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Full text of "Universities and their sons; history, influence and characteristics of American universities, with biographical sketches and portraits of alumni and recipients of honorary degrees"

UNIVERSITIES 



AND 



THEIR SONS 



UNIVERSITIES 



AND 



THEIR SONS 

HISTORY, INFLUENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF 
AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES 



WITH 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES AND PORTRAITS OF ALUMNI 
AND RECIPIENTS OF HONORARY DEGREES 

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 
GENERAL JOSHUA L. CHAMBERLAIN, LL.D. 

EX-PRESIDEN T OF BOVVDOIN COLLEGE AND EX-GOVERNOR OK MAINE 

SPECIAL EDITORS 

Approved by Autboritici of the respective Universities 



HARVARD 1636 

WILLIAM ROSCOE THAYER, A.M. 

YALE 1700 

CHARLES HENRY SMITH, LL.D. 



PRINCETON 1746 

JOHN DeWITT, D.D., LL.D. 
JESSE LYNCH WILLIAMS, A.M. 

COLUMBIA 1754 

J. HOWARD VAN AMRINCJE, Ph.D., L.H.D., LL.D. 



BIOGRAPHICAL EDITORS 

CHARLES E. L. WINGATE, Harvard '83 JESSE LYNCH WILLIAMS, Princeton '92 

ALBERT LEE, Yale '91 HENRY G. PAINE, Columbia '80 

INTRODUCTION BT 
WILLIAM T. HARRIS, Ph.D., LL.D. 

united states commissioner of education 



ILLUSTRATED 



Vol. II 



BOSTON 

R. HERNDON COMPANY 

1899 



I 



Copyright, i8gg, by 
R. HERNDON COMPANY 



The Unk'enity Press 
CambridgCy U.S.-^- 






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PREFACE 



630895 



PREFACE 



THE sketches which are presented in this volume are not intended as biog- 
raphies of the persons wlio are made tlie subjects of representation. 
The purpose of the book is to bring together in a single grou]) the 
names, faces and condensed records of the wise founders, senerous benefactors, 
earnest teachers and faithful officers who have established, fostered and developed 
the great institutions of learning to which this series of volumes is devoted. The 
number of men who have at one time or another filled positions which entitle them 
to a place in this galaxy is so very great, that merely to record their names would 
itself fill several hundred printed pages. Not only therefore is the collective repre- 
sentation which has been attempted in these pages necessarily incomplete, but from 
similar necessity the life-records given are in the main very brief. Yet it is believed, 
at least is hoped, that the work of selection and presentation has been done with a 
sufficient degree of intelligent judgment, painstaking thoroughness and historical 
accuracy to fulfill the plan outlined with reasonable completeness, and to secure 
results both interesting and valuable to all University Sons. 

From the very nature of the work herein attempted, any omissions or short- 
comings must be too palpably evident and conspicuous to escape notice. Criticism 
therefore as to general incompleteness, methods of selection, manner of treatment 
and matter treated of, is anticipated ; in fact, is inevitable. That the strictures (-f 
the critics may be based upon just grounds, with a clear understanding of the 
limitations of the undertaking and the difficulties involved in its performance, this 
brief prefatory statement is made. It may also be properly added that while 
authors may write and publishers may print whatever they please about the dead, 
they are debarred from taking such liberties with the living. Hence it is that the 
non-representation in this volume of a number of eminent university teachers, and 
the exceedingly meager treatment accorded certain others, whose attainments and 



viii PREFACE 

official connections make them conspicuous subjects, are due solely to the excessive 
modesty of these men of learning, which would not permit them to sanction the 
publication of anything whatever relating to their personal or official careers. For 
these omissions the publishers can only express regret, while disclaiming respon- 
sibility. The Public has certain claims upon every citizen which can be and are 
enforced at times in various ways; but with the Publisher, who is but a servant of 
the Public, the personal wishes of the Teachers of Men must be respected. 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



INTRODUCTION 



I 



INTRODUCTION 



PERSONAL influence ]ias large place amoncj the factors of education. Sonic minds 
indeed b\- force of will or stress of circumstance w ill put themselves in direct contact 
with what we ma\- call the " raw material " of knowletltje, and by this discipline may 
acquire a master)- of facts and a strength of command o\er them which mark, if they do not 
make, greatness of character. Hut those charged with the care of j'outh see the need of other 
aids and influences to secure the best conditions for their mental growth and culture. And the 
far-seeing founders of States have made it one of the first measures for the public welfare 
to provide local centers of instruction, and to cu'ganize s}'stenis for the harmonious develop- 
ment of the minds and characters of their \-outh. These are among the cherished institutions 
of a Countr}'. 

But the ancient libraries and museums, depositories of the materials for learning, were 
availing only for the few who could profit by them single-handed. For some time those so 
initiated into the mj'steries of knowledge were regarded, or at least regarded themselves, as a 
class of superior rank and pretensions. A part of their dignit}' seemed to be to liold them- 
selves inaccessible to the common mind. Among more favored races, or in more liberal spirit 
of the times, those who had achieved intellectual master}- b}- their personal efforts were 
prompted by a generous impulse to communicate their treasures to those capable of recei\ing 
them. This met an equal impulse on the part of aspiring minds to look for guidance and syni- 
]5ath\- in fulfilment of their wishes by entering into personal relations w ith the living master. 
For there is that instinct in the ingenuous mind of )outh to seek the symiiathetic aid of a 
superior. The presence of one who has himself achieved, is a quickening and an inspiration; 
and living contact with a spirit that finds pleasure in commimicating to those able to receive, 
not only its material acquirements, but also its experience in accjuiring, both points the wa)- 
and cives strength and cheer in following. 



xii INTRODUCTION 

This contact with maturer minds and superior natures brings out deeper meanings ia 
things, deeper truths and deeper thouglits, tlian could be evident to tlie unassisted spirit, liow- 
cver earnest. " Understandest thou what thou readest? " was the laoid but kiiull)- question of 
Pliiiip to tlie powerful treasure-keeper of Candace, Queen of ICthiopia, riding in his chariot 
and reading, for something more than pastime surcl}', the Prophecy of Msaias. " How 
can I, except some man should guide me?" was the answer of a sincere and modest spirit 
intent on truth. 

Striking illustrations of this influence of the personal superior, both in science and in art, 
are familiar in histor\'. The "Old Masters" in grammar, logic, rhetoric or dialectics, — in 
knowledge of nature's works and ways, once called philosophy, and later, science, — and in the 
rich fields of sculpture, painting and architecture, are shining lights in history. Disciples 
thronged around them in the Academ\-, the Ljxeum, the Porch or the Garden, or in the studios 
and laboratories, or traversed with them the open fields of earth and sky, quickenetl to newness 
of life by drinking of the master's spirit. 

The affection which sprang up from this personal intercourse, especially on the part of the- 
pupil towards the master, was itself no unimportant part of a liberal education, — if this means 
the harmonious development of all the powers and susceptibilities of the iiiinil. 

"And what delights can equal those 

That stir the spirit's inner deeps, 

When one that loves but knows not reaps 
A truth from one that loves and knows." 

A curious illustration of the strength of such a feeling in the hearts of pupils, and in the 
acceptance of the community, appears in the habit among the pupils of the great masters of 
music in Italy and Germany a century or more ago, of calling themselves b_\' their masters' 
surnames; — thus almost sinking their selfhood in the great comniunidu of the master's spirit 
and ideal. That might indeed be giving too much way to adventitious or accessor}' influence, 
even though the spring of such action were in the wish to cra\-e a portion of the master's 
merit, or on the other hand to waive all other merit than that which belongs to him, — both nut 
unworthy motives; for after all there can be no true personality without self-assertion and self- 
responsibility, and such personalit}' is the highest estate in art, as in ethics, and in life itself. 

But it may be fairly doubted if something has not been lost in the modern tendenc\- to 
introduce machine systems of classifications, rank-lists, and paper tests of proficienc}', to dis- 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

place tliat olil rclalidii of jiiijiil and master which carried alont:; witli growtli nf kiiowleds^i- and 
skill that of the heart and soul. W'e shall surelj- miss soniethini; from the balance and S}inmetr)' 
of educational influences, if we do not make an effort to countervail or sup[)K'ment existing 
tendencies in education h}- bringint^ students intcj contact -with nun (.if experience and noble 
character and personal niat^nelism, as well as of scholarly attainments. It is not multii)lication 
of electi\'es, howe\'er attractixe, throwing; the student back upon himself for choices in liis most 
inexperienced and uncritical )'ears, — it is not merel}' multiplication of tutors, or increased per- 
sonal inculcation and drill of faithful teachers, nor even of specialists in researcli on single 
lines or in narrow limits, wliich can best bring out the powers and aptitudes of personalit)', or 
the practical value of knowledge as something better than earning power. 

What is of most importance in an)- large view of the subject is to secure for the j-iuitliful 
stutlent the personal contact, or even presence, of a noble character, a mature mind, an experi- 
enced scnsibilit}', a large and .sympathetic personality, which takes hold on the impressionable 
and nobl}'-tending spirit of youth, and draws it, as well as directs it, to its best. Such privilege 
of discipleship is a great boon. It is held beyond price by those capable of truly appreliending 
it. The importance of this element of education cannot be overestimated by those who arc 
entrusted with the \ital office of providing the best conditions for the training and cultui-e of 
youth. It was President Garfield who said : " To sit on the other end of a log and talk with 
Mark Hopkins is a liberal education." 

Not only do the true masters wake new ideals and inspire new zeal for action in their 
followers, but b_\- their sympathetic apprehension of the pupil's indixidualit)', they bring out his 
best powers and help to build him up on his own founilations. One good thing about those old 
times of master and pupil was the close personal intimacy between them ; the daily contact of 
mind with mind, in questions and answers, the searching interest which detected weaknesses or 
disadvantages of habit or temperament, and ofifered correctives which would tend to a balance 
and symmetry, and afforded discipline which makes one master of himself, ready for any action 
to which the chances of life ma\' call. h"or often we cannot follow choices, but must act as 
exigencies demand. It is one thing to flatter the wish, but quite another to discipline the will. 
Systems of education which oHer to_ a student what is most to his liking, even when they are 
supported b\- written examinations and con\'entional tests for rank, which things cannot disclose 
lacks and weaknesses that must be overcome if one would win in the battle of life, do not make 
good the place of personal interest and friendl}- criticism of a large-hearted master, who fits one 
to meet things he does not like, e\en in the high career of the " learned professions." 



xiv IN TR OD UCTION 

Recognizing the importance of the principles here adverted to, the publisliers of the 
initial volume of UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS have now followed that stereoscopic 
presentation of four leading Uni\-ersities b\' this one, which sets forth in some detail the char- 
acters of the men who have had part in moulding the characters of others, and possibly in 
forecasting their careers. And these careers in the histor}' of our Countr}-. following them out 
in their branches and sequences, have had much to do in the active, formati\e and directive 
powers which have made the nation what it is. At all events these Presidents and Professors 
and Teachers noted here are the men whose spirit in their respective times has \-italized the 
educational systems and carried forward the organic life of the institutions which have now 
become great Universities that are an honor and a power which the whole Country holds high, 

and which have sent their light over all the world. 

It is surely a worth}' object to turn attention to the noble characters which have wrought 
their worth into the very fiber of the nation's life. 



^,.^^i^^M«-^«s^^:^?&2ia**^^^lpwi^.^Uw 



Brunswick, Maixe, July 1899. 



ADMINISTRATORS AND INSTRUCTORS, 
FOUNDERS AND BENEFACTORS 



ADMINISTRATORS AND INSTRUCTORS, 
FOUNDERS AND BENEFACTORS 



HARVARD, John, 1607-1638. 

Born in London, Eng., 1607 ; educated at Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, graduating in 1635; became a 
Dissenting minister ; emigrated to New England 1637, 
and was made a freeman November 2 of that year; 
settled in Charlestown, Mass., where he engaged in 
pastoral work for the rest of his life ; was a member of 
a committee appointed to consider the adoption of a 
code of laws ; bequeathed half his property, about £750, 
toward erecting the College which perpetuates his 
memory, and gave it his library of three hundred and 
twenty volumes ; died in Charlestown, 1638. 

JOHN HARVARD, A.M., first Benefactor of the 
University which bears iiis name, was born in 
Southwark, London, England, in November 1607, 
son of Robert Harvard, a butcher. His mother, 
whose maiden name was Kathernie Rogers, was 
born in Shakespeare's Stratford in a house which is 
still standing. She married for her first husband 
Robert Harvard, for her second, Elletson, a cooper, 
and for her third, Vcanvord, a grocer. As keeper of 
Queen's Head Inn, Southwark, she was in prosperous 
circumstances, which enabled her son John to gratify 
his desire for a liberal education, and he studied at 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he obtained 
his Bachelor's and Master's degrees, the latter in 
1635. After his ordination as a nonconformist 
minister, he embarked for .America in 1637, pre 
sumably accompanied by his wife, Anne (Satller), 
the daughter of a clergyman. That he was regarded 
as a welcome addition to the struggling colony is 
manifested by the fact that the General Court of 
Massachusetts Bay conferred upon him the privileges 
of citizenship almost immeiliately after his arrival. 
He settled in Charlestown, where he built a house 
and resided until his death, which occurred Septem-' 
ber 24, 163S, caused by pulmonary phthisis. But 
little is known of the personal character and attain- 
ments of the man whose timely beneficence hastened 
the primitive establishment of the great University 
VOL. 11. — I 



that perpetuates his memory, as his residence in 
New England covered a period of not more than a 
year and probably less. The records, however, fur- 
nish us with the knowledge that he displayed an 
active interest in the welfare of his fellow-colonists, 
stating that in April 1638 he was ajjpointed to 
serve upon a committee formulated for the purpose 
of considering the adoption of a code of laws ; and 
that he possessed a fine and intellectual literary 
taste is attested by the character of his books, which 
he left to form a nucleus for a College library. Pro- 
fessor George Gary Bush, in his History of Higher 
Education in Massachusetts, says : " His contem- 
poraries gave him the title of Reverend, and he is 
said to have ofificiated occasionally in Charlestown 
as ' Minister of God's word.' It is said of him that 
he was ' beloved and honored, a well-trained and 
accomplished scholar of the type then esteemed,' 
and that in the brief period of his life in America 
he cemented more closely frientlships that had been 
begun in earlier years. The project of a College 
was then engrossing the thought of these early 
friends, and doubtless he also became greatly inter- 
ested in it. Thus it happened that, when his health 
failed, through his own love of learning and through 
sympathy with the projects of his daily associates, 
he determined to bequeath one-half of his estate, 
besides his excellent library of three hundred and 
twenty volumes, towards the endowment of the Col- 
lege. This bequest rendered possible the innnediate 
organization of the College, which went into opera- 
tion ' on the footing of the ancient institutions in 
Europe,' and out of gratitude to Harvard the Gen- 
eral Court voted that the new institution should 
bear his name. Many tributes have been rendered 
by the sons of Harvard College to the memory of 
its founder, but neither the words of Everett nor of 
John Quincy Adams seem so fitting as those of Pres- 
ident Quincy when he says that 'the noblest and 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



purest tribute to religion and science this Western 
World has yet witnessed was made by John Harvard 
in 1638.'" A monument commemorative of his 
usefulness was erected by the Alumni in the old 
cemetery at Charlestown and dedicated in 1S28, on 
which occasion Edward Everett delivered an ad- 
dress. A life-size statue of the donor, seated, pre- 
sented to the University by Samuel James Bridge in 
18S4, occupies an appropriate location on the tri- 
angular space adjoining Memorial Hall. ' 



BOND, William Cranch, 1789-1859. 

Born in Portland, Me.. 1789; entered business; studied 
astronomy; went to Europe on a commission from 
Harvard ; accompanied an exploring expedition to the 
South Sea for the United States Government ; Astrono- 
mer at Harvard, 1840-45 ; Director of the Observatory 
1845-59, and Professor of Astronomy 1858-59; died in 
Cambridge, Mass., 1859. 

WILLIAM CRANCH BOND, A.M., As- 
tronomer and first Director of Harvard 
Observatory, was born in Portland, Maine, Septem- 
ber 9, 1789; died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 




WILLIAM C. BOND 



pursued at the same time the study of astronomy, 
and conducted observations in a private observatory 
that he built in Dorchester, Massachusetts. In 1S15 
he went to Europe to carry out a commission 
for Harvard, with reference to a contemplated 
observatory for that institution; in 183S he was 
commissioned by the United States government 
to conduct a series of astronomical and meteoro- 
logical observations in connection with the explor- 
ing expedition to the South Sea, and in 1840 he 
was appointed Astronomical Observer at Harvard. 
In 1S46-47 the Harvard Observatory was erected 
under his superintendence, and he became its 
Director. Here Professor Bond and his son, Cleorge 
Phillips, laid the foundation of astronomical photog- 
raphy, and here he was also associated with his 
son in the discovery of the eighth satellite of Saturn 
and of the single moon of Neptune. The results of 
his observations were published in the Annals 
of the Observatory of Harvard College. 



January 29, 1859. Brought up to the trade of 

watchmaking, which was his father's occupation, he 

^ See Page 46, Volume I., Universities and Their Sons. 



BOND, George Phillips, 1825-1865. 

Born in Dorchester, Mass., 1825 ; graduated at Har- 
vard. 1845 ; Professor of Astronomy and Director of the 
Observatory at Harvard, 1859-65 ; published several 
papers on astronomical subjects ; died in Cambridge, 
Mass., 1865. 

GEORGE PHILLIPS BOND, A.M., Profes- 
sor of Astronomy and Director of the 
(Jbservatory at Harvard, was born in Dorchester, 
Massachusetts, in 1825. He was the son of William 
Cranch Bond, a noted astronomer of his day, and 
the first Director of Harvard Observatory. After 
his graduation from Harvard in 1845, he gave his 
entire attention to astronomical study under his 
flither's direction, and received the degree of Mas- 
ter of Arts in 1853. He was chosen Professor of 
Astronomy at Harvard in 1859, and succeeded his 
father as Director of the Observatory the same year. 
In this Chair and Professorship he officiated until his 
untimely death six years later. Professor Bond was 
the first to establish the fluid nature of the rings of 
Saturn in a treatise relative to their construction, 
and having participated in the discovery of the 
Orbits of Hyperion and the Satellite of Neptune, he 
wrote a valuable treatise upon their elements. His 
other writings consist of papers on the Nebula of 
Andromeda, on various comets, and on stellar 
photography. For a work on the Donati Comet 
(Cambridge 1862), he was presented with a gold 
medal by the Royal Astronomical Society of London, 



UNIVERSITIES ANB I'HEIR SONS 



3 



of which lie was an associate. He was also a fellow 
of the American Academy. Professor Bond died in 
Cambridge, February 17, 1S65. 



BOYDEN, Uriah Atherton, 1804-1879. 

Born in Foxborough, Mass., 1804 ; employed in the 
construction of a railroad from Boston to Nashua, 
N. H. ; engaged in hydraulic engineering; studied 
physics and chemistry; endowed the Boyden Library 
at Foxborough, and established the Soldiers' Memorial 
Building at that place; received the A. M. degree 
from Harvard, 1853; bequeathed large sums to Har- 
vard ; died in Boston, 1879. 

URIAH ATHERTON BOVDEN, A.M., l!enc- 
factor of Harvard, was born in Foxborough, 
Massachusetts, February 17, iSo.). In early life he 
worked at a blacksmith's forge, where he acquired 




URI.AH A. BOYDEN 

considerable mechanical skill and a thorough knowl- 
edge of materials. Later he engaged in civil engi- 
neering, and was employed in the construction of a 
railroad from Boston to Nashua, New Hampshire. 
Subsequently lie turned his attention to hydraulic 
engineering, and while employed in this work in 
Lowell (Massachusetts), and Manchester (New 
Hampshire), he made a comprehensive study of the 
turbine water-wheel. He succeeded in so improv- 



ing the construction of turbines that ninety-five per 
cent of the total power of the water expended was 
utilized, thereby gaining trt'cnty per cent. In 1850 
he settled in Boston, and thenceforward devoted 
himself to the study of physics and chemistry. Mr. 
Boyden gave $1000 to the Boyden Library of Fox- 
borough, and also established the Soldiers' Memorial 
lUiilding of that place. In 1S74 he placed Siooo 
with the Franklin Institute, to be awarded to any 
resident of North America who should determine 
by experiment whether all rays of light and other 
piiysic.al rays were or were not transmitted with the 
same velocity. In 1853 the honorary degree of 
Master of Arts was conferred on him by Har\-ard. 
At his death, which occurred in Boston, October 
17, 1879, he bequeathed about $237,000 for the 
prosecution of astronomical research " at such an 
elevation as to be free, so far as practicable, from 
the impediments to accurate observations which 
occur in the observations now existing, owing to 
atmospheric influence." The Observatory at Are- 
quipa, Peru, is the chief result of this bequest, the 
Trustees having in 1887 transferred the fund to 
Harvard. Mr. Boyden had made several gifts to 
Harvard during his lifetime. 



BOWDOIN, James, 1727-1790. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1727; educated at Harvard 
and devoted much of his time and fortune to the in- 
terests of education and science ; prominent in Colonial 
affairs and Governor of Mass. ; first President of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences ; one of the 
founders of the Massachusetts Humane Society; elected 
to the Continental Congress ; President of the State 
Council and of the Constitutional Convention ; Fellow 
and Benefactor of Harvard; published addresses, 
papers, scientific papers, poems, etc., died in Boston, 
Mass., 1790. 

JAMi:S BOWDOIN, I.L.D., Fellow and Bene- 
factor of Harvard, was born in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, August 8, 1727. His grandfather was 
Pierre Baudouin, a Huguenot who at the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes fled from France to Ireland ; 
emigrated to Portland, Maine, in 1687, and settled 
in Boston in 1690. Graduating from Harvard in 
1745, young Piowdoin inherited in 1747 a large for- 
tune by the death of his father, who was a wealthy 
merchant, and was tlius provided with ample means 
to gratify his progressive tendencies in the field of 
etiucation and scientific investigation. In 1751 he 
went to Philadelphia for the purpose of visiting 
Benjamin Franklin, who explained to him the results 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



of liis electrical researches. These two investigators 
not only compared their theories, but began a cor- 
respondence which continued for many years, and 
Bowdoin's letters, which were afterward read before 
the Royal Society of London by Franklin, were 
published with some of the latter's own researches. 
He was a member of the General Court from 
1753—56, when he was elected to the Council, in 
which he attained prominence in Colonial affairs by 
his opposition to the Royal Governors. When again 
elected to that body (1769) he was refused a seat 
by Governor Bernard, whereupon he was elected to 
the Assembly by the voters of Boston, but when 
Governor Hutchinson assumed office (1770), the 
latter admitted him to the Council, believing that 
his actions would be less harmful there than in the 
House of Representatives. Bowdoin's ill health 
kept him away from the Continental Congress in 
1774, to which he was elected, but he presided 
over the Massachusetts Council in 1775, and at the 
State Constitutional Convention in 1779. During 
his term as Governor (1785-S6), he quelled 
Shay's Rebellion, and though a candidate for re- 
election he was defeated by John Hancock. He 
Avas one of the founders and the first President of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences to 
which he left his valuable library, and he also as- 
sisted in organizing the Massachusetts Humane 
Society. From 1779 to 1785, he was a Fellow of 
Harvard College, to which he bequeathed the sum 
of ^^400, and in 1788 he attended as a delegate 
the Convention which adopted the Federal Consti- 
tution. He was also a fellow of the Royal Societies 
of London and Edinburgh, and received the hon- 
orary degree of Doctor of Laws from the L^niversity 
of the last named city and from Yale. His poetical 
paraphrase on Dodsley's Economy of Human Life 
was published in 1759 ; an address to the American 
Academy on assuming its Presidency in 1780; and 
several of his scientific papers are preserved in its 
memoirs. He also wrote two Latin epigrams and 
an English poem for the '•' Pietas et Gratulatio"; 
and a volume of poems issued by Harvard on the 
accession of George HI. His death occurred in 
Boston, November 6, i 790. His son James, also a 
Harvard graduate and a noted philanthropist, for 
whom Bowdoin College was named, presented to 
that institution at its establishment six hundred 
acres of land and ^11 00 in money; and by his 
will he gave it his library, his collection of minerals, 
philosophical apparatus and paintings brought by 
him from Paris. 



BUSSEY, Benjamin, 1757-1842. 

Born in Canton, Mass., 1757 ; served in the Revolu- 
tionary Army; acquired a fortune as a merchant in 
Boston ; endowed the Agriculture, Law and Divinity 
Schools of Harvard; died in Roxbury, Mass., 1842. 

BF.XJAMIX BUSSFV, Benefactor of Harvard, 
was born in Canton, Massachusetts, March 
I) 1757; ilied in Roxbury, January 13, 1S42. 
He served in the Revolutionary Army, and was 
present at the capture of Burgoyne. At the age of 
twenty-tu'o he married and went into business as a 




BENJAMIN BUSSEY 

silversmith at Dedham, Massachusetts, widi a capital 
of §10.00. In 1772 he removed to Boston and 
engaged in foreign trade, in which he made a for- 
tune amounting to over $400,000. This he be- 
queathed, after the death of certain relatives, to 
Harvard, one half to endow a School of Agriculture, 
and the other half for the support of the Law and 
Divinity Schools. His estate included a farm of 
several hundred acres at Jamaica Plain, and in ac- 
cordance with his will, the University established 
there, in 1870, a School of Practical Agriculture and 
Horticulture, known as the Bussey Institution. Some 
important details of the establishment have been 
determined by the specific directicms of Mr. Bussey's 
will, which is quite an elaborate instrument. 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



CHAUNCY, Charles, 1589-1672. 

Born in Yardley-Bury in Herfordshire, England, in 
1589; graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge, Eng- 
land ; Professor of Hebrew, and later Professor of 
Greek, Trinity College ; Pastor at Scituate, Mass. ; 
President of Harvard, 1654-72; died in Cambridge, 
Mass., 1672. 

CHARLES CHAUNCY, second President of 
Har\'ard, was born at Yardley-Bury, in Her- 
fordsliirc, iMigland, in 1589, fifth son of George 
Chauncy. From Westminster School he went to 
Tiinity College, Cambridge, and there received the 




CH.\RLES CHAUNCY 

degree of Bachelor of Divinity. He was immedi- 
ately elected to the Professorship of Hebrew, and 
on being suspended in that department, received the 
appointment of Greek Professor. Subsequently he 
preached at Marston, Lawrence and Ware, but in 
1635, was suspended for "raising a schism," and 
forced to make a recantation. Later lie had trouble 
with Archbishop Laud and was silenced. At about 
that time he resolved to try the New World, and 
came to Plymouth, in May 163S. He preached 
there, but declined to setUe. However, he accepted 
a charge in Scituate, ALassachusetts, where he re- 
mained twelve years. During the term of his Pas- 
torate here the Puritans in England had become so 
changed that Chauncy determined to accept an invi- 



tation to return to his old charge at Ware. Being 
in Boston, about to take passage for England, at tlie 
time of President Dunster's resignation from the 
government of Harvard, he was prevailed upon to 
accept tlie I'residency of that institution. He was 
inaugurated November 27, 1654. It was during his 
administration that the press of I larvard first became 
celebrated. 'I'he works sent out were principally 
religious treatises, including the works of Apostle 
l^liot in the Indian tongue of Massachusetts. Some 
of the publications were considered too liberal, and 
in 1662 " licensers " were appointed by tiic General 
Court. 'I'he liberty of the press was restored the 
next year, only to give place to more stringent regu- 
lations. The " Indian College" was erected during 
Chauncy's administration, but the scheme for edu- 
cating the Indians faiUng, the building was used for 
]irinting. President Chauncy said firewell to his 
friends in his oration on Commencement Day 1671, 
and died February 19, 1672. 



BUCKMINSTER, Joseph Stevens, 1784- 
1812. 

Born in Portsmouth, N. H., 1784; graduated at 
Harvard, 1800; taught at Phillips-Exeter Academy 
when Daniel Webster was an attendant ; installed as 
Pastor of the Brattle Street Church, Boston, 1805; 
travelled in Europe, 1806-07 ; member of the Anthology 
Club ; appointed first Lecturer on Biblical Criticism at 
Harvard, 1811; died, 1812. 

JOSEPH STEVENS BUCKMINSTER, A.M., 
first Dexter Lecturer at Harvard, was born in 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, May 26, i 7S4. He 
was a descendant of Thomas Buckrainster, who was 
an early arrival in Boston, and died at Brookline in 
1656. His grandfather was Rev. Joseph Buckmin- 
ster, of Rutland, Massachusetts. He was a grand- 
nephew of Colonel William Buckminster, and a son 
of Joseph Buckminster, D.D., a graduate of Yale, 
Class of 1770. Joseph S. was graduated from Har- 
vard in 1800, and subsequently pursued courses in 
literature and theology. For some time he was an 
Assistant Instructor at Phillips-Exeter Academy and 
wliile there Daniel Webster was a member of one of 
his classes. His first sermon in Boston, delivered 
in 1804, induced the Brattle Street Society to extend 
him a call and he became their Pastor in the fol- 
lowing year. During the years 1806 and 1807 he 
travelled in Europe for the benefit of his health, 
and many of the books contained in tlie Boston 
Athenremn were selected l)v him wliile in London. 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



Before tlie Plii Beta Kappa Society of Ilan-anl, he ship of Law in Harvard Law School, requesting that 
delivered an interesting address on The Dangers his friend Judge Joseph Story should occupy the 
and Duties of Men of Letters, and in iSii he was chair, which he did until his death. In 1831, he 
chosen the first incumbent of tlie Dexter Lecture- gave ,^5,000 towards the building of a law college, 
ship on liibhcal Criticism. Mr. lUickminster was a When completed, it was called Dane Law College; 
sufferer from epilepsy throughout his entire life, and since the building of Austin Hall it lias been known 
he died of that disease June 9, 1S12. He belonged 
to the Anthology Club, a famous literary organiza- 
tion in his day, and was a fellow of the American 
Academy and a member of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. Periodicals of his time contain 
many articles from his pen. and he directed a new 
edition of Griesbach's Greek Testament. 



DANE, Nathan, 1752-1835. 

Born in Ipswich, Mass., 1752; graduated at Harvard, 
1778; admitted to the Bar, and practised in Beverly, 
Mass.; member Massachusetts Legislature, 1782-85; 
delegate to Continental Congress, 1785-88; member 
Massachusetts Senate, 1790, 1794-96 ; Judge of Court of 
Common Pleas for Essex county ; Commissioner to 
revise the State Laws; Presidential Elector, 1812; 
delegate to Hartford Convention, 1814; founded the 
Dane Professorship of Law at Harvard ; Dane Hall 
called in his honor; died in Beverly, Mass., 1835. 

NATHAN DANE, LL. D., Founder of the 
Dane Professorship in Harvard Law School, 
was born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, December 27, 
1752 ; died in Beverly, Massachusetts, February 15, 
1835. He was graduated at Harvard in 1778, 
studied law, was admitteil to practice, and settled in 
Beverly, where he became one of the most promi- 
nent lawyers of New England. Lie was a member 
of the Massachusetts Legislature, 1782-85, dele- 
gate to the Continental Congress, i 785-88, and mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Senate in 1 790 and again 
in I 794-96. In I 794 he was appointed Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas for Essex county, but soon 
after resigned, and was appointed a commissioner to 
revise the laws of the state. In 181 1 he was chosen 
to revise and publish the charters that had been 
granted in Massachusetts, and in 18 12 he was se- 
lected to make a new publication of the statutes. 
He was a Presidential Elector in 181 2, delegate to 
the Hartfonl Convention in 18 14, and was chosen 
delegate to the Massachusetts Constitutional Con- 
vention in 1820, but declined to serve on account 
of deafness. For fifty years Mr. Dane had a habit 
of devoting his Sundays to theological study, except- 
ing during the hours of public worship, reading the 
Scriptures generally in their original languages. In 
1829, he gave g 10,000 to found the Dane Professor- 




NATH.\N DANE 

as Dane Hall. Mr. Dane was the author of an 
abridgment and digest of American law, but he will 
be remembered longest as the drafter of the famous 
"Ordinance of 1787," adopted by Congress, which 
prohibited slavery in the territory northwest of the 
Ohio River. 



CONANT, Edwin, 1810-1891. 

Born in Sterling, Mass., 1810 ; graduated at Harvard, 
1829 ; studied law, admitted to the Bar, and practised 
in Worcester, Mass. ; bequeathed a large part of his 
estate to various charities and public institutions, and 
the balance, amounting to over $130,000, to Harvard ; 
Conant Hall named in his honor; died in Worcester, 
Mass., 1891. 

EDWIN CONANT, Benefactor of Harvard, was 
born in Sterling, Massachusetts, August 20, 
1810. There he spent the early part of his life, 
entering Harvard in time to graduate with the Class 
of 1829, which incluiled such famous sons of Har- 
vard as Oliver Wendell Holmes, Benjamin Peirce 



UNIJ'ERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 7 

and Reverend James Freeman Clarke. After grad- Ninth United States Colored Troops in 1864, acting 

iiating from College, Mr. Conant prepared himself as Aide to Colonel Sigfricd, while the latter was 

for the Bar, passed his examinations successfully, and couun.inding a brigade in tlie cani])aign of the W'il- 

enjoyed a richly remunerative practice until he died derncss and at Petersburg, serving as Acting Assis- 

in Worcester, March 2, 1891. He left an estate tant Adjutant-Ceneral of the First Brigade, 'i'hird 

amounting to about ;ri3oo,ooo, and after bequeathing Division, Twenty- Fifth Army Cor|)s in the laiter 

large amounts to charity and public institutions, he part of 1S64, and ending his army service at the 

made Harvard his residuary legatee. Of the money close of hostilities in 1865. Dr. Draper has been a 

received by the University from this bequest, $5,000 fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society from 

was devoted to the Divinity School, nearly ^28,000 1869 to the present date and Councillor from 1875. 

to the Library, and the remainder, nearly :? 100,000, He was Treasurer of tlie Society from 1875 to 1891, 

was used in building Conant Hall. and Anniversary Orator in 1S92. In 1872-73 he 



DRAPER, Frank Winthrop, 1843- 

Born in Wayland, Mass., 1843 ; graduated at Brown ; 
graduated at the Harvard Medical School; served in 
the War of the Rebellion; promoted to Captain and 
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General ; Lecturer at Har- 
vard, and afterwards Professor of Legal Medicine at 
the Harvard Medical School; practised medicine; 
Assistant Surgeon of the Boston City Hospital; Phy- 
sician to the Children's Hospital ; Visiting Physician 
at the Boston City Hospital ; Medical Examiner 
for Suffolk county ; member of the Massachusetts 
State Board of Health; Medico-Legal Pathologist 
at the Boston City Hospital; fellow of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society; Council of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society; fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences; member of numer- 
ous organizations. 

FRANK WINTHROP DRAPFR, A.M., M.D., 
Professor of Legal Medicine at the Harvard 
Medical School, is the son of James Sumner and 
Eraeline Amanda (Reeves) Draper, and was born 
in Wayland, Massachusetts, February 25, 1843. 
The family of Drapers in America traces its line 
back to James Draper, who was born in Hepton- 
stall, Yorkshire, England, in 16 18 (the son of 
Thomas Draper), emigrated to Massachusetts as a 
Puritan and died in Roxbury, Massachusetts, in July 
1694. In the fifth generation from Thomas Draper 
was Major Abijah Draper, an officer in the War 
of the Revolution. After Frank W. Draper had 
passed through the public schools of his native 
town, he entered Brown and there graduated in 
1S62. In 1S69 he obtained the degree of Doctor 
of Medicine from the Harvard Medical School, and 
from that time on has been engaged in continuous 
professional work as a physician, with brief interrup- 
tions for travel. During the Civil War he served 
three years in the L'nion Army, entering the Thirty- 
Fifth Massachusetts Volunteers as a private in 1862, 
obtaining the commission of Captain in the Thirty- 




F. W. DRAPER 

was Assistant Surgeon at the Boston City Hospital. 
In 1873-74 was Physician to the Children's Hos- 
pital, in 1 8 74-86 was Visiting Physician at the 
Boston City Hospital, and from 1877 to the present 
time has been Medical Examiner for Suffolk count)-. 
Since 1886 he has been a member of the Massachu- 
setts State Board of Health, and from 1887 to the 
present time Medico-Legal Pathologist at the Boston 
City Hospital. He is also a fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the 
Boston Society for Medical Improvement, a member 
of the American Statistical .\ssociaiion and of the 
Boston Society of Medical Sciences, a member of 
the order of the Sons of the .American Revolution, 
and a companion of the Massachusetts Commandery 



8 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



of the Loyal Legion. His connection with the edu- 
cation department of Harvard dates from 1S75, 
when he was appointed Lecturer on Hygiene in the 
Medical School. He was three years later made 
Lecturer on Forensic Medicine, and in 1SS4 was 
made .Assistant Professor of Legal Medicine. In 
1889 he was appointed to his present chair. His 
writings have been mainly on topics connectetl with 
Public Medicine, consisting of addresses, essays, and 
shorter papers on Sanitary and Medico-Legal sub- 
jects. Dr. Draper married, November i, 1S70, 
Fanny Victoria Jones of Boston, and has two chil- 
dren ; Shirley Potter, born in 187 1, and Arthur 
Derby Draper, born in 1S74. 



DUNSTER, Henry, 1612-1659. 

Born in Lancashire, Eng, about 1612; educated at 
Cambridge, Eng.; first President of Harvard, 1640-54; 
Pastor at Scituate, Mass., 1654-59; died in Scituate, 
Mass., 1659. 

HENRY DUNSTER, first President of Har- 
vard, was born in Lancashire, England, 
about 1612; died in Scituate, Massachusetts, Feb- 
ruary 27, 1659. He was educated at Cambridge, 
England, where he had John Milton and Jeremy 
Taylor among his fellow-students, and emigrated to 
New England to escape persecution for noncon- 
formity. In 1640, soon after his arrival, he was 
chosen first President of Harvard, which for sev- 
eral years had been under the charge of " Mas- 
ter " Nathaniel Eaton, who was removed for the 
severity of his discipline. President Dunster, we 
are told by Quincy, "united in himself the charac- 
ters of both Patron and President, for poor as he 
was, he contributed, at a time of the utmost need, a 
hundred acres of land toward the support of the 
College, besides rendering it for a succession of 
years a series of services well directed, unwearied 
and altogether inestimable." After fourteen years 
at the head of the institution, he tendered his resig- 
nation in 1654, on account of exceptions taken by 
the College authorities to his proclamation in the 
pulpit of the Catnbridge church, of which he was 
Pastor, of certain dotibts that had arisen in his mind 
as to the validity of infant baptism. For this 
offence he was also indicted by the Grand Jury, 
sentenced to a public admonition, and to give bonds 
for good behavior. After his resignation he re- 
moved to Scituate, where he was employed in the 
ministry until his death. By his last will he ordered 
that his body should be buried in Cambridge, and 



magnanimously bequeathed legacies to the very per- 
sons who had been instrumental in his removal from 
the Presidency. He was greatly esteemed for his 
extensive learning, his sincere piety, and his modest 
and unobtrusive deportment. His knowledge of the 
Oriental languages, especially Hebrew, was remark- 
able. Under his influence Harvard took a high 
stand, and through his intelligent administration of 
its interests, as well as his tliorough educational 
methods, received an impulse which is doubtless 
felt to the present day. 



EVERETT, Edward, 1794-1865. 

Born in Dorchester, Mass., 1794; graduated at 
Harvard, 1811; Pastor at Boston; Tutor in Latin at 
Harvard; Professor of Greek at Harvard, 1815-1826; 
Editor North American Review; member of Con- 
gress, 1824 ; Governor of Massachusetts, 1835-38 ; 
Minister to England, 1840-45; President of Harvard, 
1846-1849; Secretary of State, 1852; U. S. Senator, 
1853; died in Boston, 1865. 

EDW.XRl) EVERETT, LL.D., D.C.L., tenth 
President of Harvard, was born in Dor- 
chester, Massachusetts, April 11, 1794, son of Rev- 
Oliver Everett, Pastor of the New Soutli Churcli in 




EDWARD K\'EREtT 

Boston, 1782-92; died in Boston, January 15, 
1865. lie was graduated at Harvard, iSii, with 



UNIFERSiriES JND ^JIIF.IK SONS 



tlic lii,i;lK'^l lioniirs, and in 1813, was scltleil over 
the Unitarian Cliurch in ISratlle Square, UostDii. 
Since graduation he liad been a T,atin Tutor at Har- 
vard, and in 1S14, at the a;,'e of twenty-one, was 
appointed to fill the newly formed Chair of (Ireek 
Literature. Soon afterward he went abroad, and 
spent the four years 1S15-19 in Europe. On his 
return home he entered \ii>on tlie duties of his 
Greek Professorship. lie was Editor of the North 
American Review, 1S20-J4. In 1S24 he was 
elected to Congress, wliere he served as Representa- 
tive by successive re-elections for ten years. For 
the four years 1835-38 he was Governor of Massa- 
chusetts. In 1840 he again went to Europe, and 
while residing in London was appointed Minister to 
England, in which capacity he served until recalled 
by President Polk in 1S45. From 1S46 to 1849 ^^ 
was President of Harvard. In 1853 he was ap- 
pointed Secretary of State, ami in 1853 he was 
elected to the United States Senate, but was obliged 
to resign his seat on account of ill health. At the 
time of his death Mr. lu-erett had in [ireparation a 
course of lectures on international law, which he had 
intended to deliver before the Dane Law School. 



President l-'elum was a meuiber of the Massa- 
chusetts r5oard of Ivhication, and one of the Re- 
gents of the Smithsonian Institution. His literary 




FELTON, Cornelius Conway, 1807-1862. 

Born in West Newbury, Mass., 1807; graduated at 
Harvard, 1827; taught in Geneseo, N. Y. ; Latin and 
Greek Tutor at Harvard ; Eliot Professor of Greek 
Literature, 1834-1S60: Regent of the College, 1849- 
1857; President of Harvard, 1860-1862; member of the 
Mass. Board of Education; Regent of the Smith- 
sonian Institute; died in Chester, Penn., 1862. 

CORXELIUS CONWAY FELTON, LL.D., 
nineteenth President of Harvard, was born 
in West Newbury, Massachusetts, November 6, 
1807 ; died in Chester, Pennsylvania, February 26, 
1S62. He was graduated at Harvard in 1827, and 
after teaching for two years in Geneseo, New York, 
was appointed Latin Tutor at Harvard, and became 
Greek Tutor in 1S30. In 1S32 he was made Pro- 
fessor of Greek, and in 1S34 was given the ICliot 
Professorship of Greek Literature. He was also 
for many years Regent of the College. He spent 
several months in Greece in 1853-54, studying the 
country and its remains of ancient art, as well as its 
present language and literature. He also visited 
the various collections of Greek art and antiquities 
throughout F^urope. In 1858 he again visited 
Europe, and in i860 he was elected President of 
Harvard, which office he held initil his death. 



C. C. FELTON 



labors were extended, and he was noted as one of 
the most profound and enthusiastic classical scholars 
in the country. 



ELLIS, George Edward, 1814-1894. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1814; graduated at Harvard 
in 1833, and from the Divinity School a year later; 
Pastor of the Harvard Church, Charlestown, Mass. ; 
Professor of Systematic Theology in Harvard Divinity 
School; Editor of Christian Register and Christian 
Examiner; Vice-President and President of the Mass. 
Historical Society; Overseer of Harvard; received 
from Harvard the degree of D.D. in 1847, and that of 
LL.D. in 1883; died in Boston, 1894. 

Gi:ORGE EDW.VRD ELLIS, D.D., Overseer 
and Penefactor of Harvard, one of the most 
retiring, but one of the most talented, sons of the 
State of Massachusetts, was born in Poston, August 5, 
1814. He was graduated from Harvaril in 1S33, 
when but fifteen years of age, an<I a year later received- 
his diploma from the Divinity School, .\fter leaving 
Harvard he made a tour of l'"uro])e, and was one of 
the few Americans who witnessed the crowning of 



lo 



UNU'ERSiriES AND Til KIR SONS 



Queen Victoria, which event he graphically described 
in the Atlantic Monthly under the title of " The 
Autobiography of an Octogenarian." In 1S40 he 
was chosen Pastor of the I larvard Church at Charles- 
town, where he preached for seventeen years. He 
then travelled again until 1S57, when he was ap- 
pointed Professor of Systematic Theology in the 
Harvard Divinity School. He served there until 
1863, when he engaged in literary work. In 1872 
he became Editor of the Christian Register, and 
later of the Christian Examiner. He was long 
connected with the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
and served as its President and Vice-President. In 
1870-71 he was a member of the Board of Over- 
seers of Harvard, and the College honored him 
by conferring the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
in 1 84 7, and that of Doctor of Laws in 1883. 
He had the distinguished honor of delivering 
the address at the unveiling of the statue of 
John Harvard in Cambridge, in 1884. Dr. Ellis 
died in Boston, December 20, 1S94. He left a 
bequest of $30,000 to Harvard, to constitute a 
fund known as the Harvard Ellis Fund, in memory 
of his son, John Harvard Ellis, of the Class of 
1862. A liberal contributor to a large number of 
periodicals, he was also the author of several ar- 
ticles for the Ninth Edition of the Encyclopedia 
Britannica. 



FOLLEN, Charles Theodore Christian, 
1796-1840. 

Born in Romrod, Germany, 1796; studied at the 
University of Giessen; received the D.C.L. degree, 
1817; Professor of Latin at Zurich ; Professor of Civil 
Law at Basel; came to America and studied Divinity; 
Instructor in German at Harvard, 1825-30, and Pro- 
fessor of German, 1630-35; Pastor at East Lexington, 
Mass. ; died in Long Island Sound, 1840. 

CHARLES THEODORE CHRISTIAN FOL- 
LEN, D.C.L., Professor at Harvard, was born 
at Romrod, Germany, September 4, 1796; died 
January r3, 1840. The son of an eminent jurist, 
he distinguished himself in his early school life by 
his proficiency in ancient and modern languages. 
Entering the University of Giessen, he presently 
heard the news of Napoleon's defeat at Leipsic, and 
left his books to enter a corps of riflemen. Later 
he returned to the University, where he took the 
degree of Doctor of Civil Law in 181 7. Shortly 
afterwards he was arrested on the groundless sus- 
picion of having been concerned in the murder of 
Kotzebue. Because of this trouble Dr. Follen left 



Germany and went to Paris, but in 1820, by 
governmental edict, he with all the Germans was 
obliged to quit France and repaired to Zurich, where 
he became a Professor of Latin. In 1824 the gov- 
ernments of Russia, Austria and Prussia demanded 
of the Swiss government that Dr. Follen be surren- 
dered to answer for the crime of disseminating rev- 
olutionary documents while a Professor of Civil Law 
at the University of Basel. Finding the Swiss gov- 
ernment unable to protect him he made his way to 
America, and after studying English for a year was 
appointed Instructor in German at Harvard. He 
studied divinity with Dr. W. E. Channing and be- 
gan preaching in 1S28. In 1S30 he was appointed 
Professor of German Language and Literature at 
Harvard, and held the chair until 1835. It was 




CHARLES FOLLEN 

during his service in this capacity that so great 
friction arose over his anti-slavery opinions that the 
Professorship was discontinued in 1834. For the 
two years following Dr. Follen supported himself by 
writing and teaching, until in 1836 he was formally 
ordained as a Unitarian minister and preached oc- 
casionally in New York, Washington and Boston. 
In 1840 he was settled over a parish in East Lex- 
ington, Massachusetts, but while on his way from 
New York to Boston he lost his life in the burning 
of the steamer Lexington. He published several 



UNirERSini'lS JND rilEIR SONS 



it 



text-books of the German language, and his com- 
plete works on moral philosojihy, miscellaneous 
essays and sermons, also a fragment of the treatise 
on psychology and a memoir by his witlow, were 
jjublished in five volumes after his death. 



GORE, Christopher, 1758-1829. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1758; graduated at Harvard, 
1776; studied law and admitted to the Bar; delegate to 
the Mass. Constitutional Convention, 17SS; District 
Attorney for Mass., 1790-1796; Commissioner to Eng- 
land to settle British spoliation claims; Charge 
d'Affaires at London; Governor of Mass.; U. S. Sen- 
ator, 1813-1816; Presidential Elector, 1817; Overseer 
and Fellow of Harvard; received the degree of 
LL.D. from Harvard, 1809; Gore Hall named in his 
honor; died ia Waltham, Mass., 1829. 

CHRISTOPHER CORK, LL.D., Benefactor 
of LLirvard, was born in Iloston, Massachu- 
setts, September 21, 1758, a son of John Gore, who 
in 1778 was persecuted and banished from the 




CHRISTOPHER UORE 

Colony as a loyalist, but was restored to citizenship 
in 1787 by Act of Legislature; died in Waltham, 
Massachusetts, March i, 1829. He was graduated 
at Harvard in 1776, studied law with Judge Lowell, 
and in a few years established a lucrative practice in 



15oston. 1 le was a delegate to the ^[assachusetts 
Constitutional Convention of 17SS. From 1790 to 
1796 he served as the first l)istrict-.\ltorney for 
Massachusetts, under an a])pointmcnt by Washing- 
ton. He was then appointed a Commissioner to 
England to settle tiie lirilish spoliation claims, and 
reniaineil in London for eight years, during the last 
of which he was Chargii d'.Affaires. In 1809, after 
serving some years in the General Court, he was 
elected (iovernor of i\Ltssachusetts, but served only 
a year. In 1 813-16, he was United States Senator. 
\n I Si 7, after serving as a Presidential l-llector, he 
retired to private life. From 18 10 to 181 5 he was 
an Overseer, and from 181 2 to 1S20 a Fellow of 
Llarvard, and on his deatli he left the L'niversity 
nearly 1^100,000. Harvard in 1S09, bestowed on 
him the degree of Doctor of Laws, and the Harvard 
Library lUiilding, Gore Hall, completed in 1841, is 
named in his honor. His final benefaction was only 
the last of many gifts : the Law School library had 
been an especial object of his generosity during his 
life-time. His bequest, at the time it was made, 
was held to be the largest benefaction the Univer- 
sity had ever received from an individual. 



GRAY, Asa, 1810-1888. 

Born in Paris, N. Y., 1810; graduated at the Fairfield 
Medical College; Professor of Botany and Zoology 
at the University of Mich.; Fisher Professor of 
Natural History at Harvard ; Associate Editor of the 
American Journal of Science and Art ; President of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Presi- 
dent of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science; received the LL.D. degree from 
Harvard, 1887; died in Cambridge, Mass., 1888. 

AS.V GR.-W, LL.D., Professor of Natural His- 
tory at Harvard, than whom no man in a 
strictly professional life has cast more reflected credit 
upon the College at Cambridge, was one of the 
foremost scientists and most eminent botanists to 
whom America has given birth. No American was 
better known than he among scientific investigators 
in Europe as well as in this country, and no one was 
ever more highly respected or held in more cordial 
regard. His home in Cambridge, presided over by 
Mrs. Gray, a daughter of the late Hon. Charles 1). 
Loring, is even now remembered by those who were 
admitted to it on terms of friendship. Dr. Gray was 
born in Paris, Oneida county. New York, November 
18, 1 8 10. He was graduated at the Fairfield Medi- 
cal College in 1S31. but his ardent love of botany. 



12 



UNirRRSlTIES JND THEIR SONS 



wliicli hail alread)' developed, kepi him from con- 
tnuung the i)ractice of the medical profession. In 
1834, he was appointed llotanist to a Ignited States 
Exploring Expedition, but a delay in starling caused 
him to resign his position. In 1S38, when the 
l^niversity of Michigan was organized, he was tlie 
first Professor ajjpointed, his chair being that of 
Botany and Zoology. Four years later he was made 
Fisher Professor of Natural History at Harvard, 
where for forty-five years he continued in active 
service, luitil 1873, after which date, and up to the 
time of his death, he had charge of the Herbarium 





ASA GRAY 

and devoted himself entirely to scientific investiga- 
tion, in which he had the assistance of another dis- 
tinguished botanist, Mr. Screno Watson. Dr. Gray's 
work on the Flora of North America was literally 
the task of a lifetime, for from the time when the 
first part was published in 183S, in co-operation 
with Dr. Toury, he was occupied up to the last days 
of his life in studies connected with it. He made 
frequent journeys to ]']urope for study, and had but 
recently returned from a \'oyage made for this pur- 
pose when he died. Dr. Gray's contributions to 
the literature of his chosen science were numerous 
and valuable. They began in papers and mono- 
graphs in 1834-35. In 1S36 he published the first 
edilion of his Elements of liolany, a work whose 



plan of construction was so carefully considt'red that 
it was retained as the basis of all his later text-books. 
Out of it grew an ample work of four volumes, treat- 
ing respectively of Arganography upon llie basis of 
Morphology, liislology and Physiology, Gr\'ptogamic 
Botany, and sjiecial Morphology of the Natural ( )rder. 
]jr. Gray thought much and wrote not a little upon 
the Darwinian theory, and his papers upon this sub- 
ject were published in a volume called Darwinia. 
His attitude toward these theories was symi)athctic, 
but he was not one of those men of science to whom 
the acceptance of these explanations of the universe 
created a question as to its author. He defined his 
own position as that of one who was " scientifically 
and in his own fashion a Darwinian, philosophically 
a convinced theist, and religiously an acceptor of 
the creed commonly called the Nicenc as the ex- 
ponent of the Christian faith." Dr. Gray was for 
many years Associate Editor of the American Jour- 
nal of Science and Art, to which he contributed 
many im]iortant papers. He was a liberal contri- 
butor to a large number of scientific magazines, the 
Atlantic Monthly and the North American Review. 
In 1863, Dr. Gray was elected President of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences and held 
that position for ten years. In 1872, he was Presi- 
dent of the Atnerican Association for the .Advance- 
ment of Science. He was a meinber of most of the 
scientific societies of the United States and also 
a corresponding and honorary member of many 
abroad. The feeling entertained toward Dr. Gray 
among men of science and men of letters abroad 
was finely expressed by Dr. Sandys in 1887, when, 
in conferring upon him the degree of Doctor of 
Laws in behalf of Cambridge University, he said of 
him : " And now we are glad to come to the Har- 
vard Professor of Natural History, f;icile priiiceps 
of Trans- Atlantic botanists. God grant that it may 
be allowed to such a man at length to carry to 
happy completion that great work which he long 
ago began, of more accurately describing the flora 
of North America ! Meanwhile this man, who has 
so long adorned his fair science by his labors anil 
his life, even unto a hoary age, ' bearing,' as our 
poet says, ' the white blossom of a blameless life,' 
him, I say, we gladly crown at last with the flowerets 
of praise, with this corolla of honor. For man)', 
many years may Asa Gray, the venerable priest 
of Flora, render more illustrious this academic 
crown." The death of Professor Gray took place 
January 30, 1888, at his home in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. 



UNIVERSITIES JND TUh'.IR SONS 



13 



GATES, Lewis Edwards, 1860- 

Born in Warsaw, N. Y., March 23, i860; educated 
at Albany Academy, Rochester College and Harvard ; 
has been Instructor in Forensics at Harvard, Instructor 
in English, Assistant Professor of English; has writ- 
ten numerous articles for literary journals, has edited 
several books; and has published a volume of essays. 

LEWIS EDWARDS (;.V1'1':S, Assistant Professor 
of English at Harvard, was born in \\'arsaw, 
New York, Marcli 23, 1S60. His mother, Jennette 
Parsons Gates, was a direct descendant of Jonathan 
Edwards, being the granddaughter of one of his 
great-grandsons. Mr. Gates's father, Seth Merrill 




LEWIS E. GATES 

Gates, was a member of Congress for western New 
York from 183S to 1842, and was closely associated 
with John Qiiincy Adams, Slade and Giddings in the 
anti-slavery agitation. After receiving an education 
at the Warsaw Union School, at Albany Academy 
(Albany, New York), and for one year, 1S79-80, at 
Rochester College (Rochester, New York) Lewis E. 
Gates entered Harvard, where he graduated in 18S4. 
The next three years were spent as Instructor in 
Forensics at Harvard. Then, after several years' 
study in luirope Mr. Gates returned in 1S90 to be- 
come Instructor in I'',nglish and in 1.S96 was made 
Assistant Professor in the same department. He 
has contributed reviews and articles to the New 



York Nation, The Critic and other literary journals, 
has edited with introductions and notes the following 
books : Essays of J''rancis Jeffrey ; Newman's I'rose, 
.Arnold's Prose, and has published a volume of 
essays, Three Studies in Literature. 



HANCOCK, Charles Lowell, 1810-1890. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1810; graduated at Harvard, 
iS2g; practised law in Chicago; at his death made 
Harvard his residuary legatee; died in Boston, 1890. 

CHARLES LOWELL HANCOCK, Benefactor 
of Harvard, was born in Boston, March 6, 
iSio. He was a member of the family of Han- 
cocks eminent in the history of Massachusetts, and 
was a grand-nephew of the Revolutionary ])atriot 
and early Governor of Massachusetts. His father 
was John Hancock, a native of Boston and a son of 
Ebenezer Hancock, brother of Governor John Han- 
cock. After preparation in the local schools, Charles 
Lowell Hancock entered Harvard and was graduated 
in the class which included Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
Rev. Samuel F. Smith, Rev. Samuel May, Professor 
Benjamin Peirce, Rev. James Freeman Clarke, Judge 
George F. Bigelow, Judge Benjamin R. Curtis and 
Hon. George T. Davis. After his graduation he 
established himself in the practice of law in Chicago, 
where he lived for many years. At the time of his 
death, which occurred in the City Hospital in 
Boston, April 22, 1890, he was on a visit to tlie 
East. He was buried in the Hancock vault in the 
Old Granary burying-ground. During his life he 
made a collection of several valuable Hancock 
manuscripts, the literary property of his family, 
which he presenteil to the New England Historic 
Genealogical Society. His will made Harvard his 
residuary legatee, with a special provision that the 
Hancock Professorship should be amply maintained 
and the remainder of the bequest devoted to the 
general purposes of the University. The sum which 
became available to the University from this source 
amounted to over S 70,000. 



HILL, Thomas, 1818-1891. 

Born in New Brunswick, N. J., 1818, studied at lower 
Dublin Academy near Philadelphia; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1843, and Harvard Divinity School, 1845 ; Pastor at 
Waltham, Mass. ; President of Antioch College, Ohio; 
Pastor at Cincinnati: President of Harvard, 1862-68; 
member of the Mass. Legislature; Pastor at Portland, 



'4 



UNIVERSIT'IES JND 7'1/KlR SONS 



Me.; received the degrees of D.D. from Harvard in 
1880, and that of LL.D. from Yale in 1863; died in 
Waltham, Mass., iSgi. 

THOM.VS 1111,1,, I,l..r). S.T.D., twciiticlh 
President of Harvaiil, was born in New 
I'.iuiiBwick, New Jersey, January 7, 181 8; died in 
W'altliam, Massachusetts, November 21, 1891. He 
was the son of an luiglishman, who was a tanner by 
occupation and also ser\'ed as Judge of the Superior 
Court of Common I'leas. The son was left an orphan 
at an early age, and in his twelfth year was appren- 
ticed to a printer for three years. After serving his 




THOM.A.S HILL 

time at the printing trade he attended the lower 
Dublin Academy near Philadelphia for a year, and 
was then apprenticed to an apothecary. Subse- 
quently he entered Harvard, where he was graduated 
in the Academic Class of 1843, and at the Divinity 
School in 1845. For the ne.xt fourteen years he 
had charge of a Unitarian Pastorate in Waltham, 
Massachusetts. In 1859, he was elected to the 
Presidency of Antioch College, Ohio, and during his 
incumbency of that office he also officiated as Pastor 
of the Church of the Redeemer in Cincinnati. In 
1862, he became President of Harvard. His ad- 
ministration continued for six years, until 1868, 
when impaired health led him to resign. After his 
retirement President Hill resumed his residence in 



Waltham, and in 187 i represented that town in the 
State Legislature. The following year he arcom- 
l)anied Professor Louis .Agassiz on the Hasslrr Lx- 
pedition to South America, and on his return he 
accepted a call to the LInitarian Church in Portland, 
Maine, in which pastorate he continued for many 
years. I le received the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from Harvard in 18S0, and that of Doctor of Laws 
froui \'ale ill 1863. Dr. Hill possessed much mathe- 
matical genius, and was the inventor of several 
mathematical machines, chief among whicli was an 
occultator, by which occultations visible west of the 
Mississippi from 1S65 to 1869 were calculated for 
publication in ihe American Nautical Almanac. 
He was the author of \arious works that have been 
published in book f )rm, and was a contributor to 
numerous periodicals, mathematical and astronomi- 
cal journals, and religious newspapers. 



HOLWORTHY, Matthew, 



-1678. 



Merchant at Hackney, Eng. ; knighted by Charles U., 
1665; bequeathed /^looo to Harvard; Holworthy Hall 
named in his honor; died in 1678. 

SIR ALVTTHEW HOLWORTHY was distin- 
guished among the early trans-Atlantic bene- 
factors of Harvard College, along with Lady Moulson 
and Theophilus Gale. After considerable research 
on both sides the water little has been ascertained 
concerning him, his life and fortunes. It is certain, 
however, that he was a merchant of Hackney, in the 
County of Middlesex, England ; that he was knighted 
by Charles II. in 1665 ; that he possessed great 
wealth, was distinguished for charity and piety, and 
that he died in 167S. His bequest to the College 
was the largest single gift of money it received dur- 
ing the seventeenth century. His bounty at the 
time was most useful in character because unre- 
stricted in its terras. He made the amount appli- 
cable to the wants of the institution by placing it at 
the immediate control of its Governors. The be- 
quest consisted of ^/^looo sterling, "to be paid o\'er 
to the Governors and Directors of the College to be 
disposed of by them as they shall judge best for 
promoting of learning and ]>romulgation of the Gos- 
pel in those pjarts." It was to be paid within two 
years from the death of the benefactor. The Uni- 
versity honored his name in 1812, by giving it to 
the hall erected at that time. President Kirkland, 
at the time of the laying of the foundation of llie 
new hall, said, after narrating the meagre facts that 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



15 



arc known concerning him : " \\'c liave evidence, 
however, that lie was one of tiiose generous spirits 
who are interested in human nature and human 
happiness wiierever found. He extended his solici- 
tude to this seminary, then obscure and little con- 
sidered by the world and capable of adding little to 
the character of its benefactors, and contributed a 
bounty which did much to rear it to a manly 
strength." 



MOLLIS, Thomas, 1659-1731. 

Born in 1659; was a merchant in London, Eng. ; 
founded the HoUis Professorship of Divinity at Har- 
vard, endowed the Professorship of Mathematics and 
Philosophy; and was a donor to the College in many 
other ways; Hollis Hall named in honor of his family, 
which numbered other benefactors of Harvard among 
its members; died in London, 1731. 

THOMAS HOLLLS, one of Harvard's early 
benefoctors, born in 1659, was a merchant 
of London, I'lngland, where he died in J"ebruary 
1731. He was Trustee under the will of his 




THOMAS HOLLIS 

uncle Robert Penoyer, and a bequest made to 
Harvard in that instrument first attracted his atten- 
tion to the New England College. After making 
two considerable donations to the College, he gave 
in I 72 1, the fund by which the Hollis Professorship 



of Divinity was established. In 1727, he also en- 
dowed a Professorship of Mathematics and Philos- 
ophy. He gave many books to the Library, and 
a set of Hebrew and (Ireek types for printing. 
LI is brothers John and Nathaniel were also bene- 
factors of the College. His nephew and heir, 
Thoni;is, son of Nathaniel, gave money, books and 
jihilosophical apjxiratus. LI is grand-nephew, 'I'homas, 
son of the second 'I'homas, gave to the College, 
among other donations, books that were \alueil at 
;^I400. Other members of the Hollis family were 
also liberal friends to Harvard, and one of the halls 
in the yard is named in honor of the family. .Mto- 
gether, the Hollis benefactions constitute the most 
remarkable feature in the cherishing of the College 
up to the close of the eighteenth century. 



HOAR, Leonard, 1630-1675. 

Born in England about 1630, graduated at Harvard, 
1650; received the M.D. degree from Cambridge, Eng. ; 
Pastor at Boston, Mass.; President of Harvard, 1672; 
died in Cambridge, Mass., 1675. 

LEONARD HOAR, M. D., third President of 
Harvard, was the first graduate of the College 
to hold that office. He was born in England about 
1630. His fiither is reputed to have been a wealtliy 
London banker, who died soon after coining to 
Boston ; but there is a doubt if he ever came to the 
New World. Leonard Lloar crossed the Atlantic, 
probably with his two brothers, his two sisters, and his 
mother. He was graduated at Harv;ird in 1650 and 
remained the ensuing year at the College. After 
several years of travel and preaching in England, he 
returned to IJoston in 1672, having received the 
degree of Doctor of Physick at the Llniversity of 
Cambridge, England, the preceding year. In Bos- 
ton he preached as assistant to the Rev. Thomas 
'Lhacher, Pastor of the Old South Church, but almost 
immediately the Corporation invited him to the 
Presidency of Harvard. He was elected July 13, 
1672, and was inaugurated in December of that 
year. Within a year, however, dissensions arose, 
and by October 1674, these attained such propor- 
tions that the General Court ordered the President 
and Fellows before it for the purpose of investi- 
gating the unprosperous condition of the College. 
Although Cotton Mather described President Hoar 
as a " worthy man," there seemed to be a large fac- 
tion in the College in opposition to him, and this 
faction was upheld by some very respectable men of 



i6 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



standing in the community. The situation became 
so grave that the students — all but three living in 
Cambridge — tleserted the institution ; and Urian 
Oakes, Thomas Shepard, Joseph Brown and John 
Richardson, all graduates of the College, resigned 
from the Board, leaving the Corporation without a 
majority to transact business. This state of things 
continued until President Hoar resigned, March 15, 
1675. He outlived his defeat less than a year, 
dying November 28, 1675. 



HOLYOKE, Edward, 1689-1769. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1689; graduated at Harvard, 
1705; Tutor there, 1712; Fellow of the Corporation, 
1713; Pastor at Marblehead, Mass.; President of Har- 
vard, 1737-1769; died in Cambridge, Mass., 1769. 

EDW.\I^D HOLVOKE, .\.M., ninth President 
of Harvard, was born in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, June 25, 16S9, died in Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, June I, 1769. He was graduated at Harvard 




ED\V.\RD HOLYOKE 

in 1705, became a Tutor there in 1712, and a Fellow 
of the Corporation in 17 13. Having studied for 
the ministry, he was ordained Pastor of the Congre- 
gational Ciiurch at Marblehead, Massachusetts, where 
he officiated for twenty-one years. He was elected 
President of fiarvard in 1737, and served in that 



capacity luitil his death in 1769. Mr. Holyoke in 
I 742 published a pamphlet entitled : The Testimony 
of the Presiilent, Professors and .Students of Harvard 
against the Rev. George \Miitfield and his Conduct, 
brought out by the publication of W'liitfield's journal 
reflecting on the morals of the College and the 
want of religious feeling among the Faculty. His 
son, Edward .Augustus, a graduate of Harvard in 
1746, who was a practising physician for eighty 
years, livetl to the age of one hundred and one years 
and at ninety-tuo performed a difficult surgical 
operation, was the founder and first President of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society. Another son, 
Samuel, a Harvard graduate of 1789, was a some- 
what noted musician and musical composer. 



LANGDON, Samuel, 1723-1797. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1723: graduated at Harvard, 
1740; Chaplain of a N. H. Regiment, 1745; Pastor 
at Portsmouth, N. H., 1747; President of Harvard, 
1774-80; delegate to the N. H. Constitutional Conven- 
tion; fellow American Academy Arts and Sciences; 
received the D.D. degree from Univ. of Aberdeen, 1762 ; 
died in Hampton Falls, N. H., 1797. 

S.AMUF.L L.XNGDON, S.T.D., eleventh Presi- 
dent of Harvard, was born in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, January 12, 1723 : died in Hampton Falls, 
New Hampshire, November 29, 1 797. He was 
graduated at Harvard in 1740, studied theology 
while teaching at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and 
in 1745, was appointed Chaplain of a Regiment. 
He was present at the capture of Louisburg, and on 
his return was appointed assistant to Rev. James 
Fitch of the North Church in Portsmouth. He was 
ordained Pastor in 1747, and continued in that 
charge until 1774, when he became President of 
Harvard. In 1780 he resigned, and soon after 
became Pastor of the Congregational Church at 
Hampton Falls, New Hampsliire. He was a Dele- 
gate in 1 78S to the New Hampshire Convention 
that adopted the Constitution of the United States, 
was a member of the .American .Academy of .Arts 
and Sciences from its foundation, and was distin- 
guished as a scholar, theologian, and patriot. The 
degree of Doctor of Divinity was given him by the 
University of Aberdeen in 1762. 



KIRKLAND, John Thornton, 1770-1840. 

Born in Herkimer, N. Y., 1770: graduated at Har- 
vard, 1789; studied theology; Tutor in Metaphysics at 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



17 



Harvard; Pastor of the New South Church, Boston, 
Mass ; President of Harvard, 1810-28; received the 
degrees of D.D. from Princeton, 1802, and LL.D. from 
Brown, 1810; died in Boston, Mass., 1840. 

JOHN THORNION KIRKLAND, S.T.D., 
LI,.l)., fourteenth President of 1 l:irvard, was 
burn in Herkimer, New York, August 17, 1770 ; died 
in Boston, Massachusetts, April 24. iS^o. He was 



library." '1 he degree of Doctor of Divinity was 
conferred upon him by Princeton in 1802, and that 
of Doctor of Daws by Brown in 18 10. 




JOHN' T. KIRKL.-iN'D 

the son of Rev. Samuel Kirkland, a noted tnissionary 
among the Indians, Chaplain in the Continental 
Army, and founder of Hamilton College. John T. 
Kirkland was graduated at Harvard in t 7S9, and 
entered upon the study of theology under the 
Rev. Stephen West of Stockbridge, Massachu- 
setts. Experiencing a change of religious views, 
however, he returned to C:inibridge, and became a 
Tutor in Metaphysics at Harvard while preparing 
for the Unitarian ministry. He became Pastor of 
the New South Church in r>oston in 1794, and 
officiated in that charge until 1810, when he was 
elected President of Harvard. His administration 
covered a period of seventeen years, during which 
"the course of study was greatly enlarged, the Law 
School established, the Medical School re-organized, 
four different Professorships in the Academical 
Department endowed and filled, three new College 
buildings erecteil and large additions made to the 
VOL. It. — 2 



LOCKE, Samuel, 1732-1778. 

Born in Woburn, Mass., 1732; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1755; Pastor at Sherburne, Mass., 1759; Presi- 
dent of Harvard, 1770; received the D.U. degree from 
Harvard, 1773; died in Sherburne, 1778. 

SAMUKL LOCKK, S.i'.l)., tenth President of 
Harvard, was born in Woburn, Massachtisetts, 
November 23, 1732. He was graduated at Harvaril 
in 1755, and was ordained a minister at .Sherburne 
in 1759. He retained this pastorate for ten years, 
and in 1770 was appointed to the Presidency of 
Harvard, wliich he filled until December 1773. when 
he resigned and retired to private life. The degree 
of Doctor of Divinity was conferred tipon him by 
Harvard in 1773- He died in Sherburne, Massa- 
chusetts, January 15, 1778. 



LAWRENCE, Abbott, 1792-1855. 

Born in Groton, Mass., 1792 ; was a merchant of Bos- 
ton ; Representative in Congress, 1835-36, and 1839-40; 
Commissioner on the Northeastern Boundary ques- 
tion, 1842; Presidential Elector, 1844; candidate for the 
Vice-Presidential nomination, 1848; Minister to Great 
Britain, 1349-52; President of the Essex Company, 
which built the town of Lawrence, Mass. ; gave money 
to found a Scientific School at Harvard; Overseer of 
Harvard, 1854; received the LL.D. degree from Har- 
vard, 1854; died in Boston, 1855. 

ABBOIT LAWRENCE. LL.D., Founder of 
the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard, 
was born in Groton, Massachusetts, December 16, 
1792, the son of Samuel Lawrence, a Revolutionary 
soldier and founder of the Groton Academy. At 
the age of fifteen he was bound as apprentice to 
his brother Amos, who had just begun business on 
his own accotint as a dry-goods merchant in Boston. 
In 1S14 he became a partner in the firm, which 
under the name of A. & A. Lawrence conducted for 
many years a profitable commission business in 
foreign cotton and woollen goods. From about 1830 
they were also largely interested as selling agents for 
the cotton mills of Lowell, and subsequently were 
extensively engaged in the China trade. .-Vbbott 
served as Representative in Congress in 1835-36 and 
a"-ain in 1839-40 ; was a Comtnissioner for the set- 
tlement of the Northeastern Boundary question in 
1842; was a Presidential l';ie(tor in 1S44 ; and in 



i8 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



the AVhig National Convention of 1S4S, was a candi- 
date for Vice-President, falling but six votes short of 
a nomination. In 1849, having declined from 
President Taylor a seat in the Cabinet, he accepted 
the post of Minister to Creat Britain, which he 
occupied until recalled at his own request in 1852. 
He was President of the Essex Company, organized 
in 1844 to build the manufacturing town of Law- 
rence on the Merrimac River. In 1847 he gave 







ABBOTT LAWRENCE 

$50,000 to Harvard to found the Scientific .School 
which bears his name, and on his death he left a 
like sum in aid of the same object. In 1854 he had 
been chosen a Harvard Overseer, and the same year 
the University gave him the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Laws. Other members of his family 
have frequently been connected with the University 
as benefactors or officers. He died in Boston, 
August 18, 1855. 



LONGFELLOW, Henry Wadsworth, 1807- 
1882. 

Born in Portland, Me., 1807; graduated at Bowdoin, 
1825; Professor of Modern Languages and Literature 
at Bowdoin, 1826; studied in France, Spain, Italy and 
Germany ; Professor of French and Spanish Lan- 
guages and Literature and Belles-lettres at Harvard; 
received the degrees of LL.D. from Cambridge, Enp., 
and D.C.L. from Oxford; member Brazil Historical 



and Geographical Society; the Scientific Academy of 
St. Petersburg, Royal Academy of Spain and many 
other foreign bodies; died in Cambridge, Mass., 1882. 

H1-:.\RV WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW, 
LL.D., D.C.L., Professor of French and 
Sjianish Literatures, Belles-lettres, etc., at Harvard, 
with a fame a^ world-wide as his tastes and pursuits 
were catliolic. was born in Portland, Maine, on the 
27th of February, 1807. 'I'iie old mansion where 
he was born, being the first house erected in 
Portland wholly of brick walls, is still pointed out 
as an object of interest. His fiither was Stephen 
Longfellow, a leading lawyer of the state, and his 
grandfather was the first of the name who settled in 
Maine. On his mother's side Longfellow was a 
descendant of John Alden. After his i)reliminary 
studies at Portland he was sent to Bowdoin, where 
he graduated in 1825 in a class which comprised 
among its members Nathaniel Hawthorne, Franklin 
Pierce and several others who later won distinction 
in the varying walks of life. Longfellow had in- 
tended to devote himself to the practice of law, but 
his natur;d bent toward literature had been so 
stimulated by the flattering reception of some poetry 
he had published during his College course that he 
soon dropped all thought of, or care for, Blackstone 
and Coke. It was even against the advice of the 
Editor of the Ignited States Literary Gazette, who 
had published several contributions of the young 
poet, that Longfellow decided upon a literary life. 
In 1826 he was offered the Professorship of Modern 
Languages and Literature at Bowdoin, which posi- 
tion he accepted with the proviso that he might 
devote some time to preliminary foreign study. 
Early in the year he sailed for Europe, remaining 
abroad until 1S29. During his stay he was an assid- 
uous student in France, Spain, Italy and Germany. 
Returning, he immediately took up the work of 
instruction and continued for five years to serve 
his ir/wa ma/rr. It was during his stay at Bowdoin 
that the first volumes of his poems were published, 
comprising his translation of the Copeas de Man- 
rique, his Outre-Mer and a volume of short 
verse. He finally left Bowdoin to accept from 
Harvard the offer of the place made vacant by the 
resignation of Professor Tichnor, namely, the Smith 
Professorship of French and Spanish Literatures, 
together with the Professorship of Belles-lettres. 
Mr. Longfellow then made a second visit to Europe 
and passed about two years in Denmark. Sweden, 
Germanv, Holland and Switzerland. During this 
tour Mrs. Lonarfcllow died at Rotterdam. He 



UNIVERSITIES JND T/IE/R SONS 



'9 



returned to America in 1836 and entered upon iiis 
worlc at Harvard, wliich during a period of seventeen 
years was reniarl:ably fruitful botli in official and 
literary labors. In 1S42 he again went abroad, 
returning after a summer at Boppard on the Rhine, 
to his Professorship. In 1854 he resigned his 
educational work, to be succeeded by James Russell 
Lowell. Many of Mr. Longfellow's best and most 
popular works were published during the time that 
he was a Professor at Harvard. Hyperion came 
out in 1S39, and the Voices of the Niglit published 
in the same year made him famous as a poet. Two 
years later appeared Ballads and Other Poems, 
which were followed in 1842, by Poems on Slavery. 
In 1S43 the Spanish Student was published, in 1845 
the Poets and Poetry of Europe, and the next year 
the Belfry of Bruges and Other Poems. Evangeline 
did not appear until 1847. His Kavanagh, a novel, 
appeared in 1849 and was in turn followed by 
Seaside and Fireside, after which came tlie Golden 
Legend and the Song of Hiawatha. 'I'he Courtship 
of Miles Standish was published in 1858, and the 
Wayside Inn in 1863. In 1S67-70 a masterly 
translation of Dante appeared which was received 
with the greatest favor by the scholarly world. In 
1869 he published New England Tragedies, and in 
1871 the Divine Tragedy; in 1872, Three Books of 
Song; in 1874, The Hanging of the Crane, and in 
1875, Morituri Salutamus, a poem read at the fiftieth 
anniversary of his class at Bowdoin. Longfellow's 
popularity as a poet was by no means confined to 
his native land. Among the English no other 
American holds the place which has been accorded 
Mr. Longfellow, and no English poet, except Tenny- 
son, equals him in the regard of the English people. 
It is quite within bounds to say that the circulation 
of Mr. Longfellow's writings has been numbered by 
the millions, since even as long ago as 1857, the 
total sales of his works in this country had reached 
nearly half a million copies, and eighteen different 
English publishers were supplying the English mar- 
ket with rival editions. Translations of his writings 
have been made into German, Swedish and other 
European tongues, and there is no poet writing in 
the English language whose fame can be so accur- 
ately described as " world-wide " as his. In the 
latter part of May 1868, Longfellow revisited Europe, 
where he was received with marked honors, which 
naturally reached their climax in England, where it 
was said by the Westminster Review that not one 
of his English contemporaries had had a wider 
or longer supremacy. The London Times published 



a poetical welcome, signed " C. K. ", generally 
attributed to Charles Kingsley, of which the follow- 
ing are the opening lines : 

'■ Welcome to En^lniul, tlioii whose sliniiis prolong 
With glorious builc-ioll of our Sii.\oii song." 

Among the numerous festive occasions that were 
maile in his honor was one in which Mr. Gladstone 
was present. .-Mthough it had been decided that no 




HENKV \v. lon(;fello\v 

speeches should be made, Mr. (iladstone was com- 
pelled to respond to the inexorable demands of the 
company, saying among other graceful things, that, 
" After all, it was impossible to sit at the social board 
with a man of Mr. Longfellow's world-wide fame 
without offering him some tribute of their ailmi- 
ration. Let them, therefore, simply but cordially 
assure him that they were conscious of the honor 
which they did themselves in receiving the great 
poet among them." 'i'he L^niversity of Cam- 
bridge conferred upon him the degree of Doc- 
tor of Laws. In July 1869, he received the 
degree of Doctor of Civil Law at Oxford, and re- 
turned to tliis country on August 31st. In 1874, he 
was nominated Lord Rector of the University of 
Edinburgh and received a large complimentary vote. 
He was a mnnber of the Brazil Historical and 
Geographical Society, of the Scientific .-Xcademy of 



20 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



St. Petersburg, and of the Royal Academy of Spain. 
He received other like honors from many foreign 
bodies and associations of a literary and historical 
character. To few men, probably, so susceptible of 
enjoyment, was life cast so smoothly and so pleas- 
antly as to Mr. Longfellow. His dwelling, the his- 
toric headquarters of Cleneral Washington, was all 
that a man of taste could desire, but to this paradise 
came one terrible affliction. In July 1861, JMrs. 
Longfellow (second) while seated at the library table 
accidentally touched a piece of lighted paper to her 
dress which was immediately in flames. Mr. Long- 
fellow sprang to her rescue, but she was so badly 
burned that she die<l the next day. LTnder this 
grievous stroke the poet visibly aged, although his 
death had no direct connection with tlie nervous 
troubles which grew upon him in the years which 
followed. It was within sight of the College where 
he had spent so many happy hours and where he 
had done so much thorough work that he passed 
away, March 24, 1882, at the age of seventy-five 
years. Mr. Longfellow was twice married ; in 1S31 
to Mary S. Potter, daughter of Judge Barrttt Potter, 
of Portland ; and in 1843 '<' Frances Elizabeth 
Appleton, daughter of Hon. Nathan Appleton of 
Boston. The latter was the mother of five children, 
all of whom survived both ol' their parents. 



MATHER, Increase, 1639-1723. 

Born in Dorchester, Mass., 1639 ; graduated at Har- 
vard in 1656, and at Trinity College, Dublin, 1658; 
Chaplain of the English garrison on the island of 
Guernsey; Pastor of the North Church, Boston, 
Mass., 1664; Acting President, Rector and President 
of Harvard, 1685-1701 ; received the D.D. degree from 
Harvard, 1692; died in Boston, Mass., 1723. 

INCREASE MATHER, S.T.D., si.xth President 
of Harvard, was born in Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, June 21, 1639, son of Richard Mather, the 
progenitor of the Mather family in New England ; 
died in Boston, August 23, 1723. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1656, and took his second de- 
gree at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1658. In 1659 
he became Chaplain of the English garrison on the 
island of Guernsey. In 1661 he returned to Massa- 
chusetts, and in 1664 became pastor of the North 
Church in Boston, in which office he officiated until 
his death — a period of nearly sixty years, — his 
son Cotton being his colleague for a considerable 
part of this time. In 1681, on the death of Presi- 



dent Oakes of Harvard, Mr. Mather was appointed 
his successor. lie took the chair and conferred 
the degrees at the following commencement, but 
his church refused to give him up, and he at once 
resigned his new office. On the death of President 
Rogers in 1685 the offer of the Presidency was 
again made to him and was accepted. He served 
until 1701, residing in Boston and continuing his 
pastoral labors. President Mather was not only 
active in affairs of education and religion, but he 
rendered the Colony valuable service at a critical 
time, visiting England in 1689, as agent of the 




INCRIC.4SE .M.VnlLK 

people to ask redress from the King for the taking 
away of the charter that had been granted to the 
ALassachusetts Piay Colony. In this mission he was 
successful in the main, for although he found it im- 
possible to secure the restoration of the old charter, 
he procured a new one, under which the United 
Colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth lived 
to the time of the Revolution. While serving the 
Colony in England he presented the claims of the 
College to the King, and solicited not only royal 
but private patronage, in this way securing the 
benefits that came from the donations of Thomas 
Hollis. Haivard in 1692, gave him the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity, the first that was conferred in 
this count! y. 



UNJVERS/i//:S AND rilElK SUNS 



21 



LEVERETT, John, 1662-1724. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1662; graduated at Harvard, 
1680; Judge of the Supreme Court of Mass.; Speaker 
of the Colonial Legislature: member of the Council; 
Commissioner to the Indians; Commissioner to Port 
Royal, 1707; Fellow of Harvard, 1685-1700; President 
of Harvard, 1707 ; died in Boston, 1724. 

JOIIX LKVKRl";i"r, A.M., scvi-nth I'rcsidciu ol" 
lLTrv;inl, was born in ISostun, Massachusetts, 
August 25, 1662. He was a grandson of Sir John 
Leverett, Colonial Covernor of Massachusetts. He 
was graduated at Harvard in 16S0, and became a 




JOHN LEVERETT 

lawyer, Judge of the Supreme Court of the Province 
of Massachusetts, Speaker of the Colonial Legisla- 
ture, Member of the Council, Commissioner to 
the Indians in 1 704, Commissioner to Port Royal 
in 1707, and a Fellow of Harvard 1 685-1 700. In 
1707 he became President of Harvard, and officiated 
in that office until his deatli. Mr. Leverett was 
a man of extensive scholarly attainments, and was 
a member of the Royal Society, an honor which in 
those days was rarely accorded to colonists. He 
died in Boston, May 3, 1724. 



History at Harvard; his benefactions to the Mass. 
General Hospital resulted in the establishment of 
the McLean Asylum for the Insane, named in his 
honor; died in Boston, Mass., 1823. 

JOHN McLKAN, Benefactor of Harvard, was 
born at Georges, now 'Ihomaston, Maine, in 
1761, ;ind was educated in the imblic schools of 
Milton and Boston, Mass;ichusetts, his parents hav- 
ing removed to Milton in his childhood. He re- 
ceived a mercantile training ;ind eng.ige.l in trade 
in lioston, eventually accumulating a fortune. At 
his death, which occurred in iioston in 1S23, he left 
^25,000 to found a Professorshii) of .\ncient and 
Modern History at Harvard and the same amoimt 
to the Massachusetts deneral Hos])ilal. He also 
made the Hospit;il his residuary legatee, and in the 
end it received nearly Si 20,000 from his estate. 
In consequence, an important branch of the hospital, 
the McLean Asylum for the Insane, was named for 
him. 



McLean, John, 1761-1823. 

Born in Thomaston. Me., 1761; educated at Milton 
and Boston, Mass. ; became a merchant in Boston ; 
founded the Professorship of Ancient and Modern 



PEABODY, George, 1795-1869. 

Born in Danvers (now Peabody), Mass., 1795; was 
trained for mercantile career ; established the banking 
house of George Peabody & Co., London, Eng. ; inaug- 
urated the series of Fourth of July dinners in London ; 
endowed the second Grinnell Expedition sent in search 
of Sir John Franklin; founded the Peabody Institute 
at Danvers, Mass. ; endowed Phillips Andover Acad- 
emy and Kenyon College; founded the Museum and 
Professorship of American Archaeology and Ethnology 
at Harvard; endowed a Department of Physical 
Science at Yale ; gave liberally for the cause of edu- 
cation in the South; endowed an Art School at Rome, 
Italy ; endowed the Essex Institute at Salem ; died in 
London, Eng., 1869. 

EORGE PEABODY, LL.D., D.C.L., Founder 
of the Peabody Museum of .Archeology at 
Harvard and the Peabody Musetnn at Vale, was 
born in Danvers (now Peabody), Massachusetts, 
February iS, i795- He was a descendant of 
Francis Paybody, who settled in New England in 
1635. His business career was begun at the early 
age of eleven years, as a clerk in a Danvers store. 
This occupation he jmrsued in 'I'hetford, Vermont, 
and in Newburyport, Massachusetts, after which he 
assumed the management of a store for his uncle, 
John Peabody, in Georgetown, District of Columbia. 
In 1 814 he became a partner in a drygoods house 
there, which soon after was removed to Baltimore, 
and a few years later established branches in New 
York and Philadelphia. Of this business he became 
the head on the retirement of his partner in 1829. 



G 



22 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



111 1S35, he, after others had failed in a similar at- 
tempt, successfully negotiated in London the sale of 
$8,000,000 worth of bonds, by which he sustained 
the credit of Maryland. His commission of S200,- 
000 he gave to the state. Two years later, in 1S37, 
he settled in London, and established the banking 
iiouse of George Peabody & Company. In 1S51 he 
inaugurated a series of Fourth of July dinners in 
London, and he contributed the money retiuired to 
arrange and disi)lay the exhibits from the United 
States at the London Exposition of that year. 
From this time on his public benefactions were 




GKORGE I'EAliODY 

large and numerous. He gave ;? 10,000 to the 
second Grinnell Expedition sent out under Dr. 
Kane in search of Sir John Franklin ; $30,000 to 
found the Peaboily Institute in Danvers, his native 
town, to which he subsequently added 8170,000, 
with 850,000 more for a similar institution at North 
Danvers; §25,00010 Phillips Andover Academy, a 
hke sum to Kenyon College, and $2,500,000 to 
establish loiiging-houses for- the poor of London. 
On a visit to this country in 1866, he conveyed to 
a Board of Trustees $150,000 to found a Museum 
and Professorship of .American Archeology and 
Ethnology at Harvard. He gave an equal amount 
to Yale toward a Department of Physical Science ; 
and a sum amounting to over $2,000,000, which 



three years later he increased to $3,500,000, for the 
cause of education in the South ; besides contri- 
buting about $200,000 to various charities. In 
1S67, he endowed an Art School in Rome, Italy. 
In 18C9, while on his last visit to the I'nited States, 
he gave $150,000 to the Essex Institute at Salem, 
and $165,000 to various other objects. It is hardly 
extravagant to call Mr. Peabody tlie most munifi- 
cent philanthropist of his times. The honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon him 
by Columbian (D. C.) University in 1S66 and by 
Harvard in 1SC7, and that of Doctor of Civil Law 
by Oxford (England) in the latter year. He died in 
London, England, November 4, 1869. For the 
first time in the history of England, the obsequies 
of a private foreign citizen were celebrated in 
Westminster Abbey, where his remains would have 
reposed, had it not been for the expressed wish of 
Mr. Peabody to be buried in his native land. A 
British worship transported his body to America, 
and the great philanthropist foun<l a final resting- 
place beside the grave of his mother in the cemetery 
of the town of his birth. 



CAKES, Urian, 1631-1681. 

Born in England, 1631 ; graduated at Harvard, 1649; 
studied theology ; Pastor at Tichfield, Eng. ; Pastor 
at Cambridge, Mass.; Tutor and Fellow of Harvard; 
Acting President and President of Harvard, 1671-81 ; 
died in Cambridge, Mass., 1681. 

URIAN OAKES, A.M., fourth President of 
Harvard, was born in England in 1631. 
He came to .America in 1634, and while yet very 
young published in Cambridge a series of astro- 
nomical calculations. He was graduated at Harvard 
in 1649, studied theology, and after preaching for a 
short time in Roxbury, went to England, and was 
settled as a minister in Tichfield, Hampshire. In 
1662, owing to his nonconformist views, he was for- 
bidden to preach, but after finding an asylum for a 
time among friends he presided over another con- 
gregation. In 1668, he accepted a call to take 
charge of the church at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
but the beginning of his pastoral labors there was 
deferred until 167 1. He was a Tutor at Harvard 
1650-52, a Fellow during the same period and 
again in 1675, and on the death of President Hoar 
in the latter year he assumed the duties of the 
Presidency. In 1680 he was formally inaugurated 
President, wliich office he filled until his death. He 
died in Cambridge, July 25, 1681. 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



23 



PEMBERTON, Ebenezer, 1671-1717. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1671 : graduated at Harvard, 
i6gi ; Librarian, 1693-97; Tutor, 1697-1700: Fellow, 
1707-1717; Pastor of the Old South Church, Boston, 
Mass.; died in Boston, Mass., 1717. 

EBENEZER PEMBERl'ON, A.M., I'litur, 
Libniiiaii .md Erilou' of Harwinl, was 
born ill Boston, Massachusetts, in January 167 1, 
son of James Pemberton, one of tlie founders of the 
Old South Church in Boston. He was gra(hiated at 
Harvard in 1691, and for several years was a Tutor 
in the College. From 1693 to 1697 he was Libra- 
rian at Harvard, and from 1707 to 171 7 he served 
as a Fellow of the Corporation. In t 700 he was 
ordained Pastor of the Old South Church in Boston, 
and this charge he held until his death, which 
occurred in Boston, February 13, 171 7. He pub- 
lished a large number of occasional discourses, 
which with several epistles were printed collectively 
in 1727. 



QUINCY, Josiah, 1772-1864. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1772; graduated at Harvard, 
1790 ; admitted to the Bar, 1793 ; member of the Mass. 
Senate, 1804; member of Congress; Speaker of the 
Mass. House of Representatives; member of the 
Constitutional Convention, 1820; Mayor of Boston, 
Mass., 1823-1828; Overseer of Harvard, 1810-29; Presi- 
dent of Harvard, 1829; died in Quincy, Mass., 1864. 

JOSIAH QUINCY, I.I..1)., fifteenth President of 
Harvard, and fifth in lineal descent from 
Edmund Quincy, the English immigrant who founded 
the distinguished American family, was born in 
Boston, February 4, 1772. He was prepared for 
College at Phillips Andover Academy, and was 
graduated at Harvard in 1790 at the head of his 
class ; also receiving the Bichelor of .Xrts (honor- 
ary) degree from Yale in the same year. He was 
admitted to the Bar in 1793, and married Eliza 
Susan Morton of New York in 1797. His Fonrlli 
of July oration in 1798 attracted much attention and 
won for him the Federalist nomination for Congress 
in 1800. He was defeated, but elected to the State 
Senate in the spring of 1804 and in the autumn of 
the same year to Congress. Mr. Quincy labored 
for the adoption of an amendment to the Consti- 
tution, repealing the clause which gave the slave- 
holders a basis of representation reckoned upon 
three fifths of their slaves. Belonging to a minority 
party he took an independent personal ground, he 
opposed the embargo and the war with England, 
and denounced the acquisition of Louisiana as a 



state, whirli he deenied nn< onstitution;!! as trans- 
cemling tlie powers conferred upon Congress to 
admit only such new states as should be formed 
from territory already belonging to the I'nion in 
17.S7. .Although opposetl to the war he did not 
witiihold his support from the ;ulministr;ition like 
some members of his party, and made ;i s])ecrh in 
flivor of strengthening the navy J:imiary 25, 181 2, 
which excited general api)lause. Mr. Quincy in 
that year declined a re-election to Congress and 
served in the State Legislature for the greater part of 
the next ten years, being Speaker of the House of 




JOSIAH QUINCY 

Representatives in 1821. He was a member of the 
Constitutional Convention in 1S20. From 1823 to 
1S28 he was Mayor of Boston anil introduced many 
important reforms. He was an Overseer of Harvard 
from iSio until 1829, when he was chosen Presi- 
dent of the College, and held that ofifice for sixteen 
years. Mr. Quincy was an early advocate of a 
reasonable elective system. He was the means of 
erecting and equipping the Astronomical Observ- 
atory, and Dane Hall and Gore Hall were built 
(Itiring his term of office. He introduced the mark- 
ing system upon a strictly scientific \i\a\\, and estab- 
lished the principle that law-breaking undergraduates 
should be proceeded against like other offenders, in 
the courts. From 1S45 until his death in Quincy, 



24 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



July I, 1S64, Mr. (Jiiiiicy led a life of leisure. .At 
his house all distinguished visitors were accustomed 
to pay tlieir respects to the distinguished statesman 
and scholar. His son Eclmund edited his speeches 
and wrote his biography. Mr. (Juincy wrote a 
Memoir of John Quincy .•Xchims and Histories of 
Boston, the Boston .XthenKum, and Harvard Uni- 
versity. The honorary degree of Master of .\rts 
was conferred up m him by Harvard and by I'rince- 
ton in 1796, and that of Doctor of Laws by Harvard 
in 1824. He was a member of the Massachusetts 
Historical S jciety, the American .\cademy of .\rts 
and Sciences and the American Philosophical 
Society. 

ROGERS, John, 1631-1684. 

Born in Cogjgeshall, Eng., 1631 ; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1649; studied medicine and theology; Pastoral 
Ipswich, Mass.; President of Harvard, 1682-84; died 
in Cambridge, Mass., 1684. 

JOHN ROCiKRS, A.M., fifth President of Har- 
vard, was the son of Nathaniel Rogers, a worthy 
divine of Ipswich, Massachusetts, and was born at 
Coggeshall, England, January 1631. He came to 
.America with his father, and graduating at Harvard 
in 1649, afterwards studied medicine and theology. 
He preached in Ipswich in 1656 and subsequently 
shared the duties of its ministry. He was chosen 
President of Harvard in 16S2, and ofificiated in that 
office until his death July 2, 1684. His ancestry 
has been traced in evidence which is not convincing 
to John Rogers the martyr. 



ROTCH, Arthur, 1850 1894. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1850; graduated at Harvard, 
1871 ; studied Architecture at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, 
Paris ; practised his profession in Boston ; founded 
a Department of Architecture at Harvard; died in 
Beverly, Mass., 1894. 

ARTHUR ROTCH, Benefiictor of Harvard, 
and eminent as an architect, was born in 
Boston, Massachusetts, May 13, 1850. He was the 
son of Benjamin V. Rotch, a Boston merchant of 
the old school, who upon his retirement from 
business indulged his strong artistic taste and ])ro- 
duced many works of considerable value. Arthur 
graduated from Harvard in 1871 and studied archi- 
tecture for several years at the lu'ole des Beaux 
Arts in Paris. On his return he allied himself with 
George C. Tilden tmder the firm name of Rotch & 
Tilden, with an office in Boston. They designed 



many beautiful houses which were built in Boston, 
Bar H;irbor, New York, Washington and elsewhere. 
Until his marriage Mr. Rotch resided in Boston. 
He tlien enjoyed a protracted European tour, during 
which he studied the architecture of all the ancient 
and modern iMiropean cities, paying particular atten- 
tion to interior :uid mural decorations. The result of 
these studies was shown in Mr. Rotch's subsequent 
work, in which his skill in tlesigning won him 
distinction. His interest in interior decoration led 
him on to the study of painting, and he gained 
reputation as a painter, also. He died at his home 




ARTHUR ROTCH 

in Beverly, Massachusetts, August 15, 1894. Mr. 
Rotch left ,^25.000 from his estate " to be expended 
in forming and maintaining a Department of .Archi- 
tecture " at Harvard. The bequest has stimulated 
study of architecture, and the Lawrence Scientific 
School now devotes considerable time and money 
to this noble art. 



SPARKS, Jared, 1789-1866. 

Born in Willington, Conn., 1789; studied at Phillips, 
Exeter Academy; graduated at Harvard, 1815; Tutor 
at Harvard, 1817-19 ; Pastor at Baltimore, Md. ; Chap- 
lain National House of Representatives; Professor 
Ancient and Modern History at Harvard, 1838-49 ; 
President of Harvard, 1849-53; fellow American Acad- 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



25 



emy; Vice-President Mass. Hist. Society; member 
American Philosophical Society etc., etc. ; died in 
Cambridge, Mass., 1866. 

J.ARED SPARKS, LL. I)., seventeenth President 
of Harvard, was born in Wiilington, Connecti- 
cut, May 10, 1789. He was given scholarships in 
Phillips- Exeter Academy and in I larvard, graduating 
in 1S15. While teaching school during vacation in 
TcSi3 at Havre de Grace, Maryland, he served in 
the militia against the British, who burned the town. 
He afterwards taught in Lancaster, Massachusetts, 
and in rSi 7, returneil to Harvard for the study of 
divinity while he acted as Tutor of Mathematics and 
Natural History, and conducted the North American 
Review. In May 1819, he was ordained Pastor of 
a new Unitarian Church in Baltimore, and in 1821 
was chosen Chaplain of the National House of 
Representatives. During the next two years he 
edited the Unitarian Miscellany and Christian 
Monitor. His health being impaired, he resigned 
his pastorate and took a journey through the West- 
ern states. Returning to Boston, he purchased the 
North American Review, which he conducted from 
January 1S24 to 1831. In 1825 he began to collect 
materials for the Life and Works of George Wash- 
ington. In 1828 he visited Europe for the purpose 
of transcribing documents for his undertaking in 
public and private libraries, and on a later visit dis- 
covered the "red-line map " of which use was made 
in the northeastern boundary settlement of 1842. 
From 1S39 to 1849 '^^ ^^''^s McLean Professor of 
Ancient and Modern History at Harvard, and in 
the latter year was chosen Presitlent of the College, 
in which office he served until 1853, when ill health 
obliged him to resign. Mr. Sparks received the 
degree of Doctor of Laws from Dartmouth in 1841 
and from Harvard in 1843. He was Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Massachusetts Historical Society, fellow 
of the American Academy and was member of num- 
erous learned societies, and was the founder and 
first Editor of the .American Almanac and Repository 
of Useful Knowledge. His first publication was a 
controversial argument against the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church and he engaged in other polemical 
disputations. Among his most important works 
were : The Diplomatic Correspondence of the 
American Revolution, published by the authority of 
Congress ; the Writings and Life of Washington, 
which began to appear in 1837 after nine years' 
preparation ; the Library of American Biography, 
Works and Life of Benjamin Franklin ; and Corres- 
pondence of the American Revolution. He also left 



voluminous manuscript journals containing reminis- 
cences of eminent .Americans and records of conver- 
sations with them. The collection of manuscript 
materials for .American diplomatic history was given 
to Harvard. His last years were devoted to a 
history of the .American Revolution which he left 
unfinished. Mr. Sparks' method of editing the 
letters and diaries quoted in his life of Washington 
was attacked by Lord Mahon and other critics, but 




JARED SPARKS 

he justified his omissions in a Reply, and his 
thoroughness and accuracy have received general 
endorsement by scholars. Mr. Sparks died in Cam- 
bridge, March 14, 1866. 



ROYALL, Isaac, 1719-1781. 

Born in Antiqua, W. I., 1719 ; member of the General 
Court of Mass.; member of the Executive Council; 
Brigadier-General in the French War, 1761 ; contri- 
buted freely to restore the Library at Harvard; en- 
dowed the Royall Professorship of Law; Koyalston, 
Mass., named in his honor; died in 1781. 

ISAAC ROYALL, Benefactor of Harvard, was 
born in .Antigua, West Indies, in 17 19. He 
had considerable property in Medford and repre- 
sented that town in the General Court for many 
years. He was for more than twenty years a mem- 



26 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



ber of the Executive Council and was appointed 
Brigadier-General in the French War in 1761, being 
the first incumbent of that office of local residence. 
He left America April 16, 1775, and took up his 




ISAAC ROYALL 

residence in England as he was a steadfast loyalist. 
Though he was proscribed and his estate confiscated 
in 1778, he left numerous public bequests including 
over two thousand acres of land in Worcester county 
for the endowment of the Professorship of Law at 
Harvard which is still called by his name. After 
the burning of Harvard Hall in 1764 he had con- 
tributed freely to restore the Library. In the Law 
Library in Austin Hall there is preserved a large 
oil painting of this benefiictor and his family. His 
memory is also perpetuated in the name of the town 
of Royalston. The old Royall homestead is still 
standing in Medford. 



STORY, Joseph, 1779-1845. 

Born in Marblehead, Mass., 1779; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1798; studied law and admitted to the Bar; 
member Mass. Legislature, 1805; Congressman, 1808; 
Speaker Mass. House of Representatives, 1811; Asso- 
ciate Justice U. S. Supreme Court; Dane Professor 
of Law at Harvard ; Overseer 1818-1825 and Fellow of 
Harvard, 1825-1845; President Merchants' Bank of 



Salem, Mass. ; Vice-President Harvard Alumni Asso- 
ciation; died in Cambridge, Mass., 1845. 

JOSEPH STORY, LL.D., Professor of Law and 
subsequently Overseer of Harvard, was born 
in Marblehead, Massachusetts, September 18, 1779. 
His father. Dr. Elisha Story, was a member of the 
Boston Tea- Party. He was graduated at Harvard 
in I 798, officiating as class poet, and after studying 
in the law offices of Samuel Sewall and Samuel Put- 
nam, began practice in Salem in 1801. Making a 
careful study of the English laws of real property, 
his success in important cases of this kind soon 
placed him among the leaders of the Bar. In 1805 
he was elected to the Legislature from Salem. He 
defended the embargo, but being elected to Con- 
gress in 1808, he became instrumental in securing 
its repeal on the ground that it was properly a tem- 
porary measure. He was afterwards re-elected to 
the Massachusetts House of Representatives and 
became its Speaker in 1 8 1 1 . In November of that 
year, he was made an Associate Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, in which capacity 
he defined the intermediate principles of admiralty. 




Ji)M.,l'H Muk\ 

insurance, patent and prize law. He denounced 
the slave trade, and took part in a public meeting 
in Salem to protest against the Missouri compromise. 
In 1S29 he was appointed to the Professorship 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



27 



established by Nathan Dane in the Harvard Law 
School, being designated by the founder as its first 
incumbent ; and his fame and his ability as an in- 
structor soon rendered it the leading institution of 
its kind in the country. In 1S31 Judge Story was 
offered the Chief-Justiceship of Massachusetts, which 
he declined. After the death of Chief-Justice 
Marshall he presided over his associates until Chief- 
Justice Taney was confirmed, and during the latter's 
illness in 1844 he filled his place for some months. 
He was making arrangements to leave the bench 
and give his whole time to the Law School, when he 
died. He was elected an Overseer of Harvard in 
I S 1 8, and received the degree of Doctor of Laws from 
his alma mater in 182 1. The last-named honorary 
recognition Brown also bestowed upon him in 181 5, 
and Dartmouth in 1821. Judge Story was President 
of the Merchants' Bank in Salem for many years, 
and was Vice-President of the Alumni Association 
of Harvard, which he was largely instrumental in 
establishing. He wrote extensively upon literary 
themes, had a fine taste in reading, and was an en- 
tertaining and instructive companion. He published 
a collection of miscellaneous writings, and left an 
unpublished Digest of Law in manuscript which is in 
the Harvard Law Library. But Ids text-books on 
jurisprudence, in number, originality and profundity, 
are the monumental achievement of a life spent in 
the laborious pursuits of the bench and the instruc- 
tive chair. His decisions, his reports, his notes on 
Wheaton, are supplemented by commentaries on 
the Law of Bailments, on the Constitution, on the 
Conflict of Laws, and on Equity Jurisprudence. 
Other works are : Equity Pleadings ; the Law of 
Agency ; Law of Partnership ; Law of Bills of Ex- 
change ; and Law of Promissory Notes. He also 
edited Chitty on Bills of Exchange and Promissory 
Notes ; and Abbot on Shipping and Laws on Assump- 
sit. With Chancellor Kent he shares the honor 
of the establishment of equity jurisprudence. Judge 
Story died in Cambridge, September 10, 1845. 



THAYER, Nathaniel, 1808-1883. 

Born in Lancaster, Mass., 1808; became a merchant 
in Boston ; assumed the entire cost of the exploration 
expedition of Prof. Agassiz to South America; re- 
ceived the A.M. degree from Harvard, 1866; Overseer 
of Harvard, 1866; Fellow of the Corporation, 1868- 
1875; Treasurer Museum of Comparative Zoology; 
built Thayer Hall at Harvard, also the fireproof her- 
barium at the Botanic Garden, and was a benefactor 



of the College in many other ways ; died in Lancaster, 
1883. 

N.\TIL\NI1:L 1 11 AVER, A.^L, a Boston mer- 
chant, is distinguished among the more 
munificent benefactors of Harvard who chose to 
bestow a generous measure of their gifts during their 
own lifetime, and as a thorough friend of the student- 
body during his whole lifetime. While Mr. Thayer's 
generosity iiad its evidences on the subscription 
papers and donation books of the College to the 
extent of more tlian a quarter of a million dollars, 
this gross sum was largely added to through channels 



I 




N.\THANIEL THAVF.R 

of his own choosing, in distributing pecuniary aid to 
students in the College and to others preparing for 
entrance. Thayer Hall, erected in 1870, at a 
cost exceeding J 100,000, was designed by him 
as a memori.al gift commemorative of his father, 
the Rev. Nathaniel Thayer, D.D., and of his 
brother, John Elliot Thayer. The father had been 
a graduate and officer, the brother a benefactor of 
the College. Nathaniel Thayer was born in Lan- 
caster, Massachusetts, September 11, 1808, and was 
educated in his native town, where for nearly half a 
century his father was a Pastor. For many years 
Mr. Thayer, in partnership with his brother, consti- 
tuted the well-known firm of John E. Thayer & 
Brother, in Boston. Mr. Thayer in his early work 



28 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



for Han-ard, at the suggestion of Dr. Peabody, made 
Commons Hall at Harvard available for those stu- 
dents who have since reaped similar larger benefits 
resulting from the building of Memorial Hall. He 
assumed, substantially in the interests of the Uni- 
versity, the entire cost of Professor Agassiz's visit of 
exploration and research to South America, which 
was known throughout the whole world as the 
" Thayer Expedition." Mr. Thayer used afterwards 
to joke about the amount of alcohol Agassiz's speci- 
mens required. He built at his own expense the 
fireproof herbarium at the Botanic Garden, and in 
many other ways placed himself in the front ranks of 
public benefactors. His generosity received from 
the College fitting recognition in iS66, when the 
honorary degree of Master of Arts was conferred 
upon him. He was also chosen one of the Over- 
seers of the College, and held the office until 1868. 
From 1868 to 1875 '^^ was a Fellow of the Corpora- 
tion. He was also Treasurer of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology for a time. For some years 
previous to his death, Mr. Thayer was in poor 
health, his illness culminating in a stroke of apo- 
plexy, from which he died March 7, 1883. It is said 
on good authority that he left the largest fortune 
ever accumulated by an individual in Massachusetts 
up to that time. 



STOUGHTON, William, i63i(2)-i7oi. 

Born probably in England, 1632 ; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1650; studied theology; was made Fellow of 
New College, Oxford, Eng. ; served successively as 
the Colony's Agent, Chief-Justice, member of Sir 
Edmund Andros' Council, member of the Committee 
of Safety, Lieut. -Governor, Acting Governor and 
Chief-Justice of the Superior Court ; built the first 
Stoughton Hall at Harvard; died in Dorchester, 
Mass., 1701. 

WILLIAM STOUGHTON, Colonial Gov- 
ernor, and Penefactor of Harvard, was 
born, probably in England, May 30, 1632, and came 
to America with his fiuher Israel Stoughton in 1645. 
Some accounts, however, make Dorchester, Massa- 
chusetts, his birthplace. Dorchester was the fam- 
ily dwelling-place, and Israel Stoughton, who had 
served the Colony effectually in peace and war, left 
three hundred acres of his land to Harvard. Wil- 
liam was graduated from Harvard in 1650, and 
after graduation studied theology. He returned to 
England and was made a Fellow of New College, 
Oxford. Losing his Fellowship at the restoration, 
he came back to .\merica in 1662, and served as 



assistant to the churches for some years, visiting 
England in 1676 as the Colony's agent. He was 
Chief-Justice from July to December 1686, and was 
of the Council of Sir Edmund Andros until April 
i68g, when he became a member of the Committee 
of Safety which seized the government. In 1692 
he was appointed Lieutenant-Governor, and after the 
death of Sir William Phipps he became acting Gov- 
ernor. On December 22, 1692, he was made 
Chief-Justice of the Superior Court, and in that 
capacity heard the witchcraft trials. Unlike some 
of his colleagues, he never acknowledged the witch- 




WILLIAM STOUGHTON 

craft delusion to have been an error. He gave 
generously to the poor of Dorchester and to 
the churches of Dorchester and Milton, and built 
the first Stoughton Hall at Harvard. Dying at Dor- 
chester, July 7, I 701, he bequeathed other valuable 
property to the College. 



WADSWORTH, Benjamin, 1669-1737. 

Born in Milton, Mass., in i66g ; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1690: Pastor: Fellow of Harvard, 1697-1707, and 
1712-25, and President 1725-37; died in Cambridge, 
Mass., 1737. 

BENJAMIN WADSWORTH, A.M., ninth Pres- 
ident of Harvard, was born in Milton, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1669, and was a son of the famous 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



29 



Indian fighter, Captnin Samuel Wadsworth. Me 
graduated at Harvard in i6go, and after taking a 
course in divinity became assistant preaclier in the 
P'irst Church in Boston, and in 1696 was maile its 
colleague Pastor. Mr. Wadsworth was a Fellow of 
Har\'ard 1697-1707 and 1712-1725, and in July of 
the latter year lie assumed the Presidency of Har- 
vard, which position he held until his death in 
March 1737. He published many essays and 
sermons. Of him John Elliott says, " The gen- 
eral opinion, however, was that he was better fitted 
for a Pastor of a church than to be master of the 




BENJAMIN WADSWORTH 

school of the prophets. He had confined his 
studies to theology, and was not a man of exten- 
sive erudition or of much acquaintance with the 
sciences." The growth of the College was, how- 
ever, steady and marked during President Wads- 
worth's administration. 



WATERHOUSE, Benjamin, 1754-1846. 

Born in Newport, R. I., 1754: studied medicine at 
London, Edinburgh, and at Leyden, where he gradu- 
ated, 1780; Hersey Professor of Theory and Practice 
of Physic; Professor of Natural History at Brown; 
Fellow of the American Academy ; member of Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society and the Manchester (Eng.) 



Literary and Philosophical Society ; died in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 1846. 

BICNJAMIN \\-.\ri:RHOUSI':, M.l)., rounder 
of the Botanic Garden at Harvard, was born 
in Newport, Rhode Island, March 4, 1754. He 
studied medicine in London, Edinburgh and at 
Leyden, where he was graduated in 17S0. In 1783, 
he was active in promoting the establishment of the 
Medical School at Harvard, in which he held the 
Chair of Theory and Practice of Physic, known as 
the Hersey Professorship, until 181 2. Always a 
close student of natural history, he was Professor of 
this science at Brown for seven years, and delivered 
there what is said to be the first course of lectures 
on that subject given in this country. Through his 
gifts and his work Harvard became the possessor of 
many valuable collections of minerals, and in addi- 
tion to this he established a Botanic Garden. Dr. 
Waterhouse was a prominent advocate of vaccination 
at tiie time when it was frowned upon by members 
of the Medical Faculty. In 18 12 he accepted the 
position of Medical Supervisor of Military Posts in 
New England, which office he held for fourteen 
years. Dr. A\'aterhouse was a fellow of the Ameri- 
can Academy, also a member of the .American 
Philosophical Society and the Manchester (England) 
Literary and Philosophical Society. He died in 
Cambridge, October 2, 1846. He published many 
books, mostly on subjects connected with his pro- 
fession, but including several political essays and 
some fiction. 



WALKER, James, 1794-1874. 

Born in Burlington, Mass., 1794; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1814; Pastor at Charlestown, Mass.; Overseer 
and Fellow at Harvard ; Prof. Natural Religion, Moral 
Philosophy and Civil Policy there, 1838-53 ; President 
of Harvard, 1853-60; died in Cambridge, Mass., 1874. 

JAMES WALKER, S.T.D., LL.D., eighteenth 
President of Harvard, was born in ]3urlington, 
Massachusetts, .\ugust 16, 1794. He was graduated 
at Harvard in 18 14 and at Harvard Divinity School 
in iSi 7, and served as Pastor of the LTnitarian Church 
at Charlestown for twenty-one years. He was an 
urgent advocate of the cause of School and College 
education, was a well-known and successful lecturer, 
and a man of great scholarly attainments. With 
Harvard he was prominently identified as Overseer, 
1S25-36, Fellow 1S34-53, and again as Overseer 
1864-1S70. In 1838, he accepted the Chair of 
Alford Professor of Natural Religion, Moral Philoso- 
phy and Civil Polity at Harvard, and in 1853 he 



3° 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



took the Presidency of that institution, having pre- 
viously served as acting President for a period in 
1 845-1 846. Dr. Walker retained the Presidency 
until i860. He was given the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity by Harvard in 1835, and that of Doctor of 
Laws by Yale in 1853, and by Harvard in i860. 
He published many of his lectures, notably a course 
of Lowell Listitute lectures on the Philosophy of 
Religion, as well as several volumes of essays and 
sermons. He also edited as College text-books 
several of the best-known works on philosophy 
and psvcliology. Dr. Walker died in Cambridge, 




JAMES WALKER 

December 23, 1874, bequeathing to his a///ta wafer 
$15,000, in addition to his private library, which 
was of considerable \'alue. 



WEBBER, Samuel, 1759-1810. 

Born in Byfield, Mass., in 1759; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1784; Tutor, 1787; Professor of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy, 1789; President of Harvard, 1806; 
Commissioner to settle boundary line between U. S. 
and British Provinces; Vice-President of the Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences; member of 
American Philosophical Society; died in Cambridge, 
Mass., 1810. 

S.XMUEL WEBBER, S.T.D., thirteenth Presi- 
dent of Harvard, was born in Byfield, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1759, and graduated from Harvard 



in I 784 and entered the ministry. He was made a 
Tutor in 1787, and was given the Chair of Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philosophy in 1789, which he 
held until lie was raised to the Presidency, March 
3, 1S06. Dr. Webber had no peculiar advantages 
of birth or early education, and his youth was 
employed largely in the labors of agriculture. His 
administration of tlie affairs of the University, how- 
ever, was characterized by popularity and success. 
He was one of tlie commissioners appointed to 
settle the boundary line between the United States 
and the British Provinces. He was Vice-President 
of the .American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
and was the author of a System of RLathematics 
which was intended for use in Harvard, also of a 
Eulogy on President W'illard. His a/z/zi! mater 
conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divin- 
ity in 1S06. He died in Cambridge, July 17, 1810. 



WILLARD, Joseph, 1738-1804. 

Born in Biddeford, Me , 1738; in early life a coast- 
wise sailor; graduated at Harvard, 1765; Tutor, 1765- 
72; Fellow, 1768-72; Pastor at Beverly, Mass, 1772; 
President of Harvard, 1781-1804 ; died in Bedford, 
Mass., 1804. 

JOSEPH WILLARD, S.T.D., LL.D., twelfth 
President of Harvard, was the grandson of Vice- 
President Samuel Willard, and was born in Bidde- 
ford, Maine, January 9, 1738. Being left fatherless 
in his early youth he became for a time a coastwise 
sailor. Through the generosity of friends he entered 
Harvard, where he was graduated in 1765, and re- 
mained as a Tutor until 1772, serving also as a Fel- 
low 1768-1772. On November 25, 1772, he wasor- 
dained in Beverly, Massachusetts, and became the 
colleague of the Rev. Joseph Champney of the First 
Congregational Church. In 1781 he was elected to 
the Presidency of Harvard, being installed December 
19 of that year. This office he held for the 
remainder of his life. He found the College in a 
lax state of discipline, but he sustained the authority 
of his position manfully. Harvard honored him by 
the bestowal of the 1 )octor of Divinity degree in i 785, 
and Vale by conferring the Doctor of Laws in 1791. 
He also held the B;tchelor of Arts degree (honor- 
ary) from Yale, bestowed in 1765. He served 
as Vice-President of the .American .Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, was a member of the .Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, and held memberships 
in various other .American and foreign organizations. 
President Willard's health began to fail some years 



UNIVERSITIES ANB THEIR SONS 



31 



before his death, which occurred in Bedford, Mas- April 10, 1678 (March 31, old style). He was a 

sachusetts, September 25, 1804, at the age of sixty- Fellow of Harvard from 1692 to 1699, and on 

four years. He was a sound Greek scholar and left January 10, 1700, he was elected to the Vice-1'rcsi- 

a Greek nianusciipt. His publications were a few denry of ilie College. Increase Mather being forced 



sermons, a Latin address on the death of W'asliing- 
ton, and matliematical and astronomical ])a[iers in 
Memoirs of the .American Academy and Transac- 
tions of the Philosophical Society. 



WILLARD, Samuel, 1640-1707. 

Born, 1640; graduated at Harvard, 1659; Pastor at 
Groton, 1663; Fellow of Harvard, 1692-99 ; Vice-Presi- 
dent 1700-1707, and Acting President 1701-1707; died 
in Boston, Mass., 1707. 

SAMUEL WTLLARD, A.J^L, was the first to 
administer the government of Harvard under 
the title of Vice-President. The father of this 
clergyman was Simon Willard of Concord, a man of "early coeval with the College was abandoned. Of 

his sermons he published several collections in 
bound form, and at the time of his death left manu- 
scripts of a theological nature which, published in 
!, Boston in 1726, are said to constitute the first mis- 

cellaneous folio volume printed in this country. 



to llee to I'jigland to avoid persecution at the hands 
of Randolph, the administration of affairs develoj)ed 
upon Willard in 1701. He never was inaugurated 
as I^residenl, but retained his title of Vice-President, 
which was probably due to his retaining his con- 
nection witli the Old South Church. He officiated 
as President, however, six years, dying at IJoston, 
September 12, 1707, in the sixty-eighth year of his 
age. His publications were numerous. Perhaps 
no divine but Cotton Mather prepared more works 
for the press. He was one of the few clergymen 
who opposed the tiile of witchcraft delusion in 
1692. It was in the early part of his acting Presi- 
dency that the printing establishment which was 




SAMUEL WILLARD 

Standing in both civil and military life. .Samuel 
Willard was born January 31, 1640, was graduated 
at Harvard in the Class of 1659, and afterwards was 
settled in the ministry at Groton, Massachusetts. 
The atrocities of King Philip's War drove Mr. 
Willard back to Boston about 1676. Here he was 
settled as the colleague of the Rev. Thomas 
Thacher, the first minister of the Old South Church, 



WINTHROP, John, 1588-1649. 

Born in Edwardston, Suffolk, Eng., 1588; Justice of 
the Peace; practised law; Attorney in the Court of 
Wards and Liveries, 1626; Governor of Mass., 1630- 
34, 1637-40, 1642-44, and 1646-49 ; aided in founding 
Harvard; died in Boston, Mass., 1649. 

JOHN WINTHROP, first Governor of Mass:ichu- 
setts, and one of the Founders of Harvard, 
was one of the most notable figures in the early 
history of New England. Born in Edwardston, 
Suffolk, England, January 22, 15S8, he gave promise 
very early in life of those qualities necessary for 
command and administration which made them- 
selves so manifest in his later life. Married when 
only a boy of seventeen, he was made a Justice 
of the Peace at eighteen, and it was noted at that 
time that he was " exemplary for his grave and 
Christian deportment." The death of his wife 
led him to depend upon the consolations of the 
Christian religion, and there is good reason for 
thinking that he intended at this time to take Holy 
Orders. This idea was abandoned, and he gave 
himself up to the practice of law and his duties as 
a magistrate. He was a])pointed one of the attorneys 
in the Court of Wards and Liveries in 1626. It 
seems that his coming to America was a rather 



32 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



sudden step, since the earliest allusion to his puriiosc 
is found in a letter written in May 1629. In 
October of the same year he was elected Governor 
of Massachusetts by the company in London. On 
June 22, 1630, with a fleet of eleven ships, he 
arrived at Salem, whence the expedition moved to 
Boston and Charlestown in a few days. Entirely out 
of touch as Winthrop was with the political and 
religious conditions of England at that time, it is 
easy to see why the tidings from the free new world 
across the ocean should lead a man of his belief 
and character to cast in his lot with the pioneers. 




