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■ovcHT wrm the inoome or the 


Tliis is an authorized facsimile 

of the original book, 

and was produced in 1975 by microfilm-xerograp 

by Xerox University Microfilms, 

Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. 



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Til Wg« MMml of MmOaik IW hm, 4«ffiif «U ImI 
fcv fmt% baM Attmetod io all qucslioM bMriiy spM IW 
li%te «iiieatiM of Uiit eoootfjr^ ud tk% inonMif p«bBe 
bUTBii IB all OiAi ti eoBiioct«a with Um two older Bfiglish 
vaivofiitiei, mtglit olooo oeefii oofBeteiitl/ Io justifj Iho 
oppeonuico of tho jirtm^oi volume It maj ooi iKnrever bo 
ttotiMrablo to cfllr mme eipIinA^i..s vifYi r^gmH to ths 
Mctliud ot tfoatment wbich» iii roacarcbeo oxteoditig ovtif 
ooarij ocrrn jvarv, t)ic autliur b^a cbiefl/ kf'pc bcfoc^ bim. 

A very curvorjr irtnpcctioo of tbo TaUo of CbotctiU w Jl 
ftuflioo to i4iow iliAl Uio •ubjf^l of oiiivefvilj biatorjr boo bero 
buCD opfiruocbcd from a tunivwlftat diflfcmit priiat of view |q 
tbat of prrvioiM Uliourers io tbc sanie firU. Tbo voluimf h 
I aeitber a coUcrtiuo of Aiiti«|uiiic*« nor a cull«ctioo of bnigra- 
phict ; nor U it a acric* of drUcluxl tmmy oo quotliui}^ ut 
Mpectml ioUrrr*! or ept«Mle« of eicc{il;ooal impirtjiiier. Il im 
rmther an ctitleavvMir io traro out tbo cuatiiiuuiMi biatorj •jf m 
l^rvttt natiocuU iD«liiutiofi, tut ilaU bifttorj prt^aroU it» 
uolj to •tuxcA»ive «) sir tut and varioua tvnna %ft 
oiltore, but aI«o in rcUUoo to tbo oipericacttt of tbc 
At Urgo; aiHl at the ftomc time to potot oQt ia bot 
•l««;fxx} ibv uuivvr«itiv« bii^c itiflucaiec4 tbc «ibok 


«f the edoeiitad da«e% 
poGtied ud mcuA diaai 

To Ukm who best- undenUsd how imporUnt and 
BamenHii aio the relations of oniTersity eolture to the 
hislofj of the people, such a method of treatment will 
pcobably appear most arduous and the qualifications neces- 
sary to its competent execution most varied ; it may con- 
sequently bo dcsirablo also to explain how greatly tho author 
has been aided by the researches of previous investigatoni. 

It is now more than thirty years ago since the late Hn 
C. H. Cooper* published the first instalment of that valuable 
series. — the Annals of Ckmbridge, tho Memorialsof Cambridgo, 
and the AtKeruB CafUahrtffienseit^^wiih respect to which it 
has been truly ssid that 'no other town in England has three 
such records.' To cxtraordiDary powers of minute itivoHtigfi- 
tion he united great attainments as an antiquarian, a fidelity, 
and fairness beyond reproach, and a rare judicial faculty in 
assessing the comparativo value of conflicting cvidenco. It 
need hardly be added that more than a quarter of a century 
of research on . the part of so able and trustworthy a guide, 
has materially diminished and in some respects altogotlicr 
forestalled the labours of subsequent explorers in the same 
field. But valuable as were Mr. Cooper's services, his aim 
was entirely restricted to one object, — the accurate investi- 
gation and chronological arrangement of facts; he never 
sought to establish any general rcsu'ts by the aid. of a 
legitimate induction; and in the nine volumes that att.e8t 
his labours it may be questioned whether as many observa- 

' For tlM infomiAtion of iMflern who nuiy hATo do personal knowledge of • 
GamMd^e, I niAy eUte that Mr Cooper wm not a member c' the uniTenutr, ' 
btti fiUcd lor BiAoy yean Uie offices of town coroner and town clerk. i 


tioiif eon be fbuiicl, tlut tend to abew the eonsexioii of oo« 
ttid with anoCber* or tbo relcvaoej of A117 ono bobted tfcni 
to the greats moTements ir progre« beyond the uoivemty 
walLi; while to the dKimportant subject o^ the diameter 
and eflTcctn of tlie diflTrrcot itudiee ■ooocmrelj dominant in 
the univcmitj, he did not alt^rnipt to ttipply any elucidattott 
beyond what might be irctdcn tally aflr<»rded in his owb 
department of en^iuiry, 

Tlic aid however which he di<l not prrif«MS to give has 
h>nm to a gnnt extent mi|i|irMMl by rythcr writers. During the 
samr pi*rif)(l ctntributiuns to lii4*raturo^ both at home and 
al^Mil, hnve given aid in this Uttrr diATtion srarcly le^ 
valuable tlian that which lie rm«lcre«l in the province which 
he mivl^ so pe<*iiliarly hiii own. Tlie liU'raturcs U Uith 
Ueniuuiy and France hnve U < n richly firriductive of works 
of iiti*rliiig Vfiluo iltimtnitive of m^lis^val thoii;:ht atnl 
me«lia«val ini«titiitionii; and have fnmiNlM^I a inif^^*«i<»fi cif 
standnrl lii«tori4x, elnU'fati' c«#iaySy and ennful motif igniiili*, 
which have nhcd a new light on the siibji^ of llie pn^^rnt 
volume, in comm«m with all that n4ati*s to the <*«lucnti««n 
and learning of tlie Middle" Ages. Among tliew) it is •iiffiri«n| 
to name the works of ft'iger Ifuhrr, Kl:utgen» U^^hhrTp 
PrnntI, Rnnke, Von lUtim« r. SchaAnrhmidt, ITebi-rwrg. an«l 
I'llnvann in Ocnnany; ih**^ of Vict^ir l^ fUf. Ohmh, 
llaun^u, the younger J<Hinl«iin, R^nti^at, Renan, sn*l 
Tliurt>i in Franco ; aiwl to tlie»*» may Ijo aiMcil the hi«tDric« 
of single* unirer»itie<i, — like that of UxmI by Vi<H« r, of 
Krfurt by Ksmf*nhulte. t*i Lripiiic by Zamcke, ao<i «*f L/Hivain 
by F« tit N^vc ; wlule at liome, the va!ttable m r'v^ tluit 
has sppf'Sit'*! umlrr the sanction of the M.\«t'>r of the IbJU. 
• h! th«* sMe |»ref.ici-* to diflTcrrnt vohiiies o( tliat rollcctitm 
fnnn tlie [k'hi wf Mr. Ati*tiv. proft^iMiir {jfvvivr, tlie Uto 


profesBor Shirloy* Mr. Liiard, professor Mayor, and professor 
SCiiU%— the ^Docoinents' published by the Royal Com* 
minoii,*— the papers relating to points of minuter interest 
in the publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, — 
and the histories of separate colleges, especially Baker's 
Uistory of St. John's College in the exhaustive and ad* 
mirable edition by professor &)Ayor,r-have aflforded not less 
valuable aid in connexion with the corresponding periods 
in England. 

But contributions thus varied and voluminous to the 
literature of the subject, while forestalling labour in one 
direction have also not a little augmented the necessity for 
patient enquiry and careful dcliberatiou in arriving at 
cuncluKions; and the responNiliility iuvolved miglit have 
alt<ig<?thcr deterred the author from the attempt, had he 
not at the same time been able to have recourse to assist- 
ance of another but not less valuable kind. From the time 
that he was able to make his design known to those most 
able to advise in the prosecution of such a work, he has 
been under constant obligations to different members of the 
university for direction with respect to sources of informa- 
tion, for access to records, and for much helpful criticism. 
Among those who have evinced a kindly interest in the work 
he may be permitted to name Henry Bradshaw, Escj., M.A., 
fellow of King's College and university librarian ; William 
George Clark, Esq., M.A., senior fellow of Trinity College and 
kite public orator; the Rev. John Eyton Biekersteth Mayor, 
M.A., senior fellow of St. John's College, and professor of 
l^atin ; John lilwin Sandyj*, Esq., RA., fellow and tutor 
of St John's College; and Isaac Todhunter, Esq., M.A., 
F.ILS., late fellow of St. John's College; as gentlemen to 
whom he is indebted not only for the revision and eorrectii»n 


^•^* i.// 









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A3W IVIUtt fM Vf . 

0((f Ftl««f 




roXTKinx xvii 

TmtknoDjciOrfm^*^ieU> the good tffocUciilMrMetifiif , dO 

Tmk New AunrrnruK 91 

First known to Karr<|fO tlirv/u;;li Anl/ie nonroes • • . lil^, 

Prcriofis knowlc^jfj^c in Karv/fie of An^juiU^B writifoipi , • 93 

RcMsardjcn of )lt. AnuiMo JounlAjn . • « . . D3 
McUi'kI whic'li lie ctnpIoYed in kti loTCSti^^tioDt ••«•&. 

Concltuiionji tbtu cfttfiMUIied •••«•• 94 
Ari«tot}c*'ii natand phiIof>]>bj cliicflj koawB frr>m Afmbie 

8i»tircot 0*0 ih, 

HapcrioritT of the Tcniofis from the Greek to tboee frooi 

the Arabic 95 

M. Kenan's account of the latter ib. 

Difficulties of the Charch with respect to the new phflotophj 96 
The traditional hostilitj to pagan literature not aimed at 

tlie philosophers Ok 

Hostilitj now excited tX Rome ...'••• 97 

The scientific treatises the first there oondemned . . ib. 

The enijwror Frederic ii 9S 

Anathemas pronoonccd bv the Cbnrdi .... Sb. 

Tlie qacHtiim which the schoolmen were called to deddo . 99 

The new literature appealed to the wants of the age . • ib, 
A Norman and an En^Ii«h lihrarr of the twelfth centniy . 100—4 

Compuriiion of their contents i^ 

Tlie^e librnrios CMmf-iTel w:»^ t'nr •»fChri'»*c}iurch, Canter- 
bury, a century later 103 

Activity of the Mendicants farorable to the new learning . tft. 

The Dominicans at TariA 10^ 

Conflict between the university and the citizens in 1228 . ih. 

The university leaves Paris 107 

The opp<irt unity seized by the Dominicans .... A. 

AlbeKus Ma«pins . *. . ih. 

The Domiiiioiui interpretation of Aristotle • . . . lOS 

TnoMAS AgriXAS (h. 

Different metiiods of Alhertus and Aquinas as commentatort i^. 

The I*9eu<l.>-Dionysius ' . . . 109 

The Testaments of the Twelre Patriarchs . . . . 110 
Combination in Aqoinas of Aristotelian and Christiin phi- 

lo«(»phy t^ 

Influence of Aquinas on modem tl eolo^ . . . 112 

DifEcult V of his position in relatiur co the thought ( f his ugt 1 13 

Varied character of the intellectual activity of this period • *&. 

Aquinan disclaims Averrocs in ordei to sare Aristotle . 114 

Psihiroof his method in relation to psychology . . . 115 

Theory of ArUtotlc's treatise /V Anima .... t^. 


• •• 



Iskukm glren to thb Uioorj l^ the AnMan oomnon- 

UUn 116 

Viows otpoiiiod by the FnuidicaiiB • . . • • 117 

Alexander Ilaki i&* 

Afcrroittic qrnpatliiet of tho etrly Frandieaiis • .,118 

BouTeatura t&- . 

His oomponUTO indifference to Ariitotle . • • • «&• 
TtmporarjtnoceMof AqainjiA*fmodeoftrofttment » ' ib, 

Retmn of tho nnirerdty to Paris . . , • . • 119 

Rindry between tlie seculars 9nd the Mendicants • • ib. 

VTilliam St Amour .••..... ib. 

Hit Perils of the Last Times tb. 

KiTalry between the Dominicans and the Franciscus • • 120 

Tbo philosophy of Aquinas attacked by the latter • • ib. 

'TempoRiry success of their attack • • • . • 121 

DeitJi of^Thomas' Aquinas ib. 

His authority subsequently Tindlcated by the Chnrdi • 122 

llift canonisation • • • • ib. ' 

Subsequent dlnscnt from his teaching 123 

Difiicalty of the position of the schoolmen of the period • 124 

Technical method of Aquinas 125 

Traiutlation of the Greek text of Aristotle . . . ' • t&. 

Tn CoLLEuES OP Pabis 126 

Foundations in tlie twelfth century ib. 

TheSorbonne 127 

The College of Navarre ib. 

Other foundations of the fourteenth century . • • 129 

Description of the university by >L V. Le Clere . . . 129 

Procession of the colleges ib. 

Largeness of the numbers 130 

Extreme poverty of Uie students ib. 

Other characteristic features 131 

Chap. IL Risk of tuk Exoush UxiTEBSima 

Intimate connexion between Paris and the English nnlTor- 

sities ib. 

Obecurityoftheearly history of Oxford and Cambridge , . 133 

Students from Paris at Oxford and Cambridge . . • • ib. 

Emmcnt Oxonians at Paris 134 

Anthony Weed's account . • ib. 

Migrations from Cambridge and Oxford ib. 

Migrition from Cambridge to Northampton . . . . 135 • 

Migration from Oxford to Stamford ^. i 




Difncnltiofl proncntcd hj Uie tlotttnicilon of tho o«Hj unlfor* 

BitjrroconU 136 

IncciidlAry flrei 137 

Follcr^f view of tbo matter t& 

Oppcirtauitict tbus afforded for the introdactioo of feiseriei ib, 

Pijsquict occaBioDcd bj loarDamenta •••••• 139 

lldigiuus orders at Combridgo ..•••.. ib. 

llio Franci».an8 lA. 

Tho Dominicans, Cannolitcsy and Anguatine Frian • • . 139 

Tho Priory at BamwcII Hk 



Dean Pcuoock's accoont of the conititatioii of the vniTer- 

sity of Cauibridgo 140 

Authority of tho clianccllor 141 

lib i>owcrsecclc»iustical in their origiD .... ib. 
Ilis powers distinguished from those of the regenta and 

non-rcgcnU 14f 

Importmt distinction in the powers poseossed by the 

latter bodies .... .... 142 

Powers Tented in the non-rcgonta at a later period . • 143 

Tho proctors 144 

Tho bedels . . ib. 

Scrutators and taxors 145 

The working body formeriy the solo IcgislatiTO body . • tb. 

Tho uniTcrsity recognised at Rome aa a ttudium generaU • ib. 

Privileges resulting from the papal recognition • . . 146 


Increase of thoir power and decline of their popularity • ib. 

Their conduct ts describe<l by Matthew Paris . • . 147 

His description of the rivalry between tho two orders . • 14S 

C<»nniet with tho old monahtic orders 149 

Tlio Fnuiciscans at Hury ib^ 

Tlio Dominicans at Canterbury ...••• 150 

But)scrricncy of the new orders to papal eztortioo . . Aw 
Inten iew between tho Franciscan eniiiisaries and Orosse 

teste 151 

Rapid degeneracy of the friars 152 

Testimony of Roger Bacon to the general cormpUoD of the 

religious orders in his day ib. 

Death of Oroi^i^cteste 153 

Ilis sen'ices to his generation ib. 

Testimony of Mattfiew Paris to his merita ib. 

Ilia efforts on behalf of the new learning A. 




