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VOL. I. 





As this work differs in many material points from anything which has hitherto been offered 
to the public, a few observations may be deemed necessary to explain the views of the Compiler 
with regard to liis plan, and the execution of it. 

To present the curious reader with a clue for understanding every subject which may incidentally 
come before his notice was one of his primary objects ; and, next to this, he proposed to himself to 
furnish the inquirer with the means of extending his knowledge as f;ir as he pleased. For the 
attainment of the first object, he has made his selection of words as copious as possible ; and, at the 
same time, by consulting brevity in his definitions, has endeavoured to keep the work within a 
convenient size. In the catalogue of words there may possibly be some so obsolete, or grown out of 
use, and others so modem, or come so little into use, that they may rarely, if ever, be called for by 
any class of readers : but, as they occiu- in the writings of those who have acquired an authority or a 
name, the Compiler did not feel himself justified in rejecting such words, according to his own private 
opinion. But, in regard to the extent of the definitions and explanations to be given under each head, 
he had no other rule to follow than his ovn\ judgment. Considering himself in the character of a 
general reader, he looked upon every thing that was necessary to illustrate the meaning and application 
of technical terms as essential to be admitted into this work ; and, on the other hand, whatever did 
not immediately answer this end, he regarded as irrelevant. The only deviation from this plan will be 
found under the Synopses of the Sciences, where, to preserve a connection between the different parts 
of any science, something more than the simple tenninology has been occasionally introduced. 

As this Avork is compiled for the use of readers of all desaiptions, it is very natural to expect that 
many wiU be disappointed at not finding their favourite study more largely discanted upon, and wiU be 
apt to charge this omission upon the inadvertence of the compiler; but a moment's reflection wiU 
convince every candid reader, that to make a consistent work, suited to the object proposed, it was 
essential for him to pursue one uniform rule throughout. To have given copious details on any 


particular science would have justly subjected him to the charge of having capriciously deviated 
from his plan ; but to have entered equally at large into all the sciences, would have been to make a 
Mork totally different from the one proposed. Nothing remained, therefore, but, by following one 
uniform plan, to comprehend whatever would be most generally useful. It was presumed that no one 
woidd refer to a work of this kind for information on a subject in which he was a proficient ; but, as few 
persons are perfectly versed in more than one art or science, they will of course find it serviceable to 
refer to on subjects with which they are less familiar ; and those wlio wish for more information than 
what it immediately affords, may gratify their curiosity by considting the original authors referred to 
in the body, and at the end, of the Dictionary ; by the insertion of wliich, the Compiler's second 
principal object has been attained. 

It would liave been very agreeable to him, it" in every instance, he could liave rendered 
his definitions and explanations correct and distinct ; but, owing to the scanty information 
to be derived from ancient sources, and the vague, fluctuating, and often contradictory repre- 
sentations of modern writers, he has not been enabled always to succeed to the extent of his 
wishes. In some sciences, as Chemistry, both the nomenclature of the science, and the science 
itself, are subject to such changes, as to render the most general statements necessary in order 
to guard against falling into contradictions : in Botany, and otlicr branches of Natural History, 
writers have made so free with the nomenclature, by coining terms of their ovn^, that they 
have involved the whole in a labyrinth of words, from which no one could extricate himself, 
but by adopting some such course as tliat ^vhich has been piirsued throughout this work, — 
of translating all the synonymous appellations of different writers into one language, like that 
of Linnaeus, ^vllic]l lias justly acquired a higher degree of authority than that of any other 
writer of the same date. The Compiler feels it, however, necessary to add, that he has made 
these remarks less with a view of casting a censure on others, than of pointing out the difficulties 
to which he himself has been exposed. 

There is one more particular, in respect to the plan of this work, which may demand 
some explanation in order to guard against disappointment; namely, that, although this work 
professes to embrace the whole circle of the Arts and Sciences, yet the proper names of particular 
])ersons and ])laces are excluded from the number, on the ground that they admit of description 
father than definition, and are, therefore, more fitted for an Historical than a Technological 
Dictionary. But the names of communities, sects, &c. were not considered of this sort; because, 
being given on the ground of some general princi])le, or common property, they admitted of u 
precise explanation like other common names. 


Although the Compiler has thought proper to say thus much by way of explanation, he 
is far from supposing that, in a work of this magnitude and multifarious nature, there are not 
oversights and inacciuacies which will call for the indulgence of the reader ; but he trusts 
that no enor has been suffered to escape the press which can materially affect the sense, 
or diminish the usefulness, of the work. 

For the purpose of preserving an orderly arrangement, and assisting the reader in finding 

the particular application of any word, each definition has been headed by the name of the 

science to which it belongs, put in an abbreviated form ; of which the following is an 
explanation : — 


AcRic Agriculture. 

Alch Alchemy. 

Algeb Algebra. 

Anat Anatomy. 

Ant Antiquities. 

ARCH.SOL. . . Archeeology, or Anti- 
quities of the Middle 

Archer. . . Archery. 

Archit . . Architecture. 

Arith Aritlimetic. 

AsTROL. . . Astrology. 

'AsTKON. . . Astronomy. 

BiBL Biblical Subjects. 

BoT Botany. 

Carp Carpentry. 

Catop Catoptrics 

Chem. .... Chemistry. 

Chron Chronology. 

Com Commerce. 

Con Conchology. 

Conic Conic Sections. 

Cook Cookery. 

Cus Customs. 

Dial Dialling. 

DioPT Dioptrics. 

Ecc Ecclesiastical History. 

Elec Electricity. 

Ent Entomology. 

Eth Ethics. 

Falcon. . . Falconry. 

Flux Fluxions. 

Fort Fortification. 

Geog Geography. 

Geom Geometry. 

Gram Grammar. 

Her Heraldry. 

HoRT Horticulture. 

Husband. . . Husbandry. 

Hyd Hydrostatics. 

IcH Ichthyology. 

Law Law. 

Log Logic. 

Mag Magic Arts. 

Man Manege. 

Mar Marine Affairs. 

Mason Masonry. 

Math Mathematics. 

Mech Mechanics, or Me- 
chanic Arts. 

Med Medicine. 

Met Metaphysics. 

Metal Metallurgy. 

Mil Military Afliiirs. 

MiN Mineralogy. 

Mus Music. 

Myth Mythology. 

Nat Natural History. 

NuMis Numismatics. 

Opt Optics. 

Orn Ornithology. 

Palm Palmistry. 

Per Perspective. 

Phy Physics. 

Poet Poetics. 

Polit Political Concerns. 

Print Printing. 

Rhet Rhetoric. 

Sport Sports. 

Theol Theology. 

Vet Veterinary Art. 

ZooL Zoology. 


ANATOMY, Plate No. I. (9), read No. I. (7). 

Ditto Ditto No. II. (10) No. II. (8). 

In the reference to the Plate of Printing (.56), fig. 5, referring to the Press, should be 6. 

ASTRONOMY; the Satellites ofl , ., „ . „., <. ^ . • u 

o , c • u c f '■^a'' the satellites of saturn are seven in number. 

Saturn are nve m number, &c.. . J 

AURUM, Gold, the heaviest of) .t, u • . r n »i, . i . r,t ^■ 

,, . ', ' > ■ the heaviest of all the metals except PUitma. 

all metals J ' 


There are also some inaccuracies in the Greek accentuation in the former part of the work, 
wiiich unfortunately escaped the press ; but, being of a nature not the least calculated 
to mislead any who take art interest in this part of the subject, it has not been deemed 
necessary to notice them as Errata. 

N. B. The Binder will place Plates 1 to 36 ijiitttsivc at the end of the first volume, 
in their numerical order, and P/atei 37 to 60 at the end of the seco-nd in like 




j\ , the first letter of the alphabet, is used either as a word, 
an abbreviation, or a sign. 

A {Bib/.) for X, alpha, is used in the Revelations of St. 
John, for the beginning or first ; and u, omega, for the end 
or last. 

A (Ant.) as a preposition, was emplo^'ed to signify an office 
or situation ; as, 

A libcllis, lie who received all the petitions addressed to the 
prince : " Epaphroditum a libellis, capitali poena condeni- 
navit." Suet. Dnmit. c. 14. Also on an inscription by 
Moriitii Qundrato Hcrhiiano a libcllix Claudia Tryphcra fecit. 

A manu, i. e. servus a manu; a scribe or amanuensis. " Thallo 
a manu, crura efFregit." Suet. Aug. c. (57. Also on an in- 
scription. QUINTAE. GAM. MARTIAE. N. L. F. AN. 
D. D. QnintcE Gamice Martiiv Numerii Lucii filia anno VI 
Atticus a manu sponsus Locux dalus ex decreto Decurionis. 

A memoriu, he who dictated the answers of the emperor to 
petitions, &c. as Festus did for Antoninus, according to 
Herodian : "O tvh t)t /2«tri'A£i» i.-^infuyri^ vfm^ac, qui erat im- 
peratori a memoria." Herod. 1. 4, c. 14. 

A pedibu.t, a running footman, who attended his master 
wherever he went: " Pollucem servum a pedi bus mecum 
Romani misi." Cic. ad Alticum, lib. 8, ep. 5. 

A ratwnibus, he who acted as house steward, by keeping 
the private accounts, &c. " Ante omnes Pallantem a 
rationibus suspexit." Suet. Claud- c. 28. 

A stud/is, he who managed the literary pursuits of his master: 
" Super hos Polybiura a studiis suspexit." Suet. Claud. 
c. 28. Also on an inscription. TI. CLAUDIUS. LEM- 
Titus Claudius Lcmnus divi Claudii Augusli libertus a sludiis. 

A voluptalibus, he wlio catered for the pleasures of the prince: 
an office first appointed by Tiberius, according to Suetonius. 
[For similar examples, vide tMart. Smet. Inscription. ; 
Gruter. Inscription. Vet.; Goitz. Thesaur.; Span. Miscell. 

A, as an abbreviation [vide Abhrevialiun] was employed by 
the Romans on different occasions. 1. By the judges, who, 
in passing sentence, threw tablets into a box or urn con- 
taining the letter A, for absolvo, I actfuit, if they aquitted 
the accused : hence this letter is called by Cicero, litera 
salutaris, a salutary or saving letter : but if they condemned 
tlie person, they employed the letter C, for coiidetuno, I 
condemn, hence styled 'litera tristis, the sad letter : and in 
dubious cases they used the letters N.L. 7ton liquet, it 
does not appear plain. 2. By the people in repealing of 

laws, when they used the letter A, for antiquo, I reject. 
3. On inscriptions, coins, &c. ; if Greek, A stood for 
Argos, Athens, &c. ; if Roman, for Augustus, Anlus, At- 
ticus, &c.: when double it signified .^«g-i<i</.* when treble, 
A. A. A. aurn, argenlo, cere; as A. A. A.F.F. auro, argento, 
(rre,Jlando, feriundo. 4. In marking the day, A stood for 
ante, as A.D. rjH/e diem kalendarmn, before the calends. 
Val. Prob. Pet. Diacon. et alii Grammat. Veter.; Goltz. 
Fasti., Grcpc, et Thesaurus; Smet. Inscript. Vet.; Vail- 
lant. Numismal. Grac, Numismat. Impernt. Roman. Ro- 
man. FamiL, et Seleucidarum, Sfc; Grul. Thesaur. Inscript. 
Antiq.; Spanheim. Dissert.; Putin. Imperat. Roma?!, et 
Roman. Tamil. ; Morel. Thesaur. ; Gesner. Numis. cS'C. 

A (Numis.) as a sign, stands on Greek coins and inscriptions 
for J7p4iT», ^foiTK, f!^art:v, denoting propriety and dignity. 
Vaill. Numism. Grcec. 

A [Archceol.) as a sign, was sometimes used for the number 
of 500; and with a superscription, thus. A, for 5000. 

A {Lit.) stands as an abbreviation for artium, in marking 
University degrees ; as, A.M. artium magister, master of 
arts ; A.B. artium baccalaureus, bachelor of arts. 

A (Chron.) as an abbreviation, stands commonly for anno 
or ante; as, A.(;. ante Christum, before Christ; A.D. 
anno Domini, the year of our Lorif; A.M. anno mundi, 
the year of the world, [vide Abbreviation'] As a sign, 
it is used in the Gregorian and Julian calendars for the 
first of the dominical letters, [vide Clironology'] 

A (Astron.) as an abbreviation, stands for ante, to mark the 
time of day; as, A.M. ante meridiem, before noon or mid- 
day, in distinction from P.M. post meridiem, afternoon. 

A [Com.) is employed by merchants as an abbreviation for 
acc.epte, accepted, on bills of exchange; as, A.S.P. ac- 
cepte sous prote.'it. As a sign in a merchant's accounts, A 
denoting the first set of books, B the second, &c. 

A [Mus.) as a preposition, French and Italian, is used in 
music books. I. To denote the number of voices, answer- 
ing to the English J'or before any figure ; as « 2, for 2 
voices ; a 4, for 4 voices, &c. 2. To denote the style of 
composition and performance; as, H ballata, after the manner 
of a ballad ; a la Grec, in the Greek style ; a cembalo, for 
the harp, &c. 

A, as a sign, is used in music books by itself, for the sixth 
note in the gamut, answering to the monosyllable la, con- 
trived by Guido Aretino. 

A above G gamut signifies the note one tone higher than G 

A above the bass cliff, the note a third higher than the bass cliff. 

A above the treble cliff] the next note higher than the treble 


A (Algeb.) as a sign, stands for the known quantity ; as, 
a, b, c, in distinction from the unknown quantities x, y, x. 
[vide Algebra'] 

A (Her.) as a sign, stands for the dexter chief, or chief point 
in an escutcheon, [vide Heraldry'] 

A (C/iem.) when treble, as A. A. A. denotes avialgcitmi, or 

A {Log.) is employed as a sign to denote an universal affirma- 
tive proposition, according to the verse, 

Asserit A, negat E, i»i-um generalUer amhd. 

Tims in the first mood, a syllogism consisting of three 
universal propositions, is said to be in b^rbhrA, the a 
thrice repeated denoting three universal propositions, fvide 

A (Gram.) in words of Greek derivation, as a preposition in 
composition, has a privative or negative sense; as acata- 
Icclic, &c. ; in Saxon words it is equivalent to on or in, as 
ashore, abed, &c. 

A (Med.) marked thus. A, is used in prescriptions for the 
Greek preposition i»x, each, as A, or A./E.P. of each, i. e. 
of each ingredient, equal parts. 

A (Alch.) i. e. X, alpha, stands for the restitution of a long 
life, II, omega, for the end. 

AABA'N (Chem.) lead. 

AA'.M (Com.) a liquid measure at Amsterdam, containing 
about sixty-three pounds .\voirdupois weight. 

.\A'N'ES (Mux.) the modes and tones of the modern 

AAVO'IIA (Hot.) a species of palm. 

A 15 (Ant.), as a preposition, is employed with nouns to 
denote a relation, otRce, &c. after the same manner as a ; 
as, ab cpi.stolis, a scribe or secretary, to be found on inscrip- 
tions and elsewhere. SEX. I'OMI'EIUS. SEX. F. FELIX. 
SEX. POMPEII. AB. EPISTOLIS. Se.rtii.f Pompcius 
Sexli fttiux, Felix Sexti Pompeii ab epistoUs. [vide A.] 

Ab (.'Irchecol.) as an ahbreviution, stands for abbot or abbey, 
and when affixed to the names of places, it shows, probably, 
that they belonged to some abbey. Blount. 

.■\b (C/iron.) the fifth month of the Jewish sacred year, and 
the eleventh of the civil year. 

A'Ij.VB {Mil.) a sort of militia among the Turks. 

.VB.A'BILO (My.) or .Ihibil ; an unknown or fabulous 
bird, mentioned in the Koran. Said Ben Giabin asserts 
that it had the beak of a bird and the foot of a dog. 
Hoch. Ilieroz. 1. 6, c. H-. 

.VBAC.\ (('om.) a sort of hemp or flax, prepared from an 
Indian plantain. 

.VB.VCIN.'V'KE (Archa'ol.) to deprive of one's eyes, parti- 
cularlj- by red liot irons, which the Italians call bacini. 

.VBACI'STA (ArchcCdl ) Aoyirix-/;, rntiocinator, in the East 
ulgoiiMu, in Italian, 'i/;/;ar/i/r)c, nwiX abbachista ; an arith- 
metician, or one who addicted himself to the study of the 
abacus. " Abacum cerlu prinuis (iebertus a Saracenis 
capiens regulas dedit, qu<c a sudantibus Abacistis vix 
intelliguntur." IVdl. .Malmexh. Hist. Aiigl. 1. 2, c. 10. 

.'\B.\'C'k (Mar.) the situation of the sails of a ship when 
they are pressed against the masts by the force of the 
wind; so tlij sails are said to be talcen abacic when hy i\ 
change of wind or otherwise they are put into that situa- 
tion, or laid aback to elfect an innnediate retreat. 

A'B.\COT (.Ircbcrol.) a cap of state in the form of a 
double crown, worn by the ancient kings of England. 
Cbroii. An. 14();{. 

.\BA'CT01l (Aichifol.) from abigo, to drive away: a stealer 
of cattle in herds or large numbers, in distinction from 
the /«)-, or thief, who took one or two. Isidor. I'.tymol. 
1. 12. 

A'B.\CUS (Ant.) from iiSaf, ailicKDf, i. e. «, priv. and Scin?, 
not having a basis or stand : 1 . A cup-board or board fixed 


against the wall, on which were placed the cups and vessels 
for supper. Juv. Sat. 3, v. W.i. 

/.fi-dis erat CmIto Procula minm; urcroli sel 
Oi-numeutiim abaci. 

Cic. in Verr. 1. V. c. IG ; LJv. 1. 39, c. 7 ; Plin. I. 37, c. 2; 
Buleng. lie Lnperal. Rom. 1. 2, c. 3-t ; Salmas. ad Jus. Attic 
et Rom. c. 23. 2. A draught or dice-board, on which the 
ancients used to play with dice or small stones. Macrob. 
Saturn. I. 5; Stuck. Ant. Conviv. 1. 11, c. IG ; Dulew. de 
Lud. Vet. c. .58. 
Abacus (Math.) Heb. pa«, abak. " Mensula hyalini pul- 
veris respersione colorata, in qua calculatores nuineros et 
figuras delineant." Mart. Capell. dc Septem. Lib. Art. 1. 6. 
Pers. Sat. 1 , v. 1 3 1 . 

NfC qui ahaca muneri'S et ie^'to in pnlieye melas 
Scit risis^e vajer. 

The abacus was an instrument for calculations, used, 
with some variations, both by the ancients and moderns, 
consisting of a board of an oblong figure, divided by 
several lines or wires, and mounted with an equal number 
of little ivory balls or pegs, by the arrangement of which 
they expressed units, tens, hundreds, thousands, Ac. ac- 
cording to the subjoined figure. 






• • m- 

— •-•-• — 

The value of each ball or peg on the lowest line is 1, on 
the second 10, on the third 100, on the fourth 1000, on 
the fifth 10,000 ; and the balls in the middle spaces signify 
half as much as each of those in the lines above them: the 
amount of all the balls represented in the above figure 
will, therefore, be 37,391. Bud. in Pandect, p. 128 ; I'ola- 
terran. Comm. Urban, p. 1033; Ferret. Mus. Lapid,]. I, 
Memor. 33 ; Velser. Rer. Vindel. p. 221 ; Ful. Ursin. et 
Ciaccon. in Explic. Inscr. Diulliamv ct Lib. de Numm. ; 
Ant. Augwtin. Numis. Dial. 9; Pignor. Cumm. de Serv. 
p. 339. 

Abacus Pythngoricu.f (Arith.) the table of Pythagoras, 
for the more easy learning of numbers and calculations, 
similar to our multiplication table. 

Abacus I^ogisticus, a right-angled triangle, whose sides, 
about the right angle, contain all the numbers froin i to 
60, and its area, the products of each two of the opposite 
numbers: also ca\lei\ a. canon o/' sexagr.<:imah; which is in 
fact a multiplication table carried to (iO both ways. 

Abacus, also Arithmetic itself, according to Lucas Pac- 
ciolus, probably contracted from Arabicus. 

Abacus (Archil.) or Aliaciscus, the upper member of tl>e 
capital of a colunm, which serves as a crowning to the 
whole. The invention is ascribed to Callimachus, a statuary 
of Athens, who took the idea from an acanthus growing 
out from a basket covered with a tile, so as to form a kind 
of scroll after the shape of the tile, whence he made tlie 
abacus to be represented by the tile, the acanthus by the 
volutes, and the basket by the body of the capital. In 
the Tuscan, Doric, and Ionic orders, the .Ibacus is most 
commonly scpiare ; but in the Corinthian and Composite 
orders its figure varies, the four faces being circular, and 
hollowed inwards, the four corners cut off, j ^ 

as in the annexed figure, where a b c d re- ^> ^ 

present a square, e(|ual to the plinth of the 
laase ; a b, b c, c d, and a d, the circular 
arches, drawn from centres that are the g/ 
vertices of equilateral triangles: then if the ^^/ 
ends of the arches be cut off by the C(|ual 
lines A B, C D, E E, G H, the figure ABODE ECJ IT 


■ is a section of the abacus. The term abacus is apph'ed to 
different members by different writers. Vitruv. 1. 4, c. 1 ; 
Senec. Epist. 87; Bald. Lex. I'ilruv.; Pdlad. de Archit. 1. 1, 
&c.; Scamoz. deW Archit. Univ. Part 2. 1. 6, c. 29, &c. 

Abacus (Mhs.) a key-board or instrument of ancient in- 
vention, for dividing the intervals of the octave. 

Abacus et Falmula:, an ancient contrivance, by which the 
strings of the polyplectra, or many-stringed instruments, 
were struck with a plectrum made of quills. 

Abacus Harmonicus, the structure and disposition of the 
keys of a musical instrument, cither to be touched with the 
hands or the feet, according to Kircher. 

Abacus Major {Miii.) a trough in which the ore is washed. 
Af:ric. dc Re. Metal. 1. 8. 

A'B.\DA {Zool.) an animal on the coast of Bengal with 
two horns, one on the forehead, and one on the neck. It 
is said to be about the size of a fowl, having the tail of an 
ox, and the mane and head of an horse ; but the existence 
of such an animal is not yet ascertained. 

ABA'PT (Mar.) the hinder part of a ship; as, abaft the 
main-mast, i. e. nearer to the stern. 

Abaft the beam, i. e. the relative situation of an object 
in some part of the horizon, contained between a line 
drawn at right angles to the keel, and the point to which 
the ship's stern is directed. 

A'B.VUL'N (Or.) or the .stately alihnt, as its name imports, 
is an Ethiopian bird, remarkable for its beauty, and for a 
sort of horn growing on its head, insteail of a crest, which 
has the appearance of a mitre. Luho. Relat. p. 71. 

A'BAJOUll (Archit.) a sky-light or small sloping aperture, 
which is made in the walls of prisons and subterraneous 
buildings for the reception of light. 

ABA'ISIK (Chem.) another name for Spodium. 

AB.\LIEX.\'riO (Ant.) est ejus rei qua: est mancipi, aid 
tradilio altcri rie.iu ; a sort of alienation, a legal cession 
or transfer to another of that which one holds in one's own 
right. The effects called here rf,s mancipi were cattle, 
slaves, and other possessions within the Italian territories. 
The formula called traditio ncxu was a formal renunciation 
either in the presence of a magistrate, or by the ceremony 

■ of weights and money in hand. Cic. Top. c. 85 ; Lip. lu- 
stilut. c. 19; Augustin. ad Leg. xii. 2'ab. § 25; Bud, in 
Pandect, p. 26. 

AB.\LIEXA'TUS (Med.) corrupted ; Membra abalienata, 
limbs dead or benumbed. Celsiis ; Scriboniwi Largus. 

TO AB.\'XDON (Mil.) to leave a place to the mercy of 
an enemy. 

AB.\'XDUXED (Laic) an epithet for goods knowingly and 
willingly renounced by the proprietor ; also for lands which 

. the sea has retired from and left dry. 

AB.V'NDONTXG (Lau) the voluntary or forcible yielding 
the possession of goods: if to creditors it is termed cession ; 
if in order to be free from the charges to which one is sub- 
ject by possessing them, it is called giving up. 

ABA'XDUM (.irchivol.) abandonum, res in bannum viissa ; 
in French, chose abandonnee : any thing confiscated or pro- 
scribed, from the three words a ban don, i. e. given to the ban. 

A'BAXET (Ant.) or Abnet, DJi«, ^5^..;«; a girdle that 
priests wore among the Jews. 

ABA'XG.V (Bat.) or Palma Ad J ; a species of palm-tree 
in the island of St. Thomas. C. Bauh. 

ABAPTI'STOX (Surg.) vel Abajyiistn, «3=;!7r.f»», from «, 
priv. and 3aTT.iJi', mergo, to sink ; a kind of trepan made so 
as not to sink into the brain. Gal. de iMet/i. Med. 1. 4-, c. 6. 

ABA'RE.\ (ArJueul.) a sort of shoe among the Spaniards. 

AEAl!E'.^IO Temo (Hot.) a tree which grows in Brazil, 
tlie roots of which are a deep red, and its bark of an ash 
colour, bitter to the taste, and yielding a decoction fit for 
tlie detersion of inveterate ulcers. 

A'BAllI (But.) Abaro or Abarum ; a great tree of Ethiopia 
that bears a fruit like a pompion. 


AB.\RNA'RE (Arckaol.) to disclose a crime to a magis- 
trate. Leg. Canut. apud Brompton. 

AB.\RT.VMEX [Min.) another name for lead. 

ABARTICULA'TION (Med.) a species of articulation of 
the bones, admitting of a manifest motion called also diar- 
tkrosis and dearticu/atio, to distinguish it from another sort 
of articulation called si/narthrosis, which admits of a very 
obscure motion. 

A'BAS (Med.) the same as Epilepsia. 

Abas (Com.) a weight used in Persia for pearls, equal to 
three grains and a half. 

Abas (Ent.) a species of Bombyx. 

ABA'SED (Ilcr.) an epithet for the vol or wing of an eagle, 
turned downwards towards the iioint of the shield, or when 
the wings are shut, the natural way of bearing them be- 
ing to be displayed. A bend, chevron, pale, &c. is said to 
be abased when their points terminate in or below the 
centre of the shield ; an ordinary is said to be abased 
when below its due situation. 

.\B.\'S1R (Cliem.) another name for .S'/mAhjh. 

ABA'SSI (Com.) a Persian silver coin nearly equal in value 
to a shilling. Fryer's Sew Account of India and Persia. 

ABA'T-CH.\UVEE {Com.) a sort of wool of subaltern 
qualitv in France. 

TO AB.V'TE (Laii;) from the Fr. Abattrc. 1. To destroy or 
remove, as to abate a nuisance. Vet. Nat. Br. 45 ; Stat. 
U'cstni. 1. 1, c. 17. 2. To defeat, as to abate a writ by 
showing some error or exception. Brit. c. 4S ; Stat. 
SiE.l: Stat. 1 1 //. 6, c. 2 ; Staundf. P. C. US. 5. To get 
possession by intrusion, in contradistinction to disseise : 
thus an abator is one who steps in between the former 
possessor and his heir. Coke, in his first Institutes, explains 
the difference between the words Disseisin, Abatement, 
Intrusion, Deforciament, Usurpation, and Pcrpresture. 
Bract. I. !■, c. 2; Britt. c. 51 ; Vet. N. B. 115; 1 Inst. 
277, a. 

TO Abate (Man.) a horse is said to abate when, working 
upon curvets, he puts both his hind legs to the ground 
at once, and observes the same exactness successively. 

ABATE'LE.MEXT (Com.) an interdict of the Consuls, 
barring all merchants and dealers of the French nation 
from carrying on any trade, who disavow their bargains 
or refusL' to i)av their debts. 

ABA'TEMEXT"(L«u) 1. The act of abating in the different 
senses of the verb, [vide Abate'] 2. A plea in abatement 
is a plea put in by the defendant, praying that the writ or 
plaint may abate," that is, that the suit of the plaintiff may 
cease for"the time being. The following are the principal 
pleas in abatement: 1. To the jurisdiction of the court. 
2. To the person of the plaintiff' in case of — a, outlawry ; 
b, excomnmnication ; c, alienage; d, attaint, Sec. 3. To 
the person of the defendant in case of — a, privilege; 
b, misnomer; c, addition. 4. To the writ and action. 
5. To the count or declaration. 6. On account of — a, the 
demise of the king ; b, the marriage or death of the par- 
ties, &c. Bract on'^. 1. 4, c. 2; Britt. c. 51, 6cc. ; Vet. S. 
B. fol. 114, 115; Staundf. P. C. 148, &c.; Thel. Dig. 
1. 10, c. 1, sect. 5; Co. Lit. 903, a. 

Abatement (Her.) a certain mark of disgrace added to 
the coat-armours of certain persons. Abatements are called 
in Latin Diminutiones vel Discernula Armorum, of which 
Guillim mentions nine different sorts, as follow : i. The 
Delf, exactly a square in the middle of the coat. 2. .An 
Escutcheon reversed, or a small escutcheon turned upside 
down in the middle of the coat. 3. A Point parted de.cter, 
when the upper right corner of the escutcheon is parted 
from the whole. 4. A Point in Point, when the ends of 
two arched lines are joined in the middle of the escutcheon 
so as to part off the base from the rest. 5. A Point Cham- 
pagne, or a hollow arched line cutting off the base of the 
escutcheon. 6. A Plain Point, or a straight line parting 
b 2 


off the base of the escutcheon. 7. A Gore, or two hollow 
lines between the sinister chief and the sinister base. 8. A 
Gusset, or a line sloping a little, and then perpendicular 
from the upper corner to tiiu bottom or base. These eight 
Abatements, if ever they were used, required to be of a 
stained colour, ('. e. Sanguine or Tenne ; but it is supposed 
by modern heraldic writers that these distinctions were 
only imaginary. 9. The ninth and last abatement is when 
the whole coat is reversed, which was never done but to a 
traitor. An instance of this kind occurs in the amis of 
Sir .Andrew de Harcla, Knt. who for his treachery towards 
his master king Edward II, by taking a bribe from the 
Scots, was first degraded, then drawn, 
hanged, beheaded, and quartered, in 1322. 
He beareth White, a Red Cross, and, in the 
first quarter, a Blac/c Martlet, according to 
the annexed cut. Selden. Tit. of Hurwitr, 
p. 337, 338 ; Guill. Disp. of Herald. 

.\BATEMENT [Com.) or Rebate. 1. A discount in the price 
of commodities when the buyer advances the sum directly 
for which he might have taken time. 2. A deduction from 
the duties paid for goods, when they are found to have 
been damaged. 

A'B.VTIS (/Irc/iccol.) he wlio measures out corn with in/w, 
i. e. niensuris, an avener or steward of the stables. 

.\batis {^]il.) or Abbatis, an intrenchment formed by trees 
felled and laid together. 

-ABATOR [Laiv) one who intrudes into houses or lands 
that are void by the death of the former possessor, and not 
yet entered upon by his lieir. 1 Inst. sect. 475. 

A'B.\TOS (.'Int.) from a, priv. and ii-xitu, eo, to go, viz. in- 
accessible, an epithet for a rock or island of the Nile 
on which none dare set foot but the priests ; the same 
epithet was applied to the inmost recesses of the tem- 
ple, called by the Latins Penelralia. 
Lucari. I. 10, v. 323. 

Hinc abativi ijuam nostra locat veiteranda vetustus 
Ten-a patens, primos seiisit percussa titmuttus. 

Sen. Nat. Quest. 1. i, c. 6 ; Fest. de Signif. Verb. 

ABATTU'TA (Mus.) an Italian expression employed in 
music books after a break in the time of any piece, signify- 
ing that the time is to be beaten as before. 

ABATL'DA {.Ircliccol.) an epithet for any thing dimi- 
nished in value, particularly money, as moncta ubutuda, 
clipt money. 

.\'BATURES (Sport.) the sprigs or grass that the stag 
throws down in passing by. 

.\B.\'VI (Hot.) a large tree in /Ethiopia, bearing fruit 
like a gourd. Rail Hist. Plant. 

A1)B (Mech.) or Abwonl, the yarn of a weaver's warp. 

A'BHACY (Ecc.) Abbatia, the government of an abbey. 

ABBA'IS.SEUK (Anal.) one of the muscles of the eye. 

.VBBATIS (Mil.) vh\c Abatis. 

.V15BEY (Ecc.) a religious house under the government 
of an abbot : anciently one third of the benefices in 
England were, by the Pope's grant, a|)propriated to the 
abbeys, and other religious iiouses, which at their dissolu- 
tion amounted to the number of 1;K), that became lay-fees, 
the revenue of which were from 200/. to 3,500/. per annum, 
amounting on an average calculation to 2,fc'.'J3,000/. per 
annum. Burn. Hist. Rcf. 

A'BliO'i" (Ecc.) Abbas, Abbat, from Abba, Father, the iiead 
or governor of an abbey, of wiiich there were different 
descriptions ; as, — Bi-'^hiip Abbots, whose abbeys have been 
erected into bishopricks ; — Cardinal Abbots, who are also 
cardinals ; — Ci/mmendatori/ Abbots, or bishops in commcn- 
dnm, who are seculars, performing no spiritual office, and 
having no spiritual jurisdiction, although they have under- 
gone the tonsure, and are obliged by their bulls to take 


orders when they come of age ; — Croziered Abbots, eucli 
as bear the crozier or staff; — Mitred Abbots, i.e. sovereign 
or general abbots, who were lords of parliament, and in- 
dependent of any person but the pope. Tiiej' were called 
mitred, from the mitre which they wore; — Secundaria 
Abbots, the same as priors ; — Regular Abbot.i, real monks, 
who have taken the vow, and wear the habits. 

Abbot (Polit.) or Abbot of the people, a chief in the republic 
of Genoa, who was chosen by the people in the fourteenth 

ABBRE'\TATED (Rot.) abhrcviatus, an epithet for the 
perianth ; pcrianthium abbreviatum, an abbreviated perianth, 
when it is shorter than the tube of the corolla, as in Put- 
monaria maritima. Linn. Phil. Bot. 

ABBREVIA'TION (Gj-am.) a contracted manner of writing 
words so as to retain only single letters. Such abbrevia- 
tions were common among the Greeks and Romans, as 
they are now among the moderns. 

Greek Abbreviations on Coins, Inscriptions, Sfc. 

A. dyaStjj'AKTia, 'AGiivrj, apxoprot^, 'Atria. A.B.\2. 'AvTtirurpu 
BaatXiuc- AB. ABA. ABAK. ABAKAIN. AISaicaivii>uv. AB. 
ABA. ABAH. 'A(SSt)piTUiv. AB. ABV. ABYAH. 'A/SuJi/i/iJv. 
ABP. 'A/3poVoj'Oi'. AT. a'yae?;. AT ABO. 'Ay aOoKXiovg. ATP. 
'Ayplw-n-a. AOUti A. ' Adiivai^v. AAE3.' AXlKat'fpiia. AAE3- 
AN. 'AXiKavlpiavj'i, ' AXiKdvOpa. AAE3ANAP0Y. 'AXffarfpou- 
TToXiue. AMAC. 'Apatria. ANAZ. 'AvaWpjSs. ANESH. dvi- 
BriKS. ANSHA. 'AvBn^dvoi;. ANeY. 'Ai-euVaros. Proconsul. 
ANKYP. 'AvKw'pac. ANOC. aVepwVoc. ANT. ANTIO. 'Ayno- 
Xc'wv. ANTI. 'AvriTparj/ya, A'ST. A'STQ. 'Avrcjpiaviji;. AIIO. 
'ATToXXivapia. AIIOA. '.4jroXXwi'iaraj'. APT. 'Apyaiog. APIS. 
"AptTOf. APX. Apxieps'wf. A2KAA. ' AaKaXuivirui'. ASKAH. 
'AaKXijTTtH. A^KA. 'AfficXt/Trio'i^H. ASIA. '.\aiapxK. A2Y. 
'AffvXo^, 'Affi'Xs. AYP. 'AvptiXiag. AYTOK. AvroKpurojp. AY. 
AYTO. AYTON. 'AvTOvopot;. 


B. BAA. BnXt'piof, Valerius. B. BEA. BeXriVor. B. NEQ. I'l's New- 
Kopuiv. BA. Ba'/3«. BA. BA2. BA2I. jSaaiXivi:, fiaaiXia. 
BOYS. BovffipiTuv. 


r. ypappariKos, yipovaiag. rOP'IX. TopTvvluv. TP. FPA. TPAM. 

A. I'i'e. AAK. AnKDcdf. AAM. lapaaia. AHM. Ojpoc. AIIMHT. 
Aiipi'iT))!!. AEMOCTP. At/ioTpaVa. AlAAOY. haSnptviav6s- 
AlK. I'lKnioc. AIONY. AwvvaiH. APOYC. ApouffiXXni-, Drii- 
sillam. AQP. Wpa. 

E. En. tm'. EAEYO. iXfvBipas. EEO. IKovcia. EPMO. Ep/io- 
TToXiTiov. EPMOK. EppoxXiovc. ETO. jrH£. EY. tir«/3i)C. 
EYr. ivytviui;- E*. E'tE. Etpiaiuiv. EX. txovros. 
nr. H1"E. tiyipovot;. IIPAK. HpiikXiifH, HpaKXtuiroXiruii: 

(). Oiwv. OA. iiaaiuiv. OY. euyaVr;/). 

I.IO.IOY. la'Xios, J'u/iui. I. IC. ICT. ICTP. 'iTpov, 'I^p^j. IE. 
Updt;, itpd, ItpoTToXirw. IHL. 'IffpuTJX. ILHM. 'ItpHffaXrjp. 
lAI. IXii'wv. lO.'luidvvtie. ION. lofwi'. IIIII. irrjnicw, iVtoj'. 
IC. 'IiyUHf. Ite.ICOM. "iT/im. 
K. KiXiKia, Cilicia. KmvTOi, Quintus. K. KAI. KAIC. Kaiaafi. 
KAIAP. Kaiaapilar, KdiVapet, Kaicaptuy. KAA. KaX»- 


icdtv^. KANO. Kavo/SiTwi/. KANOe. KavoBaiuv. KAOITO. 
KatriToXtfuiv. KAC. Kdaaiog, Cassius. KACTAB. Ka-rafiaXiuiv. 
KE. KeVapoj, Caesaris. KEA. Ki\aS, Cehi. KIAB. KiX/3tai/w>'. 
KA. K\a«7i0t-, Claudius. KAAYA. KXavSiOTroXarwv. KAAZOM. 
KXaZofitviitiv. KOI. Koti'd;/. KOM. Ko^ti'is, Ko^ii'tioi', Ko^/xa- 
7f»'i;e, Kofifid^B. KOriT. KOIITIT. Kotttitwv. KC Koptoe. 
KTIC. Kririif, Ki-rT«. KY. KYIN. Kgivroe, Quinhu. KY. KYH. 
. KvTrpiiav. KVAQ. Ki/^wviaVwi'. KYZ. KYZI. KuJik^im:!'. KYOO. 

Kd^OTToXsms. kino. KnvOTToXlTWl'. 


A. AI. AIK. AiKi'i'iOf, Licinius. A. AOY. AOYK. Abkioj, Lucius. 

AAO.AAOA.AAOAIK. Aaofi/ce'uv. AEB. Ainila, Lepidi. AIB. 

AIBAN. Ai/3aVB, Aijidvtf. AOrrEI. AoyyeiVa, Longini. AYKO. 


M. Mdpicof, Marcus, MaKpiaviavt], MoV^. MA. MaKjfoVwr. MATN. 
MATNH. Mayv^jrwv. MAIAN. MAIANA. Maiavfpoe, Uaiav- 
Spov. MAP. Uapuviae. MEM*. Mf^^dirwi'. MENA. ME)'^^^w)^ 
MENE. UeviXairuv. MENO*. MtvotpiXn. MECCAA. Mi(r(TciXi>>a, 
MessuUna. ME. MET. METP. METPOO. MtrpoTroXiQ, Mtrpo-o- 
Xfwj. METHAI. MijDjXirwi/. MHTPOAQ. Mi;rpo^w'pa. MHP. 
fitJTt]p. MPC. /ixjrpoc. MYP. Mtlpwrof. MYPIXA. Nvpivaiwv. 
MYTI. Mi/riXsvaiwy. 

N. NE. NE2. NEQK. NfwKo'pwr. NAIB. Nm/3i'a, Nai/3iaV«, AWio, 
&c. NAKPA2I. fsaicpaaiTuv. NAY. NAYAP. I'auapxiVoj- NE. 
veuiKopog. NE. NEAR. NcaTroXtoif, NtoTroXiTMi'. NE. NEP. 
TPAI. 'Sipmai'i) Tpmavij, Nerviana Trajana. NEI. NEIK. 
NEIKOM. NEIKOMHA. Naicas'wj/, Niicate'wv, HuKOfiTjSiuiv. 
NEP. Nsp^af, Nervce. NEPAT. 
iVwer. NIKOnOA. NiKon-oXirwi'. 

Neparia. NIP. 
NYS2. NvViTijc. 



0. OirtXiavi), OKraaia, Ocfavii. GAYM. OAYMn. 'OXv'/iJrioj, 'OXv';!- 
iria. OMO. OMON. 'OpoVoia. ON. ovrog. OSYP. OSYPINX. 
oivpivx"riSi'. on. OTnjXioc, Ojtelius. OCTI. 'OTiXiaroc, //o*//- 
lianus. OYAA. OYAAE. OvaXtpiavog, Valerianus, OvdXrig, Va- 
lens. OYHP. Oi-^pos, Vcrus. OYAD. Oi-X7r.'af, V/jJta;. OYA- 
niAN. Oi.XjTiai'B, Ulpiani. OYNOC. apavoq. 


n. no. HON. TiovTov, Ua/SXia, Fuhlii. U. HP. IIPO. irpdf, irpuTt]. 
HAA. riAAA. naXaVa. DAAAI. naXaiTixiyc. HAN. navUtp. 
II.iNH. navJiyvpiTH. IIANO. llavoiriTdiv. IIANOP. Havoppi- 
rdv. IIAPe. nopeiKOf. riATP. narpiuv. HAYA. TlatiXe. 
HAYS. Ylavaaviac. nA*AAr. iraffXayofias. DE. IlES. OEtr- 
(JtVBlTi'wi'. riEAOY. Ilei'oKffia. TIEAOY. IltXairiMrw)'. IIEIIA. 
IlETrapee.'wv. HEP. IIEPr. DEPPA. ncpyapijfc^iv. IIESK. Hia- 
icet/'vios, Pescennius, Jlt(!Kiv>«vlu>i'. riHP. Tranip. nPC. vaTpog. 
niN. n.ra^uriwr. DOAAI. XloXXirn'os, Pulliune. nOMH. Do/i- 
wjjia, Pompeii, IIo/iTri/iai'cui', riop^roi'iwv. IIONT. IIov-is. nO- 
2IA. noCT.Joj'.'a. nP. nPE. IIPES. nPESB. nptff/ifura. HP. 
nPIS. riPISK. DpiffKa, P/Mti. nP. nPO. npd/ja, Proio, Trpdf, 
n-pwr/), TrpwTB. OPOA. OPOAI. wpol'nca. nP02Q. npO(TW7ri- 
Tuv. IIPYT. ripuraviooc. RYO. nu9ia. 

POY*. Pa^io!., Ruji. PYNA. PYNAA. Puv^a'icB. 

C. CE. CEB. CEBA. CEBAS. Xii^a^oe, St^a^ij, Sf/3arwj^, Au- 
gustus, Augxista, Augusturum. C. CT. CTP. CTP.l. CTPAT. 
UTPATH. ^parijya". C. CY. ^vpiac. CAB. -Za^tlvu, Suhini. 
CABIN. Yaiiiida. CAIT. Sai-Tiivwv. CAAA. SaXXiSj 2aX- 
XowTia, Sallio, Sallustio. CAAO. SaXovivo'c, Saloninus. CAMA. 
So/iaptiaf. C.4M0. SajioaaTiuv. CIT. Saropj/trva, Saturnino. 

CEBEN. 2f|3£V»';iT<;j'. CEAEY. CEAEYK, StXtti/ct'ui'. CEOY. 
SfBTjpdf, Severus. CEIIT. ^tirri/iie, Septimio. CEP. Stpais, 
Servio. CI. CIII. CIIIY. SittAb, 5i;)^fo. CIKIN. 'S.tKi.vviii, Si- 
cinnio. CMY. CMYP. "S.^iypvaidiv. CO. CO*. CO*I. CO*IC. 
m^irrS. COYA. SsXTriici'a, Suljncio. CTPOC. aiaTtjpog. CTE*ANH. 
^TiipavrifdpH. CTPAB. ^Tpdftwvog. CTFATONI. Zrparovtita, 
Srpa-oviKtavS. CQT. SuiTijpt. 
. Taiipov, TiVa, TiVo, TiJf. TA. TAT. rartava. TAN. rava- 
ypaiuiv. TANI. raviTuiv. TAPC. rdpaa. TEM. Tifxiva. TEN- 
TYP. TtvTvpirdiv. TH. rij)'. TIAN. TiaviZv. TI. TIB. TIBEP. 
TifiipiOQ, Tiiiipin, Tiberius, Tiberio, Ttfitpiiuiv. TOYA. Toi'XX.'a, 
Tullio. TPOX. Tpox/iMV. TYP. Tt/'pa. 



YIIA. "YTTaroc, vrraropiK 
YC. |.<ds. 

Consul, Consularem. YIII. 

. *AB. *a/3iB, Fabio. *AN. *ai'via, Funnio. *HCT. *;|Tri, 
Festo. *I. *iXo7rdXi, *iXo;ra'ropof. *IAO. ^iXofitXiiov. *A. 
*AA. *AAO. *AAOY. iXauiu, Flavio, i'Xaeuwv. *0. *0K. 
*OKA. ^oKaiuv. Goltz. Grwc, et Thesaur. ; VailJant JVumiS' 
mat. Grwc. ; Montfaui;on, Palaograph. 

Grfei Abbreviations in Books. 































^ hrd 

































5^ ? 


















T« 5 ^ 












S ^t 








« i 















liif T 










€ Gtv 






















^ '55n 




^2ra i,f 


op ?■ 





























































Roman Abbreviations on Coins, Inscriptions, ^-c. 

A. Augustus, Augustalis, Auluf, absolvo, absoliitio, ager, 
agit, aiunt, aliquando, antiquo, assolet, aut. A. A. Au- 
gust!, Augusta. A. A. Aulas Agerius; aa alienuni ; ante 
audita; a|)ud agrum ; auruni ; argcntum. A. A. A. Au- 
gust!. A.A. A.l". F. a;ie, argento, auro, flando, feriundo, 
Ti?/ flavo fer!undo. A. A. A.l'.QU.TY. auri, argent!, a?r!s 
flator, iabricae Quirinalis Tybor!ni. A. AC. ante auditani 
causam. A.A.S.L.M. apud agrum sibi loco monument!. 
A.AV. alter ambove. A.B. aUa bona. ABN. Abnepos. 
ABS. absolutus. A.B. V. ;\ bono viro. AB.U.C. ab urbe 
condlta. AC. actio. A. C. alius civis, acta causa. ACB. 
actionibus. ACC. accepta, acceplat, accepcrat. ACC9. 
accusatio. AC.D.N. actione Domini nostri. AC.D.Q.P.T. 
actione dotis, quae tibi petitu;. ACH. Achaia;. ACIX. 
actionem. ACL. AQ. actio legis Aquiliac. ACM. ac- 
tionem. ACO. accusatio. ACON. actionem, re/ ac- 
tionum. A.COSS.CI. ii consulibus civitatum. AC. P. 
actor provincia;. AC.P. R. actor Provinciie Romanoe. 
A.C. P. VI. ad caput pedes sex. A.CSL. a consulibus. 
A.C.S.L.E.C. a Consiliariis sui- legionis et civitatis. 
ACT. actor, lie/ auctoritas. ACT.T. auctoritas tua. ACTI. 
actionem. A.C.V. a claro viro. A.CUB. AUGG. a 
cubiculis Augustorum. AD. adest, xtI adjutor. A.D. 
ante diem. AD.D. ad discendum, vel ad discordiam. 
AD. E. ad eifectorem, vel a.d exactoreni, vel ad extorreni. 
AD.F. adfinem, rcZad frontera. AD.I. adjutor. ADIAB. 
Adiabenicus. ADJ. P. adjutor patriot, vel populi, vel pro- 
vinciae. AD.L. ad locum. ADLR. adulteravit. ADN. 
adnepos. ADOP. vel ADP. adoptivus. A.D. P. ante diem 
pridie. AD.P.XII. ad pedes duodecim. AD.QS. ad 
QucEStores. AD.QSR. ad Quacstorem. AD.QU. ad Quos- 
storem, vel ad quaestionem. ADV. adversum. lED. a?des. 
^.D. a.-dem dedicavit. /EDIL. .*;diles. .^DIL.CUR. 
iEdiiis curulis. yEDILL. /Ediles. .TiD.IN.M. aedes in- 
scripsit niercede. 7ED.PL. TEdilis piebis. TED.S. asdibus 
sacris. iEG. aeger. .'EQ. P. ocqualis persona. /ER. rerarium, 
vel aerarii, asreum. i^iR.COL. a:re coilato. /ER.P. asre 
publico. jER.ST. serario Saturni. ^ET. a'tcrnitas. AF. 
affectus. A.F.alit facto. A.F. P. R. Actum fit'e Public! Ru- 
tilii, I'c/ ante factum, post relatiun, xrl ./Emilus fecit, plec- 
titur Rutilius. AFR. Africx. A(j. agit, vel Agrippa, x'el 
agro. A.G. Aulus Ciellius. AGR. agitur. AGR. F. Agrippic 
filius. A. H. aliusliomo. A .J. iijudice. AL. alluit. A.L. ad 
locum, wZ alia lege. A.L. /E. arbitrium litis a;st!mand;c, vel 
liti aestimandum. yVLA.LG. al!,"i lege, ir/ legione. A.L. E. 
arbitrium liti cxaminanilic, vel existimanda;, vel existiman- 
dum ,\lpinit tertiie legionis. ALL. allegata, 
vc/ alligata. ALXA. Alexander. AM. amicus. .\M N. 
amicus nostur. AMN. amantissimus. AM.NT.AMN. ami- 
cus noster amantissimus. AM. P. amabilis persona. A.N. 
annus, anilis. AN{j.P. angelus percussit. ANM. anima. 
AN.M. actionem mandati. AN.N. ante noctem. ANN. 
annis. AXN.P. annonac prxfectus. ANT. Antonius, ir/ 
antestatus, ante, vel ante.'i. .\NT.T.C. ante terminum 
<:onstitutum. A.G. alii onmes AG. P. auro puro, vel auro 
posito. AP.apud. A.P. Anton!! prietoria. APA. amputatac. 
AP. -V. apud acta. A. I'.C^LN.ail pedes colunmac. AP..Il'D. 
apud judiccm. AP.N. apud nos. APP. Appius, appcllat. 
APPN. appellantur. AIM'. IJRB. apud pnefectum urbis. 
A.P.R.C.anno post Itomam conditam. A.P.T. ad po- 
testatem tuam. .\(jLI..S. Acpiiliana st!|)!lat!o. .VQI... 
Aquilcia. A(J..M.\R. a(pia marcia. .VR.VB. Arabicus, 
vel Arabia. A.R.V.MIL. I'RIJ. a rationibus militaris fru- 
menti. ARC. area. AI{(r. argumentum. AIOL Arme- 
nia, vel Armenicus. AR.NLE. arma eju.s. ARM. P. arnia 
publica. AR.VV.D.D. Arma votiva dono dcdit. A.S. 
a suis. A.S.L.F. it sua lege fecit. A.S.TT. a supra tectis. 
A.T. autoritas tua. A.TE. a tcrgo. A.T. M. D.O. aio 

te mihi dare oportere. A.TP. annuo tempore. A.TT, 
ante titulum. ATQ. atque. ATR. autoritas, vel autor. 
AUG. Augustus, vel augur. AUC. aut AUTR. auctoritas, 
vel autor. AUGG. August!, viz. de duobus. AUGGG. 
Augustorum, viz. de tribus. AUG.F. August! filius. 
AUCi.P. August! puer. AUG.N. .Augustus noster, vel 
August! nepos. ACG.CUR. RP. Augustalis curator 
reipub. AUCi.ET. Q.AUG. Augustalis etQua?stor Augus- 
talium. AUT. PR. R. autoritas provincij; Romanorum. 

A. X. annis decem. 


B. Balbus, Brutus, bonus, bona, bonfc, bene, Bacchus. 
B.A. bonam actionem, bonis amabilis, bonis auguriis, 
bonis avibus, bonis auspiciis. B.C. bonorum concessum. 
B.D. bonum datum. B.D.S.^L bene de sc merit!. B.E. 
bonorum emptor. B. E.CA. bona ejus caduca. B.E.E- 
bona ex edicto. B.ER. Bona eorum. B.ER INT. vel 
B.E.I, bona eorum inveniuntur. B. F..IA. bona ejus in- 
stituta. BF. benefecit, beneficium. B.F. bonum factum, 
bona fides, bona filia, bona fortuna. B. I'.C. bona fide con- 
tractum. BF'.D. beneficium dedit. B.FL. bonorum filius. 
B.F. P. bonae fidei possessor. BF.COS. beneficiarius 
Consulis. BF. PR. beneficiarius Prastoris. BF. TRIB. 
beneficiarius Tribuni. B.GR. bona gratia. B.H. bonus 
homo, vel bona haercditaria, bonorum haeres. B.HTS. 
bonorum hacreditas. B. H.S.I, bona hie sita invenies. B.J. 
bonum judicium. B.L. bona lex. B. LB. bonorum liberi. 

B. M. bonic memoriae, bona materia, bona materna, bene 
merenti, &c. B. MN. bona muncra. B.M.F. bene merita 
fecit. B.M.P. bene merenti posuit. B.MN. bona nmnera. 
B. M. F.C. bene merenti faciendum curavit. B. M. P. C. ben£ 
merenti ponendum curavit. B.N. bona nostra. BN. bene, 
bona. BN.H.I. bona hie invenies. B.C. bene optime. 
B.P. bonum publicum, bona paterna, bonorum. potestas, 
vel possessio. BO.E.M. bonorum emptores. B.P. bona 
possessio, bonorum possessor, vel bonum publicum, bona 
paterna, bonorum potestas. B.PC. bona pecunia. B. PN. 
bonorum possessionem. B.PO. Bonorum possessio. B.PR. 
PR. beneficiarium pra;fecto practorio. B.PRO. beneficia- 
rius Proconsulis. B.Q. bona qua;s!ta. BR. bonorum. 
B.R. bonorum rector. B.RP.N, bono Rcipubl. natus. 
I?li SI. l)onorum servi. BRT. Britannicus. B.S. bene 
satisfeeit, bona sua. B. T. bonorum tutor. B. V. bene 
vixit, bonus vir, bonorum venditor, bona vestra, bona 
vacantia. B.V. A. boni vir! arbitratu. B. VT. bona ven- 
dita. B.V.V. balnea, vina, Venus. 


C. pro Caio, i. e. viro. C. colonia. 3. im^ersa Caiani et 
mulierem sif^n. C.C causa cognita. C.C.C. calumnia 
cavendae causa. C. centum. CS). Cautio. CI3. vtl 
CXf). millc. 33. (juinque millia. t^CCI^QJ. centum 
millia. CCC.T.P. ter centum terra; pedes. CA.AM. 
causa amabilis. CvES.AUG. Ca;sar Augustus. Cv^ESS. 
AUGG. Caesarcs August!, seilicrt dc duobus. C/ESSS. 
AUGCjG. C;csares August!, de tribus. C.\L.\. Calum- 
nia. CA.M.V. causa memorati vir!. CAP. capitalis. 
CAR.C(.)JU. carissimae conjugi. C.E.C. colonis ejus 
coloniic. CEL cclercs. CF^N.A. censoris arbitratu. 
CEN.PP. vel CICNS. censor perpetuus. CENT, cen- 
turio, centuria. CENTU. centuriones. CESS, cen- 
sores. C.F. Caii filius. C. H. custos hxredum. CIC. 
Cicero. C.J. C Caius Julius Ciesar. CIV. causa justa. 
CIV. civilas, civis. C iii. INV. cubitos tres invenies. C ii. 
INV.P. cubitos duos invenies plumbum. CL. Claudius. 
CL.V. clarissimi viri. CL.F. clarissima filia, re/ ficuiina. 
CL. Caius libertus. CLARN. comes largitionuni. CL. 
COS.DESKi. Claudius Consul designatus. CLS. claris- 
sinms. CM. comis. CM. ve/ C A. iM. causa mortis. CM. 
capitis niinutio, vel civis mains. C.M.D. centum millia 
denariorum. C.M.F. clarissimac niemorix ficmina. C 


M.L. centum niillia. C.M.T. causa mali tui. C.MT. cre- 
nientuni niultum. C.M.V. clarisiniEE memorise vir, CN. 
Cneius, le/ Cnevius. C.N. Caius noster, Ca;sar noster, 
civis noster. C.X.EE.C.C. credimus non esse causam 
convictam. C9XS. cautiones. CNTO. centenario. CNT. 
VI. centenaria sex. CO. conjugi, controversia. CO. 
civitas omnis. COH. cohors. COL._ colonia, coloni, 
collega, collegium. COM. comes. COM. OB. Coniitia 
Obriziaca. CON. consularis. CON.SEN.E.OR.FQ.R. 
consensu Senatus, equestris ordinis Populique Uomani. 
CONS, vel CS. consiliarius. COS. Consul. COSS. Con- 
sules. COS. QU .411. Consul quartum, ir/ quarto. COS. 
DES. Consul designatus. COACT.ABD. coactus ab- 
dicavit. COM.OR. comes orientis. COMM. CONS, corn- 
muni consensu. CONJU. conjunxit. CONJU.OBQU.E. 
conjusi obsequentissinia?. CONLIB.conlibertus, conliberta 
COU.^Cornelius. CORP. corpus. CO RN..VURS. coronas 
aureas. CORN, cornibus. COSS.S.S. consulibus supra 
scriptis. CONT. contubernalis. CQ. R. F. cautumque 
ratum fore. C.R. civis Romanus. CR. Creticus, CrisjHis, 
contractum, contrarium. C.R.C. cujus rei causa. C.REP. 
causa reipub. CRI. consular!. CS. Caesar, causa, con- 
siliarius, communis. CS.A. Ca2sar .Vugustus. CSI. con- 
troversia. C. S.L. comes sacrarum largitionum. C.S FL. 
caira suis filiis. C.S.H. cum suis hteredibus. C.S.S. cum 
suis servis. C.S. P. E. cum sua pecunia est. CS.M. Cssar 
Maximus. CT. caput, vel civitas. C.T. certo tempore. 
CTR. cacterum. CT.R. civitas Romana. CTR.M. citra 
niirum. CT.RO. civitas Romana. C TRIO, centurio. C.V. 
centum virum, vel clarissimus vir, vel causa virginum. CU.I. 
cujus. CUL. cultores. CUR. curionum, curiarum, cursor. 
CUR. P. cursus publicus. CUR. COL. curator colonise. 
CUR.KAL. curator kalendarii. CUR. P. P. curator pe- 
(Tunia; publicac. CUR.RP. curator rcipublicae. CUST. 


D. Divus, Dcclus, Decimus, diebus, devotus, diutius, de- 
dicavit. D. A. Divus Augustus. D.^E. de irrario. D. 
AUG. Deo Augusto, vel Divo Augusto. D.B. M. de 
bene merentibus. D.B.J, diu bene juvantibus. D.C.S. 
de consilii sententia. DD. dedimus, dedicatio. D.D.D. 
datus decreto decurionum, vel done dedit dicavit. D. 
D.D.D. dignum Deo donum dedit. DD.NN. Domini 
nostri. D.D.DQ. dat dicat dedicatque. D.DQ. dedit, 
donavitque. D.DQ.S. Dis Deabusque sacrum. DE. De- 
dus. DEC. decurio. DECB. December. D.EE. dani- 
natum esse. DEG. A.]M. dcgencrat a majoribus. DEGN. 
T. O. degenerem te ostendis. DES. vel DESIG. designatus. 
DFTI. defuncti. DICT. dictator. DIG. M. dignus me- 
raoria, vel morte. DIE. dilectus, vel dilectissimus. D. M. 
Diis manibus. D.M./E. Deo magno icterno. DN. 
dominus, damnum. DN.N. Dominus noster. D.O. 
Diis omnibus, vel Deo Optimo. D.IM. S. Diis immottali- 
bus sacrum. D.J.S. Decimus .lulius Silvanus. D.OPA. 
data opera. DOCS. Dioclesianus. DOT.R. dotem re- 
cuperabit. D.P. Divus pius, Diis pcnatibus, patriis, re/ 
de periculo, dotem petit, vel devota persona ; vel decretum 
principis. D. PEC.R. de pecuniis repetundis. D. PP. Deo 
perpetuo. DPC. deprccatio. DPO. deportatio. DFF. de 
prjefecto D. PORT, de parte orientis. DPS. discipuUis. 
DQ. denique. D.Q. Diis (juirinalibus. D.Q. R. de quai-e. 
D.Q.S. die quo supra. DR. Drusus. D. RS. de regibus. 
D.RM. de Romanis. DR. P. dare promittit, de republica. 
DS. Deus. D.S. S.P. de sapientia sua perticet. DT. dun- 
taxat, durat. D.T.G.Q.S. de tuo genio quod sentis, &c. 
D. V. devotus vir, vester, it/ Diis volentibus, vel dies quin- 
tus. D.\S. Deas virgines, de virtutibus, vel de verbis. 
DUL. dulcissimus. DUS. devotus, itc. 


E. est, ens, ejus. E.B. ejus bona. E.C. e comitio, vel 

capitolio. E.D. ejus domus, ue/ dominus. E.E. esse, ex 
edicto. E.F. ejus filius. E.H. ejus haeres, ex ha^redibus, 
vel ex hcereditate est. EIMO. ejusmodi. E.L. edita lex. 
EM.^ie/ EIM. ejusmodi. E.M.exmore. EMP. emptor. 
E.N. eiiam nunc, est noster, vel non. EN. enim. EOR. 
eorum. EP. epistola. E. P. edendum parce. E.P. epa- 
latio, e publico. EPM. epitaphium. EP. M. epistolam 
niisit. E.PP. et pra>parat. EPS. episcopus. EQ.P. 
eques publicus. EQ.R. eques Romanus. EQ.M. equitum 
magister. EQ. OR. equestris ordinis. ER. erit, vf/ erunt. 
E.R. A.ea res agitur. E.R. B. ejus regit bona. ERG. 
ergo. ER.L. M..3iTN. erit locus memoria; sternae. ERP. 
eripiet. ER.P. erit paratus. E.S. esenatu. E.S.jE.MR. 
e sacra aede Martis. ET. etiam. ET. NC. et nunc. EU. 
ejus. EUR. Europa. E.V.V.N.V.V. E. ede ut vivas, ne 
vive ut edas. EX. exigitur. EX.A.D. ex ante diem. 
EX. B.S. ex bonis suis EX C. ex consuetudine, concione, 
conditioue, <S:c. EX. .\.D.C. A. ex autoritate divi Caesaris 
Augusti. EX. I.Q. e\ jure Quiritium. EX. M. ex malitia. 
EXM.D. ex niemoria dixi. EXPR.T. experientia tua. 
E.K. R. exactis regibus. EX. S.C. ex senatus consulto. 
EX.V. ex voto. 


F. fecit, feiix, familia, fuit, tit, figura, fides, filius, Fla- 
vins, Februarius, fur, F.-V. filia. FABR. fabrum, vel 
fabrorum. F.A.C.B. factum bene. FAC.C. faciendum 
curavit. F.A..F". factum feliciter. FAM. familiaris. FAMA. 
familia. FB. fabricabant. E.G. fidei comniissum, tiducia, 
vel fidei causa, vel fraude creditoris, vel faciendum curavit. 
FC. fecit vel fecerunt, <S:c. FD..M. fides mundi. FE. 
fundamcntum, vel fortem, vel familife. FEA. foemina. 
FEB. Februarius. F. E. factum est, vel filius ejus. F. E.D. 
factum esse dicitur. F'. ED. factum edicto. FER. fece- 
runt. FER.L.VT.C. feriarum latinarum causa. F.F. 
fratris filius. F. F.\. vel FAM. filius familias. F. FBC. fecit 
fabricatio. F.FE. fabricari fecerunt. F.F'. F. ferro, tlamma, 
fama, vel fortior, fortuna, fato. F.J. fieri jussit. FI.B. fide 
bona. FI.C. fiscum, vel fidei commissum. FIC. RP. C. 
fiscum reipubl. causa;. FID. fides. FID. D. fide dignus. 
FIL. filius. FID. IMP. fides imperatoria. FID. INTEMP. 
fides intempcrata. FID.P.S. fides Patrum Scriptorum. 
FIO.P.R. fides Populi Romani. FID.R. fides regia, 
FID. R.P. fides reipublicae. FID SER. fidelis servus. 
F'.JR fidei jussores. FL. filius, flamen. Flavins. FLAM. 
Flaminius, flamen, vel flamina. FL.-\M.DIAL. vel FL. D. 
flamen Dialis. FLAM.QL flamen Quirinalis. FLAM. 
MART, flamen Martlalis. FLAM. P. H. P. H. C. Flamini, 
provinciffiHispania;, provincia?His])anica!citerioris. FLAV. 
Flavianus, rt/ Flavia, «c// tribus. FL.\.R. filia regis. FLB. 
flabrum. FL.P. flamen perpetuus. F.M. fati munus, vel 
fieri mandavit, vel ferit inemoriara, vel factum memoratum. 
F. M. I. vel F. M. IT. fati munus iniplent, vel implevit. I*'. N. 
fides nostra. F. N.C. fidei nosti'ae commisit, vel commissum. 
FN. AGR. fines agrorum. FO. forum. FOR. forte, vel 
fortis, vel foras, vel fortuna. V. P. forma publica, fama 
publics, fidei promissor, vel fides promissa. F. PP. R. forum 
Populi Romani. FR. frontes, fratres, vf/ forem. F. R. forum 
Romanum, regundorum, vel regum. FR.F. fratris filius. 
FR. COR. forum Cornelii. FR. J, forum Julium. FR.L. 
forum Livium. FR.S. forum Sempronii. FRS. fortis. 
FRMS. fortissimus. FU.C. fraudisve causa. FUNC. functus. 


G. gaudiura, gens, genius, Gellius, Gaius, gratia. Sec. G. 
.VUG. genio Augusti. GAV.^'. gravitas vera, ve/ vestra. 
G.B. gens bona. G.D. gens desolata. GD. gaudium. 
GEN.CORN. gcnte Corneliorum, &c. GENS, gentes. 
CiER. Germanicus. G.F. gula filiorum, Germanus frater, 
Germana; fidelis. GG. vel GS. gesserunt. GL. gloria. 
GL.N.L. gloria nominis Latini. GL. P. gloria parentum, 
vel patriae, vel populi. GL. P. R. gloria Pop. Romani, &c. 


GL.S. Gallius Sempronius. G.M. gens mala. ON. 
gens, vel genus. GN.R. S. genus Romani Senatus. 
GOTH. Gothicus. G.R. genus regium, rir/ rarura. GR. 
gerens, vcl gerit. GR.D. Graiis dedit, vel datum. GR.E. 
gratia ejus, &c. GRC. Graecus. GR.P. gloriae parentuiii. 
G. S. genio sacro. GS. gravitas, vel genus, vel gcssit, 
t>e/ gesserunt. GT. gentem, ir/ gentes. G.T. gravitas tua. 
GU. genus. G.V. Gravis Valerius. GX. grex. 

H. Hadrianus, honestas, hie, ha?c, hoc, lia;redes,. homo, 
habct, huic, liora, honor. H vE. M. ha3redem nieuni. H.ES. 
PRC. lia;redes principis. H.B.F. homo bona; fidifi. 
H.BV.P. ha;redilas, bonorumve possessio. HC.AM.N. 
hunc amicum nostrum. HC.L. hunc locum. HC.V. hunc 
virura, huic vitae. H.D. hie dedicavit, dedicarunt, vcl 
dedicaverunt. H.D.D. hoc dono datur. HEL. Helvetia. 
H.E.M.TBNR, hacc est memoria Tribunorum. HER.F. 
ha;redeni facit. HER. S. Herculis sacrum. HER.EX.T. 
F. C. ha;redes ex testamento faciendum cur.ivit. H. HB. P. 
hie habes pecuniam. H.HON, homo honestus. H.J. hxre- 
ditatis jure, vel hercle juravit, rci' hie inveniet. H.INS. 
hares institutus. H.L. honcsto loco, hie locus. H.L.H. 
N.S. hie locus hasredes non sequitur. H.L.N, honesto 
loco natus. H.M. honesta muiier, vcl hora mala, vel 
liora mortis. H.M. D.A. hoc mandavit dari Augustus. 
H.M.EXT.N.REC. hoc monumentum exteras non recipit. 
H.M. P. hie memoriae posuit, w/ hoc monumentum posuit. 
H.M.S.M. hie mater sua mortua, vel hora mala sumpsit 
moram. HO. homo, I'f/ honestus. HO. H. homo honestus. 
HO.M. homo. HOR. hora. H. P. hora pessima, honesta 
persona, hie posuit, honestus puer, vf/haereditatis possessio. 
H.POSS. hicreditatis possessor, vcl possessores. H.PS. 
hora pessima. H. 11. honesta ratio. HR. hacres. H. RC. 
hone.stae recordationis. H.R.I. P. hie requieseit in pace. 
H..S. ha;c sit, hie sit, hoc satis, hora sacra, vel Herculis 
sacrum. H.S.E. hie situs est, ir/ hie sepultus est. H.S.F. 
hoe saceiluni fecit. H.SFL..M. AUC. ha;c sepultura modo 
aucta. H..S.V.F.M. hoc sibi vivens fieri mandavit. HU. 
hujus. H.V.B.P. herus verus bonorum possessor. 

I. in, inter, interduin, intr.'i, uiium, Junius, Julius. J.AD. 
jamdudum. I.ACiL. in angulo. JA.RI. jam respondi. 
l.B. in brevi. J. C. Juris consultus, Julius Ca,v;\r. J.C.E.V. 
justa causa esse videtur. JD. Judex, interdum, idus, in- 
dicatum. I.D. inferis diis, vcl in dimidio, rr.7 juris dieendi 
juridicendo, vel in domino. J.D.C. juris dieendi causi. 
H3Q. ideinque. I.D.T.S.P. in diem tertluni, iiw perendi- 
num. ID. E. idem est. I.E. interest, in eum, iic/ judex 
csto, vel in are. J. F. Juiii filius, vcl in foro, iS:c. I.FO.C 
in foro Casaris. l.FO. P. in foro pacis, vcl I'alladis. I.FO. 
TR. in foro transitorio. IFT. interfuerunt. IG. igitur. I.G. 
in agro. J. H. Justus homo, vcl in honcslatem. ,1. U.S. Jesus 
hominuni .Salvator. HI. \^IR. Triumviri. Il.V.DD. duum 
viris dedicantibus. I.J. In juie, inibi, jus jurandum. 
J..I.J. justa judicavit judieia. HR. intcgrc restltuit. IE. 
illustris. J. L. jure legis, tv/ in loco, W justa lex. I.E. A. 
in loco absentc. I. L.D. in loco divino, vel loco donms. 
l.L.P. in loco publico, vel loco pracsente. I.E. R. in loco 
religioso. IL..S.T. illustris sublimitas tua. liM. liynmus, 
jam. IMI'. Imperator. IMPP. Imperatores, viz. de duobus. 
I.MPPP. Imperatores, v/:. de tribus. I.M.C'TT. in media 
civitute. l.MM. innuunis. I. MO. in medio. IMl'L. Im- 
jierialis. I.M.TPL. in medio templo. IN.D. intercisum 
diem. .I.N. EE. .lustum non esse, &c. INT. re/ INC 
initio. bn:i:i memoria. IN.FR.P.VI. Lai. Vll. 
in fronte pedes sex, latum ir/ in latitudine; epteni. INL. 
MA.T. illustris magnilieentia tua. L\'r.S. introeuntes. 
IN. H.H. in hoc honore. IN. H. DD. in honorem dedi- 
catum. IN.H.M. in hoc niagistratu. INH.MM.S.P.S. 

in hoe monumento sunt pecuniae sacrae. 
magistratu mortuus est. IN. PR.O.E. in praelio occisus 
est. I. N.R.I. Jesus Nazarenus, rex Judaeorum. IN.TUT. 
in tutelam. IN...'ER.PP.R. in xrario Pontificum Romano- 
rum. J.O.M.D. Jovi Optimo maximo dedicatum. J.O. 
J\I.H. Jovi Optimo maximo Haramoni. J.P. justa persona, 
in publico, jus practoris, vel praeeepti, Justus possessor, vcl 
in possessione, vcl jus pontificum, vel intra provineiam. 
I. PN'A. in piscina. LPS. in possessione. LPT. in posi- 
tione. I.PTE. in pariete. J. S. judicium solvi, in senatu 
tie/ judicio senatus, w/ judicium solius, reZ judicatuni solvi. 
I.S.C. in senatus eonsulto, tr/ judex sacrarum eognitio- 
num. I.S. S. infri, vel inferius seripta sunt. I.T. intra 
tempus, T'e/ jure testamenti. I.T. C. intra tempus constitu- 
tum. IT. II. CL. intra duos colles. IT. II.SPL. intra duo 
sepulclira. IT. LM. intra limen, vel limites. W . vel i\\i. 
quatuor. J.V.Justus vir. JUC. judicium. J. U.D. Juris 
utriusque Doctor. JURD. jurisdictio. JUD. judicum. 
JUDA. judieia. JUL. Julius. JUN. Jmiius. JUV.ju- 
venis, veZ juventus. JUVEN. M. juvenum moderator. 

K. ealendae, caput, cardo, castra, charissime, Coclius. 
KAR. Carthago. K.AUG, calendas Augusti. K.DD. 
castra dedicavit, vcl dedicamus, vcl dedicaverunt. K.FEB, 
ealendis Februarii. KD. ealendae, ir/ calendis. KL.NOV. 
calendis Novembris. KL.OCT. ealendis Octobris. KM. 
charissimus. K. MA. calendis Mail. K.M.ART. calendis 
Martii. K.MR, chara memoria. KO. Carolo. K. P. Ca- 
role positus. K.Q. ealendae Quintiles. KRM. carmen, 
viz. tonus vel sonus. Kll.AM.N. earns amicus noster. 
K.R.N, carus re.x noster. K. S. ealendae Sextiles. 

L. Lucius, Laelius, libertus, locus, lex, lector, quinquaginta. 
L. A. lex alia. LD. laudandum. L.DD.D. locum Diis 
dicavit. L.DIV. locus divinus. L.I^I.D.CQ. libens merito 
dicat consecratque. LEG. legio. LEG.E.D. lege ejus 
daumatus. L.F. Lucius filius, re/ Lucii filii. LG. legavit, 
uc/ leges. LG.D. legio decima, vel legem dat, vcl dedit. 
LG.F. S. legem fecit suani. LG.S.J. legem servare jussit. 
EG.. S. P. legem servare promisit. L.H. locum hunc, vel 
locus haeredum. LIB. libertas, libertus, re/ liberti, I've. L. 
J.D. A.C. lex Julia de adulteriis eoereendis. L.I.,1. locus 
injure. L.IJ.Q. locus injuri;c Quiritura. L.IMPL. locus 
imperialis. L IT.F. locus inter fines. L.JU.REP. lex 
Juliac repetundarum. L. J.Q. locus juri Quiritum. LITR. 
litora. L.M.D. locus mortuis dedieatus. L.M.E. lex 
niecum est, &e. LL. Lxlius, legibus. L.L. Lueii libertus, 
re/ Lucius libertus. LL.D. Legnm Doctor. L.L.PQ.E. 
libertis, libertatil)us, posteris((ue eoruni. L.LUC.Q.F. Licius 
Lueeius Quinti filius. L..\I. locus monumento, re/ more 
tuorum, vcl libi.Mis merito, &c. L. N. Latini nominis. LONG. 
P.^'II.L.1MII. longum |)edes septeni, latum pedes Ires. 
L.P. locus propitius, vcl proprius, vcl lege punitus, vel 
Latini prisci, vel locus |)ublicus, vel privatus, &c. L.R.J. 
lex regia justa. L. S. laribus sacrum, vcl locus saeer. L. SC. 
locus sacer, &c. LT.PR. Latini patres. L.V. lex verus. 
L.V.AL. Lucius A'alerius, &c. LUD. .AP. !udi Apollinares. 
LUD.SEC. ludi seeulares. 


M. Marcus, .Mutius, Martins, monumentum, muiier, miles, 
meuni, vcl meam, inihi, molestus, mors, modo, munus, me- 
rito, M'.Manius. MUL. nmlier. M..LM. .Marcus 
yiunilius. MAM. Mamercus. M.A. F. manifestum fecit. 
M.\F. manifestum. M.ACJ. EQ. magister eiiuitum. MAG. 
MIL. magister militum. MAG. et DEC. magister, ctDecu- 
riones. M. AG. militisager. .MAR.ULT. Marsultor. MAT. 
P. I'EC. ET. S. ET. S. PQ. E. Mater piissima fecit, et sibi, et 
suis posterisque eorum. M. .AUR. ^larcus Aurelius. MAX. 
CS. Maximus Caesar. MAX. POT. Maxinms Pontifex. 


M. B. muliev bona, M.D. Medicinic Doctor. ISI.D.O. niihi 
dare oportet. M. E.JNI. mancups ejus niuncipii. MENS, 
menses. MENS.JAN. mensis Januarii. .MER.S. Mer- 
curic sacrum. M.F. Marci filius, mala fide, male fidus, 
i-t7 maliE fidei. M.F.C. monunientum fieri curavit. MG. 
magis. M.H. malus homo. M. H.E. mihi lia;res erit. 
Ml. milii. M.J. maxinio Jove. MIL.IN.COH. militavit 
in cohorte. M9. ML. miles, vi/ nialeficus. MIL. milites. 
M^L militum, &c. MMN. matrimonium. MMT. monu- 
mentum. M. N. millia nummus, vel nummorum. MO. 
modi, modo, mors. M.P. Marcus Pacuvius, niaximus prin- 
ccps, male posuit, vel male positus. M. P. D. majorem partem 
diei. iNLPOP. Marcus Popilius. INLF.II, millia passuura 
duo. .^/.K. miles Komanus, milites Ravennatis. MS. 
menses, mensibus, molestus. M.S. manu scripture, me- 
moriae sacrum. JLS.P. mcmoria? su^ posuit. M.T.C. vel 
M.TUL.CIC. Marcus Tullius Cicero. M.T. martis tem- 
pore, &c. MU. Mutius. M.VL mensibus sex. MUL.B. 
mulier bona. MUL.M. mulier mala. MUL.P. mulier 
pcssinia. MUX. JUL. municipium Julia. 

N. num, nee, non, nomen, Nonius, nummorum, nascitur, 
nisi, numerator. N.w/N. noster, nepos, numisma. N.\T. 
natalia, natio, iW natione. N.A.V'. navis, re/ navibus. NBL. 
nobilis. N.C.C. non calunmiie causa. NEG. negotiator. 
NEP. nepos. N. F. C. nostrae fidei commissum. N.F". N. 
nobili Familia natus. N. IL notus homo. N. L. nominis 
Latini, vel non longe, non liquet. NN. nostrorum. NO. 
nostrum, nobis. NOBB. nobilibus. NOB.G. nobilis gene- 
ratus, seu nobilis genere. NOB.F\N. nobili familia natus. 
NOX.nonarum. NON. APR.nonis Aprilis. NOR. nostro- 
rum. N.P. nihil potest. NQ. nusquam, vel nonque, namque, 
t'f/ nunquam. NR. noster. N.S.E. non sic est. NT. nomi- 
natus, vel Novum Testamentum, vel nostri temporis, iSrc. 
NU. nuptias. NU. non vis, vel non vacat, vel non valet. 

O. Optimo, oportet. OB. Obriziacum, vel obriacum, orbem, 
obiter, obiit. OB.>J.E. ob merita ejus. OB. ME. 
P. E.C. ob merita pictatis et concordia;. O.BO. omnia 
bona. OD. ordo. O.D.M. opera domus munus. O.H.S.S. 
ossa hie sita sunt. O.L. operas locavit. O.^L optimus 
maxinms. 0?>L omnium. OM.A. omnia. OMIS. omnibus. 
OALV.F. omnibus vivis fecit. ON. omnino. ON.A. om- 
nia. ONT.IMP. ornamentum imperiale. 00. oportebit, 
oportuit omnino, et aliquando omnes. 0.0. TS. ornamenta 
oiimibus sextus. OP. optirao, vel opiter, vel oportere. 
OF.PKIN. Optimo principi. OPP. oppidum. OPT. 
oportere. OR. ornato, vel orAo. ORB.PAR. orbati pa- 
rentes. ORD. ordinis. OR. M. ordo militum. ORN.LMP. 
ornamentum imperiale. OS. omnes. OS.C. omnes con- 
ciliant. OST. ostia. OT.FN. ostium fenestra;. O.V. D. 
onini virtuti dedito. O.V.F. optima viventi fecit. 

P. Publius, pes. posuit. PACE. P. R. pace populo Ro- 
mano. PA. DIG. vd P. D. patritiatus dignitas. PAR. 
parentum. PAT, patritius. P.C. pactum conventum, pe- 
cunia constituta, patrono colonia;, vel ponendum curavit. 
P.C. Post consulatum. P.D. publice dedit. PEC. pecu- 
lium, vel pecunia. P.F. plus felix. P. FE. publice fecit. 
PFM. paterfamilias. P.H.C. publicus honor curandus. 
P.H. positus hie. PICEN. Piceni. PIENT. pientissimus. 
P. IR. populus, vel Publius irrogavit. P.J.R. populum 
jure rogavi. P.J^'. tr/J. principi juventutis. P.L. Publii 
libertu.<. P.M. principi militia;, pontifex maximus. POM. 
Pompeius. PON. M. pontifex maximus. POP. populus. 
POSTH. posthumius, vel posthumus. POT; potestas. 
P. P. pater patriae, pater patratus. Pti. postquam. P. R. 
populus Romanus. PR. prajtor. PR. PR. praefectus prae- 

torii. PRi^.URB. praefectus urbis. PRiE.PRj^S. pra- 
fectus pracsidii. PI{IN.JL\ ENT. princeps juventutis. 
PROCO.S. proconsul. PR. PER. praetor peregrinus. 
PR. S. praetoris sententia. PR/EF. praefectus. PR.-EF. 
VIGIL, praefectus vigilura. PRID.NON. APR. pridie 
nonas Aprilis. PRID.KAL. vel K. pridie kalendas. 
PRON. pronepos, vel proneptis. PRS. praises. PRSS. 
presides, ir/ pratores. P.S. posuit sibi, plebiscitum. PSC. 
plebiscita. P. S.F. publice sibi fecit, vc/publicfE saluti fecit. 
P.S.F.C. publica; saluti faciendum curavit, vel publico, vel 
proprio sumptu faciendum curavit. PU. pupilla. PUB. 


Q. Quintus, vel Quintius. Q. vel QU. quartus. QUyE.S. 
quaestor. Q.'\M. quemadmodum. Q.B.F. quare bonum 
factum. Q.BM.V. qua; bene mecum vixit. Q.D.C.Qua 
de causii. Q.D.R. qua de re. Q E.R.E. quanti ea res 
erit. Q.F. Quinti filius. QUIR. Quirites. Q.L. Quinti 
libertus, Sec. QM. quomodo. Q.N.A.N.N. quandoque 
neque ais, neque negas. Q..SS.S. quae superscripta sunt. 
QT. quantum. QT. quotiens. 

RAV^ Ravenna. R.C. Romana civitas. R.D. regis 
domus. REG. regi. REI.M. rei militaris. RESP. res- 
publica. REST, restituit, restitutor. R.F.E.D, recte 
factum esse dicitur. R.F. E.V. recte factum esse videtur. 
R.G.C. rei gerundae causa. RG.F. regis filius. RP.C. 
reipublicte constituenda. 


S. sacrum, sepulcrum, senatus. S.C. senatus consultum. 
SC.MM. sancta; memoriiE. SCS. sanctus. SCIP. Scipio. 

S. D. salutera dicit. SD. secundum. SEMP. Sem- 
pronius. SEPT. Septimius. SER. Servius, Sergius. 
SEX. sextus. SEV. Severus. SF. satisfecit. SET. satis- 
factum. SIL. Silius. S.L.J.CQ.O. R.E. satisfecit lex, 
jus, causaque omnium rerura csto. S.O. sine occasione. 
SP. Spurius. S.P.D. salutem plurimam dicit. SP.D. 
supra dictum. S. P.Q R. Senatus Populusque Romanus. 
S.T. sine testibus. ST. statutum. S.T.D. Sacrae Theo- 
logiiE Doctor. STIP. slipendionem t!e/ stipendavit. S. U. 
LQ. sibi uxori liberisque. SU^I.MAG. sunmius magis- 
tratus. SYL. Sylla. 

T. Titus, Titius, Tullius. T.A. Titus Annius, vel tutoris 
- authoritate. TAB. tabularius. TAB. P.H.C. tabularius 
provinciaHispania; citerioris. TAR. Tarquinius. T.AUG. 
tutelae .Augustic. TB. tibi. TER. Terentius. T.F. 
Titi filius. T.F.I, tcstamenta fieri jussit, 11. vel Tlh. 
Tiberius. TI.F. Tiberii filius. Tl.L. Tiberii libertus. 
TI.N. Tiberii nepos. TIC. D.F.M. tibi dulci filio meo. 
T.J. AV.P.U.D. tempore judicem, arbitrumve postulat, ut 
dit. TIB. CS. Tiberius Caesar. TIB. CL. Tiberius Clau- 
dius. T.LEG.III. tribunus legionis tertias. T.LIV. Titus 
Livius. TM. tantum, terminus, thermae. T.M.P. terminum 
posuit, vel terminus positus. TM.DD. terminum dedicavit, 
re/ dedicante, re/ therma; dedicatae. T. P. titulum posuit. 
TR. trans. TR.CEL. tribuni celerum. TR..ER. tri- 
buni a;rarii. TR.LEG.II. tribunus legionis secundae. 
TR.M. vel MIL. tribuni militum. TR.PL.DESS. tribuni 
plebis designati. TR POT. tribunicia potestate. TRV. 
CAP. triumviri capitales. TRV.MON. triumviri mone- 
tales. TRIB.POT. vel FT. tribunitia potestate. TUL. 
Tullius. TU.H. Tullus Hostilius. TUR. turraa. TUT. 


V.A. veterano assignatus. VAL Valerius, vel Valerianus. 
VAL.CS. Valerius Cccsar. VAT. vates, vel vatum. 
VB. verba, vobiscum. V. B. viro bono. V.B. A. viri boni 


arbitratu. V.B.F. vir bona; fidei. V.C. vir consularis, 
clarus, vel clarissiaaus, usucapio, urbis conditse. V.CC. 
valuerunt consulus. V.C.C.F. vale conjunx cliarissima, 
feliciter. V.D. vivus dedit. V.D.A. vale dulcis amice. 
V.DD. voto dedicatur. V.DICT. vir dictatorius. V.D. 
N.V. vale decus nostne urbis. V. E. verura etiam, vir egre- 
gius, nut excellens. V.E.FL. AUG. PP. vir cgregius, aiil 
excellens, flamen Augusti vel Augustalis perpetuus. VESP. 
Vespasianus. A'ET. veteranus, vel velaria, sell, tribu. 
VET. AUG. X. veteranus Augusti nostri. VET.LEG.S. 
veteranus legionis secundae. UF. usufructus. V.G. verbi 
gratia. V..I. vir Justus, w/ illustris. VIC. victores, victor, 
ve/ victoria. \1U.VE. virgo vestalis. VIX. vixit. VIX. 
A. LUX. vixit annis quinquaginta octo. VIX. A. III. M. XI. 
D. XV. vixit anuis tribus, niensibus uiidi'cini, diebus quin- 
deciin. VL. videlicet. ULPS. Ulpius, vel Ulpianus. 
VM. vestrum. VM.E. veruni etiam. V.M.M. votum 
merito Minervae. V.MUN. vias munivit. V.N. quinto 
nonas. V. N.U. viro nostro urbis. VS. votum solvit. 
V.V. virgin! Vestali. V.V.E. vobis visum erit. 


X. p. decern pondo, decern pedes. XPS. Cliristus. X.V. de- 
cern viri. [For the Greek and Roman numerals, vide 
Numeral.'] Liv. Hist.; Tae. Annal. Sje. ; Val. Prob. Pel. 
Diaeon. et alii Grainmat. Lat. I'et.; Galtz. Fast. ; Sniet. 
Inscript. Vet.; Gruter. Thes. Inscript. jmssim. 

Modern Abbreviations used in Law Books. 

A. (a.) B. (b.) A. front, B. back of a lease. Abr.Ca. abridged 
cases of equity. A. An. anonymous. An.B. Anony- 
mous Benloc, i. e. Reports printed at the end of Benloe. 
Al. Aleyn. And. Anderson. Andr Andrews. Ass. as- 
size. Ast. Ent. Aston's Entries Atk. Atkyns. Ayl. Ayliffe. 

Bac. Abr. Bacon's Abridgement. Banc.Sup. upper bench. 
Benl.Bendl. Benloe, Bendloe. B.Tr. Bishop's Trial. Bl. 
Blount. Bla. Com. Blackstone's Commentaries. Bo.R. Act, 
Booth's Real Actions. Bra. Brady and Bracton. Bridg. 
Jkidgman. Br. Brooke, Browne, Brownlow. Br. Brev. 
Jud. and Ent. Brownlow Brevia Judicial. &c. Bro, Brow. 
Ent. Brown's Entries. Bro.V. M. Brown's Vade Mecum. 
B.N.C, Brook's New Cases. Brownl.Rediv. Brownlow 
Redivivus. B. orC.B. common bench. B. R. King's 
Bench. Bulst. Bulstrode. Bur. Uurrow. 


C. codex (juris civilis). Ca. case or placita. Cal. Callis, 
Calthrope. Cart. Carter. Carth. Carthew. Cas.BR. 
Cases temp. W. III. (12. .Mod.) Cas.L. Eq. Cases in Law 
and Efjuity. C. P. Common Pleas. Ca. P. Cases in Par- 
liament. Cawl. Cawley. Ch.Cas. Cases in Chancery. 
Ch.l're. Precedents in Chancery. CIi.R. Reports in 
Chancery. Clay. Clayton. CI. Ass. Clerk's Assistant. 
Clift. Clift's Entries. Cod, or Cod.Jur. Codex by Gibson. 
Co Cop. Coke's Copyholder. Co. Ent. t'oke's Entries. 
Co. Lit. Coke on Lyttleton (1 Inst.) Co.P.C. Coke's 
Pleas of the Crown. Co.M.C. Coke's .Magna Charta 
(2 Inst.) Co. on Courts. Coke's 4 Inst. Com. Comber- 
bacli. Com. Comyn's Reports. Com. Dig. Corny n's 
Digest. Con. contra. Cot. Cotton. Cro. Croke's Keil- 
way. Cro. (1.2.3.) Croke (Eliz. Jam. Cha.) Cromp. 


D. dictum, digest, Dal. Dalison. Dalt. Dalton. D'An. 
D'Anvers. Dav. Davis. Dig. Digest of Writs. Dugd. 
Dugdale. Di.Dy. dyer. D'- doctor. Dub. dubitatur. 


E. Easter Term. Eq.Ca. Equity Cases or Reports. E. of 
Cov. Earl of Coventry's case. 

Far. Farresley. Ff answering to the Greek jt. pandectfe 
juris eivilis. Fin. Finch's Reports. F.Fitz. Fitzherbert. 
F.N.B. Fitzherbert Natura Brevium. Fitz-G. Fitz-Gibbon. 
Fl. Fleta. Fol. Foley's Poor Laws. Forr. Forrester. Fort. 
Fortescue. F( st. Forst. Foster, Forster. Fra. Francis. 
Freem. Freeman's Reports. 


Gilb. Gilbert. Godb. Godbolt. Godol. Godolphin. Golds. 
Goldsborough. (iro. de j.b. (irotius de jure belli. 

Han. Hansard. Hard. Hardres. Hawk. Hawkins. H.H. 
P.C. Hales Hist. Plac. Cor. H.P.C, Hale's Pleas of the 
Crown. Her. Heme. Het. Hetley. H.Hil, Hilary 
Term. Hob. Hobart. Hugh. Hughes. Hut, Hutton. 

Jan. Angl. Jani Anglorum. Jenk. Jenkins. ].2.Inst.C. 
(1.2.) Coke's Institutes. Just. 1.2.3. Justinian's Instit. 
lib. I. tit. 2. sec. 3. Jon. 1.2. Jones, W. and T. Jud. 

Keb. Keble. Kel. Sir John Kelynge. Kel.1.2. \Vm. Ke- 
lynge's Rep. 2 Parts. K.C. R. Reports temp. King C. 
Keilw.Kel. Keilway. Ken. Kennet. 

Lamb. Larabard. La. Lane. Lat. Latch. Leon. Leonard. 
Lev. Levinz. Lc. Ley. Lib. .\ss. Liber Assisarum. Lib. 
Feud. Liber Feudorum. Lib.lntr. Old Book of Entries. 
Lib. PI. Liber Placitandi. Lil.Abr. Lilly's Practical Re- 
gister, or an Abridgement, &c. Lind. Linwood. Lyt. 
Lyttleton. Lut. Lutwyche. 


Mad. Madox. Mai. Malyne. Man. Manwaring. Mar. 
March. M.Mich. Michaelmas Term. Mo. Mod. Ca. 
modern cases, Mod.c.l.&eq. modern cases in law and 
equity. Mod. Int. 1.2. Modus Intrand. 1.2. Moll. Molloy. 

N.Benl. New Benloe. N.L. Nelson's Lutwyche. N.Xov. 

novellae (juris civilis). No.N. novae narrationes. 
O.Benl. Old Benloe. Off.Br. officina brevium. Off. Ex. 

office of executors. Ord. Cla. Clarendon's orders. Ow. 


Pal. Palmer. P.Pas. Easter Term. Pl.Pla.P.p. placita. 

P. C. pleas of the crown. P. W. Peere Williams. Perk. 

Perkins. Pig. Pigot. PI. Com. Plowden's Commentaries. 

Pol. PoUexfen. Poph. Popham's Reports. 2. Poph. Cases 

at the end of Poph. Rep. P. R.C.P. Pract. Register in 

the Common I'leas. P. R.(Jh. Pract. Register in Chancery. 

Pr. Reg. Cha. [)recedents in Chancery. Priv. Lond. privi- 

legia Londini. Pr.St. private statute. 


Quinti (iuinto. Year Book, 5 Hen. V. Q. War. quo war- 


K. resolved, repealed. R.S.L. readings on the Statute 
Law. Rast. Uastall. Ld.Raym. Lord Raymond's Re- 
ports. Raym.T. Sir Tho. Raymond's Reports. Reg. Brev. 
Registrum Brevium. Reg. PI. Regula Placitandi. Reg. 
Jud. registrum judiciale. Reg.Oiig. Registrum omnium 
l?revium originalium. Rep. (1.2. &c.) 1. 2. &c. Coke's 
Keports. Rep.Eq. Gilbert's Reports in Equity. Rep.Q.A. 
Reports temp. Q. Anno. Rob. Robinson. Roll, roll of 
the term. RoU.Ab. Rollc's Abridgement of Cases, &c. 
Ry.F. Rymer's Focdera. 



Salk. Salkeld. Sav. Savile. Saund. Saunders. S.^. section. 

S. 13. upper bench. S. C. same case. Sec. section. 

Sel. Selden. Sel.Ca. select cases. Sem. semble, seems. 

Sess.Ca. sessions cases. Show, shower. Sid. Siderfin. 

Skin. Skinner. Soni. Somner, Soraers. Spel. Spelman. 

St.Ca. Stillingfleet's Cases. S.P. same point. S.C.C. 

Select Chancery Cases. Stamf.St. P.C.& Pr. Stamforde 

Pleas and Prerog. Stat.W. statute Westminster. Stra. 

Strange. Sty. style. St.Tri. State Trials. Swin. Swin- 

Th. Dig. Theloal's Digest. Th. Thesaurus Brevium. Toth. 

Tothill. T. R. teste rege. T.R.E. or T.E.R. tempore 

Regis Edwardi. Tr.Eq. Treatise of Equity. Trem. 

Truniaine. 'J'rin. Trinity Term. 
Vaug. Vauglian. Vent. Ventris. Vet.Utr. Old B. entries 

Vet. old natura brevium. Vern. Vernon. Vid. 

Vidian. Vin. .Vbr. Viner's Abridgement. 
W.l.W.'J. statutes Westminster. Win. Winch. 

Y.B. Year book. Yelv. Yelverton's Reports. 

Abbreviations used in Commerce. 

A. accepte, accepted. Acct. Account. A. P. a protester. 
A. S.P. (iccepte sous protest. A.S.P. C. accepte sous pro- 
test pour mcitre h compte. C. compte, account. C.O. 
conipte ouvert, open account. C. C. compte courunt, ac- 
count current. M.C. mon compte, my account. S.C. 
son compte, his account. 'L.C. leur compte, iVicw viccownt. 
N. C. notre compte. C. Quintal or hundred weiglit. D. 
OUiJ'. (Icniers tournois. HAL.D^'^- dallcr, daldrc. DEN. 
dcniers de gros. D"- ditto. DUC.D" ducat. F.d'or, 
florins of gold. F.FL.F^- florins. F"' folio. Gr. gros. 
LG.ouL. deG. livres de gros. L.ST, livrcs sterling, 
pounds sterling. L^ ■ livres. £. livres tournois. M. M*^' 
marc or marcs, ^l.l^. marclubs. ti"' numero. ON.ONC. 
onces. P. protests, pnye. P"" C^' per cent. P^'q- pour 
cent. R. rpfu. Rec''' received. Rec'- receipt. R°- recto. 
R*' remises. {L R" R*-^- rixdale, richedale, rixdoUar. S. 

- sols tournois. T'^'^T"*- traite, traites. 

Modern Abbreviations in vulgar Use. 
a. acre. a. or adj. adjective. A.B.orB.A. Ariium Bac- 
catnureus, Bachelor of Arts. Abp. archbishop, A.C. 
ante Christum, before Christ. Acct. acconipts. A.D. 
anno Domini, in the year of our Lord. ad. or adv. adverb. 
A. F. or .'\. fir. firkin of ale. A.M. aiite meridiem, before 
noon ; or anno miindi, in the year of the world, a ana, 
each. Ank. anker of brandy. A.P.G. Professor of 
Astronomy in Gresham College. A.U. C. anno urbis con- 
dita:, in the year of the city, i. e the building of Rome. 


B. basso, bass. B.orbk. book. Bar. barrels or barley- 
corns. Bart, baronet. B.C. before Christ, or bass con- 
tinued. B.C. L. Bachelor of Civil Law. \i.Y>. Baccalau- 
reus Divinitatis, Bachelor of Divinity. B.F. or B.fir. 
firkin of beer. B L. Baccalaureus Legum, Bachelor of 
Laws. B.\L Baccalaureus Mcdicina, Bachelor of ]Medi- 
dicine. Bp. bishop. B.V. beata Virgo, blessed Virgin. 
Bu. Bushel. 


C. or cap. caput, ciiapter. C. or cent, centum, a hundred. 
C. B. Companion of the Bath. C.C. 200, or Caius College. 
C.C.C. 300, or Corpus Christi College. CCCC. 400. 
Cap. captain. Ch.Ch. Christ Church. Chal. chaldron. 

Chron. Chronicles. Cit. citizen, Co. company. Cochl. 
cochleare, a spoonful. Col. colonel or Colossians. Coll. 
college. Conj. conjunction. Cor. Corinthians. C.P.S. 
Custos Privati Sigilli, Keeper of the Privy Seal. Cr. cre- 
ditor. C.S. Ciwtos .SV^?///, Keeper of the Seal. Ct. count. 
Cwt. hundred-weight. 


D. denarius, pence. Dan. Daniel. D.D. Divinitatis Doctor, 
Doctor of Divinity. Dec. December. Deg. degrees. 
Deut. Deuteronomy. D.F. Dtfensor Fidei, Defender 
of the Faith. D.G. Dei gratia, by the grace of God. 
Do. ditto, the same. Dr. doctor, debtor, or dram. D.T. 
Doctor TIteologicc, Doctor of Divinity. Dwt. pennnyweight. 


E. east. Eccl. Ecclesiastes. Eccles. ecclesiastical. E.E. 
English ells. E.G. exampli gratia, for example. Ep. 
epistle. Eph. Ephesians. Esq. esquire. Ex. example. 
Exon. Exeter. Exr. executor. 


F. fat, let it be done ; or fode, strong. Far. fartliing. 
F.A.S. Fraternitatis Antiquariorum Socius. Fellow of the 
Antiquarian Society. F.E. orFl.E. Flemish ells. F.E. 
or Fr.E. French ells. Feb. February. Fig. figure. F.L.S. 
Fraternitatis Linneamv Socius, Fellow of the Linna;an 
Society. F.R.S. & A.S. Fraternitatis Reoice Socius et 
Associatus, Fellow and Associate of the Royal Society. 
F. S.A. Fellow of the Society of Arts. Ft. feet. Fth. 
fathom. Fur. furlong. 

Gal. gallons or Galatians. G.C.B. Knight Grand Cross of the 
Bath. Gen. general or Genesis. Gent, gentleman. G.R. 
Georgius Hex, King George. Gr. grains. 


Hhd. hoffsheads. H.M.S. 

H. or hr. hours. Heb. Hebrews 
His Majesty's ship. 

lb. or ibid, ibidem, in the same place. L e. id est, that is. 
Jer. Jeremiah. .T.H.S. Jestis liominum Salvator, Jesus the 
Saviour of men. In. inches. Incog, incognito, unknown, 
as a stranger. Inst, instant, or of this month. Interj. inter- 
jection. Itin. itinerary. 

K.A. Knight of St. Andrew, in Russia. K.A.N. Knight of 
Alexander Newski, in Russia. K.B. Knight of the Bath. 
K.B. A. Knight of St. Bento d'Airs, in Portugal. K.B.E. 
Knight of the Black Eagle, in Russia. K.C. Knight of the 
Crescent, in Turkey. K.C.B. Knight Commander of the 
Bath. K.C.S. Knight of Charles III. of Spain. K.F. 
Knight of Ferdinand, of Spain. K.G.F. Kniglit of the 
Golden Fleece, in Spain. K.G.V. Knight of Gustavus 
Vasa, of Sweden. K.J. Knight of Joachim. K.L. Knight 
of Leopold, of Austria. K.M. Knight of Malta. K.M.H. 
Knight of Mont, in Holstein. K.M.J. Knight of Maxi- 
milian Joseph, in Bavaria. K.P. Knight of St. Patrick. 
K. .M.T. Knight of St. Maria Theresa, in Austria. K.N. S. 
Knight of the Royal North Star, in Sweden. K.R.E, 
Knight of the Red Eagle, in Russia. K.S. Knight of the 
Sword, in Sweden. K.S. A. Knight of St. Anne, in 
Russia. K.S.E. Knight of St. Esprit, i.e. of the Holy 
Ghost, in I'rance. K.S.F. Knight of Ferdinand, of Sicily. 
K.S.G. Knight of St. Georgia, in Russia. K.S.L. Knight 
of the Sun and Lion, in Persia. K.S. P. Knight of St. 
Stanislaus, in Poland. K.S.W. Knight of St. Wladeniir, 
in Russia. K.W. Knight of William, in the Netherlands. 
K.T. Knight of the Thistle. K.T.S. Knight of the Tower 
and Sword, in Portugal. Kil. kilderkin. Kt. knight. 

L. or lib. /(Ara, pound. L. or lib. /i5er, book. L.D. Lady 
Day. Ldp. lordship. Lea. leagues. Lev. Leviticus, 
c 2 


Lieut, lieutenant. LL.D. Legum Doctor, Doctor of Laws. 
L. S. locus sigilli, the place of the seals. 

yi. mille, a thousand; marquis; minutes; miles; in a recipe, 
manipulus, a handful ; misce, mingle ; and mixlura, a mix- 
ture ; as a brand, murder ; in astronomical tables, meridi- 
onal or meridics. M.A. Artium Manisler, Master of Arts. 
Mai. Malachi. Matt. Matthew. M.B. Medkirue Bacca- 
laureus, Baclielor of Physic ; or Musicce Baccalaureus, 
Bachelor of Music. M.D. Mcdicincc Doctor, Doctor of 
Physic. Mast'' master. Mem. memento, remember. 
Messrs. Messieurs, gentlemen. M.P. member of parlia- 
ment. Mr. roister, Mrs. mistress. MS. manuscriptum, 
manuscript. MSS. mamtscripta, manuscripts. 
N. north, note, noun, or nails. N.B. jiota bene, observe, 
take notice. Nem.con. or Nem.diss. nemine contradicente, 
or nemine dissenliente, unanimously. No. numero, number. 
Nov. November. N. S. new style. Numb, numbers. 
Obt. obedient. Oct. October. O.S. old style. Oxon. Ox- 
ford. Oz. ounces. 

P. pints, poles, or pugil, the eighth part of a handful. 
Pari, parliament. Part, participle. Per cent, per centum, 
by the hundred. Pet. Peter. Phil, or Philip. Philippians. 
Pk. pecks. PI. plural. P.M. post meridiem, afternoon. 
P.^LG. Professor of Music in Gresham College. Pot. 
pottles. Piep preposition. Pres. president. Pret. preterite. 
Prob. problem. Prof professor. Prof.Th.Gr. Professor 
of Divinity in Gresham College. Pron. pronoun. Prop, 
proposition. Prov. \'.S. postscriptum, postscript 
or Psalms. Pt. or pts. part or parts, pint or pints. Pun 

Q. question; and (junsi, as though. Q.D. quasi dictum, n% 
if it were said. Q.E.D. yM«f/ crat demonstrandum, which 
was to be demonstrated. Q.E.F. yuod crat faciendum 
which was to be done. Q.PL. quantum placet, as much as 
you please. Qr. or qrs. quarter or quarters. Q. S, quantum 
sufficit, a sufficient quantity, or as much as will do. Q.V. 
quantum vis, as much as you will ; or quod vide, which see. 
K. rex, king; or roods. Ticc. recipe, take. Rec''. received. 
Rect. rector. Reg. Prof rogius professor. Rev. reve- 
lation. Rev'' reverend. R.N. royal navy. Rom. Ro- 
mans. Rt. Hon. right honourable. Kt. Vrpful. right 
worshipful. Run. runlet. 

S. south. S. or St. saint. S. or Sec. seconds. Sec. secre- 
tary. Sept. September. Sh. shillings. Sol. solution and 
Solomon. Sr. Sir. ii.H. socins and sucietatis. St. street. 
Tlieor. theorem. Tim. Timothy. Tit. Titus. 

\'. verb or verse ; or vide, see. v. a. verb active. Ult. ultimo, 
last, or of last month. V.n. verb neuter. Viz. videlicet, 
that is to sav. namely. 

\V. or wk. weeks. 

Xmas. Christmas. Xn. Christian. Xper. Christopher. 

Ye. the, Ym. them. ^'n. tlum. Yr. your and j'car. Ys. 

this. Yt. that. 
AnisRKVlATlON (Malti.) the reducing of fractions to the 
lowest terms, which is ])erformed l)y dividing both the 
numerator and denominator by any term wliicli will divide 
them, without leaving a remainder ; thus, 41 becomes 

equal to -^, to t, and lastly to 4, the lowest terms if divided 

successively by 2 ; and in Algebra ■ — becomes equal 

to if divided by^nj, Wallis. Math. 

Abbheviation (Print.) characters or signs are called 
abbreviations, which stand for any word or syllable, as y' 
for the, or c for em, en, y' for that, &c. These were for- 
merly in use, but are now obsolete. 
Abbreviation (Alch.) a short way of performing a process. 
ABBRE'UVOIRS (Arch.) vide Abreuvoir. 
ABBRO'CHK MENT (Law.) Abbrocamentum, forestalling a 

market or fair. 
ABBLl'TTALS (Laiv) vide Abuttals. 

A'BDALS (Hist.) from ahda, a pious man, a hermit ; a sect 
of enthusiasts among the Persians, who pretended to in- 
spiration. An abdal was Jurcus deo, like the Sybils of 
A'BDAR (Polit.) an officer of the King of Persia, who 

acted as his cup-bearer. 
ABDELA'RI (Hot.) an Egyptian plant, the fruit of which 
would nearly resemble a melon if it were not so oblong, 
and its extremities so acute. Rail Hist. Plant. 
ABDELA'Vl (Hot.) an Egyptian plant, very like a melon: 

Melo .Egyptius. C. Bauh. Pin.; Prosp. Alp. JEgijpl. 
A'BDEST (Thcol.) the ablution or washing of the hands, 
face, and other ])arts, according to the religious rites of 
the Mahometans. " I have seen many go out of the 
mosque in the midst of their devotions to take fresh abdest."' 
Pitt's faithful Account of the Mahometans. 
ABDE'VENAM (Astrol.) the head of the twelfth figure of 

the heavens. 

ABDICA'TK) (Ant.) airoy.i^tJ^ic, a formal renunciation of 

children by their parents, which was a Grecian custom 

prohibited by the laws of the Romans. Luciau in Abdicat. 

A'BDTlMi causte (Med.) hidden or remote causes. Celsus. 

ABDITO'RIUM (Arclui'til.) a hiding place, as the chest in 

York Cathedral for preserving valuables. Mon. Anglic. 
ABDO'MEN (Aiiat.) so called, from aldo, to hide, be- 
cause the viscera are hidden in it, is that cavity which was 
termed by the ancients, y.a.rur.oiXi::, imus venter or alvus, 
the lower belly, beginning immediately under the thorax, 
or middle belly, and ending at the pelvis of the os>^a iimo- 
niinata. The abdomen is divided into four regions, three 
of which are anterior and one posterior. The anterior are 
the epigastric, or sujjerior region ; the umbilical, or middle 
region ; and the hi/pogastric, or lower region. The pos- 
terior region is the regio lumbaris, or Loins. The epigas- 
tric region is situated at a small depression, called the Pit 
of the Stomach, and is divided into three parts; the one 
middle, named epigastrium ; and two lateral, named hypo- 
chondria. The umbilical region is divided into one middle, 
called properly the regio umbiliealis, or the Navel ; and 
Hvo lateral, called the ilia, or Flanks, The hj/pogistric 
region is divided into one middle, named the pubis ; and 
two lateral, called the iuguina, or (iroins. The cavity of 
the abdomen is separated from that of the thorax by the 
muscular diaphragm, or Midriff; and the bottom of the 
abdomen, which answers to the pelvis of the skeleton, is 
terminated anteriorly by the Pudenda, and iiostcriorly by 
the rluues or Buttocks. The space between the anus and 
pudnuld is called the pcrinieum ; and the membrane with 
which the abdomen is lined, is called the perilonceum. Its 
contents, or viscera, are anteriorly, the e/nj)hron, the vcn- 
triculus, or Stomach; the Intestines, large and small; the 
Mesentery, the Pancreas, Spleen, Liver and Gall-bladder ; 
posteriorly, the Kidneys, Ureters, and rcceptaculum chijli, 
I'rinary Bladder, and in women the utcru;, or Womb, &c. 
llippocrnt. de Nat. Ham. ct Htruct. Horn. I^x, ; Ariitot. 
Hist. Anim. I. 1, c. l.'i ; Ruf. Ephes. de Appcll. Part. 
Corp. Hum. 1. 1, c. fJ, &c. ; Jul. Poll. .tnom.X.'l, segm. 
168, &'C. ; Gal. de Meth. Med. 1. 6; Oribas. Med. Coll. 


1. 24-, c. 1, &c. ; Fallop. Anat.; Eustach j Tab. Anahm.; 
Gorr. Def. Med. in Voc. tuu^ii : Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 
Heister. Surg. p. l^l, &c. ; JVinsloiv's Anatoni. ; Chessel- 
deit's Anat. &c. 

Abdomen' of Fishes, in comparative anatomy, is covered 
in its lower part with a black thin membrane answering to 
iJie human peritonceum, and consisting of annular segments. 
It lies beliind the thorax, from which it is separated by a 
membranous partition, but no muscular diaphragm. 

ABDO'MINAL {Anat.) an epithet for what belongs to 
the abdomen, as the Abdominal arteries, muscles, nerves, 
&c. — Abddtninal Ring, or the Annulus Abdominis, an ob- 
long tendinous opening in the groin, through which the sper- 
matic chord passes in men, and the round ligament of 
the uterus in women. It is through this aperture that the 
intestines fall in cases of rupture. 

ABDOMIXA'LES (Ic/i.) the fourth order of fishes having 
tlie ventral fins behind the pectoral. [Vide Pisces.'} It 
includes the following genera — namely the Cobitis, Loche ; 
of the same thickness nearly from head to tail. — Amia ; 
bead naked, bonj-, and rough. — .SJiirus ; head naked, 
broad, compressed. — Teutliis ; head truncate on the fore- 
head. — Loricaria ; head smooth, depressed. — Salmo, Sal- 
mon, head smooth, compressed. — Fistularia, Tobacco- 
Pipe-Fish ; bod}- round, gently tapering from the jaws to 
tlie tail. — Esdx, Pike ; head flattish above, dorsal and anal 
fius very short. — Flops ; head smooth, edges of the jaws 
and palate rough, with teeth. — Argentina, Argentine; 
teeth in the jaws and tongue. — Atherina, Atherine; upper 
jaw a little fiat, gill membrane brayed. — Mugil, ^lullet ; 
lips membranaceous, teeth. — Exococlus, Flving-Fish ; head 
scaly. — Ptilynemus ; head com])ressed and covered with 
scales. — Clujiea, Herring ; belly carinate and serrate, tail 
forked. — Cyprinus, Carp ; mouth small, without teeth. 
Linn. Syst. Sat. 

ABDU'CENT (Anal.) an epithet for some muscles, vide 

ABDUCE'NTES Nervi, part of the sixth pair of nerves, so 
called because they are lost on the abductores oculi. 

ABDU'CTION (Surg.) •LKTxya.a. 1. A fracture of the bones 
xavynicY, after the manner of a stalk, when the extremities 
of the fractured bone recede from each other. Gal. Metli. 
Med. 1. 2, &c. 2. A strain, according to Callus Aurelia 
nus de Mor'j. Chron. 1. 5, c. 1. 

.\buuction" (Lflu) the carrying away any person by force, 
as the " abduction of an heiress." 

.Abductiox (Log.) an argument that leads from the con- 
clusion to the demonstration of a proposition. 

ABDU'CTOR (Anat.) from ab and duco, to draw away ; an 
qiithet for several muscles which serve the office of draw- 
ing away the parts to whic!) they are annexed, as — Abduc- 
tor auris, called b}' Wiiislow I'ostcrior AurLs, by others 
Triceps, pulls the ear backwards. — Abductor minimi digiti 
rtianus vel pedis, the former of which is called by Wins- 
low Hypothenar, and the latter Parnthenar ; they draw 
tlie little finger or toe from the rest. — Abductor pollicis 
manus vcl pedis, called by ^N'inslow Thenar, draws the 
thumb or great toe from the Tt-st.— Abductor oculi, or in- 
digr.atorius, abducens, or musculus exterior, the scornful 
nruscle is so called, because it expresses scorn, by moving 
the eye outwards from the great to the little angle. 

ABE'LE Tree (Bot.) the great n-hitc Poplar, the Populus 
alba of Linna?us. 

ABE'LIAXS (Fee.) heretics who rejected marriage. This 
sect arose in the reign of .-ircadius, and terminated in that 
of Theodosius the younger. August, ad quod -cult Deim, 
et de Hceres. c. 87. 

.\BELICE'A (Bot.) a small tree in Crete, otherwise called 
Pseudo Platanus. Rail Hist. Plant. 

ABELMO'LUCII (Bot.) a sort of 2)alma ChristL Rail 
Hist. Plant. 


ABELMO'SCHUS (Bot.\ the seed of an Egyptian plant 
which resembles musk in its perfume, and is used by the 
Arabians, on account of its agreeable flavour, in their 
coffee. The plant is called musk mallow, and is the Hi- 
biscus Abelmoschus of Linnaeus. Raii Hist. Plant. 

A'BELMUSK (^Bot.) vide Abelmoschus. 

A'BER (Geos;.) 1. A Persian word for on or upon, is used 
in composition for some places situated on mountains, as 
Abercobad, &c. 2. 3brr, a British word for the fall of one 
stream or rivulet into another: whence the name of several 
towns built upon such confluences, as Aberdeen, &c. Sylv. 
Gi/rald. Itin. 1. 2, c. 1. 

ABERDAVl'NE (Or.) the Spinus Fringilla of Linnaeus. 
Willouirh. Ornith. 

A'BEREMURDER (Law) plain downright murder in dis- 
tinction from manslaughter ; it is compounded of the 
Saxon abefe, notorious, and moj", murder. Leg. Can. 
c. 9 ; apud Bronipt. Chron.; Hen. L c. 13; apud Lam- 
bard, sea Jr'ylckens. 

ABERRATION (Astron.) from ab and erro, to wander, a 
term applied to the apparent motion of the celestial bodies 
occasioned by the progressive motion of light and the 
earth's annual motion in its orbit, which was first dis- 
covered by Dr. Bradley, Astronomer Royal, and an ac- 
count of it was given by himself in the Philosophical 
Transactions of March, 1728, No. 406. 

ABEitR.\Tios 'if a Star, an ellipse which appears to be de- 
scribed in the heavens in consequence of the earth's motion 
in its orbit and the progressive motion of light. The 
transverse a.\is of this ellipse is nearly equal, in quantity, 
for every star, that is, to 40° ; the conjugate axis varies 
for every star, as the sine of the star's latitude, that is, 
radius is to the sine of the star's latitude, as the transverse 
axis to the conjugate axis, and consequently a star in the 
pole of the ecliptic, its latitude being there 90", will appear 
to describe a small circle about that pole as a centre, 
whose radius is equal to 20". 

Aberration of the Planets is equal to their geocentric mo- 
tion, or the space through which they appear to move, 
as seen from the earth during the time that the light is 
passing from the planet to the earth. Clair. Acad. Franc. 
1746-7: Mnupert. de la Parall. de la Lane, ^ 11 ; Simp- 
son's Essays ; Mem. de Berlin, tom. ii. p. 14, &c. 

.\berration (Opt.) the deviation of the rays of light 
when inflected by a lens or speculum, whereby they are 
prevented from meeting in what is called the geometrical 
focus. There are two sorts of aberration, the one arising 
from the figure of the lens which produces a geometrical 
dispersion of the rays when these are perfectly equal in all 
respects; the second arising from the unequal refrangi- 
bility of the rajs of light, called after the name of its dis- 
coverer, the " Newtonian Aberration." 

ABE'SUM (Chem.) unslacked or quick lime. 

TO ABE'T. (Law) Sax. a for ad or usque, and bedan or 
belcren, to stir, to encourage, or set on. 

ABETTOR (I.axv) vide Accessary. 

ABEVACLW'TIO (Med.) a partial evacuation. 

ABE'YANCE (Laic) from the Fr. beer, or bayer, to gape 
after in expectance : lands are in abeyance which are not 
actuall)' in the possession, but only in the expectance of 
him who is next to inherit them. 1 Inst. 

ABGATO'RIA (Archaol.) the alphabets. Mat. JVcst. 

A'BH.\L (Bot.) an eastern fruit of a ruddy colour, helil 
to be a powerful emmenagogue. 

A'BIB (C'AroH.) aas, 3'nN, a ripe ear of corn, according to 
St. Jerom, the name of the first month in the Jewish sacred 
year, answering to part of March and April, and so called 
because in Palestine barley was in ear at that time. Boch. 
Hieroz. Pars Prior, 1.2, c. 10. 

A'BICUM (Mtd.) a covering. 

A'BIES (Bot.) !fMT>,, the fir-tree, which Homer calls f.>aTii 


»'p«»o^«'iti), i. e. the fir stretching itself towards heaven ; it is 
the Pinus picea, the Pinus balsamea, and the Finns abies of 
LiniicPus. Thcophrast. 1. 1, c. 8, &c. ; Pliit. 1. 16, c. 39; 
./. Buuh. Hist. Plant. ; C. Batik. Eiiiim. Plant. ; (ierard. 
Herbal.; Park. Theat. Botaii. ; liaii Hist. Plant. S^c. 

ABIG A (Bot.) from abigciulo partu, the same as Chamapitys. 

ABl'GEVX'S {Law) or Abii^ens. vide Abactor. 

AB'ISHEIUNG (Laxv) abisheiing, or mishering, an exemp- 
tion from amercements. 

A'BIT (Min) ov Abiiit Ceruss. 

ABITE'LLO (Ecc.) a son of ignominious garment, which 
penitents in the Komish cliurcli were obliged to wear by 
way of penance. Eynicric. Director Inquisit. Pars. 3. 
p. 332. 

ABJURA'TIO {Law) an oath taken to leave the realm for 
ever. By the 21 Jac. c. 28, this privilege, which had been 
hitherto granted to some criminals on confession of their 
crime, was abolished. Utaundf. Offic. Cor. 1.116, c.49; 
2 List. 628. 

ABJUR.\'TION {Ecc.) or recantation of any doctrines, was 
enjoined by the Romish church upon all heretics, to be 
performed publicly before they were admitted to commu- 
nion. F.ijmcric. Direct. Inquisit. Pars. 3, p. 323 ; Simaiic, 
dc Cntliol. Instit. c. 1, &c. 

A'BLAB {Bot.) a shrub of the height of a vine which is 
said to grow in Egjpt. 

ABLACTA'TION {Med.) from a, priv. and laclo, to suckle, 
weaning a child. 

Ablactation {Hori.) a species of ingrafting, by leaving 
the graft on its proper stock till it be fully incorporated 
with the new stock. 

ABLA'NIA (Bot.) a genus of plants, the Trichocarpus of 
Linnxus. Aublet. Hist, des Plant. 

A'BLAQUE (Com.) a fine sort of Persian silk, otherwise 
called the Ardessine silk. 

ABLAQUEA'TION {Af^ric.) the digging about and baring 
the roots of trees. Plin. 

ABLA'TION (Pill/.) ablatio, from ab andjcro, to take off or 
away, a taking away, another name for Abstraction. Sca- 
lig. J)e Cans. I^iug. Lat, 

ABLA'TIO {Gram.) the same as Aphsresis. Scnlig. dc 
Cans. Ling. Lat. 

Ablatio (Matli.) the same as subtraction. 

Ablatio (Med.) 1. An evacuation. 2. A subtraction from 
the usual diet. 3. An interval between two fevers. 

Ablatio (Chem.) the removal of any thing from a pro- 

A'BLATIVE (Gram.) ablativus, i. e. taking away, the sixth 
case in Latin nouns which signifies taking from ; — Ablative 
absolute, a noun, with a participle in the ablative case, is 
said to be absolute when it docs not dei)end upon any other 
word. This sort of case is mostly used m the Latin lan- 
guage, and answers to the genitive absolute of the Greek. 
C'liaris. Sos. Lisiit. Gram. 1. 1 ; Diomed. 1. 1 ; Isid. Orig. 
I. 1. 

ABLE'CTI (Atit.)<>i, Selecti, a chosen band of foreign 
troops, selected, according to Polybius, from the ' Extra- 
ordinarii Sociorum.' Poli/b. 1. 6, c. 31. 

ABLE'GMINA (Ant.) choice jjieces of the sacrifices among 
the Romans, sprinkled with flour and offered to the gods. 
Tertull. Apolog. c. 13 ; Pc.d. dc Signif. Verb. ; Biilcng. dc 
Sortib. 1. 1, c. 6 ; Kipping. Ant. Roman, I. 1, c. 2. 

ABLE'PSIA (Med.) ablepsy, or blindness, from a priv. and 
fixmtu, video. 

ABLL'E'NTLV {Med.) from abluo, to wash away, abluents, 
or abluent medicines, which carry off impurities from any 
part of the body. Gal. de Simplic. Med. 1. I, c. 37. 

ABLl,'riON (Ant.) from abhio, to off; the purifica- 
tion of the human body, among the .lews and the Hea- 
thens, from some religious pollution. 

Ablution (Med.) 1. Cleansing the body externally or in- 


ternally. 2. The preparing of a medicine in any liquor, 
so as to cleanse it from its dregs or any ill quality. 

ABNEGATION (Tlieol.) the renouncing of passions, plea- 
sures, or lusts. 

ABNODA'TION (Hort.) the cutting away, or pruning off 
the knots of trees. 

ABO'ARD (Mar.) i. c. on board, or in the inside of a ship. 
Thus " to go aboard" is to enter a ship, and " to board a 
ship " is to enter it in a hostile manner — " To fall aboard 
of," is to strike against it whilst in motion. — " Aboard main- 
tack," an order to draw one of the corners of the main-sail 
down to the chess tree. 

ABO'I-VENTS (Fort.) small lodgements constructed in 
a covered way to protect soldiers from the weather. 

A'BOLA (Ant.) "a^oak, a sort of dice reckoned among 
the unlucky by Pollux. Poll. Vnom 1.7, c. 33 ; Hesy- 

ABOLPfA (S'umis.) an epithet signifying cancelled in ap- 
plication to debts, as on a medal of Adrian which repre- 
sents, as in the annexed figure, the em- /S;*^"*^\ 
peror standing in his paludamentum, /VS *« 

with a torch in his right hand, ready to 
set some papers on fire, whereby he 
would cancel the arrears due from the 
people to the treasury. The inscription 
VIES MILL. ABOLITA i. e reli- 
qiia Vetera sestertium novies millies abolita. Gessn. Impp. 
Num. Tab. 89, fig. 25; Vaill. Num. Imp. Rom. vol. i.; Hard. 
Select. Oper. p. 756; Occon. Num. Imp. p. 170; Pemb. 
Num. .tntiq. part 3, tab. 63. 

ABOLl'TIO Criminis {.4iit.) the extinction of an action at 
law, by which the defendant gets his discharge. Suet, in 
Aug. c. 32. 

Abolitio (Laiv) abolition, leave given by the king or the 
judges for an accuser to desist from farther prosecution. 
Stat. 25, Hen. 8. 

Abiilitio (Met.) the entire extinction of a thing. 

AIjO'LLA {Ant.) a cloak used by the Greeks and Romans 
in following the camp. It was generally lined and doubled, 
and distinct from the toga. 
Mart. 1. 8, Epig. i6, v. 1. 

Kescit cui liederit Turiam Cruipiitus ahollam, 
Dum miUiit cuUiis, itiduituriiHe togam. 

The abolla was also worn by judges in the execution of 
their office, -whence facinora majoris abolUv, in .luvenal, for 
crimes of great magnitude. Varro apud Non. 1. 14', c. 9; 
Turncb. Adv. 1. 27, c. 15; Salnias dc Mod. Usur. c. 3 ; 
Bidcnger. dc Imp. Rom. 1. i, c. 39; Ferrar. de Re Vest. 
1. 1, c. 2, &c. 

ABOMA'IsUiM (.hiat.) from ab, dim. and omasum, ttu^fo', 
the paunch, the fourth stomach of a ruminating beast. 
ylristi.t. Hist. Animal. 1. 3, c. 14-. 

ABORl'GINES (Ant.) ' ■urcyjmn, the ancient and original 
inhabitants of Italy supposed to have been conducted into 
Latiuiu by Saturn, vel quod ab origine, according to Ser- 
vius; vel Aberrigiues crrantes aid vagantcs, according to 
I'estus ; vel <ipo«, quod in montibus degcrcnt, according to 
Dionysius Halicarnassus. Dion. Halicarn. Antiq. Rom. 
1. 1 ;' I.iv. 1. 1, c. 1 ; Justin. 1. 1-1 ; Sigon. de Nomin. Rom. 
c. !• ; Cluv. llal. Antiq. ; Panvin. Descript. Urb. el E'er- 
rar. de Orig. Rom. apud Grav. Thes. Antiq. Rom. toni. 1 & 3. 

ABO'RTIENS (Hot.) palaceus according to Rat/, and steri- 
lis according to TourncJ'orl ; an epithet for a flower which 
falls oft' without fruit. Rail Hist, Plant; Tournif. Instit. ; 
Linn. Phil. Bolann. p. 219. 

.\B(J'R'l'ION (Hort.) a term applied to trees when the 
fruits fall off, or are blasted before they come to matu- 

ABOR'ITVA, Mcdicamenta, (Med.) uu.jZMnyM, medicines 


calculated to produce abortion. Hippoc. dc Morh. Mul. 
1. 5, 6, ice; Foes. Oeconom. &c- 

ABO'RTIVE (Bot.) Aborfiens, an epithet for a flower which 
does not come to maturity. Linti. Phil. But. — Abortive 
corn, corn which shows itself by a deformity in the stalk, 
leaves, ear, and even grain. 

ABORTUS {.Surg.) or Aborsus, from ab and orior, to come 
before the time; miscarriage, the emission or ejection of an 
imperfect foetus, called b}' Hippocrates oiTcijit'cfa ^.ctc(cfk, 
sxTf&rtu? ; Galen says that among the Attics it was called 
axfixtiiru. Hippoc. de Morb. Mul. c. 5, 6 ; Gal. comm. 1, in 
lib. 6, Hippoc. ; Gorr. Defin. Med.; Foes. Oeconom. Hip- 
pocrat. ; Castell. Lex. Medic. 

ABOUCOU'CHOU (Com.) a sort of woollen cloth manu- 
factured in Languedoc, Provence, and Dauphine. 

A'BOUKELB [Cum.) or Abukelb, a Dutch coin current in 
Egypt, somer.hing inferior in value to a Spanish piastre, 
is. Sd. It bears the impression of a lion which, however, 
the Arabians have changed to kelb, a dog ; either to show 
their contempt for Christians, or on account of its base 

ABO'LT (Mar.) the situation of a ship immediate!}' after 
slie has tacked. — About skip, an order to the crew to pre- 
pare for tacking. 

About (Mil.) a term for the movement by which a body 
of troops changes its front. — Right about, when the soldier 
turns by a semicircular movement to the right — Le/t about, 
when the soldier makes a semicircular movement to the left. 

About (Mech.) Fr. that part of a piece of wood which is 
between one of the ends of the piece and a mortise. 

ABO'UTED (Horf.) a term formerly used for budded, in 
ajiplication to trees. It properly signifies a swelling that 
comes to a head or abscess, and is figuratively applied to 
buds which rise up in the form of small heads. 

ABP. An abbreviation for archbishop. 

A'BKA (Com.) a Polish coin worth about three half-pence. 

A'BRABAX (Magic) Abraxas, or Abrasax, a magical word 
comprehending the days of the year in numeral letters. 
Vide Abrasax. 

A'BRACADABRA (Magic) a cabalistical word used as a 
charm against fevers, and formed of dropping every time 
the last letter when written in a kind of cone, as 

T s 3 K 1 n K 

« D « T 2 N 

3 « T 2 X 

« T 3 « 

T a « 


ABR.\'CALAM (Magic) a cabalistical word serving as a 
charm among the Jews. This, as well as the former Abra- 
bax, and the following Abrasax [Vide Abrasax,'] express 
tlie name of a S3rian idol. Selden de Diis Syriis. 

ABRA'HAMITES (Ecc.) 1. An order of monks extermi- 
nated for idolatry by Tlieophilus. 2. A sect of heretics 
called after their leader Abraham^ who adopted the errors 
of Paulus. 

ABR.\'SA (Med.) ulcers attended with, or liable to, abra- 
sion. Castell. Lex. Med. 

ABR.ASA'X (.M^.) the name given by the heretie Basilides 


to God and Jesus Christ, whom they worshipped under 
the figure of Isis. Osiris, and other ^Egyptian gods, as 
also under the figure of animals, with the head of a cock, a 

lion, a beetle, or a sphinx; the body of a man, , , 

as in the annexed cut ; and the tail of a ser- < §'\J'^ 
pent, <S:c. The}' impiously conceived our , fec?-fe{ '\*\ 
Saviour to be the material sun, in imitation I*, 't'^i^*' 
of the Egyptians, who worshipped the sun ^^sS^<i>i/ 
under the name of Osiris, &c. The word 
ABPACAH, Abrasax, or Abraxas, was chosen because the 
letters, of which it is composed, make up 365, the num- 
ber of days, according to tlie Greek computation by letters, 
in which the sun performs his annual revolution^ i. e. as 
follows : 







This word was employed as a talisman, and the image was 
worshipped as a magical deity, who was to dispel evils. 
.S. lieu. adv. Hares. 1. 1, c. 2 ; Teriid. de Prcec. c. 16; 
Euseb. Eccl. Hist. 1. 4, c. 7 ; Hieron. adv. Lucif. in Amor. 
1. 2; 6'. Epiphan. Hares. 24 ; S. August, de Hares, et ad 
quod vult Deum ; Baron. Annul. Ann. 120; Montjaucon. 
Antiq. e-rpliq. vol. i. p. ,369, et seq. 

ABRA'SIO, from ab and rado, to pare ; the paring off of 
superficial ulcerations. Castell. Lex. Med. 

ABRA'XAS (Magic) \\Ae Abrasax. 

ABRE'AST (Mar.) side by side, or opposite to ; the situa- 
tion of two or more ships when standing together, parti- 
cularly as regards the line of battle at sea. — Abreast line, 
the line abreast is formed by the ships being equally dis- 
tant from and parallel to each other, so that the length of 
each ship forms a right angle with the extent of the squa- 
dron or line abreast. — Abreast of a place, directly opposite 
to it, as " a fleet abreast of Beechy-Head," i. e. off, or 
directly opposite to it. — Abreast within the ship, implies 
on a parallel line with the beam. 

Abreast (Mil.) a term formerly used for any number of 
men in front. The)' are. at present, determined by files. 

ABRE'TTE (Bot.) vide Abelmochus. 

ABREUVO'IR (Mil.) a French word for a watering place, 
or any place dug for retaining water, as in the case of 

ABREUVO'IRS (Archit.) 1. The interstices between two 
stones to be filled up with mortar or cement. 2. Small 
trenches which are made in stone quarries to carry off the 

A'BRI (Mil.) French for shelter, cover; as et>-e ^ I'abri, to 
be under the cover of a wood, &c. 

TO ABRI'DGE (La-Li:) Abbreviare, from the Fr. abreger ; 
to make a count or declaration shorter. 

TO Abridge (Algeb.) to reduce a compound equation 
or quantity to a more simple form of expression, as 

, 1. «i 1 • J , ah 

■r^ -t- (a + 6) X = 0, by puttmg p= a + b and g = — 

becomes x^ + px — g^^o. 
ABROHA'NI (Com.) or mallemolle, a certain muslin, or 

clear white cotton cloth from the East Indies. 
ABRO'MA (Bot.) from a priv. and 3fciu,x, food, i. e. not fit 

for food; a genus of plants; class 18 Polt/adelphia, order 

2 Dodecandria. 

Generic Character. C.vl. perianth nine-leaved. Cor. 
petals five ; nectary five-cleft. Stam. filaments five. 
PisT. germ subcylindrical. Per. capsule ovate five- 
winged, five-celled ; seeds winged. 

Species. The two species are the Ahroma Augusta. Theo- 
broma Augusta seu Althaa Luzonis, maple leaved abroma 
tree, a native of New South Wales and the Philippines — 
Abroma, IVheleri, Wheler's abroma, a shrub, native of 
the East Indies. Linn. Spec. Plant. 


ABRO'MIOS (Ant.) 'A0f^^icf, a sort of drinking cup 
mentioned by Pollux. Pol. Onomast. 1. 6, c. 16. 

ABROTANO'IDES {Nat.) a l<ind of coral in the form of 
the abrotanum. Raii Hist. Plant. 

Abrotanoides (Bot.) the Artcminia /Ethiopica, the Pro- 
ica serraria, and the Seriphium ciuerewn, plumosum, and 
yH.?cos!/)» of LinniEUS. Bauh. Pin. ; Raii Hist. 

ABRO'TANUM {Bot.) a/Sfsro'O', southernwood; a plant so 
called, J>« TO aBfiv (pxlvKj-txi, on account of its delicate ap- 
pearance. Nicander describes it as a wild plant of the woods. 
Nicand. Theriac. 

AfrrigF uvo 0r,(nrar, 
Abrotanum is the Artemisia ahrotonum; the Snntolina cha- 
mcecypari.%sus, villosa, and rosmnrifoUa ; and the Tanacetum 
of Lumicus. Thenphrast. Hist. Plant. 1. 6, c. 8 ; Dinsc. 
1. 3, c. 29 ; Plin. 1. 19, c. 6 ; Gal de Sinipl. 1. 6 ; J. Bauh. 
Hist. Plant. ; Get: Herd. ; Parle. T/ient. Bot. ; Raii 
Hist. Plant. ; Boerhaav. Ind. &;c. ; Tournef. Instit. 
ABROTO'NITES {Med.) uSforonry,., wine impregnated with 

abrotanum. Diosc. 1.5, c. 62. 
ABROTO'NUM {Bot.) vide Alirotanum. 
ABRU'PTE Pinnatum (Bot.) abruptly pinnated, an epithet 
for a leaf which has neither leaflet (foliolum), tendril, nor 
clasper (cirrus) at the end. Linn. PhUosoph. Bot. 
ABRU'PTIO (Med.) vide Jhdudio. 

ABRUPTUS (Ich.) abrupt, an epithet for the lateral line m 
fishes, when divided into two or more parts not contiguous. 
A'BllUS (Bot.) «,Sfi;, mollis, dclicatus, from the softness of 
its leaves; a kind of kidney bean growing in Egypt, 
" Phaseolus ruber abrus vocatus." Now called Jamaica 
wild Liquorice, from its resembling the liquorice in taste. 
Prosper. Alpin. .'Egypt. 
Abrus in the Linncean Sy.item, a genus of plants. Class 17 
Diadclphia, Order i Decandria. 

The Generic Character. C al. perianth one \eafeA. Cor. 
papilionaceus : xvings oblong ; keel oblong. Stam./zA/- 
jnents 9; anthers oblong, erect. Pist. germ cylindrical ; 
style subulate; stigma in form of a head. Ver. legume 
like a rhomb ; .■ieeds solitary. 
Species. The only species is the Ahrus precatorius, glycine; 
Ahbrus Iconni, phaseolus sen orobus Americanus, Jamaica 
wild Liquorice ; a tree, native of the Indies. Prosper. 
Alpin. /'Egypt.; Raii Hist. Plant.; Breyn. Prodrom. ; 
Parkins, thcat. Botanic; Herman. Catalog.; Pliickcn. 
Phiytograph. SfC. 
ABSCEDE'NTIA (Med.) from ah and ccdo, to go; the dis- 
eased or decayed part which abscedes from the body. Cels. 
1. 5, c. 18. 
ABSCE'SSUS (Med.) uTrU'.f^a, abscess, an inflammatory 
tumor. Hippoc. 1. 4, Aphor. 31 ; Ruff. Ephes. de /'V.\. 
Affect, c. 9; Cels. de Re Med. 1. 2, c. 9 ; Paul. Jl'.gin. 1. ^, 
c. 18 ; Orilms. de Curat. Morh. 1. 3, c. 43, ct 9 Act. Te- 
rah 4, Hcrrn. 2, c. 32, &c. ; Act. de Meth. Med. 1. 1, c. 17. 
A'BSCLSS (Math.) Ab.fcissa, or Abscissa; from ab mA H:indo, 
to cut off, TO aTOK«|«,«-f.o> ; the segment of any diameter 
or axis of a curve, as AC, or C B, cut off by another line 

Fis. I. 

Fis- 3. 

called the ordinate, as D C. The abscisses arc under- 
stood to commence at tiie vertex of the curve, as A or B, 
Jig. i, 2, unless expressed otherwise, as in fg. 2, where 
o C, A C, C 6, and C B, arc all abscisses. Each ordinate, 


in a common parabola, has but one absciss, as AC, Jig. I ; 
in the circle and ellipse, two lying on opposite sides, as 
AC, C ]i. Jig. 2; and, in the hyperbola, also two lying on 
the same side, as C A, C B, Jig. 3. When an absciss and 
its corresponding ordinate are considered together they 
are called coordinates of the curve, by means of which the 
equation of a curve is defined. [Vide Curve.'] .tpollon. 
Conic. L I, pr. 20, &c. ; Wallis. Mathemat.; IVolf. Ma- 
thcmat. Curs. 

ABSCI'SSIO (Med.) abscission, or cutting off, from ah and 
scindo, to cut; 1. cutting away an unsound or luxuriant 
part. 2. The sudden termination of a disease in deatlu 

Abscissio (tihet.) a figure of speech of cutting short 
in the discourse after we have begun to speak of any thing. 
Cic. ad Heren. I. 4-, c. 5i. 

ABSCrSSlON (Astral.) the cutting off the light of the first 
of three planets when the third comes in conjunction with 
the middle one. 

ABSCO'NSK) (Med.) from ahicondo, to hide ; a sinus or 
cavity of a bone which receives and conceals the head of 
another bone. 

A'BSENT (Mil ) a term employed in regimental returns 
to account for the deficiency of any in a regiment or corn- 
pan}'. — .-Ibscnl xvith leave, officers with permission, or non- 
commissioned officers on furlough excused parade or field 
duty. — Absent ivithoul leave, a milder term often used for 

ABSPNTHII (Bot.) a species of Chrysomela. 

ABSI'NTHITES (I\led.) ux"liT';i, wine impregnated with 
absinthium or wormwood. Dioscor. 1. 5, c. 49. 

ABSl'NTniUM (Bot.) U^i^ho>, from « priv. and -^^ofo!, or 
Tif'4"5) delcctatio, i. e. unpleasant ; a plant, so called on ac- 
count of its bitterness. Theophrast. Hist. Plant. 1. 9, c. 18; 
Dio.icor. 1. 3, c. 26 ; Plin. 1. 27, c. 7 ; Gal. de Simpl. 1. 6. 
— Ab.mtthium is the Artemisia ; the .4chillea JEgyptinca, et 
Claveno'; the Parthenium hysterophorus ; the Scnecio abro- 
tanifoUis ; and the Tanacetum incanum et annuum of Lin- 
naeus. J. Bauh. Hist. Plant.; C. Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; 
Parkins. Thcal. Botan.; Raii Hist. Plant.; Boerh. Ind.; 
Tournef. Instil. ; Dale Pharmacop. 

A'BylS (Math.) Abscs, or Absides. vide Apsis. 

A'BSOLUTE, absolutum, i. e. ab alio sulutum, dependant 
on no other thing, as 

Absolute (Theol.) free from conditions; so the decrees 
of God are said to be absolute in regard to man.^ 
.Ibsuliite, without any cause ; thus God is said to be ab- 

Absolute (Phy.) without relation to, or dependance on 
what is external ; as — Absolute time, which flows equally 
in itself without relation to any thing external, as duri>- 
tion. — .■Ibsolutc space, which remains similar and immove- 
able without relation to any thing exterior. — .Ibsolule 
viidion, which is the transfer of any bod}' from one absolute 
place to another. Neivt. Princ. Math, def viii. — Absolute 
gravity, the whole force with which a body is impelled 
towards the centre, in distinction from specific gravity. 

Absolute (Gram.) without regimen or government, as an 
ablative or genitive nhsidule when the case depends on no 
other words, as in the Latin .lugusto imperatorc, Au- 
gustus being emperor ; in the Greek the genitive is en>- 
ployed in place of the ablative. — Absolute noun, a noun 
that needs no other word to be joined to it, as God, reason, 
horse. Sec. Prise. 1. 2. — .-Ib.solute degree, in the compari- 
son of adjectives, the same as the positive. 

