was done with regret, as he had hoped 
the bill would pass without opposition, as chairman of the 
committee, to submit thb principle on which the commit- 
tee had proceeded in pi senting the present bill. He 
trusted that he should be ahle to satisfy the scniples of 
the honourable gentlemen, and that there would be no 
necessity for recommitting the bill. 

" With regard to the objections made by his friend on 
his right, (Mr. Macon,) "they affected the making any 
compensation, under any circumstances whatever, to in- 
dividuals, either for services rendered, or sacrifices made. 
He understood, he had said it was immaterial whether 
an individual should have spent his substance in the ser- 
vice of his country should have put his hand in his 
purse, and paid the expenses of the war, still that for such 
services no compensation could be made. 

" He could show that this was the fact -that it was pre- 
cisely the case with regard to General La Fayette. He 
had expended his fortune in our service, and he should 
contend it was right, it was necessary they were called 
on by duty to themselves, at least to refund the expenses 
to which he had been subjected. Mr. Hayne proceeded 
to say, that he held documents in his hand which it be- 
came his duty to submit to the senate documents de- 
rived from the highest authority. The paper held in his 
hand contained accounts from the proper officers, show- 
ing the expenses of La Fayette, and pointing out the 
manner in which his estate had been dissipated in tho 
service of liberty. In the year 1777, he had an annual in- 



404 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

come of 146,000 francs, equal to 28,700 dollars. This 
had been almost entirely expended in the services which 
he had rendered to liberty, in this and the other hemi- 
sphere. During a period of six years, from the year 1777 
to 1783, he had expended, in the American service, 
700,000 francs, equal to 140,000 dollars. This document, 
said Mr. Hayne, is derived from the most authentic 
sources in France, and is come into my hands from a re- 
spectable member of this house, without the knowledge 
or consent of the general and his friends. 

" The fact to which he called their attention was, that 
during the six years the general had been engaged in the 
service, he had expended 140,000 dollars of his fortune; 
he was in a state of prosperity, and in the enjoyment of 
a plentiful fortune in his own country, when he resolved 
to come to this. He purchased a ship, raised, equipped, 
armed, and clothed a regiment at his own expense, and 
when he landed on these coasts, he came freighted with 
the munitions of war, which he distributed gratuitously 
to our army. 

" It is on record that he clothed and put shoes on the 
feet of the naked, suffering soldiers of America, and that 
during six years he sacrificed 140,000 dollars. He asked 
for no compensation he made out no account he re- 
ceived no pay he spent his fortune for this country, and 
not only gave his services, but hazarded his life in its de- 
fence, shed his blood in its service, and returned home, 
broken in his fortune. What did government do ? After 
the war, in 1794, they gave him the full pay of a major 
general, to which he was entitled twelve or fourteen years 
before. If any American citizen had done as much, and 
had brought in an account stating he had expended 
140,000 dollars, and made application for compensation, 
would it not have been granted ? Indeed, if we were to 
make out an account current of the expenses and sacri- 
fices of the general, it would far exceed the sum now pro- 
posed. But he never rendered a claim ; he would have 
starved ere he would have done it. 

" I have other documents, said Mr. Hayne, to which I 
shall briefly refer. There is one fact which shows how 
alive he was to every honourable sentiment. He has 



THE UNITED STATES. 405 

made sacrifices that can never be repaid. Congress, in 
their gratitude, made him a donation of 11,000 acres of 
land, which, at the value of lands at that time, was not 
worth more than 11,000 dollars; and, by act, in 1804, 
they authorized him to locate this land on any spot in the 
United States that might be vacant; and his agent ac- 
cordingly located it in the neighbourhood of New-Orleans. 
In 1807, congress passed an act confirming the title to the 
city council of New-Orleans, of all lands within six hun- 
dred yards of its limits. 

" Part of the land belonging to General La Fayette was 
included in this grant, and on the fact being communicated 
to him in France by his agent, accompanied by legal ad- 
vice of the validity of his title, he replied, that it was not 
for him to inquire into the circumstances, but that he, re- 
ceiving bounty from the government of the United States, 
could only receive it as they chose to give it, and directed 
his agent to enter a relinquishment of the land in ques- 
tion. This land, according to the estimate of gentlemen 
from Louisiana, is now worth 500,000 dollars. But there 
is another circumstance to be stated : having located the 
land, he made a contract with an Irish baronet for the 
sale of a portion of it, and he afterwards made it his bu- 
siness to find him out he relinquished his own right, 
and, at his own expense, induced him to relinquish every 
l<i>;al claim that he could have upon the United States. 
This relinquishment was on file in the land office, and 
Mr. Hayne submitted the documents to the examination 
of the senate. 

" These claims appear certainly in a very strong, and, 
lie might say, irresistible shape before the senate. His 
honourable friend on the right had said, that we treat this 
gentlemen better than we do our native sons, but it ap- 
peared that they barely did him justice. Did the gentle- 
man doubt that this government were in the habit of 
making remuneration for sacrifices and services he 
would refer him to an act passed in 1790, granting com- 
pensation to Frederick William Baron Steuben, for sacri- 
fices and services. 

" Mr. Hayne proceeded to refer to many instances where 
the government had not only granted pecuniary assist- 



406 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ance, but had granted a whole township of land for sacri- 
fices and services. He was not one of those who were 
afraid of making precedents a good precedent can never 
do evil ; and when nations, as well as individuals, gave 
way to the noblest feelings of our nature, they best pro- 
moted the glory of the country, and the welfare of the 
people ; but the cause of La Fayette could form no prece- 
dent it stood alone. 

" Could this country be born again ? Could it assume a 
second childhood, and be placed in circumstances similar 
to those it had formerly been ? If this were possible, if 
it could be reduced again to equal distress, be struggling 
for existence, about to perish, without funds, arms, clo- 
thing, or ammunition, and looking around for help if, 
under such circumstances, a foreign nobleman should 
step forth, and devote his life and fortune to her service, 
sacrificing every thing, and shedding his blood in her be- 
half, and while the scale was depressed, throwing himself 
into the balance, and deciding its fate surely, such a 
man would be entitled to the warmest gratitude of the 
country." 

After some further debate, the bill was passed, and a 
committee appointed to wait on La Fayette with a copy 
of the act. To an address of the committee on the oc- 
casion of presenting the act, the marquis returned the fol- 
lowing answer : 

Gentlemen of the Committee of both Houses of Congress : 
The immense and unexpected gift, which, in addition 
to former and considerable bounties, it has pleased con- 
gress to confer upon me, calls for the warmest acknow- 
ledgments of an old American soldier, an adopted son of 
the United States, two titles dearer to my heart than all 
the treasures in the world. 

However proud I am of every sort of obligation re- 
ceived from the people of the United States, and their 
representatives in congress, the large extent of this bene- 
faction might have created in my mind feelings of hesita- 
tion, not inconsistent, I hope, with those of the most grate- 
ful reverence. But the so very kind resolutions of both 
houses, delivered by you, gentlemen, in terms of equa* 



THE UNITED STATES. 407 

kindness, precludes all other sentiments, except those of 
lively and profound gratitude, of which, in respectfully 
accepting the munificent favour, I have the honour to beg 
you will be the organs. 

Permit me also, gentlemen, to join a tender of my af- 
fectionate personal thanks to the expression of the highest 
respect, with which I have the honour to be yourobedien 
servant, LA FAYETTE. 

At Washington, La Fayette was received by both 
houses of Congress with suitable honours. Thence pass- 
ing to the south, he visited most of the cities in that sec- 
tion of the country. 

After visiting various places, in the autumn of 1825, the 
marquis took passage in the frigate Brandy wine, for France, 
where he arrived in safety, and where he still lives, in the 
enjoyment of a contented mind, and a clear conscience ; 
the friend of man and the hero of freedom. 

The second session of the eighteenth congress, com- 
menced in December, on which occasion we find in the 
presidential message : " Our relations with foreign powers 
are of a friendly character, although certain interesting 
differences remain unsettled. Our revenue under the mild 
system of impost and tonnage, continues to be adequate 
to all the purposes of government. Our agriculture, 
commerce, manufactures, and navigation, flourish. Our 
fortifications are advancing, in the degree authorized by 
existing appropriations, to maturity, and due progress is 
made in the augmentation of the navy to the limit pre- 
scribed by law." 

He also stated, that the convention of navigation and 
commerce concluded between the United States and 
France in 1822, still continued ; that our commercial in- 
tercourse with the British dominions in Europe and the 
East Indies, resting on the basis of reciprocity, which had 
been arranged by a convention, in 1815, was confirmed 
and continued for ten years, by treaty, in 1818; but that 
the trade with the British colonies in the West Indies, had 
not as yet been settled to the satisfaction of the executive; 
that our commerce with Sweden had been placed on a 
footing of perfect reciprocity, by treaty ; and with Rus- 



408 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

sia, the Netherlands, Prussia, and the free Hanseatic ci- 
ties, the dukedom of Oldenburg and Sardinia, by internal 
regulations on each side, founded on mutual agreement 
between the respective governments ; and that the great 
and extraordinary changes which had happened in Spain 
and Portugal, within the last two years, had not seriously 
affected the friendly relations subsisting between them 
and the United States ; although they had presented ob- 
stacles to the adjustment of the particular subjects of dis- 
cussion which have arisen with each. With the remain- 
ing powers of Europe, with those on the coast of Bar- 
bary, and with all the new South American states, our 
relations were moreover stated to be of a friendly charac- 
ter. The country has ministers plenipotentiary residing 
with the republics of Colombia and Chili, and have re- 
ceived ministers of the same rank, from Colombia, Guati- 
mala, Buenos Ayres, and Mexico, and a charge d'affaires 
from the independent government of Brazil. 

From the view which he then took of our situation, it 
was manifest that we were in a highly prosperous situa- 
tion, and that our duty and happiness would consist in 
handing these blessings down to posterity unimpaired. 

This session closed constitutionally on the third of 
March, 1825. The most interesting subjects which oc- 
cupied its attention during the session, were the occupa- 
tion of the Oregon on the North-west coast, and the sup- 
pression of piracy. The bill respecting the former, 
however, was lost in the senate ; being indefinitely laid 
on the table ; while that respecting piracy passed ; which, 
however, does little more than to authorize the building 
of ten additional ships of war. The bill authorizing the 
occupation of the Oregon, was passed by the house of 
representatives, but had previously been so amended as 
to provide only for a military occupation of the mouth of 
the river. This amendment was adopted for the purpose 
of avoiding a violation of the treaty with Great Britain, 
which provides that the boundary line on that frontier 
shall remain unsettled ten years. 

The presidency of Mr. Monroe closed with the session, 
during which the country enjoyed a state of peace and 
uniform prosperity. He retired from office, enjoying 



THE UNITED STATES. 409 

the respect,' affection, and gratitude, of all who are able 
duly to appreciate the blessings of having a wise ruler. 

The choice of president, for the succeeding term of 
four years, not being settled by the electoral vote, de- 
volved on the House of Representatives. John Quinry 
Adams was chosen, and took the oath of office on the 4th 
of March, and John C. Calhoun was chosen vice presi- 
dent by the electors. 

The address of Mr. Adams, on his induction into office, 
was such as might rationally be expected. Speaking of 
our political creed, he says, it " is, without a dissenting 
voice that can be heard, that the will of the people is the 
source, and the happiness of the people the end, of all le- 
gitimate government upon earth That the best security 
for the beneficence, and the best guarantee against the 
abuse of power, consists in the freedom, the purity, and 
the frequency of popular elections. 

" That the general government of the Union, and the 
separate governments of these states, are all sovereign- 
ties of limited powers ; fellow servants of the same mas- 
ters, uncontrolled within their respective spheres, uncon- 
trollable by encroachments upon each other. That the 
firmest security of peace is the preparation, during peace, 
of the defences of war. That a rigorous economy, and 
accountability of public expenditure, should guard against 
the aggravation, and alleviate, when possible, the burden 
of taxation. That the military should be kept in strict 
subordination to the civil power. That the freedom of 
the press and of religious opinion should be inviolate. 
That the policy of our country is peace, and the ark of 
our salvation, union, are articles of faith upon which we 
are all agreed." 

The following paragraphs we copy entire, as too valua- 
ble to be omitted, even in a condensed history. 

" In the compass of thirty years, since this great na- 
tional covenant was instituted, a body of laws enacted 
under its authority, and in conformity with its provisions, 
has unfolded its powers, and carried into practical opera- 
tion its effective energies. Subordinate departments have 
distributed the executive functions in their various rela- 
tions, to foreign affairs, to the revenue and expenditures, 

35 



410 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

and to the military force of the Union, by land and sea. 
A co-ordinate department of the judiciary has expounded 
the constitution and the laws ; settling, in harmonious co- 
incidence with the legislative will, numerous weighty 
questions of construction which the imperfection of hu- 
man language had rendered unavoidable. 

" The year of jubilee, since the first formation of our 
union, has just elapsed ; that of the declaration of our in- 
dependence is at hand. The consummation of both was 
effected by this constitution. Since that period, a popu- 
lation of four millions has multiplied to twelve. A terri- 
tory, bounded by the Mississippi, has been extended from 
sea to sea. New states have been admitted to the Union, 
in number nearly equal to those of the first confederation. 
Treaties of peace, amity, and commerce, have been con- 
cluded with the principal dominions of the earth. The 
people of other nations, inhabitants of regions acquired 
not by conquest, but by compact, have been united with 
us in the participation of our rights and duties, of our 
burdens and blessings. 

" The forest has fallen by the axe of our woodsmen 
the soil has been made to teem by the tillage of our far- 
mers ; our commerce has whitened every ocean. The 
dominion of man over physical nature has been extend- 
ed by the invention of our artists. Liberty and law have 
marched hand in hand. All the purposes of human as- 
sociation have been accomplished as effectively as under 
any other government on the globe, and at a cost little ex- 
ceeding, in a whole generation, the expenditures of other 
nations in a single year. 

" Such is the unexaggerated picture of our condition, 
under a constitution founded upon the republican princi- 
ple of equal rights. To admit that this picture has its 
shades, is but to say that it is still the condition of men 
upon earth. From evil, physical, moral, and political, it 
is not our claim to be exempt. We have suffered, some- 
times by the visitation of Heaven, through disease ; often 
by the wrongs and injustice of other nations, even to 
the extremities of war ; and, lastly, by dissentions among 
ourselves dissentions, perhaps inseparable from the en- 
joyment of freedom, but which have more than once ap- 



THE UNITED STATES. 411 

peared to threaten the dissolution of the union, and, with 
it, the overthrow of all the enjoyments of our present 
lot, and all our earthly hopes of the future. The causes 
of these dissentions have been various, founded upon 
differences of speculation in the theory of republican 
government ; upon conflicting views of policy, in our re- 
lations with foreign nations ; upon jealousies of partial 
and sectional interests, aggravated by prejudices and pre- 
possessions, which strangers to each other are ever apt 
to entertain." 