JOHN WINTHROP 

He was in strong sympathy with the Puritan spirit, 
despite the fact that he was a member of the Church 
of England, and this Puritan spirit was provoking 
enormous opposition from the English clergy headed 
by Laud, the Bishop of London. Twelve times 
Governor of the Colony, Winthrop devoted all of 
his time to the upbuilding of the Suffolk setdement. 
During the nineteen years of his life which he passed 
in Massachusetts he saw the city which he had 
founded grow to be a happy, prosperous town, which 
already gave promise of the great power it would 
exert at a later day. He aided in the founding of 
the first College in the country, which has now 
become Harvard University, in the establishment 
of free schools, and of many churches. Believing 



the Puritan religion to be the best adapted for the 
time and place in which he lived, he forsook the 
Church of England, and became a Congregationalist. 
Palfrey speaks of him thus : " Certain it is that 
among the millions of living men descended from 
those whom he ruled, there is not one who does not, 
through efficient influences, transmitted in society 
and in thought along the intervening generations, 
owe much of what is best within him and in the 
circuinstances about him to the benevolent and 
courageous wisdom of John Winthrop." 'I'he jour- 
nals which he kept during his Governorship were 
published long years afterward and furnish the main 
record of the Boston settlement. He died in the 
city which he had done more than any other one 
man to create, on the 26th of March 1649. I" 
College Book No. I, the oldest of the Harvard 
Records, there is a list of books given by Governor 
^\'inthrop. All v^ere probably burned in the fire of 
1764, which destroyed the second Harvard Hall. 



WINTHROP, John, 1714-1779. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1714; graduated at Harvard, 
1732; Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philoso- 
phy at Harvard, 1738-79; Fellow of Harvard, 1765-79; 
Judge of Probate for Middlesex county; member of 
the Governor's Council; member of the Royal Society 
of London ; received the LL.D. degree from the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, 1771 ; died in Cambridge, Mass., 
1779. 

JOHN WINTHROP, LL.D., for more than 
forty years Hollis Professor of Mathematics 
and Natural Philosophy at Harvard, was in the last 
century perhaps the foremost teacher of science in 
tliis country. He was the son of Chief-Justice Adam 
Winthrop, and was born in Boston, December 19, 
I 714. Graduating at Harvard in 1732, he assumed 
in 1738 the position in which he became eminent 
and which he held until his death. He also offi- 
ciated as a Fellow of Harv;ird from 1765 to 1779, 
and in 1773-74 administered a portion of the 
duties of Acting President. To his influence is ac- 
credited in great part the attention which Benjamin 
Franklin and Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford) 
gave to physical science. It is also claimed for 
him that he laid the foundations of the science of 
seismology, as a result of his observations and com- 
putations of the phenomena attending the great 
earthquake in New England in November 1755. 
In 1 740 he observed the first of the transits of 
Mercury that occurred in that century, and in 1761 
he took observations on the second transit, making 



UNirERSiriES AND rilF.lK SONS 



33 



a journey to Newfoundland for the purpose. 'I'liis 
trip was made under the auspices ami at the ex- 
pense of the Colonial Government, and it is believed 
was the earliest ]3urely scientific expedition sent out 
by any American state. Professor W'inthrop niaile 
also many observations in the matter of comets, and 
contributed the results of other important researches 
which stimulated and advanced the development of 
astronomy. He participated considerably in the 
public life of the Colony, was for several years 
Judge of Probate for Middlesex county, and in 
1773-74 was member of the Covernor's Council. 



His son, James \\inthnip, a Harvard graduate in 
1769, was Librarian of Harvard 1772-S7, Judge of 
the Court of C'omnion Pleas for several years, and 
Register of I'robale for a long i)erit)d. 




JOHN WINTHROP 

He was a member of the .American Philosophical 
Society, a fellow of the Royal Society of L(jndon, 
and was the recipient of the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Laws from the University of Edinburgh 
in 1771. Professor N. S. Shaler has said of him: 
" Although Professor \Vinthrop has left no work of 
any importance to modern physicists, his influence 
in determining a scientific spirit in New England 
was great. He laid the foundations of scientific 
inquiry in Harvard. Though not the earliest of the 
Massachusetts men of science — for he was pre- 
ceded by Thomas Brattle, Zabdiel Boylston and 
others — he deserves the first place among the 
pioneers of natur.al science in New England." Pro- 
fessor Winthrop died in Cambridge, May 3, 1779. 

VOL. II. — 3 



WILLIAMS, Henry Willard, 1821-1895. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1821; engaged in business; 
graduated at Harvard Medical School, 1849 ; Ophthal- 
mic Surgeon to the Boston City Hospital ; Lecturer 
Harvard Medical School, 1866-71 ; Professor of Oph- 
thalmology at Harvard, 1871-91 ; President American 
Ophthalmological Society; Vice-President at the 
International Congress of that body in London, 1872 ; 
died at Boston, Mass., 1895. 

HENRY WILLARD WILLLVMS, A.M., .M.j)., 
for many years connected with the Harvard 
Medical School as Professor in O])hthalmology, was 
wiilely known for his special investigations in his 
chosen profession, as well as a generous adviser on 
the every-day application of its principles. Born 
in Boston, December 11, 1821, he was educated in 
Boston and Salem, and imtil his twenty-fourth year 
was engaged in mercantile pursuits. He was grad- 
uated in medicine at Harvard in 1S49, and gained 
immediate prominence as an oculist. He early re- 
ceived the appointment as ()])hthalmic Surgeon to 
the Boston City Hospital, and became a Lecturer 
in the Harvard Medical School in 1S66. In 1871 
he was appointed to the Professorship of Ophthal- 
mology, which he held for twenty years. Dr. 
Williams was connected with many medical societies 
both in this country and abroad. He was for some 
years President of the .American Ophthalmological 
.Society, and at the International Congress in London 
in 1872, was a Vice-Presiilent of that body. He 
was also a fellow of the .American Academy. Har- 
vard conferred upon him the honorary degree of 
Master of .Arts in 1868. A number of books from 
his pen explained the use of the eyes and the dis- 
eases resulting from their abuse. .Among them were : 
\ Practical Guide to the Study of Diseases of the 
Eye ; Recent Advances in Ophthalmic Science ; 
Optical Defects in School-children ; Our Eyes and 
How to Take Care of them, a Boylston Prize essay; 
and the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of the 
Eye. Dr. Williams died in lioston, Jinie 13, 1S95. 
Several years before his death he gave to Harvard 
securities to the value of $25,000, to found the 
Henry Willard Williams Professorship of Ophthal- 
mology in the Medical School. .An oil painting of 
Professor Williams, given by his family in 1898, 
hangs in the Faculty Room of the Medical SchooL 



14 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



ANDREW, Samuel, 1656-1737. 

Born in Cambridge, Mass., 1656; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1675; Fellow of Harvard, 1679-1684; Acting 
President of Harvard ; one of the ten clergymen to 
whom the charter of Yale was granted; Trustee of 
Yale, 1701 ; Rector of Yale, 1707; Pastor of the First 
Church of Milford, Conn.; died in Milford, 1737. 

S.\MUEL ANDREW, second Rector of Yale, was 
born in Cambriiige, Massachusetts, in 1656. 
He graduated from Harvard in 1675 and remained 
at the College for a number of years, gaining a 
great reputation both as a scholar and as an instruc- 
tor.. For five years (1679-84) he was a Fellow 
of the Harvard Corporation, and during two vacan- 
cies in the Presidency he was obliged to fill most 
of the duties of that position. The experience so 
gained was most valuable to hini in shaping the 
beginnings of Yale and in his later work as Rector 
of the younger College. In 1685 he removed to 
Milford, Connecticut, where he was ordained Min- 
ister over the church. Shortly afterward he married 
the daugliter of Governor Treat, one of iiis parish- 
ioners. His name appears as one of the ten clergy- 
men to whom the original Charter was granted by 
the General .Assembly. Upon the incorporation of 
the College, in 1701, he was appointed one of the 
original Trustees. Xi the death of Rector Pierson 
in March 1707, jNIr. .Andrew was chosen Rector /;v7 
tciii., although he still remained over his church at 
Milforil, while the instruction nnd discipline of the 
classes was entrusted to two young Tutors at Say- 
brook. Indeed the Rector's active work seems to 
have been confined to presiding at meetings of the 
Trustees and at tiie annual Commencement. Sucli 
an arrangement was obviously unsatisfactory and 
seems to have been continued only because of the 
difficulty in securing a resident Rector. When there- 
fore the College was moved to New Haven in 171 7, 
he willingly resigned the Rectorship to his son-in- 
law, Timothy Cutler. He retained his place on the 
Board of Trustees and occasionally presided publicly 
as Rector pro tern, until his death on January 24, 
1737. He was a member of the Yale Corporation 
for thirty years, and Pastor of the First Church of 
Milford for fifty-two years — a man of exemplary 
holiness and unwearied labors ; modest, courteous 
and beneficent. 



fessor and Lecturer at Yale; Associate Editor of the 
Christian Spectator; one of the founders of the New 
Englander and the Independent; and was the author 
of several works, principally religious ; died, 1881. 

LEONARD B.ACON, D.D., LL.D., Professor 
and Lecturer at Yale, was born in Detroit, 
Michigan, February 19, 1802. His father was 
David Bacon, an early missionary among the Indi- 
ans of Michigan and Ohio. Graduating from Y'ale 
in 1820 he studied Theology at the Andover (Massa- 
chusetts) Seminary, and in March 1825, became 
Pastor of a Congregational church in New Haven, 
Connecticut, where he labored continuously for fifty- 




BACON, Leonard, 1802-1881. 

Born in Detroit, Mich., 1802; educated at Yale and 
at the Andover (Mass.) Theological Seminary; Pastor 
of a church in New Haven for fifty-seven years; Pro- 



LEOXARI) BACON 

seven years. He was one of the most noted Con- 
gregationalist preachers and writers of his day, and 
took an active part in all important religious, politi- 
cal and philanthropic movements. In 1826 he be- 
came one of the editors of the Christian Spectator, 
assisted in establishing the New Englander, in 1843, 
and in 1847 was associated with Doctors Storrs and 
Thompson in founding the Independent. From 
1866 to 187 1 he was Acting Professor of S\'stematic 
Theology at Yale, was Lecturer on Church Polity 
and American Church History for the succeeding 
ten years, and Fellow of that College from 1839 to 
1846, and again from 1864 to 1881. From Hamil- 
ton he received the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Divinity in 1842, and that of Doctor of Laws was 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



35 



given him by Harvard in 1S70. Or. iSacim died in 
New Haven, Connecticut, December 24, 18S1. Be- 
side the Select Works of Ricliard Baxter with a 
Biography ; lie pubUshed a Manual for Young Church 
Members; Thirteen Historical Discourses on tlie 
Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Beginning of 
the First Church in New Haven ; Sketch of Rev. 
David Bacon ; and numerous pamphlets, sermons, 
reviews, etc. 



BADGER, Milton, 1800-1873. 

Born in Coventry, Conn., 1800 ; graduated at Yale, 
1823; studied theology at the Andover (Mass.) and 
Yale Seminaries; Tutor at Yale, 1C26-27; ordained to 
the ministry, 1828 ; and Senior Secretary of the Ameri- 
can Home Missionary Society for thirty-four years; 
died in Madison, Conn., 1873. 

MILTON B.\DGER, D.D., Tutor at Vale, 
was born in Coventry, Connecticut, May 
6, iSoo. He was graduated at Yale with honor 
in the Class of 1S23 and received his Master's 
degree in course. His theological studies were begun 
at the Seminary in Andover, Massachusetts, but after 
an offer of a Tutorship at Yale in 1826 induced 
him to return, he filled that position with ability 
while completing his divinity course. From 1828 
to 1835 he occupied the pulpit of the South Congre- 
gational Church, Andover, which he relinquished to 
become Assistant Secretary of the American Home 
Missionary Society, and succeeding Dr. Peters as 
Senior Secretary he fulfilled the arduous duties of 
that respoikjible position with wisdom and faithful- 
ness for a period of thirty-four years. Dr. Badger 
died in Madison, Connecticut, March i, 1S73. 
The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred 
upon him by Middlebury in 1844. 



BALDWIN, Abraham, 1754-1807. 

Born in Guilford, Conn., 1754; graduated at Yale, 
1772, and Tutor four years ; Chaplain in the Revolution- 
ary War; practised law in Savannah, Ga. ; member of 
the Ga. Legislature, the Constitutional Convention of 
1787, the Continental Congress, the National House 
Representatives, and the Senate ; and President /;■£» 
/ciii. of the latter; died in ^A/ashington, D. C, 1807. 

AI^.RAHA:^! BALD\VIN, M.A., Tutor at Yale, 
was born in Guilford, Connecticut, Nov- 
ember 6, 1754. He was a graduate of Yale, Class 
of 1772, and receiving the appointment of Tutor 
in 1775, served in that capacity until 1779. From 
1777 till the close of the Revolution he offici- 



ated as Chaplain in the .Army, and in 1784 at the 
advice of General Greene, he settled in Savannah, 
Georgia. He was admitted to the Bar the same 
yc-.iT and also elected Representative to the Legisla- 
ture where he labored diligently to secure tlie 
charter ;md an endowment for the University cf 
Georgia, which was established according to his 
own ])lans and ideas, and he was its President for 
a number of years. 1 le took an active part in the 
Constitulion;il Convention, May 25 to September 
17, 1787; was a delegate to the Continental Con- 
gress from 1785 to 1788; member of the National 




ABRAHAM B.AI.DWIN 

House of Representatives from 1789 to 1799, in 
which year he was chosen United States Senator. 
Mr. Baldwin was President f/v km. of the Sen- 
ate in I So I and again in 1S02, and continued a 
member of that body until his death, which occurred 
at the National Capitol, March 4, 1807. He edu- 
cated his si.K half-brothers and sisters and among 
the former was Henry Baldwin, LL.D., Yale 1797, 
member of Congress from Pennsylvania and Associ- 
ate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. 



BERKELEY, George, 1684-1753. 

Born in Kilerin, Ireland, 1684; Fellow of Trinity 
College, Dublin, 1707; Dean of Derry, 1724; presented 
Yale a valuable collection of books, also his farm at 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Newport, R. I. ; established at Yale a graduate scholar- 
ship, the first scholarship established in America ; 
appointed Bishop of Cloyne ; removed to the Univer- 
sity at Oxford, where he died in 1753. 

Gi;(,)RGl': BERKELEY, Founder of the Berke- 
liaii Scholarships at Yale, was born in Kil- 
erin, near Thomastowii, Kilkenny, Ireland, March 
12, 16S4. lie became a Fellow of Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1707, and entering the service of the 
Established Church, was made Dean of Derry in 
1724. In the following year he issued " a Proposal 
for the better supplying of churches in our foreign 
plantations, and the converting of savage Americans 
to Christianity by a College to be erected in the 
Summer Islands, otherwise called the isles of Ber- 
mudas." The Dean's project was well received by 
churchmen and philanthropists and gave inspiration 
for the well-known lines : 

" Westward the course of empire takes its way ; 
Tlie first four acts already past, 
A iiftli shall close the drama with the day ; 
Time's noblest offspring is the last;' 

In 1728, Dean Berkeley succeeded in securing from 
the British government the promise to appropriate a 
large sum for the foundation of the College, and de- 
parting in September of that year for his new field 
of labor, fully believing that he would soon com- 
mence its establishment, he went to Newport, Rhode 
Island, in January 1729, for the purpose of arrang- 
ing for a regular supply of provision for his institu- 
tion. ^Vhile sojourning in Newport he purchased a 
farm which he named Whitehall, built a house, and 
turned his attention to study, preaching and literary 
employment, while waiting for the expected' appro- 
priation, and completing one of his celebrated treat- 
ises, Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher. He 
saw but little of this country during his stay of 
nearly three years, but from several noted scholars 
who visited him in his retreat he learned much con- 
cerning the education and religious affairs of the 
Colonies. Among these were the Rev. Jared Eliot 
and Samuel Johnson, the former a Congregational 
preacher and the latter a clergyman of the Church 
of England, formerly a Tutor at Yale and later its 
President. Through the efforts of Dr. Johnson, 
Dean Berkeley was induced to interest himself in 
the welfare of Yale, and after his return to England, 
which he was forced to do when it became clear to 
him that the government had no intention of keep- 
ing its promise, he collected and sent over a large 
assortment of vahiable books, mostly classical works, 
which at the present tune form a treasured part of 



the ^'ale Library. The Dean also deeded his farm 
to the College, the income from which was to be 
devoted to the maintenance of three students during 
the intervening time between their first and second 
degrees, to be known as " scholars of the house." 
It was stipulated that they should be selected after 
an examination in Latin and Greek, and the entire 
paper describing the conditions is a most interesting 
instrument as it is the first provision made for the 
establishment of graduate scholarships and competi- 
tive examination for special prizes at any American 
College. Should there be at any time a vacancy in 
these scholarships, the surplus income thus arising 
was to be expended in Latin and Greek books for 
the benefit of undergraduates. Since 1733, the 
Berkelian scholarships have been awarded regularly, 
many of Yale's noted graduates having received 
these honors. In 1762 the Whitehall farm was 
rented by the College for nine hundred and ninety- 
nine years. About the year 1734 Dean Berkeley 
was appointed Bishop of Cloyne, where he remained 
many years, and when the See of Clogher was offered 
him he declined. On account of failing health he 
removed to the LTniversity at Oxford, where he died 
on January 14 of the following year, and his remains 
were interred in Christ Church. His writings are 
still considered both interesting and instructive. 
His interest in American educational institutions 
continued unabated after his departure and Y'ale 
was not the only College to profit by his generosity, 
for he also added to the library of Harvard. His 
memory is fittingly preserved in New Haven, where 
a memorial window was sometime since placed in 
Battell Chapel, in which his scholarship prizes are 
bestowed. The Divinity School at Middletown, 
Connecticut, was named in his honor by Bishop 
Williams, the site of the California State University 
bears the name of Berkeley, and at Newport, Rhode 
Island, in memory of his having while residing there 
presented Trinity Church with an organ, the Berke- 
ley Memorial Chapel was erected in 1S86. 



BATTELL, Robbins, 1819-1895. 

Born in Norfolk, Conn., 1819 ; graduated at Yale, 
1839; Colonel of the State Militia; member of Conn. 
Legislature ; Judge of Probate ; delegate to Peace 
Convention at Washington, 1861 ; State Comptroller, 
l865; President Conn. Hist. Soc. ; Corporate Member 
American Board ; Trustee Conn. Hospital for the 
Insane; founder Robbins School at Norfolk, Conn.; 
presented Battell Chapel to Yale ; founded the Depart- 
ment of Music at Yale ; a benefactor of Yale, Williams 



UNIJ'ERSITIKS JND THEIR SONS 



37 



College, Northfield Seminary, Beloit College, and 
many others; died in Newark, N. J., 1851. 

ROl'.BINS BATTi:i.I., M.A., Benefoctor of Vale, 
was born in Norfolk, Connecticut, April 9, 
1 8 1 9. Four of his ancestors, among them Ciovernor 
liradford, were Mayflower Pilgrims, and Mr. Battel! 
also traced his descent from Dr. I,e Baron, tlie Hu- 
guenot physician of Plymouth. His father, Josepli 
Battell, was a country merchant who, by large pur- 
chases of Western land added to an handsome 
fortune gained in traele. His mother was Sarah 
Robbins, daughter of the first Pastor of the Congre- 




ROBIilNS BATTELL 

gational Church at Norfolk. Mr. Battell entered 
Yale in 1S36, and was noted throughout his College 
course, as in after life also, for his love of music. 
He graduated in 1S39, and on his father's death in 
1842, assumed the charge of his large estate. He 
soon won a wide reputation as a careful and up- 
right business man, and although he had no taste or 
desire for public life, this very success brought to 
him public appointments which his high conceptions 
of the duties of a citizen would not allow him to 
decline. He was appointed a Colonel of the State 
Militia, sat for a number of years in the State Legis- 
lature and was for a score of years Judge of Probate. 
In 1861 he was a delegate to the Peace Convention 
at Washington, but when he saw that war was inev- 
itable he became a staunch supporter of the admin- 



istration, and gave both time and money to the 
advice and aid of Covernor Buckingham, the War 
Governor of Connecticut. In 1S66 Mr. Battell was 
elected State Comptroller. He was also President 
of the Connecticut Historical .Society, for eighteen 
years a corporate member of the American ]{oard, 
and for many years Trustee of the Connecticut 
Hospital for the Insane. Usefulness was tiie key- 
note of his life, and any position in which he could 
help his fellow men was gladly welcomed by him. 
Mr. Battell's generosity to his town, his College, 
and his State was only in jjart measured by his gifts 
wliich were constant and unostentatious. To his 
town of Norfolk he was a loyal friend. He made it 
an attractive summer place, with other members i.f 
his family he presented to it a memorial chapel and 
founded the Robbins School, a fine preparatory 
school. He also aided scores of young men and 
women in making their way through College ; to the 
church of Norfolk he presented a chime of bells ; he 
also opened his library and art galleries freely to 
the town people and gave many concerts by noted 
artists for their enjoyment. To Yale Mr. Battell 
and the other members of his f:imily liave been 
generous benefactors. It is estimated that their 
gifts have amounted to ,^300,000, most of wliich 
was given for Battell Chapel and its recent enlarge- 
ment. Mr. Battell also presented a chime of bells 
for the Chapel, and by large gifts founded the De- 
partment of Music in the University. Mr. Battell 
was a talented musician and composer. His es- 
pecial delight was in church chimes and bells and 
of these he made numerous gifts, including chimes 
to Yale, Williams College, Northfield Seminary, 
Beloit College and many others. Mr. Battell was 
a man of unquestioned integrity, quiet temper and 
gentle manner and in the town of Norfolk and later 
in life in New York City he occupied a unique place 
in the confidence and respect of all his acquaint- 
ances. He married August 15, 1849, Miss I'.llen R. 
Mills, of Newark, New Jersey, who died March ly, 
1 85 1. Mr. Battell died in Norfolk, Connecticut, 
January 26, 1895. One daughter Mrs. Frederic P. 
Terry survived him. 



BUCKINGHAM. William Alfred, 1804-1875. 

Born in Lebanon, Conn., 1804; educated at the com- 
mon schools ; Mayor of Norwich; Governor of Conn., 
i8;8-i866; benefactor of Yale Theological School; 
President of American Temperance Union ; Moderator 
of the first National Congregational Council; corpor- 



t8 



UNIFERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



ate member of American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions; U. S. Senator, i8£8-i875; died, 1875. 

W1LLIA.N[ ALFRED HUCKIXCIHAM, Ben- 
etactor of Yale, and Connecticut's famous 
war Governor, was born in Lebanon, Connecticut, 
May 28, 1S04, and received his eilucation at the com- 
mon schools, spending his boyhood on his father's 
farm. At the age of twenty-one he removed to Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, where he became a successful mer- 
chant and manufacturer, and was several times ALayor 
of the city. In 1S58, he was elected Governor of the 
State, and served by successive re-elections until 



his death, February 3, 1S75, just before the expira- 
tion of his Senatorial term. 




WILLIAM A. BUCKIXGHAM 

1866, when he declined a rcnomination. His ad- 
ministration covered the period of the Civil War, 
during which he was exceedingly prompt and ener- 
getic in measures to sustain the National Govern- 
ment, and he was voted as one of the Governors on 
whom President Lincoln especially leaned. Gov- 
ernor Buckingham was a liberal contributor for be- 
nevolent, religious and educational purposes, among 
his gifts being §25,000 to the Theological School of 
Yale. He was President of the American Temper- 
ance ITnion, Moderator of the first National Congre- 
gational Council, and one of the corporate members 
of the American Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions. After retiring from the Governorship 
he spent two years in private life, but in 1S68 was 
elected to the United States Senate, and served until 



BUCKINGHAM, Thomas, 1646-1709. 

Born in Milford, Conn., 1646; Trustee of Yale, 1701- 
1709 ; at the age of eighteen began preaching at West- 
field, Conn.; moderator of the famous Synod at Say- 
brook, 1708; the first Commencement of Yale was held 
at his house ; died, 1709. 

THOM.AS BUCKINGHAM, third in the list 
of the original Trustees of Yale, w-as born 
in 1646, the youngest child of Thomas and Hannah 
Buckingham, of Milford, Connecticut. It is not 
certainly known where he was educated, but he 
probably studied at the " Hopkins College " in New 
Haven and later with Rev. John Whiting of Hart- 
ford. He was the only one of the original Trustees 
of Yale not a graduate of Harvard. At the age of 
eighteen he preached in Westfield, Connecticut, 
and in 1665 began preaching in Saybrook, where he 
remained for forty-three years, although he was not 
ordained or installed until 1670, on account of his 
youth. He was a fltithful Pastor, and on account 
of the high esteem in which he was held as a busi- 
ness adviser he was often appointed on committees 
in matters of difficulty and importance. He was 
one of the Moderators of the famous Synod which 
convened at .Saybrook in 1708, and formed the 
platform for the government of the churches. He 
was prominent among the Trustees, and because of 
business ability and the nearness of his home to the 
new College he exercised a great and wise influence 
upon its early beginnings. The first Commence- 
ment was held at his house, September 16, 1702, 
and the degree of Master of Arts was then given to 
his son. Mr. Buckingham was twice married, first 
to Hester Hosmer of Hartford (1666), by whom he 
had nine children, and after her death to Mary 
Hooker of Farrington, August 10, 1703. He died 
April I, I 709. 



CHAUNCY, Israel, 1644-1703. 

Born in Scituate, Mass., 1644: graduated at Harvard, 
1661 ; studied medicine and theology with his father ; 
teacher in " Hopkins College," now Hopkins Grammar 
School; Pastor in Stratford, Conn.; Chaplain and Sur- 
geon of Conn, troops, 1676; one of the founders of 
Yale ; presiding officer at first meeting; chosen Rector 
in 1701, but declined ; Trustee of Yale ; died, 1703. 

ISRAEL CHAl'NCY, M. A., one of the found- 
ers and original Trustees of Yale, was the 
youngest son of the Rev. Charles Chauncy, the 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



39 



second President of Harvard College. He was born 
in Scituate, Massachusetts, in 1644, and was edu- 
cated at Harvard, where he graduated in 1661 with 
his brotliers, Nathaniel and Elnathan. After study- 
ing medicine and theology with his father, he was 
sent by him, on the request of the town of New 
Haven to furnish them with an " able man, to teach 
in the newly founded ' Hopkins College,' " now the 
Hopkins Clrammar School. He was soon chosen as 
Pastor of the church in Stratford, Connecticut, and 
was ordained in 1665. Here he spent the rest of 
his life as a learned, able and devoted Pastor and a 
skilful physician. In 1676, he was appointed Chap- 
lain and Surgeon of the Connecticut troops. Mr. 
Chauncy was one of the fomiders of Yale. His 
name is second on the list, and on account of his 
age and dignity he was probably the presitling officer 
at the historic first meeting, when he gave ten vol- 
umes for the new school. On November 11, 1701, 
he was chosen Rector, and requested to " conde- 
scend to remove himself and family to the College ; " 
this honor he declined on account of " age and 
other circumstances alleged." He married Mary 
Nichols, January, 1667, and after her death he mar- 
ried Sarah Hudson, of New Haven, November 11, 
1684. He died March 14, 1703, creating the first 
vacancy in the Board of Trustees, which was filled 
by the election of the Rev. Moses Noyes, of Lyme. 



CHAUNCEY, Nathaniel, 1681-1756. 

Born in Hatfield, Mass., 1G81 ; the first to receive a 
degree from Yale ; had charge of Hopkins Grammar 
School at Hadley, Mass. ; taught the Grammar School 
at Springfield, Mass.; began preaching at Durham, 
Conn., about 1704, where he remained until his death ; 
died in Durham, Conn., 1756. 

N.\TH.\NIEL CHAUNCEY, M. A., the first 
recipient of a degree from Yale, was born 
in Hatfield, Massachusetts, September 21, 16S1. 
He was the fifth child of Rev. Nathaniel Chauncy 
(Harvard, 1661) and of .Abigail Strong, and the 
grandson of Rev. Charles Chauncy, second President 
of Harvard. After his father's death (1685), he 
was brought up and educated by his uncle, Rev. 
Israel Chauncy, who was one of the founders of 
Yale. When the first Commencement of the new 
Collegiate School, afterwards Yale College, was held 
at Saybrook, September 11, 1702, "four young 
gentlemen," says President Clap in his .■\nnals, "who 
had before been graduated at the College of Cam- 
bridge, and one more, who had a private education, 



received the Degree of Master of Arts." This one 
was Nathaniel Chauncey, who had probably resided 
for a short time before Commencement with Rector 
Pierson, and who, according to the family traditions, 
had presented himself before the Corporation as a 
candidate for the degree of Bachelor of .Arts, but 
was found ujion examination to be worthy of the 
higher degree of Master of .Arts. Tlie rest of Na- 
thaniel Chauncey's life was that of the typical 
clergyman of his time. After " graduation " he 
first had charge of the Hopkins Cirammar School in 
Hadley, Massachusetts. He then taught the Cram- 
mar School at Springfield, Massachusetts, at the 
same time studying theology under the Rev. Daniel 
Brewer. About 1 704 he began to preach in the 
new town of 1 )iuham, Connecticut, where, although 
not ordained until i 711, he preached uninterrupt- 
edly imtil his death in 1756. lie married, October 
12, I 70S, Sarah Judson of Stratford. They had six 
children, the two youngest sons graduating from 
Yale in 1740 and 1743. His life was useful and 
honorable. Besides being a leader of the "Old 
Light " section of Connecticut theologians and the 
publisher of several sermons of note, he was a 
Fellow of Yale from 1746 to 1752. He died 
February i, 1756. 



CLAP, Thomas, 1703-1767. 

Born in Scituate, Mass., 1703 ; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1722 ; Pastor of the First Church, Windham, 
Conn., 1726 ; Rector of Yale, 1740 ; drafted a new Char- 
ter for Yale, 1745; first President of Yale; caused the 
withdrawal of the students from the old First Church, 
1752 ; established the College Church, 1757 ; resigned 
as President of Yale, 1766; among his publications 
are: The Religious Constitution of Colleges ; Nature, 
and Foundation of Moral Virtue and Obligation ; and 
Nature and Motions of Meteors ; died in New Haven, 
Conn , 1767. 

THOMAS CLAP, fifth Rector and first Presi- 
dent of Yale, was the son of Stephen and 
Temperance Clap, Scituate, Massachusetts. He 
was born June 26,1703. After studying with Rev. 
James McSparran, he entered Harvard and was 
graduated in 1722. He then studied theology with 
his former Tutor, and in February 1726 was asked 
to settle as Pastor of the First Church, Wimlham, 
Connecticut. In November 1727, he married Mary 
Whiting, daughter of his predecessor ; she died in 
1736, after two daughters had been born to them. 
Upon the resignation of Rector Williams in 1739, 
the Trustees of the College elected Rev. Mr. Clap 



40 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



in his place, and on April 2, 1 740, the new Rector 
entered upon his duties. The appointment gave 
general satisfaction. The new Rector was not 
only famous for his learning, but was also by for the 
most powerful and energetic man yet connected 
with the College. He was an independent and 
clear thinker and especially effective as a teacher. 
Dr. Daggett, his pupil and successor, says, " Instruct- 
ing seemed to be the natural exercise and diversion 
of his mind." His energy and powers of organiza- 
tion were soon felt throughout the College. New 
laws and a classified catalogue were made for the 
Library ; stricter rules of attendance were laid down 
for the students, and the course of studies was made 
more practical. His natural ability as an adminis- 
trator led him to a study of the laws and customs 
of English and American Colleges and this resulted 
(174S) in a new Code of Laws for Yale. This was 
published in Latin, but its more interesting com- 
panion volume, a " book of customs " was only 
handed down in manuscript and soon lost. Rector 
Clap's studies and the rapid growth of the College 
convinced him that a new and broader Charter was 
needed. This was drafted by him and granted 
witliout a change by the General Assembly (1745). 
By it the Trustees were incorporated as the " Presi- 
dent and Fellows of Yale College," the property of 
the College was partially exempted from taxation 
and the privileges granted in 1701 were more 
explicitly defined. Thus far President Clap's ad- 
ministration had been quiet and fruitful. But he 
was at heart a controversialist and when the " Great 
Awakening " of Whitefield and his friends aroused 
a bitter theological strife in the Colonies, President 
Clap became a leader on the conservative side. 
His first step was the withdrawal of the students 
from the old First Church (1752) and the establish- 
ment (1757) of a College Church. This led to a 
fierce war of pamphlets and embittered and es- 
tranged many friends of the College. In 1755, the 
Assembly refused to pass its usual grant to the 
College. In 1763. a formal memorial, proposing a 
" Visitation " by the Colonial authorities, was laid 
before the Assembly. President Clap himself de- 
fended the College and fairly conquered the me- 
morialists in debate. But these outside troubles 
were increased by disorder among the students, and 
at Commencement, 1766, President Clap resigned. 
He lived less than four months longer, dying on 
January 7, 1767. The wide scope of his learning 
and interests is well shown by the titles of his works. 
Besides twelve unpublished manuscripts seventeen 



books and pamphlets are extant. .Among them 
are : Introduction to the Study of Philosophy ; The 
Religious Constitution of Colleges ; Nature, and 
Foundation of Moral \"iitue and Obligation ; and 
Nature and Motions of .Meteors. 



CUTLER, Timothy, 1684-1765. 

Born in Charlestown, Mass., 1684 ; graduated at 
Harvard, 1701 ; Pastor at Stratford, Conn., 1709; Rector 
of Yale ; resigned as Rector, 1722 ; ordained Deacon 
and Priest ; received the degree of D.D. from Oxford 
and Cambridge; Rector of Christ Church, Boston, 
Mass., 1723; died in Boston, Mass., 1765. 

TIMOTHY CUTLER, D.D., third Rector of 
Yale, was the son of Major John and Martha 
Cutler of Charlestown in " Massachusetts Bay," 
and was born May 31, 1684. In 1701 he gradu- 




TIMOTHV CUTLER 

ated from Harvard, and in 1 709 was ordained 
and settled in Stratford, Connecticut. In March 
1 7 19, on the recommendation of the Governor's 
Council that " a person of larger experience and 
weightier character take up his residence at the 
College at once, with the authority of Rector" and 
largely by the influence of Rev. Mr. .Andrew, the 
temporary Rector whose daughter he had married, 
Mr. Cutler was appointed Rector //v /rw. When this 
temporary engagement expired, the consent of the 
Trustees was secured for his full appointment on a 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



41 



salary of ^140 and steps were taken to obtain his 
release from his Stratford parish. He entered upon 
his new work with characteristic energy and success. 
In July I 7 19, Jonathan Edwards, then a Junior in 
College, writes his father : " I take very great con- 
tent under my present tuition as all the rest of the 
scholars seem to do under theirs. Mr. Cutler is 
extraordinarily courteous to us, has a very good 
spirit of government, keeps the school in excellent 
order, seems to increase in learning, is loved and 
respected by all who are under him, and when he 
is spoken of in the school or town he generally has 
the title of President." At Commencement his 
services were approved by a formal vote of the 
Trustees, and the General Assembly of Connecticut 
showed its good will toward him by a vote freeing 
him from taxes during his continuance in office. 
For a long time however his theological studies had 
caused him great distress of mind, especially with 
regard to the validity of the Presbyterian Ordination 
and on September 13, 1722, with several other 
clergymen he appeared before the Board of Trus- 
tees and announced that all of them " were seeking 
light on the duty of entering the visible communion 
of the Church of England." The Trustees asked 
them to reconsider the matter but on October 16, 
after a public disputation, with Governor Saltonstall 
as Moderator, Rector Cutler, with the Rev. Samuel 
Johnson and Tutor Daniel Browne, resolved to 
withdraw from the Congregational Church. The 
duty of the Trustees was plain. On the next day 
it was " voted that the Trustees, in faithfulness to 
the trust reposed in them, do excuse the Rev. Mr. 
Cutler from all further service as Rector of Vale 
College." On November 5, he sailed from Boston 
to obtain orders in England and after being ordained 
Deacon and then Priest and receiving the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity from both Oxford and Cam- 
bridge he returned to Boston as missionary of the 
Propagation Society. From September 1723, until 
his death, August 17, 1765, he served as Rector of 
Christ Church in Boston, although his active life 
ended with a stroke of paralysis in 1756. Naturally 
of a cold and haughty temperament his attitude 
toward Yale in his later years was one of unsparing 
criticism and hostility. President Stiles, whose 
father was a graduate of 1722, the year of Cutler's 
resignation from the Rectorship of Yale, describes 
him thus : " He was of a high, lofty and despotic 
mien. He made a grand figure as the head of a 
College." And the Rev. John Eliot, writing of 
his later life in Boston, says : " He was haughty and 



overbearing in his manners. . . . He never could 
win the rising generation because he found it so 
difficult to be condescending; nor had he intimates 
of his own age and flock. 15ut people of every 
denomination looked upon him with a kind of ven- 
eration and his extensive learning excited esteem 
and respect where there was nothing to move or 
hold the affection of the heart." 



DAVENPORT, John, 1597-1670. 

Born in Coventry, England, 1597 : studied at Coven- 
try and Oxford, Eng ; Curate of the Church of St. 
Lawrence Jewry, i6ig ; Vicar of St Stephen's, Lon- 
don ; received the degrees of B D. and MA. at Oxford, 
1621 ; Co-Pastor of the English Church in Amsterdam ; 
chosen one of the "seven pillars;" concealed the 
Regicide Juiges, 1661 ; Pastor of the First Church, 
Boston, Mass., 1667; also a writer; died in Boston, 
Mass., 1670. 

JOHN D.WENPORT, B.D., M..\. (Oxonian), 
to whose influence is directly traceable the 
first proposal for the foundation of a College in 




JOHN DAVENPORT 

New Haven, was from the first the spiritual leader 
of the New Haven Colony. He was born in Coven- 
try, England, in March 1597, the son of Henry 
Davenport, Mayor of that city. .After studying at 
the famous Free Grammar School of Coventry 
he went (1613) at the age of sixteen to Oxford, 



42 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



where he remained for two years and then became 
for a sliort time Chaplain at Hilton Castle, near 
Durham. He then went to London, becoming Cur- 
ate of the Church of St. Lawrence Jewry (1619) ; 
five years later he was elected Vicar of the neigh- 
boring church of St. Stephen's and in the next year 
took his Bachelor of Divinity and Master of .\rts 
degrees at Oxford. He soon fell into disfavor with 
Bishop Laud on account of his I'uritan principles, 
and when Laud was made Archbishop of Canterbury, 
in 1633, Davenport resigned his living, withdrew 
from the Established Church, and took refuge in 
Holland. He became co-pastor of the English 
church in Amsterdam but, after a controversy with 
his colleague, soon resigneil. In 1636 Davenport 
returned to England, where he lived quietly and 
escaped Laud's notice until 1637, when he sailed 
from London with a comjiany of Puritans, of whom 
his friend and parishioner, Theophilus Eaton, was 
the civil leader. They landed at Boston, but after a 
year's residence the whole company removed to 
Quinnipiac, the present New Haven. They arrived 
on .\pril 14, 1638, and on the following day Mr. 
Davenport preached his first sermon. In June 
1639, in a sermon before the Colonists, he proposed 
a plan for their civil government and, as the Colonv's 
minister, was chosen one of the " seven jiillars " to 
support it. He laid great emphasis upon the neces- 
sity of a system of free schools and New Haven, 
under his guidance, began to plan for a College as 
early as 1641. Owing to the jirotests of leading 
men from Massachusetts who feared the ruin of the 
newly founded College at Cambridge, the plan was 
formally given up for a time; but in 1660, largely 
through Davenport's advice, the Hopkins Grammar 
School was established through Governor Hopkins's 
bequest and the movement started which led Daven- 
port's successor, James Pierpont, forty years later to 
call together the men who founded Yale College. 
In 1 66 1 Davenport showed his old courage by con- 
cealing in his house the Regicide Judges, William 
Goffe and Edward Whalley, who had fled to New- 
England upon the restoration of Charles II. The 
next few years Were spent by him in a fruitless strug- 
gle to prevent the consolidation of the New Haven 
Colony with that Of Connecticut. Embittered by 
his failure he wrote tllat " Christ's cause is lost i:i 
New Haven," and when in 1667 he was called to 
become Pastor of the First Church in Boston, he 
gladly accepted the change. Here, as previously in 
Holland, his views concerning tlie baptism of infants 
were disapproved by a large element of his congre- 



gation, which finally witlidrew and was organized 
into the Old South Church. Although the con- 
troversy thus started continued between the two 
churches for many years, Mr. Davenport died of 
apoplexy soon after it Ijegan, March 11, 1670, and 
was buried in the tomb of his friend John Cotton. 
A portrait of him painted apparently after his deatli, 
belongs to Vale. His principal writings were : An 
.\pologeticall Reply ; Discourses about Civil Gov- 
ernment in a New Plantation whose Design is Re- 
ligion ; and .^ Catechisme Containing the Chief 
Heatls of Christian Religion, besides many sermons 
and pamphlets and a large number of manuscript 
letters and sermons still extant. A complete bibli- 
ography is contained in the papers of the New Haven 
Colony Historical Society, volume ii. 234. His 
son John was at one tiuie one of the Judges of the 
courts of New Haven, and his grandson, John, son 
of tlie second John, taught for a time the Hopkins 
(Irammar School in New Haven, and from 1707 to 
1731 was a member of the Corporation of Vale. 



DAGGETT, David, 1764-1851. 

Born in Attleborough, Mass., 1764; graduated at 
Yale, 1783 ; admitted to the Conn. Bar; served in the 
Conn. Legislature, 1791-1813: Speaker of the Conn. 
House; member of the Council of the Upper House : 
State's Attorney, i8ri; Mayor of New Haven, 1828; 
U. S. Senator ; Judge of the State Supreme Court, 
1826 ; Chief-Justice, 1832 ; Instructor in the New Haven 
Law School ; occupied the Chair of Jurisprudence, 
Yale; the degree of LL.D., given by Yale; died in 
New Haven, Conn., 1851. 

D.Wll) I).\(;GETr, LL.D.. prominently iden- 
tified with the New Haven Law School, from 
which was developed the Law Department of Vale, 
was born in Attleborough, Massachusetts, December 
31, 1764, and was graduated at Vale in 1783. He 
studied law, and after admission to the Bar prac- 
tised his profession in New Haven. For over twenty 
years, 1791-1813, he served in the Connecticut 
Legislature, of which he was Speaker in 1794, and 
in 1797— 1804 and again in 1809—13 he was a 
member of the Council of the Upper House. He 
was State's .\ttorney in 181 1, Mayor of New Haven 
in 1828, and held other local ofifices. In 1813 he 
was elected a United States Senator, to fill the 
vacancy caused by the resignation of Senator 
Chauncey Goodrich, and served until March 1S19, 
when he resumed his former extensive law practice 
in Connecticut. In 1826 he was appointed a Judge 
of the State Supreme Court, and in 1832 became 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



43 



Chief-Ji'stice, from which office he was retired in 
1S34, having then reaciied the age of seventy years, 
the statutory limit. Judge Daggett became an 
Instructor in the New Haven Law School in 1824, 
and from 1S26 filled the Chair of Jurisprudence 
until compelled to resign by the infirmities of age. 
Yale bestowed on him the degree of Doctor of Laws 
in I §2 7. As Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, 
he was an ex-officio Fellow of the L^niversity. He 
died in New Haven, Ajiril 12, 185 1. His son, 
Rev. Oliver Ellsworth Daggett, a graduate of Vale 
in 1828 and subsequently of the New Haven Law 
School and of Yale Divinity School, was Professor 
of Divinity there in 1867-70, also oft'iciating during 
that time as Pastor of the College Church. 



DAGGETT, Naphtali, 1727-1780. 

Born in Attleborough, Mass., 1727 ; graduated at 
Yale, 17^,8; was awarded the Berkeley Scholarship; 
Pastor at Smithtown, L. I. ; Prof, of Divinity at Yale, 
1756; President /».' hm.; the degree of D D. conferred 
by the College of New Jersey, 1774 ; died in New 
Haven, Conn.. 1780. 

NAPHTALI DAGGETT, D.D., President of 
Vale, son of Ebenezer and ^Liry Dag- 
gett, was born in .Attleborough, Massachusetts, 
September 8, 1727. He graduated from Vale in 
1748, the first Rector or President of Vale who 
was not an alumnus of Harvard. At his gradua- 
tion he was awarded the Berkeley scholarship and 
studied divinity, probably at the College. In 1751, 
he was settled in the ministry at Smithtown, Long 
Island, where he met and, in December 1753, mar- 
ried Miss Sarah Smith. In 1755, at the early age 
of twenty-eight, he was elected Professor of 
Ptivinity in Yale, and on March 4, 1756, after an 
examination in his principles of religion, knowledge 
and skill in divinity, cases of conscience. Scripture 
history and chronology, skill in the Hebrew tongue 
and "various other qualifications" and after re- 
nouncing all the errors and heresies of " Arianism, 
Socenianism, .\rminianism, Antinomonianism and 
Enthusiasm " he was installed as the First Professor 
at Yale. This office he held until his death. L'pon 
the resignation of President Clap in i 766 he was 
elected President ffo tciii. by the Trustees and so 
continued until his resignation ten and a half years 
later. Although the College was prosperous under 
his rule Dr. Daggett was not fitted either by nature 
or by his studies for the difficult t.isk of directing 
the College and controlling the students in those 



times of difficulty and disorder just before the Revo- 
lution. His pupil. Dr. Dwight, wrote : " Dr. Dag- 
gett was respectable as a scholar, a divine, and a 
preacher. He had a very just conception of the 
manner in whicii a College should be governed but 
he was not always equally happy in the mode of 
administrating its discipline." As early as i77i,the 
students began to show a restless spirit, anil in 
March 1777, he wisely resolved to give his whole 
attention to his duties as I'rofessor and resigned the 
Presidency. On July 5, 1779, ^'<-'"' Hnven was 
seized by two thousand British troops, apparently 
with no other object than that of plunder. .\ slight 
resistance was made by townsfolks and militia and 
among the fighters, gun in hand, was the venerable 
ex-President of Vale. The resistance was in vain 
and the wounds which Mr. Daggett received and the 
violence done him as a prisoner are sujiposed to 
have hastened his death. He died November 25, 
1780, at the age of seventy-one. During his life- 
time five of his sermons were published and the 
University possesses a collection of his manuscript 
sermons. In 1774, the College of New Jersey con- 
ferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. 
His life was honorable and useful and as his pupil 
Benjamin Trumbull wrote, " he was acceptable to 
the legislature, clergy and people in general." 



DAY, Jeremiah, 1773-1867. 

Born in New Preston, Conn., 1773; graduated at 
Yale. 1795; teacher in the Greenfield School; Tutor 
at Williams; Tutor at Yale; Prof, of Mathematics 
and Natural History, Yale; President of Yale, 1817 ; 
received the degree of LL.D. from Middlebury, 1817 
D.D. from Union 1818, Harvard 1831 ; founded the 
Divinity School, 1822, the Law School, 1826; died in 
New Haven. Conn., 1867. 

JEREMIAH D.W, D.D., LL.D., ninth President 
of Vale, was born in New Preston, Connecti- 
cut, August 3, 1773. His father. Rev. Jeremiah 
Day (Yale 1756) was a well known clergyman and 
was descended from Robert Day, one of the first 
settlers of Hartford. After studying under David 
Hale, a brother of Nathan Hale, he entered Vale 
and graduated with high honors in 1 795. l'pon 
the appointment of Dr. Dwight to tlie Presidency of 
the College, Mr. Day succeeded him as head of the 
Greenfield School. The next year he became a 
Tutor at Williams and remained there until 1798, 
when he accepted a similar [jlace at Vale. During 
the next three years he also studied theology, but 
before being ordained he was elected (1801) Pro- 



44 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



fcssor of Mathematics and Natural History. On 
account of ill health he was unable to begin work 
until 1803. He held this Professorship for fourteen 
years, publishing meanwhile an Algebra ; Mensura- 
tion of Superficies and Solids ; Plane Trigonometry ; 
and Navigation and Surveying. He married (Janu- 
ary 1805) a daughter of Roger Sherman and after 
her death (1S06) he married (iSii) Olivia Jones 
of Hartford. At the death of President Dwight and 
by his wish. Professor Day was elected President 
and on July 23, 181 7, was ordained a minister and 
inaugurated as President of Yale. His administra- 




JEREMIAH DAY 

tion was marked by a cautious but steady and har- 
monious growth. His great desire was that educa- 
tion should be more broad, thorough and democratic 
and all his efforts were used to help poor and worthy 
students. The College grew steadily. In 1822 the 
Divinity School was founded; in 1826 the Law 
School. President Day published during his Presi- 
dency : An Inquiry on the Self- Determining Power of 
the Will and An Examination of President Edwards's 
Inquiry as to Freedom of the Will, besides numer- 
ous magazine articles and sermons. He received 
the degree of Doctor of Laws from Middlebury 
(1817), and that of Doctor of Divinity from Union 
(1818), and from Harvard (1831). In 1846, after 
holding the office for twenty-nine years. President 



Day resigned. He was immediately elected a 
member of the Corporation and spent tlie rest of 
his long life in New Haven. He died .August 22, 
1867, imiversally loved and respected. Gravity 
and calmness, his striking external characteristics, 
were also the chief qualities of his administra- 
tion. His well balanced judgment, caution and 
steadiness in the develojimeiit of carefully matured 
plans gave him a great unobtrusive power, while his 
mildness and self control won the love of all who 
knew him. 



DWIGHT, Timothy, 1752-1817. 

Born in Northampton, Mass., 1752 ; graduated at 
Yale, 1769; Tutor, 1771 ; Chaplain in Continental 
Army ; member of the General Court of Mass., 1781- 
1782; Pastor at Fairfield, Conn.; established an Acad- 
emy; President of Yale, 1795; Professor of Divinity, 
1805; established a Medical School; received the 
degree of D.D from the College of New Jersey, 1787, 
and LL D from Harvard, 1810 ; died in New Haven, 
1817. 

TIMOTHY DWIGHT, D.D., LL.D., eighth 
President of Yale, was the son of Major 
Timothy Dwight (Yale 1744) and Mary Edwards, 
daughter of Jonathan Edwards. He was born at 
Northampton, Massachusetts, May 14, 1752. His 
early education came from his mother and he was 
soon noted for his brilliancy of mind. After study- 
ing at Middletown he entered College (1765) at the 
age of thirteen, .\fter his graduation (1769) he 
acted as Tutor for six years, and also studied law, 
but in 1777, there being a great scarcity of Chap- 
lains in the Continental .Aimy, he was licensed to 
preach and became Chaplain in Parson's Brigade 
of Connecticut troops. He remained with the army 
a year, winning the special notice of Washington, 
until in 1778 his father's death called him home. 
He then lived in Northampton for five years, teach- 
ing, farming, preaching, and representing the town 
for two sessions (1781-82) in the General Court of 
Massachusetts. In 1783, he was settled over the 
church at Greenfield Hill in Fairfield, Connecticut. 
There he established an .Academy which won a 
national reputation. It was open to both sexes, 
offered every study belonging to the regular College 
course of that time, and educated over a thousand 
pupils during Dr. Dwight's connection with it. In 
I 795, upon the death of President Stiles, Dr. Dwight 
was chosen President of Yale and at Commence- 
ment entered upon office. He also became College 
Preacher and although his preaching was first looked 
on with suspicion on account of his leanings towards 



(JNirEKSJriKS JND TJIKIR SONS 



45 



the theology of his grandfather, Jonathan Edwards, wrote Greenfield Hill, a pastoral poem; America, a 
yet his influence upon the religious life of the poem ; The tJenuineness and Authenticity of the 
College was so marked and whtflesomc that in i S05 New 'restament ; 'I'riumph of Infidelity, a Satire; 
he was elected Professor of Divinity. This office Discourse on the C'haracter of Washington ; Obser- 
he held until his death. President Dwight remade rations on Language; and Essay on Light. In 
tiie College. He found the curriculum narrow and 1787, the College of New Jersey gave him the 
the rules of discipline childish and oppressi\o. He degree of Doctor of Divinity and Harvard that of 
substituted for them the ordinary rules of a gentle- Doctor of Laws in 1810. .After a year's decline 
man and broadened the course of study. He was President Dwight died in New Haven, January 11, 
also an able executive and his appointments were 1S17. He had married in March 1777, Mary 
uniformly successful. Indeed the best history of Woolsey of Long Island who bore him eight sons, 
his administration is found in the long line of dis- Among them were Benjamin Woolsey Dwight, 

Treasurer of Hamilton, a physician and merchant, 
and James Dwight, father of the second President 
Dwight of \'ale. 




TIMOTHY DWIGHT 

tinguished teachers and graduates of the College. 
The University idea appealeil to him and in 1806, 
he enlarged the College by founding a Medical 
School. He also planned a L,aw School which was 
added by his successor. His success as a teacher 
was great. He had early won fame as an author 
and his fondness for literature and clearness of 
expression made his lectures on oratory and com- 
position especially valuable. His principal works 
were an epic, The Conquest of Canaan ; a revision 
of Watts' Psalms ; Travels in New England and New 
York ; and his Theology Explained and Defined in 
a Course of One hundred and seventy-three Sermons, 
which passed through a score of editions here and 
at least a hundred in England. Besides these he 



EATON, Theophilus, 1591-1658. 

Born in Stony Stratford, Oxfordshire, Eng , about 
1591 ; agent Court of Denmark from tfie King of Eng- 
land ; Magistrate at Boston, Mass., one of the " seven 
pillars;" first Governor of Conn., 1638; died in Quin- 
nipiac, 1658. 

THi:OPHILUS EATON, first Covernor of 
New Haven Colony, was born in Stony 
Stratford, Oxfordshire, England, about 1591. He 
was the son of a clergyman, but received a mercan- 
tile education, and was sent by the King of England 
as an agent to the Court of Denmark, where he 
resided for several years. After his return to 
London he became a merchant of high reputation, 
but in 1637 accompanied John Davenport's party 
to New England. On arriving in Boston he was 
made a Magistrate, and the Massachusetts settlers 
made strong eflbrts to retain the party, wliich was 
composed chiefly of gentlemen of wealth and char- 
acter. But they were bent upon founding a colony 
of their own, and accordingly Eaton with a few of 
his friends carefully explored the coast of Connecti- 
cut, finally selecting a spot called Quinnipiac, where 
in March 1638 the colony was planted. In June 
of the following year he was made one of the 
"seven pillars" selected to form a government, and 
was chosen the first C.overnor of the Colony, in 
which capacity he served until his death, January 
7, .658. 



FARNAM, Henry, 1803-1883. 

Born in Scipio, N. Y., 1803 ; practised surveying, 
employed on the Erie Canal; Assistant Engineer of 
the New Haven & Northampton Canal ; Superinten- 
dent ; assisted in building the Chicago & Rock 



46 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Island Railroad ; President of same, 1854-1863 ; received 
the MA. degree from Yale, 1871 ; presented Farnam 
Hall to Yale ; also left a provision in his will that after 
the death of his immediate heirs his residence is to 
pass to Yale as a President's House ; died in New 
Haven, Conn., 1883. 

HKNRV FARNAM, M.A. Benefactor of Yale, 
was born in Scipio, New York, November 9, 
1803. His early years were s])ent in farm life on 
the flimily homestead. After attending the tlistrict 
school he studied mathematics without a teacher, 
and later practised surveying, being employed in 
that capacity for a time, on the Erie Canal. In 
1825 he was engaged as Assistant ICngineer of the 




HENRY FARN.4M 

New Haven & Northampton Canal, and two years 
later became its Superintendent. From 1839 to 
1850 he resided in New Haven, and in 1S46 to 
1848 he built the railroad that took the place of the 
canal. Removing to Illinois in 1850, in association 
with Joseph \\. Sheffield he built the Chicago & 
Rock Island Railroad, of which he was President 
for the ten years 1854-1863. Then retiring from 
active life, he spent several years abroarl and re- 
turned to New Haven where the remainder of his 
life was passed. Yale bestowed on him the honorary 
degree of Master of Arts in 1S71. Besides giving 
freely to local charities and contributing largely 
to the development of East Rock Park in New 



Haven, he built and presented to the University one 
of Yale's finest dormitories, Farnam Hall, and at 
his death which took place October 4, 1883, left a 
provision in his will by which his fine residence is 
to pass to Yale for a " President's House " after the 
death of his immediate heirs. Mr. Farnam's son 
Charles Henry, a graduate of Yale in 1868, and of 
Columbia Law School in 1871, has been for several 
years Assistant in Archaeology in the Peabody 
Museum of Yale. His son Henry Walcott, who was 
graduated at Yale in 1874 and took the degree of 
Doctor of Political Science at Strasburg, Cermaiiy, 
in 1878, was a Tutor in Yale froin 1878 to 1880. 
In the latter year he was made Professor of Political 
Economy in the Sheffield Scientific School, and in 
1 88 1 became a member of the Governing Board. 



GIBBS, George, 1776-1833. 

Born in Newport, R. I., 1776 ; interested in Miner- 
alogy ; sold to Yale a large collection of minerals he 
had secured in Europe ; received the M A. degree from 
Brown, 1800. and from Yale, i8c8 ; Vice-President of 
the New York Lyceum of Natural History ; died in 
Sunswick, L. I., 1833. 

Gi:()RGE GIBBS, M.A. (Yale and Brown), 
whose gifts and encouragement did much to 
establish the study of mineralogy at Vale, was born 
in Newport, Rhode Island, January 7, 1776. Asa 
young man he spent several years abroad and made 
a large collection of minerals, including four thousand 
specimens collected by Gigot d'Orcy and si.\ thousand 
collected by Count Gregoire de Razamousky, wliich 
he brought back with him to the United States. 
The collection, which consisted of over twelve tliou- 
sand specimens — the largest in the country at that 
time — was first exhibited at Newport, and among 
the visitors was the elder Professor Silliman of Yale, 
who spent several weeks in studying the collection 
and formed a warm personal friendship with its 
owner. At this time Mr. Gibbs offered to deposit 
the collection at Yale as a loan, if suitable rooms 
were provided for it. This was done and the col- 
lection was ])laced in South Middle College in iSio, 
where it remained imtil 1825, liberally insured by its 
owner. In 1825, Mr. Gibbs offered to sell it to the 
College for $20,000. The money was raised 
through the efforts of Professor Silliman and the 
finest collection of minerals then in the United 
States became the property of Yale. Mr. Gibbs 
continued his interest in mineralogy, making exten- 
sive journeys and developing new mining districts. 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



47 



He also offered prizes at Vale for excellence and 
for useful discoveries and inventions in the science. 
The Gibbs meteorite, one of the largest specimens 
known, was later presented to the College by his 
widow. Mr. (libbs was given the tlegree of Master 
of Arts by I!rown in i<Soo, and by Vale in 1808. In 
1S22 lie was elected Vice-President of the New Voik 
Lyceum of Natural History. He published valuable 
papers in the American Mineralogical Journal and 
in the American Journal of Science, and was a life- 
long friend and encourager of Professor Silliman. 
He was a man of singular culture, wide experience 




GEORGE GIBBS 

and brilliant conversational powers, and was famous 
for his generous hospitality. Colonel Gibbs married 
Laura, daughter of Oliver Wolcott, Secretary of the 
Treasury under Washington and John Adams, and 
himself a generous giver to Yale. They had three 
sons ; the eldest, George, became a lawyer, historian 
and scientist, and added largely to his father's col- 
lections at Yale. The second, Oliver Wolcott, be- 
came a distinguished chemist, a Professor in the 
College of the City of New York and later Rumford 
Professor of Science in Harvard University. The' 
youngest, Alfred, was a Brigadier-General in the 
War of the Rebellion. Colonel Gibbs died at Suns- 
wick, Long Island, August 6, 1S33. 



HILLHOUSE, James, 1754-1832. 

Born in Montville, Conn., 1754; studied at Hop- 
kins Grammar School; graduated at Yale, 1769; 
admitted to Conn. Bar. 1775; Lieut, of Volunteers, 
1776; Lieut, in the Governor's Foot-Guards, 1777; 
promoted Captain, 1779; Representative from New 
Haven to the Conn. Legislature, 1780-1789; Rep- 
resentative from Conn, to the Second Congress of the 
U. S.; U. S. Senator, 1796-1810; President of Senate. 
{•lo lent. ; Commissioner of the School Fund of Conn. ; 
Treasurer of Yale, 1782-1832 ; died in New Haven, 1832. 

JAMES lULl.llOUSK, M.A., !,l..l)., for fifty 
years the Treasurer of Yale, was the son of 
William llillhouse and was born at Montville, Con- 
necticut, October 20, 1754. He was early adopted 
into the family of his uncle, an eminent lawyer in 
New Haven, and was ])repared for College in the 
Hopkins Grammar School, entering Vale in 1769. 
After his graduation (177,3) he began the study of 
law and was admittetl to the Connecti<-ut J!ar in 
1775. He soon joined the local militia, and was a 
Lieutenant of ^'olunteers to reinforce Washington in 
L)ecember 1776. In 1777 he was elected Lieu- 
tenant in the Governor's Foot-Guards and two 
years later was made Captain. When New Haven 
was captured by the British (July 1 779), Cai)tain 
HiUhouse headed a small company of volunteers 
and showed much bravery in resisting the attack of 
the British troojjs. From 1780 to 17S9 he was a 
Representative of New Haven in the Slate Legisla- 
ture and in 1790 he was elected a Representative 
from Connecticut to the Second Congress of the 
Lhiited States. Here he look a prominent part in 
all debates, being a projiounced {'"ederalist in his 
pdlitics. In 1796 lie entered the Senate, wiiere he 
sat until 18 10, being elected its President fro tcm., 
when Jefferson was elected President of the United 
States. In 1810 Mr. Hillhouse resigned his seat in 
the Senate to accept the office of Commissioner of 
the School Fund of Connecticut. Owing to the 
value of the Western Reserve lands owned by the 
State and their careless and unsystematic manage- 
ment heretofore, this was a most important and 
difficult office. Mr. Hillhouse helil it for fifteen 
years, daring which time, without a single litigation 
or a dollar paid for coimsel, he restored the fund 
and increased it to $1,700,000 of well-secured 
and productive capital. In this work his activity 
wns untiring while his scrupulous honesty was pro- 
verbial. Besides this work for his state he did much 
for his city of New Haven. He opened new streets, 
enclosed the Cjieen, and set out, partly with his own 
hands, the famous ehns of Temple Street. Mr. Hill- 



48 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



house was Treasurer of Yale from 1782 to 1S32 and 
to this office he devoted much of his time and care. 
To him was due the plan of ceding to the College 
all the outstanding taxes in the state wliich were pay- 
able in evidences of the Revolutionary debt, thus 
assuring to the College a large income at a most 
critical time in its history. Partly by his influence 
also the Corporation of the College was enlarged to 
include the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor and six 
of the State Senators, thus assuring a more represen- 
tative and business-like management. In his old 
age, when Mr. Hillhouse had retired from all other 




JAMES HILLHOUSE 

offices, he still retained his connection with the 
College. It is characteristic of his faithfulness and 
devotion to Yale that his last public duly was to 
attend a meeting of the College Corporation and 
that his last act was to read a letter on College busi- 
ness. He died December 29, 1.S32. Mr. Hill- 
house was twice married, on January 1, 1779, to 
Sarah Lloyd and after her death, to Rebecca Woolsey 
by whom he had two sons and three daughters. 



HOLMES, Samuel, 1824-1897. 

Born in Waterbury, Conn., 1824; President of the 
Scoville Manufacturing Co. ; Manager of the Bridge- 
port Brass and Copper Co.; a Professorship of Divinity 



at Yale named for him ; Corporate Member of the Am- 
erican Board; Vice-President of the Congregational 
Education Society ; member of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the American Missionary Association; 
Delegate to the International Congregational Council 
in London, 1891 ; died in Montclair, N. J., 1897. 

SAMUEL HOLMES, whose gifts to the Divinity 
School of Yale established the Holmes Pro- 
fessorship of Hebrew, was born in Waterbury, Con- 
necticut, November 30, 1824, the son of Samuel J- 
Holmes. At the age of eleven he began work in a 
factory, alternating work and study until he was 
seventeen. He then entered the Scoville Manufac- 
turing Company, removed to New York, and soon 
became the head of the company. He amassed a 
large fortune, which was, however, swept away by 
the panic of 1873. Later, Mr. Holmes became the 
New York Manager of the Bridge])ort Brass and 
Copper Company, an 1 after his removal to Mont- 
clair, New Jersey, did much to develop that town. 
In 1868, Mr. Holmes offered to endow the Profes- 
sorship of Hebrew at Yale with ;S25,ooo if means 
for a new building for the Divinity School were 
raised. In honor of his co-operation and generosity 
the Corporation voted that this Professorship should 
receive his name. Mr. Holmes also gave $5,000 
to the College, the income of which is applied 
toward paying the tuition of five students from 
Waterbury, his birthplace. Few men have done so 
m\ich toward the development of the Congrega- 
tional Churches of this country as Mr. Holmes. He 
was a Corporate member of the American Board, 
Vice-President of the (Congregational Education 
Society, and for many years a member of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the American Missionary 
Association. He was also a delegate to the Inter- 
national Congregational Council in London, in iSqt. 
Mr. Holmes married, in 1856, Mary Howe Goodale 
of Marlboro, Massachusetts. Their children are : 
Ellen Warren, widow of the Rev. Frank A. Beck- 
with ; Samuel Judd, Mary Goodale, David Goodale 
and George Day Holmes. A fifth son, Arthur, died 
in infancy. Mr. Holmes died December 7, 1897. 
His widow and daughter reside in Montclair, New 
Jersey. 

HOPKINS, Edward, 1600-1657. 

Born near Shrewsbury, Eng., i5oo; studied at the 
Grammar School in Shrewsbury, Eng. ; first Secretary 
of the Colony; Governor every other year, 1640-1654; 
Warden of the Fleet (prison), Eng. ; Commissioner of 
the Admiralty ; represented Dartmouth in Parliament, 
1656; left bequests to Harvard and Yale ; Hopkinton, 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



49 



Mass., named for him, also Hopkins Grammar School 
at New Haven, Conn. ; died in 1657. 

EDW.ARI) HOPKINS, (iovernor of tlie Con- 
necticut Colony, anil Founder of the Hopkins 
Grammar School in New Haven, which was the 
forerunner of Yale, was born near Shrewsbury, Eng- 
land, in 1600. After studying at the Grammar 
School of Shrewsbury he removed to London, and 
soon became a prosperous merchant. In London 
he worshipped with Theophilus Eaton, at St. 
Stephen's Church, of which John Davenport was 
Rector, and when they emigrated to Massachusetts 
in 1637 with a company of I'uritans, Mr. Hopkins 
went with them. He soon made his home in Hart- 
ford, and became conspicuous for his ability and 
wisdom. He was chosen first Secretary of the Col- 
ony and was elected Governor every other year from 
1640 to 1654, generally serving as Deputy Governor 
in alternate years. In 1643 '^"^ advocated and was 
a delegate to the first union of the New England 
Colonies. .Mthough his health was never good, he 
also continued his business as a merchant, pushed 
his trading posts far up the Connecticut River, and 
established a trade in cotton with the Barbadoes. 
In 1653 he went to England on business, intending 
to return to Connecticut, but on his elder brother's 
death he inherited his office of Warden of the Fleet 
(prison), and was appointed by Cromwell Commis- 
sioner of the Admiralty. He also represented Dart- 
mouth in the Parliament of 1656, and remained in 
England until his death, in 1657. He had married 
a sister of David Yale, but left no children. As 
Leonard Bacon says, " New England was his chief 
heir" through the schools which he founded in New 
Haven, Hadley and Cambridge. Governor Hop- 
kins had heard from Mr. Davenport of the early 
plans for a Collegiate School in New Haven and 
had received from him a request for aid. He re- 
plied in 1656 (forty-four years before the founding 
of Yale), " If I understand that a College is begun 
and like to be carried on at New Haven for the 
good of posterity, I shall give some encouragement 
thereto." No further steps toward founding a Col- 
lege were taken at that time, on account of the 
fears and jealousy of prominent citizens of Massa- 
chusetts. However, Governor Hopkins in his will, 
dated 1657, provided, "And the resiilue of my es- 
tate there (in New England) I do hereby give and 
bequeath ... to give some encouragement in 
those foreign plantations for the breeding up of 
hopeful youth in the way of learning both at the 
Grammar School and College, for the public service 

VOL. II. — 4 



of the country in Aiture times ; " and another clause 
of the will gave ;^'5oo for the same purpose, to be 
available on the death of his wife. Through the first 
clause Harvard realized, after a few years, j{^ioo 
in corn and meal. After more than half a century 
the second clause resulted in the purchase, by a 
body known as the Hopkins Trustees, of lands after- 
wards embraced in the town of Hopkinton, the in- 
come from which has been devoted in part to the 
College, in [)art to the education of children at a 
grammar school in Cambridge. Tiie history of the 
Hopkins trust is curious and interesting; the body 
known as the Hopkins Trustees has administered it 
for nearly two centuries. In 1660, upon the aban- 
donment of more ambitions plans for a College at 
New Haven, John Davenport, as Trustee, came for- 
ward with (Governor Hopkins' bequest to New 
Haven, and with this the Hopkins Grammar School, 
the predecessor of Y'ale by some forty years, was 
establisiied on a permanent foundation. This School 
still flourishes, a strong and useful preparatory 
school and a monument to the wisdom of its 
founiler, although it was left for a later generation 
to found the College for which both Governor Hop- 
kins and John Davenport had worked and hoped. 



HUMPHREYS, David, 1752-1818. 

Born in Derby, Conn., 1752; graduated at Yale, 1771 ; 
Capt. in the Continental Army ; served on the Staff of 
Gen. Putnam ; Aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington, 
1778 ; presented by Act of Congress with a sword ; 
Sec. to Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Thomas 
Jefferson; served in the Conn. Legislature. 1786; 
Minister to Portugal; Minister to the Court of Spain 
at Madrid; Brig.-Gen. of Conn., 1812 ; received the 
MA. degree from Yale 1774, Princeton 1783, and Har- 
vard 1787; LL D. from Brown. 1802, Dartmouth, 
1804; died in New Haven, Conn., 1818. 

DAVID HUMPHREV.S, LI,. I)., to whom the 
honor belongs (.if ha\ing been the first to 
secure the rights and jirii-ileges of Freshmen in the 
social life of Yale, was born in Derby, Connecticut, 
July 10, 1752, son of Rev. Daniel Hunqjhreys, a 
minister of the Congregational denomination. He 
was graduated from Yale in 1771, and entering the 
Continental .\rmy as Captain under Gen. Samuel 
H. Parsons at the breaking out of the Revolutionary 
^\'ar, he served upon the staff of General Putnam in 
1778, and was appointed .\ide-de-Camp to General 
Washington in i 780. After the close of the War he 
was presented, by .Act of Congress, with a handsome 
sword in recognition of his g.illantry at the siege of 



so 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Yorktown, and accompanying the C'oniniander-in- 
Chief to Moiuit Vernon, he remained there for 
nearly a year. In i 7S4 he was appointed Secretary 
to Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Thomas 
Jefferson, who went abroad for the purpose of estab- 
lishing friendly relations anil negotiating commercial 
treaties with European nations. After an absence 
of two years, the greater part of which time was 
spent in London and Paris, he returned, and in 1786 
was elected to the Legislature from his native town. 
Being once more invited to Mount Vernon, he re- 
sided there until i 789, when he came to New York 




DAVID ^U.^U'HKEVS 

with his illustrious patron, and in 1 790 was ap- 
pointed Minister to Portugal, arriving at his post of 
duty in the following year. While visiting this 
country in 1 794, he was entrusted with the charge 
of affliirs in the Barbary States in connection with 
the Portuguese Mission, which he held for seven years 
or until transferred to Madrid as Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to the Court of Spain, and remained there 
until the appointment of his successor, Charles E. 
Pinckney, in 1802. During the War of 181 2 he 
served as Brigadier-General of Connecticut Volun- 
teers, and at the conclusion of hostilities he retired 
to private life. He had previously imported one 
hundred Merino sheep, and in his later years he was 
engaged in the manufacture of woollen goods. 



Colonel Humphreys began to compose verses while 
in College, and during the Revolution he wrote a 
number of patriotic poems. His poem entitled : 
An Address to the Armies of the United States, 
became popular in this country, created a favorable 
impression in England, and was translated into 
French. He was the author of: The Happiness of 
America, poem on agriculture ; and the translator 
of The Widow of Malabac, a tragedy from the 
French of La Lierre. He was also concerned in 
producing the Anarchiad which appeared at Hart- 
ford about the year 17S6, and an edition of which, 
purported to be the first ever published in book- 
form, appeared at New Haven in 1861. While 
residing in Lisbon, Colonel Humphreys married 
Miss Bulkly, a wealthy English lady. 



PHELPS, William Walter, 1839-1894. 

Born in New York, 1839; graduated at Yale, i860; 
studied law at Columbia, graduated in 1863 ; practised 
law in New York City; member of the Forty-third 
Congress from N. J. ; member of the Yale Corpora- 
tion; Minister to Austria. 1881 ; member of the Inter- 
national Conference on the Samoan question held at 
Berlin ; Minister to Germany, 1889 ; Judge of the 
Court of Errors and Appeals; member of the Uni- 
versity Club, N. Y. ; Regent of the Smithsonian 
Institute; President of the Columbia Law School 
Alumni ; Vice-President of the Yale Alumni Associ- 
ation ; honorary member of the New York Chamber 
of Commerce; received the LL.D. degree from Rutgers, 
1889, Yale, 1890; left a bequest which with his father's 
built Phelps Hall and Gateway ; died in Englewood, 
N. J., 1894. 

WH.LLAM WALTER PHELPS, LL.D., Trus- 
tee and Benefactor of Vale, and an honored 
graduate, was born in New York, August 24, 1S39, 
the eldest son of John Jay and Rachel B. Phelps. 
After preparing for College he entered, in 1855, 
luit on account of ill health did not graduate until 
i85o. He won high honors in scholarship and 
graduated second in his class. On the evening of 
Commencement Day, July 26, i860, he was married 
to Miss Ellen Sheffield, daughter of Joseph E. Shef- 
field of New Haven, the founder of the Sheffield 
Scientific School. Mr. Phelps then spent the next 
two years abroad and upon his return entered the 
Columbia Law School from which he graduated first 
in his class, in 1863. He began the practice of 
law in New York City with great success, but on 
the death of his father in 1869, he gave up active 
practice and became the manager of the family 
estates and of large private trusts. He soon moved 
to Englewood, New Jersey, took a prominent place 



UNIVERSIl'IES AND TTIEIR SONS 



SI 



in state politics, and in 1872 was elected Republican 
Representative to the Forty-third Congress, where he 
rnade a national reputation as a brilliant debater. 
In 1872 he also became a member of the Vale 
Corporation, one of the first Trustees elecletl 
directly by the Alumni; he held this position for 
twenty years, declining further re-election in 1892. 
Although a man of ample wealth and scholarly 
tastes Mr. Phelps believed that the people had a 
right to command the time and talents of any 
citizen, and he spared no effort to satisfy their 
claim. In May 1881, he was appointed Minister 




WILLIAM WALTER PHELPS 

to Austria by President Garfield, but resigned in 
1882 to accept a re-election to Congress where he 
served three terms as a member of the Committee 
of Foreign Affairs. His familiarity with European 
diplomacy also led to his ajipointment as a member 
of the International Conference on the Samoan 
question held at Berlin. In June 1889, President 
Harrison appointed him Minister to Germany, a 
position which he filled for four years •with great 
distinction. Upon his return to the United States 
he was appointed a lay Judge of the Court of F.rrors 
and Appeals, the court of last resort in New Jersey. 
He took up the routine drudgery of this work with 
great earnestness and self-sacrifice until his death 
which occurred at Englewood, New Jersey, June 17, 



1894. His wife and three children survived him. 
Mr. Phelps' interest in the cause of education and 
culture was marked and generous. He was one 
of the founders of the University Club of New 
York, a Regent of the Smithsonian Institute, and a 
loyal and generous son of Vale. During his lifetime 
he gave largely toward tlie completion of ]5attell 
Chapel, to the Library and to all departments of 
the University. At his death he left the sum of 
$50,000 to be added to an equal sum left by his 
father, for the imrpose of erecting a building u])on 
the Vale Campus. His plans were carried out by 
the erection of l'hcli)s Hall and Gateway in which 
the Classical Department of the University was in- 
stalled in 1896. Mr. Phelps was President of the 
Columbia Law School Alumni, \'ice-President of the 
Yale Alumni Association and an honorary member 
of the New York Chamber of Commerce. He was 
given the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, by 
Rutgers in 18S9, and by Vale in 1890. 



PIERPONT, James, 1659-1714. 

Born in Roxbury, Mass., 1659; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1681 ; Pastor at New Haven, Conn., 1685 ; Trustee 
of Yale; member of the Saybrook Synod; died in 
New Haven, Conn., 1714. 

JAMES PIERPONT, M.A., often called the 
Founder of Yale, was the son of John Pierpont 
of Roxbury, Massachusetts, who was descended from 
a younger branch of the family of the Earl of King- 
ston. James Pierpont was born in Roxbury, January 
4, 1659, graduated from Harvard in i68r, and in 
1684 preached as a candidate before the church in 
New Haven. He at once won the love and trust 
of the church by his gentleness and prudence, was 
ordained and settled as its Pastor in 1685, and lived 
in New Haven until his death thirty years later. 
His doctrinal soundness and wisdom in counsel, as 
well as his prominent position as John Davenport's 
successor, made it specially appropriate for him to 
revive Davenport's long cherished plan of founding 
a College in Connecticut. Through his infiuence 
and efforts the original P.oard of Trustees was or- 
ganized, a charter secured, and a Rector of the new 
College appointed. Tradition says that he presented 
six of the original forty-one books which were given 
to found the College Library. Mr. Pierpont has 
been called the " Founder of Vale " and more than 
any other man he earned the right to that title. 
The College was established through his energy and 
foresight, and his wisdom and care shaped its earlier 



52 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



course. Largely through liis influence also Elihu 
Yale's gifts were secured. Mr. Pierpont was a 
member of the Saybrook Synod in 1 70S, and is 
said to have drawn up the articles of the famous 
" Saybrook Platform " which aimed to promote dis- 
cipline and closer fellowship among the churches of 
Connecticut. It is certain that he took a prominent 
place in the Synod, for of all the early clergymen of 
New England he was the most distinguished for the 
nobility and sweetness of his character and the 
spirituality of his life. Mr. Pierpont's only publica- 
tion was a sermon preached in Cotton Mather's 




JAMES PIERPONT 

pulpit (1712), "Sundry False Hopes of Heaven 
Discovered and Decryed." He was married three 
times ; to Abigail, granddaughter of John Daven- 
port ; to Sarah Haynes, a granddaughter of Gov- 
ernor Haynes, who bore him one daughter ; and to 
Mary Hooker of Farmington who had six sons and 
two daughters, one of whom, Sarah, was the wife of 
Jonathan p]dwards. Among his lineal descendants 
were Jonathan lulwards, the younger, his grandson ; 
the elder President Timothy Dwight, his great- 
grandson, and the younger President Dwight, late 
President of Yale. Mr. Pierpont died November 14, 
1714, in New Haven. His portrait has been pre- 
sented to the College and now hangs in Alumni 
Hall. 



PIERSON, Abraham, 1645-1707. 

Born probably at Southampton, L. I., in 1645 ; gradu- 
ated at Harvard, 1668; studied theology; Pastor at 
Newark, N. J., 1672; Rector of Yale, 1701 ; Trustee of 
Yale; died in Killingworth, Conn., 1707. 

ABRAHAM PH:RS0N, first Rector of Yale 
and one of its first Trustees and founders, 
was born, probably in Southampton, Long Island, 
in 1645. He was the tliird ciiild of Rev. Abraham 
Pierson who had graduated from Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1632, and had settled in Branford, 
Connecticut, near his old friend, Jolm Davenport. 
In 1668, the son graduated from Har\ard where he 
had proved himself a hard student and a good 
scholar. His College note book on logic, theology 
and physics is still preserved in the Yale Library. 
He probably studied theology with his father who 
had withdrawn, with most of his congregation, from 
Connecticut and had settled in Newark, New Jersey. 
In July 1669, the town of Newark unanimously 
voted "to call Mr. Abraham Pierson, Jr., to be 
helpful to his father, in the exercise of his gifts in 
the ministry, for the space of a year." In March 
1672, he was regularly called and settled as Col- 
league Pastor and on his father's death in .August 
1678, he took sole charge of the church until his 
dismissal in February 1692. He immediately re- 
turned to Connecticut where he preached for two 
years at Greenwich and then was settled over the 
church at Killingworth (Clinton). He had married, 
about 1673, .\bigail Clark of Milford, a grand- 
daughter of his fother's friend, John Davenport, and 
three sons and six daughters were born to them. 
His Pastorate at Killingworth was a happy one and 
his reputation for learning and ability grew until, in 
1701, he was considered one of the leaders among 
the Connecticut Clergy. At the organization of the 
College under the new Charter in November 1701, 
Rev. Mr. Pierson was elected its first Rector w-ith 
the request that he move to Saybrook and instruct 
the pupils there ; but the people of Killingworth 
objected so strongly to his departure anil the pros- 
pects of securing a salary large enough to live upon 
were so discouraging that he remained with his 
church until his death, instructing his pupils at or 
near his house at Killingworth. He died March 5, 
1707. leaving a reputation for good scholarship and 
practical wisdom. Rector Clap wrote, "He was a 
wise, steady and judicious gentleman." He is 
commemorated by a beautiful pillar at Clinton and 
by a bronze statue, given by Charles Morgan, upon 
the Yale Campus. Since no portraits and no re- 



UNIVERSITIES JNB THEIR SONS 



S3 



liable descriptions of him exist tlic statue, like that 
of John Harvard, at Cambridge, is purely iileal ; but 
if we can judge his personal appearance from his 
upright, scholarly life, Abraham I'ierson must have 
had the fine features and the scholar's head which 
the artist has given him. 



PORTER, Noah, 1811-1892. 

Born in Farmington, Conn., 181 1; studied at Far- 
mington Academy; graduated at Yale, 1831 ; teacher 
in the Hopkins Grammar School ; studied theology ; 
Pastor at New Milford, Conn. ; Pastor at Springfield, 
Mass. ; Prof of Moral Philosophy and Metaphysics at 
Yale ; Editor of Webster's Dictionary ; received the 
degree of D.D. from the Univ. of the City of New 
York, LL.D. from Western Reserve College, 1870, 
Trinity College, 1871, Edinburgh, i885; President of 
Yale, 1871 ; died in New Haven, Conn., 1892. 

NOAH PORTER, D.D., LL.D., eleventh Pres- 
ident of Yale, was born in Farmington, 
Connecticut, December 14, 181 1, the second son 
of Rev. Noah Porter, Pastor of the Farmington 
Church. When nine years old he entered the 
Farmington Academy and at the age of sixteen 
entered Yale. Although his class was one of un- 
usual brilliancy he at once took a high rank and 
graduated with honors in 1831. He then taught 
for two years in the Hopkins Grammar School of 
New Haven and in 1833-35 held a Tutorship in 
the College. Meanwhile he studied in the Divinity 
School, principally under N. W. Taylor whose 
daughter, Mary Taylor, he married on April 13, 
1836. He then went directly to New Milford, 
Connecticut, where he became Pastor of the Con- 
gregational Church. He remained there for seven 
years (1836-43), doing unusually vigorous and 
fruitful work. In January 1843, he accepted a call 
to the new Second (or South) Congregational 
Church of Springfield, Massachusetts, where he 
remained for three and a half years. In 1846, at 
the age of thirty-two, Mr. Porter was appointed 
Clark Professor of Moral Philosophy and Meta- 
physics at Yale, a Professorship which was estab- 
lished with the special intention that he should fill 
it. His new work brought him into closest touch 
with the students of the Senior Class and he soon 
became their especial friend and adviser. His 
kindliness and simplicity were irresistible and he 
met his pupils in closer comradeship than any other 
teacher of his time. Besides his Professorship in the 
College he held the Chair of Systematic Theology 
in the Divinity School, formerly occupied by Dr. 



Taylor from 1S58 to 1866. As a thinker and a 
writer Dr. Porter was indefatigable. His works 
cover the widest range and a complete bibliograjihy 
(see " Noah Porter, a Memorial," ed. by G. S. 
Merriam, 1S93) includes at least one hundred and 
twenty separate books, essays, reports and lectures, 
among tliein : 'I'he Human Intellect; Hooks and 
Reading ; Science and Sentiment ; F.lcments of 
Moral .Science ; Life of Bishop Berkeley ; and 
Kant's Ethics, a Critical Exposition. He also 
edited the successive editions of Webster's Dic- 
tionary from 1847 until his death. His reputation 







N'O.VH PORIKR 

as a philosopher and theologian was worldwide 
while his knowledge of the classics. New England 
History, ami English etymology was exceptionally 
deep. In 1S58, Professor Porter received the de- 
gree of Doctor of Divinity from the University of 
the City of New York and that of Doctor of Laws 
from Western Reserve College (1870), Trinity Col- 
lege (1871) and from Edinburgh (1886). In 1871, 
upon the resignation of President Woolsey, Profes- 
sor Porter was elected President of Yale. This 
office he held for fifteen years. During these years 
the College showed a steady and substantial growth. 
The number of students was doubled ; buildings 
and improvements to the value of a million dollars 
were added and the permanent funds were largely 



54 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



increased. The Library grew froni sixty thousand 
to one hundred and sixty thousand volumes. The 
elective system of studies was introduced and the 
professional schools were greatly strengthened. 
President Porter's efforts were devoted to in- 
creasing the true value of the College education. 
His ideal of scholarship was lofty and he was im- 
patient of shams, always seeking the substance 
rather than the appearance of culture. He was 
conservative in spirit, a careful manager, and busi- 
nesslike and tactful in his relations with the mem- 
bers of the Corporation, while his knowledge of the 
details of College management was wonderfully large 
and exact. His hospitahty was as large as his ac- 
quaintance, and he especially entertained many 
distinguished Englishmen, among them Froude, 
Freeman, Matthew Arnold and Canon Farrar. It 
was largely because of this large acquaintance and 



counted a man of weight and wisdom throughout 
the Colony. He was one of the franiers of the 
Saybrook Platform. Mr. Russell married Mary 
Hamlin of Middletown and had nine children, one 
of whom, William, became a Tutor at Yale and later 
his father's successor. He died December 3, 1713. 



SHEFFIELD, Joseph Earle, 1793-1882. 

Born in Southport, Conn,, 1793; entered business at 
Newbern, N. C. ; engaged in the cotton trade at 
Mobile, Ala.; interested in building the New Haven & 
Northampton Canal, and the New York & New Haven 
Railroad; built the Chicago Rock & Island Railroad; 
endowed the Yale Scientific School ; the same named 
for him; died in New Haven, Conn, 1882. 

JOSEPH E.ARLE SHEFFIELD, Benefactor of 
Yale, was born in Southport, Connecticut, June 



19, 1793. His father and grandfather were wealthy 
high reputation abroad that President Hayes offered ship-owners, and during the Revolutionary War 
him the position of Minister to England which he 
declined. In 18S6, in his seventy-fifth year. Presi- 
dent Porter resigned, retaining, however, his Pro- 
fessorship of Philosophy and his active interest in 
the College until his death. After a summer abroad 
he settled down in New Haven and spent the rest 
of his life in teaching, in writing, and in editorial 
work upon the Dictionary. He died March 4, 1892. 



RUSSELL, Noadiah, 1659-1713. 

Born in New Haven, Conn., 1659; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1681 ; Tutor at Harvard; Teacher at Ipswich, 
Mass.; Pastor at Middletown, Conn.; Trustee of 
Yale; Tutor at Yale; died in Middletown, Conn., 1713. 

NOADIAH RUSSELL, one of the Founders 
and original Trustees of Yale, was born in 
New Haven, July 22, 1659, the only son of William 
Russell and Sarah Davis, who belonged to the 
original setders of the Colony. On the death of 
his father he was taken by some of his relatives to 
Massachusetts, prepared for College, and entered 
Harvard. He graduated in 1681, in the same class 
with Pierpont and Samuel Russell, and became a 
Tutor at the College. (His diary kept while a 
Tutor (1682) is printed in the New England His- 
torical Register, vol. viii, p. 53.) After teaching at 
Ipswich, Massachusetts, he settled in Middletown, 
Connecticut, was ordained minister of the church 
(1 688) and preached there until his death twenty- 
five years later. His part in the founding of Yale 
was not conspicuous, but he took an active part in 
the earlier meetings of its Trustees and was ac- 




JOSEPH E. SHEFFIELD 

they fitted out and maintained an armed vessel in 
the interest of the Colonial service. His mother, 
whose maiden name was Mabel Thorpe, was a 
daughter of Captain Walter Thorpe, also a ship- 
owner of Southport. The Milan and Berlin decrees 
of Napoleon proved financially disastrous to both 
the Sheffields and the Thorpes, and young Joseph 
was permitted at his own request to take a clerkship 



UNIFERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



55 



in the store of Stephen Fouler at Newbern, North 
Carolina. He latar became a partner in a New 
York mercantile house, and after managing the 
Newbern branch for some time the business was 
reraoi'ed to Mobile, Alabama, where he subse- 
quently engaged extensively in the cotton trade. 
Returning north in 1835 he settled in New Haven, 
where he resided for the rest of his life, but contin- 
ued in business and was actively concerned in a 
number of important enterprises, including the New 
Haven & Northampton Canal, and the New York 
& New Haven Railroad. He also built the Chicago 
& Rock Island Railroad. In 1S60 the Scientific 
Department of Yale, which now bears his name, 
was through his munificence reorganized and en- 
larged. Previous to his death his gifts to the 
Sheffield Scientific School of Y'ale amounted to 
about $400,000, and in his will he seems to have 
regarded it as one of his children, as he allotted to 
it a seventh of his estate, or no less than $500,000. 
He also made liberal donations to other Colleges, 
seminaries and religious institutions. In 1822 he 
married Miss Maria, daughter of Colonel J. T. St. 
John, of Walton, Delaware county. New York. Mr. 
Sheffield died in February 1882. 



SALTONSTALL, Gurdon, 1666-1724. 

Born in Haverhill, Mass., i656; graduated at Har- 
vard. 1684 ; studied theology; Pastor at New London, 
Conn., i6gi : Governor of Connecticut ; set up the first 
printing-press in the Colony ; one of the founders of 
Yale; died in New London, Conn.. 1724. 

GURDON SALTONSTALL, Governor of Con- 
necticut, and one of the Founders of Yale, 
was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, March 27, 
1666, son of Nathaniel Saltonstall, and great-grand- 
son of Sir Richard Saltonstall, one of the patentees 
of Connecticut and also one of the grantees of the 
Massachusetts Company under the charter obtained 
by Charles I. He was graduated at Harvard in 
1684, studied theology, and in 1691 was ordained 
minister of New London. During the illness of 
Governor Fitz-John \Vinthrop, Mr. Saltonstall, who 
was the Governor's pastor, acted as his chief adviser 
and representative ; and on the Governor's death 
was chosen by the Assembly as his successor, enter- 
ing on his functions January i, 1708, and being 
confirmed in office at the regular election in the 
following May. He held the gubernatorial chair 
by annual re-election until his death which took 
place in New London September 20, 1724. Gover- 



nor Saltonst;:ll set up in his house in 1709 the first 
printing-jiress in the Colony. He was active and 
prominent in the establishment of Yale, influencing 
the decision to build the College at New Haven 
instead of Hartford, making the plans and estimates, 
and during the early years of the institution taking 
the chief part in the direction of its affairs. 



STAPLES, Seth Perkins, 1776-1861. 

Born in Canterbury, Conn , 1776; graduated at Yale. 
1797; received the M.A. degree; studied law; admitted 
to the Conn Bar ; practised law at New Haven ; estab- 
lished a Law School. 1818 ; began practice of law in 
New York City, 1824; died in New York City, 1861. 

SETH PERKINS STAPLES, M.A., whose jiri- 
vate law school was the predecessor of the 
Yale Law School, was the son of Rev. John Staples 
(College of New Jersey, 1765). He was born in 




SF.TH P. ST.VPLES 

Canterbnn,% Connecticut, September i, 1776, and 
was graduated from Yale in 1797. In iSoi he was 
the orator of Phi P.eta Kapjia and received the 
degree of ALaster of Arts from Yale. .After studying 
law for two years in tlie office of Judge Daggett in 
New Haven, Mr. Staples was admitted to the Con- 
necticut Par. He began his practice in New H.aven 
and imported from England a very complete law 
library, much the best at that time in New England. 



56 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



This library drew around him a mimber of law- 
students, and in iSiS, he opened a private law 
school. Most of the students were resident gradu- 
ates of the College. One of them writes as follows 
of Mr. Staples : " Those who only saw hiui in the 
conflicts of the Bar and heard his bitter sarcasms 
could form no true estimate of his character. They 
saw nothing of his kindlier nature and social quali- 
ties as exhibited in the office and the recitation 
room. As a teacher he exerted a magnetism over 
his students unsurpassed by any man I ever knew, 
a magnetism that drew his pupils into a thorough 
study of first principles." In 1824 Mr. Staples 
removed to New York, leaving his school to Samuel 
J. Hitchcock and Hon. David Daggett. In 1826 
the latter became Professor of Law in the College, 
but the Law School was not formally placed under 
the control of the College Corporation until 1843. 
Mr. Staples remained in full practice in New York 
until 1856. He had married in 1799, Catherine, 
daughter of Professor S. Wales of New Haven, who 
had three sons and three daughters. Mr. Staples 
died in New York, November 6, 1861. His por- 
trait, presented by his son, hangs in the Yale Law 
School. 



was made Librarian of the New Redwood Library 
and, besides his work as a minister, became an 
authority in Hebrew, Astronomy and tleography. 
l!y these studies he became acquainted with many 
learned men, among them Dr. Franklin. His 
learning was also recognized among the Colleges ; 
Harvard gave him (1754) the degree of Master of 
Arts; the University of Edinburgh (17C5); Dart- 
mouth and Princeton made him a Doctor of 
Divinity, and Princeton gave him the degree of 
Doctor of Laws. At the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion his church was scattered and l.e was obliged to 



STILES, Ezra, 1727-1795. 

Born in North Haven, Conn., 1727; graduated at 
Yale, 1746; Tutor, 1749; studied law; Attorney, 1753; 
Pastor at Newport, 1755; Librarian of the New Red- 
wood Library ; received the MA. degree from Har- 
vard, 1754, University of Edinburgh, 1765; received D.D. 
degree from Dartmouth and Princeton, and LL.D. 
from Princeton; President of Yale, 1778; Professor 
of Divinity; died in New Haven, Conn., 1795. 

EZRA STILES, D.D., LL.D., seventh Presi- 
dent of Yale, was born at North Haven, 
Connecticut, November 29, 1727. His father. 
Rev. Isaac Stiles, was a man of great ability and 
under his teaching the son prepared for College. 
He entered Yale in 1743, and upon his graduation 
in 1746 continued his studies in New Haven. In 
1749 he was chosen a Tutor and licensed to preach, 
but increasing doubts and weakness of health turned 
him aside from the ministry. He took up the 
study of law, and (1753) was made an Attorney. 
He soon regained his health and conquered his 
doubts and in 1755 resigned his Tutorship and 
practice, accepting a call to the Second Church of 
Newport. There he preached for twenty years and 
was greatly loved and respected both for his great 
learning and for his broad and kindly spirit. He 




EZRA STILES 

leave Newport. He settled at Dighton (1775) and 
then at Portsmouth, New Hampshire (1777). 
LTpon the resignation of Dr. Daggett (1777), Dr. 
Stiles was elected President of Yale. On July 8, 
I 7 78, he entered the office both of President, and of 
Professor of Ecclesiastical History. During his 
Presidency he also served as Professor of Divinity 
and lectured on philosophy and astronomy. In 
spite of the disturbances caused by the war his 
administration was very successful. He broadened 
the course of study, ended the long controversy 
between the General Assembly and the College and 
greatly increased its popularity through New 
England, while by his own wide learning and corre- 
spondence he also increased its reputation abroad. 
His successor, Dr. Dwight, said of him, — " Dr. 



UNIVERSiriES /IND I HEIR SONS 



57 



(ilijccts. To him \.\\v is indebted for one of its 
important (IcparlnK'nls, tiie School of l-"ine Arts, and 



Stiles was probably the most learned man in time in tri\ el, ami devoting himself to art study an<i 
America, at the time of his death." Although the modern languages. Of the fortune whicli Mr. 
simple and unassuming in character he was very Street inherited he gave largely to benevolent 
careful about details of official dignity anil thus 
preserved many old customs of the College. His 
interest in Colonial History also led him to write an 
History of three of the Judges of King Charles I, 
Dixwell, Goffe and Whalley. Dr. Stiles clearly fore- 
saw and favored the American Revolution and his 
letters and sermons at Newiiort were full of the 
spirit of liberty. As President i)f \'ale liis teaching 
was inspiring and patriotic. Chancellor Kent said 
of him, " A more constant and de\'oted friend of the 
Revolution and Independence of this country never 
existed." President Stiles tlied in New Haven, 
May 12, 1795. He was twice married, first to 
Elizabeth Hubbard who bore him six da\ighters and 
two sons. After her death (r 775), he married (17S2) 
Mrs. Mary Checkley. He left forty five volumes of 
his work in manuscript to the College, which also 
owns his portrait and a large number of his letters. 



WEBB, Joseph, 1666 (?)- 1732. 

Born in Stamford, Conn., 1666 (?) ; graduated at 
Harvard, 1684; Pastor at Fairfield, Conn.; Trustee of 
Yale ; died in Fairfield, Conn., 1732. 

JOSEPH WEBB, the youngest of the original 
Trustees of Yale, was the son of Joseph Webb 
of Stamford, Connecticut, and was born in 1666 ( ?). 
He went through Harvard, graduating in 1684. He 
became Pastor of Christ's Church in Fairfield, 
Connecticut, in 1692, married Elizabeth Nichols of 
Stratford, Connecticut, who bore liim several 
children, and resided in Fairfield until his death, 
September 19, 1732. 




AUGUSTUS R. STREET 

partial provision for its endowment. Mr. Street 
also founded the Street Professorship of Modern 
Languages at Yale, and in his will provided for the 
establishment of the Titus Street Professorship in 
the Theological Department. He died in New 
Haven, )une 12, 1S66. 



STREET, Augustus Russell, 1791 1866. 

Born in New Haven, Conn , 1791 ; graduated at Yale, 
1812 ; studied art and the modern languages in Europe ; 
endowed the School of Fine Arts ; founded the Street 
Professorship of Modern Languages ; by his will 
provided for the Titus Street Professorship in the 
Theological Department ; died in New Haven, Conn., 
1866. 

AUGUSTUS RUSSELL STREET, Benefactor 
of Yale, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, 
November 5, 1 791, and was graduated at Yale in 
181 2. He studied law, but was prevented by feeble' 
health from practising his profession, and remained 
an invalid for the greater part of his life. For several 
years he resided in Europe, spending much of his 



WILLIAMS, Elisha, 1694-1755. 

Born in Hatfield, Mass., 1694; graduated at Harvard, 
1711 ; studied divinity with his father; taught the 
students of Yale who had withdrawn from Saybrook ; 
member of the General Assembly of Conn. ; Pastor at 
Newington Parish. 1722 ; Rector of Yale, 1725 ; resigned 
in 1739; member of General Assembly, Speaker of the 
House; Judge of the Superior Court; Chaplain of 
the Conn, troops ; Colonel and Commander-in-Chief 
of the Conn, forces for the projected invasion of 
Canada; delegate to the Continental Congress at 
Albany, N. Y., 1754 ; died in Wethersfield, Conn., 1755. 

ELISHA WILLIAMS, fourth Rector of Yale, 
was born in Hatfield, Massachusetts, in 
August, 1694. His parents were Rev. William 
^Villiams and F.lizabeth Cotton, granddaughter of 



58 



UNIFERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



John Cotton and of Governor Bradstreet. Like 
his three predecessors in office he was educated at 
Harvard, graduating in 171 1. After studying di- 
vinity with his father he removed to Wethersfield, 
Connecticut, and there upon February 23, 17 13-14, 
married Eunice Chester and settled down upon a 
farm. He soon began the study of law with the 
intention of practising, but in 17 16 he was asked 
by the two Trustees of the College, who had disap- 
proved of its removal to New Haven, to take charge 
of the students who had withdrawn from Saybrook. 
He taught them for the next two years and also 




ELISHA WILLIAMS 

for four years represented his town in the General 
Assembly. In 1718, he was asked by the Trustees 
of Yale to come to New Haven, as Senior Tutor but 
declined. In 1720, he was called to the ministry 
by Newington Parish and after organizing a regular 
church he was ordained and installed as its Pastor 
in 1722. His known success in teaching, his ac- 
quaintance and wide popularity among civilians as 
well as among the clergy, and the proiiiinence of 
his family in Massachusetts made him the logical 
candidate for the vacant Rectorship, and on Sep- 
tember 13, 1725, he was inducted into office. From 
the very start his success in administrating the 
affairs of the College was great. Endowed with 
great personal magnetism he won the friendship 



and respect of the students and repressed the dis- 
order and vice which had grown up in the long 
interregnum after Rector Cutler's resignation. He 
made important changes in the College studies, pay- 
ing special attention to rhetoric and oratory. By 
his wide connections and social rank he also en- 
larged the field from which the students were drawn. 
His Rectorship was also marked by many important 
gifts to the College by friends in England. In i 739, 
on account of ill-health and over-work, he resigned 
the Rectorship and returned to Wethersfield, imme- 
diately entering jiolitical life again. He was sent to 
the next session of the General Assembly and at once 
elected Speaker of the House and was also placed on 
the Superior Court. During the rest of his life he 
represented his town at twenty-two Sessions of the 
Assembly, at five of which he was chosen Speaker. 
The Judgeship he retained for only three years. In 
1745, he was sent to Boston with Jonathan Trum- 
bull to represent the Connecticut Colonies in a 
conference with General Shirley, in regard to the 
proposed expedition against Louisburg and at the 
suggestion of Sir William Pepperrell, wlio was much 
impressed by his conversation he accompanied the 
expedition as Chaplain of the Connecticut troops. 
In I 746, the Assembly appointed him Colonel and 
Commander-in-Chief of the Connecticut forces 
raised for the projected invasion of Canada. In 
1749, he went to England to obtain money ad- 
vanced by himself and others in order to jiay tiie 
soldiers in his command. While in England he 
learned of tlie death of his wife, and after a short 
interval married Miss Elizabeth Scott, only daughter 
of the Rev. Thomas Scott, the famous Commenta- 
tor. On his return to Connecticut in 1752, he 
settled as a merchant in Wethersfield, and in 1754, 
was appointed as one of the three Connecticut dele- 
gates to the Continental Congress at Albany. He 
died on July 24, 1755, after a life of most varied 
pursuits and incessant activity. He touched life 
on many sides, with uniform success and esteem. 
Dr. Doddridge describes him well : " He has ... a 
certain nobleness of soul, capable of contriving and 
acting the greatest things without seeming to be 
conscious of havina; done them." 



WOODBRIDGE, Timothy, 1656-1732. 

Born in Barford. St. Martin's, Wilts, Eng., 1C56; 
graduated at Harvard, iCys ; Pastoral Hartford, Conn., 
1683 ; introduced infant baptism into Conn. ; member 
of the Saybrook Convention, 1708; Trustee and Fellow 
of Yale ; died in Hartford, Conn., 1732. 



UNIFERSI^riES .mi) ril/'./K SOiYS 



59 



TIMOTHY \\()()l)l!Rll)t;i:. one of tlie ten 
clergymen who met in the house at Hran- 
ford, Connecticut, and took the iirehminary steps 
for the estabhshment of Vale, was born in Harford, 
St. Martin's, \\"ilts, England, January 13, 1656, and 
was graduated at Harvard in 1675. In 1683 he 
became Minister of the I'irst Church in Hartford, 
Connecticut, althougli not ordained until two years 
later. He introduced infant baptism into Connecti- 
cut, was a prominent member of the Saybrook Con- 
vention in 1 70S, and served the Colony in manv 
important political affairs. In 1699 he was one of 
the ten principal ministers of Connecticut Colony 
that were named as Trustees and authorized by the 
General Assembly to found Vale, ami from 1700 to 
1732 was a Fellow of that institution. He died in 
Hartford, April 30, 1732. 



WOOLSEY, Theodore Dwight, 1801-1889. 

Born in New York City, i8oi ; graduated at Yale, 
1820 ; studied law at Philadelphia ; studied theology at 
Princeton; Tutor at Yale, 1823; Professor of Creek, 
1831 ; President of Yale, 1846 ; Regent of the Smith- 
sonian Institute ; President of the American Home 
Missionary Association; Vice-President of the Orien- 
tal Society, 1871-1881 ; Chairman of the American 
Company of Revisers of the New Testament ; received 
the LL.D. degree from Wesleyan, 1845, Harvard, 1847 ! 
established the Freshman Scholarship which bears his 
name ; presented his Greek Library to Vale ; died in 
New Haven, Conn , 1889. 

THEODORE DWIGHT \\-OOLSEV, D.D., 
LL.D., tenth President of Vale, was born in 
New York City, October 31, iSoi. His father was 
William Walter Woolsey, a New York merchant, and 
the grandson of Rev. Benjamin Woolsey (Yale 1709) 
who was in turn the grandson of George \\''oolsey, 
the first of the family to settle in America ; his 
mother was Elizabeth Dwight, sister of President 
Timothy Dwight of Yale. He graduated from Yale 
in 1820, the valedictorian of his class. After reading 
law for a year in the office of Charles Chauncey in 
Philadelphia he began the study of theology at 
Princeton and remained there until (1823) he was 
elected a Tutor at Yale. In 1825, he was licensed 
to preach but stayed in New Haven for further theo- 
logical study. In 1827, he went abroad and spent 
the next three years in travel in Germany, France 
and Italy, and in the study of Greek at Bonn, Leipsic 
and Berlin. Shortly after his return to New Haven, 
he was elected (1831) first Professor of a newly 
established Chair of Gieek. He taught with great 
success until 1846, publishing meanwhile the texts, 



witli luiglisli notes, of l!uripides' .Mceslis; Sophocles' 
Antigone ; Aeschylus' I'ronutheus ; Sophocles' J-:iec- 
tra and the Gorgias of Plato. In 1S45, he trav- 
elled extensively in England, Italy and (irecce. In 
1S46, upon the resignation of President Day, Pro- 
fessor Woolsey was elected President of Yale, being 
ordained at the time of his inauguration, in order to 
preserve the unbroken custom that the President 
of Yale should be a clergyman. The College was 
peculiarly fortunate, at a time when .American Col- 
leges were coming into closer contact with the 
methods and spirit of Continental L niversilies, to 




THEdUORK D. WOOIJSEY 

obtain so ripe and thorough a scholar for its head. 
His administration was vigorous and particularly 
successful in bringing the whole body of students 
under a broader culture. Presitlent Woolsey in- 
creased greatly the thoroughness of the examinations 
and reorganized the work of Senior year, resigning 
his own Professorship of Greek and giving much of 
his time to the teaching of the Senior class in liistory, 
political science and international law. During 
these years his literary activity was gre.at. He had 
helped to establish the New Englander and his con- 
tributions to it were more than sixty in number, 
many of them the result of most thorough original 
research. He also published his inaugural address 
on College Education; an Historical Discourse 
upon Yale College ; an Introduction to the Study 



6o 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



of International Law, republished in England and 
translated into Chinese antl Japanese ; an Essay on 
Divorce Legislation; a volume of sermons 'I'he 
Religion of the Present and the Future ; Political 
Science ; Communism and Socialism ; and Helpful 
Thoughts for Young Men. He also edited new edi- 
tions with notes, of Professor Francis Lieber's Civil 
Liberty and Self Ciovernment and his I\Lanual of 
Political Ethics, and wrote many articles for John- 
son's Encyclopaedia, of which he was an Editor. 
President Woolsey's interests outside the College 
were wide ; he was for several years a Regent of the 
Smithsonian Institute, at one time President of the 
American Home Missionary Association, Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Oriental Society and for ten years 
(1S71-18S1) Chairman of the American Company 
of Revisers of the New Testament. He was given 
the degree of Doctor of Laws by Wesleyan in 1S45, 
and that of Doctor of Divinity by Harvard in 1847, 
and of Doctor of Laws in 1886 at the tivo hundred 
and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Harvard. 
In 1 87 1, at the age of seventy. President Woolsey 
resigned his office but retained his seat in the Cor- 
poration until 1884, and his interest and work for 
the College until his death. He spent the last years 
of his life in New Haven, studying, writing and giving 
occasional instruction in the Law School. After a 
gradual failure of his powers through old age he died 
on July I, 18S9, as calmly and quietly as he had 
lived. His last words were, " My work is done and 
I am ready, (iod bless you all and God bless dear 
old Yale." President Woolsey's liberality to the 
College was great. He established the Freshman 
Scholarship bearing his name ; in 1886 he presented 
his Greek library of nearly a thousand volumes to 
the College Library, and later made several large 
contributions of books besides giving §3,000 toward 
the library building. The College has honored his 
memory by a window in Battell Chapel, and by a 
bronze statue of heroic size upon the Campus. His 
portrait also hangs in Alumni Hall. His successor, 
Noah Porter, said of him, " Few men have been 
more distinguished in this country for eminence in 
so great a variety of departments of scholarship and 
culture, and few men have secured for themselves the 
solid respect of so great a number of their country- 
men for high personal and moral excellence." 



at Madras ; President or Governor of Madras ; endowed 
the College at New Haven, Conn. ; Yale named in his 
honor, 1718; died in London, Eng., 1721. 

ELIHU YALE, Governor of Madras and bene- 
factor of the College which was named in 
his lionor, was born in Boston, probably in 1649. 
His f;ither was David Yale, a merchant, whose 
mother had married Governor Theophilus Eaton of 
New Haven. In 1651 David Yale returned to 
London, his family following him the next year. 
There Elihu was educated, attending for a short 
time the school of William Dugard, a graduate of 




YALE, Elihu, 1649-1721. 

Born in Boston, Mass . probably in 1649 ; graduated 
at Cambridge, Eng. ; entered business as a merchant 



ELIHU V.\LE 

Cambriilge and a friend of Milton. About 1670 he 
emigrated to Madras to make his fortune as a mer- 
chant. He entered the employ of the East India 
Company as an apprentice, probably, and rose 
through the offices of writer, factor and merchant to 
that of senior member of the Council. On July 23, 
1687, the Directors of the Company at London 
made him Presitlent or (^lOvernor of Madras, the 
absolute ruler of a district containing three hundred 
thousand people. This office he held through the 
stormy times of invasion by the great Mogul and of 
attacks by the French settlers on the south and 
through the stormier times of fiercest quarrels 
between himself and his subordinates in the Coun- 
cil. Meanwhile Governor Yale was gaining great 
wealth by private trade until in 1691, he states his 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



6i 



fortune as some ^140,000, an enormous sum for 
that time. But his great wealtii and his quarrels in 
the Council alarmed the Directors at home and after 
five years of rule, in November 1692, his successor 
was appointed. After a long time spent in settling 
his accounts with the Company he sailed in 1699 
for England. During his absence his father had 
died, leaving his properly to his son, and Covernor 
Yale chose as his residence the house, Plasgronow, 
which his father had bought in Wrexham. He also 
built a large town house in London and lived the 
life of a wealthy retired merchant. In May 171 1 
Mr. Jeremiah Dummer, agent at London for the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay, wrote the Rev. 
James Pierpont, first Rector of the " Collegiate 
School," which was to become Yale College, " Here 
is Mr. Yale, formerly Governor of Fort St. Ceorge in 
the Indies, who has got a prodigious estate and now 
sends for a relative of his from Connecticut to make 
him his heir, having no son. He told me lately 
that he intended to bestow a charity upon some 
College in Oxford — but I think he should much 
rather do it to your College, seeing he is a New 
England, and I think a Connecticut man. If there- 
fore, when his kinsman comes over, you will write 
him a proper letter on that subject, I will take care 
to press it home." Dummer probably kept his 
promise for about this time Governor Yale showed 
his interest in the College by presenting to it thirty 
or forty books, a remarkably well chosen collection. 
In 1 7 16 when the College was moved to New 
Haven and the huge wooden " College House" was 
raised, the Trustees found themselves without funds 
to finish it. They appealed to Dr. Cotton Mather 
of Boston to help them and on January 14, 17 18, 
he wrote to Governor Yale in these historic words, 
"Sir, though you have felicities in your family, 
which, I pray, God continue and multiply, yet cer- 
tainly, if what is forming at New Haven might wear 
the name of Va/f Co/kgc, it would be better than a 
name of sons and daughters. And your munificence 
might easily obtain for you a commemoration and 
perpetuation of your valuable name which would 
indeed be much better than an Egyptian pyramid." 
This letter, with Dummer's efforts, was most success- 
ful. On June 11 there were shipped to Boston 
three bales of goods to be sold for the benefit of the 
College and with them a portrait of George I by, 
Kneller (still to be seen in the Yale .Art School), an 
escutcheon of the royal arms, and a large box of 
books, all valued at ;^8oo. It was a munificent gift 
for those times, in fact the largest which the College 



received for more than a century. News of this gift 
reached New Haven a few days before Commence- 
ment and great was the rejoicing. The Trustees, in 
the presence of Ciovernor Saltonstall, the Lieutenant- 
Governor and the whole Superior Court, first most 
solemnly " named our C'ollege by the name of Yale 
College." They then sent a fulsome letter of thanks, 
at which, says Dummer, (jovernor Yale was much 
pleased. In February 1721, he sent more goods 
valued at ^100 and promised Dummer to "send 
^200 sterling per annum during his life and make a 
settled annual inovision to take place after his 
death." But, as Dummer added, " old gentlemen 
are forgetful," and this promise was never carried out. 
On July S, 1721, ]'',lihu \'ale died at his London 
house. He was burieil in Wrexham cluirch yard, 
where his altar-tomb still stamls. It bears this 
famous epitaph : 

" Born in .Anieiici. in Europe bred, 
In Afric travell'd and in .\sia wed, 
Where long he lived and tliiived; in London dead. 
Much good, some ill. he did, so ho|)es all 's even. 
And that his soul thio nieicy 's gone to heaven. 
Vou that survive and read this lale take care 
For this most certain e.\it to prepare. 
Where blest in peace the actions of the just 
Smell sweet and blossom in the silent dust." 

He had married in Madras, Catherine Hynmers by 

whom he had a son who died in infancy and three 

daughters. The eldest married Dudley North and 

their grandson, Dudley Long North, was Elihu 

Yale's last direct descenilant. He was a member of 

Parliament, and a friend of Dr. Johnson. In 1789 

he presented to the College the famous portrait of 

Elihu Yale, which now hangs in Alumni Hall. 



MATHER, Samuel, 1650-1728. 

Born in Dorchester, Mass., 1650; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1671 ; Pastor at Windsor, Conn., 1682 ; Trustee 01 
Yale, 1701-1724; died in Windsor, Conn, 1728. 

SAMUEL MATHER, Trttstee of Yale, was born 
in Dorchester, Massachusetts, July 5, 1650, 
son of Rev. Timothy Mather, and grandson of Rev. 
Richard Mather, the progenitor of the .Mather fainily 
in New England. He was graduated at Han'ard in 
1671, and in 1682 was ordained Pastor of the Con- 
gregational Church in ^\■indsor, ('onnecticut, which, 
then in a weak and ununited condition, was brought 
under his charge to a state of unity and prosperity. 
He was the author of several religious books, and 
was for many years (i 701-17 24) an influential 
Trustee of ^"ale. He died in Windsor, Connecticut, 
March iS, 1728. 



62 



UNIVERSITIES AND rHEIR SONS 



ALEXANDER, Archibald, 1772-1851. 

Born in Virginia, 1772 ; attended Academy of Rev. 
William Graham now Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity; Tutor in private family; licensed to preach, 
1751 ; President Hampden Sydney College, Va. ; Pas- 
tor of Pine St. Presbyterian church, Phila. ; received 
D, D. degree from Princeton, 1810; Professor in 
Princeton Theological Seminary ; Trustee of Prince- 
ton, 1824-51 ; died in Princeton, N. J., 1851. 

ARCHIBALD ALKXANDER, D.D., Trustee of 
Princeton, was born April 17, 1772, son of 
W illiam .Mcxander, a farmer of Rockbridge county, 
Virginia ; he died in Princeton, New Jersey, October 




became President of Hampden Sydney College, 
\irginia, but resigned in 1801 and visited New 
York antl New Kngland. Subsequently he resumed 
his Presidency, but soon after again retired, and in 
1807 became Pastor of the Pine Street Presbyterian 
Church in Philadelphia. In 18 10 the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by the 
College of New Jersey. On the organization of the 
Theological Seminary at Princeton, in 1S12, he was 
unanimously chosen as the leading Professor. As 
the number of students increased and other Pro- 
fessors were added to the faculty, he directed his 
attention more particularly to the department of 
pastoral and polemic theology, in promoting which, 
together with the general interests of the institution, 
he labored with zeal and success until his death, a 
period of nearly forty years. From 1824 until his 
death he officiated as a Trustee of Princeton College. 
Dr. Alexander's powers both for pulpit oratory and 
polemic disijuisition were extraordinary. His in- 
dustry was great, and from 1829 to 1850 scarcely 
a number of the Princeton Review appeared with- 
out an article from his pen. His published works 
are many, the first of which, Outlines of the Evi- 
dences of Christianity, has been translated into 
various foreign languages and is used as a text- 
book in Colleges. Among his posthumous works 
was a collection of Biographical Sketches of Dis- 
tinguished American Clergymen and Alumni of the 
College of New Jersey. 



ARCHIBALD ALEXANDER 

2 2, 1 85 1. His grandfather, of Scottish descent, 
came from Ireland to Pennsylvania in 1736 remov- 
ing to Virginia two years later. Archibald attended 
the academy of Rev. William Graham, which 
subsequently developed into Washington and Lee 
L' niversity — and at the age of seventeen became 
a Tutor in a private family, but after a few months 
resumed his studies with his former teacher. Be- 
coming influenced at this time by the remarkable 
movement still spoken of as " the great revival," he 
turned his attention to the study of divinity, and 
was licensed to preach in 1791. In 1794 he was 
ordained by the Presbytery of Hanover, and for 
seven years was an itinerant Pastor in Charlotte and 
Prince Edward counties, Virginia. In 1796 he 



BELCHER, Jonathan, 1681-1757. 

Born in Mass., 1681 ; graduated at Harvard, 1699; 
entered business; Agent of the Colony to England, 
1729; Governor of Mass. and N. H.; Governor of N. 
J., 1747 ; died at Elizabethtown, N. J., 1757. 

JONATHAN BELCHER, Benefactor of Harvard 
and Princeton, and Colonial Governor of the 
Provinces of Massachusetts, New Hampshire and 
New Jersey, was a native of Massachusetts. He was 
born January 8, 1681, son of Andrew Belcher, a 
member of the Provincial Council, and a gentleman 
of large estate ; he died in Elizabethtown, New 
Jersey, August 31, 1757. He was graduated at 
Harvard in 1699, and then spent a period of several 
years in Europe, where in his visits to the Court of 
Hanover he made the acquaintance of the Princess 
Sophia and her son, afterwards George I. of Eng- 
land, and thus prepared the way for his future 
advancement. On his return he established him- 
self as a merchant in Boston. In 1729 he was sent 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



63 



to Engl.ind as the Agent of the Colony, nml on the terian church, N. Y. City; Trustee of Princeton, 1851- 
death of Governor Ihirnet in i 730, lie was appointed 



Governor of ^[assachusett.s and New Hampshire, 
which office he filled for eleven years, distinguishing 




JCINATHAN BKI.CHKR 

himself by his hospitahty and style of living. He 
was throughout his administration an active pro- 
moter of the interests of Harvard. In 1747 he 
was appointed Governor of New Jersey. Here his 
government was successful, for although he found 
the province in confusion and the two branches of 
the Legislature at odds, his prudence and firmness 
went far to harmonize matters, and brought about a 
state of comparative tranquillity. He enlarged the 
Charter of the College of New Jersey, and was its 
chief patron anil benefactor, donating to it, besides 
other presents, his valuable library. 



59 ; died in Red Sweet Springs, Va., 1859. 

J.\MKS\\".M)l)i:i, .\I.i;.\AXi)i;R, D.D., Tutor 
and Professor in Princeton and 'Irustee of tliat 
institution, was born near Gordonsvillc, Louisa 
county, Virginia, March 13, 1804; died in Red 
Sweet Springs, Virginia, July 31, 1859. He was 
the son of Dr. Archibald Alexander and Janetia 
Waddel, daugliter of the Rev. Dr. Waddel, the 
celebrateil blind preacher. He receiveil liis aca- 
demical training in I'liiladelphia, was graduated at 
Princeton in 1820, and studied theol(.>gy in Princeton 
Seminary. Subseijuently lu- was ajipointed a Tutor 
in the College. In 1S24 he was licensed to preach 
by the Presbytery of New lirunswick, and from 
1825 to 1828 was in charge of a church in Charlotte 
county, Virginia. From 182S to 1830 he was 
Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in Trenton, 
New Jersey ; but his health failing, he resigned, and 
for some time thereafter edited 'I'hc Presbyterian 
in Philadelphia. In 1833 he became I'rofessor of 
Rhetoric and Belles-lettres in Princeton, and filled 
this position until 1844, when he assumed charge 




JAMES W. ALEXANDER 



ALEXANDER, James Waddel, 1804-1859. 

Born near Gordonsville, Va , 1804 ; received his aca- 
demical training at Phila. ; graduated at Princeton, 
1820 ; studied theology in Princeton Seminary ; licensed 
to preach, 1824 ; Pastor First Presbyterian church in 

Trenton, N. J. ; Editor The Presbyterian in Phila. ; of the Duane Street Church in New Vork City. 
Prof. Rhetoric and Belles-lettres at Princeton I Pastor I"romi844 to 185 I he was Professor of Fcclesias- 
Duane St. Church in N. Y. City; Prof. Ecclesiastical ^.^_^j ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^,^^ Government in Princeton 

History and Church Government in Princeton Theo- ■' 1 1 ■ 1 .1 

logical Seminary ; Pastor of the Fifth Avenue Presby- T'heological Scmmary, and from 1 85 I until his death 



64 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



was a Trustee of Princeton College. In 1S51 he 
was called to the Pastorate of the Fifth Avenue 
Presbyterian Church in New York, which he held 
during the remainder of his life. Forty Years' 
Familiar Letters of James W. Alexander was pub- 
lished by the then surviving correspondent, the late 
Rev. Jolni Hall, D.D. 