Absolute (Luxu) without condition or encumbrance, as an 
" ab.iiilutc bond," simplex obligatio, in distinction from a 
conditional bond. An " abscilute estate." one that is free 
from all manner of condition or encumbrance. 

Absolute number (Algeb.) the Homogeneum Compara- 
tioriis of Vieta is the terra in an equation which is com- 


pletely known, as in x'^ + ax = b, b is the absolute or 
known quantitj'. Viet. Art. Analyt. c. 8. 

Absolute equation (Aslron.) the sum of the optic and 
eccentric equation, [vide Egiiatio?i] 

Absolute (Ecc.) among the Romanists, in opposition to 
declaratory. They hold that a priest can forgive sins ab- 
solutely ; but the protestants say, that the forgiveness is 
only declaratory. 

ABSOLUTELY (Log.) applied to the terms of a proposi- 
tion, signities without relation to any thing else. 

Absolutely [Geom.) entirely or completely, as a circle 
is said to be absolutely round, in contradistinction to a 
figure that is partly so, as an oval, &c. 

ABSOLU'TIO (Rhet.) that perfect division of any cause 
which embraces all the parts. Cic. Invent. 1. 1, c. 22. 

ABSOLUTION (Ecc.) 1. A judical act in the llomish 
church whereby a priest, as a judge, by virtue of a power 
supposed to be delegated to him from Christ, takes upon 
him to remit the sins of penitents. Order. Vital. 1. 5. 
2. An act, in the reformed as well as in the Romish church, 
by which a man who stands excommunicated is freed or 
released from the excommunication. — Alisolutio ad caiite- 
Invi, that which is given to an excommunicated person 
when he wishes to make his appeal against the sentence, 
and also that which tlie pope gives to those to whom he 
grants benefices. 

Absolution (Laiv) a definitive sentence whereby a man 
accused of any crime is acquitted. 

ABSOLUTO'RJ.UM (Med.) an absolute or perfect remedy; 
also a perfect cure. 

ABSOLUTO'RIUS (Ant.) from «i.?o/i'o, to acquit ; absolva- 
tory, as tabula absolutoria, a bill of discharge. 

ABSOXL\'RE (Archccol.) to shun, detest; a term used 
in the oath of allegiance taken by the Anglo-Saxons. 

TO ABSO'RB (Hort.) a term applied to all greedy branches 
that, growing on fruit trees, drink up and rob the other 
branches of the nutritious juice which is requisite to pro- 
mote their growth. 

ABSORr>E'NTL\ Medicamenta (Med.) medicines which 
have the power of drying up redundant humours. 

ABSO'RBENTS (Chem.) an epithet for alkaline, or such 
earthy bases as have the property of absorbing or neutral- 
izing acids ; a term used more by the ancients than the 

ABSO'RBENT vessels (Ana.) absorbentia vaxa, from ab- 
sorbeo, to absorb or dry up ; vessels which carry any fluid 
into the blood, as the lacteah, which absorb the chyle ; 
the li/mphalics, &.C. 

A'BSQUE hoc (Laic) i. e. without this ; words of exception 
made use of in a traverse. 

ABSTE'.AIll (Ecc.) a name given to persons who could not 
partake of the sacrament from their natural aversion to wine. 

ABSTE'XSIO (Law) withholding the heir from taking pos- 

ABSTE'KTIO (Med.) the retention or suppression of the 

ABSTE'RGENT.S (Med.) abstergentia medicamenta, from 
absleri^^o, to rinse away ; medicines capable of cleansing 
by the power of dissolving concretions. 

ABSTE'RSU'E Medicines (Med.) vide Abstergents. 

A'BSTIXEN'CE (Ecc.) a ceremony in the Romish church 
of abstaining from food in a partial manner, b}- which it is 
distinguished from fasting, which is almost entire absti- 
nence : hence the terras " Days of abstinence," and " Fast- 

Abstinence (Flierog.j the moral virtue of abstaining from 
indulgence is represented in painting, by a woman of a 
healthy constitution holding one hand to her mouth ; and 
in the other a scroll, with the words Ltor, non abut or ; I 
use, hut do not abuse. 


ABSTiNENCE_/rom m/ is represented by a woman crowned 
with laurels, leaning on a pedestal, and looking attentively 
on a decalogue which lies before her. Under her feet lie 
serpents, tortoises, and broken anows ; and by her side 
stands a camel. 

Abstinence (Med.) from abstinco, to abstain. 1. Abstinence 
from all food, or particular kinds of food. 2. Suppression 
or compression, as abstinentia sndnris, suppression of the 
sweat ; spiritus oh abstinentiam clausus, wind shut up by 
compressure. Ccel. Aur. dc Acut. Morb. 1. 2, c. tyl. 

A'BSTINENTS (Ecc.) heretics professing abstinence from 
marriage, and particular foods, &c. I'hey appeared in 
France and Spain about the end of the third century. 
Philastr. dc Ilceres. c. 26; Baron Annal. Ann. 228 ; Pra- 
teol. de Hares. 

A'BSTRACT (Laxxi) an abridgement or epitome of any 
original writing. 

Abstract (Log.) abstractus, an epithet applied to whatever 
is separated from any other thing by an operation of the 
mind, termed abstraction ; thus any thing may be said to 
be considered in the abstrad. — Au abstract idea is a simple 
idea detached and separated from any particular subject 
or complex idea, as the idea of rationality abstracted or 
separated from that of corporeal agenc}'. — Abstract qua- 
lity, that qualitj' which is considered as abstracted from 
the subjects in which it inheres, as whiteness, which is a 
quality considered abstractedly from a wall, a flower, a 
man, iSrc. — Abstract term, a term which expresses qualities 
without regard to the subject, vox abslrncia, as visibility, 
rationality; whiteness, &c. in distinction from the concrete. 

Abstract Xoun (Gram.) or noun substantive, denotes that 
which is real, but which subsists only in the understanding; 
it is distinguished from the ]io!(n adjective, and answers to 
the abstract term in logic, as whiteness, coldness, valor, &c. 

Abstract (Math.) or pure, an epithet for that sort of mathe- 
matics which treats of the properties of magnitude, figure, 
and quantity, abstractedly and generally, without regard 
to any particular object, as arithmetic and geometry, in 
distinction from mixed mathematics, in which simple and 
abstract quantities are applied to particular sensible ob- 
jects, as astronomy, mechanics, optics, Sec. — Abstract 
jiumbcrs are such as are considered abstractedly, or with- 
out regard to any object which they may represent, as 5, 
6, 7, &c. in distinction from concrete numbers, where the 
thing is specified with the number, as 5 feet, 6 inches, 
7 yards, &c. 

ABSTRA'CTIO (Pby.) from abstralw, to draw asunder; 
a.!pu..fitri'„ TO z^f'C'" ; a separation of one thing from another, 
to which it is usually joined. It is of different kinds; 
namely, Abstrnctio realis, guijit itruc, re ipsa, the actual 
separation of one thing from another, as gold from tiie 
earth. — Abstractio mentalis, ta;)r.x.K, mental abstraction, or 
the separation of universais from particulars, as the con- 
sideration of whiteness in distinction from the wall, the 
milk, snow, S:c. in which it exists ; this is taking things in 
the abstract, and is either — Abstractio logica, the abstrac- 
tion of accidents from their subject, as animal from man 
or brute. — Abstractio mathemalica, the abstraction of the 
form of bodies from the matter secundum rationem ; or, — 
Abstractio metapliysica, the abstraction of the form of 
bodies from the matter secundum rem, i. e. Abstractio realii, 
real abstraction. Aristot. Pliysic. 1. 2, c. 2; Ale.v. de Alex, 
in Met. Aristot. 1. 3 ; Albert'us Mag. Pity. 1. 1, tr. 1, c. 2 ; 
Fonsec. in Met. Aristot. 1. 5, c. 28, quaest. 6 ; Seal. Ex- 
ercit. 307, 34-2. 

ABSTRA'CTION (Chem.) The process of drawing off by 
distillation any part of a compound, and returning it again 
to the residue to be redistilled an}- number of times ; thus 
arsenic acid may be procured by abstracting arsenic with 
nitrous acid. 



ABSTRACTI'TIUS (Chem.) vel Abstraclivits, from abstraho, 
to draw away ; abstractitious, an epithet for the native 
spirits of aromatic vegetables, in distinction from those 
produced by fei mentation. 

ABSU'ilDU.M (Log.) vide Reductio ad Absurdtim. 

A'BSUS [But.) a species of the Cassia of Linnaeus, 

ABSY'NTHIUM {Bol.) the same as Absinthium. 

ABU'NDAN'CE {Mcil.) abundaniia, a term employed for 
an excess of humours. 

ABU'NUANT (Math.) an epithet for a number, whose 
aliquot parts, when added together, make a sum greater 
than the number itself, as 12; the aliquot parts of which 
1, 2, .'i, +, 6, are IG ; it is opposed to a deficient number. 

Abundant Year (Clirun.) a Jewish year when it has a 
day more than ordinary, in distinction I'rom the defective 
year. Scnl. Emciidat. Temp. 1. 2. 

ABUND.-V'NTIA (Numis.) Abundantia was the name of the 
goddess of plenty on medals, who is called Copia by the 
poets. In the annexed cut, she is i-epre- 
sented seated on a chair, like the Roman 
chairs in general, only that the two sides 
are wrought into the shape of two Cornu- 
copias, to denote the character of this 
goddess. The figure of Abundantia is 
given on medals of Trajan, Caracalln, 
Eliogabalus, Alexander Severus, Gordian, 
Pius, Trajan Decius, Gallienus, Tctricus, Probus, Nunte- 
rianus, Cariiius, Cams, Diucle.sian, and Valerius Maxi- 
mianus ; sometimes with the simple inscription ABUN- 
DANTIA, but mostly with the addition of AUGusti 
AUGG. Augustorum AUGG. NN. Augustoriim Nostro- 
rum; sometimes ABUNDANTIA PEKl'ETUA. 

Abundantia Tempnrum, an inscription on a medal of 
Salonina, the wife of Gallienus the emperor, which bears 
on the obverse, as on the subjoined cut, her head with a 

stola or robe over the breast, and the inscription CORNE- 
LIA. SALONINA. AUG. ; on the reverse, a figure of Sa- 
lonina, sitting with three boys standing before her, wjiile 
she pours out coins from the cornucopia which she had in 
lier lap ; near her is a female figure standing ; and on the 
right hand, behind the chair, a military figure. I'aillaiil. 
\uniis7n. Impcratur. Roman.; Pa/in. i\.'/w/.<. Iniprral. Ro- 
man. ; Morell. Thesaur. Imp. Roman. ; Occo. A'mjh/a'. Ro- 
man. Inipcrat. ; Bandiir. Num. Imper. Roman. 

Abundantia (Med.) abundance, or excess of humours. 

ABU'SE (Med.) a/juxus, from abator, to abuse, an ill use 
of a thing, applied to nonnaturais in medicines. 

ABC'SIO (Rliel.) K.cijixfi'rK, a figure of speech by which 
words are used with some deviation from their proper 
meaning; thus " worship," which is strictly applied to 
God only, may also, by or misuse, be ajjplied to 
magistrates, &c.; as in the Scripture, " They worshij)ped 
God and the king." 

.\BU'TILON (Hot.) a plant formerly called in English the 
Yellow Mallow, from its great resemblance to the mallow, 
both in leaf and flower. Its difierent species are now 
known by the names of the lli/iiscns ciliaceus, the Melo- 
chia pijramidata et tomcnlosa, the Malvn caroliniana, the 
Napce scabra, and the Hida .yucata, in the Linn;can sys- 
tem. J. Bauh. Hist. Plant.; Casp. Bauhin. Pin.; Gcr. 
II.' rb.; Parkin. T/icat. Botan.; Rail I list. Plant.; Pluk: 
Almag. Botan. 

ABU'T.MENTS (Arch.) or Bulments, the extremities of a 


bridge, by which it is made to rejt upon the banks or sides 
of rivers, &c. 

Abutments (Carpent.) the junctions or meetings of t^vo 
pieces of timber. 

ABU'TTALS (Latv) from the Vr. ainiiter, to but against, 
or terminate ; the buttings or l)0undings of land. The 
sides of the lands are properly said to be adjoining, and 
tile ends abutting to the thing that is contiguous. 

ABY'SS (Bibl.) adi/ssus, from «, priv. and (iuira-iii, lonicc, pro 
/ScCoi, a depth, i. e. without a l)ottom ; a depth, an epithet 
for, 1. Hell. Lukev'm. '.il,&c. 2. The connnon receptUjCle 
for the dead, the grave, or de|)th of the earth. Rom. x. 7. 
3. The deepest parts of the sea. Psalm xxiv. 2S. 

ABY'SSUS (Med.) the deep, abyss, a proper receptacle for 
the seminal matter. Castell. Lex. Med. 

ACA'CALIS (Bol.), a shrub bearing a papiliona- 
ceous flower, and siliqeous fruit like a tamerisk. Diosc. 
1. 1, c. lis. 

ACA'CTA (Bol.) uy.uKisc, from ixci^s', to sharpen ; a thorny 
tree of Egypt, called, by Theophrastus,*A»;si/(>j AiyuTnai, 
by Pliny aeacia, or the ■':pina JKgyjitiaca, was supposed 
by some to be the tree which yielded the Gummi Arabicum, 
or Gum Arabic. Hist. Plant. 1. 9, c. 1 ; 
Dioscor. 1. 1, c. 130; Plin. 1. 21', c. 12. 

Acacia, in the Linnean system, is the Mimosa nilotica; but the 
Common Acacia, otherwise called Pseudo-acacia, or False 
Acacia, is the Robinia pseudo-acacia ; and the Rose 
Acacia, a shrub so called from its rose-coloured flowers, 
is the Robinia hispida of Linnaeus. Pro.'tpcr. Alpin. de 
Plant. J^gijpt. ; J. Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; C. Bauh. Kna- 
merat.; Gcr. Herb. ; Parkin. Theat. Botan.; Rail Hist. 
Plant. ; TourneJ. Instit. ; Bocrhaav. Ltd. Plant. 

ACA'CIANS (Ecc.) heretics so called after one Acacius, 
bishop of Caesarea, who denied the son to be of the same 
substance as the father. Baron. Annul. Ann. 359. 

ACADE'MIA (Ant.) Cic.'AKahfji^ici, a Gymnasium at /Vthens, 
in a grove of the suburbs, where Plato taught. It derived 
its name from Academus. 
Hor. Ep. 22, V. 45. 

Atqite inter sUvas .'\cadenu qutrrere verum. 

This school of Plato, in which it was forbidden to laugh, 
was; called Academia vetus, in distinction from the Aca- 
demia nova, or secunda, founded by Arcesilaus, who de- 
parted from the doctrines of Plato ; and Academia tertia, 
which was founded by Carnaedes, or, according to Diogenes 
Laertius, by Lacydes. Eusebius also makes mention of a 
fourth Academia founded by Antioehus. Cic. (incest. Aea- 
dem.\. 1. c. i— -12; Diog. Laert. Proa-m. Segm. 18, 19, 
&c. ; yEl. Var. Hist. 1. ;{, c. 35; Eiiscb. Evang. Prcvparat. 
1. ]+. 

ACADE'MICS (/Int.) academici, a name for the followers 
of Plato ; a sect of philosophers, so called from the 'Xiud'^ 
f^iu, where he taught. 

,\C.-VT)EMY (Lit.) from academia, a society of learned 
men instituted and protected by public authority: the 
first of which, among the moderns, was that founded 
by Charlemagne at the instance of yVlcuin, an English 
monk ; this has been followed by several others, of which 
the principal are the — Academia Sccretorum Nntnrie, esta- 
blished at Naples in 1560, by Baptista Porta. — Academia 
Lijncci, founded at Rome, among whose early members 
was Galileo. — .-Icademia del Liniento, founded at Florence 
in 1G57, by Prince Leopold of Tuscany. — Academia Degl' 
Inrjuieti, ibunded at Bologna about the same time. — 
Academic Roi/ale, founded at Paris in 16()6. — Academie 
Iniperia/e, at Petersburg, founded by Peter the Great 
in 1725. — .'Icademie Roi/alc des Sciences, Sfc. founded, at 
Berlin, by Frederic I. iii 1700, of which Leibnitz was the 
first president. — Academie lloyale, at Stockholm, in 1739. 


Academy, a collegiate school foi' the training of youth in 
the sciences, of which there are three royal foundations in 
England, two for the military at Woolwich and Midhurst; 
and one at Portsmouth for the navy. 
AC.fNA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 4 Tctrandria, 
Order 1 Monogynia. 

Generic Characters. Cat., perianth four-leaved ; leaflets 
ovate. — Cor. none, unless the calyx be termed as such. 
— Si'AM. Jilnments equal; ra?i</(c;\s quadrangular. — PisT. 
trerm inferior ; style very small ; stigma, a small mem- 
brane.- — Per. one-celled berry ; seeds single. 
Species. — The Aca'ua is a Mexican plant, having only one 
species, namely, the Accsna elongata. Linn. Spec. 
ACA'Hl (Chem.) alum-water. 

ACA'JA (But.) Pruniis Brasiliensis fructii racemosa, a tree 
of Brazil, growing to the size of a tall lime, on the extreme 
branches of which certain birds build their nests pendulous, 
that they may be out of the way of serpents. Marcgrav. 
Hid. Bia.iil.'; Rati Hiit. Plant. 
ACAJA'IBA [Bot.) Acajou, or Acajuba ; the Anacardiiim 
occiilentale of Linnaus, and in English the Cashew-tree ; 
the fruit of which is called the Cashew-nut, from which is 
extracted an oil used by painters to give a black colour, 
and also a spirit is distilled equal in strength to arrack or 
rum. Ger. Herb. ; Pis. et Marcgrav. Hist. Bras. ; Raii 
Hist. Plant. 
ACAJOUA'NUM lignum (Bot.) a sort of wood of a red 

colour, which is never touched by worms. 
A'CALAI (Chem.) salt. 

ACALE'PHE (Bot.) or Acalypha, the A:<«a«'£?>, of Thco- 
plirastus, and 'Akxav^/i of Dioscorides ; a herb so called, 
srctfa j-o f^K i;%;iir KxM.t kp/iY, i. e. from its not being pleasant 
to the touch. Theophrast. Hist. Plant. 1. 7, c. 7 ; Aris- 
toph. Eqnit. v. 4-20; Diosc. 1. i, c. 9i ; Athen. 1. 3, c. 12. 
AC.V'LYPHA, in the Linncean system, the Rhinocarpus of 
Boerhaave or Tickfruit ; a genus of plants, Class 21 Mo- 
noecifi. Order 8 JSIonodelphia. 
Generic Characters of the Male Flowers. Cal. perianth 

three or four-leaved ; leaflets roundish. — Cor. none 

St AM, fila7nents eight to sixteen ; anthers roundish. 
Generic Characters of the Female Flowers. Cal. perianth 
three-leaved ; leaflets subovate. — Cor none. — 
germ roundish ; .styles three ; stigmas simple. — Per. caj)- 
su/e roundish ; seeds solitary. 
Species. — Plants of this tribe are either annuals or shrubs, 
but mostly the latter ; and natives of the Indies or Ame- 
rica. The principal species are the — Acalypha Virgi- 
niana, or Mercurialis tricoccos. — Acalypha Zeylanica, or 
Cnpameni ; Indian Acalypha.- — Acalypha Australis, or 
Ricinoides ; South American Acalypha. — Acalypha be- 
tulina, or Cauda. — Acalypha mappa, Ricinus mappa, or 
Folium mappie ; a shrub, native of the Malaccas. — Aca- 
lypha lanceolata, or Ricinocarpus Indica, S)-c. Raii Hist. 
Plant.; Henn. CataL; Sloan. Hist. Jamaic; Linn. Spec. 
AC.A'MATOS (.1/fff/ ) from «, priv. and jta/*ia, to labour; a 
position of the limbs longest to be borne without weariness. 
ACA'.MPTE (Opt.) an epithet applied by Leibnitz to a 
figure which is opaque and polished, and consequently 
possesses properties necessary for reflecting light, yet does 
not reflect it. Leib. Epist. torn. iii. p. 2t>3. 
ACA'NGA (Bot.) a species of the Bromelia of Linnaeus. 
-ACA'XOR (Chem.) a sort of chemical furnace. 
ACA'NOS (Bot.) 'Ar,a>05, u herb, the Onojjordium Acan- 
thium of Linnaeus. Theoph. Hist. Plant. \. 1, c. 16; Diosc. 
1.6, c.3. 
ACA'N'THA (Bot.) vide Acanthus. 

AcANTiiA (Anat.) the acute processes of the vertebrae, the 
spine of the tibia, or the Spina Dorsi. Gorr. Defin. Med. 


AcANTHA (Ich.) the fins of fishes. 

ACAKTHA'BOLUS (Surg.) from «W>0«, a thorn, and 
jiiiXXu, to throw ; a chirurgical instrument for extracting 
thorns, pieces of bone, S^c. Paul. Mginet. 

ACATHA'CEOUS (Bot.) uy.x^iin;^, from .<V.«.e«, aculeum ; 
prickly as plants of the thistle kind. Dio.'^c. 1. 3, c. 14. 

ACA'NTHALEUCE {Bot.) uKu.ixMvKn, Alba spina, white 

ACA'NTHE (Bot.) another name for the Cinara of Lin- 

ACA'NTHIA (Ent.) a division of the genus Cimex. 

ACA'NTHICE (Bot.) Uy.a.<6.K„ y-u^^x', the liquid which the 
head of the Helxines (ihi'ii) contains, used by females for 
mastick. Theoph. 1. G, c. 4-. 

ACA'NTHINUM (Chem.) gum. 

ACA'NTHIS (Or.) ««£««,«, i^a»«iipa-/<>?, an eater of thorns: 
a bird of mean colour, but agreeable voice, of wliich Virg. 
Georg. 3, v. 338, says 

LitonK^u^ haliyottein ro&onartt, et Acaiithida dunii. 

It is supposed to be what we call the linnet. Arislot. Hist. 
Anini. 1. 8, c. 3 ; .4ldrov. Arnithol. in voc. Carduclis. 

.•^.CA'NTHIUM (Bot.) the Onopordium acanthium, Illyri- 
ct'.m et Arabicnm of Linnaeus. Raii Hist. Plant. 

ACANTHE'IDES (Zo.) the same as echinos. 

AcANTHEiDES (Bot.) prickliest Thistle, a sp^'cies of the 
Carduus of Linnaeus. 

ACA'NTHUS (Arch.) an ornament in the capital of a 
Corinthian pill;\r, invented, according to Vitruvius, by 
Callimachus, who took the idea from observing an Acan- 
thus grow over a tile that had been placed on a tomb. 
I'itruv. 1. 4, c. 2 ; Bald. Lex. Vitruv. 

Acanthus (Bot.) the a.K-^^6r,c, of Theophrastus, and Acan- 
thus of Virgil, called by Herodotus a<«te«, by Strabo 
ux.c.<i6^, by Dioscorides u.x.x'na, and by Pliny Spina Mgyp- 
liaca ; is a shrub answering to the Acacia of Bauhine, and 
the Mimosa nilotica of Linnxus. Its fruit in the pod 
(fA/o.So;) is termed, by Virgil, a berry. 
Georg. 2, v. 119. 

Fa quid odiyrato referam sudantia ligvo 
BuUamatjitc et baccas semper frondeiitis Acanthi} 

AcANTiitJs, the herb, called by Dioscorides liy.xyfx, is dis- 
tinguished by the epithet mollis, smooth, because it is pro- 
vided with spines so soft that it might be used for garlands, 
Theoc. Idyl. 1. 1, v. 55. 

fctjt (3»^«5 TrSDiTnTfTHTU 

Virg. Eclog. 3, v. 15. 

s amptcxus acantha. 

This, as well as the former, is called Acanthus, because it 
is thorny, which was also a general name for many thorny 
plants. It is called Branca nrsina by Bauhine, Brank ur- 
sine by Dale, and Bears-breech, vulgarly. Herod. 1. 2, 
c. 96 ; Theophrast. Hist. Plant. 1. 4 ; Stejih. Byz. de Urb.; 
Dioscor. 1. 3 ; Plin. 1. 22 ; Ovid. Metam. 1.13; ritruv. 1. 4 ; 
Athen. Deipnos. 1. 15; Siinpl. 1. 6: Aet. I. 1 ; 
Marcell. Empiric. 1. 6 ; Salmas. Exercitat. Plin. ; &;c. 
Acanthus, in the Linyiccan system, a genus of plants, Class 
14 Didi/namia, Order 2 Angiospermia. 
Generic Characters. Cal. jierianth unequal, permanent. — 
Cor. one-petalled, unequal ; tube very short ; upper-lip 
none; under-lip very large. — Stam. Jilamcnts four; an- 
thers oblong. — Pi ST. ger7n conical ; style filiform ; stig- 
77ias two. — Per. capsule subovate, with a point; clatvs 
alternate ; seeds ovate. 
Species. The species are mostly shrubs, as the Acanthus 
mollis sativus, sexiMollis Virgilii Carduus, ssnBranca Ursi 
vel Ursina, Brank ursine, a native of Italy, where it is 


used medicinally. — Acanthus cardui/oUus, Thistle-leaved 

Acanthus, native of the Cape of Good Hope Acanthus 

spinosus aculeatus seu sylvcstris. Prickly Acanthus, a na- 
tive of Italy. — Acantliim Dioscoridis vel satii-us, native of 
Lebanon, and supposed by Linna;us to be the genuine 
species of Dioscorides. — Acanthus ilicqfoUus, the Paina- 
SchuUi of Rliced, native of the Indies, &c. J. Bauh. 
Hist. Plant.; C. Bauh. Pin. Thcat. Botan.; Ger. Herb.; 
Park. Thcat. Botan.; Rail Hisl. Plant.; Tourn. Insl. 
Herb.; Bocrh. Lid. Plant. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
ACANTHY'LLIS (Or.) another name for Acanthis. 
ACA'NTICONE (Min.) a species of the Epidofe family. 
ACA'NUS (Bot.) vide Acanos. 
ACA'XZIl (.1///.) Turkish light-horse, the Avant-guard of 

the Grand .Seignor's array. 
ACAPA'TLI (Bot.) another name for the Piper Longuni of 

Linnaeus. Rait Hist. Plant. 
ACA'PNON (Bot.) another name for the Sampsuchum of 

AcAPNON (iV«/.) a««5rn5-o», from «, priv. and Kaisnc, smoke; 
honey taken from the hive without smoking the bees. 
Slrnbo.\. 9; Plin.\. 11, c. 16. 
ACA'RNA (ZJo/.) "Ax«p«,Fish- Thistle, a species of the Alrac- 
tilis, the Carlinn, and the Ericus of Linnaeus. Theoph. 
1. 6, c 3. 
ACA'RNAN [Ich.) a sea-fish, mentioned by Athenaeus and 

Aldrovandiis. Castel. 
A'CARON (Bot.) the Wild Myrtle; the Myrtus Brabantia of 

ACA'RTUM [Chem.) red-lead. 

A'CARUS (Ent.) 'Aku^i, Tick, a genus of animals of the 
Class Insecta, Order Aplera. 

Generic Characters. Mouth without proboscis. — Feelers 
two as long as the sucker. — Eyes two placed on each 
side of the head. — Legs eiglit. 
Species. The most remarkable species are the Acarus 
sciro, the Cheese Mite, found in cheese and meal. — Aca- 
rus ricinus, Dog-Tick, wliicli infests dogs. — Acaru.<t exul- 
cerans, the Itch-Mite, found on the hands and joints of 
persons infected with tliu itch. — Acarus uutunimdi.^, the 
Harvest IJug, whicli attaches itself to plants and animals 
in autumn. — Acarus Iclarius. spins its web on the bark 
of trees, which, being dispersed by the winds, covers 
the fields with innumerable threads. — Acarus coleopira- 
torum, which is found on the bodies of several coleop- 
terous insects. — Acarus vc!;elaus. Vegetating Mite, an 
insect so called from the singular manner in which it is 
affixed to the limbs or wing-shells of the insect it infests. 
ACATALE'CTIC (Gram.) 'AKxra>.wtt>i, i. e. acatalecticus 
vcrsut cui in fine nihil deest, from «, priv. and xurak^ya, 
to end ; a perfect or acatalectic verse, not having a syllable 
too much or too little. /Homed. I. 3. 
ACATALICPSIA (Phy.) 'Ax.a-ccXr.'^ix, incompreliensibility, 

uncertainty in science. 
ACA'TALIS (Bot.) another name for the Junipcrus. 
ACATASTA'TyE (Med) from a, priv. and icitfi^^ii^Ki, to de- 
termine ; an ei)ithet for fevers that are irregular and vari- 
able in their appearances ; or urines that are turbid. Ilip- 
pocrnt. df Rat. Vict, in Aciit. Morb. S; Gal. Com. 
ACATE'RA (Bot.) .Junipcrus ni<rer. 
ACA'TI'^RY (Ilisl.) a sort of elieck between the clerks of 

the king's kitchen, and the purveyors. 
ACATHA'RSIA (Med.) ' Xk:,.^^^^, from «, priv. and naOa/fw, 

to purge; impurity of the- humour.^. 
ACATIU'STUS (Mus.) 'Attcch'^ai,, a solemn hymn, anciently 
sung in tlie Greek church, in the fourth week of Lent. 
Curopalat. tie Off. Conslanlin. c. 12. 
ACA'TIUM (Ant.) ScKiiTici, the largest sail placed in the 
middle of the ship. Poll. Onon. I. 2, c. 81 ; Isidor. Orig. 
1. 19, c. 3. 


ACA'TO (Cheni.) or Araxos, soot. 

ACA'ULIS (Bot.) from «, priv. xmuaV?, a stem, i. e. sine 
caule, stemless ; an epithet for a plant ; Planta acaulis, a 
plant wanting a stem, as the Viola odorata ; also for the 
cap of the fungi, as Pileus acaulis, or srs.^ilis, when the 
cap is not supported by a stalk, Liun. PhU . Botan. 

ACA'ULOS (Bot.) the Carlina Acaidis of Linnsus. Bauh. 
Hist. Plant. 

ACCAPITA'RE (Laiv) to pay relief to lords of manors. 
Flet. 1. 2, c. .50. 

ACCA'PITUM (Law) i. e. Relerium, a relief to lords of 

ACCE'DAS ad Curiam (Laxi;) a writ issuing from Cliancery 
to a sheriff, where a man received false judgment. 
F.N.B. 18; Reg. Orig. 9, 56. — .-iccedas ad Vice-Comitem, 
a writ to a coroner, commanding him to deliver a writ to 
a sheriff, who having a writ, called ap.r^, suppresses it. 
Reg. Orig. 83. 

ACCE'LEilATED (Phn.) an epithet for motion when it 
increases by continual accessions of velocity, which may 
be either equably or unequably accelerated, as the accele- 
rated motion of pendulums, projectiles, compressed bodies, 
&c. The term is opposed to retarded, which expresse.; a 
diminution of velocity. 

ACCE'LERATING, or Accclcrnlive (Mcch.) acceleratrix, ar» 
epithet for that force which causes an increased velocity of 
motion. Newt. Princip. def. 8. 

ACCELERA'TION (Phy.) acccleratio, from nc, or ad, and 
celero, to quicken ; increased velocity of motion, which is 
principally applied to falling bodies tending towards the 
centre of the earth by the force of gravity. Acceleration 
is either equable or variable. — Equable acceleration is that 
in which the accessions of velocity are always equal in 
equal times. — Variable acceleration is when the acces- 
sions in equal times either increase or decrease. Galil. 
Dial. 2. 

Acceleration (Astron.) is applied to the fixed stars, the 
planets, and the moon. — Acceleration of the fixed stars, is 
the time which the stars, in one diurnal revolution, antici- 
pate the mean diurnal revolution of the sun. — Acceleration 
of a planet, when its real diurnal motion exceeds its mean 
diurnal motion. — Acceleration of the moon, the increase of 
the moon's mean motion from the sun, compared with 
the diurnal motion of the earth. 

ACCE'LERATIVE (Phy.) vide .Accelerating. 

ACCELERATO'RES urince (Anal.) muscles so called 
because they serve to expedite the passage of the 

ACCE'NDONES (.'hit.) a kind of gladiators or supernu- 
meraries, whose office was to excite and animate the com- 
batants. Salmas. in Tertull. de Pall. c. (j. 

ACCE'NSOR (Ant.) vide Acolythus. 

ACCE'NSUS (Art.) an officer who attended on the con- 
suls and pra;tors acting as a clerk of the assizes, or crier of 
the court to summon the witnesses, Sec; so called quod 
alios ad prcetorem acciret. Before the introduction of 
clocks he used also to cry the hour at the third hour at 
noon, and at the ninth hour. Varr. de Ling. Lai. 1. 5, 
c. 9; Cic.dc Leg. 1. 2, c. 24; Ad. Prat. 1. 1, ep. 1 ; Plin. 
1. 7, c. 60 ; Var. de Vit. Pop. Rom. Apud. Non. MarccU. 
1. 12, c. 8 ; Suet, in Jul. c. 20 ; August. Ad. Leg. xii. Tab. 
§ W ; Sigon. de Anliq. ,Jur. Civ. Roman.; Manut. de Civit. 
Rom. apud Thesaur. Gnec. tom. 1, p. 30; Salmas. de Mil. 
Rom. c. 11-; Buleug. de Imp. Rom. 1. 6, c. 16. This officer 
seems also to have acted as a scribe, according to Cicero, 
and some inscriptions T. TITIENUS FELIX, AUCJUS- 
/EDILIS. PLEBIS. ACCENSUS. Cic. in Verr. I, 3, 
c. 6(j ; Buleng. de Lnp. Rom. 1. 6 ; Pallet. For. Rom. 1. 5, 
c. 13. 


AccKNSUS, a kind of adjutant appointed by the tribunes to 
assist the centurion or decurion ; or, according to Festus, 
a supernumerary soldier who was ready to supply the place 
of any one that died. Varr. de Vit. Pop. Rom. 1. 3 apiid 
No?i. 1. 12, c. 8 ; Liv. 1. 1, c. 43 ; Fest. de Verb. Signif.; 
Salinas, de lie Mil. c. 14; Rosin. Antiq. Rom. 

A'CCENT [Gram.) Accenttis, from ac, or ad, and cantus, 
a song; an inflection of tone which is either acute, grave, 
or circuniffe.v : the — Acute accent ( ) sharpens or raises the 
syllable. — Grave accent ( ') depresses the syllable. — Circum- 
flex accent (~ ) both elevates and depresses, i. e. per arsin et 
thesin ; as in the word naiura ; when I say, natu, the voice 
is elevated, and it is called arsis ; but when I say ra, the 
voice is depressed, and it is called thesis. Varro. de Lai. 
Lin.; Quint. Inst. 1. 12, c. 10; Diomed. 1. 2; Prise, de 
Accent, apud Vet. Grammat. ; Isid. Orig. 1. 1, c. 17. 

Accents Greek, the Greek accents are now known but little, 
except by the marks over the vowels ; they are three, 
namel)', acute ('), grave ("), and circumflex {") '< words are 
denominated differently according to the position of the 
accent, as — Proparoxytons, with the acute on the ante- 
penultimate, as Taiifii^ios. — Puro.Ti/tons, having the acute on 
the penultimate, as ^"X,'";- — Oxi/tons, having the grave or 
acute accent on the last syllable, as Kr6ii,)>c, S.k. — Barytons, 
with the grave accent, or no accent, on the last syllable, 
as Tik'., o-iiu,££. — CircumJJex, those with the circumflex on 
the last syllable, as iro;a. — Ante-circumflex, with the cir- 
cumflex on the penultimate, as /SoSk. — To these may be 
added the breathings, which are two ; viz. the lenis or 
mild ('), as i^a, and the aspcr or aspirate ('), as sxaTst, 
which is pronounced Hucxrut. Everj' word beginning with 
a vowel has either the lenis or the aaper, and when two ;'s 
come together, the first has the lenis, and the second the 
asper, as ~c'ffa. 

Accents Hcbreie, the Hebrew accents consisted either of 
points which served as vowel points, which will be noticed 
under the head of points, or of accents, properly so called, 
which are either tonic, distinctive, or servile. — Tonic ac- 
cents stand for notes to sing by. ^Distinctive accents dis- 
tinguish the sense. — Servile accents, accentus ministri, or 
serviles, serve to show the construction and connexion of 

Accents are moreover distinguislied as they stand over or 
under the letters. 

Hebrew Accents under the Letters. 
Name, Figure, Place, and Power. 







IMerca simplex 

Merca duplex 



Jerach ben jomo 

N Punctum. 

N Colon. 

N Semicomma pritnum. 

N Ditto. 

>< Semicolon. 

» Semicomma. 

N Ditto. 

» Ditto. 

N Ditto. 

« Ditto. 

(? Ditto. 

Hebreui Accents above the Letters, 
Paser minor 
Paser major 

Karne para 
Pesik, or Legarme 

N Semicomma quartum. 
IS Ditto. 
«° Ditto. 
N Semicolon. 
<* Ditto. 

Telischa ketanna 
Telischa Gedola 
Sesol, or Segolta 
Sakeph katon 
Sakeph gadol 
Refia, or Rebhia 


Figure, Place, and Power. 

« Semicomma. 

*< Semicomma primum. 

« Ditto. 

t* Semicomma secundiiui. 

N Ditto. 

>• Semicomma tertium. 

"^ Strong colon. 

>< Comma. 

• « Ditto. 

N Ditto. 

u a 

u a 

V a 
u a 

V u 
u a 

V u 

V a 

V a 

The Greek and Roman accentual marks are placed over 
the vowels, as follow : 

Greek Accents and Breathings. 
Acute, as asui'di/af 

Grave, as a e if t u a e. 

Circumflex, as Z £ ii t o " ~ 

Lenis, as a I h 1 o 

Asper, as « £ ^ ( o 

Acute lenis, as a E n i 

Grave lenis, as a £ » i o 

Acute asper, as a. t ■» i o 

Grave asper, as a £ « i o 

Circumflex lenis, as a. i ri i o 
Circumflex asper, as a £ 1 ' o 

Homan Accents. 
' Acute, as :i ^ 1 6 (i. 

Grave, as a fe i 6 il. 

" Circumflex, as i & i o Q. 
5 Cedilla used only under the French c, as f. 

over the Spanish n, thus ii. 

Accent (Mus.) the modulation of the voice in singing. 

Accented {Mus.) an epithet for those notes or bars on 
which the emphasis naturally falls. 

Accents {Mus.) accentus; a verse or song. 

ACCE'NTOK (Mus.) he that sings the highest part, or 
treble in a choir. 

ACCE'PTANCE (Law) Acceptatio, from accipio, to accept; 
an accepting of a thing, or a tacit agreement, as \? husband 
and Kije, seised of lands in right of the wife, join and make 
a lease reserving rent ; and after the death of the husband 
the wife receives or accepts the rent, by this acceptance 
the lease is confirmed, and it shall bind her. 1 lust. 273. 

Acceptance of a bill (Com.) the signing, subscribing, and, 
making a person debtor for the contents. 

ACCEPTA'TIO (Ant.) a discharge from the creditor to the 
debtor, which is in civil law, what an acquittance is in com- 
mon law. Bud. in Pandect, p. 178. 

ACCE'PTOR {Ant.) vide Accipifer. 

Acceptor (Com.) the person who accepts a bill of ax- 
change by signing it, and obliging himself to pay the con- 

ACCEPTO'RIUS modiolus (Ant.) a vessel employed in the 
aqueducts for holding water, in distinction from the eroga- 
torius, by which it was dealt out. Keuchen. in Frontin. de 
Aqueduct. I. 1 apud Thes. Grcev. Antiq. Rom. vol. 4, 
p. 1638. 

ACCERSITO'RES (Ant) Runners who went before to ao- 
noimce the arrival of any one. Pignor, de Serv. p. 255. 


ACCE'SS A (Archtenl.) Accessio, Accessus ; tlie access of the 
sea, i. e. the tide in distinction from the recessus or ebb. 

A'CCESSARY (Laiv) or Acccssnri/, acccssoriiis, from ac and 
cedo, to come ; one guilty of an offence not principally, but 
bv a direct participation, as of command, iSrc. ; if simply 
by advice or abetting he is an abettor ; if by act and deed, 
as a principal, he is an accomplice. Accessories are either 
so before the fact or aSlax .— Accessories before the fact, are 
those who being absent, yet procure or command another 
to commit a crime. — Accessories after the fact, tliose who 
receive and relieve the felon, knowing the felony to have 
been committed. 3 Inst. 138; 1 Unle. Pleas nfthe Crown, 
613, &c ; Hawk. P. C. I 2, c. 'M , &c. 

ACCE'SSIBLE (Math.) an epithet for any height or depth 
which can be approached so as to be measured by applying 
a proper instrument. 

AccE.ssiBLE (Mil.) an epithet for any place that may be 
approaciied by a hostile force. A fortress may be ac- 
cessible both b)' sea or land. 

ACCE'SSION (Med.) accessio, from accedo, to approach, 
^fw*to-i£, the beginning of a paroxysm, or a fit of u.n 
intermitting fever. 

Accession (Pol.) from accedo, to approach ; an approach 
or coming to ; as of a king who takes possession of his 
throne, or of any person vvho comes into possession of 

Accession (£cc.) a terra used in the election of a pope, 
when one or more cardinals accede or go over to a parti- 
cular side so as to give it the majority, which is one mode 
of election in distinction from acclamation, or scrutiny. 
Vide Accessus. 

ACCESSO'UIUS Musculus (Aiiat.) another name for the 
Jlexor diaitorum and sacro lumbaris. — Accessorius Nei'vus, 
a name given, by Willis, to the eighth pair of nerves which 
arise by several filaments, from both sides of the medulla 

A'CCESSORY (Law) vide Accessary. 

ACCE'SSUS (Ant.) from accedo, to approach ; a climbing 
machine for ascending the walls of besieged towns. Vitruv. 
I. 10, c. 19. 

Accessus (Ecc.) velper accessttm, a mode of electing the pope, 
when all the cardinals, with one consent, approach him 
and salute him by the title of Papa. This is called, in 
English, " An election by acclamation." Ceremonial Rom. 

1. 1, § 1- 

ACCIACATU'IIA (Miis.) Italian, for a sweeping of the 
chords of the harpsichord, and dropping sprinkled notes 
usual in accompaniments. 

A'CCIDENS (Phij.) or per Accidens, xxra a-ufi-fiiSwoi; a 
term applied to the operations of natural bodies, in disitinc- 
tion from per sc ; thus fire is said to burn per se, but a hot 
iron per accidens. Aristot. Awdyt. Post. 1. 1, c. 3. 

A'CCIDENT (Log.) Accidens, from occn/o, to befal or hap- 
pen to a thing, to <rvj/.ftt^w<,; that which belongs inci- 
dentally to substances. Accidents are of different kinds, 
namely : — Accidens particulare, a particular accident, that 
which is in a subject, but attributed to no subject ; as a 
garment that belongs to a man, but forms no part of a 
man— Accidens prccdicabilc, a predicable accident, which 
is in a subject, and predicated of, or attributed to, a sub- 
ject ; but belongs incidentally to it, in distinction from the 
essence, as white, black. This is, as Porphyry defines it, 
what comes to, or goes from, a thing, ^""fi ■''m t» uVo^ii/ack 
(ficfM,, i. e. without destroying the subject. It is divided 
into common and proper. — Accidens commune, xwc, a 
common accident, belongs to several subjects; as ani- 
mality, which is connnon to man and beast. — Accidens pro- 
prinm', i<!'", a proper accident, which is peculiar to one 
subject; as risibility to man. — Accidens scparabile, %«fifi., 
a separable accident, which may be separated from a sub- 


ject ; as sleeping from a man. — Accidens inseparahile, 
ux.ufi^ov, an inseparable accident, which cannot be sepa- 
rated from the subject ; as blackness from the skin of an 
Ethiopian, — Accidois pnrdicamentale, a jiredicamental ac- 
cident, which includes the last nine of the predicaments ; 
as quantity, quality, action, passion, &c. in distinction 
from the no-iW, or substance, which is the first predicament. 
Porphyr. Isagog. ; Aristot. Analyt. 

ACCIDE'NTAL Colours (Opt.) those which depend on 
the eye, in distinction from those which are produced by 
the light. 

Accidental Point (Pcrspect.) that point in which a right 
line drawn from the eye, parallel to another given right 
line, cuts the picture or plane. Thus, suppose A B to be 

the line given in perspective, C F E the perspective plane, 
D the eye, C D the line parellel to A B ; then is C the 
accidental point. 

ACCI'DENTS [Logic) vide Accident. 

Accidents (Metapk.) are distinguished into primary and 
secondary. — Primary accidents are such as are absolute ; 
as quantity and quality. — Secondary accidents are qunndo, 
when ; ubi, where ; sitris, situation ; habitus, habit, &c. 

Accidents (Gram.) the inflexions of words, or the ac- 
cents in letters and syllables. 

Accidents (Her.) the tincture and differences in blazoning, 
or the points and abatements in an escutcheon. 

ACCIPE'NSEll (Ich.) vide Acipenser. 

ACCI'PITER (Or.) the hawk, a well-known bird of prey, 
so called on account of its rapacity, from accipio, to seize, 
i. e. to seize or take birds. The Hebrew name yj is de- 
rived from nv:, to fly ; because it is a bird of swift flight, 
as the Greek (if«5, from xi pao. 'turSxi, to go freely. This 
bird was made emblematical of the winds, on account of 
the swiftness of its flight, which, together with its rapa- 
city, has been celebrated by the poets. Horn. Iliad. I. 15, 
V. I'M , speaking of Apollo, 

Bii h kxt' \^Xim ofim ' Ipwi ieiKia; 

Odyss. 1. 15, V. 525. 
Uom. ILL 16, V. 582. 

'ilxij, otrr' iVi^ijr* Ke?iOitii rt •vj'«p«? ti 
Hesiod. Oper. 1. 1, v. 210. 
OvidMctam.X. 11, v. 661.. 

— .Acninter nutti xatis tripms in oiniiei 
Secvit aves, alihiine iloleiis Jit cauiu doUndi. 

Ovid, de Arte Amand. 1. 2, v. I*?. 

Odimus accipitrem quia vivit semper in armii. 

Martian. U, ep. 216. 

I'radofuil wlucrum, famulus nunc aticupis, idem 
Dfcipit el capias non sibi mcrrel ai<es. 

Claud. Eidyll. 1, v. 81. 

Hctla V 

ri.s accipiter, 

■ ipse ti>. 

For the sharpness of its sight, it was made emblematical of 
the sun, to which it was held sacred by the Egyptians; 


and on this account is called by Aristophanes t«»t' !,ip6et.x. 
IMC, and b)' Virgil ales sacer. Calliniachus mentions six 
species of the hawk, and Pliny sixteen ; but Aristotle gives 
tlie names of only ten, viz. Tfiopxi;?, aiVaPiw, Kipxoc, arffia;, 
(p.<r(rt>f!i:tii, iTiff., >.7.o5, JTif^os, o-s-i^i'ac, (r(»iro;io;i;;i>^ Biifeo, 
asah), circus, asterias, palumbarius, periies, lavis, percus, 
spizia, rubetarius. Tiie two species principally known are 
the — Accipifer palumbarius, or Goss-hawk, so called be- 
cause it takes doves. It is the lifKi ^air(ro?>o»o; of Aristotle ; 
the Accipiter palumbarius of Aklrovandus ; and tiie Falco 
palumbarius of Linnaeus. — Accipiter Jriugillaiius, or the 
Sparrow-hawk, so called because it catches sparrows, is 
the lifal c-JT^^Mi of Aristotle ; the Accipiter Ji-i.igillarius 
vulgo Nistis sparviero dictus of Aldrovandus ; and the Falco 
iiisus of Linnaeus. Hcrodot. 1. 2, c. 65, Sec. ; Aristot. 
Hist. Animal. 1. 9 ; Diudor. 1. 2; Cic. de Nat. Dear. 1. 3, 
c. U ; Virg. Mil. 1. 11, v. "21 ; Apul. Apolog. 1. 1 ; Plin. 
1. 10, c. 8; Pint, de hid. et Osir. ; ^lian. Hist. Anim. 
]. 2, c. 4:2; Haropol. de Hierogl. 1. 2, c. 14; Oppian. 
Ixeut. 1. 1 ; Eustalh in Odi^ss. 1. 15; Gregor. Nazianz. 
1. 10, c. 16 ; August, contra Manat. ; Jul. Firm. Mailies. 
L 5, c. 7 ; Sidon. Apnllinar. Paneg. ad Avit. ; Oros. Hist. 
1. 2, c. 1 •t ; Demet. Prcrf. ad Hierocosoph ; Isidor. Orig. 
1. 12; Gesiter de Avib ; Aldrov. Ornitli. 1. 1 ; Dellon. de 
Avibus ; Alex, ab Atexand. Gen. D. 1. 5, c. 13; B.jch. 
Hieroz. 1. 1, &c. ; Tliuan. de Re Accipiter, 1. 1 ; JVill. Or- 
tiitli. ; Rati Hist.; Linn. Si/st. Nat. 
Accipiter (\umis.) this bird [vide Accipiter under Orni- 
thologti], was worshipped in Egypt for Osiris, on account 
of its fierceness and violence, which attributes it was sup- 
posed to possess in common with Osiris or the sun. The 
subjoined figure represents a medal of Adrian, bearing, on 

the obverse, the head of the emperor, crowned with laurel. 
The inscription, ATT^^pir*. KAIo-aj TIo.>..; AIL.o« 
AAPIANOC ; on the reverse, the accipiter with the 
flower of the lotus on its head, standing on a small stall': 
the inscription METHAIi^' L. I A. i.e. Metelitarum 
anno undecimo. Vaillant Xumis. Ptolem. 

Accipiter (Surg.) the name of a bandage which was put 
over the nose ; so called from its resemblance to the claw 
of a hawk. 

ACCrPITRES {Or.) the first order in the Linnean sys- 
tem, in the class Aves, or Birds, having an angular tooth- 
like process on the upper mandible, including the follow- 
ing genera, namelv, — Vultur, the Vulture, having the 
bill hooked, and the head naked. — Falco, the Eagle, Fal- 
con, Kite, Hawk, S:c. having the bill hooked, and covered 
at the base with a cere. — Strix, the Owl, having the bill 
hooked, with a frontlet of covered bristles. — Lanius, the 
Slirike, having the bill straightish and notched. 

ACCIPITRI'XA {Bot.) another name for the hank- 

ACCrSE (Com.) a duty in Holland on different sorts of 
commodities, as wheat, coals, &c. 

ACCL.\^IA'TIO (Ant.) acclamation, or shouting, which 
among the Romans was performed by a certain tune or 
modulation of the voices in accordance, and was employed 
either for the purpose of praise or dispraise. Acclamations 
were adopted on most public occasions, as in the case of 
marringes, congratulations of emperors or generals, in tlie 
theatre, the senate, and other places. The form of the 
acclamation varied with tiie occasion ; on saluting a newly 
elected general, they cried out Dii te servent, Imperatur ; 
on applauding the performances of any declaimer or orator, 


they vrow\A cry out Bene et prcEclare ; Belle et festive, non 
potest melius. See. Sometimes, however, the acclamation 
was employed to express a contrary feeling, as on the 
death of Commodus. Cic. de Oral. 1. 3, c. 26 ; Hor. de 
Art. Poet. V. 428; Mart. !. 2, epig. 27; Pers. Sat. 1, 
V.49; Senec. Octav. act 4, seen. 1, v. 704, andepist. 59; 
Plin. 1. 2, epist. 14, &c. ; Quintil. Instil. Oral. 1. 8, c. 3 ; 
Suet in Ner. c. 20, and in Domit. c. 23 ; Dio. I. 43, &c. ; 
Arrian in Epict. 1. 2, c. 23 ; I'opisc. in Prob. c. 10 ; Lam- 
prid. in Com/nod. c. 18, and in Anton. Diadum, c. 1 ; Bud 
in Pandect, p. 74 ; Sigon de Ant. Jur. Provin. 1. 2, c. 7 ; 
Ferrar. de Acclamat. 1. 1, c. 2, &c. ; Buleng. de Cir. c. 49 ; 
Laz. Comm. Reip. Rom. 1. 9, c. 2. 

ACCLAMATION (Ecc.) a mode of electing the Pope, 
when the cardinals, with one consent, address him by the 
title of " Papa," as soon as he makes his appearance 
among them. 

ACCLI'V'IS (Anat.) another name for the muscle called 
obliquus ascendens abdominis. 

ACCLI'VITY (Math.) the steepness, or slope, of any 
place inclined to the horizon reckoned upwards. 

A'CCOLA (Ant.) a husbandman who came from other 
parts to till the ground : Eo quod perveniens ierram colat. 
In distinction from the incola qui propriam terrain colit : 
i. e. who tills his native soil. Isid. (Jrig. I. 12, c. 1. 

ACCOLA'DE (.■irclucol.) from ac or ad and collum, the 
neck ; a ceremony used in knighting, when the king puts 
his hand round the neck of the knight, Wilhclm Malms- 
bur, de Ge^t. Reg. Angl. 

.Accolade (Mus!) the brace which includes all the parts 
of a score. 

A'CCOLER (Com.) the making of a bracket in the margin 
of an account book in France, so as to comprehend several 
sums in one. 

A'CCOLLF, (Her.) collared or wearing a collar. 

ACCOMMODATION bill (Com.) a bill given as an accom- 
modation instead of a loan of money, which is commonly 
taken up by the drawer. 

ACCOMPAGNE'E (Her.) between. 

ACCO'MPAXI.MENT (Mus.) An instrumental part added 
to a composition by way of embellishment. — Accompani- 
ment ad libitum, when the piece may be performed with or 
without the accompaniment at pleasure. — Accompaniment- 
obligato, when the accompaniment is indispensable to the 

ACCO'MPAXIMENTS (Mus.) instrumental parts added 
incidentally to any piece. 

.\ccoMPANiMENTs (Her.) such things as are usually ap- 
plied about the shield, as the belt, mantlings, iSrc. 

ACCO'MPANIST (Mus.) the performer of the accompa- 

ACCO'MPLICE (Laio) vide Accessari/. 

ACCO'MPT (Com.) vide Account. 

ACCO'NTUNI {.4nt.) a Grecian dart or javelin, somewhat 
similar to the Roman ;;!7»)w. 

ACCO'RD (Mus.) an agreement in pitch and tone, as ap- 
plied to the voice, or to instruments. Rousseau defines it 
a union of two or more sounds made at the same time, so 
as to form an harmonic whole. Accords are divided by 
Rousseau into — Accords consonans, or consonances, when 
the intervals formed by two sounds are agreeable to the 
ear. — Accords dissonans, or dissonances, those which con- 
tain some dissonance, or discordant sound, which is dis- 
agreeable to the ear. — Accords parfaits, which consist of 
three different sounds, having the grave sound as the fun- 
damental. — Accords impaifiits, which have not the grave 

Accord (/.aw.) an agreement between two or more per- 
sons, when any one is injured by a trespass or offence, to 
satisfy him with some recompence. 


ACCORDATU'RA (Mus.) an Italian word for the tuning 

of an instrument. 
ACCO'STED (Her.) from the Latin nc and 
costa, a rib or side ; side b)' side, as in the 
annexed figure. " Chevron between six 
rams accosted." The family of Harman 
bear this coat of arms on a field azure. 
ACCO'TEMENT (Mec/i.) an upsetting 
among paviours ; a space of ground which 
is between the border of the road and the ditch. 
ACCO'UCHEMENT (Mrd.) Fr. delivery, or lying-in; 

hence the practitioners have been styled accoucheurs. 
ACCO'UNT (Com.) or accnuuls, in general all computa- 
tions. — Books of accounts, or Merchants' Accounts ; the 
books in whicli all the transactions of a merchant are 
entered and digested in proper order. [Vide Book-kecp- 
'".?•] Whence the different phrases. — To open an account, 
or to enter it for the first time in a ledger. — To keep open 
an account ; when merchants agree to honour each other's 
bills of exchange reciprocally. — To affirm an account ; to 
declare and make oath that it is true. — To dispute, or 
note an account ; to Biake remarks or objections on the 
several items of an account. — To settle an account; to 
cast it up and balance it. — To post a sum to an account ; 
to enter into the ledger the articles for which any 
persons become either debtors or creditors. — Account 
paper ; a fine large paper in France on which accounts 
were written. — Account of sales ; an account given by one 
merchant to another of the disposal, charges, commission, 
and net produce from the sale of certain goods. 
Account personal {Mil.) or pay-account ; an account which 
is kept by army agents of monies received and disbursed 
for subsistence and allowance. — Clothing account ; an ac- 
count kept by the army-agent of monies received and dis- 
bursed for the clothing of the regiment. 
Account (Chron) the same as style, ' the old or new ac- 
count,' i. e. the old or new style. 
Account (Law) computus ; a writ or action against a 
bailiff or receiver, who refuses to render an account. Stat. 
oflVcstm. 2 c. I ; /•'. N. B. Ui, 116. 
.^CCO'UNTANT (Law) one obliged to render an account 
to another. — Accountant-general ; an officer in the court of 
chancery, to receive all money lodged in court. 
ACCO'UTREMENTS (Mil.) the habits, equipage, and 
furniture of a soldier, such as belts, pouches, cartridge- 
boxes, &c. 
ACCRE'SSIMENTS (Mus.) or Accress, the same as aug- 
ACCRE'TIO (Phij.) from ac or ad and craco, to grow ; ac- 
cretion, or the increase of a body by growth. 
AccRETio (Med.) a growing together, as the fingers or 

toes to one another. 
ACCRO'CIIE (Law) from the French accrocher, to hook 
to ; to encroach. Stat. '25, Ed. 3. Among the French, to 
delay ; as accrocher un process, to stay proceedings in a 
ACCRU'ED (ficr.) an epithet for a tree full grown. 
ACCUBATIO (Hist.) accubation, or a mode of reclin- 
ing on couches side by side at meals, customary among 
the Romans. Cic. in Ver. 1. 5, c. 31 ; Petron. Arb. c. 3G ; 
Isidor Oriorn. 1. 20, c. 2; Lips. Ant. Led. vol. 2, p. \\\-, 
Stuck, dc Ant. Conv.].2, c. Si; Philund. in I'ilruv, 1. (j, 
c. 2; Bulcng. de Conviv. 1. 1, c. 32 ; Ciaccon de Triclin. 
p. 2.52. 
ACCU'BITA (Ant.) the couches on which the ancients 
used to recline. Spartian in yEL Ver. c. .'5 ; Lamprid. in 
Ileliogah. c. I'J, &c, ; Hiilcn<r. de Conviv. 1. 1, c. 30 ; Sal- 
vias in Tertull. dc Pall. p. 171. 
ACCU'LER (Mil.) to come to close action, or to drive an 
army into such a situation as to compel it to action. 


ACCUSA'TIO (Med.) Vide I„dicatio. 
AccusATio (Ant.) accusation, among the Roman.«, con- 
sisted of three parts : namely, — Postulutio, or a petition to 
produce the charge. — Dclatio, the bringing before the 
court ; and accusatio, in the strict sense, or the substan- 
tiating the charge. Ascon in Cic. p. 65, Ac; Senec. Con- 
trovers, 1. 4 ; Utpian. de Accusat.; Sigon de ludic. 1. 2, c. 8, 
&c. ; Manut de Leg. c. 828, &c. ; Rosin Ant. Rom. 1. 9, 
c. 29. 
ACCU'SATIVE (Gram.) Accusativus, xarriycfixli, the fourth 
case of nouns, because we accuse accusamus, connnend, 
or predicate something of some one. Van: de Ling. Lnt. 
1. 7 ; Sosip. Charis. Instit. Grammat. 1. 5 : Diomed. 1. 1 ; 
Priscian. Gramm. 1.5; Cledon. de Art. Gram, apud Putsch. 
Grammat. Lai. Auctor Ant. ; Isidor. Orig.l. 1, c. 16. 
ACE (Games) that side of a die on which the number one is 
expressed : also the card on which there is but one figure. 
ACE'DIA (Med.) ccKiStr., from a pro a-/ar, a particle of ex- 
cess, and xviS'cc, care ; a tenii used by Hippocrates for fa- 
tigue. Hippoc. "ifi ah>. 
ACE'PHALI (Ecc.) «,-.f.p«Aoi, from a, priv. and xspK^.!), a 
head ; heretics, so called because they admitted no lawful 
superior, cither layman or ecclesiastic. They were similar 
to the levellers in the time of Henry I. There were also 
priests of this name, who submitted to no bishop. Leon- 
tius de Sectis, act. 5 ; Baron. Annal. Ann. 433 ; Pratcol. 
dc Hccret. Dnct. Omn. 
AcEPHALi versus (Rhet.) muiili in principio ; verses that 
begin with a short syllable instead of a long one. Ma- 
crob. Saturnal. 1. 5, c. 15. 
AcEPHAi-i (Zool.) ct.Ki(pciXii, from u, priv. and Ki^ttXn, a head; 
headless, an epithet for crabs, and other such animals as 
have their senses about the breasts or hearts. Gal. de Usu. 
Part. 1. 8, c. 4. 
A'CER (Pot.) or Accris, according to Solinus ; tlie INIapIe- 
tree, a tree so called from accr hard, as Vossius thinks, 
because of the great hardness of its wood, answering to 
the tr^i'i'Jcujtci, of the Greeks, from (nftcx^c^, durus, hard ; or, 
as Perotius thinks, from acer, sharp, because it exercises the 
wit of man in the liberal arts, according to the words of 
Pliny, " Acer aperum elegantid ct sublilitate ccdro se- 
cundum." The root is used in physic, and a juice is ex- 
tracted from it in the spring, which serves as a sweet drink. 
There are three species of it mentioned by the ancients, 
viz. Acer album, acer venis distinctum, et acer zi/gia vel car- 
pinum ; but, according to Plin)', there were ten species. 
Columel.\. 5, c. 7 ; Plin.\. 16, c. 26 ; Llesijchius.; Salmas 
E.vcrcit. Plin. p. 507. 
Acer, in the Linncean system, a genus of plants. Class 23 
Polygamia, Order 1, Moncecia. 

Generic Characters. — Cal. perianth one-leafed. — Con. nf- 
tals five. — STA.}-t.Jila>ncnts eight; anthers sinijile ; pullcu 
cruciform. — ncnii compressed; style filiform; stig- 
mas two (or tliree) pointed. — I'ek. capsules, the number 
of the stigmas coulescent at the base ; seeds solitary. 
Species. The principal species of the Accr are as follow : 
Accr scmpervirens. Evergreen Maple, a shrub. — Acer 
nseudn-phitanus. Great Maple ; a British plant, but not 
mdigenous. — Accr saccharinum, American Sugar Maple, 
from which the inhabitants make sugar. — Acer palma- 
tum, or Kcvan Mokf, Hand-leaved Maple, native of 
Japan. — Act r campeslre, or minus, Connnon or .SiiiuU .Ma- 
ple, a British plant, but not indigenous. — .-leer negundo, 
or mujcimum, Virginian, Ash-leaved Maple. — yica- dasy- 
carpum, eriocarpum, or rubrum, a native of Pennsylva- 
nia. Parkin. Thcat. Botan. ; J. Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; C. 
Jiauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb; Raii Hist. Plant, ct Synop ; 
Tournef. Inst. ; Boerhaav. Lid. ; Dillcn. Catalog. 
AcEH is also a name for the Bannisteria laurifolia and the 
Trioptcris critrijhlia of Linnaeus. Plum. Spec. Sloan. Jam. 


ACE'RATOS (Med.) anfUToi from «, priv. and x£firti//*i, to 
mix ; unmingled, uncorrupted ; an epithet for the humours. 
Hippocrnt de 4tfect ; Foes. Oecunom. Hippocrat. 

ACE'RBUS (Med.) sour, harsh, or astringent ; as unripe fruit. 

ACE'UIC (C/ie»i.) an epithet for a vegetable acid from the 
acer cnnipestre. 

ACE'lUDES { Med.) i'c-tf'Jn, from «, priv. and xnfof, wax ; plas- 
ters without wax. Gal. de Med. Compos, per gett. 1. 4, c. 14. 

ACEllO'S.Ti. nrboies (Bat.) the pine tribe, a sort of ligneous 
plants. Linn. Phil. Dot. 

ACEltO'SUS {Med.) axvfc'^fi, from o^x^f", chaff; an epithet 
eniplojed by Hippocrates for the coarsest bread made of 
flour not separated from the chaff. llippoc. mfi uyfiw 
j^ijo-io;. Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 

AcERosus (Dot.) linear, persistent; an epithet for a leaf. — 
Folium accrosnm, a leaf, needle-shaped, and inserted at the 
base into the branch by articulation, as in the pine, fir, 
and juniper. Linn. Pliil. Dot. 

ACE'llUA (Ant.) an altar erected near the bed of a deceased 
person on which incense was burnt; it was so called be- 
cause perfumes were, acensi, burnt upon them to prevent 
unpleasant smell. The Acerra was also a little pot which 
contained the perfumes. 
Horat. 1. 3, od. 8, v. 2. 

Quid veliitt Jiores et acerra thuris 
Plena, miraris. 

Ovid de Pont. 1. 4, epist. 8, v. 39. 

Kec qmz de pari'a pauper diis tibat orciTd, 
Tlniru iiiiiuis grundi quam data lance valent. 

The Acerra was very similar in form to what is now used 
in the church of Rome. Cic. de Leg. 1. 2, c. 24 ; Fesi. de 
Sign. I'erb ; Ferret Mns. Lapid. 1. 4, Me.mnr. 9 ; August. 
in Leg. xii. Tatj. § 43 ; Hotman. Antiq. Rom. 1. 3, c. 1 ; 
Meurs. de Fiiner. c. 6 ; La Chausse Insign. Pontif. Max. 
tab. 8. 

ACE'SCENT (Chem.) an epithet for substances which rea- 
dily run into the acid fermentation. — Acescent lirpiii/s, those 
liquids in which the acid fermentation has connnenced. 

ACE'STIDES (C/:em.) from i»i;, acies, a point ; chinnieys of 
furnaces, narrow at the top, for melting brass. 

ACE'STORIS (Med.) axsi-cfU, from axm, healing ; a term 
used by Hippocrates for a female physician, or a midwife. 
Hippoc. ^ifi 0viruv, &c. ; Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 

ACETA'BULUM (Ant.) i'^uScKpov ; a vessel for vinegar. 2. 
A measure equal to the one eighth of a modern pint. 
Allien. 1. 2, c. 26. Gal. de Mensiir, Sfc. c. 2. 

Acetabulum (Med.) xorv?^, cavitns, or ij|i;^«<pij», the cup, 
from its resemblance to that vessel : 1. A cavity, or soc- 
ket in the os coxendix, or hip-bone, to receive the head of 
Xhe femur, or thigh-bone. Ruff. Eplies. 1. 1, c. 9 ; Gal. 
Comm. in Hippoc dc Fract. 8fC.; Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 
2. A glandular substance found in the p/lacenta of some 
animals. Vsn Pari. 1. IS, c. 53. 

Acetabulum (Dot.) another name for the Cotyledon. 

ACETA'RIA (Med.) from acetum, vinegar. Acetars, 1. 
Salads. Plin. 1. 19, c. 4. 2. Pickles, as the acetarium 
scorhnticum of Bates. 

A'CETATE (Chem.) anj' salt formed by the union of acetic 
acid with a salifiable base, as the acetate of potash, of soda, 
of lead, &c. in distinction from the acctite. [vide Acelite'] 

AC Itiam hilhe (Laii:) i. e. and also to a bill to be exhibited for 
20/. debt, &c. words in a writ where the action requires bail. 

ACE'TIC aciil (Chem.) radical vinegar, or vinegar in a par- 
ticularly concentrated state, [vide Acetum'] 

A'CETITE (Chem.) any salt formed by the union of acetous 
acid with an alcaline or earthy base, [vide Acetate and 

ACETO'SA (Dot.) o^aAi;, herba acida, so called from chc, 
acid ; sorrel, from the Anglo-Saxon fup, sour, the Rumex 
of Liuna;us. Gal. deAlim. Fac. 1. 2 ; J. Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; 


C. Bauh. Pin. ; Rail Hist. Plant. ; Tournef. Inst. Herb. ; 
Dillen. Catalog. Plant. ; BoCrh. Lid. 
ACETOSE'LLA (Dot.) hcrba ncida, from ab and sapore 
acetosa, an acid taste ; \\'ood-sorrel, a species of the oxa- 
hs, and of the Rumex of Linnajus. J. Bcuthin, Hist. S^r. 
[vide Acetosa] 
ACE'TOUS acid (Chem.) distilled vinegar, [vide Acelinn] 
ACE'TUM (\at.) kxht'ov, an epithet for honey that is liquid, 
which is reckoned the best sort. Plin. 1. 11, c. 1,5; 
Acetum (Chem.) from acco, to sharpen; Vinegar or any 
acid liquor made from potulent juices, particularly wine 
and beer. — Acelum distillatum, distilled vinegar, or vinegar 
purified by distillation, is now called Acetous Acid, because 
it is a strong acid of an agreeable odour, somewhat diiler- 
ing from simple vinegar. — Acelum radicatum, or radical 
vinegar, the strongest acid of vinegar, is still more con- 
centrated than the former. Its phlegm being abstracted 
it is now termed Acetic Acid. — Acetum philosophicum, an 
acid distilled from honey. — Acelum esurinum, distilled 
vinegar, so called because it creates an appetite. 
ACHiE'iMENIS (Dot.) a herb which, according to Pliny, 
when thrown into an army, was wont to cause a general 
panic. Plin. 1. 26, c. 8. 
ACHA'NIA (Dot.) 'Ax^a<v,i, non hians, because the corolla 
does not open ; a genus of plants, Class 16 Monodelphia, 
Order 6 Polijandria. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth double. — Cor. sub- 
c]a\' ate ; petals erect. — Stam. Jilnments numerous; an- 
thers oblong. — pisT. germ subt;lobular ; style filiform ; 
stigmas capitate. — Pkk. berry subglobular ; seeds soli- 
Species. The principal species are the — Achania malva- 
viscus, otherwise called Malvnviscus arboreus, arborcs- 
cens ; Malva arborca ; Hibiscus malvaviscHS, seu Jru- 
tescens ; or Alcea indica, Bastard Achania, or Malva- 
viscus ,• a shrub, native of .Jamaica and Mexico. — 
Achania mollis. Woolly Achania, a shrub, native of 
America. — Achania pilo^a. Hairy Achania, a shrub, 
native of Jamaica. Pluken. Almag. Dot.; Dillen. Hort. 
Ellh.; Broxvn. Hist. Jamaic. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
ACHA'OVA (Med.) an Egyptian herb, like chamomile. 

Prosp. Alpin. de Med. JEgi/pt. 
ACHARI'STON (Med.) aj:'^f<r<=', from «, priv. and x«f", 
thanks ; th.mkless, an epithet for an excellent medicine, so 
called because many who were cured by it never feed 
their physician. Gal. de Comp. Med. sec. loc. 1. 4, c. 6 ; 
Aet. Tetrab. 2. serm. 4, c. 110. 
A'CHAT {Laxc.) from acheler, to buy; a conlr.ict or bar- 
ACHATES (^Fln.) 'hx'J--v„ agate; a precious stone re- 
presenting different objects, from which it derives the 
different names of phassachates, cerachates, dendrachates, 
&c. according as it represents a dove, wax, a tree, iSrc. 
It was said to be generated in the river Achate. 
Sil. Ital. 1. 14, v. 228. 

£t peUucentem splendenti j^Nirgife Achatcn. 

and had medicinal virtues ascribed to it. Theophrast. de 
Lapid.; Plin. I. 37, c. 10; Sol in. c. 11 ; Isid. Orig. 1. 16, 
c. 11 ; Marbod. de Lapid. 

ACHA'TORS (Laxv.) Purveyors, so called from their fre- 
quent bargaining. 36 E. 3. 

ACHE'IR (Med.) '^x^'t, from «, priv. and x.k, liand, 

ACHEIROPOE'TA (Ecc.) An image of the blessed virgm, 
to whom the popes used to \>a.Y particular reverence at 
Easter. It was so called to signiYy that it was made with- 
out hands. 

ACHE'RNER (Ast.) or Acher-Nahr, called, by Ptolemy, 
'i<rx,uTCi tS nirxy^n; the name of a star of the first magni- 


tude in the southern extremity of Eridanus, marked (a) by 
Bayer. Its longitude for 1761 was K 11° 55' 1", and lati- 
tude south 59= 22' 1". 
ACHE'TA {Eiit.) a division in the genus of insects called 

Gri/llus in the Linnean system. 
A'CHIA (Xnl.) a kind of cane in the East Indies which 

is pickled green. 
A'CHIAli (An/.) a Malayan word for all sorts of pickled 

fruits and roots. 
ACHI't'OLCM (Ant.) a sweating bath. Cal. Aurel. de 

Acut. 1. :i, c. 17. 
ACHILLE'A (Bot.) cix^xxux, or Achilleon, kyj'kXiUi ; a plant 
so called because Achilles, who was the disciple of Chiron, 
is said to have used it in the healing of wounds. Plin. 
I. 25, c. 1 ; Allien. Deipnox. 1. 3, c. 30. 
Achillea, //( the hinncan .ti/sirm, a genus of pla.nts ; 
Class 19 Sijiigenesin, Order 2 Pnli/gamia supeijliia. It is 
classed, by Tournefort and others, under the genera Mille- 
Jiilium and Ptannica, and is called in Engliih Milfoil or 

Generic Character. Cal. common, ovate; scales ovate. — 
Cor. compound radiate ; coroUcls tubular. — St am. Jila- 
ments five ; anther cylindrical. — PisT. germ small ; stijle 
filiform ; stigma obtuse. — Pek. none ; receptacle filiform ; 
seeds solitary. 
Species. The species are mostly perennials and natives of 
Europe ; the principal are the Achillea agerattim, Sweet 
Milfoil or 'SlaaMin.— Achillea fnlcatn. Sickle-leaved Mil- 
foil. — Achillea tometitosa. Woolly IMilfoil. — Achillea pii- 
besccns, Downy Milfoil. — Achillea impatiens. Impatient 
Milfoil. — Achillea atrata, or Chamamcclum alpinum, Ca- 
momile-leaved Milfoil. — Achillea moscliata, Genipe Iva 
moschata, Tanacetum alpinum, or Dracunculiis alpinus, 
Musk Milfoil, or Swiss Genipe. — Achillea nana. Dwarf 
Milfoil. — Achillea mag!:a, or Mitlefulium maximum, 
Great Milfoil or Yarrow. — Achillea millefolium. Com- 
mon Milfoil, a native of Britain, <S:c. Dodon. Slirp. 
Hist. Pcmplad. ; Dauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. 
Botan. ; llaii Hist. Plant. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
Achillea is also the name o( the Athanasia annua; the 
Senecio ahrotauifolius ; and the Chrysanthemum milltfolium 
of Linna;us. Lob. Adx\ Slirp. et Plant. Icon. 
ACIIILLE'ION (Med.) «;t;.Wiio», (rom Achilles ; a sort of 

spunge proper for making tents. 
ACIIIIXE'lOS (Med.) 'ux'>i>'"H, a sort of maze made of 

Achillean barley. Foes. Oeconom. Ilippncraf. 
ACHILLE'IS (Med.) U'^i>^?^w, a sort of barley used medi- 
cinally for making barley-water, so called, according to 
(iaien, from a certain husbandman named Achilles. Gal. 
de Med. Simpl. Fac. I. 8. 
ACllI'LLES [Log.) an epithet for an argument (^'-yos) in- 
vented by Zeno against motion, founded on the assump- 
tion that the swifter animal can never overtake the slower. 
It takes its name from Achilles, either because it was sup- 
posed to be insuperable like him, or because he was com- 
pared in the argument with a tortoise. Can Achilles 
overtake a tortoise in running? C'crtainly : but if there 
were motion he could not overtake it, therefore, there is 
not motion. As the assumption or premise is here false, 
of course, the conclusion is false. Aristot. 1.6, c. 14; 
Simplic. I't Themist. in Aristot. ad locum. 
ACIIi'LEIS Tendo (Anal.) vide Tendo .4chilHs. 
ACHIM1$A'SSI (Med.) chief physician at (irand Cairo. 

Prosp. Alp. 
ACHl'SlENES (Bot.) the Cvltmnea longifolia ct hirsiita of 

Linnjcns. Brown. [list. Jam, 
ACIIIMEN'IS {Bot.) vide Achccmcnis. 
ACIIIO'TE (Med.) lozenges made of achiote. Rail Hist. 

A'CHIOTL (Bot.) the Bixa Orleana of Linnaus. C. Batch. 
Pin.; Hermand. Nov. Plant. Mcx. Hist.; liaii Hist, Plant. 


A'CHITH (Bot.) a sort of vine in Madagascar. 
A'CHLYS (Med.) a.x>M',, cloudiness; J. dimness of sight. 
Hippocrai. Piredict. I. 1. 2. The pupil of the eye. Pr^c- 
dict. I. 2. 3. Condensed air in the uterus. Hippocrat. de 
Morb. Mul. 1. 2; Gorr. Dejin. Med.; Foes. Oeconom. Hip- 
ACHMA'DULAI (Chcm.) antimony. 

A'CHNE (Med.) «>..«, literally, chaff, or froth of the sea, 
signifies medicinally, 1. A whitish mucilage in the eyes 
of persons having fevers. Hippocrat. Epidem. sect. ]. 
2. Lint recommended by Hippocrates in a fracture of the 
nose. Hippocrat. de Art. ; Gorr. Def, Med, ; Foes. Oeco- 
nnm. Hippocrat, 
ACHOA'VAN (Bot.) a sort of chamomile. 
A'CHOll (Med.) a;k;%> probably from ij;*^, a watery' dis- 
charge, Scald-Head ; an ulcer in the head which, swelling 
and breaking into holes, discharges an honev-like humour; 
when the perforations are large it is cnUed fames, a Honey- 
comb, and tinea, from the similitude of the holes to those 
made in cloth by moths ; when this disorder affects the 
face it is called crusta lactea, Milk-Scab. Gal. de Turn, 
prcet. Nat. c. 5 ; Heisier. Chirurg. 1. 5, c. 10. 
ACHORI'STOS (Med.) ^x.'^fi?"., from «, priv. and x^fH, 
without, inseparable ; an epithet for a symptom ; thus a 
pungent pain in the side is an inseparable symptom of a 
A'CHllAS (Bot.) cexfx^, a sort of wild pear-tree, ktw; iyfie?, 
according to Dioscorides, the Pi/rus sylvatica of Varro, 
and Pi/rns si/lvcstris of Pliny, on which, according to 
Aristotle, swine fattene<l : it was called by Brown the 
Bully-tree, or Nisbcrry Bully-tree, and now more generally 
the Sapota-tree. Diosc. 1. 1, c. 148 ; Broivn. Hist. Jam. 
AcHKAs, in the Linnean systcyn, is a genus of plants ; Class 6" 
Hexandria, Order 1 Monogynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth six-leaved ; leafl<;ts 
ovate. — Cor. one petalled ; border cut into six subovate- 
flat divisions ; ica/t'i at the jaws of the corolla. — Stam. 
filaments short; anthers sharp. — Pist. Germ roundish ; 
style awl-shaped; stigma obtuse. — Per. jiome globose; 
seeds solitary. 
Species. The species of this trihe are mostly natives of 
America ; the principal of which are the Achras )»«;«- 
mosa, Sapota mainmosa, Zapota major. Mains Persica 
maxima, or Arbor Americana pomi fern, Mammee Sapota; 
a tree. — Achras sapota or zapota. Common Sapota ; a 
tree. — Achras dissecta, Ballata, or Manil-lara, Cloven- 
flowered Sapota; a native of the Philippine islands. — 
Achras salici/olia, or Brumelia salicifolia, Willow-leaved 
Sai)ota. — Achras argentea, a tree, &c. Rail Hist. Plant. ; 
Pink. Almag. Botan.; Plum. Plant. Ainer. ; Sloan. 
Jamaic. ; Broivn. Hist. Jainaic. ; J acq. Amcr. Hist.; 
Linn. Spec. Plant. 
A'CIIKOI (^Med.) azp", from «, priv. and ;tfo«, colour, 

colourless ; from a deficiency of blood. 
ACHJtOMA'TIC (Opt.) an epithet for a sort of telescopes 
used first by Dr. Bevis to remedy aberrations and colours. 
AciiKOMATic Telescope, a species of refracting telescope, 
invented by Mr. Dolland to refract the light in contrary 
ACIIRO'NICAL (./*/.) vide .'/a-o«/cn/. 
A'Cn'riT,IN(i (Com.) a liquid measure in Germany. 
ACIITENDK'ELEX (Com.) a corn measure used in some 
parts of Germany equal to 536 pounds avoirdupoise 
A'CMY (Bot.) a species of Cacia, in Arabia. 
ACIIYRACA'NTHA (BoL) the Achyranthcs of Linnaeus. 

Dilleu. Hort. 
ACHYRA'NTHES (Bot.) from 'A;ci.|iw, chaff, and «V.^.?, a 
flower, formed after the manner of Ananthes, Dianthes, 
and similar words in Theophrastus ; a genus of plants ; 
Class 5 Pentandria, Order 1 Monogynia. 


Generic Characters. C ax. perianth outer three-leaved. — 
Cor. none; nectary of five valves. — Stam. filaments 
filiform ; anthers ovate. — PiST. germ superior ; style fili- 
form ; stis'na bifid. — Per. capsule roundish ; seed single. 
Species. The species of this genus are mostly shrubs or 
perennials ; as the Achyrantlies aspera, Amciranlhus 
zeylanicus, Auricula canis or cadeli, Iiough Achyranthes. 
— Achyranthes muricata, or Blitiim J'ruiescens, Prickly 
Achyranthes. — Achyranthes prostrata, Auris canina, or 
Verbena indica. Prostrate Achyranthes, &c. Bont. 
Hist. Nat. Ltd. Orient.; Pluk. Phytog. ; Plulc. Almag. 
Sloan, ffc. 
A'CHYRON (Med.) az<'f", chaff, Hipp.; bran or straw. 
A*CIA {Med.) a kind of thread for sowing wounds. Gal. 

comm. in Hippoc. ; Cc/s. de Re. Med. 1.5, c. '26. 
AciA (Bot.) in Guiana Aciona, according to Jussieu, Acioa; 
a genus of plants; Class 16 Monodelplua, Order 6 Dode- 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leafed ; border 
five-parted ; parts roundish. — Cor. petals five — Stam. 
^7a»ie«/s twelve ; anthers roundish. — Pist. germ ovate; 
style filiform ; stigma acute. — Per. drupe ovate ; seed 
a nut ovate. 
Species. The principal species are the Ada dulcis 
amara, S^c. 
ACICO'SA {Bot.) a herb similar to Paraguay. 
ACrCULA {Ich.) diminutive, from acus, a fish, called also 

acus, o-xi^il. Prise. 
AcicuLA {Bot.) another name for chervil, or shepherd's 

ACICULA'RIS (Bot.) from Acus, a needle. 1. Acicular, or 
needle-shaped, an epithet for the pili, or hairs of plants. 
2. A species of Scirpus. Linn. Philos. Botan. 
A'CID {Chem.) siAo Acids. 

Acid Holder, a part of the chemical apparatus, consisting 
of a glass phial, so constructed that any acid or liquor may 
be dropped from it into a retort without admitting the ex- 
ternal air. 
ACIDIFI'ABLE base {Chem.) a base or substance which, 
without decomposition, can unite with oxjgen in such 
quantities as to acquire the properties of an acid. 
ACI'DIFYING base {Chem.) that principle in any substance 
whieli generates acids : oxygen is the chief acidifying base. 
ACIDO'TOX (Boi.) Plin.;' a genus of plants: Class 21 
Monoeciu, Order 7 Polyandria. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth five-leaved; leaflets 
ovate lanceolate. — Cor. none. — Stam. filaments numer- 
ous ; anther cordate-ovate. 
Species. The only species is the Acidoton urens, seu Ur- 
tica urens arborea, a shrub, native of Jamaica. Sloan. 
Hist. .Jamaic. 
Acidoton is also the Adelia Acidoton of Linna;us. Brown. 

Hist. Jamaic, 
A'CIDS {Chem.) substances which impress the taste with a 
sour sharp sensation, change vegetable blue colours to 
red, and combine «ith alkalines so as to form salts. They 
were divided by chemists originally into — Xatural Acids, 
such as have a sharpness of taste of their own from 
their nature, as the juice of lemons, &c. — Artificial Acids, 
which are generated from substances, not properly acids, 
by means of fire, as from vegetables, minerals, &c. — 
Dulcified Acids, those which are now called ^Ethers. — 
Vegetable Acids, which are especially prepared from vege- 
table substances, as citric acid, acetic acid, &c. — Animal 
Acids, which are generated from animal substances, as lactic 
acid, saccolactic, phosphoric. Sec. acids. — Mino-al Acids, 
those generated from mineral substances. — Manifest or 
Perfect Acids, such as aftect the tongue sensibly with the 
taste of sharpness, or, in the language of modern che- 
mistry, those which have their base saturated with oxygen, 
and are distinguished by the termination ic, as Nitric 


Acid. — Dubious latent or imperfect Acids, those which have 
not a sufficient degree of acidity to affect the taste, but 
have the other properties that distinguish the perfect acids, 
or those acids whose base predominates over the oxygen, 
which are distinguished by the termination ous, as Nitrous 
Acid. — Acids are now distinguished into incombustible 
and combustible. — Incombustible Acids are those which are 
formed by the combination of oxygen, the acidifying 
principle with one combustible, which is considered as the 
acid/fiablc base or radical. — Combustible Acids are those 
which contain two or more combustibles. The following 
table, taken from Thomson's Chemistry, exliibits a view of 
the modern distribution of acids. 

Acids. Base. 

Nitric Azote 

Nitrous — • 

Hyponitrous ., — 

Carbonic Carbon. . . . 



100 285-8 

100 228-57 

100 iri-is 

100 .... 266-66 

Boron 100 .,., 228-57 

Silica Silicon 100 100* 

Phosphoric Phosphorus . 100 200- 

Phosphorous — 100.... 133-3 

Hjpophosphorous — 100 .... 66-6 

Sulphuric Sulphur .... 100 150- 

Sulphurous — 100 100- 

Hyposulphurous — 100.... 50* 

Arsenic Arsenic .... 100 52-631 

Arsenious . — 100 .... 31'6 

Antiinonic Antimony . . 100 .... 35-556 

Antimonious — 100 23-7 

Chromic Chromium . . 100 .... 87-72 

Molvbdic Molybdenum 110 50- 

INIolybdous — — 33-3 

Tungstic Tungsten... 100 25- 

Columbic Colurabium. . 100 .... 5-5 

The termination ic, in the above acids, expresses the 
higher state of oxygenation, and that of ous the lower. 

Combustible Acids containing tivo or more simple combustible 
Substances as a Base. 

Acids. Hydrogen. Carbon. 

Acetic 3 .... 4 

Benzoic 6 .... 15 

Succinic 2 .... 4 

3Ioroxylic — .... — 

Camphoric — .... — 

Boletic — .... — 

Suberic — .... — 

Pyrotartaric — .... — 

Oxalic .V .... 2 

Mellitic 1 4 

Tartaric 3 .... 4 

Citric 3 4 

Rheumic — .... — 

Kinic — .... — 

Saclactic 5 .... 6 

Uric — .... — 

Laccic — .... — 

Malic — .... — 

Sorbic — .... — 

Formic — .... — 

Lactic — .... — 

Zumic — .... — 

Gallic 3 .... 6 

Tannin.,, 9 .••• 18 

E 2 






To these may be added acids containing supporters as well 
as combustibles: 

Cuiupuunded of 


Chlorine Oxygen 

Chlorine Hydrogen 

Chlorine gas Carbonic oxide gas 

Iodine Oxygen 

Chlorine Iodine 

Iodine Hydrogen 

Fluorine Hydrogen 

Fluorine Boron 

Fluorine Silicon 

Chlorine Cyanogen 

Hydrogen Cyanogen 

Sulphur C3'anogen 
Iron Cyanogen 

ACI'DUL/E (Mill.) from acidus, acid; mineral waters in 
general, but particularly those of the brisk cold kind. 
Pliii.\. 31, c. 2. 
ACI'DULOUS (C'/icin.) an epithet expressing either in gene- 
ral a slight degree of acid, or in particular an excess of acid 
in a compound salt ; thus acidulous sulphat of potash 
is the sulphat of potash with an excess of acid. 
ACI'DULUM (Cliem.) a genus of native vegetable salts, 
consisting of potash saturated with an excess of acid, con- 
sisting of two species, tartareous acidulum, or the acidu- 
lous tartrite of potash, and the oxalic acidulum, or the 
acidulous oxulat of potash. 
A'CIES (C/iem.) the same as Chalybs. 
ACI'NACES (Ant.) uKuxKYj^, from km, an edge ; the name 

of a Persian scimitar. 
ACINACIFO'RMIS (Bot.) from U^aky.,,c, a scimitar; sci- 
mitar-shaped, an epithet for a leaf: Foliiiin acinaciforme, 
a leaf which has one edge convex and sharp, the other 
straight and thick, as in the ISIysembrijantheiimin. Linn. 
Phil. Bot. 
ACINE'SIA (Med.) axivta-lx, from «, priv. andxi'tu, to move; 
a term employed by Galen to express the interval of rest 
which takes place between the contraction and dilatation 
of the pulse. Gal. de Dijf'. Puis. 1. 1, c. 7. 
A'CIXI (Bot.) granulations. 
ACINU'"()'RMIS (.liint.) or Jciiia Tunica, a. coat of the eye. 

[vide Uvea Tunica] 
A'CINOS (Bot) iieiioi, a species of the T/i tjin us of L'mnxus. 
Dioscor. 1. 3, c. .50; J. Bank. Hist. Plant.; C. Bauh. 
Pin.; Rail Hist. Plant. 
ACKKO'WLEDGEIVIENT moncij (Law.) Money paid by 

tenants on the death of their landlords. 
ACMA'STICA/cij-i's (Med.) «y../.«?-ix;o5 tri/ptT-lc, from ax/Ai^s-, 
to flourish ; a fever which, during the whole course, main- 
tains itself in tlie same vigour without either increasing or 
diminishing in its violence. Gal. de Dijf. Feb. 1. 2, c. 2; 
Act. de Meth. Med. 1.2, c. 1. 
A'CME (Med.) uku,-^ signifies literally a point, but is taken 
figuratively for tlie height of a disorder. Physicians com- 
monly reckon three stages in disorders ; namely, the afzui, 
or commencement, i. e. the first attack ; the um/iuirK;, or 
growth; and the aKWn when it is at the highest pitch of vio- 
lence. It also implies the highest pitch of exercise. Hip- 
pocrat. 1. 1 , Aplior. 1 ; Gal. de Differ. Feb. I. 2, c. 2. 
VC.Ml'^LL.V (Client.) a plant of Ceylon, which is well known 
as a litliontriptic and diuretic; it is the Verbesina acmella 
of I.inna'us. Herman. ('alalo<^. Plant. 
A'CMO (Bol.) red coral. 
A'CNI*; (Med.) from «x»^ chaff; a tubercle on the face 

which yVetius calls a^;/*"). Gorr. Def. Med. 
ACNE'STES (Med.) from «, priv. and xialu, to scratch; 
a jiart of the spine in ([uadrupeds, so called because it can- 
not to be reached to be scratched. 

ACNE'STIS (Bot.) the same as Urtica. 

A'CNIDA (Bot.) from a, priv. and 'oid'>:, a nettle, to which 

it bears some resemblance without having its pruriency ; a 

genus of plants ; Class 22 Dioecia, Order 5 Pentandria, 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth five-leaved ; leaflets 
ovate; CoR. none. — St am. Jilaments five; anthers ver- 

Species. The principal species is the Acnida cannabina, 
otherwise called Cannabis, Virginian hemp, an annual. 
C. Bauh. Pin. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
A'CO (Ich.) a sort offish in the lake Como. 
ACOE'LIOS (.V(?f/.) ano.Aioc, from «, priv. and xoiP'./a, venter, 

without a belly, or seeming to be so as one wasted away. 
ACOEME'TI (Ecc.) a«o.K.:]joi, a set of monks, who kept up 

their devotions by turns incessantly day and night; and they 

were so called, on account of their continued watchfulness, 

from X, priv. and xatioaa, to slee|). Evngr. F.ccles. Hist. 

1. 3, c. 19 ; Theodor. Led. 1. 1 ; Mceph. Calist. 1. 15, c. 23. 
ACO'ETON (Nat.) vide Acetum. 
ACOLU'TIII (Ecc.) from ixoAssfo?, sequitor pedissequus ; al» 

tendants or under deacons, who wait upon the priests, in 

their office, to carry the wax lights, &c. i'. Cyprian. 

ep. 7; Euscb. 1. G, c. Vi; Aitgustin. ep. 62. 100; S. 

Gregor. 1. 7, indict. 1 , ep. 1 ; Hesi/chius. ; Isidor. Orig. 

I. 7, c. 12 ; L'Ordre Roman.; Lcs Anciens Rituel.i. 
A'COMAS (Bot.) a tree in America used for ship-building. 
A'CON (Ant.) a sort of Discus. 
ACO'NU)N (Med.) kxo'.im, a medicine prepared by leviga- 

tion on a stone. Dioscor. 1. 1, c. 12D. 
A'CONITE (But.) Wolfs-bane, or :Monk's-hood. [vide 

ACONITIFO'LIA (Bot.) the Podophyllum pcltalum of Lin- 

ncEUS. Boerhaav. hid. Plant. 
ACONI'TON (Med.) Umuto,, from «, priv. andx».<«, ])laister; 

vessels not plaistered or lined within. Dioscor. 1. -1-, c. 65. 
ACONI'TU.^^ (Bot.) aicinTo, a poisonous plant, which the 

poets fable to have been produced from the foam of the 

dog Acheron, when he was dragged by Hercules froru Hell. 

Nicand. in Ale.iand. 

'AA>.' viTct x"^'" /*"" '^' r«/*i6«r< ovirecXhi 

Dionys. Perieges. v. 789. 

Toy fjtt'iv i^t^xTo yuict jcxl ccvofUfrt ziif/j' tipt/TivTiv. 
Other.s ascribe its origin to the gall, from the liver of Pro- 
metheus, which was eaten by the vulture. 
Alison, in Monosyllab. 

Unde Prmiietheo de cnrpore san;;ttiiieus ros 

Aspergit caiites et dura iidmita creat cos. 

The aconituni is so called from aconce, i. e. the naked rocks 
on which it grows. 
Nicand. in Alexiphann. 

. '(» J"' aSf.omici; 

T;^« A'V xxo'iTdi a>s^Xa^f,rii ofoywi?. 

Ovid. Met. 1. 7, V. 416. 

Qua quia nascuntur dura v'wac'm cauU 
Agrtites acimila nmint. 

Others derive it, and with ecpial reason, from «, priv. and 
KOHi, dust, because it grows without much earth ; or from 
«x«, a dart, because savages used to poison their darts 
with it. Theopk. 1. 9, c. 16 ; Dioscor. I. t, c. 77 ; Plin. 1. 6, 
c. 1, 1. 27, c. ;( ; Gal. de Siinplic. Med. Fac. 1. 6. 
AcoNiTUM, in the Linnean si/stem, a genus of plants; Class 
13 Puli/andria, Order 3 frigynia. 

Generic Character. Col. none.— Coh. petals five ; nectaries 
two.— Stam. Jilamcnts subulate ; anthers erect. — PisT. 


Germ three ; stigmas simple. — Per. Capsules ovate, 
subulate ; seeds very many. 
Species. The species of this genus are all perennials ; the 
principal of which are the Aconitum li/cnctorian, or the 
Nfipellus magnus. Great yellow Monk's-hood, or Wolfs- 
bane. — Aconitum napcllus, or the Napellus verus, com- 
mon Monk's-hood, or Wolfsbane. — .Iconitum nnlhora, 
Aconitum salutijirum, Anlhora vulgaris, or Antit/inra, 
Salutary I\lonk's-hood. — Aconitum variegatum, \apc//us 
minor, or Lycoctonum cccruleinn, ^'^ariegated or small 
blue Monk's-hood, &c. J. Bauh. Hi.->t. Plnnt.; C. 
Bauh.Pin.; Gcr.Hcrb.; Park.Tlieat. Botan.; Tournef. 
Instil. ; Boerh. Ltd. 
AcoxiTUM is also the name of the Hellehcrus hycmalis of 

Linnaeus. C. Bau/i. Pin. 
ACO'XTIAS (Zo.) a very poisonous serpent. 
Ac^NTiAS (Ast.) a blazing star sliooting like an arrow. 

P/in. 1. 2, c. 24. 
A'COPA {Med.) axc-x, from a, priv. and >to,To?, labour; 
medicines against weariness. Hippocrat. Aphor. \. 2 ; Gets. 
1. 5, c. 24 ; PUn. 1. 37, c. 10 ; Gal. de Comp. Med. per 
Gen. 1. 7, c. 11, &c. ; Oribas. Synops. 1. 3, c. 10 ; Paul. 
JEginet. 1. 7, c. 19. 
A'COPIS (Xat.) «xo;ri?, from a, priv. and >t«05, labour: a 
precious stone, good against weariness. PUn. 1. 37, c. 10. 
A'COPOS {Bat.) Bean-trefoil. 
A'COR (Med.) acrimony in the stomach. 
ACORDI'NA (Chem.) Indian Tutty. 
A'CORI (Min.) Blue Coral on the coast of Africa. 
ACO'RIA (Med.) ««of.«, insatiability, or, according to 
Hippocrates, a sharp appetite. Hippoc. Epid. 1. 6, c. 4-, 
Aplior. 20. 
ACORI'TES Vinum (Nat.) 'AKOfiVf; c'itm, a wine made of 

the Acorus and liquorice roots. Dios. 1. 5, c. 73. 
A'CORN ( Ued.) the seed of the oak used as an astringent. 
AcoRx (.A/(7>-.) a little ornamental piece of wood fashioned 

like a cone, and fixed above the vane on the mast head. 
Acorn shell (Con.) the name of a genus of shells classed in 

the Linnean system under the Lepas. [vide Lcpas'] 
ACO'RXA (Bat.) ccx-cfx, from a, i. e. «v=", very, and wfo?, 
a spine, i. e. very thorny ; a herb similar to the Atracti/lis. 
A'CORNED (Tier.) a tree with acorns on it. " He beareth 
argent an oak acorn'd proper, over all on 
a fesse gules three royal crowns." This 
coat was given by Charles H. to Colonel 
Carloss, a Staffordshire gentleman, for the 
signal service he performed in preserving 
his Majesty in the oak after the battle of 

A'CORUS (Bot.) a««f05, Sweet Rush, a plant so called be- 
cause it was useful for disorders in the nopai, or pupils of 
the eye. Thcopli.]. 1, c. 22 ; Diosc. 1. 1, c. 2; Gal. tie 
Simplic. Plini/, 1. 25, c. 13. 
Aconus, in the Linnean system, is a genus of plants ; 
Class 6 Hexandria, Order 1 ^lonogynia. 
Generic Characters. C al. spadix cylindric; spathe none ; 
perianth none. — Cor. petals six. — STA^r. Jilaments 
thickish; anthers thickish. — Pist. Gerw gibbous; style 
none ; stigma a prominent point. — Per. capsule short ; 
seeds manj'. 
Species. The principal species is the Acorus calamus, 
Common Sweet Rush ; a perennial, native of Britain. 
C. Bauh. Pin.; Pari: Theat. Botan.; Rait Hist. 
Plant. ; Mcrr. Fin. Brilt. ; PluL Ahnag. Botan. ; 
Tourn. Inst. Herb. ; Boerh. Ind. Plant. 
ACO'SMIA (Med.) aKoa-f/Aa., irregularity in fevers. Hippoc. 

Progn. 1. 3, c. 7 ; Castel. Lex Med. 
ACO'SMOl (Ant.) iiLcrrujci, from «, priv. and xi<ri/^cc, an 
ornament ; an epithet for bald people, because they have 
lost their greatest ornament. Poll. Onomast. 1. 2, c. 26. 


ACOTYLE'DOXES (Bot.) from a, priv. and y-<^7o>.yX:; aco- 
tvledonous, or lobeless. 1. An epithet for a description 
of plants whose sceels have no lobes or cotjledons, and of 
course when they vegetate they produce no seminal leaves, 
as in the Cryptogamia. 2. One of Jussieu's natural order 
of plants. Linn. Phil. Bot. 

ACO'USIA (Med) £4K»(ri«, involuntary, an epithet applied 
by Hippocrates to tears. 

ACb'USTIC (.-Inat.) the same as auditory, an epithet for 
the nerve of the ear, axKj-iKo* >fi;fo», which assists the sense 
of hearing. Gorr. Def. ?iled. 

ACO'USTICA (Med.) from axHTu, audio; remedies against 

Acoustic A (Phy.) from ir.i^u, audio; acoustics, or the doc- 
trine of hearing and sound. 

ACQUI'ESCEXCE (Com.) consent, in French commerce, 
to an3- judgment or sentence, judicial or by arbitration. 

ACQUIETA'XDIS vlegiis (Laiv) a writ of justicics lying 
for surety against a creditor, who refuses to acquit him 
after the debt is satisfied. Regis, of Writs. 

ACQUHiTA'NTIA dc Shiris et Hundredis (Laic) freedem 
from suits and services in shires and hundreds. 

ACQUIETA'RE (Lau') to acquit, or pay. Man. Angl. 

ACQU'IT (Com.) a discharge or receipt. — Acquit, a cautioti, 
a certificate to exempt goods that are exported or trans- 
ported from a visitation on the road. — Acquit, a caution 
de transit, a certificate to exempt goods from the pay- 
ment of duties in their passage through a particular place. 
— Acquit dej'rancliise, a certificate exempting merchandize 
from paying duties on exportation. — Acquit de payment, a 
certificate, in which the quantity of goods, amount of duties 
paid, names of the persons sending, &c. are mentioned. 

ACQUITTAL (Laic) from the l.nim acquietare. 1. A dis- 
charge from the claims of a superior lord. 2. A discharge 
from the suspicion of guilt : acquietatus de Jelonia, ac- 
quitted of felony. Acquittal is of two kinds, namely — 
Acquittal, in deed, when a person is cleared by a verdict. 
— Acquittal, in laiv, when, if two persons be indicted for 
felon}-, the one as principal, and the other as accessory, 
and the jury acquits the principal, in this case, by law, the 
accessory is also acquitted. 2 Inst. 384. 

ACQLT'TTAXCE (Laxc) the same as receipt. 

ACRA'IPALA (Med.) ix.faUaXa, remedies for surfeits, &c. 
Gorr. Def. Med. 

A'CRAS (Bot.) vide Achras. 

ACRASl'A (Ant.) uxf-xcTix, from a, priv. and xtfimyji, drink- 
ing unmixed wine, which was synonymous with intemper- 
ance among the Cjreeks. 

ACR ATIA (Med.) uxfurux, from «, priv. and xfaTo?, strength ; 
imbecility, or incapacity to move. Hippocrat. 1. 7, Aphor. 
40; Gnl. Comm.; Gorr. Def. Med. ; Foes. Oeconom. Hip- 

ACRATI'SMA (Ant.) ay.fx~i<ry.«, from «, priv. and xifunvii,!, 
to mix, a breakfast consisting of bread steeped in wine 
not mixed with water. Gal. de Loc. Affect, c. 5, Scc; 
Plut. Sympos. 1. S, prob. 6 ; Atken. I. 1 ; Schol. in Theo- 
crit. ; Gorr. Def. Med. 

ACRATOiNIE'LI (Med.) wine mixed with honey. 

A'CRE (Agr.) from ager, a field. 1. A measure of land 
equal to forty perches in length, and four in breadth. 
24 Hen. 8, c. 14; 33 Ed. 1, St. 6. 2. An open unmea- 
sured field, as Castle Acre, West Acre, &c. 

A'CREA (Anat.) c^xftu, from uxf,, sumwa ; the extremities 
according to Hippocrates. Foes. Oecon. Hippocrat. 

A'CRE-FIGHT (Laxc) a sort of duel fought by single com- 
batants, English and Scotch, on the frontiers of their 

ACRE'ISIE (Archccol.) ten acres of land. 

ACRIBE'A (Med.) uxfUiM, from axfi,3«, correct; an exact 
description of diseases. 


ACRI'MONY (Mfd.) from acer, sharp; sharpness or pun- 
gency in the humours of the body ; also, in chemical sub- 
stances, as alkalies, &c. 

A'CllIS (iMecl.) aKpis, the extremities of fractured bones. 
Hippocrat. de Art. 

AcRis (Ent.) the locust, which was so called because it fed 
on TK? oixfats 7«» (fvTui, i. e. the tops of plants. 

ACRI'SIA (Med.) UKfta-ix, from «, priv. and xpiVw, to judge, 
want of a crisis, or discriminating state in a disorder which 
is very fluctuating. Gal. Comm. 2. in Hippocrat. Epid. 

1. 1. 

ACRrV'IOLA (Hot.) the Tropceohim majus of LinnEEUs. 
Boerhnrv. Iiid. Herb. 

A'CROAMA (Ant.) uKfix/jua, res aliqua audita, from axfoae- 
fAxi, to hear, i. e. any thing heard or listened to with 
attention. 1. A philosophical lecture of the higher sort. 

2. A ludicrous recitation. 3. Symphony, or vocal con- 
cert. Manitt. ill Cic. Sex. c. 5i; Plin. Epist. 1. 6, ep. .31 ; 
Suet, in August, c. 74 ; Pint. Si/mpos. 1. 7, c. S; Cell. 1. 20, 
c. 5 ; Salmas. in Lamprid. Alex. Sever, c. 32. 

ACROAMA'TICA (Ant.) iKfoa/i.-inxa, the subtle parts of 
Aristotle's philosopliy, which he taught only to his con- 
stant followers, in distinction from the iiairifiyScc, consisting 
of more familiar subjects. Aul. Gell.l.'ZO, c. 5. 

ACROBA'TICHON (Archit.) from a^pos, and ,3«/«, going 
aloft ; a climbing machine. Vitruv. 1. 10, c. 1 ; Gyrald. 
dc Poet. Dial. 6 ; Bald. Lex Vitruv. 

ACROBOLI'ST/E (Ant.) <i«po/3<.A(r«f, soldiers of Tarentum, 
who were expert in the use of the javelin, which they 
threw to a great distance while on horseback ; so called 
from Kjcfo? and ^kxxat. A'Jian. Tact. c. 45. 

ACROBY'STIA (Anat.) vide Acroposlhia. 

ACROCHE'IRIA (Ant.) or Acrocheirismos, iKpo;t;£ifi'>i, a spe- 
cies of wrestling in which only the hands are employed. 
Poll. Onom. 1. 2, § 153. 

ACROCO'LIA (./);/.) axfor-xxta., from Mxfo;, extreme, and 
xihuy, a limb ; the extremities of animals, and also the in- 
ternal parts, the giblets. It was particularly applied to 
Pensile-Wait. Poll. Onom. 1. I, § 195 ; Ccls. 1. 5, c. 28; 
Gal. Dejin. Med. ^r. Acinar, in voc. fjjvfu^tiKM. 

ACRO'DRYA (Bot.) UKfo^fuit, from axpo? and ^pt/?, an oak ; 
all fruits having hard rinds or shells. Theopkrast . 1.2, c. 7. 

ACR()LE'N'I.\ (Anal.) axpi/A-'nit, the great processes of the 
ulna. Poll. Onomi.'.t. 1. 2, § 140; Gorr. Def. Med. 

ACROMA'LLOS (.Inl.) iip^Ass^Aos, short wool, of which 
the Relgx made their garments, in distinction from the 
/3i«i/'|U/MAA!J5, or long wool. .SVrai. 1. 4 ; Fcrrar. dc Re Vest, 
1. 2, c. 2, &c. 

ACRO'MION (Anal.) uy.fa-fAm, or fV4'//-i?, from i/^o?, the 
shoulder ; Scapula, Humeri summilas sive Humeri Mucro ; 
the superior process of the shoulder, the shoulder-blade. 
]{uj: Eplies. de Appell. Part. Corp. Hum. 1. 1, c. 9 ; Uri- 
has. Med. Collect. 1. 25, c. 3. 

AClUrMl'IIALIUM (Anat.) a%f»;«-4i«A.i.K, from «'«fo5, the 
extreme, and <i^(p«/ij?, the navel ; the tip of the navel. 
Poll. Onom. 1. 2, segm. 169. 
A'CRON (Med.) aVpo», from MKfo?, the highest ; an epithet, 
signifying the best of its kind, as uxfcv Ipitcv, the best sort of 
the unfiucnlum irinum. Hippocrat. de Morb. Mul. 
A'CRON (Bol.) the top of the thistle. 
ACRONY'CHIA (Bol.) an epithet for a plant; the Laiv- 

sonia Acroni/cltia of Linnaeus. 
ACRO'NYCHAL {Astron.) i.jro ri axpst, from the first point, 
tvKTCi, of night; an epithet for the rising of a star when 
the sun sets, or the setting of a star when the sun rises. 
Ptol. Almacr. 1. 8, c. 4. [vide Astronomi/] 
ACRONY'CTy'li (Aslmn.) uxfouKTut, stars rising in the 
twilight about sun-setting, for uKfonvl, is the evening twi- 
ACROPA'THOS {Med.) ixpoTaOe?, from «xf05, extreme, and 


T^Lioc, affection ; an affection or disease on the surface of 
the body, such as the xapxiVoi ixpsxa^ioi, open cancers, in 
distinction from the xpt/s-roi, occult or internal. Hippocrat. 
Prorrhct. 1. 2. 
A'CROPIS (Med.) !L«.(ajrii, an epithet for the tongue, which, 
by reason of dryness or anj' muscular imperfection, is 
incapable of articulation. Hippocrat. Epidcm. 1. 7 ; Gal. 
Excges. Hippocrat, Vocab, 
ACROPO'STIIIA (Anat,) U<cf6zori'm, the extremity of the 
prepuce. Hippocrat. 1. 2, Aph. 48 ; Poll. Onomast. 1. 2, 
segm. 171 ; Ruff'. Ephes. de Appell. Part. Corp. Hum. 1. 1, 
c. 12. 
A'CROS (Med.) axpo?, extreme ; an epithet for a disease at 

its height. 
Acuos (A)!at,) an epithet for the prominence of a bone. 
AcROs (Bol.) an epithet for the top of herbs. 
A'CRO.SPIRE (Bol.) the sprout at the ends of barley when 
it is malted, whence the epithet acrospired for barley in 
that condition. 
ACRO'STICHUM (Bot,) a genus of plants. Class 24 Cri/p- 
toaamia. Order 1 Filices, 
Generic Character. Fructljications cover the whole under- 

surfitce of the frond. 
Species. The species are mostly perennials, the principal 
of « hich arc — Acrostickum citrij'ulium, Hcmionitis para- 
sitica, or Lingua cervina, native of America. — Acrosti' 
chum crinitum, Lingua cervina, or Phyllitis crinita, na- 
tive of the East Indies. — Acroslichum aureum, Phijllitis 
ramosa, Lonchitis palustris maxima. Lingua cervina 
aurea, or Fi/ix palustris, native of Jamaica. — Acrosli- 
chum bijorme, or Osmunila coronaria, native of the East 
Indies. — Acroslichum serrulatum, or Poli/podium J'useum, 
native of .^pain, &c. &c. Rati Hist. Plant. ; Pluk. 
Almag. Botan. ; Plum. Plant. Amer. ; Linn. Spec. 
ACRO'STICK (Lit.) axfcrixU, i.e. «'i«po» rS ^i^^, the beginning; 
a set of verses, the first letters of which contain some name 
or sentence, sucli as the famous verses of the Sibyl of 
Erythra;a, which contain the words IHiiOTIi XPHiTOS 
©EOT TI02 ^f>TIIP 2TATP0:i, which are given at 
large by Lylius Giraldus. Cic. de Divin. 1. 2, c. 51' ; Eu- 
seb. de Vit. Constantin. 1. 4 ; Ludovic. Vives ad .lugu.'.t, de 
Civit. Dei, 1. IS, c 23; Lyl. Gyrald. de Pact, Hisior, Dia- 
log, 2. 
ACROSTO'LIUM (Ant.) ixpos-»^.w, the extreme part of the 
ornament on the prow of the ship. Poll. Onom. 1. 1, 
segm. 8G. 
ACROTE'RIA (Anal.) ur.finifix, from «i<po5, extreme; the 
extremities of the human body, as the fingers' ends, ixc. 
Hippocrat. 1. 7, Aphor. 1, ct Gal. Comm.; Gorr. Def. 
ISled. ; Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat, 
A'CROTERS (Archil,) ixpainpia, from axpo;, extreme. 1. 
Small pedestals placed on the pediments which serve to 
support statues. 2. The sharp pinnacles, or spiry battle- 
ments, standing in ranges on flat buildings, with rails and 
balusters. 3. The figures made, either of stone or metal, 
which are placed as ornaments or crownings on the tops 
of temples. Vitruv. 1. 3, c. 2 ; Bald. Lex Vitruvian, 
Rhodig. Antiq, Led. 1. 21, c. 33 ; Salmas. ad Spartian. in 
Mg, c. 12. 
ACROTERI.V'SMUS (Med.) ixpi-Topiao-zAo?, a term used by 
Hippocrates for an amputation of the ixfairnpia, or extre- 
mities. Hij)pocrat. 1. 7, Aphor. 2G. 
ACROTIIY'MION (Med.) ic^fMfj^i^y, a species of wart, 
which is hard, rough, broad at the base, and nai-row at 
the top. Ccls. 1. 5. c. 28. 
ACRY'DllIIM (Enl.) a name given by Eabricius to a divi- 
sion of tlie genus of insects, called by Linnxus firyllus. 
ACT (Phiy.) the effective application of some power or 



Act of Faith {Ecc.) in Spanish Aiifo da Fe ; a solemn act of 
the ini|ui.sition, by whicli they bring to punishment those 
who art' duclaicd to be heretics. 

Act (Pulit.) any pubhc act, or proceeding of the govern- 
ment, as an- — Act of Parliament, a deed or decree of tlie 
higli court of Parliament. — Act of grace, an Act of Parlia- 
ment, which grants a general and free pardon ; it is some- 
times passed at the commencement of a new reign. — Act 
of curatori/, in the Scotch law, an act to be extracted b}' 
the clerk upon any one's acceptation of being curator. — 
Act before answer, when the lords ordain probation to be 
led before they determine the revelancy, and then take 
both at once under their consideration. 

Act (Lit.) the close of the session at Oxford, when degrees 
are regularly taken ; whence the Act Term, or that term 
in which the act falls. 

Act is also an abbreviation .Oar Acta, as — Act. S. R. for Ada 
Socictatis Regice. or Philosophical Transactions of the 
Royal Society. — Act. Med. for Acta Medica, Medical 
Transactions, &€. 

A'CTA [Ant.) the acts or proceedings of the government, 
which were either public or private. — Acta publica were 
edicts, decrees of the senate, laws, &c. ; hence the public 
measures of Gracchus and Caesar are termed Acta. Cicero 
refers particularly to the Acta Ccesaris in his seventh Phi- 
lippic. — Acta privata were whatever was transacted in 
private, or in respect to private individuals; whence Cicero 
says, In piiblicis actis nihil est lege graviiis, in privatisjir- 
missimitm est testamentum. 

Acta, TabuUc or Commentarii, were also the registers or 
books in which affairs of state, &c. were enrolled. These 
w-ere Acta publica and Acta diurna or nrbana. — Acta publica 
contained an account of the proceedings of the senate and 
the people. — Acta diurna were chronicles of the city, or 
whatever was of daily occurrence; whence Tacitus says. Ex 
d/o^nitate populi Eomani repertum eft inlustres res annalibus, 
talia (ncmpe dc ccdijiciis) diurnis uriis actis mandare. These 
acta were similar to our gazettes. Cic. nd Faw. 1. 12, ep. 
S; Tacit. Annul. 1. 5, c. U, et 1. 13, c. 31 ; Fliu. Epist. 
1. 5, ep. 14. 

Acta (Lit.) transactions, [vide Act] 

A'CTjE.\ (Dot.) £xra.icc, a diminutive of i.KTy,, a plant, re- 
commended by Pliny for its medicinal virtues. Ray sup- 
poses it to be the Aconitum racemosum, which is a very 
poisonous plant. Plin. 1. 27, c. 7 ; Paul. jEginet. 1. ,3, 
c. 4S. 

AcT-BA, /)( the Linncean si/stem, a genus of plants, Class 13 
Polijandria, Order 1 Slonogijnia. It is called by Tour- 
nefort Christoplioriana ; in English, Herb Christopher, or 

Generic Character. Cal, perianth four-leaved; leaflets 
roundish. — Cor. petals four. — St \yi. filaments capillary; 
anthers rouiulish.^PiST. germ superior; slijle none. — 
Per. berri/ oval, globose ; seeds numerous. 
Species. The principal species are the — Actcca spieata, a 
perennial, native of Britain. — Actcca racemosa, seu 
Christophoriana, American black or wild Snakeroot, a 
perennial, native of Florida.— .ic^^n .Japonica, Japanese 
Herb Christopher, a shrub, native of Japan, &c. 

A'CTE (But.) icKTy,, the elder, called in Latin Sambacus, and 
classed as a genus under that name by Linna:us. 

A'CTI.A (Ant.) «V-T.«, scilicet, Uym-x, Ludi Actiaci, Actian 
games, quinquennial games sacred to Apollo, instituted, 
or, as some will have it, revived, by Augustus, in comme- 
moration of his victory over M. Anthony at Actium. 
Virg. .En. 1. 3, v. 280. 

Acdaque Iliacis celebramns Uttm-a luilis. 

Stephanus says, they were celebrated every third year, 
and consisted in gymnastic, equestrian, and naval contests. 

Strab. 1. 7 ; Pint, in Anton. ; Sleph. Byz. de Urb. ; Serv. 
in Virg. ; Suid. 

AcTiA (Numis) the celebration of the 
Actian games is commemorated on seve- 
ral medals, as in the annexed figure, 
which represents a woman standing with 
a small temple in one hand, and a cor- 
nucopia with a small temple resting on 
it in the other; and at her feet two urns 
filled with the rewards for the games. 
The inscription HEPINeilVN. HMNW. NB. NER- 
KOPKN AKTIA HTOIA, i. e. Perinthiorum Ionium, 
Iterum (Edituorum, Actia Pi/iliia. The Perinthians were 
descendants of the lonians. Froehl. Not. Element. 

A'CTI.'\N (Ant.) actiacus, an epithet for any thing apper- 
taining to Actium, as the Actian games, [vide Actia"] The 
Act/an JEra, which was dated from the victory at Actium, 
U.C. 714, B.C. 37. 

Actian jEra (Num.) this aera is marked on coins with the 
inscription ETOT5 NIKH, i, e. the year of victory. 
Vaillant. Numis. Grcec. 

ACTI'LIA (Md.) military utensils. 

A'CTINE (I3ot.) the Brassica napn.<! of Linna?us. 

A'CTIXG (Log.) TO troisi», the fifth predicament, or cate- 
gory ; the subject of which is called the agent. 

ACTI'NI.A (Ent.) a genus of animals, Class Vermes, Order 

Generic Character. Bodjj oblong, contractile ; moutli. sur- 
rounded with numerous cirri. 
Species. These marine animals are viviparous, and have 
no aperture, except the mouth. They assume various 
forms ; and when the tentacnla are all expanded, they 
have the appearance of full-blown flowers. The prinii- 
pal species are — Actinia bell is, the Sea- Daisy. — Actinia 
dianthus, the Sea-Carnation. — Actinia calendula, the 
Sea- Marigold, &c. 

ACTIXOBOLI'S.MUS (Med.) <l.-7-..o.3oA.a-f/.«., irradiation, or 
the instantaneous action of the animal spirits, by which 
they convey the inclinations of the mind to the organs of 
voluntary motion. 

AcTiNOBOLisMUS (Phi/.) the diffusion or diradiation of light 
and sound. 

ACTl'NOLITE glassy (Min.) from «Kri?, radius, and >.ihr. 
lapis ; a species of minerals, the Actinotus viireus of Lin- 

ACTINOTUS (Min.) a genus of minerals, Class Earths, 
Order Talcose, consisting of carbonate of magnesia, oxide 
of iron, and silica : harsh to the touch, shining, breaking 
into indeterminate fragments, and melting in the fire with 
ebullition. The principal species are the — .4ctinotv.s vul- 
garis nsbe.stoid. — Ictinotus vitreus, Glassy Actinote, &c. 

A'CTIO (Ant.) 1. The act of the magistrates and senates, 
the same as acta. 2. The management of a cause, con- 
sisting either of accusation or defence ; where there were 
several pleadings in the same cause, they were divided 
into first, second, &c. thence the actio prima, secunda, 
ierlia, &c. of Cicero in Verrem. 3. A suit at law, an 
action against any one, by which a person sought redress, 
either accnsando, by accusing ; or petendo, by suit. Of 
these actions there were several kinds, as — .4ctio in rem, 
real action, for obtaining that to which one had a real 
right, Jus in re, but which was possessed by another. 
These actions were either — Actio civilis, according to the 
laws by which the citizens were governed one with 
another, which was called J'indicatio. — Actio pnctoria, 
according to the decrees of the praetor who governed the 
city. — Actio socialis, according to the laws of their allies. 
— Actio in personam, personal action against a person for 
doing or omitting to do that which he was bound either to 


do, or to abstain from. Of these actions there arc several 
kinds, as — Actio enipti, vcnditi, locati, Sec. for contracts 
and obligations, in buying, selling, &c. — Actio mljcctitia 
quaUtati.s, against a person on account of the contracts of 
others. — Actio institorici, against him who carried on trade 
for the benefit of another. — Actio excrcitoria, against him 
who sent a ship to sea on any trading concern. — Actio cle 
peculioy against the master of a family, for contracts made 
either by his son or slave. — Actio jussit, if the contract 
was made by the master's order. — Actio iributoiia, against 
a master for not distributing the goods of his slave among 
his creditors. — Actio redhihitorin, against the seller for 
selling a bad article, which he was compelled to take 
back, and to restore the money. — Actio exfurto, for theft, 
ex rapiiKi, for robbery, f.r damiio, for loss or damage, ex 
injuria, for personal injury, comprehending the personal 
wrongs, and their several punishments. — A.ctio noxnUn, 
against a person for injuries done by those under his 
power. — Actio mixta, which lies against any one, both for 
the recovery of the thing, and tlie punishment of the per- 
son. Ulpian. Iiistit. I ; Justin. Pandect, et Instil; iiigon. 
de Jttdic. 1. 1, &c. ; Pollet. For. Rom. I. 5 ; Ursat. de Not. 

Actio {Late) vide Action. 

ACTION (Ant.) vide Actio. 

Action (Pliy.) actio, to ■umii, the application of the agent 
to the patient, by which some change is produced, as 
boiling, which is the action of fire on the v/ater to v.hich 

it is communicated ; it is either physical or habitual 

Physical action, arising from the exercise of the physical 
power, as generally in generation, corruption, (ire. or par- 
ticularly in seeing, hearing, local motion, dc. — Habitual 
or acquired action, arising from habit or experience, which 
consists in speculation, itufU, as the contemplation of the 
lieavens, of pli3'sical or matliematical objects ; practice, 
3-f«|i!, which is either moral, political, or ecclesiastical ; 
doing or making, Js-mVi;, which includes the arts liberal 
and mechanical. Arist. Physic; Mclancth. Metaph. 

Action (Log.) to u-oiliv, the fifth predicament or cat3gory, 
into which all things have been divided. It is opposed 
to passion, and is divided into — Action imminent, that 
action which remains in the agent so as not to pass over 
to any other thing without itself, as going, walking, run- 
ning, &c. — Action transient, that which passes from the 
agent to the patient, as burning, striking, breaking, &c. 
Arist. Catcg. ; Bocth. de Categor. ; IVall. Instit. Log. 

Action (Mcch.) a force impressed upon a body so as to 
change its state of rest, or uniform motion. It arises from 
percussion, pressure, or centripetal J'urce. h'exi'ton Priuc. 
def. 4. — Quatililt/ of action, the continual product of the 
mass of a body by the space which it runs tlirougb., and 
by its celerity. Maupcrt. Acad, des Sciences, Paris, ITH; 
Berlin, 1746. 

Action {Med.) function of the body, which is divided into 
vital, natural, animal, or voluntary. — Vital action, which 
is inmiediately essential for the preservation of life, as the 
motion of the heart and lungs. — Natural action, which is 
remotely necessary for the continuance of the animal, as 
the digestion of the aliments, &c. — Animal or voluntary 
actions, which depend upon the will, as walking, run- 
ning, Ac. 

Action {Eth.) or moral action, a voluntary action of any 
creature capable of distinguishing between good and evil, 
or whatever a rational agent thinks, does, or even omits to 
do, with respect to the end he ought to aim at, and the 
rule he is to be guided by. A morally good action is that 
which is agreeable to the law of (Jod ; in distinction from 
a mtirally evil action, which is disagreeable to the Divine 
law, as revealed in .Scripture. 

Action (Lam) the process or form of a suit at law to rc- 


cover a right. Actions are generally divided into criminal 

or civil. — Criminal actions are to have judgment for damage 

to the party injured. — Civil actions for the recovery of a 

debt, &c. 

Criminal actions consist of — Actions, penal, for some 
penalty or punishment. — Actions upon statute, for the 
breach of a statute, whereby the injured party has his 
action. — Actions, popular, for the breach of some penal 
statute where every one has his action: it is otiierwise 
called a tjui lam action, from the form of words used in 
this action ; namely, qui tarn pro domino rege sequitur 
quam pro sc ipso, &C, 

Civil actions consist of different kinds, as — Actions, real, 
whereby a man claims title to lands, &c which are 
called possessory, if of his own possessions ; aunceslral, 
if of an ancestor. — Actions, personal, claiming a debt, 
goods, damages, &c. — Actions, mixed, which lie both 
for the thing demanded, and against the person having it. 

Actions are also distinguished into 

Actions, local, when confined to a particular county. — 
Actions, transitory, which may be kiid in any county. — 
Actions, perpetual, which may not be determined by 
time. — Actions, temporary, that are expressly limited. — 
Actions, Joint, where several persons conjointly sue or 
are sued. — Actions, several, where persons are severally 
charged. — Actions on assumpsit, or promises, ibr a breach 
of promise, lic. — Actions on covenant, for a breach of 
covenant. — Actions on debt, to compel the payment of 
a debt. — Actions t>f' detinue, to compel the redelivery of 
goods (or their value) which have been delivered in 
charge. — Actions of trespass, for any injury denominated 
a trespass. — Actions of trover, for goods which have 
-come into the possession of another by finding, or 
otherwise, which he refuses to restore to the ownei>> — 
Actions on the case, that is, an action on a man's own 
particular case, in distinction from those on any of the 
above-mentioned cases. — Actions, prejudicial, otherwise 
coW^i^ preparatory or principal, arising from some doubt 
in the principal, as in case a man sues his younger bro- 
ther for lands descended from his father; and it is ob- 
jected to him, that he is a bastard, which question must 
be tried before the cause can proceed further : it is, 
therefore, termed prejudicialis quia prius judicanda. 
Bract, lib. S, c. 4. — Action of a xvril, when one pleads 
some matter by which he shows the plaintiff had no 
cause to have the «rit. — Action of abstracted multures, 
i. e. an action for multures, in the Scotch law, against 
those who are thirled to a mill, and come not, or 
an action to compel persons to grind at a mill ac- 
cording to their tenure. — Action for poynding of the 
ground, i. e. an action, in the Scotch law, for poynding or 
distraining the land, founded on some infeofment for an 
annuity. Brad, de Leg. 1. 3 ; Flelii. 1. J ; Clanville. 1. I ; 
Mirror. c.'2l, &c.; F. N. B. 92; Co. in Lijlt. 1 Instit. 
sect. 2S5, 2 Inst. sect. 40; Hawk. P. C. 244, Ac; 
Corny n. Digest. 
Action (Paint.) the posture of the figure, or that which is 

expressed by the disposition of its parts, or the passion 

that appears in the face of it. 
Action (Poet.) an event or scries of occurrences nuitually 

connected with, or dependent upon, each other, either 

real or imaginary, that makes the subject of a dramatic 

or epic ])oem, &c. 
Action (Rhcl.) an accommodating the person to the sub- 
ject, or the management of the voice and gesture suitably 

to the matter delivered. 
Action of the mouth (Man.) the agitation of the tongue 

and mandible of a liorse in champing the bit. 
Action (Com.) moveable effects; a creditor seizes on a 

merchant's actions, that is, his actual debts. — Action, re- 


hibitory, by which the buyer may oblige the seller to take 

back damaged goods. — Action of a compantj, 1. The equal 

portion of their joint stock. 2. The bonds, contracts, or 

stock in general, which the directors of trading companies 

deliver to those who have made themselves proprietors. 

French actions, or stocks, are — Actions simples, which have 

a share in all the company's profits and losses, with no 

security but in their funds. — Actions Ilcnlieics, which 

have a profit of two per cent, with the King's security. 

— Actions Interessecs, or bearing interest, which have 

the above profit, and the King's security, besides a 

share in the overplus of the dividends ; whence the 

phrase " To feed an action," i. e. to pay exactly when 

they become due the several sums subscribed to the 

stock of the company, yl fed action, one on which all 

paj'ments have been made, and is capable of sharing in 

the company's dividends. 

ACTIONA'KE (Laio) i. c. in jus x^otare, to prosecute. 

A'CTIONARY [Fr. Com.) or Actionist, a proprietor of 

AC'TI\'E {Phy.) capable of communicating motion or ac- 
tion, as the cause of gravity or fermentation, which are 
active principles. Sewt. Frincip. 
Active xerb {(■•ram.) a sort of verb which denotes action, 

as I love, in distinction from the passive or neuter. 
ACTIA ITY (Phy) faculty of acting, as the activity de- 
rived from attraction. Seivt. Frincip. — Sphere i^f Activity, 
tJio space within which the efficacy of a body extends, as 
the sphere of activity of a loadstone. 
ACTON Durncl (Laxv) the statute of 11 Ed. I. ordaining the 
statute merchant, amended by 13 Ed. I. It was so termed 
from a place named Acton Burnel, where it was made. 
A'CTOli (Ant.) the forensic sense. Plaintiff, he who 
brings an action against any one, whether as accusator vet 
pctitor ; but, in a dramatic sense, an actor or player. 
Oratorcs sunt veritatis ipsius actores ; imitatores veritatis 
hislriones. Cic. Orat. 1. 3, c. 56. 2. One who pleads or 
manages the cause of another ; a Counsellor or Proctor. 
3. A slave to whom the management of any concern is 
Actor ecclesice (Archccol.) he who administered the posses- 
sions, Ike. of the church. — Actor adx'ocatus, vel defensor 
Ecck.sitr, the pleading patron of the church. — Actor 
doniinicii.^, qui res domini agit ; a Lord's-bailiff or Attorney. 
— Actor xiliarum, viUicus qui prcvdiorum curum agit ; 
Head-bailifFof a village. 
ACTS of the Apo.'itlcs (Bihl.) a canonical book of the New 
Testament written by St. Luke, and containing a con- 
siderable part of the history of St. Peter and St. Paul. 
Tertull. contra AJarcion.l. 5, c. l,<S:c.; in Acta. 
Homi/. ; Epiphan. Hares. 30 ; Augjut. de Utilit. Crcd. 
c. 3, Sec. ; iiteron. Epist. 103, df Script. Eccles. ; Oecumen. 
in Act. Apost. ji. 20 ; Grab. Spiceleg. &c. 
Spurious acts of the apostles were sujjposed to be written 
by Abdias the impostor. — Acts of St. Peter, otherwise 
called Feriodi Petri, a book full of visions and fables. 
Fab. Apocr. N. T. p. 759. — Acts of St. Paul, a con- 
tinuation of St. Paul's narrative to the end of his life, 
which Eusebius calls spurious. Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 1. 3. 
c 3. — Acts of St. John the Evangcli.'it, mentioned by 
Epiphanius and St. Augustin, contain incredible stories 
of that apostle ; and are supposed to be the acts of St. 
John published by Abdias the impostor. Epiphan. 
Hares. 4-2. 47 ; Aug. de Fide. cap. 4 and 405, contra 
Adversar. Leg. et Vroph. 1. 1, c. 20. — Acts of St. Andrew 
were used by the Manichees, according to St. Au- 
gustin and Epiphanius. Epiphan. Hares. 61 ; St. 
August, contra Adversar. Leg. et Prophet, c. 20. — Acts 
(f St. Thomas were used by the ^lanichees, according 
to St. Augustin. Aug. contra Adimant. c. 17 ; contra 


Faust. 1. 29, c. 79 ; De Serm. Domini in Monte, c. 20. — 
Acts of St. Philip was a book used by the Gnostics. 
Cotel. Monum. Eccles. t. 3. ^2S.—Acts of St. Matthias ; 
the work which bears this title is not admitted by the 
critics to contain the genuine acts of the apostle, whose 
name it bears. Tillemont. Eccles. Hist. torn. 1. 
Acts (Ant.) vide Acta. 

Acts, clerk of the (Mar.) an officer who receives and enters 
the Lo;d Admiral's commissions and warrants, and regis- 
ters the acts and orders of the commissioners of the navy. 
A'CTUAL (Phy.) in act or done, as distinguished from the 

ACTUA'LIS (Med.) acting by an immediate inherent power, 
as fire, which is actual, in distinction from a cautery, which 
is virtual, and acts by an indirect or borrowed power. 
ACTUA'UIA (Ant.) a sort of small swift sailing vessel plied 

with oars, so called because they are cito agantur. Non. 
ACTUA'UII (Ant.) 1. Notaries or short-hand writers who 
took dow n the acta or public proceedings. Suet. Jul. c. 55 ; 
Pollct. For. Rom. 1. 5, c. 12. 2. Those who took account 
of the military concerns. Ammian. 1. 20, c. 5 ; Aurel. 
Victor, de Casar. 
A'CTUAKY (Lan') a clerk that registers the acts of the 

ACTUATION (Med.) the change wrought on any thing 
taken into the body by vital heat, which is necessary to 
make it act. 
A'CTUS (Ant.) 1. The forms used in making bargains, &c. 
as actus legitimi, &c. — 2. A certain portion of a play, an act. 
Fest. de Verb. Signif. — 3. A measure of land either 4 feet 
wide and 120 long, as between neighbours' fields, or 
1 20 feet square. Varr. de Re Rust. 1. 1 , c. 1 ; Columel. 1. 5, 
c. 1 ; Front in. Expos. Form. p. 30; Alex. Gen. Dier. 1. 2. 
Actus (Phy.) 'iuf/ua, energy, or the active principle, which 
is called Actus purus, having nothing in common with 
matter, as God, in distinction from the Actus impurus, 
which communicates with the power of matter, such a.s 
physical forms. Aristot. Metaph. 1, 9, c. 1, &c. 
A'CUANITES (Ecc.) another name for the INIanichseans. 
A'CUBENE (Astron.) a star of the third magnitude in the 
southern claw, chela or brachium of Cancer, marked (a) 
by Bayer. It is called by Ovid Labia, by others Aceta- 
bulum. Its longitude, for 1761, was Q, 10° 18' 9", South 
Latitude 5° 5' 5t". 
ACUI'TION (Med.) from acuo, to sharpen : the sharpening 
of medicines to increase their effect, as vegetable acids may 
be sharpened by mineral acids. 
ACUI'TZCHUAUIA (Bot.) a plant of Mechoachan, in 
South America, from which a water was distilled called 
the enemy of poisons. 
ACU'LE ATED (Bot.) aculeatus, prickly ; an epithet ap- 
plied to different parts of plants. — Caudex acideatus, an 
aculeated stem, when the remains of the leaf are set with 
prickles, as in Coccus aculeatus, Polypodeum asperum, &c. — 
Caulis aculeatus, prickly stalk, when along the stem there 
are pointed protuberances. — Folium aculcatum, pricWy 
leaf, when the surface of the leaf is covered with prickles. 
ACULEO'SA (Bot.) the Gortneria cibaris of Linnaeus. 
A'CULER (Man.) the motion of a horse when in working 
upon volts he does not go far enough forward at every 
time, or movement. 
ACU'LEUS (Bot.) a Prickle that is a persistent pro- 
duction issuing from the bark, as in Rosa centifoUa, the 
Rose, or, in the words of Linnocus, Mucro pungens cortici 
tantum ajpxus. The Aculeus is distinguished into the — 
Rectus, straight, when the prickle is not bent. — Incurvus, 

incurved, when it is curved inwards Recurvus, recurved, 

when it is curved upwards. — Cincinnatus, rolled up, when 
rolled up with its apex inwards. 
ACUPU'NCTURE (Surg.) from acMi, a needle, and;;KK^Oj 


to prick ; a method of bleeding by making man)' small 

A'CUUON (Bot.) axufot, the Alisma of Linnaeu^. Diosc. 
I. 3, c. 1C9. 

A'CUS (Surg.) a Needle or instrument for confining the lips 
of wounds. 

Acus Paatoris (Dot.) Shepherd's Needle, the Scandix an- 
iltriscus, the Acus moschata, and the Geranium of Linnteus. 

ACU'STICUS (Med.) the same as acoustic. 

ACUTE (Geom.) from acuo, to sharpen, an epithet for 
several things. — Acute angle clficc -/una., that which is less 
than a right angle, or the measure of 90 degrees, the qua- 
drant of a circle, as A V>C,jig. 1, which is less than the 
Fig.X. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

n ■ <i 

B c E F nx. #1 

an"lc «BC. — Acute-angled Triangle, one whose angles 
are all three acute, as D E F, fg. 2. — Acute-angled Cone, 
one whose opposite sides make an acute angle at the 
vertejc, as G H I, Jig. 3. — Acute-angled section of a cone, 
ail ellipsis made by a plane cutting both sides of an acute- 
anMed cone. Euclid. Elem. defin. 1. 1 ; Apollon. Conic. 
I. f, prob. '20, &c. ; Papp. Math. Collect. 
Acute (Hot.) an epithet for ditlcrent parts of a flower ending 
in a sharp point, as Folium acutum, an acute leaf; Ligulmn 
ncutum, an acute strap ; Stigma acutum, a pointed stigma. 
Acute (Mus.) an epithet for a sound which is sharp or 
elevated, in distinction from a grave sound. Euclid. In- 
trnduct. Harmon. 
Acute Accent (Gram.) that elevation of the voice with whicJi 
any syllable or word is pronounced, marked thus [']. 
Priscian. de Accent. 
Acute (Med.) an epithet for a disease which is violent and 
comes quickly to a crisis. Hippocrat. de Rat. Vict, in 
Acut. Sec. and Gal. Contm. ; Aret. de Cans, et Sign. Acut. 
Mori).; Cels. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Act. Tetrah. 1. 2, serm. 1 ; Paul 
/Eginct. de Re Med. 1.2. 
Acute (Chem.) an epithet for a liquor which is made more 

piercing by a stronger. 
ACUTENA'CULUM (Surg.) a handle for a needle now 

called Portaiguille. 
ACUTIA'TOR (ArchcEol.) one who whets or grinds cutting 

A'C^'LOS (Hot.) aKuM',, the fruit of the Ilex, distinguished by 
Homer from the /3«/a«i«, or acorn, the fruit of the (Inercus. 
Odyss. 1. 10, V. 2t2. 

V\ufftt»v>tt>r, l2a>iMoy r' i/StcAt. 
T/iencrit. Idyl. 5, v. 9't ; Theophrast. Hist. Plant. 1. 3, 
c. KJ; i'/iw. 1. fi, c. 6; Gal. de Alim. 
ACYIIO'LOGY (Gram.) uKVf<i>.avM, from ««ufo«, careless, and 
Ai'/c!, speech ; improper diction, as " one who fears may 
hope," for fear is the contrary of hope. Isidor. 1. 1, c. 33. 
.\. D. (Cliron.) an abbreviation for Anno Domini, [vide Ab- 

AD (Ant.) this preposition forms a part of several peculiar 
phrases among the Latin writers, as— Ad Ijcstias, a punish- 
ment among the Romans of exposing criminals to wild 
bea-sts. Ulpian.; Tcrtidl. Apol. c. K) ; Ihid. in Pandect. 
vol. i. p. 21(); Ilolman. Aiili</. Roman. — Ad ludos, a similar 
punishment of being obliged to fight with either man or 
beast at the public games.—/};/ mclalla, another Uoman 
punishment borrowed from the Egyptians of condemning 
criminals to work at the mines. 
Ad scalum (Archreol.) by the scale, that is, by weighing m 
the scale, a mode of counting money at the mint, when 
a certain portion having been told out the remainder is 


weighed by it. This is, distinguished from a mode of 
weighing called ad Vensum, which was employed for money 
that was diminished in quantity by clipping, wearing, &c. 
Ad a/jsurdum (Logic) vide Rcductio. 

Ao valorem (Com.) i. e. according to the value, a term ap- 
plied to the duties or customs when rated according to 
the value of the commodities. 
Ad libitum (Mus.) or Con ad lib, at pleasure; a term signifying 
that the performer may introduce into the composition any 
thing extemporaneous according to his own fancy ; hence 
an nd libitum pause, or an ad libitum cadenza. — Ad I'ingum, 
old compositions so termed, consisting of notes of equal 
duration and generally the longest in use. — .'Id omnem 
tonum, a term in such old compositions as preserved their 
harmony from whatever tone or note the cantus started. 
Au inquirendum (Lniv) a judicial writ commanding inquiry 
to be made of any thing relating to a cause depending in 
the king's courts. Reg. Judic. — .Id jura regis, a writ 
brought by the King's clerk presented to a living against 
him who sought to eject him. Reg. of IVrits, 61. — Ad 
largum, at large, as title at large, assize at large. — Ad 
quod damnum, a writ to inquire when a grant intended to 
be made by the King will be to the damage of him or 
others. F. N. B. 221. — Ad tcrminum c/iii pncleriit, a writ of 
entry, where a man having leased lands, lic. for a term of life 
or years, is kept from them by the tenant or possessor after 
the term is expired. — Ad vcutrem iuspicicndum, vide Ventre 
inspiciendo. — Ad vitam aul culpam, an office to be so held 
as to determine only by the death or delinquency of the 
possessor; in other words, it is held quamdiu se bene gcsscrit. 
AUA'CTED (Mil.) driven into the earth with large malls 
applied to stakes, or piles, used in securing ramparts or 
ADA'GIO (Mus.) a term in music books denoting the slowest 
time, except the grave, especially if repeated adagio, adagio. 
A'DAL (Med.) a term used by Paracelsus for that part of 

plants in which their virtue consists. 
ADA'LIDES (I'olit.) the name of certain military officers 
in Spain, who are spoken of in the laws of King Alphonsus. 
A'DAiMANT (Min.) Adamas, so called from x, priv. and 
hij/jxa, to conquer, because of its hardness : it is a sort of 
diamond, and the hardest, most brilliant, and most valu- 
able of the precious stones. Adamas is classed by Linnaeus 
under the Silieious earths, [vide Adamas'] 
ADAM A'NTINE Earth (Min.) or .-Idamantinc Spar, a sort 
of hard and ]ionderous earth which, under the name of 
Adamantinus, forms the sixth order of earths in the Linnean 
ADAIVIA'NTIS (Dot.) a species of plant so called from its 

resemblance to Adamant. Plin. 1. 21-, c. 16. 
A'DAMAS (Min.) Adamant, or Diamond, a genus of Si- 
lieious Earths, consisting of silica and carbon. It is 
slightly ponderous, extremely hard, shines in the dark 
after having been exposed to the rays of the sun, and con- 
sumes altogether like an inflammable substance. It is 
found, in Golcondo and Brazil, enclosed generally in loose 
earth or sand. Linn. System. Nat. 
ADA'MI pomum (Bot.) the Citrus auranlium of Linnxus. 
Adami pomum (Anat.) the convex part of the Thyrsia 

ADA'MIANI (Ecc.) v'lile Adamites. 
ADA'MICA terra (Geol.) an oily slimy substance of the 

.\D.\'M1TA (Med.) the stone in the bladder, so called by 

Paracelsus. De Tartar. 1. 1 . 
ADAMI'TES (Ecc.) or, according to Epiphanius, Adamiani, 
d}!i;mum; heretics of the second century, who assumed 
that name from Adam, whose innocence they affected to 
imitate, and whose nudity they actually put in practice at 
their meetings. Clemen. Alexand. 1.3, &c. ; S. Epiphan. 