On the 31st of May, a treaty of peace, amity, naviga- 
tion, and commerce, between the United States and Co- 
lombia, was ratified by the president. The first article 
establishes a firm and inviolable peace, and perpetual 
friendship. By the second, no partiality was to be shown 
to any other nation to which each of the contracting par- 
ties had not an equal right. By the sixth article, mer- 
chant vessels, and ships of war, were to be protected in 
the bays and harbours of both parties, either in stress of 
weather, or to shield them from the pursuit of pirates, or 
other enemies. The seventh grants a return of ships 
and merchandise which may be taken in their respective 
jurisdictions. By the tenth, both the contracting parties 
engage, formally, to give their special protection to the 
persons and property of the other, and to leave open and 
free to them the tribunals of justice for their judicial re- 
course, on the same terms as are usual with native citi- 
zens of either party. By the eleventh, liberty of con- 
science is mutually guaranteed. By the fourteenth, 
liberty of commerce and navigation, except contraband 
of war, in times which would endanger the safety of 
either contracting party, is freely granted. The treaty 
was to remain in force twelve years after the exchange of 
ratifications. 

The 7th of September was the day appointed for the 
departure of the nation's guest, General La Fayette, from 
Washington. On Mr. Adams devolved the task of bid- 
ding him farewell, in the name of the nation to whom he 
had been a constant friend, and a noble benefactor. How 
well, and with what dignity and feeling, he executed this 
task, we need not attempt to describe, and we regret that 



412 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

our plan does not permit us to copy the whole address. 
We can copy but a brief sketch, which will be found in 
the following selected paragraphs. 

" When the contest of freedom to which you had re- 
paired as a voluntary champion, had closed, by the com- 
plete triumph of her cause in this country of your adop- 
tion, you returned to fulfil the duties of the philanthropist 
and patriot in the land of. your nativity. There, in a 
consistent and undeviatirig career of forty years, you 
have maintained, through every vicissitude of alternate 
success and disappointment, the same glorious cause to 
which the first years of your active life had been de- 
voted the improvement of the moral and political con- 
dition of man. 

" Through that long succession of time, the people of 
the United States, for whom, and with whom, you had 
fought the battles of liberty, have been living in full pos- 
session of its fruits ; one of the happiest among the 
family of nations. Spreading in population, enlarging in 
territory, acting and suffering according to the condition 
of their nature, and laying the foundations of the great- 
est, and, we humbly hope, the most beneficent power that 
ever regulated the concerns of man upon earth. 

" In that lapse of forty years, the generation of men 
with whom you co-operated in the conflict of arms, has 
nearly passed away. Of the general officers of the Ame- 
rican army in that war, you alone survive. Of the sages 
who guided our councils ; of the warriors who met the 
foe in the field, or upon the waves, with the exception ol 
a few, to whom unusual length of days has been allotted 
by heaven, all now sleep with their fathers. A succeed- 
ing, and even a third generation, have arisen to take their 
places ; and their children's children, while rising up to 
call them blessed, have been taught by them, as well as 
admonished by their own constant enjoyment of freedom, 
to include, in every benison upon their fathers, the name 
of him who came from afar, with them, and in their cause, 
to conquer or to fall. 

" You are now about to return to the country of your 
birth, of your ancestors, of your posterity. The execu- 
tive government of the union, stimulated by the same 



THE UNITED STATES. 413 

feeling which had prompted the congress to the designa- 
tion of a national ship for your accommodation in coming 
hither, has destined the first service of a frigate, recently 
launched at this metropolis* to the less welcome, but 
equally distinguished trust of conveying you home. The 
name of the ship has added one more memorial to distant 
regions and to future ages, of a stream already memora- 
ble, at once in the story of your sufferings and of our in 
dependence. 

" The ship is now prepared for your reception, and 
equipped for sea. From the moment of her departure, 
the prayers of millions will ascend to heaven that her pas- 
sage may be prosperous ; and your return to the bosom 
of your family as propitious to your happiness, as your 
visit to this scene of your youthful glory has been to that 
of the American people. 

" Go, then, our beloved friend return to the land of 
brilliant genius, of generous sentiment, of heroic valour ; 
to that beautiful France, the nursing mother of the twelfth 
Louis, and the fourth Henry ; to the native soil of Bayard 
and Coligni, of Turenne and Catinat, of Fenelon and 
D'Aguesseau. In that illustrious catalogue of names 
which she claims as of her children, and with honest 
pride holds up to the admiration of other nations, the 
name of La Fayette has already for centuries been en- 
rolled. And it shall henceforth burnish into brighter 
fame ; for if, in after days, a Frenchman shall be called 
to indicate the character of his nation by that of one indi- 
vidual, during the age in which we live, the blood of lofty 
patriotism shall mantle in his cheek, the fire of conscious 
virtue shall sparkle in his eye, and he shall pronounce 
the name of La Fayette. Yet we, too, and our children, 
in life and after death, shall claim you for our own. You 
are ours by that more than patriotic self-devotion with 
which you flew to the aid of our fathers at the crisis of 
their fate. Ours by that long series of years in which 
you have cherished us in your regard. Ours by that un- 
shaken sentiment of gratitude for your services which 
is a jarecious portion of our inheritance. Ours by that 
tie of love stronger than death, which has linked your 
name, for the endless ages of time, with the name of 
Washington." 35* 



414 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

To this the veteran general replied ; and, after men- 
tioning his obligations to the American government and 
people for their munificence and kind reception, he add- 
ed, " Yet, gratification still higher awaited me ; in the 
wonders of creation and improvement that have met my 
enchanted eye, in the unparalleled and self- felt happiness 
of the people, in their rapid prosperity and insured secu- 
rity, public and private, in a practice of good order, the 
appendage of true freedom, and a national good sense, the 
final arbiter of all difficulties, I have had proudly to re- 
cognize a result of the republican principles for which we 
have fought, and a glorious demonstration to the most 
timid and prejudiced minds, of the superiority, over de- 
grading aristocracy or despotism, of popular institutions 
founded on the plain rights of man, and where the local 
rights of every section are preserved under a constitu- 
tional bond of union. The cherishing of that union be- 
tween the states, as it has been the farewell entreaty of 
our great paternal Washington, and will ever have the 
dying prayer of every American patriot, so it has become 
the sacred pledge of the emancipation of the world, an 
object in which I am happy to observe that the American 
people, while they give the animating example of success- 
ful free institutions, in return for an evil entailed upon 
them by Europe, and of which a liberal and enlightened 
sense is every where more and more generally felt, show 
themselves every day more anxiously interested. 

" God bless you, sir, and all who surround us. God 
bless the American people, each of their states, and the 
federal government. Accept this patriotic farewell of an 
overflowing heart ; such will be its last throb when it 
ceases to beat." 

As the last sentence was pronounced, the general ad- 
vancing, while the tears poured over his venerable cheeks, 
again took the president in his arms ; he retired a few 
paces, but, overcome by his feelings, again returned, and 
uttering, in broken accents, " God bless you !" fell once 
more on the neck of Mr. Adams. It was a scene at once 
solemn and moving, as the sighs and stealing tears of 
many, who witnessed it, bore testimony. Having reco- 
vered his self-possession, the general stretched out his 



THE UNITED STATES. 416 

hands, and was, in a moment, surrounded by the greeting 
of the whole assembly, who pressed upon him, each eager 
to seize, perhaps for the last time, that beloved hand 
which was opened so freely for our aid, when aid was so 
precious, and which grasped, with firm and undeviating 
hold, the steel which so bravely helped to achieve our 
deliverance. 

The general was attended to the Potomac, by a large 
military escort, and thousands of citizens. The Mount 
Vernon steam boat waited to convey him on board the a 
Brandywine. When the mansion, the groves, and the 
iomb of Mount Vernon, opened to view, the progress of 
the little fleet was arrested it remained motionless on the 
broad bosom of Potomac's wave that the last of the ge- 
nerals might pay his pious homage and filial duty to the 
tomb of the paternal chief. 

La Fayette arose the wonders which he had performed 
for a man of his age, in successfully accomplishing la- 
bours enough to have tested his meridian vigour, whose 
animation rather resembles the spring than the winter of 
life, now seemed unequal to the task he was about to per- 
form : To take a last look at the grave of Washington ! 
He advanced to the effort a silence the most impressive 
reigned around, till the strains of sweet and plaintive mu- 
sic completed the grandeur and sacred solemnity of the 
scene. All hearts beat in unison with the throbbings of 
the veteran's bosom as he looked, and that for the last 
time, on the sepulchre which contains the ashes of the 
first of men. He spoke not, but appeared absorbed in 
the mighty recollections which the place and the occasion 
inspired. Yet a voice seemed borne on the air. It ap- 
peared to say to the manes of the illustrious dead, "WASH- 
INGTON, thou friend and father of my youth, under whose 
heroic banner I first gained renown in the fields of fame, 
when combatting for the rights and liberties of man in 
whose bosom I was cherished in the earliest, the happiest 
days of life whose affections descended with me from 
the palace to the dungeon whose arms were opened to 
receive my child, when forlorn and a wanderer from his 
native land, he sought in thee a friend and found a father 
most truly great and glorious of men, while such an 



416 UNIVERSAL in.STGRY OF 

humble mound alone contains thy ashes, thy monument 
is based on a hemisphere, and thy fame will cenotaph thy 
memory in ages yet unborn. Accept the last duty which 
filial homage pays to the tomb of Washington in the tear 
of La Fayette." 

We make no apology for the insertion of these interest- 
ing particulars. But we regret sincerely that the whole 
of the address and reply cannot find room, and if our 
readers have feeling, they will regret it too. 

The first session of the nineteenth congress opened at 
Washington in December, 1825. The message of the 
Executive, after adverting to the state of peace which 
had for several years blessed the world, says During the 
same period, our intercourse with all those nations has 
been pacific and friendly it so continues. Since the 
close of your last session, no material variation has oc- 
curred in our relations with any one of them. In the 
commercial and navigation system of Great Britain, im- 
portant changes of municipal regulation have recently 
been sanctioned by acts of parliament, the effect of which, 
upon the interests of other nations, and particularly upon 
ours, has not yet been fully developed. In the recent re- 
newal of the diplomatic missions on both sides, between 
the two governments, assurances have been given and 
received, of the continuance and increase of that mutual 
confidence and cordiality by which the adjustment of 
many points of difference had already been effected, and 
which affords the surest pledge for the ultimate satisfactory 
adjustment of those which still remain open, or may here- 
after arise. 

He then notices the commission for settling the seventh 
article of the treaty of Ghent, and that respecting the in- 
demnity for slaves taken off by the British during the late 
war, as in a train of amicable adjustment. He also ad- 
verts to the importance of establishing a national system 
of bankruptcy, and of improvements in the militia sys- 
tem. In noticing the pecuniary concerns of the nation, 
the message says Among the unequivocal indications of 
our national prosperity, is the flourishing state of our 
finances. The revenues of the present year, from all 
their principal sources, will exceed the anticipations of 
the last. 



THE UNITED STATES. 417 

The balance in the treasury, on the first of January 
last, was a little short of two millions of dollars, exclu- 
sive of two millions and a half, being the moiety of the 
loan of five millions, authorized by the act of 26th May, 
1824. The receipts into the treasury, from the 1st of 
January to the 30th of September, exclusive of the other 
moiety of the same loans? are estimated at sixteen mil- 
lions five hundred thousand dollars ; and it is expected 
that those of the current quarter will exceed five millions 
of dollars, forming an aggregate of receipts of nearly 
twenty-two millions, independent of the loan. The ex- 
penditures of the year will not exceed that sum more than 
two millions. By those expenditures, nearly eight mil- 
lions of the principal of the public debt have been dis- 
charged. 

More than a million and a half has been devoted to the 
debt of gratitude to the warriors of the revolution ; a 
nearly equal sum to the construction of fortifications, 
and the acquisition of ordnance, and other permanent 
preparatives of national defence; half a million to the 
gradual increase of the navy ; an equal sum for purchases 
of territory from the Indians, and payment of annuities 
to them : and upwards of a million for objects of internal 
improvement, authorized by special acts of the last con- 
gress. If we add to these four millions of dollars for 
payment of interest upon the public debt, there remains 
a sum of about seven millions, which has defrayed the 
whole expense of the administration of government, in 
its legislative, executive, and judiciary departments, inclu- 
ding the support of the military and naval establishments, 
and all the occasional contingencies of a government co- 
extensive with the union. 

The amount of duties secured on merchandise import- 
ed, from the commencement of the year, is about twenty- 
five millions and a half; and that which will accrue, du- 
ring the current quarter, is estimated at five millions and 
a half; from these thirty-one millions, deducting the draw- 
backs, estimated at less than seven millions, a sum ex- 
ceeding twenty-four millions will constitute the revenue 
of the year, and will exceed the whole expenditures of 
the year. The entire amount of public debt remaining 



418 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

due on the 1st of January next, will be short of eighty- 
one millions of dollars. 

Speaking of our situation as regards the aborigines, he 
thus speaks : Our relations with the numerous tribes of 
aboriginal natives of this country, scattered over its ex- 
tensive surface, and so dependent, even for their exist- 
ence, upon our power, have been, during the present year, 
highly interesting. An act of congress, of 25th May, 
1824, made an appropriation to defray the expenses of 
making treaties of trade and friendship with the Indian 
tribes beyond the Mississippi. An act of 3d March, 1825, 
authorized treaties to be made with the Indians, for their 
consent to the making of a road from the frontiers of 
Missouri to that of New-Mexico. 

And another act of the same date, provided for defray- 
ing the expenses of holding treaties with the Sioux, Chip- 
pewas, Menomenees, Sauks, Foxes, &c. for the purpose 
of establishing boundaries and promoting peace between 
said tribes. The first and the last objects of these acts 
have been accomplished, and the second is yet in a pro- 
cess of execution. The treaties which, since the last ses- 
sion of congress, have been concluded with the several 
tribes, will be laid before the senate for their considera- 
tion, conformably to the constitution. They comprise 
large and valuable acquisitions of territory; and they se- 
cure an adjustment of boundaries, and give pledges of 
permanent peace between several tribes which had been 
long waging bloody wars against each other. 

On the 12th of February last, a treaty was signed at 
the Indian Springs, between commissioners appointed on 
the part of the United States, and certain chiefs and in- 
dividuals of the Creek nation of Indians, which was re- 
ceived at the seat of government only a few days before 
the close of the last session of congress, and of the late 
administration. The advice and consent of the senate 
was given to it, on the 3d of March, too late for it to re- 
ceive the ratification of the then President of the United 
States; it was ratified on the 7th of March, under the un- 
suspecting impression that it had been negotiated in good 
faith, and in the confidence inspired by the recommenda- 
tion of the senate. The subsequent transactions in rela- 



THE UNITED STATES. 419 

tion to this treaty, will form the subject of a separate 
message. 

