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Full text of "Frank Adams, University of California, on irrigation, reclamation and water administration : transcript, 1958"

BANCROFT 
LIBRARY 



THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 




. 









University of California General Library /Berkeley 
Regional Cultural History Project 









Frank Adams 

FRANK ADAMS, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, 
ON IRRIGATION, RECLAMATION, AND WATER ADMINISTRATION 



An Interview Conducted By 
Willa Klug Baum 



Berkeley 
1959 



Y9J -e3 : fcO lu 

. ' 



uA. 



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I 






PRANK ADAMS, 

UNIVERSITY OP CALIFORNIA, 
ON IRRIGATION, RECLAMATION, 
AND WATER ADMINISTRATION 









t *i ir :o TTT u 

t ' . *KAJC5T t 
MO: 




PRANK ADAMS 

(About 19lj-0, by Henry Washburn. 
Farm Advisor of Santa Cruz Co.) 



. 

All uses of this manuscript are covered 
by an agreement between the Regents of the 
University of California and Prank Adams, dated 
June 22, 1959. The manuscript Is thereby made 
available for research purposes. All literary 
rights In the manuscript, including the right 
to publish, are reserved to the General Library 
of the University of California at Berkeley. 
No part of the manuscript may be quoted for 
publication without the written permission of 
the Librarian of the University of California 
at Berkeley. 



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Introduction 






California's land is fertile, its climate ideal for 



agriculture, but in most areas irrigation is a necessity. 
Irrigation on the giant scale demanded brings with it many 
problems: legal questions of the equitable division of 
the waters available; engineering problems of the storage 
and transportation of waters from areas of abundance to 
areas of scarcity, sometimes requiring canals hundreds of 
miles in length; agricultural problems of the skillful 
application of water to the land and then necessary 
drainage; political problems of the organization of public 
districts for the purpose of building, financing, and 
administering irrigation works. Water has always been 
and continues to be one of the major problems in Gal ifornia 
and the rest of the West, 






In order to preserve some of the details of the 



development of water-use institutions and facilities in 
California, several interviews with men intimately connected 
with these developments have been conducted by the Regional 



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Cultural History Project of the General Library of the 
University of California at Berkeley. One of these men 

Is Prank Adams, whose Bulletin 21. Irrigation Districts 

r n i ' ' 

in California, although published in 1929, is still the 

standard source book for irrigation district history. 

i 

AU 

Adams entered irrigation work in 1900 and, with only a 
brief interlude In the business world, was engaged in 

public work on irrigation problems until long after his 

>, 
retirement In 19l*5> His life covers half a century of 

significant developments In Irrigation and reclamation in 
California and the West, and his memories go back even 
further to the 1880s and 1890s when his father, Edward 
P. Adams, organized one of the earliest fruit exchanges 
in California. 

It was Dr. Elwood Mead, then head of the Division of 
Irrigation Investigations, later commissioner of the 
Bureau of Reclamation, who in 1900 first persuaded young 
Prank Adams, Stanford student, to try his hand at measuring 
water flow. This experience, and his strong attachment 
for Dr, Mead, led Adams to give up his planned career as 
an agricultural journalist and make a career of irrigation 

in the Division of Irrigation Investigations, United States 



Department of Agriculture, the California office of which 
he later headed. Prom 1916 until his retirement in 



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he was professor of irrigation at the University of 

LI vision 

California, serving as head of the Department of Irrigation 
from 1916 to 1936, as veil as irrigation economist for 
the Agricultural Experiment Station and for Giannini 
Foundation. His work included consulting with the Bureau 
of Reclamation, the California State Division of Water 
Resources, and numerous other public bodies, some of which 
was done after his official retirement from active service. 
While much of his work involved the gathering of technical 
data upon which the construction of irrigation projects 
was based, he Is probably best known for his achievements 
In the field of water administration and of the political 
organization of water-use districts. 

The following series of interviews was tape recorded 

by Willa Baum during the winter and spring of 1958 in the 

- 
living room of the Adams home at 1831 San Juan Avenue, 

Berkeley. The room was austerely furnished, cool, shaded 
by the gnarled live oaks outside the windows. Toys and 
hobby collections in view bespoke the nearby presence of 
the Adams grandchildren, and the landscape paintings on 
the walls evidenced their owner's familiarity with and 
love for the land. The most Impressive item there was a 
large grandfather clock with elaborate dials and various 
chimes, a gift from the Commonwealth Club to its founder, 






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Mr. Adams' father. In this setting, seated near the piano, 
in front of a card table which served as his home office, 
Mr. Adams related the story of his life and achievements 
to the interviewer and the spinning tape recorder, Inter 
rupted only by the entrance of Mrs. Adams brir&ng coffee 
and cookies. 

Adams, a slender man of medium height, was eighty- 
three years old at the time of the interviews. Difficulties 
of speech, hearing, and vision had slowed down his 
prodigious output of technical writings, but he still 
continued to gather information and to write at his home 
and at his office In Grlannlnl Hall, He spoke slowly and 
deliberately, first carefully thinking out what he wanted 
to say. The clearness of his thought is evidenced in 
the finished manuscript. Some of his humor comes through 
also, though this was most evident when the tape recorder 

was not running. Adams impressed the interviewer as an 

, - 

la-ied 

old-school gentleman, with his high button shoes, his 
quiet sense of humor, his unwillingness to depreciate 
anyone, his sense of integrity, and his friendly and help 
ful manner. He would probably be considered a conservative 
In most of his political views; the reader may judge for 
himself where Adams stands on water matters. 



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After the tapes were transcribed, Mr. Adams twice went 
over the manuscript in great detail, checking on all the 
information he was able to, revising the wording, and 
perhaps with excessive modesty modifying his own role in 
the projects in which he was involved. The preparation, 
editing, and other effort he so cooperatively spent on 
this undertaking was great. He also gathered together 
and donated for inclusion In the manuscript photographs 
of some of the key figures he mentioned. 

Mr. Adams over the years has collected a large body 
of materials pertaining to irrigation and reclamation 
and sundry other matters. Many of these have been donated 
to Bancroft Library, some are available in the Library at 
Davis, some are now In the Water Resources Archives of 
the University, and some still remain in Mr. Adams' 
possession. 

This series of interviews was part of a larger series 
undertaken by the Regional Cultural History Project to 
record for posterity eyewitness accoxuits of significant 
phases of California's history during the 20th century. 

Villa Klug Baum 

Regional Cultural History Project 

University of California General Library, Berkeley 

July 30, 1959 



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19ji 

-^ 
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*Deene 

by the 

AMERICAN SOCIETY 

of 

AGRICULTURAL 
ENGINEERS 




PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
June 25, 1947 



TABLE OP CONTENTS 

FAMILY AND EARLY YEARS 1 

ANCESTORS 1 

FATHER - EDWARD FRANCIS ADAMS 2 

Youth and Young Manhood 2 

Early Business Career 1| 

Move to California; Pacific Coast Agent 

for Schoolbooks 5> 

Farming in the Santa Cruz Mountains 9 

Organizing Cooperative Fruit Exchanges 11 

Summer School of_ Economics and Hu shandy 13 

Author of The Modern Farmer 17 



Editorial Writer for the Chronicle 21 

MOTHER - DELIA COOPER ADAMS 2k 

BROTHERS AND SISTERS 26 

FRANK ADAMS - EARLY EDUCATION AND 

VOCATIONAL INTEREST 30 

Alfred Holman and the Rural Press 32 

STANFORD UNIVERSITY 35 

Financing a College Education 35 

Courses and Professors 36 

Student Life 4l 



Participation in Student Activities 49 



TABLE OP CONTENTS 

FAMILY AND EARLY YEARS 1 

ANCESTORS 1 

FATHER - EDWARD FRANCIS ADAMS 2 

Youth and Young Manhood 2 

. 

Early Business Career 4. 

Move to California; Pacific Coast Agent 

for Schoolbooks 5> 

Farming in the Santa Cruz Mountains 9 

Organizing Cooperative Fruit Exchanges 11 

Summer School of_ Economics and Husbandy 13 

Author of The Modern Farmer 17 



Editorial Writer for the Chronicle 21 

MOTHER - DELIA COOPER ADAMS 2k 

BROTHERS AND SISTERS 26 

FRANK ADAMS - EARLY EDUCATION AND 

VOCATIONAL INTEREST 30 

Alfred Holman and the Rural Press 32 

STANFORD UNIVERSITY 35 

Financing a College Education 35 



Courses and Professors 36 

Student Life 4l 



Participation in Student Activities 49 



8TH3THOO TO 3J8AT 



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14 oiiJ 



CONTENTS 

_ f P_ax Exemption on University Property 51 



Dismissal of Dr. Ross 52 

Master's Degree a_t the University of 

Nebraska 55 



EARLY WORK WITH DR. ELWOOD MEAD 57 



First Meeting with Dr. Mead 57 

Another Opportunity to Go Into Newspaper 

Work with AlfredHolman " 6l 

Cache Creek Investigations 6I| 

Work In the Washington Office of the Office 
of Experiment Stations, 1901 - 1902 ' 70 

Washington. D. C. 72 

Lobbying Duties 75 

"" 

RECLAMATION ACT OP 1902 AND DR. ELWOOD MEAD 



Pressures for the Reclamation Act 80 



Dr. Mead * s Background In Western 

""Irrigation"" 85 

Irrigation Laws of Colorado 85 

Irrigation Laws of Wyoming 87 

Roosevelt's Message _to Congress. 1901 91 

Controversy Between Mr. Newell and 

Dr. Mead 98 



Comments on the Reclamation Act 103 

IRRIGATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE OFFICE OF 

EXPERIMENT STATIONS , 1902T T9"o6 112 

' 



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CONTENTS 



UTAH INVESTIGATION 112 






The Virgin River 113 



The Sevier River 122 

INVESTIGATIONS OP INTERSTATE WATER RIGHTS 

ON THE PLATTE RIVER - 1903 12l| 

Salaries and Expenses 130 

INVESTIGATION OP MODESTO AND TURLOCK 

IRRIGATION DISTRICTS - 1901; 131 

Early History of Modesto and Turlock 

Districts 132 

Keeping Records 13i|- 

Applying Water to. the Land 135 

District Operation 137 

OTHER WORK - 190l| - 190$ - 1906 

Professor (Major) 0. V. P. Stout 
FAMILY 



IN THE LIGHTING FIXTURE BUSINESS, 1906 -1910 llj-5 
WIPE AND CHILDREN litf 

ADMINISTRATION OP CALIFORNIA IRRIGATION 
"T NVESTIGATTO'NS AND DIVISION OF IRRIGATION. 
UNIVERSITY OF GAlTPORNIA llj-9 

Early Years of the Department of 

Irrigation, University of California llj.9 

Cooperative Relationship Between 

Irrigation Investigations, the State. 

and the "University 153 

Conducting the Irrigation Census 160 






SIX 



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CONTENTS 

. 

Kuhn Project 163 

Solano Irrigated Farms 166 

Work of the Cooperative Investigations 170 

Irrigation Practices 173 

Duty of Water 173 

Burning of Brush in Range Areas 176 

Initiation of Studies 178 

Cooperation with Other Specialists 182 

Personnel 183 

Comments on Agri cultural Extension 187 

WORK WITH THE STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION 192 

Members of the Commission 192 

Irrigation Resources Study and Map 200 

Background of the 1913 Legislation 203 

Defeat of the 1903 Works Bill 203 

Commonwealth Club Study of Water 

Rights, 1901]. - 1905 205 

Commonwealth Club Section on 

Conservation 206 

1913 Water Commission Act 209 

Other Recommendations of the State 

Conservation Commission 216 

Licensing Power Sites 216 

Riparian Rights 218 



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CONTENTS 

Forest Fire Protection 220 

WORK WITH IRRIGATION DISTRICTS 223 

Preparation of Bulletin No. 2 in 191$ 223 

Irrigation District Legislation 225 

Bridgeford Act of 1897 226 

Improving the Market for Bonds 228 

Bond Certification Commission Act of 

1913 234 

Increasing State Supervision Over 

Organization 236 

Withholding of Water from Appropriation 
Pending Formation of a Proposed 
District 214.0 

Making Formation of a District Easier 2l|2 

Other Legislation 2l^ 

Helping to Organize Districts 2i|.9 

Irrigation Districts Compared to Other 
Districts 

Kern River Water Storage District 
Large Farms vs. Small Farms 25>8 

Difficulties in Developing Irrigation 

Districts 261 

Santa Clara Valley Water Conservation 
District 

WORLD WAR I. 273 

Increasing Food Production in California 273 



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"sD n! riold-sr/bo'tg |u-c^ &r 



CONTENTS 



Work vith the Army Educational Corps In 

France After World VarT" 2?? 

LAND SETTLEMENT IN CALIFORNIA 283 

Background of the Land Settlement Act 283 

Durham and Delhi Settlements 28? 

COMMONWEALTH CLUB STUDIES 





State Investigation of Water Resources; 

""The Marshall flan " 295 

State Water and Power Act 309 

Changes in the Commonwealth Club 3 111- 

WORK WITH VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS 318 

U. S. Chamber of Commerce, 1926 318 

California State Chamber of Commerce 321 

California Economic Research Council 323 

Publication of. Bulletin 21. Irrigation 

Districts in California. 1929 328 

Irrigation Districts Association 331 

California Water Council 335 
American Society of Agricultural Engineers 336 
State Farm Bureau and the State Grange 
Institute of_ Irrigation Agriculture 

"Winning of_ the West Conference" 3k7 

SURVEY IN PALESTINE 35l 

WORK ON INTERNATIONAL AND INTERSTATE WATER 

"RIGHTS 362 



8THST; 



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CONTENTS 



Attempted Compact Between the United States 
and Mexico. 1928 - 1930 " 362 



Rio Grande JojLnt Investigations . 1935 - 

193ET 36? 

1 f 

COMMENTS ON CALIFORNIA STATE ENGINEERS AND OTHER 
LEADERS IDENTIFIED~lTT^ALIFORUIA IRRIGATION 
AND WATER DEVELOPMENT 3?1|. 

" 
State Engineers 






Outstanding Engineers 378 

i 
Wells A. Hut chins 383 

SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICTS 386 

CONSULTING VTORK 

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CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT 

Water Charges Study. 1938 395 

Solano Unit Studies. 19L8 i|.00 

Somments on the Central Valley Project lj.02 
OTHER WORK 

Tri-Counties Project in Nebraska . 1935 1|.06 

Brush-burning Studies. 19U7 

American River Studies. 19k7 

Other Studies U13 

CONCLUSION Ul6 

APPENDIX 14-23 

Copy of Memorandum of Plan to Utilize and 
Reclaim the Arid' "Public Domain, by George 
H. Maxwell 

Copy of Substitute for Memorandum of Plan 
to Utilize and Reclaim the Arid Public 
Domain 1425 



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CONTENTS 



Copy of Draft of Letter Prepared by Elwood 
Mead for Mr,~]I. G. Burt, President of 
Union Pacific Railroad . to be Submitted 
to Board of_ Directors 

Copy of Letter f rom Elwood Mead to M r H. 
G. Burt Regarding George Maxwell's Plans, 

~ " U39 






Letter from Prank Adams to Edward P. Adams 
Regarding Ap propr lat Ions for IrrTgation 
Investigations. December lit. 1901 

Publications of Prank Adams (and Co- 
Authors)" 

TJnpubllshed Reports and Papers of 

Frank Adams l|.6l 

Commonwealth Club Activities and Reports 
re Irrigation and other Water Legislation 
and Policy ~\62 



INDEX 
























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LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS 

Prank Adams, about 1940.. frontispiece 

Dr. Edward A* Ross 58a 

Dr. Elwood Mead 91a 

Dr. Samuel Portier 131a 



An Article and Photographs by Prank Adams 

Appearing in Sunset, June- July, 1906 141a 



Major 0. V. P. Stout 144a 

Dean Thomas P. Hunt 155a 

Professor F. J. Veihmeyer 181a 

State Engineer Wilbur P. McClure 374a 

Professor Martin R. Huberty .417a 



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FAMILY AND EARLY YEARS 
ANCESTORS 

Adams: My father, Edward Francis Adams, was the son of 
Reverend Thomas Adams and Catherine Swan Adams. 
My mother was the daughter of Aaron B. Cooper and 
Levinia Whipple Cooper. Father's paternal and 
maternal ancestors emigrated from England to 
Massachusetts in the early 1600's. We have no 

information about Grandfather Cooper's ancestors, 

Ke.neln 
but Grandmother Cooper descended from Kelemn 

Winslow, who came to Massachusetts from England 

kenelr-) 

early in the l600's. Ke-letaa was the brother of 
Winslow. 



Grandfather Adams was born in what is now 
North Brookfield, Massachusetts, and brought up on 
the farm of his father there under the strict 
religious conditions of 18th Century New England. 
He attended Dartmouth College, graduating in iSlij., 
and following several years devoted to a study of 
theology and the classics, he entered the ministry. 
After something over half a century of dedicated 
service in the ministry and relat ed a ctivities as 
a Congregational missionary in the District of Maine 



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Adams: (before Maine was a state), pastor of several 

churches in Kennebec Valley of Maine, an ardent 
worker in the cause of temperance in Maine, pastor 
of several Congregational churches in Geauga County, 
Ohio, and agent for the Congregational branch of 
publications in northern Ohio, he returned to 
Kennebec Valley and died there in 1881, two days 
before his 89th birthday. 

FATHER- -EDWARD FRANCIS ADAMS 
Youth and Young Manhood 

Adams: Father was born in Augusta, Maine, December 30, 

1839, while his father was editing temperance papers 
in Augusta. Father's younger days were spent in 
Augusta and nearby Portland and on an uncle's farm 
in North Brookfield on land that had been in the 
family for nearly two hundred years. When Father 
was about seven, Grandfather Adams took up his 
ministry in Ohio in Geauga County and it was there 
that Father grew into young manhood. 

After a thorough classical preparation nec 
essary in those days for entrance into college, 
Father went to Western Reserve University. He 



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Adams: was able to stay there only until about the middle 
of his sophomore year, owing to lack of financial 
support. Then he returned to his old neighborhood 
in Ohio and worked for a time on the farm of a 
cons in near Hambden. Hoping to become a lawyer, he 
studied with the leading lawyer in the neighboring 
county seat. After about a year of this he decided 
to go into farming and was a farmer on his own a 
few miles south of Chardon, Ohio. He served for 
about six months in the Civil War, but was invalided 
home with the scourge of the Civil War, dysentery. 
Several years after returning to the farm he was 
induced by an uncle to heed the western fever and 
move out to Missouri, where he purchased some land 
and anticipated being a farmer there. As an aid in 
establishing himself in Missouri he became land 
agent for a railroad which had lands out there and 
traveled over the country rather widely. 

He had married when he began farming south of 
Chardon and took his wife and two young children 
to Missouri, but his wife and little daughter 
succumbed to typhoid. Completely broken, Father 
returned to Ohio with his little son Ned. He didn't 
know what to do for quite awhile. He worked on a 
farm, but soon decided to become a teacher. He became 



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Adams: proprietor and principal of an academy and super 
intendent of schools in a suburb of Cleveland. To sup 
plement his income he became agent for school maps 
and books, in which he had become greatly interested. 
Deciding to give his full time to that work he resigned 
his superintendency of schools and moved into Michigan, 
where he and my mother married Christmas Eve, 1868. 

Early Business Career 

Adams: For the next ten years he was agent for various 
school publications and a magazine and finally 
became associated in Chicago with what was then the 
largest manufacturer of office, school, bank, and 
church furniture, A. K. Andrews. He was in charge 
of their agencies over the country. 

Baum: It sounds like your father moved around quite a 
bit, took different jobs. Why did he do that? 

Adams: He was in some branch of school supplies continuously 
from the time he began to be an agent of these maps 
and books as a side issue while he was teaching and 
superintendent of schools. He used his summers in 
that way. He gave up his superintendency of schools 
to go definitely into that same business. As con 
ditions changed he moved over into another branch of 
that same industry, finally coming into the firm that 



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was manufacturing school, office, and church furniture. 
He was a born salesman in those days. He was just 
getting a new start after his marriage to Mother. 






Move tp_ California; 
Pacific Coast Agent for Schoolbooks 

During those ten years from 1868, when he was 
married, to 1878, he was traveling so much that he 
became completely worn out. Fearing that he was 
going to be permanently ill, he took the family to 
California and went to the home of my Grandmother 
and Grandfather Cooper, who in the middle '70's 
had gone to California and begun farming on the 
Mendocino County coast near Kibesillah about twelve 
miles north of what is now Port Bragg. This was, 
of course, pioneer country. 
So your mother's family were pioneers also. 
Yes. 

How many children were there in your family by the 
tirre your father took you to California? 
When the family moved to California, my older 
brother Ned went to Maine to be with Grandfather 
Adams and he stayed there until Grandfather's 
death in 1881. There were five children who 
accompanied Mother and Father to California, ranging 






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Adams: in age from three to eleven. There were my three 
sisters, Evangeline, Katharine, and Marion, and 
my brother Will. I was the youngest, having been 
born in Chicago^ September 19, 13?. 

After about a year on Grandfather Cooper's 
farm near Kibesillah, working in the open and 
spending a good deal of time fishing off the bluffs 
in the ocean, Father regained his health and went 
back to work. He was very well-known among schoolbook 
publishers and had several opportunities and he chose 
the Pacific Coast agency for A. S. Barnes & Co. , 
publishers of schoolbooks. They later merged with 
other schoolbook firms into the American Book Company. 
The family moved to San Francisco in the summer of 
'79 and Father began what turned out to be about 
twelve years as agent on the Pacific Coast, the Rocky 
Mountain states, and Hawaii for these schoolbooks. 

He had a very hard life in that work because 
he again was constantly traveling. His old trouble, 
which was largely dyspepsia due to irregularity of 
life, kept coming back to him. In Oregon, for 
instance, he was sometimes away from home as much as 
six months, traveling over the state and over into 
Idaho and Utah, in good and bad weather, by team and 
sometimes by horseback, seeing to it that the members 




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Adams: of boards of education in these various counties 
were on his side. That was his job. 

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He had to deal with legislators, he had to 
help draft school legislation because the laws 
were very crude at that time in Oregon where he 
worked primarily, and also in California. In '79 
or '80 he went over to the home of the state 
superintendent of schools In Oakland and drafted a 
school law for California. He had become thoroughly 
versed in that field by dealing with legislators 
and school authorities in Ohio and Michigan. 

Baum: What means did he use to do that? How did he persuade 
them? I suppose there were competing book agencies. 

Adams: Oh yes, competition was very severe in those days. 
Well, he always said that he liked a fight and he 
was always a fighter, so he kept at it. He became 
acquainted with the right men. In his early days in 
Ohio he had to make the rounds of the school boards, 
going from member to member, to get his books adopted, 
so his experience dated back many years. 

Baum: Did he do it by his own personality, or by the 
excellence of his books? 

Adams: By his personality, his persistence, and his ability 
to make friends, by helping legislators and school 
authorities in drafting legislation. I remember he 



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Adams: said In a little autobiography he wrote that in 
his work In Ohio and Michigan the scboolbooks he 
handled had a distinctive quality and reflected a 
great improvement in educational methods, but the 
books he handled on the Pacific Coast were no better 
than those of his competitors. It was just a matter 
of who could get his line adopted. He was very 
vigorous, very much alive in his work. He made many 
friends and knew the best people. He learned how 
politics were worked. Around legislatures there 
was a lot he didn't like, and he was constantly 
writing home that at his first opportunity he was 
going to get out of that business and stay out of it. 
Father was referring here to his experiences with 



the American Book Company and not to those with A. S. 
Barnes & Co. before the merger with the various book 
firms into what was known then as the "schoolbook 
trust. He always said that his experiences with the 
Barnes firm were some of the happiest business exper- 

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lences of his life. 

He was very lonesome on these trips and his 
correspondence shows that if he didn't get a letter 
from home every day at a certain time he was very 
unhappy. That situation extended over 12 years. Of 
course, he wasn't far away all of the time because 



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Adams: his headquarters were in San Francisco. The 

family remained in San Francisco for about three 
years. 

' 
Farming in the Santa Cruz Mountains 

Adams: After quite a search for a place for the family 
to grow up, Father had purchased a farm down in 
Santa Cruz County, in the Santa Cruz mountains, in 
1881. We moved there in 1882. We still have that 
farm, by the way, in the family. That's where we 
were until the older children finished at the dis 
trict school. We had the joy of attending the one- 
room district school up there. I wouldn't have 
missed it for the world. Then we moved back to San 
Francisco in 1889 where my three sisters and my brother 
Will entered Cogswell Polytechnical College, and I 
entered my last two years in grammar school. Cogswell, 
a privately endowed school of secondary grade, was 
then being operated by the board of education of San 
Francisco. It was an unusually fine high school with 
an unusually fine faculty, some of whom later became 
distinguished teachers elsewhere. 

Early in 1892 Father left the w ork which had 
been so unsatisfactory after the merger of the 
schoolbook enterprises. The family went back to the 



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Adams: farm. That was just at the time of the depression, 
Father hoped to get into some new business, but the 
time was not ripe for that. For several years he 
stayed on the farm and w ent back to "dirt farming," 
but he wap very active in community affairs. 

Baum: What kind of crops did you have on your farm? 

Adams: With the exception of about 25> acres, the farm was 
composed of various types of forest growth. These 
25 acres of open land and five or ten acres which 
we cleared were planted to prunes, pears, apples, 
apricots, peaches, and grapes. It was a mountain 
farm on the top of the Skyland Ridge and a lovely 
place to live. It was a wonderful community with 
fine neighbors. Many of the people up there had 
come from the city after retirement from their 
activities there. There could never be a finer 
community to live in and for children to grow up in 
than that Skyland area. 

Baum: What town were you near? 

Adams: No town. Our nearest railroad station was Wrights. 
It was on the railroad that formerly ran through 
the mountains to Santa Cruz. There was a general 
store and a post office there. It was about four 
miles from the farm. The farm was on the crest of 
the Santa Cruz mountains, about ten miles back from 





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the coast, where we could look out over Santa Cruz, 
Capitola, across the bay to Monterey, and back 
through the gap above Los Gatos to Mt. Tamalpais. 
So it is beautiful country. 

When you were away from the farm I suppose you had 


somebody to take care of the trees. 

Of yes, a chum of my older brother back in Maine, 
who had come out to join us, took charge while we 
were in San Francisco attending Cogswell School. 
My brother Ned and this chum of his, Will Chamberlain, 
had been in school together there. 









Organizing Cooperative Fruit Exchanges 



It was not long after we returned to the farm in 
1892 that Father became interested in a movement 
among farmers to establish their own marketing 
agency to dispose of their dried fruit. He attended 
a meeting in San Jose and was the only man who went 
prepared with a plan of organization. He was elected 
to the board of directors and made manager and was 
given the task of going about among the growers in 
Santa Clara Valley and raising funds to establish 
what was known as the Santa Clara County "^ruit 
Exchange. The canvass for subscriptions to the stock 
of the exchange was successful, a building was erected, 



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and the exchange began operations, I believe, the 
following year. There were a number of local ex 
changes around the valley and others were organized. 
The Santa Clara County Fruit Exchange was to be the 
central agency for marketing the product from the 
local exchanges. Colonel Phflo Hersey, a very prom 
inent fruit grower in Santa Clara Valley, was pres 
ident of the exchange. 

After the work of organization was completed, 
Father turned to the organization of what was known 
as the California Fruit Exchange. This was a state 
exchange and was primarily intended to g ather infor 
mation as to markets and prices so that the local 
exchanges would have some information as to what 
their fruit was worth and not be at the mercy of 
the dealers. That venture did not last very long 
because of the hard times. It was very difficult. 
Father had both the task of raising money to keep 
it going and of gathering the data and issuing 
bulletins about markets and so forth all ove^ the 
world. The president of the State Fruit Exchange 
was a very prominent grower at Yuba City, Mr. B. F. 
Walton. 

The California Fruit Exchange didn't sell anything 
though? 
No. It arranged for selling to some extent the first 



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Adams: year, but the local exchanges around the valley 

disposed of their products through the Santa Clara 
County Fruit Exchange. 

I remember during the early days of the Santa 
Clara Pruit Exchange the packers were fighting the 
growers' movements very bitterly. One day, while 
Father and I were sacking the year's crop of prunes 
for shipment to the exchange, a gentleman drove up 
in a very smart rig with a view to getting Father 
to abandon the exchange and buy f ruit for packers. 
That was the kind of competition the farmers had. 
I remember how proud I w as of Father when he flatly 
refused, although he very much needed the money 
that he would have received because he had no income 
except from the farm, and farm prices were very 
low at that time. 

Baum: He got no income as manager of the exchange? 

Adams: Oh, some nominal figure. I think it was $3> a day 

when he was occupied. He was manager of the entire 
County Fruit Exchange only during the organization 
period. 

Summer School of_ Economics and Husbandry 

Adams: Back in the early days in Ohio while my Father was 
working on the farm of a cousin and while he was 





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Adams: studying law, he was very active in all community 
affairs. That was characteristic throughout his 
life. The same thing happened in our mountain farm 
country. We organized first a Farmers Alliance 
during the Populist movement, then a grange. Father 
was anxious that our grange should really do something. 
He therefore proposed, and the grange sponsored, 
and he organized, the first summer school of agricul 
ture in California. It was known as the Summer 
School of Economics and Husbandry. It was sponsored 
originally by the State Grange, although we received 
no help from that organization. It was handled 
entirely by our Highland Grange, of which I happened 
to be secretary, thus I kept familiar with what 
was going on. 

The summer school was held on our farm there 
in the mountains in the grove near a sulphur 
springs. That was in 1395. It continued through 
'96 and '97, although the last two years it operated 
on a reduced scale. We had lectures on agriculture 
in the morning and on economics in the afternoon. 
The lectures on agriculture were given by the members 
of the staff of the College of Agriculture of the 
University of California. All the members of the 
College of Agriculture staff, Dr. Hilgard, Professors 



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Adams: Wlckson, Ja'fa, Loughridge, Woodworth, and assistants 
Hayne and Bioletti, participated. In the afternoon 
the lectures on economics were given by Professor 
E. A. Ross of Stanford. 

Baum: How were these men all paid? 

Adams: They were not paid. We supplied their accommodations 
while they were in the mountains and they all came, 
volunteered. That was a normal thing for the College 
of Agriculture because the College of Agriculture 
staff always gave such service without pay except 
from the University. They were very glad to come. 
For Dr. and Mrs. Ross this was a vacation. I had 
the opportunity to pret acquainted with all members 
of the staff of the College of Agriculture. Of course 
I got acquainted with Dr. Ross. He and Mrs. Ross 
stayed with us on the farm each year the school was 
held. 

Baum: How much did the people who attended these lectures 

pfiLV"? 

Adams: There was a slight charge of $2 per family. for the 
entire course. Whatever expenses arose were borne 
by Highland Grange or local contributors, but they 
were nominal. We all pitched in and did the work. 
Our Highland Grange became known all over the state. 
The whole plan of that school was to have authoritative 






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Adams: instruction and discussion of issues relating to 
agriculture, cultivation questions, and economic 
questions affecting agriculture. The whole purpose 
was to find out the facts regarding these matters 
and to discuss them in an open-minded and fair way, 
without any idea of influencing anybody except as 
the facts would influence them. 

We didn't have a large attendance at any of the 

schools. I suppose the maximum must have been forty 
or fifty, made up largely of the neighbors, but we 
had a number of very prominent men from the outside, 
including Mr. John Swett and his son Prank, who 
were very well known. John Swett was a great educator 
who, I think, had been largely responsible in the 
early days for establishing the public school system 

in California. At one time he was Superintendent 
of schools in San Francisco and another time was 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction. The 
Swetts lived on a berry vineyard in Alhambra Valley 
back of Martinez, where Prank Swett still lives. 

I remember we had one or two men interested in 
social welfare generally. We had probably the best- 
known shipper of fruits to Europe, Mr. A. Block. 
There were some prominent people in our neighborhood 
who came. It was very successful. 






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How long did the sessions last? 

The first year it was two weeks. I believe it was 

three weeks one year, but I'm not sure about that. 

Immaterial,, 



Author of the Modern Farmer 






Let me show you this book my father wrote, 
(reading from book). Edward P. Adams, The Modern 
Farmer in his Business Relations, published in 
1899 by N. J. Stone Company of San Francisco. 
The initial inspiration for this book, I think, 
came from the first session of our Summer School 
of Economics and Husbandry. He was a student of 
economics and he read extensively on all phases of 
public life, government, and the economic situation 
of the country. At the conclusion of the first 
session of the summer school he wrote the opening 
chapters of this book. They were a summary, really, 
of Dr. Ross's first lecture, because Father had 
passed through the period in agriculture in Ohio 
that Professor Ross had described. Then he proceeded 
to write this book, mostly while he was traveling. 
He could sit in the smoking car of the train, smoke 
his cigar, and write. Nothing bothered him at all. 
So he wrote it practically out of his head without 







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Adams: reference to anything. 

It proved to be a book of very great value. 
His idea all through was an objective statement 
regarding the economic issues of the day as they 
affected the farmer. Let me just indicate here 
some of the chapter headings: The Old Farmer, The 
New Farmer, The Evolution of the Farmer, The Hope 
of the Farmer, The Scientific Farmer, The Agricultural 
College, The Experiment Station, Special Schools of 
Farming, Agriculture in Common Schools, The ^tudy of 
the Farm, The Further Study of the Farm. Those 
were all introductory chapters. 

Then he took up the farmer's relationships 
with his family, his fellows, his competitors, 
his creditors, politicians, and finally the current 
discontent of the farmer. Then he discussed the 
farmer as a businessman dealing with the banker, 
with the commission merchant, with the railroads, 
with the speculator, with the tradesman, and with 
the tax-gatherer. Then the farmer as a co opera tor, 
and he described the various phases of farmer 
cooperation with which he had been identified so 
closely in the Santa Clara and State Fruit Exchanges. 
Then the farmer and questions of the day. 

I don't know where you can find as objective a 






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Adams: statement of the arguments on those questions as 
you can find here. He didn't express his own 
opinions in any case. His mind was objective in 
dealing with those things because he thought the 
great need of the time was for farmers to understand 
the facts regarding public questions rather than to 
be swayed by sentiment and emotion. He very clearly 

outlined the issues of the day, the tariff, the 
export bounties, the single tax, currency, labor 
questions, trusts, referendum, and socialism. His 
final chapter dealt entirely with California fruit 
marketing associations. 

Baum: How did this book sell at that time? 

Adams: That's a very interesting question. It didn't sell. 
I think only a few hundred copies were disposed of. 
It was published as a subscription book and it had 
hardly come from the press when the publisher went 
broke. The plans that the publisher had for canvassing 
It were very much curtailed. Father once said that 
he knew of no book that had ever received such high 
praise and so few subscribers. 

It was very generously received all over the 
country. Presidents of universities, the Assistant 
Secretary of Agriculture, deans of colleges of 
agriculture, all wrote very high praises. I remember 






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the statement of Dean Henry of Wisconsin. He said, 
"The book has too much good sense to be salable." 
It was very well received, a very thoughtful book. 

In later years when Dr. Mead came to the 
University, back in 1915? or 1916, he wanted Father 
to revise it, bring it up to date. Father did it 
for the fun of it, not expecting that anyone would 
publish it, and no one did. I have his revised 
manuscript. 

You have written this typescript biography of your 
father. What are you planning to do with it? 
I am going to try and finish it. I did it primarily 
for the family. I want to get enough cooies made 
to distribute around to members of the family and 
put one in Bancroft Library. 

You wrote the Early History of the^ Irrigation 
Division, College of Agriculture, University of 
California. (With some Side-Lights ). Where will 
that typescript history be available? 
There's a copy at Davis, a copy at Los Angeles, 
and I have a copy and you have a copy. Archives in 
the Library can have your copy when you are finished 
with it. 
All right. I'll deposit it there. 






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Baum: 



Adams 



Editorial Writer for the Chronicle 






How did your father come to be a newspaper man and 

a writer for the Chronicle? 



Father had become quite well known through his 
connection with the organization of fruit exchanges 
and the summer school held on our farm. Shortly 
after the conclusion of the summer school, Father 
was asked by the San Francisco Call, which was then 

a morning paper, to write a series of articles 

. 

entitled "Plain Talks With Farmers." He prepared 
those articles during a period of six or eight 
months. I think it was while the articles in the 
Call were still running that he was asked unexpectedly 
by the Chronicle to become its agricultural editor 
and to prepare the agricultural portion of the weekly 
Chronicle. All the San Frand sco papers published 
weekly editions in those days, largely for sale out 
in the rural areas. Father continued as agricultural 
editor of the weekly Chron i cl e as long as the w eekly 
was published, which was, I think, for four or five 
years. 

In 1898 the principal editorial writer of the 
Chronicle left to become war correspondent in the 
Spanish-American War and Father became principal 






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Adams: editorial writer on the Chronicle , and continued 

in that capacity until a few years before his death, 
nearly 30 years later. Also he was a frequent contri 
butor of special signed articles in the fields of public 
affairs, finance, economics, and agriculture. 

Baum: During the time he was agricultural editor on the 
Chronicle, was he able to stay on the farm in the 
Santa Cruz mountains? 

Adams: Initially he remained on the farm and did most of 

his work there, but spent two days of every week in 
San Francisco with his material. When he became 
principal editorial writer he had to be there contin 
uously so he and Mother moved back to San Francisco. 
Our permanent home in San Francisco wasn't established 
until about 1903. 

Baum: I would like to ask you about your father's political 
opinions. 

Adams: Father was a Republican. He grew up in the days of 
Lincoln and lived through the Civil War period. He 
was always a Republican, but not an extreme one. He 
often referred to himself as a stand-patter, which 
he really wasn't. I know of no one who could better 
indicate his point of view than Herbert Hoover. 
Father was a strong supporter of Mr. Hoover and men 
of that type. 






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Baum: 
Adams 
Baum: 

Adams 



Baum: Was he a Theodore Roosevelt supporter? 

Adams: Oh yes. 

Baum: In 1912, did he vote for Roosevelt or Taft? 

Adams: Taft, by all means. Taft had been nominated and 
Roosevelt came In with a third party. I'm very 
sure he supported Taft. 
He stuck with the party? 
Yes 

What did he think of LaPollette? LaPollette split 
from the party in 192i|.. 

Well, everyone had a high regard for LaPollette, and 
I know Pather did, but I'm sure that Father did not 
vote for him. 

Baum: Then he always stuck with the party. 

Adams: I am not warranted in saying that he voted the 

straight Republican ticket. I do not remember that 
he ever told us how he voted. I doubt if he ever 
voted for a Democratic president. He probably 
always voted for a Republican governor, although 
in one case I know he didn't. He voted for Pranklin 
K. Lane, who was defeated and later became Secretary 
of Interior. Lane was one of his close friends. 
When it came to the lesser offices I'm sure he voted 
for the man he thought was the better man for the job, 
In the late '70's and early '80's he was very 






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Adams: active in the Republican Party. I know he attended 
at least one Republican State convention and also 
participated in the convention that drafted the 
new constitution of 18?9 and had some part in 
drafting platforms. In the late '80's he ran for 
assemblyman from Santa Cruz County, but was defeated 

by a few votes. Above all he was opposed to graft 
and buncombe in whatever party it appeared. He had 
one rather peculiar idea as to politics. That was, 
as he expressed it to me, that everyone should vote 
according to his own interests and thereby the interests 
of the majority would prevail. 

MOTHER- -DELIA COOPER ADAMS 

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Baum: You haven't yet told us about your mother. 

Adams: Mother was born in Warrensville Ohio, a small rural 
community outside Cleveland. Unfortunately, we 
have very little information about her early life. 
She taught school in Warrensville. I know this, 
because on visiting Warrensville in 1915 I met a 
lady who had gone to school and who spoke very affec 
tionately of Mother as a teacher. Mother also taught 
in Nevburg, south of Cleveland, where Father was 
superintendent of schools. She and father met in a 
boarding house there. Her last teaching was in 






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Adams: Hillsdale, Michigan, which was then the home of 
her parents. 

The burden of rearing five children fell largely 
on Mother, owing to Father's frequent absence from 
home both before and after the family moved to Calif 
ornia. When Father moved from Kibesillah to San 
Francisco in the early summer of '79, beginning his 
work as Pacific Coast agent for the Barnes' School 
Books, he left the responsibility on Mother for 
directing the harvest and marketing the crops on 
the portion of Grandfather's land which Father had 
planted. During the early years in San Francisco 
when my father was away in Portland and other places 
traveling on his school book business Mother took on 
the responsibility of making frequent visits to his 
office and taking care of his correspondence. 

After moving to the farm in 1882 the responsibility 
of directing the farm work fell largely on Mother. 
Each morning our faithful Chinese farm worker would 
corne to the kitchen door and ask for directions for 
the day. When the orchard and vineyard began to 
bear she joined the others in packing or processing 
fruit for market. She carried her full share in 
neighborhood activities. Feeding and clothing the 
children, keeping them well and happy, guiding them 



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Adams : 



and keeping them properly disciplined -was not her 
only responsibility. I have often felt It was 
Mother's watchful care of Father which enabled him 
to accomplish so much. After a long illness, she 
left us in 1918. No mother ever gave herself more 
devotedly to her family, or was more loved by her 

family and friends. 

' 
BROTHERS AND SISTERS 






Did all of your sisters and brothers go t o college? 
You will recall that my sisters and brother Will 
went to Cogswell School in San Francisco In the 
late '80's and early '90's. My two older sisters, 
Evangeline and Katharine, finished there in '91. 
My sister Marlon left Cogswell School about the middle 
of her last year to become supervisor of drawing in 
the public schools In Stockton, sxtcceeding my older 
brother Ned, who had been there in that position 
and who had entered Stanford when Stanford opened 
in '91. She had been a very fine student at Cogswell 
and I am sure later received her diploma of graduation 
there. 

Ned came out to California when he was about 
21 years old and was with us on the farm for several 
years. He then went off on his own on various 






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Adams: enterprises, finally ending up about 1890 as supervisor 
of drawing in the public schools at Stockton. When 
Stanford opened he had made up his mind he wanted to 
go to college and study mechanical engineering. He 
had been married and had one child and had to have 
a position if he went to college. So he want to 
Stanford on the third of October, 1891, two days 
after it opened. I went down with him as a kid in 
high school in San Francisco. He called on Dr. 
Jordan. Before he left that day he was offered 
three positions and chose one with Professor Charles 
D. Marx, head of Civil engineering. So he became 
a member of the first faculty there as an instructor 
in drawing. There he stayed until the celebrated 
suit against the Stanford estate made it necessary 
for all in the faculty below the rank of full 
professor to leave. He had senior standing when 
the time came for him to leave. He rustled around 
for three months and got backing and went to Cornell, 

where he finished his engineering course. He was 
for a short time an instructor there and then went 
into engineering and had a very wide and successful 
experience as an engineer. 

While still in Cogswell, my sister Evangeline 
studied singing and after the family returned to the 






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Adams: farm in early 1392, she spent a few months continuing 
her work in singing at Mills College. In 1896, the 
year I entered Stanford, she came down to College 
Terrace, where we lived, and kept a cooperative 
house for my other two sisters and myself and several 
friends. She was invited to go to Sao Paulo, Brazil, 
to teach music to children in an American school and 

spent about two years there. Later she graduated 
from San Francisco Normal School and taught for 
several years in the San Francisco schools. She 
had attended some classes at Stanford while keeping 
house for us, but did not register. Later she got 
her degree at the University of California and then 
taught in the San Francisco State Teachers College, 
being in charge of teacher training. She stayed 
there until her age of retirement. 

Evangeline was married to Dr. Arturo Spozio, 
editor of an Italian daily paper in San Francisco. 
Dr. Spozio was a reserve officer in the Italian 
army and was called at the beginning of World War 
I and was killed in one of the early battles, 

My sister Katharine, after graduating from 
Cogswell, attended and graduated f rom San Jose 
State Normal School and for several years taught in 
various places, beginning in our Skyline district 






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Adams: school. She was with us in our cooperative home 

in College Terrace from 1896 to 1897, but was teaching 
in the Mayfield High School. Later she graduated 
from Stanford and became a teacher in the state 
normal school at Tempe, Arizona. After several 
years there she was married to John Hicks, a cattleman 
of New Mexico, and lived there a number of years 
until her death. 

My sister Marion graduated f rom Stanford in 
1898 and for a number of years was a history teacher. 
She went first to Santa Barbara as supervisor of 
history in the schools at Santa Barbara and then to 
the Lick School in San Francisco, which was headed 
by one of her old instructors at Cogswell School. 
After 12 years at Lick School she became head 
worker of the People's Place, a community settlement 
in the North Beach area of San Francisco. When 
World War I broke out, she and my sister Evangeline 
went to Italy as Red Cross workers. On returning 
from Italy, Marion took charge of the Americanization 
work administered by the public schools at San Jose 
and carried through to their examination for citizenship 
a large number of foreign-born residents of the San 
Jose area. 

My brother Will didn't finish Cogswell. He got 



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Adams: a .job in business and was in business of one form 

or another until he went back to the farm, oh, along a- 
bout 1921 or 1922, and s tayed there until his death 
several years ago. 

That's a rather disjointed account of the 
family history. There's much more to be told, 
but too much detail has been told already. 

PRANK ADAMS--EARLY EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL INTEREST 

Baum: 
Adams : 



Did you attend Cogswell High School also? 
When the family moved from San Francisco back to 
the ranch in 1892 I was in the middle of my first 
year in Cogswell. I was able, with the help of 
my sister Marion family finances were very low 
after Father left his work to finish that first 
year in Cogswell. Then I went back to the farm 
where I pitched in and did farm work. I had learned 
earlier to work on the farm and was very fond of the 
farm. I remained there for about a year and a half, 
when Father obtained a scholarship for me at Belmont 
Preparatory School, a boys' school of which Mr. 
William T. Reid, a former president of the University 
of California, was headmaster. Iw as able to attend 
Belmont for a spring term, either in '93 or '9i|, and 
then had to return to the farm where I took over and 



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Adams: looked after things until I entered college in the 
fall of '96. 

When I entered college I had had only a dis 
connected year and a half in high school. Under 
the regulations at Stanford then, I could enter as 
a special student because I was almost 21, with the 
provision that I make up my deficiencies, either by 
examination or by extra work in college. 

In the early days of Father's work in marketing 
and in connection with the Summer School of Economics 
and Husbandry, I had become acquainted with Mr. Alfred 
Holman, who was then editor of the Pacific Rural 
Press. I was looking forward to working with him 
because I was very much attached to him. He visited 
the farm on several occasions. During the summer 
school of agriculture I also had become tremendously 
interested in Dr. Ross and the field of economics. 
I had previously found among Father's books the first 
Outlines of Economics by Dr. Richard T. Ely, who was 
the pioneer teacher in that field in this country. 
So when I entered college I was not quite sure what 
I was going to do, whether I was going into the field 
of agricultural economics or into newspaper work with 
the Rural Pr e s s . I had had a little experience in 
newspaper work reporting for the San Francisco Call 








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the meetings of the summer school of agriculture 
back in l895>. Also some previous experience as 



our community correspondent for one of our Santa 
Cruz papers, 

Alfred Holman and the Rural Press 






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Could you give me more details on Mr. Holman 1 s 

career? 

I didn't know too much about Mr. Holman in the 

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early days. He came up to our farm one weekend in 
the first session of the School of Economics and 
Husbandry. I was very much taken by his personality 
and he was extremely friendly toward me. Later, 
after- a heavy storm all over the state, he wired 
me up on the farm requesting that I let him know 
how all the fruit in our community had gone through 
the storm. That was a very important fruit-producing 
section at the time. I was very flattered by the 
telegram. I was about 19 years old then. 

We took the Rural_ Pr e s 3 , of course, and I read 
it very religiously because I was interested in all 
phases of farming, especially fruit growing. It 
seemed to me that it would be fine to work with Mr. 
Holman on the Rural Press. Mr. Holman and a Mr. A. 

H. Halloran had acquired the Rural Press and the 
Mining and Scientific Press, I think sometime in 






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Adams: the early '90's. Mr. Halloran edited the Mining and 
Scientific Press. 

Baum: Was Mr. Holman connected with any other papers? 

Adams: At that time he wasnot. I will tell you about his 
other papers later. For many years he had been 
associated with the Portland Qregonian. edited 
and, I think, at least later owned by Mr. Harvey 
W. Scott. Mr. Scott was recognized as one of the 
very strong editors in this country and the Oregonian 
was generally looked upon as one of the strongest 
papers in the West, if not the strongest. Mr, 
Holman 's grandparents moved to the Oregon country 
in the 'ij-O's and '5>0's and Mr. Holman had grown up 
there and entered the newspaper business with Mr. 
Scott, first as a cub reporter and finally as managing 
editor. He was a very great admirer of Mr. Scott, 
very closely associated with him. He once described 
Mr. Scott as "the parent of his mind." Mr. Scott 
once publicly referred to Mr. Holman as "the beloved 
son of his professional life," That shows their 
very close relationship. I found these things out 
later, of course. I didn't know them at the time. 
All I knew about him was from my brief contact with 
him. 

Baum: What was his subsequent career? 






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Adams: Sometime in the middle ' 90 ' s he had sold his interest 
in the Rural Press and returned to the Portland 
Oregon Ian. As I understood it at the time, he was 
taking charge of Mr. Scott's interest there. Perhaps 
Mr. Scott was traveling, as he frequently did. When 
Mr. Holman returned to the Oregon! an I gave up my 
interest in going with the Rural Press because my 

_ ___WM 

interest in the Rural Press was largely my interest 
in Mr. Holman. 



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STANFORD UNIVERSITY 



Financing A College Education 



Baum: 
Adams: 



Baum: 
Adams: 



Then you decided to go t o Stanford? 
Yes. When I told Father I wanted to major in 
economics at Stanford with Dr. Ross, he asked me 
how I was going to sell my education. That was a 
good practical question. I frankly didn't know, but 
I thought I would find a way and I went ahead. 

Father, being on the Chronicle, had suggested 
my name as a possible correspondent for the Chronicle 
at Stanford. I was given the position and for four 
years I had that position at Stanford and w as able 

in that way to earn my way as I went. 

Did you earn your full way by that one job? 

I was a couple of hundred dollars in debt when I got 

out, which I paid with my first earnings after that* 









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Adams: I had worked one summer vacation as a canvasser 
for the Rural Press and for the Chronicle in 
Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma counties. I earned 
enough to get started that fall. Otherwise I worked 
on the farm during the summers because there was 
plenty of work to do there. 

. 
Courses and Professors 

Adams: I entered Stanford in the fall of 1896, five years 
after the university opened. It was still a very 
young institution. I remember that you couldn't 
fail to sense the atmosphere of freedom there. 
A German line was often quoted, "Die Luft der 
Preiheit webt", "The winds of freedom roll." I 
remember in Dr. Jordan's talks, it was one of the 
things he said. 

Stanford in those days was substantially 
elective. Certain courses were required in engineering, 
but in other fields you merely had to satisfy your 
major professor that you had a well-rounded selection. 
I began pouring through the catalogue and picking 
out courses centering on economics. I took it to 
Dr. Ross, who was to be my major orofessor. He 
said, "I think you ought to have some science." I 
said, "I've had a little science in high school. I 






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Adams: had some physics and botany and I don't think I 

need that. I think I should go ahead in economics." 
"No," he said. "You go down and see the Zoology 
department and talk it over." Well, as a result I 
took in my freshman year a basic course in zoology. 
It was one of the most beneficial courses I took. 

I also took a course in physics with Professor 
Rogers, one In algebra with Dr. R. L. Green, a year 
of entomology with Dr. Vernon L. Kellogg, and 
courses in botany with Professors William R. Dudley 
and Douglas H. Campbell. They tied in with 
agriculture and with the things I had become interested 
in while on the farm. 

Dr. Ross also wanted me to take some foreign 
languages, so over the period of my work there I 
got in both German and French. The first year of 
German was very hard for me because, owing to the 
interruptions in my earlier schooling, I had 
forgotten what I had learned about grammar. My 
instructor was Miss Margaret Wickham. I took other 
courses In German. In fact, I took a course from 
each of the other members of the German faculty 
including Dr. Goebel, Dr. Griffin, Dr. Rendtorff and 
Mr. Schmidt. The courses covered German literature, 
both prose and poetry, and scientific German. These 






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Adams: courses were very enjoyable. 

I also took a course in French with Professor 
Prlen. 

Of course, being a major in economics and 
sociology I took many courses in that field, in 
fact, more than were required. My recollection is 
that the head of the department when I started was 
Dr. Amos G. Warner, a very well-known man in the 
field of charities. He was not well and died 
shortly after I went there and Dr. Ross became 
head of the department. Dr. Ross was a great 
teacher and undoubtedly the, or one of the, 
outstanding men in sociology at that time. He was 
a stimulating lecturer and a great favorite of his 
students. His presentations were always thorough 
and if controversial questions came up he was 
always free from bias, although whenever right and 
wrong was at issue, he was always sure to be on the 
side of what he thought right. An example was his 
attitude during the 1896 political campaign on the 
money question. He espoused the Free Silver cause, 
because he believed the demonetization of silver 
had worked a great injustice. That was not a popular 
side to take on the Stanford campus at that time, 
but that made no difference to Dr. Ross. It was 






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Dr. Edward A. Ross 



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Adams: typical of his independence of thought. 

I took a number of courses from Dr. Ross and 
at least one course from each of the other members 
of the economics and sociology Departments. One 
of these was Professor Harry H. P o wers, a brilliant 
lecturer. He left some time in ray second year and 
was succeeded by Dr. Prank A. Fetter, a wonderful 
teacher and man who later became head of economics 
at Princeton. Dr. E. Dana Durand came while I was 
there. He WPS subsequently in a responsible position 
with the United States Industrial Commission, and 
also director of the United States Census in 1910. 
Dr. Morton A. Aldrich came while I w as there. He 
subsequently was dean of the School of Business 
at Tulane University. Lincoln Hutchinson was an 
instructor, and there was Mrs, Mary Roberts Smith, 
wife of the head of the department of mechanical 
engineering. Later, as Mrs. Dane Coolidge, she 
was professor of economics or sociology, or both, in 
Mills College. She and Professor Smith were divorced 
and she had married Dane Coolidge, who was a student 
in the college while I w as there, much younger than 
she was. Finally, there was Dr. Burt Estes Howard, 
a very brilliant man who had made a great reputation 
as a speaker on social problems and as a minister. 






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Adams: He was there during my last year in college. 

I took other courses outside of economics and 
sociology aside from those previously mentioned. 
One was in psychology with Dr. Prank Angell. There 
were two courses in English compostion with Professor 
H. 3. Lathrop; a course in English literature with 
Dr. A. G. Newcomer and finally a general introductory 
course In law given jointly by the head of the 
department Dr. Nathan Abbott, and the remaining 
members of his faculty, Professor Hall, Professor 
Clark B. .Ihittier, Professor Lewers, and Professor 
Jackson Reynolds. 

I took a course in American history that was 
taught by George Elliott Howard, who was looked on 
by Dr. Jordan as one of the g reat teachers of the 
country. Dr. Howard left in about my third year 
and his course was completed by Dr. Clyde A. Duniwauy, 
who subsequently became president of several western 
universities. 

I finished Stanford with the Class of 1901, 
having been out one-half year on the Cache Creek 
investigations which will be mentioned later. 

Baum: Did you take any engineering courses? 

Adams: No. There were many v ery able and distinguished 

men at Stanford. They were especially outstanding 






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Baum: 






because the university was young and was charting 
a new course in education out here. Dr. Jordan 
had a wide acquaintance with educators in the East. 
He selected the faculty very largely from Cornell 
and middle western institutions. They s tood out 
as very distinguished men, very impressive to the 
young student. 

I could go on for a long time talking about 
those professors. I knew them to speak to, all of 
them. I got to know some of them quite well. 
Was this in part because of your contact through 
the newspaper? 

Partly, yes. Very largely. I found it desirable 
to know people, both faculty and students. 
Were faculty salaries particularly high that they 
could attract such fine scholars? 
No salaries were particularly high in those days, 
compared with salaries today. Dr. Jordan stated in 
his little book, Days of a Man, that the early s alaries 
were from $2,000 to $3,600, but for a few of the 
higher places as much as sp?000. 






Student Life 






When you were in college, how many of the freshmen 
had already chosen their life careers? 






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Many of the students at Stanford when I w as there 
were more mature than students now. 
Were they older? 

I was twenty-one. That was not any older than lots 
of others. There were others older than I. We had 
some just out of high school, of course, but you 
remember that the '90's were a period of depression. 
They hadn't recovered from the extreme panic of '93 
A larger proportion than normal, I think, earned 
their living while they were in college. I remember 
making that the subject of one of my newspaper 
stories. It was a noticeable feature of the life 
there. They waited on table, some were agents for 
the laundries, there were some who did personal 
service here and there, several of us earned our 
living on newsnapers. One student had a shoe repair 
shop; another a bicycle shop in a little annex to 
the Men's Gymnasium. Ernest Wilson opened a candy 
store in one of the buildings back of the main 
quadrangle and from that went on to establish a 
candy manufacturing business which opened s tores in 
several cities and still manufactures the "candy 
with a college education." It was evident that a 
large number were making their own way. 






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Adams: There was very close association between the 

faculty and the students. Dr. Jordan always addressed 
the freshman class. I remember one of the things he 
used to say was, "You will have made a mistake if, 
when you leave here, you don't know many members of 
the faculty well and your major professors intimately." 

There were the faculty at-homes. The Daily Palo 
Alto , the college paper, carried a column of these 
at-homes. Any student was welcome. I think students 
would go more to the homes of their major professors 
than to others, but I remember going t o at-homes of 
a number with whom I had no other contact. I remember 
especially Dr. Melville Best Anderson's home at Menlo 
Park. He was the head of English, a great Shakespearean 
scholar. The Anderson at-homes were always in the 
afternoon on Sunday. 

Dr. Jordan had at-homes frequently. He would 
sit in a big chair and the students would gather 
around him and he would tell stories of his experiences. 
I frequently went there. 

Baum: Did many of the students take advantage of these at- 
homes? 

Adams: Many did. There was always a nice group present. 
I went most frequently, of course, to Dr. Ross's 
home. Faculty wives entered into those at-homes 








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Adams: very heartily. 

At Dr. Ross's he would talk to us or some of 
the students would be good storytellers. Dr. Ross 
was a good storyteller. I remember one of the 
Stanford women who frequently entertained us , an 
economics major, her name was Agnes Morley. She 
had grown up on a cattle ranch in New Mexico and 
had remarkable experiences as a young girl. A few 
years ago she wrote a book, which became a best 
seller, on her early life there, No Life for a_ Lady. 
She was then Mrs. Newton Cleaveland. Newton 
Cleaveland was a close friend of mine in college. 
Mrs. Cleaveland died only recently. 

Dr. Ross used to be a great storyteller in 
his classes. He had this theory, that there always 
was a certain number who were inclined to go to 
sleep. When the rest of the class would laugh 
heartily, the sleepers would wake up and wish they 
had listened more carefully. 

The student body was not large then, probably 
1,000 or 1,200. I remember it reached 1,^00 while 
I was there. The university opened in '91 with 
something between ij.00 and 00, which was a great 
surprise to Dr. Jordan. He had not expected so many. 
The University of California, believe it or not, 






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Adams: then had a student body of only about ijOO. In his 
Days of a. Man Dr. Jordan spoke of a reception given 
for the Stanford faculty by the University of California 
facult.y just after the opening of Stanford. A speaker 
from the University of California deplored the opening 
of Stanford. He felt that the University of California 
had only about l|00 students and that Stanford was 
going to divide the available students between the 
two universities. That was Dr. Bernard Moses, a very 
noted member of the faculty at the University of 
California. 

There was a good deal of activity among the 
students in organizations. Being a small institution, 
the students became more easily acquainted than in 
a larger institution. There were a great many 
student organizations for a university less than 
ten years old. These covered almost every phase of 
university activity literary, athletic, music, as 
well as various departments such as zoology, botany, 
economics and engineering. Of course, there were the 
usual parties among the students. 

I lived in Encina Hall a couple of years, the 
only dormitory for men. The women's dormitory was 
Roble Hall. Other students lived in Palo Alto, 
Mayfield, Menlo. Some commuted from San Jose or up 
the Peninsula toward San Mateo. 






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Adams: One thing about the student body, they came 

from a wide area. Some from many different countries. 
That was really an unusual feature at that time. The 
university started in that way because many students 
followed their professors from eastern colleges to 
Stanford. The beginning of a new university out in 
the west was something that attracted the entire 
country. With an endowment of $20,000,000, it was 
then the richest university in this country. I 
remember students from the Middle West, Montana, 
Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Colorado. So it was 
a cross section of a wide part of the country rather 
than mainly students that w ere attracted to the state 
University of California. 

I was looking through one of my old Stanford 
picture albums and it brought to mind our life in 
Encina Hall. We paid only $5 a month for our rooms. 
I suppose blankets were supplied to us and we had 
a table and a couple of chairs and two iron beds 
and mattresses. Everything else we supnlied ourselves, 
our table covers, our bookcases, any extra equipment 
we wanted. 

(Look at pictures in album). Here is a picture 
of my room in Encina Hall, and Herman Grunsky, 
brother of C. E. G-runsky. He was then myroorrmate. 






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Adams: Here are some of my classmates. We always wore 

white shirts with the high stiff collars, ray Father 
used t o call them "dude collars". There were some 
less conventional attires but ordinarily we dressed 
this way. e had class hats. A junior hat was a 
gray plug. Senior hats were stetsons. Here's ray 
old junior plug still have it after fifty-odd years. 
All battered up. 

I spoke of the atmosphere of freedom down there. 
No rules and regulations regarding students whatever. 
No prohibitions. The University was interested only 
in good work and good order. If from time to time 
someone overstepped the bounds, why, he went away. 
The saying in those days was that he was taken to 
the edge of the campus and dropped off. 

I remember one notable instance of that. One 
of the most popular students in the University, who 
was a leader in all the deviltry and escapades, 
finally was dismissed. Word got around that he was 
to leave on the train. I went down there to cover 
the story. I think 90$ of the student body was there. 
On my way back to the campus on my bicycle I fell in 
with Dr. Jordan. He was also on his big, high bicycle. 
Most of the faculty in those days had bicycles to get 



around on. Dr. Jordan said to me he felt very, very 







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Adams: sorry they had to dismiss Will Irwin. He was a very 
able and very fine man, but they just couldn't stand 
him any more. Too much deviltry. Later that man 
was forgiven, he came back and got his degree. He 
became a very distinguished man in journalism and 
was one of the very best of war correspondents during 
World War I. That was Will Irwin. Will began his 
journalism in San Francisco, then went to New York. 
His brother, Wallace Irwin, became very well-known 
as a writer, primarily as a satirist. He wrote 
poetry mainly at Stanford. 

I feel sure Will Irwin and Chris Bradley and 
Billy Erb were largely responsible for first bringing 
out the old Stanford Axe originating the "Give them 
the Axe" yell. The axe was brought out first at a 
rally the evening preceding one of the games in San 
Francisco with California. I was there. It was at 
that game that it was stolen. After that, and in 
this I'm sure Will Irwin had a part, as a matter of 
reprisal, a group sneaked up to the Berkeley campus 
at night and stole the Senior Fence and put it on 
their wagon and started home. Early in the morning 
of the following day word came around that they were 
being pursued by a f^roup of Berkeley students and 
wanted help. So we got together, oh, perhaps forty 






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Adams: or fifty of us, got In buses and went down through 
Mayfield and finally met them near Mountain View. 
We accompanied them triumphantly back to the campus 
and went on to the Inner Quad and everybody turned 
out. Instead of this being a reprisal, it was really 
a dud because the California students said they didn't 
care anything about the Senior Pence and they got 
away with that. 

Participation in Student Activities 

Baum: Did you take part in student activities? 

Adams: Being interested in newspaper work I naturally 

worked on the college daily, the Daily Palo Alto , 
first as assistant editor and finally for a short 
period during my fourth year as managing editor. I 
resigned the managing editorship to give more time 
to my other work. I was on the board of editors 
of the 1901 Stanford Quad. 

About 1900 the first Stanford alumni magazine, 
the Stanford Alumnus , was started, I think entirely 
as a private venture, by Charles E. Schwartz and 
Helen Swett, both of whom had graduated. I think 
they published it for three or four years and it was 
then taken over by the alumni association and has gone 
through several names. It is now the Stanford Review. 






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50 



Adams: Debating was an important student activity. 

There were three or four student debating societies. 
I belonged to one of them, Euphornia. I was never 
a good debater but for some reason I was made chairman 
of the intercollegiate debating committee. This was 
the committee that arranged the intercollegiate debates 
in conference with a similar committee from California. 
The principal job of this committee was to select 
the judges for the intercollegiate debates, working 
with Joe O'Connor, who represented California. We 
took the matter of selecting of judges very s eriously, 
and I had to inquire into the backgrounds and general 
aptitudes of those proposed by Joe O'Connor or whom 
I myself suggested. I did this work for about two 
years. Another job I had while I was chairman was 
to help work out an agreement with the California 
committee as to rules governing the judging. In 
alternate years a member of the Stanford and a member 
of the California faculty presided at the intercollegiate 
debates. Our debaters were not satisfied with the 
instructions given to the judges by the facutly 
member from California when he presided. So we 
negotiated an agreement that the presiding officer 
should give no instructions whatever t o the judges. 
There were numerous other minor activities in which 






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Adams: I took part. 

I remember one that seemed to me to be Important 
at the time. It was a bit of proselyting among the 
high schools of the state. The president of the 
associated students appointed me chairman of the 
publication ciommittee, and we arranged to have the 
college daily, The. Daily Palo Alto, sent to high 
schools in the state. I presume this activity didn't 
last very long. 

Tax Exemption on University Property 

Adams: I'd like to go into another historical matter. 

Stanford was paying taxes on all its property. A 
movement was started to have the university exempted 
from taxes on all property involved in the educational 
work. Largely through the activity of George E. 
Crothers, who was a '95 graduate and who was then 
practicing law with his brother, Thomas G. Crothers, 
what was called an Anti-Tax Committee was a ppointed. 
That was soon chanp-ed to Tax Exemption Committee. An 
executive committee was named to direct the campaign. 
George Crothers was chairman. He asked the three 
correspondents of the San Francisco papers to be on 
that committee and I was one of them. 

I left in 1900 I was out the fall term of 






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Adams: 1900--before the work was completed, so I resigned 

from the committee. Vie had undertaken to raise money 
to pay the costs of the campaign. When I resigned I 
felt obligated to send in a small contribution, which 
to me in those days was quite a contribution. I 
think it amounted to $5. I sent that to George 
Grothers. Many years afterwards I was riding with 
George between Baltimore and Harrisburg on the 
Pennsylvania Railroad and he told me that I was the 
only one who put in a nickel on that campaign except 
his brother and himself. They paid the entire cost 
of it. George drafted the constitutional amendment 
and it was subsequently adopted. Fortunately, George 
and Thomas Crothers were able to carry the financial 
load which must have been substantial. George was 
attorney for Mrs. Stanford and very close to her and 
her affairs throughout the remainder of her life. 
Senator Stanford had, of course, died by then and 
she was the sole trustee under the original grant. 
The board of trustees had been named, but, I believe, 
they didn't begin to function until after her death. 

Dismissal of Dr. Ross 

Adams: An unfortunate occurrence took place during my 

period there, what was known as the "Ross affair." 






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Adams: Dr. Ross was dismissed, reportedly at the insistence 
of Mrs. Stanford, for what she considered unwarranted 
attacks on the early railroad activities to which 
Leland Stanford was a party. There were, or course, 
in those early days great manipulations. Mrs. Stanford 
took offense. I won't go into the details of that.. 
I cannot be sure of the facts after so many years. 
Dr. Ross's dismissal was looked into exhaustively 
by, I think, the American Economics Association, and 
the university was very severely condemned for what 
was considered a breach of academic freedom. 

Baum: Because Dr. Jordan permitted Dr. Ross to be dismissed? 

Adams: Yes. That was my understanding. 

Another unfortunate aftermath was that through 
indignation at Dr. Ross's dismissal, Dr. George 
Elliott Howard, the great history teacher, spoke out 
bitterly against the dismissal and was also dismissed. 
That created further furor in educational circles. 

Prior to events leading up the dismissal of Dr. 
Ross and Dr. Howard, Stanford had planned to create 
a historical research center to be housed in the old 
Hopkins home on California Street, the site of the 
present Mark Hopkins Hotel. Dr. Howard was to be 
head of this institute. Plans were rather elaborate. 
I remember this because I covered the plan for a 






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Adams: newspaper story. Whether It was due to Dr. Howard 
leaving I don't know, but the project was never 
carried out. 

Baum: Did you come into contact with Dr. Jordan while 
you were at Stanford? 

Adams: I had daily contact with Dr. Jordan's office as 
correspondent for the Chronicle. His office was 
always open to the boys who were doing the newspaper 
work. He was very cordial, generous, frankly told 
us about things not yet ready to be announced, knowing 
that we wouldn't abuse his confidence. So I knew 
him very well. It was a great burden for me, having 
such an affection for Dr. Ross and Dr. Howard, to 
reconcile Dr. Jordan's taking the part he did in the 
dismissal of Dr. Ross and Dr. Howard. 

Time healed my feeling somewhat and I saw Dr, 
Jordan throughout most of the rest of his life. Dr. 
Jordan once told me he wanted me to raise a million 
dollars for Stanford to go into work in agriculture, 
which previously had been planned but discontinued 
because of lack of funds. He said, "When you get 
that money I want you to come here and help us spend 
it. " 

Baum: Did you raise that money for Stanford? 

Adams: No. I was puzzled. I was then in the College of 






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Adams: Agriculture. I went to Dean Hunt and told him of 
Dr. Jordan's idea. Dean Hunt had no objections to 
my considering the matter at all. I wrote Dr. Jordan 
outlining what I a ssumed he had in mind for Stanford 
to do in agriculture, which was not to go into 
agriculture in all its branches as the University 
of California College of Agriculture, but to specialize 
in certain fields like entomology, plant physiology, 
soil chemistry, w ith a view to training teachers in 
the field. He wrote back t hat that was exactly 
what he had in mind. But I w as not in a position 
to raise the money and never did. It did not seem to 
me proper that I should undertake this project for 
Stanford while on the faculty of the University of 
California. It was just an incident in my e^p erience. 

Baum: When was that? 

Adams: Oh, I suppose about 1915 or 1916. Perhaps earlier. 

Master's Degree at the University of Nebraska 

Baum: When did you finish your M. A. thesis? 

Adams: Dr. Ross had gone to the University of Nebraska. I 

was working out of Cheyenne, Wyoming at the time. It 
was possible in those days to register and study in 
absentia for a master's degree. So I arranged that 



with Dr. Ross. In 1906 I finished my thesis, which 






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Adams: was my work in Utah on the Virgin and Sevier Rivers, 

supplemented by some discussion I gave on the economics 
of irrigation. I don't have a copy of my thesis. 
I had it bound up and sent to Nebraska and it was 
accepted. 

In the spring of 1906 I went to the University 
of Nebraska and spent six weeks there. They wanted 
me to get acquainted with their economics faculty 
and they with me. I did my principal work there in 
economic history with Mrs. Langworthy Taylor, wife 
of the head of the economics department. Then I went 
before the entire staff for a two-hour oral examination. 






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57 



EARLY WORK WITH DR. ELWOOD MEAD 
First Meeting with Dr. Mead 

Adams: Having given up my ideas of working for the 

Rural Press when I was still in college, I had 
definitely made up my mind I wanted to work in 
one of the agricultural colleges. So when in 1899 
the American Association of Agricultural Colleges 
and Experiment Stations met in San Francisco, I 
attended and went to all the sessions and met quite 
a lot of the people. I was at that time correspondent 
at Stanford for the Chronicle and I got them to send 
me on a week's excursion, which was arranged for the 
delegates of this convention, over the central and 
northern portions of the state. A committee composed 
of Professor Jaffa of the University of California 
College of Agriculture, Professor Emery Smith, then 
assistant professor of horticulture at Stanford, and 
ray father raised something over $3000 to pay the 
expenses of t his excursion. Mr. James Horsburgh, 
general passenger agent. of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad, furnished the Pullman train with a diner 
at a nominal charge and an entire week was spent 
on this excursion. About 125 of the delegates to 
the convention went on the trip. 






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Adams: We went first up Russian River Valley as far 
as Ukiah to show them the northern coastal areas. 
We returned to San Rafael for a banquet that night 
at the Hotel Rafael, then a big hotel. Next day 
was a river steamer trip over the Delta, visiting a 
number of the large farms there. During the night 
we were carried down to Fresno and spent the next 
day going over the vineyards and out to the Kearney 
farm. Then we returned to San Francisco, The following 
day we went down to Stanford, then to the Santa Clara 
Valley where we had lunch at one of the large olive 
farms. We went on to the Hotel Del Monte for the 
night, where they had their final banquet. The next 
day the delegates took the 17-Mile-Drive. Leaving 
Monterey, we stopped at Salinas where the Spreckles 
sugar plant had just been opened. It was the largest 
beet sugar factory in the country. Then we stopped 
near Morgan Hill at the Morse Seed gardens. We were 
entertained there by the Chinese help at the seed 
gardens, who put on a marvelous display. Then we 
returned to San Francisco. That was the end of the 
excursion. 

As correspondent for the Chronicle I had to 
file a story every night so I circulated very freely 
among the delegates. I talked with all of them, briefly 






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Adams: or at length, and came to know some of them very 
well during that brief period. That experience 
furthered my interest in agricultural college work. 

One of the men I met on that trip was Dr. Mead. 
He was then known as Professor Mead because when 
he went to the Department of Agriculture a few years 
previously, the director of the Office of Experiment 
Stations, Dr. True, thought he should have a title 
to help him in his work in conjunction with the 
agricultural experiment stations. (The honorary 
degree of doctor of engineering was not received from 
Purdue until 19014- . ) He had, before being state engineer 
of Wyoming, been a professor or assistant professor 
of irrigation at Colorado Agricultural College at 
Fort Collins. 

Dr. Mead was just completing arrangements then 
for an irrigation investigation in California covering 
nine areas or streams, Honey Lake Valley up in Lassen 

County, San Joaquin River, Kings River, Yuba River, 
Salinas River, Los Angeles River, with a special 
report on the storage rivers and torrential streams 
in Southern California, typified by the San Jacinto 
and the Sweetwater. The investigation was to be 
made the following year. Dr. Mead told me the reports 
of the investigations would be coming in and he 






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wondered if I would care to come with him and help 
put those reports into shape for publication. Well, 
that was an attractive offer for a kid in college 
and I showed a great deal of interest in it. He 
may have been inclined somewhat toward me at that 
time because Father had helped him very materially 
in arranging for this investigation and for part of 

the financing by California interests. So he knew 

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who I was when I interviewed him and I can' t explain 

otherwise why he offered me that position. 

You were to be an editorial worker, not an investigator 

of water? 

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Yes, that was the idea. He suggested that in 

preparation for that work I make my last thesis at 
Stanford a study of riparian rights in California 
and I agreed to do that and did. In connection with 
that thesis on riparian rights I had occasion to see 
Mr. C. E. Grunsky in San Francisco, then city engineer. 
I wanted to find out from him about a report that the 
first state engineer, William Ham Hall, had written, 
which I could not find. Mr. Grunsky told me that 
Mr. Hall had submitted this report to Governor 

Waterman and that the governor had thrown it into 

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the wastebasket. There had been a controversy 

betv.'een Mr. Hall and Governor Waterman regarding 






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hydraulic mining on the streams above the Sacramento, 
As a result of this controversy the office of state 
engineer was abolished and not reestablished until 

1907. 

Did you know William Ham Hall? 

I met him once or twice and had some correspondence 
with him. I had read his reports and had seen him 
in the Commonwealth Club. He had figured very 
prominently in the engineering reports on early 
irrigation districts organized under the Wright Act. 
I went back to college in the fall of '99 with 
this work with Dr. Mead in mind. I still, however, 
had my eyes on agricultural college vcork because 
the early interest had persisted, I was still in 
touch with the farm, and during the summer school 
of agriculture I had become well acquainted with 
and very nuch attracted to the entire faculty of 
the University of California College of Agriculture. 
So I had this in mind, economics and agriculture in 
some form, but rather hazy, 

Another Opportunity to Go Into 
Newspaper Work with Alfred Hoi man 

While all that was going through my mind, Mr. Holman 
came back into the picture. Prom then on I was in a 



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62 



Adams: quandary, should I go with Mr. Holman or should I 
continue ray plans v:ith Dr. Mead? 

Baum: What did Mr. Holman have to offer? 

Adams: He then owned a controlling interest and was editor 
of the San Jose Mercury. He offered tot ake me on 
immediately, even before I was finished with college, 
at $100 a month. I had gone down to see him because 
he had asked my father to suggest that I go down to 
see him. This was along in November of 1399, in my 
fourth year in college. So the remainder of that 
year I had these things in mind: should I look toward 
journalism with Mr* Holman or go with Dr. Mead? I might 
say here that this was not my last opportunity to go 
with Mr. Holman. After I had decided to go with Dr. 
Mead and been in the work for a year or two I met 
Mr. Holman on the train going from San Francisco to 
Sacramento. He had disposed of his interest in The 
San Jose Mercury and acquired an interest in and was 
editing the Sacramento Union. He invited me to s top 
off and spend the day with him in Sacramento which I 
did. I met and visited with his two editorial writers- 
Franklin Hichborn and Wells Drury. Franklin Hichborn 
of course became very prominent in the Progressive 
movement that culminated in the Hiram Johnson administra 
tion. Wells Drury gave California two very fine 






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63 



Adams: citizens and conservationists in Aubrey Drury and 

Newton B. Drury, the former as secretary of the Save 
the Railroads League, and the latter currently 
director of the State Park Service in California 
after having served for a period as director of the 
National Park Service. 