Hrcics. 5'2; S. August. Hares. 31; Theodoret. de Fab. 
Htcrct, 1. 1. 

ADAMI'TUM (Med.) the same as Athiasis. 

ADAM'S Needle (Bol.) an Indian plant of which tlie inha- 
bitants made coarse bread in times of scarcity. It is the 
Yuaa <^loriosa of Linnaeus. 

ADA'MUS (Alch.) the Philosopher's Stone. Theat. Chem. 
vol. i. 

ADANSO'NIA (Bet.) a genus of plants; Class 16 Mona- 
dclphia, Order 7 Poli/nmlria, so named from M. Adanson, 
the French Naturalist. 

Generic Character. C Ah. perianth one-leaved. — Cor. pe- 
laU five. — Stau. filaments united at bottom into a tube ; 
anthers kidney-shaped. — Pist. Germ ovate ; style very 
long ; stigmas many, prismatic. — Per. capsule ovate ; 
seeds numerous. 
Species. The only species is the Adansonia- digitata, 
Baobab, Abavi, Ahavo .Irbor, or Guanabanns, Ethiopian 
Sour Gourd, or Monkeys' Bread. J. Bauli. Hist. Plant.; 
C. Batth. Pin / Rail Hist. Plant. ; Vest. Plant. Algypt.; 
Linn. Spec. Plant. 

ADA'RCES (\at.) aVcifxij?, a kind of salt concretion ad- 
hering to herbs and canes in the fens and marshes of Ga- 
latia. It is said to clear the skin of freckles, iSrc. ; and 
was so called from «, priv. and ^ipxu, to see, because it 
was not to be seen among the rushes. Diosc. 1. 5, c. 137. 

ADA'RCONIM (Bibl.) ca'jiainx, a sort of money men- 
tioned, I Chron. xxix. 7, and Ezra viii. 27, called, in the 
Septuagint, Xf"^"') ''"'^j '" 'he Vulgate, aurei ; they are the 
same as JapiKoi, the Daricks of the Greeks, a gold coin valued 
at twenty drachmas. Gronov. de Pecun. Vet. 1. 3, c. 7. 

ADA'ltME (Com.) a small Spanish weight, the sixteenth of 
our ounce Troy weight. 

ADA'RNECK (Chem.) Auripigmentum, or orpiment. 

ADARTICULA'TION (Anat.) a species of articulation the 
same as Arthrodia. 

A'DATAIS (Com.) a clear fine Bengal muslin. 

ADCE'NSl (Ant.) vide Accensi. 

A'DCHER (Dot.) the Andropogon schoenanthns of Linna;us. 

ADCORDA'BILES Denarii (Archceol.) money paid by the 
vassal to his lord upon the selling or exchanging of a feud. 

ADCORPORA'TION (Med.) vide Incorporation. 

ADCREDULITA'RE (Archaol.) to purge oneself of an 
offence by oath. 

ADCRESCE'NTES (Ant.) a sort of soldiers, the same as 

A'DDAD (Bot.) a poisonous plant in Numidia. 

ADDEPHA'GIA (Med.) ui^^^c^y^, from u^^>, excessively, 
and (fu'/ii, to eat ; voracity. 

A'DDER (Zo.) the name of a small poisonous serpent, with 
plates on the belly, and scales under the tail, greatly re- 
sembling the viper Coluber verus of Linnscus, which inha- 
bits Europe, and is not rare in our own country. It is 
called in Saxon TEbbep, ^^tceji, iEtcop, Nabbpe ; in 
low German and Dutch, adder and natter, from eitcep, 

Addek (Her.) the poisonous serpent has been made a charge 
in coats of arms, of which Guillira gives two examples, as 
follow : 

Adder, noxwed or knotted, as in fig. 1 . " The field is gtdes, an 
adder nowed, or, by the name of Nathiley." 

Adder, curling erected, as in : 

Or, an adder curlint 


erected upon its tail, in pale sable." This coat was allowed 
or assigned by patent, dated January 2, 1606, by William 
Camden, Clarencieux, to Sir Thomas Coach, of the city 
of London. 

Adder'.s grass (Bot.) a herb so called, as Skinner supposes, 
because it serves as a lurking place for adders. — Adder's 
tongue, the Ophioglossum of Linnaius, a herb so called 
because it has a single leaf that puts forth a spike in 
the shape of an adder's tongue. — /Idder's n'0)i, a herb so 
called because it is imagined to cure the bite of a ser- 

Adder stung (Med.) stung by adders and venemous crea- 
tures, as in the case of cattle. 

ADDl'CTI (Ant.) those who, according to the laws of the 
twelve tables, were delivered over to their creditors to be 
made slaves until they discharged their debts. Cic. Rose. 
Com. c. l-i ; Place, c. 20, &c. ; Liv. 1. 6, c. 14, &c. ; Alex. 
Gen. Dier. 1. 5, c. 4. 

ADDPTAMENT (Med.) any thing added to the ordinary 

Additaments (Her.) what is added to coat armour to dis- 
tinguish the bearer. Guill. 

Additaments (Chem.) things added to a menstruum, 
to render it more efficacious in dissolving any mixed 

ADDITAME'NTUM (Anat.) the same as Epiphysis neca- 
tum ; the Epiphysis of the Ulna. — Additamentum colt, the 
Appotdicula cecci vermijbrmis. 

ADDITION (Laxv) whatever is added to a man's name by 
way of title, as additions of degree, estate, mystery, place. 
— Additions of degree, are Knight, Lord, Earl, Marquis, 
and Duke. — Additions of an estate or quality, are Yeoman, 
Esquire, Gentleman, and the like. — Additions of mystery, 
are such as Scrivener, Painter, Mason, and the like. — 
Additions of place are of London, York, iS;c. 

Addition (Nat.) a name given by distillers to whatever is 
added to a liquor to improve its spirit, which includes fer- 
ments and every thing else which is not expressly of the 
same nature as the liquor. 

Addition (Arithm.) the uniting or joining together several 
numbers into one sum. — Addition of integers, the first of 
the four fundamental rules of arithmetical operation, which 
is either performed by placing the figures under one an- 
other in columns, or by means of the sign plus [ + ], which 
is called the sign of addition, as 6 -)- 3 = 9, that 6 plus, 
or added to 3, is equal to 9. This operation is either sim- 
ple or compound. — Simple addition, the method of collect- 
ing several numbers into one sum, as i, 5, 9, which, added 
together, make 18. — ('omponnd Addition, the method of col- 
lecting quantities of different denominations into one sum, 
as pounds, shillings, pence, yards, feet, and inches, &c. — 
Addition of Vulgar Fractions is the adding together the 
numerators into one sum, when the fractions have, by the 
rules of reduction, been brought to a common denomina- 
tion, as in the adding of +, -^, and 4- together, they are 
first reduced [vide Reduction'], to 4-§-, -j-ir. and -j-j, then 
4^ + 44 -f- 4-8- = i-l. — Addition of decimals is performed 
in the same manner as that of whole number.', aaly having 
regard to the decimal points, that they should range under 
one another, as 

34- 17 
19- 143 
167- 13 

220- 443 

— Addition of circulating decimals is performed bj- chang- 
ing each of them into its equivalent vulgar fraction, and 
finding the sum of such fractions. 
Addition (Algcb.) the finding the sum of several algebraical 
F 2 


quantities, and connecting them together with their proper 
signs, as in the annexed example : 
5x — 13_j/ 
4j: — 11^ 
l-tx — "i y 

23x- 31j/ 

Addition of surds is performed by reducing the surds to 
the same denomination or radical, as far as it can be done : 
then add the rational parts, and subjoin the common surd, 
as v'S + ^/lS = V(4x2) + V(9x2) = 2v'2 + S ^2 
= 5^2= ^/50. 

Addition of ratios, vide Composition. 

Additiox (iViis.) a dot marked on the right side of a note. 

ADDITIOXA'LES (Law) additional terms, or propositions, 
to be added to a former agreement. 

A'DDITIVE (Math.) a term employed to denote something 
to be added in distinction from something to be subtracted, 
as additive equations, additive ratios, &c. 

AUDI'XIT {Ant.) the word which the Augurs used to sig- 
nify that the birds foretold a joyful event. " Fabio auspi- 
canti priusquam egrederetur de Tarento aves semel ct 

Liv. 1. 27, c. 16; Fest. 


iterum addixerunt, 

ADDO'RSED (Her.) Back to Back, as two ^ 
Lions rampant, or., addorsed, which Guil- 
lim calls endorsed. Leigh says this coat 
was borne by Achilles at the siege of Troy, 
and he takes it to represent two champions 
who have met in the field of battle, but 
being prevented by the interposition of the 
prince from engaging in combat, turn back to back, and 
so go off the field. 

ADDO'SSER (Mil) Fr. to place one thing behind anotlier, 
as a tent. Sec. Addosscr uiie Compagnie, to post one com- 
pany iii the rear of the other. 

ADDllE'SS (Com.) whatever directs to the person or the 
place, as, ' ^ly address is at Lyons, to the house of N. N.' 
i. e. where goods may be sent me. A bill of exchange 
payable to the address of N. N. that points out the 
of payment. ' This l)ill is to the address of Mr. N.' signify- 
ing that it is drawn upon him. 

ADDU'CENT (Anat.) an epithet for certain muscles, [vide 

ADDL'CTO'RES (Annt) or Jdducentcs, from ad anil duco, 
to draw to, or towards ; an epithet for some muscles which 
draw those parts of the l)ody to each other in which they are 
inserted, in distinction from tiie Abductorcs, as the — Ad- 
ductor minimi digili ct pedis, which draws the third and 
fourth lesser toes to the others. — Adductor oculi, which 
draws tlie eye to the nose, also called hihitorius, because 
" it directs the eye of the person drinking towards the cup. 
— Adductor /cmoris primus, secundus, Sfc. otherwise called 
Trice|)s, which serves to draw the thigh inward.s. — Adduc- 
tor pulticis, which brings the thumb nearer to the fore- 
finger. — Adductor polUcis pedis, the Antithenar of Wins- 
low, which brings the great toe nearer to the rest. 

A'DEli (Com.) a large Egyptian weight, used principally 
for rice, somewhat less than an Englisli pound. Pocock. 
Trnv. in l-g'jpl. 

A'DEC (C/iem.) sour Milk. 

ADEC-'\'IT.ST (Ecc.) one not decimated, or who is against 
))aying tithes, from «, priv. and myMrrju, to decimate. 

A'DECII (Alch.) the internal or invisible part of man, that 
impresses the forms or images of external material objects 
on the mind. I'nracel. Chirur'^. Tract. 2. 

ADE'CTA (Med.) from a, priv. ^w^iay.^'i, to bite; an epithet 
for medicines which relieve pain, as lenitives, &c. Cck. 
apud Gorr. Def. Med. 


ADELANTA'DO (Polil.) a governor of a Spanish province. 
ADE'LIA (Dot.) from «^,;Aii5, obscure, or indistinct ; a genus 
of plants. Class 22 Dioecia, Order 12 Monadelphia, the 
Bernardia of Brown. 

Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved; leaflets 
oblong. — Cor. none. — SrA>.t.Jitamcnts, many; anthers 
Species. The species are the Adclia Bernardia, ricinella, 
and acidotum, which are shrubs, and natives of Jamaica. 
Linn. Spec. 
A'DELING (Polit.) in Saxon, Gchhnj ; a title of honour 

among the Saxons. 
ADE'LPHiE (Numis.yA.S'iX'Pcit, sUicn; an epithet on a medal 
of Caracalla for two cities, inscribed IIAUTEINOnOAIS 
ADE'Ll'HI (Nutnis.)''AhA:?oi, brothers, an epithet on a medal 
of the brothers, Drusus and Germanicus, represents them on 
the obverse, with the inscription APOT^Oi KAI5AP 

FEPMANIKOS KA12AP AAEA^OI, i. e. Drusus Os- 
sar Germanicus Ca'sar, fiatres : on the reverse, a crown, 
with the words circumscribed EIII AAEHANaPOT 
KAEfiNOS SAPAlAXliN. i. e. sub Alcxandro Cleone 
Sardianorum Prcetore, and inscribed within the crown 
KOINOT. ACIAC. by which latter words is to be under- 
stood, that this crown of laurel was decreed to them by the 
universal consent of all the cities of Asia. Seguin. Numis. 
sel Antiq. 

ADE'LPHIA (Med.) or Adelphixis, a terra used by Hippo- ■ 
crates for analogy, as applied to diseases. 

ADELPHIA'NI (Ecc.) a sect of heretics who fasted always 
on Sunda3'S. I'heodorct. Hist. Eccles. I. 1, c. 10 ; Ccdren. 
Compend. Hist. p. 24-2. 

ADE'LPHIDES (Bot.) 'Aoi>iip«?ii«, a kind of palm-tree, whose 
fruit has the taste of figs. 

ADE'LPHON (Xumis.) «Aa^£», i.e.Jratris sororisque, brother 
and sister, an inscription on a medal of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus and Arsinoe, both his sister and wife. 

ADEiMO'NIA (i\Ied.) «^)i/*o»i'«, irom^xifA^o^t, fort una, restless- 
ness and anxiety in diseases. Hippoc. de Epidcm. 1. 1 ; 
Gnrr. Drfin. Med. ; Foes. Oeconom. Hippoc. 

ADE'iMPTlON (Laic) taking away a legacy, or revoking a 
grant, iS:c. 

A'DEN (.)/«/.) glandula, a gland. 

ADEN.'VNTHE'RA (Bot.) from a^V, a gland, and <i.««p«, 
an anther; a genus of plants, Class 10 Dicandria, Order 
1 Monogi/nia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth, one-leaved. — Cor. five- 
petaled ; petals lanceolate. — Scam. Jilamcnls subulate; 
anthers roundish. — Pist. germ oblong; sti/lc subulat*; 
stigma simple. — Per. a legume long ; seeds very many. 
Species. Tlie principal species are the — Adenanthera 
pavonina, a shrub, native of India. — Adenanthera scan- 
dens, a shrub, native of Mallicollo, an island in the 
.South Seas, &c. Rati Hist. Plant.; llhccd. Hort. Jnd. 
I a bar. 

ADENUE'NTES (Med.) from aJi^, and a/o, to eat ; ulcers 
which eat and destroy the glands. 

ADE'N1.\ (Bol.) a genus of plants, Class Hexandria, OrAcr 
Mouogynia, given by Forskal in his Flora yEgt/ptiaca 

ADENO'IDES (Anal.) glandiform; an epithet for the 
Glandulcc prostatic. Ruff. Ephes. de Appell. Part. Corp. 
Human. 1. 1, c. 29; Gal de Usu Purl. I. II, c. 1 1 ; Gorr. 
Dej: Mai. 


A'DENOS {Co7n.) marine Cotton from Aleppo. 

ADEiiO'SlJ S nbscessus (Med.) a crude tubercle, resembling 
a gland, which proceeds from obstructed viscidities. 

ADEPHA'GIA (Ant.) ah<Picyta, gluttony, which was wor- 
shipped as a goddess among the Greeks, and had a temple 
iu tiicily, according to Athenaeus. Dcipnosph. 1. 10, 
c. 4. 

A'DEPS (Anat.) fat; an animal oil in the memhrana adipoxa, 
which dirters from the Piiigitedo, by being a thicker, harder, 
and more earthy substance, litiff'- Ephcs. dc Appcll. Part. 
Hum. Corp. 1. 1, c. 35 ; Old. de Usu Fart. 

ADE'PT p/iilosophi/ (Alch.) the science which professes to 
teach the transmutation of metals, and finding the philoso- 
pher's stone. The Adepti, or Adepts, were such as were 
initiated into the adept philosophy. — Adept medicine, that 
«-hich treats of diseases contracted by celestial operations. 
Paracel. Peragran. 

ADEU'AlMIN (Astron.) or nideraimin, a star of the third 
magnitude in the left shoulder of Cepheus, marked «, by 
Bayer. Its longitude for 1761 was T 9° 30' 8", latitude 
North 68° 56' ilO". Ultig. Beigh. apud liijde ; Baijer 

ADESSENA'RIANS (Ecc.) a branch of the sacramentarians 
who derived their name from the Latin adesse, to be pre- 
sent ; because they believed the presence of Christ's body 
in the eucharist, though in a manner dirt'erent from the 
llomish church. Prateol. de Fit. Sccl. et Dugm. Hwret. 

ADFE'CTED (.'Hgeb.) vide Affected. 

A'DHA (Mij.) or ailcha, i. e. sacrifices, a festival which the 
Mahometans celebrate on the 12th day of the month 
DJioulhegiat, which is the I'ith and last montli of their 
year. This month, being particularly destined for the ce- 
remonies W'hich the pilgrims observe at Mecca, takes its 
name from that circumstance : the word signifying the 
■niontli rjf pilgrimage. 

ADHATO'D.'V (Bot.) the Malabar Nut; a species of the 
,/uiticia of Linna?us. 

ADHERENCE, Action of (Laxv) an action in the Scotch 
Law, competent to a husband or a wife, to compel either 
party to adhere in case of desertion. 

ADIIE'SION (Phij.) from ad and luerco, the union of two 
substances, similar or dissimilar ; as of mercury to gold, in 
distinction from cohesion, which retains together compo- 
nent particles of the same mass. Ad/iesion arises either 
from the compression of external bodies, or from a princi- 
ple of attraction between particular bodies. James 15our- 
iieJli considered the pressure of the external air as the 
proximate cause ; but later experiments have led to the 
conclusion, that it arises from the natural tendency to ad- 
hesion in the bodies themselves. 

Adhesion [JMed.) the junction of parts that ought to be 
separated, as the adhesion of the lungs to the Pleura. 

ADHE'SIVE iiijlammntion (Surg.) a modern terra in surgery 
for that species of inflanm)ation which terminates by an 
adhesion of the inflamed parts. 

Adhesive plaster, a plaster made of common litharge plas- 
ter and resin, which is so called for its adhesive properties. 

A'DHIL (Astron.) a star of the sixth magnitude in the gar- 
ment irt/f/Aa of Andromeda, marked (J) by Bayer. Ptol. 
Almag. 1. 7, c. 5 ; Bayer. Uranomet. 

A'DHO (Chem.) or Ado, Buttermilk. 

ADJA'CENT (Math.) from ad and Jacio, to lie, lying near ; 
an epithet applied to angles when they 
lije so as to have but one common side, 
and the other two sides form one con- / 

tinned right line, as in the annexed dia- - — - — -^- 

gram, where the adjacent angles C B A ■* 

and C B D have the legs A B and D B in one straight line. 

ADIA'CHYTOS (Med.) from a, priv. and iUx,"", to be pro- 


fuse, or to scatter ; an epithet used by Hippocrates to imply 

not foppish or extravagant. Uippuerat. de Decent. Habit. 
ADL\'NTHUM (Bot.) vide Adiantum. 
ADIA'NTUM (Bot.) khxvTm, a plant; so called from a, priv. 

and S'taliu, to moisten or become wet, because its leaves 

throw off the wet. 

Nica/id. Theriac. 

Hippocrates calls it xx>,>,,'fu>.>.eii, beautiful-leaved ; Theo- 
critus x^oifov UhaiTo^, the green adiantum. Hippocrat. de 
Nat. MuL; Theophrasl. Hist. Plant. I. ~, c. 13; Dioscor. 
1. 4, c. 136; Plin. 1. 22, c. 21 ; Schol. in Theocrit. Idijl. 
13, V. 14; Nicand. Theriac. 
Adiantum, in the Linnccan system, a genus of plants, Claas 
Cryptogamia, Order Filiccs, in English Maidenhair. 
Generic Character. Fructifications assembled in oval spots, 

at the end of the fronds. 
Species. The species of this tribe are perennials, and 
mostly natives of the East and West Indies. The prin- 
cipal are the — Adiantum reniformc or monophi/llum, He- 
mionitis or Feli.v Hemionitis,' K\dney-]eaved Maidenhair. 
— Adiantum radiatum, Lonchitis radiata, or Trichomanes 
Americanum radiatum, rayed Maidenhair. — Adiaulum 
fragrans or Polypodiumfragrans, sweet-scented ^Maiden- 
hair. — Adiantum deiiticidatum or Lonchitis serrata, tooth- 
leaved Maidenhair. — Adiantum lunulatum or Pteris lunu- 
luta. — Adiantum varitim, or Asplenium varium, &c. 
J. Bauh. Hist. Plant.; C. Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; 
Park. Theat. Botan. ; Raii Hist. Plant. ; Phil. Phyio- 
graph.; Tournif. Inslit. ; Bnerh. Ind. Plant. 
Adiantum is also the name for the Asplenium ohtusifoUum 

and nixrrum of Linna;us. Raii Hist. Plant. 
ADIA'PHORISTS (Ecc.) from i<J.«4i<>f»', indifferent; the 
name of those moderate reformers who, according to the 
sentiments of .Melancthon, declared that in matters of 
an indifferent nature, comijllance with the edicts of the 
Emperor was a duty, in consequence of which they ad- 
hered to the Interim of Charles V. Spondan. Continual. 
Baron. Annal. Ann. 1525; Prateol. de Fit. SjX. Hccret. 
ADI A'PIIO ROUS (Chem.) from u, priv. and ^^r..fif«, difero, 
without difference ; a spirit distilled from tartar, neither 
acid, vinous, nor urinous. 
ADIA'PXEUSTIA (Med.) aS:xTi>wM, to breathe, from «, 
priv. and AaCTsi', difficult or impeded respiration. Gal. 
Meth. Med.L 11, c. 4. 
ADIAPTO'TOS (Med.) u^Mirraroi, from «, priv. and ^mthittc; 
to fall through ; a remedy for the colic. Gcd. de Comp. 
Med. sec. Log. ; Gorr. De/'. Med. 
ADIARRHO'EA (Med.) ^J'>«fp«=<, from «, priv. and -J'l^pp"-, 
to flow through ; an entire suppression of all evacuations. 
Erotian. Lex. Hippocrat.; Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 
ADIATHORO'SUS (Chem.) a spirit distilled from tartar. 
A'DIBAT (Alch.) mercury. 
A'DICE (Bot.) the same as Urtica. 
ADJECTI'TIOUS (Archil.) an epithet for any thing added 

to a building. 
A'DJECTIVE (Gram.) or noun adjective, from adjicio, to 
adjoin ; a part of speech which is added to a noun in 
order to qualify its signification ; as a good man, a large 
ADJICIA'LIS ccena (Ant.) a particular festival among the 
Romans, so called because it'seems that something «f///c7'e- 
batur was added to the ordinary entertainment. Senec, 
Epist. 95; Plin. 1. 10, c. 20; Tacit. Annal. 1.2, c. 65 ; 
Hcalig. Conject. in Farr. p. 118 ; Lips, de Mag. Rom. 1. 4, 
c. 9 ; Uriin. Append, ad Ciaccon. de Triclin. p, 175 ; Bii- 
leng. de Imper. Roman. 1. 2, c. 32. 


AD IXQUIRE'NDU]M {Lniv) a judicial writ commanding 

AD.JO'URNMENT (Lnti') Adjnumamcntinn, a putting off 
until another time or place, as the Adjournment of Parlia- 
ment, or a Writ of Adjournment for a court of justice to 
be held at some other time or place. 

ADIl'O'CERE [Chati.) from adeps, fat, and cera, wax ; fatty 
wax, a concretion or substance resembling aramonial soap. 
It forms a class of biliarj- calculi, like spermaceti. 

ADIPO'SUS (Anat.) adipous, or fat ; an epithet for certain 
membranes, veins, &c. — Adipnsa memhratui, a membrane 
which encloses the cetliiltE cicliposcr, but more particularly 
that in whicli the kidneys are wrapt up. — Adipostv celiuhe, 
a number of cells or holes full of fat. — Adiposa vena, a 
vein arising from the descending trunk of the cava, which 
spreads itself on the coat and fat of the kidne3's. — Adipnsi 
duclus, certain vessels of the animal body which convey 
the adeps or fat into the intersticss of the muscles or parts 
that are between the flesh and skin. 

ADI'PSA (Med.) vide Adipxon. 

ADIPSA'THEON (Bot.) a thorny shrub in the island of 

ADI'PSIA (Med.) from «, priv. and A-^a, thirst; want of 
thirst, a genus of diseases, Class Locales, Order Di/so- 
rcxicE, in Cullen's Nosology. 

ADI'PSON (Med.) from «, priv. and ^!^x, thirst ; any drink 
that quenches or prevents the tliirst. Hippocrates applies 
the term to the ptissana. Ilippocrat. dc Rat. Vict, in Acut. 
Mori). ; Gal. de Camp. Med. sec. Loc. 

ADl'PSOS (But.) ui'i^t>i, from «, priv. and i?i'4-«, thirst ; an 
epithet for the Glijcorrhiza, or Liquorice-Tree, from its pro- 
perty of assuaging thirst. According to Solinus, the 
yEgyptian palm was also so called. Hippocrat. de Rat. 
Vict, in Acut. Morh ; T/ieopfirasl. Hist. Plant. 1. 9, c. 13 ; 
Dioscor. 1; 3, c. 7 ; Plin. 1. 22, c. 9 ; Gal. de Simpl. 1. G ; 
Foci. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 

Adipsos (Med.) a catapotium or pill, made by Asclepiades. 
Gnl. dc Comp. Med. sec. Loc. c. 8 ; Trnllian. 1. 7. 

ADIRA'TUS (Law) strayed or lost. 

A'DIT (Mill.) the shaft or entrance into a mine. 

AiJiT (iSlil.) a passage under ground, by which the miners 
approach the part they intend to sap. 

A'DITUS (Ant.) a passage to the seats of a theatre. Vitruv. 
1. 5, c. 3. The Aditus in a ship is that space where it is 
broadest. Ovid. Metam. 1. 3, v. 722; Schejf. dc Re Nav. 
I. 1 , c. a. 

AD.IUDICATION (Lniv) the adjudging or determining a 
cause in favour of some person. — Adjudication, in the 
Scotch Law, is an action by which a creditor attaches the 
heritable estate of his debtor's heir in payment of his debt ; 
also that b}' which the holder of an heritable right, labour- 
ing under any defect in point of form, may supply that 

A'D.IUNCTS (Log.) whatever is joined to a thing, as to its 
.subject ; as knowledge to the soul, or greenness to grass, 
&c. These are more connnonly termed the accidents of 
tlie subject, [vide Accident'] 
Ad.iunxts (Rliet.) certain words or things added to others 
to amplify the discourse, or augment its force. 

AD.JUNCTS (Meit.) qualities, dispositions, and symptoms. 

Ad.functs (Eth.) vulgarly called circumstances, are com- 
prehended in this verse. — 

Qkw, guid, ufci, quihus auiiliis, cur, qiunrnnh, qiiamlo. 

Qui.i, to denote the person ; quid, the matter ; u/)i, the 
place ; quihus nuxiliis, the instruments ; cur, the efficient 
cause and end; ipiomiido, the manner ; and yuando, the time. 
Adjlncts (Mu.1.) the intervals which constitute the rela- 
tion and connexion between the principal mode, and the 
modes of its two lifths. 


Adjuncts (Lit.) a class of members in the Royal Academy 
at Paris, attached to the pursuit of particular sciences, 
who were twelve in number, namely, two for geometry, 
two for anatomy, two for mechanics, two for astronomy, 
two for chemistry, and two for botany. They were elected 
in 171G in lieu of the eleves. 
Adjuncts (Pulit.) colleagues or fellow officers associated 
with an}' other to assist him in his office, or inspect his 
AD JU'RA regis I Law) vide Ad. 

A'DJUTANT (Mil.) from adjuvo, to help ; one who assists 
a superior officer in a regiment, distributing the pay to the 
men, exercising them when they are assembled, and pre- 
siding over the punishments of delinquents. The Adju- 
tant-General is an officer of distinction, who assists the 
general with his council and personal service. 
ADJU'TOR (Ant.) an assistant or deputy, who was named 
after his office, as — Adjutor actoris, an assistant to the 
steward. — Adjutor admissionum, an assistant to the master 
of the ceremonies. — Adjutor aruspicum, an assistant to the 
aruspices or soothsayers on public occasions. — Adjutor 
prcetoris, a deputy-praetor. — Adjutor principis, a king's 
commissioner, who acted in the name of the prince. — Ad- 
jutor provineice, a Jeputy-lieutenant, of whom frequent 
mention is made in inscriptions. Cassiodor Var. ; Panci- 
rol Nolit. Dig. Imp. Orient. ; Pignor. de Serv. ; Buleng. 
de Imp. Rom. ; Ursat. de Not. Roman. ; Salmas. in Lam- 
prid. ; Gra-v. Thesaur. Antiq. Roman, vol. ii. p. .533, &c. 
ADJUTO'RIUM (Anal.) a bone between the cubit and the 

scapula, so called because it is of use in raising the arm. 
Adjutorium (Med.) a topical or external application to 

assist an internal medicine. 
ADJU'TRIX (Nnmis.) the good genius of the emperor Vic- 
torious is so called, as in the annexed cut. 
which represents the head of a female figure 
half naked, with a bow ; the inscription 
ADJUTRLX AUG. On the obverse of 
this medal is the head of the emperor him- 
self. Occo. Numis Imper. Roman. ; Pem- 
hroch. Numis. Antiq. 
ADJUVA'NTIA (Med.) from adjuvo, to help, aiding; an 

epithet applied to medicines that help nature. 
AD LA'RGUM (Laiv) at large, as " a title at large" 
A'DLE (Nat.) the state of an egg which is putrid from long 

ADLli'CTI (Ant.) 1. Inferior Deities enrolled from among 
men into the number of the gods. Ccvl. Rhodig. Antiq. 
Led. I. 22, c. 2 ; Bud. Pandect, p. 53. 2. Soldiers who 
were enrolled into any particular class, or raised to a par- 
ticular rank. Ursat. de Not. Roman, apud Grerv. Tlies. 
Antiq. Roman, torn. x\. p. 531. 3. Senators who, on ac- 
count of their poverty, were enrolled from the equestrian 
into the senatorial order. Suet, in Jul. c. SO ; I'cst. de 
Signif. Verb; Alcv. ab Alex. Gen. Dier. \. 't, c. 2 ; Bud. 
in Pandect, p. 53. 4-. Adjuncts, or assistants to the actors 
on the stage, according to an inscription on a stone. 
ADLEOA'IION (Polit.) a rirdit claimed by the (Jerman 
States of adjoining ])lenipotuntiaries to those of the em- 
peror for the transaction of all'airs relating to the empire in 
general. It is distinguished from legation, which is the 
sending ambassadors on one's own account. 
ADLE(jIA'RE (Lam) in French alier, to purge oneself of 

a crime by oath. LL. Aclfred apud Brompton. 
ADLOCU'TIO (Ant.) from adloqnor, to speak to or address ; 

an address or harangue of the emperor to his soldiers. 
Aui.ocuTio (Numis.) many medals of the emperors repre- 
sent them in the act of haranguing their soldiers, rs those 
of Nero, Caligula, Galba, Vesjjasian, Adrian, Domitian, 
Nerva, M. Aurelius, L. Verus, Severus, INIacrinns, Alex. 
Severus, Julia Mamma;a, Gordian, Phillip Sen., Vale- 


rian, Tacitus, Probus, and Numerian, with the following 



The subjoined cut, ^g^. 1, represents Nero addressing the 
Fig.l. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

soldiers from an elevation, while they stand, near the prce- 
torium, with their military standards. He is robed in the 
togn, and another figure near him also robed. Fig. 2, re- 
presents tl>e emperor Galba, in his military robe, harangu- 
ing the soldiers as they stand with their legionary ensigns. 
Fig. 3, represents Vespasian, crowned with laurel, in the 
same act. I'aillnnt. Num. Imp. Sf-c; Pat in. Num. Imp. 

ADLOXGUM {Mus.) at full length, [vide ^rf] 

ADMANUE'XSIS {Archceol.) the same as amanuensis. 

ADME'ASUREMENT (Lavi) admcnsuratio, a writ against 
those usurping more than their own share, as in the Ad- 
measurement of Pasture, and the Admeasurement of 
Dower. The Admeasurement of pasture is a writ against 
tliose having comvnon pasturage, who surcharge the pasture. 
Admeasurement of duiver is a writ against a widow holding 
more from the heir, as dower, than she is entitled to. 
Britt. c. 58, &c.; F/et. 1. 4., c. 23 ; Reg. Grig. l.^G. 

Admeasurement f)fa ship (Mar.) a measurement made to 
ascertain its tonnage. 

ADMI'NICLE {Ant.) a term applied to the attributes or 
ornaments wherewith Juno is represented on medals. 

Adminicle (Lmv) 1. A term, in the Scotch Law, for any 
writing or deed referred to by a party, in an action at 
law, for proving his allegations, 2. An ancient term for 
aid or support. 3. A term in Civil Law for imperfect 

ADMIXICULA'TOR (Ecc.) an ancient officer of the 
church, who defended the cause of widows and orphans. 

ADMIMSTllA'TION {Laiv) the disposing, in Civil Law, 
of the estate or effects of a man who dies intestate. 

Administration (Cum.) a staple magazine or warehouse 
established by the Spaniards in Callao, a port of Lima, 
where vessels must unload. 

ADMINISTRA'TOR (Polit.) he who administers or ma- 
nages the public concerns in the place of a sovereign prince. 

Administrator (Lau') he to whom the estate and eftects 
of an intestate person are committed by the ordinary, for 
which he is accountable as an executor. 

ADMIN ISTRATO'RES (Ant.) ijisius I'atrisfamiUas mini- 
stri in mensa. Alfen. de Verb. Sis;nif. 

ADMINISTRATRIX (Laxv) she that hath the goods and 
cliattels of an intestate person committed to her charge 
as an administrator. 

ADMIRA'BILIS Sal (Chem.) another name for Glauber's 

A'DMIRAL (Mar.) admiralius, admirallus, admirallis, Capi- 
taneus custos maris, from the Saxon, aen-mepeal, all over 
the sea, or, as some say, from the Arabic, amer or emir, 
a governor, and aM, the sea ; an officer of the first rank 
and command in a fleet. — Lord High Admiral, an officer 
that used to have the government of the king's navy by 
the king's patent. The term seems to have been first used 


in the time of Edward I.; and the first Admiral of Eng- 
land was Richard Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel. 10 Ric. 2. 
The office is now vested in the Lords commissioners of the 
Admiralty, who have the same power and authority. — 
Admiral ojf the fleet, the highest officer under the Admiralty 
of Great Britain, is distinguished when he embarks on 
any expedition by the union flag at the main-top gallant- 
mast-head.— f7ce Admiral, 1. The officer next in rank and 
command to the Admiral, has his flag displayed at the 
fore-top gallant-mast-head. 2. A civil officer appointed 
by the Lords commissioners of the Admiralty, of whom 
there are upwards of twenty in different parts of Great 
Britain, with judges and marshals under them for exer- 
cising jurisdiction in maritime affairs. Their decisions, 
however, are not final, an appeal lying to the court of 
Admiralty in London. — Rear Admiral, the officer next 
in rank and command to the Vice Admiral, carries his flag 
at the mizen-top gallant-mast-head. — Admiral of the red, 
white, &c. that is, of the red squadron, the white squadron, 
&c~. so denominated from the colour of the flag, [yide Flag^ 
— Admiral of the Cititjue Forts, the warden of the Cinque 
Ports has the jurisdiction of Admiral within these ports, 
exempt from the jurisdiction of the Admiralty of England. 

Admiral, a name given also to the most considerable ship 
of a fleet of merchantmen, or of the vessels employed in 
the cod fishery of Newfoundland. This ship directs the 
movements of the rest. 

A'DMIRALTY (Mnr.) in French, amiraufe, the office of Lord 
High Admiral, whether discharged bj- one or many. — Lords 
commissioners of .Idniiralti/, those who execute the office 
of Lord High Admiral by "the Stat. 2 JV. S^- M. They are 
seven in number. — Admiralty court, the supreme court 
held by the Lord High Admiral or Lords commissioners 
for the trial of maritime causes, established in the reign of 
Edward III. The jurisdiction of this court is confined to 
the main sea, or coasts of the sea not being in any county. 
— Admiralty ojpce, an office near Whitehall, wherein are 
transacted all maritime affairs belonging to the jurisdiction 
of the Lord High Admiral, where the Lords commis- 
sioners at present meet on certain days for the manage- 
ment of the navy ; and where formerly the Lord High 
Admiral determined all causes, civil and criminal, com- 
mitted at sea, which are now decided at Doctors' Com- 
mons, or the Old Bailey. Stuwe's Survey. 

ADISIIRA'TION (Gram.) the note or mark [!] expressing 

ADMI'SSIO (Ant.) an appellation for certain parts of the 
atrium, or audience-chamber, divided off by hangings, into 
which persons were admitted to the prince according to 
their different degrees of favour ; thence termed amici ad- 
missionis jirimcs, secundce, vel terticB. Senec. de Benef, I. 6, 
c. 33, 3i ; Lamprid. Alex. Sev. c. 20 ; Lips, in Tac. Annal. 
1. 6, c. 29 ; Salmas. in Spartian Adrian, c. 18. 

ADMI'SSION (Laxv) the ordinary's declaration, that he 
approves the parson who is presented to the cure of the 
church. When the patron has presented to a church, the 
bishop on examination admits the clerk by saying, admitto 
te habilem. Co. Lit. Sii. a. 

ADMISSION'ALES (Ant.) gentlemen ushers, or those 
who admitted persons into the presence of the prince. 
Lamprid. in Alex. Sev. c. -1; Ammian. I. 15, c. 5 ; Lips, 
in Tacit. Annal. 1. 6, c. 29. 

ADMISSIO'NUM Magister (Ant.) another name for Admis- 

ADMITTANCE (Lain) the admittance of a tenant to a 
copyhold estate, which may be either by voluntary grant 
when the lord is proprietor, by the siirrender of the prior 
tenant, or by descent. 

ADMITT'ENDO clerico (Law) a writ granted to one that 
has recovered the right of presentation against the bishop. 


Rea. Orig. 31, 33; Nexv Nnt. Brew 81-. — Admittendn in 
socium, a writ for associating certain persons to justices 
of assize. Keg. Orig. 206. 

AD.MONI'TIO {Ant.) edict o admoncre, rescripto admonere, 
6,-c, an injunction or proclamation. — Admonitio fii\lium, a 
beating witli sticks, which was a mihtary punishment. 

Admonitio {.■Irc/itvol) a summons, particularly of debtors. 

ADMORTIG'ATION {Archml.) the reduction of the pro- 
(lerty of lands or tenements to mortmain. 

ADXA'TA (.\V(/.) or Adnasccntia, s-foo-ipiii?, from adnascor, 
to grotv to adnate, or adherent ; an epithet for what 
grows upon animal or vegetable bodies inseparably, as 
hair, &c. (>r uccidentallj', as fungus. Sec. Plin. I. l(j, c. 93. 

Adnata (Anrtt.) or ndnancentia ; branches that sprout out of 
tlie main stock, as the veins and arteries. — Adnata iunicn, 
the coat of the eye which makes what is called the White. 

ADNA' TUS {Bnt.) adnate, growing or fixed to, as applied 
to oft'-sets, or small bulbs produced from the main bulb 
and closely adjoining to it, as in Narcissus, Lily, Hya- 
cinth, &c. — Adnntus is also applied to ditferent parts of 
plants, as the leaf, stipule, &c. as Fulium adnatum, a leaf 
adhering to the stem. — Slipula adnata, a stipule adher- 
ing to the petiole. — Anlhera adnata, an anther closely 
attached to both sides of the filaments. — Stylus adnalvs, 
a style adhering to the corolla, as in the Canna. Linn. 
Pliil Bolan. 

ADNI'CHELLED (Latu) the same as annulled. 

ADN'OMEN (Ant.) vide A<niomen. 

A'DN'OUN (Gram.) the same as substantive. 

AUOLE'SCENCE (Ant.) Adolescentia ; the period of youth 
among the ancients from twelve to twentj'-five. 

AD O'MNEM tonum (Mm.) vide Ad. 

ADONI'A (Ant.) 'A^utim; festivals in Sicily, in honor of 
Adonis, at which lamentations formed a part of the cere- 
mony, whence aiunia. ayi.i signified, according to Suidas, 
'A}mi> K>.su^uy, to mourn over Adonis. P/ut. in A7c. ; 
ylmminn Marcell. 1.22, c. 9; Dlacroli. Saturnal, 1. J, c.21 ; 
Natal Com 1.5, 0. 16 ; Meurs. Grccc. Fed.; Seldcn de Diis 

AIj'OXIC verse (Poet.) Me.lrum Adonicum ; a short kind of 
verse used first in bewailing the death of Adonis. It con- 
fiisls of a dactylic dimeter catalcctic; or, more properly, of 
a dactyle and a spondee; as, y Tnv".\u^i'i_v, or" Fandlte 
JlelHS.'' Serv. Centrimet. ; Pint, de Mel. 
ADO'XIDIS hurii (llort.) or Adonis llorli, i. e. the gardens 
of Adonis; plants, flowers, i-c. in pots or boxes set on the 
outside of windows, &c. Plin, 1. 19, c. 19. 
Al)()'.\lS (lint.) Fhea.sant's-Eye, or Bird's-Eye ; a genus 
of plants. Class 13 I'oli/andria, Order 7 I'ohjgtjnia. 
lleneric Character. Cal. perianth five-leaved; Icajlets 
(.btuse. — Cor. petals from five to fifteen. — SJTAM.yiVn- 
»HC«(i very short ; anthers oh\on^. — Pisr. germs nume- 
rous ; sli/les none ; receptacle oblong ; seeds numerous. 
Sj)ecie.<:. The principal species are the Adonis a-slivalis, 
or .ylveslrisyVM Adonis, an annual. — Adonis autumnalis, 
common Adonis, or Bird's- Eje, an ainiual. — Adonis 
vcrnalis, or Flos .-Idunis, perennial or spring Adonis, a 
perennial. — Adonis appennina, or Ilelleborits niger, ap- 
pcnnine Adonis, a perennial. — Adonis capensis, Aclica 
trifoliala, Chrislophoriana Africana, Ranunculus /El In opi- 
cus, cape .'\donis, a perennial. — Adonis vesicaloriit or 
Jmperaluria. Dod. Stirj). Hist. I'eniplad.; Ger. Herb.; 
Rait J list. I'lant.; I'lulc. Alnuig. Botan. 
A'DONISTS (Lit.) those who contend against the Hebrew 
points; in distinction from tlie Ichorists, who maintain 
tJieir use. 
ADO'l'TEU (Chmi.) a chemical vessel, with two necks in- 
terposed between the retort and receiver. 
AUOi'TIA'XI (Eccl.) adoptiauists ; a sect of hereticB in the 


8tli centur}-, who denied that Christ was the proper or 
natural, but only the adopted, son of God. Their heresy 
was condemned in a synod at Frankfort, held by Char- 
lemagne in 79 K Hnr. Hist. Eccles. per. 2, art. 2. 

ADO'I'TIO (Ant.) Adoption ; a solenm act among the 
Greeks and liomans, whereby a man made another his 
son, investing him with all the rights and privileges of that 
relationship. It was distinguished from arrogalio, in as 
much as the former was done by means of the Pr;ctor, and 
the latter by means of the people, .lid. Cell. 1. .5, c. 19. 

Adoi'tio (Nuniis.) the form of adoption is painted on the 
medals of Adrian and Trajan, as in the subjoined cut, 

which represents on the obverse, the head of Trajan 
crowned, and the inscription NEllVA TR.'VIAN CAESi/- 
Ci'EMManici XERxvc A\5Gusli l-ilins Votestate Tllil>u?ii- 
tia ; on the reverse, Nerva, in a military habit, with a spear 
in his left hand, offering his right hand to Trajan, with the 
legend .ADOPTIO. raillant. Nmnis. Imp. Roman. Tris- 
tan. Conimcniaires Historir/ues, vol. 1, p. 378. 

ADO'PTION (Ilier.) is represented by the figure of an 
elderly woman embracing a youth witli her right arm, and 
hdlding in her left the' eagle called ossifraga, which is 
said to reject her young for a time, and afterwards to take 
them again. 

ADOR (Bot.) ahf, another name for Spelta. 

A'D()R.\T (Chem.) a chemical weight of four pounds. 

AGOll. \'TlO purpnree (Ant.) a mode of saluting the em- 
perors among the Romans, by lifting up their purple witli 
the right hand and ajiplying it to the lips, in imitation 
of the worship or adoration which they offered to the gods. 
Ammian Marcel. 1. 1,5, c. 5; Cassiodor. 1. 11. ep. 20; 
Pancirol Xotit. Dig. Imper, Occid. c. 30 ; Buleng. de Imp. 
Roman 1. 1, c. 11. 

ADORA'TIOX (Ant.) adoralio, from ad ando^, i. e. to apply 
the hand to the mouth ; a mode of reverence anciently 
shown to the gods, by raising the right hand to the 
nioutli and applying it gently to the lips. " In adorando 
dexiram ad o.^cnlnm re/erimiis." Plin. 1. 28, c. 2. This 
kiss was called osciilum libatum. The Romans per- 
formed the ceremony of adoration veiled, to all the gods 
except Saturn, whom they worshipped as the god of 
truth, from whom nothing should be concealed. Ajml. 
ApoL; Sparlian in Adrian, c. 26 ; 'I'nrncb. Adversar. \. 18, 
c. G ; Stuck, de Sacrif. p. 5 ; Kipping. Antiq. Roman. I. I, 
c. 9, s. 5. 

A'DOS (Chem) water wherein iron has been extinguished. 

Ados (Mil.) a French term for a bank of earth raised against 
a wall. 

A douhle (Mus.) or, double A, i. e. A below G gamut. 

AUOSCULA'TION (Bot.) joining or insertirig one part of 
a plant into another. Grciv. Anat. of Plants. 

ADO'.XA (Rot.) Fumitory, or Hollow Root; a genus of 
plants. Class 8 Octandria, Order i Penlagi/nia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth inferior CoR. monO' 

petalous. — ('lefts ovate. — Stam. Jilamenls subulate ; 
anthers roundish. — I'isT. germ below the receptacle of 
the corolla ; sti/les simple ; stigmas simple. — Feb. a 
globose berry ; seed': solitary. 
Species. The only species is tl)e Adnxn moschatellina, 
Moschatellina mnschalelht, Ranunculus, Fumaria bulbosa, 
Bulbous Fumitory, Hollow Root, Tuberous Moschatoll ; 
n perennial, native of Britain. Ger. Herb.; Pari;. Thent. 
Botan.; Rait. Hist. Plant.; Mer. Hist. Plant. 

AD pondus omnium (Med.) signifying that the last pre- 


scribed medicine ought to weigh as much as all the medi- 
cines mentioned before. 

ADPRE'SSCS (Bot.) appressed, or squeezed close to; an 
epithet applied to different parts of a plant, as — Folium 
ndprcs.^iim, a leaf that turns up and lays its upper surface to 
the stem, as if pressed to it b}- violence. — CV/Ay.r adpressuf:, 
a calyx that is close to the pc-duncle. — Pcdunculus ad- 
pressi'cs, one that is close to the branch or stem. 

AD quod damnum (Laiv) a writ to inquire whether a grant 
to be made by the i^ing, as a market, fair, &c. will be to 
his damage. F. X. B. 221, &c. 

ADRA'C'HNE (Bot.) k'^Uyjiv,; a tree which is found in great 
abundance in Crete, on the hills of Leuce, and in stony 
places ; and is called bv the modern Greeks, a.^uy.Xu. 
■ Thcoph. 1. 1, c. 8; Chis.'Hiit. 1.1, c. 'M. According to 
Pliny, it must be distinguished from A'l^^ciyjr,, which is a 
herb. " Adrachnen omnes Jere Grtcci pnrtulacee iiomine 
intcrpreiantur, cum ilia iit Iterba et amlruchne vocetur." 
I'lin. 1. 13, c. 22. 

A'DKAGANTH (Bot.) the name of a herb, which is the 
Astrac;idus Tragacatitlius <i( Linnaeus. 

ADRECT'ARE (Lniv) to set right. 

A'DRIANISTS (Ecc.) two ditterent sects of heretics of this 
name. 1. A sect mentioned by Theodoretus, which lie 
says was a branch sprung from Simon Magus; but of this 
sect no mention is made by any other writer. T/icodorct. 
HcEi-et. Fall. 1. ]. 2. A sect of anabaptists, in tlie 16th 
century, who, after their leader, one Adrian, held many 
errors, piiticularly respecting our Saviour. Prataol.Dogin. 
omn. Hu!\f.; Spo)!dan continual Baron. Annal. 

ADRI'FT (Mar.) from a or ah, and drijl driven; an epithet 
for a vessel broken loose from her moorings and driven 
about bv the waves. 

ADRO'i'.OLON' (C/iem.) Indian Bdellium. Gorr. Def. Med. 

ADROG.V'TION (ylnt.) the adoption of persons grown to 
an age to dispose of themselves, [vide .'Idoplion'} 

A'DROS \.Med.) a^oc, -^Xwn^i &x\A M\ ; applied to the habit 
of the body, and also to the pulse ; a^fii o-<?a'//A«, a full 
pulse. H Genit. 6,-c.; Met/i. Med. 1. 14; 
Go7-r. Drf. Med. ; Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 

ADRO'TEKON (Bot.) a plentiful grain. 

ADSCE'XDENS (Bot.) vide Ascendens. 

ADSCRl'PTI [Math.) an epithet for the tangents of arcs. 

ADSCRIPTl'TIl (Ant.) vide Ascripiitii. 

ADSE'RTOR (Ant.) the asserter and supporter of another's 
libertj" ; from adserere manu in liberlateni, to maintain the 
freedom of anotlier ; to bail him and advocate his cause. 
Fest. de Sijnif. I'erb. 

ADSES.SO'RES (.-int.) vide Assessores. 

ADSTRTCTION' (Med.) from ad and .•slringo, to bind. 
1. The styptic qualit}' of medicines. 2. The retention of 
the natural evacuations, particularly those of the bowels. 

AD terminum qui preterit. (Laiv) a writ for the lessor, or his 
heirs, against a tenant w ho holds lands or tenements after 
the expiration of the lease. F. X. B. 201. 

AD^'A'^CE (Cam.) anticipation of time : as when money is 
paid in advance before goods are delivered. " To be in 
advance with a merchant:" to lend him money. Advance 
for the drav.-er of a bill; when the person who negotiates 
it receives more than the contents. Advance for the 
payer and loss for the drawer ; when he to whom the bill 
belongs does not receive the full value of it. 

Advaxcc upon seamen's wages (Mar.) wages paid before 
they are due. Every volunteer is entitled to an advance 
of two months' wages before he proceeds to sea. 

TO Adv.^nce monei/ (Com.) to be at the expense of an 
undertaking before the time of being reimbursed. 

Advance [Mil.) or advanced, an epithet for any part of an 
army which is in front of the rest ; as, the advance guard, 
the first line or division of the army ranged or marching in 


battle array ; it is also said of a battalion, or of guns, when 
brought in front and before the first line. It is figuratively 
applied to the promotion of the officers and soldiers. 

Advance yb.sse (Fort.) a ditch thrown round the esplanade 
or glacis of a place. 

ADVA'XCER (Hunt.) one of the starts or branches of a 
buck's attire, between the back antler and the palm. 

ADVA'NCEMENTS of money in the bank (Com.) monies 
advanced by the Rank, on Government and other good 

.ADVA'N'TAGE ground (Mil.) the ground that gives supe- 
riority or an opportunity for annoyance and resistance. 

A'DUAR (Fnlit.) a name for the moveable villages erected 
of tents, among the Arabians. 

A Due or A 2 (Mu.s.) for two voices. 

A'DYE'HT (Ecc.) adventus. 1. The coming of our Saviour. 
2. The feast conmiemorative of the Advent, which falls 
about a month before Christmas. — Advent Sundai/s, the 
four Sundays preceding Christmas Day, the first com- 
mencing either with that Sunday which falls on St. 
Andrew's day, namely, the 30th of November, or the 
nearest Sunday to it, before or after. 

ADVENTrnOUS (Law) Advenlitins, from advenio ; what 
comes incidentally ; as, adventitia bona, goods that fall to 
a man otherwise than by inheritance; or, adventitia dos, a 
dowry given by some other friend beside the parent. 

Advextitious glandules (Anat.) kernels which sometimes 
make their appearance in the neck, holes under the 
arms, 5cc. 

Adventitious matter (Phi/.) matter which does not pro- 
perly belong to any body or substance, either natural or 
mixed, but comes to it from some other place, as in the 
freezing of water, when some frigorific particles adven- 
titious to the water are added, either from the air or the 
freezing mixture. 

AD veiitreui impiciendum (Late) Vide Ventre inspicieiido. 

ADVE'NTURE (Com.) i. e. at a venture; goods sent out at 
a venture. 

Adventure, l/ill of, a writing signed by a merchant, to 
testify that the goods shipped on board a certain vessel are 
at the venture of another person, he himself being answer- 
able only for the produce. 

ADVE'X'i'URER (Com.) 1. A person not known or esta- 
blished in public business ; a trickster. 2. A merchant's 
ship that goes to traffic within the limits of a company's 
grant without licence. 

AD^'E'XTURERS (Com.) those who by the name of pro- 
prietors undertake the settlements of distant colonies. 

Adventukep-s, a name also applied to the enterprizing pi- 
rates who joined together against the Spaniards in the 
West Indies, otherwise known by the name of Buccaneers. 

Adventureiis (Her.) or Merchant Adventurers, the name 
of an ancient company of merchants or traders, erected 
for the discovery of lands, territories, trading places, &c. 
hitherto unknown. This society had its rise . 
in Burgundy, under John, Duke of Bra- 
bant, in 1 128 ; and, being translated into 
England, was successively confirmed by 
Edward III., and IV., Richard III., Henry 
IV., v., \l., and VII., who gave it its pre- 
sent name. They bear for arms, Xebule of 
six pieces, argent and azure, on a chief quarterly or and 
gules ; in the first and fourth two red roses, and in the 
second and third a lion of England. 

Adventurers Merchant (Com.) those who adventure their 
goods to sea, in distinction from inland traders. 

ADVE'NTURINE (Com.) a precious stone of a yellowish 
brown colour. 

.\D\E'XTUS (Xitmis.) the arrival of the emperors at Rome 
and other places was commemorated by medals struck in 


commemoration of the event. The Inscriptions emplo3'ed 
on such occasions were as follow: ADVENTUS AU- 
GUSTI, seu AUG. IMP. on the coming of Trajan to 
Rome after the death of Nerva, U.C. 852, A.D. 99. 
ADVENTUS AUG. S.C. on Adrian's first arrival at 
Rome as emperor, U.C. 871, A.D. 118. ADVENTUS 
AFRICA, on his arrival in Africa, U.C. 876, A.D. 123. 
ADVENTUS GALLIC, on his arrival in Gaul.— AD- 
VENTUS ITALI.E, on his arrival in Italy. ADVEN- 
TUS JUDE.'E, on his arrival in Judea. ADVENTUS 
MAURITANLE, on his arrival in Mauritania. AD- 
VENTUS ASIJE, on his arrival in Asia. ADVENTUS 
BITHYNLE, on his arrival in 15ithynia. ADVENTUS 
CILICLE, on his arrival in Cilicia. ADVENTUS HIS- 
PANLE, on his arrival in Spain. ADVENTUS PHRY- 
GI/E, on his arrival in Phrygia. ADVENTUS SICI- 
LL^, on his arrival in Sicily. ADVENTUS AUG. COS. 
III. P.P. on Adrian's return to Rome, U.C. 887, A.D. 
l.yi-. ADVENTUS AUG. S.C, on the arrival of M. 
Aurelius from Germany, U.C. 927, A.D. 174.. ADVEN- 
TUS AUG., on the return of Commodus from the con- 
quest of Germany, U.C. 933, A.D. 180. ADVENTUS 
AUG. IMP., on the return of Severus from Asia, U.C. 
S.C, on the triumphant return of Severus from Gaul, 
U.C. 951-, A.D. 201. ADVENT. AUGG., on the tri- 
umphant return of Severus from Partliia, U.C. 9.3.), A.D. 
202. ADVENT. AUG., on the triumphant return of 
Antoninus Caracalla from the IJast with his father, U.C. 
955, A.D. 202. ADVENTUS AUGG., on Caracalla's 
return with his brother, and with the ashes of his father, 
U.C. 961, A.D. 211. ADVENTUS AUCiG , on the 
return of Phihp with his son to Rome, U.C. D!)8, A.D. 
215. ADVENTUS AUGG., on the arrival of Trajan 
Dccius at Rome after having conquered Marinus, U.C. 
1002, A.D. 249. ADVENTUS AUG., on the return of 
Q. Hostilianus to his father, with his brother Decius. This 
medal is supposed by Vaillant to belong properly to De- 
cius, as history gives no account of the arrival of Hostilia- 
nus at Rome from any place. ADVENTUS AUG. S.C. 
on the return of Trebonianus Gallus to Rome after his 
victory, U.C. 1004, A.D. 251. ADVENTUS AUGG. 
S.C. on the triumphant arrival of Gallicnus from Germany, 
U.C. 1007, A.D. 2.51. ADVENTUS AUG., on his 
return from his victory over Regilliaims, U.C. 1012, A.D. 
'25i>. ADVENTUS AUG., on the triumphant return of 
Gallifnus from Thrace and Macedonia, U.C. 1016, A.D. 
263. ADVENTUS AVG., on the return of M. Aure- 
lius Claudius from his victory over Aureolus, U.C. 1021, 
A.D. 268. ADVENTUS AUG. I.MP., on the coming 
of Tacitus to the army, U.C. 1029, A.D. 276. AD- 
VENTUS PROBI. AUG. XXI , on the arrival of Pro- 
bus after liis conquest of the (jermans, U.C. 1029, A.D. 
276. ADVENTUS AUG. U.S. on the return of Pro- 
bus to Rome after his conquests in Gaul, U.C. 1024, A.D. 
281. ADVENTUS AL'G. R.X.Z., on the first arrival 
of Dioclcsian at Rome, U.C. 1037, A.D. 284. FELIX 
ADVENTUS AlKKi. N.N., on the triumphant return 
of Dioclesian and Maximianus, V.C. 10.55, A.D. .302. 
ADVENTUS AU(i. on the return of Carusius into Bri- 
tain, U.C. 1044, A.D. 291. FI'.l.IX ADVF.NTl^S 
AUG. N. CON. on the arrival of Constantino at Con- 
stantinople after the Gothic war, A.D 3.31. ADVEN- 
TUS AUGUSTI RO.M. IMP., on the arrival of .lovianus 
at Rome, after the conquest of the Persians, .A.D. 361'. 
The manner of representing the adventus was either in the 
form of a religious or military ceremony, as in fig. I , where 
the emperor .\drian, on his arrival in Sitiiy, is represented 
standing near a trii)od ; opposite to him the goddess C'eres 
crowned with ears of corn, and ottering other cars. In 


fig. 2, Trabinianus Gallus and Volusianus are represented 
Fig. 1 . Fig. 2. 

on horseback, preceded by a figure of victory, and emble- 
matical of their successes over the Goths. 

Advektus Jocwidus (Archaol.) a tribute paid to the lord on 
coming to anj' dignity. 

A'DVEKB {Gram.) adverhinm, i. e. rerho ndjcctum, apart 
of speech added to a verb to complete its signification. 

ADVERSA'RIA [Anl.) quia scribcroifiir in adrersu tnntum 
el nnn in aversii pngimi. A memorandum book, to note 
down whatever occurs, particularly in courts of Law ; or a 
day-book for pecuniary purposes. Cic. Rose. i'om. c. 4 ; 
Sa/nias. dc Usnr. p. 147. 

ADVE'RSATIVEprn-^fc'e (Gram.) that which denotes some 
contrariety ; as but, however, &c. 

ADVE'RSITOR (.hit.) r/ui in advcmim it ; a servant among 
the Romans who went to meet his master on the road. 

ADVE'RSUS (But.) an epithet for a leaf, asjftliiim ndvrr- 
siDii, a vertical leaf; so called when its margin is turned 
towards the stem. Linn. Phil. Dot. 

TO ADVERTI'SE (Com.) from adverto, to warn or give 
notice, to send notice to all merchants or traders when a 
bill or any thing else is lost, giving an exact description of 
the same. 

ADVERTISEMENT (Com.) a name for any printed pub- 
lication of circumstances, either of public or private in- 

ADVI'CE (Com.) the communicating to another hv letter 
what passes : as a letter of advice, informing a corre- 
spondent that one has drawn upon him, or concerning the 
sending of goods, with the invoice annexed. — Advice to 
the Hank, notice to the proper clerks of bills payable, with 
an exact description of the contents and parties. 

Advice //oat (Mar.) a small boat employed for carrying 
despatches and orders. 

AD vitaiu anl culpam (Laxr) an office held for the term of a 
))erson's life, or during his good conduct. 

ADULA'RIA (Min.) a subspecies of the Feldspar fa- 

ADli'LT (Law) a term applied by civilians between four- 
teen and twenty-five years of age. 

ADULTERA'TIS;/«&/i (Ant.) bribing the judges. 

ADULTEUA'TION (Lmc) a general term for rendering 
the coin of the realm of less value than it ought to be : 
which comprehends debusing the coin, by the admixture 
of impure metals, or the use of an undue alloy, c\:e. ; and 
connter/eiting the coin, which is forging a stamp upon a 
baser metal. The former is sometimes from state-necessity 
an act of authority ; but the latter is always the fraudulent 
act of individuals for purposes of private gain. 

Aoui.TEKATioN (Meil.) the debasing and corrupting of me- 

ADIJ'LTERINE (Law) a term in the Civil Law for the 
issue of an adulterous intercourse. 

ADULTE'RIUM (/■,■(•(•.) the intruding into, or invading u 
bishopric during the lifetime of the bishop, who was sup- 
posed to be allied to his church by a spiritual marriage. 

Adui.tekil'M (Nat.) a term for ingrafting of trees. 

.ADU'LTF.UV (/,«u) from ad and alter, another person ; a 
eiiiiiinal conversation between two married persons, or a 
married and an unmarried person. 


Adclteuy (Med.) an overloading of the body with aliment 
at the instigation of the appetite. Paracel. 

ADU'MBKATED (Her.) an epithet for any figure in coat 
armour which is borne so shadowed or obscured that no- 
thing is visible but the bare purfile, or, as the painters call 
it, the outline. 

ADU.MBRA'TIO {Bot.) the whole history of a plant, com- 
prehending the name, etymology, class, character, differ- 
ence, viiriety, synonyms, description, figure, place, and 
time. Linn. Pliil. Bot. 

ADUMDUATIOX (Her.) the shadow or outlines only of 
the urnis borne b}' a family in decay. 

A'D^ X)CATE (Laze) J . A pleader m the civil or ecclesias- 
tical law, who maintains or defends the right of his client in 
the same manner as the counsellor does in the common law. 
^Lord Advocate, an officer of state in Scotland appointed by 
the king to advise about the making and executing law, to 
defend his right and interest in all public assemblies, to 
prosecute capital crimes, &c. — College or Jaculty of advo- 
cates, a college consisting of 180 appointed to plead in all 
actions before the lords of session. — Church or ecclesiasti- 
cal advocates, pleaders appointed by the church to main- 
tain its rights. 2. A patron who has the advowson or pre- 
sentation to a church. Glan. 1. 13, c. 19, 1. i, c. 7 ; LL. 
Loiin^obard, 1. 2. 

ADVOCA'TIO (Ant.) 1. A calling or assembling together 
a multitude of friends with cries and clamour to one's as- 
sistance : Virginiusjiliam siiani ohsoleta veste, comitantibus 
aliquot matronis, cum ingente advocatione in Jorum dedueit. 
Liv. 1. 3, c. 4-7; Pol'let. For. Rom. 1. 2, c. 1. 2. The 
office of an advocate or pleader, pleading either for or 
against a ])erson : In fine sententice adjecit, quod ego et 
Tacitus injunctd advocatione diligenter, fortiter functi esse- 
mus. Plin. 1. 2, ep. 10; Poll'ct. For'. Rom.'l. 2, c. 1. 
3. A delay of judgment granted at the request of either 
party wishing for further time to prepare an answer and 
to take advice. Cic. in I'err. 1. 1, c. 49, el ad Fam. 1. 7, 
ep. 2 ; Senec. de Consul, ad Marc. c. 10, et de Ira. 1. 1, c. 16. 

ADVOCA'TION (Law) a writing in the Scotch Law drawn 
up in the form of a petition, called a bill of advocation, 
whereby a party in an action applies to the supreme court 
to advocate its cause, and to call the action out of an in- 
ferior court before itself. — Letters of advocation are the 
decree or warrant of the Supreme Court, or court of Ses- 
sion, discharging the inferior tribunal from all farther pro- 
ceedings in the matter, and advocating the action to itself. 

AD^'OCA'TIONE dccimarum (Law) a writ that lies for 
tithes demanding the fourth part or upwards that belong 
to an}' church. Reg. Orig. 29. 

ADVOCA'TUS (Ant.) amicus quern litigator ad cum vocat ; 
advocate, or one who was called to assist another man in 
his cause by his presence, his counsel, his testimony or 
otherwise: Armatos homines, quos in Senatum induxerat, 
Antonius consul advocates vocat, vellem adesset sine advo- 
catis. When the advocate was emploj-ed to plead the 
cause of the defendant, in a court of law, he was styled 
pafronus. Cic. Plidipp. 1, c. 7, et Ascon. in Cic. p. 20. 

ADVO'W (Law) or Avotv, from advocare, to justify; an 
act formerly done, as, in the case of things stolen, he in 
whose possession they were found was obliged advocare 
i. e. to produce the seller in order to justify the sale. Fleta. 

ADVO'WEE (I'cc.) an advocate of a church or religious 
house, [vide Admcatu.^] 

ADVOWSON (Law) from advow or advocare, a right of 
presentation to a church or benefice. He who possesses 
this right is called the patron ; when there is no jiatron, or 
he neglects to exercise his right within six months, it is 
called a Lapse, i. e. a title given to the ordinary to collate 
to a church ; when a presentation is made by one who has 
no right it is termed a usmyation. — Advowsons are of dif- 

ferent kinds, as — Advoivson appendant, when it depends 
upon a manor, &-c. — Advowson in gross, when it belongs 
to a person and not to a manor. — Advowson presentative, 
when the patron presents to the Bishop. — .Idvowson colla- 
tive, when it is lodged in the Bishop. — Advowson donative, 
when the king or patron puts the clerk into possession 
without presentation. — Advowson of the moieti/ of the 
church, where there are two several patrons, and two in- 
cumbents in the same church. — A Moiety of Advowson, 
where two must join in the presentation of one incumbent. 
— Advowson of religious houses, that which is vested in any 
persons who founded such a house. 
ADU'STION (Med.) an inflammation of the parts about the 

brain and its members. Oribas. Synopsis, 1. 5, c. 13. 
ADU'STUS (Med.) from n(/»r(), to burn ; nAw/, or adusted, 
i. e. scorched, burnt, as applied to the fluids of the body 
when they are rendered acrid by the heat. 
A'DY (Bot.) a name for the Palm-tree, in the island of St. 

Thomas Raii Hist. Plant. 
ADYNA'MIA (Med.) kSumiJA'u., from a, priv. and S'vu.i/jti,, 
potenlia, impotence or weakness. Ilippnc. Coac. Prccnot. 
1. 1, &c. ; Gcd. Comm. et Different. Morb. c. 5, et Befin. 
j\led. Sfc; Goor. Defin. Med.; Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 
It is formed into an order of diseases under the class 
Neuroses. Cullen's Xosologi/. 
ADY'NAMON (Med.) u.^'waf/^m, from ai^w«,u,i'«, impolentia ; 
a fictitious wine allayed wiih water, and boiled away so 
as to make it of a suitable strength for weak patients. 
Dioscor. 1. 5, c. 13; Plin. 1. 11, c. 16. 
A'DVTU.M (Ant.) aiWc, that part of the temple to which 
there is no aditus or admission, except for the priests, 
from u, priv. and i'^u, to enter. Cas. de Bell. Civil. 1. 3, 
c. 105; Pans. 1. 10. 
ADZ [Carp.) or addice, a tool similar to an axe, but having 

its blade athwart the handle. 
.E.\CE'A (Ant.) games in honour of ^Tlacus. Isocrat. in 
F.vagor. ; Ilesi/chius. ; Meurs. Grccc. Fer. apud Gronov. 
Aiitiq. Grcec. torn. vii. p. 710. 
^EA'CTDES (Ant.) aUx-i^h',, a patronymic for Achilles, Pe- 
leus, and other descendants of /Eacus. Horn. II. I. 9, 
v. 184., &c. ; Virg. jEu. 1. 1, v. 99, &c. ; Pans. I. 1, c. 10. 
jEANTI'A (Ant.) 'Aia.>Tux, a festival in honour of Ajax at 
Salamis. Isocrat. in Evagor.; Plut. in Demosth.; Pausan. 
1. 2, c. 29 ; Schol. in Pind. Olymp. od. 7 ; Meur. Grccc. 
Fer. apud Gronov. Antiq. Grttc. torn. vii. 710. 
^^BU'TIA Lex (Ant.) a law, so called from one of the 
/Ebutian family in Rome, by whom it was made, prohibit- 
ing the proposer of a law from bestowing any office on 
himself or his colleagues. Cic. Agrar. orat. 2, c. 8. 
^ECHMO'LOTARCH (Ecc.) a title given by the Jews to 
the principal leader or governor of the Jews during their 
captivity ; a head of their religion like the Episcopus 
Judceorum now in England, [vide Aichmototarc/i] 
^-E'DEPOL (Ant.) an oath by Pollux which, at first, could 
be taken by the women only, but in time became com- 
mon among the men as well as the women, .'lul. Gell. 
1. 11, c. 6. 
."E'DES sacra (Ant.) sacred edifices which were temples in 

every respect, except the want of consecration. 
.Edes (Xujnis.) a temple was dedicated to Faustina, the 
wife of Antoninus Pius, who died in the ^^-'C'^s^^ 
third year of his reign, and was deified by /^^^^£\ 
the senate. The annexed cut represents this /g TO5/f?|f ?1 
temple as it is given on a medal of Faustina, w Jjjfeilll Sj 
with the inscription AEDci- BiVce FAV- V^pltffl/ 
STIN^E. Vaillant. Numis. Imperat. Roman. ; 
Medioh. Occo. Numis. Imperat. Roman. 
.TLDI'CULA (.int.) a. sma.\l eedes or temple, which was in 
every village or parish, answering to the parish church 
of the present day. 

^DI'LES (Ant.) Roman magistrates so called, a cura 
cediuni, i. e. from the care of the temples, which were par- 
ticularly entrusted to their charge. Thej' had moreover 
to see that all public buildings, streets, and highways were 
kept clean, and in good repair; to make provision for 
public games, funerals, and other spectacles ; to take care 
of weights and measures ; and to inspect the markets, &c. 
At first two aediles were chosen from among the plebeians, 
to which others were afterwards added from the patricians. 
Ascon. in Cic. Sigon. ; dc Jnr. Civ. Roman. ; Itoloman de 
Mnjis. Rom.; Mamdius, Bu/engenis, Pi^hius, Ursatus, Sfc. 
apud Grtrc. Thesaur. Antiq. Ruman. 

Tile /Ediles were distinguished into the — jEdiles plebeii, 
who were chosen from the plebeians in the Comitia 
curiain as assistants to the tribunes. Dioni/s. Hal. 1. 6; 
Lii: 1. 2, c. 56. — AUdiles curulcs, so called from the 
curule chair in which they sat, were created, U. C. 388, 
from the patricians, to provide for certain public games. 
Liv. 1. 6, c. 42. — Ai,dilcs cercides were created by 
CfEsar for keeping the records in the temple of Ceres. 
Dio. 1. 43. — /Ediles, alimcntririi, known by that name 
from the abbreviation yEDIL. ALDI., were especially 
charged with the care of the public granaries. Turneb. 
Adv. 1. 11, c. 10. 
/EDILI'TIUM Edidum (Ant.) the sentence of the ."Edile 

allowing redress to the purchaser of a beast. 
./EDI'TUUS (Ant.) or adilumnus, according to Gellius, an 
officer who had the charge of the temples, so called from 
Mdes ineri, i. e. to protect the temples. P^arro de Lai. 
Lin. 1. 6, C.2; Festus dc Verb. Sign.; Aid. Gell. 1. 12, 
c. 10; Ursatus de Not. Roman.; Dempster. Paralip. ad 
Rosin. Antiq., et Gui/ier. de Jur. Man. apud Grcev. The- 
saur. Antiq. Roman, vol. ii. p. 536, &c. 
i^DO'IA (Anat.) vide Pudenda. 
jE'DOR (Or.) a sort of bird of the genus Muscicapa, or 

Fly Catchers. 
iEDbSO'PHlA (Med.) from «Jbr.^, pudenda, and ^^»?'f», to 
send forth ; a flatus passing from the uterus, or urinary- 
bladder, throuf;h the vagi.ia, or urethra. 
/EGAGUO'l'MlLA (Mrd.) from «'.•/=<'/?«;, the rock goat, 
and iri'/oc, the hair ; little halls composed of hairs in tlie 
stomach of the goat, which have been employed niedi- 
;F.'GIAS (Med.) vide .T.gis. ^ 

ALiil'CVAlAS (Dot.) from ai'?, a goat, and ici'ia?, a horn; a 
genus of plants ; Class 5 Pcntandria, Order 1 Monogipiia. 
Generic Character. Cal. periani/i one-leaved. — Con. ;)e- 
tals five. — Ht AM. filaments five. — I'lar. germ oblong. — 
Per. capsule bowed ; seed single. 
Sprries. The principal species are the — A^giccras mnjus, 
Rhizofera corniculata, or Mammosa frulicosum, &c. ; a 
shrub, native of the Moluccas. — Aigiceras minus, Um- 
hruculum maris, a shrub, &c. Rumph. Herb.Amh.; Linn. 
Sj>rc. Plant. 
./EGrDIU-M (Med.) aiyiom, a coUyrium for inflamed eyes. 
j'E'GILOPS (Med.) an abscess in the canthus, or corner of 
the eye near the; a disorder so called from ai'c, a 
goat, and a4', the eye, either because goats were pecu- 
liarly subject to it, or because those sulFering from it had 
a cast in the eye like tlic goats, which Virgil describes to 
be transversa tuentibus /lircis. Paulus .l'>gineta calls this 
abscess Anchilops, before it has broken, and yEgilops after- 
wards ; Fallopius and others give it the name of Fistula 
lachrymulis. [vide Anchilops, &c.] Gal. Dcf. Med. ; 
Cels. I. 7, C. 7 ; Oribas de Loc. Affect. Curat. I. 4, C. 32 ; 
Aet. Tctrab. 2, scrm. 3, c. S5, &c. ; Paid. .F.ginet. I. 3, 
c. 22 ; Aet. de Melh. Med. I. 2, c. 7 : Fallop. <)bs. .Inalom. 
C. 6 ; iViseman. Chirurg. Essay ; Heist. Chirurg, part 2, 
sect. 2, c. 54. 
/EciLOPS (Dot.) uf/iXtf\>, from all, a goat, and «■}', a face; 

received its name, according to Dioscorides, from its 
power to cure the disease in the eye, called the iEgilops. 
T/icoph. 1. 8, c. 4 ; Diosc. 1. 4, c. 12. 
/Egiloi's, in the Linnean si/slcm, a genus of plants ; Class 23 
Polygamia, Order 1 M<inncci(i, in English, Great Wild- 
Oat-Grass or Drank. 

Generic Characters. Cal. valves ovate. — Cor. glume bival- 
vular; nectary two-leavcd; leajlrts ovate. — Utam. fda- 
ments three; anthers oblong. — Pist. Germ turbinate; 
styles two ; stigmas liairj'. — Per. none ; seeds oblong. 
Species. The principal species are the AlgilnyiS ovata, 
caudata, triuncialis, and squarrosa, which are mostly 
annuals, and of the Natural Order of Grasses. 
TEgilops is also the name of the Andropogon contortium, and 

the AvenaJiUua of Linnecus. Rail Hist. Plant. 
iEGIXE'TI.'i (Hot.) a species of the Orohanche of Linnceus. 
/EGIXE'TICUM tvs (Ant.) the money of .Egina, which was 

the' first that was coined. Ail. Var. Hist. 1. 12, c. 20. 
.EGINE'TON (Ant.) 'A.v'»w»"' '"f", a festival, celebrated at 
TEgina by the free denizens only, in honour of Neptune, 
which lasted sixteen days. Pint. Gncc. (incest. 
TEGl'PHILA (D'it.) from «.'2, a goat, and <po.ia, to like, 
because goats arc fond of it ; a genus of plant, Class 4 
I'ctandria, Order 1 Monogynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — Cor. 
petals one: /«6i; cylindrical ; cZ^/?y oblong. — St am. Jila- 
ments capillary ; anthers roundish. — Pist. germ round- 
ish ; style capillary ; htigmas simple. — pEU. berry round- 
ish ; seed either in pairs or solitary. 
Species. The species are mostly shrubs, the principal of 
which are the — A-lgiphila Martiiiiensis, native of .Marti- 
nique. — /Egipliila elala, or Knoxia scandens, native of the 
West Indies. — ^F.giphila villosa, or Manaica rillora, a 
native of Cayenne. Brown. Hist. Jamaic; Linn. Spec. 
.EGI'RINON (Med.) «iVf"'(«»o», a medicine; so called because 

the aivi;fo;, i. c. the poplar, is the chief ingredient in it. 
yEGl'ROS (Dot.) ai'V^fo; xfuz.^i., the black poplar, which is 
used nicdicinallj'. Hippocrat. de Mul.; Foes. Occonom, 
.E'CjIS (My.) AiyU, a shield, particularly .Jupiter's shield, 
so called because it was .'supposed to be 
covered with the skin of the goat aVi, 
named Amalthea. Jupiter afterwards 
gave it to Minerva, who placed upon it a 
Medusa's head, as represented on a medal 
of S3'racuse, according to the annexed 
figure. Goltz. Griec. mag. tab. 4, niinmi. 6. 
/Egis (Med.) an affection of the eye when it has small xiylit^, 
i. e. cicatrices, which cause a dimness of sight. Hippocrat. 
Prccdict. 1. 2 ; Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 
/E'GITHUS (Or.) a.'!, a very little bird, said by Aris- 
totle to be at variance with the ass. Aristot. de Hist. 
Anim. 1. 9, c. 6. 
.EGLEI'T'NUS (Ich.) a name for the Hadock, a species of 

the Gasamundux of Linnicus. Hill. Ichth. 
/li'CiLEUS (Dot.) another name for the Chamoileon. 
TEGOCE'PII AL.\ (Or.) a name for the common Godwit ; 

a s))ecies of the Scolopax of Luina'us. )Vill. Ornilli. 
.ECJO'CEKAS (Hot.) ai'/JxipKc, the Greek name for tlie herb 

called Foenugrcek. Gorr. Dcf. Med. 
7E(JOCE'Ji.ATOS (Dot.) the Hugonia mystax of Linnxus. 

Rail Hist. Plant. 
.-EGO'CEllOS (Astron.) the same as Capricornus. 
/E(jOLE'TllIlON (Dot.) from ail, and cM^foi, peniicious ; 
a plant answering to the Azalea portica of Linnaeus, or the 
Chamccrodcndron of Tourncfort. Plin. I. 21, c. 13; Tour' 
n(f. Inslit. 
.E(iO'NYCHON [Dot) Mymvxo", the Greek name for the 
Lithospernmtn of Linnaeus. Dioscor. 1. 2, c. 158. 


TEGOPHTHA'LMOS (Min.) from «i'|, and <.(?««A/*«, an eye ; 
a precious stone resembling a goat's eye. P/in. 1. 37, c. 1 1 ; 
Salmas. nd So/in. p. 706. 

jI;GOPO'DIUM (Bot.) from «.'|, a goat, and 7t5c, foot, 
Goatweed : 1. a genus of plants, Class 5 Pentandria, Order 
2 Digijnia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. ?«»ie^ universal manifold, par- 
tial similar ; involucre none ; proper perianth scarcely 
observable. — Cor. universal uniform ; particular ob- 
ovate. — Stam. filaments simple ; anfkc?-s roundish. — 
PisT. germ inferior ; sti/les simple ; stigmas headed. — 
Per. none ; fruit ovate-oblong ; seeds two. 
Species. The only species is the JEgopodium podagrnrin, 
Ligusticum podagraria, Seseli cvgopodium, Angelica syl- 
vestris, &c. a native of Britain, and a perennial. Ger. 
Herd.; Park. Theat. Botan.; Rivin. Ord. Plant. ; Mor. 
Hist. Plant. ; Pet. Herb. Britan. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 

^GOPODiuM is also a name for the Cicida maculala and the 
Sini/rnium aureum of Linnaeus. Gron. 

.^GO'PRICON (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 21 Monoe- 
cia, Order 1 Monandria. 
Generic characters. Cal. one-leaved. — Cor. none. — Stam. 

Jilaments one ; anther ovate. 
Species. The only species is the Agopricnn betulinum seu 
Maprounea Guianensis, a shrub, native of Guiana. Linn. 
Spec. Plant. 

iEGOPROSOTHRON [Med.) yEgidion. 

jEGYLOPS [B'.t.) vide JEgilops. 

/EGY'PTIA [Med.) aiyuTtTiu, an epithet for several medi- 
cines mentioned by Galen, Paulus /Egineta, and .Mirepsus. 
Gal. de Med. Com. sec. Gen. 1. 6, c. 8, &c.; Paul. .Eginet. 
1. 7, c. 24. ; Antidot. sect. 1, c. 228, &c.—/Egvptia 
stypteria, a-tyvrnM ^wirvifla,, Egyptian alum, recommended by 
Hippocrates. Epidem. 1. \,&c. — .Egi/ptia ulcera, Syrian 
Ulcers in the fauces. Aret. de Aciit. Mori). 1. 1, c. 9. 

/Egyptia Moschata (Bot.) the same as Abelmoschus. 

/EGYPTI'ACUM Unguentum (Med.) a detersive ointment. 

jEgyptiacum Bahaman (Bot.) vide Balsainum. 

iEGYPTI'LLA [Sat.) a precious stone ; said to have the 
remarkable quality of giving water the colour and taste of 
wine. Plin. 1. 37, c. JO. 

TEGY'PTIUM (Med.) .AiVfTri'ot, a topic in uterine disorders, 
of which there were four sorts, namel}', ai-/t/3-rii)» sAs^ioi, 
and cti'/inzTxm 'ixmotcMM'.-i, Egvptian oil of two sorts ; sti'-/i'-T- 
tUv fbufn MuKoi, white Egyptian ointment; and the fourth, 
l«-i/fo» uiyi>.ir:cv, Egyptian ointment simply. Hippocrat. -.p. 
yj.aix. 1. 2, &c. ; Dioscor. 1. 1, c. 62, &c. ; Gat. Comm. in 
Hippocrat. ; Erotian Lex. Hippocrat. ; Paul. JEginet. 1. 7, 
c 20 ; Gorr. Defin. Med.; Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat — 
/Egi/plium pharmacum, a detergent for the eyes. — -Egi/p- 
tium liniim, ur/uTrrm Mmt, a kind of tow for the polypus in 
the nose, mentioned by Hippocrates. Hippoc. de Morb. 
1. 2; Foe^. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 

yEICHRY'SON (Bot.) the same as Sedum. 

iEl'GLUCES (Nat.) uiiy>.jjK.y,'„ from a.u, always, and v^ukW, 
sweet ; a name for a sweet wine. 

iEI'THALES (Bot.) from iti, always, and «iAA*, to be 
green ; another name for the Sedum. 

iEl'ZOON [Bot.) from u.i\, always, and ^mu, to live; ano- 
ther name for the Sedum. 

AE'L (Gram.) al or eal, like !r«> in Greek, a Saxon particle, 
signifying n//; is used in compound names, as /Elpin, i.e. 
all conqueror; jElbcnd, all industrious, &c. to which the 
Greek names, Pammachius, Pancratus, &c. in some mea- 
sure answer. 

Ael, or JElf, a Saxon particle, signifying help, otherwise 
written idj\ undj] half, hilf, or helj\ and used in compound 
names ; as Alnvin, victorious help ; Aehvold, an auxiliary 
governor ; Aelgiva, a giver of aid, lic; to which Boetius, 
Symmachus, and Epicurus, bear an evident analogy. 


xE'LIA (Ant.) Aelia lex, a name given to certain laws ; so 
called from the jElii, hy whom the}- were made. 1. A law 
made by Quintus iElius Tubero, A.U. 55, for sending two 
colonies into the country of the Bruttii. Liv. 1. 34, c. .53. 
2. A law made by Q. .^lius Pietus, A.U. 5S6, ordaining, 
that, in public affairs, the Augurs, de cwlo senarent, i. e. 
should observe the skies. Cic. pro Sext. c. 15, 53 ; Post. 
Red. in Sen. c. 5, See. &c. 3. Ailia Scxla lex, a law made, 
A.U. 756, by Augustus, in the consulship of ^Elius Sextus, 
respecting the manumission of slaves. Suet. Aug. c. iO; 
Dio. 1. 65, in Aug. 

AELU'ROPO (Med) from ccl'MfH, a cat, and -tS;, a foot, 
i. e. a cat's foot ; a syrup from the plant cat's-foot, or the 
Gnathalium of Linna?us. 

AEM (Com.) Am, or Awme, a liquid measure in Germany, 
differing in size in different parts. 

/EMI'LlA Lex (Ant.) the name given to two laws enacted 
by the ^niilii, namely, one by ./Emilius the dictator, 
U.C. 309, to limit the censorship to a year and a half, and 
a sumptuary law, in 675, bj' M. ^Emilius Lepidus, or, ac- 
cording to Plinv, of M. /Emilius Scaurus, in 63.". Liv. 
1. *, c. 21, &c.'; Plin. I. 8, c. 57 ; Aurel. Vict, de Vir. 
ilhiM. c. 72; Aid. Gel. 1.2, c. 24 ; Macrob. Saturn. 1.2, 
c. 13 ; August, de Leg. in ^Emilia ; Hotman. Antiq. Rom. ; 
Pigh. Annal. Roman ; Panvin Fastor. Rosin. Antiq. apud 
Roman. Grcev. Thes. Antiq. Roman, vol. viii, &c. 

.EXE.\TO'RES (Ant.) trumpeters; so called from .lEneus. 

/ENITTOLO'GIUS versus (Poet.) a sort of verse having two 
dactyles and three trochees ; as 

Priztiu d'ira plucent triicijuventtr. 
Seal. Poet. p. 2, c. 24. 

yEO'LIAN mode (Mus.) "A10A15 «p_u-o»ia, one of the five prin- 
cipal modes of ancient music, the fundamental chord of 
which was immediately above that of the Phrj-gian. It 
derived its name from /Eolia, not from the /Eolian islands, 
and was of a grave chai'acter, according to Lasus, who is 
quoted by Athena;us. Pratinas, on the same authority, 
calls it the medium between the quick and the slow. 

Mvi CtivTOVOV ^iUXlWYl t' UVilfJtjiVY.V 

1x4^1 isirui, «APia: Tav fj^itrav via> 

Allien. Deipnns. 1. 14, c. 5 ; .-Iptil. Platon. Florid. ; Cxi 
Rhodig. 1. 9, c. 3. 

jEO'LIC (Gram.) an epithet for what belongs to the .Eo- 
lians, as — JEolic dialect, 'AioAi'? ^.u^mtk, that mode of writ- 
ing the Greek which was adopted by the writers of the 
/Eolian nation, which most resembled the Doric. Joann. 
Char. Tcchnicon. Eustath. ^ifi iia/s«. — /Enlic digamma, u 
name given to the letter F, which the /Eolians used__to 
prefix to words beginning with vowels, as Foim;, for a.'>o?, 
and also to insert in the middle of words, between vowels, 
as ijF>5, for oil. — JEolic verse, or carmen ceolicum, a kind of 
measure, consisting, first, of an iambic or spondee, then 
of two anapests, divided by a syllable ; and, lastly, a syl- 
lable common. It is otherwise called Archilochian and 
Pindaric, from the poets by whom it was used. Prise, de 
Met. I. 1 ; Terenl. Maur. de Met. ; Mar. Victor. Ars. 
Grammat. I. 3 ; Scalig. Poet. 

^OLO'PILE [.4nt.) from aUXis v6>Mt, i, e. Gates of the 
Wind ; a device for remedying smoky chimnej's. Vilruv. 
]. 1, c. 6. 

iEoLOPiLE (Hi/draul.) a hollow ball of metal, with a very 
small hole or opening, used to show the convertibility of 
water into steam. 

^OLOPiLE (Pnemnat.) the above-mentioned instrument also 
serves to show the cause and production of the wind. 

iE'OLUS (Mcch.) a machine invented by Mr. Tidd for ven- 
tilating rooms. 

jEolus Harp. {Mus.) or jEolian Harp; a musical instru- 
ment, producino; melody by the wind. 

iE'OX {Mcil.) aian. 1. The natural age or life of man from 
his birth to his death. Gnl. Exeges. Hippocrat. Vocnb.; 
Hesj/cfilus. 2. The spinal marrow. Erot. Lex Hippocrat.; 
Hesijchius ; Foes. Oecoiwni. Hippocrat. 

iEOXE'SlS (Med.) ^ii'tia-a; the moistening external parts 
by perfusion or fomentation. Grot. Lex Hippocrat.; Foes. 
Oeconom. Hippocrat. 

^'ONION (Dot.) ciiunn ; a Greek name for a sort of sedum. 
Gorr. Dcf. Med. 

/E'ORA (Ant.) xiufx; a festival in honour of Erigone. Hi/gin. 
Fab. 116; Hesych. in Voc. uiafx • Voss. de Orig. Sf Pro- 
gress. Idol. 1. 1, c. 13; Meurs. Grcrc. Fer. 1. 1. 

iEoRA (Med) a species of exercise by gestation, as swing- 
ing, riding, &c. adapted for weak persons ; so called from 
aiufnu, to lift up. Cels. 1. 7, c. 26 ; Erotian Lex Hippo- 
crat.; Aet. Tetrah. 1. serm. 3, c. 6 ; Gorr. DeJ". Med.; 
Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 

^QUA'BILIS (Pliy.) equable ; an epithet applied to mo- 
tion, celerity, S:c. [vide Equable'] 

Ex /EQVA'Ll, sc. diuantia (Math.) or ex ccquo, at equal dis- 
tance : a term applied to any number of magnitudes more 
than two, and as many others, so that they are proportionals 
when taken two and two of each rank, in such wise that the 
first is to the last of the first rank of magnitudes as the first 
is to the last of the second, &c. — Ex .Equali, ex ccqunlitnte, 
or ex (cqno ratio, Sd'o-is xiiytn,, is when the first magnitude is to 
the second of the first rank as the first to the second of the 
other rank; and as the second is lo the third of the first 
rank, so is the second to tlie third of tlie other; and so on 
in order: whence this is called ordinate proportion : thus, 
suppose there be three magnitudes, a, b, c, and as many 
others, d, e, f, which taken two and two have the same 
ratio, that is, such that as a is to b so is d to e; and as /> is to c 
so is e to /; then a shall be to c as d is to f. — Ex JEguali. 
in pro])or(ione perturbata, sen inordinata, i. e. from equality 
in perturbate or disorderly proportion, is when the first 
magnitude is to the second of the first rank as the last but 
one is to the last of the second rank, and so on ; as, sup- 
pose there be four magnitudes, a, b, c, d, and other four, 
e,f,g, h, which taken two and two, in cross order, have 
the same ratio, that is, a to b as g lo h ; b to c as^" to g ; 
and c to c? as e to /; then a will be to d as e to It. Euclid. 
D,f Elem. 1. 5. 

/EQUA'LIS (Bot.) equal ; an epithet applied to the gills, 
anthodium, and filaments — Lnmellcc leqiiales, when all the 
gills reach from the stalk to the margin. — Anthodium 
(cquale, when the leaves of the anthodium are all of equal 
length. — Filamenta aqualia, when the filaments are of 
equal length. 
/Equalis Polygamia, the name of the first order in the Class 
Si/ngenesia, of Linnaeus, containing those compound fiow- 
ers which have all the florets hermaphrodite and alike. It 
includes the following genera. — 


The Genera of 7E. 
Scnli/mus, Golden Thistle 
Cichorium, Succory 

Hi/poclucris, Cat's-ear 
Geropogun, Old Man's beard 

Tragopodon, (ioat's beard 
Picris, ()x-tonguc 

qualis Poli/gamia. 
Scorzonera, Vipcr's-grass 
Leontodon, Dandelion 
Crepis, Hawk's-beard 
Chundrilla, Gum Succory 
Lnctuca, Lettuce 
Hcracium, Ilawk's-weed 
Sonchus, Sow-thistle 

Lapsana, Nipple-wort 
Hrjoseris, Swine's Succory 

Galea, Halbert-weed 
Didens. Bur Marygold 



Sanlolina, Lavender-cotton 


Tarchonanthus, .'Vfrican 



Eupatorium, Hemp 


C/iri/socoma, Goldilocks 










Et India 



Hedypnois, Hawkbit 





Serratida, Saw-wort 

Carthamus, Bastard Saffron 

Carlinn, Carline Thistle 

Arctium, Burdock 





Ci^nara, Artichoke 



Carduns, Thistle 





Onopordon, Cotton Thistle 


Hay Ilea 

j^QUALis (Math.) vide Equal. 

:liOUALis (.Med.) consistent with itself, or always the .<!ame ; 
as an equal pulse, that keeps the same tenor ; an equal tem- 
perament, or constitution, that is, not subject to alterca- 
tions or excesses. 

yEQUA'LITAS (Math.) vide Equality. 

iE'QUANS (Math.) a particular circle, [vide Equant] 

/EQUA'TI'O (Alg.) vide Equation. 

7I'.QUA'T0R (.4slron.) vide Equator. 

.liQUA'TUS, (Astron.) vide Equated. 

iEQUIANGULA'TUS (Math.) vide Equiangular. 

./EQUI'DICI versus (Poet.); verses, different mem- 
bers of which have an opposite diction, as, alba ligustra 
cadiint ; vaccinia nigra Icguntur. Virg. E. 2, 18. 

^QUILA'TERUS (Math.) vide Equilateral. 

/EQUILFBRIUM (Math.) vide Equilibrium. 

.liQUDIU'LTIPLEX (Math.) \ide Equimultiple. 

^QUINOCTIA'LES (Bot.) equinoctial solar flowers ; i.e. 
flowers so called by Linnaius, which open and usually 
shut at certain determinate hours of the day, observing, 
therefore, equal or European hours, as some species of the 
Alyssum, Anagallis, Convolvulus, Hicracium, 1^-c. 

/EQUINOCTIALIS (Math.) vide Equinoctial. 

^litiuiNOCTiALis (Ent.) an epithet for a species of Scarabccus. 

TEQUINO'CTIUM (Astron.) vUe Equinox. 

iEQlJlPO'LLENS (Math.) vide Equipollent. 

iEQUnH)LLE'NTL'\ nominum (Log.) the equivalence in the 
the sense of two propositions difl'ering in certain syncata- 
goremata, as " Not every man is learned," or " Some man 
is not learned." 

iE'QUIT.'V.S (Numis.) Equity, according to Cicero, is three- 
fold, as regards .super os, the gods above, which is piety ; 
the manes, or gods below, which is sanctity ; and as regards 
men, whicli is Justice. Equity is mostly represented on 
medals under the figure of a female, as in fig. 1, holding a 
pair of scales in her right hand, and a lance or cornucopia 
Fig. 'I. Fiii.'l. 

1 the left; sometimes as in fig. 2, under the triple figure of 

goddess Moneta, holding the scales in the right and a cor- 
nucopia in the left, as on the medals of Galba, Vitellius, 
I'cwasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Xerva, Adrian, Antoninus, 
Pertinai, Severus, Julia Pia, Geta, Macrinus, Elagubulus, 
Julia Soemias, Alexander Sevenfi, Julia JManuca, JMax- 
imilian, Gordiamis Pius, Philippus (Sen. and Jun.), Decen- 
tius, Gallienus, Salonina, Lie I'alerianiis, Claudius Goth- 
icus, Tacitus, Florianus, Probus Carinus, and AUectus, 
bearing the inscriptions^AEQUITAS and AEQUITAS 
AUGi^i//.— AEQUITAS WIGG . Au'j:ustorum.—.\ EQUI- 
TAS AViGusti COS. Consulis, ^-c— AEQUITAS AU- 
Gusti y^ostri. — AEQUITAS AUGUSTI TWlhunitia 
AUGG. Augustonun.— AEQUIT ATI PUBLICAE. Vail- 
hut. Xumiii. Imp. Roman.; Mediobarb. Oxon. Sumis. 

.^QUIVALE'XTIA nominum {Log.) the same as JEquipol- 

iEuuivALENTlA [Phi/.) equivalence is three-fold — .■Equixa- 
lentia moralis, when one thing is of equal value with another 
in the estimation of men; as he by whose contrivance 
aiiotlier is killed is equivalent to the murderer. — .Eguiia- 
lentia phy^ica, when a physical body contains within itself 
those purfections conjointly which are found separate in 
other bodies ; as when a man contains the strengtii of two, 
he is equivalent to two men in matters of strength. — .Equi- 
vakntia sttilica, when a less weight is equal or equivalent to a 
greater, by reason of distance or some other circumstance. 

iEQUr\'OC'A cvqiiivocata (Log.) equivocation, or things 
equivocal in their name, which may be so either casii, i. e. 
an accidental equivocation, as taurus, which signifies either 
an animal or a sign in the heavens ; or consilio, an inten- 
tional equivocation, as acute, which is applicable either to 
instruments or pains ; such terms are otherwise called 

i-EuuivocA aquivocantia (Log ) the same as vox ccquivoca ; 
an equivocal term. 

-EQUrVOCUS (Log.) quod una vox plurimis rebus ex cequo 
servint, iuyonvuio',, equivocal ; an epithet applied to the vox, 
or word, when it admits of a double signification, as Gallus, 
which is the name either for a cock or a Frenchman. 

JEquivocls (Xat.) equivocal ; an epithet applied to a sup- 
posed mode of generation of plants and animals, from the 
combination of solids and fluids. 
Ex .E'QUO (.VrtM.) vide Ex JEqunli. 

jT:R (.V«^) vide Air. 

A'En (Med.) air is defined by Hippocrates to be the circum- 
ambient breath, « hich is the author of ever}- thing that hap- 
pens to the bodies of men, either good or evil. Hippocrat. - sfi 
(puirii>. Erotian. Lex Hippocrat.; Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 

.E'llA (Ant.) the plural oi as, money ; was used in accounts 
for our vulgar word item. — JEra militaria, or ces militare ; 
military pay, or the money assigned to the Tribuni /Erarii, 
out of the treasury, for the pay of the army, according to 
the Ascription AERA. STIPENDIAQUE; and another 
MILt'.! .AER«mXII. i.e. stipendiorum duodenum. Varr. 
de Lit. Ling. 1. i; Liv. 1. 5, c. 10; Gruter. Thes. Inscript. 
Vet. p. 508, &c. — A^ra auxilinria, brazen vessels, bv the 
noise of which, as by a sort of charm, the ancients thought 
to prevent an eclipse of the moon. 
Ovid. Met. 1. 4, V. 333. 

Cum friistra resmiant trra auxiliaria hma. 

Rhodig. Antiq. Led. 1. 19, c. 10 ; Turneb. Adv. 1. 22, c. 24.. 
JEra (Chron.) the name of any date, period, or event, from 
which a calculation of years is made to commence. It is 
now substituted in chronology for the word rpoc/ia, which 
was in use among the Greeks, [vide Epoclia'] The term 
was first employed on the occasion of a tribute imposed by 
the emperor Augustus on the Spaniards, and is, on that 

account, supposed to have been formed from the initials 

A. E. R. A. i. e. annus erat regni Augusti ; others derive 
it from (Fi-a, the plural ofces, signifying coin stamped with 
particular dates ; also the items in an account. Since its 
introduction it has been applied to any important period 
from which a reckoning has commenced, of which the fol- 
lowing are the principal — .Lra of the creation, computed by 
Usher to have happened 4001' B. C. and 710 of the Julian 
period ; chronologers, however, differ in their accounts of 
this aera. — .Era of the Oli/mpiads began from the new 
moon in the summer solstice Jul. Per. 3938, A.M. 3228, 

B. C. 776. — Roman .Era is dated from the foundation of 
the city, in the 7th Olympiad, xii. Kal. Mai, i. e. April 21. 
Jul. Per. 3966, A. M. 3256, B. C. 71S.— .Era of Xabon- 
fl.sier is dated from Jul. Per. 3967, Feb. 26, A.M. 3257, 
B. C. 71-7. — J>n Phillipic, or the year of Alexander's 
death, commenced Jul. Per. 4-390, A. M. 3680, B. C. 324. 
— .Era of the SeleucidcE, or .Era of the Kingdom of the 
Greeks, called by the Jews the .Era of Contracts, because 
they were obliged to use this a?ra in all their civil con- 
tracts, commenced Jul. Per. 4-103, A. M. 3693, B.C. 311. 
— Spanish ^Era was dated from the publication of the 
edicts at Rome, for imposing the tax before mentioned. 
Jul. Per. 4677, A. M. 394-7, B. C. 39.— .Era Aclian 
is dated from the conquest of Egypt by Augustus, 
i.e. in the 1 8 Tth Olympiad, U. C. 724, Jul. Per. 4684, 
A. :M. 3974, B. C. 30.— Christian /Era is dated from 
the birth of our Saviour, respecting the true time of 
which authors have differed variously : some place it 
two, some four, and some five, or more years before 
the vulgar a;ra, which is computed at the year of the 
world 4004 by Usher, and most modern chronologers 
after him, who suppose the birth of Christ to have hap- 
pened in the year of the world 4000, and of the Julian 
period 'illi.— .Era of Diocletian is dated from the first 
year of Diocletian. Jul. Per. 4997, A. M. 4267, A. D. 
284. — .Era of Martyrs, the same as that of Diocletian, 
so called on account of the persecution of the Christians, 
which happened in his reign. — xEra, Turkish or .irabian, 
or the aera of the Hegira, is dated from the flight of 
Mahomed, which is said to have happened A. D. 610. 
Ruf. Fest. Drev.; Julian. Toletan. Episcop. contra Jud. 1. 3; 
Papias. in Voc. .Era ; Luitprand. in Legat. ; Scalig. de 
Emendat. Tempor. 1. 5; Vas. Chron. Hispan. c. 22; Baron. 
Xot. in Martyrol. 22 Octob ; Petav. de Doctrin. Temp. 
1. 10, c. 68, &c. ; Ricciol. Chronol. SjX. 

.■Era (Bot) n-ifa, the Greek name for cockle or darnel. 

/Eli.\'Rn pr^efictus (.-Int.) the officer who had charge of the 
exchequer, the treasurer of the exchequer. This charge 
was given first to the quaestors, afterwards to the praetors. — 
.Erarii Qut^cslores, the quaestors so called because they had 
charge of the treasury or exchequer. — lErarii Prcctores, 
the prxtors so called because they were also treasurers 
of the exchequer. — .Erarii Fusores, coiners of the tes, 
or money, at the mint ; likewise all workmen in brass 
or copper. Tacit. Aniial. 1. 13, c. 28; Hist. 1.4, c. 9 ; 
Sucton.; Aug. c. 36; Dio. 1.33; Alex. Gen. Dier. 1.2, 
c. 2; Laz. Comm. Reip. Rom. 1. 2, c. 14; Pancirol. de 
Corp. Artific. § M. 

-ER.A'RIUM (Ant.) the treasury, a public place so called 
because there the citizens deposited the aera, or copper 

money, before the gold and silver were coined .Erarium 

Saturni, at the bottom of the Capitoline hill, was so called 
because it was the temple of Saturn employed as the 
treasury; whence the ancient inscription given bv Gruterus, 
VIII. \TR. III. AERARI SATURXI, i. e.' " octum- 
vir tertium, iErarii Saturni." .4urel. Vict, de Orig. Gen. 
Rom. c. 3 ; Fabric. Descripl. Urb. Rom. ; Grut. Thcs. 
Inscript. Vet. — £rarium sanctius, contained the tribute 
money, and other moneys destined for particular purposes. 


as also the public accounts ; it was so called because it 
was situated in the interior of the temple, where it was 
more retired and secure. C/c. ad Attic. 1. 7, c. 21 ; Ctcs. 
ih Belli), Civ. 1. 1, c. U ; Plin. 1. 33, c. 3 ; Appian. de Civ. 
Bell. 1. '2; Flvr. Epit. 1. 4, c. 2; Oros. 1. 6, c. 15.— 
JErarinm privatum contained the emperor's privy purse. — 
JRrarium Ilithycc, or Junonis Lucin(C, so called because 
it received the moneys paid on the birth of a child. Dianys. 
1. 4 ; P. C. — Alrarinm wilitare, a military chest, or a par- 
ticular treasury in which the money was kept that was 
destined for the pav of tlie soldiers, according to an in- 
scription, PR.EF. >ilLIT. AEUARI. Tacit. Anmd. 1. 1, 
c. 78 ; Suet, in Aug. c. 49 ; Dio. 1. 5.5 ; Gnit. TItcs. In- 
rcript. Vet. — /F.rarium vicesimarum, the treasury which 
contained the money raised by way of tribute from foreign 
countries, which was so called because they paid the 
twentieth of inheritances, &c. — .Eiririum imperuturum. the 
same as \.\\e Jiscus imperatori.^ ; the exchequer. Blond. 
Triumph. Rom.; Bud. in Fandect.; Cakagni de Verb. 
Signi/'. ; Alex, ab Alex. Gen. Dier. ; Gyrald. Si/nt. Dear. ; 
Lnz. Comm. Reip. Rom.; Mnrlian. Top. Urb. Rom.; Panv. 
Descript. Urb. Rom. ; Fabric. De.script. Urb. Rom. ; Hot- 
man. Ant. Rom. ; Manut. in Cic. ad.4ttic.; Camerar. dc 
Re Numm.; Panci>-ol. Descript. Urb. Rom.; Dcmster. 
Parol, ad Rosin. Antif/. ; Buleng. de Imp. Rom. ; Donat. 
de Urb.; Sperling, de Numm. nnn ens.; Ursin. in Mar- 
linnum ; Kipping. Antiq. Rom. ; Ois. in Cell. ; Franckens 
de Ai^rar. ; Ursat. de Not. Rom. ; Gothofr. Burman de 
Vcctig. Dissert, apud Grtrv. Thes. Antirj. Roman, vol. i. 
ii. iii. &c. 

/ERARIUS (Ant.) 1. A citizen of the lowest class, who 
paid few or no taxes, and had no votes. He was so called 
because /Era tributi loco pendcbat ; wherefore in /Erarios 
rcferre signified to degrade a citizen, which the Censors 
used to do in cases of immorality. Thus senators were 
expelled from the senate, and knights deprived of their 
horses, by which they were reduced to the condition of 
JErarii, or the meanest citizens. Ascon. in Cic. Div. 1. 2, 
c. 66; J.iv. 1. 21', c. 18; Sigon. dc Antiq. Jur. Rom. 1. 1, 
c. 17 ; Manut. in Cic. Dr.; Gronov. dc Pecunin. 2. An 
officer ap))ointed by the emperor Scverus to distribute the 
bounty of the prince from the treasury or exchequer. 
Lamprid. in Sever. ; Pancirol, Notit. Dignit. Imp. Orient. 
c. 79. 3. The last on the list of candidates who oflered 
to contend in the public games. Panvin. de Lud. Circens. 
I. 1, c. U; Eaz. Comm. Reip. Rom. 1. 10, c. 5. 

j'Ekarius, an epithet for what belongs to, or is connected 
with, the treasury or exchequer. — /Erarius Tribunus, a 
paymaster to the arm}', so called a tribuendo cere. Cic. 
Plane, c. 8 ; Varro de Eat. Eing. 1. 5 ; Plin. 1. Si, c. I ; 
Ascon. ad ('ic. in Verr. 3 ; Fest. dc Hignif. Verb.; Grut. 
'J'lies. Inscript. Vet. — Airarius miles, a mercenary solilier, 
or one who received pay. Varro de Eat. Ling. 1. 4 ; 
Plin. 1. ?A; c. 1 ; Grut. Thes. Liscripl. Vet, 

/E\i\'TEY) (C/ietn.) an epithet for water having brass in it. 

,1iRDA'DI (Alc/iem.) spirits supposed by Paracelsus to in- 
habit the air. Parac. de Vit. 

iERE diruti militcs (Ant.) soldier« whose pay, (cs, was, 
dirutus, stopped or taken from them for some misdemeanor. 
Varro. npnd Non. 1. 12, c. 53; Fest. dc Verb. Signif. 

/"EUK'OLUM (Ant.) the thirty-sixth part of a dram. 

AK'RI.'VL acid (Cliem.) tlie same as Carbonic acid. 

AuniAL perspective (Per.) that which represents bodies di- 
minished and weakened in proportion to their distance 
from the eye. 

AE'RIANS (Ecc.) Affiai'oi, aciiani, a sect of heretics in the 
fourth century, called after their leader Acrius, who main- 
tained, among other things, tliat tliero was no difference 
between priests and bisliops. Epiplinn. Hares. 1. 3, c. 75; 
August. Her, 53 ; Inuph-Chron. Ann. 349. 

AE'RIE (Pale.) or Airt/, from the German ey, an egg; a 
receptacle for eggs, a hawk's nest. " Unusquisque liber 
homo liabeat in boscis aerias accipit rutn," Flrta, 

AERIFICA'TIO (Cliem.) the producing air from other bo- 
dies, or rather converting them into air. 

AE'lllS /!os (Med.) z^}.z5 ati^c,, Jloxvers of copper, or copper 
reduced to small grains, when in a state of fusion. Dios- 
cor. 1. 5, c. 88 ; Oriba.^. Synop. 1. 2, c. 6 ; Med. Colled. 
I. 13 ; Ae/. Tetrab. 1. serm. 2, c. 81 ; Paul. A'.ginet. de Re 
ISled. 1. 7, c. 3, npvd Med. Art. Princip. — Aeris squatnce, 
X''>'X,S MarU, flakes of copper, which fly oft' by hammering 
the metal when liuated. Dioscor. 1. 5, c. 89 ; Oribas. Med. 
Collect. 1. 13; Act. Tetrab. 1, serm. 2, c. 59, apud Med. 
Art. Princip. 

AERI'TKS (Dot.) another name for r}«ff£;77/&. 

AE'R()(;RAPHY(AV//.) from u'.f, air, and -,pKpi., to describe; 
a description of the air and its properties. 

AE'ROLITHS (Nat.) or /Erolilcs, from anp, air, and .^itV, a 
stone ; air stones, or meteoric stones, falling from the at- 

AERO'LOGY (Med.) from iip, air, and >i'/M, doctrine; the 
study of the air, as connected with the animal economy. 

AE'UOMANCY (Ant.) uifoj/^xmU, aeromanc}' ; a mode of 
divination from certain spectres and appearances in the air. 
They sometimes wrapped their head in a cloth, and having 
placed a bowl full of water in the open air, proposed their 
question in a whisper; at which time, if the water boiled 
or bubljled, they supposed what they said was approved, 
[vide Jiyilromanoj'] 

AE'RO.AIETRY'' (Nat.) Aerometria, the art of measuring the 
air, so as to ascertain its pressure or weight, its elasticity, 
rarefaction, &c. IVolf. Math. cur. 

A'ERONAUT (Nat.) one who sails or floats in the air in a 

AEROPHO'BIA (Med.) from isp, air, and 9=/3ia., to fear; a 
species of fren.^y with which some are affected are 
afraid of a lucid air, and others of that which is obscure. 
Ccel. Anrelian. de Acvt. Morb. 1. 3, c. 12. 

AEROPIIYLA'CEA (Nat.) a name employed by Kircher 
for caverns or reservoirs of air supposed to exist in the 
bowels of the earth. 

AEUOSCO'l'IA (Pneu.) asfoirxcmx, from ii-p, air, and <rxeTi'«, 
to observe; aeroscopy, or observations on the air. 

AERO'SIS (!^hd.) an imaginary resolution of the blood into 
vaiiour, brought about by ventilation. 

AEROSTA'TICA (Nnt.) from i»f, air, and rxTixli, the doc- 
trine of weights; the science of weights suspended in the 

AEROSTA'TION (Nat.) from ««>, air, and ^cctkI,, the doc- 
trine of weights: i. e. the modern art of navigating the air 
in air balloons or aerostatic machines. 

AE'ROSTATS (Nat.) or Aerostatic machines; another name 
for air balloons. 

jERCSUS lapis (Min.) cadmia. 

TERUGINO'SUS (Med.) Mw, from (rrugo, verdigrease ; 
a;ruginous, or verdigrease colour, as the bile discharged 
from the stomach. Ritff'. Ephes. 1. 1, c. 36. 

.I'yRUciNo.sus (Urn.) an epithet for a species offalco. 

/EUUGO (Mel.) i'f, from tvris rul-igo, verdigrease, or the 
rust of any metal, particularly copper. Oribas. Synop. 
1. 2, c. 61 ; Act. Tetrab. 1, serm. 2, c. 56. — ^Eriigo rasa, 
or rasilis, lor Jt'', rust scra|)ed fi om a cojipcr plate hung 
over the strongest vinegar. Dioscor. 1. 5, c. 92 ; Act. Te- 
trab. serm. 2, c. 55. 

iTillUSCATO'llES (Ant.) beggars, or vagabonds, who went 
about collecting as, money, by various arts. 

XJS (Ant.) X'^^X,'"^) or cojjper, a durable and sonorous 
metal ; so called from a'er, the air, without which it will 
not emit sound, or more probablj' from uUu, to shine. Its 
use was first discovered by the Telchines, who were expert 

artists in Crete. Cassiod.; Vnr.].'^, c.f?I ; Gi/rnld.Si/ul.Dcir. 
i. p. 21- ; Jun, Catnl. Archit. p. 101 ; Rhodig. Ant. Lex. I. 19, 
c. 10 ; Tunieb. Ant. Adv. 1. 6, c. 10 ; Panctrol. Notit. Dignit. 
Imp. Orient, c. 137. — ^s (dicnum, money that is borrowed, 
or tliat which is not oar own, but is owing to otliers. Scnec. 
de Bcnef. 1. 5, c. 14 ; Vilpian. de Verb. Signif. i. 213. — Jls 
caldaritini, copper, of which cauldrons were made ; it is 
both malleable and fusible. /%;. 1. 3 1, c. 8 ; Sa/jna.<!. E.xcrc. 
Piiii. p. 758. — JEs candidum, white brass, a vein of which 
is found under a vein of silver. Savot. de Numm. Ant. 1. 12, 
c. 16 — Ms circum/'uranenm, money taken in the haymarkct. 
Cic. ad Attic. 1. 2, ep. 1. — yi'.y confessum, a debt that is 
owned. Cic. de Oral. 1. 2, c. 63;' A»L Cell. 1. 15, c. 13 ; 
1. 20, c. 1. — ^E< Curinthium was made from three metals, 
gold, silver, and copper ; and, according- to Pliny, it re- 
ceived its name from the taking and burning of Corinth, 
U.C. 608, by Mummius, when the gold and silver and cop- 
per from tlie statues mixed together. Cic. Tusc. Qucest. 
1. 4, c. 32 ; Ptin. 1. 3J-, c. 2. — yF.s corovariam, a ductile 
sort of brass, of which crowns were made for actors. Plin. 
1. 33, c. 9. — /F.s corijbaniium, is so called because the 
priests of C'y be! e used it for the sacred timbrels. — /1-ls curio- 
num, money so called because it was given to the Curio 
for the discharge of his office. — Ala cyprinni, copper ; a 
ductile kind of brass first found in Cyprus, from which it 
took its name. It was made from an ore, called Cadniia, 
and answers to what is now called Pinclibcck. Isitlor. 
1. 16, c. 19. — Als dodonccuni, so called l)ecause the sacred 
cauldrons of Apollo were made of it. Erasm. Adag. p. 276. 
— jEs factum, factitious brass used in vases. — Alsjlavum. 
so called from its colour. It is drawn from a mineral, 
which the Latins call cadntia, and the Gauls calnmin. — 
j^s grave, so called from its weight which was fi.xed by 
law. l.iv. 1. 4, c. 60. — Als lurrcditcirium, so called from 
the law of the twelve tables, which obliges heirs to divide 
a portion among the creditors. August, in Leg. \\i. — A1k lie- 
patizoH, so called because it approaches to the colour of 
the liver, now called Bronze.— ^iL's hordeariuni, public 
monc}' ; so called because it was given in payment for the 
food of the horses. — ^L's Indicum, a kind of brass, so 
bright, pure, and void of rust, that it was not distinguish- 
able by the colour from gold. — AU infectum, unwrought 
brass. — A^s manuarium, money collected from different 
quarters. Aul. Gel/. 1. IS, c. 13. — A^s militare, the money 
set apart for the pay of the soldiei's. Varro. de Lat. Ling. 
1. 4; Tacit. Aiinnl. 1. 1, c. 78 ; Dio. 1.55, p. 565.— yL- 
ol/arinm, called pntin by the Gauls, a kind of brass which 
could not be gilded, on account of the lead wliich was 
mixed with it. Plin. 1. 34, c. 9. — /7,'.s Versicum, vide 
JEs Indicum. — Al^s pi/rnpum, brass which, in its bright- 
ness, resembled fire. Diodor. 1. 1 ; Plin. 1. 34, c. 8. — A'.s 
regularc, brass that is both fusible and malleable. Plin. 
1. Si, c. 8. — Ais resignainm, a soldier's pay, of which he 
was mulcted for any misdemeanour. Fest. de Sigriif. 
Verb. — .-Es rude, unwrought brass, or bullion. — A^.s Satur- 
mum, coin kept in ccrarium Suturni, the treasury of Saturn. 
— .E.s- signatum, brass that is coined. Plin. I. 33, c. 3. — A\s 
uiorinm, money paid as a tax by those who remained un- 
married.- — Per Als et libra))!, a formula among the Romans 
of ratifying their purchases and sales. Fest. de SigniJ". 
Verb.; hidor. Orig.; Rhodig. Ant. Lect. ; Aug. in Leg. 
xii. tab. ; Slnc/i. de Sacrif. ; Eras)n. Adag ; Ptiil. Bochart. 
Hieroz. ; Fabric. Descript. Urb. Rom.; Salnirts. Excrcit. 
Plin.; Gro)ior. de Pccun. Vet.; Savot. de Re Niinim.; 
Grepv. T/ies. Aniiq. Roman, torn. 2, &c. 
JE& ustuin (Met.) x,x?.zk *.'/.vxi>u,ftoi, burnt brass, is made of 
red copper, cut into plates, and put into a crucible, with 
sulphur, and a little common salt, stratum super stratum, 
and set over a fierce charcoal fire. Dioscor. 1. 5, c. 87; 
Oribas. 1. 13 ; Paul. Aiginet de Re Med. 1. 7, c. 3. 

.^'SCHYNES (Ecc.) the name of three sects of heretics 
that sprang from the Montanists, who. among other strange 
notions, affirmed Christ to be both father and son. £^2- 
p/ian. Iheres. 
jESCHYNO'MENE {Dot.) from i«r;>;t,Voy.a,, to be ashamed; 
an epithet for a plant vulgarly called the " Sensitive 
Plant," on account of its property of retreating from the 
iEscnYNOMENE, in the Limitsan Si/.'iton, a genus of plants, 
Class 17 Diadelphia, Order 4 Deca)idria. 
Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — CoR. pa- 
pilionaceous ; banner subcordate ; tvings subovate ; keel 
lunate. — Stam. fila)ncnts ten ; anthers small. — Pist. 
germ oblong ; stijle subulate ; stigmas simple. Per. /e- 
njonelong; ipcrfx solitary. 
Species. The species are shrubs and annuals, the principal 
of which are the — A-lschijnomenc grandijlora. Great- 
flowered iEschynomene, a shrub, native of the East 
Indies. — Al^chipionene coccinea. Scarlet-flowered JEs- 
chynomene, a shrub. — Al.<^chffno)ne)ie aspera, seu Mimosa, 
Rough-stalked jEschynomene, an annual, native of the 
East Indies. — jTjSchij)iO)ne)ie A)nericana, seu Hedijsaru)n, 
Hair}' iEsehynomene, an annual, native of Jamaica. — 
A'lschijiiomene pumiln, Hedi/sarum, seu Malam-Tudda- 
vaitdi, Sfc. Dwarf /Eschynomene, an annual, native of 
India. — Aischyno)vene sensitiva, seu Hedysarimi arborcs- 
cens, a shrub, native of Jamaica, &:c. Rail Hist. Plant.; 
Plum. Pla)it. A)ner. ; Linn. Spec, Plant. 
.^LSCHYNO'iMENOUS (Bol.) from a.Vxwo/*«i, to be bash- 
ful ; sensitive, an epithet for such plants as move upon 
being touched. 
iE'SCULUS {Bot.) from e.^ca, food, because it was first used 
for food; a kind of glandiferous tree, which, according to 
Virgil, was sacred to Jupiter. 
Gcorg. 1. 2, V. 16. 

nemcruwque Jovi quit maiima ftvjidet, 

j^xnlns atquc habitit Graiis oracula queictis. 

It is supposed to answer to the cayUu^ of Theophrastus. 
IJist. Plant. 1. 3, c. 9. 
.'EscoLus, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, Class 7 
Ileptandria, Order 1 Moiiogynia. It is called by Tourne- 
fort Ilippocnstanwn. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — CoR. 
petals five. — Stam. fila)nents subulate ; anthers ascend- 
ing. — PisT. genu roundish ; style subulate ; stig)na acu- 
minate. — Per. capsule leathery ; seeds two. 
Species. The principal species are the — ^Esculus Hijypo- 
castamon. Common Horse-chesnut, a tree, native of 
Asia. — jEsodus flava. Yellow-flowered Horse-chesnut, 
a tree, native of North Carolina. — Alsculus pavia. Scarlet 
Horse-chesnut, a tree, native of Carolina. — Alsculus va- 
riegata, a tree, native of South Carolina. — A^sculus par- 
vi/lora, a tree. Gcr. Herb. ; Park. Theat. Botan.; Rati 
itist. Plant.; Pluk. Alniag. Botan. 
.SS'HNA (E)it.) a. division of the genns Libellula, compre- 
hending those insects which, according to P"abricius, have 
the portions of the lip equal. 
.lESTA'TES (Med.) from crstas, summer; freckles in the skin. 
/ESTIMA'TIO (./;;/.) an estimate of damages. 
iEsTiMATio Capitis (ArchcEol.) an estimate of the head, or 
a valuation of a person's estate and rank, according to 
which, on the commission of any crimes towards those 
persons. King Athelstane ordained certain fines to be paid. 
The fine for any offence towards the king was .30,000 
iE'STIVA (Ant.) ce.'itiva loca vel castra asliva. 1. Summer 
encampment? for the soldiers, in distinction from the hiber- 
nia or wintn quarters. Tac. Annal. 1. 1, c. 31. 2. Shady 
places for the cattle. Serv. in Virg. Georg, 1. 2 ; Lact. in 
Stat. Theb. 1. I. 


-ESTIVA'LIA (Archaol.) a species of greaves or buskins 
worn in summer. 

^STIVA'LIS (Aslron.) from JEitas, summer; j^stival, an 
epithet for the summer solstice. 

.E.stiva'lis (But.) or icstivus, an epithet for flowers that 
blossom in the summer, i. e. summer flowers. 

^STIVA'TIO {Bol.) estivation, the time when flowers ar- 
rive at their perfection, or, as Martin defines it, the dispo- 
sition of the petals within the floral gem or bud, of which 
Linnaeus speaks more at large under the head of the sleep 
of plants, [vide Soinniis'] 

.ESTPHA'RA (Mc,/.) incineratio. 

iESTUA'llIUM (MciL) estuary. 

i^STUA'TIO {Chan.) the fermenting of liquor when mixed. 

iE'STUS mininus (Phy.) seu rcciprocatio viaris, the tide, or 
flux and reflux, which is triple according to the difference 
in the times. — /Est us diurnus, what happens within the space 

of twenty-four hours Justus mcnstrims, what happens 

twice in the month at new and full moon.— /i'rfHS aimuus, 
what happens twice in the year at the equinoxes. 

.^SYMNE'T.Ti (Ant.) cetVuiMv^Txt, a name for rulers whose 
authority equalled that of kings, to which the dignity of 
dictator, among the Romans, is supposed to have owed its 
origin. Aristot. FolH. I. 3, c. 15 ; Hesychiiis ; Alexand. ub 
AJexand. 1. 4-, c. 13. 

.tE'TAS Mundi (My.) the poets divide the age of the world 
into four periods according to the manners of the age. — 
JEtas aiirca, the golden age in the reign of Saturn, when 
men lived in innocence and simplicity. 
Ovid. Md. 1.1, V. 89. 

Aurea prima sata est alas qu<r, liiuUce nulla 
Spmte sua, sine Ifge, Jidem rectumque colebnt. 

/Etas argentea, the silver age at the beginning of Jupiter's 
reign, when they showed propensities to evil. 
Ovid. Mel. I 1, V. I1 1. 

Suh /ill* mwidiis eiat : suliiit argcntea jmtles 
Auro deteriiyr,fulvii pratiosinr are. 

,Etas cerea, the brazen age followed soon after, when 
they commenced war and rapine. 
Ovid. Met.\. 1, v. 12G. 

Siciior ingeniis, et ad Iiorridii jircun/id'or arma. 

/Etasfenen, the iron age, when vice became prevalent. 
OwVA Met. I 1, V. 127. 

Kicsceliralu tamen. De dura est ultima furo 

Pratinus irrnmjnt vente pejtms in a^vum 

Omne nefas. 

A:ins hominis {Aiit.) dimensio vitce, according to Scaligcr, 

i. e. properly human life, or that space of life on which 

the frame of the body begins to undergo a notable change, 

as — .Etns (iniimenli, uvh.triw., while it is increasing after 

the birth. — '^Etns consisti'ntiip, cccfj^iti, the_ middle state, 

while it is neither increasing nor decreasing. — Allan dc- 

crementi, ^Aafinrfws, while it is on the decline. 

/Etas, liuman life was likewise divided into the following 

stages; namely — Alias infans, ijiiod adhiic fari nescit, 

the time from the birth" to the seventh year. — Altas 

pitcriti/c, a puritate, from the seventh to the fourteenth 

year. — /Etas aduk.icailitc, t/iind sit ad ffgnendiim nd- 

diictitf, from the age of puberty to the twcnty-eiglith — .Ettis Jiivcntiitis (/nod jiivare iiiripiat, from 

the prime of life to the age of fifty — /Etas Sencctulis, 

a sensiis diminutione, old age to the end of life, /tristot. 

de Vit. et Mart. ; hid. Ori,!;. 1. 1 1, c. 2. 

Alias, the age, or period of life, was also distinguished 

among the Romans according to their offices, as — 

/Etas /Edilitia, the age to he elected to the icdilcship is 

supposed to have been not before thirty-seven, although 

the time is not precisely fixed by any law. — /Etas con- 

sidaris, the age for the consulship was forty-three.— 

/Etas urhani magistrattts, the age for a civic magistrate 
was twenty-seven. Polyh. 1. 6, c. 17. — AUta.^ Jiidicum, 
the age for being appointed judges was not to be under 
thirty nor above sixty by the law of Augustus. Sitetoji. 
in / c. 32. — .Etas Picclariu, the age for the prictor- 
ship was forty, for it preceded the consulship by two 
years, and followed the a^dileship after an interval of 
two years. Cic. ail Fnm. 1. 10, ep. 2.5. — .Etas nii/itaris, 
the age to be enlisted was seventeen, to be discharged 
forty-five. Po/j/b. 1. ■!■, c. 17 ; Dionys. 1. 4-, p. 221 ; Aul. 
Gelt. 1. 10, c. 2S. — Ailtns (litirslijria, &c. the age for 
serving the office of quaestor, tribune, &e. is supposed 
to have been twenty-seven, or at least not earlier. I'el. 
Pater. 1. 2, c. O*; Tac. Annal. 1. 3, c. 29; .Siictoii. in 
Cal. c. 1 ; Dio. 1. .53; Spartian. in Did. Julian, c. 1. — 
/Etas Senatoria, the age for admission into the senate 
is not defined by ancient writers, but is supposed to have 
succeeded the quKStorship. Grncli. de Comit.; Manut. 
de Leg. Human.; Sigon. de Aul if/. , fur. Civ. Rouian. ; 
Alex. Gen. Dier. ; Leg. in Vill. Annal.; Hot- 
man, de Hit. Nupt,; Lips, de Magistral. Hum.; Demster. 
Paralip. ad /Int. Has. ; Grcsv. Thcs. Ant. Rom. torn. 1 , <S.c. 
jEtas mundi (Cliron.) vide /ige. 

..ETA'TE /irobanda (Lan') a writ of inquiry, whether the 
heir of a tenant that held of the king in chief by chivalry 
be of full age. Reg. Orig. 294. 
.'ETE'RNA (Num.) vide /Etmiitns. 

iETERNA'LES {Ecc.) a sect of heretics that maintained 
the eternity of the world a parte post, i. e. that after the 
resurrection it should continue the same as it now is. 
i3iTE'RNITA.S {My.) Eternity was worshipped as a god 
by the ancients, of which the Pythagoreans, Plato and 
liermes Trismegistus made time to be the image. Gyrald. 
Synt. Dear. 1. 1, p. 59. 
TEteunitas (Xumis.) Eternity was represented in various 
forms on medals, sometimes under the figure of the sun 
and moon for their durability ; sometimes by the elephant 
for its length of years, as on a medal of Faustina, jig. 1 , 
/'/■"•. 1 . Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

where a chariot is drawn by two elephants ; sometimes by 
a phucnix and a globe, the one for its long life, and the 
otlier for its supposed eternity, as on a niedal of Faustina, 
where a female figure is holding a phcenix and a globe, 
fig. 2. There were besides several other representations, 
as of a serpent winding itself round a globe, or with its 
tail brought down to its mouth, or of a figure veiled to 
imply that eternity is inscrutable, or of a head with two 
faces, implying that it can see backwards and forwards. 
On a medal of Faustina, ^/ig. 3, eternity is represented as 
carrying this emj)ress to heaven, and holding a lighted 
flambeau in her hand. The medals of the emperors re- 
presenting eternity refer most commonly to the perpetuity 
of the government in their own family. The emperors, 
whose medals had the figure of eternity, were /Uigustus, 
Vespasian, Titus, Domilian, Severus, Caracalla, Geta, 
Alexander Severus, Gurdianus Philippics, Gallienus, Clau- 
dius Gutthicus, Quinlilian, and Maxiniian. The inscrip- 
tions on the medals were as follow : 



IMP. and IMPERIT. &c.— AETER. AUG. P. M. &c. 

;memorl\, &c.— aeterni. imperii. 

jE'THER {Ml/.) xihf, that subtle part of the air which was 
taken by the heathens for Jupiter, and which, being easily 
inflammable, is the fittest for producing the thunder and 
liglitning ascribed to him ; whence the word was supposed 
to come from aiCa, to burn. 

^THER {Wat.) Ether was supposed by Aristotle to come 
from i-To Ti Ki'ii (m, i. e. always running, because of its 
constantly fluctuating nature. The word is taken to signify, 

1. The finuanient which is above the region of the air. 

2. A subtle fluid supposed to be the cause of gravitation, 
and other phenomena otherwise inexplicable. Aristot. dc 
Mil lid. c. 2. 

^TiiER {C/iem.) a very light volatile inflammable liquor 
distilled from a mixture of Alcohol and acid in equal pro- 
iETHE'REA {Uof.) a herb mentioned by Caclius Aurelianus; 

the Eri/iv^ium of Linna;us. 
/ETHE'REAL in«;/cr {Snt.) the same as iEther. 
^-Ethereal xworld {Nat.) all that space above the upper 
element ; viz. fire, which the ancients imagined to be per- 
fectly homogeneous, incorruptible, and unchangeable. 
iExHEREAL oil {Chcm.) an animal or vegetable oil highly 

j^JTIlE'REUS spirilits (Chem.) an epithet for /Ether. 
j^THIO'PIC.E (Med.) an epithet applied to many medi- 
cines of a black colour. 
jETIIIO'PICUS lapis (Miii.) Ethiopian stone, a stone of 
great medicinal virtue, according to Oribasius. Med. 
Collect. 1. 15, c. 7. 
iETHIO'PIS {Bot.) 'A.«.<uT.'5, the Salvia .Ethiopis of Lin- 
HKUs ; a herb which grows in Illyria and Greece, and 
much resembles the common clary, whereon it is called, 
by Dale, the Ethiopian Clarij. It has the stinking smell of 
Archangel, and the root, which is fibrous, is made into a 
decoction. Dioscor. 1. 4, c. 105 ; Plin. 1. 26, c. 4 ; Paul, 
^rrin. 1. 7, c. 'i ; Myrcp. sect. S, c. 54 ; C. Bank. Fin. 
Plant. ; Raii Hist. Plant. 
/E'THIOPS {Med.) a medicine so called from its black 
colour: there are different kinds, as ^Etliiops' mineral, an 
incorporation of sulphur and mercury. — Antimonial /Et/ii- 
ops, an incorporation of antimony and mercury Vegeta- 
ble .F.thiops, reduced to powder in the open air. — £thiops 
Jovialis, a mixture of tin, mercury, and sulphur. 
iE'TIINA (Nat.) subterraneous fire. 

iETHO'LICES (Med.) ii«<;>.xf?, from aiOw, uro ; pustules 

raised in the skin by heat. Erolian Lex. Hippocrat. ; 

Galen in Exiaes. voc. Hippocrat.; Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 

jETHU'SA [Bot.) Fools' Parsley ; a genus of plants, Class 5 

Pentandria, Order 2 Digynia, 

Generic Characters. Cai.. umbel universal spreading, par- 
tial also spreading; involucre universal none; partial 
linear; proper perianth scarcely observable. — Cor. uni- 
versal nearly uniform, partial unequal. — Stam. Jilamanls 
simple; anthers roundish. — Pisx. germ inferior; sti/les 
reflex; stigmas obtuse. Per. none; Jruil roundish; 
seeils two. 
• Species. — The principal species are JEthusa Ci/napium, 
Coriandrum Ci/napiiim, Cinapium sen Cicutaria, SjX. 
Common Fools' parsley ; an annual, native of Britain. — 
/Ethusa Buniiis, Canon Buiiins, Dauciis Pi/renaicus, S^-c. 
Bunius seu Saxifraga montana, Sfc. Coriander-leaved 
Fools' Parsley ; a biennial, native of the Pyrenees. — 
JElhina Meum, Alhamanta Meum, Ligiisticum Meum, 
Sefeli Meum, seu Meum Spigncl, Meu or Bawd-money ; 
a perennial, native of Europe. — /Ethusa Fatua, Fine- 


leaved Fools' Parsley ; a perennial. /. Bauhin. Hist. 
Plant.; C. Bauhin. Pin. Theat. Bot.; Ger. Herb.; 

Parle. Theat, Botan. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 

.(E'THYA {Orn.) ui6vx, a sea fowl, answering to the Fulica 
or Coot. 

jE'TIANS {Ecc.) A^tiani ; a sect of heretics, from one 
j3itius, of Antioch, who maintained doctrines respecting 
the Trinity, &c. dift'ering somewhat from the Arians. 
St. Athanas. dc Synod.; S. Gregor. Ni/ssen. contra Etinom, ; 
Philostrat. 1. 3, &c. ; Epiphan. Hceres. 76 ; August. 
Hceres. 74; Socrat. Hist. Eccles.\. l,c. 28; Sozomen. 1.3, 
&c. ; Theodoret. 1. 2, &c.; Baron Annul Ann, 356, &c. 
Tillemont Hist. Eccles. tom. 6 ; Du Pin, Sfc. 

.■ETIO'LOGY (Rhct.) anTiiXcyix, from li'ina, cause or reason, 
and Ao7o«, an account; a showing the reasons for a thing, 
called by Quintilian " Causarum relatio ;" by Cicero " Ad 
propositum subjecto ratio." Cic. de Orat. 1. 3, c. 52 ; 
Quintilian, 1.6, c. 3 ; Alex. T^ifurxif' ; Aid. Rhct. vol. I, 
p. 577 ; Rutil, Lup. 1. 2, c. 19. 

.(Etiology {Med.) the theory of physic, and the causes of 

jETI'TES {Min.) aiTiTii?, eagle stone ; a species of ore of a 
kidney form, imbedded in iron shot clay. Pliny says it 
was found in eagles' nests. Dioscor. 1. 5, c. 161 ; Plin. 
1. 36, c. 21 ; Aet. Tetrab. 1. serm. 2, c. 32. 

A'ETOMA {Med.) KiTOfiio., the roof of a house. Gal. Exeges. 

AETO'NYCHON (Bot.) another name for the Lithosper- 

A'FFA {Com.) an ounce weight of gold on the coast of 

TO AFFE'AR {Archccol.) to confirm, ratify. Shakspeare. 

TO AFFE'CT (LatL-) to make over, pawn, or mortgage any 
thing to assure the payment of a sum of money, or dis- 
charge any other duty. 

AFFE'CTED {Algeh.) affectus or adfectus : an epithet, the 
first use of which is attributed to Vieta, by whom it was 
applied to a quantity having coefficients, as 4 a, in which 
a is aftected by the coefficient !■ ; or having the sign -f or 
— , as — 4a. An equation is said to be aftected when the 
unknown quantity rises to two or more powers, as x'i — 
X' + 9.r=:r. Vii'ta in Art. Analt/t. et Isagog. c. 8. 

AFFE'CTION (Phi/.) ^u6oi, affeclio ah ajiciendo ch quod 
snbjcctinn, dam dr dlo prtvdicatur, ajficiat ; any thing pe- 
culiarly attributed to a body and resulting from its essence. 
As respects the subject, affections are divided into — 
Affections of the mind, which are any commotions of the 
mind. — Affections of the budy, which are certain modifica- 
tions of matter introduced by motion in this or that way : 
these are divided into — Affections primary, which either 
arise out of the idea of matter, as magnitude, quantity ; pr 
out of the form, as quality and power ; or out of both, as 
motion, place, and time. — Affections secondary or deriva- 
tive, such as arise out of primary ones, as divisibility, con- 
tinuity, contiguity ; or out of quantity, as equality, in- 
equality, &c.; or out of figure, as a circle, square, &c.; 
out of qualities, as strength, health, &c. 

Affection (Met.) is said of being, in its abstract form, and 
is divided into — Affections united, which are predicated of 
being singly and solely, and are convertible without a con- 
junction, as ' every being is good,' and ' all good is a 
being.' — Affections disunited, are predicated of being with 
a disjunctive term, and, by taking in both parts of the sen- 
tence, are convertible with it, as ' being is either necessary 
or contingent,' and ' whatever is necessary or contingent 
is being.' 

Affection (L«rii) the making over, pawning, or mortgaging 
a thing to assure the payment of a sum of money, or the 
discharge of some other duty or service. 

Affection (Paint.) a lively representation of any passion in 
a figure. 

11 2 


Affection {Mcil.) a general term to denote any disorder 
witli which tiie w liole body or any part of it is aft't-cted, or 
under which it suffers. It is commonly defined by some 
epithet, as the — Ajfeclio colicd, the colic affection, or sim- 
ply the colic. — Aff'cctio nielanc/io/ica, melancholy. — Aff'cc- 
tus implicatus, a complicated affection or disorder, is one 
in which many parts are affected with different disorders. 
Hippocrnt . de Epidcm. 1. 3. and Gal. Comm. 2. 

AFFE'EUEll.S (Laiv) Affcratores ; those who in Courts- 
Leet, upon oath, settle and moderate the fines. Ilaickins 
P.C.I. 2,0.112. 

TO AFFE'RE (Law) signifies either " to affere an amerce- 
ment," i. e. to mitigate the rigour of a fine: or " to affere 
an account," i. e. to confirm it upon oath in the Ex- 

A'FFERl (Archtcol.) cattle fit for husbandry, according to 
our old law writers. FUia. 1. 2, c. 73, § 6, Sec. 

AFFETTUO'SO {Mus.) or Aff'elto, Italian, signifying, in 
an affecting style ; a term employed in music-books at the 
beginning of a movement. 

AFFl'ANCE [Theol.) that acquiescence of the mind, under 
all circumstances, grounded on a perfect confidence in 
the wisdom and goodness of the supreme disposer of all 

Affiance (Laiv) from offidare, or dare Jidem, to give a 
pledge ; a plighting of troth between a man and a woman. 
Lit. sect. 39. 

AFFIC'HE (Com.) a posting-bill or any advertisement 
pasted up in public places to make things known. 

AFFIDA'UE lyl.aiv) i.e. dare Jidem ; to plight one's faith 
or swear fealty. 

AFFIDA'UI [Law] to be mustered or enrolled for a soldier, 
MS. Dom. dc Farendoii, 22. 25. 

AFFIDA'TI (Lit.) the name which the academicians of 
Pavia assume. 

AFFIDA'TIO Dnminorum (I.aiv) an oath taken by the 
Lords in parliament. Hen. VJ. Rot. Pari. 

Al'FIDA'TUS (Law) a tenant by fealty. 

AFFIUA'VIT (l,aui) an oath in writing, sworn before some 
one duly authorized to administer it. 

AFFI'DRA (Chcm.) Ceruss. 

AFFILIA'TIO (ArchcEol.) or adfiliatio, an adoption into a 
son's place. 

A'FFINAGE (Com.) an action by which any thing is re- 
fined, so as to make it purer and better; more particularly 
applied to the refining of metals. 

AI'Fi'NIS (Laxv) horn affinis,ox ad Jinis, i.e. appertaining 
to the boundary; Ttfca-r.Km x«r' i7riycc/jt,ixy, a cousin or kins- 
man by marriage ; uxnris C02,nati .'sunt, njfines mariti. 

AFFi'NlTY, degrees of (Bible) There are several degrees 
of affinity, or relationship by marriage, mentioned in Le- 
viticus xviii., which were regarded as impediments to 

Affinity, (/cnrees o/ (/,nu') The prohibited degrees of af- 
finity specified in (iod's law, were particularized by two 
different statutes of Henry VIII. that is, IS Ilen.'VlII. 
c. 7; 2.5 Hen. VTII. c. 22: at present the prohibited 
degrees are all those which are urider the 4th degree : 
but between collaterals, those in the '1th degree and 
upwards, as first cousins, are permitted to marr}'. Gib.'i. 
CW. 413. 

Affinity (Pfiy.) the tendency which the particles of matter 
have to be attracted to each other at insensible distances, 
in distinction from iitlruclion, properly so called. This 
AJJiiiili/ is of different kinds, as — Chemical ajjinitij, or 
Elective attraction, distinguished from all other kinds of 
attraction, as the affinity of sulphuric acid for potash and 
lime. — Compound njliniti/, the union of different bodies in 
one homogeneous mass. — Compound elective qfjiniti/, or 
double elective aUraction, when there are more than four 


substances ; as, if nitric acid be added to the sulphat of 
ammonia, no decomposition takes place : but if nitrat of 
potash be added, then two new bodies are formed, that is, 
the potash attracts the sul|)luiric acid, and the nitric 
acid the ammonia. — Intcnnediale ajjinity. a union by tlie 
help of a medium; as azote with fixed alkalies, by the 
help of nitric acid. — Quiescen! and dii:ellrnl njjinity : the 
former of these terms, according to Mr. Kirvvan, expresses 
the force exerted to preserve the old combination ; and 
the latter, that which tends to destroy it. — Reciprocal 
([{finilij, when a separation is caused between two sub- 
stances by a third, with which one of them is united, 
but afterwards separated again by the influence of the 
separated principle. 