But our circumscribed limits prevent us from touching, 
with any thing like justice, on this able state paper. We 
can only say, that nothing seems to have escaped his ca- 
pacious mind, of very general and national importance. 

By the report of the treasurer this session, it appears 
he had a balance of more than five millions in his hands. 
During this session a question was agitated relating to the 
holding of any office under the government of the United 
States, by a senator or representative to congress. Mr. 
Benton, from the selected committee, reported 

That, having had recourse to the history of the times, 
in which the constitution was formed, the committee find, 
that the proposition now referred to them had engaged 
the deliberations of the federal convention which framed 
the constitution, and of several of the state conventions 
which ratified it. 

In an early stage of the session of the federal conven- 
tion, it was resolved as follows : 

"'Art. 6. sec. 9. The members of each house (of con- 
gress) shall be ineligible to, and incapable of holding any 
office under the authority of the United States, during the 
time for which they shall respectively be elected ; and the 
members of the senate shall be ineligible to, and incapa- 
ble of, holding any such office for one year afterwards." 
(Journal of the Federal Convention, page 219.) 

It further appears from the journal, that this clause in 
the first draft of the constitution, was adopted with great 
unanimity, and that afterwards, in the concluding days of 
the session, it was altered, and its intention defeated, by a 
majority of a single vote, in the absence of one of the 
states by which it had been supported. 

Following the constitution into the state conventions 
which ratified it, the committee find, that, by the New- 
York convention, it was recommended, as follows : 

" That no senator or representative shall, during the 
time for which he was elected, be appointed to any office 
under the authority of the United States." 

By the Virginia convention, as follows : 

" That the members of the senate and house of repre- 



420 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

sentatives shall be ineligible to, and incapable of, hold- 
ing any civil office under the authority of the United 
States, during the term for which they shall respectively 
be elected." 

By the North Carolina convention the same amendment 
was recommended, in the same words. 

In the first session of the first congress, which was held 
under the constitution, a member of the house of repre- 
sentatives submitted a similar proposition of amendment ; 
and, in the third session of the eleventh congress, James 
Madison being president, a like proposition was again sub- 
mitted, and being referred to a committee of the house, 
was reported by them in the following words : 

" No senator or representative shall be appointed to 
any civil office, place, or emolument, under the authority 
of the United States, until the expiration of the presiden- 
tial term in which such person shall have served as a se- 
nator or representative." 

Upon the question to adopt this resolution, the vote 
stood 71 yeas, 40 nays, wanting but three votes of the 
constitutional number for the referring it to the decision 
of the states. 

Having thus shown, by a reference to the venerable 
evidence of our early history, that the principle of the 
amendment now under consideration, has had the support 
and approbation of the first friends of the constitution, 
the committee will now declare their own opinion iii 
favour of its correctness, and express its belief that the 
ruling principle in the organization of the federal govern- 
ment demands its adoption. 

That ruling principle demands that the three great 
branches of the federal government, the executive, legis- 
lative and judiciary, should be separate and distinct from 
each other, not only in contemplation of law, but in point 
of fact ; and, for this end, that each should not only have 
its independent organization, but that the individuals ad- 
ministering each, should be wholly free from the control 
and influence of the individuals who administered the 
others. 

To secure this independence on the part of the presi- 
dent, and to prevent the executive from starving him into 



THE UNITED STATES. 421 

a compliance with their will, by withholding his necessa- 
ry support, or seducing him into an acquiescence in their 
views, by tempting his avarice with an augmented salary, 
(Fed. No. 77.) it is provided in the constitution, that he 
shall receive a fixed compensation for his services, which 
shall neither be increased nor diminished during the term 
for which he was elected. 

To secure the independence of the legislative depart- 
ment, and to prevent the executive from influencing its 
deliberations, by retaining a set of dependants in the se- 
nate and house of representatives, always ready, like the 
placemen in the British parliament, to support the mea- 
sures of administration, it was provided, in the same con- 
stitution, that persons holding offices under the authority 
of the United States, should be wholly excluded from the 
floor of congress. 

The committee believe that this provision for the inde- 
pendence of the senate and house of representatives, 
though wise and proper as far as it goes, does not go far 
enough to accomplish the object it had in view. They 
admit that the presence of office holders in the legislative 
department, would be the bane of honest and independent 
legislation ; and they believe that the presence of office 
hunters would be equally fatal. The danger to be appre- 
hended from each, is, in effect, the same. The office 
holder would support the measures of administration, for 
the purpose of saving the office which he had in posses- 
sion ; the office hunter would support the same measures 
for the purpose of securing the office which he had in ex- 
pectation. 

By either party, the interest of the country would be 
sacrificed to the views of the executive ; and the appro- 
priate means for preventing this mischief, was first to ex- 
clude office holders from seats in congress, and this the 
constitution has done ; and, secondly, to prevent'senators 
and representatives from taking appointments from the 
president, under whose administration they had served ; 
and this it has omitted to do. The omission was too ma- 
terial to escape the observation of those who were not 
blind to the defects of the constitution ; and their ani- 
madversions were too loud and vehement to pass unno- 

36 



422 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

ticed by the great advocates for the ratification of that 
instrument. The authors of the Federalist, in their No. 
55. felt it to be their duty to meet the objection which 
grew out of this omission. But even these great men, 
with their superior abilities, and ardent zeal in the best of 
causes, could do no more than to diminish the quantum 
of a danger which could not be denied to exist, and to 
cover, with a brilliant declamation, a part of their be- 
loved constitution which could not be defended. They 
said : 

" Sometimes we are told, that this fund of corruption, 
(executive appointments,) is to be exhausted by the Presi- 
dent in subduing the virtue of the senate. Now, the fide- 
lity of the other house is to be the victim. The impro- 
bability of such a mercenary and perfidious combination 
of the several members of the government, standing on 
as different foundations as its republican principles will 
well admit, and at the same time accountable to the so- 
ciety over which they are placed, ought alone to quiet 
this apprehension. But, fortunately, the constitution has 
provided a still further safeguard. The members of the 
congress are rendered ineligible to any civil offices that 
may be created, or of which the emoluments may be in- 
creased, during the term of their election. No offices, 
therefore, can be dealt out to the existing members, but 
such as may become vacant by ordinary casualties ; and 
to suppose that these would be sufficient to purchase the 
guardians of the people, selected by the people them- 
selves, is to renounce every rule by which events ought 
to be calculated, and to substitute an indiscriminate and 
unbounded jealousy, with which all reasoning must be 
vain." 

They doubted the validity of these arguments, and con- 
cluded the report as follows : Considering all which, the 
committee have come to the unanimous resolution to sub- 
mit to the senate a proposition of amendment to the con- 
stitution of the United States, embracing the principle of 
this report. 

Resolved, by the senate and house of representatives 
of the United States of America in congress assembled, 
two thirds of both houses concurring, that the follow- 



THE UNITED STATES. 423 

ing amendment to the constitution of the United States 
be proposed to the legislatures of the several states ; 
which, when ratified by three fourths of said legislatures, 
shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of said 
constitution : 

No senator or representative shall be appointed to any 
civil office, place or emolument, under the authority of the 
United States, until the expiration of the presidential term 
in which such person shall have served as a senator or a 
representative. 

During the session, and on the fourth of July, just half 
a century from the time when Adams and Jefferson signed 
the Declaration of Independence, they both departed this 
life, within a few hours of each other. They had both 
been presidents of the United States, and both vice presi- 
dents. This is certainly an extraordinary coincidence, 
and worthy to be perpetuated in the archives of the na- 
tion. Nor is it a little remarkable, that on this day, 
after its observance by the national legislature, certain 
members of congress addressed the legislature on the pe- 
cuniary embarrassments of Mr. Jefferson, with a view to 
his relief. The following extracts, we believe, will be ac- 
ceptable. 

If I am asked why Jefferson is singled out amid his 
compatriots my answer is, he stands pre-eminent alike 
for his services and his misfortunes. God forbid that I 
should diminish the just claims of that illustrious band, 
who, guided by the polarity of their superior genius, and 
by a courage that was above circumstances, to whom the 
blessing of Providence became a pillar of light by 
which we were conducted through the wilderness of the 
land of promise. But as one star differeth from another 
star in glory, so also is the lot of man. It was his good 
fortune to occupy the front rank among the illustrious. 
He is one of three survivors, signers of the Declaration 
of Independence. His associates are comfortable, and 
need no aid. 

If it be inquired how it has happened that he has be- 
come impoverished 1 I answer, the delicacy of the subject 
forbids the inquiry. I may ask, however, what public 
institution is there in the United States that has not pro- 



424 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

fited of his bounty ? What son or daughter of affliction 
who has asked for aid, that has not received his charity ? 
What nation, tongue, or kindred, that has not shared his 
hospitality? His fame had gone abroad in the earth. 
He was justly esteemed a distinguished benefactor of man- 
kind. He was resorted to as an oracle, that they might 
hear with their own ears, from his own lips, the sublime 
and the eternal truths of religious liberty. His doors 
were open to all. His responses were withheld from 
none. The sequel was inevitable a loss of his pro- 
perty. He disinterestedly sacrificed his independence 
on the altar of all the virtues. The character of his coun- 
try was ennobled by the sacrifice. It will be still further 
ennobled by its being replaced by the generosity of his 
countrymen. 

The second session of the nineteenth congress com- 
menced on the fourth day of December, 1826. The 
president's message, after noticing the unfinished and un- 
touched subjects of his former message, notices the de- 
cease of Alexander of Russia, our commerce with France, 
and a ratified treaty with Denmark, says : " With Prus- 
sia, Spain, Portugal, and in general all the European 
powers, between whom and the United States, relations 
of friendly intercourse have existed, their condition has 
not materially varied since the last session of congress. I 
regret not to be able to say the same of our commercial 
intercourse with the colonial possessions of Great Britain 
in America. 

Negotiations of the highest importance to our common 
interests have been for several years in discussion between 
the two governments, and on the part of the United States 
have been invariably pursued in the spirit of candour and 
conciliation. Interests of great magnitude and delicacy 
have been adjusted by the conventions of 1815 and 1818, 
while that of 1822, mediated by the late Emperor Alex- 
ander, had promised a satisfactory compromise of claims 
which the government of the United States, in justice to 
the rights of a numerous class of their citizens, was bound 
to sustain. But, with regard to the commercial inter- 
course between the United States and the British colonies 
in America, it has been hitherto found impracticable to 



THE UNITED STATES. 425 

bring the parties to an understanding satisfactory to both. 
The relative geographical position, and the respective 
products of nature cultivated by human industry, had 
constituted the elements of a commercial intercourse be- 
tween the United States and British America, insular and 
continental, important to the inhabitants of both coun- 
tries. 

But it had been interdicted by Great Britain upon a 
principle heretofore practised by the colonizing nations of 
Europe, of holding the trade of their colonies* each in 
exclusive monopoly to herself. After the termination of 
the late war* this interdiction had been revived, and the 
British government declined including this portion of our 
intercourse with her possessions, in the negotiation of the 
convention of 1815. The trade was then carried on ex- 
clusively in British vessels, till the act of congress con- 
cerning navigation, of 1818, and the supplemental act of 
1820, met the interdict by a corresponding measure on 
the part of the United States. These measures, not of 
retaliation, but of necessary self-defence, were soon suc- 
ceeded by an act of parliament, opening certain colonial 
ports to the vessels of the United States, coming dirertly 
from them, and to the importation from them of certain 
articles of our produce, burdened with heavy duties, and 
excluding some of the most valuable articles of our ex- 
ports. 

The United States opened their ports to British vessels 
from the colonies, upon terms as exactly corresponding 
with those of the act of parliament, as in the relative 
condition of the parties could be made. And a negotia- 
tion was commenced by mutual consent, with the hope; 
on our part, that a reciprocal spirit of accommodation, 
and a common sentiment of the importance of the trade 
to the interests of the inhabitants of the two countries 
between whom it must be carried on, would ultimately 
bring the parties to a compromise, with which both might 
be satisfied. With this view the government of the Uni- 
ted States had determined to sacrifice something of that 
entire reciprocity, which, in all commercial arrangements 
with foreign power?, they are entitled to demand, and to 
acquiesce in some inequalities disadvantageous to our- 

36* 



426 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

selves, rather than to forego the benefit of a final and 
permanent adjustment of this interest, to the satisfaction 
of Great Britain herself. 

The negotiation, repeatedly suspended by accidental 
circumstances, was, however, by mutual agreement, and 
express assent, considered as pending, and to be speedily 
resumed. In the mean time, another act of parliament, 
so doubtful and ambiguous in its import, as to have been 
misunderstood by the officers in the colonies who were to 
carry it into execution, opens again certain colonial ports, 
upon new conditions and terms, with a threat to close 
them against any nation which may not accept those 
terms as prescribed by the British government. 

This act passed in July, 1825, not communicated to the 
government of the United States, not understood by the 
British rfficers of the customs in the colonies where it 
was to be enforced, was, nevertheless, submitted to the 
consideration of congress at their last session. With the 
knowledge that a negotiation upon the subject had long 
been in progress, and pledges given of its resumption at 
an early day, it was deemed expedient to await the result 
of that negotiation, rather than to subscribe implicitly to 
terms, the import of which was not clear, and which the 
British authorities themselves, in this hemisphere, were 
not prepared to explain. 

He closes the subject of British difficulties, by trusting 
that the misunderstanding noticed would not have an un- 
propitious effect on other subjects connected with our 
mutual relations. 

He then alludes to the Panama mission, and presses the 
opinion that we ought to be there represented. 

Of our fiscal concerns, and the contemplated reduction 
of the public debt, he speaks in favourable terms. Of 
the military and naval departments he speaks in a favour- 
able manner, and extols the management of the post office 
department. 

The conclusion is as follows : 

In closing this communication, I trust it will not be 
deemed inappropriate to the occasion and purposes upon 
which we are here assembled, to indulge a momentary re- 
trospect, combining, in a single glance, the period of our 



THE UNITED STATES. 427 

origin as a national confederation with that of our present 
existence, at the precise interval of half a century from 
each other. Since your last meeting at this place, the 
fiftieth anniversary of the day when our independence 
was declared, has been celebrated throughout our land, 
and on that day, when every heart was bounding with joy, 
and every voice was tuned to gratulation, amid the bless- 
ings of freedom and independence, which the sires of a 
former age had handed down to their children, two of 
the principal actors in that solemn scene, the hand that 
penned the ever memorable declaration, and the voice 
that sustained it in debate, were, by the summons, at the 
distance of seven hundred miles from each other, called 
before the Judge of all, to account for their deeds done 
upon earth. 