When late in the evening I left to resume my 
return to Cheyenne Mr. Holman said to me, "Whenever 
you bring your grip and say you're ready to go to 
work with me I still have a place for you." Of 
course, I was then established in the irrigation 
work with Dr. Mead and had no thought of changing 
at that time. Subsequently, Mr. Holman became 
editor of the Argonaut , and so far as I know his 
last newspaper activity was as editor for a brief 
period of the Oakland Tribune. It is ray recollection 

that on the death of a member of the family that 
controlled the Tribune Mr. Holman thought he could 
obtain a controlling interest in it and edited it 
for oerhaps only a few months when Joseph P.. Knoviland 
got control. My timing may be in error. It may be 
that he was editor of the Argonaut after his brief 
time with the Tribune. 






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Cache Creek Investigation 

Adams: As previously explained I entered Stanford In '96, 

but with partial standing. I was to make up entrance 
deficiencies by examination and by taking extra units 
of college work. On account of this and my newspaper 

work, I couldn't take a full college load, so at the 

.j 

end of my fourth year in June, 1900,1 still had a 
semester to go; however, the irrigations investigation 
in California was about to begin. I reported to Dr. 
Mead as ready for duty, because I had definitely 
decided to go with him rather than into newspaper 
work with Mr. Holman. Dr. Mead had concluded that 
I would first work as an assistant to Mr. J. M. Wilson 
in the study of irrigation on Cache Creek up near 
Woodland. He thought it desirable that I should have 
some field experience because I knew nothing of 
irrigat on. I had seen my first irrigation on the 
excursion with the agricultural college people in the 
summer of '99. Mr. Wilson had not yet arrived for 
the work on Cache Creek so Dr. Mead directed me to 
report to the California Water and Forest Association 
in San Francisco. That had been organized a year or 
two previously and had raised money to help finance 
the investigation under Dr. Mead. 






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Baum: This was a private organization? 

Adams: Yes. They raised a fairly large sum, perhaps 

$20,000 or $30,000, by private subscription and 
arranged with the Office of Experiment Stations of 
the Department of Agriculture and the Geological 
Survey and the Division of Forestry of the Department 
of Agriculture to undertake a study of water and 
forest matters in California. 

Baum: Who were members of this association? 

Adams: The president was Mr. William Thomas, who was a very 
prominent lawyer in San Francisco. I don't recall 
all the members, but they were such men as Fred W. 
Dohrmann, Arthur H. Briggs, who was important in 
State Board of Agriculture work, and T. Gary 
Friedlander who was secretary of the San Francisco 
Chamber of Commerce, I believe, and very much interested 
in forestry. Trying to find something to do pending 
beginning the work on Cache Creek about the first of 
July, I called on Mr. William Thomas, president of 
that association. He suggested that while I was 
waiting I look into the irrigation districts situation, 
seeing that organization of irrigation districts had 
been nearly a complete failure in California under 
the old Wright Act. He said that Judge James A. 
McG-uire , former congressman from California, had 







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66 



Adams: reorganized Turlock Irrigation District and put 
it on its feet, also that the Modesto Irrigation 
District was about ready to go ahead again. He 
thought it would be a fine thing to look into the 
history of the whole irrigation district movement. 
That's where I got my first interest in irrigation 
districts. This idea interested me very much, so 
I began assembling information about the old districts, 
first reading the Wright Act of '8?. There was no 
complete list of the old districts available, so 
I addressed a letter to each county clerk in the state 
requesting information as to the names of districts 
organized in his county. At odd times during the 
summer I continued assembling information by mail 
and at the end of the summer had made a fair start. 
However, Mr. Wilson arrived about July 1 and most of 
my time thereafter was devoted to work with him. 

I spent the entire summer with Mr, Wilson on 
Cache Creek. There had been a great deal of litigation 
over water rights involving Cache Creek and Clear 
Lake, out of which Cache Creek flows. Our job was to 
look into the history of that litigation there and 
how the doctrine of appropriation had worked on Cache 

Creek, how the conflicts came about, what the water 
supply was there, what the irrigation practice was a 








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67 



Adams: complete description of the irrigation situation on 
Cache Greek. 

At the end of the season the engineers who had 
participated in the investigation over the state 
were brought together in a conference at the University 
of California campus with President Wheeler as host. 
Dr. Mead had brought the two universities into the 
investigation. The investigation on San Joaquin River 
was made by Professor Frank Soule, head of civil 
Engineering at the University of California. The 
investigation on Salinas River was made by Professor 
Charles D. Marx, head of civil engineering at Stanford. 
He also brought into the investigation Mr. C. E. 
G-runsky, who had been associated in the earlier 
work of the state engineer, William Ham Hall, and 
who was then city engineer of San Francisco. Mr. 
Marsden Manson, who made the investigation on the 
Yuba River, was another engineer who had been largely 
identified with irrigation in California. For the study 
of storage and irrigation on the San Jacinto River 
and Sweetwater River Mr. James D. Schuyler was in 
charge. He was a very well-known engineer and highly 
thought of, and he was recognized as an authority 
on storage o Mr. E. M. Boggs wrote the report on the 
Los Angeles River The investigation o n the Susan 








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68 



Adams: River in Honey Lake Valley was made by Mr. William 
E. Smythe. I can best describe him as a publicist. 
He was quite a writer, an enthusiast in reclamation 
matters, not an engineer. I think that he had some 
early association with efforts to reclaim Honey Lake 
Valley. Mr. Wilson acted as an engineer-consultant 
for Mr. Smythe on the Susan River to keep him straight 
in that field. At the end of that conference the 
engineers drew up a statement of principles of 
legislation which they considered were needed in 
California to straighten out the water right situation. 
I attended that and listened in on it. 

President Wheeler showed great interest in 
the investigations and in what was proposed in the 
way of legislation. At the end of the conference 
he invited Dr. Mead to come to California and organize 
a department of irrigation at the University. Dr. 
Mead did not desire to give up his position as expert 
in charge of Irrigation Investigations in the Depart 
ment of Agriculture, but he consented to organize 
the department and to give about a six-week course 
of lectures each year, as well as to assign one of 
his assistants to act in his absence to give regular 
instructions in irrigation and to take charge of 






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69 



Adams : 






Baum: 
Adams 



irrigation investigations in California in cooperation 
with the University. That arrangement was carried 
out and Dr. Mead gave his first course in the spring 
of 1901. 









On the completion of the work on Cache Creek, 
I accompanied Mr. Wilson first to Reno and then to 
Cheyenne to assist in preparing a report. I returned 
to Stanford in January of 1901, I was therefore in 
my last semester at Stanford when Dr. Mead gave his 
first course of lectures at the University of California, 
Dr. Mead had been out of college work for a good many 
years. He felt a little nervous about the University 
contacts and he thought I could help him in his work. 

He asked me if I wouldn't come down. I obtained a 
leave of absence of six weeks and worked with Dr. 
Mead in getting material together for his lectures. 
This made it tough for me to finish my work at Stan 
ford, but I made it and got through in June, 1901. 

It was a fine experience. Dr. Mead's lectures, 
with some revision, were published about the following 
year as his little book on irrigation institutions. 
Can you remember your early impressions of Dr. Mead? 
I was very strongly attached to him. My relationships 
with him were very intimate. During those six weeks 
of the lectures we had rooms at Professor Soul&'s 






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70 



Adams; home on Hillegass Avenue and I was with Dr. Mead 

constantly during the days and evenings on the work. 

Baum: What did he look like in his younger days? 

Adams: He had a rather youthful appearance. He was in his 
early forties. 

Work in the Washington Office of the 
Office of Experiment Stations. 1901-1902 

Adams: On completing my work at Stanford I reported to Dr. 
Mead. He directed me to proceed to Cheyenne, which 
was the field headquarters. I got there, not knowing 
what he was going to have me do. Within a few days 
after arrival, word came that he had been in a streetcar 
accident in Washington and his right arm had been 
amputated. That, of course, was a great shock to us 
there in Cheyenne. About a week later a wire came 
from Dr. True, director of the Office of Experiment 
Stations within which the irrigation work was conducted, 
directing me to proceed to Washington to be with Dr. 
Mead. Dr. Mead had recently established the main 
headquarters of the Irrigation Investigations in 
Washington. 

I went there and was with him every day in the 
hospital while he was there and accompanied him to 
Atlantic City where I was with him while he recuperated. 






. 

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terl^Bi a t>i 
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-.Janji 
.l^flJS Jnemlisc 

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rloiflv; t : . ?sM 

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d >>u bn :ixi9w I 

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71 



Adams: I remained in Washington until February of 1902. 

My work was principally editorial. Various reports 
would come in from the irrigation men in the field, 
and I did editorial work on these reports and some of 
the final work on the report of the California inves 
tigations which was about to be published as Bulletin 
Number 100, Office of Experiment Stations, Department 
of Agriculture. Dr. Mead had me prepare a rather 
extensive review of this report which was transmitted 

to the Chronicle^ and published under my by-line. The 
purpose, of course, was to publicize this report in 
California, especially the recommendations regarding 
water rights legislation. The other reports on 
which I worked which I candef initely r ecall were a 
report on irrigation in Wisconsin by Professor P. H. 
King of the University of Wisconsin, and one on the 
irrigation of rice down in the southern states by 
Prank Bond. 

Of course I became very intimately associated 
with the others in the Office of Experiment Stations. 
The Office of Experiment Stations was set up to deal 
with the experiment stations and agricultural colleges 
in connection with their use of federal funds under 
the Hatch and Morrill acts and subsequent acts. 








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Adams: It made annual inspections of their work and use of 
federal money. I was in a large room in which five 
or six, in fact, practically all the other members 
of the Office of Experiment Stations were working. 
There were Dr. E. V. Wilco^ Walter H. Evans, John I. 
Schulte, G. B. Smith (son of the director of the 
Michigan College of Agriculture, whom I'd met on 
that early excursion), Dr. C. P. Langworthy, D. J. 
Qf>sby and D. W. May (I think I have all of these 
initials correct.) Being right there in the same 
room with them every day I got to know them very well. 
That's where I met my wife, although we weren't 
married until five years later. She was a secretary, 
did my work. After I left Washington, she worked 
directly with Dr. Mead. 

Years later, when I became connected withthe 
College of Agriculture, several of these men came 
out on the annual inspection of the experiment 
station so I had a chance to renew the old association. 
They were long-lasting friendships I made there in 
that old office. The experience, of course, was a 
very valuable one to a young man just starting out. 

' 
Washington, D. _C. 

Baum: What was Washington like when you were there? 






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73 



Adams: It was, of course, very interesting* Arriving 

there during mid-summer during an unusually hot spell, 
the city seemed a sleepy place to me. The population, 
as I recall it, wa* only about 150,000 although it has 
become way over a million now. It was not uncommon 
to see shacks scattered among the residences even 
in some of the better areas. The central shopping 
area was confined largely to P and G Streets aid 
Pennsylvania Avenue from about 12th Street to the 
Treasury Building on 15th Street. The only new and 
modern government building was the Congressional 
Library. This was considered a marvel, and it really 
was. 

Most everyone you met seemed to be "in office," 
meaning working in a> me way for the government. I 
guess that expression is still common there. 

It was not long after I arrived that the tempo 
of the city was quickened by Theodore Roosevelt 
becoming President. I was in Washington when McKinley 
was assassinated and Roosevelt took over. His vibrant 
personality seemed to permeate the city, especially, 
of course, the political life. I lived in a boarding 
house on 15th Street Just across the street from tiie 
little Swedenborgian church which Roosevelt attended. 
He always walked up from the White House trailed by 



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4>0orf3lB 000^061 Quod's Tjlrro BBW ^t 

OHJJ cton BBW ctT .won noJtJIIiax B 'x; . acf 

neve e&on^ -us >e r sria eee oct 

' 3^1q^. . sen* oe nl 

f> IB ed'eei.jS >HB *5 o^ ~%L egie [ b^ailnco sew i-eis 

ed^ o* 4 cioi' sinsvl^nnel 

frns wen. .^esi .;. no ..uS ^"Bfi^i' 1 

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I . ,p w em OB ni 

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I :e31fl sciol ton BBW ctl 
^. ; ;" Jbenf "> ettt to 

eew I . ieeiSt 

Jleveeoofl I b9^nieB 
a^^Eraeq o* hemese ^i 
I .altl laoWlioq edrf 8ix/oo lo 

BEOIOB *ewt *' -^ no oei 

.ftc vJtnw rioi0rf flei; 

a fieliBi^ eei/oli V ad^ moil qw foe^Lew e^ewX* eH 






Adams: several of his sons and his younger daughter. They 
seemed to have difficulty in keeping up with him. 
Another event that stirred the city in that 
summer was the court martial to determine whether 
Admiral Samson or Commodore Schley was entitled to 
credit for destroying the Spanish fleet which had 
been bottled up in the harbor of Santiago, Cuba 
during the Spanish American War, I spent an afternoon 
listening to the proceedings which were presided 
over by Admiral Dewey. I sat near enough to Admiral 
Dewey and the other men to get a clear impression of 
each of them. Admiral Dewey seemed to me to stand 
out head and shoulders above the others. 

With the coming of fall, and especially with the 
opening of Congress early in December the social life 
of the city took on new emphasis. Of course I had 
no personal contact with this, but could not help 
but be aware of it. I did have opportunity to 
attend two of the President's receptions in the 
White House, where I had the privilege of shaking 
hands with him. Washington was then a great theater 
city, and it was not uncommon for plays to come down 
from New York for their premiere in Washington. 
It was fascinating to watch the celebrities, especially 
those of the diplomatic corps, as they arrived or 






.i > legatio^ a-*** &IB eflce eld Ic l*tevea 

,-iw qu : rrrf nl ^.fuc.mib evBxi oS fcenese 

*srfcf nJ ^ito erltf bet c (Jt;t8 isrfJ inave 

terftferfw enlxcterfab cct lBj.(ti 

r\ ^ _^ i"> 

oeaiBS 

Tiw *t : ' ori* ' -icfaeb TO! 

BC f, . qu beltfrfod n< 

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bebJtaeiq s - * gn.lnecfelJ 

teen tfB I .^weG IfiilirbA Y d '*evo 

nem n : bns TjeweC 

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,rfe bnB bBerl cfuo 
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r Y-^i ; -:ancO 1( >qo 

5 fif .BlBBriqne wr* ^lo ari^ ^o 

^ud ,eJi - on 

: ^^Jtni:*--' -varf bib I .^1 lo eaawfl ed *0d 

;t nl BHC' s'ltnebleei 1 ! ertt lo ot bne^d 1 * 

; lo ej\ellviiq exii bad I ctsriw .eft/oH e*i 

^eeiict ^Beig R ne ' ;rf ef " f! 

n;- nouanc' '^aw ^1 .'J^lo 

asW nl eielaietq ileri^ tol 7(10* we? 

JeJeo erl* rio^Bw r - >w *I 

TO b^-'ttlB VAri^ 8fl .EOT' "i*> ft rf* ' ! 



Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 















departed in their beautiful horse-drawn carriages. 
However, what was really most striking in Washington 
during that fall and winter was the dynamic personality 
of President Theodore Roosevelt, 

One thing that surprised me was the absence of 
news from California and other western areas in the 
Washington city newspapers. I had to subscribe to 
the San Francisco Chronicle In order to keep posted 
on what was going on in California, 



Lobbying Duties 

While in Washington did you have to do any lobbying 

in support of your appropriation? 

The only lobbying I did in Washington was very brief. 

In those days some of those associated with the 
movement for the Reclamation Act were opposed to 
Dr. Mead's ideas on federal reclamation and were 
constantly trying to cut off Dr. Mead's appropriations 
in the Department of Agriculture, so Dr. Mead had 
to be on the constant look out to keep his fences 
built in Congress. The appropriation for our work 
when I was In Washington was, I think, only about 
f 50,000, but that was a great deal of money in those 
days. The House almost always cut that down to a 
very small figure. Dr. Mead had to call on Senator 



.triso nwjetJb-eeiori lullcftfjaed fieri* ni bd^teqefo 3bA 

IriesW nl snWliia cteom \ oH 

rr^b eritf eew istfnlw bna Ilfl'i 

.tflevseoofl e^ 
em bseiiqius cfr .. 

SBQ1B ii18^88V' 1: : rjB JSiaiOllIsO fllCll 

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larrsbel ftc ' b^eM .*jC 

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.olcfBl-icciqca arPT ,P il ^Ilwf 

^Ino ,3(fllr&t I t 8*w i BW I neriw 

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o^ nwob ^Bri* rfi/o a-^BwIa tfeomls sai/oH 9riT 

no HBO o^ bri bBeM .ia . -11 II* 



76 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams 
Baura: 
Adams ; 



Francis E. Warren and Congressman Prank Mondell of 
Wyoming and others of his friends in Congress to get 
it restored 

One day Dr. Mead asked me to see Congressman 
Julius Kahn of California and Congressman Victor H. 
Metcalf of California to enlist their support in our 
appropriation in Congress. I called on Mr. Kahn. 
He was very gracious and promised to help out. I 
then called on Mr. Metcalf. He reminded me that 
just a few days previously President Roosevelt had 
issued an order positively forbidding any members of 
department staffs to lobby for support of their 
appropriations. I was through then. I had to leave. 
That was the extent of my lobbying in Washington. 

I have a letter here I wrote to my father in 
1901 regarding our efforts to get our appropriation, 
(reads letter). This Is very interesting. May I 
include it in the appendix of this interview? 
Yes, if you think this desirable. (See Appendix for 
letter. ) 









Did your office always have to keep pressuring to 



keep your appropriation up? 



1 



That was true for many years. Those in the field 
in irrigation work had as one of their duties to 









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nJ ebneltl eld lo eiertto bne 






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o* gn ti/Jeseiq qsesf o* evfiri Y BW -f fl ftoll" 

Tqu nol*Bl' ' 

bl^l*} - riT .STB^Y Y*l* fff * !C ' i t?)Lr ^ 

c* sel*/ rf* lo one as barf M-iow ncl*sslitl 






. 



Adams: attend conventions and get legislatures and associations 
interested in irrigation and reclamation to pass 
resolutions favoring our appropriations, I had a 
little of this experience in lobbying years later 
when temporarily in California from Cheyenne during 
the illness of Mr. Wilson who was in charge there. 
I remember leaving one night to go up to see 
Will S. Green, who was head of the Sacramento Valley 
Development Association and long known as the "father 
of irrigation in the Sacramento Valley." They were 
having a meeting of this association in Colusa and I 
took the train, got up there after dark, registered 
at a hotel, and asked where I could find Mr. Green. 
I was told the board of directors of the association 
were having a meeting upstairs right then. So I 
went up and sat down. I was recognized by the secretary 
of the board, Mr. Harry Stabler of Yuba City. He 
came down and asked if there was anything he could 
do for me. I explained what was wanted. I had in 
pocket a resolution already prepared, of course. I 
read it to him. He said, "That's all right." I 
sat down. In fifteen or twenty minutes it was passed 
and I left the meeting and returned to Berkeley. 

Baum: Did you have many contacts with Will S. Green? 

Adams: I met him first in 1900 at a meeting of the Sacramento 



TT 



ear bflfl ae-ntftBlalsel 3g boa encl^nevnoo brie,' 

q erf nolcfBraBloei fine , beieeietfnl 

.em ' raliqcia-'B 100 s-tiC'V*l eaoWirXoe 
i8i-l BiBC-t snlYddol ni 8Ofliieqxt< ' to eld-ctil 
gnlii/f) erurie^eriO trcit .: ni ^.a-;noqed' 

oifw ,t eenlli erf* 

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srf;t ' IrfjslocRaA ^newqoIevsC 

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beie^Bl- 5 sis . -=ii orf 

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ib 1o biBcef srf^ blo^ saw I 

I .08 , -i Pi'rl.v.. <m fl gnlvcrf ei9fcf 

. rob rfB8 I ctnew 

. iiO BdtrY lc . t biBod srirf lo 

-a CBW sieri^ 11 bo^es bflB nwob amBO 

.bs^nBw EQW *rfw bealfllqxs I .e ob 

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:ia 8 ! t blBs eH .irf od cti baei 

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le^i" :ti/;fet fene 

II1V sd-oe:/ evflrf iroif blG 

o j ericf to gnlcfeiMi B rfe 00^1 ;H mixl cfaei I 



78 



Adams: Valley Development Association at Colusa and saw him 

frequently In later years at meetings of the association. 
He was a very forceful man and very much devoted to 
the cause. He was largely responsible for organizing 
the old Central Irrigation District back in 1897. 
I read that he superintended the construction of the 
Central Canal which later became the nucleus of Glenn- 
Colusa and other irrigation districts of that area. 
Another example, Henry T. Gage was governor of 
California in the early 1900' s. I was temporarily 
in California from Cheyenne. Word came fron Dr. Mead 
that I was to see Governor Gage and get him to support 
a resolution in the legislature. So I went up to 
Sacramento and found that he was in the Palace Hotel 
In San Francisco. I returned Immediately to San 
Francisco to the Palace and found that he had returned 
to Sacramento. So I went back to Sacramento and was 
ushered into his office and very cordially received. 
He was rather a gruff and formal kind of man, but he 
indicated that he would help us and I assume he did, 
I don't remember, but we got our appropriation. 

At that time the legislature was appropriating 
a small amount to our work, the Geological Survey work, 
the Forestry work, topographic surveys, and stream- 
gauging. It came in the form of a biennial appropriation. 






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79 









Adams: About 1908 Mr. Clyde Seavey, secretary of the State 
Board of Examiners, got the legislature to pass a 
continuing appropriation so we no longer had to do 
that regular lobbying. 

I had a long and very friendly association with 
Clyde Seavey through the years, a very fine man, one 
of the ablest and most devoted public servants I ever 
knew. The State Board of Examiners was changed to 
the State Board of Control and Mr. Seavey became a 
member. Later he became a member of the State 
Railroad Commission and from that he became a member 
of the Federal Power Commission, My last contact with 
him was while he was chairman of the Federal Power 
Commission in Washington, about 193^4-. He should have 
been governor of California. He would have made a 
very great governor. He was highly regarded everywhere. 

Baum: I take it you disliked your public relations duties. 

Adams: I hated to go after legislative support for money. 
My other public relations I liked. In fact, my 
whole work involved people, I never felt I learned 
very much in the office. I had to learn in the field. 
Whatever I was doing I thought out in the environment 
of my subject, in contact with the people involved. 
So that type of public service I enjoyed. 

Baum: In other words, you like to give service and assistance. 

Adams: Yes. 






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80 



RECLAMATION ACT .OF 1902 AND .DR. ELWOOD MEAD 

* &.! 

Pressures for a Reclamation Act 

- 

Baum: You were In Washington about the time the Reclamation 
Act was passed. 

Adams: The movement for a reclamation act was just coming 


to a head at that time, 1901-1902. There were two 

national organizations concerned with irrigation and 
reclamation, the National Irrigation Congress and the 
National Irrigation Association. The National 
Irrigation Congress was widely representative of the 
irrigation interests in the West. It met annually 
in different cities in the West, had a large attendance 
and was primarily concerned with administrative, 
engineering, agricultural and other local problems. 
It was, of course, much interested in obtaining federal 
aid, but that was by no means its main function. The 
National Irrigation Association, on the other hand, 
was a purely promotional organization devoted to 
campaigning for federal aid. It presumably had 
prominent westerners as officers, but the real directing 
power was George H. Maxwell, a San Francisco attorney 
who had been employed earlier by large land owners in 
the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys to fight opera 
tions under the Wright Irrigation District Act. 






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81 



Adams: He was the one who carried the Wright Act to the 

United States Supreme Court which finally resulted 
In the act b eing declared constitutional in the 
famous Pallbrook Case. 

Well, Mr. Maxwell got his largest financial 
support, I'm quite sure, from the western railroads 
which supplied him with $30,000 a year for his pro 
paganda. The interest of the railroads was, of course, 
to build up the country through which their lines 
passed. The states and local communities also pressed 
for federal aid. In Washington the governmental 
agency that was most directly concerned was the 
Geological Survey, Follow irg the Investigations 
of Major Powell, the Geological Survey had been 
studying the lands and forests and measuring the 
streams. It was the Geological Survey which was to 
be the agency through which the proposed Reclamation 
Act would be administered. It had probably already 
been determined that P. H. Newell, head of the 
hydrographic branch of Geological Survey, would be 
in charge. At any rate, he was very active in the 
promotion. Allied with him were the heads of several 
bureaus in the Department of Agriculture, notably 
Gifford Pinchot who was head of the then Division 
of Forestry and Milton Whitney, chief of the Bureau 






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Adams: of Soils* 

Baum: What were Dr. Mead's ideas about federal aid? Did 
he favor passage of the Reclamation Act? 

Adams: Dr. Mead vas strongly in favor of federal aid, but he 

did not believe the urgent need at that time was 
reclamation of additional public lands. Most of the 
land in the irrigated areas of the West was already 
under private ownership. In some sections what was 
needed was storage of spring floods to supply late 
summer irrigation needs. The storage he had particularly 
in mind was that in the channels of streams. He 
believed this should be under public control in order 
to avoid water rights controversies in the use of the 
water stored. In some other sections the areas under 
canals already constructed greatly exceeded the areas 
Irrigated. Dr. Mead believed the aid needed in those 
sections was such as would ease the burden of settlers 
and hasten the settlement of the area. 

He probably had more knowledge as t o the water 
needs of the western states than anyone else and his 
primary interest was in federal aid that w ould help 
solve existing problems. Anyone interested in really 
understanding the irrigation situation in the West at 
that time should read the last chapter of Dr. Mead's 
book, Irrigation Institutions, published by MacMillan 



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83 



Adams: in 1903. I think Mr. Maxwell and those associated 

with him in the Geological Survey, on the other hand, 
were strongly in favor of the government itself going 
into the irrigation business on a large scale. 

Baum: I should think Mr. Maxwell would not have wanted 

that government participation in as much as it also 
meant regulations, such as the 160-acre limitation. 

Adams: That 160-acre limitation was introduced into the 
bill in Congress. Matters of that kind, however, 
didn't come up much in the campaign for the act. 

The propaganda for federal aid largely centered 
in the Geological Survey and in Mr. Maxwell and those 
associated with him. The knowledge of the West 
possessed by the Geological Survey must have been 
considerable. For many years the Geological Survey 
had been measuring extremes in the West and s tudying 
the public lands. They framed their ideas as to the 
type of reclamation there should be in> the West on 
that experience. Dr. Mead, on the other hand, had 
the point of view of the irrigators primarily. He 
wasn't so much concerned then with the public lands. 

When President Roosevelt came to write his first 
message to Congress he asked Senator Warren of 
Wyoming to confer with him about how he should treat 
federal aid for reclamation. Senator Warren recommended 






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Adams 









that he call in Dr. Mead. 

I might go back a little here and say that It 
was Senator Warren who had been instrumental in getting 
Mr. Mead to leave Colorado Agricultural College and go 
to Wyoming as territorial engineer and to prepare with 
Senator Warren the first irrigation act for this territory. 
Senator Warren undoubtedly also had been instrumental 

in getting Dr. Mead into the Department of Agriculture 

ai 

to head the Irrigation Investigations there. Well, 
President Roosevelt did ask Dr. Mead to confer with him 
and was very much interested in what Dr. Mead suggested. 
He said very emphatically, "That's what I want. Write 
it out. Send It to me. n 

Dr. Mead went back to the office and asked me to 
sit in with him while he was preparing this letter. When 
the letter was finished Dr. Mead had me take it over to 
the White House. 

When the message came out it had a good deal of Dr. 
Mead's letter, almost verbatim or substantially verbatim, 
and expressed very clearly Dr. Mead's ideas. To reinforce 

myself on that I went over to the library the other day 



and had this photostat Ic copy made of that part of the 
message that referred to reclamation legislation. 






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Dr. Mead' s Background in Western Irrigation 






- ' * 
Irrigation Laws of Colorado 

Baum: What was Dr. Mead's background in irrigation in the 

western states? 
Adams: Dr. Mead came out to Colorado in the early '80's. 



For about three years, but not continuously, he was 
a professor of irrigation at the Colorado Agricultural 
College at Port Collins. There he was able to become 
thoroughly acquainted with the Colorado system of 
administering water rights. 

Except for Utah, which had administered water 
rights largely under regulations set up by the Mormon 
Church, Colorado was the only state in the West that 
had adopted a comprehensive water code. All the other 
states had followed a simple procedure which had 
developed in California during the early mining days. 
By that procedure anyone desiring to appropriate water 

would post a notice of appropriation on the bank of 


the stream from which water was to be t aken and file 

a copy of this notice In the office of the county clerk. 
There was no check by any authorities as to whether 
the appropriation was perfected by diversion and use of 
the waterj there was no check as to the quantities to 



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86 



Adams: be appropriated. The county clerks' offices were 

filled -with these notices of appropriation, some of 
which were indefinite as to amount or not clear in 
other respects. Some would call for the appropriation 
of all the water in the stream. It was impossible 
to tell from the county records whether appropriations 
had been perfected by diversion and use. When con 
troversies arose they were carried to the court and 
any decision by the courts would relate only to the 
relative rights of the parties to the suit. There 
was no way in which all the claimants to water on a 
stream could be brought into the suit, or at least 
there was no procedure of that kind. The litigation 
might settle the rights as between the parties to the 
suit, but not as against all other approprlators on 
the s tream. 

The Colorado code made very distinct advances. 
It set up the office of state engineer and provided 
that all appropriations for water in the state should 
be filed in his office. The state also established 
water divisions and water districts for administering 
the distribution of water. Furthermore, which was 
very important, the law authorized any appropriator 
to bring Into a suit all claimants to water on the 
stream. 









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Adams : 



Adams: 



In addition to being at the s tate agricultural 
college, Dr. Mead was, for a brief time I believe, 
associated with the state engineer as assistant state 
engineer. At any rate, he was able to become fully 
familiar with the Colorado law and to notice its 
shortcomings. One was that there was no provision 
for the state engineer to check on the appropriations 
that were filed in his office, nor as to whether 
appropriations were actually completed by diversion 
and use of water, nor as to the capacities of the 
ditches and canals, nor as to the amounts of water 
actually put to use. Furthermore, in the absence of 
any e xpert testimony regarding these matters from 
the state engineer in the litigation, the courts 
awarded many excess decrees. That is, they adjudicated 
the rights largely as to the capacities of the ditches 
rather than as to the amount of water used. When 
working in Colorado in 1903 I tabulated the total 
adjudications and the total diversions on one stream 
and found a wide discrepancy. 

Irrigation Laws of Wyoming 



In 1888 Mr, Mead went to Wyoming as territorial 
engineer. Between then and 1890 when Wyoming became 
a state a constitution was drafted and adopted. It 



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Adams: included a provision that all the water i n the state 
belonged to the state. This was the first instance 
of such constitutional provision. 

When Wyoming became a state Mr. Mead became 
state engineer. The first thing necessary was to 
draft a law which would provide means by which water, 
now the property of the state, would be administered. 
Mr. Mead is generally understood to have drafted that 
law, and I am sure he did. Francis E. Warren, later 
Senator Warren, had a good deal to do with it also. 
Legislation is frequently the result of the ideas of 
a number of people, but I am sure the basic provisions 
of the Wyoming law were adapted by Mr. Mead in the 
light of the knowledge he had gained while at Port 
Collins, Mr. Mead's ideas and general philosophy 
regarding the administration of water in the West 
had been influenced by the work of Major John Wesley 
Powell of the Qsological Survey, Major Powell made 
a long study of the lands, waters, and forests of 
the West and had written his classic report, Lands of 
the Arid Region. Mr. Mead knew Major Powell and was 
thoroughly familiar with his work. 

Baum: What were the major provisions of the Wyoming law? 

Adams: The office of state engineer was created and the 
state engineer was given general administrative 



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89 



Adams: authority over the waters of the state. Anyone 

desiring to appropriate water was required to file an 
application with the state engineer with adequate 
maps and other descriptions to indicate the place and 
nature of the appropriation. The application would 
then be examined by the state engineer and if he found 
that water was available and that the application was 
in order he would issue a permit to appropriate. The 
law specified that the appropriation must be completed 
within a certain period. At the end of that period 
the state engineer would examine the works built by 
the appropriator and the land irrigated and would 
issue a license to appropriate the amount of water 
specified in the license. This became a permanent 
right. 

Of course , before the Wyoming law had been adopted 
many water appropriations had been made In the state 
and it was now necessary to adjudicate these In order 
to clear up the records. Instead of having the courts 
adjudicate these rights, the Wyoming law provided 
that they should be administratively adjudicated. A 
state board of control was set up composed of the 
state engineer and the superintendents of the two 
or three hydrographic divisions into which the state 
was divided. The adjudication began by having the 



.etstfe erfef *ro sis^sw eritf tavo Y--' s :6MBf>A 

as el" rrectew qoi 

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2Ir .nci^Bliqoiqq;? sri* Ic eii^t 

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oiqq o^ H ' s 
SB/ieoJtl 



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..h r^Einlmbfl d blyorfa Y.*ti3 3ed3 

w 3">B BBW Ioxctf c bi*od s^flcte 

>rf^lc acftiebne^fll'rftqire ri* - e^siE 

-f;t rioMi* orfnJt snolelvlb olrfqetgoifcYrf eeirirf 10 
nol*coJbi/f.;B srfT .befclvlb saw 



90 



Adams: superintendent of the division in which the rights 

were to be adjudicated make the necessary surveys to 
determine the location of ditches and of the irrigated 
land. He would take testimony of users up and down 
the stream as to dates of priority, as to water used 
and would then post this information so that all 
interested could have access to it. There w ould then 
be a final hearing and, on the basis of all the 
information gathered by the superintendent of the 
division, the State Board of Control would adjudicate 
the priorities. There was, of course, appeal to the 
court on any of the decisions. As a matter of fact, 
there were practically no such appeals. 

As in Colorado, the main hydrographic divisions 
were divided into watermaster districts, or at least 
provision was made for doing this, and watermasters 
were to be appointed to supervise the distribution 
of water within the districts in accordance with the 
priorities as established. The watermasters in each 
case worked under the general supervision of the division 
water superintendents. 

A feature the Wyoming law sought t o eliminate was 
the ownership of water by s peculators. Such speculation 
had been pointed out by Major Powell in his Lands of the 
Arid Region. He believed that only those who used the 






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IlswoSl lotflM t c: .jsocf barf 

9eo.dcf Y^ ^ 5ri * bsvai^'d aH .n 



91 



Adams: water should have the right to it. Adopting this 

principle the Wyoming law provided that there should 
be no direct ownership of water, but only the right 
to use water and that such right should be attached 
to the land Irrigated. In other words, in principle 
the water would belong to the land rather than to 
an individual. 

Roosevelt 1 s Message to_ Congress. 1901 

Adams: Now coming to the President's ideas and to what 

extent they were influenced by Dr. Mead and to what 
extent they differed from Dr. Mead's, I can do best 
by going through this excerpt from his message. It 
is from Volume 35 of the Congressional Record beginning 
on page 86, dated December 3* 1901. 

President Roosevelt was familiar with the West, 
but I think his knowledge was more or less limited to 
his experience in the early '80's up in the Badlands 
of the Dakotas, where he had invested in a cattle 
ranch. That was cattle country. I've never known of 
any knowledge he might have had of the irrigated 
sections of the West. He had a wide knowledge of 
forests and quite a lot of his message is devoted to 
forestry and the effect of forests on the water supply. 
When it came to reclamation, he said, 






i.f jmJctqobA .tfi otf 

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-LA 

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. 

>d bjJC '/I* It : OV xTIOll 8i 

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oct el 10 eioin esw eTabsIwon;-! sir! jinlrtt I *ud 

irfcf ni qtr E'08' ^I-uee arfct nl erneiisqxe aid 

el^.iBO B nl bs^p.evnl bsrf erf ate . BSoiBG sri^ lo 

igvsn av'I .^i^rujoo sI^^BO RBW ^riT ,riont 

boJ-BT,lTil erfJ lo bsri ov> ' egbelwoftif Y B 

7 bBrf eH . lo cnolctoee 

ei eseeBem alri Ic e^lup bnB 

no aJeeiol lo d'oel'if' arf* bn 
. tfiflrtlr * 




Dr. Elwood Mead 



92 



Adams: The forests alone cannot, however, fully 

regulate and conserve the waters of the arid 
region. Great storage works are necessary to 
equalize the flow of the streams and to save 
the flood waters. Their construction has been 
conclusively shown to be an undertaking too vast 
for private effort. Nor can it be best accom 
plished by the individual States acting alone. 
Par-reaching interstate problems are involved; 
and the resources of single States would often 
be inadequate. 



Then he made his argument for federal aid. What he 
said In that connection was generally accepted as 
sound and fully concurred in by Dr. Mead. Dr. Mead 
even went so far as to believe that these federal 
works in aid of irrigation should be paid for by the 
government beyond the amount the farmers themselves 
could afford to pay. 

Baum: You mean that it shouldn't be paid for by the benefited 
lands only? 

Adams: I wouldn't put it quite that way. Everyone believed 
the proceeds of the public lands should be devoted 
to that purpose. The President, in his message, 
stated that the works should be repaid for as far 
as possible by those who used the water. I think Dr. 
Mead would have gone a little farther than anyone 
else at that time as to the extent the federal govern 
ment should assume part of the cost, but I'm not sure 
about that. I know he believed water from the govern 
ment projects should be given free during the early 



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vel I ad 1 en* 
ed 



93 



Adams: years while settlers were being established, leaving 
repayment to the future. 

To quote further from the President's message: 

The Government should construct and maintain these 
reservoirs as it does other public works. 

Now comes a very important statement, which I 
am sure was a contribution by Dr. Mead because it 
represents a very important point in his philosophy. 

Where tbelr purpose is to regulate the flow of 
streams, the water should be turned freely into 
the channels in the dry season to take the same 
course under the same laws as the natural flow. 

Although Dr. Mead stressed the need for water s torage 
in order to eliminate water shortages in periods of 

low stream flow and although he felt there was no 


need at that time for reclaiming further areas of 

public land, I'm sure he agreed in general with the 
President's statement regarding reclamation of the 
public lands. Let me quote further from the President: 

The reclamation of the unsettled arid public 
lands presents a different problem. Here it is 
not enough to regulate the flow of streams. The 
object of the Government is to dispose of the 
land to settlers who will build homes upon it. 
To accomplish this object water must be brought 
within their reach. 

I believe Dr. Mead would also have approved this 
statement from the message: 

The pioneer settlers on the arid public domain 
chose their homes along streams from which they 
could themselves divert the water to reclaim 






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moil 



nlr its erf^ no etel^^fle -T^snolq sriT 

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Adams: their holdings. Such opportunities are practically 
gone. There remain, however, vast areas of public 

land which can be made available for homestead 
settlement, but only by reservoirs and main-line 
canals impracticable for private enterprise. 
These irrigation works should be built by the 
National Government. The lands reclaimed by them 
should be reserved by the Government for actual 
settlers, and the cost of Construction should be 
as far as possible repaid by the land reclaimed. 

Now I will read some sections of the President's 
message w hi ch most fully express Dr. Mead's ideas as 
to federal reclamation. I'm sure that in substance, 
and in part verbatim, they were taken from Dr. Mead's 
letter * 

The policy of the National Government should be 
to aid Irrigation in the several States and 
Territories in such manner as will enable the 
people in the local communities to help themselves, 
and as will stimulate needed reforms in the State 
laws and regulations governing Irrigation. 

The necessary foundation has already been 
laid for the inauguration of the policy just 
described. It would be unwise to begin by doing 
too much, for a great deal will doubtless be 
learned, both as to what can and what can not be 
safely attempted, by the early efforts, which 
must of necessity be partly experimental in char 
acter. .. . 

Whatever the Ration does for the extension 
of Irrigation should harmonize with, and tend to 
improve, the condition of those now living on 
irrigated land. We are not at the s tarting point 
of this development.... A high degree of enterprise 
and ability has been shown in the work Itself; 
but as much cannot be said in reference to the 
laws relating thereto. The security and value 
of the homes created depend largely on the 
stability of titles to water; but the majority 
of these rest on the uncertain foundation of 
court decisions rendered in ordinary suits at law. 



p.ol: >13la- '"oi/ B 

is tfssv -ivawori t n(j8at9^ oterfT 
rKteattf eldfilxBve ebjsn: ?,rfw bnBl 

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..-jfflloeT ebr ' ' .ctnomnT [BriO-MBE 

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T^enc" fons t f:TI3;tee 

.be ' IdlBBoq BJS tfll B* 



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>e>! 



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^dda ^J 
-ifjrlo e '^Ic'' >i ^di^ to 



noisned 1 - tol seob ooldBH arid 1 ived*rfW 

. n'djtw aslftomiflrf 5I0< r tl lo 

no g^ r J'on eeorf ^ridtbnoo rid qwi 

. -flJ 

sengeb rfgirl A, . . .dnsfficjoJ 
tll^;;- i*r erid nl aworie ned eari 

-i-ielei nl bias ed donnBO rioim RB t0d 

.od gn.t 

X bneqeb bejeato ssmorf "-rfd lo 

' 
:tBbnr/ol nl*dieontf f 

fbio nl beiftT^nei enolalcsb 



Adams: With a few creditable exceptions, the arid 

States have failed to provide for the certain 

and just division of streams In times of scarcity. 

Lax and uncertain laws have made it possible 

to establish rights to water in excess of actual 

uses or necessities, and many streams have already 

passed into private ownership, or a control 

equivalent to ownership, 

I am sure inclusion in the President's message 

of these views relating t o desirable federal policy 

' 

were a great disappointment to Mr. Maxwell, Mr. Newell, 

and the others associated with promoting federal aid. 
It was just such views as these expressed in the 
President's message that had caused the rift between 
them and Mr. Mead. They were not interested in 
strengthening state administration of water and fitting 
the federal policy Into local needs. They were 
embarked on a program of vast federal reclamation 
works and wanted no interference. 

Another matter on which Dr. Mead felt very 
strongly was expressed in the President's message. 

It was that relating to private ownership of water 
. 

apart from the land. This was a fundamental to Dr. 

Mead, and I believe the language of the President's 
message is almost exactly that contained in Dr. 
Mead's letter. I quote further: 

Whoever controls a stream practically controls 
the land it renders productive, and the doctrine 
of private ownership of water apart from land 
cannot prevail without causing enduring wrong. 






,anol?qo^ ' co wel B 

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; 'Jo eam.tcf nl airuseicj-e taut 

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evarf Binflei^E Y^J 861 ^ n to eeeu 

enwo eif> ! beeeBq 



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,rf ^Br >'n e 

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antfeiniicbjB octBtfr ' ^xlctsn' 
ocl o^nl -^olloa iBisbel erf* 
aiBT.y beJiBdms 

. neisl on bs^n^w bn aafiow 

^i . Mw no ted\ H oA 

^r!^ nl 

rte Irfeienwo e^evfiq o^ jinl^let .-tri>t caw ^1 

B SBW E T .bnBl rf;t roil *iBqa 

er<5 e ^sBw^nsl erf* evslled I bns , baM 

ni 3rf^ T ' eseBBarn 

:iedtfit/^ > I 



.toBiq mr- 

bne , ooiq atbnfT ^1 fenal 

6nBl moil Ktiaq.'i isctBw lc lo 

';w gn. 1 - jtnlei llsvetq 



96 



Adams: The recognition of such ownership, which has 

been permitted to grow up in the arid regions, 
should give way to a more enlightened and larger 
recognition of the rights of the public in the 
control and disposal of the public water supplies. 
Laws founded upon conditions obtaining in humid 

regions have no proper application in a dry 

country. 

In the arid States the only right to water 
which should be recognized is that of use. In 
irrigation this right should attach to the land 
reclaimed and be inseparable therefrom. Granting 
perpetual water rights to others than users, 
without compensation to the public, is open to 
all the objections which apply to giving away 
perpetual franchises to the public utilities 
of cities. A few of the Western States have 
already recognized this, and have incorporated 
in their constitutions the doctrine of perpetual 
State ownership of water. 

My final quote which brings out Dr. Mead's 
thought : 

Our aim should be not simply to reclaim 
the largest area of land and provide homes for 
the largest number of people, but to create for 
this new industry the best possible social and 
industrial conditions; and this requires that 
we not only understand the existing situation, 
but avail ourselves of the best experience of 
the time in the solution of its problems. A 
careful study should be made, both by the Nation 
and the States, of the irrigation laws and 
conditions here and abroad. Ultimately it will 
probably be necessary for the Nation to cooperate 
with the several arid States in proportion as 
these States by their legislation and administration 
show themselves fit to receive it. 

I think that is sufficient to bring out the 
ideas Mr. Mead had with regard to public aid to 
irrigation. He was interested in the first instance 
in regulating the flow of streams in the existing 






K rfolrfw t qlrfe riocra lc nGi^lngooet r 

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T[ c-J u/ r jjoa ais 

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)Id.tt ''^ YitfRjubni trid- 

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sd srf^ lo eevlee 
cq 8-t/. 1c- ncl^rrloe ft/itf nl '3rcl 
no.Ut , '^JMI ed bluorls \bu3z, 

- i^fi^JLi'ii Brief lo . 

. eoicfe bnB eisrf P: 
flpf eri^ iol Y' IBe8eOf ' n 

eecJB^S b.tiB IBISVCR eri^ 
J Bl8.tssX ilerf.i 
.^1 evieoe^ otf 31! sovleenieri^ v;orir. 



orf d-nsioJlli/R si 
bl: oct biBgsi n'd-tif bBri ,-iM 

ii be^eeiecJ-ni 8 
?>rU nl ajffjaei*8 lo well erf 3 snJtffllr/set nl 



97 



Adams: Irrigated areas so that they would have a full 

season' s supply rather than an ample supply In the 
spring, and little or no water in the fall. 

There is one point I want to go back and emphasize, 
That is that water from federal works should be 
distributed according to state laws. Here is what 
the President said in his message: 

The distribution o f the water, the division 
of the streams among irrigators, should be left 
to the settlers themselves in conformity with 
State laws and without interference with those 
laws or with vested rights. 

I am sure those directly concerned with water in the 
West were fully in accord with the above statement 
from the President's message. I feel just as sure 
that the Geological Survey and Mr. Newell were not. 
Western influence was able to get into the law a 
provision that the federal governjment should apply 
to the states for water rights for their projects 
Just as anyone else might do. I have no right to 
say Just what was in Mr. Newell s mind, but it must 
have been a thorn in his side to go into Mr. Mead's 
state of Wyoming and apply for rights to appropriate 
water for the North Platte project. 






seoifi 

3 ni xlqqtrB elqirrs i + e i ^Irqt/8 8 'nee 

.IlBl erf* ni tectBv . 

-.3 bna 3foBcf 05 <tf tfnsw I ?.i eit 

ad fcliiorfe : tefael mcil Te^je.' al 

be^ircfl 
irf ni bljee 



tb 9ri.-* t ' -trfd 1 c no.Mird.f'ictriJ.b erfT 

lal &cf bluor . ' ' ami* E i^ 'io 

otf 
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avodB en^> ridfw bnooojs nl iH.nt tew 

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JB eld* RBW ; 'terfseW 

^1' Ifliebel ari^ *Bri -^ivoiq 

-08f,OTC t !<-- 'TftCtflW lOl BQ^BCfB 9ff* 

.ob cf-ffjjiit! 



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8'bj?9i . able elrf ni n & ne 



c o^ erfrfsi'i it tqg bn* j /W lo ect_^ 



* 

. 



98 



Controversy Between Mr. Newell and Dr. Mead 



Baum: Can you tell me more about the controversy between 

Mr. Mead, Mr. Maxwell, and Mr. Newell? 


Adams: The controversy was very bitter. It came to be, 

really, a personal matter between them. 

It first came to a head in 1900 In connection 

' 
with a meeting of the National Irrigation Congress in 

Chicago. I was in Cheyenne working with Mr. Wilson 
on the California report. I a sked permission to 
attend that Chicago meeting. Mr. Mead was president 
of the Irrigation Congress that year. Mr. Maxwell, 
who was directing the propaganda of the National 
Irrigation Association, was also chairman of the 
executive committee of the Irrigation Congress. 

Dr. Mead had invited Mr. J. S. Dennis, who was 
head of irrigation in Canada where legislation largely 
copied after the Wyoming law had been enacted, to 
present a paper describing that. When the matter 

got to Mr. Maxwell he stopped it and was in a position 


to force Dr. Mead to cancel that invitation to Mr. 

Dennis. That caused a very bitter feeling in itself 
and was the beginning of that feeling, as far as I 
know. 

Here, I'd like to have you read this letter from 
Dr. Mead to Mr. Dennis withdrawing the invitation. 
This was written in October, 1900. (They read copy 






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vblee'-, . r tM .snl^eeK og*-' 

t flM .if .tjasY ^erirf eeei^floO nol^Bgliil 

lurid *BT1 erirf "io BbnjBSflqciq erfrf snJttfo'iib eaw orfw 
lo riBirilBrlo oelB 3BW ,nci*j3iocaeA nolJaglTiI 
. 
er , :tsC ,2 .L . =*lvnl bBrf 

^rfw ebBflfiO nl nnlrfagjtiil lo basri 
o^ , '. aed berf wI gnlmo^W eritf ns^'ijB belqoo 

.tarn erW n^rfW .3&d3 snldlioeeb nsqa 
leor B n}. BBW boa ^1 beqqode 0r< Ilawxe?-: .iM o* 
,i, -1 ^arfcf Isofljso otf bBK .iG eoio'i 

IXee*! nl ^nlfeet is^^ld -^rtev B baei/flo J-firiT 

^nlleel 3sd3 ' " BW bna 

wooof 
jrctl is^Jel elrfrf bBei 00^ v t ei9H 

ertt gnJwsibrf^lw clnnea .iM o^ baeM . 
T ) , ^dorfoO nl ne^^ltw eaw ei 



99 



Adams 
Baum: 

Adams : 












of letter). 

But that was Mr. Maxwell, Why did this bitterness 

carry over so strongly to Mr. Newell? 

Mr. Maxwell was the principal promoter for federal 

reclamation. He was working with Mr. Newell end others 

for carrying out the type of legislation they wanted. 

They considered Dr. Mead's interest in state laws and 

state authority as standing in their way, Mr. Maxwell 

and Mr. Newell w ere very closely associated. 

Well, that controversy between Mr. Newell and 
Mr, Mead smouldered on for years. It was very, very 



bitter. 









Mr. Mead left the department of Agriculture 
in 1907. He had been invited to g o to Victoria, 
Australia and take charge of the government irrigation 
works there, to be chairman of the state's River and 
Water Supply Commission, Victoria had expended a 
large amount of money on extensive irrigation works 
and very little of the water w as being used. They had 
no settlers. The problem of settlement was the 
problem Dr. Mead had to meet. They had to get that 
water into use so the government w ould get its 
investment back and get the land under irrigation. 
Dr. Mead was in charge of that for the next seven or 
eight years. It was there that he got his ideas on 



lo :ar 

7tf8 .BS 

. 9W9H *I 

lanebe^ tol Tetfor, 'aw IlawxaK ,iM 

b na IIsv/eM .- *tf giil^iow BBV . :id'BfliBloei 

vericf ncid'Bl lo e< 

bn\e EWB! scfr.^e r : . beneblanoo ^jeriT 

^xM . 

.bed ) yi9V lew II9W9I4 .tM 

bna IleweM ,iM noe.vd-o . .vonir 

. tM 



- 1o ctr?- --b 9ri^ i' 

,' V orf - 9d be/f nK .7091 

ctnemrtiav " iifl^ 

iev ;-.awtirfo ed . 

. H \f , t _ t - n>r 

;xs .burl fllnod-oiV . :i8Bli 
BJlt.ow noloB^linl evlenectx* m . ono lo 
.bssu 8^J 9rf SB w Trfaw sri^ "T 

i saw ^rjemslrfrfea 1o meLdonq erfT .etelcfSee 00 
bfiri Y rfT .^sein o^ bail bBsM .id xneldonq 

? ii.t lebnsj bnei erfJ *s fcnis ji 

ic novse *x3n erl^ 10! rfsrlrf lo eyiarfo n.f SBW bBM . 
aaebl alii 3oa arf derf^ >ndrid e/w *I 



100 



Adams: land settlement which he later brought to California. 
During that period, before Dr. Mead's return to 
California in 1915 or 1916, Mr. Newell had gotten 
into pretty deep trouble on the reclamation projects. 
A lot of opposition had grown up from the water users 
on the projects. I don't recall now the details of 
it, but the projects weren't paying out and the govern 
ment was unable to get them to and the settlers on 
the projects became very critical of Mr. Newell. I 
believe there was also opposition by some of the state 
governments regarding the activities of the Reclamation 
Service but do not recall just what it was. 

Baum: Didn't the settlers feel that they had to pay too 

heavy payments when they were Just getting started? 

Adams: That undoubtedly had to do with it, yes. I remember 
the Engineering News Record carried a long series of 
articles after thorough investigations on the projects. 

Mr. Newell had been succeeded for about two years, 
as I remember, by a Mr. Davis from Utah. Then Arthur 
P. Davis, chief engineer of the Reclamation Service, 
took over. A commission was set up, which Dr. Mead 
headed, to inquire into the reclamation work and find 
out what should be done. That was set up by the 
Secretary of the Interior. 

Baton: So Dr. Mead was going to investigate Mr. Newell 's work? 



001 



d tetffil erf rioJrfw cfneinI** bnsl :ciru 
o;J nisi i 91 e'bfl .iG 0-ioled t bolidq *erid- 
jg ben IleweVT .iM ,^191 10 5 191 cl 
"^arnBlos'i srto no sldoon* qeeb 
ieeu te^flw eri* oioil qn nwoig br oqqo lo ^ol A 

Blis^eb e>> II^oeT ^'nob I .e^otorrq ericf no 

' 'neiew ed <- erfcf ctrcf ,.rfl 

no eiftlcMse srlcf Jbnfl o* rnsritf tfsg c^ eldamr BBW ^nem 

,IJ>rfeH .iM lo XBoUIio Y^^V 6J33j 

S^B^B ejrii Tto rno ^ Q o*J^* BW e-rsrirf eveJXsd 

'^tfifliBloeH arid -'cd-ivirfofi er : ' ^ e rfn sirmevog 

.e Jsrfwr rtewf, HBO en *on 

^ ijBq o3 bad - - u *rfd- I91 anelrf^sB eritf rf'nbia TBS 



iedmae- .597; t ^.^ ricflw ob ct bad ^Ibo.. -y ctaril 

lo B' B baittflo bnccsefl eyf>M ^n J leeclang arict 

no encltfesltfeevnl risuoi- a BSloi^tB 

'/w^ :tuodfi icl bebeeroye ned fcr.ri IfeweM ,TM 
. :JU cioil slvfid ,-d! - ^ecfeiner I r. 

t eoJ:vi98 noi^BinBjoeH arfd' lo lednigntt laid t lvje' . 
baeM . 'olriw t q0 J -e BBW noleelflintoc A .TSVO al- 

<xw fiol^cmflloerr eri* o*nl iirpnJ o3 t bfcBeri 
Yd q0 ^ee BBW tffirfT ,anob ec 

,10 IT lo Y^J 8 *-'* 13 * 

. atfBgl^Bevnl o* g: -.aw baaM . 



101 



Adams: By this time Mr. Newell had been forced out. 

While Mr. Mead was still in Australia, a lot of 
that controversy between Mr. Newell and the settlers 
was going on. Secretary of Interior Lane wanted Dr. 
Mead to return to California and succeed Mr. Newell. 
Dr. Mead said he wasn't going to bring up that old 
bitterness again, so he declined. When later Dr. 
Mead became chairman of the commission to investigate 
the reclamation projects he was still professor of 
rural institutions at the University of California, 
It was at the conclusion of the commission's work 
that he was made Commissioner of Reclamation. 

Baum: What effect did this conflict between Dr. Mead and Mr. 
Newell have on the work of Dr. Mead in the Department 
of Agriculture? 

Adams: It had no effect, except as it led to the constant 
efforts to block our appropriations in Congress. 

While Dr. Mead was still head of the Irrigation 
Investigations in the Department of Agriculture, the 
men in the field had little contact with the federal 
reclamation projects. In later years our relations 
with Mr. Newell 's people in the field were very pleasant, 
As an example of this, Mr. Newell held a conference in 
Salt Lake City of his project engineers to determine 
methods of water delivery and management. I had 






neecf IsweM . 

to. 1 ' . llsitf^irA nl lllcfe asw b . -M ell/ 

drarl^ 
. 
.JIo'. . bet j bBsM 

tlC <- ! HBBW 9f blBE bBSM . iG 

id .banlloeb orf oe , 

X O 



, 



"io toes w sd 

B' trf 

3frtcw e ' : lo nolewl ; JB BBW ,il 

nsw arf 3jBrfJ 
.:ed J- 
nl br 

''IITCtll 

-^ ,ctoll9 oo bBff ^1 
nl^Bliqc oolcf oc^ e^ic 

sric. 1 t R-t;jct' A '- : o ^namtfiaqsG erld nl 

noo el^rfil barf C-Xeil eri^ ni 

al .e^of . 

eiew eri^ nl elqoe 'swsK .iM rictiw 

f>o; ; .-3 bled IJ&weH .iM ,8Jtrte In Iq^Bxe HB aA 

.TO tfootq slri "ro rrfjto eiLaJ. 3.1 
.tfr.emesBaJRm bnB vaevl cfjsw lo ebor' 






emebA 



102 



Adams 









previously prepared a bulletin on water delivery and 
Mr. Newell invited me to be present and participate 
in that conference, which I did. Later, when the 
Reclamation Service decided to change their local 
associations from water users' organizations to 
irrigation districts, one of their attorneys undertook 
to get the irrigation district legislation in the 
various states of the West so amended as t o enable 
the Reclamation Service to work through them. That 
attorney and I became very close friends and worked 
together very closely. 

I feel that the controversy between Dr. Mead 
and the others is of historical interest not because 
of the personal bitterness that arose, but rather 
because it resulted from a fundamental difference 
as to federal reclamation policy. I, of course, 
have described this controversy as I saw it. I wish 
that some researcher would try to look into Mr. Newell 1 a 
and Mr. Maxwell's points of view. 

I missed a good bet I think. I tried once to 
get in touch with Mr. Maxwell in his later years. 
He was living in Phoenix. I wrote to him, but got 
no reply. I should have gotten on the train and gone 
to see him. After his d eath I read in the newspaper 
that he turned all his papers over to Tulane University. 






r ab toJevr ru I Ilwcf B b&taqs>tq 

bnB ^fteeeiq ed < bectivni IleweK . 

r w t i6^Bj .bib I rfoirfw ,onet0inoo tfsrfJ ni 

fr.ool tisrfct e? oct babiaeb eoiv-tsg 






ni 



*J 



f>9 



^eu ie 
ileri* 'to eno ^ 

*oli^- --iii 

nf>ff'j8 OR dee* I 

i Ivieg 

-er 9 



cfe- 

a;. 1 

erfcT 



,T:CT nefwctcf 
* r -T.o3nl 

t i -r 



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lcf , 

moil be;tfr:es?T 



a 



,'jBTWcc 

. -BR i SB 

. col c^ ytct blt;ow rterfo * 

1o etfnJoq Elf9wxBM . .,-< 

I tfsd boog B bee elm I 
JlewTBM ,tM rirftw ri9i/o^ nl rfejq 
t fc edotw I .xlneorfI ni jnivil f?BW 

hfis nict^ ertt no ne^rfr orle I .ylqsi on 

iftqp.qewsn rf^ ni bsst I rfctjie b airi tsitlA .mirf see < 
enjB^uT orf ievo BTSCJB' ^mtJ* erf 



.r 



103 



Adams: Why to Tulane, I don't know. We ought to have had 
those here. 

Comments on the Reclamation Act 

Baum: It would sound like Dr. Mead would oppose the 160-acre 
limitation. 

Adams: I think not. This was a basic provision in the 

Homestead Act and was, I think, accepted by everybody 
as to land acquired from public domain. I'm not sure 
as to what his views would have been as to water for 
land already in private ownership and developed. 
However, I believe that it was while Dr. Mead was 
Commissioner of Reclamation that the Secretary of 
the Interior waived this provision of the Act for 
the Imperial project and a project in some other state. 
I doubt very much whether Mr. Mead would have advocated 
applying the 160-acre limitation to water for lands 
already developed, but of course I can not express 
his own views. I do know that as Commissioner of 
Reclamation he was constantly confronted with specu 
lation in private lands held under federal projects 
and was constantly endeavoring to circumvent it. 
What I have in mind was speculation in unirrigated 
private land. That is as far as I care to go in 
expressing Dr. Mead's views on the 160-acre limitation. 



eox 



vcri otf tfrfgtfo eW ,wcrof o x ' . !' <xJ v 

. 

JoA noligffjBloeH srU r : 
31 orftf yeoqqo bluow bseM . *I 



nl nolelvoiq . on jlnirict I 

^ "i I t ew -.? -X bBe 

oil beilupoe bnel 

to 1 "! lectjsw oJ EB nex5 ev/;ri blk.ow -Iw 

beqcleveb bn* awo scfBVjttq nl ^f>B0iI 

BBW beeM .^ ellriw esw 3i drf^ svolJ- t r .' 

jioeg ertt r oi^BBiBl^eH lo tfc 

to'i *oA svlBw lolieinl erict 

..,^B 

.iM if Y* e 

icl IS^BW ocf nol^jectJiill eio^- 
eastoxe Jon nao T -RIC.-O.O lo tfud ,beqclvsb 

lo lenofsp ''riiJ wonal ob I . "^elv nwc elri 

- < - . .:: be^nonlnoo Tj-J^fi*^ 8 * 100 BBW rl 

<iebel lebnt; blori ebrusl ecfcvtiq nl 
.^ (T^oilo o>t snliovafcn Y-C* riJ 8AW ji 

be^jeijiiiini; 01 ncljtslcoaqe eew bnlm al evcri I tfarfW 

nl oj; o* ftiuo I ^1 ea e2 ,bpl <**JBV/ 

srflftll ioB-OdI ri^ nc ewelv 



10k 



Baum: 



Adams : 



Baum: 



Adams: 



Baum: 
Adams : 



On this point where Roosevelt said vested rights 

should not be disturbed, I was wondering what Dr. 

Mead's idea was on the right to the use of water in 

excess of what the crops required. Would he have 

recommended reduction of the person's use of water? 

There isn't anydoubt that he would. In fact, a great 

deal of our emphasis in our work in the old Irrigation 

investigations was to encourage more economical use of 

water. 

Yes, I know it was. Would Dr. Mead have recommended 

taking away certain vested rights and forcing the 

water user to change his methods? 

Dr. Mead recognized that you couldn't disturb vested 

rights. He would not have advocated any procedure 

that would have taken away rights that were really 

vested by the existing laws. 

Even if these rights were to the wasteful use of 

water? 

I think so. The main point is that he recognized 

that vested rights must be protected. All of the 

state laws and the Federal Reclamation Act state 

that the right to use of wat erdepends upon its 

beneficial use. The question frequently arises as 

to whether what might be called "uneconomical" use 

of water is benficial use. The difference between 






t bscte "r,veoc5? i9riw inlcc eldJ nO tr 

.':?. :9bnow csw I , betfiwtfs i b ed Jon bli/cde 

at tsrfBW To eaw arf* oi tfrfgjfi aritf no BBW ebl B'baaM 
&ri b.r , 10 erfcf *riw 1o eeeoxe 

: . srfrf lo noi^oirbwt bsbnectrroofln 

j? t :t .b.; 'j- #di/dbYn^ J'naJt ". 

'ttl f ai elBfi- 'c/o lo laab 

to eey- iBolr . * o* '-saw enoi^Bsl^BftT' 






t 



, t . - s w tf 1 

i b*eev r. Y BWJB J 

*?r T- Biff egnfirio otf lean 

Y ^^rf^ beslngoo^- '*: .iQ 

rffifoybfl evB/i d-orr bl . -trfjili 

c- Y* W nejte^ even' fclucw ct f 

.RvrI gr.JwRtxft 
f en's* e*rf?. : ^vS 



oonq ^ 



be r el tfnloq nJtB* f ,Q ^ I 

ericf 1c CIA ,berfoe*onq ed rtaum e^risli becteftv Jsrfrf 
sJB^3 cfoA noU*iBloeH Iflisbe'? erf: v I>n HWE! erf 

'bneqabns dbw lo 
fl rsei- :a9npi^ *0p erfT . 

IB oenu" be im *flriw trttefiw 

- d 8i ted-Bw "Jo 






v 



cemsbA 



105 



Adams: what is wasteful use and what Is economical use of 

water is not easy to define. I think that I am right 
in saying that the tendency in the court decisions 
and in administrative control is to more nearly 
approach what might be called more economical use. 
A striking example is the 1928 constitutional amend 
ment in California providing that the right to water 
does not extend to waste of water or unreasonable 
use or unreasonable methods of diversion. 

Baura: Under the Reclamation Act, the money spent by the 

government was to come from the sale of public lands 
and was to be repaid by the settlers within a certain 
period of time. 

Adams: The first period was twenty years. 

Baum: Did Dr. Mead agree with that, or did he think more 
money should be appropriated than would result from 
the sale of public lands? 

Adams: That question didn't arise at that time. The increased 
use of money for reclamation projects and the gradual 
decrease of the total amount coming in from the sale 
of public lands brought about an amendment which made 
the royalties from oil lands available for that purpose. 
Around the late 1920 's or a few years after Dr. Mead 
became Commissioner of Reclamation he called to the 
attention of the leaders In the West the fact that 



CfUJL 



ociooe ai dsriw bna eat? luleiesw ei 
cfrarid- jtafrftf I . .nlleb erf YSSS ,*on el 
~>b ^TX i 



nl 



. 



aooe 






Ic- svictBi^jLfiAjnbB ni 

^sllflo ed >' ^edw 

' " ?.Jt elqrjsxa snlili^e A 

ccf ^rf^lT drier ctJ3.no ! snifoivoiq si ;'.30 nl cTnem 

Bflca9TiH; ^cTxe cton eeof) 

.ncj -* eldJBnoejBsiru; 10 

' 9 ^ t^toA noi^Br 'A 

oJtlc'jjq lo else er^rf moil eaoo o^t 

*lw e 'R sfto Y^ blBqsi f SBW 

.ami olieq 

. tB9^ vjnewj QBW bolisq deill 
ori bib 10 t ctBrid- rf^Jtw oei^.a baeM ,'ici 
ctluesT bL usrii be^Biiqo-T. orfe 

3l ojtlcft/c lo IBB arid 
nl . ^ rfsri^ ^B seJtiB i'nblfo 

orli bnB B^oe^oiq nolcTBloei. 10! 
srtt jtcil ni gni/tsoo drxwrraB IB^C^ eri^ lo aaseioob 
riolriw cTnacrbneraB ns iuodss d-/igi;oicf sbnBl ollcfi/q lo 
.eoqiuq tBi!3 rcol oldBllBVB sbnBl llo sel^lB 

hfleM ,iC istf'lB eiBSY wsl 10 8'OS9I f- 
er(;l ocf r ex! rol^BmaloeH lo TelmmoO 

jBricf rfoBl erfrf rfcei* ar Tiebel erlcT lo 



T.1 






:e& 






106 



Adams: the proceeds from public lands sales and oil royalties 
were fast drying up and that If reclamation was to 
continue in the West under federal aid, additional 
funds must be appropriated for that purpose. 

That was the reason for organizing the present 
National Reclamation Association. The old National 
Irrigation Congress had lapsed. I think its last 
meeting was in California in 1915. Dr. Mead got 
Governor George H. Dern of Utah to call a convention 
in Salt Lake City. There was a large convention I was 
there and the National Reclamation Association was 
formed. It has been a very active organization for 
the promotion of reclamation since then. 

Baum: For the purpose of lobbying for appropriations from 
the general fund. 

Adams: Yes. Of course the association has taken up many 
other matters, but particularly I think matters of 
national reclamation policy. 

Baum: Did Dr. Mead believe that the whole cost of reclamation 
projects should be repaid by the benefited lands? 

Adams: The only e xpress ion o f his that I recall is that the 
farmers should be required to pay only what they can 
afford. That, of course, was a very indefinite sum. 
The theory is that they can afford to pay the amount 
added to the value of the land by the use of water. 



"s-^oi Lie bns eelae sJbnBl ollcfcrq moil ebeeo 
o3 '9i 11 a gulY**-^ ^e#'i STOW 

,bLg laiebs'l --..I oun 

vq ^ari^ 10! fos:- iqq* 9^ ( fl 

I I noesei iw ctjp.r 

.Cartel 3 stf . x noi^^mBlooH iBnol^aH 

- 

eosl barf eea r x 

d'o? bBsM .iC . r ?I nl B: gnl^eem 

s^U *! . .->{) aoniavof! 

. 
-.iocBBA no ; bns-- 

. 

neK. oflle noi^AraBlr Joxncnq 

JB tol snlY^^oJ '.to sf.cqiuc : ojicJ' 

. iU/1 laifj' 

'rf* I TcrijBl.c'oi^riBq Jo 

. >iloq 3n 

rfJ- eve.fi . r :Q 

f erfrf yd blBqei so' bCrrcila erfoa(;oiq 

9jrt 1 1 o /" !"Ino :a^ 

;3ri;t d'Biiw Y-^ 10 T- 5 ^ * It/ oil e aieflitBl 

,mjJ3 e^lrijtlebflJt ^iev e EBW . lo ,JrfT . 'la 

q o^ : J-arict al -^ic^fit erfT 

)6tr e/ 1 "^jal /!* lo flfrfjgv ftlii 



107 



Adams 



Baum: 



Adams : 









Baura: 



Some farmers can afford to pay more than others. 
Higher productive land can stand a higher charge than 
lower productive land. Land producing higher value 
crops can, In fact, really pay what It has to p ay, I 
think; however, land producing low value crops must 
work on a much smaller margin. 

I believe sometimes now an uneconomic unit will be 
partially supported by a more economic unit elsewhere. 
This of course has been a live Issue In discussion 
of the state water plan, particularly In connection 
with protecting areas In which water originates against 
diversions to Southern California. In such a large 
undertaking as a state water plan there are bound to 
be areas needing and demanding water that could not 
stand the entire cost of providing it. Whether it 
would be good business to make economic units carry 
part of the cost of uneconomic interest or by special 
appropriations of the state government is not likely 
to be the basis on which the issue will be derided. 
Rather, it will be decided on a political basis. It 
will be a question of who has the votes in state 
legislature. 

Another idea is that part of the share of the cost of 
the project should be repaid by power users, who may 
or may not be the same people as are using the water. 



vox 



.at/ rfJc nndrf oiofn v,Bq otf bnoVte ruso BtwsrtBl sinoB 3bA 

n.rf* e bn*3B nfio bnBf evJtd 7 nerislH 

'sv *ra ' ; . bnBl ev-Id-oi/boiq iwol 

I t v.3 ' - t "1 n*o eqcrto 

SSL: . jjlnirfrf 

,n*5tJRm lellr ow 

d ' ; . a evsllsd I 

. >19rfWSBlo Ct f ^IIf*T 

!eeuo need &fi-:l $e r rsjcs lo elffT 

noi^osn -rtslq 1 

"IsgB i^cfew ' nl eeetje tq ricfiw 

.e 'IsO ni9ri*trc8 

ocf b r rsctBw S^JB^S i ; 

/srf;t " ^aamaJb bns ^B 

.;? oiq "to *Bor 

-tjRo P ' ' ' 

. 'v:. - 

^Is^ll d ^vos e 

,5f rloirfw n^ arf o* 

jt . ' 'oq B no bebioab ad IIlw ^i t iarfctBfi 

ni aerfov /i* ssrC o-fw "io ft<~ p B sd Iliw 



1c srfJ- Ic -^iBffe sdi 1o ^taq ^arfd" ei 6bl lerf^onA 

criw t 8i98L f lewoq "^d bJ 

6TB 8J elqoeq MIBB ^^ ad 



108 



Adams: The first federal project on which power was a matter 
of importance was the Salt River Project in Arizona. 
The income from power on that project was applied to 
paying off the cost of the project. The charge to 
irrigators was reduced materially by the income from 
power. Subsequently other federal projects developed 
power and the income was allocated to paying part of 
the cost of the project, thereby reducing the cost to 
the irrigators. 

, Around the '30's Dr. Mead got a new idea. He 
felt the income from power should not go to the project 
to reduce the cost to the irrigators, but should go 
into the reclamation fund for further projects. He 
so recommended in one of his annual reports to the 
Secretary of the Interior, 

Baum: That would be very unpopular with irrigators, wouldn't 
it? 

Adams: Undoubtedly so. To what extent that principle was 

applied in projects developed later when Dr. Mead was 
commissioner of reclamation I can't say. 

Baum: Would Dr. Mead have approved the present power policy 
of the Bureau of Reclamations? 

Adams: I don'tthink I have a right to s ay. I'm very sure 
that he was not an advocate of public power in the 
same sense as those whose main idea was public ownership. 






rfolrtw no ;tof;onq L&i&bt. it acf tsnusbA 

I ctoetoil lavtH tffe srirf ew eonatfioqml to 

balJqq-B saw tfosf.c-iq 3snct no tawoq Koit srooonl j 

.^"sf.oia arftf to ^iioo 

mci'l .9in< Y^ ^ir* I ie* er .w Bio^flB-tn-t 

. iBtsbe" : o Yld'n^L'pes 

cf-uaq sJt^p aw anoofii sxl* bnjs aewoq 

orf ^soo ari^ ' -ybei ,ctoef,c 'cf to 

.Bic^Bgl-nl aricf 
. 1 B ' OC 
;>e- .:ton blin: i'at 

;i/d teioi.gs-i'i 11 ^ *^^ o * -^ r 9ri cc ^ 

xot 

,i E^TO . OT iBj/nna Blrf to no n ooei ce 

.t<r iied'nl 

Jbli/ow ctsrfT -JBS 



teri^ ctnelxe ^flffcr oT . .fa*;tdr< 

t bs . '''* 10* al bsqolevab y nl bellr 

TBB cJ 'nxso I nolitBrtuoXoai 
cfneeaiq erf^ bevotqqje evsri baeM .iC bl 

?enoj.tjaraloefl to UBswa arfi to 
.v in ' I x* ^ tfrigli averi 

.ej1^ r q to a^noovJbJs HB *on BJBW arf 

ew Bebl alr as 9anea 



109 



Adams : 












I think he would have wanted the income from power 
on the Central Valley Project to go toward reducing 
the cost to irrigators and making the project econ 
omically feasible. I think he was in favor of having 
public agencies have preference in acquiring that 
power, but I think he was not adverse to the sale of 
some of that power to the public utilities if that 
was the business thing to do, Mr, Mead had a very 
good business head. He was in no sense a doctrinaire. 
Many advocates of public power are doctrinaires. Dr. 
Mead was certainly not adverse to public ownership 
of power, but that was not his chief aim, I feel 
sure he would be in entire harmony with President 
Eisenhower's ideas as to cooperative relationships 
between private enterprise and the government wherever 
that is of most advantage to the government and to 
the project, 

I am sure you already know that many of our 
irrigation districts in California have a large income 
from power developed on their projects and that some 
of them could not have financed their storage without 
this income. Districts that develop power on their 
projects are Imperial, Turlock, Modesto, Oakdale, 
South San Joaquin, and Nevada, Modesto and Turlock 
districts have had an income for a good many years, 






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110 



Adams: and have put their finances in very fine shape by the 
income from power. You also know, I am sure, that 
the Central Valley Project is highly dependent on 
power and that the state water plan has counted on 
power income to make the project feasible, 

Baum: When the cost of power is high and the cost of 

irrigation water is lower as a result, don't the same 
farmers, who are the power users, pay more for the 
power and less f or t he water, but the same for water 
and power together? 

Adams: That is true, but the cost to a certain extent is 
shifted to those who don't irrigate. 

Baum: To industrial and municipal users? 

Adams: Yes. And there is a very good argument why they should 
pay a certain portion of the cost because they benefit 
from the development brought about by the project. 
The indirect benefits of the project go to them. That 
is really a principle in our irrigation district laws. 
Many of our irrigation districts include the cities. 
The land within the cities is taxed on the principle 
that they benefit from the development. 

Baum: Did you come into contact with Carey Act developments? 

Adams: Personally, not at all. A few years ago I prepared 
for the Pood and Agricultural Organization a little 
report on the nature of cooperation among water users 






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Ill 



Adams: In the United States and included the experiences 
of a number of Carey Act projects in Idaho. 

Dr. Mead realized that under the Carey Act there 
was no adequate federal or state control of the 
relationship between the settlers and the private 
company and no satisfactory control over speculation. 
For that reason he advocated stronger public control 
over the Carey Act projects and all other projects 

. 

when there was a private contractor relationship 
between the landowners and the private company. 






. 






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mcbnfll srfct naew^ed 



:eraBbA 









112 



IRRIGATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 



Adams 



Baum: 






Adams 



Baum: 
Adams : 



1902-1906 



UTAH INVESTIGATION 






Here is a copy of the Report of Irrigation 

Investigations in Utah which came out in 1903* 

(Bulletin 12ij. of the Office of Experiment Stations.) 

I see this was done under the direction of Elwood 

Mead, assisted by R. P. Teele, A. P. Stover, A. F. 

Doremus, J. D. Stannard, Frank Adams, and G. L. 

Swendsen. 

Yes. Each one of us, except Mr. Doremus, prepared 

a report to cover a certain stream or group of streams, 

Mine were the Virgin River and its tributaries, Kanab 






Creek, and later the Sevier River, which is farther 

north. 



Why did Dr. Mead decide to undertake this project? 
Dr. Mead was devoting much of his interest at that 
time to promoting better state water laws. The 
first comprehensive study in that direction was the 
one in California, reported in Bulletin 100 of the 
Office of Experiment Stations. At the time the Utah 
study was begun, sentiment was growing in Utah for a 
new law following the principles developed in Wyoming. 






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: emsbA 



113 



Adams: It was thought that a study of conditions In Utah 
would show how they had progressed under existing 
Imws and Indicate the desirable features of the new 
law, should the state pass one, 

Baum: So the federal government was assisting the state 

by gathering material on which the state could base 
a new state law. 

Adams: Yes. 

The Virgin River 

Adams: The Virgin River was my main assignment. It was the 
first job on which I was on my own. Naturally I 
was very enthusiastic about it and worked very hard. 
The purpose was a history of development, how the 
water rights situation had worked out, how the farmers 
operated their systems, what controversies they had 
had, the size and capacity of the ditches, the stream 
supply, the approximate area of land available for 
irrigation, and in general the information needed to 
understand irrigation in the Virgin River area. 