AFFI'ON (C/iem.) an Arabic name for opium. 

AFFI'OU.ME (Com.) of Finme ; a kind of flax which comes 
from Egypt, by way of Marseilles and Leghorn. 

AFFI'RMANCE (Law) from affirmare : the confirming a 
former law. 8 Hen. VI. 

AFFIRMANT (Law) the same when applied to Quakers, 
as deponent when applied to others. 

Al FIR.MA'TiON (Laiv) a simple asseveration, which, ac- 
cording to a set form of words, is allowed to the Quakers 
in the lieu of an oath. 7 JVill. III. 

AFFI'liMATlVE (Log^ an epithet for a species of pro- 
position wherein any predicate is affirmed of its subject, 
or it is predicated affirmatively of the subject ; as, ' a 
horse is an animal:' here ' animal' is affirmed of a hone. 
This is opposed to the negative. 

Affirmative (Algeb.) an epithet either for a sign or a 
quantity. This term was first used by Vieta. — AJfirmative 
or positive fjuantitt/, any quantity that is absolutely to be 
added, in distinction from the negative quantity to be 
subtracted. — .IJfirmative or positive sign, marked thus ( + ) 
signfies plus, and more, or added to, and is annexed to the 
affirmative quantity, as n + i, signifies that b must be 
added to a. Viet, ad Logist. Spec. Not. prior. 

Affirmative (Ecc.) an e|iithet for those who being charged 
with heresy before the Inquisition, do affirm the same 
when called upon to answer. Emeric. Director. Inquisit. 
pars 2, quast. 34. 

AFFI'X (Oram.) anj' letter or syllabic affixed or placed at 
the end of words, as ment, in the word amendment. 

AFFLA'TUS Divinus (Ant.) an inspiration of some deity. 
Cic. de Nat. Deor. 1. 2, c. 66. 

Afflatus (Med.) from aj" or ad and ^o, to blow; a 
blast or vapour that affects the body with some sudden 

AFFLU'X (Med.) a flowing of humours to any part. 

AFFO'DIUS (Zool.) a sort of serpent, the same as the 

AFFO'RA(JE (Com.) a duty paid in France to the lord of 
the district, for permission to sell wine or other liquors 
within his district. 

AFFORA'RE (.4rchccol) to set a price on any thing. 

AFFORA'TUS (Archerol.) appraised or valued. 

AFFORCIAME'NTUM (Laxv) a strong \\o\A.—Afforcia- 
mentum ciiria:, the calling of a court on any extraordinary 

AFFORCIA'RE (Law) to increase, as in the case of in- 
creasing a jury : Cum in veritale dicenda sunt sibi con- 
trarii ; i.e. when they are not agreed on their verdict. 
Bract. 1. 4, c. 19. 

AFFO'REST (Law) to turn ground into a forest. Chart, de 

to AI'FRA'NCHISE (Law) to set a person free from 

AFl'RA'V (Law) from the Fr. qffrat/er, to frighten, signi- 
fied, originally, the appearing in armour not usually worn, 
to the terror of others ; but now implies a skirmishing or 


fighting between two or more persons, to the terror of the 
king's subjects. Stat. '2 Ed. III. ; li Inst. 158, S;c. 

ArFKE'IGHTMENT (L«u) affrdamenlum ; the freight of 
a ship. Stat. 1 1 Hen. IV. 

AFFKE'NGI (Chem.) red lead. 

A'FFRl (Arcluvul.) 1. vide AffWi. 2. Afri or Afri bul- 
loci<s, horses, or beasts of tlie plough. Mon. Atigl. par. 2, 
f. 291. 

AF'FHODYNE, or Afrodite (Chem) vide Venus. 

AFFHO'NTE {Her.)\ an epithet for a savage's 
head that on a charge is fullfaced, as on the 
annexed cut. 

AFFU'SIO (.Vfrf.) atfusion. 1. Pouring a liquor 
on something. 2. The same as siiff'usio. 

AFFU'T (.^/;7.) French for a gun-carriage. 

A_flrit (Mus.) that which is the seventh of B flat. 

AFLO'AT (Mar.) floating; as a ship is njlont when the 
water is deep enough to buoy her up from the ground. 

A'FOKA (Bill ) without valves; an epithet for the jjcricarps 
of some plants, according to Camellus' system, [vide 

AFO'Kli (Mar.) that part of a ship which lies forward or 
near the stem ; so likewise, adverbially, the manger stands 
n/hfc the foremast; that is, further forward, or nearer the 

A forli.'jri (Log.) a term employed in a chain of reasoning, 
to imply that what follows is a more powerful argument 
than what has been already adduced. 

A'Fll?\GAN (Cliem.) verdigrease. 

A'FHICAN company, {Com.) or the Royal African com- 
pany, was incorporated in the 14th of Ch;ir!es II. and was 
empowered to trade from Barbary to the 
Cape of Good Hope. The arms of this 
company are — " Ur, an elephant with a 
ciislle on his back ; sable, ensigned with a 
flag ; gules, on a canton quarterly aziu'c and 
giik's; (in the first and last a tleur de lis 
of France, and in the second and third a 
lion of England." 

African Bladder Nut (Bot.) the Rui/ena of Linnxus, a 
shrub. — African Jlea-bane, the Tarclwnanthcs o'i Linna;us, 
a shrub. — AJrican Marigold, the Tagetes crccta of Linn.xus, 
an annual. — AJrican Ragtvort, the Othonna of Linna;us, a 

A'FRICUS (.4nt.) a south-west wind, so called because it 
blew from Africa. Horace calls it protovus. Ilor. Epod. 
od. 1(>, v. 22. 

A'FSLAGERS (Com.) those appointed by the Burgomasters 
of Amsterdam to preside over sales, after the manner of 
our auctioneers. 

AFT (Mar.) nbaft or behind, near the stern of the ship, as 
■' To run out the guns afore and aft," i. e. from one end to 
the other. — " Right aft," i. e. in a direct line with the stern 
w hen applied to any distant object. — " To haul aft the fore 
sheet or main sheet," i. e. to pull the sails more towards 
the stern. 

AF'TER (Mar.) the hinder part of the ship, as the after- 
hatchway, the n/Zo-capstan, ajter-saih, etc. — After-guard, 
a name for the seamen who are stationed on the poop and 
quarter-deck of vessels, to attend and work theafteisails,&c. 

AF'TER-MATH (Agric.) or after-grass, the second grass 
which springs up after mowing. 

AFTERBIRTH ( .Verf.) the placenta. [vk\e Placenln-2 

A'GA (Polit.) an officer at the court or in the armies of the 
grand seignor, as Biignk Imrakor Aga, the grand equerry. 
— Spahilar Agassi, general of the cavalrj'. — C^qn Agassi, 
governor of the pages. — Janissar Agassi, general of the 
janissaries, &c. "The particle si is here added because the 
words Spahilar, Capi, &c. are in the genitive. liicaut. 
(Mtom. Emp. 


AGAL.\'CTIA (Med.) ivc.>axTi'a, from «, priv. and y«;is£,niilk, 
Agalax}', or want of milk ; whence the epithet, in Hippo- 
crates, oi «.-/x>.aK.-rc<„ applied to a woman wanting milk at the 
time of lying-in; and <iy(i>ia«To;, applied by Galen and others 
to the pastures which are unfavourable to the generation of 
milk in the animals who feed upon them. Hippncrat. de 
Mill. Sf Gal. Com; Gurr. Def. Med.; Foes. Oeconom. 

AGA'LLIS (Bot.) vide Anagallis. 

AGA'LLOCHA (Bot.) a species of the cxccccaria of Lin- 

AGA'LLOCHUM (Bot.) 'Ay«>.>~ox", the Indian Aloe, or 
the Exccecaria Agallocha of Linna;us, is so called from 
U'/xXXofibXi, to exult, because it seems to exult in sending 
forth its odours. It is a sort of swectscented wood, which 
is exjjorted from India, and is used in suft'umigations 
instead of frankincense. Dioscorides speaks of its medi- 
cinal virtues. Dios. 1. 1, c. 21 ; Oribas. Mcdec. Collect. 

1. 1 1 ; Paul. ^Hginet. de He Med. 1. 7, c. 3 ; C. Bauhin. 

AGA'LLUGI (Bot.) or Agallugun, vide Agallcchum. 
AGA'LMA (Z«n') the impression or image of any thing 
on a seal. Chart. Edg. Reg. pro IVestmonast. Eccles. 
anno 698. 
AGALMA'TOLITE (Min.) bildstein, or figure-stone; a 

species of the soapstone family. 
AGAPA'NTHUS (But.) a genus of plants, Class 6 //wa«- 
dria, Order 1 Monogt/nia. 

Generic Character. Cal. spathe common, gaping at the 
side. — Cor. one-petalled ; tube cornered; border s\x- 
\iMti^A.— S-v.\M. Jilnmcnts six; anthers kidney-shaped. — 
PisT. germ superior ; style filiform ; stigma simple. — 
Per. capsule oblong ; valves navicular ; dissepiment con- 
trary ; seeds numerous. 
The Species are — Agapanthus umbcllatus, African Blue 
Lily, a perennial, native of the Cap(; of Good Hope. — 
Aoapanlhus ensij'ulius, a perennial, native of the Cape 
of Good Hope. ' Pluh. Phytogr. ; Comm. Hort. Medi. ; 
Breyn. Icon. Har. et E.rut. Plant. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
AGAPE'T.'E (Ecc.) kya-ATM. 1. A society of unmarried 
women who professed to lead a holy and recluse life ; but, 
on account of their immoralities, their house was broken 
up by order of a general council, under Pope Innocent II. 

2. The priests who acted as father confes.sors to these 
women, and who were also called Agapetae. Epiphan. 
Hares, c. 63 ; Hieron. ad Ocean, de I' it. Cleric. ; Pallad. 
in Vit. S. Chrysostom ; Concil. Laodic. Ann. 36+ ; Concil. 
Constantin. 5, 6 ; Gregor. ii. epist. .54 ; Baron. Annal. Ann. 
57; Prat col. Elench. Ilcerel.; Sander. Hemes, c. 63 and 79. 

AGA'RIC (Bot.) uyctfty.^, another name for the Mushroom, 
the Agaricus of Linnaeus, which grows on oaks, or the 
roots, and is either male or female. The former is used in 
dyeing, and the latter in medicine, [vide Agaricum and 

AGARICO'IDES (Bot.) a sort of Fungus like the Agaric. 

AGA'RICU.AI (Bo/.) kycfiKn, Agaric ; a plant, so called 
from the town of Agaria, in Sarniatia. It is reckoned of 
a warm and astringent quality, good for the gripes, crudi- 
ties, fractures, and the like. Dioscnr. 1. 3, c. 1 ; Plin. 
1. 25, c. 9; Gal. de Simpl. Med. Fnc. 1. 6, c. 5; Oribas. 
Med. Culled. 1. 15, c. 1 ; Act. Tetrab. 4, serm. 1, c. 81 ; 
Paul .Eginet. I. 5, c. 64-; Ad. de Mdh. Med. 1. 5, c. 12; 
J. Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; C. Bauh. Pin. ; Rail Hist. Plant. 

AGA'RICUS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 24 Crypto- 

gamia. Order Fungi. Linn. Spec. Plant. 

Generic Character. PiLEus. gills underneath, composed 
of lamina, differing in substance from the rest of the 
plant ; seeds numerous between the two lamina. 

Species. The genus Agaricus may be divided into, 1. Those 


whose stem is surrounded with a ring and curtain, [vide 
Fiaigi] 2. Those having a stem with a curtain, but no 
ring. 3. Those w-hose stem is annulate without a wrap- 
per. 4. Those without stem or wrapper. 5. Those 
with a funnel form, or oblique cap. 6. Those with a 
cap halved, and stem lateral. 7. Those with a coria- 
ceous cap and gills. 8. Those with a cap striate and 
plaited. 9. Those with the cap opake and conic. 
AGAS'YLLIS (Bot.) aycui-vxx-.c,, a shrub, which, according 
to Dioscorides, produces the Gum Ammoniac. Dio.scur. 
1. 3, c. 98. 
A'GATE (Min.) ixaryii, a precious stone, first found in 
Sicily, which is variegated with veins and clouds that form 
different figures, from which it derived different names, 
[vide Achates'] It is composed of chrystal debased by 
earth, and formed, not by repeated incrustations round a 
nucleus, but by a simple concretion. 
Agate (Mech.) a stone of the agate kind engraven by art, 
which, among antiquarians, constitutes a species of antique 
AGATHOPHY'LLUM {Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 11 
Dodccaiidria, Order 1 Mnnngijnin. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth very small. — Con. jie- 
tnls six. — Sta^i. filaments twelve; anthers roundish. — 
PisT. germ superior; sti/le very short ; stigma pubescent. 
— Per. drupe somewhat globose; seed a nut, somewhat 
globose ; the kernel convex. 
Species. The only species is the AgathophijUum aromati- 
cum. Linn. Spec. Plant. 
AGA'VE (Bot.) from a.-/utj\, admirable ; a genus of plants. 
Class 6 Hexandria, Order 1 Monogi/iiia. 
Generic Character. Cal. none. — Cor. one-petalled ; bor- 
der six-parted; parts lanceolate. — 'f^tA.u. Jilaments fili- 
form ; anthers linear. — PisT. germ oblong ; style filiform ; 
rfigma headed. — Per. capsule oblong; seeds numerous. 
Species. Plants of this tribe are mostly shrub.s, the prin- 
cipal of which are the — Agai'e Americana, aloe, Sfc. 
American Agave. — Agave Virginica, seu subcaulesccns, 
Virginian Agave, native of Cuba, &c. ./. Bauh. Hist. 
Plant. ; Ger. Herb. ; Park. Theat. Bot. ; Rail Hist. 
Plant.; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
AGE (Mj/.) vide JUas. 
Age {Ant.) vide yZ,V«i. 

Age (Chron.) any period or limit of time which, for the con- 
venience of chronology and history, is distinguished by 
events that have happened in the world. The geneiality 
of chronologers agree in making seven ages, or periods, 
that is, six ages before Christ, and one after; but they 
differ as to the division of these periods. The following is 
the division according to Usher. 

Ages of the World. 
I. From the creation of the world until the deluge, IG.'G, 
which contains 1056 years. — 2. Prom the deluge till the 
time of the departure of Abraham to the land of Canaan, 
20H;5, which contains 427 years. Gen. xi. 31, 3'2. — 
3. From the time of Abraham to the departure of the 
children of Israel from Egypt, 2153, which contains 4-."() 
years. Exod.\\\.'19, 30, 31. ,37. H. .51.; iVmw. xxxiii. 3. 
— 1-. I'Vom the dejiarturc of the children of Israel from 
Egypt to the fourth year and second month of the reign 
of Solomon, 2992, containing 4-79 years. 1 Kings vi. I. 
37; 2 Chron. iii. 2. — .5. From the reign of Solomon to the 
captivity, 311G, which contains 4-21' years. — G. From 
tiie captivity to the birth of Christ, 4000, which con- 
tains ,581- years. — 7. From the birth of Christ to the pre- 
sent period. 
Age {Law) that special time when men or women arc ena- 
bled to do what, for want of years, they are prohibited 
doing : thus, twelve is the age for taking the oath of alle- 


glance in a leet ; fourteen, or for a woman twelve, the age 
of discretion, for consenting to a marriage, or choosing a 
guardian ; twenty-one the full age. A person under the 
age of twenty-one may make a purchase ; but, at his full 
age, he may agree or disagree to it. Fourteen is the age 
by law to be a witness, although a child of nine years of 
age has, in some cases, been admitted to give evidence. 
No one can be chosen member of parliament under the 
age of twenty-one ; ordained as a priest before the age of 
twenty-four ; nor be a bishop before thirty. 1 Inst. 78. — 
Age prier, in Latin cetalis precatio, when an action being 
brought against a person under age for lands which he hath 
by descent, he, by petition or motion, shows the matter 
to the court, and prays that the motion may be staid till he 
is of full age. 

Age of the BInon (Astron.) the number of days elapsed since 
the last new moon. 

Age of a Horse {lei.) is known by his teeth, hoof, coat, 
tail, and ears. 

Age of a Hart (Hunt.) is judged by the furniture of his 

Age nf Trees (Bot.) is commonly judged by the number of 
circles which appear on the trunk or stock of a tree cut 

A'GIjLA {Ant.) assemblies of boys in Crete so called. Ccel. 
Rhodig. 1. 18, c. 26. 

AGE'LiEUS {Med.) ayo.xToi;, an epithet for the coarsest 
sort of bread. 

AGE'MA {.hit.) ay-jiAa, a choice band of soldiers, mostly 
cavalry, among the Macedonians, answering to the Roman 
legion, of which Livy makes mention, in speaking of the 
army of Antiochus, " Addita his ala mille ferme equitum, 
agema cam vocabant,'' 1. 37, c. 40; and in another place, 
" Delecta deinde et viribus, et robore a^tatis ex omni csc- 
tratorum numcro duo erant agemata ; banc ipsi legionera 
vocabant," 1. 42, c. 51. It is also spoken of by other 
authors. Diodor. 1. 19, c. 28 ; Arrian. Alexand. Exped. 

1. 3, &c ; Quint. Curl. 1. 4, c. 13 ; Siiidas. ; Cal. Rhodig. 
Ant. Led.]. 21, c. 31, &c. 

AGEMO'GLANS {Pol.) vide Agiamoglans. 

AGE'NDA {Ecc.) the office or service of the church. — 
Agenda matutina et vespertina, morning and evening 
prayers. — .Igenda Diei, the office of the day. — .Igenda 
Murtuoriim, the service for the dead, i. e. offices or 
masses for the dead. 

Agenda is also the name of the book which contains the 
ritual or church service of the Romish church. 

Agenda {Com.) 1. A pocket or memorandum book, in 
which a merchant sets down what is to be done in the day. 

2. A i)oeket almanack which a merchant carries with him 
for ascertaining dates. 

AGENE'SIA (Med.) vide Anaphrodisia. 

AGENFKI'DA {Laxv) the true Lord or owner of any thing. 
Leg. Luc. apud Brompton. 

A'GENHINE {Archa-ol.) familiaris sen famulus domcsticus : 
he who lay a third night at an inn, and was called a third 
night awnhide, for wliom his host was answerable if he 
committed any offence. " Item secundum antiquani con- 
suetudinem dici poterit de familia cujus (jui hospitatus 
fuerit cum alio per tres noctes : quia prima nocte dici 
poterit uneatii, i. e. incognitos; secunda vcro (iusx, i.e. 
hospes ; tertia noctc hogen hyne, i. e. familiaris." Leg. 
Ed. Ciiiifcss. apud Brampton. 

AGENO'iUDlCS {Ant.) a patronymic for the descendants 
of Aginor, particularly Cadmus. Ovid. Met. 1. 3, v. 8. 

.\'GENT {Phi/.) Ageiis, TOTToiii; any thing having the power 
to act on another object, as cold. — Ageyil nnivucal is 
that which produces an effect of the same kind and de- 
nomination as itself — Agent equivocal is that which pro- 
duces an effect of a difii;rent kind from itself. 


Agekt, natural or physical (Met.) that which is determined 
by the author of nature to produce a univocal, or one 
sort of ettect, with an incapacity to produce the contrary 
thereto, as the fire, which only heats, but does not cool. 
— Ais,ent, free or voluntari/, that which may equally do 
one ""thing, or the contrary to that, not acting from any 
predeter.iiination, but from choice, such as man, or the 
rational part of him, the soul. 

Agent (Com.) one who is commissioned to take care of 
tlie business of another, as agent to the several regiments 
of the army, agents for taxes, &c. — Agents of the Bank and 
Exchange, officers in France for transacting the business 
of Exchange between the Bankers and Merchants. 

Agent (Pol.) a person in the service of Government, who, 
in a foreign country, superintends the concerns of the 
nation that are entrusted to him. 

Agent, arwij (Mil.) a person in the civil department of the 
army between the paymaster general and the paymaster 
of the regiment, through whom every regimental concern 
of a pecuniary nature is transacted. He is obliged to 
give securities to government. — Half-pat/ agent, a person 
named or appointed by an officer on half-pay to receive 
his allowance. — Agent, among the French, is the ])erson 
who is entrusted with the interior economy of a regiment, 
troop, or company. 

Agent, A'ntv/ (Mar.) a person on shore employed by officers 
and seamen to manage their concerns in regard to their 
pay, prize-money, &c. — Agent victualler, a\i officer sta- 
tioned at a royal port to regulate the victualling of the 
king's ships. 

Agent and Patient (Laxv) when one person is both the doer 
of the thing, and the party to whom it is done, as when a 
woman endows herself with the best part of her husband's 

AGE'NTES in rebus (Pulit.) officers at the court of Con- 
stantinople, who had the direction of all the public car- 
riages, of the couriers, of the journeys of the emperor and 
jiis household, <S:c. Aurel. Vict, de Ccesar. c. 39 ; Hieron. 
in Abdiam. ; Pancirol. Xotit. Dig. Imp. Orient, c. 65. 

A'GEU (Aiit.) a field, land, lands, or country, so called, ac- 
cording to Varro, from ago, to act, because work is done 
in fields. The Augurs distinguished the country round 
Rome into the — Ager Rnmanns, so called from the city 
of Home. — Ager Gabinius, from the town Gabinium. — 
Ager pcregrinus, from pergo, or progredior, because they 
went out of the Ager Romanus into it. — Ager hnsticns, 
from hostis, an enemy. — Ager incertus, because it was 
doubtful to which of the four above-mentioned it be- 
longed. To these may be added other distinctions, as the 
— Ager arcifinus or arcijinalis, from arceo, to keep off, 
because it was fitted to keep off an enemy. — Ager oc- 
cupatorius, from occupo, to seize, because it was taken 
possession of by force of arms. — Ager as.':ignatus, land 
portioned out. — Ager compascnus , common for the cattle, 
also called ager scripturarius, because it was entered in the 
books of the Roman publicans or tax-gatherers. — Ager 
decumanus, glebe or tithe land, so called because a tenth 
of the produce was paid to the Censors.— v/^er sclutus, 
fields not hedged or walled in. — slger rectigalis, lands 
taken from an enemy that paid a certain annual tribute ; 
they were also called Ager publicus when occupied by 
Roman colonists. Cato de Re Rust. c. 112; Varro de 
Lingua Lat. 1. -1-, c. ■!• ; Cic. Top. c. 3 ; de Offic. I. 1, c. 7, 
&c.'; Hi/gin. de Limit. Constit. p. 203, &c."; Tacit. Ger- 
man, c. 29; Frontin. de Agror. Qualitat.; Fest. de Verb. 
Signif. ; Isid. Orig. 1. 15, c. 13; Turneb. Adver. J. 1, 
c. ti ; Manut. Robertellus, Sfc. apud Grcev. Thes. Antiq. 
vol. iii. &c. 

AGE'RASY (Med.) a.yr,(!tir!x, from «, priv. and vEfa?, old 
age ; a vigorous old age. 


AGERATO'IDES (Bot.) from ageratum, a species of the 
Eupatorium of Linnaeus. 

AGERA'TUAI (Bot.) dy>ifix.Tm, i. e. /^ii -/>!f», non senescens, 
not growing old. Sweet Maudlin ; a plant so called, ac- 
cording to Pliny, because its Hower does not decay soon. 
Diosc. 1. 4, c. 59; Vlin. 1. 27, c. 4. 

Ageratum, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants ; 
Class 19 Syngenesia, Order 1 Polygamia ^Equalis. 
Generic Character. Cal. common oblong. — Cor. com- 
pound uniform ; corollets hermaphrodite ; proper niono- 
petalous. — St AM. Jilatnents capillary; anther cylindric. 
— Pist. germ oblong ; style filiform ; stigmas two. — Per. 
none ; criiyx unchanged ; seeds solitary; receptacle naked. 
Species. The species are — Ageratum conyzoides, Eupa- 
torium humile AJ'ricanum, seu Americanum, Sfc. seu 
Conyza, SfC. Hairy Ageratum ; an annual, native of 
America. — Ageratum ciliare, seu Centaurium ciliare, S)-c. 
native of the East Indies — Ageratum latijolium, an 
annual, native of Peru. J. Bauliin. Hist. Plant./ C. 
Bauhin.Pin. Theat. Bot.; Ger. Herb. ; Park. Theat. ; 
Raii Hist. Plant.; Tourn.Inst. Herb.; Boerh.Ind. Plant. 

AGEKATU^^ is also a name for the Achillea ageratum; the 
Athanasia annua; the Conyza linifolia; the Eupatorium 
ageratuides ; and the Senecio abrotonifoliis of Linnaeus. 
Ger. Herb. ; Raii Hist. Plant. ; Gamer, de Plant. Epit. ; 
Tournef. Instil, 

AGE'R.ITUS lapis (Min.) 'A'/ufaros AiiJo?, a stone used by 
cobblers to polish women's shoes. It is esteemed discussive 
and astringent. Gal. de Med. facil. Parab. c. 18; Oribas. 
Med. Collect. 1. 15, c. 1 ; Paid. '.Eginet. de Re Med. 1. 7, c. 3. 

AGETORI'ON (Ant.) ce'/iTopimt, a Grecian festival men- 
tioned by Hesychius. 

A'GE vitce (Med.) an antidote used for procuring longevity. 
Myrejp. de Antidot. c. 500. 

AGE'lJSTIA (Med.) from a., priv. and ysco/AKi, to taste; a 
term used for fasting. 

A'GGER (Ant.) 1. The middle and more elevated part of a 
military way, formed by the coaggeratio, or heaping of the 
stones and strata. 2. The mound of earth raised for a rampart 
to a town. Varro de Ling. Lat. 1. 4, c. 32, et Seal, in Varr. 

AGGE'STUM Terne (Ant.) x,^u^u, a grave made of earth, 
which served formerly instead of a tomb. Soliu. apud 
Salmas. p. 1219. 

AGGISU'ED-BUND (Com.) vide Aggoued-bund. 

AGGLUTINA'NTIA (Med.) agglutinants or agglutinating, 
medicines that tend to the healing or reunion of parts that 
are separated. Paul. A'.ginet. de Re Med. 1. 3, c. 22, &c. 

AGGLUTINA'TIO Pilorum (Med.) reducing the hairs of 
the eyelids that irrow inwards to their natural order. Act. 
Tctrab 2, serm.'3, c. 681. 

AGGLUTINATION (Med.) from ad and glutino; there- 
union of any separated parts of the body, [vide Prosthesis'] 

Agglutination (Astron.) the meeting of two or more stars 
in the same part of the zodiac, or, as it is more commonly 
understood, the seeming coalition of several stars so as to 
form a nebulous star. 

AGGO'UED-BUND (Com.) the best of the six sorts of 
silks that are gathered in the great Mogul's dominions. 

AGGREGA'T.^L (Bot.) from aggrego, aggregates or collec- 
tives ; an epithet for the forty-eighth order in Linnaeus' 
natural ai'rangement, including the aggregate flowers pro- 
perly so called. 

Aggregatje glan/lula; (Med.) small glands supposed to be 
lodged in the cellular coat of the intestines. 

A'GtiREGATE (Phy.) aggregatum, from aggrego, to as- 
semble together ; the whole sum or mass resulting from 
the collection of several small things into one body. 

Aggregate (Bot.) aggregatus, from aggrego, to collect or 
assemble ; an epithet applied to the flower which has some 
part of the fructification common to several florets : the 


part wliicli serves as a bond to tlie rest is either the recep- 
tacle 01- the calyx ; and the partial or component flower is 
called the Jlnsnile or floret of Aggregate flowers. There 
arc seven kinds; namely, I. Tlie Umbellate; 2. The 
Cymose ; !}. The Compound; i. The Aggregate, properly 
so called, having a dilated receptacle, and the florets on 
peduncles, as Scabima, Knautia, Cephalaitthus, Globularin, 
&.C. ; 5. The Amentaceous ; 6. The Glumose, as the 
grasses ; 7. The Spadiceous, as the palms, also Ccilla, Dra- 
contium, Pal/ius, Arum, Zoxlera, Sfc. 

Aggreoatk is also an epithet for the bud, o^emma ; bristle, 
setn ; root, radix: a bud is aggregate when many stand 
close together, as m Zdiilhoxijliim frnxiiieum ; a bristle is 
aggregate when many are joined together ; a root is aggre- 
gate when several bulbs are connected together at the 

AGGREGA'TION [Pliy.) a species of union by which 
several things that have no natural dependance or connec- 
tion one with another are collected together so as to form 
one mass. 

AGGRE'SSES (Her.) vide Pellet. 

AGGKE'^TEIN {Falcon.) a disease in hawks proceeding 
from a sharp humour. 

AGHE'USTIA (Med.) from a, priv. tir.A yvioj/.o-i, to taste; 
defect or loss of taste, a genus of diseases, Class Locales, 
Order Di/te.'^t/iite, in Cullen's Nosolog}'. 

AGIAMO'GLANS (Polit.) untaught "Christian cliihlren, 
who, being taken while young, are instructed by the 
Turkish officers in the ^Jallometan religion, and made 
janizaries, liicaut. Turk. Emp. 1. 1, e. 10. 

AGI'LD (Laxv) exempt from the customary fine or penalty. 

A'GILER (Archccol.) an observer or informer. 

AGILLA'RIUS (Arclucol.) an heyvvaid, herdsward, or 
keeper of cattle in a common field, who is sworn at the 
Lords' court by solemn oath. 

A'GIG (Com.) a Venetian word for assistance, signifies 
also, the Exchange or difference between the Bank- 
money and Current-money or Cash, as when a merchant 
stipulates to receive for his goods 100 livres bank-money, 
or IOj cash or current-money ; the Agio is said to be 
.'> per cent. Agios vary in every place, and at different 
times in the same place: at Venice it is of two kinds; 
namely — Agio constant, or fiank-Agio, which is 20 per 
cent. — Fliictualing ^tgio, which is from 120 to 128, and 
is also called sopragin, because it is calculated on the 
Bank-money after the first agio is added. 

AGIOSYMA'XDRUM (Ecc.) from «v'»^ holy, and <rnu.zl,u; 
to signify ; a wooden instrument used b}' the Cireck 
churches, and others, under the dominion of the Turks, 
for calling together assemblies of the people. 

A'GIOT.V(jE (('utn.) a I'rench word for usury. 

AGI'.ST (Lau-) from the Saxon jijce, a bed or biding place; 
taking in the cattle of strangers to feed in the King's 
forest. Chart, de Foresta. 9 Hen. HI. ; Manvi. Fur. 
Laxus, c. 11 , &-c. 

AGI'S'l'ER (Laiv) Gist-Tnher, or Agislator, the officer ap- 
pointed to take cattle into the King's forest. Alamv. For. 
Laws, c. 1 1 , &c. 

A(iI'STAGE (Lmv) or iigistment, Agistamcnlum, from the 
French ^'c/ysfr, /;;.«/(■•»•, in Latin, ;V7CPrc, to lie; because the cat- 
tle are levant and couchant while they are on the land. 1 .The 
taking other men's cattle on one's own ground at a certain 
rate per week. 2 Inst. Gl:?. 2. The profit from such 
feeding or pasturage. H. 'i'lie agisiinent of sea-banks is 
where lands ate charged with a tribute to keep out the sea. 

AGITA''1"I()N (I'liij.) a brisk intestine motion excited 
among the particles of a body ; thus fire agitates the sub- 
tlest particles of bodies. 

Agit.'Vtion (Med.) the exercise of the body, as from riding, 
which agiuiles the whole system in a salutary manner. 


Agitation (Lau<) agitatio animalium in Foresta ; the drift 
of beasts in the Eorest. Leg. Forest. 

AGITA'TO (Mus.) Italian, signifying in a rapid manner, 
i. e. a rapid and broken style of performing. 

AGITATO'RES (Ant.) Uar'y.ptf ; charioteers, particularly 
those who drove the chariots at the games. Cic. ad Attic. 
1. 13, ep. 21 ; Buleng. de Circ. 

Agitatorks (.-Irchicol.) a name given to players in tlie mid- 
dle ages, who were forbidden church couimunion : " De 
agitatoribus qui fideles sunt, placuit quamdiu agitant a 
comnmnione separari." Cone. Arel. Snb. S^lv. 

A'GITATORS (Polit.) 1. Persons chosen, in the time of the 
rebellion, out of every regiment, to sit in council, and 
manage the afi'airs of the parliament army. 2. Confidential 
persons employed to mix with their fellow subjects or 
comrades for the purpose of discovering their views and 
turning informers. . 

A(;LA'SP1DES (Ant.) a regiment of soldiers among the 
Romans, so called from ay>,xii^, splendid, and ^, a 
shield ; i. e. from the splendour of their shields. Liv. 
1 il-, C.4I. 

A'GLETS (Hot.) or Agleeds, pendants which liang on the 
tip end of chives and threads, as tulips, roses, &c. 
Grew. .-Innt. of Plants. 

A'GLITHES (Hot.) d'-/>.ieti; the divisions or segments of a 
head of garlic, which are usually called the cloves. Hij)- 
pocral. de Morb. Mnl. 1. 2. 

AGLU ITTION (Med.) from a, priv. and glutio, to swallow; 
a difficulty or impediment in swallowing. 

A'GME (Surg.) kV^^i, from »>«, to break ; the Greek name 
for a fracture. 

A'GMEN (Ant.) a Roman army in march ; so called from 
ago, to act, in distinction from the acies, or army drawn 
up in battle array. The Agmen was divided into the — 
Agmen primum, the troops in the front, answering to our 
van-guard, which were the Hastati, or spearsmen.^y/nmen 
medium, the troops in the centre, or the main-guard, which 
were the Principes. — Agmen postremum, the troops in tin; 
rear, or the rear-guard, wliich consisted of the Triarii, or 
veterans. — Agmen longum, an army marching in single files. 
— /Igmen pilatum, an armj' in close ranks and files, having 
a narrow front; so called either from its form, or because 
the front ranks consisted of javelin men. 
lirg. .En. 1. 12, v. 121. 

. rUataque plants 

.^^iiiiiia se fintduiit pirrth. 

— .Igmen quadratnm, a squadron or battalion; so called 
from its form approaching to the figure of a square. 
Pohjb. I. 6, c. yS; Frontin. Stratag. 1. 1, c. 6; Lid. 
Orig. 1. 9, c. 3; I'egel. de lie Mil. l.'s, c. 21 ; Salvias de 
lie Mil. C.I \ Ramus, de Milit. Ca:sar apud Grcev. Thesaur. 
A III it/. Roman, vol. 10, &c. 

A'GNACAT (Hot.) a tree growing about the Isthmus of 
Darien, resembling a pear tree. Jiaii Hist. Plant. 

A'GNAIL (Med.) a sore slip of skin at the root of the nail. 

AGNA'XTHIJS (Hot.) the Cornulia pyramidata of Linnxiw. 
Plum. Now Gen. Plant. 

A(iNA'TA (Hot.) vide Adnata. 

AGNA'TI (.int.) kindred; so called because, agnoscuntur, i.e. 
they are reckoned the first in the line of relationship, and 
stand in the son's stead in default of male issue. The 
A<niati are on the father's side, in distinction from the 
Cognati on the mother's side, the AJJincs who are allied by 
marriage, and the Propinqui or relations in general. 
AnguM. de Ecg.; Sigon. de Norn. Roman. Sfc. apud Grcev. 
Tlies. Antiq. Roman, vol 2, S, &c. 

AGNA'TION (Laxv) that relation by blood which is be- 
tween such males as are descended from the same father; 
in distinction from cognation, or consanguinity, which in- 
cludes the descendants from females. 


A'GNIL (Bot.) the Indigofera tindorin of Llnnaus. 
AGNI'NA membrana (Aimt.) or Pellicula; a membrane 

which involves the foetus. 
AGNI'TION (Poet.) Wyro-o-i?, recognition ; a part of the 
fable in an epic poem, as the agnition of Ulysses in the 
Odyssey. Aristot. dc Poet. c. 16. 
AGNO'IA (Med.) ayioM, from «, priv. and yi^airxw, to know; 
privation of knowledge, or losing the recollection of our 
friends, in consequence of a fever. Hippncrat. Prxdid. 
1. 1, iS" Gal. Comni. 2.; Foes. Occonom. Hippocrat. 
AGNOIE'T/E (Ecc.) Uy'o'mr«.>, from «v»««, to be ignorant 
of; a name for two different sects of heretics. 1 . A sect 
of the fourth century, who called in question the omni- 
science of God. Socrat. Ecdes. Hist. 1. 5, c. 24. : Sosom. 
Hist. 1. 6, c. 26; Nicephor. 1. 12, c. 30; Prateol. Blench. 
Httret. 1. A sect of the sixth century, who denied that 
Christ knew the day of judgment. They are probably but 
one and the same sect, avowing different doctrines at 
different times. Johann. Damasccn. de Htcres. ; Nicephor. 
Ecdes. 1. 18, c. 45. 
AGNO'MEN (Ant.) from ad, and Nomen, quasi accedem 
nomen ; a name or title affixed to a name by way of dis- 
tinction ; as, Africanus, the agnomen of Scipio, who con- 
quered Africa. It is the last of the three among the 
IJoman names, [vide Nomen'] 
A'GNUS castus (Dot.) a tree so called, from 'iy'H, chaste 
because the chaste matrons used to sleep upon it during 
the Thesmophoria, or feast of Ceres. It is more commonly 
called >^''7<i<, clc-si, osier, from the toughness of its rods. Hip- 
pocrat. de Morb. Mul. 1. 1 ; Nicand. Theriac. v. 71 ; Dios- 
cor. 1. 1, c. V.iS; Plin. 1. 21', c. 19; Gal. de Simpl. Med. 
Fac. 1. 16; Eustath. ad II. 1. 11 ; Ad. Tetrab. 1. serm. J. 
Agnus castus, in the Linncen Sj/slem, the lltex Agnus castus, 
or the Chaste Tree. Ger. Herb. ; Park. Theat. Bot. — 
Aiinus Sci/t/iicus, the Scythian Lamb, described by Kircher 
and others as a plant betwixt the vegetable and the animal, 
has been discovered to be a fern cut into the shape of a 
lamb, for the purposes of deception. Kirch. Ars Magna. ; 
Knemf. Anicenit. Exot. 
Agnus Dei (Ecc.) the figure of the Holy Lamb holding 
the cross, stamped upon a piece of white wax of an oval 
form, and consecrated by the pope. Alcuin. de Divin. 
0/fic. ; Ccrem. Rom. 1. 1, sect. 7 ; Baron. Annal. ann. 58. 
AGO'GE (Mux.) iyoyvi, one of the subdivisions of the 

Mclopeia. Fuel. lib. de Mus. Art. 
AcotiE (Med.) 1. The order and tenor of a thing, as the pro- 
cedure of a distemper, or the course of a man's life. Hip- 
pocrat. Epidem. 1,7; Gal. ad Glauc. 1.2. 2. The state 
and disposition of the surrounding atmosphere. Hippo- 
crat. Epidem. 1. 1, &c. and Gal. Com.; Gorr. Def. Med.; 
Fries. Oeconom. Hippocrat.; Castell Le.v Med. 
Agoi:e (Min.) or /Igngre, little channels through which the 
water runs from gold ore that has been washed in it, and in 
which the gold is deposited. Plin. 1. 33, c. 't. 
AGOMPHI'ASIS [Med.) from «, priv. and v''V?'<'5, a 
socket ; a disorder in the teeth, by being loose in the 
sockets. Gorr. Def. Med. 
A'GON (.Int.) K'/n", a Greek name for any contest, but 
particularly applied to the public games in which the prin- 
cipal contests took place. 
AGONA'LES (Ant.) priests so called, which were added by 

Tullus Hostilius to the number of the Salii. 
AGONA'LIA (Ant.) festivals in Rome, celebrated in honor 
of Janus, or Agonius, on the 11th of January, the 21st of 
INIay, and 13th of December, i^o Ti» uyiim, i. e. from 
the games and contests usually celebrated at that time, 
wherefore called, likewise, Agonia, according to 
Olid. Fast. 1. v. 331. 

Et prius antiqiuis dicchat Agonia sermo. 

Van; de L, LA, 5; Macrob, Saiiu-n» 1. 1, c, i. 


AGONA'LIS dies (Ant.) the fourth day after the Nones 
and ninth day of the month, on which day, when the feast 
of Agonalia was celebrated, a ram was sacrificed to Janus 
according to 
Ovid. Fast. 1.1. 

Qualiwr adde dies, ducttis ex ordiiie Xonis 

Jauus Agonali luce pidudits erit. 

A'GONE (Bot.) another name for the Hyoscemus niger of 

A'GONES [Ant.) the priests who struck the victims so 
called from the ancient custom among the Romans for the 
priest to inquire agone? i. e. shall I strike? Fest. de Sig- 
nif. Verb. — Agones Capitolini, games celebrated every fifth 
year on the Capitoline hill, where artists of every descrip- 
tion used to contend. It was instituted by Domitian, who 
assigned a crown of oak to the victors. 
Juven. sat. 6, v. 386. 

An CapiloUniim delieret Poliio queicwii 

Mart. 1. 4, epig. 44. 

cui Tarpeiai limit contigcre qiiercus. 

Snelon. in Dotnit. c. 4; .Schol. in Suelon. Scalig. de Emen- 
dat. Temp. 1. 5; Panvin. Fast. 1. 2 ; Rosin. Antiq. Roman. 
AGO'NIA (Ant.) the same as Agonalia. 
Agonia (Med.) aywU, from a, priv. and v''"!, an offspring; 
a term used by Hippocrates for sterility. Hippoc. Epidem. 
1. 2. 
Agonia [Med.) a-ymU, agony; a struggle, as between life 
and death. Gal. de Symptom. Cans. 1. 2, c. 5 ; Gorr, Def. 
AGONICLI'TjE (Ecc.) vide AgonyclitcE. 
AGONI'STARCH (Ant.) he who took charge of the com- 
batants, that they might be exercised previous to the 
contests. This office is mentioned in an ancient inscrip- 
tion quoted by Ligorius, APOLLINI. INVICTO SA-" 
CRUM MfljcMs AURELIUS. ^larci AXjGusti lA^ertus 
NUS. Mercnr. de Arte Gymnast. 1. 1, c. 12. 
AGONI'STICI (Ecc.) a name given by the Donatists to 
those whom they sent about in the country to seize the 
Catholics. - 
AGONI'STICUM (Med.) iv"'!-"--'^'. an application of ex- 
cessively cold water in case of fever. Gal. srff" ^«f«ir/*8 ; 
Paul. A'^ind de Re Med. 1. 2, c. 30. 
AGO'NIZANTS (Ecc.) certain friars in Italy who assisted 

those that were in their last agonies. 
A'GONOS (Med.) from «, priv. and vo>«?, an offspring; 
barren. 1. An epithet applied by Hippocrates to women 
who, though capable of breeding, had never had children. 
Hippocrat. Epidem. 1. 2. 2. To signify equal, as applied to 
days, «-/<»oi if^ifxi, equal days, as the fourth and sixth, on 
which a crisis is not to be expected, in distinction from 
the v'''"-" i!,«">^', the unequal days, as the third or seventh, 
when the crisis commonly happens. Hippocrat. Epidem. 
1.2. sect. 6; Gorr. Dejin. Med.; Foes. Occonom. Hip- 
AGONOTHE'TA (Ant.) kymch~m, from «-/«., and -riUiJ^^, 
i. e. Agnnis dispositor ; the judge at the games, who dis- 
tributed the prizes. .Poll. Onomast. 1. 3. c. 30 ; Phavori- 
nus ; Hcsychius ; Suidas. , 

AGONYCLI'TyE (Ecc.) A'y<»vy.MTXi, from «, priv. v"". the 
knee, and icfiiia, to bend, Agonyclites, or not benders ol 
the knee, a sect of the 7th century, who objected to 
kneeling at prayer. Johann. Damasc. Hwres. c. 1)1. 
AGOR.E'US (Med.) ayofuToi, an epithet for bread that is 

very coarse. 
AGORA'NOMI [Ajit.) aycfx,iy.o,, Athenian magistrates 
who presided over the market, so called because they ad- 
ministered justice in the «-/»?«. or forum. They answered 
to the iEdiles or jEditui of the Romans, and were chosen 


by lot. To these men a certain toll was paid by all the 
market folks, whence Deca:polis is introduced by Aris- 
tophanes, demanding an eel of the Ba;otian for the tOh 
t'».; iyofS;, i. e. the toll of the market. 
Acharn. act 1, sc. 4. 

They were ten in number, five for the city and five for the 
Piraeus, and had, according to Theophrastus, in his book 
De Lcgibus, to see that no one was wronged in the market. 
Flat, de Leg. 1. 6 ; Lysias.Orat. cont. Dardan ; Arleniidor. 
Oneirocrit. 1. 2, c. 31 ; Harpocratioti Lex ; Meiirs. de Pir. 
c. 4. 
A'GRA Carcimba [Bot.) an odoriferous wood that comes 

from the isle of Hayman, in China. 
AGRA'RIA Lvx (Ant.) from ager, land; a law for dis- 
tributing among the soldiers the land gotten by con- 
quest. Tliis law was proposed four several times, i. e. 
by Spurius Cassius, Licinus Stolo, Tiberius Gracchus, and 
lastly by Julius Ca;sar, who prevailed, by his intrigues, in 
carrying a measure that proved fatal to the republic. 
U. C. 695. B.C. 59. Diom/s. 1.8, 0.69; Cic. dc Leg. 
and Agrar. contra Rtdl. ; Liv. 1. 2, c. i\, &c. ; Flor. 1. 3, 
c. :?, &c. 
AGRA'RI.E Slationes {Ant.) a kind of advance guard 
among the Romans, that was posted in the fields. Vcget. 
de Re Mil. 1. 3, c. 8 ; Ammian Marcell. 1. 31, c. 8; 
Turncb. Advcr. I. 4, c. 7. 
AGREA'GE (Com.) a name among the merchants of Bour- 

deaux for courtage or brokerage. 
AGREE'MENT [Lmv.) a joining together two or more 

minds in any thing done or to be done. 
AGRE'STA (Med.) the juice of unripe grapes. 
AGltE'STEN (Chem.) Acid-stone Tartar. 
A'GRI {Law) arable lands in the common fields. 
.VGRIA {Bot.) Holly, the //ex wyHJ/b/ZiOH of Linnoeus. 
Agria (Med.) a pustule on the skin; so called on account 
of its malignity, from the Greek aypio?, fierce. Cels. 1. 5, 
c. 28. 
AGRIA'.MPELOS [Bot.) from «•/?">?, wild, and V''"'?, 
a vine ; the wild vine or Black Briony, the Brionia alba of 
A'GRICL'LTURE, from ager, a field, and colo, to till, may 
be defined the cultivating of land, for the benefit of man 
and beast, in distinction from Horticulture, which is the 
cultivation of gardens, or particular portions of ground for 
the benefit -of man only. Agriculture is divided into 
Tlieorelii-al, which is Agriculture properly so called ; and 
Practical, which is called Husbandry. He who follows 
agriculture as a science is termed an AgriculiiiriJ ; and he 
who practices husbandry is a Husbandman. 

Agriculture, or the Theory of Agriculture. 
The theory of agriculture com])rehends the nature and 
properties of lands, the dilicrent sorts of plants fitted for 
it, and the rotation of crops. 

J)i//'i--rent kinds (}f Lands. 

Land is distinguished by the name of soil when its qualities 
arc considered as a light soil, heavy soil, stiff soil, rich 
soil, or jjoor soil. 

As to its application. Land is denominated — Meadoiv 
or grass lands, where grass is allowed to grow. — Pas- 
ture land, that on wilieh cattle is fed. — Arable land, 
land fit for ploughing. — Fallow land, which is left to 
lie fallow, or without a crop for a certain time. — 
Wood-lands, or lands covered with wood, which are 
cither woods having trees and underwood; or groves 
having only timber. — Pastures are either up-lands 
wliicli are never overflowed by rivers, marsh lands which 
lie near water, or _/c«»j/ /a/i(?i which receive and retain 


the water from the up -land. — Fore-land is that piece of 
land which lies to seaward in marsh-land, a — Garden ia 
cultivated for domestic use and pleasure. — Orchard is a 
species of garden destined for fruit-trees. — J'inei/ard is a 
place set apart for the growth of vines. — Hop-grounds, 
or Hop-plantations, for the growth of hops. — Planta- 
tions are small patches of trcis to serve for ornament, 
and — Nurseries are the grounds where young trees are 
reared. — Lai/ is any piece of land laid down « ith grass : 
this grass is called the su-ard, and the land therefore is 
named also sward-land. — A Field is any portion of land 
parted off for the purposes of agriculture : when enclosed 
by a hedge or wall, it is a close or enclosure, otherwise it 
is an opcn-Jield. The fences of fields are either ditches, 
with or without an embankment ; lia-lias, or sunk fences ; 
palings, or timber fences, in different forms ; hedges, 
with or without a ditch, consisting oi dead-hedges formed 
of stakes ; live-hedges, or qnicksel-liedges, planted with 
the quick of Whitethorn, Blackthorn, Holly, &c. 
Land is moreover differently denominated according to the 
tenure by which it is held ; namely, — Freehold, if free 
of all legal incumbrances ; and the person holding such 
land is a Freeholder or Land-Proprictnr. — Copi/hold, if 
held under a copy or contract with the Lord of the 
Manor; and the person so holding is a Copi/-holder.-— 
Farm, if it be held b}' a lease or contract with the pro- 
prietor : the person letting the farm is called the Land- 
lord, and the person hiring is the Farmer or Tenant. 

Plants of different Kinds. 
Plants which are used in agriculture serve either for food 
or commerce, and are distinguished into Cuhniferous and 
Leguminous. The fruit or seed of Cuhniferous plants is 
corn or grain ; the leaves and roots of Leguminous 
plants, which serve as food for man, are vegetables. 

Culmijerous Plants are of different kinds, namely — Wheat, 
trilicuni, which grows best on a stiff or clay-soil, and is 
sown in October, [vide Wheal'] — Rye, sicale, which 
grows best in a chalky soil. — Barley, hordeuni, which 
requires a mellow soil, rather light than stiff, and is 
sown in April, [vide Barley] — Oats, avena, which suc- 
ceeds in most soils, even the poorest, and is sown in 

Leguminous P/n^^N- are as follow : — Potatoes, Solanum tu- 
berosum, which are planted in April. — Turnips, Brassicu 
rapa, which are sown in June. — Pease, pisnm, sown in 
Eubruary. — Beans, I'icia faba, sown in February. — Car- 
rots, daucus, sown in March or April. — Parsnips, /jn.s//- 
naca, in Autumn. — Cabbages, Brassica oleracea, m 
March or April. — Burnet, polerium, recommended as 
food for cattle, on account of its being an evergreen, is 
adapted to a poor soil, and is sown in March. — Beet, 
beta, is sown in Marcb. 

Plants which are cultivated, particularly for commerce, 
serve various purposes besides that of food. They are 
either herbaceous or xvooilij. 

Herbaceous Plants of this sort, are — Flax, linuni, used for 
the makins; cf limn, and extracting an oil, grows on a 
deep sandy .oam. — Hemp, e.innabis, the same. — Rape 
or Cole-seed, Brassica napus, which is cultivated for its 
oil, grows any where. — Woad, isatis, which is used in 
dyeing, is cultivated in a blackish heavy mould. — Hops, 
humulus, used in malt liquor, grow in a black loose 

The woody kinds of plants are either Fruit-Trees, or Tim- 
ber-Trees The two most important sorts of fruit-trees 
are tlie A])plc, from which Cyder is made ; and the Pear, 
which yields Perry. Among the timber-trees are the 
Oak, l.lm. Ash, Larch, &c. which are each spoken of 
in their proper places. 

Plants which grow spontaneously, and are therelbre hurt- 


ful, are called tveeds, such as the— Thistle, carduus, 
which grows on strong land, and burns the corn. — 
Twitch-Grass, ophi/ris, which keeps the land loose and 
hollow. — May-Weed, aiUhemis, which infests barley. — 
Goose-Grass, or Wild-Tansy, tanacdum, wliich grows 
mostly on strong clays. — Cockle, Agrosienima gil/iago, 
whicli infests barley--- Fern, //;j, and Furze or Brake, 
Pteris agiiiliiin, which grow mostly in a sandy brown 
soil. — Rushes or Flags, Junciis, aquatic weeds, which 
grow in marsh-lands. 
Plants in agriculture are exposed to particular diseases, as 
the — Blig/it in wheat, supposed to be caused by an in- 
sect. — Xjl/dciv, a more frequent disease, consists of a 
pow dcr that attaches to the grain in the ear. It is either 
black or red, the former of which is called smul. Wash- 
ing the grain, that is, to be sown in a lie, has been found 
to be an efficacious remedy.— Gi/ili is a kind of worm 
which feeds upon the roots of the corn. — Turnips and 
Hops are both subject to a particular //y, called after 
the plants they infect. — Potatoes are exposed to the curl, 
which attacks the leaves of the plants. 

Eolation of Crops. 
A crop is that which is produced by a single act of culti- 
vating a field, and supplying it with grain or seed. A 
field is said to be cropped w hen it is occupied with any 
vegetation. An etch crop is that which is second in rota- 
tion. — Rotation of crops, or the manner in w Inch they 
succeed each other in the same field, varies with the 
circuniftancs of the soil ; but, as a general rule, w heat 
maj- follow fallow on a cla}' soil, then peas, barley, hay, 
and oats ; on a light soil barley may follow turnips, then 
hay, oats, fallow, and wheat. 

Husbandry, or Practical Agriculture. 
Under this part of Agriculture are comprehended the la- 
bours of Husbandry, with the implements and animals 
appertaining thereto. 

Labours of Husbandry. 
The labours of husbandry are those which belong to the 

field, and those of the farm-yard. 
Tlie labours of the field consist of preparing the land for 

the reception of the grain, committing the grain to the 

earth, and gathering in the fruits. 

Preparing the Land. 

The preparation of the land requires both general and par- 
ticular labours. The general labours are — Breaking up 
the ground, i. e. opening it for the first time. — Hedging, 
or the enclosing land with a hedge. The person who 
does this work is the Hedger, and the ways of doing it 
are various, as, PlaJiing a hedge, i. e. bending down 
the shoots of an old hedge. — Riddering a hedge, cutting 
away the superfluous shoots. — Edduxi-ing a hedge, &c. 
[vide Hedge'] — Land-draining, another important labour 
is the carrying off stagnant water from the surface of the 
soil, by means of drains or channels made in the earth. 
Drains are either open or hollow. Open drains are those 
which run along the surface of the earth. Hollow drains 
are placed under the earth, [vide Drainl 

The particular preparatorj- labours are — Ploughing, or 
turning up the earth with a plough. Lands are ploughed 
so as to make furrows and ridges. Furrows are the 
track.s of the plough. Uidges are made up of a certain 
number of furrowo between the henting or icater-Jiirroii-s. 
Lands ploughed with ridges of two bouts or rounds, are 
called tKo bouted lands ; those which are ploughed with 
broad ridges are broad-lands ; and those parts of ploughed 
fields that run along the hedges are head-lands, or hedge- 

lands. When the furrow is turned towards the un- 
ploughed ground, this is termed Rice-balking. — Fallowing 
land is the ploughing up a fallow ; twijalloiuing is plough- 
ing it a second time ; and trifaHoniug is the third 
ploughing. — Rolling is the operation by which the clods 
of earth are broken with a roller, and — Harrowing is the 
loosening the earth with the harrow after it has been 
ploughed. — Burn-beating, otherwise called Denshiring, 
i. e. Devonshiring, probably from the county where it 
commenced, is the burning of land, or rather the weeds, 
as heath, furze, &c. as it lies in heaps on the land. — 
Land is said to be brought to a season when it is made 
fine, by ploughing, &c. — To Lay upland, is to plough 
it the first time for any particular occasion. — Manuring 
land is the supplying it with any sort of manure ; and 
dressing land is the mixing any other soil with the earth 
to alter its texture and properties. 

Seed Time. When the land is prepared, the next step 
is the sowing the seeds or grain. Whatever is i-aised 
b}' seed is sown, set, or drilled. — Solving is done with 
the hand, and when scattered over the ground, it is 
called ioti/«^ broadcast.— Setting is dropping the grain 
from the hand into holes made with the dibble, as in the 
case of wheat, peas, beans, &c. — Drilling is the sowing 
of seeds in drilti, or rows, which is done by a machine, 
called the drill-plough. When the earth is supplied 
with grain, then it is necessary to weed, i. e. to clear it 
of the weeds which grow, and, in some cases, as that 
of turnips, it is necessary to hoe, i. e. to loosen the earth 
with the hoe, and remove some of the plants. — Planting 
is the raising of plants by means of others, or parts of 
others. Hops are planted by means of sets. Trees are 
raised by layers from the mother plant ; or by suckers from 
the mother root, as the Elm, Elder, &c. ; or by slips, 
cuttings, or sets, as Willows, Sallow, Ozier, and the 
like. Some are raised from seed, as the Oak, Chesnut, 
Ash, &c. ; and the -young plants, after they first come 
up, are termed seedlings. 

Harvest. The seed time is succeeded by the harvest, or 
the gathering in of the fruits. The time for cutting 
grass and making hay is the haijsel. That of cutting the 
corn is properly the harvest. Hay is mowed, i- e. cut 
with a scj'the ; and the grass so cut is called the swath. 
— Strewing the grass, is scattering it evenly over the 
ground, which is done either with a fork, or the hand. — 
li'inrowing is the gathering into small rows the grass 
so strewed. — Cocking is the raising it into heaps. — Hay 
is carted on waggons b}' one who pitches with a pitch- 
fork ; and afterwards stacked, i. e. put upon a stack, 
which, if the hay be not properly made will heat, and 
sometimes be set on fire. — If the same meadow be 
mowed a second time, tliis mowing is called the After- 
math. — When hay is to be sold it is taken to the market 
in certain quantities, called a load or truss. — JVheat is 
ripe when the ear is yellow and hangs down. It is 
reaped, i. e. cut with a sickle, and made up into sheaves, 
i. e. bundles tied up with a nisp or band of straw. When 
several sheaves are set up in a slanting direction against 
each other, it is termed a shock, which is afterwards carted 
and placed in a barn. The heap thus raised in the barn 
is termed the grff. When a field is cleared of the shocks, 
the gleaners are let in to gather the scattered ears of 
corn, which is called leasing or gleaning. The straw 
of wheat or rye which is left after cutting, is the stubble. 
— Barleij is ripe when the red roan or reddish colour is 
gone oS, when it is mowed, and left to lie on the swath. 
If it be inned or housed wet, it will mowburn, which ren- 
ders it unfit for malting, or the making of malt. If the 
weather be wet after it is reaped, it is apt to must, 
i. e. to spire or sprout, unless it be turned and shaken. 
I 2 


Corn is thrashed by the help of a flail ; and n'innotved, or 
cleansed, of the chaff" or husk by means of a fan. The 
f)ffal is the defective grain that remains after winnowing 
and cleansing. When grain is thrashed, it is laid up in 
granaries until it goes to market ; and, for the better 
preservation of it, is turned and screened, i. e. run 
through a screen. Wheat is ground either in a wind or 
or watermill, and y\c\isJlour, which is the finest part of 
the grain, and meal and pollard, which have different 
portions of the bran or husk mixed with it. — Peas are 
commonly reaped with a hook at the end of a long stick, 
and left to lie in small heaps till the Imnm, i. e. the 
stalks, and the cods, are dry. — Hops are ripe when they 
begin to colour ; and are gathered by picking the hops 
from the haum, or bind, which is round tiie pole, after 
which tlicy are dried to a certain gage 'if draught, in a 
hibt covered with hair, over a staddle, in which is a 
charcoal fire. Hach dried hops are those which are im- 
perfectly dried. Afler drying, the hops are bagged, or 
put into hags called pocLets, in which manner they are 
carried to market. — Hemp onAJiax, which are ripe when 
tliey begin to grow brown, are gathered by pidling and 
tijitig up in handfuls. — Madder, which is three years in 
coming to maturity, consists of three different sorts when 
it is gathered, namely, mill-madder, the first, is the 
outer rind or husk, which, when pared off, is the infe- 
rior ; the second, or middle rind, is termed Number O ; 
crop-madder, the third and best sort, is the heart and 
pith. — Trees are transplanted, which are removed from 
the spot where they were reared or have been growing. 
They are pruned, i. e. cleared of their dead woods or 
superfluous branches with a pruning knife : they are 
lopped when the larger branches that form the top are 
cut off. When trees have been often lopped, and are 
grown old, they are called pollards. Timber \% felled 
when the trunk is cut down, so as to leave only a stump. 
It is barked, when it is stripped of its bark. To stadle a 
wood, is to leave young trees at certain distances. 

Labours ctf the Yard House. 

Under this head are to be reckoned the management of 
animals, malting, brewing, baking, management of the 
dairy, &c. 

The animals on a farm are termed the live slock, and 
consist of either beasts called cuttle, or birds called 
poultrij. Beasts are either beasts of Ijurden, as horses, 
&c. ; or grazing beasts, as oxen, sheep, &c. — Horses 
are distinguished into draught-horses, riding-horses, &c. 
[vide Horse'] A team of horses is any number that go 
together eitlier in a waggon or plough. The young of 
a horse is termed a foal while it sucks, and a coll be- 
fore it is broken in for use. The stable is the place set 
apart for the horses ; the stall is a partition in the stal)le 
for a single horse ; the litter is his bed of straw ; the 
rack is the place railed off for his hay ; the manger is a 
trough for his corn ; and the bin is the chest to hold 
the chaff or the corn. Of grazing beasts there is the — 
O.r, of which the male is called the bull, and the female 
the cow. The young of a cow, while it sucks, is a 
calf, afterwards a steer if male, a heij'er if female, and 
a bud as soon as it has budding horns. Oxen of the 
black kind are called black cattle, and cows which are 
kept for their milk are called milch-coxus. — Sheep are 
bred for their flesh and their wool. The male of the 
sheep is the ram, which, when cut, is a weather ; the 
female the ewe, which, when it is old, is a crone. Polled 
sheep are those without horns, which are reckoned 
the best breeders. The young of sheep are termed 
lambs, and the bringing forth is yeaning or lambing. 

Shearing of sheep is taking off their wool with shears; 
whence, as shearing takes place annually, their age is 
reckoned thereby, as one-shear sheep, two-shear sheep, &c. 
Sheep are penned or folded, that is, they are fastened 
witliin a narrow space called a pen, bj' means of hurdler 
or moveable gates, which are fixed into the ground, and 
tied together with ozier-twigs. — Swine are kept for 
breeding and fatting, of which the male is the boar, 
and, after it is cut, is a hog; the female is the soxr, and, 
after it is cut, the spai/ed gelt. The young of the sow 
is the pig, and the bringing forth isjiirrowing; while 
a pig sucks it is a sucking pig ; when fit for roasting, 
it is a roaster ; and, when it is three quarters of a year 
old, it is ix young shoot. Swine shackle in corn fields or 
on mash, i. e. the acorns that are under the tree ; their 
flesh is called pork, but that of the boar is brawn. — 
Poultry are the domestic fowls or birds kept for their 
flesh, and their eggs. The male bird is generally the 
cock, the female the hen ; but of geese the male is the 
gander, the female the goose ; and of ducks the male 
is the drake, and the female the dtick. Poultry liatch 
their young by sitting upon their eggs a certain time; a 
hen brings forth chickens after twenty days' sitting; a 
duck brings forth ducklings after thirty days ; a goose, 
goslings ; a Turkey, turkey-pouts ; and a swan, cygnets. 
Green geese are the young geese fatted in spring, stubble 
geese, those which are fatted in the stubble. Barn door 
Jowls are full grown chickens which are fatted by the 
barn-door. — Bees are kept for their honey and wax. 
An apiary is a bee-garden, or the place where bees are 
kept ; the hives or wicker baskets arc their houses, which 
are placed on stools or benches in a sheltered spot. 
The swarming of bees is the collection of the young 
bees in the open air, which light on some place, and 
form themselves into a compact body. The honey and 
wax is collected into a solid substance called the comb. 
The virgin honey is that which flows of itself out of the 
comb when taken out of the hive, and also that which 
comes from the first year's swarm. 
JMuhing is the making of malt out of barley, which is 
done by a particular process, and the person who causes 
it to be done is the mahter. Barley is first steeped, that 
is, left in water for three nights till it be drenched ; it is 
afterwards laid on the floor, and the quantity laid down, 
at a given time, is called a couch. In this state it sends 
forth a sprout, which is called the spire or come, and the 
second spire, which succeeds the first, and comes at the 
end of the barley, is called the acrospire. This deter- 
mines the state of the grain, whether it be fit for the 
next process, M'hich is kiln-drying, i. e. drying it by the 
fire of the kiln, after which it becomes nutlt. This is 
then cleansed in order to clear it of the sprout or come 
before it goes to the mill to be ground. — Brexoing is the 
making of malt, with the assistance of lio])s, into beer; 
xcort is the essence of the malt before the hop is put to 
it. Strong-beer is made of the first wort, which is drawn 
from the malt ; ale is a middle sort of beer ; small-beer, 
otherwise called table-beer, is the weakest kind of the 
three ; homebrewed beer is that which is brewed in [iri- 
vate families, in distinction from that which is made in 
the public breweries. Mashing is the putting of the 
malt to the hot water in the mash-tub ; i,')Y//hs are the 
malt after it has been worked off the usual number of 
times ; i/easl is the frothy ferment which rises from the 
working of the beer in the cask. — Baking is the process 
of making bread out of flour with the assistance of 
yeast ; white-bread is the finest sort made of the flour ; 
Brown-bread is that which is made of meal ; Ityc-bread 
is that which is made of rye, which, on account of its 
colour, is called black-bread, and for its worthlessncss 


Pumpernickel, i. e. Ion pour Xickel, or good for nothing ; 
slackbaked bread is that which is not properly baked. 

The dairy comprehends all that is made from milk. The 
cream is the essence of the milk which settles on the top, 
and is skimmed, or taken otF with a skimmer. Flel-milk 
is that from which the cream has been taken. Butter 
is made from the cream by the process of churning : 
the liquid which remains after it has been made is called 
butler-milk. Cheese is made by means of the runnet. 
which turns the milk to curd ; this is hardened in a -cat. 
The liquid which remains from the curd is whey. 

To the above may be added the following catalogue of 
agricultural labours through the year, beginning with 
the first month in order. — January. Ploughing lands 
for beans and pease. Breaking up lays. Cattle tended 
with turnips, and well-fenced against the frost. Fences 
tended. Trees lopped of dead boughs. Cows calve, and 
sows farrow. Lands to be cleared of bushes. — February. 
Lands to be dunged. Grey Peas and Beans to be sown 
and harrowed. Fences repaired and planted. Vines 
planted. Meadows cleared of the moles. The pastures 
drained for the young lambs to be dry. Barley thrashed 
for malting. — March. ■NLirsh-grounds to be ditched. 
Hop-grounds set. Land ploughed for barley. Barleys 
sown and harrowed. Wheats rolled. — April. Barley, 
seed-time. Summer-fallowing. Fodder to be provided 
for the cattle, particularly the cows. Hop-yards pro- 
vided with poles. Timber felled and pealed. The dairy 
to be well tended. — -Vny. Lambs and sheep to be 
washed. Thrashing of corn. Barley or wheat fed as 
occasion may serve. Corn-tields weeded. Buck-wheat, 
Flax, and Hemp sown. Hops tended on the poles, and 
weeded. Quicksets weeded. Bees tended. Land twi- 
fallowed. — June. Sheep shorne. Summer fallowing 
carried on. Bushes, thorns, &c. cleared away. Haysel 
begun. — July. Haysel finished. Try-fallowing. Hemp 
and fla.x plucked. — August. Heaping, mowing, and all 
sorts of harvest going on. Managing pastures, hop- 
picking and kiln-drying hops. — September. Farmers 
enter on fresh farms. Seeds thrashed. Fruits and 
honey gathered. Ditches, &c. made. Hemp plucked 
and dressed. Brakes gathered for firing. — October. Wheat 
and Rye-sowing. Laying up barley- land. Acorns, 
hawes, &c. sown. Quickset planted. — November. .Swine 
fatted and killed. Rearing of poultry and ploughing 
finished. — December. Cattle provided with fodder and 
housing. Dung carted, lic. 

Implements of Husbandry. 
The most important of all agricultural implements is the 
plough ; the parts of which are the head, which is de- 
signed to go into the ground ; the heel, which is the 
hinder end ; the base or bottom, otherwise called the 
sole; the sock, a hollow shoeing of iron fixed to the 
end of the head; the stilt, or handle for the driver; 
the beam, or long piece of wood, in which is fixed the 
coulter, or sharp iron that cuts the ground ; the bridle or 
muzzle at the end of the beam, by which the horses are 
put to ; the cross-tree, to which the traces are fixed. 
The back of a plough is usually called t])c Iniid-sidc, and 
that board which receives the turf or sod is the mould- 
board, earth-board, or brond-bnnrd. A plough is said 
to be in trim, or to swim fair when it goes on steadily 
in the ground. Ploughs are named differently accord- 
ing to their make or use, as the chain plough, the ivheeled- 
jiLjugh, the sward-cutler, the drill-plough, the paring- 
plough, &c. — The implements for fencing and ditching 
are the bill, or curved hatchet; skavel, a sort of ditching 
spade: skuppat, a scooper or hollow shovel used in 
marsh-lands ; didull, a short spade for ditching. — Those 


used in draining are the xmterlevel, for measuring the level 
of the land at a distance ;_/b/■^^s and crooks for clearing 
away sedges; wheel nnA hand-barrows ; short scythes for 
mowing down grass; and strong xcater-boats fitted to resist 
the water. — Those used in other labours of the field are 
the waggon, which is the largest kind of carriage; the 
cart, which is the smallest ; and the tunbril, which is the 
heaviest and stoutest made. The parts of a carriage are 
the axle-tree, which supports the body, or the whole ma- 
chine ; the wheel, which consists of the nave, into which 
the spokes are fixed; the Jelloes, which form the orb of 
the wheel, and the tire, or iron-band, which goes round 
the orb. Clombing a wheel is arming the axle-tree with 
iron plates. Shoeing a wheel is arming the felloes with 
iron stakes. To these may be added cromes, or dung- 
forks, scythes, sickles, &c. 
AGRIELjE'A (Dot.) ivfifAaw, from aypio?, wild, and s>«r«, an 
olive, in Latin oleaster ; the tree called the Wild Olive, or 
the Olea syliestris of Linna;us. Dioscor. 1. 1, c. 122; 
Gorr. Def. Med. 
AGRIFO'LIUM (Bot.) ihe Ilex aquifolium o( Lnmxus. 
AGRIMO'KIA (Bot.) Agrimony, a plant of the spriggy 
kind, (pfVjXiU'on, answers to the Eupatorium of Dioscoiides, 
which is a cleanser of the blood, and a strengthener of the 
liver. Diosc. 1. 4, c. i. 
Agrimonia, in the Linnean system, is a genus of plants ; 
Class 11 Dodecandria, Order 2 Digynia. 
Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — Cor. petals 
five ; claws narrow. — St.-VjM. filaments capillary ; anthers 
small. — PisT. germ inferior; styles simple; stigmas ob- 
tuse, — Feu. none ; calyx contracted at the neck ; seeds 
Species. The principal species are the — Agrimonia eupa- 
toria, seu Eupatorium, Common Agrimony; a perennial, 
native of Britain. — Agrimonia repens. Creeping Agri- 
mony; a perennial, native of America. — Agrimonia, Agri- 
nionoides, seu Agrimonies similis. See. Three-leaved Agri- 
monj-; a perennial, native of Italy. J. Bauhin. Hi<t. 
Plant. ; C. Bauhin. Pin. Tlieat. Botan. ; Ger. Herb. ; 
Park. Theat. Botan. ; Raii Hist. Plant. ; Tourn. List. 
Herb.; Boerh. Ind. Plant.; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
AfjRiMONiA is also the name for several species of the Bidens 

and the Triuniphetla of Linnaeus. Raii llist. Plant. 
A'GRIMOXY (Bot.) the name of four different sorts of 
plants in the Linnean system, i.e. the Agrimonia; the 
Ageratum, or Bastard Hemp ; the Eupatorium, or Hemp : 
and the Bidens, or Water-Hemp. 
AGRIOCA'RDAMU.M (But.) 'AyfiCKuf^uu^c,, from, 
wild, and y-i^S'xu.iv, Nasturtium ; the Iberis of Linnjeus. 
Paul. ^Eiiinct. de Be Med. 1. 3, c. 77. 
AGRIOCA'STANU-M (Bot.) Earth-nut, or Pig-nut, the 

Buniuni Bulbocastanum of Linna;us. 
AGRIOCINA'RIA (Bot.) Wild Artichoke, the Cynara 

scolymus of Linnaeus. 
AGRIOCOCCIME'LA (Bot.) the Prunus .ydnosa of Lin- 

AGRIOME'LA (Bot.) the Pi/rus mains of Linnaeus. J. 

Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; Raii Uist. Plant. 
A'GRION (Ent.) a division of the genus Libellula, accord- 
ing to Fabricius, consisting of those insects, of this tribe, 
which have their wings erect when at rest. 
AGRIO'XIA (Ant.) 'A'/fiavM, or, according to Hesychius, 
'Aypatia ; an annual festival in honour of Bacchus, which 
was celebrated generall)- in the night. It is so called, ac- 
cording to Plutarch, from «vf'^. rustic and rude, because 
of the rudeness and intemperance with which the celebra- 
tion of this festival was attended, or from iyfiiio;, the sur- 
name of Bacchus for his cruelty. Plut. Sympos. 1. S, 
quest. 1 ; & in Anton. ; ]\Ieurs. de Grecc. Fer. 
AGKIOPA'LMA (But.) Archangel, or dead nettle. 


AGRIOPASTINA'CA (Bot.) the wild parsnip or carrot. 
AGKIOPHY'LLON (Bot.) the Peucedamim ojpdnale of 

AGRIORl'GANUM (But.) the Heracloeticum of Linnscus. 
AGRIOSELI'NU.M (Bot.) the Smi/rnium olusatiinn of Lin- 
naeus . 
A'GRIOT (Bot.) a sour or tart cherry. 
AGRIPA'LMA (Rot.) the I.eonirus cardinca of LinnEcus. 
AGRrPP.E (Slag.) a name for children born with their 
feet foremost. Tlic name is supposed by some to be 
derived from a'grn pnrtu ; by others, from Agrippa, the 
Roman, who came into the world in this manner. Plin. 
1. 7, c. 8 ; Gell. 1. 16, c. 16 ; Non. Marcell. c. 19 ; Sttlmas. 
E.vercit. P/iiiian. p. 'M . 
A'GRIUM (Clinn.) an impure fossile alkali. 
A'GROM (Met/.) a disease of the tongue frequent in India. 
AGROSTE'MMA (Bot.) from i-.f rst/.^'^, .-Igri corona, 
Campion: a genus of plants, Class 10 Dccaiidritt, Order 4 

Generic Characters. C.w.. perianth onc-\ca.veA.-^(.! or. petals 
five ; claxus length of the tube of the calyx ; liorder 
spreading. — Stam Ji/aments awlshaped; a«//icr.s simple. 
— PisT. germ ovate; ^tijles filiform; stigmas simple. — 
Per. capsule oblong ovate; seeds very man}' ; receptacles 
Species. The species are — Agrostemma gitliago, Loliuni 
lychnis seu gigatho, an annual, native of Britain. — Agros- 
temma coronarin. Rose Campion, a biennial, native of 
Italy. — Agrostemma Jlos Jovis, Umbellate Rose Campion, 
a perennial, native of Switzerland. Ger. Herb. ; Park. 
T/ieat. Butan.; linii. Hist. Plant.; Mar. Hist. Plant.; 
Herm. Cat. Lugd. Batav.; Mild. Linn. Spec. Plant. 
AGRO'STIS (Bot.) «-/f«5-.?. Bent Grass, a herb, so called 
because it grows in the fields, is a tall grass, the leaves of 
which, according to Dioscorides, are pointed, hard, and 
broad, like those of a reed. The root bruised and applied 
agglutinates wounds. It is called by Theocritus the liMrm.i 
avp*!-'«. Theoc. Idyl. 13, v. 43 ; Tlicoph. Hist. Plant. 1. 1, 
c. 10; Diosc. 1. 4, c. 30; Oribas. Med. Coll. 1. 15, c. 1 ; 
Aet. Tetrab. 1. serni. 1. 
Agro-stis, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants. Class 3 
Triundria, Order 2 Digijnia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. glume one-flowered — CoR. bi- 
valve. — Stam. filaments longer than the corolla; anthers 
forked. — PisT. germ roundish ; styles reflex ; stigmas 
longitudinally hispid. — Per. corolla growing to the seed, 
not gaping ; seed roundish, pointed at both ends. 
Species. — The principal species are the — Agroslis monan- 
tlia, seu Gramcn segetnm, silky Bent Grass, an annual, 
native of Britain. — Agrostis ai.undinacea, Arundo agros- 
lis, Cataniagrostis arundinacea seu Gramen viilinceum, 
reedy Bent (jrass, a perennial, native of Britain. — 
Agrostis sylvatica seu pannicnla, &c. wood Bent Grass, a 
perennial, native of Britain. — Agrostis pnngens seu 
Phalaris disticha, &c. prickly Bent Grass, a perennial, 
native of Spain. — Agrostis rupestris, Avena monnntha 
seu Gramen pnniculatnm, &c. an annual, native of Swit- 
zerland, &c. ./. Bnnh. Hiit. Plant.; C. Banh. Pin.; 
Ger. Herb. ; Park. Tlieat. Botan. ; Rail Hist. Plant. ; 
TourneJ'. Inst. ; Bneihaav. Ltd. Plant. ; Linn. Spec. 
Agrostis is also a name for the Cenchra racemosus and the 
Milinm lendigerum and paradiLXum of Linna.'us. Bauh. Hist, 
Plant. ; Ger. Herb. ; Rail Hist. Plant. &c. 
ACiRO'TKRA (Ant.) an annual sacrifice at Athens, in 
honour of Diana u'/forifx, i. e. the huntress ; also a tem- 
ple dedicated to Diana. Xenoph. E.rped. Cyr. 
A(iRO'UND (Mar.) i, c. on the ground; a term applied to 
a ship when any jiart of it rests on the ground so as to 
render it immoveable. 


AGRY'PXIA (Med.) u'/fvxt'ce, from «, priv. and iimec, sleep ,• 
sleeplessness, called by Celsus, on the authority of Hip- 
pocrates, jioctnrnce rigilia; or wakefulness in the night 
season, which he reckons among the bad symptoms. Hip- 
pocrat. 1. 3, aphor. S-l, and Gal. Comm. 1, in Hippocrat. 
Prccdict. 1. 6 ; Cels. 1. 2, c. 1 ; Gorr. Def. Med. ; Foes. 
Oecnnom. Hippocrat. 

AGRY'PNIS (Med.) ^'/fv:T,k; a festival in honour of Bac- 
chus, at Arbela, in Sicily. Hesijchius. 

AGUE (^led.) from the French aignc, sharp or acute ; an 
intermitting fever, with hot and cold fits alternately. In 
the vulgar sense, the ague is a fever attended with cold 
shiverings. — Agtie Cake, a tumor in the spleen which often 
follows agues. — Ague Drojis, a medicine consisting of the 
solution of arsenic in water, for the cure of tlie ague. 

Ague Tree {Bot ) the Sassafras, or Laurus sassafras of Lin- 
naeus ; a tree so called from the medicinal virtue in its 
wood for curing agues. 

A GlJl-l'an-nenJ' (Archcrol.) i.e. new year to the niisletoe; 
a name for a ceremony among the Gauls, who, on the first 
day of the new year, w-ent about gathering misletoe, and 
repeating a-gui-l'an-neiif, in which they were joined by the 
multitude. A similar practice prevailed in some parts of 
France, under the shape of begging for tapers to light the 
churches, until the 17th century, when it was abolished by 
the interference of the church. 

A'GliL (Bot.) a little prickly shrub growing in Persia and 
Arabia, the Hedysarum alliugi of Linnaeus. 

A'GURAH (Ant.) n«nj«, a Hebrew coin, which Buxtorf 
explains by Nummulus, a small coin. 

AGUSADU'RA (Archceol.) a fee paid by vassals to their 
lords, for the sharpening their ploughshares, &c. 

AG.U'STINE (Chem.) a name given to a supposed new 
earth, so called from its forming insipid salts with acids. 

A'GUTl (Zool.) or Long-eared Cavy, the name of an Ame- 
rican animal resembling a guinea-pig, the Cavia aguti of 
Linnaeus, which lives in hollow trees or burrows, is very 
voracious, and uses its fore paws like hands. 

AGUITE'PA (Bot.) a Brazilian plant, the root of which is 
medicinal. It is the Thalia geniculrita of hinnmus. JMarc- 
grav. Hist. Bras. 

AGYNE'IA (Bot.) from a, priv. and '/'">i, wife; a genus of 
plants, Class 21 Monoecia, Order II Monadelphia. 
Generic Characters. — C.-ir,. six-leaved, leajiets oblong. — 
Cor. none. — Stam. filaments none; anthers three or 
four in the male. — Pist. germ of the size of the calyx ; 
neither style nor stigma. — Per. supposed to be a tri- 
coccous capsule. 
Species. The species are mostly shrubs, and natives of 
the East Indies and China. 

AGY''NEI (Ecc.) a set of heretics who sprung up in 691-, 
and said that God forbad marriage and eating of flesh. 
Prateol Dogmat. Hceret. 

A'HALOTH' (Bot.) the Hebrew name for the Lignum 

All AME'LLA (Bot.) the fVio/wn nc»»(7/n of Linnaeus. 

AIIE'AD (Mar.) further on than the ship, in opposition to 
astern, or behind the ship. " To run ahead of one's reck- 
oning," i. e. to sail beyond the place erroneously esti- 
mated in the dead reckoning as the ship's station. — Line 
ahead, [vide Line'] 

AHME'LLA (Bot.) the verbesina acmella of Linnaeus, [vide 

AHOU'AI (Bot.) or ahovai, a tree of Brazil, growing to 
the size of a pear-tree, and bearing fruit the size of a 
chesnut. C. Bnnh. Pin. ; Raii Hist. Plant. 

A-HU'LL (Mar.) a term for a ship when all her sails are 
furled and her helm lashed on the lee-side. 

.AIIU'SAL (Chem.) the sulphur of arsenic. 

AICHiMA'LOTARClI (Theol.) or /Eclimalotarch, A'x,y"^Xc- 


rjifxf?, which signifies, Hterally, prince or chief of the cap- 
tives, was the title which the Jews pretend to have be- 
longed to him who governed tliat people during their 
captivitj' at Babylon. They believe hiiu to have been 
constantly of the tribe of Judah, although there is no 
proof of the existence of such a character before the end 
of the second century, when Huna was invested with 
it, after which the office continued till the eleventh 
centurj-. I'rid. Connect, part 2, book •)•. 

AI'D (Hist.) an Arabic term for a festival, so named be- 
cause it returns every year. 

Aid (Law) in French aide; a subsidy granted to the crown, 
or to any lord, as in the case of knighting a son or marry 
ing a daughter. — Aids customary or common, are those 
which were given by the right of custom, such as those 
above-mentioned. — Aids reasonable, are those which were 
given in an emergenc}'. — Aids gracious or noble, are those 
which were given voluntarily, — Aid prier, a petition in 
court, to call in the help of another person who has an 
interest in the thing contested, as a servant having done 
any thing lawfully in right of his master shall have aid of 
him. F. X. B. 50. — Aid of the kina, where the king's 
tenant prajs aid of the king on account of rent demanded 
of him by others. Stat. 4- Ed. I. c. 1, kc. l^ Ed. III. 
St. 1. c. U, &c. and 1 H. IV. c. S. 

Aio de camp (.17(7.) an officer that always attends on each 
of the generals in his camp, to receive and carry orders. — 
Aid de camp major, an officer who assists the major- 
general, and supplies his place in his absence. 

Aid (Man.) the assistance given to the movements of a 
horse by the rider, with his bridle and accoutrements ; 
thus, a horse is said to know his aids, or take his aids with 
vigour. The aids are of two sorts — Aid inner, as the inner 
heel, inner leg or inner rein, &c. — Aid outer, as the outer 
iieel, leg, rein, &c. 

AIDE du Pare des Vivres (Mil.) an officer in France acting 
immediately under the commissary of stores and pro- 

A'IGHENDALE (Com.) a liquid measure in Lancashire, 
containing seven quarts. 

A'lGLETT (Her.) an eaglet or 3'oung eagle. 

A'GREMORE (Mecb.) a term used by the artificers- in a 
laboratory to signify the charcoal in a state fitted for the 
making of powder. 

AI'GRIS (Com.) a stone which serves as current coin among 
the Issinois, a tribe of Africans, where it is looked upon as 
a precious stone, although it possesses no real value. It is 
of a greenish blue colour, without any lustre. It is hard 
in its texture, but does not admit of any great polish. 

AIGUEM.\RrXE (Mi7t.) or Aquamarine, another name for 
the emerald. 

AIGLT'LLE (Mil.) an instrument used by engineers to 
pierce a rock for the lodgement of powder, as in a mine: 
or to mine a rock so as to excavate it and make roads. — 
Aiguille de Chariot, French for the draught-tree of a 

AIGUI'LLES (Mech.) French for the short upright pieces 
of wood used in the roofs of houses. 

Aiguilles (Hyd.) round or square pieces of wood which 
serve to go up and down by way of a flood-gate. 

AIGUILE'TTES (Mil.) French for the tagged points which 
hang from the soldiers' unitorms, particularly among the 
Russians and Prussians. 

AIGUrSCE (Her.) or Eguisce, an epithet for a 
cross: a ^:rosi aignisce is that which has the 
two angles at the ends cut oft" so as to termi- 
nate in two points, in distinction from the cross 
Jitchee, which goes tapering to a sharp point. 

AI'GULET (Mccb.) a point of gold placed at the end of 


AIL (Late) or Aiel, from the French a'ieul, an ancestor, or a 
grandfather ; a writ which lies where a man's grandfather 
being seized of lands and tenements in fee simple the day 
that he died, and a stranger abateth or entereth the 
same day and dispossesses the heir of his inheritance. 
F. A'. B. 222. 

AIL'ANTHUS (Bot) from the Amboyna word Aylanto, i. e. 
the tree of heaven ; a genus of plants. Class 23 Polygamia, 
Order 1 Monoecia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — Cor. 
petals five. — STA^t. filaments ten ; anthers oblong. — 
P[ST. germs from three to five ; styles lateral ; stigmas 
capitate. — Per. capsules compressed ; seeds solitary. 
Species. — The species are — .lilautbus plandulosa, Tall 
Ailanthus, a tree, native of China. — .Ulanthus excelsa, a 
tree, native of the East Indies. Linn. Spec. Plant. 

AI'LERONS (.Mech.) 1 . The short boards which are set into 
the outside of the wheel of a watermill, which are called, 
in English, la.iles or aveboards. 2. The buttresses or 
tarlings laid along the sides of rivers or water-coarses, in 
order to prevent them from undermining any building. 

Aim of a bow ox gun (Sport.) the button or mark to take 
aim by. 

Aiyi frontlet (Mil.) a piece of wood hollowed out to fit the 
muzzle of a gun, so as to make it level with the breech, 
formerly in use among gunners. 

A in alt. (Mus.) the second note in Alt, the ninth above G 
or treble clift-note. — A in Altissimo, the second note in 
altissimo, or the octave above A in Alt. 

AJOURE' (Her.) from the French /o»r, a day, or light; 
an epithet for that part of the field which, by the removal 
of an ordinary or part of it, is exposed to the view. 

AIR (Xat.) aer, u'.f, one of the four elements, so called be- 
cause, aipsi, it lifts things up from the earth, or because 
ifi fsr, it is always flowing ; a rare invisible and extremely 
elastic fluid, not condensible by cold, or any other means, 
into a solid state. Plat, in Cratin.; Arist. de A.'.im. 1. 1, 
c. 2; and Met. 1. 1, c. 3. 

Air (Chem.) was expressed in ancient chemistry by the 
character of a triangle, thus [A ]• 

Air, in modern Cliemistry, is distinguished into atmospheric, 
factitious, fixed, vital, &c. — .lir, attnoxpheric or com- 
mon, an invisible, insipid, inodorous, ponderous, and elas- 
tic fluid, consisting of two parts, vital air or oxygen gas, 
and niephitic air or azotic gas. — Air factitious, that parti- 
cular sort of air which has been discovered and distin- 
guished by means of chemical experiments. Such sorts of 
air are commonly known by the name oi' gases, of which the 
following arc the principal. — .■lir, oxfixable, called by 
Van Helmont, Gas .sylvestre, an inodorous and elastic fluid 
like the former, but of superior gravity. It is catteA fixed 
air, because it is found in a fi.xed state in lir,ie, (dhalics, &c. 
It is also called carbonic acid gas, from its acid properties. 
— Air, vital or oxygen gas, is the union of oxygen with 
caloric, and forms a constituent part of the connnon air. 
It is absolutely essential for the respiration of every ani- 
mal, and on that account termed vital. — .///• inflammable, 
or Hi/drogen gas, an extremely inflammable substance, 
which is ten or even twelve times lighter than common air, 
and, by its mixture witb oxygen gas, will produce the 
most intense heat that is known. It is fatal to animals that 
are obliged to breathe it ; but for its lightness is generally 
used in the construction of air balloons. — Air nicphitic, so 
called from its impurity, has also the name of Az'Aic gas, 
because it is destructive to life; and of nitrogen gas, be- 
cause it is a union of nitrogen with caloric. It is the 
secoiid principal ingredient in atmospheric air, being, in 
fact, atmospheric air deprived of its oxygen. Its principal 
properties are that of extinguishing flame and life, as in 
mines, where it is called^^-e damp, that ii,fire quencher. — 


Airs acid, those acids which assume the form of airs or 
gases, and in consequence receive the name of air, as — 
^ir jMogisticatcd, the same as mcphilic air or vital eras. 
[vide Air mephitic] — Air Empyreal, or dephlngisticated, the 
same as vilal air. [vide Air vital] — Air alkaline, another 
name for Ammonia. — Air dephlogisticated nitrous, another 
name for the acid called nitrous oxi/d. — Air dephlogisti- 
cntcd marine, another name for oii/muriatic acid. In this 
manner other acids are denominated. 
Air (Anat.) the fine aerial substance supposed to be enclosed 
in the labyrinth of the inward ear, and to minister to the 
due conveyance of the sounds in the sensory. 
Air Bladder (Icli.) the vesicles in the contraction or 
dilation of which they raise or sinii themselves in the water. 
AiR-ressel (Rot.) or .4ir-bag, the name given by Withering 

to the Funiculus of Linna;us. [vide Follicidiis] 
AiR-threads (Nat.) a name given to the long filaments so 
frequently observed in the autunm season, floating in the 
air. Thefte are formed by the long legged field spider, 
which supports itself upon them to a considerable height 
when it is in quest of prey. 
Air Balloon (Pneum.) a machine so constructed as to be able 
to float in the air and carry weight. It is filled with a 
species of air called hydrogen gas, or air inflammable. — 
Air cane, an air gun converted into a walking stick. — Air 
gun, an instrument for propelling bullets solely by means 
of condensed air. — Air holder, a part of the chemical ap- 
paratus, otherwise called a gazomeler. — Air hole, a hole in 
a furnace just under the hearth to admit air, for increasing 
the force of the fire. — Air-jacket, a leathern jacket made 
with bags or bladders, communicating with each other, by 
the help of which when filled with air, and placed under 
the breast, a person may be supported in the water. — Air 
lamp, a pneumatic machine, formed by the combination of 
inflammable air and electricity to produce a flame, which, 
by means of a stop-cock, may be repressed or continued 
at ))leasure. — Air pipes, pipes which are adapted to the 
holds of vessels, or other close places, for the purpose of 
clearing them of the foul air. — Air pump, a machine for 
exhausting the air out of vessels, so as to obtain a vacuum 
as far as possible, [vide Pneumatics'] — v//r shaft, a passage 
for the conveyance of air into mines, or other subterra- 
neous places. — Air trunk, a contrivance for the clearing 
of rooms of the foul air, in which a number of persons are 
Air vessel (Hyd.) I. A vessel of air, contained in water en- 
gines, which force the water out in a stream as fast as it is 
admitted. 2. A metallic cylinder in the improved fire en- 
gines, which is constructed so as to retain the air which is 
requisite for forcing out the water in an e(|uable stream. 
Air (Mas.) or jliria, an air: 1. Any melody that comes 
within the reach of vocal expression. 2. In a stricter 
sense, any composition for a single voice. — Air, luilh 
variations, a melody varied, ad libitum, by the compiler. 
— Air tendre, an air, so denominated for the tenderness of 
its style. 
Air (Man.) a cadence and liberty of motion accommodated 
to the natural disposition of a horse, which makes him rise 
with obedience, measure, and time, [vide Airs] 
AI'KA (Hot.) ccJfu, the (jreek name for Lolium or Darnel, 
has been given by Linn.xus to a genus of jilants, ('lass ,'i 
Triandria, Order 2 Digi/nia, called in English Aira Grass. 
Cicneric Characters. Cai.. glume two flowered; valves 
ovate-lanceolate. — Cor. bivalve; Nectary two-leaved; 
leaflets acute. — S'r am. filaments capillary; anthers ob- 
long. — Pi ST. germ ovate; styles cetaceous; stigmas pu- 
bescent. — Per. none; seeds subovate. 
.Sjjccies. The species mostly consist of different species of 
the Avena or Gramina of other writers. ./. liauh in 
I list. Plant.; C. Bauh Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Thcat. 


Botan.; Raii Hist. Plant.; Tournef. Inst. Herb.; Boerh, 
Ind. Plant. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 

Aira, as a species, answers to the Ci/nosurus ccvruleus and 
the Melica ccvndea and lanatus of Linmeus. Jacqu. Stirp. 
in I'indel. 

AIR-BAG (Bot.) folliculus. [vide Folliculus] 

AI'RE (Falc.) or Airy, a nest of hawks, or other birds of 
prey, especially the nest used by falcons for hatching their 
)'oung in. 

Aire (Math.) French for, 1. The area, or inside of any 
geometrical figure. 2. The space between the >valls of a 
building. 3. A smooth and even spot of ground on which 
one treads. 

AI'RGUN (Pneum.) yide Air. 

AI'K-HOLE {Pneum.) vide Air. 

Al'UING ( J'et.) the exercise given to horses in the open air. 

AI'R-PIPES, Air-pump (Pneum.) vide Air. 

AI'R-SHAFT (Pneum.) vide Air. 

AI'RS, high or loxu (Man.) the motions of a horse that rise 
higher than terra a terra, and works at curvets, &c. 

A TRY (Falc.) vide Aerie and Aire. 

Airy Meteors (Aslron.) such as are bred from flatulous and 
spirituous exhalations. 

Airy Triplicity (Astrol.) the signs Gem/«j, Libra, M\d A<pta- 

AIS d' intrevoux (Mech.) French for boards or planks which 
cover the space between the rafters or beams in a building. 

AISCE'AU (Mech.) French for a chipaxe, or one-handed 
plane axe, used for hewing timber smooth. 

AISCE'TTE (Mech.) French for a small plane axe. 

AISIME'NTA (LoTv) easements or conveniences, including 
any liberty of passage, open way, water-course, &c. for 
the ease and convenience of any tenant of either house or 

AI'SLE (Her.) winged; an epithet for a bird in a charge 
having wings. 

AI'SLES (Arch(Col.) the wings or side passages belonging 
to a church ; so called from the French les aisles. 

AI'SSE (Mech.) French for a linch pin. 

AISSI'EU (Mech.) French for the axle-tree or axis, other- 
wise called a tympan or tambour, round which a rope may 
be wound for the purpose of drawing it up, after the man- 
ner of a crane. 

AISTHETE'RIUM {Med.) sensorium commune, the Com- 
mon Sensory. 

AITO'NIA {Bot.) a genus of plants. Class 16 Monadelphia, 
Order 4 Octandria. 

Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved; segments 
sharp. — Cor. petals four. — Stam. Jilaments awlshaped; 
anthers ovate. — Pist. ger>n superior; style one; stigma 
obtuse. — Pkr. /;r»ry ovate ; .«<v/.« many. 
Species. The only species is Aitonia Capensis, seu Coty- 
ledon, a shrub, native of the Cape of Good Hope. Linn. 
Spec. Plant. 

A.IUBATI'PITA Brasiliensium (Bot) a Brasilian shrub, five 
or six palms high, from the ahnond-llke fruit of which is 
extracted an oil that is used by the savages in anointing 
themselves. liaii Hist. Plant. 

AJU'GA (Bot.) another name for the Abiga, is, in the Lin- 
nean sijstem, a genus of plants. Class 14 Didynamia, Order 
1 Gymno.tpcrmia, called by Tournefort Bugula, in English 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved; .segments 
nearly equal. — Cor. monopetalous ; tube cyVmdvic; up- 
per lip very small ; lower large ; middle division very 
large; .'/V/e ones small. — SrA^t Jihnucuts subulate; an- 
thers twin. — Pist. germ four parted ; style filiform ; stig- 
mas two.— Ver. none; xccf/.« somewhat oblong. 
Species. The species are either perennials, as — Ajuga al- 
pina, Alpine Bugle. — Ajuga repfans, common liugle, 


&-C. ; or else annuals, as the — ^-ijugt chamapitys, chia, 
salicifijlia, kc. They are taken mostly from the genus 
Chamcepiiys of other authors. Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. 
Bolfiii.; Raii Hist. Plant ; Tournef. Iiisfit, ; Boerhaav. 

A'JUTAGE {Hijd) a kind of tube or spout filled to the 
cistern or pipe of the ;rf d' eau. 

AI'ZOON (Bot.) ii'i iao', i. e. always living, a genus of 

plants, Class 12 Icosandria, Order i Pentagi/iiia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — Cor. 

none. — Stam. Jilamenis very many, capillarj'; anthers 

simple. — PisT. germ five-cornered; sti//cs five; stigmas 

simple. — Per. capsule five-celled ; seeds kidney-shaped. 

Species. The species are either annuals, as the — Jizoon, 

canariense, hispanicum, Sec; or biennials, as the — .lizoon 

lanceolatum, sarmentosum, Sec. ; or shrubs, as the — Aizoon 

Jruticosum, rigidum, &c. all which are natives of the 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Aizoon is also the name of several species of the Sedum of 
Linna;us. J. Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; C. Bauh. Pin. ; Boer- 
haav. Ind., S;c. 

A'KEK-STAFF (Agric.) an instrument for clearing the coul- 
ter of the plough. 

A'KETON {Mil.) \-\Ae Aqucton. 

A'KOND (Polit.) the third pontifex in Persia, who is also an 
officer of justice. 

AL [Gram.) 1. An Arabian particle, answering to the Eng- 
lish tlte, and employed in the same manner to mark any 
thing distinctly, as Alcoran, from coran, to read ; the 
Reading, or Book, in distinction from all others. 2. Al, 
or aid, from the Saxon TTelb, old, is affixed to old towns, 
as Aldborough, iS:c. 

A-LA [Gram.) French for in the, used adverbiallj', as ii la 
Franfois, in the French fashion : a la mode, in the fashion. 

A-LA Grec (Mus.) in the Greek style, as applied to cho- 
russes. — .1 la Polacca, in the Polish style. 

Ala (Ant.) or Ahc, the wings of an army, or the horse on 
each side flanking the foot. They were so called because 
they stood on the right and left, as the wings on the body 
of a bird. According to Vegetius, they were also called 
vexillationes. Aid. Gell. 1. 16, c. i ; I'eget. de Re iSIil. 
1. 2, c. 1 ; Serv, in ^-En. 1. 9, v. 60i ; Laz. Comm. Reip. 
Roman. 1. 6, c. 2; Panvin. Imper. Roman, c. 16; Pancirol. 
Nolit. Dignit. Imp. Orient, c. 33, apiid Greev. Thes. Antiq. 
Roman, vol. 10, &c. ; Salinas, de Re Milit. Roman, c. S. 

Ala, or Ahe (Bot) 1. The same as A.iilla. 2. A wing or 
membrane on the sides of a petiole or footstalk, or attached 
to a seed or seed-vessel ; which Inst is distinguished by the 
names of JMonopteri/gia or alattt, Dipterygia or bialatcT, 
2'rip'crijgia: or trialata, See. according as there is one, 
two, three, or more wings. 3. The two side petals of a 
papilionaceous flower. Linn. Phil. Botan. 

Ala, or AUv (Anat.) i/,a<rx,aXvi, the arm-pit. Ilippocrat. de 
Art. ; Gorr. Defin. Med. — AlcE aurium, 7rrifuy'au.iiTU rSn a 
Tuf, tlie superior parts of the external ear. Gal. Introd. 
c 10, \c. — Ala, or Alee Nasi, ^rifuyia p'itjs, the cartilages 
which are joined to the extremities of the bones of the 
nose, and form the moveable part. Gal. de Usu. Part. 
1. 11. — Alee ossis Sphenoides, the two apophyses of the 
OS sphenoides. — Ala, or Alec Pudendi, the same as 

Ala (Ecc.) vide Alie. 

ALABA'NDICA Rosa (Bot.) so called from Alabanda in 
Asia ; a sort of damask rose with whitish leaves. 

ALABA'XDICUM Opus (Ant.) a proverb for any bad work- 
manship, for which the Alabandenses were famous. 

ALABA'XDICUS Lapis (Min.) a blackish sort of stone, the 
powder of which makes grey hairs black. ^£7. Tetrab. 1. 
serm. 2, c. 33. 

ALABA'RCHES (Ant.) a tribute paid for the feeding of 


cattle; also, tlie gatherer of the tribute, and a nickname 
of Pompev, on account of his having raised taxes in Syria. 
Cic. ad At'tic. 1. 2, ep. 17 ; Juseph. ^Anliq. Ind. 1. 20, c. 5; 
Eiiseb. Hist. Eccles. 1. 2, c. 3. 

ALABA'RI (Min.) lead. 

ALABA'STER (Ant.) an alabaster box, or a box made of 
the alabaster stone. 

Alabaster (Min.) Alabastrites so called from Alabastrum, 
a town of Egypt ; a soft kind of marble. Being easily 
cut, it was converted by the ancients into boxes for per- 
fumes. It was of various colours, and slrcaked with veins. 
The burnt stone, with rosin or pitch, is a discutient. 
Dioscr. 1. 5, c. 153 ; Plin. 1. 37, c. 10 ; P. Alginet. 1. 7, c. 3. 

ALABASTRI'TES (Min.) 1. The Alabaster-stone, [vide 
Alabaster']. 2. A species of the /«o/;Y/»(.5 of Linnaeus. 

ALABAJSTRON (Med.) u>.ufia^fn, an ointment mentioned 
by Myrepsus. Sect. 3, c. 61. 

ALABA'STRUM (Ant.) the box made of the alabaster- 
stone. Plin. 1. 9, c. 35. 

Alabastrum (Min.) or Alabastrites, the name among the 
ancients for the Alabaster-stone, which is classed by Lin- 
naeus under the species of Gypsum, or Plaster of Paris. 
Aldrov. Mns. Metall. ; Linn. System. Xat. 

ALABA'STRUS (Bot.) the herbaceous leaves of a plant 
which encompass the flower, particularly the rose. Plin. 
1. 21, c. 4. 

A'LACAB (Chem.) Sal Ammoniac. 

ALA'DINISTS (Theol.) a sect of Mahometans answering 
to free-thinkers among the Christians. 

A'LxL (Anat.) [vide Ala'] 

Ai,jE (Ant.) the prominent parts of the prow of a vessel. 
Poll. Onomast. 1. 1, c. 9. 

Al.e the corners of a garment, the lappets. 

Alje Ecclesice {Ecc.) les aisles de I'eglise, the wings or aisles 
of a church. 

AL^'A (Ant.) u.>.a.~», a festival in Peloponnesus called after 
Ala;a, the surname of Minerva. Paus.l. S, c. i~ . 

A'LAFI (Chem.) Alkali. 

ALA'IA phthisis (Med.) aXxix £«,«;, from aXx-iK, blind ; a 
consumption caused by a fluxion of humours in the head. 
Gal. Exeges Vocab. Hippoc. 

A'LALITE (Min.) a stone of the Chrysolite family. 

A'LAMACH (Asirnn.) Almak called Cothurnus, by Hyde, 
a star of the third magnitude in the southern foot of An- 
dromeda, marked ( 7 ) by Bayer. 

A-LA-^Il'RE (Mns.) the lowest note but one in the three 
septenaries of the gamut or scale of music. 

ALAMO'DE (Com.) a thin light glossy black silk, not 
quilted or crossed, chiefly for women's hoods. 

ALA'NA terra (Min.) English Oker, now called Red Ochre, 
the Ochra Jerri of Linnaeus, supposed to be what the 
ancients called Samius lapis, the Samian stone ; a light 
white stone, inclining to red, which was procured princi- 
pall}' in France. It is detersive and desiccative. 

ALANALA'BOLUS (Min.) a sort of earth mentioned by 
Paulus ^IJginetes, which is supposed to be the same as the 
Alana terra. 

ALA'NDAHAL (Bol.) the. Colocynthis oi 'Lmnxus. 

ALANEA'RIUS (Falcon.) a falconer, or a keeper of dogs 
for hawking. 

ALANFU'TA (Anat.) a vein between the chin and under 

A'LANT (Her.) a mastiff dog with short ears ; one ot the 
supporters to the arms of Lord Dacres. 

A'LA pouli (Bot.) another name for the Bilimbi or Averrhoe 
bilimbi of Linnaeus. 

ALAQUE'CA (Med.) a stone found in little polished frag- 
ments in the East Indies, and much used to stop bleeding. 

AL A'RAF ( Theol.) the party-wall that separates heavtp. 
from hell; according to the creed of the ^Mahometans. 


ALA'RES (Ant.) Alarii milites, the soldiers in the Roman 
array who formed tiie alic or flanks, which were mostly 
cavalry. C(es. dc Bell. Gall. 1. 1, c. 51 ; Liv. 1. 35, c. 5. 
ALA'IllS (Med.) alar or wing-shaped; an epithet for a vein 

in the bend of the arm. 
Ai.ARis (Dot.) alar or wing-shaped; an epithet for the 
peduncle and the head. — Pidunculus alaris, an alar pedun- 
cle, or one that stands in the axill.-c of the branches, as 
Linum rcuUola. — Capiluliwt alare, an alar head, or one that 
sits in the axilla; of the branches. 
ALA'RM (Mil.) any notice given either by the beat of the 
drum or the firing of cannon, &c. which shall cause the 
men to run to their arms. — .Harm post, in the field, is the 
spot fixed upon hy the quarter-master-general for each 
regiment to march to in case of an alarm : in the garrison, 
a similar place is marked out by the governor. — Alarm- 
hell, a bell which is m.adc for the purpose of ringing an 
alarm. — False alarms, stratagems of war, which are em- 
ployed either by an enemy for the purpose of harrassing, 
or by commanders for the purpose of trying the vigilance 
of the men. (Fenc.) another name for an appeal or challenge. 
ALA'TAN (Chem.) Lithargyrum. 
A'LATUR (Chem.) .Es ustum. 

ALATERNO'IDES (Dot.) another name for the Phylica 
cricoides ; the Clutea ahiternnides ; the Creanthu.'S Afri- 
canus ; the Ilex cassinc and the Mirica cordifolia of Lin- 
naeus. Rail Hist. Plant. 
ALATE'RNUS (Dot.) a name formerly for a genus of 
plants, the species of which are now the Rhamniis alaternus 
and p/ii/lica ; the Celastnis ; and the Ilex cassine, Paragua 
and vomitoria of Linna-us. Cliis. Bar. Plant. Hist. ; J. 
Dauli. Hist. Plant.; C. Daii/i. Pin. ; Ger. Herb. ; Parkins. 
Thcat. Dotan. ; Rail Hist. Plant. ; Boerhaav. Ind. Bntan. 
ALA'TI (Anat.) an epithet for such as have their scapula; 
or shoulder-blade very prominent, who are supposed to be 
subject to consumptions. 
Alati processus, the processess of the Os sphenoides. 
ALA'TUS (But.) winged, or provided with a membrane 

like awing. 
ALAU'DA (Or.) Lark, a genus of animals, Class Arcs, 
Order Passeres. 
Generic Characters. Dill cylindrical. — Mandibles equal. — 

Tongue bifid. — Hind claw straight. 
Species. The principal species are the — Alauda arvensis, in 
French I'Alonelle, the Sky Lark. — Alauda cristatella, in 
French le Lrdu, Lesser crested Lark. — Alauda arborea, 
in l'"rench I'Aloiielte de bois ou Ic OyM&r, Wood-Lark. — 
Alauda Itnlica, in French Giarola, Italian Lark. — 
Alauda capcnsis, in French Cravate jaune, Cajjc Lark. — 
Alauda nui^ellaua, in French le Rousseline, Marsh Lark. 
— Alan/la Scncgalensis, in French Grisette, Senegal Lark. 
— Alauda minor scvtAgrestis, Field Lark. — Alauda Ludo- 
viciana, in French la Farlouzanne, Louisana Lark. — 
Alauda alpeslris, in French Ic Haupccol, Shore Lark. — 
Alauda yl/'ricana, in French le Sioli, African Lark. — 
Alauda uiidnta, in I'rench la Cor/uillade, Undated Lark. 
— Alauda pratcnsis, in French I'Alouelte de pics, Tit- 
Lark. — Alauda .sepiaria, in French Alouelte pipi, Pipit- 
Lark, &c. 
AL.\.'Ul>JE (Mil.) a legion of Transalpine Gauls who were 
in Ca:sar's army. Suetonius says they were so called in 
the CJallic tongue. Sucton. in .Jul. Cecs. c. 2t. 
ALA'L'SA (Ich.j vide Alosa. 

ALA'V (Polil.) a Turkish word signifying triumpli, is taken 
for a ceremony of proclaiming war in Turkey, wliich is a 
sort of masquerade. 
Ar,AY (Sport.) a term used for fresh dogs when they are 

sent into the cry. 
A'LIJA (Ant.) a sort of tunic, so called from its whiteness. 


of which mention is made in the letter of the emperor 
Valerian. Trebcdl. Poll, in Claud. 

Ah\i\ (Archceol.) the Alb. L A surplice anciently used by 
officiating priests, so called because it was made of white 
linen. Con. Carthag. i\. can. i ; Alcuin dc OJpc. Divin. ; 
Amalar. Eccles. OJfic. 1. 2. 2. A vestment worn by persons 
newly baptized, as an emblem of |)urity ; whence they 
were called Albati. St. Amlm.sius de his qui Mi/stcr. in. ; 
Dionys. Areop. de Hier. Eccl. c. 1 , 2, &c. ; St, Awttst. 
epist. IGS, clc. ; Alcuin. dc Divin. OJfic. &c. 

ALBA/lVma (Law) or Album, a yearly rent payable to the 
chief lord of a hundred, paid in while money or silver, in 
distinction from that paid in grain, &c. which was called 
reditus tiigri. 2 Inst. 19, &c. 

Alba (Miu.) a sort of jiearl of peculiar excellence. Lam- 
prid. in Heliogab. ; Suidas. 

Alba terra (Atch.) a name for the philosopher's stone, 
which was a composition of quicksilver and sulphur. 

Alba spina (Dot.) vide Acacia. 

Alba vitiligo (Med.) vide Vitiligo. 

Alba pituita (Med.) vide Leucophlegmatia. 

ALBADA'RA (Anat.) an Arabic term for the sesamoide 
bone of the first joint of the great toe. 

ALBAGL\'ZI (Anat.) Arabic for the os sacrum. 

ALBAHU'RLM (A-itrol.) a figure consisting of sixteen 
sides, on which astrological physicians built their prog- 

ALBAME'NTUM (Nat.) vide Album ovi. 

ALBA'RA (Med.) the same as Alptius. 

Albara (Bot.) the Canna angustifolia ofLinna;us. Pis. 
Braz. Plant. 

ALBA'RII (.Int.) those who whitened earthen vessels, in 
distinction from the Dealbatoi'es who whitened walls. 

ALBA'RUS (Chem.) arsenic. 

Albauus alba (Med.) the same as Leucc. — Albartis nigra, 
the same as Lepra Grwcorum. 

ALBA'TI (Ant.) clothed with the Alba [vide Alba'] ; an 
epithet for soldiers who were employed for parade on 
public occasions : " Jamprimum inter Togatos Patrcs et 
Equestrem ordinem, albatos milites et onmi populo prae- 
unte." Trebel. Poll, in Gall. 

Albati (Ecc.) an epithet, 1. For ecclesiastics in their cleri- 
cal robes, who Albas gerunt seu in Albis sunt. 2. For those 
who, on receiving baptism, were clothed in the Alba, [vide 

AL15,\'TI() (Chem.) Albijicalio, from albco, to Mliitcn ; 
blanching metals. 

A'LBATROSS (Or.) or Man of War Bird, the Diomcdea 
of Linna?us ; a water bird which inhabits most seas, par- 
ticularly witiiin the Tropics, between three and four feet 
long, and lays eggs as large as a goose, the white of which 
cannot be hardened by boiling. 

A'LBE (Com.) a small coin in Germany equal to a penny. 

ALBE'DO (Med.) whiteness, particularly as applied to 
urines, which are of four kinds, chrystalline, snowy, limey, 
and limpid. I'hcophd de Urin. c. 5 ; Actuar. de L'rin. c. 8, 

AL'BEKAS (Bot.) the Stophisagria of Linnaeus. 

A'LlilCIUiE (D<it.) a small forward pear of a yellow colour. 

ALBEUCiE'LIUM (Mil.) an habergeon, a defence for the 
neck. Itiivedon. 

ALBE'RNUS (Com.) a stuff resembling camblet, which is 
manufactured in the Levant. 

ALBE'RTIJS (S'umis.) a gold coin worth about fourteen 
livrus, which was coined during the administration of Al- 
bertus, Archduke of Austria. 

ALBE'STON (Chem.) Quick-Lime. 

A'LBETAD (Chem.) (ialbanum. 

A'LBI (Chem.) Sublimate. 

ALBICA'NTIA Corpora (Anat.) glands behind the infundi- 
bulum of the pelvis of the cerebrum. 


ALBIGE'NSES {Ecc.) a sect of heretics in the twelfth 

century, who opposed the doctrine and discipline of the 

Romish church. They derive their name from the city of 

Albi where they established themselves, but they were also 

known by the different names of Henricians, Petrobusians, 

Publicans or Poplicians, l?on-honimes or Puritans, &c. 

according to their different tenets, which were mostly after 

the ]Manichean scheme. Prateol. Vit. et Dogni. Haret, 

(imii. ; Sander. Hceres. ; Baron. Anna/, and Bzov. Hist. 

ALBI'GO (Rot.) mildew, a whitish mucilaginous coating of 

the leaves of plants, produced cither by small plants or 

A'LBIMEC (Chcm.) Orpiment. [vide Aiiripigmentum'] 
A'LBIXOS {S'at.) the name given by the Portuguese to the 

white IMoors, who are looked upon as monsters by the 

ALBl'N'U.M (Bot.) the GimphnUum Diorcum of Linnaeus ; 

a species of plant, so called from the whiteness of its 

A'LBIS {Nat.) pitch from the bark of the yew tree. 
ALBITROSSE [Or.) vide Albatross. 
ALBO margimitum (Bot.) having white on the margin ; an 

epithet for a leaf. — Al/jo variegatum, having white in the 

centre ; an epithet for a leaf. 
A'LBOR Ovi (Xat.) Albumen Ovi. 
A'LBORA (Med.) a species of itch consisting of the Mor- 

phew, Serpigo and Leprosy. I'aracel. dc Apostem. c. 42. 
ALBO'KEA (Chem.) Mercury. 
A'LBORO (Ich.) a common name, in the markets of Rome 

and Venice, for the small red fish called the Erethymus. 
A'LBOT (Chem.) a crucible. 
A'LBOTAT (Chem.) Ceruss. 
ALBOTIM [Chem.) Turpentine. 
A'LBOTIS (Med.) Terminthus. 
ALBU'CA (Hot.) a genus of plants ; Class 6 Hexandria, 

Order 1 Monogynia. 

Generic Characters. Cat,, none. — CoR. ^)f/a/.s six. — Stam. 
Ji/aments shorter than the corolla. — VisT. germ ohlong ; 
style three-sided ; .stigma a triangular pyramid. — Per. 
capsule oblong ; seeds numerous. 

Species. The species are mostly perennials, and natives 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Raii Hist. Plant. ; Mar. 
Hist. Plant. ; Linn. .'>pec. Plant. 
ALBUGI'XEA {.4nat.) from albas ; an epithet for the tunica 

adnata oculorum, as also for the coat of the testicles, so 

called from its colour which is white. 
ALBUGI'XEUS humour (Anat.) the aqueous humour of 

the eye. [vide Aqueous Humour'] 
ALBU'GO oculorum (.Anat.) a disease in the ej'e, which 

consists of a pearl or white speck. Plin. 1. 20, c. 5, &c. ; 

Oribas. tie Loc. Affect. 1. 4, c. 24 ; Aet. Tetrab. 2, serm. 3, 

c. 37, Sec. ; Paul. .Eginet. de Re Med. 1. 3, c. 22 ; Actuar. 

de Mcth. Med. 1. 6, c. 5. 
Albugo Coralli (Xat.) the magistery of Coral. — Albugo 

Ovi, the white of an egg. [vide Albumen'} 
A'LBUL.E Aqucc (Med.) "aa3«a«i, the mineral waters of 

Albula, in Italy, by which wounds were healed, according 

to Pliny. Hist. Nat. 1. 31, c. 2 ; Gal. de Meth. Med. 1. 8, 

c. 2 ; .-let. Tetrab. 3, serm. 3, c. 30. 
A'LBU.M (Ant.) a white table wherein the praetors had their 

decrees written, also a muster-roll, or list of names, as 

the Album Judicnm, Album senatorium, &c. Cic. Orat. 

1. 2, c. 12; Senec. de Bencf. 1. 3, c. 7 ; Plin. Prqfat.; 

Tacit. Annnl. I. 4, c. liS ; Sueton. in Claud, c. 16; Dio. 

in August. ; Bud. in Pandect. ; Salmas de Med. Usur. 

p. ()78. lialsamum (Med ) Capivi Balsamuni. — Album His- 

panicuni, Spanish \\'hite ; a cosmetic. — Alburn Grcecum or 

Canis, Dog's-dung applied to Ulcers, &c. Dale. Phar- 


macop. — Album Jus, a broth made from fish for sick people. 

Alb CM Oculi (Anat.) the White of the eye. — Album Ovi, 
the white of an egg. [vide Albumen'] 

Album Olus (Hot.) Corn Salad. 

Album Nigrum (Nal.) blouse-dung. 

Album (Law) vide .-ilbn Firma. 

ALBU'MEN (Nat.) the White of an egg, called by Aristotle 
Xi'jy.^v, by Celsus Ovi candidum, by Pliny Ovi A/bus liquor, 
by Palladius Ovi Albor, Ovi Album, or Albumerilum. 
Aristot. de Gen. Animal. 1. 3, c. 2 ; Dioscor. 1. 2, c. 155; 
Plin. 1. 10, c. 53; Gal. de Simplic. 1. 11 ; Harv. de Gen. 
Animal. Exercit. 60. 

Albumen (Bot) the substance of the lobes of seeds cor- 
responding to the white of an egg. Greiv. Anat. of Plants. 

ALBU'MOR (Nat.) vide Albumen. 

ALBU'RNUM (Bot.) the soft white substance in trees next 
to the liber, or inner bark, which gradually acquires soli- 
dity, until it becomes wood. It is, according to LinnEBUs, 
Intermedia substantia libri et Hgni, and is vulgarly called 
Sap, to distinguish it from the heart, which is harder, and 
of a deeper colour. It derives its name albo colore from 
its white colour. Plin. I. 16, c. 38 ; Linn. Phil. Botaii. 

ALBU'RNUS (/('/(.) the Bleak, the Cyprinus nlburnus of 
Linnaeus : a little fish mentioned by Ausonius, the catching 
of which was an amusement for children. 
Auson. Mosel. v. 126. 

AUnmios jirailam pumtibui hamii. 

A'LBUS Liquor (Nat.) vide Albumen. 

Aldus Spinus (Bot.) White Thorn. 

Albus Romanus Pulvis (Med.) magnesia. — Albusjluor, vide 

Fluor Albus. 
Albus (Com.) a small coin current in Cologne, a half- 
penny in value. 
A'LCA (Or.) the Auk, a genus of birds of the Order anseres. 
Generic Character. Bill strong, thick, compressed. — 
Nostrils linear. — Tongue almost as long as the bill. — 
Toes no back toe. 
Species. The principal species are as follow ; namely — 
Alca impennis, in French le grand Fingoin, Penguin, 
or Great Auk. From the smallness of its wings it is 
unable to flv, and is observed by mariners never to go 
beyond soundings. — Alca tarda, in French le Pingoin, 
the Razor-bill Auk or Murre, so called from the sharp 
edges of the bill. — .ilea arctica, in French le Macareux ; 
the F'ica marina of Aldrovandus, and the Puffin or 
Coulterneb of Willoughby. — Alca (die, in French la petit 
Guillemot ; the Little lilack and White Diver of Wil- 
loughby ; the Mergidus mclanoleucos of Ray, is now 
more commonly known by the name of the Little Auk. 
— Alca pijgmcca, an American and Asiatic bird, is still 
smaller than the preceding, being not more than seven 
inches long. 
A'LCADE (Polit.) an inferior minister of justice in Spain. 
A'LCAHEST (Chem.) vk\c Alkahest. 
A'LCAHOL (Chem ) Alcohol. 

ALCA'IC Dactylic (Poet.) an alcaic verse, in which the 
dactyl is the principal foot. — Alcaic Strophe, a strophe 
in which the Alcaic verse prevails. — Alcaic Verse, [vide 
ALCA'ICS (Poet) Carmen Alcaicum, i. e. Alcaic Verse ; a 
sort of verse so called from the poet Alcaeus, by whom 
it was first used. Alcaics are of three sorts ; namely — 
The lesser Alcaic, which consists of two dactylfs and two 
trochees, as 
Hor. Carm. 1. 2, od. 3, v. 28. 

£i'it'i I urn imposi \ tiira \ cymbir. 

The greater Alcaic, which consists of five feet ; the first a 
K 2 



spondee, or iambic ; the second an iambic ; the third a 
caesura, or long syllable ; the fourth and fifth dactyles, as 
Hot: Carm. 1. 1, od. 3, v. 25. 

fltnnrs | cij | dcm \ c'.gtmiir \ tjmmnm 
Versa \ tiir iir | ria, ^'C. 

These two are called Alcaic Dactylics. — Tlic third and 
last sort consists of four feet, the first an epitrite, the 
second and third choriambuses, and the fourth a bac- 
chius, as 
Hor.\. 1, od. 8. 

Te Di-os u I vo S^harin \ air projhrcs | timando. 

A'LCALI (Cfievi.) ^\Aq Alkali. 

ALCALE'SCENT, kc. (C/iem.) vide Alkalescent, &c. 

ALCA'XCALI [Med.) an antidote used in burning fevers. 

Mj/rep. sect. 1 , c. 2i. 
.\LC.\'NNA {Dot.) the Ancliusa of Linnaeus, more com- 
monly called Alkanet. 
ALCAV'A'LA {Com.) a custom-house duty paid in Spain, 
en imported goods, at the rate of five per cent, on the price 
of tlie commodity. 
.\'LCEA (li'd.) afixiu, a sort of wild mallows which was 
employed in medicine as an emollient. Dioscci: 1. 3, 
c. IGt; Pliii. 1. 27, c. 4-; Paul. .-Hginet. de Re Med. 
1.7, c. 3. 
Alcea, in the Linnean si/slem, a genus of plants; Class 16 
Mcnodclphia, Order 7 Poli/andria, in English the Vervain 

Generic Characters. Cal. double. — Cor. petals five. — 
HTAhi. Jilameiits uniting into a sort of five-angled cylinder 
at bottom ; anthers almost kidney-shaped. — germ 
orbiculate ; stijle cylindric ; stigmas setaceous. — Per. 
arils many-jointed ; seed one. 
Species. The Species are the — Alcea rosea. Common 
Holly-hock, a native of China. — Alcea fici/hlia, Fig- 
leaved Holly-Iiock. — Alcea Africana, African Holly- 
hock, native of Africa. J. Bauh. Hist. I'lant. ; C. 
Banh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bolau. ; Rail 
Hist. Plant. ; Tournef. Inst. ; Boerhaav. Ind. Plant. ; 
Linn. Spec. Plant. 
Alcea is also the name for different species of the Hibiscus 

and Maha of Linnseus. Bauh. Rail, &c. 
ALCE'BUIS vivwn (Chem.) the same as Sulphur vivuni. 
ALCE'DO (Or.) a genus of animals ; Class Aves, Order 
Generic Characters. Bill triangular. — Tongue Fleshy. — 

I'cct (in most) gressorial. 
Species The principal species are — Alccdo giganlca, in 
French Ic plus grand Martin Pecheur, Giant King-fisher, 
jrdiabits New Holland — Alccdo lorquata, in French 
I'Alatti, Cinereous King-fisher, inhabits Martinique. — 
Alccdo atracapilta, in French le Marlin-pcchcur H coijfe 
noir, Blackcapped King-fisher. — Alcedo cnncrojihaga, in 
French le Crabicr, Crab-eating King-fisher. — Alccilo fla- 
vescens, in French Tenrou-joulon, Flavescent King-fisher. 
Alcedo Brasilicnsis, in French le G/p-Gip. — Alccdo cris- 
tata, in French, le, Crested King-fisher, inhabits 
Amboyne and the Philippine islands. 
.VECHAUIL (Chem.) Rosemary. 
ALCIIA'AHA (Chem.) \ide Alchem,/. 

ALCHE.^H'LLA (Bot.) or Alchimctla, from having been 

celebrated by the Alchymists, Ladies Mantle; a genus of 

plants, Class 't Tetandria, Order 1 Mono^ynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved; edge flat. 

— Cou. none. — Sta:^!. Ji/ummls erect; rt»///(;7-s roundish. 

Visr. gcrtn ovate; style fililbrm; stigma globular. — Pei(. 

none ; seal solitarj-. 

Species. The species are — Akhcmilla ■vulgaris, scu Pes 

Leonis, Common Ladies Mantle, or Bearsfoot. A pe- 
rennial, native of Britain. — Alchemilla Alpina, Stcllarea 
argentia, seu Hcptaphillon Cinqvefoit, or Aljjine Ladies 
Mantle; a perennial, native of Britain. — Alchemilla pcn- 
taphyllca, seu alpina, &:c. Five-leaved Ladies Mantle ; a 
perennial, native of the Alps. — .'llchemilla Capensis, na- 
tive of the Cape of Good Hope. — Alchemilla Aphanca, 
hirsuta,monandra,annuus, seamiuinia Montana, Aphanes, 
or Scaiidi.r minor, an annual. — Alchemilla Arvenis, an an- 
nual, native of Britain J. Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; C. Bauh. 
Pin. Tliat. Botan. ; Ger. Herb. ; Park. Theat. Botan. ; 
Raii Hist. Plant.; Tourn. Inst. Herb.; Buerh. Ind. 
Plant. ; IVild. Linn. Spec. Plant. 
ALCHE^H'STOll (Alch.) Alchymist, a studier of Alchymy. 
AL'CHEMY (Chem.) y]de Alchymy. 
ALCHIME'LLA (Bot.) \k\e Alchemilla. 
ALCHI'TUAN (Chem.) the oil of Juniper. 
ALCHOCO'KDEN (Aslrol.) a jilanet that bears rule in ti\e 
principal places of astrological figures at a person's nativity. 
ALCHO'LLEA (Mcch.) a sort of meat pickled, dried, and 

ALCHO'UXEA (Bot.) from Mr. Alchorne, of London; a 
genus of plants, Class 22 Dioccia, Order 13 Mona- 

Generic Characters. C.\l. perianth three or five leaved; 
leajlets ovate. — Cor. none. — SrAyi. Jilamcnis eight ; an- 
thers ovate. — PisT. a rudiment. 
Species. The only species is the Alchornea latijblia, a 
shrub, native of Jamaica. Linn. Spec. Plant. 
A'LCHYMY (Chem.) that branch of chemistry which more 
particularly treats of the transmutation of metals. It is 
compounded of the Arabic particle al, the, and the Greek 
X^y-"'", preparing of metals, i. e. ' The chemistry,' by dis- 
tinction from every other branch of the art. 
Alchymy is also the name of a composition of copper and 

arsenic, which is used for Kitchen utensils. 
ALCI'BION (Bot.) from u>,y.y., strength, and /3i«, life; a 

herb that is good against the stinging of serpents. 
ALCMA'NIC verse (L'oct.) so called from the lyric poet, 
Alcmann, its inventor, consists of three dactyls and a long 
A'LCOB (Chem.) Sal Ammoniac. 
ALCOCHO'liDON (A.-,lrol.) vide Alchocordcn. 
ALCODETA (Chem.) the tartareous sediment of urine. 
A'LCOHOL (Chem.) .■llcahol or Alkohol. 1. The powder 
of lead ore, a fine uni)alpable powder with which the 
Eastern ladies tinged their hair. 2. Any powder reduced 
to the highest state of purity. 3. Spirits of wine, or any 
other fermented liquor, rectified to the highest state of 
perfection. Paracel. dc Tartar. 
ALCOHOLIZA'TION (Chem.) the reducing of bodies to a 
fine and unpalpable powder; or in liquids, the depriving 
liquid spirits of their phlegm or watery nualit}', so as to 
rectify them highly. 
A'LCOL ( Chem.) vinegar. 
A'LCOL.V (Med.) the same as aphtha. 
Alcola (Alch.) the tartar or excrement of wine. Paracel. 

dc Urin. c. 2. 
ALCOLI'SMUS (C/iem.) Alcolizing or reducing any sub- 
stance to fine particles. 
ALCOLfi'A Urina (Med.) a urine so called from the Al- 
cola which it contains. Paracel. de Urin. c. 2. 
A'LCOKAU (Astral.) a contrariety of light in the planets. 
A'LCOllAN (My.) i. e. the Koran or reading, from the 
Arabic al, the, and Koran, to read ; a collection of iablcs 
and impostures, invented by Mahomet, which is held 
sacred by the Musselmen, as their Bible, or rule of 
Alcouan (Lit.) a name given to some extravagant produc- 
tions of the monks in former times, as the " Alcoran of the 


Cordeliers," in ^\bich St. Francis is preposterously extolled, 
and put on a level with our Saviour. 

A'LCORANISTS (Theol.) strict adherents to the letter or 
text of the Koran. 

ALCORA'XES {Archccol.) high slender towers, generallj' 
huilt by the Mahometans near their mosques. 

A'LCYON (Or.) vide Halajoti. 

ALCYONIUM {Con.) a genus of animals, Class Vermes, 
Order Zoopliyta. 
Generic Characters. Animal in the form of a plant. — Steyn 

fixed, fleshy, gelatinous, spongy, or coriaceous. 
Species. The principal species are the — .Llci/oniiim digita- 
tum. Dead-man's hand. — Alcijonium bursa. Sea-purse. — 
Alcyonium fens. Sea-fig, ijcc. 

ALDABA'RAN {Astron.) or the Bull's Eye, a star of the first 
magnitude in the southern eye of the constellation Taurus, 
which Ptolemy calls o >.xu,-:pii Tat vxj^v, i. e. the bright 
star of the Hyades. The Right Ascension for 1S12 was 
66° IT' 4": IJeclination, 16° 7' 31" N. : Annual Variation 
in Right Ascension 51" 31 : in Declination 8" 16. Plolem. 
Almagest. \. 7, c. 5, lic. ; U/ug. Beig/i. npud Hxjde Relig. 
Vet. Fcrsar. ; Baijer. Uraiiomet. 

A'LDER (Bnt.) the i?f/«/a .(^/siu of Linnseus, a well-known 
tree which thrives particularly in moist places. It is called 
in Greek j-.A>;t'f:i, in Latin Aliiiis, in German FJler, in Dan- 
ish Ell, in Swedish All, Aid, iSrc. The principal sorts of 
alder are three, namely, the round-leaved, or common 
alder, the long-leaved, and the dxvnrf alder. It is pro- 
pagated by layers or truncheons, which are planted in Fe- 
bruarj' or March, and is of great use for making fences. 
The wood is valuable for piles and pumps, and all other 1 
works which remain under water, and is also much used by 
turners. The bark is employed in tanning. — Black alder, 
the Rhamnus frangula of Linna;us. 

ALDERA'IMEN (Astron.) vide Aderaimin. 

A'LDERMAN (Polit.) eal&erman, formerly one of the 
tlnee degrees of Nobility among the Saxons. Atheling was 
the first, Thane tlie lowest, and Alderman the same as 
Earl among the Danes. Now Aldermen are associates to 
the chief civil magistrates of a city or town corporate. 

ALDERMA'NNUS totius Anglite (Law) an officer answer- 
ing to the Lord Chief Justice. — Aldcrmannus Hundrcdi, an 
office first appointed in the reign of Henry I. 

ALDROV'A'NDA (Bot.) a genus of plants, so called after 
Aldrovandrus, the naturalist, Class 5 Pentandria, Order 5 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth five-parted. — CoJi. pe- 
tals five. — Stam. fdaments length of :he flowers ; an- 
tliers simple. — Fist, germ globose ; styles very short ; 
stigmas obtuse. — Per. capsule globose ; seeds ten. 
Species. The only species is the Aldrovanda vesiculosa, seu 
Lent'cula palustris, 6:c. native of Italy. FluL Almag. 
Botan. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 

ALE (Husband.) a species of beer, which is distinguished 
by having less of the hop. — Pale Ale is brewed from malt 
slightly dried. — Broxm Ale is brewed from malt high 
dried. — .-ile-House, a house that is licensed to sell ale. 
Slat. 5 Sc 6 Ed. VI. — Ale Shot, a reckoning to be paid at 
an Ale-house. 

AhE-silver (Laxo) a rent or tribute annually paid to the 
Lord of the Manor by those that sell ale within the liber- 
ties of the city. — Ale-taster, an officer for inspecting the 
quality of the beer sold in Ale-houses in the city. Kitch. 46. 
— Ale-Conner, an officer in the city of London to inspect 
the measures of Ale-house Keepers. 

Ale cost (Bot.) or ale-coast, from its being put into Ale; an 
old name for the Tanacetum Bahamita of Linnoeus. — Ale- 
Hoof, Ground Ivy, so called because it serves to clear ale 
or beer. 

Alh Gill (Med.) or Gill-ale, a kind of medicated liquor 


from the infusion of ground-ivy in malt liquor. Qidnc. 
Med. Dispens. 

ALECENA'RIUM (Falcon.) a sort of hawk called the Lau- 

ALE-CONNER (ArchaoL) \[de Ale. 

ALECTO'RIA (Mi,i.) or Lapis Aleclorius, from i.>iy.ri^,, n 
cock ; a gem so called because it is found in the stomacli 
of cocks. 

ALECTORO'LOPHUS {Bot.) a plant so called from i>/-c- 
ruf, a cock, and Acyo;, a crest, because its leaves resemble 
the crest of a cock. By the earlier botanists, it is called 
either by this name, or by that of GalUv Crista and Pedi- 
cnlaris. ' In the Linnffian system it is classed under the 
Bart.'sia, Pcdicidaris, and Rhinanthus. I-'lin. 1.21, c .5 ; 
Dodon. Slirp. Hist.; Clus. Rar. Plant. Hist.; J. Bank. 
Hist. Plant.; C. Bauh. Pin.; Rail Hist. Plant.; Linn. 
Spec. Plant. 

ALE'CTRA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 14 Didynamia, 
Order 2 Anginspermia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved ; cleft.^ 
ovate. Cor. one-petalled ; tube b}' degrees widened a 
little ; border expanding. — StAiM. f laments four ; ae- 
thers twin.^PisT. o-c)-»; ovate; style filiform; stigma in- 
curved. — Per. capsule ovate ; seeds solitary. 
Species. The only species is the Aleclra Capcnsis, an an- 
nual, native of the Cape of Good Hope. Linn. Spec. 

ALECTRYOMA'NCY (Ant.) Alectryomnnteia, from i;.fV.7-«, 
and !/>x.tTi!o., a prophecy or divination by means of cocks. 
It was performed by writing the twenty-four letters of the 
alphabet in the dust, on each of which a grain of corn was 
laid : then a cock magically prepared was let loose among 
them, and those letters, out of which he picked the corns, 
being joined together into words, were supposed to declare 
what they purposed to know. In this manner Jamblicus, 
the master of Proclus, is said to have divined that a person, 
named Theodosius, Theodotus, Theodorus, or Theodectes, 
was to succeed the emperor Valens, which coming to the 
emperor's ears, he put to death several persons whose 
names began with those letters, and obliged Jamblicus to 
poison himself, iu order to escape his fury. Zonar. 
Anna I. 

ALE'CTRY'OXON Agon (Ant.) a>.!KTfm:iu> a'/S>, i. e. the 
contest of cocks, an annual festival, which was celebrated 
by cock-fighting. It was instituted by Themistocles, in 
commemoration of his victory over the Persians, which 
had been presaged by the crowing of cocks. Plutarch, iu 

A'LE-DIIAPER (Archccol.) a humourous name for an Ale- 
house keeper. 

A-LE'E (Mar.) i. e. A lee, the situation of the helm when 
pushed close down to the lee side of the ship, in order to 
put the ship about. 

ALEFA'NTES (Chcm.) flower of salts. 

A'LEGAR (Chcm.) sour ale used by the Dyers. 

A'LE-HOOF (Bot.) a plant, the Glycome hederacea of Lin- 
na;us, so called from its use to clear ale or beer. 

ALEl'PHA (Med.) "AMifiec, the oil of vegetables. Gal. 
E.teg. apud Hippocrat. 

ALEIPTE'RIUM (Ant.) Lxuzri^m, the place in the Gym- 
nasium at Athens where the combatants used to anoint 
themselves, bo called from KM;?a, to anoint. 

ALELAl'ON (Med.) 'AAsAaw, oil beat up with salt to apply 
to tumours. Galen, de Reined. Parab. ; Foes. Oeconom. 

ALE'MA (Chem.) aA>i^.«, boiled meal. 

ALE'MBIC (Chem.) Alembicus, compounded of the Ara- 
bic particle al, and the Greek au,2il, a cup ; is the cap 
or head to a distilling vessel, which was called the body. 
The whole apparatus is now called by the name of Alem- 


bic, and is of two sorts, beaked and blind. — Ahmlicus 
rostratiis, a beaked Alembric, has a canal or pipe 
from the head into the receiver. — Alembicus ccecus, a 
blind Alembic, is one without a pipe. Paracii. Archi- 
dox. 1. 3. 
ALE'.MBOR (Chcm.) vide Alembroth. 

ALE'MBROTH (CItem.) the philosopher's salt, in the lan- 
guage of Paracelsus ; a fixed alkaline salt. Paiacd. 
Diction . 
ALEOPHAWGINii: ;;*//« (Med.) aromatic pills. 
ALEO'RE (Med.) aAiap, ease from the abatement of a 
distemper. Hippocrat. Prognost. sect. J ; Foes. Oeconom. 
A'LEOS (Med.) aXtci, as an epithet, signifies heaped, con- 
densed ; as a substantive, heat or warnilh. Hippocrat. de 
Morb. Mill. 1. 1 ; Hesijcldiis. 
A'LER sans jour {Law) to be finally dismissed the court, 
because there is no further day assigned for appearance. 
Kitch. 146. 
A'LES (Med.) aXm, condensed; an epithet applied by Hip- 
pocrates to the excrements. Hippocrat. de Morb. Mid. 
1. J. 
Ales (Chem.) a compound salt. — Alct crudum, crude ales 

drops which often fall in the night time in June. 
A'LESCH (C/iem.) alunien. 

A'LE-SHOT (Archccol.) a reckoning to be paid at an ale- 
A'LE-SILVER (Archceol.) a rent annually paid to the lord 

mayor by those who sell ale within the city. 
A'LE-STAKE (Archccol.) a maypole; so called because 

ale was sold there. 
A'LET (Falcon.) the true falcon of Peru, that never lets 

her prey escape. 
A'LE-TASTER (AtcIkcoI.) the same as Ale-Conner. 
ALE'TIDES (Ant.) festivals at Athens, in commemoration 
of Erigone, who wandered with a dog in search of her 
fathci- Icarus, so called from iAao/A«i, to wander. Aiken. 
1. It, c. 3. 
ALE'TON (Med.) uMto, from aXt'u, to grind ; the meal of 
any sort of corn ground, as it is explained by Erotian and 
Hesychius Erot. Lex; Hcsych. Lex; Foes. Oeconom. 
A'LETRIS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class G Ilexandria, 
Order 1 Monogynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. none. — CoR. one-petalled. — 

Stam. Jilaments awlshaped ; anthers oblong. — Pisr. 

germ ovate; style subulate ; sligma trifid. — Peu. capsule 

ovate ; seeds very many. 

Species. The principal are the — Alclris /arinosa, scu 

ttcauUs, seu llijucinthnsjloritanus, &c. American Aletus, 

a \)erennial, native of America. — Alctris Capensis, seu 

ve/lhrimia, Waved-leaved Aletris, native of the Cape of 

Good Hope. — .'lletris nvaria, seu Aloe iivaria. Great 

Orange-flowered Aletris, native of the Cape of Good 

Hope. — Aletris Jragrans, Sweetscented Aletris, a shrub, 

native of Africa. Pluk. Almag. Botan. ; Jacqii. Hort. 

Botan. ; l.inn. .Spec. Plant. 

ALIUJRI'TES (Bot ) uMvifiT'.!,, from uXivfti, meal which is 

scattered over ilitlerent parts of the tree ; a genus of 

plants, Class 21 Munoccia, Order S Monadelphia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth three-cleft; clefts 

ovate. — Con. petals five ; nectary five scales. — Stam. 

filaments numerous; anthers roundish. — Pist. germ 

conic superior ; style none ; .'!tignias two. — Peu, berri/ 

large ; seeds two. 

Species. The principal are the — Aleuriles triloba, a .shrub, 

native of the Society Islands. — Aleuriles Molnrcana, 

.latrapha Moluccana, seu A'wx Moluccana, a slirub, 

native of the Moluccas. — Aleuriles laccijera, Crnton 

tncciferum, llicinoides aromatica arbor, lUcinus aromati- 


cus spicalus, seu Halicus terrestris, a shrub, native of 
the East Indies, &c. Linn. Spec. Plant. 

ALEU'RON (Med.) "AMvfDi, from xxia, to grind, pro- 
perly signifies the meal of corn ; but is used by Hip- 
pocrates for the meal of lentils. Hippocrat. de Morb. 
Mill. I, 2 ; Erotian. Lex Hippocrat.; Foes. CEconom. Hip- 

ALEXA'XDRI antidotus aiirea (Med.) an antidote for de- 
fluxions from the head. Myrep. de Antidot. sect. 1, c. 1 . 
— Ale.xandri cuUyrium, an ointment for the eyes. Act. 
Tclrab. 2. serni. 3, c. 39. 

ALEXA'NDRIAN library (Lit.) an immense collection of 
books, formed at a vast expense by the Ptolemies, and 
afterwards burnt by order of the caliph Omar, A.U. 624. 
It is said that the volumes of this library supplied fuel 
for the 4000 baths in the city during the space of six 

ALEXANDRI'NA aqua (Ant.) baths in Rome built by the 
emperor Severus. 