BOUDINOT, Elias, 1740-1821. 

Born in Philadelphia, Penn., 1740; practised Law in 
New Jersey; was Commissary-General of Prisoners 
during the Revolutionary War: President of the Con- 
tinental and member of the first three National Con- 
gresses ; devoted much time and wealth to benevolent 
and philanthropic work; Trustee and Benefactor of 
Princeton; a writer of celebrity ; died, 1821. 

LIAS BOUDINOT, LL.D., Trustee of Prince- 
ton, was the great-grandson of a French 
Huguenot of the same name who subsequent to the 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, took refuge in 



E 




a member of the first three Federal Congresses and 
Director of the United States Mint at Philadelphia, 
from 179s to 1805. He contributed liberally to 
foreign missions and to the American Bible Society, 
of which latter he was the first President, and his 
generosity toward objects of philanthropy and benev- 
olence required the expenditure of large sums from 
his ample fortune. Among the many bequests was 
one of thirteen thousand acres of land to be used 
for providing the poor of Philadelphia with fire-wood 
at a nominal price ; another of three thousand acres 
to the Philadelphia Hospital for the benefit of for- 
eigners, and another of $200 to purchase spec- 
tacles for the aged poor. Dr. Boudinot served upon 
the Board of Trustees of Princeton from 1772 until 
his death, which occurred October 24, 1S21, and he 
increased its facilities by the presentation of a zoo- 
logical cabinet. He was the author of : The .■Xge of 
Revelation, a reply to Paine's Age of Reason ; an 
Oration before the Society of the Cincinnati ; Second 
Advent of the Messiah ; Star in the West, or an 
Attempt to Discover the long-lost Tribes of Israel ; 
and a Memoir of the Rev. William Tennent, D.D., 
published anonymously in the Evangelical Intelli- 
gencer. 



ELIAS BOUDINOT 

America. Born in Philadelphia, May 2, 1740, he 
acquired a liberal education both classical and legal. 
He engaged in the practice of his profession at Bur- 
lington, New Jersey, and became one of the most 
distinguished lawyers of his day. During the War for 
Independence, he served as Commissary-General of 
Prisoners. As President of the Continental Con- 
gress he signed the Treaty with Great Britain ; was 



BRACKETT, Cyrus Fogg, 1833- 

Born in Parsonsfield, Me., 1833 ; prepared for College 
at the common school and at Parsonsfield Academy ; 
graduated from Bowdoin, Class of 1859 ; graduated in 
Medicine at the Maine Medical School (Bowdoin) in 
1863 ; appointed to a Chair of Instruction in Bowdoin 
in 1863, and continued in the service of the College 
until 1873; in 1873 accepted the Henry Professorship 
of Physics in Princeton which chair he still fills. 

CYRUS FOGG BRACKEIT, M.D., LL.D., 
Henry Professor of Physics at Princeton, 
was born in Parsonsfield, Maine, June 25, 1833, son 
of John and Jemima (Lord) Brackett. His paternal 
grandfather, John Brackett, traced his ancestry back 
to the progenitor of all the Bracketts in this country, 
who was in the early Massachusetts settlement and 
whose remains lie in an old burial ground at Quincy, 
Massachusetts. His maternal grandfather was the 
Rev. Wentworth Lord, who served in the Revolu- 
tionary Army and was present with Washington at 
the surrender of the British forces. Professor 
Brackett was prepared for College at the common 
school of his native town and at Parsonsfield Semi- 
nary. He graduated from Bowdoin in the Class of 
1859, and afterwards studied medicine at the Maine 
Medical School (Bowdoin) , from which he graduated 



UNIl'hlRSiriES ,1ND fllEIli SONS 



(^s 



1111863. He was appointed to a cliair of instruction after his grand-uncle, Arnold Cuyot, the scic-ntisl. 
in liowdoin in 1S63, and continued in the service of On the paternal side he is of Scotch descent, and 
the College until 1873. At the commencement of on the maternal side he is of Swiss descent, since 
the Academic year 1S73, he accepted the Henry the year 1400, also h'rench Huguenot, the maternal 

line having been driven from France into Switzer- 
land in 1 686, after the Revocation of the lulict of 
Nantes, in October 16S5. In his early youth he 
stuilied in I'airopc and America, entered Princeton 
in 1S82, and graduated in the Class of 1S86, when 
he received the only ilouble honor in his Class, in 
Greek and in I'aiglish. In his Senior year he won 
the Knglish Literature prize, was for three consecu- 
tive years prize medallist of the American \\'hig 
Society, one of the two great literary societies of the 
University, and was an lOdiior of the Nassau J.iterary 
Magazine. He spent the year 1886-1887 in grad- 
uate study at Princeton, receiving the degree of 
Master of .Arts in 188S. He went to Europe in 
1887 and remained a \i-ar and a (|uartcr. He was 
called thence to the Professorship of the French and 
Oerman Language and Literature at Miami Univer- 
sity, in the fall of 1888, and held this ]JOsition for 
three years, when he went to \'ale as .Assistant Pro- 



C. F. BRACKEIT 

Professorship of Physics in Princeton, and still con- 
tinues to fill this chair. In politics he is a Republi- 
can. He was married in 1864 to Alice A. Briggs. 
They have no children. 




CAMERON, Arnold Guyot, 1864- 

Born in Princeton, N. J., 1864; received his early 
education at schools in Europe and in Princeton ; grad- 
uated Princeton, Class of 1886 ; took post-graduate 
work in Princeton, receiving the degree of Master of 
Arts in 1888; went to Europe in 1887 and remained a 
year and a quarter; was called thence to Miami Uni- 
versity, Oxford, Ohio, as Professor of the French and 
German Language and Literature, in 1888 ; received 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Princeton in 
i8gi ; was Assistant Professor of French, but in full 
charge of the Department, in the Sheffield Scientific 
School, of Yale, 1891-1897; called to Princeton as Pro- 
fessor of French in the John C. Green School of Science 
in 1897. 

ARNOLD GUYOT CAMERON, Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor of French at Princeton, was born in 
Princeton, New Jersey, March 4, 1864, son of Henry 
Clay and Mina (Chollet) Cameron. He was named 

VOL. II. — 5 




A. GUYOT CAMERON 

fessor of French in the Sheffield Scientific School. 
This year (1891). he received the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy from Princeton, upon results of his 
work, examinations and thesis in Greek, Philosophy 



66 



UNI^ERSITJES JND THEIR SONS 



and Pedagogy. Since 1897 lie lias been Professor 
of French in the John C Cheen School of Science 
in Princeton. During the last part of his Professor- 
ship at Miami, he was Clerk of the Faculty. On his 
retirement from Vale, where, for his six successive 
years, departing Senior Classes in the Scientific 
School had voted him their brightest, most popular, 
and still other qualities. Professor, the Class of 
1 89 7 of the Sheffield Scientific School presented him 
with a silver loving cup and deiHcated to him their 
Class-Book with a beautiful tribute. Professor 
Cameron has contributed various critiques and 
articles to the Educational Review, New York Inde- 
pendent, New York Tribune and Modern Language 
Notes, has delivered numerous public addresses and 
is Editor of a number of text-books in Modern Lan- 
guage study. He is a member of the American 
ISfodern Language Association, of the ISerzelius So- 
ciety of Yale, the Princeton Club of New York, the 
American Institute of AicliKology, the Colonial Club 
and the Nassau Club of Princeton, and an honorary 
member of the Caledonian Club of New Haven. 
He is unmarried. 



BURR, Aaron, 1716-1757. 

Born in Fairfield, Conn., 1716; graduated at Yale, 
1735; took a post-graduate course; studied theology; 
Pastor at Newark, N. J. 1738; conducted a Latin 
School; President of Princeton; died in Princeton, 
N. J., 1757- 

AARON BURR, second President of the Col- 
lege of New Jersey, was born in Fairfield, 
Connecticut, January 4, 1716; died September 24, 
1757. He came of a Puritan family that for three 
generations had given men of eminence to church 
and state. He was graduated at Yale in 1735, in 
liis nineteenth year, having gained one of the three 
Berkeley scholarships, which entitled him to main- 
tenance at the College for two years after gradua- 
tion. Experiencing religion while pursuing his 
post-graduate studies, he at once turned his atten- 
tion to theology, and was ordained at Newark, New 
Jersey, in 173S. At the age of twenty-two he be- 
came Pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Newark, 
where he soon acquired a wide reputation as a pulpit 
orator, and where he continued for nine years, also 
conducting a large and successful Latin School for 
boys. He prepared for his pupils a Latin grammar 
known as the " Newark Grammar " which was long 
in use at Princeton. On the death of President 
Dickinson in 1747, he assumed charge of the Col- 



lege, and in the following year, at the age of thirty- 
two, lie was elected President under the new Charter, 
and for eight years he continued to serve in that 
office without abandoning his pastoral labors. In 
1756 he resigned his charge at Newark and took up 
his residence at Princeton, where he died within a 
year from overwork, leaving two children, Sarah and 
.\aron. He had married, in 1752, Esther, daughter 
of Jonathan Edwards of Stockbridge, Massachusetts. 
President Burr, as scholar, preacher, author and 
educator, was one of the foremost men of his time. 
To his more solid (qualities were added a certain 




AARON BURR 

peculiar grace and distinguished style of manner, 
which re-appeared in his son. Though nominally 
the second President of Princeton, he was practi- 
cally the first, since President Dickinson, his prede- 
cessor, lived to serve only a few months. He was 
in a true sense its founder, and the College may be 
said to be his monument. 



CAMERON, Henry Clay, 

Born in Shepherdstown, Va. ; fitted for College at 
the Academy of the Rev. James McVean, Georgetown, 
D. C. ; entered Junior Class in the College of New 
Jersey in 1845, and was graduated in the Centennial 
Class, June, 1847; taught for three years after gradu- 
ation, 1847-1850 ; studied Theology in Princeton Theo- 



UNIFERSiriES AND rilEIR SONS 



h 



logical Seminary, 1850-1855 ; Joint Principal of Edgehill 
or College Grammar School, 1851-1852 ; Tutor in Greek 
1.1 Princeton, 1852-1855; was Adjunct Professor of 
Greek, 1855-1860: spent one year 1857-1858 in study 
and travel in Europe ; returned to Princeton as Asso- 
ciate Professor of Greek, i85o-i86i ; Professor of Greek, 
13J1-1877; has been Professor of Greek Language and 
Literature since 1877; was Instructor in French from 
1859 to 1868; Librarian, from 1865-1873, and has been 
Clerk of the Faculty since 1882. He was licensed to 
preach by the Presbytery of Philadelphia in 1859, and 
was ordained by the same body in 1863. Received 
honorary degrees from Princeton in 1866. from Rutgers 
in 1875, and also from Wooster in 1875. 

H1';NRY clay CAMERON, D.D., Professor 
of Greek Language and Literature at 
rrinceton, was born in Sheplierdstown, Virginia, 
son of John and Anna (McFall) Cameron; his 
father being a native of Virginia, and his mother 
of ALaryland. He is of Scotch, Danish, German, 
French (Huguenot), Enghsh, and Scotch-Irish de- 
scent. The progenitor of his branch of the Clan 
Cameron, family of Kin-Loch, was John, the third 
son of Ewen Cameron, thirteenth of Lochiel. Llis 
great-grandfather was in the battle of Culloden, his 
grandfather was a soldier of the Revolution, and his 
father was in the War of 181 2-1 Si 4. His elemen- 
tary education was received at Shepherdstown, 
Virginia and Hancock, ALaryland ; his classical 
education was obtained at the Academy of the Rev. 
James McYean in Georgetown, District of Columbia, 
from 1840 to 1845. He entered the Junior Class 
of Princeton, August 8, 1S45, and was graduated in 
the Centennial Class, June 30, 1847. After gradu- 
ation he taught for three years, and in 1850 began 
the study of theology in Princeton Theological Sem- 
inary, and while pursuing his studies there also acted 
as joint Principal of Edgehill or College Grammar 
School for the year 1 851-185 2, and from 1852 to 
1855 was Tutor in Greek in the College. He was 
promoted to Adjunct Professor of Greek in 1855, a 
position he filled until i860, w'hen he was made 
.Associate Professor of the same. The year 1S57- 
1858 he spent in study and travel in Europe, chiefly 
in Paris and Italy; was Associate Professor of Greek 
in i860, and in 1861 was made Professor of the 
same language in Princeton. Since 1877 he has 
been Professor of Greek Language and Literature in 
the University. During these years devoted to 
teaching Greek, he also at one time gave instruction 
in Latin, and was Instructor in French from 1859 
to 1868. He was also Librarian from 1865 to 1S73, 
and since 1882 has been Clerk of the Faculty. He 
was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Phila- 



delphia in 1859, and was ordained by the same 
body, F'ebruary i, 1863. He has received the hon- 
orary degrees of Doctor of Philosophy from Prince- 
ton 1866, and Doctor of Divinity from Rutgers and 
Wooster in 1875. Professor Cameron has been 
twice Moderator of the Presbytery of New Bruns- 
wick, and twice a Commissioner to the General 
.Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. In 1876 he 
was appointed by President Grant, a member of the 
Poard of Visitors at West Point. He is a member 
and Historian of the American Whig Society (a lit- 
erary society of Princeton), also Vice-President of 




HENRY CI.AV CAMERON 

the Princeton Battle Monument Association. Pro- 
fessor Cameron has written numerous articles for 
encyclopaedias and reviews, and among the addresses 
that he delivered the following have been published ; 
Jonathan Dickinson and the Rise of Colleges in 
.Vmerica ; A Student's Reminiscences of Professor 
Joseph Henry, included in the Volume on Professor 
Henry published by order of Congress; \\\ address 
at the inauguration of the Hon. William L. Wilson 
as President of Washington and Lee University; 
The History of the .American Whig Society, one of 
the literary societies at Princeton ; The Battle of 
Princeton, etc. ; also he was co-author with his son, 
Professor Arnold Guyot Cameron, of a series of 
classical maps. In politics, he is a Republican. 
He was marrieil, September 14, 185S, to Mina 



68 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Chollet, aiul has one chikl living, Arnold Guyot 
Cameron, I'h.l)., I'ro feasor of French at Princeton. 



COLLINS, Varnum Lansing, 1870- 

Born in Hong Kong, China, 1870; fitted for College 
in London and on the European Continent ; entered 
Princeton in 1888 and graduated in the Class of 1892 ; 
Professor of Greek and Latin, Moores Hill College, 
Ind., 1892-1893 ; took post graduate courses in modern 
languages Princeton, 1893-1894; Assistant in Princeton 
University Library, 1894-1896 ; Librarian's Secretary, 
1896-1897 ; Reference Librarian, 1897. 

VARNUM LANSING COLLINS, Reference 
Librarian at Princeton, was born in Hong 
Kong, China, December i, 1S70, son of the Rev. 




V. LANSING COLLINS 

Varnum D. Collins and Mary L. H. Ball, widow of 
the Rev. John P. French. His flither comes of an 
old Dutch firmily of New York, and his mother is a 
descendant of the New England Balls. His early 
education was obtained in London, England, with 
two years of study on the European Continent. He 
entered Princeton in 1888, and was graduated with 
the Class of 1892. The following year he accepted 
the Professorship of Greek and Latin at Moores 
Hill College, Indiana. In 1S93 he returned to 
Princeton for graduate study in modern languages, 
after which he became Assistant in the University 



Library at Princeton until 1896, when he was ap- 
pointed Librarian's Secretary. In 1897 he became 
Reference Librarian of the Princeton L'niversity 
Library, which position he now holds. Mr. Collins 
is a member of the Nassau and the Tiger Inn Clubs 
of Princeton, the Princeton Club of Philadelphia, 
the New Jersey Library Association, and the Ameri- 
can Library Association. He is unmarried. 



DUFFIELD, John Thomas, 1823- 

Born in McConnellsburg, Penn., 1823; fitted for Col- 
lege at the Academy at Bedford, Penn. ; entered Soph- 
omore Class at Princeton 1838: graduated in the Class 
of 1841 ; entered Princeton Theological Seminary in 
1844, and completed theological studies while acting as 
Tutor in the College; ordained by the Presbytery of 
New Brunswick in 1851 ; was Pastor of the Second 
Presbyterian Church of Princeton for two years ; ap- 
pointed Tutor in Greek in Princeton in 1845; made 
Adjunct Professor of Mathematics in 1854; and Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Mechanics in 1862; was 
Moderator of the Synod of New Jersey at its meeting 
in Princeton in 1865; preached the funeral discourse of 
ex-President Maclean August 13, 1880; received the 
degree of D.D. from the College of New Jersey in 
1873, and that of LL.D. from Lake Forest University 
in i8go. 

JOHN THOMAS DUFFIELD, D.D., LL.D., 
Professor of Mathematics and Mechanics at 
Princeton, was born in McConnellsburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, February 19, 1823, son of William and Anna 
M. (Fletcher) Duffield. His great-great-grand- 
father, George Duffield, came from Ballymena, 
Ireland, to Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, in 1730. 
His great-grandfather, William, was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of Pennsylvania in 
1776. His great-grand-uncle, George, a graduate of 
the College of New Jersey in 1754, was Chaplain of 
the Continental Congress. Professor Dufifield was 
prepared for College at the Academy in Bedford, 
Pennsylvania. He entered the Sophomore Class of 
the College of New Jersey in 1838, and graduated 
in 1841. He entered the Princeton Theological 
Seminary to prepare for the ministry, and while 
pursuing his theological studies, he also acted as 
Tutor in the College ; receiving the appointment of 
Tutor in Greek at Princeton, 1845, and that of Ad- 
junct Professor of Mathematics in 1847. On Feb- 
ruary 5, 185 1, he was ordained by the Presbytery of 
New Brunswick, and for two years had pastoral charge 
of the Second Presbyterian Church of Princeton. 
In 1S54 he was made Professor of Mathematics at 
Princeton, and in 1862 Professor of Mathematics 



UNIVERSmES AND THEIR SONS 



69 



and Mechanics. He received tlie degree of T)octor 
of Divinity from Princeton in 1873, and that of 
Doctor of Laws from Lake Forest University in 1890. 
In 1 85 2, Professor Duflield published the Princeton 
Pulpit ; in 1866, by request, he jiublished a Discourse 
on the second Advent ; and in the same year an 
article on the Discovery of the Law of Gravitation. 
An article on the Philosophy of Mathematics 
appeared in 1867 and was followed in 1878 by an 
article on Evolutionary and Biblical Anthropology. 
At the funeral of President ]\Liclean, August 13, 
1 886, Professor Duffield preached the discourse, 




taa 



JOHX T. DUFFIELU 

which was afterwards published at the request of the 
Board of Trustees. He was Moderator of the 
Syno<l of New Jersey at its meeting in Princeton in 
1S65, and is President of the Board of Education 
in Princeton. He is also a member of the Clioso- 
phic Society of Princeton. \n politics he is a Re- 
publican. He was married December 30, 1852, to 
Sarah Elizabeth Green of Trenton, New Jersey. 
Their children are: Howard, John Fletcher, Henry 
Green, Helen Kennedy, Sarah Green and I^dward 
Dickinson Duflield. 



EDWARDS, Jonathan, 1703-1758. 

Born in East Windsor, Conn., 1703: graduated at 
Yale, 1720; studied theology; Pastor in N. Y. City; 



Tutor at Yale; Pastor in Northampton, Mass. ; Mis- 
sionary to the Housatonnuck Indians; President of 
Princeton; died in Princeton, N. J., 1758. 

JOX.VniAX i;i)\\\Rl)S, third President of 
Princeton, was born in Ivist \\'indsor, Con- 
necticut, October 5, 1703. He was tlie only son 
of Rev. Timothy Edwards, who presided over the 
church in ICast Windsor for nearly si.xly-four years, 
and at the age of eighty-si.\ the society at his re- 
quest voted to lighten his labor by providing an 
Assistant Pastor; he died January 27, 1758. His 
wife was a daughter of the ]<ev. Solomon Stoddard, 
of Northampton, M:issachusetts, and a woman of 
superior mental attainments. She died in her 
ninety-ninth ye:ir. They were the j)arents of eleven 
children, and Jonathan, wiio was tiie fifth born, was 
graduated from Vale in 1 720, having entered College 
at the age of twelve years. Moral philosophy and 
divinity were his favorite studies, and becoming 
thoroughly convinced of the absolute sovereignty of 
God, as well as the perfect justice of salvation and 
damnation, he determined to devote the rest of his 
life to the ministry. After completing his theolog- 
ical studies he was in 1722 called to the Pastorate 
of a Presbyterian Church in the City of New York, 
where he remained eight months. Returning to East 
Windsor for a visit to his parents, he completed 
while there, a series of seventy resolutions, embody- 
ing the highest degree of perfection attainable by 
mortals, and although the self-sacrifice and lofty 
aspirations contained in tliem are considered beyond 
the reach of ordinary people, yet they have exercised 
a deep influence over the religious feelings of the 
succeeding generations. Declining several calls, 
including one to return to New York, he accepted a 
position as Tutor at Yale, which he filled wilii marked 
ability for two years, and in the summer of 1726 he 
resigned in order to become the colleague of his 
grandfather, Solomon Stoddard, in the Pastorate of 
the church at Northampton, to which he was or- 
dained in P'ebruary 1727. The death of the Senior 
Pastor in 1729 left the young minister to labor 
alone, and from that time forward his sermons 
were not only sought for antl read by intelligent 
people throughout the Colonies, but found many 
admirers in the Mother Country. His settlement 
in Northampton continueil without discord until 
1744, when trouble arose on account of the church 
refusing to investigate a charge that some of its 
younger members were reailing impure books, and 
the decided stand which he took in the matter 
weakened his influence to a considerable extent. 



70 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



He also condemned what was known as the " Half- 
Way Covenant," favored by his predecessor, by 
which unconverted people were admitted to partake 
of the Lord's Supper, and their children to the right 
of baptism. As the majority of the members were 
in favor of the new doctrine his opposition caused a 
demand for his dismissal, and after vainly trying to 
effect an amicable settlement he resigned his Pastor- 
ate on June 22, 1750. With a comparatively small 
income besides his salary, the loss of the latter was 
a severe blow to him, as at the time he had a large 
family to support, but sympathizing friends in Scot- 




JONATHAN EDWARDS 

land sent him a sum of money to relieve his im- 
mediate necessities, at the same time inviting him 
to take up his residence on the other side of the 
Atlantic. This proposition, together with a similar 
one from Virginia, he felt himself constrained to 
decline, preferring instead to accept a call from the 
London Society to engage in missionary work 
among the Housatonnuck Indians, and in August 
1751, he, accompanied by his family, moved to 
Stockbridge, Massachusetts. During the succeed- 
ing seven years he preached to the Indians without 
notes, and with the aid of an interpreter, his small 
income as Pastor of the white settlers being some- 
what augmented by the proceeds from the sale of 
needle-work executed by his wife and daughters. 



His stay in Stockbridge was productive of important 
results apart from bringing the gospel within reach 
of the savages, for the leisure at his disposal enabled 
him to accomplish some of his most notable literary 
efforts, and he had matured plans for no inconsider- 
able amount of work, when the death of his son-in- 
law. President Burr of Princeton, caused him to be 
unexpectedly called to that office, and he was in- 
stalled in February 1758. A severe epidemic of 
small-pox numbered him among its victims in 
March of the same year, and although he was per- 
mitted to administer the affairs of the College but 
thirty-four days, his scholarly ability became the 
wonder of the students, and his influence was felt 
among the Faculty and Instructors for many years 
subsequent to his demise. Jonathan Edwards died 
March 22, 1758, and was buried at Princeton. In 
1872 a red granite monument twenty-five feet high 
was erected to his memory at Stockbridge by his 
descendants. His works which are numerous are 
still regarded as highly instructive reading and some 
of the more notable are : an elaborate discourse on 
The Justification by Faith Alone ; another entitletl 
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, which was 
preached during the period of a religious revival ; 
a Treatise on Religious Affections ; The Freedom 
of the Will, published in 1754, and intended to 
conclusively settle the main points in dispute 
between the Calvinists and the Arminians, the 
former of whom he favored, but opposed the latter ; 
Inquiry into the Qualifications for Free Communion 
in the Church ; Original Sin ; True Nature of 
Christian Virtue ; Dissertation Concerning the End 
for which God Created the World ; History of the 
Redemption ; and A Life of David Brainard. On 
July 28, 1727, he married Sarah Pierrepont, the 
daughter of a Northampton clergyman. They had 
a large fixmily including several sons. Timothy, 
who was graduated from Princeton, was for some 
time a merchant at Elizabeth, New Jersey, but 
moved to Stockbridge about the year 1 7 70, and 
became Judge of Probate for Berkshire county. 
He was the father of fifteen children, among whom 
was William Edwards, the inventor of the present sys- 
tem of tanning leather. Jonathan Edwards, Jr. D.D. 
1745-1801, became a distinguished theologian and 
his life very much resembled that of his father, as 
both w-ere ripe scholars, were College Tutors for 
about the same length of time, were dismissed from 
their Pastorates on account of their doctrinal opin- 
ions, and both died shortly after their inauguration 
as College Presidents ; Jonathan Sr., in his fifty- 



UNIVERSITIES ANT) THEIR SONS 



7» 



fifth, and Jonathan Jr. in Iiis fifty-sevenlli yi-ar. 
I'ierrepont Edwards, youngest son of Jonatlian 
pAlwards St., was a graduate of Princeton and 
began the practice of hiw in New Haven, Con- 
necticut. He was appointed administrator of the 
estate of General Benedict Arnold, after the treason 
of that officer, served in the Continental Army, 
participating in two hard-fought battles; was a 
member of the Continental Congress of 1 787-1 788, 
and a delegate to the convention assembled to 
ratify the Federal Constitution. At the time of his 
death he was serving as Judge of the United States 
District Court. 



i'rinceton, and a number of the American I-",cononiif 
.\ssociation. He is independent in jjolitics, anil has 
made addresses favoring a revenue tariff and ojipos- 



DANIELS, Winthrop More, 1867- 

Born in Dayton, O., 1867; received his early educa- 
tion in the public schools and the Deaver Collegiate 
Institute of Dayton ; graduated Princeton, Class of 
1888 ; travelled abroad in 1888, i8go-gi ; spent two 
semesters at Leipsic University; was Instructor in 
Economics and Social Science at \A^esleyan University, 
Middletown, Conn., 1891-92; since 1892 has been Pro- 
fessor of Political Economy at Princeton. 

WINTHROP MORE DANIELS, A.M., Pro- 
fessor of Political Economy at Princeton, 
was born in Dayton, Ohio, September 30, 1867, son 
of Edwin Arthur and Mary Billings (Kilburn) 
Daniels, natives of Massachusetts, but of English 
ancestry. On the maternal side he is descended 
from Thomas Kilborne (the common ancestor of all 
the Kilburns in this country) who was born in the 
parish of Wood Ditton, County of Cambridge, in 
1578, whence he migrated to New England in 1635. 
The Daniels family came to this country and settled 
in Massachusetts sometime in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. His early education was obtained at home in 
the Dayton Public Schools, and at Deaver Collegiate 
Institute. He was graduated at Princeton in the 
Class of 1888, and spent part of that year and of 
the years 1890 and 1891 in foreign travel. He was 
a teacher of classics in the Princeton Preparatory 
School in 1888, which position he filled for two 
years, when he went abroad, and spent two semesters 
at the University of Leipsic, Germany, studying eco- 
nomics and history. Returning to this country in 
1891, he was appointed Instructor in Economics 
and Social Science at Wesleyan University, Middle- 
town, Connecticut, remaining there for a year, when, 
in 1S92, he was chosen Professor of Political Econ- 
omy at Princeton, which position he now holds. 
Professor Daniels is a member of the Reform Club 
of New York City, the Nassau and Colonial Clubs of 




W. M. UANIEI-S 



ing free silver. He was married in 1898 to Joan 
Robertson of Montville, Connecticut. He has re- 
cently published a treatise entitled Elements of 
Public Finance. 



DOD, Albert Baldwin, 1805-1845. 

Born in Mendham, N. J.. 1805; graduated at Prince- 
ton, 1822; taught at Fredericksburg, Va. ; studied the- 
ology at the Princeton Theological Seminary: Tutor 
at Princeton; licensed to preach; Prof. Mathematics 
at Princeton; declined the Chaplaincy and Professor- 
ship at West Point; received D.D. degree from the 
University of North Carolina, 1844, and from the Uni- 
versity of N. Y., 1845; died in Princeton, N. J., 1845. 

ALBERT BALDWIN DOD, D.D., Professor 
of Mathematics at Princeton, was born in 
Mendham, New Jersey, March 24, 1805; died in 
Princeton, November 24, 1845. He was the son 
of Thaddeus Dod, a graduate of Princeton in 1773, 
first President of Washington College (Pennsylvania), 
and founder of the first Presbytery west of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains. Like his father, Albert was noted 
for his mathematical acquirements, and for the ver- 
satility of his genius. His graduation at Princeton 
in 1 82 2 was witnessed by the Secretary of the Navy, 



72 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



who at once offered liim a position in the Xa\al 
service, which he dechned. After teaching for four 
years in Fredericksburg, Virginia, he entered Prince- 
ton Theological Seminary as a student in 1826, and 




ALDERT B. DOD 

at the same time was a Tutor in the College until 
1829, when he was licensed to preach by the New 
York Presbytery. In 1S30 he became Professor of 
Mathematics at Princeton, and held the chair until 
his death, in the mean time declining the Chaplaincy 
and Professorship of Moral Philosophy at West 
Point. Professor Dod frequently supplied pulpits 
in New York and Philadelphia. He was an eloquent 
preacher, and a learned lecturer on political econ- 
omy and architecture. The degree of Doctor of 
Divinity Was conferred upon him by the University 
of North Carolina in 1844, and by the University of 
New York in 1S45. He was a prolific contributor 
to the Princeton Review, and his articles have been 
published in book form under the title of Princeton 
Theological Essays. 



FINE, Henry Burchard, 1858- 

Bom in Chambersburg, Penn.. 1858 ; prepared for 
College in the public schools of Ogdensburg, N. Y., 
and Winona, Minn. ; graduated Princeton, Class of 
1880; spent one year in post graduate study at Prince- 
ton, as Fellow of Experimental Science; appointed 



Tutor of Mathematics in 1881 ; went to Leipsic in 1884 
and continued his mathematical studies, receiving his 
degree in 1885; appointed Assistant Professor of Math- 
ematics at Princeton in 1885 : has been Professor of 
Mathem.atics in the University since 1891. 

Hi:XRY ISURCHARD FINE, Ph.D., Profes- 
sor of Mathematics at Princeton, was born 
in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, September 14, 
1858, son of the Rev. Lambert Suydam and Mary 
P^ly (Burchard) Fine. His jiaternal grandfather 
was John Fine, a native of New York, a graduate of 
Columbia, and one of the pioneer settlers of Og- 
densburg. He was also, for many years, a judge 
in that district. His maternal grandfather was the 
Rev. Ely Rurchard of Clinton, New York, a grad- 
uate of Yale. He was prepared for College in the 
public schools of Ogdensburg, New York, and 
\\'inona, Minnesota, and graduated from Princeton 
in the Class of 18S0. After a year spent in grad- 
uate study at Princeton as fellow of experimental 
science, he was appointed Tutor of Mathematics, 
and held that position in the College until the early 
spring of 1884, wlien he went to Leipsic and con- 
tinued his mathematical studies receiving his degree 




H. B. FINE 



from the University in 1885. He returned to 
Princeton that year to accept the position of .Assist- 
ant Professor of Mathematics, and since 1891 has 
been Professor of the same. He is the author of 



UNlI'ERSiriES AND rilElIi SONS 



73 



The Number System of Algebra ; and a luimbcr of I'rincclon as Assistant to the Treasurer of the Col- 
mathematical papers. Professor Fine lias been lege a position lie holds at the present time. In 
Vice-President of the American iMathenialical June 1S92 he was made Assistant Treasurer of the 
Society. He was marrieil September 6, 1S8S, to University. He is a member of the Cliosophic 
I'hilena Foirs. They have three children ; John, Society, and of the Nassau, the Trenton Country 
Susan and Philena Fine. and the Tiger Inn Clubs. In [loliiics he is a Re- 
publican. He is unmarried. 



DUFFIELD, Henry Green, 1859- 

Born in Princeton, N. J., 1859; fitted for College at 
Princeton Preparatory School ; graduated Princeton, 
Class of 1881 ; engaged in the lumber business, in 
Trenton, N. J., 1881-1885; in Princeton as assistant to 
the Treasurer, College of N.J. from September 1885, 
to the present time ; Assistant Treasurer, since June 
1892. 

HICNRV GREEN DUFFIELD, Assistant Treas- 
urer at Princeton, was born in Princeton, 
New Jersey, August 16, 1859, son of John T. and 
Sarah E. (Green) Duffield. On his father's side 
he is of English extraction, on the maternal side 




H. G. DUFFIELD 

his ancestors were Scotch. His early education was 
received at the Princeton Preparatory School, and . 
he was graduated from Princeton in the Class of 
1 88 1. In September of that year he engaged in 
the lumber business, in Trenton, New Jersey, and 
four years after, in the fall of 1S85, returned to 



HALL, John, 1829 1898. 

Born in Ireland, 1829 : studied at Belfast College tak- 
ing special honors in Hebrew ; Missionary and Pastor 
previous to settling in New York City; Pastor of the 
Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, 1867, till his death ; 
Chancellor of the University of the City of New York 
1882; died in New York City, 1898. 

JOHN HALL, D.l)., LL.D., Trustee of Princeton 
and Lecturer in the Divinity School of Yale, 
was born in County Armagh, Ireland, July 31, 1829. 
His ancestors were originally from Scotland. At the 
Belfast College, which he entered at the unusually 
early age of thirteen years, he displayed marked 
proficiency in the Hebrew language, and was 
awarded several prizes. Receiving a license to 
preach in 1849 he was engaged in missionary work 
for some time and from 1852 to 1858 was Pastor of 
the First Presbyterian Church in Armagh. While 
occupying the pulpit of the Church of Mary's Abbey, 
Dublin ( now Rutland Square) he was appointed 
Honorary Commissioner of Education for Ireland 
by the Queen and also visited the United States as 
delegate from the Presbyterian Assembly of Ireland 
to that of the churches in America. His character 
and ability created a most favorable impression in 
New York City, which resulted in his receiving and 
accepting a call to the Pastorship of the Fifth 
Avenue Presbyterian Church, the duties of which 
he began in No\'ember 1867 and continued to per- 
form until his death, which occurred in 1898. For 
a period of thirty years Dr. Hall enjoyed the dis- 
tinction of being one of the most able and popular 
preachers on this side of the Atlantic, and the wealthy 
society over which lie presided erected especially 
for him a handsome church edifice at the corner 
of Fifth .Avenue and Fifty-fifth Street. He was a 
Trustee of Princeton from 186S until his death, and 
in 1874-75 he held the Lyman lieecher Lectureship 
on Preaching, at the Yale Divinity School. From 
1S82 he served as Chancellor of the University of 
the City of New York. He received the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity from Washington and Jefferson 
College in 1S66, and that of Doctor of Laws from 



74 



UNIVERSiriES AND "THEIR SONS 



Princeton and from Washington and Lee in 1885 
and from Columbia in 1886. Dr. Hall was an in- 
telligent and interesting writer. Some of his 
more notable works are : Family Prayers for Four 




JOHN HALL 

AVeeks ; Papers for Home Reading ; Familiar Talk 
with Boys ; God's Word Through Preaching ; Found- 
ation-Stones for Young Builders ; and \ Christian 
Home, How to Make and How to Maintain it. 



summation. Mr. Hazard before his removal to Phil- 
adeli)hia was an Elder in the Wall Street Presbyte- 
rian Church of New York. His son, Ebenezer 
Hazard — born in Philadelphia, January 15, 1744, 
died there June 13, 181 7 — was graduated at Prince- 
tun in 1762, was successively a member of a pub- 
lishing firm in New York, Postmaster of New York, 
and Postmaster-General of the United States, serv- 
ing in the latter capacity from January 1782 to 
September 1789. In 1791 he engaged in business 
in Philadelphia where he spent the remainder of his 
life. Like the elder Hazard he was active in efforts 
to improve the moral condition of the Indians, and 
while Postmaster of New York under the Committee 
of Safety he applied to Connecticut for a confirma- 
tion of the grant made to his father, but his appeal 
was denied. He was a Trustee of the Presbyterian 
General Assembly, and one of the founders of the 
North American Insurance Company. As an author 
he acquired an extended reputation, which still sur- 
vives. Besides publishing two volumes of Historical 
Collections, and Remarks on a Report Concerning 
Western Indians, he aided in writing Gordon's His- 
tory of the American AVar, Thompson's translation of 
the Bible, and Belknap's History of New Hampshire. 
The library of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
contains an extensive collection of his autograph 
letters. His son Samuel — born in Philadelphia, 
May 26, 1784, died there May 22, 1870 — was widely 
known as an archseologist, and as an author, mainly 
of historical, commercial and statistical works relat- 
ing to Pennsylvania. 



HAZARD, Samuel. 1714-1758. 

Born in 1714; became a prosperous merchant of 
Philadelphia; chief promotor of a colonization scheme 
to Christianize the Indians ; Elder in the Wall Street 
Presbyterian Church, N. Y. City; one of the incorpor- 
ators of Princeton ; died in 1758. 

SAMUEL H.\ZARD, one of the incorporators 
of Princeton, was a merchant of Philadelphia, 
born in 17 14 and died in 1758. He was noted as 
chief promoter of a colonization scheme having for 
its aim the Christianization of the Indians. In his 
efforts to carry out the project he " explored the 
territory to be colonized, had meetings with the In- 
dians, with whom he bargained for the land, and 
obtained a release from Connecticut of its claim to 
that section of country." He was prevented by the 
calamity of Braddock's defeat at Fort Duquesne, and 
by his early death, from bringing the project to con- 



FINLEY, Samuel, 1715-1766. 

Born in County Armagh. Ire,, in 1715; studied for the 
ministry at Phila. ; licensed to preach, 1742 ; Pastor at 
Milford, Conn.; and at Nottingham, Md.; President of 
Princeton. 1761 ; received D.D. degree from the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow, 1763; died in Philadelphia, 1766. 

SAMUEL FINLEY, D.D., fifth President of 
Princeton, was born in County .Armagh, 
Ireland, in 17 15, of Scottish ancestry. He was 
educated in his native country, and in i 734 came 
to this country and studied for the ministry in 
Philadelphia. In 1740, he was licensed to preach, 
was ordained by the New Brunswick Presbytery in 
1742, and the following year was sent to Milford, 
Connecticut, " with allowance that he also preach 
for other places thereabout, when Providence may 
open a door for him." Taking advantage of this 
permission, he accepted an invitation to preach to 



UNIl'KRSirrKS JND rilKIli SONS 



1<> 



the Second Society in New Haven ; but as this 
society was not recognized by the authorities, he 
was arrested under a law forbidding itinerants to 
preach in any parish without the regular Pastor's 




SAMUEL FINLEY 

consent, was indicted by the Grand Jury, tried, and 
sentenced to be carried out of the Colony as a 
vagrant. Subsequently Mr. Finley was settled as 
Pastor of a church in Nottingham, Maryland, where 
he remained for seventeen years, also conducting an 
academy at which he prepared young men for the 
ministry, and which acquired a great reputation. 
On the death of President Davies in 1761, he was 
chosen to the Presidency of Princeton, which office 
he held until his death. Mr. Finley was given the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1 763 by the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow, the first instance in which this 
honor was conferred on an American Presbyterian. 
He died in Philadelphia, July 17, 1766. 



GREEN, Ashbel, 1762-1848. 

Born in Hanover, N. J., 1762 ; entered the Army, 
served as Sergeant; graduated at Princeton. 1783; 
Tutor; Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philos- 
ophy at Princeton ; Pastor at Philadelphia : Chaplain 
to Congress ; Trustee. 1790, and President of Princeton, 
1812; President Board of Trustees of Princeton Theo- 
logical Seminary; Editor of the Christian Advocate; 



received LL.D. degree from the Univ. of North Caro- 
lina, 1812; died in Philadelphia, 1848. 

ASIli;i:i, (;R1;i:N, I.1..I>., eighth President of 
I'rinceton, and son of Jacob Green, Vice- 
Tresiik'nl of Princeton 1758-1759, was born in 
Hanover, .Morris county, New Jersey, July 6, 1762. 
The A\'ar of the Revolution came when he was 
studying and teaching for the purpose of fitting 
liimself mentally and financially to enter College, 
and in 1778 he entered the army, serving as Ser- 
geant until 1782. He then entered Princeton and 
was graduated in i 7 S3, becoming a Tutor the follow- 
ing year, and afterwards Professor of Mathematics 
and Natural Philosophy, in the College. In 1786, 
he was given a license to preach by the New Bruns- 
wick Presbytery, and in 17S7, was installed Pastor 
of the Second Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia. 
As a delegate to the General Assembly of his church 
in 1790, he moved a renewal of commtmications 
between the Presbyterian and the Congregational 
Church. In 1792, he was appointed Chaplain to 
Congress. He became a Trustee of Princeton in 
1790, and upon the rebuilding of the College build- 




ASHBEI. GREEN 



ings, which had been destroyed by fire in 1802, he 
was elected President of that institution. In the 
s.ame year, i<Si2, he was also elected President of 
the Board of Trustees of Princeton Theological 



/ 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Seminary. Dr. Green lulil the Presidency of 
Princeton initil 1S22, when he resigned and moved 
to Philadelphia, where he edited for twelve years 
the Christian Advocate, and for a time the As- 
sembly's Magazine, in the meantime supplying on 
frequent occasions vacant pulpits. 'I'he degree of 
Doctor of Laws was conferred on him in 181 2 by 
the University of North Carolina. He was a vol- 
uminous writer, and published many discourses and 
sermons, besides editing Doctor Witherspoon's works 
and an autobiography of his father. He died in 
Philadelphia, May ig, 1848. 



the Supreme Court of New Jersey, and in 1S60 be- 
came Chancellor, which office he held until his resig- 
nation in 1866 on accoimt of failing health. The 
remainder of liis life was given to study and to 
educational and charitable enterprises. Judge Green 
was a Trustee of Princeton from 1S50 to 1876. 
From 1833 until his death, a period of furty-one 
years, he was a Trustee of Princeton Theological 
Seminary, and for the last si.\teen years was President 
of the Board, of which his brother, John C. Green, 
was also a member. Princeton conferred on him the 
degree of Doctor of Laws in 1850. He died in 
Trenton, December 19, 1S76. 



GREEN, Henry Woodhull, 1802-1876. 

Born in Lawrenceville, N. J.. 1802; graduated at 
Princeton, 1820; studied law and admitted to the Bar; 
Chief-Justice Supreme Court of N. J., 1846 ; Chancellor, 
i860; Trustee of Princeton, 1850-1875 ; Trustee of 
Princeton Theological Seminary and President of the 
Board ; received the LL.D. degree from Princeton, 
1850; died in Trenton, N. J., 1876. 

HENRY W. GREEN, LL.D., Trustee of Prince- 
ton, was born in Lawrenceville, New Jersey, 
Septemlx-r 20, 1 802. He was graduated at Princeton 




HENRY W. GRKEN 



in 1S20, studied law, and after admission to the Bar 
in Trenton practised law in that city for over twenty 
years. In 1S46 he was appointed Chief-Justice of 



HARPER, George McLean, 1863- 

Born in Shippensburg, Pa., 1863; fitted for College 
at the Cumberland Valley State Normal School in 
Shippensburg ; graduated Princeton, Class of 1S84 ; 
was Reporter and Copy Editor on the New York 
Tribune, six months in 1884; studied one semester in 
Gottingen, and two and a half semesters in Berlin, 
1885-86 ; spent eight months in travel in Italy and 
England, 1887; studied at Paris, Tours and Siena, 
part of i88g, 1890; Second Assistant Editor of Scrib- 
ner's Magazine, September 1887, March 1889; ap- 
pointed Instructor in French at Princeton, 1889-91 ; 
promoted to Assistant Professor of French, Princeton, 
1891-93; Asst. Prof, of French and Instructor in 
Romance Languages, 1893-94 ; Professor of Romance 
Languages, 1894-95; Woodhull Professor of Romance 
Languages, 1895. 

Gi;ORGE McLEAN HARPER, Ph.D., Wood- 
hull Professor of Romance Languages at 
Princeton, was born in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, 
December 31, 1863, son of \\'illiam ^Vylie and 
Nancy Jane (McLean) Harper. On the paternal 
side he is of Scotch ancestry, the LLarpers having 
been for several generations thread-manufacturers in 
Glasgow, Scotland, whence his grandparents, the 
Rev. James and Christine Wylie LLtrper, migrated 
to America, about 1833. His firther, William \Vylie 
Harper, served as a Lieutenant in the Seventh Penn- 
sylvania Reserves during the War of the Rebellion. 
His maternal ancestors were Scotch- Irish, and were 
among the earliest settlers of .'\dams and Franklin 
counties, Pennsylvania, in 1731. He was fitted for 
College at the Cumberland Valley State Normal 
School in Shippensburg, and graduated at Princeton 
in the Class of 18S4. The year of his graduation 
he was, for six months, a reporter and Copy Editor 
on the New York Tribune. The next year, 1S85, he 
went abroad and spent a semester in study at Got- 
tingen, and two and a half semesters at Berlin. 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



77 



Eight months of the year 1SS7 were devotfd lo 
travel in Italy and England, then he returned to 
America to become Second Assistant Ivlitor of 
Scribner's Magazine, which office he hekl from 
September 188710 March 1889. In September of 
that year he was appointed Instructor in French at 
Princeton. Parts of this year, 1889, and of 1S90 
he spent abroad, studying at Paris, Tours and Siena. 
In 1 89 1 he was promoted to .Assistant Professor of 
French at Princeton, and in 189 :; he was Assistant 
Professor of French and Instructor in Romance 
Languages, at this College. He was made Professor 



i 



k 




GEO. M. HARPER 

of Romance Languages at Princeton in 1S94, and in 
1895 he was appointed Woodhull Professor of Ro- 
mance Languages, which chair he still fills. He is 
a member of the American Whig Society, the Nassau 
Club and the Philadelphian Society. He was mar- 
ried. May 9, 1895, to Belle Dunton Westcott. 'I'iiey 
have one child : Isabel Westcott Harper. 



HENRY, Joseph, 1797 or 9-1878. 

Born in Albany, N. Y., 1797 org; studied at the 
district school and the Albany Academy ; private 
Tutor in a family ; assistant to Dr. Beck in his Chemi- 
cal Experiments; Prof. Mathematics at the Albany 
Academy ; discoverer of the secondary current ; first 
to obtain an electric shock by purely magnetic in- 



duction ; Prof. Natural Philosophy, also filled the 
Chair of Chemistry and Mineralogy at Princeton; 
lectured on astronomy and architecture ; Sec. and 
Director of the Smithsonian Institute; scientific 
adviser to the various government departments ; 
member of the Lighthouse Board, and its Chairman 
from 1871 ; the Presidency of Princeton offered to him 
but was declined ; received LL.D f-om Union, 1829, 
and from Harvard, 1851 ; President American Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science, and of the 
National Academy of Science; died in Washington, 
1878. 

JOSi;i'lI IIKNRV, M.l)., LL.U., Professor of 
Natural Philosophy at Princeton, was born in 
.Albany, New York, December 17, 1797 or 99, the 
uncertainty of the year being caused by the illegi- 
bility of the record in the family Bible. He was of 
Scotch ancestry, his grandparents having emigrated 
about the year 1775, and his father died during 
Joseph's early boyhood. His mother was an intelli- 
gent, high-ininded woman w-ith a strongly defined 
character, and was a strict Presbyterian. Having 
divided his time for five years between his studies in 
the district school and attending to the duties of a 
clerk in a country store at Galway, near Albany, 
young Joseph at the age of fifteen was apprenticed 
to a silversmith in the last named city. In his 
youth he displayed a fondness for the histrionic art 
and seriously contemplated the adoption of the stage 
as a profession, but after reading Dr. Gregory's Lec- 
tures on Experimental Philosophy, .Astronomy and 
Chemistry, he was thenceforward attracted to the 
study of the sciences and obtained evening instruc- 
tion from the teachers at the Albany .Academy. He 
subsequently acquired by teaching school the pe- 
cuniary means necessary to defray the expenses of 
a regular course at the above-named institution, and 
at its completion he was recommended by Dr. 
Theodoric R. Peck as private Tutor to the children 
of General Stephen \'an Rensselaer, the patroon, his 
duties as such requiring his attendance upon his 
pupils three hours each day. He also gained much 
valuable knowledge as assistant to Dr. lieck in the 
latter's chemical experiments, at the same time 
studying anatomy and physiology, and in 1S25 he 
was engaged in engineering a state road from the 
Hudson River to Lake Erie. In the following year 
he became Professor of Mathematics at the Albany 
Academy, where he was given ample opjiortunity for 
investigating, by a long series of experiments, the 
nature, power anil possibilities of electricity, and 
his discoveries in that branch of science, which were 
both numerous and ini])ortant, included the " inten- 
sity " magnet whiih practically made possible the 



78 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



construction of the electric telegraph. His claim to 
priority over Professor Morse, though (juestioned by 
the latter, has never been confuted, and its validity 
was not only, however, proven by a paper published 
in Silliman's American Journal of Science in 183 1, 
in which he suggests the use of his discovery for the 
transmission of sound, but was afterwards sustained 
by Dr. Gale, who assisteil in developing the Morse 
instrument. Professor Henry was also the discoverer 
of the secondary current, and was the first to obtain 
an electric shock by purely magnetic induction. 
Going to Princeton as Professor of Natural Philos- 




JOSEPH HENRY 

ophy in 1832, he also filled the Chair of Chemistry 
and Mineralogy during Professor Torrey's absence 
in Europe, and he afterward lectured on astronomy 
and architecture. In December 1S46, he moved 
to Washington, having previously been elected first 
Secretary and a Director of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute, and the development and welfare of that scien- 
tific establishment occupied his principal attention 
for the rest of his life. He was for many years the 
scientific adviser to the various government depart- 
ments, rendered valuable services to the War and 
Navy Departments during the Civil War ; was one 
of the original members of the Lighthouse Board, 
which was established in 1 85 2, and was its Chair- 
man from 1871 until his death. He was at one 



time called to the Chair of Natural Philosophy at 
the University of Pennsylvania at a much larger sal- 
ary than that paid him by the Government, but he 
was not susceptible to pecuniary inducements, and 
even the offer of the Presidency of Prniceton, which 
was tendered him in 1853, and in 1867, he saw fit 
to refuse. Professor Simon Newcomb says of him : 
" He never engaged in an investigation or an enter- 
prise that was to put a dollar into his own pocket, 
but aimed only at the general good of the \^'orld." 
Professor Henry died in Washington, May 13, 1878. 
He received the degree of Doctor of Laws from 
Union in 1829, and from Harvard in 1851. In 1849 
he was elected President of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, was one of the 
original members of the National Academy of Sci- 
ence, succeeding Alexander D. Bache as its Presi- 
dent in 1868; and belonged to other scientific 
societies both in the United States and abroad. He 
edited the annual volumes of the Smithsonian Re- 
ports from 1S46 to 1877; wrote many papers and 
contributed numerous articles to the scientific jour- 
nals and the American and other Cyclopaedias ; was 
tlie author of a series of papers on Meteorology and 
its Connection with Agriculture, contributed to the 
Agricultural Reports, 1855-59; and of a work en- 
titled Syllabus of Lectures on Physics. In 1886 
two volumes of his Scientific Writings were published 
by the Smithsonian Institute, and a memorial of his 
life and services was published by order of Congress 
in 1S80. 

HIBBEN, John Grier, 1861- 

Born in Peoria, 111., 1861 ; fitted for College at Peoria 
High School; graduated Princeton, Class of 1882; 
studied one year in the University of Berlin, and three 
years in Princeton Theological Seminary ; was Pastor 
of Falling Spring Presbyterian Church, in Chambers- 
burg, Penn., 1887- 1891 ; Instructor in Psychology and 
Logic at Princeton, 1891-1893; made Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Logic in 1893 ; since 1897 has been Stuart 
Professor of Logic in Princeton. 

JOHN C;RIER HIBBEN, Ph.D., Stuart Professor 
of Logic at Princeton, was born in Peoria, 
Illinois, .April 19, 1861, son of the Rev. Samuel and 
Elizabeth (Grier) Hibben. On the paternal side 
he is of Scotch descent, on the maternal, of Scotch- 
Irish. His great-great-grandfather. Dr. Robert 
Cooper, was a graduate of Princeton in the Class of 
1763, and served as a Chaplain in the \\'ar of the 
Revolution. Professor Hibben was fitted for Col- 
lege in the High School of his native town, and 
graduated from Princeton with the Class of 1882. 



UNIVERSITIES JNI) THEIR SONS 



79 



After graduation he si)ent one year in study in the Congress, and from i 7.S9 to 1797 was I'niled States 

University of Berlin, and upon his return to America, Senator from that State. In the latter year he was 

devoted three years more to the study of theology elected Ciovernor of Maryland, in which office he 

in Princeton Seminar)'. In 1SS7 he became Pastor served until his death, December 16, 1798. 




HOPE, Matthew Boyd, 1812-1859. 

Born in Mifflin county, Penn., 1812 ; educated at 
Jefferson College ; graduated at Princeton Theological 
Seminary, 1834 ; and from the Medical Department of 
the University of Penn., 1836 ; missionary sent to Singa- 
pore, India; Corresponding Sec. Penn. Colonization 
Society; Sec. Presbyterian Board of Education; Prof. 
Rhetoric at Princeton and of Political Economy; died 
in Princeton, N. J., 1859. 

MATTHl'.W ISOVl) HOPK, M.l)., D.D., Pro- 
fessor of Rhetoric at Princeton, was born 
in Mifflin county, Pennsylvania, July 31, 181 2 ; died 
in Princeton, New Jersey, December 17, 1859. 
After receiving his early education at Jefferson 
College in Pennsylvania, he was graduated at Prince- 
ton Theological Seminary in 1834, and from the 
Medical Department of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1S36. Soon after his graduation in medi- 



JOHN GRIER HIBBEN 

of Falling Spring Presbyterian Church, in Chambers- 
burg, Pennsylvania, and retained this charge until 
1 89 1, when he went to Princeton as Instructor in 
Psychology and Logic. Two years later he was pro- 
moted to Assistant Professor of Logic, and since 
1897, has been Stuart Professor of Logic at Prince- 
ton. He was married to Jenny Davidson, November 
8, I SS 7, and has one child : Elizabeth Grier Hibben. 



HENRY, John, 1750-1798. 

Born in Easton, Md., about 1750 ; graduated at 
Princeton, 1769; studied law and engaged in practice; 
delegate to the Continental Congress; U. S. Senator; 
Governor of Md. ; died 1798. 

JOHN HENRV, A.^F., who with President James 
Madison was one of the founders of the AVhig 
Literary Society at Princeton, was born in Easton, 
ALiryland, about 1750, and was graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1769. He studied law, and engaged in the 
practice of his profession at Princeton. From 177S 
to 17S7, excepting for the interval 17S1-1784, he 
was a delegate from Maryland to the Continental 




MATTHEW B. HOPE 

cine he was ordained as an evangelist, and was sent 
out to Singapore, India, by the P.oard of Missions of 
the Presbyterian Church. After two years of labor in 
tliis field the condition of his health compelled him 



8o 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



to return, and. lie was made Corresponding Secre- 
tary of the Pennsylvania Colonization Society of llie 
Presbyterian Church. He was also Secretary of the 
Presbyterian Board of Education until 1S42, and 
Corresponding Secretary from that time to 1S46. 
In the latter year he was elected Professor of Rhet- 
oric at Princeton, and in 1854 was given also tiie 
Chair of Political Economy, in which he continued 
until his death. He was the author of a Treatise 
on Rhetoric, and was a regular contributor to the 
religious press. 



HOSKINS, John Preston, 1867- 

Born in Glen Riddle, Delaware county, Penn., 1SE7; 
fitted for College at Rugby Academy, Philadelphia, and 
at Shortlidge's Media Academy ; graduated Princeton, 
Class of 1891, receiving the modern language fellow- 
ship ; spent the next four years in study and travel 
abroad, studying Germanic Philology at the tJniversity 
of Berlin, and receiving the degree of Ph.D. from there 
in 1895 ; travelled during these years in Germany, 
Austria, Italy, Egypt, the Holy Land and England; 
returned to America in 1S95, was appointed instructor 
in German in Princeton the same year and in March 
1898 advanced to an Assistant Professorship. 

JOHN PRESTON HOSKINS, Ph.D., Assistant 
Professor of German at Princeton, was born 
in Glen Riddle, Delaware county, Pennsylvania, 
January 16, 1867, son of John 'I'aylor and Jane 
(Brown) Hoskins. On the paternal side he is of 
Quaker ancestry, the first John Hoskins coming froin 
Cheshire, England, and settling in Delaware county, 
Pennsylvania, in 16S2. His maternal grandfather 
was a North of Ireland Presbyterian from County 
Tyrone. He came to this country in 1825. His 
mother's mother was of English extraction, emigrat- 
ing with her parents from Manchester, England, 
and settling in Philadelphia. Until his fourteenth 
year he received instruction in the public schools 
of Glen Ritklle and Media and at the Philadelphia 
High School. He was prepared for College at 
Rugby Academy in Philadelphia and at Shortlidge's 
Media Academy. He entered Princeton in 18S7, 
finished the academic course and graduated with 
the Class of 1S91, receiving the fellowsliip in mod- 
ern languages. Immediately after graduation he 
went abroad, and spent the next four years in study 
and travel. He entered the University of Berlin, 
Germany, where he made a specialty of the study 
of Germanic Philology, his work being done princi- 
pally under Professors ^\■einhold, Erich Schmidt 
and Julius Zupitza. He was especially interested 
in the scientific side of Germanic Philology, and 



devoted the most of his time to the Old and Middle 
High German, the Gothic and their relation to the 
Indo-European family of languages in general. His 
dissertation was on the uses of the subjunctive 
mood in the Nibelungen Klage. In July 1895, he 
was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosopiiv, 
from the Berlin University. During these years 
spent abroad, he also travelled extensively, princi- 
pally in Germany, Austria, Italy, I'^gypt, the Holy 
Land and England. He returned to .\merica in 
the summer of 1S95, and in October of that year 
was called to Princeton as Instructor in German. In 




J. PRESTON HOSKINS 

March 1898 he was made an Assistant Professor in 
tlie same department. He is a non-resident mem- 
ber of the Nassau Club of Princeton. In politics, 
his inherited proclivities are toward the Democratic 
party, but since tiie money issue became so promi- 
nent, he has voted independently, and is a believer 
in the gold standard. He is unmarried. 



HUNT, Theodore Whitefield, 1844- 

Born in Metuchen. N. J., 1844; received his early 
education at Irving Institute, Tarrytown, N. Y. ; entered 
Princeton in 1E61, and graduated, 1865; studied The- 
ology at Union Seminary, N. Y. and at Princeton, 
graduating in i86g at Princeton Theological Seminary; 
Tutor of English in Princeton, 1868-71 ; at University 
of Berlin, 1871-72; Professor of English Language and 



UNIVERSiriKS AND THEIR SONS 



8i 



Literature at Princeton, 1873; received the degree of 
Ph.D. from Lafayette, 1880; and that of Doctor of 
Literature, from Rutgers 1890. 

THKOnORK WHirKFIELI) HUNT, Ph.D., 
L.H.IX, Professor of English Language and 
Literature at Princeton, was born in Metuchen, 




Notes, 'I'he Educational Review, North American 
Review, and other periochcals, and has published 
several volumes of writings liuring the years 18S3 to 
1S99. He has published: Caedmon's Exodus and 
Daniel, The Principles of Written Discourse, Eng- 
lish Prose and Prose Writers, Studies in Literature 
and Style, Ethical Teachings in Old luiglish Authors, 
American Meditative Lyrics, and I'.nglish Meditative 
Lyrics. On June 29, 1882, Professor Hunt was 
marrietl to Sarah C. Reeve of Camden, New Jersey. 



HUSS, Hermann Carl Otto, 1847- 

Born in Eichenberg, Saxony. 1847 ; received his early 
education at a preparatory school in Jena, and in the 
Gymnasium in Altenburg, Saxony ; graduated from 
the University of Jena, Sa.xony, in the Class of 1869 ; 
spent the year 1870-1871 in Geneva, Switzerland ; was 
in Pisa, Italy, 1871-1872; in Florence, 1872-1873 ; in 
Naples, 1873-1874; from 1874 to 1879 he was at Rome, 
lecturing on the German language and literature ; 
appointed Assistant Professor of Modern Languages 
and Literature in Princeton, 1880; since 1884 has been 
Professor of Modern Languages and Literature. 

HERM.\NN CARL OTTO HUSS, Ph.D., 
Professor of Modern Languages and Liter- 
ature at Princeton, was born in Eichenberg, Saxony, 



THEO. \V. HUNT 



New Jersey, February 19, 1844, son of Holloway 
Whitefield and Henrietta (Mundy) Hunt. Poth 
parents were of English descent. In his early 
youth he was a student at Irving Institute, Tarry- 
town, New York. He entered Princeton in August 
1861, graduating with first honor in the Class of 
1S65. After graduation, he studied theology at 
Union Seminary, New York, and at Princeton 
Theological Seminary, graduating from the latter in 
1869. While pursuing his theological studies, he 
was appointed, in 1868, Tutor of English in Prince- 
ton which position he filled until 1871, when he 
went abroad to study at the Llniversity of Berlin, 
where he remained for a year. He was then called 
to the Chair of l'>nglish Language and Literature at 
Princeton, and in 1873 he accepted this Professor- 
ship, which he still continues to hold. He received 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Lafayette 
in 1880, and in i8go, was awarded the degree of 
Doctor of Literature by Rutgers. He is a member 
of the Modern Language Association of America. 
He has contributed articles to Modern Language 

VOL. II. — 6 




HKRMAXX C. O. HUSS 



January 4, 1847, son of Ernst and Emma (Loewel) 
Huss, both parents being natives of Germany. In 
his early youth he spent five years at a i)rei)aratory 



82 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



school in Jena, Saxony, and seven years at the ("lym- 
nasium in Altenbiirg, Saxony. He then entered the 
University of Jena, and after a three years' course 
was graduated in 1869. The succeeding eleven 
years were devoted to travel in Switzerland and 
Italy, and to the teaching of the language and lit- 
erature of his native land. The year 1870-1871 
was spent in Geneva, Switzerland ; in 1S71 he was 
in Pisa, Italy; in 1S72-1873 in Florence; and 
from 1873-1874 he was in 'Naples. The next five 
years (1874-1879) were spent in Rome, where he 
lectured on the German language and literature. 
In 1880, he came to .\merica to accept the position 
of Assistant Professor of Modern Languages and 
Literature in Princeton, and in 1884 was made 
Professor of the same, a position he now holds. 
He is unmarried. 



LEWIS, Edwin Seelye, 1868- 

Born in Amherst, Mass., i858 ; attended the French 
Sisters' School in Beirut, Syria ; prepared for College 
at the College de Genfeve in Geneva. Switzerland, and 
also received private tutoring in Westminster, Vt. ; 
graduated from Wabash with the degree of A.B , in 
the Class of i888 ; entered the Romance Department of 
Johns Hopkins, receiving the degree of Ph.D. in 1892; 
studied abroad the summers of 1889-1891 ; was Scholar 
at Johns Hopkins, 1889-1890, and a Fellow in 1890-1891 ; 
was Assistant in Romance Languages at Johns Hop- 
kins, 1891-1892 : Instructor in Romance Languages at 
Princeton, 1892; made Assistant Professor of Romance 
Languages in 1895. 

EDWIN SEELYE LEWIS, Ph.D., Assistant 
Professor of Romance Languages at Prince- 
ton, was born in Amherst, Massachusetts, July 23, 
1868, son of Edwin Rufus and Harriet (Goodell) 
Lewis. He is of English and Welsh extraction. 
In his early youth he attended the French Sisters' 
School in Beirut, Syria, and went later to the Col- 
lege de Geneve, in Geneva, Switzerland, where he 
remained five years. He also received instruction 
from private Tutors in Westminster, Vermont. At 
the age of sixteen he entered Wabash College, in 
Crawfordsville, Indiana, and was graduated with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, in the Class of 18S8. 
He entered the Romance Department of Johns 
Hopkins in iSSS, and received the degree of 
Doctor of Pliilosophy from that institution in 1892. 
He spent the summers of 1889 and 1891 in study 
abroad. He held the Scholarship in Romance 
Languages at Johns Hopkins the year 18S9-1S90, 
and for the years 1890 and 1891, was Fellow at 
Johns Hopkins. He was appointed Assistant in 



Romance Languages at Johns Hopkins in iS9T,and 
in 1S92 went to Princeton as Instructor in Romance 
Languages. Since 1S95, he has been Assistant 
Professor of Romance Languages at Princeton. He 
received, "for merit," the degree of Master of .\rts 
from Wabash in 1891. He is a memlx-r of the 
Nassau Club of Princeton, of Phi Beta Kappa 
(Alpha of Maryland, Johns Hopkins), of Beta 
Theta Pi of Wabash and Johns Hojikins, and of 



^i 







EDWIN S. LEWIS 



the Modern Language .Association of .\nierica. 
He was married November 29, 1S93, to Miss 
Jessie Somerville Norris. 



KOLLOCK, Henry, 1778-1819. 

Born in New Jersey. 1778; graduated at Princeton, 
1794; Tutor there, 1797-1800; Professor of Divinity 
and Pastor of the church at Princeton, 1803-1806; 
subsequently Pastor of a church in Savannah, Ga. ; 
received the S.T.D. degree from Union and Harvard, 
1806 ; died in Savannah. 1819. 

H1:NRV KULLOCK, S.T.D., Tutor, Professor 
and Preacher at Princeton, was born in 
New Providence, New Jersey, December 14, 17 78. 
He was a son of Shepard Kollock, who served as an 
officer in the War fur Independence, was for over 
thirty years an Fxlitor in Elizabethtown, New Jer- 
sey, and for five years Judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas. Henry Kollock pursued his classical 



UNIFERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



«3 



and theological studies at Princeton, gradiiatini; 
from the Academic Department in i 794, and while 
a divinity student he acted as a Tutor in the Col- 
lege. Three years after his ordination to the min- 
istry, which took place in May 1800, he joined the 
Faculty of Princeton as Professor of Systematic 
Theology, and also took charge of the Princeton 
church. In 1806 he accepted a call to the Pastor- 
ship of an in<lependent Presbyterian Church in 
Savannah, Georgia, and labored there for the rest 
of his life, which terminated December 29, 1819. 
Dr. Kollock was regarded by his contemporaries 




HKNRY KOLLOCK 

as one of the most forcible orators of tlie day. 
Several of his sermons were published and at the 
time of his death he had in course of preparation a 
life of John Calvin, from material obtained while on 
a visit to England in 1S17. From Princeton he 
received the degree of Master of .Arts in course, 
and both Harvaril and Union made him a Doctor 
of l)i\initv in 1S06. 



LIVINGSTON, Peter Van Brugh, 1710- 
1792. 

Born in Albany, N. Y., 1710; graduated at Yale, 
1731 ; engaged in the shipping business; member of 
the Council of the Province ; President first Provin- 
cial Congress of N. Y. ; Treasurer of Congress ; one 



of the original Trustees College of N. ].; died in 
Elizabethtown, N. J., 1792. 

PiriKR \AN BRLCill 1.1\ INtlSl tJN, M.A., 
Trustee of Princeton 1748-61, was bom in 
.\lbany, New \'ork, in October 17 10; tiled in 
Kli/.abethtown, New Jersey, December 28, 1792. 
He was graduated at Yale in 1731, and engaged in 
the ship])ing business in New York with William .Mcx- 
ander (Lord Stirling), whose sister, Mary, he mar- 
ried in 1 739. He was for many years a member of 
the Council of the Province, was President of the 
first Provincial Congress of New \'ork in 1775, ^"'1 
Treasurer of the Congress in 1776-77. He was 
one of the original Trustees of the College of New 
Jersey in 174S, and held that office until 1761. 



MACLOSKIE, George, 1834- 

Born in Castledawson, Ireland, 1834; fitted for Col- 
lege in a classical academy of which his father was 
the Principal, and in Belfast Academy; graduated with 
the degree of B.A., from Queen's College (now Royal 
Universityl in Belfast, Ireland, in the Class of 1857; 
studied theology in the Assembly's College (Presby- 
terian) in Belfast, 1857-1863; was Presbyterian Pastor 
of Ballygoney Church, Ireland, i£6i-i873; in 1874 he 
was called to Princeton, N. J., as Professor of Biology 
in the College, and came to America in January 1875 to 
accept this position which he still retains ; received the 
degree of M.A. from his Alma Mater in 1858, and that 
of D.Sc. from the same College in i£82; in 1870 he was 
awarded the degree of LL.B., by the University of 
London, and that of LL.D. from the same University 
in 1871. 

GEORGE M.ACLOSK.IE, S.C.I)., l.l.D., Pro- 
fessor of Biology at Princeton, was born in 
Castledawson, Irelaml, September 14, 1S34, son of 
Paul and Mary (McCIure) Macloskie. His ances- 
try is Scotch- Irish. His fither w.is teacher of a 
classical academy, and in this scliool and in the 
IJelfast .\c.ademy, under Rev. Reuben Jolin Kryce, 
LL.D., Professor Macloskie received his preparation 
for College. He entered Queen's College, in Bel- 
fast, Ireland, in 1854, and was graduated with the 
degree of Bachelor of .Arts, receiving first class 
honors and gold medal in natural science in 1857. 
He then devoted three years to the study of the- 
ology in the .Assembly's College in Belfast. In 
1858 he received the degree of Master of .Arts with 
first class honors and gold medal in experimental 
and natural sciences, from the Royal LTniversity in 
Ireland. From 1861 to 1873 he w.as Pastor of a 
Presbyterian Church in Ballygoney, Ireland, and 
during these years received the degrees of Bachelor 



84 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



of Laws and Doctor of Laws from the Universit)' of 
London, — the former in 1870, and the latter, when 
he was awarded the gold medal with honors in law, 
in 1 87 1. He was called to Princeton, New Jersey, 




GEORGE MACLOSKIE 

as Professor of Biology in the College, in 1874, and 
came to America in January 1875, to accept the 
position. Professor ]\Lacloskie was Secretary of the 
Bible and Colportage Society of Ireland from 1873 to 
1874, and has been a member of the Executive 
Committee of the Scotch-Irish Society of America, 
since its organization in 1889. In politics, he is in 
favor of prohibition, but is not allied with any 
political party. He was married in 1S63 to Mary 
Cruikshank Dunn. They have two children : 
Charles Hill Macloskie, A.B. 1887, of Berlin, Ger- 
many and George Macloskie, Jr., C.E., a Princeton 
graduate of 1893. 



MACLEAN, John, 1800 1886. 

Born in Princeton, N. J., 1800; graduated at Princeton, 
1816 ; Tutor of Greek; Prof. Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy, and of Ancient Languages ; President 
of Princeton ; received D.D. degree from Washing- 
ton (Penn.) College, 1841 and LL.D. from the Uni- 
versity of the State of N. Y. ; died in Princeton, 1886. 

JOHN MACLEAN, D.D., LL.D., tenth Presi- 
dent of Princeton, was born in Princeton, 
New Jersey, March 3, iSoo, and was graduated at 



Princeton in 1S16. After teaching for a year, he 
entered Princeton Theological Seminary, and while 
attending theological lectures for two years was a 
Tutor of CJreek in the College. In 1822 he was 
appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy in the College, which chair he exchanged 
seven years later for that of Ancient Languages. In 
1847 he was relieved of the Latin Department, and 
in 1854 he succeeded Dr. Carnahan as President of 
the College, which office he retained for twelve 
years, tendering his resignation in 186S. Dr. 
Maclean look an active part in the discussion of the 
questions that divided the Presbyterian Church into 
the old-school and new-school branches, and pub- 
lished a series of letters in The Presbyterian, after- 
wards issued in pamphlet form, in defence of the 
action of the Assembly of 1837. He contributed 
voluminously to the Princeton Review, and after his 
retirement from the Presidency he prepared a 
History of the College of New Jersey. One of his 
lectures delivered before the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society of New Jersey on A School System 
for New Jersey, promulgated the suggestions which 
were afterwards embodied by the Legislature in the 




JOHN MACLEAN 

Act establishing the common-school system of the 
state. Dr. Maclean received the degree of Doctor 
of Divinity from Washington (Pennsylvania) College 
in 1 84 1, and that of Doctor of Laws from the Uni- 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



85 



versity of the State of New York in 1.S54. 
at I'rinceton, August lo, 1S86. 



He (lied of wliicii a (juartcr of a million copies were dis- 
tributed during the Civil War. Dr. Magie died in 
Elizabeth, New Jersey, May 10, 1865. 



MAGIE, David, 1795-1865. 

Born in Elizabeth, N. J., 1795 ; graduated at Princeton. 
1817, and Princeton Theological Seminary. 1819; Tutor 
at Princeton, 1818-1820; Pastor Presbyterian Church 
in Elizabeth, N. J., 1821-1865; Trustee of Princeton, 
1835-1865; received D.D. degree from Amherst, 1842; 
died in Elizabeth, 1865. 

D.WID MAGIE, D.D., Trustee of Princeton, 
was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, March 
13, 179s, and was graduated at Princeton in 181 7. 




DAVID M.\GIE 

He then pursued a theological course in tlie Sem- 
inary, during which time he officiated as Tutor in 
the College. In 1824 he became Pastor of a 
newly organized Presbyterian Cinirch in l^lizabeth, 
and served in that relation for a period of more than 
forty years, until his death. The honorary degree 
of Doctor of Divinity was bestowed on him by 
Amherst in 1S42. Dr. Magie was a Trustee of 
Princeton for thirty years, 1 835-1 865, and was a 
Director of Princeton Theological .Seminary, the 
American Tract Society and the American Roanl of 
Foreign Missions. Among his publislied works 
were : The Springtime of Life, published in New York 
in 1835 and a tract entitled The Christian Soldier, 



MARTIN, Luther, 1748-1826. 

Born in New Brunswick, N. J.. 1748; graduated at 
Princeton, 1766; studied law and admitted to the Bar ; 
Commissioner of his county to oppose the claims of 
Great Britain ; Attorney-General of Md. ; delegate 
sent by the Md. Legislature to the convention that 
formed the Constitution of the U. S. ; Chief-Judge of 
Oyer and Terminer in Baltimore; died in N. Y. City, 
1826. 

LUTHER MARTIN, one of the founders of 
the Cliosophic Society at Princeton, was 
born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, February 9, 
174S, and was graduated at Princeton in 1766. He 
studied law at Queenstown, Maryland, su])i)orting 
himself by teaching meanwliile, and was admitted to 
the Par in 1771. Soon afterward he settled in 
Somerset, Maryland, wliere he established a lucra- 
tive practice. It is related that at one term of the 
^\ iUiamsburg (Virginia) Court he defended thirty- 
eight persons separately, of whom twenty-nine were 
acquitted. He served in 1774 as one of the com- 
missioners of his comity to oppose the claims of 
Great Britain, and also as a member of the conven- 
tion that met at .\nnapolis kn a similar purpose. 
In 1778 he became Attorney-General of Maryland. 
.-^s one of the delegates sent by the Maryland Legis- 
lature to the convention that formed the Constitution 
of the LInited States, he vigorously opposed that 
instrument and left the convention rather than sign 
it. It was by his opposition to this measure that 
he ncipiirrd the name of "The l''ederal Bulldog," 
first given him by his antagonist, Thomas Jefferson. 
In 1804 he was counsel for the defence in the im- 
peachment of Samuel Chase before the United States 
Senate — on which occasion he was described by a 
writer of the times as "the rollicking, witty, auda- 
cious .\ttorney-Cieneral of Maryland ; drunken, gen- 
erous, slovenly, grand, shouting with a schoolboy's 
fun at the idea of tearing Jolni Rantlolph's indict- 
ment to pieces, and of teaching the \'irginia Demo- 
crats some law." Mr. Martin resigned his .Xttorney- 
Generalship in 1805, but continued his law practice, 
then the largest in Maryland. In 1807 he again 
came into prominence as counsel for .■Xaron Burr in 
the lalter's trial at Richmond. He subsecpiently 
served, 1S14-1S16, as Chief-Judge of Oyer and 
Terminer in Baltimore, and in :8i8 he was again 



86 



UNIJ'ERSITIES AND Til KIR SONS 



appointed State Attorney General. Two years later ature, was born in Camden, South Carolina, Novem- 
he suffered a stroke of paralysis and became entirely ber 27, i.Sjy, son of James Syng and Aurelia 
dependent on his friends — as notwithstanding his rowell (I'earce) Murray. He was fitted for College 
large fees and income derived fiom his profession, at the Ohio Conference High School, Springfield, 

Ohio, and gratluated at Brown in the Class of 1850. 
From 1 85 1 to 1852 he wms Instructor in Creek at 
Brown. After a course in theology at Andover 
Theological Seminary, from which he was graduated 
in 1854, he was ordained Pastor of the Congrega- 
tional Church at South Danvers, Massachusetts. In 
1 86 1 he was called to the Prospect Street Church of 
Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, where he remained 
until 1S65, when he became Pastor of the Brick 
Church, New York. Ten years after, in 1875, he 
resigned his pastorate to accept the Chair of English 
Literature at Princeton. He was appointed Dean 
in 1883, and the degree of his success in this exceed- 
ingly difficult office can be estimated from the single 
statement that he was as much loved by the under- 
graduates as he was respected and approved of by 
the President and Trustees. He received the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity from Princeton, and that of 
Doctor of Laws from Brown. He was always a 
Republican, ever since the formation of the party. 




LUTHER MARTIN 



he had never saved money. An Act, unparal- 
leled in American history, was passed by the Mary- 
land Legislature in 1822, requiring every lawyer in 
the state to pay an annual license fee of five dollars, 
the entire proceeds to be paid over to Trustees 
" for the use of Luther Martin." Mr. Martin passed 
his last days at the home of Aaron Burr in New 
York City. He died July 10, 1826. 



MURRAY, James Ormsbee, 1827-1899. 

Born in Camden, S. C, 1827; fitted for College at 
Ohio Conference School, Springfield, O.; graduated at 
Brown, Class of 1850; from Andover Theological Semi- 
nary, Class of 1854 ; was Instructor in Greek at Brown. 
1851-1852 ; Pastor of the Congregational Church at 
South Danvers, Mass., 1854-1861 ; Pastor Prospect 
Street Church, Cambridgeport, Mass., 1861-1865; Pas- 
tor Brick Church, New York, 1865-1875; appointed 
Professor of English Literature at Princeton, 1875, 
and Dean in 1E83 ; received degree of D.D. from 
Princeton and that of LL.D. from Brown; died in 
Princeton 1899. 

JOHN ORiMSr.Kl': MURRAY, D.D., I.L.D., fur 
sixteen years the beloved Dean of Princeton 
and for twenty-four years Professor of English Liter- 




JAMES O. MURR.AV 

He was married in 1856 to Julia Richards Haughton. 
They had seven children : 'William Haughton, 
Huntington, James Percy, Mabel Chester, Haughton, 
George Richards and Julia Ormsbee Murray. After 



UNIFERSiriF.S JND TIIFIR SONS 



87 



an illness of several months Dr. Murray died on ihc 
morning of March 27, 1899, dceiil\ inounied l>y all 
friends of Princeton. 



MAGIE, William Francis, 1858- 

Born in Elizabeth, N. J., 1858; fitted for College at 
Dr. Pingry's School in Elizabeth ; entered Princeton, 
1875. and graduated in the Class of 1879 ; Assistant in 
Physics at Princeton, 1879-18S2; spent the year 1884- 
1885 at the University of Berlin, receiving the degree 
of Ph.D. ; made Assistant Professor of Physics at 
Princeton in 1885, and from 1890 to the present time 
has been Professor of Physics. 

WILLLAM FR.VNCIS M.AGIE, I'h.l)., Pro- 
fessor of Physics at Princeton, was born 
in Elizabeth, New Jersey, December 14, 1858, son 




WILU.\M FRANCIS MAGIE 

of William Jay and Sarah Frances (Baldwin) Magie. 
He is of Scotch descent through a paternal ancestor, 
John Magie, who settled in Rli/.abethtown in 1685. 
He was fitted for College at Dr. Pingry's school in 
Elizabeth, entering Princeton in 1875 and graduating 
with the Class of 1879. After graduation he studied 
pliysics while acting as an Assistant in Physics at 
Princeton from 1879 until 1S82. In that year he 
was appointed Instructor in I'liysics. In 1S84 he 
went abroad to continue his studies at the Univer- 
sity of Berlin, where he received the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. He returned to Princeton 



in 18S5 as Assistant Professor of Physics, and in 
1890 was made Professor of Physics, a [iosition he 
still holds. Professor Magic has scrvetl on the 
Princeton Board of lleallh and on the Borough 
Council ; is a member of the Cliosoiiliic and the 
.American Philosophical Societies, and of the Nassau 
Club of Princeton. In politics he is a ]\ei)ublican. 
He was married June 7, 1894, to Mary lilanchard 
1 lodge. 



PEMBERTON, Ebenezer, 1704-1779. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1704 ; graduated at Harvard, 
1721 ; Chaplain at Fort William ; Pastor at N. Y. City 
and Boston, Mass.; President of the Board of Corre- 
spondents commissioned by the Society tin Scotland) 
for the Propagating Christian Knowledge among the 
Indians; received D.D. degree from Princeton, 1770; 
died at Boston, Mass., 1779. 

EBENEZI':R PEMBERTON, D.D., one of the 
original Trustees of Princeton, in 1747, was 
born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1704, son of 
Rev. Ebenezer Pemberton, Pastor of the Old South 
Church. He was graduated at Harvard in 172T, 
and in the following year became Chaplain at Fort 
William, where he officiated until 1826, when he 
was ordained Pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church in New York City. .After twenty-six years 
in that Pastorate he took charge of the Brick 
Church in Boston. Here his warm friendship for 
Governor Hutchinson, who was a member of his 
congregation, caused him to be charged with loyalty 
to the Crown, and in 1775 '^'^ church was closed. 
In 1 77 1 he was the only minister in Boston who 
read Governor Hutchinson's proclamation of the 
annual Thanksgiving from the pulpit, the Whigs, 
we are told, " walking out of the meeting in great 
indignation." Dr. Pemberton is described as an 
eloquent preacher, and a " man of polite breeding, 
pure morals and w-arm devotion." ^\'hile living in 
New York he was President of the Board of Corre- 
spondents commissioned by the Society (in Scotland) 
for Propagating Christian Knowledge among the 
Indians. In 1 7 70 he received from Princeton the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity, the first that the Col- 
lege conferred. He died in Boston, September 9, 
1779. He published at various times several volumes 
of sermons, essays and discourses. 



OSBORN, Edwin Curtis, 1850- 

Born in Plainfield, N. J., 1850; educated in public 
schools of N. J. ; engaged in transportation and banking 



88 



UNIFERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



business until 1875 ; employed as Clerk to the Treasurer 
of Princeton, 1877, elected Treasurer in 1885. 

EDWIN CURTIS OSHORN, Treasurer of 
I'rinceton, was born in Plainfield, New Jer- 
sey, March 19, 1850, son of Uzal M. and Sarah A. 
M. (Hopper) Osborn ; both parents being of Scotch 
ancestry. His education was obtained in the New 
Jersey public schools, and instead of entering Col- 
lege, he entered at once upon an active business 
career, being engaged in transportation and banking 
business until January i, 1S75. He entered the 




E. C. OSBORN 

employ of the College of New Jersey, November 15, 
1877, as Clerk to the Treasurer, and in June 1885 
was elected to the office of Treasurer, and still con- 
tinues in that position. He was married, October 
17, 1872, to Malona S. Bunn, and has one child: 
Bessie May Osborn. 



REEVE, Tapping, 1744-1823. 

Born in Brook Haven, L. I., 1744; graduated at 
Princeton, 1763 ; Tutor 1767-1770; established a School 
of Law at Litchfield, Conn.; Judge and Chief-Justice 
Superior Court; member of Legislature and Council; 
received LL.D. degree from Midalebury, i8o8 and from 
Princeton, 1813; died in Litchfield, Conn., 1823. 

TAPPING REEVE, one of the founders of the 
Cliosophic Society at Princeton, was born 
at Brook Haven, Long Island, in October 1744. 



He was graduated from Princeton in the Class of 
1763 and was a Tutor in the College from 1767 to 
1770. Subsequently he established a School of 
Law at Litchfield, Connecticut, whither he had 
removed in 1772 to practise that profession. From 
17S4 to 179S Mr. Reeve, its sole instructor, re- 
ceived a large number of pu])ils who acquired dis- 
tinction at the Car. Afterwards James CJould 
became his associate, but Mr. Reeve remained a 
Lecturer until 1S20. In i 79S he was made Judge 
of the Superior Court, and in 1S14 Chief-Justice, 
retiring the same year. In 1776 he raised a body 
of recruits and offered his services to the autliorities 
in the crisis which followed our mihtary disasters, 
but the victories of Princeton and Trenton made it 
unnecessary for liim to leave iiis profession. He 
sat for one term in the Legislature and one in the 
Council. He was a Federalist in politics. His 
efforts to obtain the control of tiieir proi^erty by 
married women should be gratefully remembered. 
Middlebury endowed Judge Reeve with the degree 
of Doctor of Laws in 1808, and Princeton in 1813. 
His wife was a sister of Aaron Burr. His works 
are : The Law of Baron and F"emme, etc., and a 
Treatise on the Law of Descents in the United 
States. Judge Reeve died at LitchfieKl, L)ecember 
13. 1823- 



PACKARD, William Alfred, 1830- 

Born in Brunswick, Me., 1830; received his early 
education and preparation for College in private schools 
in Brunswick, Me., at the Academy in North Yarmouth, 
Me., and at Phillips Academy in Andover, Mass ; 
graduated from Bowdoin, Class of 1851 ; was Instructor 
in Phillips Academy, 1852-1853; Tutor in Bowdoin, 
1853-1854 ; went abroad and studied in the University of 
Gbttingen. Germany, 1857-1859; returned to America 
and to Bowdoin as Instructor, 1859; was called to 
Dartmouth as Professor of Modern Languages and 
later of Greek Language and Literature in i860; since 
1870 has been Professor of Latin Language and Litera- 
ture, and the Science of Language, at Princeton. 

WILLIAM ALFRED PACKARD, D.D., Pro- 
fessor of Latin Language and Literature 
and Science of Language at Princeton, was born in 
Brunswick. Maine, August 26, 1830, son of .Alphcus 
Spring and Frances Elizabeth (.Appleton) Packard. 
His paternal grandfather was the Rev. Hezekiah 
Packard, D.D., his paternal grandmother was Mary 
Spring. His mother's father was the Rev. Jesse 
.^ppleton, D.D., President of Bowdoin from 1807 to 
1819 ; his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth Means, 
daughter of the Hon. Robert Means, of .Amherst, 
New Hampshire. In his early youth Professor 



UNII'ERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



89 



Packard attended private schools in liis native town, 
and was also a student at the Academy of North 
Yarmouth, Maine, and at I'hillips Academy in An- 
dover, Massachusetts. lie entered Bowdoin in 




\VM. A. PACKARD 

1847, and graduated with the Class of 1S51. He 
was Instructor in Phillips Academy from 1852 to 
1853, and from 1853 to 1S54 was Tutor in Bowdoin 
and was a student in Andover Theological Seminary, 
1855-1S57. 'I'he year 1857-185S was spent in 
study at the University of (loltingen, Germany. He 
returned to America, and in 1S59 was Instructor in 
Bowdoin. In i860 he was called to Dartmouth as 
Professor of Modern Languages till 1863, when he 
was transferred to the Chair of Greek Language and 
Literature, a position he retained until he was called 
to Princeton in 1870 as Professor of Latin Language 
and Literature and the Science of Language, a Chair 
he continues to fill. He was married in 1861 to 
Susan Breese Gallagher. They had one child : 
Frances Appleton Packard. The mother and child 
have since died. 



PERRY, Bliss, 1860- 

Born in Williamstown, Mass., i860, prepared for 
College at Greylock Institute, Berkshire County. Mass. ; 
graduated Williams, 1881 ; Instructor in Elocution and 
English at Williams, 1881-1886; studied in Germany, 
1886-1888; was Professor of English and Elocutional 



Williams until 1893 ; and has been Professor of OrStory 
and i^sthetic Criticism at Princeton since 1893 

BLISS I'ERRY, A.M., Professor of Oratory and 
-I'^sthetic Criticism at Princeton, was born 
in Williamstown, Massachusetts, XoveTnbcr 25, i860, 
son of Arthur Latliain Perry, D.D., LL.D., and 
Mary Brown (Smedley) Perry. He is of Scotch- 
Irish descent on his father's side; on the maternal 
side of ICnglish ancestry, his mother being a great- 
granddaughter of C'oione! Benjamin Simonds, the 
earliest settler in Williamstown. His early education 
was obtained at tlie (Jreylock Institute in Massachu- 
setts, where he was fitted for College, graduating 
from Williams in the Class of 188 1. From 1881 to 
1 886 he was Instructor in Elocution and luiglish at 
\Villiams. In 1886 he went abro.id and sjjcnt two 
years in graduate study in Germany. Returning to 
America he was made Professor of I'jiglish and 
I'^locution at Williams, where he remained until 
1893, when he was called to Princeton as Professor 
of Oratory and /Esthetic Criticism where he is at 
the present time. Professor Perry's published books 
are : The Broughton House ; Salem Kittredge and 
Other Stories; The Plated City; and The Powers 




BLISS PF.RRV 



at Play. He has also edited Scott's Woodstock and 
Ivanhoe, Selections from Burke, Little Masterpieces, 
(selections from Poe, Irving, Hawtliorne, etc.). He 
is a member of the Authors' Club. On .August 7, 



90 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



i88S, he married Annie Louise ]!liss. 'I'licy liave 
three children : Constance Gootlnow, Margaret 
Smedley and Arthur Bliss Perry. 



RODGERS, John, 1727-1811. 

Born in Boston, Mass, 1727; educated at Blair's 
Classical School at Fagg's Manor; Pastor in St. 
George's, Del,; and N. Y. City; Chaplain of Gen. 
William Heath's Brigade, the N. Y. Provincial Con- 
gress, the Council of Safety and the first Legislature 
of 1777 ; Moderator of the first General Assembly; 
President of the Missionary Society, 1796 ; Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the N. Y. State University ; received the D.D. 
degree from Princeton, 1760 and from Edinburgh Uni- 
versity. 1768; Trustee of Princeton, 1765-1807; died in 
N. Y. City, 1811. 

JOHN RODGERS, D.D., Trustee of Princeton, 
was born in Boston, August 5, 1727. In 1728 
his family removed to Philadelphia, and he received 
his education in Samuel Blair's Classical School at 
Fagg's Manor. In 1749 he was installed Pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church at St. Ceorge's, Delaware, 
having been prepared for the ministry by the learned 
Rev. Samuel Blair of New Londonderry, Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1765 he was called to the \Vall Street 
congregation in New York, deprived of its Pastor 
by the death of Rev. David Bostwick. In 1767 
they erected a second building at Beekman and 
Nassau streets. Dr. Rodgers was a sincere patriot 
and left New York in 1776 to become Chaplain of 
General William Heath's Brigade, the New York 
Provincial Congress, the Council of .Safety and the 
first Legislature of 1777. It has been said that he 
labored in the South for the conversion of the 
Regulators of North Carolina to the patriotic cause, 
and he preached during his exile from New York 
while that city was occupied by the King's forces, 
in Ainenia, New York ; Danbury, Connecticut ; and 
Lamington, New Jersey. On Dr. Rodgers' return 
to New York after the evacuation he found both of 
his churches defaced and dilapidated. The Wall 
Street building had been used as a barracks and the 
new church as a hospital. Though the Episcopa- 
lians had antagonized Dr. Rodgers and prevented 
his society from obtaining an Act of Incorporation, 
the Vestry of Trinity Church invited the Presby- 
terians to worship during the rebuilding of their 
fabrics in St. Paul's Church and St. George's Chapel. 
Dr. Rodgers remained the sole Pastor of the United 
Presbyterian Congregations until a coadjutor was 
appointed in 1789. He was Moderator of the first 
General Assembly held in that year, and President 



of the Missionary .Society foinided in 1796. He 
was a Trustee of Princeton from 1765 until 1807, 
and was Vice-Chancellor of the New York State 
University from its inception in 17S7. Edinburgh 
University gave him the degree of Doctor of Divin- 
ity in 176S. Dr. Rodgers was noted for his fine 




JOHN RODGERS 



breeding and elegant hospitality no less tiian for 
piety and learning. He died in New York City, 
May 7, 1811. 



SCOTT, William Berryman, 1858- 

Born in Cincinnati, O., 1858; fitted for College in 
private schools in Philadelphia and in Princeton, N. J.; 
graduated at Princeton with the degree of B.A., 1877 ; 
took post graduate study in Princeton. 1879-1880, in 
Royal School of Mines, London, 1878-79; in University 
of Heidelberg, 1879-80; receiving the degree of Ph.D. 
from this University, 1880; was Assistant in Geology 
at Princeton, 1880; promoted to Assistant Professor of 
Geology, 1882 ; Professor of Geology, 1883. 

WILLIAM BERRYMAN SCOTT, Ph.D., 
Professor of Geology at Princeton, was 
born in Cincinnati, Ohio, February 12, 1S58, son of 
William McKendree and Mary Elizabeth (Hodge) 
Scott. On the paternal side he is of Scotch-Irish 
descent. On his mother's side he is of English an- 
cestry, through Benjamin Franklin and his son-in- 
law Richard Bache. One great-grandmother, Mary 



UNiyERSiriES AND rilKlR SONS 



91 



Blanchard of Boston, was of Frcncli Ilugucnot 
descent ; another great-granchnother Catherine Wis- 
tar of Philadelphia, was of Ceruian desieiit. He 
was fitted for College in private schools in Philadel- 
phia and in Princeton, New Jersey, and was gradu- 
ated from Princeton, with the degree of Pachelor 
of Arts in 1877. After grathiating he spent another 
year in study at Princeton, going abroad in 1X78 
and entering the Royal School of Mines in London, 
where he spent another year of study. The year 
1879-1880 was given to study in the University of 
Heidelberg, Germany, from which he received the 




w. n. scoiT 

degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Returning to 
America in 1880, he became Assistant in Geology 
at Princeton, being promoted in 1882 to Assistant 
Professor of the same science, and in 1883 he was 
appointed Blair Professor of Geology, which chair 
he now fills. He has conducted eleven geological 
and palKontological expeditions to the Far West 
and has published some fifty reports and mono- 
graphs upon the materials thus brought together. 
Among the societies of which Professor Scott is a 
member, are the Geological, the Zoological, and the 
Linnean Societies of London, the British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, the American 
Philosophical Society, and the Geological Society of 
America. He was married December 15, 18S3, to 
Alice Adeline Post of New York. Their children 



are: Charles Hoilge, Adeline .Mitchill, ^L^ry 
Planchard, Sarah Post and .\ngelina Thayer Scott. 



SMITH, Caleb, 1723-1762. 

Born in Brook Haven, L. I., 1723; graduated at Yale, 
1743; remained as a resident graduate and studied 
theology; Pastoral Newark Mountains (Orangel N.J.; 
the first Tutor of the College of New Jersey ; Trustee, 
1750; died, 1762. 

CALEB SMITH was the first Tutor of the 
College of New Jersey and with Jonathan 
Dickinson, the first President, instructed the first 
class in the College at Klizabcthtown, New Jersey 
in 1747. He was born at Brook Haven, Long Island 
December zg, [O. S.] 1723. He was graduated at 
Vale in 1743 and remained at College for some 
time as a resident graduate. He studied theology 
under the direction of Jonathan Dickinson and was 
ordained Pastor of the Presbyterian Chinch at 
Newark Mountains ( Orange ), New Jersey, in 1748. 
He was one of the popular preachers of his 
church. He was elected Trustee of the College 
in 1750. He died October 20, 1762. In 1748 
he married Martha, the youngest daughter of the 
Rev. Jonathan Dickinson. From tiiis union sprang 
the Clreen family which have been so prominent in 
the history of New Jersey and of Princeton ; one of 
the family, John Cleve Green of New York, ha\ ing 
been the largest benefactor of the institution. 



SHIELDS, Charles Woodruff, 1825- 

Born in New Albany, Ind , 1825; fitted for College in 
classical schools in Newark, N. J, and New Albany; 
graduated at Princeton, 1844 ; took four years' course 
of study in Princeton Theological Seminary; Pastor, 
First Presbyterian Church, Hempstead, L. I., N. Y., 
1849-50; Pastor. Second Presbyterian Church. Phila- 
delphia. 1850-65; since 1865, Professor of the Harmony 
of Science and Revealed Religion at Princeton. 

CHARLES \VOODRUFF SHHILDS, D.D., 
LL.rX, Professor of the Harmony of Science 
and Revealed Religion at Princeton, was born in 
New Albany, Indiana, .\pril 4, 1825, only son of 
James Read and Hannah Woodruff Shields. He is 
descended on both sides of the fmiily from Colonial 
and Revolutionary ancestors. His grandfather, 
Judge Patrick Henry Shields, was a graduate of 
William and Mary College, Virginia ; and he is a 
descendant of the Hon. Samuel Woodruff, one of 
the original Trustees and patrons of Princeton. He 
was prepared for College in classical schools at 
Newark, New Jersey, and in those of his native 



92 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



town. He graduated from Princeton in the Class 
of 1S44, afterwards taking a four years' course of 
study at the Princeton Theological Seminary. He 
first entered u|)ontlie duties of the ministry in 1849, 
when he became Pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church at Hempstead, Long Island. In 1S50 he 
went to Philadelphia as Pastor of the Second Pres- 
byterian Church, and remained there until 1865, 
when he accepted the chair he now fills, that of 
Professor of the Harmony of Science and Revealed 
Religion, at Princeton. Professor Shields is the 
projector and first occupant, in any American Col- 



daughter of Peter Pain of Albany, New York, and 
his second wife, Klizabeth, daughter of Hon. John 
K. Kane, and sister of the Arctic Explorer, Elisha 
Kent Kane. 




CHARLES VV. SHIELDS 

lege, of a Professorship devoted to the philosophical 
study of the relations of science and religion. He 
is also the author of valuable philosophical, eccle- 
siastical and literary works, such as Philosoiiliia 
Ultima or Science of the Sciences, two volumes ; 
The Order of the Sciences ; The Westminster Pres- 
byterian Prayer Pjook, with Supplementary Treatise; 
The United Church of the United States ; The 
Arctic Monument named for Tennyson by Dr. 
Kane ; The Reformers of Geneva, an Historical 
Drama. Among the societies of which he is a 
member, are the American Philosophical and the 
American Geographical Societies, the Archaeological 
Institute of America, and the University and the 
Century Clubs of New York. He has been twice 
married : his first wife was Charlotte Elizabeth, 



SMITH, William, 1697-1769. 

Born in Buckinghamshire, Eng., 1697; graduated at 
Yale, 1719. where he was a Tutor ; admitted to the 
Bar; one of the original projectors of Princeton; 
Attorney-General of New York; Associate Justice of 
New York ; died in New York, 1769. 

WILLIAM SMl'I'H, A.M., one of the in- 
corporators of the College of New Jersey, 
was born in Buckinghamshire, England, October 8, 
1697, came with his father to this country in 1715, 
and was graduated at Yale in 1719, where he was 
Tutor for five years. He was atlmitted to the Bar 
of New York, where he practised with great success. 
He was disbarred in 1733 on account of his taking 
part in a lawsuit against Governor Cosby, but was 
re-admitted three years later. He was one of the 
original projectors of Princeton. He practised law 
actively in New York and Connecticut, was made 
Attorney-General of New York in 1751 and after 
filling various offices of trust was made Associate 
Justice of New York in 1763, a position he held 
until his death in i 769. The New York Gazette in 
an obituary notice of him said : " He was a gentle- 
man of great erudition and was the most eloquent 
speaker in the Province. He was of an amiable 
and exemplary life and conversation, and a zealous 
and inflexible friend to the cause of religion and 
liberty." 



SMITH, Herbert Stearns Squier, 1857- 

Born in Elizabeth, N. J., 1857; fitted for College in 
schools in Elizabeth; entered Princeton in 1874, and 
graduated with the degree of C.E. in the Class of 1878 ; 
Professor of Astronomy, Physics and Civil Engineering 
in Kansas State University at Lawrence, 1878-83; 
Instructor in Civil Engineering in Princeton, 1883-85 ; 
Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering from 1885 to 
1899; Prof. Applied Mechanics from March 1899 to the 
present time. 

HERBERT STEARNS SQUIER SMITH, 
C.E., Professor of Applied Mechanics at 
Princeton, was born in Ivlizabeth, New Jersey, May 
31, 1857, son of I'^lijiUi Kellogg and Harriet Cole 
( Squier ) Smith. On the paternal side he is of 
English origin, through the Smiths who settled in 
Long Island, and through his grandmother's fam- 
ily (the Kelloggs) who migrated from England to 
Connecticut. His maternal grandfather was of the 



UNIFERSiriES JND THEIR SONS 



93 



Squier family of New Jersey, who were originally of SMITH, William Peartree, 1723-1801 
French descent ; his maternal grandmother was a 
Cole, a Scotch family, who were also New Jersey 

settlers. Both his paternal and maternal ancestors 
came to America rdjout one hundred and fifty years 
ago. His early education was obtained in the 
public schools of his native town and in the Tingry 



Born in New York City, 1723; graduated at Yale, 
1742; studied law but never practised; Trustee of 
Princeton under the first and second charters ; died in 
Elizabeth, N. J., 1801. 

Il.I.lAM l'i:.\RrRi;i'. SMIIII, a.m., one 
of the first Trustees of the College of New 



w 



School, also in l'",lizabctli. He entered Princeton Jersey under the first and second charters, was the 
as an Academic freshman in 1S74, and fnini 1S75 gr.indson of William .Smith, Governor-General of 
to 1S7S took the course in Civil Kngineering, grad- Jamaica, and the son of William Smith of New 
uating with the degree of Civil Kngineer, in the Vork. He was born in that city in 1723 and was 
Class of 187S. He has been a teacher ever since graduated at Yale in 1742, studied law, but never 

practised, ha\ing a large estate. He married Mary, 
daughter of Captain Bryant of ,\ml)f)y, New Jersey. 
He was deeply interested in the struggle between 
the Colonies and Great liritain, taking the side of the 
Colonies. He lost much of his jiroperty through 
the depreciation of currency. The lattiM- jiart of his 
life was spent in ICliz.nbelh, New Jersey. He re- 
signed as Trustee in 1793, and died in 1801. 





H. S. S. SMITH 

graduation. He was appointed Professor of Astron- 
omy, Physics and Civil Engineering in the Kansas 
State University at Lawrence, in 1S78, holding this 
position until 1883, when he became Instructor in 
Civil Pingineering at Princeton. In 18S5 he was 
promoted to .Assistant Professor of Civil Kngineer- 
ing, and in 1899 he was elected Professor of Applied 
Mechanics which position he fills at the present 
time. He is an associate member of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers ; a member of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science ; 
of the Society for Promotion of Engineering Educa^ 
tion ; and of the Nassau Club. His political views 
are those of independent Republican. He is 
unmarried. 



SMITH, Samuel Stanhope, 1750-1819. 

Born in Pequea, Penn., 1750; graduated Princeton, 
1769; Tutor in his father's Classical and Theological 
School; Tutor at Princeton; President Hampden 
Sydney College ; Professor Moral Philosophy and 
Theology at Princeton; Vice-President and President 
of Princeton; received LL.D. degree from Yale, 1783, 
and from Harvard, 1810; died in Princeton, N.J., 1819. 

SAMUEL STANHOPE SMITH, LL.D., seventh 
President of Princeton, was the son of the 
well-known clergyman and educator. Rev. Robert 
Smith, who came to .America with his father at the 
age of seven, from Londonderry, Ireland. Samuel 
was born at Pequea, Pennsylvania, March 16, 1750. 
He graduated from Princeton in 1769 and became 
a Tutor in his father's classical and Theological 
School at Pequea for a short time, after which he 
returned to Princeton to study theology and was 
also a Tutor there from 1770 to 1773. In 1774 he 
was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry and be- 
came a missionary in Virginia. The next year he 
became the President of the new Hampden Sydney 
College, an office which he continued to hold until 
he was invited to take the Chair of Moral Philosophy 
at Princeton in 1779. Dr. Smith devoted the best 
years of his life to the rehabilitation of the College, 
whose buildings were burned, whose funds were 
exhausted and whose students were dispersed. He 
added to his duties the Professorship of Theology 
in 1783, and made considerable pecuniary sacrifices 
to tide over a critical condition. He was made 



94 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



Vice-President in i 786, and Presitlcnt in 1795, in 
succession to his falher-in-law, Dr. John Wither- 
spoon, holding that office until 1S12. He aided 
the cause of Presbyterianism by eloquent and power- 




SAMUEL S. SMITH 

ful preaching, and by eminent service upon a com- 
mittee formed in 1786 to formulate a system of 
church government. He received the degree of 
Doctor of Laws from Yale in 1783 and from Har- 
vard in 1 810. Some of his sermons were post- 
humously published with a memoir. His other 
works were Sermons, an Essay on the Causes of the 
Variety of Complexion and Figure of the Human 
Species ; A Comprehensive View of Natural and 
Revealed Religion ; and Lectures on the Evidences 
of Christian Religion and Moral and Political Phil- 
osophy. Dr. Smith died at Princeton, August 21, 
1819. 

TENNENT, William, 1673-1746. 

Born in Ireland in 1673; educated in Ireland, and 
entered the Episcopal ministry; Chaplain to an Irish 
nobleman; became a minister of the Presbyterian 
Synod of Philadelphia; established and conducted 
what was known as the Log College; died in Nesha- 
ming, Penn., 1746. 

WILLIAM TENNENT, Foimder and Princi- 
pal of the Log College, which is regarded 
as the germ from which Princeton and other lesser 



institutions of learning originated, was born in Ire- 
land in 1673, was educated in that country, entered 
the ministry of the Episcopal Church, and became 
Chaplain to an Irish nobleman. In 1718, he caine 
to America with his family, and was received as a 
minister of the Presbyterian Church by the Synod 
of Philadelphia. After brief pastorates in various 
localities, in 1726 he settled as Pastor in Nesham- 
ing, Pennsylvania, where he remained for the rest of 
his life, and where he established the first literary 
institution higher than a common school in the 
State of Pennsylvania. '1 his came to be known as 
the Log College, and was conducted in a small log 
building erected by Mr. Tennent in 1728, on land 
given him for the purpose by a kinsman. In this 
academy, conducted primarily for the instruction of 
candidates for the ministry, were trained many 
pupils that became eminent in the Presbyterian 
Church. Mr. Tennent died in Neshaming, May 6, 
1746. 

TENNENT, William, Jr., 1705-1777. 

Born in County Antrim, Ireland, 1705; educated at 
the Log College; Pastor at New Brunswick, N. J.; 
Trustee and President pro tern, of Princeton; died at 
Freehold, N. J., 1777. 

WILLIAM TENNENT, JR., Trustee of Prince- 
ton, son of AViUiam Tennent (1673- 
1746), was born in County Antrim, Ireland, Jan- 
uary 3, 1705. He came to this country with his 
father, in whose Log College he received his pre- 
paratory education, afterwards studying theology 
with his brother Gilbert, then Pastor at New liruns- 
wick, New Jersey. Here, when he had nearly fin- 
ished his theological course, a remarkable trance 
came upon him, in which he remained for several 
days as one dead. His physician refused to per- 
mit his burial, and efforts to resuscitate him were 
finally successful, although for some weeks his life 
was despaired of. After this he was obliged to 
learn anew to read and write, and had no recollec- 
tion of his past life, until sometime afterwards he 
felt a sudden bursting of something in his head, 
when his former knowledge and the memory of 
events began slowly to return. He subsequently 
asserted that during his trance he thought himself 
in Heaven, and that afterwards the recollection of 
the glories he had seen and heard was so vivid as 
to blot out for a long time all interest in earthly 
things. Mr. Tennent was in 1733 ordained at Free- 
hold, New Jersey, as successor to his brother John, 
and continued in that Pastorate for over forty years. 



UNIfERSJTJKS JM) TIII'.IK SONS 



95 



He was one of the originnl 'I'lustecs of Princeton, 
in I 74S, anil lie continued a nieniher of tlie lioanl 
until the end of life, serving in the meantime a short 
term as I'resiilent pro tern, lie died at Freehold, 
March 8, 1777. A detailed account of his trance 
was given in a memoir hy l-^lias lioudinot, publisheil 
in New York in ICS47. 



TENNENT, Gilbert, 1703-1764. 

Born in County Armagh, Ireland, 1703; educated by 
his father; taught in the Log College; licensed to 
preach and held a Pastorate in New Brunswick, N. J. ; 
went abroad to collect funds by request of the Trustees 
of Princeton; received the A.M. degree from Yale, 
1725; died in Philadelphia, 1764. 

GILlil'lRT TENNENT, A.M., one of the first 
Trustees of Princeton, son of ^Villiam Ten- 
ncnt of Log College fame, was born in County 
Armagh, Ireland, February 5, 1703, came to this 
countrv with his father, was educated by him, and 




GILBERT TENNENT 

for some time taught in the Log College. He com- 
menced the study of medicine, but abandoned it for 
divinity, and in 1725 was licensed to preach by the 
Philadelphia Presbytery. He held a Pastorate at 
New Brunswick, New Jersey, for some years, and 
subsequently made a tour with George Whitefield at 
the latter's request. In i 744 he was settled over a 



new chinch formed by Whiteficld's admirers in 
l'hiladeii)hia, where he l)e(:ime one of the most 
conspicuous clergymen of his day. In 1753 lie 
went abro.id at the request of the 'I'rustees of 
Princeton, in company with Rev. Samuel I);ivies, on 
a mission to secure funds for th;it institution, whicii 
had successful results. Mr. Tennent recx'ived the 
honorary degree of Master of .Arts from Vale in 
1725. He died in Philailelphia, July 23, 17C4. 



WITHERSPOON, John, 1722-1794. 

Born in Gifford, Scotland, 1722; graduated at the 
University of Edinburgh, 1742 ; President of Princeton ; 
Professor of Divinity at Princeton; member of both 
the Provincial and Continental Congresses; member 
of the War Board and other important committees; 
died near Princeton, 1794. 

JOHN WITHERSPOON, D.D., seventh Presi- 
dent of Princeton, was born in Gifford, Had- 
dingtonshire, Scotland, February 5, 1722. He was 
a son of the Rev. James Witherspoon, minister of 
the Parish of Yester, and on the maternal side was 
a descendant of John Knox. He was graduated 
from Edinburgh University in 1742 and ordained to 
the ministry three years later, but to the general 
reader the most interesting portion of his career 
begins with his inauguration to the Presidency of 
Princeton. Soon after his arrival he began the 
somewhat arduous task of replenishing the College 
treasury, and having succeeded in that laudable 
undertaking he next turned his attention to the cur- 
riculum which he enlarged by adding political 
science and international law to the philosophical 
course. He reserved for himself the Chair of 
Divinity, introduced in tiiis country the system of 
metaphysics which was then being taught in Scot- 
land by Thomas Reid, established the method of 
instruction by lectures by delivering himself regular 
discourses on rhetoric, moral philosophy, history and 
theology, and through his administrative ability the 
College grew rapidly both in size and importance. 
In 1772 he introduced the study of Hebrew and 
French. Besides his duties as President and in- 
structor he officiated for many years as the regular 
Pastor of the church in Princeton, and was foremost 
among the Presbyterians in supporting the cause 
of the Colonists during the exciting period whicli 
preceded the Declaration of Independence. Dr. 
Witherspoon from the hour of his landing accepted 
America as his adopted country, and his exertions in 
behalf of its development and prosperity were until- 



96 



UNIJ'ERSITIES .IND TflFJR SONS 




ing. His influence was the means of causing many VREELAND, Williamson Up Dike 1870- 

of his countrymen to become patriots, and the Born in Rocky Hill, N. J., 1870; fitted for College in 

weii^ht of his moral support during the dark days of Princeton Preparatory School, from which he gradu- 
thc' national struggle, cannot be too highly csti- a"=d in 1888; graduated Princeton, Class of 1892, 

receiving the fellowship in modern languages ; went 
abroad in 1892, and spent the next two years in study 
on the European Continent ; returned to Princeton and 
1894-1897 was Instructor in Romance Languages ; since 
1897 has been Assistant Professor of French in the 
Academic Department of Princeton. 

WILLIAMSON UP DIKK VREELAND, A. 
M., Assistant Professor of French at Prince- 
ton, was born in Rocky Hill, New Jersey, August 
30, 1870, son of Jacob iM. and Louisa (Up Dike) 
Vreeland. His ancestors were Dutch on both the 
paternal and maternal side. His preparation for 
College was received at the Princeton Preparatory 
School, from which he graduated in 1888. He then 
entered Princeton and graduated in the Class of 
1S92, being awanled the fellowship in modern lan- 
guages. He went abroad immediately after gradu- 
ation, and took one year of post graduate work at 
the Sorbonne, Paris. The next year was spent in 
Italy and Spain, studying the Italian and Spanish 
languages and literature. He returned to Prince- 



JOHN WITHERSPOON 

mated. He was a member of both the Provincial 
and Continental Congresses, served upon the famous 
secret committee which figured so conspicuously in 
perfecting the war preparations, was a member of 
the War Board in 1778, and of several other im- 
portant committees. Retiring from Congress per- 
manently in 1783 he visited England for the purpose 
of soliciting funds for his University, but as might 
have been expected he found the people too full of 
bitterness toward Americans, and his mission was 
therefore a failure. LTpon his return he relinquished 
teaching in order to devote his time exclusively to 
the administrative department, and his last days were 
spent upon his farm near Princeton. Dr. Wither- 
spoon's first [uiblication of note was Ecclesiastical 
Characteristics, or the Arcana of Church Policy ; 
being an humble attempt to open up the Mystery of 
Moderation, first issued anonymously but later 
avowed in a Serious Apology for the Characteristics, 
and his other writings, which were numerous, in- 
clude, besides sermons, works upon philosophical, 
political, financial and religious subjects. He re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the 
University of Aberdeen in 1764. 




U. VREELAND 



ton as Instructor in Romance Languages, in the 
fall of 1894, and served in that capacity for three 
years. Since 1897 he has been Assistant Professor 
of French in the Academic Department of Princeton. 



UNII KRShflES AND rilElli SONS 



97 



While an undergraduate, he was a member of the 
CUosoiihie Literary Society. In politics, he is an 
Independent Republican. He is unmarried. 



the degree of Doctor of I'liilosophy from Ooltingen 
in 1S92, and in 1894 was made I'rofessor of Mathe- 
matics in Princeton. He is a member of the Amer- 
ican Malheniatical Society. He is not married. 



THOMPSON, Henry Dallas, 1864- 

Born ill Metuchen, N J, 1864; graduated Princeton 
with degree of A. B, Class of 1885; Fellow at Prince- 
ton. 1885 1886; Fellow at Johns Hopkins. 1886 1887; 
received degree of A. M. from Princeton. 1888 ; ap- 
pointed Tutor in Mathematics at Princeton, 1888; 
received degree of D. Sc from Princeton. 1889; made 
Assistant Professor of Mathematics, 1891 ; received 
degree of Ph.D. at Gbttingen in 1892 ; made Professor 
of Mathematics at Princeton in 1894. 

HI:NRV DALLAS THOMPSON, D..Sc., Ph.D., 
I'rofessor of Mathematics at Princeton, was 
horn in Metuchen, New Jerse)', August 24, 1S64, 




H. D. THOMPSON 

son of John IJodin and Hannah Garrignes (Reeve) 
Thompson. He was graduated from Princeton with 
the degree of P.achelor of Arts in the Class of 1SS5 ; 
was Fellow in Princeton from 18S5 to 1886, and 
from 1886 to 1887 was Fellow at Johns Hopkins. 
For post graduate work at Princeton, he received 
the degree of Master of Arts in 18S8, and that of 
Doctor of Science in 18S9. He w^as Tutor in 
Mathematics in Princeton in 18S8, and in 1S91 was 
made .'\ssistant Professor of the same. He received 

VOL. II. — 7 



WILSON, Woodrow, 1856- 

Born in Staunton, Va, 1856; fitted for College in 
private schools in Augusta, Ga., and Columbia. S C , 
graduated at Princeton with degree of A. B., Class of 
1879; studied law at University of Va.. 1879-80; prac- 
tised law in Atlanta, Ga., 1882-83; studied history and 
politics at the Johns Hopkins. 1883-85; was Associate 
Professor of History and Political Economy at Bryn 
Mawr College, 1885-88; Professor of History and Poli- 
tical Economy, Wesleyan University, Middletown, 
Conn., i888-go; since i8go has been Professor of Juris- 
prudence at Princeton ; received degree of A.M from 
Princeton, 1882, and from the Johns Hopkins he received 
the degree of Ph.D. in 1886 ; was Lecturer on Adminis- 
tration at Johns Hopkins, 1887-1898. 

WOODRUW WILSON, Ph.D., LL.D., Pro- 
fessor of Jurisprudence at Princeton, was 
born in Staunton, Virginia, December 28, 1856, 
son of the Rev. Joseph Ruggles \\'ilson, D.D., and 
Jessie (Woodrow) Wilson. On the maternal side 
he is of Scotch, and on the paternal side of Scotch- 
Irish, ancestry, his mother being a descendant of 
Thomas Wodrow (the original spelling of the name), 
who was the earliest historian of the church of Scot- 
land, and whose name has been taken by the Wod- 
row Historical Society of Scotland. His preparation 
for College was obtained in private schools in Au- 
gusta, Georgia, and in Columbia, South Carolina, at 
each of which places his father was Pastor of the 
Presbyterian church. He graduated from Princeton, 
with the degree of Bachelor of .Arts, in the Class of 
1879, and after studying law for a year at tiie L'ni- 
versity of Virginia, entered upon the practice of his 
])rofession at .\tlanta, Georgia. During the three 
years following — 1 8S0-S3 — and while still engaged 
in the practice of law, he decitled to become a teacher, 
and with that object in view took up the study of 
history and politics at the Johns Hopkins University, 
in 1S83. In 1885 he became Associate Professor 
of History and Political Economy at P.ryn Mawr 
College, serving in tliat capacity until 188S, when 
he was called to the chair of Professor of History 
and Political Economy in Wesleyan Lfniversity, 
Middletown, Connecticut. Since 1890 he has been 
Professor of Jurisprudence at Princeton, and also 
held the position of I,ecturer on Administration at 
the Johns Hopkins from 1887 to 189S. He received 
the degree of Master of Arts from Princeton in 1S82, 



98 



UNIVERSITIES AND TIIFJR SONS 



and Ihat of Doctor of I'liilosophy fiom the Johns 
Hopkins in i8S6. He received the honorary degree 
of Doctor of T,n\vs from Wake Forest University in 
18S7, and from Tulane University in 1898. Profes- 




WOOUROW WILSON 

sor Wilson is a member of the American Historical 
Association, the Soutliern History Association, 
American Economic Association, American Philo- 
sophical Society, American Academy of Histori- 
cal and Political Science, and the American Bar 
Association ; and is a Corresponding Member 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society and of the 
Historical Society of Alabama. He acted with 
the Democratic party until 1886, but subscribes to 
the principles of the Indianapolis platform of that 
year. He was married in Savannah, Georgia, June 
24, 1885, to Ellen Louise Axson. They have three 
chiklren : Margaret, Jessie Woodrow and Eleanor 
Randolph Wilson. He has published the following 
books : Congressional Government : A Study in 
American Politics ; The State : Elements of Histo- 
rical and Practical Politics ; Division and Reunion, 
1829-1SS9; An Old Master and Other Political 
Essays ; George Washington ; Mere Literature and 
Other Essays. 

WYCKOFF, Walter Augustus, 1865- 

Born in Mainpuri, North West Provinces, India, 1865 ; 
received his early education in India, and fitted for 



College at the Freehold Institute, Freehold, N. J.; 
graduated Princeton with the degree of B.A., Class of 
1888; spent two years in study and teaching, and nearly 
two more in travel and investigation in the United 
States, and two years abroad, going twice around the 
world ; re-entered Princeton in 1894 as Fellow in Social 
Science; appointed Lecturer on Sociology in the 
University, 1895, ^"'i Assistant Professor of Political 
Economy, June 1898. 

WALTER AUGUSl'US WYCKOFF, Assistant 
Professor of Political Economy at Prince- 
ton, was born in Mainpuri, India, April 12, 1865, 
son of Rev. Benjamin DuBois and IMelissa (Johnson) 
Wyckoff. He is descended on the paternal side 
from Claess Corneliszen von Schonw, who emigrated 
from the island of Schonw, off the coast of Friezland, 
to New .-Xmsterdam, in 1636. His son, Peter Claesen, 
was given the name Wyckoff, (a name compounded 
of the two Dutch words — wick, parish and hqf, 
court), because of his position as Magistrate of 
Flatlands. A maternal ancestor w-as Robert John- 
son, who came from Hull, England, to New Haven, 
about 1640. His son, Thomas Johnson, was one 
of the first settlers of Newark, New Jersey. Mr. 
Wyckoff began his preparation for College while a 




WALTER A. WYCKOFF 



boy in India, and later was a student at the Freehold 
Institute in Freehold, New Jersey. He graduated 
from Princeton, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, 
with the Class of 18SS. After graduation he spent 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



9^ 



two years in study and teaching and nearly two more 
in extensive travel and investigation in the United 
States, before going abroad, where he spent two 
more years of travel, twice making the tour of the 
world, and visiting many regions little frequented by 
the average tourist. He re-entered Princeton in the 
autumn of 1894 as Fellow in Social Science, and in 
1895 was appointed Lecturer on Sociology in the 
University, and was elected Assistant Professor of 
Political l-xonomy in June 1S98, which position he 
continues to fill. He is a member of the Cliosophic 
Society ; of the Nassau and Ivy Clubs of Princeton ; 
and of the Princeton, the Reform, the University, 
the .Authors', and the Century Clubs of New York. 
He is an Independent Democrat. He is unmarried. 



VAN DYKE, Henry Nevius, 1853- 

Born in Mapleton, N. J., 1853; prepared for College 
at School in Princeton; graduated at Princeton, Class 
of 1872, with degree of A.B.; since 1873 has been 
Registrar of Princeton. 