His opiate olUi6eili4l«ftniislaUoiif of Arittotto • 


llif aocoiuit of tho ooniomporary tmtuilaton of ArbtoUo 
DtlCciilUet of hit eareor an a Franciscan • 

Special Talno of hif wriiingf 

Ilia OpHt SiaJuMf Opus Minuif and Opui Tertium . 
Ilia cenmira of Uio dcfecU and vlcca of Ida a^ • • 

Tho remcdici bo ]in»|K)Hea 

UUcr want of fpumnmiical Vnowlodgo of anj langnago 
Valao lie attadica to tho Htudjr of mathouiattai • • 
7oiuid%tionofMcrt<»nCoIIcgo, A.D. I2G4 • • • • 
Ph)(reis of tho conception of foundations for tho seciilar clei|Qr 

The notigii borrowed from Gcrmanj 


Earl llatold'a foundation at WalUiam .... 
Ilr Krceman'a tiow of tho cliaructor of thia foundation 
HaroId*s conception rcTivo'l by AVuIter do Morton 
SriTrrcii of Mketox Collkqe, 1270 .... 
TIio reli^ous orders excluded from the foundation 
Various pursuits of the secular clergy in those times 
Contrast between the colIcg>3 and the monastery . 
Character of tho education at Alerton college 
Restrictions under which tlic study of theology and tho 

canon hiw was pcnnittcd .... 
Only tlioso actually prosecuting a courHO of study to bo 

nuiiutained on the foundation . . • • 
l)istingiiit«h(d merit of the wliole concex>tion 
EnDrKXT Mkhtomans :— Drxu ScoxrH .... 
Oxfoni at tho commenoeincnt of tlie fourteenth century 
Views of the schoolman and tho motlem sdiolar contrasted 
Diflicultics tliat attend any account of thb period 
Progressive element in scJiolasticism . 
Rc:iearchcs of recent writers , . . , 
Influence of the By z;mtin 3 logic .... 
Learning at Constuitinoplo in tho elcTentk century 

Trcatifie on logic by Psellus 

Translation of PsclhLs's treatise by ?etrus Hispanua 

Translation >»y ^VlIliam i^liyrcswood 

Rui»criority of the Oxford translation . 

Eitensiro |iopuIarity of tlie Torsion by Petrus Hispanua 

It partly ncutRiliKCs tho Ic^ntimate influence of tho New 


l*rescnoe of tho Byaantino logic in writings of Duns Scotus 

























Theory of the /ii^ii/»of«niiu/<i ...... 181 

8tate of the oontroToniy prior to the time of Dans Seotoi . ih. 

Theory of the Arublaii eommcntAtort ..... 9*, 

Coantcr theory of Dtinii Hcotaji \h2 

Lo^e, a Rcicnro m woll of an art . . • . • • ^. 

L<>i;ic UiCHciciico of scionccti 1S3 

Itii|H>rtatit roftullA of tlio introdactlon of the Bynuitine 

V^a 194 

LiniiU o)»KorTod by Duns Bcotas in the a[if>lieAtioo of lo|^e 

to tlicilo^ A. 

DiitiB KcotiH tttid TU^er !{:icon compared . . • • 1H5 
I/ong (Itinition uf tlio influcnco of Uie former at tlie unifer- 

■itlos 1S« 

Kdition of hU works publijihod in 16.19 .... ih, 

HclKtolnicn after Duni Scotiu ih. 

Wau.iM Of Occam 1^7 

AncrtnIuncjofTiominalisin in tlie schools . . . •' IHH 

Critici<<m of I'ratitl {b, 

Influcnco of thu Bjtantino logic on the eontroreriy re- 

sj'cctin^ Tinircnials 1^ 

Theory of the 9upp^-»if!o •ih. 

Occim the first to shew the tme ralno of anirersals . . 199 
Ho clifinrs tho limits of logical enquiry with reference to 

tlicolo^-y 191 

Cunscfinent effect apon tho sab^eqncnt character of scholas- 
tic coiiln)verf«y 192 

The \t>}\K'9 lit ATi;;non opposes! by the Knglijih Franciscans . ir3 

KmiiKMit iiictnl»cni of tlii^ fraternity in K ^iand . . . 194 

8iilM..T>iciiry of tlio c»»urt at Arignon to Kronch interest! . ib. 

])i}(H:itii*ructi'tii in Italy 19.^ 

In<li;;iintion in Kn^land i7«. 

Tho writinj,'^ of Occam condemned by John xxu. . . , ib. 

SympatliT evinced with his doctrines in England . . . ih. 

Contnwt between Oxford and Taris 196 

Atiti-noniiiiallHtic tendencies at the latter nniTcnity . • ib. 

ropiilarity of Occanrs teaching at Oxford .... 197 

Influence} of nominali^tni on tho scholastic method . • ih. 


Hi.'* treati.Hc />*• C'ltisa Dei • ib. 

ItM extcntivo influence . 199 

llliu«tr.ition it afl'or \n of tho learning of the ago . • • 2in) 

ItlciiiRD or Hi'RV ih. 

IIi<< early carcH^r and etperienccii ?*M 

His intvnrirw with Petrarch at Afignon .... ih. 



Roddioncior ofbb atUinmonU 202 

His library bcquoathcd to Durham CoUcgo, Oxford . . 203 

Character of tho culture of tho fourtoonth Gontory . • 204 

Richard of Bury*i description of the students of the time . 206 

Hit testimony to the degeneracy of the mendicant orders , ib. 
The monasteries superseded as centres of education by the 

universities 20T 

Lull in the intellectual activity of Oxford and Cambridge . 208 
Antliony AVood's criticism affords only a partial explana- 

• tion (b. 

Al>sorbing devotion to the study of the civil law . . . ib, 

Inaccunicy in IMackstone's account of Uie study . . • 209 

Koj^cr Bacon on its dctritncntU cfTi^cts .... ib. 

The simly increases in importincc 211 

Testimony of Robert llulcut and of Richard of Bury . . ib, 

Thoi>U>gy falls into coniparativo neglect .... 212 

Chap. III. Cambridge raioa to tiib Cxjlssical Esa. 
Vnrt I. Earft/ Colieue Foundationt, 

The intellectual supremacy of Paris passes over to Oxford . 213 

Tcwtifuony of Uirliard of Bury 214 

Influcnco of the court at Avignon upon the univcn<lty of 

Paris 215 

Professor Shirley's criticism ib. 

Scantiness of materials for CArly Cambridge history . . .216 

Ho-tTKLJ* 217 

Knrly statute relating to the hire and tenure of hostels . 218 

Main object of thii) statute 220 

Its details compared with those of statute LXTiTT. . . 221 
lldsteU poHsosscMl of small attractionn whtn compared with 

tlic liou.**os of the religious orders ib, 

Knactmeuts designed to counteract the proselytising ne- 

tivity of the friars * 222 ^ 

Foimdation of tho IIo8pital of St. John the Evangelist . 223 | 

Hron Bai^iiam ib. \ 

111* disptited election to tho see of Ely . . • . ib. 

His mcritri comparcil with thoso of Adam do Mansco . . 224 

His merits as an ndniiniittrator 2*25 

His ciiuitalilo decision between his archdoacon and Uie 

university ib, 

Scliolurs not unc'er a master forbidden to reside in the 

university 22(J 

Hu;;Ii nal.<«)iatn intrfxluces soctdar Bcliolars into the hoMpital 227 

Failure of this ultempt at combining the two elements . f^. 



Separation of the Soealftn aod R^gulan 


The college endowed witli the site of a lappronod priory 
Binion Montacute inrrcndcra hit right of ptetenting to 

fellowships on the foundation . • • • 
• Eariy statutes of Pctcrhouge(circ 1338) 

These statutes copied from thoio of Merton Collego . 
Proficiencj in logic the chief pro-requisite in candidatet for 


Laxity at tlie uniTcrsIties with respect to drcu . 
Decree of archbiithop Stratford on Uiit suhject . 

Statute of PetcrhouM) 

Tlie foundation in its relation to monastic foundations 
FoUNrATION 07 MicnAKLnoci'B, A,D. 1324 .... 
Ejirlj stitutcs of Michaclhoose given bj Ilenrey de Stanton 


Mrric de St Paul 

Inacci.i-acT of the story alluded to by Cray . 
Tlic original statutes no hmgcr extant 
Txjading features of the second statutes 
FovNPiTioN OP (JovviM.K Hall, A.D. 134^ 

Origii'.nl stitntos jjivcn by IMward (lonrillo 
His main ol joct to promoto the Hudy of thcoh-gy 
Study of the cjiTion law p< nnittcd but not obligatory . 
AVilliam r»;ilonMn, bi'iliop of Norwich .... 

The Gre:it Plague of 1349 

Its devastation* at the universities 

FouxDATiox OP Trinity Hall, by Hxliop Batemao, a.©. 1350, 

to repair the Iosmcs susUinod by deaths among the 


Statutes of Trinity Hall . 

Tlie c<t1U'q:e designed exclusively f;>r canonists and civilians 
Conditions in elections to the mastership and fellowshi(it . 
Library prci*cnted by bisliop Hatcman to the foundation 
Dinliop liateman i^nBrniA the f'Mindation of GonviUe Hal! . 
Tlie alternation in ihe name of the Hall . . • • 
Agrcemont Df amicnhHilate with the scholars of Trinity 


Stitute« pven to (lonvillo Hall by bishop Datcman . 
Forxi»ATiox OF Conr.'H Ciini-*Ti Collkok, A.n. l:i.V2 . 

Mr Touliiiin Siiiiiir« account of the early Gildi . • • 

Gilds at t'utiibri< ge 

Pc'iij^'ns in view in foundation of CoqMis Cliristi College 
Its statutes np| arently burruweil from Uk'to of Micluicl- 

Ikiusc . • 



























Re qiiiw aenU with ntpeci to stadiot . . 850 

Poinr»ATiov OP Clarb Hall, by Elizabeth do Bajgh, aj>. 1859 ib. 

DeiigiioCtheioimdnm ib* 

LoMes oeoskmed by tho pestilence one of her motires • S5l 
libeimlity of aenttment by which these statntct are charae- 

terised • • • • ib, 

CooditioDA to be obserred in the election of fellows . 252 

ProTision for ten siiiars ib, 

FocxDATiox OP Kixo'a Hall by Edward it^ a.i>. 1326 • • ib. 

Mansion giren to the King*s scholars by Edward m. • • 25.1 

8tAtatcs gircn by Richard ir ib. 

Limitations as to ago at time of admission • . . ib. 

Other proTinions in tho statutes 254 

The faundation apparently designed for stndenta from the 

wealtliicr claKScs • t^. 

inn^tration uflbrdccl in the foregoing codei of the different 

tendencies of tlie ago # . . . ^ • • 255 

The Tital qncstion with respect to Unirersity education • ib. 

Chap. I IT. CAMnninoi: pnioR to tub Clarsical Era. 
Part II. T/if Fifteenth Century- 

Vtntation oT ArchbiMlicp AruHle!, a.d. 1401 . . . 238 

IIeaim.^at thosuppro!(sion of Lollanlism f&., 

Fondamcntal importance of tho question raised by "William 

of Occam • . . 259 

IHrect relevancy of tho question conccniing the temporal 

p*»wor of tlio p<»po to tho etudy of the canon law . . 260 

Joiix Wvrtir 261 

In some rc^pccti a folloircr of Occam . . . • . ib, 

Ilis relations to tho Mendicants t&. 

Tcndcticics of the Knph'Mi Frnnciscuns .... i ft 

Policy of tho Mendicants »t tlie uniTcrsities ... 262 

The I>o:iiinicans ut Paris ift, 

l>cfeat sustained by tho Mendicants at Oxft)rd . . . i7*. 

Stituto apitnut them at Canihridgo 26.1 

They np|K*al to Piirii uncut ih 

KxrhiHiro privi!<';;ci« which thoy huccecil in obtaining . . 264 

« >l»p.wiiiou to tho tho«»ry of Walter do Morton . . . ih, 

Klforts of Wyclif on K^half of tlie secula? c?ergy at Oxford . iK 

I'lijuil bull in tlicir favour * fft. 

AVydif leaTcsOxfonl 265 

Archbinhop Ulip nttcntpts to combine the regulars and 

sccdiars at rantcrbury Hall 266 

He finally expels the monks ih. 

Archbishop I/ingham expels the poculars .... f^. 



EfforU of the laitj to eircamBcribo the power of the Church S66 

Real character of Wjclifii iijmpathies 2^7 

Wjclif Uie foremost Bchoohiian of his daj .... lA 

Not originally liosti^e to tho Mendicants .... 2GS 

FicrcencM of his subscqnent denunciations of their Tlcet . 269 
TIjo struggle against the pope cliicflj carried on, at thih 

time, by tho uniTcrsitics 270 

Tlie aniTcntities tho strongholds of Lollardi'm ... tb. 

Constitutions of archbieliop Arundel, A.D. 1408 . . . 272 

Extravagancies of the later Lollanls 273 

Lollardism supprcsAcd in England reappears in Bohemia . i^. 

LoIIardism not the comnienceuicnt of tho Reformation . 274 
IIuIkKs cstironte of tlic results of the suppression of Lol- at tlie uniTcr?itics 275 

His statement of the facts erroneous ib. 

His explanation of Uie decline of the unirersitiot ineom- 

pleto 276 

The university of Paris reg:iins her former preeminence . i^. 

JiAJf CiiAULir.R DC Gersox 277 

His two treatises />*• ^f^K!l$ and De Omconlia . . . 278 
JlhiMtralion they afford of the final residts attained to fai 

scholastic metnphvsicn t5. 

CcKsation of the intcrci»urso l)ctwccn Paris and the Ercrll'^h 

univcr.tilic'S ' ?S0 

Circumstances that led to Ihc ditniiijshcd in^MvMce of the 

university of Paris in the loth century . . . . ib, 

Tho Great Councils 281 

Tho |x>ii('y <if Ccrson' opposed at B:isel by the English 

UUniiiiontaniMts i^. 

Franco cnact.i tho Pratrmatic Sanction li^. 

Tho pojK'S avcngo'lhcmsclvcs on the unirersity of Piris . 2^2 

Ki.Hc of new universities under the papal sanction . , i^. 

The Teutonic clement gradually withdrawn from Paris . 2**3 
The ncti'in oi* tiio SUttute of Provisors prcJTidicial to tho 

nnivcrMitics 2^4 

Pupal iKitrona^e Ics injurious than home iKitronnge . . I^i 

Siuiilir rx|KTir!icc of the unirer«ily I f P:«ris ... ib. 

Jlubtr*H rrilUi-^fii pive<« u just appnriition of the farts 2sr% 

ritnunnnl.ini.-t Imdcntirs tit i*amliridje .... 2>*7 

The IIailnukli. Pii'KK.K'C, A.n. ini» iK 

I)i<»cc!ian nutliority of the I»)nJi«»jis of E'y reasserted oTer the 

tuiivcrhitv b? Anmdcl ib. 

This anthority^abolii'hctl by pojie MsrUn r in the Barnwell 

Process ^*^ 


BBonrixA Psoock 290 

mtReprm^r 291 

Losie his paoaeea for heresj ^« 

He atierU the ligfitiofretsoDftgaiiist dogma- ... t&. 
It not afraid to call in question the antlioritj of the fiUhen 

and the ichoolnion 292 

He ncTcrtbeless adrocatee sabmisiion to the temporal 

authority of Uie pope ^. 

He denounces Lollardism ...•••• 293 

iSiicmiiui Pra;«fiVan/ftfm of John Bromyard . > . . ib, 

Pecock aiiJ Bromyard contrasted 294 

The eontrast perhaps a typical one t&. 

Pocock disapproves of much preaching .... ih. 

Ills eccentric dcfonoo of his order ib. 

Pecock something more than a mere Ultramootanist . • 295 

He otTcnds both {lortics ib. 

Possibly a victim to political feeling . • • • ... 296 

Ills doctrines forbidden at the universitiet .... ib. 

Torpor of the uniTorsitics after Pecock's time .... 297 

Oxford nearly deserted ib. 

Testimony of roggio Bracciolini ib, 

Scftotincss and i>ovcrty of tho national literature . . . 2D8 

Defcctire accommodation for instruction at both univendties 299 
Sapcrior advantages in this rc8i>ect possessed by tho religious 

orders 300 

Erection of the Dirinity Schools at Cambridge, a.i>. 1398 . . ib. 

Erection of the Arts Schools and Civil Law Schools . ... ib. 

Learning forsakes the monastery 301 

Its patroni begin to despair of the religious orders . . . ib, 

William of Wtkeham ib. 

Foundation of New College, Oxford, A. D. 1380 . . , 302 
The college etidowed with lands purchased from religions 

houses ib. 

Statutes of the foundation tlh 

A model for subsequent foundations' . . . . • 303 
The secon<l stage :n endowment of colleges, — ^tho appropria- 
tion of tho revenues of alien priories .... ib. 

Gotigirs account of the alien priories 304 

Bc<iuestratiuiis under dilTcrent monarclis ib. 