Alexandrina latirus (Bot.) the Buscits cpiglossiim of Lin- 

ALEXA'NDRINE (Poet.) or Alexandrian, the name of a 
particular verse in modern poetry, consistino of ten, 
twelve, or even thirteen syllables, and so called from a 
certain French poem on the life of Alexander the Great. 

ALEXANDRI'NUM emphistrum (Med.) a plaster of wax, 
alum, SiC. Cels. de Re Med. 1. 5, c. 19. 

ALEXA'NTHUS (Chem.) ox Allingas, flowers of copper. 

ALEXETE'RIA (iV«/.) vide Alcxipharmica. 

ALEXIPHA'RMICA (Med.) i>.s|.(paf^t,«xa, from ^A^a, to 
drive away, and <pafu,ux.m, a poison ; alexipharmics, or 
remedies against poisons ; otherwise called Alexiteria. 
Gal. de Simplic. Med: fac. 1. 5, c. 18 ; Gorr. Defn. Med. 

ALEXIPYRE'TICUM"(jVerf.)fromiAi|a.,nrceo, and ^ri/fixJi, 
a fever ; a remedy for a fever. 

ALEXITE'RIA (Med.) vide Alcxipharmica. 

ALFA'CTA (Chem.) distillation. 

ALFA'DIDAM (Chem.) the scoria of gold, iron, &c. 

ALFA'NDIGA (Com.) the custom-house at Lisbon. 

ALFA'TIDA (Chem.) burnt copper. 

ALFA'TIDE (Chem.) sal ammoniac. 

A'LFDOUGH (Cook.) a name given by the Moors to a sort 
of vermicelli, which they make of flour and water, and use 
nmch at their entertainments. 

ALFE'CCA (Astron.) or Alphecca, an Arabic name for the 
star which Ptolemy calls 6 Xa-fijiajo', arnj i> tS <;i(pxtif, \. e. 
the bright star in the crown ; called by Manilius Lucida 
corona. Plol. Almagest. I. 7, c. 5 ; Manil. Astronom. I. 1 ; 
Ul. Beigh. apud Hyde. Relig. vet. Persar.; Bayer. IJra- 

ALFE'SERA (Med.) a confect, good for spasmodic affec- 
tions. Mesne. 

ALFE'TUM (Arclucol.) of xian, accendere, to make to 
burn, and pKC, i>ns, a vessel ; a cauldron in which boiling 
water being put the accused person was to hold his hand 
and arm up to the elbow, and if it came out unhurt he was 
judged innocent. Leg. Adelst. Ucg. apud Brompton. 

A'LFIDAS (Chem.) Plumbum. 

.'V'LCi.i'I'i (Hot.) a sea weed; so called from the nlgor or 
coldness of water in which it grows. 

AL(;y>; (Bot.) the second of the seven families, and the eighth 
of the nine tribes or nations, into which Linna-us divides 
all vegetables, comprehending such as liave the root, 
leaves, and stem, all in one ; as Lichens or Liverworts, 
Fnci, Sea- weeds, &c. 

A I, (;,!■:, in the artificial sy.ntem of Linnceus, is the third order 
of the Class Cryptngamia, and comprehends the following 
genera — Lichen, Liverwort, having its fructifications on a 
smooth shining receptacle. — Tmnclln, fructification in a 
gelatinous substance. — Ulva, fructification in a mcmbrana- 


ceous substance. — Fiicus, Sea-weed, substance coriaceous, 
seeds in a gelatinous bladder. — Conferva, substance capil- 
lary, or fibres continuous. — Bj/ssus, substance lanuginous 
nor nearly fibrous. 

A'LGALI (C/iem.) Nitre. 

A'LGALY {Med.) an hollow leaden probe invented by Dr. 
Hale tor extracting the stone. 

A'LGAMET (Chem.) Coals. 

A'LGARAB {Med.) the Arabic name for the disease called 
tlie Anchylops. 

A'LGARES (Med) a strong emetic and cathartic powder 
prepared from butter of antimony. 

A'LGAllOTH (Med.) Algcroth, a preparation of antimony 
and sublimate, so called from its inventor Algerothos, a 
physician at Verona. Castcll. Lex. Med. 

ALGA'TIA (Chem.) Civet. 

ALGA'TIIANE (Chem.) a sort of pitch or bituminous matter 
found in the isle of Plata. 

A'LGEBRA, the science of computing abstract quantities by 
means of symbols or signs. It is so called from the Arabic 
word Alghebra, according to Lucas de Burgo, who makes 
Alghcbra e Ahmicabain, to signify the art of restitution 
and comparison, opposition and restoration, or resolution 
and equation, which all denote different parts in the opera- 
tion of equations. Others derive it from the particle (d, 
the, and Geber, the inventor of the science ; or from 
geber, to reduce fractions to integers. By Lucas de Burgo 
himself, the first writer on Algebra in Europe, it was called, 
in Italian, L' Arte Magiore, to distinguish it from Arith- 
metic, or L' Arte Minore, although it had bieii long 
known in Italy by the name of Regola de la Cosa, or Rule 
of the Thing. It was called Specious Arithmetic by Vieta, 
and Universal Arithmetic by Newton. 

Algebraic Quantities. 

Quantities are of different kinds; namely — Knotvn quan- 
tities, the values of which are known ; these are com- 
monly represented by the first letters of the alphabet, 
as n, b, c, d, &c. — Unknoum quantities, the values of 
which are unknown, which are represented by the letters 
X, y, z. — Simple quantities are those which consist of 
one term, as a, 2 b, &c. — Compound quantities consist of 
several terms ; if the quantity consist of two terms only it 
is called a binomial, as a + b ,■ when of tiiree terms a tri- 
nomial, as a + b + c; and if of four terms a quadrino- 
mial, &c. — Similar quantities are those which are ex- 
pressed by the same letter, as a + 3 a. — Dissimilar or 
unlilce quantities are expressed by difterent letters, as 
a + b. — Positive quantities are those which are to be 
added, iiaving the sign r prefixed to them, as -)- i or 
+ c- — Negative quantities are those which are to be 
subtracted, liaving the sign — prefixed to them, as 
— a or — b, &c. When no sign is prefixed to a quantity 
it is understood to be positive, as a — b, where n is 
a positive. — Co-eJJicient of a quantitt/ is any number pre- 
fixed to a letter, as in h a, i b, the 5 and 4 are co-effi- 
cients. When no number is prefixed it is understood 
to be unity, as a for 1 a. — Residual quantities are bino- 
mials, having one negative quantity, as c — d. — Af- 
fected quantities are those which have some number or 
sign joined to Uiem, as 5 b or - a.— Multiple of a quan- 
tity is that which contains it a certain number of times ; 
til us 16 a is the multiple of ■!• a.— Measure of a quan- 
tity is that which is contained in another a certain 
number of times, as 4 a, the measure of 16 a.— Com- 
mon measure is that quantity which measures or divides 
two quantities without leaving a remainder, as 2 a, 

which is the common measure of 6 a and 10 a. 

Rational quantities are those which have some common 

measure, as 6 a and 10 a, both of which may be mea- 
sured or divided by 2n, so as lo make 3« and 5« 
without any remainder. — Irrational quantities, otherwise 
called surds or incommensurable quantities, are those 
which cannot be measured by any other quantity with- 
out a remainder, and have the radical sign v' prefixed 
to them, as V o'" -\/^'') '■ ^- t''e square root of a, or 
of b cube. — Quantities that have no common measure 
but unity are said to be prime to one another. — Recipro- 
cal of a quantity is that quantity inverted, or unity di- 
vided by it; thus - is the reciprocal of j, and - is the 

reciprocal of S. — Foiver of a quantity is its square, cube, 
<S:c. as a-, the square of a ; a>, the cube; «■>, the biqua- 
drate, or fourth power of a, &c. : these different degrees 
are also called dimensions. — Indices, or exponents, are 
the figures which are placed above the letters to denote 
the powers, as the 2 in a-, the 3 in n', &c. 

Algebraic Signs. 

Signs express the relations of quantities ; they are of 

different kinds, as follow: \-, \.he sign of addition, 

which is called itlus, signifies that the quantitj', to which 
it is prefixed, is to be added, as a -\- b, i. e. a plus, 

h or a added to b. , the sign of subtraction , which 

is called minus, signifies that the quantity must be sub- 
tracted, as a — b, i. e. a minus b, or a subtracted from b. 
The first of these is called the positive or affrmative 
sign, the second the negative sign. When several of 
these signs are prefixed to different quantities they are 
called like signs, when they are all affirmative, or all 
negative ; and unlike signs when they are some affirma- 
tive, and some negative ; thus in a ■\- '2 b + S c, or 
n — 2 c — 4 (/, the signs are like, but in « -|- 3 c — 4 f/ they 

are unlike. x, the sign of multiplication, as a x b 

signifies that a is to be multiplied by 6. ^Multiplication 
may be expressed also by a note, or full-point ( . ), and 
by the word into, as a + b . c -\- d, or a + b into c + d. 

H, the sign of division, as a -i- b signifies that a is to 

be divided by b ; this may be expressed also in the form 

of a fraction, as 

-: :: : the sign of proportion, as 

a:b::c: d, signifies that a bears the same proportion to 

b that c bears to d. ^/, the radical sign, denotes the 

square root of the quantity before which it is placed, 
as -J a'^, the square root of a', i. e. a; the same sign 
may be used with figures to express the root of the 
cube, biquadrate, &e. as Ij «3, y a'^, &c. : these I'oots 
may likewise be expressed by fractions, -J, -V, \, &c. as 

«^, a , a'', a", which represents the square, cube, 

biquadrate, and J(th root of a respectively. a ' ', 

a~ ', a~ ', &c. denote the negative powers of a, and 

111. , • 

are equivalent to — , — , — , «\c. = , the sipn of 

equality, as a -t- 6 = x, which signifies that n added to 

b is equal to .r. c/3, the sign of difference, when it 

is not known, which is the' greater, as a en x, which 

signifies either a — x or x — a. c" or > is put 

between two quantities to express that the former is 
greater than the latter, as a c~ b or a > b, '\. e. a 

greater than b. -3 or < signifies the reverse of the 

preceding, as a -^ b or a < b, i. e. « less than b. 

I'inculum, a line drawn over several quantities signifies 
that they are taken collectively, as a — b -\- c x d — e 
signifies that the quantity represented by a — b + c is 
to be multiplied by (/— e j thus suppose a to stand for 6, 


b for 5, c for ■], d for 3, and c for I ; then a — h + c 
is 6 — 5 + '1 = 5, and d — c is 3 — I — '2, therefore 
f/ — i + c X f/ — c is 5 X 2 = 10. In like manner 
are e xpresse d the powers and the roots of quantities; 
thus a + b^^ denotes tlie square, or second power of 
a + I) considered as one quantity, and a + b\'> the 
third power ; so that, suppose a = 4, b = 2, then 
o + J = 4 + 2 = 6, and a + b]^ = 4 + 2l^ = 6" = 
6 X_6= 36, the square of 6, or of a + A, also a + bi^ 
= 4+ 2 3 = 03 =6x6x6 = 216, the cube of 6, or 
a + b; and so in regard to the roots of quantities, 

V a + 6 denotes the square root o( a + b ; suppose 
a = 100, b = 44, then v^« + 6 = V^TOO + 44 = 

V 144 =■ 12. ,•. or •." is used in operations to sig- 

iiif}' ergo, therefore. 

Operations in Algebra. 

The operations in Algebra are Addition, Subtraction, 
Multiplication, Division, Fractions, Involution, Evolu- 
tion, Irrational Quantities, Infinite Series, Proportion, 
and Equations. 


Addition consists of three cases; namel}', 1. To add quan- 
tities that are like, and have like signs, which is done 
by adding the co-efficieiUs and prefixing the sign, as 

To +5a To -6 b To 3 a - i x 

Add + 4 n Add -2b Add 5 a- S .r 

Sum + 9 « 


S a —12 X 

2. To add quantities that are alike, but have unlike 
signs, which is done by subtracting the lesser co-efficient 
from the greater, and prefixing the sign of the greater 
to the remainder, as 

To — 4 a 
Add +7 a 

Sum +Sa 

5b- Gc 
— 3 b -\-8 c 

2b + 2c 

a + ex-5jj + S 
— 5 a — 4 a- -f 4 // — 3 

— 4n-)-2.r — 

,y + 5 

3. To add quantities that are unlike, which is done by 
setting the quantities down one after another, with their 
proper signs, as 

3a 4,a-^ib + 3c 

— 41 —.{.x-iij + Cz 


+ 2a 
+ 3b 

Sum +2a + 3b 

3a — ix 'ia — i-0 + 3c — ix~ii/ + 3z 

Subtraction is performed by simply changing the signs of 
the quantity to be subtracted, and then proceeding as 
in the last case of addition, as 

2 n — 3 .r + 5 ;/ — 6 
6o + 4x-i- ")'(/ + 4 

-4rt-7x 0-10 

.MultL|)lication is performed by multiplying the co-cfR- 
cicnts toj;etlier, and affixing the letters after one an- 
other to the product, in which case like signs produce 
-f-, and unlike signs — , as 


-f 5n 
+ 3a 

3 a + 

a 5 a — 

7 b 


5« — 3« oi 




+ b 

Product -t- a 4 

— 12rt 

— 44 

-1- 48 n b 

— 2a 
+ ib 



+ 30 ci .1 

When the quantities are compound, multiply every part 
of the multiplicand by all the parts of the multiplier, 
and add the product as in common multiplication, as 

ISIult. a + b 
By a + b 

4a + S6 

a a + a b 

+ ab + bl 

Prod, art + 2a b + bb 

Mult. 2 fi - 4 b 
By 2 rt - 4 /) 

i a a —8 a b 
+ 8ab' 

■16 bb 

Saa- \2ab 
+ lOno- 


Sna— 2nb- 

15 U 

X X — a X 

X X X — a X X 
■'r a X X — 

a a X 

4 n a .... — J 6 i 6 .T .r .r . . . . — a a x 

Powers of the same root are multiplied by adding their 
indices or exponents ; thus if jou multipl}' a' by a- the 
product is «' + -=: a^; i* multiplied by Zi makes i*+' = i5; 
and X" into x is a:" + ', x" into .c' is i-" + % &:c. 


Division is performed by expunging the letters that are 
common to the dividend and divisor when placed in 
the form of a fraction, and dividing the coefficient by 
any term that will divide them without any remainder. 
Like signs produce +, and unlike signs — ; thus 

= 4c; -12ab-i- +3a = 
— Gbc 


+ 15flC-H20«f/ = 

— 2c 
\0ab + \5ac 
+ 20 a d 

= +36; 10 a i 
2b + 3c 

-5« = 


When the quantities arc compound the letters must be 
arranged according to the dimensions of some one letter, 
both in the dividend and divisor, and then proceed to 
work each term as in long division of numbers ; thus 

a-\-b)aa + 2ab + bb(a-\-b 
(I (I -\- a b 

+ ab + b/j 
ab + bb 

Here the quantities are arranged according to the 
dimensions of the letter u, then a ii divided by a gives a 
the quotient, which, multiplied into the divisor, gives 
(I (I + a b, and this subtracted gives + n b + b b; a b 
divided by a gives -|- b, and makes, by multiplication, 
a b -^ b b. 
The powers of the same root are divided by subtracting 
their indices; thus a^ -f- n' = u'~'' ^ a'; A'' ^- /;' ^ 
l)'~'' =: b'; a~ b' -r- a'' b ■= u'~'' b'~' =: a^ b. 

Fractions consist, as in whole numbers, of a numerator, 
which is placed above the line, and a denominator below 

it, as y . If the numerator a be greater than the de- 
nominator b, then it is an improper fraction ; if the 
((uantity consist of an integer and a fraction it is a 

mixed fraction, as a + -—. A mixed fraction is reduced 
to an improper one by multiplying the integral part into 


the denominator, adding the numcrntor to tlic product, 
and placing the denominator under the sum, as 

„ 13 a^ a X I) + (I- 

2.f = 2 X 5 + 3 = — ; a + — = 

a b + a- a^ — a X 

■ — 7 — ; a--r + — : — ■■ 


first a • 

• X X .r = a.r — I-, 

then a X — X- added to a- — a j = a^ — x- = — . 


An improper fraction is reduced to a mixed one by divid- 
ing the numerator of the fraction by the denominator; 
the quotient is then the integral part, and the re- 
mainder set over the denominator gives the fraction, as 

a b + a' 

= a + X + 

2 .r X 

ax -|- 2 XX 

= x-h 

a a + X X 

To reduce fractions to a common denominator, multiply 
each numerator into all the denominators but its own for 
new numerators j and all the denominators together for 

a new denominator; thus -r, -, and -, are reduced to 
be a 

acdbbdccb, . , 

the fractions -; -,, -, ;, r— ,> havmg the common 

bed bed bed 

denominator bed. 
To reduce fractions to their lowest terms, divide the 
numerator and denominator by their common measure, 
i. e. some number which divides them both without a 

remainder ; thus ^^ =-26 = --; 

4 0c 2 c 


6 «= 6 — 12 (/ X 

6 a ■■ 

^a-b = - 

When the 

b a^ X ' 6 a 

common measure is not found by inspection, then divide 
the greater number by the less, and, if there be a re- 
mainder, divide the last divisor by it, and so on until no 
remainder is left ; then the last diivisor is the common 
measure, thus, to find the common measure of a^ — 6', 
and a- — 2 o 6 -t- b'-, 

a^- b')a'- -2ab + b'(l 
o^ - b^ 

— 2 ab + 2 b^ remainder. 
This divided by — 2 6 is reduced to a — i ; then 
a — b ) a^ — b^ (a 
a^ — A* 

therefore a — i is the greatest common measure to the 


a^ - 2 a b + h- 


a^ — 2 a h + b^ 

a — b = 


a' — b^ 
Fractions are added, subtracted, and 

multiplied, after preparing the quantities by reduction, 

as in whole numbers ; thus add - to - , then 1 = 

e X e X c X 

ax + b c , „ a , b . ax be 
• the sum ; from - take - , then — = 

ex ■ C X C X C X 

ax — be a b a b ,■.,■ 

———^ ; - X - ^ ; but, in dividing fractions, 

c .r c X f X 

invert the divisor, and then proceed as in multiplication; 

2 a 4c 2 a d 2 ad ad, 
thus ^ ^ .-, = ^ X — = -^ = ;j^, the quo- 

b ■ d 
tient required. 

i c 

4:b c 2 b c' 

Involution is the continual multiplication of a quantity 
into itself; the products arising thence are called the 
pon'crs of the quantit)', and the quantity itself is called 
the root, as a x a = o n or a^ ; a x a x a ^^ a a a or a^. 
When the sign of the root is + , all the powers of it 
will be + ; but, if it be — , then the even powers will 
be +, and the odd powers — ; thus, the second power 
of —a is —ax — a = + a'-, but the third power of 
o is ^ fli X — a = — ni. The powers of quantities 
are multiplied by adding, and divided by subtracting, 
their exponents. When a lesser poiver is divided by a 

, a-t 
sreater, the exponent must be negative; thus — - = a' 

-H a*" = a^"'" = a ~\ or, as it is otherwise expressed, 
— . These negative powers are also multiplied by 

adding, and divided by subtracting, their exponents; 
thus a"" X a~' = a~''~^ =■ a~^. 
Binomial Theorem. 

To remove the trouble and entanglement of raising com- 
pound quantities. Sir Isaac Newton formed a general 
theorem, the principles of which, as illustrated by Ma- 
claurin, are as follow : 

1st, That, in the first term of any power of a + i, the 
quantity a has the exponent of the power required, 
which decreases gradually in the following terms, and 
is never found in the last. The powers of b are in the 
contrary order ; for it is never found in the first terra ; 
and its exponent in the second term is unit, in the third 
2, and so on till the last, which becomes equal to the 
exponent required. As the exponents of a thus de- 
crease, and, at the same time, those of b increase, the 
sum of their exponents is always the same, and is equal 
to the exponent of the power required ; thus in the sixth 
power o{ a -\- b, viz. «* -f 6 fl^ i^ -|- 15 a* b'- + 20 a' b^ 
+ \o a'^ b* + 6 a b'' -\- b^, the exponents of a decrease 
in this order; namely, 6, 5, ^, 3, 2, 1, 0, and those of 
b increase in the contrary order, 0, 1,2, 3, 4, .5, 6, «S.c. ; 
the sum of their exponents is always the same, and 
equal to the exponent of the power required. 

2dly, To find the co-efficient of any term, the co-efficient 
of the preceding term being known, " divide the co- 
efficient of the preceding term by the exponent of b in 
the given term, and multiply the quotient by the ex- 
ponent of a, in the same term, increased by unit." Thus 
to find the co-efficients of the terms of the si.xth power 
of a -f i you find the terms are 

a'\ a J b, a* b^, a' b^, a' b*, a 5', i"; 
and you know the co-efficient of the first term is unity ; 
therefore, by the rule, the co-efficient of the second 
term will be-l-x5-|-l = 6; that of the third term will 
be4x 4-1-1=3 x5=15; that of the fourth term 
•will be -^ X 3 -f- 1 = 5 X 4 = 20 ; those of the fol- 
lowing terms will be 15, 6, 1. 

According to these rules, if, in general, a -I- i be raised to 
any power vi, the terms without their co-efficients will 
be a'", a"'~' b, a"'~- b^, a"'~^ b', a"'~*b', a'"~= i^, &c. 
continued till the exponent of b becomes equal to m ; 
the co-efficients of the respective terms will be, 1 m, 

m — 1 m — 1 ?» — 2 m — 1 

'" X —2— . '" X — 2~ ^ ~J~ ' '" ^ ~^ ^ 

in — 2 ))i — 3 )H — 1 m — 2 »; — 3 

__><__,, „X-^-X-^X-j- X 

, &c. continued until you have one co-efficient 


more than there are units in m ; hence the whole tlico- 
rcm will be a + ^ = a" + ma'""' b ■\- m y. 

X «'" " i' + )'i X 
VI — 1 

m — 1 

X a""^ i' + m 

-*b* -\-, &c. 

m — 1 m — 3 

T^~ ^ ~?~.^ ~^~ 
To illustrate this still further, let it be required to raise 

n + i to the third power : here, the exponent of the 
proposed power being 3, the first terra a" of the the- 
orem will be a', the second term m a'"~ ' b will be 3 a^~' b 

or 3 a5 4; the third term m x — ^ — a"-" i" will be 

3 1 

3 X — t; — a'~' i'> or 3 X i «' 4% that is, 3 a i'; the 

fourth term m x 

?H — 1 

m — 2 

„m-3 ^3 ^^.;|| become 

a" i^ = i' . Hence the third power of a + i is found 
to be a» + 3 (i» 6 + 3 a 4= + bi^. 
If a quantity consisting of three or more terms is to be 
involved, you may distinguish it into two parts, con- 
sidering it as a binomial, and raise it to any power by 
the preceding rules ; and then, by the same rules, you 
may substitute, instead of the powers of these compound 

parts, their values : thus, a + b + c' = a+b + c = 

a + b +2cx.a + b + c^ = a^ + 2ab + t^ + 

2 a c + 2 b c + C-, and a + b + c=a+b +3cx 

a + b + 3 c- X a + b + c3 — aJ + 3 a^ b'^ + 3 a b' 
+ bi +3a^c + 6a6c + 3b*c + 3ac^+3bc^ + 
c3. In these examples a + 6 + c is considered as 
composed of the compound part a + b and the sinqile 
part c ; and then the powers of a + i are formed by the 

preceding rules, and substituted for a + b and a + b . 
Evolution, the reverse of Involution, is the resolving of 
powers into their roots. The roots of simple quantities 
are extracted by dividing their exponents by the number 
that denominates the root required; thus the square root 

of a" — (17 = n4, the cube root of 6 jt' = 2 j:"^ = 2 x. 
The extraction of compound quantities is performed, as 
i]i connnon arithmetic, by extracting the root of each 
]);\rt, tluis: let the square root of a'^ + '1 ab + b^ be found, 

rt> + 2nb + b^ (a + b 
2 a +T"\ 2a b + b^ 
+ b ) 2 a b + b^ 
When the number denoting the root is not a divisor of the 
exi)oncnt of the given power, then the root required 
will iiave a fractional exponent; thus the square root of 

«' is a^, and the square root of a is a*. Powers that 
have fractional exponents arc culled Surds, or Iiinx-r/irl 

Siirila are quantitie.i which have no exact root, and are 
expressed cither by fractional indices, or by means of 

tlic radical sign ^, as before observed; thus a^ — 

V'a5, a' = v'"'> ""'^ d" = ^a" 
Surds are nmltiplied and divided l)y adding and subtract- 

ing their exponents like rational quantities, thus a"^ x 

and -T 

X a — a' 

=: n^^ ^ Va ' 

, 1^9 //9 '/3 

If the surds are of difterent rational quantities, multiply 
or divide them together, and set the common radical 

sign over their product or quotient; thus -v^a^ x -v^ i* 

Surds may also be involved and evolved after the same 

manner as perfect powers ; thus the square of a^ is a' " ^ 

= a3 , the cube of a" is n' " * = a' ; the square root 

of a^ is «" "'^ z= a^ ; the cube root of a' is a^. Ra- 
tional Quantities may be reduced to the form of surds 
by raising the quantity to the power that is denominated 
by the name of the surd, and then setting the radical 

sign over it, thus a = Va'^ = Va^ = Va* = Va" ; 

and the cube root of 2 x^ = 2 x' x 2 j^ x 2 x^ = Va x , 

or (S x'')^' 
To reduce surds to their most simple terms find the 
greatest power in the given surd, and set its root before 
the remaining quantity with the radical sign prefixed ; 

thus, Vl2 = Vi: X V3 — 2 VS; Va'xi'\= Va' x'- x 

Vx = a X V X. 
Surds are reduced to others of the same value that shall 
have the same radical sign by reducing the frac- 
tional exponents to fractions having the same value 
and a common denominator; thus, to reduce V^ i""'' 

V2 to the same denominator, consider \/'3 as equal to 3^ 

I i « 1 a 

and \/2 = 2', then 3* = 3^ and 2'^ = 2^, conse- 
quently V3 = 1/3' = V27, and \/2 = \/2^ = V^' ; so 
that the proposed surds are reduced to other equal 
surds, \/21 and '\/'t having a common radical sign. 

Infinite Series. 
Infinite Scries is an infinite series of terms to which a 
division may be extended when the divisor is not con- 
tained in the dividend ; as if it were required to divide 
1 by I — X, then 

1 — X ) 1 ( I -I- X -f x" -h x3 -f x-t -I- x'. Sec. 

1 -X 

+ x', <S:c. 

Proportion is of two sorts, namely, arithmetical and geo- 
metrical. — Arithmetical Proportion denotes the relation 
of two quantities as respects their difference. Four 


quantities are said to be in arithmetical proportion wlieii 
the difference between the first and second is equal to 
the difference betwixt the third and fourth, as 3, 7, 12, 
16, and the quantities a, a + b, e, e + b. But quanti- 
ties form a series in arithmetical proportion when they 
increase or decrease by tlie same constant difference ;as 
a, a + b, a + 2b, a + Hb, a + ib, &c. ; x, .r — b, 
X — '■lb, &c. This is called Arillimctical Progression. 
In arithmetical proportion the sum of the extremes is 
equal to the sum of the means, thus 3 + 16 = 7 + 12 
^ 19 ; and a + c + b=:a + b + e. — Geometrical Pro- 
portion denotes that relation between two quantities, 
which consists in one being contained in the other a 
certain number of times. If of four (juantities Uie quo- 
tient of the first and second be equal to the quotient of 
the third and fourth, then those quantities are said to be 
in Geometrical Proportion, as 2, 6, 4, 12, or the quan- 
tities a, a r, 6, b r, which are expressed in this manner : 

2:6::4 : 12 

a : ar ■.: b : br 

i. e. as 2 is to 6 so is 4 to 12, or as « is to n r so is 
b lo b r. In these quantities the first and third terms are 
called the antecedents, the second and fourth the conse- 
quents. A series is said to be in Geometrical Pro])ortion 
when it increases by one common multiplier, or de- 
creases by one common divisor, as 

a a 

a, a r, a r^, a ?3, a r<, &c. or a. 


, &c. 

This is called Geometrical Progression, and the common 
multiplier or divisor is called their Common Ratio. In 
Geometrical Proportion the product of the extremes 
is equal to the product of the means, as 2 x 1 2 = C x 
4 = 24 ; and a x b r = a r x b. This sort of Proportion 
is moreover distinguished into the direct; thus, a : b :: 
c : d ; inverse, b : a :: d : c ; alternate, a : c :: b : d ; 
compound, a : a -i- b :: c : c + d ; divided, a : a — b :: 
c : c — d I mixed, b -\- a : b — a :: d -^ c : d — c ; by 
multiplication, r a : r b :: c : d ; by division, a -f r : 
b -i- r :: c : d ; harmonical , a : d :: a ■x' b : c ij^- d. 


An Equation is the ratio of Equality between two quan- 
tities differently denominated, expressed by the sign of 
equality { — ) as 2 -f- 3 = 7 — 5, or n + i = c. The 
quantities are called the terms of the Equation, as 
a,b,c, lie.; their places before or after the sign, the «V/« of 
the Equation ; thus, a -f- 6 is one side and c the other. 
The root of an Equation is the value of the unknown 
quantity contained in it, as in 3.r -)- 18 = 2-1-, 2 is the 
root ; for if j'cu substitute 2 in the place of x you have 
3 X 2+ 18 = 6 -I- 18 = 24. 

Roots are either positive or negative, real or imaginary. — 
Positive roots are those that have a positive sign ex- 
pressed or understood, as x = 3 or i = -1- a. — Negiitix'e 
roots have a negative sign prefixed to them, as x = — 5, 
Ileal roots are those which contain some real or possible 
quantity, as those before mentioned. — Imaginary roots 
are those to which no absolute value can be attached, 
which, nevertheless, may be substituted for the unknown 
qi^antity so as to answer the condition of the equation. 
Thesquareroot of a negative quantity is always imaginary, 
as ^/ — 1. Every equation has as many roots, real or 
imaginary, as there are units in the highest power of the 
unknown quantity ; thus, an equation of the second 
degree has two roots, one of the third degree three, of 
the fourth four, &c. as x^ — 8 = 0, which has three 
roots, namely, one real, as x ^ 2, and two imaginary, as 

X = - 1 -I- V^, and X = I - '/^-5. 

Different kinds of Equations. 
Equations are of different kinds according to their powers. 
— Simple Equations, called by Xiela pure Equations, are 
those which have the unknown quantity of the first 
dimension only, as 7 x = 35. — .Iffected, called by Vieta 
adfected, and by Harriot compound Equations, are those 
which have the unknown quantity rising to two or more 
powers, as x'- -{- a X = b, or 3 x — 4 .t' -|- .r' = '23. 
Affected Equations are denominated after the highest 
power contained in them, as — (Quadratic Equations, 
which rise to two powers, as n x^ ^ A ; this is called a 
simple quadratic, in distinction from the affected quad- 
ratic, into which the unknown quantity enters in the 
first as well as the second degree, as a x' -f 6 x = r, or 
X- + a = b X. — Cubic Equations are those in which the 
unknown quantity is of three dimensions, as x-' = 25, 
or ;/' = n' — b^ . — Biquadratic Equations, in which the 
unknown quantity rises to the fourth degree, as .f := 25, 
or !/* -\- a b I/'' -t a^ c y = aJ d. Equations are more- 
over distinguished, according to their form, into — Lite- 
ral Equations, in which all the quantities, both known 
and unknown, are expressed by letters, as nx' + bx = c. 
— Numeral Equations, those in which the co-efficients of 
the quantities are given in numbers, as 5 x^ -|- 7 x = 16. 
— Binomial Equations, such as have only two terms, 
as .r' ^ «, X* = b, &c. — Eluxional Equations, equations 
effluxions. — Etucnlial Equations, equations of fluents. — 
Exponential Equations, those in which the exponent is 
a variable or unknown quantity, as a' ^= b , x' =z a , &c. 
• — Eminential Equations, a sort of assumed equation that 
contains another equation eminentl}'. — Differential Equa- 
tions, such as involve or contain difterential quantities, 
as the equation of 3 x- d x — 9,, a x d x -i- a y d x + 
a T rf y = 0. — Reciprocal Equations are those in which 
the co-efficients of each pair of terms equally distant 
from the extremes are equal to each other, as ax'' + b .i^ 
-f c j5 = 0; and c x^ + 6 X -I- fl = 0; .is + 3 x^ + 3 x + 
1=0; and ,i" -f a .i3 + 4 x» + a x -|- 1 = 0.— Deter- 
minate Equations, those equations in which only one 
unknown quantity enters, in distinction from — Indeter- 
minate Equations, in which there' are more unknown 
quantities than there are independent equations, as 16/) 
— 419= 1. — Transcendental Equations are either such 
as contain transcendental quantities, or such fluxional 
equations as do not admit of finite algebraical fluents. 

thus, y = — : and ?/ : 

: fluent of — ; — ^ — — - are 

.v/(« X — x)* 

transcendant equations. — Equation of a Curve, an equa- 
tion showing the nature of a curve by expressing the 
relation between the absciss and its corresponding ordi- 
nate, or else the relation of their fluxions ; thus the 
equation of the circle is ax — x^ = y'^, where a is its 
diameter, x any absciss or part of that diameter, and y 
the ordinate at that point of the diameter; so that what- 
ever absciss is denoted by x, the square of the cor- 
responding ordinate will be a x — ,v* ; in like manner the 

equation of the ellipse is - (ax — x') = ^' ; of the 

hyperbola - (a x + x'^) z= y- ; of the parabola , px — y~; 
where a is an axis, and p the parameter. 

Operations xoith Equations. 

Equations undergo various operations, as Generation, 
Reduction, Solution or Resolution, Depression, Exter- 
mination, Elimination, Transformation, Construction. 

Generation of Equations is the multiplying of certain as- 


sumed simple equations together to produce compound 
ones; thus, suppose j — n, j: = 6, i = f, &c. or x — a 
= 0, X — b = 0, X •' c := 0, tlicn these last multi- 
plied together become 

— a=: o 
: — b = o 

-"^^ X + ab-o 

a ^ ah 

— i \- X- -\- ac ■= o 
c J be 


>v a c \ a be '\ 

f ad ( ac d [ 

J Lc \ dbc J 

+ ab cd z= o 


a c 
, be 

a d 


c d 

This method was invented by Harriot, in order to show 
the nature of compound equations. 

RcduetioH of Equations. 
Reduction of Equations is the reducing thera to the sim- 
plest form that is most commodious for their resolution : 
this consists of certain general rules, namely — 1. Any 
quantity may be transposed from one side of the equa- 
tion to the other by changing its sign ; thus if 5 x + 50 
= * I -|- 56, then by transposition 5x - 4 x = 56 — 
.50 and .r = 6 ; so likewise if 2 i -h a = .r + i, then 
2 ,r — .r = i — a, or x = b — a ; for to take a quantity 
from one side and to place it with a contrary sign on tiie 
other, is to subtract it from both sides, and consequently 
if from equals you take equals the remainders will be 
equal. 2. If each side of an equation be divided by the 
.same quantity, the results will be equal ; for if equals be 
divided by equals the quotients will be equal ; thus, if 

ax = b, then i = - ; and if 3 x + 12 = 27, then, by 

Rule the first, 3 x = 27 - 12 = 
X = = 5 ; also if a x + 2 ba 

15 ; and by this rule 
3 c e , then, by Rule 1 , 

ax=3cc — 2ia; and, by this rule, x = — 2 4. 

•^ a 

3. If every term on each side be multiplied by the same 
quantity the results will be equal, for if equals be multi- 
plied by equals the ])i'oducts will be e(|ual. In this 
manner an ecjuation may be cleared of fractions, as if 

-rr b + 5, then multiplying both sides by I you liave 

I =■ b b + 5 h ; if — h "l = 10, then multiplied by 5 it 

becomes x -(- 20 = 50, and, by Rule the first, x == 50 
- 20 = 30 ; if -^"^ -t- 72 = 2 X -i- 6, then 4 x -|- 72 = 

G r + 1 8 ; by Rule the first, 72 - 18 = 6 x - 4- .r, or 54 

= 2 X ; and, by Rule the second, x = — = 27. If 

there are more fractions than one in the given equation, 
you may, by reducing them to a conunon denominator, 
and then multiplying all the other terms by that deno- 
minator, abridge the operation thus ; if --}--= x — 7, 


3 X -f 5 X 
15 ' 

= X — 7; and, by this rule, 3 .r + 5 x = 

15 X — 105 ; and, by Rules 1 and 2, x = 

4. If the unknown quantity involve a surd root, let 

all the other terms be transposed to the contrary side, 

and involve both sides to the power denominated by the 

surd, of which the ecjuation will thus become free : if 

there are more surds than one the operation must be 

repeated; thus, if V^4 .r + 16 = 12, then 4 x -f- 16 = 

144, and4x= 144—16 = 128, and x= =32; if 


V a X + b'\ = 3 6, then a x + b- = 9 b' ; hy transposi- 
tion, a X = 9 i^ — 4^ = 8 4' ; and by division, x = ; 

•' a 

if >/ X + a = c — ■v/x~+T|, then x + a — c- — 2 c 
*/ X -f- a] -f- X + 4 ; and by transposition, x — x-f2c 

V X -f 4~l =c^+4 — a, or2cV'x-J-(6=c^-fft 

/ 1 e b — a 

— fl, and dividing by 2 e we get v x -f- i| = - -f — — ; 

then squaring again we have .r -f- 4 = -" -f "- — "-^ ; there- 



— b. 5. If the roots be extracted 

from each side of an equation the results will be equal ; 
if X' = 25, then x = -/ 25 = 5 ; if .i^ -(- 6 x + 9 = 20, 
then X + 3 = + V^ 20 and x = + v'20 — 3. 6. A pro- 
portion may be converted into an equation by multiply- 
ing extremes and means together; if x : 16 — x : : 3 : 5 ; 
then 5 X {x y. S) =48 — 3 x (16 — x x 3), and by 

transposition 5 x + 3 = 48, or 8 x = 48 ; hence x = — 

= 6 . 7. If an)' quantities be found with the same sign, 
and multiplied or divided by the .same quantity on both 
sides of the equation, they may be struck out thus : if 

3x + 6 = a-)-4, then 3 x = a, and x = ^ ; if 3 a x -}- 

8f- 54 


S. Any 

5 o 4 = 8 a c, then 3 x -|- 5 4 = 8 r , and x = 

if-i -I- - = --, then 2 X -t- 8 = 16, and x = 4. 

quantity may be substituted for another which is its 
equal ; thus, if 3 x -|-j/ = 24, and y = 9, then 3 x -)- 9 = 

21. _ 9 
24, X = — ~ = 5; if 3^ + 5 J = 120, and ^ = 5 x, 

then 15 X + 5 X (= 20 x) = 120, and x = 



= 6. 

9. In quadratic equations extract the s(|uare root on 
both sides, and proceed according to the preceding 
rules : thus, let 5 x' — 45 = 0, then by transposition 
5 X" = 45, x" = 9 ; therefore x = »/\)= ± 3 . But 
if both the first and second powers of the unknown ([uan- 
tity be found in an ecjuatlon, arrange the terms accord- 
ing to the dimensions of the unknown quantity, beginning 
with the highest, and transpose the known (luantitics to 
the other side ; then if the scpiare of the unknown quan- 
tity be affected with a co-efficient, divide all the terms 
by this co-efficient; add to both sides the S(|uare of Inilf 
the co-efficients, and extract the square root on both 
sides; thus, suppose //' -f a y = i , by adding the square 



^ to both sides, y- + a 1/ + — = i 
2 i 

by ex- 

tracting the root 1/ + 
tion, y = ± v/ Ij +- 

= ±\/^' 

+ _ ; by transposi- 

The signs + and — are 

prefixed to both the preceding roots, because the square 
root of any quantity may be either positive or negative ; 
consequently quadratic equations admit of two solu- 

Resolution or Solution of Equations. 

Resolution of Equations is the determination of the values 
of the unknown letters or quantities of which the equa- 
tion is composed. 1st, If the equation consist of only 
one unknown quantity, brinj; it by the rules of reduction 
to stand alone on one side, and its value will then stand 
on the other, thus : 

Example I. 

A person being asked what was his age, answered that 4 of 
his age, multiplied by -^V of bis age, gives a product 
equal to his age ; quere, what was his age ? 

3 X X S J* 

Let his age be x ; then — x —= x, that is, -— = x ; 

by Rules, 3 x^ =48 x; by Rule 7, 3x = 48; whence, 
by Rule 2, x = 16. 

Example II. 

If A can perform a piece of work in 8 days, and B in 10 
days, in what time will they finish it together. 

Let X be the time required ; then since A in one day per- 
forms I part of the work, in x days he performs - parts 


of it ; and in the same tmie B performs — parts of it ; 

and calling the work 1, - -|- —-= 1, lOx -)- 8x = 80, 
o 10 

18 X = 80, X = — = 4 tV = 4-g- days, 

Example III. 

What quantity is that which, being divided by 4, and hav- 
ing 9 subtracted from the quotient, the remainder shall 
be 20. 

Put X for the number required, then dividing x by 4, and 

subtracting 9 from the quotient '-, the remainder is 

9, equal by the question to 20 ; whence 9 = 20, 

4 4 

^ = 29, aadx= 116. 

2d)y. If there are two unknown quantities, then there must 
be two equations arising from the conditions of the ques- 
tion ; and if the values of these two quantities in each 
equation be found, then, by putting these values equal 
to each other, there will arise a new equation involving 
one unknown quantity, thus : 

Example I. 

Let X + ^ = 9, and 3x + 5y = 37, be given to find x 

37— 3 X 

andy ; theny = 9 — x, and 5i/ = 37 — 3x, 1/ = : 


37 3 j; 

now these two quantities, 9 — x, and ————, are both 

equal to I/, and things that are equal to one and the 

37 _ 3 .1 

same thing are equal to each other ; therefore 


= 9 — X, 37 — 3 X = 45 - 5 X, 2 X = 8 x= 4, and y = 

9 — X = 5. 

Example II. 
Let the sum of two quantities s, and their difference (/, be 

given to find the quantities themselves. 
Let X and y be the quantities ; then by the question, x -f y 

^ s, and X — y =:■ d ; whence x = s — y, and x = r/ + y, 

s — d 
and d ■{■ 1/ =: s — y •: ly ^ s — d, y ■=. — — , and x ■=■ 

s + d 
2 ■ 

Example III. 

A privateer running at the rate of 10 miles an hour, dis- 
covers a ship 18 miles otl", making way at the rate of 8 
miles an hour, how many miles can she run before she 
be overtaken. 

Let X be the number of miles she can run, and y the num- 
ber that the privateer must run to overtake her : then, 
by the question, y = x + 18, and x : y :: S : 10; whence 

10 x = 8 y, X = -~, and x = y — 18 ; therefore y — 

18 = ^, 5y - 90=4: y, andy = 90, x = 3r — 18 = 72. 

Sometimes the value of one quantity being found is sub- 
stituted for that quantity in the equation, as, let x + 3_y 
= 9, and 2 x + 7 y = 20, be given to find x and ;/; then 
X ^ 9 — 3 y, and by substituting this expression of x, 

2 X 9 - 3 y + 7 y = 20, or 18 - 6 y + 7 y = 20, and 
y = 20 - 18 = 2 ; therefore x = 9 — 3y = 9— 6 = 3. 
Sometimes the co-efficients, if they are the same in both 
equations, may be added or subtracted, as occasion re- 
quires. Thus let X + y = 15, and x — y = 7, be given 
to find X and y; then, by subtraction, 2 y = 8, and 
y = 4 ; by addition, 2 x = 22, and x = 1 1 . If the co- 
efficients are different, the terms of the first equation 
may be multiplied by the coefficient of the unknown 
quantity in the second, and those of the second equa- 
tion by the co-efficient of the same unknown in the first, 
and then add or subtract as before : thus, 

Example I. 
Let X + 3 y = 35, 5 x — y =■ 105, be given to find x 
and y / from five times the first equation take the 

second, and you will have 14y = 70; hence ;/ = — 


= 5 ; and from three times the second equation take the 
first, and there will remain 14 x = 280 ; whence x = 

■ = 20. 


Example II. 
Given a X -(- b y = c, and d x + e y ■=/, to find x and y. 
From e times the first equation take b times the second, 
and there will remain a e x — bd x=:.c e — bf; hence 

x = — 7^,. Again, from a times the second equa- 

a e — b d ° ^ 

tion take d times the first, and you will have a e y — 

af — d c 

db y=- af — d c ; whence y : 

Example III. 

Suppose X -f y = i, and x : y :: i 


b ; hence b z ^ a y ; 


then the second equation being taken from b times the 
first leaves b y ■= b s — a y ; hence ay + by-^bs; 

b s ., . b s . , ^ . 

therefore v = r- ^ow write instead ol ;/ in 

•' a + b a + b "^ 

the second equation, namely, in b x = a y, and you 

•II 1 , " '' ^ " ^ 

will have 6 X = ; , or a = . 

a + b a + 

When you have two equations of different dimensions, 

if you cannot reduce the higher to the same dimension 

with the lower, raise the lower to the same dimension 

with the liigher. Thus let the sum of two quantities, s, 

and the dift'erence of their squares, d, be given, to find 

the (luantitics. Put x and y for the tivo quantities ; 

then by the question, .t + ^ = s, and .r- — y^ =^ d ; .r = 

s — y, X- =, t,^ — 2 s y -^^ y-, and .i' = d + y'^ ; 

d + y' = s- — 2 s y + y'', d =i s'- — 2 s y ; whence 

s^ — d s'^ + d 
2 s u =■ s^ — d, y = -— , and x = — . 

3dly. If there are three unknown quantities, and conse- 
(|uentlj' three equations, find two equations involving 
two unknown quantities, and then proceed as before : 


Suppose X + y + 


Example I. 
= 12, X + 2 y + 3 ;: = 20, and 

= 6 ; then .r = 12 — ^ - ;:, x = 20 
and.r= 18 — ^ - 3 :; and 12 



As these two 

— 3 r, 12 - a — := 18 -^-3 2. 

^ 2 

last equations involve only y and z, they are to be re- 
solved by the preceding rules, as follows ; 2 y — y 
+ 3 2 - 2 = 20 — 12 = 8, »/ + 2 ;: = S, and 36 — 3 J/ 

— Qz = 2i — 2y— 2:, 12=y + 42; whence y — 
8 — 22, and y = 12 — 42; consequently 8 — 22 = 
J2-4.2, 22=12—8=4, andz = 2;3f = 8-22 
= 4; x = 12 — ;/ — 2 = 6. 

Questions of this kind may also be resolved by multiplica- 
tion, addition, and subtraction, as the case requires; 

Example 11. 

.Suppose 2 X -I- .y + 2 2 = 40, 3 x + 3 ,y — 2 = 48, x -f- 
2 = 2 y. Take twice the third equation from the first, 
and there will remain ^ = 40 — 4 _y, or 5 3/ = 40 ; 

therefore y ■=. -— ^ B, by substituting 8 for y in the 

sum of the second and third equations, there will arise 

4 X -f 3 X 8 = 48 + 2 X 8, or 4 x = 40, and x = — 

= 10; and by writing 10 for x, and 8 ior y, in the third 
given equation, you will have 10 -f- 2 = 2 x 8 ; hence 
2 = IC - 10=«. 

Example III. 
Suppose X -)- y = n, x -(- 2 = 4, y + 2 = c; from the sum 
of the first and second equations take the third, and 
there will remain 2i^a -|- b — c ; therefore x = 

. Again, from the sum of the first and third 

equations take the second, and you will have 2 ^ = 

a + c — b 
a + c — b, and y ^ . Lastly, from the sum 

of the second and third equations subtract the first, and 

1 -1, • y-* F 1 b -{- c — fi 
there will remain 2 z =: +c — a ; hence 2 = 

Depression of Egualions is the reducing them to lower de- 
grees ; as, from biquadratics to cubics, or from cubics 
to quadratics. Thus, if the equation be x3 — 6 x^ + 
1 1 X — 6 = 0, and it be discovertd that x is equal to 2, 
then X — 2 will be a divisor, by which, if the given equa- 
tion be divided, it will be depressed to the quadratic 
x" — 4 X + 3 = 0. 

Transformation of Equations is the changing their form, in 
order to prepare them for a more ready solution. This is 
effected by changing the signs of the terms alternately, 
beginning with the second. Thus, the roots of the equa- 
tion X4 - x3 — 19 x^ 4- -19 X - 30 = 0, are -f 1 + 2 
4- 3 — 5 ; these, by changing the signs of the second 
and fourth terms in the same equation, namelj', .i-i -(- 
.1' — 19 x» - 49 X - 30 = 0, become — 1 —2-3 + 5. 
Equations may also be transformed into others that shall 
have roots greater or less than the roots of the proposed 
equation by some given difference. Thus, suppose the 
equation to be the cubic xJ — p .1^ + q x — r =0 ; then 
let it be transformed into another whose roots shall be 
less ihan the roots of this equation by some given differ- 
ence, e ; that is, suppose y = x — c, and consequently 
X = y + e ; then, instead of x and its powers, substitute 
y ■'t e and its powers, and there will arise this new 

x' = ^3 -I- 3 (? ^1 + 3 c^ y + (.3 •^ 

_;, .r'= - p y^ -^ipe y -pe^l^ 
+ q X — + '/ ^ + V ^ ( 

Whose roots are less than the roots of the preceding 
equation by the difference (e). 
Extermination, or Elimination, is the taking away any un- 
known quantities in a given equation, so as to facilitate 
the solution of the question, of which many examples 
may be found under the head of the Resolution of Equa- 
Extermination is one mode of transforming equations by 
taking away the second, or any other intermediate term 
out of an equation ; or, in other word.s, to put the equa- 
tion into such a form that the new equation may want 
the second, third, or fourth, (ic. term. This is only to 
divide the co-efficient of the second term of the proposed 
equation by the number of dimensions of the equation ; 
and, assuming a new unknown quantity, y, add to it the 
quotient having its sign changed, and then substitute 
this aggregate for the unknown quantity : thus, suppose 
it be required to exterminate the second term out of this 
equation, .1' -~ 9 x' + 26 x — 34 = 0, then let x — .T 
= I/, or y -f 3 = X, which, being substituted, will make 
the new equations. 

.r3 = .y3 + 9^^ + 27 2/-f27^ 
- 9 X' = - 9 y* - .54 y - 81 I _ » 
-f26x= -J-26^ + 78r~" 

-31. -34J 

yi * 

- y _ 10 =0 

In this example the ( * ) denotes that the second dimension 
of y is wanting. If the proposed equation is a biqua- 
dratic, as X* — p x^ + q x'' — r X + s = 0, then, by 
supposing X ~ ^f p = y, or x =^ y + ^ p, an equation 
will arise having no second term, and so on, with higher 
dimensions , of which more may be seen in Maclaurin's 
Algebra, .is also on the extermination of the third and 
other terms. 

S e'- y + (?s ■) 
-7'2 J 


Finding the Limits of Equations, is tiiat process I)y means 
of wiiich the solution of equations is sometimes much 
facilitated, particularly in those cases where it is neces- 
sary to proceed by approximation ; for since it is evident 
that a root must lie between certain limits, that is, that 
it must be greater than one known quantity, and less 
than another ; we are led to a near proximate value by 
an easy process. Thus, suppose it were required to find 
a number greater than the greatest root of the equation 
xi — 5 J- + 7 J — 1=0; then, assuming x = j/ + e, 
we have this new equation. 

.v! = y-i + 3 e y- + 3 c- tj + 
— o X- ■= — 5 y^ — 10 (' y — 5 f' 
-f-7-r= + ' y + 7 e 

-1 = - 1 

Then, if 3 be substituted for e, each of the quanti- 
ties e3 — 5 e^ + 7 e - 1, 3 e' — 10 e + 7, 3 £■ - 5, is 
positive, or all the values of 7 are negative; therefore 3 
is greater than the greatest value of x. In the same 
manner )'ou may find a limit less than the least root of 
an equation, as j3 _ 3 ,r -|- 72 = 0, assuming x =y + e; 

xi= y^ + 3 e y^ + 3 e- y + e^ 
— 3 r = — 3 

72 = 

and here, if 5 be substituted for e, every term becomes 
positive ; consequently, o is greater than the greatest 
root of the equation x' — 3 x — 72 = 0, and 5 less than 
the least root of the equation xs — 3 x -I- 72 = ; of 
which more may be seen in Maclaurin's and Wood's 

Approiimntions of Equations is a method of coming nearer 
and nearer to the roots of equation, which is very similar 
to the method in arithmetic called Double Position, or 
Trial and Error, ^'arious modes of Approximation have 
been devised by different authors ; but that proposed by 
Newton, and somewhat varied by Raphson, is considered 
to be the most simple and practical. Of these varieties 
a farther account may be found in the writings of New- 
ton, Wallis, Raphson, &c. 

Construction of Equations is the finding the roots of equa- 
tions by means of geometrical figures, which is effected 
by the intersection of lines or curves with each other, 
according to the rank of the equation ; for the roots of 
equations are the ordinates of the curves at the points of 
intersection, with a right line. A simple equation is 
constructed b}' the intersection of one right line with 
another ; a quadratic, by the intersection of a right 
line with a circle or any conic section ; a cubic and 
biquadratic equation, by the intersection of one conic 
section with another. Thus, suppose the f. 

simple equation rtx= !>''+ c-, and the right- 
angled triangle, A B C, to be constructed 
having its base I) and its perpendicular c, 
then the square of the hypothenuse = i^ 

+ c'-, which call/i-; then the equation is .- ^ 

A e 13 

a X = /<-, and x = — a third proportional to n and h'. 

If it be a simple quadratic, as x^ = n S, then a : x :: x 
: 4, or X = ^a b, a mean proportional between a and b; 
thus, upon a straight line take A B 
:= a, and B C = i, describe the 
semi-circle A DC, and raise the per- 
pendicular to meet in D ; so shall 
BD be = X, the mean proportional _ 
between A B and B C. or a and b. '^ ^ t) 

If the quadratic be affected as x- -}- 2 a x = i', then 



draw the right-angled triangle 
ABC, having the base A B 
=: a, perpendicular, B C = 6,' 
from the point A at tlie dis- 
tance of A C describe the 

semicircle D C E ; so shall D B r> p 

and B E be the two roots of 
the given equation x^ + 2a x= b^. [vide Construction'] 

Principal ivriters on Algebra in chroyiological succession. 
Dioplianti " Quaestiones Arithmeticae ; " Luca: Paccioli 
" Summa Arithmeticae et Geometriac," Sec; Rndolphus 
" De Algebra seu Cossa ; " Stifelii " Arithmetica in- 
" tegra;" Cardani " Ars Magna," &c.; Tartalea " Que- 
siti et Inventioni diverse ; " Scheiibelii " Algebras com- 
pendjosa facilisque Descriptio," Scc.\ Recorde's " Cossic 
Art," " Whetstone of Art," &c.; Pf/e/«ra " Cenomani 
de occulta Parte Xumerorum," iSrc; Bombelli's " Alge- 
bra ;" Gossalini " De Arte magna," <S.-c. ; Clavii " Geonie- 
tria practica, Arithmetica practica. Algebra," &c. ; Ste- 
vini " Arithmetica et Algebra;" Vieia: " Opera Mathe- 
matica," Schooten's Edit.; Girarde's " Invention nou- 
velle en I'Algebre," &c. ; Harriotts " Artis Analytics 
Praxis," &c.; Ouglitred's " Clavis," &c. ; Descartes " De 
Problematibus, quae construi possunt adhibendo tantuni 
Lineas et Circulos;" Francisci a Schooten " Commen- 
tarii in Cartesii Geometriam et Exercitationes Mathe- 
maticse," «S:c. ; Gregorii " Geometric^ Exercitationes ; " 
Kersey's " Elements of Algebra ; Barrow's " Optical 
and Geometrical Lectures;" Leibnitii " Methodus Dif- 
ferentialis," &c.; Baker's "Geometrical Key, or Gate 
of Equations unlocked;" Il'allisii " Mathesis Univer- 
salis, seu Arithmeticum Opus integrum," &c.j Raphson's 
" Analysis .^quationum universalis;" Decliale's " Cur- 
sus, seuMundus mathematicus ;" Ward's "Compendium 
of Algebra;" Marquis de I' Hopital's "Analyse des in- 
finiment Petits," &c. ; Newtoti's " Arithmetica Univer- 
salis," &c. ; Maclaurin's " Treatise on Algebra ; " Simp- 
son's "Algebra;" Saunderson's " Elements of Algebra," 
&c. &c. 
ALGEBRA'IC (Algeb.) or Algebraical, any epithet for what 
belongs to Algebra; thus, an Algebraic Curve is one in 
which the relation between the absciss and ordinates can 
be expressed by an algebraic equation, as rf x — x- = y- 
for the circle, supposing d to express the diameter, x the 
absciss, and ;/ the ordinate. 
ALGEBRA'IST (Math.) one skilled in the science of 

ALGE'DO {Med.) suppres.'sed Gonorrhea, or the suppres- 
sion of the discharge from the gonorrhea. Cockb. on 
ALGE'MA {Med.) uXy/tuuci, the disease whence the pain 
proceeds, in which sense the term is frequently used by 
Hippocrates. Gorr. Def. Med. 
A'LGENEB {Astron.) an Arabic name for a star of the 
second magnitude in Pegasus. Its longitude is 27° 46' 12'' 
of Taurus, its latitude 30° .50' 28" North, according to 
Flamstead. Bayer. Uranomet. 
ALGI'RA {Zo.) a Moorish Lizard, and a species of the 

Lncerta of Linnaeus. 
ALGO'IDES {Bot.) an aquatic plant, so called from its re- 
semblance to the Alga, having imperfect hermaphrodite 
flowers. C. Bauh. Fin.; Raii Hist. Plant.; Pluken. 
A'LGOL {Astron^ an Arabic name for a star, called by 
Ulug Beigh, Ras Algali, i. e. the Head of a demon ; by 
Ptolemy i xx.iJt,xf<ii i» t<b Vofyanu, i. e. the bright star in the 
Gorgon s Head. It is now known by the name of Algol, 
or Medusa's Head, and is a star of the second magnitude, 
according to Ptolemy ; marked ( /3 ) by Bayer ; but by 


others it is reckoned to be of tlie third magnitude. Its j 
longitude was 21° 5<y 42" of Taurus, and its latitude 23° 
23' +7" North, according to Flamstead. Ptol. Almagest. 
1. ~f C.5; Ul. Bfigh . apiul Ilydc. Eelif;. Vet. I'er. ; Bayer. 
Vranomet. ; Ricciol. Almagest. 7WV. 1. 6, C. i, &c. ; Flam- 
sicad. Cnlal. 
A'LGOUAB {Ast.) an Arabic name for a fixed star of the 
third magnitude, '« ^il''" ^rifuy,, i. e. in the right wing of 
the constellation Corvus, marked [S ) hy Bayer. Ptol. 
Alma<r. 1. 7, c. 5 ; Bayer. Vranomet. ; Ricciol. Almag. nov. 
1.6, c. ,5. 
A'LGORITHM {Math.) from the Arabic al, the, and the 
Greek ifiu-o^. Algorism or Algorithm ; the art of computa- 
tion by numeral figures, as in Arithmetic. 
ALGOSA'IIEL (Bot.) the Daucuf carrota of Linnaeus. 
A'LGUAZIL (Pulit.) an officer of justice in Spain. 
ALHA'BAR (Aslrnii.) a star in the Great Dog. 
ALHA'GI (Bt.) a species of the Hcdysarum of Linnacus^ 
- Raii I list. Plant. 

ALHA'NDEL tBol.) the Cucumis colacynthis o( lAnnxns. 
ALHANDiii. (Med) a species of troche as old as Mesue, 
■ but not now used. Qiiin. Dispcn. 
ALHA'N'NA [Min.) vide Alana Terra. 
ALHA'SEl" [Med.) a kind of pustule, otherwise called 

Hi/drna . 
ALIIE'NNA {Bot.) another name for the Lausonia inermis 

of Linna-us. 
ALHIDA'DE {Mech.) Alidade, the label index or ruler, 

moveable about the centre of an Astrolabe. 
ALIIO'LLAXD tide{Ecc ) another name for All-Saints' Day 
A'LIAS (/.i-m) a second or further writ after a capias, &c 
which has been issued without effect — Alias Dictus, a 
description of the defendant by an addition to his real 
■■ name of tliat whereby he is bound in the writing. 
ALIBA'NIES {Com.) cotton cloth imported into Holland 

from the East Indies. 
ALIDA'NTES {Ant.) i^iBivn^, a terra among the Greeks 
for those who, on account of their poverty, were deprived 
of sepulture. 
A'LICA (.\'at.) from alo, to nourish; a nourishing kind of 
farinaceous food, a sort of Frumenty ; also a kind of 
wheat, x.^'^f"., which was used medicinally. Ilippocrat. 
Aphor. ; Aret. de Cans, ct Sig. Morb. Acut. 1. I, c. 10; 
Dioscor.\.2, c. 18; Plin. 1. 18, c. 7; Cels. de Re Med. 
I. 3, c. 6 ; Oribas. Med. Collect. 1. 4-, c. 1 ; Raii Hist. 
Plant. ; dorr. Med. Def. in Voc. x^'^Ci- 
A'LICANDE {Bot.) vide Aliconde. 

A'LICES {Med.) the little red spots in the skin, which pre- 
cede the eruption of pustules in the small-pox. 
A'LICONDE {Bot.) an Ethiopian tree, from the bark of 

which flax is spun. 
A'LICOllNU (/ol.) vide Unicornu. 
A'LIDADE {Mech.) vide Alhidade. 

A'LIEN {Laiv) one born in a foreign country out of the 
allegiance of the King. 1 Inst. — .llien priories, those 
cells of monks formerly established in England, which 
belonged to foreign ministers. — Alien office, the olHce at 
(jravesend, where all aliens are examined before they arc 
permitted to proceed further into the country. 
Alien duty (Com.) an impost laid on all goods imported by 
aliens over and above the customs paid on goods imported 
by British subjects. — Alieyi's duty, otherwise called petty 
customs, or navigation duties, a custom paid on fish not 
caught in British vessels. 
AEIENA'TU) Mentis {Med.) a wandering or derange- 
AL1EN.\'TI()X {f.fiw.) vide Aliene. — Alienation office, an 
office to which all writs of covenants and entries are car- 
ried for the recovery of fines levied thereon. 
TO ALI'ENE (Latf) from aliino ; to convey the property 


of a thing to another. — To aliene injee, to sell the fee 
simple thereof. — To aliene in moYtmnin, to make over 
lands or tenements to a religious house, or body politic. 
ALIFO'RINIES Processus {.-Inat.) the prominences of the Os 
cuneiforme, which are otherwise called Pteregoides. — 
Aliforrncs musculi, muscles in the form of a wing which 
rise from the Ossa Pteregoidea. 
ALI'GNMENT {Mar.) a supposed line drawn to preserve a 

fleet, or part thereof, in its just direction. 
A'LIINIENT {Med.) alimcntum, from alo, to nourish; the 
food which serves to nourish the bod)', or that which, by 
the heat and ferment of the stomach, may be dissolved and 
converted into the juice called Chyle. 
ALIME'NTAHIES {.4nt.) alimentarii pneri, or alimenlarice 
pnellic, children who were educated at the public expense, 
who were sometimes called after the name of the founder, as 
the l^iustina;, a communitj' of feu'alos instituted by Anto- 
ninus Pius, and called after the name of his wife Faustina. 
Jul. Capitohn. in Anton, ct Sever. 
ALIME'NTAIIY canal (.4nat.) the whole tract of intestines, 
including the stomach. — Alimentary duct, the same as the 
Thoracic duct. 
A'LIMOXY (Law) from alo, to feed ; the allowance made 

to a married woman upon a separation from her husband. 
A'LIMOS (Bot.) dMf/jcc,, from «, priv. and Aif^i;, hunger; 
a plant so called because it is said to drive away hunger 
and thirst. TheophrasI . Hist. Plant. 1. 4-, c. 20; Dioscor, 
1. 1, c. 120; Plin. 1. 17, c. 24-; Salmas. in Solin. c. 16. 
ALINDE'SIS {.Med.) a\i't^^,irtt,, a species of exercise men- 
tioned by Hippocrates, which consisted of rolling in the 
dust after being anointed with oil. Hippocrat. de Vict. 
Rat. 1. 2 ; Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. 
ALINTHl'SAR (Anat.) the same as Hypostaphyle. 
A'LIOCAB (Chem.) the same as Sal Anmioniac. 
A'LIO Die (Ant.) the words used by the Augur in dissolving 
the Comitia, on religious grounds: " Quid gravius quam 
rem susccptam dirimi si Augur alio die dixerit." Cic. de 
Leg. (.: 50. 
ALIPiENA {Med.) vide Alipe. 

ALIPA'SMA {Med.) from kxilcpu, to anoint; an anoint- 
ment rubbed over the body to prevent sweat. Gorr. Def. 
A'LIPE {Med.) u>^i7rri, applications to wounds in the cheek 
to prevent inflammation ; the}' were so called from «, priv. 
and Mxui'toi, to anoint, because they had no fat in them. 
They were otherwise called by the Greeks £»a.(«,a. Gal. 
de Compos. Med. 1. I, c. 15; Cels. de Re Med. 1. 5, c. 19; 
Gorr. Def. Med. 
ALI'PILUS (Ant.) the name of the slave who plucked the 
hairs from the armpits of those who bathed, tienec. Episl. 
56; C(cl. Rhodig. Ant. Led. I. 30, c. 19; Turneb. .Idv. 
1. 27, c. 10; Mcrcur. de Art. Gymna.\t. 1. 1, c. 12 ; Salmas. 
in Tertull. de Pall. ; Stuck. Ant. Conviv. 1. 2, c. 25. 
ALIP'TA (Ant.) Aliptcs, aMiaT/,^, aTr'ari ttMl<j>iiy, i.e. from 
anointing; slaves who anointed those who went to the bath. 
Cic. Tamil. 1. 1, cp. 9 ; Cels. dc Re Med. 1. 1, c. 1 ; Juvcn. 
Sat. 3, v. 76: Rhodig. Ant. Led. 1. 3, c. 19; Turneb. 
Adv. 1. 16, c. 15; Mercur. dc Arte Gymnast. 1. 1, 
c. 12, &c. 
A'LIQUANT Part (Aritli.) aliquanta pars; an indetermi- 
nate part of a number which will not measure it without a 
remamder, as the alicpiant part of 10. 
A'\AQ.\.]()T Part {.Int.) aliquota pars ; a determinate part 
of a greater number which will measure or divide it with- 
out a remainder, as 3, the alicpiot part of 12. 
ALl'SANUS (Bot.) the Rhexia virginica of Linnaius. 

Plukcn. Phytog. 
ALI'SMA {Bot.) 'aXiirij,a, a plant so called from its supposc<l 
virtue in curing the bite of a sea-hare. It was also sup- 
posed to have the power of breaking the stone in the 


kidnevs, &c. Dioscor. 1. 3, c. IG'J; Plin. 1. 25, c. 10; 
Oribn S.Med. Coll.]. 11. 
Ai.isMA, in the Linnean syslcm, is a genus of plants ; Class 6 
IJexandiia, Order 5 Polygynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth tliree-leaved. — Cor. 
Uiree-petalled ; petals roundish. — Stam. Jilaments awl- 
shiiped; anthers roundish. — Pist. germs more than five ; 
i/i//« simple; stigmas obtuse. — Per. cops!//ei' compressed; 
seals solitarj-. 
Species. Plants of this kind are perennials, as — .4Hsma 
Plantago, Damasonium, seu Plantago aquatica. Great 
\Vater Plantain, a native of Great Britain. — .-lliinia 
damasonium, seu Damasonium stellatum, Star-headed 
Water-Plantain, a native of England. — Alisma natans, 
Damasonium repens, seu Ranunculus palustris, native 
of France, iS;c. J. Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; C. Bauh. 
Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Pari: Thcat. Botan. ; Rail Hist. 
J'laul.; Tournef. Inst.; Boerliaav. Ind. ; Linn. Spec. 
Alisma is also the name of different species of the Primula 

and Senecio of Linnaeus. 
ALI'STELES (Chem.) Sal Ammoniac. 

ALKADA'RII (T/ffo/.) a sect of Mahometans, who assert 
the doctrine of free-will, and deny the absolute decrees of 
the Almighty. 
A'LKAHEST (Chem.) or alcahest, a name first used by Pa- 
racelsus, b)' whom it was probably coined to signify a uni- 
versal menstruum. It is explained by ^'an Ilelmont to sig- 
nify a salt of the highest sort, that had attained to the 
highest state of purity and subtlety. It was supposed to 
possess the virtue of pervading every substance ; and while 
it acted on every thing else, it remained itself immutable. 
Paracel. de Vir, Memb. 1. 2, c. 6 ; Van Helmon. Arcan. 
A'LKALE (^Chem.) the fat of a hen. 

A'LKALI (Chem.) or alcali, a perfectly pure salt, altogether 
without anj' acidity, caustic in taste, and volatalizcd by 
heat. It combines w itli acids, so as to produce an ebulli- 
tion and eft'ervescence. Alkalies are distinguished accord- 
ing to the substances from which the}" are extracted, 
namely, the — Animal alkalies, procured from Hartshorn, 
and other animal substances. — Vegetable alkalies, procured 
from the ashes of ^\'ormwood, and other plants. — Fossile 
and mineral alkali, procured from different parts of the 
earth, especially in Egypt, from sea-salt, &c. 
Alkalies are moreover distinguished, according to their vo- 
latility, into — Volatile alkalies, which are gaseous, as 
Ammonia ; and — Fixed alkalies, which remain fixed even 
in the fire, as Potash and Soda. The word alkali is de- 
rived from kali, an Arabic name for a certain herb on 
the coast of Egypt, the ashes of which yield a remark- 
ably salt and acrid taste. This salt, which now goes by 
the name of Alkali, or Alkaline salt, was originally called 
Li-rivitis Cinii, Li.xiviutn Cineris, lixivious salts, Rochctta, 
or Soda. Plin. 1. l-t, c. 2 ; Paracel. Archedox, 1. 4 ; Var. 
Helm. Comp. et Mist. Elani. sect. 12 ; Theat. Chem. vol. 
2, p. 470. 
A'LKANET, Dyer's (Bot.) or alcanna, a plant, the Anchnsa 
tinctoria of Linnaeus, the root of which yields a fine deep 
red, that is used much by the dyers. It is cultivated in 
the South of France, and much resembles Bugloss. 
ALKEKE'NGI {Bot.) a plant called Winter Cherry by Dale. 
It is the Atropa physaloides, and different species of the 
Physalis of Linneeus. Its medicinal virtues are that of an 
aperient and diuretic. C. Bauh. Pin. ; Parkins. Theat. 
Botan.; Boerhaav. Ind. Botan. 
ALKE'RMES {Med.) a confect mentioned in Quincy's Dis- 
pensatory, of which Kermes is the principal ingredient. 
A'LKI.AN (C^em.) that spirit which nourishes a man. Theat. 
Chem. vol. 5, p. 155. 


ALKI'BRIC (C^m.) Sulphur vivum. 

AL'KIN (Chem.) pot-ash. 

A'LKIR (Chem.) smoke of coal. 

ALL'-GOOD (Bot.) the Chenopodium, or Bonus Henricus, of 
Linnseus ; a plant so called because it is applied by the 
common people to the healing of slight wounds. — All-Heal, 
or Cloti-n's All- Heal, the Stachys of Linnaeus, otherwise 
called Wound-Wort. — All-Seed [vide All-Seed'] — All-Spice 
[vide All- Spice'] 

ALL-H'ALLOWTIDE (Ecc.) ihe name for All-Saints' day. 
— All-Saints, a. festival observed in the Christian church on 
the first day of November, in commemoration of all the 
saints. — All-Souls, a festival observed in the Romish on the 
second of November, when prayers are offered up for all 
departed souls. 

A'LKOHOL (Chem.) vide Alcohol. 

A'LLA (iVh^.) Italian, for in the, is used adverbially as 
follows: — Alia, or All anticn, in the old style applied to 
compositions after the manner of the last age. — Alia breve, 
quick; that is, a species of quick time. — Alia caccia, in the 
hunting style, applied to music imitative of the chace. — 
Alia capella, in the church style, or after the manner of sa- 
cred music. — Alia Zoppa, or ahop, in an affected style, or 
air improvista, extemporaneous. — Alia, or al' loco, in its 
place, denoting, in violin music, that the hand, having been 
shifted, must return to its place. — Alia modern :, in the 
modern style, applied to compositions since the time of 
Handel. — Alia, or All' ottavo, in the octave, applied to 
voices or instruments when the parts lie note for note, an 
octave above or below. — Alia, or All' reverso, the reverse, 
applied to parts in a contrary direction. — Alia segno, or 
Al' Seg, marked thus, ^-o ; i. e. to the mark, denoting that 
the performer must return to the mark. — Alia Russe, Scoz- 
zese, Siciliana, Italianne, ^x., in the Russian, Scotch, &c. 

ALLAGO'STEMON (Bot.) a class of plants, according to 
Monk's system. 

ALLAMA'NDA (Bot.) from Mr. Allamand, a Dutch sur- 
geon, a genus of plants. Class 5 Pentandria. Order 1 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — Cor. one- 
petalled; tube cylindric; border semiquinquefid; divi- 
sions spreading. — Stam. Jilaments scarcely any; anthers 
five.- — Pi ST. germ oval ; style filiform; stigma headed. — 
Per. capsule orbicular ; seeds very many. 
Species. "The only species is the Allamanda Cathartica, 
Orelia grandijlora Galarips, Echinus scandens, Sfe. seit 
Apocynum scandens, a shrub, native of Guiana. Barrel. 
Plant. Gall. Hispaii. et Pal. ; Aubl. Hist. Plant. Guian. ; 
Linn. Spec. Plant. 

A'LLANITE (Min.) a species of the ores of Uranium, 
being a silicate of cerium and iron. 

ALL antica (Mus.) Italian, for in the old style, applied to com- 
positions of the old school. 

ALLANTO'IDES (Anat.) ' A>.>.Mr6'.A„ Allantois "A^Aa.TaK, 
from «A>a5, a sausage, or hog's-pudding : the urinar}- mem- 
brane, so called from its resemblance to a pudding. This 
membrane reaches from one corner of the uterus to the 
other. Galen, de Sem. 1. 1, c. 7. In brutes it is called the 
Sarciniinalis Punica, or Gut Pudding. 

A'LLEGER (Chem.) or alegar, aleaigue, vinegar made of 
ale, now in common use. 

ALLE'GI ANCE (Lan-) from ab or ad, and ligo, i. e. ligamen 
Jidei, a bond of fidelity ; the natural, lawful, and faithful 
obedience which every subject owes to his prince. 1 Inst. 
129, &c. — Oath of Allegiance, the oath which all persons 
are required to take before they enter upon any office, and 
on other occasions, specified in different statutes. Eliz. 
c. 1, 5 ; 3 Jac. 1. 


ALLEGIA'RE (Laiv) to justify or defend in due course of 
law. Leg, Alured. apud Brompton, 

ALLEGO'KICUS mcthodm {Rhet.) i>\r/«f'«.''i fiihU, an al- 
legorical mode of speech when the authority of others 
nllct^ntur, that is, is quoted in confirmation of what is 
adduced. Hrrmo". Trifni: 

A'LLEGORY (n/iii.) iAA'.yopi'a, a figurative sort of discourse, 
1)3' which something else is meant than what is expressed 
by the literal words, so called from »>/<>, another thing, 
and cc'/cfit/u, to speak, /. e. to speak differently from what 
one means. According to Cicero, it answers to the Latin 
Immutatio ; but Quintillian renders it by Inversin. The 
allegory is a continued metaphor, of which Horace's Ode 
to the Snvi<, or ship, is a happy illustration ; where by the 
ship is meant the republic; by the waves, the civil wars; 
by the port, peace and concord ; by the oars, the soldiers ; 
by the mariners, the magistrates, &c. IlcracVid. Pont, in 
Alleg. Horn. c. 5 ; Dcmet. Elociit. ; Cicer. Oral. c. 27 ; 
Qiiintil. 1. 9, c. 6; Sosepat. Cliaris. Imt. Gramm. 1. 4. 

ALLEGRAME'NTE (Mus.) Italian, for rather quick. 

ALLEGRE'SSIMO (Mus.) Italian, for very quick [vide Al- 

ALLEGRE'TTO (3/;/.s.) Italian, for a time not so quick as 
Alle-^ro of which it is a diminutive. 

A'LLEtjRO alio (A/;«.) Italian, for the third degree of 
quickness. — Allegro arrilnt.j, quick and agitated. — Allegro 

Jurinso, vehemently quick Allegro nssai, more quick. — 

Allegro di molto, very quick. — Allegro nan molto, not very 
quick. — Allegro ma nan preste, quick, but not in the ex- 

ALLELE'KGYOX {Pol.) kx),r,xi'r/vti, a sort of tribute or 
rate paid by the rich for the support of the poor when they 
entered the army. Zonar. vol. 3 ; Consiit. Niceph. Jur. 
Orient. Roman. 1. 1 ; Bnleng. de Vectig. c. 79. 

ALLELU'JA {Ecc.) n>i'p'?n, from ^bbn, praise ye, and n\ the 
Lord ; that part of sacred music which was formerly em- 
ployed by religious assemblies as a call on each other to 
praise the Lord. 

Ai-r-ELLJA (Dot.) the Acetosa of Linnasus. 

ALLEM.\'NDE (Mm,?.) a French word, signifying German, 
because it is supposed to be of German origin ; an epithet 
for a slow air, or melody in common. 

A'LLENCE (Mill.) another name for Utannum. 

ALLER (Ant.) vide Alder. 

Ai.LER .'inns jour (Law) see Aler, 

ALLE'RION' (Her.) a small bird painted without beak or 
feet, like the martlet, or martinet ; or, according to some, 
like an eagle without beak or feet, so called because they 
have nothing perfect but the wings. They dill'cr from 
martlets therein, that their wings are expanded, whilst those 
of the martlet are close. 

ALLEN'E'UItE (Com.) a brass coin struck in Sweden, worth 
about '.i\d. English money. 

ALLI'-\ lA'RE (Lau') to levy or pay an accustomed fine. 

A'LLEY (Uorticnl.) a walk in a garden-bed which separates 
the squares of a parterre. This is of different sorts, as a — 
entailer alley, an alley by the side of another that is greater 
— Diagonal ullei/, that cuts a parterre from angle to angle 
— Front alley, that runs straight from the front oi' a build- 
ing — Transverse allei/, which cuts a front alley at right 

Ai.i.v.\ (Persped.) that which is larger at the entrance than 
at the issue, in order to make the length appear greater. 

ALL-I'O'URS (Sport ) a game of cards played by two, which 
is so called from th<.' four sorts of cards, called High and 
Low, Jack of Trump.-;, and the (jame, which, when joined 
in the huid of either party, constitutes him the wimier. 

A'LI.-GOOD (flnt.) vide AU. 

ALL-IIA'LLOW-TIDE (Ecc.) vide All. 

A'LL-IIEAL (Uol.) vide All. 


A'LLIAR (vris (Alcli.) philosophical copper for preparing 
the philosopher's stone. 

ALLIA'RIA (Bot.) a plant which was formerly reckoned an 
excellent anti-scorbutic. It is the Erisijwum allinria of 
Linnaeus. Bauh. Hist. Plant.; Raii. Hist. Plant. &c. 

ALLIHA'LLIES (Cum.) a fine clear muslin, of which the 
piece contains twenty-one yards, and is one yard wide. 

A'LLICA (Enl.) a species of Papilio. 

A'LLICAR (C/iem.) the same as Acetum. 

ALLIE'N'SIS dies (Ant.) an ominous day among the Romans, 
which was the anniversary of their defeat by the Gauls near 
the Allia. Cic. ad Attic. 1. 9, ep. 5 ; Liv. 1. 6, c. 1 ; i'/tcaw 
/)( Fast. Kalend. Roman, c. 5. 

.■^LLIGA'TI (Ant.) those slaves among the Romans who were 
obliged to work in chains. Columel. 1. 1, c. 9. 

ALLIGA'TION (Arit.) a rule in Arithmetic by which ques- 
tions relating to the compounding of different simples are 
resolved ; so called from allcgiare, to bind or connect. Al- 
ligation is of two kinds, medial and alternate. — Alligation 
medial, a rule for finding the mean rate of a mixture com- 
pounded out of certain quantities. — Alligation alternate, a 
rule to find out such quantities as arc necessary to make a 
mixture to bear a rate proposed, the rates of the simples 
being given. Luc. de Burg. Sum. Arith. 

A'LLIGATOR (Zool.) an amphibious animal in the West In- 
dies, the La carta alligator, so nearly resembling the croco- 
dile of the Nile, both in form and habits, as to be considered 
merely a variety which difference of climate produces. It 
is but little inferior to the crocodile in size, and will some- 
times grow to the length of eighteen or twenty feet. The 
opinion of Aristotle, and other ancient naturalists, that 
animals of this description move their upper jaw only, ap- 
pears, upon closer inspection, to be incorrect. 

Alligatoii pear (Bot.) the Lanrus persea of Linnaeus. 

.\LLIGATU'RA {Sur.) the same as ligature. 

ALL' improvista (Mas.) Italian for extemporaneous, applied 
to the performance. 

ALLIO'NIA (Bot.) a genus of plants so called from Professor 
Allioni, Class 4 Tctrandria, Order 1 Monogipiia. 
Generic Characters. Cal. perianth common; proper ob- 
solete. — Cor. proper one-petalled. — Stam. ^fila7ncnts se- 
taceous ; anthers roundish. — Fist, germ inferior ; sti/le 
setaceous; stigma multifid. — Per. none; seeds soVdary; 
receptacle naked. 
Species. There are two species, namel)', the AHionia vio- 
lacea, a native of South America ; and Allionia incar- 
nala sen Wedelia, an annual native of Peru. 

A'LLIOTII (.'Istron.) an Arabic name for a star in the tail 
of the great bear, which signifies, literally, a horse. It is 
marked t by Bayer. Vlng. Beigh apud Hyd. de Relig. 
Vet. Persar. ; Bai/. Uranomet. 

ALLIO'TICUM (Sled.) fromiA>..w, to change ; an alterative 
medicine, composed of antiscorbutics. 

ALLITERA'TION (Gram.) a repeating and playing upon 
the same letter, 

A'LLIUM (Bot.) in (Jrcek a-KCfM, the herb Garlic, which 
was held in reverence by the I'-gyptians, and in abhorrence 
by the Greeks, so that no one dare approach the temple of 
Ceres, the mother of the (iods, after having eaten of it. 
It was, however, esteemed good food for soldiers, to ani- 
mate them before they went to battle, to which Aristo- 
phanes alludes, 
Aristoph. Fi/ait. 

h' uuiuyat iiTci' Wxcf-.^iTiJutyc; /*«;(;;% 

It was reckoned of no less efficacy for the rowers onboard 
a ship, according to Plautus. Plaut. Poen. act. 5, seen. 5, 
V. :m-. 

Turn anttm flenim- 

Aim ulpicijue quam llomani rcmiges. 


Hence the vulgar proverbs of allium ne comedos, for lead a 
quiet life, and nl/iinn in retibm, in reference to the quan- 
tity of garlic which the Athenian mariners took with them. 
Horace makes frequent allusions to its offensive smell and 
coarseness for food, particularly in his ode to Ma;cenas. 
Horat.Epocl.^,v. 1. 

Parentis olim si ijnis impid mamt 

Senile giituir I regcrit 

Ijdat cicutis allium liocentitts, ^T. 

Its medicinal virtues are much commended by the ancient 

physicians, particularly for its efficacy against the bite of 

tlie viper. Hippocrat. de Rut. I'id. in Acut. Morb. 1. 2 ; 

Tluvphrnst. 1. 7, c. 4 ; Dio^cm: 1. 2, c. 1 82 ; Vlin. 1. 19, c. 6 ; 

Columcl. 1. 2, c. 3 ; G(d. de Simpl. Med. Fac. 1. 8 ; Uroban. 

Med. Collect. 1. 11 ; Aet. Ttlrab. 1. serm. 1 ; Paul Alginet. 

1.7, c. 3. 
Allium, in the Linnean system, is a genus of plants, Class 6 

Hexandrin, Order 1 JMonogi/nia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. spathe common. — CoR. petals 
six. — Sr AM. Jilntnenfs six; (jh//ic?-.s oblong. — Fist, germ 
superior ; style simple ; stigma sharp. — Per. capsule very 
short ; seeds few. 

Species. The species are mostly perennials, as — Allium 
ampeloprasum, seu Porriim ampclnprasum, seu Scorodopra- 
stim latifulium, &c. Great Round-headed Garlick, a native 
of Britain. — Allium sub-hirsutum, Moll/ nngu.<ilifolium seu 
Dioscoridis, Hairy Garlick, native of Africa. — Allium ro- 
seum seu Moly minus. Rose Garlick, native of Montpel- 
lier. — Allium sativum. Common (larlick. — Allium scoro- 
doprasum, sativum alterum, Allioprassum seu Porrum, 
Rocambole, native of Sweden. — Allium moschaium seu 
Moly moschatum. Musk-smelling Garlick. — .4llium asca- 
lonicum seu Cepa ascalunica. Shallot, or Eschallote, a na- 
tive of Palestine. — Allium odorum, sweet-smelling Gar- 
lick, native of Europe. — Allium Jisiidosum, seu Cepa ob- 
longci,'\\e\&\\ onion, or Ciboule, native of Siberia. — Allium 
Scltirnoprasum, seu Cepa pnlustris, Chives, native of Si- 
beria ; but — Allium porrum, seu Porrum, &c. the Com- 
mon Leek, is a biennial. ./. liauh. Hist. Plant.; C. 
Batdi. Pin. ; Ger. Herb. ; Park. Theatr. Bolanicum ; 
Rail Hist. Plant. ; Journal Instit. ; Doerhaav. Ind. 
Allium is also the name of some species, as the Hypoxis 
Jascicularis, and the Tradescentia Virginica of Linnaus. 

C. Bauh. Pin. 
ALLOBRO'GICUM rinum (Med.) a sort of harsh wine of 

Savoy and Dauphiny. Cels. de Re Med. 1. 4, c. 6. 
ALLOC A'TION (Lnu) an allowance made on account in the 

Exchequer. — Allucationefacienda, a writ for an accountant 

to receive such sums from the treasurer as he has expended. 

Reg. Orig. 206. 
ALLOC A'TO fo?«//a/w (Laxv) a new writ of exigent allowed 

before any county court holden, on the former not being 

fully served or complied with. Fitzh. Exig. M. 
ALLOCA'TUR (Laiv) i. e. it is allowed; a term applied to 

the certificate of allowance by the master on taxation of 

ALLO'CHOI (Med.) kx^x'"", those talking deliriously, as 

it is commonly read in Hippocrates ; but Galen reads it 

iri«>oji«oi, those who spit much, which reading is approved 

by Erotian. Hippocrat. de Epidem. 1. 2 ; Gal. E.icges. ; 

Hippocrat. I'ocab. ; Erotian. Lex. Hippocrat.; Foes. CEco- 

nnvi. Hippocrat. 
ALLO'CHROITE (Min.) a sort of stone of the garnet kind. 
ALLO'CO (.V».s-.) vide Alia. 
ALLOCO'TOX (Med.) oi>.?ioxiTcv, absurd or unnatural, as 

applied by Hippocrates. Hippocrat. de Morb. Med.; Gal. 

Eiegcs. I'ocab. Hippocrat.; Eiot. Lex. Med. Hippocrat.; 

Gorr. Def. Med.; Foes. CEcnnom. Hippocrat. 
ALLOEO'TIIETA (Gram.) aMoichTcc, from i^iAom?, various, 

and inii, disposed ; a figure of grammar varying from the 


ordinary rules of Syntax, as a noun in the singular with a 
verb plural, Pars abiere. Priscian calls this varietas. 

ALLODE'MIA (Med.) aXMi^./A,ic^, a term used by Hippo- 
crates for travelling into a foreign country. Hippocrat. 
de Intern. Affect.; Foes. (Econom. Hippocrat. 

ALLO'i^IAL (Laiv) Allodialis, exempt from rent or ser- 
vices, as allodial lands, which pay not fine, rent, or 
services. Homesdai/ Book. 

ALLO'GNOON (Med.) iAAoy>ow, delirious, i. e. aAJ>i=6v.i>V. 
xiv ^cifk Tx ivTx, i. e. one knowing tilings ditferent from 
what they really are. Gal. Exeges. I'ocab. Hippocrat. ; 
Erolian. Lex. Med. Hippocrat.; Foes. (Econom. Hippocrat. 

ALLO'NCjE (Fenc.) a thrust or pass at the adversary. 

ALLO'PHASIS (Med.) ■A>>.«>*cr.5, i. e. speaking things dif- 
ferent from what they really are ; delirium, as it is applied 
by Hippocrates. Gal. Coinm. in Prognost. ; Erot. Lex. 
Med. Hippocrat.; Hesych. Lex. ; Gorr. Def. Med.; Foes. 
CEconom. Hippocrat. 

ALLO'PHYLl (Bibl.) «;i>.«?tAo., signifies literally strangers ; 
but is commonly employed in Scripture for the Philistines. 

ALLO'PHYLUS (Bot.) icM.i^vyc^, literally a stranger, i. e. 
an exotic, a genus of plants, Class 8 Octandria, Order 1 

Generic Characters. Cal. Perianth four-leaved; leaflets 
orbiculate. — Con. petals four; claws broad. — Stam. ^'«- 
7»p«/s filiform ; «H//(er.s' roundish. — Pist. ocrm superior; 
style filiform ; stigma bifid. 
Species. The Species are Allophylus Zeylanicus, a shrub, 
native of Ceylon. — Allophylus rigidus, native of Hispa- 
niola. — Allophylus racemosus, native of Hispaniola. — 
Allophylus cominia, Rhus coniinia, Cominia, seu To.ii- 
codendron urboreum, native of .lamaica. — Allophylus ter- 
nalus, a shrub, native of Cochin China. Raii Hist. 
Plant.; Sloan. Hist. Jamaic. ; Brown. Hist. Jamaic. ; 
IVild. Linn. Spec. Plant. 

ALLOTMENT (Mar.) allowing half the pay of the private 
and non-commissioned officers of the royal navy to be 
paid monthly to the wife, children, or mother of the 

Allotment of goods (dnn.) when any cargo is divided into 
several parcels, to be bought by dift'erent persons, whose 
names being written upon as many pieces of paper, are in- 
differently applied to the respective parcels. 

AhL, i.tiave (Mus.) Italian, for in the octave ; an expression 
applied to the instruments or voices, when their parts lie 
an octave above or below some other part. 

ALLO'VV.\NCE (Mar.) the ratio or quantum of provisions 
served out to the seamen on board. — Short allowance, when 
necessity obliges a curtailment of the usual quantity. — 
2\o thirds alloivance, when two thirds only of the usual 
quantity is allowed. — To stop the allowance, a last re- 
source when the provisions are nearly exhausted. 

ALLO'Y (Com.) a mixture of other metals with silver or 
gold. Stat. 9, Hen. V. A pound weight of standard gold 
in the mint is 22 carats fine, and 2 carats allay or alloy. 
Of standard silver 11 ozs. 2 dwts. of fine, and 18 dwts. of 

ALL'-SAIXTS (Ecc.) a festival, [vide ^//] 

A'LL-SEED (Bot.) the Chemopodium polyspermum and 
Linum railiola of LinnJEUS. 

ALL segno (Mus.) Al Seg, or the character ; ^ ; Italian for 
the words, to the sign, [vide /?//«] 

A'LL-SOULS (Ecc.) a festival, [vide .-///] 

A'LL-SPICE (Bot.) the Myrtus Pimento of Linnaeus. 

A'LLUM (Min.) vide Alum. 

ALLU'MINOR (Archrrol.) one whose business it is to alUi- 
mine or paint upon paper, parchment, &c. Stat. 1, R. 3, c. 9. 

ALLU'VIAL (tazv) belonging to a deluge or alluvion ; as 
alluvial soil, i. e. soil that has been brought to other lands 
by means of floods. 



ALLU'VION (Laxv) from (ilhio, to wash to ; an accession 

of land uaslied to the shore by inundations. 
A'LMA (Mcc/.) or Halmn, «>^a, the first motion made by 
the foetus in tlie womb to free itself from confinement. 
Hippocrat. apiiil Ilesycldiim. 
ALM.^-MATElt. (Lit.) a title given to Oxford or Cam- 
bridge by such as have received their education in either 
ALMACA'N'TAR [Aslnn.) Almincutaralh, from the Ara- 
bic Alinocanthnrat ; a name for the Parallels of altitude 
on the celestial globe whose zenith is the pole or vertical 
ALM ACA'NTER'S slnf (Mcch.) an instrument for observ- 
ing at .sea the .sun's amplitude rising and setting. 
A'LMADY (Com.) 1. A vessel in the East Indies, made in 
the form of a weaver's shuttle. 2. An African canoe made 
of the bark of trees. 
A'LMAGESTUM (Lit.) the title of Ptolemy's celebrated 
work on Astronomy, so called by the Arabians, who add- 
ing the particle n/to the /K-iyis-ic of the Greek title (rviTuh', 
fbiyt^u, thus formed the word Almagist. Riccioli has given 
a similar title, Almiiffistum Novurn, the New Almagest, to 
his work on astronomy. 
A'LMAWRA (Mill.) a kind of ochre. 
A'LMAIN rivets (Mil.) a certain light kind of armour worn 

by the Germans. 
ALMAKA'NDA (C/iem.) litharge. 
A'LMAN (Metal.) a furnace used by refiners for separating 

A'LMANAC (Chrnn.) a calendar or table, containing an 
account of the months, weeks, and days of the year, with 
the festivals, changes of weather, &c. It is in French 
Almanac, in Italian Almanacco, in Spanish Ahnanaque, in 
German Almanack ; and is derived by Golius from the 
Arabic particle al, and Maria, a measure or reckoning ; by 
Scaliger, from the same particle, al, and the Greek /*«», a 
month ; by Verstigan, from the compound Saxon word 
ffl-mon-alic, i.e. All-I\loon-Heed, or an account of every 
moon, which the Saxons are said to have kept very care- 
fully. The latter seems to be the immediate derivation, 
and the former that which is more remote. 
Almanac Nautical (Axiroii.) or A:;trnnumical Ephemeris, is 
published under the direction of the iJOa- » olLongitude, 
for the use of mariners, containing an account of the lon- 
gitude, latitude, ascension, declination, &c. of the heavenly 
A'LMAND cathartica (But.) a plant of Surinam, supposed 

by tile inhabitants to be good for the colic. 
ALMA'NDINE (Mill.) a sort of ruby, approaching 

in colour nearer to the granate than the ruby. 
ALMA'RCAB (Chem.) litharge of silver. 
ALMA'RGAN (Min.) coral. 

A LMELILE'TU(iUa/.) a preternatural heat, less than a fever. 
A'LMENE (Cliem.) Sal Gemma. 

Almene (Com.) an Indian weight of about two pounds. 
A'LMISA (Chem.) Musk. 
ALMISA'DAR (Chem.) Sal Ammoniac. 
.A'LMOIN' (Imw) vide Frank Almoin. 

ALMON.'V'Rir.M (Archrcd.) a safe or cupboard in which 
broken victuals were kept that were to be given to the 
A'LMOND (Metal.) vide Almnn. 

Almond (linl.) the nut or fruit of the almond tree, whether 
sweet or bitter, called in French Amande, in German 
Manilcl, in Latin Ami/i^ilala, and in (ireek ajt^vy^iMi. 
Almon u-/n,'C the Ami/gdalHX communis of Linnxus; a pretty 
tall tree, resembling a ))iacli tree, which is one of the first 
trees that blossoms. It is a native of the Holy Land. 
There are different sorts of trees so called, as the — Com- 
mon Dwarf Almond, or Ami/gdalis nana of Li«na;us. — 


African Almond, the Brabeium stcllafolium. — Hoary Dwarf 
Almond, the Amygdnlis incana. — Silvery-leaved Almond, 
the .-Imi/gdalis orient alls of Linna?us. 
Al.mond (Cum.) a Portuguese measure of oil, equal to four 

gallons two quarts. 
Almond (.4nat.) a name for the glandular substances on 
each side the uvula at the root of the tongue, otherwise 
called tunsiUic. 
ALMOND-,rfo;/e (Min.) the ami/gdalifes of Linna;us, a sort of 
stones consisting of glandules that resemble the almond 
i]i shape. 
A'LMONER (ArchiFol.) or ahnncr chrmoxi/nariiis ; an otfi- 
cer in the king's house who distributed the king's alms 
every day. Flct'i, I. 2, c. '22. 
A'LMONRY (Archccol.) ElcemQsjjm ; the office or dwelling 

of the almoner. 
ALMOXARIFA'RGO (Com.) a duty of two and a half per 

cent, on bulls' hides in Spain. 
ALMS feufi (.■Ircliccol.) Saxon for alms-money, given first 
by Ina, king of the West Saxoi:s. — Alms-basket , the basket 
in which the provisions are put that are to be given au aj-. 
— Alms-house, a house endowed with a revenue for the 
maintenance of a certain number of poor aged persons. — 
Alms-man, a man who is supported by alms or charity. 
ALMU'CIUM (Arcluvol.) vide Almutium. 
ALMUGAVA'RI (Archccol.) a name for the Spanish sol- 
diers who distinguished themselves against the Saracens. 
Roder. Tolit. de Reb. Hispan. I. 9, c. 16 ; Pachipner. 1. 2, 
c. 13. 
ALMU'GIA {Astral.) the planets facing one another in the 

ALMU'GIM (Bibl.) a sort of wood mentioned 1 Kings x, 2. 
It is called by the Septuagint iy>^a jnuxna, by the Vulgate 
ligna pinea. 
ALMU'NIA (Archccol.) a sort of tenure among the Spa- 
ALMU'TEN (Aslrol.) the lord of a figure, or strongest 

planet in a nativity. 
ALMU'TRIUM (Archccol.) a cap made with lambs or goats' 

skins. Dugd. Mon. Angl- 
ALNABA'TI (Med.) a gentle laxative. 
A'LNAGE (Com.) the measure of an ell. 17 slat Ed. A: 
Alnage (Law) 1. A measure by the ell. 2. An officer to 

inspect the pJnage or measuring. 25 Ed. 3. 
A'LNEC (Min.) Tin. 
ALNE'RIC (Chem.) Sulphur vivum. 
ALNE'TUIM (Archccol.) a grove of alder trees. Domcsdaij- 

ALNI ejjigie (Bot.) the Crativgiis aria of Linna;us. Bcmh 

Hist. Plant. 
ALNIFO'Ll.'V (Bat.) the Clclhra alnijhlia of Linnrcus 

Plidcn . Photograph. 
A'LNUS (Bot.) alder ; a tree so called, either because, alatiir 
amne, it thrives by the river side, or from the Hebrew 
JI^K, alon, an oak. It is called in the Greek KMifx, and 
its bark was reckoned drying and astringent. The wood is 
celebrated by the poets on account of its fitness for the 
building of ships. 
Virg. Gcorg. I. 2, v. 45 L 

]\Vr non et t>>rrentem undam leiis imiatat alnus. 

Lucan. 1. 3, v. •ill. 

Kl fluclibus nptiffr alnus. 


Qui iluhiis ttusui coaimitterejhctibus nlnum. 

Theophrast. Hist. Plant. 1. 3, c. l* ; Be Cans Plant. 1. 3, 
c. 17 ; Dioscor. I. 3, c. 25; Plin. I. 16, c. 26; Vitrtiv. de 
Architect. I. 2, c. 9 ; Ovid. Met. 1.13. 
Alnus, in the Linnean system, is the Bcctula alnus, th« 


Conocarpu-i erecla, and the Rhamnus frnngiila of Linnaeus. 
Lvb. Plant, seu Stirp. Hist. ; J. Ba'uli. Hisl. Plant. ; C. 
Bau/i. Pin. ; Rait Hist. Plant.; 2'ournef. Instil.; Bocr- 
liaav. I lid. 
A'LOA {.Int.) 'A/.aa, festivals at Athens in honour of Bac- 
chus and Ceres, celebrated by an otFering from the fruits of 
the earth in the time of liarvest, from aAuc, a barn, wlience 
Ceres is called "Aa^x;, aloas, that is, a filler of barns. 
Demoslhen. in Netrr. ; Harpocrat. Lex ; Hesychius ; Eu- 
stat/i, in II. 9, V. 5SS ; Metirs. Eleus. apud Gronov. vol. "• 
A'L.OE (Dot.) u?.i>!, the name of a plant, conies in all proba- 
bility from the Hebrew n^nn, which signifies the same 
thing. The aloe, which comes from India, resembles the 
squill, only that it is bigger and provided with fatter leaves. 
The juice, which is found sticking to the plant like a tear, 
is exceedingly bitter, but of great use in medicine, parti- 
cularly as a purgative. Dioscor. 1. 3, c. 25 ; Pliii. 1. 27, 
c i ; Riiff". Ephes. Fragment, de Med. Purg. ; Gal. Comm. 
2 ill Hippocrat. de Art. c. 49 ; Cels. de lie \Med. 1. 2, c. 1 2 ; 
Oribas. Med. Coll. 1. 7, c. 27; Aet. Tetrah. I. serm. 3, 
c. 2i ; Acinar, de Meth. Med. 1. 5, c. 8 ; Salinas. Excrcitat. 
Plin. 10J3. 
Aloe, in the Linncean system, a genus of plants, Class 6 Hex- 
andria. Order 1 Monogi/nia. 

Generic Character. Cal. none. — Cor. one-petalled ; tube 
gibbous; border spreading. — Stam. Jilaments awlshaped, 
anthers oblong. — PisT. germ ovate, style simple, stigma 
obtuse. — Per. capsule oblong, seeds several. 
Species. The species are mostly shrubs, and natives of 
the Cape of Good Hope. J. Bank. Hist. Plant.; 
C. Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Botan. ; 
Rail Hist. Plant. 
Aloe is also the name of some species, as the — Crapula 
perfoliata; the Agave Americana; the Dactcna marginata ; 
the Aletris uvaria ; and the Yucca aloijolia of Linnaeus. 
J. Baii/i. Hist. Plant.; Rail Hist. Plant.; PM. Phyto- 
ALOEDA'RIA {Med.) aloetics, medicines consisting chiefly 

of aloes. Aet. Tetrah. I, serm. 3, c. 105. 
A'LOES [Med.) the inspissated juice of the aloe, which is of 
different sorts, namely, the — Common Aloes, or the juice of 
the officinal aloe. — Hepatic Aloes, the juice of the Guinea 
aloe, so called from its liver-like co\o\it.— Caballine or 
Horse Aloes, from the same plant, but of a coarser sort, 
which is commonly given to horses. — Saccotrine Aloes, 
from the juice of the aloe of Sacotra. 
ALOETICS [Med.) vide Aloedaria. 
ALOE'XYLUM (Bot.) the ay«;7ffn'a of Linnaeus. 
ALO'FT (Mar.) at the mast-head, or in the top of the 

ALO'GIA (Ecc.) a/oyia; silent feasts, or where there was 
no discourse held ; from u, priv. and Aov«5, a discourse. 
August, epist. 86. 
ALOGIA'XI (Ecc.) or Alogi, u\oyci, a sect of heretics so 
called, from «, priv. and Ao-A the word, because they 
rejected the Aivo5, or Word of St. John. Epiphan. Hccres. 
c. 51 ; August, ad quod vult Deuin. c. 30. 
A'LOGOS (Rhet.) «Ao-/o;, disproportionate; an epithet for 
the first long syllable, because it does not bear a due Aoyo? 
or proportion to the rest of the foot. Dionys. Hal. de 
Comp. c. 16. 
A'LOGOS (Med.) aMyu^, without due cause; a terra em- 
ployed by Hippocrates in speaking of disorders, as when a 
fever disappears without any critical evacuation, he says it 
is resolved x^.c-yuc, i. e. without an adequate cause, and is 
consequent!}- subject to a relapse. Gal. Comm. 2 in. Hip- 
ALOGOTRO'PHY (Med.) cc>.,yor(o4>:^, from Tfii?*., to nou- 
rish, and K^oyu^, without proportion; disproportionate 
nutrition in different parts of the body. 


A'LO''SG-side (Mar.) parallel to a ship, a wharf; " To lay 
along-side," to place a ship by the side of another. — Along- 
shore, along the coast, applied to coasting navigation. — 
Along-shore-oviner, one who sends his ship to sea in want 
of stores and provisions. — Along-lying, the state of being 
pressed down sideways by a weight of sail in a fresh 
ALOO'F (.Vnr.) at a distance; a term employed in sea 
phrases, as " To keep aloof," commonly called " To keep 
the luff," a command given by the pilot or the officer to the 
helmsman, to direct the ship's course nearer the wind. 
ALO'PECES (Anat.) kxc,i:iy.'.c, from kxi:^,}, a fox; psoa 
muscles ; so called because they are very strong in foxes. 
Ruff. Ephes. Appell. I. 1, c. 30. 
ALOPE'CIA (.Med.) k>.:^zi,.U, a falling off of the hair; a 
distemper so called from ci>i'~>-i, a t'ox, and ^riVvw, to fall ; 
because foxes are very liable to such a defluxion of the 
hair. Celsus calls it a kind of area. Cels. 1. 6, c. 4 ; 
Plin. 1. 20, c. 5 ; Gal. de Comp. Med. secnnd. Loc. 1. 1, 
c. 2 ; Oribas. de Imc. Affcc. 1.4. c. 5; Aet. Tctrab. 2, 
serm. 3, c. 55 ; Alex. Trallian, 1. 1, c. 1 ; Paul. Mginet. 
1. 3, c. 1 ; Acluar. de Meth. Med. 1. 2. c. 5. 
ALO'PECURO veronica (Bot.) the Mentha auricularia of 

ALOPECU'ROS (Bot.) ihe Betonica alopecuros o(J-,iBnx\}S. 

,r. Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; Ger. Herb. ; Rait Hist. Plant. 
ALOPECU'RUS (Bot.) from iAii^i^, c,fx, i. e. a fox's tail; 
the Fox-tail or Fox-tailed Grass ; a genus of plants. 
Class 3 Triandria, Order 2 Digynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. glume one-flowered ; valves 
ovate. — CoR. one-valved ; valve ovate; awn twice as 
long. — Stam. Jilainenfs three : anthers forked at each 
end. — PiST. germ roundish; styles two; «//o';;;o.s villous. 
Per. none, the corolla investing the seed ; seed ovate. 
Species. The species are mostly perennials, as the — 
Alopecurus bulbosus, seu Gramen typhoidrs, S,-c. Bulbous 
Fox-tail Grass. — Alopecurus pratensis seu Grameii pha- 
leroides, Sfc. Meadow Fox-tail Grass, &c. ; but some are 
said to be annuals, as the Alopecurus monspeliensis. 
Bearded Fox-tail Grass, and Alopecurus paniceus, Hairy 
Fox-tail Grass. J. Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; C. Bauh. Pin. ; 
Ger. Herb. ; Park. Theat Botan. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
A'LOPEX (Zool.) Brant Fox, a species of the Canis of 

A'LOSA (Ich.) the shad, a species of the Clupea of Linnxus. 
A'LOSAT (Chcm.) argentum rivum. 

ALOTIA (.'Int.) festivals in Arcadia in commemoration of a 
victorj- obtained over the Lacedaemonians, many of whom 
were taken prisoners that were called in Greek kXairut. 
ALOVE'RIUM (.-Irchaol.) a purse. 
A'LP (Or.) a Bullfinch. 

A'LPHA (Gram.) uinpx, from the Hebrew b'^W; the first 
letter in the Greek alphabet, so called by the ancient Sy- 
rians because this word signified an ox in the Phcenician 
tongue, which was reckoned by Cadmus the first of the 
three necessaries of life. Pint. Syiiops. 1. 2, quaest. c. 3 ; 
Hesychius ; Seal. Animadvers. in Euseb. Chron. 
A'LPHABET (Gram.) alphabetum, the whole order of let- 
ters which are used in any language, so called from alpha 
and beta, the first and second letters of the Greek alphabet. 
The following are the principal alphabets which have been 
or are in use among different nations. 

The Alphabets of different nations, in alphabetical order. 
Alphabet of Abraham, a Chaldean alphabet, ascribed by 

the Rabbis to Abraham, but without any authority. 
Abyssinian the same as the /Ethiopian. 
Alphabet of Adam, a Chaldean alphabet ascribed to Adam. 
JEolian, a variation of the ancient Greek, attributed to the 
.^^olians by Theseus Ambrosius. 


African, a sort of Arabic alphabet, 

Aiiglo-Xonuan, a sort of Gothic cliaractcr. [vide Gothic'] 
Arabic consists of dilfcrent characters. The most ancient 
Arabic is called the Kutic, so named from the city of Kufa, 
on the Euphrates, which does not appear to be now in 
use. The specimen given in Tab. 1\', No. IS, [PI. 1] 
was connnunicated to Dr. Morton of the British Mu- 
seum, by Ur. Hunt, Araljic professor at Oxford, from 
MSS. in tlve Bodleian Library. It consists oi' iiiilinls or 
letters ustd at the beginning, mcdiah or letters in the 
middle, anA final s or letters used at the end. The mo- 
dern Arabic is supposed by some to have been invented 
by the vizier Molach, A.D. 933, with which he wrote the 
Koran three times, and in a mannerso fairand correct as to 
nialce it a perfect model of writing. This alphabet con- 
sists also of four sorts of characters, namely, single, 
initial, medial.and final, which is the common character 
of the Arabians, Turks, and Persians; but the two latter 
nations have added four more letters, namely, i__j p, 
-. ch, J zh, S g, and given a different power to others. 
There are two other variations of the Arabic, namely, 
the African and Mauritanian, which are said to be used 
in different parts of Africa. 
Arcadian, a variation of the Latin, taken from the Eugu- 
bian tables, and so called because it is supposed to have 
been brought by Evander from Arcadia into Latium. 
[vide Latin] 

Armenian is used not only in Armenia but in Asia Minor, 
.Syria, Tartary, &c. It diflers in its character according 
to the use which is made of it, but approaches, in some 
respects, very near to the Chaldee or Syriac, and to the 
Greek in others. The characters given in Tab. V, No. 31, 
[PI. 5] are the common printing character of the Ar- 
menian, capitals and small letter. There is also an 
ornamental kind of character, which is termed blooming 
or flowery, because it is used for the titles of books ; 
and Dnret likewise mentions an ancient Armenian cha- 
racter, which be says was taken from an inscription over 
an entrance into the castle of Curcho. Clioron. Hist. 
Armen. 1. 2, c. 2, dc. ; Schrocder. T/iesaiir. Ling. Ar- 
meii.; Durcl, Trcaor. des Lang, p, 725. 

Attic, a variation of the ancient Greek, [vide Gree/c'] 

Bali, an alphabet of a dialect in Bali, an island north of 

Barman, an alphabet used in the kingdom of Ava, which, 
in the order, power, and general form of its letters, re- 
sembles the .Sanscrit. 

Bastard or Mongrel, first made by a German named Hcil- 
nian in MDO, was in conunon use, in France, in the 
fifteenth century; so called because it was derived from 
the Lctlres dc Forme, or Gothic character, but it has 
most of its angles cut oft" or diminished. Eournier gives 
four varieties of this bastard character. The specimens 
given in Tab. VI, No. 45, [PI. 0] are of the ancient 
and the round Bastard. 

Balta, an alphabet of one of the principal languages in 

Bcngallir, an alphabet now used in the extensive country 
of Bengal, which is under the dominion of the East, 
very similar to the Sanscrit. 

Black Letter, a sort of English alphabet, as in Tab. \1, 
No. 4-8. [PI. G.] 

Bulgarian, a character similar to that of the Illyrian. 

Bullantic or Imperial, an alphabet of ornamented ca|)itals, 
which was so called because it was employed in wiiting 
the papal bulls. 

Cndeaui, flourishing capitals that were used in French 
writing of the fifth century. 

Cadmean, the original (ireek alphabet, which is supposed 

to have been first introduced into Greece by Cadmus, 
[vide Greek'} 
Chnldee, many alphabets have been given under this name 
which \nore properly belong to the Phcnician or Syriac, 
and several hiive been ascribed by the Rabbis to Adam, 
Enoch, Noah, .\braham, and Moses, but without any 
authority that entities them to credit. The character 
of the Chaldee is the same at present as that of the 
Chancery, a sort of English law alphabet, as in Tab. VI, 

No. 49, [PI. 0!.] 
Of Charlemagne, the name of three alphabets which are 
attributed to the emperor Chn.rlemagne, by whom they 
are said to have been introduced, at the commencement 
of the ninth century, for the purpose of improving the 
letters used in his dominions, of which a specimen is 
given in Tab. VI, No. 47, [PI. C] 
Chinese, this language has no proper alphabet, but con- 
sists of 214 Key-words, or radical characters, that serve 
to form 80,000 characters of which it is composed, of 
which a specimen is given in Tab. I, No 6, [PI. 1.] 
Church 2Vx<, asortof English, as in Tab. ^T,No.51, [F1.6.] 
Coptic, an alphabet so called from Coptos, a city of JEgypt, 
where it was used, is a mi.xture of Greek and Egj'ptian. 
There are two characters under this name, one of which 
is the ancient, and the other the modern Coptic, as given 
in Tab. V, No. 30, [PI. 3.] The latter, which consists of 
thirty-two letters, is only to be met with in the books of 
the Christians of Egypt, by whom it was used in the trans- 
lation of the Sacred Writings. Kircher. Oedip. 3]gypt. 
ct Copt. ; Pocock. in A'ot. ad Spec. Hist. Arab. ; Mont- 
Jaiic. PaUvograp. 1. 4, c. 7; Univ. Anc. Hist. vol. i, p. 512; 
U'ilkins. Dissert, de Ling. Copt. 
Court Text, a sort of handwriting among the English 

lawyers, [vide English^ 
Croatian has the same characters as the Illyrian. 
Dalmatian, Tab. V, No. 33, [PI. 5] is said to have been in- 
vented by St. Jerom. It has been used for the translation 
of the Sacred Writings, besides missals and breviaries. 
Duret. Tresor. des Lang. &:c. p. 738. 
Doric, a variety of the ancient Greek, [vide Greek'] 
Egyptian, the characters of the ancient Egyptians were 
of three kinds; namely l;7i5-o>iovp«<p"i«?, or vulgar; I'lfa- 
TIK5?, or sacred ; and iifoyXnjiMc,, hycroglyphick. Many 
vestiges remain of their hieroglyphic writing, of which 
onlj' conjectural explanations can be offered; of this sort 
is the one given in Tab. I, No. 5, [PI. 1]. Their letters 
are in all probability lost, notwithstanding many charac- 
ters have been given under this name, particularly one by 
Theseus Ambrosius, which is, however, unsupported by 
any authority. The Coptic is the only Egyptian cha- 
racter that remains. Herod. 1. 2, c. .30 ; Diodor. Sic. 
1. 3 ; Heliodor. JElhiop. 1. 4 ; Clem. Alexandrin. Strom. 
1. 5 ; Eustath. on Hom. II. 1. 6, v. 168 ; Athanas. Kirch. 
Oedip. Theat. Hieroglyphic, p. 12, iSrc. ; Marsluim. 
Canon. Chronol. 
English, the characters bearing this name are the Old 
English, or Black Letter, Tab. VI, No. 48, [PI. G] called 
by the French Lettres de Forme. It was first used by 
(juttemberg and Faust at Mentz, .nnd was by them deno- 
minated Lettres Burgeoises ; Hound Chancery and Run- 
ning Chancery, as in No. 49, used in the enrollments of 
letters patent ; Court or Exchequer Text, as No. 50, 
which were invented by the English lawyers about 
1550; Church Text, as m No. 51, which was invented 
about the same time for the use of the church ; Secre- 
tary, which is the modern style of writing among the 
laivyers, in engrossing their conveyances and legal in- 
Ethiopic, otherwise called Amharic or Abyssinian, is evi- 


dcntly derived from the Samaritan or Phenician, as will ap- 
pear from the specimen given in Tab. IV, Ko. 21 [PI. 4]; 
but, contrary to the custom of the Orientals, it is written 
from the right to the left. According to Diodorus and 
Heliodorus the Ethiopians as well as the Egyptians used 
the hicroglvphical mode of writing. Diodor. Sic. 1. 3 ; 
Hclioilor. JUIiiop. 1. 4- : Ein-Uilh. in II. 1. 6, v. 168; 
]S[arian. Victor. Instit. Ling, JEthiop. ; Walton, in In- 
trocL ad Led. Ling. Oriental. ; Ludolf. Hist. JEtltinp. 
1. I, c. 15; and Gram. jLthiop.; Lcescher. de Cans. Ling. 
Herb. p. 201 . 

Etruscan, Tab. Ill, No. 15, [PI. 3] the first alphabet used 
in Ital}', so called from the Etrusci, the most ancient 
inhabitants of that country; is a sort of Pelasgian or 
Arcadian characters, which were disposed after the 
Greek fashion, iac-f^s'-'S''', i. e. alternately from left to right, 
and from right to left. There are two other alphabets 
attributed to the Etruscans, which Theseus Anibrosius 
says were used as secret characters by their priests, but 
without staling an}' authority. The Etruscan characters 
are to be found on many coins, as in Xo. 16, which 
represents, on the obverse, the head of .lanus covered 
with a helmet, and, on the reverse, a club of Her- 
cules, with the inscription FELA0PI, i. e. Felathri, a 
town of Latium, now called Velletri. Tab. Eugub. apnd 
Dempster, de Etrusc. 'Regal, torn. i. p. 91 ; Marian de 
Etrusc. Metrop. ; Gori. Mus. Etrusc. p. 401 ; Swinton. 
de I'riniev. Etrusc. Dissert. 

Flemish is the ])roper character of the Austrian and 
French Netherlands, used in their common printing, 
which much resembles the old English, as Tab. Vl, 
No. 41, [PI. 6.] 

Franco Gallic, so called from its being a mixture of French 
and Gaulish characters, was used under the first race 
of the kings of France in their public acts. 

Franlis, an alphabet which was used by the earliest inha- 
bitants of the Low Countries, and afterwards transferred 
to Gaul. It was a variety of the Latin alphabets used at 
that time. There is also another alphabet under this 
name belonging to the Lingua Franca, a kind of jargon 
spoken on the Mediterranean ; the characters of which 
are like the language composed of E'rench, vulvar 
Greek, Spanish, and Italian, Tab. VI, No 42, [PI. 6.] 

French, or ancient French, an alphabet distinguished by this 
name, ard of which a specimen, also of the current hand, 
is given in Tab. VI, No. 43, [PI. 6] was used in the fifth 
century under the first race of the French kings. 

Georgian, an alphabet which consists of four different 
characters ; namelv, the ancient Georgian, immediately 
derived from, and nearly allied to, the Greek ; two 
consisting of capitals and small letters, called sacred, 
because they are used in transcribing their Holy Books ; 
the fourth is the running-hand of the Georgians. The 
specimen given in Tab. V, No. 32, [PI. 5] is of the 
ordinary printing character. 

German consists of two characters, capitals and small 
letter, which are used for general printing, and two also 
for writing, or the current-hand, as in Tab. VI, No. 40. 

Gothic, the most ancient characters under this name are 
attributed to Ulphilas, bishop of the Goths in 38S, 
although, according to others, the Goths had the use of 
letters from the earliest period. The first specimen of 
this alphabet, in Tab. ^T, No. 35, bears a strong affinity 
to the Hunic ; the ^econd is formed from the Greek and 
Latin ; a third alphabet, which is attributed to Albert 
Durer in the sixteenth century, is very similar to the 
Gerni;<n. To the above may be added the Mceso- 
Gothic, as given in No. 35, which is also attributed to 
Ulphilas, and was used in the translation of the Holy 
Scriptures ; and an old English or Norman character. 

which is called in French les Letfres Tourneures, and 
by Astle modern Gothic. It was formerly much used 
in adorning Roman missals. 
Greek. L'nder this name is comprehended a greater variety 
of Alphabets than that of any other language, for the 
Greek characters were employed by vevy many countries 
that did not speak the Greek ; and, in Greece itself, it 
underwent many- changes, according to the diversity of 
dialects, or the different periods in which it was used. It 
is generally' admitted, on the authority of Herodotus, 
Pliny, Plutarch, and others, that Cadmus, the Pheni- 
cian, introduced the first Greek alphabet into Bceotia, 
where he settled, B. C. 1500, although Diodorus is of 
opinion that the Pelasgian letters were prior to the Cad- 
mean. It is evident, however, from comparing the spe- 
cimens of the Cadmean and Pelasgic alphabets given in 
Tab. II, No. 7; [ PI. 2] with the Phenician, Tab. I, No. 3, 
[PI. 1] that they sprung from one and the same origin; but 
the former appears, from many of its letters, to be made 
by the inversion of the Phenician character. The Cad- 
mean, or, as it is otherwise called, the Attic or Ionic al- 
phabet, is drawn from coins and medals, the Pelasgian 
from the Eugubian tables; the former consisted originally, 
as is supposed, of only sixteen letters, to which eight 
others were afterwards added ; the number of the latter 
varies according to the account of different writers. Dr. 
Swinton making it to consist of thirteen. Father Gori of 
twelve, and others of twenty. The next in succession 
is the Sigean alphabet, so called because the letters of 
which it is composed are taken from the Sigean inscrip- 
tion engraven on a marble pillar near the promontory 
and town of Sigeum, near Troy ; the reading of which, 
in the common Greek characters, is as follows ; 

xorttrto xotyo r.pxTtfsc ya:Ti^xTcv xxi 

"ZtyiVlWl E$ X.UI fJj' fTO(50-£V i ecttTOTO', 

Eac' ^iTi ^ctcx,^ fjuiM ax»iv to ctyn. 


A specimen of the letters with the deficiencies, as 
supplied by Chishull, are given in No. S, and a.Jc:c- 
simile of the inscription itself in Tab. HI, Plate 3, 
No. 11. The antiquity of this alphabet is evinced by 
its being read alternately from left to right, and from 
right to left, which manner of writing was called ^s^fe- 
<pr^'!>, because it resembled the turning of oxen at both 
ends of a furrow. It is besides observable that the H for 
the long E, and the il for the long O were not then in 
use, which were afterwards introduced by Simonides. 
Other Greek characters are also drawn from medals and 
inscriptions ; namely, the Nemean, B. C. 430, engraven 
on marbles, as is supposed, before the Peloponnesian 
war ; the Delian from inscriptions on the remains of a 
stately building on Jlount Cynthus, in the island of 
Delos; the Athenian; and the Teian. About 5(X) years 
before the Christian (5ira Simonides completed the 
Greek alphabet called the Ionic, which is given in No. 9, 
to which is annexed other Cireek alphabets of different 
ages ; namely, one used in the time of Alexander the 
Great, B. C. 330, No. 10; the alphabet drawn from 
the coins of the Antiochi, Kings of Syria, &c. B. C. 
240 to 187 ; that of Constantine the Great, A. D. 306 ; 
of Justinian the Great, A. D. 527 ; of Heraclius, A. D. 
610; of Leo Jaurus, A. D. 716; a specimen of small 
Greek letters, and another of capitals, in the eighth cen- 
tury : it is observable, in the first, that the sigma obtains 
the sixth place, according to the ancient alphabets, that 
iota has the form of p^a inverted, and that upsilon follows 
the omicron as well as the tau ; an alphabet used in the 
time of Charlemagne in the ninth century ; the Greek of 


Fac Similes, Tab. Ill, No. 12, 13, [Plate 3] ; namely, of 
Bazil and Conslantine, A.D. 900. To these may be aekled 
a MS. ot" the New Testament in the British Museum, pre- 
sented to King Charles I, in 1628, by Cyrillus Lucario, 
patriarch ot" .\le.\andria, and supposed to have been 
written upwards of 1400 years ; and a specimen of small 
Greek writing, as practised in the ninth century. This 
specimen is taken from a copy of Chrj'sostom's Homilies 
on the Psalms, in the French King's library, which Mont- 
fau(|'on has inserted in his.Pakxographia; also two Greek 
coins. No. 1 4 ; the first of which contains, on the re- 
verse, the for ©EBAIilN, as is supposed; the head, 
on the obverse, being ascribed to Cadmus : the second 
contains, on the obverse, the head of a lion, with the 
inscription REGION, i. e. Regiorum, a town in Italy, 
on the reverse, the head of an ox. Herodot. 1. 1, c. 49; 
Diodor. 1. 1; Dioni/s. 1. 1; PUn. J. 7, c. 56; Plut. 
Sj/mpos. 1. 9, probl. 3; Pauxrin. \. 5, c. 17; Eiiscb. in 
Cliron. ; Victoriii. de Gramm. 1. 1 ; Isidor. Oris;. 1. c. 3 ; 
Harpocration ; Suidas. in K«o/i05 ; Enstath. in II. 1. 18; 
Tzclz. C/iil. sect. 398 ; Seal. Anitnndvers. in Enselt. ; 
Bochart. de Col. Plicenic. 1. 1, c. 21 ; Voss. de Art. 
Grammnf.l. 1 ; Smnheini. Dissert. 1. de Usu et PrcB- 
slant. Num. ; Scilmas. ad Inscripl. Herod, ji. 31 ; Dr. 
Barnard's Tables ; Montfaiifon. Palxogrnph. Grcec. ; 
Chishul. Aniiquit. .hiat. ; Dr. Morion's Tables. 

Ilcbrciv, under this name two fanciful alphabets are given 
by Theseus Ambrosius and Duret, which are attributed, 
on the authority of the Kabbis, to Solomon. Those most 
worthy of note are the ancient and modern Hebrew, 
Tab. 1, No. 1, [PI. 1] ; the former of which is supposed 
to have been invented by Esdras after the Captivity, and 
to have given rise to the latter. A question has, how- 
ever, liere arisen respecting the original Hebrew cha- 
racter, which has undergone nmch discussion among the 
learned, both Jews and Christians. The more prevail- 
ing opinion is, that the character known by the name 
of Samaritan, or Phenician, was the original Hebrew 
character ; and that the present alphabet was invented 
after the captivity, although the two Buxtorfs and 
others contend tliat the Hebrew letters, now in use, are 
the same as those in which the Law and Prophets were 
written by Moses : the former of these two opinions 
j)rincipally rests on the authority of Samaritan inscrip- 
tions on coins, which are admitted to have been struck be- 
ibre the Captivity. Of these, three specimens are given at 
the bottom of Tab. I, [PI. 1] which represent the censor 
on the obverse, and, on the reverse, Aaron's rod budding ; 
the inscriptions, the " Shekel of Israel" and "Jerusalem 
the Holy. ' These three coin.s are all of less value than 
the full shekel, the first of which has « over the censor, 
l)cing called d tialf shekel; the second having l, llic 
third of a shekel ; and the third also having T the fourth 
of a shekel. To the above alphabets may be added 
the Rabbiiiical Hebrew, which is the current-hand in 
use among the ,Iuws at present. F.useh. in Chron, el 
Scati<^. in Euseb. ; J Heron, de Esd. el in Ezech. c. 9 ; 
]Vaser. de Anliq. Ebraor. Numm. ; Villalpand. de 
Appnr. Vrb. et Tempi, part 2, 1. 2, disp. i, c. 21 ; 
li'allnn. Prolegoni. II, iVr. de Linfr. Ileb. ; Schiclcard.'de 
Nnni. ; Baron. Annul, ann. 180; Reland dc Nu7n. 
Ebrtcor. ; Morin. Exercit. de I.inis^. part 2, c. 6, (Src. 

Iluns, an alphabet so called because it was used by the 
Huns, who settled in Pannonia, or Hungary, in 370. 

Jacobite, an alphabet formed from the Greek, and used by 
the Jacobites, an heretical sect, in tlieii religious 

.faponese consists of throe characters ; namely, two that 
are in common use, and one that is used oi\ly at court. 
The specimen given in Tab. I\', No. 26, [PI. i] is of liie 

common character, which, like the Chinese, is written 
from top to bottom. 

Icelandic is the same as the Runic. 

lUyrinn. There were two alphabets of this name, ac- 
cording to John Baptist Palatin ; one said to have been 
invented by St. Cyril, and the other by St. Jerom, or, 
according to Aventinus, in his Annals, by one Methodius, 
a bishop of lllyriura, who used it in the translation of 
the Scriptures ; the former bears a great affinity to the 
Russian ; the latter is most like the Dalmatian. Durtt. 
T'res. dcs Lann. p, 7 4 1. 

Indian, the same as the Ethiopian. Duret also mentions 
another Indian alphabet, which is generally used among 
the Easterns. Duret. Tres. dcs Lan<r. p. ;jS3. 

Irish. This alphabet, Tab. V, No. 29, [PI. 5.] bears, in the 
opinion of Valiancy, the greatest affinity to the Phenician, 
from which he supposes it to be derived. But the Irish 
used other mysterious alphabets in their incantations, 
after the manner of those given under the name of Ogums, 
from Oga, and Ogma, an augury. The three principal 
Ogums used by the Irish were the Ogum Bcath, when bt 
or bealh was placed always for the letter a ; Ogum Coll, 
when, for vowels, dipthongs, and triptbongs in the Ogum, 
the letter c was variously repeated ; Ogum Croabh, or 
the virgular Ogum, having a line or stem called the 
Croabh, through which, and on each side, are drawn 
perpendicular strokes. IVurm. de Lit. Run. ; O'Mulloy. 
Irish. Gramm. ; Raban. JSIaur. dc Usu Lit. ; O'Flahrt. 
Ogi/g. ; Oconners Dissert, sen Hibern. Rev. C/ironolog. ; 
Ware. Antiq. of Ireland. ; Ixdwig, Antiq. 

Italic, a well known alphabet formed from the Ronian, 
which was called likewise Venetian, because it was 
first cut at \'enicc, and afterwards Lettres Aldines, 
from Aldus Minutius, by whom it was invented^^about 

Kujic, the ancient Arabic, [vide Arabic'] 

Latin, the most ancient alphabet of the inhabitants of 
Italy, was the Etruscan, [vide Etruscan'] which under- 
went successive changes, as are noted in Tab. Ill, No. 15, 
[PI. 3] until it arrived at its present state, in which it 
is more generally known by the name of Roman. 
Dionys. IJalic. 1. 1 ; IL/gin. Fab. 277 ; Plin. I. 7, c, 63 ; 
Tacit. Annal. 1. 11 ; Quintil. Instil. \. 1, c. 4^ ; Diomcd. 
Gramm. Instil. 1. 1 ; hlarius Viclorinus, Priscian. SfC. 
apud Gramm. Vet. Putsche's Edit.; Cyprian, de Varietal. 
Idol.; Auson. Idyll. 12; Isidor. Orig.l. 1, c.4; J'oss. 
de ylrt Grammat. ; Lips, de Pronunl. Ling. Lai. c. 3 ; 
Spanheim. de Usu et Prccstant. A'umis. Antiq. Dissert. 1, 
p. lit; Monljiiufon. Palceogrnph. Grccc. ; Dr. Morion's 
I'ablcs ; Massey. Orig. et Prog, oj Letters. 

Lombard, a variety of the Latin character, as Tab. VI, 
No. 16, [PI. C.] 

Malabaric, an alphabet consisting of sixteen vowels, and 
thirty-five simple consonants or radicals, as in Tab. IV. 
No. 2,'i, [PI. 4.] Alphabet. Var. Congregnt. de Propa- 
gand. Fide. vol. ii. 

Malayan, the character of this alphabet is the same as the 

Mantchon, a sort of Tartaric, [vide Tartaric] 

Mendean, an alphabet used by the Mendes, a people 
of Egypt, A. D. 277, which was formed from the 

Mordi's, a mode of writing among the ancient Britons 
by cutting letters upon sticks, either in a scjuare or 
triangular form, very similar to that which is given tm 
a specimen of the Welch or Bardic alphabet. 

Norman, there are two alphabets given under this name 
on the authority of the venerable Bede, one of which 
was a variety of the Greek, and the other, as in Tab. VI, 
No. 44, [PI. 6.] 


Pahmjrian, which was first decyphered by the Abbe 
Bartheleme, is read from right to left. It bears a strong 
affinity to the Hebrew. 

Pclasc(iun, a name given to the alphabet which the Greeks 
derived from the Phcniciaiis, whom they called UiXxu-yel, 
Pelasgii quasi Pelagi, from sriAsiyc?, the sea, because 
they traversed the ocean, and carried on commerce with 
other nations. A specimen of the Pelasgian is to be 
found in Tab. II, Xo. 8, [PI. 5?.] 

Persian, the modern alphabet of the Persian is nearly the 
same as the Arabic, except the addition of four letters, 
and a few slight differences in tlie powers given to the 
letters. An ancient character is given by Hyde, that is, 
called Zend or Pazend, and is supposed to have been 
used by Zoroastre. Ili/de de Relig. Vet. Pcrsar. 

Phccnician. Under this name is comprehended a great 
variety of characters, vvhicii are drawn from coins and 
inscriptions, and are generally supposed to have been 
in use among the Phenicians, who had alphabetical cha- 
racters as early as an}' people in the world. The speci- 
men in Tab. I, Xo. 3, [PI. 1] is given on the authority 
of Scaligcr, who supposes this to have been the ori- 
ginal Hebrew character, otherwise called the Samaritan. 

Roman, the modern name for the Latin. 

Runic, a character derived from the MsBso-Gothic, was 
used by several nations of the North, as in Tab. VI, 
No. 36, [PI. C] 

Russian is evidently derived from the Greek, as may be 
seen in Tab. V, No. 34, [PI. 5.] 

Samaritan is the name given to the Phenician character, 
which is most generally supposed to be that which was 
used by the Jews from the time of Moses to the Cap- 
tivitj', although this has been a subject of dispute among 
the learned, [vide Hebrevi] The name was given to 
this character because the Samaritans continued to use 
it, after the captivity, in writing the Pentateuch. The 
ancient Samaritan has been collected, by Walton, from 
coins and inscriptions, of which specimens are given at 
the bottom of Tab. I, [Fl. 1] : the modern Samaritan differs 
somewhat from the ancient, as may be seen by comparing 
them in Tab. I, X^o. 2. Duret has given two other 
alphabets under this name, the characters of which are 
said to be formed according to the course and move- 
ments of nature. 

Sanscrit. The alphabet of the Sanskrita, i. e. the perfect 
or polished language of the Hindu class, is called the 
Devanagari, which is given in Tab. IV, No. 25, [PI. 4] 
according to the form and order in which it is drawn out 
in Wilkins' Grammar. 

Saracen, Theseus Ambrosius gives one Saracen alphabet, 
which he says was used at the time of their conquests. 
It bears some affinity to the Phenician, as in Tab. IV, 
No. 20, [PI. 4-.] Another alphabet under this name is 
quoted by Dr. Morton on the authority of Kircher, which 
is very similar to the Arabic. Buret. Tres. des Lang. 
p. Vlo ; Dr. Morton s Tables. 

Saxon consists of two characters, the ancient and modern, 
Tab. VI, No. 38, \y\. 6.] 

Sdavonian, the alphabet used by the ancient inhabitants 
of Sclavonia, bore some resemblance to the Illyrian. 

Secretary, a sort of writing among English lawyers, which 
is used in engrossing. 

Servian, an alphabet bearing some affinity to the Greek, 
is attributed to St. Cyril, A. D. TOO. There are other 
cliaracters under this name, which are ascribed to St. 

Siamic, an alphabet much resembling the Chinese. 

Stranglielo, a name for the ancient Syriac, from the Greek 
fyayyuxac, round, or rather rude and rough, [vide St/riac'] 

Syriac consists of two characters ; the ancient, called the 

Stranghelo, wliich is said to have been in use, B. C. 300; 
and the modern Syriac, which consists of Initials, Me- 
dials, and Finals, like the Arabic, as in Tab. I, No. i, 
[PI. 1 .] From this charactertwo others were formed, called 
Nestorian, because they were used by the Nestorians of 
Syria, but differing only in some tew particulars. A 
fifth and sixth sort of Syriac liave been given under the 
names of Syro-Galilean and Syro-Hebraic, but without 
sufficient autliority. 

Sumatran. The dialects of Sumatra have each its pecu- 
liar alphabet, of which Marsden, in his Comparative 
Vocabulary, has taken notice, as the Batta, Lampoor, 
Itejang, lic. A specimen of the latter is given in Tab. 
IV, No. 28, [PI. 4..] 

Talenga, an alphabet, used in the kingdom of Decan, 
very similar to the Malabaric. 

Tamoidic, an alphabet much used in India in letter-press 

Tartaric is the same as the Arabic, but the Mantchou 
Tartar is a different character, as in Tab. IV, No. 24', 
[PI. 4.] 

Teutonic. Under this name is given the specimen, as in 
Tab. VI, No. 39, [PI. 6] which is said to have been taken 
from an ancient .MS. in the cathedral of Wurzburg. 

Thibetan, the alphabet used bj' the Lamas ; the specimen 
of which, in Tab. IV, No. 27, [PI. 4] has been copied 
from the second volume of the " Alphabeta Varia T3'pis 
sacrte Congregationis de Propaganda I'ide." 

Turkish is the same as the Arabic, except the addition of 
five letters. 

Welsh, or, as it is called in Wales, Coelbren y Beirz, i. e. 
the Bardic alphabet ; consisted of si.xteen primitive or 
radical characters, and twenty-four secondary ones. It 
was formed by cutting the letters on a stick in a trian- 
gular or square form, as in Tab. VI, No. 37. 

Tables of Alphabets according to their Derivation 
and AJJinity. 
These Tables are given in six plates in the following ordei- ; 

Table I, Plate 1 . — Oriental Alphabets. 

I. Hebrew, ancient, modern, and rabbinical. 2. Samaritan, 
ancient and modern. 3. Phenician. 4. Syriac, ancient 
and modern. 5. Egyptian Hieroglyphic. 6. Chinese 
Characters. At the bottom, Samaritan Coins. 

Table II, Plate 2 and 3.— Greek Alphabets. 

7. Cadmean. 8. Pelasgian, Sigean, Nemean, Delian, 
Athenian, and Teian. 9. Ionic, or alphabet of Simonides. 
10. Greek alphabets of different ages, from 330 B. C. to 
900 A. D. 

Table III, Plate 3.— Latin Alphabets. 

II. Sigean Inscription. 12, 13. Fac Similes of Greek MSS. 
in the second and ninth centuries. 14. Greek coins. 
15. Latin characters of different ages. 16. An Etruscan 

Table IV, Plate 4. — .'Mphabets derived from, or allied 
to, the Oriental Alphabets. 

17.Cufic. 18. Arabic. 19. Persian. 20. Saracen, 21.Ethi- 
opic. 22. Mendean. 23. Malabaric. 24. Mantchou Tartar. 
25. Sanscrit. 26. Japonese. 27. Thibetan. 28. llejang. 

Table V, Plate 5. — Alphabets derived from the Oriental 
or Greek Alphabets. 

29. Ancient Irish, Bobelolh and Bethluisnon ; Ogums, 
namely, Croabh and O'Sullivan's. 30. Coptic. 31. Ar- 
menian. 32. Georgian. 3:?. Dalmatian. 34. Russian. 


Table ^'I, Plate 6. — Alphabets derived from the Greek or 

Noiihern Alphuhels. 3,5. Gothic, ancient, modern, and 
MiEso-Gothic. 3G. l{unic. 37. Welsh. 38. Saxon, an- 
cient and modern. 'M. Teutonic. 40. German, print- 
in;; and current. 41. rieniish. — French Alpltcibcts. i'J.. 
Franks. 43. French, ancient and current. 44. Norman 
and Anglo-Norman. Ij. Bastard, ancient and round. 
4G. Lombard. 47. Charlemagne. — £»^//.y/( Alplialiets. 
48. IMack Letter. 4!). Chancery, Hound and Running. 
50. Court Text. 51. Church Text. 
ALIM I F.'TI ( .1st roil.) another name for the star Liicida Corona. 
ALl'HITL'DON (Med.) cc>4,rJo;, from aA<?<T»,, bran; a 

fracture of a bone into small fragments like bran. 
A'^PIIITON (.Mfd.) l>.(puov, or in the plural a/.<J)iT«, a term 
used by Hippocrates for a sort of hasty pudding. Ilippo- 
cral. dc 31,d. 1. 2, Sec. ; G(d. dc AUm. 1. 1 ; Gorr. Dcf. 
Med. ; Foes. (Econoni. Hippocrat. 
ALPHO'NSINE tables (Astron.) astronomical tables made 

bj' Alphonsus, king of Arragon. 
A'LPHUS {Med.) UAipo',, from aA^a/va, to whiten ; because 
it turns the skin white ; the white leprosy, a species of 
vitiligo, i. e. the I'ilUigo n/ba, in which, according to 
Celsus, the skin is of a white colour, with a kind of rough- 
ness. The Alplius is less virulent than another species 
called the Leuce. Cels. 1. 5, c. 18; Gal. Introd. e. 17; 
Orilms. de Morb. Curat. 1. 3, c. 58; Aet. Tetrab. 4, 
serm. 1. c. 132; Acinar, de Melh. Med. 1. 2, c. 11. 
ALPI'NI.V {Dot.) a genus of plants called after Prosper 
Alpinus, Class 1 Monandria, Order 1 Monogi/uia. 
Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved; leajlets 
ecpial. — Cor. monopetalous ; tube cylindrical; border 
three-parted; nrctarij two-parted. — Stam. Jilatnent pro- 
per none ; anther large. — Pl.ST. ^ro-jK inferior; i/_)//c fili- 
form ; stigma obtuse. — Per. capsule ovate. 
Species. Tlie species are perennials, as — Alpinia raccmosa, 
Amomum pi/ramidale seu Zingiber sylvcslre. — Alpinia 
gatnnga, Maranta galanga seu Amomum galanga, cS'c. 
A'LQLTFOU {Com ) or Artjui/ou, a sort of mineral lead ore 

used by potters. 
ALR.'V'MECA (Astron.) Alrumech, an Arabic name for the 

star A returns. 
ALK.\'riCA (Anat) an imperforation of the vagina. 
A'L.SADAF (Conchol.) the unguis odoralus and the miirex, 

of the shell of which it was .supposed to boa part. 
A'LS.VMI'.CH (.-Inal.) the great foramen in the Os petrosum. 
ALSI'.MBKL (liol.) or Simbala, the Spikenard of India. 
A'LSINA (Hill.) the Theli/gotium oilAnnxus. 
ALSIN.VSI'IIU.M (/io/.)'tlie Elatine of Linnxus. 
A'LSINIi (hot.) kxtjim, a i)lant so called, from aAo-oc, a 
grove, because it delights in the shade, in lucis nascihir. 
it is sometimes called, in l^iglish, IMouse-ear, from the 
resemblance which its leaves bear to the ears of a mouse ; 
but its general name is Chickweed. This plant is of an 
astringent and refrigerating quality. Dioscor. I. 4, c. 87 ; 
Plin. 1. 27, c. 4; Oribas. Med. Coll. 1. II ; Aet I'etrab. 1, 
serm. 1 ; J'aul. A'.ginet. 1. 7, C. 3 ; Lem. dcs Drag. Bale 
At.sink, /;) the Linnean system, a genus of plants, Class 5 Pcn- 
landria, Order 3 'J'rigi/nia. 

Generic Characters. Cai,. perianth five-leaved. — Cor. pe- 
tals five. — Stam. Jiiimcnts capillary; anthers rovmdish 
— PisT. germ subovatc; styles filiform; stigmas obtuse. 
Pkii. crt/Kw/c none ; ifcr/.v very many. 
Species. The species arc annuals, as the — Alsine media 
seu Ilolosteum alsine, (,'omnion Chickweed, native ol' 
Vnhmx.— Alsine scgctalis seu Spcrgala. — Alsine mucro- 
nata seu Arcnaria, Sjc. 
Alsine is also the name of dillerent species of the Arcnaria. 