They departed, cheered by the benedictions of their 
country, to whom they left the inheritance of their fame, 
and the memory of their bright example. If we turn 
our thoughts to the condition of their country, in the 
contrast of the first and last day of that century, how re- 
splendent and sublime is the transition from gloom to 
glory ! Then glancing through the same lapse of time, 
in the condition of the individuals, we see the first day 
marked with the fulness and vigour of youth, in the pledge 
of their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honour, to 
ihe cause of freedom and of mankind. And on the last, 
extended on the bed of death, with but sense and sensibi- 
lity left to breathe a last aspiration to Heaven, of bless- 
ing upon their country ; may we not humbly hope that 
to them too, it was a pledge of transition from gloom to 
glory ; and that while their mortal vestments were sink- 
ing into the clod of the valley, their emancipated spirits 
Were ascending to the bosom of their God ! 

During the session, a number of interesting report? 
were made from the different departments, and a number 
of valuable documents presented. The famous treaty 
with M'Intosh, and other Creek chiefs, was put under 
examination, and condemned. 

This treaty, it may be recollected, was made by M'In- 
tosh in a clandestine manner, for which he subsequently 
suffered death. Circumstances and clear testimony were 



428 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

adduced, to show that this was the state of the treaty ; 
and it was no longer considered obligatory on either the 
United States or the Creek nation. To show the spirit 
of hostility manifested by the executive of Georgia, no- 
thing more is necessary than to copy the two following 
orders. It is only necessary to state, that Georgia had 
long coveted the Creek lands, and by collusion with some 
chiefs, determined to possess them even at the point of 
the bayonet, and the destruction of the aborigines. We 
rejoice that the general government stopped the torrent of 
usurpation, and exhibited the features of firmness, jus'- 
tice, and generosity. 

Executive Department, Geo. Milledgcvittc, Feb. 17, 1827. 
Ordered, That the attorney and solicitors general of 
this state, in every instance of complaint made of the 
arrest of any surveyor engaged in the survey of the late 
acquired territory, by any civil process under the autho- 
rity of the government of the United States, do take all 
necessary and legal measures to effect the liberation of 
the person so arrested, and to bring to justice, either by 
indictment or otherwise, the officers or parties concerned 
in such an arrest, as offenders against the laws, and viola- 
ters of the peace and personal security of the public offi- 
cers and citizens of this state. That they give profes- 
sional advice and assistance in their defence against any 
prosecution or action which may be instituted against them 
as officers in the service of the state, and that they prompt 
ly make known to this department their acts and doings 
in the premises. It is moreover enjoined on the civil ma- 
gistrates of this state, having competent jurisdiction of 
the same, to be acting and assisting in inquiring into the 
cause of every such arrest or detention as aforesaid, that 
the person may be discharged forthwith, if illegally or un- 
justly detained, and in affording such redress to the ag 
grieved or injured party, as by law he may be entitled to 
receive. 

By the governor, E. H. PIERCE, Sec'ry. 



THE UNITED STATES. 429 



Head quarters, Milledgeville, 17th Feb. 1827. 

ORDERS. 

The major generals commanding the 6th and 7th divi- 
sions, will immediately issue orders to hold in readiness 
the several regiments and battalions within their respect- 
ive commands, to repel any hostile invasion of the territory 
of this state. Depots of arms and ammunition central to 
each division will be established in due time. 

By the commander in chief, 

JOHN W. A. SANDFORD, Aid-de-Camp. 

This congress closed its session on the third of March, 
and the twentieth congress opened its sittings on the third 
of December, 1827. 

On the fourth, the message of the president was re- 
ceived and read in both houses. After giving a general, 
but concise and elevating view of our situation as a peo- 
ple, he thus speaks of our foreign concerns : Our rela- 
tions of friendship with the other nations of the earth, 
political and commercial, have been preserved unimpaired, 
and the opportunities to improve them have been culti- 
vated with anxious and unremitting attention. A nego- 
tiation upon subjects of high and delicate interest, with 
the government of Great Britain, has terminated in the 
adjustment of some of the questions at issue upon satisfac- 
tory terms, and the postponement of others for future dis- 
cussion and agreement. 

The purposes of the convention concluded at St. Pe- 
tersburg, on the 12th day of July, 1822, under the media- 
tion of the late Emperor Alexander, have been carried 
into effect by a subsequent convention, concluded at Lon- 
don on the J3th of November, 1826, the ratifications of 
which were exchanged at that place on the 6th day of 
February last. A copy of the proclamation issued on 
the nineteenth day of March last, publishing this conven- 
tion, is herewith communicated to congress. The sum 
of twelve hundred and four thousand nine hundred and 
sixty dollars, therein stipulated to be paid to the claimants 
of indemnity under the first article of the treaty of Ghent, 
has been duly received, and the commission instituted, 



430 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

conformably to the act of congress of the second of March 
last, for the distribution of the indemnity to the persons 
entitled to receive it, are now in session, and approaching 
the consummation of their labours. 

This final disposal of one of the most painful topics of 
collision between the United States and Great Britain, not 
only affords an occasion of gratulation to ourselves, but 
has had the happiest effect in promoting a friendly dis- 
position, and in softening asperities upon other objects of 
discussion. Nor ought it to pass without the tribute of a 
frank and cordial acknowledgment of the magnanimity 
with which an honourable nation, by the reparation of 
their own wrongs, achieves a triumph more glorious than 
any field of blood can ever bestow. 

The conventions of 3d July, 1815, and of 20th Octo- 
ber, 1818, will expire, by their own limitation, on the 
20th October, 1828. These have regulated the direct 
commercial intercourse between the United States and 
Great Britain, upon terms of the most perfect recipro- 
city; and they effected a temporary compromise of the 
respective rights and claims to territory westward of the 
Rocky Mountains. These arrangements have been con- 
tinued for an indefinite period of time, after the expira- 
tion of the above mentioned conventions ; leaving each 
party the liberty of terminating them, by giving twelve 
months notice to the other. The radical principle of all 
commercial intercourse between independent nations, is 
the mutual interest of both parties. It is the vital spirit 
of trade itself; nor can it be reconciled to the nature of 
man, or to the primary laws of human society, that any 
traffic should long be willingly pursued, of which all the 
advantages are on one side, and all the burdens on the 
other. 

Treaties of commerce have been found, by experience, 
to be among the most effective instruments for promot- 
ing peace and harmony between nations whose interests, 
exclusively considered on either side, are brought into 
frequent collisions by competition. In framing such trea- 
ties, it is the duty of each party not simply to urge with 
unyielding pertinacity that which suits its own interest. 
but to concede liberally to that which is adapted to the 



THE UNITED STATES. 431 

interest of the other. To accomplish this, little more is 
generally required than a simple observance of the rule 
of reciprocity; and were it possible for the statesmen of 
one nation, by stratagem and management, to obtain from 
the weakness or ignorance of another, an over-reaching 
treaty, such a compact would prove an incentive to war, 
rather than a bond of peace. Our conventions with 
Great Britain are founded upon the principles of recipro- 
city. 

The commercial intercourse between the two countries 
is greater in magnitude and amount, than between any 
two other nations on the globe. It is, for all purposes of 
benefit or advantage, to both, as precious, and, in all pro- 
bability, far more extensive, than if the parties were still 
constituent parts of one and the same nation. Treaties 
between such states, regulating the intercourse of peace 
between them, and adjusting interests of such transcend- 
ant importance to both, which have been found, in a long 
experience of years, mutually advantageous, should not 
be lightly cancelled or discontinued. Two conventions, 
for continuing in force those above mentioned, have been 
concluded between the plenipotentiaries of the two go- 
vernments, on the 6th of August last, and will be forth- 
with laid before the senate for the exercise of their con- 
stitutional authority concerning them. 

'He then alludes to the execution of the treaties of 1782, 
and 1783, respecting the boundary line of the Union, 
showing that difficulties had arisen respecting their adjust- 
ment. Commissioners had been appointed by both par- 
ties, to settle these questions, but the object had not been 
fully accomplished, and a convention of September, 1826, 
was intended for reference to the senate. He then notices 
a communication irom the governor of Maine, touching 
the difficulties respecting territorial jurisdiction, which 
had occurred in the vicinity of that state, and concludes 
the subject by stating that he had taken measures to ob- 
tain the best information of facts in the case, which should 
be communicated when received. He ajsu reverts to the 
difficulties and embarrassments arising from the British 
colonial regulations, which he states as not y&t appro*,' 
raating to a friendly understanding. 



432 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

In speaking of France, he states, that our commerce 
with that people is increasing, while it is a source of re- 
gret, that our demands on that government for spolia- 
tions, remain unsettled. With the kingdom of Sweden 
a new treaty had been concluded, and a minister pleni- 
potentiary from the Hansealic towns received. With 
Russia we are at peace, and the good understanding 
which subsisted with Alexander, has not been interrupt- 
ed by the succession of his brother Nicholas to the 
empire. 

Of the Greeks he speaks most feelingly, and notices 
the letter of thanks from the president of that country, 
which was to be translated, and placed before congress. 

Alluding to our southern neighbours, he says : " In the 
American hemisphere the cause of freedom and inde- 
pendence has continued to prevail ; and if signalized by 
none of those splendid triumphs which had crowned with 
glory some of the preceding years, it has only been from 
the banishment of all external force against which the 
struggle had been maintained. The shout of victory has 
been superseded by the expulsion of the enemy over 
whom it could have been achieved. Our friendly wishes, 
and cordial good will, which have constantly followed 
the southern nations of America in all the vicissitudes 01 
their war of independence, are succeeded by a solicitude, 
equally ardent and cordial, that by the wisdom and purity 
of their institutions, they may secure to themselves the 
choicest blessings of social order, and the best rewards of 
virtuous liberty . 

The message then aiiuues to our remaining difficulties 
with Brazil, which he had taken measures to settle, and 
finally returns to the more grateful subjects of our inter- 
nal concerns uiua : 

" Turning from the momentous concerns of our union, 
in its intercourse with foreign nations, to those of the 
deepest interest in the administration of our internal 
affairs, we find the revenues of the present year corres- 
ponding, as nearly as might be expected, to the anticipa- 
tions of the last, and presenting an aspect still more fa- 
vourable in the promise of the next. The balance in the 
treasury, on the first of January last, was six millions 



THE UNITED STATES. . 433 

three hundred and fifty-eight thousand six hundred and 
eighty-six dollars and eighteen cents. The receipts from 
that day to the 30th of September last, as near as the re- 
turns of them yet received can show, amount to sixteen 
millions eight hundred and eighty-six thousand five hun- 
dred and eighty-one dollars and thirty-two cents. The 
receipts of the present quarter, estimated at four mil- 
lions five hundred and fifteen thousand, added to the 
above, form an aggregate of twenty-one millions four hun- 
dred thousand dollars of receipts. The expenditures of 
the year may perhaps amount to twenty-two millions 
three hundred thousand dollars, presenting a small ex- 
cess over the receipts. But of these twenty-two mil- 
lions, upwards of six have been applied to the discharge 
of the principal of the public debt ; the whole amount of 
which, approaching seventy-four millions on the first of 
January last, will, on the first day of next year, fall short 
of sixty-seven millions and a half. The balance in the 
treasury, on the first of January next, it is expected, will 
exceed five millions four hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars, a sum exceeding that of the first of January, 1825, 
though falling short of that exhibited on the first of Ja- 
nuary last. 

" It was foreseen that the revenue of the present year 
would not equal that of the last, which had itself been 
less than that of the next preceding year. But the hope 
has been realized which was entertained, that these defi- 
ciencies would in no wise interrupt the steady operation 
of the discharge of the public debt, by the annual ten 
millions devoted to that object, by the act of 3d March, 
1817. 

" The amount of duties secured on merchandise, im- 
ported from the commencement of the year, until the 
30th of September last, is twenty-one millions two rtun- 
dred and twenty-six thousand ; and the probable amount 
of that which will be secured during the remainder of the 
year, is five millions seven hundred and seventy-four 
thousand dollars ; forming a sum total of twenty-seven 
millions. With the allowances for drawbacks and con- 
tingent deficiencies which may occur, though not speci 
fically foreseen, we may safely estimate the receipts of 

37 



434 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the ensuing year at twenty-two millions three hundred 
thousand dollars ; a revenue for the next, equal to the ex- 
penditure of the present year. 

"The deep solicitude felt by our citizens of all classes 
throughout the union for the total discharge of the public 
debt, will apologize for the earnestness with which I deem 
it my duty to urge this topic upon the consideration of 
congress of recommending to them again the observ- 
ance of the strictest economy in the application of the 
public funds. The depression upon the receipts of the 
revenue, which had commenced with the year 1826, con- 
tinued with increased severity during the two first quar- 
ters of the present year. The returning tide began to 
flow with the third quarter, and, so far as we can judge 
from experience, may be expected to continue through 
the course of the ensuing year. In the meantime, an al- 
leviation from the burden of the public debt will, in the 
three years, have been effected, to the amount of nearly 
sixteen millions, arid the charge of annual interest will 
have been reduced upwards of one million. 

" But among the maxims of political economy which 
the stewards of the public moneys should never suffer 
without urgent necessity, to be transcended, is that of 
keeping the expenditures of the year within the limits oi 
its receipts. The appropriations of the two last years, 
including the yearly ten millions of the sinking fund, 
have each equalled the promised revenue of the ensuing 
year. While we foresee with confidence that the public 
coffers will be replenished from the receipts, as fast as 
they will be drained by the expenditures, equal in amount 
to those of the current year, it should not be forgotten 
that they could ill suffer the exhaustion of larger disburse- 
ments." 

After noticing the measures lafcen with a view to in- 
ternal improvements, he mentions the report from the 
post office department, as very satisfactory and encoura- 
ging, and closes by recommending the subject of pen- 
sions to our remaining revolutionary officers and soldiers, 
as a debt of justice, ither than one of gratitude. 

The report of the treasurer states, that more than six 
millions and a quarter, by estimation, would be in his 



THE UNITED STATES. 435 

hands on the first of January, and recommends an addi- 
tion to the tariff of 1824. The article of domestic manu- 
factures, are estimated at more than seven millions, ex- 
ported. Other exports at about eighty millions. He 
states that many articles of home manufacture had be- 
come cheaper, more abundant, and of superior quality, 
since the adoption of the tariff, than before, and presses 
on the country the importance of increasing the tariff, 
particularly on wool, and woollen goods, fine cotton 
goods, bar iron and hemp. It is not possible, however, 
in this condensed sketch, to give an outline of this valua- 
ble report. 

Early in the session steps were taken to ascertain the 
importance of revising thoroughly the tariff system of 
18*24. A committee was appointed, clothed with ample 
powers to investigate the subject. This report was made 
in February, from which we shall give a few extracts. 

After stating the many obstacles necessary to be over- 
come, and the labours to which they were subject, the 
committee proceeds : This labour being performed, the 
committee at once began their examinations of such wit- 
nesses, members of the house, and others, as were within 
their reach, and believed to be possessed of valuable and 
practical information upon any of the subjects before them. 
The examination of these witnesses was not completed 
when the arrival of some attending under summonses 
was announced. 