Foundation or Ki.vo'h Collkgk and Eton Colubob, a.d. 

1440 305 

Tliesc colleges endowed from the projKjrty of alien priories t^. 

Karly sUiUites of King's Cf>11ege 306 

Conimiiisioucrs originally apiiointed to prepare the statutes ib. 

• • 



Thoir resignation 3(H{ 

William Millitigion, tho fint proToei ....'. ib- 

Refuses his assont to tho now statutes, and is ^oeied ib. 

The sUtntcs borrowed from those of Now College, Oxford . 307 

Qualifications necessary for adniiftsion to tcholarships . . 309 

Studies prescribed or permitted t^. 

Term of probation required before election to a fellowiihip . 309 

Special prinlcges and exemptions grantod to the society . ib. 

Object aimed at bj the society ih. 

Obj<y;tions of William Millington 310 

Significance of Cardinal Bcaufort*s bequest . . . ib. 
IncflTectual efibrts of the university to annul tho oxclosiTO 

privilc^s of tho collcj^ ib. 

Effect of tliCMo privile^cA on tho college at a later period . 31 1 

Foundation' or Qi-kkxs* Colleoe, a.d. 1448 .... 312 

Margaret of Anjou ih. 

Her Ultramontane sympathies 313 

llcr petition to her liunband ...... ib. 

Fuller's criticij^m 314 

Collcj,^ of St. Bkrxari) ib. 

Charter of tliin college, of 1447 315 

Foundation of Margaret of Anjou ib. 

V\{iW9 and motives of the foundress ib. 

Stitutes given by Klizabeth Woodrille at the petition of 

Andrew Doket . . .... 31^ 

Regulitions with respect to fellowshipe .... ib. 

Studies prescribed ib. 

Leeturesliips -erminablo at the expiration of throe joan . ib. 

Study of the -^ivil or canon htw simply permitted . . . 317 

Cliaractcr of Andrew Doket ib, 

ForxDATTON OF St. Catiilri5L*8 Hall, a. d. 1475 ... ih, 

Uol>crt Wof^lhirk 3lg 

lliK energetic clinracter ib. 

Forbi.U tho suidy of eitlier the dril or Uie canon law at 

tho hall ib. 

The foundation designed for the benefit of the secular dergy ib. 
Evident desire of founders at this period to check tho 

prevalent c^xclusivo devotion to the study of tho drO 

and canon law , . 319 

Fou.«cdatiox OK jKJ<rH Cou.Kor, A.D. Hf)7 3*20 

The i.'itiMcry of St Uliade;,nind , ib, 

Tlio nunnery under the protection of tho bi»<hopa of Kly . ib. 
Its cornipt sLite and rm.d «IUsolution at the close of tbo 

fifteenth ct!»tur}' ift. 


JolmAleoclc,bi8lMporEIj 321 

EasAj sUtatM of Jesus CoOege gf Teo by bishops Stanly 

and West At. 

8ta4j of the csBonUw forbidden • • • 328 
Degpondaocj in the tone of i>romoters of learning at this • 

Iieriod ib, 

Pei73ri>ATIOX OP THE UxiTEnsiTT Libsjuit 323 

Different benefactors to the library ib. 

Tiro early catalogues •••.•••• ib. 

The library building t^. 

^ Thomas Rotberam 324 

£arly catalogues of the libraries of Peterfaonse^ Trinity 

Ilall, Pembroke, Queens', and St Catherine's . . ib, 
lUnstration of mediaeval additions to learning afforded hy 

these catalogues • 325 

Eridcnce afforded with respect to the theological studies 

of tbo time • ib» 

Hago of St Victor, Hugo of St Cher, and Nicholas de Lyra 326 

Abeence of the Arabian commentators on Aristotle . • t&. 
Fewer works than we should expect on logic and contro- 

Tcrsial theology ib. 

The Fathers very iniperf^ Jy represented .... ib. 

Entire absence of Greek authors 327 

CuAP. IT. Student Lipe i5 the Middle Aoes. 

Changes which scTor modem and mediaeval times . • . 328 

Oiitlino of tho physical aspects of medifOTal Cambridge . . 329 

The Cam • • . . ^ . . . ib. 

The Fen Country 329 

RiTcrs bj which it is traTcrsed 330 

ADcicnt channel of the Ouso • ib, 

Ita course described by Spenser ib, 

Tlie Bedford Level , . • ib. 

Kxtent of the inundations in former times .... 331 

Gradual growth of the town of Cambridge .... 332 
The question, — Iiow such a locality came to be selected for 

a univeruity discussed . . • , • . • , 333 

No definite act of selection ever took place . • . . ib, 

TVliy Uic university was not rcmoTcd 334 

Migration opposed on principle ....•.• ib. 
Drawbacks to modem eyes recommendations in medifeyal 

times ib. 

The ascetic theory ib. 



fbrUwoHfiaalteiccifaNiofMofHMUeiHcs • 

iMUaee from Matthew Park 

Tla« Fctt Country m» detcHbcd by thm thrcnkkw 

Clu«fe ia tb« moiuftic pnctievla l2»et«lecik« of Mw rilM 

Tbt dungv »be«tt to b« at TaHsDct vitli 

tltcmy • . • 

P«Cfio Braedoltai ami tlit Frmirtt Ohtfrr^mtim 
Ihm medUrf ^ tlK^rj tliat o« wlikli P«8S^ faubtod • 
Soiuklcr ricwt kcU onW by a few . . • • 
Tbotbeiiry not withoQt aa demetituftnitJi ^ 

The vttiTcnitT on^iiullj oalj a GkajivjUI Scaooi 
Tbt XfttyhUr Oi*ttrtfri«w ...... 

Covrte of ■tuilj fmrvoeJ bj the ttmdeat of fraai«ar • 
latnNlnrtHffi «if the artJ eourjo of tttidj at CaaibriilfV 
loiercoiirt* bet ween Vsnia aaU tbe Kof li»b valvenitlM 
AaaUttfice afforUtHj hj tbe ftUtate Ux4ii of tbo tti foi rfty 
of TaH* in iii%e*ti(3Uttjf tbe antiqiiitiet of tbt EagUi 

laferior p«>«iti«*o of ^raamar tUnleoit €Ofli|iartd villi Ib^ 

beU hx ftttidrtita In arts 

Cautt wbkb cim<lucrtl to tltU rvealt 

Tbt fr^mmatirns at tbb time ajibbif 


Tbt cfayo ft (lr«critird by EnuuniM ••...• 
Eir«itc^ri.« A^t> o»t a«R or k% lati frr^tuT »tiCTUBi> . 

A? rm^'tf a^r at lime of e^tiy 

Mister ft imI MlniUr 

UniTcrtttj aj4« toj^Ofif •ib«4ani •••••• 

PrartW fif ■M'liJtrH? by tbe tcboUrt 

Re«trictM>ti« impfwcd a|«(Mi tbt pmetiet . • • • 

I^TTM of t)ie eibuUr 

AM<ttit]4ioo of acailcttk dreM by tbttt Ml tslIlM !• 

• rar it 

I»«tru' ti"0 it fnaaar to oi^Mt ttifvt |wili«iMfy it tbt 

ftrt« f^itm . , , 

KcMtn«J«*»'« <^ irrmiMtiar •cbii«4t dt«r«iQnfe<l t br t f b in l 

U»e ro'ifitry * 

Cnnff •• •>n tt-»«le la 1431 

F«Miti«l4ti«« oC<**«i*'« il'#t •«, l43f ... . 

C«raatii»*r aSvajt iiic!«»«tcd la tbt afta 


Tbe Summni^w cf feinu llitfaata 














TtefHMMmtoift 331 

MatlieBMtloi • • • ib. 

. Pcraeplflde kdTtiiee in tlie tiodj in diflbrant tudrer^ . 33S 

TheUdielorofarU • 352 

Original meuiiiig of the term ib. 

Tbeiophlitor • • ' . ib. 

The qnotUooist ••••••••. 353 

Thoinppiicnt •'•••••••• ib, 

Stokyt' Account of the ooremooj obeenred hj the qnestlonift ib. 

Tbo dt*torniincr 354 

Stftre in quadrageiima ••••••• ib. 

Doicrminors admitted to dotermine hy proxj • . . ib. 

Importance attached to the ceremony of determination • 955 

Theincq>tor ~ ib. 

Account of the ceremony of inception ib. 

The 'father' 356 

TUt prctcarUator ^ ib. 

IleaTj expenses often incurred at the ceremo n y of inception ib. 

Limitation on tudi expenses imposed by the unirersity . 357 

loccpiing for others 358 

The regent ib. 

Locture^ ib. 

Lecturing ordinarie, euriorie, and €xtraordinari€ . • t^. 

McUiods employed by the lecturer 359 

The analytical method • ib. 

The diuIccUcal method 3G0 

Tlio Don-regout « . . • 361 

Profcssiooai pro8i)ccts of an ordinary master of arts • • 362 

Course of study in tho fMiuity of theology 363 

Badiclom of theology permitted to lecture crdinari4 . • ib. 

Couno of Htudy in the faculty of Uie civil law .... 364 

Course of Htudy in tho faculty of the canon hiw • • • • ib. 

The f:icu]ty of medicine • . • 365 

The education thuji un])aried thorough of its kind • • • ib. 

Baneful effects on tho theology of the time . • • . ib. 

College lipe 366 

AfiCcUcism again the dommant theory . • • , ib. 

Account given by EruMnius of tho C5116ge do Montaigu • 367 

His account unchallenged ' , 3GS 

Our early colleges designed only for poor students . • ib. 
Certain attainments necessary in those admitted on the 

foundation ., , , 369 

Extreme youth of the majority at the time of thehr ad- 

mission ib. 


• • • 

rONTKNT^ XlXlll 


BmARIOH 403 

Hit patriotio seJ . , ib. 

If is cfl<irU towij^s the union of Ui6 Cbnreboi • • , ib. 

Ilif conrcmion to the wontorn Chnrch • . , • • 4i>4 

Hit cxani]i]e f roductife of little roiiult • • • • ib. 

Greek become i nfwoclated witli herenj 40ft 

AlUiTnoruuii ib. 

Devotci hlmf elf to improving the kitrwiedge of ArUtotlo . ib. 

Admitted eixllcnco of his tmnNlatioioi . . • • ib, 

II in doprcciji lion of Oiceru m n philoAdpher • • • • 406 

IliN other liU'mry labours A. 

Kciiclilin ard ArK)T>piilos ....,., 407 

Lkaiini.vo IN (Jkhmany , • ib. 

il'^h«*:iM HjrMuii mid llregorj lloimburg • • • • 40*1 

Tho I tulitm scliokir Olid Gcmmn jurist oontnwtod . • ib. 

IlegiuA ib. 

Ills ncIkmiI at Dcvcnter .•••.«• 409 

Ku<lulf Von Lan};o •.•••••• ib. 

Ills iiinovutif/ns un the traditional moUiodf of Inttmctloa • ih, 

John WcMMcI ib. 

I lo diMpulrs the authority of Aquinas • . . • « t^. 

RuDoLriit'H Aoni(X>i.A 410 

\\\B J)** Fnnnmuh Studio ib. 

lie rrg:irdii nuitiral M'ictice as ftneillary to phib««iphj . . 411 

Use of Che native Irin^iugo In c1aA^'icfll stndi<?s ... i^. 

Acquired knowlcdtru to be n(»t oiilj stored but aislmiUtod . ih. 

Real novelty of thoiiKiit in tills trcitim) . . . . 412 

Jlis />¥ //ir«'/»//"/i^, a |iopulartreatlf»eonlogie . • . ib. 


Italiiin and German scholarbhlp compared . • . • i^. 

Their rc*^icct!ve nflinitica to the UcfurmatioD • . , 414 
The forcbixliii^t of (iregorj and Alcuin partially rorilled by 

tho result 415 

The Ilcmaniyts and the religious orders 41^ 

The Humanists and the universities t^. 

Progress of Notiiinalism at the universities i5. 

Attitude of the universities with respect to the new leaning 417 

The Humanists attack the civilians 418 

Valla at the university of Tavia ib. 

Comparisou instituted by an eminent jurist between Cieero and 

Bartolus 419 

VaPa's attack ^oD Bartolus ih, 

Pog^o and the canonists 4*J0 


• • 



Uit poilUoB In roliilkm to Arbtotlo oomporod with tliat of 

AqoiiuM 889 

lleaUacluitbeitjIooftheoxitiingTcniions • • • 887 

He rfjccts the ethical qntom of Aristotle • • • . ^ 

The Itnltaii Ilmiiftnista of later times ib, 

Floreneo and Coiwtantiiiople contnutod • • • • 388 

Fkiretice in tlio fourtooiith and fiflcontli contaries • • tb, 

Contnut botwcou tlio culturo of tlio two citiei • • • 8S9 

Caa<«ct of varianc.'e lictwcen tlio two ciUos . • • • 390 

lUlian tcholura at Cotiftantinoplo ib, 

rbildphas • • • ib, 

llimjccomit of Oreokloiimin((iitConatiinUnople • • 301 

Emm A!iri:L CiiRYiioi«oRAfi • • t'6. 

niiiimltK*ncoutatoaclierof Groolc • • • • • 393 

Hill Grcok Gnunmar ib. 

His residence at Homo • 393 

Gosing Tears of bis life . . • • '. • • • ib, 

Criti«^ coD«l'.tion of tlio castom empire • • • • 304 

llo bccomcj a convert to tlio western Cliureh • • • ib, | 
lie attcn<li ilie council of CoiiMtuncu as a delegate of Pope 

John xxir. • • ib, 

1 1 is deiith lit Constunco .' 395 

His fiinenil oration by Julianus 39C 

GCARI.XO ........... f^ 

Kiiiitient KiiKlisbmoD among his pupils .... t^ 

VilliamGmy 397 

MSS. bniu;,'ht by Gray to England . . • . • f^. 

His c<»I1ccti<>n iKMiucatlied to Dalliol College . • . ih. 

Old ngeofGuarino • • , 398 

LsoKARCK) Brum .398 

1 1 IB tmnHlations of Aristotle ib, 

llo t mnslates tlio Politics at the request of Humphrey, duko 

of Gloucester ib, 

Ouke IIamplire}-'s bequests to Oxford 390 

S'crrcl dc^ments thus introduced • ib. 

PaJ'L or Coxjjtaxtinople, a.d. 1453 400 

Tlio flight to Italy ib. 

Prior importations of Greek literature .... ib. 

Forebodings of Italian scholars • ib, 

Laincnt of Quirinus ib, 

rre^iictions of jEncas Sylvius 401 .. 

Ilifl predictions faUifled by the soquel • • • • ib, 

Condnct of the Greek exiles in Italy 402 

Tlieir decline in the general estimation .... ib. 



Earliest <tracos of nnme attontion to Uio wriUngs of tbe Hnmaii- 

isU at Cambridge 433 

A treftti«o hj Potrarcli at MicliaclliouAC ib, 

CniiUi Aulicrinns lectures on Terence to tlie unlrersity • . 434 

Fuller at court ib. 

He attracts tlio notico of the kin; *« mother, ^[Argarety cotiiitcM 

of Kicliiiitmd 434 

Bukcr^i accoiuit <»f her ancestry ....... ib, 

Fiiiher nppointotl her coiifc^»r 435 

IIcT cliuructcr ib, 

Fi«her elected viee-fh.incellor ib, 


Tho revenue!* entnmtc*! to the ahliej of We«tmin«ter . . 43(J 

Salary atUiclic«l to the ofTico ib, 

Tho RuhjoctH 8ohvte<l hy tho leeturer to l)c aanctioncd by 

the nuthnritic^f , ib. 

Other rc;:t!lationK 437 

Fihhcr the firvt profcMor ...•.,, %b, 

IIU Kuccc.^Hors ib. 

Neglect of tho art and pnicticc of pronching at thia period • ih. 

Preaching discountenanced from fear of liollardiim • . • 43^ 

Conne^iucnt r.iritv «f scnuonji , . ib, 

Artificisd and extravcgant elnrnctcr of the pteachfng In 

Togue 43:> 

8keltoD*fl <lcicription of the youtij thci^lojiani of hit day . . ih, 

EfTorti towards a refonn ib. 

Fund bequeathe*! by Thomas Collago at Oxford and Om- 

bridge ib. 