HENRY NEVIUS VAN DYKE, A.M., Reg- 
istrar of Princeton, was born in Mapleton, 
New Jersey, March 22, 1S53, son of John (iordon 




HENRY N. V.AN DYKE 



of Arts, in the Class of 1S72. He was appointed 
Registrar of Princeton in 1873. He was married, 
November i8So, to .\nnie Rogers. 'Phcy have two 

children: .MexandiT Dean, and Arthur Cordon \'an 
Dyke. 



and Elizabeth (Melick) Van Dyke; both parents 
being of Dutch ancestry. He was fitted for College 
at school in Princeton, and graduated from the 
College of New Jersey, with the degree of ISnehclor 



BRECKENRIDGE, John, 1797-1841. 

Born in Cabell's Dale, Ky., 1797 ; graduated at 
Princeton, 1818; Tutor there 1820-21; entered the 
Presbyterian ministry and was Chaplain of the United 
States Congress 1822-23 \ preached in Lexington, Ky., 
four years; Associate Pastor of a church in Baltimore, 
five years ; Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of 
Education, Philadelphia, 1831-1836 ; appointed a Pro- 
fessor in the latter year at the Princeton Theological 
Seminary and Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of 
Foreign Missions in 1838; Trustee of Princeton, 1830- 
1841 ; died, 1841. 

JOHN BRECKENRIDGE, D.D., Trustee of 
Princeton, was born at Cabell's Dale, Ken- 
tucky, July 4, 1 797. He was a son of John Prccken- 
ridge, United States Senator and ."Xttorncy-Ceneral 
in President Jefferson's Cabinet. While a student 
at Princeton he became converted and decided to 
enter the Presbyterian ministry, .\fter graduating 
(1 818) he studied theology, serving as a Tutor in 
the Academic Department for the year 1 820-1 821, 
and received from the Presbytery of New Brunswick 
in the following year a license to preach. He offi- 
ciated as Chaplain to Congress during the .Session" 
of 1822-1S23 and during tlic latter year was installed 
as Pastor of the Church in Lexington, Kentucky. 
In 1826 he went to the Second Presbyterian Church, 
Baltimore, Maryland, the Pastorate of which he shared 
with Dr. Glendy for five years and in 1831 was 
summoned to Philadelphia to become Secretary and 
General Agent of the Presbyterian ISoard of Educa- 
tion. He resigned that position in 1836 to accept 
the Professorship of Pastoral Theology at the Prince- 
ton Theological Seminary, and when the Presbyterian 
lioard of Foreign Missions was established (1S38) 
lie became its Secretary. He also served as a Trus- 
tee of Princeton from 1830 to 1S41. Dr. lireck- 
enridge died while on a visit to his old home in 
Kentucky, August 4, 1841, from the effects of his 
arduous la1)ors in lu'lialf of thi- Missionary Board 
and at the Diviiiily School. He was made a Doctor 
of Divinity by the University of the City of New 
York in 1S35. Just before his death he received a 
call to the Presidency of Oglethorpe University, 
Georgia. He was firm in his adherence to the prin- 
ciples of the old school. He published a number of 
))olemiral writings. 



loo 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



ALEXANDER, William, 1726-1783. 

Born in New York City, 1726; was a prosperous 
merchant ; a staunch Revolutionary patriot ; one of the 
founders of King's College; died, 1783. 

WILLIAM ALEXANDER (Earl of Stirling), 
one of the first Governors of King's CoL 
lege, now Columbia, was born in New York City in 
1726. He was a son of James Alexander, who fol- 
lowed the fortunes of a pretender to the English 
throne imtil forced to take refuge in America where 
he accumulated a fortune anil became Colonial 
Secretary. James Alexander died in 1752 and his 
widow was again married to one David Provost, who 
died shortly afterward. When a young man, William 
Alexander was a provision merchant and entering the 
Commissariat Department of the British Army, be- 
came an Aide-de-Camp to Governor Shirley. Visiting 
London in i 757 for the purpose of proving his heir- 
ship to the Earldom of Stirling, the House of Peers 
refused to recognize his claim and his desire to 
resent the injustice done him smouldered within his 
breast until the breaking-out of the Revolutionary 
War gave him an opportunity to requite his personal 
wrongs as well as those of the Colonists, with whom he 
was an ardent sympathizer. Enlisting in the Conti- 
nental Army he rendered distinguished services in the 
battles of Long Island, Monmouth, Rrandywine and 
Germantown, and rose to the rank of Major-General. 
Previous to the War he held the office of Surveyor- 
General and was a member of the Provincial 
Council. Lord Stirling took an active interest in 
educational affairs, having acquired proficiency in 
the higher branches of study including mathematics 
and astronomy, and besides his efforts in organizing 
King's College, which became known as Columbia 
after the War, he acted as its Governor from 1762 
to 1776. Hisdeath occurred in Albany, January 15, 
1783 and was caused by a severe attack of the gout. 
He was the autiior of a pamphlet entitled The Con- 
duct of Major-General Shirley Briefly Stated, written 
in defence of that officer when charged with neglect 
of duty, and he also wrote an Account of the Comet 
of June an<l July, 1770. 



BARNARD, Frederick Augustus Porter, 
1809-1889. 

Born in Sheffield, Mass., iScg; graduated at Yale, 
1828; Tutor at Yale; teacher in the Asylum for the 
Deaf and Dumb at Hartford, also for the Deaf and 
Dumb at N. Y. City; Professor of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy at the University of Ala., also 
Professor of Chemistry; Professor of Mathematics and 



Astronomy in the University of Miss., also President; 
had charge of the publication of the U. S. Coast Survey, 
Maps and Charts; President of Columbia; U. S. Com- 
missioner to the Universal Exposition at Paris, 1867; 
U. S. Assistant Commissioner General to the Paris 
Exposition, 1878 ; President of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science ; President of the 
Board of Experts of the American Bureau of Mines; 
President of the American Institute ; one of the incor- 
porators of the National Academy of Sciences and 
Foreign Sec. of that Body; received LL.D. from 
Jefferson College, 1855 and from Yale, 1859, D.D.from 
University of Miss.; Trustee of Columbia; endowed 
Columbia; died at N. Y. City, i88g. 

FREDERICK A. P. BARNARD, S.T.D., LL.D., 
L.H.D., D.C.L., tenth President of Columbia, 
was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, May 5, 1S09, 




FREDERICK A. P. B.ARN.iRD 

and was graduated at Vale in 1S2S. Erom 1829 to 
1 83 1 he was a Tutor in the College. In 1S31 lie 
was a teacher in the .Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb 
at Hartford, and in 1S32 became similarly engaged 
in the Deaf and I hniib Institution at New Vork. 
Erom 1837 to 1S48 he was Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philosophy in the ITniversity of 
Alabama, and then filled the Chair u{ Chemistry 
vintil 1854. In that year he took orders in the 
Episcopal Church. He then became Professor 
of Mathematics and .\stronomy in the University 
of Mississippi, and in 1856 was elected President of 
that institution. At the opening of the Civil War 
he returned North, and he was a member of the 



UNIVERSIl'IES AND THEIR SONS 



TOT 



Labrador expedition, sent to observe the solar 
eclipse of i<S6o, was engaged in reducing observa- 
tions of stars in the Southern Hemisphere in 1862, 
and had charge of tlie ]iublication of the llnited 
States Coast Survey Maps and Charts in 1S63. In 
1S64 he became President of Columbia, in wliich 
ofifice he served until 1S89. Dr. Barnaril was 
United States Commissioner to the Universal Ex- 
position at Paris in 1S67, and was United States 
Assistant Commissioner-Ccneral to the Paris Ex- 
position of 1 8 78. He was President of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Science in 
i860. President of the P>oard of Experts of the 
American lUireau of Mines in 1S65, and President 
of the American Institute in 1S72. He was one 
of the incorporators of the National Academy of 
Sciences, and Foreign Secretary of that body 
1874-S0. Picsides being a contributor to the 
Ameiican Journal of Education from its begin- 
ning, and to SiUiman's Journal since 1837, he has 
published many treatises, reports, essays, etc., on 
Collegiate and University education, and on various 
scientific, mathematical, philosojihical and educa- 
tional subjects. The degree of Doctor of Laws 
was conferred upon him by Jefferson College in 
1855 and by Yale in 1859 ; that of Doctor of 
Divinity by the University of Mississippi in 1861 ; 
and that of Doctor of Literature by the University 
of the State of New York in 1872. Dr. Barnard 
dieil .April 27, 1S89, bequeathing to Columbia 
besides his library and scientific apparatus, his 
residuary estate, amounting to over $70,000, to 
be invested as follows: ";? 10,000 to be set apart 
to found a fellowship for encouraging scientific re- 
search ; and the remainder to constitute a fund 
under the name of the Barnard Fund for the 
Increase of the Library, the income to be de- 
voted to the puichase of such books as from time 
to time may be most needed, especially relating 
to physical or astronomical science, excepting so 
much of such income as shall be necessary to pro- 
vide for a gold medal, to be styled the Barnard 
Medal for Meritorious Service to Science, to be 
awarded at the close of every quinquennial period 
to such person, whctlier a citizen of the United 
States or any other country, as shall w'ithin the five 
years next preceding have made such discovery in 
physical or astronomical science, or such new ap- 
plication of science to the benefit of the human 
race, as in the judgment of the National Academy 
of Sciences of the United States shall be esteemcrl 
most worthy of such honor." Pursuant to tlic terms 



of the will, tlie Trustees of Columbia established in 
18S9 the Barnard Fellowship for encouraging Scien- 
tific Research, the Barnartl Fund for the Increase 
of the Library and the JJarnard Medal for Meritori- 
ous Service to Science. The death of President 
Barnard's widow, Margaret M. Barnard, occurred 
soon after, and her will contained the following 
bequest : " The portrait of my husband taken when 
he was about thirty-four years old, I give to Colum- 
bia College. Whatever I leave in the way of money 
or real estate must go to augment the smn left by 
my husband to Columbia. My husband's best gold 
watch must be sold or disposed of in such manner 
as also to increase the fund left by Mr. Barnard for 
the College fund." The estate amounted to nearly 
Si 6,000. As a memorial of President and Mrs. 
Barnard, the Trustees of Columbia erected a chapel 
and moniunent at Sheffield, Massachusetts, President 
Barnard's birthplace. 



BARD, Samuel, 1742-1821. 

Born in Philadelphia, Penn , 1742; attended King's 
College; graduated at the Edinburgh University. 1765; 
assisted in establishing a Medical School in connection 
with King's College; Professor of the Practice of 
Medicine and Dean of the Faculty; President of the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons; received LL D , 
from Princeton, 1815; died at Hyde Park, N. Y., 1821. 

SAMUEL BARD, M.D., LL.D., Founder of the 
Medical School of Columbia, was born in Phil- 
adelphia, April I, 1742, son of Dr. John Bard, first 
President of the New York Medical Society. After 
attending King's College, he studied medicine in 
Edinburgh Plniversity, where he received his doc- 
tor's degree in 1765, after whicli he travelled exten- 
sively in Europe. On his return to this countrv in 
1767 he began practice in New York in partnership 
with his father. Soon after, his exertions to that 
end resulted in establishing a Medical School in 
connection with King's College, in which he be- 
came Professor of the Practice of Medicine and 
subsequently Dean of the Faculty- In 1 769 a 
hospital was built, but its loss by fire delayed its 
establishment until 1791. In 1798 Dr. Bard re- 
tired to Hyde Park, New York, where he oecu])ied 
himself with agriculture and scientific pursuits during 
the remainder of his life, returning to New York 
however to render charitable professional services in 
a yellow fever epidemic, and during which he con- 
tracted the disease. He was the author of various 
published treatises on medical and scientific sub- 
jects. \V'hen the Colimihia Medical School was 



Io2 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



organized as a separate institution, under the name 
of tlie College of Physicians and Surgeons, in i<Si3, 
he became its first President and held that office for 
the rest of his life. Princeton conferred on him 
the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 1815. 
He died in Hyde Park, New York, May 24, 1821. 



AUCHMUTY, Samuel, 1722-1777. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1722; graduated at Harvard, 
1742 ; Assistant Minister and Rector of Trinity Church, 
N. Y. City; received the S.T.D. degree from Columbia, 
1767, and from Oxford, 1776; died in N. Y. City, 1777. 

SAMUEL AUCHMUTY, S.T.D., Governor of 
King's College, was born in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, January 16, 1722, son of Robert Auch- 



?.' H^ ' SiWJ^.^ ' -t . ' .^t-^.V-^iW^";' 





SAMUEL AUCHMUTY 

miity, who in 1699 emigrated from Ireland to 
Boston, where he became a prominent lawyer and 
an officer of the Court of Admiralty. He w,'is 
descended from a family settled in Fife, Scotland, in 
the fourteenth century. Dr. Auchmuty was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1742, and after studying theology 
in England was appointed Assistant Minister of 
Trinity Church, New York. From 1759 to 1764 he 
officiated as one of the Governors of King's College. 
In 1764 he became Kector, also having charge of 
all the churches in the city. His persistence in 



reading prayers for the King from his pulpit during 
the Revolution finally brought \ipon him a peremj)- 
tory order to desist from Lord Stirling, in command 
of the forces at New York, whereupon he closed the 
churches and withdrew to New Jersey, ordering that 
no services should be helil until the prayers could be 
read without abridgment. Dr. Auchmuty suflered 
many hartlships on account of his zealous advocacy 
of the Crown. ^Vhen the British captured New 
York he succeeded after great difficulties in passing 
the American lines, but found his church and par- 
sonage burned and the church records destroyed, 
and the exjiosures that he underwent in evading the 
American sentinels resulted in his death, March 6, 
1777. He was given the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity by Columbia in 1767 and by Oxford in 
1776. 



BECK, John Brodhead, 1794-1851. 

Born in Schenectady, N. Y., 1794; graduated at 
Columbia in 1813, and at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons 1817; practised in New York City; edited 
New York Medical and Physical Journal, 1822-1829 ; 
Professor Materia Medica and Botany, College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, 1826-1851 ; Trustee of Colum- 
bia, 1838-1851 ; author of several important inedical 
works; died in Rhinebeck, N. Y., 1851. 

JOHN BRODHEAD BECK, M.D., Trustee of 
Columbia, was born in Schenectady, New 
York, September iS, 1794, son of Caleb Beck and 
nephew of Rev. Dr. John V>. Romeyn, in whose 
house he received his early education. He was 
graduated at Columbia in 1813 and at the College 
of Physicians and .Surgeons in 181 7, and in the 
latter year entered upon the practice of medicine 
in New York City. The Master of Arts degree was 
given him by Union in 1S16 and by Columbia in 
181 8. In 1 82 6 he became Professor of Materia 
Medica and Botany in the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, and although he subsequently exchanged 
the Chair of Botany for that of Medical Jurispru- 
dence, he remained a member of the Faculty of the 
College until his death, his period of service cover- 
ing a quarter of a century. From 183S until the 
end of his life he was also a Trustee of Columbia. 
1 )r. Beck published various medical works, including 
a collection of medical essays, a treatise on Infant 
Therapeutics; and a Historical Sketch of the State 
of Medicine in the Colonies. He also assisted his 
brother. Dr. T. Romeyn Beck, in the preparation of 
his great work. Elements of Medical Jurisprudence. 
He died in Rhinebeck, New York, April 9, 185 i. 



UNIIERSITII'-.S .INI) 'rill'.IR SONS 



1 O' 



BENSON, Egbert, 1746-1833. 

Born in N. Y. City, 1746; graduated at King's Col- 
lege, 1765; meinber of the Revolutionary Committee 
of Safety; first Attorney-General of N. Y. ; member of 
the Continental Congress ; Circuit Judge of the Federal 
Court ; member of Congress ; President of the N. Y. 
Historical Society; Trustee of Columbia; Regent of 
the N. Y. University; received LL.D. degree from 
Union, 1779. from Harvard, 1808 and from Dartmouth, 
1811; died at Jamaica, L. I., 1833 

EC.liERT LENSON, LL.D., 'J'nistec of Colum- 
bia, was born in New York City, June 21. 
1746, was graduated at King's College in 1765, and 



by New \ork of the I'Vderal Constitution. 'Liio 
iionorary degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred 
on liiui by I'niiin in 1779 and l)y li;irvard in 1S08, 
;ind lie was similarly honored by Dartmouth in iSi 1. 
lie died at Jamaica, Long Island, .August 24, 1833. 




EGBERT BENSON 

adopted the legal profession. After serving as a 
member of the Revolutionary Committee of Safety 
he became, in 1777, the first Attorney-General of 
New York. He was a member of the Continental 
Congress 17S4-178S, to which he was returned for 
another term, and from 1794 to 1802 he was a Cir- 
cuit Judge of the Federal Court. Subsequently, 
1813-1815, he served a term as Member of Con- 
gress. Judge Benson was the first President of the 
New York Historical Society, and from 1789 to 
1S02 was Regent of New York University. He was 
distinguished for eloquence and learning, and was 
the author of Vindications of the Captors of Major 
Andre, and Memoirs on Dutch Names and Places. 
He also took an active part in securing the adoption 



BOWDEN, John, 1751-1817. 

Born in Ireland, 1751 ; came to America when young ; 
studied at Princeton; was graduated at King's Col- 
lege ; ordained to the Episcopal ministry in England ; 
was an Assistant at Trinity Church, N. Y. ; Rector of 
a church in Norwalk, Conn,, five years; Principal of 
an Episcopal Academy in Cheshire, Conn., six years ; 
declined the Bishopric of Connecticut in 1796; Pro- 
fessor of Moral Philosophy. Belles lettres and Logic 
at Columbia, 18011817; died, 1817. 

JOHN BOWDEN, S.T.D., a prominent mendjer 
of the Columbia Faculty during the early part 
of tlie nineteenth century, was born in Ireland, 
January 7, 175 i. He was the son of a British sol- 
dier whom he accompanied to .America when young, 
and after studying at the College of New Jersey, now 
I^rinceton, for two years, he went back to Europe. 
Upon his return he entered King's College, now 
Columbia, where he took his degree of Bachelor of 
Arts in 1772, and that of Master of Arts was con- 
ferred upon him later. After completing his prepa- 
rations for orders in the Episcopal Church he visited 
England for ordination in 17 74, and during the same 
year was assigned to Trinity Church, New York, as 
an assistant minister. Like many Established Church 
clergymen, he did not support the American Revo- 
lution, and therefore his i)osition during the period 
of hostilities was somewhat uncomfortable. Resum- 
ing his ministry in i 784 as Rector of the church in 
Norwalk, Connecticut, he remained there until 17S9, 
when he visited the West India Islands for the ben- 
efit of his health, and was absent two years. Shortly 
after his return he became Principal of the Episco- 
pal Academy in Cheshire, Connecticut, over which 
he presided for six years, and in 1796 was the unan- 
imous choice of the convention for Bishop of that 
Diocese, but was compelled to decline as his health 
would not permit him to undertake its government. 
In 1797, the degree of Doctor of Divinity was 
conferred upon him by Columbia. He accepted 
the Professorship of Moral Philosophy, Belles-lettres 
and Logic in that Institution in 1801 and retained 
. the Chair until his death, which occurred at Ballston 
Spa, New York, July 31, 1 8 1 7. l^r. Bowden readily 
conformed to the clianges in the wording of the 
ritual introduced after the separation of the Colonies 



I04 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



from tlie Mother Country, ami in an earnest aildress 
to the church at Stratford, Connecticut, in 1792, 
succeeded in securing the adoption of the American- 
ized book of Common Prayer, contrary to tlie wishes 
of the Rector, wlio was strenuously opposed to its 
use. Among his published works are : Letters to 
President Ezra Stiles of Yale College, Concerning 
Church Government; A Full- Length Portrait of 
Calvinism; The Essentials of Ordination; 'I'he 
Apostolic Origin of the Iqiiscopacy ; and observa- 
tions on the Catholic Controversy. 



COCHRAN, John, 1730-1807. 

Born in Sadsbury, Pa., 1730; studied medicine and 
became a Surgeon in the British Army during the 
French and Indian War; was Surgeon-General in the 
Continental Army during the War for Independence; 
was the first Commissioner of Loans for the State of 
New York ; served as a Regent and Trustee of Colum- 
bia ; died, 1807. 

JOHN COCHRAN, M.D., Regent and 'I'rustee 
of Columbia, was born in Sadsbury, Chester 
county, Pennsylvania, September i, 1730. He was 
a pupil at the grammar school taught by Dr. Francis 
Allison, and having studied medicine and surgery 
with Dr. Thompson, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, he 
entered the Hospital Department of the British 
Army with which he served throughout the French 
and Indian War, attaining high repute as a Surgeon. 
He practised in Albany, New York, anil later in 
New Brunswick, New Jersey, remaining in the latter 
place until 1776, when he tendered his services to 
the American Army and at the suggestion of Gen- 
eral Washington received the appointment of Sur- 
geon-General of the Middle Department. He was 
made Director-General of Hospitals by Act of Con- 
gress in 1 78 1, and in that capacity he greatly im- 
proved that branch of the service. After the close 
of the War he took up his residence in New York 
City, and was appointeil Commissioner of Loans for 
that State by President Washington, being the first 
to hold that office. Dr. Cochran died in Palatine, 
Montgomery county, New York, April 6, 1807. He 
married Gertrude Schuyler of Albany, a sister of 
General Philip Schuyler. While residing in New 
Brunswick he was President of the New Jersey 
Medical Society. In 1784, he became Regent and 
a Trustee of Columbia, serving in the last-named 
capacity for ten years, and his interest in that insti- 
tution was extremely beneficial to its prosperity 
under the new regime. 



COOPER, Myles, 1735-1785. 

Born in England, 1735; graduated at O.xford (Eng.), 
1760: Fellow of Queen's College ; Professor of Mental 
and Moral Philosophy at King's College ; President of 
King's College; received the LL.D. degree from 
Columbia, 1768; died at Edinburgh, Scotland, 1785. 

MYLES COOPER, l.I .1)., second President 
of King's (now Columbia) College, was 
born in England in 1735 ; died in Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, May I, 1785. He was graduated at Oxford 
in 1 760, and became a Fellow of Queen's College. 
In 1762 he came to America to assist President 




MYLES COOPER 

Samuel Johnson of King's College, and was ap- 
pointed Professor of IMental and Moral Philosophy 
in that institution. A year later he succeeded to 
the Presidency of the College. It is said of him 
that " through his means the College was raised in 
reputation superior to all Colleges on the continent, 
and that under his tuition was produced a number 
of young men superior in learning and ability to any 
that America had ever seen." He visited England 
in 1 7 71, returning shortly before the War of the 
Revolution. He remained loyal to the crown, and 
his Tory sentiments not being relished by the students, 
a party of them set off one night, in August 1775, 
with the design of " seizing him in his bed, shaving 
his head, cropping off his ears, slitting his nose. 
Stripping him naked, and setting him adrift." To 



UNIVERSITIES JND TI/EIR SONS 



>05 



stimulate them for the enterprise, however, the party 
stopped for "a pTo|ier dose of Madeira" at a public 
house, where the plot was overheard, and President 
Cooper was warned just in time to make his escape 
through a back window. He found shelter in the 
house of a friend for the night, and in the morning 
was conveyed on board a ISritish ship-of-war, in 
which he sailed for England. The remainder of his 
life was passed mainly in lulinburgh. In 1776 he 
published a poem in the Gentleman's Magazine de- 
scriptive of his escape from New York. 



DUER, William Alexander, 1780-1858. 

Born in Rhinebeck, N. Y., 1780; served as a Midship- 
man under Decatur; studied law and was admitted to 
the Bar; member of the State Assembly, served as 
Chairman of a Committee on Colleges and Academies ; 
Chairman of the Committee that arranged the constitu- 
tionality of the state law vesting the right of navigation 
in Livingston and Fulton; Judge of the Supreme Court 
of N. Y. ; President of Columbia College ; died in N. Y. 
City. 1858. 

WIl.l.lAM A. DUKR, l.L.l), seventh Presi- 
dent of Columbia, was born in Rhinebeck, 
Xew York, September 8, 17S0, son of William and 
Catherine (Alexander) Duer. His mother was a 
daughter of (General William Alexander, the claimant 
of the Scottish Karlilom of Stirling and was descended 
from James Alexander, the DePeysters, Livingstons 
and Schuylers. At the age of eighteen, during the 
trouble with France in i 798, he secured an a|:ipoint- 
ment and served as Midshipman in the navy under 
Decatur. On his return he resumed the law studies 
which had been interrupted by his naval service, 
and upon admission to the Bar in 1S02 entered into 
law business with Edward Livingston, then District 
Attorney and I\Layor of New York. After Mr. Liv- 
ingston's removal to New Orleans, he formed a part- 
nership with his brother-in-law, P.everly Robinson. 
Subsequently he joined Mr. Livingston at New 
Orleans and studied Spanish civil law, but as tlie 
climate did not agree with him he returned to New 
York and resumed his practice in that city. Soon 
afterwards he opened an office in Rhinebeck, and in 
1814 was elected to the State Assembly, where he 
served as Chairman of a Committee on Colleges and 
Academies, in which capacity he drafted and secured 
the passage of a bill which is the original of the 
existing law on the subject of common-school income. 
He also took an active and jirominent part in pro- 
moting canal legislation, and was also Chairman of 
-the Committee that arranged the constitutionality of 



the state law vesting the right of navigation in Liv- 
ingston and I'ulton. From 1822 he was a Judge of 
the Supreme Court until 1829, when he was elected 
President of Columbia, which office he held until 
1S42, when he resigned on account of failing health. 
He died in New York, ^L^y 30, 1858. After his 
retirement from the Presidency of Columbia Judge 
Duer wrote the life of his grandfather. Lord Stirling, 




WILLIAM A. DUER 



published by the Historical Society of New Jersey; 
and in 1847 he delivered an address in tlie College 
Chapel before the literary societies of Columbia, 
which was also published. 



DUANE, James, 1733-1797- 

Born in N. Y. City. 1733; member of the Continent.iI 
Congress; member of the N. Y. Provincial Congress, 
also one of the Committee of Safety; Mayor of N. Y. 
City; State Senator; member of the convention that 
adopted the Federal Constitution ; U. S. District Judge 
for N. Y. ; Governor of King's College and a Trustee 
and Chairman of the Board ; died in Duanesburg, 
N. Y., 1797. 

JAMES DU.ANl'), one of the Governors of King's 
College and later a Trustee of Columbia, was 
born in New York City, February 6, 1733. He was 
a member of the Continental C\)ngress as long as 
that body existed, and in 1776-1777 was a mem- 



1 o6 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



ber of tlie New York Provincial Congress, and 
also one of the Committee of Safety. He was the 
first Mayor of the Corporation of New York, serving 
from 1784 to 17S9. From 1782 to 1785 and again 
in 1789-1790 he was State Senator, and in 17S8 
was a member of the convention that ado|)ted th.e 
Federal Constitution. In 1789 he was appointed 
United States District Judge for New York, in which 
capacity he served until 1794. He was the leading 
supporter of the claims of the New York settlers to 
the lands in Vermont known as the " New Hamp- 
shire Grant," and was an inlluential and vigorous. 




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■"1 


HI 


■1 


f^m 






T^v^K 






: ,v:*;.is 




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w^ 





JAMES DUANE 

but not extreme advocate of the measures which led 
up to the American Revolution. Judge Duane was 
a Governor of King's College i 762-1 770, one of the 
Trustees of Columbia 1784-1795, and from 1787 to 
1795 was Chairman of the Board of Trustees of that 
■ institution. He died at Duanesburg, New York, 
February i, i 797. 



FISH, Hamilton, 1808-1893. 

Born in N. Y. City, 1808; graduated at Co- 
lumbia, 1827; studied law and admitted to the Bar; 
Commissioner of Deeds; member of Congress from 
the Sixth District of N. Y.; Governor of N.Y.; U.S. 
Senator ; Secretary of State ; one of the Commissioners 
of the U. S. to negotiate the Treaty of Washington ; 



President of the N. Y Historical Society; President- 
General of the N. Y. Society of the Cincinnati; died 
in N. Y. City, 1893. 

HAMILTON FISH, LL.I)., Trustee of Colum- 
bia, and Chairman of the Board, was born 
in New York City, August 3, 1808, son of Nicholas 
Fish, a distinguished soldier of the Revolution and 
Supervisor of the Revenue under President ^Vash- 
ington. He was graduated at Columbia, in 1827, 
studied law, anil after admission to the Bar was for 
several years Commissioner of Deeds. In 1834 he 
made his first entry into the arena of politics, as a 
candidate of the Whig party for the State Assembly, 
and was defeated. In 1842 he was elected to 
Congress from the Sixth District of New York, over 
the Democratic candidate, and served one term. 
In 1S46 he was a candidate for Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor, but although the Whig candidate for Governor 
was elected, Mr. Fish was defeated by a faction 
whose hostility he had incurred. A year later the 
Governor resigned his office, on being appointed 
Judge of the Court of Appeals, and Mr. Fish was 
elected in his place. The following year he was 
re-elected Governor by a large majority. In 1S51 
he was elected to the United States Senate, where 
he opposed the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
and acted with the Republican party from its forma- 
tion to tlie end of his term. After retiring from the 
Senate he spent several years in Europe with his 
firmily, returning shortly before the opening of the 
Civil War, and taking an active part in the Presi- 
dential campaign that resulted in the election of 
Lincoln. Early in 1862 he was appointed by Secre- 
tary Stanton a Commissioner, in conjunction with 
Bishop Ames, to visit the Union soldiers imprisoned 
at Richmond and elsewhere with a view to alleviat- 
ing their necessities and providing for their comfort. 
The Confederates refused to admit the Commis- 
sioners within their lines, but signified a willingness 
to negotiate for a general exchange of prisoners, 
and an agreement was entered into for an equal 
exchange, which was continued to the close of the 
war. In 1869 Mr. Fish was appointed Secretary of 
State by President Grant, and at the close of his 
term was reappointed, under the second Grant ad- 
ministration, serving continuously from March 1S69 
to March 1877. In the Department of State he 
inaugurated the system of examination of applicants 
for consular service, as a test of their knowledge of 
subjects connected with their duties. In 1871 he 
was appointed by the President one of the Com- 
missioners on the part of the United States to nego- 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



107 



tiate the Treaty of Wasliington, whicli was sigucil 
by him in May of that year. Through Mr. Fish's 
efforts a settlement was effected of the long-stand- 
ing Northwestern lioiindary question, giving the 
island of San Juan to the United States, and success- 
fully resisted an effort by Great Britain to change 
the terms of the extradition treaty. In the matter 
of the Alabama question, he procured the accept- 
ance of a doctrine by the Geneva Tribunal, securing 
the United States against claims for indirect dam- 
ages arising out of Fenian raids or Cuban filibuster- 
ing raids. He also negotiated in 1873, with 




HAMILTON FISH 

Admiral Polo, the Spanish Minister at Washington, 
the settlement of the Virginius affair. Mr. Fish 
was for several years President of the New York 
Historical Society, and was President-General of 
the New York Society of the Cincinnati. He died 
in New York City in 1893. 



FRANCIS, John Wakefield, 1789-1861. 

Born in N. Y. City. 1789; graduated at Columbia, 
i8og, and from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
1809; assisted in editing The American Medical and 
Philosophical Register; Lecturer in the Institute of 
Medicine and Materia Medica, at the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons ; Professor of Materia Medica at 



Columbia; Professor of Jurisprudence and later Pro- 
fessor of Obstetrics ; Professor of Obstetrics and 
Forensic Medicine, at Rutgers School; member of the 
N. Y. Historical Society, the N. Y. Lyceum of Natural 
History, interested in the \A/oman's Hospital and the 
State Inebriate Asylum .-ind the Typographical Society : 
President of the N. Y. Academy of Medicine and 
member of numerous medical and scientific associa 
tions both in Europe and America; received LL.D. 
from Trinity College, 1850; and from Columbia, i860; 
died in N. Y., 1861. 

JOHN \vAKi:i n:i,i) francis, m.d., i,i..1)., 
Professor in the Medical School of Columbia, 
was born in New York City, November 17, 17S9, 
and was the son of a German emigrant who arrived in 
America shortly after the close of the Revolutionary 
War. He began to learn the printer's trade, but 
deciding to enter professional life instead he pre- 
pared for a collegiate education in such a tliorough 
manner as to gain admission to the Junior Class at 
Columbia, from which lie was gratluatcd in 1S09. 
Having in the meantime taken up the study of 
medicine with Dr. Hosack, with whom he was sub- 
sequently associated in practice for some years, he 
completed his professional preparation at the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons in 1S09, the same 
year of his College graduation. For four years he 
edited jointly with Dr. Hosack The American Med- 
ical and Philosophical Register, which was issued 
quarterly, and accepting the appointment of Lec- 
turer in the Institutes of Medicine and Materia 
Medica at the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
in 1S13, he continued in that capacity until the 
Faculty was consolidated with that of Columbia 
College, when he was chosen Professor of Materia 
Medica. Visiting Europe in 1816 he studied umler 
Abernethy, and while abroad became acquainted 
with many eminent physicians and noted literary 
men of that day. Upon his return he resumed his 
duties at the Institute of Medicine, later taking the 
Chair of Jurisprudence, and still later that of obstet- 
rics. The entire F\aculty having resigned in 1S26, 
the majority formed what was known as the Rutgers 
School, in which I )r. Francis occupied the ( 'hairs of 
Obstetrics and Forensic Medicine for four years, or 
until that institution was closed by .-\ct of the Leg- 
islature. He afterward divided his time between 
his private practice and literary work, was for a 
number of years actively interested in the New 
York Historical Society, the New York Lyceum of 
Natural History, the Woman's Hospital, the State 
Inebriate Asylum and the Typographical Society. 
In 1S47, he was elected first President of the New 
York .'\cadcmy of Medicine, was a member of 



o8 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



numerous medical and scientific associations both 
in Europe and America, was in 1822 and 1824 one 
of tlie Editors of tiie Medical and Pliysiral Journal, 
and was a recognized connoisseur of the fine arts. 
Dr. Francis died in New York City February S, 
1 86 1. His publislied works are : Use of Mercury ; 
Cases of Morbid Anatomy; Febrile Contagion; 
Notice of Tliomas Eddy; Denman's Practice of 
Midwifery, with notes ; Letter on Cholera Asphyxia 
of I S3 2; Observations on the Mineral Waters of 
Avon : The Anatomy of Drunkenness; and Old New 
York, or Reminiscences of the Past Sixty Years, 




JOHN W. FRANCIS 

issued in 1857, enlarged in 1858, and reprinted 
with a memoir by H. T. Tuckerraan in 1865. Dr. 
Francis was honored by Trinity College with the 
degree of Doctor of Laws in 1S50, and from Colum- 
bia in 1S60. His sons, Valentine Mott, and Samuel 
Ward Francis, both became physicians of repute, 
and the former located in Newport, Rhode Island, 
some years ago. 



HAMILTON, Alexander, 1757-1804. 

Born in Island of Nevis, West Indies, 1757: entered 
King's College but did not graduate; Captain in the 
Continental Army; Lieut. -Colonel on the staff of Gen. 
Washington; studied law and admitted to the Bar; 
Continental Receiver of Taxes for N. Y ; member of 



Congress; delegate to the Convention at Annapolis 
and Philadelphia ; Secretary of the Treasury ; In- 
spector-General of the Army; Trustee of Columbia; 
received the LL.D. degree from Dartmouth, 1790, 
College of N. J., 1791, Harvard, 1792 and from Rut- 
gers, 1792; died in N. Y., 1804. 

ALEXANDER HAMILION, LL.D., Trustee 
of Columbia, was born in tiie island of 
Nevis, West Indies, January 11, 1757. It is gener- 
ally supposed that his father was one James Hamil- 
ton, a Scottish merchant, and that his motlier was a 
French lady, the divorced wife of a Dane named 
Lavine ; while some assert tliat she was a Miss 
Lytton. There is, however, an imaccountable un- 
certainty concerning his immediate ancestors, which 
strange as it may seem, his sons and his biographers 
have been totally unable to remove. His early 
educational training was directed by the Rev. Hugh 
Knox, a Presbyterian clergyman of Nevis, who saw 
in the precocious boy the elements of future great- 
ness, and whose kindly conceived interest in him 
afterwards ripened into a warm personal friendship. 
Owing to his father's failure in business young Ham- 
ilton was at the age of thirteen thrown upon his own 
resources, and accordingly ])laced in the mercantile 
establishment of Nicholas Cruger, where he immedi- 
ately displayed an extraordinary business capacity, 
and his business letters, many of which have been 
preserved, resemble those ot an experienced clerk, 
instead of a novice. Even at that early age his 
thoughts would admit of no air castles but instead 
formed well-conceived ambitions and plans for the 
future. His writings too equal in precocity his 
business ability, and his contributions to the press 
were so forcible and attractive as to cause his rela- 
tives and friends to subscribe a sum of money suffi- 
cient to procure tor him the advantages of a more 
Hberal education. Full of ambition the boy of 
fifteen sailed away from his native island, and land- 
ing at Boston in October 1772, he proceeded im- 
mediately to New York, where through the aid of 
letters of introduction and recommendation provided 
him by the Rev. Hugh Knox, he found influential 
friends. During his College preparations at Eliza- 
bethtown, New Jersey, he varied the monotony of 
his studies by writing both prose and poetry, wliich 
bore evidence of his fast developing genius, and at 
King's College, now Columbia, his advancement 
was rapid. It was while still a student that the 
strained relations between the Colonies and the 
Mother Country gave evidence of shortly cuhiiina- 
ting in a general revolution, and liaving carefully 
studied the situation both in New England and New 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



109 



\uik, Ilaiiiiltcin biciiiiu' rnnily conviiUTcl tli.it the 
only eligible course by which liberty iiml justice 
could be secured to tiie Americ:inH, was alisolute 
separation from tiie I'.ritish (lovcrnmeiit. At a 
public meeting held in New York, July 6, 1774 for 
the ])urp()sc of compelling the Tory Assembly to 
join the jiopular cause, he found his first oppor- 
tunity for delivering a speech in public, and making 
his way to the front the young collegian stirred the 
hitherto drowsy assemblage into a state of unbounded 
enthusiasm by the force of his eloquence, and the 
unquestionable sincerity of his patriotism. Having 




ALEXANDEIi HAMILTON 

tlius obtained a footing in public afHiirs Hamilton 
immediately set his facile pen in motion for the 
purpose of impressing upon the minds of the Colo- 
nists the necessity for quick and decisive action, and 
when it became known that he was the author of 
two pamphlets : A l'"ull N'indication and The Farmer 
Refutt'd, which wiTe at first believed to have been 
the work of John Jay or some other person of equal 
prominence, he was thenceforth regarded as a leader 
among the patriots. At the commencement of the 
nation's struggle f)r indei>endence which he had 
labored so effectively to i)roniote, he disjjlayed liis 
executive abiHty and military genius by organizing 
in a soldier-like manner a company of artillery which 
he was commissioned by the New York Convention 
to commainl, and liis conipan_\' uon distinction on 



Long Island and at White I'lains. Ceneral C.rcene, 
who witnessed his gallantry on these occasions, re- 
(lortcd him favorably to (jeneral Wasiiington and 
he was subsecpienlly summoned to the staff of the 
Commander-in-Chief, with the rank cjf lieutenant- 
Colonel. In that capacity he rendered able sir- 
vices both regular and special \nilil taking offence 
at a slight rejjroof from Washington, wlien he re- 
signed, but continued in the service and closed his 
military career by leading a detachment which cap- 
tured one of the British redoubts at Yorktown. 
Returning to New ^'ork he applied himself to the 
stud)' of law, was duly admitted to the liar, and as 
might be expecteil attained notoriety as a lawyer. 
In tlie midst of an extensive practice, he however, 
found time to s])eak and write his ideas concerning 
public affairs, and became the recognized leader of 
llie Federalist party in New York. He was ap- 
pointed Continental Receiver of Taxes for New 
York, was elected to Congress in 1782, was a dele- 
gate to a convention at Annapolis, called for the 
purpose of regulating commerce between the dif- 
ferent states, whicii resulted in the assembling of 
another convention in I'hiladelphia, in May 17S7, 
with much larger scope. Although his associate 
delegates from New York were strenuously oi^posed 
to his views concerning a Federal Constitution, 
Hamilton succeeded in creating no little excite- 
ment among the members by jiroposing an aristo- 
cratic instead of a Democratic re]wblic, knowing 
well that such a scheme could not possibly prevail ; 
but wisely determining that by modification and 
amendments it would lead to the adoption of some 
feasible form of governuient which would eventually 
be ratifieil by the various states. These conjectures 
proved correct, and although he took no further 
]iart in the debates he was present to sign the 
Constitution, which lie vigorously defended against 
its numerous opponents in New York, and by his 
political sagacitv, perseverance and powerfiil argu- 
ments, secured at the polls a complete victory for 
ratification. From that time forward Hamilton was 
conspicuous among the leading statesmen of his 
day, and it has been truthfully said that to record 
the history of his distinguished ])ublic services woulil 
be to write a history of the I'nited States for the 
twenty years following the close of the Revolutionary 
War. As Secretary of the Treasury in \\'ashington's 
Cabinet he forniulatc(l our financial system, and his 
first report on ovir national credit is considereil one 
of the most notable ])ublic documents in our history. 
Although he rclireil from the <abinet in 1795. he 



I 10 



UNIVERSITIES ANT) THEIR SONS 



continued to figure prominently in the jiublic affairs 
of his state and the nation by constantly giving his 
advice and counsel to tiie President and other offi- 
cials ; defended the Jay Treaty ; served with marked 
ability as Inspector-General of the Army ; and in 
his later years when practically retired from public 
life his pen was dexterously employed to increase and 
strengthen his party. His unfortunate political con- 
troversy with Aaron Burr and his tragic death at the 
hands of the former are familiar facts to the majority 
of Americans, who regard him as one of the foremost 
men of his time, and pre-eminently fitted for the 
great work he was called upon to accomjilish. Mr. 
Hamilton served as a Trustee of Columbia from 
1774 to 1804, and he received the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Laws from Dartmouth in 1790, Prince- 
ton in 1 79 1, Harvard in 1792 and Rutgers in 1792. 
On December 14, 1780, Alexander Hamilton mar- 
ried Elizabeth Schuyler, daughter of General Philip 
Schuyler. Their sons were : Philip, who on Novem- 
ber 24, 1801, was killed in a duel fought upon the 
spot where his father was to fall some three years 
later ; Alexander, a distinguished soldier ; James 
Alexander, lawyer and soldier who published rem- 
iniscences of his father ; John Church, who wrote 
a memoir and edited the works of his father; Wil- 
liam Steven, who was a surveyor of public lands in 
Illinois, served in the Black Hawk War and finally 
removed to California ; and Philip Hamilton, Jurist. 



DUYCKINCK, Evert Augustus, 1816-1878. 

Born in N. Y. City, 1816; graduated at Columbia, 
1835; studied law and admitted to the Bar, but never 
practised; Trustee of Columbia; published the Cyclo- 
paedia of American Literature and many other books 
and papers; died in N. Y. City, 1878. 

EVERT AUGUSTUS DUYCKINCK, A.M., 
Trustee of Columbia, was born in New York 
City, November 23, 18 16, son of Evert Duyckinck, a 
well-known New York publisher. He was graduated 
at Columbia in 1S35, studied law with John .\nthon, 
and was admitted to the Bar in 1837, but never 
practised. He had been a contributor to the New 
York Review, and after a year spent abroad, he 
decided to devote himself to literature. In 1S40, 
with Cornelius Matthews, he started a monthly peri- 
odical called the Arcturus, which was continued for 
several years and to which he contributed articles 
on American and foreign authors. In 1847, Mr. 
Duyckinck with his brother George established the 
Literary World, a weekly review of books, the fine 



arts, etc., of which he was the Editor, and which 
with a single year's exception was juiblished until 
the close of 1853; and in 1854 the brothers were 
associated in the preparation of the Cyclopaedia 
of American Literature. Besides this work Mr. 
Duyckinck published, among others, an American 
edition of Wilmot's Poets of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury ; Irvingiana, a collection of anecdotes of Wash- 
ington Irving ; History of the War for the Union, 
three volumes ; Poems Relating to the .■\merican Re- 
volution, with Memoirs of the Authors; National 
Gallery of Eminent Americans, two volumes ; History 




EVEKT A. I)L\CK1>;lK 

of the World from the Earliest Period to the Present 
Time, four volumes ; and an extensive series of Biog- 
raphies of Eminent Men and Women of Europe 
and America. He died in New York City, August 
13, 187S. In January 1879, a meeting in his 
memory was held by the New York Historical So- 
ciety, and a biographical sketch of Mr. Duyckinck 
was read by William Allen Butler. 



DWIGHT, Theodore William, 1822-1892. 

Born in Catskill, N. Y., 1832; graduated at Ham- 
ilton College, Clinton, N. Y., -1840; studied at the 
Yale Law School; Tutor at Hamilton; Professor of 
Law, History, Civil Polity and Political Economy, at 
that institution; Professor of Municipal Law at 



UNIFERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



1 1 I 



Columbia, also Warden; appointed by Gov. Dix a 
member of the Commission of Appeals ; Vice-President 
of the State Board of Public Charities; President of 
the State Prison Association; Associate Editor of the 
American Law Register; received LL.D. degree from 
Columbia, i860; died, 1892. 

Tlli;OI)t)Rl': WILLIAM DWKUM', LL.D., 
who established at Columbia a reputation 
as one of the most successful American teachers of 
law, was the son of Benjamin \\'oolsey Dwight, and 
grandson of the first President, Timothy Dwight of 
Yale. He was born in Catskill, New York, July 18, 
1822, and was graduated at Hamilton College, 




THEODORE W. UWIGHT 

Clinton, New York, in 1840. After studying at 
Yale Law School in 1841-1S42, he was a Tutor at 
Hamilton from 1S42 to 1S46, and from the latter 
year until 1S5S held the Chair of Law, History, 
Civil Polity and Political Economy in that institution. 
In 1858 he was elected Professor of Municipal Law 
in Columbia, and on the organization of Columbia 
Law School he was made its Warden. Professor 
Dwight was in 1873 appointed by Governor Dix a 
member of the Commission of Appeals, which in 
the two following years aided the Court of Appeals 
to clear its docket, was Vice-President of the State 
Board of Public Charities in 1873, and President of 
the State Prison Association in 1874. He was for 
a long time .Associate Editor of the American Law 



Register, and in 1 886 was Counsel for the five Pro- 
fessors of .\ndover Theological Seminary against 
w-hom charges of heterodo.xy were made before the 
Board of Visitors of that institution. Dr. Dwight 
published in 1863 a pamphlet entitled Charitable 
Uses, embodying his researches in the Rose will 
case, which lie argued in that year, and he wrote the 
first elaborate report of the State Board of Charities, 
setting forth the abuses of the ]ioor-law system then 
in force. He was also the author and editor of 
various other jjublislud ])am]ihlets and works, 
including legal arguments and writings on political 
economy. Dr. Dwight received the degree of 
Doctor of Laws from Columbia in i860. He died 
in 1892. 



JAY, John, 1745-1829. 

Born in N Y. City, 1745 ; graduated at King's College, 
1764; studied law and admitted to the Bar; delegate 
to the Congress of Deputies ; member of the Committee 
of Observation in N. Y. on whose recommendation the 
counties elected a Provincial Congress ; member of 
the second Congress; drafted the State Constitution 
adopted by the Convention of N. Y. ; Chief-Justice of 
N. Y.; again went to Congress and was made Presi- 
dent of that body; Minister to Spain; Commissioner 
to negotiate peace with Great Britain; Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs; first Chief-Justice of the U. S. Su- 
preme Court ; Special Envoy to Great Britain, at 
which convention the famous "Jay Treaty " was con- 
cluded; Governor of N. Y. ; received the LL.D. degree 
from Harvard, 1790, from the University of Edin- 
burgh, 1792 and from Brown, 1794; died in Bedford, 
N. Y., 1829. 

JOHN JAY, LL.D., Regent of Columbia, was 
born in New York City, of Huguenot descent, 
L>ecember 12, 1745, stuilied under Pastor Stoope of 
the French Church at New Rochelle, New York, and 
was graduated at King's College in 1764. He then 
studied law with Benjamin Kissam, having Lindley 
Murray as a fellow-student, was admitted to the Bar 
in 1766, and entered upon practice in New York. 
In 1776 he was a delegate to the Congress of Dep- 
uties from the Colonies which met in Philadelphia, 
and as one of a committee of three he prepared the 
" Address to the People of Great Britain " which 
Jefferson, while ignorant of its authorship, declared 
to be "a production of the finest pen in America." 
Mr. Jay was an active member of the Committee of 
Observation in New York, on whose recommenda- 
tion the counties elected a Provincial Congress, and 
was also a member of the second Congress which 
met in Philadelphia, and drafted the "address to 
the People of Canada and Irelaiul." .At this con- 



I I 2 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



gress too he carried, against a strong opposition, a 
petition to the King, the subsequent rejection of 
which by the King, leaving no alternati\e but sub- 
mission or resistance, led to the general ac<|nies- 
cence in the Declaration of Independence. He 
drafted the State Constitution atlopted by the Con- 
vention of New York, and in 1777 was appointed 
Chief-Justice of the State. Soon after he was again 
sent to Congress and was made President of that 
body. In the following year he was appointed 
Minister to Spain, and later one of the Commis- 
sioners to negotiate a peace with Great Britain. In 




JOHN JAY 

this latter connection Mr. Jay accomplished what 
was undoubtedly the greatest service of his long and 
brilliant public career. By skilful diplomacy he 
was chiefly instrumental in conciliating the grave 
differences of opinion between the .'\mericans and 
their French allies on the terms of peace, and he 
took the lead in the proceedings that resulted in 
the consummation of a treaty, which, though in direct 
violation of the instructions of Congress, was signed 
in September 1783, and saved this country nearly 
the whole of the Mississippi and Gulf States, from 
which vast territory, as well as from the navigation 
of the Mississippi, the United States would have 
been shut out, had the home instructions of the 
Commissioners been followed. Mr. Jay returned 
to New York in July 1784, Congress having elected 
him Secretary for Foreign Affairs, which post he 



held until the establishment of the I'edcral Govern- 
ment in i7''^9, when in response to an offer from 
President Washington of whatever place he might 
prefer, he took the office of first Chief-Justice of the 
United States Supreme Cinirt. In 1794, as Special 
Envoy to Great Britain, with which our relations 
were then strained, he concluded with Lord Gran- 
ville the convention known in American history as 
the "Jay Treaty," by the ratification of which a war 
with England was averted. A few days before his 
return from luigland he was elected Governor of 
New York. After serving two terms he was ap- 
jiointed by President Adams to his former position 
as Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, but declined 
the honor, and retired to his estate " Bedford " in 
Westchester county, where the remainder of his life 
was passed. The last office that he filled was the 
Presidency of the American Bible Society. Mr. 
Jay was given the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws by Harvard in 1790, by the University of 
Edinburgh in 1792 and by lirown LJniversity in 
1794. He died at Bedford, May 17, 1829. 



HARRIS, William, 1765-1829. 

Born in Springfield, Mass., 1765; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1786; studied theology and was licensed to 
preach; studied medicine; ordained a Deacon and a 
Priest; Rector of St. Michael's Church at Marblehead, 
Mass.; conducted the Academy at that place; Rector 
of St. Mark's Church at N. Y. City; President of 
Columbia ; received D.D. degree from Harvard and 
Columbia, 1811; died in N. Y. City, 1829. 

WILLIAM HARRIS, S.T.D., sixth President 
of Columbia, was born in Springfield, 
Massachusetts, April 29, 1765 ; died in New York 
City, October iB, 1829. He was graduated at 
Harvard in i 786, and after studying theology was 
licensed as a Congregational minister. Finding his 
health unequal to the work, he began the study of 
medicine in Salem, Massachusetts. ^Vhile thus en- 
gaged his views upon the subject of church polity 
underwent a change, and his health becoming re- 
stored, he was in 1791 ordained Deacon, and the 
following Sunday, Priest, in Trinity Church, New- 
York, by Bishop Provost. From 1791 until 1S02 
he was Rector of St. Michael's Church at Marble- 
head, Massachusetts, and also conducted the academy 
at that place. In the latter year he became Rector 
of St. Mark's Church in New York City, and soon 
after established an excellent classical school near 
his rectory. When Bishop Moore resigned the 



UNIVERSITIES AND TIIF.IK SONS 



I 1 



Prcsidi'iicv i)f Columbia, in iSii, |)i. ll.inis was 
chosfii liis successor. l''or several )'ears he scfN'ed 
both St. Mark's ami Columbia, but in i8i6 he re- 
signed his Rectorship and devoted the rest of his 




do so; and after the Declaration of Indepcnilence, 
he closed his i hurcli and retired to T'lushing, Long 
Island, wliicii then was in possession of the liiitish. 
After Washington's defeat he followed the Roval 
Army to New \'ork, and in 1777 was chosen Rector 
of Trinity. At tlu' evacuation in 1783 he went to 
Xo\a S(()tia, antl in 17S7 to England, where he 
was consecrated the first Bishop of Nova Scotia, 
with jurisdiction over all the North American Pro- 
vinces. He had the distinction of being the first 
Colonial Bishop of the Church of England. In 
1770 Mr. Inglis was made one of the Governors 
of King's College, which had conferred upon him 



WILLIAM HARRIS 

life to his duties as President of the College. He 
received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from 
Harvard and from Columbia in 181 1. 




CHARLES INGLIS 



the honorary degree of Master of Arts in 1767. 
This office he retained until his removal to Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, where he ilied February 24, 181 6. 



INGLIS, Charles, 1734-1816. 

Born in Ireland, 1734; had charge of the free school 
at Lancaster, Penn. ; licensed to preach and appointed 
missionary at Dover, Del.; Assistant Minister of 
Trinity Church, N. Y. City ; Rector of Trinity; Col- 
onial Bishop of the Church of England; one of the 
Governors of King's College, which gave him the 
A.M. degree; died in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1816. 

IIARLES INGLIS, S.T.D., one of the Gov- 
^ ernors of King's College, was born in Ireland, 
iu 1734. Emigrating to this country, he was iu HOFFMAN, Ogden. 1793-1856. 
charge of the free school at Lancaster, Pennsylva- 
nia, previous to 1759. In 1758 he was licensed by 
the Bishop of London and appointed Missionary at 
Dover, Delaware, where he labored from 1759 to 
1765, when he became Assistant Minister of Trinity 
Church, New York City. In 1775 '''^ refused to 
omit from his service the prayer for the King and 
Royal Family, although requested by AVashington to 



c 



Born in N. Y. City, 1793; graduated at Columbia, 
1812; midshipman under Decatur; studied law and 
admitted to the Bar; District Attorney of Orange 
county; member of Congress; Attorney-General of 
NY.; Trustee of Columbia; received LL.D. degree 
from Harvard; died at N. Y. City, 1856. 

0(;i)KN HOFFMAN, LL.D., Trustee of Co- 
lumbi.i, was born in New York City, May 3, 
1793, and was graduated at Cohunbia in 1S12. 



114 



UNIiERStriES AND rilEIR SONS 



After gnidualion lie entered the navy as midship- 
man, and was with Decatur in the Barbary War, in 
which he served with distinguished gallantry. In 
iSi6 he studied law with his father, and subse- 




OGDEN HOFFMAN 

quently completed his studies for the legal profes- 
sion with a lawyer in Goshen, New York. During 
twenty-five years after his admission to the Bar he 
was counsel in almost every noted criminal trial in 
New York. He was District Attorney of Orange 
county in 1823, member of the Assembly 1825- 
1828, District Attorney 1S29-1835, a member of 
Congress in 1S36 and Attorney-General of the 
State in 1S53. Mr. Hoffman served as a Trustee 
of Columbia from 1833 to 1856. He died in New 
York, May i, 1856. Harvard conferred on him the 
degree of Doctor of Laws. 



tical Society ; Manager and Corresponding Secretary 
of the N. Y. Historical Society ; President of the Hugue- 
not Society; received LL.D. from Columbia, 1831 ; 
gave to the Columbia Law Library what is known as 
the "Jay Library"; died in N. Y. City, 1894. 

JOHN JAY, L1..1)., to whom Columbia is in- 
debted for the valual)le Jay Library, was born 
in New York City, June 23, 181 7, son of Judge 
^Villiam Jay. He was graduated at Columbia in 
1836, studied law, and after admission to the ]'>ar 
came into prominence for his active opposition to 
slavery. He acted as counsel for many fugitive 
slaves, and was a strong advocate of St. Philip's 
Colored Church, which was admitted to the Protes- 
tant f^piscopal Convention after a nine-years contest. 
He was instrumental in organizing the Broadway 
Tabernacle meetings in 1S54, wliich led the way to 
the dissolution of the Whig party and the formation 
of the Republican organization at Syracuse in the 
following year. During the Civil War he acted with 
the Union League Club, of which he was President 
in 1866 and again in 1877. In 1869, he was 
appointed L^nited States Minister to .\ustria, and in 
that capacity rendered his country most efficient 




JAY, John, 1817-1894. 

Born in N. Y. City, 1817; graduated at Columbia, 
1836; studied law and admitted to the Bar; counsel 
for fugitive slaves, and an advocate of St. Philip's 

Colored Church which was admitted to the Protestant JOHN JAY 

Episcopal Convention ; President of the Union League 

Club; U. S. Minister to Austria ; Chairman of the Jay service, resigning and returning home in 1S75. In 
Commission to investigate the system at the N. Y. jg^^^ ^g ggj.ygj ^^ Chairman of the [ay C.)mmission 
Custom House; Republican member of the State Civil . . , xt t , /-, 

„ . „ . . c V V, K J u n -1 • to mvestigate the system at the New York Custom 

Service Commission of which body he was President; ^ -' 

associated with the American Geographical and Statis- House, and in 1873, he was appointed by Governor 



UNIFERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



115 



Cievelanil :is the Republican nioniber of tlio State- 
Civil Service Coinniissinn, of which body he was 
President until 1.S77. Mr. Jiy ""'^ prominently 
associated in the early history of the American dec- 
graphical and Statistical Society, was for a long time 
Manager and Corresponiling Secretary of the New 
York Historical Society, and first President of the 
Huguenot Society, organized at New York in 1855. 
Many of his speeches and pamphlets have been 
published and widely circulated. Columbia con- 
ferred on him tlie honorary degree of Doctor of 
Vaw'a in 1 39 1. In i860, Mr. Jay gave to the Law 
Library of Columbia a collection of six hundred ami 
fifty volumes from the libraries of his grandfather, 
John Jay, LL.D., Class of 1764, the first Chief-Jus- 
tice of the United States ; of his uncle, Peter A. Jay, 
Class of I 794, at one time Recorder of New York ; 
and of his father, Judge William Jay, on condition 
that the collections be kept together and known as 
the "Jay l,ibrary.'' He died in 1S94. 



pen. When i lean llerkclcy came to this country 
Mr. Johnson made his acquaintance, which resulletl 
in a warm friendship between them, and when the 
former was about to return to luirope. the latter 
suggested the gifts to Yale which Pierkeley afterwards 
made. In 1746 Dr. Johnson issueil a work on 
moral philosophy, designed to counteract what he 
deemed the dangerous views that were tlicn s])reail- 
ing. In 1752 this work was imblished in an 
enlarged edition by lienjamin l-'ranklin at Philadel- 
phia, for the use of the College then about to be 
established in that city. The author was urged to 



JOHNSON, Samuel, 1696-1772. 

Born in Guilford, Conn., 1696; graduated at Yale, 
1714: Tutor, 1716-19; entered the Congregational min- 
istry, 1720; became an Episcopalian convert 1722 and 
was ordained in England and assigned to a mission in 
Stratford, Conn. ; suggested to Dean Berkeley the Yale 
scholarships founded by the latter ; ably defended the 
Established Church during the religious controversy 
of his day; first President of King's College (now 
Columbia) ; resigned in 1763 and spent his last years 
a'c his former mission in Stratford, Conn., where he 
died in 1772. 

SAMUEL JOHNSON, S.T.D., first President of 
King's College, now Columbia, was born in 
Guilford, Connecticut, October 14, 1696; died in 
Stratford, Connecticut, January 6, 1772. He was a 
great-grandson of Robert Johnson, who came from 
England to New Haven about 1637. He was grad- 
uated at Yale in 17 14, and became a Tutor two 
years later, when the College was removed from 
Saybrook to New Haven. Having studied theology 
in the meantime, in 17 19 he resigned his Tutorship, 
and was soon after ordained Pastor of the Congrega- 
tit)nal Church in West Haven. He had however a 
strong predilection for Episcopacy, and in 1722 an 
acquaintance formed with an Episcopalian clergy- 
man who was settled at Stratford resulted in his 
conversion to that faith. He went to England and 
was ordained, and on his return was assigned to the 
mission at Stratford, where he soon became vigor- 
ously engageil in the defence of Iqjiscojjacy with his 




S.-iMUEL JOHNSON 

become President of the new institution, but de- 
clined. In 17S3 he was invited by a number of 
prominent Episcopalians and others of New York 
to remove to that city with a view to assuming the 
Presidency of King's College, for which the .Assem- 
bly had granted a charter. He accepted, anil 
assumed the duties of his ofifice on July 17. 1754, 
which he continued to discharge until 1763, inaugu- 
rating the policy and course of the College, obtain- 
ing subscriptions for its endowment, and safely 
guiding the institution through its early vicissitudes. 
His resignation was tendered on account of family 
troubles and his advanced age. Returning to Strat- 
ford to reside with his son, he was in the following 
year reappointed to the charge of his old parish, 



ti6 



UNIVERSITIES ANt) THEIR SONS 



where he officiated until his death. Dr. Johnson 
received tlie degree of Master of Arts in 1723 from 
both Oxford and Cambridge, and that of Doctor of 
Divinity twenty years later from the former institu- 
tion. 



IRVING, John Treat, 1778-1838. 

Born in N. Y. City, in 1778; graduated at Columbia, 
1798; studied law and admitted to the Bar; member of 
the N. Y. Assembly; the first Judge of the N. Y. Court 
of Common Pleas; Trustee of Columbia; died in 
N. Y. City, 1838. 

JOHN TREAT IRVINC;, Trustee of Columbia, 
was born in New York City in 1778, son of 
William and Sarah (Sanders) Irving, and brother of 




JOHN T. IRVING 

W'ashington Irving. His father was a native of the 
Orkneys. He was graduated at Columbia in 179S, 
studied law after graduation, and after admission to 
the Bar practised his profession in New York City. 
He was a member of the New York Assembly in 
1S16-1817, and in the latter year was appointed the 
first Judge of the New York Court of Common 
Pleas, an office which he held until his death. 
From 1818 to 183S he was a Trustee of Columbia. 
He died in New Y'ork, March 18, 1838. In early 
life Mr. Irving was of a literary turn and wrote for 
his brother's paper, The Chronicle, in which his 
political satires were a popular feature. 



JOHNSON, William Samuel, 1727-1819. 

Born in Stratford, Conn., 1727; graduated at Yale, 
1744; studied law and admitted to the Bar; member 
of the General Assembly ; delegate to the Stamp-Act- 
Congress in N. Y. ; member of the Governor's Coun- 
cil ; sent on a mission to the Court of Great Britain ; 
Associate Judge of the Superior Court of the Colony; 
member of the Continental Congress ; Chairman of 
the Committee of Five, to revise the Federal Consti- 
tution ; U. S. Senator; President of Columbia; re- 
ceived the D.C.L. degree from Oxford. 1776; and the 
LL.D. from Yale, 1788; died in Stratford, Conn., 1819. 

WILLIAM SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL.D., 
third President of Columbia, was born in 
Stratford, Connecticut, October 7, 1727, son of Dr. 
Samuel Johnson, Columbia's first President. He 
died in Stratford, November 14, 1819. He was 
graduated at Yale in i 744, studied law, was admitted 
to the Bar, and soon took high rank in his profes- 
sion. He represented Stratford in several sessions 
of the General Assembly, was a delegate to the 
Stamp-Act-Congress in New York, and subsequently 
was a member of the Governor's Council. While 
serving in the latter capacity he was sent abroad on 
a mission to the Court of Great Britain to present 
the claims of the Colony regarding its title to the 
territory occupied by the remnant of the Mohcgan 
tribe of Indians. On account of delays interposed 
by his opponents, his return was delayed until late 
in I 771. In the following year he was appointed 
an .Associate Judge of the Superior Court of the 
Colony, but served for only a few months. He 
retired from the Governor's Council before the 
Declaration of Independence, and not being able 
conscientiously to take part in a war against Eng- 
land, lived in retirement at Stratford until peace 
was declared, when he resumed the practice of his 
profession. He afterwards served as a Member of 
the Continental Congress, was at the head of the 
Connecticut delegation to the Convention for the 
formation of a Federal Constitution, and was Chair- 
man of the Committee of Five appointed to revise 
the wording of the instrument and arrange its arti- 
cles. He also resumed his place in the upper 
house of the Connecticut Assembly, which he lield 
until elected the first United States Senator from 
that state in 1789. In March 1791, he resigned 
his Senatorship in order to give his whole time to the 
Presidency of Columbia, to which office he had 
been elected in May 1787, and which he held until 
1800, when fiiling health led him to resign, and he 
retired to Stratford, where he resided until his 
death. Dr. Johnson received the degree of Doctor 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



117 



i>f Civil Law fniiii Oxford in 1776, and tliat of Doc- some years was Surrogate of Rensselaer county, 
tor of Laws tVom Vale in 17S8. lie was the earli- James Kent was also a Yale graduate, Class of 17S1, 
est graduate of Vale to receive an honorary degree and one of the founders of the I'hi IJeta Kappa So- 
in law, as his ftither had been the first to receive a ciety in 1780. In 17S7 he became a counsellor at 

law, having been admitted to practice as an attorney 
two years previous, and locating in Poughkeepsie, 
began the practice of his profession, at the same 
lime continuing his studies by devoting the early 
morning hours, and some of his evenings, to reading 
Latin, Greek, French and luiglish literature. He 
was elected to the Legislature in 1790 and 1792, 
but as the Federalist candidate for Congress in 1793 
he was defeated. ILs familiarity with the legal 
writers of Continental Lurojie made him thoroughly 
conversant with the princi[)les of Civil Law, and 
upon his removal to New Vork City he was ai)i)ointed 
Professor of Law at Columbia, in which capacity he 
continued until 179S. In 1796 Governor Jay ap- 
])ointed him one of the two Masters in Chancery, 
and the same year he was elected to the Legislature 
from New York City. He was api)ointed Recorder 
of New York City in 1797, was in the following year 




WII.I.IA.M S. JOHNSON 

similar degree in Divinity. His letters written while 
in Great Britain have been published by the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society and his services have 
been further commemorated in a Sketch by John T. 
Irving, and in Life and Times of W. S. Johnson, b\' 
Rev. E. Edwards Beardsley, D.D. 



KENT, James, 1763-1847. 

Born in Putnam county, N. Y., 1763 ; graduated at 
Yale, 1781 ; one of the founders of the Phi Beta Kappa 
Society, 1780; studied law and admitted to the Bar; 
member of the Conn. Legislature ; Professor of Law 
at Columbia; appointed Master in Chancery; member 
of the N. Y. Legislature: Recorder of N. Y. City; 
Chief-Justice of the N. Y. Supreme Court ; Chancellor 
of N. Y. ; author of Commentaries on American Law ; 
received LL.D. degree from Columbia, 1797, from 
Harvard. 1810, from Dartmouth and University of 
Penn , i8ig; died in N. Y. City, 1847. JAMES KKNT 

JAMHS KENT, LL.D., Professor of Law at Co- 
lumbia, was born in Putnam county, .New elevated to the Supreme i'.ench and became Chief- 
York, July 31, 1763. His grandfather. Rev. Elisha Justice in 1S04. At that time the courts depended 
Kent, was a graduate of Vale, Class of I 729, and his wholly upon luiglish precedents to assist them in 
father, Moss Kent, who was graduated from the same tlieir decisions and Judge Kent midertook the task 
institution in 1752, became an able lawyer, and for of adapting the principles of Ivnglisli Common Law 




ii8 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



to suit the needs of n. new and progressive nation. 
He was also conspicuous in planning and directing 
the establishment of American Jurisprudence, clearly 
defined the principles of Commercial, Maritime and 
International l,a\v, and the law governing contract 
obligation; and his opinions resulted from patient 
and exhaustive research. As Chancellor of New 
\'cirk, tlie duties of which lie entered upon in 1S14, 
he brought into public favor the Court of Chancery, 
which had hitherto been unpopular on account of its 
dilatory and expensive forms of practice, and by en- 
larging its functions, thereby admitting the proper 
administration of the true doctrine of Ciiaucery, he 
opened the way for the establishment of Equity 
Jurisprudence in the United States. At the age of 
sixty years, though physically and mentally vigorous, 
he was forced to retire from the Supreme Bench 
by a statute whicli was afterwartl repealed, and he 
almost immediately resumed the Professorship of 
Law in Columbia College. During his long term 
upon the bench he resided at Albany, but returned 
to New York after his retirement, and he died in 
that city December 12, 1847. Retiring from the 
Law Department of Columbia in 1825, he devoted 
the rest of iiis life to chamber practice and the 
revision of his works. His Commentaries on Amer- 
ican Law, which were called by Judge Story the first 
Judicial Classic in the United States, are generally 
regarded as equal to those of Blackstone and still 
considered a standard work on general law through- 
out the Lhiited States. Judge Kent published other 
important works, and at the request of the City 
Council Ire prepared a compendious treatise on the 
Charter of the City of New York, and on the Powers 
of the Mayor, Aldermen and other Municipal Offi- 
cers. He received the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Laws from Columbia in 1797, from Harvard in 
1 8 10, from Dartmouth, and from the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1819. His son William was ap- 
pointed Judge of the Circuit Court of New York, 
but resigned in order to accept a I'rofessorship at 
the Harvard Law School, where he remained one 
year. 

HONE, Philip, 1781-3851. 

Born in N. Y. City, in 1781 ; Mayor of N. Y. City; 
Naval Officer of N. Y. ; Trustee of Columbia; one of 
the founders of the Mercantile Library Association; 
died at N. Y. City, 1851. 

PHIUr HONE, Trustee of Columbia and a 
successful merchant of New York, was born 
in that city in 1781, and died there May 4, 1851. 



He was Mayor of New York in 1S25-1S26. and 
gave the city a most efficient and popular adminis- 
tration of civic affairs. He subsecjuently served as 
Naval Officer of New York, under apiiointmcnt by 
President Taylor. Mr. Hone was noteil for his 
noble and generous ciiaracter, and for his fine social 
qualities. He served as a 'I'rustee of Columbia 




PHILIP HONE 



from 1824 to 1 85 1, and was one of the founders 
of the Mercantile Library Association, wliich has 
honored his memory by a marble bust which stands 
in the hall of the New York Mercantile Library. 



KING, Charles, 1789-1867. 

Born in N. Y. City, 1789; educated at Harrow. Eng. 
and at Paris; entered business in N. Y. City; member 
of the N. Y. Legislature; Editor of N. Y. American 
and Courier and Enquirer; President of Columbia; 
died in Frascati, Italy, 1867. 

CHARLES KING, LL.D., ninth President of 
Columbia, was born in New York City, 
March 16, 17S9 ; died in Frascati, Italy, in October 
1867. He was the second son of Rufus King, who 
was appointed Minister to England by Washington 
in I 796, served 'during the administration of Jolin 
Adams and two years of that of Jefferson, and was 
again appointed to the post by John Quincy Adams 
in 1825. He was educated abroad, at Harrow, 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



I I < 



Englaiul, and at Paris, lie entered upon a business 
career in New Yorl<. in whieli he was actively en- 
gaged at the opening dC the War of iSi 2. Although 
he believed the war was injudicious, he supported 
the government loyally, both in tlie Legislature of 
New York, to which he was elected in 1813, and as 
a volunteer in the following year. I'he failure of the 
business house willi which he was connected led 
him to transfer his activities to the field of journal- 
ism, and for many years he was engaged with John- 
ston Ver])lanck in the publication of a conservative 
newspaper under the name of the New York Ameri- 




CHAKLES KIXG 

can, of which he was sole Editor from 1827 to 1845. 
In the latter year he became one of the Editors of 
the Courier and Enquirer, and continued in that 
post until 1S49, when he was chosen President of 
Columbia. He " gave himself heartily to the duties 
of his new office, advancing the interests of the 
College in every way by his scholarship, energy and 
wise management." He resigned the Presidency in 
1S63, and the following year went to Europe, where 
he remained until his death. 



tionary Army as Captain, Major, Aide de-Camp and 
Lieut. -Colonel ; Private Secretary to John Jay. Min- 
ister to Spain; Judge of the N. Y. Supreme Court; 
Associate Justice of the U S Supreme Court ; Trustee 
and Treasurer of Columbia; Trustee of the N. Y. 
Society Library; Second Vice-President of the N. Y. 
Historical Society; received the LL.D. degree from 
Harvard, 1818; died in Washington, D. C, 1823. 

HICNRV UROCKllOLST L1VIN(;.ST0N, 
LI..!)., Trustee and Treasurer of Cohmi- 
bia, was born in New York City, November 26, 

1757. He was descended from a famous Scotch 
family which made itself prominent on both sides of 
the Atlantic. The first representative of the family 
in America was Robert Livingston, w-ho came to 
Albany, New ^'ork, from Ancruni, Scotland, wliere 
he was born in 1654. He was graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1774, and studied law with Peter Yates at 
Albany. He served in the Revolutionary Army as 
Captain, Major, Aide to (leneral St. Claire in tlie 
Siege of Ticonderoga, and Lieutenant-Colonel under 
General Schuyler. In 1779 he went abroad as Pri- 
vate Secretary to his brothcr-in-hw, John Jay, L'nitcd 
States Minister to Spain. .After the close of the 
Revolution in 17S3 he was admitted to the Bar and 
entered upon the practice of law. In 1S02 he be- 
came Judge of the State Supreme Court, and in 1807 
was matle Associate Justice of tlie United States 
Supreme Court. From 1784 to 1S23 he was a 
Trustee and Treasurer of Columbia. He was also 
made a Trustee of the New York Society Library in 

1758, and Second Vice-President of the New York 
Historical Society in 1805. In early life he dropped 
his first name, Henry, and signed himself lirockholst 
Livingston. Harvard bestowed on him the degree 
of Doctor of Laws in 1818. He died in Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia, March 19, 1S23. Judge 
Livingston was one of the most accomplished schol- 
ars and able advocates of Iiis time, and was also an 
active and aggressive political leader. 



LIVINGSTON, Brockholst, 1757-1823. 

Born in N. Y. City, 1757; graduated at Princeton, 
1774; studied law at Albany; served in the Revolu- 



MASON, John Mitchell, 1770-1829. 

Born in N. Y. City, 1770; graduated at Columbia, 
1789 ; studied Theology at University of Edinburgh, 
Scotland ; Pastor at N. Y. City ; assisted in founding 
the Union Theological Seminary and was its first 
Professor; Provost of Columbia ; President of Dickin- 
son College, Penn. ; received D.D. degree from the 
University of Penn.; died in N. Y. City, 1829. 

JOHN MITCHELL MASON, D.D., Provost of 
Columbia, was born in New York ("ity, March 
19, 1770, son of Rev. John Mason, D.D., Pastor of 



I 20 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



the Cedar Street Cliunh in that city. He was degree from Columbia in 1836, and from 1836 to 
graduated at CoUnnbia in 17S9. and was studying 1842 was Professor of p;cclesiastical History in Union 
theology at the I'niversity of I'ldinburgh, Scotland, Tlieological Seminary. Erskine's son, Erskine 
when recalled by the death of his father in 1792. Mason, M.l). was graduated at Columbia in 1857 

and in i860 at tlio College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, and became Demonstrator of Anatomy in the 
latter institution. 




JOHN M. MASON 

Soon after his return he was installed Pastor over his 
father's congregation. Believing that his denomina- 
tion should not be dependent on foreign institutions 
for the education of its ministers, he inaugurated a 
movement that resulted in the founding of the 
Union Theological Seminary, of which he became 
the first Professor on its opening in 1S04. In 1810 
he was elected Provost of Columbia, which post he 
held until 1S16, when failing health led him to 
tender his resignation. After a year spent in 
]'>urope he resumed his ministerial duties for a time, 
but in 1S21 became President of Dickinson Col- 
lege, Pennsylvania, and in the following year con- 
nected himself with the Presbyterian Church. His 
waning powers becoming unequal to the demands of 
his Presidential office, he returned in 1824 to New 
York, where he died, December 26, 1829. It is 
said of Dr. Mason that as a pulpit orator he has had 
few equals in the United States. The degree of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred on him by the 
University of Pennsylvania. His publications in- 
clude many sermons, essays, reviews and orations. 
His son, Rev. Erskine Mason, D.D., received his 



LIVINGSTON, Edward, 1764-1836. 

Born in Clermont, N. Y., 1764; graduated at Prince- 
ton, 1781 ; studied law and admitted to the Bar; 
member of Congress ; U. S. District Attorney for the 
District of N. Y. ; Mayor of N. Y. City; Aide and 
Military Secretary to Gen. Jackson during the War of 
1812 ; member of the La. Legislature; U. S. Senator 
from La.; U. S. Secretary of State; U. S. Minister to 
France; Trustee of Columbia; received the A.M. 
degree from Princeton. 1824, and the LL.D. degree 
from Columbia and Transylvania, 1824, and from 
Harvard, 1834; died in Rhinebeck, N. Y., 1836. 

EDW.VRD LIVIN(;STON, LL.D., Trustee of 
Columbia, was born in Clermont, New York, 
May 26, 1764, son of Robert R. Livingston. He 
was graduated from Princeton in 17S1, studied law 
for a time with John Lansing in Albany and after- 




EDWARD LIVINGSTON 



wards with his fixther, and practised his profession 
in New York. He was a member of Congress, 
1 794-1801, then successively PTnited States District 
Attorney for the District of New York, and Mayor 



UNIFERSITIES JM) illKIK SONS 



I 21 



of New York City. DuMiig the War of 1.S12 lie 
served as Aide ami Military Secretary to Ceneral 
Jackson, and at the close of the war settled in Louisi- 
ana. He was a member of the Louisiana Legisla- 
ture 1S20, Member of Congress from Louisiana 
1822-38, was elected United States Senator from 



lage, New York, February 27, 1816. Dr. Moore 
published some sermons, and a iiamjihlet in defence 
of the L[)iscopal ("hurch. His son, Clement Clarke 
Moore, born in New \'ork and educated at Colum- 
bia, was a well-known educator, author and theo- 
logian. His younger brother, William Moore, was 



Louisiana in 1829, became United States Secretary President of the New York County Medical Society, 
of State in 1831, and was apjiointed I'nited States 
Minister to France in 1833. He died at Rhine- 
beck, New York, May 23, 1836. Kdward Living- 
ston is kniiwn for his efforts to reform the criminal 
code, to secure protection for American seamen in 
foreign ports, and to maintain a strong navy. His 
famous criminal code jirepared for Louisiana at- 
tracted much attention throughout the world, and 
had much influence on criminal legislation. Mr. 
Livingston is also famous for the vigor and skill 
which he showed in the prosecution of the spoliation 
claims when Minister to France. He published nu- 
merous valuable works on law and criminal jurispru- 
dence. Princeton conferred upon him the degree 
of Master of Arts in 1824. In the same year he 
received the degree of I^octor of Laws froiTi both 
Columbia anil Transylvania, and in 1S34 he was the 
recipient of a similar honor from Harvard. 



MOORE, Benjamin, 1748-1816. 

Born in Newtown, L. I . 1748; graduated at King's 
College, 1768 ; Tutor in Greek and Latin and studied 
theology ; ordained Deacon and Priest in Chapel of 
Fulham Palace, Eng. ; Rector of Trinity Parish, N. Y. 
City; Bishop-Coadjutor in St Michael's Church. 
Trenton, N. J.; President of Columbia; received the 
S.T.D. degree from Columbia, 1789 ; died in Greenwich 
Village, N. Y., 1816. 

BENJAMIN MOORE, S.T.D., fifth President of 
Columbia, was born in Newton, Long Islanil, 
October 5, 174S. He was educated at King's Col- 
lege (now Columbia), where he was graduated in 
1768, and from which he received the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity in 1789. Following graduation 
he taught Greek and L;itin for a time, and studied 
theology. In 1774 he was ordained Deacon in the 
Chapel of Fulham Palace, England, by the Bishop 
of London, and on the following day was ordained 
Priest. He becaine Rector of Trinity Parish, New 
York City, in 1800, was consecrated ISishop-Coad- 
jutor in St. Michael's Church, Trenton, New Jersey, 
in 1801, and in the same year was elected to suc- 
ceed Bishop Provost when the latter resigned. He 
served as Presiilent of Columbia for ten ye:irs, 
1801-1811, and died of paralysis at Greenwich Vil- 




IlKNJAMIN WOOKli 



a Trustee of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
and a medical author of some rejiute. His nephew, 
Nathaniel F. Moore (son of \Villiam) was President 
of Columbia 1 842-1 849. 



OGILVIE, John, 1722-1774. 

Born in N. Y. City, in 1722; graduated at Yale, 1748; 
Missionary among the Mohawk Indians; Chaplain to 
the Royal American Regiment ; Assistant Minister in 
Trinity Church, N. Y. City; Governor of Columbia; 
received S.T.D. degree from Columbia and Aberdeen, 
1770; died in N. Y. City, 1774. 

JOHN OC.ILVIK, S.T.D., Covernor of Columbia, 
was born in New York City in J 722, and was 
graduated at Yale in 1748. In 1749 he began work 
as a missionary among the Mohawk Indians, and 
subsequently he was Chaplain to tlie Royal .\merican 
Regiment during tlie French and Indian Wars. In 
1764 he bec:uiie .Assistant Minister in Trinity 
Church, New \'ork City. He received the degree 



I 22 



UNIFERSHIES AND "THEIR SONS 



of Master of Arts from Yale and from Columbia in he began his financial training inidcr the well-known 
1767, and that of Doctor of Divinity from Colum- banker, Daniel Drew. Forced by failing health to 
bia and from Aberdeen in 1770. Dr. Ogilvie did retire to a small farm at New Dor]). Staten Island, in 
much for the mental and moral improvement of 1842, he improved and enlarged it chiefly through 

his own exertions, and being subsequently appointed 
Receiver of the Staten Islaml Railroad he managed 
the affairs of that enterprise in such an able manner 
as to gain the good opinion of his father, who up 
to this time is said to have had little or no confi- 
dence in his son's ability as a financier. The genius 
thus developed was exceedingly advantageous to the 
elder Vanderbilt, who placed his son in charge of 
his accumulating railroad interests. Taking the 
Vice-Presidency of the Harlem and Hudson River 
corporations, and shortly afterward that of the New 
York Central road, he managed those enterprises 
with the same prudence and sagacity which had 
brought to a prosperous condition the affairs of the 
insolvent Staten Island Company, and besides 
attending to the finances of the various lines under 
his control he not only exercised a watchful care 
over their general interests, but by a well conceived 
plan of conciliation and compromise, succeeded in 



JOHN OGILVIE 

the Indians, both in their settlements and in the 
army, where many of them served while he was 
Chaplain. He died in New York City, November 
26, 1774. 




VANDERBILT, William Henry, 1821-1885. 

Born in New Brunswick, N. J., 1821 ; educated at the 
Columbia Grammar School; entered the ship-chandlery 
business; Receiver of the Staten Island R. R ; Vice- 
President of the Harlem & Hudson River R. R., also 
of the New York Central R. R.; became President of 
several R. R. ; endowed the Vanderbilt University, 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, also the 
Church of St. Bartholomew; paid for the removal of 
the Obelisk from Egypt to N. Y. ; bequeathed money 
to the Vanderbilt University, the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, the Young Men's Christian Association, the 
missions of the Protestant Episcopal Church and St. 
Luke's Hospital; died in N. Y. City, 1885. 

WILLIAM HENRY VANDERBILT, Bene- 
factor of Columbia, was born in New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, May 8, 1821. He was 
educated at the Columbia Grammar School which 
he left at the age of seventeen to enter the ship- 
chandlery business, and in the following year, 1839, 




WILLIAM H. VANDERBILT 



avoiding the threatened disasters of a rate war and a 
labor strike. In 1883 he resigned the Presidencies 
of the several roads of which he was the official 
head, and visited Europe for rest and recreation. 



UNIVERSITIES ANB THEIR SONS 



I 



William II. Vanderbilt died in New York City, 
December 8, 1885. While living he increased the 
endowment of Vanderbilt University with an addi- 
tion of J! 200,000, gave Si 00,000 for a Theological 
School to be connected with the same institution, 
and ii 1 0,000 for a library; donated the sum of 
<;50o,ooo to the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
for the purpose of erecting new buildings ; dis- 
tributed Si 00,000 among the employees of the 
New York Central road after their refusal to strike 
in 1877; gave $50,000 to the Church of St. Bar- 
tholomew; paid §103,000 for the removal of the 
Obelisk from Egypt to New York and its erection in 
Central Park ; and his generous treatment of General 
Grant at the time of the latter's foilure, was com- 
mended and admired throughout the nation. His 
will ordered the distribution of §1,000,000 for 
benevolent purposes and included gifts to the 
Vanderbilt University, the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, the Y'oung Men's Christian Association, the 
missions of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and 
St. Luke's Hospital. He also made provisions for 
the building and maintenance of a Moravian 
Church, and a family mausoleum at New Uorp. 



held the office until 1849, when he resigned and 
retired to private life. Mr. Moore was a Trustee of 
Columbia from 1842 to 1851. He had received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from that insti- 



MOORE, Nathaniel F., 1782-1872. 

Born in Newtown, L. I., 1782; graduated at Colum- 
bia, 1802; studied law and admitted to the Bar; 
Adjunct-Professor of Greek and Latin at Columbia; 
Librarian of the College; President of Columbia; re- 
ceived the LL.D. degree from Columbia, 1825; died, 
1872. 

NATHANIEL F. MOORE, LL.D., eighth 
President of Columbia, and nephew of 
Penjamin Moore, Columbia's fifth President, was 
born in Newtown, Long Island, New Y'ork, December 
25, 1782. His father. Dr. AVilliam Moore, was a 
celebrated physician of New Y'ork, President of the 
New York County Medical Society and a 'I'rustee of 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Nathaniel 
F. Moore was graduated at Columbia in 1802, studied 
law, and after admission to the Bar in 1805 practised 
for several years in New Y'ork City. In 1S17 he 
became Adjunct-Professor of Greek and Latin in 
Columbia, and in 1820 was made Professor of those 
languages, holding this chair for fifteen years, when 
he resigned and spent two years in Europe. On bis 
return he was made Librarian of the College. Two 
years later he again went abroad, spending some 
time in the Orient. In 1842 he was elected Presi- 
dent of Columbia to succeed William A. Duer. He 




NATHANIICL F. JIUORE 



tution in 1825. An Historical Sketch of Columbia 
College from his pen was published in 1849. He 
died April 27, 1872. 



VARICK, Richard, 1753-1831. 

Born in Hackensack, N. J , 1753 ; practised law ; Cap- 
tain, Military Secretary, Deputy Muster-Master-Gen- 
eral, Lieut. -Colonel, Inspector-General. Aide-de-Camp, 
and Recording Secretary in the Revolutionary Army; 
Recorder of N. Y. City; Speaker of the N. Y. As- 
sembly; Attorney-General; Mayor of N. Y. City; 
Trustee of Columbia and Chairman of the Board; 
President of the Merchant's Bank; founder and Presi- 
dent of the American Bible Society; died in Jersey 
City, N. J., 1831. 

RICHARD VARICK, Trustee of Columbia, 
was born in 1 lackensack, New Jersey, March 
-5' 1753' He came of an old Dutch family, origi- 
nally Van Varick. He adopted the profession of 
the law, which he was practising at the opening of 
the Revolution, in which he served successively as 
Captain in Alexander McDougall's Regiment, Mili- 
tary Secretary to General Schuyler, Deputy-Muster- 
Master-Gcneral, Lieutenant-Colonel, Inspector-Gen- 



1 24 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



eral at West Point and Aide-de-Camp to General parentage, his mother being a daughter of Rev. Jon- 
Benedict Arnold. Later he was Recording Secretary athan Mayhew of Boston. He was graduatctl at 
to Washington's Staff". After the close of the Revo- Harvard in 1S12, and was afterwards an Instructor 
lution he was Recorder of New York 17S3-179S, in Rhetoric and Oratory at Harvard, 1815-1817. 

In 181 7 he was ordained I)eacon in Trinity 
Church, Boston, and a year later was ordained 
Priest in Christ Church at Hartford, Connecticut, 
of which he became Rector. In 182 1 he was 
made Rector of Crace Church in New ^'ork, where 
he officiated until 1834. In the latter year he 
was placed in charge of 'I'rinity Churcli, Boston, 
but in 1837 he returned to New York as Assistant in 
charge of St. John's Chapel, Trinity Parish, retaining 
this post until his elevation to the Episcopacy. He 
was consecrated Provisional Bishop of New York in 
Trinity Church, November 10. 1852. Dr. Wain- 
■wright was for many years Secretary of the House of 
Bisliops, was Secretary of the Board of Trustees of 
tiie (ieneral Theological Seminary, aided in the 
establishment of the University of New York and 
was a Trustee or officer of many societies and insti- 
tutions. He was a ripe scholar, wielded great social 
influence, was a devoted lover of music, contributing 



RICHARD V.ARICK 

Speaker of the New York Assembly 1787, .Attorney- 
General 1789 and Mayor of New York City 1791- 
180 1. He was also President of the Merchants' 
Bank, and founder and President of the American 
Bible Society. Mr. Varick served as a Trustee of 
Columbia from 1784 to 1S16 and was Chairman of 
the Board from iSio to 181 6. He died in Jersey 
City, New Jersey, July 30, 1831. 




WAINWRIGHT, Jonathan Mayhew, 1793- 
1854. 

Born in Liverpool, Eng., 1793; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1812, also Tutor; ordained Deacon and Priest; 
Rector of Grace Church in N. Y.; Provisional Bishop 
of N. Y. in Trinity Church; Trustee of Columbia; 
Secretary of the House of Bishops; Secretary of the 
Board of Trustees of the General Theological Semi- 
nary; aided in the establishment of the University of 
N. v.; Trustee or officer in many societies or institu- 
tions; received the D.D. degree from Union, 1823, 
from Harvard, 1835; and D.C.L. from Oxford, 1852; 
died in N. Y. City, 1854. 

JONATHAN MAYHEW WAINWRIGHT, D.D., 
D.C.L., Trustee of Columbia, was born in 




JONATHAN M. \\AIN"\VRIGHT 

much towards its improvement in the churches of his 
denomination, and was considered one of the first 
pulpit orators of his day. He received the degree 



Liverpool, England, February 24, 1793, of American of Doctor of Divinity from Union in 1823 and from 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



125 



Harvard in 1S55, ami the degree of Doctor of 
Classic Literature was conferred on iiiin by Oxford 
ill 1852. Bishop Wainwright died in New York City, 
September 21, 1854. He published many works, 
including sermons, essays, musical productions, and 
papers in periodicals. After liis clcatii a church was 
erected in New York to his memory. 



VERPLANCK, Gulian Crommelin, 1786- 
1870. 

Born in N. Y. City. 1786: graduatej at Columbia, 
1801 ; studied law; Professor of Evidences of the 
Revealed Religion and Moral Science in the General 
Theological Seminary at N. Y., also Regent of the 
same; Trustee of Columbia; Regent and Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the N. Y. State University; received the 
A.M. degree from Columbia. 1821, and LL.D. from 
Amherst. 1834, Columbia and Hobart, 1835; member of 
the N. Y. Legislature; member of Congress; State 
Senator; President of the Board of Commissioners of 
Immigration and Century Club ; Governor of the City 
Hospital; died in N Y. City, 1870. 

Gri.I.XN CROM.Ml'.LIN VKRFL.VNCK, 
LL.D., Trustee of Columbia, was born in New 
York ('ity, August 6, 1786, son of Daniel Cromn\elin 




GULUX C. VERl'LANCK 



Verplauck, a member of Congress from New \'ork 
state. He was graduated from Columbia in iSoi, ;it 
the age of fifteen — tlie youngest Bachelor of .\rts ever 
graduated from th;it inbtitution. He studied law, 



anil after travelling in l'",urope for a time, established 
liimself in the practice of liis profession in New York. 
In 1821 he became I'rofessor of I'>vidences of the 
Revealed Religion and Moral Science in the General 
'I'heological Seminary, New \'ork. He was a Trus- 
tee 1821-1826, Regent 1826-1870, and from 1854 
until his death was also Vice-Chancellor of New York 
State University. C'olumbia conferred on him the 
degree of Master of Arts in 1821, and he received 
tlie degree of Doctor of Laws from .Amherst in 1834, 
:uid from Cohmibia and Hobart in 1835. Mr. Ver- 
pkinck served as a member of the Legislature in 1820, 
a member of Congress 1824-1833, and State Senator 
1838 1841. He was for many years President of 
the Board of Commissioners of Immigration, and 
was ;ilso President of the Century Club antl a Gover- 
nor of the City Hospit;il. He died in -New York, 
.March 18, 1870. He has published numerous books, 
including : Early European Friends of .•\merica ; 'I'he 
Bucktail I'.ards ; I'roces Verbal of Ceremony of In- 
stallation ; .Address Before the .American Academy 
of Fine Arts ; Nature and Uses of Various Evi- 
dences of Revealed Religion ; Essay on the I)f( line 
of Contracts ; and various other works. 



WHARTON, Charles Henry, 1748-1833. 

Born in St. Mary's county, Md., 1748; educated at 
the English Jesuits' College at St. Omer's, Md. ; took 
orders in the Roman Catholic Church as Deacon 
and Priest; Rector of Immanuel Church (Episcopal), 
Newcastle, Del.; served on the committee to draft an 
ecclesiastical constitution for the Episcopal Church in 
the U. S., also on the committee to prepare a form of 
prayer and thanksgiving for the Fourth of July and 
to Americanize the Book of Common Prayer; Rector 
of St. Mary's Church, Burlington, N. J.; Trustee of 
Princeton, i8c8-i8i6; President of Columbia; died at 
Burlington, N. J., 1833. 

CHARLES HENRY WHARTON, fourth Presi- 
dent of Columbia, was born in St. .Mary's 
county, Maryland, June 5, 1748, on the family plan- 
tation, Notley Hall, presented to liis grandfather by 
Lord Baltimore. He was educated at the l-'.nglish 
Jesuits' College at St. Omer's, Maryland, and in 
1772 he took orders in the Roman Catholic Church, 
first as Deacon and a few months later as Priest. 
The period of the Revolution he sjient in England, 
but at its close he returned to .\merica in the 
first vessel that sailed after peace was concludeil, and 
in l7.'^4, having ad()[)ted the views of the Church of 
I'Jigland, he became Rector of Immanuel Church at 
Newcastle, Delaware. .At the C.enenil Convention 
of I7,S5 lie served on the rounnittee to draft an 



1 26 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



ecclesiastical constitution for the Episcopal Church 
in the United States, also on the connnittees to pre- 
pare a form of prayer and thanksgiving for the 
Fourth of Tnlv, and to Americanize the Book of 




CHARLES H. WHARTON 

Common Prayer. In 179S he became Rector of 
St. Mary's Church at Burlington, New Jersey. He 
served as Trustee of Princeton from iSoo to 1816. 
The Presidency of Columbia being tendered him in 
iSoi he accepted, and assumed the duties of the 
office at Commencement ; but he recalled his ac- 
ceptance, and returned to his Rectorship at Burling- 
ton, which he held until his death, July 22, 1833. 
Mr. Wharton was reputed among the first in scholar- 
ship and influence among the clergy of his church 
in the United States. 



through a period of about twelve years, 1844-57, 
were highly beneficial to students intending to enter 
the ministry or the legal profession. Professor Hows 
died in New York, July 27, 187 1. He was the 
author of The Practical Elocutionist, and the Editor 
of the Modern Standard Drama ; The Historical 
Shakespearian Reader; Golden Leaves from the 
British American and Dramatic Poets, (3 volumes). 
John Augustus Hows, son of the above, was born in 
New York in 1831, graduated at Columbia in 1852 
and became an artist of high repute. He died in 
1874- 

VERPLANCK, Gulian, 1751-1799. 

Born in 1751 ; graduated at Columbia, 1768; member 
N. Y Assembly, Speaker of that body ; Regent of the 
University of N. Y. State (Columbia) ; President Bank 
of New York; died in New York City, 1799. 

GULIAN VERPLANCK was born in 1751 
and was graduated at Columbia in 1768. 
He was a member of the House of Assembly of New 
York State, 178S-1791 and again 1 796-1797, was 
Speaker of that body in 1790 and i 796-1797, and 
was Regent of the University of New York State 




HOWS, John William Stanhope, 1797-1871. 

Born in London, 1797: elocutionist, journalist and 
critic; Professor of Elocution at Columbia, 1844-1857; 
died in New York, 1871. 

JOHN WILLIAM STANHOPE HOWS, Pro- 
fessor of Elocution at Columbia, was born in 
London, England, in 1797. Settling in New York, 
he became an elocutionist of note, was dramatic (Columbia) 1 790-1 799. From 1790 until his 
critic of the New York Albion, and widely known as death he was President of the Bank of New York, 
a Shakespearian scholar and reader. His services as He was a lifelong resident of New York City, where 
Professor of Elocution at Columbia which extended he died in 1799. 



GULIAN VERPLANCK 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



127 



ABBOTT, Herbert Vaughan, 1865- 

Born in Terre Haute, Ind., 1865; graduated from 
Amherst; has been literary critic of the New York 
Commercial Advertiser ; Assistant Instructor, then In- 
structor of English at Harvard. 

Hl'.RHKRT VAUCillAN ABliOTl', Instructor 
in English at Harvard, was born in 'I'erre 
Haute, Indiana, January 3, 1865, his parents being 
Lyman and Abby Frances ( Hamlin ) Abbott. In 
1SS5 he graduated from Amherst. In the year 
1 890-1 891 he was Literary Critic of the New York 




HERBERT V. ABBOTT 



Commercial Advertiser; from 1S94 to 1S96 was 
Assistant in English at Harvard and in 1S96 was 
made Instructor. 



ADAMS, Charles Francis, 1807-1886. 

Born in Boston, 1807; graduated at Harvard in 1825; 
admitted to the Bar at Boston in 1828; Member of the 
Massachusetts Legislature, 1831-1836; was the Free- 
Soil candidate for Vice-President in 1848; member of 
Congress, 1858-1861 ; Minister to England, 1861-1868; 
Overseer of Harvard, 1869-1881 ; and some years Presi- 
dent of the Board. Died in Boston, 1886. 

CHARLES FRANCIS AUAMS, LL.D., Over- 
seer of Harvard, was born in Boston, August 
1 8, I So 7, son of President John Quincy Adams and 
Louisa (Johnson) Adams. His early boyhood 
was spent in St. Petersburg and England, attending 



a boarding-school while in the last named country, 
and so violent was the antipathy against .America 
even among children that the son of the American 
Minister found it necessary on several occasions to 
defend the good name of his country by engaging in 
personal encounters with his schoolmates. After his 
return to the United States he was placed in the 
Boston Latin School preparatory to entering Harvard 
from which he was graduated in 1825, and he sub- 
sequendy spent two years in Washington during his 
father's Presidential term. Having studied law in 
the office of Daniel Webster he was admitted to the 
Suffolk County Bar in 1828, and his entrance into 
the legal profession was practically the stepping- 
stone to his political career, which he shortly after- 
wards inaugurated. From 1831 to 1836 he was a 
member of the Massachusetts Legislature to which 
he was elected as a Whig, but as he grew older that 
political independence for which his family is noted 
asserted itself, and in 1848 his name was placed 
upon the Free-Soil ticket for Vice-President, beside 
that of Martin Van Buren for President. Joining 
the Republican party at its formation he was elected 
to Congress from the third Massachusetts district 
in 1858, and re-elected in i860, but his second 
term as Representative was cut short as he was 
appointed by President Lincoln as Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of 
St. James, being the third member of his family in a 
direct line to hold that office, and he assumeil his 
diplomatic duties in 1861. The secession of the 
Southern states so eagerly hoped for by the upper 
classes of English society, was hailed with delight in 
London, which caused Mr. Adams' mission to be 
a most trying one and on this occasion his tongue 
and pen replaced his fists in defending his country's 
honor and upholding the cause of the union. His 
natural independence, untiring perseverance and 
perfect self-control, made him an antagonist which 
it was extremely difficult to overpower, while his 
diplomacy was absolutely free from craftiness or 
intrigue. His treatment of the many grave ques- 
tions resulting from the Ci\il War, notably his 
success in preventing the French Emperor from 
securing British co-operation in a scheme to recog- 
nize the Southern Confederacy, also his firm demand 
that ample compensation be rendered for the negli- 
gence of the Englisli authorities in permitting Con- 
federate cruisers like the " .\labama " to leave 
liritish ports for the purpose of preying ujion .Xmer- 
ican commerce caused his occupancy of the 
English mission extending from 1861 to 1868, to 



128 



UNIVERSITIES JND rilEIR SONS 



be regarded in this country as one of the most 
briUiant periods of American diplomacy abroad. 
In 1872, Mr. Adams was a prominent candidate of 
the Liberal Republican party for President, but tlie 
nomination was secured by Horace Greeley. From 
1869 to 1S81 he served as an Overseer of Harvard, 
and was President of the Board for a considerable 
portion of that time. Besides editing the works 
and memoirs of his father and grandfather, in 
twenty-two octavo volumes, he published many of 
his own orations and addresses. Charles Francis 
Adams died in Boston, November 21, 1SS6. In 




CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS 

1829 he married the youngest daughter of Peter 
Chardon Brooks, the elder daughters of whom be- 
came the wives of Edward Everett and Rev. 
Nathaniel Frothingham. He had four sons, namely : 
John Quincy, Charles Francis, Henry and Brooks 
Adams. 



ADAMS, John Quincy, 1767-1848. 

Born in Braintree, Mass., 1767; graduated at Har- 
vard in 1787; admitted to the Bar in 1791 ; Minister 
to Holland in 1794; transferred to Berlin in 1797; 
chosen United States Senator in 1803; was Professor 
of Rhetoric and Belles-lettres at Harvard, 1806-1809; 
Minister to Russia, 1809-1813; Minister to England 
for eight years; Secretary of State under President 
Monroe; secured the seceding of Florida by Spain 



and the extension of the Louisiana boundary ; origi- 
nated the Monroe Doctrine; became President of the 
United States in 1825; Representative to Congress, 
1831-1848; Overseer of Harvard the last eighteen years 
of his life ; died in Washington, D. C, 1848. 

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, LL.D., sixth President 
of the United States, Professor and Overseer of 
Harvard, was boin in Braintree, Massachusetts, July 
II, 1767. He was the son of John Adams, who 
succeeded \\'ashington in the Presidency, and he 
was named for his mother's grandfather John 
Quincy. When eleven years old he accompanied 
his father to France and acquired a notable pro- 
ficiency in the French language and other studies. 
His education was continued at a school in Amster- 
dam and at the University of I.eyden, which he 
attended for a time. Receiving an appointment as 
Secretary of Legation at St. Petersburg he remained 
there fourteen months, at the expiration of which 
time he started upon a j(jurney through Sweden, 
Denmark and northern (iermany to France, which 
consumed a period of six monlh;. In Paris he 
assisted his father in drafting the papers relating 
to the final treaty between Great Britain and the 
United States, but when the elder Adams was 
appointed Minister to England, he saw fit to 
forego the pleasures of London life in order to 
complete his education in America, and crossing 
the ocean solely for that purpose, he entered 
Harvard, from which he was graduated in 17S7. 
Studying law with Theophilus Parsons, afterward 
Chief-Justice of Massachusetts, he was admitted 
to the Suffolk County Bar in 1791 and immediately 
entered into practice. The monotony attending 
the commencement of a young lawyer's practice 
he relieved to some extent by writing for the news- 
papers articles upon various topics under the signa- 
tures of " Publicola," " Marcellus " and " Columbus." 
These articles came to the notice of President 
Washington, who discerned in their author the 
requisite qualifications of a diplomatist, and ac- 
cordingly in 1794 young Adams was appointed 
Minister to Holland. Two years later he was 
transferred to the Portuguese Mission but his father, 
who had just been elected to the Presidency, sent 
him instead to Berlin at the advice of Washington, 
who declared that in his opinion the j'oung man 
woulil prove the ablest diplomat in the American 
service. In 1797, John Quincy Adams took up his 
residence in the Prussian capital where he remained 
until after the election of Thomas Jefferson, when 
his mission terminated, and returning to the United 
States he resumed the practice of law in Boston. 



UNll'ERSrriKS .-/IVD TIIFJR SONS 



129 



His election to the Massachusetts Senate in i8u2 
was followed by his election to the United States 
Senate in the ensuing year, and the almost universal 
opposition he met with in the last named body 
was at first due solely to the fact that he was a 
son of John Adams. The characteristic independ- 
ence of the Adams family, which made the second 
Presitlent of the United States so unpopular, was 
perhaps more strongly depicted in the character of 
|ohn Quincy Adams, than in any other of its mem- 
bers who have entered public life, and his ajiproval 
of the purchase of l.ouisiana, together with the 




JOHN QUINCY ADAMS 

])Osition he took in relation to the embargo, com- 
merce and foreign affairs, were the cause of serious 
difficulty between himself and the Federalist party, 
by which he was considered an apostate. In 1807 
he severed his connection with the Federalists, 
resigned his seat in the Senate [irior to the ex- 
piration of his term, and in 1S09 was appointed 
Minister to Russia, where he was cordially received 
by the Emperor, Alexander- the First. He resided 
in St. Petersburg four years and a half, and his diary 
contains an interesting account of Napoleon's dis- 
astrous Russian campaign. In the Treaty of Ghent, 
which terminated the War of 1812-1813-1S14, he 
took an important part, and after the conclusion of 
negotiations he went to I'aris, where he was joined 

VOL. II. — 9 



by his wife and cliildien, who reached the French 
capital in safety after a tedious journey from St. 
Petersburg, which at that time was attended with 
considerable danger. While in France he witnessed 
the return of Napoleon from I';iba, and the interest- 
ing events that preceded the battle of Waterloo, 
lie was associated with Messers Clay and Gallatin 
in negotiating a commercial treaty with iMigland, 
which was completed July 13, 1815, but had 
already received official notification of his appoint- 
ment as Minister Plenipotentiary to CIreat Pritain. 
He was the second member of his family to complete 
the final acts in an important treaty with England, 
his father having assisted in concluding the 'Preaty 
of Peace after the Revolutionary War, and his son, 
Charles Francis Adams, who held the English mis- 
sion during the Civil War, was closely identified 
with the negotiations which led to the final settle- 
ment of the Alabama claims. After a residence of 
eight years abroad, Mr. .\dams was called home to 
enter President Monroe's C'abinet as Secretary of 
State. Among his more notable achievements while 
holding this high office was the annexation of P"lor- 
ida, the re-establishment of the Louisiana Boundary, 
the sujjport of the policy of recognizing the inde- 
pendence of the revolted colonies in Spanish 
.\merica, and he originated the so-called " Monroe 
Doctrine," declaring tliat the .\merican Continent 
was no longer open to European colonization. The 
national election of 1824 resulted in no choice for 
President, which left the matter in the hands of the 
House of Representatives, and although Mr. .\dams 
was not a popular candidate, having received but 
eighty-four electoral votes, he was elected through 
the infiuence of Henry Clay. His administration 
was founded upon the principles of the Whig party, 
which believed in internal improvement, a higli 
tariff, and the establishment of national banks, thus 
causing the violent antagonism of the Southern 
planters, the importers of New York and the ship- 
owners of New England. The "spoils system" had 
also taken root at this time, but the President re- 
fused to favor his supporters or remove from office 
members of the opposing party, with the result that 
at the next election .-Xndrew Jackson received one 
hundred and seventy-eight electoral votes to eighty- 
three cast for Mr. .Adams. The ex-President was 
not, however, permitted to retire to ]irivate life for 
any great length of time, as in 1831, he was elected 
to Congress by the ,\nti-Mason party, which shortly 
afterivard nominated him for Governor, but as 
there was no choice by the pet>ple the election 



'3° 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



went to the Legislature and he was defeated. For 
the next seventeen years he continued to occupy a 
seat in the National House of Representatives and 
his support of Jackson in the hitter's pohcy toward 
France caused him to again lose a seat in the 
United States Senate. The disapproval of his 
course by the Massachusetts Legislature left him 
still more free from jiarty allegiance and the 
remaintler of his career was devoted principally to 
forwarding the cause of abolition, of which he was a 
strong and uncompromising advocate. On Febru- 
ary 2 1, 1S48, while seated at his desk in the House 
of Representatives, Mr. Adams suffered a second 
shock of paralysis, the first one having occurred 
some fifteen months previous. He was conveyed 
to the Speaker's room, where he expired on the 
23d, and his final wonls were: "This is the last 
of earth ; I am content." John Quincy Adams was 
Boylston Professor of Rhetoric and Belles-lettres at 
Harvard from 1806 to 1809, and his lectures were 
published in iSio. He was also a member of the 
Board of Overseers from 1830 to 1S48. He re- 
ceived his Master's degree at graduation and that 
of Doctor of Laws was conferred by the College of 
New Jersey in 1822. He served as President of 
the American Academy, was a member of the 
INLassachusetts Historical, and the American Phil- 
osophical Societies. While residing in Berlin he 
made an English translation of Wieland's Oberon, 
and his account of a journey through Silesia was 
translated into German and F'rench. He married 
Miss Louisa Johnson, a niece of Thomas Johnson, 
of Maryland. 



ADAMS, Charles Francis, 1835- 

Born in 1835; graduated at Harvard, 1856; admitted 
to the Bar, 1858; served in the Civil War and brevetted 
Brigadier General of Volunteers; member of the 
Massachusetts Railroad Commission ; Overseer of 
Harvard, 1882-1894 ; elected President Union Pacific 
Railway in 1884. 

CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS, Overseer of 
Harvard, the second son of Charles Francis 
( the American statesman ) and Abigail Brown 
( Brooks) Adams, was born in Boston, May 27, 
1835. He pursued the regular course at Harvard, 
from which College he was graduated with the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts in the Class of 1856, and having 
prepared himself for the legal profession, was admit- 
ted to the Bar in 1858. Entering the Army at the 
breaking out of the Civil War, he served with dis- 
tinction throughout the entire struggle, and attained 



the rank of Brevet Brigadier-General of Volunteers. 
He subsequently became actively interested in rail- 
road matters, with which he has ever since been 
prominently identified, and is considered an author- 
ity u|ion all questions pertaining thereto. In 1869 
he was appointed a member of the Massachusetts 
Railnjad Commission, and in 1S84 was chosen 
President of the Ihiion Pacific Railroad Company. 
Chapters on F>ie and other Essays, issued in 1871, 
were written jointly by him and his brother, Henry 
Adams, and he is also the author of an instructive 
book on railroad accidents. Mr. Adams has served 
upon the lioard of Overseers of LLarvard since 18S2. 
He has been President of the ^L^ssachusetts His- 
torical Society, anci is a fellow of the American 
Academy. Mr. Adams married Mary, daughter of 
E. and C. Ogden, November 8, 1865. Their chil- 
dren are : Mary, Louisa C, ICIizabelh, John and 
Henry Adams. 



ADAMS, Comfort Avery, Jr., 1868- 

Born in Cleveland, O., 1868; graduated at Cleveland 
Central High School, and the Case School of Applied 
Science, Cleveland ; was Assistant in Physics at the 
Case School; was Draughtsman with the Brown 
Hoisting and Conveying Machine Company of Cleve- 
land, and afterwards Draughtsman and Engineer with 
the Brush Electric Company of Cleveland ; Instructor 
at Harvard ; Assistant Professor of Electrical Engi. 
neering at Harvard ; member of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers; member of the American 
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education. 

COMFORT AVERY ADAM.S, Jr., Assistant 
Professor of Electrical Engineering at Har- 
vard, was the son of Comfort Avery and Katherine 
Emily ( Peticolas ) Adams, and was born in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, November i, 1868. He was descended 
directly from John Adams, who came to Ply- 
moutli in the "Fortune" in 1621. His grand- 
father, Asael Adams, settled in the Western Reserve, 
Warren, Ohio, about the beginning of this century. 
Mr. C. A. Adams, Jr., was educated in the Cleve- 
land public schools, graduating from the Cleveland 
Central High School in 1886, and in the Case 
Scliool of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio, where 
he graduated in 1890, and where he was President 
of his Class. He was also Assistant in Physics at 
the latter institution. He spent the summer of 1890 
with a scientific expedition, exploring and surveying 
in the vicinity of Muir Glacier, Alaska. For a few 
months in 1890 he was draughtsman with the 
Brown Hoisting and Conveying Machine Company 



UNIVERSITIES AND TIIKIK SONS 



131 



of Cleveland, but in December 1S90, left that place 
to become drau.uhtsnian and engineer with the 
Brush Electric Company of Cleveland, remaining 
there imtil September 1S91. For the next five 




C. A. ADAMS, JR. 

years he was Instructor at Harvard, and in Septem- 
ber 1896, assumed the position which he now holds. 
Mr. Adams is a member of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers and the American Society 
for the Promotion of Engineering lulucation. He 
married, June 21, 1S94, Elizabeth Challis Parsons. 



AMES, Frederick Lothrop, 1835-1893. 

Born in Easton, Mass., 1835; graduated at Harvard, 
1854; worked his way forward from a clerkship to a 
responsible position in the famous Ames Manufactur- 
ing Establishment and eventually became the official 
head of that Corporation; attained prominence as a 
financier and railroad magnate; member of the Massa- 
chusetts Senate; erected the Ames Building, Boston; 
was interested in agriculture, horticulture and the fine 
arts; benefactor and Fellow of Harvard; contributed 
liberally to educational, charitable and benevolent 
works. Died, 1893. 

FRICOERICK: I.OTHROP AMES, Fellow and 
Benefactor of Harvard, was born in ]",aston, 
Massachusetts, June 8, 1S35. His father was Oliver 
Ames, 2(1, a grandson of Captain John Ames who 
began the manufacture of shovels prior to the 



K.evolution;iry War, thus I;iying the foundation for 
the present Oliver Ames & Sons Coqjoration of 
North I^:iston. His original ancestor in America on 
the patern:d side was William Ames, who emigr;Ued 
from Bruton, Somersetshire, luigland, about the 
year 1635. His mother was a daughter fif Hon. 
Howard Lothrop, of F.aston, and a sister i}f Hon. 
George VanNess I.otlirop, formerly United States 
Minister to Russia. From Philli|>s-F.xeter .\cademy 
Frederick I,. Ami's entcre<l Harvard from wliii h he 
was graduated witli the Class of 1S54, and i)iirs\iant 
to the oft-e.xpressed desire of his father he entered 
the business office of the .\mcs Shovel M;inufactory 
where he was advanced in the regular line of ])ro- 
motion from a subordinate position to that of i)rin- 
cipal accountant. He was admitted to tlie firm in 
1863 and in 1S76, when the concern w:is reorg:inized 
under the name of the Oliver Ames & Sons Corpora- 
tion, he became its Treasurer. In the following 
year the death of his father placed him at the liead 
of the business, and although his subsequent finan- 
cial spjeculations led him into official connection 
witli many extensive enterprises, he continued to 
retain a paramount interest in the family industry 
over which he exercised a careful supervision during 
the rest of his life. As an authority upon financial, 
industrial and railway affairs Mr. Ames was probably 
unsurpassed in this country and was a Director of 
upwards of forty different railroad companies ; also 
Vice-President of the Old Colony Railroad, and held 
official relations with the Western Union Telegraph, 
General Electric and several trust and insurance 
companies, the First National P>ank at North Easton 
and the Savings Bank of that town. He was also 
an extensive real estate owner and developer, and 
erected the fine office structure in Boston known as 
the Ames building. Though not interested in poli- 
tics beyond the ordinary scope of a patriotic citizen, 
he reluctantly accepted a seat in the State Senate to 
which he was elected by the Republican party in 
1872, and served with marked ability upon the 
Committees on Manufactures and Agriculture. His 
Boston residence was enriched with an artistically 
selected collection of rare paintings, jades, and 
crystals, and his magnificent country seat at North 
Easton, gave ample evidence of his great interest in 
agricultural and horticultural development. He was 
especially interestei! in the welfare of those depart- 
ments at Harxard, the P.otanical Gardens having 
been greatly benefited by his liberality, and he was 
a Fellow and Trustee of that University during the 
last ten years of his life. Many notable charities also 



132 



UNIVERSI'TIES AND THEIR SONS 



benefited botli by his executive ability and generous 
donations. In his native town he erected a hand- 
some railroad station at his own expense, and in 
common with other members of the family increased 
the library fund left by his father, thus furnishing 
the means for providing and equipping the present 
library building, wliich was erected under his per- 
sonal supervision from plans by H. H. Richardson. 
The First Unitarian Church in Boston as well as 
the church in North Easton received generous sup- 
port at his hands, as did also the Kindergarten for 
the Blind, which was perhaps his favorite object of 




FREDERICK L. AMES 

benevolence. Frederick Lothrop Ames died Sep- 
tember 1 6, 1S93, and although the general com- 
munity had good cause to regret his removal from 
their midst, perhaps those most entitled to mourn 
were the many who enjoyed the benefits of his 
generosity and thoughtfulness. Mr. Ames married 
June 7, i860. Miss Rebecca Caroline I'.lair, only 
child of James Blair of St. Louis, Missouri. They 
had five children ; Helen Angier, Oliver, Mary 
Shreve, Bothrop and John Stanley Ames. 



ANDREW, John Albion, 1818-1867. 

Born in Windham, Me , 1818 ; graduated at Bowdoin, 
1837; admitted to the Bar in Boston, 1840 ; was promi- 
nently identified with the fugitive slave cases of 



Shadrach Burns and Sims; member of the Massachu- 
setts Legislature in 1858 ; delegate to the Republican 
National Convention in i860 ; Governor of Massachu- 
setts, 1861-1866 ; pursued an energetic policy in relation 
to the equipment and forwarding of troops during the 
Civil War; instituted various reforms in the laws of 
the Commonwealth: presided over the First National 
Unitarian Convention held in 1865; Overseer of Har- 
vard, 1867 ; died, 1867. 

JOHN ALBION ANDREW, LL.D., War Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts and Overseer of Har- 
vard, was born in Windham, Maine, May 31, 1818. 
He was a descendant of an early settler in lioxford, 
Massachusetts, and his father was a well-to-do 
merchant of Windliam. Graduating from Bowdoin 
in 1S37 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts he im- 
mediately took up the study of law in the office of 
Henry H. F'uller, of Boston, Massachusetts, and was 
admitted to the Suffolk Bar in 1840. The succeeding 
twenty years were devoted to the assiduous practice 
of his profession in which he acquired prominence, 
and he won marked distinction as one of the coun- 
sel in the celebrated Shadrach Burns and Sims cases 
arising from the fiigitive-slave law in 1S50. Prior 
to 1848 he was an active supporter of the Whig 
party in whose interests he frequently addressed 
campaign gatherings, but subsequently allied him- 
self to the Anti-Slavery movement, the principles of 
which he enthusiastically upheld until the formation 
of the Republican party, to which he transferred his 
allegiance, and being elected to the Legislature in 
1858, immediately acquired a wide influence in the 
Lower House. In i860, he attended as a delegate 
the Republican National Convention at Chicago, 
supporting at first the candidacy of William H. 
Seward ami afterward that of Abraham Lincoln. In 
the State Convention of that year he was his party's 
nominee for the Governorship and although some 
of the Republican leaders were against him on ac- 
coiuit of his radical opinions, he was elected by the 
largest vote ever polled in Massachusetts up to that 
time. In accordance with a declaration made in 
his first inaugural address, he immediately took 
measures to reorganize and strengthen the militia in 
order to place the Commonwealth in readiness to 
assist in defending the Union against the threatened 
secession of the slave states, and at the same time 
he despatched confidential communications to the 
Governors of Maine and New Hampshire setting 
forth the necessity of taking instant and decisive 
action in the same direction. As a result of his 
energetic military policy, he was able to respond to the 
President's first call for troops by sending five regi- 



UNIVERSiriRS AND THEIR SONS 



133 



ments of infantrv, one battalion of ritlcnu'n and om; 
battery of anillt-ry, the Sixth Massachusetts Infantry, 
whicii was attacked in the streets of liaUiniore by a 
niol) of Southern sympathizers, being the first 
Northern regiment to reach the scat of war. lie 
also labored diligently in recruiting the rcciuisitc 
number of three year volunteers, and was untiring in 
his efforts in behalf of the sick and wounded soldiers. 
The emancipation of the slaves was strongly recom- 
mended by hiui as was also the enlistment of colored 
troops, and at a meeting of the Governors of North- 
ern states held at Altoona, Pennsylvania, in 1862, 




JOHX A. ANPRICW 

he was selected to prepare a patriotic address issued 
by them to the loyal people of the North. Though 
mucli of his time during the War was devoted to 
providing for its maintenance and successful termi- 
nation, the internal affairs of the Commonwealth re- 
ceived their share of attention at his hands, and 
various acts and reformations were accomplished or 
recommended by him, notably : a much desired 
change in the divorce laws and in the law of usury; 
and of the twelve bills which he vetoed during his 
administration, but two, namely : an Act requiring 
Representatives in Congress to be residents of the 
districts they represent, and a resolve increasing the 
pay of members of the Legislature, became laws 
through the two-thirds \-(ite privilege of the House. 



lie was opposed to capital punishment which he 
earnestly desired to have repealed, and absolutely 
refused to sign the death warrant of a condenmed 
murderer. Governor Andrew was re-elected for the 
years 1S62-1S63-1.S64-1S65, and although earnestly 
solicited by his party to continue as its candidate, 
he firmly declined, giving as his reason his inability 
to sujijiort the severe strain made upon his health, 
and pecuniary resources. I lis last iiublic act of im- 
jiortance after his retirement from office, was the 
presentation to the Legislature in January 1X67, of 
a petition for a license law signed by thirty thousand 
citizens, and argued forcibly against strict jirohibi- 
tory legislation. Shortly after liis withdrawal from 
public life he was offered the Presidency of .'\ntioch 
College, which he declined. Governor Andrew's 
death occurred stuldenly, October 30, 1867, and 
was the result of apoplexy. In religious belief lie 
was a conservative Unitarian, believing in the divin- 
ity of our Saviour and his mission, and he [nesitlcd 
at the P'irst National Unitarian Convention, which 
was held in 1865. Tlie honorary degree of Doctor 
of Laws was conferred upon him both by Harvard 
and Amherst, and he was chosen an Overseer of the 
former in 1867. He was a member of the Afassa- 
chusetts Historical Society. On December 25, 1S4S, 
he married Miss l*;ii/,a Jane Hersey of Hingham, 
I\Lassachusetts ; they had four children. 