The Virgin River area had been settled soon after 
the Mormons moved into Utah. There had been some 
scouting in southern Utah in the early '^O's and 
actual settlement began there in the late '0's and 
early '60 f s. One influence that brought about this 



oS 



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Ill; 



Adams: settlement was the shutting off of the cotton supply 
from the South when the Civil War opened. Some 
experiments had been made In cotton growing down there 
and Brighara Young thought they might be able to furnish 
cotton in the absence of cotton from the South, The 
main settlement was at St. George and that's where I 
made my headquarters. 

My timing In going there was made to coincide 
with a meeting of a state irrigation congress in 
Salt Lake. My job at this meeting was not only to 
become acquainted with the people there, but to obtain 
passage of one of those resolutions calling on Congress 
to support our appropriations, which I did. I met at 
that convention the Mormon bishop of St. George, the 
district attorney of Washington County, arri a Miss 
Work, who was superintendent of an Indian school on 
Santa Clara Creek, a small tributary of the Virgin. 
I had previously, in Cheyenne, conferred with an 
engineer who had recently completed a survey of the 
line between Arizona and Utah and got part of my 
bearings from him as to the country and where to go. 

The travel from Salt Lake was by train to a station 
about fifty or sixty miles from St. George and by 
horse stage from there. It was a new country for me, 
new experiences. I hadn't seen much of the desert 



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Adams: country. I had spent a little time in Nevada around 

Reno when helping to prepare our reports on California 
work, but here we found an area of light rainfall, 
high temperatures. 

I made my headquarters at the old Snow Hotel, 
Snow was quite a name in that country. A man by the 
name of Snow had been in charge of the settlement 
there. One of his sons was president of the St. 
George Stake and another kept the Snow Hotel, which 
was the only hotel in the whole basin at the time. 

Back of St. George was a tall butte. My first 
morning I went up there and looked out over the 
village and the country and got my geography more 
or less straightened out. As I w ent back I noticed 
a horse-driven bus going through the street and some 
elderly people getting in. I found they were the 
temple workers. Every morning the older people who 
were more or less without means were gathered up and 
taken to the Mormon temple and there they worked 
during the day. 

The first thing to do in going into that area 
was to become acquainted with the church officials 
because they were the guiding authorities in almost 
all affairs, temporal or religious. 
Baum: This was a completely Mormon settlement? 



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- 



116 



Adams: Yes. I found only one non-Mormon family in the 

settlement and they were there for the health of the 
father. 

Baum: Were they in any way hostile to you or the other 
non-Mormons? 

Adams: I never received a more cordial reception anywhere 
than down in that area. The first Sunday after my 
arrival I went to the Mormon meeting. The bishop, 
with whom I had traveled from Salt Lake down to St. 
George, told them of my presence and why I was there 
and told the people to help me out In every way possible, 
So I had a good s tart. A very, very pleasant experience 
In my personal relations with the people. That was 
repeated everywhere I went. 

Baum: Were you alone there? 

Adams: I was entirely alone, I covered the Virgin and its 
tributaries from Rockville, a short distance below 
Zion Canyon, down through Utah, a small corner of 
Arizona, and to St. Thomas on the Muddy in Nevada 
which was the last settlement before the Virgin 
entered the Colorado. . Some of the settlements had 
only two or three families. A few had perhaps fifteen 
or twenty families. St. George had maybe four or five 
hundred people. I'm guessing. The largest field was 
out from St. George. I measured the flow of water in 
the ditches and before the season was over obtained 






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1 
. 



' 



no.' 



9 



117 



Adams: representative crop returns. People didn't live on 
their farms. The Mormons had the European plan of 
living in the settlements and farming the land outside. 

During my few days in Salt Lake I had met the 
president of the Mormon Church, who was then Joseph 
P. Smith. I believe he was a nephew of the original 
Joseph Smith who had organized the church. He told 
me the people along the Virgin were very poor, the 
water supply was very meager, and that the church 
was very much interested in doing anything it could 
to help them. 

Baum: What did the people do with their crops? 

Adams: They were mostly used locally. Alfalfa and grain 

were their main crops. The surrounding country was 
cattle country. I think most of the farmers had 
cattle. They sold very little, as far as I know. It 
was a self-contained area. They grew some fruit and 
would carry some of it and their other produce to the 
northern settlements and get a little money. I do 
not remember where they marketed their cattle. They 
didn't raise enough produce to sell much. The irrigated 
areas were so small and total production so meager 
compared to the area that most of the young men of the 



Til 



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rid- 1 






118 



Adams: settlement had to go elsewhere. They couldn't 

support an increase in population. Consequently 
there were many more young women than young men. In 
that entire basin there were only about lij.,000 acres 
irrigated in scattered settlements all up and down the 
river. 

There were very few records of stream flow so I 
made numerous measurements of diversion and of princi 
pal tributaries during the season. In some cases I 
put in gauges and had the ditch tender take daily 
readings. Prom the various measurements and some 
records obtained from the county engineer I could 
approximate the flow throughout the season. 

Baura: Wasn't a lot of this work what would usually have 
been done by an engineer? 

Adams: The engineering phases of the investigation were 

not difficult and were similar to those with which 

I had had experience in the Cache Creek investigations. 

One very Interesting thing to me was a canal 
that had been under construction for about ten years 
and they hoped to complete it the following year. 
The purpose was to lead water from the Virgin River 
out onto what was known as Hurricane Bench, a very 
fine body of land. The reason for undertaking that 
was to get more land to keep more sons in the area. 









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srfct nJt enoe eiom qeaf o^ bnal eic<n rfeg orf esw 



ebA 



119 



Adams: Hurricane Bench was then a sagebrush desert. 
When Mrs. Adams and I passed through there in 19ij-7 
found the thriving settlement of Hurricane. That 
canal had been built by the farmers taking out stock, 
which they paid for in labor. Every year when they 
had time they would work on the construction of 
the canal and they finally made it. They did receive 
toward the end about $5000 from the church to help 
complete it, but otherwise the entire expense was 
paid for in labor of the local people. They weren't 
afraid to work. 

The custom down there was for travelers to stay 
at the home of the bishop or with some family who 
undertook to take care of travelers. In the little 
town of Rockville was the dearest, motherly old lady, 
Mrs. Hall, who had come out with the original migration 
across the plains. Her husband was ill and she herself 
brought him out in a pushcart. Terrible hardships. 
They had no sooner reached Salt Lake than they were 
sent on this mission down into the south. She told 
me this story. They had no resources. They had to 
work for others to get something to live on. It 
wasn't until the crops of the others had been planted 
that they were able to plant some themselves on the 
little land allotted to them. The only thing they 






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erf. r '9Ruirf* aroG *na.f ' -f 







120 



Adams: could raise at the end of the season was brooracorn. 
When the time came for them to take what little 
produce they had raised up into the southern settle 
ments to sell to get a little money for their own 
necessities, all the settlements had been supplied. 
She said they carried the produce all back and practically 
lived on broomcorn the rest of that year. That shows 
what devotion to some idea will do for you. 

One thing that helped me a great deal down there 
was that I frequently joined in with the people in 
their social gatherings. I also went to the Sunday 
meetings occasionally. When I was out in the field 
I visited with the people and got well acquainted 
with a lot of them. Those close contacts are really 
what help you in your work in a job such as I had. 

My travel was of course entirely by team. I 
carried my personal effects and camping equipment 
and my equipment for measuring water. If when night 
fall came I was not near a settlement where I could 
obtain accomodations, I'd unhitch the team, water and 
feed them, tie them up, prepare my meal, spread out 
my blankets, spend the night, get up in the morning 
and start out again. A very interesting experience. 
I haven't had one since that equaled it. 

My territory included Kanab Creek, which isn't 






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rfe *flrfT .ta^ ctari^ *o ctesT ericf ntoomootcf no bevll 

tot c e^bi ar 

3i9ri.-t awcfc JjBf f *Bri^ snlrf*.'- 

nl slqceo ri* rfctlw nJ b^ ^l#necfOPil I rferfcf E*W 

uS rf^ act *naw oels . re loos lier'i 

ni ^iro P.J?W I nsrfW .Y--C" c ^8JSo '3wi 

Haw *e?. bna alqoeq ff.t njlw fc-; I 

osrfnoo seol^ eecrCT .: f a ric' 

.buri IP -^ dot ' o^ >?TOW IITOY - *Briw 

I ,mfict Y^ TtLeiltne level* YW 

*r e s*oeYie lanr s^^q Y^- 

^e*/> iWaBaci ic7 ^nsmqlupe ym bnB 

bluos I 3l**se B ^Bs^ ; ?tw I ewBO HB! 

.ITB9^. b'l ,8. "OOB C<lB( 

m eiBceiq qu ,rar{ct beel 

' qrj *es *rfS-tn rf* 

.eonelT Jesi9*nl Y^SV * nlBSB ctc r o 

.*! belB0pe *BI{* eon! 8 ^no bBrf i'novsri I 
rioldw t ^96TO dBOBS bebwl- -co*lni* Y^ 



121 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams : 



a tributary of the Virgin River. The main settlement 

was Kanab. My first contact was with the president 

of the stake, Mr. Wooley. I got my bearings through 

him. He knew everybody, knew the conditions of 

everybody. 

So that In every case it was the religious leader 

who was the main authority. 

Yes. 

In the early days in Utah water was alloted by 
the church to various settlements. Later they operated 
under an old territorial law which set up county 
courts which had authority to allocate water in case 
of controversy. Normally it was a mutual agreement 
between the settlers as to water. If the settlers 
themselves couldn't agree the church would arrange a 
settlement. Sometimes the county court would make 
the allocation, but there was not very much trouble. 

There was occasionally some difficulty between 
the users along the Virgin from Rockville to St. 
George and the users in Long Valley along the upper 
Virgin. They told me of several occasions when the 
people around St. George and Rockville and La Verkin 
felt the upper users were taking too much of the 
supply and they got together and started up to have 
a scrap with them. Before they got there they'd have 









tevi ' 

*os T .Tfelor . . 
:^n?ve w 



bA 



B srfa lo 



^1 98 BO ^19V8 H" dfl/lCt OS 

ortt asw 



Y 1 nl BY-sfc ^I-TSS 9rf^ nl 

^IS^BJ . : 

Y^< labnu 

- sctiuoo 
lo 
.1 
B J eigB :t vleem' 

asw STerid' *;;' f , 
ne^twlec 4 " virs 

. 

bne 331 

.5v>a .nJt? 

r irtB el .' ^ bnR e;r-. . ic/orue slqoeq 

3rfj- Slftl 
JB hns T - 

1 3 or 'id' sieleS . ;'Jfw qr 



:cy/ 



em 



122 



Adams 



Baum: 

Adams 



Adams 









a torrential rain, the river would rise, and they 

would hurry back to their own ditches. So there 

were still some controversies. 

When did you finish your investigation? 

I got down there in February and w as there until 

early fall. 


The Sevier River 

I had heard that there had been complete settlement 
of water rights on the Sevier River, some distance 
north of Kanab. I was very curious to find out if 
that was a correct description of conditions. So 
I a sked authority from Washington to make a s tudy 
of the Sevier situation on my way back to headquarters 
in Cheyenne. That permission was granted and after 
finishing at Kanab I drove up through Springville, 
Pangultch, Marysvale, and arrived at Richfield, 
which was the main settlement in the Sevier Valley 
at the time. 

I find from my report that I reviewed some 
forty cases of litigation on that stream. I found 
there were a good many repetitions and inconsistencies. 
The river ran through t he jurisdiction of three 
separate county courts. There w ould be an adjudication 
down here, for instance (look at map), by one judge. 
The rights to the water of the stream would be 






. ".It blucw nsvii "rftf t nljsi iMlinstioi & 
, :rfoctlfc nwo od ^Txuri bl 

eelaTSvoi^noo emoe IlJt^e 

t/oY bib 
bne Y^s'-^rf^ n -t nv/ob *c- 






tevlH 






need barl :sri bsri I 

eo . ielv- no s^risirr To^awr 1o 

11 4 1 ocf euciiuo -/Tev EBW . toton 

.enci -.9b iosi-; 

e s 9>lBa' ' 'Iiori^jja betfa t 

-^m no noi^jatr^l ". isiveS arict lo 
isct nc-teeim'iaq JariT .snne^sri!: 

ovoi b I dst'3.T ctB gnJtrialnll 
: r itx? bn* % sIsvR^TjsM 

' Jnoineli. 



: 80: 



' ' I 
ro! I . an^e ct 



*toqe^ y: t I 

:\&%13LL lo aeBjso 



.-u/t sri ^ tt flrt 

IB HB e(i bltfo . ;*fi;co -j^nooo 

^nc , (< -rn *B ~Ao< ' 

..1^8 srtt r lo tectf 



eriT 



nwob 



123 



Adams 









Baum: 



Adams 






adjudicated by another judge up here. Although the 
situation was in excellent shape, and there were no 
pending conflicts of great moment, some of the adjud 
ications that had been made earlier were again being 
reviewed by another court. It was clear that under 
the operations of the old Utah law they didn't have 
any final and clear determination of water rights 
on the Sevier River. I find that in my report I was 
bold enough to suggest the type of law that was 
necessary to meet that siuation. I had to have con 
fidence in myself on a job of that kind, and looking 
over those recommendations, they all seem to be sound 
now. 

What did the people along the Virgin River think of 
the work you were doing? 

, 

They were all much interested. After this report 
was printed the following year I was surprised to 
learn from the state engineer of Utah that the district 
attorney of Washington County had recommended to him 
that my report be made the basis of the settlement of 
rights in the Virgin River basin. Obviously, I didn't 
have all the physical facts and other data necessary 
for an adjudication; that was not the intention, but 
I had an outline of them, the substance of the situation 
down there. The district attorney didn't realize the 



SI 



frtIA .etori qr ^onB Y<* bectBolbutba 

on stew - te ni aaw noldBi/tfle 

-fur^bB erf:t ~ c 9J"OB ttfflauioin tfeeiB lo ecfolllfloo gnlbneq 

> absci n99 d. iecii 

te ^w cfl .^Tuoo r< a Y^ 

a -iBL dei'U bio erf* Ic enoI^fiTQao e> 

s^riplt TS;*BW lo ncl^Bntet3*9b naelo bne Jenl! Y^* 
w I ^iO( I tfBfic!- I . r ; Tlv95 arid- no 

eq^cf erfrf *89ggi!?. o:t riguon* b.!' 
: I .'noj 

gr ' . bnl>[ vtsrf* '. ' B no - 

bniroe ^s I ' . 19 vo 

.won 

lo 3fnMcf Tsvin nlgilV rict ^noJf ! bib 

OY 2C*io 

. "*nJt r r B aiew Y^^ 

bsztiqt tw I IB-V snlwolfol s.rf;t bs^nltq saw 

1* rise! -T99nlsiie 9- moil 

')8T bsrf Y* n woO flo*sriJ'<BsW lo 
cfani" arid lo elefid erfet fbj?,K ^d dtoqsi 

I ,Y-Tew^<JO .ntarcf -rev 
s^eb isxlcto bns 



. -<i a^^ *on eew dsrfd ;n^ ' Jsoibw(;bjR m? 



Jf ofiBcredwe eri^ ,rc<Mto.1tc ^nij^uo ns bRrf 

: rf'r. renio**fl c^olicfeifc erfT .^laii.-t nwob 



12U 



Adams: nature of material necessary for an adjudication. 
Baum: Did you go back to Washington when you were finished? 
Adams: No. I returned in the late fall to Cheyenne and 

there I prepared these two reports. 
Baum: The winters you spent writing up what you found out 

during the summers? 
Adams: Yes. I must have finished it before the winter was 

over because in the early spring I was assigned to 

another Job. 

INVESTIGATION OP INTERSTATE WATER RIGHTS ON THE PLATTE RIVER - 1903 



Baum: What was your next Job? 

Adams: The Utah work was carried on in 1902. The next job 
was connected with the study of interstate water 
rights on the Platte River and tributaries. There 
were great uncertainties as to the principles that 
should govern interstate water rights. Many of the 
important streams crossed state lines, sometimes 
several times. The Platte River, for instance, had 
two main forks, the South Platte, which headed in 
Colorado and flowed easterly and northerly through 
Denver and joined the North Platte in Nebraska. The 
North Platte headed mainly in Wyoming although a few 
tributaries reached over into Colorado. It flowed 
through Nebraska, joined the South Platte, and then 









. ns tol 



' to' * 












ocf I r. etfsl arfct nl 3ei I .oPT 

. ITOC 
br ^silw 

? r 

$ sioled tfj T.0m I 

E - oed tevo 






VWI 



?r 3.BW ^ 

bel ic w d.1 
* B rf^ nr.oo 

svlH- e 

Ct89T- 






.tnl 

B -: 

.e. -19 .^B 

. >ni.T f 
bar . 

\tion bnB vLtsitae bev/oll bna objertc 
>F r\t erf^sll rf^toH ri? h -sG 

snlmo-y;W nl Y-f^^*" 6s '-^ctel*l rf^ioH 

nl ivo brfoB9i eelTB^rdltct 
n^. >uc8 rict be- -lertrfeH fistrc 



T*E 
.esmic!- 

B . 



b- 'I , 



125 



Adams: flowed Into Missouri. It was one of the important 
problems of the day and Dr. Meadw anted to make a 
contribution to the public understanding of the subject. 
So he planned this study of interstate water rights 
on the Platte. (Reported in U.S. Department of Agricul 
ture, Office of Experiment Stations, Bulletin No. 1^7. 
Water Rights n Interstate Streams. The Platte River 
and Tributaries. 1905>. ) 

There had been controversies between users of 
water in one state or another. A very serious 
controversy had arisen between Kansas and Colorado 
over the Arkansas River. Kansas had brought suit 
to prevent the further use of wat er by Colorado 
from the Arkansas. While there had been some court 
decisions affecting water rights between states, and 
also I think there had been some between Canada and 
the United States, no principles had yet been developed 
which should govern the division of water between 
the states. Now here was this very important suit 
between Kansas and Colorado. That suit had been filed, 
I believe, in 1901. 

So Dr. Mead picked out the Platte for a special 
study. He could have picked out the Snake River, 
which crossed several state boundaries, the Bear 
River, the Colorado River. There w ere many potential 






eaw tfl ': bewoll 
betas wbfldM .iQ 

,ctor ! lo snibnBSstQbfltf oi. r otf nolctodjictnoo 

^n ta.tfiw 9*j3*Eia*r b*ntu 08 

lo ztfi'wchxjs-- . . ni be^i- .e*^jp./'i erf* no 

^nsmltoqxa lo eo!110 e-n/^ 

Bj-drBiq j . ifHii eJ.- .^nl. rt a_ : 

. OOJ ,f. 

Ic vic)d EalaTavottfnoo n 

^v A ^isri^onfl to 9cts;te e 
oC- br.fi BBansX r:9wctsd nsBiiu bsri 

'A *rid - 

3BU Tsrf^ ctnevstq 

d had sieritf 6j ! riW . A erf* 

. :>w^9o r $;trfsJti ne^BW sniiosllB snoialoefc 

r.'.- >cf bar ,t >fnlff^ I 

-' $f, 'irrq on t sf>;tjactS fa*ln 

- w lo noleJvib srfrf r IB 

v Elri* BBW eteri . tsd-e 
t jBrfT .obBioIoO br,P BB 

nl ^ 
I/- - . ' ' artt ctrro bjto'c hseM .tQ 08 

: di tfiro b>Iolq ovrf 
IB' ,.elT8bru'od iB^a IB' 

loO arfct . 



126 



Adams: conflicts between the states. 

Baum: What were your duties in this investigation? 

Adams: I was given the task of finding out during the 

season of 1903 what became of the water of the Platte 
River and its principal tributaries. It was a one-man 

job in the field, except as I could obtain the 
assistance of the watermasters on these various streams. 

I might illustrate the situation by reference to 
the watermaster on the Cache la Poudre, the main 
tributary of the South Platte, which flowed by Fort 
Collins and Greeley. (Greeley, by the way, had been 
established through the influence of Horace Greeley, 
I have a history of the Greeley colony. ) 

The watermaster there was a fine gentleman by 
the name of Armstrong whose business it was to see 
that each ditch got what it was entitled to each day. 
He followed a routine procedure. He would get up 
about four o'clock in the morning and get a record 
of the flow of water in the river at the main 
measuring point. He had a man stationed there. 
With that information he would determine what each 
ditch along the river was entitled to take that day. 
He would then telephone to each ditch tender and tell 
him how much water to take. Then he would have his 
breakfast and get out his horse and buggy and patrol 



-ted 

eJrftf nl seltftrb ttroY new *B -raS 

fb d-t-c snlbnll lo iefi^ art)- navlg SJBW I : swab A 
lo tectsw on"* to raflod c^Briw C9I lo no?. : 
-nc saw ctl . al'XB^tfcfl'id' Iflq ' acfi bnB tevlfi 

. :iBCtd'c bJuco I SB oqeoxe ^Islt sri^ nl dot, 

J- lo 

eoneiPlat 'JjBtrcfls srirf drfairfc 

erf.t t 6ibuo1 si erfojaO srf* no 

'w , f^JaI<I rfrftroS arftf lo 

nsad bjsrf t \'w '^ri* . .^lestO) . bnB enllloO 

YO-tesi^ eoBioE .t bftrfeilcfBrfae 

: [oo Y 9 -^ e9rI ^ 9 ^ ^ Y,io3e.lii <i I 

name! ~nll P.BW sterij ^^BW erf? 

rei/d aeoriw juicT^sroiA lo eamn srfct 

8BW rfl rfBl. OB6 d-Brfrf 

. --nrbcooT;q t>: B . 

- nJnioin sricf- nl 3loclo'o ^Irol ^0odB 
^vft erf* nl nscfew lo woll ad^ lo 
j ben J . nflw B b&d K . taloq 

riOBP ^Briw a '*eb blucw srf - >nl 

^ o^ baldfctrte B*W invlT srfrf gnolB rfatlb 

89 orf enorfqel--;) nerfi bluov* 
ow eri nerfT ,9>fr* orf IS^BW rioum worf xnlxl 
ba YJ-S^d bnB eeiorl a; > bnB 



127 



Adams: the headgates of various ditches to see how things 
were going, to see that the orders that had been 
Issued were being carried out, and if there were 
any difficulties. He would straighten out anything 
necessary. There were gauging facilities at the head 
of each of these ditches which enabled the ditch 
tenders to determine the amount of water they were 
turning into the ditches. In a few cases I had to 
install facilities for that work. 

When I visited the Poudre about once a month 
I would make the rounds with Mr. Armstrong. I 
arranged with him to have each of his ditch tenders 
supply me with a record of the daily diversions into 
the ditches. During the season I accumulated material 
as to the areas that were irrigated. 

Baum: What streams did you cover? 

Adams: I did that on the Poudre, the Big Thompson, the St. 

Vrain, Clear Creek, and Bear Creek, all tributaries of 
South Platte River. And on South Platte from the 
mouth of the South Platte Canyon to Littleton, which 
was south and west of Denver, then to the junction 
of the South Platte with the North Platte. I followed 
the same procedure in Wyoming and Nebraska, except 
the facilities for gathering information through the 
watermasters were not as complete. 






K o3 esdottb euoliBv lo serfssbfi^rf rftf 

tfBritf ETebto srf;t ctBiicf eea ocf , sn.fos> STW 

J 11 bfifl t cffc beJi-T ' vrwbeireel 

cfi/o aectrislfli^?. bluov . ollllb 

bs ! s*,' nljji/Bg r .Yic 

: lb srfl balcffin -iw aerio^ib f>R9rict *io doee 'lo 

sw lo ctn e 

oi . rt-1 ocfnJt s 



B etbw J beitlalv I norfW 

irflw afenwoi ^rf^t erijarn blucw 1 
rfose v flii* 

ctni i~sb erf^ lo btooe n Ylqq08 

trr b- B I- noeBee dff* jinl- . srio^lb erirf 

'fi -'-i 1 v-tsrfd 

?ITOO "-e rfariW 

t ri^ ,ii 

r p t 3f^3iO IBOS hr. . ".IO t niBtV 

er n'*wo3 no bnA . s^SsI*! r<rf- 

. - t J- nc^nftO e^*; 08 arict lo rfctt/om 

f^or.ai. nerid- , ^BW bnja rirfooe EBW 

be:>rollo . -:oK orict rftflw s^clRll d^troB eri* 

-a t sj( .- bne nl ^tr.fbsooTq SPJBB sri* 

r irlnl gnli9jrf*^ tol eslctllloBl s 

. :Iqnico BB Jor 



128 



Adams: I covered only two tributaries of the North 
Platte in Wyoming, Hooeshoe Creek and Deer Creek. 
Then the diversions from the North Platte from the 
Wyoming -Nebraska line down to Bridgeport and the 
diversions from the Platte between North Platte and 
Fremont. Only a few ditches obtained water f rom the 
main river, and I got what information I could. 
That was my job for the season. 

Baum: Were all the watermasters as cooperative as Mr. 
Armstrong? 

Adams: Very cooperative, yes. There was no difficulty. 

That was a very interesting year. The type of 
agriculture was quite different from any I'd had 
any e xperience with in California. It was mainly 
alfalfa and wheat and sugar beets. I never shall 
forget the beautiful wheat fields around Port Collins 
and Greeley and all that northern Colorado country. 
Under the climatic conditions there the wheat fields 
when the wheat was ripening looked really golden. 
In California the wheat fields look rather drab when 
they are ripe. The production over there was phenomenal, 
As I recall, some of those wheat fields used to produce 
sixty or more bushels per acre. 

Of course I was not the only one working on this 
investigation. Professor 0. V.. P. Stout, head of 






rut lo esiiBtfrKfiict owct Y^no beievoo I 
teed bnB jleeiD eeriest . nl 

..Tl sjitfln rWnoff erf* oro-il ancietsvlfa srtt nrfT 
rio bnB :f BisBideH 

9 actct JicM nee 

srfct net 1 : B^do eerloi/b vre 

b.r ' . .'3*iiclni cfBi. >; tiftvit nism 

^ffl Eflvf rf 

iK BB e\ r ic^/"i9qooo zi. BW arid' Iljg staW 



on saw . . 

sq^^ iB9-^ gnUastectni a BBW ^arfT 

bw' ' tfne-ie'njb ecflLrp ZBW ei0tflt 

vj[n.?Bin eew rfl . ^iw sonelisqx 8 

.B*?9d tsgr ,r 

enillcO dac^ fnj; ?0fled erii 

' ^^:8rid^ofl ^ariS UB bnB t e ^ & r i i - ) fcnB 
et, .; oie/id" enol*- : 

Y-C-f^ 91 ^ behoof gnl^eqJ^^ ssw ^aaxi 
dBTb 'coricfBi jiool eblsil *JB %t clmol al 

-cftrid- TOVO r..- .f.clT etB 

^Berfw eeorfj lo enofi , >T I eA 

.aaou . r - : :<3 ?tr 

*rf^ ctcr; 10 



129 



Adams 















civil engineering at the University of Nebraska, 
and C. E. Tait made the necessary measurements of 
streams and gathered further data regarding the water 
system. Walter B. Denton prepared a report on water 
rights. I believe that Mr. Talt and one other 
member of the Irrigation Investigation staff made 
some measurements of seepage losses in the main 
river. We each prepared our separate reports and 
these were sent to Washington where they were the 
basis of the published report which was prepared by 
R. P. Teele. I might add that during the season the 
field investigations were under the general direction 
of Clarence T. Johnston, who was in charge of the 
Cheyenne office. I should also add that Professor 
Stout worked with me in studying the use of water in 
the North Platte, between the Wyoming and Nebraska 
lines and Bridgeport. We made many trips there 
together. 

I'm not quite sure what w e accomplished by that 
study of interstate water rights on the Platte and 
its tributaries. I gave my copy of the printed report 
to Davis or UCLA. It was intended to be a presentation 
of the situation and the need for a settlement of 
difficulties. Whether any principles or solutions 
were suggested I don't remember. I think it was 






a & .tie IBS 



rfoc/m worf no e.na;tefc smce err- evl?. ucnf b' 
a: 1 . .re lo bnltf ;tBrtw t blq ei?w 

?bflrf 
.ertrfoo *5o ^vub eecrftf nl wcl etew 

tBl B1B9Y x -t^ -f^ * B BlniOllIfl 

.'cfsg BSW. I nm f J ei. r * ^A .TBe^ B 004iISj S" 
^nlgns nfl saw criw t beM , .'tslrfo Tjm t TBe- c 

bnB nolsaeloiq alri nl berfalldstfas YW8"Otorfct 

X E Q ^ y^^LJ,J8c 

9 svari b; 

.bsfooan ow isvsrfAiiw ^esBjnsqxs ocfr eA 
one ^ r 'rsrii aee! " P no cfi/o rfnee od 

.aeaneqxa IBU^OB ir;o blsq anew . P,OO eri^ nevoo 

,Ic: ioven BBW ; 

.ectrfgln moe ctuc C R r/oy blse t?c\ 

^nofd'flsld'eevn.l riB^TJ sffd- rt.t 7 esw tfBrfT 

. Jnic llIsO nl ie^I ctfl"S lo Ififtft B BBW eirfd 

~qlt;p pnlomso ^P 1 ^ oeneqxe en*3 *rol mlei SBW I 

.Bsllqqi/B Jbfts ^n5in 
.JevBict bns t le*od ,600*! tiroY blan v 

.B9Y rfO 
eri^ nc jftow elrfct rir.inll 1/0-7; bib nsrfW 



131 



Adams: I commenced my work In the early spring and completed 
the field work in the late fall. Prom time to time 
I returned to Cheyenne to review my notes. I had 
clerical help in the office to keep my materials up 
to date. I completed my report in the following 
February and then was assigned to work with Dr. 
Portier in California. 

INVESTIGATION OP MODESTO AND TURLOCK 
IRRIGATION DISTRICTS, 19014- 

Adams: Dr. Portier, who had taken over the work of the 

Irrigation Investigation under Dr. Mead in California, 
had asked Dr. Mead for my help in making an investi 
gation in Modesto and Turlock irrigation districts. 
These districts had just overcome their legal and 
financial difficulties. Turlock had started to 
deliver water in a small way in 1901 and Modesto 
was ready to begin in 190i|. The congressman from 
that congressional district, Mr. J. C. Needham, had 
gone to the Secretary of Agriculture and requested 
assistance from the Department of Agriculture, The 
request had gone to Dr. Mead in Washington and then 
to Dr. Fortier in California and Dr. Portier had 
picked me to do the job. 



bns ^nitqe vlrtse srfct at ataow ^ bon0ir?moo I :80usf>A 

.Hal 

bBd I , rr TQF. weivei ctf - otf bemi/ctsi I 

q- "^e^Bm -^ qJf oct eo,cllo led IBoi^eIo 

-.1 erf* nl cfioc be^s-/ I ,cteb o^ 

rflw jiiow o* bengiaBB ei-. r I bna ^iBi/ide^ 

v .''I ISJt^lO^ 

XOCJ; . MI 

40^1 t RTOI' 

t .Id 

flimclIlBO ai DBeM ,TC isbriu r . 

'vni f!t, ' nl qleri -^m 10! bBt^ . .^BJB bad 

^ItwT bnB cctaeboM nl noirfjag 
bii ; 1 iJted^ 30 ODIQVO ^eirt bBn' e^oJtid-BJtb 

.s sic lib iBlonfi^ 

orfReboi^ bnB IO(?I nl Y^W Una e nJt IS^BX "eb 

,4iOCJ ni ni^fid oct ^bson 
iBri ,ff!Bii&eeH .0 ."G ,iM t ^oJtt*8lb ,eisnoo 

'jpi r 'jj^JuolisA lo Y' 1 ^ 

< . 1o ctnaoictiBqeG a 

n- bjeeM .rtC' 

her! rsidio'- .iG bn slmo'illjsO nt Tf'Jt^*ic r ' . 

.dot ^ri-^ " 




Dr. Santtel Fortler 



132 



Early History of. Modesto and Turlock Districts 
Adams: 






Irrigation was, of course, well advanced in the 
Fresno, Visalia, and Bakersfield areas in San Joaquin 
Valley. The Miller and Lux canals on the west side 
of the San Joaquin Valley were operating. A number 
of canals were irrigating land along the San Joaquin 
River on the east side of the river. There were small 
private projects in the Madera area, the Madera Canal 
and Irrigation Company, and in the Merced area, the 
Crocker-Huffman Company. The Crocker-Huffman Company 
had colonized some of that land. Other than that, 
the land on the east side of the San Joaquin Valley 
from Fresno to the Stockton area was mainly in dry 
grain farming. There was some irrigation on the 
riparian lands along the stream beds. An effort had 
been made to develop a project from the Stanislaus 
near Oakdale under what became known as the Tulloch 
system, but little had been accomplished. The 
typical minimum holding was probably a quarter section, 
160 acres. The maximum, up to 2000 acres or more. 
In the days of profitable grain farming they got 
along all right, but the soil ceased to produce as 
it used to, low prices came on, in the '90's was the 
depression, and many landowners, especially the owners 






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er ,n< -^BO ao. r I t 

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Adams : 









133 



of small holdings, were in a bad way. 

In 1887 Modesto and Turlock districts had been 
formed under t he Wright law, (C. C. Wright, who drafted 
the Wright law, was a resident of Modesto.) They both 
employed engineers and after a year or two systems 
were worked out and a ccepted and bond issues voted 
and sold. Construction was carried to the point 
that La Grange Dam, a Joint diversion dam on the 
Tuolumne River, was finished, and substantial portions 
of their two canals were constructed. 

Large landowners were early objectors and the 
districts were in constant difficulty through 
litigation. The details of this litigation are 
given in my report of the investigation. (The 
investigation was reported in Office of Experiment 
Stations, Bulletin No. 158, Report ojT Irrigation 
and Drainage Inve st igations , 1901;. ) 

These two districts comprised an area of about 
a quarter of a million acres. The Modesto people 
were entirely new to irrigation and what they wanted 
was some help In getting started In their plans of 
operation, delivery of water, management of their 
systems, and any help they could get in the use of 



water. 









bed B nl rr . ^Jtblorf IlB*e Ic : smabA 
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* 

Baum: 
Adams 






Baum: 



Adams 



Keeping Records 

What kind of aid were you able to give them? 
One of my first jobs was to set up gauging stations 
on the main canals and on some of the main laterals 
with the idea of letting the districts know Just how 

much water they were diverting from the river and how 


much water they were delivering to the irrlgators. 

Daily readings of the diversions in each canal were 
made by the dith tender at the dam. To stimulate 
interest of the landowners In the operation of the 
district system, I arranged with the principal 
local newspaper in Modesto to obtain this record of 
diversions from the Tuolumne River every afternoon and 
publish it. 

A plan was outlined for keeping records, both 
by the ditch tenders and by the superintendent of 
the district. As to the question of the Modesto 
district, I set up the necessary record books and 
forms and had them printed at their expense. 
In other words, did you set up a bookkeeping system 



of use of water? 

You might call it that. 






. 
Another matter we went into was the rise of 

ground water. Experience had shown that as you brought 
water onto the land in quantity, ultimately the ground 






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IcqlonlTq ^ . ^e^s 

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IOJJT 



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135 



Adams: water would rise. We thought it desirable that they 
should begin to think of those things at once. 

Three lines of wells were set up for keeping 
ground water levels. We made monthly records throughout 
the season of the ground water ]evel. No wells were 
put in for that purpose; I simply used the farm wells 
in the area. In the upper portion of the district 
the water was about seventy-five feet from the surface, 
whereas in some of the areas down toward the San Joaquin 
River the water was samething like ten or twelve feet. 

Another matter we thought should be watched was 
the seepage from the canals. 

. w , . , T . 
Applying Water to the Land 

Adams: I spent a good deal of time with the ditch tenders 

on the various canals as they delivered water to the 
irrigators. I remember one laa downer, a brother of 
Congressman Needham, was scared to death as to how 
he should use water when the day of delivery came. 
So at his request I went down aid spent several days 
with him, took my rubber boots, went out in the field, 
with him, aid helped him distribute water over the 
land, giving him some ideas as to procedure. I was 

. 

not brought up on an irrigated farm, but my three 

jr 

years 'intimate contact with irrigators on Cache Creek 
in California, on the Virgin Kiver in Utah and on the 



3d 



9lcfexJ:se.b 31 : . i bluow lectaw 

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:oo6i ^Ldinoni e . 'el le^sw fcrcuoi 



;.- -^Iqinie 1 jaaoqii j ^Bri^ iol ni 3uq 

oq iscqw erit ill .se'ia erfi nl 

^ v, 8iIJ moTl , vv'jtl-^nsvee cti;ocfjB BBW ie^BW edcf 

irod . f .oe ni eaeit 

to nect eiil gni; BJ?W ieJsw edcf iev- 

e sw iQ^dsxa latttonl 

_ ri-.y*ftr% A*t-4- n^-rr*'* *- * y^r ^ ^ A r-f-l 

3..' 



a o;t oeji ;q.A 

eiebnei rlo^Ib erl;r rf^iw eml^ lo Leeb boos, a ineqa I 
r bsievileb -^erfrf es elaneo euoliBv sxtt 

-tcf B t 'ierjwob.rI eno i- . .^il 

9L oi benaoa esw t atBri sicee 

lo Y*^ erl ^ neifw 

IfeTevee ctneqe IB nwob rfnew I oaeirpei alrl JB 
'l s/ .lew t e^ood -xedornc vrcr 3ioo^ t J 



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pa ^ wcf t^nal >e*B^Jti'xi rts no qxr rtrigi/oicf cton 



O eiJe^O no eioctBgiiil rl^iw rfoc^noo 

no briB rterfU nl ievl/i nlgi-tV ertl no t flInioljtlBO 



136 



Adams: Platte River In Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska had 
made me familiar with the practice and I was able to 
be of some help of that kind. 

Then there was the matter of preparation of land 
for Irrigation. Land was being prepared mainly In 
contour checks and It was obvious they were moving 
too much dirt. Arthur Stover of our Berkeley office 
came down and made some surveys to see just what they 
were doing and these were Included In the reporte 

The methods of applying water to the land in 
California were quite different from those followed 
in the Rocky Mountain states. Out here the normal 
method was by the basin or check method. In the 
Rocky Mountain states contour ditches were run In 
the field and the water carried in those small ditches 
and spread over the land with the help of the Irrigators 
out there with their shovels. Some of the land In 
Modesto and Turlock districts had a slope in which 
It seemed the check method was not the most economical 
method, so we leased about 25 cr 30 acres In the 
Modesto District and set up a little demonstration 
project where we irrigated very flat land and sloping 
land. We irrigated land by strip checks, by rectangular 
checks, by contour checks, and by the mountain method. 
We ran that for a couple of years. Incidentally, I 



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cm orf^ Y rf &nB t 87!nerf? i'- Y<^ , R*rf9 

^; Ic elquoo B r io1 ctfirf* ni 



137 



Adams: might mention that I sent a young graduate civil 

engineer down there to look after this experiment. 
His name was August Griffin who later became chief 
engineer of the South San Joaquin irrigation district 
and then went with the Canadian Pacific Railroad 
to Canada and became their chief engineer in charge 
of all irrigation matters. 

Baum: Were the irrigators eager to learn new methods and 
did they come to your demonstration farm? 

Adams: Our studies of the check method and their high 
levees, I think, did have an effect. Instead of 
having high levees over which farm machinery couldn't 
travel and having a difference of maybe a foot or 
more between one contour check and the next, smaller 
checks were built with broader levees so the crop 
could be grown on the levees and the farm machinery could 
pass over the levees. 



District Operation 

~" 

Baum: In those years were the irrigators enthusiastic 
about the district? 

Adams: Oh yes. Shortly after I arrived in Modesto, early in 
March of 190ij., they had their formal opening, a great 
jubilee. People came from all parts of the state for 
that opening. Quite a boom started in the development 






TCI 



edfii/bjBis gouou & cfnea I J-exirf noJjtnam tfrf. 
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sodd 19.' w nilliit) rl BBM ercjen slH 

jioBif til nitrpfid <aine 



b( ol^lojsT nfiifc, >.rfd- ritflw tfnew nexlct bfi 

oct 

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i HB moxl offljso elccsl 
^r ->3V9b orfcf nl bnrfijB^ j e* . 



:nv 



138 



Adams: of the district. I don't remember how large Modesto 
was at that time, I don't think over 2000 people. 
It was the county seat. Turlock was a village of 
probably not more than 100 people. 

Land could be bought in the two districts as 
low as $30 or $14.0 an acre. The highest priced land 
was held at $75 an acre, which was then considered a 
prohibitive price. That was for raw land. In the 
next few years, and very evident during the years I 
was there, there was a lot of activity in the purchase 
of land. 

Baura: How did the Irrigation district organization work 
in Modesto in those years? Was it an effective 
institution, or do you think some other form of 
organization might have been better? 

Adams: I was convinced before that study was over in 1901^. 
that the principal irrigation development in the 
state would be under that form of organization. 
Samuel C. Wiel, author of a standard work on water 
rights, brought over to Berkeley the proof of his 
first edition of his book. I remember in conversation 
with him that he was surprised that we were interested 
in irrigation districts. He had In mind the experiemces 
under the old Wright Act and he thought they would 










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-rjs8 



139 



Adams: never be attempted again. I told him then I thought 
our future in irrigation development lay in that 
direction. 

That work in 190i|. brought up some questions of 
management which were of interest. In Modesto District 
everything was running smoothly. No controversies 
within the board of directors and no controversies 
among the people. In Turlock, however, just the 
opposite was true. The superintendent or engineer 
that first year was soon superseded by another. 
Some of the farmers in certain areas were still very 
much dissatisfied, I don't remember now just why. 
While I was just completing the manuscript of ray 
report, the leader of that opposition, who was down 
in the Hilmar Colony, came up to see me. I don't 
know why. He proceeded to tell me their troubles. 
I had known of those troubles and I referred to them 
in my reports and had pointed them out as difficulties 
that needed to be overcome. I handed a copy of my 
manuscript to this man. He read it, looked very sober, 
and went away. I think I had effectively answered 
him in that report. 

Baum: Did they get their troubles ironed out? 

Adams: Oh yes, within a few years the situation in those 

two districts was reversed. All was calm in Turlock 



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!:* nlerfct w Ilfl^t od 1 bebeeootq sH ,-^ifw 

e'i , -.e eeldtroict J lo nwonjf bsrf I 

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llt-0 



Adams: District, all was confusion in Modesto District. But 
those districts have been models of success. 

Baum: Why did this turmoil come about? 

Adams: I don't recall the details. It had nothing to do 

with the form of organization. It probably had more 
to do with the assessments and distribution of water* 
There are bound to be difficulties where people are 
dealing with water, especially during the early years 
of a project. It took Modesto District a little 
longer to eliminate its difficulties and get into 
smooth operation than Turlock District. They changed 
engineers from time to time, I do not recall why or 
what bearing that had on the operations of the system. 
I think the smooth operation in Turlock District 
really began about 1913 or ll| when R. V. Meikle was 
made engineer of the district. He was working for me 
and had just completed his assignment when the engineer 
of Turlock District came to me to get help in presen 
tation of their problems to the Secretary of the 
Interior. San Francisco was seeking a water supply 
from the Tuolumne River and the two districts were 
opposing it. The city attorney of San Francisco 
asked me to work on their case but I was unwilling 
to work on either side. I told them they could have 
Mr. Miekle and Mr. MIekle went there then to work on 



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j nfe B5 .- ^b ecti e, .'.IB o* 19300 J 

rfo . rfelC ^ooliu? aerftf noi^sieqo rfrfoome 

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do.tirfeib ow^ erict bns isviff e; 

.^i gnlaoqqo 

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xi bliroo vQff^ insrl^ bjo^ ebla leri^le no ^iow o^ 
nt orf nerf* atorfct ^nsw slrfe." . brus 9l3falM .tK 



Adams: that problem and shortly thereafter was made district 
engineer. Turlock hasn't changed their engineer since 
then. That's unheard of in irrigation district 
operation. Only Imperial District has approached 
this in its continuity of engineering direction. 

Baum: Prom what you say, I gather you consider the engineer 

a very important factor in the operation of the district. 

Adams: Oh yes. Mr. Meikle kept scrupulously out of district 
politics. He had nothing to say in that field. He 
is very able, very wise. That's the key to his success. 

OTHER WORK - 190lf - 1905 - 1906 

Adams: I spent two years in California with Dr. Portier, the 
first year mainly on the study of Modesto and Turlock 
districts, but there were other activities. e had 
going on at that time a number of what we called 
"tank experiments." Crops were grown in tanks and 
different quantities of water applied. The tanks were 

weighed at intervals to determine the loss of water, 
the use of water by the plants, and also bare tanks 
were used to determine the evaporation from the 
surface of the soil. We had tanks of that type out 
from Tulare. We had some tanks back of what is now 
Agricultural Hall. We had tanks on the plant intro 
duction garden of the Department of Agriculture up 



asw ' das msldotq tfarftf 

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1 *n^ ' no eilnB* barf W ,I1H 

'TjaA lo rfnew^tBqeQ arirf "io nabTBg rroi^oirb 









An Article and Photographs 

By Prank Adams 
Appearing In Sunset, June - July 1906 



nA 

- 



UP WHITNEY BY LONE PINE 

TRAIL 

By Frank Adams 



Photographs by the Author 



FEW people realize that the sum 
mit of Mount Whitney, the 
highest mountain in the United 
States, is but a dozen miles removed 
from a comfortable wagon road, yet 
such is the fact. Neither ,do many 
realize that at certain seasons of the 
year the whole of the dozen miles 
between the summit and the wagon 
road can be covered on animals. 

A year ago the enterprising citizens 
of Lone Pine, Independence, Keeler, 
and other nearby towns completed a 
new trail to the top of Mount Whit 
ney. 



Part of this trail had been built 
years ago by Uncle Sam's soldiers, 
encamped along Lone Pine creek, 
while making temporary use of 
Mount Whitney Military Reserva 
tion. A part, also, had been built by 
citizens who wished access to the 
rugged eastern slopes of the sur- 
rouruding mountains. That the upper 
and more difficult portions were built 
to make this famous old mountain 
more easily accessible shows that the 
enterprising citizens who undertook 
the feat knew the value of short cuts 
in mountain climbing. 



UP WHITNEY BY LONE PINE TRAIL 75 




IN CLEAR VIKW OF MANY OP THR WONDERS OF THK UPPER KF.RN 



Mount Whitney has been climbed 
many times and by many people, yet 
those who have approached from the 
west, and this includes the great ma 
jority, have missed a charm that 
only the east-side trail can give. The 
scenic wealth of the west is in the 
deserts and the mountains, and rare 
the region that combines them more 
completely to one's satisfaction. 
"Teader vistas ever new" could be no 
more truly written than of what this 
winding, rocky trail affords as it 




-tktdainti 

each hfad a hum h of weft vto/f/s 



leaves the desert at the edge of Loni- 
Pine creek and makes its way 
through the timbered gulches and 
over the jagged cliffs toward the sum 
mit. Yet, different as is each back 
ward vista, all carry that enchanting 
inspiration so peculiar to the desert. 
Ever unfolding at the foot of the 
canyon lies Owens valley, bordered 
beyond by the Inyo range, its surface 
as rich in mineral coloring as are its 
mines in mineral wealth. Ever 
changing their form at the head of 
the canyon are Whitney and his com 
panions, their faces high in the sun 
above the timber line, and promising 
pleasures innumerable to those who 
will overcome the obstacles at their 
feet. 

Lone Pine, the outfitting point for 
a trip up the east side, lies in the 
evening shadow of Mount Whitney, 
a few miles west of Mount Whitney 
station on the Carson and Colorado 
railroad. To the summit is scarcely 
twenty miles. The vertical distance 
covered in this short stretch, how 
ever, is nearly eleven thousand feet ! 
Rut these figures should not frighten 
anyone seriously contemplating the 
ascent - - they certainly would not 
frighten one at all accustomed to 



76 



SUNSET MAGAZINE 




THH SCKNIC WKAI.TH OK THK WKST IS IN THE MOUNTAINS AND OHSHRTS 



mountaineering. The comfortable 
stops between Lone Pine and the 
summit are frequent. Four miles out, 
at an elevation of 4500 feet, is Sol 
diers' Camp, on Lone Pine creek, but 
still on the desert. Seven miles fur 
ther, at an elevation of 8300, is 
, Hunters' Camp, well up in the canyon 
among the timber, and well within 
the sound of Hunters' Falls, where 
the waters of I,otif Pine creek come 



tumbling from the rocks above. At 
10,00 feet, nestled snugly under a 
vertical granite cliff near two thou 
sand feet high, and partially sur 
rounded by a small park of firs and 
pines, is Lone Pine lake, well stocked 
with wary trout from the lower 
creeks. A mile above is the camp of 
all the camps on the trail the upper 
meadow, with its stream, its clumps 
<>f trees, and its abundant feed for 



UP WHITNEY BY LONE PINE TRAM. 



77 




)NK PINK FAI I.S, ON INK WHITNKV TRAIL 



animal>. At 12,000 feet is Mexican 
camp, the coldest camp on the jour 
ney, yet a convenient starting point 
for the trudge up the mountain. Di 
rectly above this camp is the hardest 
climb on the trail, perhaps excepting 
the last supreme effort that accom 
plished lands one on the summit. At 
its end is Lone Pine pass, elevation 
13,337 feet, from which one first 
catches a glimpse of the west-side 



panorama stretching from the Ba- 
kersfield hills far north beyond Mount 
Brewer and Mount Williamson. Be 
tween Ix)ne Pine pass and the sum 
mit, in clear view of many of the 
wonders of the upper Kern and the 
upper Kaweah Mount Kaweah and 
the pinnacle, for instance is Lake 
View camp, still two or three hours 
from the top. This can be called a 
camp by virtue of the fact that it was 



78 



SUNSET MAGAZINE 




THE KASTKRN PACK OH MOUNT WH1TNKY PROM THE LONE PINK TRAIL. FROM THK SUMMIT, THK O IKK MAKKS A SHKKR 

PALL OP I8OO FKKT. ON AUGUST IO, 1905, A PARTY OP UNITBD STATES SURVEYORS COMPLETED A LEVH1. 

LINK TO THK SUMMIT, FINDING IT TO HAVK AN KLRVATION OP 14,502 PERT. WHICH PROVED 

IT TO BE THH HIGHEST MOt'NTAIN IN THK UNITKD STATKS 




SHKKF MOI'NTA 



MOl'NTAIN ON THK RIGHT IS Ml M. At>IK 



I/ I 1 WHITNEY BY LONE PINE TRAIL 79 




IHt it htilf of tkf ttftfH mitfi fait f>f cavrtrd by mul 

used as one by the hardy trail builder 
when finishing his task. Neither 
wood nor water are there unless they 
happen to have been left by a former 
traveler, although snow can usually 
be found in close proximity. 

After crossing Lone Pine pass the 
trail is wholly on the west side of the 
summit of the range of which Whit 
ney is a part. Beyond Lake View 
camp, from which there are perhaps 
no more lakes in view than from 
numerous other points on the trail, 
the journey is again lightened by the 
ever-changing outlook. As you cross 
a ledge at 13,775 feet elevation Whit 
ney comes into view after having 
been hidden for an hour behind the 
rocks and peaks through which the 
trail winds. You say an hour will 
land you there, yet experienced and 
hardy you are indeed if you say the 
truth. The last pull is a puli in ear 
nest, one not to be forgotten either 
for its efforts or its thrill. 

While the mountains and the desert 
are ever calling as one toils up the 



trail to Whitney, you can not escape 
the lesser things on the way. Of wild 
animals there are very few, yet if you 
camp at the upper meadow and stay- 
there long enough to get acquainted, 
you will find a host of little friends. 
Chipmunks will waken you with the 
first sun of the morning and only 
leave when the last kernel of grain 
or the last crumb of bread is gone. 
Birds, you will be tempted to call 
sparrows, will flit about cautiously 
until they learn that you will not 
harm them. Below 6,000 or 7,000 
feet of elevation Lone Pine creek will 
supply as many ample meals of trout 
as you take time to go for. A few 
flocks of grouse will cross your path, 
but not if you carry a gun ! But if 
animals are few, not so with trees 
and flowers. At the base of the 
mountains are the "pinon" pines, 
small and scattering. A little higher 
up, beginning near /,000 feet, are the 
beautiful Jeffrey pines, with red and 
white firs mixed plentifully in be 
tween. Above 0.000 feet the Jeffrey 



80 



SUNSET MAGAZINE 



pines retreat, leaving only the fox 
tail and timber-line pines to brave the 
rigors of the upper altitudes. But 
near 11,000 feet the climatic strain 
becomes too severe for even the most 
hardy of the timber, and a few feet 
below that elevation the last tree on 
the trail a dwarfed fox-tail pine 
lies prostrate on the rocks as if over 
come with grief at not being able to 
accomplish for its race another full 
thousand feet of achievement. After 
the timber is left behind one begins 
fully to appreciate the beauty of the 
little annual and perennial flowers. 
Yon are ever finding a new one as 
you follow the trail in its windings 
across creeks and past lakes, guided 
only lp the frequent little stone-on- 
stone monuments that originally told 
the trail builders where to go, as they 
now tell you where to go. You find 
flowers not only in profusion of num 



ber, but also in profusion of color. 
Yet withal they must be looked for 
to be found, for they have chosen to 
grow where, in the nature of things 
they must grow deep in the crev 
ices between the rocks. If you follow 
the trail the last of July or the first 
of August you will find, from 13,000 
to 14,000 feet, perhaps the most per 
fect of them all the dainty polenw- 
niutn, each head a bunch of sweet 
violets, each flower as fragrant as an 
heliotrope. Nestled close to it you 
may also find a brilliant member of 
the dandelion family Hulse algida 
full of the pure, golden sun of the 
high altitudes. 

Rut the story of the Lone Pine 
trail to Mount Whitney must be 
learned at first hand from each of the 
characters in it. A three-days' round 
trip from Lone Pine will indicate its 
secret. A week's trip should tell it. 






Adams: 
Baum: 

Adams: 
Baum: 

Adams: 






Baum: 



Adams: 



at Chico. 

Was all this work under the Office of Experiment 









Stations? 

Yes. 

You were not connected with the University at that 

time. 

No, although the work was in a way in cooperation 

with the University. 

Evaporation from water surface was one of the 
matters we were looking into. Dr. Portier had me 
set up a series of tanks on the east slope of Mt. 
Whitney, ascending from a little above Lone Pine to 
the summit, to measure the effect of elevation on the 
evaporation from the surface of the water. The amount 
of loss from the surface of reservoirs was important. 
There had been previous work by investigators going 
back to the William Ham Hall days, but our purpose 
was to add to that information. It was then that I 
had my first opportunity to get into the high Sierra. 
It sounds like, although you were not trained as an 
engineer, you were doing more and more engineering- 
type work. 

I had very good tutoring on certain engineering 
phases of the work when I worked on Cache Creek with 
Mr. Wilson, a trained engineer who had been state 






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143 







Adams: 



engineer af Nebraska. I had also obtained a lot 






Adams: 



of fine advice and instruction from Professor O.V. 
P. Stout, head of the department of civil engineering 
at the University of Nebraska, when I was working 
on the Platte River back in 1903. 

Professor (Major) 0* V* P. Stout 

Although a little out of order, I might add here 
that Professor Stout continued at the University of 
Nebraska aid became dean of engineering, went into 
the first World War, became a major, returned to 
his work as dean of engineering, Is ft that to head 
up the engineering work of a private irrigation 
development company out in Colorado axl Idaha. Die 
company went broke just about the time of the 
depression of the thirties. Dr. Portier was just 
planning to set up some studies of seepage from 
canals in California. I suggested that he bring 
Major Stout out, which he did. Major Stout an d Carl 
Rohwer, who came out from Colorado, carried on that 
work for a number of years. Then Major Stout 
became aart of the cooperative work in California 
and took charge of investigations in the Delta. A 
little later Dr. Mead persuaded him to make some 
studies of the Tri-Counties Project in Nebraska. 
While he was on that project he had an emergency 



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Adams: operation from which he didn't recover. I always owed 

a lot to Professor Stout, both in inspiration and In 
the knowledge I was able to pick up from him. 



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icUilqsaJ nl rfctod ,ct ..aeloi^ od" ^ol B 

-i^iq oi -BW I Qjibslwoni srfct 




Major 0. V. P. Stout 






Adams 









FAMILY 
IN THE LIGHTING FIXTURE BUSINESS, 1906-1910 

At the end of those two years with Dr. Fortier I 
considered a venture into farming up in Oregon with 
my colleague in the Irrigation Investigations, Arthur 
P. Stover, but didn't. 

My brother and another man, who was a mechanic, 
both of them connected with a lighting fixture concern 
in San Francisco, decided after the fire to go into 
business independently. They persuaded me to join 
with them. Another stockholder was Mr. John P. 
Young, who was managing editor of the Chronicle. 

""*^"" 

Our firm was Adams & Hollopeter, Lighting Fixtures. 
I remained with the business four years. We had a 
fine factory and manufactured our own lighting fixtures, 

It was very enjoyable and gave me an opportunity 
to learn to sell. I found I could. It also brought 
me into contact with a lot of fine people. In 
addition to selling, one of my jobs was to look after 
the finances of the firm, see to it that there was 
money on hand to pay the help and the bills. That 
made it necessary to see that funds came in from our 
contracts on completion, and if the money hadn't come 






- I ,-Sc- HI 



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Adams 









Baum: 



Adams 



Baum: 



in, to see that I got it from the bank, the Anglo, 
London & Paris National Bank. The head of it was 
Mr. Phil Lilienthal, a wonderful man. He was killed 
in a traffic accident down the Peninsula and Mr. 
Ignatz Steinhart, donor of the Steinhart Aquarium, took 
over and after that Mr. Herbert Pleishhacker. I 
had an opportunity to get acquainted with all these 
men. It seemed remarkable that someone from a small 
firm as we had should go to the top men in the bank, 
but that was the practice in those days. 

Several years later there was a merger of our 
business with another business and after two or three 
years the enterprise went out of existence. 
Had you lost all contact with your irrigation work 
while you were in business? 

No. I had started during those two years I was with 
Dr. Portier, 190lj. to 1906, a study of delivery of 
water to irrigators. I laid that aside when I left 
the work in the summer of 1906. While still in 
business, I took up as a side issue the completion 
of that report at Dr. Portier's request, making the 
necessary field trips in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, 
Oregon, and Washington to get additional data. That 
was published along about 1910. 
This was for the Department of Agriculture? 






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Adams: Yes. That was, I guess, the first publication in 
that field. (USDA, Office of Experiment Stations, 
Bulletin No. 229. Delivery of Water to_ Irrigators. 

1910. ) 

. 

WIPE AND CHILDREN 

Baum: You mentioned that your wife was a secretary in 

your office when you were in Washington. What was 
her maiden name? 

Adams: Amy Belle Hill. She had finished at a local normal 

school in Muncy, Pennsylvania, passed examination for 
teacher's certificate, and at the age of seventeen 
had taught one year In a district school at the 
fabulous salary of $22 a month. Desiring more 
remunerative work she took a business course and 
passed the United States civil service examination 
and stood No. 2 on the eligible list for the entire 
State of Pennsylvania and was appointed to our office 
in Washington in 1901. 

Baum: When were you married? 

Adams: We were married June 20, 1906. 

Baum: I'd like to include some mention of your children. 

Adams: Well, we have four. The oldest is Helen, who is 
Mrs. Percy M. Barr. Mr. Barr is a professor of 



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11*8 



Adams: forestry over at the University. They live next door 
and have four fine children. The next is Francis 
Edward, a graduate of the University of California, 
a consulting mechanical engineer in Los Gatos. He 
married Jane Bolton. They have one boy. Then comes 

David Hill, a graduate of California and of Boalt 

. 
Hall, and he is a lawyer in San Jose. He married 

Margaret Davis, and they have three children and 
live in Los Gatos. The fourth is Thomas Cooper 
who graduated from the University in forestry and 
in economics and later received his Ph.D. in forestry 
and conservation from the University of Michigan. 

All three of the boys took the Naval R.O.T.C. 
at the University of California so when war seemed 
certain they were called and went in. Both Francis 
and Tom came out with tuberculosis and had to spend 
long periods in the naval hospitals, but both made 
full recoveries. Tom is now a forest economist in 
the United States Forest and Range Experiment Station 
in Portland. He married Laurie Browning and they 

have two girls. 

. 



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,eXi.?-= o-rf^ ev 



ADMINISTRATION OP CALIFORNIA IRRIGATION INVESTIGATIONS 
AND THE DIVISION OP IRRIGATION. UNIVERSITY OF. CALIFORNIA 

Early Years of the Department of 



Irrigation, University of California 



Baum: Then you returned to irrigation work after the bus 
iness went out of existence? 

Adams: I left the business in 1910, but it continued 

successfully for some time during the first World 
War. Early in 190? Dr. Fortier had succeeded Dr. 
Mead in charge of Irrigation Investigations in the 



Department of Agriculture. Dr. Mead had gone to 
Australia. Dr. Fortier asked me to come back to the 
irrigation work and take over in California. 

Baum: I believe your work with the Irrigation Investigations 

was also in cooperation with the University. How did 
that relationship first come about? 

Adams: Well, as I told you earlier, back in 1900 President 



Wheeler invited Dr. Mead to organize a department 

' 

of irrigation in the University. 
Baum: You mentioned how you helped him. 
Adams: Yes. 
Baum: Why did President Wheeler want to set up a department 

at that time? 






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151 



Adams : 

Baura: 
Adams 
Baum: 

Adams 



Baton: 
Adams : 



Baum: 
Adams: 

Baum: 
Adams : 



The title of the association's monthly publication 
was Water and Forests* 

Was this all paid for by private subscriptions? 
Entirely. 

What sort of arrangement did President Wheeler make 
with Dr. Mead for payment for his services? 
My recollection is that he was to receive $1000 for 
giving this six-weeks course of lectures and giving 
general supervision to the work of the department. 
There was no other compensation to those in the 
department. 

Wasn't there a resident assistant? 

Yes. Dr. Mead assigned Mr. J. M. Wilson, under whom 
I worked on Cache Greek, to be in charge of the 
department and also to undertake and direct Irrigation 
Investigations in California as a part of Dr. Mead's 
organization. 

Was Mr. Wilson paid by the University? 
No. He had a title of Assistant professor of irriga 
tion. 

Did he have duties at the University? 
Yes, he gave instruction. He broke down in that. He 
was a little too old to readjust himself to the instruc 
tion. He had some kind of a stroke in t>ie classroom, 
and lingered for several months and died. Dr. Portier 






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Adams 



Baum: 
Adams 

Baum: 

Adams 









was sent later to succeed him. Dr. Fortier brought 
with him Arthur P. Stover who had worked under him 



in Utah. 












Was Dr. Fortier paid? 

Not by the University, no. He was paid entirely 
by the Department of Agriculture. 
Then this was a service of the Department of Agricul 
ture to the University? 

Yes. All the University gave us was headquarters in 
the old Budd Hall. 

Dr. Fortier didn't take much part in the 
irrigation instruction in the University. That work 
was carried on by Arthur Stover. I remember he was 
given a University appointment and may have received 
some University salary. After a year or two, he 
was assigned to take charge of Irrigation Investigations 
in Oregon. At that time Dr. Mead selected Bernard 
Etcheverry, who was then at the University of Nevada, 
to come down and give the instruction. He was indepen 
dent of Dr. Fortier and the Department of Agriculture 
from the start, entirely paid by the University, and he 
reported to President Wheeler directly. Dr. Fortier 
had some relations still with President Wheeler, I 
don't remember just what they were. 

I might say that when Dr. Mead s et up the 






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153 



Adams: Department of Irrigation back in 1901, both Civil 
Engineering and Agriculture wanted it affiliated 
with its department. In order to overcome the dilemma, 
President Wheeler set up a separate department. It 
was to cooperate largely with the College of Agriculture 
because the Irrigation Investigations under Dr. Mead 
were set up to cooperate with the agricultural experi 
ment stations in the w estern states. 

Baum: After Mr. Etcheverry began to work for the University 
independently, how much cooperation was there between 
the Irrigation Investigations and the Department of 
Irrigation? 

Adams: Very little. 

Baum: Couldn't there have been joint investigations? 

Adams: The Department of Irrigation was primarily devoted to 
instruction. Both Professors Etcheverry and Harding 
did consulting work and both, I think, were active 
on research committees of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers. Their fields of research were mostly 
different from ours. 

Cooperative Relationship Between Irriga tion 

1 
Investigations, the State, and the University 

Baum: When you took charge of Irrigation Investigations in 
California in 1910 you were with the Office of 



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Baum: Experiment Stations. You had no connection with the 
University except the use of their offices. 

Adams: We had an informal connection with the University 

because it had assigned some 23> acres on the University 
farm at Davis for experiments under Mr. Roeding and 
that work had been underway, 

Baum: So there was some cooperation on investigation? 

Adams: Yes. It was a very cordial relationship. The matter 
of funds did not in any w ay limit the spirit of 
cooperation. The University was offering us facilities 
and the Department of Agriculture, as it was intended 
to do, set out to assist them. 






The other source of finances was the state. 



I told you the Water and Forest Association had 
supplied funds to the federal agencies back in 1900, 
In 1903 the state began to make a small appropriation 
and it did that through the State Board of Examiners. 
There was no State Department of Engineering at that 
time. At the instance of Clyde L. Seavy, who was 
then assistant secretary of the State Board of Examiners, 
the legislature authorized a continuing appropriation 
of $30,000 for cooperation with the various federal 
agencies. Of that, $7,000 was assigned to Irrigation 
Investigations. So we had state and federal funds to 
work with. 






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155 



Baum: Did you have adequate funds? 

Adams: I had adequate funds at the time, yes. The funds 
were not large. The regular annual appropriation 
from Washington was about |7>000 to match the amount 
from the state. Money was worth something then. 
Prom time to time Dr. For tier assigned additional 
funds of several thousand dollars for our work in 
California. 

That arrangement continued until 1913. Dr. 
Thomas P. Hunt had come to the University as Dean of 
the College of Agriculture late in 1912. He was 
very much interested in our work and he offered to 
supply what money we needed to supplement the work. 
So from that time on the University became a contri 
butor to the finances of the cooperative work. 

Leroy Anderson was then in charge of the Farm 
School at Davis. The University Farm was purchased 
in 1907 or 1908 and they set up a Farm School there. 
There had been quite a sentiment in the legislature 
for instruction in practical farm work not leading 
to a college degree. Superior Judge Peter J. Shields 
of Sacramento had been the most active one in promo 
ting purchase of the farm and setting up this farm 
school. Professor Major was in charge of animal 
husbandry work and there was some conflict over 






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THOMAS -PORSYTH HUNT 1802-1927 

DEANANB DIRECTOR 1912 -19*1 




Dean Thomas P. Hunt 



156 



Adams : 



Baum: 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams 



Baum: 
Adams 



jurisdiction between Professor Major and Professor 
Anderson. After Dean Hunt came, Mr. Anderson left, 
and several years later purchased a farm in Santa 
Clara Valley. He became very much interested in 
water conservation in the Santa Clara Valley and was 
largely responsible for reviving the plans for 
formation of the Santa Clara Valley Water Conservation 
District. 

When did they set up the Division of Experimental 
Irrigation? 

When Dean Hunt set up a budget for irrigation, he 
had to have some unit to which It was assigned, so 
he called it the Division of Experimental Irrigation. 
This was about 1913? 

Yes. The name was changed from time to time and 
instead of appointing someone In the University at 
a University salary to take charge, he just left the 
whole thing to me as the one in charge of the cooper 
ative work in California. That's why I was In effect 
a member of the College of Agriculture staff, but 
with no official connection with the University. 
You were in charge of University work without being 
employed by the University. 
Yes. 












My first appointment to the University was in 









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157 






Adams: 



Baum: 



Adams: 









Baum: 
Adams; 



1916, but that didn't change my relationship. I 
reported to Dean Hunt, the state engineer, and Dr. 
Fortier before my appointment to the University just 
as I did afterward. I considered myself as 
responsible to all three. 

I did want to ask about the efforts to combine the 
Division of Agricultural Engineering and the Irrigation 
Division in the 1920 's. 

I don't think that was of ai y importance. It was 
merely an Incident that came up at one period. In 
the first place, the dean then was new to California 
and to tiie University. The assistant dean had same 
ideas about organization, and I sensed the feeling 
that they would be happy to see us combined with the 
Division of Agricultural Engineering. So we simply 
had to meet that situation. The details of how we 
did this are covered in my "Early History of the 
Irrigation Division, College of Agriculture." 
I take it you think this would have been detrimental? 
In our judgment in a state like California irrigation 
was so important that it needed the entire attention 
of a group of irrigation specialists. Our conception 
of our field was that it went far beyond the engineering 

phase of irrigation, aid dealt much more with soils 
and crops and agricultural practices aid irrigation 



TO I 



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158 



Adams 






Baum: 



Adams : 



Institutions than with agricultural machinery, which 
was then the main field of the division of Agricultural 
Engineering. When the Division of Agricultural 



Engineering was first organized under Professor 









Davidson, he and the dean and I had a complete 
understanding as to the relationship between the two. 
There never was any difficulty. The same was true 
when Professor Walker took over the Division of 
Agricultural Engineering. Our relationships were 
always most cordial and they were among our best 
friends. 

Underwhose auspices did you c arry on your irrigation 

i_. 

investigations? 

The three principal cooperating agencies, of course, 
were the University, the Federal Department of 
Agriculture and the State Department of Engineering. 
In special instances others were brought in, such as 
the Conservation Commission for some early studies, 
and the State Water Commission. It was of little 
Importance where our funds came from. Money contri 
buted by the Conservat ".on Commission and by the State 
Water Commission was of course used for the purposes 
specified in the agreement for cooperation. There 
was never any conflict of interest between the various 
agencies. 



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159 



Baum: There was never any conflict as to what type of 
investigation they wanted the money s pent on? 

Adams: No, no difficulty about that. 

Our funds from the University g radually increased 
much above the amounts contributed by the other agencies 
and some of our men were working on subjects that 
were not related to the cooperative work at all, some 
technical problems like the studies by Dr. Edlefsen 
on the forces involved in the movement of soil moisture, 
and Professors Veihmeyer's and Hendrickson 1 s work on 
the wilting of plants. Their work gradually became 
differentiated from the cooperative work. Our 
cooperative work was outlined in annual agreements 
between the three agencies. 

. 

When I took over in California in 1910, Dr. 
Portier's headquarters were in Washington. About 



1919 or 1920 his headquarters were moved to Berkeley 
and his Washington staff was brought out here. They 
became interested in special studies in California 
which were apart from the cooperative work. After 
Dr. Portier retired about 1921; and Walter Mclaughlin 
took over, he and I arranged that certain of the 

projects would be handled directly by him and certain 


of them directly by me. 

When that change was made it involved no change 



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160 



Adams: in our personal relationships. My full salary was 

taken over by the University in 1926. I was continued 
on the government roll as a collaborator and so contin 
ued for many years until the Soil Conservation Service 
was given control of the old Irrigation Investigations 
and they weren't in sympathy with my attitude toward 
some of their activities, especially with regard to 
the soil conservation districts, so by and by I had 
notice that my services were no longer needed as a 
collaborator. That made no difference whatever with 
our relationship with Mr. Mclaughlin's group. Just 
one of those things that come when you don't agree 
entirely with policies that are being pursued. 

Conducting the Irrigation Census 


Baum: What was your first work when you took over as head 

of Irrigation Investigations in California? 

Adams: My first job was to get ray bearings on what was being 
done and then to go up to Davis and outline an 
experimental investigation program there. My pre 
decessor Fred W. Roeding had started work there when 
the University Farm was established about 1908. Mr. 
S. H. Beckett, who had conducted the work there at 
Davis, under Mr. Roeding, had taken a position on 






the Kuhn project up at Willows. After getting my 






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161 



Adams: bearings and getting the work organized at Davis, 
bringing back Mr. Beckett and putting him to work, 
I picked up the study of the old Wright irrigation 
districts in California begun when I was with Mr. 
Wilson on Cache Creek back in 1900. That work was 
about well organized when I was given the duty of 
directing the irrigation census in California in 
1910. The irrigation census throughout the United 
States for 1910 was placed in charge of Mr. R. P. 
Teele of the Irrigation Investigation staff in 
Washington, the chief editorial assistant there. 
The responsibility for the work in each of the 
western states was placed with the one in charge 
of the Irrigation Investigations in the state. 

That work necessitated gathering a staff of 
eight or ten men quickly. I was able to do that 
and got some very competent help. I had entire 
freedom in the selection and appointment of these 
men. They were paid by Census Bureau and their 
expenses also. 

There were two interesting experiences I had 
in connection with the staff. The director of the 
census was Dr. E. Dana Durand, who had been one of 
my professors at Stanford. When I took up the census 
work in California, he wrote to me and said that he 



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162 



Adams: didn't want to impose on me, but if it was convenient 
he would like to suggest two assistants. One was a 
man who had very successfully handled the general 
census in San Francisco. The other was a veteran 
of the Civil War, who was the father of Dr. Durand's 
wife's schoolmate in college. Well, of course, I 
took those two men on. 

In taking that census we sought to cover every 
individual irrigation pumping plant, as well as the 
irrigation from ditches and canals. The former census 
taker was assigned to the Porterville area. His 
reports came in more complete and with more of them 
than from any other agent in the field. I wondered 
why, so I went down to see him. I got in the buggy 
with him and went around for his daily canvass. He 
was a pompous kind of a fellow. He had a sign painted 
on the back of his buggy, "Special Agent, United States 
Irrigation Census." He'd go up to a farmer I just 
listened and he'd say, "I'm an agent for the 
Irrigation Census. We want to get a record of your 
well. You have about a twelve-inch well?" "Yes." 
"About a four-inch pump?" "Yes." "You get about 
\\%Q gallons of water per minute?" "Yes." He was 
putting all the answers into the mouths of the farmers. 
Well, I stopped that very soon and his records were 






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163 



Adams: more reliable after that. 

The Civil War veteran's records were also coming 
in in a way that made me suspicious of them, so I 
went down to see him. He lived at Uplands and he 
was spending a great deal of time at the old soldiers' 
home at Sawtelle. One of our men felt that he was 
making up some of those records, so I called on him 
on Sunday morning at his home In Uplands. I went over 

some of his records with him and arranged for one 
of our other men working in Southern California to 
work with him in completing the small area assigned 
to him, but not yet completed. 

, 

Baum: You mentioned that Mr. Beckett w orked for the Kuhn 
project for a few months. I've heard about that 
land settlement scheme. Before we pass the subject, 
did you come into contact with the Kuhn project? 

Adams: I came into contact with that quite intimately. 

The man in charge of the Kuhn project was D. W. Ross, 
former state engineer of Idaho, whom I had known in 
Idaho. He had first set up the procedure by which 
the s tate engineer should investigate proposed 
Irrigation districts and report on them before they 
were voted on by the landowners. 



Kuhn Project 






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Adams: The nucleus of the Kuhn project was the land 
under the old Central Irrigation District canal, 
but it included other lands. It was entirely a 
private venture for the sale of water and land. It 
was in no sense a land settlement project as the term 
is usually understood. The activities of the Kuhn 
Project in the Sacramento Valley are outlined briefly 
in Bulletin No. 21 of the State Division of Engineering 
and Irrigation. 

It was formed about 1906 and purchased the 
properties of a private canal company that had put 
into operation a portion of the old Central District 
Irrigation canal. The Kuhn Project also purchased 
the outstanding bonds of the old Central Irrigation 
District which were still a lien against the land, 
as well as additional areas outside of the old Central 
District. They organized the Sacramento Valley 
Irrigation Company and also the Sacramento Valley 
West Side Canal Company. They then proceeded to 
extend the old Central Canal arid to sell land they 
had purchased. 

The Sacramento Valley West Side Canal Company 
was organized as a mutual company and for each acre 
of land sold by the Sacramento Valley Irrigation 
Company a share in the mutual water company was given. 






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165 



Adams : 






It was the intention of the Sacramento Valley 
Irrigation Company to furnish water only to lands it 
sold, but owners of outside lands who were refused 
delivery of water brought suit to compel delivery, 
partly on the grounds that the land in the old Central 
Irrigation District had the first right to receive 
water, and also that the Sacramento Valley West Side 
Canal Company was a public utility. The decision 
of the court went to the plaintiffs and subsequently 

the Railroad Commission declared the Sacramento Valley 

. 
West Side Canal Company a public utility. 

Later the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company 
and the Sacramento Valley West Side Canal Company 
went into receivership and the companies were operated 
by a receiver for several years. These various troubles 
led to the organization of the Glenn-Colusa Irrigation 
District and about 1920 it took over the canal system 
of the Sacramento Valley West Side Canal Company. 

A subsidiary of the Pittsburgh corporation that 
financed the Kuhn Project was the Mills Orchard 
Company. They acquired a large quantity of land in 
the neighborhood of Hamilton City and also some back 
of Maxwell. That was developed as a commercial enter 
prise, not for sale. It was managed by Mr. James Mills, 
later a regent of the University of California and for 






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166 



Adams: a long time chairman of the agriculture committee of 
the regents. They had deciduous orchards and alfalfa 
as their main crops over in the Hamilton City area, 
The area west of Maxwell was entirely in citrus. 

Mr. Mills had been manager of a large citrus 
development at Riverside. He was a very well-known 
man and very enthusiastic about citrus up in that 
area. Citrus had already been developed in northern 
and central California over in the Oroville area and 

. 

in the Porterville area in the San Joaquin Valley. I 
don't know what has become of the Mills citrus orchards, 
but Mr. Mills was very much discouraged at one time 
because of the lack of cooperation of the local 
authorities in giving him the necessary pest control. 
He expressed that opinion to me at that time. He 
sort of threw up his hands. When Mr. Mills left 
active work up there and lived in Berkeley his son, 
James Mills, Jr. took over and as far as I know is 
still in charge of the Mills orchard properties. 