Ball of Alexander vi, A.D. 1. "103 , i!\ 


Double pTirpo.-»e of Fisher ib. 

Testimony of KraRnuin to the character of his design . , t^. 

Rcj^oilation* of the preachcrship i^. 

Fisher's cliims to l»o regarded as a reformer . . . 441 
nis election to the c!i;uKcllor<hip and promotion to the biMhoprie 

ofKly ib. 

Hia influence with the countess 442 

Motives of founders in the»e times 443 

Design of the countess in connexion with tho abbey of Wcai- 

niiu<<tcr 444 

She is di/wuadcd by the .irguments of Fislier .... »7». 

Signal gain of the university . . . .• . . . . i7». 

lllHTORV OF lioi»*» lb>Lsi: 44"» 

]»csign of Iknry Ti if*. 




ReqdnBM&U with ntpeci to itndiM • . 250 

TomiBATiosi OP Clahx Hall, by Elizabeth do Bajgh, ajd. 1859 ib. 

DeiiCiioCthefoaadrMi t^• 

LoMet oeeuioned bj tho pertilenco one of her motiTes • S5l 
liberality of eentiment 1^ which these statatot are charao- 

teriied ib. 

CoeditloiM to be obaerred in the election of fellows . 2r)2 

ProTiiion for ten sinrs t^. 

Fcnn>ATio5 OP Ki5g'8 Hall by Edward n^ a.d. 1326 • • ib. 

Mansion giren to the King*s scholars by Edward ni. • • 25.1 

Rutatcs gircn by Richard ir. t^. 

Limitations as to ngo at time of admission .... ib. 

Oilier j>roTiMi<>ns in tho statutes 254 

The foundation apparently designed for students from the 

vcttUhicr claKscs - tb, 

I narration uflbnlcd in tho foregoing codes of tho different 

tendencies of tlie ago • . . . ^ • • 255 

The Tital quc^ition with respect to UniTersity education . ib. 

Chap. IIT. CAMnninoR pnioR to tub Classical Era. 
Part II. T/i^ Fifteenth Century* 

VintationoTArchbiMhcp Arnulc!, A.D. 1401 .... 258 

Heftim^at thosuppro:<sion of Lollanlism t^., 

Foihlancntal importance of tho question raised by William 

of Occam • . . 259 

Direct .rclcrancT of the ciucstion conceniing the temporal 

pi>wiT of tho p<»po to tho etudy of the canon law . 200 

JoiwWYCMr 2ni 

In some rc^pccti a f<»lloircr of Occam ift. 

Ilisri'latiuns to tho Mondicnntfl t&. 

Tcn«]cncics of tho EnpHxh FranciAcans .... ih 

PolxcT of tlio Mendicants »t tlic nnifcrsities . . . 202 

The I>o:itiiiic.inii at Turis ih, 

lU'fc:it suHtainc<l by tlio Mendicants at Oxft)rd . . . ih. 

Stituto apitnitt thorn at (\inil»ridgo 20.1 

Tlicy ii)>|icul to riirii iiiicnt it*- 

Kxcliiwvo privll«*^ci« ■rtjilch thoy hucci»c<l in obtaining . . 201 

OpiMMition U) tlio tlioory of Walter do Morton . . . iK 

Kirortsi of Wyolif on K^half of the necula? clergy at Oxford . t7». 

I'ainl bull in their favour * ib, 

WjcliflcaTcs Oxfonl 265 

Archbinhop Inlip attempts to combine the regulars and 

sec (liars at rantcrbury Hall 200 

He finally expels the monks ih. 

Archbishop Langhani cxi>cls tlie Fcculars .... ib. 


FroTision for the admlMion of pcnsioncn of ipproTod dift* 

meter 4M 

A college lecturer Appointed 459 

nU lecture to include reading^ from the poet« and orbtom • A. 

Lectures to be given in the lon;^ rtcation • • • • 460 

Finhcr apiwintcd Tisitor for life . . ' . . . • ib. 

AUowiuK^c for commons ..••.•• t&» 

Object of thcHo rcHtrictloni! ib. 

Tlic Minio anuiunt 8ubiii«<piciit]y pretcnt>ed In the statntet of 
8t John's und muinUdncd bj Fisher tliroughout his 

life • 4«l 

Fortunate result of this fnigalitj ib. 

PE0P0:j£0 70r.XDATlO.X OP St. JoiI!«*8 CoLLBOr, kT TIIR LlDr 

Maruarlt ib. 

The II«»i«]»iu1 of the Dret'ircn of Ht. Jc'hn .... lA 

Its c«*iMlition lit tlio couniicm'cnient of the ICth century • 403 

III pn'jit'Hcd <lHH<»liition ib, 

KiKl«miiionlit set apart bj the la<tj Margaret for Uie new 

ct>lli'gc t5. 

King licurv gives his aAScnt ib. 

Death of king llenrj and of the lad J Margaret . . . 463 

Fi?*hcr preaches her fiiiicnd sermon 461 

Charter of tlic fo'ind:itl«»n of St. John's College, 1511 • • ib, 

Robert S!iorO»n firnt muster ....--•• ib. 

Executors of the lid J Margaret 465 

liovell, Fox, A^hton, llorubjr • ib. 

The burden devolvcM mainly on Fisher . • • • ib. 
The revenues bc<iueatlied bv the lady Msrgaret to the ed- 

U*gc becH)nio siibji'Ct ti* the rojal disposal . • • 466 

Apparent contnidiction in the n»jul licence . • • ib. 

Bishop Stinlej opiKMCS the dissolition of the hospital • • ib. 

His charucter ib. 

The executors obtain a bull from Rome for the distolutioD . 467 

This jirovcs defeeliTO i\ 

A second bull is obtained ib. 

Dissolution of the hospiuil t\ 

The c<»llege still in embryo 46S 

Dci-isiun in the court of chancery in favour of the college . i**. 

A second suit is instituted by the crown .... ib. 

The cxefnt<»rj« abufuloti their claim i^. 

The luHs tlius Mi.^tiinetl a'.tributetl to Wolnoy s influence . if*. 

Motives by ithieli he wa^ prutiaMj actuated .... 4€9 
The exccuton outaiu the t o^pital at Ouprin^ as a ttariial 

compensation fh. 



Baker'tf dbterr:;uoiia retpeeting the lost estates . • 469 
Formal opening of tiie Collogo of St. John tbo KfangeHsty 

• JqIt, 1916 470 

fiihcr preaides at the ceremony ib. 

Tliirty-oue fcllowi elected # . t^. 

Alan Percy sncccccla Sbortou as moNtcr .... ib, 

Tlie itatutcH given identical with those of ClirUt*i Cullcgo • ib, 

IlluKtration they alTord of Fixher't character . . . 471 
The cIuiucM against innoTutidtw contrasted with a clause in 

Culct*s statutes uf St. Paul's Schmd .... ib, 

EaA83iUtf 472 

lltssccond visit to CambriiJ^, 1509-10 ib. 

Object of his viUt ib, 

Circnnistinccs that led to his seloctiun of Cambridge in pre- 
ference to Paris, Italy, Louvaio, or Oxford . .* . 473-6 

Friends of Erasmus at Oxford 476 

Probable reasons why he did not return to Oxford . . . 477 


England in the fifteentu centi'iiy .... ib. 

William SeUing ib. 

Studies (ircck iu Italy under Politiau f^. 

Thomas Liuacro . 478 

The pupil of Selling at CLristchurch and of V^itelli at 

Oxford .••...•••. ib. 

He accompanies Selling to Italy ..••.. ib. 

Becomes a pupil of Politian ib, 

3Iakes the acquaintance of llemiolaus Barbams at Rome . 471) 

Inifiortaut results of their subsequent intercourse . . ib. 
Influence of his example at Oxford on Grocyn, Lily, and 

Latimer ib, 

Different candidate:} for the title of restorer of Greek leain- 

ii)'; ill Kiiglaud ib. 

Testimony of Kra.*fnmH to the merits of his Oxford friends . . 480 

Pebt of Cambridge to Oxford ib, 

GibbonV ilictum ih, 

'Where and when Erasnms acquired his knowledge of Greek . 481 

iTliicfly indebted to hU c»wn efforts ib, 

I'rogrcM of Greek studies at Oxford ih. 

l«iuacre*s translations ...•..., ih. 

The odium tht'*f(i>iticum 452 

The study of Greek s:4nctioued in the fourteenth century by 

fkipal decree , , lb. 

HnUcquciit oniiM«ion of Greek in the text of the Clemcu- 

tin^.'s ib. 


The Greek fHtlien begin to be better known • » • » 483 

Their influence on tho riewi of eminent Humanlttt • • • *^ 

Vitrarioi A. 

Erasmtu • • • • • A. 

Colct and Renclilin • • . ^ 484 

Truo caiuM) of the dislike fhewn to the Greek fktbvn bj the 

opfKisito paKj • • ih, 

Bpirit of the (trcck and the Littn theology contmtod • . ib. 

Position iisRumod by the anti- A u^^Mtmian party . . , 4H5 

rennunonco of AuguKtino's influence ib. 

Story from Kunchiu'i ib. 

Crock studies bc^pn to be reganlcd as heretical . . . 4S6 

Rcuchliirs cxi»eneucc at Dimcl t^. 

rrcTulenco of tho sumo spirit at Oxford 487 

Charaeter of Kr:i«inus ift. 

Indicationsof character afforded in his letton . . • • 4S9 

Luthr r on Kiu^nius i^ 

InipuUi\one:«s of Kra.Hrous*ic1uiractcr t> 

Contradictory ch imcter of his criticisms on Rome, Italy, UoUand 

and Kiigland 4g9 

His p( rtrait as aiialyncd by Lavator . . . . * . . 490 

His first lecture at Cunbritlg^ tft. 

His previous mrcer an cxanipio to tho Hudcni .... ib. 

Unccrtnin ehrnnt»l»»s:}- of hi.-* Cani>»ridi;e letters . . . , 432 

Anim«>Tiius of Lucca t^. 

Kra-Hmui appointed lady Marpirct professor of dirinity . , 493 

Failure of hU liopcs a* a teaclier of (f reck .... ib. 
His accoui't of hin disappointments and exaggerated aenie of 

f;iiluro ....•••••. 1^ 

His literary labours whilo nKident ...••. 494 

Their Tai*t iniiX)rt'inco 1^ 

>*o reoird of any collision on hfs part with the Cambridge 

tlicolojrians 405 

Forowarnc<l by Colct i^ 

I»rotect< d by Fi-licr 49^ 

His aduiir.iti«»n of Finlicr's character fh. 

His influence on Fislicr 497 

His influence on other members of tlic oniTcrrity . . . 40< 

Henr}- Bullvk ff*^ 

AVillianf Oon» !l 49j 

Jolm iJrv.ifi f7,^ 

Rol>ert AMrich , ib. 

John W)it«on « . ik, 

Hi4 letter to Era^mai , ib. 

ll COKT£»Ta. 

JikirrtrM^lU(UrdTUtrard,udKidiuilBuipMa . . BOO 

Tim of EnoBiiU cootpanii with tluwe prenleat la tlia nai- 

'vcratj dnring Ml «t«7 001 

IHiWtlBatAcfdifltmntfithera A. 

8l ChrjMMtom, 8L Jerome, atid Orisen ib. 

8tIliUi)r 003 

Kicbolu do Ljnud lingo of St. Victor . , . . ; tfr. 

Tbe IlierkTch; of DJonfuo* 003 

IfnCainbritlgoeipcricncetof atTTingchwactvr ... A: 

Sf ioor KHirct* of dUMtuTactioo . . • . . > • ■ Mi 

Ilif pcnniaT? circmnitaneci 003 

Kraatniw'i lout Combrfdse letter fb. 

TlM last glimpae of Erasmtu at Cuobridse .... 006 

Counter tctUiuonj of EnumiTii in bf our (J Cambridge ', . BO? 

Prosren of tiusolvgj in tbe uniTcniitj .'.... ib. 

lib pniM of three coUcgoa ....... t6. 

Ilia own lansuago and tliat of hfs bit^raphen IropUei a Mnw 

offoiluro 008 

Hia Uilan Bi>parcDt rathor than real ib. 

Ilia Komm IntlramrntHin 3). 

Tbe oatcorne of liia work in Eiigliuid and of Eogliah patronago . 509 

FrofeMor Urcircr'B critimm ib. 

Defcc-ts and em>n in the work 010 

Its great merit Oil 

Bntloclc'a U-ttcr to ErosniuH, Angiu', ISI6 .... ib. 
Faronible rcccptiuii of tho Naeujii /nitrumtntum among inSa- 

ential men ib. 

Leo X accept! tho dcdicaliun SJ2 

Cuonter dumonntfutious at Cnmbridj;e tb. 

Sarcaatic alluNions in tliv soinmcutaff of tho Abrunt Inttru- 

mei-ium ib. 

He attoclu tliD sc-cular clergy, tho motiko, tbe Meadicantd and 

tlio HhLiulrucn ib. 

Eraamu*'* reply U> llullock, Aug. 31, 1SI6 013 

He attacks hia otipmciitu witb acrinianj Ml 

Jtutifiei hiinKlf bj tlio prcct-dcnt ufTurdod by the new Tcr«ii>Dt 

of ArUlotlo ■ ib. 

Refer* to tlie distinguialiod approral which hit work bad 

alreAilj obt:iiric<l 010 

CotDparua tbe Canilirirlg^ of 1S16 with tliat of thirty jtan 

prerioua. .....,.., ib. 

Hope* bi« work mnj k:i<I mon to ntnrly tho Scriptnm more 

«i]i] to (bciNjcttc* lo»s witii . , *. 


Beliefetpofttority.willclo him more Ju»tlce • • • • 616 

Hit prediction falCIlcd 617 

The tul^'oct of Greek eoDtinnoe to ezcito the chief hitoreei at 

.Cambndgo ••••••••• ib. 

BrjtLn lectures in tfic iichooli from the new rerdons of Arlitotlo £k 

Sir Robert Rede fuaii<ls the Redo Icctarchhipe • • • 618 
Seme of the iui|«ortatice of Greek induced bj tho eontroferij 

respecting Uio Nor urn Imtrumentum • • • • ib, 

Emsnms again viitits England ih. 

His testimony to tho change at Cambridge • • . . 619 

Fiilier aspires to a knowledge of Greek •■•.•• ib. 

Embarrassment of his friends ib. 

Latimer declines the office of instructor ib, 

Cambridge also in wai;t of a teacher of Greek • I • • 620 

F0U5DATI0X or Co&PUi CUAISTI COLLCOEy OxFOKD, A.B. 1516 • 621 

Bishop Fox*s statutes ib. 

Boldness of his innovations on tho customary ttudiea . 622 

Appc'irance of Enu^mus's Norum Tfttamentum . . . 623 

He discirds tho Vulgato tmnsUtion ib. 

State or feklixg at Oxpoild ib. 

Tho earlier teachers of Greek no longer rcsid-jut . . . 624 

Comluct of the Oiford students ib. 

Crcciain rerun Trojans ib. 

More remonntratca with the inivontitT authorities on 1>ehalf 

of the Grecians 626 

He cf>ntrasts tlio di!t]H>sition shewn by the Oxonians with 

that of tlio Caiitahngiuns •...•• ib, 
A royal letter to fhc university secures the Grodaui from 

further inole>Uition 626 

Wolsey, in the following year, founds a chair of Greek at . 

Oxford ib, 

RlCHARO Crokk 627 

Befriended by Erasmus ib. 

His career on the continent ib. 

Ho returns trj Cambridge and lectures oo Greek to the oni- 

vcrsity 62S 

Is apiH>iiited Greek reader in 1519 to. 

His antecedents better fitted than those of Ensrons to die- 
arm iKHtility ib. 

His inaugural oration, July, 1519 629 

Outline of his oration 629-37 

Merits of t!ie oration 637 

Tho orition comi>:ircd with thU deliTered by Mclanchtlion 

at Wittetilicrg in tho preceding year .... ib. 

Croke*s scc«Mid oraticii ..•••... 639 


OttedUCbmbiidgooolonj' • 539 

Retort of Anthoiij Wood ••..••• ib. 

iBtUtntkm of tiio oflloo of FuUio Orator, A. n, 1522 • • ib. 