An application was then immediately made to the house 
for leave to sit during the hours of session of the house ; 
and nearly every day since that leave was granted, has 
been entirely occupied, to the almost total neglect of other 
public and private duties, in the laborious examination of 
witnesses, pursuant to the resolution under which the 
committee were acting It is but justice here to remark, 
that the original expectation of the committee, under the 
resolution offered by them to the house, was to have made 
an expeditious inquiry into the situation of one or two 
manufacturing interests, rather to enable them to deter- 
mine what further protection these interests really re- 
u uired, than with the expectation, within the limited time 
which they had allowed to themselves for the purpose of 



436 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

being able to collect and report to the house, a body ol 
evidence upon several important branches of our domes- 
tic manufactures, so digested and arranged as to be of any 
essential service to the house, or to the public, as a source 
of correct information upon these complicated subjects. 

The amendment, however, which was made to the re- 
solution by the house, so as to give the committee the au- 
thority " to send for, and examine persons upon oath, in 
relation to the present condition of our manufactures, and 
to report the minutes of such examination to this house," 
it will readily be seen, added greatly to the labour which 
the committee had proposed for themselves ; as, by that 
amendment, it was made the duty of the committee, 
should they think proper to examine witnesses, to take 
their testimony in detail, and in such order as to render it 
at least passably intelligible to the house. This additional 
labour was in no other way exceptionable to the commit- 
tee, than as it rendered somewhat doubtful their ability 
to give their report to the house within the time which 
they had signified that it would be received. But, even 
under this apprehension, so desirous were the committee 
of a full developement of the facts, that the amended re- 
solution met their approbation; and they entered upon 
their duties, determined, if possible, to realize the expec- 
tations of the house, so far, at least, as regarded a report 
within the time they had indicated. 

They have examined a little short of thirty witnesses, 
and the testimony of each, hastily written out by way of 
question and answer, and annexed to this report, will 
show what facts have been collected by the examination, 
as well as the extent of the labour which the committee 
have performed. The testimony of each witness, after it 
was taken, had been carefully read over with him, and so 
corrected as to meet the full assent of the witness to its 
accuracy* 

The leading subjects presented to the committee for 
additional protection, are iron, and several manufactures 
of it, wool, and its fabrics, hemp, and some of the manu- 
factures from it, flax, and its manufactures, and domestic 
distilled spirits from grain, particular descriptions of 
glass, and fine and printed cottons. Upon all these sub- 
jects witnesses have been examined, and their testimony, 



THE UNITED STATES. 437 

herewith reported, comprises the evidence, upon each 
subject, which the committee have taken under the reso- 
lution of the house, and embodies most of the information 
upon which they have acted in determining the features 
of the bill which they have agreed upon. 

The first subject which will be found in the bill, is 
that of iron, and considering the importance of the ar- 
ticle, as one of both national and individual necessity, the 
changes in the present rates of duty are comparatively 
very light. 

The next subject in order is that of wool and wool- 
lens. To these subjects the greater part of the testimony 
of the witnesses has been directed, and the committee 
have used every effort in their power to obtain precise 
information as to the facts as they do actually exist in re- 
lation to the interests both of the wool grower and the 
manufacturer of wool. The real importance of these sub- 
jects to those sections of the country where wool is grown, 
and in which the manufactories are located, the feeling 
which has for some time agitated the public mind through- 
out the whole country, in relation, on the one' side, to 
the necessity of further protection to them, and on the 
other side, to the injurious effects which such a measure 
would have upon the purchasers of woollen fabrics, have 
all conspired to induce this exertion on the part of th 
committee. 

They have therefore made the examinations of the wit- 
nesses, upon those subjects, as minute as possible, and, 
perhaps, in some instances, they may appear tediously so. 
Indeed, many of the questions put to the witnesses, will 
afford abundant evidence that the committee had not 
sufficient practical knowledge upon the subjects before 
them, to enable them to make a series of interrogations 
the answers to which would place the testimony taken in 
the clearest light. And when the members of the house 
shall have examined the evidence relating to the manufac- 
ture of woollen goods, the committee cannot doubt they 
will be entirely convinced that none but a person inti- 
mately acquainted with the various operations, could have 
drawn out a series of questions upon the subject, suscepti- 
ble of clear and intelligible answers. 

37* 



438 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

The time of the committee did not authorize even an 
attempt to do this, and, therefore, the examinations, and 
particularly of some of the witnesses first examined, will 
appear as they were really taken the one answer, in 
many, if not in most instances, suggesting the subsequent 
question. It will also be found, upon an examination of 
the testimony, that the manufacture of woollens is hardly 
susceptible of being reduced within the limits of exact 
mathematical calculation, so as to enable the committee 
to arrive, with this kind of certainty, at the amount of 
duty which will furnish full protection, and at the same 
time, will not go beyond that point. Certain positions, 
however, they believe to be proved by the evidence they 
have taken, which furnish great assistance in approaching 
to correct conclusions. 

From all which the committee could gather on the 
subject, they think the following positions may be fairly 
stated : 

1st. That the manufacture of woollen goods in this 
country, is, at this time, a business labouring under severe 
depressions, and attended with loss more severe upon the 
finer qualities. 

2d. That these depressions are owing, in a very great 
degree, to the excessive and irregular importations of 
foreign woollen goods into our markets : thus causing a 
fluctuation in, and an uncertainty of price for those goods, 
more injurious to the American manufacturer than even 
the depression of price which these importations produce. 

3d. That the differences between the prices cf vv r ool, 
of the same quality, in this country and in England, is at 
the present time about fifty per cent, in favour of the lat- 
ter country. 

4th. That the cost of raw wool in this country is about 
one half of the cost of the fabric, when prepared for the 
market, as a general rule applying to most kinds of 
cloths. 

5th. That if the cost of the wool and the cost of the 
foreign materials used for dying, were the same in both 
countries, the process of manufacturing the wool into cloth, 
fitted for the market, can be performed as cheap in this 
country as it can in England. 



THE UTttTED STATES. 439 

6th. That the present duty on woollen goods does not 
lurnish the desired protection, and that no reasonable 
duty can be effectual, unless it be a specific square yard, 
instead of an ad valorem duty. 

Taking, then, these positions as granted, the committee 
proposed to lay the following duties : 

1st. Upon all manufactures of wool, or of which wool 
shall be a component part, the actual value of which, at 
the place whence imported, shall not exceed fifty cents 
per square yard, a specific duty of sixteen cents upon 
every square yard. 

2d. Upon all manufactures of wool, or of which wool 
shall be a component part, the actual value of which, at 
the place whence imported, shall exceed fifty cents per 
square yard, and shall not exceed $1 per square yard, a 
specific duty of 40 cents upon every square yard. 

3d. Upon manufactures of wool, or of which wool 
shall be a component part, the actual value of which, at 
the place whence imported, shall exceed $1 per square 
yard, and shall not exceed $2,50 per square yard, a spe- 
cific duty of $1 upon every square yard. 

4th. Upon all manufactures of wool, or of which wool 
shall be a component part, the actual value of which, at 
the place whence imported, shall exceed 82,50 per square 
yard, and shall not exceed 84 per square yard, shall be 
deemed to have cost 84 per square yard, and at such va- 
luation shall be charged with, and pay a duty of 40 per 
centum, ad valorem. 

5th. Upon all manufactures of wool, &c. the actual 
value of which, at the place whence imported, shall ex- 
ceed 84 per square yard, shall be charged with, and pay 
a duty of 45 per centum, ad valorem. 

The attention of the committee was next turned to 
hemp and flax, and certain manufactures from them. 
After showing that our country can raise and manufacture 
from these articles to advantage, and that, in some points, 
they form an important item in the products of this 
country, they propose to lay a duty of $10 the ton on raw 
hemp, and 89 the ton on flax, and would make the rate 01 
duty progressive, until it should arrive at 860 the ton on 
each. 



440 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

On foreign distilled spirits, the committee proposed an 
additional duty of ten cents, and on foreign molasses, an 
increase of five cents the gallon. 

The great importance of a national system, is so evi- 
dent, that few doubt the propriety of a tariff for the pro- 
tection of domestic manufactures. This was the all ab- 
sorbing business of the last session, and the measure has 
been effected Whether all the details are unexceptiona- 
ble, is left for practice to determine. If faults should be 
discovered, they can be remedied by the legislature. If 
it should have an unequal bearing on different sections of 
the Union, the difficulty may be obviated ; or, if not, the 
only evils which will remain are those which are insepa- 
rable from all general systems. All that can be required, 
is the greatest good of the whole as a nation. 

That opposition should be manifested to any great na- 
tional change is not surprising ; it would rather surprise 
if this were not the case. No such change can be made, 
without effecting individual interest. But where the 
great, the permanent interests, and permanent prosperity 
of the country are at stake, both wisdom and duty dictate 
that the minor interests should give way. The balance 
of trade has been long enough against us. Commercial 
difficulties, and scarcity of money, substantiate the fact 
conclusively. To retrace our steps, and take an inde- 
pendent stand, \vas our only safe alternative, and we re- 
joice that this course has been pursued, because we are 
fully persuaded that the step will ultimately result in good. 

Remarks upon Part Third. 

The Mississippi, the Missouri, the Ohio, no longer 
flows through a wilderness ; large three masted ships sail 
up them, and more than two hundred steam-boats enliven 
their banks. 

Thus the United States cherish within their bosom, un- 
der the protection of liberty, an image and a memorial of 
most of the celebrated places of ancient and modern Eu- 
rope like that garden in the Campagna of Rome, in 
which Adrian had models of the different monuments of 
his empire erected. 



THE UNITED STATES. 441 

It should be observed, that there is scarcely a county 
but has a town, village, or hamlet, called Washington : 
touching unanimity of the gratitude of a nation ! 

Thirty high roads meet at Washington, as the Roman 
roads met at ancient Rome, and, diverging from that point, 
run to the circumference of the United States. The 
whole forming an interior circulation of roads of 25,747 
miles. 

From the points to which these roads tend, it is obvious 
that they traverse tracts formerly wild, but now cultivated 
and inhabited. On a great number of these roads you 
may travel, post, or public stage coaches, carry you from 
place to place at a moderate price. You may now take 
the diligence for the Ohio, or the Falls of Niagara, as in 
former time you engaged an Indian guide or interpreter. 
Cross roads branch off from the principal roads, and are 
equally provided with the means of conveyance. These 
jneans are almost always of two kinds, for as there are 
every where lakes and rivers, you may travel either in 
row boats, sail boats, or steam vessels. 

Vessels of the latter class make regular trips from Bos- 
ton and New- York to New-Orleans ; they are likewise 
established on the lakes of Canada, the Ontario, the Erie, 
the Michigan, the Champlain ; on those lakes, where, 
thirty years ago, scarcely the canoes of the savages were 
to be seen, and where ships of the line now engage one 
another. 

The steam vessels of the United States are not only 
subservient to the wants of commerce, and of travellers, 
but are also employed for the defence of the country ; 
some of them, of immense size, placed at the mouth "of 
rivers, armed with cannon, and boiling water, resemble at 
one and the same time, modern citadels and fortresses of 
the middle ages. 

To the twenty-five thousand seven hundred and forty- 
seven miles of general roads, must be added the extent of 
four hundred and nineteen district roads, and of fifty- 
eight thousand one hundred and thirty-seven miles of 
water-ways. The canals increase the number of- the lat- 
ter : the Middlesex canal joins the harbour at Boston with 
the Merrimack ; the Champlain canal forms a communica- 



442 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

tion between that lake and the Canadian seas ; the famous 
Erie or New-York canal, now unites Lake Erie and the 
Atlantic ; the Santee, Chesapeake, and Albemarle canals, 
were constructed by the states of Carolina and Virginia ; 
and as broad rivers, running in different directions, ap- 
proach towards their sources, nothing was easier than to 
connect them together. Five roads to the Pacific Ocean 
are already known ; one only of these roads passes 
through the Spanish territory. 

A law of congress, passed in the session of 1824 5, 
directs the establishment of a military post at Oregon. 
The Americans, who have a settlement on the Columbia, 
can thus penetrate to the great ocean by a zone of land 
nearly six degrees in breadth, between English, Russian, 
and Spanish America. 

There are, nevertheless, natural limits to colonization. 
The forests to the north and west of the Missouri, are 
bounded by immense steppes, where not a tree is to be 
seen, and which seem to be unsusceptible of culture, 
though grass grows abundantly upon them. This ver- 
dant Arabia affords a passage to the colonists who repair 
in caravans to the Rocky Mountains, and New-Mexico ; it 
separates the United States of the Atlantic, from the 
United States of the South Sea, like those deserts, which, 
in the old world, are interposed bet\veen fertile regions. 
An American has offered to construct, at his own expense, 
a solid high road from St. Louis, on the Mississippi, to 
the mouth of the Columbia, if congress will grant him a 
tract ten miles in depth, on either side of the road. This 
gigantic proposal has not been accepted. 

In the year 1789, there were only seventy-five post 
offices in the United States ; there are now upwards of 
seven thousand. From 1790 to 1795, these offices in- 
creased from seventy-five to four hundred and fifty-three; 
in 1800 their number was nine hundred and three ; in 
1805 they* amounted to fifteen hundred and fifty-eight; in 
1810 to two thousand three hundred ; in 1817 to three 
thousand three hundred and fifty-nine ; in 1820 to four 
thousand and thirty ; in 1830 to nearly eight thousand. 

Letters and packets are conveyed by mail coaches, 
which travel about one hundred and fifty thousand miles 
a day, and by couriers, on horseback and on foot. 



THE UNITED STATES. 443 

Offices for the sale of public lands are opened in the 
states of Ohio and Indiana, in the territory of Michigan, 
Missouri, and Arkansas, and in the states of Louisiana, 
Mississippi, and Alabama. It is computed that one hun- 
dred and fifty millions of acres of land fit for cultivation, 
exclusively of the soil of vast forests, yet remain to be dis- 
posed of. These hundred and fifty millions of acres are 
estimated to be worth fifteen hundred millions of dollars, 
at the average rate of ten dollars per acre, and reckoning 
the dollars at no more than three francs a very low cal- 
culation in every respect. 

We find twenty-five military posts in the northern states, 
and twenty-two in the southern. 

In 1790, the population of the United States was 
3,929,326 souls; in 1800, it was 5,305,666; in 1810, 
7,239,300 ; in 1820, 9,609,827. This last number includ- 
ed 1,581,436 slaves. 

The population of the United States has increased every 
ten years, from 1790 to 1820, at the rate of thirty-five per 
cent. Eight years have already elapsed of the ten, which 
will be completed in 1830, when, it is presumed, the popu- 
lation of the United States will be little short of 12,875,000 
souls : and the state of Ohio will have 850,000 inhabitants, 
and that of Kentucky 750,000. 