APPLETON, Samuel, 1766-1853. 

Born in New Ipswich, N. H., 1766; rose from a 
country storekeeper to a merchant prince ; estabUshed 
cotton mills at Lowell and Waltham, Mass. ; con- 
tributed liberally to charitable and educational objects ; 
and donated the funds for the erection of Appleton 
Chapel at Harvard; died in Boston, 1853. 

SAMUEL APPLETON, P.enefactor of Harvard, 
was born in New Ipswich, New Hampshire, 
June 22, t766. His boyhood and youth were spent 
upon a farm, and his educational advantages, though 
meagre, enabled him to teach in tlie district schools 
of his neighborhood. I'Jitering business life as the 
proprietor of a country store at Ipswich, his progres- 
sive tendencies soon prompted him to seek a broader 
field of operation admitting of that mercantile ex- 
pansion toward which his ambition was gradually 
but surely leading him. He accordingly went to 
lioston in 1794, and forming a partnership with his 
brother, Nathan, engaged in the importing business. 
When the success of his tnercantile enterprise was 
assured lie turned his attention to the cotton manii- 



134 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



facturing industry both ns a means of accnmulating 
wealth, and for the purpose of developing the avail- 
able resources of the country, thereby affording 
steady employment to the many who were constantly 
in need of work. Cotton fi^ctories were erected by 
him in Lowell and Waltham, Massachusetts, which 
under his able management developed into thriving 
industrial enterprises, and the desired ends for which 
tlicy were established were amply realized. For 
over twenty years he devoted much of his time to 
the management of his aftairs abroad, and in 1S23 
he retired permanently from active business pur- 
suits, having accumulated a fortune sufficient to en- 
able him to fully gratify his desires for bestowing 
benefactions upon the less fortunate. It was his 
custom to use his entire annual income, the greater 
portion of which was contributed to objects of 
charity and philanthropy, and with this end in view 
he on many occasions made disbursing agents of 
those whom he knew were liable to come in contact 
with worthy destitute people. In his earnest desire 
to distribute his munificence where it was likely to 
accomplish the most good, he did not forget Har- 
vard, where he decided to erect a place of worship 
which for some time to come might prove adequate 
to the religious demands of that Institution, and 
among the notable buildings in the College yard, 
Appleton Chapel stands as a fitting memorial of his 
liberality and usefulness. Samuel Appleton died in 
Boston, July 12, 1853, and by his will he distributed 
legacies to various charities amounting to $200,000. 



been Dean of the school since 1S95. Professor 
Ames has prepared several collections of cases on 
legal subjects, which are used in many law schools. 




JAMES BARR AMES 

and has contributed numerous articles to legal peri- 
odicals. Professor Ames married June 29, 1880, 
Sarah Russell, and has two children ; Robert Russell 
and Richard Ames. 



AMES, James Barr, 1846- 

Born in Boston, 1846; graduated at Harvard ; taught 
at private school; graduated at the Harvard Lavir 
School; Assistant Professor and Professor of Law at 
Harvard. 

JAMES PARR AMES, Professor of Law at Har- 
vard, is the son of Samuel Tarbell, and Mary 
Hartwell (Barr) Ames, and was born in Boston, 
June 22, 1846. His preliminary education was ob- 
tained at the grammar schools of Medford and 
Boston and at the Boston Latin School. In 1868 
he graduated at Harvard and then spent the next 
year as a teacher in a private school. After a year's 
travel in Europe he returned to enter the Harvard 
Law School, where he graduated in 1872. He con- 
tinued at that School for a year as a graduate stu- 
dent, at the end of which year he was appointed 
Assistant Professor of Law at Harvard. He was 
appointed full Professor of Law in 1S77 and has 



APPLETON, Nathaniel, 1693-1784. 

Born, 1693; graduated at Harvard, 1712; ordained to 
the Ministry, 1717; Fellow of Harvard, 1717-1779; died, 
1784. 

NATHANIEL APPLETON, D.D., Fellow of 
Harvard, was born in Ipswich, Massachu- 
setts, December 9, 1693. He studied at Harvard, 
where he received his Master's degree in 171 2, and 
then studied theology. His ordination to the Min- 
istry took place October 9, 171 7, and he succeeded 
the Rev. William Brattle as Congregationalist min- 
ister in Cambridge. He was an able preacher and 
ranked among the foremost theologians of his day. 
For sixty-two years, 171 7-1 779, he was one of the 
Corporation of Harvard, and occupies an honorable 
place among the Fellows of that Institution. Some 
of Mr. Appleton's sermons were published prior to 
his death. He died in Cambridge, February 9, 
1784. 



UNIVERSITIES .INI) TIIEIR SONS 



'35 



BANCROFT, George, 1800-1891. 

Born in Worcester, Mass., 1800; educated at Phil- 
lips-Exeter Academy, and Harvard, from which he 
was graduated in 1817, and in Gerinany; was Tutor of 
Greek at Harvard in 1822; issued the first volume of 
his " History of the United States " in 18341 appointed 
Collector of the Port of Boston in 1838; nominated for 
Governor in 1844; entered President Polk's cabinet as 
Secretary of the Navy; founded the United States 
Military Academy at Annapolis; gave the order for 
the occupancy of California; was Secretary of War 
pro tem. for one month, and ordered the invasion of 
Texas by the United States troops; Minister to Great 
Britain, 1846-1849; Minister to Berlin, 1867-1874; ef- 
fected important treaties with Germany and Great 
Britain, according immigrants the right of expatria- 
tion; completed the last revision of his history in 
1883; published orations, translations, poems, etc.; 
died in i8gi. 

Gl'dRCM liAiN CROFT, LL.L)., D.C.L., 
I. .11. 1)., Tutor, and Overseer of Harvard, 
WIS born in Worcester, Massachusetts, October 3, 
iSoo, son of the Rev. Aaron Bancroft. He was 
fitted for Harvard at I'liillips-lvKeter Academy, and 
after graduating from the former (1817), he betook 
himself to (Germany, studying in the Universities of 
Ciiiltingen, Ueiiin and Heidelberg. While abroad 
he pursued courses under the most eminent Pro- 
fessors of the ilay in Ancient and Modern Lan- 
guages, history and philosopliy ; formed an acrpiaint- 
ance with such famous scholars as Humboliit and 
Goethe; antl received in 1S20 the degree of Doctor 
of Philoso|>hy from the University of Gottingen. 
Upon liis return to the United States in 1S22, he 
spent the succeeding year at Harvard as Tutor of 
Greek, and in 1823 he ])ul)lished a volume of 
poems. He was associated the next year with Dr. 
Joseph G. Cogswell in cst;iblishing the Rountl Hill 
School at Northampton, Massachusetts, and the 
following year he published a translation of Heercn's 
Politics of .\ncient Greece. In 1826, lie published 
an oration advocating universal suffrage and the 
foundation of the state on the power of the whole 
people. His next literary production was the first 
volume of his famous History of the United States, 
antl the completion of this masterpiece of historio- 
graphy which absorbed much of his time for up- 
wards of fifty years, constit\ited the chief literary 
labor of his life. Without being consulted Mr. 
Pancroft was nominated and elected a member of 
the Massachusetts Legislature, but absolutely rcfiised 
to serve, and the following year declined a nomi- 
nation to the State Senate. In 1S38 he was aj)- 
pointed Collector of the Port of Boston, by Presi- 
dent Van liureu, antl in 1S44 was the Democratic 



candidate for Governor, receiving a large vote, 
but not enough to elect. It was as Se(iet:iry of 
the N;ivy in President Polk's i ;ibinet th;it Mr. l'i;in- 
croft elTecled his most notable political achieve- 
ments, n;imely : the establishment of the Nav;il 
Ac;idemy ;it .\nnapolis ; the enkirgement of the 
scope and increase in the niunber of Professors at the 
W;isliington t )bservatory ; the sending of ;m order 
to the Comnunuler of the P;u'inc S(|uadron direct- 
ing him to occupy the territory of C;ili('oriiia in 
ca.se war should break out between the L'liited Stales 
and Mexico ; and as Secretary of War pro tem., an 




GEORGE BANCROFT 

office which he held for one month in addition to 
his duties in the Navy Department, he gave the 
order authorizing the inv;ision of Texas. .As Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary to Great Britain (1846-1849), 
he was successful in his efforts to secure a liberal 
modification of the English laws of navig;ition ;md 
allegiance. In 1867 he was chosen Minister to 
Prussia ; was a year later accredited to the North 
(;erm;in Confeileration, and in 1871 to the (;eini;in 
Kmpire. While residing* in ISerliu he succeeded 
in obtaining from Prussia a recognition of the rights 
of emigrants to transfer their allegiance to the 
I'nited States, which led to similar treaties with 
several of the German States, and these negotiations 
resulted in Lni;l;ind's abandonment of its claim of 



136 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



perpetual allegiance. Mr. Bancroft was recalled 
from the Berlin mission at his own request. The 
second volume of his history appeared in 1S38, the 
third in 1S40, and the work as a whole was com- 
pleted in 1883. Few American scholars have had 
such a wide recognition by educational, literary and 
scientific institutions both at home and abroad as 
did Mr. Bancroft. Besides the degrees of Master 
of Arts and Doctor of Laws, conferred by Harvard, 
1S17 and 1S43 respectively, that of Doctor of Laws 
was given hiin by Lhiion in 1841 ; that of Doctor 
of Historic Literature by Columbia 1S87 ; Doctor 
of Philosophy, Gottingen, 1S20 and (Honorary) 
Doctor of Philosophy, 1S70; Doctor of Civil Law, 
Oxford, 1849; and. Doctor of Jurisprudence, Bonn, 
1868. He was an honorary member of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, member of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, a fellow of the American 
Academy and President of the American Historical 
Association, member of the Academies of Science in 
Italy, Belgium, St. Petersburg and Berlin, as well as 
of several other German societies; correspondent of 
the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences of the 
Institute of France ; an honorary member of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries of London, and was a Knight of 
the Prussian Order of Merit. From 1S43 to 1S50 he 
was a member of the Board of Overseers of Harvard. 
Besides his history he has published a translation of 
Heeren's History of the Political System of Europe ; 
History of the Colonization of the United States ; 
The Necessity, the Reality and the Promise of the 
Human Race ; Proceedings of the First Assembly 
of Virginia, 16 19; Memorial Address on the life 
and character of Abraham Lincoln ; A Plea for the 
Constitution of the United States, Wounded in the 
House of its Guardians ; a biography of Jonathan 
Edwards contributed to the American Cyclopedia, 
and various other orations, articles, etc. The last 
address delivered by Mr. Bancroft was at the open- 
ing of the third meeting of the American Historical 
Association in Washington, April 27, 1886. For 
many years he spent his winters at the National 
Capital, and his summers at Newport. His death 
occurred in 1891. 



BALLOU, Hosea, 1796-1861. 

Born in Halifax, Vt., 1796; educated in his native 
town; prepared for the Universalist ministry; was 
Pastor of churches in Stafford and Roxbury, Conn. ; 
non-resident Professor at the Unitarian Divinity 
School, Meadville, Penn. ; became Pastor of a church 
at Medford, Mass. ; chosen first President of Tufts 



College, 1853; visited Europe in relation to that office; 
was Associate Editor of the Universalist Magazine; 
published and edited several meritorious works; died 
in Somerville, Mass., 1861. 

HOSEA BALLOU, 2d, S.T.D., Overseer of 
Harvard, was born in Halifa.x, Vermont, 
October 18, 1796. He was a grand-nephew of 
Rev. Hosea Ballou, one of tiie stalwart ]iioncers of 
Universalism in America. After comjileting his 
early education, which was acquired in his native 
town, he studied theology preparatory to entering 
the ministry, and his first call was to the LTniversa- 
list Church at Stafford, Connecticut, about the year 




HOSEA liALLOU 

1815, remaining there until 1821. His next Pas- 
torate was in Ro.xbury, where he continued his 
labors until June 1838, and about this time he held 
a non-resident Professorship at the Meadville 
(Pennsylvania) LInitarian Divinity School. While 
fulfilling a successful Pastorate in Medford, Massa- 
chusetts, he took an active part in promoting the 
establishment of Tufts College, of which he was 
chosen first President in 1853, and visited several 
European Colleges for the purpose of observing their 
form of government. Upon his return he began 
the discharge of his duties with energy and con- 
ducted the affairs of that institution in an eminently 
satisfactory manner until within a short time prior to 



UNiyERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



137 



Ills doath, wliiih occum'il in Somcrvillr, Massa- 
chusetts, May 27, iSdi. Dr. liallou was an Over- 
seer of Harvard for ten years beginning in 1843, 
and the honorary degrees of Master of Arts and 
Doctor of Divinity were conferretl n|)on him by 
that institution in 1S44 and 1.S45 respectively. 
He assisted in editing a nunil>er of denom- 
inational pubhcations, notably the Laiivcrsalist 
Magazine, in the Editorship of which he was asso- 
ciated with his uncle for many years. His published 
works are : The .-\niient History of Universalisni, 
1829, re-issued in 1842; and his edition of Sis- 
mondi's History of the Crusades appeared in 1833. 



ASHMUN, John Hooker, 1800-1833. 

Born in 1800; graduated at Harvard in 1818; first 
Royall Professor in the Harvard Law School ; died, 1833. 

JOHN HOOKER .\SHMUN, A.M., Royall Pro- 
fessor in the Harvard Law School, was born 
in lilandford, Massachusetts, July 3, iSoo, son of 
Senator Eli P. Ashniun. After his graduation from 
Harvard, which took place in 181 8, he assisted Judge 
Howe and Elijah J. Mills in founding a Law School 
in Northampton, Massachusetts. When the estab- 
lishment of the Harvard Law School was completed 
he was chosen its first Professor under the endow- 
ment of Isaac Royall in 1829, and occupied the 
chair until his death, which occurred .\pril i, 1833. 
Judge Story regarded him as a lawyer of unusual 
ability, and his funeral discourse was delivered by 
that eminent jurist. 



AUSTIN, James Trecothic, 1784-1870. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1784; graduated at Harvard, 
1802: served as Town Advocate, Representative to the 
General Court, County-Attorney and Attorney-Gen- 
eral ; Overseer of Harvard for twenty-seven years; 
died in Boston, 1870. 

JAMES TRECOTHIC AUSTIN, LL.D., Over- 
seer of Harvard, was born in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, January 7, 1784; sou of Jonathan L. 
.Austin. He was educated at Harvard, graduating 
with the Class of 1802, and applying himself to the 
study and practice of law, attained eminence in his 
profession. A patriotic oration which he delivered 
at Lexington, July 4, 1815, so firmly established his 
reputation as an orator that he was afterward in great 
demand as a public speaker, and some of his ora- 
tions were published. He was also the author of a 
Life of Elbridge Gerry, a daughter of whom he mar- 



ried in 1806. Mr. Austin was 'I'uwii A.lvocate in 
1809, member of the Legislature and Attorney for 
Suffolk county 181 2-1832 and Attorney-General of 
Massachusetts for the years 1S32-1843. Politically 
he was an .\nti-Eederalist, and firmly opposed the 
.Miolition piilicy. In addition to the tlegree of 
Master of .\rls rc<ei\ed at grailuatioii, that of Doc- 
tor of Laws was conferred upon him in 1838 by 
Harvard, of which he was an Overseer 1826-1853. 
He was a member of tlie Massachtisetts Historical 
Society and a fellow of the American Academy. 
Mr. .\ustin died in lioston. May 8, 1S70. 



ASHTON, Charles Hamilton, 1866- 

Born in Centre Cambridge, New York, 1866; gradu- 
ated at Union College, Schenectady, N. Y.; taught at 
Oakfield, N. Y., Tivoli, N. Y.. and at Mansfield, Penn. ; 
was two years at the Harvard Graduate School; ap- 
pointed Instructor of Mathematics at Harvard. 

IIARLI'IS HAMILTON ASIITON, Instructor 

in Mathematics at llar\ar(i, was born in 

New York, .Vugust 12, 1866. 



c 



Centre Cambridge, 




cH.AKLics II. ,\sinox 



His parents were John and Jennie (Lowrie) Ashton, 
while his ancestry traces itself back to a Scotch 
family that l,unle<l iu this country about 1760. I'ntil 
thirteen years of age he was educated in the district 



13 



8 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



school. After that, he spent three years at the 
Greenwich (New \ork) High School, and then in 
1SS7 giadnated at the Union College, Schenectady, 
New Vork. The years 1892-1.S94 were spent at 
the Harvard draduate Scliool. After lea\ ing I'nion 
College he had taught at Oakfield, New \'ork, for a 
year, at 'I'ivoli, New Vork, for a year, and at Mans- 
field, Pennsylvania, fur three years. In 1893 he 
received his aiipointnient at Harvard. Mr. Ashton 
married December 26, ICS94, Cora Hughes Phillijis, 
and has two chikhen : Madeline and Annette 
.Ashton. 



BABBITT, Frank Cole, 1867- 

Born in Bridgewater, Conn., 1867; graduated at 
Phillips-Andover Academy and at Harvard; taught in 
Connecticut and Boston; Instructor in Greek at 
Harvard. 

FR.VNK COLE RABBIIT, Ph.D,, Instructor in 
Greek at Harvard, is the son of Isaac and 
Sarah (Cole) Babbitt, and was born in Bridgewater, 
("onnecticut, June 4, 1867. After passing through 




FRANK COLE BABBIIT 



the public schools of Connecticut he graduated at 
Phillips-Andover .Academy in 1 8S5. In 1890, after 
a three years' course at Harvard, he received his 



of 1 )octor of Philosoiihy. l''or the next year he was a 
Fellow of the .American School of Classical Studies 
at .Athens. After leaving .Andover he taught in the 
public schools of Connecticut for a year and after 
graduating at Harvard he was a teacher in Miss 
Rideoute's school at lioston until his appointment 
as Fellow of the School at .Athens. In the autumn 
of 189S he was jjlaced in charge of the Department 
of Greek at Trinity College, Hartford. 



BACHI, Pietro, 1787-1853. 

Born in Sicily, 1787; educated at the University of 
Padua; fled to England on account of political com- 
plications, 1815; came to America, 1825; Instructor in 
Italian, Spanish and Portuguese at Harvard, 1826- 
1846; prepared some valuable text-books on those 
languages; died, 1853. 

PIKTRO BACHI, J.U.D., for twenty years 
Instructor of Modern Languages at Harvard, 
was born in Sicily in 1787. ICducated at the Uni- 
versity of Padua he adopted the law as a profession 
but owing to his connection with Murat's attempt to 
gain possession of the crown of the two Sicilies he 
was obliged in 1815 to take refuge in England. 
Coming to the United States ten years later, he was 
in 1826 called to Harvard as teacher of Italian, 
Spanish and Portuguese, remaining as such until 
1846. He ]")repared several grammars and phrase 
books and a book of fables for learning Italian ; and 
was also the author of A Comparative View of the 
Spanish and Portuguese Languages. Mr. Baclii 
received his degree of Master of .Arts from Harvard, 
and that of Doctor of Lhiiversal Jurisprudence from 
the Lfniversity of Palermo. He died in Boston 
August 22, 1853. 



BAKER, George Pierce, 1866- 

Born in Providence, R. I.. i856: graduated at Har- 
vard; Instructor at Harvard; Assistant Professor of 
English at Harvard; Instructor in English at Welles- 
ley ; author of the Principles of Argumentation ; Speci- 
mens of Argumentation and other works. 

GEORGE PIERCE BAKER, Assistant Pro- 
fessor of English at Harvard, is the son of 
(ieorge Pierce and Lucy Daily (Cady) Baker, and 
was born in Providence, Rhode Island, April 4, 
1 866. After receiving an education at the Mowry 
and Goflf School and at the High School in Provi- 



degree of Bachelor of Arts, in 1892 he received dence, he entered Harvard, where he graduated in 
the degree of Master of Arts, and in 1895 the degree 1S87. The next year he was appointed Instructor 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



39 



nt the College ami in rSf)5 was made Assistant Tnited States, was the first to ocriipy the Chair. 
Professor. While holding the Harvard appointment, Mr. lioylston's nephew. Ward Nicholas JJoyiston, 



he has serveti from 1X92 to 1895 as Instructor in 
English at Welleslev. A number of litc-rary works 
have come from his pen : Specimens of .Vrgumen- 
tation ; Princii)les of .Argumentation ; an edition of 






GEO. p. EAKKR 

Joiin I.yly's Endymion and an edition of Midsummer 
Night's Dream. He married, August 16, 1S93, 
Christina Hopkinson. He has had two children : 
John Hopkinson, born June 30, 1S94, and lulwin 
Osborne Baker, born Eebruary 21, 1896. 



BOYLSTON, Nicholas, 1716-1771. 

Born in Boston, Mass.. in 1716; founded the Boyls- 
ton Professorship at Harvard; died, 1771- 

NICIIOIAS BOYLSTON, one of the early 
Benefactors of Harvard, was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, in lyrG. He was a prosperous mer- 
chant and that he took more than a usual interest 
in the development of education, is amply attested 
by the fact that at his death, which occurred .August 
iS, i77r, he left a legacy of _j^i 500 for the purpose 
of establishing and maintaining a Professorship of 
Rhetoric and Oratory at Harvard. The P)oylston 
Professorship was ]Mit in operation June 12, 1S06, 
and John (Juincy .Adams, afterward I'resident of the 



also a benefactor of Harvard, was horn in Boston, 
Massachusetts, November 22, 1749. In 1773 he 
went to pAirope and while in London joineil the 
Loyalist Association organized there in 1779. He 
returned to Boston in 1800. TLs valuable collec- 
tion of medical and anatomical works, engravings, 
etc., were presented by him to Harvard in 1810, 
the whole forming what is known as the Boylston 
Library. He died in Roxbury, Massachusetts, 
January 7, 1S28. 



BENNETT, Edmund Hatch, 1824-1898. 

Born in Manchester, Vt , 1824 ; graduated from the 
University of Vermont, 1843 ; admitted to the Bar, 1847 ; 
settled in Taunton, Mass., 1848 ; Judge of Probate and 
Insolvency for Bristol county for twenty-five years ; 
Mayor of Taunton for three years ; Lecturer at the Har- 
vard Law School, 1870-1871 ; Lecturer at the Boston 
University Law School for twenty-five years; and its 
Dean from 1876 to 1897; died in Boston, Mass., 1898. 

EDMUND HATCH r.i:NNl': IT, LL.D., Lec- 
turer at the Harvard Law School, was born 
in Manchester, Vennunt, .April 6, 1S24. His par- 
ents were Milo Lyman and .Adeline ( Hatch ) 
Bennett, the former of whom was a graduate of Yale 
and for twenty-one years an .Associate Justice of the 
Vermont Supreme Court. Having fitted for College 
at the Burr and Burton Seminary, Manchester, and 
the Burlington Academy, lie entered the University 
of Vermont, from W'hich he was grailuated in 1S43. 
His law studies were pursued in his father's office 
and after his admission to the Ciiittenden County 
]!ar m 1847, he began the practice of liis profession 
in Boston, subsequently removing to Taunton, 
^L^ssachusetts, where he resided for thirty-six years. 
He was Judge of Probate and Insolvency for Bristol 
county from 1858 to 1883 in which year he resigned, 
;ind was the first I\Layor of Taunton, to which ofifice 
he w.as twice re-elected. From 1870 to 1S72 he 
was a Lecturer at the ll;ir\aril Law School, and in 
the latter year became a member of the first lecture 
force at the Boston University. He declined to 
serve as Dean when tin; departimiU was organized 
but accepted the position in 1876 and at the ter- 
mination of his services ( 1S97 ) his portrait was 
placed in the Law School Building. Judge Bennett 
was the editor of numerous legal reports and writ- 
ings amounting in all to over one hundred volumes, 
notable among which are : English Law ;nid I'.quity 
and Cushing's Massachusetts Reports ; Massachusetts 



I 40 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Digest; Brigbam on Infamy: liliickwcll on Tax 
Titles; Goddanl on IvisL-mt-nt ; ISenjaniin on Sales; 
Pomeroy's C'onstitntional Law; Imleiniaur's Princi- 
ples of Common Law; Fire Insnrance Cases; ami 
the entire legal writings of Ju'lge Story. Llis death 
occurred in lioston, January 2, T89S. He received 
from the LTniversity of Vermont the degree of 
Doctor of Laws in 1873. At Taunton, June 29, 




EDMUND H. BENNETT 

1853, he married Miss Sally, daughter of the late 
Samuel L. Crocker of that city. Two of his chil- 
dren are living: Samuel C, Dean of the Boston 
University Law School and Mary B., who is the wife 
of Dr. William M. Conant. 



BECK, Charles, 1798-1866. 

Born in Heidelberg, Germany, 1798 ; studied The- 
ology in Berlin and ZUbunzen; came to America in 
1824; taught at the Round Hill School, Northampton, 
Mass., and lA'as associated with others in establishing 
a school at Phillipstown, on the Hudson ; called to the 
Chair of Latin Language and Literature at Harvard, 
1832, and after his retirement in 1850, devoted his time 
to literature ; was a representative to the Legislature 
two years ; died in Cambridge, Mass., i856. 

CH.ARLES r.F.CK, LL.D., Professor of Latin 
Language and Literature at Harvard, was 
liorn in Heidelberg, Germany, .August 19, 1798. 



His studies were completed witli a tlieological course 
at Berlin and ZUbunzen after whicii he was for a 
time Tutor at the University of Basle, Switzerland. 
His republican sympathies comimimised liis liberty 
to such an extent as to necessitate his taking refuge 
in the Lhiited States in 1S24, and he suliseipiently 
engaged in educational work. He was connected 
with the Rountl Hill Scliool, Northani])ton, Massa- 
chusetts until 1830, when with two other teachers he 
established a school at Phillipstown on the Hudson, 
opposite West Point. He occupied the Chair of Latin 
Language and Literature at Harvard from 1832 to 
1850, at the expiration of whicli time he retired and 
the rest of his life was devoted to literature and the 
study of the classics. His degrees of Master of .Arts 
and Doctor of Philosophy were conferred upon him 
at Ziibunzen in 1823, and that of Doctor of Laws by 
Llarvard in 1865. He was Vice-President of the 
American Academy. His Manuscri|>ts of the Satyri- 
con of Petronius .\rbiter, Described and Collated, 
were issued by him in 1S63. Professor Beck repre- 
sented Cambridge in the Massachusetts I^egislature 
two years. He took an active interest in the educa- 
tion of the Freedmen, the Soldiers' Fund, and the 
Sanitary Commission. He died in Cambridge, 
M.arch 19, 1866. 



BIXBY, Harry Oliver, 1869- 

Born in Milford, N. H., 1869; graduated at the 
Nashua High School, i885, and at the Harvard Den- 
tal School, 1890 ; has been railroad station agent, 
telegrapher, private correspondence clerk ; practised 
Dentistry in Bath, Maine, and North Cambridge, 
Mass. ; Instructor in Mechanical Dentistry at the 
Harvard Dental School. 

HARRY OLIVER BLXBY, D.M.D., Instructor 
in Dentistry at Harvard, the son of Oliver 
H. and Sarah Elizabeth Bixby, was born in Milford, 
New Hampshire, February 12, 1S69, moving from 
there to Nashua, New Hampshire, 1S70, and from 
Nashua to Boston in 1889. He comes of a patriotic 
family, his great-great-grandfather having fought in 
the Revolutionary War as a Minuteman at Concord, 
and also in the^Var of 18 12. He had also a grand- 
father at Ticonderoga, and his father was in tlie Civil 
War, a Lieutenant in artillery. After receiving an 
education at the Nashua High School, he entered 
the Harvard Dental School, where he graduated in 
1S90. He tried various occupations, including that 
of railroad station agent, telegrapher and private 
correspondence clerk, before entering upon his 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



141 



chosen profession. Immediately after obtaining tlic I'.oston Inisincss men of his day. He was a Fellow 
decree of Doctor of Medical Dentistry he began of Harvard from 170;, to 1707, and its Treasurer 



practice in P>atli, Maine. Since 1891 he has practised 
in North Cambridge. Dr. ISixby is a Director of 




H. OLIVER BIXBY 

the Arlington Boat Club, President of the Inter Se 
Social Club, and one of the Managers of the Newtowne 
Club of North Cambridge. He is an ardent lover 
of all athletic sports, having competed with some 
considerable s\iccess in rowing, swimming over and 
under water, holding a record of one hundred and 
thirty-five feet under water, skating, figure skating 
especially, bicycle riding, bowling, also fencing and 
boxing. Since 1892 he has been connected with 
the Harvard Dental School as Instructor in 
Mechanical I )entistry. 



fri>in i6y_5 to 1 7 i .V He was the author iif : ICclipse 
of the Sim and Moon Observed in New i'.ngland, 
publishetl in the l'hilosoi)hieal Transactions lor 
1704; Lunar I'xlipse in New England, 1707; and 
a private letter in which he gives a vivid account of 
the witchcraft ilelusion of 1692, is jncserved in tlie 
Massachusetts Historical Collection. His death 
occurred in l!oston, May 18, 17 13. 



BAXTER, Gregory Paul, 1876- 

Born in Somerville, Mass.. 1876; graduated at Har- 
vard; Instructor in Chemistry at Harvard. 

GRf.GOUV PAIT, ISAX'll'.R, A.M., Instrurlor 
of Chemistry at Harvard, is the son of 
George Lewis and Ida Florence (I'aul) Daxter, and 
was born in Somerville, Massachusetts, March 3, 
1876. He is a direct desceiulant of tlregory liax- 
ter who came from England with Winthrop. After 
fitting for College in the Somerville High School, 
Mr. Baxter entered Harvard, where he graduated in 




BRATTLE, Thomas, 1657-1713. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1657; educated at Harvard, 
graduating in 1676; was a prosperous merchant; an 
interesting writer; Fellow and Treasurer of Harvard; 
died in Boston, Mass., 1713. 

THOMAS BRAdT'Ll-:, A.M., Fellow and 
Treasurer of Harvard, was born in Boston, 

^L^ssachusetts, September 5, 1657. Completing 1896. The next year he received the degree of 

his studies and taking his Master's degree at Har- Master of Arts. Meanwhile from 1895 to 1S97 he 

vard in 1676, lie turned his attention to mercantile had lieen .Assistant in Chemistry at Harvard, and in 

pursuits anil lueame one of the most iirominent the latter year was appointed Instructor. 



GRICGORV I'.MI. HAXll;U 



142 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



BEALE, Joseph Henry, Jr., 1861- 

Born in Dorchester, Mass., 1861 ; graduated at the 
Harvard Law School; taught at the St. Paul School, 
Concord, N. H.; practised Law in Boston; Lecturer 
at the Harvard Law School ; Assistant Professor and 
Professor. 

JOSEPH HENRY T5E.\I.E, Jr., A.M., Pro- 
fessor of Law .It Harvard, belongs to a family 
thu has long been settled in Anieriea. His parents 
were Joseph Henry and Frances E. ( Messenger ) 
Beale. Born in Dorchester, ( Boston ) Massachu- 
setts, October 12, 1861, Mr. Beale was educated at 




JOSEPH H. BEALE, JR 



the Chauncey Hall School, Boston, and at Harvard, 
graduating at the latter College in 1S82, studying 
at the Harvard Graduate School in 1SS3-1884 and 
then at the Harvard Law School, receiving the de- 
grees of Bachelor of Laws and Master of Arts at 
Harvard in 1887. For a year after graduating at 
Harvard he was a teacher at St. Paul School, Con- 
cord, New Hampshire. From 1887 to 1892 he 
practised law in Boston, serving also during the last 
two years mentioned as Lecturer at the Harvard 
Law School. In 1892 he was made Assistant Pro- 
fessor at the Law School, and in 1897 Professor. 
Professor Beale married, December 23, 1891, 
Elizabeth Chadwick Day, and has one child : Eliza- 
beth Chadwick Beale. 



BRATTLE, William, 1663-1717. 

Born in Boston, Mass., about 1663; graduated at 
Harvard 1680; was Tutor at that College, and sub- 
sequently Pastor of the Church in Cambridge; Fel- 
low and Treasurer of Harvard; author of a treatise on 
logic ; died, 1717. 

WILLIAM BRATTLE, D.D., Fellow and 
Treasurer of Harvard, was born in Boston 
about the year 1663. His name appears among 
the recipients of the degree of ^Laster of Arts 
from Harvard in 16S0, and he was employed as 
a Tutor in the College, but :ifterwards entered the 
Ministry and was installed as Pastor of the Church 
in Cambridge. He was a Fellow of Harvard for 
nearly thirty years, first from 1 685-1 700 ; again from 
1 703 to I 7 1 7, and was Treasurer from 1 7 1 3 to 1715 
succeeding his brother Tiiomas. Dr. Brattle died 
February 15, 1717, at the age of fifty-four years. 
The degree of Doctor of L)ivinity was conferred 
u[)on him by Harvard in 1692, and he was honored 
by a fellowship of the Royal Society of London. 
His treatise on Logic ; Compendium Logica Se- 
cundum Principia D. Renati Cartessi was for many 
years a standard College text-book. The Brattles 
occupied a position of prominence in Boston and 
Cambridge, both of which cities have streets named 
in their honor. 



BOCHER, Ferdinand, 1832- 

Born in New York, 1832 ; taught French at St. Louis, 
Mo. ; Instructor in French at Washington University; 
Instructor in French at Harvard; Professor of Modern 
Languages at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology; Professor of Modern Languages at Harvard; 
translator and editor of numerous books. 

FERDINAND BOCHER, A.M., Professor of 
Modern Languages at Harvard, was born in 
New York, August 29, 1832, but he comes of a 
French family, and passed all his childhood in 
France, his parents having returned to their native 
country the year after their son's birth. He has 
been connected with Harvard since 1861. Before 
that time he taught French for three years in St. 
Louis, and then in 1857-59 was Instructor in 
French at ^Vashington University. The latter year 
he went to Europe, where he remained for two 
years. Returning he became Instructor in French 
at Harvard. In 1 869-1 871 he was Professor of 
Modern Languages at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, receiving in the latter year his ap- 
pointment of Professor of Modern Languages at 



UNIVERSITIES JND THIilR SONS 



H3 



Harvard. Among hi 

are the traiislalicin and revision, witii additions, of 
several editions of Otto's French dranmiar, tlie 
pubhcation in 1S71 of A Progressive French Reader, 



more important pnbUcations practice of his profession. In this he was eminently 

successful, and turning his attention to politics, he 
gained immediate recognition by his party. This 
rising young lawyer early displayed ([uaiilies valuable 
in public life, and in his twenty-sixth year he was 
elected a Representative to tlie Legislature from 
New Bedford, and in 1S45 he was a member of 
the Senate of Massachusetts. In 1839 Governor 
Everett appointed him District Attorney for the 
Soutiiern District, and in 1S49 he was appointed 
Attorney-(;eneral of the State, an office which he 
filled by appointment and election until 185S, 
except during the year in which he occuitied 
the Chair of Chief Magistrate of the Common- 
wealth. During iiis service as Attorney-General 
he was called upon as prosecuting officer of the 
State to conduct some especially notable cases. 
The most historic perhaps, was the trial of Professor 
John W. Webster of Harvard for the murder of Dr. 
George Parkman in 1850. In 1853, Mr. Cliflbid 
was elected Governor of the State, being appointed 
Attorney-General again on the expiration of his 




FERDINAND BOCHER 



the eiliting of a College series of French plays pub- 
lished during the last ten years, besides frequent 
contributions to various literary publications. 



CLIFFORD, John Henry, 1809-1876. 

Born in Providence, R.I. i8og ; graduated, Brown, 
1827; Representative in Massachusetts Legislature, 
1835; Governor of Massachusetts, 1853; Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the State, 1849-58; President of State Senate, 
1862; President of the Boston & Providence R. R. 
Company, 1867; degree of LL.D., Brown 1849. Har- 
vard and Amherst, 1853; President of the Board of 
Overseers, Harvard, 1868-74 ; died 1876. 

JOHN HExXRY CLIFFORD, LL.D., member 
of the Board of Overseers of Harvard, and 
for a number of years President of that Board, was 
born in Providence, Rhode Island, January 16, 
1809. He entered Brown University at the early 

age of fourteen, graduating in the Class of T827. term as Executive. It was, therefore, with a ripe 
Soon after graduation he removed to the City of and imusiially varied experience of \mh\\c affairs 
New Bedford, Massachusetts, and upon his admission that Mr. Clifford resumed Legislative duties, accept- 
to the Bar in 1830, established himself there in the ing election to the State Senate, of which body 




144 



UNIFERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



he was chosen Presiilinj; officer in 1862. At the 
age of fifty-fight, iMr. CHfforil ceased tlie practice 
of law, the profession in which he had achieved 
a conspicuous success, to assume the Presidency of 
the Boston & Providence Railroad Company. In 
the direction of the affairs of this road, his great 
executive talent fuund profitable application. He 
did not return to political life but devoted his 
energies to large affairs of business and educa- 
tion. Fur many years he was a member of the 
Board of Overseers of Harvard, his first service 
being in 1853, when he was an cx-officii> member 
as Governor of the Commonwealth. In 1854 and 
again 1S65 he was elected by tlie Legislature, 
and in 1S68 and 1875 by the Alumni. From 1S68 
to 1874 he was President of the Board. He died 
at New Bedford, January 2, 1876. Governor 
Clifford married in 1832, Sarah Parker, daughter of 
William Howland Allen, of New Bedford. Governor 
Clifford received the degree of Doctor of Laws 
from Brown University in 1849. Harvard and 
Amherst conferred the same degree upon him in 
1853 when he held the office of Ciovernor of the 
Commonwealth. 



BOWEN, Francis, 1811-1890. 

Born in Charlestown, Mass., 181 1 ; graduate of Har- 
vard, 1833 ; Instructor in Intellectual Philosophy and 
Political Economy at the same Institution, 1835-1839 ; 
Editor and Proprietor of the North American Review ; 
delivered Lowell Institute Lectures in Boston; suc- 
ceeded Dr. Walker in the Alford Professorship at 
Harvard ; and " Emeritus " Professor at the time of 
his death, (1890). 

FR.\NCIS BOWEN, LL.D., Alford Professor at 
Harvard, was born in Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts, September 8, 181 1. He was graduated at 
Harvard in 1 833, two years later becoming Instructor 
in Natural Philosophy and Political Economy. 
While studying in Europe (i 839-1 841) he formed 
the acquaintance of sucli noted scholars as Sismondi 
and De Geramlo. Returning to Cambridge, he, in 
1843, took charge of the North American Review, 
as Editor and proprietor, and conducted that mag- 
azine for nearly eleven years. During the years 
1S48-1S49 he lectured before the Lowell Institute, 
Boston, on the application of Metaphysical and 
Ethical Science to the Evidences of Religion. On 
account of his having taken the unpopular side in 
the Review on the " Hungarian Question," the 
Board of Overseers of Harvard would not concur 



witli tlie Corporation in ajipointing him to the 
McLean Professorship of History in 1850. In the 
winter of that year he again lectured before the Lowell 
Institute on Political Economy, and in 1852 his 
subjects were the Origin and Development of the 
English and .American Constitutions. Upon the elec- 
tion of Dr. Walker to the Presidency of Harvard 
(1853), Mr. Bowen received almost unanimous con- 
firmation by the Overseers as Alford Professor of 
Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy and Civil Pol- 
ity, holding that Chair continuously until 1S88, 
when he became Professor " Emeritus." He was 




FRANCIS BOWEN 

also for some time the Professor of Mathematics 
and Natural Philosophy at Phillips- E.xeter .Academy. 
His subsequent Lowell Institute lectures were 
devoted to the Elnglish nietai)hysicians and phil- 
osophers from Bacon to Sir William Hamilton. 
Professor Bowen died in 1890. He was a fellow of 
the American Academy and a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society. His published works 
consist of: Virgil, with English notes; Critical 
Essays on the History and Present Condition of 
Speculative Philosophy; Lowell Lectures; an 
abridged edition of Dugald Stewart's Philosophy of 
the Human Mind ; Documents of the Constitution 
of England and .America, from Magna Charta to the 
Federal Constitution of 1789 ; the lives of Steuben, 



UNIFERSrriES AND THEIR SONS 



^AS 



Otis, and Benjamin Lincoln, in Sparks' American 
Biography ; Principles of Political lu:ononiy Applied 
to the Condition, Resources and Institutions of the 
American People ; a reviseil edition of Reeve's 
translation of l)e 'i'ociiueville's Democracy in 
America ; a Treatise on Logic ; American Political 
Economy, with remarks on the finances since the 
beginning of the Civil War; Modern Philosophy, 
from Descartes to Schopenhauer and Hartmann ; 
Gleanings from a Literary Life, 1S38-1880; and A 
Layman's Study of the Englisii Bible, considered in 
its Literary and Secular Aspect. 



BARTLETT, George Alonzo, 1844- 

Born in Vassalboro, Me., 1844; entered Bowdoin; 
served in the War of the Rebellion ; studied in Berlin 
and Bonn ; Instructor in German at Harvard ; Tutor 
in German; Assistant Professor; Associate Professor; 
Regent of the College. 

GEORGE ALONZO BARTLETT, A.M., 
Regent of Harvard, the son of Alonzo and 
Sally (Lincoln) Bartlett, was born in Vassalboro, 




GEORGE A. B.iRTLE'IT 

]\Liine, March 2, 1S44. He fitted at the Bangor 
(Maine) High School for the Sophomore Class of 
Bowdoin, but his collegiate training was immediately 
interrupted by an enlistment in the Army for the 
War of the Rebellion, in which service he remained 
VOL. II. — 10 



three years and three months. Lie completed his 
studies in the German Liiiversities of Berlin and 
Bonn, and from llarvarti in iiS93 received the hon- 
orary degree of Master of .Arts. In 1872 he was 
appointed Instructor in German at Harvard, was 
afterwards made Tutor, and in 1S76 was appointed 
Assistant Professor and in 1891 .Associate Professor 
of German. In the latter year he was also made 
Regent of the College. 



BRIGGS, Edward Cornelius, 1856- 

Born in Lawrence, Mass., 1856; graduated from Har- 
vard Dental School and Harvard Medical School; In- 
structor in Operative Dentistry at Harvard; Assistant 
Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics; Pro- 
fessor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics; President 
of the Harvard Dental Alumni Association ; President 
of the Harvard Odontological Society ; member of the 
American Medical Association; American Academy 
of Science and other organizations. 

EDWARD CORNELIUS BRIGGS, D.M.D., 
M.D., Professor of Materia Medica and 
Therapeutics at Harvard, comes of a distinguished 
ancestry. He is the son of Caleb Tucker and Emily 
Gray (Poor) Briggs, and was born in Lawrence, 
Massachusetts, September 6, 1S56. Paternally and 
maternally he inherits the blood of the two ancient 
colonies of Massachusetts, Boston and Plymouth. 
On his father's side he is descended from Walter 
Briggs, who settled in Scituate on or before 165 1 
and who was in 1676 a soldier of the Plymouth 
Colony in the King Philip \Var. On his mother's 
side he is descended from Daniel Poor and George 
Abbott, who were in 1644 among tlie first to settle 
in Andover, Massachusetts. Among the families of 
early Massachusetts he also traces lineal descent 
from Chandler, Abbott, Farnham, .Ames, Philips, 
.Adams, Appleton, Sprague, Sewell, Symonds, Long- 
fellow, Osgood and Prescott. The emigrants of the 
above-named families were in Massachusetts before 
1 640, many of them holding offices of honor and 
trust in the civil or military government of the col- 
onics. Dr. Briggs' great-grandfather, Caleb Abbott, 
was for seven years a soldier of the Revolution, 
marching at the Lexington alarm, fighting at Bunker 
Hill, Trenton, Princeton and Saratoga. lulward 
C. Briggs received his early education at the High 
School, Lawrence, Massachusetts, graduated from 
the Harvard Dental School in 1878, and from the 
Harvard Medical School in 18S0. From the latter 
year until 18S4 he was Instructor in Operative 
Dentistry at Harvard, and for the next twelve years 



146 



UNIFERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



was Assistant Professor of Materia Medica an<l 
Therapeutics, receiving in 1S96 his present appoint- 
ment. He has served also as President of the Har- 
vard Dental Alumni Association and of the Harvard 



'rrtWT-f 




EDWARD CORNELIUS BRIGGS 

Odontoiogical Society. He is a member of the 
American Medical Association, the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, the American Academy of Dental 
Science, the Society of Colonial Wars and the Sons 
of the American Revolution, as well as the Univer- 
sity and Puritan Clubs of Boston. He married on 
November 17, 1SS5, Lou Lord, and has two children : 
Templeton and Dorotliy Briggs. 



U. S. Marshal and Inspector of Revenues 1795; Adjt- 
Gen., 1812-15 ; Governor for eight years in succession ; 
Overseer of Harvard 1815-17; published orations, dis- 
courses, etc., died, 1825. 

JOHN BROOKS, M.D., LL.D., Overseer of 
Harvard, was born in Medford, Massachusetts, 
May 31, 1752. When fourteen years old he began 
the study of medicine with Dr. Simon Tufts, and 
was a fellow student of Benjamin Thompson, after- 
ward Count Rumford. At the age of twenty-one 
he engaged in practice at Reading, but the turbu- 
lent condition of colonial affairs just prior to the 
Revolution absorbed much of his time, and re- 
sponding to the general alarm, April T9, 1775, he 
marched to Lexington at the head of a company 
drilled by himself. Having received a Major's 
commission his next important military duty was 
to assist in erecting the fortifications on Breed's 
Hill, Charlestown, on the night of June sixteenth, 
and on the morning of the seventeenth was sent on 
foot by Colonel Prescott with an urgent despatch to 
General Ward, which prevented him from partici- 
pating in the famous battle of that day. .'\s Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the Eighth INLassachusetts, which 




BROOKS, John, 1752-1825. 

Born in Medford, Mass., 1752: studied medicine and 
located for practice in Reading, Mass.; drilled a com- 
pany of Minutemen with which he marched to Lexing- 
ton, April 19, 1775; commissioned Major, and assisted 
in fortifying Breed's Hill, June 16, 1775 ; appointed 
Lieut. -Col. of the Eighth Mass. Regiment, 1777, and 
went to the relief of Fort Stanwix ; captured the 
Hessian intrenchments at the Battle of Saratoga; 

promoted Colonel, 1778; assisted Baron Steuben in he was mainly instrumental in recruiting, he went 
establishing a system of military tactics; acted as ^^ ^^^ ^^jj^f ^f y^^^ g^^,^^^;^ ;„ ^ ^ ^^^ 

Adjt. -Gen. at the Battle of Monmouth ; was Maj. -Gen. 

of militia under the state government; member of the ^n ingenious stratagem suggested by hmi for dlS- 
convention that ratified the Federal Constitution 1788 ; persing the Indians proved successful. He com- 



JOHN BROOKS 



UNIVERSIl'IES JND rUEJR SONS 



HI 



manded his regiment nt the I'.attle of Saratoga and 
(listin,i;iiished himself by capturing the Hessian 
intrenchments. In 1778 he was promoted Colonel 
and in association with Baron Steuben formulated a 
system of military tactics. The duties of Adjutant- 
General were ably performed by him at the liattle 
of Monmouth, and he was loyal to (ieneral Washing- 
ton at the time of the Newburg conspiracy (17S3). 
Dr. Brooks resumed the practice of medicine in 
Medford after the War, but did not entirely 
withdraw from military affairs as he served as 
Major-C.encral of Militia for many years, and was 
Adjutant-Cleneral of the State from 181 2 to 1S15. 
His public services in a civil capacity correspond 
with his military record for ability and fliithfulness. 
He was chosen a delegate to the State Convention 
which ratified the Federal Constitution ; was elected 
Covcrnor in 1S16 and served continuously for eight 
years. For the years 1815-1S Governor ISrooks 
was an Overseer of Harvard which gave him the 
honorary degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of 
Laws. He published an oration delivered before 
the Society of the Cincinnati ; a discourse before 
the Humane Society ; a eulogy on Washington ; and 
a discourse on Pneumonia. He died March i, 1825, 
and by his will his library was given to the State 
^[edical Society, of which he was President from 
1S17 to the time of his death. 



BYLES, Mather, 1735-1814. 

Born in Boston, Mass , 1735 ; educated at Harvard, 
graduating in 1751 ; Librarian there, 1755-57 ; ordained 
a Congregational minister, but later became an Episco- 
palian ; Rector of Christ Church, Boston, prior to the 
American Revolution, and of Trinity Church, St. John, 
New Brunswick, from 1791 until his death, 1814. 

MATHER BVLES, D.D., Librarian of Har- 
vard, was born in Boston, ^Lassachusetts, 
January 12, 1735. His father was a distinguished 
Congregational clergyman of the same name, who 
was dismissed from the Pastorate of the Hollis Street 
Church, Boston, on account of his loyalty to the 
("rown. The younger Byles was graduated from 
Harvard in 1751, and after completing his theo- 
logical studies became Pastor of a Congregational 
Church in New London, Connecticut, but in 176S he 
espoused the Episcopal faith and accepting the 
charge of Christ Church, P.oston, continued its 
Rector mitil expelled from town witli his Tory asso- 



ciates. He was subsequently called to St. John, 
New Brunswick, and was the first Rector of Trinity 
Church, completed in 1791. He died there March 
12, iSi.}. Dr. ISyles was from 1755 to 1757 Libra- 
rian of Harvard, which gave him the degree of 
Master of .Xrts at graduation. 'I'he honorary degree 
of the same rank was conferreil upon him by Yale 
in 1757, and that of Doctor of Di\ inity by (J.xford 
in 1770. 



BOCHER, Maxime, 1867- 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1867; graduated at Har- 
vard; studied mathematics at Gbttingen; Instructor 
of Mathematics at Harvard; Assistant Professor. 



M 



WXIMI': BOCHl'.R, I'h.D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics at Harvard, was 
born in P>oston, ALassachusetts, .-Xugust 28, 1867. 
After receiving his degree of Bachelor of .\rts at 




M.^XIME BOCHER 

Harvard, in 18S8, he studied mathematics for three 
years at Gottingen, principally with Klein, holding 
travelling fellowships from Harvard during this time. 
At Gottingen he received the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy and immediately after was apjwinted 
Instructor of Mathematics at Harvard. In 1894 
he was appointed Assistant Professor in the same 
branch. 



148 

BROOKS, Neil Conwell, 1869- 

Born in Kansas City, Mo., 1869; educated at the 
University of Kansas ; studied the modern languages 
at the Universities of Berlin and Paris; Principal of 
the High School of Paola, Kan. ; student at the Gradu- 
ate School, Harvard ; Instructor in German at Harvard. 

NEIL CONWELL BROOKS, Ph.D., instructor 
in German at Harvanl, is descended pater- 
nally from the New England family of Brooks, which 
has lived for many generations at Concord, Massa- 
chusetts. Maternally he traces his descent from a 
Pennsylvania family of Quaker blood. He himself 
was born in Kansas City, Missouri, on Marcli 11, 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



German at the University of Illinois. He received 
in 1898 the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at 
Harvard. 




N. C. BROUKS 

1869, his parents being Charles N. and Annie 
(Updegraff) Brooks. After passing through the 
grammar and high schools of his native city, Mr. 
Brooks attended the LTniversity of Kansas, pursuing 
the old-fashioned classical course and not specializ- 
ing in his studies. In 1S90 he graduated and 
then spent a little over two years in travel and study 
abroad, taking work in the modern languages at the 
Universities of Berlin and Paris. In 1S93— 1895 he 
was Principal of the High School of Paola, Kansas. 
In the last named year he took up the study of 
Germanic Literature and Philology in the Graduate 
School of Harvard, where he subsequently received 
his appointment as Instructor in German. Mr. 
Brooks is now connected with the Department of 



BROOKS, Phillips, 1835-1893. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1835 ; graduated at Harvard 
1855, and from the Protestant Episcopal Theological 
Seminary, Alexandria, Va., 1859 ; Rector of the Church 
of the Advent, Phila., three years and of the Church ol 
the Holy Trinity, same city, for seven years; called to 
the Rectorship of Trinity Church, Boston, 1E69 ; 
preached in many of the prominent churches in Eng- 
land, acquiring fame as a pulpit orator abroad as well 
as at home ; Lecturer on Preaching at the Yale Divi- 
nity School, 1877; Overseer of Harvard, 1883-1889; 
Lecturer there i886-if9i ; elected Bishop of Massachu- 
setts, 1891 ; published numerous sermons, lectures, 
etc. ; died in Boston, Mass., 1893. 

PHILLIPS BROOKS, S.T.D., Protestant Epis- 
copal Bishop of Massachusetts, Lecturer at 
Harvard and Yale, and Overseer of the former for 
six years, was born in Boston, December 13, 1835. 
His parents were William Gray and Maiy .Ann 
(Phillips) Brooks, the former of whom was a 
Boston merchant and an active member of St. 
Paul's Church. Among his paternal ancestors was 
the Rev. John Cotton, a prominent New England 
Divine of the Colonial period, and his mother's 
family, the Phillipses, sprung from the Rev. Samuel 
Phillips, who came from England in 1630, and 
whose descendants were the founders of Phillips- 
.Andover Academy and the Andover Theological 
Seminary. Three other sons of William Gray 
Brooks became Episcopal Rectors besides Phillips, 
and it can therefore be truly said that the famous 
Boston preacher belonged to a race of clergymen. 
Leaving the Boston Latin School at the age of six- 
teen to enter Harvard he was graduated with the 
degree of Master of Arts in 1855, and for the suc- 
ceeding year acted as Usher at the Latin School. 
His Divinity studies were pursued at the Protestant 
Episcopal Seminary, Alexandria, Virginia, at the 
conclusion of which he was installed Rector of the 
Church of tlie Advent, Philadelphia, and officiated 
there from 1859 to 1S62. In the latter year he 
went to the Church of the Holy Trinity in the same 
city, remaining there until 1869 when he responded 
to a call to the Rectorship of Trinity Church, 
Boston, which he retained until elected to succeed 
Bishop Paddock in iSgi. As a preacher Phillips 
Brooks was eloquent, forcible and sincere, his ser- 
mons glowing with the highest sentiments of moral- 
ity and religion, and as Bishop of the large Diocese 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



149 



of Massachusetts, he displayed the energy and exe- 
cutive abiUty which results from a thorough knowl- 
edge of men and a broad conception of church 
government. His widespread renown as Pastor, 
preacher and theologian brought him frequent 
invitations to other fields of labor, all of which he 
declined as he did also the Plummer Professorship 
of Christian Morals at Harvard, and the position of 
Preacher to the same institution, fie did, however, 
consent to lecture at Vale in 1877, and at Harvard 
from 1886 to 1 89 1, and he was an Overseer of 
the latter University from 18S3 to 1SS9. Bishop 




tremely arduous, and although he possessed a 
splendid physique, he was unable to rally from an 
attack of diphtheria which caused his sudden and 
entirely unlooked-for death the twenty-third of Jan- 
uary, 1893, and his public funeral on the 26th is an 
event long to be remembered by the citizens of 
Boston. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was 
conferred upon Phillips Brooks by Harvard in 1879, 
by Columbia in 1887, by Union in 1S70, and by 
0.\ford in 1S85. He was a fellow of the Ameri- 
can Academy, and a member of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. His most notable publications 
are: The Life and Death of .Abraham Lincoln; 
Our Mercies of Reoccupation ; I'he Living Church ; 
Sermon Preached before the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery of Boston ; Address Delivered May 30, 
1873, at the Dedication of Andover Memorial 
Hall ; Lectures on Preaching at Yale College ; 
Sermons ; The Lifluence of Jesus ; the Bohlen 
Lecture Delivered in Philadelphia in 1879; Pul- 
l)it and Popular Scepticism; the Candle of llie 
Lord, and other Sermons; Sermons Preached in 
English Churches ; Twenty Sermons ; and Tolerance, 
two lectures to Divinity Students. 



PHILLIPS BROOKS 

Brooks' liberality of thought and Low Church 
doctrines enabled him to affiliate congenially with 
clergymen of all denominations. His sermons in 
England, where his preaching was as highly appre- 
ciated as in the United States, were delivered in 
many of tlie famous old churches, and at the special 
invitation of Dean Stanley, he delivered a sermon 
before Queen Victoria at the Royal Chapel, and 
also preached at Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's 
Cathedral, London. Of all the honors extended to 
him while abroad, perhaps the most pleasurable to 
him was the privilege of officiating at old St. Botolph 
Church, I'.oston, in Lincolnshire, where his ancestor 
the Rev. John ("otton had preached two and a half 
centuries jirevious. His diocesan diuies were ex- 



CASTLE, William Ernest," 1867- 

Born in Alexandria, O., 1867; graduated at Denison 
University, O. ; taught school ; graduated at Harvard; 
Professor of Latin at Ottawa University; Instructor 
in Vertebrate Anatomy in the University of Wiscon- 
sin ; Instructor in Biology at Knox College, 111.; 
Instructor in Anatomy and Embryology at Harvard ; 
member of the American Society of Naturalists ; mem- 
ber of the American Morphological Society. 

WILLIAM ERNi:ST CASTLE, Ph.D., In- 
structor in Anatomy and Embryology at 
Harvard, is the son of William Augustus and .Sarah 
(Fassett) Castle, and was born in Alexandria, Ohio, 
October 25, 1867. The Castles came to New 
ICngland from England. The grandfither of W. 
K. Casde was Augustus Castle, a soldier in the 
War of 181 2, who afterwards, in 1828, emigrated 
from Underhili, Vermont, to central Ohio. The 
Fassetts are said to be of Scotch origin. Dr. Harry 
Fassett the maternal grandfather of Mr. Castle was 
for many years a physician of Johnstown, Ohio, to 
which place he had emigrated from Vermont. Dr. 
Fassett was a descendant of Colonel John Fnssrlt, 
an officer of the Revolutionary .-Vrmy and prominent 
among the founders of the state of \'ermont. .\fler 
William E. Casde had attended the C.ranville 
(Ohio) Aca(lei\iy, he entered Denison University, 



15° 



UNIVERSITIES ANT) "THEIR SONS 



Ohio, in 1SS9 receiving tiie degree of Bachelor of 
Arts. For the next three years he taught school, 
but gave up that occupation to study at Harvard, 
with the purpose of teaching the natural sciences. 




\VM. E. CASTF.E 

At Harvard he receiveil the degrees of Bachelor of 
Arts in 1893, Master of Arts in 1894 and Doctor 
of Philosophy in 1S95. In the years 1889-1892 he 
was Professor of Latin in Ottawa University, in 
1895-1896 was Instructor in Vertebrate Anatomy 
in the University of Wisconsin, in 1 896-1 897 was 
Instructor in Biology at Knox College, Galesburg, 
Illinois, and in 1897 received his present appoint- 
ment at Harvard. Two brothers and a sister are 
also teachers, one being Professor of Greek in the 
University of Chicago, another Professor of History 
in the Teachers' College, Columbia, while the sister 
is an Instructor in Latin in the Shepardson College 
for Women. Mr. Castle is a member of the 
American Society of Naturalists and a member of 
the American Morphological Society. He married 
August 19, 1896, Clara Sears Bosworth and has one 
son : William Bosworth Castle. 



Cornell ; Assistant Professor of Mathematics at Har- 
vard ; Professor of Mathematics at Harvard. 

W1L1J.\M ELWOOI) BYERLY, Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics at Harvard, has 
for many years been prominent as a teacher in his 
chosen branch. He is the son of P.hvood and 
Rebecca Potts (Wayne) Byerly, and was born in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 13, 1849. 
At Harvard he received the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts in 187 1 and the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 
in 1873. Immediately after the latter date he be- 
came Assistant Professor of Matliematics at Cornell, 
but returned to Harvard in 1876 to accept the 
Assistant Professorship of Mathematics at that Uni- 
versity. In 1881 he was made a full Professor. 
He has published text-books on Differential Calculus 
and Integral Calculus, and a treatise on Fourier's 
Series and Spherical Harmonics. He married, 




W. E. EVERLY 

May 28, 1S85, Alice \\'orcester Parsons, 

two children : Robert AVayne and Francis 
Byerly. 



and has 
Parkman 



BYERLY, William Elwood, 1849- 

Born in Philadelphia, Penn., 1849: graduated at 
Harvard ; Assistant Professor of Mathematics at 



CHANNING, Edward, 1856- 

Born in Dorchester, Mass.. 1856; graduated at Har- 
vard; studied in Europe; Instructor in History at 
Harvard; Assistant Professor; Professor; member of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society; member of the 



UNU'ERSiriES ylND ri/KJR SONS 



^i 



American Antiquarian Society; member of the Mili- 
tary Historical Society of Massachusetts; author of 
numerous books. 

EDWARD CHANNINO, PIi.D., Profossnr of 
History at Harvard, is the sou of \\illiaiii 
Ellery and Ellen Kilshaw (Fuller) Channing, and 
was born in Dorchester, (Boston) Massachusetts, 
Tune 15, 1S56. His father was the son of Dr. 
Walter CUianniug and Barbara Perkins Channing 
and the grandson of William Channing and Lucy 
Ellery Channing, the latter being the daughter of 
William Ellery and Martha Remington Ellery. 
Professor Channing's mother was the daughter of 





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EDWARD CHANNING 

■Pimothy Fuller and sister of IMargaret Fuller. 
After receiving an education in the private schools 
of Boston, the young man entered Harvard and there 
graduated in 187S. Two years later he received 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the same 
University, and then spent some time in travel and 
study in Europe. In the year 1884 he was ap- 
pointed Instructor in History at his Alma Mater, 
three years later was made Assistant Professor in 
History and in 1897 was promoted to the Professor- 
ship. He is prominent as a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society of Massachusetts. Among 
the books that have come from his pen are : Town 
and County Government in Johns Hopkins studies; 
[with T. W. Higginson] ; English History for .\meri- 



rans ; The P'nited .States of .\mcrica 1765-1SO5 in 
the C'ambridge Historical Series; [with .\. B. Hart] 
Cuide to the Study of .\meriian History; .\ Student's 
History of the United States. Professor Channing 
married in 1SS6 Alice 'Phaclicr, and has two chil- 
dren ; Alice and I'Lli/.abcth Torrey Channing. 



CLARKE, James Freeman, 1810-1888. 

Born in Hanover, N. H., 1810; graduated from Har- 
vard, 1829, and from the Cambridge Divinity School, 
1833; Pastor of the Unitarian Church in Louisville, 
Ky., till 1840 and Editor of the Western Messenger 
of that city, 1836-1839; founded the Church of the 
Disciples, Boston, and was its Pastor, 1841-1886; 
prominent in religious, educational and reform move- 
ments; Professor at Harvard, 1867-1871 and Lecturer, 
1876-1877; Overseer, 1863-1866, and again, 1873-1888. 
Died in 1888. 

JAMES FREEMAN CLARKE, S.T.D., Professor 
and Overseer of Harvard, was born in Han- 
over, New Hampshire, April 4, 18 10. He was 
closely related to prominent patriots of both wars 
with Great liritain, being a grandson of (jencral 
William Hull, who served with distinction in the 
Revolutionary War, and Commodore Isaac Hull, 
the nav;il hero of the War of 1812, was his cousin. 
He was fitted at the Boston Latin School for Har- 
vard, from which he was graduated witli tlie Class 
of 1829, and after completing his theological studies 
at the Cambridge Divinity School (1833), he almost 
immediately accepted a call to the L'nitarian Church 
in Louisville, Kentucky, where he remained until 
1S40, and from 1836 to 1839 he edited the Western 
Messenger. Returning to Boston, he founded the 
Church of the Disciples, in which he introduced an 
original form of worship, and of which all seats were 
free. F'or forty-five years Dr. Clarke occupied the 
pulpit of that Church, preaching almost continu- 
ously from 1 84 1 to 1886, and invariably to large 
and intelligent congregations. He held the Ch;ur 
of Natural Religion and Christian Doctrine at 
Harvard, from 1867 to 1871, and in 1876 and 1877 
w.as Lecturer on Ethnical Religion. From 186310 
1866 he was an Overseer of Harvard and again from 
1873 ""''1 '"S ileatli, which occurred in 18S8. 
During his long period of activity as a Christian 
worker he was identified with all movements for re- 
form, was a niember of the Massachusetts .State 
Board of Education, and a Trustee of the Boston 
Public Library. Dr. Clarke received his degree of 
Doctor of Divinity from Harvard in 1863. He was 
a member of the .\merican Philosophical Society, 



152 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



the Massachusetts Historical Society and a fellow 
of the American Academy. His published works, 
which are numerous, are as follows : Theodore, 
or the Sceptic's Conversion, translated from the 
German of DeWette ; History of the Campaign 
of 1S12, and Defence of Ceneral William Hull for 
the Surrender of Detroit ; Eleven Weeks in Europe ; 
Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness of Sin ; Christian 
Doctrine of Prayer ; Karl Hase, Life of Jesus, trans- 
lated from the German ; Service Book ; Disciples' 
Hymn Book ; Orthodoxy, its Truths and P2rrors ; 
The Hour which Cometh, sermons ; Steps of Belief, 



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JAMES FREEAL-iN CLARKE 

or Rational Christianity Maintained against Atheism, 
Free Religion, and Romanism ; Ten Great Relig- 
ions, an essay in Comparative Theology ; Go up 
Higher, or Religion in Common Life ; Sermons ; 
Common Sense in Religion, essays ; Exotics, At- 
tempts to Domesticate Them ; Translations in verse ; 
Essentials and Non-Essentials in Religion ; How to 
find the Stars, an account of the astronomical lan- 
tern invented and patented by him, and its use ; 
Memorial and Biographical Sketches ; Events and 
Epochs in Religious History ; Legend of Thomas 
Didymous, the Jewish Sceptic ; Self-Culture ; The 
Ideas of the Apostle Paul ; Anti- Slavery Days ; 
Manual of Unitarian Belief; Every- Day Religion; 
and Vexed Questions. 



COLMAN, Benjamin, 1673-1747. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1673; graduated at Harvard, 
1692 ; became a non-conformist preacher and was Pastor 
of thie Brattle Street Church, Boston, for forty-eight 
years; was interested in missionary work among the 
Indians; a benefactor of Harvard and Yale and a 
Fellow of the former; died, 1747. 

BENJAiNHN COLMAN, S.T.D., Fellow and 
Benefactor of Harvard and also an early 
contributor to Yale, was born in Boston, October 
19, 1673. He became a preacher soon after his 
graduation from Harvard (1692), and sailing for 
England in July 1695, his arrival there was delayed 
by a French privateer, who held him a captive for 
some time. In l^ngland he met some of the emi- 
nent nonconformist clergymen of that period, 
preached in a number of churches, and was ordained 
in London as Pastor of the newly established Brattle 
Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts. Commencing 
his pastoral duties on his return in 1699, he contin- 
ued to labor with that society until his death, which 
occurred August 29, 1747, and although some of 
his acts relative to public affairs were censured, he 
ranked foremost among the New England clergymen 
of his day. Dr. Colman took an active interest in 
missionary work among the Hoosalonic Indians, 
and in other benevolent matters, was particularly 
concerned in the advancement of education, and 
his efforts in procuring pecuniary support for Har- 
vard and Vale proved extremely beneficial to both. 
From 1717 to 1728 he was a Fellow of Harvard 
and in 1724 was solicited to become its President, 
but declined. In 1731 he received the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity from the University of Glasgow. 
His published writings consist of sermons, poems 
and a tract favoring vaccination for small-pox, and 
a volume entitled Life and Character of Colman, 
written by his son-in-law, the Rev. Ebenezer Turell, 
was published in Boston in 1749. 



CESTRE, Charles, 1871- 

Born in Tonneree, France, 1871 ; studied at the Col- 
lege d'Auxerre and at the University of Paris ; Fellow 
of the University of Paris ; studied at the Harvard 
Graduate School; English Tutor at the College Sainte- 
Barbe ; Instructor in French at Harvard. 

CHARLES CESTRE, A.M., Instructor in 
French at Harvard, is the son of Louis and 
Ambroisine (Gallois) Cestre, and was born in 
Tonneree, France, May 9, 1S71. After receiving 
his early education at the CoUt^ge d'.\uxerre, France, 



UNIVERSHIF.S JND i'/fFJR SONS 



53 



he stmlicil in 1890-95 ;U the University of I'aris. 
Mr. Cestrc became a Fellow of ihc University of 
Paris, and a student at the Harvard Graduate Scliool 




CHARLES CESTRE 



in 1S96. The next year at Harvard he received the 
degree of Master of Arts. He was formerly teacher 
of English at the College Sainte-barbe, Paris. 



(lied there December 23, 1652. His son, John, 
win) was graduated at Harvard in 1657, was called 
to the Pastorate of the churcli in Plymouth, where 
he officiated for a period of thirty years, and having 
become tiioroughly conversant with the aboriginal 
tongue, in wliich he sometimes preached to the 
Indians, he revised John Eliot's Indian Bible. In 
his later years he responded to a call to preach in 
Charleston, South Carolina, and died there Septem- 
ber 18, 1699. He was a l-'ellow of Harvard from 
1 68 1 to 1690, and actively interested in the welfare 
of the College. His son, Josiah, who was gradu- 
ated from Harvard in 1698, and became a mission- 
ary among the Indians, was Clerk of the I'lymouth 
County Court, and the author of a vocabulary of the 
Indian tongue. 



COTTON, John, 1640-1699. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1640; graduated at Harvard, 
1657; settled minister at Plymouth, Mass., for thirty 
years; became familiar with the Indian tongue and 
corrected Eliot's Indian Bible : Fellow of Harvard, 
1681-1690; called to preach in Charleston, S. C, and 
died there, i6gg. 

JOHN COTTON, .\.M., an early graduate of 
Harvard and a member of the Corporation, 
was born in Boston, Massachusetts, March 13, 1640. 
His f;ither was a prominent New England clergy- 
man and teacher of the same name who prior to his 
arrival in .America was Rector of the Established 
Church at Boston, in Lincolnshire, and was an 
ancestor of the late Bishop Brooks. The first John 
Cotton, who was distinguished for his learning and 
strict piety, was obliged to take refuge in Boston, in 
New England, for refusing to conform to some of 
the ceremonies of the Established Church, and he 



CHILD, Francis James, 1825-1896. 

Born in Boston, Mass , 1825; graduated at Harvard, 
1846; became Tutor there in Mathematics, and later 
in Rhetoric and History; studied abroad two years; 
appointed Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory, 1851 ; 
became Professor of English Literature, 1876; is espe- 
cially noted as a close student of early English litera- 
ture, and has published collections of poems and 
ballads. Died at Cambridge, 1896. 

FRANCIS JAMES CHILD, LL.D., I..H.D., 
Professor of English Literature at Harvard, 
was born in Boston, Massachusetts, February i, 
1825. He was graduated from Harvard with the 
Class of 1846, subsequently becoming 'Tutor of 
Mathematics and still later in Rhetoric and History. 
The years 1 849-1850 were devoted to study in Eu- 
rope, and returning to Harward he was in 1851, 
chosen to succeed Professor E. T. Channing in the 
Boylston Professorship of Rhetoric and Oratory. In 
1876, he relinquished this chair for that of F'.nglish 
Literature, in which he ranks among the foremost 
instructors in this country, and both the student and 
the reading public ha\-c profited much by his careful 
study of the early English writers. An American 
edition of the l!ritish poets was issued under his su- 
pervision in Boston (1857-1858) and he personally 
edited for it the works of Spenser, and the collection 
of English and Scotch ballads, besides furnishing 
notes and biographical sketches for other volumes of 
the series. 'The text of Chaucer was made a special 
study by him with a view of issuing a new edition. 
He has also published Four Old Plays ; Poems of 
Sorrow and C'omfort ; and Obser\'ations on the 
Language of Chaucer and Cower prepared for the 
first part of I'.Uis' I^arly I'^nglish Pronunciation. 



'54 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Professor Child received the degree of Doctor of was elected a delegate to the first Continental Con- 
Philosophy from the University of Cottingen in 1S54, grcss and in 1775 lie was returned to the second, 
that of Doctor of Laws from Harvard in 1884, and When Massachusetts formed a new government in 
that of Doctor of Historical Literature was con- July 1775, he was chosen a member of the Council, 
ferred by Colimibia in 1SS7. He was a fellow of In consequence of his opposing a Declaration of 

Independence in the Continental Congress, he was 
defeated by Elbridge Gerry for re-election in 1776, 
receiving not a single vote. In 1783 he was elected 
Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts, in which 
office he servL-d for several years. He was also a 
member of the Convention that in 17S8 ratified the 
Federal Constitution. Mr. Gushing was a Fellow 
of the Harvard Corporation in 17S6-17S8, and was 
^ also a fellow of the .\merican Academy. He 

received the honorary degree of Master of Arts 
from Yale in 1750, and that of Doctor of Laws from 
Harvard in 17S5. He died in Boston in 17SS. 




FRANCIS J. CHILD 

the American Academy, and was a welcome visitor 
at many of the foremost literary gatherings of his 
day. Professor Child died at Cambridge, September 
1 1, 1S96. 



GUSHING, Thomas, 1725-1788. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1725; graduated at Harvard, 
1744; Speaker of Massachusetts Assembly, 1766-1774; 
member of Continental Congress, 1774-1775; member 
of the Council, 1775; Lieutenant-Governor of Mass., 
1783- ; member of the Convention to ratify the Federal 
Constitution, 1788: Fellow of Harvard, 1786-1788; 
fellow of the American Academy; died in Boston, 



THOMAS GUSHING, LL.D., Fellow of Har- 
vard, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 
1725, and was graduated at Harvard in 1744. He 
early became prominent among the leaders who 
were preparing the way for the Revolution, and in 
1 766 was elected to the .'\ssembly of Massachusetts, 
of which body he was chosen Speaker and presided 
in that capacity until 1774. In the latter year he 



COOKE, Josiah Parsons, 1827-1894. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1827; graduated at Harvard, 
1848; Tutor in Mathematics the succeeding year and 
later Instructor in Chemistry ; Erving Professor of 
Chemistry and Mineralogy and Director of the Chemi- 
cal Laboratory at Harvard; spent much time in the 
pursuit of scientific research ; and was closely identified 
with Harvard from graduation until his death (1894). 

JOSIAH PARSONS COOKE, LL.D., Professor 
of Chemistry at Harvard, son of Josiah Parsons 
and Mary (Pratt) Cooke, was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, October 12, 1827. Preparing for 
Harvard at the Boston Latin School he was, imme- 
diately after graduation from the former institution 
(1848), appointed Tutor in Mathematics, and still 
later became Instructor in Chemistry. He was 
advanced to the Erving Professorship of Chemistry 
and INIineralogy in 1850 and subsequently instituted 
measures for the development of the hitherto limited 
course in that department which he ultimately 
brought to a high standard of perfection, and 
through his untiring efforts the course itself and the 
facilities for practical investigation were made to 
compare favorably with if not to excel in complete- 
ness any similar department in America. Professor 
Cooke originated the idea of bringing laboratory 
instruction within the reach of undergraduates, and 
was mainly instrumental in creating a popular inter- 
est in experimental science both in the Colleges and 
preparatory schools. He was not only a close stu- 
dent of scientific research, but was an able, lucid and 
extremely conscientious instructor, and his lectures 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



^55 



and practical demonstrations never failed to absorb 
the interest of his classes. Besides his five courses 
before the Lowell Institute, Boston, his popular 
lectures upon scicnlific subjects were delivered 
in Baltimore, Brooklyn, Washington and other 
cities invariably to large and interested audi- 
ences. .\s an investigator his work in defining the 
atomic weight of antimony, the results of which were 
aWen to the world in 1880, caused him to be 
recognized both in .'Xmerica and Europe as one of 
the foremost scientists of his day. His position as 
Director of the Har\'ard Chemical Laboratory 




JOSI-iVH p. COOKE 

necessarily demanded of him much literary work, a 
great deal of which was contributed to the Ameri- 
can Journal of Science and in the Proceedings of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and 
at one time he was connected editorially with both 
of these journals. From Cambridge (England) 
University he received the honorary degree of Doc- 
tor of Laws in 1882 and the same from Harvard in 
1889. He was President of the American Academy, 
a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and 
was one of two American scientists to be elected an 
honorary fellow of the London ('hemical Society. 
Professor Cooke died in 1894. Besides his new 
Chemistry which has been translated into several 
EurtipL'un languages, he was the author of Cliemical 



Problems and Reactions ; Elements of Chemical 
Physics ; First Principles of Chemical Philosophy ; 
Fundamental Princii)les of Chemistry; Religion 
and Chemistry and Scientific Culture and other 
Essays. Professor Cooke married Mary Hinckley, 
daughter of Elisha and Hannah (Hinckley) Hun- 
tington, of Lowell, Massaclmselts, February 6, i860. 



CUMMINGS, Edward, 1861- 

Born in Colebrook, N. H., 1861 ; graduated at Har- 
vard; Instructor in English at Harvard; appointed to 
the Robert Treat Paine Fellowship in Social Science ; 
studied Sociological questions in Europe ; Instructor 
in Sociology at Harvard; Assistant Professor; Asso- 
ciate Editor of The Quarterly Journal of Economics ; 
member of the Council of American Economic Asso- 
ciation; Director of the Massachusetts Prison Asso- 
ciation; Director of the Boston Associated Charities; 
member of the American Statistical Association and 
other organizations. 

EDWARD CUMMINGS, A.M., Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Sociology at Harvard, is the son of 
Ivlward Norris and Lucretia Frances (Merrill) 
Cummings, and was born in Colebrook, New Hamp- 
shire, April 20, i86t. The Cummings family, 
originally of Scottish origin, settled in Massachu- 
setts about the middle of the seventeenth century. 
The Merrill fixmily, of English origin, came to this 
country about the same time. Up to the age of 
twelve Mr. Cummings was educated in the private 
and public schools of New Hampshire. After that 
he attended the public schools of Woburn, Massa- 
chusetts, and fitted for College in the High School 
of that city. He graduated at Harvard in 18S3, 
but continued with graduate work at the University 
until the spring of 188S, ser\-ing as Instructor in 
English during the latter part of this period, and 
receiving the degree of Master of .Arts in 1885. In 
the spring of 1888 he resigned his position as In- 
structor to accept an appointment to the Robert 
Treat Paine Fellowship in Social Science. This was 
the first Fellowship in Social Science at Harvard, 
and his appointment was the first to that I'ellow- 
ship. During the following winter he was a resident 
uf the University Settlement at Toynbee Hall, 
Whitechapel, London. For three years he con- 
tinued sociological study in Europe as incumbent of 
the Paine Fellowship, spending a year in England 
and Scotland and two years in France, Italy and 
Germany. In 1 891 he returned to .America and was 
appointed Instructor in Sociology at Harvard. Two 



156 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



years later he became Assistant I'rofessor. Professor 
Cuinmings is Associate Editor of The Quarterly 
[ouriial of Economics and a contributor to the Hter- 
ature of social and economic discussion. He is a 




George Lamb and Emma Augusta (Clarke) Cooke, 
was born in Milford, Massacliusetts, March 15, 1859. 
He traces his descent back to Major Aaron Cooke, 
1610-1690, Captain Aaron Cooke, 1640-1716, 
Lieutenant Westwood Cooke, 1670-17 74, Ensign 
Noah Cooke, 1 694-1 760, Lieutenant Noah Cooke, 
2d, 1730-1796, Ensign Timothy Cooke, 1756- 
182 1, Ruben Cooke, 1 795-1 846 and George L,. 
Cooke, 1823. William Parker Cooke's early educa- 
tion was obtained in the common and high schools 
in Milford. In 1S81 he graduated at the Harvard 
Dental School, having previously studied in his pro- 
fession (while attending the high school) at the 
office of his father, George L. Cooke, D.D.S., which 
experience was a valuable one for him. Since his 
graduation he has been in continuous practice in 
Boston. He was Instructor in Operative Dentistry, 
1 887-1 890, Clinical Lecturer in Operative Dentis- 
try, 1 890-1 892, Instructor in Crown and Bridge 
Work, 1892-1895, and Instructor in Crown and 
Bridge Work and in Metallurgy, 1895 in the 
Harvard Dental .School. Dr. Cooke is a member 
of the Harvard Odontological Society and of the 



EDWARD CUMMINGS 

member of the Council of the American Economic 
Association, a Director of the Massachusetts Prison 
Association, a Director of the Boston Associated 
Charities, and a member of the Executive Commit- 
tee of the Massachusetts Reform Club, Secretary of 
the Advisory Committee appointed by the Mayor 
of Boston in 1899 to inquire into the penal aspects 
of drunkenness, besides holding membership in the 
American Statistical .'Association, the Twentieth Cen- 
tury Club, and the Round Table Club. He married 
June 25, 1891, Rebecca Haswell Clarke, and has 
one son : Edward Estlin Cumminsfs. 



COOKE, William Parker, 1859- 

Born in Milford, Mass., 1859; graduated from the 
Harvard Dental School; practised dentistry in Boston ; 
Instructor in the Harvard Dental School; member of 
the Harvard Odontological Society; member of the 
American Academy of Dental Science. 

WILLIAM PARKER COOKE, D.M.D., In- 
structor in Crown and Bridge Work and in 
Metallurgy in the Harvard Dental School, the son of 




WILLIAM p. COOKE 



American Academy of Dental Science. lie married 
November 10, 1892, Caroline Lucia Wicks, and 
has two children : John Wicks and Richard Clarke 
Cooke. 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



157 



COOLIDGE, Archibald Gary, 1866- 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1866; graduated at Harvard; 
studied in Berlin, Paris, Baden; diplomatic service at 
St. Petersburg, Paris and Vienna; Instructor in 
History at Harvard ; member of the American Histori 
cal Society, and of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. 

ARCHIBALD C.\RY C00I,ID(;K, Pli.l)., 
Instructor in History nt Harv;tnl, is the son 
of Joseph R:in(lolph (great-grandson of Tliomas 
Jefferson) and Julia (Gardner) Cooliilge, and was 
born in Boston, Massachusetts, March 6, 1S66. He 
graduated at Harvard in 1887, and then stuilied at 



is a mcnd)er of the American Historical Society, the 
Massacltusetts ilistoric;d Society and the Somerset 
Club. 




DAWES, Thomas, 1757-1825. 

Born in Boston, Mass, 1757; graduated at Harvard, 
1777; member of the Constitutional Conventions of 
1780, 1789 and 1820; Judge of the Supreme Court of 
Mass, 1792-1803; Judge of the Municipal Court, Bos- 
ton, 1803-1823; Judge of Probate, 1823-1825; fellow of 
American Academy; died in Boston, 1825. 

THOM.XS D.WVICS, A.M., Overseer of Har- 
vard, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, 
July 8, 1757, son of Thomas Dawes ( i 731-1809), a 
leading patriot of Boston during the Revolution. 
He was graduated at Harvard in 1777, and under 
the inspiration of his father and of the times, at once 
became active in jniblic affairs. In 1780 he was a 
member of the Constitution;d Convention, and in 
the Convention of 1789, wliich adojiled the Federal 
Constitution, he w:is also a delegate. In 1792 he 
was appointed Judge of the Supreme Court of Mas- 
sachusetts, and for ten years served in tliat ofifice. 
From 1803 to 1823 he was Jutlge of the Municijwl 
Court of Boston and from the latter year until his 
death he offic'ated as Judge of Probate. It is said 
of Judge Dawes that " his literary productions were 
popular, and his witticisms proverbiid." He was a 
fellow of the American Academy and was an Over- 
seer of Harvard from 1810 to 1823. He died in 
Boston, July 22, 1825. 



ARCHIliAT.D GARY COOLIDGE 

Berlin University, and at the Ecole des Sciences 
Politiques in Paris, and at Freiburg in Baden, 
receiving the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the 
latter Institution in 1S92. He spent several years 
abroad travelling extensively and obtaining a glimpse 
of diplomatic service at St. Petersburg, Paris and 
Vienna. At St. Petersburg he served as Secretary 
of Legation without appointment in 1890-91, and 
at Vienna was Secretary of Legation by appoint- 
ment in 1893. At Harvard he has lievoted him- 
self particularly to the history of northern, and 
eastern Europe. Mr. Coolidge has written the history 
of the last ten years given in the 1897 report of the 
Class of '87, and articles and reviews for magazines 
and papers, especially the Nation of New York and 



DAVIS, William Morris, 1850- 

Born in Philadelphia, Penn,, 1850; educated at public 
and private grammar schools and at Lawrence Scien- 
tific School and at the Hooper Mining School of Har- 
vard ; was Assistant in the Argentine National 
Observatory; Assistant and Instructor in Geology at 
Harvard; Assistant Professor of Physical Geography 
at Harvard and since 1890 Professor of Physical Geog- 
raphy at this College ; is member of the National 
Geographic Society, the Geological Society of America, 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, fellow 
of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science and corresponding member of other societies. 

WILLIAM MORRIS DAVIS, S.B., M.K., 
Professor of Geology at Harvard, was born 
in I'hiladelpliia, Pennsylvania, February 12, 1850. 
His father and mother were both of (,)uaker descent, 
the former, Isdward Morris, being a member of the 
families of Davis and l\vans in Eastern Pennsylvania, 



158 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



while his mother, Maria Mott Davis, was the daugh- 
ter of James and Lucretia Mott, the former being 
descended from Long Island Quakers and the latter 
from Nantucket Quakers. Mr. Davis received his 
early education at the grammar school at West Med- 
ford, Massachusetts, and at a private school in Phil- 
adelphia. In 1869 he received the degree of 
Bachelor of Science at the Lawrence Scientific 
School at Harvard and one year later was given the 
degree of Mining Engineer, at the Hooper Mining 
School of the same University. Three years were 
tlien spent in the Argentine National Observatory 




WILU.llM M. DAVIS 

at Cordova under Dr. B. A. Gould. Since 1S76 
Professor Davis has been connected with the Har- 
vard Faculty, for the first nine years as Assistant and 
Instructor in Geology, for the next five years as 
Assistant Professor of Physical Geography, from 
1890 to 1899 as Professor in the last-named branch 
and in 1S99 was elected to the Sturgis-Hooper Pro- 
fessorship of Geology. He is the author of text- 
books on Meteorology and Physical Geography, and is 
a member of numerous societies, including- the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, the Bos- 
ton Natural History Society, the Geological Society 
of America, the National Geographic Society, besides 
being a fellow of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, honorary member of the 



Geographical Society of Berlin, and corresponding 
member of the Geographical Societies of London, 
Paris, Munich and Philadelphia, of the Geological 
Society of Edinburgh, and of the German Meteoro- 
logical Society. He married, November 25, 1879, 
Ellen Bliss Warner, of Springfield, Massachusetts, and 
has three children : Richard Mott, Nathaniel Burt 
and iMlward Mott Davis. 



DENNETT, John Richard, 1837-1874. 

Born in Chatham, N. B., 1837; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1862; Editor Harvard Magazine while in College; 
Superintendent of a plantation in the South during 
the Civil War; contributor and afterwards one of the 
Editors of the New York Nation; Assistant Professor 
of Rhetoric at Harvard, 1869-1872; died in Westboro, 
Mass., 1874. 

JOHN RICHARD DENNETT, Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Rhetoric at Harvard, was born in 
Chatham, New Brunswick, in 1S37 and was fitted 
for College in the High School of \\'oburn, Massa- 
chusetts, to which place his parents removed during 
his childhood. He was graduated at Harvard in 
1S62, and soon after went to Be.aufort, South 
Carolina, to take charge of a plantation. Shortly 
after tlie close of the Civil War he made a compre- 
hensive tour of the Southern States in the interest of 
the New York Nation, and contributed to that paper 
a series of interesting letters upon the political con- 
ditions and prospects of the South. On his return 
North he became connected with the editorial staff 
of the New York Nation, and in 1S69 accepted the 
Assistant Professorship of Rhetoric at Harvard, in 
which he officiated until compelled to resign by 
reason of failing health in 1872. Mr. Dennett's 
journalistic talents and rhetorical abilities were 
strikingly manifested while he was yet an under- 
graduate at Harvard. During his College course he 
edited the Harvard Magazine, and his Class Day 
poem was a production of such unusual merit as to 
bring forth the especial commendation of James 
Russell Lowell for its rare poetic qualities. He died 
at the early age of thirty-seven years, in Westboro, 
Massachusetts, November 26, 1874. 



DUNBAR, Charles Franklin, 1830- 

Born in Abington, Mass.. 1830; educated at Phillips- 
Exeter Academy and Harvard; received the degree 
of A.B. in 1851 ; studied law in the Harvard Law 
School and in the office of Hoar, Gray & Bangs ; 



UNIVERSrriES ./A7) 'I'll F.I R SONS 



'59 



editorial writer and joint proprietor of the Boston 
Daily Advertiser; sole Editor of the Advertiser from 
1862 until 1869; has been Trustee of Phillips Exeter 
Academy and President of the Board; was also Presi- 
dent of the American Economic Association; member 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society and American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

CHARLES FRANKLIN DUNBAR, I,L.IX, 
Professor of Political Economy at Harvard, 
was noted as an editorial writer of ability and 
strength as well as a profound economist and skilful 
instructor. He was born in Abington, Massa- 
chusetts, July 28, 1S30, son of Asaph and Nancy 




CHAS. F. DUNHAR 

(Ford) Dunbar. On the paternal side he is de- 
scended from Robert Dunbar of Hingham, Massa- 
chusetts, who is believed to have been one of the 
Scotch prisoners of war sent to Massachusetts in 
1650. The years 1844-1847 were spent at Phillips- 
Exeter Academy and the next four years were spent 
at Harvard, where he graduated in 185 1. After 
working several years in a counting-room and in 
mercantile business, Mr. Dunbar took up the study 
of law for a few months at the Harvard Law School 
and afterwards in the office of Hoar, Gray and 
Bangs, Boston. In 1858 he became editorial writer 
and joint proprietor of the Boston Daily Advertiser, 
and in 1862 took up the position of sole Editor, 
continuing in these duties until his retirement from 
impaired health in 1869. The next two years were 
spent in residence and travel abroad. In 1S71, he 



was appointed Professor of Political Economy at 
Harvard, which position he still holds, and from 
iSS6 to 1896 was ICditor of the (Quarterly Journ:d of 
Economics, established by the University in tlie 
former year. From 1876 to 1882 he was also Dean 
of Har\'ard ("ollege, and from 1890 to 1895 was 
Dean of the I'acully of Arts and Sciences. Pro- 
fessor Dunbar is a member of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society and of the American .\cademy of 
Arts and Sciences ; was 'I'rustee of Phillips-l'lxcter 
.Academy from 1SS5 to 1S98, serving as President of 
the lioard during the last five years of membership, 
and in 1892-93 was President of tiie .Xmerican 
Economic Association. Previous to the war he was 
a Whig, but from i860 to 1S84 connected himself 
with the Republican party, joining the Independents 
however in the latter year. He married November 
30, 1853, Julia R. Copeland, daughter of Hon. B. F. 
Copeland of Roxbury, Massachusetts, and had five 
children: namely — Julia C, who died in infancy; 
Franklin .\saph, who graduated at Harvard in 1S7S, 
and received the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 
1883; George Bradford, who graduated at Harvard 
in 1882 ; Anna Lowell who married L. M, Greeley, 
also a Harvard graduate, of the Class of 1 880 ; and 
William Harrison who graduated at Harvard in 1882 
and at the Law School in 1886. It is interesting to 
note that the three sons have follow'ed the footsteps 
of their father in claiming Harvard as their Alma 
Mater. 



DEXTER, Samuel, 1726-1810. 

Born in Dedham, Mass., 1726; was trained for mer- 
cantile life and acquired a fortune as a merchant in 
Boston; served on the Colonial Governor's Council, 
and later as one of the Supreme Executive Council 
of the State; bequeathed $5000 to Harvard; died in 
Mendon, Mass , 1810. 

SAMUEL DEXTER, Benefactor of Harvard, 
w-as born in Dedham, Massachusetts, in 1726, 
son of Rev. Samuel Dexter, a Harvard graduate 
in the Class of 1720. His early training was for a 
mercantile career, which he pursued in Boston with 
such success that before reaching the age of fifty he 
had accumulated a handsome fortune. He was 
active in public life before, during and after the 
Revolution, and served as one of the Council of the 
Colonial Governor, also during several years be- 
tween 1765-1775 on important committees of both 
the House and the Council. After the Revolution 
he served several terms as a member of the .Su]ireme 



i6o 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



FIxecutive Coum il cif the St:iU'. Mr. Dexter de- cnts were James and Martha I\[oseley (West) 
voted much of liis lime to liistorical studies, and in Emerton. 'I'he father, wlio was born October 14, 
his later years, after retirement from public life, to 181 7 and lived until nStji, was descended from 
religious investigations. M his death which took James, born in 1 789, the son of Jeremiah, born in 

1753, the son of John, born in 17 14. Martha 
Emerton was born in 1821 and is still living. She 
was the daughter of 'I'homas, born in 1777, the son 
of Benjamin, born in 1739, the son of John, born in 
1705-6. Ephraim Emerton attended the dame 
school, conducted by the Misses Pierce, from 1856 
to i860, the Phillips Grammar School from i860 to 
1863 and the Salem High School from the latter 
date until 1867. Then entering College he gradu- 
ated in 1 87 1. The year following he served his 
apprenticeship as a reporter for the Boston Daily 
Advertiser. The months between October 1872 
and January 1873 were spent at the Boston Univer- 
sity Law School. In the spring of 1S73 Mr. Emer- 
ton started on a tour abroad and spent one year of 
travel and two years in study in Germany. After 
he had returned to America to become Instructor 
in History and German at Harvard, he was honored 
with the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Leipsic 




SAMUEL DEXTER 



place in Mendon, Massachusetts, in 18 10, he be- 
queathed §5000 to Harvard for the encouragement 
of Biblical criticism. Among his other legacies was 
one of §40 to a clergyman, on condition that the 
said minister should preach a funeral sermon in his 
memory without making mention of his name. 



EMERTON, EPHRAIM, 1851- 

Born in Salem, Mass., 1851 ; educated at public 
schools before entering Harvard ; received degree of 
A.B. at Harvard in 1871 ; studied at the Boston Uni- 
versity Lawr School and in Germany, receiving the 
degree of Ph.D. at Leipsic in 1877; Instructor in His- 
tory and German at Harvard, 1876-1878; Instructor 
in History, 1878-1882 ; Winn Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History in the Harvard Divinity School from 1882 to 
date; has served on School Committee of Cambridge; 
is a member of the American Historical Association, 
American Society of Church History, Massachusetts 
Reform Club, American Dialect Society. 

EPHRAIM EMERTON, Ph.D., who has been 
Winn Professor of Ecclesiastical History, at 
the Harvard Divinity School since 1882, was born in 
Salem, Massachusetts, February 18, 1851. His par- 




EPHRAIM EMERTON 

(1877). Promoted to the position of Instructor in 
History in 1878 Mr. Emerton conducted those 
duties until 1S82 when he assumed his present 
position. He has served for two years as a member 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



i6i 



of the School Coniinittco ul" Cambridge, besides 
being a member of tlie American Historical Asso- 
ciation and the American Dialect Society. He has 
illustrated his interest in other public matters by 
becoming a member of the Massachusetts Reform 
Club and the American Society of Church History. 
His College position has also led him to member- 
ship in the New England History Teachers' Asso- 
ciation, and the New England Association of Colleges 
and Preparatory Schools. He has published : An 
Introduction to the Study of the Middle Ages ; 
MediKval Europe ; Life of Erasmus, in the 
" Heroes of the Reformation " series (soon to ap- 
pear). He married April i8, 1877, Sibyl Marean 
Clark, and has one child : Clara Browning Emerton, 
born September 25, 18S1. 



as well as Librarian at llowdoin. Then deciding to 
enter the ministry he took up his studies at the 
Harvard Divinity School where he graduated in 
1859. Immediately afterwards he became the I'aslor 
of the Independent Congregational Church at liangor, 
Maine, and there served for ten years, leaving that 
position to become Professor of Theology at Har- 
vard. Professor Everett is a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Colonial Society, The American Oriental 
Society and the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. He has written numerous works of value 
and interest, including : Science of Thought ; Fichte's 



EVERETT, Charles Carroll, 1829- 

Born in Brunswick, Me., 1829: graduated at Bow- 
doin, 1850; studied abroad and at the Harvard Divin- 
ity School, where he graduated in 1859; was Instructor 
and later Professor of Modern Languages and Libra- 
rian at Bowdoin ; Pastor of the Independent Congrega- 
tional Church, Bangor, Maine; Professor of Theology 
aud Dean of the Theological School at Harvard ; 
member of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, American Oriental Society and Massa- 
chusetts Colonial Society; author of Science of 
Thought ; Science of Knowledge ; Poetry, Comedy 
and Duty: The Gospel of Paul; Ethics for Young 
People ; Religions before Christianity; received degree 
of D.D. from Bowdoin and Harvard and the degree of 
LL D. at Bowdoin. 

CHARLES CARROLL EVERETT, S.T.D., 
LL.D., who has been Professor of Theology 
at Harvard since 1869 and Dean of the Harvard 
Divinity School since 1878, was born in Bruns- 
wick, Maine, 1S29. His mother, Joanna Batchelder 
Prince, was one of the two women who assembled 
the first Sunday School in New England. His 
father, Ebenezer Everett, a prominent lawyer, was 
the son of the clergyman who was settled over the 
first religious society of Dorchester, Massachusetts. 
It may also be added as a matter of interest that 
the grandfather of Professor Everett's mother was 
famous in his day as the " blind preacher." Charles 
Carroll Everett received his boyhood education at 
the private schools at Brunswick and then entered 
Bowdoin where he graduated in 1S50. He studied 
a year in Germany and afterwards studied medicine 
for a year with a physician and in the " Medical 
School of Maine." From 1S53 to 1857 he was 
Instructor and later Professor of Modern Languages 
VOL. 11. — II 




C. C. EVERETT 

Science of Knowledge; Poetry, Comedy and Duty; 
The Gospel of Paul ; Ethics for Young People and 
Religions Before Christianity, the latter being a 
manual for Sunday Schools. He is the chairman 
of the Editorial Board of The New World. Bow- 
doin has honored him with the degree of Doctor 
of Divinity and Doctor of Laws and Harvard has 
also given him a Doctor of Divinity. In 1859 he 
married Sarah Octavia Dwinel, and has one child : 
Mildred Everett. 



FILLEBROWN, Thomas, 1836- 

Born in Winthrop, Maine, 1836; educated at Towle 
Academy, Maine Wesleyan Seminary. Harvard Dental 
School and the Medical School of Maine; has been 



I 62 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Alderman of the City of Lewiston, Teacher of Higher 
Mathematics at the Maine Wesleyan Seminary; Lec- 
turer at the Portland School of Medical Instruction; 
Professor of Operative Dentistry at Harvard ; Professor 
of Operative and Oral Surgery at Harvard; member of 
the Maine Medical and Dental Societies, Massachu- 
setts Dental and Medical Societies, American Dental 
Association and the American Academy of Dental 
Science, etc. 

THOMAS FILLEBROWN, M.D., D.M.D., 
Professor of Operative Dentistry and Oral 
Surgery at Harvard, is tlie son of James Bowdoin 
and Almira (Butler) FiUebrown, and was born in 



subjects at the Portlanil School of Medical Instruc- 
tion. In 1883 he was appointed Professor of Oper- 
ative Dentistry at Harvard and fourteen years later 
was made Professor of Operative Dentistry and Oral 
Surgery. Dr. FiUebrown holds membership in the 
state dental and medical societies of Maine and 
Massachusetts, in the American Academy of Dental 
Science and in the American Dental Association. 
In 1874-75 he was an Alderman of the city of 
Lewiston, Maine. He married, September 1S61, 
Helen O. Dalton of Kents Hill, Maine, and had five 
children : Harriett(5 Anna, Charles Dalton, Edith 
Little, Winthrop and Helen Thomas FiUebrown. 




THOMAS FILLEBROWN 

Winthrop, Maine, January 13, 1836. His father, 
who was the son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Cheever) 
FiUebrown, traces his descent through John of the 
third generation and John of the second generation 
and Thomas of the first generation back to British 
ancestry, Thomas FiUebrown of the first genera- 
tion, who died in Cambridge March 31, 17 14, having 
been born in England. The present Thomas FiUe- 
brown was educated at the public schools and at 
Towle Academy, at the Maine Wesleyan Seminary, 
where he graduated in 1859, at the Harvard Dental 
School and at the Medical School of Maine. He 
has been practising dentistry and oral surgery from 
1 86 1 to date. In 1858 and 1859 he was a teacher 
of higher mathematics at the Maine Wesleyan Sem- 
inary and from 1S79 to 1883 was Lecturer on dental 



FISHER, Theodore Willis, 1837- 

Born in Westboro, Mass., 1837; educated at Willis- 
ton Seminary, Phillips-Andover Academy and Har- 
vard; has been Resident Physician at Deer Island, 
Examining Physician to the Board of Directors of 
Public Institutions, Boston; Assistant, and afterwards 
Superintendent of the Boston Lunatic Hospital; Lec- 
turer on Mental Diseases at Harvard; served in the 
Civil War as Surgeon of Volunteers; is a member of 
various medical societies and has been prominent as 
an expert in important insane cases. 

THEODORE WILLIS FISHER, M.D., Lec- 
tures on Mental Diseases at Harvard, the 
son of Milton and Eleanor (Metcalf) Fisher, was 
born in Westboro', Massachusetts, May 29, 1837. 
On his father's side he is descended from Thomas 
Fisher, who came to this country from Winston, 
England, to Dedham in 1634. On his mother's 
side he is descended from Rev. Leonard Metcalf, 
an English Rector of the sixteenth century. Theo- 
dore W. Fisher was educated in the public schools 
of ISIedway, Massachusetts, at the Williston Seminary, 
Easthampton, and at the Phillips-Andover Academy. 
He received the degree of Doctor of Medicine at 
Harvard in 1861 and before graduating had been a 
student at the Boston Lunatic Hospital. In this 
Hospital from 1863 to 1870 he served as Assistant, 
and from 1880 to 1895 as Superintendent. For 
some time after graduating he was Resident Physi- 
cian at Deer Island. In 1867 and again in 1890 
he visited Europe and made a study of the foreign 
hospitals for the insane, and this information com- 
bined with the further knowledge possessed by Dr. 
Fisher led to his being called upon to plan the New 
City Hospital at Winthrop, afterwards, Danvers In- 
sane Hospital and the new Boston Insane Hospital at 
Austin and Pierce Farms. He is also often summoned 



VNlFERSiriES JND THEIR SONS 



as an expert in important insane cases, and has 
written many papers besides one book on the ques- 
tion of insanity. He was Reporter on Medical 
Progress for Boston Medical Journal for ten years. 




THEO. W. FISHER 

In the years 1862 and 1863 he served as Surgeon 
of tlie Forty-fourth Regiment Massachusetts Vohin- 
teer Militia. From 1870 to 18S0 he was Examin- 
ing Physician to the Board of Directors of Public 
Institutions, Boston, also having an office in the 
city for private practice. From 1884 to date has 
been Lecturer on Mental Diseases at Harvard. Dr. 
Fisher is a member of the .American Medico-Psy- 
chological .Association, Councillor of the Massachu- 
setts Medical Society, has been President of the 
New England Psychological Society and the Boston 
Medical Psychological Society, and member of the 
Harvard Medical .Association. He was also a mem- 
ber of tlie International Medical Congresses at 
Washington, 18S7, and Berlin, 1890. He married 
in 1858, Caroline Brown of Medway, who died in 
i860, and in 1873 married Ella Gertrude Richardson 
of Boston. He has five children : Willis Richardson, 
Edward Metcalf, Gertrude, Florence and Margery 
Fisher. Willis R. Fisher will graduate from Harvard 
in 1899. Edward M. Fisher is in business in Boston. 
Since 1895 Dr. Fisher and family have lived at 39 
Newbury Street, Boston, where he has his office. 



FITZ, Reginald Heber, 1843- 

Born in Chelsea, 1843 ; educated at the Chauncey Hall 
School, at Harvard and the Harvard Medical School; 
studied abroad for two years; has been Instructor in 
the Harvard Medical School; Assistant Professor and 
Professor of Pathological Anatomy; has served as 
one of the physicians to the Boston Dispensary, and 
is one of the Visiting Physicians to the Massachu- 
setts General Hospital. 

REGIN.ALD HEBER FITZ, M.D., Professor of 
Theory and Practice at Harvard, the son of 
Albert Fitz, was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts, 
May 5, 1843. During his youth he attended the 
Chauncey Hall School in Boston and then entered 
Harvard where he graduated in 1864. Four years 
later he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine 
from the same University. The next two years 
were spent in study abroad, and on his return he 
was appointed Instructor in Pathological .Anatomy 
in the Harvard Medical School. While serving in 
this position he continued his practice in Boston, 
and was one of the physicians of the Boston Dis- 
pensary. In 1873 he was appointed Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Pathological Anatomy, and in 1878 was 




REGINALD H. FITZ 

made Professor in this subject. In the following 
year his title was changed to that of Shattuck 
Professor of Pathological .Anatomy. In 1887 he 
was appointed one of the \'isiting Physicians to the 



164 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Massachusetts Ceiieral Hospital having been Pathol- 
ogist to this institution during the previous sixteen 
years. In i<S92 Dr. Fit/, was appointed Hersey 
Professor of the Theory and Practice of Physic in 
the Harvard Medical School. Dr. Fitz is a fellow 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a 
member of several Medical Societies and has made 
numerous contributions to medical literature. 



FRANCKE, Kuno, 1855- 

Born in Kiel, Germany, 1855: educated at the Gym- 
nasium of Kiel, the Universities of Kiel, Berlin, Jena 
and Munich; connected with Harvard since 1884, and 
at present Professor of German Literature; member 
of the American Historical Association and of the 
Modern Language Association of America. 

KUNO FRANCKE, Ph.D., Professor of German 
Literature at Harvard, was born in Kiel, Ger- 
many, September 27, 1855, his father being Judge 
August Wilhelm Francke and his mother Marie 




KUNO FRANCKE 

Jensen. His early education was obtained at the 
Gymnasium of Kiel, and his collegiate education at 
the Universities of Kiel, Berlin, Jena and Munich. 
At the latter institution he received the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy in 1878. From iSSoto 1S82 
he was Ciymnasiallehrer at Kiel, from 1S82 to 18S4 
Mitarbeiter at the Monumenta Germanise Historica, 



Pcrliu. In 1S84 he was ap|)ointed Instructor in C^er- 
nian Literature at Harvard, and that position he held 
until 1887, when he was promoted to the Assistant 
Professorship. In 1S96 he was made full Profes- 
sor. He has published the following works : Zur 
Geschichte der Schulpoesie des 12. und 13. Jahr- 
hunderts ; De Hynini in Cererem Homerici 
Compositione, Dictione, ALtate ; Libelli de Lite 
Imperatorum et Pontificum ; Social Forces in Ger- 
man Literature ; Glimpses of Modern German Cul- 
ture. He is a member of the American Historical 
Association and of tlie Modern Language Associa- 
tion of .\merica. On June 27, 1889, Professor 
I'rancke married Katherine Gilbert. They have 
three children : Marie, Gilbert and Hugo Francke. 



GREEN, John Orne, 1841- 

Born in Lowell. Mass., 1841 ; educated at Phillips- 
Exeter Academy and at Harvard; has been Surgical 
House Officer at the Massachusetts General Hospital ; 
connected with the Harvard Medical School since 1869 
and in practice in Boston since 1868. He is a member 
of various medical and social societies. 

JOHN ORNE GREEN, M.D., Clinical Pro- 
fessor of Otology at Harvard, who was born 
in Lowell, Massachusetts, June 7, 1841, is the son 
of John Orne (A.B. Harvard, 181 7, M.D. Harvard, 
1822) and Jane (McBurney) Green. His grand- 
father was the Rev. Aaron Green of Maiden and 
Andover, Massachusetts, who graduated at Harvard 
in 1789 and he is descended from James Green of 
Charlestown, Thomas Green of Maiden, John Orne 
of Salem and John Pickering of Salem. His mother 
was from Newtownards, Ireland, being the daughter 
of William McBurney and Mary Patterson. After 
attending the Lowell public schools and Phillips- 
Exeter Academy, Mr. Green entered Harvard, and 
there received in 1863 the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts, and in 1866 the degree of Master of Arts and 
Doctor of Medicine. His training for active life 
was obtained as Surgical House Officer in the Mas- 
sachusetts General Hospital and by two years' study 
in Berlin, Vienna, Wurzburg and Paris. Since 1868 
he has been in active practice in Boston. Since 
1869 he has been connected with the Harvard 
Medical School as LIniversity Lecturer on Otology, 
Special Instructor and Clinical Professor of Otology, 
which latter position he now holds. He is also 
Aural Surgeon at the Boston City Hospital, at the 
Massachusetts General Hospital and the Mas- 
sachusetts Charitable Eye and lOar Infirmary. 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



165 



Dr. C.reen wns formerly I'rcsidcnt of the Amrric.ui 
Otological Society. Ho aKo holds membership in 
the Boston Society of Medical Science, lioston Soci- 
ety of Medical Improvement and in well-known 




Ivenelm W'inslow, who emigrated to this coiuUry 
probably in 1629. On the mother's side he is 
descended from Robert Ililborn, who came to 
Maine from one of the Middle .\llanlic Colonies 
about 1775, and probably from Nicholas Noyes, who 
came to Newburyport about 1635. .After Mdwin H. 
Hall had received the usual ilistrict school training 
and had passed through the Gorham Seminary he 
entered Bowdoin, where he graduated in 1875. 
From 1877 to 18S1 he was a student at the Johns 
Hopkins University and there in 18S0 received the 
degree of Doctor of I'hilosojihy. Before this last 
course of study he had acted as Principal of (Mould's 
Academy, 15ethel, Maine, 1875-76, and at UK- 
High School, Brunswick, Maine, 1876-77. After 
leaving Johns Ho|)kins he came to Harvard imme- 
diately as Instructor in Physics; in 1888 he was 
made Assistant Professor and in 1895, Professor. 
He is a fellow of the American Academy of .\rls 
and Sciences, I'oston, and a corresponding member 
of the British .Association for the Advancement of 
Science. He is the author of I';iementary Lessons 
in Physics and one of the authors of Hall and 



J. ORNE GREEN 

social organizations, the Union Club and the Boston 
Athletic Association. He is the author of many 
monographs on subjects connected with his profes- 
sion and of several translations from the Cierman. 



HALL, Edwin Herbert, 1855- 

Born in Gorham, Me., 1855; educated at Gorham 
Seminary, at Bowdoin College and at Johns Hopkins; 
has been Principal of Gould's Academy, Bethel, Me , 
of the High School, Brunswick, Me., has been In- 
structor in Physics at Harvard, Assistant Professor 
and Professor. 

EDWIN HERBERT HALL, LL.D., Professor 
of Physics at Harvard, was born in Gorham, 
ALaine, November 7, 1855. His father was Joshua 
Emery Hall, his mother Lucy Ann Hilborn. On 
the father's side he is descended from John H.all 
who came to this country from England early in the 
seventeenth century, and settled in Dover, New 
Hampshire, from Anthony Emery, who came from 
England, landing in Boston, June 3, 1635, and 




EDWIN H. IIAII. 



Bergen's Textbook of Physics. He married 
August 31, 18S2, Caroline Eliza Bottum of New 
Haven, Vermont, and has two chiMren : Constance 
Huntington and f'rederic Ililborn Ilail. 



[66 



UNIFERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



GARRETT, Alfred Cope, 1867- 

Born in Germantown, Pa., 1S67; educated at private 
schools in Pennsylvania and in London, Eng., and in 
Switzerland, at Haverford College, at Harvard and at 
the Harvard Graduate School; was in the lumber 
business for a year; afterwards Instructor in Anglo- 
Saxon at Harvard; Instructor in English at Harvard; 
member of the Modern Language Association of 
America. 

ALFRFJl COl'1% GARRETT, Ph.D., Instruc- 
tor in English at Harvard, was born in 
(lermantown, Pennsylvania, November 3, 1867. 
He is of American Quaicer ancestry for five or 




assumed the duties of .\ssistant in Anglo-Saxon at 
the College. The next year he was made Instruc- 
tor in English and has continued in that position to 
the present time, with the exception of one year, 
1894-95, spent in Philadelphia, studying and deliv- 
ering University Extension lectures. Mr. Garrett is 
a member of the Cambridge Folk Lore Club, of the 
Modern Language Association of America, and of 
the Phi Beta Kappa Society, Haverford College 
Chapter. He married June 18, 1896, Miss Eleanor 
Evans of Germantown, Pennsylvania. 



ALFRED C. GARRETT 

six generations back on both sides of the f;iraily ; 
his father's name is Philip Cresson Garrett ; his 
mother's was EU/.abeth Wain Cope. After receiv- 
ing his early education at a private (sectarian) 
school in Germantown, at a private school in l,on- 
don, England, (1S78-79) and for a few months 
at a school in Switzerland, he entered Haverford 
College, Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1887. 
Two years later he received the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts at Harvard, and in 1892 was given the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy after study in the Harvard 
Graduate School. The year 1887-88 he spent in 
the lumber business in Philadelphia. In 1892 he 
was appointed Instructor in Anglo-Saxon at the 
Harvard Summer School and in the fall of that year 



HANCOCK, John, 1703-1744. 

Born in Lexington. Mass., 1703; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1719; entered the ministry and was ordained at 
Braintree, Mass., 1726, retaining the Pastorate there 
for the rest of his life ; was Librarian at Harvard, 1723- 
1726; died in Braintree, 1744. 

JOHN HANCOCK, A.M., Librarian of Harvard, 
was born in Lexington, Massachusetts, in 
1703. He was the son of a clergyman of the same 
name who graduated at Harvard in 1689, and was 
Pastor of a Congregational Church in Lexington for 
fifty-five years. The son was also educated at 
Harvard, graduating in 17 19, and studied theology. 
In 1723 he was appointed College Librarian, hold- 
ing that office until 1726, in which year he was 
installed Pastor of the church in that part of Brain- 
tree now included with the City of Quincy, Massa- 
chusetts, and labored there for the rest of his life. 
His death occurred May 7, 1744. Rev. John Han- 
cock is known to posterity as an able preacher and 
a useful citizen, but is more especially distinguished 
as the father of the Revolutionary Patriot who bore 
his name and the first Governor of Massachusetts 
under the Constitution. 



HAGEN, Hermann August, 1817-1893. 

Born in Kbnigsberg, Prussia, 1817; educated at the 
Gymnasium and University of his native city ; received 
Medical degree from the latter in 1840; was a student 
at other educational centres, making a special study of 
entomology ; practised medicine in Kbnigsberg, wheru 
he became first assistant at the Surgical Hospital, and 
was Vice-President of the City Council ; came to the 
United States as Assistant in Entomology at Harvard; 
was chosen Professor there in 1870, occupying this 
chair for the rest of his life; was a member of various 
learned bodies, and the author of about four hundred 
scientific articles ; died, 1893. 

HERMANN AUGUST HAGEN, M.D., Ph.D., 
S.D., Professor of Entomology at Harvard, 
was born in Konigsberg, Prussia, May 30, 1817. 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



167 



After graduating from the C.yinnasiuin of his native 
city he was a student and received in 1S40 
his Medical degree at the Konigsberg University, 
with which his ancestors were connected for two 




GROSS, Charles, 1857- 

Born in Troy, N. Y., 1857; graduated at Williams 
College, at the Universities of Gbttingen, Berlin, 
Leipsic, Munich and Paris; has been Teacher in Troy 
Academy ; Instructor in History at Harvard and Assis- 
tant Professor of History at Harvard; corresponding 
member of Royal Historical Society of England, the 
Gottingen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, and hon- 
orary member of the Anglo-Jewish Historical Society 
and of the Hansischer Geschichtsverein. 

CHARLES GROSS, I'hJ)., Assistant Profes- 
sor in History at Harvard, the son of Louis 
and Lottie (\Voolf) Gross, was born in 'i'roy, New 
York, February 10, 1S57. His parents were born 
in Germany. After receiving an education at the 
pubhc schools of Troy Mr. Gross entered Williams, 
where he graduated in 1878. After a year as 
Teacher at the Troy Academy, four years were 
spent abroad at the LTniversities of (Jottingcn, 
Berlin, Leipsic, Munich and Paris. .\t Gottingen 
in 1883 he received the degree of Doctor of Philos- 
ophy. From 1884 to 1888 Dr. Gross was engaged 
in private historical investigations in England, but in 
the last-named year he was appointed Instructor 



HERMANN A. HAf;EN 



hundred and fifty years. He subsequently spent 
some time in Berlin, Vienna, Paris and other educa- 
tional centres of Europe, making a special study of 
entomology, and in 1843 he engaged in the practice 
of meilicine in the city of his birth, later becoming 
First Assistant at the Surgical Hospital, and from 
1863 to 1 86 7 was Vice-President of the City 
Council, and a member of the School Board. At 
the invitation of Professor Louis Agassiz he became 
Assistant Professor of Entomology at Harvard, and 
succeeding to the full Professorship of that science 
in 1870, continued as such for the rest of his life, 
which terminated in 1893. Professor Hageii was 
made an honorary Doctor of Philosophy by the 
University of Konigsberg in 1863, and received from 
Harvard the honorary degree of Doctor of Science 
in 1887. He was a fellow of the American 
Academy, a member of the American Philosophical 
Society, and of a number of other learned bodies. 
His Bibliotheca Entomologica was published at 
Leipsic in 1S62, and his other contributions to 
scientific literature comprise about four hundred 
articles. 




CHAS. GROSS 



in History at Harvard. In 1892 he was made 
Assistant Professor of the same study in the Col- 
lege. Besides being an honorary member of the 
Anglo-Jewish Historical Society and the Hansischer 



i68 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Geschichtsverein, he is also corresponding member 
of the Royal Historical Society of England and 
the Gottingen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 
Among the principal works written by Professor 
Gross are : Gilda Mercatoria ; The Exchequer of 
the Jews of England in the Middle Ages ; The Gild 
Merchant, 2 volumes ; Select Cases from the Coro- 
ner's Rolls; A Bibliography of British Municipal 
History. He married July 15, 1S89, Annie Smith. 



GULICK, Charles Burton, 1868- 

Born in Jersey City, N. J.. 1868 ; educated at Adelphi 
Academy, Brooklyn, and at Harvard; Instructor in 
Greek at Harvard. 

CHARLES BURTON GULICK, Ph.D., Instruc- 
tor in Greek at Harvard, who was born in 
Jersey City, New Jersey, September 30, 186S, is the 




CHARLES BtmTON GULICK 

son of Horace and Anna Louise (Sillcocks) Gulick. 
He is descended from Jochem Gulick who came 
from Holland in 1653, obtaining land in Long 
Island, New York. The family removed to New 
Jersey early in the last century and there are 
numerous branches there. Mr. Gulick's mother 
belonged to a family of English origin, her mother 
was also related to the Connecticut Hulls and con- 
nected with Commodore Hull. As a boy Mr. 



Gulick attended the public schools of Brooklyn, 
New York, and Adelphi Academy (now Adelphi 
College) in that city. He entered Harvard in 
1S87 and at first took up a general course of study, 
but afterwards specialized in the classics. In iSgo 
he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts, in 1 89 1 
the degree of Master of Arts, with highest honors in 
classics, and in 1894 the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy. The year 1894-95 was spent in travel 
and study in Germany, Italy and Greece. Previous 
to this he had served a year as Instructor in Greek 
at Harvard and again in 1895 he returned to the 
same position. He is a member of the Faculty of 
Arts and Sciences, and of the Administrative Board 
of the College. He married, September 9, 1896, 
Anne Hathaway Swift of New Bedford, Massachu- 
setts, and has one daughter. He has published 
various reviews and articles in the Classical Review 
and in the Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 
and is a member of the American Philological 
Association. 



HANCOCK, John, 1737-1793. 

Born in Quincy, Mass., 1737; graduated at Harvard, 
1754; succeeded to a large mercantile business and 
became a prosperous merchant; began his public ser- 
vices as member of the Massachusetts House of 
Representatives in 1766; was President of the Pro- 
vincial and Continental Congresses: served as a 
Major-General during the Revolutionary War; mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention, 
1780; first Governor of that state under the Constitu- 
tion; was a benefactor of Harvard and its Treasurer, 
1773-1777 ; died, 1793. 

JOHN HANCOCK, LL.D., first Governor of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Treas- 
urer of Harvard, was born in Quincy, January 12, 
1737. His father, the Rev. John Hancock, a settled 
minister in Quincy and at one time Librarian of 
Harvard, died in 1744, leaving the son to the care 
of an uncle, Thomas Hancock a Boston merchant, 
who adopted him and made him his heir. John 
Hancock was graduated a Bachelor of Arts from 
Harvard in 1754, receiving his Master's degree in 
course. He subsequently succeeded to his uncle's 
business together with a large fortune and became a 
successful merchant. Among the many acts of 
oppression imposed upon the citizens of Boston by 
the Crown officers was the confiscation of one of 
Hancock's vessels for an alleged violation of the 
trade regulations, and he stubbornly resisted this as 
well as all other injustices heaped upon the Colo- 
nists. His public services prior to and during the 



UNIVERSITIES AND -fUEIR SONS 



1 69 



struggle for indepenik-m-e, togetlu-r with his political 
career under the constitution whieh he helped to 
frame, are too prominently emphasized in history 
to need repetition beyond the following siuipte 
statements in chronological order of the different 
offices to which he was elected. He was a member 
of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 
1766, member of a committee to demand of Gov- 
ernor Hutchinson the withdrawal of British troops 
from Boston in 1770 after the Boston Massacre; 
member of the Provincial Congress in 1774 after- 
ward becoming its President ; delegate to the Con- 




both honored him with the degree of Master of 
Arts in 1769. From Brown he received the degree 
of Doctor of Laws in 17.S8 and he was a fellow of 
the American Academy of Science. Covernor 
Hancock's generosity was only exceeded by his 
patriotism ; and his sincere devotion to his country's 
welfare was forcibly declared during a discussion as 
to the absolute necessity of compelling the liritish 
to evacuate Boston, in which he saitl : "Hum 
Boston, and make John Hancock a beggar, if tlie 
public good requires it." 



JOHN HANCOCK 

tinental Congress from 1775 t° ^1^° ''^''"^ President 
of that body from May 1775 till October 1777, in 
which capacity his signature alone was affixed to the 
first copy of the Declaration of Independence ; 
Major-General of the Massachusetts Militia in 1776 
and commanded in the expedition against Rhode 
Island in 17 78 ; member of the Massachusetts Consti- 
tutional Convention in 1 7S0 ; Governor from 1 780 to 
1785 ; again a delegate to the Continental Congress 
from 1785 to 1787, and being once more elected 
Governor, held office until his death, which occurred 
October 8, 1793. He was a liberal benefactor of 
Harvard, which conferred upon him the degree of 
Doctor of Laws in 1792, and he served as its 
Treasurer from 1773 to 1777. Princeton and Vale 



HANCOCK, Thomas, 1702-1764. 