Croko elected for Ufo •••••••• ib. 

Jobs 8KKLT09 • • • 540 

Hit tatirical renet on tho attention now gtven to Oroek at 

CiniUriilgo ib. 

Tnoxis WoLSET 541 

His relations to Cambridge .••.«.. ib. 

He declines tho chnncellorBhIp ib. 

Fuller elected for life 542 

Wolsc/TiiitsCaniliridsfe, A.]>. 1520 ib. 

Fisher absent on the occauoo 543 

Relations of Fisher to WoLiej ib. 

Fisher and Wulsey at the eouneil of 1518 . . . , ib. 
Contract presented between the two proktes on that oe- 

casion 544 

Wolscy's relations to Cambridge . . . ' . • . 545 

Bullock's congratulatory oration 546 

(!roi4nc?<8 of his flattery .•....•• ib. 

rerorution of his speech 547 

'Wolscy's Tictiiiis at tlio universities ib, 

tStaflbrd, Skclton, and Pace 54S 

Oxford surrenders its statutes to be altered at Wolsey's 

pleasure 549 

Tlio precedent followed by Cambridge ib. 

Fiddcs's criticism on the Cambridge address • . . ' ib, 

A humiliating episode in the history of both universities • 550 

lloy:d visits to Camliridge , 551 

Fouudation of Cardinal College, Oxford . . • . ib. 

Scholars from Cambridge placed on the foundation . • 552 

Chap. VI, Cambripok at tiik Rekormatiox. 

Different theories respecting the origin of the Reformation 

The nefomiation in Kngiand began at Canif)ri<lgo 

Tlio Reformation not a dcvelopcment of LoIIardirtni but to bo 

traced to the influence of l'inLMmu«*s New Testament 
Bilncy's toBtimony '. '. , .... 

I'roclaination of Indulgences by Leo x 

Copy affixed by Fisher to tho gate of the common schools 

Act «»f Peter (le Valence . 

His excommunication 

rrosjicctsorrvfonM prior to A.n. 1517 .... 



ErenU of tho year 1510 A38 7| 

liopos of tho llumaiiUU • • ^ • • • • • A. 

Coniincticcmciitofa ucw rjofcmcniaiCoiDbridgo • . • ^^ ^ 

TllOMAM ]5fl.Ni:Y V 5410 , 

His eccentric cliapicicr • '^ i, 

Ilifl Accouutof liU P|)iriiiuil eif»crienccs . • • • Aw ^ 
Orcr iiufxirtaueo atUieliOd to hU description bj rroicttaiit * 

writers 661 ' 

IIo tcmU tho New Testamctii of Erasmus .... 06f ' 

Change in his rch'gious view's . . • ' • . • ib. 

His character as drawn br Latimer ib. 

His conrertt at Trinitj HaIl,~ArthQr, I'agct, and Smith . ib. 

His inOucnce especially pcrccptiblo among mitiTCt of Lii 

OY^D country 603 

Thomas Foreign, John Lambert ..•••• ib, 

NichohiM Shaxton 664 

Gonvillc I (all noted for its sympathy with tho Rcformen . ib, 

RoBEnT Barmis * . . . . t^. 

Charot ter of tho Augustiuian friars as a body ... A. 

John Tounys « bC5 

Barnes sent t» stutly at LouTain ih, 

Jerome Bii>Ieidcn ib. 

Foundation of tho cffllrtjium trilintjue ih, 

Jcah>u.«y of the conf»<'rvativcj< ...••• •Ad 

Barnes returns to England with rayncU .... ib. 
His lectures on tho Latin claries and on the Epiitlet of 

St. Taul ib, 

George Stafford • 667 

He lectures on Uie Scriptnret instead of tho Scntenoet . i^. 

Becou s e.Htimate f^f tho value of his scrricot ... ih, 

BamcM and SUttford di^tpate ii! the divinity schools . • . 6^H 

BamcH converted to Bilncv's religious views .... ib, 

Luther s works 669 

Hii earlier trcuti^'S landed over to Uio Horbonno for ex- 

aniiiiution 670 

Rapid Hprca4! of Lutlienin doctriMcs In the eastern counties . ib, 

Willacy adver>o to extrenio niea^tures iK 

Lutlier h\\T\\% the \n\\Ki\ bull at Wittcnl»erg .... ib, 

Wolsey convenes a c<»nrcrencc in l^iodon 671 

l)eci»i4»Qs of ilio Sorbonne and tho London cmferenee . . P>, 

Lutliers Uniks burnt at VnvXn CVfi^in ib, 

Fii>her*s senuon n^iiiMt Luther • ih, 

Wiilsey authoriies a general Mcardi f<ir Luther's writing . . iK 

LuUier's works Imnit at ^^^xford and at Caml»ridge • ih. 

xKr coHTKNm 


Kfag nwr.>i>d FklMT write tg^ut Lntlior . . . . STS 

llcetli«aonh«B^bnnenAt(^Mdso O, 

Imm Wnm Uommb A- 

Tie Inn bceomoi ksown u ' Qormanj' , ... 073 

IVtldpaton in the uoTeincDt ib, 

Chanctrr of tlieir proceeding! . - • • . , H. 

TbeCunbridgeRcrormennolallTiMinjfnMii .... 674 
CktamstancnthmlplftuliDtlicirbebairinooiraexloiiwilhtliQtr ' 

■abscqacnt euver ib. 

Tbeir BectiDgi report'jd in London 079 

Wobej dccliocs toappoiiit kCommiHion uf enqnirj . . ■ i6. 

Bunm' tcmiou on Girutmai Ere ii. 

'Articlei lod^ OEalmt him with the Tiee^faBnceltor . . , 076 

He is conrronted vitli hia iccnscn in the wihooU ... A. 
The pracccding* interraptcd b; demonatr&Uuiw on tlM pert of 

tlieitudcnb 077 

Hia Mcondeianiinitiun, which UitmiLu'lfliitomipted . . 0*8 

lie refuse* to (F^ a rcvocntion ib. 

^Volscj reuilTC* en cncr^tie meamrci ib. 

Search nude Tor Lullii-ntn bouk* At Cambridgo .... tb. 

Barnes ia in-c»tcd And conveyed to London , , . . ib. 

Ilia trial bcfuro -t-'iBlicr and other biihnpa at We«tiniiwt«r . . ib. 

lliatiamtiroof tic condusion 079 

Huoii Latimes OSO 

lib carl; career and character OSl 

He attacks Mclunchtlion ib. 

Ilii positiun in the nnirenitf ib. ~. 

lie is cnnTcrtcd by Biloc; , . ib. 

lie bccumca his intimato nsiociate GS3 

Kflccts of hia cxnm)>lo ib. 

Itiitlxip Went attcnita LHtlmer'i scrraon .... 093 

JIo rcipiests L-ntiiiicr to preacl) ngnlnat Lnlbor . . , ib. 

n'cst itiliibita Latimer from preaching 6S4 

Latimer |ircaclics at the church uf the AagustiouU) fiian , ib. 

I.atin cr i« ■iin<inoncil bcrure Woluc? in London ... ib. 

WiiIm J lieciuc* I^tinicr to prcucli . ' . . . ib. 

Sir Tlwniu More (.-lectcd hij;h stuivard ib, 

AbMirbingatluntionginnto Lullicr'snTitingsthmoghoat Europe 08-1 

Genera) dibquictuda of the tiuica ih. 

Natural pbtuomtna HM 

I'redictionaurtliaahnanicnmken ih, 

Al-pf^nneo of Willi:iiii Tjnriulei Sow Testament ... 66(7 
Ilia tmtuhiti'in exticUy wliut Knuim u had cxpref^cil tlio grcit- 

crt dc"irc to ace fft 

• •• 


Bkmarioji 403 

IIU patriotic fcJ ib. 

Ids cfforli towfvrds tli« union of tlie Chnrcbot • . . ib. 

IliiconTcnion to tho woJitornCbiirch 404 

Ills ozfniplo t roductive of little ronult . • • • ib. 

Crock become i lumociatcd witfi Ucronj . • • • • 40ft 

A»OTIlOPU!/»i f5. 

Devotes lilmr At to improving tlio kiirwiodgo of Aristotle • ib. 

Admitted CI xllcno) of his tmuMlatioM . • • • ib. 

\Ua dcprcciBiion uf Oiccro m a pliilosdplier • . • • 406 

IliMOtlier lit erarj labours ib, 

Hciiclilin ard Ano'DpuIos « 407 

LiUllNINO IN (Ikkm.\ny , ib. 

Aaw'm Hyhlun ixud ilrvffory Wolmhnrg • . • t 40!^ 

Tliu I tilitui sclioliir and Ocmmnjuriiit contrasted . • ib. 

IIcgiiM ib. 

His Hc) KM >1 at Do venter » 409 

Ku<lulf von Lan^^o ib. 

His ihtiovuti^'nuon tlio traditional motliods of Ins troctioo • ib. 

John WcHMcl 1*;^, 

I lu diNptilrs the outhorit}' of Aquinas . . . • « 16. 

RVDoU'litH AoKin)i.A .....••• 410 

\\\% J )** Fonnawh Studio lA. 

lie rcg-.inln natural MMcnco as ancillarr to philotfiphj . , 411 

Use (»r tho native Inn^^uago in clan^ictil studios ... ib. 

Acquired knowlcdtre to be not only stored but aisiroiUtod . A. 

licftl novelty of thou);lit in tliis trcatiso • . . . 412 

His />#//< rf*/f^V</</*, a ifopulartrcatine on logic . • . t^. 


Italiiin and German scholarbhip compared . . • , ih. 

Their rc*^icctive aflinitie:} to the Ueformation • , , 414 
The forcb<Nlin^ of (iregorj and Alcuin partially Torificd bj 

tho re«ult 415 

Tho Hunianii«ts and tho religious orders 41^ 

Tho Hunianista and tho universities $5. 

Progress of Xoniinaliam at the utdversities i5. 

Attitude of the universities with respect to tho new learning 417 

Tho Humanists attuck the civilians 418 

Valla at the university of Pavia Qf, 

Compansou instituted by an eminent jurist between Cicero and 

liartolus 419 

Yalta's attack />n Bartolus tA 

Po^o and the canonists 4*^ 





▼ tho 

Tr Roi>L DpoftCE • 

TBoyAS GsAXiin 

nb unirernij 

Hit tnggesUoa At Waltluun that tho qnettion should bo 
refciTod to tho nnlveniiics . • • • 

Tho question, as thus rofcrrod . • . • 

It really inTolvcd that of tho rapromacy of tho popo 

FaUadotu diaractcr of tho expedient • 

Croke in Italy • 

Hit activity in bribing the Italian nnivenities • 

Kinj* Henry menaces Oxford .... 

Mr. Froude*8 comparuscvi of tlie conduct of Oxford 
Cambridge . . 

His criticism te:<tcd by tbo documentary eridenco 

King Hcory's letter to tho university of Canibridgo 

Cranmer*s treatise on tho question 

Report of Gardiner and Fox to tho king 

Grace proposed to tho senate . . 

Imptkriint rcscrviition in the decision arrived at b; 

Buckmastor's narrative of his experiences at court and on 
his re' jm 

Facts trhicli tend to qmilify Mr Froudo*s culogium 

Position of Fisher 

Prosperity of St John's College under Mctcalfe^s rule 
Fisher'sstatutesot 1524 and 15.10 . . . 

Multiplicity and cla1x>ratencss of tho rleiails . 
The statutes ncvcrtlieless contain a grave omission 
Ascliani*9 tcsttiniony to the evils resulting from tho indiscriminate 

admi'^Mon of jicnsioners 
The omission rej^aired in the statutes of 1545 
The U.MVERfiTV Press . . 

John Sibcrch 

Licence of 1 534 

Sygar Nicholson , . .... phase of the relations between town and university 
Fi*her ijj committed to prison .... 

Feeling ^f the university 

Letter of St. John> College .... 
Cromwell «uc^ce<ls. Fisher as ^ancellor. 
His 0;iford and Cambridge . 
Lcighton'H account of tljc prgceodings at Oxford 
TiTR UoTAL Injun cTioNH op 1535 , 

• • • 

Commcncauctit of a nc^v era in nniverHity history 






























(A) Ljdgato*! Tenet on tlie Foandation of tbo Unlrenitj of 
Cambridge • 

(B) The UniTortitj of SUmford 

(C) An anciont^Stataie on tho Hiring of Iloeieli 

(D) Tho original Statutes of MichaoIhooBO . • • . 

(E) Lrgere ordinarie, ejrtraordinarie, cnnorie . 





ISfO namfn eonneeted hj a hjpben denote tlie autbor and 
the editor: e.^. Wood-Gutch, Itaker-Major. denote reepoctively 
Wood's AmtaU of Or/arJ^ edited by Gatcb, and Bakcr*t Ilhtary 
of tkt Coliege- of St, John the JSmttfjflist, edited bj professor 

A smaller numeral added to that of the Toliimo or poge, e,g, 
nr*, 375\ denotes the edition to which reference is made. 

p. 882, Dots 3, tw* collegium triUngue at Loavnin/ rend 'nnirertit/ of 


The tbirteeDth century embraces within iU limits an nrrw 
emincDtlj eventful era in European bifttory. It was an age 
of turbulence and confusion, of revolution and contention, 
wherein, (tmid the strife of elcmcntH, it is often difficult to 
discern the tendencies for goo<l that were undoubtcilly at 
work, and where the observer is npt to lose si«jht of the real 
onward pro;(roKs of the current as he marks the notations 
wliich trouble the surfjice of the waters. But that ;i j^roat 
advance was then aclneveil it is inipossiblc to deny. The 
social, the religious, and *he intellectual life of Europe were 
roused by a common im^alse from comparative stagnation. 
The Church, threatened by its own degeneracy, took to itself 
other and more potent weaj.ons; scholasticism, enriched by 
the influx of new learning, entered on its most brilliant 
phase ; orietital influences, the reflex action of the Crusades, 
stirred men to fresh paths of thought ; and England, no longer 
regarded as a subjugated nation, grew rapiclly in strength 
and freedom. To this century the University, of Cambridge 
tmces back its first rcconled recognition as a legally consti- 
tuttMl IxMly. and rofrrs the foundation of its most ancient 
college, and. in the absence of authentic records concerning 
her early history, it iK'Comes especially desirable to arrive at 
a clear conception of the cir:umstances that lielong to so 
important a aunmencement It w'll accordingly lie desirable, 
in this introductory chapter, to under review the leading 
features of education and learning in those ages which 



nrmo- preceded tho univenitj era; to trace out, as far as maj Im 
condttdve to oar main purpose, the habits of thought anc 
traditional belief that necessarily found expression in the first 
organisation and discipline of the universities themselves 
to estimate the character and direction of th* se innovation! 
which the universities inaugurated ; and in order to do this 
however imperfectly, we shall find it nccessar to go back tc 
that yet earlier time which links the civilization of Paganism 
with that of Christianity. 

The university age commences in the twelfth century; 
and it is a fact familiar to every student, that nearly all 
learning had up to that period been the exclusive possession 
of tlie Church. In the third and fourth centuries indeed the 
traditions of Roman culture were still preserved in full vigoiu 
in Tmnsalpine Gaul; Autun, Treves, Lyons, and Bordeaux 
were distinguished as schools of rhetoric and their teaching 
was ennobled by many an illustrious name; but with the inva- 
sion of the Franks the imperial schools were swept away, and 
education when it reappeared had formed those associations 
which, amid so many important revolutions in thought and 
the decay of so many ancient institutions, have retained their 
hold with such remarkable tenacity and power up to our 
own day. The four centuries that precede! the reign 
of Philip Augustus have been termed, not inaptly, 'the 
Benedictine era*,' In the monasteries of tliat great order, 
which rose in the sixth century, was preserved nearly all 
that survived of ancient thought, and was imparted what- 
ever still deserved the name of education. It is important 
to retneinber to how gn-at an extent the moni'iHticisrn of 
the West was the re«ult of the troubles and calamities that 
ushered in the fall of the western empire. The fierce ascetic- 
ism of the anchorites of the £;;Ht found no place in the 
earlier institutions associated with the names of the most 
illuftrious of the Laiin Fathers. The members of those 
humble communities which were found in Rome, Milan, and 
Carthage, were men seeking refuge from the corruption, 

1 L6on Moitre, Let Ecolet EpiscopaUt et Monattiquet de V Occident, p. 174. 


j ohj, ftnd misery of their nge, ready to bid adieu to the nrrm 
n Id and iU cares, so that they might pass the remainder ^— v-« 

their days in holy duties and tranquil occupations, in cgSjng M 
meditation, and prayer. In precisely the same spirit ^•^ 

Benedict reared on Monte Cassino the first monastery 

his order, and drew up those rules for its observance 3i**nM 
wl 3by self-mortification, isolation from mankind, the ex- J^;*^^ 
elusion of all social and patriotic virtues in the cultivation 
of a lonely perfection, wore indicated as the chief principles 
of the religious life. 