Callitricha, Draha, Glinns, Hohsfevm, Campannla, Coras- 
team, &c. Bauh. Hist Plant. ; Raii Hist. Plant. ; Ssc 
ALSINEFO'KMIS (Hot.) the Montia fonlana of Linna;ua. 
ALSINE'LLA (But.) ihe Sagina procumbens of hinnscai. 
A'LSINESyiu'ie (But.) the Theli/gonnm ci/nocratnbe of Lin- 

ALSTO'XIA (Bo!.) a genus of plants called after Mr. 
Alston, (jrofessor at Edinburgh, Class 13 Polyandria, 
Order 1 Monogijnia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth inferior; scales ovate. 
Cor. one-petalled, — S'r.wi.Jiluments very many; anthers 
orbiculate. — Pist. germ superior; style simple; stigma 
Sjiecies. The only species is the Alstonia theccformis seu 
Si/mplocos Alstonia, a shrub, native of South America. 
ALSTROME'RIA (Bot.) a genus of plants called after Mr. 
Alstromer, a Su-edish naturalist, Class 6 Hexandria, 
Order 1 Monogynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. none. — Cor. six. — Stam. Jila- 
menls awlshaped ; anthers oblong. — Pist. germ inferior ; 
style filiform; stigmas three. — Per. capsule roundish; 
seeds very many. 
Species. The species are mostly perennials, as the Alstroe- 
meria pelcgrina, ligtu, salsilla, ^-c. 
ALT (Mas.) Italian for that portion of the great scale 

between F above the treble cliff and G in allissimo. 
A'LTA (Mas.) or -•///, Italian for high or higher; as Svo. 

aha, an octave higher. 
Alta tcnura (Law) the high tenure, or tenure in chief by 

military service. 
ALTA'IR (Astron.) a star of the first magnitude in the con- 
stellation Acjuila. 
A'LTA R (Bibl.) in Latin altare, from altus, high, because 
altars were set up by the heathens in high places ; or, in 
all probability, because it was raised above the ground ; a 
table or raised place on which any offering was made to 
the Almighty. The first altar mentioned is that built by 
Noah after the flood, on which he offered burnt-offerings. 
Genes, viii. 20. The altars which Moses raised by the 
command of God were made of earth or rough stones. 
Fxod. XX. 24 ; but that built by Solomon was of brass. 
2 Chron. iv. 1,2,3. The two principal altars of the Jews 
were, the Altar of Burnt-Offerings, the Altar of Incense : 
there was also the Altar, or rather Table, of Shew Bread. 
The Altar of Burnt-OJfhings was a kind of coffer of sliittim 
wood, covered with brass, which in the time of Moses, 
was five cubits, or two yards and a half square, and 
three cubits, or a yard and a half high ; but that made 
by Solomon was nmch larger. 2 Chron. iv. 1, i<^c. To 
this altar, as in fig. 1, belonged — 1. The Horns, or four 
spires, one at each corner. 2. The Grate of brass, on 
which the fire was made. 3. The Pan which received 
the ashes. 4. The Rings and Chains by which it was 
fixed to the four horns of the altar. 5. The Kibbish, 
or ascent to the altar. Exod. x. 26, &c. ; 2 Citron, iv. 
1, &c. 
Tiie Altar of Incense, a small table of shittim-wood covered 
with gold, one cubit in ierigth, one in w idtli, and two in 
height. To this, as in fig. 2, belongs— 1. The Horns, as 
Fig.X. Fiz.'l. 


in tlie first. 2. The Crnxvn, which was made of pure 
gold. 3. The Rings under the crown. 4. The Censor, 
which was placed upon it. Exorl. xxx. 1, &c. This was 
the altar hidden by Jeremiah before the captivity. 
2 Mam:fib. ii. 5, &c. 
The Allar, or Table nf Shew Bread, vide Table. 
An alfar at Athens is spoken of by St. Paul as bearing the 
inscription uytu^^x &ii.; i. e. to the unknown God, 
to which a something similar is mentioned by Fausanias 
and Lucian. Hereupon St. Jerom, and some other of 
the Fathers, raised a question as to what this altar was ; 
but St. Chrysostom naturally solves the difficulty bj' 
supposing that the Athenians, a superstitious people, 
being fearful least they should have forgotten any divi- 
nity in their religious worship, set up an altar " To the 
unknown God,'' whoever that might be ; whence St. 
Paul takes occasion to preach the true God, who was to 
them an unknown God, whom they ignorantly wor- 
shipped. Luc. in Pliilostrat. ad Fin, 
Altar Ant.) in Greek Ba^Aoc, was called in Latin either 
altare or ara : the altnre, according to Servius, was dedi- 
cated Dii.s siiperis, i. e. to the Gods above ; and the Ara 
Diis iii/'eri.^, or gods below : this distinction, however, is 
not made by either of the Plinys or by Tacitus. The altars 
of the Greeks were called BaiAoi 'iiJi^-vtm, when designed for 
sacrifices by fire ; x-vfci, if without fire ; and i»5£i'«.=""''=', if 
without blood ; on which two latter sort of altars only 
cakes, fruits, and inanimate things could be offered, ac- 
cording to the doctrine of Pythagoras. 
Orph. de Achat. 

The form of the altars was generally similar to the altar of 
incense among the Jews, [vide Conaccratio and I'ietas] 
Flin.l. 1.5, c. .'30; Tacit. Annal. 1. 16, c. 30; Plin. Panag. 
c. 1, §5; Diog. Laert. in Pythag. ; Serv. in Eccl. 1. 5, 
V. 65 ; Prudent. Tsifi ^itp, 1. 10, v. 49 ; Berthold, de Ara, 
c. 2. 

Altar (Ecc.) the table in churches where the communion is 
administered. — Altar of' Prothesis, a kind of small prepara- 
tory altar, in which the priests of the Greek church bless 
the bread before they carry it to the Altar or Communion 

ALTER A'TA (Mus.) Italian, things altered, or innovations; 
a term applied by old musicians to the deviations from the 
diatonic scale. 

ALTE'llATIVES {Med.) Alterantia medicamenta, such me- 
dicines as induce a change in the blood and juices for the 
better, without any manifest operation or evacuation, as 
sea-water in the case of scrophula. Gal. de Kat. Facultat. 
1. 3. 

ALTER A'TRIX (Med.) alterative, an epithet for such 
things as have the power of inducing a desirable change in 
the system. 

ALTE'RCUM (Bat.) or Allercangenon, a herb among the 
Arabians, which is called by the Greeks uoi!-Kuau,ci. [vide 

AT^TEKX Base (Trig.) in oblique triangles, is that which is 
distinguished from the true base : supposing this to be the 
sum of the two sides, then the dift'erence of the sides is the 
altern base; or if the difference of the sides be the true 
base, then their sum is the altern base. 

ALTE'RXATE angles (Geom.) angles /C 

formed by a line cutting two parallel j? / y 

lines which are on o])posite sides of the aT''^ 

cutting line ; thus, the internal angles G i B JI 

A and B, or « and b, formed by the line / 

C D cutting the parallel lines E F and 'D 

G H are alternate. — Alternate ratio, is the comparing of 


the antecedent with the antecedent, and the consequent 
with the consequent: supposing there be four quantities 
proportional, namely A BCD, whereof A is to B as C is 
to L), then the ratio is alternate, if it be said that A is to C 
as B to D. 

Alternate (Her.) the position of quarterings, partitions, 
and other figures that succeed one another by turns. 

Alternate (Bot.) allcrnus, an epithet for the leaf, (folium); 
the flower, (Jlos); and the peduncle, ( peduncnlus ) ; when 
they come out one after or above another in succession or 

Alternate [Med.) different medicines employed by turns. 

ALTE'RNATELY pinnate (Bot.) alternalim pinnatum, an 
epithet applied to a leaf (folium) when the leaflets 
( foliola), or a pinnated leaf, stand alternately. 

ALTERXA'TION (Math.) altematio, changing the order 
or position of any proposed number of things, as a and b, 
which admit of two changes, a h and b a ; or a, b and c, 
■which admit of six changes, &c. 

Alternation (Mus.) changes rung on bells. 

ALTI-LE'A (Bot.) i^C.-.a; a plant so called, from «A(lo=, a re- 
medy, on account of its great efficacy in medicine. It was 
much used as an emollient, particularly in application to 
wounds. TIteoph. Hist. Plant. 1. 9, c. 19; Dioscor. 1. 3, 
c. 163 ; riin. 1. 20, c. 21 ; Gal. de Meth. Med. 1. 14, c. 5 ; 

Alth.ta, in the Linnean si/stem, a genus of plants. Class 16 
Monadelphia, Order 5 Poli/andria, in English, Marsh- 

Generic Character. Cal. perianth double. — Cor. five- 
petalled. — STA^t. Jilaments many ; anthers subreniform. 
— PisT. germ orbiculate; style cylindrical; stigmas many. 
— Per. arils not jointed ; seed one. 
Species. The species are some annuals, as Allhcca acaulis 
seu Malva rosea, Sfc. ; some perennials, as Althtea ofpci- 
nnlis, Connnon Marsh-mallow ; Althaa cnnnibina seu 
Alceu canuabina. Hemp-leaved Marsh-mallow, <S:c. ; some 
biennials, as Altheca rosea, pallida, ficifolia, Sfc. J. Bauh, 
Hist. Plant.; C.Bauh. Pin.; Gc'r. Herb.; Park: Thcat. 
Botan. ; Rail Hist. Plant. ; Tournef. Inst. ; Boerhaai: 
Ind. Plant. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 

ALTIIA'NACA (Chem.) orpiment. 

ALTIIEBE'GIUM (Med.) a swelling as in a cachexy. 

A'LTICA (Ent.) a division of the genus Canlharis, accord- 
ing to Fabricius, consisting of the insects of this tribe, 
which are of an oblong shape, and have the lip bifid. 

A'LTIMAR (Min.) burnt copper. 

A'LTIMETRY (Math.) the art of taking and measuring 

A'LTIN (Com.) a small coin in Muscov)'. 

ALTI'XEAR (Min.) a factitious kind of salt used in sepa- 
rating metals. 

ALTI'NTiAT (Min.) rust of copper. 

ALTINU'RAU.M (Chem.) vitriol. 

ALTI'SSI^NIO (Mns.) or, abbreviated, altiss. an Italian epi- 
thet for notes above F in alt. 

ALTI'STA (.I/ms.) an Italian name for the vocal performer 
who takes the alto prima part. 

ALTITO'NAXS (Mus.) highscunding; an epithet applied 
to the counter-tenor of anthem? , &c. signifying the hi^luat 
of the parts intended for the adi It mile voice. 

A'LTITUDE (Gcom.) the height of an object, or its eleva- 
tion above that plane to which the base is referred. — 
Altitude of a figure, the per- 
pendicular or nearest distance 
of its vertex from the base, as 
the right line B D drawn from 
the vertex B of the triangle 
ABC perpendicular to the Ime ' ^ 
A C which is the altitude of the 



triangle. — Altitude of an object, is an elevation of an object 
above the plane of the horizon, jj 

or a perpendicular let fall to .■•■ ffijHlli]'' 

that plane ; as A 15, the perpen- ...■•■ fe^r 1 

dicular, let fall from a tov, er, as _..■-■' ^fil t 

in the annexed diagram. AIti- ,...-"'' Bm' I 

tudes are either accessible or q^ ^l^'™ * " 

inaccessible. Accessible altitudes 

are those whose base may be approached so as to measure 
the distance between it and the station from which tlie 
measure is to be taken. — Inaccessible altitudes are when no 
access is to be had to the base of the object. The alti- 
tudes of the pyramids, according to Plutarch, were mea- 
sured by means of their shadows and tliat of a pole set up 
beside them, making the altitude of the pole and the pyra- 
mid proportional to their shadows. Euclid. Elem. De/. 1. 6 ; 
n'olj: Klnn. Math. tom. \,§ 115, &c. 

Altitude of tlw Eije (Perspect.) a right line let fall from 
the eye perpendicular to the geometrical plane, being the 
the point from which the principal ray proceeds. 

Altitude {Astron.) the arc of a vertical circle measuring 
the heiglit of the sun, moon, or any other celestial object 
above the horizon. Altitudes are distinguished into — Ap- 
pareiit altitude, that which appears by sensible observation 
made at any place on the surface of the earth. — True alti- 
tude, that v/hicii results from the correction 
of the apparent altitude on account of re- ^^~->9- 

fraction and altitude. Let C D be the true 
horizon, H O tiie sensible horizon, D Q a y-jJ^yu 
vertical circle whose centre C is the centre /'IX M 
of the earth, L anj' point in the heavens, 
H the place of observation, and L Tvl an ^ 
arc of a circle drawn through L about the centre H, then is 
L M the apparent altitude of the point L, which is always 
less than the true altitude which is U Q. The true alti- 
tudes of the sun, fixed stars, and planets, difter but very 
little from their apparent altitudes : the difference of the 
moon, however, is about .52 minutes. — Me- 
ridian altitude, an arc of the meridian in- 
tercepted between the horizon and the 
centre of the object on the meridian, as j|', 
in the annexed diagram, where II Z R N 
represents t!ie meridian, II K the horizon, 
S the star; tlien is 11 S the meridian altitude. 
— Altitude or Elevation (if tin: Pole, an arc 
of the meridian VO intercepted between /j? 
the horizon II O and V the pole of the 
world ; this is equal to the latitude of tlie " 

place lllitude oj' the Eijuator, an arc of 

the meridian II JE, intercepted between 

the horizon II O and the equator, TE Q being always 

equal to the eimiplemcnt of the latitude of the place 

Altitude of the Tropics, otherwise called the Solstitial alti- 
tude of the Sun, is his meridian altitude when in the solstitial 
points. — Altitude of the Horizon, or of the stars, &c. seen 

in it, is the quantity by which it is raised by refraction 

Altitude of the Nonagesiiual, is the altitude of the 90th 
degree of the Ecliptic, counted upon it from the point 
where it cuts the horizon. It is equal to the angle made 
by the ecliptic and liorizon where they intersect at that 
time. — Altitude of the Cone of the Earth's or Moon's 
Hhadoxu, the height of the shadow of the body made by the 
gun, and measured from the centre of the body. This is 
found when the sun is at a mean distance, by saying, as 
tlie apparent semidiameter of the sun, i. e. about 16, is to 
Radius, so is the same diameter of the earth to a fourth 
proportional 211.8 semidiameters of the earth, which is 
the altitude. The greatest altitude of the earth's shadow 
is '217 semidiameters of the earth; and the altitudes of the 
earth's and moon's shadows arc nearly as 1 1 to .'5, the pro- 


portion of their diameters. — Circles of Altitude [vide Cir- 
cle']. — Parallax (tf Altitude [vide Parallax]. — Parallels of 
Altitude [vide Parallel]. — Quadrant of Altitude [vide 
Quadrant]. — Refraction of Altitude [vide Refraction]. Ric- 
ciol. Alniag. 1. I, c. 12, 1. 3, c. 10, &c. ; Keil. Lecf. ad ver. 
Astronom. 1. 19, &c.; U'olf Elem. Math. tom. 3, § 73, &c. 

Altitude of Motion (Mech.) a term employed by Dr. 
Wallis, to signify the measure of any motion estimated 
in the line of direction of the moving force. U'all. de 
Mcchan. — Equal altitude Instntment, an instrument used 
to observe a celestial object when it has the same or an 
equal altitude on both sides of the meridian. It is very 
useful in adjusting clocks, Sec. 

A'LTO tenore (Mus.) Italian for the upper or counter-tenor 
part in music of several parts. Alto clijf, the Cliff when 
placed on the third line of the stave. — A.lto cuncertante, 
the tenor of the little chorus which sings throughout. — 
Alto prima, t!ie first or upper alto, in distinction from the 
— Alto sccondo, or lower alto. — Alto ripieno, the tenor of 
the great chorus which performs in the full parts. — Alto 
viola, the small tenor of the violin. 

Alto ct Basso (Laiv) pancre se in arbilrio in alto et basso, 
the absolute submission of all differences, high and low, to 
an arbiter. 

A'LTOM {Com.) the Turkish name for a sequin. 

A'LVAHIST.S (Ecc.) a branch of the Thomists, so called 
from their leader Alvarez, who maintained the efficacy 
of divine grace, in distinction from the former, who main- 
tained its sufficienc}'. 

ALUCI'TA (Ent.) a division of the genus PitaUcna, accord- 
ing to Gmelin. 

A'LUD (Hot.) the same as Agallochum. 

ALU'DEL {Chcm.) an earthen tube or vessel without a 
bottom, used in sublimations. Such vessels are without a 
bottom, and are fitted into one another as occasion may re- 
quire. At the bottom of the furnace there is a pot, hold- 
ing the matter that is to be sublimed, and at the top there 
is a head, to receive the fiowers that sublime up thither. 

ALVEA'UE {Nat.) Alveary, a bee-hive. 

ALVE A'llIUM (A/iat.) the bottom of the concha, or the ex- 
ternal ear. 

AhYEOL-VRlS processus (Anat.) the same as Maxillaria su- 
per iora ossa. 

A'LVEOLATE {Bot.) alveolatus, Ilonoy-combed, an epithet 
applied to the receptacle when it is divided into open cells, 
like a honey-comb, with a seed lodged in each, as in Ono- 
pnri/nm. Linn. Philos. Botan. 

A'i^V'EOLI {.■Inat.) from Alveus, the sockets in the jaws for 
the teeth. 

A'LVEOLUS {Nat.) a name for the waxen cells of which the 
comb in a bee-hive consists. 

Alveolus (Min.) a marine body so called, which is fre- 
quently found in a fossil state. It is of a conic shape, and 
composed of several hemispheric cells, like those which 
form the comb of a bee-hive, having a pipe of commumca- 
tion similar to that in the thick nautilus. 

A'LVEUS {.hit.) 1. a boat formed from the trunk ofa tree hol- 
lowed out, which was in use among the ancients. Accord- 
ing to Ovid, Romulus and Remus were exposed in a bark 
of this kind. 
Vvid. East. 1. 2, v. 407. 

Hustinet imp'isilin summti cavus ahvus undd, 

Hen qimidum fati parra lahella tulit, 
Atveiis in limv iytvis appuUus opacis, 

raiLllatimJluvio dejiciente tedet. 

Liv. 1.1, c. 4' ; Patcrcul. 1. 2, c. 107 ; Gijrnld. de Navig. c. 
8 ; Schaef. de Mitit. Nav. 1. 1, c. 3. 2. A chess-board, or 
any table for gaming, the furrows of which resembled the 
beds, alvei, ofa river. Plin. 1. 37, c. 2 ; Dolet. de Re Nav. 
apud Gronov, Tkes. Antiq, Grccc. vol. 1 1, p. 657. 


Alveus (Aiiat.) a canal or duct through which some fluid 
passes. — Alveus communis, the common duct or communi- 
cation of the ampulte of the membranaceous semicircular 
canals in the internal ear. — Alveus ampul/cscens, part of the 
duct conveyins; the chyle to the subclavian vein. 

ALVl'DLXA (Met/.) Purgatives. 

ALVU'LU'XUS {Med.) a diarrhoea, or purging. 

A'LU.M {Miu.) vide .llumen. 

Alum (Cliem.) Alunien, so called from «Ac, the sea; a saline 
humour of the earth, Snlsugo terra;, of an astringent, hard- 
ening, and corroding quality ; whence called in Greek ^vir- 
rufia, from ^liizru, to bind. Alum is either natural or facti- 
tious. — Natural Alum, which was well known to the an- 
cients, is a kind of whitish friable stone, formerly found in 
the i.';land of Melos, ^laccdouia, Egypt, &c, of which 
tiiere were diifdrent kinds, namely, the sclssile, (rx,'^'., sopjc- 
times called rfij^iVi;, because when pulled asunder it runs 
into hairs ; and also plumose, because it was composed of 
featherlike fibres; the round, 5-poyv''>i» ; and the liquid, 
which, to be good, must have a milky propertj'. When 
alum is melted, so as to become a white porous substance, 
it is called burnt Alum. — Factitious alum, which is the mo- 
dern alum, is composed of other ingredients besides the 
concreted juice. It is commonly made of a stone, of sea- 
weed, and of urine, and known by the names of rock, or 
Lnglish Alum, which is colourless, and Rock, or Roman 
Alum, which is of a reddish colour. — Saccharine Alum is a 
composition of common alum with rose-water and the 
white of eggs, which serves as a cosmetic. Hippocrat. 
Dioscor. 1. j, c. 12:5 ; Plin. 1. 15, c. l.> ; Gal. de Sir.iplic. 
1. 9, :j:c. ; Oribas Med. Coll. 1. 15, c. 1 ; Aet. Tetrab. 4, 
serra. 2, c. 25. 

Alum-water (Paint.) a preparation used by painters in 
water-colours, prepared by dissolving conunon alum in 

Alum Stone {Surg.) a stone or calx used in surgery, which 
is probably alum calcined so as to become corrosive. 

Alu.m Earth (Min.) the earth from which alum is extracted, 
that is, pure clay. — Alum Ores, the ores or stone from 
which alum is prepared. — Alum-li'orks, where alum is ma- 
nufactured, in distinction from alum mines, where the na- 
tural alum is found. In these mines are found the stones 
or ores of which the alum is made, called doggers, i. c. a 
sort of coal snake-stones, and also a brown alura-slate, a 
sort of clay-slate, so called from its aluminous taste. Be- 
sides these stones is found likewise the water, or liquid, 
which, when it fiist appears, is called the virgin water. 
To these ingredients are added urine and the sea-weed 
called kelp. When the alum is made, the mothers, or li- 
quor, that remains is put into a boiler, where, b)' the help 
of kelp-lees, it ferments, and is then put into a settler of 
lead, where the nitre and slam sink to the bottom ; after 
which it is f cooped out into a cooler, made of deal boards, 
when, by the addition of fresh urine, the alum is made to 
strike, or shoot, that is, to harden about the sides and at 
the bottom of the cooler. 

ALU'MEX (Min.) Alum, a genus of Salts in the Linnean 
system, formed by the combination of the earth called 
Alumine, or pure clay, with sulphuric acid, potash, and 
ammonia. The principal species of alumen are, the — Alu- 
men nafivum, seu nudum, natural Alum. — Alumen com- 
mune, seu/actitium, the rock Alum. — Alumen hutyraceum, 
Stone-Butter, or Mountain-Butter. — Alumen romanum, 
Roche Alum. — Alumen Schisti Alumina, or Aluminous 

ALU'MIXA (Mill.) Alumine, or the Earth of Alum, an ar- 
gillaceous, soft, and insipid sort of earth, which is the base 
of alum, being the principal part of clay. When obtained 
in a small quantity of water, it is very light, friable, and 
spongy, and on that account is called the spongy Alumina, 


in distinction from the gelatinous Alumina, which Is ob- 
tained in a large quantity of water. Alumina is the base 
of several salts when combined with acids, as the Nitrate of 
Alumina, the Sulpliate of Alumina, &c. formed by the 
combination of Alumina with nitric, sulphuric, (S:c. acids. 

ALUMINA'KIS (.1//;;.) another name for the Alumina. 

ALU'MIXITE (Min.) a species of alum, which is a subsul- 
phate of Alumina. 

ALU'MIXOUS Earth (Min.) Alumina, or Alum Earth, the 
earth from which alum is procured, [vide Alum, Alumina'] 
—Aluminous IValers, waters impregnated with particles ot" 

ALU'RNUS (Enl.) a genus of animals. Class Insecta, Order 
Generic Character. ^n^eHw^ filiform, short. — Feelers from 

i to 6, verv short. — Jaw horny, arched. 
Species. The species are — Alurnus grossus, having a scarlet 
thorax. — Alurnus Jimoratus, having the thighs and hind 
shanks toothed. — Alurnus dcntipes, of a black colour, &c. 

ALU'S AR (Chem.) Manna. 

ALUTA (iMeJ.) soft thin leather used to spread plasters on. 

A'LVUS (Anat.) the Belly, comprehending the stomach and 
entrails. R'lf. Appel. Part. Corp. human, 1. ], 
c. 11. 

Alvus (Med. J the belly, in relation to stools or the condi- 
tion of the bowels, as it is used by Celsus, answering to 
the Koai'« of Hippocrates, and other Greek writers. Hip- 
pocrat. 1. 2, aphor. 20, &c. ; Cels. dc Re Med. 1. 2, c. 12, 
&c. ; Gil. Comm. in Hippocrat.; Aet. Tetrab. l,serni. 2, c. 
1 81- ; Trallian. 1. 1 , c. 1 1 ; Actuar. dc Melh. Med. 1. 4, c. G. 

A'LYCE (Med.) a>.vm, the same as Alysmos. 

A'LYPUM (Bot^ 'u,>.mw, a herb so called from «, privative, 
and >Jj':n, pain, because it relieves pain. It is called, in 
English, Herb Terrible, from its violently purging quality, 
and in the Linnean system is the Globularia alypum, aspriggy 
plant, of an acrid viscous taste, and a very strong cathartic, 
which purges phlegm, bile, Sec. It has been doubted by 
some whether the Alypum of Dioseorides is the same as 
that of more modern Botanists; but their descriptions cor- 
respond so considerably as to leave little room for doubt. 
Dioscor. 1. 4-, c. ISO; Plin. 1. 27, c. 4; P. .iEginet. de Re 
Med. 1. 7, c. 3 ; Actuar. de Mcth. Med. 1. 5, c. 8 ; Clus. 
Rar. Plant. Hist. ; J. Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; C. Baulu Pin. ; 
Rati Hist. Plant. ; Parkins. Theat. Botan, ; Tournef. Inst. 

ALY'SMOS (Med.) ixva-fMi, anxiety, or the restless unea- 
siness attendant on sickness ; a term used frequently in this 
sense by Hippocrates. Gal. Exeg, Vocab. Hippocrat. ; 
Erotian Lex. Hippocrat, ; Gorr, Defin, Med. ; Foes, CEco- 
nom. Hippocrat. 

ALYSSOl'DES (Bot.) different species of the Alyssum of 
Linnsus, Bauhin, Tournefort, iScc. 

ALY'SSON (Bot.) different species of the Alyssum, the Cly- 
peda, the Draba, and the Marrubrium of Linnaeus, Bauhin, 
Rnii, 5:c. 

ALY'SSUM (Bot.) a^.'jtriro-', Madwort, from «, privative, and 
^u(r(ra., madness ; a plant so called because it was supposed 
to cure the bite of a mad dog. Dioscor. 1. 3, c. 105; Plin. 
1. 24, c. 12; Gal. de Simplic. 1. 2, c, 11, &c. ; Oribas Med, 
Coll. 1. 15, c. 1 ; Paul. ^Eginct. de Re Med. 1. 7, c. 3. 

Alyssum, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, Class 15 
Tetradynamia, Order 1 Siliculosa. 

Generic Character. Cal. perianth four-leaved; leajlets 
ovate, oblong. — Cor. four-petalled ; petals flat. — Stam. 
Jilaments si.\ ; anthers spreading. — PiST. germ subovate ; 
style simple ; stigma obtuse. — Per. silicle subglobose ; 
seeds few. 
Species. The species are some shrubs, as the — Alyssum 
halimi/i.lium, ThlaspiJ'ruticosum, seu Leucorium spinosum, 
sweet ^Iadv.ort. — Alyssum saxatile Lunaria, seu Thlaspi, 


&c. Yellow Madwort, &c. Some species are perennials, 
as — Alijssiim iiicaiium, Moenchia iiicnna, (i-c. Hoary Mad- 
wort. — Alt/sswn nwiitfiiiion, Cli/peola montana, Adtjseton 
monlaiium, S:c. Mountain Madwort, iSre. Some are an- 
nuals, as — A/i/s.iiim minimum, hinaria nnnun, &c. Least 
l^Iadwort. — Ali/ssum difpcntum, Lciicnrum alijssoides, 
^/y.tto/ijy/oifon'rf/i, &c. Bucklerpodded Madwort, &c. J. 
Btiitliiii. Iliit. Pldtil.; C. Buu/i. Pill. Boerhaav. Ind.; 
Linn. Spec. I'liiiit. 
Alyssum is also tlie name of different species of the C/y- 
peola, tlie Draba, the Mya^rum, and the I'croiiica of Lin- 
iireus. C. Baii/i. Fin. ; Go: Herb. ; Toiirncf. Insf. 
ALYTA'JtCHUS (Ant.) uXvrifz>;i, the name of the chief of- 
ficer among the Eleans, who was appointed to keep good 
order at the games. He was called by the rest of the 
Greeks fx,sh<pif^, or //o^fiyojiafo?, answering to the Lictor of 
the Romans. Those who were under the Alytarches were 
called Al)tae. 
A'LZEGI iC/iem.) Ink. 
ALZEMA'FOR (Chcm.) Cinnabar. 
A'LZILAT [Med.) a weight of three grains. 
A'LZOFAU (Cliem.) Burnt Copper. 

A'LZUM [Bot.) the tree that produces the gum Bdellium. 
A. M. {Gritm.) an abbreviation for Anno Mundi, &.C. [vide 

A'MA (Ant.) or Ames, ii/AJi;, a sort of cake made with milk. Curat. Morb. Acut. 1. 1, c. 3 ; Suidas. 
AMA'BYR (Arducnl.) a custom in the honour of Clun, be- 
longing to the Earls of Arundel. " Pretium virginitatis 
domino solvendum." 
AMA'EXDAVA (Or.) a species of finch, the Fringilla Ama- 

duvnda of Linna;us. 
AIMA'IN (Mar.) from n, or nb, and main, the hand, i. e. off- 
hand, ai once, applied to any movement of the tackle, as 
" To lo.ver amain," to lower at once, or let go the f\tll of 
the tackle : " To strike amain," to lower the topsail : " To 
wave amain," to make a sign to another vessel, by waving 
a bright sword, that it should strike its topsails. 
AMA'LGAMA {Chcm.) from is/^a, together, and y«fAf'«, to 
marry ; a soft paste produced by the incorporation of 
mercury with a metal, as the amalgama of mercury witli 
lead, &-C. Shaw's Boerhaav. I'ract. Opcrat. Chem. Proc. 
Amalgama is expressed by chemical writers by the charac- 
ter ^ or #|# 
AMALGAMA'TION (Chem.) the process of mixing mer- 
cury with gold, silver, and other metals, so as to reduce 
them to an impalpable powder. This operation is marked 
by the three letters AAA. All metals may be amalga- 
mated with mercury except iron, hut gold amalgamates 
more readily than silver, and this than lead, copper, or 
tin, which is the least fitted for amalgamation. 
A!\IAN1)I'NIJS lapis (Min.) a gem of various colours, 
which is said to resist poisons. Albert. iSlai:^. Dc Lapid. 
AMAN'I'T.'E (Dot.) ct/i^atiTxt, Truffles, a sort of fungi or 
mushrooms, which, according to Oribasius, were the least 
hurtful of all the sorts, lliey are so called, from «, priv. 
and //.«»!«, madness, i. e. not poisonous. Oribas. Med. 
Cull. 1. 2, c. 25; Act. Tctrab. 1, serm. 1 ; Paul. Alginet. 
1. 1, C. 77; Mijrep. sect. 38, c. 371 ; Acinar, dc Spir. 
Anim. c. G ; J. Bank. Hist. Plant.; C. Bauh. Pin.; Tunr- 
n,f. Instil. 
AM.'VNNTA (Bnt.) vide Ammania. 

AMANL'E'N'.SIS (Ant.) from a manii, i. c. by the hand, or 
owv .>ierving by the hand ; a slave who used to be employed 
in writing ; a transcriber. 
AMA'llA (Ant.) uf/yufx, a furrow or channel thiough wllich 
water flows. 


Amara (Med.) bitters, the essence of any bitter substance; 
or the whole substance itself, of which great use is made 
in medicine, particularly for bracing the relaxed fibres of 
the organs of digestion, lliif. Ephes. de Appel. Part, 
hum. Corp. I. 1. c. 23; Oribas. 1. 13, c. 5 ; Aet. Tetrab. 
1, serm. 1 ; Paul. A^giiirt. de lie Med. 1. 7, c. 3. 

Amaua didcis [Dot.) vide Dulcamara. — Amara Iiidica, the 
Momnrdica cliaraiitia of Linnaeus. 

AMA'RACUS (Bot.) <if^»ffB«oc, a plant spoken much of by 
the ancients, particularly for its medicinal virtues, being a 
principal ingredient in Acopas and Malafrmas, on account 
of its v.'arming (|uality. Nicander celebrates the Amara- 
cus as a garden flower. 
Nicand. Titer. 


■ f/juXcc ( 

yjUtXK.6^ El3J 

According to Catullus it was used as a nuptial garland. 
Catull. Carm. 60, v. 7. 

Cint^e tempora fttn-ihus 
Suai'olentis amaruci. 

Virgil speaks of its fragrance. 
Virg.JEn. I. 1, v. 693. 

ubi mollis amarams ilium 

Florihis et dulci adspirans complfctitur umbra. 

Theophrast. Hist. Plant. I. 6, c. 7 ; Ruf. Ephes. Frngm. 
apud Med. Princip. p. 127; Dioscor. I. l,'c..58; Plin. 1.'21, 
c. 2; Gal. de Antidot. 1. 1, c. 9 ; Athen. 1. 15, c. 5 ; Myrcp. 
dc Antidot. sect. 1, c. 21. 
Amaracus, in the Linnean system, is the Origanum marjo- 
rana, or Sweet Marjoram. C. Bauh. Pin.; Salinas, de 
Homonym. Hyl. latr. c. 13; Raii Hist. Plant.; Tour- 
nef. Instit. ; Boerhaav. Ind. Bolan. 
Amara dulcis (Bot.) vide Dulcamara. 

A'MARANTH {Bot.) the Amarnnthus of LimiKus, an an- 
nual, which produces a beautiful tlower. — Globe Amaranth, 
an annual, the Gomphrena glubosa of Linnarus. 
AMARA'NTHI Spica (Botl) a species of the Phryma of 

AMARA'NTHO affinis (Bot.) the Gomphrena globosa and 

Illeccbrum sessile of Linnaeus. 
AMARANTHOl'DES {Bot.) the Cclosia mensonicr, the 
Gomphrena percnnis, and Illecebruni sessile of Linna;us. 
Plulccn. Almag., S,-c. 
AiNL'VR.\'NTHUS (Bot.) or Amarantus, i/Aapanj-o?, a plant, 
so called from «, priv. and ^«f«/»ou/at, to fade, i. e. never 
fading, because it retains its freshness a long time. Ac- 
cording to Dioscorides, it was a remedy against the bites 
of serpents. Dioscor. L 4, c. .57; I'lin. I. 21, c. 8; Oribas. 
Med. Coll. 1.11; Paul. Alginet. de Re Med. 1. 7, c. 3. 
Amauantiius Amaranth, in the Linnean .lystem, a gentjs of 
plants. Class 21 Monoccia, Order 5 Pentandria. 
Generic Character. Cal. perianth, five or three-leaved; 
leajlets lanceolate. — Con. none. — ^tam. Jilamcnts five, 
or three capillary ; anthers oblong. — Pi.sT. germ ovate ; 
styles three ; .stigmas simple permanent. — Per. capsule 
ovate ; seed single. 
Species. I'lants of this tribe are annuals, of which the 
principal are the — Amarantlius alius, White Amaranth. 
— Amarantlius polygonoides, Blitum polygonoidcs, Cli£- 
nopoilium liumile, i>fc. Spotted-leaved Amaranth. — Amn- 
ranthus polygnmus, Hermaphrodite Amaranth. — .'Ima- 
ranthus nleraceus. Eatable Amaranth. — Amarnnthus tri- 
color. Three-coloured Amaranth. — Amaranlhus blitum. 
Least Amaranth. — Amaranth us hypochoiidriacus, PrinceV 
feather Amaranth, &c. J. Bauh. Plant.; C. Bauh. 
Pin. Tlieat. Bolan. ; Ger. Herb.; Park.Theat. Botan. ; 
Raii Hi.rf. Plant. ; I'luk. Almag. Botan. ; Touriief. 
Inst. ; Boerhaav. Ind. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 


A.MAnAN'Tiius is also the name of the Achi/ranthes corym- 
bnsa, different species of the Cc/osin, the Illecebriim ses- 
sile, the Iresine celessoides, and the R'nina Itumilk of Lin- 
nEUS. Biiuh. Hist.; Pliik. Ahnag. — Anmrantltus litleiis, 

the Giiap/iri/iu!!! arena of Linnasus Amaranthus cnpensis, 

the IIi/p ixis stcllntn of Linna;us, Sec. 
AM A 11 I'LL A (Bot.) a species of the Gentiana and the 

Pdli/i^ala avinra of Linn;cus. 
AMA'liUM (Min.) Sulphate of Magnesia, or Epsom Salt; 
a ^enus of mineral substances, Class Salts, a bitter taste, 
easily soluble in water, and melting in heat. 
AMA IIUS i/ii/cis Orientalis (Bot.) the same as Costiis. 
Amarus (Min.) a genus of earths, of the Class Si/ices, con- 
sisting of silica, with a small quantity of magnesia, alumina, 
and carbonate of lime. 
AMARVLLLS (Dot.) or Lily, a genus of plants, Class G 
Hexandria, Order 1 Monogi/nia. 

Generic Chnrnders. Cal. .<:palJie oblong. — Con. petals six ; 
nectary six. — St am. filaments si.x ; ant/iers rising. — PisT. 
germ roundish; i/j/Ze filiform ; stigma trifid. — Pek. capsule 
subovate ; seeds several. 
Species. The species are perennials, and mostly inhabit 
the East and West Indies. The principal are the — 
Amaryllis atamasco, the Atamasco Lily. — Amaryllis pu- 
milis, the Dwarf Amaryllis. — Amaryllis formosissima. 
Lilio- Narcissus, &c.the .lacobea Lily. — Amaryllis littca. 
Narcissus autumnalis. Yellow Amaryllis or Autumnal 
Lily.' — Amaryllis sarniensis, A'arcissiis japonicus, the 
Guernsey Lily, &c. ■/. Bau/i, Hist. Plant. ; Linn, Spec. 
A'SIAIIY'STUIA (.4nt.) afji,xpi>Sia, festivals celebrated in 
honour of Diana at Amarynthusa, a village of Euboea. 
Paii^. I. 1, c. 31. 
A^L\SO'XL\ (Bot.) a genus of plants, called after Mr. Ania- 
son, a traveller, Class l-i Didynamia, Order 2 Angiospermia. 
Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — Con. one- 
petalled ; i^orrft-r quinquefid. — St ASi. filaments (ovir ; an- 
thers oval. — Fist, germ ovate ; style in the situation and 
form of the stamens ; stigmas two. — Per. none ; seeds a 
nut ovate. 
Species. The species are the Amasonia erecta and jinmicea, 
Linn. Spec. Plant. 
A'Sl ATO'RI A Fehris {Med.) the same as Chlorosis. — Ama- 

toria Venepcia, the same as Philtra. Caslell. Lex. Med. 
A>L\TO'RIUS (Anat.) another name for the muscles called 
obliquus superior and injerior Oculi, because tiiey are used 
in ogling. 
AM.A'TYQUIL (Bot.) the Arhutus uncdo o^ 'Lmnxns. 
AM.\URO'SIS (Med.) ufi,uvfa<rtc, the Gutta serena. [vide 

Giilla Serena'] 
AMA'ZOXU.M Pistillum (Med.) 'Au-^i^r.^v Tp»;t;'V«?, the 
Amazonian trochee ; a medicine given to chlorotic maids. 
Ga'en. de Comp. Med. sec. Loc. 1. 8. 
A'MB.\ (Bot.) the same as the Manga or Mango tree. 
AMBA'IBA (Bot.) a beautiful tree of Brazil, the Cecropia 
pellata of Linnaeus, the outer bark of which resembles that 
of the fig-tree. Marcgrai: Fison. Med. Bras.; liaii Hist. 
AMB.VITI'XGA (Bot.) an Indian tree, the oily juice of 
which, like that of the Ambaiba, is of a cooling and astrin- 
gent nature. Marcgrav. Pison. Med. Brasil. ; Rail Hist. 
A'MB.\LAM (Bot.) an Indian tree, the fruit of which is a 
kind of kernel that is good to assuage pains in the ears; of 
the root is made a pessary that promotes the menstrual 
discharge. The bark converted into a powder is beneficial 
in dysenteries, and a decoction of its wood is given with 
success in gonorrhceas. J{aii Hist. Plant. 
AMB.VPA'IA (Bot.) an Indian tree ; the Carica Papaya of 
Linna:us. C. Bank. Pin. ; Rail Hist. Plant. 


A'MBAR (Cbem.) vide Ambra. 

AMBA'RE (Bot.) an Indian tree, the leaves of which are ns 
large as those of the walnut. The pulp of the ripe fruit 
when seasoned with vinegar and salt creates an appetite. 
C. Bauh. Pin.; Lem. de Drg. 

AMB.\RV.\'LESy}«/)T.5 (Ant'^) the priests who offered the 
sacrifices at the anibarvalia. Vet. Grammat. 

AMBARVA'LI.A. (Ant.) feasts among the Romans in honour 
of Ceres, nt arva f'rugesjerrent. They are so named from 
going round the fields, Ambiendis arxis, which was a part 
of their ceremony. Servius savs that the victim was taken 
round the fields, according to \'irgil. 
Georg. 1. 1, V. 34-0. 


i/t/i-i cat hcstiii Jhigrs. 

The festival was celebrated twice a year, in April and 
July. Cato de Re Rust. c. ll-'i; Fe.'il. de Signif. Verb.; 
Macrob. 1.3, c. .5 ; Gyrald. Syntag. Dior. 1. 17, p. 488 ; 
Turneb. Adv. 1. 18, c. 17; Alex. ^Gen. Dier. 1. 3, c. 12; 
Rosin. Kipping, Sfc. apud Grav. Aniiq. Roman. 

AMBARVA'LI.E Hostice (Ant.) the victims sacrificed at 
the Anibarvalia, which were a sow, a sheep, and a bull, 
[vide Ambarvalia'] 

AMBARVA'LIS Flos (Bot.) the Polygala vulgaris oS: Lin- 
na?us. Doilon. Stirp. Hist. 

A'MBE (Surg.) i^jir., a lip or edge, because its extremity 
runs out like the edge or brim of a pot ; a chirurgical in- 
strument used in restoring a luxation of the shoulder. 
Hippocrat. de Artie. 1. 6; Gal. Excges. I'ocab. Hippocrat. ; 
Heist. Chirurg. p. 1, I. 3, c. 7. 

AMBE'GXIS (Ant.) an epithet for the weather sheep which 
was led to be sacrificed between two lambs ; so called 
from umbo, both, i. e. both sides, and agnus, a lamb. Pest, 
de Verb. SigniJ". 

A'iMBEL.\ (Bot.) the yymphaa lotus oi lADnxui. 

AMBELA'XIA acida (Bot.) the Willaughbeia acida of 

A'MBER (Min.) the Snccinum of Linnaeus, a brittle hard 
resinous substance, which in Greek is called apz^ai, i. e. 
the Snatcher, because, according to Pliny, it snatches 
straws, leaves, <S:c. to itself. The Arabic name, Kerahe, 
signifies the same thing, namely, an " Attractor of Straw." 
By the Greeks of later ages, as Xicetas Chroniates relates, 
amber is called au^Trfx : but what may be the origin of this 
word, which is neither Greek nor Arabic, it is difficult to 
conjecture, unless we are to suppose that it comes from 
Hambara, which, according to Leo Africanus, signifies a 
whale. Amber is usually transparent, of a j'ellow and a deep 
colour, but sometimes it is colourless. It is highlv elec- 
tric ; and if a piece be kindled it burns to the end with 
pungent white vapours, without melting. It takes a "ood 
polish, and is made into beads, necklaces, and other or- 
naments ; specific gravity from 1-OTS to I-OS.'j. Many 
virtues are ascribed to amber, particularly when taken 
inwardly, in a cold state of the brain, in catarrhs, Ac. 
Ancient authors affirm that amber works out of sprinn-s like 
bitumen, which is warranted by the discoveries of modern 
writers, who assure us that it is got out of the German sea, 
where it rises in a bituminous form. Ptin. 1. 37, c.'l; 
Salmas. de Homonym, c. 101 ; Boerhaav. Chem. — Liquid 
Amber, or Liquid Ambar, a fat resinous substance, of the 
consistence of Venice Turpentine, of an acrimonious 
ta^te, but an aromatic and fragrant smell. It distils from 
a tree in New Spain, and is used in medicine as an emol- 

Amber, Oil of (Chem.) an acid liquor drawn from ambei;, 
which is supposed to be the liquid storax, sold by drug- 

AMBE'RBOI {Bot.) different species of the Centaurea of 



A'MBERGRIS {.W».) the Ambra r,rkca of Aldrovandus, 
and the Ambra of Linna;us, a solid sebaceous or fiU sub- 
stance, not po:iui.'rous, of an ash colour, variegated hke 
marble, and often marked with white specks. It is sup- 
posed to be the excrement of the spermatic whale, having 
frequently been met with in the intestines of that fish. It 
is found floating on the waters, or on the shores of the 
Moluccas, and other islands in the Indian Ocean. It 
breaks easily, but cannot be reduced to powder ; melts like 
wa.K, and is somewhat soluble in spirits of wine, with the 
assistance of heat. Specific gravity 0"92G. 

A'MfsER Tree [Bol.) the Anlhospermum of Linnaeus, a 
shrub, the beauty of which lies in its small evergreen 
leaves, which grow as close as heath, and which being 
bruised between the fingers, omits a very fragrant odour. 
— Amber-seed, a seed brought from Martinico and Egypt, 
of a bitterish taste, and resembling millet-secd. 

A'MBIDE.XTER (Med.) ««.9J4'«?, a man who can play 
equally witii both hands. Jlippocrat. 1. 7, aphor, 413 ; Gal. 
Exeges. Vocab. Hippncrnt. ; Foes. (Econom. Hippucrat. 

Ambidexter (Law) one who plays on both sides, as a juror 
who takes money for giving his verdict. 

AMBIL'GNA bos (Ant.) an ox; so named by the augurs, 
because it had the other victims around it. Varro de 
Ling. Lnt. 1. G, c. 3 ; Buleng. de Sort. c. G. 

A'MlUENT (Pliij-) or circumambient, an epithet for what- 
ever encompasses other things ; thus, bodies are called 
ambient or circumambient which surround other bodies, 
and the air which immediately encompasses or surrounds 
all bodies on the earth is called the ambient air. 

AMBI'GENAL (Math.) an epithet given ^ 
by Sir Isaac Newton, in his A'HMmera/io [^ ' 
Linearium tertii Ordinis, to one of the \ \f 

triple Iiyperbolas of the second order, 
E G F having one of its infinite legs, 
G E, f;illing within the angle AGO, V)//\^^ 
formed by the asymptotes A C C D, 
and the other leg, G 1", falling without the angle. 

A'MBIT rjj a Figure (Math.) the same as the Perimeter, 
i. c. the line, or the sum of the lines by which the figure 
is bounded. 

AMBI'TION (Tlierng.) was represented as a young man 
clad in green, and crowned with ivy, and going to climb 
up a steep ascent, at the top of which appeared crowns 
and sce|itres. He had a lion by his side to denote forti- 
tude, which is the companion of ambition. 

A'MBITUS (Ant.) from «OTij>c, to go about ; a going round, 
or canvassing for a place : whence comes the word ambi- 
tion, to signify an immoderate tliirst for honours, because 
Uie ambitus was commonly attended with bribery and cor- 
ruption, notwithstanding the severity with which it was 
punished. Cic. in Sal/iist. ; Fest. de Verb. Signif. ; Bud. 
in Pandect, p. 19.7. — Ambitus IJrbis, the circuit of the city, 
whicii, in the time of Vespasian, A.U. C. 828, was esti- 
mated at 13 miles. Flin. 1.3, c. 5 ; Panciroll. Dcscript. 
Urb. ; Pamin. Descript. Urb. et Nardin. Rom. Vet.; 
(ipiid Grav. T/ics. Antiij. Roman, torn. iii. p. 377. — Ambitus 
yF.dium, a vacant space which was left between houses for 
going round. Fest. de Verb. Signif. 

A'MBLE (Man.) the peculiar pace of a horse, when two 
legs of the same side move at the same time. 

AMBLIGO'NAL (Gcom.) «p/3/,i/v»"o«, an epithet for a figure 
that contains an obtuse angle. 

AMBLO'SIS (Med.) the same as Abortus. 

AMBL(J'TICA Medicamenta (Med.) Medicines which pro- 
duce abortion. 

AMBLYO'GMOS (Med.) aj«./3/u4ivi«,o;, a word frequently 
used by Hippocrates for dinmess of sight. Ilippocrat. 
Predict. 1. 1, c. 18, &c.; Gal. Exeges. Vocab. Ilippocrat.; 
Foes, CEconom, Hippocrat. 


AMBLYO'PIA (Med.) iu,^^!/a.-.i, a word used by Hippo- 
crates for debility of sight ; but by Paulus .Egineta and 
Actuarius, for tlie gutla serena. Ilippocrat. sect. 3, 
aphor. 31 ; Act. de Mcth. Med. 1. 2, c. 7 ; Gorr. Def. Med.; 
Foes. (Econom. Hippocrat. 

A'MBON (.inat.) ut/.iuv, the edge of the sockets in which 
bones are inserted, as X\\e J'cmur in the acetabulum. Cas- 
te!!. Lex. Med. 

A'MBORA (Dot.) the Mithradatea of Linnaeus. 

A'MBRA (Min.) the Ambra grisea of Aldrovandus, the 
Ambra maritima of Linnaeus, and the Ambergrise of Dale ; 
a fragrant fat resinous substance, the excrement of the 
Sperniacetti Whale, Class Inflammabilia. [vide Amber'] 

A.MBRA (Mid.) a vessel among the Saxons, containing a 
measure of salt, &c. Brompt. 

A'MBRAM (Min.) the same as S«cf/rti«H. 

AMBR.\'RlA (Bot.) the Anthospermum AUthiopicum of Lin- 

AMBP.O'.MA (Bot.) the same as Abroma. 

AMBllO'SIA (.Vy.) «|«/,3fo(ri'a, a name given to the food of 
the gods, from a, priv. and /^foroi, mortal, i. e. food which 
makes immortal, or the food of immortals. Homer uses 
this word very frequently. II. passim. 

Amehosia (Ant.) 1. A libation which consisted of water, 
honey, and all sorts of fruits, which was used according 
to Athenaeus in the consecration of .Tupiter Ctesias' statue. 
2. A festival celebrated in honour of Bacchus. Scholiast, 
in lies. Oper. et Dies. 1.2. 

Ambkosia (Bot.) a small shrub, called by some Botrys, which 
has a grateful smell, and a very astringent taste. Dios- 
corides ranks it among the coronary plants, {■spccvaifiaTir.a ; 
but, according to Nicander, the appellation of Coronary 
Ambrosia was bestowed by some on the lil}'. 
Nicand. in Titer. 

Ol i'i «^///3fo(ri'ij». 

Dioscor. 1. 3, c. 129 ; Plin. 1. 17, c. 4, &c.; Allien. 1. 15 ; 

Oribas. Med. Collect. 1. 11 ; Aet. Tctrab. 1, serm. 1 ; Paul. 

.T.gin. de Re Med. 1. 7, c. 3 ; Salmas. de Homonym, c. G2. 
Ambkosia, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, Class 

21 Monoecia, Order .5 Pentandria, in English, Oak of Je- 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth common. — Cor. com- 
pound uniform ; proper one-petalled. — Stam. Jilameuts 
very small; anthers erect. — Fist, style filiform; stigma 
orbiculate. — Reg. common. — Fi;r. nut subovate; seed 

Species. The species are mostly annuals, as the — Ambro- 
sia rlatior, Tall Ambrosia. — Ambrosia artemisifolia, Mug- 
wort-leaved Ambrosia, Sec. J. Bauh. Hi^i. Plant. ; 
C. Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Parte. Theat. Botan. ; 
Raii Hist. Plant. ; Tournef. Inst. 
AMBRO'SIAN OJfice (Ecc.) ii formula of worship used in 

the church of Milan ; so called from St. Ambrose, bishop 

of Milan. 
AMBROSl'NIA (Bot.) a genus of plants, so called from the 

Ambrosini, brothers and professors of botany at Bologne 

fifty-two years, Class 21 Monoecia, Order 1 Monandria. 

Generic Character. Cal. spaihe one-leaved ; partition 
membranaceous. — Cor. none. — Stam. Jilamcnts none; 
anthers very many; nectaries two. — Fist, germ solitary ; 
style cylindrical; stigma obtuse. — Per. capsule roundisb ; 
seeds many. 

Species. The species arc the Ambrosinia Bas.m, seu Ari- 
.<;arum, and the Ambrosinia maculata, both perennials. 
Raii Hist. Plant. 
A'!\HiRY (Med.) or Aumery, from Eleemo.iynaria ; a place 

where vessels and domestic utensils were kept. 
AIMBUBA'I./E (Aut.) loose women, who went about as min- 


strels, probably so called from aniLu, i. e. ciirnw, around, 

and Baiti:, a place of pleasure in Italy which they much 


Horat. 1. 1, sat. 2, v. 1. 

Ambiihaiarum Ci^lU'gia Pharmaccpoltr. 

Sueton. in Neron. c. 27 ; Scalig. Conject. in Varr. p. 5i ; 

Tiirneb. Adv. II, c. 27. 
AMBUBE'IA {Bot.) the common Cichory. 
AM'BULANTS (Com.) Brokers or Exchange Agents in 

Amsterdam who are not sworn before the magistrates. 
AMBULATl'VA [Med.) tlie same as Herpes. 
AMBULATOR (Arclueol.) Ambler, a sort of horse which 

went an ambling pace. 
AMBULATO'RIA turris (Ant.) an engine or battery on 

wheels for taking towns. Architect, 1. 10, c. 19. 
Ameulatoria vnluntiis [Lrni;) a man's will or testament as 

long as he lives and has the power of changing it. 
AM'BULO (Med.) a disease arising from inflation. 
AM'BULOX (Dot.) a tree, the fruit of which resembles 

sugar in its taste, and in bulk a coriander seed. Raii Hist. 

AMBU'RBr.\ (-hit) a festival, which consisted in going 

round the walls of the city in solemn procession, from am- 

biendo urbe, i. e. going round the city. 

Lucan. 1. 1, v. 592. 

Mox jttltet et Mam pavidis a cilibus urbem 
Ambirit et f'cslo purgantes mccnia lustra 
Lotiga per ertremos pomirria cingere Jincs. 
Fest. de Verb. Signif ; Vopisc. in AureL c. 20 ; Serv. in 
Virg. 1. 3 ; Eccl. 3, v. 77 ; Gi/rald. Si/niag. Dear. 1. 17 ; 
Jos. Scalig. Castig. in Fest.; Titrneb. Adrer.X. IS, c. 17. 
AMBURBIA'LES hostice (.-int.) victims which were carried 
round the city in celebrating the Amburbia. Fest. de Verb. 
AJIBU'STA (Med.) burns or scalds, for the cure of which 
the ancient physicians gave many prescriptions. Aet. 
Tetrah. '1-, serm. 2, c. 6^ ; Paul. .-Egin. de Re ^led. 1. i, c. 2. 
AMBU'STIOX (Med.) burning, or any solution of continuity 
produced by fire, or bodies heated by fire. Heist. Chirurg. 
1. -i, c. 15. 
AMBU'TU.\ (Bot.) the Cisampelos Pareira of Linnceus. 
AM'EA (Bet.) a plant used in Africa against bleeding at the 

AME'DIAN.S (Ecc.) a congregation of religious in Italy; so 
called from their professing themselves to be amantes Deuni, 
lovers of God, or nmati Dei, beloved of God. They wore 
a grey habit and wooden shoes, but no breeches. 
AMEDA'NA (B(d.) the Alnus vulgaris of Linnaeus. 
AMELA'XCHIER (Bat.) the Chionantbus Virginica and 

Mespclus Amelancbia of Linnxus. Raii Hist. Plant. 
A'MEL corn (Cum.) French rice, bv" which starch is made. 
A'MELI (Bot.) a Malabar plant, from the leaves of which a 

decoction is made that is good for colics. 
AMELLOI'DES (Bot.) a species of the Cineraria of Lin- 

AME'LLUS (Bot.) one of those herbs which A'irgil reckons 
to be agreeable to bees. 
Virg. Georg. 1. 4-, v. 271. 

Est etiam jhs inpratis, eui nomen amello, 
Fecere agricoia, facilis qutEventUnts herba. 
Amellus, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants. Class 
19 Syngene.mi, Order 2 Polt/gamia super/lua. 
Generic Characters. Cal. common imbricate. — Cor. com- 
pound radiate ; corollcts hermaphrodite, very many in the 
disc \ females very many in the ray; proper of the her- 
maphrodite tubulous ; female ligulate — ^t.^m. filaments 
five; ««;/(«• cylindrical. — Pist. ^erm obovate ; s/^fc fili- 
form ; stigmas two. — Pek. none ; calj/.t unchanged ; seeds 
solitarj' ; donn capillar}' ; receptacle chaffy. 
Species, Plants of this tribe are shrubs, as the — Amellus, 


lychnitis, luphthalmum, verbesina, seu chri/sanlhcmum, 
trailing Amellus, &c. 

Amellus is also the name of the Calen Amelias, the Eri- 
geron acre, and the Aster Amellus of Linnaeus. Raii Hist. 

AME'LPODI (Bot.) an Indian tree, used as an antidoteagainst 
the bites of serpents. Raii Hist. Plant. 

A'ME'S (Bibl.) from ia«, true, certain; a term employed 
either in affirmation, as by our Saviour, ,»Vmen, amen, ve- 
rily, verily, or in confirmation, as Numb. v. 22. Deut. 
xxvii. 15. 

AME'NABLE (Law) tractable, or governable, as applied to 
a woman who submits to her husband ; also to be respon- 
sible in a court of justice. 

AME'XDE (Archa-ol.) a mulct or pecuniary punishment for- 
merly imposed in France by the sentence of the judge for 
any crime, as false prosecution, a groundless appeal, and 
the like. 

Amendk Honourable (Laxv) that which was imposed upon a 
person by wuy of disgrace or infamy, as a punishment for 
any offence, or for the purpose of making reparation for 
any injury done to another, as the walking into church iu 
a white sheet, with a rope about the neck, and a torch in 
the hand, and begging pardon either of God or the 
King, or an)' private individual, for some delinquency. 

AME'XD.MEXT (Law) emendatio, the correction of an error 
in any process, which may be amended either before or 
after judgment. Errors are now effectually obviated by the 
statutes of amendment and jeofails. 14 £</. 3, c. 6 ; S Hen. 
6, c. 15. 

AME'XE (Cliem.) Common Salt. 

AMEXE'XOS (Med.) from «, priv. and /j^ixx., strength, a term 
used by Flippocrates for weak. 

A'MENT (Bot.) Amentum, otherwise called Julus, Nuca- 
vientutn, and Catulus, in English, Catkin, from the 
French chdton, a cat's-tail, to which it bears a re- 
semblance ; a long and simple stem, which is thickly- 
covered with scales, under which are the flowers, or 
their essential parts, as in the annexed figure, which 
represents the catkin of a hazel. It is either Cy- 
lindrical, Ctjlindricum, i. e. equally thick above and 
below — .Attenuated, Aitenuntum, growing thinner 
and thinner, to a point — .Slender, Gracile, i. c. in 
proportion to its length — Ovate, (ivatum, i. e. thick 
beloiv, and round above. Examples of the Catkin, 
are found in the Willows, Salices, Hazel, Corylus 
Avcllana, Hornbeam, Carpinus, &c. The Anient of 
the Willow, in vulgar language, is called the Pulm. 

A^MEXTA'CE.'E (Bot.) one of Linna;us' Natural Orders of 
plants, comprehending those plants whose fruit is a catkin. 
Linn. Philos. Botan. Sec. This is also the name of a class 
in the S3stem of Tournefort and others. 

AMEXTA'CEOUS Flowers (Bot.) one species of the Ag- 
gregate Flowers, borne or growing in an anient or catkin. 

AME'XTIA (Med.) Madness, a genus of diseases. Class 
Xeuroses, Order VesanicC. 

AME'XTUM (Ant.) from ««./*«, a chain ; the thong with 
which the spear was drawn back after it had been darted. 
Virg. £n. 1. 9, V. 665. 

Intendunt acres arcus^ amentitque torquent. 

Fest. de Verb. Signif; Ttirneb. Adver. 1. 2S, c. 5, &c.; 
Lips. Poliorc. 1. 4, dial. 5. 

AmentU-M Sessile (Che-n.) Alum. 

AME'RCLAMEXT (Law) or Amercement, a pecuniary pu- 
nishment arbitrarily imposed by some lord or count, in dis- 
tinction from a fine, which is expressed according to 
statute. Kitch. 78. — Amerciament royal, when the Amer- 
ciament is made by the sheriff, or any other officer of 
the King. 


A'MERI {Bot.) the Indigofera tinctoria of Linnteus. Jlheed. 
AME'KICAN Earthnut (flo/.) a plant, so called from its nut- 
llkc fruit, which is used for chocolate in South Carolina. 
From this nut is extnicted an oil, which is used for lamps 
in the Eastern countries. The Earth or Ground Nut is the 
Arachi-t In/poirea of Linna;us. 
AMEUr.MNU.M (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 17 Diadel- 
])hia. Order 't Decandria. 

Generic Characters. Cal. Perianth one-leaved ; teeth 
sharp. Cou. papilionaceous : standard expanding; wings 
lanceolate; keel short. — Sta.m. filaments ten; anthers 
roundish. — Pist. <^erm pedicellcd — Per. cells disposed 
longitudinally within ; seeds solitary. 
Species. The species are shrubs, as the — Amerimnum 
Brmvnei, a shrub, native of Jamaica. — Amerimnum ebe- 
iius, Fterocarntis, Aspalat/ius, Pseudo-Ehenus, seu Brija, 
&c. Prickly Amerimnum, &c. Sloan, Hist. Jam. ; Linn. 
Spec. Plant. 
A'METHYST (Bihl.) in the Hebrew nn^n«, achalma, \yhich 
signifies sleep ; the precious stone [vide Amethi/sl] which is 
the ninth in order in the high priest's breast-plate, on which 
was engraven the name of Issachar. Exod. xxviii. 19, &c. 
A-METHVST (Min.) uix,iSufhi, a sort of precious stone, so 
called from a, privative, and /A^iS'yrr.c; to inebriate, because 
it resists or drives away inebriation. It is a hard, beau- 
tiful, shining, transparent stone, of different colours, but 
mostly purple or violet. It comes from the Indies, and is 
used in medicine as an astringent. The amethyst is now 
reckoned among the Quartz Family of stones, and is the 
Quartzum Amelhystus in the Linnean system. Plin. 1. 37, 
c. 9; Epiphan. de 12 Gem. p. 2'i9 ; Isi'd. Grig. 1. 16, c. 9 ; 
AlbeH Mag. de Min. 1. 2 ; Aldrov. Mus. Matall. ; Genjf. 
Amethyst (Her.) the colour of the precious stone called 
the amethyst was formerly used in blazoning instead of 
AMETHY'STA (Med.) umlvrx, medicines which remove 
the inebriating effects of wine. Gal. de Camp. Med. sec 
Loc. I. 2. 
AMETHY'STEA (Bot) a genus of plants, so called from 
its resemblance in colour to the Amethyst, Class 2 Dian- 
dria, Order 1 Monogynia. 

Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved tube; tube 
bell-shaped. — Con. one-petalled ; border five-parted; 
upper lip erect ; lotvcr three-parted. — Stam. filaments 
filiform; antlters simple.— Plst. germ quadrilid ; style 
size of the stamina ; stigmas two. — Per. none ; seeds 
Species. The only species is the Amethystea cccrulea, an 
annual, native of .Siberia. 
A.METIIY'.sriX.A (Ant.) Purple garments, which were of 
the colour of the Amethyst. Salmas in Vopisc. Aurcl. 
c. K). 
Amethystina (Bot.) anothername for the Amethijstca. 
A.METIIYSTIZO'XTES (Min.) the best sort of Carbuncle. 

Plin. I. 37, c. 9. 
AM1:THY'.STUS {MIh.) Amethyst; the Quartzum nmcthys- 

t'ls of Linnoeus 
A.ME'TKIA (Med.) «/AfTfia, receding from a due tempera- 
TO AME'UDLE (Ilort.) a French term for turning up or 
loosening the earth which is grown hard, or incrusted over 
by means of rains, heat, &(:. 
A iME'ZZ.V aria (Mns.) Italian for the notes which keep 
the middle compass of the voice, for which they arc com- 
posed — A mezza di voce, a soft tone, or gradual diminution 
of the voice. 
A'.VII.'V (Ich.) X'lJ'M, from «, priv. and /«.i«, alone, or from its 
going in company, wV^.v/ith other of its kind. A fish, the 
growth of wl'.ich, according to Pliny, is so rapid that it 


might be perceived every day. Aetius 6a)'s that its flesh is 
very hard. Aristot. Kai. Hist. 1. 1, c. 1 ; Plin. 1. 9, c. 13; 
Aet. Tetrab. 1, serm. 2. 

A.MiA, in the Linnean system, a genus of fishes, having its 
head flattened and naked, numerous sharp teeth, two cirri, 
and a gill membrane, 12 rays. The single species is called 
Amia cnlva, which inhabits the waters of Carolina. 

A'MIANTH (Min.) Amiantus lapis, or Amiant, Earth-Flax, 
Ai'tios afAi'xtToi, a sort of stone-like scissile alum, generated 
in Cyprus. It was said to be efficacious against sorceries, 
to resist poisons, and to cure the itch. As it may be drawn 
into threads fit for work, it was wrought, according to 
Uioscorides, into a cloth, which, if thrown into the fire, 
did not consume, but came out the brighter and purer. 
Dioscor. I. .'}, c. 156 ; Plin. 1. 36, c. 18; Paid A'.ginet. de 
Be Med. 1. 7, c. 3. 

AMIA'NTL/S, in the Linnean system, is classed under As- 
bestus, but by former mineralogists it constituted a genus 
of stones. Gessn. de Lapid. ; Aldrov. DIus. Metall. 

A'MICABLE Numbers (.Irilh.) such as are mutually equal 
to the sum of one another's aliquot parts, as 281 and 220 
for all the aliquot parts of 220, namely, 1, 2, 4, .'5, 10, 11, 
20, 22, 4-i-, 55, 1 10, added together, are equal :o 281- ; and 
all the aliquot parts of 284', namely, 1, 2, 4s 71, 142, added 
together, are equal to 220. The only pairs of amicable 
numbers besides this, which have been hitherto discovered, 
are, 6232 and 6368; 17296 and 18116; 9363.3S4 and 
9137056. The name of amicable was first given to these 
numbers by Van Schooten, but their propert}' had been 
already treated of by Uudolphus, Descartes, and others. 
V. Schoot. F.xercitat. Gcometr. Miscellan. sect. 1 1 . 

AMI'CE (Ecc.) an ecclesiastical vestment, [vide Amictus'} 
common to bishops and presbyters, which was tied round 
the neck, and covered the breast and heart. 

AMI'CTUS (I'lcc.) Amice, the undermost of the six garments 
worn by priests. These were the Amictus, Alba, Cingu- 
Imn, Stold, MunipiJus. Innocent. III. de Mysl. 1. 1, c. 
10 ; Amalar. de Eccles. Offic. 1. 2, c. 17. 

AwiCTus (Ant.) a name for ever}' sort of external garment. 
Fcrrar. de Re Vest. 1. 2, c. 1. 

AMTCULUM (Ant.) from amicio, to wrap; an upper garment 
worn by females ; a sort of cloak. 
Plant. Cist, act 1, seen. 1, v. 11". 

Amiculum tuv susioUe saltern SII. Sine tratii dum egnmet trahirr. 

It seems also to have been used by men occasionally, ac- 
cording to Quintus Curtius. iiu. 1. 27, c. 4 ; I'ul. Max. 
1. 5, c. 2 ; Q. Curt. I. 5, c. 1 ; Ferrar. de Re Vest. 1. 1, c. 3. (Anat.) the same as Amnios. 

AMI'CUS Curiic (Law) a friend of the court, who, as a 
slander by, when a judge is doubtful, or mistaken in a 
matter of law, may inform the court. 2 //;.';/. 178. 

AMI'D-SIIIPS (Mar.) i. e. in the middle of the shi)) ; a term 
applied either to her length or her breadth, as " The 
enemy boarded us amidships," i. e. between the stem and 
stern. " Put the helm amidships," i. c. between the two 

A'MIENS (Com.) a gold coin, value 17.s'. \yl. 

A.MI'NEUM vinum (Ant.) or Ammineum vinum, Aj«,i/»«r<!5 Mt<n, 
Aminean wine, a particular sort of wine, which was highly 
esteemed for imbecilities in the stomach. Macrobius makes 
the F^alernian and Aminean wines to be the same ; but 
Virgil distinguishes them from each other. 
Virg. Georg. 1. 2, v. 96. 

AVc cellii uUo c(mtende Falemis. 
Sunt (tium Aminetr lites, Jirmissima vina. 

It is supjjosed to have derived its name from the vines of 
the Aminei, a people of Thessaly, which were planted in 
different parts of Italy. I'lin. 1. 14, c. 2; Anlidot. 
1. 1 ; Macrob, Saturn. 1. 2, c. 16 ; Aet. Tetrab. 1, serra. 1. 


Amineum Ai-ctum (Chem.) Vinegar made of the Amiuean 

AiMTNI A (But.) a sort of Cotton-tree in Brazil. Maregrav. 

AMI'TTERE legem terra (Lrnv) or lileram legem to lose 

the liberty of swearing in any court. Glanvil. 1. 2. 
AMMANI'T.E {Bot.) vide Amanitcc. 

AM.MA'NNIA (Bot.) a genus of plants, called after Professor 
Ammann, of Petersburgh, Class 4? Tetrandria, Order 1 

Generic Character. Cal. perianth bell-shaped. — Cor. 
none. — Sta},i. Ji laments bristly; anthers twin. — Fist. 
germ subovate ; sti/le simple ; stigma headed. — Per, cap- 
sule roundish ; seeds numerous. 
Species. The species of this genus are annuals, as the — 
Ammannia latijblia Isnardiu, seu Aparines, &c. Broad- 
leaved Ammannia. — Ammannia ramosior, seu Ludviegia 
nquatica. Branching Ammannia. — Ammannia haccifera, 
seu Cornelia verticillala, Berrybearing Ammannia, &c. 
AM'MI (Bot.) «/ji//Ai, or Amium, a plant, the seed of which 
was i-eckoned strongly diuretic. Dioscor. 1. 3, c. 70 ; Plin. 
1. 20, c. 15. 
Ammi, in the Linnean si/stem, a genus of plants, Class 5 
Penlandria, Order 2 Digynia, in English Bishop's-weed. 
Generic Characters. C.\l. universal umbel ix\a.i\\io\il : par- 
tial short ; universal involucre of many acute leaflets ; 
partial many-leaved; leaj/ets linear; proper perianth 
scarcely apparent. — Cor. universal uniform ; proper of 
five petals. — St am. Jilaments capillary ; a?i</i(?>-i roundish. 
— PisT. germ inferior; styles reflex; stigmas obtuse. — 
Per. none ; seeds two. 
Species. The species are, the — Ammi majus, seu Vnlgare, 
seu Ammioselinon, Common Bishop's-weed, an annual, 
native of the South of Europe. — Ammi Copticum, an annual, 
native of Egypt. — Ammi glauci/olinm, sen pe/rceum, seu 
Daucus petra:us,S:c.a perennial, native of France. — Ammi 
daucifuUnm, seu maJus, etc. Crithmum pyrenaicnm, seu 
Apium Pijrenaiciim, a perennial, native ot the Pyrenees. 
J. Bauhia Hist. Plant.; C. Bauhin Pin. Theat. ; Ger. 
Herh.; Park Theat. Botan.; Raii Hist. Plant.; Tourn. 
List. Herb.; Rivin. Ord. Plant.; Boerh. Ind. Plant.; 
Linn. Spec. Plant. 
Aisi.Mi is also the name of the Sison Ammi, the Cieuta bulbi- 
l/era, the Seseli ammoides, and the Sitimjalcaria of Linnajus. 
Bauh. Tournef. &c. 
A'MMION (CAem.) the same as Cinnabaris. 
AMMIOSELI'NON [Bot.) the Ammi majus of Linnreus. 

Dodon. Stirp. Histor. 
AMTiIOBRA'GIUM (/^ic/ia'o?.) a service, the same as C'/(f- 

vage, according to Spelman. 
AMMOCHO'ZIAL (Med.) a remedy for drying the body, 
by covering it with hot sand. Cels. de Re Med. 1. 3, c. 1 ; 
Dloscor. 1. 5, c. 1G7 ; Gal. de Frcecog. ; Oribas. Med. Coll. 
1. 10, c, 8. 
AMMOCHRY'SUS (Min.) 1. A sort of stone found in Bo- 
hemia, which is sometimes yellow, and sometimes of a gold 
colour. It will crumble into sand, and is used for strewing 
Oil paper. Lem. des Drogues. 2. A sort of mud, of a 
gold colour, which is found in mineral waters in Friseland. 
Cnste/l. Le.r. Med. 
AM.MODY'TES (Zool.) a venomous serpent, of a sandy co- 
lour, and a cubit in length ; the bite of which, according 
to Aetius, is generally followed by speedy death. Act. 
Tetrab. l, serm. 1, c. 25. 
A.MMODYTES Is also the name of a species of the Coluber of 

Ammodytes (Ich.) the Launce ; a genus of fishes of the 
Apodal Order, having the head compressed, and narrower 
than the bodj', the teeth very sharp, the lower jaw narrow 
and pointed, the body long and square, and the caudal Jin 


distinct. The only species is the Ammodytes gobianus, or 
Sand Launce, which inhabits the sandy shores of the 
Northern Seas, buries itself, on the recess of the tides, a 
foot deep in the sand, with its nose out, and is a prey to 
other rapacious fish. 

AMMO'NIA (Chem.) a gaseous substance in modern che- 
mistry, formed from the combination of hydrogen with 
azote. It is commonly prepared by the mixture of Sal 
Ammoniac with twice its weight of quick lime. It is trans- 
parent and colourless, like air, acrid and caustic to the 
taste, like fi.xed alkalies, is used as a stimulant in fainting, 
but is fatal to animals when they breathe it. Its specific gra- 
vity is 0-590 that of common air being 1 . Ammonia was not 
known to the ancients, but the alchemists were acquainted 
with it in an impure state, by whom it was called Volatile 
Alkali, or Hartshorn, because it was often distilled from 
the hart of the horn, Spirit of Urine, and Spirit of Sal 
Ammoniac ; from both of which substances it may be ob- 
tained by a similar process. It is one of the salifiable bases 
by the help of which the salts are produced, as the acetate 
of Ammonia, &c. 

AMMO'NIAC (Chem.) or Gum Ammoniac, a/^iu-wxaxw, Am- 
moniacum ; a fat resinous substance brought from the East 
Indies, which is agglutinated together in small pieces of a 
yellowish white colour, a smell more pleasant than that of 
Galbanum, and of a nauseous sweet taste, mixed with bitter. 
The tree which yields it is called in the Greek Agasyllis, 
and in the Arabic Allarlhub ; but nothing certain is known 
respecting it at present. Nicander, in his Alexipharmics, 
puts Ammonion for Ammoniacum : 

0«A-s /3:<A4"' X,"'''?? A'/*."'4'«i'i'. 

It is supposed to derive its name from Ammonia, in Lybia, 
where it was found. 
Ammoniac, according to modern chemists, is composed of 
the following ingredients, in nearly the following propor- 
tions : — 

Resin 70-0 

(ium IS'i 

Cilutinous matter 4'-l< 

Water 6-0 

Loss 1-2 


Ammoxiac (Min.) or Sal Ammoniac, aAaj A'fjufijuncKov, Sal 
Ammoniacus ; a fossile salt which was said to be dug out of 
the sands of Ammonia, from which it took its name, [vide 
Gum Ammoniac'] Sal Ammoniac, as a native salt, is not 
known to the moderns ; but a factitious kind, of the same 
name, is a neutral salt, composed of a volatile alkaline 
and the acid of sea-salt, and is therefore called Muriate n/ 

AMMO'NIS Coma (Min.) a fossile, of an ash- colour, found 
in the shape of a ram's horn. 

AMMONI'T.^J (Min.) Snake-Stones ; a sort of fossils which ' 
abound in the alum works in Yorkshire, and other parts of 
England. They are made up of circles, like the rings of 
a snake rolled up. 

AMMONT'TRUM (Chem.) the lixivious salt of a burnt ve- 
getable, now called Frit. Plin. 1. 36, c. 26. 

AMMO'NIUM (Chem.) vide Ammoniac. 

AMM0'PH1L.\ (£»/.) Sand Wasp; a genus of animals, 
Class Insectcc, Order Hymenoptera. 

Generic Character. Snout inflected ; jaws forcipated ; an- 
tenncB filiform ; eyes oval ; voings planed ; sting concealed 
in the abdomen. 
Species. The species of this genus resemble the sphex in 
economy as well as in form. 

AMMUNI'TION (Mil.) Military stores, including not only 



cannon, powder, balls, &c. but all sorts of weapons, offen- 
sive and defensive. — Ammitnition bread, that which is 
served to the soldiers of a garrison or army. 

A.^^X.V (dcltalizata [Chcm.) water run through limestone, and 
impregnated with its particles. Parncel. Lexic. 

A.MNE'STIA [Aitt.) <i«.»<5-i», from «, priv. and ft-'aau-ai, to 
remember ; amnesty, or oblivion of the past, an act of 
princes to their subjects, or states one to another, which 
liad its origin in a law enacted by Thrasybulus after the 
expulsion of the thirty tyrants, by which it was decreed to 
bur}' all past injuries in oblivion, for the speedier concilia- 
tion of all parties, ltd. j\lax. 1. 4, c. 1. 

AM'N'iON (Alia.) £u,ho:, the internal membrane which sur- 
rounds the fcrtus. It is very thin and pellucid in the early 
stage of pregnancy, but increases in tliickness and strength 
in the latter months. Ruf. Ephes. Appell. Pari, human. 
Corp. 1. 1, c. 37; Gal. ile Dissect. Vulvce, c. 10; Gorr. 
Drf. Med. ; Fofs. (Econom. Ilippocrat. 

Amnion (Bol.) the liquor in the Succidtis coUiquamentl, or 
vesicle of the seed, from which the cotyledons are formed. 

AMNIOTIC Acid [Client.) an acid found in the amnion of a 

AMOED^E'UM Carmen (.4nt.) verse, in which one answereth 
anollier by course, as in some of Virgil's eclogues. Fat. 
de Sirrnif. Verb. 

AMOLY'NTOX {Med.) UiM>,mTe-, from «, priv. and ftjuxutu, to 
make dirty ; a topical application, which, if handled, will 
not soil the fingers. CW. Aurelian. de Acut. JMorb. 1. 2, 

AMO'MI (Bol.) Jamaica pepper, so called by the Dutch. 

AMO'MIS (Bnl.) Pseudo Aniomum. 

AMO'.MUM {Bof.) xu-uif/ym, a plant, so called from its fra- 
grant odour, tlie Greek word signifying what is pure and 
blameless. It was one of the aromatic herbs which was 
used for the preservation of dead bodies, whence is derived 
the word mummy. The poets take it for any ointment or 
Juv. sat. A; V. lOS. 

El ntatutiiw stidnns Crispinus amomOf 
QiiarUum lu rednknt duo J'uiiera . 

Ovid. Trist. 1. 3, eleg. 3, v. 69. 

Atque ea cumfoliis et amomi pvlverc misce: 
Inque suburhmw condita poiie solo. 

According to Dioscorides it is of a healing, drying, astrin- 
gent, hyptotic, and anodyne ((uality. Dioscor. 1. 1, ell; 
I'lin. 1. 13, c. 1, &c.; Oribas. Med. Coll. 1. 1 1 ; Act. Tc- 
trab. 1, serm. 1; Batd. Mginet. de lie Med. 1.7, c. 3 ; 
Salinas, da Ilomoiujm. 
Amomum, in the. I.iniiean si/stem, a genus of plants, Class 1 
Monandria, Order 1 Monogi/nia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — Cor. 
monopetalous; tulie cylindraceous; Aort/fr three-parted ; 
nectary two-lcavcd. — St \m. filament; none; anther oh- 
long. — Pisr. germ inferior; style filiform; stigma tur- 
binate. — Pkh. capsule fleshy ; seeds several. 
Species. The .species are mostly perennials, as the — Amo- 
mum zinzibcr, seu Iluhi, Narrow-leaved Ginger. — Amo- 
mum cardamomum, seu Cardamomum minus. Cardamom. 
— Amomum granttm paradisi, (irains of Paradise. — Amo- 
mum galanga, seu Marnnta galanga, Galangale, &c. 
./. Bauh. Hist. I'lant.; C. Bauli' Pin. Tlieat.; Ger. 
Herb. ; Baric. 'J heat. Botan. ; Rati. Hist. I'lant. ; 
Tourncf. Inst. Herb. 
A.MOMUM is also a name for the Solanum pseudo-capsicum, 
the Curcuma longa, and a species of the Sison of Lmnicus. 
./. Bauh. Hist. Plant.; C. Bauh. Pin.; I'ark. Thcat. Bo- 
tan. ; Rail Hist. Plant. 
AM<)N(iKA'P,.\. (/.'//.) a kind of grass good for a fomenta- 
tion in a tenesmu.>. 

AMO'RGE (Xal.) uu,-f/>i. 1. The f.cces of the expressed 
oil. [vide Amurca] 2. The purple dye made in the island 
of Amorgos. Poll. Onom. 1. 7, c. 16; Huidas.; Harpo' 
cration, &c. 
AMO'KGINON (Ant.) 'A./.ofyiw, or, in the feminine, "A^tof- 
71. a; a vestment, made of the Amorgis or flax in the island 
of .\n)orgiis. 
AMO'KGI.S {S'at.) 'AfAipyU, the flax., not unlike byssus, 
from which the a/Aopv"* are made in the island of 
AMO'RIS Pomum (Bat.) the Solanum lycopcrsicum of Lin- 
AMORl'SCO (Mus.) in a Moorish style ; an expression ap- 
plied to old English ballads, signifying that the air is to 
resemble a Moorish dance. 
AMO'UPHA (But.) from c, priv. and j«'opip>i, the form; a 
genus of plants, Class 17 Diadelphia, Order 3 Decan- 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — Cor. petal 
one. — Stam. Jilaments erect; anthers simple. — PiST. 
germ roundish; style subulate; stigma simple. — Per. 
legume lunulate ; seeds two. 
Species. The species are shrubs, as the Amorpha fruticosa, 
seu Barba Jovis, &c. Bastard Indigo, &c. Linn. Spec. 
AMO'RPHOUS (Nat.) from «, priv. and fA.cf0,,, the form ; 

shapeless, of no determinate shape when broken. 
AMORTIZATION [Law) an alienation of lands or tene- 
ments in mortmain. 2 Slat. Ed. 1 . 
AMO'RTISE (Laiv) from the French Amortir. to alien lands 

in mortmain. 
AMPA'NA (Bat.) the Borassusjlabelliformis of hmndsus. 
AMPE'LION (Med.) vine leaves, which are good for mak- 
ing pessaries. Hippocrat. de Nat. Mulieb. ; Foes. CEconom. 
A'MPELIS (Or.) Chatterer; a genus of birds, of the Order 

Generic Character. Bill straight and convex. — Nostrils 
covered with bristles. — Tongue sharp and bifid. — Feet 
simple, with three toes before, and one behind. 
Species. All the species but one are natives of America, 
as — Ampelis Cristata, Crested Chatterer. — Ampclis Car- 
nifer, sou Cotinga rubra, Red bird from Surinam, or 
Red Chatterer. — Ampelis Cuprea, seu Coccinca, Cupre- 
ous Chatterer. — Ampelis cinerea, seu Lanius Nciigeta, 
in I'reneh, Cotinga gris de Cayenne, Grey Shrike. — 
Ampelis Intcus, Yellow Chatterer. — Ampclis Cotinga 
Cai/anciisis, seu Cayaiia, in French Cotinga de Cayenne, 
le Quereiva, Purple-throated Chatterer. — Ampclis Co- 
tinga, in French le Cordon bleu, Purple-breasted Mana- 
kin, or Purple-breasted Chatterer. — Ampclis Pompa- 
doura, seu Cotinga purpurea, le Pacnpacon Pompadour, 
Grey Chatterer, or Pom])adour Chatterer. — Ampelis 
I'luenicia, Red-winged Chatterer. — Ampclis tersn, la 
Tersine, Blue-breasted Chatterer. — Ampclis I\Iaynnna, 
seu Cotinga Mni/nanensis, in French le ('olinga i) plumes 
snyenses. Silky CJhatterer. — Ampclis variegata, seu Co- 
iintra necvia, in French I'averano, Variegated Chatterer. 
— Ampclis carunculala, seu Cotinga alba, in French le 
Cotinga blanc, Carunculated Chatterer. — Ampclis su- 
perba. Superb Chatterer. — .Impclis umbellata, seu ccpha- 
lopterus ornatus, Umbrellad Chatterer. — Ampclus garru- 
lea. Waxen Chatterer. 
.VMPICLI'TES terra (.W/«.)l U^-sxln^, from afMnXi,!,, a vine, 
because it kills the worms at the roots of the vines ; Canal 
Coal, a species of black earth, whicli is more medicinal 
than other earths. It has a discu.^sive and rcfrigciating 
virtue, and is used as an ingredient in cosmetics for the 
eyelids, KKi\Xi0>.ifcefci, and for dyeing the hair. Dioscor. 
1. 5, c. 181; Oribas. Med. Cull. 1.^13; Act. Tetrab. 1, 



serin. 2, c. 9; Marcel. Empir. c.1 ; Lemer. des Drogues. ; 
Dale Partnncnp. 

AMPELODE'S.MOS (Bot.) from «/-t.-a.?, a vine, and J~to-- 
ft-^, a baiiil ; a kind of herb with which the vines in Sicily 
used to be tied. 

AMPE'LOLELX'E {Bot.) the name of a white sort of vine 
mentioned liy Plinv- An'- Hi t. 1. 23, c. 1 . 

aMPELOPKA'SUM {Bot.) from i,«.Ti/o;, a vine, and ^p«iro., 
a leeli ; a herb growing among vines, called leek-vine, a 
species of the Attium of Linnsus. 

AMPE'LOS Ai^ria {Bot.) Briony, or Wild-Vine. 

AMPHEMERl'NOS {Med.) a'n epithet for a quotidian 
fever, or a fever which brings on a paroxj'sni or tit every 
da}', from u/Afi, signifying a revolution, and if^ifx, a 

AMPHIARTHRO'SIS {.'Inat.) from i//-!?;, circum, on both 
sides, and ifflfaVic, articulation ; a mixed sort of articula- 
tion, between the diarlhrosis and the synarthrosis, [vide 

AMPHI'BIA {Zo.) from if^ip', utrinqne, and iSiai, vita, that 
is, both ways of life, because the animals live as well on 
land, or in the air, as in the water. The third class into 
which the animal world is divided, consisting of two orders, 
ReptiUti, Reptiles, with feet, and Serpente.<:, Serpents, with- 
out feet, having plates, scales, or rings on the belly. 
licptdia comprehend Testudo, the Tortoise, covered with 
a shell — Draco, the Dragon, having wings and a tail — 
Rana, the Frog or Toad — Lacerta, the Crocodile, Alli- 
gator, Lizard, Newt, Salamander, Chameleon, Eft, 
Siren, which is two-footed, tailed, and naked. 
Serpeiites comprehend Crotahis, the Rattle Snake. — Boa, 
without a rattle. — Coluber, the Viper, having plates on 
the belly, and scales on the tail. — Anguis, the Snake, 
having scales under the tail. — Artiphisbcena, having rings 
on the body. — Ccccdia, having wrinkles on the body and 
tail. — .-icrochordus, having tubercles. A more particular 
account of this class will be found under each genus. 

AMPHIBIALI'THUS {Foss.) so called from being the part 
of an amphibious animal ; a genus of petrefactions in the 
Linnrean system. 

AMPHIBLESTROI'DES {Med.) from <i,«.(f;.SA>,?-p«, a net, 
and Ac,, the form, i. e. Net-formed ; the Retina, or Net- 
like coat of the eye. Ruf. Ephes. Appell. Pari. Corp. 
human. 1.1, c. "3. 

A'MPHIBOLE {Min.) a species of Hornblende. 

AMPHIBO'LIA {Rhct.) a.,i.<pi.:ioxlot., from i!/*<?i\ on both 
sides, and iix>,>,x, to throw ; Amphibology, or Ambiguity 
of expression when a sentence carries a double sense, as 
" Aio te, jEacide, Romanos vincere posse." It is distin- 
guished from an equivocation, which lies in a single word, 
as Captare " leporcs," where lepores signifies either hares 
or jests. Aristot. Rlict. 1. 3, c. 5 ; Cic. de Invent. 1. 2, 
c. 4-0; (luint. Instil. 1.7, c. 9 ; Ilermog. srsfl hfio- ; Voss. 
Instil. Rhct. p. 167. 

AMPHIBRA'CHYS {Gram.) iu.ipi0fxxv;, from uu-tp), utrin- 
que, and '^(o'.;^;^, brcvis, i. e. short on both sides; afoot, 
having a long syllable between two short ones, as o/Apfos. 
Hirpbest. i7Z'-'t'^. 

AMPHIBRA'NCHIA {Nat.) from au^f, and ISfiyx^, bran- 
chice ; the parts about the tonsils. 

AMPHICAU'STIS {Bot.) a sort of wild barley. 

AMPHI'CTYONES {Ant.) ' Af,,<p:KTuoyi^, the judges who con- 
stituted the Amphictvonic council, [vide Amphictijoniuni] 

AMPHICTYO'NIA (Ant.) 'A/*4'"'-''"=»'«, a general name 
for any assembly of the Grecian cities, who met to consult 
about the common good, [vide Amphictyonium'] 

AMPHICTYO'NIU-M concilium {Ant.) the Council of the 
Amphictyones, founded, as is generally supposed, by a 
king of Athens of the same name. It consisted at first of 
deputies from only seven cities, which were afterwards in- 

creased to twelve, namely, from the lonlans, Dorians, 
Boeotians, Magnesians, Phthians, Locrians, Malians, Pho- 
cians, Thessalians, Dolopiuns, Perhebians, and yEtians. 
Diodor. 1. 16, c. 16; Plin. 1. 36, c. 19. 

A.MPHI'DEON {Med.) the orifice of the uterus. 

AMPHIDIARTHRO'SIS {Anat.) an articulation of the 
lower jaw, partly by a ginglymus, and partly by an ar- 

AMPIIIDRO'MIA {Ant.) 'Au.<Pi^oyA:c, from i*<p;, around, 
and Jfo«,«;, a course; a festival at .'Vthens celebrated on the 
fifth day after the birth of a child, when it was carried 
round the fire and presented to the Lares, or household 
gods, on which occasion an entertainment was given, and 
presents made to the 'attendants. A description of the 
whole ceremony is to be found in the verses of Ephippiis, 
as quoted by Athenecus. Plat, in Thivatet. ; Li/yias in 
Orat. npud Hnrpocrat. ; Schol. in Arisioph. Lysistrat. ; 
Poll. Onom. 1. 2, segm. 8 ; Athcn. 1. 2, c. 2t, and 1. 9, c. 2 ; 
Harpocration ; Ilesi/cbius ; Suidas. j del. Rhodig. 1. 22, 
c. 12 ; Meurs. Hist. Miscel. ; Turneb. Adv. 1. 3, c. 6. 

AMPHIJE'NE {Min.) a species of garnet. 

AMPHl'MACER {Gram.) ', from ««.i$.\ on both 
sides, and yjay-fi',, long, i. e. a foot, having a short syllable 

in the middle, and a long one on each side, as iiyti^m 

HiTphest. £>3:;fifiiJ'. 
A:MPHIMA'SCHALI {Ant.) iu-(p^u,i<rz»>^", an epithet for 

coats with two sleeves, which were worn by freemen 

only, in distinction from the irifau,a<rx,x>^ci, or coats with 

one sleeve, which was the peculiar dress of slaves. To 

this Aristophanes alludes. 

Equit. act 2, seen, i, v. 47. 

Ou ^untir' «///^if*«cr;i;«.^« rev Jii«,o» ilUvx^. 

Alexand. Gen. Dier. 1. 5, c. 18 ; Ccel. Rhodig. Antiq. Led. 

1. 16, c. 10. 
AMPHIMERI'NA Febris {Med.) a tertian remittent fever. 
A'MPHIPLEX {Anat.) the part betwixt the scrotum and 

anus. Rujl Ephes. de Appell. Part. Corp. human. 1. 1, 

c. 12. 
AMPHIPNEU'MA {Med.) the same as DyspntBO. 
AMPHI'POLI {Ant.) 'AfA<pi!roXoi, magistrates appointed by 

Timoleon at Syracuse, after the expulsion of Dionysius the 

Tyrant, who derive their name from their being supposed 

to be ministers to Jupiter. Diud. 1. 16. 
AMPHl'PPI {Ant.) kf/jipiTrTici, desidtores ; horse soldiers who 

used to charge with two horses, so that they might leap 

from one to the other ; to which Homer alludes. 

Horn. II. 1. 15, V. 684- 

Qfteirxm u!x>.<i t £-t' aAASf i/A£i/3£T«i. 

Buidas in Verb. iVn-iv-'i;. Cid. Rhodig. Antiq. Led. 1.21, 

c. 30. 
AMPHIPRO'STYLOS {Ant) U^ipi-f»^v\'>'., from «/*«'. on 

both sides, and irp55-u>,6;, a prostyle or column ; a house 

with pillars, or piazzas, on both sides. Vilruv. 1. 3, c. 1 ; 

Salma.<!. in Solin. p. 1217. 
AMPHISB.E'NA {Zool.) au,(pir/iMr«, from af^4>i, both ways, 

and &xi'a to t'O ; a venomous serpent in Lybia with two 

heads, and moving forward with either end. Lucan. 1. 9, 

v. 719. 

It "ravii in geminum surgens caput Amphishg-iia. 

Nicander, in his Tlieriacae, calls it i/t^iV-afifKi", i. e. having a 
head at both ends. This notion of the ancients arose 
from the shape of the animal ; the body of which is of 
equal thickness throughout its whole length, so that it is 
not easy to distinguish the head from the tail. The bites 
of these serpents resemble the stings of wasps. Plin. 1. 8, 
c. 23; So/in. Polijhist. c. 27; Act. Tefral). 1, serm. 1 ; 
Paid. .Eginel. de Re Med. 1. 5, c. 13; Actuar. de Mcth. 
Mcd.\.6, c. 11. 



Amphisb.iina, in the Linnean syslein, a genus of animals ; 
Class Amphibia, Order Serpentcs. 
Generic Character. Rings on llie bodj' and the tail. — Scales 

none. — Tail IiardI)- to be distinguished from the body. 
Species. The species are the .Impliisbcena Jlil/ginosa, 
J/nva, vnria, alba, magnifica, &c. 

AMPHI'SCII {Astrou.) from" «]«'<?", on both sides, and o-xi'a, a 
shadow ; the inhabitants of the Torrid Zone, who have 
their shadow turned to the north one part of the year, and 
to the soutli the other. When the sun is in the zenith they 
Iiave no shadow, wherefore Pliny calls them Aiscii ; and to 
this Lucan alludes, when speaking of Syene, that was 
placed under the tropic of Cancer ; he says, " Umbras 
iiusquam flectente Syene." Luc. 1.2, v. 587 ; Cleomed. 
dc Mnnd. 1. 1 ; Plin 1. 2, c. 74-. 

AMPHI'SMILA {Anal.) iu.^urt/yi'>.x, from iu'ip), on both sides, 
and (T/iiXi), a knife ; a dissecting knife with an edge on 
both sides. Galen apud Castcll. 

AMPHI'SCIEX cochalrice (Her.) vide Basilid: 

AMPHI'T.AXE {Chcm.) Tincal. 

AMPHI'TAP.'E (Ant.) garments having hair on both sides, 
on which persons slept. 
Lucill. I. 1. 

Piilir, atqiie amphitnpx, villis ingentibus molles. Aitr. et Argent. Leg.; Llesychius ; Nan. 1. 14-, 
c. 24.; C(cl. Rhodig. Aidiq. Led. 1. 16, c. 2 ; 
Rr Vest. 1. 2, c. 1, &c. 

AMPHITHA'LAIMUS (Ant.) from ajM-?-;, on both sides, and 
(a>.a.f".<i, the marriage bed ; the maid's room on both sides 
that of her mistress's. Vitruv. 1. 6, c. 10. 

AMPHITHE'ATUE (Ant.) Amphithea- 
triini, ctiJk<piiiuTfov, from ccu'ip'i, on both 
sides, and CiaTf«, i. e. a theatre on 
both sides ; a circular building so con- 
structed as to appear to be composed 
of two theatres, or one entire tlieatre 
all round ; 
(hid. Met. 1. 11, V. 25. 

striicto utrimque thcutro 

Ct'it ituitutind cervus periturits arena. 

The form of which was either round or oval, as in 
the annexed figure, which represents an amphitheatre 
adorned with colunnis, and, in the interior, the emperor 
sitting in the midst of the spectators ; in the area a bull, 
and a man seated on an elephant engaged in battle ; on 
the left an obelisk; and on the right a colossal statue; 
the inscription MUNIFICENTIA (JORDIANi AUGusli. 
The principal parts of the amphitheatre were the — Arena, 
or place where the gladiators fought. — Cavea, or hol- 
low part wliere the lieasts were kept — Pndiitm, or pro- 
jection at the top of the wall, which surrounded the 
arena, and was assigned to the senators, &:c. for their 
use — Gradiis, or benches rising all round above the 
J'odium — Aditits, or entrances ; and the — Vomitoricc, 
or gates which terminated the .\ditus. Vitruv. 1. 5, 
c. 7 ; Liv. 1. 41, c. 31 ; Senec. de Ira, 1. 2, c. 12 ; Plin. 
1. ?,(i, c. 15 ; Siieton. in Cal. c. 30 ; Dio. 1. 61 ; Tertull. 
de Spectac. c. 12; Vopisc. in Prob. c. 19; Trcb. Poll, in 
(iallicn, c. 12; Cassidor. far. 1.5, c. 4 ; Isidor. Grig. 
I. IH, c. 52 ; Lips, de Amphithcat. c. 8 ; Panciroll. De- 
script. Urb.apud Grccx'. Thcs. Rom. Antir/. torn. Vu. p. 322. 
AMPIIITIU'TE (Con.) a genus of animals of the Class 
Vertnes, Order Mollusca. 
Generic Character. Body annulate. — Peduncles small. — 

Feelers two. — Eyes none. 
Species. The principal species arc the — Amphitrile in- 
fiindibidum, found near King's-bridgc, in Devonshire. 
— Amphitrite convolntns, found on the southern coast of 
Devonshire. — Amphitrite ventilabrum, found on difterent 


parts of the English coast.— Amphitrite rosea, having 
the feelers beautifully spotted with cxia^on.'— Amphitrite 
campanulata, &c. 

AMPHODO'NTA (Zn.) i,/,?*J\>.T«, from iu.f,, on both 
sides, and I'ia;, a toolli ; animals having teeth in both jaws. 
End. Lex. Hippocrat. ; Foes. CEconom. Hippocrut. 

A'MPHOU.A. (.Int.) c:u,ipcfi'ji, per Sync, pro aiii^Kpofsu?, from 
ccu-<pi, on both tides, and ipsfw, to bear, because it has two 
handles for holding by ; a vessel and liquid measure, 
among the ancients, containing above 
seven gallons. The Amphora is repre- 
sented on the coins of Athens, and is 
supposed to be symbolical of this city, 
A\hcre earthen-ware was first made, as | 
in the annexed figure, which represents 
Jnpiter Fulgiirator, i. e. the darter of 
lightning; the inscription A0E, i. e. 
Aifivinu,, Athcniensium. Cato de Re 
Rust. c. 1 14 ; Cic. in Verr. 2, c. 74 ; Colum. 1. 12, c. 28 ; 
Pat. de Rom. Pond. S^c. apud Grecv. Thes. Antiq. Rom. 
vol. ii. p. 1627 ; Beger. Thes. Brandenburgh. 

Amphora (Com.) the largest measure used at \'enicc, 
equal to four English gallons. 

AMPHORA'ICUM (Ant.) the name for the wine whieh 
was kept in the amphora. 

AMPHORA'HIUS (Ant.) from a/*p.p«, a tankard bearer. 

AMPIIOIU'TES {Aiil.) a sort of literary contest in the 
island of /Egina, where an ox was the reward bestowed 
upon the poet, who made the best dithyrambic verses in 
honour of Bacchus. 

AMPLEXA'TIO (Alchem.) a term among the alchymists 
for a matrimonial union between their mercury called the 
white female, and gold, called the red husband. 

AMPLEXICA'ULE (Bot.) stem-clasping ; an epithet for a 

AMPLL\'TION (T.axo) ampliatio, a deferring of judgment 
till the cause is further examined. In this case the judges 
pronounced the word ampliiis, or by writing the letters 
N. L. for non liquet, signifying that the cause was not 
clear. Mnnut. ad Cic. in Verr. 1, c. 29; Sigon. de Jud. 
1. 2, c. 22; Turneb. Adv. 1. 1, c. 3 ; Pallet.. For. Rom. 
1. 4, c. 15. 

AMPLl.V'TIO (Com.) tlie duplicate of a receipt account, 
and the like. " To sign a copy by ampliation" is to sign a 
duplicate of it. 

AMPLIITCVTION (Rhet.) amplifcatio, a figure of speech 
which consists of enlarging on an argument so ns to make 
it appear eitlier better or worse in the minds of the audi- 
ence, and thus excite their a])probation, or the contrary 
emotion towards the subject of discourse ; it is called by 
the (Jreeks auV-o-i!. Aristot. Rhet. 1. 2, c. 26 ; Cic. Orat. 
1.3, c. 27; (luiiilil. Listit. 1. 3, c. 7 ; Sulpic. Vict. Iiistit. 
Rhet. p. 249. 

A'.MPLITUDE (.4st.) amplitudo, an arc of the horizon in- 
tercepted betv.ten its east and west points, and the centre 
of the sun or stars at their rising and setting. Amplitude is 
called urtive, or Eastern, when the star is rising, and orci- 
dnous, or Western, when it is setting. 
Eacli of these amplitudes is likewise 
termed Northern or Southern, as the 
l)oint of rising or setting is in the 
northern or southern hemisphere ; thus 
let II R be the horizon, A (i the Equi- 
noctial, O the true East or AVest point 
of the horizon, S the centre of the sun or star at its rising 
or setting, then the arc () S is the amplitude. — Complements 
of the Aniplilude, vide Azimuth. 

.\mi'litude, Magnrtical (Mar.) an arc of the horizon be- 
tween the sun or star at its rising, and the magnetic East 
or West point indicated by the compass. 


Amplitude, complement of ihe (Gun.) the range of shot, 
or the liorizontal riglit line drawn from the mouth of the 
cannon to the spot where the shot finally rests. 

AMPLU'STUIA [Ant.) ornaments for ships. [\\<}ie Aphistria] 

AMPO'TIS (Med.) u.fA,7!urii, from i^aTivs', to regurgitate ; 
the recess of the humours from the circumference of the 
bod}' to the internal parts. 

AMPU'LL.'i. [Ant.) a flagon for oil, or a jug for beer, which 
was set on the table. It was sometimes made of glass, as 
Mart. 1. 6, epig. 28, v. 3. 

At tu multn diu dicis, vilreisque tepentem 
Amptdlis potus semisupimii a'fuim. 

Sometimes of skins, as 

Phut. Rud. act 3, seen. 4-, v. 51. 

A'(5( erit tarn sincerui 
Optimum ftisfi operefi 

The form of the ampulla is as in the annexed 

figure. Cic. de Fin. I. 14, c. 12; Apul. Flor. 

I. 2; Plin. Epist. 1. 4, ep. .'iO ; Suet, in Domit. 

c. 21 ; Stuck. Antiq. Conviv. 1. 2, c. 25 ; Fabric. 

Descript. Urb. Rom. c. 18. 
Ampulla (Chem.) any vessel having a belly, as cucurbits, 

holt-heads, receivers, &c. 
A.mpull.\ (Aunt.) the first appearance of the heart, liver, 

<S:c. in a foetus after conception. Ilildaiius. 
Ampulla (Dot.) the bladder; a round, hollow, closed body 

that is found at the roots of some plants, as in the sub- 

, ut tjuiiis dicit (impuUariiis 
uuudo ciirium, et siiicerissimi 

,^,^.i^,^^^^ ^ 


joined figure, which represents the root of the Utricularia 

AMPULLA'SCEXS alvus (Anat.) the most tumid part of 

Pecquet's duct. 
AMPUTA'TION (Surg.) from am and ptdo, i. e. sciiido, to 

cut; the cutting olf a limb, which operation is described 

by Celsus, 1. 7, c. 23, &c. 
Amputation is also used, by C;clius Aurelianus, to signify 

deprivation of speech, and, in regard to the nerves, to take 

away the strength. Cal. Aurel. de Acut, Morb. 1. 2, c. 6 ; 

Chronic. 1. 4, c. 7. 
AMPUTATU'Il.\ (Med.) a wound from amputation. 
AMSE'GETES (Ant.) those whose lands lay against the 

high road. Fest. de J'erb. Signif. 
AMU'CTICA (Med.) af^vKnicoe, from ««,t;W«, to vellicate ; 

medicines serving to vellicate the bronchia, and produce 

coutjhing. Cipl. Aurel. Chron. I. 2, c. G. 
AMVE'TTI (Bot.) an Indian tree. 
AMULE'TUM (Ant.) Amunetum, from afbmu, to keep off; 

Amulet, the name of a particular form of words or of me- 
dicines, which, tied about the neck, were supposed to 

expel disease. Le Clerc Hint, de la Meelic. 
AMU'RC.A. (Sat.) the Mother of the lees of the pressed 

olive, which is of use for hydropical persons. It is called 

bv Dioscorides UfA<jfr.r,. Cat. de Re Rust. c. 100; Dioscor. 

l.'l, c. 138; Plin. 1. 15, c. 11; Columel. 1. 2, c. 20; Ori- 

bos. Med. Coll. 1. 14, c. 1 ; Act Tetrab. 1, serm. 1 ; Paul. 

jEginet. de Re Med. 1. 7, c. 3. 
AMU'SSIS (Ant.) or Amussium, a Carpenter's Rule. 
A'MY (Lau-) from the French «mi; the friend or guardian 

to whom an infant is entrusted : prochain amy, the next 

friend ; alien amy, a foreigner subject to some prince who 

i son friendly terras. 


A'MYCHE (Med.) iiJiiv^n, from aju-wro-a, to scratch ; a su- 
perficial exulceration or scarification, according to Hip- 
AMYE'TICA [Med.) stimulating and vellicating medicines. 

Cal. Aurel. de Acut. Morb. 1. 2, c. 6. 
AINIY'GDALA (Bot.) It^xiy^kxii, so called because it has 
many furrows ; the almond or fruit of the almniid tree. 
The sweet and esculent almond is much inferior in virtue 
to the bitter, which, among other medicinal qualities, atte- 
nuates and provokes urine. Tbeophrnd. Hint. Plant. I. 2, 
c. 1 ; Dioscor. 1. 1, c. 176 ; Plin. 1. 15 ; Paid. .E.triiict. 1. 7, 
c. 12. 
A^l\'GD AL.'E Jiiucium (.-Inat.) the almonds or kernels of 

the throat, otherwise called Tonsilhv. 
A!MYGDAL.4'TUM (Med.) an am3'gdalate or emulsion of 

AIMYGDA'LEA (Ant.) the same as Ami/gdale. 
AMYGDALI'NUMo/ram (P/,ar.) oil of' almonds. 
AMY'GD.\LIS si»»7/s (Bot.) the Tlieobromn of L'mnxus. 
AMYGDALITES (Bot.) a herb of the spurge kind, having 

the leaf of the almond. Plin. 1. 26, c. 8. 
AMYGDALA'D (Min.) the Amygdalites vulgaris of Lin- 
AMYGDALO'IDES (Bot.) the Euphorbia pulustris of Un- 

AMYGDALOPE'RZICUM [Bot.) the Almond Peach. 
AMYGDA'LUM (Bot.) «/*t/yJicAo», the fruit of the Aniyg- 

AMY'GDALUS (Bot.) Amygdala, aubv'/^xx~„. Almond-tree ; 
a tree so called, from awmnru, to tear with the nails ; be- 
cause the stone of the fruit is furrowed as if torn with the 
nails, [vide Amygdala'] 
Amygdalus, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants. 
Class 12 Icosandria, Order 1 Moiiogynia. 
Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved, tubulous; 
divisions spreading. — Cor. of five petals, oblong-ovate. — 
Stam. Jilaments shorter by half than the corolla ; anthers 
simple. — Pist. germ roundish : style simple ; stigma 
headed. — Per. a drupe roundish, villose ; seed a nut 
ovate compressed. 
Species. The principal species are the — Ami/gdalus Per- 
sica, the Peach orXectiirineTree. — Am ygdalns communis, 
the common Almond Tree. — Amygdalus nana, Conmion 
Dwarf Almond. — Amygdalus pumila, Double-flowered 
Dwarf Almond. 
Amygdalus is also the name of the Brabeium stellidi-Jblium, 
and the Catappa terminalis of Linnaeus. Rail Hist. Plant. 
AMYGDALY'TES (Min.) almond-stone, a genus of earths 
of the aggregate order. 

Generic Character. The amygdalytes consists of various 
elliptical stones imbedded together, so as form an ir- 
regular mass. 
Species. The species of this genus may be divided into 
those which have a talcose base, those with a calcareous 
base, those with an argillaceous base, and those with a 
siliceous base. 
A'MYLA (Chem.) any sort of chemical feecula. Casiell. 

Lex Med. 
A'MYLON ^A'(3/.) or Amylum, au,uMr, from «, priv. and jw-i'^i;, 
a mill ; because it is made without a mill ; starch, or the 
faecula of wheat, which is good for rheum in the eyes. 
Dioscor. 1. 2, c. 123; Plin. 1. 18, c. 7; Oriba.s. Med. Coll. 
L 1, c. 17; Act. Tetrab. 1, serm. 1 ; P. Aigin. de Re Med. 
1. 1, c. 78 ; Myrep. de Antid. 1. 1, c. 425. 
A'MYON (Anat.) an epithet for a limb so emaciated as for 

the muscles to disappear. 
A'MYRIS (Bot.) 'cifii,v(i(, a genus of plants, Class 8 Octan- 
dria, Order 1 Monogynia. 

Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — Cor. pe- 
tals spreading.— SiAM. Jilaments awlshaped ; anthers 


oblong. — PiST. germ superior; style tliickisli ; stigma 

four-cornered. — Per. Afjry roumlisn ; sect/ nut round. 

Species. The species are mostly shrubs, as the — Anii/ris 

Gilcadcnsis, the Balsam of Gilead-tree. — Anit/ris elcnii- 

Jern, Gum Elemi-tree. — Ami^ris opubalsamum, Opobiilsa- 

mum, i>fc.. Balsam of Mecca tree. — Amyris balsamifera, 

Sweet Amyris, White Candle-wood or liose-wood. — 

Aiiiyris toxifcra. Toxicodendron, &;c. Poison-ash, &c. 

Raii I list. J'lnnl.; Pliik. Almiig. 

A'N.\ (iVed.) a.>u, a term in prescriptions for each, which 

is connnonly written A or A A. 
Ana (Com.) an Indian coin equal to a shilling and \l of a 

A\ABA'rTI.ST.S (Ecc.) an heretical sect who admit none 
to tlie ordinance of baptism but such as can give an 
account of their faith. They are called Anabaptists, that 
is " Kebaptizers," from U>aiin7iTi^!i, to baptize again, 
because they rebaptize all before they join their commu- 
nity, that have already received baptism. Geneb. in Cle- 
mens. \ni ; Prulcol. Docirin. IJeerel Omn.\ Sander, de 
Origin et Progress Scliismat. Anglican. ; Spondan. Contiii. 
Baron. .Innal. Ann. 15'i2. 
AXABA'SII (.Int.) expeditious couriers or messengers men- 
tioned by St. Jerora. Adver. Ruffin. 
AN'A'BA.SIS (Ant.) avalixin^, from i»«/3«i'4i, to ascend ; the 
title of Xcnophon's description of the younger Cyrus' 
expedition against his brother. 
AsABA.sis (Med.) an increase of fever in general. 

Morb. Temp. c. 2; Gorr. Defin. JMed. (Bid.) a plant mentioned by Pliny, which was 
otherwise called ei/uiseliim, or Horse-hair. /■"//.'(. 1. 26, c. 7. 
Anabasis, in the Linnean sj/stem, a genus of plants. Class 5 
Pentandria, Order 2 Digi/nia. 

Generic Character. Cal. perianth three-leaved leaflets, 
roundish — Con. five-petalled. — StA}:I. filaments filiform ; 
anthers roundish. — Pist. germ roundish ; styles acumi- 
nate ; stigmas obtuse. — Pek. beriij roundish ; seed single. 
Species. The species are — Anabasis aphylla, Salsola bacci- 
Jcra seu Kali bacci/erum, Leafless Anabasis, a slnub, 
native of the South-cast of Europe — Anabasis foliosa, 
Sulsola clavifolia. Leafy Anabasis, an annual, native of 
the South-east of Europe — Anabasis tamariscijolia seu 
Kali Jrtdicosum, Tamarisk-leaved Anabasis, a shrub, 
native of .Spain — Anabasis spinosissima, seu Salsola echi- 
nus. Thorny Anabasis, a shrub, native of Ale\andria — 
Anabasis Crelacea, a perennial, native of Siberia. Linn. 
Spec. Plant. 
ANABA'TICA (Med.) «'«/8«7-ik«, a continued fever increas- 
ing in malignity. Gal. de Differ. Puis. 1. 2, c. 1 ; Gorr. 
Defin. Med. 
AXABA'THIIA (Ant.) irom k<iuliaiiiu,asccndo; 1. Stepping 
stones or blocks placed by the way side for mounting or 
dismounting. 2. Kanges of seats in the theatres. 3. A 
throne in the palace at Constantinople where the emperor 
used to sit. 
Juvcn. sat. 7, v. 4-f). 

El ijuif com/iirtii pendent anahatlmi llgillu. 

liergier. de riis. Milit. I. 4, sect. S9 ; Lips, ad Belg. 1. 2, 
ep. 48. 

AN.'VBIBA'ZOX [A^tron.) the dragon's head or Northern 
node of the moon. 

AN.V'BOLIC (Med.) from ii.>xi2x>,>,u, to cast up; throwing 
any thing oH'lhe stomach. 

AN.VliOLECS (Ant) .W5«^if', in the Latin strator ; an 
C(juerry or groom of the stnbles ; so called from his assist- 
ing liis master to mount his horse. Plutarch in Crass. ; 
Snidas ; Enstath. in Odi/ss. 1. 1, v. 1.55. 

ANABIlOCIirSiMOS (Med.) <i.«^'p,;^.tr(*i?, from ir«, up- 
wards, and /2fo;t»5> a cord ; an operation for fastening the 


hairs of the ej'elids wlien offensive to the eyes. Cels. de 
lie Med. 1. 7, c. 7 ; Gall. Comm. 4, i)t Hippocrat. de Rat. 
Vict. ; Paul Alginet. de Reeled. 1. G, c. l.'J ; Gorr. Defm. 
Med.; Foes. (J-lconom. Hippocrat. 

ANABRO'SIS (Med.) i.aA-fi-o-i?, from «»«3fiT>ce,', to con- 
sume ; a corrosion of the solid parts by acrid humours. 

ANA'BUL.\ (Znol.) a kind of beast in Ethiopia, having a 
head like a camel, a neck like a horse, legs like an ox, and 
reddish all over, with white spots. 

ANACALYPTE'RIA (Ant.) A'.a««Au'TTwi<',from i.««aPiwT6,, 
to unveil ; festivals among the Greeks on the third day 
after marriage, when the bride was allowed to take off her 
veil which she had hitherto always worn. The presents 
made at that time to the bride had also that name, and, ac- 
cording to Hesychius, the day was called atcixa>,u!ZTitfm. 
Jul. Pollux. 1. 3, segm. 36; llarpocration ; Hesychius; 
Suidas ; C(cl. Rhodig. Antiq. Led. 1. 1, c. 26. 

ANACA'MPSEROS (Rot.) Orpine, or Live Long ; a plant 
that grows to the height of a foot and more. It is of a 
detersive and vulnerary quality, fit for ruptures. The 
leaves of the anacampseros have a glutinous acidity, and 
give a strong red tincture to blue paper. Plin. 1. 24, 
c. 17; J. Bauli. Hist. Plant.; C. Bauh. Pin.; J. Tournef. 
Instit. ; Lcm. des Drogues. 

ANACA'MPTICS (Opt.) a species of optics, otherwise 
called catoptrics. 

ANACA'RDIOS antidolus Theodntus (Med.) a confect of 
warm ingredients, good for epilepsies and apoplexies. 
Mijrep. de Antidot. sect. 1, c. 219 ; Trallian, 1. 7, C. 10; 
Gorr. Def. Med. 

ANACA'RDINA confcetio (Med.) a confect of anacardiums. 

ANACA'RDIUM (Bot.) Cassa, Cajou, or Cashew tree, from 
«»«, upward, and nafS'lu, the heart; because the pulp of the 
fruit has a nut growing out at the end of it instead of its 
enclosing the seed. This is said to be hot, dry, and com- 
forting to the vitals. Paul. .'Eginet. de Re Med. 1. 7, c. 1 1 ; 
Gorr. Defin. Med. 

Anacaudium, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, 
Class 9 Enneandria, Order 1 Mnnogynia. 
Generic Characters. C ax., perianth five-leaved; leajlets 
ovate. — Con. petals five. — Utam. filaments ten; aytthers 
roundish. — Pist. germ kidney-shaped ; .<////c' subulate; 
stigma small — Pen. none ; receptacle fleshy ; seed a nut 
kidney shaped. 
Species. The only species are the Anacardium occidentalc, 
Pomifera seu potius Prumijera Indica, Acajou, Cassu- 
xiium, Caschnu seu Kapa-mava, Cashew Nut, Cassu or 
Acajou, a shrub, native of the Indies. Brown. Hist. 
Jamaic. ; Jacqu. Hist, Amcric. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 

AN.Ac.vnniUM, a name, a species of the Semicarpus and the 
Avicenna tomentosa of Linnaeus. ./. Bauhin. Hist. Plant. 
C. Bauhin. Pin.; Ger. Herbal ; Raii Hist. Plant. ; Plulc. 
Almag. Botan. 

Anacahdium orienlalc (Bot.) Malacca Bean Tree; a plant 
from whicli an oil like that of almonds is extracted, which 
is of medicinal virtue. Lcm. des Drag. 

ANACATII,\'RSiS (Med.) i.axzfafcn'?, from aVaxa^aipo^ai, 
to purge upwards ; a purgation of the lungs by expectora- 
tion. Gal. Com. in Hippocrat. 1. ,5, aphor. 8. 

ANACATIIA'RTICA (Med.) from umK«6ul(cfj,u,, to purge 
upwards ; a species of purgatives that promote exjiectora- 

ANACE'I.'V (Ant.) A''>«itei«, a festival in honour of Castor 
and Pollux, who were called Anaces, utaxii '» aVaxrs?, and 
their temple Anaceum, uyccKnot. Jul. Poll. 1. 1, c. 1 ; Pans. 
1. 10, c. ult. 

ANACEPHAL.'EO'SIS (Rhet.) <i»«xi?i«A«.W«„ from «' «, 
again, and KKptt^iccn; to rehearse; recapitulation, or sum- 
ming up of the heads of a discourse. This is called, in 


Latin, colhctio ; and Cicero also speaks of a species of 
recapitulation which he calls enumerntio. Cic. Brut. c. 88, 
et dc Inveii. 1. 1, c. 52; Qnintil. Inslit. 1. 0", c. 1 ; Hermog. 
T.,f\ S'livir, p. 26 ; Apsin. Art Rhet. Aid. Edit. p. 706. 

AXACHI'TES (iSIin.) the name of the gem adamas, or 
Adamant, which is so called because it serves as an anti- 
dote, and expels all vain fears from the mind. Plin. 1. 37, 
c. 4'. 

AXACHORE'TA (Ecc.) awx^F"?' f™"! ia/japsV, rcccdo, 
an anchoret ; a hermit, or one who secludes himself alto- 
gether from the society of man. The first monks were of 
this description, as St. Paul, the hermit, who, to avoid the 
persecution, fled into the desert, and passed his days in 
religious contemplation. This mode of life was frequently 
followed until the foundation of the monastery of the Ce- 
nobites. Hier. Vit. St. Paul. Eremit. Sic. ; AUatius de 
Consensu Ecd. Orient, et Occident.; Du Fin. BiLl. des Aut. 

ANACHRE'MPSIS (Med.) i>ccxf-'f^4"^, from «■«, up, and 
Xfiu,~rcujui, to hawk; a purgation of the lungs by means of 
hawking. It is otherwise called npnclirci.'ipsis. Gnl. in 
Hippncrat. 1. t, aphor. 4-7 ; Foes. (Econom. fFippocrat. 

AXA'CHllOXISM (Cliron) ajnichrnuismns, a»x-xf'""''l^''U 
from Xf'o^, time ; an error in time by placing an event 
earlier or later than it really happened. 

ANACINE'MATA (Ant.) u«a.Ki>y,u,a.Tu, gesticulations and 
motions used by the combatants before they entered the 
lists. Faes. (Econom. liippocrat. 

ANA'CLASIS (Anal.) the elevation of the arm so that the 
humerus with the arm should appear to be one bone. 
Hippocrat. de Fract. sect. 3 ; Foes. CEconom. Hippocrat. ; 
Gorr, Dejin. Med. 

Anacl.asis (R/iit.) A'>«xA«iri5, reflection ; a figure of speech 
which is understood by the auditor in a contrary sense to 
what was intended to be convened. Quintllian calls this 
" anianaclasis." Quint. I. 9, c. 3 ; Rutil. Lup. 1. 1, c. 5. 

ANACLA'.STICS (Phy-) from a.>a.K>,-^u, to refract; a species 
of optics which treats of the refraction of light. 

ANALLETE'RIA (Ant) A'lax^nri-fia, from uixxaxiu, to pro- 
claim ; festivals observed in all the regal states of Greece 
when their princes came of age to take the government 
upon themselves. Pdi/b. Hist. 1. 18, c. 38. 

ANACLIXO'FALE (Aut.) A-.«„A.;o!r«A;), wrestling and 
struggling while the combatants are on the ground ; a sort 
of combat to which Martial alludes. 
Mart.]. H, ep. 201. 

Xtm amo qui vhicit. sed qui succumhere novit 
Et ((it-it melius tS;» a»jz?.ivo)ra>.>i». 

ANACLrNTERIA (Ant.) i««;i<.7-,p,«, pillows among the 
Greeks, on which they rested their heads. This sort of 
pillow is called by Aristophanes i-rtxXitTi-.fuc. 

AN'A'CLISIS (Med.) aMsAKTic, the reclining of a sick per- 
son. Gnl. Com. 1, in Hippncrat. de Art,; Foes. CEconom. 
Hippocrat. ; Gorr. Dcjin. Med. 

ANACLI'SMOS (Med.) <i.:£=cA.o-,«,o;, that part of a chair on 
which the back of a sick person leans. Hippocrat. Tffi ufffm. 

ANACOLLE'MA (Med.) <i.«>'.oA>,«,a, from U^^y.rx>.tc^, to ag- 
glutinate; topics to prevent detluxions of hnniours upon 
the eyes. Gal. de Comp. JMed. Gen. 1.6, c. S; Paul. 
A'.ginet. I. 7, c. 16; Myreps. sect. 10, c. 3. 

ANACOLU'PPA (Bot.) an Indian plant, the juice of which 
is a preservative against the effects of the bite of the Cobra 
Capella. Rail Hist. Plant. 

ANACOLU'THON (Rhct.) iw-hnhv, inconsequentia, in- 
consequence ; in speech, when that which answers to the 
preceding is not expressed. 

ANACOMI'DE (Med.) i»«x(i,«.i^», a word frequently used by 
Hippocrates, to denote restoration of strength to a patient 
after an illness. Hippocrat. de Morb, 1. 2, &c.; Gorr. De/. 
Med.; Foes, CEconom, Hippocrat. 


ANACO'NDO (Zool.) the name of a large and terrible snake 
in the island of Ceylon, supposed to be the same as the 
Bon constrictor of LinnKus. 
ANACOUPHI'SMATA (Ant.) a sort of exercise or gesta- 
tion among the ancients, mentioned by Hippocrates, v.hieli 
consisted, according to INIadanie Dacier, in leaping. //(/;- 
pocrnt. ■nif't S'ixiTYic, 1.2. 
ANACO'STE (Com.) a sort of woollen diaper made in Flan- 
ders and Holland, after the manner of the serges of 
ANACREO'NTIC ro-.te (Gram.) a sort of verse so called 
after Anacreon, by whom it was first used. It consisted 
of three feet, generally spondees and iambics, sometimes 
ANA'CRISIS (Ant.) itKxfiiri?, examination of witnesses. 
ANACRO'SIS (Poet.) the name of a Parthian song, in 
which the combat of Apollo and the Pythian serpent is de- 
ANA'CTES (Hist.) the title assumed by the sons and Iiro- 
thers of the kings of Cyprus, who administered the go^ern- 
ment while the latter took their pleasure. Aristot. npiid 
ANACTO'RION (Bot.) the same a% Gladiolus. 
ANACY'CLUS (Bot.) from i/«)!i/)c;,»«, to encircle; a genus 
of plants. Class 19 Hi/ngenesia,Ox&&[2 Poli/gamia supeijiua. 
Generic Characters. Cal. common, scnles sharp. — Con. 
compound. — Stam. Jilaments five ; anther cylindric. — 
PisT. germ flatted; style filiform; stigmns in the flos- 
cules. — Per. none ; seed solitary ; receptacle chaffy ; 
chaffs obtuse. 
Species. The species are — Anacyclus Crclicus, Colula Cre- 
tica S(c. seu Santolinoides annua, S^-c. Trailing Anacyclus, 
an annual, native of Crete. — Anacyclus Vrientalis sen 
Chamccmclum Oricntale, Eastern Anacyclus, native of 
the East. — Anacyclus aureus, Channcmelum luteum seu 
aureuni', Sfc. seu Anihcmis chrysanthemum. Golden-flow- 
ered Anacyclus, an annual or perennial, native of the 
South or East of Europe. — Anacyclus valeutvnus, Chrij- 
santhemum vnlentimim, Buphthahnum lanuginosum, S;c. 
seu Chamicmi'lum tenuifulium. Fine-leaved Anac3'c!us, 
an annual, native of Valentine. — Anacyclus Ale.xandri- 
jtus, an annual, native of Egypt. J. Bautiin. Hist. Plant.; 
C. Bauhin. Pin. Tlicat. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
AXADE'MA (Ant.) i.-'a^y,f/ja, a kind of ornament worn by 
Grecian women about their heads. Jul. Pull. Onomast,. 
I. .5, c. 16, segm. 96. 
AXADEXDRO'MALACHE (Bot.) the same as Althcen. 
AXADE'XDROX (Bot.) the »ame as Althaea. 
AXADE'SMA (Med.) a bandage for wounds. 
AXADIPLO'SIS (Med.) A»«Jl^"A«(r:5, a reduplication of the 
paroxysm of a semitertian fever. Gal. de Typis, c. 4 ; 
Trallian. 1. 12, c. 2 ; Gorr. Defin. Med. 
AX.ADIPLO'SIS (Rhet.) a repetition at the commencement 
of a verse of the last word in the preceding ; as, 
Virg. eel. 8, v. 55. 

Sit Tityriis Orp/uus, 

Orpheus in Syh-is ~^—^ 

or of any word by way of emphasis, as in Cicero's orations, 
" Die, die plnnius." This is called 'fraiaM-^ii by Alexan- 
der, in his book, sripi <r;e>s/*="'<"'. Deniet. de Elocut. ; Cic. 
in I'err. 3 ; Quintil, Jnstit. 1. 9, c. 3 ; Alexand. ursfi irx^.i^. 
apud. Aid. 582. 

ANA'DOSIS (Med.) ivaJoiri;, a distribution of aliment over 
the whole body. Gal. in Tim. Plat. c. 16. 

AX^ADRO'ME (Med.) Um}ff>iJ,n, a recess of pains from the 
inferior to the superior part of the body. Hippoirat. de 
Pradict. &;c. ; Foes. CEconom. Hippocrat. 

ANADRO'MOS (Nat.) an epithet tor fish which at certaia 
seasons ascend from the sea into the rivers. Trallian^ 
1. 1, c. 15. 


ANADYO'.MENE (Ant.) a paiiUing, by Apelles, of Venus 
coming out of the sea, and wringing lier wet hair, which 
Augustus bought of the Coans, and placed in the temple 
of Julius Cxsar. It was a little defaced in one place, but 
no painter could be found at Rome to repair the damage. 
AN.^STrlE'SIA (Med.) i>a.<r«-!cri'K, from «, priv. and ^.o-e^o-i?, 
sensatio!) ; an insensibility to the touch, the consequence 
of disease, particularly the palsy, jirct. de Sign, el Cans. 
Chron. 1. 1, c. 7. 
ANAGALLIDA'STRUM (Dot) the Centuncidus minimus 

of Linnaeus. 
ANAGA'LLIS (Bot.) kmyaMk, a plant so called, ■i'r» ■'i 
uixy^yii , i, e. from its reviving the spirits. It was reck- 
oned a lenitive that was very efficacious in curing inflam- 
mations. Dinscor. 1. 2, c. i!09 ; Plin. 1.25, c. 13; G(d. 
de Simpl. 1. 6; Orihas. Med. Coll. I. U ; Act. Tetrub. 1, 
serm. 1 ; Paid. yEginet. de Re Med. 1. 7, c. 3; Marcetlin. 
de-Mcd. c. 1., in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, Class 
.•j PeiUaiidria, Order 1 Monogynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth five-parted ; divisions 
keeled. — Coit. wheel-.shaped ; border five-parted ; divi- 
sions ovate. — Sr AM. Jilaments erect; anthers simple. — 
PisT. germ globose ; style filiform ; stigma capitate.- — 
Per. capsule globose ; seeds very many ; receptacle globose. 
Species. The species are either annuals, as the Anagallis 
arvensis. Common Pimpernel.— /i^inn^aZ/is lalifidia, I5road- 
Icaved Pimpernel ; or perennials, as — Anagallis monclli, 
Upright Piin[)ernel. — Anagallis tenella. Bog- Pimpernel, 
Loose-Sirife, or Money-Wort, &c. ./. Bauhin. Hist. 
Plant.; C. Bauhin. Pin. Tlieat. ; Ger. Herb.; Park. 
Tiicat. Botan. ; Jlaii Hist. Plant. ; Tonrn. Inst. Herb.; 
Dill. Plant. Cat. Giss.; Boerh. Ind. Plant.; Linn. Spec. 
Anaoali-is is also a name for the Ccntunculus minimus evol- 
vnlus et absinoides ; the Lysimachia nemorum and nummu- 
laria, and the Veronica Anagallis of Linnaeus. Rail, 
Tourn. S)-c. — Anagallis ai/ualica, the Veronica Betabnnga 
and Veronica Anagallis, the Montiafuntana, Pepis portula, 
and Samolus erandi of Linnxus, Bauh. Ger. Rail, Sfc. — 
Aiuigallis carulea, the Gratiola monnicra of Linnaeus. 
ANA(JAI{(JALrCTA (Med.) 'Atia.yxfya.XMTa, Gargarisms, 
with which the liiuces are washed. Hippocrat. de AJfect.; 
Gorr. Dcfin. Med. ; Pocs. (Econom. Hippocrat. 
ANACiLV'PIIA (Ant.) U'uyXvipcc, from Ut'a and yA:^(l>a, to 
carve out ; vessels or plate, in asperitatcm excisa, chased, 
embossed, or wrought with the hammer, not engraved. 
Plin. 1. 33, c. II ; or opera signi, as Virgil calls them. 
.En. I. .-), V. '267. 
AsAfJLVi'iiA is also the art of embossing. 
Anaoi.yi'iia (Anat.) the same as Calamus scriptoriws. 
ANAGNO^S'l'E.S (.-Int.) civecy/u^ni;, a reader, or a person in 
families of distinction, whose office it was to read at their 
meals. Cic. ad Attic. 1. 1, ep. 12, ivrc. ; Fam. 1. 5, C)). 9. 
ANAGO'GE [liibl.) «'>«-/"'<■«, the mystical interpretation of 
Scripture ; one of the four ordinary modes of interpreta- 
tion, in distinction from the literal, allegorical, and tropo- 
Anaoo(;e (Anat.) an efflux of the blood from the inferior 
parts of the body, as from the breast, &c. according to 
Arctaus; hut, as (iorricus thinks, Hippocrates takes it, in 
his aphorisms, for an expulsion of the blood from the 
lungs. A ret. de Cans, et Sign. Acut. JSIorb, I. 2, c. 2; Gorr. 
Hcjin. Med. 
ANA(;0'(ilA (Ant.) ' AinyuyU, an annual festival in Sicily, 
celebrated by the Inhabilaiits of Mount Eryx in honour of 
Venus, who was said to retire witli all the doves from her 
usual abode. Ilur return nine days after with the doves 
was celebrated by another festival, entitled xaxayaiv'" 


Catagogia. XU Var. Hist. 1. 1, c 13; Hist. An. 1. 4 
.ANAGO'GIC.\L (Bibl.) or mystical, an epithet applied to 

a mode of interpreting Scripture, [vide Anagoge^ 
A'NAGR.VM (Ant.) ci>t:typ'xt/,//.u, anagramma ; the change 
of one word into another by the transposition of its letters, 
as Amor into Roma. As also of several words, as from 
the question of Pilate to our .Saviour, (iiiid est Veritas is 
made the appropriate answer Est vir (jui adest. 
ANAGRA'PIIE (.Int.) d^ay^x^,., from «'.«v?'i4>^, describe; 

an inventory or commentary. 
A'N.\GUOS (Com^ a measure for grain at Seville, equal 

to about 10^ quarters English measure. 
AN.\GY'RIS (Bot.) Utd'/fft',, or a'»av"f°?, a plant, resembling 
the vine in leaf and branch, which has a very fcctid odour, 
whence the proverb xi»tis rm diciyvfot, Anagyrum moves, for 
one who brings himself into trouble. The juice of the root 
is diaphoretic and digestive : the seed is taken as an emetic. 
Diosc. 1. .5, c. 147 ; Plin. I. 27, c. 4; Suidas.; Oribas. Med. 
Coll. 1. 1 1 ; Paul. .T.ginet. 1. 7, c. 3. 
Anaoyius, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, Class 
10 Decandria, Order 1 Monogynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth bell-shaped ; month 
five-toothed. — Cor. papilianaceous ; standard obcor- 
date ; Kings ovate oblong; heel straight. — SrAM.Jila- 
menls parallel; anthers simple. — Pist. germ olilong ; 
st!jle sin)ple ; stigma villose. — Per. legume oblong ; seeds 
six or more. 
Species. The species are the — Anagyris Jcetida, Stinking 
l?can-Trefoil, a shrub, native of Italy. — /Inagyris Cre- 
tica, a shrub, native of Candia. — Anagyris inodora, a 
shrub, native of Cochin China. ./. Bauhin. Hist. Plant.; 
C. Bauhin. Pin. Theat. ; Ger. Herb. ; Park. Theat. 
Botan.; Raii Hist. Plant. ; Tourn. Inst. Herb.; Boerh. 
Ind. Plant. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
Anagyri.s non Jcetida (^Bot.) the Cytisus laburnum of Lin- 
naeus. Bauh. Hisi. Plant. 
A'XAL///i (/('/'•) the fin placed between the vent and tail, 

which exjiands perpendicularly. 
ANA'LCIME (Min.) a species of Zeolite. 
AXALE'CTA (Ant.) iitu.Xkr.rct., collectanea, from dtctXif^yjxi, 
to gather, or collect ; fragments or crumbs falling from the 
table, which were picked up, and not swept away, as the 
pavements of the Roman floors were too hnely inlaid to 
admit of sweeping. 
Marl. 1. 7, ep. 20, v. 16. 

Colligere lintga tm'pe 7iec putut de.Ttrd 
Anatecta, quicijiiid el canes reliquerunt. 

Rhodig. Antiq. Led. 1. 13, c. 31 ; Turneb. Adver. 1. 2t, 
c. 33 ; Ursin. Append, ad Ciacon. Triclin. ; Alex. Gen. 
Dier. 1. 4, c. 21. 

Analecta (Lit.) a name of modern invention for collec- 
tions out of authors. 

ANALE'CT.E (.Int.) aVi t« xvxxiyta-Sxi, a colligcndo, I. e. 
from collecting ; slaves among tlie Romans, who picked 
up the crumbs that fell after meals, [vide Analecta'] 

ANALECTl'DES (Ant.) «Vi iS d^c.xiyi<r6x', a colligendo, i.e. 
from collecting ; stuffed cushions to lay on the shoulders, 
in order to luake a crooked body straight. 

AN.VLE'MM A (Ant.) «viA.i(«,j«,a, from a'i«/«/*/3a»w, to resume ; 
a planispliere, or projection of the sphere, on the plane of 
the meridian. 

AN.YLE'NTIA (Med.) a species of Epilepsy, proceeding 
from affections of the stomach. Paracel. General. Caduc. 
tab. f) ; .Mann. Anglic. /?o,?. Anglic, de Epilcp. 

ANALE'PSIA (Med.) vide Analentia. 

ANALE'PSIS (Med.) «'>«All^J"5, from a''a>i«^/3a>w, to recover. 
i. The regaining of strength. 2. The suspension of any 
member, as of the arm when hung in a sling. Gal. Comm. 


2, in Hippocrat. de Med. Offic. ; Gorr. Def. Med. ; Foes. 
(Econnni. Hippocrat. 

ANALETTICS (Med.) d'^XK^Ttr-x, from ar«A««.3«.»., to re- 
store ; a species of restoratives which serve to repair the 
strengtli, and to raise the depressed spirits. Gal. de Satii- 
tat. iiicnd. 1. 1, &c. 

ANA'LOGY (Log.) aiaXoyix, from cl>i, equally, and Aiyog, 
called by Quintilian ratio, seu proporlio, by Aulus Gellius 
Convenicntia, seu Ratio propi>rtionis, the relation which 
things bear, or are suppobcd to bear, to one another, from 
their resemblance or proportion to one another, as in re- 
gard to words that bear an analogy to each other in de- 
clension, conjugation, &c. ; as if the nominative be mains 
dolus, the oblique cases be jh«// and doli, mnlo and dolo ; 
but, if in the nominative, they are alike, and in the ob- 
lique cases different, then it is not Analogy, but Anomalij, 
as lupus and lepus, which, in the oblique cases make lupi 
and leporis. Cic. ad Atlic. 1. 6, ep. 2 ; Varr. de Lnt. Lin. 
1. 9; lluiut. Instit. 1. 1, c. 4-. 

Analogy (Math.) the comparison or proportion of numbers 
or magnitudes one to another, thus, as -i is to 2, so is 8 to -i-. 

AXA'LOGLSM (Log.) i.^;,.'/--^""?, from i^'a^cy^u, Ratioci- 
nation, or investigation of things by the analogy they bear 
to one another, as the judging of diseases, by the likeness 
of their appearance, or of their causes. 

AXA'LOGOUS Term (Log.) Vox ana!nga,se\i Analogicum ; 
a term apjjlied to two different objects, from some certain 
analogy or resemblance which thej' bear to one another, 
as, in speaking of pictures, they may be called the King, 
Queen, Ac. meaning the picture of the King. Such words 
are in Rhetoric said to be metaphorical. 

ANA'LYSIS (Log.) kiu>-JTic, resolutio, from avaXiii^', to re- 
solve ; the unfolding any matter, so as to discover its com- 
position, as when one proceeds from universals to particu- 
lars, by the help of certain media or premises, in distinc- 
tion from the Synthesis or composition adopted in Gram- 
mar, which proceeds from particulars, as letters, syllables, 
&c. up to generals, which are sentences : whence the 
logical treatise of Aristotle is termed Annlytica. 

Analysis (Math.) the resolution of problems, which is of 
two kinds, Ancient and .Modern. — Ancient Analj/sis is the 
proceeding from the thing souglit, as taken for granted, 
through all its consequences, to something really known, 
which is opposed to the .Synthesis, or composition, which 
takes for granted that which is found in the last step of the 
analysis ; and, proceeding by a backward course of deduc- 
tion, arrives at what was taken for granted, or the first step 
of the Analysis. Euclid's Data afford the best examples of 
the Ancient Analysis. — Modem .Inalysis is the resolution 
of problems by reducing them to equations by the help of 
symbolical characters. This is divided, with respect to 
its object, into — Analysis of Finites, which is otherwise 
called Algebra. — Analysis of Infinites, of which fluxions 
and the differential calculus form the principal parts. — 
Analysis of Powers, which is the same as Evolution. — 
Analysis of Curve lines, which shows their constitution, 
properties, &c. 

Analy'sis (Chem.) the decomposition of bodies, as vege- 
tables, minerals, &c. so as to discover their component 
part?, which is effected either by fire, as in general cases, 
or by menstrua, as in the case of bodies compounded of 
several substances, which may be soluble in spirits of wine, 
water, and the like. 

Analysis (.Inat.) the dissection of the human body, which 
is so called in lieu of the more familar term anatomy. 

A'NALYST (Math.) one who adopts the Analytical method ; 
also the title of a treatise, by Bishop Berkeley, on the doc- 
trine of Fluxions. 

AXALY'TICS (Log.) U^^^^vtikci, the books of Aristotle for 
the resolving of arguments, [vide Analysis^ 

\. \ / 






AXA-M.\'LLA (So/.) a species of Brasilian-tree, from the 
leaves of which a decoction may be made. 

AN.AMNE'SIS (Wiet.) a'u/jt,>r,a-tc, an enumeration of the 
things treated of, before which is a sort of recapitulation. 
Aristot. 1, ;j, c. 19. 

AN.YMNE'STICA (^led.) from «'.«/Aya«L<,ai, to remind; me- 
dicines to improve the memory. — Anamneslica Signa, com- 
memorative signs which discover the preceding state of 
the body 

AXAMORPHO'SIS (Per.) the reprcsen- Fig.l. 

tation of some image, either on a plane D c 

or a curve surface, deformed or distorted ; 
but which, in another point of view, 
shall appear regular, and drawn in just 
proportion. Thus, suppose the square 
A B C D to be drawn, divided into a 
number of small squares or areolas, as 
in the annexed diagram, ^fig. 1, within 
w hich may be drawn the image to be A 
distorted. This is called the era- Fig. 2, 

ticular prototype. Then to produce o- E 

an anamorphosis let a b, as in //V. 2, " 
be drawn etpial to A B, and divided 
into the same number of equal parts 
as the prototype A B, and erect at 
the middle point E, the perpendi- 
cular E V, as also V S, perpendicu- 
lar to E V making E b, so much 
longer and V S so much shorter, as 
it is intended that the image shall be 
so much the more distorted. From 
each of the points of division draw ; • \ 

right lines to the point V, also the \ / 

right line (7 S, and, lastly, through the 
points c, e, f, g, &C. parallel lines to 
a b, then will abed be the space 
called the craticular ectype, in which -, / 

the monstrous projection is to be \ \ 

drawn. V S 

AN'A'\.\S (Bot.) a plant called the Brazil Y'ayanna or Pine 
apple ; the fruit of which is reckoned astringent. This 
plant is classed by Linnaeus under the Bromelia. 