Born in Lexington, Mass., 1702; rose from a small 
bookseller to a wealthy merchant; was a generous 
contributor to educational, religious and benevolent 
works; founded a Professorship at Harvard; died, 
1764. 

THOMAS HANCOCK, an uncle of the Revo- 
lutionary patriot, John Hancock, and Bene- 
factor of Harvard, was a son of the first Rev. John 
Hancock, for over fifty years a settled minister in 
Lexington. His birth took place in that town in 
1702, and beginning his business life as a retail 
book-dealer of limited means he adxanced to a 
prominent position among the Boston merchants of 
his day. He died August i, 1764, leaving no chil- 
dren of his own, and the greater part of his fortune 
was inherited by his nephew, whom he had adopted 
and educated. Besides a gift of ^1000 to be used in 
religious work among the Indians, he donated the 
sum of ^600 for the erection of an insane asylum 
in Boston, and founded a Professorship of Hebrew 
and Oriental Languages at Harvard, bequeathing 
^1000 for that purpose. 



HARRIS, Thaddeus Mason, 1768-1842. 

Born in Charlestown, Mass., 1768; graduated from 
Harvard, 1787; was Librarian there 1791-1793 when he 
became Pastor of the First Unitarian Church, Dor- 
chester, Mass., remaining there for the rest of his life ; 
favored Freemasonry; published a number of interest- 
ing works; died in Dorchester, 1842. 

THADDEUS MASON HARRIS, S.T.I)., 
Librarian of Harvard, was born in Charles- 
town, Massachusetts, July 7, 1768. He was of 
English origin and a descendant in the sixth gener- 
ation of Thomas Harris of Devonshire. Left with- 
out support at an early age, his father having died 



I/O 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



while serving in the Revolutionary Army, he worked 
upon a farm and attended school when opportunity 
permitted. His College preparations were directed 
by Dr. Morse, an alleged Tory, and he took his 
B.ichelor's degree at Harvard in 1787. An attack 
of small-pox was responsible for his losing the posi- 
tion of Private Secretary to General Washington. 
While pursuing his theological studies he acted as 
Librarian at Harvard, and in 1 793 he entered upon 
his first and only Pastorate, that of the First Unita- 
rian Church, Dorchester, Massachusetts, where he 
labored diligently for nearly fifty years, or until 
within three years prior to his death, which occurred 
in that town, April 3, 1842. Dr. Harris received the 
degree of Master of Arts from Harvard in course, 
and that of Doctor of Divinity in 1813. He 
was a fellow of the American Academy, a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and 
corresponding member of the Society of Archaeology 
at Athens. His published works are : Discourses 
in Favor of Freemasonry ; Journal of a Tour of the 
Territory Northwest of the Alleghany Mountains ; A 
Natural History of the Bible ; Memorials of the First 
Church at Dorchester; and Biographical Memoirs 
of James Ogelthorpe. 



HARRINGTON, Charles, 1856- 

Born in Salem, Mass., 1856; educated at the Phillips 
Grammar School, Salem High School, Bowdoin Col- 
lege, Harvard College, Harvard Medical School, Uni- 
versities of Leipzig, Strassburg and Munich; was 
Assistant in Chemistry at the Harvard Medical School, 
afterwards Instructor in Hygiene, later Instructor in 
Materia Medica and Hygiene and now is Assistant 
Professor of Hygiene ; has served as Chemist to the 
State Board of Health and Inspector of Milk to the 
City of Boston; is a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, Boston Society for Medical Improve- 
ment, Boston Society for the Medical Sciences, Massa- 
chusetts Medico-Legal Society and other organizations. 

CHARLES HARRINGTON, M.D., Assistant 
Professor of Hygiene at Harvard, the son of 
George Harrington and I^elphine Rose Eugenie 
(Saudray) Harrington, was born in Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, July 29, 1856. His mother, who was born 
in Havre-de-Grace, was the daughter of Jean Marie 
Saudray, an officer in Napoleon's army. His father 
was descended from Robert Harrington, who settled 
in Watertown in 1642. The son of this Robert 
Harrington was Edward, born in 1668, whose son 
was Nathaniel born in 1706 and graduated at Har- 
vard in 1728. Nathaniel's son was Charles born in 



1759, and his son, Jonas, born in 1792 was the 
grandfathcrof the present Charles Harrington. After 
passing through private schools, the Phillips Gram- 
mar School of Salem, the Salem High School, Mr. 
Harrington entered Bowdoin in the Class of 1877. 
One year later he entered Harvard and from the 
latter College received the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts in 187 8. Three years later at the Harvard 
Medical School he was given the degree of Doctor 
of Medicine, having spent one year of the time as 
Literne in the Massachusetts General Hospital. A 




CHARLES HARRINGTON 

winter semester at the University of Leipsic, a sum- 
mer semester at the L^niversity of Strassburg and a 
winter semester at the University of Munich com- 
pleted his education. In 1883 he was appointed 
Assistant in Chemistry at the Harvard Medical 
School, the next year he was made Instructor in 
Hygiene, in 1887 w^as made Instructor of Materia 
Medica and Hygiene, and in June 1S98 was ap- 
pointed .Assistant Professor of Hygiene. He served 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts from 1883 to 
1892 as Chemist to the State Board of Health. 
Since 1889 has been Inspector of Milk for the City 
of Boston. Dr. Harrington belongs to numerous 
societies, to the Massachusetts Medical Society, the 
Boston Society for Medical Improvement, the Bos- 
ton Society for the Medical Sciences, and the Mas- 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



171 



sachusetts Medico Legal Society. Besides this he 
is a member of the St. IJotolph, NaturaHsts, and 
Papyrus Chibs of Boston. Of the latter club he 
served as Secretary in 1S97 and President in 189S. 
A Republican in politics up to 1884, he then be- 
came a Democrat and in 1896 classed himself 
among the gold Democrats. Dr. Harrington mar- 
ried February 25, 1884, Martha Josephine Jones, 
and has had three children : Charles Pratt, Mar- 
giierita CarriUo and Eugene Saudray Harrington. 



HERSEY, Ezekiel, 1709-1770. 

Born in Hingham, Mass., 1709 ; educated at Harvard ; 
studied medicine in Boston, and practised in his native 
town; endowed an Academy there, and a Professorship 
at Harvard; died in Hingham, 1770. 

EZEKIEL HERSEY, A.M., Benefactor of 
Harvard, was born in Hingham, Massachu- 
setts, September 21, 1709. He was educated at 
Harvard, taking his Bachelor's degree in 1728, and 
that of Master of Arts in course, and having pursued 
the study of medicine under the direction of Dr. 
Dalhoude of Boston, he practised in Hingham for 
the rest of his life, which terminated December 9, 
1770. Besides donating funds for the endowment 
of an Academy in his native town, he was a bene- 
factor of Harvard to the extent of ;^2000, half of 
which was eligible at his death, and the remainder 
after the death of his widow, the whole to be used 
in founding a Professorship of Anatomy and Surgery. 
Abner Hersey, brother of the above, acquired some 
prominence as a physician in Barnstable, Massachu- 
setts, where he was born in 1722 and died in 1787, 
but was especially distinguished for having executed 
a peculiar will, embodying a scheme to perpetuate 
his estate. He was a unique character, somewhat 
of a pessimist, showing his utter disregard for the 
fashion of the day by wearing a coat of tanned calf- 
skin, but like his brother Ezekiel he believed in the 
promotion of higher education, and he contributed 
the sum of ^500 to Harvard as an addition to the 
former's gift. 



HART, Albert Bushnell, 1854- 

Born in Clarksville, Pa., 1854 ; educated in the schools 
of Cleveland. Ohio, and at Harvard ; four years in busi- 
ness in Cleveland; afterwards Instructor in History at 
Harvard, Assistant Professor and later Professor; an 
Editor of the American Historical Review, was mem- 
ber of the Cambridge School Committee, a member of 



the Board of Commissioners of the Nautical Train- 
ing School, member of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. 

Al,l!i:Rr IIUSHNELL HART, Professor of 
History at Harvard, the son of Albert (Jail- 
kiid and Mary Crosby (liornell) Hart, was born in 
Clarksville, I'ennsylvania, July 1,1854. His father 
was a descendant of Stephen Hart of Newtowne 
(Cambridge), Massacliusetts, and Farmington, Con- 
necticut. His mother was of Swedish descent. 
After obtaining an early education at the Humiston's 
Cleveland Institute and at the West High School 
of Cleveland, Mr. Hart spent from 1S71 to 1875 in 




.AI.HKKr l;U.sH.\l,I.I, HART 

Cleveland in business. He entered Harvard in 1876, 
where he graduated in 1880. Three years after 
graduating he was appointed Instructor in History 
and four years later was made Assistant Professor. 
In 1897 he was given a full Professorship. Not 
only has Professor Hart been prominent as a 
teacher, as one of the Editors of the .American His- 
torical Review (1S95) and as a member of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, but he has also 
manifested his interest in puliiic matters as a mem- 
ber of the Cambridge School Committee for several 
years preceding 1895, and since that time has been 
a member of the Board of C'ommissioners of the 
Nautical Training School of Massachusetts. He is 
a member of tlie Colonial Cliib of Cambridge, the 



172 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Papyrus, Cambridge, Examiner, Reform and School- 
masters' Clubs of Boston, and the Authors' Club 
of New York, also of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society and other historical and literary societies. 
On July II, 1889, he married Mary Hurd Putnam 
of Manchester, New Hampshire. 



HILL, Henry Barker, 1849- 

Born in Waltham, Mass., 1849 ; educated at the pre- 
paratory school of Antioch College, Yellow Springs, 
O.. at Harvard and in Berlin; has been Assistant in 
Chemistry at Harvard, Assistant Professor, Professor 
and Director of the Chemical Laboratory; is a fellow 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 
member of the New York Academy of Sciences and 
the National Academy of Sciences. 

HP:NRV lURKER HILL, A.M., Director of 
the Chemical Laboratory at Harvard, was 
born in \Valtham, Massachusetts, April 27, 1849. 



the granddaughter of Colonel Benjamin Bellows, 
tlie founder of that town. Henry entered the pre- 
paratory school of .\ntioch College from the primary 
school of Waltham and finished preparation for 
college at Cambridge High School. He graduated 
at Harvard in 1869, and received the degree of 
]\Laster of .Arts in 1872. The year 1869-70 was 
spent in Berlin. Then he returned immediately to 
Harvard to become .'Assistant in Chemistry. In 1 8 74 
he was promoted to the Assistant Professorship, 
and in 1884 to the full Professorship in Chemistry, 
which he now holds. He has also been since 1S94 
director of the Chemical Laboratory. Professor 
Hill is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences and a member of the New York 
."Xcademy of Sciences and of the National Academy 
of Sciences. He married Septeinber 2, 1871, Ellen 
Grace Shepard, and has one son, Edward Burlin- 
game Hill (Harvard 1894). 




H. E. HILL 

His father, Thomas Hill, who graduated at Harvard 
in 1843, 'ind President of Harvard Lhiiversity, 
1862-1863, was the son of Judge Thomas Hill of 
the Court of Common Pleas, New Jersey, who as a 
follower of Priestly came to this country in 1793 to 
seek religious liberty. The mother of Henry B. 
Hill, who was .Anne Foster Bellows, was the daughter 
of Josiah Bellows of Walpole, New Hampshire, and 



HOOKER, Samuel, 1632-1697. 

Born in England, 1632; educated at Harvard, gradu- 
ating in 1653 ; Tutor and Fellow of the College, 1654- 
1656; installed Pastor at Farmington, Conn., 1661 ; in 
1662 served upon a Committee formulated for the 
purpose of uniting the Colonies of New Haven and 
Connecticut. 

SAMUEL HOOKER, A.M., Tutor, and Over- 
seer of Harvard, was a son of the Rev. 
Thomas Hooker, founder of Hartford, Connecticut, 
and was born in England in 1632. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1653, receiving his Master's 
degree in course, and as he was shortly afterward 
appointed Tutor and Overseer, it may be inferred 
that he served in these capacities while pursuing his 
theological studies. Having been ordained to the 
ministry he was in 1661, installed Pastor of the 
Church in Farmington, Connecticut, with the early 
growth of which colony he must have been actively 
identified as the records show that in 1662 he was 
a member of a committee of four appointed to 
arrange for the annexation of the settlement of New 
Haven. 



HILLS, William Barker, 1850- 

Born at Plaistow, N. H.. 1850; educated at Phillips- 
Exeter Academy, Harvard College and the Harvard 
Medical School; has been Instructor in Chemistry at 
Harvard, Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Associate 
Professor of Chemistry, Chemist to the Sanitary Pro- 
tection Association of Newport, R. I.; is a member of 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



17; 



the American Chemical Society, the Massachusetts 
Medical Society and the Massachusetts Medico Legal 
Society. 

WILLIAM BARKER HILLS, M.D., Asso- 
ciate Professor of Chemistry at Harvard, 
who was born at Plaistow, New Hampshire, May 18, 
1850, is the son of \\'illiam Henry and Caroline 
Piper (Barker) Hills. He is a dcscentlant of Joseph 
Hills, who came from F:ngland to New England 
(Charlestown) in 163S, and wiio was a lawyer and 
a man of affairs exerting much inlluence in the early 
days of this country. William B. Hills passed 



and clubs. He married, July 14, 1S74, Carrie 
Morrill Sleeper and has two children ; Ildward 
Barker and Bertha Johnson Hills. 




WII.I.IAM 1;. HILLS 

through the public schools of his native town and 
Phillips-Exeter Academy and then entered Harvard, 
where he graduated in 1S71. The next three years 
were spent at the Harvard Medical School, and im- 
mediately after receiving his degree of Doctor of 
Medicine he was appointed Instructor in Chemistry 
in the Medical School of Harvard. 'Pen years he 
held this position and was then promoted to the 
Assistant Professorship. In 1SS9 he was made 
Associate Professor of Chemistry and still liolds this 
title. He has been Chemist to the Sanitary Protec- 
tion Association of Newport, Rhode Island, since 
its organization. Professor Hills is a member of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society, the American 
Chemical Society and several other local societies 



JACKSON, Charles, i775-i855- 

Born in Newburyport, Mass., 1775; graduated at 
Harvard. 1793; admitted to the Bar, 1796; moved to 
Boston in 1803 ; associated in practice with Judge 
Samuel Hubbard; Justice of the Massachusetts Su- 
preme Court, 1813-1824; member of the State Constitu- 
tional Convention, 1820 ; Chairman of the Commission 
to Codify the Laws, 1833, arranging the second part of 
the Revised Statutes ; aided in procuring important 
legislative reforms ; Overseer of Harvard, 1816-1825; a 
Fellow, 1825-1834; died in Boston, 1855. 

CHARLES JACKSON, LL.D., Overseer and 
Fellow of Harvard, was born in Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts, May 31, 1775. He was a son 
of Jonathan Jackson, the Revolutionary statesman, 
who was at one time Treasurer of Harvard. Charles 
was graduated with honors from the above named 
College in 1793, pursued his legal preparations in 
the office of Chief-Justice Theophilus Parsons, and 
in 1796 was admitted to the Essex County Bar in 
the town of his birth. Locating in Boston in 1S03 
and entering into partnership with Judge Samuel 
Hubbard, he rapidly advanced to the front rank in 
his profession and in 1813 was appointed an Asso- 
ciate Justice of the Supreme Court, retaining his seat 
upon the Bench until 1824. As a member of the 
State Constitutional Convention in 1820, he took a 
conspicuous part in the deliberations of that body, 
and in 1833 he was selected for the Chairmanship 
of a Commission established for the Codification 
of the State Laws, arranging while serving in that 
capacity the second part of the Revised Statutes. 
Seeing the need of changes in the debt and credit 
laws he exercised special care to include their revi- 
sion among the other important legislative reforms 
which were effected through his instrumentality, and 
his labors in behalf of just and indiscriminate laws 
were extremely valuable to the Commonwealth. 
Besides his Bachelor's degree, Mr. Jackson received 
from Harvard that of Master of Arts, in course, and 
was made a Doctor of Laws in 182 i. Becoming an 
Overseer of the College in 1S16 he remained upon 
the Board until 1825 when he joined the Corpora- 
tion and continued a Fellow for nine years. His 
death occurred in Boston, December 13, 1855. 
He was the author of a Treatise oji Pleadings and 
Practice in Real .\ctions which acquired recognition 
as an authority on the law of pniperly. 



174 



UNIFERSiriKS JNT) THEIR SONS 



HOWELLS, William Dean, 1837- 

Born in Ohio, 1837; reared a printer; educated 
largely through medium of his early calling; wrote 
poems when a boy and developed early a taste for liter- 
ature ; famous as editor, critic, author, and the originator 
of anew school of fiction; Lecturer at Harvard, i86g- 
1871. 

WILLIAM DEAN HOWELLS, A.M., Lec- 
turer at Harvard, was born in Martin's 
Ferry, Ohio, March i, 18.57. His paternal ances- 
tors were industrious and well-to-do Quakers from 
Wales. His grandfather was an ardent Methodist, 




WILLIAM D. HOWELLS 

and his father who was a printer, espoused the doc- 
trine of Svvedenborg. Reared in an atmosphere of 
refinement and endowed with habits of industry, 
frugality and self-dependence, young Howells grew 
to manhood in a printing-office and wrote poetry to 
relieve the monotony of type-setting. Books and 
an inclination to read were not half so much needed 
as was time to peruse them, and yet his desire for 
the cultivation of his mind enabled him to devour 
much that was pure and helpful in literature, and 
the young printer, largely self-educated, developed 
into a brilliant newspaper writer. It was while 
Consul at Venice under appointment by President 
Lincoln that he achieved his first literary notice 
which resulted from the publication in England in 



book form of a series of papers entitled \'enetian 
Life. Upon his return to the United States he be- 
came an editorial writer on the New York Times 
and New York Tribune. In 1866 he accepted the 
Assistant Editorship of the Atlantic Monthly, be- 
coming its Editor in 1872, and retaining that post 
some nine years. While holding the last named 
position he was a conspicuous figure in the literary 
gatherings in Boston and Cambridge, frequently 
visiting Longfellow in his study, and with his clear 
knowledge of Italian aiding the poet with his trans- 
lation of Dante. In 1886 he concluded an arrange- 
ment with the Harpers whereby he began the 
supervision in the monthly magazine of the Editor's 
Study, a new department. Mr. Howells was made 
a Master of Arts by Harvard in 1867 and by Yale 
in 1 88 1. His lectures at Harvard were delivered 
from 1869 to 1871. Mr. Howells has accomplished 
a vast amount of work including poems, critical 
essays, biographies, novels, miscellaneous sketches, 
plays, etc. Among his best known works are : A 
Chance Acquaintance ; A Counterfeit Presentment ; 
The Lady of the Aroostook ; The Undiscovered 
Country ; A Modern Instance ; The Rise of Silas 
Lapham ; and the Minister's Charge. His works 
are popular as well as numerous, and he is the 
founder of a school of fiction known as the realistic. 



JACKSON, Charles Loring, 1847- 

Born in Boston. 1847; educated at Miss Morse's, 
Mr. T. R. Sullivan's and Mr. E. S. Dixwell's private 
schools in Boston, and Harvard, and at Heidelberg 
and Berlin; has been Assistant in Chemistry at Har- 
vard, Assistant Professor and Professor; is a member 
of the National Academy of Sciences and American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

CHARLES LORING JACKSON, A.M., Pro- 
fessor in Chemistry at Harvard, was born 
in Boston, April 4, 1847. His father, Patrick 
Tracy Jackson, was the son of that Patrick Tracy 
Jackson who founded the city of Lowell, Massachu- 
setts. His mother, Susan Mary Loring, was the 
daughter of Charles Greely Loring, an eminent 
lawyer of New England. After passing through the 
private schools of Miss Morse, Mr. T. R. Sullivan 
and Mr. E. S. Dixwell in Boston, Mr. Jackson 
entered Harvard, where he graduated in 1867, 
receiving later on in due course his degree of Master 
of .'Vrts. His education was rounded out by serv'ice 
as an Assistant in the Chemical Laboratory at Har- 
vard, by one semester in Heidelberg in 1873 under 



UNIVERSiriES AND ■Til KIR SONS 



'75 



Bunsen, and one and one-half semesters in Berlin, 
1874-75, under A. W. Hofmann. From 1S67 to 
187 1 he served as Assistant in Chemistry at Harvard 
and from 187 1 to 188 1 he was Assistant Professor. 
In the last-named year he was made a full Professor 
and holds that position to date. He is a member 
of the National Academy of Sciences, the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, of which organiza- 
tion for three years he was Corresponding Secretary, 
and of the German and American Chemical Soci- 




CHARLES LORINT, JACKSON 

eties and is also honorary member of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science. Most 
of his published researches have been in the field of 
organic chemistry. 



JACKSON, Jonathan, 1743-1810. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1743 ; graduated at Harvard, 
1761 ; a successful merchant in Newburyport, Mass.; 
member of the Provincial Congress 1775, of the Gen- 
eral Court 1777, Federal Congress 1782, and State 
Senate 1789; U. S. Marshal, 1789-1791; State Treas- 
urer, 1802-1806; Treasurer of Harvard, 1807-1810; died 
in Boston. 1810. 

JON.\THAN JACKSON, A.M., Treasurer of 
Harvard, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, 
June 4, 1 743. He was a graduate of Harvard, 
receiving his Bachelor's degree in 1761 and that of 



Master of .Arts in course, and turning his attention 
to mercantile pursuits settled in Newburyport, Mas- 
sachusetts, where he became a prosperous merchant. 
During the period of exciting political agitation an- 
terior to the -American Revolution, he championed 
the Colonial cause with so much zeal and efficacy 
as to become a recognized leader among the local 
patriots, by whom he was chosen a delegate to the 
Provincial Congress in 1775. He subsequently 
took a prominent pari in the affairs of government 
both jMovincial and federal, serving as a Represen- 
tative to the State Legislative body in 1777, was a 
member of the Continental Congress in 17S2, and a 
State Senator in 17S9. .Apirointed I'nited States 
Marshal in the latter year he held that office until 
1 79 1, and in the following year he was elected State 
Treasurer, continuing in that capacity until 1786. 
For some time he held the Presidency of the State 
Bank. In 1S07 he became officially connected with 
Harvard as its 'Preasurer, and guarded the financial 
interests of the College until his death, which 
occurred in Boston, March 5, 1810. Mr. Jackson 
was a fellow of the .American Academy of .Arts and 
Sciences, and the author of: Thoughts upon the 
Political Situation of the United States. 



JAGGAR, Thomas Augustus, Jr., 1871- 

Born in Philadelphia, Pa., 1871 ; educated in Cincin- 
nati, O., in Montreux, Switzerland, in Philadelphia, at 
Harvard and at the Universities of Munich and Heidel- 
berg; engaged in office and field work of the United 
States Survey of Yellowstone Park and of the Black 
Hills; has been Assistant in Petrography at Harvard 
and Instructor in Geology; has published numerous 
scientific papers. 

THOMAS AUGUSTUS JAGGAR, Jr., Ph.D., 
Instructor in Geology at Harvard, was born 
in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, January 24, 1871. His 
father is the Right Rev. Thomas A. Jaggar, the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Bishop of Southern Ohio, while liis 
great-grandfather, Jehiel Jaggar, was a well known 
New York merchant, who traced his line back to 
Jeremiah Jaggar of Watertown, Massachusetts, 1634, 
one of the founders of Stanford, Connecticut, 1640. 
The mother of Thomas .\. Jaggar, Jr., was Anna 
Louisa Lawrence, the daughter of Hon. John W. 
Lawrence, of Flushing, Long Island. .After passing 
his early years in the public and private schools of 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Arthur's School at Montreux, 
Switzerland, and at the Delancey School, Philadel- 
phia, Mr. Jaggar entered Harvard where he received 



176 



UNIVERSITIES JXD THEIR SONS 



the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1S93, of Master 
of Arts in 1S94 anil of Doctor of Philosophy in 
1S97. In 1S95 he j)ursued his studies at the Uni- 
versity of Munich and in 1896 at the University of 




bestimmung, and the same in English, A Microscler- 
ometer for Determining the Hardness of Minerals ; 
An Occurrence of Acid Pegnatite in Diabase ; Some 
Conditions Affecting Geyser Eruption ; Death Gulch, 
a Natural Bear-trap ; Experiments on the Formation 
of Minerals from an Igneous Magna ; a Review ; 
Reviews of Geological and Geographical works for 
the Nation, the American Naturalist and the Literary 
'\\'orld. Dr. Jaggar's work at Harvard has dealt 
chiefly with the training of advanced men in field 
work, and with the establishment of a Laboratory of 
Experimental Geology, where with especially devised 
instruments, such processes as the folding of strata, 
eruption of geysers, sedimentation, erosion and 
mineral synthesis are studied experimentally. In 
1898-99 he gave a new lecture-course, on the 
"Structural and Dynamical (leology of the L^nited 
States " 



i 



HURLBUT, Byron Satterlee, 1865- 

Born in Shelburne, Vt., 1865; educated at the public 
schools of Shelburne, Vt. and of Lynn, Mass., at Har- 
vard ; has been Assistant of English at Harvard. 
Instructor in English and Recording Secretary. 



T. A. JAGGAR, JR. 

Heidelberg. He was made Assistant in Petrography 
in 1894 at Harvard, and one year later was given 
the position which he now holds, that of Instructor 
in Geology. He has also been engaged in field 
work of the L-nited States Geological Survey of the 
Yellowstone Park during the summers of 1893 and 
1897 under Mr. Arnold Hague, being appointed Field 
Assistant and later Geologic Assistant in charge of 
Petrographical work ; in 1898 he was appointed to 
the Mining District of the Black Hills, under Mr. 
S. F. Emmons, where he was given charge of the 
aerial mapping of two quadrangles in the vicinity of 
Deadwood, South Dakota. He is still engaged in 
this work (1899). He has written the following 
scientific articles : Studies of INIelonites Multiporus, 
in joint authorship with Dr. Robert Tracy Jackson ; 
A Simple Instrument for Inclining a Preparation in 
the Microscope ; The Pirna and Kirchberg Zones of 
Contact Metamorphism ; On the Geological Work 
of Vertices and Eddies ; Note on Penning's Field 
Geology ; editing of Abstracts of the Geological 
Conference at Harvard University ; Current Studies 
in Experimental Geology ; Some Conditions of 
Ripple-Mark ; Ein Mikrosklerometer zur Hartes- 




BVRON SATTERLEE HURLBXJI 

lYRON SAITERLEE HURLBUT, A.M., Re- 
cording Secretary at Harvard, w-as born in 
Shelburne, Vermont, February 10, 1865. His early 
education was obtained at the district school in 



B 



UNTVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



77 



Shelbiirne and at the |iublic schools of Lynn, Mas- 
sachusetts, alter which he entered Harvard, there to 
receive the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 18S7 and 
the degree of Master of Arts in 1S8.S. He was 
appointeil in 1S90 Assistant in Kngiish at Harvard, 
tlie next year he was made Instructor in Enghsii, 
and in 1S95 was made Recording Secretary. 



JAMES, William, 1842- 

Born in New York City, 1842; educated as a boy in 
New York, in England and in France and later at- 
tended the Academy of Geneva, Lawrence Scientific 
School at Harvard and the Harvard Medical School; 
and was a member of the Thayer expedition to 
Brazil; has been Instructor in Natural History at 
Harvard, Assistant Professor of Physiology and later 
Professor of Philosophy and Professor of Psychology. 

WILLIAM JAMES, M.D., Professor of Psy- 
chology at Harvard, who was born in New 
York City, January 11, 1842, has been prominent 
for his philosophical and psychological researches. 



studied two years mukr private tutors and one at 
the College Connnunal of lioulogne sur nicr. Re- 
turning to Euro])e at eighteen he attended lectures 
for a ye;ir at the .Acatlemy of (Geneva. Returning to 
.■\nieric:i in i860 he studied i)ainting for a year with 
\\illi;im M. Hinit ; then chemistry :uid anatomy at 
the Lawrence Scientific .School, antl finally entered 
the Harv;ird Medical School in 1864. He received 
his degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1870. In 
1865-66 Professor James was one of .Agassiz's com- 
jxanions in the Thayer expedition to P.nizil. He 
was appointeil in 1872 Instructor in Natural History 
at Harvard, four years later was made Assistant Pro- 
fessor in Physiology and in 1S80 was made Assistant 
Professor in Philosophy. In 1S85 he was appointed 
Professor of Philosophy; in 1890 was made Profes- 
sor of Psychology; and in 1897, Professor of Phil- 
osophy again. In the same year he was appointed 
" Correspond:int " of the Institute of France (.Acad- 
emy of Moral and Political Sciences), and Cifford 
Lecturer on Natural Religion to the L'niversity of 
Edinburgh. He married in 1878 .Alice H. (jibbens 
and has four children : Henry, U'illiani, M;iry and 
John James. 




\VHI. JAMES 

His parents, Henry and Mary James, were Ameri- 
can, but one grandfather on the paternal side, was 
Irish, while on both sides farther back Professor 
James can trace his ancestry to the Scotch as well 
as the Irish race. Up to the age of thirteen he was 
educated at private schools in New York. He then 

VOL. II. 12 



JENKS, William, 1778 1866. 

Born in Newton, Massachusetts. 1778 ; graduated at 
Harvard, 1797 ; P.istor of the First Congregational 
Church, Bath, Me., 1805-1818; Chaplain in the War of 
1812; Professor of Oriental Languages and Literature 
at Bowdoin, three years ; first in Boston to conduct 
religious meetings especially for seamen ; Pastor of a 
church in Green Street, Boston, 1826-1845 ; Overseer 
of Harvard, 1832-1845 ; author and editor ; member of 
various noted organizations ; died in Boston, 1866. 

WILLLAM JENKS, S.T.D., LL. D., Overseer 
of Harvard, was born in Newton, Mas- 
sachusetts, November 25, 1778, and was a descend- 
ant in the sixth generation of Joseph Jenks of Lynn. 
He took his Bachelor's degree at Harvard in 1797 
and that of Master of Arts in course. Immediately 
following his graduation he was reader at Christ's 
Church, Cambridge, and subsequently em])loyed as 
a private tutor. Entering the Congregational min- 
istry in 1805, he was called to the First C-hurch, 
Bath, Maine, which Pastorate he retained for twelve 
years. During this time he served as Chaplain of a 
Maine regiinent in the War of 181 2, and for three 
years occupied the Chair of Oriental Languages and 
English Literature at Bowdoin, driving thither from 
Bath to perform the functions of his Professorship. 
Returning to Boston in 181S he a[>plied himself to 



178 



UNIVERSITIES A NT) THEIR SONS 



the task of furnisliing religious instruction to sea- 
men, of which he was the original jiromoter, the 
movement in that direction inaugurated by him 
soon after developing into the Mariners' Church 
and Sailors' Home, and subsequently into the 
present City Missionary Society. He was also en- 
gaged in missionary work in the locality known as 
the West iMid, and having organized a society and 
erected a church in Green Street he officiated as its 
Pastor from 1826 to 1845. Dr. Jenks died in Bos- 
ton, November 13, 1866. He was honored with the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity both by Bowdoin and 
Harvard in 1825 ami 1S42 respectively, and re- 
ceived from the former that of Doctor of Laws in 
1862. Called to the Board of Overseers of Harvard 
in 1832 he cheerfully accepted the charge and ren- 
dered efficient services for thirteen years, retiring in 
1845. He was the founder of the American Orien- 
tal Society, was a fellow of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, a member of the American 
Philosophical, the Massachusetts Historical, and the 
New England Historic Genealogical Societies and 
the American Antiquarian Society of Worcester, 
Massachusetts. He was particularly interested in 
the last named organization, serving as its Corre- 
sponding Secretary four years and as Senior Vice- 
President thirteen years ; delivered an address be- 
fore the society in 1813 and another iifty years 
afterwards, 1863. Besides his edited works and 
sermons he published the explanatory Bible Atlas 
and Scripture Gazette and a Commentary on the 
Bible of which one hundred and twenty thousand 
copies were sold. 



School, Zurich, at the Kcole des Ponts et Chauss(^es, 
Paris, and in travel. The years 1890-1892 were 
spent as Instructor in Civil Engineering at Harvard. 
During the years 1 89 2-94, Mr. Johnson was en- 
gaged in various kinds of structural engineering 
work in Chicago. He then returned to resume his 




L. J. JOHNSON 

former position at Harvard, and in May 1S96 was 
appointed Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering. 
On June 27, 1893, Mr. Johnson married MissClrace 
Allen Fitch and has one son : Jerome ."^Uen Johnson. 



JOHNSON, Lewis Jerome, 1867- 

Born in Milford, Mass., 1867 ; educated at Harvard, 
at the Federal Polytechnic School, Zurich, and at the 
Ecole des Ponts et Chauss^es, Paris ; is Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Civil Engineering at Harvard and has engaged 
in various kinds of structural engineering in Chicago. 

LEWIS JEROME JOHNSON, C.E., Assistant 
Professor of Civil Engineering at Harvard, 
who was born in Milford, Massachusetts, September 
24, 1867, is the son of Napoleon Bonaparte and 
Mary Tufts ( Stone ) Johnson. After passing 
through the public schools, including the high 
school of Milford, Massachusetts, he entered Har- 
vard, where he graduated in 1887. The next year 
he took the degree of Civil Engineer from the 
Lawrence Scientific School, and the succeeding two 
years were spent in study at the Federal Polytechnic 



KEAYNE, Robert, 1595-1656. 

Born in England, 1595 ; assisted the Plymouth 
Colony ; settled in Boston in 1635 as one of the found- 
ers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony ; member of the 
General Court, founder of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery Company, the Boston Latin Grammar School, 
and one of the original contributors to Harvard ; died, 
1656. 

ROBERT KEAYNE, Benefactor of Harvanl, 
was born in England in 1595. He was a 
merchant tailor in London and a man of means, 
possessing considerable business and social influence, 
and was a member of the Honorable Artillery Com- 
pany. In 1624 he rendered financial assistance to 
the struggling Plymouth Colony by bestowing upon 
it a liberal donation, and was one of the founders of 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



79 



the Massachusetts Bay Colony, setthng in Boston in incd the oyster-bed regions of Chesapeake Bay for 

1635. From 163S to 1649 he was several times a the Coast and Geodetic Survey. While in the Gov- 

member of the General Court. The Honorable ernmcnt service he investigated the relative value of 

Artillery Company of Boston was founded by him high exi)losivcs, some of tlie results of which have 

and modelled after its London parent organization, been ])ublislu-d in the scienlilic jutirnals of Annrica 

He aided in the establishment and support of Har- and luirope. Besides the tlegree of liachelor of 

yard, anil the present Boston Latin Grammar School Science conferretl by Harvaid, he was made Doctor 

was founded upon a legacy left by him for the of Bhilosophy in course by Columbian in i''^94, and 

endowment of a free school. His character was is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and 

uniiiue, and his will is the longest ever recorded in Sciences. He was President of the American Chem- 

America. Robert Keayne died March 23, 1656. ical Society in 1898, Vice-President of the American 

Association for the Advancement of Science (Chem- 



MUNROE, Charles Edward, 1849- 

Born in Cambridge, Mass., 1849; graduated at the 
Lawrence Scientific School, 1871 ; Assistant to Pro- 
fessor Gibbs, and Instructor in Chemistry at Harvard 
College till 1E74; lectured on Chemistry at the Boston 
Dental College, 1873-1874 ; Professor of Chemistry at 
the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, 1874-1876; Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry and Explosives at the U. S. Naval 
Torpedo Station and War College, Newport, R. I.; 
called to the Chair of Chemistry at Columbian Uni- 
versity, Washington, D. C, in 1892 where he now is ; 
Dean of the Corcoran Scientific School from 1892 to 
1897 and of the School of Graduate Studies from 1893 
to this time; a recognized authority on explosives. 

CHARLES KlJWARD MUNROE, Ph.D., In- 
structor in Chemistry at Harvard, was born 
in Cambridge, ALassachusetts, May 24, 1849. He 
was a student in the Scientific Department of Har- 
vard, graduating in 187 1, S. B. summa cum laude, 
and having for a time assisted Professor Wolcott 
Gibbs, he remained there as an Instructor in Chem- 
istry until 1S74. He was in charge of tlie first 
summer school in Cambridge for the instruction of 
teachers in chemistry in 1872, and delivered chemi- 
cal lectures at the Boston Dental College during the 
two succeeding years. Accepting the Professorship 
of Chemistry at the United States Naval Academy, 
Annapolis, in 1S74, he remained there for twelve 
years, and in 1886 was transferred to the Govern- 
ment Torpedo Station and War College, Newport, 
Rhode Island, where he made practical demonstra- 
tions in the manufacture, testing and use of high 
explosives. He subsequently took the Chair of 
Chemistry at the Columbian University, Washington, 
District of Columbia, and is now Dean of the School 
of Graduate Studies connected with that Institution. 
During the years 1 883-1 S84 he lectured in St. John's 
College, Annapolis. 'I'he report on the building 
stones of \'irginia and Maryland for the United States 
Census llureau was made by hiui, and he also exam- 




CHARLES EDWARD MUNROE 

ical Section) in 1887, is a member of the American 
Philosophical Society, the New York, London and 
Berlin Chemical Societies, and has held every office 
under the Naval Institute except that of President. 
He is the author of over one hundred scientific 
papers; Notes on the Literature of Explosives and 
an Index to the Literature of Explosives ; Lectures 
on Chemistry and Explosives, etc. He was ap- 
pointed United States Assay Commissioner by 
Presidents Arthur, Cleveland and Harrison, and a 
Visitor to the Naval Academy by President Mc- 
Kinley. Dr. Munroe arranged and superintended 
the establishment of a post-graduate course at the 
Smithsonian Institution for naval officers, and pro- 
vided the na\-al academy with a mineral cabinet. 



i8o 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



ADAMS, Eliphalet, 1677-1753. 

Born in Dedham, Mass., 1677; graduated at Harvard, 
1694; ordained to the ministry in New London, Conn., 
1709; took an active interest in the welfare of the In- 
dians; and also in Yale College. Died in New London, 
Conn., 1753. 

EI.IPH.\LET ADAMS, A.M., Fellow of Yale, 
was born in Dedham, Massachusetts, March 
26, 1677. His father was the Rev. William .-\dams, 
the second settled minister in Dedham. His Col- 
lege course was pursued at Harvard, from which he 
was graduated in 1694, and after preaching in 
several different places he was in i 709 installed as 
Pastor of the Congregational Church in New London, 
Connecticut. He was an eminent scholar, and be- 
sides a thorough knowledge of the ancient languages 
he acquired proficiency in the Indian tongue, having 
taken an active interest in the welfare of the Abori- 
gines of his neighborhood. His popularity as a 
preacher caused him to receive many requests to 
deliver special sermons before political and educa- 
tional societies. Mr. Adams' active interest in Yale 
extended through a period of twenty years (1720- 
1740), during which time he was a Fellow. Among 
the more notable of his published sermons are : one 
on the death of Rev. James Noyes, of Stonington ; 
election sermons ; Thanksgiving sermon ; on the 
death of Governor Saltonstall ; on the ordination of 
Rev. William Gager ; on the ordination of Thomas 
Clapp ; and a discourse to young men. He died 
in New London, October 4, 1753. 



a Presbyterian society in Lawrenceburgh, Indiana, 
where he remained from 1837 to 1839, and for the 
next seven years he preached in Indianapolis. In 
1847, he accepted the Pastorate of Plymouth Church, 
Brooklyn, a newly organized Congregational society, 
and the world-wide fame he acquired during his sub- 
sequent forty years of ministerial labor in the City 
of churches is familiar to all. In 1871, he began 
the first course of the " Lyman Beecher Lectureship" 
on jireaching at the Yale Divinity School founded by 
Henry W. Sage, one of his parishioners, and he de- 
livered the two subsequent courses, completing them 




BEECHER, Henry Ward, 1813-1887. 

Born in Litchfield, Conn.. 1813 ; graduated at Am- 
herst, 1834; studied theology at Lane Seminary; called 
to the Presbyterian Church, Lawrenceburgh, Ind , 
1837 ; and from thence to Indianapolis ; settled in 
Brooklyn as Pastor of Plymouth Church,' 1847 and 
continued as such for forty years; Lecturer on preach- 
ing at the Yale Divinity School. 1871-74; editor, lecturer 
and prolific writer; died in Brooklyn, N. Y., 1887. 

HI.NRY WARD BEECHER, Lecturer at the 
Yale Divinity School, fourth son of Dr. 
Lyman Beecher, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, 
June 24, I Si 3. He was educated at the Boston 
Latin School, the Mount Pleasant Institute and 
Amherst College, graduating from the latter in 1834, 
and also attended the Lane Theological Seminary 
near Cincinnati, Ohio, of which his father was 
President. His first Pastoral settlement was over 



HENRY WARD BEECHER 

in 1874. Mr. Beecher's literary work began during 
his theological studies as Editor of the Cincinnati 
Journal, a religious newspaper ; he edited the Far- 
mer and Gardener, an agricultural paper of Indiana- 
polis ; was one of the founders of the Independent, 
to which he contributed editorials for nearly twenty 
years and was its Editor 1861-63 ; and was the first 
Editor-in-Chief of the Christian LTnion 1870. Mr. 
Beecher made two lecture tours in England which 
resulted in changing the erroneous opinions of the 
United States and its people, held by many English- 
men, and as a platform orator his popularity in this 
country has never been equalled. As a writer his 
capacity seemed well-nigh boundless as well as 
versatile, enabling him to write interestingly and 
instructively upon almost any subject. Besides his 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



iSi 



contributions to newspapers and periodicals, and liis 
editorial work, his many publications in book-form 
bear ample testimony of his prolific pen, and of his 
more pretentious works perhaps the most popular 
is his Life of Jesus, the Christ, the concluding 
volume of which was completed but a short time 
before his deatli and was therefore his last great 
literary achievement. Mr. Beecher dietl in Brook- 
lyn, March 8, 1887. 



BEECHER, Edward, 1803-1895. 

Born in East Hampton, L. I., 1803; graduated at 
Yale, 1822; studied theology in Andover and New 
Haven; Tutor at Yale, 1825-26; Pastor of the Park St. 
Church, Boston, 1826-30; President of Illinois College 
several years ; became Pastor of the Salem St. Church, 
Boston, 1844; and of the church in Galesburg, 111., 
1855 ; Professor of Exegesis at the Chicago Theological 
Seminary several years; retired from the ministry, 
1872 ; died, 1895. 

EDWARD BEECHER, D.D., Tutor at Yale, 
was born in East Hampton, Long Island, 
August 27, 1803. He was the second son of Dr. 
Lyman Beecher, who graduated at Yale in 1797, 
and of the latter's seven sons, six became clergy- 
men, among them being the famous Henry Ward 
Beecher. Edward received the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts at Yale in 1822 and that of Master of Arts 
in course. His theological studies were pursued at 
the Andover and Vale Seminaries, and while attend- 
ing the latter (1825-26) he served as a Tutor 
in the Academic Department. His first call was 
to the Park Street Church, Boston, in 1826, and in 
1830 he accepted the Presidency of Illinois College 
which he held for a number of years. He was again 
summoned to Boston in 1844 and occupied the 
Pastorate of the Salem Street Church until 1855, 
when he accepted a call to the Congregational 
church in Galesburg, Illinois, and labored there for 
the succeeding fifteen years. For a number of 
years he was Professor of Exegesis at the Chicago 
Theological Seminary. Retiring from the ministry 
in 1872 he settled in Brooklyn, New York, and de- 
voted the remainder of his active years to literature. 
His death occurred in 1895. ^^f- Beecher was a 
regular contributor to the Christian Union, and the 
author of two works on the Ages, which touch upon 
doctrinal statements as to the origin of human 
depravity, and created considerable discussion at 
the time of their publication. In 1841 he received 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity from Marietta 
College. 



HADLEY, James, 1821-1872. 

Born in Fairfield. N. Y., 1821 ; graduated at Yale, 
1842; studied theology; was a Tutor at Middlebury 
and afterward at Yale; was Assistant Professor of 
Greek 1848-1851 when he succeeded President Woolsey 
as full Professor, occupying that Chair for the rest of 
his life ; lectured at the Yale Law School and also at 
Harvard ; was President of the American Oriental 
Society, 1870-1872; member of the American Philo- 
logical Association and of the National Academy of 
Sciences; member of the American Committee for the 
revision of the New Testament; and a frequent con- 
tributor to the reviews ; died in New Haven, Conn., 1872. 

JAMES HADLEY, LL.l)., Professor of (Jreek at 
Yale and Law Lecturer at Harvard, was born 
in Fairfield, New York, March 30, 1821. He re- 




JAMES H.4DLEY 

ceived from his father, who was Professor of Clum- 
istry in a Western New York Medical College, some 
instruction in the sciences, and after completing the 
regular course at the Fairfield .Academy, he acted as 
an Assistant there for some time. Entering the 
Junior Class at Yale he was graduated in 1842, re- 
ceiving the degree of Master of Arts in course, and 
subsequently studied theology. From September 
1S44 to April 1S45, he was Tutor in Mathematics 
at Middlebury College, \'ermont, and in the fall 
of the latter year he returned to Yale as Tutor in 
Classical History, remaining in tliat capacity until 
1S51, when he was advanced to the .Assistant Pro- 



8 



IS2 



UNIVERSITIES ANT) THEIR SONS 



fessorship of Greek, and succeeiling President Theo- 
dore D. Woolsey as full Professor in 1S58, he retained 
that Chair until his death, which occurred in New 
Haven, November 14, 1S72. Professor Hadleyalso 
lectured in the Law 1 )cpartment of Yale and delivered 
a course of lectures at the Harvard Law School in 
1S70-1S71. He was President of the American 
Oriental Society in 18 70-1 871, was a member of 
the National Academy of Sciences and of the 
American Philological Association, and served upon 
the American Committee for the revision of the 
New Testament. From Wesleyan he received the 
degree of Doctor of Laws in 1866, and aside from 
the distinction acquired as Professor and Lecturer, 
he was widely known as a student of philology and 
as a contributor to various reviews. 



botanical garden for that ]iurpose, and was one of 
the first to demonstrate the efficacy of chloroform, 
his experience with that anaesthetic dating from 
1831. For a number of years he was President of 
the New Haven Horticultural and Pomological 
Societies, both of \vhich he founded, also held the 
Presidency of the Connecticut and American Medi- 
cal Associations, the former of which gave him his 
Medical degree in 181 1, and he was an earnest 
supporter of emancipation, education and temper- 
ance. Professor Ives died in New Haven, October 



IVES, Eli, 1779-1861. 

Born in New Haven, Conn., 1779; graduated at Yale, 
1799 ; assisted in establishing the Medical Department, 
1813; Lecturer there some years and a member of its 
Faculty from its opening until his death ; died in New 
Haven, i85i. 

ELI IVES, M.D., one of the founders of the 
Vale Medical School, and a member of its 
Faculty for nearly fifty years, was born in New 
Haven, Connecticut, February 7. 1779. His father 
was Dr. Levi Ives, founder of the New Haven 
Medical Society and one of the Editors of Cases 
and Observations, probably the first medical jour- 
nal issued in the Llnited States. The son was a 
student at Yale, taking his Bachelor's degree in 
1 799 and his Master's some time later. While 
preparing for the medical profession he acted as 
Rector of the Hopkins Grammar School, New 
Haven. Entering into practice with his fither, he 
attained prominence in his profession and was 
associated with Professor Benjamin Silliraan the 
elder in promoting and organising the Medical 
Department of Yale, with which he was actively 
identified for the rest of his life. At its opening in 
18 13 he took the .Adjunct Professorship of Materia 
Medica and Botany which he held until 1820, was 
in charge of that Department until 1829, and 
Professor of Theory and Practice until 1S52 ; when 
he assumed the Chair of Materia Medica and 
Therapeutics, and in the following year became 
Professor "Emeritus." From 1820 to 1829 he 
lectured on the diseases of children. In his prac- 
tice he carefully investigated the therapeutic value 
of indigenous vegetable remedies, maintaining a 




ELI IVES 

8, 1 86 1. He was among the early contributors to 
the Journal of Science and published an adilress 
delivered before the New Haven Horticultural 
Society. 



LANGSTROTH, Lorenzo Lorraine, 1810- 
1895. 

Born in Philadelphia, 1810 ; educated at Yale, grad- 
uated 1830; Tutor there, 1834-1836; entered the Con- 
gregational ministry and held a number of Pastorates: 
Principal of a young ladies' school in Philadelphia 
some years; established himself as an apiarian at Ox- 
ford, Ohio, in 1858 and published an interesting book 
on bee-keeping ; died, 1895. 

LORENZO LORRAINE LANGSTROTH, M. 
A., Tutor at Yale, was born in Philadelphia 
December 25, 1810. Entering Vale Class of 1830 



UNIIERSITIES .IND THEIR SONS 



183 



lie took liis l!;ichelor"s dt-grce at gnuluation aiul 
that of Master of Arts in course. He was a Tutor 
in the College from 1834 to 1836, and after the 
completion of his theological studies officiated as 
Pastor of a number of Congregational Churches in 
Massachusetts. Returning to Philadelpliia in 1848 
he was for some years Principal of a school for 
young ladies in that city. He settled in Oxford, 
Ohio in 185S, turning his attention to the raising 
of honey bees, and establishing extensive apiaries, 
became widely known as an expert in the handling 
of these profitable insects. Mr. Langstroth died in 
1895. He invented the movable comb hive, and 
published an interesting and widely read work 
entitled : The Hive anil the Honey Bee. 



LIVINGSTON, Philip, 1716-1778. 

Born in Albany, N. Y , 1716; graduated at Yale, 
1737; prominent New York merchant prior to the 
American Revolution; Alderman of New York City; 
member of the Provincial Assembly, Provincial and 
Continental Congresses and of the first State Senate ; 
aided in founding King's College, the New York 
Society Library and the New York Hospital; founded 
the Livingston Professorship of Divinity at Yale ; 
died in York, Penn , 1778. 

PHILIP LIVINGSTON, M.A., founder of the 
Livingston Professorship of Divinity at Yale, 
was born in Albany, New York, January 15, 17 16. 
He was a son of Philip and Catherine (VTn Brugh) 
Livingston, and a grandson of Robert, the founder 
of the family in .America. He received his Bache- 
lor's degree at Yale in 1737 and that of Master of 
Arts in course, and in 1746 was one of the fifteen 
college-bred men then residing in the Colony of 
New York. Successful as a merchant and distin- 
guished as a statesman and patriot Philip Livingston 
was, for a period of forty years, one of the foremost 
public men of New York. His correspondence 
with Edmund Burke, Colonial Agent in London, 
afforded that statesman the opportunity of furnish- 
ing the knowledge concerning Colonial affairs so 
effectually displayed by him in the British House 
of Commons. He rendered valuable services as 
Alderman of New York City; delegate to the Stamp 
Act Congress, Speaker of the Provincial .Assembly, 
President of the Provincial Congress, member of 
the Continental Congress, a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and a member of the first 
State Senate. He was one of the promoters of 
King's College, (now Columbia) and of the New 



York Society Library, also of the New York 
Chamber of Commerce and the New York Hospi- 
tal, of which he acted as one of the first Governors. 
His beneficence in founding a Professorship of 
Divinity at Yale in 1746, supplied a long felt want, 
and the Livingston Chair became one of the most 
useful in the College. Philij) Livingston died in 
York, Pennsylvania, June 12, 1778. 



KINGSLEY, James Luce, 1778-1852. 

Born in Windham, Conn., 1778; graduated at Yale, 
1799; Tutor there, 1801-1812; Librarian, 1805-1824; 
member of the Faculty forty-si.x years, and Professor 
" Emeritus " the rest of his life ; scholar and writer of 
repute and Historian of Yale ; died in New Haven, 1852. 

JAMES LUCE KINCiSLEY, LL.D., Tutor and 
Professor at Yale, was born in Windham, 
Connecticut, .August 28, 1778. Beginning his 




JAUtES L. KINGSLEY 

classical studies at Williams, he completed them at 
Yale in 1 799 and after teaching school for two 
years returned to the College as a Tutor, serving in 
that capacity until 18 12. In 1805 he was ap- 
pointed Professor of Ecclesiastical History and of 
Hebrew, Greek and Latin, the latter Chair having 
been established that year, and he retained the 



iS4 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



former ProffSsorslii|i until 1817. He was also 
chosen Librarian in 1805 holding that oftice until 
1824. In 1831 he was relieved of the Hebrew and 
Greek Departments, thus enabling him to devote 
his efforts solely to the Latin Language and Litera- 
ture, which he continued to teach until 1851, 
when he became Professor " Emeritus." Professor 
Kingsley tiled in New Haven, August 31, 1852. 
He acquired a wide reputation both as a linguist 
and a writer, and besides the degree of Master of 
Arts, which he received from Yale in course, that 
of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon him by 
Middlebury in 1831. Besides editions of Tacitus 
and Cicero, he published a discourse on the two 
hundredth anniversary of the Settlement of New 
Haven ; a history of Yale College in the American 
Quarterly Register and wrote the life of President 
Ezra Stiles for Sparks' American Biography. 



NOYES, James, 1640 1719. 

Born in Newbury, Mass., 1640; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1659; Pastor at Stonington, Conn.; aided the 
Volunteers in the Narragansett War against King 
Philip; Trustee of Yale, 1701-19; died in Stonington, 
Conn., 1719. 

JAMES NOYES, M.A., the oldest of the origi- 
nal Trustees of Yale, was the second son of 
Rev. James Noyes, a prominent ^Lassachusetts min- 
ister, and was born in Newbury, Massachusetts, 
March 11, 1640. He was graduated from Harvard 
in 1659 and in 1664, at the invitation of a commit- 
tee from the town of Stonington, Connecticut, he 
began to preach as a licentiate. Ten years later a 
church was formally organized and he was ordained 
its first Pastor, preaching there until his death forty- 
five years later. Only two unusual events distin- 
guished his life ; in 1676 he aided the volunteers in 
the Narragansett War against King Philip and in 
recognition of his services, both as physician and 
minister, the General Court granted him an equal 
share of land with tlie volunteers. He was a lead- 
ing minister of the Colony, and, because of his age 
and the respect in which he was held, his name 
gave great weight to the list of Trustees of the new 
College. Rev. James Noyes married Dorothy, 
daughter of Thomas Stanton, the famous Indian 
interpreter. They had two daughters and five sons, 
one of whom, Rev. Joseph Noyes, was a Tutor at 
Yale, and Pastor of the Old First Church in New 
Haven. Rev. James Noyes died at Stonington, 
December 30, 17 19. 



KNIGHT, Jonathan, 1789-1864. 

Born in Norwalk, Conn., 1789; graduated from Yale, 
1808 and from the Medical School of the University of 
Pennsylvania, 1813; Tutor at Yale, i8io-i8ii ; Professor 
of Anatomy and Physiology, 1813-1838 and of Surgery 
for the rest of his life ; Lecturer on Obstetrics, 1820-1829 ; 
President of the American Medical Association; Di- 
rector of the Connecticut General Hospital ; assisted 
in establishing the Knight Military Hospital at New 
Haven, 1864; died, 1864. 

JONATHAN KNIGHT, M.D., Medical Professor 
at Yale, was born in Norwalk, Connecticut, 
September 4, 17S9. He was a son of a physician 
of the same name wlio served as a Surgeon's mate 




JONATHAN KNIGHT 

in the War for Independence and afterward prac- 
tised in Norwalk. After graduating from Yale 
(180S) the son taught in Norwalk and New London 
for about two years, was a Tutor at Yale while pur- 
suing preliminary medical studies, and took his 
medical degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 
1813. He located for practice in New Haven, and 
was called the same year to the Chair of Anatomy 
and Physiology at the Yale Medical School, which 
he occupied until 1838, when he took the Professor- 
ship of Surgery, continuing in that capacity until 
his retirement as Professor " Emeritus " the year of 
his death. He died August 25, 1S64. He was 
also Lecturer on Obstetrics from 1820 to 1829. 
Aside from his College duties and his private prac- 



UNIIKRSITIES ^ND THEIR SONS 



185 



tice, he was for a long time connecleil with the 
Connecticut General Hospital as Surgeon anil 
Director, and was instrumental in establishing in 
1864 the New Haven Military Hospital which was 
named in his honor and was President of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association for the years 1853-1854. 
Professor Knight received the degree of Master of 
Arts from Vale in course, and that of Doctor of 
Medicine in 181 8. 



LATHROP, John Hiram, 1799-1866. 

Born in Sherburne, N. Y., 1799; graduate of Yale, 
1819 ; Tutor there, 1820-1826 ; admitted to the Bar, but 
resumed educational work; Professor at Hamilton; 
President University of Missouri; Pres. University of 
Indiana ; Chancellor University of Wisconsin, and 
again President University of Missouri ; died, 1866. 

JOHN HIRAM LATHROP, I.L.D., 'lutor at 
Yale, was born in Sherburne, Chenango county, 
New York, January 22, 1799. He was a graduate 
of Yale Class of 1819, and held a Tutorship in the 
College till 1S26, when he was admitted to the liar 
but almost immediately gave up the practice of law, 
giving preference to educational pursuits, teaching 
in Norwich, Vermont, and Gardiner, Maine. In 
1829, he became Professor of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy at Hamilton, later taking the 
Chair of Ethics, Law, Civil Polity and History and 
in 1840 was chosen President of the ITniversity of 
Missouri. Elected First Chancellor of the Lhiiver- 
sity of Wisconsin in 1849, he retained that post until 
called to the executive Chair of the University of 
Indiana. Resigning the latter post in i860 to take 
the Professorship of English Literature at the Uni- 
versity of Missouri, he was again elected its Presi- 
dent in 1865 and died in office August 2, of the 
following year. President Lathrop received the 
degree of Doctor of Laws from Hamilton in 1845. 
He published a number of addresses relating to 
advanced education. 



LITTLE, Robbins, 1832- 

Born in Newport, R. I., 1832 ; graduate of Yale, 
1851 ; Tutor in Greek there till 1854; studied at the 
Harvard Law School ; practised in New York City ; 
Instructor in the United States Naval Academy, 1865- 
i86g ; Examiner of Claims at the War Department, 
1873-1878; Superintendent and Trustee of the Astor 
Library, N.Y., 1887-96. 

ROBBINS LITTLE, ^LA., LL.B., Tutor at 
Yale, was born in Newport, Rhode Island, 
February 15, 1832. He is the son of William Little 
of Boston, and of Sophia Louisa (Robbins) Little, 



distinguished for her poetic genius and benevolence. 
His maternal grandfather was United States Senator 
.■\sher Robbins of Rhode Island. Graduating at 
Yale with the Class of 1851, he acted as Tutor in 
Greek there till 1854, and subsequently pursued the 
regular course at the Harvanl Law School. Locating 
in New York City, he was for a time associated in 
practice with William Winthrop, and accepting the 
post of Instructor in International Law at the United 
States Naval .Academy, Annapolis, in 1865, he served 
in that capacity until 1869. He entered the War 
Department at Washington in 1S73 as an Examiner 
of Claims, and remained there until 1878, in which 
year he was chosen Superintendent of the Astor 
Library, in New York City, and afterwards became 
a Trustee. While in charge of the Library he was 
enabled through the increased endowment by the 
grandson of its founder, to enlarge its collection and 
improve its facilities for research, especially by the 
publication of a new printed catalogue. Mr. Little 
received the degree of Master of Arts from Yale in 
course, and that of Bachelor of Laws from Harvard 
in TS70. 



LYMAN, Joseph, 1749-1828. 

Born in Lebanon, Conn., 1749; graduated at Yale, 
1767; Tutor there, 1770-71 ; entered the Congregational 
ministry; preached in Hatfield, Mass., fifty-six years; 
an outspoken patriot during the Revolutionary War ; 
an early promoter of home and foreign missions ; 
died in Hatfield, Mass., 1828. 

JOSEPH LYMAN, D.D., Tutor at Yale, prior to 
the War for Independence, was born in Leba- 
non, Connecticut, April 14, 1749. He was a grad- 
uate of Yale, Class of 1767, returned to the College 
as a Tutor, serving in that capacity in 1770 and 
I 7 71, while studying theology, and receiving ordina- 
tion to the ministry at Hatfield, ALassachusetts in 
1772, was Pastor of the Congregational Church 
there for the rest of his life, which terminated 
March 27, 1828. His outspoken defence of the 
American cause during the Revolutionary period 
was bitterly resented by the Tory element in his 
congregation. Missionary work, both home and 
foreign, found in him a zealous promoter and* a 
liberal contributor, and he held the Presidency of 
the Hampshire Missionary Society, and of the 
American Board of Foreign Missions, the latter in 
1 82 3. In 1 80 1 Dr. Lyman received the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity from Williams. He published 
seventeen occasional sermons delivered between the 
years 1774 and 182 1. 



86 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



ADAMS, William, 1807-1880. 

Born in Colchester. Conn., 1807; graduated from 
Yale 1827 and from the Andover (Mass.) Theological 
Seminary 1830; preached in Brighton, Mass., 1831- 
1S34; was Pastor of the Central, afterward the Madison 
Square Presbyterian Church, New York City, 1834- 
1873 ; President of the Union Theological Seminary 
from 1873 until his death ; a Trustee of Princeton from 
1873 ; died, 1880. 

W II. I.I.AM ADAMS, D.D., LL.D., Trustee of 
Princeton, was born in Colchester, Con- 
iieLticut, January 25, 1807. He was a son of John 
Adams, LL.D. and Elizabeth (Ripley) Adams, the 




\MI,1.IA.\1 .'\1M.MS 

former of whom was Principal of the Colchester 
Academy until 1810, when he went to Phillips- 
Andover Academy in the same capacity, and the 
latter was a descendant of Governor Bradford 
of the Plymouth Colony. Fitting for College at 
Andover and graduating from Yale in 1827, he 
completed his theological course at the Andover 
Seminary in 1830, and his first Pastorate was in 
Brigliton, Massachusetts, where he remained three 
years. In 1834 he began his labors in New York 
City as Pastor of the Central, afterward the Madison 
Square Presbyterian Church, and retained his Pas- 
toral connection with that society for nearly forty 
years. In 1873 he was called to the Presidency of 
the Union Theological Seminary, New York City, in 



addition to which he occupied tlie Chair of Sacred 
Rhetoric, and the rest of his life was devoted to 
these duties. President .Adams dieil at Orange 
Mountain, New Jersey, .August 3, 18S0. He be- 
longed to the new school of Presbyterians and in liis 
later years labored earnestly for Church iniity. He 
made two visits to Scotland, as representative of the 
American Assembly to that of the Scottish churches, 
and as a delegate from the Evangelical Alliance to 
the Emperor of Russia, he succeeded in securing 
religious liberty for the Dissenters from the Greek 
Church in the Baltic provinces. Besides holding 
the Presidency of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign 
Missions and that of the New York Institution for 
the instruction of the deaf and dumb, he was 
prominently identified with the American Board of 
Foreign Missions, the American Tract and Bible 
Societies, and was instrumental in founding the 
Young Men's Christian Association. The degree of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by the 
University of the City of New York in 1842, and in 
1869 he was made a Doctor of Laws by Prince- 
ton, of whicli he was a Trustee for the last seven 
years of his life. President Adams was the author 
of: The Three Gardens: Eden, Gethsemane and 
Paradise ; a Biographical Sketch of Isaac Taylor, 
prefacing the Spirit of Hebrew Poetry ; Thanks- 
giving, Memoirs of the Day and Helps to the Habit ; 
Conversations of Jesus Christ with Representative 
Men; and edited the works of Robert Hall, (four 
volumes). 



BAYARD, John, 1738-1807. 

Born in Bohemia Manor, Md., 1738 ; became a prom- 
inent merchant of Philadelphia; took an active part in 
the exciting events preceding the Revolutionary War 
and served as an officer during that struggle ; member of 
the Continental Congress; Mayor of New Brunswick, 
N. J., in 1790; Judge of the Court of Common Pleas 
for Somerset county, that state ; and a Trustee of 
Princeton, 1778-1807; died, 1807. 

JOHN B.AY.ARD, Trustee of Princeton, was born 
at Bohemia Manor, Cecil county, Maryland, 
August II, 1738. He was of French Huguenot 
ancestry and a great-great-grandson of Samuel 
Bayard, a merchant of Amsterdam, who married 
a sister of Peter Stuyvesant, the last Governor of 
New Amsterdam. He received his business train- 
ing in Philadelphia where he subsequently became 
a prosperous merchant, and took an active part 
in the exciting events which culminated in open 
hostility against the British. He was one of the 



UNIVERSITIES ANB THEIR SONS 



187 



signers of the Non- Importation Agreement of 1765, 
joined the Sons of Liberty in 1766, was a member 
of the Provincial Congress in i 7 74, of the Council of 
Safety for the years 1775-177'^, commandeil a regi- 
ment at the 15attles of lirandywine, Cermantown and 
Trinceton and was complimented by Ceneral Wash- 
ington for his gallantry in the last named engage- 
ment, lie also furnished arms during the war and 
jointly with a friend fitted out a privateer. In i 7S5 
he was elected a member of the Continental Con- 
gress. Ha\-iiig settled in New Brunswick, New 
Jersey, after his retirement from business, he was 




JOHN BAYARD 

elected Mayor in 1790, and subsequently appointed 
Presiding Judge of the Court of Common Pleas for 
Somerset county. Colonel Bayard was actively in- 
teresteil in the welfare of Princeton and served as a 
Trustee from 1778 until his death, which occurred 
January 7, 1S07. 



BALDWIN, James Mark, i86i- 

Born in Columbia, S. C 1861 ; received his early 
education at private schools in Columbia; fitted for 
College in the Salem Collegiate Institute at Salerii, N. 
J.; entered Princeton in 1881. graduated in the Class 
of 1884; studied in Leipzig, Berlin and Tubingen, 1884- 
1885 ; returned to Princeton and studied in the Prince- 
ton Theological Seminary, 1885-1887 ; appointed In- 
structor in Modern Languages in Princeton, 1886; 



Professor of Philosophy in Lake Forest University, 
1887; Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, 1889 ; Professor of Experimental 
Psychology at Princeton, 1893, the title of the Chair 
being changed to Stuart Professorship of Psychology 
in 1897. 

J.\Mi:S iM.\RK B.M.DWIN, Ph.D., Stuart I'ro- 
fessor of Psychology at Princeton, was born in 
Columbia, South Carolina, January 12, 1861, son of 
Cyrus Hull and I.ydia ICunice (Ford) Baldwin. On 
the paternal side he is descended from an old ling- 
lish family living in Dundridge, Buck's coimty, 
England, where their records extend in one un- 
broken line, back to 1552. Descendants of this 
family came to America, and in Colonial times were 
living in Milford and Watertown, Connecticut. 
Professor Baldwin's father went to South Carolina 
before the war of secession, was Collector of the 
Port of Charleston in the first administration of 
President Grant, and during Grant's second admin- 
istration, and the succeeding one of President Hayes, 
he was United States' Sub-Treasurer stationed at 
Charleston. Professor Baldwin's education, for the 
first sixteen years of his life, was obtained in private 
schools in Columbia, South Carolina. He then en- 
tered Salem Collegiate Institute at Salem, New 
Jersey, where he was fitted for College, entering the 
Sophomore Academic Class in Princeton i8<Si. He 
was graduated as valedictorian of his Class in 1884, 
taking also the Chancellor Green fellowship in men- 
tal science. This year he went abroad and took a 
special course of study in mental and moral science 
and philosophy at Leipzig, Berlin and Tubingen, 
remaining there until 1885 ; when he returned to 
Princeton and spent two years of study in the Prince- 
ton Theological Seminary, 1885 to 1887. He was 
appointed Instructor in Modern Languages in 
Princeton in 1S86, and the next year was called to 
the Professorship of Philosophy in Lake Forest Uni- 
versity. This chair he filled until 1889, when he 
became Professor in Logic and Metaphysics in the 
University of Toronto. Four years after, in 1S93, 
he returned to Princeton as Professor of Experi- 
mental Psychology, which Chair he continues to fill, 
the title however, having been changed in 1897, to 
Stuart Professorship of Psychology. Professor Bald- 
win has published a number of works on Psychology, 
his translation of Ribot's (German Psychology ap- 
pearing in 1887, Handbook of Psychology, 2 vol- 
umes (2nd ed. 1S91); Elements of Psychology; 
Mental Development in the Child and the Race 
(4th ed. 1899), and French and German transla- 
tions of the last-named work in 1897-9S. 'I'hen 



88 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



followed Social and I'^thical Intcrpietations in Men- 
tal Development (2nd ed. i<S99, with French and 
German editions in 1889). His latest books are 
Story of the Mind, 1899 (Italian edition, 1890) and 
I'hilosojjhy and Life, 1S90 ; Editor-in-Chief of the 
Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, called by 
his name, Editor Princeton Contributions to Psy- 
chology, from Volume I, 1895, and has also con- 
tributed articles to various American, English, Ger- 
man, French and Italian journals. In 1892, 
Professor Baldwin was Vice-President International 
Congress of Psychology, London, of which he is a 




he is an Independi-nt, favoring tariff reform, civil ser- 
vice reform, international arbitration, and the gold 
standard. He was married November 22, 1888, to 
Helen Hayes Green, daughter of Professor William 
Henry Green, President of Princeton Theological 
Seminary. They have two children : Helen Green, 
and Elizabeth Ford Baldwin. 



BERRIEN, John. 

Was a resident of New Jersey ; served as an officer 
in the War for Independence ; was closely identified 
with the interests of Princeton, 1763-1772. 

JOHN BERRIEN, Trustee and Secretary of 
Princeton prior to the Revolution, resided in 
New Jersey. The place of his nativity as well as 
the date of his birth cannot be ascertained, and but 
little is known of his life and character, beyond the 
fact that he served with some distinction in the 
struggle for American Independence, and held a 
Major's commission in the Continental Army. It 
can be safely inferred that he was equally prominent 
in civil affairs and that he took more than an ordi- 
nary interest in the higher education of his fellow 
men, as he was a member of the Board of Trustees of 
Princeton from 1 763 to 1 772, and served as Secretary 
during the years 1 766-1 767. His son, John 
McPherson Berrien, who was born in New Jersey, 
August 23, 1781, and graduated at Princeton at the 
unusually early age of fifteen years, became a promi- 
nent lawyer of Georgia, was Judge of the Eastern 
District, State and United States Senator, and 
Attorney-General in President Jackson's Cabinet. 



J. MARK BALDWIN 



permanent member of the Council ; member Jury 
of Award, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 
in 1893 ; Honorary President International Con- 
gress of Criminal Anthropology, Geneva, in 1896 ; 
Co-E;ditor and Founder of the Psychological 
Review ; Associate Editor of Johnson's Universal 
Cyclopaedia ; President American Psychological Asso- 
ciation, 1897. He also holds the gold medal of the 
Royal Academy of Science and Letters of Denmark, 
(awarded 1897, in the Section of Literature). He 
is a member of the .American Philosophical Society 
(of Philadelphia) ; of the American Psychological 
Association ; of the American Society of Naturalists ; 
of the Institut International de Sociologie (elected in 
1S99) ; of the Cliosophic Literary Society of Prince- 
ton ; and a member of the Nassau Club. In politics 



BEATTY, Charles, 1715-1772. 

Born in Ireland, 1715; ordained to the Ministry, 
1742; was actively engaged in missionary work among 
the Indians; a Trustee of Princeton 1763-1772; col- 
lected funds for the support of the College; died, 1772. 

CHARLES BEATTY, A.M., Trustee and Bene- 
factor of Princeton, was born in County 
.■Xntrim, Ireland, about the year 1715. He acquired 
a classical education prior to his arrival in .America, 
which he reached in a destitute condition after a 
prolonged passage, and while engaged in peddling 
he chanced to meet at Neshaminy, Pennsylvania, 
the founder of the Log College, Rev. William 
Tennent, who perceiving his intellectual attainments 
induced him to study for the ministry with a view of 
becoming a missionary. He accordingly pursued a 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



189 



theological course, was ordained in 1742 and in 
the following year took charge of the Presbyterian 
Church at Neshaniiny Forks. He was subsequently 
engaged in missionary work among the Indians, and 
while serving as Chaplain of Franklin's expedition 
to the Northwest frontier, he secured a full atten- 
dance at the daily religious services by following 
the Commander's advice, which was to dispense the 
daily allowance of grog immediately after prayers. 
In his later years Mr. Beatty devoted considerable 



the welfare and prosperity of Princeton, of which he 
was a Trustee from 1804 to 1809, and he was made 
a Doctor of Divinity by that institution in 1810. 



CARNAHAN, James, 1775-1859. 

Born in Penn., 1775; graduated at Princeton, 1800; 
studied theology; Tutor at Princeton; licensed to 
preach ; Pastor at Whitesboro and Utica, NY.; Pres- 
ident of Princeton, 1823; President of the Board of 



Trustees of Princeton Theological Seminary ; Trustee 
time to collecting funds to relieve the necessities of of Princeton; died in Newark, N. J., iCsg. 
Princeton. He went to the West Indies for that 



purpose and died of yellow fever at Bridgetown. 
Barbadoes, August 13, 1772. His Journal of Two 
Months Tour Among the Frontier Inhabitants of 
Pennsylvania was printed in London in 176S, and 
a letter to the Rev. John Erskine wherein he ad- 
vances the theory that the Aborigines of America 
are descendants of the lost Hebrew tribes was also 
published. 



CONDICT, Ira, 1764-1811. 

Born in Orange, N. J., 1764; educated at Princeton; 
entered the ministry as Pastor of the Churches in 
Newton, Hardwick and Shappenack, N. J. ; Pastor of 
the Reformed Dutch Church in New Brunswick, N.J., 
1794-181 1 ; Trustee of Princeton, 1804-1809 ; Professor of 
Moral Philosophy at Queen's (now Rutgers) College, 
and Vice-President 1809 until his death in 181 1. 

IRA CONDICT, D.D., Trustee of Princeton, was 
born in Orange, New Jersey, February 21, 
1764. He was graduated at Princeton in T7S4, and 
while studying theology was engaged in teaching 
school at Monmcjuth, New Jersey. In 17S7 he was 
ordained to the ministry, and for the succeeding 
seven years had charge of the Presbyterian churches 
in Newton, Hardwick and Shappenack, New Jersey. 
He was called to the Reformed Dutch Church in 
New Brunswick, New Jersey in 1794, and retained 
that Pastorate until his death, which occurred June i, 
1811. In 1807, he succeeded in re-opening Queen's 
College (now Rutgers) having been aided in his ef- 
forts by contributions from the various Reformed 
churches in that neighborhood and for the first two 
years of its renewed existence he acted as President 
pro tem. anil had charge of the advanced class. De- 
clining the Presidency in 1809, he accepted the 
Vice-Presidency in conjunction with the Professor- 
ship of Moral Philosophy, and as the nominal Presi- 
dent was otherwise employed, he was practically in 
charge of the Executive Department for the rest of 
his life. Dr. Condict was also actively interested in 



JAMES CARNAHAN, ninth President of Prince- 
ton, was born in Cumberland county, Penn- 
sylvania, November 15, 1775; "-I't'l i» Newark, 




JAMES CARNAHAN 

New Jersey, March 3, 1859. Graduating at Prince- 
ton in 1800, he spent a year in theological study 
under Doctor John McMillan at Cannonsburg, 
Pennsylvania, and for two years succeeding was a 
Tutor at Princeton. Resigning in 1803, he was 
licenseil by the Presbytery of New Brunswick at 
Baskingridge in April, 1804 and for a time preacheil 
in the vicinity of Hackettstown, Oxford and Knowl- 
ton. New Jersey. In January 1S05 he was ordained 
Pastor of the United Churches of \\'hitesboro and 
Utica, New V'ork, remaining there until 1814. Fol- 
lowing this period he taught school for nine years, 
until 1823, when he was elected and inaugurated 



\()0 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



President of rrinccton, in whicli capacity he served 
until 1S54. In 1S43 lie was elected President of the 
Board of Trustees of Princeton Theological Seminary. 
On his retirement from the Presidency he was chosen 
a Trustee of the College, and continued in this ofiRce 
until his death. 



DAVIES, Samuel, 1724-1761. 

Born near Summit Ridge, Del., 1724; educated at 
Blair's Seminary; licensed to preach, 1746; went to 
England to solicit funds for the College of N. J.; in- 
strumental in establishing the Presbytery in Virginia; 
President of Princeton, 1759; died in Princeton, N. J., 
1761. 

SAMUEL DAVIES. fourth President of Prince- 
ton, was born near Summit Ridge, New- 
castle county, Delaware, November 3, 1734, of 




SAMUEL UAVIIiS 

parents who were of AA'elsh descent. He was edu- 
cated at home and in Rev. Samuel Blair's Seminary 
at Fagg's Manor. In 1746 he was licensed to 
jireach by the Newcastle Presbytery, and in the 
following year was ordained as an evangehst and 
sent to Hanover county, Virginia. Although the 
enmity of the civil authorities made this a difficult 
field, he was successful in his labors, and he soon 
obtained, through the influence of the C'lovernor, a 
license to officiate' at four different places of wor- 



ship about Hanover, which was subsequently ex- 
tended to three additional churches. In 1753 he 
went to iMigland, in company with Gilbert Tennent, 
to solicit funds for the College of New Jersey — a 
mission which resulted successfully. .After his return 
he was instrumental in establishing the first Presby- 
tery in Virginia. In 1758 he was chosen President 
of Princeton, as successor to Jonathan Edwards, but 
declined the honor. In 1759 the Presidency of the 
College being again urged upon him, he was 
prevailed upon to accejit, but his death a year and 
a half later cut short his term of office and ended a 
career that was full of promise. Mr. Davies pub- 
lished many sermons and essays, and also wrote 
verses of merit. He died in Princeton, P'ebruary 4, 
I 761. 



HUNTER, Andrew, 1752-1823. 

Born in Virginia, 1752; graduated at Princeton, 1772; 
entered the ministry, 1773; Brigade Chaplain in the 
Revolutionary War; Professor of Mathematics and 
Astronomy at Princeton, 1804-08; Trustee, 1788-1804; 
appointed Chaplain in the Navy, 1810; died in Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1823. 

ANDREW HUNTER, A.M., Professor and 
Trustee of Princeton, was born in Virginia 
in 1752, son of an officer in the British service. He 
was educated at Princeton, graduating in 1772 and 
receiving his Master's degree later. Entering the 
ministry by virtue of a license granted him by the 
Philadelphia Presbytery, he was engaged in mission- 
ary work until joining the Continental Army as 
Brigade Chaplain, and for his meritorious services 
at the Battle of Monmouth, he was thanked publicly 
by General Washington. Subsequent to his dis- 
charge from the army he turned his attention to 
educational pursuits and in 1794 became Principal 
of a school in the neighborhood of Trenton, New 
Jersey. From 1804 till 1808 he was a mem- 
ber of the Faculty of Princeton, occupying 
the Chair of Mathematics and Astronomy, was 
Principal of the Bordertown Academy for a short 
time, and in iSio accepted an appointment as 
Chaplain in the United States Navy. His devotion 
to Princeton was forcibly manifested whenever 
ojiportunity permitted, and for sixteen years he 
served upon its Board of Trustees. Andrew 
Hunter's death occurred at the National Capital, 
February 24, 1823. His wife w.as a daughter of 
Richard Stockton, one of the signers of the Declar- 
ation of Independence. One of his sons, David, 
graduated at the United States Military Academy, 



UNll'ERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



191 



rose to llie rank of CajUain in the rcgukir army 
and was Major-General of Volunteers during tlie 
Civil War. Anotiicr son, Lewis Boudinot Hunter, 
served as Surgeon in the navy (iuring the Mexican 
and Civil Wars, was Fleet Surgeon under Admiral 
Porter in the latter struggle, rose to the rank of 
Medical Director and was retired as a Commodore 
in 1S7 1. 



HUMPHREYS, Willard, 1867- 

Born in New York, 1867; fitted for College in Brook- 
lyn Polytechnic Institute ; studied for one semester in 
i885 at the University of Berlin ; and for one semester 
in 1887 at the University of Heidelberg ; graduated 
Columbia with the degree of A.B , Class of 1S88; im- 
mediately after graduation entered the School of Law 
and the School of Political Science at Columbia, and 
the Medical School of New York University; received 
the degree of A.M. from Columbia in 1889, and that of 
Ph.D. from Columbia and M.D. from the New York 
University in i8go; admitted to the New York Bar in 
1890; taught school in New York for a year, and prac- 
tised law in that city for a year and a half; went to 
Princeton as Instructor in Latin, 1892 ; made Assistant 
Professor of German in 1894; Professor of the German 
Language and Literature in 1897 ; was Editor of the 
Columbia Law Times, Associate Editor of the Medico 
Legal Journal, and Secretary of the Medico-Legal 
Society. 

WILL.'VRD HUMPHREYS, Ph.D., M.D., Pro- 
fessor of (ierman Language and Litera- 
ture at Princeton, was born in New York, June 15, 
1867, son of h. Willard, and Mary (Cunningham) 
Humphreys. On the paternal side he is of English 
origin, being a tlirect descendant of Jonas Humph- 
rey, who was born in Wendover, England, about 
1580, and settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 
1637. His great-grandfather was Colonel William 
Humphrey, an officer in the Revolutionary Army. 
His maternal grandfather was a Scotchman. His 
primary education was obtained in a public school 
in Hanover, Germany, and he afterwards attended 
the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. He entered 
Columbia in 1884 and was graduated with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, in the Class of 1888, 
having spent the summer semesters of 18S6 and 
18S7 at the Universities of Bedin and Heidelberg. 
He then entered the School of Law and the School 
of Political Science at Columbia, and at the same 
time became a student in the Medical School of 
New York University. He received the degree of 
Master of Arts from Columbia in 1889, and in 1S90 
was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 
from Columbia and that of Doctor of Medicine from 



the New \'ork Uni\'i-r>it\-, and ;it the same time was 
admitted to the New \'ork Bar. After teaching 
school in New York for a year he practised law in 
that city for a year and a half. In 1892 he resigned 
the practice of law to resume the profession of 
teaching, and went to Princeton as Instructor in 
Latin. He was made Assistant Professor of German 
in 1894, and in 1897 accepted his present position, 
that of Professor of the German Language and Lit- 
erature. Professor Humphreys has been Editor of 
the Columbia Law Times ; Associate Editor of the 
Medico-Legal Journal ; and Secretary of the Mcdico- 




VVILLARD HUMl'HREVS 

Legal Society. He was also a member of the Psi 
Upsilon Club, the Sons of the Revolution, the Re- 
form Club, and the Union League Club of New 
York. He has published Selections from (,)uintus 
Curtius and an Edition of Schiller's Jungfrau von 
Orleans. He has taken no part in jiublic life. In 
June 1898, he was married to Mary Pnnce, of New 
York City. 



LEYDT, John, 1718-1783. 

Born in Holland, 1718 ; emigrated to America when 
young ; entered the ministry, 1748 and was Pastor of 
the united churches of New Brunswick and Six Mile 
Run, N. J., the rest of his life; an earnest Revolution- 
ary patriot; Trustee of Princeton, 1760-66; one of the 



192 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



founders and a Trustee of Queen's (now Rutgers! 
College; died, 1783. 

JOHN LKVDT, one of the early I'rustees of 
Princeton, was born in Holland in 1718. 
Arriving in America when young, he located in 
the neighborhood of Fishkill, Dutchess county, 
New York, and subsequently studying theology was 
ordained to the ministry in 1748. His only Pastor- 
ate was that of the united churches of New Bruns- 
wick and Six Mile Run, New Jersey, and he retained 
it until his death, in 1783. During the conference 
between the Conferentic and the Coetus he earnestly 
supported the latter, believing the best interests of 
religion demanded separation from the Reformed 
Church of Europe and the domestic education of 
its ministers. The movement for American Inde- 
pendence found in him a steadfast patriot, and in 
his freedom-inspiring sermons he fearlessly exhorted 
young men to take up arms against tyranny and 
oppression. From 1760 to 1766 Mr. Leydt served 
as a Trustee of Princeton and assisted in organizing 
Queen's (now Rutgers) in 1770, acting in a similar 
capacity for that College. His published works 
consist of : True Liberty the Way to Peace ; A 
Defence, of same, and a number of pamphlets on 
the church controversy previously alluded to. 



former extended from 1807 until the year of his 
death. His wile was Jane, daughter of John Bay- 
ard, of Bohemia Manor. His son, Littleton Kirk- 




ANDREW KIRKI'ATRICK 



KIRKPATRICK, Andrew, 1756-1831. 

Born in New Jersey, 1756 ; graduated at Princeton, 
1775 ; admitted to the Bar, 1785 ; member of the Legis- 
lature, 1797; Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 
six years and Chief Justice twenty-one years; Trustee 
of Princeton, 1807-1831 ; died, 1831. 

ANDREW KIRKPATRICK, A.M., Trustee of 
Princeton, was born in Mine Brook, New 
Jersey, February 17, 1756. He was a son of David 
Kirkpatrick, a Scotchman, who came to .'\merica in 
1726. Graduating from Princeton in i 775 he was 
afterwards an Instructor in the Grammar- School 
connected with Rutgers and having finished his 
legal studies was admitted to the Bar in 1785. He 
located in Morristown, New Jersey, where he rapidly 
acquired a high reputation and an extensive practice. 
In 1797, he was elected to the Legislature but was 
shortly afterward elevated to the Supreme Bench 
where he continued as an Associate Judge for six 
years, and as Chief-Justice for twenty-one years. 
Judge Kirkpatrick died in New Brunswick, New 
Jersey, January 7, 1831. He received the degree 
of Master of Arts both from Princeton and Rutgers, 
the latter in 1783, and his Trusteeship of the 



patrick, Princeton, 1815, was a member of Congress 
in 1843-45, and two of his grandsons occupied 
seats upon the Supreme Bench of New Jersey. 



LIBBEY, William, 1855- 

Born in Jersey City. N J., 1855; received his early 
education at the Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic 
Institute, and from private tutors; graduated Prince- 
ton, Class of 1877; received degrees of M.A. and Sc.D. 
from Princeton in 1879; took graduate study at Prince- 
ton, under Professor Arnold Guyot, then went abroad 
and studied in the University of Berlin, and in the 
College de France, Paris ; was made Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Natural Science at Princeton, in 1882 ; 
Professor of Physical Geography and Histology, and 
Director of the E. M. Museum of Geology and Arch- 
aeology, in 1883. 

WILLIAM LIBBEY, A.M., D.Sc, Professor 
of Physical Geography at Princeton, was 
born in Jersey City, New Jersey, March 27, 1855, 
son of William and Elizabeth (Marsh) Libbey. On 
the paternal side lie is of English descent, through 
John Libbey, an ancestor who came from England 
in 1630 and settled on Richmond Island, in Maine. 
Other members of the Libbey family were natives of 



UNiri'.KsrriEs and tiikir sons 



'93 



Ne\v Hampshire (princi|)ally of Scarborough and 1S79 ; CJeological Society, London 1S79; Gcolog- 

Rye, New Hampshire) down to William Libbey ical Society, Paris 18.S0; Clcographical Society, 

father of the subject of this sketch, who was born Paris 1880; one of the Founders of the American 

in New York in 1820. Professor L.ibbey's early Naturalists Society; fellow of the American Asso- 

educaiion was obtained at the IJrooklyn Collegiate ciation for the Advancement of Science ; mem- 

and Polytechnic Institute, and from (irivate Tutors. ber American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 

He graduated from Princeton in the Class of 1S77, American Geographical Society, New York, Amer- 



and then look special graduate courses at Princeton 
under Professor Arnold (luyot, receiving the degrees 
of Master of Arts and Doctor of Science in 1879. 
He also studied abroad, s]iending a year at the 
University of Berlin and the College de France, 




WILLIAM LIBBEY 

Paris. In 1882 he was made Assistant Professor of 
Natural Science at Princeton, and since 1883, has 
been Professor of Physical Geography and Histol- 
ogy, and Director of E. M. Museum of Geology and 
Archffiologv. He has held various offices, and is a 
member of numerous societies among which are the 
following: Foreign Corresponding Secretary Amer- 
ican Geographical Society 1887 ; Vice-President 
American Society Naturalists 1892-1895 ; Direc- 
tor Physical Investigations United States Fish 
Commission 1888-1892 ; Director Geological Mu- 
seum Princeton 1883 ; Director, Secretary and 
Treasurer Princeton Water Company 1880; Direc- 
tor Princeton Savings Bank 1S90; Trustee First 
Presbyterian Church, Princeton 1881 ; Sons of the 
Revolution ; Royal Geographical Society London 
VOL. 11. — 13 



ican Society Naturalists, Geographical Society 
Philadelphia, National (leographic Society, Wash- 
ington ; corresponding member of tlie Academy of 
Natural Science, Philadelphia and the New York 
Academy of Science, New York Historical Society, 
New Jersey Historical Society. He is the author of 
numerous scientific and literary articles in magazines 
and daily papers, and the leader or member of 
scientific expeditions in various parts of the L'nited 
States, Alaska, Hawaii, Cuba, (Jrcenland, Russia, 
etc. In politics he is an Independent Democrat. 
He was married December 7, 1880, to Mary Eliza- 
beth Green. They have had four children : Eliza- 
beth Marsh, William Henry (Ireen, George Kennedy 
and Amy Morse Libbey. 



MASON, John, 1734-1792. 

Born in Linlithgowshire, Scotland, in 1734 ; studied 
at Abernethy; Assistant Professor of Logic and Moral 
Philosophy in the same institution; Pastor in N. Y. 
City; Moderator of the Associate Reformed Church; 
Trustee of Princeton ; received the D.D. degree from 
Princeton, 1786; died in N. Y. City, 1792. 

JOHN M.-\SON, D.D., 'I'rustee of Princeton, was 
born in Linlithgowshire, Scotland, in 1743. 
At the early age of twelve he was pursuing theolog- 
ical studies at Abernethy, and at twenty-four he was 
Assistant Professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy 
in the institution at which lie had graduated. Or- 
dained to the ministry in 1761, he was sent to this 
country to take charge of the Cedar Street Church 
in New York City. Here he labored for the union 
of the Presbyterians into one denomination, believ- 
ing that the causes which divided them in Scotland 
did not exist in the LTnited States. F"or this he in- 
curred the displeasure of the Scotch Synod, resulting 
in his suspension by that body ; but he persevered, 
and in 1782 a general union of the Reformed Presby- 
terians was effected under the name of the Associate 
Reformed Church, of which Dr. Mason was the first 
Moderator. He received the liegree of Doctor of 
Divinity in i 7S6 from Princeton, of which institution 
he was a Trustee from 1779 to 1785. He labored 
for thirty years in his first and only Pastorate, and 
died .April 19, i 792. 



94 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



PARROTT, Thomas Marc, 1866- 

Born in Dayton, Ohio, 1866 ; prepared for College at 
Deaver Collegiate Institute in Dayton, and at Morris 
Academy in Morristown, N. J. ; graduated from Prince- 
ton, with degree of B.A., in 1888; taught for two years 
at Miami University, in Oxford, Ohio; went abroad 
and spent three years in the study of English, German 
and Philosophy, at Leipzig University, receiving de- 
gree of Ph.D. in 1893; was University Fellow in Eng- 
lish at Princeton, 1833 189} ; Under-master in English 
and German at Lawrenceville, 1894-1896; since 1896 
Assistant Professor of English at Princeton. 

THOMAS MARC PARROTT, Ph.D., Assist- 
ant Professor of English at Princeton, was 
born in Dayton, Ohio, December 22, 1866, son of 




T. M. P.4RR0Tr 

Col. Edwin Augustus and Mary May (Thomas) 
Parrott. On the paternal side the family was orig- 
inally of New England origin, with a strain of Irish 
blood coming in with the Sullivans ; while his 
mother's family were of English descent, from the 
borders of Wales, intermingled with the New Eng- 
land blood of the Fishers and Mays. His early 
education was obtained at various schools, princi- 
pally at the Deaver Collegiate Institute in his native 
town, and at Morris Academy at Morristown, New 
Jersey. He was graduated from Princeton as a 
Bachelor of Arts, in the Class of 1888, and for two 
years immediately after graduation was a teacher at 
Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. The next three 
years were spent abroad where he took a course of 



study in English, German and Philosophy at the 
University of Leipzig, Germany, receiving his degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy in 1893. After these three 
years of study in Germany, he returned to America 
in 1S93, and was University Fellow in English at 
Prmcelon from 1893 to 1894. From 1894 to 1896 
he was Under-Master in English and German at 
Lawrenceville, and since 1896 has been Assistant 
Professor of English at Princeton. Mr. Parrott is a 
member of the Nassau Club. In politics he is a 
Republican, with a leaning toward the Independents. 



PATERSON, William, 1745-1806. 

Born at sea, in 17115; graduated at Princeton, 1763 ; 
studied law and admitted to the Bar; member of the 
N.J. State Constitutional Convention; Attorney-Gen- 
eral and a member of the Legislative Council ; delegate 
to the Continental Congress; delegate to the National 
Constitutional Convention; U. S. Senator; Governor 
of N. J.; Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court; received 
the LL.D. degree from Harvard, 1806; died in New 
Brunswick, N. J., 1806. 

WILLIAM PATERSON, LL.D., one of the 
founders of the Cliosophic Society at 
Princeton, was born at sea, in 1745, and when two 
years old was brought to this country by his parents, 
who were natives of Ireland. He was graduated 
at Princeton in 1763, and after studying law with 
Richard Stockton was admitted to the Bar in 1769. 
In 1776 he was made a member of the New Jersey 
State Constitutional Convention, and later in the same 
year he became Attorney General for the State and 
a member of the Legislative Council. He was after- 
wards successively a delegate to the Continental 
Congress, 1780-1781, delegate to the National 
Constitutional Convention in 1787, United States 
Senator in 17S9 until his resignation in March 1790, 
and became Governor of New Jersey in 1791. In 
I 793 he was appointed by Washington a Justice of 
the United States Supreme Court, in which capacity 
he served until his death, which took place while 
on a visit to his son-in-law, General Stephen Van 
Rennsalaer, at New Brunswick, New Jersey, Septem- 
ber 9, 1806. Judge Paterson was honored by 
Harvard by the bestowal of the degree of Doctor 
of Laws in 1806. 



RICHARDSON, Ernest Gushing, 1860- 

Born in Woburn, Mass., i860; fitted for College at 
Woburn High School; graduated Amherst, Class of 
1880; studied for the ministry at Hartford Theological 
Seminary, and graduated in 1883: was Librarian and 
Instructor in Hartford Theological Seminary, 1883- 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



195 



1S85 ; Librarian and Associate Professor of Bibliology 

in the Seminary, 1885-go ; was appointed Librarian of 
Princeton in 1890. 

ERNEST GUSHING RICHARDSON, Pli.H., 
Librarian of Princeton, was born in Woburn, 
Massachusetts, February 7, i860, son of James Gush- 
ing and Lydia Bartlett (Taylor) Richardson. On his 
father's side he is a descendant of Captain Edward 
Johnson (the author of " Wonder-working Provi- 
dence"), the Cottons and the Cushings. Among 
his maternal ancestors were the Lebarons, Bartletts 
and Warrens. The first John Cotton and the first 




ERNEST GUSHING RICHARDSON 



minor offices in the American and in the New 
Jrrsey Library .\ssociations, in tiie American Society 
of Church History, etc., and is a member of tlic 
American Historical Association, the Phi Beta Kappa 
and tlic Nassau Club of Princeton. .Xmong his 
pubhshed writings are : Bibliographical Synopsis of 
tlie Ante-Nicene Fathers, 18S7 ; Prolegomena and 
Translation Flusebius' Life of Constantine, 1890; 
Prolegomena and Translation Jerome and Genna- 
dius' Lives of Illustrious Men, 1892 ; Critical edition 
of Hieronymus and Gennadius I)e \'iris Inlustribus, 
Leipsic 1897, and Monographs on The Golden Le- 
gend ; Faust and the Clementine Recognitions and 
College and University Libraries and the following 
papers in the proceedings of the .American Library 
Association and the Library Journal : Classification of 
Theology; King Leo's Classification ; Encyclopaidia 
and Librarians ; Why Librarians Know ; Hours of 
Opening Libraries ; Library Clocks ; .Antediluvian 
Libraries; Reference Books (now being re-i)ubli.shecl 
as chapter in Library Handbook published by Bureau 
of Education at Washington ) and various other 
papers on the Qualifications of a Librarian, on 
Printed Catalogues, Mechanical Devices, etc., re- 
ports on School for Librarians, on Glasgow meeting 
of the Library Association of the LTnited Kingdom, 
etc., notes, etc. He has also written various tech- 
nical library and Bibliographical articles and a num- 
ber of historical papers. Mr. Richardson received 
the degree of Master of Arts from Amherst in 1883 
and from Princeton in 1S96, also the degree of Doc- 
tor of Philosophy from Washington and Jefferson in 
1887. He was married June 30, 1891, to Grace 
Duncan, daughter of Z. Stiles Ely, Esq., of New 
York. 



Gushing were graduates of Cambridge, England, 
while several Cushings, a Cotton, and a Lebaron 
graduated from Harvard. He was fitted for College 
at the Woburn High School, and graduated from 
.Amherst in the Class of 18S0. He then spent three 
years in the study of theology in Hartford Theo- 
logical Seminary, graduating in 1883. He was 
appointed Librarian and Instructor in the Semi- 
nary in 18S3 and two years later was promoted to 
be Librarian and Associate Professor of liibliology. 
In 1890 he went to Princeton as Librarian, a posi- 
tion he continues to fill. He has made several 
bibliographical journeys for the study of European 
libraries, archives and manuscripts anil offers a post- 
graduate course in Pateography and Text-criticism 
in the University. i\Ir. Richardson has held various 



ROCK"WOOD, Charles Greene, Jr., 1843- 

Born in New York City, 1843; prepared for College 
at Newark Academy, and at the private school of F. A. 
Adams, of Orange, N. J., graduated at Yale with the 
degree of A.B., Class of 1864 ; took post-graduate work 
in the Sheffield Scientific School, receiving the degree 
of Ph. D. in 1866; taught in S. A. Farrand's Collegiate 
Academy in New York City, 1866-68; Professor of 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in Bowdoin, 
1868-73; went to Rutgers as Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Astronomy, January 1874 ; since 1877 has 
been Professor of Mathematics in Princeton. He re- 
ceived the honorary degree of Master of Arts from 
Yale in 1867, from Bowdoin in 1869, and from the Col- 
lege of New Jersey in i8g6. 

CHARLES GREENE ROCKWOOD, Jr., 
Ph.D., Professor of Mathematics at Prince- 
ton, was born in New York City, January 11, 1843, 



196 



UNIVERSIIIES AND THEIR SONS 



sou of Charles Greene and S.irah (Smith) Rockwooil. 
On the paternal side he is descended from Richard 
Rockwood, a planter of Dorcliester in 1636, through 
Ebenezer Rockwood, M.D., of Harvard 1773, and 
a Surgeon in the Revolutionary Army. Among his 
long line of ancestors, prominent before and during 
the: Revolutionary times, were : Lieutenant Henry 
Adams of Medfield, Massachusetts, killed by the 
Indians at the burning of Medfield in 1676; Elder 
John Whitney (1592-1673) of Watertown, Massa- 
chusetts, through whom he traced an unbroken 
descent from William the Conqueror and Charle- 




C. G. ROCKWOOD, JR 

magne ; John Vermilye of New York, a member of 
Governor Leisler's Council, 1689; Matthew Clark- 
son, Secretary of the Province of New York from 
1690 to 1702 ; the Rev. Daniel Emerson of HoUis, 
New Hampshire, a Harvard graduate of 1739, and a 
Chaplain in the French War, 1755 to 1758 ; Samuel 
Hazard of Pliiladelphia, 1713-175S, one of the first 
Trustees of the College of New Jersey, and Ebenezer 
Hazard, a Princeton graduate of 1762, who was 
an Historian and the Postmaster General of the 
United States from 1782 to 1789. In his early 
youth Professor Rockwood was a student in the 
College of the City of New York from 1857 to 1858, 
at Newark Academy from 1858 to 1859 and at the 
private school of F. A. Adams in Orange, New 



Jersey, from 1859 to i860. He graduated from 
Yale as a Bachelor of Arts in the Class of 1864, and 
is a member of the Phi Beta Kappa. The two years 
succeeding graduation he spent in New Haven, pur- 
suing a course of study in the higher mathematics 
and modern languages, and received the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy in 1866. In September 1866, 
he took up the business of teaching in S. A. Farrand's 
Collegiate Academy, New York City, where he re- 
mained, holding the position of Vice- Principal, until 
the summer of 1868. He was then elected Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in 
Bowdoin, Brunswick, Maine, and entered on his 
duties there in September. In 1872 the title of 
his Chair was changed to Professor of Mathematics. 
On January i, 1874, he resigned, to accept the Pro- 
fessorship of Mathematics and Astronomy in Rut- 
gers, New Brunswick, New Jersey, which he retained 
until 1S77. I" 1S77 he was elected Professor of 
Mathematics in the College of New Jersey, and 
began his duties at Princeton in September. He 
still retains the same position, but with the growth 
of the College his duties have been restricted to the 
John C. Green School of Science, which is the Scien- 
tific School of Princeton. In 1 898 he was elected 
Clerk of the School of Science Faculty. In 1878 
he was a member of the Princeton Expedition to 
observe the Solar Eclipse at Denver, Colorado ; and 
in the summers of 1889, 1890 and 1891 he took 
part in the investigation of submarine temperatures 
in the Gulf Stream, carried on under the United 
States Fish Commission. He received the honorary 
degree of Master of Arts from Yale in 1867, from 
Bowdoin in 1869 and from the College of New 
Jersey in 1896. He has published : Daily Motion 
of a Brick Tower Caused by Solar Heat, (Proc. 
A.A.A.S., 187 1, and Am. Jour. Sci. 1871) ; fifteen 
annual papers on American Earthquakes, (Am. Jour. 
Sci., 1872-1886) ; sundry other papers on related 
topics, mostly in .American Journal of Science ; tlie 
reports on Vulcanology and Seismology in Smithso- 
nian Reports for 1884 and 1885 ; and numerous 
other short articles, signed and unsigned, in scientific 
journals. As the above list would indicate, he has 
been especially interested in Seismology, and in 
1886 he was called to Washington by the Director 
of the United States Geological .Survey, to assist in 
the preliminary investigation of the Charleston 
Earthquake. He is a fellow of the .'American .Associa- 
tion for the .Advancement of Science ; member of 
the Metrological Society, National Geographic Soci- 
ety, .American Mathematical Society, New Jersey 



UNIVERSITIES ANB THEIR SONS 



'97 



Historical Society, American Historical Association, 
Saint Nicholas Society of New York City, Sons of 
the Revolution and Society of Colonial Wars, of the 
Nassau Club of Princeton and the Princeton Science 
Club. He was married June 13, 1S67, to Hetty 
Horsford Smith. They have one child, Katharine 
Chauncey Rockwood. 



WESTCOTT, John Howell, 1858- 

Born in Philadelphia, Penn., 1858; fitted for College 

at Germantown Academy, Philadelphia ; entered 
Princeton, 1874; graduated with degree of A.B., in 
Class of 1877 : studied in Leipzig University, 1877- 
1878; then in Paris 1878-1879 ; studied law in Phila- 
delphia, partly at the University of Pa. ; admitted to 
Bar in Philadelphia in 18S1 ; taught in Germantown 
Academy for half a year before entering College, and 
again, 1879-1880 ; practised law in Philadelphia, 1881- 
1885; appointed Tutor in Latin at Princeton 1885; 
Instructor in French 1887; received degree of Ph.D. 
from Princeton, 1887; promoted to Assistant Professor 
of French, 1888 ; Professor of Latin, 1889 ; went abroad 
and studied in Leipzig again, 1892 ; since 1892 has been 
Musgrave Professor of Latin and Tutor in Roman 
Law. 

JOHN HOWELL WKSTCOTT, Ph. D., Musgrave 
Professor of Latin and Tutor in Roman Law, 
at Princeton, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, August 3, 1858, son of John Howell and 
Mary (Dunton) Westcolt. He is descended on 
the paternal side from early inhabitants of Cum- 
berland county, New Jersey ; on his mother's side 
from a Cromwellian cavalry Captain who came 
to America about the time of Charles H. His 
mother's grandfather was William Rush, the sculp- 
tor, of Philadelphia, cousin of Benjamin Rush, one 
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
In his early youth he was taught by his father, and 
also spent six years at the Germantown Academy in 
Philadelphia. He taught school for six months 
before going to College ; entered Princeton in 1874, 
and graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, 
in 1877. He then went abroad and spent one year 
(i877-]87S) in study in Leipzig LTniversity. In 
1878, he went to Paris and studied there until the 
following year, when he returned to America and 
taught school again for a year (1879-1880) in Ger- 
mantown Academy. He studied law in Philadel- 
phia, taking part of his course at the University of 
Pennsylvania, and was admitted to the Bar in r88t. 
He entered upon the practice of his profession in 
Philadelphia in the same year, and remained there 
until 1885, when he went to Princeton as Tutor in 



Latin. In i,S,S7 lie received the degree of Doctor 
of Philosoiihy from Princeton, and was also ai> 
pointed Instructor in French at the University, 
being promoted to Assistant Professor of French in 
1888. He was made Professor of Latin in 1889. 
He again went abroad and spent part of the year 
1892 in study at Leipzig University, after which he 
returned to Princeton to accept the chair he now 
fills, that of Musgrave Professor of Latin and Tutor 
in Roman Law. Professor U'estcott has published 
editions of parts of Livy, Aulus Gellius, Martial, and 
selected letters of Pliny. He is a member of the 




J. H. WESTCOIT 

American Philological .Association, of the Nassau 
Club of Princeton, and of Phi Pjeta Kap])a. In 
politics, he is a Republican, but with a tendency to 
independent voting. He was married, July 9, 1S95, 
to Edith Flagg Sampson. They have two children : 
John Howell Jr., and Lilian Vaughan Westcott. 



\A/'ARREN, Howard Crosby, 1867- 

Born in Montclair, N. J., 1867: fitted for College in 
private schools in Montclair and Bloomfield, N. J.; 
graduated Princeton, with degree of A.B., Class of 
1889; was Instructor at Princeton, 1890 1891 ; took post- 
graduate work and mental science fellowship at Prince- 
ton, receiving the degree of A.M. in 1891 ; studied in 
German Universities. 1891-1893; made Demonstrator 
in Experimental Psychology at Princeton, 1893 ; pro- 



198 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



moted to Assistant Professor of Experimental Psy- 
chology in i8g6. 

HOWARD CROSBY WARREN, A.M., Assist- 
ant Professor of K.xpcriinental Psychology 
at Princeton, was born in Montclair, New Jersey, 
June 12, 1867, son of Dorman Tlieodore and Har- 
riet (Crosby) Warren, both parents being natives 
of Massachusetts. On the paternal side he is of 
Norman English ancestry. He was fitted for Col- 
lege in private schools in Montclair and liloomfield, 
New Jersey, and graduated from Princeton, with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in the Class of 18S9. 
He afterwards took post graduate work and the 




HOWARD C. WARREN 

mental science fellowship at Princeton, and during 
that time was also an Instructor in the College. 
He received the degree of Master of Arts from his 
Alma Mater in 1891, and that year went abroad 
and spent two years in study in German Universi- 
ties. In 1893 he returned to Princeton as Demon- 
strator in Experimental Psychology, and since 1896 
has been Assistant Professor of the same branch of 
science. Since 1894 he has been compiler of the 
Psychological Index, in 1896 and 1897, Assistant 
Editor of the American Naturalist, and since 1895 
collaborator of the Annt§e Psychologique. He has 
also written articles for the Psychological Review, 
and contributed to Johnson's Encyclopaedia. He is 
unmarried. 



WILLSON, Frederick Newton, 1855- 

Born in Brooklyn, N. Y., 1855; received his early 
education at the Troy N. Y. Academy; graduated 
from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y., 
with the degree of C.E., in the Class of 1879; previous 
to graduation had taught in the Troy Academy, as In- 
structor in Mathematics, 1872-1789; was acting Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in Lake Forest University, 
1879-1880; Foreign Correspondent, Drexel, Morgan & 
Company, till December 1880; went to Princeton as 
Instructor in Graphics January 1881 ; appointed to 
Professorship of Descriptive Geometry, Stereotomy 
and Technical Drawing in Princeton, 1883, a Chair he 
continues to fill; received honorary degree of A.M. 
from Princeton, in 1896; has been Elder in First Pres- 
byterian Church of Princeton, New Jersey, since May 
30, 1886. 

FREDERICK NEWTON WILLSON, C.E., 
M.A., Professor of Descriptive Geometry, 
Stereotomy and Technical Drawing at Princeton, 
was born in Brooklyn, New York, December 23, 
1855, son of Thomas Newton and Mary Caroline 
(Evarts) Willson. On the paternal side he is de- 
scended from Colonel John (" Burgess ") Willson, 
who for twenty-seven years represented Augusta 
county in the House of Burgesses, Virginia. Colonel 
John Willson's great-grandson was James S. Willson, 
of Rockbridge county, Virginia, who married Tirzah 
Humphreys, daughter of David Carlisle Humphreys 
and Margaret Finley, niece of President Samuel 
Finley of Princeton. Their son, Thomas Newton 
Willson ( Professor Willson's father) graduated from 
Washington and Lee in 1848, and was later Pro- 
fessor of English in the Rensselaer Polytechnic In- 
stitute. On the maternal side Professor Willson is 
descended from John Evarts, who came from Eng- 
land to Concord, Massachusetts, in 1638, and in 
1649 settled in Guilford, Connecticut. Professor 
Willson did not begin to attend school until his 
thirteenth year, when he entered the Troy Academy. 
He was for six months (1S71) Assistant Bookkeeper 
in the Troy City National Bank, and from 1872 
until 1S79 was Instructor in Mathematics at the 
Troy Academy, during part of which time he also 
took the course at the Rensselaer Polytechnic, enter- 
ing in the Sophomore year with the Class of 1878. 
He was graduated witli the degree of Civil Engineer 
with the Class of 1S79, having given a year between 
his Junior and Senior courses entirely to teaching. 
The year immediately following graduation he was 
Acting Professor of Mathematics in Lake Forest 
University, Illinois. This position he resigned to 
accept an appointment as Foreign Correspondent 
with the firm of Drexel, Morgan & Company. lu 



UNIVERSITIES JND TJIEIR SONS 



199 



Decemlier 1880 he accepted a call to Princeton to 
start a Department of Graphical Science. In 1883 
a new Professorship was created for him, that of 
Descriptive Cleometry, Stereotomy and Technical 
Drawing, a Chair he still holds, (1899). He re- 
ceived the honorary degree of Master of Arts from 
Princeton in June 1896. In 1897 Professor Will- 
son published his Theoretical and Practical Graphics, 
a work that has won the highest commendation, 
from such eminent authorities as Sir Robert S. Ball, 
of Cambridge University, England, and late Astron- 
omer Roval of Ireland ; Francis Rulenux, Director 



occurred on July 28, 1895, when he married Anna 
Russell Albertson, daughter of Amos Albertson of 
Asbury Park. They have two children : Elizabeth 
and .Mbert Newton W'illson. 




FREDERICK N. WILLSON 

of the Royal Polytechnic, Berlin ; Thurston, Halsted 
and other well-known writers. Professor Willson 
has been an Elder in the First Presbyterian Church 
of Princeton, New Jersey, since May 30, 1886. He 
is a member of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, and of the American Mathematical 
Society ; an associate, American Society Civil En- 
gineers ; a fellow of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, and a corresponding 
member of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences. On May 22, 1884, he was married to 
Mary Hewes Bruere, daughter of Joseph H. 
Bruere, of Princeton, New Jersey. They had four 
children : Mary Louise, Grace Bruere, Edith Evarts 
and Alice Holmes Willson. His second marriage 



RICE, John Holt, 1777-1831. 

Born in New London, Va , 1777 ; educated at Liberty 
Hall Academy; studied medicine and theology; 
Tutor in Hampden Sidney College, 1801 ; Pastor at 
Cut Creek, Va.; founded the Christian Monitor; 
Editor of the Virginia Evangelical and Literary Mag- 
azine ; Moderator of the General Assembly at Phil- 
adelphia ; invited to take the Presidency of Princeton 
but preferred to accept the Professorship of Theology 
at Union Theological Seminary at Hampden Sidney 
College; received the D.D. degree from Princeton; 
died in Hampden Sidney, Va , 1831. 

JOHN HOLT RICE, D.D., who was elected 
President of Princeton but declined the honor, 
was born in New London, ^'irginia, November 28, 
1777, and was educated at Liberty Hall Academy, 
near Lexington. He studied medicine and theology, 
served as Tutor in Hampden Sidney College in 1801 
and became Pastor of the Presbyterian Church at 
Cub Creek, Charlotte county, Virginia, in 1804, 
having been licensed to preach the previous year. 
The Episcopalians and Presbyterians had wor- 
shipped together in Richmond, Virginia, tmtil 181 2, 
when they separated and Dr. Rice was called to 
minister to the new Presbyterian congregation. He 
founded the Christian Monitor in 18 15, and from 
1818 until 1 8 29 he edited the Virginia Evangelical 
and Literary Magazine. He was Moderator of the 
General Assembly at Philadelphia in 1819. In 1822 
he was invited to take the Presidency of Prince- 
ton, but preferred to accept the Chair of Theology 
in the Union Theological Seminary at Hampden 
Sidney College which was simultaneously offered 
him, and which he held until his death. He was a 
fine preacher and obtained considerable gifts for 
his seminary by his eloquent itineraries. He pub- 
lished, besides sermons, pamphlets and occasional 
articles. Historical and Philosophical Considerations 
on Religion, a collection of letters addressed to 
President Madison, which he had originally com- 
municated anonymously to the Southern Religious 
Telegraph. They were intended to demonstrate 
that religion was a proper subject for the efforts of 
statesmen as a necessary factor in national pros- 
perity. Dr. Rice was made a Doctor of Divinity 
by Princeton in 1819. He died at Hampden 
Sidney, Sejnember 3, 1831. 



200 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



ADRAIN, Robert, 1775-1843. 

Born in Ireland, 1775; took part in the rebellion of 
1798 ; came to the United States and turned his atten- 
tion to educational pursuits ; was Professor at Queen's, 
Rutgers and Columbia, and the University of Penn- 
sylvania; Vice-President of the latter, and a noted 
writer of his day ; died, 1843. 

ROBERT AURAIN, LL.U., member of the 
Faculty of Columbia, was born in Carrick- 
fergus, Ireland, September 30, 1775. Having re- 
ceived a serious wound while participating in the 
Irish Rebellion of 1798, he took refuge in the 
United States, and adopting educational pursuits as 
a means of livelihood he taught schools in New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania for some years. His 
numerous articles published in the scientific periodi- 
cals of the day, brought him to the notice of the 
authorities of Queen's College, who called him to 
the Chair of Mathematics in 1809, and in 18 13 he 
went to Columbia as Professor of Natural History, 
holding that chair until 1820 and for the succeeding 
five years he was Professor of Astronomy. From 
1825 to 1827 he was again a member of the Faculty 
at Queen's College, which had then become known 
as Rutgers, and in the latter year was appointed 
Professor of Mathematics at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, of which he was Vice-President from 
1828 to 1834. He was Editor of the Mathematical 
Diary from 1825 to 1829, edited Hutton's Mathe- 
matics and published essays on the figure and 
magnitude of the earth and upon gravitation. Pro- 
fessor Adrain received the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Laws from Columbia in 1818. He died 
in New Brunswick, New Jersey, August 10, 1843. 
His son, Garnett B., was born in New V^ork City, 
December 20, 1816, and died in New Brunswick, 
August 17, 1878, was an able lawyer and a mem- 
ber of Congress from New Jersey two terms. 



CLINTON, DeWitt, 1769-1828. 

Born in Little Britain, N.Y., 1769; graduated at 
Columbia, 1786; studied law and admitted to the Bar; 
private Secretary to his uncle. Gov. George Clinton; 
Secretary of the Board of Regents of the State Uni- 
versity ; Secretary of the Board of Commissioners of 
State Fortifications ; organized and took command of 
an artillery company ; member of the New York House 
of Representatives and Senate ; member of the Gov- 
ernor's Council; U. S. Senator; Mayor of N. Y. City; 
Lieut. -Governor ; member of the Council of Appoint- 
ments ; appointed one of the Commissioners to survey 
a route for a canal from the lakes to the Hudson 
River; Governor of N. Y. ; received LL D. degree 



from Rutgers, 1812, from Ohio University, 1825, and 
from Columbia, 1826; died, 1828. 

D i:\VITT CLINTON, LL.D., Regent of 
Columbia, was born in Little Britain, New 
Windsor, Orange county. New York, March 2, 
1769. His father was General James Clinton, a 
distinguished Revolutionary soldier, and a member 
of the Constitutional Convention. He was a de- 
scendant of William Clinton, who served under 
King Charles I., and fled to Ireland after the defeat 
of the Royalist party. The latter's grandson, — 
Charles Clinton, who was the common ancestor of all 
the Clintons in the United States, in company with 
others, chartered a ship upon which they embarked 
for America in May 1729, and after enduring much 
hardship at the hands of the captain, who by cut- 
ting off the food supply compelled the passengers 
to pay him a large sum of money before he would 
permit them to land, they were at length put ashore 
on Cape Cod in October of the same year. In the 
spring of 1731 he, with others of the party, settled 
in I'Ister county. New York, upon a site located 
six miles west of the Hudson River and sixty miles 
north of New York City. Charles Clinton was a 
farmer and a surveyor, was a Justice of the Peace, 
and County Judge, served as Lieutenant-Colonel in 
the LUster County Militia, and held a similar com- 
mission in Oliver DeLancy's regiment, which served 
under Colonel Bradstreet at the siege and capture 
of Fort Frontenac. His four sons were : .Alexander, 
a graduate of Princeton, and a physician ; Charles, 
a Surgeon in the army which took Havana m 1762 ; 
James, the father of DeWitt ; and George Clinton, 
who was born in Little Britain, July 26, 1739, and 
died in Washington, District of Columbia, April 20, 
181 2. The latter studied law, and soon after en- 
tering into practice was given a clerkship by the 
then Colonial Governor, Admiral George Clinton. 
As a member of the New York Assembly he took 
sides with the Colonists against the crown, was a 
member of the second Continental Congress, and in 
1776, at the urgent demand of General Washington, 
he accepted the appointment of General of Militia. 
He was subsequently commissioned a Brigadier- 
General in the Continental Army, assisted in fram- 
ing the first state constitution ; was elected first 
Governor of the state in 1777, and again in 1780, 
continuing in office by successive elections until 1795; 
was once more chosen Governor in i8ot, and was 
Vice-President of the United States from 1804 until 
his death. In 1787, Governor Clinton assisted in 
quelling Shay's Rebellion in Massachusetts and by 



UNjyKRsrriKS and ■vufar sons 



20l 



quick and vigorous action succeeded in saving the 
frontier settlements from the disasters i)f a threat- 
ened Indian out-break. As early as 1791 he re- 
commended to the Legislature the building of the 
Erie Canal, and his entire occupancy of the guber- 
natorial chair was marked by an energetic and 
progressive policy. His nephew, DeWitt Clinton, 
was graduated from Columbia in 1786, pursued his 
law studies with Samuel Jones of New York City 
and was admitted to the Bar in 1788. Preferring 
politics to the practice of his profession he entered 
actively into public affairs as a Republican, and 
previous to the adoption of the Federal Constitution 
he wrote in answer to the " Federalist " a series of 
papers under the signature of " A Countryman." 
He also reported for the press the debates in the 
State Constitutional Convention. From 1790 to 
1 795 he acted as Private Secretary to his uncle, 
Governor George Clinton, during which time he 
served as one of the Secretaries of the Board of 
Regents of the State University, (Columbia), and 
Secretary of the Board of Commissioners of State 
Fortifications. After the close of his uncle's long 
administration in 1795, he continued to champion 
the Republican cause by opposing the acts of John 
Jay and President John Adams. Yet while con- 
demning the hostility of the Federalists towards 
France he organized and took command of an 
artillery company which stood ready for action 
should war have ensued between the two nations. 
He subsequently served in the State House of 
Representatives and the Senate, was chosen a 
member of Governor Jay's council, and while in 
that body he succeeded in securing a constitutional 
amendment giving to the council the right of nomi- 
nation co-ordinate with that of the chief executive. 
In the Senate he labored in behalf of many benefi- 
cial acts, including public defence, the sanitary laws, 
the encouragement of agriculture, manufactures and 
the arts, the relief of prisoners for debt, the aboli- 
tion of slavery in New York State, and also used his 
influence for the introduction of steam for naviga- 
tion. During his short occupancy of a seat in the 
United States Senate in 1802, he made a powerful 
speech against war with Spain, but resigned in the 
same year to accept the office of Mayor of New 
York City, which, with the exception of some three 
or four years, he continued to hold until 181 5. He 
was State Senator from 1805 to 181 1, in which 
year he was chosen Lieutenant-Governor, holding 
office for two years, and was also a member of the 
Council of Appointments. At this time Clinton 



was regarded as a prominent candidate of the 
Republicans for the Presidency but on account of 
his lack of sympathy with some of the acts of Presi- 
dent Jefferson and the course of James Madison 
prior to the War of 18 12, his own party began to 
look upon him with distrust, and charged him with 
verging toward Federalism. He was however nomi- 
nated by the Republicans, but defeated by Madison, 
and having sacrificed some of his prestige with his 
own party without gaining much ground among the 
Federalists, he retired from the I.ieutenant-tiover- 
norship to continue his duties as Mayor of New 




DEWirr CLINTON 

York. His desire to improve the welfare of the 
people by striving to relieve suffering, increasing 
the facilities for public education, and the establish- 
ment of institutions of science, literature and art, 
together with the suppression of crime, and other 
beneficial measures served to dispel in the minds of 
his fellow citizens any suspicions they may have had 
as to his loyalty. In 1809, he was appointed one 
of the seven commissioners to survey a route for a 
canal from the Hudson River to the lakes, and 
after his removal from the Mayoralty of New York 
by a Republican Council of Appointment, he was 
free to give his undivided attention to this project, 
which was practically a legacy left him by his 
uncle. Having through his eloquence and persis- 
tency secured in 1817, a Legislative Act authorizing 



202 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



the immediate construction of the Erie and Cham- 
plain Canal against the opposition of tliose who 
considered the scheme as merely visionary, he was 
on the strength of his new popularity thus acquired, 
triumphantly elected Governor the same year by a 
non-partisan vote, and on July 4, Governor Clin- 
ton broke ground for the beginning of wliat was 
then considered a gigantic undertaking. In 1S19, 
he was re-elected by a small majority, and owing to 
the adoption of some constitutional amendments 
which he did not approve, he declined to become 
a candidate in 1822. In 1S24, his opponents 
succeeded in causing his removal as Canal Com- 
missioner. This act of injustice so aroused the 
fiiir-minded people of all parties that he was once 
more elected Governor by a larger majority than 
had hitherto been accorded to any of his prede- 
cessors, and he was re-elected in 1826. DeWitt 
Clinton died in office, but had the satisfaction of 
being the principal figure in the ceremonies attend- 
ing the opening of the Canal in 1825, and during 
his memorable trip in a barge from Lake Erie to 
New York City he was received with unbounded 
enthusiasm all along the line. In 1825, he declined 
the English mission which was tendered him by 
President John Quincy Adams. He received the 
degree of Doctor of Laws from Rutgers in 18 12, 
from the Ohio University in 1825, and from Colum- 
bia in 1826. Governor Clinton published Dis- 
courses before the New York Historical Society ; 
Memoir of the Antiquities of Western New York ; 
Speeches to the Legislature ; and several literary 
and historical addresses. 



cated and being desirous of entering the military 
service, was made an luisign in the Second Ulster 
County Regiment. Wliile serving as a Captain in 
the French and Indian War of 1756, he laid the 
foundation of his reputation as a brave and efficient 
officer, winning special distinction at the capture of 
Fort Frontenac. He rose to the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel in the British Colonial Service, which he 
relinquished at the breaking-out of the Revolutionary 
War, and in June 1775, was commissioned Colonek 
of the Third New York Regiment. In the following 
year he was advanced to the rank of Brigadier- 
General in the Continental Army. As Commander 
of Fort Clinton he stubbornly resisted with about 
six hundred volunteers, an attack of about three 
tliousand British regulars under General Sir Henry 
Clinton, but was forced to evacuate by superior 
numbers, receiving a severe wound from a bayonet 
thrust and being the last man to leave the fort. He 
was in active service during the entire war, com- 
manding at Albany for some time. He participated 
in the siege of Yorktown and was present at the 
evacuation of New York. General Clinton was a 
member of the New York Assembly, a delegate to 
the Convention which adopted the Federal Con- 
stitution, and served upon the commission appointed 
to adjust the boundary line between New York and 
Pennsylvania. During the early days of American 
Independence he was actively identified with in- 
ternal improvements and was one of the Regents of 
King's College in 1784. His death occurred in 
Little Britain, Orange county. New York, December 
22, 1812. 