Inasmuch, accordingly, as the monk renounced the world, ib«mw«< 
his education was conceived solely with reference to those ^••■r* 
acquirements necessary to the p<^Wormance of his monotonous 
routine of duties. The Benedictine's knowledge of music 
was given him only that he might chant the Gregorian 
antiphony; of arithmetic and astronomy, that ho might 
rightly calculate the return of Easter; of Latin, that ho 
might understand the Fathers and the Vulgiite ; and these 
ac(|uirement^ together with a slender knowledge of geometry 
and versification, made up, for centuries, the oidinary culturo 
of his order. That the education of those times was that of 
tlio monk, and consequently breathed only of the mona.stery, 
has indeed been the superficial criticism with which the 
subject has often been contemptuously dismissed, but a 
8omewhat closer investigation would seem to reveal to us 
another element in the motives and sentiments then preva- 
lent, which should not in justice 1x3 left unrecogiji/X'd. 

The teaching of the I>atin (Inirch at the time when, 
under Gregory the (ireat, hIic laid the foundations of her 
trnqxiral jKiwer, rchtrd on the authority of three KatlierM,— 
Ambrose, Jerr»in*!, and Aui^nHtine*. From the firnt sheMA< 
'l*;rive<l her conception of sacerdotal authority; from thc*««it 
ccond, her att'irdinic'nt to nioriasticiMrn ; from the third, her 

Eiogrnatic tlieology ; and to these three cone? j>t ions the nuist 
ernarkable plir-nomena in European history may undoubte<lly 
iC referred. In the writings of Augustine, eHpr;cially,--* the jjjJ^^m^ 

1 Mnnun, ilisL of latim CkHitianitf, Book it e. 4. 



onde of tbirteen centuries,' — is to be found the key to the 
belief and practice of the Church in the Middle Ages. . 

The different treatises by the bishop of Hippo that have 
descended to us are voluminous, but his philosophy of history 
is set forth in a work of comparatively moderate compass, — 
the De Cimtate Dei From the earliest times, a very solemn 
belief had prevailed with more or less intensity in the different 
sections of the Church that the day of judgement and the end 
of the world were at hand. As the troubles of the empire 
multiplied, this conviction grew and deepened alike in the 
eastern and western communities. It was held by Clemens 
and Tertuilian, by Origcn and Cyprian, by Athanasius and 
Lac'tantius, by Clirysostom, Ambrose, and Jerome, but ii 
devolved on Augustine to dcvelope it in its full 8ignificanc< 
fw«i»«r Ai>d logical connexion with human history. Tlic nge ii 
iiA«4MihM ^.jjj^jj ^jjjjj father lived was that wherein the fabric of th< 

empire, already underniined and Rhakcn, began actually t< 
go to pieces. During his lifetime he saw the Eternal Cit; 
become the abode of the Goth ; he died while the Vandn 
was laying siego to the city of his own episcopate. P«;;aiiisii 
in its terror and despair at the fast thiokenitig calalnitio^ 
aflinucil that tho ancient gods, incensetl at the neglect c 
their worship, had thus manifested their displeasure ; Chri.* 
tianity, it was declared, was responsible for tluj sack of lloni 
and tho defeat of the iini>erial arinies. In reply to sue 
accusations, Augnstino put forth tho De CmUtto Dei A 
exiK)sition of tho theory ho olahorately nnfohhul in tli 
twenty-four books of this work would be here misplace*' 
but tho leading sentiment may bo stated in a few wonl 
A«tfciPjtfy lliuno hml indeed fallen, replied tho Christian Father, n< 
*;J2T" could it well bo otherwise; f(»r she represented an order 
things fa-ed to bo overthrown ; the earthly city, witli i 
superstitions and its crimes, its glory and renown, w 
destined to give place to another city, the city of tho Nc 
Jerusalem. A sublime theocracy was to supersede the ru 
of the Oesars. No vision of temporal power, like that whi 
invested the seven hills, rose before his eyes; the city \ 
beheld was that which he of the Apocalypse saw do [^ndii 


from heaven, whither should be brought tho 'glory and the JT'^'^ 
honour of the nations/ Time itself should cease to be when 
the true Eternal City had appeared. 

In brief the ridvent of the new reign necessarily implied 
the termination of the old, and the calamities of the age 
were but the funeral knell of the Roman empire. But what 
imported the downfall of an empire, when all earthly things 
were destined so soon to away* A question of far 
deeper moment, of a far closer personal interest, pressed on 
men for a solution. ' Seeing then that all these things shall 
be dissolved, what manner of persons ought ye to be in all 
holy C(mvcrs;ition and giKlIincKs, looking for and hasting unto 
the coming of the day of God, wherein the heavens licing on 
fire shall be disi<olved, and the elements shall melt with 
forvont heat'?' The language of St Peter was but echoed 
by Augustine with a grentiT iKirtioularity of time and place. 

It is ea^y to ]>ercoivc that events after Augustines time 
would certainly not tend to dis|)el the l)elief to which he thus ]5j,IJjyj 
gave expression ; that as the Visigoth in Spain, tho Frank JJJJSJ**" 
in Gaul, tho lionibard in Italy, trampled on the remnants of 
aneient civilization, — that as Christianity ilM'lf expin*d in 
Africa, und^r the advance of the vi<*toriouH CVescent, — while 
the sword and famine reduciHl once fertilo and populous 
n'gioiis to desolate wastes, — nien*s hearts might well In^gin nr«rirff n 
to fail them at tho contiMnplalion of ho hopeless a future. Mk»^ 
We can well understand that the ordinary aims anti pursuits 
of life np|H*ared frivolous and unmeaning, its tho ex|H*eted 
crisis seemed yt'arly to draw niMirer, la-ralded by each sueccs- 
sivo disaster ; and that the religious or n)on.u<tic life n-'iglit 
thus come to 1h» regarded as the only ndetjuate expression of 
one profound conviction, the conviction,— to u.s4* the fon'ihle 
lauguage of Guizot, — «»f *f imyiatx/ti/iV ile tout long tntvuU 
et de tout jxtiftihle loUirJ The monastery indeiMl wliicli 
St BencHlict founded on Monte Cassiuo, and which the Lom- 
bard soon after levelled to the ground, affords alike in its 
Conception, its institution, and its fall, an illustration of tho 

> S PiUr Ui IS. 


chjuracterittici of thoee timea. In its conception,- 
effort to escape from the disquiet of the age, and a renuncia 
tion of all hope and interest in the pursuits of mankind ; ii 
its institution, — supplanting as it did a temple of ApoU 
vhore the pagan peasant still brought his ofTerings and pai< 
bis vows, but where the monk now cut down the once sacre< 
;rrove, and broke in pieces the idol ; in its fall, — as partici 
pcitin;; in the general devastation that marked the progrc 
of the iKirbarian, hastile alike to the ancient civilization an< 
the new faith. 

Till' tcrn)r and despair which the Lombanl spread tlirougl 
ItAly impart* tl new fon*e to the prevalent conviction, ami th 
imliry of (irrgory the Croat afTonIs a ri»niarkablo ilhistratioi 
lii»tli of the hold which these furcbiHlings hatl gained on th 
fofvmost niindn of the peri«Kl, and their collatenil efft^cts oi 
U-aming and etlucation. The activity and energy displayed 
l»v tliiH vKxIcsiastic in consolidatin^r the institutions an( 
c \t'n«riii;j tl»o authority of his src, might appi\'ir at variaiic 
V. ::!» .U'li a ihrory, were \sv n«»t also to ri'iiuMnhiT tliat hi 

• !] rt- \MH' uiit|.Mil»irilly cumvivfd in sulMinlination t 
f • \\?i*ivtly rrli;^'it»ns fri-liii'^s. It wjis tlms whih* h 

l.ili»»'irol to raisr his country fn>ni physical and moral <logrn 
«! it:«»n. to hu>l>:ind and auj^ment the patrimony of the Cliurcl 
t«. (t.nvcrl tlio htathi'n, to bring about a unity of faith an* 
<f f»rm* of wnr>hip, ho is still to Ik* foinul anlicipatin;;, wit 
nn I .iini'*tnr^*» lsyt>!iil suspicion, the apjuoach of tlic fnin 
<'"i!-Miniiiati'»n. * What,' ho K.'ivs, at tlio close of a Ion 
< Ti»Mn«ration of tlie calamities tliat lind befallen Italy, ' wlia 
i:i.iy Ik.' takinjx place elM'wIierc I know m>t, but in tlii 
r ':;itry, u herein we tlwell, events plainly no lon;;er forete 
t!.v end but exhibit it in actual process;* in a letter to th 
0'ij\^.'rted KtheH>ert, tlie Bretwahla, ho again dedaR's thii 
^-i^'Ti"*. such as th«»>e amid which St Jk'ntMlict had ft>retol 
ti. it Ib»me should l>e overthrown, fearful portents in th 
) • avftis and tumults in the air, war, famine, pestilence, an 

• arjlujuake, all pi>int to the Siimc conclusion* ; elsewhere h 

' • Aifroi'inqunnl* anti'm eo<l«ra anlo non fuorunt, Ti«l«*Hcct imrout 
Bc&ii Urmjio, niulu immiDCDt qtue iJ4»uct avri^ , torrorc«<jao de cnlo. 

Fnm mniDL f 

from beaveo, whi I lit the 'glofj and Um 

bonoar of the nati* T iUell lU 06Me to be when 

the true Etenial City i d. 

In brief the 'advent of the new reign necf Manly implied i^m/^ 
the termination of tlie old, and the calamities of the age 
were but the funeral knell of the Roman empire. But what 
imported the downfall of an empire, when all earthly things 
were destined so soon to paM awsyi A question of far 
deeper moment, of a far closer pergonal interest pressed on 
men for a solution. ' Seeing then that all these things shall 
be dismiK'tHl, what manner of perMimi ought ye to be in all 
liolv converKiitioii nnd giHllinc'Ms, hmking for and liruting unto 
tlie coming; of the tiny of (t<Ml, wlicrvin the hc*avc*ns licing on 
fire shall lie tlJMiMilvtHl, iin«l the clomonts shall m<*lt with 
fi*rvrnt liiMt'T* The lanpiajjo of St Petrr was but t»ch«icd 
by Aupi*(tiiio with a f^rcntiT iMfliciilarity of time aiNl |ilaco. 

It is vii^y to |»<Tivive tim*. rwnt^ hAit An;»uiitinc*s time 
wouM cvrtainly not tmd to ili«»|n»l the lielicf to which ho thus |j^* 
pive cxpn'n^iou ; that as tlit* \'i%i;^i»th in Spoin, the Fratik 
in (Inul, th«* I^>nilifinl in Italy, trnnipli*«l on tin* r«*nihant«i i*f 
an«*i(*nt civili/:i(i«*n. — timt om 1 hri<*ii.ihity it a-lf rxpinnl In 
AfriiTt. nnil« r ihi* n«lv«ii«\) of tln« vir(«»rt*Hi« t'n-i^i'nt, — while 
tli<* nwonl and fainini* nMlnnil on<x* f<*ftilf« atnl |M»|Ntl«MN 
n*p«»n« to il<*«i»lato wantc*!!, — ni<*n*ii iK-art* nii;;iit wril U');in 
to fail tli«*ni at tli«* r«»iit«Mn|ilfi(ion «»f ni Im»|ii I«-«4 a futnro. ^* 

• vntt y^vW niMl«n*l;iii«l tlint tli<« onlinsry Aiiii«» ntiil (Hir<iiiits 
of lil«* fi|»|M*ar«*«l frivoluiM nn*l unni* sniii*,;. i^ the i'%|aiHiiHl 
vum'tn fM*fiiii*<l VTirly !•» drnw n« iri*r. I.« f.iM«'»l l»y i-tw-h »u«t^'^ 
»ive di«a*«t<'r ; nn*l tlmt tlio n li;;i in« or iiion iiktir lift* n i;»lit 
lliiK c«»tiii' t«» !••• r«'^irt|«^l n* tin* «»ii|\ n<l««|<i;iio niiri***!* n *tf 
«»iKj profiMiinl rt*ii\ u'lioti, iIm* (*«»ii% i« ti<»n.^t*i n-- iIm« f«»ft iI»!«« 
I oi^imp' *t( tiiiiftit. — «»f * tnHfm»*.*tht(t(/ tU tit^ti /o#t#| ffiffifi/ 
rt de foMf jmtf%hlt iuiMir,* *Vh\* iii»»ha«trry indt^-^l lihKli 
St Ik-noli(t fi>tiii<l<«l <>n Mt»nt<* (^a«*iiMi, hihI mliith th«* Iy#fn* 
iMrd MMXi aft* r k-vrlK^tl t4> the griHin*!. afT'nU alike in it4 
c »nce|>ti«>n, it« institution, and \U full, an illii%tniti*>n c»f the 

• S fVirf tta la 


chumeteiuHefl of thooe timea. In its eoncepUoa, — u i 
' eSbrt to escape from the disquiet of the age, and a renimci 
tion t^ all hope and mterest in the pursuits of mankind ; ! 
its iasUtutioQ, — BuppUnttng aa it did a temple of Apol 
whore the pagan peasant Btill brought his offerings and 
his TOWB, but where the monk now cut down the once sacn 
grove, atui broke in pieces the idol ; in its fait, — an partic 
pating in the general devnstation that marked the progr 
of the barlNirian, hostile alike to the ancient civilization ai 
the new faith. 

The terror and dcKptiir which the Lombard fiprcad tliron; 
Italy inipnrttxl now force to the prev&Ivnt conviction, and t1 
nntMTtt* policy of Orcgnry the Oa-nt ufTonlK a n>mtirknblo illiiNtmtii ^^'' °^ '''^ '"'''' which thcxo forebodings had gaincnl on t1 
forcmoMt minds of the period, aud tlicir collotcmt cfTucts i 
learning and education. The activity and energy display) 
by this ecclesiastic in consolidnting the institutions ni 
extending tbo authority of hin Kce, might appear at vnrinm 
with RiK'li a theory, were we nut aim) to rcinoinlier that h 
cll'orlH wci'u uiiil»uhtudly cuui-eivcd in riulxmliaulion 
2j;Wiiii cxcliifively religimis ffelingH. It was thus th;it while 1 
laUnirctl to raise Ids country from physical anil moral dcgr 
dation, to htiHhand and augnicnt the patrimony of the Churc 
to convert the lu-ntlien, to bring about a unity of faith at 
of fomis of wondiip, ho is still to bo found antinpating, wi 
an vanicstncss beyond Mispidon, the apjimach of the Cm 
cunKui II Illation. ' What,' ho says, at the close of a h>i 
enumoralion of the calamities that had hofiiUon Italy, 'wli 
may be taking place vlKt^whero I know not, but in tl 
country, wherein we dwell, events plainly no longer t'oreti 
. the cud but exhibit it in actual process;' in a letter to tl 

converted Etholhert, the Brctwalda, lie again declares th 
signs, such as those amid which St Bencilict had foreto 
that Rome should be overthrown, fearful portents in t! 
Iicavens and tumults in the air, war, famine, pestilence, ai 
earthquake, all point to the same conclusion'; elsewhere 


•corediU him with tome knowledge of Hebrew', AUbelm 
died in 709» and wag luocee^lcd by Bede the Venermble. 
whose writiogB form an important contribution to the text- i^T^ 
books of the siibi>equent age. In the eighth century the n.^ 
Khool of York ruee into celclirity, duitinguimhed by itaiiTflL 
valuable library and the eminence of i icliolan ; of thcue. 
Alcuin, f«ir tome tunc the miatdian of iu literary treasurea. a^t*^ 
must undoubtctlly be rn^r^li*d as the niuHt aocunipli}Jic«l ^ *^ 
M:li<ilar of his day. l*lie culture to which our country 
attained at this peritid cannot huwcver be sliown to liare 
had much c«>nuexion with subiici|uent dcvelopenicnts. The 
ctiuipatati%'e inuuuuity t»he then cnjuycd from troublesi like 
those tluit Agitated the Cout incut favoured her ailvnnce in 
education and lenmin;;, but with the Daniiih invasions the 
(air promise diKip|K*artHl. Tlie land relapsed into semi- 
barbarism ; and the ninth an«l tenth centuni*s, ri»tng like 
a wall of gmnite, In'tween the tinif^ of Alcuin and th«we <«f 
Ljuifranc, miiii itVtrliially to i^.ite the earlier ng»?. To 
trace the prt»gte%M of Kurtf|K'an tltoti'^'ht «^<* flmll oiniie«|Uctit1y n^^ 
Hutl it nect >^irv tu follov^ AKnin a<*r* »a tlie Kii;'lijdi channel ^ **- 
to the court of Cliarl«»ni;igiie. 