Solano Irrigated Farms 

Adams: If anyone is ever interested in tracing irriga 
tion development in the Sacramento Valley or activities 
in that direction, I suggest they look up the Solano 
Irrigated Farms Project which was very much in the news 



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167 



Adams: about the time of the activities of the Kuhn Project 
or perhaps lat er. This was an effort to develop 
an Irrigation project in Solano County southeast of 
Suisun. It was a rather spectacular effort and 
ended in a complete failure. However, a canal was 
built and several small reservoirs constructed. It 
was sparked by a real estate firm in San Francisco 
and given very wide publicity In the San Francisco 
Chronicle. In fact, the Chronicle devoted so much 
space to the enterprise that Igained the irrpression 
that M. H. De Young, owner of the Chronicle . was 
personally interested, but I may be wrong in this. 
A real ballyhoo was carried on and excursions run 
from San Francisco with the idea of promoting the 
sale of land there. I suppose some land was sold, 
but it was a totally impractical enterprise as de 
vised. 

Late in the first World War Mr. L. A. Nairs, 
who had been a very prominent figure in the Kings 
River area as representative of the riparian lands 
down river, asked me to go over the Solano Project 
with him considering the possibility of reviving 
the project for rice growing. Mr. Nairs at that 
time was either with the State Council of Defense 
or with the Food Administration. I recommended 






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168 



Adams: very strongly against such an undertaking. Owing 

to the low temperatures in that area at night, rice 
growing had already proven to be unprofitable there. 
The idea was soon abandoned. I don't know whether 
the State Real Estate Commission was active in those 
days, but if it was, any one interested could find 
records of these operations in their files. I could 
mention a number of private land development projects. 
It might be Interesting if anyone is interested in 
doing research in that field. For instance, the 
Atascadero Project in San Luis Obispo. This was 
carried out with the skill of a master promoter 
named Lewis, I think the initials were E. G. His 
propaganda was most elaborate and included publication 
of the largest rotogravure publication. That was 
particularly alluring to those looking forward to 
retirement. Some features of his technique were 
so unrealistic as to be fantastic. 

An extreme example was his promise to set up 
a university and offer any course that any land 
purchaser desired, even erecting a Napoleon Building 
for that purpose. Ultimately, of course, there was 
disillusionment. Previously he had gotten into trouble 
in a promotion, I think in St. Louis. He told me one 
day that in the Atascadero venture he had protected 






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169 



Adams: himself so well that no one could trip him up. 
Ultimately, however, he moved down to the Palos 
Verdes Estate, out from Los Angeles, and there, I 
believe, he got into trouble once again. 

Atascadero went on to become quite a settlement. 
I'm sure this has not been due to the glowing prom 
ises of the promoter. 

An entirely different type of land development 
can be found at Corning up in the Sacramento Valley, 
carried through by a Mr. Woodson. He was an unusual 
man of the highest integrity. I have never heard any 
criticism of his operations. Through a combination 
of imagination and sincerity he succeeded in building 
a fine community. Anyone at Corning could give his 
name because he was the leader. 

Idealism, rather than promoters' profit, has 
also figured In the history of getting people on 
the land in California. I have In mind the Little 
Landers' Colonies promoted by William E. Sraythe, 
"A little land a living" was his slogan. I think 
his first venture was at San Ysidro down near the 
Mexican border below San Diego. Another was near 
Hayward. I never visited the Hayward enterprise 
but was very familiar with that at San Ysidro. An 
acre of land was about the normal holding. I 



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170 



Adams: remember talking to one fine gentleman who had such 
an acre. He told me that It was Impossible for him 
to work hard enough to earn a living on that land, 
which, of course, was true. 

I, of course, have touched only on some highlights 
in this field. 

Work o_f_ the Cooperative Inve s t igat long 

Baum: Exactly what were your duties as head of Irrigation 
Investigations in California? 

Adams: Our staff included several members of the irrigation 

staff of the Department of Agriculture assigned to 
California by Dr. Portier. Prom time to time he 
loaned me other members of his staff for special 
work as needed. Otherwise, I had complete freedom 
in the selection of personnel for regular and 
temporary work. University employees that required 
regents' appointments and were intended to be permanent 
were appointed after my recommendation to the Dean 
of the College of Agriculture. There were no restric 
tions as to regular or temporary employees paid by 
the state or as to the temporary employees carried 
on the general assistance roll of the University. 

Administrative work involved selection of 
personnel, matters of financing, our cooperative 






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171 



Adams: relationships, selection of work to be undertaken, 

planning of that work in conjunction with the man or 
men assigned to it. The extent of my contact with 
men in the field, including those at Davis, depended 
on the training and experience of the men involved 
and the nature of the work. In some of the earlier 
work in which a number of the men would be in the 
field for the entire irrigation season or for some 
other extended period, all working on a single 
project, I was in the field a good deal of the time 
because I was necessarily the leader. Examples are, 
to do the water studies with alfalfa and rice, and 
our work with the State Conservation Commission. 
When leadership of the project was assigned to some 
member of the staff, I was in the field from time 
to time to keep in touch with it and to under st end 

i t 

There were also some projects of which I retained 
a measure of leadership but with some staff member 
or some temporary assistant for that purpose in charge 
of the work in the field. Examples were rice and 
cotton irrigation experiments, our experimental work 
at Delhi, and the two years' study we made in 
Hollister. Ify field contacts with such projects were 
frequent. You can't understand work if you know only 



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172 



Adams: the beginning and the end, especially when you're 
dealing with growing plants. 

Baura: Did you carry on some of these projects yourself? 

Adams: I carried on certain work personally such as that 
related to irrigation districts, irrigation legis 
lation, work with Professor Huberty on the cost of 
water, and other matters in the field of irrigation 
institutions and economics, but never allowed these 
activities to prevent my keeping in close touch with 
the other work going on. 

Baum: Did you h ave to do much lobbying in the legislature 
or in the University to get more funds? 

Adams: I had nothing to do with obtaining funds from the 
University. Back in the early days, as already 



explained, representatives of the Irrigations 
Investigations of various states had to promote the 

passage of resolutions by legislatures and other 



bodies in support of our appropriation in Congress, 
but there was no such activity in California after 
I took over in 1910. 

I went into our work in greater detail in the 
manuscript I wrote, "The History of the Irrigation 
Division, College of Agriculture," a copy of which 
is in the University Archives. 



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173 



Baura: 
Adams 






Irrigation Practices 






Can you explain the studies undertaken in a little 









more detail? 

' 
We sought to make studies of such matters as 

preparation of land for irrigation, methods of 









applying water, measurement of water, operation of 

' 
irrigation pumping plants, amount of water necessary 



for different crops. Such work was largely concerned 
with alfalfa and grain at first. There was no inten 









tion to confine such investigational work to Davis, 
but that was the focus for certain phases of the work, 



Duty of Water 






Adams: In addition to gathering information to assist 

farmers in their practices on the farm, and that 
was very largely for men who were just starting in 
farming, and irrigation was new to many, we undertook 
work that would assist the state in its administration 
of the new water law enacted in 1913. 

A matter of importance when irrigation was 
developing rapidly was more information on the duty 

of water. The duty of water is generally taken to 


mean how much is being used. The passage of legis 
lation by which the state took over control of water 
rights made it desirable that it have as much information 









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Adams: as possible about the duty of water because it 

must pass on applications to appropriate water and 
information about the amounts that should be assigned 
was necessary. 

Baum: Was that work in cooperation with the State Water 
Commission? 

Adams: The only duty of water studies made in cooperation 

with the State Water Commission were those for rice. 

Prior to those studies we had made investigations 
of the duty of water for alfalfa throughout the 
Sacramento Valley, including work at Davis. In those 
studies we concentrated, not only on measuring the 
amount of water that was being used, but endeavored 
to determine the amount really required. There 
were great differences in the amounts of water 
applied and in some cases great waste and in s ome 
cases not sufficient water was applied. So we added 
extensive soil moisture studies to help determine 
the amounts of water utilized by the crop and how 
much was lost by surface evaporation and by deep 
percolation. We undertook to keep track of the use 
of moisture by the plant down to a depth of six feet, 
taking samples before and after each irrigation, 
watching the movement of the soil moisture, finding 
the reaction of the plant in plant growth or in the 



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Adams 






yield. 

About 1918 we added Professor Velhmeyer to our 
permanent University staff to undertake a study of 
the irrigation of deciduous orchards and vineyards. 
He began this work in the Santa Clara Valley cooper 
ating with the Division of Pomology of the University 
through Professor A. H. Hendrickson. They extended 
this study with deciduous orchards and vineyards 
widely over the important deciduous fruit and vine 
yard areas and continued it for many years. Professors 
Veihmeyer and Hendrickson reached the conclusion 
that water is readily available to plants so long 
as it is above the "permanent wilting percentage." 
This wilting percentage varies widely with different 

soils. To gain further information about the 
wilting of plants they conducted greenhouse experi 
ments with soils representing nearly all the important 
soil types in California. They then went on to explore 
the whole field of water, soil and plant relationships. 
I think that it was in the late 1920 's that Professor 
Beckett was transferred to Southern California to 
carry on studies of the Irrigation of citrus fruits, 

avocados and walnuts, working out of the Citrus 
Experiment Station at Riverside. In time his work 
was placed administratively under the Citrus Experiment 






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176 






Adams: Station. After Professor Beckett's death the work 

was continued by Professor Huoerty. There were other 
orchard irrigation centers, but those mentioned were 
the most extensive. 

These more technical studies were not confined to 
those mentioned above. For instance, there was the very 
able work of Dr. Edlef sen on the forces involved in the 
movement of soil moisture; the work of Dr. Doneen on 
the irrigation of sugar beets; studies of artichoke 
and lettuce irrigation by Professors Veihmeyer and 
Hendrickson; irrigation by sprinkling by Mr. Christ! an - 
son and many others. These studies were not pi rt of 
the cooperative work, and therefore did not have to 
fit into a cooperative program. University workers 
of established competence must be free to think out 
and plan their own research, and if you don't have men 
capable of independent research you don't have much of 
an organization. 

Burning of Brush in Ranges Areas 

Adams: A very important research undertaken by the division 
which I failed to mention involved experiments in 
the burning of brush in range areas to make the land 
available for grazing. This work was begun after 
Professor Veihmeyer succeeded me as head of the division, 
I believe. At any rate, it was he who conceived, 
planned, aid carried out the work. It was done under 



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177 



Adams: the auspices of the range committee set up by the 
dean and headed by Dr. George H. Hart, head of 
animal husbandry. In addition to University 
personnel the committee included representatives 
of the cattlemen and the State Board of Forestry. 
It was a very interesting project. I visited 
Professor Veihmeyer's plots and small watersheds 
a number of times. Experiments were conducted in 
the Red Bluff and Redding areas and Lake County, 
Madera County, Monterey County, and even in San Diego 
County. It was clear that the burning of brush 
would open the land for range purposes, but whether 
burning would increase soil erosion and reduce 
rainfall penetration was highly controversial. 
Cattlemen, of course, favored burning while the foresters 
generally opposed it, or at least they questioned 
it and questioned Professor Veihmeyer's conclusions, 

just as Professor Veihmeyer questioned some of the 
conclusions of the foresters. I think it is correct 
to say that primarily as a result of Professor 
Veihmeyer's work in this field, controlled burning 
in range areas is now a widely accepted practice 
conducted in collaboration with the State Board of 
Forestry. Incidentally, this work has been continued 
since Professor Vlehmeyer's retirement several years 



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178 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams 



Baum: 



Adams : 



ago. 









Initiation of Studies 

- 






Who initiated your projects? 

My job in the cooperative investigation was to make 
the best use of the available money in doing the 
things that would be of most value to the state. It 
was my job to determine what those things were. For 
each year a program was set up specifying the cooper 
ative work to be undertaken during the year. After 
discussing this with the state engineer and w ith the 
dean of the College of Agriculture it was submitted 
to Dr. Portier, and if approved, as it always was, 
it was embodied in a memorandum of agreement for the 
fiscal year, in which the obligations of each party 
to the cooperation were stated. 
Did Dr. Fortier allow you a great deal of discretion 

as to what to do? 

I don't remember, after I took over in California, 
that he ever gave me a single directive as to what 
we should do in our cooperative investigations. He 
was the type of man who would expect his men in the 
field to keep him informed as to what was being done. 
I had frequent conferences with him. He would usually 
come out to California once a year and he occasionally 






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179 



Adams: would have conferences of the whole staff in 

Washington or in the West. But I don't recall 
that he initiated any of our studies. He must have 
influenced what we did, but it was my job to figure 
out what should be done and to get his approval. 

Baum: Was Dr. Mead similar in this respect, or was he a 
more directing type? 

Adams: While Dr. Mead was chief of the Irrigation Investi 
gations (which was until 190? when he went to 
Australia) there were no representatives of the 
office in each of the western states. Work in the 
Rocky Mountain states was administered in the Cheyenne 
office which Clarence T. Johnston, assistant chief, 
was in charge of until he became state engineer of 
Wyoming. On the Pacific Coast Dr. Portier was in 
charge. I know that Dr. Mead always kept closely 
in touch with what was being done, but I cannot say 
to what extent he gave direction. When I undertook 
the Investigations in Utah in 1902 he gave me general 
directions, but I had no further instructions from 
him during the progress of the investigation. I 
knew he set up the program of the study of interstate 
water rights on the Platte River, but was away in 
Italy during the season that the work was carried out. 

Baum: I believe that you stated somewhere that as funds 






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180 



Baum: contributed by the University and the staff of the 
division increased you took on more and more work 
that had no relation to the cooperative work. Is 
that correct? 

Adams: Yes. This was especially true beginning in the 

early 1920 's. By 1930 we had a University staff, 
all appointed by the regents, of eight or nine and 
a budget sufficient to maintain this staff and 
meet the necessary expenses of clerical and other 
general assistance probably $50,000 or $60,000, 
Salaries and expenses were much less then than now. 
The others were engaged in teaching at Davis or 
in University research. Research was conducted by 
University projects outlined and approved by the 
dean and reported on semi-annually or as most con 
venient. There was a leader for each project and 
sometimes a research committee. The various projects 
usually covered a field rather than any specific 
piece of work. 

Once a field of research was set up, such as 
those assigned to Dr. Viehmeyer, Dr. Edison, 
Professor Huberty, Dr. Doneen, and Clarence Johnston, 
it was the leaders' responsibility to develop it. 

Baum: Were there any complaints from farmers that you were 
spending too much effort on some crop in which they 









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181 



Baum: themselves were not interested? 

Adams: No, I wouldn't say that. Some farmers in Southern 
California once raised the point of whether we had 
been requested to do certain work. The background 
of that was that the Southern California growers 
were very insistent in their requests to the Univer 
sity for aid in their problems. It was natural 
for them to wonder if we had been asked to do this. 
Our job was to anticipate the needs and take up 
studies which we considered important. 

Baum: There wasn't any feeling by some groups of growers 
that they were being neglected? 

Adams: Oh no. 

About 1936 at my request Dean Hutchison appointed 
Professor Viehmeyer to succeed me as head of the 
division. I felt that the nature of our work was 
then such that a man with the training of Professor 
Viehmeyer was better suited to lead it. Another 
reason was that I had gradually become so much 
involved in other activities that I could not give 
adequate attention to the division. By that time 
Professor Huberty was in charge in Southern California 
and not really a part of the division as previously 
administered. 



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Professor P. J. Velhmeyer 



182 



Cooperation with Other Specialists 
Adams: Our policy was to bring into our work specialists 






in other fields. The most notable example was the 
long continued and close cooperation between Pro 
fessor Viehmeyer and Professor A. H. Hendrickson 
of the Division of Pomology in studying the irrigation 
of orchards and vineyards and the wilting of plants 
and general matters relating to soil and water 
relations. L. D. Doneen, who was studying irrigation 
of sugar beets and truck crops, cooperated with the 
truck crop division at Davis. Professor Christiansen 
cooperated with the sprinkler industry in his study 
of the hydraulics and economics of sprinkling. 
Professor Huberty cooperated with the Chemistry 
Division in his study of underground waters in 
the Putah Creek area. Professor Beckett cooperated 
with the Division of Agricultural Engineering in 
the study of wells and pumping in the Putah Creek 
area. 

In our rice experiments, we cooperated very 
closely with the government rice experiment station 
in Biggs, doing some of our work there and bringing 
the one in charge, first Ernest L. Adams and then 
Jenkin W. Jones, into our field work, keeping them 
in touch and working with their advice. We organized 






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183 



Adams: a rice committee which the director of the experiment 
station appointed at our request and brought into 
that a specialist in the grasses and weeds that 
infested the rice fields, Professor Weir in drainage, 
Professor Shaw in soils, and others. This rice 
committee Bat in on the planning of our rice irrigation 
studies and made frequent visits to the field. So 
we were in constant consultation with specialists in 
other related fields. We didn't undertake to go it 
alone. 

In our cotton irrigation studies, our cooperation 
was with the government experiment station at Shafter, 
first tinder W. B. Camp, now a very large commercial 
cotton grower, and then with his successor, George 
Harrison. That illustrates the type of approach we 
used in all our studies. 

Personnel 

Baura: It sounds like one of the major problems in those 
days was to find qualified personnel. 

Adams: I would not say that it was a problem, although it 
required care. Special care, of course^was needed 
for those recommended for permanent appointment by 
the regents, that is, our permanent professional staff. 

Baum: What kind of people did you look for for your work? 

Weren't you competitive with the other farm agencies? 



81 



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Adams: Not necessarily competitive. It depended upon what 

we were doing. For some of our work, men with engineer 
ing training were primarily desirable, with some 
training in agriculture. For instance, in our cooper 
ation with the State Conservation Commission, most 
of the field men employed were engineers. The same 
for the Irrigation Census. Few of them had had any 
special experience in the type of work we were doing. 
The men trained in agriculture were equally effective 
in some of those field studies. Our studies of pumping 
or irrigation sprinkling, those were problems involving 
primarily engineering training. Our studies o^p use 
of water involved engineering to a degree, but also 
involved knowledge of crops and agricultural practices. 
Some were trained in agronomy, some in soils. In 
building up our University staff, we had to look for 
young men with a bachelor's or master's degree, because 
there were few men with advanced training and experience 
in our field. We wanted men with ability and good 
basic training in the field in which they would be 
used. Personality always had a great deal to do with 
the selection of the staff. It seemed to me very 
important that we have always a very congenial group, 
a group that was willing and able to cooperate freely 
with each other and with others. I've told you how 






. 

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Adams: we cooperated with different agencies. 

Another feeling I had was that we shouldn't 
be in-growing In the selection of our staff. We 
had several from the University of California. 
We could get competent men from the University, 
but I wanted some from other university and regional 
backgrounds. Professor Viehmeyer came from George 
Washington University and the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology and had had a number of years experience 
in the Federal Department of Agriculture. In the 
early years we had 0. W. Isrelsen from Utah Agricultural 
College who had specialized in engineering and soils 
and had his master's degree from California. Later 
we had J. E. Christiansen and Dr. N. E. Edlefsen 
from the Utah Agricultural College and also from the 
University of California. Dr. Doneen came from the 
University of Washington, Vernon Givan and Arthur 
Pillsbury from Stanford both graduates in civil 
engineering. . Clarence Johnston came from the 
University of Michigan. 

Baum: Were these the men you had in charge of projects? 

Adams: Well, in charge of investigations or making them 
themselves. Sometimes there would be a committee 
to advise but primarily the work was done by the 
leader. 






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186 



Adams: By the middle 1920' s it became evident that 

it would be desirable for those of our men who did 
not have advanced degrees to get them. I got Director 
Hutchison--later Dean Hutchison--of the University 
Farm or Branch of the College of Agriculture at Davis 
as it was then called, to talk to our group on the 
desirability of obtaining advanced degrees. This 
was before we had any men with their Ph. D. or its 
equivalent on the staff. Following this Professor 
Viehmeyer took leave and obtained his doctor's degree 
in plant physiology from Johns Hopkins University, 
Professor Huberty went to Stanford and got his advanced 
engineering degree there. Vernon Givan and Arthur 
Pillsbury had advanced engineering degrees when 
appointed. J. E. Christiansen and Clarence Johnston 

also obtained advanced degrees. Dr. Edlefsen and 
Dr. Doneen already had their doctor's degrees when 
they came to us. 

Each project every year was assigned a budget. 
Especially during the year 192ij. when I was in residence 
at Davis, we had monthly meetings of the group to go 
over the work in the field, the finances needed, and 
we'd make adjustments, additions or reductions as 
seemed indicated by the work going on. 

Baum: Who did you use for field work? 






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187 



Adams : 

Baum: 

Adams : 



Baum: 



Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 



All of our projects involved a great deal of field 

work by the leaders. 

It wasn't a desk job. 

No, It wasn't a desk job at all for any of us. 

If the leader needed assistance, it was provided. 

Usually it involved labor or equipment more than 

anything else. Sometimes we were able to get 

younger men, recent university graduates, to go 

into the field and help. 

Were you ever under any pressure to employ certain 

people? 

No. 

Comments on Agricultural Extension 

You mentioned once that when Agricultural Extension 
was first established you were not too pleased with 



it. 









When Professor Crocheron came out here and organized 
the Agricultural Extension Service, he had the task 
of finding men to go out as farm advisors. He was 
able to get some very experienced men. In other 
cases, the men he was able to obtain didn't have 
much experience. They couldn't go out and say, 
"We don't know anything." They had to assume back 
ground. Take in our own particular field, we had 






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188 



Adams: had a good deal of contact with the farmers. Many 
requests came In to us to go out in the field and 
help individual farmers in their irrigation problems. 
We enjoyed these contacts and did not like to give 
them up to what we thought were inexperienced young 
men. I think we were rather narrow-minded. There 
might have been a little feeling of jealousy on our 
part. We're all subject to error in our judgment 
sometimes. 

As we came to hnow them better and to come in 
touch with their work, we became very much attached 
to the Extension Service and I personally became 
very much attached to Professor Crocheron, the 
director. We had many activities together with the 
Extension Service; the farm advisors were constantly 
calling members of our staff to help them with this 
and that until a specialist in irrigation was appointed 
and he took that over. 

Baura: What did you think of Extension's system of working 
through local farm bureaus? 

Adams: In the early years the Extension Service worked 

through the local farm bureaus, but not exclusively 
so, In fact, the Extension Service organized the 
local farm bureaus, beginning with the farm centers, 
which then formed the county bureaus. The purpose 



881 



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189 



Adams: was to get a sufficient number of farmers in each 
community back of the Extension Service to insure 
its success. I remember that in some counties there 
were as many as a dozen farm centers. 

It was the duty of the farm advisors in those 
days to meet with these farm centers at least once 
each month. The farm center meetings were usually 
held in the evenings so the farm advisors were pretty 
busy working elsewhere in the daytime and then these 
meetings in the evenings. Each of the farm centers 
had a chairman and there were usually committees 
appointed to give special attention to particular 
interests. The farm advisor was really a leader in 
guiding the work of these committees of the local 
centers. The work was entirely educational. 

Working with the farm centers was not the only 
duty of the farm advisors. They had their farm 
calls to make in answer to inquiries and w ere more 
or less the leaders in promoting the w elf are of the 
local community. I remember how emphatic Dean Hunt 
was that the farm advisors should not seek to 
dominate or dictate to the farmers. In fact, he 
had a very definite rule that no farm advisor should 
call on a farmer unless invited to do so. He wanted 
the University to keep entirely out of any regulatory 



981 



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190 



Adams: work. The University was at that time doing some 

regulatory work--for instance, in fertilizer control. 
The State Department of Agriculture was attempting 
to do some educational work. Dean Hunt entered into 
an agreement with the state director of agriculture 
and the educational work was left to the University, 

In regard to the Extension Division working 
through the local farm bureaus, I think I should 
say that in due time the various county farm bureaus 
were organized into the State Farm Bureau Federation 
and this federation began to go into activities 
not related to the educational work that the Extension 
Service was doing. At the beginning of the 1930 's 
the Extension Service pulled entirely away from the 
farm bureauthat is, it no longer worked through the 
local farm bureaus although it worked with them where 
the work was educational, 

I understand that in a number of states the 
Extension Service worked much more closely through 
the farm bureaus than they did In California, In 
fact some of the financial support of the farm 
advisors, or county agents as they were called, came 
from the f arm bureaus and the county agents were 
looked upon as representing the farm bureau. That 
plan, however, was never carried out in California, 






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Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 



191 



The Agricultural Extension Service was conducted 
entirely by the director of the Agricultural 
Extension Service with support from the federal 
government, the University and the counties. 
Were the services of Extension advisors available 
to non-Farm Bureau members? 

Oh yes. They were available to members of the 
Grange, the Farmers Union, or unorganized farmers. 


















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192 






WORK WITH THE STATE CONSERVATION COMMISSION 



Baum: 



Adams 






Members of the Commission 












You mentioned previously that one of your jobs 
was working with Dr. Pardee and the State Conser 
vation Commission. How did that cooperation come 
about? 

Hiram Johnson, who had been elected governor in the 
fall of 1910, appointed a committee to make studies 
and draft legislation with reference to water and 
forests, lands and minerals, and other natural 
resources. When that committee was announced, 






Mr. A. E. Chandler called me up and said to me, 



"Now, we're not going to hide our heads under a 
bushel." 

Mr Chandler had participated in the cooperation 



with the Water and Forest Association on Cache Creek, 
making a survey of the Little Indian Valley reservoir 
site under the Geological Survey. At that time he 
was an instructor in civil engineering at the University, 
He made the survey as a summer job. After that he 
made a report for Dr. Mead on irrigation from Tule 
River. Following that he was placed in charge of 
Irrigation Investigations under Dr. Mead in Nevada. 
One of the first things he undertook over there was 



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193 



Adams: to draft an irrigation law for Nevada. After that 
law was passed, he was appointed the first state 
engineer of Nevada. After administering the Nevada 
irrigation law for several years, he became assistant 
chief counsel of the Reclamation Service and dealt 
with legal matters on projects in the western states. 

Baum: Was he an attorney? 

Adams: While he was in Nevada he passed the bar examination. 

Mr. Chandler left the Reclamation Service and 
joined with Mr. C. E. Grunsky and several others in 
forming an engineering firm in San Francisco. He 
was also appointed assistant professor of irrigation 
institutions in the University to work with Professor 
Etcheverry, and gave courses on irrigation institutions 
and water rights. While there he wrote a very fine 
little book on the elements of western water law in 
which he reviewed the water right laws in other 
western states and gave his ideas as to the type of 
legislation needed in California. 

We had always been very good friends since I 
first met him in 1899 when he was teaching in the 
Watsonville High School. So he called me up, as I 
said, when Governor Johnson appointed Dr. Pardee to 
draft legislation. I'm quite sure he shortly there 
after called on Dr. Pardee, who had been appointed 
chairman of the committee. I also went to see Dr. 






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Adams: Pardee. (Mrs. Pardee told me he preferred to be 
called Doctor rather than Governor. He was an 
eye and ear specialist.) I was told to come at ten 
o'clock in the morning. It seems that Dr. Pardee 
always had his breakfast in bed a little before ten. 

He never ate lunch. So I frequently went down there 
and found him still in bed, right after his breakfast. 

I ought to go back a little and point out that 
efforts to pass irrigation legislation back in 1903 
had failed, largely due to the opposition from 
Southern California, headed by Judge John G. North, 
who was president of the Riverside Water Company, and 
had become president of the California Water and 
Forest Association. In subsequent discussions before 
the Commonwealth Club in 190i(. and 1905, the club 
made an extensive study of legislation and the whole 
problem of regulation of water rights, and Judge 
North made several appearances and expressed his 
very strong opposition. He claimed their water 
rights were all settled in the South and there was 
no need for legislation. 

Attending an irrigation congress in Pueblo, 
Colorado, I think in 1910, I heard Judge George H. 
Button of the Los Angeles County Superior Court 
describe the California water laws as the best laws 






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Adams: in the country. Well, I knew to the contrary and 
I felt that one of the first things that would be 
desirable would be to find a way to overcome the 
opposition that had come forward previously. 

So I suggested to Dr. Par dee that, with his 
approval, I'd like to go down and see Mr. Francis 
Guttle, who had succeeded Judge North as president 
of Riverside Water Company, and Judge Hutton^and 
explain what was generally in mind in connection 
with irrigation legislation and enlist their interest 
in it. 

I first called on Judge Hutton. I had a very 
pleasant talk with him and he conceded that what he 
had in mind was the underground water law. He could 
see there was some need for general legislation and 
was very sympathetic. 

Then I went over to see Mr. Cuttle. Under the 
old code, which was still in effect, anyone desiring 
to aopropriate water would post a notice on the 
bank of the stream and then file a copy of the notice 
in the county clerk's office. That was the end of 
the matter as far as any record was concerned. I had 
heard Mr. Cuttle state that all the water had been 
appropriated in the South, and had been for a long 
time. So I went to the courthouse in Riverside and I 






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196 



Adams: think also in San Bernardino, and I listed recent 
appropriations. I had that list with me when I 
called on Mr. Cuttle. He was quite rigid, adamant, 
when I approached him first. He said, "That water 
is all appropriated. There's no need for anything 
of the kind any more." I showed him the list. He 
couldn't believe it when he saw all these recent 
filings. His attitude changed. I <r>uldn't tell 
just how he felt, but he was apparently more 
friendly. 

By the time I got back to Berkeley he had got 
himself appointed on Dr. Pardee's committee to frame 
legislation. So when I got back to call on Dr. 
Pardee, Mr. Guttle was a member of his committee. 
Did Mr. Cuttle get on the committee in order to 
encourage legislation, or to prevent it? 
Well, he was going to look out for the interests of 
the South. I think he saw some reasonableness in 
what was being attempted. 

He was president of the Riverside Water Company? 
Yes. Under Judge North he was superintendent. 
I had done some work down there and became well 
acquainted with him, so I knew him well at the time, 

Baum: I presume he had numerous appropriations he wanted 



Baura: 
Adams ; 

Baum: 
Adams : 



to protect for his company. 









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197 



Adams : 






Baum: 
Adams : 

Baum: 
Adams: 



I'm not sure what was in his mind. He was thinking, 
of course, of his company and of other companies 
in the South. He became gradually one of the strongest 
advocates of legislation. In his later years, at 
water meetings I've heard him frequently refer to 
the early efforts to gain legislation. 

This committee recommended the appointment of 
a State Conservation Commission and that was authorized 
by the legislature in 1911. Dr. Pardee was chairman. 
Mr. Cuttle was a member. The other member was Mr. 
J. P. Baumgartner of Santa Ana. 

How much actual work did the members of the commission 
do? 

They, of course, didn't undertake to do field work. 
Their responsibility was to gather data and prepare 
legislation. They had to rely on others to collect 
the data. 

What was the pressure for the Conservation Commission, 
anyway? 
Of course there was a lot of talk about conservation 

during President Theodore Roosevelt's administration. 
Then there was the controversy over the disposal of 

the public lands under Secretary of Interior Ballinger. 
The whole philosophy of that movement was reviewed by 
President Roosevelt in an address before the Commonwealth 



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198 



Adams: Club in 1911. So It was a very hot subject at that 



Baum: 
Adams : 



Baum: 
Adams : 
Baum: 
Adams : 



Baum: 
Adams : 



time. 






Dr. Pardee had been In the forefront of the 
discussion out here. I know he had attended irrigation 
congresses, at least one, because I saw him at a 
congress in Ogden about 1902. 
Louis Glavis was secretary of the commission. 
Yes. Louis Glavis was a very controversial figure 
at that time. He had gained great notoriety in 
connection with the Ballinger controversy. Dr. Pardee 

thought it would be a smart thing to get Glavis out 

t 

here, so he appointed him secretary of the commission. 
He wasn't in California at the time? 
No, he was brought out here for that purpose. 
Did you meet Mr. Glavis? 

Oh, I had a great deal to do with him. Well, I won't 
say that, because I didn't care to have too much to 
do with him. He didn't last too long. There were 
controversies regarding him within the commission... 
I t ake it you didn't care for him too much personally. 
He was a nice personality. I know, one thing came 
up one time. We were cooperating with the commission 
and Glavis asked me, almost told me, to do a certain 
thing. I objected to Dr. Pardee. He said, "You tell 



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199 



Adams 



Baum: 



Adams: 



Baum: 
Adams : 
Baum: 

Adams : 



Glavls to go to... You and I are doing this, not 
you and Glavis." By that time Dr. Pardee was more 
or less fed up on Glavis. I think Glavis just didn't 
fit into the California situation. He undoubtedly 
performed a fine service in disclosing some of the 
dishonesty and irregularity that was an issue in 
the Ballinger investigation. 

Were there any differences between Glavis and the 
1 commission on policies? 

I don't know that there were. There probably were. 
Glavis couldn't influence that commission. It is 
probable that because of his attempt to assert his 
own more radical views that he didn't last. 
His more radical views? 
I rather think so. I don't know. 
It seemed to me the commission's views were quite 
radical for that day. 

I don't think you could call them radical. The 
subjects were very hot. There certainly had been 
great laxity In disposal of the western resources, 
especially the forests and the lands at that time. 
There was a great need for reasserting stricter 
public control. I would say that the commission 
was exceedingly progressive, at least Dr. Pardee, 
rather than radical. 






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200 



Baum: It seemed to me that the commission used stronger 
language in their report than one usually sees in 
that formal type of report, 

Adams: Maybe I can partly explain that in this way. At one 

of the meetings of the Commonwealth Club, when we 
were discussing the water commission bill, Dr. Pardee 
said, "Some of us were forced to take at times rather 
extreme views on some of these questions in order to 
get anything at all." He didn't expect to get as 
much as he advocated. 

Irr igat ion Resources Study and Map 

Baum: What work did you do in cooperation with the commission? 

Adams: As soon as the commission was appointed I saw Dr. 

Pardee. It seemed to me that what would be helpful 
for the commission to do in the field of irrigation 
was to make an investigation of irrigation resources, 
that is, the lands and the water supply. I don't 
remember just how I outlined it to Dr. Pardee. If 
we undertook the work, of course, it would have to 
be done at the expense of the commission. e didn't 
have sufficient funds, but the commission had, I 
think, $100,000. Dr. Pardee was immediately interested. 

I took it up with Dr. For tier and got his 
approval. We entered into a cooperative agreement by 






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201 

Adams: which we should undertake it. This wasn't intended 

to be a technical engineering study, although engineers 
were primarily employed in conducting it. The idea 
was to bring together such information as was then 
available on water supplies, s torage possibilities, 
on irrigable and irrigated lands, and present a state 
wide picture of the status of irrigation and such 
suggestions as we might make as to future possibilities. 
The idea was also to include an irrigation map of 
the state, which had never been prepared previously 
except for one of the Central Valley that William 
Ham Hall had prepared back in the eighties. I knew 
from experience you can teach more by a map or a 
picture than you can by a text. People don't 
ordinarily read reports. Lest I forget it, I might 
say here that in 1922 we entirely revised this map 
after another field canvass of irrigable and irrigated 
areas. Mr. Fred Scobey of Irrigations Investigations 
staff prepared an entirely new base, and the Geological 
Survey generously prepared the topography without 
cost to us, and also lithographed the maps at cost. 

We went to the records of the Geological Survey 
and the William Ham Hall reports for data on surface 
and underground water supply, and where no data were 
available we had to estimate the run-off from rainfall. 






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202 



Adams: On the matter of reservoir sites we had to rely 

very largely on the recent work of the Reclamation 
Service. On the matter of agricultural lands, vie 
had William Ham Hall's maps of the Central. Valley, 
but there were no maps of the outlying areas which 
indicated with any accuracy for our purposes the 
arable lands. So we had to send men into the field. 

People in the state generally, and I was certainly 
among them, didn't realize the number of smaller 
valleys scattered over the state. I think we tabulated 
around a hundred different areas as topographically 
Irrigable. Our report of irrigation resources was 
included in the report of the State Conservation 
Commission and published in 1912, pages 86 to 32?. 

After our irrigation resources study was completed, 
it seemed to me that it would be helpful in educating 
the public to the need for irrigation legislation 
to present data that w ould show in more detail the 
wide variation in practice and requirements throughout 
the state. So I again proposed cooperation with the 
Conservation Commission. The proposal was that we 
make a study of the use of water during 1912 in Shasta 
Valley at the northern end of the state, on Feather 
River, in Santa Clara Valley, on San Joaquin River and 
its tributaries, and on Santa Clara River in Ventura 



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203 



Adams 



Adams 



Adams : 



County and Santa Ana River In San Bernardino, 
Riverside and Orange counties. That was approved 
all along the line. The report of this study together 
with a summary of our irrigation resources report 
was published in Bulletin 2$k of the Office of Exper 
iment Stations, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

All this leads up to the legislation that was 

passed in 1913 


Background of_ the 1913 Legislation 

. 

Well, the commission set about drafting a law. 
Our cooperation with the commission had nothing to 
do with the drafting of that law. Any contact I 
had was more or less by courtesy of Dr. Pardee. 
I was present at many of their meetings and had some 
rather different ideas on the subject and I know 
I expressed them and that Dr. Pardee was always 



very cordial about It. 






Defeat of the 1903 Works Bill 

To trace that work, I think I ought to go back a 
little and, possibly at the expense of some repetition, 
explain where the Commonwealth Club came into this 
matter. I already spoke of Dr. Mead's investigation 
of nine streams in the state in 1900 and the resulting 



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2014. 



Adams: recommendations for legislation. At the conclusion 
of those studies the Water and Forest Association 
appointed a commission to draft legislation. The 
engineers who prepared the various reports in Bulletin 
100 didn't propose a law; they proposed principles 
that were needed. The commission appointed by the 
Water and Forest Association was headed by Chief 
Justice W. H. Beatty of the California Supreme Court, 
a very fine, able, high-principled man. President 
Wheeler of California and President Jordan of Stanford; 
the heads of the divil Engineering departments, 
Professor Soule of California and Professor Marx of 
Stanford; F. H. Newell, director of the Reclamation 
Service; Dr. Mead; Frank H. Short of Fresno; Also on 
that was Judge John D. Works, then, I believe, a judge 
in Los Angeles, later United States Senator. Judge 
Beatty, by the way, didn't sign the report because 
there was some question of the constitutionality of 
some of the provisions and he didn't think it was 
proper for him, as chief justice, to sign the report. 
I was familiar with the work of this commission 
because I remember attending a number of meetings, 
especially the last one when the report was signed. 

Judge Works prepared the bill and It became 
known as the Works Bill. That was introduced into 






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205 



Adams: the legislature in 1903 and owing to the opposition 
of the South, headed by Judge North, president of 
the Riverside Water Company, it was defeated. 

Commonwealth Club Study of Water Rights, 190i|.-1905 

Adams: That brings us down to 1903. That was the year the 

Commonwealth Club was organized. In 190lj.-05 the club 
made an exhaustive study of the water rights situation 
in California. It was led off with a paper by Mr. 
William Thomas, who had been head of the Water and 
Forest Association. Then it was referred to two 
different sections and was discussed in the club by 
the most prominent lawyers and others interested in 
water legislation in the state. Included in the 
appendix of the report of the discussion, (Commonwealth 
Club Transactions , Vol. I, No. 6) were the recommen 
dations of the engineers who prepared Bulletin 100, 
the full text of the report prepared by the Water and 
Forest Association commission, and the remarks in full 
of both those who had approved and criticized the bill, 
so it made a very complete history of the movement up 
to date, 1906. 

Baum: Were you present? 

Adams: I attended the meetings. The only direct contacts I 

had was when the chairman of one of the sections which 






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Adams : 



Adams : 



reported on the subject, Charles Wesley Reed, asked 
me to meet with him and I spent a long evening with 
him going over the earlier reports and recommendations 
and legislation in other states. 

At the end of the discussion in the Commonwealth 
Club, 1905> a committee was appointed to draft a new 
law. Then came the fire and earthquake of 1906, 
destruction of all club records and interruption of 
its work for a number of months, and it was not 
until 1910 that the subject of water, other than 
San Francisco and Bay cities water supply, again 



came before the club. 







Commonwealth Club Section on Conservation 









In 1910 the Commonwealth Club took up the study of 
the conservation of our forests. This was followed 
by a study of the twilight zone of authority between 
the federal and state governments in matters of 
conservation. The highlight of this discussion 
was a debate between Judge Prank H. Short of Fresno 
and President Theodore Roosevelt on the control of 
our national resources. Following that, I was asked 
to form a section on conservation, and among other 
things, to take up again the question of water legis 



lation. 






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Adams: I was busy at the time on the cooperation 

with the Conservation Commission in our study of 
irrigation resources, but I s at down with Earle 
Walcott, the executive secretary of the club, and 
worked out a plan of organization and various com 
mittees and personnel. We arranged for six committees 
within the section. A committee on agricultural 
lands headed by Professor Charles B. Lipman of the 
University of California; a committee on water 
supply and irrigation with Mr. C. E. Grunsky, 
chairman; a committee on forestry with Professor 
Walter Mulford as chairman; a committee on fuel, 
Mr. Mark L. Ricca, chairman, then I guess the most 
prominent California petroleum engineer and later, 
during World War I, Federal Administrator of Fuels; 
a committee on minerals other than soils, H. Foster 
Bain, later Chief of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, as 
chairman; a committee on water power with James H. 
Wise, a very brilliant young engineer of the P. G. 
& E. , as chairman. We had some high-powered men on 
those committees. 

That section, through its six committees reporting 
independently, came before the club in 1912 and 1913 
Our report made the longest report the club had ever 
published, some 214-6 pages. It was quite a job, lots 



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208 



Adams: of fun. I had a wonderful group. I always felt a 
little ashamed being general chairman of the group, 
being younger than most of the group. They were good 
sports and took it. I had no difficulty in obtaining 
the consent of these different men to act as chairmen 
and they all performed a very fine service. 

Baum: You had been active as editor of the Commonwealth 
Club Transactions before that. 

Adams: That was 1908 to 1909. That was while I w as still 

in business in San Francisco. I did that while riding 
on the street car or home in the evenings. A lot 
of fun. I worked up a format, a style book for it. 
As soon as we had an executive secretary in the club, 
that became one of his jobs. 

Baum: Perhaps they were more ready to a ccept a young man 
who had been editor already. 

Adams: Being an editor previously probably had little to do 

with it, since few members knew of my doing that work. 

I wasn't a chicken, I was 35 but the others were 
older. It was a very distinguished group. Those 
were the days when the club had no d if f iculty getting 
the top leaders to work. It's much more difficult now. 

At the time the Commonwealth Club took up the 
question of possibly drafting a new water law, the 
Conservation Commission was busy on that subject and 






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209 



Adams: vie thought it better to keep in touch with the 

commission and assist them in any way we could. A 
subcommittee was appointed to confer with the Con 
servation Commission, which they did. Dr. Pardee and 
one time Mr. Cuttle came over to the club when we were 
considering the water commission bill. Dr. Pardee 
expressed great satisfaction at the help the club was 
extending. 

1913 Water Commission Act 

Adams: The general thinking at that time of the members 
of the section on conservation was that the s tate 
should provide for a body within the State Department 
of Engineering to deal with the regulation of water 
rights. Since the Works Bill of 1903 was defeated, 
I believe all the western states but Montana had 
adopted water laws basically in line with the Colorado 
or Wyoming laws. Under the Wyoming law there was an 
administrative determination of existing rights by 
the State Board of Control. Oregon had a clear-cut 
difference. They followed the Wyoming law up to the 
point of final adjudication of rights. The fundamental 
need in the adjudication of water rights is to gather 
objectively and impartially the factual data regarding 
use of water and relative rights of the users 






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210 



Adams: determined by dates of appropriation and quantity 
of water used. Under Oregon law, after the state 
engineer has determined the rights by administrative 
procedure, his findings are presented to the courts 
for adjudication. 

Our general feeling in the section was that we 
should have the administrative determination in 
California rather than the Oregon system. We believed 
that ultimately the office of state engineer should 
be merged into a State Department of Public Works. 
On several occasions our section or other sections 
made that recommendation and that water rights be 
a part of it. Dr. Par dee was in favor of the Oregon 
system and that was adopted in the California law. 
In California the state was authorized to make the 
investigation and prepare a proposed adjudication 
only on reference by the court. 

Another purpose of the state water laws was to 
provide for a method of appropriation by application 
to the state. Still another was to provide for state 
supervision of distribution of water under these 
rights as established. 

But Dr. Pardee said "No, that's the business of 
the courts. They should direct if necessary the 
supervision of distribution under the adjudicated 






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Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 



rights." I argued with Dr. Pardee on that and when 

the bill was pretty close to passage, as I was riding 

up on the train to Sacramento with him, I argued with 

him all the way. Finally I said, "I think I have it, 

Doctor." And I fished out a piece of paper and a 

pencil and wrote a memorandum.. . I think this is a 

copy of it. 

(Reading) "The supervision of the distribution of 

water in accordance with priorities established under 

this act, where such supervision of the distribution 

of water does not contravene the authority vested in 

the judiciary of the state, shall be under the State 

Water Commission." 

That was the memorandum that I wrote out for Dr. 

Pardee. 

You wrote. .. "does not contravene the authority 

vested in the judiciary..." 

Yes, that was the point. He said, "Prank, I hate like 

hell to admit it, but I'll have to accept that." 
That section was adopted as Section 37 of the original 
act. Well, it didn't mean very much then. My thought 
was that if the camel could get his nose Into the tent, 
he could get In some time. 

Mr. Chandler didn't think very much of that 
provision. I explained to him just how it happened 






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212 



Adams: to be inserted, and some years later, five or six 
years later, that section was amended to set up a 
system of watermaster service. The then president 
of the State Water Commission said in his annual 
report that apparently Section 37 was originally 
written merely to get into the bill the principle , 
which was, of course, the fact, 

Baum: What was the basis of your preference for having 
administrative adjudication rather than judicial? 

Adams: Failure of court adjudications to settle water rights 
in California was the main reason for passing the 
Water Commission Act. Court adjudications in Colorado 
had been rather successful but there were still some 
drawbacks to procedure there. It seemed to me that 
the experience in administrative adjudications in 
Wyoming and Nebraska had demonstrated its superiority. 
I was then not very familiar with the Oregon system. 

Baum: Did you have more confidence in the fairness of 

administrative adjudication rather than adjudication 
by the courts? 

Adams: The difficulty about court adjudication is that you 

get a mass of biased testimony and it is very difficult 
to establish the facts. The first thing is to gather 
the facts, which should be the basis of adjudication. 

Baum: The facts would be gathered by the state in either 






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213 



Baum: 
Adams : 



Baum: 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams : 



Baum: 
Adams : 



case, wouldn't they? 

That's true under the Oregon plan but, as I previously 

stated, under the California law the state can make 

the investigation to gather the facts only on reference 

by the court. Without such reference the proceedings 

would be in the court and conclusions based on expert 

testimony which is very likely to be biased. 

But if the facts were gathered by a state agency, why 

would your preference be for an administrative body to 

determine the rights rather than a judicial one? 
Well, the original argument was that that was t he 
policy adopted in the disposal of public lands, which 
was an administrative policy. That the water of the 
state was the property of the state and should be 
administered by the state that it was an administrative 
process rather than a judicial process. 
In other words, it wasn't private property. 
In Wyoming it was the property of the state and 
the only private right that could be obtained was the 
right of use. In some states water was considered 
to be the property of the public. In California 
under the present law it is declared to be the property 
of the people of the state. 
Why did Dr. Pardee insist the other way? 
Well, he had been governor. He was a very astute 






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Adams: politician, and he had long legislative experience. 
It was a perfectly natural attitude for him to take, 
because he believed that the adjudication of water 
rights was a judicial and not an administrative 
matter. He was constantly saying that the constitution 
of the state placed judicial matters in the hands of 
the courts, or words to that effect, 

Baum: Was there any talk of setting up a special water court? 

Adams: That was talked of from time to time, but not, as I 
recall it, just then. 

Baum: Did Dr. Mead express any opinion on the bill? 

Adams: I sent Dr. Mead a rough draft of the Conservation 
Commission bill. I have here a letter from him 
written aboard ship on his way to Australia on 
October 5> 1912 in which he condemned the bill very 
severely. He advised me to have nothing whatever to 
do. w ith it. 

Baum: I would think he would have been in favor of it. 

Adams: He was very strongly in favor of administrative 

determination of rights, rather than determination 
through the courts. I think that's the thing that 
led to his first reaction against the bill. 

Well, the Water Commission Act was passed in 
1913 and held up by referendum. It again came before 
the Commonwealth Club. The section on conservation 






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Adams: reviewed it very thoroughly. Dr. Pardee was present 
for at least one meeting; Mr. Cuttle, I think, also. 

You would be surprised to see how the section divided 

r 

on passage of that law. Our section reported on it 
in October, 19ll|, just before the election. There 
were majority and minority reports. Let me just read 
the names of some in favor. C. E. Grunsky, A. E. 
Chandler, A. L. Cowell, State Engineer W. P. McClure, 
Charles Wesley Ree$ H. Poster Bain, G. M. Romans, 
Fred H. Fowler, B. A. Etcheverry, Miles Standish, 
William Thomas, Professor A. M. Kidd of the law 
faculty over here, Assistant State Engineer Norboe. 
The minority report opposing the act was signed by 
Mr. E. F. Treadwell, John D. Galloway, W. B. Bosley, 
an attorney with P. G. & E. , Elwyn W. Stebbins, a 
geologist, Charles Gilman Hyde, (I'm surprised at 
that) professor of sanitary engineering at the 
University, Professor W. L. Jepson, Senator C. M. 
Belshaw, P. G. Baum, a P. G. & E. man, Mr. A. Burch, 
and Mr. A. L. Shinn, a lawyer who had much to do with 
reclamation matters up in the valley. I read over 
their objections the other day and I'm surprised some 
of these men signed that, men like Galloway, Jepson, 
and Hyde. 

But the bill passed. 






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216 



Baum: 
Adams: 



Baum: 



Adams 






That's all in the Commonwealth Club Transactions , 
Volume 9, 1911;, pages 581-595. 

Yes, and it got off to a good start. Governor 
Johnson appointed a very strong commission: William 
A. Johnstone of San Dimas, Irving Martin, editor of 
the Stockton Record, and Albert E. Chandler. 



Other Recommendations of the 
State Conservation Commission 

Licensing Power Sites 









I would like to know what the State Conservation 
Commission thought about the problem of power sites. 
That was a very hot subject and came up in the meetings 
of the Commonwealth Club. One issue was whether 
there should be permanent licenses for power or for 
a period of years. Also, the provision that the 
power companies should not include water rights in 
their evaluations for rate-making purposes beyond the 
actual cost of those water rights. Another question 
in connection with the Water Commission bill which 
doesn't seem very important, but was rather heated in 
the meetings of the club, was the fees to be charged 
for licenses. The opposition made a big objection 
about this, the great cost to the poor man for filing 








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21? 






Adams: on water. 

Baum: How great was that cost? 

Adams: The cost wasn't great. It was larger for water for 
generation of electric power than for irrigation and 
other purposes. Dr. Pardee's answer was this. "It's 
going to cost something to carry on the work of this 
commission. We've got to provide automatic funds 
for it because a hostile legislature might at any 
time cut off the funds and hamper the work." There 
was discussion both ways on the subject, of course. 

Baura: Do you think the Conservation Commission was in favor 
of public development of hydroelectric power? 

Adams: The matter didn't come up. Their interest was in 
public control of the water supply. 

Baum: I believe the Conservation Commission recommended that 
the state use the Gary Act to develop lands. 

Adams: A committee of our section cooperated with the commission 
in drafting a bill under which we could operate in 
California under the Gary Act and this bill was adopted. 
Mr. D. W. Ross, former state engineer of Idaho who 
had administered the Gary Act up in Idaho and was 
now with the Kuhn project, had worked with the committee. 
But it was never used in California. There was no 
reclamation, except possibly in the desert areas along 
the Colorado River. 



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218 



Baura: 









Riparian Rights 



Adams 

Baum: 
Adams 









I believe the Conservation Commission, on the 
matter of riparian rights and the wasteful use of 
water, suggested those rights be condemned and 















purchased. 

That was considered from time to time, but was 

entirely impractical. 

Too expensive? 

Yes. I made one little study. A group around Dos 

Palos who got water from the Miller and Lux system 

on the West Side wanted to form an irrigation district, 

I remember at that meeting someone asked Mr. Treadwell 

if Miller and Lux owned all that water and he said, 

"Of course we own it all." Well, that sort of nettled 

me so as a service to the little group I had Harry 

Barnes <?o to the assessors' offices in Fresno, Merced, 

and Stanislaus counties and plot all the riparian 



lands clear down to Tracy. Riparian lands are the 
lands lying adjacent to the river that have never 
been separated from the stream by transfer- -there is 
a provision that lands sold away from the river can 
still share in the riparian rights, but that has to 
be in the deed. We prepared a large map and plotted 
the riparian lands in black. I took that to the 
people down there and showed them just what they were 






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219 



Adams: up against. 

Baum: How much of the land was riparian, and owned by 
Miller and Lux? 

Adams: I cannot remember the acreage, but what I do remember 
is that a map of the land along the river showed 
largely in black that is, that they were largely 
riparian lands. 

Baum: Riparian rights were a part of the problem th 
Conservation Commission was considering. 

Adams: Yes, but it was evident they couldn't change that 
by legislation. It could only be done by constitu 
tional amendment, and such an amendment was adopted 
some years later. That amendment, you know, was 
before the Supreme Court twice. Mr. Treadwell and 
those other large riparian right people sat down with 
men like Mr. Chandler and Samuel C. Wiel and others. 
Mr. Cowell sat in on it. They worked out the 
constitutional amendment which was adopted. 

Baum: Treadwell sat in on that? 

Adams: Oh yes. You can't do those things without consulting 
the other people. That was later. I think the 
Herrainghaus decision brought it to a head, which 
was the extreme interpretation of riparian law. 
Everyone recognized then that something had to be 
done. The effect of the consitutional amendment was 



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220 



Adams: not to abrogate riparian rights but merely to limit 
them to reasonable use, 

Baumt Did you know Mr. Treadwell? 

Adams: Yes. I think I can say I knew him very well. He 
was very able, very forceful, and very positive in 
presenting his views. I sat in on some of the 
discussions leading up to the constitutional amend 
ment, and felt that Mr. Treadwell was very fair in 
his attitude. Incidentally, Mr. Treadwell performed 
a fine public service when he wrote a biography of 
Henry Miller. The title of the book was The Cattle 
King. He described the early development of irriga 
tion on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley under 
Henry Miller. 

Forest Fire Protection 

Adams: I mentioned the work of our conservation section 
back in 1912, 1913, 1914. One phase of that that 
was always of interest to me was forestry. I re 
ported at a meeting of the club on what the conser 
vation section had done. The issue was the difference 
between the State Conservation Commission and the state 
forester and what should be done in the way of forest 
fire protection. We did not at that time have a 
State Board of Forestry except an ex officio board. 






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221 



Adams: We had a state forester by the name of Mr. G. 

Morris Ho mans. He didn't get along at all with Dr. 
Pardee. He had his own ideas as to what should be 
done, so there was a rather sharp difference of 
opinion. They each presented a bill to the legisla 
ture. The main issue at the time was fire protection, 
on what basis it should be accomplished. The Conser 
vation Commission's plan was largely through coopera 
tion with the timber owners. The state forester's 
plan was largely a matter of setting up forest 
protection districts and state fire wardens and 
lookouts, and to carry this work on at the expense 
of the timber owners. 

Baum: Then the one plan was more voluntary and the other 
more compulsory. 

Adams: Yes, that in general was i t. 

Baum: I should think the compulsory plan would also be more 
expensive to the timber owners. 

Adams : Undoubtedly. 

The matter was so important that the section 
arranged a general conference of timber owners and 
foresters and the State Conservation Commission in the 
club rooms for a discussion of the whole question. I 
asked Mr. Beverly L. Hodghead, who was president of 



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222 












Adams: the club, to come in and preside. I remember we had 
a former state forester, Mr. P. E. Olmsted, Mr. C. R. 
Johnson, head of the Union Lumber Company, one of our 
very biggest redwood outfits, Mr. G. X. Wendllng 
and Mr. Miles Standish, both large timber owners. 
About 15 or 20, as I remember, attended this confer 
ence. Mr. Romans wouldn't attend. The evening after 
that conference he called me up and gave me fits for 
"meddling in affairs. " e had been very good friends. 

Incidentally, there was no satisfactory fire 
protection for years because it seemed impossible 
to work with Mr. Homans on the subject. It was 
finally adjusted by making M. B. Pratt of the forestry 
division of the University, assistant state forester, 
largely to direct his attention to fire protection. 
He later became state forester, 

Baura: You've always been interested in fire protection, 
haven' t you? 

Adams: In forestry. In those days fire protection was the 

main subject of interest. It revolved largely around 
the disposal of slash and inflammable material. 
The cooperative effort was supposed to result in a 
greater effort by mill owners to take care of slash 
and the state was to control and insist on it being 
done. 






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223 






Baum: 



Adams : 



Baton: 



Adams: 



WORK WITH IRRIGATION DISTRICTS 



Preparation of Bulletin No. 2 in 1915 






I know you have worked very closely with irrigation 












districts. 

Yes, down until about 1928. Since then I've been 
less closely associated with the districts. 
Wasn't a study of irrigation districts one of the 
first things you undertook when you went back to 
the Irrigation Investigations in 1910? 
Yes. I began to bring down to date my information 
about districts organized under the old Wright Act 
of 1887. I don't recall if I mentioned starting that 
study. Briefly, I reported for duty under Dr. Mead 
In 1900. While I was waiting for Mr. Wilson, under 
whom I was to work, Mr. William Thomas, who was pres 
ident of the California Water and Forest Association, 
suggested that I study the old Wright Act districts 
which had had such disastrous experiences. So I 
began the collection by mail of data regarding the 
organization of those districts, endeavoring to get 
together a complete list of them and the record of 
their financial transactions and their litigation and 
their current status. I left the work to go to 
Washington in 1901 and all that data was laid aside, 






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Adams: so when I picked up the study of Irrigation districts 
again in 1910, I undertook to bring that information 
down to date. 

I employed a very bright young man by the name 
of Ray S. Gidney. He was an expert stenographer, a 
senior student in economics, and had done stenographic 
work for professors Etcheverry and Chandler In the 
Department of Irrigation. There were still a number 
of people living who had had to do with, or were 
familiar with the organization of some of those early 
Wright Act districts. I sent Mr. Gidney into the 
field to interview them and get a complete record 
of what they had to say because he was such an excellent 
stenographer and he knew the subject. When the Federal 
Reserve System was established early in President 
Wilson's administration, Dr. Adolph Miller, professor 
of eiconomics at the University, was made a member of 
the Federal Reserve Board. He took Mr. Gidney with 
him to Washington as his secretary. Mr. Gidney 
progressed In the Federal Reserve System and became, 
I think, at one time head of the Federal Reserve 
System in Buffalo and other positions in the system 
and Is now Controller of the Currency In Washington. 

I had two other assistants for temporary work 
In gathering information about the financial status 






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225 



Adams : 









Baum: 



Adams: 



and litigation of some of those districts. Summing 
it all up, I found that there had been 1+9 districts 
organized under the old Wright Act. Twenty-four 
had never incurred any bond indebtedness. Many had 
accomplished nothing. The other 2 had incurred 
indebtedness, some for a good many hundred thousand 
dollars. Of those 2$, only eight were then active, 
of that eight, two were only nominally active. 

In Bulletin 2 (State of California, Department 
of Engineering, Bulletin 2, Irrigation Districts in 
California, 1887-1915, 1916.) I completed the study 
of the Wright Act districts and also included a study 
of several districts that had been organized in 
recent years. The last district organized under the 
original Wright Act was in 1895. Until 1909 no other 
districts were organized. 



Irrigation District Legislation 



What changes in irrigation district law made it 
possible for irrigation districts to be successful? 
Those changes, up to 1928 which was the end of the 
period when I was most active in irrigation district 
work, are outlined in detail in Bulletin 2 of the 
State Department of Engineering and Bulletin 21 of 
the Division of Engineering and Irrigation. They 



lo 



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226 



Adams: were the same department, different names. 






Bridgeford Act of 1897 



Adams: The Wright Act experience had been so disastrous 
that portions of the law were revised in 1897 by 
the Bridgeford Act. The changes were fundamental. 
Under the original law fifty or a majority of the 
owners of land in any area proposed to be organized 
could file a petition with the board of supervisors. 
If approved, they could carry an election by a 
majority vote. They had no restrictions whatever 
on the issuance of bonds or assessments. Consequently 
much of the financing was unsound. Some of the 
districts would have been feasible under later condi 
tions, some were entirely speculative. 

Baum: Were they able to sell their bonds? 

Adams: In the last decades of the 19th century financing 
of irrigation developments was relatively easy. A 
good deal of the money came from foreign sources, 
I believe from England. 

Records of flow of streams were meager. The 
state engineer, William Ham Hall, had started the 
gauging of streams back in the '80's but between that 
and about 1902 or 1903* there were very few gaugings 
made. The Geological Survey had made some. They 






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22? 



Adams: became more active in the work about the same time 
the Irrigation Investigations were started in Cal 
ifornia because of contributions from the California 
Water and Forest Association. When the Wright Act 
districts were organized, stream flow information 
was totally inadequate on which to base the estimate 
of a safe water supply. 

Baum: Then they were going ahead vithout adequate informa 
tion, and probably without adequate water supply. 

Adams: Yes. Lack of water was the main cause of failure. 

Baum: More than dishonest promotion? 

Adams: Oh yes. I don't recall that there was much dishonesty. 
There was some manipulation and I am sure some evasion 
of the real terms of the law. I guess you could call 
this dishonest. For instance, in one district--the 
old Sunset District in the San Joaquln Valley an 
owner of a section of land divided it into small 
holdings and gave away or sold different parcels at 
nominal prices to people who would agree to vote for 
organization. That way the organization of the district 
was carried and shortly after that the bond issue of 
$2,000,000 was voted. I believe there were some of 
the other old districts that were equally questionable. 
I gave a history of the old speculative districts in 
Bulletin No. 2. 



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228 



Adams: The changes made in the law in 1897 were basic 
with reference both to organization and to issuance 
of bonds. For petitioning for organization of a 
district, a majority of the landowners representing 
a majority of the value of the land was necessary. 
The board of directors could not call an election 
for the issuance of bonds without having previously 
received a petition for the submission of that bond 
issue signed by a majority of owners of a majority 
of the value of the land. So a brake was placed on 
the organization of districts. I was Informed by 
someone who knew the history of that legislation that 
the purpose was to stop the organization of any more 
districts. 

Baum: At that time large landowners were against the 
districts, weren't they? 

Adams: Many were, yes. 

Improving the Market for Bonds 

Adams: In 1909 South San Joaquin and Gakdale districts were 
formed. They employed competent engineers, outlined 
a system of works, voted bonds, but ran up against the 
absence of a bond market. 

Baum: This was because of the failure of the previous 
districts. 



ess 



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229 



Adams: 









Baum: 
Adams: 



Yes. They finally were able to let their contracts 
by making the contractors find a market for the bonds. 

The Wright Act and the Bridgeford Act provided 
that bonds should bear 5$ interest and conld not be 
sold for less than par. District bonds could not 
be sold at that price. The arrangement was something 
like this. The contractor would find a bond dealer 
who would undertake to dispose of the bonds at a 
certain price, say, at 75-80$ of par. Then the 
contractor would charge enough more for the work he 
did to allow him to rebate to the bond dealer the 
difference between 75-80$ of par and par which was 
the amount paid to the district by the bond dealer. 
This was a clear evasion of law and was generally 
so understood by all parties concerned, but there was 
no other way in which a district could dispose of 
its bonds. 

So they just raised the price of the construction. 
Yes. 

South San Joaquin and Oakdale districts made 
an attempt to create a better market for the bonds. 
They drafted a law which set up an Irrigation district 
bond commission this was early in 1911 composed of 
the state engineer, the attorney general, and the 
state superintendent of banks. This commission was 






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230 



Baura: 
Adams : 



Adams: to Investigate any irrigation district desiring to 

issue bonds and if it found that the amount of bonds 
did not exceed 60$ of the value of the water rights, 
lands, and systems, their bonds could be registered 
with the state controller. They thought that would 
help. Well, it was ineffective. 

Baum: Was there any opposition to this change at that time? 

Adams: I think not. Mr. L. L. Dennett, attorney for Modesto 
District, was most prominent in drafting that legisla 
tion. 

Did you know Dennett? 

Oh, very well. I got acquainted with him in Modesto 
in 190l|. He was a very enthusiastic man. Very 
earnest and very determined and a very friendly man. 

Baum: Would you call Dennett conservative or liberal? 

Adams: He was after what he wanted. There were no issues of 
that type, conservative or liberal, involved in this 
legislation. He was determined to improve conditions 
and find a market for these bonds. 

That law was ineffective. A movement was started 
to improve it. I don't recall exactly the inception, 
but in November, 1911 Governor Johnson called a 
general conference at Stockton of interested irrigation 
districts to consider improved legislation. Prior to 
that the matter had come before the Commonwealth Club 



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Id-B^liiJf ;nl lo nr fa 8on?*f 

'^sf teVoioiHl table :^c 

erfct oiol ^tuBin eri^ 



231 



Adams: and several meetings of the club were devoted to the 
subject. 

Baum: Were you present? 

Adams: Yes. The subject was "Marketing Irrigation Bonds". 
Among those who took part in the discussion before 
the club were Mr. Dennett; Attorney General Webb; 
State Engineer Nathaniel Ellery; State Superintendent 
of Banks W. R. Williams J A. T. Brock, the San Fran 
cisco representative of Halsey and Co.; James K. 
Lynch of the First National Bank; W. J. Button of 
Fireman's Fund Insurance Co.; Edmund Duryea, engineer 
for South San Joaquin District; John D. Galloway, 
civil engineer; Mr. C. E. Grunsky; and Mr. E. R. Zion. 
I presented in preliminary form a statistical abstract 
of the old Wright districts. 

After the discussions of the club the president 
appointed a committee to prepare recommendations. 
This committee consisted of James K. Lynch, chairman; 
Henry G. Meyer, banker; and A. T. Brock. At their 
request A. E. Chandler; John S. Drum, banker; . L 
Hathaway of the New York Life Insurance Company; 
Samuel C. Wiel and I were asked to w ork with the 
committee, and we joined in their report. This 
committee prepared a report to be submitted to the 
conference called by Governor Johnson in Stockton. 



Xf_S 



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232 



Adams: There was a great deal of controversy as to the 
required %% Interest and also as to the 60^ of the 
total value of property back of the bonds. School 
districts, as I recall It, could issue bonds up to 
15$ of the value of the property in the school 
district. Other institutions were permitted to issue 
bonds up to, I think, only 5$ of their assessed 
valuation. So 60$ was felt to be too high. The 
answer of the districts was that with a water supply 
available, the value would be tremendously Increased, 
which was, of course, true, If they carried through 
the construction and it was a success. 

This committee presented Its report to the 
conference at Stockton. We made several suggestions. 
One was that the districts should be allowed to 
issue bonds at 6%. Another was that no district 
should be allowed to dispose of bonds without 
approval of the commission. Another was that the 
specific duties of the state engineer, the attorney- 
general, and the superintendent of banks should be 
spelled out in the law. Another was that districts 
could sell bonds for less than par on the approval 
of the commission. I'm sure that report had a great 
deal of influence in the drafting of the amendment 
to the 1911 law, passed in 1913. 



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233 



Baura: Did you agree with those suggestions? 

Adams: I was a member of the committee and joined in the 

report. In view of the eminence of the other members 
of the committee, my part in the drafting of the 
report must have been a small one. In those days 
I used to be east frequently and I was in Chicago at 
the time the report was presented to the meeting at 
Stockton. I made contacts over a number of years with 
investment bankers in Denver, Chicago, Cleveland, 
New York, with the view of getting the attitude of 
the investment market for irrigation district bonds. 
They had been in disrepute for so long that I wanted 
to see what help I could get in redrafting the law. 
The only separate thing I remember in connection with 
this final report of the committee was that I sent 
a wire from Chicago to the committee recommending 6$ 
bonds and that they should be sold at the market value 
rather than at par. 

Baum: Would these investment bankers you talked to have 
been willing to handle irrigation district bonds 
with these modifications? 

Adams: None of them would say that at that time. One house 

in Chicago had handled a lot of the Colorado irrigation 
district bonds and their Investors had lost lots of 
money. They were very anxious to see conditions improve. 






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23k 






Adams : 






Adams : 



In another Investment house in Chicago, the man I 
talked to was quite interested. He said, "I wish you'd 
come to lunch with several of us and talk the thing 
over." So I did that the same day. They knew practi 
cally nothing about these bonds, but I was surprised 
at the great interest they showed. I told them of the 
improvements we were trying to make in our irrigation 
district law. One of those who attended that luncheon 
became a partner in a large New York firm which took 
a large issue of one of our district's bonds a little 
later. That man was Mr. Dillon and the firm with 
which he became affiliated was Dillon, Reed and Company, 

The Bond Certification Commission Act which was 
passed in 1913 as a substitute for the 1911 act 
provided more than merely for the registration of 
the bonds. It provided for the commission to make 
an investigation and if they found all conditions 
favorable and the total amount of proposed bonds did 
not exceed 60$ of the available border rights and 
lands and other properties, the bonds could be 
certified by the state controller as legal investments 
for trust companies, savings and commercial banks, 
investment funds, insurance companies, investment of 



Bond Certification Commission Act of 1913 



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235 



Adams: school funds, and other institutions. You will recall 
that one of the suggestions of the Commonwealth 
committee was that no irrigation district could issue 
bonds without the approval of the commission. The 
law as passed did not definitely give the commission 
the power to veto a bond issue, but in reality they 
did because if they reported unfavorably, there was 
no likelihood of the bonds being sold. 

Baum: Did they report before or after the bond election? 

Adams: Before the bonds were voted. Under the original act 
they reported after the bonds were voted. 

That Bond Certification Commission Act has, of 
course, been of tremendous help to the districts. 
It has been amended a number of times. One important 
amendment gave the commission power to take over the 
affairs of irrigation districts that had defaulted. 
That came about during the depression in the early 
'30' s. The commission did take over control of some 
districts during that period. I should mention that 
I had nothing whatever to do with preparation of 
irrigation district legislation after the early 1920 's 
and a number of the very important amendments to the 
Bond Commission Act have been passed since then. They 
included the one mentioned. 

There was one matter during that depression that 









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.benoi^r, ni^ bebtrlonl 

b 3eci3 gnlit/b is^rfBC em PBW eieriT 



236 



Adams: always troubled me. Enterprises and industries of all 
kinds went into bankruptcy and irrigation districts 
and irrigation companies were not an exception. The 
law provided what were in substance bankruptcy 
proceedings by which the affairs of districts could 
be worked out by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation 
and reviewed in the courts. They appointed as their 
agent in working out adjustments the secretary of the 
California Irrigation Districts Association. It 
seemed to me that it was an unfair situation here in 
California that the secretary of the Irrigation 
Districts Association should be the one to work out 
the refinancing. 

Baum: In other words, his committments were to the irrigation 
districts rather than being objective. 

Adams: I never felt that was a satisfactory arrangement, but 
I never made a thorough study of that refinancing. 
A study of that was made by Wells Hutchins, and it 
was published as a Department of Agriculture bulletin. 

Increasing State Supervision Over Organization 

Adams: There was another phase of state control which was 
important. It was the phase which first intrigued 
me. That had to do with the state engineer passing 
on the organization of districts. It was easy, as I 
explained to you, for a district to be formed under 



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237 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams : 






the Wright Act. Fifty or a majority of holders of 
land could propose a district. There was no inves 
tigation. That's why so many districts were formed 
that w ere not feasible. 

It was perfectly evident that the state should 
exercise control over organization. Idaho had a 
measure of control. Its law made it the duty of 
the state engineer to make an investigation of an 
irrigation district and file his report with the 
district, so that the public would have full informa 
tion as to engineering and other feasibility. 
Prior to organization? 

Yes. That law was drafted by D. W. Ross, who was 
state engineer of Idaho and later the man who became 
chief engineer of the Kuhn project in California. 

How the change In California came about was this. 
I was in Sacramento to attend a meeting of the 
irrigation committee of the legislature and I met 
several members of the Irrigation Districts Association, 
including Mr. Dennett and A. L. Cowell, who had been 
active in the formation of the South San Joaquin 
District. They had in mind favoring a bill that 
would give the Irrigation Districts Association 
authority to pass on the organization of new districts. 
That didn't seem to me a desirable procedure. Its 



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ebA 



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sbA 



238 



Adams: constitutionality was doubtful. I suggested that 
the state engineer be given the same authority as 
the state engineer in Idaho had. I had with me the 
Idaho law. So this group came up with me to my room 
in the Sacramento Hotel and together we drafted a bill 

providing that when a petition for formation of a 
district was filed with the board of supervisors, 
a copy should be sent to the state engineer, and 
prior to consideration by the supervisors the state 
engineer should report as to whether he found any 
conditions within the proposed district which would 
justify him in reporting adversely. State Engineer 
McClure was heartily in agreement with that legislation, 
and it was passed in 1913 

Baum: Did Mr. McClure have an adequate staff to handle 
Jobs like that? 

Adams: He had one assistant state engineer, an accountant, 
probably two or three other employees including some 
stenographers. That's about all he had. As I recall 
it, his duties were primarily with public institutions 
and with roads. The state used to make appropriations 
for construction of roads. That was before the Highway 



Act. 









Baum: I can't imagine how Mr. McClure could handle all that 

work without a larger staff. 






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239 



Adams: On receiving petitions for organization, Mr. McClure 
in the majority of the instances personally went over 
the area, sometimes with the assistant state engineer. 
In other districts he assigned the duty to the assistant 
state engineer. In either case he almost invariably 
asked me to go along and at the conclusion of the 
field trip to give him ray views in writing. I 
gathered available data regarding the economic and 
agricultural feasibility. 

In 1915 that law was made a little more specific. 
We went as far as we thought we could in the 1913 
wording. In 1915 we got a little bolder and instead 
of providing that the state engineer should report 
as to whether any condition existed which warranted 
him reporting unfavorably, it definitely required 
the state engineer to report on the feasibility of 
the project, which was a little stronger language. 

Baum: Including economic feasibility? 

Adams: Economic feasibility wasn't mentioned. Of course, the 

state engineer always considered all phases of the 
project. 

That law eventually was strengthened to require 
the districts to file with the state engineer their 
engineering plans. It gave the state engineer authority 
to make such inspections of their construction program 
as he thought necessary, and to approve or disapprove. 



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Adams: He had that authority also as a member of the State 

Bond Certification Commission. So the state engineer 
came to have very definite authority over districts. 

There was one thing we had to include. The 
districts objected to the state engineer having 
complete authority over organization so an insertion 
was made providing that if the state engineer found 
the project infeasible, the supervisors should dismiss 
the action unless petitioned by three-fourths of the 
owners of land in the district to approve the petition 
for organization. I think only one district, that 
was out on the Mojave Desert, made use of that pro 
vision. The district was formed, but didn't succeed. 

. 

Withholding of Water from Appropriation 
Pending Formation of a Proposed District 



Adams: An amendment was adopted in 1917 that brought the 
state engineer into even closer relationship with 
the irrigation districts. The idea for this occurred 
to me while working with a local committee planning 
the formation of what later became the Nevada Irrigation 
District. The amendment provided that when he con 
sidered It in the public interest the state engineer 
could make preliminary investigations and surveys of 
a proposed district, and that pending completion of 



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Adams 






Baum: 
Adams 



these investigations and surveys, he could withdraw 
from appropriation any unappropriated water that 
might be needed in that proposed district. 

There had long been a feeling in the foothill 
areas that they were likely to be deprived of their 
water supply by its adverse use for power development. 

This was the primary reason for including the provision 
authorizing the state engineer to withhold appropria 
tions of unappropriated water pending the completion 
of his preliminary investigation. 

That same principle has been followed in connection 
with the State Water Plan. Rather than w ithdrawing 
the water from appropriation, the state files on 
the water and holds those filings for ultimate 
disposition. The major supplies for the Central 
Valley Project and the State Water Plan were filed 
on by the State Department of Finance and then held 
for assignment when the projects were undertaken. 
I'm not sure of the extent to which this amendment 
providing for withholding water from appropriation 
was used. I do remember that the state engineer made 
such an investigation in the Nevada District. 
Where did you get this idea from? 
The way you get ideas is to be on the ground and 
study the situation and things occur to you. You 
don't get them in the office, you get them out in 



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Adams : 
Baum: 












Adams : 



Adams : 












0.1. 

the field. 



Well, many ideas come from studying what other 
areas have done about similar problems, don't 



Oh, certainly, and my business was to be familiar 
as much as I could with affairs elsewhere. 

Making Formation of a District Easier 

There was one change in organization that I 
thought was important at the time and which I 
did not like. It came up when Merced District 
was being promoted. The 1897 amendment to t he 
Wright Act required a petition for organization 
by a majority of holders of land representing 
a majority in value of the land and it required 
a two-thirds vote for organization. When Merced 
District was being proposed, they knew they 



were going to have difficulty getting the 






. 






required signatures representing a majority 

of value of land. The Crocker-Huffman Land 

and Water Company had a small system, and they 

were interested in selling their system to the 

district. I think they suggested the man who 

was appointed to conduct the eampaign for formation, 






' 



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Adams: Walter Wagner, who later became secretary of the 
Irrigation Districts Association. 

The change was this, 500 owners of land 
representing 20$ in the value of the land could 
propose the formation of a district. It was proposed 
that a majority vote on organization could carry a 
district and it resulted in quite a fight in the 
legislature. A law was passed providing for a 
majority vote. It went to referendum, it was that 
important, but it carried. 

Baum: Who took it to referendum? What interests were so 
opposed to the change? 

Adams: I don't recall. It was not only voters in Merced 
District, but all over the state. Other districts 
which were not anxious to see too many districts 
formed. 

Do you mean some districts were opposed to competition 
from other districts? 

Adams: I think the feeling was more that if the law made 
it too easy to form irrigation districts, more 
infeasible districts would be organized and the old 
troubles of early days might be repeated and the 
market for irrigation district bonds again upset. 
However, I am a little hazy about the arguments 
pro and con. 