CLINTON, James, 1736-1812. 

Born in Ulster county, N. Y., 1736; entered the 
Provincial Militia; served in the French and Indian 
War in 1756 and distinguished himself at the capture 
of Fort Frontenac ; rose to the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral in the Revolutionary War ; defended Fort Clinton 
against a superior force in 1777 ; commanded at Albany 
and was present at the siege of Yorktown and the 
evacuation of New York; assisted in adjusting the 
boundary-line between New York and Pennsylvania; 
was a member of the Legislature and of the conven- 
tion that adopted the Federal Constitution ; Regent of 
King's College in 1774 ; died, 1812. 

JAMES CLINTON, Regent of King's College, 
was born in Ulster county, New York, August 
Q, r736, third son of Charles Clinton, a native of 
Ireland and the comiuon ancestor of the Clinton 
family in the United States. He was liberally edu- 



KING, Rufus, 1755-1827. 

Born in Maine, 1755; graduated at Harvard, 1777 ; 
served under General Sullivan in the Revolutionary 
War ; acquired high rank as a lawyer ; member of the 
General Court of Mass., 1783 ; of the Continental Con- 
gress. 1784-85-86 ; delegate to the Federal Constitu- 
tional Convention ; member of the New York Assembly, 
1789 ; served several years in the United States Senate : 
twice Minister Plenipotentiary to Great Britain; Fed- 
eralist candidate for President in opposition to James 
Monroe ; Trustee of Columbia, 1806 1824; died in New 
York, 1827. 

RUFUS KING, LL.D., Trustee of Columbia, 
was born in Scarborough, Maine, in 1755. 
eldest son of Richard King, a prosperous merchant 
of that place. He took his Bachelor's and Master's 
degrees at Harvard, the former in 1777, diligently 
pursuing his studies while the College buildings 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



203 



were being used by the Continental Army, then 
recruiting in Cambridge. His law studies inter- 
rupted by his service in the Rhode Island expedi- 
tion under General Sullivan were duly completed, 
and almost immediately after his admission to the 
Bar he began to display that steding ability and 
intellectual superiority which were the chief charac- 
teristics of his long and public career. From the 
Massachusetts General Court, to which he was 
elected in 1783, he went in the following year as 
a delegate to the Continental Congress at Trenton, 
was a member of that body for the two succeeding 




RUFUS KING 

years, and in the session of 1785 he sounded the 
key-note of abolition by introducing an Act pro- 
hibiting slavery or involuntary servitude, except as 
punishment for crime. As a delegate to the Federal 
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, 
he assisted in making a final draft of the instrument 
which, in spile of much opposition ultimately suc- 
ceeded in binding the states together in one strong 
confederation, and by his clear and forcible explana- 
tion of its provisions succeeded in securing its ratifi- 
cation by his own state. Relinqtiishing the practice 
of law he took up his residence in New York City 
in 1788, was elected to the Assembly of that state 
in 1789, and subsequently to the United States 
Senate, to whicli he was again elected in 1813, and 



in 1819. From 1796 to 1803 he was Minister 
Plenipotentiary to Great I?ritain, and was prevailed 
upon by President John Quincy .'\dams to accept 
the same mission in 1825, but his life of activity and 
usefulness was rapidly drawing to a close, and finding 
himself unable to withstand the fatigue attendant 
upon his important position, lie only remained in 
London a few months. Rufus King died in New 
York, April 29, 1827. The degree of Doctor of 
Laws was conferred upon him by Dartmouth in 
1802, by Williams in 1803, by Harvard in 1806, and 
by the University of Pennsylvania in 1815. He 
accepted a Trusteeship of Columbia in 1S06, and 
served upon the Board until 1824. He was a fel- 
low of the American Academy, and corresponding 
member of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 



KISSAM, Richard Sharpe, 1763-1822. 

Born in New York City, 1763; took his Medical 
degree at the Edinburgh University, 1789 ; for thirty 
years. Surgeon at the New York Hospital ; Professor 
of Botany at Columbia, 1792-93; died, 1822. 

RICHARD SHARPE KISSAM, M.D., Pro- 
fessor of Botany at Columbia, was born in 
New York City, in 1763. His early education was 
acquired at Hempstead, Long Island, and his medi- 
cal studies were pursued at the University of Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, from which he was graduated in 
17S9. He practised in the American metropolis 
for thirty years, during all of which time he was 
Surgeon at the New York Hospital, and left behind 
him a brilliant record as a skilful operator, losing 
but three cases of lithotomy out of sixty-five that 
came under his treatment. Dr. Kissam was one of 
the early American botanists and held the Professor- 
ship of that study at Columbia about one year. 
His death occurred in October 1822. 



LIVINGSTON, Robert R.. 1746-1813. 

Born in New York City, 1746; graduated at King's 
College, 1765 ; admitted to the Bar, 1773 ; Recorder of 
New York, 1773-1775 ; member of the Provincial As- 
sembly and the Continental Congress; assisted in 
drafting the Declaration of Independence : assisted in 
framing the State Constitution; Chancellor of New 
York, 1777-1801 ; Secretary of Foreign Affairs for the 
Federal Government, 1781-1783 ; Chairman of the New 
York Convention which adopted the Federal Constitu- 
tion ; Minister to France, 1801-1805; interested with 
Robert Fulton in applying steam power to navigation ; 
first President of the American Academy of Fine 



204 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Arts ; Regent of the University of the State of New 
York; died in 1813. 

ROBERT R. I.IVINCJSTON, A.M., LL.D., 
Regent of the University of the State of 
New York, now Columbia, wa.s born in New York 
City, November 27, 1746. He was a great-grand- 
son of the first Robert, grandson of the second 
Robert and a son of Robert R. Livingston, who 
married Margaret, daughter of Colonel Henry Beek- 
man. Graduating from King's College in i 765 and 
subsequently studying law, the second Robert R. 
Livingston was admitted to the Bar in 1773, and 




ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON 

acquired a large practice. Like most of his kins- 
men he was a conspicuous figure in the public affairs 
of the Colonial, State and Federal governments 
first as Recorder of New York City, which office he 
held from 1773 to 1775, wlien he was deposed by 
Governor Tryon on account of his suspected hostil- 
ity to the Crown. As a member of the Provincial 
Assembly he was chosen a delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress in 1775 ''"'"^^ selected as one of the 
Committee of Five to draft the Declaration of In- 
dependence, but was called home prior to the sign- 
ing of that notable act by important business before 
the Assembly, in which he occupied his seat on 
July 8, 1776, when it was voted that the Province 
should thenceforth be known as the State of New 



York. He retained his seat in the Continental 
Congress until 1777, was again a member from 1779 
to 1 78 1, and having assisted in fraining the State 
Constitution which was adopted by the Convention 
at Kingston, in 1777, he was selected as first 
Chancellor of the State, holding office until 1801. 
In that capacity he administered the oath to Presi- 
dent Washington. He labored diligently to secure 
the ratification of the Federal Constitution by his 
state, served as Federal Secretary of Foreign Affairs, 
from 1 781 to 1783, declined other important 
offices including the French mission in 1794, but 
when in 1801 he was again solicited to represent 
the United States at Paris, he accepted, resigning 
the Chancellorship for that purpose, and during his 
residence at the French Court, he was distinguished 
among the diplomatic corps as being the favorite of 
Napoleon Bonaparte, who honored the American 
with his personal friendship. It was in Paris that 
Livingston first met Robert Fulton, and becoming 
interested in the latter's idea of applying steam- 
power to navigation, he experimented upon the 
Seine, and also upon the Hudson after his return to 
America in 1805. After his retirement from public 
affairs he devoted his time mainly to agriculture. 
He was first President of the American .Academy of 
Fine Arts, President of the Society for the Promo- 
tion of the Useful Arts, a Trustee of the New York 
Society Library, and one of the first Board of Re- 
gents of the University of the State of New York, 
which made him a Doctor of Laws. Mr. Living- 
ston died February 26, 1813. 



LIVINGSTON, John Henry, 1746-1825. 

Born in Poughkeepsie, New York, 1746; graduated 
at Yale 1762 and received his divinity degree at the 
University of Utrecht, Holland, 1770; secured the 
independence of the American Dutch Reformed 
churches ; Pastor of the North Church, New York 
City, 1770-1810: Professor of Theology at the Re- 
formed Dutch Seminary, Flatbush ; Vice-President of 
the first missionary society in New York; Trustee of 
Columbia from 1784 to 1810, and Chairman of the 
Board from 1801 to 1810 ; President of Queen's Col- 
lege, now Rutgers, 1807 until his death. 

JOHN HENRY LIVINGSTON. D.D., Trustee 
of Columbia, and for a time Chairman of the 
Board, was born in Poughkeepsie, New York, May 
30, 1746. He was a descendant of the original 
Robert Livingston, through the latter's third son, 
Gilbert, who was his grandfather. He graduated 
from Yale in 1762 and took up the study of law, 



VNIFERSiriES JND THEIR SONS 



20: 



but his progress was interrupted by a somewliat 
protracted illness, during which he decideil to be- 
come a clergyman of the Dutch Reformed denom- 
ination, and setting out for Holland in 1767, he 
pursued his theological studies at the University 
of Utrecht, graduating in i 7 70 with the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity. Returning to New York the 
same year he began his ministerial labors as Pastor 
of the North Church to which he had been called 
while still abroad, and with the exception of the 
period of British occupation he retained charge of 
that parish until 1810. Having previously secured 




JOHN H. LIVINGSTON 

from the Dutch Classis the independence of the 
American Church, he immediately applied himself 
to the task of adjusting the difference then existing 
between the Coetus and the Conferentic factions, 
whose antagonistic opinions threatened to forever 
destroy its integrity, and he ultimately succeeded in 
accomplishing the desired reunion. From 1795 to 
1797 he was a Professor of Theology at a seminary 
established at Flatbush, Long Island by the General 
Synod, but owing to its insufficient support the 
institution closed its existence in the latter year. In 
1807 he was elected President of Queen's College, 
now Rutgers, at the same time taking the Chair of 
Theology, and removing from New York to New 
Brunswick, New Jersey in 18 10, he ably performed 
the duties of Professor and Chief Executive until his 



ileath, whicli occurred January 20, 1825. President 
Livingston possessed in a high degree the intellect- 
ual attainments, industry and progressive tendencies 
characteristic of his fomily. As a Trustee of Co- 
lumbia from I 784 to 18 10, he endeavored to promote 
the welfare of the College, and during the last nine 
years of his service he was Chairman of the Hoard. 
From 1784 to 1787 he served as Regent of the 
University of the State of New York. He was also a 
pioneer in organized missionary work in the Unite d 
States, holding the office of Vice-President of the 
first society formed for that pur[)ose in New \'ork 
City, and was called by his contemporaries the 
" Father of the Dutch Reformed Church in 
America." He published sermons, addresses and 
A Dissertation on the Marriage of a Man with his 
Sister-in-Law. 



LIVINGSTON, Walter, 1740-1797. 

Born in the Province of New York, 1740; member 
of Provincial and Continental Congresses; Judge of 
Albany county ; one of the first Commissioners of the 
United States Treasury; Regent and Trustee of 
Columbia ; died, 1797. 

WALTLR LIVINGSTON, Regent and Trustee 
of Columbia, grandson of Philip Living- 
ston, signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
and a descendant of Robert, founder of the family 
in America, was born in the Province of New York, 
in 1740. He was actively concerned in the political 
agitations v/iiich preceded the American Revolu- 
tion, and was a member of the Provincial Congress 
of 177s, representing Albany where he resiiled. 
'I'he convention of 1777 appointed him Judge of 
Albany county, and for the years 1784-S5 he occu- 
pied a seat in the Federal Congress. In the latter 
year he was chosen one of the first Commissioners 
of the United States Treasury. In 17S4 Judge 
Livingston joined the Board of Regents of Columbia, 
and at the time of his death, which occurred May 
14, 1797, he was serving as a Trustee. 



PEABODY, George Livingston, 1850- 

Born in New York City, 1850; fitted for College at 
Columbia Grammar School ; graduated Columbia, 
1870; College of Physicians and Surgeons, N. Y., 
1873; on house staff Roosevelt Hospital, 1873-74; 
studied abroad, at Vienna and Strassburg, 1874-77; 
Assistant Pathologist N. Y. Hospital, March, 1878; 
promoted to Pathologist same year; Attending Phy- 
sician N. Y. Hospital since 1P84; Attending Physician 
Bellevue Hospital 1882-95; St. Luke's Hospital for 
several years ; Attending Physician Roosevelt Hos- 
pital since 1895, Lecturer College of Physicians and 



2o6 



VNlVERSiriES AND JHEIR SONS 



Surgeons, 1884-87; Trustee of Columbia, 1884-90; 
Professor Materia Medica and Therapeutics in same 
College since 1887. 

Gi:()RGE LIVING.STON PEABODV, M.D., 
Professor of Materia Medica and Tliera- 
peutics at Columbia, was born in New York City, 
August 27, 1850. His father, Charles A. Peabody, 
was a member of the well-known New England fam- 
ily of that name, and his mother, Julia Livingston, 
belonged to an equally well-known family of New 
York. The early education of the subject of this 




GEORGE L. PEABODY 

sketch was received at the Columbia Grammar 
School in New York City. He entered Columbia 
College in 1866, taking his degree in 1870. De- 
ciding to follow the medical profession, he took up 
the study of medicine at the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons in the City of New York, graduating 
in 1873. After a service of one year and a half 
(1873-1S74) on the house staff of Roosevelt Hos- 
pital, he went abroad, and spent the three years 
from 1S74 to 1 87 7 in advanced study there, chiefly 
in the Universities of Vienna and Strassburg. Re- 
turning to America in 1878, he commenced practice 
in New York City, and shortly after, in March 1878, 
he was appointed Assistant Pathologist to the New 
York Hospital, filling this position so acceptably 
that he was made Pathologist in the same year. 
Since 1SS4 he has been Attending Physician in 



the same institution. He was appointed .Attending 
Physician to Bellevue Hospital in 1S82 — a post 
which he held until 1895, when increasing jncssure 
of professional work caused him to resign it — and 
was also Attending Physician at St. Luke's Hospital 
for several years. Erom 1884 to 1S90 he was a 
Trustee of Columbia. For three years, from 1884 
to 1887, he held the post of Lecturer at the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons. In the latter year he 
was made Professor of Materia Medica and Thera- 
peutics there. Since 1895 he has also been .Attend- 
ing Physician at Roosevelt Hospital. Dr. Peabody 
married, .April iS, 1S83, Miss Jane de Peyster Hug- 
gins of New York City. He is a member of the 
Academy of Medicine of New York, the Association 
of .'\merican Physicians, the Practitioners' Society of 
New York, the Physicians' Mutual Aid Society of New 
York, the New York Society for the Relief of Widows 
and Orphans of Medical Men, the Century, Univer- 
sity, the City, and New York Yacht Clubs. He 
takes no active part in political questions. 



MATTHEWS, James McFarlane, 1785-1870. 

Born in Salem. N. Y., 1785; graduated at Union 
College, 1803 and at the Theological Seminary of the 
Associate Reformed Church, 1807; Associate Professor 
of Biblical Literature at Mason's Theological Sem- 
inary, N. Y. City; built the AWashington Sq. Church; 
one of the founders of the University of N. Y. and 
was the first Chancellor; Trustee of Columbia; re- 
ceived D D. degree from Yale, 1823 ; died in N.Y., 1870. 

JAMES McFARLANE MATTHEWS, D.l)., 
Trustee of Columbia, was born in Salem, New 
York, ^Larch 18, 1785. He was graduated at 
Union College in 1803, and at the Theological 
Seminary of the Associate Reformed Church in 
1807. Subsequently he was Associate Professor of 
Biblical Literature in Dr. John M. Mason's Theo- 
logical Seminary, New York City, and in 181 2 he 
founded the South Dutch Church in Garden Street, 
in charge of which he continued until 1840. In 
1835 he also built the Washington Square Church, 
a branch of the South Dutch Church. .After 1S40 
he held no Pastorate, but was active in ecclesiastical 
affairs until his death, devoting much time to the 
cause of education, and delivering series of lectures 
to students. He was one of the founders of the 
University of New York, of which institution he was 
the first Chancellor, 1831-1839. Erom 1825 to 
1830 he was a Trustee of Columbia. Dr. Matthews 
received his degree of Doctor of Divinity from Yale 
in 1823. He died in New York, January 28, 1870. 



UNIVERSITIES AND rilEIR SONS 



207 



ADAMS, Charles Francis, 1866- 

Born in Quincy, Mass., 1866; graduated from Harvard 
1888 ; and from the Harvard Law School 1892 : admitted 
to the Bar 1893 ; is prominently identified with several 
real estate, financial and industrial corporations ; 
served three terms in the Quincy City Council ; was 
Mayor of the City in 1896 ; Trustee of the National 
Sailors' Home, and of various individual estates ; 
Treasurer of Harvard; member of the Somerset Club, 
Boston; and prominent in yachting circles. 

Cll.VRLES FRANCIS ADAMS, 2d, Treas- 
urer of Harvard, was born in Quincy, Mas- 
sachusetts, August 2, 1866, son of John Quincy 
and Fanny (Crowninshield) Adams. He belongs to 




C. F. AD.'iMS 2d 

the famous Adams family which has furnished the 
United States with two Presidents and a distin- 
guished diplomatist — John Adams, John Quincy 
Adams and Charles P'rancis Adams. His father 
was a Boston lawyer of note who at one time took 
a leading part in the political affairs of Massachu- 
setts, and was a Democratic candidate for Governor 
in 1867. His early studies were pursued at the 
Adams Academy, Quincy, and at the Hopkinson 
School, Boston, from which he entered Harvard 
and was graduated with the Class of 1888. He 
prepared for the legal profession at the Harvard 
Law School, graduating in 1892, and after his ad- 
mission to the Suffolk Bar, February 1S93, he was 



for a short time in ilio office of Sigourney liutlcr, 
later entering into partnership with Judge lu'crclt 
C. Bunipus. In 1894 he engaged in ])ractice alone, 
making a specialty of managing trust estates, and 
almost immediately became interested in banking, 
business corporations and real estate. At the 
present time he is a director of the American 
Loan and Trust Company, tlie Klectric Corpora- 
tion, a Trustee of the Quincy Savings Bank, the 
Boston Ground Rent Trust, the Adams Real Estate 
Trust and for various individuals. He is also a 
Trustee of the National Sailors' Home and actively 
concerned in its management. As an active mem- 
ber of the Democratic party he is a leading spirit in 
the municipal affairs of Quincy, having served three 
terms in the City Council, and was elected Mayor for 
1896 and for 1897. During his College days he was 
President of his Class, First Marshal on Class Day 
and President of the Hasty Pudding Club. Upon 
the resignation of Mr. E. W. Hooper as Treasurer 
of Harvard, the President and Fellows elected Mr. 
Adams to fill the vacancy and their action being 
concurred in by the Board of Overseers, he began 
his duties July 31, 1898. Mr. Adams is an enthu- 
siastic yachtsman. He also belongs to the Somerset 
Club of Boston. Mr. Adams was married April 3, 
1899, at Washington, District of Columbia, to Miss 
Frances, daughter of Hon. William C. Lovering. 



ALLEN,Frederick De Forest, 1844-1897. 

Born in Oberlin, O., 1844; graduated at Oberlin Col- 
lege, 1862; studied two years at the University of Leip- 
zig; Professor of Ancient Languages in the East 
Tennessee University till 1873; Tutor of Greek at Har- 
vard, 1873-1874; Professor of Latin and Greek at the 
University of Cincinnati, 1874-1879 ; Professor of Greek 
at Yale, 1879-1880, and in the latter year was called to 
the Chair of Classical Philology at Harvard ; died, 1897. 

FREDERICK DE FOREST ALLEN, Pli.D., 
Professor of Greek at Yale and subsequently 
Professor of Classical Philology at Har\-ard, was 
born in Oberlin, Ohio, May 25, 1844. He took 
his Bachelor's degree in 1863 at Oberlin College, 
his father having been a member of the Faculty 
there for thirty years, and in 1866 he became Pro- 
fessor of Ancient Languages at the L'niversity of 
East Tennessee, where with the exception of two 
years spent as a student at the L^niversity of Leipzig, 
he remained until 1873. In 1873-1874 he was 
Tutor of Greek at Harvard, and in the latter 
year took the Professorship of Latin and Greek at 
the University of Cincinnati but recently estab- 



2o8 



UNIIERSITIES JND rilKIR SONS 



lished, and remained there until 1879, when he 
became Professor of Greek at Yale. In 18S0 he 
was called to the Chair of Classical Philology at 
Harvard, the Department of Ancient I>anguages 




1885 Curator of the Department of Mammals and Birds 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York; Lecturer at Harvard 1871-1873; Editor of the 
Auk, a quarterly journal of Ornithology ( 1884-1899) : 
and author of several valuable works upon zoological 
subjects. 

JOEL ASAPH ALLEN, Lecturer at Harvard, 
was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, July 
19, 1838. Leaving the Wilbraham Academy to 
enter the Lawrence Scientific School, he gave par- 
ticular attention to the study of Zoology under 
Professor Agassiz, and accompanied that Scientist 
to Brazil in 1865. He made scientific explorations 
in Florida in 1869, the Rocky Mountain Region in 
187 1, and in 1873 took charge of an expedition 
under the auspices of the Northern Pacific Railroad. 
He was Assistant in Ornithology at the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, in 1870, and in 
the following year received the Humboldt scholar- 
ship. From 1871 to 1873 he was Lecturer at 
Har\'ard. In 1S85 he was chosen Curator of the 
Department of Mammals and Birds in the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York. He was 
made a fellow of the American Academy of .Arts 



FREDERICK DE F. .4LLEN 

having been enlarged that year, and he continued 
a member of the Faculty there until his death, 
which occurred August 4, 1897. Professor Allen 
received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from 
the LTniversity of Leipsic in 1870, and the honorary 
degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon him 
by Yale in 1879. ^^^ many years prior to his 
death he was regarded as one of the foremost 
American scholars, and was unusually well fitted for 
his special line of work. He published an edition 
of Hadley's Greek Grammar; an edition of Euri- 
pides' Medea, Remnants of Early Latin ; and an 
edition of the Prometheus of yEschylus for the Col- 
lege series of Greek authors. He was also a skilled 
musician and was an authority on ancient music and 
metres. 



ALLEN, Joel Asaph, 1838- 

Born in Springfield, Mass., 1838: studied Zoology 
under Prof. Agassiz at the Lawrence Scientific School ; 
accompanied several expeditions for scientific research ; 
chosen Assistant in Ornithology at the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 1870; appointed in 




J. .A. ALLEN 

and Sciences in 1871, of the National Academy of 
Science in 1876, is a member of the .American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society, and was President of the 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



209 



American (Ornithologists' I'nion from 1883 to 1889. 
Among Mr. Allen's numerous scientific papers and 
reports are : On Geographical Variations in Color 
among North American Squirrels ; Notes on the 
Mammals of I'ortions of Kansas, Colorado, Wyom- 
ing and Utah ; Geographical Variation in North 
American Birds ; and Notes on the Natural History 
of Portions of Montana and Dakota. He is also 
the author of: Mammals and Winter Birds of East 
Florida ; The American Bison Living and Extinct ; 
Monographs of North American Rodentia with Dr. 
Elliott Coues; and History of North American 
Pinnipeds, a Monograph of the ^\'alruses, Sea Lions, 
Sea Bears and Seals of North America. He edited 
the bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club from 
1876 to 1S83, and from 1884 to 1899 '^^ conducted 
The Auk, a quarterly journal devoted to Ornithology. 
Since 1892 he has been Editor of the Bulletin and 
Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural 
History. 



BEACH, Henry Harris Aubrey, 1843- 

Born in Middletown, Ct., 1843 ; educated in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., enlisted in the regular army during the 
Civil War and was assigned to hospital duty ; served 
as surgical assistant at the Massachusetts General 
Hospital while pursuing his Medical studies at Har- 
vard ; graduated 1868 ; appointed Assistant Demon- 
strator, later Demonstrator of Anatomy at the Harvard 
Medical School ; Surgeon to the Boston Dispensary 
and at the Massachusetts General Hospital; sometime 
Editor of the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal; 
and is closely identified with several medical societies. 

HENRY HARRIS AUBREY BEACH, M.D., 
Clinical Instructor of Surgery and formerly 
Demonstrator of Anatomy at the Harvard Medical 
School, son of Elijah and Lucy S. (Riley) Beach, 
was born in Middletown, Connecticut, December 
18, 1843. His early education was acquired in the 
schools of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and enlisting in 
the regular army when twenty years old, he was de- 
tailed to hospital service in which he remained until 
the year following the close of the Civil War, when 
he was honorably discharged. While attending the 
Harvard Medical School he acted as Surgical Assis- 
tant at the IMassachusetts General Hospital, and after 
his graduation (1868) was called to the Surgical 
Department of the Boston Dispensary. In 1869 he 
was chosen Assistant Demonstrator of .Anatomy at 
Harvard and five years afterward received the ap- 
pointment of Demonstrator at the Har\'ard Medical 
School, where for a number of years he gave practi- 
cal illustrations of Professor Oliver Wendell Holmes' 
VOL. II. — 14 



lectures on Anatomy. For more than twenty-five 
years he has served upon the staff of the Massachu- 
setts General Hospital. Dr. Beach is a prominent 
member of the principal local medical bodies includ- 
ing the societies for Medical Science, Medical Im- 
provement, and Medical Observation ; was President 
of the Boylston Medical Society of Harvard for the 
years 1873-1874 ; and also belongs to the Massa- 
chusetts State Medical Society. .\s a medical writer 
he has acquired a wide reputation and was Associate 
Editor of the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 
For his first wife he married Miss Alice, tlaughter of 




H. H. A. BEACH 



the late Edward D. Mandell, of New Bedford, 
Massachusetts, who died in 1880. Five years later 
he wedded Miss Amy M. Cheney, of Boston, the 
well-known pianist and composer. 



AMORY, Robert, 1842- 

Born in Boston, 1842; graduate of Harvard. 1863 and 
of the Harvard Medical School, 1866; studied abroad 
one year, and settled in Brookline, Mass.; lectured at 
Harvard, 1869; Professor of Physiology in the Medical 
Department of Bowdoin until 1874 ; and has contributed 
original articles and translations to medical literature. 

ROBERT AMORY, M.D.. Lecturer at Har\ard, 
son of James Sullivan and Mary Copley 
(Greene) Amory, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, 



210 



UNirKRSiriES JND THEIR SONS 



May 3, 1842. Graduating from Harvard in 1863 and 
from the Medical School three years later, he spent 
the ensuing year studying in Paris and Dublin. 
Upon his return to the United States he took up his 
residence in Longwood (IJrookline), Massachusetts, 
and began the practice of his profession. In 1870 
he lectured at the Harvard Medical School on the 
physiological action of drugs, and subsequently occvi- 
pied the Chair of Physiology in the Medical Depart- 
ment of Bowdoin, which he resigned in 1874. He 
is a member of several medical societies, having been 
a trial commissioner of the Massachusetts Medical 




ROBERT AMORY 

Society, Secretary and afterward President of the 
Massachusetts Medico-Legal Society, Secretary and 
afterward President of the Norfolk Medical Society 
and has been a fellow of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, and has published a work entitled 
Bromides of Potassium and .Ammonium and Action 
of Nitrous Oxide. Editor of Kiiss Lectures on 
Piiysiologv, and Volume 3 of Wharton and Stella's 
Medical Jurisprudence, — Electrolysis in Medicine. 
He is also the author of numerous scientific papers, 
notable among which are : Chloral Hydrates ; Ex- 
periments Disproving Evolution of Chloroform in 
Organism ; Pathological Action of Prussic Acid ; 
Poisons, etc. He has translated and edited Pro- 
fessor Kiiss' Lectures on Physiology delivered at the 



Strasburg University Medical School and his Photo- 
graphy of the Spectrum was published in tlie 
proceedings of the American Academy, of which 
he is a fellow. Dr. Amory is prominently identified 
with Brookline town affairs. He entered the Massa- 
chusetts Militia as Assistant-Surgeon in 1875, was 
promoted to the rank of Surgeon in 1876, and 
subsequently appointed IMedical Director of the 
First Brigade. He is a member of the St. Botolph, 
Algonquin, Somerset, and University clubs of Boston, 
and of the University club of New York. Dr. Amory 
was married first, in May 1864, to Miss Mary .Apple- 
ton Lawrence. She died in 1882, leaving a daughter, 
Alice. He, married second, in September 1886, 
Miss Katharine Leighton Crehore. Their children 
are : Robert, Jr., ALiry Copley, Katharine Leighton, 
Jr., and ]\Largery Amor)'. 



COOPER, Samuel, 1727-1783. 

Born in Boston. Mass., 1725; graduated at Harvard, 
1743; elected to the Colleague Pastorate of the Brattle 
Street Church, Boston, in 1744, succeeding his father ; 
Fellow of Harvard for seventeen years ; was promi- 
nent in political affairs prior to the Revolution; and 
first Vice-President of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences. Died, 1783. 

SAMUEL COOPER, D.D., Overseer of Har- 
vard, was born in Boston, ALassachusetts, 
March 28, 1725. He was a son of the Rev. William 
Cooper, a Harvard graduate and for many years 
associated with Dr. Coleman in the Pastorate of the 
Brattle Street Church, Boston. His preparatory 
course was pursued in the Grammar School, Boston, 
and graduating from Harvard in 1743, he turned his 
attention to the study of theology. On December 
31, 1744, he was selected as Assistant Pastor of 
the Brattle Street Church, succeeding his father in 
that capacity, but was not ordained until May 21, 
1 746, and his pastoral relations with that society 
continued for the rest of his life. He strenuously 
opposed the Excise and Stamp Acts, wrote many 
strong political articles for the Boston Gazette and 
his continued denunciations with tongue and pen of 
British mis-rule at length so aroused the authorities 
against him, that he found it advisable to leave 
Boston just prior to the Battle of Lexington. Like 
his father he declined the Presidency of Har\-ard, 
believing himself better fitted for pastoral work, 
but he accepted membership of the College Corpora- 
tion in 1767 and continued his Fellowship with the 
Board until his death, which occurred December 29, 
1783. The degree of Master of Arts was conferred 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



21 1 



upon him by both Harvard and VaU', and in 1767 
he was honored by the University of Kdinburgh with 
that of Doctor of Divinity. Dr. Cooper enjoyed the 
friendship of many distinguished Americans of his 
time, inckiding John Adams and Benjamin FrankHn. 
Besides being tiie first Vice-President of the .Ameri- 
can Academy of .Arts and Sciences he belonged to 
numerous scientific and rehgious bodies, and cor- 
responded with eminent men abroad. His pubHshetl 
works consist principally of political writings and 
sermons, many of which denote unusual ability, but 
a Discourse on the Commencement of the New 
Constitution of Massachusetts is undoubtedly the 
most finished product of his pen. 



CUMMINGS, Prentiss, 1840- 

Born in Sumner, Me., 1840; graduated at Harvard, 
1864; Principal of the Portland, Me., High School; 
Proctor of Harvard and Tutor in Latin, 1866-70; com- 
pleted his studies at the Harvard Law School and ad- 
mitted to the Bar, 1871 ; Assistant U. S. Attorney for 
the District of Boston, 1874 ; member of the Boston 
City Council, 1881-82-83 '• Representative to the Legis- 
lature, 1884-85; President of the Cambridge Street 
Railway Co., 1885-87 ; Vice-President of the West End 
Street Railway Co., 1887. 

PRKXTISS CUMMIN'GS, Proctor and Tutor 
at Harvard, was born in Sumner, Maine, 
September 10, 1846, son of Whitney and Mary 
(Prentiss) Cummings. His first .American ancestor 
was Isaac Cummings, a Scotchman who settled in 
Topsfield, Massachusetts, about the year 1632 ; and 
he is a great-grandson, on the maternal side, of the 
Rev. Caleb Prentiss and of Dr. John Hart, the latter 
a Revolutionary officer under Colonel Prescott. His 
College preparations were pursued at Phillips-Exeter 
Academy, and he was graduated from Harvard with 
the Class of 1864. .After a short season as Master 
of the High School at Portland, Maine, he began 
the study of Law with Nathan Webb, now Judge in 
the United States District Court, and in the follow- 
ing year he entered the Harvard Law School. He 
was for some time Proctor of the College, and was 
Tutor in Latin from 1S66 until 1870, in which year 
he resumed his law studies and was admitted to the 
Bar in 1871. Locating for practice in Boston, he 
was in 1874 appointed First-.Assistant LTnited States 
Attorney for that District, and held that position for 
seven years, or until resigning in order to devote 
more time to his private business. As President of 
the Cambridge Street RaiUv.ay Company, to which 
position he was elected in 1885, he took an active 



part in consolidating the street-railway interests of 
lioston under one management, that of the West 
lind Company, in 1887, and was chosen its Vice- 
President. For the years 1881-1882-1883 Mr. 
Cummings was a member of the Boston Common 
Council, and in 1884-1885 he served as Represen- 
tative to the Lower House of the Legislature. He 
is President of the Boston Chess Club, has been a 
member of the LTnion and other Boston clubs, and 
is a member of the Society of the Cincinnati. On 
February 25, 1880, he was married in Ikickfield, 
Maine, to Miss Annie Delena Snow, daughter of 




PRENTISS CUMMINGS 

Alonzo and Priscilla (Weeks) Snow, of Cambridge. 
Mr. Cummings resides in Brookline, where he is 
Trustee of the Public Library and member of School 
Committee. 



GRAY, John Chipman, 1839- 

Born in Brighton, Mass., 1839 : educated at Harvard ; 
has been Associate Editor of the American Law 
Review, Story Professor of Law at Harvard, Royall 
Professor of Law; practised in Boston as a member of 
the firm of Ropes, Gray & Loring; has published 
several books on legal matters. 

JOHN CHIP.MAN GR.AY, LL.D., Royall Pro- 
fessor of Law at Harvard, was the son of 
Horace and Surah (Russell) Gray, ami was born in 



212 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Brighton, Massachusetts, July 14, 1S59. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard in the Class of 1S59, afterwards 
receiving the degree of Master of Arts, in 1861 the 
degree of Bachelor of Laws from tiie same College 
and in 1S96 the degree of Doctor of Laws from the 
same College. In 1894 Yale also honored him with 
the degree of Doctor of Laws. He had entered 
the Law School in 1S60 and studied there two years. 
He was admitted to the J5ar in 1863. During the 
first four years of the existence of the American 
Law Review Mr. Gray was one of the Editors. 
He has been prominent at the Bar as a member 




JOHN C. CRAY 

of the firm of Ropes, Gray & Loring, Boston. In 
1875 he was appointed Story Professor of Law at 
Harvard and in 1883 was transferred to the Royall 
Professorship, which position is still held by him. 
He is a fellow of the American Academy. Several 
legal works have come from his pen, including a 
small book on Restraints upon Alienation, Rule 
against Perpetuities, and Selected Cases on Property, 
six volumes. He married in 1873 Anna S. L. Mason 
and has two children. 



GRAY, Francis Galley, 1790-1856. 

Born in Salem, Mass., 1790; graduated at Harvard, 
1809; studied law; Private Secretary to John Quincy 
Adams; member of the Massachusetts Legislature; 
President of the Boston Athenaeum ; Fellow of Har- 



vard, 1826-1836; received the degree of LL.D. from 
Harvard, 1841 ; endowed Harvard Library, also the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology; died in Boston, 
Mass. 1855. 

FRANCIS GALLEY GR.W, LL.D., Benefactor 
of Harvard, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, 
September 19, 1790; died in Boston December 29, 
1S56. He was graduated at Harvard in 1809, and 
studied law with William Prescott, but never prac- 
tised. He was Private Secretary to John Quincy 
Adams during the latter's term as Minister to 
Russia, was several times a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature, and was President of the 
Boston Athenteum. From 1826 to 1836 he was a 
Fellow of Harvard, which conferred on him the 
degree of Doctor of Laws in 1841. While a Fellow 
he rendered the L^niversity a great service by de- 
fending it in a ]irinted pamphlet, from certain 
adverse criticisms. He authorized his nephew and 
residuary legatee, William Gray, to make two im- 
portant gifts to the University, provided his estate, 
two years after his death, all other bequests having 
been paid, should supply the means. The gifts 
were, a large and valuable collection of engravings 
and $16,000 for cataloguing and caring for it, and 
$50,000 to establish and maintain a museum of 
Comparative Zoology. Although his wishes were 
not expressed in the will, but only in a letter to 
William Gray, the latter faithfully carried them out, 
and he himself afterwards gave $25,000 to buy 
books for the College Library. William Gray was a 
member of the Class of 1829 and an Overseer from 
1S66 to 1872. Another of the same family, John 
Chipman Gray, of the Class of 1 8 1 1 , an Overseer 
from 1847 to 1S54, was also a Benefactor of the 
University. For these three men, eminent as citi- 
zens and as friends of learning, a dormitory built in 
1863, still standing, was called Grays' Hall. 



HOAR, Samuel, 1788-1856. 

Born in Lincoln, Mass., 1788; graduated at Harvard, 
1802 ; admitted to the Bar 1805 and practised law suc- 
cessfully for forty years; delegate to the State Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1820; a State Senator in 1825 
and again in 1833; member of Congress, 1835-1837; 
expelled from South Carolina in 1844 for defending 
the rights of the free colored persons; was an Over- 
seer of Harvard from 1853 until his death in 1856. 

SAMUEL HOAR, LL.D., Overseer of Harvard, 
was born in Lincoln, Massachusetts, May 18, 
1788. He was a son of Captain Samuel Hoar, an 
officer in the Continental Army during the Revolu- 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



213 



tioiKuy War, and subsequently for a number t)f years 
a member of the Massachusetts Legislature. At"ler 
graduating from Harvard (1S02), the younger 
Samuel went to Virginia, where he acted as Private 
Tutor for two years, at the expiration of which time 
he applied himself to the study of law, was admitted 
to the Bar in 1805 and located for practice in Con- 
cord, Massachusetts. l"or forty years he was one of 
the leading lawyers in the Commonwealth, and as 
might be expected his ability made him especially 
eligible to the higher public service, in which he 
was a conspicuous figure. He was a delegate to the 
State Constitutional Convention of 1820, served in 
the State Senate in 1825 and again in 1833, and 
represented his district in the National Congress 
from December 1835 to Marcli 1S37. A Whig in 
politics and a fearless abolitionist, in 1844 he ac- 
cepted an appointment by the state to visit South 
Carolina for the purpose of testing the constitution- 
ality of a recently promulgated law in that state 
providing for the apprehension of all free colored 
persons, found within its borders, and he was 
expelled from the state by Act of Legislature 
immediately upon his arrival, ostensibly for merely 
presuming to question the legality of its acts. 
Samuel Hoar died in Concord, November 3, 1856. 
He received the degree of Master of Arts in course, 
and that of Doctor of Laws was given him in 1838 
by Harvard, of which he was an Overseer for the last 
three years of his life. He was a member of the 
Massachusetts Historical and the American Bible 
Societies and a fellow of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences. His wife was a daughter of 
Roger Sherman. 



(1840) he ajiplied himself to the practice of his 
profession in Middlesex and Suffolk counties for the 
succeeding nine years. In 1849 he was appointed 
a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, — holding 
tliat office until 1S55, anil in 1S59 was elected 
to a seat upon the Supreme 15ench, which he 
retained for ten years. Selected by President 
Crant for the .'\ttorncy-(ieneralship in his first 
cabinet, Mr. Hoar served in that capacity from 
March 1869 to July 1870, and in 1871 he acted 
as one of the joint high commission that formed 
the 'I'reaty of Washington with Creat Britain. In 




E. ROCKWOOD HOAR 



HOAR, Ebenezer Rockwood, 1816-1895. 

Born in Concord, Mass., 1816; graduated from Har- 
vard, 1835; and from the College Law School, 1839; ad- 
mitted to the Bar, 1840; was Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas 1849-1854 and of the State Supreme 
Court 1859-1869 ; Attorney-General of the United States, 
1869-1870; assisted in framing the Treaty of Wash- 
ington, 1871 ; and member of Congress, 1873-1875 ; Over- 
seer of Harvard 1857-1887 and a member of the College 
Corporation ; died in Concord, Mass., 1895. 

EBENEZER ROCKWOOD HOAR, LL.D., 
Fellow and Overseer of Harvard, was a son 
of Hon. Samuel Hoar M.C., and his birth took 
place in Concord, Massachusetts, February 21, 181 6. 
He was graduated from the Academic and Law 
Departments of Harvard in 1835 and 1839 respec- 
tively, and subsequent to his admission to the Bar 



1873 he took his seat in Congress, to which he 
had been elected by the Republican party, and 
continued a member of that body till March 3, 1875. 
Judge Hoar's death occurred in 1895. He was a 
fellow of the American .Academy of Arts and 
Sciences; in 1861 he was made a Doctor of Laws 
by Williams and the same degree was conferretl 
upon him in 1868 by Harvard, of which he acted 
as an Overseer from 1857 to 1887, being President of 
the Board for some time. He was also a benefactor 
of the University, and a member of the Corporation. 



HUNTINGTON. Frederic Dan, 1819- 

Born in Hadley, Mass., 1819 ; graduate of Amherst, 
1839; of the Harvard Divinity School in 1842; Pastor 



214 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



of the South Congregational Church, Boston ; Pro- 
fessor of Christian Morals at Harvard and Preacher to 
the University 1855-1860; Chaplain of the Massachu- 
setts Legislature ; took orders in the Episcopal Church, 
i85o ; organized Emmanuel Parish, Boston ; assisted 
in establishing the Church Monthly, 1861 ; consecrated 
Bishop of Central New York, 1869; called to the 
Presidency of St. Andrew's Divinity School, Syracuse. 

FREDERIC DAN HUNTINGTON, S.T.D., 
LL.D., formerly Professor at Harvard, ami 



New York. In company with Dr. George M. Ran- 
dall, he established the Church Monthly in 1S61, 
and after his consecration as Bishop he took the 
Presidency of St. Andrew's Divinity School, Syracuse, 
New York. From Harvard Dr. Huntington received 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1S42. That 
of Master of Arts was given by Amherst in course, 
while those of Doctor of Divinity and 1 )octor of 
Laws were conferred upon him in 1887 and 18S8 



subsequently Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Central respectively, and Columbia honored him with the 



New York, was born in Hadley, Massachusetts, May 
28, 1819. His father was the Rev. Dan Huntington, 




FREDERICK D. HUNTINGTON 

a Tutor of Yale from 1 796 to i 798, and a convert to 
Unitarianism from the Trinitarian Congregational 
faith. Graduating from Amherst in 1839, he entered 
the Harvard Divinity School, where he completed his 
studies in 1842, and was subsequently ordained to 
the Pastorate of the South Congregational Church, 
Boston. He was Plummer Professor of Christian 
Morals at Harvard from 1855 to i860, during which 
time he officiated as Preacher to the University, and 
as Chajjlain to the Massachusetts Legislature. Sever- 
ing his connection with the Unitarian Church and 
with Harvard in i860 he entered the Episcopal 
ministry, and after organizing Emmanuel Church, 
Boston, became its first Rector, continuing as such 
for nine years, or until elected Bishop of Central 



Divinity degree in 1887. He is a prolific writer, 
much of his work in the way of lessons and lectures 
having appeared in the reviews, and some of his 
sermons have been issued in book-form. Among 
his best known publications are : Elim, or Hymns 
for Holy Refreshment ; Lessons for the Instruction 
of Children in the Divine Life ; Helps to a Holy 
Lent and Steps to a Living Faith. He edited 
Archbishop VVhately's Christian Morals, and Memo- 
rials of a Quiet Life. 



KOEHLER, Sylvester Rosa, 1837- 

Born in Leipzig, 1837; came to the United States 
with his parents in 1849 ; well known as a writer and 
lecturer on art subjects, more especially on the repro- 
ductive or multiplying arts, (engraving, etc.) ; is at 
present Curator of the Print Department in the Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass., and honorary 
Curator of the Section of Graphic Arts in the United 
States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C. 

SYLVESTER ROSA KOEHLER, A.M., late 
Curator of the John Witt Randall Collection 
of engravings belonging to Harvard, now Curator 
of the Print Department in the Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, and Honorary Curator 
of the Section of Graphic Arts in the United .States 
National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, was born in Leipzig, 
February 11, 1837. His father, an artist, came to 
the United States in 1848 and was followed by his 
family in 1849. The subject of this sketch having 
been intended for one of the learned professions, 
attended the lower classes of the Gymnasium St. 
Nicolai, one of the Latin schools of his native town, 
but the migration to America left him pretty much 
to his own resources for further training. Having 
always had a predilection for literature and the arts, 
he continued his studies in this direction, and occa- 
sionally wrote short articles, some of which were 
published in Europe, others in the United States. 
About 1869 he came to Boston, having accepted a 



UNIFERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



2' 5 



position in the cliromolithographic publishing iiouse 
of L. Prang & Company, wliich position he filled 
for nearly ten years. It was not, however, until 
1880, that he found it possible to devote himself 
entirely to the work of his choice. In the year 
named, he assumed the editorship, with the late 
C. C. Perkins of Boston, and Dr. Prime of New 
York, as Associate Editors of the American Art 
Review, which was abandoned by the publishers at 
tlie end of two years. He was then engaged for a 
while as reporter on art matters, on the staff of the 
Advertiser of Boston, and the Evening Mail and 
Express of New York ; during several years edited 
the American department of the London Magazine 
of Art and for some time superintended tiie printing 
of the colored illustrations in Puck at the request of 
the late Joseph Keppler. In the year 1893 he de- 
livered a course of lectures on methods of engraving 
before the Lowell Institute, of Boston, which course 
he repeated at the Drexel Institute of Philadelphia, 
and the United States National Museum at Wash- 
ington. Latterly he has given his attention entirely 
to Museum matters, in the positions named above. 
In 1892 Harvard University conferred upon him 
the honorary degree of Master of Arts, and he was 
also elected a fellow of the .'\merican Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, Boston. Of books published by 
him, there may be named two translations : Von 
Betzold's Theory of Color, and Lalanne's Treatise 
on Etching and the following original works : Etch- 
ing, an Outline of its Technical Processes and its 
History, etc. ; American Art ; and Diirer's Engrav- 
ings, Dry-Points and Etchings, published by the 
Grolier Club of New York. At present (1899) he 
is engaged in preparing for the press his long- 
planned History of Color-printing. 



LORING, Charles Greely, 1794-1867. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1794; graduated at Harvard, 
1812; lawyer, orator, state Senator and author ; Actuary 
of the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Com- 
pany, 1857 until his death; Fellow of Harvard, 1838- 
1858; died in Beverly, 1837. 

CHARLES GREELY LORING, LL.D., Fellow 
of Harvard, was born in Boston, ALassachu- 
setts, May 2, i 794. He pursued the regular course 
at Harvard, graduating with the Class of 1S12, and 
preparing himself for the legal profession was ad- 
mitted to the Suffolk Bar, at which he attained 
prominence. As an orator his services were called 
into use on numerous memorable occasions, and 



one of his last and most effective sijeeches was that 
delivered at a ])ublic gathering in Boston, following 
the assassination of President Lincoln. Though 
deeply interested in |iulillc affairs he refrained from 
taking an active part in politics, but consented to 
accept a seat in the State Senate (1S62), and ren- 
dered valuable service in that body. .At the time 
of his death, which occurred in Beverly, Massa- 
chusetts, October 8, 1867, he was holding the re- 
sjjonsible position of .Actuary of tlie Massachusetts 
Hospital Life Insurance Comiiany to which he was 
appointed in 1857. Mr. Loring succeedeil ICdward 




CHARLES G. LORING 

Everett as President of the Union Club, was a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and a 
fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
The degree of Master of .Arts was conferred by Har- 
vard in course, while that of Doctor of Laws was be- 
stowed upon him in 1850 and he was a Fellow of the 
College from 1838 to 1858. His published works 
consist of: Neutral Relations between the United 
States and England ; Life of William Sturgis ; and 
a number of public addresses. 



LOTHROP, Samuel Kirkland, 1804-1886. 

Born in Utica, N. Y., 1804; graduated at Harvard, 
1825, and at the Divinity School, 1828; Pastor of the 



2l6 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Unitarian Church, Dover, N. H., for some time, and of 
the Brattle Square Church, Boston, 1834-1876 ; delegate 
to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention, 1853; 
member of the Boston School Board thirty years ; 
Overseer of Harvard, 1847-1854; Lecturer at the Div- 
inity School, 1871-1872; died in Boston, Mass., 1886. 

SAMUEL KIRKLANl) LOTHROP, S.T.D., LL. 
D., Overseer of Harvard and Lecturer at the 
Divinity School, was born in Utica, New York, 
October 13, 1804. His maternal grandfather was 
the Rev. Samuel Kirkland, a missionary to the 
Indians prior to and during tlie Revolutionary War, 
and the founder of Hamilton College. His classical 
and theological studies were pursued at Harvard, 
where he graduated from the Academic Depart- 
ment in 1825, and froiti the Divinity School three 
years later, and in 1829, he took charge of his first 
Pastorate, that of the Unitarian Church in Dover, 
New Hampshire. Called to the Brattle Square 
Church, Boston, in 1834, he retained his pastoral 
connection with that society for over forty years 
until 1876, and its dissolution immediately followed 
his resignation. Dr. Lothrop died in Boston, 
Massachusetts, June 12, 18S6. He was interested 
in political and educational affairs, serving as a dele- 
gate to the State Constitutional Convention in 1853, 
and during his thirty years' membership of the 
Boston School Board he was Chairman of the Eng- 
lish High School Committee a greater part of the 
time. For the years 1871-72 he held a Lecture- 
ship in the Harvard Divinity School, was an Over- 
seer of the College from 1847 to 1854, was made 
a Doctor of Divinity by Harvard in 1852, .and a 
Doctor of Laws by Hamilton, in 1885. He was a 
nieinber of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 
He was the author of: Life of Rev. Samuel Kirkland 
in Sparks' American Biography ; and a History of 
Brattle Square Church. 



LOVERING, Joseph, 1813-1892. 

Born in Charlestown, Mass., 1813; graduated at 
Harvard, 1833; Instructor in Mathematics, 1835-38; 
Tutor, 1836-38; Professor, 1838-88, and afterward 
"Emeritus"; Regent, 1857-70; Director of Jefferson 
Physical Laboratory, 1884-88; public lecturer, and 
scientific writer; died in Cambridge, 1892. 

JOSEPH LOVERING, LL.D., Professor at Har- 
vard, was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, 
December 25, 1813. With the exception of a year 
spent as a teacher in his native town, he was con- 
nected with Harvard from the time of graduating 
(1833) until his death, a period of fifty-eight years, 



having studied in the Divinity School two years, 
acted as College Instructor in Mathematics three 
years. Tutor two years. Lecturer for the same 
length of time, and as Hollis Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Natural Philosophy from 1838 to 1888, 
when he retired and was made Professor " Emer- 
itus." From 1857 to 1S70 he served as Regent, 
which post was later consolidated with that of Dean, 
and he was Director of the Jefferson Physical Lab- 
oratory from 1884 to 1888. His services as a 
public lecturer were for many years in constant 
demand, and besides nine courses of twelve lectures 




JOSEPH LOVERING 

each before the Lowell Institute, Boston, delivering 
each lecture twice, he spoke many times before the 
Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' Association, 
the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, the Pea- 
body Institute, Baltimore, and in all of the prin- 
cipal cities and towns of New England. He also 
supervised the computations of trans-Atlantic longi- 
tudes for the United States Coast Survey from 1867 
to 1876. He was a member of the American 
Philosophical Society, and the National Academy of 
Sciences, President of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences from 1880 to 1887, and President 
of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, having while acting as Perinanent Sec- 
retary edited fifteen volumes of its proceed- 



UNirERsrriKs jnd tuf.ik soss 



217 



ings. Professor Lovering died in Cambridge, 
January 18, 1892. 'i'lie degree of Doctor of Laws 
was conferred upon him by Harvard in 1879. 
Besides the work above mentioned, he contributed 
numerous articles on astronomy, physics and l<indred 
subjects to the scientific reviews ; was the author of : 
Memoirs on the Aurora, Terrestrial Magnetism, and 
Determination of Trans-Atlantic Longitudes, issued 
by the American Academy ; a volume on the Aurora 
Borealis, and Editor of a new edition of Farrer's 
Electricity and ALignetism. 



J 



LOWELL, James Russell, 1819-1891. 

Born in Cambridge, Mass., i8ig; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1838; studied law but abandoned it for literature ; 
poet, satirist, critic, humorist and editor; held the 
Chair of Modern Languages, Literature and Belles- 
lettres at Harvard, 1855-1886, succeeding Henry Wads- 
worth Longfellow; University Lecturer, 1863-1864; 
Overseer, 1887-1891 ; Minister to Spain, 1877-1880; 
Minister to Great Britain. 1880-1885 ; died in Cambridge, 
1891. 

'AMES RUSSELL LOWELL, D.C.L., LL.D., 
Professor and Overseer at Harvard, was born 
in Cambridge, Massachusetts, February 22, 1819. 
He was a son of Rev. Ciiarles Lowell, and a descen- 
dant of sturdy, intellectual and highly cultured New 
England ancestors. He entered Harvard at the 
age of fifteen and was graduated at nineteen with 
the Class of 1838. He also pursued the regular 
course at the Harvard Law School, was admitted to 
the Bar in 1840, but his practice, if indeed he ever 
had any, was of short duration, as James Russell 
Lowell, the lawyer, was soon superseded by James 
Russell Lowell, the poet, humorist, critic, satirist 
and editor, in all of which he displayed surpassing 
genius long before entering the field of higher edu- 
cation, of which he was so long a brilliant and con- 
spicuous exponent. His early poetical and prose 
writings appeared in the Dial, the Democratic 
Review, the Massachusetts Quarterly Review and 
the Pioneer, the latter a literary and critical maga- 
zine of which he was Associate Editor, and which 
was only able to sustain its life through three num- 
bers, owing to insufficient vitality in the financial 
department. From 1863 to 1S72 he was associated 
with Professor Charles Eliot Norton in editing the 
North American Review and was the first Editor of 
the Atlantic Monthly, the establishment, character 
and mission of which were based upon the com- 
posite ideas of Longfellow, Lowell, Holmes and 
Emerson at a meeting held in the Sage of Con- 
cord's study. In 1855 Mr. Lowell was selected to 



succeed Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in the Smith 
Professorship of Modern Languages and Belles- 
lettres at LLarvard, for which he made special 
preparations by pursuing a two years' course of 
study in Europe, greatly increasing during his stay 
abroad liis knowledge of the French, Spanish and 
Italian languages and literature, and assmning the 
chair in 1857 he retained it until 1886, although 
his active duties at the University were practically 
brought to a close by his acceptance of the Spanish 
mission in 1877. During the years 1863 and 1864 
he was University Lecturer at Harvard, was made 




JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL 

"Emeritus" Professor in 1S86 and was a member 
of the Board of Overseers from 1S87 until his death, 
which occurred in Cambridge, .Vugust 12, 1891. 
Like most literary men, Professor Lowell found 
little time to devote to ijolitical affairs until long 
past his fiftieth birth<lay, and althougli Ids patri- 
otism was sincere and his democracy of the purest 
type, he tempered his radicalism with such con- 
servative opinions as were best calculated in his 
judgment to effectually preserve American institu- 
tions, and any attempt to imperil the principles 
upon which the Republic was founded, was sure to 
attract his notice and receive a severe lashing from 
his caustic pen. In 1876 he was a Presidential 
Elector, was ajjpointed Minister Plenipotentiary to 
Spain in T877, and in 18S0 was advanced to the 



2l8 



UNII'ERSrriES JND rilEIK SONS 



higher diplomatic post of American Representative 
to the Court of St. James. During his residence in 
London, his personal character, scholarly attain- 
ments and high position in American literature, 
which latter had long been familiar to Englishmen, 
made him the recipient of the higliest honors open 
to a foreign diplomatist, and certainly no greater 
recognition of his ability could be shown than the 
request that he should deliver the oration at the 
unveiling of a bust of the poet Coleridge in West- 
minster Abbey, in May 18S5, just prior to his recall 
by the first Cleveland administration. With the 
possible exception of George Bancroft, the his- 
torian, no American scholar has received a more 
honorable recognition by domestic and foreign 
Universities, and learneil bodies than did James 
Russell Lowell. Besides the degrees of Master of 
Arts, Bachelor of Laws and Doctor of Laws con- 
ferred by Harvard, he received that of Doctor of 
Civil Laws from Oxford in 1873, and was similarly 
honored by Cambridge in 1874, St. Andrews and 
Edinburgh Universities in 1884, and the University 
of Bologna, Italy, in 1888. He was a fellow of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, member 
of the American Philosophical and the Massachusetts 
Historical Societies ; the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, the Royal Literary Society of London and 
the Royal .Academy of Spain, and was elected 
Rector of St. Andrews University. Of his literary 
works which are too numerous and also too well- 
known to the readers of this work to need a minute 
description, perhaps the most popular with the gen- 
eral public is the Biglow Papers, and with the 
lovers of true rhythmical and romantic poetry the 
Vision of Sir Launfal will ever be a prime favorite. 
In 1844 Professor Lowell married Maria White, 
also a poet, born in Watertown, Massachusetts, 
July 8, 182 1, and died in Cambridge, October 27, 
1853. In September 1857 he married for his sec- 
ond wife Frances Dunlap, of Portland, ^L'^ine, who 
died in London, in February 1885. 



LOWELL, Charles, 1782-1861. 

Born in Boston, 1782; graduated at Harvard, 1800; 
completed his theological studies abroad ; Pastor of 
the West Unitarian Church, Boston, 1806-1861 ; mem- 
ber of the Harvard Corporation, 1818-1833 \ died in 
Cambridge, 1861. 

CHARLES LOWELL, S.T.D., Fellow of Har 
vard, was born in Boston, August 15, 1782. 
son of John Lowell, member of the Continental 



Congress, and subsequently Chief-Justice of the 
First United States Circuit Court. Graduating from 
Harvard in 1800 and taking up the study of law, he 
soon afterward decided to enter the LTnitarian min- 
istry. Having completed his theological studies in 
F'.dinburgh he travelled for a year in Continental 
]'',urope, and was installed Pastor of the \\'est Church 
Boston on January i, 1806. His activity continued 
uninterrupted until 1837, when failing health made 
necessary a season of rest, and during the 
period of three years, which he spent in Europe 
and the Orient, his pulpit was supplied by the 
Rev. Dr. Cyrus A. Bartol, who was thence- 
forward his associate in the Pastorate. Dr. Lowell 
continued as Senior Pastor luitil his death which 
occurred in Cambridge, Massachusetts, January 
20, 1 86 1. His ably constructed sermons had 
the advantage of a clear and forcible delivery, and 
his attractive personal character gained the sincere 
devotion of his large congregation. He belonged 
to numerous literary societies both in America 
and Europe, was a member of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, and corresponding member 
of the Archasological Society of Athens. In 1823 
he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from 
Harvard and was a Fellow of the Corporation from 
1818 to 1833. His wife was Harriet Spence of 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, daughter of Robert 
T. Spence, U. S. N. Dr Lowell published two 
volumes of sermons : Meditations for the Afflicted, 
Sick and Dying ; Devotional Exercises for Com- 
municants : and numerous discourses. 



LUNT, William Parsons, 1805-1857. 

Born in Newburyport, Mass., 1805; graduated at 
Harvard, 1823 and the Divinity School, 1828; College 
Instructor, 1826-1827; Overseer 1850-1854; held Pas- 
torate in New York City some time; was Associate 
Pastor in Quincy, Mass., 1835 until his death in 1857. 

WILLIAM PARSONS LUNT, S.T.D., In- 
structor and Overseer at Harvard, was 
born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, April 21, 
1805. Graduating at Harvard in 1823, he was 
engaged in teaching at Plymouth, previous to 
beginning the study of law, which he shortly 
afterward relinquished for theology, and com- 
pleted his course at the Harvard Divinity School 
in 1828, having served as an Instructor in Mathe- 
matics, in the College during the years 1826-1827. 
His first charge was of the Second Unitarian Church, 
New York City, where he remained from 1828 to 



VNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



219 



1S33, and accepting a call to the Associate I'astor- 
ship of the Church in Quincy, Massachusetts, in 
1S35, he continued there for the rest of his life. 
Dr. Lunt died at Akabah, Arabia, March 20, 1857, 
while on a visit to the scenes of ancient biblical 
history. He received the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity from Harvard in 1850, and was an Overseer 
of the College for the four succeeding years. His 
published works, which are still admired for their 
classical purity and clearness of style, consist of: 
.\ Discourse at tiie Interment of John Quincy 
Adams; Union of the Human Race; Sermon on 
Daniel Webster ; Gleanings, edited by his daughter ; 
and he compiled The Christian Psalter. He was a 
member of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 



McKEAN, Joseph, 1776-1818. 

Born in Ipswich, Mass., 1776; graduated at Harvard, 
1794; Pastor of Congregational Church in Milton, 
Mass., 1797-1804; Professor of Rhetoric, Oratory and 
Elocution at Harvard, 1809-1818 ; died in Havana, 
Cuba, 1818. 

JOSEPH McKEAN, S.D.T., LL.D., Boylston 
Professor of Rhetoric, Oratory and Elocution 
at Harvard, was born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, 
April 19, 1776. After the completion of his studies 
at Harvard (1794), he was engaged in teaching 
some three years until 1797, when he entered the 
Congregational Ministry and was called to the 
Pastorship of a church in Milton, Massachusetts, 
which he was compelled to resign in 1804 on 
account of failing health. In 1809 he succeeded 
John Quincy Adams as Boylston Professor of Rhet- 
oric, Oratory and Elocution at Harvard, having 
declined the Chair of Mathematics three years 
previous, and he continued a member of the 
Faculty until the year of his death. He died in 
Havana, Cuba, March 17, 1818, from a pulmonary 
affection of long standing. Professor McKean was 
made a Doctor of Laws by Princeton in 18 14, and 
his Divinity degree was conferred by Allegheny in 
18 1 8. He published a number of sermons, and 
prepared a Memoir of the Rev. John Eliot for the 
collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
of which he was a member. 



murder trial, served as District Attorney, Municipal 
Judge and Judge of Common Pleas, XA'orcester ; Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court, 1853-1864; Overseer of 
Harvard, 1852-1855; died in Boston in 1867. 

PUNY MERRICK, LL.D., Overseer of Har- 
vard, was born in Brookfield, Worcester 
county, Massachusetts, August 2, 1794. He was a 
descendant of Thomas Merrick, an Englishman, \vho 
arrived in New l^ngland in 1630, and was among 
the first settlers of Springfield, Massachusetts. 
Taking his Bachelor's degree at Harvard in 1S14 
and his Master's later, he was preiiared for the 
legal profession imder tlie direction of Levi Lincoln, 







MERRICK, Pliny, 1794-1867. 

Born in Brookfield, Mass., 1794; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1814 ; acquired prominence as a lawyer; senior 
counsel for the defence in the famous Dr. Webster 



I'l.INY MERRICK 

and practised in Bristol, Worcester and Suffolk 
counties with marked success, having charge of 
several imiiortant cases including the defence of 
Professor Webster fur the murder of Dr. I'arkman. 
From 1S24 to 1843 he held the office of District 
Attorney for Worcester, was appointed Judge of 
Common Pleas in 1S43, and again in 1S51, was 
Municipal Judge in 1844. and Associate Justice of 
the Supreme Court from 1853 until 1864. In 
1856 he removed to Boston and resided there 
until his death, which occurred February i, 1S67. 
Judge Merrick was actively interested in the promo- 
tion of public improvements and for some time he 
served as President of the Worcester & Nashua 
Railroad Company. He also devoted some of his 



220 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



valuable time to the interests of Harvard, of whicli 
he was an Overseer from 1852 to 1855, and re- 
ceived from the College the degree of Doctor of 
Laws in 1S53. His will provided a considerable 
sum for the express purpose of furnishing the 
City of Worcester with schools for the higher 
branches of education. 



MANNING, Jacob Merrill, 1824-1882. 

Born in Greenwood, N. Y., 1824; graduated at Am- 
herst, 1850; studied theology at Andover (Mass.) 
Seminary ; ordained at Medford, 1854 ; Assistant at the 
Old South Church, Boston, 1857: succeeded to the 
Pastorship, 1872 ; retired as Pastor " Emeritus " ; Lec- 
turer at Andover Seminary, 1866-1872; Overseer of 
Harvard, 1860-1866; member of the Boston School 
Board; Trustee of State Library, 1865 until his death 
in 1882. 

JACOB MERRILL MANNING, Overseer of 
Harvard, was born in Greenwood, New York, 
December 31, 1824. He was a graduate of 
Amherst, Class of 1850, and of the Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary, from which he was called to the 
charge of a Medford, Massachusetts, Church in 
1854, and three years later accepted the Assistant 
Pastorship of the Old South Church, Boston. In 
1872 he became Senior Pastor, the duties of which 
he performed with marked ability until his retire- 
ment as Pastor " Emeritus," and his death occurred 
in Pordand, Maine, November 29, 1882. During 
Mr. Manning's connection with the Old South 
Society it celebrated, with appropriate ceremonies 
the two hundredth anniversary of its existence in 
1869. In 1859 and i860 he was Chaplain of the 
Massachusetts Senate, and held a similar appoint- 
rnent in the Forty-third Regiment, Massachusetts 
Volunteers in 1862 and 1863. From i860 to 1866 
he served as an Overseer of Harvard, his term 
covering the entire period of the Civil War ; held 
a Lectureship at the Andover Seminary from the 
latter year until 1872 ; occupied a seat upon the 
Boston School Board for some time ; and was a 
Trustee of the State Library from 1865 until the 
year of his death. At the ceremony attending the 
raising of a flag upon the steeple of the Old South 
Church in May, 1861, he delivered a stirring ad- 
dress, and he also delivered an eloquent eulogy on 
Henry Wilson at the State House, Boston, in 1S75. 
His services as a lyceum speaker were in great 
demand, and one of his most popular platform 
efforts was a lecture on Samuel Adams. 



MITCHEL, Jonathan, 1624-1668. 

Born in England, 1624; came with his parents to 
America in 1635; graduated at Harvard, 1647; Tutor 
there, 1646 (?)-i650 (?) ; entered the ministry and suc- 
ceeded Thomas Shepard as Pastor of the First Church, 
Cambridge; Fellow of Harvard, 1 650-1 668 ; died, 1668. 

JONATHAN MITCHEL, A.M., Tutor and 
Fellow at Harvard, was born in Halifax, 
England, in 1624. At the age of about ten years 
he came to New England, with his parents, who 
accompanied the Rev. Richard Mather, arriving at 
Boston, August 17, 1835. His connection with 
Harvard, from which he was graduated in 1647, was 
practically continued for the rest of his life, as the 
College records show that he acted as a Tutor prior 
to and after his graduation, and his name appears 
among the list of Fellows from 1650 to 1668. 
Having prepared for the ministry he was called to 
succeed the Rev. Thomas Hooker at Hartford, but 
preferring to remain in Cambridge he became the 
successor of the Rev. Thomas Shepard in the Pas- 
torate of the first church. He was one of the 
authors of the rules for church membership and 
discipline established by the Boston Synod of 1662, 
and the unpleasant task of publicly censuring Presi- 
dent Henry Dunster for having espoused the Bap- 
tist faith, was accomplished by him in such a quiet 
and unobtrusive manner, as to spare the feelings of 
his old preceptor and preserve his friendship. He 
published a number of sermons, discourses and 
letters, notable among which were : An Election 
Sermon ; A Discourse of the Glory to which God 
Hath Called the Believers by Jesus Christ, printed 
in London and Boston; k Letter Concerning the 
Subject of Baptism ; and Letter of Counsel to his 
brother. Jonathan Mitchel died in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, July 9, 1668. 



MITCHELL, William, 1791-1869. 

Born in Nantucket, Mass., 1791 ; noted astronomer 
and mathematician ; Overseer of Harvard, 1857-1865 
and Chairman of the Visiting Committee to the As- 
tronomical Observatory: died in Poughkeepsie, New 
York, 1869. 

WILLIAM MITCHELL, A.M., Overseer of 
Harvard, was born in Nantucket, Massa- 
chusetts, December 20, 1791. Prevented by the 
War of I Si 2 from entering Harvard, for which he 
had prepared, he was engaged in educational pur- 
suits for a number of years, during which time he 
spent his leisure hours in the study of astronomy 



UNIFERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



221 



and the higher mathematics for which, in his youth, 
he displayed a decided predilection. His first 
observatiuns were made through a primitive tele- 
scope furnished by a clock-maker, but being ap- 
pointed Cashier of the Pacific Bank, Nantucket, he 
was enabled to provide improved facilities, and for 
many years his routine duties at the bank were 
interspersed with astronomical researches and deter- 
minations made in collaboration with the scientists 
of the United States Coast Survey. He was made 
an honorary Master of Arts by Brown in 1848, by 
Harvard in i860, and while acting as an Overseer 
of the latter University from 1S57 to 1865, he 
served as Chairman of the Visiting Committee to 
the Astronomical Observatory. He was held in the 
highest estimation by scientists both at home and 
abroad, and was a fellow of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences. William Mitchell died in 
Poughkeepsie, New York, April 19, 1869. He was 
the father of Maria Mitchell, who was educated 
under his supervision, was Professor of Astronomy 
at Vassar from 1865 to 1SS8, a member of several 
scientific bodies including the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and gained the 
distinction of being the first woman to receive a 
fellowship in the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. Miss Mitchell was made a Doctor of 
Laws by both Hanover and Columbia. 



PAINE, Robert Treat, 1803-1885. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1803 ; graduated at Harvard, 
1822; studied law, and admitted to the Bar; member 
of the Boston Common Council, 1828, 1833 and 1834 : 
member of the Board of Visitors to Harvard Observ- 
atory, to which he left his entire fortune, amounting to 
more than a quarter of a million dollars. Died in 
Brookline, Mass., 1885. 

ROBERT TREAT PAINE is a name long 
standing on the books of Harvard, since no 
less than six of Harvard's sons have borne it. To 
Robert Treat Paine of the Class of 1822, however. 
Harvard is especially indebted for a munificent 
benefaction to the Astronomical Department of the 
College, out of which the Paine Professorship of Prac- 
tical Astronomy was founded in 1887. Mr. Paine 
was born in Boston, October 12, 1803, and was the 
grandson of Robert Treat Paine, a distinguished 
jurist and patriot of the last century. He was 
graduated from Harvard in 1822. being the third 
alumnus of the same name, his father having gradu- 



ated in 1792 and his grandfather in 1749. Having 
finislied his course at Harvard, Mr. Paine studied 
law and was admitted to the Bar. Interesting him- 
self in the politics of his native city, he was a mem- 
ber of the Common Covmcil in 182S, 1S33 and 
1 834, but subsequently helil no political office. Dur- 
ing the greater part of his life he devoted his time 
to benevolence and scientific investigation, his in- 
terest in astronomy being particularly marked. On 
February 12, 1831, he observed the annular eclipse 
of the sun from Moncjmoy Light, off Chatham. On 
its recurrence fifty-four years later, in March 1885, 




ROBERT TREAT P.-MNE 

it was his intention to visit Montana to witness it 
again, but failing health prevented his carrying out 
his plan. This same illness continued and resulted 
in his death at his home in P.rookline, June 3, 1885. 
He had served on the Board of Visitors to the Har- 
vard Observatory from its fotmdation luitil his death, 
and he left his entire fortune aiuounting to more 
than a quarter of a million to this department of the 
University. 



RANDALL, John Witt, 1813-1892. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1813 ; attended the Boston 
Latin School ; graduated at Harvard, 1834 ; Medical 
School, 1839; appointed Professor of Invertebrate 



222 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



Zoology in the Wilkes South Sea Expedition, but re- 
signed before sailing ; died in Boston, Mass., 1892. 

JQHN WriT RANDALL, M.D., Benefactor of 
Harvard, and a prominent figure in American 
scientific circles during a life of three-quarters of a 
century, was born in Boston, November 6, 18 13. 
He was the son of Dr. John and Elizabeth (Wells) 
Randall, his mother being the granddaughter of 
Samuel Adams, the patriot of the American Revolu- 
tion. After attending tlie Boston Latin School he 
graduated at Harvard in the Class of 1834, and 
from the Harvard Medical School in 1839. His 




JOHN W. RANDALL 

tastes early developed in a scientific direction, en- 
tomology being a branch to which he specially 
devoted himself. His acquisitions as a naturalist 
were speedily recognized, and to him came the ap- 
pointment of Professor of Zoology in the Depart- 
ment of Invertebrate Animals in the South Sea 
(Wilkes) Exploring Expedition, which the LTnited 
States fitted out shortly after his graduation. Weari- 
some delays and internal jealousies so delayed the 
setting out of the expedition that Dr. Randall saw 
fit to resign the appointment. He afterward passed 
his life quietly in retirement, devoting a considerable 
part of his time to the collection of engravings, of 
which he had one of the most rare and original col- 
lections in America. This he donated to Harvard. 



He began six volumes of poetic works, one of which 
alone had been completed and published at the time 
of his death. He was a contributor to several of 
the scientific magazines and the publisher of a large 
number of scientific monographs. One important 
paper on the animals and plants of Maine, written 
to accompany the Geological Survey of that State by 
Dr. Charles T. Jackson, was lost before it reached 
the printer and was not re-written up to the time of 
Dr. Randall's death, which took place in Boston, 
January 25, 1S92. Harvard received from his estate 
the sum of ^30,000, also his large collection of 
photographs, to establish the John Witt Randall 
fund, the income to be used for the care and pre- 
servation of his engravings, and the surplus for the 
general purposes of the Department of Engraving 
and Fine Arts. 



SCHIFF, Jacob Henry, 1847- 

Born in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany, in 1847; 
educated in Frankfort ; entered the banking business ; 
connected with N. Y, L. E. & W. R. R , Louisville & 
Nashville R. R., Northern R. R., Equitable Life Assur- 
ance Society, and Bond and Mortgage Guarantee Co. ; 
President Montifiore Home for Chronic Invalids; 
Treasurer N. Y. Free Circulating Library; Trustee of 
Barnard College ; Member Chamber of Commerce, 
the City, Reform and Lawyers' Clubs, Liederkranz, 
etc.; member N. Y. Board of Education; founder 
Semitic Museum at Harvard and benefactor of 
Columbia. 

JACOB HENRY SCHIFF, Founder of the Semi- 
tic Museum at Harvard, and Benefactor of 
Columbia, is a prominent New York banker. He 
was born in the ancient city of Frankfort-on-the- 
Main in 1 84 7. His parents were German Hebrews, 
his father being a successful merchant. The boy 
attended school in Frankfort and at the age of 
eighteen came to tlie United States. He first was 
associated in business with Budge, Schiff & Company. 
In 1875 he became a member of the firm, Kuhn, 
Loeb & Company, private bankers. Since 1885 he 
has been head of the house, which has excellent con- 
nections abroad, and has succeeded in placing large 
orders for United States government securities, both 
in Europe and at home. Mr. Schiff has been prom- 
inent in the New York, Lake Erie & Western Rail- 
road, the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, the great 
Northern Railroad, the Equitable Life Assurance 
Society, the Bond & Mortgage Guarantee Company, 
and is a large holder of real estate in New York 
City. He has been President of the Montifiore 
Home for Chronic Invalids, Treasurer of the New 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



223 



York Free Circulating Library, and a Trustee of tion in ilie Divinity School, which he occupied for 

Barnard College. He is a member of the Chamber the rest of his life, which terminated at Cambridge, 

of Commerce, and has been one of the Committee of March 21, 1884. Professor Abbot received the 

Securitv, and is a member of the City, Reform and degree of Doctor of Laws from Vale in 1869, and 

Lawyers' Clubs, as well as of Liederkrauz. He like- although a layman, that of Doctor of Divinity was 

wise has served a number of years on the Board of conferred upon him by ILirvard in 1872. His 

Education. In 1S89 Mr. Schiff gave $10,000 to library of five thousand volumes contained many 

Harvard, for the purchase of objects illustrating valuable books, including a collection of Creek 

Semitic life, history and art. In 1S92 he gave New Testaments of various editions, which he gave 

;?5, 000 to Columbia toward the purchase of the new to the University Library, ami the remainder was 

site at Morningside Heights, and in 1896 he bestowed bequeathed to the Divinity School with the provision 

on Columbia ;>5,ooo for the endowment of a fund to that a more spacious and safe iilare of keeping be 
be known as a "Students' Loan Fund." He was 
married in 1875 to Theresa, the daughter of Solomon ^^ 

Loeb, his senior partner. He has two children, a 
son and a daughter. 



ABBOT, Ezra. 1819-1884. 

Born in Jackson. Me , 1819; prepared for College at 
Phillips-Exeter Academy and was graduated from 
Bowdoin, Class of 1840 ; appointed Assistant Librarian 
at Harvard in 1856, and to a Professorship in the Div- 
inity School in 1872 ; was the author of numerous 
works upon theological and Biblical subjects, and col- 
lected a valuable library ; died in Cambridge. Mass., 
1884. 

EZRA ABBOT, LL.D., S.T.D., Professor at the 
Harvard Divinity School, was born in 
Jackson, Maine, April 28, 1819. It is stated upon 
good authority that when but nineteen months old 
he knew every letter in the alphabet. Entering the 
primary school at an unusually early age, he was 
when five years old advanced to the first class in 
reading, and at the age of seven years his teacher 
was surprised at the lively interest displayed by the 
young pupil in Rollin's Ancient History. But al- 
though his intellectual development was so far in 
advance of his playmates, this fact did not in the 
least prevent him from indulging enthusiastically in 
out-door sports, as is generally the case with extra- 
ordinarily precocious scholars. On the contrary he 
was fond of all pastime games, was an expert angler, 
possessed a genial disposition, and could relate a 
story or an incident in a most entertaining manner. 
After the completion of his preparatory course at 
Phillips-Exeter Academy, he entered Bowdoin from 
which he was graduated in 1840, and almost imme- 
diately took up his residence in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. His connection with Harvard began in 
1856, when he accepted the appointment of Assist- 
ant Librarian, and in 1872 he was called to the 
Chair of New Testament Criticisms and Interpreta- 




EZRA .\BBOT 

secured as soon as possible. As a Unitarian he con- 
tributed frequently to the periodicals of that denom- 
ination, wrote numerous articles upon biblical 
criticism for the North American Review, and tlie 
Journal of the American Oriental Society. He was 
a member of the .American Committee to revise the 
New Testament, and as a Bibliographer his labors 
were extremely important. His publisheil works 
include a careful revision and collation with the 
originals of the numerous quotations in Jeremy 
Taylor's Holy Living and Dying, a new edition of 
which he published in 1864; an extensive catalogue 
of books upon Bibliography, prepared as an appen- 
dix to Alger's Critical History of a Future Life; an 
invaluable addition to tiie Prolegomena to the eighth 
edition of Tischendorf's tireek Testament ; New 



224 



UNlFERSiriES ANB THEIR SONS 



Discussions of the Trinity; Literature of the Doc- 
trine of a Future Life ; and his most important as 
well as his latest work, consisting of a small volume 
on The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel. He 
edited Norton's Statement of the Reasons for not 
Believing the Doctrines of the Trinitarians ; Lam- 
son's Church of the First Three Centuries, and 
other controversial works. He also contributed to 
the pronunciation of names in Worcester's Dic- 
tionary. A memorial of Dr. Abbot was published 
by the Alumni of Harvard Divinity School in 18S4. 



a Lecturer in the Har\-ard Law School. Harvard 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Laws in 1S52, and he was similarly honored by 
Brown in 1S57. He was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, and a fellow of the 
American Academy. His death occurred in New- 
port, Rhode Island, September 15, 1874. His 
published works include, besides many volumes of 
legal reports and digests, his Memoir and Writings, 



CURTIS, Benjamin Robbins, 1809-1874. 

Born in Watertown, Mass., i8og; graduated at Har- 
vard, 1829 and Harvard Law School, 1832; admitted to 
the Bar, 1832; practised for a short time in Northfield, 
Mass., and afterwards in Boston ; Judge U. S. Supreme 
Court, 1851-1857; counsel for defence in impeachment 
trial of President Johnson, 1868; Fellow of Harvard 
Corporation, 1846-1851 ; Lecturer Harvard Law School, 
1872-1873; Democratic candidate for United States 
Senator, 1874; member Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety and fellow American Academy; died in Newport, 
R. L, 1874. 

BENJAMIN ROBBINS CURTIS, LL.D., FeL 
low of Harvard and Lecturer in the Harvard 
Law School, was born in Watertown, Massachusetts, 
November 4, 1S09. He was graduated at Harvard 
in 1S29 and at the Harvard Law School in 1832, 
and was admitted to the Bar in the latter year. 
Entering upon practice in Northfield, Massachusetts, 
he soon after removed to Boston, where his legal 
attainments and judicial mind advanced him rapidly 
to an eminent rank in his profession. Appointed to 
the Bench of the United States Supreme Court in 
1851, by President Fillmore, he came into national 
prominence by dissenting from the decision of the 
court in the celebrated Dred Scott case, and by the 
powerful argument advanced in support of his con- 
clusions. Resigning from the Bench in 1857, he 
resumed practice in Boston. As one of the counsel 
for President Johnson in the impeachment trial in 
1868, the answer to the articles of impeachment 
devolved largely upon him, and his opening for the 
defence was regarded as a masterpiece of legal 
clearness and ability. Judge Curtis' devotion to his 
profession prevented him from taking much active 
interest in politics ; he served two terms in the 
Massachusetts Legislature, and in 1874 was the 
candidate of the Democratic party for United 
States Senator. He was a member of the Corpora- 
tion of Harvard 1S46-1851, and in 1872-1873 was 




BENJAMIN R. CURTIS 

in two volumes ; the first containing a memoir by 
his brother, George Ticknor Curtis, and the latter 
consisting of miscellaneous writings edited by his 
son Benjamin R. Curtis. 



CURTIS, George Ticknor, 1812-1894. 

Born in Watertown, Mass., 1812; graduated at Har- 
vard 1832; admitted to the Bar, 1836; practised in 
Boston until removed to New York in 1862; Lecturer 
Harvard Law School, 1847-1848; member Massachu- 
setts Historical Society ; author of many legal and 
historical works ; died in 1894. 

GEORGE TICKNOR CURTIS, Lecturer in 
the Harvard Law School, was born in 
Watertown, Massachusetts, November 28, 181 2, and 
was graduated at Harvard in 1832. After admission 
to the Bar in 1836, he practised Law in Boston 
until 1862, when he took up his residence in New 



UNf/'KRS/riKS JM) -Illl-JR SONS 



225 



York, and afterwards devoted much time to histor- 
ic;il investigations and to literary work. 1 f e was a 
member of the Massachusetts Legislature for several 
terms, but never interested himself in politics to the 
extent of interfering with his profession and other 
chosen pursuits. He served for a time as Uniteil 
States Commissioner at Boston, in wliich capacity, 
in 185 I, he had occasion to return a fugitive slave 
to liis master, an act by which he incurred the ani- 
mosity and severe denunciations of the abolitionists. 
He was a Lecturer in the Harvard Law .School in 
1 847-1848. Mr. Curtis published a great number 
of legal digests, manuals, commentaries, etc., also a 
History of tiie Origin, Formation and Adoption of 
the Constitution of the United States, two volumes ; 
a Life of Daniel Webster; Life of James Buchanan; 
Creation and Evolution ; and other works. He was 
a member and later corresponding member of the 
l\Lissachusctts Historical Society. He died in New 
York City, ISLarch 28, 1894. 



LOTHROP, John, 1740-1816. 

Born in Norwich, Conn-, 1740; graduated at Prince- 
ton, 1763; studied theology under Dr. Eleazar Wheel- 
ock ; Pastor of the old North Church, Boston, 1768; 
preached in Providence, R. I., 1775-1776; resumed his 
labors in Boston after its evacuation by the British; 
Fellow of Harvard, 1778-1815; Secretary of the Board 
of Overseers, 1804-1816; died in Boston, Mass., 1816. 

JOHN LOTHROP, S.T.D., Fellow of Harvard, 
was born in Norwich, Connecticut, May 17, 
1740. His great-grandfather was the Rev. John 
Lothrop, who founded the church in Barnstable, 
]\Lassachusetts in 1639, and the great-grandson 
spelled his name after the manner of his sturdy an- 
cestor. Relinquishing the study of medicine in 
order to enter the ministry, he prepared for his 
divinity studies by pursuing a classical course at 
Princeton, from which he was graduated in 1 763, 
and while studying theology under Dr. Eleazar 
Wlieelock, he taught in the latter's Indian school. 
After spending some time in missionary work among 
the Indians he was called to the pulpit of the old 
North Church, Boston in i 768. During the turbu- 
lent times attending the occupancy of the town by 
liritish troops he preached in Providence, Rhode 
Island, and finding his church in ruins upon his 
return in 1776, he officiated as assistant to Dr. 
Ebenezer Pemberton until the latter's death, when 
he accepted the Pastorate of the tniited societies. 
Dr. Lothrop was made a Master of Arts in course 
VOL. II, — 15 



by Princeton, received the same degree (honorary) 
from Harvard in 176S, andwas honored by I'Min- 
burgh with that of Doctor of Divinity in 1785. 
His services to Harvard were ])erformed as a Fellow 
from 177S to 1815, and as Secretary of its lioard 
of Overseers from 1804 to 1816. His published 
works consist of sermons and papers printed in 
the collections of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences of whicii he was a member, a Biograph- 
ical Memoir of tlie Rev. John Lotiirop and a Com- 




JOHN T,OTHROP 

pendious History of the Late War (1815). Dr. 
Lothrop died in Boston, January 4, 1816. His son, 
John, Harvard 1789, was a well-known poet, ed- 
ucator and lecturer of his day. 



MATHER, Cotton, 1663-1727. 

Born in Boston. Mass.. 1663; graduated at Harvard, 
1678; Pastor of the North Church, Boston, Associate 
and Senior, 1684 till death ; Fellow of Harvard, 1690- 
1703; conceded to be one of the greatest American 
scholars of his day and the author of three hundred 
and eighty-two volumes ; died, 1727. 

COTTON MATHER, S.T.D., Fellow of Har- 
vard, son of Increase Mather, was born in 
Boston, February 12, 1663. He studied at Har- 
vard graduating in 1678 at the age of fifteen, and in 
spite of the habit of stammering, which seriously 



226 



UNIFERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



impeded for a time liis entrance to tlie ministry, he 
preached when seventeen years ohl, having l)y liis 
own exertions eradicated the fault. From 1684 to 
1723 he assisted his father in the Pastorate of the 
Second Church, and succeeding the hitter continued 
in charge for the rest of his life. He was a firm 
believer in the witchcraft delusion, which he con- 
sidered to be a diabolical visitation, yet his desire 
to closely investigate the so-called e\il influence 
caused him to take an alleged possessed girl into his 
own house for the purpose of observing minutely 
the exact nature of the uncanny phenomena, but 




COTTON ^L\THER 

the result seems to have strengthened his belief as 
he sanctioned the Salem executions of 1692, and 
though he later acknowledged that ultra-extreme 
measures had been resorted to, he never regretted 
the occurrence, nor did he cease to regard the 
trouble as directly the work of evil spirits. The 
somewhat narrow theology resulting from the reli- 
gious superstition of the time, did not prevent him 
from fostering his desire for intellectual advance- 
ment, which he gratified to the highest degree 
possible to obtain, being regarded by his contem- 
poraries as the most eminent scholar in America, 
and although the charges of personal vanity are 
more or less true, he cannot be justly charged with 
its kindred fault, selfishness, as he was equally 



desirous that educational facilities should be open 
to all, even to the negro children, for whom he 
established a school, which he supported at his own 
expense. Cotton Mather died in Boston, February 
13, 1727, and his remains lie interred beside those 
of his father in the family vault at Copp's Hill Cem- 
etery. In I 7 10 he received from the University of 
CJlasgow the degree of Doctor of Divinity, was hon- 
ored with a fellowship in the Royal Society, London 
three years later, being the first American accorded 
that distinction, and was a member of the Harvard 
Corporation from 1690 to 1703. According to his 
son, Samuel Mather, his literary works numbered 
three hundred and eighty-two publications, of which 
two hundred and forty-two volumes had been col- 
lected and identified up to 1879, but John Langdon 
Sibley in his work on the early graduates of Harvard, 
credits him with a still larger number. Some of 
his best-known works are : Magnalia Christi Ameri- 
cana ; Psalterium Americanum, and Biblia.\mericana 
or Sacred Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, 
illustrated. 



MONIS, Judah, 1683-1764. 

Born in Italy, 1683; Instructor in Hebrew at Har- 
vard, 1722-1760; published a Hebrew Grammar; died 
in Northborough, Mass., 1764. 

JUDAH MONIS, Instructor in Hebrew at Har- 
vard, was born in Italy, February 4, 1683, of 
Jewish parentage, who provided him with a good 
education. He emigrated to America, and being 
subsequently converted to Christianity, made open 
declaration of his faith and was publicly baptized in 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. That the authorities 
of Harvard which was at that time the principal and 
with one exception the only seat of learning for theo- 
logical students in America, were quick to secure 
the valuable services of this convert, is much to their 
credit. From 1722 to 1760 he taught Hebrew at 
the College, during which time he gained by his up- 
right character and benevolence the sincere affection 
of the many students who profited by his instruc- 
tion. Rabbi Monis, as he was generally known, 
received the honorary degree of Master of Arts from 
Harvard in 1720. He is believed to have married 
a sister of Rev. John Martin, the first settled minister 
in Northborough, Massachusetts, where he spent the 
last four years of his life, and he died April 25, i 764. 
Rabbi Monis was the author of a Hebrew Gram- 
mar and a work entitled : Truth, Whole Truth and 
Nothing but Truth. The following is a copy of the 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



227 



unique inscription upon his headstone, which is still 
standing in the only Northborough burying-ground : 

" Heru lie buried the remains of Rabbi Judah Monis, M. 
A., Late Hebrew Instructor At Harvard College in 
Cambridge ; In which office he continued 40 years. 
He was by birth and religion a Jew, But embraced 
the Christian faith, And was publickly baptized, At 
Cambridge, A.D. 1722, And departed this life April 
25th, 1764, aged eighty one years, two months and 
twenty one days. 

" A native branch of Jacob see. 
Which, once from off its olive broke, 
Regrafled from the living tree (Rom. XI. 17, 24,) 
Of the reviving sap partook. 

"From teeming Zion's fertile womb (Isa. LXVI. S), 
As devvey drops in early morn (I's. CX. 3), 
Or rising bodies from the tomb (John V. 28, 29), 
At once be Israel's nation born (Isa, LXVI. S)." 



MORTON, Marcus, 1784-1864. 

Born in Freetown, Mass., 1784; graduated at Brown, 
1804; noted lawyer and politician ; Clerk of the State 
Senate, 1811 ; member of Congress, 1817-1821 ; member 
of the Executive Council. 1823 ; Lieutenant-Governor, 
1824; Associate Justice Supreme Court, 1825-1839: 
Governor of Massachusetts, 1840 and again in 1843: 
Collector of the Port of Boston, 1845-1848; member of 
the State Constitutional Convention, 1853 ; Repre- 
sentative to the Legislature, 1858; Overseer of Har- 
vard, 1826-1852; and again 1854-1860; died in Taunton, 
1864. 

MARCUS MORTON, LL.D., Overseer of 
Harvard, was born in Freetown, Massa- 
chusetts, February 19, 1784. He was educated 
at Brown, graduating in 1804, studied law and was 
admitted to the Bar in Taunton, where he engaged 
in practice. His political qualifications caused his 
appointment as Clerk of the State Senate in 181 1, 
and in 18 16 he was elected a member of the 
National House of Representatives serving in that 
capacity two terms. In 1823 he was a member 
of Governor William Eustis' Council, and elected 
Lieutenant-Governor for the following year. For 
fourteen years (i 825-1 839), he was an Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Court, was elected Governor 
in 1840, succeeding Edward Everett, whom he de- 
feated by one vote, and was again elected in 1843. 
He was appointed Collector of Customs for the Port 
of Boston in 1845, resigning in 1848, in which year 
he abandoned the Democratic party for the Free- 
soil movement, and was a member of the Conven- 
tion for the .\mendment of the State Constitution in 
1853. la 1S53 he represented his district in the 



Legislature, and was opposed to the secession of 
the slave states. Governor Morton was made a 
Master of Arts and a Doctor of Laws by Brown, and 
in 1840 received the latter degree from Harvard, of 
which he was an Overseer froin 1826 to 1852, and 
again from 1S54 to 1S60. He died in '!aunt(_.n, 




MARCUS MORTON 



Massachusetts, February 6, 1864. His son, I\Larcus, 
who graduated at the Harvard Law School, became 
Associate Justice of the Superior and Supreme Courts 
and Chief-Justice of the latter in 1872. 



MORTON, Charles, 1626-1698. 

Born in England, 1626 ; graduate of Oxford ; took 
holy orders ; converted to Puritanism and was for some 
years engaged in preaching and teaching; emigrated 
in i586; Pastor of the church in Charlestown, Mass., 
for the rest of his life ; Lecturer at Harvard ; Fellow of 
the College, 1692-97 ; Vice-President, 1697-98 ; died, 
i6g8. 

CHARLES MORTON, Vice-President of Har- 
vard, was born in Pendavy, Cornwall, Eng- 
land, in 1626. Thomas Morton, Secretary to King 
Edward HL, was his ancestor. Educated at O.xfurd, 
he acquired a fellowship there, and took orders in the 
Established Church. He was numbered among the 
Royalist clergy until his conversion to Puritanism, 
and the Conformity .Act of 1662 caused his e.xpul- 



228 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



sion. ile subsequently presided over a suiall gather- 
ing of non-conformists in the Parish of St. Ives until 
after the great London conliagration of 1666, when 
he engaged in teaching, and for some years was the 
Preceptor of an academy for boys, located at Alvving- 
ton Green, of which Daniel Defoe was an attendant. 
Continued persecution by the Bishops' Court at length 
compelled him to seek an asylum in New England, 
whither he was accompanied by Samuel Penhallow, 
the future historian, who was at that time studying 
imder his tuition, and shortly after his arrival (1686), 
he was called to the Pastorate of the Church in 
Charlestown, Massachusetts, which he retained for 
the rest of his life. For some time he delivered 
philosophical lectures to an assemblage of Harvard 
students, but the Corporation s.aw fit to cause their 
suspension. They were, however, desirous of retain- 
ing his services at the College, both on account of 
his superior learning and the moral influences he 
exercised over the students, aiul it was proposed to 
offer him the Presidency, but the majority of the 
Board considered it unsafe to place in that high 
office a man to whom the Government was so vio- 
lently opposed. He was honored with a Fellowship 
in 1692, and in 1697 was elected the first Vice- 
President of Harvard, which office was created 
especially for him. Charles Morton died in Boston, 
April II, 1698. He was the author of: The Ark; 
Its Loss and Recovery ; a System of Logic : long 
used as a text-book at Harvard ; A Discourse on 
Improving the County of Cornwall ; A Complete 
System of Natural Philosophy in General and Par- 
ticular; now in the Bowdoin College Library; and 
a manuscript pamphlet entitled Compendium Physi- 
cale ex Auctoribus Extractum, preserved by the 
American .\ntiquarian Society. 



1809. He was graduated at Harvard in 1829, 
was appointed Tutor there in 1831, University 
Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy 
in 1833 ; and Perkins Professor of Astronomy and 
Mathematics in 1842. From 1836 to 1846 he 
issued a series of text-books on Geometry, Trigo- 
nometry, Algebra, and Curves, Functions, and 
Forces. The books were so full of novelties that 
they never became widely popular, but nevertheless 
had a prominent influence upon mathematical teach- 
ing in this country. During the year 1842, Pro- 
fessors Peirce and Lovering published a Cambridge 




BENJAMIN PEIKCE 



PEIRCE, Benjamin, 1809-1880. 

Born in Salem, Mass., 1809; graduated at Harvard, 
1829; Tutor, 1831 ; Prof. Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy, 1833, Perkins Prof. Astronomy and Math- 
ematics, 1842; Consulting Astronomer to American 
Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac ; Supt. U. S. Coast 
Survey; member American Philosophical Society; 
fellow of the American Academy and of the Royal 
Society, London and Edinburgh, etc. ; died at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., i88d. 

BENJ.\MIN PEIRCE, LL.D., Professor at 
Harvard, whose name occupies a conspicu- 
ous place in the galaxy that has shed a brilliant 
lustre over the Academic Department of that Uni- 
versity, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, April 4, 



Miscellany of Mathematics and Physics in which 
Peirce gave an analytical solution of the motion of 
a top. About the same time he adapted the epi- 
cycles of Hipparchus to the analytical forms of 
modern science, and the method was used by Lov- 
ering in Meteorological discussions communicated 
to the American Academy. The coinet of 1843 
gave Professor Peirce the opportunity, by a few 
striking lectures in Boston, to arouse an interest in 
astronomy which led to the foundation of the obser- 
vatory in Cambridge, and the result of his computa- 
tions made possible the still more important services 
to astronomy which he, together with Sears S. Walker, 
rendered in connection with the discovery of Nep- 
tune. A few years later Peirce published the re- 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



229 



markable results of his labors upon Saturn's rings, 
proving by his investigations that tiie ring, if fluid, 
could not be sustained by the planet, as had been 
contended, but was on the contrary sustained by tlie 
numerous satellites around the planet. In 1S49 he 
was appointed Consulting Astronomer to the Ameri- 
can Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. He also 
assisted Professor Ijache in the United States Coast 
Survey until, in 1867, he was appointed Superinten- 
dent, which position he held until 1874. Many 
monograms bearing the mark of Peirce's individuality 
and power were read by him before academies, soci- 
eties and institutions. In 1857 he published a vol- 
ume summing up the most valuable and most brilliant 
of analytical mechanics, interspersing them with ori- 
ginal results of his own labor. His mathematical 
treatises and text-books, ranging from Algebra to 
the highest forms of computations, have for years 
been the acknowledged authorities in the leading 
Colleges and Universities of the world. Professor 
Peirce was a fellow of the .'\merican Academy and 
the Royal Society London and Edinburgh, also a 
member of the American Philosophical Society and 
various other scientific societies of America and 
Europe. After a life full of honors and of success, 
Benjamin Peirce passed away in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, October 6, 1880. 



PERKINS, Charles Callahan, 1823-1886. 

Born in Boston, Mass , 1823 ; graduated at Harvard, 
1843 ; studied music and art abroad ; Lecturer at Har- 
vard, 1869-75; °"^ °f 'he founders of the Museum of 
Fine Arts ; President of the Boston Art Club, 1869-79 ; 
of the Handel and Haydn Society, 1875-86; member of 
Boston School Board, 1870-83 ; noted author, editor, 
art critic and musician; member of the Legion of 
Honor of France ; died, 1886. 

CHARLES CALLAHAN PERKINS, A.M., 
Lecturer at Harvard, was born in Boston, 
Massachusetts, March i, 1823. After the comple- 
tion of his classical course he spent some time in 
Rome and Paris studying art and music, and upon 
a subsequent visit he studied etching, which he was 
among the first to introduce into the United States. 
Identifying himself with the musical, art and educa- 
tional circles of Boston, he became wiilely known as 
an author, editor and critic, and was actively inter- 
ested in securing the erection of the present Boston 
Music Hall, completed in 1852. As one of the 
promoters and honorary Directors of the Museum 
of Fine /\rts he took much interest in the develop- 
ment of that institution, and from 1S69 to 1S79 he 



was Prcsitlent of the lioston .Vrt ( 'lub. l-'or many 
years he was a leading member of the Handel and 
llayiln Society, sometimes acting as its Conductor, 
and from 1875 to 1886 he was its President. The 
introduction of music and the Einc Arts into the 
[lublic sc-hool system of Boston, was the result of 
his efforts while serving on the Scliool lio;ird, 1870 
to 18S3, and his earnest endeavor to iinjirove the 
artistic taste of the pupils by placing within their 
reach the elementary principles of these studies, 
is deserving of the highest commendation. As a 
member of the lecture force at Harvard, 1869 to 
1S75, his services were extremely valuable to the 
students. Mr. Perkins enjoyed the personal friend- 
ship of many distinguished people among whom 
was the Hon. William M. Evarts, and it was while 
driving with the latter at Windsor, Vermont, that 
the accident occurred which caused his death, 
August 25, 1886. He was a fellow of the Ameri- 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences, member of the 
Massachusetts Historical .Society, the Legion of 
Honor of France, and corresponding member of 
the French Institute. He is the author of Tuscan 
Sculptors ; Italian .Sculptors ; Art in Education ; 
Raphael and Michel Angelo ; Sepulchral Monu- 
ments in Italy ; Historical Handbook of Italian 
Sculptors ; Cheberti et son (Jcole ; and at the time 
of his death was engaged upon a history of the 
Handel and Haydn Society of Pioston, which was 
completed by John S. Dwight. He was also con- 
cerned in the Editorship of Champlin's Cyclopaedia 
of Painters and Paintings. 



HIGGINSON, Stephen, 1770-1834. 

Born in Salem, Mass., 1770 ; was a prominent Boston 
merchant and noted for his acts of charity and benevo- 
lence ; served as Steward of Harvard, 1819-1827; died 
in Cambridge, 1834. 

STEPHEN HKKJINSON, Steward of Harvard, 
was a lineal descendant of the Rev. Francis 
Higginson, one of the foimders of Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, and his birth took place in that town, 
November 20, 1770. His father, who was also 
named Stephen, was a prosperous merchant and 
shipmaster, and the son follovveti the former occu- 
pation in Boston with m:trked success. He was es- 
pecially noted as a philanthropist, and his many acts 
of charity and benevolence caused hint to be known 
as the "Man of Ross" of his day. He resided in 
Cambridge, where his death occinred February 20, 
1S34, and for seven years (1819-1S27) he ably 
performed the iluties of Steward of Harvartl. 



230 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 

ANDREEN, Gustav Albert, 1864- 



Born in Baileytown, Indiana, 1864 ; fitted for College 
in Swedona, 111.; graduated from Augustana College 
1881 and Instructor there 188284; Instructor Bethany 
College, 1886-93 ; Vice-President of the Institution, 
1893 ; student at Yale, 1893-94; Tutor in German, Yale, 
1894-98; Instructor in Scandinavian Languages, 1898. 

GUSTAV ALBKRT AN'DREKN, Instructorat 
Yale, was born in Baileytown, Indiana, March 
13, 1864, son of Andrew and Hilda (Esping) An- 
dreen. His ancestry was Swedish on both sides. 
He attended the public and parochial schools of 




GUSTAV A. ANDREEN 

Swedona, Illinois, and was prepared by a Tutor for 
Augustana College, where he graduated in 1881. 
He taught Latin and German there from 1S82 to 
1S84, and then studied law for sixteen months in 
Rock Island. He then accepted a call to teach 
Greek and German at Bethany College, Kansas, where 
he remained until 1893, acting as Vice-President of 
the Institution during the last year of his stay. Mr. 
Andreen resigned this position in order to pursue 
further studies, and entered the Class of 1894 at 
Yale in its Senior year, accepting at its close the 
position of Tutor in German in the Academic 
Department. In 1898 he was made an Instructor 
in the Scandinavian Languages, and at the same 
time was given a two years' leave of absence for 



study abroad. He attended the Scandinavian 
Philological Convention at Christiana in the summer 
of 189S, and has been spending the first year of 
his absence in Norway and Sweden, studying at the 
L-niversity of Upsala. His second year's work will 
be done for the most part in Norway, although he 
intends to spend some time in Germany, returning 
in time to take charge of his classes at the begin- 
ing of the College year in 1900. Mr. Andreen was 
married August 7, 1890, to Marie Augusta Strand, of 
Junction City, Kansas, and has three children : 
Paul Harold, Marion Albert and Esther Miriam 
Andreen. He has taken a lively interest in Con- 
necticut politics since his residence in New Haven, 
and in the national campaign in 1S96 he spoke in 
different parts of the state in behalf of sound 
money. 



BISSELL, Clark, 1782-1857. 

Born in Lebanon, Conn., 1782 ; graduated at Yale, 
1806; Justice of the Conn. Supreme Court, 1829-1839 ; 
Governor of that State, 1847-1849; Professor of the 
Yale Law School, 1847-1855. Died, 1857. 

CLARK BISSELL, LL.D., Governor of Con- 
necticut and Law Professor at Yale, was 
a native of Lebanon, that state, and was born in 
1782. He was a graduate of Yale, Class of 1806 
and settling in Norwalk, Connecticut, was for many 
years engaged in the practice of law. In 1829, he 
was appointed Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court, holding his seat upon the Bench for ten 
years; was elected Governor in 1847 and re-elected 
in 1848. In 1847 he was called to the Kent Pro- 
fessorship in the Law Department of Yale, and 
continued a member of the Faculty until 1857. 
Governor Bissell received the degree of Doctor of 
Laws from his alma mater in 1847 and was a Fellow 
ex-ofificio. 



BUSHNELL, George, 1818-1898. 

Born in New Preston, Conn., 1818; educated at Yale 
and the Divinity School, graduating from the latter, 
1846 ; held Pastorates in Worcester, Mass., Waterbury, 
Conn., and Beloit, Wis. ; was a Fellow of Yale, 1888- 
1898. Died at New Haven, Conn.. 1898. 

GEORGE BUSHNELL, D.D., a member of 
the Yale Corporation, was born in New 
Preston, Connecticut, December 13, 181 8. He 
was a graduate of Yale, Class of 1842, and com- 
pleted his theological studies at the Divinity School 
in 1S46. He was ordained to the ministry the 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



231 



same year, and in 1S4S responded to a call from 
the Salem Street Congregational C'lmreh, Worcester, 
Massachusetts, remaining there some eight years. 
His next charge was in Waterbury, Connecticut, 
where he labored from 1S5S to 1S65, in which year 
he removed to Beloit, Wisconsin, and was Pastor of 
the Congregational Church in that town for nineteen 
years. In 1884, Dr. Bushnell retired permanently 
from regular pastoral work, and returning East, 
settled in New Haven, wlu-re he died, April 5, 1898. 
At the time of his death he was a Fellow of Yale, 
having been elected to the Corporation in iSS.". 
He received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from 
Beloit College in 1879. 



BACON, Leonard Woolsey, Jr., 1865- 

Born in Stamford, Conn., 1865; prepared for College 
at various schools in Europe and America, finishing at 
Andover, Mass. : attended Amherst, Yale, Leipzig, 
University of Penn. and University of Syracuse ; 
graduated Yale Medical School, 1892; honorary B. A. 
Yale, 1894; Town Physician, New Haven, 1893-95; 
Physician to Almshouse, New Haven, 1895-96; Assist- 
ant in Medical Clinic. Yale Medical School, 1892-94; 
Assistant in Surgery, 1894-97; Instructor in Operative 
Surgery since 1897. 

LEONARD WOOLSEY B.\CON, Jr., 1\[.D., 
Instructor in Operative Surgery at the Yale 
Medical School, was born in Stamford, Connecticut, 
February 24, 1865, son of Leonard Woolsey and 
Susan Bacon. His early education was obtained at 
a number of different institutions, both at home and 
abroad. He attended public schools in Germany 
and in Switzerland ; the Free Academy at Norwich, 
Connecticut ; the Bingham School, North Carolina; 
and graduated from Phillips Academy, Andover, 
Massachusetts. His Freshman year at College was 
taken at .Amherst ; his Sophomore and Junior years 
with the Class of 18S8 at Yale. In October, 1887, 
he went to Leipsic and took one semester in philos- 
ophy and one in medicine. He also studied one 
term in the Medical Department of the L'niversity 
of Pennsylvania, and one at Syracuse LTniversity. 
At the time of the Johnstown flood. Dr. Bacon 
ser\'ed three months with the Red Cross, and subse- 
quently studied for over a year at the Mills Training 
School for Male Nurses in connection with Bellevue 
Hospital, New York City. He acted as a profes- 
sional nurse during 18S9 and 1890, and graduated 
from the Yale Medical School in 1892. He re- 
ceived an honorary Bachelor of Arts degree from 
Yale in 1S94. Upon graduation from the Medical 



School he settk-d in New Haven anil heg.iu the 
practice of his jirofession. He assisted in tlie 
Medical Clinic of his a/iihi malir from 1892 to 
1894; assisteil in the Surgical Clinic from 1S94 to 
1S97, and was ajjpoinled Instructor in Ojjcrative 
Surgery in 1897. From 1895 to 1S95 he was Town 
Physician, and from 1S95 to 1896 Physician to the 
.Mmshouse. Dr. Bacon was married July 6, 1S92, 
to Emma Waleska S( hnceloch, and has two children ; 




LEONARD VV. HACdN, JR 

Leonard Woolsey Bacon, 3d (.April 23, 1S94) and 
ICmrna Waleska Bacon (.\pril 30, 1897). Dr. 
Bacon is a member of the New Haven Medical 
Association and of the Connecticut Medical Society. 



BISHOP, Louis Bennett, 1865- 

Born in Guilford. Conn., 1865 ; prepared for College 
at Hopkins Grammar School, New Haven: graduated 
from Yale 1886 and from Yale Medical School. 1888: 
studied at the New York Polyclinic and in Vienna ; 
House Staff New Haven Hospital, 1889-90: Assistant 
in Surgical Clinic Yale Medical School, 1893-95, Pedi- 
atric Clinic, 1895. 

LOUIS BENNETT BISHOP, M.D., Assistant 
at Yale, was born in ( luilford, Conn., June 
5, 1865, son of Timothy Huggins and Jane Maria 
(Bennett) Bisho]). He prepared for College at the 
Hopkins C.ramniar School of New Haven, and 



O '^ "^ 



UNJf^ERSJTIES AND THEIR SONS 



graduated from Vale in iS86, nnd from the Vale 
Medical School in 1888. He then attended the 
New Vork Polyclinic, and subsequently became a 
member of the House Staff of the New Haven 
Hospital. In 1S91 he took the winter semester 
in Vienna. He became Assistant in the Surgical 
Clinic of the New Haven Dispensary and the Vale 
Medical School in 1893. Since 1S95 he has acted 
as Assistant in the Children's Department of the 
same institutions. Dr. Bishop is a member of a 
number of societies and clubs, among others the 




LOUIS B. BISHOP 



Cit)', County and State Medical Societies, the 
American Ornithological Union, the Linnasan 
Society of New York, the Graduates' Club of New 
Haven and the Yale Club of New Vork. 



BUSHNELL, Horace, 1802-1876. 

Born in New Preston, Conn., 1802; graduated at 
Yale, 1827 ; Tutor there, 1829-31 ; studied law and 
theology; Pastor of the North Congregational Church, 
Hartford. Conn., 1833-1859; noted as an eloquent 
preacher and able writer. Died in Hartford, Conn., 
1876. 

HORACE BUSHNELL, D.D., LL.i:»., Tutor 
at Yale, was born in New Preston, Litch- 
field county, Connecticut, .April 14, 1802. Previous 
to his College preparations he worked in a fulling 
mill, and after completing the regular course at Yale 



(1 82 7), he turned his attention to literary and edu- 
cational pursuits, first as l^iterary Editor of the New 
York Journal of Commerce, and later as a school 
teacher in Norwich, Connecticut. From 1829 to 
1 83 1 he was a law student at Yale, serving as a 
Tutor in the College while pursuing his studies, and 
he subsequently prepared himself for the Ministry. 
His only Pastorate was that of the North Congre- 
gational Church, Hartford, where he was ordained in 
May 1833, and his pastoral relations with the society 
continued for twenty-si.x years, or until 1859, when 
his retirement was made necessary owing to the im- 
paired condition of his health. Dr. Bushnell was 
progressive in his ideas, eloquent in expression and 
fearless in the utterance of his convictions. While 
travelling in Europe (1846) a letter written by him 
to the Pope was published in London, and in 1 849 
he was summoned before the -Association of Con- 
gregational Ministers on account of his views upon 
the doctrine of the Trinity contained in a book 
issued by him, entitled God in Christ, but his able 
defence prevented the charge of heresy from being 
sustained. The last seventeen years of his life were 
devoted almost exclusively to literary work which he 
pursued industriously in spite of his physical dis- 
ability, and he died in Hartford, Connecticut, Feb- 
ruary 17, 1876. From Yale he received the degrees 
of Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts and Doctor of 
Laws, the latter in 1871 ; and that of Doctor of 
Divinity was conferred upon him by Wesleyan and 
Harvard in 1842 and 1852 respectively. Besides 
his contributions to periodicals he published nu- 
merous sermons, essays, etc., including his defence 
against the charge of heresy issued under the title of 
Christ in Theology ; Christian Nurture ; Nature and 
the Supernatural ; Character of Jesus ; Work and 
Play ; Christ and his Salvation ; The Vicarious 
Sacrifice ; Moral LTses of Dark Things ; and Woman 
Suffrage, the Reform against Nature. His later 
writings were : Sermons on Living Subjects ; and 
Forgiveness and Law. Bushnell Park, Hartford, in 
which the State House is located, was named in his 
honor. 



COLEMAN, Lyman, 1796-1882. 

Born in Middlefield, Mass., 1796; graduated at Yale, 
1817; Principal of the Hartford, Conn.. Latin Grammar 
School three years; Tutor at Yale five years ; studied 
theology at the Yale Divinity School ; Pastor of the 
Congregational Church in Belchertown, Mass., seven 
years; Principal of the Burr Seminary, Vt., five years 
and subsequently of the English Department of the 
Phillips- Andover Academy; studied abroad two years; 



UNIFERSITIF.S JXn Til F. IK SONS 



233 



taught German at Princeton and Amherst ; Professor 
of Greek and Latin at Lafayette College, Pa., seven 
years, and occupied the Chair of Latin Language and 
Literature there for the rest of his life; died, 1882. 

L V.MAN LXJLEMAN, D.D., Tutor at Yale, ami 
afterward Professor at rriuceton, Amherst 
and Lafayette, was born in MidiUefield, Massachu- 
setts, June 14, 1796. He entered Yale with the 
Class of 1S17, receiving his Bachelor's degree at 
graduation and that of Master of Arts in course. 
After serving as Principal of the Latin Grammar 
School in Hartford, Connecticut, for three years, he 
returned to Yale as Tutor and student in 1820, 
acting in the former capacity for five years, and 
during that time he studied theology. Accepting 
a call to the Congregational Church in Belchertown, 
Massachusetts, he labored there for seven years, at 
the expiration of which time, he resumed educa- 
tional work, taking charge for tiie next five years 
of the Burr and Burton Seminary at Manchester, 
Vermont, and going from there to Phillips-Andover 
Acadeniy as Principal of the English Department. 
The years 1S42 and 1843 were devoted to studying 
in Germany, and after his return he turned his at- 
tention to teaching the German Language first at 
Princeton and later at Amherst. In 1861 he was 
appointed Professor of Greek and Latin at Lafayette 
College, Easton, Pennsylvania, and in 1861 was 
given the newly created Chair of Latin Language 
and Literature. Professor Coleman remained at 
Lafayette for the rest of his life, which terminated 
March 16, 1S82. He received the honorary degree 
of Master of Arts from Middlebury in 1833, and 
that of Doctor of Divinity from Princeton in 1847. 
Prior to settling in Easton he made an extended 
tour in Europe, Palestine and Egypt. Besides a 
translation from the German entitled : Antiquities 
of the Christian Church, he published : The Apos- 
tolical and Primitive Church ; Historical Geography 
of the Bible; Ancient Christianity; Historical Text- 
book and Atlas of Biblical Geography ; Prelacy and 
Ritualism ; and a genealogy of the Lyman family. 



BANCROFT, Cecil Kittredge, 1868- 

Born, at Lookout Mountain, Tenn., 1868 ; prepared for 
college at Andover, Mass. ; graduated from Yale in 
1891; taught in Morris Academy, 1891 93 ; postgraduate 
course at Yale 1893 95: Tutor in Latin at Yale, 1895. 

CECIL KnTRED(;E BANCROFT, Tutor at 
Yale, was born at Lookout Motintain, Ten- 
nessee, December 15, 1S68, son of Cecil Franklin 



Patch and 1-" ranees Adclia (Kittredge) Bancroft 
His preparation for College was made at the Phillips 
Academy, Andover, and he graduated from Yale 
with the Cla.ss of 1891. He then taught at the 
Morris Academy of Morristown, New Jersey, until 
1893, when he returned to New Haven and studied 




C. K. H.tNCROFf 



in the Graduate Department of the University. 
Spent the years 1894 and 95 in Europe in travel and 
study as private tutor. He was appointed Tutor in 
Latin in September 1895. 



BRUSH, George Jarvis, 1831- 

Born in Brooklyn, N. Y , 1831 ; graduated from Shef- 
field Scientific School, 1852; University of Munich, 
1853-54; Freiberg Mining Academy, 1854-55; Royal 
School of Mines, London, 1855-56; Prof, of Metallurgy, 
1855; Prof, of Mineralogy, 1864 ; Chairman of Govern- 
ing Board, Sheffield Scientific School, 1872-98. 

GEORGE JARVIS BRUSH, LL.D., Director 
of the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale, was 
born in Brooklyn, New York, December 15, 1831. 
His early education was obtained in the schools of 
Brooklyn, New York and West Cornwall, Connec- 
ticut. From 1846 to 1848 he was in business in 
New York. In 1848 he entered the Sheffield 
Scientific School at Yale, from which he graduated 
ill 1852, being one of six to receive the newly 



234 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



created degree of Bachelor of Philosophy fmiii Vale. 
The year following his graduation he became Assist- 
ant in Chemistry at the University of Virginia, 
where, with Professor J. Lawrence Smith, he made 
a series of valuable investigations upon American 
minerals, the results of which were published in the 
American Journal of Science. The next year he 
spent at the University of Munich, and the year 
after that at the Mining Academy of Freiberg, 
Saxony. In 1S55 he was elected Professor of 
Metallurgy at Yale, and after a further course of 
study in the Royal School of Mines at London, and 




GKO. J. BRUSH 

a visit to the principal mines and smelting works 
of Europe he returned to this country and entered 
upon his duties in January 1857. In 1S64 his Pro- 
fessorship was enlarged so as to embrace Miner- 
alogy. He was for a time Secretary and Treasurer 
of the Sheffield Scientific School, was Curator of the 
Mineralogical Collection from 1867 to 1S74, and 
since the formal organization of the Faculty in 1S72 
has been Chairman or Director, of the Governing 
Board, until his retirement in December 1898. Pro- 
fessor Brush was elected to the National Academy 
of Sciences in 1868, and in 1880 was chosen 
President of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. He is a member of many 
scientific societies in .\merica and abroad, and in 



1886 received the degree of Doctor of Laws from 
Harvard. He is the author of many papers, giving 
the results of his investigations of mineral species, 
which have been contributed to scientific journals, and 
have done much for the advancement of minera- 
logical science in this country. He has published a 
work on Determinative Mineralogy, edited several 
supplements to Dana's Mineralogy, aided Professor 
J. D. L)ana in the jireparation of the fifth edition 
of his System of Mineralogy, and was also for a 
time an Associate Editor of the American Journal 
of Science. He is a member of the Board of 
Trustees of Peabody Museum of Vale, as well as 
Trustee and Treasurer of the Board of Trustees of 
the Sheffield Scientific School. His chief life-work, 
however, has been in connection with the Shef- 
field Scientific School, from which he graduated 
with its first class, and of which he was for more 
than a quarter of a centurv the Director. To 
him more than to any other man is due the great 
success which the school has attained. 



HOBART, Noah, 1705-1773. 