It is a trite <il>MTV4itii»n. that a state of warfare. Iikc«v«-n»% 
numy other eviU. in far fn»m U mg an unmixed ill, in that ^^^ 
it calls iuUi ai^tion virtu«s whieh are «k«itit to sl imbirr in 
tiuiee of pnM(H'rity and pi^ace, («nd Muiiluriy wo may note 
that, in sea^ns of great nationa sulTering and trial, itiraa 
often rea|i|n»ar which jkviii to have well nigh pa«M-d fnnn 
the m<*iii«try uf m ai atiiid the pjr«uit4 of a m*'re tmn*|uil 
age. M«*tiiLotici«itii. in the •i\tli centon', %*»• di;ft»>^»«"<l by 
a ci»n\i<''?*»ii III ri>tnjMri*«»ii *»iili ifclii«h thf f>r»iiii?iry h«»|ii-* 
atnl feiini u( tiifii nii;'ltt w» II spj»' r'»nti tupftUle ; if n pr»*- 
••••'ting dt-^lwiiith IKV in ntatioii to iI»mi;;« ttinj»»rnl. it h.i'l 
it* henji^in iM»t K**» tlmii it« i|« •pair ; l»»it hImu »«* n"t*.%!l • » 
Sow greiit uti ri!« lit the tin «»fy»t«'»l hy Aogn^tiin 

fftrtm«lt» «-«iiiui I li« n.«t« w»<*4ii «t ^ »»! tt i- "* •'» *J ••• •*♦• ' «'^^ «•* 

%trW« fn<«i«t«tut«* rr^«|Ml««f«r>tai • t i'«UMti >«.H;. 
*^| 4s, i%«i4is t^mlMmj*, h»\ia»"Mf 


and enforced by Gregoiy derived its strength from the 
apparent corroboration afforded by contemporary calamities, 
we naturally turn to enquire, with some cariosity, how far 
audi anticipations were found to consist with the spectacle 
ihrJt now greeted Europe, — the formation of a new and 
rivflMin splendid empire. It must then be admitted that this theory 
"■i*** appears well nigh lost to view amid the promise of the reign 
of Charlemagne, but it should be remembered that a specific 
as well as a general explanation of the fact offers itself for 
our consideration. It was the belief of the Church that the 
advent of Antichrist would precede the final dissolution of 
all things, and we accordingly find that, inasmuch as the 
fall of the Roman empire had l)een supposed to be necessarily 
involved in his triumph and reign, it was customary among 
the earlier Christians to pray for the preservation and 
stability of the imperial power, as interposing a barrier 
between their own times and those of yet darker calamity. 
It was not until Rome had been taken by Alaric that Augus- 
tine composed the De Civitate Dei But now, with the lapse 
of the two centuries that separated the ago of Gregory from 
that of Charlemagne, a change had come over the aspect of 
human affairs. The empire of the Franks hatl, by successive 
conquests, been extended over the greater part of Europe ; 
the Lombards, the great foes of all culture, acknowledged 
the superiority of a stronger arm ; the descendants of the 
Huns, thinned by a scries of sanguinary conflicts, accepted 
Cliristianity at the point of the sword ; the long stnigglc 
between the emperor and the Saxons of the north had 
representee!, from the first, an antagonism between the 
traditions of civilization and those of barbarism and idolatry ; 
while in the devotion of Cliarlemagne to the Church, t 
sentiment already so conspicuous in his father, it became 
erident that the preponderance of strength was again rangec 
on the side of the new faith. The a^lvent of Antichrist wai 
therefonj not yet ; and with that l>elief the still more dreac 
anticipation which had so long filled the minds of men ceasec 
to assert itself with the same intensity, and in the conceptioi 
of Charlemagnp, to which our attention must now be directed 



we diaoern the pretence of idee* widely diflTcring from thoee 
of QrDgorj. 

We have already reinarkcd that, io Oao1« tlie imperial 
tchook ettabliKlied under tlie Roman empire dtiappcared 
amid tlie bavoc wroii^it by the Frankii; thoae by wbich 
tbcy were tucccctled were entirely under the control of 
the Church. Tlie researches of Amptrre and otLer writert 
have ajicertaine<l that theie tchools were of two kinda,— the 
episcopal and the monastic In the former an exdusiTely 
teligiiHiA training was impartctl; in the latter a sligltt infusion 
of aecuhir knowlinl^ found a plnre*. A similar (ate to tliat 
of their pre<li'Cf^M>ni appeared likely at one time to befall 
Xho^ infititntion^ ; in the Linplom of Aquitaine, where they 
hail flouriKlK*<I with most vi^^our, the destruction of the 
churchen and nionautrricn by the Saracenji m'cll nigh extin« 
piiftlictl cNlucation, and wc can well understaml that the rub? 
of Charh*ii Mnrtel and the Mcrovins^an dynasty mas little 
liki'ly to favour its resUiration. Wc have therefore small 
tliflicultv in crtilitin;: the statement of the monk of St Oall 
that, at the arrr«»*inn of i 1inr1« m; jjne, tin* ntudy of ]• Mfr* ma< 
everj'wiiere well ni;jh fi»rg >lt« n*. 

It is noi»n«y ta«»k, e*»inrially in the presen*^ of the conflict- 
ing cunchui on « of eminent auth »nties, to determine tlie exact 
cluiracter of the fKirt^ plflyc«4| b\ (liarlemagne and Alrutn as 
the authors of the great eiluratii»rial revival which marks tlie 
dose of the eighth century. Some have held that the 
rcrlesiii»t ic wa^ the leading min<l; olheni. that all the origi- 
nality and merit of tin* c»»ti.N j.tion ir«'rc the emp<»nirs*; Init 

* rWvnImj; »<'tn# itltrnlioti *\ Aen 
ft4lfi«l»«4irtr«'« •|tti tt# IMP rj)t-f«>ftAt«t«l 

• ' AlK|4r». //•*' f»r / tt't ft*irt de Im 
y*mimtt mtAHt I* iK'm.t ■«/ .^ ^< /ff. It 


MNvKim r**#t)* 111 ••* li< • ••• . IWmi|>«i, 
« |ii« (.«i.|«f« ll«n«ai. XlillU 
<#/•. Ml* k\^ 

* km**t-t l^*« f-rmrr mtf \m riu4 

(•t|if«»l. I M i/i^itfo** r« t mfttf^, tt 

*"w^. !>•'« Matter, t^* fr^Jft t f*' 

\Um,k f r I. aM Tr .lr-M< V^nr •, 

!• • faf W M f««o'f*'U r*t m«t« ««l 
!*,• #*• ! .i«»t'«r^ \.. 'ill l.ft* l>««« 
t«»»l f*»"f«»<!* ;*'.'* I >* Hi« «•«• 
r< it*r»f««n. • f»^*. «litb «M^ !«• 


nm^ none tpptmr to have nifliciontly taken into ftceoont tbe 
*— V — traditionsl thcor^r that lay like on incubus upon the thought 
'■^■■^^ and learning of thetie agea. From that incubus it seemt 
natural to infer that the emperor, the norrior, the conqueror, 
would be the fint to set himaclf free, as he beheld athwart 
the wide torritoriea of his extending empire the bow of hope 
rising again to view. Tlio new clement introduced by him 
into the education «f his times is, indotil, in perfect keeping 
with the whole jKilicr of that master iiitvlk-L't. Thoiigli his 
oilmirerH have pruluibly oxag^mtod his attainmentK, it iit 
ccrtmn that they were Huch an ahiiio to cuiiKtitiite vniiiienco 
in that age, and odinitting that hiit CapitulancH pwe much of 
their literary correctnCKs to the aid of men like ThcodiilfuH, 
Alcuin, and Eginliard, it muiit be allowed that many of them 
in their mere conception attest the presence of considerable 
ifcifc culture. In Alcuin, on the other hand, judging from hii 
whole career, there ia little Huggestion of a mind of very 
uncommon powers. His letters, valuable as illustrations of 
the period, reflect a mind that can hardly be mistaken. 
A clear cool intellect, capable of receiving and arranging 
large stores of information, ' enough of a questioner to be able 
to unilerstand for himself what others imparted, not enough of 
one to bo emljarmssed willi any serious mental perplex it icji,' 
a cautious conseivalivo tomporamont, faithful to iuhcrited 
traditions. — such are the leading characteristics of the first 
scholar of the times of Charlftragne. 
B^i' Tlic immediate occasion of the emperor's action on behalf 

^•W" of education arose out of the glaring soleciains that frequently 
arrested his attention in the communications he received 
from the monasteries. In a circidar letter to Baugulfus, 
abbot of Fulda, he (alls attention to the grave scaiid;d 
then presented. The piotis and loyal tone of the letters, 
be allows, is worthy of all praise, but tlieir rude and care- 
less diction is such as to suggest apprehensions lest the Scrip- 
tures themselves should be scarcely intelligible to readers 
of 80 little L'aming,— ne forte siait viinor essef. in scribendo 
prudentia, ita qiioque et invito minor e-iset, q»avi rede esse 
dAuisset. in ett Sanctarum Scrij>t«rarvm nd iiitelUnendimt 



mpUntia*. Such were tbe alleged motives of the e mp e r or , — 
'pnStexiaii', a« Amp^^D reganlii tbero, 'qu'il metUti tn 
avanl pour rootivcr na rufurme/ (irvgorjr could not bare 
impeached theiii, tliougli there ii tufiicieDt reaaoo for con* 
cluJbg tliat tiio eiiiiien>r*s refonnii grvatlj exceeded what 
Gregory wouIJ liave appro? cd. 

Thoemperur hail al n*n< iy itiatlo the ac«|uaititanceof AhniiDtiw 
at Paniin; he now in\it«N| hint over fnMn Kn^Iatid aud fJare*! 
him at the heml of thi* Piihux* iichiM>| AUfu*hti| to hiM own 
court. Uiith*r AIciuii'm dirmtioim a M(*hi*tiii cif i*«hir;itiMii wa« 
drawn up which Imimhk* the iii<Mh*l fur the «i(h<'r ^rat iii*h*ii»k 
i*9>t4dili!ihi*il At TtfUr'i. K<»tit«'iK*lle. Lyoii^ O^nahur;;, atMl 
Mctz ;-»iiiiititiiti(tiiti which alily MUtnitKil the tnnlition of 
education on the continent, until Mi|ii'n«i*«hil hj the Dew 
method* and th** new homing mhich belong to tlie com- 
mencentent of the univen»ity era*. 

The work of Chat !enui};no nmjr be characterijicd a$ one of r^ 
both renovation and innovation: — renovnfion an n'pmhH] tlie m 
already exiAtini^ mcIuxiK innovation in the rreon«tnictiofi of 
iheir meth<i4lii and the ext«?i*iMn of their tearhinjj to i^lier 
cbuMH^ Hitheito the {•n\il«g«ii of the niona<»*tr Mhof»l« had 
been jeidou^ly confine«l by the Ben«'dictine* to their own 
order. By the efforts of (1iarh»niijn«^* ^bey were now thntwn 
open to the fcctnilar clerj^*. Tlie niona*tfrie^ in tlie new 
movement, ntade dtinnion raune in tlie work of inttructi<m 
with the catheilral i»r e|>iv:^>|KiI iM*hoi»U*, and a Dew imptiUe 
wan thus c<»tnniunirxit4.*d to i*«litrati«»n If we add to the^ 
centres of activity the ftli^^ht element of lay education tliat 

H* . p. 7. ' 

* *ll li4M K«efi MtJ ihmt tbr «Mti« 
tnrt|«la «lii*l« 4!'«i>rt f'fttf^arvJ fr<<4a 

* A full •«««tiftt c4 tl»* inHU»4 

rf l/*>«Mi.ri/«r* M t^m %l«itrr.4rtit 
i t^fffWM^mtr. It •!?, tlwak* <4 lbe«i 

U» «t ««!» iMtfb 4.««r* l« •' r^ i*it*m 
Ur t H» »»"!.* • *«4l/*H*t,t t4« th* 

|t««if«. c. i&i ••«. IK. 

14. ALCunr. 

njM- developed ttoelf in the Palace eehnol, where the emperar 
^■ v himwlf partidpsted in the iDstnictioii given, we shall per- 
eeire that a Terj general reform was initiated. The learned 
Benedictine, Dotn Bouquet, dwells with enthuaiosm on the 
benefits thus extended to the whole student class of the 
mmm It seems certain that, for a time at leoxt, the English 
j»fc ecclesiastic heartily seconded the plans of bis royal eniptoyor; 
hut Ilia zeal evidently declined with advancing age, and after 
fourteen years of service ho was glad to seek refuge from the 
splendour of the court in the retirement of the monostory at 
Toon. Gnizot has inferred that the demands mado upon his 
energies, and- the continual tension at which his mind was 
kept, Vy the mental activity and insatinble curiosity of the 
emperor, urged bim to this step, but there would appear to 
be sufficient reason for xunnising that the cause lay some- 
fcitiBii what deeper. Those familiar with the history of tbcso 
Jj^ centuries, will remember the frequent feuds between the 
Benedictines and the secular clergy, an<l it would seem 
doubtful wlicthor Alcuin ever ordially sympatbiicd with tlio 
extension of instruction wliicb Cbarleningno brought about ; 
hia heart appears far more wanuly given to tbo task of 
refuting the Adoptionixts and denouncing image-worship; 
it is certain that he viewed with dinlike the increased attcn- 
tion to pagan literature, which ncccKsarily resulted from the 
mental activity thus aroused*. The large dcHignfl and wide 

> 'Tot enim gentcs e OenDaniA Brgit nempiam ilatim trruH nnt 

dl BfaniDlD, «t ex Itali* da Alpes Jbbatei r( Kpiieopi. Pablita prr 

ntipcraiit, at pnblicc pcnilns evann- Epiiei'pia, -prr 3lBnoilrria max tlrr- 

rrint Scboir, et coram priTataram fiurant Scholit, eUil CanMlit, ali^ 

tA rraditioDem Gerioorum Ui £]>!- Saeularibiii idortntli$ dritinalir.' 

■oapiii' gexeerint Epitvupi, at Abbales BoaqufI, Srnim Galliearuin tl Fran- 

in Csnoliliii ad Monncbonim inolmc- ciranim Sfripl-irr; T 621. 
tioDcm. I'nile studia dclitt^celuiit * A full aeciiunt of tlie rontroT«nj 

in Kilia Episcppionim UuDustcriij- wilb Ibe AdopIionUls vtit be fonutl 

nuDqae clatutHi. Se<I quia tuDC in Iba ter? able Lift of Alrain \j 

qnoqnc ec lancuebanl, fan prislino LorcDZ, Prufensor of Hintory kt tb« 

ipletidori TPSliluere Caiolua etiam ['niTenitr of Halle, 1839. Tbe 

utfgit, directia Epiatolj*, de qaibni Itomao Calbolic writen bsve gena- 

■apra. YtnitKtum pr-ralarumhujut' rt\\\y aongbt to ebow tbal the papw 

Cfmodi Seholanim adilui Laidi libir fuuud anioiiR Ibi> t'ltrloTiuf^iiii DucD- 

■on tntt, Carolui publieat intlilail, aiciiU «fiaioHt iinugc-icortbip i» sptt- 

tt fa ipio regio Palafio aliat mill. riouB, jud liave allribukd it t« 

HIS unmnmr jun> death. 