If the population were to go on doubling every twenty- 
five years, the United States would have, in 1855, a popu- 
lation of 25,750,OCO souls ; and in twenty-five years more, 
that is to say, in 1880, that population would exceed 
50,000,000. 

In 1821, the value of native and foreign productions 
exported from the United States amounted to the sum of 
64,974,382 dollars. In the same year the public revenue 
was 14,264,000 dollars : the excess of the receipts be- 
yond the expenditure was 3,334,826 dollars. In the same 
year, also, the national debt was reduced to 89,204,235 
dollars. 

The army has sometimes been raised to one hundred 
thousand men: and the navy of the United States is com- 
posed of eleven sail of the line, nine frigates, and fifty 
other ships of various sizes. 

It is superfluous to say any thing concerning the con- 



444 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

etitutions of the different states ; it is sufficient to know 
that they are all free. 

There is no predominant religion, but every citizen is 
expected to conform to some mode of Christian worship. 
The catholic religion is making considerable progress in 
the western states. 

Supposing, which I believe to be the case, that the* 
statistical summaries published by the United States an 
exaggerated by the national vanity, still there will be left 
a total of prosperity well worthy of our highest admi- 
ration. 

To complete this astonishing picture, we must figure t(? 
ourselves cities like Boston, New-York, Philadelphia, Bal 
timore Savannah, New-Orleans, lighted at night, filled 
with horses and carriages, offering all the gratifications oi 
luxury, brought to their ports by thousands of ships ; wt 
must figure to ourselves the lakes of Canada, formerly sc 
solitary, now covered with frigates, brigs, cutters, boats, 
steam vessels, intermixed with the canoes of the Indians, 
as the large ships and galleys are with pinks, sloops, and 
caiques, in the waters of the Bosphorus. Churches and 
houses, embellished with columns of Grecian architecture, 
rise from amidst these forests, and on the banks of these 
rivers, the ancient ornaments of (ike wilderness. Add to 
these, spacious colleges, observatories, erected for science 
in the abode of savage ignorance ; all religions, all opi- 
nions, dwelling together in peace, labouring in concert 
for the melioration of the human race, and the develope- 
ment of the human understanding. Such are the prodi- 
gies of liberty. 

The Abbe Raynal offered a prize for a solution of the 
question : " What influence will the discovery of the 
New World have upon the Old World." 

Writers lost themselves in calculations relative to the 
exportation and importation of the precious metals, the 
depopulation of Spain, the increase of commerce, the 
improvement of the navy : nobody, as far as I know, 
sought the influence of the discovery of America upon 
Europe, in the establishment of the American republics. 
They figured to themselves the old monarchies continu- 
ing in much the same state as thev then were, society sta- 



THE UNITED STATES. 445 

tionary, the human mind neither advancing nor retrogra- 
ding ; they had not the least idea of the revolution which, 
in the space of twenty years, has taken place in opinions. 

The most valuable of the treasures which America con- 
tains within her bosom is liberty; every nation is called 
to work this inexhaustible mine. The discovery of the 
representative republic by the United States, is one of 
the greatest political events that ever occurred. This 
event proves, as T have elsewhere observed, that there are 
two practicable kinds of liberty ; the one belonging to the 
infancy of nations, the offspring of manners and virtue, 
the liberty of the first Greeks and of the first Romans, 
and the liberty of the savages of America ; the other, born 
in the old age of nations, the offspring of knowledge and 
reason, the liberty of the United States, which has super- 
seded the liberty of the Indian. Happy country, which, 
in less than three centuries, has passed from one liberty 
to the other, almost without effort, and by means of a con 
test which lasted only eight years ! 

Will America preserve this last kind of liberty ? Will 
there not be a division of the United States? May we 
not already perceive the germs of these divisions ? Has 
not a representative of Virginia already supported the 
thesis of the ancient Greek and Roman liberty, with the 
systems of slavery, against a deputy of Massachusetts, 
who advocated the cause of modern liberty without slaves, 
such as Christianity has made it ? 

Will not the western states, extending themselves far- 
ther and farther, and being too remote from the Atlantic 
states, be desirous of having a government to themselves ? 

Lastly, are the Americans a perfect people ? have .they 
not their vices like other men ? are they morally superior 
to the English, from whom they derive their origin? 
Will not the tide of foreign emigration, incessantly pour- 
ing upon them from all parts of Europe, eventually de- 
stroy the homogeneousness of their race ? Will not the 
mercantile spirit gain ascendency? Is not self-interest 
beginning to be a predominant national defect among 
them ? 

We are also obliged to confess with pain, that the es- 
tablishment of the republics of Mexico, Colombia, Peru, 
38 



446 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

Chili, and Buenos Ayres, is pregnant with danger to the 
United States. While the latter had about them nothing 
but the colonies of a transatlantic kingdom, war was not 
probable. 

May not rivalships now spring up between the old re- 
publics of North America, and the new republics of Span- 
ish America ? Will not the latter interdict alliance with 
European powers ? If both sides should have recourse 
to arms if the military spirit should take possession of 
the United States, a great captain might arise ; glory 
loves crowns ; soldiers are but brilliant forgers of chains, 
and liberty is not sure of preserving its patrimony under 
the guardianship of victory. 

Let what will happen, liberty will never be entirely 
banished from America ; and here it is right to specify one 
of the great advantages possessed by liberty, the offspring 
of manners. 

Liberty, the offspring of manners, perishes when its 
principle deteriorates, and it is in the nature of manners 
to deteriorate with time. 

Liberty, the offspring of manners, begins before des- 
potism, in the days of poverty and obscurity : it is lost in 
despotism, and in ages of glory and luxury. 

Liberty, the offspring of knowledge, shines after ages 
of oppression and corruption ; it advances with the prin- 
ciple which preserves and renews it, the knowledge of 
which it is the effect, instead of becoming feeble with 
time, like the manners which gave birth to the first liberty 
knowledge, I say, grows stronger on the contrary with 
time ; thus, it forsakes not the liberty which it has pro- 
duced ; constantly about that liberty, it is at once its ge- 
nerative virtue and its inexhaustible source. 

To conclude the United States have one safeguard 
more ; their population does not occupy an eighteenth 
part of their territory. America still dwells in the wil- 
derness ; for a long time to come, her deserts will be her 
manners, and knowledge her liberty. 

RELIGION. The consequences resulting from the en- 
joyment of religious liberty have been highly favourable. 
Free discussion has enlightened the ignorant, disarmed 
superstition of its dreadful powers, and consigned to 



THE UNITED STATES. 447 

oblivion many erroneous and fantastic creeds. Religious 
oppression, and the vindictive feelings it arouses, are 
hardly known. Catholics and Protestants live together 
in harmony ; and Protestants who disagree, employ, in 
defending their own doctrines, and in assailing those 
of their antagonists, the weapons only of reason and 
eloquence. 

In the New-England states, the independents, or con- 
gregationalists, constitute the most numerous denomina- 
tion-; in the middle states, the Presbyterians ; and, in the 
southern, the Methodists. Baptists, Episcopalians, and 
Roman Catholics, are found in all the states ; but, in Ma- 
ryland and Louisiana, the Catholics are more numerous 
than elsewhere. Each of these sects has one or more 
seminaries of learning, in which its peculiar doctrines 
are taught, and young men are educated for the ministry. 
Many other sects exist, but reason, less tolerant than the 
laws, is gradually diminishing the number. 

AGRICULTURE in 1820. The number of persons en- 
gaged in agriculture was 2,870,646. The value of all its 
products exported during the year ending the 30th of Sep- 
tember, 1823, was 37,646,000 dollars. The principal 
articles were, cotton to the value of 20,445,000 dollars ; 
flour to the value of 4,962,000 dollars ; tobacco to the 
value of 4,852,000 dollars; and rice to the value of 
1,821,000 dollars. The value of provisions of all kinds 
exported, was 13,460,000 dollars, and it has, in many 
years, been greater. A people able to spare such an 
amount of the necessaries of life, can never be in danger 
of suffering from want. 

COMMERCE. The state of the world, for several years 
subsequent to the commencement of the French revolu- 
tion, offered great encouragement to the commercial en- 
terprise of the country. While almost every other power 
was engaged in war, the United States were neutral ; 
their vessels navigated the ocean in safety, and were em- 
ployed to carry, from port to port, the commodities of the 
belligerent nations. In fifteen years, beginning with 
1793, these favourable circumstances increased the amount 
of American tonnage from 491,000 to 1,242,000 tons, and 



448 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the revenue arising from commerce, from 4,399,000 to 
16,363,000 dollars. 

In 1820, the number of persons engaged in commerce 
was 72,493. In 1823, the whole amount of exports 
was 74,799,000 dollars ; the amount of imports was 
77,579,000 dollars, the balance in favour of the United 
States being about three millions of dollars. As the im- 
ports, however, are always undervalued at the custom 
house, the additional wealth, which, in that year, accrued 
to the nation from commerce, was undoubtedly greater. 

In other years, the commerce of the country has flourish- 
ed more. *In 1807, the exports amounted to 108,343,000 
dollars, and the imports to 138,574,000 dollars. The 
principal causes of the decline which has taken place, 
have been, the restoration of peace in Europe, and the 
increase of the product of domestic manufactures. The 
former has permitted all other nations to become our 
competitors; the latter has rendered it unnecessary to 
resort to Europe for most of the conveniences, and many 
of the luxuries of life. The depression will not long 
continue. The independence of the South American 
republics, has opened a wide field for the enterprise of 
our merchants, and given a brighter hue to their future 
prospects. 

DEBT, REVENUE, AND EXPENDITURES. When, in 1790, 
the public debt was first funded, it amounted to about 
75,000,000 of dollars. In 1803, by the purchase of 
Louisiana, it was augmented to about 85,500,000. In the 
eight years which followed, a large amount was paid, 
leaving due, in 1812, but little more than 45,000,000. To 
defray the expenses of the war, which was declared in 
that year, more than 80,000,000 of new debt was con- 
tracted. A large portion has since been paid, and, on the 
first day of January, 1823, the amount of it was 
90,865,877 dollars. 

The present revenue of the republic is derived princi- 
pally from commerce, and from the sale of public lands. 
In 1822, there accrued from the former source, the sum 
of 20,500,775 dollars ; from the latter source, 1,803,581 ; 
and from other sources, 839,084. The amount, however, 



THE UNITED STATES. 449 

which was actually received, during the year, was but 
20,232,427. 

The expenditures during the same year, were as fol- 
lows : Civil, diplomatic, and miscellaneous, 1,967,996; 
for the pay and support of the army, the construction of 
forts, the supply of arms, the payment of pensions, and 
the various expenses of the Indian department, &, 635, 188 ; 
for the support and increase of the navy, 2,224,458 ; for 
the payment of the interest, and for the redemption of that 
portion of the principal of the debt which became due 
within the year, 7,848,949 ; amounting in the whole to 
17,676,591, and leaving an excess of revenue over expen- 
diture of 2,555,836 dollars. 

Great Britain may be taken as a favourable example 
of the European governments. The people of that king- 
dom pay, annually, for the support of their sovereign and 
his relatives, nearly two and a half millions of dollars, 
while the compensation of the president of the United 
States is but twenty-five thousand. In the salaries of the 
subordinate officers of government, the disproportion is 
not so great, but is generally, nevertheless, as four or five 
to one. 

The military peace establishment of Great Britain costs 
annually thirty-four millions of dollars ; that of the United 
States but little more than five millions. The naval es- 
tablishment of the former costs twenty-two millions ; that 
of the latter less than two and a half millions. British 
subjects pay in taxes, raised exclusively for national 
purposes, at the rate of fifteen dollars yearly for each 
individual ; the citizens of the United States pay, in na- 
tional and state taxes, at the rate of b^t two dollars. And 
as the whole population of Great Britain and Ireland is 
included in the estimate, the individual wealth of the sub- 
jects of the united kingdom, and of the citizens of the 
American republic, may on an average, be considered 
nearly equal. 

On the fourth of March, A. D. 1829, Andrew Jackson 
took the oath of office as president of the United States, 
for the term of four years, and John C. Calhoun vice 
president our country being in a very prosperous and 
flourishing state, the national debt being greatly decreased, 

38* 



450 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

and things in general wore a very pleasing appearance. 
The nation is tranquil, and remains unmoved. The con- 
stitution and laws of our country do not rest on the point 
of mercenary bayonets, and freedom of sentiment makes 
up the moral power which is, at once, the envy and won- 
der of the world. 

The following is the Inaugural Address of General An- 
drew Jackson, on being sworn into the office of President 
of the United States. 

FELLOW CITIZENS : About to undertake the arduous 
duties that I have been appointed to perform, by the 
choice of a free people, I avail myself of this customary 
and solemn occasion, to express the gratitude which 
their confidence inspires, and to acknowledge the ac- 
countability which my situation enjoins. While the 
magnitude of their interests convinces me that no thanks 
can be adequate to the honour they have conferred, it ad- 
monishes me that the best return I can make, is the zeal- 
ous dedication of my humble abilities to their service and 
their good. 

As the instrument of the Federal Constitution, it will 
devolve on me, for a stated period, to execute the laws of 
the United States ; to superintend their foreign and their 
confederate relations ; to manage their revenue ; to com- 
mand their forces ; and, by communications to the legisla- 
ture, to watch over and promote their interests generally. 
And the principles of action by which I shall endeavour 
to accomplish this circle of duties, it is now proper for 
me briefly to explain. 

In administering the laws of congress, I shall keep 
steadily in view the limitations as well as the extent of 
the executive power, trusting thereby to discharge the 
functions of my office without transcending its authority. 
With foreign nations it will be my study to preserve 
peace, and to cultivate friendship on fair and honourable 
terms ; and in the adjustment of any difference that may 
exist or arise, to exhibit the forbearance becoming a pow- 
erful nation, rather than the sensibility belonging to a gal- 
lant people. 

In such measures as I may be called on to pursue, in 



THE UNITED STATES. 451 

regard to the rights of the separate states, I hope to be 
animated by a proper respect for those sovereign mem- 
bers of our Union ; taking care not to confound the pow- 
ers they have reserved to- themselves, with those they have 
granted to the confederacy. 

The management of the public revenue, that searching 
operation in all governments, is among the most delicate 
and important trusts in ours ; and it will, of course, de- 
mand no inconsiderable share of my official solicitude. 
Under every aspect in which it can be considered, it would 
appear that advantage must result from the observance 
of a strict and faithful economy. This I shall aim at the 
more anxiously, both because it will facilitate the extin- 
guishment of the national debt, the unnecessary duration 
of which is incompatible with real independence; and 
because it will counteract the tendency to public and pri- 
vate profligacy, which a profuse expenditure of money 
by the government, is but too apt to engender. Power- 
ful auxiliaries to the attainment of this desirable end, are 
to be found in the regulations provided by the wisdom of 
congress, for the specific appropriation of public money, 
and the prompt accountability of public officers. 