Born in Hingham, Mass.. 1775; graduate of Harvard, 
1724 ; Pastor of Church in Fairfield. Conn., forty years ; 
a Fellow of Yale twenty years ; died in Fairfield, Conn., 
1773- 

NOAH HOBART, M.A., a Fellow of Yale from 
1752 to 1773, '^^'•'^s born in Hingham, 
Massachusetts, January 2, 1705. He was a great- 
grandson of Edmund, and a grandson of the Rev. 
Peter Hobart, both of whom were from Hingham, 
County of Norfolk, iMigland, and the latter, who was 
graduated at Cambridge, F^ngland, assisted in 1635 
in the settlement of Hingham, Massachusetts, of 
which town he was the first minister. Noah Hobart 
was graduated at Harvard in 1734 and studied 
theology. The greater part of his ministerial labors 
were performed in behalf of the Church in Fairfield, 
Connecticut, of which he was Pastor from 1733 until 
his death, which occurred there December 6, 1773. 
He was a zealous promoter of religious and educa- 
tional work, was actively concerned in the Episcopal 
controversy of that day, and held a Fellowship at 
Yale at a time when religious intolerance was con- 
sidered absolutely essential to the welfare of the 
College. Mr. Hobart published several sermons: 
Serious Address to the Episcopal Separation ; and 
Principles of the Congregational Church. John 
Sloss Hobart, son of the above, was born in Fair- 
field in 1738, graduated at Vale 1757 and became 



UNIVERSITIES JND TIIEIR SONS 



235 



a prominent statesman ami jurist, iioiding a seat in 
tiie National Senate and upon the United States 
Supreme Bench. 



GOODELL, Thomas Dwight, 1854- 

Born in Ellington, Conn., 1854 ; early education at 
Rockville, Conn, public schools; B. A. Yale, 1877; 
Ph D, Yale. 1884; travelled in Europe, 188687; teacher 
Hartford High School, 1877-88 ; Assistant Professor of 
Greek, Yale, 1888-93; Professor of Greek, Yale, 1893 

TH()A[.\S l)\VI(;nr GOODELL, I'll. I)., Pro- 
fessor of Greek at Yale, was born in Klling- 
ton, Connecticut, November S, 1854, son of Francis 




THU.M.iS DWIGHT GOODELL 

and Sophia Louise (Burpee) Goodell. Professor 
Goodell is of an old Puritan family, his ancestors 
having settled in Salem, Massachusetts, as early as 
1636. He acquired his early education in the pub- 
lic schools of Rockville, Connecticut, and entered 
Yale in 1873, graduating in 1877. He took the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy in 1884, and spent 
the Academic year 1886 to 1S87 in travel and study 
abroad. He was classical teacher in the Hartford 
Public High School from 1S77 to 1888, and Assis- 
tant Professor of Clreek in Yale from 1888 until 
1893, when he became full Professor, which Chair 
he holds at the present date. He represented Yale 
as Professor of the Greek Language and Literature 



in the American School of Classical Studies at 
Athens for the year 1894 to 1895. Professor 
(loodell was married May 9, 1878 to Miss J. 
Harriet, daughter of William W. .\ndross of R(j< k- 
ville, Connecticut. 



DURFEE, Bradford Matthew Chaloner, 
1843-1872. 

Born in Fall Kiver, Mass., 1843; entered Yale, but 
left during Sophomore year ; received the M. A. degree. 
1871; gave Durfee Hall to Vale; died in Fall River, 
Mass., 1872. 

BRADFORD M.VnilLW CIIAI.ONKR DLR- 
FEE, I\LA., Benefactor of Yale, was born in 
Fall River, Massachusetts, June 15, 1843. Shortly 
after his birth the death of his father left him pos- 
sessed of a large fortune. He entered Yale, but 
was compelled by ill health to forego the comple- 
tion of his College course, and left during his 
Sophomore year. After two or three years spent 
in foreign travel, he returned home and assimied 
charge of his mercantile affairs. His health con- 
tinued precarious, however, and he was obliged to 
spend much of his time in sea voyages. He be- 
came an ardent yachtsman, making long cruises 
and visiting various Atlantic countries on his yacht 
"Josephine." But he sought in vain for renewed 
health, and died in Fall River, September 13, 1872. 
In iS7r he received the degree of Master of Arts 
from Yale, to which institution he gave Durfee Hall, 
one of the finest College dormitories in the United 
States. 



GRUENER, Gustav, 1863- 

Born in New Haven, Conn., 1863 ; prepared for College 
at New Haven public schools ; B. A. Yale, 1884 ; studied 
in Germany, 1887-89; Ph.D. Yale, 1896; Instructor in 
German, Yale, 1885-87; Tutor, 1889-98 ; Assistant Pro- 
fessor, 1892-97 ; Professor, 1897. 

GUSTAV GRUENER, I'h.I)., Professor of Ger- 
man at Yale, was born in New Haven, Con- 
necticut, March 30, 1S63, son of Leopold and 
Katharine (Kern) Gruener. His early education 
was acquired in the public schools of New Haven, 
whence he entered Yale, graduating in 1884. He 
studied in Germany from tSS7 to 1889, and took 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Yale in 1896. 
Mr. Gruener was an Instructor in German at Yale 
from r885 to 1887, and Tutor from iSSgtmtil 1892, 
when he was made Assistant Professor. In 1897 he 
was made full Professor of German which mnk he 



2^6 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



now holds, 
of New Hav 



He is a member of the Graduates Chib 
en and while in College he was a mem- 




GUSTAV GRUENER 

ber of several of the societies open to undergradu- 
ates. In politics he is an Independent Republican. 



School, Class of 1884, and he was ordained to the 
ministry June 12 of that year at the First Congre- 
gational Church, Lyme, Connecticut. Called to a 
pastorate in Oswego, New York, he began his duties 
January i, 1S89, and continued them until Septem- 
ber 1S96, when he returned to Vale as Instructor in 
New Testament Criticism and Exegesis. In May 
of the following year he was advanced to the Buck- 
ingham Professorship of that subject, which he still 
retains. From 1889 to 1894 he was a member of 
the Reform Club of New York City ; was a member 
of the Victoria Institute, London, England, during 
the years 1S95 and 1896, and is at the present time 
a member of the Society of Biblical Literature and 
Exegesis, and the C)riental Society. In politics he 
votes independently. On May 27, 1884, Professor 
Bacon married Eliza Buckingham Aiken, of Norwich, 
Connecticut. They have two children : Dorothy 
Buckingham, born November 13, 1885 ; and Benja- 
min Selden Bacon, born April 6, 1888. Prof. Bacon 
is the author of two volumes of Pentateuch Criticism, 
The Genesis of Genesis, Hartford, Connecticut, 
1892, and The Triple Tradition of the Exodus, 



BACON, Benjamin Wisner, 1860- 

Born in Litchfield, Conn., i860; prepared for College 
at the Hopkins Grammar School, New Haven, and in 
Europe; graduated at Yale 1881, and at the Divinity 
School 1884; ordained to the ministry in Lyme, Con- 
necticut; Pastor of a Congregational Church in Os- 
wego, New York, 1889-96; Instructor in New Testament 
Criticism and Exegesis Yale Divinity School, 1896-97; 
now Professor of that subject. 

BENJAMIN WISNER BACON, D.D., Litt.D., 
Professor of New Testament Criticism in the 
Yale Divinity School, was born in Litchfield, Con- 
necticut, January 15, i860, son of Rev. Dr. Leonard 
Woolsey and Susan Bacon. His parents were both 
natives of New Haven, as was also his grandfather. 
Dr. Leonard Bacon, and his ancestors on both sides 
were sturdy New England Puritans. From the Hop- 
kins Grammar School, New Haven, he entered the 
Gymnasium of Coburg, Germany, going from there 
to the CoUe'ge de Geneve, Switzerland, and was 
graduated from Vale with the Class of 1881. His 
theological studies were pursued at the Vale Divinity 




IJEN'J. W. BACON 

Hartford, 1894, and translator of Wildeboer's Kanou 
des ouden Verbouds, and of several of the German 
contributions to Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old 
Testament. He is a contributor to the T. and T. 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



^37 



Clark P.ible Dictionary, anil to tlic leading critical 
journal?, ami author of a \i>lume on New Testament 
Introduction in the New Testament Handbook 
Series of Macmillan and Company. 



PERRIN, Bernadotte, 1847- 

Born at Goshen, Conn., 1847 ; early education, district 
and high schools of New Britain and Hartford; B.A. 
Yale, 1869; studied in Germany, 1876-1879; teacher 
Hartford High School, 1869-70, 1874-76, 1879-81 ; Tutor 
at Yale, 1873-74; 1878-79; Professor of Greek at Adel- 
bert College of Western Reserve University, 1881-93; 
Professor of Greek at Yale, 1893- 

BERNADOTTI': PERRIN, Ph.D., LL.D., Pro- 
fessor of Greek at Vale, was born at Goshen, 
Connecticut, September 15, 1847, son of Lavalette 




E. PERRIN 

and Ann Eliza (Comstock) Perrin. He made his 
preparatioit for College in the district and high 
schools of New Britain and Hartford, entering Yale 
in 1865, and graduating with the Class of 1869. 
The year after his graduation he taught in the Hart- 
ford High School, and then studied one year in the 
Divinity School and two years in the Graduate 
School at New Haven, returning then for two years 
more of instruction at Hartford. From 1876 to 
1S79 Mr- Perrin studied in Germany, returning 
to this country to teach again both in Yale and at 



Hartford. From i88i to 1893116 was Professor of 
Greek in Adelbert College of Western Reserve 
University, and in i<S93 he was apiiointed Profes- 
sor of (ireek at Yale. Professor Perrin has spent 
much time in original research, and is regarded as a 
high authority in classical philology, and the ancient 
languages. He is the author of editions of Ca;sar's 
Civil War, anil of Homer's Odyssey. In 1881 he 
married a distant relative. Miss Luella Perrin, of 
Lafayette, Indiana. She died in 1SS9. In 1892 
he married Miss Susan Lester, daughter of Jtulge 
C. S. Lester of Saratoga, New York. He has two 
children : Lee James and Lester William Perrin. 



IDDINGS, Joseph Paxson, 1857- 

Born in Baltimore, 1857; graduated from the Scien- 
tific Department of Yale, 1877; Assistant in surveying 
there, 1877-1878; studied geology at Columbia and 
petrology in Heidelberg; Assistant Geologist, U.S. 
Geological Survey, 1880; Geologist, 1888; Professor of 
Petrology in the University of Chicago; author of 
numerous scientific articles. 

JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS, Ph.R., Assistant 
in Surveying at Yale, was born in Baltimore, 
Maryland, January 21, 1857. Graduating from the 
Sheffield Scientific School at Yale with the degree 
of Bachelor of Philosophy in 1877, he pursued a 
post-graduate course in analytical chemistry and 
was Assistant in Surveying and Mechanical Drawing 
there for a year. He was a student in geology 
at Columbia, under Professor Newberry, studied 
petrology in Heiilelberg, giving special attention to 
microscopic petrography, and upon his return in 
1880 he received the appointment of .Assistant 
Geologist under Arnold Hague upon the United 
States Geological Survey. He was subsequently 
chosen Professor of Petrology in the University of 
Chicago. Professor Iddings' contributions to sci- 
entific literature include The Columnar Structure in 
the Igneous Rock on Orange Mountain, New Jer- 
sey ; and the Nature and Origin of Litho])hysae and 
the Lamination of Acid Lavas ; Obsidian Cliff, 
Yellowstone National Park ; On a group of volcanic 
rocks from the Tewan Mountains, New Mexico ; The 
I>uptive rocks of Electric Peak and Sepulchre 
Mountain, Yellowstone National Park ; On the 
origin of Igneous Rocks ; Report on the geology 
of the Yellowstone National Park (in part), and 
other papers printed in the .\merican Journal of 
Science, in the publications of the United States 
Geological Survey and in the Journal of Geology. 



238 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



BAYARD, Samuel, 1767-1840. 

Born in Philadelphia, 1767; graduated at Princeton, 
1784: appointed Clerk of the United States Supreme 
Court, 1791 ; prosecuted American claims in London 
after Jay's Treaty; was Presiding Judge of the 
Westchester County (N.Y.) Court and subsequently 
of the Court of Common Pleas for Somerset county, 
N. J., member of the Legislature a number of years ; 
was one of the founders of the American and New 
Jersey Bible societies and of the Princeton Theolog- 
ical Seminary ; a Trustee of Princeton 1807-1810 and 
Treasurer from the latter year until 1828; died, 1840. 

SAMUP:L bayard, a.m., Treasurer of Prince- 
ton, was born in Phikulelphia, January 11, 
1767, fourth son of Colonel John Bayard, the Revo- 
lutionary patriot. He was valedictorian of the 
Class of 17S4 at Princeton, and studying law, he 
practised in Philadelphia until appointed Clerk of 
the United States Supreme Court in 1791. Presi- 
dent Washington selected him as United States 
Commissioner to prosecute the claims of Americans 
before the British Admiralty Courts pursuant to 
the Jay Treaty, and he resided in London for four 
years. Settling in New Rochelle, New York, after 
his return he was Presiding Judge of Westchester 
county, and moving to Princeton, New Jersey, in 
1S06 served in the same capacity in the Court of 
Common Pleas of Somerset county. He was a 
member of the New Jersey Legislature for some 
years. Judge Bayard was actively concerned in 
religious and educational matters and assisted in 
organizing the New York Historical Society, the 
American and New Jersey Bible Societies, and was 
one of the founders of Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary. He served as a Trustee of Princeton from 
1807 until 1 810 and as its Treasurer from 18 10 to 
1828. His death occurred May 12, 1840. He 
published a funeral oration on General Washington ; 
A Digest of American Cases on Law and Evidence ; 
An Abstract of the Laws of the United States which 
relate to the Duties and Authority of Inferior State 
Judges and Justices of the Peace ; and Letters on 
the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 



tebrate Paleontology in Princeton, and since 1894 has 
also been Assistant in Geology in the University of 
Princeton. 

JOHN BELL HATCHER, Curator in Verte- 
brate Paleontology, and Assistant in Geology 
at Princeton, was born in Cooperstown, Illinois, 
October 11, 1 861, son of John and Margaret Colum- 
bia (Laining) Hatcher. He is of English and Irish 
descent. The original Hatcher family came to 
\'irginia from iMigland in the seventeenth century. 
His branch of the family migrated to West Virginia, 
western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio late in the 



HATCHER, John Bell, 1861- 

Born in Cooperstown, Brown county. 111., 1861 ; 
fitted for College at Guthrie County High School in 
Panora, la. ; studied for one term in Iowa College at 
Grinnel ; spent two and one half years in Sheffield 
Scientific School of Yale, and graduated with the Class 
of 1884; was a member of the U. S. Geological Survey 
from July 1884 to August 1892; Assistant in Geology 
in Yale 1890-1893; since 1893 has been Curator of Ver- 




JOHN BELL H.ATCHER 

eighteenth century. His father migrated to Illinois 
about 1850, and to western Iowa shortly after his 
birth. His early education was obtained in the 
district schools of western Iowa, with a partial four 
years' course at the (iuthrie County High School in 
Panora, Iowa, where he was fitted for College. He 
spent two and a half years at the Sheffield Scientific 
School of Vale, where he took the course in natural 
history, graduating with the Class of 1884. After 
graduation he was a member of the LTnited States 
Geological Survey, from July i, 1SS4 to August i, 
1892. He was made Assistant in Geology in Yale 
in 1S90, and in 1893 was called to Princeton as 
Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology. The next year 
he was also appointed Assistant in Geology, a posi- 
tion he still holds. His principal work has been 



UNIFERSiriES JND THEIR SONS 



■39 



along the line of geology ami \rrtcbrato paleonto- 
logy ; especially field work in Western United 
States, and Patagonia, Soutli America. Professor 
Hatcher has written numerous articles on tliese and 
kinilred subjects, among which are the following : 
'I'he Beds of Converse County, \\'yoming, published 
in the American Journal of Science ; 'I'he 'I'itauo- 
therium Beds, American Naturalist; On Diplacodon 
and Telmatotherium, American Naturalist ; Recent 
and Fossil Tapirs, American Journal of Science ; 
The Geology of Southern Patagonia, American Jour- 
nal of Science ; Diceratherium, Two Horned Rhi- 
noceros, American Geologist. He is a member of 
the Geological Society of America, and the Princeton 
Biological Society and the American Philosophical 
Society, Philadelphia. In politics he is a Republi- 
can. He was married, October lo, 1S87, to Anna 
Matilda Peterson, by which union were five children, 
three of whom survive : Earle, Harold and Alice 
Agnes Hatcher. 



KINSEY, John, 1693-1750. 

Born in Philadelphia, in 1693 ; studied law and prac- 
tised in N. J. and Penn. ; member of the N. J. Assembly 
and Speaker ; member of the Penn. Assembly, also 
Speaker ; Attorney-General of the Province ; Chief- 
Justice ; Commissioner to settle the boundary dispute ; 
commissioner on the treaty with the Six Nations ; died 
at Burlington, N. J., 1750. 

JOHN KINSICV, Chief-Justice of the Province of 
Pennsylvania, and one of the incorporators of 
Princeton, was the son of a Quaker preacher, and 
grandson of John Kinsey, one of the commissioners 
of the proprietors of \\'est Jersey who came from 
London in 1677. He was born in Philadelphia in 
1693, and died in Burlington, New Jersey, May 11, 
1750. He was educated in the law and practised 
in the courts of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 
Until nearly forty years of age he was a resident of 
New Jersey, where he was a member of the Assembly 
and for several years Speaker of that body ; but in 
1730 he removed to Philadelphia, and was at once 
elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly, in which he 
served continuously by re-elections, and as Speaker 
from 1739, for the remainder of his life. From 1738 
to 1 741 he was Attorney-General of the Province, 
and in 1743 was appointed Chief-Justice, which 
office he held until his death. Judge Kinsey was one 
of the two commissioners sent to Maryland in 1737 
to negotiate for the settlement of the boundary dis- 
pute, and was also one of the commissioners who in 
1745, in conjunction with commissioners from New 



\'ork, Massachusetts and (Connecticut, negotiated at 
Albany, New York, a treaty with the Six Nations. 
His son James Kinsey born in Philadelphia, 
March 22, 1731, died in Burlington, Now Jersey, 
January 4, i S03 — was also an eminent lawyer and 
jurist, a member of the Assembly of New Jersey and 
of the Continental Congress, and Chief-Justice of 
New Jersey from i7'S() tinlil his death. Princeton 
bestowed on him the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws in 1790. 



RANKIN, V\/-alter Mead, 1857- 

Born in Newark, N. J . 1857 ; fitted for College in 
private schools in Newark; graduated Williams, with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1879; was post- 
graduate student and Fellow at Princeton ; went 
abroad and studied in the University of Munich, receiv- 
ing the degree of Ph.D. in Il8g; made Instructor in 
Biology at Princeton, 1E89; promoted to Assistant 
Professor of Biology in 1895. 

WALTER MEAD RANKIN, Ph.D., Assis- 
tant Professor of Biology at Princeton, was 
born in Newark, New Jersey, December i, 1857, 




W..\I,'IF.R M. K.\NKIN 

son of William and Ellen Hope (Stevens) Rankin. 
He is descended on his father's side from William 
Rankin, who was born in Scotland in 1740, came to 
Nova Scotia in 1749, and later settled in the United 
States. A maternal ancestor was John Stevens, who 
migrated from England to .Vmerica in 1638. He 



240 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



was prepared for College at pri\ate schools in 
Newark, and graduated from Williams with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in the Class of 1879. 
He afterwards became a post graduate student an<l 
Fellow at Princeton. He went abroad and studied 
in the University of Munich, receiving the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy from there in 1889. Return- 
ing to America that year, he became Instructor in 
Biology at Princeton, and in 1S95 was promoted to 
Assistant Professor of Biology, his present position. 
He has taken no part in public life and is un- 
married. 



ROBBINS, Edmund Yard, 1867- 

Born in Windsor, N. J., 1867; prepared for College 
at Peddie Institute, Hightstown, N. J.; graduated 
Princeton, Class of i88g; held the Classical Fellow- 
ship at Princeton for one year, taught in Princeton 
Preparatory School, i8go-i8gi ; went abroad in 1891 and 
spent three years in study at Leipzig University ; ap- 
pointed Instructor of Greek at Princeton in 1894 ; made 
Assistant Professor of Greek in 1897. 

EDMUND YARD ROBBINS, A.M., Assistant 
Professor of Greek at Princeton, was born 
in Windsor, New Jersey, October 3, 1867, son of 




EDMUND Y. ROliBINS 



George R. and Anna M. (Cubberly) Robbins, and 
grandson of ex- Judge Randal C. Robbins of Wind- 
sor, New Jersey. He was fitted for College at Ped- 
die Institute in Hightstown, New Jersey, and was 



graduated from Princeton with the Class of 1889. 
He held the classical fellowship at Princeton for one 
year. In 1890-1 891 he was an Instructor in the 
Princeton Preparatory School. In the summer of 
1 89 1 he went abroad and spent three years at Leip- 
zig, studying Comparative Philology with Professors 
Brugmann, Leskien and Sievers, and Indo-Iranian 
with Professors Windisch and Lindner. He was 
appointed Instructor of Greek at Princeton in the 
fiill of 1894, and was made Assistant Professor of 
Greek in the University, in the spring of 1897. He 
is a member of the American Philological Associa- 
tion. 



SHIPPEN, Edward, 1703-1781. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1703 ; engaged in the fur 
trade; Mayor, 1744; Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas: Prothonotary ; Purveyor of supplies to the 
Provincial and British forces, 1760; founder of Ship- 
pensburg, Penn. ; one of the promoters and a member 
of the Board of Trustees of the College of N. J. ; also 
associated with the initiation of the Phila. Academy, 
the Pennsylvania Hospital and the American Philo- 
sophical Society; died in Lancaster, Penn., 1781. 

EDWARD SHIPPEN, one of the incorporators 
of the College of New Jersey, was born in 
Boston, July 9, 1703. In early life he was asso- 
ciated in business with James Logan, and afterwards 
in the fur trade with Thomas Lawrence. He was 
Mayor in 1744, and in 1745 was made Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas. In 1752 he removed 
to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where he was Prothono- 
tary until 1778. He was a purveyor of supplies to 
the Provincial and British forces and in 1 760 re- 
ceived public thanks for his integrity and efficiency. 
He was the founder of Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, 
and in 1 746 was one of the promoters of the College 
of New Jersey, and served as a member of its first 
Board of Trustees until his resignation in 1767. 
Judge Sliippen's name is associated with the initia- 
tion of the Philadelphia Academy, the Pennsylvania 
Hospital, and the American Philosophical Society. 
He served on the Revolutionary committees and was 
a sincere supporter of the popular cause. He died 
in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, September 25, 1781. 



YOUNG, Charles Augustus, 1834- 

Born in Hanover, N. H., 1834; received his early edu- 
cation at home, in the Hanover schools and under 
private tutors; graduated at Dartmouth, 1853; studied 
one year at Andover Theological Seminary; was 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



241 



teacher of classics in Phillips-Andover Academy, 1853- 
1856, Professor of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy 
and Astronomy at Western Reserve College. 1857-1866, 
Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy at 
Dartmouth, 1866-1877, and since 1877 has been Pro- 
fessor of Astronomy at Princeton ; President American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 1883, 
member National Academy of Science, associate fel- 
low American Academy of Arts and Sciences, fellow 
American Philosophical Society, fellow American As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science, foreign asso- 
ciate Royal Astronomical Society of Great Britain; 
honorary member British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, Manchester (England) Literary and 
Philosophical Society, Cambridge (England) Philoso- 
phical Society, Societa degli Speltroscopisti Italiani, 
life member Astronomische Gesellschaft ; author of 
The Sun, published in the International Scientific 
Series ; A Text-book of General Astronomy, Elements 
of Astronomy, and Lessons in Astronomy and numer- 
ous magazine articles, scientific addresses and contri- 
butions to astronomical journals. 

CHARLES AUGUSTUS YOUNG, Ph,I)., 
LL.D., Professor of Astrononi)' at Princeton, 
was born in Hanover, New Hanipsliire, December 
15, 1834, son of Professor Ira and Eliza Minot 
(Adams) Young. He is descended on the paternal 
side from Sir Jolm Young, who in 1627 was one of 
the original grantors of the North Shore of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, and on the mother's side from Pro- 
fessor Ebenezer Adams of Dartmouth College, and 
from the Ipswich (New Hampshire) Adamses, trac- 
ing back to Rev. Mr. Adams of Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts, about 1636. His early education was 
acquired mainly at home, in the Hanover schools 
and under private tutors. He was graduated at 
Dartmouth in the Class of 1853, having taught 
common school for three winters during his College 
course. From 1853 to 1S56 he was a teacher of 
classics in Phillips-Andover Academy, and during 
that time studied one year at Andover Theological 
Seminary. In 1856 he was called to tlie Chair of 
Mathematics, Natural Philosophy and Astronomy at 
Western Reserve College, Hudson, Ohio, which he 
filled from 1857 to 1866. In 1865 he was chosen 
Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy at 
Dartmouth, the post held by his father, Professor 
Ira Young, for twenty years, 1838- 185 8, and served 
in that capacity until 1S77, when he accepted the 
Chair of Astronomy at Princeton which he continues 
to fill. Professor Young is known as a prominent 
astronomer. He was a member of the astronomical 
party sent to observe the solar eclipse of August 
1869, at Burlington, Iowa, and had charge of 
the spectroscopic observations of the party. On 
this occasion he discovered the green line of 

VOL. 11. — 16 



the coronal spectrum, and identified it with liic 
line 1474 of the solar spectrum. He was also 
a member of the expeilition under I'rofessor Josepli 
W'inlock to observe the eclipse of 1870 at Jerez, 
Spain, when he discovered tlie so-calletl " reversing 
layer " of the solar atmosphere which produces a 
bright-line spectrum correlative to the ordinary 
dark-line spectrum of simhght. For this and other 
observations he received the Janssen medal of tlie 
French Academy of Sciences in 1890. In August 
1872, he was stationed at Sherman, Wyoming, to 
make solar spectroscopic observations. In 1874 he 




C. A. YOUNG 

went to Pekin, China, as Assistant .Xstronomer under 
Professor James G. Watson, to observe the transit 
of Yenus, and in 1878 he had charge of the astro- 
nomical expedition organized by Princeton to ob- 
serve the eclipse of that year. He devised a form 
of automatic spectroscope which has been generally 
adopted by astronomers throughout the world and 
he has made a great number of new and important 
observations on solar prominences. He has also 
verified experimentally what is known as Doppler's 
principle as api)lied to light, showing that the lines 
of the spectrum are slightly shifted to one direction 
or the other, according as the liglit is moving to- 
ward the earth or away from it. and by this means 
has been enabled to measure the velocity of the 
sun's rotation. Professor Young is connected in 



242 



UNIVERSITIES .IND Tllh.lR SONS 



membership with most of the leading scientific 
societies at home and abroad, antl has been lion- 
ored liy official distinction by many of them. He 
was in 1883, President of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. He is a fellow 
of the National Academy of Sciences ; associate 
fellow of the American Academy of .\rts and 
Sciences, P.oston ; fellow of the American I'liilo- 
sophical Society, Philadelphia ; fellow of the Amer- 
ican Association for tlie .\dvancement of Science ; 
foreign associate of the Royal Astronomical Society 
of Great Britain ; honorary member of the British 
Association for tlie Advancement of Science ; honor- 
ary member Manchester (England) Literary and 
Philosophical Society ; honorary member Cambridge 
(England) Philosophical Society; honorary member 
Societa degli Speltroscopisti Italiani, and life mem- 
ber of the Astronomishe Gesellschaft. He holds the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Hamilton and 
from the University of Pennsylvania, and that of 
Doctor of Laws from Wesleyan, Columbia and 
Western Reserve. He has given popular lectures 
at the Lowell Listitute in Boston and the Peabody 
Institute in ISaltimore, and various courses at 
\\'illiams, Mt. Holyoke and elsewhere. Besides 
scientific addresses and large contributions to astro- 
nomical journals and magazine articles, he has pub- 
lished The Sun in the International Scientific Series, 
A Text- book of tJeneral Astronomy, and two minor 
text-books. During the Civil War for four months 
in the summer of 1862, Professor Young was in the 
military service as Captain of Company B, Eighty- 
Fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. In politics he is an 
Independent. He was married August 26, 1857, 
to Augusta Spring Mixer ; they have three children : 
Clara Eliza, Charles Ira and Frederick Albert Young, 
all born in Hudson, Ohio. 



YOUNG, John Clarke, 1803-1857. 

Born in Greencastle, Penn., 1803; educated at Co- 
lumbia, Dicl<inson College and Princeton Theological 
Seminary; Tutor in Princeton College 1826-28, and 
Clerk of the Faculty, 1827-28; Pastor in Louisville, 
Ky., 1828-30; President Centre College, Danville, Ky., 
1830-57 ; Pastor in Danville, 1834-57 • received D D. 
degree from Princeton, 1839 ; Moderator Presbyterian 
General Assembly, 1853; died in Danville, 1857. 

JOHN CLARKE YOUNCx, D.D., Tutor and 
Clerk of the Faculty at Princeton, was born in 
Greencastle, Pennsylvania, August 12, 1803, son of 
an eminent clergyman of the Associate Reformed 
Church. His classical education was begun at Co- 
lumbia, but after three years spent there he trans- 



ferred to Dickinson College, where he was graduated 
in 1823. He then studied for two years in the 
Theological Seminary at Princeton, and for two 
years following was a Tutor in Princeton College, 
during the latter half of iiis Tutorship officiating 
also as Clerk of the Faculty. He was licensed to 
preach by the New York Presbytery in 1827, and in 
1S28 was installed as Pastor of a church in Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. In 1830 he was chosen President 
of Centre College, at Danville, Kentucky, a position 
which he held until the end of his life. He also 
served from 1834 until his death as Pastor of a 
church in Danville. Princeton conferred upon him 
the (honorary) degree of Doctor of Divinity in 
1839. In 1853 he was chosen Moderator of the 
Presbyterian General Assembly. Dr. Young came 
into political prominence through a controversy in 
which he supported the views of the Kentucky 
iMnancipationists and deprecated the aims of the 
Abolitionists. A hundred thousand copies were cir- 
culated of his Address to the Presbyterians of Ken- 
tucky, Proposing a Plan for the Instruction and 
Emancipation of their Slaves, which he preparetl in 
1834 for the Committee of the Kentucky S)nod which 
had passed resolutions of gradual emanciiiation. Dr. 
Young mariied for his first wife a niece of the Rev. 
Robert |. Breckinridge ; his second wife was a daugh- 
ter of John J. Crittenden. He died in Danville, 
Kentucky, June 23, 1857. 



WOOD, Silas, 1769-1847. 

Born in Suffolk county, N. Y., 1769 ; graduated at 
Princeton 1789; Tutor at Princeton 1789-94 and Clerk 
of the Faculty 1791-93; practised law in Huntington, 
N. Y.; member of Federal Congress, 1819-29; died 
in Huntington, 1847. 

SILAS \V001), A.M., Tutor and Clerk of the 
Faculty at Princeton, was born in Suffolk 
county. New York, in 1769, and was graduated at 
Princeton in 1789. F'or a period of five years 
following graduation he was a Tutor at Princeton, 
and during two years of that time was Clerk of the 
Faculty. Subsequently he studied law, was admitted 
to the Bar, and engaged in practice at Huntington 
New York. From December 1819 to March 1829 he 
served in the Federal Congress, having been elected 
as a Democrat. His only published work of import- 
ance was a sketch of the First Settleinent of the Several 
Tovifns of Long Island, with their Political Condition 
to the End of the Revolution, issued in 1824, and re- 
published in 1865 with a Biographical Memoir and 
Additions by Alden J. Spooner. Mr. Wood died in 
Huntington, New York, March 2, 1S47. 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



243 



ANDREWS, Sherlock James, 1801-1880. 

Born in Wallingford, Conn., 1801; graduated at 
Union College, 1821 ; Assistant Instructor in Chemis- 
tfy at Yale, 1821-24; began the practice of law in 
Cleveland, Ohio, in 1825; member of Congress, 1840,- 
appointed Judge of the Superior Court, 1848; delegate 
to the Constitutional Conventions of 1849 and 1873. 
Died, 1880. 

SHERLOCK JAMES ANDREWS, LL.D., Assist- 
ant Instructor in Chemistry at Yale, was born 
in Wallingford, Connecticut, November 17, 1801. 
Graduating from Union College in 1820 he 
attended the Yale Law School and from 182 1 to 
1824 was assistant to Professor Silliman in the 
Chemical Department. Opening a law office at 
Cleveland, Ohio, in 1825 he acquired an extensive 
practice, and was elevated to the Superior Court 
Bench in 1S48. In 1840 he was elected Repre- 
sentative to Congress by the Whig party, and took 
an active part in the Constitutional Conventions of 
1849 and 1873. His sterling integrity, fervid elo- 
quence and keen sense of humor made him ex- 
tremely popular both as a politician and a jurist, 
and he was a contemporary of Thomas Corwin at 
the Ohio Bar. Judge Andrews died in Cleveland, 
February 11, 1S80. 



BEERS, Henry Augustin, 1847- 

Born in Buffalo, N. Y., 1847 ; prepared for College at 
the Hartford High School; graduated from Yale 1869; 
studied law, 1869-71 ; Tutor at Yale 1871, Assistant 
Professor 1875, Professor 1880- ; has written a number 
of books, mostly on subjects connected with English 
and American literature. 

HENRY AUGUSTIN BEERS, M.A., Profes- 
sor of iMiglish at Yale, was born in Buffalo, 
New York, July 2, 1847, son of George 'Webster 
and Elizabeth Victoria (Clerc) Beers. His ances- 
tor, James liere, or Beere, came to America in 1634 
in the ship "I'^lizabeth" from Ipswich, England, and 
settled in Fairfield, Connecticut, in 1659. Profes- 
sor Beers' grandfather, Seth Preston Beers, of Litch- 
field, Connecticut, was a prominent lawyer for some 
twenty-five years, until chosen Commissioner of the 
Connecticut Scliool Fund, a position which he 
occupied for a quarter of a century. He was 
several times Speaker of the Connecticut House 
of Representatives, and once Democratic candidate 
for Governor. Professor Beers' maternal grand- 
father, Laurent Clerc, was a native of La Balme, 
France, where his forefathers for many generatit)ns 
had been notaries and mayors of the town. I le 



was a deaf mute, educated midcr the Abbt5 Sicard at 
the Royal Institution in Paris. He came to Amer- 
ica with Thomas Gallaudet in 1S16 to assist in 
founding the first institution for deaf mutes at 
Hartford, where he remained all his life as a 
teacher of the deaf. Professor IV-ers fitted for 
College at the Hartford High School, and grad- 
uated from Yale in 1869. The next two years he 
studied law in New York, and was admitted to the 
Bar in 1870. He practised only a year, and re- 
turned to New Haven in 1871 to accept a Tutor- 
ship in ELnglish at Yale. He was made Assistant 




HENRY A. BEERS 

Professor in 1875, and Professor in iSSo. In 1876 
he spent five months in Europe, mainly at Hciilel- 
berg, where he attended lectures by Kuno Fischer. 
He has been active in literary work outside of his 
College duties, and besides many articles for reviews 
and magazines and contributions to dictionaries 
and encyclopedias, he has iiublishcd the following 
books: Odds and Ends (verse); A Century of 
American Literature; Life of N. P. Wilhs ; Selec- 
tions from \\'illis' Prose Writings; The Thankless 
Muse (verse) ; Outline Sketch of Englisli Litera- 
ture ; Outline Sketch of American Literature; Selec- 
tions from Coleridge's Prose Writings : A Suburban 
Pastoral and other Tales ; Tiie Ways of Vale ; and .\ 
History of English Romanticism in the I'.ighteenlh 



244 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Century. Professor Beers was marrieil July 7, 1873, 
to Mary Heaton, of Covington, Kentucky, and has 
eight children : 'I'hoinas Heaton, Elizabeth Clerc, 
Catherine, Frederic, Dorothy, Mary Heaton, Henry 
Augustin, Jr., and Donald Beers. 



ADAMS, George Burton, 1851- 

Born in Fairfield, Vt , 1851 ; fitted for College at 
home and at Beloit Academy ; graduated from Beloit 
College 1873; from Yale Divinity School 1877; degree 
of Ph.D. Leipzig 1886; Professor of History Drury 
College, 1877-88; Professor of History, Yale, since 
1888. 

GEORGE BURTON ADAMS, Th.D., Profes- 
sor of History at Yale, was born in Fair- 
field, Vermont, June 3, 1851, son of Calvin Carlton 




GEORGE B. AD.AMS 

and Emeline (Nelson) Adams. He prepared with 
his father for College, taking the last year in Beloit 
Academy, and graduating from Beloit College in 
1873. He then attended the Yale Divinity School, 
graduating in 1877, ^^^ '" '''^^ Fall of that year 
became Professor of History and English at Drury 
College, Springfield, Missouri. In 1886 Mr. Adams 
took the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Leipzig, 
and in 1888 accepted the Chair of History at Yale. 
Professor Adams is the author of a number of 
books and articles on historical subjects. 



BROCKLESBY, John, 1811-1889. 

Born in West Bromwich, England, 1811 ; educated 
in the United States, graduating from Yale in 1835; 
Tutor there 1838-1840; Professor at Trinity for forty 
years, and frequently fulfilled the duties of President ; 
died, 1889. 

JOHN BROCKLESBY, LL.D., Tutor at Yale, 
was born in West Bromwich, England, Octo- 
ber 8, 181 1. He was educated in this country, 
having crossed the ocean when nine years old, and 
graduating at Yale with the Class of 1835, subse- 
quently served as Tutor there for two years. In 
1840, he was given the Chair of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy at Trinity College, Hartford, 
Connecticut, which he occupied until 1873, when 
he was chosen Professor of Astronomy and Natural 
Philosophy and retained charge of those depart- 
ments until 1882. Professor Brocklesby was acting 
President of Trinity in 1860-64-66-67 and 74, 
and in 1S68 the degree of Doctor of Laws was 
conferred upon him by Hobart College. He was 
the author of Elements of Meteorology ; Views 
of the Microscopic \Vorld ; Elements of Astronomy ; 
and Elements of Physical Geography. He also 
contributed largely to the Proceedings of the .\mer- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science. 
Professor Brocklesby died in 18S9. 



CHITTENDEN, Simeon Baldwin, 1814- 
1889. 

Born in Guilford, Conn., 1814 : entered the wholesale 
dry goods business in N. Y., 1842; Vice-President of 
the N. Y. Chamber of Commerce ; Director of several 
railroads and banks; President of the New Haven & 
New London Shore Line Railroad; founder of the 
Church of the Pilgrims, N.Y.; aided in establishing 
the Brooklyn Library; elected to Congress, 1874; 
member of the Committee on Banking and Currency ; 
endowed the College Pastorate ; the Chittenden Pro- 
fessorship of Divinity named for him ; built the new 
Library Building, Yale ; died in Brooklyn, N. Y., i88g. 

SIMEON B.VLDWTN CHITTENDEN, by whose 
generosity the new library at Yale was built, 
was born in Guilford, Connecticut, March 29, 18 14, 
the son of Abel and Anna (Baldwin) Chittenden. 
He began his preparations to enter Yale but his 
mother was early left a widow with limited means, 
and both on her account and because of an excellent 
business opening he abandoned his plans and entered 
a store in New Haven. In 1842 he moved to New 
York and established himself in the w-holesale dry- 
goods business in Hanover Square. In this he was 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



245 



rapidly successful, acrumulated a large fnrtune, and 
entered the wider business interests of tlie city. 
From 1867 to 1869 he was Vice-President of the New 
York Chamber of Commerce ; he was a Director of 
several railroads and banks and President of tlie 
New Haven & New London Shore Line Railroad. 
He was also one of the founders of the Church of 
the Pilgrims, and aided in establishing the Brooklyn 
Library. Although Mr. Chittenden took no active 
part in politics until after the Civil War, he always 
showed a deep interest, especially in the financial 
problems of the government. In 1874 upon his 
retirement from active business life, Mr. Chittenden 
was elected to Congress as an Lidependent Repub- 
lican. He was twice re-elected, serving for seven 
years, during most of which he was a member of the 
Committee on Banking and Currency. Throughout 
his life Mr. Chittenden retained a warm affection for 
the College at wliich he had intended to study, and 
this affection he showed by several generous gifts. 
In 1S63, he gave $30,000 which was combined with 
an earlier gift of $5,000 as an addition to the endow- 
ment of the College Pastorate. In recognition of 
these gifts the Chair was subsequently named the 
"Chittenden Professorship of Divinity." In 1870 
he gave $1000 towards the erection of East Divinity 
Hall. In 1887 he offered to bear the expense of 
the construction of a new library building for Yale 
as a memorial of his only daughter, Mary Chittenden 
Lusk. This was begun in April 1888, but Mr. Chit- 
tenden did not live to see its completion. He died 
in Brooklyn, April 14, 1S89, leaving one son, S. B. 
Chittenden, Jr., who survived him. A bust, pre- 
sented by his family, stands in the Reading Room 
of the Chittenden Library. 



mantic. He took the degree of Bachelor of Arts at 
Yale in 1S85 and that of Doctor of Philosophy in 
the same Institution in 1889. From then until 1894 
he was Head-Master of English in tlie Shadyside 
Academy of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1894 he 
was appointed Instructor in English in the Sheffield 
Scientific School and in 1897 was made Assistant, 
Professor of luiglish. Mr. ('ross was married 
July 17, 1889 to Helen Baldwin .\very, and he has 
three children : \Vilbur Lucius, Jr., Samuel Avery 
and Elizabeth Baldwin Cross. He is an Inde- 
pendent in politics. In College he was a member 




WILBUR T.. CROSS 



CROSS, "Wilbur Lucius, 1862- 

Born in Mansfield, Conn., 1862; prepared for College 
in Willimantic, Conn.; B.A. Yale, 1885; Ph.D. Yale, 
1889; Head-Master Shadyside Academy, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., 1889-94; Instructor in English Sheffield Scientific 
School, Yale, 1894; Assistant Professor, 1897. 

WILBUR LUCIUS CROSS, Ph.D., Assistant 
Professor at Yale, was born in Mansfield, 
Connecticut, April 10, 1S62, son of Samuel and 
Harriet Maria (Gurley) Cross. His family settled 
in Connecticut early in the eigliteenth centur)', 
having come over from England at that time. His 
early education was ac(|uired from the district school 
of Mansfield and the Natchaug High School, \\illi. 



of Psi Upsilon anil Phi Beta Ka|)pa, and he is at 
present a member of the Graduates' Club of New 
Haven. In 1899 he published a work entitled The 
Development of the F^nglish Novel. 



HART, Luther, 1783-1834. 

Born m Goshen, Conn., 1783 ; graduated at Yale 1807. 
and with the first class from Andover Seminary ; Pas- 
tor of a church in Plymouth, Conn , from 1810 until his 
death; was a Fellow of Yale 1829 1834; died, 1834. 

LUTHER H.\RT, M.A., Fellow of Yale was 
born in Goshen, Connecticut, in July i 7S3. 
He entered \'ale with the Class of 1807 and after 
graduating taught in the Litchfield Academy for a 



246 



UNIVERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



year. Beginning the study of tlu-ciloi^y with the 
Rev. Ebenezer Potter of Washington, Connecticut, 
he finished his course at the Seminary in Andover, 
Massachusetts, graduating with the first class sent 
forth from that institution, and entered the ministry 
in 1S09. The Congregational Society of Plymouth, 
Connecticut, selected him for its Pastor in the fol- 
lowing year, and he continued his labors with that 
church until his death, which occurred April 25, 1834. 
He was a zealous worker for the redemption of souls, 
and directly instrumental in the conversion of five 
hundred persons during his ministry. From 1S29 
till 1834 he was a member of the Yale Corporation. 
Mr. Hart published a number of sermons, and a 
Memoir of Amos Pettengill. 



COLLIER, Peter, 1835-1896. 

Born in Chittenango, N. Y., 1835 ; graduated at Yale, 
1861 ; Assistant Instructor in the Sheffield Scientific 
School, 1861-1866; appointed Professor of Chemistry, 
Mineralogy and Metallurgy at the University of Ver- 
mont, 1870; Sec. of the Vermont State Board of Agri- 
culture, Mining and Manufacture, 1873-1876; was one 
of the United States' Commissioners to the Vienna 
Exposition, 1873; Chemist to the Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington, 1877-1883; investigated the pos- 
sibility of producing sorghum sugar in the United 
States ; died, 1896. 

PETER COLLIER, Ph.D., M.D., Assistant In- 
structor in Chemistry at Yale, was born in 
Chittenango, New York, August 17, 1835. Having 
pursued a course of preliminary study at the Yates 
Polytechnic Institute, Chittenango, he entered Yale, 
from which he was graduated with the Class of 1861, 
and while taking an advanced course of study in 
chemistry at the Sheffield Scientific School, he acted 
as Assistant Instructor in that Department. Accept- 
ing the Professorship of Analytical Chemistry, Min- 
eralogy and Metallurgy at the University of Vermont 
in 1867, and also that of Cleneral Chemistry and 
Toxicology in the Medical School, he remained there 
for ten years, during which time he was Dean of the 
Medical Faculty. As Secretary of the Vermont 
Board of Agriculture, Mining and Manufacture from 
1873 to 1876 he devoted much time to preparing 
the reports of that body for those years, and as a 
member of the Ignited States Commission to the 
World's Exposition at Vienna in 1S73 he furnished 
the report on Commercial Fertilizers. In 1877 he 
was appointed Chemist to the Department of Agricul- 
ture at Washington and during the six years in wliirh 



lie was engaged in that work he,promoted and super- 
vised a number of scientific investigations, the most 
important being a careful study by means of numer- 
ous practical experiments, of the feasibility of eco- 
nomically i)roducing sorghum sugar in this country. 
Those experiments were attended with perfect suc- 
cess, showing conclusively that in case sugar cane 
should at any time become unavailable, large quan- 
tities of the sorghum product can be had at small 
cost. Professor Collier was also the inventor of an 
apparatus for extracting sugar from cane and sorghum 
refuse. He wrote many articles and lectured before 
scientific societies on fertilizers, sorghum, etc. He 
edited the reports of the Department of Agriculture 
from 1877 to 18S3, and is the author of: Sorghum : 
Its Culture and Manufacture Economically Consid- 
ered, and as a Source of Sugar, Syrup and Fodder. 
From Yale he received the degree of Master of Arts 
in course, while that of Doctor of Philosophy was 
conferred upon him in 1S66, and the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine was awarded him by the Uni- 
versity of Vermont. Professor Collier died in 1896. 



LAMPSON, William, 1840-1897. 

Born in Le Roy, N. Y., 1840; graduated at Yale, 
1862; Editor of the Yale Literary Magazine; a mem- 
ber of Skull and Bones ; studied at Heidelberg ; grad- 
uated from Columbia Law School and received the 
LL.B., degree, 1867; President of his father's bank at 
Le Roy, N. Y.; member of the Metropolitan and 
University Clubs, N. Y.; bequeathed the bulk of his 
property to Yale; died in Le Roy, N. Y., 1897. 

WILLIAM LAMPSON, one of the latest and 
most generous of Yale's Benefactors, was 
born in Le Roy, New York, February 28, 1840. 
He was the son of Miles P. Lampson, a local 
banker, and the nephew of Sir Curtis I,ampson, an 
American banker in London. Mr. Lampson was 
prepared for College in his native town and entered 
Yale in 1859. In his College life, as well as in his 
later years, he was quiet and unobtrusive, making 
few but close friendships, and living much with his 
books, of whicii, even as an undergraduate, he pos- 
sessed a very fine collection. He was an Editor of 
the Yale Literary Magazine, a member of " Skull 
and Bones," and took honors at his graduation in 
1862. He also formeil a strong attachment for 
Professor Thomas Thatcher which continued after 
his graduation and diil much to ttnn Mr. Lampson's 
generosity toward Yale. After his graduation Mr. 
Lampson went abroad for two years, studying at 



Heidelberg. Upon liis return in 1S64 he entered 
the Columbia Law School, and took tiie regular 
course, receiving the degree of Bachelor of Laws 
in 1S67. He then entered his father's bank in 
Le Roy, New York, and upon his father's deatii 
became its President. He resiiled in the fixmily 
mansion until his death, making several trips abroad 
with his friend Professor Othniel C. Marsh. He 
was a member of tlie Metropolitan and Lhiiversity 
Clubs in New York and a lifelong Democrat in 
politics, but took no part in public life. Mr. Lamp- 
son always cherished a special fondness for Yale and 
made no secret of his intention to leave the College 
a generous amount at his death, but all friends of 
Yale were surprised and pleased when, on Mr. 
Lampson's death, February 14, 1S97, it was found 
that he had left the bulk of his estate, probably 
nearly half a million dollars, to the University. 
The exact terms of his will were as follows : 
" Seventh. I give and bequeath unto my alma 
mater, the Corporation of Yale College in New 
Haven, Connecticut, the sum of §150,000 or so 
much thereof as may be necessary to effect the 
object of this provision, that is to say, for the pur- 
pose of erecting a building for Commencement and 
other public exercises, to be called the ' Lampson 
Lyceum.' If, however, such a building should be 
erected before my estate is available for sucli a 
purpose, then I give a like sum for the purpose of 
erecting any other building of which the College 
stands in need, said building to be of a public 
character and to be erected on the College Campus 
or adjacent grounds. Eighth. W\ the rest, residue, 
and remainder of my estate I give and bequeath and 
grant and devise unto the aforesaid Corporation of 
Yale College, to be held by it in trust forever to 
establish a fund to be known as the ' Lampson 
Fund,' the income of which shall be devoted to 
the endowment of Professorships of Ijatin, Greek 
and English Literature. If at the time when my 
estate becomes available, the income from the same 
shotild be insufficient for the establishment of the 
above-named Professorships, then so much of it 
shall be used for this purpose, as will establish one 
or more such Professorships, and if the income from 
my estate at such time should be more than suffi- 
cient to make all of the specified endowments, I 
direct that such other Professorships may be en- 
dowed therefrom as in the judgment of the Trus- 
tees of the Corporation may be deemed advisable." 
Owing to long continued litigation the estate has 
not yet become available. 



VNIVERSmES AND illh'.lR SONS 

HAWES, Joel, 1789-1867. 



247 



Born in Medway, Mass., 1789; educated at Brown 
and at Andover Theological Seminary; connected with 
the First Congregational Church, Hartford, Conn., as 
Pastor " Emeritus" forty-nine years; and a Fellow of 
Yale twenty one years ; died in Gilead, Conn., 1867. 

JOIOL H.\\\i:s, 1 ).!)., a Fellow of Yale from 1 846 
to 1867, was born in Medway, Massachusetts, 
December 22, 17.S9. His early educational oppor- 
tunities were meagre, but by indomitable persever- 
ance he was able to study at P.rown, from which he 
was graduated in 181 3, and to complete his theo- 







JOEL HAWES 

logical course at .'\ndover, Massachusetts. In 1818 
he responded to a call from the First Congregational 
Church, Hartford, Connecticut, officiating unaided 
until i860, when he was provided with an Assistant, 
and in 1864 he was retired as Pastor " ICmeritus," 
remaining as such for the rest of his life, which ter- 
minated at Gilead, Connecticut, June 5, 1867. Dr. 
Hawes was a Fellow of Y'ale from 1846 until his 
death, and took a marked interest in the welfare of 
the College. He visited Europe and the Levant in 
1844, spending some time with his daughter, who 
was a missionary in Turkey. Among his principal 
writings are ; Lectures to Young Men ; Tribute to 
the Pilgrims; Religion of the East; \\'ashington 
and Jay ; and An Offering to Home Missionaries. 



248 



UNIFERSrriES ANB THEIR SONS 



McCURDY, Charles Johnson, 1797-1891. 

Born in Lyme. Conn., 1797: graduated at Yale, 1817; 
prominent lawyer, member of the Connecticut House 
of Representatives and Senate ; Speaker of the former; 
Lieutenant Governor, 1847-1848 ; Charge d'Affaires at 
Vienna, 1850-1852 ; Judge of the Connecticut Superior 
and Supreme Courts; member of the Peace Congress 
in 1861 : Lecturer at Yale, 1873-75; ex-officio Fellow ; 
died. 1891. 

CH.\RLES JOHNSON McCURDY, LL.D., 
Lecturer at Yale, was born in Lyme, Con- 
necticut, December 7, 1797. His classical course 
was pursued at Yale, which gave him his Bachelor's 



1873 to 1S75, and was a Fellow of the College, 
ex-officio ; Judge McCurdy died in 1891 




CHARLES J. ^TcCURDy 

degree in 181 7, and after completing his law 
studies under the direction of Zephaniah Swift, he 
entered the legal profession. He attained distinc- 
tion both at the Bar and in the Legislature, serving 
as Representative and Senator, and as Speaker of 
the House during three sessions ; was Lieutenant- 
Governor for the years 1847 and 1848, and from 
1850 to 1852 held the post of Charge d'Affaires at 
Vienna, .'\ustria. In 1856 he was chosen a Justice 
of the Superior Court, and later elevated to the 
Supreme Bench, from which he retired in 1867. As 
a member of the Peace Congress of 1S61, Judge 
McCurdy was a leading spirit in the deliberations 
of that body. In 1S68 he was made a Doctor of 
Laws by Yale, lectured on life insurance there from 



MONROE, Elbert Brinckerhoff, 1837-1894. 

Born at New York m 1837 ; graduated at the Univer- 
sity of the City of New York, 1854; entered business; 
Corporate member of the Prudential Committee of the 
American Board; Trustee of the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital, Hampton Institute and Rutgers College ; mem- 
ber of the Indian Commission; member of the Y. M. 
C. A.; gave Dwight Hall to the Yale Y. M. C. A.; 
Director, Treasurer, Vice-President and President of 
same; also on the Finance Committee; died in Tarry- 
town-on-the-Hudson, 1894. 

ELBERT BRINCKERHOFF MONROE, M.A., 
Donor of Dwight Hall at Yale, was born in 
New York in 1837 and was the son of Ebenezer B. 
Monroe, a merchant. His ancestry was Scotch on 
his father's side and Dutch on his mother's side. 
Mr. Monroe graduated from the University of the 
City of New York in 1854, and immediately entered 
the business firm of Ball, Black & Company. He 
married Virginia Marquand, niece of Frederick 
Marquand, one of Yale's most generous benefactors 
and the donor of Marquand Chapel. Mr. Monroe 
was successful in business and in 1874 retired to 
give his whole attention to religious and philan- 
thropic work. He was connected with many be- 
nevolent institutions, for thirteen years was Super- 
intendent of Knox Memorial Sunday School, and 
was one of the Corporate members and a meinber 
of the Prudential Committee of the American 
Board. Mr. Monroe was also a Trustee of the 
Presbyterian Hospital, of Hampton Institute and of 
Rutgers College ; he was appointed by President 
Harrison a member of the Indian Commission, a 
position which he held until his death. Mr. Mon- 
roe's interest in the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, which culminated in his gift of Dwight Hall 
to the College Young Men's Christian Association of 
Yale, began with the origin of the Association in 
New York in 1852. He was successively its 
Director, Treasurer, Vice-President and for nine 
years its national President ; he served on its 
Finance Committee until his death. In 1884 Mr. 
Monroe heard of the efforts which were being made 
at Yale to secure a Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion building for College students, and learned of 
the great interest which his uncle, Frederick Mar- 
quand, had expressed in the plan Just before his 
death. He immediately offered as the heir and 
executor of Mr. Marquand, to erect the building in 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



249 



liis niemorv. The huilding was formally presented 
to Yale in 1SS6 by Mr. Monroe and was named 
Dwight Hall in honor of the ekler President Dwight. 
Mr. Monroe spent the rest of his life in quiet jihil- 
anthropic work, dying April 21, 1894, at his home 
in Tarryto\vn-on-the-Hudson. His widow survives 
him. 



rrnre, of New York, and through his widow was a 
henofactor of \'ale. 



HILLHOUSE, James Abraham, 1730-1775. 

Born in Montville, Conn., 1730; graduated at Yale, 
1749; Tutor there, 1750-1756; practised Law in New 
Haven, Conn.; elected one of the twelve " Assistants," 
1772 : died, 1775. 

J.\^^•:.S .ABR.^HAM HH.LHOUSE, M.A., Tutor 
at Yale, son of the Rev. James Hillhouse, was 
born in Montville, Connecticut, in 1730. His father 
who was born in Ireland about the year 1687, pur- 
sued a classical and theological course at the I'ni- 
versity of Glasgow, and previous to emigrating to 
.America was ordained by the Presbytery of London- 
derry, Irelaml. In all probability he accompanied 
a party of Presbyterian emigrants to New Hampshire 
in I 7 19, and receiving the endorsement of Cotton 
Mather, was installed Pastor of the recently organ- 
ized church at New London, Connecticut, in 1722. 
James Abraham Hillhouse took his Master's degree 
at Yale, from which he was graduated in 1749, and 
receiving an appointment as Tutor at the College in 
the following year, continued in that capacity until 
1756. He entered the legal profession and became 
a successful practitioner in New Haven, and was 
chosen one of the twelve "assistants" in 1772. 
His death occurred in 1775. His grand-nephew 
also named James Abraham, was born in New 
Haven, September 26, 17S9, and graduated at Yale 
in 1808. He engaged in mercantile business in 
New York City and was financially successful. Re- 
tiring from business in 1822, he devoted the rest of 
his life to literature. A visit to England in 1S19 
gave him an opportunity to form the acquaintance 
of many noted men of that day by Avhom he was 
kindly received and well thought of. His last years 
were spent on his estate near New Haven, called 
Sachem's ^\'ood, where he died January 5, 1841. 
He was a poet of recognized merit and the author 
of numerous poems, discourses, dramas etc., among 
which are: The Judgment — a Vision, delivered 
before the Phi Beta Kappa Society of Yale ; 
Sachem's Wood, a poem ; Percy's Masque ; Hadad, 
dramas ; and Demetria, an Italian tragedy. He 
married Cornelia Lawrence, daughter of Isaac Law- 



LUQUIENS, Jean Jules Adolphe, 1845- 

Born at Lausanne, Switzerland, 1845; early education 
acquired in schools of native place ; Theological School, 
Canton de Vaud, 1866; Ph.D. Yale, 1873; teacher Cin- 
cinnati University, 1873-74; Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, 1874-92; Professor Modern Languages, 
Yale, 1892-. 

JEAN JULES ADOLPHE LUQUIENS, Ph.D., 
Professor of Modern Languages at Yale, was 
born in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1845. His early 




JEAN J. A. LUQUIENS 

education was acquired in the public schools of his 
native town, where he received the usual European 
.Academic training. He graduated in 1S66 from the 
Theological School of the Free Church of the Can- 
ton de Vaud, and attended afterward the Theological 
Department of the University of Berlin. In 1873 he 
obtained the degree of Doctor of Philosoi)hy from 
Yale. He was a teacher in .American schools and 
Cincinnati L^niversity from 1869 to 1S74, and in the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, from 
1874 to 1892, when he was called to the Street Pro- 
fessorship of Modern Languages at Yale. Professor 
Luquiens is a member of the American Oriental 



25° 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



Society and of tlie Modern Language Association. 
He was married in 1875 to Emma Clark and has 
three children : Frederic Bliss, Hue. Mazelet and 
Louise Luquiens. 



MUNSON, Eneas, 1734-1826. 

Born in New Haven, Conn., 1734 ; graduated at Yale, 
1753; Tutor at Yale; studied Divinity ; Chaplain in the 
Army in Long Island; studied medicine ; President of 
the Conn. Medical Society; Prof, of Materia Medica 
and Botany; died in New Haven, 1826. 

EXKAS MUNSON, M.D., Professor of Materia 
Medica and Botany in the Medical School 
of Yale from its organization until his death, was 
born in New Haven, Connecticut, June 24, 1734, 
and was graduated at Yale in 1753. After two 
years spent as a Tutor in the College and in study- 
ing divinity under President Stiles, he was appointed 
Chaplain in the Army in Long Island. He also 
studied medicine under Dr. John Darby, and in 
1756 began practice in Bedford, New York, but in 
1760 returned to New Haven, where he established 
a large practice and maintained a high reputation 
for more than fifty years. During the Revolutionary 
period he served at various times in the State Leg- 
islature, and for many years he was President of the 
Connecticut Medical Society. He died in New 
Haven, June 16, 1S26. 



SAGE, Henry William, 1814-1897. 

Born in Middletown, Conn., 1814: studied at Bristol, 
Conn. ; entered business at Ithaca, N. Y. : endowed the 
■' Lyman Beecher Lectureship on Preaching " ; built 
Sage College, a College Hall at Cornell ; assisted in 
establishing the Library at Cornell; founded the Susan 
C. Sage Professorship of Philosophy at Cornell ; en- 
dowed the Sage School of Philosophy ; President of the 
Board of Trustees, Cornell ; died in Ithaca, N. Y,, 1897, 

HI-:NRY WILLL-\M sage, who established 
the Lyman Beecher Lectureship at Yale, 
was the son of Charles Sage and was born in Middle- 
town, Connecticut, January 31, 1S14. He prepared 
for Yale at Bristol, Connecticut, but soon removed 
to Ithaca, New York, and entered business there in 
1832. He soon became interested in the lumber 
industry, established logging mills and factories in 
Canada and Michigan and became one of the 
largest landowners in Michigan. In 1857 Mr. Sage 
moved to Brooklyn and became a prominent member 
of Plymouth Church. In 1871 he gave $10,000 to 
the Yale Divinity School to endow the " Lyman 
Beecher Lectureship on Preaching " to be filled by 



the annual appointment of some person who had 
been successful in the ]iractical work of the ministry. 
The first lecturer was Henry Ward Beecher, and 
the lectureship has since been filled by some of the 
most distinguished preachers of both England and 
America. Mr. Sage became much interested in the 
founding of Cornell. In 1873 he built Sage College, 
:i College Hall for women which did much to settle 
the question of co-education at Cornell. When the 
establishment of a library seemeil to be in doubt, 
owing to the difficulties arising in connection with 
the Willard Fiske bequest, Mr. Sage assumed the 
cost of construction, and further endowed the 
library with $300,000. He also foinided the Susan 
C. Sage Professorship of Philosophy and endowed 
the Sage School of Philosophy with $200,000 
making the total sum of his gifts to Cornell over 
$1,000,000. He also gave freely of his time and 
ability, spending the later years of his life in Ithaca, 
and acting after the death of Ezra Cornell as 
President of the Board of Trustees. Mr. Sage died 
in Ithaca, New York, September 17, 1S97. 



T 



SLOANE, Thomas Chalmers, 1847-1890. 

Born in New York City, 1847; graduated at Yale, 
1868 ; entered business in New York City ; built Sloane 
Physical Laboratory; member of the Corporation; 
endowed the University Library ; died in Lenox, 
Mass., i8go. 

mOMAS CHALMERS SLOANE, who with 
his brother Henry T. Sloane, gave and 
liberally endowed the Sloane Physical Laboratory, 
was born in New York City, October 21, 1847. He 
entered Yale in the Class of 1S68 and after gradua- 
tion joined his father and brothers in the business 
firm of W. & J. Sloane in New York. In 1873 he 
married Priscilla P. Dixon, sister of one of his class- 
mates. In 1880, after his father's death, he proposed 
the gift to Yale of a suitable memorial. The Sloane 
Physical Laboratory, completed in 1883, was the 
result. Later he rendered great help in securing 
funds for the new Gyinnasium and contributed 
liberally himself. In 1889 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Corporation by the Alumni. During the 
winter of 1 888 Mr. Sloane's health, never ver)' strong, 
began to fail, and he died in Lenox, Alassachusetts, 
June 17, 1S90, leaving a widow but no children. 
By his will he made liberal bequests to a number of 
charities, an absolute bequest to Yale of $75,000 
for the Sloane Laboratory and a conditional bequest of 
$200,000 which has since been received and added 
to the endowment fund of the L^niversity Library. 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



251 



WINCHESTER, Oliver Fisher, 1810-1880. 

Born in Boston, Mass., 1810; learned the carpenter's 
trade; master-builder in Baltimore, Md.; began the 
manufacture of shirts in New Haven. Conn. ; stock- 
holder of the Volcanic Arms Co., which later became 
the Winchester Repeating Arms Co., President of the 
same; Presidential Elector, 1864; Lieut. -Governor of 
Connecticut, 1866; founded an observatory at Yale; 
died in New Haven, Conn., 1880. 

OLIVER FISHER WINCHESTER, Benefactor 
of Yale, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, 
November 30, 18 10. His educational opportunities 
were meagre. Having learned the carpenter's trade 
he became a master-builder in Baltimore, Maryland, 
but abandoned the trade in 1833, to engage in 
mercantile pursuits. In 1834, he opened the first 
men's furnishing store in Maryland, which he con- 
ducted until 1848, when he moved to New Haven, 
Connecticut, and in company with John M. Davies 
began the manufacture of shirts. That enterprise 
was probably the first of its kind established in 
America and grew to be the largest in the United 
States. His interest in firearms dates from about 
the year 1856, when he became one of the principal 
stockhoUlers in the Volcanic Arms Company, orga- 
nized for the purpose of manufacturing a repeating 
rifle invented by Benjamin T. Henry, which was one 
of the first magazine guns produced in this country. 
That enterprise was succeeded in i860, by the New 
Haven Arms Company, promoted by Mr. Winchester 
who purchased the combined interests of his associ- 
ates, and in 1865, the New Haven Arms Company 
was superseded by the Winchester Repeating Arms 
Company. Disposing of his interest in the shirt 
manufactory in order to devote his whole time to 
the Presidency of the new company, the Henry rifle 
under his direction passed through a series of im- 
provements and eventually became known as the 
\\'inchester Repeating Rifle, many of which were 
sold to the French and Turkish governments. In 
1872 the company began to manufacture metallic 
cartridges and at the present time has ficilities for 
producing one million per day. Mr. Winchester 
was chosen by the Republican party a Presidential 
Elector in 1864, and was elected Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor of Connecticut in 1866. His interest in educa- 
tional and religious work was emphasized by liberal 
donations, and besides his gifts to the scientific and 
theological schools connected with Yale he gave 
property to the value of §100,000 to be used for 
the founding and maintenance of an observatory, 
with the special request that it should not be named 
in his honor. .\s a result of his interest in science 



the Vale Observatory contains the tmly hciiometer in 
this country, and its horological and tliermometric 
bureaus arc exceedingly useful in ascertaining the 
defects in watches and thermometers. Mr. Win- 
chester died in New Haven, Connecticut, December 
10, 1880. 



BUNNELL, Otis Gridley, 1868- 

Born in Burlington, Conn, 1868; graduated at Yale 
(Sheffield Scientific School), 1892; travelled abroad ; 
appointed as Assistant in French at Yale, 1894; and an 
Instructor, 1895. 

lis GRIDLEY BUNNELL, Ph.B., Instruc- 
tor in French at Vale, was born in Burling- 
ton, Connecticut, December 19, 1868, son of Norris 



o 




U'llS GKIDLEV BUNNELL 

Woodruff' and Kavanna (Edwnrtis) Bunnell. His 
ancestors were originally English, .\tter conclud- 
ing his attendance at the public schools he entered 
the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale, and was 
graduated in 1892. During the succeeding two 
years he travelled in Eurojie, spending a considera- 
ble portion of tlie time in France, where he per- 
fected his studies in his present specialty. In 1894 
he returned to Yale as an .Assistant in French, and 
was appointed an Instructor in that language in 
1895. Mr. Bunnell is a member of the Graduates 
Club, New Haven. 



2S± 



VNIVERSIl'IES AND THEIR SONS 



ALEXANDER, Joseph Addison, 1809-1860. 

Born in Philadelphia, Penn., 1809; graduated at 
Princeton, 1826; associated in the establishment of 
Edgehill Seminary at Princeton, N.J.; Adj. Prof. An- 
cient Languages and Literature at Princeton ; Asso. 
Prof, and Professor in Princeton Theological Sem- 
inary ; died at Princeton, N. J., i860. 

JOSEPH ADDISON ALEXANDER, Adjunct 
Professor at Princeton, was born in Pliiladel- 
pliia, April 24, 1809, son of Archibald Alexander, 
D.D. ; died in Princeton, January 28, 1S60. He 
was graduated at Princeton in 1826, with the first 
honor of his class, and soon after associated himself 
with R. B. Patton in the establishment of P^dgehill 
Seminary at Princeton. In 1830 he was appointed 
.Adjunct Professor of Ancient Languages and Liter- 
ature at Princeton, which chair he filled until 1833, 
when he went abroad and spent several years in 
studying languages. In 1838 he was elected Asso- 
ciate Professor of Oriental and Biblical Literature in 
Princeton Theological Seminary, and in 1840 he was 
made Professor. Subsequently ( 1 85 1 ) he was trans- 
ferred to the Chair of Biblical and Ecclesiastical 
History, and in 1859 to the Chair of Hellenistic 
and New Testament Literature, which he held until 
his death. He was master of nearly all the modern 
languages of Europe, and as an Orientalist he had 
few superiors. His great linguistic knowledge is 
shown by his numerous exegetical works. His 
biography, by his nephew, Henry Carringlon Alex- 
ander, was published in 1869. 



degrees of Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor ot Laws 
from Princeton College in 1867 and 1882 respec- 
tively, and that of Doctor of Divinity was conferred in 
1 87 7 by Rutgers College. At the Sesquicentennial of 
Princeton University in 1896, he was honored with 
the degree of Doctor of Letters. His published 
works are : Narrative of a Residence and Travels 
in Modern Greece ; Life of Robert Baird, D.D. ; 
History of the Rise of the Huguenots ; The Hugue- 




HENRV MARTVN BAIRD 



BAIRD, Henry Martyn, 1832- 

Born in Philadelphia, 1832 ; educated at the Univer- 
sities of the City of New York and of Athens, Greece, 
and at Union and Princeton Theological Seminaries ; 
Tutor at Princeton, 1855 ; Professor of Greek Language 
and Literature at the University of the City of New 
York, 1859- 

HENRY MARTYN BAIRD, Ph.D., D.D., 
LL.D., L.H.D., Tutor at Princeton, was 
born in Philadelphia, January 17, 1832, son of the 
Rev. Robert Baird, D.D., an eminent American 
clergyman and philanthropist. Graduating from the 
University of the City of New York in 1850, he con- 
tinued his studies in Greece and at the Union and 
Princeton Theological Seminaries, after which he 
became a Tutor at Princeton, 1855-1859. In 1859 
he was called to the Chair of Greek Language and 
Literature at the University of the City of New York, 
which he still holds. Professor Baird received the 



nots and Henry of Navarre ; The Huguenots and 
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes ; and Theo- 
dore Beza, the Counsellor of French Protestantism 
(1899). 



BLAIR, Samuel, 1741-1818. 

Born in Fagg's Manor, Penn., in 1741 ; graduated 
at Princeton, 1760; Tutor; licensed to preach, 1764; 
Pastor at Boston, Mass.; elected President of Prince- 
ton but did not serve; member of the Penn. Legisla- 
ture ; Chaplain to the Continental Congress ; received 
the D.D. degree from the University of Penn.; died 
in Germantown, Penn., 1818. 

SAMUEL BLAIR, elected sixth President of 
Princeton, but who did not serve, was the 
son of Samuel Blair, founder and Principal of the 
Classical School at Fagg's Manor, Pennsylvania. 
There the subject of this sketch was born, in 1741 ; 



UNIVERSITIES AND rilKIR SONS 



^53 



lie died in Germantown, Pennsylvania, September 
24, 1818. He was graduated at Princeton in 1760, 
and was a Tutor there until 1764, when he was 
licensed to preach by the Newcastle Presbytery. In 
1 766 he was settled as colleague of Dr. Sewall, over 
the Old South Church in Boston. In 1767, at the 
age of twenty- six, he was elected to the Presidency 
of Princeton, Dr. Witherspoon having declined the 
first call of the Trustees to that office ; but learning 
that owing to a change of circumstances Dr. With- 
erspoon was willing to accept, Mr. Blair declined in 
his favor. His health becoming impaired, chiefly 
as a result of exposure in a shipwreck while on his 
way from Philadelphia to Boston to assume his 
Pastorate in 1766, at which time he narrowly es- 
caped with his life, he resigned his charge in 1769, 
and returned to Philadelphia, where he married a 
daughter of Dr. Shippen. The rest of his life was 
passed at Germantown, where he was the princijxil 
founder of the English Presbyterian Church. He 
was several times a member of the Pennsylvania 
Assembly, and was for two years Chaplain to the 
Continental Congress. The degree of Doctor of 
Divinity was given him by the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1790. 



ELLSWORTH, Oliver, 1745-1807. 

Born in Windsor, Conn., 1745; entered Yale, grad- 
uated at Princeton, 1766; studied theology and law; 
admitted to the Hartford County Bar, 1771 ; elected 
States Attorney, 1775 ; member of the Conn. General 
Assembly; delegate to the Continental Congress; 
member of the Governor's Council ; Judge of the Conn. 
Superior Court; member of the Federal Convention at 
Philadelphia ; member of the U. S. Senate ; Chief-Jus- 
tice of the U. S. Supreme Court ; member of the com- 
mittee appointed to adjust the difficulties between the 
U. S. and France; Chief-Justice of the Conn. Supreme 
Court ; died in Windsor, Conn., 1807. 

OLIVER ELLSWORTH, LL.D., one of the 
founders of the Cliosophic Society at Prince- 
ton, was born in Windsor, Connecticut, April 29, 
1745. In 1762 he entered Yale, but shortly after- 
ward went to Princeton, where he was graduated with 
high honors in 1766. Having studied theology a year 
he abandoned it for the law and was admitted to the 
Hartford County Bar in T771. He practised his 
profession in connection with farming until 1775, 
in which year he was electeil States Attorney, and 
selling his farm he removed to Hartford, where he 
immediately rose to prominence as a lawyer. At the 
outbreak of the Revolutionary War he was elected by 



the \\ hig party to represent Windsor in the General 
Assembly, in which he figured as a member of the 
Committee of Four, formed for the purpose of 
managing the military finances of the Colony and 
called "the Pay Table." As a delegate to the 
Continental Congress in 1778 he served upon the 
Marine Committee or I5oard of Admiralty, and also 
on the Conmiittee of Appeals, and from 1 780 till 
I 784 he was one of the most valuable members of 
the Governor's Council. Retiring from the Conti- 
nental Congress in i 783 and refusing to serve further, 
although again re-elected, he declined the appoint- 
ment of Commissioner of the Treasury, but accepted 
that of Judge of the Connecticut Superior Court, 
which he held some four years. In May 1787, he 
was made a member of the Federal Convention at 
Philadelphia, where he earnestly advocated state 
rights, and the motion, which was carried, expunging 
from the Constitution the words " National Gov- 
ernment," and substituting instead the words " Gov- 
ernment of the United States," was made by him. 
Domestic affairs compelled him to quit the Conven- 
tion before the day fixed for signing the Constitution, 
but he labored diligently and effectively in securing 
its ratification by the Connecticut State Convention. 
He was a member of the First United States Senate 
under the new government which was assembled at 
New York, in i 789, and the Act drawn by him as 
Chairman of the Committee appointed to organize 
the Judiciary is still in force. His zealous endeav- 
ors to strengthen the financial credit of the Republic, 
and at the same time confine the national expenses 
to a basis of actual necessity, gained for him the title 
of "The Cerberus of the Treasury," and his en- 
couragement and protection of home manufactures 
received general commendation. He was universally 
recognized as the Federalist leader in the Senate 
and John Adams called him " the finest pillar of 
Washington's whole administration." The sending 
of John Jay to England was suggested by him and 
his eloquent defence of the resulting treaty caused it 
to be accepted by the Senate. From 1 796 to i 799 
he served with marked ability as Chief-Justice of the 
United States Supreme Court. In the latter year he 
was in company with Patrick Henry and Governor 
William R. Davie, appointed by President Adams 
to adjust the difficulties then existing between the 
L'nited States and F'rance, and this extraordinary 
commission as it was termed, not only succeeded 
in settling the questions in dispute, but gained from 
the French government a recognition of the rights 
of neutral vessels, together with an inilcmnity for 



254 



UNIVERSITIES JND THEIR SONS 



depredations on American commerce, the discussions 
and negotiations for which were conducted ahiiost 
exchisi\ely by Judge l-^llsworth. Ill health caused 
him to resign the Chief-Justiceship while still abroad. 
He spent some time in England testing the curative 
powers of the Mineral Springs at Bath, and although 
it was not customary at that time for Englishmen to 
look with favor upon the United States or its people, 
he was cordially received by distinguished represen- 
tatives of the Court, the Bench and the Bar. In 
1S02 he was again elected to the governor's Council, 
which then acted as a final Court of Appeals and in 
1807 he was appointed Chief-Justice of the Con- 
necticut Supreme Court, but the feeble state of his 
health forced him to resign a few months later, 
and his death occurred at Windsor, Connecticut, 
November 26, 1807, shortly after his retirement. 
Two of his sons acquired distinction, namely, Henry 
Leavitt Ellsworth, who became United States Com- 
missioner of Patents; and William Wolcott Ells- 
worth, who served as Governor of Connecticut and 
Justice of the Superior Court. The latter married 
a daughter of Noah Webster. 



WILSON, Albert Harris, 1872- 

Born at Saundersville, Tenn., 1872; early education 
in a private school in Sumner county, Tenn., graduated 
from Vanderbilt University at Nashville, Tenn., with 
degree of B.S., 1892; degree M.S. from the sam.e Uni- 
versity in 1893 ; graduate student at Johns Hopkins, 
1893-95; Instructor in Mathematics at Princeton since 
1895- 

ALBERT HARRIS WILSON, M.S., Instructor 
in Mathematics at Princeton, was born at 
Saundersville, Tennessee, February 4, 1872, son of 
Thomas Black and Lucy Gwathmey (Cragwall) Wil- 
son. On the paternal side he is of Scotch ancestry ; 
on the maternal of Welsh descent. He received his 
early education at a private school in Sumner 
county, Tennessee, afterwards becoming a student 
in Vanderbilt University at Nashville, Tennessee, 
from which he graduated with the degree of Bachelor 
of Science in the Class of 1892, receiving the degree 
of Master of Science the following year. From 1893 
to 1895 he was a graduate student at Johns Hopkins. 
In 1895 he was made Instructor in Mathematics at 
Princeton, a position he fills at the present time. 
Mr. Wilson has taken no part in political life and is 
unmarried. 

SCHANCK, John Stillwell, 1817- 

Born near Freehold, N. J., 1817; fitted for College in 
Lenox, Mass.; graduated Princeton, Class of 1840; 



then studied medicine in Princeton and in the Univer- 
sity of Pa., at Philadelphia, receiving the degree of 
M.D. in 1843; Physician and Professor of Chemistry 
etc., at Princeton, 1842-1893 ; since 1892 Professor 
Emeritus of Chemistry and Hygiene. 

JOHN STILLWELL SCHANCK, M.D., Pro- 
fessor " Emeritus " of Chemistry and Hygiene, 
at Princeton, was born near Freehold, New Jersey, 
February 24, 181 7, son of Rudolf R. and Mary 
(.Stillwell) Schanck. On the paternal side he is 
descended from Edgar " the Schenck," cup-bearer 
(butler) to Charlemagne, 780, and from Roelof 
Martense Schenck of Holland, who came to Flatlands, 
Long Island, in 1650, and whose descendants settled 
in north-eastern New Jersey. He received his early 




JOHN STIIXWELL SCH.ANCK 

education in a common school near Middletown, 
New Jersey, and in Lenox, Massachusetts. He then 
entered Princeton, and graduated with the Class of 
1840, after which he took a course in medicine at 
Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania, receiv- 
ing the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1843. He 
has been Physician and Professor of Chemistry, etc., 
in Princeton for half a century, from 1842 to 1893, but 
since 1892 has not been engaged in active work as a 
teacher, having been made, in that year. Professor 
"Emeritus" of Chemistry and Hygiene. In politics, 
he is a Republican. He was married, October 1842, 
to Maria Robbins, of Lenox, Massachusetts. They 
have had seven chiUlren, three of whom are still living. 



UNIVERSITIES AND I'llElR SONS 



25s 



AGNEW, Cornelius Rea, 1830-1888. 

Born in New York City. 1830; educated at Columbia 
and the College of Physicians and Surgeons ; was for 
thirty-five years actively connected with various hos- 
pitals of the metropolis, founded the Brooklyn and 
Manhattan Eye and Ear Hospitals; member of the U. 
S. Sanitary Commission, 18E0-1867; Lecturer in the 
Medical Department of Columbia, 1867-69 ; Professor 
of Diseases of the Eye and Ear, i86g-i8f8; a Trustee 
from 1874 until his death in 1888. 

CORNELIUS REA AGNEW, A.M., M.I)., 
Professor and Lecturer in the Medical 
Department of Columbia and a Trustee, was born in 
New York City, August 8, 1830. Graduating from 
Columbia in 1849 and from tlie Medical Depart- 
ment in 1852, he served as House Surgeon and 
Curator of the New York City Hospital previous to 
perfecting his studies in Europe and upon his return 
was appointed Surgeon to the New York Eye and 
Ear Infirmary, remaining there until 1864. His 
establishment of an Ophthalmic Clinic at the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons in 1868 was followed in 
the ensuing year by his appointment as Professor of 
Diseases of the Eye and Ear at that Institution, and 
he continued as such for the rest of his life. His 
zeal for the welfare and prosperity of the University 
from which he was graduated, was second only to 
his professional duties, which were themselves in a 
great measure closely identified with the interests of 
his a/ma iiiatcr, and aside from his earnest desire to 
enlarge and improve its Medical Department, he 
aided in establishing the School of Mines, and acted 
as a Trustee from 1874 to 1888. The Brooklyn 
and Manhattan Eye and Ear Hospitals were founded 
by him in 1868 and 1869 respectively. As Medical 
Director of the State Volunteer Hospital during the 
Civil War, and as one of the Managers of the Insane 
Hospital at Poughkeepsie, he greatly increased the 
eflficacy of the public medical service, and his labors 
in behalf of the United States Sanitary Commission 
of which he was a member, from i860 to 1867, 
were extremely valuable. L)r. Agnew was elected 
President of the State Medical Society in 1872, and 
was President of the Board of Trustees of the New 
York Public Schools. As a specialist in ophthalmic 
and aural surgery he was without a superior in this 
country, and his death which occurred in 1888, was 
the cause of general regret. During his professional 
life the fruits of his experience and observation were 
made known to his brother practitioners by his 
numerous contributions to the medical journals. His 
other publications consist of brief monographs and a 
series of Clinical Lectures. 



ANTHONY, William Arnold, 1835 

Born in Coventry, R. I., 1835; educated in the Scien- 
tific Department of Yale and Assistant Instructor 
there, 1856-57; Professor of Physics and Chemistry at 
Antioch College, 1867-70; appointed to the Chair of 
Industrial Physics and Mechanics at Cornell in 1872 ; 
designed several valuable machines ; and has contrib- 
uted much to scientific literature. 

WILLIAM ARNOLD ANTHONY, Ph.D., 
Lecturer in Electrical Engineering at 
Columbia, and formerly Assistant in Engineering at 
Vale, was born in Coventry, Rhode Island, Novem- 
ber 17, 1835. After serving as Assistant Instructor 



• Ssi''^ii*lgs«-*ir 




WILLIAM AKNOLD ANTHONY 

in the Scientific Department of Yale, where his edu- 
cation was completed, he was Principal of a graded 
school in Crompton, Rhode Island, for three years, 
and in 1S60-61 he was teacher of the sciences in the 
Providence Conference Seminary at East Greenwich, 
that state. He subsequently taught in Franklin, 
New York, and from 1867 to 1870 he was Professor 
of Physics and Chemistry at Antioch College. He 
was Professor of Physics at Iowa State Agricultural 
College from 1870 to 1872, and in the latter year 
became Professor of Physics and Mechanics at 
Cornell. Since 1879 he has been Lecturer in 
Electrical Engineering at Columbia, and Professor 
of Physics at the Cooper Union Free Night School 
of Science. Professor Anthony has designed two 



'.56 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



turbine wheels, constnicted in 1S75 a ("Tramme 
dynamo-electric machine, and has also produced a 
large tangent galvanometer for the accurate measure- 
ment of electric currents to one or two hundred 
amperes. He belongs to the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. His contributions 
to scientific literature have been widely read, and 
in collaboration with Professor C. F. Brackett he 
published an Elementary Text-book on Physics. 
Professor Anthony received the honorary degree of 
Bachelor of Physics from Yale in i860. 



ANTHON, George Christian. 

Born in Germany ; was a Surgeon in the British 
Army during the American Revolution ; afterwards 
settled in New York City and became actively inter- 
ested in the welfare of Columbia. 

GEORGE CHRISTIAN ANTHON, M.D., 
Trustee of Columbia from 1796 to 18 15, 
was born in Germany, and subsequent to the com- 
pletion of his professional studies he was a Surgeon 
in the British Army, where he attained the rank of 
Surgeon-General. He came to America with the 
.■\rmy during the Revolutionary War, and continued 
in His Majesty's service until the surrender of 
Detroit in 1788, when he resigned his commission 
and settled in New York, .-^side from his profes- 
sional attainments his natural ability and progressive 
tendencies drew him into other fields of usefulness, 
particularly that of education, and his services as a 
Trustee of Columbia which extended through a 
period of nearly twenty years, were exceedingly 
valuable to that institution. Dr. Anthon married 
the daughter of a French officer. His second son, 
John, was a prominent Jurist and founder of the 
New York Law Institute. Another son, Henry be- 
came a clergyman, and a third, Charles Anthon, 
who was graduated from Columbia in 181 5, became 
Jay Professor of Greek Langu.ige and Literature 
there, and was the author of several valuable College 
text-books. 



ANTHON, Charles. 1797-1867. 

Born in N. Y. City, 1797; graduated at Columbia, 
1815; studied law and admitted to the Bar; Adjunct 
Professor and Professor of Greek and Latin at Co- 
lumbia at the same time becoming Head-Master of 
the Grammar School attached to the College ; Pro- 
fessor of Greek Language and Literature ; received 



the LL.D. degree from Columbia, 1831 ; died at N. Y. 
City, 1867. 

CHARLES ANTHON, LL.D., Professor in 
Columbia, was born m New York City, 
November 19, 1797; died there, July 29, 1867. 
He was a son of Dr. George Christian Anthon, a 
German physician, who served in the British Army 
until the surrender of Detroit in 1778, when he 
resigned, married the daughter of a French officer, 
and settled in New York City. Charles was 
graduated at Columbia in 1S15, studied law in tlie 
office of his brother John, a prominent jurist, and 
was admitted to the Bar in 1S19. He never 
practised law however, being appointed in 1820 
Adjunct Professor of Greek and Latin in Columbia. 
Ten years later he succeeded to the full Professor- 
ship, at the same time becoming Head-Master of 
the Grammar School attached to the College. The 
latter post he occupied until 1864. In 1S57 he 
was transferred to the Jay Chair of Greek Language 
and Literature. Professor Anthon was made a 
Doctor of Laws by Columbia in 1 83 1 . He devoted 
much attention to the preparation of text books for 
Colleges, and published nearly fifty volumes of 
classical schoolbooks, many of which were re- 
published in Europe. 



BARD, William, 1777-1853. 

Born in N. Y. City, 1777; graduated at Columbia, 
1797 ; became a pioneer in life insurance in the U. S.; 
President of the N. Y. Life Insurance Co.; Trustee of 
Columbia, 1840-53 ; died in N. Y. City, 1853. 

WILLIAM BARD, Trustee of Columbia, was 
born in New York City in October 1777, 
son of Dr. Samuel Bard, and was graduated at 
Columbia in 1797. He became a pioneer in life 
insurance in the United States, and for many years 
from its foundation in 1S30 was President of the 
New York Life Insurance Company. Mr. Bard 
strved as a Trustee of Columbia from 1840 to 1853. 
He died in New York City, October 17, 1G53. 



BURR, William Hubert, 1851- 

Born in Watertown, Conn., 1851 ; graduated from the 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute of Troy, N. Y., in 
1872, with the degree of C.E. ; Professor of Rational 
and Technical Mechanics at Rensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute, 1876-84 ; Assistant to the Chief Engineer, 
Engineer of Construction and General Manager of the 
Phcenix Bridge Company, 1884-91, superintending the 
construction of some of the largest bridges then built ; 
Professor of Engineering at Harvard, 1892-93; Professor 
of Civil Engineering at Columbia, 1893 to date; mem- 



UNIFERSiriES AND THEIR SONS 



-57 



ber of Committee on Water Front of New York City, 
1894, and of a Committee of experts on rapid-transit; 
member of Commission of Engineers on Hudson River 
bridge, 1894 ; Consulting Engineer to the Department 
of Public Works of New York, 1893-95; member of 
Board of Consulting Engineers to the Department of 
Docks, 1895-9S; Consulting Engineer to the Depart- 
ment of Public Parks, 1896-98 ; has held numerous other 
important professional positions ; is the author of several 
professional text-books. 

WILLIAM HUBERT BURR, C.E., Professor 
of Civil Engineering at Columbia, was born 
in Watertown, Connecticut, July 14, 1851. Both his 
father, George William Burr, and his mother, Marion 
Foot Scoville, were members of old colonial families. 
The Burrs were an English family, the first member 
of which in a direct line in this country was Jehu 
Burr, who settled at what is now Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1640. Soon afterwards he removed to 
Fairfield, Connecticut, since that time the residence 
of the family. His descendants were prominent in 
colonial affairs, and played important parts in the 
early development of Connecticut. During the 
Revolutionary War the patriotism of the family en- 
tailed severe losses upon it, especially during the 
incursion into F'airfield of the British under Tryon 
in 1777. William Hubert Burr received his early 
education through private instruction and in the 
Academy at Watertown, Connecticut. In 1S6S he 
entered the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, 
graduating in 1S72 witli the degree of Civil Engineer, 
and has since been engaged in the active practice 
of his profession. He was the Professor of Rational 
and Technical Mechanics at the Rensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute from 1876 to 1884. During this 
period he published three books : The Stresses in 
Bridge and Roof Trusses ; The Elasticity and Resist- 
ance of the Materials of Engineering ; and The 
Theory of the Masonry Arch ; besides a number of 
contributions to Transactions of Engineering Socie- 
ties and similar publications. From 1884 to 1S91 
he was successively Assistant to the Chief Engineer, 
Engineer of Construction, and General Manager of 
the Phrenix Bridge Company of Phcenixville, Penn- 
sylvania, and some of the largest bridges then built, 
among them the Chesapeake & Ohio bridge across 
the Ohio River at Cincinnati, the Red Rock Canti- 
lever across the Colorado River near The Needles, 
California, and the Pecos Viaduct in Texas, were 
designed and built under his supervision. In 
1891-1892 he was Vice-President of the firm of 
Sooysmith & Company of New York. He was Pro- 
fessor of Engineering at Harvard from 1892 to 1893. 
VOL. II. — 17 



Since the latter year he has been Professor of Civil 
Engineering in Columbia. In 1894 he served on 
the sub-committee of the Committee of Seventy on 
the improvement of New York City's water-front, and 
was also a member of a committee of experts ap- 
pointed by the Rapid Transit Commission to con- 
sider plans and estimates for the establishment of a 
rapid-transit system in New York. In the same 
year he was appointed by President Cleveland a 
member of a Board of ICngineers to consider the 
feasibility of a single 3200-foot span suspension 
bridge over the Hudson River. From 1S93 to 




WM. H. BURR 

1895 he was Consulting Engineer to the Depart- 
ment of Public Works of New York City for the 
design and construction of the Harlem Ship Canal 
Bridge. From 1895 to January 1898, he was a 
member of the Board of Consulting Engineers to 
the Department of Docks. In February 1896, he 
was appointed Consulting Engineer to the Depart- 
ment of Public Parks, in charge of the construction 
of the Harlem River Driveway and a number of 
other public works. In the autumn of 1896 he 
was apiiointed by President Cleveland a member of 
a I'joard to determine the location of a deep-water 
harbor for commerce and of refuge on the coast 
of Southern California. Mr. Burr is a member of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers, of the 



258 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Institution of Civil Engineers of Great Britain, ami 
of a number of other professional and scientific 
organizations. In 1S92 he received the Rowland 
prize of the former Society for his paper on The 
River Spans of the Cincinnati and Covington Bridge. 
He has contributed a number of other papers to tlie 
Society, and from 1S93 to 1S96 he was a director 
of the organization. He married in 1S76 Caroline 
Kent Seelye, who died in 1894. He has three 
children : Marion Elizabeth, ^^'illiam Fairfield and 
George Lindsley Burr. 



BERRIAN, William, 1787-1862. 

Born in New York City, 1787; educated at Columbia; 
became an Episcopal Minister and was connected with 
Trinity Church, New York, almost contmuously for 
fifty-one years ; was a Trustee of Columbia from 1832 
until his death in 1862, and published several religious 
works. 

WILLL^M BERRIAN, S.T.D., a Trustee of 
Columbia for thirty years, was born in 
New York. City in 1 787. Graduating from Columbia 
in 1S08, he became an Episcopal clergyman in 18 10, 
and in the following year was appointed Assistant 
Minister at Trinity Church, New York. In 1830 
he assumed the Rectorship, was chosen a Trustee in 
1832, continuing to serve in each of these capacities 
for the rest of his life, and with the exception of a 
short time spent in Belleville, New Jersey, and two 
visits to Europe, his labors in behalf of Trinity 
Parish extended through a period of fifty-one years. 
Dr. Berrian died November 7, 1862, leaving behind 
him the honorable record of a zealous, high-minded 
and exceedingly able clergyman. From Columbia 
he received his Master's degree in course, was 
made a Doctor of Divinity in 1828, was a 
member of its Board of Trustees from 1832 to 
1862 and a Trustee of Hobart from 1848 to 1862. 
He was the author of Travels in France and Italy; 
Devotions for the Sickroom ; Enter Thy Closet ; 
Family and Private Prayers; Historical Sketch of 
Trinity Church ; Recollections of Departed Friends ; 
On Communion ; and The Sailors' Manual. He 
also edited the works of Bishop J. H. Hobart. 



BOYESEN, Hjalmar Hjorth, 1848-1896. 

Born in Norway, 1848 ; acquired a liberal education ; 
came to the United States in 1868 and became Editor 
of a Scandinavian paper in Chicago, the following 
year; was Professor of German at Cornell 1874-1880; 



Instructor in same at Columbia, 1881-1882; appointed 
Professor of Germanic Language and Literature there 
in 1890; member of Columbia University Council, 
1891-1892; died in i8g6. 

HJALMAR HJORTH BOYESEN, Ph.D., 
Professor of Germanic Language and Lit- 
erature at Columbia, was born in Fredericksvoern, 
Norway, September 23, 1848. His education was 
begun at the Gymnasiutn in Christiana, continued 
in Leipzig, Germany, and completed at the Uni- 
versity of Norway, from which he was graduated in 
1868. Coming to the United States the same 




HJALMAR HJORTH BOYESEN 

year, in 1869, he took the Editorship of a Scandi- 
navian newspaper called the Fremad, published in 
Chicago, and the readiness with which he acquired 
the language of the country enabled him in a 
remarkably short space of time to write fluently in 
English. In 1S74, he became Professor of German 
at Cornell, holding that chair until 18S1, when he 
came to Columbia as Instructor in the same lan- 
guage; was made Professor in 1S82, and in 1890 
appointed to the Chair of Germanic Language and 
Literature. Professor Boyesen was a member of 
the University Council for the years 1S91-1892. 
As an author he has attained a wide-spread popu- 
larity, and assisted in founding the Authors' Club 
of New York. Amonij his best known stories are ; 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



259 



Gunnar : A Norse Romance ; A Norseman's Pilgrim- 
age ; ']"ales from Two Hemispheres ; Falconberg ; 
Goethe and Schiller, Their Lives and Works ; Queen 
Titania ; A Daughter of the I'hilislines ; The Story 
of Norway ; Essays on Scandinavian Literature ; 
Essays on German Literature ; The Light of Her 
Countenance ; Vagabond Tales ; The Mammon of 
Unrighteousness; Literary and Social Silhouettes; 
The Golden Calf; Idylls of Norway; and three 
stories for boys entitled : The Modern Vikings, 
Boyhood in Norway and Against Heavy Odds. 
Some of his works have been translated into Ger- 
man, Norwegian, and Italian, and his Ilka on the 
Hill-top was dramatized and successfully produced 
in New York in 1SS4. 



GRISCOM, John, 1774-1852. 

Born in Salem county, N. J., 1774; educated at the 
Friends' Academy, Philadelphia ; Principal of a 
Friends' School in that city thirteen years ; noted ed- 
ucator and philanthropist ; Professor of Chemistry at 
Columbia, 1813-1820 ; of Chemistry and Natural His- 
tory in the Medical Department of Rutgers sixteen 
years; projector of schools and benevolent societies; 
reorganized the common school system of New Jersey ; 
one of the first to teach chemistry in the United 
States; an early contributor to Silliman's Journal of 
Science ; author of two interesting works ; died in 
Burlington, 1852. 

JOHN GRISCOM, Professor of Chemistry at 
Columbia, was born in Hancock's Bridge, 
Salem county. New Jersey, September 27, 1774. 
Educated at the Friends' Academy, Philadelphia, 
he was subsequently appointed Principal of the 
Friends' Monthly-Meeting School, over which he 
presided for thirteen years. He went to New York 
City in 1S06 and was prominently identified with 
educational work in the metropolis for the succeed- 
ing twenty-five years. He was one of the first 
American scholars to form a proper estimation of 
the practical value of chemistry as a regular study, 
and was among the pioneer class lecturers on that 
science in this country. From 1S12 to 1828 he 
was Professor of Chemistry and Natural History in 
the Medical Department of Rutgers, and from 1813 
to 1820 he occupied the Chair of Chemistry at 
Columbia. His lectures were delivered in a build- 
ing known as the New York Institution, immortalized 
by the poet Fitz-Greene Halleck as being " Sacred 
to Scudder's shells and Dr. Griscom " and about 
which the present Columbia student can obtain infor- 
mation only through tradition and the College annals. 
Dr. Griscom promoted the establishment of a school 



based upon the monitorial system of instruction which 
had a successful existence under his charge from 1825 
to ICS31, and was called the New York High School. 
He was one of the organizers of the New York 
Society for the Prevention of Pauperism and Crime, 
a worthy antecedent of numerous similar movements. 
After conclutling his educational work in the metrop- 
olis he was Principal of the Friends' Boarding School 
in Providence, Rhode Island for two years, lectured 
on chemistry and natural ])hilosophy in different 
places, was Superintendent and Trustee of public 
schools in Burlington, New Jersey, and assisted in 
improving the common school system of that st.ate. 
Abstract translations of chemical articles from the 
European scientific journals were contributed by 
him to Silliman's Journal of Science for a number 
of years, and he was the author of: A \'ear in 
Europe; and Monitorial Instruction. Dr. (Iriscom 
died in Burlington, February 26, 1852. 



HACKLEY, Charles William, 1809-1861. 

Born in Herkimer county, N. Y., 1809; graduated at 
West Point, 1829; Assistant Professor at that place ; 
studied theology and ordained as a clergyman ; Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in the University of N. Y.; 
President of»Jefferson College, Miss.; Rector of St. 
Peter's church, Auburn, N. Y., Professor of Math- 
ematics and Astronomy at Columbia; died in N. Y. 
City, 1861. 

CH.'KRLES WILLIAM HACKLEY, S.T.I)., 
Professor of Astronomy in Columbia, was 
born in Herkimer county. New York, March 9, 
iSog ; died in New York City, January 10, 1861. 
He was graduated from the United States Military 
.'Academy at West Point in 1829, and remained 
there as Assistant Professor until 1832. He then 
studied law, and later theology, and in 1835 was 
ordained as a clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. Soon afterwards he became Professor of 
Mathematics in the University of New York, and 
subsequently President of Jefferson College, Missis- 
sippi. He was also for a time Rector of St. Peter's 
Church at Auburn, New York. He was aj^pointed 
Professor of Mathematics and .Astronomy at Colimi- 
bia in 1843, and in 1857 assumed the Chair ot 
Astronomy alone, which he helil until his death. Pro- 
fessor Hackley was iiarticularly active in his efforts 
to establish an astronomical obser\'atory in New York 
City. He was a profuse contributor to secular and 
scientific journals and periodicals, and ])ublished a 
Treatise on .Mgebra ; an elementary Course in 
Geometry ; and Elements of Trigonometry. 



s6o 



VNIJ'ERSiriES ANB THEIR SONS 



HEWITT, Abram Stevens, 1822- 

Born in Haverstraw, N. Y., 1822; graduated at Co- 
lumbia, 1842; Acting Professor of Mathematics, 1843; 
studied law and practised for short time ; engaged in 
the iron business with Peter Cooper; Secretary and 
Director of the Cooper Union; U. S. Commissioner to 
the Paris Exposition, 1867; Representative to Con- 
gress, 1875-1879, and again I081-1886; Mayor of New 
York City, 1887-1889; one of the organizers of the 
County Democracy, 1879; promoted the U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey ; Chairman of the Democratic National 
Committee, 1876; orator at the opening of the Brook- 
lyn Bridge, 1883 ; President of the Columbia Alumni 
Association, 1883; President of American Institute of 
Mining Engineers, 1876; recognized authority on 
finance, labor and the development of national 
resources. 

ABRAM STEVENS HEWTl'T, LL.D., Bene- 
foclor of Columbia, and at one time Acting 
Professor, was born in Haverstraw, New York, July 
31, 1822. Proficiency in his studies in the New 
York Public Schools gained for him a scholarship at 
Columbia during the progress of which he supported 
himself by teaching. Graduating with honor in 1842, 
he remained at the College the following year as 
Acting Professor of Mathematics. A warm friend- 
ship between himself and his classmate, Edward 
Cooper, resulted in his allying himself by marriage 
with that well-known family, and he afterward be- 
came the business associate of his College compan- 
ion. He studied law and was admitted to the Bar 
in 1849, but soon abandoned the profession to 
engage in the iron business with Peter Cooper 
whom he subsequently succeeded in company with 
Edward Cooper, and the firm of Cooper & Hewitt 
became the owners and operators of several large 
iron mines. Having visited England solely for the 
purpose of familiarizing himself with the manufacture 
of gun-barrel material, Mr. Hewitt placed his re- 
sources at the disposal of the Government during 
the Civil War, and furnished gun-barrels to the War 
Department at a heavy loss to his concern. He has 
also sacrificed considerable by keeping his works in 
operation during periods of business depression, and 
as a result labor troubles have been avoided. His 
report on Iron and Steel as United States Commis- 
sioner to the Paris Exposition in 1867 was published 
both in America and Europe, and his farewell ad- 
dress as President of the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers, 1876, on a Century of Mining 
and Metallurgy in the United States, also created 
favorable comment on both sides of the Atlantic. 
Leaving Tammany and allying himself with Irving 
Hall, he assisted in 1879, in organizing the County 
Democracy. During his ten years in Congress his 



speeches carried weight with both parties, and he 
was mainly instrumental in re-establishing the United 
States Geological Survey. .As Mayor of New York, 
18S7-S9, his administration was conducted upon a 
well organized business basis, and marked by a deter- 
mination to hold the heads of departments account- 
able for the stewardships intrusted to their charge. 
Mr. Hewitt was Chairman of the Democratic National 
Committee in 1876. He was President of the 
Columbia Alumni Association for 1883, was selected 
as Orator at the opening of Brooklyn Bridge the 




ABRAM S. HEWITT 

same year, and has long been considered a high 
authority on labor, finance, the development of 
national resources and numerous other business and 
political issues. He has been Secretary and Direc- 
tor of the Cooper Union from its organization and 
for more than twenty-five years his duties in these 
capacities equalled those of a College President. 
He was made a Master of Arts by Columbia in 
course, a Doctor of Laws in 1S87, and has dis- 
played his appreciation and loyalty by presenting 
the College with a substantial benefaction. 



HOLLEY, Alexander Lyman, 1832-1882. 

Born in Lakeville, Conn., 1832; graduated from 
Brown, 1853 ; civil and mechanical engineer, railway 
expert and metallurgist ; introduced in the U. S. the 



UNU'ERSbTIES JND THEIR SONS 



261 



Bessemer process of making steel ; editor, writer and 
Lecturer on the Metallurgy of Iron and Steel at the 
Columbia School of Mines, 1878 until his death in 1882. 

ALEXANDER LYMAN IIOLLEV, LL.D., Lec- 
turer at Columbia, was born in Lakcville, 
Connecticut, July 20, 1S32. His fatiier was Alex- 
ander H. Holley, at one time Governor of Connec- 
ticut, and Horace Holley, a graduate of Vale, 1S03, 
a noted Unitarian preacher and President of Tran- 
sylvania University, Kentucky, from 18 18 to 1827, 
was his uncle. Alexander L. Holley was graduated 
a civil engineer from the Scientific Department of 
Brown in 1S53, and prior to taking the management 
of the Railroad Advocate (1856) he worked as a 
draughtsman and machinist, accjuired some knowl- 
edge of mechanical engineering, autl was for a time 
employed at the locomotive works in Jersey City. 
His venture as joint publisher ami Editor of the 
Advocate and of The American Engineer in com- 
pany with Zerah Colburn proved somewhat disas- 
trous. Visiting Europe for the purpose of studying 
foreign railway systems, his report pointed out the 
way in which the running expenses of American 
roads could be reduced. He was for some time a 
regular contributor to the New York Times on en- 
gineering topics, in the interest of which he visited 
Europe. He returned on the first transatlantic trip 
of the " Great Eastern," having previously written a 
series of articles for the New York Times on her 
construction. He was for some time Editor of the 
Mechanical Department of the American Railway 
Review. At the outbreak of the Civil War he 
offered his services to the Federal Government, 
which never took the trouble to acknowledge the 
receipt of his letter. He was sent abroad in 1862 
by Edwin A. Stevens to study ordnance and armor, 
and in the following year he again crossetl the 
ocean in the interest of Corning W inslow & Com- 
pany of Troy, New York, for the purpose of 
obtaining information on the manufacture of Bes- 
semer steel, the latter trip resulting in his securing 
the American rights to the [jrocess, and ujion his 
return he established the first Besseuier plant in 
Troy. He subsequently planned similar works in 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, North Chicago, Joliet, 
Pittsburg and St. Louis, and in the designing of the 
Scranton, Bethlehem and Cambria works he was the 
consulting engineer. Among the sixteen ]xatents 
issued to him several were for imiirovements in the 
Bessemer Process, one of the most notable of which 
was his detached converter-Nhell. Mr. Holley re- 
tained an active interest in the iron and steel manu- 



facture for the rest of his life and the results of his 
observations and ex]3eriments were confidentially 
made known to the Bessemer .Association. The Gov- 
ernment was at length forced to recognize his ability 
as an expert in the useful sciences, and in 1S75 he 
was appointed to the Board for Testing of Metals. 
In 1S78 he was sinnmonetl to the Cohnnbia School 
of Mines as Lecturer on the Metallurgy of Iron and 
Steel, and continued as such until his death, which 
occurred in ISrooklyn, January 29, 1882. I\Ir. Holley 
was a 'I'rustee of the Rensselaer I'olytechnic Institute 
from 1865 to 1867, and again from 1870 to 1882. He 
received the degree of Doctor of Laws from Brown 
in 1878. He was a member of various scientific 
bodies including the Institute of Mining Engineers 
of which he was President in 1875 ; the .American 
Societies of Civil and Mechanical Engineers, having 
been Vice-President of the former in 1875 and of 
the latter in 1880. Besides American and Eurojiean 
Raihv.ay Practice and a Treatise on Ordnance and 
Armor, both of which were issued simultaneously in 
New York and I.ondon, he was the author of numer- 
ous technical papers, and in collaboration with Lenox 
Smith wrote a series of forty-one articles on Amer- 
ican Iron and Steel which were published in the 
London Engineering. 



HARDON, Henry Winthrop, 1861- 

Born in Boston, Mass., i85i ; graduate of Harvard, 
A.B., 1882, A.M., 1885, LL.B., Harvard Law School, 
1885; admitted to the Suffolk County Bar in Boston, 
1885; went to New York in 1885 and entered law office 
of Evarts, Choate & Beaman ; continued there (with 
the exception of the winter semester of 1887-88, spent 
in study of International Law at the University of 
Berlin) until September 1895 ; in September 1895, on 
the recommendation of Dean Ames of the Harvard 
Law School, was made Professor of Law at Cornell ; 
Professor of Law at Columbia, 1896 to date. 

HI'.NRY AVINTHROP HARDON, A.M., 
LL.B., Professor of Law at Columbia, was 
born in Boston, Massachusetts, Ajjril 13, 1S61. His 
fuller, Henry C. Harden, who m.uried .Anna 
\\'allace A\'ilson, came of a family which has been 
established at Mansfield, Massachusetts, since pre- 
Revolutionary times, and the Wilson funily, de- 
scended from A\'illiam A\'ilson of Boston (1635), 
were among the original proprietors of .Andover, 
Massachusetts. Henry C. Hardou removed from 
lioston to Newton before his son was ready for 
school and the boy's early education was received 
in the public schools of that place, lie s]H'nt seven 
years at Harvard, taking the degree of Bachelor 



262 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



of Arts in 18S2 and that of Master of Arts three 
years later. He stuilicd law at the Harvard J,a\v 
School, graduating in 1885. While still at the Law 
School he was admitted to the Suffolk County Bar in 
Boston, J;^nuary 18S5. At College he became a 
member of the Institute of 1770, the Hasty Pudding 
Club and the O.K. Society, and was one of the 
Board of Etlitors of the Han-ard Advocate. On 
leaving Harvard he went to New York City, was 
admitted to the Bar there, and entered the law 
office of I'^varts, Choate & Beaman : with the 
exception of tlie winter semester of 1887 and 1888, 




HENRY \V. HARDON 

spent in study of International Law, at the University 
of Berlin, Germany, he was there until September 
1895, mainly engaged in the preparation and trial 
of cases, and the argument of motions and appeals. 
In September 1895, on the recommendation of 
Dean Ames of the Harvard Law School, to whom 
President Schurman had applied for a graduate of 
that school with some experience in the profession, 
Mr. Hardon was made Professor of Law at Cornell. 
In the following March, a Professorship of Law in the 
Law School of Columbia falling vacant, Mr. Hardon 
was tendered the appointment which he still holds. 
His subjects are pleading and practice at common 
law, in equity, and under the code, wills and 
administration. He married June 24, 1886, Cora 



Frances Ijurr, daughter of Isaac Tucker and Anne 
Frances (Hardon) Burr of Newton and has two 
children. Mr. Hardon has always been interested 
in the various movements to secure better muni- 
cipal government for New York City, and took an 
active part in the citizens' uprising of 1894, which 
resulted in the overthrow of Tammany Hall. He 
is a member of the University Club, the Harvard 
Club of New York, the New England Society, and 
the Bar Association of New York, and a civilian 
member of the Naval Institute. 



JARVIS, Samuel Farmar, 1786-1851. 

Born in Middletown, Conn., 1786; graduated at Yale, 
1805 ; ordained to the Protestant Episcopal Ministry, 
1811 ; in charge of several churches including St. Paul's, 
Boston, of which he was the first Rector; Professor of 
Biblical Learning at the General Theological Seminary, 
N. Y., and of Oriental Languages at Trinity ; spent nine 
years in Europe gathering material for a church history; 
Secretary and Treasurer of the Christian Knowledge 
Society ; Trustee of Columbia, the General Theological 
Seminary and Trinity College, and Secretary of his 
Diocese ; died, 1851. 

SAMUEL FARMAR JARVIS, D.D., LL.D., 
Trustee of Columbia, was born in Middletown, 
Connecticut, January 20, 1786. He was a son of 
Abraham Jarvis, Prote^stant Episcopal Bishop of 
Connecticut from 1797101813. Graduating from 
Yale in 1805 and subsequently studying theology, 
he took orders in 181 1 and was immediately assigned 
to St. Michael's Church, Bloomingdale, New York. 
Two years later he assumed the Rectorship of St. 
James' Church, New York City in connection with 
his other parish, serving them both until 18 19, when 
he joined the Faculty of the newly organized Gen- 
eral Theological Seminary, New York, as Professor 
of Biblical Learning. His call to St. Paul's Church, 
Boston, as its first Rector compelled him to resign 
his Professorship in 1820, and he remained in 
charge of his Boston parish for six years. In 1826 
he relinquished his ministry and departing for Europe 
was for the succeeding nine years engaged in secur- 
ing material for a projected history of the church. 
Returning in 1835 he was for the next two years 
Professor of Oriental Languages at what is now 
Trinity College, Hartford, and from 1837 to 1842 
was Rector of Christ Church, Middletown. His 
appointment by the General Convention as Church 
Historiographer made necessary his permanent re- 
tirement from the ministry in the latter year, and 
he thenceforward gave his principal attention to 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



zG' 



literature. Dr. Jarvis tlicil iu Miildletown, March 
26, 1S51. He was made a Doctor of Divinity by 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1819, and a Doc- 
tor of Laws by Trinity in 1837. For some time he 
was Secretary and 'I'reasurer of the Christian Knowl- 
edge Society, and Secretary of his Diocese, and held 
a Trusteeship of Trinity College, the General Theo- 
logical Seminary and Columbia, the latter from 1818 
to 1S20. From 1821 to 1826 he edited the Gospel 
Advocate, wrote for the religious reviews, and besides 
the Church of the Redeemed, but one volume of 
which was published, he issued numerous discourses 
and sermons and A Chronological Introduction to 
the History of the Church. 



Aruba, West Indies, for the jiurjiose of furnishing a 
report ujjon the geology and guano deposits of those 
islands. In 18S2, the degree of Doctor of Philoso- 
phy was bestowed upon hiui by the University of 
New York. He assisted in organizing the New 
York Microscopical Society and the Society of 
Naturalists of the Eastern United States; and has 
been Vice-President of the New York Academy of 
Sciences. His numerous and valuable contributions 
to scientifical literature include : Papers on the 
Geological Action of the Humus Acids; on Spo- 
dumene and its Alterations ; Building Stones of 



JULIEN, Alexis Anastay, 1840- 

Born in New York City, 1840; graduated at Union, 
1859; resident Chemist on the guano island of Som- 
brero, 1860-64; made scientific observations for the 
U. S. and Swedish Governments ; Assistant in Chem- 
istry at Columbia, 1865-85 ; appointed Instructor in 
Microscopy and Microbiology the latter year, and In- 
structor in Geology, 1897; widely known as an expert 
in geology, petrography and microscopy ; prolific writer 
and member of various scientific bodies. 

ALEXIS ANASTAY JULIEN, Ph.D., Instruc- 
tor in Geology and Curator at Columbia, 
was born in New York City, February 13, 1840. 
Graduating at Union with the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts in 1859, he continued his studies in chem- 
istry there for another year, receiving his Master's 
degree in course, and accepting the appointment as 
Chemist at the guano deposits on the Island of 
Sombrero in i860, he remained there until 1864. 
While at Sombrero he investigated its geology and 
natural history, sending a valuable collection of 
specimens to the Smithsonian Institution ; made 
meteorological observations for the United States 
Government and a geological survey of the islets 
in the vicinity of St. Bartholomew for the Swedish 
government, in recognition of which the King of 
Sweden presented him with a gold medal. Joining 
the force of Instructors at the recently organized 
Columbia School of Mines as .\ssistant in Analytical 
Chemistry he had charge of the Quantitative Depart- 
ment of the Laboratory until 1885, when he became 
Instructor in Microscopy and Microbiology. Dr. 
Julien has been employed upon the geological surveys 
of Michigan and North Carolina, examining rocks 
and ores for the former and making a special inves- 
tigation of the petrography of the last named State. 
He also spent some time at Bonaire, Curagoa and 




ALEXIS A. JULIEN 

New York City and Environs and the Durability 
of same (prepared for the United States Census 
Reports, 1S80) ; On Buihling Stones, Elements of 
Strength in their Constitution and Structure ; The 
Genesis of the Crystalline Iron-Ores ; Notes on the 
Microscopical Examination of a Series of Ocean, 
Lake, River and Desert Sands, and On the ^'ariation 
in the Decomposition of Iron Pyrites, its Cause, and 
its Relation to Density. 



JAY, John Clarkson, 1808-1891, 

Born in New York City, 1808 ; graduated at Columbia, 
1827 and from the Medical Department, 1831 ; Phy- 
sician, scientist and conchologist ; Treasurer of the 
Lyceum of Natural History (now the New York 



264 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



Academy of Sciences) ; one of the founders of the New 
York Yacht Club; a Trustee of Columbia, 1859-80; 
died, i8gi. 

JOHN CLARKSON JAY, M.D., Trustee of 
Columbia, was bora in New York City, 
September 11, 1808. His father, Peter Augustus 
Jay, distinguished as a lawyer, abolitionist and pro- 
moter of public works, was a graduate of Columbia 
1794, and his grandfather, the eminent American 
statesman, John Jay, was graduated there in 1766. 
John Clarkson pursued his classical and medical 
studies in the same institution, graduating from the 
Academic Department in 1S27 and from the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons in 1831. His profes- 
sional practice was interspersed with researches in 
the natural sciences including zoology and conchol- 
ogy. His interest in the parent organization of the 
present New York Academy of Sciences, formerly 
the Lyceum of Natural History which he joined in 
I S3 2, was exceedingly advantageous to that institu- 
tion, as a new building for its use was planned by 
him, erected under his personal supervision, and 
paid for with funds collected through his instrumen- 
tality, and he also acted as its Treasurer from 1836 
to 1S43. His interest in Columbia was an ancestral 
legacy, enhanced by an unwavering personal devo- 
tion to the welfare of the College, and his earnest 
desire to improve its facilities and increase its use- 
fulness were many times emphasized during his long 
Trusteeship extending from 1859 to 1880. Dr. Jay 
died in 1891. He was one of the founders and at 
one time Treasurer of the New York Yacht Club. 
The article descriptive of the shells collected by the 
Commodore Perry expedition to Japan, printed in 
the Government report, was written by him. His 
own conchological cabinet, considered the most 
complete and valuable on this side of the Atlantic, 
together with his expensive library representing all 
of the noted writers on the subject of conchologv, 
were presented to the American Museum of Natural 
History by his daughter Catherine Wolfe, and are 
known as the Jay Collection. 



JAY, Peter Augustus, 1776-1843. 

Born in Elizabethtown, N. J., 1776; graduated at 
Columbia, 1794; private Secretary to his father who 
was Minister to England ; studied law and admitted to 
the Bar ; Member of the State Assembly ; Recorder of 
N. Y. City; member of the N. Y. Constitutional Con- 
vention ; President of the N. Y. Historical Society; 
Trustee of Columbia ; received the LL.D. degree from 



Harvard, 1831, and from Columbia, 1835; died in N. Y. 
City, 1843. 

PETER AUGUSTUS JAY, LL.D., Trustee of 
Columbia, and Chairman of the Board, was 
born in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, January 24, 
1776, eldest son of John Jay of "Jay's Treaty" 
fame. He was graduated at Columbia in 1794, and 
became Private Secretary to his father, who in that 
year went abroad as Minister to England. On iiis 
return from England he studied law, engaged in 
practice, and soon acquired distinction at the New 
York Bar. As a member of the State Assembly in 
18 1 6, he was active in promoting the Erie Canal 
legislation, and with his brother ^^'illiam warmly 
supported the bill for the abolition of slavery in 
New York. He was Recorder of New York City 
1819-1821, and in the latter year was a member 
of the New York Constitutional Convention. He 
served as a Trustee of Columbia from 1S12 to 1S17, 
also from 1823 to 1S43 and was Chairman of the 
Board in 1832. Mr. Jay received the degree of 
Doctor of Laws from Harvard in 1S31, and from 
Columbia in 1835. He was President of the New 
York Historical Society from 1840 until his death, 
was at various times connected with several literary 
and charitable societies, and was active in social 
afKxirs of the city. He died in New York, February 
20, 1843. 



JONES, David S., 1777-1848. 

Born in ^A^estneck, L. I., 1777; graduated at Co- 
lumbia, 1796; Private Secretary to John Jay ; practised 
law; Corporation Counsel New York City, 1813-1816; 
Judge Queens county, 1840-1841 ; Secretary Board of 
Regents University of New York, 1797-1798 ; Trustee 
of Columbia, 1820-1848, of General Theological Semi- 
nary, 1822-1848 and also of Allegheny College, Pa., 
died, 1848. 

DAYID S. JONES, LL.D., Trustee of Columbia, 
was born in Westneck, Long Island, Novem- 
ber 3, 1777. His great-grandfather was Thomas 
Jones, a native of Ireland and of Welsh descent, who 
fought on the side of King James II, at the Battle 
of the Boyne, escaped to France and afterward 
came to America, locating on Long Island in 1692. 
He acquired an estate of six thousand acres of land, 
was prominent in local military affairs and in 1710 
was commissioned Ranger- General of Nassau, Long 
Island. Judge Jones' grandfather was A\'illiam Jones, 
and his father was Samuel Jones, a recognized mas- 
ter of jurisprudence. Recorder of the City of New 
York, Comptroller of the State, and known as the 



UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR SONS 



265 



" Father of the New York Bar," who resided at 
Westneck. David S. Jones was graduated at Co- 
lumbia in I 796 with the liighest class honors. He 
studied law anil after hokling the position of Private 
Secretary to John Jay, for some time, he engaged 



he was made Assistant Professor. In nSgi he re- 
signed his position at (Cornell to become Adjunct 
Professor of (ieology at C'olumbia. He was ap- 
pointed Professor in 1.S94, and has filled the chair 
ever since. Professor Kemp is a specialist of great 



in professional work, being for about fifty years one ability in economic and inorganic geology. He is 



of the leading practitioners in New York, and serv- 
ing as Corporation Counsel, 1813-1816. He was 
Judge of Queen's county in 1 840-1 841. Moving 
from his estate at Massapequa, Long Island, to the 
metropolis, he became actively interested in its 
educational and religious institutions, serving as a 
Trustee and legal adviser of the Society Library, the 
General Theological Seminary, Columbia and of 
Alleghany College, Meadville, Pennsylvania. He 
was Secretary of the Board of Regents of the Llni- 
versity of New York in 1797-1798, was appointed a 
Trustee of Columbia in 1820, and of the Ceneral 
Theological Seminary in 1822, serving both of these 
Institutions for the rest of his life, and receiving 
from the former the degree of Doctor of Laws. 
Judge Jones died May 10, 1S48. He was three 
times married and through his wives became allied 
with the Livingston, Leroy and Clinton families. 



KEMP, James Furman, 1859- 

Born in New York City, 1859; fitted for College at 
Adelphi Academy. Brooklyn ; graduated from Amherst, 
1881 ; entered the School of Mines of Columbia, grad- 
uating in 1884; Assistant to Professor Newberry at the 
School, 1884-85; spent 1885-86 in study at the German 
Universities of Leipzig and Munich ; Instructor in 
Geology at Cornell, i865; Assistant Professor, 1888; 
Adjunct-Professor of Geology at Columbia, i8gi ; Pro- 
fessor since 1894; author of two text-books. 

JAMES FURMAN KEMP, E.M., Profes- 
sor of Geology at Columbia, was born in 
New Y'ork City, August 14, 1S59. He comes of 
Scotch descent, but his people have been settled 
in New York for generations back.