AN.VNC.^'ON (Rliet.) x'tt-yKciin-, necessarium ; a figure in 
rhetoric by which only necessary things are expressed to 
the rejection of all ornaments ; it is properly the dry style 
as opposed to the to zn.T-rov, the ' Flowery stj'le.' Aristot. 
Rhet. 1.3, c. 13; Dionys. Jud. Thucyd. c.22; Cic. de Orat. 
c. 21 ; Pint, in Cat. ; Quintil. In.$tit. 1. 9, c. 3 ; Rutil. 
Lup. 1. 1, c. 20; Lip. Prologem. ad Demoslh. Aristid. 
zoK >»-/. Aid. p. 65S. 

ANANCIII'TIS (Min.) a sort of gem by wliich the images 
or visions of the gods are said to be worked in hydromancy. 
P//«. I. 37, c. 11. 

ANA'NES (Mns.) a term for the modes and tones in the 
Greek church. 

ANA'NDRIA (Bot.) a species of the r^/s.s/Zffnfo of Linnseus. 

AXANTAPO'DOTON (Rhet.) «'>«.ra-<='<?»r»», a figure of 
speech in which some part, as the apodosis, for example, 
is understoood, «» i^^tn c-a:/./,3i) y, z-ufx, ' Sin conatus ille recte 
successerit,' sicilicet, ' bene est, which is the apodosis here 
understood. Schol. in Thiicid. 1. 3. 

AXA'PALIN (Med.) «vk3-scAi>, on the contrary side, op- 
posed to Cataxin, zar. ?.», on the same side ; applied fre- 
quently, by Hippocrates, to the transmutation and fluxes 
of the humours. Gorr. Def. Med. ; Foes. (Ecu:iom. Hip- 

ANAP.E'STUS (Gram.) «.«?«/,-<!;, Anapaest; a metrical foot, 
having the two first short and last long ("""), the con- 
trary of a Dactyle, as ^i?.i;A,ur. It is derived from dtxTcaU', 
to reverberate, because it reverberates the dactyle with 


its own sound. Quhitil. Jnstit. 1. 9, c. ■!■ ; Hccphest. En- 

chyrid.; Is'idA. 1, c. 16. 
AN'AP.^'STIC verse (Gram.) what consists mostly of Ana- 
ANAPHOXE'SIS (Med.) u.iH.(piim^ic„ a species of exercise 

stronfrly recommended bv the ancient physicians. 
AN'ATHORA (Gram) i-acp^fa, a figure in rhetoric when 

the same word is repeated at the beginning of every verse, 

or member of a sentence, as 

Virg. Edog. 1. 4-, V. 58. 

Pun eliam Areadiu meciim sijii^ice certet 
I'an eliam Arcadii dicat sejudice victtim. 

According to Demetrius it comprehends the Epanaphoranj 
the Asyndeton, and the Homoestuleuton. E/ocut. 
§ 14-1 ; HermogcH. ^ifi i'-ncr ; Lo?ig. de Sub. 1. 20, c. I. 
AxAPHoUA (A.Hroi!.) an ascension or rising of the twelve 
signs of the zodiac from the East to the West by the daily 
cour.^e of the heavens. Finnic. 
AXAPHKODI'tilA (Med.) 'ccm(Pei>l<rM, from «, priv. and 

cc^fiiio-io-,, r-'enereiis ; impoientia venerea. 
ANAPHRO'MELI (Med.) from «'•«, «W"5, froth, and ^.sAi, 
honey ; despuniated honey, which will no longer froth 
when boiled. 
ANA'PLASIS (,S«;-o;.) ««a»-A«(ri5, reformation; the replacing 

a fractured bone as it was before it was broken. 
ANAPLERO'SIS (Surg) "A.a2-A«f«(r.5, the restoring of de- 
ficiencies. Gal. de Dynam, lib. ascript. 
ANAPLERO'TICS (Surg.) from i««-T>i>!po'«, to fill up; a 
species of medicines which tend to encourage the growth 
of flesh in v.-ounds. Gal. dc Dynam. lib. ascript. 
ANAPLEU'SIS (Med.) u.d-Muirn,, the exfoliation or rotting 
away of the bones from a redundance of humours. Hip- 
pocrai. dc Fract. ^-c. ; Erot. Lex. Hippocrnl.; Paul. 
.Eginet. de Re Med. 1. 6, c. 107 ; Gorr. Def. Med. ; Fues. 
(Econom. Hippocrat. 
ANAPXEU'SIS (Med.) iif«T»ii/(ri?, from maxna, to respire; 
a respite from pain. Aret. de Cur. Acut. Morb. 1. 2, c. 1 ; 
Foes. (F.coiiom. Hippocrat. 
ANAPODOPIIY'LLUM (Dot.) the Podophyllum peltatum 

of Linnaeus. 
AX.-\'R.VPHE (Surg.) ayuffa(p>i, retraction of the upper 

eyelid wlien relaxed, ylct. Tetrab. 2, serm. 3, c. 69. 
ANA'RCIII (Ant.) U'CfZ'.; an epithet applied by the Athe- 
nians to the four supernumerary days in their year, in 
which they had no magistrates. 
A'NARCHY (I'olit.) •^^i-w», ubi nullus impcrat, i.e. the 
condition of a city, commonwealth, or state without a head 
or sovereign, as " In those days there was no king in 
Israel, but every man did that which was right in his own 
ANA'IIHICA.S (Ich.) Wolf fish; a genus of animals ; Class 
Pisce.'i, Order Apodal. 

Generic Characters. Head blunt. — Gill-membrane seven- 
rayed. — Body roundish. — Caudal Jin distinct. 
Species. The species are — Anarhicas lupus. Ravenous 
Wolf-fish. — .4narhicas minor. Lesser Wolf-fish. — Anar- 
hicas jianlhcrinus, Panther Wolf-fish. 
ANARRIIEGXr.MIA (.Vcd.) or Anarrhexis, from «>«, 
again, and f>:v>u«.i, to break ; a fresii fracture or opening 
of a wound. 
AXARRIU'XOX (Rot.) \k\c Antirrhinum. 
AXARRIKE'A (Med.) uruffoix, a fiux of Immours from 

the iiil'erior parts upwards. Castetl. Lex. Med. 
AXARUlKrPIA (Mc<t.) U<uffor,iu, from <i««, and fitu, to 
move or creep ; a tendency of the humours to verge up- 
wards. Jlippocral. de Humor.; Gorr. Dcjln. Med.; Foes. 
(Ecn7iom. Hippocrat. 
AX.V'R'rilROl (Med.) an epithet used by Hippocrates for 
a people of Scythia, so fat and bloated that they were 


li'ntfffn, i. c. their joints were not discernible. Hippocrat. 
de Acr. 
A'XAS (Or.) a genus of animals; Class Aves, Order Anseres. 
Generic Characters. Bill convex, obtuse. — Tongue fringed. 

Three fore-toes connected. 

Species. This genus consists of three divisions, which are 

distinguished, in English, by the names of the Swan, 

the Goose, and the Duck. The most remarkable species 

under each of these divisions are the following; nanielj' — 

Anas cygnus, the Wild Swan. — ^Inas olor, in French 

le Cygne, the Tame Swan. — Anas anser, in Erench 

I'Oyc privee, the Grey Lag Cioose, or Common ^\"ild 

Goose. — Anas segctum, the Bean Goose. — Anas ery- 

thropus, the Bernacle Goose. — Anas bernicla, in French 

le Cra-cr.nt or les Canes de Mer, Brent (ioose. — Anas 

moUi.<sima, the Eider Duck. — Anas spectabi/is, in French 

le Canard ii tile grise, the Kuig Duck. — Anas nigra, 

in French la Macreuse, the Black Diver or Scoter. — 

Anas marila, in French le petit Morillon rai/e, the Scaup. 

— .Inas tadoma, in French la tadome, the Shield-drake, 

or Borough Duck. — Anas boschas, in French Ic Canard 

dume.sliijue, the Mallard or Common Wild Duck. — 

Anas clypcata, in French le Souchct, the Shoveler. — 

.ilnas acuta, in French le Canard a longue queuf, the 

Sea-Pheasant, Cracker, or Pintail. — Anas pcnclopc, the 

Wigeon. — Anas strepera, in French le Chipcau, the 

Gadwall or Gray. — Anas i/uerquedula, in French la 

Sarcelle, the Garganey. — Anas crecea, in French la 

petite Sarcelle, the Teal. Belon. Hist. des. Ors. ; Gcssn. 

de Av. Xal. ; JVillouoh. Ornith. ; Rail Synup.; Brisson. 

Ornitli.; J. inn. System. \at. 

AXASA'RCA (Med.) Utxa-ufxx, from «»«, and ra/*, flesh; a 

species of dropsy, in which the flesh is puffed up. This is 

called li/rcc-apxa by Hippocrates, and KaTacrafna by Heracles 

Tarentinus, according to Caelius Aurelianus. Gal. Comm. 

3. in Hippocrat. de Acut. Morb.; Aret. de S>g. el Cans. 

Acut. Morb. 1. 2, c. I ; del. Anrclian. de Acut. Morb. 1. 3, c. 8 ; 

Trallian. 1. 9, c.2; Act. de Meth. Med. 1. .';, c. 6. 'I'his 

disease is placed as a genus by Cullen, under the Class 

Cacheciic, Order Intumcfcenticv. 

Anasarca (Bot.) the dropsy in plants, from an excess of 

water or I'ain. 
AXASCHOXA'DI (Bol.) the Elaphantopus scabcr of Lin- 

AXA'SPASIS (Med.) a'niir^-airi? ; a contraction of the 

stomach. Ilijipncrat. dc Prise. Medicin. 
AXA'SSA (Bol ) the Bromclia ananas of Linnaeus. 
ANASTA'LTICS (Med.) from a>«s-i'AAa, to contract; re- 
stringent or styptic medicines. 
AXA'STASIS (Med) mkh^-mitis, from a»ir>i/(*i, to rise up; is 
used by Hippocrates to signify a migration of humours, 
when expelled from one part they are obliged to go to an- 
other. Ilippocr. de Epidcm, sect 7; Gorr. Dcjin. Med.; 
Foes. (Econom. Hippocrat . 
AXASTA'TICA (But.) Utia^aTiKU., from »'»iVi)^i, to rise up, or 
revive; a plant so called from its quality of reviving in 
Anastatica, in the Linnenn .'system, is a genus of plants, \') Tctradynamia, Order 1 Siliculosa, in English, the 
Rose of Jericho. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth four-leaved; leaflets 
ovate, oblong. — Cor. tetrapetalous ; hW«Av roundisJv. — 
Siwsi. fdamcnts six; anthers roundish. — Pisx. genn 
bilid; .jiiy/e subulate; ji/Zgina capitate. — Per. silicle very 
short ; .■iceds solitary. 
Species. The sjiecies are, Anastatica hierochuntica, Thlaspi 
Rosa de Uiericho dictum, seu Rosa Hierochuntea, Com- 
mon Anastatica, or Rose of Jericho, an aimual, native 
of the coast of the Red Sea. — Anastatica syriaca, Bu- 
nias syriaca, Myagrum rostratum, Thlaspi, &c. seu Rosa 


hieroconlen, &:c. Syrian Anastatica, native of Syria. C. 
Bauhin Pin. Th'cat. ; Rnii Hist. Plant.; Mor. Hist. 
Plant. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 

ANASTOICHEIO'SIS (Chem.) iws-oipKS''""-!?, from «'-« and 
fcixit'i', an element; re-elementiition, or the resolution of 
the solids and fluids into their first elements. Gal. de 
Si/mpf. Cans. 1.3, c. 2; Gon: Dtf. Med.; Caslcll.Le.t. Med. 

ANASTOMO'SIS (Med.) a'»:«fo,«-..r.?,from «'« and ^^y.-.^, to 
closie the mouth ; 1. An opening of the mouths of the 
vessels for the discharge of any fluid, as the menses, which 
are discharged b}' Anastomosis into the uterus. 2. The in- 
osculation of the arteries and veins, i. e. their running into 
one another. Hippoc.rat. de ISIul. 1. 1 ; Ct/s. de Re Med. 
1. 4, c. 4; Gal. de Melh. Med. 1. 5; Ccel. Anrel. de Paid. 
Passion. \. 3, c. 10; Gorr. Dejin. Med.; Foes. CEconom. 

Anastomosis (Bof.) a similar process of the juices in ve- 
getable as of the fluids in animal bodies, [vide Anas- 

ANASTO^IO'TICA (3/e(f.) aWs-o^AoriKB ; a species of ape- 
ritive medicines, [vide Anastomosis'] 

ANA'STltOPHE (lihel.) asocfe?', from um and ^ftifi&; to 
turn a figure of speech by the inversion of words, as Ita- 
liam contra, which, according to Quintilian, is reckoned a 
species of solecism. Quint il. G. Jnstit. Orator. 1. 1, c. 5 ; 
Aristid. K-o>iPii Xcy. Aid. p. 658. 

AXA'.STROUS sirrns (Astron.) a name given to the dnodeca- 
tomaria, or the twelve portions of the ecliptic, wiiich the 
signs anciently possessed, but which they have since de- 
serted by the precession of the equinoxes. 

ANA'TA (Coyn.) or Anotto, a sort of red dye brouglit from 
the West Indies, which is used in England for colouring 

AXATA'SE (]\Iin.) the Titanum ruthila of Linna?us. 

ANATA'SIS (Med.) kiaTxinc,, from aioi.Ti.tu, an extension of 
tlie body upwards. Galen. Qiiidjit Med. 

AXA'TES (Med.) a disease of the anus. 

ANATHE'MA (Ant.) dvahfj^x, from amhr>x,, to set apart, 
dedicate, or devote to a sacred purpose ; an offering made 
to any God, and laid up in the temple. Poll. Onomast. 
I. ], c. 1, segni. 27. 

Aka'thema (Ecc.) tirnhj/.a, from diatiufxt, to remove from 
others, as something set apart and devoted ; a sentence of 
excommunication, by which a person was either cut off 
from all communion with the faithful, as was the practice 
among the Hebrews, and after them of the Christians ; or 
eise of being devoted to death and utter destruction, as 
was frequently practised among the Hebrews, in the case 
of the Canaanitish cities, of Achan and others ; and in 
some instances, as of Codrus and Curtius, among the 
heathens, who made a voluntary devotion of themselves, 
which was the same as anathematizing themselves, that is, 
setting themselves apart for some exclusive object. 

AXA'THRON (Min.) a fossil which vegetates on rocks, in 
the form of a white ston}* moss. 

ANATHYMIA'SIS (Med ) from ci''xSv[^iau, to fumigate, sig- 
nifies evaporation. 

ANATOCISM (Com.) afccTcxKr/ti)}!;, usurious interest, or com- 
pound interest for monies lent. 


ANA'TO.MY, avurci/jAtt, from ci>a.-tii)-vi,i, to dissect, or cut 
asunder ; is the separation of the parts of an animal body, 
so as to come at the knowledge of the component parts. 
The word anatomy is commonly applied to the dissection 
of a human subject in a liealth3' state, in distinction 
from morbid anatomy, or the anatomy of diseased sub- 
jects, and comparative anatomy, or the dissection of ani- 
mals. The body is composed of solids and fluids, and is 
generally divided into the Head, Trunk, and Extremities. 

The Solids. 

The solids consist of fibres, or small filaments, which differ 
in their degree of hardness or elasticitj'. They are di- 
vided into intcgumenia, the Integuments ; ossn, the 
Bones; cartilagines. Cartilages; ligamenta. Ligaments; 
memhrancc, the Membranes ; vasa, the \'essels ; musculi, 
the Muscles; nervi, the Nenes; and glandules, the 

Integuments are the coverings of the whole body, com- 
prehending the — Epidermis, Cuticle or Skarfskin, which 
is tlie outermost. — Rete mucosum, a net-work immediately 
under the epidermis. — Cutis vera, the real Skin, which 
retains and carries off all the humours of the body. — 
Corpus ndiposum, sen Meml/rana adiposa, the Fat, a cel- 
lular substiincc, containing an unctuous juice. To the 
above may be added — Capiflus, the Hair, which consists 
of cellular filaments, and is denominated the Beard, Eye- 
lashes, Sec. according to the place in which it grows, 
[vide //fl/r] — Unguis, the Nails, which are horny sub- 

Bones are hard and brittle substances, composed of la- 
mellcc, or plates, lying upon one another, and joined to- 
gether by transverse fibres. They are covered with an 
exquisitely sensible vascular membrane, called the peri- 
osteum, which on the cranium, or skull, is called the »e- 
ricranium. On the surface of the bones are both emi- 
nences and cavities. The eminences are called Pro- 
cesses, wliich are of two sorts, namely, the epiphysis 
and the apophysis. Tlie epiphyses, or appendices, are, as 
it were, parts added to the bone ; the apophyses are set 
upon or growing to a large bone, so as to make one, as 
the nasal apophysis. 

Processes have different names, according to their figure. 
A process like a ball is called caput, the Head ; when 
flattened, condyle ; the narrow part of the process cervix, 
the Neck. A rough process is a Tuberosity ; and one 
terminating with a sharp point corona which, from its re- 
semblance to other substances, is termed mastoid, sty- 
loid, anchoroid, spinal, &c. Long ridges are called 
spinie, the sides of which are lahia, Lips. Processes 
which form the brims are supercilia. 

The cavities and depressions of bones are of two sorts, 
namely — Glcmc, which are narrow and shallow, and — 
Cotyltc, which are deep and wide. These are subdi- 
vided into — Pits, or small roundish holes — Furrotiis, or 
long narrow channels — A7/c/;«, or A"o/c/;(?.?, small branches 
in the bones — Sinuosities, broad but superficial depres- 
sions — Fossce, large deep cavities — Sinuses, still larger 
cavities, within the substance of the bono itself — Fora- 
mina, Holes through the body of the bone. The in- 
ternal structure of the bones consists of cells, filled with 
a fluid fat, called Marrow, that is contained in Follicles. 

The juncture of the bones with each other is called Arti- 
culation, from the articnhis, or Joint, at the ends of the 
bones. This is of two kinds, namely— Articulation, pro- 
perly so called, and symphysis. Connection. Articula- 
tion is either diarlhrosis, or Separated Articulation, and 
synarthrosis, or Conjoined Articulation. Diarthrosis is 
subdivided into enaiihrosis, or the Ball and Socket, when 
a large head is received into a deep cavity ; arthrod'ia, 
when a round head is received into a small cavity ; s.yn- 
glimus, when a bone receives, and is received into an- 
other bone — Synarthrosis is the fixing of two bones to- 
gether without motion, which is of two kinds, njmelj' — 
by ingrailing, or, as the joiners call it, dovetailing, 
w liich is termed sutnra, a Suture, and by a junction on 
a more extended surface, which was termed harmonia. — 
Symphysis, or Connection, is that species of articulation 
which takes place through the medium of another body; 


this is either siinchrondrosis, a Cartilaginous Connection ; 
si/iieuroxis, a Ligamentary Connection ; or si/ssarcosis, a 
fleshy Muscular Connection, [vide PI. 7, fig. 1, 2, and 
the article 13otie] 

Ccrlitar^cs are smooth white substances, which are harder 
than all the other solid j)arts of the body, except the 
bones. They are covered with a membrane called the 

Ligaments are close compacted fibrous substances. The 
ligaments at the joint are called Capsular, because they 
retain in capsula:, or bags, the mucilaginous liquor called 
syiwvia, with which the joints are kept moist. 

The Muscle is a bundle of fleshy or tendinous fibres, con- 
sisting of the Belly or l?ody, which is the fleshy part ; 
the Head and the Tail, which are the tendinous parts ; 
these are otherwise called iiponenroscs or tendons. The 
head is fi.xed on the immoveable joint called the Origin, 
and the tail on the part to be moved, called the Inser- 
tion. The membranes, in which tlie muscles are en- 
closed, are called vngincc or sheaths. As the motions 
of the human body are performed by means of the 
muscles, they derive their names mostly from their 
office ; as the abduclor, c/evalnr, flexor, extensor. See. 
[vide Mnsclc'i When muscles act in opposite directions 
they are called Antagonists; but when several concur 
in the same motion they are termed connencres. [vide 
PI. 7. fig. 4, 5, 6] 

Memhrnnes are expanded substances of a pliable texture, 
and fitted to serve as coverings for other ])arts of the 
body, as the skin, peritoneum, pleura, dura mater, &:c. 

The vessels are ducts or canals, composed of membranes, 
the strata of which are called tunica- or Coats. They 
may be divided generally into ]51ood Vessels and Ab- 
sorbents. Blood-Vesscls, so called they serve 
to circulate the blood through the body, are either 
arterice. Arteries, or vo/^, Veins ; the former of which 
convey the blojd from the heart, and the latter return 
it to the heart, [vide Arlerij and ?>/«] The arteries 
have a beating motion, called the Pulse, which the veins 
have not. This pulsation arises from what is termed 
the systole and diastole, i. e. the dilatation and contrac- 
tion of the heart, [vide PI. 7, fig. .S] 

AI)sorhi'nt<!, so called from tluir absorbing any fluid and 
carrying it to the blood, are the vasa lactca, the Lac- 
teals ; vnsn li/mphatica, the Lymphatics ; together with 
their common trunk, the Lacteal Sac and Duct. The 
J-acteals absorb the chyle and the Lymjihatics the 
lymph. The Lacteal Sac, or reccptacidum cliyli, serves, 
as its name denotes, to retain the chyle, and sends it by 
the Thoracic Duct through the whole body. The 
lymphatics, with the lacteals of the intestines, form 
what is called the Absorbent Systejn. Most vessels are 
parted off into branches, which are again sjilit into 
smaller branches or ramifications, the last or smallest 
extremities of which arc termed capillari/. 

Serves are long white medullary cords, springing from the 
cerehnim or Brain and Spinal Marrow, whence they are 
generally distinguished into the cerebral and spincd 
nerves. The cerebral are subdivided into the olfactorij, 
nj^ic, auditory, fee. nerves, according to their use. [vide 
AVnv] They go out in bundles ov pairs, and are after- 
wards distributed by brandies, rnmificntions, and fla- 
ments, over every part that is endowed with sensibility. 
In several places the nerves communicate with each 
c*»ier, which communication is called a plexus ; in other 
jilaces they unite into Knots, called mnnliDns. [vide 
PI. 8, fig. 2] o o L 

(Hands are secretory vessels, composed of all the dilFerent 
sorts of vessels, enclosed in a menilirane, and serving to 
secrete some fluid. As to their fabric, they are coirdo- 

bale or simple, eonglomrrale or compound. As to their 
contents, mucous, sebaceous, lumpltutic, salival, hiclini- 
mal, &e. "^ 


The fluids of the body are those humours or juices which 
serve either to sustain life or preserve the frame in a 
healthy state. The principal of these are sanguis, the 
Blood ; chijlus, the Chyle; lijmpha, the lymph ; Snd bills, 
the Bile. 

Blood is a red homogeneous fluid, of a saltish taste, a 
somewhat urinous smell and glutinous consistence, 
which circulates in the heart, arteries, and veins. 

Chyle, a milk-like liquor, secreted in the lacteaf vessels, 
by digestion, from the chyme or indigested mass of food 
that passes from the stomach into the duodenum. Tlie 
c'hyle is that fluid substance from which the blood is 

Lymph, a liquid contained in the lymphatic vessels, lias a 
fatuous smell, no taste, and a crys'talline colour: its use is 
to return the superfluous nutritious jelly from every part, 
and to mix it with the chyle in the thoracic duct, for the 
purpose of furnishing nutriment to the animal. 

Bile, a bitter fluid, secreted in the glandular substance of 
the liver. Li a healthy state it is a yellow-green colour, 
and of the consistency of thin oil. Its principal use is' 
to separate the chyle from the chyme, with which it 
mixes in the duodenum. 

To the above might be added pituita. Phlegm; saliva, 
Sjjittle; mucus; lachrijnuF, Tears; sudor. Perspiration- 
unna. Urine; menses; lac. Milk ; and .5o»c« ; which 
are all excretions from the blood, and, in a healthy 
state, pass off from the body at particular periods, 
of which more may be found under their respective 

Of tluse component parts, in different proportions, are 
formed the three principal divisions of the body before 
mentioned, namely, the Head, the Trunk, and the Ex- 


The head consists of caput, the Head, properly so called 
and cervix, the Neck. The parts of the head are exter- 
nal or internal. 

External Paris of the Head. 

The external parts of the liead are, the Hairy Scalp and 
the Face. The Hairy Scalp is composed of the common 
integuments ; its uppermost part is called the vertex sen 
fontenella, the Crown ; the forepart, the sinciput ,• the 
hind part, occiput, or Back of the Head ; and the lateral 
parts, tempora, the Temples. The Face comprehends 
frons, the Forehead; aculus, the Eye; nuris, the Ear; 
^ 7iasus, the Nose ; and os, the mouth. 

The ei/e is composed, externally, of supercilia, the Eye- 
brows ; cilia, the Eyelashes; palpcbrcp, the Eyelids, the 
angles of which are called cantbi, the margin tarsus ; 
glandulic lachrymalis, the Lachrymal Glands; punrt'a 
lachnpnalia ; canalcs lachripnalcs, Laclirymal Ducts ; 
saccus lachripnalis, the Lac)irj-mal Sac ; ductus nasalis', 
the Nasal Duct; membrana conjunctiva seu ulbu"inea 
the White. o . 

The internal parts of tlie eye compose what is called the 
Ball or Globe. These are tuniciv, the Coats ; camenc, 
the Chambers : and humnres, the Humours; besides the 
Muscles, I'at, Nerves, and Glands. The principal coats of 
the eye are tunica sclerotica, or the Cornea, which i.~ the 
external and thickest coat ; tunica choroidva, or the Cho- 
roides, which is the middle. The perforated septum of the 
clioroides has the name of uvea ; the anterior lamina 
of the septum is termed the iris ; the radiated plica; of 
6 ' 


the posterior lamina processus ciliares ; and tlie hole 
near the centre of the septum pupilla, the Pupil, whieh 
is capable of contraction or dilatation. The third 
and innermost of the coats is the retina. — Cnnwrce, 
the Chambers of the eye, are the camera anterior 
and polerior, situated between the cornea hicida, or 
the anterior portion of the sclerotica and the uvea.— 
Hiimorcs, the humours of the eye, are three, namely, the 
Aqueous Humour, which is contained in the two cham- 
bers ; Crystalline Letts or Humour; and the Vitreous 
Humour: these two last are enclosed in capsular tunica;, 
called crystallina and viirea. All these sot't parts are 
enclosed in a funnel-shaped cavity, called an Orbit, 
which is formed by seven bones, namely, the os front is, 
OS sphenoidale, os cthmoitlcs, os maxillare, os maUv, as 
unguis, and os palati. [vide A^/c] 

The Ear is divided into the external and internal. 

Auricula, the External Eur, consists of a large cartilage 
that is divided into two portions, namely, the pinna, 
which is large and solid, and the lolms, or Lobe, which 
is soft and small, autl forms the lower part. The exter- 
nal ear contains besides several eminences, namely, the 
helix, antlielix, tragus, and aniilragus ; and, also, some 
depressions, as the Jbssa navieularis or scnp/ia, the coti- 
cha, and the tticatus. 

The Jtiternal Ear consists of, meatua auditorius internus, 
the Internal Auditory Passage; meitihrana ti/mpani, the 
membrane which separates the external from the inter- 
nal parts of the ear ; ti/nipanum, the Drum or Barrel of 
the ear; and the Labyrinth, which consists of three 
portions, namely, cochlea, the anterior ; vcstibiilitni, the 
middle; and the semicircular canals, [vide Ear'] 

The nose consists, externally, of the Root ; the Arch ; 
Back or Spine, called the spina nasi ; the Sides of the 
arch ; the Tip of the nose ; the ahe or pinnce, which are 
the Sides of the nostrils ; the iiares, or External Nostrils. 

The internal parts of the nose are, the Liternal Nares, 
which consist of the septum nariiim; the subseptum, or 
pillar of fat under the septum nariuni; the Convolutions; 
the concha: superiores and iiiferiores ; the sitma maxillares, 
and sinus sphenoidales ; the ductus lachnpnulis ; the duc- 
ius palatini, and the membraiia pituitarin, which lines 
the whole cavity of the nostrils, [vide Nose'\ 

The tnouth consists, externally, oi labia, the Lips, which 
are upper and lower, and composed of a border or edge, 
and of commissures or angles ; /»/o, the depression 
which runs from the septum nariuni to the edge of the 
upper lip ; Cheeks, the upper prominent part of which is 
called the mala ; Chin, the anterior protuberance by 
which the lower part of the face is terminated. 

The internal parts of the moidli are palatum, the Palate, 
or roof of the mouth ; septum palati, or velum palati, 
the soft part of the |)alate, which forms two arches ; 
uvula, the conical tleshy substance at the root of 
the tongue ; amygdalce or tousillcc, the Tonsils, two 
glandular substances, one on each side the basis of the 
tongue ; gingivec, the Gums, which contain the teeth ; 
maxillce, the Jaws, which are composed of bones, and 
are either upper or lower ; the fra'ua, of the lips ; lingua, 
the Tongue, which consists of an Apex, a Root or 
Basis, and a Fra;num. [vide Mouth] 

Internal Parts of the Head. 
The internal parts of the head are contained within an oval 
cavity, called the cranium or Skull, which is formed of 
eight bones, [vide Bones, and PI. S, fig. 1] The con- 
tents of the Skull are comprehended under the general 
name of cerebrum, the Brain, which is immediately sur- 
rounded by two membranes, called by the Greeks 
/*i!»iyvs5, or, by others, mattes, i. e. the pia mater and the 

dura mater, between which lies a third membrane, c.illcd 
the tunica arachnoidea. The duplicatures or circuuivoiu- 
tions of these membranes are called sepia, the upper 
of which has the name of the falx. The cerebrum 
consists of three portions, namely, the cerebrum, cr 
Brain, properly so called ; the cerebellum, or Little 
Brain ; and the medulla oblongata ; to which is added 
.sometimes a fourth, namely, the medulla spinalis, which 
fills the great canal of the spina dorsi. 

The cerebrum is divided into two lateral portions, called 
hemispheres, the extremities of which are termed lobes. 
Its substance is of two kinds, namely, the outer, that is 
cortical, and is called the cortex ; and the inner, which 
is called the substantia medullaris or substantia alba. 

The cavities of the brain, called ventricles, are four in 
number, and separated by a membrane called the septum 
hicidum. In each of these is the choroid plexus, formed 
of blood-vessels. There is also another small cavity or 
J'osxula, called the iiifundibuluni, the superior opening of 
which is called the Jhramen commune anterius. The 
principal prominences are the corpus callosum, the lower 
side of which forms a sort of vault called the_/orH2x; the 
cor;)or«.ri)iafn, two striated prominences; thalami tiervorutti 
opticorum ; corpora giiadragemina, four medullary pro- 
jections, originally called nates and testes ; the pineal 
gland, a cerebrine tubercle on the nates, and the crtira 
cerebri, two medullary columns proceeding from the basis 
of the brain to the medulla oblongata. To these may 
be added the glundula pituitaria, a small spongy body in 
the sella sj)heiu)idalis. 

On the cerebellum are observed four eminences, called 
appendices vermiformcs ; a fourth ventricle ; a valve, 
called the valvula magtta cerebri ; lamina or ramifica- 
tions, called arbor vilcc, the trunks of which are termed 
pedunculi cerebclli. 

The medulla oblongata is a medullary continuation of the 
cerebrum and cerebellum, having anterior branches, 
called brnchia, and posterior, called crura medullce. Its 
transverse process is called processus annulnris.- The 
extremity of the medulla is called the cauda ; its tuber- 
cles, corpora olivaria et pyramidalia ; to which may be 
added the medullary papilla; that are productions of the 

The lower part of the tnedulla spinalis is called caudina 
etjuina ; but, in other particulars, it resembles the parts 
before described. From the cerebrum, and the other 
parts of the brain, arise the nerves which are dispersed 
through the body, [vide Nerves, and PI. 8, fig. i!J 


The neck may be added either to the head, to the thorax, 
or to both. The fore part is called the Throat, and the 
hind part the Nape. The parts of the throat are the 
fauces, a cavity behind the tongue ; larynx, which consists 
of five cartilages, a part of the trachea ; pharynx, a mus- 
cular bag, which receives the masticated food ; cesopha- 
gus, or gida, the Throat, a membranous and muscular 

The salival glands, which are three pair, namelj', the 
glandula: parotides, maxillares, an(\ sublitigiiales, so called 
from their situation, [vide Neck] 


The Trunk consists of spina, the Spine; thorax, the Chest; 
and abdomen, the Belly. 

The Spine. 
The spine is a bony column, consisting of a chain of bones, 
called vertebra-, which are divideil into true or false. 
[vide Vertibra, Bones, and PI. 7, fig. 1 and 2] 


The Thorax. 

The fore part of the thorax is the Breast, the hind part the 
Back ; the laienil part the Sides. Tliese are severally 
formed by s/e)-H»i», the Breast-Bone; vertcbrcc dursi, the 
Dorsal Vertehrx ; and cosUc, the Ribs, [vide Bones, 
&c.] The thorax has externally the miimtinr, or 
Breasts, in the middle of which is the pftpiUtt, or Nipple, 
surrounded by a disc, called the iireo/a ; within are the 
lubii/i luiti/cri, or Lactii'crous Ducts. The cavity of the 
thorax contains the pleura, a membrane with which it is 
lined; mediastinum, a membranous septum; pulinoiicxlhe 
lungs; CO?-, the Heart, and ;;c(/c(7r(//»)H, the Ileartpursc, 
a membranous bag, within which it is enclosed. The 
largest part of the heart is called the Base, the narrower 
extremity the Apex. It is divided by a membrane 
called the septum medium or septum cordis, into two cavi- 
ties, called rf»//7cv;//, ventricles, having several eminences 
or inequalities, called Jossuhe, tliymus o/and, ductus 
thoracicus, and the ductus lacleus. [vide Thorax] 

The Abdomen. 

The abdomen is divided into four regions, three of which 
are anterior, and one posterior. — The anterior regions, 
are the epigastric, or upper region, which is divided into 
the epii^astrium, or middle, and the hypocliondria, or 
lateral parts ; the umbilical, or middle region, consisting 
of the regio umbilicalis, or Navel, in the middle, and the 
ilia, or Flanks, on the sides ; the hypogastric, or lower 
region, which is divided into the /;»/(;*, or middle part, 
and the inguiiia, orCiroins, on each side. — The posterior 
region is the regio lunibaris, or Loins. 

The cavity of the abdomen is separated from that of the 
thorax by the muscular diaphragm, called the Midriff. 
Its viscera, or contents, are enclosed in a membrane, 
called the neritomvum, and are as follow: namely, the 
— Ventriculus, the Stomach which has two orifices, 
namely, the curdia, which is the upper; and the y;^/o- 
rus, which is the lower. It is composed of three coats, 
namely, the outermost, which is membranous ; the mid- 
dle, which is muscular ; and the inner, which is nervous, 
and covered with vessels. To these has been added a 
fourth, called villous. The stomach performs the office 
uf digestion, which is now generally supposed to be 
effected by the saccus gaslricus, or Gastric .Juice, which 
flows from the tunica nervosa, aided by the continual 
contraction and relaxation of the muscular tunic, which 
is called the peristaltic motion.— The intestines are a long 
pipe or canal, which, by its convolutions, forms six 
portions, three small and three large, namely, the duo- 
denum, jejunum, ileum, ccccum, colon, and rectum. The 
small intestines have valves, or folds, called valvuhc con- 
nivcntes ; the large intestines have fatty appendages, 
called appendicuhc epiploiccv. The membranes belong- 
ing to the intestines are the Mesentery, Mesocolon, and 
the onicntum, or epiploon, by which they are kept in 
their places and preserved from injuries, wliilst by their 
peristaltic motio.i they expel the /rcir.v collected in them. 
— Ilcpar, the liver, is divided into two lobes, and is 
suspended in the body by means of ligaments, which 
cmniect it with the diaphragm, &c. It is composed of 
wnall vessels, or the ramifications of vessels, called /o///-, or jiori biliarii, because in them is secreted the 
humour called the Bile. The ducts of the liver an; the 
ductus hcpaticus ; the ductus ci/slicus; and the ductus chclo- 
dochus, which is composed of the two former. On the 
hollow side of the liver lies the vcsicula fellis, or the 
Gall-Bladder, — Pancreas, a glandular viscus, consists 
of innumerable small glands that form one duct, called 
ductus pancrcalicus, the I'ancreatic Duct ; its office is to 

secrete a juice distinguished by the name of the succus 
jjancreaticus, the Pancreatic Juice. — Lien, the Spleen, 
is connected with the stomach by its blood vessels, calleil 
vasa brevia. — Rcnes, the Kidneys, are composed of three 
substances, namcl}', the external, which is cortical ; the 
middle, which is tubular ; and an inner substance, which 
is medullary. They have also a peculiar membrane, 
called the membrana propria, and an excretory duct, 
called the ureter, the origin of which, expanded into 
the form of a funnel, is called the pelvis. — i'rinariu 
vesica, the Urinary Bladder, a fleshy membranous pouch, 
is divided into the Body, the Fundus, or upper part, and 
the Neck, wliich is the lower part, that isj contracted 
by the sphincter muscle. 

The lower part of the Abdomen is, in the skeleton, called 
the pelvis, which is formed by the 04v« ilia and ischia, 
the OS sacrum, the os cocc/gis, and the ossa pubis, and is 
terminated anteriorly by the pudenda, and posteriorly 
by the dunes, or Buttocks, [vide Bones and PI. S, fig. 3] 
The space between the anus and pudenda is called the 

The pudenda, or organs of generation, are distinguished 
into the male and female. The male organs are the 
testes, vesiculic scminales, prostatic, and penis. — The testes 
are composed of many minute vessels, convoluted into 
different heaps, by means of which is formed a body 
called the epididymis. They are enclosed in three inte- 
guments, or coats, namely, the scrotum, conmion to 
both, the tunica vaginalis, and the tunica albuginca ; be- 
sides a muscular lining of the scrotum, called the dartos, 
by which it is corrugated. The principal vessels are the 
vasa prwparantia,connnon\y called the spermatic Chord, 
and the vasa dcfcreniia. The most important muscle is the 
cremnster. — I'esiculcc seminales are two in number, on 
each side the bladder, which serve as receptacles tor the 
seed. — Prostatic, or corpus glandulosum, a conglomerate 
gland, situated at the neck of the bladder. — '['he penis 
is composed of two spongy substances, caliid cor- 
jMra cavernosa, and covered with a particular integu- 
ment, called the prccputium. The extremity of the 
penis is the glans, or balamts, and the ligament by which 
it is tied to the glans is the frecnum. The canal or 
urinary passage of the penis is the urctlira, in which is 
a longitudinal orifice, called the meatus urinarius. 

The female organs of generation are external or internal. 
The external are the vulva, mons veneris, labia, ni/niphcc, 
and clijtoris, the branches of which are called the crura. 
— The internal parts are the vagina, or neck of the 
womb, the hymen, and \\\e earunculcc myrtijormes, formed 
from the hymen and the uterus or Womb. 

The uterus is divided into three parts, namely, thcj'undits, 
or upper part ; the Body, and the cervix, or lower part, 
the entrance into which is called the os uteri. It is tied 
by two sorts of ligaments, called ligamcnta lata and liga- 
menta rotunda, i. e. two broad and two round. To one 
end of the ligamcnta lata are tied the ovaria or testes in 
females : along the other end run the tubic Fallopiance. 
The vessels of the uterus are suliject to a periodical dis- 
charge, which is called menstruation, and that which is 
discharged the menses. The formation of the parts of 
an animal in the womb constitutes a gravid uterus. The 
conniiencenient of this process is called conception or 
imj)regiialion ; and that which follows '\s gestation till the 
time of delivery, when the young is brought forth. Tl»e 
first rudiments of the animal arc called the embryo, 
wliich, with the umbilical chord and membranes, consti- 
tute the ovum. When the parts of the embryo are to be 
distinguished from one another, it is termed the /Ictius. 
The membranes of the ovum and f'tctus are the amnios, 
which is true or false, and the chorion. These mem- 


branes contain a fluid, called the liquor amnii, in which 
the embryo rtoats ; and from the flocculent vessels of 
the amnion is formed the vascular substance called the 
plncciila. The placenta and membranes which come 
away after the birth of the child are known by the name 
of secundines, or after-birth. 

The Extremities. 

The extremities are superior and inferior. The superior 
extremities consist of suivmitas humeri, the Shoulder; 
hrachium, the Arm ; and mnnus, the Hand. — The sliouldcr 
is composed of clavicula, the Collar Bone ; scapula, the 
Shoulder Blade; and axilla, the Armpit.-:— The arm is 
composed of the os humeri, ulna, and radius, the two last 
of which make what is called the Fore-arm, in which 
anteriorly is the bend of the arm ; and posteriorly, angu- 
lus cubili, the elbow. — The hand consists of the carpus, 
or the Wrist ; metacarpus and digiti manus, or Fingers ; 
dorsum manus, the Back of the hand ; and vola, the 

The inferior extremities consist of coxa or regio ischiadica, 
the Kip ; femur, the Thigh : tibia, the Leg ; and pes, 
the Foot. — The thigh is composed of the osfemoris, the 
Thigh Bone. — The leg is composed of the genu, the 
knee ; tibia, fbula, pa/eUn, or Knee- Pan ; pnples, the 
Ham ; caxum poplitis, the Hollow of the Thigh ; su.ra, 
the Calf; and malleolus, the Ankle. — The foot consists 
of tarsus, the Instep ; metrJarsus, or dorsum, the Back ; 
digiti pedis, the Toes ; and plaiita, the Sole, [vide 
Bones and Plate I.] 

Explanation of the Plates. 
Plate No. I. (9) 

J"/t. 1. — 1. Os Frontis. 2. Sutura coronalis. 3. Os Ver- 
ticis. 4. Sutura squamosa. .5. Os Temporis. 6. Pro- 
cessus mamillaris. 7. Os Mala. 8. Ossa Nasi. 9. Ossa 
Rlaxillaris superiora. 10. Os Maxilla; inferioris. 
11. Vertebrae Colli. 12. Vertcbroc Lumborum. 1:5. Os 
Sacrum. 14. Sternum. 15. Scapula. 16. Cost.i; vera;. 
17. Costa; nothcC. IS. Clavicular. 19. Processus cora- 
coideus. 20. Os Humeri. 21. Ulna. 22. Iladius. 
23. Os Ilium. 21-. Crista Ossis Ilii. 25. Ischium. 
2G. Os Pubis. 27. Foramen magnum. 28. Os Femoris. 
29. Trochanter major. 30. Trochanter minor. 31. Pa- 
tella. 32. Tibia. 33. Fibula. 34- Talus. 35. Os Cal- 
caneuni. 36. Ossa Tarsi. 

Fig. 2. — 1. Os parictale. 2. Sutura sagittalis. 3. Sutura 
lambdoidalis. 4. Os occipitis. 5. Sutura squamosa. 
6. Maxilla inferior. 7. Vertebra; Colli. 8. Vertebras 
Dorsi. 9. Vertebrae Lumborum. 10. Os Sacrum. 11. Os 
Occygis. 12. Clavicula. 13. Scapula. 14. Spina Sca- 
pulae. 15. Acromion. 16. Os Humeri. 17. Ulna. 18. Ra- 
dius. 19. Ossa Carpi. 20. Ossa Metacarpi. 21. Ossa 
Digitorum. 22. Ilium. 23. Ischium. 24. Os Femoris. 
2.5. Collum Ossis Femoris. 26. Trochanter major. 
27. Trochanter minor. 28. Condylus exterior Ossis 
Femoris. 29. Condylus interior Ossis Femoris. 30. Ti- 
bia. 31. Fibula. 32. Os Calcaneum. 33. Ossa Tarsi. 
34. Ossa ^Metatarsi. 

Fig. 3. — 1. Aorta A. Valvulae semilunares. 2. Arteria 
coronaria magna. 3. Ligamentum arteriosum. 4. Ar- 
terias subclavia;. 5. Arterioc carotides. 6. Arteriae 
vertebrales. 7. Arterise temporales. S. Artcrise occi- 
pitales. 9. Contorsiones Carotidis ; C, Glandula pitui- 
taria; D, Arteria; ophthalmica;. 10. Contorsiones verte- 
brales. 11. Ilamificationes arterias. 12. Arterise mam- 
mariae. 13. Arteria; cubitales. 14. Arteria Aorta de- 
scendens. 15. Arteria bronchialis. 16. Arteria; inter- 
costales. 17. Arteria caeliaca. 18. Ajteriae hepatica;. 

19. Arteria cystica. 20. Arteria coronaria inferioris sto- 
niachi. 21. Arteria pylorica. 22. Arteria epiploica. 

23. Arteria coronaria superioris stomachi. 24. Arte- 
ria; phrenica;. 25. Arteria splenica. 26. Arteria nie- 
senterica superior. 27. Arteria mesenterica inferior. 

28. Arteria; emulgentes. 29. Arteria; vertebrales lum- 
borum. 30. Arteria; spermatica;. 31. Arteria sacra. 
32. Arteria; iliacas. 33. Arteria; externae. 34. Arteria; 
internae. 35. Arteria; umbilicales. 36. Arterial epigas- 
tricas. 37. Arteria; Penis. 38. Arteriae crurales. 

Fig. 4^. — l.Frontales. 2. Orbicularis Palpebra;. 3. Zygo- 
niaticus major. 4. Nasales Labri superioris. 5. De- 
pressor Labri inferioris. 6. Depressor anguli Oris. 
7. Platisma myoides. 8. Pcctoralis. 9. Latissimus 
Dorsi. 10. Serratus magnus. 11. Externus obliquus 
abdominis. 12. Rectus abdominis. 13. Pyramidales. 
14. Linea alba. 15. Gracilis. 16. Adductor longus 
tricipitis Femoris. 17. Pectineus. 18. Psoas magnus. 

19. lliacus internus. 20. Sartorius. 21. Glutaeus me- 
dius. 22. Fascialis. 23. Vastus externus. 24. Rectus 
Femoris. 25. Vastus internus. 26. Pars bicipitis. 
27. Pars Gastrocnemii. 28. Soleus. 29. Peroneus 
longus. 30. Extensor longus digiti Pedis. 31. Tibialis 
anticus. 32. Deltoides. 33. Triceps. 34. Biceps. 
35. Brachiseus externus. 36. Supinator longus. 
37. Pronator rotundi Radii. 38. Radialis internus. 
39. Palmaris longus. 40. Sublimis. 41. Ulnaris in- 
ternus. 42. Abductor longus Pollicis. 43. Radialis 
externus longus. 

Fig. 5. — 1. Occipitalis. 2. Attollens Auricularis. 3. Or- 
biculares Palpebrarum. 4. Latissimus Colli. 5. Mas- 
toid~us. 6. Trapezius. 7. Deltoides. 8. Biceps. 

9. Brachialis internus. 10. Triceps. 11. Supinator 
longus. 12. Radialis internus. 13. Radialis externus 
loiigior. 14. Radialis externus brevier. 15. Ulnaris 
externus. 16. Abductor Pollicis longus jNIanus. 
17. Infraspinatus. 18. Teres minor. 19. Teres major. 

20. Latissimus Dorsi. 21. Pectoralis. 22. Serratus 
magnus. 23. Obliquus externus Abdominis. 24. Ten- 
sor vagina; Femoris. 25. Gluta;us medius. 26. Glu- 
taeus magnus. 27- Semitendinosus. 28. Biceps Cruris. 

29. Vastus externus. 30. Rectus Cruris. 31. Gastroc- 
nemius. 32. Soleus. 33. Tendo Achilles. 34. Pero- 
neus longus. 35. Peroneus brevis. 36. Extensor 
longus digiti Pedis. 37. Tibialis anticus. 33. Liga- 
mentum a patella ad libram pertinens. 39. Vastus in- 
ternus. 40. Sartorius. 41. Triceps pars quas longus 
vocatur. 42. Triceps pars qua; brachialis vocatur. 
43. Brachialis externus. 44. Biceps Brachir. 45. Pro- 
nator teres. 46. Palmaris longus. 47. Sublimis. 
48. Ulnaris internus. 49. Ulnaris externus. 

Fig. 6. — 1. Temporalis. 2. Mastoidoeus. 3. Trapezius. 
4. Deltoides. 5. Brachiaeus. 6. Gemellus. 7. Pal- 
maris longus. 8. Sublimis. 9. Ulnaris externus. 

10. Radialis externus longior. 11. Extensor communis 
digitorum. 12. Infra spinatus. 13. Latissimus Dorsi. 
14. Obliquus externus Abdominis. 15. Glutaeus medius. 
16. Glutaeus major. 17. Gracilis. 18. Adductor mag- 
nus Femoris. 19. Semitendinosus. 20. Biceps Cruris. 

21. Vastus externus. 22. Gastrocnemius. 23. Soleus. 

24. Tendo Achillis. 

Plate No. II. (10) 
Fig. I. — 1. Sutura coronalis. 2. Sutura sagittalis. 3. Su- 
tura lambdoidalis. 4. Sutura squamosa. 5. Sutura 
transversalis. 6. Os Frontis. 7. Os Bregmatis. 8. Os 
Occipitis. 9. Os Temporis. 10. Processus mastoideus. 

11. Meatus auditorius. 12. Processes stylitbrmis. 
13. Processus jugalis. 14. Os sphenoides. 15. Os 
Maiae. 16. Os Nasi. 17. Os Unguis. IS. Os pleuuni.. 


19. Ductus ad nasum. 20. Maxilla Rupeiior. 21. Fova- 1 
men maNiiix supcriori. 22. Maxilla inferior. 23. Pro- 
cessus coronalis. 2+. Processus condyloides. 25. Fora- 
men. 26. Denies incisorii. 27. Denies canini. 28. Denies 
niolares. 29. Os Triquetium. ,'iO. Foramen. 
/.7,T. 2. — 1. Cerebrum. 2. Cerebellum. 3. Corpus pyra- 
midale. 4. Annular Protuberance. 5. Processus nia- 
uiillaris. (i. Optic Nerves. 7. Motores Oculorum. 
8. The fourth pair of Nerves. 9. The fifth pair spread- 
ing into three branches. 10. The si.xth pair. 11. The 
seventh pair. 12. The eighth pair. 13. The recurrent 
nerves joined with ihc eighth pair. 1 1. The recurrent 
nerves after leaving the eighth pair. 1.5. The trunks of 
the eightli pair. 1(J. Intercostal nerves. 17. Phrenic 
nerves. IS. Branches of nerves going to tiie spermatic 
vessels, &c. 19. Branches of the ninth pair. 20. The 
sciatic and crural nerves. 21. The brachial nerves; a 
communication between the dorsal and intercostal nerves. 
pj-r^ 3. — 1 . 'I'he Larynx. 2. The internal jugular vein. 

3. The subclavian vein. 4. The vena cava descendens. 
5. The right auricle of the heart. G. The right ven- 
tricle. 7. Part of the left ventricle. 8. The Aorta de- 
scendens. 9. The Arteria pulmonalis. 10. The right 
lobe of the Lungs, part of which is cut off to show the 
Gall-bladder and vessels. 11. The left lobe of the 
lungs. 12. The Diaphragm. 13. The Liver. 14. The 
ligamentum rotundum. 15. The Gall-bladder. IC. The 
Stomach pressed by the liver towards the left side. 
17. The small intestines. 18. The Spleen. 

2-7n-. 4. 1. The right ventricle of the Foetus distended by 

wax. 2. The right auricle. 3. The left ventricle. 

4. Branches of the pulmonary veins of tlic right lobe of 
the lungs. 5. Arteries of the left lobe of the lungs. 
(j. The vena cava descendens. 7. The Aorta ascendens. 
8. The Arteria pulmonalis. 9. The Ductus arteriosus. 

Fig. 5. — I. The parenchymous substance of the Pancreas 
laid open. 2. The Pancreatic Duct. 3. Branches of the 
Pancreatic Duct. 4. The Bile Duct joining the Pan- 
creatic Duct. 5. The Duodenum opened. 6. The ori- 
fices of the Bile and Pancreatic Ducts. 

jF/V. C. — 1. The Kidney divested of its external coat. 
2. A kidney in its natural state. 3. The Vena Cava. 
4. Tile Aorta. 5. The Henal Glands with their vessels. 
G. The Enuilgent vessels. 7. The Ureters. 8. The 
Urinary Bladder. 9. The neck of the Bladder. 10. The 
Testes. 11. The process of the Peritonaeum. 12. The 
Cremaster muscle cut off. 13. The Spermatic vessels. 
14. The Epididymis. 15. The Vasa Deferentia. 16. The 
corpus glandosum. 17. The two bodies which compose 
the Penis. 18. The Prepuce. 19. The Glans Penis. 

20. The insertion of the spermatic veins into the emul- 
gent. 21. Vesiculie seminales. 22. The insertion of the 
ureters. 23. Veins which run into the back of the Penis. 

21. Arteries which arise on each side. 
I'irr, 7. — The Pulmonary .\rtery. 

J'i". 8. — 1. The up))er orifice of the Stomach. 2. The 
Stomach. 3. The Pylorus. 4. Arteries. 5. Veins which 

accompany the arteries. 6. The Duodenum. 7. 'l"he 

Small Intestines. 8. The valve in the Colon. 9. The 

Appendiculum of the Ca?cuni. 10. The Colon. 11. The 

lUctuni. 12. The Constrictor of the Anus. J3. The 
F^levatores Ani. 14. Tiie Anus. 

The principal Writers on Anatomy in chroiiolngicnl 
Ilippocralis " Opera;" Aristotcles " De Partibus Ani- 
nialium," &c. ; /Irctipus " De Causis ct Signis Mor- 
borum acutorum," Ac. ; Rufus Ephesiiis " De Appclla- 
lionilnis Partium humani Corporis;" Galen " De Ad- 
miiiibtralione Anatomiac," " 13c Usu Partium," &c. ; 


Orihasii " Medics; Collectiones;" Berengarii Carpensi* 
" Isagoge," &c. ; Vasscci Catalaunensis " In Anatomen 
Corporis humani Tabula; quatuor;" Vesalius " De He 
Anatomica," &c. ; Fn/lopii " Observationes Anato- 
niica;," &c. ; Eiistachii " Opuscula Anatomica," " Ta- 
bulae .Vnatomica;," <S.'c. ; Caspari Bauhini " Institutiones 
Anatoniicx," &c. ; Fabricii " De Aqua pendente," 
" Opera Anatomica," iSrc. ; Rinlani " Schola Anato- 
mica," tSrc. ; Ilnrvcy " Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu 
Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus," &c. ; Albitii ',' Ta- 
bulic AnatomicK," <S:C. ; CheKseldcn's " Anatomy of the 
Human Body;" Heisler's "Compendium Anatouiicum," 
&c. ; Ilighmore's " Corporis humani Disquisitio .\nato- 
mica," (Sec. ; Hnff'mnn/ii " Dissertationes Anatomlco-phy- 
siologiciE," &c. ; Kcil's " Anatomy of the human Body 
abridged ;" Mnlpighii " Observationes Anatomica;," 
&c. ; Munro's " Osteology ;" Piquet's " Expcrimcnta 
nova Anatomica," iSrc. ; Saiinimerdam's " Miraculuni 
Naturae," &c. ; JVinslotu's " Anatomicjue de la Structure 
du Corps humain," Ac. 
A'NATON {Mill.) the same as Anatron. 
ANATIIE'SIS (A:irit.) mtfr(r,<rn, from i>«, and r^'-j.u,pcrfijro ; 

ANA'TlilS {C/inii.) mercury. 

ANA'TUON (Min.) 1 . The same as Natron. 2. The spume 

or gall of glass, which bubbles on the surface while in the 

furnace. 3. The same as Terra Saracciiica. 4. The same 

as Anathron. 

ANATUO'PE (Med.) Uixrf^zv., from «»aTp,'T^., to subvert; 

a relaxation of the stomach. 
ANA'TTO [Cliem.) vide Aiiala. 
ANA'TU.AI (Sat.) ovurum testa. 
AN/V'UDIA [Med.) the same as Catalcpsis. 
AlsA'UDOS (Med.) antvi\i,, from «, priv. and ai/^<, voice, 
speechless ; an epithet for one who has lost his speech, in 
distinction from apccsoc, who has lost his voice. Gat. E.tcg. 
Vocal). Hippocrat. ; Cels. de Re Med. 1. 5 ; Cal. Aurc/ian 
de Morb. Chron. 1. 2, c. 1 ; Alex. Trail. 1. 1, c. 2; Gorr. 
Dejin. Med. 
ANAVl'NGA (Bol) An evergreen that grows in Malabar, 

and in Cochin China. 
ANAXAGO'RIA {Ant.) 'A,xijcyif,x, a festival observed at 
Lampsacus in honour of Anaxagoras. Diogen. Laert. in 
ANAXV'RIDES (Ant.) d^ulvflhc, a sort of breeches or 
drawers worn by the Scythians, according to Hippocrates, 
from a/xa-iifni, to draw up. Hippocrat. de Acr.; Poll. Ono- 
masl, 1. 7, c. 13, segm. 59, &c. 
A'NBAR {Min.) vide //mira. 
ANBLA'TU.M (Bot.) the name for a species of plant ; the 

Lathrca anb/aliim of Linna;us. 
A'NCEPS (Med.) doubtful as to the nature of the disease 

or effects of the medicine. 
.'Vncei's (But.) an epithet for a stem and a leaf which has 

both its edges sharp. 
A'NCESTOR (Lnm) antecessor, a natural person, who has 
gone bi;fore in a family, in distinction from a predecessor, 
who belongs to a body politic. Co. Lit. 78, b. 
ANCE'STREL ( relating or belonging to one's an- 
cestors, as ancestral homage. 
ANCHOR (Ant.) vide Anchora. 

Anciiou (Mar.) the instrument which holds a ship in its 
place, consists of four principal parts ; namely, the Ring, 
the Stock, the Shank, and the Arms — The ring (a) is the 
upper part, to which the cable is attached ; and the 
square part (i), through which a hole is punched to receive 
the ring, is called the sijnnre.-^')^\w stuck (c) is the large 
beam, which is fixed to the square. — The .•iluink or beam 
(d) is the longest part of the anchor. — The two arms 
(//) branch from the shank, and run into the ground ; 



tliey consist of palms orjlooks (gg), 

which are broad plates of a trian- 
gular form at nearly the extremity 

of the arm ; the broad part is called 

the /i/aile, and the extreme sharp 

point thei///. — The//; ran? of tliearm 

(fifi) is the angular point near the 
~ shank. — The trend (c) is a distance 

marked on the shank, which is 

equal to that between the throat of 

one arm and its bill. — The crorvn 

is that part where the arms are 

joined to the shank. The flatted 

surface at the lower extremity of 

the shank is called the Scarf, 

which is formed with a shnidder 

on each side for the purpose of 

finitlitig on, i. e. joining the arms 

to the shanks. The small round is the diameter of the 

shank where it is the smallest, which is near the stock. 

The different sorts of anchors are the — S/ieei anchor, in 
French maitrcsse ancre, the largest and strongest sort, 
which is never used but in the last extremity. — Best bozvrr 
anchor, in French la seconde ancre, and small hoKCr, in 
French ancre d'aff. urche. These iwo last are smaller than 
the rest, and carried on the bows, whence they take their 
name. — Stream anchor, less than the preceding, and tlie 
/cedge anchor, the .smallest of all. — Pilot's anchor, betwixt 
the two last in size, and used b}- the pilots for dropping a 
vessel in a stream. — Flood anchor, for a ship riding during 
flood tide. — Eob anchor, for a ship riding during the ebb 
tide. — Sea anchor, in French ancre dit large, which lies 
towards the offing.' — Shore anchor, in French ajicrc de 
terre, which is between the ship and the shore. — Floating 
anchor, in French ancre flottante, which is sunk below 
the swell of the sea where there is no other anchorage. 
The movements and situations of the anchor axe as follo\i': 
" Anchor comes home," when it is dislodged from its bed. 
— " Anchor drags," when it makes an ett'ort to come 
home. — " Anchor is foul," when it gets entangled witli 
another anchor, and the like. — " ^Inchor is a cock- 
bill," when suspended from the cat-head ready to let 
go. — " Anchor is a-peek," when drawn so tight as to 
bring the ship over it. — " Anchor is a-trip, or a-weigh," 
when just drawn out of the ground. — " To lie at 
anchor," the situation of a ship which rides by her 
anchor. — " To back the anchor," in French empcnneller 
I'ancre, to lay down a small anchor a-head of the large 
one, by which the ship rides. — " To cat the anchor," 
in French caponer I'ancre, to draw the anchor perpendi- 
cularly up to the cat-head by a tackle called a cat.— 
" To fisl> the anchor," in French traverser I'ancre, to 
draw up the tlooks of a ship's anchor towards the top 
of the bow by a machine called a fish. — " To steer the 
ship to her anchor, in French gouvcrner I'ancre, to steer 
the ship's-head to the place where the anchor lies when 
they are heaving the cable into the ship. — " To sweep 
the anchor," in French draguer I'ancre, to drag for an 
anchor that has been lost. — " To shoe the anchor," in 
French convrir Ics pattes de I'ancre, to cover the flooks 
with a broad triangular piece of plank. — " To weigh the 
anchor," in French lever I'ancre, to heave the anchor 
out of the ground by its cable ; sometimes it is per- 
formed by mechanical pov.ers fixed in the long boat. 
Anchor {Her.) an emblem of hope, was 
borne in coat armour, most commonly in 
pale, as in the annexed figure. He bear- 
eth "gules, an anchor in pale argent, the 
timber or cross piece thereof or; name 


.'Anchor {Com.) a measure of brandy containing ten gallons ; 

the same as tinker. 
Anchor {Archil.} a carving somewhat resembling an anchor. 
A'NCIIOR.A. {Ant.) iyxt/fii, from ic'/y-uxo-,, crooked anchor ; 
a naval instrument, so called from its curved form. Its 
invention is of such antiquity as to be attributed to Midas, 
and, according to some, to Anacharsis. At first they were 
made of stone or wood, with lead affixed to them, but after- 
wards of iron, and in shape very similar to what is now in 
use, except that it wanted the stock, as may be seen from 
the annexed figure, taken from a marble. 
The anchor is most frequently to be found 
on the coins of the Seleucida:, by whom it 
was used, in consequence of a predict ion, 
to Seleucus, that he should reign in that 
place where he dug up an anchor, v.hich 
happened in Babylon. The arms of the 
anchors were called ojj r;;, dentes, teeth, whence the 
name of i^U, dens, was substituted for an anchor among 
the Greek and Latin poets. Some anchors which had but 
one arm were called trifc^cfioi, and those with two dy^ft.i-efn^ct. 
The anchor which was the biggest, and used only on 
particular occasions, was called K~,r.vfx iifu, anchora sacra, 
whence the proverb sacram anchoram solvere, i. e. to be 
driven to one's last shifts. Diodor. 1. 5; Strab. 1. 10; 
Plin. 1. S, c. 56; Poll. Onom. I. 1, c. 9; Polycen. I. 3, c.9; 
Athen. 1.5; Arrian. in Perip. ; Suidas. in J'oc. ^'uyfjux. ; 
Leo. Tact. c. W, § 140 ; Gi/rcdd. de Navigat. c. I'i; Sheff. 
de Re Xaval, S^r. 
A'NCHOllAGE (Mar.) 1. The ground fit to hold the 
Anchor. 2. A duty taken of shiiis for the use of the 
haven, where they cast anchor, i. 'J'he ground in port 
and haven belonging to the king ; no person can let an 
anchor fall thereon without paying therefor to the king's 
officers, -l-. The set of anchors belonging to a ship. 
ANCMOllA'LIS processus (Anat.) the same as the Processus 

A'XCHORED (//fr.) or Ancrcd, a cross, the four extremi- 
ties of which resemble the flooks of an anchor. 
A'N'CHORET {Ecc.) a hermit, [vide Anachoreta.'] 
A'XCHOIl-GUOUN'D {Mar.) ground fit for holding the 

A'NCHORING {Mar.) the process of fixing a ship by her 

A'NCIIOR-STOCK {Mar.) a method of working planks so 

that they should appear in the shape of an anchor stock. 
.\'.\'CHOVY {Ich.) the i;y-pxa;;c'>>.ci of Aristotle, Clupea en- 
crasicolus of Linnaeus ; a small fi.-^h, caught in great quan- 
tities in the Mediterranean, having a slender body, but 
thicker in proportion than the herring. It is brought over 
pickled, and used in sauces. Aristot. Hist. Anim. 1. 6, c. 
I.',; Athen. 1. 7, c. 8; Rondelct. Sf Gessn. de Piscib.; Will. 
Anchovy /7enr {Bnt.) the fruit of a tree in the West In- 
dies, called by Linna;us the Grias caulijlora. It is about 
the size of an alligator's egg, and very similar in shape, of 
a brown colour, and commonly used as a pickle. 
ANCHU'SA [Bot.) Alkanct, in" Greek Jy;*;»"-« ; a plant so 
called from its power of producing suffocation, according 
to Nicander, Dioscorides, Pliny, and Galen. The root 
was reckoned astringent, and good for ambustions and the 
bites of venomous serpents. According to Galen, it was 
used as a cosmetic, and is at present employed in dying, 
being covered with a red bark, which gives a red dye or 
tincture to any infusion. Theophrast. Hist. Plant. I. 7, 
c. 9; Dioscor. 1. i; c. 23; Plin. I. 22, c. 21, etc.; Gat. 
de Simpl. 1. 6; Orib. Med. Coll. 1. 15; Act. Tetrab. 1, 
serra. 1 ; Paul lEginet. 1. 7, c. 3 ; Act. de Meth. Med. 
1. 6, c. 8. 
Anchusa, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, Class 


5 Pcntandria, Order 1 Moiwgi/nia, in English Alkanct, or 

Generic Characters. C Ah. perianth five-parted. — Cor. mo- 
nopetalous ; tiihe cylindrical ; limb seniiquinquefid. — 
Stam. Jihiments very short; mi/hers oblong. — Plst. 
nprw.s- four ; fti/ic fiiitbrui ; stigma obtuse. — Peu. none; 
seeds four. 
Species. The species are perennials, as the — Ancliiian ofji- 
cinalis, seu liuglnsmm sijlvestre, officinal or garden Al- 
kanet, or Hugloss, a native of Britain. — Jnchasa tinc- 
toria, Buglossiim tinctorium, seu I.ithospermum villosiim, 
dyer's Alkanet, native of Montpellier. — Anchusa sem- 
pervivens, evergreen Alkanet, native of Britain, &c. 
J. Bauh. Hist. Plant.; C. Batili. Pi/i. Thent. ; Ger. 
Herb.; Park. Theat. Butan. ; Raii Hist. Plant.; Toiirn. 
Inst. Herb.; Boerh. hut. Plant.; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
.Vnciujsa, a name for several species, as the — Barleria lon- 
gifolia ; the Borago Lidica and Zeijlanica ; ihc Lithosper- 
miim Orientnle, piirpureum et ccendeum ; the JSIyo.wlis lap- 
pilla and .spinocarpos ; the Onosma cinioides, and the Pid- 
mnnaria SiLiriea of Linmus. Bautiin, Gerard, Rai, &c. 
A'NCHYLE (Med.) the same as Ancht/lusis. 
ANCHYLO'MERIS [Med.) a concretion of the soft parts. 
A'XCUYLOPS (Med) the same as .Egilops. 
ANCHYLO'SIS (Med.) from ayxt/Ao?, crooked; a stiff' joint, a 

species of contraction. 
ANCHY'XOPES (Bot.) the same as Pheenix. 
ANXHYRO'IDES (Anat.) the same as Caracoides. 
A'NCI (Med.) vide Galiancon. 
A'XCFENT (Mil.) a term used formerly to express the grand 

ensign or standard of an army ; also the standard bearer. 
Ancient demesne (Law) a tenure by which all the manors 
belonging to the crown in the days of St. Edward and 
William the Conqueror were held. The latter caused the 
number and names of all manors, after a survey of them, 
to be enrolled in tlic book called the Uoomsday-Book : and 
all lands found therein belonging to the crown, under the 
title of Terra Regis, are called Ancient Demesne. !) //. 4, 
c. .0; S //. G, c. 26 ; F. N.B. 1 !•, 2'i8, &c. ; Kilch, 98, &c.; 
4 Inst. 2G9; Neru Nat. Brev. 32, 3,5. 
A'NCIENTS (Laxo) a term for gentlemen in the Inns of Court 
who are of a certain standing. In the Middle Temple all 
who have passed their readings are termed ancients : in 
Gray's Inn the ancients are the oldest barristers ; besides 
which the society consists of benchers, barristers, and stu- 
dents. In the inns of Chancery it consists of ancients and 
students, or clerks. 
A'N'CIENTY (Lnxv) a term for eldership or seniority used in 

the Stat, of Ireland. 14. Hen. 8. 
ANCI'LE (Ant.) Anci/le, a sacred shield among the Romans, 
which was said to have fallen from heaven in the reign of 
Numa, who ordered eleven others to be made in imitation 
of it, and appointed an order of priests, called the Salii, 
to watch over their safety in the temple. It was so called, 
according to Ovid, because it was rounded, or had all its 
angles cut oft'. 
Ovid. Fast. 1. 3, v. 377. 

Idijue ancUe vocat ; quod ab otmti parte recisum est, 
(iuaqiu; uotei oculit, angulttsomnis ahest. 

The ancile was generally supposed to have fallen on the 
calends, or first of March, on which day the feast of Mars 
and Juno was celebrated, which were called, on that ac- 
count, the Ancilia, or feast of the Ancilia, when the priests 
carried the .\ncilia in solcnm ])rocession round the city, 
dancing, and singing praises in honour of the god Mars. 
lirg. jKn. 1. 8, v. (i(i4. 

IVic exultantes Saiwi, im'lo:>quc LupLinis, 
Laiiii:eTosque ajyicet, et lapsa ancilia citlu 


Juven. sat, ^, v. 12j. 

Avcano qui Siicraf ri>ns uutantta loTo 
Hadunt dupeis aJicitibus. 

Ovid. Fait. 1. 3, v. 259. 

Qiih mild 7mnc died, quire ealestia Marlio 
AnmiJWant Salii. 

During the celebration of this festival all public or im- 
portant business was suspended ; and it was deemed unfor- 
tunate to undertake an expedition or to be married on those 
days. Dionys. Hal. 1. 2; Val. Max. 1. 1,-c. 1 ; Liv. 1. 1, 
c. 20 ; Tacit. Hist. 1. 1, c. 89 ; Suet, in Otho. c. 8 ; Pint, 
in Num.; Obscq. de Prod. c. 104- ; Schnl. in Horal. Carin. 
I. 3, od. 5, V. 10 ; Serv. in Xn. 1. 7, v. 188; Fest. do Signif. 
Verb. °/ 

Ancile (Niimis.) the form of the ancile, or sacred shield 
[vide Ancile'} is mostly compared to the 
Thraeian pella, which it resembled in its 
circular or crescent-like form, as may be 
observed in the annexed figure, the reverse 
of a monetal coin of the Licinian family, 
representing the ancilia on each side the 
apex, or priest's cap. This is supposed by 
Vaillant to have been struck by Publius Licinius Stolo, in 
honour of Augustus, on his triumphant return from S3ria; 
the inscription Publius S T O L O ill. V I R. Vaill. Numis. 
Impcr. Rom. ; Patin. Num. Imp. Horn. ; Beg. Brand. Then. 
tom. 2 ; Morctl. Thesaur. Numis. 

ANCl'STRUM (Bot.) a genus of plants, 2 Diandria, 
Order 1 Monng^nia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — CoR. su- 
perior. — St. \yi. filaments cnpillarj'; anthers roundish. — 
Pi.sT. germ oblong ; style filiform; stigma pencil- shaped, 
— Per. none ; seed single. 
Species. The species are perennials, as — Ancistrum de- 
cumbens, latebrosnm, Sec. Linn. Spec. Plant. 

ANCLA'BRA (Ant.) brazen vessels which the priests used 
in their sacrifices. Fesl. de Signif. Verb. 

A'NCLE (/Inat.) the malleolus, which is either outer, ej:- 
ternus, or inner, inlernus. [vide Malleolus] 

A'NCON (-'1««/.) u'/x.'ii', the elbow; the gibbous eminence, 
or flexure of the cubit, on which we lean, being the 
greatest of the two apophyses of the Ulna, and the same 
as the olecranon. Ruf. Fphes. de Appel. Part. Corp. 
human. 1. 1, c. 10 ; OriL 1. 25, c. 1 ; Castell. Lex. Med. 

ANCON.E'US (Anat.) the same as Cnbitalis musculiis. 

ANCO'NES (Archit.) from uyxan, the elbow; the consoles or 
ornaments cut on the corners of arches. Vitruv. de Archit. 
1. 4, c. (). 

ANCO'NY (Mcch.) a bloom or mass of iron wrought into the 
figure of a flat bar. 

A'NCORA (Ant.) vide Anchora. 

Angora (Min.) Calx. 

ANCORA'LIA (.-lilt.) or ancorarii Junes ; the ropes to which 
the anchors were fixed. The Venetians, according to 
Ca;sar, used chains instead of ropes. Cccs. de Bell, Cirdl. 
1. 3, c. 15; Liv. I. 22, c. 19. 

ANCORA'LIS (Anat.) the same as Caracoides Processus. 

A'NCRED (Her.) vide Anchored. 

A'NCTEli (Surg.) iyxTiif, from uyx-a, to constrict. 1. The 
fibula or button by which the lips of wounds are Iield to- 
gether. 2. That part of the neck which is subject to 
choaking. Cels. 1. 5, c. 26 ; Gal, de Meth, Med. 1. 1 ; Gorr. 
Def. Med. 

ANCU'BITUS (Med.) that affection of the eyes in which 
they seem to contain sand. 

ANCUMULE'NTiE (Ant.) women in the time of their men- 
struation who are supposed to have contracted an inquina- 
mcntum. i'crb. Signif. 

ANCY'LE (Ant.) vide Ancile. 


Ancyle {Med.} a fixation of the joints from a settlement of 
the humours. Hippocrat. cle Art.; Cels.l. 5, c. 18, &c.; 
Gal. Defin. Med.; Aet. Tetrab. 2, serm. -i, c. 36; Paul. 
JEi^inct. de Re Med. 1. ■!•, c. 55 ; Scribon. Larg. de Compos. 
Med. c. 104'; Gon: Defin. Med.; Foes, (l^coiiom. Ilip- 

AXCY'LIA {Ant.) vide Ancile. 

AXCYLOBLE'PHARON (Med.) ^yzvx,/3>.i<p_ccf6;, from ^V"-'- 
>(K, curved or closed, and ^xicpxfo-i, the eyelid ; a disease of 
the eye which closes the eyelids. Cels. de Re Med. 1. 7, c. 
7 ; Paul /Egiitet. de Re Med. 1. 6, c. 15 ; Gon: Def. Med. 

ANCY'LOGLOSSU^I (Med.) Ur'^vi.i'/>,o!r<ro^, from «'7"^««, 
crooked, and y'/.uira-u, the tongue, tongue-tied ; a contrac- 
tion of the ligaments of the tongue so as to hinder the 
speech. Aet. Tetrab. 2, serm. 4, c. 3G ; Paul. Algbiel. de 
Re Med. 1. 6, c. 39 ; Gorr. Drjin. Med. 

ANCYLOISIE'LE ( Surg.) a'/xuxii;, crooked, and |W.iiA>;, a knife; 
a surgeon's probe. Gorr. Defin. Med. 

ANCYLO'SIS (Med.) the same as Aneijle. 

ANCYLO'TOMOS (Surg.) i2yxi/X<irc/j,<ic, from dyxCxci, crook- 
ed, and Ttj/ijva, to cut ; any crooked surgical knife. Paul. 
JEgiiiet. apud Gorr. Def. Med. 

A'NCYIIA (Su)g.) from dyxupx, an anchor; a surgical hook. 
Epicharmus gives the same name to the membrum virile. 
Gorr. Def. Med. 

ANCYIIO'IDES (Anat.) or coracoides ; the name of a pro- 
cess from the upper part of the neck of the Scapula, or 
shoulder-blade, resembling an anchor, from which it takes 
its name. RuJ". de Appell. Part, Human. Corp. 1. 2, 
c. 2 ; Oribas. Med. Coll. I. 25, c. 1 . 

A'NDA (Bot.) a tree; the wood of which is spongy and 
light. The fruit Is said to be p\irgative. 

ANDA'BAT^E (.'J«/.) gladiators who fought blindfolded; 
whence the proverb Andabatarum more, denoting rash and 
inconsiderate measures. Cic. ad. Fam. 1.7; Hieron. contra 
Jovian.; Rhodig. Antiq. Led. 1. 11, c. 11 ; Turneb. Adv. 1. 
19, c. 8 ; Alex. Gen. Dier. 1. 6, c. 22. 

ANDA'XTE (J/;(s.) Italian for exact and just time in play- 
ing, so as to keep the notes distinct from each other, 
chiefly in respect to the thorough bass. — Andante largo 
signities that the music must be slow, the time exactly 
observed, and each note distincL. 

AXDAXTi'NO (7l/».?.) an Italian word for gentle, tender ; 
somewhat slower than Andante. 

A'NDAIIAC (Chem.) red orplment. 

A'NDA.S (Chem.) a solution of salt. 

A'NDERA (Archceol.) 1. A swath in mowing. 2. As much 
ground as a man can stride over at once. 

ANDI'UA (Bot.) a tree of Brazil, the bark, wood, and fruit 
of which are as bitter as aloes. G. Pison. Med. Bras. 

Asi>\H\ guacu (Zool.) a kind of bat, in Brazil, the tongue 
and heart of which are reckoned poisons. 

A'NDIRONS (Mech.) or Hand-Irons, according to Skinner; 
irons placed before the grate of a kitchen chimney for the 
spits to turn in, or for the chimney of a chamber wheie 
wood may be laid. They are so called because they may 
be taken up by the hand. 

ANDRA'CHNE (Bot.) «»<J(,«J2"') or attice, ki^fix>^i\ the name 
of a tree like a strawberry-tree, which, according to Pliny, 
answered most to the Portulaca or Purslain of the Latins. 
This name has, however, been given to many other 
plants. Theophrast. Hist. Plant. 1. 7, c. 'i ; Dioscor. 1. 2, 
c. 15 ; Plin. 1. 13, c. 22 ; Gal. de Simpl. 1. 6 ; Oribas. Med. 
Coll. 1. 15; Hellad. apud. Phot. Bibliothek ; Phavorin. 
Lex. ; Aet. Tetrab. 1, serm. 1 ; Gorr. Defin. Med. 

Andrachne, in the Linnean si/stem, a genus of plants, 

Class 21 Monoecia, Order 11 Gynandria. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth five-leaved. — Cor. 

petals five ; nectary leaflets five. — Stam. filaments five ; 

fl?iMfri simple. — Pist. germ superior; styles three ; stig- 


mas globose. — Per. capsule globose-trilobate ; seeds in 
Species. There are but few species of this genus, which 
are shrubs. Linn. Spec, Plant. 

Andrachne Theuphrasti (Bot.) the Arbutus andrachne of 

ANDRANOTOOIIA (Anat.) from un'„ vir, and i.a7-<>^.i ; 
tlie dissection of a male subject. Cast ell. Lex. Med, 

A'NDRAPHAX (Bot.) d.ffx<pxi, stinking orache : the Che-' 
nnpodium vul<rare of Llnnarus. Hippocrat. de Mul. 

ANDRAPODOCAPE'LOI (Ant.) ».»c>^oA>c^fr«A<,., from «.- 
Jfia,ToJ()», a slave, and xafr-i/o;, a seller ; a slave merchant or 
dealer, who attended the slave market at Athens to dis- 
pose of their slaves. Galen. 

ANDRAPODI'STES (Ant.) i.^a^-oJ^.s-Jis, slave-mongers who 
were mostly kidnappers that stole children to sell them, for 
which the Thessalians were noted, according to Aristo- 
Aristoph, Pint, act 2, seen. 5. 

ANDRE'NA (Ent) a division of the genus o;;/i, according 
to Fabriclus, consisting of those insects of this tribe having 
the tongue three-cleft. 
ANDRE'OLITE (Min.) cross-stone; a species of stone of 

the zeolite fomily. 
A'NDREW, St. Knights of (Her.) an order instituted by 
Peter the Great, in 1698. The badge of this order is a 
gold medal, on one side whereof is represented St. An- 
drew's, with these words : " Cazar Pierre Monarque 
de toute la Russie." — St, Andreto's Cross was in the form of 
the letter X. 
Andrew's day, St. (Ecc.) a festival celebrated in the Chris- 
tian church on the 30th of November, in honour of the 
apostle St. Andrew. 
A'NDRIA (.4nt.) "AKiJfia, a name given to the public enter- 
tainments In Crete, which were called by the Spartans 
(fiJiTicj. Plut. in Lycurg. 
Andria (Lit.) the title of one of Terence's plays. 
Andiua (Med.) an hermaphrodite. 
AXDRO'CHiA (.-Irchtcol.) a name given, by Fleta, to a 

milk-maid. Flet. L2, c. S7. 
ANDROGENI'A (Med.) uv^foyitact, from am^, homo, and 

yiytxii, gigno ; a propagation of the male sex. 
ANDROGEO'NIA (Ant.) atofoyiwta, annual games cele- 
brated in the Ceramicus at Athens, by the command of 
jMInos, in memory of his son Androgeos, who was murdered 
by the Athenians. Plut. in Thes. ; Hesych. Lex. 
ANDRO'GYNA dichogamia (Bot.) the same as Dicho- 

ANDRO'GYNE (Med,) avS'^ayln, hom dtr.^, ^muxi, and ',«>!, 
a woman ; hermaphrodites, or effeminate men. Hippocrat, 
de Vict, in Acut, Morb, 
ANDRO'GYNOUS (Bot.) androgynus, from ii>\c, a man, 
and v!">i, a woman ; an epithet for plants bearing male and 
female flowers on the same root, without any mixture of 
hermaphrodites : androgynous plants are found mostly In 
the Class Monoecia. 
Androcynous is also an epithet for flowers having stamens 

or pistils only. 
Androgynous (Astrol.) an epithet for a planet that is some- 
times hot and sometimes cold. 
ANDRO'IDES (Mech.) the name given to an automaton in 
the form of a man, who, by means of springs, walks, talks, 
handles, &c. like a man. 
A'NDROLEPSY (Ant.) a.t^(o>.is^'M, from a.<\^, a man, and 
A«fA/3«»», to seize ; an action, according to the laws of 
Athens, against such as protected murderers, by which the 
relations of the deceased were empowered to seize three 


men in the city or house where the malefactor had fled, 
till he either surrendered or satisfaction was made in some 
other way for the murder. Demosthen. contra Aristocrat.; 
Pull. Onomast. 1. 8, c. 6. 

ANDRO'MACHI Iheriaca (Med.) tlie treacle of Andro- 
machus, the physician ; or Venice treacle, consisting of 
more than sixty in<;redients. Gal. de Aiitidot. \. 2; Act. 
Tetrnh. Vo, serin. 3, c. 13; Act. de Metk. Med. 1. 5, c. 6 ; 
Mt/rep. de Pil. sec. 32. 

ANURO'MEDA (Aslron.) a.-.i'fcyA, a constellation of the 
Northern hemisphere, containing 23 stars according to 
Ptolemy, and 27 stars according to Kepler and Bayer, of 
which the three principal are of the second magnitude, 
altiiough Ptolemy reckons them to be of the third; namely, 
the first, in the" head, which is called 'iiu,<pxXci 'luTns ; the 
second, in the girdle, called by the Arabians mirach ; and 
the third, in the Southern foot, called alamak. This con- 
stellation is called by the Arabians marah muiulselelh, or 
the woman chained ; because Andromeda is represented as* 
a female bound to a rock, according to the fable of the 
Greeks, who say that Andromeda, the daughter of Cassio- 
peia, was bound to a rock by the Nereids, and afterwards 
released by Perseus. 
Maiiil. Astroyiom. 1. 1, v. 355. 

Anilrntnedam vastps vtetueiitcm piscis hiatus 
Kiposilum ;«'iilo dejiit, scopulis que reiuulnm 
Ke rctircoi JVrscus calo qmnjue senel anwrem 
Aiiiiliitque jiivct. 

Arat. de Apparent, v. 197; Hlpparch. in Aral.; Ili/gin. 
Astronom. Poet.; Eratosthen Asterism ; Ptol. Almagest. 
I. 7, c. 5. 
ANDno.MED.A [Bot.) a genus of plants. Class 10 Decandria, 
Order 1 Monogi/nia. 

Generic Clinracters. Cai.. perianth five-parted. — Con. 
monopetalous. — Stam. filaments subulate; anthers two- 
horned. — PisT. germ roundish; style cylindric ; stigma 
obtuse. — Per. capsule roundish ; partitions contrary ; 
seed's very many. 
Species. The species are mostly shrubs, and natives of 
Lapland, North America, and Kussia, as the Andromeda 
tetragona, paniculata, cali/culala, S(C.; but the Andromeda 
palijhlia, Erica humilis seu Rhododendron. Marsh An- 
dromeda, is a native of Britain. Rail Hist. Plant.; 
Pink. Almagest. Botan. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
ANDllO'NION, i. e. Andronis pistdli (Med.) trochees of 

ANDUOPO'CON (Bot) from i>y.^, a man, and ^iy', a 
beard; a genus of grasses, Cla.?s 23 Polijgamia, Order 1 
en eric Characters. Cal. a glume. — Con. a glume; nec- 
tary two-leaved. — Stam. Jltaments three; anthers ob- 
long. — PiST. germ oblong; ilyles two; stigmas obtuse. 
— Pi;n. none ; seed solitary. 
Species. Tlie species are very numerous in the Linnean 
system, and are some of them called, by other writers, 
Lagnrus, as the Andropognn divaricalum, nardus, &c. 
some Festuca, as Andropogon di>,tachium, /lartum, &c. 
some Chloris, as the Andropogon pubescens,J'ascicnlatum, 
pnli/dactijlon, &c. ./. Bauh. Hist. Plant.; Rail Hist. 
Plant. ; Pink. Almag. Botan. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
.\'N])H()SAC1'; (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 5 Pentaiidria, 
Order 1 Monogijnia. 

Generic Character. Cal. involucre many-leaved; perianth 
one-leaved. — Cob. monopetalou.s ; tube ovate; border 
flat ; divisions ovate-oblong ; throat beset with glands. — 
Stam. fdamcnts very siiort; anthers oblong. — PiST. 
germ globose; .v/j//t' filiform ; stigma globose. — Pek. cap- 
snle globose ; seeds very many ; receptacle erect. 
Species. Some of the species are annuals, as — Androsace 
viaxima seu Alsini nffinis, Oval-leaved Androsace. — An- 


drosace septentrionalis, Aretia seu Alsine verna. Tooth- 
leaved Androsace, &-c. ; but some are perennials, as the 
— Androsace lactea, Aretia seu Scdum Alpinum, Grass- 
leaved .\ndrosace. — .4ndrosnce odoratissima seu orientalis. 
— Androsace chamtejasme seu Sedum minus, dvc. J. Bauh, 
Hist. Plant. ; C. Bauh. Pin. ; Ger. Herb.; Fark.Theat. 
Botan.; Rati Hist. Plant. ; 2'ourncf. Inst.; Boerhaiv. 
Index Plant.; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
ANDROSA'CHE (Nat.) Sea Navel-wort; a submarine pro- 
duction found on the rocks and shells of fishes. Its powder 
is diuretic 
Andkosaciie f//n;)c»,w'rz (Bot.) the Aretia Helvetica of Lin- 
nsEus. — Androsache caulcsccns, the Aretia Alpina of Lin- 
ANDROS.E'MUM (Bot.) i.4ocr«i/*«., Tutsan or Park-leaves ; 
a sort ofhypericum, the flower of which yields juice like 
man's blood, whence it h caWcA ct. a'j'.<ri/.iujo', andmstcnioii, 
u.iS'fo^ ciiji^x, i. e. man's blood. The leaves, when bruised, 
yield a resinous smell : the seed pounded and drunk in a 
decoction, was reckoned good for the bile. Dio'cor. 1. 2, 
c. 172 ; Plin. 1. 27, c. 4 ; Gal. de Simpl. I. 4- ; Oribas. Med. 
Coll. 1. 15; Aet. Telrab. 1, serm. 1 ; Paul. Alginet. de Re 
Med. 1. 7, c. 3 ; Lem. dcs Drog. 
Andro.s.t!mom, in the Linnean system, the name of several 

species of the Hypericum. 
A'NDRUM (Med.) an epidemic disease on the coast of Ma- 
labar, the same as the Hydrocele. 
ANDRY'ALE (Bot.) from «'4°5 ''-'i, i- e. tiie wandering of a 
man ; a genus of plants. Class' 19 Syngenesia, Order 1 
Polygamia ^-Equalis. 

Generic Characters. Cal. common. — Con. compound um- 
bricate ; corrullnles hermaphrodite. — Stam. Jilamcnts 
five; anthers cylindrical. — Pist. germ ovate; style fili- 
form; stigmas two. — Peh. none; seeds solitary; do\i;n 
capillary ; receptacle villose. 
Species. The species are mostly perennials, as the Andry- 
ale cheira)ithi folia, pinnatifiila seu Hieracium incanum,S,c-; 
but the Andryale integrijolia seu Souchns villosus, Hairy 
Androsace, is an annual. ./. Bauh. Hi.'.t. Plant.; ('. 
Bauh. Pin.; Park. Theut. Botan. ; Rail Hist. Plant.; 
Linn. Spec. Plant. 
TO AN'EAL (Mech.) to bake or harden glass, tiles, &c. in 

the fire. 
A'NEE (Com.) a corn measure in France, containing six 

A nee (Com.) a French measure for grain, equal to as much 

as an ass can carry. 
A'NlXiRAS (Com.) a measure of corn used in Seville, above 

half a ))eek English. 
ANEILE'MA (Sled.) '.\.-iiXr,ujx, an involution of the parts 

occasioned by the gripes. Hippocrat. de let. Med. 
ANE'MILS //(/-(H/s (Alch.) a wind furnace, used for making 

strong fires. 
ANEMO'METER (Aer.) from anf/j^n, the wind, and /jutTfoi', 
a measure ; an instrument for measuring the force of the 
wind, which was invented by Wolfius. 
ANE'MONE (Bot.) avift-mri, a plant so called, i-« t5 a/i/iyx, 
from the wind, because it is ciisily destroyed by the wind, 
to which Ovid refers. 
Ovid. Met. 1. 10, V. 737. 

. ■ hrfvis est tamen usus in itio. 

Kamque male harentem, et nimid leiitatecaducum 
liicutitiiit iilem, qui prastant nomitta.venti. 

It is fabled to liave sprung from the tears of Venus, on 

the death of Adonis, according to 

Bion. Idyl, 1. 

A! «i' Tav xvSifiiai, aTuMn kxXci; ' A^aivii 
Axx(vci a. Ux(pin ritrm 'iKxi^', o'irroi' ' Muni 
ATf/^a Xiu, ric }i fratra xori x^cvl ylyiiTxi ccfiii 


otliers, according to the Scholiast on Tlieociites, make it 
to have sprung from the blood of Adonis. It is reckoned 
to be detersive and aperient. Theop/irnst. I. 6, c. 7 ; 
Dioscor. 1. 2, c. 207 ; PUn. 1. 21, c. 23 ; Orihas. Med. Coll. 
1. 15; Aet. Tctrab. !•, serm. 3, c. 12; Paul. jEginet. de Re 
Med. 1. 7, c. 3. 
Anemone, in the Linnean .tystem, a genus of plants, Class 13 
Po/i/aiulria, Order 7 Piily^ynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. none. — Cor. petals in two or 
three rows. — St. \'aineiits numerous ; anthers twin. — 
PisT. perms numerous ; sti/ks acuminate ; stigmas ob- 
tuse. — Peh. none ; recepiacle globular or oblong ; seeds 
very many. 
Species. The species are perennials, as — Anemone Hepa- 
tica, Hepatica seu Trifoliiim hepaticum, Hepatica. — 
Anemone putens seu Pu/sniilla patens. Woolly-leaved 
Anemone. — Anemone Alpina seu Burseriana, Alpine 
Anemone, <S:c. &c. J. Batih. Hist. Plant.; C. Bauh. 
Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Botan. ; Rail Hist. 
Plant, ; Tournef. Inst. ; Boerharv. Ind. Plant. ; Linn. 
Spec. Plant. 
AXEMOXOSPE'RMOS (Bot.) the Arctotis aspera and 

Gnrtcria rir^cns of Linnaeus. 
AKEMO'SCOPE (Mech.) from a.s,ti»., the wind, and o-yt^zt^, 
to behold ; an instrument for foretellinjj the changes of the 
wind and weather. Sucli an instrument was invented by 
Otto Guerick, consisting of a little man in a glass tube, 
which rose and fell according to the changes of the 
weather. Acta Ernd. 1664-. 
AN E'XD [Mar.) perpendicular, as applied to any mast or 
boom. The top mast is an end when hoisted up to its 
usual station at the head of the lower masts. 
A'NEOS [Med.) i-ft?, deprived of voice and reason. 
ANE'THINUM -cinum nut oleum [Med.) cii)iSi»o? oi'm;, a ])re- 
paration of wine or oil with Anethum. Dioscor. 1. 5, c. 75. 
ANETHO'XULA (Bot.) the woody root of Dill. Mi/rep. 

sect. 8, c. 52. 
ANE'THU.M (Bot.) «>!:««, probably changed from a«Mt6m, 
or an'y.tiri^y, unconquered, to denote its power; Dill, a 
plant so called because it sharpens the appetite. It was 
used for garlands by the ancients. 
l^heocrit. idyl. 7. 

¥.',yu 7r.i(> r.x6' uu,a», iviliicv, y. fcaitir* 
W KXt >.tVKCiiJV ei^tcvai T£pi xfATi ^•j\i(rcuf 
■lit ~TsMXTiKoi oi'ot «To xfiiTtifc; ulfuia 

X\a^ TTVfl K£K>(jU/Eva^, 

Virg. Eclog. 2, v. 48. 

Sarctisum et Jiorem Jungit bene olentis anethi. 

and formed, according to Plinius Valerius, a principal 
ingredient in the food given to the athleta;, on account of 
its nutritious ijualit}'. Dioscor. 1. 3, c. G7 ; Plin. 1. 20, 
c. 18; Oridas. Si/nop. 1. 1, c. 22; Plin. Valer. 1. 4, c. 27. 
AsETHUM, in the Linnean si/stem, a genus of plants. Class 5 
Pentandiia, Order 2 Digi/nia. 

Generic Characters. Cai,. umbel, universal and partial, 
manifold; involucre neither universal nor partial ; ^en- 
antli proper, obsolete. — CoR. universal \xm(onn -^Jioscules 
all fertile ; proper petals five. — St.x^j. filaments capillary ; 
anthers roundish. — PisT. germ inferior; s/j//ra approxi- 
mating ; stigmas obtuse. — Per. none; fruit subovate ; 
seeds two. 
Species. The species are — Anethum grnveoleiis seu hor- 
tense. Common Dill, an annual, native of Portugal. — 
Anethum segetum seu sylvestre, S^c. seu Fceniculnm Lu- 
shanicum, S)C. an annual, native of Portugal. — Anethum 
fceniculum, Fceniculnm dulce seu Ligusticum fcenicuhim. 
Fennel or Finckle, a perennial, native of Britain. 
J. Bauhin. Hist. Plant.; C. Bauhin. Pin. Theat.; Ger. 
Herb.; Park. Theat. Botan.; Rail Hist. Plant.; 


Tourn. List, Herb. ; Boerh. Ind. Plant.; Linn. Spec. 

ANETICUS (Med) airsTiKk, from anifj.!, to remit; assuaging 
pain, an epithet applied to remedies. Castell. Lev. Medic. 

A'NELTIISM ( Med.) a's-jfia-f^ik, from anvfjim, to dilate; a tu- 
mour in the arteries from excessive dilatation. Gal. De- 
finit. Med.; Act. Tetrab. 7, serm. 3, c. 10; Paul. jEginet. 
'de Re Med. 1. G, c. 37. 

AXFE'LTYHDE (Archienl.) Anfcaliihlc, a simple accusa- 
tion from which, according to the Saxon law, a man might 
be discharged upon his own oath and that of two men, in 
distinction fro.n the Accusatio triplex, which required the 
oaths of five more. Leges Adelstani apud Brompton. 

A'XGAUI (Ant.) a Persian word for post-boys or couriers, 
who were employed to carry letters, and go on different 
errands. .luscph. Antiq. 1. il, c. 6 ; Hcsijchius et Suidas ; 
Rhodig. Antiq. Led. 1. iS. 

ANGA'RIA (Ant.) the post-office or post-houses where the 
angari or post-bovs stopped, [vide Angari'\ 

ANGEIOTO.MY (.inat.) -..yyi^r.-r^wU, from a'/yst., a vessel, 
and Ttu^-ici, to cut; a dissection of the blood vessels, consist- 
ing of arteriotomy, and phlebotomy. 

A'NGEL (Numis.) an English gold coin, equal to Qs. 8c/.; 
so called from its having the impression of an angel on it, 
as in the subjoined figure of a coin of Edward the Fourth, 
which represents the archangel .Michael standing with one 

foot on the dragon, which he is piercing with liis spear, the 
upper end of which terminates in a cross, the inscription 
on the reverse, a ship, with a large cross for the mast, the 
letter E on the right side, and a rose on the left ; on the 
side of the ship the arms of England quartered with those 
of France, the inscription PER CRUCEM TU.\ SALUA 

Angel shot (Gun.) a cannon bullet cut in two, and the 
halves linked together with a chain. 

Angel bed (Mech.) an open bed without bed posts. 

ANGEL^s/i (Ich.) the [ii>>) of Aristotle, the Squatina of Pliny, 
the Ange or Angelot of Belonius, the Monk or Angel-fish of 
Ray, the Squalus squatina of Linna?us, a fish, which connects 
the genus of Rays and Sharks. It differs from both in tlie 
situation of its mouth, which is placed at the extremity of 
the head. It is extremely voracious and fierce, and, like 
the Rays, feeds on flounders and flat-fish. The aspect of 
this fish is extremel}' malignant, and its skin very rough. 
Aristot. Hist. Anim. 1. 5, c. 5 ; Plin. 1. 9, c. 12 ; Athcii. 
1. 7, c. 19 ; Uppian. Halicut. 1. 1 ; Rondel. Gessn. de Pis. 
Will. Ichth. ; Raii Synop. Pise. 

A'XGELET (Sumis.) a gold coin equal to half an angel, 
[vide Angel] 

ANGE'LIC Habit (Ecc.) angelica vesti^, ayyiXiKin irx.'U'X-; a 
monkish garment which laymen put on a little before their 
death, that they might have the benefit of the prayers of 
the monks. Allat. de Cons. Eccl. Occid. et Orient. 1. 3, c. 8 ; 
Eucholog. Grcccor. p. 499. 

AXGE'LICA (Bot.) from the angelic virtue ascribed to it, 
a genus of plants, Class 5 Pentandria, Order 2 Digynia. 
Generic Characters. Cal. universal umbel manifold. — 
Cor. universal uniform; partial petals five. — Stam. fila- 
ments simple; anthers simple. — Pist. germ inferior; 
styles reflex ; stigmas obtuse. — Per. none ; fruit round- 
ish ; seeds two. 



Species. The species are biennials, as the Angelica arc- 
angelica and lucida ; or perennials, as the Angelica si/l- 
vestris, vcrticillaris, &c. J. Bauhin. Hist. Plant. ; 
C. Bauhin. Pin. Thent. ; Gcr. Herb.; Park. T/ieal. Bo- 
tan.; Rail Hist. Plaid.; Tourn. Inst, Herb.; Boerh. 
Ind. Plant. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 

Angelica is also the name of several species, as the Chfcro- 
phyllum aromaticitm, the Cinila macnlata, the Lascrpilium 
latifoliiim Smyrnium, and Aman of LinncEus. C. Bauhin. 
Pin., Sec. — Angelica-tree, the Arabia spinosa of Lin- 

ANGE'LIC^'E (Ecc.) an order of nuns who had two houses 
in Italy, at iNIilan, and C'remnna. It was founded by 
Louisa Torelli, countess of Cniastalli, by permission of 
Pope Paul III. in \5'Si. Hellot. Hist, dcs Ord. Man. 
toni. iv. c. 16. 

ANGE'LICI {Ecc.) 'AyvjAucoi, heretics of the third century, 
.so called, as Epiphanius thinks, because they believed that 
the world was made by angels ; and Augustin adds that 
they also worshipped angels. Kpiphnn. Hccres. 6 ; Au- 
gustin. Hceres. 39; Baron. Annnl. Ann. 3t>0. 

Angelici (Her.) an order of knighthood, instituted in 1191, 
by Angelus Flavius Comnenus, emperor of Constantinople. 

ANGE'LICUS pulvis (Chcm.) mercury. 

ANGERONA'LIA {Ant.) a festival celebrated at Rome on 
the 12th Kal. Jan. i. e. the 21st of December, in honour 
of the goddess Angerona, to whom sacrifices were offered 
in the curia or senate-house. Varro dc Lai. Ling. 1. 5 ; 
Gyrald. Syntag. Dear. 1, p. 57 ; Vaill. Numism. hnperal. 
vol. 2 ; Vrsat. de Not. Roman, apud Grcev. Thes. Antiq. 
Roman, tom. ii, p. 675. 

A'XGI {Med.) buboes or tumours in the groin, 

AXGIGLO'SSI (Med.) Stammerers. 

A'XGILD {Laxv) a single fine for an offence, in distinction 
from the txvogild and tri-gild, the double and treble fine. 
Laics of Ina. 

A'NGINA {Med.) xway^vi, from xyx.^, to strangle, or suf- 
focate; the Quinsey [vide Ci/nanche'], a disease in the 
throat, of which three species are mentioned by the an- 
cients, namely, Angina atjuusa, /Ingina gangrirnosa, and 
Angina slridula, the Croup. Hinpocrat. de Prognost. ; Curat. Morb. Acut. 1. 1, c. 7 ; Cels. de Re Med. 
1. '}•, c. 4 ; Gal. de Loc. Affect. 1. 4- ; Act. Telrab. 2, serm. 4, 
c. 47 ; Alex. Trallian. 1.'4, c. 1 ; Act. de Melh. Med. 1. 2, 
c. 1 ; Gorr. Defin. Med. ; Foes. CEconom. Hippocrat. — 
Angina pectoris, a disease described by Ur. Heberdeen, 
consisting of an acute constrictory pain at the lower end of 
the sternum. 

ANGIOLO'GIA {Med.) from iyviiov, a vessel, and Aoyo?, a 
speech ; Angiology, the doctrine of the arteries, nerves, 
and other vessels. Gal. Introduc. 

ANGKJP'TEKIS {Bot.) the Onoclca of Linnsus. 

ANGIOSPE'RMIA {Bot.) from «y-/7../, a vessel, and 
a-^ifim, seed, i. c. Seed included in a vessel or capsule ; an 
epithet for the second Order of the 14 th Class Diiti/namiu, 
including the genera, haiiiig the Calyces undivided : as — 
Algineliii, 'I'anaecinm. Those having the Calyces bifid, 
as — Orobanche, IJroomrape ; Crescentia, Calabash-tree; 
Obolaria ; Hebenstreitin; Torenia ; Ciistilleia ; Acanthus; 
Premiia. Those having the Calyces trifid, as — I/iilleria. 
Those having the Calyces (juadrifid, as — Lalhrtca ; Eu- 
phrasia, Eye-bright; Rhinantlius, Vellow Rattle ; Mclam- 
jn/rum. Cow Wheat ; Lippia ; Bartsin ; Schualbea ; Bnr- 
terin ; Laesclia ; Gmelinu ; Liiutiina. Those having the Ca- 
lyces five cleft, as — Limosellu ; Avicennia ; I'ozzia ; I'haij- 
lopsis ; Broxvallia ; Brunsfehia ; Holmskioldia ; Lindernia; 
Co'iobea ; Culumnca ; Vandellia ; Rus.ielia; Scroplnilaria ; 
Digitalis, Fox Glove; Antirrhinum, Snap Dragon ; 
Fluellin, Toad Flax ; J'cdicularis, Louse Wort ; Mimulus, 
JMonkev Flower; Scsamum, Oily Grain; Alectra ; Ges- 
3 I 

neria ; Ci/rilla ; Stemodia ; Achimenes ; Celsia ; Hcmi- 
meris; Sibthorpia; Capraria ; Bignonia ; Iiicai~villea; Ruel- 
lia; Buchucra; Erinus; Pctrea ; Mamilea ; Anarrhinum ; 
Gerardia ; Dodartia ; Chelone ; Pcntstemon ; Glo.xinia ; 
Tourretia ; Marti/nia ; Maurandia ; Mi'lingtonia ; Tars 
tula ; Pedalium ; Linnea ; Cornulia ; Ovieda ; Amasonia ; 
Besleria ; Bantia ; Spiclmannia; fV/cx, Chaste-Tree ; i\/;/o- 
porum ; Citharexylun ; I'olkameria ; Clerodendron ; Du- 
ranta. Calyces many cleft, as — Hi/ohanche ; Lepidagathis ; 
Ci/mbarin ; Thunbergia ; Melianthus, Honey-Flower. 

ANGIOSPE'RMOS {Hot.) an epithet for any"flower having 
its seed included in .i capsule, in distinction from those that 
arc Gymnospcrmos, or naked seeded ; hence also plants are 
likewise denominated Angiospermin, of which description is 
the second order in the Class Didynamia. [vide Angio- 
sperm hf\ 

AN'GLE (Math.) from the Greek uyxuMz, bent, denotes the 
inclination of two lines, or planes, to each other, which 
meet together in a point called the vertex or angular point. 
The lines are called the legs or sides of the angle, which 
is named either by one letter, as A, or by three letters, as 
B A C, the middle of which always stands for the angle to 
be described. Angles are measured by an p,.„ , 

arc of a circle, drawn from the vertex with 
any radius at pleasure, as the arc D E, 
drawn from A, which is a measure of the 
angle B AC, i.e. the angle BA C is said 
to be as many degrees as the arc D E, a 
circle being always supposed to be divided 
into 360 degrees. "' *^ ^ 

Angles in Geometry. 

Angles, as to their magnitude, are right, oblique, or equal. 
A right angle is formed by one t-. „ 

perpendicular right line falling "' 

upon another, as 15 A C, which 
is subtended bj' the quadrant of 
a circle, is consequently equal 
to <)0 degrees. — Oblicjue angle 
is formed by lines not perpen- 
dicular, which are either acute 
or obtuse. — An Acute angle is less than a right angle, 
and consequently less than 90 degrees, as D A 15. — Ob- 
tuse angle is greater than a right angle, and consequently 
more than 90 degrees, as E A B. — Equal angles are 
those whose arcs or measures hm and mo are propor- 
tionate to the radii. 


As to their construction ; angles are rectilinear, cur- 
vilinear, mixed, plane, spherical, solid. Sec. — Recti- 
linear angle is formed by two legs, which are right 
lines, as in the preceding figures — Cur- 
vilinear angle has two curved lines for its '■=' 
legs, as A C B, m Jig. 4, formed by the 'i 
arcs 15 C and A C. — Mixed angle has » \ 
one of its legs a right line, and the other ^\A 
as the angles B C 1), infg. 4, and 15 C E ^^ 
formed by arc 15 C, and the right lines 1) C 
DC or CE, so also ACD or ACE 
curved. — Plane ant^le is the inclination ''■ 
of two lines in the same plane, and meeting in a point. 
The above-mentioned angles are all of this descrip- 
tion. — Spherical angle is an angle formed on the surface 
of the sphere by the intersection of two great circles, 
or the inclination of the planes of those circles, as 


ADC, in fcr. 5, or B D E.— 
Solid angle is the inclination of 
more than two right hnes tliat 
touch one another, and are not in 
the same superficies, as where two 
walls and the ceiling meet, in which 
case a solid angle is formed by 
three lines. To these may be 
added others less usual, as a — 
Horned angle, made by a right line, whether secant or 
tangent, with the circumference of a circle. — Lunular 
angle, formed by the intersection of two circular lines, 
one convex, and the other concave. — Cissoid angle, an 
inner angle made by two spherical convex lines inter- 
secting each other. — Sistroid angle, in the form of a 
sistrum. — I'elecoid angle, in the form of a hatchet. 
As to their situation ; angles are contiguous, adjacent, 
vertical, alternate, external, internal, &c. — Contigu- 
ous angles have the same vertex, and one leg com- 
mon to both, as ABC E B A. — Adjacent angles are 
those of which the leg of the one produced forms the 
leg of the other, as E B C, fg. 6, and E B D.— 

Fig. 6. Fig. 7. 

/A ^\ 

Vertical, or opposite angles, are those wliich arc made by 
lines cutting or intersecting each other, which are con- 
sequently opposite to each other, as the angles C E A, 

Jig. 7, DEB. An angle in a triangle is 
also said to be opposed to the side that , °' ^' 
subtends it, as the angle B, Jig. 8, to the 
line A C. — Internal angles are those which 
are made within any right lined figure, in 
distinction from the external angles, which 
are placed without the figure. — Internal and 
opposite angles are formed by a line cutting 
two parallel lines, as B G H, ... 

Jig. 9, and G H D, in distinc- ° 

tion from the external angles, \ 
E G B, and D H F.— Alter- _ \Ci 
nale angles are those which »^ 
lie in the opposite sides of 
two parallel lines, as A G H, 
end G H D. — Humologous, or 
like angles, arc those which in 
two separate figures preserve the same order in both.— 
Angles at the centre are those whose vertex is in the 
centre of a circle, as H, Jig. 10, in distinction from 
the angle at the circuniference, whose vertex is in the 
circumference, as D. — The angle in a segment is that 
Fig. 10. Fig. 11. 

which two chords of a circle make with each other 
at the perephery; thus the two chords A B, Jig. 11, 
and C B make the angle B, which is an angle in the 
segment. This angle is said to insist or stand on the 
circumference, which is included by the base of tlie 
•egment, as A D C. — If the angle at the circum- 

ference stand on a semicircle, or has the diameter for 
its base, it is a right angle, and is called an angle in a 
semicircle, as A B C,Jig. 12 ; if it stand on a segment 
greater than a semicircle it is acute, and is called an 
angle in tlie greater segment, as A D C, yiV. 13 ; if on a 
less it is obtuse, and called an angle in the less segment, 
as A G C, Jig. I-!-. Moreover all angles, as ABC, 

A G C, and ADC in a segment, or which stand on 
the same arc, are equal to one another. — An angle 
of a segment is, according to Euclid, that which is con- 
tained b}' a chord, and the circumference of a circle, 
or otherwise that which is made 
by a chord with a tangent at the 
point of contact, as A C D, Jig. 15, 
which is formed by the line A B 
touching the circle, and the chord 
D C. This is also called the angle 
of the less segment, in distinction 
from D C B, which is the angle of 
the greater segment. — An angle of 
contact is that which is formed by a tangent to a curve, 
as A C D. 
Angle (Astron.) is made either by the circles of the sphere, 
which are spherical angles, or of right lines supposed to 
be drawn from the celestial bodies in given positions, 
which are right-lined angles. 

Angles in Astronomy. 

Spherical angles in astronomy are as follow ; namely, the — 
Angle of the ecliptic and meridian, made by an arch of 
the ecliptic and meridian, which is a right angle at the 
solstitial points, and otherwise oblique. — Angle of the 
ecliptic and the horizon, otherwise called the angle of the 
ascendant, or the angle of the East, the angle which 
the portion of the ecliptic above the horizon makes with 
the horizon. — Angle of the ecliptic and equator is the in- 
clination of the axis of the earth to the axis of the 
ecliptic, which is iy IW. — Angle of the equator and the 
meridian, which is always a right angle. — Angle of the 
equator and the horizon, which, in a right sphere, is a 
right angle, in an oblique sphere, oblique. — Angle nf 
the ecliptic and a verticle circle, which is always a right 
angle. — Angle of longitude is the angle which the circle 
of a star's longitude makes with the meridian at the 
pole of the echptic. — Angle of right ascension is the 
angle which the circle of the star's right ascension 
makes with the meridian at the pole of the equator. — 
Angle of the same position is an angle made by the meet- 
ing an arc of the meridian with an arc of the azimuth, 
or any other great circle passing through the body of 
the sun. [vide Astronomi/'] 

The right-lined angles are as fol- 
low ; namely, the — Angle of 
commutation, or the angle at the 
sun, which is the difference be- 
tween the true place of the sun 
when seen from the earth, and 
the place of a planet reduced 

to the ecliptic, as T S B, in the \ ""^- — ' -n- / C 
annexed figure, supposing T B 
to be the orbit of the earth, 


A P G the orbit of the planet, S the Bun, and P the 
planet. — Angle of clongalion, or angle at the earth, is 
the distance of anj' planet from the 
sun with respect to the earth ; the 
greatest elongation is the great- 
est distance which the planet re- 
cedes from the sun, as the angle 
S T D, which supi)06es A B C to re- 
present the orhit of the earth,FD V 
that of Venus, T the earth, V Ve- 
nus, and S the sun. This angle is 
47A, but the greatest elongation 
made by Mercury is not more than 27n. — Paraladk 
nnnle, or angle at the planet, is the difference between 
the two angles, under which the true and apparent 
distances of a planet from the zenith are seen, [vide 
Parallax'] Kepler. Epit. 1. 6; Ricciol. Almag. 1. 1, c. 22 ; 
Keil. Introd. ad Ver. Astron. 
Angle of the rhumb {Mar.) the angle which the rhumb 

line makes with the meridian. 
Angi-f. {Fort.) the inclination of two lines, which are used 
in fortifying, or the erection of a fortification. These are 
divided into two general sorts, real and imaginary, or oc- 
cult. The real angles appear actually in the work itself, 
as the flanked angle, the angle of the epaide, &c. The 
occult, or imaginary angles, are those which only serve 
the purpose of the construction, and no longer exist after 
the work is completed, as the angle at the centre, the 
angle uf the polygon, &c. 

Angles in Fortification. 

The angles in fortification are as follow; namely, the — 

Angle of the exterior figure, or angle of the polygon, is the 

angle intercepted between the two outermost sides, or 

bases of the polygon, as « 6 d, in the subjoined figure, 


formed by the sides a b and h d. — Angle of, or at the 
centre, is the angle formed at the centre of the polygon, 
as a Id. — Angle of the bastion, or iha flanked angle, is 
the angle formed by the two faces of the bastion, as fb c. 
formed by /7i and 4 c It is the outermost part of the 
bastion most exposed to the fire of the enemy. — .Ingle 
of the interior figure, the angle formed in the centre of 
the bastion by the meeting of the iimermost sides of the 
figure k n and n m. — .Ingle if the triangle, half the 
angle of the polygon, as I b a or I b d. — Angle of the 
Jlank or curtin, the angle contained between the curtin 
and the flank, as fh i. — .-Ingle of the cpaule, the angle 
formed by the flank and face of the bastion, b fh. — 
Diminished angle, the angle b a e formed by the meeting 
of the exterior sides of tlie polygon, b a, a c. — .Angle of 
the tenaillc, or exterior flanking angle, the angle formed 
by the two rasant lines of defence, i. e. the two faces of 
the bastion prolonged, as a gb. — Angle flanking inwards 
or upwards, an angle formed by the flanking line with 
the curtin, as k n b. — Re-entering angle, angle re-entrant , 
an angle whose vertex turns inwards towards the place, 
as h or /. — Saiuint, or sortant angle, the angle advancing 
its point towards the field or country, as (• or f. — Ano/,- 
of the circumference, the angle made by the arch, which 
is drawn from one gorge to another — .Angle of the 
conntrrsenrp, the angle formed by the two sides of the 
counterscarp meeting before the middle of the curtin. — 

Angle forming the flank, the angle consisting of one 
flank and one demigorge. — Angle forming the face, the 
angle made by one flank and one face — Angle of tlie 
gorge, the angle formed by the prolongation of the cur- 
tins intersecting each other. — Angle of the complement 
of the line of defence, the angle formed by the inter- 
section of the two complements with each other. — Angle 
of the line of defence, the angle made by the flank and 
the line of defence. — Angle (f'ihe moat, the angle made 
before the curtin where it is intersected.. — Dead angle, 
a re-entering angle not flanked or defended. 
Angle {Opt.) the inclination of any two lines formed by 
the rays of light. 

Angles in Optics. 
The angles in optics, and its brandies, catoptrics, and 
dioptrics are as follow ; namely, the — Optic angle, the 
angle included or contained between the two rays of 
light drawn from the extreme points of an object, 
as A B C, which is comprehended between the rays 
A B and B C. — Angle of the interval is the angle sub- 
tended by two lines drawn from the eye to those ob- 
jects. — .Ingle of incidence is the angle which a ray of 
light forms with a perpendicular at the point where it 
falls or first touches, as A B F, supposing A B to be the 

i> u ]•: 

line representing the incident ray of light, B the point 
at which it falls, and F B the perpendicular. According 
to Dr. Barrow and some others, the angle of incidence 
is the angle formed by the incident line A B and the 
plane D B E, which is acted upon. — .Angle of reflection 
is the angle formed by a reflected ra}' of light with a 
perpendicular at the point of contact, from which it re- 
bounds, as F B C. Upon the equality of these two 
angles is founded the whole science of catoptrics. — 
.Angle of refraction is the angle which a ray of light 
refracted makes with the ray of in- 
cidence, as V N H, supposing D N E 
to be the plane, !\I N the ray of inci- 
dence, N H the ray continued, and 
N F the refracted ray. — Refracted I ' 

angle i.- the angle which a refracted g ' II 

ray makes with a perpendicular to '^ 

the refracting surface ; thus let (j N be perpendicular 
to the refracting surface D E, then is (i N F the re- 
fracted angle. — Angle of inclination is the angle made by 
a ray of incidence and an axis of incidence. Alhazen. 
de Opt. ; Vitell. de Optic. ; Kepler. Paralop. Prop. 5, 
&.C. ; Cartes. Dioptric, c. 2, § 2 ; Htiygen. Dioptric ; 
Kirchcr. Ars. Mag. Luc. et limb. I. 8, c.'2 ; Newt. Opt. 
c. S, § 10, itc; I'oss. de Nat. et Prop. Luc. p. ;JG. 
.\n(;i,e of Emergence (Xat.) the angle which any bodv, 
projected from one fluid or medium into another, makes 
at its going out, or emerging fron), the latter, with a per- 
pendicular to those planes, as 
the angle K G II ; thus, sup- 
pose A B and C 1) to be pa- 
rallel planes bounding water or 
glass, and a body as a ray of 
light, for example, to be pro- 
jected into them at E in the 
direction of F I"., and going out at G in the direction of 
G II ; then G K being made i)erpendicular to A B and 
C D, the angle G II K is the angle of emergence. 

?\ ^\ 



liV E-... 

k! ^ 11 



Akgle (Mech.) the inclination of any two lines supposed to 
be formed by the bodies impelled towards each other. 

Angles in Mechanics. 
The angles in mechanics are— the angle of incidence, the 
angle of reflection, the angle of elevation, and the angle 
of direction. — Angle of incidence, an angle which a line 
of direction of an impinging body makes at the point of 
contact. — Angle nf rejtection, tlie angle which a line of 
direction of a body rebounding after it has struck an- 
other body makes at the point of impact. The equality 
of these two lines is a fundamental principle in mechanics 
as in optics. — Angle (jf elevation, the angle comprehended 
between a line of direction of a projectile and an hori- 
zontal line. — Angle nf direction, an angle comprehended 
between the lines of direction of two conspiring forces. 

Angle nf a battalion (Mil.) the angle made by the last men 
at the extremity of the ranks and files. — Front angles, the 
two last men of the front rank. — Rear angles, the two last 
men of the rear rank. 

Akglf. of a wall {Arcliit.) the angle formed by the meeting 
of the two sides or faces of a wall. 

Angle (Diall.) the angle that is made by a right line pro- 
ceeding from the sun to the dial plate. 

ANGLE-iflr (Carpent.) the upright bar at the meeting of any 
of the two sides of the window. — Angle-braces, timbers 
opposite to each angle in a quadrangular frame, which 
serve as a brace or tie, the two sides forming the angle 
opposite to which they are fi.xed. — Angle-rafter [vide 
Hipped roqf'\ — Angle-rib, a curved piece of timber in 
a ceiling or vault, fixed between two parts which form 
the angle. — Angle-staff, or staff-beads, beads fixed to the 
exterior angles of any wall, as a protection against acci- 

Angle ( Astral. ) vide Angles. 

A'NGLER (7t7).) the liu.^(u.x,v; a>.iV, of Aristotle, the Rana 
piscatrix of Pliny, la Grenmiillc de nier, le Diable de mer, of 
Bclonius, the Toad-Fish, Frog-fish, or Sea Devil, of VVil- 
loughby, the Lop/iius piscalurius of Linna;us, a singular 
fish, which is also known at present by the name of the 
Fishing Frog, from the resemblance which it bears to that 
animal in the state of a tadpole. Pliny tells us that " It 
puts forth the slender horns which it has beneath its eyes, 
enticing by that means the little fish to play round till they 
come within reach, when it springs on them;" from which 
characteristic it has acquired its modern name. Its head is 
much bigger than its whole body, and the mouth of a pro- 
digious width. The fishermen on the coast of Scarbo- 
rough have a great regard for it, and always set it at liberty 
when it is caught, from a supposition that it is a great 
enemy to the dog-fish, the bodies of which have been found 
in its stomach. Aristnt. 1. 9, c. 37 ; Plin. 1. 9, c. Si ; Gessn. 
de Pis ; Rnndclet de Pise. Marin. ; Will. Ichtli. 

A'NGLES (Astrol.) certain houses in the scheme of the 
heavens : the first house is called the angle of the East, the 
seventh the angle of the West, the fourth house is ihe angle 
of the Noith, the tenth the angle of the South. 

jV'NGLICISM (Gram.) an idiom or manner of speech pecu- 
liar to the English. 

A'NGLICUS Sudor [Med.) vide Sudor Anglicus. 

A'NGOL.\M (8nt.) a very tall and beautiful tree of Malabar ; 
the expressed juice from whose root kills worms. Rail 
Hist. Plant. 

ANGO'NES (Ant.) »-nmi-, a kind of spear used by the 
Franks. Snidas. 

A'NGOR (yied) «-/»'«, a concentration of the natural heat 
of the body, causing a palpitation of the heart. Hippocrat. 

A'NGRACU.AI (/?o^) the Epidcndnm ovalum ct scriplum of 


ANGSA'NA (Bot.) or Angsava, an Indian tree, from which, 
when wounded, issues a liquor of a gummy consistence; 
sold for the sanguis draconis. It is astringent, and good 
for the aphthee. Rail Hist. Plant. ; Commel. Hart.; Med. 

A'NGUELLES (Falcon.) small worms cast up by sick hawks. 

A'N'GUIFER (Astron.) vide Serpentarius. 

A'NGUILLA (Sumis.) the eel, was a sjmbol in the coins of 
Agrigentum, Adranum, and other cities of Sicily, as in 
the subjoined cut, which represents on the obverse the 

Cancer marinus, with a shell above and an eel below ; and 
on the reverse an eagle tearing a hare ; the inscription, 
AAPANIHN. Gnltz. Sicit. J Ha-cerkanp. Parut. Sicil. Des- 

Anguilla (/<-•/(.) the eel, a fish named by Aristotle f"/;i;'Ai'?, 
and classed by Linnaus under the Murcena. Aristot. Hist. 
An. 1. % c. V.i, &c. 

ANGUILLA'RIA (Bot.) the Ardicia excelsa and Zeylanica 
of Linna?us. 

ANGL'ILLA'RIS (Ich.) a species of the Silurus of Linnaeus. 

A'NGUINA (Bot.) the Calln and the Tricosanthes Anguina 
of Linnaeus. 

ANGLT'NEAL (Geom.) a sort of hj'perbola of a serpentine 
figure ; a species of the second order of curves, according 
to Newton. 

A'NGUINUM (Zool.) a bed or knot of snakes. Plin. 1. 29, 
c. 3. 

A'NGUIS (Numis.) the snake, an emblem of jSsculapius, is 
mostly represented on coins twining round 
a staff, which is in the hands of an old 
man ; but in the annexed figure it repre- 
sents /Esculapius himself, who is said to 
have appeared under this form when the 
vessel which was sent to fetch his image 
from Epidaurus arrived in the Tiber. The 
old man rising out of the water is sup- ~~^^-=^'' 

posed to be the river-god Tiber, before whom he is rearing 
himself. I'aler. Maxim. 1. 1, c. 8; .iur. Victor, de Illust. 
c. 22. 

Anguis (Zool.) itvS'fii, Snake, a genus of animals. Class A?n' 
phibia, Order Serpentcs. 

Generic Characters. Scales on the belly, and under the tail. 

Species. Animals of this genus mostly inhabit the Indies. 

The species which are natives of Europe are — Anguis 

fragilis, the Blind-Worm, and Anguis Fryx, Aberdeen 


Anguis vnlgaris (Zool.) the Coluber natrix of Linnaeus. — An- 
guis JEsculapii, a perfecily harmless species of serpent, 
which is good against the plague, and resists poison. Leni. 
dcs Drng. 

A'NGUIUM senectcc (Nat) the Exuvice Slough, or cast-oft' 
skins of serpents or snakes, a decoction of which is good 
for pains in the ear, &c. Dioscor. 1. 2, c. 19; Act. Tetrab. 2, 
serm. ■!•, c. 33. 

A'XGULAR motion (Mech.) the motion of any body which 
moves circularly about a point, as the angular motion of a 
pendulum, which moves about its centre of motion. 

Angular motion (Astron.) the motion of the planets round 
the sun as their centre, or the increasing angle made by 
two lines drawn from a central bod}', as the sun or earth, to 
the apparent places of two planets in motion. 

Angular (ZJc/.) angulatus, an epithet for a stem ; angulatus 
caulis, an angular stem, i. e. a stem grooved longitudinallv, 
with more than two hollow angles. It may be triangular, 


/;/an^u/aWi',quaJraiigular, tpindrangularis, Sec. or obtuse-an- 
gled, o/ituse-angiilntiis, acute-angled, acule-angularis, &c. 
according to the number and measure of the angles. An- 
thers are also angular, angtilaUc, when they have several 
deep furrows that form four or more angles. The Stigma 
is angular, angtilosum, when its close deep furrows occasion 
projecting angles and leaves ; and pericarps are likewise so 
named, according to the number of their angles. 

Anuulau capital (Archil.) any capital which has two or more 
fronts alike, so as to return at the angles of the building. — 
Anguhir inodillnn.':, those which are placed at the return, 
i. e. at the turning of a cornice. 

ANGULA'KIS Arteria [Anat.) the same as Maxillaria. — 
Angulari.'i Mii.'ciilu.t, the same as tiie Levator Scapulce. 

AXGULA'TED {Bot.) vide Angular. 

ANHtULA'TUS (/jo<.) angular, or angled. {_\\do Aiigiila)'] 

A'NGULI ncii/i {AiKit.) vide Cantlii. 

AXGULO'SUS (Bot.) vide Angular. 

A'NGULU.S oculi (Auat.) vide Canthu.i. 

ANGU'iUA (Bot.) Water Melon, a genus of plants, Class 21 
Monnecid, Order 2 Diandria. 

Generic Clniracters. Cal. monophyllous ; (//v»;ons lanceo- 
late. — Cor. pentapetalous. — iiTAM. Jilament.'i two; an- 
ther creeping up and down. — Pist. germ inferior, oblong ; 
sti/le semibifid; stigmas bifid. — Per. pome oblong; seeds 
very many. 
Species. The species are, the — Anguria trilobala, a per- 
ennial, native of Carthagena. — Anguria pednta, &en po- 
lyphijllds, a perennial, native of St. Domingo — Anguria 
injblialii, seu Cucumis triphyllus, native of St. Domingo. 
Plum. Plant. Americ. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 

Anguria Citrullus, the Cttcurbita Citmllus of Linnasus. 

ANCiU'STIA {Anat.) narrowness of the vessels. 

ANGUSTIFO'LIA (Bot.) narrow-leaved; an epithet for 
many plants. 

ANGUSTU'KA cortex (Bot.) a bark which comes from the 
Sjjanish main, and is a powerful bitter. 

ANIIALDI'NUM (Med.) a corrosive described by Ilart- 

ANHALTI'NA (Med.) medicines promoting perspiration. — 
Anhaltina aqua, a cordial distilled from aromatic ingre- 

ANTIELA'TIO (Med.) Anhelitus ; panting or shortness of 
breath. Plin. 1. 22, c. 2:3; Act. Tctrab. 2, serm. 4, c. 7 ; 
Paul. A-.ginet. de Re Med. 1. ;i, c. 29. 

ANHELl'TUS (C/icm.) smoke; also horse-dung. 

ANIU'MA (Orn.) an aquatic bird of prey of Brasil, bigger 
than a swan : on its head is a horn, the powder of which is 
an antidote against poison. Lem. dcs Drag. 

A'NHLOTE (Law) a term used to signify that ever}' one 
should pay his respective share, as Scot and Lot, according 
to the custom of the country. 

ANIIUI'HA (But.) an Indian ])lant ; the same as Sassafras. 

ANHY'DIUTE (.\//«.) a species of Sulphate. 

A'NI (Orn.) a species of the Crotophagos of Linnxus. 

Ast procidentia (.Med.) vide Procidentia Ani. 

ANIA'DA (///c/i.) the Astral and Celestial powers. 

ANIA'DON (Alih.) the celestial body imi)lanted in Chris- 
tians by the Holy Spirit, by means of the sacraments. 

A'NIIJA (But.) the Ccdrola of Linnxus. 

ANTCE'T(JN (Mtd.) i»<>c-i7o»; 1. An epithet for a plaster 
described by Cialen and Aetius. Hal. de Cimip. Phnrni. 
.Sec. Loc. 1. 1, c. K; Ad. Tctrab. ■!■, serm. .'5, c. Kj.— 2. The 
same as Anisum. — 3. An epithet fur the .Inethum. 

A'NIL (Bot.) the hidigofcra tinctoria of Linnxus. 

A'NIMA (Phi/s.) from a.itio?, the wind, and lyDJ, >r«'w, to 
breatlie; the principle of life which the Author of our being 
breathes into us. — .■\nima mundi, or the •'i'-.'Zi ^x "^^/ak, the 
soul of the worltl ; a certain pure ethereal substance or 
spirit which is difi'uscd through the mass of the world, or- 


ganizing and actuating the whole and the different parts. 
Plat. Tim. (Chem.) a concentration of the virtues of bodies by 
means of solution, distillation, or any other processes which 
can develop their powers. (Jf this description is — Anima 
Jn.yjidis, Anima .'Hoes, &c. — Anima Hcpatis, the same ss 
Sal Martis. — .4nima pulmonum, a name for Satfron, from 
its supposed use in Asthmas. — Anima Saturiii, a white 
powder, obtained by pouring distilled vinegar on lilharge, 
and much used in enamelling. 

AxiMA orticulornm (Bot.) the name for Hermndacli/lus. 

A'KIM/E, (Xat.) the vesicles of herrings, because they are 
light, and full of wind. They are supposed to be diuretic. 

A'MMAL (P/ii/.) a living body, endued with sensation and 
S])ontaneous motion. — .Animal J'acultij is that faculty by 
which man exercises his senses, and all the other animal 
functions. — Animal fin'ctions, those functions or offices 
which are performed by the ditt'ertnt members of the body, 
as seeing, hearing, voluntar}' motion, and the like. — Animal 
frame, or animal part of man ; the bodil}- part, in distinc- 
tion from the rational part. 

An'i.mal secretion (.4}tnt.) the process whereby the divers 
juices of the body are secreted or separated from the 
common mass of the blood by means of the glands. — Ani- 
mal motion ; the same as muscular motion. — Animal spirits, 
a fine subtle juice or humour in animal bodies, supposed to 
be the great instrument of muscular motion, sensation, &c. 
as distinguished from natural and vital, (ial. de Cau.i. Puis. 

Animal kingdom (Zool.) .tnimale Regnum ; one of the three 
principal divisions into which Linnxus divided all organized 
bodies, consisting of classes, orders, genera, and spe- 

Animals were by him divided into six classes, namely, the 
—Mammalia, or such as suckle their young, mostly qua- 
drupeds.— ^rcs, Birds, which are oviparous. — .Imphibia, 
Amphibious Creatures, living eitlier on land or in the 
water. — Pisces, Fishes, which live only in the water, and 
are covered with scales. — lusccta. Insects, which have 
i\;\v or no organs of sense, and a bony coat of mail. — 
Vermes, ^V'orms, which have mostly no feet. 

First Class. 
The Mammalia consist of seven orders, namely, the — Pri- 
mates, Bruta, Ferce, Glires, Pecora, Bclluina; and Cefe. 

First order. 
The Primates are divided into 4 genera, namely — Homo, 
Man. — .Simla, the Ape, the Haboon, and the Monkey. — 
Lemur, the Lemur. — Vespertilio, the Bat. 

Second order. 
Bruta, the second order, compreliends the following ge- 
nera, namely — Bradi/pus, the Sloth. — JMyrmecophaga, 
the Ant-Eater. — Du'iijpus, the Armadillo. — Rhinoceros, 
the Rhinoceros. — Sokutj/ro. — FJephas, the Elephant. — ■ 
Trichechus, the Morse, Walrus. — Manis. 

Third order. 

FercE, the third order, comprehends ten genera, namely — 
Phoca, the Seal. — Canis, the Dog, the Wolf, the Fox, and 
the Ilyxna.- — Felis, the Lion, the Tyger, the Leopard, the 
Tyger-Cat, the Lynx, and the Cat. — I'iverra, the Weasel, 
the Shunk, the Civet, the (Jenet, and the Fitchet. — Mus- 
tek, the Otter, the Martin, the Ferret, the Polecat, the 
Ermine, and tlie Stoat. — Vrsus, the Bear, the Badger, 
the Racoon, and the (jiutton. — Didalphis, the Opossum, 
Marmose, Phalanger, and the Kangaroo. — Talpa, the 
Mole. — Sorex, the Shrew. — Erinaceus, the Hedge-Hog. 
Fourth order. 

(Hires, the fourth order, comprehends the following genera. 


n:xme]y—nistrix, the Porcupine. — Cuvia, the Cavy. — 
Castor, the Beaver. — Miis, the Uat, the Musk-llat, and 
the Mouse. — Arctomi/s, the ^larmot. — Sciurus, the .Squir- 

rt.'|. Mi/oxif!, the Dormouse. — Diput, the Jerboa. — 

Lepus, the Hare, and the Rabbit. — Ilj/rax. 

Fifth order. 
Pccora, the fifth order, comprehends the following genera, 
namely — Camcliis, the Camel, the Lama. — Mosc/ius, the 

2^iusk." Cer\us, the Stag, the Deer, the Moose, or Elk. 

Camdupnrdalis, the Camelopard, or Giraffe. — .-Jh/Z/o- 

nus, the Antelope. — Capra, the Goat. — Ovis, the Sheep. 
— Dos, the 0.\. 

Sixth order. 

BcUuinir, the sixth order, comprehends the following 
genera, namely — Ecjhus, the Horse, the Ass, and the 
^lule. — Hippopotamus, the River-Horse. — Taj>ir, the 
Tapir. — Sus, the Hog. 

Seventh order, 

Cete, the seventh order, comprehends the following genera, 
namely — Monodon, the Monodon. — Bnhvua, the Whale. 
— I'hi'/seter, the Cachelot. — Delphinus, the Porpoise, the 
Dolphin, and the Grampus. 

Second Class. 
Aves, Birds, the second class, is divided into six orders, 
namely — Aecipitres, Piece, Anseres, Grallce, Galliiice, 

First order. 

Aecipitres, the first order, comprehends four genera, 
namely — Vultur, the Vulture and the Condur. — Faico, 
the Eagle, the Kite, the Buzzard, the Falcon, and the 
Hawk. — Strix, the Owl. — Lanius, the Shrike, the 
Butcher Bird, and the Woodchat. 

Second order. 

Pica:, the second order, comprehends the following genera, 
namely — Ramphasto^, the Toucan Momotus, the Mot- 
mot. — Psittaciis, the Parrot, the Maccaw, the Parrokeet, 
the Cockatoo, and the Lory. — Sci/throps. — Buccros, the 
Horn-Bill. — Crotophnga, the Ani. — Glaucopis, the Wat- 
tle Bird. — Corviis, the Crow, the Rook, the Raven, 
the Jack-Daw, and the Jay. — Coracias, the Roller. — 
Oriulus, the Oriole. — Gracida, the Grackle — Para- 
disea, the Bird of Paradise. — Bucco, the Barbet. — 
Trogon, the Curucui. — Ciiculus, the Cockoo. — Yiinx, 
the Wryneck. — Picus, the Woodpecker. — Stitta, the 
Nuthatch. — Todus, the Toddy. — Alcedo, the Kingsfisher. 
— Galbtda, the Jacama. — ^lerops, the Bee-Eater. — 
Upupa, the Hoop or Hoo])o. — Cetihia, the Creeper. — 
irochilus, the Humming-Bird. — Biiphiiga. 

Third order. 
Anseres, the third order, comprehends the following ge- 
nera, namely — Anas, the Swan, the Goose, the Duck, 
the Shoveler, and the Tea). — Mergiis, the Merganser, 
the Goosander, the Dunn-Diver, and the Smew. — Alca, 
the Auk or Razorbill. — Aptenodytes, the Penguin. — Pro- 
cellaria, the Petrel. — Diomedea, the Albatross or Man- 
of-War Bird. — Peitcanus, the Pelican, the Corvorant, 
the Shag, the Crane, the Gannet, and the Booby. — Plo- 

fiis, the Darter. — Phceton, the Tropic Bird Colijmbus, 

the Guillemot, the Diver, and the Grebe. — Lams, the 
Gull, and the Tarrock or Kittiwake. — Sterna, the Tern. 
— Ryncliops, the Skimmer. 

Fourth order. 
Grallce, the fourth order, comprehends the following ge- 
nera, namely — Phcenicopteros, the Flamingo. — Platalea, 

the Spoonbill. — Palamcdea, the Screamer. — Mi/ctcria, 
the Jabiru. — Cancroma, the Boatbill. — Scopus, the Um- 
bre. — Ardt-a, the Heron, the Crane, tlie Stork, and the 
Bittern. — Tantalus, the Ibis. — Corrira, the Courier. — 
Scolnpax, the Curlew, the Whintrel, the Snipe, the 
Woodcock, the Godwit, and ths Red Shank. — Trinsc, 
the Sandpiper, the Phalarope, and the Purre. — Charnd- 
rius, the Plover and the Dotterel. — Recurxirostra, the 
Avocet. — Hce'uatapus, the Sea-Pie or Pied Oyster, and 
the Catcher. — Gtarcola, the Pratincole. — Fulica, the 
Gallinule, the Moor-Hen, and the Coot. — J'aginnlis, the 
Sheathbill. — Tarra, the Jacana. — Rallus, the Rail, the 
Crake or Sand-Rail, the Brook-Ouzel or Water-Piail, 
and the Soree. — Psophia, the Trumpeter. 

Fi/lh order. 

Gallincp, the fifth order, includes the following genera, 
namel}' — Otis, the Bustard. — Struthio, the Ostrich, and 
the Cassowary or Emu. — Didus, the Dodo. — Pavo, the 
Peacock. — Melcagris, the Turkey. — Penelope, the Guam 
and the Yacou.- — Crax, the Curassow. — Phasianus, the 
Pheasant. — Xninidia, the Pintado or CJuinea Hen. — 
Tetrno, the Grous, the Moorcock, the Partridge, the 
Quail, and the Tinamou. 

Sixth order. 

Passeres, the sixth order, includes the following genera, 
namely — Cnlumba, the Pigeon, the Ring-Dove, the Tur- 
tle-Dove, &c. — Alauda, the Lark. — Sturnus, the Stare 
or Starling, and the Crake or Water-Ouzel. — Turdus, 
the Thrush, the Field-Fare, the Blackbird, and the 
Ring-Ouzel. — Atnpelis, the Chatterer. — Colius, the Coly. 
— I.oxia, the Grossbeak, the Crossbill, and the Haw-Finch. 
— Emherixa, the Bunting. — Tanagra, the Tanajer. — 
Fringilla, the Finch, the Chaffinch, the Siskin, the Red- 
pole, the Linnet, the Twite, and the Sparrow.— P^^/o- 
toma, the Phytotoma. — Muscicapa, the Fly-Catcher. — 
Motacilla, the Wagtail or Warbler, the Nightingale, the 
Hedge Sparrow, the Wren, the White-Throat, the 
Wheat-Ear, and the Red-Start. — Pipra, the Minnakin. — 
Parus, the Titmouse.- — Hirundn, the Swallow and the 
Swift. — Caprimulgus, the Goatsucker. 

Third Class. 
Amjiliihia, Amphibious animals, the third class, is divided 
into two orders, namely — Rcptilia, Reptiles, and Ser- 
pentes, Serpents. 

First order. 
Reptilia, Reptiles, the first order, comprehends the follow- 
ing genera, namely — Testudo, the Tortoise and the Tur- 
tle. — Rana, the Toad, the Frog, and the Natter-Jack. — 
Draco, the Flying Dragon. — Lacerta, the Crocodile, tlie 
Alligator, the Lizard, the Guana, the Newt, the Sala- 
mander, the Chameleon, the Eft. — Siren. 

Second order. 

Serpentes, Serpents, the second order, includes the follow- 
ing genera, namely — Crolalus, the Rattle-Snake. — Boa, 
— Coluber, the Viper and the Asp. — Anguis, the Snake 
and the Blind- Worm . — Amphisbcena. — Ca-cilia . — Ach ro- 
cordus, the Warted Snake. 

F'ourth Class. 

Pisces, Fishes, the fourth class, is divided into six orders, 
namely — Apodal, Jugular, Thoracic, Abdominal, Brau- 
chiostegous, Chondropterigious, 

First order. 
Apodal, the first order, contains the following genera, 
namely — Murana, the Eei. — Gi/mnotus, — Trichiuris. — 


Anarhicas, the Wolf Fish. — Ammodytes, the Launce. — 
Stromateus. — Xiphias, the Sword-Fish. — Sternopfyx. — 

Lcptocephalus, the Morris. — Stylephorus. — Ophidium 


Second order. 

Juj^ular, the second order, contains the following genera, 
namely — CaUionymns, the Dragonet. — Uraiioscopux. — 
Trachinus, the Sting-Bull or Weaver, — Cladus, the Cod- 
Fish, the Bib, the Whiting, the Coal-Fish, the Hake, the 
Barbot, and the llockling. — Blennius, the Blenny. — 
Kurt us. 

Third order. 

Thoracic, the third Order, contains the following genera, 
namely — Cepola. — Echineis, the Sucking-Fish. — Cory- 
phcena. — Goliius, the Goby. — Callus, the Bull-Head. — 
the Father Lasher, and the Miller's Thumb. — Scorpceiia. 
— Zeus, the John Doree. — Pleuroiiccles, the Hullibut, 
the Flounder, the Plaise, the Dab, the Sole, the Smear- 
dab, the Pearl, and the Turbot. — Chaiudou. — Spnrus, 
the Gilthead, the Pudding-Fish. — Scarus. — Lnbrus, the 
Wrasse, the Goldfinny, the Camber, and the Cook. — 
Sciceria. — Perca, the Perch, the Basse, the LufFe, the 
Black Fish, and the Squirrel-Fish, — Trachychthys. — 
Gasterosteus, the Stickleback. — Scomber, the Mackerel, 
the Thunny, the Scad, and the Yellow- Tail. — Ceiitroaus- 
ier. — Mu/lus, the Surmullet — Trigln, the Gurnard, the 
Piper, and the Tub-Fish. — Lonchiurus. 