With regard to a proper selection of the subjects of 
impost, with a view to revenue, it would seem to me that 
the spirit of equity, caution, and compromise, in which 
the constitution was formed, requires that the great inte- 
rests of agriculture, commerce, and manufactures, should 
be equally favoured ; and that, perhaps, the only excep- 
tion to this rule, should consist in the peculiar encourage- 
ment of any products of either of them that may be found 
essential to our national independence. 

Internal improvement, and the diffusion of knowledge, 
so far as they can be promoted by the constitutional acts 
of the federal government, are of high importance. 

Considering standing armies as dangerous to free go- 
vernments, in time of peace, I shall not seek to enlarge 
our present establishment, nor disregard that salutary les- 
son of political experience, which teaches that the mili- 
tary should be held subordinate to the civil power. The 
gradual increase of our navy, whose flag has displayed, 
in distant climes, our skill in navigation, and our fame in 



452 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

arms ; the preservation of our forts, arsenals, and dock- 
yards, and the introduction of progressive improvements 
in the discipline and science of both branches of our mi- 
litary service, are so plainly prescribed by prudence, that 
I should be excused for omitting their mention, sooner 
than for enlarging on their importance. But the bulwark 
of our defence is the national militia, which, in the pre- 
sent state of our intelligence and population, must render 
us invincible. As long as our government is adminis- 
tered for the good of the people, and is regulated by 
their will as long as it secures to us the rights of person 
and of property, liberty of conscience, and of the press, 
it will be worth defending; and so long as it is worth de- 
fending, a patriotic militia will cover it with an impene- 
trable (Rgis. Partial injuries, and occasional mortifica- 
tions we may be subjected to, but a million of armed 
freemen, possessed of the means of war, can never be 
conquered by a foreign foe. To any just system, there- 
fore, calculated to strengthen this natural safeguard of the 
country, I shall cheerfully lend all the aid in my power. 

It will be my sincere and constant desire to observe 
towards the Indian tribes within our limits a just and libe- 
ral policy ; and to give that humane and considerate at- 
tention to their rights and their wants, which are consist- 
ent with the habits of our government, and the feelings 
of our people. 

The recent demonstration of public sentiment inscribes, 
on the list of executive duties, in characters too legible 
to be overlooked, the task of reform ; which will require 
particularly the correction of those abuses that have 
brought the patronage of the Federal government into 
conflict with the freedom of elections, and the counterac- 
tion of those causes which have disturbed the rightful 
course of appointment, and have placed or continued 
power in unfaithful or incompetent hands. 

In the performance of a task thus generally delineated, 
I shall endeavour to select men whose diligence and 
talents will ensure, in their respective stations, able and 
faithful co-operation ; depending, for the advancement of 
the public service, more on the integrity of the public offi- 
cers, than on their numbers. 



THE UNITED STATES. 453 

A diffidence, perhaps too just, in my own qualifications, 
will teach me to look with reverence to the examples of 
public virtue left by my illustrious predecessors, and with 
veneration to the lights that flow from the mind that 
founded, and the mind that reformed our system. The 
same diffidence induces me to hope for instruction and 
aid from the co-ordinate branches of the government, 
and for the indulgence and support of my fellow citizens 
generally. And a firm reliance on the goodness of that 
Power whose Providence mercifully protected our na- 
tional infancy, and has since upheld our liberties in 
various vicissitudes, encourages me to offer up my ardent 
supplications, that he will continue to make our beloved 
country the object of his divine care, and gracious bene- 
diction. 

Washington, 4th March, 1829. 
GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON 

SIR : We, a few of the surviving officers and soldiers 
of the army of the revolution, now convened at this place, 
most respectfully solicit the honour of forming your 
escort to the capitol, where you are about to be inaugu- 
rated as president of the United States. 

Former events, and our advanced ages, preclude the 
idea that this is designed to be a military pageant ; no, sir, 
it is far otherwise ; having fought in the defence of the 
sacred rights of man, and for the liberty, sovereignty, and 
independence of these United States, now happily bound 
together, as we fondly hope, by an indissoluble chain, we 
feel desirous to avail ourselves of the opportunity of being 
present when the guardianship of these invaluable bene- 
fits shall be deposited in your hands. 

The valour, the judgment, the independence of mind, the 
prudence, the firmness, and the true patriotism of our 
great commander, Washington, led us triumphantly 
through the revolutionary war, and the nation through 
the first periods of the federal constitution ; and we have 
entire confidence that the exercise of the same transcen- 
dent virtues, will, under God, preserve inviolate our 
liberties, independence, and union, during your adminis- 
tration and it is our most ardent prayer that they may 
be perpetual may your days be long and happy may 



454 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

increasing honours multiply on your head and, like your 
first predecessor, may you add a civic monument to your 
martial glory ; and, like his, may they be imperishable. 

We have the honour to be, with the highest respect, 
your most obedient servants, William Polk, chairman 
John Nicholas, Aaron Ogden, Abraham Broom, Robert 
Boiling, Elnathan Sears, Robert Kaene, J. Woodsides, 
Philip Stewart, Armistead Long, Jno. M. Taylor, John 
Browne Cutting, Caleb Stark, William Gamble, Jacob 
Gideon, sen. 

To this address the president made the following 
reply : 

Respected friends Your affectionate address awakens 
sentiments and recollections which I feel with sincerity, 
and cherish with pride. To have around my person, at 
the moment of undertaking the most solemn of all duties 
to my country, the companions of the immortal Wash- 
ington, will afford me satisfaction, and grateful encou- 
ragement. That, by my best exertions, I shall be able to 
exhibit more than an imitation of his patriotic labours, a 
sense of my own imperfection, and the reverence I en- 
tertain for his virtues, forbid me to hope. 

To you, respected friends, the survivors of that heroic 
band, who followed him so long, and so valiantly, in the 
path of glory, I offer my sincere thanks, and to heaven 
my prayers, that your remaining years may be as happy 
as your toils and your lives have been illustrious. 

ANDREW JACKSON. 

The following shows the rank which the persons above 
named held at the close of the revolutionary war. 

William Polk, colonel, North Carolina ; John Nicholas, 
lieutenant colonel, Virginia ; Aaron Ogden, captain, New- 
Jersey; Robert Boiling, captain, Virginia; William Gam- 
ble, major, New-Jersey ; Philip Stewart, lieutenant, Virgi- 
nia; Caleb Stark, lieutenant, and D. C. N. Hampshire ; Jno. 
M. Taylor, lieut. colonel, Penn. ; Abraham Broom, lieut., 
Maryland ; Elnathan Sears, lieut., New-York ; Absolom 
Baker, private, S. Carolina ; Jacob Gideon, private, Vir- 
ginia ; Armistead Long, private, Virginia cavalry. 



THE UNITED STATES. 455 

In the House of Representatives of the U. S. on Feb. 21, 
the following- Report was made : 

The committee on roads and canals, to which was re- 
ferred the memorial of the Baltimore and Ohio rail road 
company, Report, 

That this company was incorporated by an act of the 
legislature of Maryland, in February, 1827, which has 
since been confirmed by the staters of Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania, through which it is supposed the road will pass 
hi its progress to the Ohio river. The company was or- 
ganized in April, 1827. The capital stock of the com- 
pany consists of four millions of dollars, three of which 
have been subscribed by private individuals, and the 
fourth by the state of Maryland and the city of Baltimore. 
On this stock there has been paid, by instalments, seven 
and a half per centum, and a further call of 2 1-2 per cen- 
tum, payable on the 10th of March next, has been in a 
great measure anticipated. 

The execution of the work was commenced on the 4th 
of July last, and has progressed with unusual spirit and 
activity. The graduation and bridging of twenty-five 
miles of the most expensive and difficult part of the route 
is under active operation, and is in a successful train of 
execution. An improved rail road car of recent inven- 
tion, has been put in operation on the temporary rail- 
ways constructed for the removal of earth for the gradu- 
ation of the road, which promises the most important and 
beneficial results in the diminution of the power necessary 
for the transportation of heavy burdens on rail roads. 
The highest estimate made of the cost of this work has 
been $20,000 per mile, and the experience of the com- 
pany, we are assured, proves that it cannot exceed and will 
most probably fall short of this sum. The distance from 
the city of Baltimore to the River Ohio may vary from 
300 to 350 miles, so that the whole cost of executing this 
magnificent enterprise will not perhaps exceed seven mil- 
lions of dollars. 

The committee believe that this work, if successfully 
executed, will greatly promote the interests of the union, 
and will be of national importance in reference to our 
great military and commercial operations, and as a means 



456 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

for the sale and speedy transmission of the mail. Indi- 
viduals who have acquired their estates by industry and 
prudence, have invested millions in the stock of this com- 
pany. Associated with the venerable name of Charles 
Carroll, of Carrollton, are found the names of many gen- 
tlemen of wealth, high character, and great enterprise. 
It can hardly be thought necessary for the committee to 
enter into a long argument or statistical detail of facts, to 
prove the advantages which will be derived from the suc- 
cessful completion of this work. When we advert to the 
various agricultural productions of the great sections of 
our country to be connected by this road, to their ex- 
haustless mines of iron and coal, their forests and quar- 
ries, and to the amount of foreign and domestic merchan- 
dise necessary for their supply, no doubt can be enter- 
tained but that the interest of the nation requires that the 
facilities of transportation between them, should be in- 
creased by every practicable means. 

When corporations arid individuals go before us in the 
execution of works, truly national in their character and 
objects, this government will not withhold its aid when 
we thus most effectually promote the diffusion of intelli- 
gence, secure the rapid movement and concentration of 
troops and military stores in war, extend the commerce of 
the states, and give permanency to the union. We should 
be urged to aid in that and similar works, when assured 
of their practicability from the consideration that the ter- 
ritory which will soon contain more than half the states 
in the union is separated from the seat of the national go- 
vernment, by a rough and mountainous region, over which 
we have not constructed even a road on which we can 
with any reasonable safety and expedition transmit the 
mail, or convey to our Atlantic cities the rich and various 
productions of'the west. 

The committee have witnessed with regret the legal 
controversy which unfortunately exists between the rail- 
road company, and the Chesapeake and Ohio canal com- 
pany, and which they believe might easily be settled to 
the mutual interest of the parties, by the cultivation of a 
proper spirit, and a disposition to promote, by the most 
efficient means, the great interests of the country, inde- 



THE UNITED STATES. 467 

pendent of local jealousies and competition. In the fa- 
vourable views entertained of the proposed rail-road, the 
committee have not lost sight of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
canal, of which congress has expressed its decided appro- 
bation by various acts, and for the construction of which 
a liberal appropriation has been made ; nor in any aid by 
which they propose to quicken the energies of the asso- 
ciation, would they in any manner compromit the inte- 
rests of the other. It has been suggested, that the right 
acquired by the Chesapeake and Ohio canal company, to 
construct a rail-road from Cumberland, across the moun- 
tains to the west, precludes the rail-road company from 
constructing a similar work, under their subsequent char- 
ter, between the same points. While the committee do 
not, at this time, feel themselves called upon to express 
any opinion upon this question, it is, perhaps, not to be 
regretted, that the delay induced by other causes will 
afford ample opportunities for such surveys and examina 
tions to be made, as shall demonstrate the practicability 
or inexpediency of these works in a manner satisfactory 
to the respective companies, and thus conduce to the best 
interests of the public ; and should the result of such ex- 
aminations, and the experience which time will bring with 
it, prove unfavourable to the plans and objects of either 
company, an additional incentive to those already men- 
tioned, will be presented for an union of interests and 
operations between all parties, by which will be attained, 
with still greater certainty, the great object a communi- 
cation between the eastern and navigable waters. 

In examining the charter of the rail-road company, the 
committee are aware, tha-t the provision prohibiting any 
other company or person from travelling upon, or using 
any of the roads of the company without its license, 
seems to render it obnoxious to the charge of a close 
monopoly ; but they have considered, that in the trans- 
portation of all property on the railway, wagons of a 
particular and uniform construction only must be used, 
each having a proper adaptation to the rail, and that this 
consideration, with others which might be given, may re- 
quire such a provision in the charter the committee see 
no cause of alarm from this restriction. The interests o 

39 



458 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OP 

the company will, at all times, be best promoted by con- 
sulting that of the public. Time and experience will dis- 
close the methods by which the great and paramount in- 
terests of the community can be most effectually sub- 
served, and there can be no doubt but that the patriotic 
views which prompted this undertaking, will lead to the 
adoption of such regulations as shall prove best calcu- 
aled to secure a safe, cheap, and speedy communication. 
When the Chesapeake and Ohio canal, and the Balti- 
more and Ohio rail-road, shall both have been completed 
to the point of their junction below Harper's Ferry, the 
relative advantages of each will be fully demonstrated, 
and no doubt is entertained by the committee, but that 
their interests may be harmonized. The common object 
of both, by which the great interests of the nation are to 
be advanced, is to open the best practicable communica- 
tion between the Chesapeake Bay and the great valley of 
the Mississippi. The hope is entertained, that these com- 
panies will co-operate in effecting, by their united means, 
this great enterprise, in which the prosperity of the whole 
nation is so deeply involved. If experience shall justify 
the opinion, that the rail-road will furnish greater practi- 
cal advantages than the canal, the committee would cheer- 
fully recommend a liberal appropriation to the stock of 
the company, but as the completion of apart of the work 
before the next session, will, it is hoped, realize in its 
advantages the wishes and expectations of the company, 
the committee defer reporting a bill, or substituting any 
proposition on the subject, at this late period of the ses- 
sion. They are the more readily reconciled to this delay, 
(the result of necessity,) from the circumstance that this 
enterprising association, proceeding, as they appear to 
have done, with a caution proportioned to the magnitude 
of the undertaking, have sent scientific and practical en- 
gineers to examine the most important works of this de- 
scription in England, the result of whose observations 
will enable the company to prosecute the work under 
more favourable auspices, and will also furnish important 
data for the information of congress, whenever they may 
be required to legislate on this interesting subject. 



THE UNITED STATES. 459 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

A Review of the Progress of the Western States, from 
their formation and adoption into the Union as Inde- 
pendent States, down to the present time. 

KENTUCKY. 

This state first claims our attention ; it is bounded 
north by Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio ; east by Virginia ; 
south by Tennessee, and west by Mississippi. It ex- 
tends from lat. 36 30' to 39 10' north, and from long. 
81 50' to 89 30' west. Length on the southern line 300 
miles ; extent 39,000 square miles, or 24,960,000 acres. 