Baum: 



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210* 



Adams: 



Adams: 



Baum: 



Adams: 






Incidentally, several years later someone in 
the Irrigation Districts Association proposed that 
the association should be made a state body with 
authority to tax irrigation districts and assess 
new districts to gather funds with which to guarantee 
irrigation district bonds. But that wes not passed. 






Other Legislation 

& 



In 1913 a constitutional amendment was adopted 
authorizing the legislature to exercise such control 
over irrigation districts as in its judgment was 
in the public interest. It was that constitutional 
amendment that really gave the state engineer and 
the Bond Certification Commission the control 
thev had 

Did the districts take kindly to this state 
supervision? 

There was some opposition from time to time. They 

. 
liked to take care of their own affairs, but the 

benefits from this regulation were so obvious that 
the opposition was overcome. I doubt if any legis- 






lation was passed over the opposition of the Irriga 
tion Districts Association, so I think It was a 
few individual districts that voiced opposition. 



What we've been talking about mainly so far 












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Adams : 






Baum: 
Adams 



are districts organized under the California 
Irrigation District Act. At the request of state 
engineer McClure, I generally went over some of 
these other acts while they've been in the legis 
lature and made comments on them, but had no 
important part in them. In fact, I don't want to 
leave the impression that I had too much to do 
with the irrigation legislation, although of course 
I was interested in it and I devoted much of my 
time to that study. I was primarily Interested in 
obtaining state control. 

I remember our Commonwealth irrigation section 
used to review every act introduced in the legislature 
with reference to water. That was before and early 
in the 1920' s. As chairman of the section during 
that period, I would transmit the conclusions and 
comments to the irrigation committees of the 
legislature. At Mr. McClure 's request I used to 
attend almost all the meetings of the irrigation 
committees of the assembly and s'.enate during that 
particular period, so I was on intimate terms with 
the new members of the committees and especially 
with the chairmen. 
Who were the chairmen? 

Well, Mr. Dennett was chairman of the assembly 
committee and then he went up to the senate and was 



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Adams : 



Baum: 
Adams 



Baum: 









21*6 






chairman of the senate committee. P. H. Griffin 
of Modesto was chairman of the senate committee 
at one time. We'd work out our ideas. Sometimes 
Mr. Cowell and I would frame the legislation and 
take it up to the committees. Ultimately it 
would get into the hopper and it would g enerally 
go through. 

The Irrigation Districts Association in the 
early days had little to do with the legislation, 
but individual members like Mr. Gowell and Mr. 
Dennett did. 
T .vhy was that? 

It was a small association, there were not so 
many districts. Later the attorneys for the 
various district* were very active in the 
Irrigation Districts Association and legislation 
was referred to them and in some cases drafted 
by them. After they became very active I had 
very little to do with the matter. It was 
during Mr. McClure ' s administration that I was 
active. 

How likely were the senate and assembly committees 
to accept the recommendations of the Commonwealth 
Club? 






... 

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Adams: Oh, they received them. They were very cordial 

about it. Sometimes I think our section took itself 
a little too seriously. We had a good batting 
aver ace. 

I remember one time, there were quite a 
number of bills dealing with closely related 
subjects introduced in the Assembly or senate, I 
don't remember. I was meeting with the committee, 
Mr. Dennett, the chairman, said to me, "You take 
all these bills and put them in one bill." And 
I did, it was simply a routine matter. That shows 
our cordial relations. 

Baum: Where did these bills originate usually? 

Adams: Prom the people who wanted to make use of the 

legislation. There were many amendments to the 

act to meet some particular situation which couldn't 

be met under the law. 

I remember one amusing incident. Under the 
California Irrigation District Act, land is supposed 
to be assessed at its full cash value, not including 
improvements. Incidentally, there's a field for a 
very interesting study there in connection with the 
wide variation in the way they interpret that law. 
In some states irrigation district assessments are 
made on a basis of benefits, as they are in our 



V4S 



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2U8 



Adams: reclamation districts. A little district up in 
the northern Sacramento Valley had a situation 
which they thought could be improved if they could 
levy assessments according t o benefits. Mr. McClure 
and I w ere going over that and he suggested that 
I prepare an alternative method of assessment 
allowing districts under certain conditions to 
assess on a benefit basis. I did that. I consulted 
a number of attorneys on the thing before I had it 
In final shape. 

Then Mr. McClure asked me if I wouldn't take 
that before the Irrigation Districts Association 
and get their endorsement because it was very 
difficult to get a bill through that they opposed 
and quite easy if they approved it. So I did that 
at a meeting up at Sacramento. There was present 
a very interesting character by the name of Judge 
John Pairweather. He lived in the area and had, 
I believe, a part in the formation of the Alta 
Irrigation District, in Fresno County, under the 
old Wright Act. He was one of these archconser- 
vatives regarding changes In the Irrigation District 
law. He ran a little newspaper down there, was 
justice of the peace, always went to the meetings 
of the Irrigation Congress and later to the meetings 
of the Irrigation Districts Association. He always 



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Adams : 



Baum: 



Adams : 



Baum: 
Adams : 



had something to say and he usually was opposed. 

When I outlined this proposed alternative 
method of assessments, he was on his feet immediately 
opposing it. There was quite a discussion and the 
judge moved that the association do not approve it. 
That was carried. Then he got on his feet and said, 
"Now I want to move that this association disapprove 
it." That was carried. That was just a little 
incident. Itwasn't too important that it be passed, 
but it would have helped the situation in that district 
and might have helped some others. 









Helping to Organize Districts 



When was the increase in the organization of new 



districts? 






The big increase started in 1915 and reached its 
peak in 1920. It seemed to me everyone wanted to 
form an irrigation district then. Many communities 
asked me to meet with them and because I went on so 
many field trips with the state engineer I w as pretty 
busy trying to keep up with the job. Many of the 
requests to meet with communities came in those 
days through the local farm advisors. 
Was this part of your official job? 






Yes. 



. 



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Baum: Did these communities want you to advise them on 
how to organize a district or.., 

Adams: Yes. 

Baum: ...or whether it would be feasible to form one? 

Adams: Well, sometimes both. The farm advisors were very 
active in promoting the welfare of the communities. 
Where they found they needed irrigation development, 
they began to emphasize that. They would invite me 
to come in, meet with the committee, go over the 
ground, consider what their water supply was, and 
so forth. Gradually interest grew and we'd have a 
general meeting and I would explain fully the proce 
dure. 

I remember up at Woodland, a committee there 
wanted to form a district to get storage. Cache 
Creek was dependent on the flow from Clear Lake and 
that was insufficient many seasons, especially with 
the increase in rice growing in that area. There 
was a reservoir site available. The chairman of the 
local water committee and the farm advisor asked me 
to meet with them. We had a general meeting. A 
committee was appointed and we went over the whole 
area to be included. I remember sitting down and 
writing sub rosa a good deal of their newspaper 
publicity. The state engineer had asked me especially 
to go over and assist that community. 



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251 



Adams : That was the type of work I had a chance 
to do. It was a privilege, very interesting. 

Baura: Was your work in the area of promoting the district? 

Adams: No, I absolutely had nothing to do with promotion. 

Helping a community with their publicity was as near 
as I ever came to promoting a district. I stayed 
strictly away from promotion, I limited myself to 
outlining the procedures under the district law and 
the opportunities under other laws. There were by 
that time a number of other statutes under which they 
could organize. 

I did go a little farther in the case of Merced 
District. That was brought to my attention by the 
local committee and by the chairman of the irrigation 
committee of the assembly, who lived in that area, 
He published a little paper down at Livingston. I 
met with him and a local committee and wrote a resolu 
tion, which was passed by the committee, calling on 
the state engineer to make a preliminary investigation 
for the formation of an irrigation district there. 
In preparing this resolution I had in mind the 1917 
amendment authorizing the state engineer to make 
preliminary examinations of proposed irrigation 
districts. This was done and the state engineer 
passed on to me the preparation of the report on 






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2SJ2 



Adams: which the organization of the district was based. 
With a district formed, money could be raised by 
assessment to pay for a complete engineering in 
vestigation, preparation of plans, and estimates 
of cost. 

Irrigation Districts Compared to Other Districts 



Baura: I take it that you were pretty enthusiastic about 
this method of organizing irrigation facilities. 

Adams: I was tremendously interested in irrigation districts 
and anything that would advance agriculture in the 
state, and I was fully committed to the district 
as a means of accomplishing that. 

Baum: You preferred it to other types of districts that 
might have been organized? 

Adams: Not necessarily. If there had not been a need or 

a desire for other types of districts, laws providing 
for them would not have been passed. The pattern of 

land ownership or the extent of urban population 
are among the factors that determine the type of 
district to be used. I never expressed a preference 
for one type of district over another. My activities, 
however, were primarily concerned with districts 
organized under the California Irrigation District 
Act, although I had some contact with other types 
of districts. 






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Adams: Of course, In the south the usual procedure 
was through mutual water companies. In the San 
Joaquin Valley in Fresno, Tulare and Kings counties 
there were many farmers' cooperative irrigation 
companies, mostly organized at an early date. In 
the Kern River area public utility was the principal 
form. In the south a few of the mutual water companies 
changed over to Irrigation districtsImperial 
Valley being the largest area in which this was done. 
In the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys some of 
the utilities and cooperative committees were 
gradually changed over to irrigation districts. 

In early days cooperative and mutual companies 
involved a very low cost and could easily be financed 
by the farmers or, in the case of mutual water 
companies, by the land development company. Irriga 
tion districts provide a means for financing new 
construction or buying out utilities not available 
to mutual water companies and utilities because of 
the authority given to districts to levy taxes or 
assessments. 

Baum: Why couldn't privately-owned public utilities do 
the Job adequately? 

Adams: That's a long story. The constitution made water 

available for appropriation and sale for public us*. 









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251; 



Adams: In early days public utilities usually disposed 

of water under water right contracts. That method 
caused a tremendous amount of friction. Many of 
the contracts were unfair. There was a good deal 
of litigation about them. There was no adequate 
state regulation of those utilities at that time. 
Agriculture can't stand too many people making a 
profit on the side out of the irrigation system. 
I always felt there was no place for profit to 
anyone other than the user of water, and that was 
the basis of my feeling that the district form of 
organization was the superior plan. 

Baum: It sounds like the farm advisors also were enthusiastic 
about irrigation districts. 

Adams: Perhaps I have overemphasized the part the farm 
advisors had in the organization of irrigation 
districts. Probably only seven or eight of them 
did, as I remember. All of them, however, were 
interested in the irrigation problems of their 
county. Whenever I went Into a county in connection 
with the organization or operation of an irrigation distri( 
I always kept in close touch with the farm advisor 
and found him much interested. 

There are other reasons than those given for 
organizing under the California Irrigation District 
Act. Under this act the procedure for financing, 



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255 



Adams: construction, and management has been worked out 

over the years much more fully than the other types 
of districts. In some districts the procedure was 
much more simple than under the California Irrigation 
District Act. For instance, some made use of 
county officials to levy and collect assessments, 

Baum: I understand that now other forms of districts 

are often preferred because voting is proportional 
to value of land held. 

Kern River Water Storage District 

' 

Adams: Well, an example of that is the situation in Kern 

County. In 1919 I was asked to go d own to the Weed 
Patch country, south of Bakersfield, principally the 
Arvin area, to discuss the organization of irrigation 
districts. I made many trips down there, had numerous 
conferences. 

The situation was this, the canals carrying 
water to the irrigated fields north and south of 
Bakersfield, except at the extreme lower end, were 
all controlled by Kern County Land Company and 
operated as utilities. At the lower end, around 
Buena Vista Lake, Miller and Lux had large properties. 
The supply was inadequate for the entire Kern River 
area and they looked forward to storage on the Kern. 
- 



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256 



Adams: They knew there was a good site available at 

Isabella. Some of the ditches had early priorities, 
some late, and farmers under those having late 
priorities were agitating for some movement that 
would bring storage. What was being discussed at 
that time was a district under the California 
Irrigation Districts Act. 

A little later Mr. A. Lincoln Fellows, who 
was then in the Irrigation Investigations office 
under Dr. Portier, made a general study at the 
expense of the Department of Agriculture and proposed 
the formation of an irrigation district. That 
was turned down, never went to a vote. 

There were in the area a number of communities 
subdivided into small holdings. Edison was one of 
them. The irrigation district law provides that 
all electors shall vote, not only landowners. The 
Kern County Land Company owned a lot of land that 
would be brought into the district and there were 
many others who owned large areas. Finally a meeting 
was held for them to reach a conclusion as to whether 
they should form under the Irrigation District Act 
or under the Water Storage Act. Professor Etcheverry 
had made investigations down there, I think, for the 
Kern County Land Company and he had proposed a water 
storage district. He was at that meeting to outline 






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257 






Adams: the procedure of a water storage district; I was 
invited to be there to outline the irrigation 
district procedure. After careful consideration 
they decided on the water storage plan because they 
had one vote per each $100 In land value. 

Baum: At that time did you think a water storage district 
was better for that particular area? 

Adams: I had had no direct experience with the Water Storage 
Act. I think I showed no partiality for the 
Irrigation District Act at the time, but I had the 
general feeling that ultimately the community 
would be better off If all of the people had a chance 
to pass on what was being done. I realized that 
the local people had to determine what was to 
their best interest, but I think I would have been 
more satisfied with an Irrigation district. I 
might say that some of my best friends down there 
In Kern County preferred the water storage district: 
Forest Prick was one of them, he's still a leader 
down there; Mr. tooodworth, son of Professor Woodworth 
who In early days was head of entomology in the 
College of Agriculture; and Hugh Jewett, a very 
Important man, all large landowners. Then the 
movement lay dormant for quite awhile. 

Yesterday I saw Forest Prick over at the 
Commonwealth Club meeting. I asked him Just what 









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258 



Adams: year the district finally got organized. 19lj.l 

And they don't yet have their water supply arrange- 
ments made. The Bureau of Reclamation has built 
Isabella Reservoir, but the district has not worked 
out with the Bureau of Reclamation any plan for 
obtaining water. The 160-acre limitation has held 
them up. 

There's no question that they made the right 
choice in organizing a water storage district. 
That's wonderful land down there. 

I might mention with reference to those early 
negotiations that Mr. Alfred Harrell, who was editor 
and publisher' of the Bakersfield Californtan, was 
very cooperative. I had a number of conferences 
with him. He knew the public sentiment. 



Large Farms, vs. Small Farms 



. . 



Baum: Did you find that the effect of Irrigation districts 

was to reduce the size of landholdings in the district? 

Adams: When any area of unirrigated land is brought into a 

project the result is always to bring about a reduction 
in the size of holdings. The charge for irrigation 
can rarely be paid on unirrigated land. Besides this, 
when a project is opened there is generally a move 
ment into the area by those desiring to take advantage 
of the new enterprise. This is true whether the 
project is a district or some other type. I think 
subdivision is more rapid in irrigation districts 






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259 



Adams: than in other types, because the district assessment 
is levied against all the land in the district, 

Baum: I have heard people who favor irrigation districts 

1 

say that one of their major beneficial effects is 
the breaking up of large landholdings. That implies 
that they favor small landholdings. I think many 
other people feel large landholdings are more 
efficient, more economical, and a better system 
for agriculture. What do you think on that matter? 
Adams: I've heard that question discussed a great many 

. 

times. I presume you mean the family farm as opposed 
to the large corporation farm, because pro and con 
arguments generally relate to these two types. I 
can't answer your question categorically yes or no. 
I grew up on a family farm, and the life there was 
one of my greatest experiences. The only trouble 
was that like so many other "family" farms it wasn't 
large enough to support the family. Speaking sen 
timentally, I would like to see all of our farm 
areas made up of farms of that type, but that will 
never happen. At present many of our farms are too 
small to produce satisfactory income. 

Agriculture is now generally a business no 
longer merely a mode of life. There is no question 
that the large farms in California have made a great 
contribution to our economy. Many of the abuses 






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260 



Adams: attributed to large corporation farms have been in 
connection with the status of the laborers. If 
there are such abuses, they can be corrected as 
many have been. There are some areas in California 

where family farms CD uld not be established. An 

. 

example is to be found in some portions of our 
Sacramento -San Joaquin delta. Another example is 
on the west side of San Joaquin Valley in Fresno 
County where the cost of supplying water to the 
land is prohibitive to the man of small means. This 

is because the only water available is underground 
water which must be raised from great depths, at 
a very high cost for wells and pumping equipment. 
Ultimately, when water is made available under the 
state water plan the situation may be different. 

There are areas in which individuals have 
acquired large holdings and have gradually developed 
them under irrigation or plan to do so. In Kern 
County there are many instances of this situation. 
I have a general feeling that many of these large 
holdings up and down the state will ultimately b 

further subdivided, but no one can make really 

J 

accurate predictions, especially with regard to an 
industry that is governed by so many forces as 
agriculture is. 






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261 



Difficultiea in Developing Irrigation Districts 



Baum: 






Adams : 






Baum: 



Adams: 






Many irrigation districts were organized in the ^O's 
when there was already an agricultural surplus in 
the United States. Was there any opposition to 
irrigation districts on the grounds that they would 

just increase the surplus? 


I'll give you an example of that. I would say it 

was in the late '20's, Prank Swett, whom I have 
mentioned to you before, was then general manager 
of the Pear Growers Association, which was a marketing 
agency for pears. He was raising pears over at 
Martinez and he purchased land down in the South San 

Joaquin District and had plantings there. He made 

- 
rather bitter attacks on those of us who were interested 

in aiding irrigation development through districts. 
That was on the basis that they had more pears being 
grown than they could market and we were constantly 
increasing the areas that were being put into fruit 

and causing growers that much more trouble. So there 

. 
was opposition in certain segments. 

Did this factor of the agricultural surplus come 
into your mind or the minds of the communities that 
were interested in organizing irrigation districts? 
We considered all phases of the thing. We certainly 
were conscious of surplus, but you couldn't determine 






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a^tdo - .pnlsii erf^ 1o p.ea^rfq HB be-xsblenoo eW :amfibA 

^'nblyoo uc^r ^trcf ,81/lqii/E lo saoloer ,sw 



262 



Baum: 



Adams 









Adams: a matter of irrigation development on the basis of 
agricultural surpluses at any one time because the 
development of an irrigation project is a slow 
process. It takes many years sometimes. 
In other words, you were taking the long view, that 
the surpluses would not last forever. 
We had to take the long view. One of the problems 
that did conern us was the matter of settlement of 
the land. A project isn't a success until the land 
gets irrigated. If you have a large amount of 
unirrigated land not earning enough to carry the 
load, why, you're in trouble. That was the cause of 
failure of many irrigation projects in the West. 
Settlement became a problem about 19!l| or 1915. The 
settlement had really become a problem in the West 
much earlier, even before the passage of the Reclama 
tion Act in 1902. 

Baum: Why weren't there settlers? 

Adams: I remember someone remarked, along about 191^, "The 
species settler has become extinct." It's not easy 
to get established on a farm. Once it was a matter 
of a few hundred dollars to get established on a 
farm, but prices increased and It became several 
thousand dollars and it was not long before it 
became $10,000 or $15*000 to establish a farm and 
it must be much more than that now. Because of the 



sas 



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aeuaoed ewaicf <?no ^rus ^s esawlqius 
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, 









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od 



9nr 

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.mifll no berialldB^e 
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iB-tevsE emo9<f *1 bnB beeaeioni esolnq tod ^ 

8JBW *^ bn * eifilJ 

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'EG 



Bfllfi 



263 



Adams: difficulty of settlers getting established, the 

state land settlement plan was adopted. In addition 
to the cost of the land, buildings must be erected, 
equipment purchased, land must be prepared for 
irrigation, planted, and there must be money available 
to carry the enterprise until it becomes self-sustain 
ing. The Federal Farm Loan Act made the establishment 
of farms much easier of course. 

Baum: It seems that one of the problems, then, was that the 
cost of land had risen higher than the agricultural 
production warranted, at least for beginning settlers. 

Adams: Let me cite the West Stanislaus District. Some of 

that land was sold, after organization, at somewhere 
in the neighborhood of $200 an acre. It was a high 
figure, very much over its value for dry farming. 
I was talking to one of the farm advisors about that 
increase in price. He said, "If they pay that much 
for their land, they're working for nothing," 
However, I doubt if our predictions were borne out 
because I believe that has been a very successful 
farming area, whatever they paid for land. 

It seemed to me very significant in the formation 
of districts that there should be an immediate 
increase in price of land after a water supply was 
made available. Right after Merced Irrigation 



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beoisM le^lr T .sldallBVB 



26k 



Baura: 



Adams: District was organized, I spent several days finding 
out what the price had been before and what it was 
after the formation of the district. There was a 
great increase. 

The irrigated land has to pay assessments, which 
I should think would tend to keep the price of the 
land down. 

Adams: That's something that should enter into the price 
of land, but so far as I can see, it hasn't. 

Baum: I can't imagine a farmer buying land without consider 
ing the cost of the water. 

Adams: I suppose they do, but if they want the land they 
have to pay the price. In an irrigation district 
they don't have to pay for that water right away. 
Speaking academically, as the price of water goes 
up, the price of land should go down, but I haven't 
found that true. 

Baum: I should think the cost of land would go down when 
the cost of other factors goes up, as water, taxes, 
or even fertilizers and seeds. 

Adams: Yes. But the question of scarcity of land must 

enter into that, and the desirability of location. 

Desire to live there enters into the situation. 

' 






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^nl Bieins ierict BV! r o^ eolsed 



265 









Santa Clara Valley Water 
Conservation District 



Adams : 



Baum: 



Adams : 






Santa Clara Valley Water Conservation District 
furnishes an excellent example of the long period 






frequently Involved In developing a plan and system 



of control of water. 

When did you become Interested in the Santa Clara 

water problem? 



. 



While I was still located at Cheyenne in the old 
Irrigation Investigations office, I came to California 
for a holiday. The man who was in charge of Irriga 









tion Investigations in California, Mr. Wilson, had 
had a serious illness and I was asked to look after 
affairs while he was ill. That was over a two or 
three month period. One thing I knew he had had in 
mind was an Investigation in Santa Clara Valley. 
So I went down to see some people down there about 
the possibilities of an investigation. Mr. Wilson 

died and was succeeded by Dr. Portier and I went 

' 

back to Wyoming. 

' 

In 19014- Dr. Portier sent a student who had 
just graduated down there to make an investigation. 
That student was Fred H. Tibbetts. I made several 
trips down there to go over the ground with Mr. 
Tibbetts. 






pVf y&llmV a'ifllO 

visenc 



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.tM rfcfjw bni/ots rict tavo os. cxt eisri^ nwob 



266 



Adams: 

Baura: 
Adams: 



Baum: 






In 1912, in cooperation with the State 
Conservation Commission, we carried on studies on 
a number of streams. One of the areas was Santa 
Clara Valley. Here is the report. 

(reading) This is from Office of Experiment Stations, 
Bulletin 25U 1912. (They look at report.) 
In about 1920 Fred Tibbetts and Stephen E. Kief for, 
another well-known engineer, laid out a plan for 
Santa Clara Valley which provided for replenishment 
of underground sources primarily, but with some 
surface distribution. In 1921 a special act was 
passed creating a Santa Clara Valley Water Conservation 
District which extended from Morgan Hill neighborhood 
to a line midway between Mountain View and Palo 
Alto, in other words, almost the entire floor of 
Santa Clara Valley in Santa Clara County. That was 
subject to approval in an election. That election 
was held in the fall of '21. 

We were having a home built in Los Gatos at the 
time. I went down there and spent a week just prior 
to the election and went to the meetings each evening 
in different areas where the subject was being 
discussed. I took no part in it, I was merely an 



observer. It was defeated. 












What was the opposition? 









arii riJlw noltffiieqooo nl ,SI9I nl 
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srf ; w 8B91B arfcf lo .efliBei^e lo nsdcit/n a 

.tfioqei orf^ el sisH . 

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'jt 5f9w B rfneqa bn s'reff* : : I ,eoilJ 

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BBW il 

srf^ esw 



26? 



Adams : 
Baum: 
Adams : 

Baura: 
Adams : 









There was very bitter opposition. 
Why were they so opposed? 

Farmers are conservative when it comes to spending 
money. 

It was the expense? 

As I remember it the plan the district was to 
carry out would cost around ten or eleven million 
dollars. For an area that never spent any great 
deal of money on irrigation development that was a 
lot of money. There were already a good many pumping 
plants in the valley and I think the farmers generally 
didn't appreciate the dangers of the impending over 
draft. There was also opposition from the owners 
of several small ditches from Los Gatos Creek which 
supplied water for irrigation in the winter. 

After this defeat the law was amended eliminating 
the southern area around Morgan Hill. Again the 
matter went to the vote of the people and was defeated 
once more. Following this second failure the matter 
was dropped until about 1926 when Dr. Leroy Anderson 

undertook to revive the project. He didn't want 
me to call him Doctor down there because he was a 
farmer then, but he had been formerly in charge of 
the farm school at Davis and I had known him intimately, 
we were very close friends. Sometime in 1926 he came 
to see me, he was anxious to get things started again. 
I had many conferences with him and I talked to at 
least one large mass meeting on procedure in forming 



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:an?BbA 

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:emBbA 



268 



Adams: a district. Fred Tibbetts had loaned me a copy of 
the 1921 Tibbetts-Kieffer report and I had analyzed 
it for Mr. Anderson and had given him a memorandum 
setting forth the main features of the project. I 
had informed myself as well as I could on the physical 
side as well as the organization side. 

Mr. Anderson formed then a little association 
which was known as the Valley Water Conservation 
Association. He interested a number of others in 
scattered areas. I have here a newspaper clipping 
giving an account of the twentieth anniversary 
meeting of the association, from the San Jose Mercury. 
In those early years they raised about $10,000 from 
the farmers and chambers of commerce. 

One of the first things they did was to build 
some little check dams on some of the little 
tributaries on the Almaden and Guadalupe creeks. 
There was much propaganda then about the advantage 
of these little check dams. You will find that in 
all these early discussions of districts, every 
farmer is an engineer. He has his ideas as to what 
should be done. 

Baum: Was the idea of these little dams for storage or 
underground percolation? 

Adams: Just to slow down the flow of water. They also 

bought one of the old ditches, the Page Ditch, and 






erid ri^tol 
SB II*. 'molni 



JB em bsOBoI bfiri BCiJtedcfJ': . ctoltcteJb a 

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I .tfoetotq ertt lo 
, q erii no blr/co I 

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nold-evieanoO ^slIsV srfct BB awoni w rfoirfw 

ni S'lerf. a a be^esis^nl 

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. il erf^ ,BeriocMJb bjc 'to eno 



:jruj 






269 



Adams: ran water out in It primarily for percolating water 
into the ground, but they did it by running it out 
on the orchards. I think they gave it to the farmers 
almost for nothing. The main thing was to get it 
into the underground. 

But Mr. Anderson and his associates came to 
realize something else was necessary. 

Baum: Did Leroy Anderson own much of this land? 

Adams: He had a very nice orchard on the road between 

Congress Junction and Saratoga, probably 2$ or 30 
acres. 

Baum: Was he quite a wealthy man? 

Adams: No, I think he had very little capital. I know that 
he assumed a rather heavy debt and paid a high price 
for the land. One of his friends told me that he 
didn't think that Anderson could carry the financial 
burden which he assumed. 

Baum: He couldn't afford to contribute much money personally. 

Adams: Their contributions were 50^ an acre on that prelim 
inary investigation. 

I ran into this little item Dr. Anderson sent 
me at the time of this anniversary meeting. 

Baum: (reading) A certificate of membership in the Valley 
Water Conservation Association, signed December 1, 
1926. 

Adams: He predated it. 






iol Y-t -ttJBrolnq $1 nl ctuo te^Bw XIJBI 
nniri 70 ** bib Y<^* *tr<f ,bm/oig. ^ CK; 
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' 3- nlam s- .snirf^cn rrot JeocrlA 

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" T{ eH 

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to 



TJ IjBew e p eri 

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erf leiil el.n lo .bait I erf^ 

^r(^ Y I[ nosnebfiA .Jeri^ Mnlxi 

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lflnoaiaq vonc: 

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:1 
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r : Y" 1 ^" 

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t f r :^cffr6oeG ben , nolcfalooeeA - 



:jm^ 









becfBboiq K ceiriBbA 



2?0 



Baum: Signed Leroy Anderson and Max Watson. And on the 

back, "We are sending you this certificate of member 
ship in the Valley Water Conservation Association in 
consideration of the splendid assistance which you 
gave us in the spring of 1926 when we were struggling 
to find what should be done to save the flood waters 
of our valley, and also for the good advice that you 
gave so freely in succeeding years." 

Adams: Dr. Anderson interested Senator Herbert Jones 
in preparing a new act and this act was passed in 
1929. It was under that law that the present district 
was organized. 

Baum: Did your wife and children live in Los Gatos? 

Adams: Yes, off and on for about ten years. My oldest boy 
suffered greatly from asthma and we moved down there 
in '21, He never wheezed once after we got there, 

Baum: Did you take any further part in the Santa Clara 
district's affairs? 

Adams: No. They had employed Fred Tibbetts after the act 
of 1929 was passed. In fact, I'm sure Mr, Tibbetts 
had given Dr. Anderson a good deal of advice before 
he was employed. They had that act amended in 1931 
to take care of some deficiencies. I went over the 
law at the time at the request of Senator Jones, and 
made my comments, but I don't recall what suggestions 
I made. 






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am fib A 



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an;; 






271 



Baum: What kind of a man was Leroy Anderson? 

Adams: He was a wonderful man. He was primarily an educator. 
His interest originally at Cornell was dairying. He 
came to California first as principal of California 
P'olytechnic School at San Luis Obispo. I met him 
Just as he took that over. He was visiting Stanford 
campus with some of my friends there. Then when I 
came back into the work in 1910 he was at Davis, 

Baum: Did he get along well with people? 

Adams: So far as I observed, he never antagonized anyone, 
although there had been some conflict between him 
and Professor Major at Davis while Dr. Anderson 
was there. When the district was finally organized 
and got going in '31 he wanted to be secretary. 
What I'm telling you now came out of the mouth of 
Pred Tibbetts and was a great surprise to me. That 
Dr. Anderson wanted a good big salary, and that he 
wasn't a good businessman. And they replaced him. 
He felt very, very badly about it. I don't think 
they treated him fairly. They finally honored him 
by naming a big reservoir the Anderson Reservoir. 

Baum: I know there was a lot of opposition to Anderson 

and I wondered if he were the type that antagonized 
people. 

Adams: He was very gentle, very much of a gentleman. Very 



?ao8t?bnA ycned saw nara JB lo btiljL 3 
ne ^lini^nltq BBW eH . nebnoif JB BBW 

er ."'.'. -BW IlenioO 3s, ito cteQiscfnl ? 

ictllsO lo Ifiqlonl 
tti. ; .or ?luj nB? ^B 1 

sjnicflelv s^w .ir'vr dBrfS icoct ad ea 

^il Y ^o saros ricflw suqniao 
is i " nl jliow arid otfn 1 ^ ?f:>Bd at 

' . IB cfsg sri bJtQ 

tfoevieecfo I SB IB! 08 
mid i od cto" oe nssd bfiri 

noatefcnA ,iG ^Ilrfw BlvsCI J-B icf.B 

.i-oli^eib scfcf nsrfW .etsd^ BBW 
ISE oc' ^insw eri , C ' nl snica rfog bns 

IlsJ in 1 1 iBriW 

:ig s ejBw bciJB eiieddlT bei 1 ? 
.1 Y^>' - fcf boo^, B betfnBw nosTsbnA . 

baft .nsEeenl80d boo^ :'n3BW 
TirariJ- ,t ! . i tfwodj* ijlh 

vllcnll Y^^T 
.tlov nosie' .* tJtc M B galmBr 

* aoirflacqqo lo ctol A ew 9'isri^ wonji I 
! a vt.eriJ ^q^^ srf^ etew dri 11 bai^bncw I bna 



B lo tioim vi9V t alctr ^v EBW sH : er 



2?2 



Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams : 



qufet. But he had single-handedly restarted the 
movement that led to what followed. Above any one 
individual he was entitled to credit for that. 



He must have been single-minded, to keep working 






at that when everyone else gave up. 
Yes, but I hardly think everyone else had given up. 
I enjoyed my contacts with him very much. He was 
really a very close friend. I stopped to see him 
almost every time I passed the farm. His wife was 
a very brilliant woman, also a Ph.D. They were 
very active in the community church at Saratoga. 
When I attended his funeral there was constant 
reference to his contributions to the community 
down there. The church was just filled with people 
at his funeral. He was very highly regarded among 
his friends. 

But if he had an idea and someone opposed him, 
he wouldn't back down. 

So you would describe him as gentle, but persistent. 
Yes. 

, 






erfct berfiB^Bet ^Ibefcflarf-f bad erf 3v8. . 

enc v .bewcllol ^Brfve ocf bel Jarf* Jneoiey 

.;} Brief iol tflbeio otf beltfjjtne BBW sri J*t?blvlbnl 

gn: qee3l otf t bebnlfn-9ljcinJta need evaxl *aow eH 

.qir YBS s*Ie noriw tfsrftf ** 

: barf eele esrtov^v^ ^ Y^^* 1 *^ ^^ ,eeY 

,rfoi/ YI* V w^ 1 ^ rfrfiw ecfojsctnoo 
mlrf eee erf beqqocte .bnelit =>eolo 
BBW slti* 1H ,mrtfil aritf beeBBq I aml^ 

. .rfi e oI <nflttow 
- . Intwnooo erict 

esw dn^rl^ lBisn0* 8ir( beJbned'^B I nerfV 
erfcf o^ snoictucfJ:^ ;J!r{ o" -telei 

slqoeq rf^lw bollil tfsut SBW rfoiirrlo erfT iyiertt nwob 



r bsecqqo ncemce bnB Bbl na bBrf erf I/ 

f oBd tf'nblirow erf 

e. . ,*L Jra? BB mlrf edltoseb bluow ao^ 08 

.aeY 

. 



273 






Baum: 



Adams; 



WORLD WAR I 
Increasing Food Production In California 


You mentioned you did some troubleshooting on water 






problems during World War I, 

r 

Yes. There was a serious shortage of water in the 
Sacramento Valley and in some other areas. The 
great emphasis of the Council of Defense and the 
Food Administration was to increase food production. 
The need for food in Europe was paramount. The 






Council of Defense and the Food Administration cam* 
to us for help to speed up food production. 

We took over, with the consent of the local 
people and under the moral suasion of the times, control 
of water distribution in a number of areas. One was 
the Woodland area Professor Beckett took over that. 

The purpose was to see that no one received more 
water than he needed. One of his main objectors 
was George He eke, who was later state director 
of agriculture and quite a prominent man and who 
later received the LL.D. from the University largely 
for his leadership in stamping out the foot and 
mouth disease in California. Mr. Hecke almost cried 
when Mr. Beckett w ouldn't let him have as much water 

as he wanted. Said his orchard was going to die. 






I RAW (UflOW 



nl nplitoi.fboi bo 



no snxJcoffeaJcfuoT^ etr;rs bib 

. luW bJnoVT gnl-iub smeldotq 
ni le^jsw lo ege^icrfs et/olise B EPW sie .-Y 

necf E nl 

a 1o oO 

n -rol 98B910I JelnltnbA boo 1 ? 

.dnt'OHii^iec ?'e'-.' 9qo^i.'E ni boo^ *iol been rfT 
eioBo no/c-'fli^e^niirbA boo* 5 ! erf^ bna eeneleCI lo IJomn 

bcol q;j beqe o^ qlsrf nol atr 
IJBOC! ari^ lo etneanoo sri^ rtrflw ^ISTO 3(00* eW 
loictnoo t 3fl.Tl. nolBflire letctn erf.t isbnu bn* aJqoeq 

^dmirn JB nl noltfacO-tcfelb IS^BW lo 
.ctflrict T 

sic.": bevffoeT sno on ctflrf* 998 o^ ea>r eeoqii/q r!T 

Bic-:)-oi, snO .bebesn sri flBrf^ TS^BW 

"tff> ed:tfc tectsl BBW orfw , f j -sioer aaw 

^nsnJnonq B stftr/p brm e^^r^J0of^pA lo 

Y-f its vl nil erf* moil . . :>evloeT letfe! 

-f^ ^uo ^n2qir(jBd-8 nl qlrfaisbpol elrf id 
ml e:/odH . .simollJsO nl sseeelb rf*r/o 

*& evsrf mid rfai cf 'nbluo w ^^0^006 ,*rM nedw 
'>3 ^n.N ' btfiriono slri blc . dctnw erf BB 



27k 



V e i In m ev er 

Adams: Mr. VlfthHiftyar took over control of water 



distribution of the West Side Sacramento Valley 
Canal Company, the old Kuhn Project, I remember 
how easily that arrangement was made because of 
the general sentiment that we must do everything to 
advance the war. Ralph Merritt, state food adminis 
trator, asked me to go up there. I w ent up on the 
evening train. First thing in the morning I went 
to the office of the canal company and arranged for 
a number of people to meet me there, including Mr. 
James Mills of Mills Orchard, who controlled what 
was left of the Kuhn interest property there. Within 
an hour after meeting with those people, I was able 
to call Ralph Merritt and tell him the arrangement 
was made, that I w as asking Mr. inineyer to come 
up and take charge, 

We took over water distributions in some of the 
foothill areas, I think the Grass Valley area. Some 
others. That was one phase of the work we did, 

Another phase of our work had to do with the 
Federal Capital Issues Committee. No enterprise 
involving public financing could be financed without 
that committee's approval. A number of canals had 
been built in the area previously included in the 
Kuhn Project. Pumping plants had been put in and 



Ic ioidnoo *tvo afootf ifisrial .iM 

JeeW rict lo 
ftffi/}! 0X0 &cti t ^OBqmoD 

lo ear-CK-'ecf efosjR SBW ^nernegnjaiTa d'Brirf Tllz&9 v. 
o^ sn iBienss 9ri* 

Ifili B^a t itlTi9H riqlafl .iJw 

no qu *nsw I .9- ; 03 orf em beifefi t i< 

j-eiJt''! . tJ8^^ jinlnove 
icl ' srfct Ic eoil^c erirf 

. -rarivt cxj elqosq lo Tedmyn B 

^Br'vr bf ' - 1 89/nfit 

. 

la'*! , ctlw snl^sani isct^B -ujori n 

'nja orlct ' 'TiaM IJao oi 

s w ] dflrict t ftb.ani R 
. -tsrlo ^6* bfiB qtr 
n nt snoi^tfdi'jcfslb t^ievr tevo 5ico* *W 

:BiO sdd ^flJri.t I t eB9ifl 
,blfa 

erfi rfctJw ob oct beri iiow TWO lo eaarfq i*rfcfonA 
OB ti' oY. .eerf^linrnoO asueal iB^JqBO [s 

-nil 3d blwoo gnlonsnl'l oJtldua ^nlv 
Isni lo nsdinun A .iBvenqqa s'es 
er 1 wJoni ^iBJJOiveiq aeia rf^ nl ^Ili/d n 

ni *0q ned ban" 



275 



Adams: rice had been planted. The promoters proposed to 
recoup themselves by forming irrigation districts 
and taking the bonds of the districts and getting 
out in that way. In Washington the Capital Issues 
Committee looked to the Department of Agriculture 
and immediately to Dr, Portier for these reports 
throughout the West. Dr. Portier instructed me to 
look into those in California. In Southern Calif 
ornia Mr. C. E. Tait looked into a number of them. 
That was the general character of our work. 

M 

I remember a conference in the assembly chambers 
in Sacramento actively participated in by the staff 
of the College of Agriculture that was devoted to 
measures for increasing food production. I had 
been asked to make a study of possibilities for 
increasing the wheat crop by increased irrigation. 

Another important project I would like to refer 
to was in San Joaquin Valley in Kings County. 
A very large canal had been built from Kings River, 
the Lakeland Canal, to water land in the area of 
Tulare Lake, Just as it was completed an injunction 
prevented diverting any water and that canal had 
been lying idle for many years without a drop of 
water In it. It had been stopped by the lower 
riparian owners. We undertook to see what we could 
do with that. I got Professor Harding, who occasion 
ally made investigations for us, to investigate that 
area. I think largely as a result of the facts he 






foaoqonq 

quoosi 



erfcf lo ebncd 

iBJtlcBD erft n.o$8nl/ie*W nl ,flw Jarftf nl 
STu^IuoligA lo *nssffict=iflc > o* be>tcol ssct 

BctTcqT easii^ ^ol iB^rro>I .id o* 
-,nl talc' .ia ,*89 
" i: - ffl f; I - ilsO nl eacritf octnJt ifool 

msrf; o*ni b7lool *iBT .3 ,0 .iM slmo 

,3ltow -ujo lo le^OBir.ris') Irenes rtt SJBW <tsrfT 
e* 1 ' ec'3 nl eonstelnoo B ts-dmoassi I 

^ lBitR ->l*tBq Y-C^vidojB o^naajsioBS nl 

berfov^b BBW . ^jj^Iuo^sA lo ej?ieJ[IoO erf* lo 

feei - Ictojjboiq bool snieBeioni rol eflTuejBein 

t Bsl^iJldlseoq lo ^bwdE JB s>() bssfea no r 

noli >Ej?6TonJ: vcf qo^o **erfw erf* 

is' ill blfrow I tfostoiq rfn*^toq 

. n-u/cO es^ al^psoT, ns8 nl aew o5 

ti ? - ? d nefltf bjerf IBHBT I Y*IV A 

MS-US 9rict IB I i8^w oct t IsieeC r<i nlBj erfd- 

nclctomr{;nl n.c bstfalqaioo asw rfl e d-aL t -*ifBj ei 

b?ri Ija.rtBo rferict bns lectsw YJ3 s^-t^^ovlb berfnevenq 
lo qoib a ^jorf^lw eiBe-Y YJL< elbl 

ri^ ^d bqqo*8 id brf d^I . 
o ew ctfiriw eoe od- slood'isfcru; eW .gTsn 

.*srf^ ricflw ob 
orf ,151; iol enclrfBg.! i ebaw 

89t B BB l91Bl 



2?6 



Adams: gathered and our conferences I remember one con 
ference at Fresno with all the group together that 
cnnal was opened. It was brought into the Kings River 
group. That was an important accomplishment. 

Baum: It sounds like if Californians would get together 
under the same impetus as they had during that war 
to solve their problems, they could be taken care 

-p 
of. 

Adams: If is a big question. There was a great feeling 

of support for the country and the war at that time. 

I recall an incident up at Woodland. They had 
committees to sell war bonds. There was a German 
up there who had an extensive farm. He held out. 
The committee went to him and said, "Here, you buy 
these bonds." And he bought them. Force of public 
opinion. 

During that shortage of water, the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin Water Conference was organized, 
largely through Chester H. Loveland of the Railroad 
Commission, Hydraulic Division. Representatives 
of all the irrigation interests in Sacramento Valley, 
including the Delta, joined in that movement. They 
raised funds for emergency supervision of water div 
ersions from the Sacramento River. Several confer 
ences were held in which factual material was presented 






eno iPdruemei I Beoneislnc bn* 

'ig srto ^ one 

srfcf octal a .bsneqo saw IBOSO 

toied-- -i* saw JfirfT 

HJaO "if will sbnwoa 
rtliwfc : es s0^eqrcl mBe srW 

ecf f . : ^tq tlarf^ svloe oit 



cfj. 3BW ei- .nolctesirp -qio' JD el ebA 

ritfnuoo wftf 10*! tficgqwe 1o 
bBff Y ej rfT . la uc ^rtsfclonl ns Ilsoei I 

fiaj' --w 3T9xl ,?,bnocf ee oi Bee^tv : 

,ct;ro blsri .insl a^ ' ' r s fie bjeri orfw eirfJ qu 

X^L V2Z e'- , ; fi o* *new se: 

ollcfuq 1> . ^nA ",e_ 

.nolnlqo 


t fiesJt- ->onoio ns?; b 

bsotJ' levoJ . L Y-fs^iJB-C 

nola 

:&rnjeios? nf 
YrfT .Jnomevctn ^crfrf nl benlof, ,"*IeG erfc 

--^ Y n: Tbni/1 

^P .isvJIH -iofl8 erfi monl anciBic 

asw iBl'T^JBflj iBi/itos'i rfi rtl b r 3W eaons 






277 



Adams: by various agencies. The engineer's office of 
the War Department took an active part because 
through their control of navigation they could 
prevent some of these diversions. But they took 
a very broad-minded view. They realized the need 
was for water for irrigation and they wouldn't 
interfere unless absolutely necessary. That point 
of view was emphasized in later years by the flood 
control measures passed by Congress. 

Work with the Army Educational 
Corps in France After World War !_ 

Baum: I believe you went to Prance for the army. In 
what capacity? 

Adams: It was connected with this general state and 

national movement for making provision on the land 
for returning soldiers. Canada also was interested 
in that subject. After the Armistice there were 
two or three million men over there in Prance. 
What were they going to do with them? A long 
slow process to bring them all back. 

So they organized the Army Educational Corps 
and established a university in Switzerland and 
one at Beaune, Prance. They provided opportunities 
for soldiers to take educational courses. Educators 
from all over the country went over to take part in 



YYS 



Ic eolllo 
caused a r 
bluoo 



sriT . 
nc >JtocJ- 

lo 
E' 



ewclijev ^ 
isW 

d^uotrfct 







bf 



;i br 



be - 

>J 



boofi eri* Y d ETeY is^fll nl besisjtsdqjne EBW weJiv ^to 
. beeesq aeiusflaffi lotrfnoo 

ggiTA "^Lw ^. 

ec'tcO 



nl . eoruBi^ ocf 

:^qao 

bne OJB^B lBTneg sJtrf^ rfctlw ^^ctoennco sew ^1 
srf;t no nolalvoiq sn^jlB* icI ^noroevorc Iflnoi*je.n 
jpibfifiBO .Bielbl- y*i TIC! 

eoUeliniA erfd is^lA .cfoefcdua Jfiii^ ni 
.0-. ni eiartt nevo naa n rn eeirf* 10 

jnol A ?*r<ff;t rfrflw cb oi snloj, ^sri / ^ 

. :osd HJB raarf^t gnlid cd^ a^ W 

toO IfipcJ-tBO^ba \;iniA orirf bf> ijerict 08 

bna hitsltssd' ' / & osrialldBctas 

bsblvoiq ^exlT . ,rujjBea ^B 

iBncfjtBoirb* aals* c-.-t erclbloe 
JiBq e^crt o* tvc ctnew Tfrtru/oo arf.f T:SVO II* 



-i bA 



278 



Adams: those courses. Professor Ernest Babcock of the 
University went over. Knowles Ryerson, who had 
recently graduated from the University of California, 
was a second lieutenant in the army and organized 
agricultural clubs in the neighborhood of Le Mans. 
He had some 2^00 soldiers, as I recall, in his 
clubs. But that had nothing to do with the 
Educational Corpi. 

Baum: Was your job to prepare the soldiers for land 
settlement? 

Adams: Well, this trip came out of the general movement 
to provide for returning soldiers. The army 
educational program was organized and originally 
conducted by the YMCA, but while I was en route to 
France it was taken over entirely by the array and 
was operated under army orders. I received a 
telegram one day from a man who signed himself 
Captain Stanley Howe, who was recruiting men to 



go over and take part in what they called the 
institutes that were being conducted among the 
troops. He asked if I would gather a group who 
would talk on opportunities for soldiers on the 
land. I think Dr. Mead had something to do with 
that. It had been originally proposed that he 
should go over, but he was unable to do that, 
although he expected to go later. 



lo jfooocfjsa cteenift toBesloi^ .see-woo 

ta^fi eelvron}! .ivo cfnaw Y^ieiavlnU 
lo Y^BI*'-'' -? 9 *i 

bnj3 Y*' ':etfi/e>JI bnooes 

; ^to boorii-c 

,IlBsai I iJbloe OC^S 

oJb GO tefl 



brifll Bfl W 

id elrtfr t l.r 

Y fT! ' 1JB bio?, snJtnitf^si tcl sbivoTq o;t 

a bsl- BBW BiBij oiq I0c IctBOube 

secret ne SB w I eXMw ctucf ,AOf ': 

ad- a few di eonBi'5 
eiabio Y m ' IJ5 bsctBTeqo ? 

' rf bsf fw n&Ki B tb eao 

: . .- 1 d 1 1 trio e-s ew . velnstfE 

d- bell BO Y^^ d^jsriw nl d-'iJBc 

? beJojjfcnoo gnied e iril 

luow I 11 boric JB dH 
sr*. ^islbXoe 10*1 Esld-lrujd-'j- Tflsd bluow 

oe bsri.bBI- . I .1 

erf djBif;} qotq \LL- tsscf bpri d 1 ! 

ob o3 slcfjsnx/ ew rf di r ^ t nevr 






279 



Adams: I went to Washington and assembled some 

illustrative material, largely from the Reclamation 
Service. They were exceedingly cooperative. We 
went into their photographic file room with their 
publicity man, Mr. Blanchard, and I was allowed to 
select any films I wanted. We had several copies 
made 35 millimeter film. I also was given access 
to their slides and assembled several sets of slides. 
I arranged for Walter Packard to come over and take 
part. But he arrived too late to have much part 
in the institute work, I had a meeting with the 
group at New York University. Dr. Lindsey was in 
charge. I suppose there was about a month involved 
in preliminaries and gathering material, 

I got over to Prance and went directly to Paris 

and reported to Mr. Kingsbury, who was in charge 
of the agricultural institutes being conducted. I 
found he was a brother of two of my instructors in 
Cogswell College in the early '90s. A Calif ornian 
from Napa County, 

Well, things were kind of in a mess over there. 

I waited around. It got down to the point that 
there weren't going to be any more men to talk on 
opportunities on the land for returning soldiers 
than Mr. Packard and me. It was finally arranged 
that I should go up around the Marne and report to 






eases beldmeeaa boe fiorfsari3Btf otf 



.9v ctsieqooo t-Tsnibseox anew ^riT ,oivi3 
ilsrtt rfrflw fflooi elll o-MqBfigoctorfq tlsricf otfni rfn 

be Eflhf I fcn* ^brterioosIS .iM .om 

eslqoo iBrtsvee -/ .barfnuw I emlx! 

nevlg EBW ORB I 



03 

tfBct baa isvc btBsiOB? IC^JBW tol 

*ieq rlnujn evr ,^B! oo^ bsvliiB rf 

>iiow arfwd-lSenl eri* nl 
r ' .1 ,^*iertev? -'a qi/c 

rf^norrt B ctuoo r BAW siari^ seoqqtf-, .e^iflrio 

Teri^Bg Jbna E iletq ni 

o;t ^I^o^tlb cfnw bne onaaf otf isvo ctog I 

saw oriw t ^iiKJesnl^[ ,nM otf bedTcq?i bna 
too .ginlscf eechujtitfeflj IBTI/^JUOIISB ri^ lo 
nl eic^funrtanl TJI lo cw* lo lerttcrd saw eri bnirol 
nalni , .s'Oe 1 ^X*uBe arl^t al ssIloO IJewesoD 

.Y*nt/oO aqfiH moil 
lo bnJtii 9iw egnirf* 
.tntoq ericf orf nwob ^05 ^1 .fo^c^o^B 
no >rict o^ nern enotB ^1* f' ! 

- !iaiu*ar 10! bruel ad* nc eelcflnwtfnoqqo 
IlBnil esw tfl ,.eai 6njs b'-ic3ioB < l .tM 
tfioqei hnB niBM srfct bni/oi* cc hluoffs I 






280 



Adams : 









Baum: 



someone. That Instruction was changed and I was 
sent to Is-ur-til. I reported to the captain in 
charge of the institutes, and found there four or 
five men on the job, but they weren't doing anything, 
they were waiting for orders. We waited there about 
two weeks. Finally the captain and several of us rode 
down to Beaune and put something under the men in 
charge because a few days later we got orders to 
report to Beaune. I finished preparing a lecture 
there. I studied all the literature I had brought 
over while I was waiting. 

We finally got started and were sent to Le Mans, 
four or five of us. The routine was that they'd 
have a colonel's car come around and pick us up 
about one o'clock and drop us off at various camps. 
The commander there would order the troops assembled 
and we'd talk to them. I was the only one on this 
subject of settling the men on the land. I told 
what was being done by the Reclamation Service, what 
was being done in the south to open up lands, what 
was being done under the Land Settlement Act in 
California, and again what the opportunities were 
for farming and what men needed to get started on 
the land. 

You just gave one lecture in one location and then 
traveled on? 






8JBW ! bna bajariBrfo EBW meters i JjariT .enostfroe 

jni niflctqjBo orfd otf b.etfnoqsi .Iltf-tir-el otf cfnee 
if srtt bmrol fens , e 1 erfcf lo e:riBrfo 

i^na gnlob d 'nsn&hr j;9f& 3vtf t dot ri* no nem evil 
cJ^irodfl siftrirf be^law &W .etebio io1 jin2^1w enew Y e 
abci a// lo IBIQVSE " ,JBO erict xllanJ; 1 '? .83ffl6w owJ 

nl nera eftt i-- tfnq one eni/e9 o* nwob 

otf ei&bTO c I 8^b wel B eei/Boad sgi 

."ajaqstq bari . I eru/Be8 o^ tfioqsi 

llfi belbuie I ,-v 
SO-^^ J8W 6J8W I I- f rfw ievo 
taw oed"ifict8 : Isnll eW 

' J evil 10 i 

qir a tr 2ivOlc bna ' no e'Jftnoloo B evari 

,e ' 3 I'lo P bnB 5oolo' 

beldmep. - iebio blucw eisrftf rcebnABBrroo p 

esw I ,mft ' aflBi- b'sw bna 

blo:t I . >rfcr no necv lo ^oet^we 

ctsrfw . -raa noJto ^jd snci 1 enw ctarfw 

^Briiv ,2bnBl qu neqo orf ritfrroB rf.-t nl enob -gnlsd e*w 

T;*biT0 snob gnled a*w 

eiew eeirfln/j^ioqqo d* ^firfw Rl& . 

no h9d-^B.ta ^og oi bsben nea iariw bn 

nl 9.it'*oI no 

?no beXevaict 



281 



Adams: Yes. Then in the evening the colonel's car would 
come around and take us back to our barracks. We 
repeated that for several weeks. We came home one 
night and fotnd orders to return immediately to 
Paris and then to Beaune. After several weeks 
the educational corps, a whole trainload of us , 
were sent to Brest to await debarkation. It 
took several weeks there before we had an oppor 
tunity to leave. We returned on a very crowded 
ship carrying some three thousand soldiers. On 
the way across the Atlantic a number of us were 
called on daily to talk to the troops from the 
bridge on our particular subjects. The forward 
deck was crowded with soldiers milling around 
and most of them paid very little attention to us, 

Baum: Were the soldiers interested? 

Adams: Well, I remember one outfit from the Bronx, New 
York, They weren't a bit interested. In other 
outfits there were many questions and men would 
come up and talk to me afterwards. 

Baura: In what connection had you known Walter Packard? 

Adams: I first met him in Berkeley at the University, 

soon after I returned to irrigation work in 1910. 
He graduated from Iowa State College, I think, 
then was at Stanford for awhile. Down there he 
was in charge of YMCA work. At Berkeley he was 






Lnoloo erti anJneve era- nl nerfl 
,8>(o two otf tfoBcf 3u jlct bnB bnuotfl ^ 

tl r*o W .eieew Lsteveg ict cturi* becteeqsT 

. ol 



r us *rf: 

ctf nrftf bna a.' 
, c r slor'v B , 

>b ctlBWB ^ ^nea 

-toqqo ns >Brf s*r ^ vee 5(00^ 

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-T9fni I ,1^ 

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arf rl9>lTSfi tfA .itiow AOMY lo esnarfo nl BBW 



*S' 



m; 



282 



Adams : 



Baura: 
Adams : 



active, In some capacity, in the Farmer's Institutes, 

or rather, the demonstration trains that the College 

ofl Agriculture conducted with the Southern Pacific 

Company for several years. I think he had been 

in some of the boys club work of the Extension 

Service. KG had established the experimental 

station in Imperial Valley and was in charge of it 

for several years. When the Delhi settlement was 

established he was the superintendent. So I knew 

Walter very intimately for many years. 

Had his training been In agriculture, or group 

work? 

I'm not sure, but I believe It was some agriculture 

and some economics and sociology. 




' 






nl t ^loaqeo mo8 flJt t v 
$Bfi$ 3nl's c to nol Jfittenofli9& erf* ,if>jrftfjBi to 
8 exit ri^lw beef o irfcnoo aro/^IwoligA fto 
need bjBri arf jinlrf* I .enaev iBiavae nol 
c3 arf^ 'io ^ioi* di/I lo 



W bos 



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. ebna&iliequB arid ew ed b 
Y Taem nol 

"f-8 nl need 



re bns Bolmonoo 









283 









LAND SETTLEMENT IN CALIFORNIA 



Baum: 
Adams 

Baum: 

Adams 



Background of the Land Settlement Act 

Land settlement was a topic of interest in California 
even before World War I, wasn't it? 

Yes. There was a discussion of land settlement 

. 

in the Commonwealth Club in 1915. 
How did that idea first start? 

p 

A bill was pending in the state legislature providing 
for a state land settlement program in California, 
generally following the lines of land settlement 
in Victoria, Australia. This bill had been prepared 
in a committee appointed by President Wheeler of 
the University of California following an interest 
in land settlement created by Dr. Mead. Dr. Mead 
was in Victoria, Australia in charge of the State 
Rivers and Water Supply Commission. He had gone 
over in 190? as chairman. The Victorian government 
had built some very large irrigation works and the 
water was not being utilized. What was needed were 
people on the land to use the water. Australian 
political and social thought was in sympathy with 
state directed activities along those lines. The 
task of settling the land fell to Dr. Mead and the 
commission. They worked out a plan of settlement 



ees 



WI 'Iga 

eriJ _l_p 



HBO nl es^ctnl Ic olqoJ * eaw cfnemel^ae bnfiJ : 

' iis.fi ** ,1 isW : STolsd neve 

J*9& t.< 'OJeeUSelb B 8BW SlerfT . sY 

. IPI nl djjlC rf^Iee' ^0 ari^ nl 

trfiR.lR de-ill Bebl dBrfct bib we 
srfd nl s^-t^eq BBW Illd 
nl xq Jnsmor^dae bnal dBdB B nccl 

asnll e>/ wollol Y-f-r** 1 ^ 

3ei'. nsod barf Hid elrfT . -j^ewA t BlncrfolV nl 

to 'isIfedW d/i9blei ; I %& betfnlooqs e B nl 

>i9Ctn : -11 IB"' i^leievlnU ' 

.^Q . . . ,- I jss-io rfn*>ri9l^ctse bnal 

let/A tBliodolV nl SBW 

. .-jmlflrio SB TO?I nl 

erid hne a^iow ncldsgli-t. ^ ctllcrd bad 

erfW .beslllch; yilsd ten BBW i^rfaw 
,i-ctflw erf* ftau od bnel arid no elqoeq 
rf * Iw Y^^^Q^nj^ n -^ BBW Jrf^croiid' iBlooa bns Isoldlloq 
an.' T!B eoldlTl^OB h^ctoeTlb ^JP 

'IBP.M .iQ o* Ilel bnfil 9ttt %nllJ3*R lo jfp.Bcf 



2814- 



Adams: by which land was prepared prior to settlement, 

buildings were erected, and very active promotion 
for settlement was carried on. At one time, about 
1912, he thought it desirable to try to interest 
some of our successful irrigation farmers in the 
United States in going to Australia. He didn't 
get very many to go over there. He had taken George 
Kreutzer, who was farm advisor In Kern County, to 
act as superintendent of these settlements, or one 
or two of them. 

Dr. Mead made frequent visits to the U. S. 
and advocated that we in the U. S. adopt the same 
type of promotion of settlement with government 
aid In laying out the farms, preparing a portion of 
them for irrigation before settlers were on there so 
settlers wouldn't have to spend two or three years 
without any income, building homes for them, long 
time amortization of the purchase price of the land 
and buildings. He spoke at various places over 
the country advocating that. He interested President 
Wheeler and Dean Hunt very much in the idea, and as 
a result President Wheeler had appointed a committee 
to consider legislation. The members were: Dr. David 
P. Barrows, chairman; Dean William Kerr Jones; 
Professor A. M. Kidd of the law department; Dean 



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cfomoiq avisos ^19? bus ^batfooia 910* 



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O* ftVBrf * : w 

io1 eomori giWlwcf t moonl Y^ 
bnBf erfct ina , - . :OiOB 

i/v ^s e-rfoqe H ,Esn.fbIJtr/cf 
rsrfni eH .jprijr ^nMsoovb B victm-oo 
Re bna ( .59bl srl ' fowm Y^ S V tnuH nseG bns 

^^^ ? afoqqB berf i*9 

;-VBC .ta w 87tfiear n'T 

;r, -r-rsx m^lIII ' ns^G ;njwtnj;jprfr ,awonB9 . 

HB9CI ^ne^iBqrfc w^X e-rfrf lo bbl?T . .A. 



285 



Adams 



Baton: 
Adams 






Hunt of the College of Agriculture; a very bright 
member of the staff of the Department of Economics, 
Carlton H. Parker, and myself. 

In 1915 you were in favor of a land settlement plan? 
I was in sympathy with it and did all I could to 
help it from the beginning. 

When this bill was being pressed for passage 
by the legislature a conference was held with 
Governor Johnson to obtain his support. However, 
he did not want to see the bill passed. He felt 
that the whole subject should first be investigated 
by a state commission. The bill was therefore 
withdrawn and the suggested commission was authorized. 

In 1916 Dr. Mead returned to California to head 
a new division of rural institutions in the College 
of Agriculture, and he was made chairman of this 
commission. At Dr. Mead's suggestion the Commonwealth 
Club appointed a committee to aid in the investigation 
that the Commission proposed to make and obtained 
an appropriation of some |l,000 or $1,500, as I 
remember, from research funds of the Commonwealth 
Club to finance the committee's investigation. 

At the conclusion of the commission's investigation, 
Dr. Mead prepared a new bill which was passed by the 
next legislature. It set up a State Land Settlement 






lo ta 
t eoljaon' '.to ctnamtfiBqaG stij to HB^B di lo ledmem 

bits , c is>tijB c { H fl.od 

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arfd 1 1o abnul rfots il t is dm am i 

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.eevn leaifi- i^ lo nclei '^ ctA 

*rfw Hid wen E br .iG 

-'2 f)fi9j O^B^S B Qtf d-98 



286 



Adams: Board to undertake a state program, and Dr. Mead 
was made chairman of that board. This new bill 
was considered by the Commonwealth Club at sub 
sequent meetings and its passage was approved by 
the club. 

Baum: The private land colonizers opposed it? 

Adams : Oh ye s . 

Baum: Hadn't most of their private developments gone 
broke already? 

Adams: I do not recall that any of the developments went 
broke. The problem was the difficulty encountered 
by settlers under the arrangement of the private 
land colonization agencies. Some were on land which 
was unsuitable. Some were on better land, but the 
terras of payment were impossible for settlers 
without means. Many centers had failed. 

I remember one project east of Stockton 
promoted by the Plelshhackers. That was found 
practically impossible for settlement under the 
private colonization plan. The Pleishhackers 
found out the facts about it and they returned 
the investment of the purchasers, 

A Mr. Charles H. Kendrick and his partner 
were perhaps the most active private land colonizers 
and he was opposed to the state land settlement he 






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^ bevotqqs SBW s^easq sett bns 



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3ct9B3ool .-Jtiq ijsrfj to ctaom *'nbflH 

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7*1x10!' -A* eaw r . 

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cfoldw bnr,l no eisw .^elons^.p | 

bnsf isd^ecf no tw .alde^iweru/ BBW 

eldlnecqinJ siew ^nsm^flq lo BJJ; 
ban :i9o ^n, . 

, 8 B9 Joe- >no 

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bnul 



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.H ealiflrfO .iM A 
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: eroebA 



28? 



Adams: and C. M. Wooster, who had real estate Interests 
up In the Sacramento Valley. 

When I was on one of my Institute lectures in 
the Army Educational Corps in Prance in 1919, I 
went one evening to talk to a group of soldiers 
and whom did I find as commanding officer but 
Charles H. Kendrick who had opposed our efforts 
so strongly in California. I remember he said that 
as the result of that movement for state land 
settlement private land colonization in California 
was dead* 

. 

Baum: Were you in contact with the Durham and Delhi 
settlements? 

Adams: My only responsibility was to report on the water 
supply at the beginning although I was closely in 
touch with both settlements. We carried on a l|.0-acre 
demonstration project at Delhi with alfalfa and 
vines and orchards for the benefit of the settlers. 
That's where we brought Mr. Huberty into our work. 
He went down there to take charge of that project 



Durham and Delhi Settlements 



in the field. 









I'm inclined to think I might have been indirectly 
resoonsible for the purchase of the Delhi land although 
I had no idea that anything I might have said would 






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ctucf i II bib aiorlw bne 

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eri^ 



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asw -'d erto cts 7X0 qua 

- - of 9W ,ectn6ifr;9lvtJ . rw 

n- iq norcfjsiJe 

'lo Aliened erfrf 10*1 ef: bcus BIT, 

.jfr ..tni Y^iecfirH .nM tfri^f/oid ew sTsriw e'cfsffl 

cJo' 'J lo esiBrlo eaifl^ o^ ^leri^ nwob ctnew sH 

. r i1 erirf ni 
I sfnlri* ocf be - ' 

oaBfioii/q eri4 io*i aldiRno'.eei 
I gnlrf^yae rfjoriJ eebl on bsri I 



: BfliebA 



al neec avsri 
bnBl IrflsCI 



288 



Adams: have had any influence. Here was the situation. 
Great difficulty was found in locating tracts of 
suitable land. The Delhi tract had been owned by 
Mr. Edgar M. Wilson for quite a number of years. 
He had offered it to the Land Settlement Board. 
Some of the board didn't favor it. Negotiations 
for it lapsed and apparently had been discontinued. 
There was sort of a stalemate there, although Dr. 
Mead had not yet entirely given up the idea of 
that land. Dr. Mead told me a remark of Judge Wm. 
H. Langdon, a member of the board who had been 
raised in the Mode sto-Tur lock area. He said, "We 
always spoke of that tract of land as one over which 
the Jack rabbits carried their lunches when they 
passed over it." 

Well, I was riding up from Fresno on the train 
and went into the dining car and sat down with the 
owner of this land, Mr. Wilson. I had become quite 
well acquainted with him because I had made a careful 
study of the tract to see what the water supply was 
and I had recommended that the portion not already 
in Turlock Irrigation District be annexed to that 
district and receive its water there if the settle 
ment was established. Mr. Wilson said, "I think 
Dr. Mead has given up buying our land." I said, 
"I'm not entirely sure of that." On that cue, Mr. 






l sew eisH . ;. vflB bBd evjBri : arcs 5 A 

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bnac .orusj sdi at ct r sri E 

;< erfrf lo 6i-v 

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.mV M .id . tftl ^Bri^ 

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o e.jB hnf.I Ic ^osicf ^ri;f lo ftjfoqs E^BW! 
Yi I tl9d$ bfttiTso ed'ldcfBi >ios{; 

".^Jt ievo beeeBq 

.t onsT 1 '! mc'i*i qu gnlbii BBI/ I t IeW 

rictlw f: r ij.o gninib erf;t o^i 

noallW ,rdl ,1)11*1 elrftf lo ienwo 

'ia^BO flDB!' aocf n v lwr foednlfltrpoa Hew 

ese c >s 

--9Tle cfcn noi^'ioq ri^ Scrf^ br-> - ; t bsri I bns 

rfs/fd- - :ns d ^olTctal 1 .liil jJool-xuT nl 

fjiedct nectsw etfl avioi .brr; ^telb 

t blt?3 noall' 1 ] . . -'dallcf- SBW inein 

,bJB': . nsl TO snlYucf qu sad beM .iQ 

".ifirW lo S>XUB Y-ti-i-^n < > ^of xo'I" 



289 



Adams: Wilson went to see Dr. Mead and within a few days 

they decided to buy that land. Whether that chance 
remark of mine was a straw, I don't know. I hope 
it wasn't. It turned out, so disastrously for the 
movement. 

The unfortunate thing that happened was that 
Dr. Mead went off to Australia on a consulting trip 
during a period of controversy regarding Delhi and 
it got out of hand. A lot of veteran trainees had 
been settled on the project and their activities 
were supervised by a retired army officer. There 
was a lot of uncalled for antagonism aroused. This 
army officer made an exparte investigation down there 
and called in the disgruntled settlers, who were 
undoubtedly having a hard time on that particular 
type of soil, and wrote a very bitter report to 
the governor. The governor passed it on to State 
Engineer McClure and he passed it on to me. I made 
an investigation and found what I thought were very 
unfair tactics by the retired army officer and made 
a report to the state engineer. The governor became 
very bitter. Dr. Mead was still chairman of the 
Land Settlement Board, but away, and the governor 
appointed Mr. Wooster, who had opposed state settle 
ment in the first place, as chairman of the Land 



bn* ferff .id see o* * fl9W nosIIW 
r- orfcf terfcfsrfW .bti&l cf*rf;t Y^C 

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oe 



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t n^isttev lo rfol A , to cfiro ^ojs *1 

eelrflvIrfOB Tleri* UCIB ctog^oiq erf* no !!**, B need 

c:i B 

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^ nw>-. nfl 

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bdeejeq lofl-. 

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ltto Y^*W beiJ ,i* 

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Jo nsffiiifirfo Ilicfe SBW >*eR . 
o s 9 di ta ,Yw d-tw ^bij 

^Brfr ift fcBri oriw ,tftc* . iH 

erf* lo njBflsrtlflrio BB c eolq 



290 



Adams: Settlement Board. That was the beginning of the 
end* 

Baum: Then you think it was poor politics, poor management. 

Adams: I don't think that it was a matter of politics with 

Governor Richardson. He previously had been ardently 
in favor of the state settlements but had changed 
his mind following the controversy at Delhi. There 
is no doubt that many of the settlers were having 
difficulties. The Delhi area was a hard one in which 
to get started. The cost of developing the Delhi 
project was much more than had been anticipated, 
particularly, I think, the cost of the concrete 
pipe distributing systems. I know Dr. Mead was 
very much worried about that feature, 
I think that possibly more reliance was placed on 
underground pipe systems than was merited. I do 
not recall what the board paid Mr. Wilson for the 
land, but it undoubtedly was too much. High costs 
and low income were basic difficulties. 

There had been difficulty in obtaining settlers 
for Delhi due largely to the general situation in 
land settlement in the country. When Durham was 
settled there were three or more applicants for each 
farm available and many were disappointed at not 
being able to gain acceptance by the board. On the 



A3 sow ct . ?ofi 

. 

tocq <3ol;tlloq io<- nlrfd 1 LOY nexiT 

: eoltflloq lo nectcfr.m B SAW tfl iJBrtt jfnirftf rf'nob I sbA 

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br ^el^^8 ^rld 1 *io ICVB! nl 

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SnlvBrf ei9w snel^^Qp; adrf lo Y njBffl .tari* idt/ob on al 
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. 

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acia^sv :ielfc 

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gfiw nsrid exne^E 

;t iol noeXlW . blaq bnBod $d3 cfjsrlw HBOO' 
aoo r . ..' EBWT Ylbo^cfi/obrur cfl rftr t ! 

i Ib olad R .'il wol 

a*' IB^OO nl Y^-f'^'^^'^' i -t& reed 'OTarfT 

nl nolJarr^le iBion3 artr o^ Y-fr 

Yiviniroo 
s eioin TO eetri^ 

T cts borfnlcqqjiElb eiaw Yfi*m fon^ 
. i i erfrt Y<^ eonB^qsoo* n.' 



291 



Adams: other hand, at Delhi the board had to go after 
settlers and In some cases undoubtedly accepted 
some who did not have the desirable training, exper 
ience, or attitude. There were some settlers there 
who were capable, sincere, and really getting along, 
but I felt when I went down to the project for the 
state engineer that the retired army officer who was 
in charge of the veteran trainees, as w ell as the 
trainees, were very unfair, I felt at the time 
that if Dr. Mead had not been away in Australia 
he could have successfully overcome the difficulties, 
although undoubtedly some adjustments would have 
had to have been made. 

As the controversy at Delhi increased there 
was disaffection by some of the settlers at Durham. 
They employed a very able lawyer from Chico to 
present their case. He attacked the state's handling 
of the settlement very strongly and took it to court. 
During the hearings George Kreutzer, the former 
superintendent of the settlement who was then with 
the Bureau of Reclamation in Washington, was called 
to testify. He told me that some of the settlers 
whom he had gone all out to help had bitterly 
attacked him. That is what I think brought on his 
death, because he was so very much hurt at their 






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rf^ GB lie w SB . ^ naierfsv eri^ lo 

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slri no - nlrid I rfsriw el rfsriT 

tlsnt dw rfiitrf rfouo? 



292 



Adams: attitude. He broke down very shortly after that. 
He was very able, very sincere and had had long 
experience. 

Baum: Were both colonies to be general agriculture or 
was some special crop planned? 

Adams: The thought was originally that the Durham colony 

should be made up of general agriculture and animal 
industries, that the Delhi colony should be largely 
devoted to horticulture. But when the settlers 
began to arrive at Delhi most of them wanted to 
raise alfalfa. It was logical that they should begin 
with alfalfa because of the long time necessary to 
bring an orchard into bearing. That's why we put a 
large portion of our experimental tract at Delhi into 
alfalfa, demonstrating the different methods of 
applying water. We put in a little apricot orchard, 
a small fig orchard, and also a small vineyard. 

During the early years the orchards at Delhi 
did not produce well. The cause of the difficulty 
was not learned until some years later when Dr. 
Chandler of the College of Agriculture found that 
a shortage of zinc in the soil was the cause of the 
trouble. Recently Professor Huberty told me that 
it is a wonderfully fine area down at Delhi now and 
that the orchards are in very fine shape. 

Professor Roy Smith of the Department of 



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ftqBriR 9nl ( TJ19V nl STB Bbifirtnto 9x1^ 
to ctr< M to rfd-IinE eoBeetoi*! 



293 



Adams: Agricultural Economics at UCLA made a very 

exhaustive study and report on the history of the 
Durham and Delhi land settlements. During his 
investigation I arranged for him to talk with Dr. 
Mead. We met in a hotel lobby in Sacramento. 
As we sat down, Dr. Mead put his hand on Roy Smith's 
knees and said, "Durham should have succeeded, 
Delhi was a mistake." So that was Dr. Mead's final 
conclusion on it. 

' 


' 


. 






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lo Yiocfeirf ed* no ctiot- 

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.iCI rf^lw jils^ o.t mlrf TO! bssnJSitB I 

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^ a no bfljsr' ' cttrq )^f .iC t nwo> ^BS ew eA 

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lanll a'nBeM ,iG .ew cfB/l>t o^ ".ajffi^aliir B sew I 

.jt nc noiaulonoo 









291* 









Baum: 






COMMONWEALTH CLUB STUDIES 






Adams 






TO get back to your work with the Commonwealth 
Club, what further studies did the conservation 
section take up after they had completed their 
studies and reports on the Water Commission and 
Forestry bills? 

In 1915 the conservation section was discontinued 
but a number of its committees were continued as 
independent sections. Among these were the 
committee on forestry and wildllEe with Walter 
Mulford as chairman; the committee on irrigation 
with Mr. C. E. Grunsky as chairman; the committee 
on water power which had several chairmen in the 
succeeding two or three years. Mr. Grunsky 
continued as chairman of the irrigation section 
until he was elected president of the club in 
1920. I took over then and acted as chairman 
until about 192l(. when I moved to Davis for a year, 
Fred Tibbetts took over. After a year or two 
Charles H. Lee took over. 

While Mr. Grunsky was chairman the Irrigation 
committee discussed a number of very Important 
subjects which Included further strengthening the 
power of the state engineer over irrigation and 
other water districts; the possibility of state 



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tfariw ,dwlO 



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Ttllld ^ntfaano 1 ? 

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co ertt {namtlarfo BA plani/iO .3 .0 .iM d^Jtw 
arfo Jaievse b*rf riolrlw newoq ie^w no 

. . eiae^ aenrfrf to ovrJt 

nc noUBSiiil ftrict lo oeiniJtflrio a 

nl dwlo arfcT lo ctnsblaeiq beioel saw ari Iltfrur 
naimlario a Jbsdoa bna neritf ivo ^oc 
a i neriw 4S9I tf 



.H 

nanjilario saw Y^ 801 '* 1 ^ '^ I 
iev lo 
0rf.t -u-'inarttgneitfe rrerftfii/1 bebi/Jocl 

bna aottB^liit. i^vo iftefllgfle d'jsctB erf* lo iwoq 
lo 



29$ 



Adams: aid to communities In irrigation development; state 
construction of storage either separately or in 
cooperation with the federal government; and the 
establishment of a State Department of Public Works. 

State Investigation of Water Resources; 

The Marshall Plan 



Baum: Was the club interested in the Marshall Plan and 
the *tate Water and power acts? 

Adams: The Club later took up the Water and Power Act, but 
it did not take up the Marshall Plan as such. There 
were lots of power problems before the public about 
19l, and the last part of that decade. The power 
section was studying those questions. There was 
very clearly need for more rapid development of 
power. During the war the Council of Defense had 
to set up a power administrator in California to 
eke out the supply of power. We were just at the 
point, I think, when the Federal Power Commission 
had not yet fully developed its policies. 

Along about 1920 the board of governors of 
the club asked the power section to summarize its 
discussions and views and make a report, and re 
quested that the irrigation section participate with 
them. 



;*nernqolveb nold-Bgliil nl ealtf-tcuramoo oct bis abA 

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q noliose nolctsstml ricf Jsrf^ 



296 



Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 



Two sections came to an agreement on a number 
of resolutions. Among them was one recommending an 
appropriation to the state engineer of such an amount 
as he might designate as usable during the following 
blennlum for making a study of the water resources 
of the state and so far as possible developing a 
comprehensive plan for their use. The Irrigation 
section was Interested in Increasing our Information 
regarding storage, 

A comprehensive plan for the whole state, not just 
Central Valley? 