Fourth order. 
Abdominal, the fourtli order, comprehends the followino' 
genera, namely— CoAjV/s, the Loche and the Mud-Fish. 
— Amia. — Sdurus.— Teulhis. — Salmo, the Salmon, the 
Trout, the Salmon-Trout or Bull-Trout, the Charr, the 
Smelt, the Gurniad, and the Lavaret. — Fistulnrin, the 
Tobacco-Pipe-Fish.—,r, the Pike and the GarHsh.— 
FAops. — Arrreiitiiia, the Argentine. — Alheriun, the Athe- 
rine or Silver-Fish.— M;/n-;7, the Mullet. — Excocoelus, 
tlic Flying Fish. — Polynemus. — Clupca, the Herring, the 
Pilchard, the Sprat, the Shad, and the Anchovy. — Ci/- 
})riiii).s, the Carp, the Barbel, the Gudgeon, the Tench, 
the Crucian, the Gold-Fish, the Dace, the Roach, the 
Finscale or Rud, the Red Eye, the Bleak, the Bream, 
the Minnow, and the Graining. — Loncaria. 

Fifth order. 
Braiichiostegous, the fifth order, comprehends the follow- 
ing genera, natw]y—Murmyrus.—Ostracion.— Tetrodoii, 
the Sun-Fish — Diodon. — Singnnthus, the Pipe-Fish and 

the Needle-Fish. — Pegasus. — Centriscus. — Bnlisles. 

Cyclopterus, iheSuckcr.—Lophius, the Fishing-Frog, and 
the Angler or Frog-Fish. 

Sixth order. 
Chondropterigious, the sixth order, contains the followin;r 
genera, namely— ^/c//;r».«r, the Sturgeon. — Chinucrri, 
the Sea-Monster.— .SV/«,;/H.t, the Shark, the l)og-Fis!i, the 
Tope, the Sea-Fox, and the Angel-Fish. — /-"m/u, the 
Saw-Fish.— /?«/«, the Ray, the Skate, the Thornback. 
— Pelromyzon, the Lamprey, and the Pride.— GaiV^-o- 
branchus, the Hag or Hag-Fish. 

Fifth Class. 
Itueda, Insects, the fifth class, is divided into seven orders, 
namely— Cr/co/^/c/Y/, llrmiplrra, Lepidoplcra, Neurnp- 
tcra, Ilymciioptcra, Diptcra, and Aplera. 

First order. 
Coleoptera, the (irst order, contains the following genera,\y—Scaraliaus, the Beetle,— /.Mcn/«(.?.—yjcrn,t.v<c.v' 
the Leather-Eater. — Synodendron. — Boslrichus. Mcly- 

ris. — Pliiius, the Death- Watch. — Hister. — Gyriitas, the 
Water-Flea. — Bt/rrhus. — Anlhrenus. — Silpha, the Car- 
rion Beetle. — Nitidnla. — Opatrum. — Titroma. — Tetrato- 
ma. — Cnssida. — Cocci nella. — Chrysnmcla. — Cryplocepha- 
his. — Hispa . — Bruch us. — Pa usus — Zygia. — Znnitis. — 
Apalus. — Brent us. — Curculio. — Ithinomacer. — Attelabus. 
— Notoxus. — Cerambyi. — Calopus. — Leplura. — Neci/da- 
lis. — Lampyris, the Fire- Fly. — Iloria. — Cucujus. — Can- 
tharis. — Serropalpus. — Elater. — Cucindela. — Bupestris. — 
Hydrapliilus, the Water-Clock. — Dytiscus. — Cnrabus. — 
Trnebrio, — Pimelia. — Lytta. — DIe/oe. — Mordclla. — .S7«- 
phy linns. — Forjicula, the Earwig. — Erodius. — Manticora. 
— Alum us. 

Second order. 
Hemiptera, the second order, contains the following ge- 
nera, namely- — Blatta, the Cockroach. — Pneumora. — 
Mantis. — Gryllus, the Locust, the Grasshopper, and the 

Cricket. — Fulgora, the Lanthorn Fly Cicada. — Noto- 

necta, the Boat Fly. — Nepa, the Water Scorpion. — Ci- 
mex, the Bug. — Macrocephalus. — Aphis, the Plant-Louse. 

— Chermes. — Coccus, the Cochineal. — Thrips. 

Third order. 
Lepidoptera, the third order, contains the following genera, 
namely — Papilio, the Butterfly. — Sphinx, the Hawk- 
moth. — PhalcBtia, the Moth. 

Fourth order. 
Neuroptera, the fourth order, contains the following ge- 
nera, namely — LibcUula, the Dragon-Fly. — Ephemera, 
the Day-Fly. — Phryganea. — Hemerobius. — Myrmeleon, 
the Lion- Ant. — Panorpa. — Raphidia. 

Fifth order. 
Hymenoptera, the fifth order, contains the following ge- 
nera, namely — Cynips, the Gail-Fly. — Tenthrcdo, the 
Saw-Fly. — Sircx, the Tailed Wasp. — Ichneumon, the 
Ichneumon. — Sphex. — Ammophila . — Scolia. — Thynnus. 
— Lucopsis. — Tiphia. — Chalcis. — Chrysis, the Golden 
Fly. — Vespa, the Wasp. — Apis, the Bee. — Formica, the 
Ant or Emmet. — Mutilla. 

Sixth order. 
Diptcra, the sixth order, contains the following genera, 
namely — Oestrus, the (jad-Fly and the Breeze. — Tipula, 
the Crane- Fly. — Dinpsis.—Musca, the Fly. — Tabanus. — 
Cu/cx, the Gnat. — Kmpis. — Stomoxys. — Connps. — Asilus. 
Bombi/lius, the Hunible-Bee. — Hippobosca. 

Seventh order, 

Aptera, the seventh order, contains the following genera, 

namely — Lepisma. — Poduru, the Spring-Tail. — Fcrmes, 

the White Ant. — Pcdiculus, the Louse and Crab-Louse. 

— Acarus, the Tick, the Harvest-Bug, and the Itch-Mite 

— l'h(danoiuin. — .Iranea, the Spider. — Scorpio, the Scor- 
pion. — Cancer, the Crab, the Lobster, the Prawn, the 
Shrimp, and the S(|uill. — Ahmoculus. — Oniscus. — Scolo- 
pendra. — Julus. — Pulex, the Flea. — Hydrachna. 

Sixth Class. — Vermes. 
The sixth class is divided into five orders, nanicly — Intes- 
tina, Mollusca, Tcstacca, Zoophyta, and Infusoria. 

First order. 
Jnteslina, the first order, contains the following genera, 
namely — Ascaris. — Trichoccjiha/us. — Filar ia. — Scolcx. — 
I.igula. — Strongy/us. — Echinorynchus. — Cucutlanns. — 
Carynphylheus. — Unguatu/a. — Fasciiiln, the (lourd- 
Worm or Fluke. — Taenia, the Tape- Worm. —/wrz.i. — 
Godius, the Hair- Worm. — Lumbricus, the Earth-Worni, 


the Dew-Worra, and the Lug. — Planaria. — Sipunculus, 
the Tube-Worm. — Hirudo, the Leech. — Uucinitria. — 

Second order. 

Mollusca, the second order, contains the following genera, 
namely— Limnx, the Slug or Snail. — Onchidium. — Lap- 
lisia, the Sea Hare. — Doris, the Sea Lemon. — Aphro- 
fjita . — Spio. — A mph it rite. — Terebella . — Nereis. — Nais. — 
Ascidia. — Salpa. — Dagi/sa. — Clava. — Actinia, the Sea 
Daisy, the Sea ^Marigold, and the Sea Carnation. — 
Mnmniaria. — Pedicillaria. — Tcthi/s. — Plerotracliea. — 

Derris Hvlothuria. — Lobarict. — Triton. — Lerncca. — 

ScijlUea. — Clio. — Sepia, the Cuttle-Fish. — Lucernaria. 
Medusa, the Sea-Nettle. — Pht/ssophora. — Asterias. the 
Star-Fish and the Sea-Star. — Echinus, the Sea Urchin. I 

Third order. I 

Testacea, Shells, the third order, comprehends the follow- 
ing genera, namely — Chiton. — Lepas, the Acorn Shell. 
— Phlons. — ]SIi/a. — Solen, the Razor-Sheath. — TcUina. 
— Cardium, the Cockle. — Mactrn. — Dnnax. — Venus. — 
Spondi/lus. — Chama. — Area, the Ark. — Ostrea, the Oys- 
tev.^Anomia. — Mytilus, the Mussel. — Pinna. — Argo- 
nauta. — Xautilus. — Conns, the Cone. — Cyprtra, the 
Cowrie or Gourie. — Bulla. — Volula, the Mitre or Vo- 
lute. — Buccinum, the Whelk. — Strombus. — Mnrcx. — 
Trochus. — Turbo, the Wreath. — Helix, the Snail. — Se- 
ritn, the Nerite. — Haliotis, the Sea-Ear. — Patella, the 
Limpet. — Dentaliuni, the Tooth-Shell. — Serpula. — Te- 
redo. — Sabella. 

Fourth order. 
Zoophj/ta, the fourth order, contains the following genera, 
namely — Tubipora, the Tubipore. — Madrepora, the Ma- 
dripore. — Millepora, the Millepore. — Cellepora, the Cel- 
lepore. — Isis, the Coral. — Antipathes. — Gorgonia, the 
Red Coral. — Alcyonium. — Spo}!gia, the Sponge. — Flus- 
tra, the Hornwrack. — Tubularia. — Corallina, the Coral- 
line. — Sertularia. — Pennntula, the Sea-Pen. — Hydra, the 

Fifth order. 
Infusoria, the fifth order, contains the following genera, 
namely — Branchinnu.i. — Vorticclla. — Trichoda. — Circa- 
ria. — Bursaria. — Gonium. — Colpoda. — Paramecium. — 
Cyelidium. — Vibrio. — Bacillaria. — Enchelis. — Vohox. — 
Monas. — Leucopera. 

ANIMA'LCUL.E (Zool.) very small animals, scarcely 
discoverable by the naked eye, which, \>y the help of 
niicroscojies, are found in fluids, and also in solids. 

ANIMA'TE ^;ou'e;' (^Icch.) a power in animal beings, in dis- 
tinction from that which exists in inanimate bodies, as 
springs, &c. 

ANDL\'TE DmercHr^ (Chem.) quicksilver impregnated with 
£ome subtle and spirituous particFes, so as to render it ca- 
pable of growing hot when mixed with gold. Libav. Apoe. 
Hcrmet. part 1, c. 10. — Animated needle, a needle touched 
with a stone. 

ANIMA'ITON (.4lch.) the fermentation produced by the 
conjunction of mercury with any metal. Libav. Apoc. 
Hermet. part 1, c. 10; 'Castell. Lex Med. 

A'Siyi^ gummi (Chem.) a gum or white resin, brought from 
America, which flows, by an incision, from a tree, the 
Hynienea courharil of Linnaus. Dioscorides and Serapio 
call it Ambiea, %\hich has been corrupted into Anime. The 
former saj's that it is an inferior kind of myrrh. The best 
Gum .Anime is white, dry. friable, clean, of a good smell, 
that soon consumes when thrown into t!ie fire, and contains 
a gieat deal of oil and essential salt. It is discussive, 
good for the head-ache, and a strengthener of the brain. 


There are two sorts principally spoken of, namely, the 
Oriental and the Western ; but Bauhine reckons five sorts. 
Dioscor. 1.1, c. 77; Clus. liar. Plant. Hist.; J. Bauh. 
Hi^t. Plant. ; Raii Hist. Lent, des Drag. (Her.) an epithet implying that the eyes of any ra- 
pacious creature are borne of a different tincture from 
that of the creature itself. 
ANIME'LL.E (.4nat.) the Glandules under the ears and the 

ower jaws. 
A'NIMUS (Met.) the mind, or reasoning faculty, in distinc- 
tion from anima, the being or substance in which the 
faculty exists. 
ANT'NGA ibis (Bot.) an Indian aquatic plant that grows 
five or six feet high, with leaves similar to the water-lily. 
From the bulbous root of the aningas is expressed an oil of 
great medicinal use for fomentation. Pis. Marc. Hist. 
Braz. ; Raii Hist. Plant. 
AN jour et zvast. (Law) a forfeiture when a man has com- 
mitted petty treason and felony, and has lands held of some 
common person, which shall be seized for the king, and 
remain in his hands a year and a day next after the at- 
tainder, and then the trees sliall be pulled up ; except he 
to whom the lands should come by escheat or forfeiture, 
redeem it of the king. 
ANISA'TUM [Med.) from antrm, Anise-seed; a wine in 

which Anise seeds are infused. 
Axis.vTUM (Bot.) a species of the lUicium of Linnaeus. 
ANISCA'LPTOR (Anat.) the same as Latissimus Dorsi. 
A'NISE (Bot.) a small oblong seed, produced from the 
Anisum, or the Pimpinella anisum of Linnaeus, [vide 
AsisE (Cotn.) a sort of greyish wood that is brought from 
the Indies in logs, and has a scent similar to that of the 
A'MSEED-TREE (Bet.) the Illicium of Linnsus. 
ANl'SIFOLIUM (Bot.) the Limonia acidissima of Linnaus. 
ANISOCY'CLA (Aichceol.) a machine constructed of many 
unequal circles, by the help of which the ancients dis- 
charged arrows or stones from their scorpions or cross- 
bows. Vitruv. de Architect. 1. 10, c. 1 ; Tumeb. Adver. 
1. 9, c. 20 ; Bald. Lee. Vitruvian. 
ANISOMARA'THRUJI (Bot.) the Scandix australis of 

.VNISUM (Bot.) a'lTm, Anise, probably from aviv.nToy, invic- 
tum. invincible, to denote its superior power above other 
medicines ; a plant, the seed of wliich is an anodyne, dia- 
phoretic, diuretic, and discutiont. It is the Pimpinella 
anisum of Linnaeus. Thcoph. Hist. Plant. 1. 7, c. 3 ; 
Dioscor. 1. 3, c. 65; Plin. 1.20, c. 17 ; Gal. de Simplic. 
I. 6; Oribas Med. Coll. 1. 11; Aet. Tetrab. 1, serm. 
1 ; Paul. JEginet. de Re Med. 1. 7, c 3 ; Myrep. de An- 
tidot. sect. 1, c. 23 ; J. Bauli. Hist. Plant.; Parkin. 
Theat. Bnfan.; Raii Hist. Plant. — Anistcm Africanum, the 
Bubon galbinatum of Linnaeus. 
A'NKER (Com.) a liquid measure at Amsterdam, contain- 
ing thirty-two gallons wine measure in England. 
A'NLA.E (Archa-ol.) a falchion or sword shaped like a 

A'NN (Cow.) abbreviated for annum, as per annum, 

Ann (Lan-) or Annat, half a year's stipend, in the Scotch 
La:v, over and above what is owing for the incumbency, 
due to the minister's relict, children, or near akin. 
ANXABA'SSES (Cow.) a coarse blanketting made in France 

for the Ciulnea trade. 
ANNA'LES (Ant.) Annals, from annus, a year, signifying 
an account of what was done within the year ; small books 
in which were registered the names of the magistrates, to- 
gether with the names of the persons, places, and things 
connected with their magistracj-. Whence Cicero makes 


the distinction between Annals and History. " Ilistoria 
nihil aliud nisi Annaliuni confectio." De Oral. 1. 2, c. 12; 
.tu/, (.Sell. I. 1, c. 1 ; Fcrrar. dc Origin. Romriti. apiid Gricv. 
'J'/ic.taiir. Antiq. Rom. toni. 1, &c. — Annales maximi was 
also the name given to the annals of the stale, because 
they were consecrated and confirmed by the Ponlijcx maxi- 
mus, or High-Priest; they were also called Commcntarii. 
Cic. de (hat. 1. 2, c. 12 ; Li v. 1. 4-, c. 3 ; Fest. de Verb. Sig- 
nij. ; Turiicl). in Cic. dc Leg. ; Alex. Gen. Dier. 1. 2, 
c. 8, &c. 

Annales (Arclia-ol.) 1. Public acts registered every year. 
Leg. Cod. Tlicnd. 2. a sort of annual census. (Lnii)) yearlings, or cattle a year old. 

ANNA'LIS lex (Ant.) a law for regulating the age at which 
offices might be enjoyed. It was proposed U. C. 573, by 
L. Villus or Julius, who, on that account, was surnamed 
Annali.'^. What the precise age fixed for each magistracy 
was is not ascertained, [vide J'.tas] Cic. de Or. 1. 2, c.65; 
Liv. 1. \, c. 41-; Mannt. dc Leg, c. 6.— Annalis clavus, the 
nail was so called which was driven into the wall of the 
temple every year, to mark the succession and number of 
years, [vide Clnvus"] 

AXNA'TE.S (Lfiw) Annats, or first fruits paid out oi' spi- 
ritual benefices to the Pope, being the value of one year's 
profit. ,Stat. 25, IJen. 8. 

A'NNE'S Dni^, .St. (Ecc.) a festival kept in the Romish 
church on the 26th of June, and in the Greek church on 
the ytli of December, in honour of Anna, the mother of 
the ^'irgin Mary. 

ANNE'AL (Dot.) the same as Anil. 

ANNEA'LIXG of' tile (Meek.) from the Saxon alan, to 
set on fire ; the burning of tiles, so as to harden them. 

ANNEXA'TION (Lau;) uniting lands or rents to the 

ANNIE'NTED (Lari;) in French aneantie ; abrogated or 
made null. 

A'NNI Tcmpnra cnnstnnlia (J\led.) xxh^iuTu xxifal, Consistent 
seasons, which keep their usual and expected temperature, 
in distinction from the inconsistent seasons, x^tifoi cixxrxs-x- 
Toi, which are unstable, and not to be relied upon. Jlip- 
poc. Apli. ; Foes (Econam. Hip. 

Anni nuhilcs (Law) the age at which a girl becomes by 
law fit for marriage, which is twelve. 

ANNIVE'llSARY (Ecc.) the yearly obit or service per- 
formed in the Romish church once every year for a person 
deceased, i. e. properly on the anniversary of his or her 

As'NivKitsAUY days (Laxv) I>ays so called because they re- 
turned at the revolution of every year, quovia anno ver- 
tenle. These days were kept solenm every year, in com- 
memoration of the death or martyrdom of any saint. 
Alcuin. dc Divin. OJic. ; 1 Ed. G. 

A'NNO D:imiiii (Chron.) abbreviated AD. the computa- 
tion of time from the incarnation of our Saviour, which is 
used as the date for all public deeds and writings in Eng- 
land, on which account it is called the ' Vul;;ar ^ra.' This 
computation is supposed to be three years later tlian the 
real time of our Saviour's Incarnation, [vide //,'>■«] 

ANN()I'S.\NCE (Law) the same as Nuisance. 

ANNO'M(EANS (Ecc.) vide Anomceans. 

ANNO'NA (.///'.) from annus, a year, signified properly a 
year's produce from one's land ; but it is also taken for the 
provision of corn, an<l whatever else was necessary for the 
sustenatjce of man, whence annonw carilas signifies dear- 
ness of provisions, or a dc'ar market. Cic. in Verr. I. 3, 
c. 92. — Annona mililnris, the public allowance of bread, 
fodder, &c. — Annonec, in the plural, the loaves themselves, 
Lamprid. in Sever, c. 41 ; Cod. Thcodos. dc Erag. Mil. 

Aknona (Numis.) is commonly represented on coins by ears 


of corn, and a cornucopeia, as in the annexed 
figure, on a coin of the emperor Claudius, 
bearing the inscription ANNONA. AUG. 
The female, which is the figure of the god- 
dess Ceres, is sometimes represented hold- 
ing a spear, a lance, and sometimes a mea- 
sure, with ears of corn, &c. To the in- 
scription is frequently added the words PROVIDENTm, 
CERES, &c. 

Annona (Rot.) a genus of plants in the hot climates; so 
called because its fruit is grateful to the natives, Class 13 
PoUjandria, Order 7 Polygynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth three- leaved ; /fn^c/.! 
cordate. — Cor. petals six. — Sta.m. filaments scarcely 
any; anthers very numerous. — germ roundish; 
styles none ; stigmas obtuse. — Peu. berry very large ; 
seeds very many. 
Species. The plants of this tribe are all shrubs, and mostly 
natives of America or India, as — Annona tripelala, Che- 
riniolia, seu Guanabanus, Broad-leaved Custard-Apple. 
— Annona squamosa, seu Alamaran, Undulated Custard- 
Applc. — Annona reticulata, Netted Custard-Apple. — 
Annona Asiatica, seu Keschta, Asiatic Custard- .Apple, &c. 

ANNON A'RII (Aul.) forestallers of the market, who bought 
up all the provisions before hand in order to raise the 

A'NNORA (Chem.) calcined egg-shells, or quick-lime. 

ANNOTA'TIO (Med.) the beginning of a febrile paroxj-sm. 

A'NNUA pensione (Laxv) a writ from the king to an abbot, 
or a prior, demanding of him an annual pension due to him 
for one of his chaplains, &c. licg. Orig. 165, 307. 

A'NNUAL (Bot.) an epithet for any plant or root which 
perishes within the compass of a year, in distinction from 
Biennials or Perennials. The stem of herbaceous plants 
is annual, but the root is perennial, which distinguishes 
them from trees and shrubs. 

Annual (.-Istron.) an epithet employed frequently to de- 
note what is done in the space of a year, or returns every 
year. — Annual motion of the earth, [vide Earth'] — Annual 
argument of longitude, [vide Argument'] — Annual epacts. 
[vide Epact] — Annual equation, the equation of the mean 
motion of the sun and moon, and of the moon's apogee 
and nodes. 

Annual Pension (Lati<) v\Ac Annua pensione. — Annual rent, 
in the Scotch Law, a yearly profit due to a creditor by 
way of interest for a given sum of money. — Right (ifanmial 
rent, the original right of burdening land with a 3'early 
payment for the loan of money. 

ANNUA'Ll.V (Laiu) a yearly stipend assigned to a priest 
for celebrating an anniversary for the soul of a deceased 
person, &ic. 

Annuai.ia (.-Irehicol.) oblations made by the relations of 
deceased persons on the anniversary of their death, which 
was called the Year's Day or the year's Mind. 

.\NNUE'NTES muscnli (Anut.) nniscles of the back or 
head ; so called because they ])erform the office of nod- 
ding or bending the head downward. 

ANNU'ITY (Laxv) a yearly rent to be jiaid for term of life 
or years, or in fee. Reg. Orig. 158. — IViit of An- 
nuity, the writ that lies against a man for the recovery 
of such a rent, if not satisfied every year according to the 
grant. Co. Lit. H^. — Annuity of teinds or tithes, in the 
Scotch law, what is allowed yearly to the king out of the 
teinds not paid to the bishop. 

Annuity (Com.) what is payable at any stated period within 
a year. Annuities arc yearly, half-yearly, or quarterly, 
that is, payable by the year, half-year, or (juarter. — Cer- 
tain annuity, one that is in perpetuity. — Contingent An- 
nuity, one depending on some contingency, as a life 


annuitj'. — Annuit;/ in possession, wlien it lias already 
commenced. — Annuity in reversion, when it will commence 
at some given future period. — Annuity in arrears, what is 
forborne for any number of years. 

A'NNULAR bone (Annt.) Circuliis osseus, a ring-like bone 
placed before the cavity of the tympanum in the fcetus. — 
Annular cartilaoe, the second cartilage at the head of the 
larynx or Windpipe. — Annular ligament, a strong ligament 
encompassing the carpus or wrist after the manner of a 

Annllakis digitus, the ring-finger next to the little one. — 
Annularis vena, the vein next to the ring-finger. Ael. 
Tetrab. l,serm. 3, c. 12. — Annularis musculus,the Sphincter 
Ani. — Annularis processus, a protuberance of the medulla. 
liuf. Ephcs. de Appell. Part. hum. Corp. 1. 1, c. 10. 

AN'NULATE (Bot.) nnnulatus, an epithet for a capsule, 
stem, and root. — Capsula annulata, an annulate capsule, is 
encircled by an articulated ring. — Radix annulata, an an- 
nulate root, is furnished on its upper surface with alter- 
nately raised and depressed bands. — Caudex annulatus, an 
annulate stem, is that which has the remains of the leaves 
at regular distances resembling annular elevations, as in 
tlie Corypha rotundifolia. 

AK'NULET (Archceol.) a little square moulding to accom- 
pany a larger, or to separate the flutings of a column ; 
also, a narrow flat moulding that encompasses other parts 
of a column, which is called by the ditierent names of 
Fillet, Listel Cincture, List Tcenia, Square, Rabit, and 

Annulet {Her.) a little ring [Q] borne in the coats of arms, 
supposed to be taken for rings of mail, which was an 
armour of defence. The annulet is the charge which dis- 
tinguishes the fifth son of any family. It is supposed to 
remind him that he should achieve great actions, accord- 
ing to the old motto, Jus aureorum An)iuloriim. 

A'NNULUS (Geol.) a ring ; a species of Volutsc. 

Annulus [Bot.) a membranaceous part of the fungi, of 
which there are different kinds, namely — Annulus erectus, 
fixed below and free above. — Annulus invcrtus, fixed above 
and free below. — Annulus sessilis, attached by one side. — 
Annulus mobitis, to be moved up and down. — Annulus 
persistens, lasting as long as the fungus. — Annulus Jttgax, 
disappearing when the fungus develops itself. — Anmdus 
nrachnoides, composed of a white web. 

ANNUNCI'ADE (Her.) the name of several orders; so 
called in honour of the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin. 
The most distinguished order of this name was that insti- 
tuted by Amadeo, the sixth Earl of Savoy, in commemo- 
ration of the victory obtained by the first Earl over the 
Turks, whom he drove from the Isle of Rhodes. The 
collar belonging to this order is of gold, on which these 
letters are engraven, F. E.R.T. Fortiiudo ejus Rhodum 
tenuit. To this collar is appended a tablet, wherein is the 
figure of the Annunciation. 

ANNUNCIA'TION [Ecc.) annunciatio, from ad and nun- 
cio, to tell ; the delivery of a message, particularly the 
Angel's message to the Virgin Mary, concerning the birth 
of our Saviour. — Annunciation of our Lady, a festival in 
the Christian Church commemorative of the Annuncia- 
tion to the Blessed Virgin, which is celebrated on the 25th 
of March. 

Annukciation (Theol.) a name given by the Jews to a part 
of their ceremonial of the Passover. 

ANNUNCIA'TOK (Ecc.) an officer in the church ofConstan- 
tinople, whose office it was to announce to the people the 
festivals that were to be celebrated. 

A'NO (Med.) 'ktu, upwards, opposed to y.x.Tu, downwards, 
in respect to purgatives, which operate upwards or down- 

ANO'BIUM (Ent.) a division of the genus Ptinxis, accord- 


ing to Fabricius, comprehending the insects of this tribe, 
which have the feelers clavate. 

AXOCATHA'RTICA [Med.) Emetics. 

ANOCHEI'LON (Anat.) ava/x,!'^", from «■», upper, and 
Xii>.cc, the lip ; the upper lip. Castcll. Lex. Med. 

A'NOCHUS {Med.) from «i'i;t;a', to retain; a stoppage of the 
intestinal discharge. 

A'NODA {Bot.) the .S/(/a of Linnasus. 

A'NODINA {Med.) vide Anodynes. 

ANOD'MON (Med.) without smell, as applied to pus. 
Hippnc. in Coac. ; Foes. Hippocrat. (Econom. 

A'NODUS [Cliem.) what is separated from the nourishment 
by the kidneys. 

A'NODYNES {Med.) aia^wct, anodyna, from «, priv. and o'^mi;, 
pain ; medicines so called because they ease pain and pro- 
cure sleep, such as the medicinal preparations of the poppy. 
Ccls. de Re Med. 1.5, c. 25, &c.; Gal. de Simpl. Med. 
1. 5, c. 11 ; Cels. Aurcl. de Tard. Pass. 1. .S, c. 4 ; Trcdlian. 
1. 10; Myreps. de Antidot. sect. 1, c. 178; Marcell. de 
Med. c. 25 ; Gorr. Def. ISIcd. ; Foes. Uiconom. Hippocrat. 

ANODY'NUM [Med.) Anodyne Balsam. — Anodynum mine- 
rale, the same as Nitrum. 

ANODY'NUS/j/(« {Med.) Anodyne fomentation. 

ANO'EA (Med.) 'i'cix, from «, priv. and io/^j, to think; priva- 
tion of understanding, madness. 

ANOI'NTERS (Ecc). a name given to a particular sect, who 
were so called because they anointed all whom they ad- 
mitted into their society. 

ANO^NIj'E'ANS (Ecc.) «io|«.inei, an heretical sect, which held 
most of the doctrines of the Arians, particularly that the 
essence of the Son was unlike that of the Father. Socrat. 
Hist. Eccles. 1. 2, c. 45, 1. 3, c. 25, &c, ; Sozom. Hist. 1.4, 
c. It; Theodoret.]. 4; S. Hilar, in Constant. 

ANOM^'OS (Med.) a, ko^oios, dissimular, as applied to vicious 

ANO'MALJE plantce (Bot.) from anomalus, irregular; the 
twenty-sixth class of plants in the system of Ray. 

ANOMA'LIA {Med.) a'uiJM>.icc, from «, priv. and (!,«.a.>i<i«, 
equal, inequality, or irregularity, as applied to the pulse. 
Galen. Defin. JMed. ; Actuar. aifl S'myvai TtaSai, 1. 1, C. 1 ; 
Gorr. Defin. Med. 

Anomalia (Astron.) vide Anomaly. 

ANOMALI'STIC Year (Astron.) or periodical year; that 
space of time in which the earth, or a plane, passes through 
its orbit, which is 365 d. 6 h. 15 m. 10 sec. 

ANO'MALOUS (G?'o>H.) uidf/^x^.oi, from «, priv. and iJiU-aAe;, 
equal, i. e. without rule ; an epithet applied to verbs that are 
irregularly formed, of which the Greek affords many examples. 

ANO'M ALY (Astron.) <iwu,«Ai'a, irregularity ; the irregularity 
in the motion of a planet, whereby it deviates from the 
aphelion or apogee, or it is the distance from the aphelion 
or apogee. It is sometimes taken for the argument of ano- 
maly, which is the arc between the line of the apsides and 
the line of mean motion. Kepler distinguished anomaly 

into mean or simple, eccentric, and true, or equated. 

Mean or simjile anomaly, the 

distance of the mean place of 

a planet from the apogee ; 

thus, suppose E S D to be 

the sun's orbit, A M N B the 

ecliptic, the earth at T, the 

sun at S, and A B the line 

of the apses, then is the angle 

A T M, or the arc A M, the 

sun's mean anomaly ; in the 

modern astronomy the mean -^ 

anomaly is the time in which a planet moves from 

its aphelion to the mean place or point in its orbit ; thus, 

suppose a planet P to describe an ellipse, A F B, about 

the sun, S, in one focus, let A B be the line of the apses, A 


tlie aphelion, and B tlie periliclion, then the mean annmal}' 
is the time in which tiie planet moves from the aphelion to 
its mean place, F ; and since the elliptic area A S P is pro- 
portional to the time in ivhich 
the planet describes the arc 
A \', that area may repre- 
sent the mean anomaly. — 
Eixcii/ric aiionialj/, or the an- 
gle at the centre, is the arc 
A D of the eccentric circle 
A D B, intercepted between 
the aphelion and the point 
1), determined by the per- 
pendicular D 1' E to the line 
of the apses A B ; or it is the 
angle A E D at the centre of the circle. — True or equated 
anomaly, otherwise called the aii;^lc at the sun, is the angle 
A S 1' at the sun, which the plan(,'t's distance, A P, from 
the aphelion appears under. 

ANO'.MIA {Coil.) Bowl-shell, a genus of animals. Class 
Vermes, Order Testacea. 

Generic Characters. Shell inequivalve. — Valve one, per- 
forated near the hinge; affi.xed by that perforation to 
some other body. 
Species. The principal species of this genus, which mostly 
inhabit the ^leditorrancan, and adhere to oyster-shells, 
are, the — .-Innmia ephippiiim, the Wrinkled Bowl-Shell. 
— Anomia elcclrn, the Amber Bowl-Shell. — Anomia 
sf/iiamiila, the Scaly Bowl-Shell, &c. 

.\N().\IO'EOS {Med.) xtif/^cmc, heterogeneous ; applied to the 
humours which are preternatural and vicious. Foes. CEco- 
nom. Ilippnrrnt. 

ANO.MOKIIOMBOrDEA (Min.) a sort of crystals; so 
called because their plates are composed of irregular ar- 
rangements of short and thick rhomboidal concretions. 

ANO'.MPHAL()S^(.'J««/.) a'yiiju(pa.>.e,i, without a navel, as our 
first parents were supposed to be. 

AXO'XA (Dot.) the genus Annona, as also the Achrns mam- 
mosa et sapota, the Chri/sophi/llum cainito, and the Cra- 
twva gijnandra cl lapia of Linnocus. Ilaii lliit. Plant. 

AtiO'SlS (Hot.) or Ononis, Utu>l(, mmk, or i'm^, from «, priv. 
and "fl^', to be of use ; a plant so called, because it seems 
to be worthless. In English it is called Itestharrow ; and 
in the Linnean system is the Glijcinc-lomentosa, the Iledy- 
sarinn hanuitum, and several species of the Ononis. The root 
is lieating and attenuating ; the bark, drank in wine, pro- 
vokes urine ; the root, boiled in oxycras, eases the tooth- 
ache. Tlieoph. Hist. Plant. 1. 6, c. 5 ; Dioscor. 1. 3, c. 21 ; 
Plin. 1. 21, c. 16 ; Gal. de Siinplic. 1. 6; Oribas. Med. Coll. 
1. 1.5 ; Paul. jEginet. dc Re Med. 1. 7, c. 3. 

ANO'NYMOUS (Cow.) ii>iinuft,i>'-, anoni/mus; from «, priv. 
and «o//.a, a name, nameless ; an epithet applied to partner- 
ships in I'rance, which are not acknowledged openly as 
partnerships, but are known only to the jiarties themselves. 

Anonymous spirit (Chem.) a sort of spirit that may be sepa- 
rated from tartar, and several sorts of wood. 

Anonv.mous (/.//.) an epithet applied to books or writings the 
author of which is not named. 

ANO'NYiML'S (/}oi.)dvii'ivit,tn, from u, priv. andii>o/A«, a name; 
anonymous ; an epithet for many exotics. 

Akonvmus (Anat.) the second cartilage of the throat, [vide 

A'NOR/V (Chem.) Ovorum TestK. 

ANORCHI'DES (/Inat.) such as arc born without testicles. 

ANOUK'XI A (Med.) urtfi^ici, from «, priv. and opili?, appctitus ; 
loathing of food. Gorr. Def. Med. ; Foes. (Econom. llip- 

Anoukxia, in Cullen's Sosologij, is a genus of diseases. 

ANO'SIA (fl/fc/.) uocm; from «, priv. and (oms, disease; 
absence of disease. 


ANO'SMIA (Med.) from «, priv. and oVy-ii, smell, i. c. with- 
out smell ; a disease attended witli a diminution or loss of 

ANO' ITA (Bot.) the Bi.ra orellana of Linna?us. 

A'NS.^ (Ast.) the various positions of the rings of Saturn, 
which appear like Anstc, or handles. 

A'XSEL (ro)».) a weight. [yli\c .'lunsel'] 

A'XSEH (.tstron.) a small star, of the 5th or 6th magnitude, 
in the Milky Way. Hevcl. Prodrom. Aslron. 

A'KSEl'ES (Or.) the third order of birds, Aves, having the 
I)ill somewhat obtuse, and covered with a skin, gibbous at 
the base ; the mouth toothed ; the tongue fleshy ; feet pal- 
mate, formed for swimming. It includes the following ge- 
nera, namely: 1. Those having a bill with teeth, as-— Ana'!, 
Goose, Swan, Duck, &c. ; bill convex, obtuse. — Three fore 
toes connected. — IMergus, Merganser; bill hooked at the 
point ; feet four-toed ; the outer toe longest. — Phaeton, 
Tropic-Bird ; bill sharp edged ; hind toe turned forwards. 
— Plotus, Darter; bill pointed; Jeet, all the toes con- 
nected. 2. Those having a bill without teeth, as — Iti/n- 
chops ; bill, the upper mandible much shorter, lower trun- 
cate. — Diomcdea, Albatross ; bill, upper mandible hooked, 
lower truncate ;/(>?/ four-toed, all placed forward. — Ap- 
tenodyta. Penguin ; bill sharp edged ; feet fettered, four- 
toed. — Alca, Auk; bill short, compressed; Jeet mostly 
three-toed. — Proccllaria, Petrel ; hill hooked at the point, 
mandibles equal ;yff/, the back toe pointing downwards. 
— Pclicanus, Pelican; bill furnished with a nM\\Jeet, all 
the fore toes palmate.- — Lams, Gull; bill sharp edged; 
Jeet, back toe small. — Sterna, Tern ; bill pointed ; 
Jeet, back toe small Colymbus ; hill subulate ; Jeet fet- 

ANSERI'NA (Bot.) the Potent ilia Anserina of Linnaeus. 

ANSPESA'DE (Mil.) a subaltern in the French army, below 
a corporal, but above a sentinel. 

A'NSWER (L(7U.) a form of defence. 

A'NT (Ent.) a gregarious and proverbially industrious tribe 
of insects, which on that account is made the emblem of 
industry. They are divided, like the Bees and Wasps, into 
males, females, and neutrals, which last constitute the great 
mass of this tribe, and appear to conduct the business 
of the nest. Ants feed both on animal and vegetable sub- 
stances, and if left at liberty will ])iek the bones of any 
dead animal until they have rendered it a naked skeleton. 
By this means good skeletons of frogs, snakes, &c. have 
been obtained. 

Ant (Chew.) This insect yields a very grateful acid by distil- 
lation, which resembles vinegar, except that it forms crys- 
tals with magnesia, iron, and zinc. 

A'NTBEAR [/.ool ) a name which Raj' gives to two species 
of the bear that devour Ants. 

ANT Eater (Zool.) the English name for an American qua- 
druped, classed by Linnxus as a genus of Mammalia, 
under the name of Myrmecopha<ra. 

ANTACHA'TI'^S (Min.) a precious stone of the agate kind, 
which on being burnt yields a perfume of myrrh. Plin. 
1. 37, c. 19. 

ANT-A'CTDA (Med.) acids that correct or destroy the acid- 
ity of the humours. 

A'NTyE (Archit.) Jaumbs or sipiarc pillars on each side the 
doors of the temples. The capitals of the Anta; seldom 
corresponded with those of the colunni ; but in the tenijiles 
of Minerva Pollias, and Apollo Didyma;us, in Ionia, they 
bear a strong resemblance, having also volutes, though not 
in the same pro])ortion, nor hanging in the same manner. 
Vilruv. 1.3, c. 1; Fest. de Verb. S/gniJ. ; Serv. in Virg. 
Eelog. 1. 2; Snbnas. in Solin. p. 121 (i. 

ANTAGONI'STA (Anat.) <i»ray*>i5-««, from ifTi and aye 
nQtf/jai, to contend; i. e. one thing acting against another ; 
an epithet applied to muscles acting contrary' ways, as the 


Abductor of the cubitus, which serves to stretch the arm 
out, and the Adductor, whicli pulls it back. 

ANTA'LGICS (Med.) medicines which assuage pain. 

ANTA'LIUM (Con.) Anialc, or tuhidus miirinm, a little 
shell, the size of a pipe, which contains small sea-worms. 

ANTA'LKALINA (Med.) Medicines which possess the 
power of neutralizing alcalies, such as the antacids, Sec. 

ANTAXACLA'SIS (Rlu-t.) <irT«.i;c^«o-,?, from £i'.™.«>-.Ai<., 
to refract ; a figure in rhetorick, when that which is 
spoken in one sense is turned to another or contrary sense. 
(luiiit. Instit. 1. 9, c. 3 ; Itutil. Lup. 1. 1, c. 5. 

ANTANAGO'GE (Rhet.) «'.t«.«v»'7«, from U^ruyo,, to set 
forth in opposition; recrimination; a figure of speech when 
one answers a charge by a counter charge of the same 

ANTANISOPHY'LLUM scandens (Dot.) the Bocrhavia 
scniidcns of Linna;us. 

ANTAPHKODISI'ACOS (Med.) uyru(picl<r'-^'-'u from a-T., 
and 'A^foJiTs, Venus ; anti-venereals, or medicines tending 
to extinguish venereal appetite. 

ANTAl'HRODI'TICA (Med.) the same as Aniiphrodisiacus. 

ANTAPODO^SIS (Med.) a'.j-^.T^JVo-.., from ^-rasoJi^V', to re- 
ciprocate ; periodical returns of the paroxysms of fevers. 
H/ppocrat. Aphor. sect. 12 ; Gorr. Def. Med. ; Foes. Oeco- 
nom. Hippocrat. 

Antapodosis (Rhet.) i»T«zro«'oiri5, the counter part or latter 
clause of a similitude, answering to the former called by 
Quintilian " Redditio." Qui?it. Instit. I. S, c. 3. 

ANTA'KCTIC (.istron ) a'tTufKriKOi from uul, opposite, and 
afKTo:, the Northern Bear ; an epithet for one of the Poles 
and one of the Circles. — Antarctic Pole, the South Pole, 
or the pole opposite to the Northern. — Antarctic Circle, one 
of the lesser circles, drawn on the globe at the distance of 
23 degrees and a half from the Antarctic, or South Pole. 
Gem. Elem. Astron. c. 2; Cleom. de Mund. 1. 1 ; Procl. de 
ANTARTHRI'TICS (Med.) «.7-«fO|,.V<,=;, from «>?<, and «> 

^Tic, the gout; medicines against the gout. 
ANTA'RES (Ast.) the Scorpion's heart; a star of the first 
magnitude in the Scorpion. Its longitude for 1700, ac- 
cording to Hcvelius, was in } 5° 32' 43", and S. Lat. 
4° 27' 19". 
ANTASTHMA'TICS (Med.) u,Tu<r6^c.r:y:u, from i.rl and 

carSf^x, asthma; medicines against the Asthma. 
ANTEAiMBULO'NES (Ant.) from ante, and ambido, to 
walk ; clients who walked before their patrons. 
Mart. \. 2, epig. 18, v. 5. 

Sum corner ipse tuus, tuuiidique ante.imhulo rcis, 

Sueton. in Vesp. c. 2 ; Bud. in Pandect, p. 137 ; 
Trebell. in Claud, c. 14. 

ANTECA'NIS (A.^tron.) the same as Canis major. 

ANTECE'DENCE (Astron.) vide Antecedentia. 

ANTECE'DENT (Lo?.) Antecedens, from ante, and ccdo, to 
go ; the premises of a syllogism, in distinction from the 
consequent conclusion. 2. Locus proprius dialccticorum, a 

Antecedekt (f a ratio (Gcom.) y.y^i/.i.o; r^ ;:o-ju ; the first of 
the two terms of a ratio, in distinction from the conse- 
quent or last term ; as, if n be to b as c to d, then a and c 
arc the antecedents, b and d consequents. D(J'. Euc. 
Elem. 1. 5. 

Antecedent (Gram.) that word to which the relative refers. 

Antecedent (Phij.) the cause that is first observed. 

Antecedent Decree ( Theol.) a decree preceding some other 
decree, or some action of the creature, or the provision of 
the action. 

ANTECEDE'NTAL method (Geom!) a mode of Geometrical 
proportion, derived from the examination of the antece- 
dents and consequents of ratios, invented by iVIr. James 


Glennie, and illustrated in 17S9, in a treatise on '< Ge- 
neral Proportion."' 
ANTECEDE'NTIA (Astron.) an epithet applied to the mo- 
tion of the planets when they appear to move ih -« rpoJiyst y^Kx. 
westward, or contrary to the usual order of the signs, in dis- 
tinction from the eastward motion, when they are said to 
movefi? r'aiacu^itc. i.e." inccji'ieqiie.ttin." Ptol.Almaty. \.S,S:c. 
Antecedentia Sinna (Med.) signs of diseases; such as the 
bad disposition of the blood, v.hich are first observed. 

ANTECESSO'RES (Ant.) men who for their skill were held 
in high esteem, and took the lead on all occasions. Justi- 
nian gave this name to professors of the law. Turneb. Adv. 
I. 8, c. 19. — Antccfssores cqnites, parties of dragoons sent 
out on the scout ; called by Ca;3ar " ante cursores." Ca-s. 
de Dell. Gall. Cic. 1. 5, c. 45; Hist, de Bell. Aj'ric. c. 12; 
Turneb. Adver. 1. 24, c. 16. 

ANTE'CIANS (J.rf;o».) vide Antoeci. 

ANTECQi'NIUM (Ant) from ante, and ccenutv, supper; srfs- 
ci'tmirfl, a collation belbre supper, or the first course at supper, 
consisting of eggs, herbs, &c. customary among the Greeks 
and Romans. Macro!/. Saturn. \. 3, c. 12; Turneb. Adv. 
1. 17, c 10; IJps. Anlirj. Lect. vol. 3, p. 14". 

ANTECURSO'RES (Ant.) vide Antecessores. 

A'NTEDATE (Com.) a date that precedes the real one, as 
the antedate of a bill, that which is earlier than the time 
when it is drawn. 

ANTEDILU'VIANS (Ant.) from ante and diluvium, the de- 
luge ; persons living before the deluge. 

ANTEJURAME'NTUW (/.«u.) an oath taken both by the 
accuser and accused, before any trial or purgation. 

ANTELA'BIA (Anat.) zf'i^^uy.u, from ««/r, before, and labia, 
the lips ; the extremities of the lips. Ritf. Eplies. Appell. 
Part. Human. Corp. 1. I, c. 6. 

A'NTELIX (.int.) or Anlihelix, fron anti, opposite to, and 
helix; in the Greek uvhAll; that part of the ear which is 
opposite to the helix. UuJ'. Ephes. dc Appell. Part, human. 
Corp. 1. 1, c. G. 

A'NTELOPE (Zool.) tlie Antilopus of Linnaeus ; an African 
beast, like a deer, which is remarkable for its swiftness. 
The hoofs and horns are used in medicine, and are esteemed 
good against the epilepsy and hysterics. Gessn. de Quad. ; 
Aldrov. dc Quad. 

AN'l IiLl;C.\'Njl'2 civno' (/bit.) suppers early in the morning. 

ANTEMBALLO'MENOS (Med.) ^,riy,,Cc,M.i,^i,'>r, from ^ir-, 
for, and iu.f,kxxt,!, to throw or put in, substituted ; an epithet 
applied to any medicine substituted for another. 

ANTE'.MBASIS (Anat.) Uith,.?.L.<t,c, from Un., and iy^it^ln; 
to enter ; a mutual insertion of the bones. 

ANTE.MERl'DIAN (A.itron.) abbreviated A. JI. from ante, 
and mcridies, the noon ; the time before noon. 

ANTEME'TICS (Med.) u'TiyjinyM, from i»-l, against, and 
s^yiTiK«5, vomiting; remedies against prxternatural vo- 

ANTE5IURA'LE (Ant.) the name among the ancients for 
what is now called the counterscarp, or outwork in fortifi- 

ANTENCLE'MA (Rhet.) k^Ayr.Mfi,a, a figure of speech, in 
which the accused draws his defence out of the accusation 
itself, as when Orestes says, "It is true I killed my mo- 
ther, and I did rightly, for she killed my father." Cic. de 
Invent. 1. 2, c. 26 ; Ilermogenes in Partil. ; Quintil. I. 7, 
c. 4 ; Sopat. c.a.p. Aid. Ed. \y. 289. 

ANTENUEPXIS (Med.) i.T,>M,i, a contraindication : when 
any thing happens contrary to the primary indication, as 
an inflammatory pleurisy indicates phlebotomy, but the 
weakness of the patient is a contrary indication. Gal. de 
Meth. Med. I. 9, c. 7 ; Gorr. Dif. Med. 

ANTE'NNA (Ani.) the sail-yard, ov the beam which crosses 
the mast for the purpose of extending the sails. It is called 
in the Greek x£f«5, a horn ; in which sens,e Virgil, and after 
s 2 


him Silius Italicus, uses the Latin coniit. The parts of the 
Antenna; are : «,u,3ciA« «Ku-,3<i/a, junctures in the middle, 
by which it could be bent ; ayx^Aa., the arms, inclining to 
an orbicular figure ; and .i'roxi>«i«, the extremities. Cces. 
lie Bell. GallA. '.i, C. 1! ; Poll. Onnmast. 1. 1, c. 9 ; Tcrtull. 
emit. Marcion. 1. 3; Interpret. Somn.l. 1; 
Sc/iol. in Ham. II. 1. IS ; Macrub. Snturn. 1. 5, c. 21 ; Jun. 
Catal. ; Gi/rnld. dc Nnv. c. 12 ; Se/uff. de Re Nnv. 1.2, c.5. 

A'NTE Xicaie (Ecc.) an tjalliet for what preceded the coun- 
cil of Nice. 

ANTE'NN.E (Ent.) the Horns, or hornlike processes, pro- 
jecting from the head of insects. 

ANTEPEXU'LTIM.VTE (Gram.) from ante, before, pene, 
almost, and uilinius, the last ; the syllable before the two 

ANTEP.V'GMEXTA (Arcliit.) ornaments to the doors, so 
called because ante pan^antur they are fixed before the 
porches or doors wrousht in timber or stone, according to 
kn ancient inscription— TACITO ANTEPAGMENTA 
ABIEGN.A L.VTA' S=— . I'ilruv. de Architect. 1. 4, c. 6; 
Bald. Lex. Vitruv. 

ANTEPHIA'LTICS [Med.) from «m, and i<?'iiATii5 ; reme- 
dies against the night-mare. 

ANTEPA'XNI [Ant.) or antipana, from the modern Greek 
i.riTa>k ; the band with which the anterior part of the 
garment was fastened. Snimas. de Re Mil. Roman. ^ 

ANTEPILE'PTIC'S (Med.) uyri^i>>>:^r,KU, from u,tI, and 
jV.//,-|.V,f;«7p/)s/,s,- remedies against the epilepsy. 

A'NTERA (But.) the same as Anlhern. 

ANTE'UIDES [Arch.) in the Greek i»T«fi'Ji5, or !fs.o-|«,«T« ; 
props or buttresses which served to support a wall. 
Vitruv. 1.6, c. 2; 1. 10, c. 1, & PItiland. in Vitruv. ; Hesy- 
chiua ; Bald. Lex Vitruv.; Salinas. Plin. Exercitat. p. 856. 

ANTE'ilIO]l(/lH«/.) before in position ; an epithet applied 
to the muscles and other parts of the body. 

A'NTES [Arch.) vide Antcc. 

Antes [Aar.) the outermost rows of vines m the vmeyards, 
so called because they stand ante foremost. Fest. de Verb, 

ANf ESIGNA'NI {Ant.) soldiers, so called because they 
marched ante si<;na immediately before the standards, so as 
to form the van or front of the army. The hastati and 
principcs used to occupy this post. Cas. de Bell. Civ. 
1 1, c. 57; Liv. 1. 2, c. 20, &c. ; Leps de Mil. Roman. 1. i, 
dial', .'i; Salnm.'i. de Re Mil. c. 1, &c. Schel. in Hygin. apud 
Grew. Then. Aiiti(/. Roman, torn 10, p. 1055, &c. 

ANTESTA'KI [Ant.) from ante, before, and /e.(/flr/, to call 
to witness ; to call any one as a witness, or to subpa-na a 
person, which was done among the Romans by touching 
the right ear, to which custom Plautus and Horace alludes. 
riant. Pers. act 4', seen. 9, v. 10. 

■ Tuane ego causa carnifex 

CuKiiiam iiurrtali liberi) aures alteram. 

Ilurat. 1. 1, sat. 9, v. 75. 

Casu veuit ohvius iUi ? 
Adt^uiritii ; et, Quo tn, turpisiime ? magna 
Vjiclumat voce ; et, licet aiitolari? Kgo vera 
Oppono auriculam ; rojiil in jus ; clamor utnmrpie 
Umliijue concuraus. Sic me wmawt Apollo. 

Plin. 1. 11, c. 4-5; Ursal. dc Not. Roman, apud Grew. Thcs. 
Antiii. Roman, torn. 11, p. 5i'9, &c. &c. 

ANTE'STATL'UE [Fort.) a traverse or small entrench- 
ment made of palisadoes, or of sacks filled with earth. 

ANTEUPHO'KIUU.M (Bot.) the Cacalia Antcphorbium of 
Linna'us. , „ _, , . 

XNTIIA'LIUM [Bol.) the ,/-«Ar/a««AA« of Theophraslus, a 

' '„lant which is said to grow freely on the banks oi rivers. 
Tbrophrast. Hist. Plant. 1. 'I. c. 10; Plin. I. 21, c. 15. 

A'NTllEA (Med.) from «'*«»s, redness, like the top ol a 


A'NTHELIX (Annl.) vide Antelix. 

ANTHE'LMIA (Bot.) a species of the Spigelia of Linnaeus. 

AXTHELMI'NTICA (Med.) from i.r,, and fV"«. vermes; 

vermifuges, or remedies against worms. 
A'NTHEMIS [Bot.] a>Cs;Ai«, a plant called by some Ait/««r- 
iijA^ti, ifiihfjuc',, and x*."-"')*";'''?, which was reckoned effica- 
cious against the stone. 1. 3, c. 15:5; Plin. 1. 21, 
c. 16, ic. ; Oribas. Med. Coll.L 11, 15, &c.; Ael. Tetrab. 
l,serm. 1 ; Paul. JEginet. de Re i\led. I. 7, c. 3. 
Anthemis, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, 
Class 19 Syngenesia, Order 2 Polygamia Snperflua. 
Generic Characters. Cal. common hemispherical ; .sraZci 
linear — Cor. compound radiate — Stam. Jilaments five; 
a»//(c?- cylindrical. — Pist. germ oblong; style filiform; 
stigmas two — Per. none; calyx unchanged; scTf/*- soli- 
tary ; down margined or none ; receptacle chafty. 
Species. The species are either annuals or perennials. 
Among the annuals are the — Anihemis cota, Chanucmelum 
annnum seu Bcllis montana, native of Italy. — Anihemis 
cotula seu Chamcemelum fcetidum. Stinking Chamomile. 
— .Inthemis Chia seu Chamiemclum Chinm, Cut-leaved 
Chamomile, native of Chios, <S:c. Among the i^erennials 
are the — Anthemis nobilis, Chamtrmelum nobile seu odo- 
ratum, Lcuocanthemum seu Matricaria, Common or 
Sweet Chamomile, a native of Britain. — /l;?//(ew;s py- 
rethrum, Chamcvmelnm seu Pyrelhrum, Spanish Chamo- 
mile or Pellitory, &c. J. Baiihin. Hist. Plant.; C. 
Bauhin. Pin. Theat.; Ger. Herb. ; Park. Theat. Botan.; 
Rail Hist. Plant. ; Pluk. Almag. Botan. ; Mor. Hist. 
Plant. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
A'NTHER [Bot.) from the Greek i>fl.;po?, florid, and u'M, a 
flower; a part of the stamen of the flower which is 
placed on the filament. It is called, by Ray, the apei, 
or Chive; by Malpigi, capsula slaminis ; by Grew, the 
Summit, Pendent, or Tip. It is defined by Linna'us Pars 
fioris gravida polline, guod nntura dimiltit ; i. e. a part of 
the flower big with pollen or farina, which it emits or 
explodes when ripe ; or it may be defined to be a vessel 
destined to retain and emit, in its proper season, a dust, 
which serves to impregnate the germ. 
Anthers ditter as to their figure, number, situation, manner 

of bursting, and number of their cells. 
As to its figure, the anther is — Oblong, as in Lilium, aiu.1 
Grasses. — Arrow-shaped sagiltata, as in the Crocus, 
fi-r. 1 ; so also in Linnm, Bromelia, Sfc. — Angular, an- 
"ulata, I. e. having deep furrows that form angles, as in 
the Tulip. — Horned, cornuta, as in Asarum, fig. 2.; so in 
Hamamclis, Vaccinium, Pyrola. — Forked, bifurcala, i.e. 
bifid, or cleft above and below, as in Festuca, fig. 3, and 
in most (irasses. — Two-horned, bicornis, having two su- 
bulate prolongations at the ape\, as in Vaccinium. — Subu- 
late or awlshaped, as in Corns, Roella, fig, 2. — Awned, 
aristata, having two bristle-shaped ajipcndages at the 
base, as in Erica, Arborea, fig. 4. — Heartshaped Cor- 
data, as in Turncra frutesccns, fig. 5 ; so in Thca, Ca- 
praria, Bucida, Malpigia, &c. — Crested, cristata, having 
two cartilaginous points at the sides or the base, as in 
Erica, fig.6. — Dentated, having indentations on the 
margin, as in the Yew. — Hastate, or shaped like tlie 
head of a halbert, as in Jacquinea. — Spiral, or turned 
like a screw, as in Chironia. 



1 ^ 

As to its situation, the anther is mostly — Erect, crccta, i.e. 
Standing with its base straight on the point of the fila- 


ment. — Incumbent, incumbent, i. e. obliquely or horizon- 
tally attached to the filaments, as in fig. 7. — Lateral, 
lateralis, i. e. attached by its side to the point of the 
filament, as in fig. 8. — Adnate, adnata, when it is closely 
attached to both sides of the filament, as in fig. 6 and y. 
Connate, connata, when several grow together, forming 
a tube. — Sitting, sessilis, that has no filament. 
As to their number, there is generally one anther to each 
filament, but in Cncurbita there is one to three fila- 
ments; in the Class Sijiin;enesia, one to five. On the other 
hand tliere are in Mercurialis two, and in Tiimnria three 
anthers to a filament: in Bryonia five to three filaments ; 
in Tlicobroma five to each. In some flowers anthers are 
regularly wanting on one or more of the filaments, as in 
Chflone, Curcuma, Si'c. which are called Barren filaments. 
As to their manner of bursting : anthers burst at the side 
iu most plants ; at the point, as in Galanthus ; from the 
base, upwards, as in Epimedium and Leant ice. 
As to their number of cells, anthers are unilocular, having 
but one cell or cavity, as in Mercurialis ; bilocular, as in 
Epimedium, Asclenias, Daphne, and Helleborus; multilo- 
cular, as in Fritillaria, Trnpccohim. 
ANTHE'RA. [Med.) medicines so called from their florid 
red colour. Cel. de Re Med. 1. 6, c. 2 ; Gal. de Meth. Med. 
1. .5 ; Paid. JEginrt. de Re Med. \. 3, c. 66. 
ANTHE'llEON (Anat.) ^>hf,m, the chin, or that part of the 
face where the beard grows, according to Hippocrates and 
most writers ; but Suidas and C;clius Aurelianus explain it 
by the beginning of the neck and throat. Hippocrat. Epid. 
1. 5 ; Suidn.s ; Cal Auret. de Tard. 1. 1, c. 3. 
ANTHE'UICUM [Bnt.) k,9ifi^^, is called, by Theophrastus, 
the stem, and by Uioscorides, the flower of the Asphodel. 
Thcophrast. I. 1, c. 7 ; 1. 7, c. 12; Dioscor. 1. 1, c. 199; 
Plin. 1. 21, c. 17; Scholiast, in Theocrit, idyl. 1 ; Suidas; 
Antiiekicum, a genus of plants, Class 6 Hexandria, Order 1 

Generic Character. Cal. none. Cor. petals six — 

Stam. filaments subulate; anthers small — PiST. germ 
obscurely three-cornered ; style simple ; stigma obtuse.^ 
capsule ovate ; seeds numerous. 
Sj)ecies. The species of this genus are mostly perennials, 
and natives of the Cape of Good Hope, India, Sec. as — 
Anthericum ramo^um. Branching Anthericum — Antheri- 
cum liliago, seu Fhalangium liliago, Giass-leaved Anthe- 
ricum, <S:c. But the .-Inthericuin liliastrum. Savoy An- 
tliericum or Spider- Wort, is a native of the Alps ; and 
tlie Anthericum ossij'ragum, Lancashire Anthericum or 
Asphodel, a native of Europe, &c. 
ANTHE'SIS [Bol.) Uiliiu-u,, efflorescentia, efflorescence ; that 
state of vegetation in which the flower is completely deve- 
ANTHESPHO'RIA {Ant.) 'A>eipl(>x, from ««««?, a flower, 
and <pif<i', to carry ; a festival celebrated in Sicily, in which 
flowers were strewed in the temple, in honour of Proser- 
pine, who was carried away by Pluto while gathering 
flowers. It is called by Plutarch 0ifi'pxT7iz, and in the 
Latin Florilegium. It was observed, according to Pausa- 
nias, in honour of Juno, to whom a temple was dedicated 
under the name of aiiitx. Poll. Onomast. 1. 1, c. 1, 
segm. 37 ; Pausan. 1. 2. 
ANTHESTE'RIA (Ant.) 'A'^is-Jipia, festivals in honour of 
Bacchus, among the Greeks, celebrated on the 1 1th, 12th, 
and 13»h days ,if the month Anthesterion. These days 
were distinguished by the names of the Ti^or/ioe, x,"^, and 
^K'Tfa, during which the slaves were allowed to make them- 
selves merry, and at the end of the festivals were dispersed 
with the command iufuQ KSpe;, «" '»■ athinfM, i. e. " Be 
gone, o Carian slaves, the Anthesteria are over." jElian. 
Var. Hist. 1.2, c. 41 ; Arisloph.; Harpocration ; 


Suidas. cent. vii. prov. 90 ; Etymolog. Magnum ; Zenoh, 
cent, iv. prov. 32; Meurs.Grac. Per. 1. 1. 
ANTHESTE'RION {Chron.) «.(i£s-.f,i>. the sixth montli of 
the Athenian year, consisting of twenty-nine days, and 
answering to the latter part of our November and the 
beginning of December. This month was so called 
from the feast Anthesteria, which was celebrated at that 
time. Macrob. Salurnal. 1. 1, c. H ; Gaza de Mens. Attic; 
Scalig. de Emendet, Tempor. 
A'NTHIA [Ich.) U>ho, a kind offish, the fat of which is good 

against humours. Aristot. Hist. Animal. 1. 9, c. 37. 
A'NTHINES (.^/f(/.) avCii-Ji?, from a»fl»';, a flower; medicated 
wines and oils infused in flowers. Gal.Exeg. in Vncab. Hip- 
pocrat.; Foes. CEcononi. Hippocrat. ; Gorr. Defin. Med. 
ANTHISTI'RIA {Bot.) from 'A.P^fzpia [vkle Anthesteria^ a 
genus of plants. Class 23 Polyganiia, Order 1 Monoecia. 
Generic Characters. Cal. glume four-valved ; valves equal. 
— Cor. glume two-valved ; valves lanceolate. — Sta.m. 
Jilamcnts three ; nnlher oblong. — PisT. germ oblong ; 
styles two; stigynashMry. — Per, none, except the closed 
caly.x ; seed oblong. 
Species. The species of this genus are perennials, and 
mostly natives of India, as — Anthesteria imberbis seu 
Stipa paleacea — Anthisliria glauca seu Stipn argucns, 
Sfc. — Anthisliria Japonica seu Andropagon Cilialum, Sf-e. 
- — but the Anthistiria ciliaia is an annual. Linn. Spec. 
ANTHO'CEROS (Bot.) a genus of Alga?, Class Cryptoga- 

Generic Characters. Male flowers within the substance 
the leaf. Cal. Icfif one ; blossom none. — Stam. Jila' 
nients hardly any ; anthers from three to eight. Female 
flowers on the same plant. Cal. leaj" one ; blossom veil 
fibrous. — PisT. germ, short, conical ; style very short ; 
summit simple. — Per. cajisule very long, awlshaped ; 
seeds many. 
ANTHO'DIU.M (Bot.) the Calyx communis of Linna;us, 
and the Common Perianth or Calyx which contains a great 
number of flowers that appear but as one, as in Leontodon 
tara.faL-um, Blue-bottle; Ccntaurea cyanus. Sunflower, iS:c. 
ANTHOLO'GION (Ecc.) a church book, mass book, or 
missal in the Greek church, which contained a collection 
of devotional pieces. 
ANTHOLY'ZA (Bot.) from «>Si>?, a flower, and Ai/Vo-a, mad- 
ness; a genus of plants; Class 3 Triandria, Order 1 Mo- 

Generic Characters. Cal. .<:pathes two valved. — Cor. 
petal one. — Stam. filaments long ; anthers acute. — Pist. 
germ inferior ; style filiform ; stigma trifid. — Per. cap- 
sule roundish ; seeds many. 
Species. The species are mostly perennials, and natives of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Linn. Spec. Plant. 
A'NTHONY, Knights (if St. (Her.) a military order insti- 
tuted by Albert, Duke of Bavaria, when he designed to 
make war against the Turks in 13b2. The knights wore 
a collar of gold made in the form of a hermit's girdle, 
from which hung a stick cut like a crutch, with a little 
bell, as they are represented in the pictures of St. An- 
thony. There was another order of this name instituted 
as early as 370 by John, emperor of Ethiopia. 
Anthony's _^Vf, .SV. (Med.) a name given to the disorder 
called the Erysipelas, which is said to have been cured 
by St. Anthony. 
AN'THOPHY'LLUS (Bot.) vide Carophylli. 
ANTHROPO'LOGY (Theol.) an ascription of human pas- 
sions to the divine being. 
ANTHROPOMA'NCY (Ant.) from «.«paT«; and ;«,«.r£,«, a 

species of divination by inspecting human entrails. 
ANTHROPOSCO'PIA (Eth.) from uv(f<^7ro^, a man, and 
(n«;TTo/*«(, to behold ; a judging of human characters. 


•A'NTIIOIIA {But.) scu Aiititlwrn, Salutary Monk's Hood ; 
the AcDuilum Anthorn of Linnaeus. ./. Biiu/i. Hist, 
riant.; Get: Herb. ; Park. I'arnd. ; Unii Hist. I'laiit. 
A'N'THOS (Bot.) «»<>«!, 1. Flowers in general; '/. Koscniary 

in particular. 
AXTHOSPE'RMUM (Dot.) from ado; and <r.T/p«,«, flower- 
seed; a genus of plants; Class 23 Dioccia, Order 4 Tc- 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — Coi;. 

none. — Stau. filaments four ; anthers twin.— PisT.^erjH 

inferior ; stijles two ; stigmas simple. 

Species. The species are mostly shrubs, and natives of 

" tlie Cape of Good Hope, as Anlhospermum cancellatum, 

.Ethiopiiuni, <S:c. Pink. I'hijtog.; Linn. Spec. Plant. 

AXTHOXA'NTHON (Bot.) the Rumex mariiimus of Lin- 

ANTHOXA'NTHUM (Bot) from k-.ioc, and M'5, Yellow- 
llower; a genus of plants; Class 2 Diandria, Order 2 

Generic Characters. Cal. alume one-flowered; valves 
ovate. — Cou. glnme one-flowered ; nectarij two-leaved, — 
Stam. f laments two ; anthers oblong — V IST. genn ob- 
long ; sti/les two ; stigmas simple. — Per. glume of the 
corolla grows to the seed ; seed one. 
Species. The plants of this tribe are grasses and peren- 
nials, as the Anthoxanthum odoratum, Sweet Vernal- 
Grass, &u. ./. Banhin. Hist. Plant.; C. Bauhin. Pin. 
Theat.; Raii Hist. Plant.; Pink. Almag. Botan. ; Linn. 
■Spec. Plant. 
AsTiioxANTiiUM is also tlic name of the Rumex maritimus ; 
the Cripsis ttculeata ; the Festuca spadicea of Linnseus. 
Ban/i. Hist. Plant. S^-c. 
ANTFHIA'CIA (Med.) a burning swelling, [vide Carbuncle'] 
AN'THUACI'TES (Min.) vide Schistos. 
ANTHHACO'SIS ocidi (Med.) a scaly corrosive ulcer in 

the eye. 
A'NTHR.\X (Ent.) a division of the genus Bombijlius, ac- 
cording to Fabricius, comprehending the insects of this 
tribe, vi-liich have the antennae distant, and the last joint 
ANTHRE'XUS {Ent.) a genus of animals; Class Insecta, 
Order Culeoptera. 

Generic Character. Antennce clavate. — Ffffcri unequal. — 
.Ja-MS membranaceous. — Lip entire — HcadhiA under the 
Species, The principal species are the — Anthrenus denti- 
corni'i, which inhabits Santa Cruz. — Ant/irenus histrio, 
which inhabits Germany, &c. 
ANTHKl'lJOS (Knt.) a division of the genus Curculio, 
comprehending those species of insects which have the 
li|i bifid, jaw bifid, and snout short. 
ANTHIU'SCUS (//f)/.)the Ckaruphyllumtuynulum and Scan- 

dix anthriscus of Linnseus. 
AXTHliOPO'CJUAl'HUS (.'Iw/.) from «4a»-05, a man, and 
'/(u.(pu, to paint, i. e. a painter of man ; a surname of 
Dionysius, the painter who painted men only. Plin. 
I, 3.5, c. 10. 
ANTHROl'CJLI'THUS (Foss.) from «.«f<w»;, a man, and 
/I'Co:, a stone; a genus of petrefactions of the human body 
and its parts. 
AXTIUJOPO'LOGY (Anat.) from a/ffarroi, a man, and Atya, 

to discourse upon the study of man anatomically. 
ANTHROPOMORPHrrivS (Ere.) from <i.flf<iWo5, man, and 
/iipii), the form; heretics in the fourth century, who main- 
tained that God had bodily shape. N. Epiphan. Uteres. 70; 
.S. Augn.^1. Uteres. r,0. 
ANTHliOPO.MO'RPnOS (S'al.) another namo for the 

ANTiniOPOPHA'GI (Ant.) another name for cannibals, 
or men eaters. 


ANTHROPOSO'PHLV (Anat.) the knowledge of the nature 

of man. 
AN'THUMOX (BlI.) the Epithymon, or dodder growing on 

ANTHY'LLLS (But.) u>l^M:f, Kidney-Vetch ; a plant which 

was reckoned very good for diseases in the kidneys. Dio.H\ 

1. 3, c. 153; Gal. de Sinipl. Med. 1. 6 ; Oribns. Med. CM. 

1. 11 ; Act. Tetrab. 1, serm. 1 ; Paul. ^Eginet. 1.7, c. 3. 
Anthvllis, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants; 

Class 17 Diadclphia, Order 4 Dccandria. 
Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leafed. — Con. pa- 
pilionaceous. — Stam. Jilaments connate; anthers simple. 
— PiST. germ oblong; style simple; stigma obtuse. — 
Per. Legume roundish ; seeds one or two. 
Species. The species are either perennials or shrubs. 
Among the perennials are the — Anthyllis vulneraria. 
Common Ladies' Fingers or Kidney-Vetch, native of 
Britain. — Anthyllis montana seu A;,trngalus purpurea, 
Mountain Ladies' Fingers or Kidne}'- Vetch. — Anthylli.s 
polycephala, &c. Among the shrubs are the — Anthyllis 
barba Jovis, Silvery Anthyllis or Jupiter's Beard.—. 
Anthyllis cytasoides seu Cytisus incanus, Downey-leaved 
Anthyllis, &c. There are also a few annuals and bien- 
nials among the species. J. Bauhin. Hi'.t. Plant. ; C. 
Bauhin. Pin. Theat.; (jer. Herb.; Park. 'J'heat. Botan.; 
Raii Hist. Plant.; Tuurn. Inst. Herb.; Boerh. Ind. 
J'lant.; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
Anthyllis is also the name for several species, as the 
Arenaria pcploides ; the Aspalathus anthylloides ; the Cam- 
phorosma acuta ; the Cressa polycarpon et tctraphyllum ; the 
Salsola Jruticosa ; the Teucrium iva ; and the Frankenia 
pulvcrulenta of Linna;us. Clus. ; Bauh. ; Ger. ; Raii ; 
Park, SfC. 
ANTHYLLO'IDES (Bot.) the Salsola polyclonos of Lin- 
naeus ; also an epithet for the Aspalathus of Linnaeus. 
ANTHYPNO'TICA (Med.) from a»r; and i-Tvo,. sleep; re- 
medies against excessive sleep. 
ANTHYPA'LLAGE (Rhct.) ayluTraMcf/'y,, a commutation 
in cases, as when Homer says, Oi i\ &ua a-xiynAoi, if/^ii avpx- 
to/ ivfn iViii'ii; instead of the more common form, t»» ^s i'tia 
a-y.ontXut, Sec. Ham, Odyss. 1. 1 3, v. 7.5 ; Dcmet. de 
Eloc. § 60. 
AN'THYPO'PHORA (Rhet.) ' kyiu:!„<pof\ from k'.il, contra, 
i/jrd, under, and ^ipu, to carry, a figure of speech, wherein 
the objections of an adversary are brought forward in order 
to be answered. Ulpin. ad Demost. Oral. Ulynth. 1, p. 5 ; 
HcrmoiT. de Invent. 1. 3. 
ANTHYPOCMO'NDKIACUM sal (Chem.) the residuum 
remaining after the distillation of the water and sublima- 
tion of the Sal Ammoniac. 
ANTHY'STERICA (Med.) from i.n, and is-ifct, the womb; 

medicines against hysterical affections. 
A'NTIA Lex (.■Int.) a law made by Antius Restro against 
luxury. Seeing the ineflicacy of his measure, he never 
after supped abroad, that he might not be a witness to the 
extravagance which he could not suppress, Aul. Gel, 
1.2, c. 21-: Macroh. 1.2, c. 13. 
ANTI'ADES (Anat.) aiTtMU.. 1. Tonsilla:, the tonsils. 

2. The tonsils in an inflamed state. Hippocrat. de Morb. 
1. 2 ; Rnlf'. F.phes. de Appel. Part. Corp. human. 1. 1, c. 6, 
1. 2, c.'i; Cel. de Re Med. 1. 7, c. 12; Gal. de Symp. 
Cans. c. I', Sec. ; Oribas. de Lac. AjJ'ect. Curat. 1. .'j, c. 68 ; 
Art. Tetrab. 2, serm. 4, c. .51 ; Paul. J'.ginet. de Re Med. 
1. ,'!, c. 26 ; Gorr. Def. Mid.; Foes. (Econom. Hippocrat. 

ANTIA'CJRl (Med.) i'rom utnaS'n, and ayf», a prey; tu- 
mours of the tonsils. 

ANTIARTIIRI'TICA Anliasthmatica (Med.) vide Antar- 
thritics, &c. 

A\Tir>.\'CCHIUS (Gram.) tTa.Xijty!ikKX,M!,, a foot; inverse 
having the two first long, and the last short, as natura ; 


pes hacchio contrarius. Terent'mn. Maur. de Met. ; TLe- 
fifiest. Enchyrid. Mar. Vict. Cciitimct. 
ANTICACHE'CTICS (Med.) from i.n and xa;t;4/a, ca- 

chexia; remedies against the cachexy. 
ANTICA'DMIA (Min.) a substitute for the real cadmia. 
A'N'TICAR (Cliem.) Borax. 
ANTIC A'RDIUM (Anat.) from i»W, opposite to, and 

xaf^.x, OS ventrkidi, the pit of the stomach. 
ANTICAT.\RRHA'LIS (Med.) from i.ri, against, and 

xarxfftiae, catarrh ; a remedy against the catarrh. 
ANTIC AU'STIC [Med.) from im and r.«.vi^c, a burning 

fever ; a remedy against a burning fever. 
A'NTICHAMBER (Archceol.) any outer chamber next to 

the principal chambers or room, where persons wait who 

are in attendance on the great. 
A'NTICHEIR (Anat.) i'rijjsij, the Greek name for the 

jjollex, or thumb. Gal. de Mtts. Dissert, c. 22 ; Gorr. Def. 

ANTICHOLE'RICA (Dot.) the Soplwra lieptaphylla of 

ANTI'CHORUS (Bot.) if from x't"; and Antichdrus, if 

from x^T'if a genus of plants. Class 8, Octandria, Order 1 

^lonogfjnia . 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth four-leaved ; leajlets 
lanceolate. — Cor. petals four. — Stam. ^laments seta- 
ceous ; anthers roundish. — PisT. germ superior; st^le 
cyiindric ; stigma obtuse. — Per. capsule subulate : seeds 
verj- man)'. 

Species. The only species is the Antichorus depressus, seu 
Jiisticia edidis, an annual, native of Arabia. Linn. 
Spec. Plant. 
ANTICHRE'SIS (Ant.) a mortgage, or pawn, left for the 

creditor to use till the debt be paid. Hotoman. 
A'NTICHRIST (Ecc.) the great adversary of Christ who is 

described in the Bible. 
ANTICHTHO'NES (Geog.) another name for the Anti- 
ANTI'CIPANS (Med.) from a7ite and capio, to take before 

the time, anticipating ; an epithet for a fever, the pa- 
roxysms of which anticipate the time of the preceding 

ANTICIPA'TIO (Rhct.) vide Prolepsis. 
ANTICNE'MION (Med.) i.r,;..«^.»., from im, opposite to, 

and xmiAfl, the leg ; the fore part of the tibia which is bare 

of flesh, Poll. Onom. 1. 2, segm. 190. 
ANTICO'LICA (Med.) from b-ti and >!oAi««, the colic; re- 
medies against the colic. 
ANTICONTO'SIS (Med.) a.<TiKi,7^Q-L<;, from i^T-i and «.«;, 

a staff: supporting with a staff or crutch. 
A'NTICOR ( Vet.) from ante, before, and cor, the heart ; 

a dangerous disease near the heart of horses. 
ANTI'CUM (Ant.) scdicet ostium, fiom ante, before, that is, 

a porch before a door or a fore-door. Fest. de Signif. Verb. 
ANTIDA'CTYLUS (Gram.) a foot, opposite to a dactijle ; 

the same as the Anapest. 
ANTIDE'SMA (Bot.) from «»?;, instead of, and .^l<^^=;, a 

chain ; so called because it is good for making ropes, a 

genus of plants, Class 22 Dioecia, Order 5 Pentandria. 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth five-leaved; leajlets 
oblongish. — Cor. none. — Staji. j?/amp«/s five ; anthers 
roundish. — PisT. germ superior; style none; stigmas 
five. — Per. drupe roundish; seed none. 

Species. The species are mostly shrubs and natives of the 
East Indies. Linn. Spec. Plant. 
ANTIDIA'PHORISTS (Ecc.) those who opposed the adia- 

ANTIDIA'STOLE (Med.) «.r.^,Ks-oA.:, from ^>tI, in distinc- 
tion from, and o.x^i>,>,a, to discriminate ; a discrimination 

of one disease or symptom from another. 
A:«TIDIC0.MARIAN1TES (Ecc.) the followers of Hel- 


vidius, who denied the perpetual virginity of the Virgin 
]Mary, A. D. .'S73. Epiphan. Hceres. 78 ; St. August. 
Hares. 84; St. Hieron. cant. Helvid. ; Baron. Annul. 
Ann. 373. 
ANTIDI'NICA (Med.) from a»T;, and }»>i, vortex ; remedies 

against a vertigo. 
ANTIDOTA'RIUM (Med.) a book in which Antidotes are 

A'NTIDOTE (Med.) i^rihrcc, Antidofus, from i'rj, against, 
and ^oTC(, given ; a counter poison, or counteracting medi- 
cine in general. Cel. de Re Med. 1. 5, c. 22 ; Gal. de A?i- 
tidot.; Orihas. Si/uop. 1. 3 ; Act. Tetrah. 4, serm. 1 ; Tral- 
lian. 1. 4, <S:C. ; Paul. JEginet. de Re Med. 1. 7, C. 3 ; My- 
reps, de Ant/dot. ; Gorr. Defin. Med. 
ANTIDO'TUS (Chem.) the philosopher's stone. 
ANTIDYSENTE'RICA (Med.) from i-ri, against, and 

Svs-i-.Tifin, di/senteria ; remedies against the d3'sentcr)'. 
ANTIELMl'NTHICKS, Antiemetica, S^c. (Med.) vide An- 

thelniinthicks. Sec. 
A'XTIENT (Laxv) vide Ancient. 

AXTIEPILE'PTIC elixir (Chem.) the spirit of a human 
head, mixed with an equal quantity of spirit of wine, in 
which opium has been dissolved. 
ANTIFE'BRILE (Med.) a remedy against a fever. 
ANTIGONI','\ (Ant.) 'Atriymtix, sacrifices in honour of An- 

tigonus. P/ut. in Ag. 
A'XTIGRAPHE (AnL) a.T.ypaip;., a name for the oath which 
the defendant was obliged to take before a lawsuit was 
commenced in Greece. 
AxTiGRAPHE is also an action against any one laying claim 
to a vacant inheritance, i. e. the inheritance of a person 
who dies childless. .Jul. Poll. 1. 8, c. 6 ; Harpocration. 
ANTIGR.A'PHEUS (Ant.) a>riy(a<pivi, a Receiver-general 

among the Greeks. 
ANTIHE'CTICA (Med.) from a*T.\ against, and Uz'Kct, the 

hectic ; remedies against a hectic fever. 
AXTIHE'LIX (Anat.) the same as Antelix. 
AXTILE'XA (.int.) a poitrel, or breast-leather for horses. 
AXTILE'PSIS (Surg.) amA.;^'?, the hold for a bandage to 
keep it from slipping. Hippoc. de Med. ; Gorr. Defin. 
Mel.; Foes. (Econom. 
AXTILO'BIUiNI (Med.) «>t,;,o'3«., from i.<ir], contra, and ;/- 
/3c?, lobus ; that part of the ear opposite to the lobe. Riif. 
Ephes. Appcllat. Part, human. Corp. 1. 1, c. 6; Poll. Onom. 
1. 2, segm. 86. 
ANTILO'GARITHM (Math.) the complement of the lo- 
garithm of any sine, tangent, or secant to 90 degrees. 
AXTILOr.MICA (Med.) from u,rl, against, and Ao.^i,, the 

plague ; remedies against the plague. 
ANTILO'PL'S (Zool.) AnteUjpe, a genus of animals, Class 
Mammalia, Order Pecora. 
Generic Characters. Horns hoWovi , persistent, annulate. — 

Foreteeth lower, eight. — Canine teeth or tush none. 
Species. The species are distinguished into the Antelopes, 
with straight or nearly straight horns, those with curved 
horns, and those with hooked horns. 
Of the first kind are the— Antilopus oryx, or Capra gazella, 
in French, le Pasan, ^Egyptian Antelope. — Antilopus 
gazella, Hircus bezoardicus, Capra bezoartica, Algazel 
Antelope, a species in India and Persia, which affords 
the Bezoar. — Antilrpus oreotragus, in French, Sautenr 
des Rochcrs, Klipspringer. — Antilopus grimvua, the 
Guinea Antelope, Sec. &c. 
Those of the second kind are the — Antilopus Nyl-ghau, 
the Xilgau, or White-footed Antelope. — Antilopus strip- 
ciseros ; Bos strepticeros, in French, Ic Condoma, Striped 
Antelope, native of the Cape of Good Hope. — Antilopus 
cervicapra. Common Antelope. — Antilopus cuchore, 
Spring-Bocl; the Springer Antelope, a native of the 
Cape"of Good Hope, so called from the prodigious 


leaps it takes on the sight of any bodj'. — Antilopus arun- 
clinncea, Retbock, a species so called from its frequent- 
ing reed}- places. — Antilopus Dorcas, Barbary Antelope, 
&c. &c. supposed to be the Dorcas of j'Elian. 
Those of the third kind are the — Antilopus Gnu, the 
Gnow or Ox-hcadcd xVntelope. — Antilopus Rupicapra, 
in French, le Chamois, the Cliamois Antelope, a native u 
of Switzerland. 
ANTILY'SSUS {Med.) from airl, and Ai/Vo-k, madness; a 

remedy against madness. 
AKTIME'llIA (Illict.) a figure in which one part of speech 

is put for another. 
ANTIMETA'BOLE (Rhet.) u'r,_u.ircc?cM, from u>ri, and 
f/,iTu':ux>,a; a figure, wherein words are repeated in the 
same sentence in a different case or person, as " Non ut 
cdam vive sed ut vivani edo," or " Qui stultis videri eru- 
diti volant, stulti eruditis videntur." Quintil. Instil. 1. 9, 
c. IS, 1. 10, c. 7 ; Longin. 1. 23, c. 1 ; Voss. Instit. Rhet. 
1. 5, p. 401-. 
ANTI.META'THESIS (Rhct.) uvTi^iriSiTic, a figure of 
speech, by which the hearer is, as it were, transported to 

the scene of action, tii» ■i'V^,'.' ^i" Ta» ri^rm ayu, rr.v 

o\^i» aciai. Longin. de Sublimit, sect. 2G ; Ale.tand. !tifl 
Tziu.. .-lid. p. 586. 

ANTIMO'NIAL silver ore (Miu.) an alloy of silver. — Anti- 
moninl red ore, the Stibium rubrum of Linna;us. — Anti- 
mnniul sulphurct, or brittle silver ore ; an ore and a sul- 
phuret of silver. — Antimonial ochre, the Stibium stibigo of 

ANTLMO'NIATE (Chem.) a salt, formed by the combina- 
tion of antimonic acid with a salifiable base, as the anii- 
mnninte of Ammonia, of Potash, &c. 

ANTIMO'NIC acid (Chem.) a particular kind of acid pre- 
pared from antimony, in the form of a white powder, in- 
soluble in water, but capable of reddening vegetable blues. 

ANTJMO'NIOUS acid (Cliem.) Antimonic acid deprived of 
some of its oxygen. It is otherwise called the oxide of 

ANTl.MO'XITE {Chem.) a salt, formed by the combination 
of antimonious acid, with a salifiable base. 

A'N'l'l.MONY {Mill.) the ^if^f/yi of Dioscorides, probably 
the Ttrficymm of Hippocrates, the lapis spumic candidcc 
nitcntisipie, non tamen transluceniis of Pliny, and the Anti- 
monium of Basil Valentine ; a metallic, solid, heavy brittle 
substance, probably so called from a»3-i, against, and f/^ctm, 
alone, i. e. an enemy to solitude, because it is very seldom 
found pure, but mostly mixed with some other metals. It 
is sometimes found in the state of an oxyde, called antimo- 
nial ochre ; but the most abundant ore of antimony is that 
in which it is combined with sulphur, called the sulphuret 
oj antimony. — Oxides of antimoni/ are formed by the com- 
bination oi' antimony with oxygen. The three oxides of 
antimony which arc best known are distinguished by the 
names of the protoxide, the deutoxide, and the peroxide. 
The protoxide is grey ; the dcutoxide, formerly called Ar- 
genliuejloviers of antimony, or calx i)f antimony, now called 
atitimonious aciil, is white; M\A \.\\ti peroxide, or antimonic 
acid, is straw yellow. — Suits of antimony are formed by 
Uie combination of antimonial acids, with a salifiable base. 
Those which are formed by antimonic acid are called anti- 
moniates ; those formed by antimonious acid are anlimo- 
viles, as the aniimoniatc of copper, or the anlimonite of 
copper, &c. To these may be added a third sort of salts, 
which contain the protoxide of antimony, as the tuHrate 
of potash and antimony, otherwise called /nr^ir chic/Zc, so 
tlie acetate, succinate, benzoate, &c. of antimony. — Alloi/s 
of Antimony are formed by combining antimony with arse- 
nic, potassium, &c. The alloy of antimony with iron was 
formerly called the martial regulus ; that of antimony with 
coj)per the regulus rif Venus. — Chloride of Antimoni^ is 


formed by the combination of antimony with chlorine : 
this, as a medicinal preparation, was formerly called butter 
of antimony. — Ores of ^[ntimony are mostly found in veins, 
eitlier as an alloy, a sulphuret, or an oxide. — Kative Anti- 
mony is an ore, and an alloy of antimony, silver, and iron; 
but it is seldom found pure. — Ci'ude antimony is the native 
mineral antimony melted down and cast into stones, 
otherwise called antimony in substance. — Prepared anti- 
mony is that which has passed through some process, by 
which its powers are altered, as the sulphur of antimony, 
formerly called golden sulphur, mineral kermcs, or Car- 
thusian prmdrr, which was reckoned a grand panacea ; 
glass of antimony ; liver of antimony ; magistory of anti- 
mony, and the like. 

ANTINEPHRI'TICA {Med.) i.T..£9f<r«;., fromi.ri, agamst, 
and ntffiTu, a pain in the kidneys ; remedies against the 
disorders in the kidneys. 

ANTINOI'A {Ant.) xynvsilx, annual sacrifices and quin- 
quennial games instituted by Adrian in honour of An- 
linous, at .Mantinea in Arcadia, where he was worshipped 
as a god. J'aiis. 1. 8, c. 9. 

ANTINO'MIA (Rhet.) 'A.x..of<,i'«, i. e. a state of contrary 
laws; a double statement composed of a double descrip- 
tion, and a double judgment, since laws are explained both 
ways according to contrary opinions. Cic. de Invent. 1. '2, 
c. 4-9 ; Hermog. de Partit. 

ANTINO'MIANS (Ecc.) a sect of heretics, who, according 
to Pontanus, sprung up in the sixteenth century, having 
John Agricola as their leader. They maintained that 
faith alone without good works was sufficient for salvation, 

ANTI'NOUS {Ast.) a part of the constellation Aquila. 

ANTIO'CHIAN sect (Ant.) Antiochianct Partes, a name 
given to the fifth academy, or branch of Academics, so 
called from one Antioch, a cotemporary with Cicero. 
Cic. Acadcm. 1. 1, c. 3. 

Antiochian Epocha (Numis.) was the same as the Augustan 
and Julian Epocha. 

ANTIPyEDOBA'PTISTS {Ecc.) those who are against m- 
fant baptism. 

ANTIPAGMEN'TA (/}«<.) vide Antepagmenta. 

ANTIPA'RALLELS (Geom.) lines which make equal angles 
with two other lines, but in a contrary order ; thus, sup- 
pose A B and A C be any two lines, and F C, F E two 

others cutting them so as to make the angle B equal to the 
angle E, and the angle C equal to the angle D, then B C 
and D E are antiparallels, with respect to A B and A C. 

ANTIPARALY'TICA (Med.) from a'»7i and nufa^va-ii, pa- 
ralysis ; remedies against the palsy. 

ANTlPARA'STASIiJ (W«7.) a^r.^afafao-i;, from u,t}, against, 
and 7:ufii-ii/Ai, to compare, i. e. to set up one thing against 
another ; a figure of speech by which one grants what the 
adversary says, but denies his inference. Hermog. Tif! ity., 
Apsin. Rhet. 

ANTIPA'TIIES Min.) a'tTiTrufu, a mineral which answers 
to what is now called Black Coral. Dioscor. 1. 5, c. MO. 

Antipathes (Ent.) a genus of animals; Class Vermes, 
Order Zoophyta. 
Generic Characters, Animal growing in the form of a 

plant. — Stem expanded at the base. 
Species. The principal species which inhabit the Indian 
seas are the Antipathes spiralis, with a spiral rough stem. 
— Antipathes apex, &c. 

ANTl'PATIIY (Med.) Antipathic, dnxuhix, from «'rri and 


Kaio<,\ an occult quality of repulsion in certain things 
to one another, as in the case of burnt leather, which 
Galen says was supposed to cure galls by a sort of anti- 
pathy. Gal. de Simpl. 1. 11 ; Cartel. Lex. 

AXTIPELA'liGIA {Ant.) a law among the ancients whereby 
chiklren were obliged to furnish necessaries to their parents 
in imitation of the stork, whence it is sometimes called 
Lex ckotiaria, or the Stork's Law. 

ANTIPERI'STASIS {Med.) a-nxifUxr.c, from ^'r), against, 
and 3-ifiVi:,"'', to stand around ; a cohibition or straightening 
all around, as by the circumambient air or water; thus, 
on account of the antiperistasis, or being beset with the 
opposite qualit}', springs are hottest in the winter, or in 
cold weather. T/ieophrnst. de I^ii. 

ANTIPHA'RMACU.M {Med.) the same as Antidote, a re- 
medy against poison. 

ANTIPHE'RNA {Anl.) x'>-i<p!f'x, from «"," and (ptf'f, dower; 
presents made by the bridegroom to the bride in lieu of 
her portion. 

ANTIPHLOGI'STICA {Med.) from upvl, and (fxiyc^, to 
burn ; remedies for inflammation. 

ANTIPHO'N'A {Mils.) ktr>(?a,;'x, from ^--tI, against, and 
<?a»i, a voice ; w hen each side of a quire alternately sings a 

ANTIPHRA'SIS {Gram.) <i»7.'^5p«(ri5, from a-^rl, opposite to, 
and <?fa^ii;, to speak, i. e. to speak what is contrary to the 
meaning ; a figure in grammar when a word has a meaning 
contrar}' to the original sense, as ' Parca;,' the fates, 
" quia mininie parcant. " Rulil. Lup, 

ANTIPHTHl'SICA {Med.) from i.r!, against, and ipi'.V.s, 
consumption ; remedies against a consumption. 

ANTPPHTIIORA {Bot.) icr.tpCcy^, from ci,A, against, and 
ifi'cfii, corruption ; a species of Wolf's-bane, which resists 

ANTI'PHYSICA {±*Ied.) kirupvu-ix^u, from can, against, and 
(Pua-atu, to inflate; remedies against flatulence. 

ANTI'PHYSON (Sal.) from i>Ti, against, and (f'l-o-i;, nature ; 
an epithet for the loadstone, because it seemed to act 
against nature. 

ANTIPLEURITICUM {Med.) from ^t., against, and 
sxrjfric, ; a remedy against the pleurisy. 

AXTIPODA'GRICA (Med.) the same as Antarthritica. 

AN'TPPODES {A-,t.) utTtTrihc, from aw], opposite to, and 
s7b; the foot ; people dwelling on the opposite side of the 
earth with their feet to our feet. The Antipodes are 
ISO degrees distant from each other every way, having 
equal latitudes, the one North and the other South, but 
opposite longitudes, [vide Astronomy] Conse(iuently, when 
it is day to the one, it is night to the other, and when 
summer to the one, winter to the other, &c. Plato first 
conceived the idea, and gave the name of Antipodes to 
inhabitants of the world thus relatively situated ; the ex- 
istence of which was disputed by the ancient fathers. 
Manilius has given a description of them in verse. 
Aitron. 1. 1, V. 236. 

Tars ejus ad Arctos 
Eminet^ Austrinis pars est habitabilis oris 
Sub pedibusquejac^t nostris, supraque vidttur 
Ipsa sibi ; J'ailentc solo declivia longa 
Et porker surgente vU, pariterque cadente. 

Cicero and Pliny call them 'A»t,j;Siw£?, Antichthones ; Al- 

bertus Magnus Antigena. Cie. Tuscid. 1. 1, c. 28 ; Cleom. 

de Mund. 1. 1 ; Strab. 1. 1 ; Pompon. Mel. 1.1; Plin. 1. 2, 

c. 66 ; Solin. c. 66; Lactant. Instit. Divin. 1. 3, c. 2t; 

August, de Civ. Dei, 1. 6, c. 9 ; Macrob. de Somn. Scip ; 

Mart. Capell. 1. 6; Siceflin. Procl. de Splicer. 
ANTIPO'DIA {Gram.) a figure by which one foot is changed 

for another, if both be of equal measure. 
A'XTIPOPE {Eec.) a false pope set up by a faction. 
ANTIPRA'XIA {Med.) from wtI, against, and Tfao-o-ia, to 


do; a contrariety of functions and temperaments in different 
parts of the body, as a cold stomach joined with a hot liver. 
Castel. Lex. Med. 
ANTIPTO'SIS {Gram.) from ivx!, instead of, and n-ratrn, 

case ; a figure by which one case is put for another. 
ANTIPYRE'TICON {Med.) from i.ri, against, and ^v^mc, 

a fever ; a febrifuge. 
ANTIQUA'RII {Lit.) 1. The monks who were employed 
in making new copies of old books. 2. The copies them- 
selves of the old books. 
ANTIQUARTANA'RIUM {Med.) or ant i quart ium, a re- 
medy for a quartan fever. 
ANTl'QUI morbi {Med.) old and inveterate diseases length- 
ened out to many years. 
ANTIRRHI'.XUIM {Bot.) or Anarrhinum, a,r!fp„cv, u>^ffi,o7, 
Snap Dragon or Calves-Snout ; a plant, so called because 
the figure of its flower resembles the snout of a calf, from 
atrl, instead of and fr-; a snout. It is seldom used in medi- 
cines, but has been employed as a charm against spectres 
and the like. Thcophrast. Hist. Plant. 1. 9, c. 21 ; Dioscor. 
1. 4-, c. 133 ; Plin. 1. 25, c. 10 : Aptd. c. S6; Simpl. 
1. 6 ; Paul. JEgiiiet. de lie Med. 1. 7, c. 3. 
Antikuhixu.m, in the Linncan system, a genus of plants ; 
Class 14 Didi/namia, Order 2 Angiospermia. 
Generic Characters. Cal. perianth five parted ; divisions 
oblong. — CoR. monopetalous ; tube oblong ; nectary 
prominent. — STA^ii. ^filaments four; anthers converging. 
— PiST. n'cnH roundish ; style simple; stigma obtuse. — 
Per. capsule roundish ; seeds very many; receptacles re- 
Species. The species arc mostly annuals or perennials. 
Among the former are the — Antirrhinum versicolor. 
Spike-flowered Toad-flax. — Antirrhinum procumbens, 
sen Linaria pumila. Procumbent Toad-flax. — Antir- 
rhinum arvense seu Linaria arvcnsis, Yellow Corn Toad- 
flax, live. — Antirrhinum elatine. Sharp-pointed Toad- 
flax or Fluellin. Among the perennials are the — .'Intir- 
rhinum cymhalaria seu Linaria cymbalaria, Ivy-leaved 
Toad-flax. — Antirrhinum repens. Creeping Toad-flax. — 
Antirrhinum sparteum. Branching Toad-flax. — Antir- 
rhinum sa.vatile. Rock Toad-flax, &c. J. Bauh. Hist. 
Plant.; C. Bank. Pin. Theat.; Ger. Herb.; Par!;. 
Thcat. Botan. ; Bait Hist. Plant. ; Tourn. List. Herb. ; 
Boerh. Lid. Plant. ; Linn. Spec. Plant. 
AXTrSCL\NS {Ast.) from i-»r), opposite to, and o-ki'«, a 
shadow; the people who, dwelling in the opposite hemi- 
spheres of North and South, have their shadows at noon 
fall directiv opposite to each other; consequently, those 
living in the Southern Frigid and Temperate Zones are 
Antiscians to those living in the North Frigid and Tem- 
perate Zones. Lucan alludes to the surprize which the 
Arabians, going into Italy, expressed on seeing the sha- 
dows turning to the right, which they had always seen turn 
to the left. 
Lucan. 1. 3, v. 247- 

Jgnotum vobis, Arabes, r^stis in orhem, 
Vmbras mh-ati neinorum rwn ire siuistras. 

Amm. Marcell. 1. 22, c. 15 ; Schol. in Luc. 4, c. 16; Ric- 
ciol. Ahnag. 1. 1, c. 20. 

ANT'ISCION signs {Astrol.) certain signs in the Zodiack, 
which, with reference to each other, are equally distant 
from the tropical signs. Cancer and Capricorn ; so that, 
when a planet is in such a station, it is said to cast its 
antiscioii, i. e. to give a virtue or influence to another star 
or planet that is in the opposite sign. 

ANTISCO'LICA (Med.) vide Antlielmintica. 

ANTISCORBU'TIC {Med.) remedies against the scurvy. 

ANTISE'PTICS {Med.) from i-r!, against, and cnx-ai^i, 
putrefying ; resisters of putrefaction. 


I'GMA ((7r.7m ) a mark J in ancient writings where 
•der of the verses is to be changed. Isitl. Orig. 1. 1, 


tlie ord 
c. 20. 
ANTI'SPASIS {Med.) i.r^-Tairi;, from ivW, against, and 
ffiraw, to draw bacli ; a revulsion or drawing away of hu- 
mours while in actual motion. Gal. de nielli. Xled. 1. 5, 
c. 9; Gorr. Dc/iii. Med.; Fucs. (Econom. Hippocrat. 
ANTISPASMO'UICS (A/ef/.)rrom i^ri, against, and o-jrao-j^-o;, 

convulsions ; remedies against spasms. 
ANTISPA'STIC verse (Poel.) atr.inrct^iMv fjuirfo-i-^ verse con- 
sisting principally of antispasts, or antispastic feet. 
ANTISPA'STICON (Med.) 'hTitrizK^ivM ; a medicine acting 

by Antispasis. [vide Anlispasis] 
ANTISPA'STUS (Gram.) 'A.j-i'o-Tas-o;, from ani(rjTxu,to draw 
contrary ways ; a foot of four syllables in verse, having the 
first syllable short, then two long, and the last short, as 
Alexander. Diomed. 1. 3 ; Hephcst. Enchyrid. ; Vidorin. 
de Cnrni. 
ANTrSP()D.\ {Xat.) or anlispodia, aVriVx-oJk. from a»3-;, 
instead of, and n-achc, spodium ; a kind of medicinal ashes 
made of herbs, which may be used as a substitute for 
.sijodium. Dioscor. 1. .<;, c. 186; Plin. 1. Si, c. 13; Gal., 
dc Himpl. 1.9; Orihas Med. Coll. 1. 13 ; Gorr. Drfn. Med. 
ANTI'STASIS (lllift.) AtrUuc-n, a sort of anticlema, or 
figure of speech, in which a person justifies himself for 
having done what is laid to his charge, by showing its ex- 
pediency. Ileriiwir. iatuf^v.!, et Sopulr. Schol. in Ilermorr. 
Aid. LV. p.2j6; Ssjrian. /IW. p.9.5; JMar. Vidorin. in Cic. 
ANTISTERl'G.MA {Med.) <i.3-ir«pr/;iAa, a word used by Hip- 
pocrates for a crutch or support. Hippocrat. de Artie. ; 
Gorr. Di-fi/i. Med. ; Foes. W.conom. Hippocrat. 
ANTlSTli''UX()N {Anal.) UirUipov, from av^\, and rf>o», 
pectus ; the back, which is opposite to the breast. Itiif. 
Ephes. Appell. Part. Human. Corp. 1. 2, c. 4. 
ANTl'STES sncrorum {Ant.) the High-Priest among the 
Romans. Plin. 1. 7, c. 3 ; Dud. in Panded. p. 6 ; Pollet. 
For. Rom. 1. 2, t. I. 
ANTISTITIUM {Arclucol.) a Monastery. 
ANTISTOI'CHON {Gram.) u,7^'^olk«, from i.^i, instead of, 
and 5-oi;k"»', an elenunt ; a figure in which one letter is put 
for another, as promiiscis {or proboscis. 
ANTI'.STlU)PH.'\(/i7/((.) »7,Vfo?i!c ; arguments so called from 
i>Ti, against, and^j, to turn, becraise they may be turned 
against him by wlioni they arc advanced. Dionys. Hal. 
Art. lUiet. c. 9 ; Aul. Gcll. 1. 5, c. 10 ; Hopat. ad Hermog. 
Aid. torn. 2, ]). .51'. 
AXTl'STROPHE {Rlid.) i-rifpojii, from arr-, against, and 
5-fi^w, vc)/o. 1. An alternate conversion of the same words 
in different sentences, as " Servus domine," and " Domine 
servus." Euxfat. ad Horn. II. 1. 13 ; Hermog. J. Aid. Edit. 
tom. l,p. IVG; Alexand. rrifi ir-/y,fh. Aid. Edit. p. 583. 2. 
A sort of dancing performed by the chorus, who by the 
strophe turned to the one hand, and by the antistrophe to 
the other ; whence the ancient poetry was divided into the 
ff.^. strophe, when the chorus turned from the right to the 
left; the (i»7irpoipii, antistrophe, when they turned from the 
left to the right ; and W»vio;, when they rehearsed their 
part standing still. 
ANTITA'SI.S (Snrg.) from <i«~'\ and tuiu, to extend; the 

contra extension of dislocated bones. 
.\NT1TA'CTE.S (Fee.) a sect of heretics, who taught that 
sin deserved rather reward than punishment. Clem. Alexand. 
Strom. 3; Baron. Annal. Ann. 120; Dti, Pin. Bibl.Eccles. 
prem. siec. 
ANTI'THENAR {Anat.) from i'T,', and fi'«f, the hollow of 

till- hand or foot ; the Abductor pollicis. 
.\NTI'Tlir>.SIS {Rliet.) ivTi'Cio-ii, from x-'t), in opposition, and 
■ttii,f>.>, to pbiee ; a figure in which contraries are opi)Osed 
to contraries. Hernwg. srifi i^. Aid. Ed. tom. 1, p. 4b ; 


Alexand. tripi 'rx.'i'''- ; Apsius Art. Rltet. p. 695 ; Schol. ad 
Hennog. tom. 2 ; Rhet. Aid. p. 271; Suidas in voc. «'»- 

ANTITHETA'RIUS {Laiv) the name given to a man who 
endeavours to discharge himself of the crime of which he 
is accused by retorting the charge on the accuser. Leg. 
Canuti apnd Bromptun. 

ANTI'THETON {Gram.) utrih-rov, contraries opposed to 
each other; as " Vicit pudorem libido, tiniorem audacia, 
rationeni amentia." Cic. pro Cluent. et de Orat. c. 50. 

ANTlTR.^'tiUS {Annt.) the part of the ear opposite to the 
Tragus, according to Rufus Ephesius, on the authority of 
Oribasius. Ruf. Ephes. apud Oribas. Med. Coll. 1. 25, c. 1. 

Antitragus {Bot.) the Cri/psis acu/eata of Linna;us. 

ANTITRI'NITARIANS (Ecc.) such as deny the holy 

A'NTITYPE {Theol.) from ^-r], instead of, and rt-Vo;, a type; 
what answers to or is prefigured by a type ; as the Paschal 
lamb was a type to which our Saviour, the Lamb of God, 
was the Antitype. 

ANTIVENE'REA {Med.) Medicines against the Lues ve- 

A'NTLER (Sport.) the starts or branches of a deer's attire, 
properly the first branches. There is the Bes-Antlcr, the 
Sur-Anller, and the Broiv-Aniler.—TUe Bes-Antler is the 
start or branch next above the Brow-Antler. — The Sur- 
Antler is the topmost start or branch ; and — the Broxv- 
Antler is that next the head. 

A'NTOCOW {Fd.) vide Anticor. 

ANTOE'CI {Astron.) kvroiKoi, from avrl, against, and o'lKoe, 
a house ; inhabitants of the earth who live under the same 
meridian East or West, but under opposite parallels of 
latitude North and South. They have their noon or mid- 
night at the same hour, but their sea.'.ons are contrary, 
i. e. when it is spring with the one, it is autumn with the 
other, and when winter with the one, It is summer with 
the other. The length of the night and day is equal in 
both. Cleom. de Mund. 1. 1 ; Ricciol. Almag. 1. I.e. 20. 

ANTO'NIA Lex {Ant.) a law so called from Mark Anthony, 
the proposer, by which it was prohibited to make a dic- 
tator ; and no one, under pain of death, dare accept the 
otRce when offered. Appian. de Bell. Civil. 1. 3, p. 542 ; 
Hctmann. Roman. Anti(j. 1. 1, p. 196. 

ANTO'NTAN {Min.) a mineral water of Germany, con- 
taining carbonated soda, common salt, and calcareous earth. 

ANTO'NIl Saucti ignis (Med.) St. Anthony's Fire, because 
it was supposed to be miraculously cured by that Saint. 

ANTONO.MA'SIA (Rhd.) k>rc<oiJ.u<ni, from uyrl, in.slead of, 
and iofi.-.i, a name, i. e. one name Instead of another; a 
figure by which one name is put for another, as an appel- 
lative for a proper name, as the Poet for Homer or Virgil, 
the Apostle for St. Paul. Dionijs. Hal. de Hom. Poes. ; 
Quint. Inst it. 1. 6, c. 29; Tryph. dc 'Prop.; I'oss. Instit. p. 165. 

ANTONOMA'STICA (Co7i.) the same as Coc/ilca crclata. 

ANTOPHY'LLON {Bot.) Autophyllus, ivTo^uAPiiv, from U<tI, 
against, and ipi/A>.o», a leaf; because Its leaves stand opposite 
to one another; the Male Caryophyllus, or, according to 
Ray, a name given by the chemists to the full grown Ca- 
ryophyllus. Myrep. de Antid.; Raii Hist. Plant. 

ANTRl'SCUS (liol.) a plant, the leaves of which resemble 
Hemlock. Bank. 

A'NTRUM buccinosum {Anat.) the same as Cochlea. — Aj}- 
truni genix, maxillary sinus. — Antrum Pylori, the great 
concavity of the stomach near the Pylorus. 

ANTV'LLION {Med.) a very astringent nialagma. 

.■V'NN'IL (Mech.) the tool on which smiths hammer their work. 

A Nvn, (//(■;■.) a charge, as party per chevron, argent and 
!.iiUc, three anvils, counter charge, name Smith, of Abing- 
don, Berks. 




A'KUS (Anal.) the orifice of the intestinum rectum, through 
wliich the faces are discharged. Gal. de Usii. Part. 1. 5, 
c. 18. — Amis Cerebri, that cavity in the hrain whidi arises 
from the contract of the four trunks of tiie Medulla sjji- 

Anus (Hot.) the posterior opening of a monopetalous flower. 

AXYPEU'THYNA (Med.) iw^riuiwcc, from «, priv. u^t^fu-oc, 
obnoxious; things for which one is not accountable; in 
whicli sense Hippocrates uses it for those circumstances 
whicli are above the ordinary controul of a pliysician, and 
for which he is not accountable. Hippocraf. za(^y,(>>. 

A'ORIST (Gram.) iofiyo?, from a, priv. and op^^'^, to define, 
i. e. indefinite ; the name of a Greek tense, denoting great 
uncertainty of time. 

A'OIITA (Anal.) acfr'n, from aitfu, to lift up, is the name of 
a little chest, and was applied to the gieat 
artery of the heart in the days of Aristotle 
it was called by Areta;us dfTitfia ^ayt «, 
the great artery proceeding from the left 
ventricle of the heart, from which all the 
other arteries mediately or immediately 
proceed. It is distinguished into the as- 1 " j^ .^^ 

cendiiig and descending, from the mannti ^ ^ ^-h 
in which it runs ; the Aorta ascendens dis- i 

tributing its branches to the upper part of ^^s^ 
the Thorax, the head, and upper extremi ^^^^ ^ 
ties; the Aorta descendens supplying the l-,^fc 'V 
rest of the Thorax, the Diaphragm, &(. '--5'K — ^ t' 
Aristot. Hist. Anim. 1. 3, c. 3, &c. Gal de Dissect 
J'eii. The annexed cut represents a part of the trunk of 
the Aorta turned inside out ; a a the glandulous mem- 
brane ; bL the vascular membrane; c the internal tunic. 

AOVO'ilA (Dot.) an Indian plant, the fruit of which is as 
large as a hen's egg, and is astringent. Lem. des Drag. 

APA'CTUS (Bot.) a genus of plants ; Class 11 Dodecandria, 
Order I Monogynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. none. — CoR. four-petalled ; pe- 
tals roundish. — Stam. Jilaiiients from sixteen to twenty. 
— PisT. germ superior; stt/le none. 
Species. The only species is — Apactis Japonica, a shrub, 
native of Japan. Linn. Spec. Plant. 

APiEDEU'SIA [Lit.) a,T«i(!ft/iri'«, ignorance, or a want of in- 
formation in general ; whence those who were so deficient 
were termed Aptrdeutce. 

AP.EDEU'TiE (Lit.) vide Apcedeusia. 

APA'GMA (Surg.) the same as Abdnctin. 

APAGO'GE (Ant.) cc-tt-yu'/Y,; the carrying a criminal taken 
in the fact before a magistrate. Poll. Unom. 1. 6, segm. 

Apagoge (Log.) the same as Reductio. 

APAGO'GICAL demonstration (Log.) the same as Reductio 
ad Aljsiirdum. 

APA'LLAGE (Med.) is-aAAayr, from kjcxwUrrwu, to change; 
any alteration in general, but in particular by a deliverance 
from a disease. Hippocrat. 1. 2, Aph. 45 ; Foes. (Econom. 

A'PALUS (Ent.) a genus of animals, Class Insecta, Order 

Generic Character. Antenncc filiform. — Feelers equal, fili- 
form. — ./fl!o horny.— L;)j membranaceous, truncate. 
Species. There are only two species, the Apalus bimacu- 
latus and Amaculatus. 

A'PANAGE (Laxo) or Appennage, among the French, was 
the assignment of lands by the king to the younger sons, 
which revert to the crown upon the failure of male issue. 

APA'NTHISMUS (Anat.) «T«ifli(rj«,o5, signifies literally a 
very fine and almost imperceptible line in painting, but is 
applied, by a figure, to the small capillary veins, from their 
resemblance to those hues. Gal. de Ven. et Art. c. 8. 

APANTHRO'PIA (Med.) «T«»«f4.3-i«, from «, priv. and «»- 


SfiiTzoi, a man ; a teiira used by Hippocrates for an aver- 
sion to company, or a love of solitude. Hippocrat. Coac. 

APARACHY'TUM vinum (Med.) x^afix,vTeq J-ec, wine un- 
mixed with sea water. Gal. de Comp. i\Ied. Sec. Gen. et 
Meth. Med. 

APARA'GUA (Dot.) a species of Briony growing in Brasil. 

APA'RGIA (Bot.) cc-ufyiu; the name of an herbaceous plant 
mentioned by Theophrastus, who only distinguishes it by 
the epithet of fVr/!i«i|it;AAo», i. e. having the leaf issue from 
the root instead of from the stem, after the manner of th.e 
Dandelion. Theiiphrast. I. 7, c. 9. 

Ahargia, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, Class 19, 
Order 1 Polygamia JEgualis. 

Generic Characters. Cal. common imbricate; scales se- 
veral. — CoR. compound imbricate ; corollcls hermaphro- 
dite; proper monopetalous. — Stam. Jllamenls five; an- 
thers cylindric. — Pist. germ subovate ; styles filiform; 
stigmas two. — Per. none ; caly.v oblong ; seeds solitary ; 
doti'u sessile ; receptacle naked. 
Species. The plants of this tribe are mostly perennials, 
and are called Lcontodun, or Hieracium, by the ancient 
botanists. Dodun. Hist. Slirp. ; Label. Plant. se\i Slirp. 
Plant.; J. Bank. Hist, Plant.; C. Bauh. Pin.; Gcr. 
Herb ; Park. Theat. Botan. ; Rail Hiit. Plant. ; Linn. 
Spec. Plant. 

APARI'NE (Bot.) «Vapi»«, a plant, the expressed juice of 
which was said to cure the bites of serpents. 2'heojjhrast. 
Hist. Plant. 1.7,; Dioscor.LS, c. 14; Plin. 1. '27, c.5. 

Aparine, in the Linnean system, is a species of the Galium. 

A'PARIXES (Bot.) the Amman:iia latijolia of Linnaeus. 

APARITHME'SIS (Rhet.) arapiflw-iicri;, a figure of speech, 
which consists in enumerating or distinguishing several 
particulars by means of the particles firstly, then, or more- 
over, finally, &c. Hermog. i^. Aid. Ed. toni. i, p. 48; 
Aristid. xsf. AoyK.ToA. p, 650. 

A'PATE (Ent.) a division of the genus Dermestes, according 
to Fabricius, comprehending those insects of this tribe 
which have the jaw one-toothed. 

APA'THES (.Int.) krrci.e'uc„ from a, priv. and auii^, affection ; 
a sort of philosophers who pretended to have no affections. 
Plin.\. 7, c. 19. 

APATISA'TIO (Law) an agreement or compact made with 
another. Upton. 1. 2, c. 12. 

APATITES (Min.) a genus of calcareous and brittle earths, 
consisting of carbonate of lime and phosphoric acid. 

APATU'RIA (Ant.) AVc.t«,i«, a festival at Athens, from 
ajTara, deceit, because it was instituted in commemoration 
of a stratagem by which Xanthus, king of Boeotia, was 
killed by Melanthus, king of Athens. It was celebrated 
for three days, the first of which was called AofTum or 
Aopa-iK ; the second, 'A>i<ppWi? ; and the third, xxfiaiTii. He- 
rod. 1. 1, c. 14'7; Plat, in Tim. S; Prod, in Plat.; Xenoph, 
Hellcn. 1. 1, c. 7 ; Aristoph. in Nub. 8)- Schol. in Aristoph.; 
Pull. Onom. 1. 6, segm. 102; Harpocration; Etymol. Magn.; 
Suidas ; Simplic. ad Aristot. Phys. I. 4. 

APAULETE'RIA (Ant.) xxxvXyiTr.fM, the garment presented 
by the bridegroom on the day called the Apaula. [vide 

APA'ULIA (Ant) a.TTxii>ja., the second day of the marriage 
festival, when the bride's departure from her father's house 
was celebrated. Poll. Onomast. 1. 3, c. 3 ; Hesychius ; 
Suidas; Etymologic. Magn. Phavorinus. 

APA'UJIE (Her.) a hand opened, with the full palm ap- 
pearing, and the thumb and fingers extended, as may be 
seen in the arms of a baronet, [vide Canton'] 

A'PE (Zool.) a name for different species of the Simia which 
are without tails. They are imitative, full of gesticulations, 
chatter with their teeth, and macerate their food in their 
cheeks before they swalln-.v it. This tribe of animals is 


also remarkable for being lascivious, thievish, and gregari- 
ous. — Sea Ape, a marine animal on the coast of America. 

APECHE'MA (Med.) uzviy^r.jjua, from i^i, awA x^'u sound; 
i. e. repercussion of sound ; but in a medical sense, a con- 
tra fissure. 

APEA'K [Mar.) when the cable is drawn so tight as to 
bring the vessel directly over the anchor, the ship is said to 
be apeak. 

APE'IBA {But.) the Aubletia of Linna;us. Marc. Hid. 

APELLI'T-'E {Ecc,) hereticks in the second century, so 
called from their leader Apelles, who, among other here- 
sies, denied the spirituality of Christ and the resurrection 
of the dead. Tertnl. de I'nesc. c. 30, &c. ; Euscb. Hist. 
1. 3, c. 13 ; S.Epiphan. Uteres. ^Is S. August. Hccres. 23; 
Baron. Annnl. Aim. 11-6. 

APE'PSIA (Med.) the same as Di/spepsia. 

A'PER (Xat.) the boar, which is a symbol of several cities, 
is supposed to refer to the Erymanthian boar which was 
killed by Hercules; it is represented, as in the annexed 
figure, on a coin of Abaca-nura, in Sicily, with an acorn 

lying before it. — The legend ABAKAINI. Paruf. Sicil. 

Descritt.; D'Orvll/e Sicu/. ; Peinb. Niimismat. Atitiq. 
APE'RIENS palpcbram rectus (Anat.) the same as Elevator 

pnlpebrcE superioris. 
APE'RI E'i^TH {i)Ied.)apericnlia, from aperio, to open ; opening 

medicines. Ccls. de Re Mfd. 1. .5, c. 18 ; Gal. de Sinipl. I. ,5. 
APERI'TTOS {Med.) iTifirr,;?. from «, priv. and ^nftrrc^, 

redundant ; an epithet for aliment not generating much 

excrement. Corr. Drfin. Med. 
APE'RTIS portnrum {Astnd.) some great and manifest 

change of the air upon certain configurations. 
APERTU'RA tabularum (Laxo) the breaking open a last 

will and testament. — Aperlura feudi, the loss of a feudal 

tenure by default of issue to him, to whom the feud or fee 

was granted. 
A'PERTURE [Opt) a hole next to the object-glass of a 

telescope, through which the light and image of the object 

is conveyed from the tube into the eye. Huygen. Diopt. 

prop. 53, ,56. 
Ai'F.RTURE (Archil.) an opening in any building, as doors, 

windows, Ac. 
Aperture (Genm.) the opening or angle formed by the 

meeting of two right lines. 
APE'RTl'.S (Med.) an epithet in Scribonius Largus, answer- 
ing to tlic ulcrratus of Pliny ; as, Slrumie aperta, ulcerated 

humours. Plin. 1. 30, c. 5 ; lleod. in Scribon. Larg. 
A'PES (Zoo/.) vide Apis. 
APE'TAL/1-- (Bol.) the fourtli class of plants, according to 

Haller's system. 
APE'TAL()L'S (Bnt.) from «, priv. and TriraXot, a petal, a 

flower-leaf; an epithet for plants that have no petals. 
A'PEX (Ant.) from apienda, i. e. Uganda, binding. 1. A 

little woollen tuft on the flaniens or high priest's cap. 

2. The cap itself, of which a representation is given under 

Ancilia. 3. A hat, or any thing capped. 4. The crest of 

a helmet. 

Virg. .'Kn. 1. 12, v. 4-92. 

Aiiirem tamni incita stimtmim 

Ilmta UdiL 

Piin. I. 22, c. 23 ; Vol. Max. 1. 1 , c. 1 ; Lucan. 1. 1 , v. GM ; 
Serv. in Virg. yEn. 1. 10, v. 270 ; Scalig. Conj. ad Varr. 
p. 37 : Tiirneb. Adv. I. 29, c. 31. 
Ai'EX (Zool.) the crest or crown of birds. Plin, 1. 11, c. 37. 


Apex (Geom.) the angular point of a cone or conic section. 

Apex (Cun.) the beak, tip, or extremity of a shell. The 
apices are Auriformes, auriform or earshaped, having an 
incurvated arch between the beaks. — Corniformes, horn- 
shaped, i. e. long and mucronated or pointed. — Injlex-i, 
infiex, or bending towards each other. — Rejlexi, reflex, 
turned towards the areola. — Spirales, spiral, i. e. twisted 

Apex (13ot.) the upper extremity of a leaf, farthest from the 
base or insertion. 

Apex lilerarum (Gram.) the mark which serves as an accent. 

Apex legis (Laiv) a quirk. 

A'PHACA (Bot.) ■A<puK^, the Wild Vetch, a small shrub 
that grows in ploughed lands, the seeds of which are of an 
astringent quality ; it is the Lathi/ris aphaca of Linna?us. 
Thcophrast. Hist. Plant.; Dioscor. 1.2, c. 78; Plin. 1. 21, 
c. 17; Orilms. Med. Coll. 1. 1 1 ; Paul. Alginet. 1. 7, c. 3; 
Genpon. Aiicl. 1. 12, c. 1 ; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot.; 
C. Bank. Pin. ; Raii Hist. Plant. 

APHj^Z'RESIS (Gram.) uepxipin',, from afixifia, to take 
away ; a figure which takes away a letter or syllable from 
the beginning of a word, as ruit for iruit. 

ApH-EnEsis {Med.) a taking away of any superfluous part 
medicinally or chirurgically. Hipp. Coac. Prcenot. S^c. ; 
Foes. (Econom. Hippocrat. 

A'PHANES (Bot.) «ip«»^s, obscure; a genus of plants so 
called from its diminutive size. Class i 2'etandria, Order 2 

Generic Characters. Cal. perianth one-leaved. — Cor. 
none — St am. filaments four; anthers roundish — PiST. 
germ ovate; ii^/e filiform ; stigma headed. — Per. none; 
Calyx containing the seeds in the bottom ; seeds ovate. 
Species. The only species is the Aphanes arvensis, Alcha- 
milla aphanes, Percepier Angloruin, seu Polijgnnum seli- 
noides, an aimual, native of Europe. Ger. Herb. ; J. 
Bauhin. Hist. Plant. ; C. Bauhin. Pin. Theat. ; Park, 
Theat. Botan.; Raii Hist. Plant.; Mor, Hist. Plant. ; 
Linn. Spec. Plant. 

APHASSO'MENO,S {Med.) a<pX(r(rdi/,tK,f, from atpirru, to 
stroke ; rubbed with the fingers, or gently felt, to discover 
any disorder in the part. Gal. Exeges, in Vocab. Hippo- 
crat. ; Foes. (Econom. Hippocrat. 

APHE'BRIOC (Chem.) Sulphur. 

APIIELICE'STEROS (Med.) a^«A(«Vtf05, from «Vo, away 
from, and »>iixi'«, youth ; past the flower of youth. Hip- 
pocrat. Epid. 1. 7. 

APIIE'LI()N (/1st.) or Aphelium, from aVo, from, and bAios, 
the sun ; that point at which the earth or any planet is 
most distant from the sun. In the Coperniean system it 
is that end of the greater axis of an elliptical orbit of the 
planet most remote from the focus wherein the sun is, as A 
in the figure under the head Anomaly. In the Ptolemaic 
s3-stem, the Apogee supplies the place of the Aphelion, 
[vide Astronomy and .'\numaly'] 

APIIE'LLAN (Ast.) the name of a bright star in the con- 
stellation Gemini. 

A'PHESIS (Med.) a^in?, from a'^iiWi, to remit; the remis- 
sion of a disorder. Gal. Exeges. Vocab. Hippoc. ; Gorr. 
Defin. Med. ; Foes. (Econom. Hippocrat. 

APHE'T.'V (.listrol.) a planet, taken to be the giver of life in 
a nativity. 

APlllLANTIIRO'PIA (Med.) 'i<fiiXu,lfi„rU, from «, priv. and 
<pi>,xie(u!:iu ; the first degree of melancholy which produces 
an aversion to society. Castcll. Lex. Med. 

A'l'IIIS (Ent.) Plant-Louse, a genus of animals. Class /;»• 
.tecla. Order Hemiptera. 

Generic Characters. Snout inflected ; antenna: longer than 
thorax ; ivings either four upright or none ; feet formed 
for walking ; abdomen generally furnished with two 
horns or processes. 


The numerous species of this tribe of insects are remark- 
able for infesting plants, the leaves of which they cause 
to crumple up, and consume their juices. They are 
sometimes winged and sometimes apterous, and are sup- 
posed to possess the extraordinary faculty of continued 
impregnation, one single act of which in a female is suf- 
ficient for many successive generations. The species 
are principally distinguished by the names of the plants 
which they infest, as the — Aphis snlicis. one of the 
largest kind of Aphides that infest the willows. — Aphis 
rosiv, of a bright colour, which is found in great nmii- 
bers on the leaves, stalks, and buds of roses. — Aphis 
iilicc, the Lime-tree Aphis, one of the nio.-;t beautiful of 
the genus. — Aphis millcfoJii, the Yarrow Aphis. — The 
Common Green Aphis is called the Fly, when it infests 
APHLEGM.VNTON (Med.) «?»/-/i«.a.7«, from «, priv. and 
<pAf'/u,x, phlcgma, void of phlegm; an epithet for pus which 
marks it to be laudable. Uippucral. Prctdict. 1. 2; Gorr. 
Defin. Med. ; Foes, CEconom. Hippocrat. 
A'PHODOS (Med.) 'a.(pohi, the recrements of the aliment 
which pass off by stool. Gal. com. 5, in Epid. 1. fi ; Foes. 
(Econnm. Ilippiicrat. 
APHO'XI (Med.) k.pmoi, from a, priv. and ^m/., voice ; those 
who labour under a deprivation of voice from an apoplectic 
affection, or any other cause. Gorr. Dcf. Med. ; Foes. 
CEconom. Uippoerat. 
APHO'NTA (.l/crf.) afi^na, from «, priv. and <fa">i, the voice ; 
a deprivation of voice, or palsy of the tongue. Gal. in 
Hippvernt. 1. 6, aphor. o\ ; Gorr. Dejin. Med.; Foes. 
CEeonom. Hippocrat. 
Aphonia now constitutes a genus of diseases, Class Locales, 

Order Di/sunesiee, in CuUen's Nosolosy. 
A'PHORISM (Phi.) i4>«.f„r^i;, from hvX^, to define, or 
separate ; a sentence comprehending, within a few words, 
all the properties of a thing, as the Apliorisms of Hippo- 
crates, Boerhaave, &c. 
APHO'R.MIi (Med.) a^icpu,^', from a^o, and ofu,)!, impetus; 
the exciting cause of a disease. G<d. comm. 3, in Hippo- 
crat. Epidem. 1. 6 ; Gorr. Dtjin. ^led. ; Foes. CEconom. 
Aphohme (.-hit.) u.ft>ffjur, money placed as a deposit in the 
banker's hands, otherwise called ^■f.-.K^, ; Atpri^y^ii', Akd is a 
suit about a deposit. Poll. 1. 3, c. 9 ; Harpocration ; 
Hesychius ; Suidas. 
APHRA'CTA (.int.) open vessels which were used in naval 
engagements, Cic. ad .-Ittic. 1. 6, ep. 8 ; Sehcff'. de Mil. 
Nav. 1. 2, c. 2. 
APHRI'TE (Min.) from k^f^t, spume, or froth; Silvery 
Chalk, a species of stone of the carbonate family, so called 
from its frothy appearance. 
APHRODES (Med.) i*p>«, from i4>fo?, spume; frothy 

in application to the blood and excrements. 
APHRODl'SIA (Ant.) ■A(f)fc.<5ir.«, festivals in honour of 
A<fif JiTv, Venus, in dilFercnt parts of Greece, as at Cyprus, 
Paphos, Corinth. At the latter place it was celebrated by 
harlots, according to AthenKus. Slrab. 1. H; Athen. 
1. 13, c. 4; Clemen. Protreptric. ; Finn, de Error. Profess. 
Relig. -^ 

Aphrodisi.\ (Med.) aipfcliTu, from itPfoJiVi); venereal com- 
merce. Gal. de Top. 1. 7 ; Gorr. DeJln. Med. 
APHRODISKTA'STICON (Med.) i<f)p=r).r.«r.«r, a troche so 
called, by Galen, because the stools which it produced 
were frothy. He recommends it in dysenteries. 
APHRODI'SIUS morlnis (Med.) the Lues venerea. 
Aphbodisius (Chron.) the eleventh month of the Bithynian 

year, commencing on the 25th of July. 
APHRODI'TA (£ji/.) a genus of animals. Class Vermes, 
Order Molusca. 

Generic Characters. Body creeping, oblong, with fasci- 


culate feet, each side; mouth cylindrical, retractile; 
Jeelers two, setaceous ; eyes four. 
Species. The principal species arc the — Aphrodita aculeala, 
the Sea-Mouse, four or five inches long, often found in 
the belly of the cod-fish. — Aphrodita squamosa, covered 
with two rows of large scales, about an inch long. — 
Aphrodita minuta, not an inch long, &c. 

APHRODITA'RIUM (Med.) <i<?pc<f.r«p.. 1. A sort of col- 
lyrium. 2. A sort of powder. Paul. .Slgin. de Re Med. 
1.4, c. 40; 1. 7, c. 13. 

APHROGA'LA (Med.) ci0fiya.M, from i^f^?, spume, or 
froth, and ya>.a, lac; the froth of milk, good for an habi- 
tual heat in the stomach. Gal. de Mcth. Med. 1. 7, c. 4. 

APHROLI'TRU.M {Min.) or Aphronitrum, utPfiMrfc, itpw- 
tiTov, the spume of nitre. Plin. 1. 31, c. 10; Gorr. Defin. 

A'PHRON (Bat.) from «. priv. and ipfiii', the mind, from its 
inebriating quality ; a wild kind of poppj'. Plin. 1. 20, c. 19. 

Aphron (Med.) a cephalic plaster. Aet. Tctrab. 4, serm. 3, 
c. 13. 

APHRONI'TRUxM (Min.) U<pf!>urf^;, the spume or flower 
of nitre; natron. Plin. 1. 31, c. 10. 

APHROSELE'NOS (Min.) a?f«''-a>;.«5, a stone; so called 
from its representing the moon as it were in a glass. 
Paul. Mginet. de lie Med. 1. 7, c. 3 ; Gorr. Defin Med. 

APHROS'YN'E (Med.) from u^(o„, simple; dotage. 

A'PHTH.E (Med.) 'i<pixi, the thrush; a disease consisting 
of ulcers in the mouth, to which children are verj' subject. 
Hippocrat. 1. 3, aphor. 24 ; Aret. de Cans, et Sign. Aeut. 
Morb. 1.1, c. 9 ; Cels. de Re Med. 1. 2, c. 1, &c. ; Gal. de 
Comp. Med. Sec. Loc. ^-c. ; Oribas. de Loe. .iffect. 1, 4, 
c. 68 ; Aet. Tetrab. 2, serm. 4 ; Paul. /Eginet. i 1, c. 10 ; 
Actuar. de Meth. Med. 1. 6 ; Gorr. Defin. Med. ; Foes. 
CEconom. Hippocrat. 

Apiith.e constitutes now a genus of diseases in Cullen's 
Nosology, Class Pyrexice, Order E.tanthemata . — Aphthee 
Scrpentes, vide Cancrum Oris. 

APHTHA'RDOCITES (Fee.) a sect of heretics which 
branched otf from the Eutichians in the sixth century. 
They denied the passion of our Saviour, maintaining that 
his body was immortal from the moment of his conception. 
They are so called from dtptxfrci, incorruptible, and ^'ckh; 
to think. Sander. Hccres. Ann. 535. 

A'PHYA (Ich.) d^-jx, from a, priv. and ipuV, to beget; a 
small fish of a pale white colour; so called because it is 
supposed not to be generated in the ordinary way ; but, 
according to Aristotle, from the froth of the sea. It is a 
species of the Cyprinus of Linnxus. Aristot. Hist. Anint. 
1. 6, c. 15 ; Athen. 1. 8, c. 14; Gal. Exegcs, I'ocab. Hippo- 

APHYLLA'XTES Anguillanc (But.) the Globularia vidgaris 
of Linnaeus. 

APHYLLA'NTHES (Bot.) from u priv. P«aam, leaf, and i'h^, 
a flower, i. e. an apetalous flower; a genus of plants, Class G 
Hexandria, Order 1 Monogynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. glumes univalve — Cor. petals 
six; claws slender. — St am. filaments setaceous; anthers 
oblong — Visr. germ superior; style filiform; stigmas 
three. — Per. capsule turbinate ; seeds ovate. 
Species. The only species is the Aphyllanthes monspclii'n- 
sis, seu Monspeliensum, seu Caryophyllus caruleus, Sfc. a 
perennial, native of the South of France. Lob. Adv. 
Stirp.; J. Bauhin. Hist. Plant.; C.Bauhin.Pin.Theat.; 
Mor. Hist, riant.; Wild. Linn. Spec. Plant. 

APHYLLA'NTI ajinis (Bot.) the Globularia cordifoUa of 

APHY'LLON (Bnt.) the Or/JawcAe of Linnaeus. 

APHY'LLOUS (Bot.) from «, priv. and ifuXM,, a leaf; leaf- 
less ; an epithet applied to the stem, leaf, or whir! ; as 
aphyllus caulis, a leafless stem; aphyllus fios, a flowec 


having no calyx ; aphyllus vertircllus, a whirl having no 
leaves about it. 

APHYTA'GOKAS (Bot.) an Indian tree, wliich is said by 
Clusius to bear amber. 

APHYTEl'A {Dot.) from «, priv. and <p-jrh, a plant, plant- 
less; a genus of plants, Class 16 Moiwdclp/iin, Order 1 
Triandria, having neither root, stem, nor leaves, parasi- 
tical-terrestrial, and consisting of a fructification only. 
Generic Characters. Cal. pei-'mnlh monophyllous. — CoR. 
rudiments of three petals. — Stam. /lYnmc;;/.! short ; an- 
ihert convex. — Pist. germ inferior; style thickish ; 
stigma three-cornered. — Per. berry one-celled ; seeds 
■ numerous. 

Species. The only species is the Aphyteia hydnora, seu 
Hydnora africana, native of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Linn. Spec. Plant. 

A'PI.ARY (Zool) a place in which bees are kept. 

APIA'IUUS {Zool.) a bee-merchant. 

APIA'STRA {Or.) Bee-Eater, a sort of bird mentioned by 

APIA'STRUM {Bot.) from apes, the bees ; tiic herb which 
bees delight in, Balm-gentle or .Mint. Plin. 1.20, c. 1 1 . 

A'PIC.\ ovis {Zool.) a small-bodied sheep, bearing little 
wool, a pilled ewe. Fest. de Verb. Signij'. 

A'PINEL (Bot.) a root met with in the American islands, 
remarkable for its destructive quality to serpents, who 
shun it, and every thing rubbed with it. The plant is the 
Aristolochia nnguicida of Linnaus. 

A'PIOS (Bnt.) aijios, round knob-rooted spurge, the root of 
which is like an onion, and the juice purgative. It is a 
species of the Gh/cine, and of the Euplmrbia of Linnajus. 
Dioscor. 1. A; c. 177 ; Plin. 1. 26, c. S ; Oribas. Med. Colt. 
1. 1 1 ; Act. Tcirab, 1, serm. 1. 

APIOSCO'RODON {Bot.) the Crateva gynandra of Lin- 
na;us. Pluk. Almag. 

A'PIS ( Ent.) the bee, a well known insect ; so called because, 
according to Virgil — 
Virg. Georg. 1. -1-, v. 257, 

■ pedibus ctnnexfT ait hinina pendent ; 

or from '(X':ii<:, i.e. without feet, because they are born with- 
out feet ; a genus of animals, Class Insecta, Order Himen- 

Generic Character. I\Iouth horny. — Feelers four, unequal. 
— Antenna short. — Wings flat. — Sting of the females 
and neutrals concealed in the abdomen. 
Species. The species of this genus are divided by Linna?us 
into two assortments, namely, those whose body is 
slightly covered with a fine hair or down, and those 
whose body is very villose or hairy. The principal spe- 
cies in the first division is the — Apis mellijicus, the 
Honey-I5cc. — Apis centuncularis, the Carpenter-Bee. 
Those in the second division, which are commonly 
known by the name of Hunible-Bee, are the — Apis la- 
pidarius, so called because its nest is situated in gravelly 
places. It is one of the largest insects of the tribe. — 
Apis terrestris, of the same size as the former, of a black 
colour, with the thorax marked by a yellow bar. — Apis 
Hortorum, with the thorax and abdomen yellow. 
Apis {A.'itron.) or Mtisca, the Bee or Fly, a southern con- 
stellation, consisting of four stars. 
Arts {Nuniis.) the Bee was represented on the coins of many 
cities, because it was chosen as the symbol of new colo- 
nies. It is most frequently to be met with on the coins of 
Athens and Ephesus, as in the annexed figure of a coin 


belonging to the latter city, where the stag and the palm 
on the obverse are emblematical of Diana, the tutelary 
goddess of the place ; and, on the reverse, the inscription 
E<I>, with the figure of a bee, denotes the city. iifi;. Brand. 
Thes. vol. i. 503. 
.\'PIUIM (Bot.) iri>.itoi, smallage or parsley, a garden herb, 
which, according to Homer, was the food of the war 
Horn. 11. 1. 

Aurcv fj 


It is likewise celebrated by the poets as a coronary plant. 
Find. Olymp. od. 13. 




Anacreon. Fragm. 17. 

tai S' c<PfJTI (TiAW 

od. 7, v. 2k 

kycc'/oujii Ai 


Dcpn^perare apio c 
Curatre jinjrto? 

Diodor. 1. 16; Callimach. apiid Pint. Sympos. 1.5; Plin. 

1. 19, c.8, &c.; Pnlycen. Stratag. 1. 5, c. 12; Aruob. 1.5; 

Alex. Gen. Dier. 1. 5, c. 26; Siiidas. ; Stuck: Ant. Conviv. 

1. 1, c. 26. 
Apium, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants. Class 5 

Pentandria, Order 2 Digynia. 

Generic Characters. Cal. umbel universal oi fewer rays ; 
partial of more ; involucre universal small ; partial simi- 
lar ; proper perianth obsolete. — CoR. universal uniform; 
proper petals roundish.— St am. y;7«)»e«ii simple; anthers 
roundish. — Pist. gertn inferior ; styles reflex ; stigmas 
obtuse. — Per. none •,J'ruit ovate; seeds two. 

Species. The two species are the Apium petroselinum. 
Parsley, a biennial, native of Sardinia; and Apium 
gravcolcn.j, Smallage, a biennial, native of Britain. 
J. Bauhin. Hist. Plant. ; C. Bauhin. Fin. Theat.; Ger. 
Herb.; Park. Thenl. Botan.; Rail Hist. Plant.; Toum. 
Inst. Herb.; Boerh. Ind. Plant; Wild. Linn. Spec. 
A'PLOME (Mill.) a species of garnet. 
APLU'DA (Bot.) the chaff or bran of any corn ; so called, 

according to Festus, because, applodntur, it is flapped 

off from the grain. Plin. 1. 18, c. 10; Aul. Gcll. 1. 11, 

c. 7 ; Fest. de Verb. Sigiiif. 
Apluda, in the Linnean sy.stem, a genus of plants, Class 23 

Polygamin, Order 1 JSIonoecia. 

Generic Characters, Cal. involucre common unvalve ; 
valve ovate. — Cou. glume bivalve; valve exterior navi- 
cular, interior lanceolate ; nectary very small. — Stam. 
Jilanients three; aiithers linear.— Pist. germ oblong; 
styles two; stigmas oblong. — Per. none; corolla cherishes 
the seed ; seed ovate-oblong. 

Species. The species are perennials, as the — Apluda mu- 
tica, zeujites, and ari.stata. Linn. Spec. Plant.; Brotvn. Jamaic; Wild. Linn. Spec. Plant. 
APLU'STRIA (.-Int.) a(p>a^x, ornaments at the stern, an- 
swering to the acrostolia at the prow, to which the poets 

frequently refer. 

Horn. Jl.l. 15, v. 717. 

AlpXxtn fitrx %ffcrir sx,'"' ' 

Luc. 1.3, v. 671. 

JnivtiH armn furor : remum cpntiyrsit in hostem 
.•ilter ; at hi totinn vatiilis aplmtre Ucertis. 
AvuUusque TDtant acusso remtge sedes. 


Juv. sat. 10, V. 135. 

Et curttim temtmejiigum, tictirque trirenih 
ApUistre, et summo tristis captivus in arcUf 
Hutnanis majin'a bonis credwitur. 

Poll. Onom. 1. 1, c. 9; Fcst. de Verb. Signif. ; Eustath. 

in Horn. ; Hesycliius. 
APLV'SIA (Con.) a genus of animals, Class Vermes, Order 


Generic Character, liodj covered with reflexible mem- 
branes. — Shield horny on the back, guarding the lungs. 
— Aperture on the right side. — Vent on the extremity of 
the back. — Feelers four, resembling ears. 

Species. The two species are the — Aplysia depilans, depi- 
latory Sea-Harc. — Aplasia muslelina, the tawny Sea- 
APLV'TOS [Med.) from «, priv. and t^i/w, to wash; an 

epithet for wool, as uj-'tn 'knhxiTm, unwashed wool, called in 

Latin Lana succida. 
APNO'EA (Med.) untnitt, from u, priv. and 7:nu, spiro ; a 

difficulty of respiration, or suppression of breathing. Gal. 

de Diflic. Spir. 1. 1. 
APOBA'MMA (Nat.) aVo/3«|«,p«, from, to tinge; 

a sliglit tincture applied to liquors in which gold coins or 

red hot irons liave been quenclied. Casttll. Lex. Med. 
APOB.-iTE'illA (Ant.) a valedictory poem or speech made 

by a person on his leaving his country. 
APOBRA'.S.MA (Xat.) «Vo,3p«(rj«,«, the bran of wheat, or 

tlie froth of tlie sea. Hippocrat. dc Nat. Puer. ; Foes. 

CEconom. Hippocrat. ; Cast ell. Lex. Med. 

APO'CALYPSE (Bihl.) aT«<iAu-4^i;, from cl:Tcy.x>.'J:Tra, to 

reveal ; the Greek name for the book of Revelations. 

APOCAPNl'SMUS (Nat.) from xaT»o=, smoke ; suffumiga- 

APOCA'RSAMUM (Med.) a poisonous drug growing in 

APOCA'RTEREON (Med.) «V»^«p«p«.», starving