Kentucky was adopted into the Union, and held an in- 
dependent station among her sister states, in 1792. Col. 
Daniel Boone, with some of his friends, explored these 
parts in 1769 ; he continued in the vicinity of Kentucky 
until 1771, when he returned. But in 1773, he, with his 
family, together with five other families, and forty men, 
left Powell's valley, so called, and after many accidents 
and detentions, reached Kentucky River, in March, 
1775, where they immediately commenced a settlement. 
In 1778, 1779, and 1780, a large number of persons emi- 
grated to this territory ; but their distresses were so great, 
occasioned by cruel treatment from the savages, and scar- 
city of provision, that they were on the point of abandon- 
ing the enterprise. But Gen. Clark soon after subdued the 
Indians, and laid waste their villages, which gave security 
to the settlers, and the settlement continued to advance. 

RIVERS. The river Ohio washes the northwestern 
side of Kentucky. Its principal branches, which water 
this fertile tract of country, are the Sandy, Licking, Ken- 
tucky, Salt, Green, and Cumberland rivers. These 
again branch in various directions, into rivulets of differ- 
ent magnitudes, fertilizing the country in all its parts. 

Kentucky River is very crooked, and after running a 
course of more than 200 miles, empties into the Ohio. 

Salt River rises at four different places, near each other. 
The windings of this river are very curious ; the four 



460 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

branches, after a circuitous course round a fine tract of 
land, unite; and, after running^ about 15 miles, empty 
into the Ohio, 20 miles below the falls. Its general 
course is westward, its length 90 miles, and at its mouth 
is 80 yards wide. Green and Cumberland Rivers are of 
considerable note ; and all the above rivers are navigable 
for boats almost to their sources. The banks of the ri- 
vers are generally high, and composed of limestone. 
Limestone is very abundant in this state, and commonly 
lies about six feet below the surface, except in valleys, 
where the soil is much thinner. 

SPRINGS. There are several salt springs in this state, 
from which large quantities of salt is manufactured. 
There are numerous mounds and ancient fortifications ; 
also many caves ; a very large one, near Green river, 
has been explored to the distance of 10 miles. Large 
quantities of saltpetre are manufactured from the earth 
which is gathered at the bottom of these caves. 

Face of the Country, Soil and Productions. A tract 
of land, about 30 miles wide, along the Ohio, is hilly, and 
broken ; it is interspersed with many fertile spots. The 
rest of the country is agreeably uneven, gently ascend- 
ing and descending. The soil on these agreeable as- 
cents, (for they cannot be called hills,) is sufficiently deep, 
as is evident from the size of the trees ; the soil is of a 
darkish complexion. 

In many places there are appearances of potter's clay, 
and coal in abundance. The land eas-t of Nolin Creek, 
a branch of Green River, is, in general, of an inferior 
quality ; but the banks of Green River afford many desi- 
rable situations. 

Towards the head waters of Kentucky River, which 
interlocks w r ith the waters of Cumberland and Sandy 
Rivers, the country is broken and mountainous. 

Elkhorne River, a branch of the Kentucky, from the 
southward, waters a country fine beyond description 
The country east and south of this, including that situa- 
ted at the head waters of Licking River, in the vici- 
nity of Hickman's and Jessamine Creeks, and the re 
markable bend in Kentucky River, may be called an ex- 
tensive garden. The soil is deep and black, and the 



THE UNITED STATES. 461 

timber large. On this fertile tract, and on the Licking 
and head waters of Salt River, are the places on which 
most of the early settlements were made. 

Dick's River runs through a great body of first rate 
land, and affords many mill seats. Near the head of Salt 
River the land is good, but low and unhealthy. 

The country is generally well timbered ; of the natural 
growth, we may reckon the sugar, the coffee tree resem- 
bling the black oak, the hackberry, and the cucumber 
tree. Such is the variety and beauty of the flowering 
shrubs and plants which grow spontaneously in this 
country, that in the proper season, the wilderness ap- 
pears in full blossom. 

The accounts of the fertility of the soil have, in some 
instances, exceeded belief, and probably have been ex- 
aggerated. That some parts, particularly the high grounds, 
are remarkably good, all agree; Jarge quantities of wheat 
and corn are raised, and more or less of rye, barley, oats, 
flax, hemp, and abundance of all kinds of vegetables, but 
very little is done with cotton ; tobacco is brought to per- 
fection. Swamps are rare in Kentucky ; and, of course, 
the reptiles which they produce, such as snakes, frogs, 
<fec., not numerous. 

The CLIMATE is healthy and delightful ; some few pla- 
ces, in the neighbourhood of ponds and low grounds, 
excepted. The inhabitants do not experience the ex- 
tremes of heat or cold. The \vinter season is generally 
mild, and of short duration ; snow seldom falls, and lies 
but a short time. 

The CHIEF TOWNS, are Frankfort, Lexington, and Lou- 
isville. Frankfort is the capital of the state, and seat of 
justice for Franklin county ; it is regularly laid out on the 
east side of Kentucky river, sixty miles above its confluence 
with the Ohio, 27 miles west-northwest of Lexington, 51 
east of Louisville, and 102 south-southwest of Cincinnati. 
It contains a state house, 86 by 54 feet ; a court-house ; a 
penitentiary, containing from 80 to 130 convicts ; a jail, 
academy, market house, and several printing offices, ma- 
nufactories, &c. The site of the town is a semicircular 
alluvial plain, from 150 to 200 feet lower than the table 
lands in its rear. The river here is about 80 yards wide, 

39* 



462 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

and after heavy rains frequently rises 60 feet. Opposite 
Frankfort, and connected with it, is South Frankfort, 
which is rapidly increasing. Steam-boats of 300 tons 
burthen come up the river as far as this place, when the 
water is high. Most of the foreign goods consumed in 
Kentucky, are landed here and at Louisville. 

Lexington is the capital of Fayette county ; it is situ- 
ated in a beautiful valley, on Town Fork, a small stream 
which falls into the south branch of Elkhorne River, 
25 miles east-southeast of Frankfort; it is regularly 
laid out, and contains a court-house and other public 
buildings. The growth of this town has been exceedingly 
rapid. In 1797, it contained only about 50 houses ; it is 
now a large and beautiful town, covered with stately and 
elegant buildings, and, in point of wealth and refine- 
ment, is surpassed by few places in the western country. 
The country around Lexington is much admired for the 
beauty of its scenery, and is adorned with many hand- 
some country seats. 

Louisville is pleasantly situated on an elevated and 
beautiful plain, on the south bank of the Ohio, imme- 
diately above the rapids, 120 miles below Cincinnati. It 
contains very handsome public buildings, and large ma- 
nufacturing establishments are employed in this place, 
The business of this town has increased astonishingly 
within a few years ; a large number of steam boats are 
employed in its commerce. 

A stranger travelling through the state of Kentucky 
will meet with frank and cordial hospitality. The people 
are high minded, and possess a noble character. They 
are in a condition in life, which is, perhaps, best calcu- 
lated to develope high mindedness and self-respect. We 
may find in this state, among the lower classes, igno- 
rant, abandoned, and savage men ; but we discover the 
same in every portion of the Union. Mostly, however, 
they are courageous, generous, and frank. The peculiar 
circumstances they were placed under in the last war, 
show that they only want incitement to display all that is 
noble in a people. 

CURIOSITIES. The banks, or rather precipices, of Ken- 
tucky and Dick's River are to be reckoned among the na 



THE UNITED STATES. 463 

tural curiosities of this country. Here the astonished eye 
beholds three or four hundred feet of solid perpendicular 
rock, in some parts of limestone, and in others of a fine 
white marble, curiously checked, with strata of astonishing 
regularity. 

Caves have been discovered in this country of several 
miles in length, as before mentioned. Copperas and 
alum are among the minerals of Kentucky. Near Lex- 
ington, are found curious sepulchres full of human skele- 
tons. It has been asserted, that a man in or near Lex- 
ington, having dug five or six feet below the surface of 
the ground, came to a large flat stone, under which was 
a well of common depth, regularly and artificially stoned. 

TENNESSEE. 

Tennessee is bounded north by Kentucky, east by 
North Carolina, south by Georgia, Alabama, and Missis- 
sippi, and west by the Mississippi River, which separates 
it from Arkansas Territory; it contains about 40,000 
square miles, or 25,600,000 acres. 

Face of the Country. The Cumberland mountains 
eonsist of stupendous piles of craggy rocks, running from 
northeast to southwest, through the centre of the state, 
which divides it into east and west Tennessee. It con- 
tains much fertile soil, particularly on the banks of its 
rivers. The principal productions are cotton, flax, hemp, 
Indian corn, wheat, and tobacco. 

Climate. The climate is healthy ; the season of vege- 
tation generally commences six or seven weeks sooner 
than in New-Hampshire, Maine, or Vermont, and con- 
tinues much longer; snow seldom falls or lies long; 
Cumberland River has been frozen over but a few times 
since the state has been settled. Tennessee was formed 
into a territorial government in 1790, and was admitted 
into the union as an independent state in 1796. The 
progress of Tennessee has been remarkably prosperous ; 
she furnished a full share of those heroes who fought 
under General Jackson (now President Jackson) at the 
victory of New-Orleans, January, 1815; they are a brave, 
hardy, and industrious set of people. The principal 



464 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

rivers are the Obian, Chickasaw, Forked, Deer, and Wolf 
rivers. The Cumberland River rises in Kentucky, and 
ftfter making a circular line in this state, passes again into 
the state from which it arose. It is navigable for ves- 
sels of thirty or forty tons burthen to Nashville. During 
some part of the season, and when the river is high in 
time of freshet, it will float vessels of 400 tons. 

Population, in 1790, was 35,691 ; in 1800, 105,602 ; in 
1810, 261,727 ; and in 1820, 422,813. The most nume- 
rous denominations of Christians are Presbyterians, Me- 
thodists, and Baptists. 

OHIO. 

The state of Ohio is bounded north by Michigan Ter 
ritory and Lake Erie, east by Pennsylvania, southeast by 
Kentucky, and west by Indiana. It extends from 38 30' 
to 42 north lat., and from 80 32' to 85 50' west long. ; 
and contains 39,000 square miles, or 25,000,000 acres. 

RIVERS. The Ohio is the principal river which washes 
the southern line of the state. The principal tributaries 
of the Ohio, are the Muskingnm, Hockhocking, Scioto, 
the Great and Little Miami. The Muskingum, rises 
in Portage county, near the northeast corner of the state, 
runs in a southerly direction, passes by Coshocton and 
Zanesville, and discharges itself into the Ohio at Ma- 
rietta. After a course of 200 miles above Coshocton, 
it bears the name of Tuscarawa River. The navigation 
is obstructed by falls at Zanesville ; but this obstruction 
affords many good mill seats. Above Zanesville, the river 
is navigable for large boats to Coshocton, and for small 
boats nearly to its source. The Hockhocking River 
rises in Fairfield county, runs in a southeasterly direc- 
tion, and discharges itself into the Ohio, at Troy, 25 
miles from Marietta. After a course of 80 miles, through 
a rough part of the country, this river is navigable for 
70 miles, and affords some of the finest mill seats. 
The Scioto rises in Hardin county, runs in a south- 
easterly direction, passes by Columbus, Circleville, and 
Chilicothe, and discharges itself into the Ohio, at Ports- 
mouth, after a course of 170 miles ; for 130 miles it is 



THE UNITED STATES. 465 

navigable. The Little Miami, rises in Madison county, 
runs in a southeasterly direction, and falls into the Ohio, 
seven miles above Cincinnati, after a course of 70 miles. 
This is one of the best mill streams in the state ; nearly 
40 mills are already erected upon it. The Great Miami 
rises in Hardin county, runs in a southeastern direction, 
passes through Shelby, Miami, Montgomery, Butler, and 
Hamilton counties, falls into the Ohio River, exactly at 
the southwest corner of the state, after a course of more 
than 100 miles. It is difficult to navigate this stream, on 
account of the rapidity of the current; this river also has 
a large number of mill seats. 

The principal rivers which fall into Lake Erie, are the 
Maumee, Sandusky, and Cuyahoga. The Maumee is 
formed by the confluence of St. Joseph's and St. Mary's 
Rivers, at Fort Wayne, in the northeastern part of In- 
diana. It runs in a northeasterly direction, and falls into 
Maumee Bay at the western extremity of Lake Erie. 
The Sandusky River rises in Crawford county, runs at 
first in a westerly, afterwards in a northerly direction, 
and discharges itself into Sandusky Bay, after a course 
of more than 80 miles. It is navigable nearly to its 
source, and, in one part of its course, approaches within 
four miles of the navigable waters of the Scioto. The 
Cuyahoga River rises in Geauga county, in the north- 
eastern part of the state, and discharges itself into the 
lake at Cleveland, after a circuitous course of more than 
60 miles. 

FACE OF THE COUNTRY. That part of the land border- 
ing on the lake, and some way into the interior, is ge- 
nerally level, and in some places marshy. About one 
quarter, or one third of the state, bordering on the Ohio 
River, is generally hilly and broken, but cannot consist- 
ently be called mountainous. But, immediately on the 
banks of the Ohio, and its tributaries, are numerous tracts 
of interval land of most excellent quality. On both sides 
of the Scioto, and also of the Great and Little Miami 
Rivers, is found extensive bodies of rich and level land. 
The whole of the land in this state may be considered 
good, and has generally proved satisfactory to emigrants. 
In many places are extensive prairies, particularly near 



466 UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF 

the head waters of the Muskingum and Scioto, and be- 
tween the Scioto and the sources of the two Miami rivers. 
Some of these prairies are low and marshy, and yield spon- 
taneously a large quantity of coarse grass from two to five 
feet high ; others are elevated, and are called barrens, not, 
however, on account of their sterility, for they are often 
fertile. The high land which divides the waters of the 
Ohio River from those of Lake Erie, is the most marshy 
tract in the state ; the driest land lies along the margin of 
the rivers. 

PRODUCTIONS. Wheat is the principal production. A 
large abundance of corn is, however, raised, and not un- 
frequently from 70 to 100 bushels is produced from an 
acre. Other kinds of grain, and fruits of various sorts, are 
also cultivated. Coal is found in abundance along the 
Ohio, in the eastern part of the state. Salt springs have 
been discovered and wrought in many places. 

CLIMATE. The climate of Ohio is considered warmer 
in the same parallels than that of the Atlantic states. The 
difference has been estimated by Mr. Jefferson to be the 
same as three degrees of latitude. Observations, how- 
ever, which have been made at Cincinnati, for a series of 
years, prove that the difference is not more than one de- 
gree. The winters are generally mild ; some parts, parti- 
cularly the low marshy land, is subject to fevers and agues, 
but the state generally may be called healthy. The sum- 
mers are warm, and generally pretty regular, although, 
sometimes, subject to tornadoes ; one of a very destruc- 
tive nature visited these parts in the month of March, 
1830 ; its vengeance seemed to be directed towards Ur- 
bana, a flourishing little village, situated about 43 miles 
west