We had in mind the whole state. One matter we had 
chiefly In mind was an Investigation of the possibility 
of moving the surplus of the Sacramento into the San 
Joaquin Information about storage on the Sacramento 
was meager. In fact, one of the most eminent engineers 
in the country and a man who had had long association 
with the problem in California made the statement in 
our section, "There just is no storage of consequence 
on the Sacramento." That was a shocking statement, 
but considering the knowledge and ability of the man 
who made It, It was very impressive. 

Some time after this I think it was in 1918 
or 1919 Colonel R. B. Marshall, chief geographer 
of the U. S. Geological Survey, wrote to the 






- 



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297 



Adams : governor outlining what was known as the Marshall 
Plan. 

The plan created a great deal of interest 
throughout the state. A high-powered publicity man, 
L. C. Davidson, was employed to promote the plan and 
to bring it to the legislature. A very capable man. 
He collected money up and down the San Joaquin Valley, 
small amounts from the farmers. He had quite a fund 
and there was a very active promotion. Colonel 
Marshall made many speeches in favor of it. 

Baum: Was power a prominent feature of the plan? 

Adams: It was primarily a water plan, but also involved 
income from hydroelectric power. 

I heard Colonel Marshall speak on it several 
times. He spoke at the auditorium of the high school 
here in Berkeley. He told how he came to conceive 
that plan. He had come to California some years 
earlier to take charge of the topographic mapping 
by the Geological Survey under cooperative agreement 
with the state. He had an office in the top floor 
of the old brick civil engineering building on 
campus. He was looking out over the Golden Gate 
and thinking of the water that was flowing out of 
the Golden Gate from the Sacramento and the San 
Joaquin and this idea came to him, it was an 



VPS 



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HB eaw rfl ,rrl.r< ocf ftmao ra.M e/rf* bne 



:emBbA 



298 



Adams: inspiration. Over the years he kept it in mind 
and finally outlined the plan and proposed it to 
the governor. 

Here is Colonel Marshall's report in full and 
his map. And also What They Say About the Marshall 
Plan published by the California Irrigation Associa 
tion in 1920. That was the promoting agency. 

What Colonel Marshall proposed was storage 
on the Sacramento at the Kennettsite and grand 
canals down the east and west sides of the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin Valleys to irrigate the entire 
twelve million acres of land in the two valleys, 
water for the San Francisco Bay area and diversion 
of the Kern River through a long tunnel under the 
Tehachapis "which at a reasonable cost would provide 
all the water Southern California can reasonably 
get and perhaps would need for one hundred and fifty 
years." He recommended appointment by the governor 
of a commission of five to report on the general 
practicability of the plan and, if the findings 
were favorable, that the legislature immediately 
pass legislation setting the plan in motion. 

His idea was that the state should authorize 
a bond issue of up to a billion dollars if necessary 
for construction and that the hydroelectric power to 



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jliil aJmollljsO 



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i^woq olici-oetftoib^fl srirf rfsrii ba n. ^rctsnoo iol 



299 



Adams : 



Baum: 



Adams : 






be developed at the various reservoirs would carry 
the full Interest, depreciation, and maintenance 
on the construction work, leaving only the cost 
of construction to be paid for by the users of 
Irrigation water and water for industrial and 
domestic purposes. 

The water users would only have to repay the prin 
cipal. 
Yes, and that could be done in fifty years. 

Colonel Marshall's topographic work had 
familiarized him with many reservoir sites but 
there had been no extensive engineering reports 
on those sites to determine their feasibility. 
He did say that the stream flow measurements of 
the Geological Survey and their survey of reservoir 
sites and his topographic work left no more field 
work to be done, that all that was necessary was 
for the state to authorize the project and the 
people to vote the bonds and construction could 
begin 'tomorrow" and be completed in ten years with 
out one cent of cost to the state or federal govern 
ment. He certainly was an optimist. Evidently 
he didn't understand agriculture and how development 
goes on little by little over a period of years. 

The idea of a comprehensive plan had been 






blt.iow eTlovieeei eirci-unr arfcf tfs beqolevefc ed sbA 

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need bsri nfilq evlensrfaTqmoo B lo ssbl eriT 



300 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams 






advanced by the Alexander Commission in l8?l| 
It proposed to divert the water of the Sierra 
streams southward, and in this way to irrigate 
the entire Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. 
It was really only a paper plan because it was 
not based on any thorough investigation, but 
rather on hearings and taking testimony in 
different parts of the valley. 

When the Marshall plan was being considered 
a great deal of attention was being given to what 
could be done with the returning soldiers after 
the war. Under Secretary of the Interior Lane, 
very extensive investigations had been made in the 
south with reference to settling soldiers there, 
and also in the western part of the country. The 
Land Settlement Act in California had been passed. 
So one of Colonel Marshall's arguments was that 
his plan would furnish all the construction work 
they needed to take care of the returning soldiers 
in California. 
A public works plan? 

Yes, I suppose you could call it that. They would 
work as long as they wanted to and then they would 
settle down on the reclaimed land. 

(Reads from "Irrigation of Twelve Million Acres" 
by Colonel Marshall, November 1920.) 






4Y&I nl flolealjnmoO 

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cfsglTtl oct Y*W Bin** 

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bnal bcimlBlosi; ari.t no nwob 
ncl.rilM evle 



301 



Adams: 



Baum: 



Adams: 



Baum: 



Adams: 



Baum: 



Mr. L. C. Davidson endeavored to enlist the 
support of prominent people by asking them to serve 
on the advisory board of the California Irrigation 
Association. I find some very prominent people who 
agreed. Dr. Elwood Mead, President Wheeler, David 
Starr Jordan, President Ray Lyman Wilbur of Stanford, 
City Engineer M. M. ' Shaughne s sy of San Francisco, 
and the president of the Irrigation Districts 
Association. 

Did these people endorse the Marshall Plan or just 
the idea of some plan? 

In general, I wouldn't say they endorsed the Marshall 
Plan, but they showed great interest in Marshall's 
proposals and generally favored an investigation. 
A number of newspapers endorsed the idea of the 
investigation. 

You and others thought the plan had not been 
adequately worked out. 

It was obvious it hadn't been worked out. The 
Commonwealth Club sections on power and irrigation 
wanted the State Department of Engineering to 
investigate the water resources and develop as far 
as possible a plan, but not specifically any one 
proposal such as the Marshall Plan. 
Did the club take any action as a result of this 
study? 



I0 



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302 



Adams: Yes. I asked the state engineer how much he tho tight 
he could use profitably in the bienniura and he said 
$200,000, so we prepared a bill appropriating that 
amount to the state engineer's department to make 
such a study. I took it up to Sacramento and showed 
it to Mr. Bradford Crittenden whether he was then 
senator or assemblyman I don't remember--. The 
club had already authorized us to promote that 
legislation. Mr. Crittenden said, "That'll be my 
bill." There was another bill appropriating 
$500,000. 

Baum: Then your bill was for a general investigation and 
the other was to investigate the Marshall Plan 
specifically? 

Adams: I do not recall the wording of the bill, but I 
think that definitely was in the minds of those 
who were pressing for it. After a few days Mr. 
Crittenden said he wouldn't promote our bill. 
Apparently, the pressure had become too great 
for the other bill. As I recall it, the bill 
that passed had some of the purposes we had outlined 
and I think $200,000 rather than half a million 
dollars. 

Baura: What were the reasons why the Commonwealth Club 

was in favor of a more general type of investigation? 



soe. 



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a llsrf nsri^ T^rfctsi 000 t f: . 



303 



Adams: Perhaps I can best answer your question by quoting 
from my presentation to the club at the meeting on 
December 16, 1920, at which our proposals were 
approved: "So the first thing we are asking in our 
resolution is that such investigations be made as 
shall, so far as It is possible, help to work out 
state policies with the most complete conservation 
and utilization of these resources. 

"Our section, I believe, had kept its mind 
directly on the facts, and I believe they are not 
in favor of or do not expect any appropriation that 
is aimed to be used to present something that is 
ideal and possibly that might, in the centuries to 
come, be worked out. We have in mind something 
very definite and specific, and that only such 
investigation be made as shall enable the state to 
go as far as is reasonably practical to go in working 
out a policy and plan for our water." 

Baum: I read something by Franklin Hichborn and he sal d 
that in his opinion the public utility companies 
were trying to prevent the Marshall Plan because it 
included certain public power features, and that 
they therefore were trying to get something else, 
Investigations or anything that would prevent the 
accomplishment of this particular plan. 






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301; 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams 
Baum: 
Adams : 



I don't recall any pressure on the part of the power 

Interests. Our proposals regarding the investiga 
tion were endorsed by the power and irrigation sections, 
by a combined vote of i;7 to 1. The power section 
included a number of representatives of the power 
companies. They also included important men not 
affiliated with power interests. 
As you recall it, hydroelectric power was not an 
issue, at least in your section? 

Well, what the power companies were interested in 
primarily at that time was, I think, to overcome 
the restrictions Imposed by both the Federal Power 
Commission and the State Water Commission. They 
wanted less interference In the development of power 
under private auspices. That was their main contention 
in our sections, as I recall it. 

Did they bring that up with regard to the Marshall 
Plan? 

Well, we didn't discuss the Marshall Plan as such. 
We were already embarked on this general study of 
what we thought was necessary. 

Did Colonel Marshall speak at the Commonwealth Club? 
No. 

Did you know him? 
Oh yes, and he was a very fine gentleman. I wish 



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305 



Adams: some day the California Historical Society would put 
a marker up at Shasta Dam for Colonel Marshall. He 
was the man who found the Kennett site. He did that 
through his topographic mapping, and that was the 
key to our whole Central Valley development. 

Baum: Did you ever discuss with him why he stuck to his 

plan rather than preferring a more general investigation 
first? 

Adams: No. 

I remember one day I got a call from Mr. E. 0. 
McCorraick, who was vice president of the Southern 
Pacific Company. He asked me to come over and talk 
about the Marshall Plan with him. He was strongly 
in favor of it. He told me Mr. Davidson had told 
him that my failure to help out on that plan was 
hindering him. That may have just been his way of 
putting the proposition, because I don't think the 
influence of any one individual was of any great 
moment at that time. Anyhow, he tried to convince 
me that I should support it. We talked for an hour 
or two on it and then I had to leave to keep an 
appointment in Berkeley. It was a very pleasant 
meeting, but it didn't change my mind. 

Baura: Did it change his mind? 

Adams: No, I don't think so. He was very much interested. 



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306 



Adams: He thought it would develop the state and the 

Southern Pacific Company has always been anxious 
to cooperate in work that would increase the 



agricultural development of the state. 









Well, while the Marshall Plan was up the 
Water and Power Act was up. The Marshall Plan 
people were very much against the Water and Power 
Act because they thought it was going to interfere 
with their proposals. 

The first investigation authorized by the 
legislature was carried out under the immediate 
direction of Paul Bailey, then assistant state 
engineer. He developed what was known as the 
Bailey Plan. When, in about 1928, Edward Hyatt 
became state engineer the name was changed to the 
State Water Plan and Colonel Marshall's name grad 
ually became disassociated with what was being done. 

Colonel Marshall, of course, was exceedingly 
disappointed. He later was given a position in the 
Highway Department, as a landscape engineer in 
connection with the landscaping of the highways. 
My last meeting with him, I called on him up at 
Sacramento just to talk over past history. This 
was some time later. He had had a very unfortunate 
illness and had lost his voice. The doctors had 
to remove his larynx and he couldn't talk. They 



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307 



Adams : 










Baum: 



Adams : 






made a hole in his chest and brought his windpipe 
up to that hole so he breathed there. The General 
Electric Company devised an electrical scheme by 
which by shaping his mouth as he would if he were 
talking, he could express himself and talk a little. 

He had many friends. Everyone liked him, but 
I don't recall that any of those who were really 
qualified to pass on the feasibility of that project 
from an engineering standpoint were in favor of it, 



It wasn't a plan, it was an idea, but we need 
inspirations of that kind. As the result of his 



proposals great sentiment was created for a state 
study, right in the grass roots up and down the 
state. So I give credit to Colonel Marshall for 






that , as well as for finding Kennett Reservoir. 
Was Colonel Marshall the type of man who would 
modify or change his proposals, or would he stick 
to his original idea? 

Even before the legislation authorizing an investi 
gation was passed I believe Colonel Marshall roust 
have reconciled himself to the fact that investi 
gation did not specifically relate to the Marshall 
Plan. He must have endorsed the following statement 
preceding the description of the plan as published 
by the California Irrigation Association November 






toe 



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308 






Adams : 
Baura: 



Adams : 






20, 1920: "What Is primarily desired is an immediate, 

complete survey by the state of all possible reser- 


voir sites, a determination of the maximum amount of 

water development practicable, then the necessary 
legislation to put it into effect." 
Do you think the Commonwealth Club was effective 
in changing the minds of some of the members of the 
legislature? 

The irrigation section, throughout the years and 
especially in the early years, reviewed every bill 
in the legislature relating to water and made re 
commendations and transmitted them to the committees. 
For a time I think we had a great deal of influence, 

I'm sure we did. In the early years our section 
did quite a little direct promoting of our legislation 
at Sacramento by appearance before the committees. 
On this matter in 1920 when we were asking for a 
general study of water resources, the Senate and 
assembly committees on irrigation held a joint 
meeting in the assembly chambers for us to present 

our case. Quite a group of the section went up. 

' 
Mr. Galloway, I think, carried the burden of the 

argument. He was a very effective speaker and a 
very able engineer, highly respected. 






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309 






Baum: 
Adams : 



Baum: 
Adams : 

Baum: 



- 
State Water and Power Act 

What was the Commonwealth Club's stand on the State 
Water and Power Act, which first came up in 1922? 
That was an initiative which authorized the state to 
develop and distribute the water and power and gave 

the state rather complete authority to go into the 


water and power business. Of course, it was 

. 
immediately objected to by the power agencies. There 

. 
was a very, very bitter campaign in connection with 

it. You know that Rudolph Spreckles was the one who 
chiefly sponsored the act. ^e was the director of 



what was, I think, known as the Water and Power 
League to promote the measure. 






The matter was referred to the section on power 
and the section on irrigation. It was discussed at 
great length. At the final meeting before the club 
I moved that the club disapprove the act. The motion 
carred 101 to 7. (Vol. XVII [June, 1922] p. 269.) 

Why were you against the act? 

. 
I was convinced from our first discussions of it in 

the club that it was not desirable. 

Why did you first oppose it, and then what caused 


you to change your mind? 








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310 



Adams: Shortly after that action by the club on my motion, 
I was asked by the University Club at Los Gatos to 
talk on the act. It was prior to the election. 
Wanting to be sure that I'd be entirely objective, 
I went over all the arguments for and against and 
wrote out what to me seemed to be the strongest 
arguments both for and against. I wanted to speak 
before the University Club there in such a way that 
they wouldn't know when I got through whether I w as 
for it or against it. 

That led me to change my mind. I wrote a letter 
to Clyde Seavey, then city manager of Sacramento, I 
think, who was one of the principal proponents of the 
act and a long-time friend, giving my reasons why 
I was going to vote for the act. That was the first 
time I had taken a stand for or against any public 
issue of that kind. As I look back now I'm surprised 
that I did it, but I did. 

Well, I wrote this letter to Mr. Seavey and 
he gave it to the San Francisco Examiner. I had 
long been in favor of state control of our development 
of water and power. I felt that it was necessary 
for the state to have the authority to adjust conflicts 
between power and irrigation in what seemed to be in 
the highest public interest, to refuse permits to 









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311 



Adams: appropriate water for projects that would prevent 
a more complete use of those resources for either 
power or irrigation. So I liked the power the 
state was given in the Water and Power Act, 

There was already great controversy over the 
influence the power companies were able to exert 
in the government, and in the controversy over the 
permanent or limited licenses for power development. 

I felt that the authority granted the state wasn't 
adequate to adjust those differences. That was sort 
of a basic feeling with me. In that campaign I saw 
more and more the great influence that could be 
exerted by the utilities in their favor. I think 
that had some material influence on me. 

There was no great need for the Water and Power 

Act in matters of water for irrigation or municipal 
purposes. On the other hand, the state wasn't given 

sufficient authority in the Water Commission Act to 

refuse appropriations which the commission might 
deem not in the best public interest. I had the 
idea then, as a good many others did, I think, that 
water should be devoted to the use which was most 
economic for the state as a whole, that a wasteful 
use of water s hould not be permitted, that the state 
should have authority to prevent such wasteful use. 



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312 



Adams: In summing up all those arguments as I did 

in my statement to Mr. Seavey, I said I was going 
to vote for it. I was roundly condemned, though 
not to me personally, by some of my engineering 
friends who had opposed it, and by some of those in 
the section, 

Baum: But I can't see why you opposed it in the first place. 

Adams: I can't explain it any more than I have. I just 
changed my mind. 

I had some satisfaction because I received 
high commendation from two of the men I admired 
most in those days, Clyde Seavey, and 0. K. Gushing, 
one of the finest men I ever knew and one of the 
finest public citizens I ever knew. I probably 
didn't have any influence one way or the other. 
Anyhow, it didn't pass. 

Baum: When did your letter appear in the Examiner? 

Adams: (looking in his scrapbook). November 6, 1922. 

Baum: That must have been a day or so before the election. 

Adams: Yes. In addition to the discussions reported in 
the Transactions^ a Friday luncheon on November 3> 
1922 just before the election was devoted to that 
subject. The principal speaker was Rudolph Spreckles, 
for, and against it was Allison Ware, then practicing 
law in Chico. He previously had been very active 









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313 



Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 









in the club while at the State Normal School in 
San Francisco. He went from there to become president 
of the State Normal School at Chico, then went into 
the war in 1917 and went into law after that. 
Present, 779 at that luncheon. That was a hot subject. 

It came up again in 1921). and was discussed by 
the power section in the club, not by the irrigation 
section. Fred Fowler was then chairman of the power 
section. He asked me to be present and participate. 
I didn't make any statement at that time, although 
I did later submit a brief statement which was 
included in the Transactions,. 

Hasn't the Commonwealth Club spent a lot of time 
on various water problems? 

Yes. I looked through the record the other day and 
found some 21 different reports on water, beginning 
back in 190i|.. I made a list of them. Here it is. 
(See Appendix for list.) This list does not include 
reports on the municipal water supply for San Fran 
cisco and the East Bay. I told you earlier about the 
reports of the section on conservation and of the 
section on irrigation. About 1929 I was asked to 
form a new section on water resources and we had a 
wonderful section. After about two years Charles H. 
Lee took over as chairman. During the 30 's the 



tie 



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.el . IB ftbBin I . nJt ^OBd 

(.rfeil 101 xibnqqA e? 

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srlct 'lc hna ^oid3v^sB^oo no DC ' adtcqei 

?.BW I ?Sei ^wocfA . cldesiitl no 
B bBi! ew bnB 89011/0831 locfjsw no ncldoaa >;sn s 

owd- dt'odfl led-IA. .n 
E - ' . - ' B levo slood' eJ 



3114- 



Adams : 



Baum: 



Adams : 



section made three lengthy reports on the Central 
Valley project. Later there were reports on Central 
Valley power by the section on public utilities, 
a very fine report on California water policy 
fundamentals by the section on agriculture of which 
Samuel H. Greene was chairman, reports by the sections 
on mineral resources and on public utilities. About 
19^0 the present water problems section was organized, 
of which Sinclair 0. Harper, Elmer Stahl, and finally 
Bert L. Smith have been chairman. The principal 
subject under consideration by the water problems 
section has been some phase of state water plan. 
The section is now (1958) studying the state respon 
sibility in water problems. 



Changes in the_ Commonwealth Club 









How has the Commonwealth Club changed since those 
early days shortly after your father founded it? 
The basic purposes and ideals of the Club have not 
changed. They are constantly kept before the 
membership by quotations from the early presidents 
being published in the weekly bulletin of the dlub, 
The Commonwealth. There have, however, been changes 
which I think have had an important effect on the 
work of the club. These changes, I think, have 






'' no ect : ss-trid- sbBm nclcfose 

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.38 






315 



Adams: been evolutionary rather than revolutionary, I 
might mention a few of these changes. 

The first of these, I think, was in reference 
to the ideas as to membership. The original thought 
was a group of a few hundred scholarly men who would 
meet monthly at dinner and discuss the important 
controversial issues of the day after thorough 
investigation of all of the facts relating to the 
issues. As President Wienstock expressed it in 
one of his early annual addresses, whenever a man 
was found who had won honorable success in his 
sphere of life, whose reputation was above reproach, 

and whose opinions were worth knowing, his member 
ship was invited. To meet the growing financial 
needs of the club and otherwise to increase its 
influence, it was found desirable to undertake a 
more active canvass for membership, while still 
very carefully screening all applicants or proposals 
for membership, mainly as to their character and 
reputation. More money was needed for the promotion 
work of the club and for its investigational 
activities. Continued through the years this 
policy of expansion has brought our present 
membership to more than 8000. 

The weekly luncheons at which emminent speakers 






.yrfmoictij-Ievs'r nsdi i ^snoi^vl.cv nt 

.8 s noj^naoi id' 

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j o*?nfiW cfnefilBet^ sA . 

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-BorIw t slJ [ "io s-- 
-1 s --ow T9W enolniq''. 

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; 3 rfgtrc 

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316 



Adams: addressed the membership on important Issues of 

current interest were not included in the original 
plan. They have enabled members to have contact 
with the club without participating in the investiga- 
tional work of the sections, and have had much to 
do with increasing the membership and otherwise 
extending the influence of the club over the state. 
However, they were largely influential late in the 
second decade in reducing attendance at the monthly 
dinner meetings and the ultimate elimination of the 
dinner meetings and the substitution of the monthly 
luncheon report meetings at which sections present 
their findings. 

Going back to the work of the sections, I think 
more work was done by the individual members of the 
sections some years ago than at present. Formerly, 
sections with which I was connected or which I 
occasionally visited seldom if ever had a speaker. 
The sections were generally made up of the men most 
qualified to discuss the questions and present the 
facts regarding matters under consideration. 
Individual members or subcommittees would dig up any 

information needed. The emphasis was on obtaining 
the essential facts r egarding the issues being 
discussed and then developing the arguments pro and 



no clrlBi; .^3 beeeeibb* 

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;tOf sveri orf et^ctaejn befdane svarf - . :Iq 

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ftq enolctoe- 'Icteem Jrroqsi wf 

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IflublvLbni sricf ^d snob RBW jfiow e'lc 
. *e nftrf* ogB 8*iB6\; moB ancJ 

I 8BW I ff 

CE betfleiv vllj? 

Kom nsn: wtt Ic qtr ebir ^llBTonop sis 
eeiq bna anoJ^eeirp erftf seirr, . 
.r.c i cfateblanco lebru; eno^^Bm 
j.Lb blwow eecrf^lmmoodi/s 10 eiadntexn 
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'3d BPirael erfcf gnJbiBse i aiOB'i 
B oiq 2^n3mwj,iB r Jtqoleveb ncrfrf bna 



317 



Adams: con, thus providing a sound basis for later 
discussions in club meetings. N ow, the main 
feature of section meetings is an address by some 
speaker Invited to present his side of the subject. 

In what I have said I do not mean to imply 
any criticism of the present section of the club 
except to emphasize my feeling that under the 
present system the members of the section do less 
than formerly, 

; 

. 



not elead bnwce a ^nlfcivctq errrf* ,noo 
erf* t wo % .agnicfeeiP d01o nl 

* 

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k's^wa srf^ lc afi.te BJtri cfnaeetq o* bs^lvni 
tlqml c^ asen ion ob I bias evaxi I *BXIW nl 
cfwlo erf* *to nol^oea *a8iq ri* lo mBloictiio ^n* 
erf* lebnc/ *e-f* gnilsel -^n slearfqaift o* *qeox 
eesl ob no**r>eE erf* lo arredraein erf* aste^e *n8en 






318 






Baum: 
Adams 









WORK WITH VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS 
U. S. Chamber of. Commerce , 1926 






What work did you do with the United States 
Chamber of Commerce, Western Division? 
That was merely an example of a good many public 
service contacts. The U. S. Chamber o f Commerce, 
Western Division, wanted a general program on water 
conservation and control to be presented at their 
meeting in Seattle in 1926. I don't know how I 
came to be asked to prepare such a presentation, 
I, of course, went to the original sources for 












information on that subject, which were the state 
engineers of the various western states and the 
Bureau of Reclamation and one or two others who 
were brought into it, I wrote to each of these 
western state engineers and had responses from 

California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, New Mexico, 

' 

Utah, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado, The 
state engineers or their representatives were present 
at the meeting to make brief addresses. My particular 
function was to present a brief introduction to the 
talks by the others, a general overall picture of 
water conservation problems in the West, The Bureau 
of Reclamation sent a representative from Utah, 



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B ctnse noJcfBfliBloeH lo 






319 



Baura: 



Adams : 



Adams: Mr. W. R. Williams, state superintendent of banks 
of California, came and discussed the financing of 
irrigation enterprises through the sale of bonds. 
I had a letter from Dr. John A. Wldtsoe, a former 
president of the University of Utah and of Utah 
Agricultural College. All together, we had a fine 
representation. 

Why was the Chamber of Commerce particularly Interested 
at that time? 

This was 1926. There had been a lot of discussion 
following the war withr eference to extension of 
reclamation and the functions of the state and federal 
governments and It was very properly a subject for 
them to undertake. Conservation and control of water 
was basic to the industry and economy of the West. 

Baum: Was there any opposition from the Chamber of Commerce 
to further reclamation? 

Adams: Not that I r emember. 

Baum: Why I ask -- I read a whole series of papers from a 
192? meeting of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers and most of the papers were opposed to any 
furthiir reclamation because of the agricultural 
depression. They said we had too much land In 
production already. 

Idams: That subject was one of the Important ones discussed 



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ni bnBl rioiiin oo* berl sw blB8 ^erfT .noie 


seno tfnBCtioqml ertt lo enr. eaw 



320 



Adams: during that period. The eastern people always had 

a certain amount of opposition to federal reclamation 
in the West. They were not willing to promote any 
developments that would compete with them. 

Baum: Was any of this opposition, to your knowledge, based 
on power, private power companies opposing federal 
dams? 

Adams: Over a long period of years while the power policies 
of the Federal Power Commission were being developed, 
there was a very decided opposition by the power 
companies to federal regulation. Under the Federal 
Power Commission Act, the commission had authority to 
grant licenses to private industry or public agencies 
for the development of power. Also, there was control 
of rights of way for reservoir construction under the 
regulations of the General Land Office as to lands over 
which the federal government had jurisdiction, 

Baum: I believe I interrupted your telling about the meeting. 

Adams: Mr. Paul Shoup, president of the Southern Pacific 
Company, was chairman of the sessions at which our 
presentations were made. Our subject occupied one 
morning. Mr. Shoup was very much pleased with the 
presentation. He told me he would make every effort 
to have the record published, but he apparently wasn't 
able to do that. My overall presentation was published 



ose 



bBri shawls alqoeq metfeBa . itsq ctsrtt 

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elwonTf T . Jtilaoqqc &.t 

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-,sw noldBdneeeiq Ilstevo ^M .cter'4 ob orf 



321 



Adams: in several of the western periodicals. All the 

addresses were mimeographed, 
Baum: Where are they available? 
Adams: I'm sure I gave a copy to Gianinni Library. I have 

one. I have an extra copy which I can give to Bancroft, 

if desired. 

California State Chamber of Commerce 

. 

Baura: Did you work with the California State Chamber of 
Commerce? 

Adams: Oh yes. My contact with that organization went back 

to 1911 or 1912. The organization then was the Calif 
ornia Development Association. Mr. Robert Newton 
Lynch, who was general manager of the California 
Development Association, told me they were anxious to 
improve the information they made available for public 
distribution to interest people in coming to California. 
There was a strong feeling in those days that with the 
opening of the Panama Canal there would be a great 
influx of settlers from southern Europe. The subject 
was considered at many meetings of the Association. 
I attended a good many of them. Mr. Lynch asked if I 
wouldn't outline what I thought would be the type of 
information they should gather and how it should be 
gathered. I gave the matter a lot of thought and 



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moil aielct^sa lo 



evfiri ; oct YOOO B sv 9T 

cxt ? Btdx^. ri I .eno 

. xleeb 



titu/sfi 



322 



Adams: talked with Dr. Hilgard, who was then in retirement. 
I finally wrote Mr. Lynch outlining a procedure which 
seemed to me would accomplish what they had in mind. 
He told me a few weeks later that he carried that 
letter around with him in his pocket and had shown 
it to many of the members of the association and they 
were very anxious to proceed along those lines. So 
he sent his chief assistant, Miss Grace Trumbull, 
over and we had a number of talks with reference to 
details. 

The association employed two young men, I can't 
remember the name of one of them, the other was Mr. 
Sturdevent, a recent graduate of the University of 
California College of Agriculture. They went to 
Lassen County and made a survey of conditions, land, 
water, irrigation, crops, and other matters affecting 
agricultural and industrial development in that area. 
Shortly after that Mr. Sturdevent resigned to go into 
the fruit packing business. The idea was continued 
for several years, more or less from the California 
Development Association office. Meanwhile Miss 
Trumbull had resigned to marry my close friend, 
Charles Wesley Reed, and was no longer available. 

A year or two later the association decided to 
follow a different procedure. They appointed two recent 






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OT ow* bs* Y erf T icfaeootq 



323 



Adams: students of Dr. Cottrell, then head of the Department 
of Political Science at Stanford, and they came over 
to see me to talk over the whole program. The associa 
tion organized then a department of research and Mr, 
Herbert P. Ormsby, one of the two, was placed in charge 
and he continued in charge of that department until 
his death last year. He did a very valuable piece of 
work. Dr. Connolly, who was withhtm at our meeting, 
was associated with it. I remember Dr. Connolly told 
me on several occasions that as the result of our 
discussions they started out on the right track. 

California Economic Research Council 

Adams: The California Development Association had a research 
committee headed by Henry M. Robinson, president of 
the Security First National Bank in Los Angeles. 
Dr. David Weeks of the University of California was 
working with that committee, probably a member of it. 
That leads us up to the development of the Economic 
Research Council. 

Baum: When was that? 

Adams: Well, in 192f? Mr. Robinson called a meeting in Los 
Angeles to consider the creation of an economic 
research council to bring together all the public and 
private agencies in California interested in collection 






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:emebA 






32k 



Adams: of statistical data of an economic nature. The 

thought was this, that all these agencies were pro 
ceeding independently, they had no contact with each 
other. Mr. Robinson thought an economic research 
council would bring them together and greatly improve 
the statistical material being gathered by attacking 
it cooperatively and avoiding duplication. Dr. David 
Weeks is generally credited with originating the idea 
of such a council. 

Something over 120 representatives of federal, 
state, business, and commercial interests attended 
that conference. I think Dr. Weeks had a great deal 
to do with making up the list of those who came. 
Stanford, the University of California, the University 
of Southern California, and Pomona and Claremont 
Colleges sent representatives. 

Baum: Was it largely academic? 

Adams: Oh no, chambers of commerce, business organizations, 
the Forest Service, the director of the State Mining 
Bureau and other state officea were represented. They 
decided at that meeting to form a council and appointed 
a committee to draft a plan of organization. 

In due time they set up committees. The committee 
on agricultural economics was headed by Ralph Taylor 
of the California Agricultural Legislative Committee; 






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-fqlsfi Y<^ bebjserf BBW eolinf iJigB no 

',D ev.t^'rlEl ' IsO arf^ 



325 



Adams: Gary Hill was chairman of the committee on natural 
resources; I don't recall who were chairmen of the 
industrial economics and business research committees^ 
I had the job of chairman of the irrigation economics 
committee. Dr. Willard E. Hotchkiss, head of Stanford 
Graduate School of Business Research,was made chairman 
of the Council and the chairmen of the various committees 
with the chairman and vice-chairman consituted the 
executive committee. Herbert P. Ormsby was secretary 
of the Council. The procedure was to hold two meetings 
a year, alternating between San Francisco and Los 
Angeles. The committees all became very active and 
each reported at those meetings. Whatever conclusions 
the committees reached were presented to the board of 
directors of the State Chamber and they endorsed, I 
think, most of the recommendations, if not all, of 
the various committees. 

I naturally recall most about my committee on 
irrigation economics. I won't name all the members 
of the committee but there were representatives from 
the University, the Federal Land Bank, the Pacific Gas 
and Electric Company, the Irrigation Division of the 
Department of Agriculture, State Engineer McClure, 
State Reclamation Engineer Barton Mr. Ormsby always 
sat in with us. We had frequent meetings. I should 






no sectilrarco erlrf 1-. aw II1H 

Tijsrfo stew orfw J : "icb I ;8eoiuosen: 

rfoiseeai eee bns r ' \teubni 

9 noi^sgliTl erfi lo nBinilario "Jo -frf 

bio'hv- . , -> f r*o^o'! , .'iCI 

2BW t f1 . v-fl BE 

Ei/oliBv jmtlflrio erf* brua ; -.fief lo 

Jbs;h -tljario-sclv bnB njBfRtlBrio srftf rf 

p. eew ip.rmO . r> " .ea^tflmnoo evl^uoexe 

.Iloru/co erf* T:o 

BOJ bnf '99W*fr -tS^Ifi ,'IBeY 8 

bns svi ' ernfioecf Ilf o erfT 

. 

9ffd o^ be* nTew berfoBei eaeict/iramoo erict 

I ( be; -B tscfmariO ecta^S srW 1 

, ' . "^Bi '* lo "eoi^ t j(f. 



^IfBiircfen I 

t UB amBn rf'now I . ' onooe nct3B$litl 
il sevt^^d'.aesatqsT eiew e^rf;? ' lo 

ofliopl erii t rinfl8 briBj IsTsbeS , ^J sievlnU 

.* Ir ncrr.lv.ffl 

: isenigna erfadS t attj;' -aA lo 

a^ewlB ^dRirfT 1 . --nc>i'r.'3-"' i' 
Miron's I .e^nldftSM rfnei/peTl br . J *lw nl 



326 



Adams: say that the major portion of our meetings was devoted 
to studying the state water conservation program. I 
find that I have here An Outline of Factors Governing 
the Economic Feasibility of the Proposed State Water 
Conservation Program. 

Baum: What date? 

Adams: May, 1929. Two or three years after the council was 
organized. 

Dr, Hotchkiss continued as chairman of the council 
for about two years. Then he left, I believe to go to 
Harvard as dean of their graduate business school. He 
was succeeded by G. R. Douglas, who had been vice- 
chairman. He served for one or two years and then 
they wished the job on me for a couple of years. At 
the end of my term Dr. Weeks was made chairman. 
I was very enthusiastic about the council. 
During my chairmanship I made It my btislness to 
visit each of the committees during the general 
sessions of the council and so I kept In contact 
and, of course, in very close contact with Mr. Ormsby 
In San Francisco. We got out a mimeographed 
publication, a sort of practice code for chambers of 
commerce with the idea of systematizing their work. 

Baum: Informational or procedural? 

Adams: Procedural more than anything else. We also published 



[lofu/oo eri.f lo namiljirlo as facunl^noo atWr .ifi 

c^ 05 o^ fsvsllecf t cfl9J" erf ariT .BIBY ow ^ *nod* 
H .loo .snlei/d e^Bt/bsts nJerfi lc* nb ea biji 

-eolv dead , elguoC .fl .0 -^d babeeoous 



m no dot ***^ berialw 
eW .id mn;t TJW lo bn 
BBW I 






vb F-aw 88al39si two s ' 

.BiBtgoiq 

lo anlljtoC, aA teri evrf I 
lo ^Il.l:cfiej8 



Ilonwoo erfi i*l* at*Y satrfct to owT ,PS?I ,YM 



tub 89erf.tJtintnoo erict lo rioee- 
nl ^q3l I OB bns Iloruroo erfct lo anolaaee 
J:w cfoe^noo esolo -*xv nl t 
berlqatgoemim B rfwo .ios s 
"o g-iadmB, ) soitfOBiq lo 

.tftcw tied* anisl*eie^BY8 lo BebJt witf ridlw onteinaioo 

YlBttrbeootq to le.nolifwtolnl 
W .sals snla'^n* nsrlct stor? 



327 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams 






a list of the agencies gathering the data that came 
within the scope of the council. I don't recall any 
other publications other than mimeographed publications 
of some committees. 

I was very much disappointed when a year or two 
later the Council ceased to function. Dr. Weeks was 
first elected chairman in November, 1933 He was 
reelected a year later. The final meeting was in 
1935. Dr. Weeks said this recently with reference to 
the discontinuance of the council: the multiplicity 
of federal agencies and state relief agencies growing 
out of the depression made it difficult to hold 
meetings. There was a rash of various meetings. I 
think creation of the State Planning Board had some 
thing to do with discontinuance of the Research Council, 
The council just died. 

It died as the organization was set up, but for several 
years at the annual meetings of the State Chamber a 
report was made on behalf of the Economic Research 
Council by Mr. Harrison S. Robertson, who was connected 
with the Oakland Chamber of Commerce. It was merely a 
one man report and didn't represent the work of the 
committees, which had ceased to function. 

There's a fairly complete file of the work of 
the council in Giannini Library. The last minutes are 



50 Cff 'liT9ff; 10 tfslf B 

si cMnob I .Horn/Go e;' >qcoe erict nMtfiw 

anc.itfao.tfcf-- 'qBisosBiliB aBrftf tarf^o sficltfsolldjjq -iericto 

. Besrftflnimco eaoe lo 

t 10 IBSY, B ' qjseJc ,v EBW I 

iooni/1 oi beBB^o lion. * 

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ni BBW . ; B betfo- 

^cflv/'7 cino blfie eifesW .id . ~9I 

: lollq' oonBifniJ-n. oalb srict 

'woig rets bn -rabel 

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. bri bir 

.1" oeib ritf^w r 'rtf 

.belb d-si/t Iion:/ofe erfT 

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B it- :B airfct cfB 

rio- lo llBriecf no ebeirr BBW 

be^ofr -'p.A c-ffw (fioeJ^ec . .-rM Y^ 

vl<v- .sonemmoO "5o lac'inBrfO bnfll^jeO &tii n'^ iw 

rfcf Jneeenqei ct'nbjtb brua d nfim eno 

.noictonirl ocf baeBso bed , 

to Ic sill e^slqfnoo Y-f^-^fi'i * a 

i ,* 1B ' Ic f-fJ ininnaiD n! 






-s6 
bA 



328 



Adams 






Baum: 



Adams 



for 1935. 

I said I was enthusiastic about the douncil and 
I was, but I recognized what I considered one difficulty, 
that is, that we had to report to the state chamber 
of commerce. At the end of my term as chairman I had 
reached the tentative conclusion that the work of the 
Council would be stronger if disassociated from the 
state chamber and continued under t he auspices of the 
universities of the state. But I did not talk this 
over with anyone except Dr. Joseph E. Davis of the 
Stanford Research Institute. I might note that the 
business Economics Section of the Commonwealth Club 
has recently proposed establishment of a s tatewide 
economic planning agency for fact-gathering and acting 
as a clearing house for economic information. The 
report is in volume 53, no. 3, Transactions of the 






Commonwealth Club. 

Publication of Bulletin 21, Irrigation 

Districts in California. 1929 

_ 

What did the Ecoaomic Research Council have to do with 
Bulletin 21? 

I had been planning for some time to prepare a new 
publication on California irrigation districts to 
follow up my Bulletin 2 published in 1916. I had, 






:sjrrj8bA 



bns .[ -.? 3*3 Unco's o I tfajBlen rictus saw I. 

'jtf/ ' - ; be-T' blr.aoo I rfsriw bsl 1 I rfird , I 

^ctB^s stit oct tf^ioqsT o* b rfrf t el 

njsnniBrlo ? :o 6ne erict cfA . soismmoo 

sett ^Bri^ nolBuIonoo svl^.^ns^ srirf beriojaeT 
eri' .telooasi. 

noo bn:T tsdmsrlo e^.. 
elrid ilfi; a bib I .sctsJe erf* ^*lf?nevi 

zl\ . . >xe snovnfi 'rlit isvc 

sri^ ct> I .e 

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sb ; Trie JldBCf-'- 11 ssrf 

i Y ont 'imorxcoe 

;il olinonooe tot eai/orf ^nl'iselo B SB 

t * Ci ' 

t d; . oO 



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^ .JBlnrtplJIflO nl 



-i: 



. 

ruJoO rioise nee odrf bib ctBritf 

?JS alieilrre 

e c r.^q^^q o3 ei ^nlnnp ^d bsd I 

nol^BSlml sintf no noUBoJIci 

nl ym qi; wollol 



: p.r 



329 



Adams: in fact, made arrangements with State Engineer McClure 

to have Mr. E. C. Eaton, one of the assistant engineers, 
work with me on it and be co-author. The general 
program and objectives of the Economic Research Council 
and my contact with it undoubtedly broadened my con 
ception of the idea. I brought it before the Irrigation 
Economics Committee and they endorsed it. The State 
Chamber also approved it. I took it before the 
Irrigation Districts Association as a project of the 
Economic Research Council and they approved it. So 
when the work was undertaken and men were sent into 
the field to gather the material, the districts knew 
what it was all about. When Paul Bailey succeeded 
Mr. McClure as state engineer in 1926 he declined to 
let Mr. Eaton participate as a co-author. I think 
Mr. Wagner, the secretary and manager of the Irrigation 
Districts Association, was not very much in favor of 
it. I think he had in mind preparing some kind of 
a report himself on irrigation districts. 

One reason for broadening the scope of the 
inquiry was this. Irrigation districts were constantly 
besieged by financial institutions and others making 
inquiry as to the status of the district. The financial 
interests, of course, had In mind the purchase of bonds. 
It was obvious the situation would be greatly Improved 



e;t<5 rftflw ectne tiB &b&m t tfoBl nl 

sneer? f^ne ^ae^eieaB erW lo 91- . ,S .iM evBrf o;t 

Ifitsnes adT . 'lofi'ckrjB-oo ed bne c?J no era rftflw 

rioTeeaefi omc : rfct lo BSVJ o bna 

-noo YDI b^' r ^ *" 

:,JiiI erf.-t ?Tclocf cM ^rf^aoid I j'i lo noi^qao 

cr .^i beaiobne ^erf^ MB e eoirnono 

I . bsvoTqoB CFulB ^^cfxriBr{0 
erl* lc c^o r . -;eA B^olt^^iG noId'figiTtl 

. 

'rl ctr s3*t9bnx SAW ^ow srict norfw 

.f> sri^ ,' ' "rsrttjsg o* 

4 Itfjs' .cfrjcds I IB eew 

3S?J~ isenigns erfs^a eB 

.1 - B EB SCfBqJtO *Ctt .rtM 

nclctBjQj'iiI 9ri,t >^ viBctsiose erf J . t 

BBW t noi^Bioc 

lo Jb< S^-f 1 ^ Eri ' 9r ^ 

. .} o.Jtcfs.tb nc.f JBglTti no lleeaiiri tf 
> lo s<ior. 8 *r{;J ^jnlnsbfc ' aoBjaei 'enO 

YictTBd-sn- --w arfoi't^eib nol^Bgitil ,8lff* esw Y^-^^'P 

r ^pn; ^^s^Jo bna aaolcfu^l^enl IfiionBnJl 

.rfolt^Elb sr.i Ic ew^B^a sr(* o^ BB 
ncd 1- sri^ bnlm nl bed t 6Etmo lo t 

bevc-iqinl ' 'T5 sd bI0o'-r nolrfBi/cfle eri^ 3;.roivdo BBW 



330 



Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 



If the state would have in Its oossession all 
essential information so those interested could go 
to the state for the information rather than to the 
various districts. 

The idea was to make the report complete for 
all the districts as of the date of preparation of 
this report, 1928, and that there should then be an 
annual compilation by the state engineer and the 

Bond Certification Commission and publication of 

. 
supplemental bulletins. That was done, as you know, 

and those bulletins-- the 21a, -b, -c, and so forth 
series have been very valuable. 

In Bulletin 21 you had a lot of information as to 
crops, etc. and historical information. I don't 
believe the supplemental bulletins are nearly as 
comple te 

The Bond Certification Commission, as it developed 
in later years, chiefly I think due to the attitude 
of Harmon Bonte, the secretary, became less interested 
in the general agricultural dnta, crops, use of water, 
quantities of water, than in the financial data. The 
general data seemed to me exceedingly desirable be 
cause it was the background for the financial soundness 
of the enterprise. About a year or two before my 
retirement I proposed that we, jointly with the state 



Ilfl noleaee- | 9*B*e erf* 11 

>; 'ori* ; lBl*n9ee:e 

c* nflrfcr , ; T nol*jer Qt & j B : 



nol octslqwoo *TOT9i aric 

lO ael*B ( IBq9T '.tBb 9firf lo 8fl BCfollrfelb 

nB ncf nsrfrf blc/orfa sieifj- ^srfct bne ,8S91 t ^ioq9t a 

erfrf fcna Ilqmoo IBIS, 

lo r-clcfeoi; "rlrfiaO b- 

wc ? es - .anlJaJJjL/d iBtfname / 

rWnol os bns ,o- ,d- . s^oricf bna 

,e _ , :98 

ocf 8; *ol fl tr a j - ffi9 

"clni bne .octs ,eqoto 

8R ^J : .IB Bl: ' : r ecf 

oo 

fcoc 5 c - t nols-' raoiii^r :6 Q 5 no g QJ ^T 

sbjjci MtfB '-idd xilrf* ] Irio t 8T!fl9^ tadel 

.. :ificteioe 8 erfcf , srfnoa noHiaH lo 
t' 10 : 3CtBb s iBtensr, <)rf^ nl 

e ' i^l^i,. 

b Y-fsnlbesoxe era or' b 

^rf* "i -;2fOBd srf* RSW *1 

10 TB9V fl J - . ^ 

e*s*B r, r * i^*lw vfinfc.f ,9^ *j? 



331 



Adams ; 



Baum: 
Adams : 

Baum: 
Adams : 



Baum: 
Adams : 






engineer and the Irrigation Division of the Department 
of Agriculture, bring this publication down to date. 
The matter was approved by the dean and by State 



Engineer Hyatt. Mr. Ewing was to be joint author. 
We prepared a prospectus and the dean and the state 
engineer tentatively allocated the necessary funds. 
Then it went to Mr. Bonte of the Bond Certification 
Commission and he wanted us instead to prepare a 
report on reclamation districts. Mr. Hyatt wasn't 
willing to go ahead with the project unless he had 
Mr. Bonte 's approval. 

Complete information, or just financial on reclamation 



districts? 

I don't recall. Probably just financial. Neither 
Mr. Ewing nor I was willing to undertake that project. 
You were more interested in irrigation districts. 



Yes. 






Irrigation Districts Association 






Did you attend Irrigation District Association meetings? 
It was my general practice to attend all the meetings 
as a visitor. As far as I know, I was in on the 
earliest of the meetings. I enjoyed those meetings 
very much. I was not only interested in irrigation 
districts but I was interested in the people involved 



-(I erfcf 1c nolelvlQ nolztesl-nl erfcJ bns 
. ,t nwof "id t 9it;ctIiJOlisA lo 

yr! bnB oeeb srfd" Y^ bevciqc B i -JctBin sriT 

^n.fof; so ,iM ^H isenlgna 

" ftciB ea^oaqeoiq e beieqeniq eW 

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' 

. >vcnqqa a'sctnof . 

vfwr=sl . . ' RSiiclnl s 

\ 

.fclonsnl'l ^eu^ Y- cfj8cfo ' J '' i .I-Tj^ 
.^os^otq ctBrf^ ejlB^'iebni;' cct ^nllllw BBW 3 ^3 ,tM 

.8 *3llTi nJt bs^B ! 8TOT 

. 



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poii^ 
til nl 



n 






bn$33B 



bid 



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. n>f .tod-lelv B BB 

.esnf^safi ^ 

8ftw x .rfouin ^ 









BfllBbA 



qcsq f[.-t ni 



I Jtrd 



n^- 



332 



Adams: in these districts and knew so many of them intimately. 

Baum: You must have known Mr. A L. Cowell then, 

Adams: Mr. Cowell and I were very close friends. He and I 
together worked on drafting irrigation district 
legislation in the early years. I think I told you 
that he was a newspaper man and he had to do with 
the organization of South San Joaquin and Oakdale 
irrigation districts. He was on the Stockton Mail, 
I think it was. He had earlier studied for the 
ministry in a little school north of Stockton, Wood- 
bridge. 

Baum: He was an attorney, wasn't he? 

Adams: His interest in this irrigation legislation led him 
to study for the bar and pass the examinations. He 
went then into the practice of law. 

Baum: He was first a minister? 

Adams: He never finished with the ministry. He spent some 
years at the school and then switched to newspaper 
work and then to law. He was a very, very fine man, 
very active, and always one of the leaders in the 
Irrigation District Association. 

Baum: I heard that he never made much money because he spent 
so much time on irrigation district work, much of 
which he did free. 

Adams: I wouldn't be surprised. The attorneys for districts 









bn r ; , et 



nsitj os wsno! brua E^olitfa-fb deerict nl 
swoD .J .A .T"' M evsrf ctp.im' 

olo' v bns IlewoO .TiM 

B^liil jaflictljBib no be>fiow 

d i , lav; v; 



_ 1 A f 



o^ ber! : rreqn ?.evr 

niupBoL na3 ri^uoS Ic noictBsln 

c,^<-t nn pot-r p-torttpfh nnf 

9 C w w 

baibt: 'H .EBW ^1 

booW t ncdjfocctS lo cfcHon "^11 B nl 






s: :n ijod srW ic 

artt o^nl 



as em 

i fli c*83 aiH 

cfe o^ 



mlrf bsl 



a 
sr or. jr, . -'" . r berip.lnil teven 

jn oct bnB loor'os s 

3m enj t \jtev JB .wal c* nerfct bna 

erf.-f- i* lo eno e-j3 ; rflB bnB 



in- sd Y 9noi( hem teven erf d'Brfd' biB9ri I 

Ic "fount t 3ttow :? l >Jes^iti no er;Id -; v .ym OB 

,e3tl bib erf riolrfw 

b tol e^emoctctfl erfT .be8l^q' rf 



".bA 
rsf! 
BbA 



?bA 



B.TiBbA 



333 



Adams: who attended those meetings were always very helpful. 
The newer districts always had questions for the 
attorneys to answer. They got a lot of help and 
guidance from the lawyers. There was always an 
attorneys' committee to deal with questions that 
came up, 

Baum: Was that one of the major functions of the Irrigation 
Districts Association? 

Adams: There were a lot of questions beside legal questions. 

- 

Some districts would come upon a problem which they 
didn't see how they could solve under the law. The 
revisions of the act to meet these special needs from 
time to time were some of the things the attorneys 
gave attention to, 

Baum: Did you ever work on that kind of problem? 

Adams: To some extent in the early days, not later. 

The Irrigation District Association dealt with 
lots of problems: matters of assessment, of handling 
delinquent taxes, of operation, ditch management, 
relations of the water users, records, bookkeeping. 
During sessions of the legislature the secretary of 
the association was at Sacramento and followed 
legislation. During each legislative session the 
Irrigation District Association held its meeting at 
Sacramento and went over In detail each bill affecting 



r arf 

* 

bns qleri 



'cteR bebnetf^fl orfw 

bBri ^ntfelb tewen eriT 

B JOR v .T ocf a^smo^^fi 

W!B . :eY WJ8 -E 

sncJd'e&un ri^.!-w Iseb otf ea^ilr^noo 'BYsnic^ia 

ainso 
' Totflffl eri* AC eno ctsri^ ? 






IjBgel ebi89C f p.nol^ROfrp ' 
" 

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t cj, 



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r ^on . R0 9fi* ni cfnetfre of 

Jol'i^aia nc,i^ns-ttil ^ 

. BJtseldonq 1c 
. ,39Xflc)- 

iqea>f . . sri^ lo sno 

1r Tjir.^eto?- f-lsj^el ' TiiC 

bf;jori(^ nernjBTOfig ^B BBW ncIJaJtooeaja 

sri^ n a ovi*fll3^s9l cfnBft .jiatrujG . 

^ 

Illcf ' ffojB* Ilfictab ni 1*70 rfn 









331^ 









Adams: Irrigation districts before the legislature and 

approved or disapproved it or suggested amendments. 
The executive committee used to meet prior to the 
general meetings, I used to attend those meetings 
because that's where the real work of the association 
was done. 

Gradually the work of the association branched 
out and it became a representative of practically all 
irrigation Interests in the state. New types of water 
districts came in, and then reclamation districts came 
in, and mutual water companies. Some of those organ 
izations had their independent association, but they 
met with the Irrigation Districts Association, Grad 
ually the association took up general questions of 
federal-state relationships brought on by the Central 
Valley Project, They took up the question of the 
160-acre limitation, and of contracts with the Bureau 
of Reclamation, I think their opposition to the 160- 
acre limitation was primarily the reason for the 
organization of the Water Economics Committee which 
is now publishing Western Water News. 

Baum: Does the money for the Water Economics Committee come 
from the regular assessment on districts? 

Adams: It was my understanding that there was some question 
when the committee was organized whether it should 









foriB eijjctfllBisei ertt 0*ol9d 

nerfiB bad-essjuje -10 31 bevo'iqqBe lb 10 bevoiqqB 
erfct o* noiiq i^sm c;t beew eeJctlrnmoo evicfuoexe erfT 
ftfesw esori;t one . a^n8 

aJi e IBST ertt ei^rfw : eeufi; 






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UB TjI^ J80 -^ B ' IC I 1 Qvl^a ^naesiqeT B er 
isjJsw Ic . '} ni 8tf88^^^n." 

o scfo narf^ bnB t ni smso e 



. 



ba 



srfct rfctiw Jem 
erfrf 



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?enp iBiene^ qtf ioocf 
'neD sri^ ^cf 

9/(vt 1< 

srfct rictJtw t^noo lo bna ,nol^sctJtmlI eTos-O^I 

ilexi^ Tfnlri.'t .nolrfamelooH lo 

jfti erf^ Ylf-fRBJltq BBW 



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mea s aV s^irfeildnq won el 



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fSIrrorfa ^t terlJ-Qrfw besinsgio SBW seJctlmmoo sri^ nsrfw 






B9 






335 



Adams: be separate from the Irrigation Districts Association. 
I think the association makes some contribution to it, 
Forrest Prick of Bakersfield assumes leadership in 
raising funds and those who provide the funds usually 
guide the policies. 

Baum: Did you feel that the Irrigation Districts Association 
under Mr. Wagner represented the irrigation districts 
or did Wagner control the policies more than the 
representatives of the districts, 

Adams: Mr. Wagner was very active, had his own ideas, and 
certainly was influential in the policies of the 
association, but the irrigation district directors 
were men of ideas and they were not led around by 
Mr. Wagner. 

California Water Council 

Baum: What was the California Water Council? 

Adams: That was organized independently of the Irrigation 
Districts Association. It met every year, or even 
more frequently, and still meets, and takes up 
questions of general policy in the whole field of 
reclamation, and also matters of representation at 
meetings of the National Reclamation Association. 
Milton Kidd, the president of the Irrigation District 
Association at the time the council was organized, 



e<f abA 

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*Ioq 

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asfiV . 

nuroO 



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to ,136^ .yisva dom 31 ,noi*sloo88A e^oliiteJQ 
^^ct bns t eJeem Ili^a boB ^^Ictneuo^il snom 

Icrfw srl^ at ^olS.oq If 
fj^neesiqaT lo 3ie^*Bm oalfi I . 

jBnoli*M 

lo ctflsbleeiq 6rf* t bbJE3 no^IlM 
W Iloru/co 9ri^ aaltf " f elooeeA 



336 



Adams: was made president, and still is president. The 
most active men in most of the districts attend 
the meetings. Until a few years ago I usually 
attended the meetings. In fact I attended the 
last meeting held in San Francisco in October of 
this year. I found there were a lot of men present 
whom I did not know. This has been true at other 
water meetings I have attended in recent years. 
Although a number of the old standbys were present, 
it was evident a new generation is taking over. 

Baum: But it had other than district representatives? 

Adams: Oh yes. 

American Society of Agricultural Engineers 

Baum: You joined the American Society of Agricultural 

Engineers in 1925 and were immediately made chairman 

of the Pacific Coast section. What does that 
society do? 

Adams: It is made up of workers in agricultural engineering 
and allied subjects at the universities and colleges 
of the country and members of the agricultural 
machinery industry. They are to have their national 
meeting in Santa Barbara this month. 

Baum: And are you planning to go? 

Adams: I wish I could, but I'm afraid to tackle it. I find 






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:m0B8 



337 



Adams: those meetings rather fatiguing. 

Baum: Was the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 

a large organization in 1925 or was it just beginning? 

Adams: The society was organized a number of years before 
1925, and must have had a membership of perhaps a 
thousand or more--I do not have the figures at 
hand. The Pacific Coast section was just beginning 
at the time I was elected chairman. Dr. David Weeks 
had been active in it. He was in engineering at 
that time and Leonard Fletcher, head of Agricultural 
Engineering at Davis, was also active in it. We 
had a meeting in Los Angeles. That was my first 
contact with it. We had coming up the next year the 

job of acting as hosts for the annual meeting of 
the society in California. One of our main activities 
for that first year was to organize for that meeting 
which was held at Tahoe, We were not involved in 
the program, but rather in arrangements for the 
meeting, matters of entertainment, housing, excursions 
to points of interest, and so forth. It was the 
highlight, the society said, of all their meetings. 
It was a beautiful place and we had a large attendance. 
We organized committees to work out the details of all pha 
ses of the meeting except the professional program and 



vec 



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'e^^b er^ct lire rtiow Co TB^IO- o*f 

3'i^ciq iBnoleaelciq c :i;t ^ c 



338 



Adams: it worked out very successfully. Then about a dozen 

years ago vie had the meeting at Asilomar. We were 
hosts for the annual meeting there. 

Baum: Where is the society located ma inly- -where is their 
central office? 

Adams: Their headquarters are at St. Joseph, Michigan. 

Baum: Is that because that is the center of the machinery 
industry? 

Adams: No, I think because it was the home of the secretary. 
Originally it was St. Thomas, I believe, but then 
they moved over to St. Joseph, but really it is not 
far away. It was convenient and as good a place as 
any for it. It was in the central part of the country. 

Baum: Did you carry on any research or study for them? 

Adams: I put in quite a little time as chairman of the Land 
Settlement Committee, that w as in 1931. We got out 
quite a lengthy report, which was merely mimeographed. 

Baum: That was 1931. Were people still as interested in 
land settlement? Was this the idea of colony land 
settlement or was it just private, individual settlement? 

Adams: The subject of land settlement was still very much 

alive t iroughout the country. There were still many 
projects that were suffering because of a lack of 
settlers. 

Baum: Was your section interested in encouraging people to 






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:rnt/8S 






sbA 



339 



Baum: 
Adams 



Baum: 
Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 



come in on their own or were there thoughts of some 
kind of government settlements? 

Our committee was not concerned at all with promotion, 
but merely with bringing the subject factually down 
to dat. We were interested 1) in activities in which 
the states were participating; 2) the Bureau of 
Reclamation and its activities; 3) activities in 
Canada; i|.) activities in Mexico; 5) activities of 
the western railroads; 6) activities of private 
colonization agencies. As to the railroad, they 
wanted to build up the country and increase their 
transportation income. In Mexico it was largely 
connected with their social program. 
Is settlement still a problem? 

I haven't heard any discussion of it in recent years. 
The Bureau of Reclamation, of course, is very Inter 
ested in promoting settlement on its projects. 
Do you think that on the Bureau of Reclamation 
projects the 160-acre limitation was a deterrent 
to settlement? 

No, I think not. There have been some modifications 
of that on some projects, including Imperial Valley. 



es. ic/0 



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5A 






340 



Baum: 
Adams : 



Baum: 
Adams : 

Baum: 
Adams : 






State Farm Bureau and the State Grange 

Didn't you work pretty closely with the Farm Bureau 
in connection with the University? 
We were always on friendly relations. We worked 
very closely with farm advisors and used to attend 
meetings of the State Farm Bureau Federation and 
keep in touch with what they were doing. Members 
of the Farm Bureau staff were active in our Common 
wealth Club studies and still are. Of course, 
members of our group attended many farm center 
meetings where the farm advisor would be present. 
Were these meetings mainly on better growing methods? 

All phases of agriculture in which the community was 

. , 
interested. 

Did they call on your organization for water studies? 
Oh, as previously explained, much of my early work 
with local communities in connection with the organ 
ization of irrigation districts started through the 
activity of the farm advisor. The local people would 
want to do something and the farm advisor would come 
to me for help. They'd also call on other members 
of our staff. For instance, Professor Veihmeyer would 



go and discuss irrigation structures or methods of 
application of water or preparation of land, or some 
other subject on which the members of our s taff were 









jar. 



nJ! 






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Adams: 



Baum: 
Adams: 

Baum: 
Adams: 
Baum: 
Adams: 



working. When the Agricultural Extension Service 

appointed an irrigation specialist he took over 

much of the work of contact with the farm centers 

and with the individual farmers. The theory was 

that he was responsible to the Extension Service 

for his activities and to our division for subject 

matter. However, although not a member of our staff, 

he had his office with us and was in constant contact 

with the work we were doing. This is still the 

situation. 

Did you work with the Associated Farmers? 

No. They were an independent organization, coraerned 

primarily with labor problems. 

They had nothing to do with water. 

No, nothing whatever 

Did you work with the Grange? 

I don't recall ever going to any Grange meetings 

in connection with irrigation; I was a member of 

Highland Grange in the early years, and San Jose 

Grange for a time. The Grange is an entirely 

different type of organization from the Farm Bureau. 

Members of the Grange with whom I have come in 

contact in recent years have been more on the very 

liberal side. Those in the Farm Bureau are generally 

more conservative. 






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31+2 



Baum: With regard to legislation on agriculture? 

Adams: The National Grange has been over the years a very 
substantial organization. In the early days it 
was, I think, tied in with opposition to the railroads. 

I have met only one master of the National 
Grange. We got him and the president of the National 
Farm Bureau and the president of the National Farmers 
Union to meet with our agricultural section of the 
Commonwealth Club. They were having some kind of 
meeting in San Francisco. The master of the Grange 
at that time was a very substantial man. The head 
of the National Farmers Union has been a very radical 
man from the start, very strong on the New Deal 
side. The National Farm Bureau Federation can 
certainly not be classed as radical or extra-liberal. 
In some states the Grange is still strong. We have 
a good many granges in California. 

Baum: Are they very strong though? 

Adams: They are active locally but I do not know how effective 
they are. You hear of the s tate grange when their 
annual meetings are held and George Sehlmeyer is 
elected state master over and over again. I think 
he spends most if not all his time on grange work, 
and occasionally I see in the newspapers pronouncements 
by him on matters of public policy, especially in the 






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oilduq 1- 



Adams: field of public power and reclamation. 

Baum: Liberal on what issues? 

Adams: Well, everything the New Deal stood for. I doubt 
that you could say that of the National Grange. 
When the Grange was the only farm organization, 
before the Farm Bureau was started, 'they had some 
very strong granges. The San Jose Grange, for 
instance. The top men in agriculture in the Santa 
Clara Valley were members of San Jose Grange, and 
I think it's still a very strong organization. There 
was a strong grange up at Petaluma in the early days, 
and I presume there were and are other local granges 
that are effective in California. I've talked with 
George Sehlmeyer about granges in California and he 
thinks they are very important. 

. 
Institute of Irrigation Agriculture 

Baum: What was your work with the Institute of Irrigation 
Agriculture? 

Adams: In the days preceding or during the depression of 
the '30's, there were many differences of opinion 
in the country as to policies the nation should take 
with reference to building new irrigation projects 
or financing projects, terms of payment, relations 
of the government and water users on federal projects, 






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84BA&A 

:am 



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31*4 









Adams: the extent to which state and federal credit should 

be used, in aiding distressed districts, both private 
and community, as irrigation districts; many problems 
of that type were before Congress and before the 
states. 

Mr. R. W. Blackburn, who was then president of 
the California Farm Bureau Federation and a member 
of the board of directors of the National Farm 
Bureau Federation, used to talk with me very frequently 
about those questions. He induced the board of 
directors of the National Farm Bureau Federation to 
set up an Institute of Irrigation Agriculture to 
obtain a reflection of the attitudes of the members 
of the Farm Bureau in different parts of the West 
as to what these policies should be. It was more or 
less a grass roots organization. Mr. Blackburn had 
the same feeling many of us had that people in the JWest 
should have some say in all the planning that was 
going on. 

Baum: Who belonged to the Institute of Irrigation Agriculture? 

Adams: The Institute had no specific membership other than 
the executive council. The president of the New 
Mexico Farm Bureau Federation, Louis Fruedenthal, was 

^ 

made president of it, or chairman. An executive council 
was set up, Mr. Blackburn, Mr. W. W. McLaughlin, Mr. 






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Adams: Pruedenthal, I was on it; I don't recall the others. 

We held a number of regional meetings. Who attended 
was largely determined by the location where the 
meeting was held. 

Baum: You mentioned a study you did for the institute of 
the problems of irrigation organizations. 

Adams: Many districts or projects were being refinanced 
under the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. We 
felt that a lot of the enterprises that couldn't 
qualify for emergency assistance still had a right 
to consideration in connection with problems they 
might have. So we made a questionnaire inquiry 
covering all the far western states and we got a 
fairly good return. We asked a series of seventeen 
or eighteen questions on financial conditions, 
need for further works, need for settlement, extent 
of water right conflicts if any, and other questions. 
Some federal projects wanted a revision of their 
contracts to extend their payments, some wanted a 
different method of determining their payments such 
as the average income rather than a flat acreage 
charge, some districts wanted financial help there 
was talk in those days of both state and federal 
governments participating in assisting projects that 
needed help that didn't qualify under the national 






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sS 






Adams: recovery legislation. There were practically 
no requests for settling water right problems 
although there were some difficulties on interstate 
streams. 

We made a general report, I have it here. You 
can't draw any clear-cut conclusions from it but it 
was of value as representing the opinion of a substantial 
cross section of developments in the West. All this 
information was available to Mr. Blackburn in his 
dealings with the directors of the National Farm 
Bureau Federation and the development of their recla 
mation policy. 

Baum: How long did the Institute continue to meet? 

Adams: The last meeting we held while I was active was at 

Corvallis. That must have been around 1937 We had 
many farmers there from federal reclamation projects, 
some farmers from the surrounding valley, a number of 
western railroads were represented because they were 
always interested in that policy, especially John W. 
Haw, director of the Agricultural Development Depart 
ment of the Northern Pacific Railway, with whom I'd 
had frequent contact previously. There was a rather 
radical element at that meeting. Mr. Fruedenthal was 
not present and I was chairman. The situation seemed 
to be getting more or less out of hand. I don't 






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I .bnsrf lo ^i - ' S ec 



31^7 



Adams: remember the Issues Involved, but I asked someone to 

take the chair so I could express myself more definitely, 
My ideas must have coincided with the attitude of some 
of the o thers present because in the last afternoon 
several of them came to my room and thanked me for the 

position I had taken. What the position was I don't 
remember. 

After that Corvallis meeting I asked to be 
relieved because I was overburdened with the other 
work. Mr. McLaughlin took over and they met for 
several years after that. 

"Winning of the West Conference" 

. 

Baum: You mentioned a conference you attended in connection 
with a movie, "The Winning of Barbara Worth." What 
was that? 

Adams: In September, 1926, I received a letter from Mr. 
Arthur S. Bent, then president of the Los Angeles 
Chamber of Commerce, inviting me to serve on a 
sponsoring committee for a proposed "Winning of the 
West Conference" to be held in Los Angeles. The 
purpose of the conference as Mr. Bent explained in 
his letter was to bring again before the public, not 
only of theWiest, but all over the United States, the 
question of reclamation and irrigation in such a subtle 






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19Ct' IfllSVSB 



"eon. 



. 

nclctnennoo ni hofons^cfs a 07. eonenelnoo s benoJ^roin i/oY 
;-{W . tsdiP .nianiW . : vooi B ri^lw 

?d-flrf* esw 

.tM no'it is^ct ' TJT I t d^;?.C t iedm8?ce8 nl 

eols .1 edS ^c ctn9bi89T^ nsrtt t ^r. . itrrf^iA 

eviea o^ 6m gnl^ivnl t oiemrnoO lo -rodr 
nrl* lo sninniW" beecqoiq B 10! ni3' snoqe 

.ssIssnA ecJ nl blerf od ocf 

nl bsnlBlqxe ^neF .*! SB 9onnelnoo orftf lo eeoqtuq 
^cn t olldi;q eii^ atoled nlBgB .^nlnd o^ gj>w T^Jel c 

B bs^latT er{J tvo Us . JeevWsritf lo Y^ no 

riil bnB nol*BB.ro9i " 



Adams: way as would assist the West in developing certain 
projects which would be considered at the next 
session of Congress, the most important of these 
projects being control of the Colorado River by 
storage at Boulder Canyon. 

It was proposed to hold this conference con 
currently with the premiere of the new film, "The 
Winning of Barbara Worth," which dramatized the 
reclamation of Imperial Valley. The thought was that 
this picture was probably the greatest picture ever 
produced showing the romance and grandeur of the 
winning of the West, and that its showing all over 
the country would assist in the dramatization of 
western reclamation problems. 

It was desired to bring together in this con 
ference the leaders of the western states and, to 
quote from Mr. Bent's letter, to "incidentally again 
bring Los Angeles into prominence and leadership 
with regard to the problems of this whole western 
territory." 

After receiving Mr. Bent's Invitation I called 
on him in his office in Los Angeles and he gave me 
this background: Mr. Sam Goldwyn had produced the 
film, "The Winning of Barbara Worth," and when they 
came to look it over they found it was a dud. Mr. 






Lqoleveb ni tfeefc * BB 

cfxen erf;t ;ts faieble.nc^ 3d bluow rfolrfw 

ctflBrfrcoqinl ^EOITI eri ncleaee 

Yd ic ' bBicIoO arid- lo lot, filed 

.no^nsO oH JB 

-noo eo; ; ' i* bli ciq asw 

erfT" t mIJ:1 wsn srict lo e^elmsiq 

srfrf b&s. rb xlol.'^w "- t rf^ioW B'Iflcf^sS * 

8BW ^rlgJJC- r . .CfilT' 

leve e-ructoir ^BP ' -:' 

o it/s' 't 9fi^ ^n.fwr oubotq 

.Jl ^erlrf bn , *p.)W an* 1< 
lo ncl^BvKid-BmBi : d-slEE'. . arict 

.r./ :q noi tfjSirt.Xoei n r 

-noo 3.?riJ ni vi-td o^ beilaf 

oct t bn/< i >*89w erlct 1o atsbfiel a ;eiel 

\ .7 T9^^eI s'^ne-' . 

^nlmotq c^tni 88le ioJ 

oloiiu Biff* lo amsldotq srirf od- 



. 



iBctlvnl ; . 

en 9vBj. ^rf bns eelesnA eoJ nl eolllo elif ni mlri no 
rf;t bao- r ^Bri n^wblof ma2 

erfj nr . BTBd-- erfT" t 

.tH .bt'b B EBW tfl fcru'ol. v oi >fool od ernso 






Adams: Goldwyn was very much discouraged. He had spent a 
million dollars producing the picture. He went to 
Mr. Harry Chandler of the Los Angeles Times for 
advice. Mr. Chandler offered to let him have Mr. 
Harry Clark, his manager of properties in Lower 
California, to spend several months on location 
helping to take the kinks out of the picture. This 
had been done and the picture was then ready for its 
premiere. 

Well, it was entirely appropriate that the 
Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce should have such a 
conference, and Mr. Bent assured me that it was 
entirely a bona-flde enterprise. The list of those 
invited to serve on the committee included many very 
prominent men, among them a number of leaders in the 
moving picture industry. The conference met on October 
llj., 1926, and was presided over by former Governor 
Campbell of Arizona. After a warm-up breakfast at the 
Breakfast Club, I think in Griffith Park, the confer 
ence assembled in the Biltmore Hotel and continued 
throughout the day. There was an elaborate luncheon 
at the Biltraore. , Members of the committee were 
seated at the head table, and I had the honor of 
sitting next to Mary Pickford, then known as "America's 
Sweetheart." I remember that Douglas Fairbanks was 






a tfneqe . ' "C*tov sew rr^wb sbA 

"q srf^ Ttq en:j8llob nollJJtm 

nA goJ sricf lo telbnBrfD VTtfiH .tM 

evan fliJtrl ;tal oct beiT . -I .solvb* 

woJ oJctaec ' ,^1BIO .Y*itH 

ictjBool no r Isievse br ,slniol: 

. o sjJrr ' 

10! bBei neri* aew etuc-olq I -JS encb need &Bri 



ede; jTJctfi' cfl t IIeW 

B : eel . :cJ 

, 

-.":9^n ebU-jsnccf s ^lail^ne 

^v ysv:- T bs 1 sed-J' erf^ no svrae o* bectlvnl 

n B me/id , Jnenlraotq 

<1 .Y*i*8i nlvom 

t dS?I t 4-C 

-J - B ie*lA .anr- 

-ie1r , "I'lJtO nl jinlrf* I , ^.Bl^Be^ 

'lofiilia erirf nl b*!cffneB** esna 
- n BBW ' srfT .^Bb 

et' -> erf* r io RtedmsM . . Jf 18 ftrfrf *fl 

DHB t sldstf s bectsee 

a 1 ">rf* ^Tctrfoll Y 1 ^ 

toBrfTifi 157 EBl^iroG *sri^ ie ^ I " . 



350 



Adams 






one of the speakers at the luncheon. 

In the evening members of the committee were 
guests at the premiere. I sat with Mr. Harry Clark 
who had helped in working over the picture and whom 
I had known very well in studies I had made in the 
Imperial Valley. As nearly as I can remember the 
principal resolutions adopted related t o support of 

large western storage projects then under considera- 


tion, and support of the recommendations by Secretary 

of Commerce Herbert Hoover for federal aid in con 
struction of the storage. As I remember it Mr. Hoover 
had recently made several speeches in the northwest 
favoring such federal aid, 

I don't remember what, if any, influence the 
conference had, but what makes it worth remembering 
was the effort to glamorize western reclamation 
through the medium of a rather glamorous moving 
picture. 















,noerfocwl sjcict 3z cisjfaeqe o sno 

setfctimrnoo ainevs rfcf nl 

81SlB39' r *B Stfp.&s 

n2 b r 

ftri^ nl ebe ; [ ' I 

I iedr "A IsV Islieqinl 

"ic " r bscfacba snc' -q 

Teblanoo ! a^oef.ciq .tesw s^rcel 

J3^9T: itf lo )1B t f U 

-n> - oO "ic 

ooH ,iM cti r ; 2 A .e^Biotfe er: 

cteewi erirf r. ueeqe IB^evee 'ST bsri 

.bis iBnsbel 
eri^ er , t ;t&rfw ledinen:-. 

ee^iBm ctsriw ^0d , eiTslaoo 

nc "sewr esiioir. ;J esw 

srirfBi B T:o taulbfan ? 



351 






Baum: 



Adams 



Baum: 
Adams ; 
Baum: 
Adams : 









SURVEY IN PALESTINE 

Was your Palestinian trip an outgrowth of your interest 

j_^, 
in land settlement? 









ft 



Well, my background with the land settlement movement 
in California undoubtedly had to do with my participation 
in that work. The way that came about, Dr. Mead had 
been asked to head a commission to study Zionist 
colonization in Palestine. He told me Knowles Ryerson 
was going over to look into the agriculture and A. T. 
Strahorn the soils and could I suggest someone to 

make a study of the colonies. I suggested myself. 

, . 
You wanted to go. 

I though I'd like to do that. 

, 
Under whose auspices was this trip? 



The Zionist movement, following World War I and the 
Balfour Declaration proposing establishment of a 
national home for the Jews in Palestine, had carried 
on a great drive for funds to carry out the ideas of 
that mandate. One of the most important activities 



was establishment of agricultural colonies. There 
had been agricultural settlement in Palestine prior 
to that, some by Jews, some by non-Jews. Baron 
Edmond de Rothschild of Paris had come to the rescue 












1- 



'Q 



>uc ns alii 






s 



. w 3&i 

ij3i^ 






?tfnsn;olct;tss 

imevcr -nfcl erirf " ad ^m t IIeW 

:sq ijrr 

,tC . o ;}. 

Ct' 

. 

oct 
. 

.05 oct bsctiiBW 

. 

8BV 

arf. r ol , r 

^BteJ- LB& 

belt- - "il swaL erfct : error lar 

ebru.il to* evl g B no 

vtaom srirf ?< . '>nem ^srfrf 

B lo Jner ; 2e BBW 

' -. ^e laii/rtluo JI^B need bsrf 
. >/eL-n. e t 8wel> Y' e ^8flc 

an or bBri piiBl 1o blJffoer' 



eallJ t' roxf* I 

isbnl 1 



13 b A 

-JB9 

:ar. 



352 



Adams 












Baum: 
Adams 



of a number of Jews from Russia and Austria, I think, 
who had become stranded down there. He helped them 
through as a matter of charity rather than any ideas 
of colonization. After his death the matter was taken 
over by the Rothschild Foundation and put on more of 
a business basis. Settlers were financed much along 
the lines that had been successful in Australia and 
many European countries. 

The larger part of the funds raised for work of 
the Zionist organization In Palestine came from 
American Jews. The American Jews, headed by Louis 
Marshall, a very noted attorney in New York, had 
reached the conclusion that the Zionists were wasting 
the money on social projects and they didn't want to 
give any more money until they had a thorough study 
of what the situation was. So about 1926 or 1927 the 
Zionists and the non-Zionists, under Louis Marshall, 
agreed on a joint Investigation under the auspices of 
what they called the Joint Palestine Survey Commission. 
Dr. Mead was asked to head a group to make the Investi 
gation. 

What did you think of the colonies when you were there? 
Here's the report, except for the appendices which 
were the reports of those of us who had made the field 
studies. Dr. Mead, as chairman of the group, was 






t t 'BifA bnB &! -1 EwsL lo tscfmifn B lo 

Isrf P T . :J- nwob bobnaii'a eroeoed berf orfw 

i vnB fie; '^BT Y^^^^ri r 'Bra B SB -rf^ 

ctetn erf* rfcteeb 
Ic BICIT . ao 1 ? k 

.isIJcfsS . :BBC ! "d B 

bn. c " it; a neec -. en 1 1 erfd- 

. ^iTtfrujoo nseqc 

lo jfiow Tol ! -^ to ^n '"ifil erfT 

1 ni noJ 

.awe!, ncoi r . 

t nl YaaicJJB beet , 

? ^esw 

oct ^HBW cJ'nfc : Bona{;oiq I no Y 9ficri : 

^bfj J- B bjerf Tjric} 113ms 

.BBW no^Btf^ 
-:tBM ? . - bnB ecteJ 

Sid-eevnl ^n.fo(. e no beetgB 
. 'JRE HBO Y 9r ^ ^Brfw 

! 
. 

- OY bj;b " 

ri: rs erf^ nol ^qsoxs . ndi e ' a r r 

erfj e ^,ri orfw ajj to seorf^ to s.-t'-ioq9i 

?,BW . *)ficf to nBjrail a t b ,iG 



3S3 



Adams: mainly responsible for the main report, although the 
rest of us had some part in it. 

Baum: (reading) Reports of thg Experts Submitted to_ the 

Joint Palestine Survey Commission. Boston, October 1, 
1928. 

Adams: My specific job was to visit the colonies and study 
their financial condition over the years, learn what 
I could as to their attitude and the character of 
the people. All records regarding the colonies were 
in Hebrew. Fortunately, the chief accountant of the 
Zionist organization in Jerusalem was an American and 
he read off to me the headings of their records and 
I selected what Iwanted and he compiled the data for 
me for each of the colonies. So I had this background 
material when I talked with the settlers, 

Baum: I suppose you had to talk through an interpreter 
mainly. 

Adams: Yes, except occasionally there were Americans there. 

I remember one very bright young woman of about twenty, 

the daughter of a New York rabbi, who was in one of 

the colonies down in the Jordon Valley. She illustrated 

the enthusiasm which had led many of the settlers to 

go there. She said she went down there just for a visit 

and was so enraptured by the beauty of the Ideals and 

their plans that she became a colonist. 






dlenoqeei 

. tfl nl d Kin' atf lo 

^gg 






t . 

. 

^bucfp. bnB ealncJ" :t ^lelv : '-loeqr 

ctfirtw mjsel ^aie^Y f 4Jtonfinl'> n^erirf 

1o le^ojg- ibr^Jf^^* il v SB r 

;i ebiooei 1IA .Iqosq ertt 
t ;'! w ni 

rel ni n< ,^TC ^Elr 

i ilerfvt lo asnlbaerf srf^ - I'to bBsi eil 

nc -idtf bf- ba^nawl Jfirf^ be^oeler. 

. ilncl i lo riofls tol axn 

licfse ;laJ I 

is. o-trfd 1 5flerf o 7, 



emsbA 






rf.1 oxa t 

. inpw.'t Jt" cif rfrisltd v. no tsdjmsrrsat I 

Ic sno nl : . ,flt jinoY weW i si/eb 

YQlIfiV nobioL erf^ nl n>. 

o^ P." >e jrf^ ' >! berf rinidN ^-'cBcrrfins srfcf 

rfle ^v e 1 .- a irfe bl.wi? . arfcJ o 

rJUBZld 3f{J Y^ ^ e ' 

a QfliBOscf 9ria J 






Adams: I spoke of the Rothschild colonies which were 
organized on a business basis with the idea that 
definite obligations were being assumed by the settlers 
and financial arrangements similar to those being used 
in that type of aid by governments in Europe and 
Australia. 

The Zionist colonies were of two kinds, the 
collective or "communistic" colonies, and the small 
holders' colonies in which each colonist had his own 
piece of land and his own home in the village. They 
followed the European pattern of village settlement 
and surrounding or outlying farms. That type of group 

settlement was necessary because of the constant 
danger of Bedouin raids. They always had lookouts day 
and night. 

In the communistic colonies the settlers lived 
in dormitories and the work was parceled out by 
committees. Each one had equal shares as to anything 
obtained. They had large barns for their stock and 
heavy investments in that type of buildings. In the 
dormitories, one room for each family. The children 
were kept in nurseries and supervised and educated by 
the teachers or nurses. They were allowed to visit their 
families every evening for an hour. 

There were three main areas in Palestine where 






91 oil" i I 

;tBri;f Bebl srf^ cirflw eieflcf RS d no bes 

erfd- ^d ' ' ' fdo 

^ IB I .^*nom, 3 iBjoriBn.!'! 

B 6' si yd bis lo 9qv;J ^ar 






t sbnl3f ow, --raw selnoloo ;S 

erf* bnr, "oltfeinur 'to e 

nwo eiri bBff r,9 dolriw ni e 

^(> . K rsuo e.? lo eoeic 

ctneirielctcfs Jd-sq rusec. vdt bswcllr 

lo .sfftBl snlyld-wo ic .-8 

;tru : .-t lo etu/flosd Y' 1JB8aeoen ' 9ffieI*^S8 

ab f, bsri .ablBt n^uob8 

.ctri^ln boB 
beviT p,Te!-tcte>e ^Ir.oloo ol:t8.tmnnrroo ^:i^ . 

>/ 3itow arfct bn ob nl 

gO Ctf Rfl 891' 89*C}L'tiniOO 

bna >' lisrfd- tol eniad ejatBj fcerf 7 

.egnibllyd "io sq^:t *Bri* nl 
n&ibLlr^o en'T .YUmsl riojsa tol moc sno e 

^seivisquB bna eeiteei.crn r<i ^qs^I aiew 
iJelv o* hawollfl stew ijerfT , ^a-ttrn 10 BT=rioBect arirf 

.10 erf rtB ^ol 
ni 8et " Qiew 9- 



Adams: land had been purchased by the Jews for colonization. 
One was the coastal plain of varying widths and it was 

* 

in about the central part of that area that the 
Rothschild colonies had been mainly settled and in 
which there were quite a number of Zionist colonies. 
The principal agriculture was growing citrus and 
grapes. The Rothschilds had built a large winery 
which provided a market for grapes. The Palestine 
oranges are recognized as some of the finest grown 
anywhere. The second general area was the Eraek, or 
the Plain of Esdraelon as mentioned in the Bible. 
That lay midway between the coast and the Jordan 
Valley, a large area eight or ten miles across with 
very scant water supply, only springs, no streams. 
Then there was the Jordan Valley and lands adjacent 
to the Sea of Galilee. There were also a number of 
colonies in the hill country. 

Well, we found that generally speaking the hill 
colonies were unsuccessful financially. There were a 
number of reasons. In the first place, the hill areas 
were not suitable for very profitable agriculture. 
Their methods of organization were entirely lacking in 
sound business principles. Let me illustrate. Not 
far from Jerusalem was a colony of 75> acres, largely 
shallow, barren land, worn-out terraces, and some of 



noloo iol sweL srtt -%<$ feep.ie tided bsri boal 

Jons eri;tblw $nlY'*v lo r: " gritf eflw enO 

- xeq iBTcfner Ji/od* nl 

nl brtB b&133. ->*<J bjerl e^J sfttoH 

eelirt tedmwn erfl- 


Yisnfw egnel JB .8 

; ^esinjwr! s 

nwoig ^eenil o bes.' ;T eaa aegruBio 

so ,: 9iid . njna 

3if* neswied Y^^^-i^ Y fi r 

! :lgl9 B8 a t Y9l!flV 

. TiBei;} - ^Ino t y-f<lQ Lr! 3 ' 

aBbioL erf^ 

.eel ' 

. '--ctniroo 1 1 IP il I: 

II.' .' bavv 

.3n2^ lulp.eeooi;! ; aalnoloc 

ees'TB IJ srtct t a.'' -.ail erlrf al 

-B eldfltfllc-' tol O- ^sw 

ilctns siew no tt&sln&yio 1c sm- ilsriT 

LI era - . . f ; r " oniRud bn;;oe 

G ?Y ^o Y no - B e - -oil f 

1r -aiow 



356 



Adams: It very heavy land. Twenty families were on that 

project and they expected to make a living out of it, 
The total population as I recall was about 75>, Including 
children. Dairying and poultry were their principal 
sources of income. Alfalfa for the dairy cows could 
not be raised in the colony. It had to be trucked 
in from the coastal area. I remember in the interviews 
one of the settlers said he had only two cows to milk 
and had nothing to do between seven o'clock in the 
morning and five o'clock at night except argue social 
theories and politics. They couldn't possibly make 
a living. It was an extreme case, but there were 
others that approached that. The coastal colonies 
and those along the Jordan River directly below the 
Sea of Galilee had greater agricultural possibilities. 

The great difficulty over there was that the 
Zionist movement as carried out in Palestine was largely 
founded on achieving a new social order and the colon 
ization was very largely controlled by the labor 
organizations. They had complete say as to who should 

be selected as colonists and they kept very careful 
track of their activities. There was a very stringent 
rule against exploiting labor. No outside labor should 
be hired. Occasionally there was some easing of that 
by allowing relatives to help. In many of the colonies 






no smew selLlin&t TjcfnewT .bnsl ^vsarf 

e >(m ocf be: Y^tf ^^B *oc' 

"- Irnl ,?Y Strode acw HBO 9-1 I BJB r oj erfT 

.ne-rbllrfo 

f.^ 'lot flllislIA .9m< : aeotuce 

ariJ r -i ecf *on 

p.ufftlvretfnl en'. te. T I ,a r sri* moil ni 

ii f lim o^ ew. blse eno 

rf^ ni ' -eg n ob oc* bns 

Ix- -)t/gifi ^B jloolo'o evi'i hn* gnlntoin 

ejfBr/ Y^-issoq cf'r Y* - l^JtJoq bnB ae 

v eiarfj d0d ( OEP,O (wnstrfxe a& BBV *I 

% rf] . 

sri :>9ilb 

. <}31I'' sis 

'i'ilj*: 
YlegtJSl x^i ^irc beliiBO SJB '/om 

-n; '.no bebr 

r nol" 
EB YC oj? : { Ye^T 

f Tert3 bciB e^ejfnoloo n nales erf 

*n ( esw starfT .eeldjtvl^?;' 7.0 TfoBt* 

eble^uo .lodBl gnicfjtolqx^ ^enlfl^B 9li/x 

lc 9 eino B BBW eierfct -^IlBiicieBooO .beilrl ed 

;BJtn ni .qlari 



: EinfibA 



- 



357 



Adams 



Baum: 



Adams: 






the area of land was so small they couldn't possibly 
make a living, let alone keep themselves occupied. 
The labor organizations also influenced their com 
munity cooperative movements and industrial development 
and so forth. Their emphasis was in a new social 
order and to get away from the evils of the capital 
istic system. 

At one of the hearings, one of the labor leaders 
who had principal responsibility in their main 
organization said in reference to the constant deficits 
that the need for more assistance didn't worry them 
at all. The greater the need over there, the greater 
the amount they could get from the Jews of the world. 
Did you feel that these ideas were detrimental to 
their economy or was i t that the situation was so 
difficult due to natural conditions that it wouldn't 
have been improved any other way anyhow? 
We, of course,, were not primarily concerned with the 
social theories of the Zionists of Palestine, but 
only with their effect on the economic success of 
the colonies. Nevertheless, we had to take these 
theories into account, as well as the control exercised 
by the labor organizations. In the communistic 
colonies the individual was of course subordinated to 
the group. In the small holders' colonies there was 



s Y* *e-rB Qdi 

.b o Bevlsainarfct qe< T ^nlvil s tfjani 

-moo il9r& beoneLrTlnJ Enol.:: -.cfsl e 

' -sqooo ijr 

2 bns 
/BWB cf9" od' bnfi 

^no ,BJ5nJijrerf rf^ lo eno JA 

nlfiir ii- ' ' qlonliq fcerf o 

3-fJofc ^i nl b.f ^Bslnssto 

morid- YITOW w vl ' atsEB r : 

r i^ t o been sri^ isctfi- .!!B d-a 

. 

-tew essbi sse 

v TO a iledf 

>noo lair 

HB bv 

;niiq ^on 9' sW ternBbA 

dr . "to as ' oc 

lc aooft erf^ no ^.- ' TO 

?9riJ- ^3ffic) ' ew t E8l . D erid 

lo / BJB t dnuooofl 

l 2lnf r rc-:co srfcf nl .enoi^jBalcuBsio TocfBl srfct 

hs^flr rtroo to EBW Isub ' ^s 

es.f Tsblorf IlBma erf,' . 



358 



Adams: greater individual freedom but the colonists were 






not obligated by a contract with the Zionist organ 
ization by which they would be financially responsible 
to it no incentive to individual effort to complete 
a definite obligation as in the Rothschild colonies 
and in publicly-sponsored land settlements in Australia, 
Europe, and in the settlements in California. The 
Rothschild colonies by this time were generally 
successful. Incidentally, on one of those colonies 
we visited there were seven graduates of the University 
of California College of Agriculture, and they gave 
us a luncheon there. 

' 

Of course, you, and I suppose all the members of 
the commission, were by your personal experience 
committed to a different type of life, but perhaps 
that communistic type of life was satisfactory for 
those people who had come from a different background. 
Adams: Oh yes. On the other hand, we could only give our 



conclusions on what we thought would be the ultimate 
effect and to raise the question of whether the people 

wanted to support that type of thing. 
That must have been a very interesting trip for you. 



Baum: 



Baum: 
Adams : 
Baum: 
Adams : 






Oh yes. 

Mrs. Adams didn't get to go along? 

No, she had four children to take care of. It wasn't 



ilflolco Gdi Jud tfobae-tl iBwblvlbnl nereis :ar 
- IBS^O ctelnoJS erftf rfcJJw 3; o B ^d batfjoplldo don 

' ed biucw ^exl 'd-fisi 

^ 'toll? ' -.- 

"'IlfoBif*oH srf* al EB r. \lleb 

nl ErfnaiualJ^ea bnei b? - q nl bns 

.BlniclITBO nl e;hv. HB ,f 

Ylls'iene-- e-i Irict ^cf ( ofl 

1o eno no . bio ,Iu1e_ee 

erf^ 1o ; fvea 9icw iv ew 

, -tgA lo sjaellc 'olIlBO lo 

> : ul B eu 

Ic Biecf;; oqqt/B I bnB t ' t ei 10 

iSJTaqxs Isnoaisq IUOY tcf eisw ,nr.' oo exicf 

oqY^ ctnaiellJtb B ocf berf^limr 

10' ral^Br lo sq^d oj ; noo cfsri^ 

.- f .-oil ctno:- 3q 9e ; 

t bnsxl tarl^o rfd . 

.'..-'.rorfrf sw ctBriw ac sno., 
si )riw Ic nci*E9i/p erfd" eelai orf bns itoelle 

.gnlrfrf *>. : f tacit *'-.- oJ be^njBw 

qlivt snitfBeistfnl ^iv need ev-^1 ctemn etc 

.ee^ rfO 

?^olB 05 o* *eji tf'nblb ettBbA .siM 
.lo eiso 9>Isj "ibllrfo ^liu-'j bnd erie t 



359 



Adams: fair to go on that trip, and that trip to Prance back 
in 1919 and leave her at home, as I look back on it. 

Baum: Was the report generally approved? 

Adams: I think our report was rather generally approved by 
American Jews. When the report was completed, Dr. 
Mead and I went up to see Louis Marshall in his office 
and give him the report. Mr. Marshall was a most 
remarkable man, a great ponderous head, a tremendous 
mind, he reminded me very much of David Lubin, whom 
I had seen over at the Fairmont Hotel with Dean Hunt 
and listened to him talk for about an hour on affairs 
in which he was interested. I must describe Mr. 
Marshall's desk. He had a big double desk about seven 

feet long and five feet wide. He had it piled up 
all around, three sides of it, so high, with briefs 
and documents, and an area about the size of this 
card table on which he could work. He read the report 
through right there, except for the individual reports 

included as appendices, and he was quite pleased with 
, . 

I should have mentioned ear Her that our group 
included Dr. Mead as chairman; Dr. Jacob G. Lipman, 
director of the Agricultural Experiment Station at 
the New Jersey College of Agriculture; Arthur T. 
Strahorn, who had done a lot of soil survey work for 



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360 



Adams: the Bureau of Reclamation and had formerly been 
attached to the Bureau of Soils; Mr. Cyril Q. 
Henriques, a former English irrigation engineer in 
India, then connected with the Zionist organization 
in Palestine, who joined us to study especially the 
irrigation features, Knowles A. Ryerson, who is now 
Dean of Agriculture here, and I w as the last one, 

Mr. and Mrs. Ryerson, Mr. and Mrs. Strahorn 
and I went over together about March or April of 
1927 to carry through our field assignments. We 
were joined about two months later by Dr. and Mrs. 
Mead and Dr. and Mrs. Lipman. Then the entire 
group, accompanied by one or more of the Zionist 
officials held what might be called hearings in a 
number of important colonies, and also visited 
several of the enterprises of the Zionists, including 
the agricultural experiment station. Later Dr. Mead 
and Dr. Lipman interviewed a number of the leaders 
in the Zionist movement and the British high com 
missioner for Palestine and others who were responsible 
for the control of the British mandate over Palestine. 

Two or three weeks were devoted to this study 
by Dr. Mead and Dr. Lipman. Then the groupreturned 
home except for Mr. Strahorn who stayed on to complete 
his soil survey of Palestine. 



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361 



Adams: What I've said about our opinion regarding the 

colonies has been mainly critical. The report also 

. 
contained much that was commendatory regarding the 

Zionist movement and its various aspects. Laying 
the foundations for what was to be a new nation was 
a tremendous undertaking. Great progress had been 
made in what they call amelioration of the land: that 
is, making it ready for settlement. The agricultural 
experiment station had developed a very able group 
of workers. A very effective system of cooperative 
credit had been built up under the able leadership 
of Mr. Harry Vitteles. I personally was greatly 
impressed by the devotion and zeal of the colonists 
in their effort to build up a Jewish national home. 
They were willing to undergo great hardships in their 
daily lives. 








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362 






WORK ON INTERNATIONAL AND INTERSTATE WATER RIGHTS 

Attempted Compact Between the. United States 
and Mexico. 1928-1930 



Baura: You had worked on the compact between the United 
States and Mexico. When was that? 

Adams: Some time in the middle of the 1920' s Congress 

appointed a commission to study the use of Rio Grande 
water below Port Quitman in Texas and to reach an 
agreement with Mexico in connection with the use of 
the waters there. Mexico appointed a commission and 
at the same time requested that the two commissions 
also consider the Colorado and the Tia Juana. The 
Tia Juana is a small stream that flows from Mexico 
into California along the border south of San Diego, 
The American commission was headed by Dr. Mead, 
Commissioner of Reclamation, and it had on it also 
Major General Lansing H. Beach, retired, and Mr. 

W. E. Anderson from the lower Rio Grande area. 
. 

When that plan was adopted of including the 

Colorado and the Tia Juana, Dr. Mead felt they didn't 
have adequate information about what was going on 
along the Colorado in Imperial Valley in California 
and in Mexico and asked me to make a special study of 
that. I did that in 1926 and 1927. That was preliminary 
to any joint meetings of the Mexican and American 
commissions. I prepared a report roughly it dealt 
with stream flow, irrigated and irrigable lands, use 






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363 



Adams 



Baura: 
Adams 



Baum: 
Adams : 



of water, the various Irrigation developments, and 
water rights that had been established. That was ir 
the United States as far up as Cottonwood Island in 



Nevada, it didn't include the upper tributaries of 



the Colorado, My report is in Appendix B of this 
report of the International Water Commission, United 

ir, 

States and Mexico, 1930. 
You didn't do any work in Mexico? 

Yes, I made a special report on the use of Colorado 
River water in Mexico. That was covered In Appendix 
l[ of the report. Then I made a third report, Appendix 
5, entitled "An Inspection Trip over the Colorado River 
Levee Systems Below Yuma, ', Arizona, December 17, l8 
and 19, 1929". The river was in high flood stage at 
that time. There had been great devastation of the 
levee systems in Mexico. The course of the river in 
Mexico had changed again. The flood stage down there 
was important In reaching an understanding with Mexico. 
How much field work did you have to do on these reports? 
I was In the field several months at least. I had 



to take leave from the University when I did that. 






The first joint meeting of the commission was 
held in El Paso in February of 1928. I wns not present. 
I got a wire asking me to come to their second meeting 
which was held in Mexico City beginning August 20, 1929. 






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36k 



Adams: The third session was held later in Washington. My 
particular job in those meetings was to go over with 
the representative of the Mexican commission, Mr, 
J. L. Pavela, all the data we had collected and attempt 
to reach an agreement as to the facts and report 
disagreement where we weren't able to reconcile our 
facts. About three weeks were devoted to that work 
in Mexico City and probably a week in Washington. 

The situation along the Rio Grande, the Colorado 
and the Tia Juana was quite different in the two 
countries. The Colorado water supply comes entirely 
from the United States. Some 70$ of the water in the 
lower Rio Grande comes from Mexico. On the Tia Juana 
important tributaries rise in the United States, pass 
into Mexico, join the main Tia Juana and flow back 
into the United States. The commission was faced with 
the situation that Mexico was in a position to hold out 
the supply along the Rio Grande for a larger supply 
from the Colorado and the Tia Juana. There was some 
feeling among the people along the lower Rio Grande 
and also in California that the interests of one area 
might be sacrificed by the commission for the interests 
of the other, so they watched the proceedings of the 
commission very carefully. 

Baum: I presume that is why Mexico insisted on considering 






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365 



Baum: all three rivers at once, for better bargaining, 
Adams: Undoubtedly. I had nothing to do with the lower Rio 
Grande so I won't discuss it. 

One of my findings on the use of Colorado River 
water in Mexico was that the maximum amount of water 
they used in any one year up to 1928 was some 750,000 
acre-feet. The American section proposed that that 
be the allowance to Mexico from the Colorado. The 
Mexican government had an entirely different idea. 
When reclamation of Imperial Valley was started back 
in the early 1900 's it was necessary to reach an 
agreement with Mexico as to the conveyance of water 
through Mexico from the Colorado through an old 
natural channel back into the Imperial Valley in 
California. The high range of sand hills between the 
Colorado River and Imperial Valley made it necessary 
at that time to go through Mexico. The concession 
granted by Mexico provided that of the water so diverted, 
sufficient should, be supplied to Mexico to water the 
lands there, but not exceeding half of the total 
supply diverted. On that basis Mexico claimed about 
three and a half million acre-feet against the 7E>0,000 
acre-feet the American section was willing to concede 
to Mexico. 

Mexico had still another criterion for deciding 






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366 



Adams 









the amount they were entitled to, that is, the relative 
areas of irrigable land. On that basis their claim 
was also about three and a half million acre-feet. 

Well, with such wide differences needless to say 
they didn't reach agreement. They reported that dis 
agreement and the commission concluded its labors. 
Some years later an agreement w as negotiated and a 
treaty signed by which Mexico was given, I thinly about 
twice the amount the American section of the earlier 
commission offered. It was negotiated by Lawrence M. 
Lawson for the United States. Mr. Lawson had been 
boundary commissioner on the changing boundary between 

Mexico and the United States due to the meandering 
of the river during floods. He had made an exhaustive 
investigation of the Colorado River system for the 
Bureau of Reclamation in earlier days. He was present 
at the meetings of the commission at El Paso, Mexico 
City, and Washington. He and I were in college together, 
a man I knew very well. 

Some years after the American commission filed 
its report, and prior to the negotiation of the final 
treaty, I met Mr. Lawson and I asked, "What's the 
status of the situation down there?" "Well," he said, 
(he was rather droll), "We're just waiting for that 
old report to be forgotten. " 



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367 



Adams: California was never satisfied with what was 
finally negotiated. 

Rio Grande Joint Investigation, 1935-1938 

Baura: You were a member of the consulting board of the Rio 
Grande Joint Investigation for the National Resources 
Committee from 1935-1938. I believe that investigation 
resulted in an interstate compact between Colorado, 
New Mexico, and Texas on the use of Rio Grande waters. 
How did that investigation come about? 

Adams: In the replies from the various governors to the 

inquiry sent out in connection with a study I made 
in '3i| for the National Resources Planning Board on 
water rights and legal aspects of water resources in 
the arid and semi-arid regions, the need for agreements 
on a number of interstate streams was mentioned. That 
may have had something to do with the National Resources 
Board having us undertake the Rio Grande Joint In 
vestigation. 

The first I knew of the proposed investigation 
was a wire asking me if I w ould serve with Professor 
Harlan H. Barrows of the University of Chic ago. Department 
of Geography in arranging an investigation on the Rio 
Grande working toward an agreement and ultimate compact. 
I was very glad to undertake that, it was a fine 



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368 



Adams: opportunity. So a meeting was called in Santa Pe 
in the summer of 1936 at which the interstate com 
missioners who had tried to w ork out a compact on the 
Rio Grande but had not succeeded were brought together 
along with representatives of major interests along 
the Rio Grande and its tributaries in Colorado and 
New Mexico and Texas, We had a large conference. 
Sinclair 0. Harper, who was then assistant chief 
engineer of the Bureau of Reclamation and later chief 
engineer had been appointed by the President as the 
federal representative on the compact commission. 

We had a very interesting meeting. It was 
preliminary in nature. Professor Barrows and I were 
feeling out what was possible or desirable. At the 
end of the conference, which lasted about three days, 
we were told by some of the state representatives 
that more progress had been made toward reaching 
agreement than at any time since the interstate 
compact commission had been established. 

With that meeting back of us we planned an 
investigation, outlined an organization, solicited 
the cooperation of the Geological Survey and the 
Department of Agriculture, and the federal wildlife 
agency which had large game preserve interests on the 
Rio Grande. We outlined a plan of procedure which 



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369 



Adams: was perhaps rather more elaborate than was necessary, 
but we toofc the job very seriously. 

We got Mr. Walter W. McLaughlin to come over In 
order to interest him and members of his Irrigation 
staff of the Department of Agriculture in the studies 
of use of water and related questions. Mr. N. C. 
Grover, head of the Water Resources Branch of the 
Geological Survey, gave his hearty cooperation. He 
was so interested he met with us every conference we 
held for the next two years. I had the opportunity to 
meet In him one of the finest men I've ever known. 

After we had worked out a plan of organization 
and obtained the cooperation of the various agencies 
we submitted our plan to the National Social Planning 
Board in Chicago and got their approval and authorization 
necessary to carry it out. Each state,of course, paid 
its own expenses. The Department of Agriculture and 
the Geologic Survey undoubtedly paid the salaries 
of their representatives, but we had a large fund 
for expenses, for technical assistants, for preparation 
of maps, clerical help, etc. something around $100,000 
or more, I don't know for sure. In any event, it was 
an expensive investigation. 

We appointed Harlowe M. Stafford, of the staff 
of the state engineer of California, to head up the 



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370 



Adams 






Baum: 
Adams 



investigation. Mr. Fred C. Scobey of Mr. Mclaughlin's 
staff was associate engineer. The investigation went 
on for the next two years and here is the rather vol 
uminous report. 

When were you working on this? 

In 1936 and 1937. We transmitted our report on 
August 10, 1937. Mr. Barrows and I were the consulting 
board responsible for the planning and conduct of 
the investigation. We held, I think, twelve or thirteen 
conferences in Santa Pe in which all these various 
interests were brought together. The representatives 
from the states accompanied us over the entire basin, 
along the Rio Grande as far as Port Quitman some 
eighty miles below El Paso up through New Mexico 
into the headwaters of the Rio Grande in the San 
Luis Valley in Colorado. So we became very familiar 
with the terrain. 

I have almost a complete record of the proceedings 
of the conferences which I plan to turn over to Bancroft 
Library and possibly all my correspondence with 
Professor Barrows relating to it. 

The final drafting of the compact was accomplished 
on the basis of our report under the leadership of 
Mr. Harper who was the federal representative on the 
compact commission. That came after we had completed 



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371 



Adams: our report. 

Baum: Was everyone who worked on this report objective 

about dividing up the water or were they partisan? 

Adams: It was entirely an objective investigation a 

practical study of the situation. There were sharp 
differences of opinion between the states and their 
representatives from time to time, but a fine spirit 
was exhibited throughout the period in which we were 
working on the project. 

Baum: Do you feel that such an elaborate investigation was 
necessary? 

Adams: It was a broad question and needed broad treatment. 
I've never regretted that we undertook it in the way 
we did. In such a complicated situation as we were 
dealing with you cannot tell in advance what particular 
facts will have influence. We therefore sought to 
include all important phases of the situation which 
might be of help, and which might turn out to be of 
historical significance, 

Baum: What was Professor Barrow's background? 

Adams: He was head of geography at the University of Chicago. 

He was a member of the water committee of the National 
Resources Planning Board and had been active in that 
work from the beginning of the planning efforts of the 
federal government after the Roosevelt administration- 






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372 



Adams; 



Baum: 
Adams; 



Baum: 



Adams 






took over. The first organization was, I believe, 
the Mississippi Valley Committee. Out of it was 
developed the braoder title of the National Resources 



Planning Board. 









How would youdescribe Professor Barrows? 
He was a man of great ability, very fine personality, 
a commanding figure, about six feet four, very 
articulate, and with a remarkable memory for detail. 
Geographers had a very broad point of view about such 
work. Incidentally, Professor Barrows and Professor 
Carl Sauer of the University of California represented 
two very opposite points of view in geography. 
Did you do any further work for the National Resources 
Planning Board? 

A couple of years after the completion of the Rio 
Grande investigation the National Resources Planning 
Board had an idea there ought to be a standardization 
of the water laws of the western states. That was a 
feeling that came from people in Washington looking 
out to the West. So they organized a subcommittee of 
the Water Resources Committee of the National Resources 
Planning Board with Mr. A. E. Chandler, my old 
California friend whom I have mentioned a number of 
times previously, as chairman, and Duane E. Minard, a 
prominent lawyer from New Jersey, A. W. McHendrie from 






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373 

Adams: Colorado who was primarily interested in underground 
waters, Mr. Phil Glick of the Solicitor's Office of 
the Department of Agriculture in Washington, and 
myself. We held meetings in Washington and Berkeley. 
The work finally terminated because, I believe, of 
Mr. Chandler's rigid antagonism to any federal effort 
to bring about changes in the western water laws. 
He and I and the representative from Colorado were 
asked to prepare special reports. 

My special report was on principles relating 
to rights to water from surface streams. This was 
mimeographed by the National Resources Planning 

Board. I do not recall the subject of Mr. Chandler's 
special report, if he wrote one, but that written 
by Mr. McHendrie was on underground water law. 
That's the last we had to do with it. They decided 
the work would be continued entirely by representatives 
of the federal government. I was sorry our group was 
not allowed to complete the study, but I was anxious 
to see what conclusions would be reached. I feel sure 
that the committee would have advised against any 
attempt to standardize these western laws because 
nothing could be gained by that, and there really 
was no need for it. We might have been able to 
make suggestions that would have been helpful to some 
of the states or that would have clarified the functions 
and responsibilities of both the federal government 
and the states in matters of water rights. I do not 
recall whether a federal group continued the study. 



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COMMENTS ON CALIFORNIA STATE ENGINEERS AND 



OTHER LEADERS IDENTIFIED WITH CALIFORNIA 



IRRIGATION AND WATER DEVELOPMENT 



State Engineers 



37k 



Baum: Was it State Engineer McClure you w orked with so 
closely? 

Adams: My first contact was with Mr. Nathaniel Ellery. , 

That lasted for only about two years. He was state 
engineer when I took over in California in 1910. He 
was succeeded by Mr. McClure. I think at that time 
Mr. McClure was the engineer member of the Berkeley 
city commission. I worked with Mr. McClure until 
he died in 1926 and it was a very close association. 
At one time he had been a lay minister and his work 
was primarily over in Owens Valley. 

He was an ideal man for contact between the 
state and the irrigation districts. He was very 
heartily sympathetic to the legislation which brought 
the districts under more and more control of the state, 
He personally went over in the field most proposals 
for formation of districts, and most of the districts 
in the planning or construction stage. 






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Wilbur P. McClure 
State Engineer, 1912 - 1926 



Baum: I take it he was quite favorable to irrigation districts. 

Adams: Oh yes, he was. He was on an irrigation district 

inspection trip when he died. Later, in recognition 
of his work with irrigation districts and especially 
Merced District, Merced District named their large 
reservoir back of Exchequer Dam Lake McClure. I had 
the privilege of being on the committee that arranged 
for placing a bronze plaque at the dam site. 

When he died he was director of public works and 
state engineer. Paul Bailey, then assistant state 
engineer, was immediately made acting and a little 
later was given the full title of director of public 
works and state engineer. My contact with him was 
very brief, just to keep him informed of what we 
were doing. His ideas about administration were 
shomewhat different from mine and a number of other 
people's. 

Baum: Did Mr. Bailey go out to the irrigation districts 
and give them the assistance that Mr. McClure had? 

Adams: I never knew of his doing so. By that time the state 
engineer had assistant engineers who took over the 
work that Mr. McClure personally undertook. Mr. 
Bailey was in charge, under Mr. McClure, of the -water 
resources studies made as an outcome of the campaign 
for the Marshall Plan and the appropriation of $200,000 






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376 



Adams: by the legislature for that purpose. Mr. McClure 

asked me what part I would like to have in the investiga 
tions under that appropriation. My reply was that I 
didn't want to have any part in it except to be intereste< 
in it and help in any way I could, but that I thought 
it would be advantageous to the work if they took 
Mr. Scobey of the Irrigations Investigations staff 
in as office engineer, which they did. 

When Mr. C. C. Young became governor, Mr. Hyatt 
was made state engineer. Mr. Hyatt was at that time 
chief of the Water Rights Division. 

Baura: Did you work with Mr. Hyatt much? 

Adams: Very closely. A wonderful man, a man of unusual 
ability, unusual political sense. He knew how to 
deal with people. He had their confidence. He had 
the loyalty of every man in the department. They had 
an affection for him, respected him. He knew how 
to deal with committees in Congress on matters of 
appropriations. He knew how to deal with delegations 
of congressmen who came out here. He knew how to 
plan big undertakings and knew how to have a group of 
men in his department to whom he could assign respon 
sibilities and who were all men of fine ability. 

A. D. (Bob) Edmonston was assistant state 
engineer, mainly responsible for technical activities 






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3J?, drificteleeB BW nc^enoirrba (cfo6) .Q .A 

eelJ tvirfo.fi Jeo.^niioerf icl eldi 



377 



Adams 



Baum: 



Adams 



of the department. Others on the senior staff as 

I remember them Included Harold Conkling, who was 

chief of the Division of Water Rights, until he resigned 

to enter private consulting practice, T. B. Waddell, 

Raymond Mathew, Carl Meyer, P. H. Van Etten, Russell 

Simpson, Harlowe Stafford, Everett N. Bryan, Gordon 

Sander, Spencer Burroughs and Henry Holtzinger, 

attorneys for the department. Three very capable 

engineers were in the dam division: George Hawley, 

Bill Holmes, and Mr. Perkins. I knew all of these 

men very well, most of them intimately. 

It sounds like Mr. Hyatt was excellent at the political 

part of the job, and that's very important. 

He was much more than that. He was a great administrator 

of his department. 

Both he and the state were fortunate in having 
as assistant state engineer a man with the great 
ability and devotion to the state service as Bob 
Edmonston. Mr. Edmonston was jointly responsible 
with Mr. Hyatt in developing the original state water 
plan of 1930 out of which grew legislative authorization 
of state construction of the Central Valley Project. 
As state engineer in succession to Mr. Hyatt he person 
ally was responsible for the concept of the Feather 
River Project and the extension of the state water 






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378 



Adams : 



Baum: 
Adams : 



plan to Southern California. He was a strong advocate 
of state taking over the entire Central Valley Project, 
He made an exhaustive report in favor of that. It 
was basic with him that the water resources of the 
state should be controlled by the state, and he was 
therefore opposed to any situation being developed 
which would result in that control passing to the 

_0 1 

federal government. 

California has produced many able engineers who 
worked in the irrigation field. Of course, the attorneys 
who have been involved have been outstanding. 



Outstanding Engineers 






Would you care to mention a few of the engineers? 
It would be almost unfair because I would be sure to 
omit so many men. I will do the best I can. The 
first, of course, was William Ham Hall, state engineer 
from the late 1870' s to the early l880's. He got to 
gether a tremendous amount of information about the water 
and lands and irrigation development possibilities 
and soils and water rights in his numerous publications. 

One of his assistant engineers in his investi 
gations was C. E. Grunsky. Mr. Grunsky's interests 
and experience covered a very broad field. He was 
city engineer of San Francisco when I first met him, and 
then after serving on the first Panama Canal Commission, 
by appointment of President Theodore Roosevelt, he was 






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379 



Adams: consulting engineer for the Secretary of the 

Interior on projects of the Reclamation Service. 
I would say that his main contributions to Irrigation 
came through his thorough understanding of water 
problems of California, and his statesman-like 
approach to the solution of major irrigation and 
other water problems of the state. 

There was John D. Galloway, a highly-respected 
civil engineer. As far as I know, his only direct 
connection with irrigation projects was in planning 
and directing construction of the system of Merced 
Irrigation District, including directing construction 
of Exchequer Dam and hydroelectric system. He was 
always active and forceful in discussions of irrigation 
and water problems in the Commonwealth Club. 

Fred H. Tibbetts was one of the most active 
engineers in irrigation development, notable for 
Nevada Irrigation District, G-lenn-Colusa Irrigation 
District, and the Santa Clara Valley Water Conser 
vation District. 

I always considered Harry L. Haehl one of the 
ablest and finest of the engineers engaged in 
irrigation work. In early days he was associated with 
Edwin Duryea but I think his main work in irrigation 
was in guiding development for the Kern County Land 
Company. Whenever I heard him express himself in 



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380 



Adams: water meetings he seemed to show sound judgement 



and good sense, 

Charles H. Lee was another engineer whose work 
has been notable. He made early contributions to 
underground water problems and undoubtedly many other 
important matters relating to water but his practice 
went far beyond that field. He made important 
contributions to the discussion of irrigation and 
water problems in the Commonwealth Club. 

One cannot think of the Imperial Valley 
reclamation without recalling the fine work of the 

original engineer, W. L. Rockwell, Mr. C. L. Cory, 

, 

who finally turned back the Colorado River out of 
the Imperial Valley, and M. J. Dowd, who for many 
years was chief engineer and is now consulting 
engineer of the Imperial Irrigation District. He 
has been a very important member of the district's 
security commission, and very important in matters 
pertaining to California's claims to water from the 
Colorado River. 

Very prominent in directing the early work of 
the Reclamation Service in California and later in 
general practice was J. B. Lippincott. A Reclamation 
Service engineer whom I respected very highly was 
Louis C. Hill. His son, Raymond Hill, a very able 



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381 



Adams: engineer, has had a large part in consulting work 
on some involved problems of irrigation and water 
development. 

In the field of university instruction and 
consulting work Professor B. A. Etcheverry and 
Professor S, T. Harding have of course been outstanding, 
(I've already spoken sufficiently about Professors 
Veihmeyer and Huberty. ) 

Among those previously frequently mentioned 
I cannot of course omit including here state 
engineers McClure, Bailey, Hyatt, and Edmonston Mr. 
McClure for his great help to irrigation districts; 
Paul Bailey for directing the general study of water 
resources made in the early 1920*3; and Mr. Hyatt and 
Mr. Edmonston for their great contributions to the 
Central Valley Project and the s tate water plan, 
now taken over under the very able direction of 
Harvey 0. Banks. I have previously referred to the 
many able engineers working under Mr. Hyatt in the 
state engineer's office. They continued under Mr. 
Edmonston along with others. 

t _ 

Of course many very able Bureau of Reclamation 
engineers had part in California irrigation develop 
ment, but I'll add only Walker Young, who was in 
charge of construction of Hoover Dam and initially 






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bna ituiC - 1o nol^oui^snoo lo 



382 



Adams: of the Central Valley Project. 

I could mention many able engineers of 
Irrigation districts. Among them, Edwin Duryea, 
Oakdale and South San Joaquln irrigation districts 
engineer, I think; R. E. Hartley of Oakdale 
Irrigation District; Roy V. Melkle of Turlock; 
A. Griffin of both Modesto and South San Joaquln 
districts; Harry Barnes of Madera District; 
Stephen E. Kleffer, I think, built both Lindsey- 
Stratford and Terrabella districts; Fred D. Pyle 
of Vista District; William Durbrow of Gfenn-Colusa 
and Nevada districts; and A. N. Burch, long in 
charge of the Orland Project and the first 
engineer of Hollister Irrigation District. 

Let me mention just two more. Arthur L. Adams 
built the first system of successive lifts from 
the San Joaquin Delta to westslde lands. This w as 
the Balfour-Guthrie Project, now in Brentwood 
Irrigation District. There was Pred Hermann, who 
for a time was In charge of development in Imperial 
Valley, also for a brief period engineer for Modesto 
Irrigation District. Of course, I'll have to add 
Charles L. Kaupke, previously mentioned in connection 
with Kings River, whose fine book you have. 

Two of the most thoughtful engineers who have 



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383 



Adams: contributed to the thinking about California water 

problems have been Samuel B. Morris, for a number of 
years Dean of Engineering at Stanford, and long in 
charge of the Department of Water Power in Los Angeles, 
and Professor Eugene L. Grant of Stanford. 

I'm sorry I've left out so many. I find I have 
not mentioned any of those in the Irrigation Inves 
tigation staff of the Department of Agriculture. Of 
course I have frequently mentioned Dr. Mead, Dr. 
Samuel Portier and Mr. Walter W. McGovern. I do not 
want to omit Mr. C. E. Tait who was in charge of our 
cooperative investigations in Southern California. 
He made memorable contributions in his invest igational 
activities. On his death, I think in the 1920 's, 
he was succeeded by Harry P. Blaney, who is still 
active. Finally, and this must be the last, I must 
mention Pred C. Scobey, whose basic work in flow of 
water in pipes and other conduits earned him more than 
national reputation. 

Wells A. Hut chins 

Baum: You mentioned a number of lawyers who w ere prominent 

in the irrigation field in California. 
Adams: That is true. I have already referred to a number of 

those whom I knew best. I won't attempt to make a list 



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:rr; 



381; 



Adams: of them but I do want to pay personal tribute to 
Wells A. Hutchins, who was an early member of our 
group In the cooperative irrigation investigations 
in California, Although he already had obtained a 
law degree from George Washington University, he 
joined us originally about 1911 as an office worker. 
He was soon given various field assignments in our 
California investigations and joined with me in e arly 
irrigation district studies in the western states, 
finally finishing a study he and I had begun. 

Then for a number of years he made field studies 
and prepared Department of Agriculture bulletins on 
various types of irrigation organizations in the West 
and in the 1930' s began his major life-work: authorit 
ative research and publication In the field of western 
water law with particular reference to states water 
rights. His first volume, issued in 19l}-0, was: 
"Selected Problems In the Law of Water Rights in the 
West", published as U. S. Department of Agriculture 
miscellaneous publication No. 14.18. For at least 
the past ten years he has been engaged in preparing 
publications on the water right laws of the individual 
states and has completed most of them, all of which 
have been published by the states. His work on 
California, "The California Law of Water Rights," is 






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al n ,e*ri3.ifl latfoW lo vrsJ Blnio'ilisD ariT 1 ' t BlmolilBO 



385 



Adams : 









a volume of some 600 pages and is recognized as a 
masterpiece. He is currently completing publications 
for the remaining states and will finish the series 
with a summary covering all of the western states, 
which will be published by the Department of Agriculture, 
He has performed all of this work with distinction. 

In 1958 the Department of Agriculture cited him 
"for outstanding performance in conducting research 
and providing consultation on western water laws and 
the administration of water resource districts." The 
National Reclamation Association recently conferred 
an honorary life membership "in appreciation for 
long and unselfish service to the National Reclamation 
Association, and devotion to the cause of Reclamation 
in the seventeen western states." 

Wells Hutchins has always displayed an infinite 
capacity for taking pains, and nothing short of the 
best he could possibly do ever satisfied him. 












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386 



Baum: 
Adams : 



SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICTS 






I understand you were quite active in redrafting 
the Soil Conservation Act as it applied to California. 
Early in the New Deal the Soil Erosion Service was 
set up. The people in the agricultural department 
in Washington drafted a law which they wanted all 
the states to pass and which most of the states did. 
The Secretary of Agriculture transmitted it to the 
governor of each state. Prom the governor it came 
to the president of the University and then to Dean 
Hutchinson and then to Walter Wier and me to comment 
on. It was very a dvanced legislation and proposed 
to give soil conservation districts very extended 
power over land use. 

Dean Hutchinson asked us what we thought of it. 

' 

We told him we didn't like it. He said, "Well, you 
write a better act." So we did. We eliminated 
those land use regulations. They went far beyond 



any thought any of us had had on regulations of 
land use. Furthermore, we felt that any soil con 
servation district act passed in California should 
take into consideration our Irrigation district 
experience. So we drafted a law and set up a procedure 
for organization and the work of the districts and 
also for financing the work. 



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387 



Adams : The great cry then was that the government 
and the state vi ere going to do everything. Well, 
Walter and I thought they were not going to do every 
thing. Irrigation districts had paid their own bills, 
so why shouldn't soil conservation districts pay their 
own bills, with help if necessary from other sources. 
The federal people thought the state should put up a 
lot of money. Well, we thought they'd never put up 
much money. e had enough background on our districts 
to feel rather safe on that ground. So we made 
provision for assessments. What we had in mind was 
that the principal expenditures would be for such 
physical measures as terracing, structures and con 
duits to control runoff. 

Well, we submitted the bill and it passed. 
Walter and I were asked to appear before the legisla 
tive committees and explain it and we did. There was 
some little constitutional question in the title so 
it had to be repassed. But the Department of Agricul 
ture people didn't like it. The department wanted to 
rapidly multiply soil conservation districts. Our 
idea was that when there was a need for districts, 
they should be organized. 

We put a limit on assessments, but our provision 
for assessments was a stumbling block to the soil 



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388 



Adams: conservation service in organizing new districts. 
We had a lot of discussions. Mr. Phil Glick of 
the Solicitors Office of the Department of Agriculture, 
was out here. We had lots of discussions with him. 
He said we had the best bill of any of the states 
except for our assessments and our absence of land 
use regulations. I finally worked out in my mind 
a short paragraph relating to land use, a very much 
modified form of land use regulation. Alex Johnson, 
secretary of the California Farm Bureau, was interested 
in getting something of the kind in, and the bill was 
amended the next session of the legislature to provide 
that. Later the Soil Conservation Commission got the 
provision regarding assessments eliminated. 

In our bill we set up a State Soil Conservation 
Commission composed of the state engineer, the dean 
of the College of Agriculture, and the director of 
Agricultural Extension. We felt that the work should 
be done largely in cooperation with the farm advisors, 
that the state engineer's long connection with irrigation 
districts made it appropriate that he be connected 
with the soil conservation districts because we had 
anticipated assessments, and that the dean of 
agriculture should be on there because it was largely 






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389 



Adams: an agricultural question. We anticipated that the 

state would exert dynamic control of the organization 
of districts and the general district policy. 

At Dean Hutchinson's suggestion, he was the 
chairman of the commission, I attended the meetings 
of the commission. Walter Wier was secretary of the 
commission, and he and Lloyd Brown made all investiga 
tions of proposed districts prior to action by the 
commission. They were very conservative in their 
reports, and would not recommend formation of a 
district if they did not think one was needed. The 
Soil Conservation Service did not like this. It 
was evident that Dean Hutchinson, Director Crocheron, 
and State Engineer Hyatt were getting tired of the 
controversy, and were disposed to yield, as they 
later did by appointing a new secretary suggested 
by the Soil Conservation Service, and withdrew Walter 
Wier and Lloyd Brown from any connection with the 
activity. By that time, through the impulse undoubtedly 
of the Soil Conservation Service, the act had been 
changed to add two members of soil conservation 
districts to the commission. 

I think I ought to explain how the situation 
had changed since our original act was adopted. The 
early work of the Soil Conservation Service involved 



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beviovnl &ol\"ie2 nc.< JevTser.r' JJoS 9i 



390 



Adams: the type of work we had In mind when the original 
act was written; that is, measures to prevent soil 
erosion through physical control by structures and 
conduits. What was now being done went a lot beyond 
that and included many cultural practices including, 
for instance, fertilization practices with which the 
farm advisors were concerned. 

Baum: Why did you favor state control over federal control? 

Adams: We believed the state people should control activities 
in the states. Our assumption was that the districts 
themselves would construct these works and at least 
partly pay for them through district assessments. 
We also thought some measure of state control was 
necessary in guiding policy. Some of the states in 
the middle west--I think Michigan was one of them 
had been rather emphatic in favor of such control for 
that purpose, 

Baum: Why? 

Adams: Well, I'll take an example. The Agricultural 

Extension Service had a very fine staff and had built 
up strong farm advisors in the counties. The Soil 
Conservation Service here in California, which had 
control of a large staff of workers out in the 
various counties, sometimes paid no attention to 
the work of the Agricultural Extension Service. They 



oee 



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391 



Adams : 



Baura: 



Adams : 



went ahead and gave advice which in the opinions of 
some of the farm advisors was not sound advice. Many 
of the soil conservation workers were not experienced, 
the farm advisors had been there for years. In some 
instances the soil conservation workers would lay out 
programs which either failed to take into consideration 
information that the farm advisors already had, or 
which contraverted the judgment of the farm advisors. 
I remember that when our College of Agriculture 
Flood Control Committee was going over the program 
for San Fernando Valley suggested by the Soil Conser 
vation Service we found that the Soil Conservation 
Service did not even know the farm advisor in that 
county. That seemed to us all wrong. 
You felt that under state control there would have 
been a lot more cooperation? 

Yes, sufficient state control of the programs to 
insure complete coordination with the established 
work already under way. Such a spirit of cooperation 
existed in some of the counties and very fine progress 
was made. I have in mind, for instance, work in Santa 
Barbara County on the Kollister ranch which seemed to 
us to be excellent. There were other examples of 
excellent work. On the other hand, in some of the 
counties there was much antagonism between the soil 



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392 



Adams: conservation workers and the farm advisors there. I 
doubt if that persists any longer. 

Baura: Wouldn't it have been possible to get them to cooperate? 

Adams: It was largely a matter of personalities. 

Baum: You think the whole service was attached to the idea 
of more rapid change than might have been possible? 

Adams: I don't say that. When the soil conservation work 

started here, they employed many workers who had had 
no experience in that particular field necessarily 
because they couldn't find experienced people. They 
started out to do the best they knew how. In our 
estimation they didn't take advantage of the oppor 
tunities to use all the help they could from local 
sources. They did some things that they themselves 
found to be unwise. It's a matter of learning through 



experience. 






You might conclude from what I have said that 
I personally am not very enthusiastic about soil 
conservation. That is entirely erroneous. No one 
in the state is more interested in it than I am. For 
a number of years I followed the work in the field of 
the soil conservation districts, and would like nothing 
better than to do it over again. Every time I see a 
muddy stream after a storm I realize more and more the 
need for such work. The present leader of the soil 






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393 



Adams 












conservation service in California, John Barnes, is 
my near neighbor, and I frequently have opportunity 
to inquire from him as to the progress of the work. 
Their principal activity, as I understand it, 
is to lay out land use programs for Individual farmers 
within soil conservation districts, and to render the 
individual farmers some assistance, some financial 



assistance, in carrying out the suggested programs. 
That's all to the good, and I presume the Soil Con- 
servation Service now has very experienced men on 
the job. 

As a result of the controversy referred to 
earlier Dean Hutchiason, Director Crocheron, and 
State Engineer Hyatt recommended that the law be 
changed to eliminate them from the state commission, 
and the commission is now made up entirely of members 
of soil conservation districts. They have a state 
association of conservation districts which is active 
in promotion. 

A few years ago they were successful in getting 
the state of California to set up a fund of $1,000,000 
to purchase equipment which would be loaned to the 
soil conservation districts. There was some difficulty 
in connection with that shortly after the fund was 
established but it probably is all straightened out 
now. 






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391* 



Baum: 



Adams 






Baura: 
Adams 









CONSULTING WORK 



CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT 









You have already referred to your consulting work 
with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Re 
sources Planning Board and the International Water 
Commission, United States and Mexico. I believe you 
did some work on the Central Valley Project. 
At the request of the state the Bureau of Reclamation 
In 1930 began a study of the Central Valley Project 
with a view to federal assistance in carrying it 
through. This study was made under the direction 
of C. A. Bissell, a bureau engineer. Dr. Mead, who 
was commissioner of reclamation, looked upon the 
project at that time as a relief project for areas 
in the upper San Joaquin Valley which were running 
out of water due to depletion of the underground 
supply. 

What was your part in that study? 

Mr. Bissell asked me to make a study of the economic 
situation in the areas involved. I did this with the 
assistance of David M. Morgan and Walter E. Packard. 
Our report was included as one of the appendices to 



Mr. Bissell 's voluminous report. 






m 






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395 



Baum: 
Adams ; 



Baum: 
Adams 









Water Charges Study, 1938 

- 

What is this report you have here? 

This is a report prepared by Mr. R. V. Meikle, 

chief engineer of Turlock Irrigation District, and 

myself, "A Study of Water Charges in the Central 

Valley Project, California." That was done in 1938. 

It came about this way. Mr. Meikle had been a consulting 

engineer with the Bureau of Reclamation and the state 

for a number of years and as the bureau was progressing 

with the construction of the Central Valley Project 

they became concerned with the matter of w ater charges. 

They asked Mr. Meikle if he would make a study and he 

said he would if I would join with him. So the bureau 

asked me to join with him. 

You had worked with him on other projects, hadn't you? 

I had been in contact with him as chief engineer of 

Turlock District. He had participated in our Irrigation 

Census in 1910 and in our irrigation resources study in 



1912. 






We outlined a rather elaborate study. Mr. R. P. 
Walter was then chief engineer and Mr. E. B. Debler 
was the bureau engineer in charge of investigations. 
Mr. Walker Young was in charge of construction of the 
Central Valley Project. We met with them in Sacramento 
and obtained their approval of our plan and then we 



. 



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396 



Adams: went to it. It was a very laborious piece of work. 

In the first place, we had to decide what 
approach we would take to water charges. The procedures 
Professor Huberty and I had used on several previous 
reports were back of us as a basis. We went quite 
a step further in attempting to determine what would 
be proper charges for water. We made an economic 
classification of the soils in each of the prospective 
water service areas, twelve or thirteen of them. For 
each group of crops, for instance taking alfalfa as 
a basis, we determined as best we could the production 
on each of these various soils for that particular 
crop. The most productive soil for alfalfa was given 
a rating of 100 and it was scaled down as it was 
less productive. Our citrus areas down in the Valley 
were scaled from about 90 down to ij.0. We based our 
water charges only partly on the income on the 
various classifications of soil. 

Baum: So the charges would be ftased on what the soil could 
produce rather than on what the water cost. 

Adams: That was just one of the criteria used. David N. 

Morgan helped on the classification of soils a good 
deal. Professor Huberty went out in the field with 
us several times to go over the classification. All 
the areas were gone over by Mr. Meikle and myself after 









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397 



Adams: the original fieldwork. (Look at maps of various 
service areas and discuss soils in each.) 

Baum: This must have taken a long time. 

Adams: The work was done during a period of five or six 
months, including the field and office work by 
assistants in preparation of our report. I won't 
go into the other criteria we used in the classifi 
cations. 

Then we took each prospective area and Mr. 
Meikle figured the capital cost of distribution 
systems and maintenance, operations, and retirement 
costs. He had the assistance of Carl Holley, an 
engineer of Visalia very familiar with the local 
situation in that part of the valley. 

We talked the situation over with the water 
committee in each county and made the best estimate 
we could as to the rate each of these areas would 
develop and utilize the water. 

Mr. Walter Young was anxious to have the report 
finished as soon as possible, so we sent our manuscript 
to Sacramento for final typing in installments. Our 
nain forte was all typed before we made our final 
summary and conclusions. So until these were completed 
we had no idea how it would turn out. The final table 
indicated that on the basis of the computed farm 






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398 



Adams: costs and Income and other factors considered the 

estimated average amount available to pay for water 
in the tenth year after construction was completed 
ranged from nothing to $6.8ij. per acre -foot with an 
average of only 97^ 

When we transmitted the report to Mr. Young, 
the engineer in charge of the project, we called 
attention to the fact that we'd had no opportunity 
to review the manuscript after our conclusions and 
final summary were prepared. We requested that they 
give us their comments and we would have them available 
when we reviewed the manuscript. Well, nothing came. 
I happened to be in Washington a month later and I 
called to see John Page, who was then commissioner of 
reclamation and whom I had known, a very good friend. 
He said, "Well, we're very glad to have the report, 
but we're disappointed on how it came out." 

I was riding with Mr. Debler about three months 
later, we were going to San Diego for a meeting, and 
I said, "You've never given us your ideas on our 
report." He said, "Oh, I don't think it's been given 
very much consideration." Well, if you knew Mr. Debler 
you'd understand a remark of that kind. A year later 
I was told that if ever a report came into the bureau 
that was considered, this was one of them. That was 






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399 



Adams : 









Baum: 
Adams : 



the other side of the question. I rather think our 
report was influential in the bureau's decision to 
operate the project as a utility rather than enter 
into r e payment contracts as had always been the custom 
under other projects of the Reclamation Service. 
However, before our report was completed Walter Young 
indicated that the bureau might have to operate the 
project as a utility. 

Another thing, I think, it had influence in 
having the bureau undertake the construction of 
distribution systems. That was done on an interest- 
free basis. Mr. Meikle, in figuring the cost of 
construction, had included interest. 

The bureau never released our report. Mr. 
Debler made another kind of study, and the bureau decided 
on a charge of $3.00 or $3.50 per acre-foot for first- 
class water, and $1.50 per acre-foot for second-class 
water, and decided on operating the project as a 
utility. 

Do you know where any copies of your study are 
available? 

None available, they did not distribute them. Well, 
when the Central Valley Project Studies were under 
taken under Professor Barrows some years later, he 
got copies of the report less the maps and released 



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Adams: them to members of some of the committees. They 
were all supposed to be returned to the bureau. 

Baum: So your copy is the only one you know of. 

Adams: Yes, and Mr. Meikle has a copy. Of course, the 
bureau has copies. 

T 

Solano Unit Studies, 19U.8 






Baum: Did you make any further studies on the Central Valley 
Project? 

Adams: Yes, in 19l|-8, I reported on "Some Economic and 

Agricultural Aspects of the Proposed Solano Unit, 
Central Valley Irrigation Development," dated March 
19i|-8. The question of whether Berryessa Valley should 
be flooded for storage for the Solano Project was 
a very live question. There were a number of alternative 
upper sites. Mr. Edmonston asked me to include in 
my investigation the estimated annual loss of income 
in the principal proposed sites if flooded. 

Baum: Do you recall your conclusions? 

Adams: I was gathering facts. I went to every farm that 

would be flooded and got the best record I could of 
the farm income for a number of years, sometimes from 
records, largely from memory. Most of the people in 
Berryessa Valley preferred to stay there, but they 
were reconciled to going elsewhere if the Bureau of 
Reclamation would set them up equally well. I found 






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lj.01 



Adams: only one case where there was real bitterness. It 
was a rather elderly widow lady with two sons. She 
had lived most of her life in that valley, all her 
relatives were buried in a little cemetery which was 
to be flooded, and she was extremely bitter. 

Baura: Naturally. Did you usually try to avoid making 

any recommendations as to which was a better policy? 

Adams: Policy recommendations were not one of my functions. 

My job was merely to get the data together and present 
the facts. 

Baum: But you must have had some ideas as to what you 
thought was the best policy. 

Adams: I did not like to think of Berryessa Valley being 

flooded if the other sites would prove satisfactory. 
Berryessa Valley was an important area in Napa County. 
However, this was relatively a minor part of my study. 

Before ray report was completed Governor Warren 
had committed himself to the flooding of Berryessa 
Valley and the part of my report related to the 
various valleys was deleted from the report distributed 
by the state engineer. The more important part of my 
investigation had to do with the area in the Solano 
unit, including among others such questions as land 
classification, irrigation methods, water requirements, 
water costs and probable rates of irrigation development 



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Adams: If the Solano unit were constructed. The Bureau of 
Reclamation and the Department of Agriculture had 
made previous studies. I felt they were too optimistic 
in their land classification in the probable income 
to be derived from the lands irrigated, and as to 
the possibilities of future orchard development, 

Comments on the Central Valley Project 

Baum: There have been many differences of opinion as to 

the proper role for the federal and state governments 
with regard to the Central Valley Project. 

Adams: Yes. The Central Valley Project was, as you well 

know, devised as a project to be built by the state. 
The first contract between the state and the Bureau 
of Reclamation providing for construction of the 
project by the bureau. There was a provision that 
the contract anticipated later agreement for state 
operation. I'm sure Mr. Hyatt was in favor of that, 
but the bureau would not include that provision in 
their contracts, and shortly after that, the bureau 
announced that the project would be a bureau project 
exclusively. 

So far as I know there was no difference of 
opinion between Mr. Hyatt and Dr. Mead as to the 
relationships that would exist between the Federal 
Reclamation Bureau and the states. I think if Dr. 



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1*03 



Adams : Mead had been younger and had lived and continued 
as commissioner of reclamation- -he stayed in that 
position several years beyond his age limit of 70--I 
think the differences between the federal government 
and the state would not have arisen as they did. 
But new policies came to dominate in the Reclamation 
Bureau which involved a larger measure of federal 
control and with emphasis on distribution of so-called 
"low-cost power". This was very much regretted by 
many of the Reclamation Bureau people in the field 
and gradually some of them left. One of my best 
friends in the Reclamation Bureau was the assistant 
chief engineer and later the chief engineer, Mr. 
S. 0. Harper, who finally resigned. He, like many 
of us, didn't approve of the policies that were 
governing the bureau. He's in Oakland now as a 
consulting engineer. He's earned many, many times 
in consulting work what he would have earned in the 
Reclamation Bureau. 

Finally, fortunately, there was a complete 
reorganization when the present administration went 
in and the Reclamation Bureau came under administration 
again of engineers, although I have been told there's 
some complaint in the West regarding present administra 
tion of the bureau. 






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Baum: Wasn't State Engineer Hyatt in favor of the state 
taking over the Central Valley Project? 

Adams: I believe he was at one time, although I am not sure. 
I think in later years he began to doubt the political 

practicability of it, about the time he retired. 
Mr, Edmonston, who succeeded him, was very strongly 
committed to the state taking over, 

Baum: Do you think the 160-acre limitation has been detrimental 
or advantageous to the development of the country, 
especially California? 

Adams: In general I think it has been justified, especially 
when the lands were government lands, I question 
whether it was suitable here in California under the 
Central Valley Project, all private lands, I think 
a modified type of restriction might have been a 
satisfactory procedure, perhaps letting excess lands 
(over 160 acres) pay a larger price for water, 

Baum: Oh, pay the non-subsidized price? 

Adams: Yes, Of course such an arrangement w ould fail to 

meet the objective of the 160-acre limitation, which 
was to restrict the benefits of federal aid to areas 
large enough to support a family, and prevent specula 
tion by owners of large holdings, including those 
who by some means had obtained control of large areas 
of public land. 



404 



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1K>5 



Adams: What was chiefly in mind was land still un- 
irrigated. The fact that the original aim of the 
Central Valley Project was in the main to supply 
supplemental water to lands already irrigated and 
being farmed presented a situation not contemplated 
when the 160-acre limitation was adopted. 

The justification for federal aid is that it 
increases the wealth of the country by adding to the 
productive capacity of the land, I would agree with 
some acreage limitation but where agriculture is 
so varied, as in California, 160 acres is altogether 
too arbitrary, or even 320 acres in the case of a 
husband and wife. 

Baum: I believe the Engle bill introduced this year provided 
that excess water be paid for at a price that did 
not include the government subsidy. 

Adams: Nothing has been enacted along that line yet. 

Baum: If excess lands were required to pay a higher 

price for their water, could those farmers continue 
to operate profitably in competition with their 
neighbors who were getting the lower-priced water? 

Adams: Oh, I think so. 

Baum: Do you think that would be a satisfactory solution 
to the large landowner? 






- 

. 
' 



. 

. 

< 
. 
. 

: 

. 
. 

' 

. 
. 

' 

. 
- 



lj.06 



Adams: Oh, they're going to fight for the elimination of 
the limitation entirely. (This interview preceded 
the decision by the United States Supreme Court, 
upholding application of the 160-acre limitation to 
the Central Valley Project - Baum) . 

Baura: I believe there is an effort now to g et an initiative 
on the ballot to make the 160-acre limitation state 
law. What would you think of that? 

Adams: I think I should vote against it. I think the federal 
law is sufficient to cover it. 

OTHER WORK 
Tri-Counties Project in Nebraska, 19 j 5 



Baum: You previously said you had some contact with the 
Tri-Counties Project in Nebraska. 

Adams: My contact with that project was brief, but very 
interesting. It was in 1935>. Earlier I spoke of 
Major Stout having begun a study of this project 
for the Bureau of Reclamation and that he had died 
before the work was completed. Iw as in Denver at 
the time of his death and being on the ground was 
asked by Mr. Walter, chief engineer of the bureau, 
to complete it. I spent several weeks reviewing 
Major Stout's notes and going over the project in 






, 
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. 
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. 



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lj-07 



Adams: the field. 

The project had been started In the early days 
of the New Deal, under the Works Project or Works 
Progress Administration with an allocation of funds 
by the President, and the question of Congressional 
authorization was pending. It involved diverting 
waters of the North Platte River to a reservoir 
and power plant above North Platte and then over 
the divide separating the Platte and Republican 
rivers for irrigation in the Republican River 
watershed in the general vicinity of Holdrege. 

I was on a field trip when a wire came from 
the Denver office to return, because Dr. Mead had 
called for a report by the Denver office. We had 
only two days to prepare a telegram summing up 
conclusions. The haste was due to a demand by 
Senator George Norris for a prompt report because he 
wanted to obtain the Congressional authorization. 
As father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, Senator 
Norris was in a position to get about what he wanted. 
He was a resident of Holdrege or some nearby t own. 
With some misgiving I joined in the telegram to Dr. 
Mead giving general approval, although my part in 
the study had been a very small one. My misgivings 
were due to my feeling that the farmers in the Holdrege 






. 
. 

. 

. 
. 


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. 

. 
. 



. 

. 

. 
. 

. 
. 



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. 



1K>8 



Adams: and nearby areas did not seem to be willing to commit 
themselves to paying for water to the extent that 
would make the irrigation features of the project 
self -sustaining* 

Central and eastern Nebraska are about on the 
generally-recognized dividing line between the arid 
and humid portions of the country. The value of 
supplemental irrigation in dry periods had been fully 
demonstrated but was not yet fully recognized by many 
of the farmers in the Holdrege area, as I found out 
by personal interviews and replies to a questionnaire 
Major Stout had circulated. So after the telegram 
sent to Dr. Mead, I wrote him of my misgivings. The 
project was authorized, but I do not know in just 
what form. It was largely a public power project 
tied in with other public power development in Platte 
River Valley. I do not know what was done with the 
irrigation features. There was a good deal of opposi 
tion along the Platte River to water being diverted 
out of that watershed to the Holdrege area. 

Brush-burning Studies. 191+ 7 

~~ 

Adams: Here's another study we did, "Hydrologic Aspects of 

Burning Brush and Woodland-Grass Ranges in California." 
. 






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14-09 



Baum: This was aftej? you retired? 

Adams: Yes, this was made at the request of DeWitt Nelson, 
the state forester, by Paul Ewing, Martin Huberty, 
and myself. I would not have liked to undertake 
any of the studies I did with Mr. Huberty without 
his help. 

Baum: Wasn't this somewhat out of your line? 

Adams: I was of course familiar with the work Professor 

Veihmeyer had been doing in brush-burning experiments 

and for a number of years I had been chairman of a 
College of Agriculture committee for review of flood 
control studies of the Department of Agriculture 
under the Federal Flood Control Act. The Flood 
Control Act passed by Congress authorized the Depart 
ment of Agriculture to participate in investigations 
of flood control in aid of water conservation and 
soil erosion control. Whenever Congress authorized 
a flood control investigation or survey by the Army 
Engineers, the Department of Agriculture was authorized 
automatically to make a study of flood control in 
the area as to water conservation and soil erosion 
control. Those studies were made by three bureaus 
of the Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of 
Agricultural Economics, the Soil Conservation Service, 
and the Bureau of Forestry. 






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Adams: When those studies were about to be made, the 
extent to which the state should cooperate came up. 
The state had been cooperating with the Army Engineers 
previously in their flood control studies in California. 
So the state engineer, Mr. Hyatt, wrote to the Secretary 
of Agriculture soliciting the cooperation of the 
Department of Agriculture with the state engineer in 
those new studies authorized in the flood control 
act. The Secretary of Agriculture replied that the 
department's cooperation in such matters was always 
with the land-grant colleges. Mr. Hyatt was referred 
to Dean Hutchison for consideration of the question. 

One afternoon I was called down to the dean 1 s 
office. There was Mr. Hyatt, the chairman or orlncipal 
officer of the State Planning Board, and the dean. 
I was informed of the correspondence I just told you 
about. The dean had been asked by Mr. Hyatt to 
participate in these studies in cooperation with the 
state engineer. The dean asked me to be chairman 
of the committee to cooperate with the state engineer 
and he appointed the following committee to work with 
me: Professor Walter Mulford and Professor J. 
Kittredge of forestry, Professor Bodman of soils, 
Professor Weir of drainage and soil conservation, 
Professors Veihmeyer and Huberty of our own department, 









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Adams 






Professor Wantrup of agricultural economics, and 
Professor Harry B. Walker, head of agricultural 
Engineering, and J. B. Brown of Agriculture Extension. 

So we had the task of reviewing these reports 
by the Department of Agriculture. Those reports 
were made for all the major streams of the Sacramento 
and the San Joaquin valleys, Salinas Valley, Ventura 
County, Santa Barbara County, the Santa Ana, the 
Los Angeles River, in fact, all the major streams in 
the state. Our committee went very carefully over 
all those reports. We took them into the field and 
studied the reports in the field, covered the ground 
with the authors of the reports, and then got together 
and made our own comments on the measures and expen 
ditures. The state engineer's representative partici 
pated with us at all our meetings and all our field 
trips. They made their own reports. 

These studies covered a period of perhaps three 
or four years and involved a lot of hard work. As a 
preliminary in that work, we did this separate back 
ground report, "Forests and Other Vegetative Cover as 
Related to Run-off Retardation and Soil Erosion 
Prevention in Flood Control," in 1939, mimeographed. 

After I retired Professor Huberty took over the 
chairmanship and the activities continued for another 









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Adams: year or two until the reports were discontinued by 

the Department of Agriculture, 

. 
American River Studies, 19^4-7 



Adams: The next consulting work was with the state engineer, 
on "Some Irrigation Aspects of the Proposed American 

- 

River Development," 1947 I took up matters that 
primarily concerned development of agricultural areas 
to be served by the American River, some lying north 
of the river as far as Lincoln in Placer County and 
the areas in Sacramento and San Jo.aquin counties 
which would be served by canals from Polsom Reservoir, 
Matters of soil conditions, crops grown, extent of 
irrigation, types and costs of irrigation enterprises 
already existent, mainly private pumping plants, 
suggestions regarding organization for taking over 
the handling of the water,, the amounts it would seem 
equitable for the farmers to pay for the water... 

The report I prepared is included in the appendices 
to "Supplemental Report with Reference to the Site of 

Polsom Reservoir of American River Development," 
published by the State Department of Public Works 
August 8, 19^7 

After that I worked on the Solano Unit studies 


already mentioned. 






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Adams 



Baum: 
Adams 



Other Studies 

The last report I made was this, "Community Organiza 
tion for Irrigation in the United States," 












Professor Huberty at that time, for a period of about 
two years, was in charge of the irrigation work for 
the Pood and Agricultural Organization of the United 
Nations with headquarters in Rome. He wrote to me 
that the people in the various areas in which the 
P.A.O. was working, the Middle East and elsewhere, 
had no idea of the extent to which farmers cooperated 
in irrigation in this country. He asked that I 
personally or with Mr. Ewlng and Mr. Hutchins prepare 
a summary of what is being done. It was sort of a 
one-man job so I got into it. 
It looks like you had to condense a lot of material 

into a short booklet. 

' 
I did. I had to go back and review a lot of material 

I had forgotten all about. That took time, more time 

than when I was younger. One of things they asked 

me to do was to prepare a selected list of legislation 



in the western states governing cooperation in 
irrigati on. That involved a lot of close work in 









Baum: 



the law library. 

That looks like a valuable compilation. 









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Adams: I think we can wind this up by merely referring 
to work Paul Ewing and I did for the State Water 
Resources Board. The main job was as editorial 
consultants on the 500-page report of the state 
engineer for the Water Resources Board on water 
resources of California, Bulletin No.l. We worked 
on and off for several months on that. We also did 
similar work on three cooperative regional reports 
the state engineer made for local areas. 

That about winds up all my consulting work. Some 
of that was preparing reports, some was consulting 
work. 

Baum: It was always for some government or public agency? 

Adams: Yes. There was one study I made for a semi-public 
agency, the Palestine Economic Corporation. It was 
a short time before the British mandate was discon 
tinued and Israel was formed into a separate nation. 
The British government had prepared an underground 
water law for Palestine which the people in Palestine 
did not like. The Palestine Economic Corporation, 
which generally guided and financed development in 
Palestine asked me to review the proposed law, which 
I did. I made such suggestions which occurred to me 
and summarized the general procedure in underground 
water law in the western United States. 









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Baum: 
Adams : 
Baum: 
Adams : 
Baum: 
Adams : 



' 



When did you retire from the University? 

19i|-5, thirteen years ago. 

Much of this work was done after that? 

Yes. 

It sounds like you retired in name only. 

Well, that was true. I contined working in the 

office every day up until three or four years ago. 






























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U16 



Baum: 
Adams : 









CONCLUSION 

What part of your work did you find most satisfying? 
I couldn't say. It's been so varied. I've enjoyed 
every bit of it. When working exclusively for the 
Department of Agriculture my range of interests was 
irrigation in all its phases throughout the western 
United States. My principal field work then was in 
California, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, and Nebraska, 
but I had opportunity for some contacts in all the 
other western irrigation states except the Dakotas, 
Kansas and Oklahoma. 

When I returned to the irrigation work in 1910 
after an absence of four years my main responsibility 
was, of course, irrigation in California. This did 
not prevent my retaining my interest in irrigation 
in other areas in the West. It was possible to do 
this through my association with the other members 
of Dr. Portier's irrigation staff, through various 
conferences and meetings, through irrigation district 
studies in other states, through my association, over 
a number of years, with the Bureau of Reclamation, 
and my association in later years with the National 
Resources Planning Board. 

I don't believe I could enjoy anything more than 



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1H7 



Adams: the work In the cooperative investigations in 

California which lasted from 1910 to 192^ or 1925. 
Out of that work grew the gratifying privilege of 
organizing and heading for nearly 25 years the 
Irrigation Division of the College of Agriculture, 
which has since grown into a department with the 
finest facilities for research and teaching of any 
irrigation organization in the country, not surpassed, 
if equaled, anywhere. An offshoot of the original 
Irrigation Division is the Department of Irrigation 
and Soils at Los Angeles. One of my greatest 
satisfactions is that the two men who built up these 
departments and have exercised such effective leader 
ship Professor Veihmeyer at Davis and Professor 
Huberty at Los Angeles--came into the Irrigation 
Division during my period of responsibility. 
Professor Veihmeyer retired several years ago, but 
is still active. Professor Huberty continues In 
the department at Los Angeles but gave up the chair 
manship to become director of the recently established 
Water Resources Center in the University. 

Baum: I take it that much of your work, both in the old 
cooperative irrigation investigations and In the 
University, has been in the nature of public service. 
Was it the opportunity to be of public service that 






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Professor Martin R, Huberty 



Baum: was most rewarding to you, or the finding of 
solutions to problems? 

Adams: I would say that investigation, research, and 

instruction at Davis were our primary responsibilities, 
but we could not overlook our responsibility in 
public service. I was the one in the organization 
most free to engage in public service and I thoroughly 
enjoyed it the work in legislation in the early days, 
assistance to communities considering organization 
of irrigation districts, work with the Commonwealth 
Club, chambers of commerce , the California Economic 
Research Council, the Farm Bureau, and other organ- 
izat ions 

Baum: With all these studies you were making, it sounds 
like you must have spent every night working. 

Adams: Oh no, I didn't work nights much. I put in long 
days at the office and in the field, but I worked 
no harder than other members of our group. 

Baum: You must have been on the road a good bit, when 
traveling was slower than it is now. 

Adams: Oh yes, there was a good deal of traveling. I couldn't 
exercise leadership unless I knew what was going on 
in the state, knew the people who were involved. 
If there was an important conference involving some 
phase of irrigation, I made it a point to be there 






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lj-19 



Adams 

Baum: 
Adams; 






Baum: 



Adams ; 



Baum: 



if I could. You have to have prospective when you 
work on these things and you only get it by thinking 
things out in the environment of your subject. 
Do you feel that the type of life you led left you 
time for your personal life? 

Oh, I neglected my family, there's no doubt about 
that. That work in Prance in 1919, my work in 
Palestine, my absence from home so much of the time 
wasn't fair to Mrs. Adams and the children. Just 
one of those things when you undertake to do so 
many things. But I had lots of fun and came to know 
a great many people and acquired a good many friends 
over the years. One of the things I miss now is that 

I don't get over the state; I'd give anything to 
get in the car and go over every section of it. I 
miss the contact with the people in the field. 
What other things have you undertaken since your 
retirement besides the studies you mentioned already. 
I participated actively in several of the Commonwealth 
Club studies on the general water problem. 

Preparation of this paper, "Some Policy Issues 
in the Central Valley Project", took a lot of time 
and thought. I did that as a paper for the Common 
wealth Club. 
I see it's dated June 29, 1914-9. 






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lj.20 



Adams: There were others of that type. Another was this. 

Baum: (Reading) California Farm Bureau Monthly , March 1953* 

"Irrigation in California as Viewed from the Sidelines"^ 
Sort of a brief history. I don't know how you can 
say "from the sidelines." 
Well, I wasn't in it anymore. 
Did they ask you to do this? 
Yes. Here's another thing, a lot of fun. 
(Reading) "Water for the Land in California's Central 
Valley," script for film, April 1953. 
I worked on that off and on for a couple of years, 
not in writing the script, in making the film. The 
idea of the film was that it should be helpful education 
ally among those not familiar with the subject. I 
wanted to give some prospective, show what had already 
been accomplished and just where the Central Valley 
Projects fitted in. But I took it sixteen frames per 
second and you can't fit a sound tract to that, so 
the thing didn't take very we 11. 

Baum: Did you take the films yourself? 

Adams: Yes, most of them. 

Baum: I've certainly been impressed with the still 

photographs you have included in your reports. 

Adams: Well, I've been taking pictures all my life. It 
always seemed to me that reports and papers are 



Adams : 
Baum: 
Adams : 
Baum: 

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Adams: livened up with pictures, so I always included them. 
All of us in the irrigation division of the College 
of Agriculture, and in the Department of Agriculture, 
took pictures, not only to illustrate reports but 
to have a file for instruction and other general 
purposes. 

The main project I've had on hand began about 
1953 and is not yet completed, that biography of my 
father. 

Baum: What stage are you at with that? 

Adams: I have a good deal more to do. 

Baum: I'm afraid I interrupted that work. 

Adams: Yes, you did. When these interviews began I was 
working on the founding and early history of the 
Commonwealth Club. I haven't given any attention 
to Father's newspaper career yet. I have in scrap- 
books every editorial he wrote for the Chronicle 
for a period of about twenty-five years. I have the 
Weekly Chronicle, of which he was agricultural editor 
for four or five years. I also have many special 
articles on economic, financial, and agricultural 
questions he wrote for the Chronicle, many manuscript 
articles on cooperation in agriculture, and miscellaneous 
public issues, correspondence, articles in periodicals, 
monthly financial letters for the Anglo-California 
Bank over a period of several years. 



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Adams: When Dr. Monroe Deutsch was president of the Common 
wealth Club he requested me to prepare a paper about 
Father's connection with the Commonwealth Club and 
telling about his early life. I prepared this. 
I mislaid Dr. Deutsch 1 s letter and went into matters 
in which they were not so concerned and I left out 
matters they were more concerned with. I more or 

. 

less missed the boat. So in my chapter in father's 
biography dealing with the Commonwealth Club I plan 
to cover what I should have covered before and to give 
a copy to the Commonwealth Club. 

Baum: Well, I guess we've about reached the end of this 
interview. We've covered a lot of ground. 

Adams: Yes, that's true. I think we've gone far enough. 
I hope I have not overemphasized my own part in 
things. I've been just one of many in the work. 
I can't speak too highly of the members of our 
University group and my associates in the irrigation 
work of the Department of Agriculture. I mentioned 
many of them in the little history I prepared of the 
irrigation division. I certainly appreciate your 
great patience in these interviews and your sympathetic 
understanding of my difficulties in trying to recall 
matters many of which happened so many years ago. 






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APPENDI.X 

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. 

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- 
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Copy of Memorandum of_ Flan t Utilize and Reclaim 
the Arid Public Domain, by_ George H._ Ma xwell 

The demand of the West for its share of River and 
Harbor Appropriations to build storage reservoirs cannot 
be satisfied by any cession of lands to the States. If 
every acre of the public lands were ceded to the States, 
the West would still insist on its demand for a just share 
of River and Harbor Appropriations for Reservoirs, and the 
demand is one which under any circumstances will be steadily 
urged until conceded. 

Any objection to the appropriation of money through the 
River and Harbor Bill to build storage Reservoirs on the 
ground that the expenditure would be without adequate return 
to the Government, is removed by the fact that the Conser 
vation of the water would make possible the reclamation 
and sale of vast areas of the public lands, which would 
return to the government a much larger sum than would be 
expended for reservoirs and such return would be assured 
by the adoption of the following plan to utilize the public 
grazing lands and to reclaim and sell the public irrigable 
lands. 

The adoption of this plan would yield a new return of 
more than ONE HUNDRED MILLION DOLLARS to the federal govern 
ment and would require no expenditure except for the necessary 






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surveys: 

1. The public lands to be surveyed by the Geological 
Survey, so as to segregate and show the irrigable lands, 
and the water supplies available for their reclamation; 

and each tract of irrigable land susceptible of reclamation 
by irrigation from a common source of water supply and by 
the same system of works to be separately platted with plan 
of system of works; 

2. The Secretary of the Interior to be authorized to 
lease the grazing lands, under rules and regulations to be 
established by him, and to exchange lands of equal value 
when desirable or necessary to consolidate areas for ad 
vantageous leasing or reclamation, Provided; That each 
owner and occupant of cultivated land shall have a preferred 
right to lease a proportional area of grazing land, and 

that no lease shall be for longer than five years or for more 
than five thousand one hundred and twenty acres of land; 

3. The entire net rentals in each state and territory 
to be used to build irrigation works therein for the 
reclamation of the irrigable lands, which shall be thereafter 
sold to actual settlers only at not less than one dollar and 
a quarter per acre in tracts of not more than one hundred 
and sixty acres to any one settler with a proportional 
interest in the water supply and irrigation system which 
shall be perpetually appurtenant to the land; 



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1;. The Secretary of the Interior to be authorized 
to delegate to appropriate State officials in any state 
the power to carry out the provisions of this section 
relating to leasing and building irrigation works under 
such rules and regulations as he may from time to time 
establish. 

Copy of Substitute for Memorandum of Plan 
to Utilize and Reclaim the Arid Public Domain 

1. A leasing system to be inaugurated for all of 
the public grazing lands: Title to said lands to remain 
in the General Government; but, in those States having an 
Engineering Bureau, and complying with the conditions of 
the United States laws, the States to have the right to 
control the leasing of said lands, and to expend the rentals 
derived therefrom for the construction of irrigation works; 

The rate of rental to be low, and to be uniform; The total 
acreage which one individual can lease, not to exceed 

eight (8) sections; Settlers on irrigable lands having 

the preference right to leases. 

2. The construction of important storage reservoirs 
by the Federal Government, as recommended in the Chittenden 
report. 

Approved, 






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Copy of_ Draft o_f Letter Prepared bj Elwood Mead for Mr. 
H*. GJU Burt. President of. Union Pacific Railroad, to be. 
Submitted to. Board of. Directors 

Gentlemen: 

A short time ago there was presented to the managers 
of five railroads, which cross the arid states, a con 
fidential proposal called "A Plan of Campaign for Federal 
Storage Reservoirs, Irrigation Development and Reclamation 
of Public Lands." It was prepared by Mr. George H. Maxwell, 
an Attorney of San Francisco, who wishes to devote his 
services to arousing public sentiment in support of certain 
irrigation legislation by Congress. In return he asks 
that each of the railroads approached contribute $5>00 per 
month for one year to pay the expenses of this educational 
movement, and urges in support of this that the present 
unsatisfactory situation and the need of a change therein 
will justify the effort he wishes to make and the outlay 

( 

on the part of the railroads. I am informed that all the 
roads approached except the Union Pacific have agreed to 
contribute the amount asked for 









There is no question that the present situation is 
in many ways unsatisfactory, nor that the obstacles which 
now prevent canal building or the coming of settlers can 
be removed by wise laws, but I am not satisfied that the 






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measures proposed by Mr. Maxwell are the ones needed and 
before action desire to be informed of your views. 

Without going into a general discussion of irrigation 
questions I will first give the evils which beset irriga 
tion in the arid states tributary to the Union Pacific 
railroad, and the measures which seem to me best calculated 
to remove them, and will then consider Mr. Maxwell's 
program. 



In the five states of Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho 
and Nevada we are confronted by the following conditions: 
The large rivers are at present almost unused. More water 
runs to waste in Snake and Green rivers alone than is 
used in irrigation in all these five states. If we can 
have these rivers diverted and used it will quadruple 
the population and local traffic of the railroads. It 
takes fifty acres of unirrigated land to support a steer; 
the same number of acres irrigated will support a settler, 
his family and fifty steers. 

. _ .. - - 

At present but little is being done. Canal building 
is at a standstill. Nearly all the large works built to 
water public land have been losing investments. Settlement 
is slow. Only about one-half per cent of the public land 
is filed on in a year. The causes for this are as follows: 






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1st. Burdensome taxation. 

In the five states above referred to less than 
twenty per cent of their area is taxed, the remainder 
being public land. The cost of local and s tate government 
over the eighty per cent of unproductive territory falls 
heavily on the interests which can be reached. Irrigated 
lands and railroads are two of the principal suffers. 

2nd. Opposition of the range livestock interests. 

The greater part of the public land is now used 
as a free pasture ground by range livestock men. The 
owners of these migratory flocks and herds range from 
Oregon to Nebraska. Having no settled habitation they 
make no improvements and do nothing to develop the country. 
On the contrary, the free range is the one great obstacle 
to agricultural development. So long as it costs no more 
to feed over one hundred thousand acres than it does over 
a single acre so long will the men who enjoy t v ls privilege 
oppose irrigation. What the owners of range stock want 
is an open water front and as few men to use the public 
land as possible. Every canal means fencing for streams 
and more settlers to dispute for the use of the range. 
3rd. The grazing land should be leased. 

More than ninety per cent of the remaining 
public land has no value except as grazing land. It will 
never be farmed and it cannot be left perpetually as an 






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If, however, the Irrigator of 160 acres could have 
the right to lease a few thousand acres of the contiguous 
grazing land and have such control over it as would warrant 
its improvement, he would be in a position to engage in 
growing live stock with a security and profit not now 
possible. The adoption of such a leasing system would 
double the value of irrigated land because it would bring 
a new class of purchasers--the range stockmen- -into com 
petition for its possession and improvement. 

5th. Rentals from grazing land should be used for 
canal building. 

The chief argument for a leasing system is to 
give security of control and to make it to the interest 
of stockmen to protect and improve the grazing lands; 
to make them canal builders and irrigators instead of 
enemies of settlers. But those lands can be made productive 
of a large income. Wyoming is leasing the 700,000 acres 
of grazing land, donated when admitted to Statehood, for 
five cents an acre and there are applications on file 
offering to rent at the same rate two million acres more, 
Montana is receiving $125,000 a year from leases of state 
pasture lands, the annual rentals ranging from 2-ijr to 12 
cents per acre. Colorado has sold a large percentage of 
the lands given the state and has an income from both 
interest on money received for land sold and from rentals. 






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1*31 



The latter alone amounts to over $200,000 per year. The 
state leases no land for less than five cents an acre and 
has applications to rent aggregating hundreds of thousands 
of acres which they cannot meet. 

The people who are leasing these lands find that the 
security of tenure is worth more than the privilege of 
free range and the uncertainties and controversies which 
go with it. The paying of two, five or twelve cents an 
acre is not regarded as a burden but is being clamored for 
as the only means by which farms already irrigated can 
be cultivated with profit. Those familiar with the situation 
believe that if a low rental was adopted there would be 
no difficulty in securing an immediate rental of every acre 
of pasture land in the states I am considering. At one cent 
an acre the income to the State of Wyoming would tee over 
$1^00,000. In Colorado it would be nearly as much. In 
Idaho fully as great, and in the five states the lands 
which now bring nothing to either the State or Nation could 
be made to produce an annual income of over two million 
dollars. It is probable that the loss in cattle last 
winter was more than that much. The adoption of a leasing 
system would put an end to such calamities. 

I have referred to the fact that thus far the building 
of large canals has proven unprofitable. We have about 
reached the end of cheap ditches. Most of the work of the 






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future must be of an expensive character. In order to 
secure its rapid prosecution the conditions for investment 
must be made more favorable than in the past. The rentals 
which could be obtained from the leasing of the pasture 
lands would permit of this. If the rentals for these lands 
are collected by the states, as I believe they should be, 
they could either build canals and sell them to settlers 
at nominal cost or they could subsidize associations of 
settlers or canal companies paying part of the expenses of 
construction and requiring that water rights be sold at a 
correspondingly reduced price. 

THE RESERVOIR PROBLEM 



The cheapest form of irrigation is the building of 
ditches to take water directly from streams. But there 
comes a time when the low water discharge is all utilized 
while large volumes run to waste during the flood season. 
On many streams this condition has been reached. Settlers 
find that they have water for a part of the season but 
not for sufficient time to bring crops to maturity. The 
needed water runs to waste before it can be used. They 
desire to have It stored for later use. 

There are several obstacles to the building of 
reservoirs by private enterprise. In many cases the outlay 
is more than settlers can afford. In others the location 









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1^33 



of the reservoir on the head of a stream makes it 
difficult for those who build to reap the benefits of 
its construction or prevent others from doing so. It is 
found difficult if not impossible to get all the settlers 
along a stream to join in the construction of storage 
works at the head. The earlier appropriators prefer to 
depend on the natural flow. Many others are so located 
that if the reservoir is built they can steal all the water 
they need and hence refuse to contribute. These difficulties 
in the way of private enterprise have led to a demand that 
the Government take charge of reservoir construction and 
build these works for the promotion of the general good. 
There is no question that if the leasing system as previously 
outlined was put into effect that a considerable portion 
of the money derived from leases would be expended in the 
construction of reservoirs, nor is there doubt that the 
agricultural importance of the western states would be 
enormously increased thereby. On a majority of streams 
the storing of the flood waters will increase the acreage 
which can be irrigated from two to five times over what 
is possible from the natural flow alone. 

There is one class of reservoirs which it can be 
properly and justly urged should be built by the National 
Government. Thosp which are an aid to commerce. There 
has already been expended on the headwaters of the Missouri 






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over a million and a half dollars to protect the banks 
of that stream from the ravages of the floods which come 
down each year from the mountains at its head. The estimates 
for further work of this kind amount to nearly two million 
dollars. All these measures are simply palliative. They 
seek to mitigate the effect rather than remove the cause, 
The investigations of government engineers, and of others 
well qualified to pass upon this question, are unanimous 
that the only enduring and effective solution both of the 
problem of flood protection and Improved navigation on this 
stream is to store the flood waters at the head. The 
remarkably favorable sites for storage makes it possible 
to hold back the floods within reasonable limits at 
moderate cost. It is also probably true that there are 
reservoir projects whose magnitude puts them out of the 
domain of private enterprise and where the special interests 
of the government are of sufficient importance to render 
their construction as a public enterprise entirely justi 
fiable. But on the whole, I believe that the problem of 
Irrigation development is a matter of state rather than 
National aid and that the means for carrying it out can 
be found in a reform in our land laws which will provide 
for the management of the grazing lands and the right use 
of the proceeds arising from their rental. 






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Mr. Maxwell's program, I regret to say,- is based 
on an entirely different conception. In his memoranda 
of plan he makes Government reservoirs the principal 
feature and Governmental control of irrigation an ultimate 
possibility. He justifies the building of storage reser 
voirs by Federal appropriation on the ground that the 
sales of public land reclaimed would return to the Govern 
ment a much larger sum than would be expended thereon, 
his estimate of the net return being more than $100,000,000. 
I do not see how such a result can be anticipated. The 
demand for storage reservoirs does not come from those 
who desire to occupy public land, but from those who 
already own land for which there is not a sufficient 
water supply. Irrigation from streams is cheaper than 
irrigation from reservoirs but the building of canals 
by private enterprise has not' proved remunerative. It 
is difficult to see how the building of reservoirs by the 
more costly and dilatory procedure of the National Govern 
ment could produce a different result. Experience and 
the judgement of engineers who have made a special study 
of this problem do not sustain Mr. Maxwell's anticipations. 

Col. Chittenden, who investigated the reservoir problem 
for the National Government, held that storage reservoirs 
would not pay and ought not to be expected to pay That 
on the contrary the correct policy for the Government, 






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if it built them, was to build them for the public welfare 
and turn them over to the free use of the states exactly 
as it permits the harbors which it improves to be used 
without any charge of toll. The last report of Elwood 
Mead, State Engineer of Wyoming, states that the majority 
of reservoirs are to be considered exactly as street lamps 
in a city, an important public utility but one which 
private enterprise alone cannot profitably construct or 
operate. The State of Colorado has appropriated money for 
several reservoirs, but in no case was there an effort 
made to derive a direct return therefrom. They were built 
like public roads or bridges for the general good. If 
storage reservoirs can be built at a profit private enter 
prise can be depended upon to do the work and there is no 
necessity for the Government entering upon this work. 
Hence, I should regard this portion of Mr. Maxwell's plan 
as being calculated to defeat rather than promote legislation. 

The other features of Mr. Maxwell's plan are as follows: 

First. The public lands to be surveyed by a Bureau 
of the General Government, the land to be reclaimed to be 
plotted and plans for all works to be made by this bureau. 

Second. The Secretary of the Interior to be authorized 
to lease the grazing lands. 

Third. The net rentals for each state to be used to 
build irrigation works therein. 






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Fourth. The Secretary of the Interior to be authorized 
to delegate to state officials the power to lease the 
grazing lands. 

I am only able to indorse the last of these. Concerning 
the first it is open to the objection that it would involve 
a large appropriation which might defeat other legislation 
of far greater importance. If the money to build canals 
is to come from either private pockets or from the rentals 
of lands leased by the states those parties ought to be 
permitted to select the place for its expenditure and 
prepare the plans. In addition there are grave objections 
to such a sweeping measure of Federal control at the outset. 
Each of the five states in which the Union Pacific has a 
special interest has a State Engineer whose business it is 
to supervise irrigation development. In each of those 
states all titles to water come from the state. The 
General Government has recognized state laws and customs in 
respect to irrigation matters and has surrendered to two 
of the states, in the act of admission, the ownership and 
control of the waters within their borders. However wise 
it might have been in the beginning to have had a general 
plan of irrigation works, the attempt now to interfere 
with the rights acquired under state laws, or with state 
supervision, through the laying out and direction of new 
works by the General Government would result in a conflict 






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with the holders of existing water rights and in a 
local opposition which would be fatal to all irrigation 
legislation. 

I believe, therefore, that in place of the elaborate 
plan submitted the proper course to adopt is to urge first 
of all a leasing system for the public grazing land. Next 
the construction of reservoirs by the General Government 
wherever public interests will justify appropriations 
therefor, but the refusal of such appropriations where the 
principal object is to provide a free water supply to lands 
already in private hands. In order t o obviate the objections 
which might be urged to a cession of the absolute title 
of these lands to the states it might be well to simply 
give to the states the right to lease these lands, leaving 
the title thereto in the General Government, while to 
forestall any fear that the ulterior motive is to keep these 
lands out of settlers' hands the leased lands might be 
left open to settlement exactly as they now are with two 
limitations: The repeal of the commutation clause in the 
homestead law and requiring any settler on leased land 
to pay for any improvements placed thereon by the lessee. 
In other words to make a campaign for the development of 
the west based solely on public considerations and where 
no claims are made which will not bear the most searching 
scrutiny. 



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Copy of Letter from Elwood Mead _to Mr. H._ G._ Burt 
Regarding George Maxwell's Plan, April 21, 1899 

Cheyenne, Wyo., April 21, 1899. 

' 
Mr. H. G. Burt, 

Prest. U. P. Ry., 
Omaha, Nebr. 






Dear Sir: 

I regret not meeting you on my way home from St. Paul 
in order to thank you personally for the pleasant acquain 
tances which the trip enabled me to form. 

I have already given Mr. McAllister my views on the 
proposed educational campaign, but it may prove convenient 
for you to have me repeat them in this letter. 

At our conference we discussed two propositions: (l) 
The securing of a leasing system for the public grazing 
lands. (2) National appropriations for the construction 
of irrigation reservoirs. 

Of the two, I believe the first is of the most 
importance. I also believe that it can be more readily 
secured. Leasing these vacant lands makes it to the interest 
of whoever secures control to improve them. The adoption 
of a general leasing system will mean the beginning of fence 






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building and small reservoir construction all over the 
west. As you know I have advocated the cession of these 
lands to the States in order to get these lands under 
laws, which would invite private capital to improve them, 
but I see no reason why a leasing law which leaves the 
title in the General Government, but gives to the States 
their management and the rentals derived therefrom will 
not answer every purpose of an outright cession. 

I do not favor leaving the leasing of these lands to 
the Interior Department. I would rather risk the wisdom 
and fairness of state officials, who will at least act 
promptly, than to subject settlers to the delay and red 
tape at Washington. 

I regard the advocacy of national appropriations for 
reservoirs as a valuable feature of this educational 
program. The construction of many reservoirs can be 
justified on the ground that they are a legitimate part 
of river and harbor improvement for the benefit of commerce. 
Reservoirs at the head of the Missouri to impound its 
waters is the only effective, and, in the end the most 
economical way of preventing floods along its course. It 
is possible to accomplish this result within reasonable 
limits of cost and water stored will be worth more than 
the outlay in extending the area which can be irrigated. 

Aside, however from the merits of national appropri 
ations, about which there may be a difference of opinion, 






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there is no doubt that the advocacy of their construction 
has done more to make eastern congressmen look with favor 
on liberal legislation in other directions than all other 
influences combined and the agitation in their behalf will 
aid rather than retard the adoption of a leasing system. 

These were the only matters discussed at the conference, 
but among the papers which were handed me from you was a 
"Memorandum of a Plan to Utilize and Reclaim the Public 
Domain," one feature of which seems to me of doubtful 
expediency. 

I refer to the paragraph advocating a government 
survey to segregate the irrigable lands and the prepara 
tion of plans for the works to reclaim them. My reasons 
for this doubt are as follows: We are not suffering from 
a lack of knowledge as to where such lands are or how 
they can be irrigated, but from an inability to secure 
money to reclaim them. 

Such surveys would mean large appropriations. I fear 
this would prove an obstacle to legislation in other 
directions and might delay the establishment of a leasing 
system until the survey was completed. Moreover, the 
principle is wrong. Individuals or corporations wfto build 
ditches prefer to make their own locations and to spend 
money on plans of their own creation. The engineers in 
charge of river and harbor improvements will, beyond 









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question, insist on making the plans for any reservoirs 
for whose safety they may become responsible. If the 
lands are leased the state should direct the expenditure 
of the rentals. They now control the water and should 
plan the works for its diversion and use. 

There would be danger of opposition from the state 
irrigation authorities and from appropriators of water 
under state laws, of which your railroad is a large one 
in this state. A similar measure was passed about ten 
years ago. To resume its advocacy would be to array 
against this legislation many western senators, like 
Senator Teller, who will oppose any sort of national 
legislation which looks to interference with state control 
of water supply. 

It may be that I misunderstand this paragraph and 
that some of my objections are founded on misconception 
of its purpose, but in any e vent, I think the chances of 
success will be greatly increased if we confine our cam 
paign to the fewest and simplest objects possible, leaving 
out all issues not material or likely to provoke opposition. 

As Mr. Maxwell has explained to me personally that 
he has no opposition to this part of the p Ian being retired 
I would suggest that you recommend this to be done in 
case you join in the proposed arrangement. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Elwood Mead. 






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Copy of. Letter from Frank Adams to Edward F*_ Adams 
Regarding Appropriations for Irrigation Investigations. 

December Ik. 1901 






UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, A.B.H. 
OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 
A. C. TRUE, DIRECTOR 



IRRIGATION INVESTIGATIONS, 

Elwood Mead, 
Irrigation Expert in Charge. 



Washington, D. C. Dec. Ik, 1901. 






(Personal. ) 

Mr. EDWARD F. ADAMS, 

Editorial Rooms, Chronicle, 

San Francisco, California. 

Dear Father: 

As soon as we know anything definite of the way we are 
going to take Congress, we will let you know so that you 
can work all the wires possible at that end. Just at 
present both the questions of a bureau and our appropriation 
for next year are held in abeyance and it is not likely that 
anything will be done about either of them until Congress 
is convened after the holidays. In fact, we are lying 
low about the bureau, until we see if any other bureaus are 
going to be asked for, because it seems the best plan to 
wait until the pie is cut before asking for a piece. It 






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may be that we shall not ask for it at all this year. 
The agricultural. committee of the House is so far an 
unknown quantity, not a single man from the arid region 
being on it. Mr. Wadsworth, the chairman, has never been 
very favorable to our work but thinks it should be under 
the geological survey. The Secretary has not yet taken 
any stand one way or the other in the matter and does not 
seem disposed to for the present. It might considerably 
injure the cause to present the matter to such a committee 
as the House committee on agriculture is, unless the 
Secretary were with us heart and soul and ready to fight 
for what we are after. 

As regards the appropriation, we are going to ask for 
$100,000.00, some of which we want immediately available 
to enable us to finish out the work of the year as now 
planned, including the publication of the reports now in 
progress and also Mr. Mead's European investigations. I 
think I wrote you that Mr. Johnston is now in Egypt making 
an investigation and that Mr. Mead hopes to go to Egypt 
and Italy as soon as the matters in connection with the 
office requiring attention before Congress are settled, 
which will undoubtedly not be until the late Spring or 
early Summer. Mr. Mead also wants to strengthen the 
investigation at home by adding a man to look into pumping 
and also one to study drainage, the idea being to broaden 






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the work of the office on the basis of the proposed 
bureau of rural engineering. With what is left of last 
year's appropriation, nothing effective could be done in 
this line unless aid comes from congress in the way of 
the increased appropriation, part of which to become 
immediately available. 

The California congressional delegation seems to be 
quite interested in the work of the office, and with the 
exception of Mr. Coombs of Napa, who is non-committal, 
those whom we have seen of the delegation say that they 
will support us in whatever we ask for. Mr. Mead has had 
a talk with Mr. Bark and was very favorably impressed with 
his attitude, and we are counting on substantial support 
from the whole delegation. Yesterday Senator Perkins 
telephoned over to ask how many copies of the California 
report Congress ought to print. This was done without 
any solicitation whatever and shows that he is interested 
in the work. So far as the general question of government 
aid is concerned, it does not seem likely at present that 
any plan of real value will be carried out. The western 
congressmen have been endeavoring to agree on some bill, 
but they have not yet completed it. The pressure for 
national control if nat'onal aid is extended, is very 
strong. Mr. Maxwell and his followers continue to mis 
represent the attitude of those w'-io favor merely 








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supplementing state aid by such regulations as will conform 
to state laws where satisfactory, or encouraging them where 

unsatisfactory. The President in his message and the 
Secretary in his annual report took the right stand simply 
because Mr. Mead wrote those portions of their documents 
which have to do with national aid. This, of course, is 
not generally known. 

I will send you a copy of the Secretary's report and 

would suggest that wherever you can get a meeting or an 


organization to indorse his stand, it would help the cause 

if that fact could be communicated to the Secretary. 

My Chronicle has run out and I have not renewed it 
so I did not see the account of the meeting of the fruit 
growers and their resolutions in favor of our work. We 
are supposed to get all clippings referring to irrigation 
from all over the country but have not yet succeeded in 
getting many from San Francisco papers. We will jog the 
clipping bureau up and try to get a little better service. 

Affectionately, 






(Signed) Frank. 









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Publications of Frank Adams ( and Co-authors) 

1903. Agriculture under irrigation in the basin of Virgin 

River, Utah. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Office 
of Experiment Stations, Bui. 121)., pp. 207-265. 

Court adjudications of water rights on Sevier River, 
Utah. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of 
Experiment Stations, Bui. 124, pp. 267-300. 

190S5* The distribution and use of water in Modesto and 
Turlock Irrigation Districts, California. U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment 
Stations, Bui. l8, pp. 93-139. 

The duty of water in California. Water and Forest 
5(2) :l4-, July, 1905. 

1906. Up Whitney by Lone Pine Trail. Sunset. Vol. XVII, 
pp. 714--80, June- July 1906. 

1909. Report of special committee on Hetch Hetchy water 
supply. (With Beverly L. Hodghead and E. A. Walcott) 
Transactions of the Commonwealth Club of California 
M6):3l6-336, 1909. 

1910. Delivery of water to irrigators. U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations, Bui. 229, 
95 P. 

1911. Irrigation the basis and the measure of the present 
agricultural growth of California. Report of California 
Agricultural Society for 1910, pp. 1(4-50. 

Second progress report of cooperative irrigation in 
vestigations in California. U. S. Department of Agricul 
ture, Office of Experiment Stations, Circular 108, p. 1|3, 
1911. 

Progress report of cooperative irrigation investigations 
in California, 1909, 1910. 2nd Biennial Report of State 
Engineer of California, pp. Ii(.9-l67. 

Districts under the Wright Law. Transactions of the 
Commonwealth Club of California 6(8) :26-531, December, 
1911. 



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1912. Irrigation resources of northern California. Report 

of California Conservation Commission, 1912. pp. 90-171. 

Progress report of cooperative irrigation investigations 
in California, 1910-1912. 3rd Biennial Report of State 
Engineer of California, pp. 179-192. 

Irrigated agriculture, the dominant industry in California, 
Annual Report, California Development Board, for 1911, 
PP. 55-57. 

Drainage and alkali reclamation. Monthly Bulletin of 
California State Commission of Horticulture. Proceed 
ings of the I^2nd California Fruit Growers Convention, 
1912. 2(3,l+):l4-60-ij.68. 

1913. Information needed by the agricultural immigrant: a 
special agricultural survey a possible means of obtian- 
ing it. California Development Board, Counties Com 
mittee, Bui. 12, pp. 6-11, Jan. 1913. 

Making the most of our irrigation resources. California 
Development Board, Counties Committee, Bui. 13 PP 11-17* 
November, 1913. 

Irrigation resources of California and their utilization. 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment 
Stations, Bui. 254 > P- 99. 

Reports of Section on Conservation on Water and Forest 
Bills. Transactions of the Commonwealth Club of Calif 
ornia 8(2) :66-71, 92-95. 1913- 

Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California, Report of College of Agriculture and Agri 
culture Experiment Station, July 1, 1912 to June 30, 1913. 

19li].. Progress report of cooperative irrigation investigations 
in California, 1912-191i|. California Department of 
Engineering, Bui. 1, p. 7^-. 






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19l4 Results of irrigation investigations. University of Cal 
ifornia, Report of College of Agriculture and Agriculture 
Experiment Station, July 1, 1913 to June 30, 191i|-, pp. 14- 
18. 

Orchard irrigation methods of California. Department of 
the Interior of Canada, Irrigation Branch, Report of the 
Proceedings of the 8th Annual Convention of Western 
Canada Irrigation Association, August, 19l4 PP. 107-116. 

. 

Federal vs. State control of natural resources. Transac 
tions of the Commonwealth Club of California 9(2):101- 
108, March, 1914. 

The economical use of water as affecting the extent of 
rights under the doctrine of prior appropriations. 
California Law Review 2(5) :36?-3?6, July, 1914- 

Irrigation, in some things the prospective settler should 
know. University of California, Agriculture Experiment 
Station, Circular 121, pp. 29-31, 1914. 

1915. Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California, Report of College of Agriculture and Ag 
riculture Experiment Station, July 1, 1914 to June 30, 
1915, PP. 124-127. 

First California Land Settlement Bill. (Senate Bill 
509). Introduced Jan. 22, 1915. 

Some measuring devices used in the delivery of irrigation 
water. University of California Agriculture Experiment 
Station, Bui. 2l7 , 80pp., 191!?. 

Land settlement, Transactions of the Commonwealth Club 
of California 10(5) :199-212, 225-228. 1915. 

Discussion of paper on Duty of Water in Irrigation/ by 
Samuel Fortier. Transactions of the International En 
gineering Congress, 1915, Waterways and Irrigation, pp. 
508-509. 







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1915. Discussion of paper on Italian Irrigation by Luigi Luiggl. 
Transactions of the International Engineering Congress, 

1915, Waterways and Irrigation, pp. 576-578. 

1916. Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California Report of College of Agriculture and Agri 
culture Experiment Station, July 1, 1915 to June 30, 

1916, pp. 6.6-11.7, 101-102. 

Data on land settlement in California. Transactions of the 
Commonwealth Club of California, 11(8) :375-396, November, 
1916. 

1917. Outstanding conclusions from an emergency irrigation 
survey of California by the College of Agriculture, 
University of California, cooperating with the ir 
rigation investigations of the United States Department 
of Agriculture and the California State Department of 
Engineering. (With Elwood Mead). University of Calif 
ornia Report of the College of Agriculture and Agricul 
ture Experiment Station, University of California, 1916- 

1917, PP. 93-95. 

Progress report of cooperative irrigation investigations 
in California, 1934-1916. 5th Biennial Report of State 
Engineer of California, pp. 167-171}.. 

Irrigation districts in California, 1887-1915. Calif 
ornia State Department of Engineering, Bui. 2, revised, 
151 P. 1917. 

Investigations of the economical duty of water for 
alfalfa in Sacramento Valley, California, 1910-1915. 
(With S. H. Beckett, W. A. Hut chins, 0. . Israelsen, 
and R. D. Robertson). California State Department of 
Engineering, Bui. 3, 78 p. 1917. 

Extending the area of irrigated wheat in California for 

1918, University of California Agriculture Experiment 
Station Circular 182. lj. p. 1917. 

Irrigation districts in the United States. Proceedings 
of the 2nd Pan-American Science Congress, Vol. 3, pp. 162- 
168. 1917. 







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1917. Irrigation of orchards. California Citro graph, Vol. 2, 
No. 7, May 1917. 



1918. Progress report of cooperative irrigation investigations 
in California, 1916-1918. 6th Biennial Report of State 
Engineer of California, pp. 56-69. 



Some changing aspects of California irrigation. Univer 
sity of California Journal of Agriculture 5(8), May, 1918, 



1919. Report of Reconstruction Committee, College of Agriculture, 
University of California. (With H. E. Van Norman and 
others.) University of California, Report of the College 
of Agriculture and Agriculture Experiment Station, July 
1, 1918 to June 30, 1919, pp. 152-158. 



Irrigation, in Suggestions to the settler in California. 
University of California, Agriculture Experiment Station 
Circular 210, pp. 33-35, March, 1919. 



Results of irrigation investigations. Report of College 
of Agriculture and Agriculture Experiment Station, 
University of California, July 1, 1918 to June 30, 1919, 
pp. i|.7-^8. 



1920. Rice irrigation measurements and experiments in Sacramento 
Valley, California, 191U-1919. University of California 
Agriculture Experiment Station, Bui. 325, 69 p. 1920. 



Irrigation. California Primer, published by Los Angeles 
Examiner, p. 72, January, 1920. 



Foreword to use of water from Kings River, California. 
California Department of Engineering, Bui. 7, pp. 3-5. 
1920. 






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1920. Irrigation districts as a factor in California agricul 
ture; their use as an agency in the reorganization of 
irrigation. Proceedings of the Utah Irrigation and 
Drainage Congress, 1917-1920, pp. 66-73. 

Suggested plan of procedure for Sacramento Valley water 
development. Sacramento Union, Feb. 27, 1920. 

Irrigation truths for California farmers. Sacramento 
Union, 1920 State Pair Annual, p. i^., September, 1920. 



Arguments for and against irrigation bill (Senate Bill 
i|93) on referendum. Transactions of the Commonwealth 
Club of California l(5) :266-267, September 1920. 

California Irrigation development. Transactions of the 
Commonwealth Club of California, 15(7) :331-336; 378-330, 
December 1920. 

What shall result from the Antioch suit? Pacific Rural 
Press, 100(25):791, 791;, December 18, 1920. 

Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California report of College of Agriculture and Agri 
culture Experiment Station, University of California, 
July 1, 1919 to June 30, 1920, pp. 45 > 56, 57, 91. 

1921, Report of cooperative irrigation investigations in 

California, 1918-1920. California Department of Engineering, 
7th Biennial Report, pp. 103-138. 

California irrigation progress. Pac if i c Rural Press 
101(1) :17, January, 1921. 

Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California, Report of College of Agriculture and Agri 
culture Experiment Station, July 1, 1920 to June 30, 
1921, pp. 1-9. 

Factors governing the future development of irrigation 
in California. Citrus Leave s , June, 1921. 









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1922. Irrigation investigations in California a resume of 
the activities of state and federal agencies. Orchard 
and Farm 3MD, January 1922. 

Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California, Report of College of Agriculture and 
Agriculture Experiment Station, July 1, 1921 to June 
30, 1922, pp. 1-9. 

Irrigation in California moving steadily forward. 
California Digest. Vol. 1, pp. 6-7, October Ij., 1922. 



1923. Farmer controls balance sheet by irrigation. San 

Francisco Chronicle, Progressive California Number, Vol. 
100, March 11]., 1923. 



Pending irrigation and w ater legislation. Pacific 
Rural Press 105(13) :388, March 31, 1923. 



Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California, Report of College of Agriculture and 
Agriculture Experiment Station, July 1, 1922 to June 
30, 1923, PP. 150-159. 

1921].. Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California, Report of College of Agriculture and 
Agriculture Experiment Station, July 1, 1923 to June 
30, 1924, pp. li.6-i|7. 



Investigations of the water requirements of rice as 
measured at the field. Proceedings of the Sacramento 
River Problems Conference, pp. 57-62, January. Pub 
lished by Sacramento Chamber of Commerce and Division 
of Water Rights, March, 192l|.. 



Advances in California irrigation practice. California 
Cultivator, vol. 62, (!].), January 26, 1921].. 



Duty of water studies in the Great Central Valley. 5th 
Biennial Report, California Department of Public Works, 
Division of Water Rights, pp. Il).0-l60. 



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1921].. Irrigation suggestions for a dry year. Pacific Rural 
Press. 107(H):370, March 15, 192L).. 

Report of cooperative irrigation investigations in 
California, 1922-19214.. 2nd Biennial Report of the 
California Department of Public Works, pp. 86-101. 

Duty of water investigations. Proceedings of the 2nd 
Sacramento -San Joaquin River Problems Conference, 192i|.. 
California Department of Public Works, Division of Water 
Rights, Bui. If., pp. 18-20. 

1925. Results of irrigat'.on investigations. University of 
California, Report of Agriculture Experiment Station, 
July 1, 1921; to June 30, 1925, pp. 56-57. 

Irrigation lessons from the drouth of 192!.}. California 
Cultivator, 61j.(22): 6l5, 631, May 30, 1925. 

Water conservation for irrigation in California. 
California Cultivator. Vol. 6l|., No. 22, May 30, 1925. 

1926. Water supply of Sacramento Valley. California Cultivator, 
66(2) :125, January 30, 1926. 

Will southern California draw on northern California for 
more water? California Cultivator 66(5):13l|- 161, January 
30, 1926. 

. 

Conserving and controlling western waters. Modern 
Irrigation. 2(1):11-12, Jan-ary 1926. Also, 2(2) :l5, 
21)., February 1926. 

Are we developing our irrigated areas too rapidly? 
Transactions of the Commonwealth Club of California, 
20(9):375-338, November 25, 1926. 

Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California, Report of Agriculture Experiment Station, 
July 1, 1925 to June 30, 1926. pp. 72-75. 



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1927. Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California, Report of Agriculture Experiment Station, 
July 1, 1926 to June 30, 192?, pp. 79-82. 



A constructive state water policy in sight. California 
Cultivator, 68(5):123, January 29, 1927. 



Report of cooperative irrigation investigations in 
California, July 1, 192l|. to June 30, 1926. California 
Department of Public Works, 3rd Biennial Report, pp. 
56-65 in Report of Division of Engineering and Irrigation. 



Irrigation development through irrigation districts. 
(With E. C. Eaton). Transactions of the American Society 
of Civil Engineering. 90:773-790, 1927. 



1928. Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California, Report of Agriculture Experiment Station, 
July 1, 1927 to June 30, 1928, pp. 8I|.-87. 



Water situation in California. California Cultivator, 
70(4) :93i 107. January 1928. 



Agriculture in Palestine. California Countryman, lij.(5) 
pp. 15, 21, January 1928. 



Agricultural colonization in Palestine. (With Elwood 
Head, J. 0. Lipman, A. T. Strakorn, Knowles A. Ryerson, 
and Cyril Q. Henriques). Reports of the Joint Palestine 
Survey Commission, pp. 11-65, October 1928. 



Summary of economic data relating to Jewish agricultural 
colonies in Palestine. Appendix I. Report of the Joint 
Palestine Survey Commission, pp. 67-95, October 1928. 



The agricultural situation in California; remedies and 
adjustments. (With R. L. Adams and C. P. Shaw) University 
of California Agriculture Extension, Circular 18, pp. 20- 
25, April, 1928. 






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1928: Discussion of "A National Reclamation Policy", Paper no. 
1792. Transactions, American Society of Civil Engineers, 
pp. 1331-1335. 1928. 

Irrigation Basic in California Agriculture. In Farming 
in California, published by Calif ornians, Inc., 19'5BT~ 
pp. 1|4-1{.9. 

1929. Irrigation districts in California. California State 
Department of Public Works, Division of Engineering and 
Irrigation, Bui. 21, 1^20 p., 1929. 

Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California, Resort of Agriculture Experiment Station, 
July 1, 1928 to June 30, 1929, pp. 83-36. 

Outline of factors governing the economic feasibility 
of the proposed State Water Conservation Program. Report 
of Committee on Irrigation Economics, California Economic 
Research Council. 1929. (Mimeographed) 

1930. Economic survey of certain federal and private irrigation 
projects. (With G. C. Kreutzer, Alvin Johnson, C. A. Lorry, 
Anson Marston, A.C. Cooley, J. W. Haw, and H. A. Brown). 
Hearings before the Committee on Irrigation and Reclamation, 
House of Representatives, 71st Congress, 2nd Session, pp. 
23-66. 

Economic survey of Orchard Mesa Irrigation District, 
Grand Valley Project, Colorado. Hearings before the 
Committee on Irrigation and Reclamation, House of 
Representatives, olst. Congress, 2nd Session, pp. 15>9- 
181. 

Economic report on Shasta View and Malin irrigation 
districts, Klamath Project, Oregon. Hearings before the 
Committee on Irrigation and Reclamation, House of Repre 
sentatives, 6lst. Congress, 2nd Session, pp. 181-201. 

Data on use of surface and underground water, stream flow, 
storage sites, etc., in the United States and Mexico, Tia 
Juana River Basin. (With Armando Santacruz Jr., and J. L. 
Vavela). Report of the American Section of the American 
Section of the International Water Commission, 71st Congress, 
2nd Session, House Document 359, pp. 79-81|. 






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1930. Data on irrigated areas, stream flow, use of water, etc., 
in the United States and Mexico, Colorado River Basin. 
(With Armando Santacruz, Jr., and J. L. Pavela) Report 

of American Section of the International Water Commission, 
71st Congress, 2nd Session, House Document 359, pp. 85-93- 

Progress report of special Colorado River investigations, 
June 1926, to April, 192?. Report of American Section 
of the International Water Commission, 71st Congress, 
2nd Session, House Document 359, pp. 9l|--l68 

Irrigation from Colorado River in Lower California. 
Report of American Section of the International Water 
Commission, 71st Congress, 2nd Session, House Document 
359, pp. 159-177. 

Report of inspection trip over Colorado River levee 
systems below Yuma, Arizona, September 17-19, 1929. 
Report of American Section of the International Water 
Commission, 71st Congress, 2nd Session, House Document 
359, pp. 173-191. 

Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
Calif ornia, Report of Agriculture Experiment Station, 
July 1, 1929, to June. 30, 1930, pp. 79-81. 

The Farmer's interest in the state water conservation 
program. California Cultivator, 7^(13) O&5, 383, March 
29, 1930. 

Irrigation investigations in California, Pacific Rural 
Press 119(13): p. 401, March, 1930. 

Economic aspects of the State Water Plan. California 
Journal of Development. 20 (ij.), April, 1930. 

1931. Report of Section on water resources on the State Water 
Plan. Transactions of the Commonwealth Club of California 

26(2):53-78. 

Investigations and research in consumptive use of water. 
Los Angeles Section American Society of Civil Engineers 
U(2):2-5, February, 1931. 






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1931. Results of irrigation investigations. University of 
California, Report of Agriculture Experiment Station, 
July 1, 1930 to June 30, 1931, PP. 81-82. 

Permissible annual charges for irrigation water in 
upper San Joaquin Valley. (With M. R. Huberty) 
California Department of Public Works, Division of Water 
Resources, Bui. 3^, 89 p., 1931. 

Report of the Land Settlement Committee of Land Reclamation 

Division, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1931. 

(With J. . Haw, M. R. Lewis, W. A. Rowlands, George Sanford, 
David Weeks) . 

1932. Palestine agriculture. American Academy of Political 
and Social Science, Annals, v. 16^:72-83, November, 1932. 

1931).. The value and cost of water for irrigation in the coastal 
plain of southern California. (With Martin R. Huberty) 
California Department of Public Works, Division of Water 
Resources, Bui. lj.3, 189 p., 193^. 

Reclamation, Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Vol. 13 J 



1935. Measures of a non-emergency character essential to the 
welfare of existing reclamation projects in the Western 
United States. (With R. W. Blackburn and W. W. McLaughlin) 
Proceedings of the Institute of Irrigation Agriculture, 
Fourth Water Users Conference, pp. 6-li;, February 1935 
(Mimeographed) 

1936. Organizing districts under the Central Valley Project, 
California Cultivator, 11:339, 1|.19, May 23, 1936. 

Plannirg the use of our irrigation resources. Agricul 
tural Engineering, 17(8) :32-328, August, 1936. 

Types of irrigation districts and irrigation district 
legislation in California (dittoed), May, 1936. 






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1936. Resume of present status of underground water laws In 
California. January 1936. (Mimoegraphed). 

1937. Organization and alms of the Institute of Irrigation 
Agriculture. Proceedings of the 6th Annual Conference, 
Institute of Irrigation Agriculture, pp. 3-5. 

Letter of transmlttal of Report of Rio Grande Joint 
Investigation in the Upper Rio Grande Basin in Colorado, 
New Mexico, and Texas, 1936-1937. (With Ear Ian H. 
Barrows.) Regional Planning, National Resources Com 
mittee, February 1938, Government Printing Office, 1938. 

1938. California Soil Conservation Districts Act. Assembly 
Bill No. 31. (With W. W. Weir). Special session of 
California Legislature, March 12, 1938. 20 pages. 

1939. Forests and other vegetation cover as related to runoff 
retardation and soil erosion prevention in flood control. 
Preliminary review by Flood Control Committee, University 
of California, College of Agriculture, June, 1939. 
(Chairman of Committee), 52 pages. (Mimeographed.) 

1914.0. Principles relating to rights to the waters of surface 
streams. National Resources Planning Board, Sub-com 
mittee on State Water Law. May, 19^0. 58 pages. 
(Mimeographed) . 

1914.2. Cotton irrigation investigations in San Joaouin Valley, 

California, 1926 to 1935. (With F. J. Veihmeyer and 
Lloyd N. Brown), California Agriculture Experiment 
Station, Bui. 668, 93 pages. 1914-2. 

The settlement of war veterans and other new farmers. 
VJestern Farm Economics Association, 191^4-, pp. 65-76. 

19i;6. The historical background of California agriculture. 

California agriculture, pp. 1-50. University of Calif 
ornia Press. 1914-6. 



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if.60 



19i|7. Hydrologic aspects of burning brush and woodland grass 
ranges in California, (With Paul A. Ewing and Martin R. 
Huberty), California State Department Natural Research, 
Division of Forestry. January, 19i|7. 

Water conservation and irrigation development, Section 
Report to Commonwealth Club, Transactions of the Common 
wealth Club, XLII, No. 2, pp. 29-38. 

Some irrigation aspects of proposed American River 
development, California Department of Public Works, 
36 pages. June 19tf-7 

Supplemental report with reference to size of Polsom 
Reservoir of American River development, August 8, 19l|7 

19i|.8. Some economic and agricultural aspects of the proposed 
Solano unit, Central Valley irrigation development, 
California Department of Public Works, Division of 
Water Resources, March 1914-8. 

1952. Community organization for irrigation in the United States. 

Pood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 
Development Paper No. 19, Agricultxire, October, 1952. 



1953. Irrigation in California as viewed from the side lines. 

California Farm Bureau Monthly, 3U(3):6, 18, March, 1953. 







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Unpublished Reports and Papers of Frank Adams 

1903. The diversion of water for irrigation in typical 

sections of Platte River Basin in 1903 and some results 
of its use. 82 pages. (For Office of Experiment 
Stations, Irrigation Investigations, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture.) 

1930. Economic report on San Joaquin Valley areas being 
considered for water supply relief under proposed 
California state water plan. (With David N. Morgan 
and Walter E. Packard.) 92 pages, November, 1930. 
(For Bureau of Reclamation.) 

193U. Water rights and legal aspects of water resources in 
the arid and semi-arid regions of the United States. 
(In collaboration with Elwood Mead.) Dctober, 193i| 
(For Water Resources Section, National Resources Board.) 

1938. Study of water charges, Central Valley Project, Cal 
ifornia. (With R. V. Meikle.) 295 pages, November, 
1938. (For Bureau of Reclamation. Not released by 
Bureau. ) 



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lj.62 



C ommo nw e a 1 1 h Club Activities and Reports re Irrigation 
and other Water Legislation and Pol i cy 

1. Swamp Land Reclamation, I, 1|, 190i|; IV, 5, 1909. 

2. Regulation of Water Rights, I, 6, 1905. 

3. Marketing Irrigation Bonds, VI, 8, 1911. 

l\. Conservation (Lands, Forests, Fuel, Minerals Other 

Than Fuel, Water Supply and Irrigation, Water Power,) 
VII, 2, 1912. 

5. Water and Forest Bills, VIII, 2, 1913. 

6. Water Commission Act, IX, 11, 191^. 

7. Water Power and Irrigation, XV, 7, 1920. 

8. Water and Power Act, XVII, 5, 1922. 

9. Water and Power, XIX, 7, 1921).. 

10. Irrigation and Agriculture, XX, 9, 1925. 

11. The Colorado River Problem, XXI, 2, 1926. 

12. Swing-Johnson Bill, XXII, 7, 1927. 

13. Salt Water Barrier, XXIV, 9, 1929. 
111. State Water Plan I, XXVI, 2, 1931. 
15. State Water Plan II, XXVIII, 3, 1933. 






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16. State Water Plan III, (Central Valley Project), 
XXVIII, 8, 1933. 

17. Shasta Dam Power Distribution, XXXIV, 7, 1940. 

18. Central Valley Project Power, XL, 5, 19l|6. 

19. Water Conservation and Irrigation Development, XLII, 
2, 191^7. 

20. California Water Inventory, XLIV, 1, 19i)-9. 

21. Fundamentals of California Water Policy, XLIV, 3, 19^9. 



22. Who Should Develop California's Water Resources for 
Water and Power? XLIV, 5, 1950. 



23. Water Development Federal, State, Local Fields? 
XLVI, 1, 1951. 

21;. Proposed California Water Plans, XLIX, 3, 1955. 



25. Water Reservations for Areas of Origin, L, 3 1957. 






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464 



PARTIAL INDEX 

Abbott, Nathan 40 

Adams, Amy Belle 147 
Adams and Hollopeter, Lighting Fixtures 145-146, 149 

Adams, Arthur L. 382 

Adams, Catherine Swan 1, 3-5, 22, 24-26 

Adams, David Hill 148 

Adams, Edward Francis 1-26, 30, 35, 47, 57, 60, 62,76, 

150, 421-422, 443 

Adams, Ernest L 182 

Adams, Evangeline 3, 6, 9, 26-28 

Adams, Francis Edward 147 

Adams, Mrs. Frank 72, 270, 358-359, 419 

Adams, Helen 147 

Adams, Katharine 6, 9, 26, 28-29 

Adams, Marion 6, 9, 26, 28-29, 30 

Adams, Ned 3, 5, 11, 26, 27 

Adams, Thomas 2-3, 5, 148 

Adams, Will 6, 9, 26, 29-30 



Agricultural Extension Service 187-188 

Aldri ch, Morton 39 

Alexander Commission of 1874 300 

American Association of Agriculture Colleges and 

Experiment Stations 57 

American Book Co. 6, 8 









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465 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

a " 

American Economics Association 

American River Development 412 

American Society of Agricultural Engineers 336-339 

Anderson, Leroy 155-156, 267-272 

Anderson, Melville Best 43 

Anderson, W. E. 362 

Andrews, A. H. 4 

Angell, Prank 40 

Anglo, London and Paris National Bank 146 

Argonaut 63 

Arkansas River Controversy 124 

Armstrong 127-128 

Army Educational Corp 277-281, 287 

A. S. Barnes & Co. 6, 8, 25 

Atascadero Project 168-169 

Australian State Rivers and Water Supply Commission 283 

Babcock, Ernest 278 

Bailey, Paul 306, 329, 375, 381 

Bailey Plan 306 

Bain, H. Poster 207, 215 

Balfour Declaration 351 

Balfour-Guthrie Project 382 

Ballinger Investigation 188-189 






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466 



PARTIAL INDEX (cent.) 

Ballinger, Secretary of Interior 197 

Banks, Harvey 0. 381 

Bark 445 

Barnes, Harry 218, 382 

Barnes, John 393 

Barr, Mrs. Percy M. 147 
Barrows, David P. 284, 399-400 
Barrows, Harlan H. 367, 370-371 

Barton, State Engineer 325 

Baum, F. G. 215 

Baumgartner, J. P. 197 

Beach, Lansing H. 362 

Beatty, W. H. 204 
Beckett, S. H. 160-161, 163, 182, 273 

Belshaw, C. M. 215 

Bent, Arthur S. 347-348 

Berryessa Valley Project 400-401 

Bioletti 15 

Bissell, C. A. 394 

Blackburn, R. W. 344, 346 

Blanchard 279 

Blaney, Harry P. 283 

Block, A. 16 






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467 



PARTIAL MDEX (cont.) 

Bodman 410 

Boggs, E. M. 67 

Bolton, Jane 148 

Bond Certification Commission 330 

Bond, Prank 71 

Bonte, Harmon 330-331 

Bosley, W. B. 215 

Bradley, Chris 48 

Brentwood Irrigation District 382 

Bridgeford Act of 1897 226-233 

Briggs, Arthur H. 65 

Brock, A. T. 231 

Brown, J. B. 411 

Brown, Lloyd 389 

Browning, Laurie 148 

Brush-burning Studies 408-412 

Bryan, Everett N 377 

Burch, A. N. 215, 382 

Burroughs, Spencer 377 

Burt, H. G. 426-442 

California Development Association 321-323 
California Economic Research Council 323-331, 418 

California Fruit Exchange 12-13 



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468 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 



California Irrigation District Act 245, 247, 252, 254- 

257 

California Irrigation Districts Association 

256-237, 243-244, 246, 248, 301, 329, 331-335 

California State Chamber of Commerce 321-323 

California State Conservation Commission 
171, 184, 192, 197-198, 202, 207, 209, 212, 216-222, 266 

California State Farm Bureau Federation 190, 340-344 

California State Grange 14, 341-343 

California State Planning Board 327 

California State Soil Conservation Commission 388 

California State Water and Power Acts 295, 309-314 

California State Water Commission 174, 211, 304, 414 

California State Water Plan 241, 306, 381 

California Water and Forest Association 64-65, 194, 

204-205, 223, 227 

California Water Council 335 

Calif orni an. Bakersfield 258 

Call, San Francisco 21, 31-32, 167 

Camp, W. B 183 

Campbell, Governor 349 

Campbell, Douglas H 37 

Carey Act Developments 110-111, 217 

Cattle King. The 220 

Central Canal 78, 164 









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469 



PJiRTIAL INDEX (cont.) 



Central Irrigation District 78 

Central Valley Project 110, 314, 334, 377-378, 

381-382, 394-406, 419-420 

Chamberlain, Will 11 

Chandler, A. E. 192-193, 211, 215-216, 219, 224, 

231, 292, 349, 372373 

Chittenden, Col. 435 

Christiansen, J. E. 176, 182, 185-186 

Chronicle. San Francisco 21-22, 35-36, 54, 57-58, 71, 

75, 145, 421 

Clar k, Harry 349-550 

Cleaveland, Mrs. Newton 44 

Cleaveland, Newton 44 

Cogswell Polytechnical College 9, 279 

Common we a.lth , The 314 

Commonwealth Club 194, 197, 230, 203, 205-209, 214, 

230-235, 245-247, 257, 283, 285-286, 294-295, 301-304, 

308-317, 328, 540, 342, 380, 418-419, 421-422 

Congressional Library, Washington, D.C. 73 

Conkling, Harold 377 

Connolly, Dr. 323 

Collidge, Mrs. Dane 39 

Coombs 445 

Cooper, Aaron B. 1, 5 

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Cooper, Levinia Whipple 1, 5 



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470 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

Cory, C. L. 380 

Crosby, D. J. 72 

Cottrell, Dr. 323 

Council of Defense 273 
Cowell, A. L. 215, 219, 237, 246, 332 

Crittenden, Bradford 302 

Crocheron 187-188, 389, 393 

Crocker-Huffman Land and Water Co. 132, 242 

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Crothers, George E. 51-52 

Crothers, Thomas G. 51-52 

Gushing, 0. K. 312 

Cuttle, Francis 195-197, 209, 215 

Daily Pal o Alto 43, 49, 51 

Davidson, L. C. 297, 301, 305 

Davidson, Prof. 158 

Davis, Arthur P. 100 

Davis, Joseph E 328 

Davis, Margaret 148 

Day^s of a Man 41 f 45 

Debler, E. B. 395, 3^8-399 

Delhi Settlement 237-293 
Dennett, L. L. 230-231, 237, 245, 247 









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471 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 



Dennis, J. S 

Den ton, lalter B. 129 

Dern, George H. 106 

Deutsch, Monroe 422 

Dewey, Admiral 74 

De Young, M. H. 167 

Dillon 254 

Division of Experimental Irrigation 156 



Dohrmann, Fred W .65 
Doneen 176, 180, 182, 185-186 

Doremus, A P 112 

Douglas, G. R. 326 

Dowd, M. J. 380 

Drum, John S 231 
Drury, Aubrey 



Drury, Newton B. 63 

Drury, Wells 62-63 

Dudley, William R. 37 

Duniwauy, Clyde A. 40 

Durand, Dana E. 39, 161-162 

Durbrow, William 582 

Durham Settlement 287-293 



Duryea, Edmund 231, 579, 582 



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472 



PARTIAL INDEX ( cont . ) 

Dutton, W. J. 231 

Early History of the Irrigation Division. College .of 

Agriculture . U. of C. (With Some Side -lights) 20 

Eaton, E. C. 529 

Edison, Dr. 180 

Edlefsen, Dr. 159, 176, 185-186 
Edmonston, A. D. (Bob) 376-377, 378, 381, 400-404 

Ellery, Nathaniel 231, 374 

Ely, Richard 31 

Engineering; News Re co r d 100 

Engle Bill 405 

Erb, Billy 48 

Etdaeverry, Bernard A. 152-153, 193, 215, 224, 256, 381 

Euphornia 50 

Evans, Walter H. 72 

Ewing, Paul 331, 409, 413-414 

Pallbrook Case 81 

Fairbanks, Douglas 349-350 

Pairweather, John 248-249 

Farmers' Alliance 14 

Farmers' Marketing Agency 11-12 

Favela, J. L. 364 

Feather River Project 377 

Federal Capital Issues Committee 274 






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473 



PARTIS INDEX (cont.) 

Federal Power Commission 295, 304, 320 

Federal Farm Loan Act 263 

Federal Flood Control Act 409 

Fellows, A* Lincoln 456 

Fetter, Frank A. 39 

Fie ishhacker , Herbert 146, 286 

Fletcher, Leonard 337 

Food Administration 273 
Food and Agricultural Organization, United Nations 413 

Forestry, Bureau of 409 

Fortier, Dr. 131, 141-143, 145-146, 149, 151-152, 155, 

157, 159, 170, 178-179, 200, 256, 265, 275, 383, 416 

Fowler, FredH. 215, 313 

Free Silver Ca.use 38 

Frick, Forrest 257-258, 335 



Friedlander, T. Gary 65 

Frien 38 

Frue den thai , Lou is 344- 34 6 

Gage, Henry T. 78 

Galloway, John D. 215, 251, 308, 379 

Gidney, Ray S. 224 

Given, Vernon 185-186 

Glenn-Colusa Irrigation District 78, 165, 379, 382 



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474 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

Glick, Phil 373, 388 

Goet>el 37 

Goldwyn, Sam 348-349 

Grange, California State 14, 341-343 

Grange, Highland 14-15 

Grange, National 342 

Grant, Eugene L. 383 

Green, Will 3. 77-78 

Green, R. L. 37 

Greene, Samuel H 314 

Griffin, August 137, 382 

Griffin 37 

Griffin, P. H. 246 

Grover, N. C. 369 
Grunsky, C. E. 60, 67, 207, 215, 231, 378-379 

Grunsky, Herman 46, 193, 294 

Haehl, Harry L. 379-380 

Hall, Mrs, 119 

Hall 4 
Hall, Wm. Ham. 60, 61, 67, 142, 201-202, 226, 378 

Hallman, H. 52 

Harding 153, 275, 381 
Harper, Sinclair 0. 314, 368, 370, 403 

Harrell, Alfred 258 









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475 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

Harri son, George 183 

Hathaway, W. L. 231 

Haw, John W. 346 

Hawley, George 377 

Hayne 15 

He eke, George 273 

Hendrickson, Prof. 159, 176, 182 

Henrique 3, Cyril Q,. 360 

Henry 20 

Herminghaus 219 

Heraey, Philo 12-13 

Hichborn, Franklin 62, 303 

Hick a, John 29 

Highland Grange 14-15, 341 

Hilgard 14, 150, 322 

* * 

Hill Gary 525 

Hill, Louis C. 380 

Hill, Raymond 380-381 

Hilmar Colony 139 

_ 

Hodghead, Beverly L. 221-222 

Holley, Carl 397 






Hollister Irrigation District 382 

Holman, Alfred 31-34, 61-64 



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PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

Holmes, Bill 377 

Holtzinger, Henry 377 

Homans, G. Morris 215, 221-222 

Homestead Act 103, 453 

Hoover, Herbert 350 

Horsburgh, James 57 

Hotchkiss, Willard E. 325-326 

Howard, Burt Estes 39-40 

Howard, George Elliott 40, 53-54 

Howe, Captain Stanley 278 
Huberty , 180-182, 186, 287, 396, 409-411, 413, 417 
Hunt, Thomas F. 55, 155-157, 189-190, 284-285 

Hutchins, Wells 236, 383-385, 413 

Hutchinson, Lincoln 39 

Hutchison 181, 186, 386, 389, 393, 410 

Button, George H. 194-195 

Hyatt, Edward 306, 331, 376-377, 381, 389, 393, 402, 

404, 400 

Hyde, Charles Gilman 215 

Imperial Irrigation District 380 

Institute of Irrigation Agriculture 345-347 

Intercollegiate Debating Committee 50 

Interstate Water Rights 124 






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477 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

Irrigation Bond Certification Commission Act 234-235 

Irrigation Census 161-163, 184, 395 

Irrigation District Bonds 229-236 

Irrigation Institutions 82 

Irwin, Wallace 48 

Irwin, Will 48 

Isrelsen, 0. W. 185 

Jaffa 15, 5V 

Jepson, W L. 215 

Jewett, Hugh 257 

Johnson, Alex 388 

Johnson, C. R 222 
Johnson, Hiram 62, 192-193, 216, 230-231, 285 

Johnston, Clarence T. 129, 179-180, 185-186, 444 

Johnstone, William A* 216 

Joint Palestine Survey Commission 352-361 

Jones, Senator Herbert 270 

Jones, Jenkin W. 182 

Jones, William Kerr 284 

Jordan, David Starr 27, 36, 40-41, 43-45, 47-48, 53-55, 

204, 301 

Kahn, Julius 76 

Kaupke, Charles L. 382 



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478 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

Kellogg, Vernon L. 3V 

Kendrick, CharlesH. 286-287 

Kern County Land Co. 255, 379 

Kern River Water Storage District 255-260 

Kidd, A. M. 215, 284 

Kidd, Milton 335 

Kieffer, Stephen E. 266, 382 

King, F. H. 71 

Kingsbury 279 

Kittredge, J. 410 

Knowland, Joseph R. 63 

Kreutzer, George 284, 291 
Kuhn Project 163-166, 167, 257, 274 

Land Settlement Act 280, 283-287, 300 

Land Settlement Committee 338 

Lands jgf the Arid Region 88, 90-91 

Lane, Franklin K. 23, 300 

Langdon, Wm. H. 288 

Langworthy, C. F. 72 

Lathrop, H. B. 40 

Lawson, Lawrence M 366 

Leasing of State Owned Grazing Land 430-432, 436-437, 

439-441 

Lee, Charles H. 294, 313, 380 



xaaia JAITJUS 



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PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 



Lewers, Prof. 40 

Lewis, E.G. 168-169 

Lilienthal, Phil 146 



Lindsey 279 

Lindsey-Stratford Irrigation District 382 

Lipman, Charles B. 207 

Lipman, Jacob G. 359-360 

Lippincott, J. B. 380 

Little Landers' Colonies 169-170 

Lobbying 74-75, 77, 79, 172 

Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce 347-350 

nc 

Loughridge 15 

Loveland, Chester H. 276 



Lubin, David 359 

Lynch, James K. 231 

Lynch, Robert Newton 321-322 

Madera Irrigation District 382 

Made r a Canal and Irrigation Co. 132 

Major 155, 271 



Marshall, Louis 352, 359 

Marshall Plan 294-308, 375-376 

Marshall, R. B. 296-308 

Martin, Irving 216 






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480 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

Marx, Charles D. 27, 67, 204 

Mathew, Raymond 377 

Maxwell, George H. 80-82, 95, 98-102, 423-427, 435, 

439, 442, 445-446 

. 
May, D. W, 72 

McAllister 439 

McClure, W. P. 215, 238-239, 245-246, 248, 289, 

325, 329, 374-376, 381 

McCormick, E. 305 

McGovern, Walter W 383 

McGuire, James A* 65-66 

McHendrie, A. W, 372-373 

McLaughlin, i/Valter W, 159-160, 344-345, 347, 369 

Mead, Elwood 20, 59-64, 67-72, 75, 78, 82-88, 91-92, 

94-113, 125-130, 131, 143, 149-153, 179, 192, 203-204, 

214, 223, 278, 28 3-286, 288-291, 293, 301, 351-352, 359- 

360, 362, 383, 394, 402-403, 407, 426-442, 444-446 

Meikle, R. V. 140-141, 382, 395-397, 399-400 

Merced Irrigation District 242-243, 264, 375, 379 

Mercury. San Jose 62, 268 

Merritt, Ralph 274 

Met calf, Victor H. 76 

Meyer, Carl 377 

Meyer, Henry G. 251 






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481 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

Miller, Adolph 224 

Miller and Lux 218-219, 255 

Mills, James Jr. 166, 274 

Mills, James 165-166 

Mills Orchard Co. 165-166 

Minard, Duane E. 372 

Mining and Scientific Press 32-33 

Modern Farmer in his Business Relations. The 17-20 

Modesto District Investigation 131-141 

Modesto Irrigation District 230, 382 

Mondell, Prank 75 

Morgan, David M. 394, 396 

Morley, Agnes 44 

Mormon Settlements in Utah 115-124 

Morris, Samuel B. 382-383 

Moses, Bernard 45 

Mulford, Walter 207, 294, 410 

Nairs, L. A. 167-168 

National Appropriations for Construction of 

Irrigation Reservoirs 432-439, 441-442 

National Farm Bureau Federation 342, 344, 346 

National Farmers Union 342 

National Grange 342 



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482 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

National Irrigation Association 80 

National Irrigation Congress 80 

National Reclamation Association 106, 335, 385 

National Resources Committee 367 

National Resources Planning Board 367, 373, 416 

Needham, J. C. 131 

Nelson, DeWitt 409 

Nevada Irrigation District 240-241, 379, 382 

Newcomer, A* G. 40 
Newell, P. H. 81, 95, 97-102, 204 

li?. Li.fQ for a Lady 44 

Norboe 215 

Norris, Senator 407 

North, John G. 194-196, 205 

Oakdale Irrigation District 228-229, 332, 382 

O'Connor, Joe 50 

Olmsted, P. E. 222 

One Hundred and Sixty-Acre Limitation 83, 103, 334, 339, 

404-406 

Oregon! an. Portland 33-34 

Orland Project 382 

Ormsby, Herbert P. 323, 325-326 

O'Shaughnessy, M. M. 301 






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483 

PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

Outlines jof Economics 31 

Pacific Rural Press 31-32, 34, 36, 57 

Packard, Walter E. 279, 281-282, 394 

Page, John 398 

Palestinian Colonization 351-361 

Palestine Economic Corporation 414 

Pardee 192-200, 203, 209-211, 213, 215, 217, 221 

Parker, Carlton H 23 5 

People's Place 29 

Perkins 377 

Perkins, Senator 445 

Pickford, Mary 349 

Pillsbury, Arthur 185-186 

Pinchot, Gifford 81 

"Plain Talks With Farmers" 2L 

Plat te River Investigation 124-131 

Powell, John Wesley 81, 88, 90-91 

Powers, Harry H. 39 

Pratt, M. B. 222 

Pyle, Fred D. 382 

Range Committee 177 

Reclamation Act of 1902 30-84, 103-111, 262 

Reconstruction Finance Corporation 236, 345 



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484 



PARIIAL INDEX (cont.) 

Reed, Charles Wesley 206, 215, 322 

Reid, William T. 30 

Rendtorff 37 

Reynolds, Jack a on 40 

Ricca, Mark L. 207 

Richardson, Governor 290 

Rio Grande Joint Investigation 367-373 

Riparian Rights 218-220 

Robertson, Harrison S 327 

Robinson, Henry M. 323-324 

Rockwell, W. L. 380 

Roeding, Fred W. 154, 160 

Rogers 37 

Rohwer, Carl 143 
Roosevelt, Iheodore 73-76, 83-84, 91-97, 104, 197, 206 

Ross, D. W. 163, 217, 237 

Ross, Mrs. E. A* 15, 31 

Ross, E. A. 15, 17, 36-39, 43-44, 52-55 

Rothschild Colonies 354-355, 358 

Rothschild, Baron Edmond de 351-352 

Rothschild Foundation 352 

Ryerson, Knowles 278, 351, 360 

Sacramento Valley Irrigation Co. 164-165 






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485 



PJiRTIAL MDEX (cont.) 
i 

Sacramento Valley West Side Canal Co. 164-165 

Salt River Project 108 

Samson, Admiral 74 

Sander, Gordon 377 

San Joaquin Water Conference 276-277 

San Jose Graige 341-543 

Santa Clara Fruit Exchange 12-13 

Santa Clara Valley flater Conservation District 265-270, 

379 

Sauer, Carl 372 

Schley, Commodore 74 

Schmidt 37 

"Sciioolbook Trust" 8 

Schulte, John I. 72 

Schuyler, James D. 67 

Schwartz, Charles E 49 
Scobey, Fred 201, 370, 376, 383 

Scott, Harvey 33-34 

Seavey, Clyde 79, 310, 312 

Sehlmeyer, George 342-343 

Sevier River Investigation 122-124 

Shaw 183 

Shields, Peter J. 155 






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486 



Shinn, A. L. 215 

Short, Prank H. 204, 206 

Shoup, Paul 320 

Simpson, Russell 377 

Smith, Bert L. 314 

Smith, C. B. 72 

Smi th, Erne ry 57 

Smith, Joseph P. 117 

Smith, Mary Roberts 39 

Smith, Roy 292-293 

Smythe, William E. 68, 169-170 

Soil Conservation Act 386 

Soil Conservation Service 160, 386-393, 409 

Soil Erosion Service 386 

Solano Irrigated Farms Project 167-168 

Solano Unit Irrigation Studies 400-402, 413 
Soule, Prof. 67, 69-70, 150, 204 

South San Joaquin Irrigation District 228-229, 231, 332, 

382 

Spozio, Arturo 28 

Spreckles, Rudolph 309, 312 

Stabler, Harry 77 

Stafford, Harlowe M, 369, 377 

Stahl, Elmer 314 

Standish, Miles 215, 222 






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488 



PARTIAL INDEX (cent.) 

Teele, R. P. 112, 129, 161 

Teller, Senator 442 

Terrabella Irrigation District 382 

Thomas, William 65, 205, 215, 223 
Tibbetts, Fred H. 265-267, 270-271, 294, 379 

Times, Los Angeles 349 

Transactions. Commonwealth Club 208, 216, 313, 328 

Treadwell, E. F. 215, 218-220 

Tribune . Oakland 63 

Tri -Counties Project in Nebraska, 1935 406-408 

True 59, 70 

Trumbull, Grace 322 

Turlock District Investigation 131-141, 382, 395 

Union, Sacramento 62 

United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization 413 

United States Army Educational Corp. 277-281, 287 

United States Chamber of Commerce, Western Division 

318-321 

Van Etten, P. H. 377 

Veihmeyer, Prof. 159, 176-177, 180-182, 185-186, 274, 

340, 09-410, 417 

Virgin River Investigation 113-122 

Vista Irrigation District 382 

Vitteles, Harry 361 

Waddell, T. B, 377 






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489 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 






Wadsworth 444 
Wagner, Walter 243, 329, 335 

Walcott, Earle 207 

Walker, Harry B. 158, 411 

Walter, R. F. 395, 406 

Walton, B. F. 12 

Wantrup 411 

Ware, Allison 312-313 

Warner, Amos G. 38 

Warren, Earl 401 
Warren, Francis E. 74-75, 83-84, 87 

Water and Forests 151, 154 

Water Commission Act of 1913 209-216 

Water Economics Committee 334 

Waterman, Governor 60-61 

Water Storage Act 256-257 

Watson, Max 270 

Webb, Attorney Gene ral 321 
Weeks, David 323-324, 326-327, 337 
Weir, Walter 183, 386-387, 389, 410 

Wendling, 'G. X. 222 

We st er n Water News 334 

West Stanislaus Irrigation District 263 






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490 



PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

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Wheeler, Benjamin Ide 67-68, 149-150, 151-153, 204, 

283-284, 301 

Whitney, Milton 81-82 

Whit tier, Clark B. 40 

- 

Wickham, Margaret 37 

Wickson 15, 150 

Widtsoe, John A. 319 

Wiel, Samuel C. 138, 219, 231 

Wi en stock 316 

Wilbur, Ray Lyman 301 

Wilccej E. V. 72 

Williams, W. R. 231, 319 

Wilson, Edgar M. 288, 290 

Wilson, Ernest 42 

Wilson, J. M. 64, 66, 68-69, 77, 98, 142, 151, 161, 

223, 265 

"Winning of Barbara Worth" 347-350 

Win slow, 



Kenelm 

Win slow, ysffr-mmf ^ 

Wise, James H. 207 

Woodson 159 

Woodworth 257 
Woodworth 15> 257 

Woo ley 121 






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PARTIAL INDEX (cont.) 

Wooster, C. M. 287, 289 

Works Bill 204-205, 209 

Works, John D. 204 

Wright Irrigation District Act of 1887 61, 65-66, 

80-81, 138, 23-227, 229, 231, 236-237, 242, 248 

Young, C. C. 376 

Young, John P. 145 

Young, Walker 382, 295, 397-399 

Zion, E. R. 231 

Zionist Colonization in Palestine 351-361 






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FACE 38 SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE, Friday, January 27, 1967 FHE* 



Page Ten 1/27/67 THE DAILY CALTFORNIAN 



Frank Adams, Prof Emeritus, 
Dies at 91, Irrigation Expert 



Frank Adams, professor emeri 
tus of irrigation, died Wednesday 
at the age ot 91 at his home in 
Berkeley. 

He retired in 1945 after spend 
ing 29 years here and at the Davis 
campus. 

From 1916 to 1936 Adams was 
head of the Division of Irrigation 
Investigations and Practice in the 
University College of Agricul 
ture. 

He also served as irrigation 
economist both in the University's 
Agricultural Experiment Station 
and in the Giannini Foundation 
of Agriculture Economics. 

In 1947 Adams received the 
John Deere Gold Medal for out 
standing achievement in agricul 
ture awarded by the American 
Society of Agricultural Engineers. 

He was awarded an honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws by the . 
University at the 1949 Charter. 
Day exercises here. 

Adams was characterized at 
that time by University President 
Robert Gordon Sproul as "a pio 



neer in the application of engi 
neering and economics to the 
problems of agriculture on semi- 
arid lands" and as "skillful in or 
ganizing farmers and drafting ~\ 
legislation for the development, 
distribution, and use of water in K' 
the West." 

He is survived by four children, 
Mrs. Helen A. Barr of Berkeley, 
Francis E. Adams of Monte Ser-' t 
eno, David H. Adams of Los / 
Gatos, and Thomas C. Adams of 
Portland, ten grandchildren, and 
two great grandchildren. 

Memorial services will be held 
at 11:00 a.m. this Monday at the 
Chapel of the First Congregation- -* 
al Church of Berkeley, Dana and 
Durant Avenue. - rij 

:.,.' THft'J* 



Professor 
Frank Adams 
Dies at 91 

Frank Adams, emeritus 
professor of irrigation at 
the University of Califor 
nia at Berkeley and one- 
time agricultural advisor 
to the Palestinian Govern 
ment, died in his Berkeley 
home yesterday. He was 
91. 

A memorial service will be 
held at 11 a.m. Monday in 
.the First Congregational ; 
I Church of Berkeley, Dana 
I and Durant avenues. 

Professor Adams, a native. 
! of Illinois, was a son of Ed 
ward F. Adams, onetime edi- 
1 tonal writer for The San 
Francisco Chronicle and a 
founder of the Common- 
i wealth Club of California. 

He was a 1901 graduate of 
Stanford University and was 
awarded a master's degree 
from the University of 
Nebraska in 1906. 

Professor Adams joined 
the UC faculty in 1916 as 
head of the Division of Ir 
rigation Investigations and 
Practice in the university's 
College of Agriculture. 

He served as consulting 
engineer and economist for 
the Federal Bureau of Rec 
lamation between 1926 and 
1940, and in 1927 went to 
Palestine as a member of 
that country 's Advisory 
Committee o n Agricultural 
Colonization. 

Professor Adams was the 
recipient in 1947 of the John 
Deere Gold Medal for 
achievments in agriculture. 
He was awarded an honor 
ary degree of doctor of laws 
and letters by UC in 1949. 

He is survived by a daugh 
ter, Helen A. Barr of Berke 
ley; by three sons, Francis 
E. Adams of Monte Sereno, 
David H. Adams of Los Ga- 
tos, and Thomas C. Adams 
of Portland, Ore.; by ten 
grandchildren and by two 

great grandchildren. 

. 






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