▼iewt of the emperor rmi^ed bejrood the eooeeptioM ef the 
•omewhat ooU and decoroui eocloeUttic. Tboogh an efdefti 
admirer of the Ih CxvitaU Dti, Cliarleffuigne had other 
tjmpathice. tjmpatliicfl which stmngiy incIiDcd him to that 
•ccuUr learning no fttrongly condemned by Orogorj. By hia 
directions ttciKi woro taken fur the dillcctio i and rciri«iif« of 
manuscript's a care e^pcciaUy ncccftftory m»w that K|(Tpt 
uinlcr Saraci*n occti|Kitiun no lon;;iT fuminlK'd the papynia 
fur the nnc of Kumpa One of the niimcnHm k*tt«.*ni of 
Alcuin connints of a rL|>ly to two grammatical cpicntiuna 
pn>|iuundeJ hy the em|M*riir, — the pni|ier gen«ler of rmbus^ 
mud whctluT denftextris or Jut/textriM lie the prefenil4e 
f«*rm. The letter utti^^ts no contemptible fichohin»hip, aup- 
fiortcd an xU dt<ei<*ionM are by references to Princian and 
Dunatus; it is moreover an important piere of ev^idenee with 
re3«|)ect to AlcitinV knowledge of («n*ck, for It contains sercn 
quotations in that language, and illu»tratcs the force of i/i, 
in such Latin c«)ni{K>und4 as dirtdo, diruo, di'Kurra^ by tlie 
OaH^k lm\ 

Such cnquiri<*H on the part of the emp^Tur, tngetlicr with JJjJ 
those intert-Hling dtal«»<.iieM mlif*rem Afruin unfohh^l tu th-* J^ 
courtly cin:le at Aix-b-(1iai»el)e the niy*terie« of higic atnl ^ 
grammar, ufimi»taki;ib!y eviJi nee the pn *<*nceiif a npirit riry «-< 
different fn»m that of (Jr»'g»rt'y af.d altog* thi»r in a<]vaiice t#f 
tin* ccck*i»ia^tif-ai id**a« of the tim<*. It miglit MN*m in«le^ 
a^H unreal* mahle t<i iktip|»Mfu tli.U when the dark forebitlinga 
tliat d<*rived their strength frcm calamity and inTa«ion drew 
off at the uppnoch of a more lio|>i-ful agf, and that as the 
Lonai»n Uiundit] human life n^gaimx] tl e charms that 
U'long to th«'>le snd the *inki)omn. men might wr|| 
S'^in find hifttire t«* draw di-li^^ht an i inspiration from the 
|oge of Grecian and Itoman g« tjiu%. Such happims4 how* 

h0 9^ /it m I • U:'*f !.'• U» v^tk^ 
4r%m LiMi*« il n«4B lir •!»!; •! 



«f«r the KboUr waa not yet destined to enjoy. Tlie oootm oI 
ernit^ it ii true, had tended to veaken the belief which 
Qr^orj had held*, but there had at the mme time been 
growing np in the Cliurch a mibflidiary theoiy with re§pect 
to pagan litcratarc, which equally served to discredit and 
diMWurage the atudy. From connidcmtiona which led to an 
estimate of pngan learning as a thing wherein the Chrintian 
had no longer port or lot, olijcctora now turned to conHldera^ 
tions derived from the momlity of tlie literature. The apirit 
of TertulUon and Amobius long survived in the Latiu <}hurcb ; 
and the most learned ecclesiastics of these centuries are tc 
be found ignoring that veiy culture wliicli in a later age hai 
proved the road to ecclesiastical preferment, on ground) 
preciwly similar to those assumed by the most illiterate and 
bigittcd zealots of more modem times*. Tlius Alctiin himself 
who had Wen wont as a Ixiy to conceal in his Ik.iI his Virgil 
from the olwcrvution of llie brother who came to rouse tin 

■ It ii TMTiarliilileliow tbvantjri. 
iHitirin* ol liifiii'Ty BHKiime Hi llio 
iiiiDilii of Alniin > CDinpanilm-lr 
ttRO* Kiii iniliTinito cLnriivU-r : — 
•tjuinUlii viili-liri't niunft, i|>iip i|ii>a 
PmniiMii In Kviiii|9'U<> aiilo fliiiin 
IrR'intiir; qiiiHtiiin vi'to iniiiiiiK'tilia 
qwili'lM tiMitiuiitiir. (jiui'ilniti iliii]iu) 
iwnlniu mU Miiit, i«il (iitiin t-tMo 

n-riiMiima cnilnntiir el n'Kiinm 

Auiii'liriHti >t rrmlcIiUH rjim in hiuic- 
t<w; Iin-c tnim «rit noriiioimn jirrHc. 
culio, tioviniiiinu inimiiirnle judicio, 
qunn Mnrta EertpHia Into tcTriiniii) 
orbrfaliclur; univcrHB «rilirct civilos 
CbrJKli, >b iuiiv( — '' ' " - -^— - ■ 

J)f PIA, 


It i> 

, Ilk. 

now in mill pnKKiice, i-riliiiiw lliii 
Ri'»t ilrrmiti- in At.'iiiir'H «Hliii.n<, 
1h.w tlir vliruMOliiij ri( AuK'"-''"" 
(t>iitiiii>id to ■•« T<'|»'i>U.I »>' Hip 
•|i]iliriilion i>l liiH llii'orr HUB no 
loriti'r iiiKinlnl in wilU tin- mm* 
dioliiii'lnniii. In Iiih lirirl citiinicn. 
i»TJ on tlio A]KiTiil,v)wi. wr hIimtio b 
niii/iiliir nliri-iin' in iiiliri'riitiiiRiiiir 
pirli'41 ft tlifl )<rii|i[ 

11 llu< f.r7i.7l>i> 

taonkKtiTT si Miinlirr-cn-D.i', iuhI 

wo linil tlii> fiillnwiiia riniurliulili 
irnHKHKP 1 ■ (Jiiii'iitnijno Piiiiii, i-ivi 

ciwiint jnititiam vivit, i-l iirJiul* hii 
niinhni Iniimunnt, ii quml bmiuii 
rxt li1iiH|iliMn«t, Anlii-liTii-lnii (4 nii 
tiiHlir SiitHnii' rat; Tliii )>rii-f Imii 

•niTciiKivi'lj Kllrilnili'il tii A II I'll Hti III- 
Alciiin, and llaliniiun MHiiriiti (wi 
«(litiiiii ul llio LiHt iiiiiiivi], |iu1i1is1ii-i 
•t Col, AKrijir- VI n«, bIro Mimic 
CI lam), wliilu it i>|H'('ifi(-B a ilcHtiil' 
period of jicrBPcntion, ftnniBii" 'li' 
Katt ■■ tlie ([iinrlcr from vliciir 
Antieliriit would ii|>pi-nr, Rud nttf.!- 
■miiifi liiiD '' '" " 

■ lin. 

narked i 

I tu I^clniitiiiH, Iiuli 


• lliTWpr.1in, in liiii CusmmWi 
I>r lUiToH Mafloi, elr., uno of lii 
rnrliivt |iToi1iicli(ini>, Iinh wry hB|iiii1 
rluirnrtirii'pil tlila )iirjii(Iico of lli 
limi': ■ Vi'leribUR I^linii Ciraciwin 
liltiriB pralifera jirn-m'rtim irat (i: 
|H-rhlUi<iiitKiiiiDi C'jilB rvj opinio, '1^: 
dinin rHniln i-t i-iprcilBlicmiti C'hr)> 
tiann roiitiiniili'M nw, i-ii|iii- n"lN' 
ini)>i<'tiiliii innn-TP, (jub' b-Ii'Diip cjn 
rhIuU ao iMKtlltiuIini nudva eit.' 

Tfii cncBcn mix ncxmLE to rxaxx unauTrmi: 17 

•looperi to nocturia, lircd to net a btno apcm tbc impure 
clo(|ucnco' of tlic poetv and forlMcle bim to lib pipiU\ The 
{^iiAnlian of the library at York, who hod ouco to entbuiutti* 
ticilljr iloMCriUHl iU tri*AJiiirt'H\ etiiphiyitl bin later yi*xr% in 
ti*iitir)'iii<r to the vniiitj^ of nil |»:i;^ti h*nniiti;;. Tlte iliAi^n-nre 
we have tmti'd iu the npirit of the eiMp(*n>r aii«I the icrh-MUi^ttc 
IN apparent to the chme. Tlie funii*T with*lri*w, tw (at an be 
wart aUe, fnun the niixictici of fMilitic:!! life, to cleroto btinM^lf 
with jet ^riMter ar^lotir to hix litiTir}* KilMtini; the latter p«it 
o.^i«le bin mnihir haniiii^ to ctiltiv.ite more cl«r«4*ly tin* 
aiCi-ticifim of the moiia^ttTV. l*lie one tiii<«l while f<ciipii^l 
in n^^torin;; the text of the CmmimU; the other, worn <Mit by 
the auHt*'riticrt of the cloi«»tiT*. 

If wr pornue cMir onuniry lifyf»n«] the time of Alniin it 
it long U'fiire we fiii'l thi« tradition miti-rially iinjKiin^iL 

• 'KiiflTi* tiint iliviiii |»i«lir toLU, qM'un rtit. CV i|iii nVftit ftl«<«« 
IMV r.*fti* l>t%nrM<«% •• rm<i i« Vir* •{ i*Mii«* •*•« t«> •!«' K«t- rt.tit in«"l* n« »| 
pill %%0m |*i<!!ji f^ftiiJitt.* .|/«uiMi niN* %/n*^. S«ti |*!u« rU* r 'Uor ^*.*i| 
I'lf**, Mi/iH, « *.«>. tic tioitfir It* )*«ir J«- U i*ttii«->4r. 

• • llli* itM«ii.t« icUrttm irt-«tipA I'n n* j »»ir imi |« <• %^m'4trm r^^trfti 

r«trti*ii, ii»-r iHn»»'l* •ki«t«iM". It tn*>ft |iti 

Qa. I'l II 1 t*l«l rro m IjaIio i^n* >4il •ti* 1* • miHI* •Imn tpi 

Jlittti4titt« m «irl«*, tt«iitU^«i* ^'fi •••H' titt •••iHi*««il ti* 

l*r««.«%*l <f****l'|UMl tr»n*itii"«l U %•«* l.ifi*4iiM- II m%mtx tlx^.i Wi 

r\%tm t.*«iitii«. |i*-*l •!« •• ••') illiir* tfiM I'Mti •!• 

||«l<i.ii I* «i « i|ti.«] |»<|if|!iit U* 1 1' •! •• •!• s..ii \t .nil. |ii««|«> li 

till li'i* ^t ••i|« fiH* tt«itt r'l «it %*li«M, il •»• ntiUl k l^ 

AffM « l«i« f!'i4«. «lr. ui •«•(/• <l«t« r> 1 tnlriil •'•I lairv, 

i^mtmm *tf /*••»''»« iiu$ rf S*§mrt,§ «| ii|^t « •%•* r fi' i^^ «!• • |rMr«« •nf 

#.'iyI^*i.ip iT* •'••«•■• ••# M .-nr, € I •lli. •* t'^n'*- <« • •! •^r»i»«« , i| il..« I ! *0 

Till* «)• •! 'it !•' ti I* if r"*ir*4 «t->j;- rl-f 4*- |>««i-l, ••■• j 'rr •!• U tii4i«*-« 

CV'rmt**!; in l1>i »rf m1 tn"tiMral»«'«« JUravl. I 4 •! i> •4i«fr-« |«Mtr «|-« 

««| i)U'lM«r« ll.«» •♦! I;i Itrtik | •/ in |« r*. t.tor i%e Uittw, I*-* «|»»i Uriit'^ 

• nil r* iu«*'!i- •• •! !•> AV'i n art An- •»!!• t|'ir f« r* •• f»r fM • r i-i'fir, 
•1'<flr fcifl Ar. • !• . tl.« <i.l« itfi.k %ii t •. I f« 11 N rt*!i. j'u • •! tt. !. |i # 
(•'hi-r*. ( !• .- I- 1. ( ).r\ ••*•*• m. ati I <| .1 ■ '• | n- • 1. ii'i. t »( at <• 'l !•« !• • 
Athiti^>. :• I .« I* • »ii .♦•« If. il It- .r t. , • 1 1 » I • r.l*. tl« U •■« rl * 
!•• «»J». fill I. .•■■': ft* ),* rr ^ . i , I ..*-• «hi «•»••• ■ •!« |'» r !•« •! 
ft* it i« !i'. ' II. f. t • .». .»•»-.' . II -1 I \ •■ ■» '1 f .11 1 1» r I '.t •••.''•#•• • 
«>f I* t !>•• ■ i«. I « !' « I. -I r f N.' • ' . • ' ; • •• ' •* « •! ii.« )• 

III* \i ••«►,. t .•« I, .»»'. r .t »• !•• I . t 1 1 \ ♦• r t ti.i.. ".If • ^ 

^••fk. •.'!• I ' I - f . I . • \ «■ !.| . I . t • t • •• • i< «>•••« I A 

tlt.'tit<r.i*»if|.||.' It><<' I f->- . I. « ft '«|-' -•••'•««• 

f|.M-|»l •■«,•-.■ I' ! .f. . r< t •/• •• • ••, «!..•• i»«** 

• •• 1^ t" • •'• '• »• •« • I I* • •*•' * ''•• ' »•»• M 
ilt«*tii. |. .t!ii-.f«k« ■.■.!• <■ fil-» *• 'f ■'. '•I"»"« 

• ' •! i 11 I 1. I . • • \ I , , ^ • I '. • • • ■ • i I 

l«l'l.»1«, '•■ ' •• { , Il I.' »• » I I • I 

•I r-1'i«'i«t* ll ».* «.< I .r I • ^1 • • If <•• I » I < I • ir il 

•« 111 d^ • >•» •! •!• ur», U ••'f|-» t.. I I §• I. ♦'•-•■•■ ' J • M ■ • • , 

• «•!*. »■ ii«l ,4 t|i« III.. !<#■•. '. 1« « •• f ' . . . r . / ' . • 11 .*! • • 


, Babuun Hannu, hU most illustrions pnpil, while diotin- 
' guiahed hj his ability and leaming, still held it, as Trithemlus 
observes, the highott excellence of the scholar to render all 
profano literature subservient to the illustration of the Scrip- 
tures; and, up to the eleventh contiiiy, the great prepon- 
, dcrance of authority, including such men as Odo, abbot of 
Clugni, Peter DomioD, and lanfranc, is to be found ranged 
on the same sida Even so late as the seventeenth century, 
De Banc^ in his celebrated diatribe against secular learning, 
could point triumphantly to the fact that the rule so 
systematically violated by the honorable activity of the 
Benedictines had never been formally rescinded. ' I grant,' 
says one of the ablest apologists of the culture and men of 
these ages, ' that they Iiad not that extravagimt and factitious 
admiration for the poets of antiquity, which tliey pmbably 
would have had if they had been brought up to read them 
before tbcy could understand them, and to admire them as 
a necessary matter of taste, before tlicy could form any 
intellectual or moral estimate of them : they thought too that 
there were worse things in the world than false quantities, 
nnd preferred running the risk of them to some other Tisks 
whicli they apprehended ; but yet there arc instances enough 
of the classics (even the poctit) being taught in schools, and 
read by individuals ; and it cannot bo doubted that they 
might have been, and would have been, read by more, hut fur 
the prevalence of tliat feeling which I have described, and 
which, notwitlwtaiiding these exceptions, was very gineraL 
Iiludcm and, as it is sup]>osed, more onltghtcncd views of 
education h»vc tkclik-d that this wa.H all wrong ; but let us 
not t;ct down what woh at luost an error of jiidgeiiient, as 
niura stupidity at>d a proof of totid hnrUtriMm, If the niodeni 
1-cclesia.stic should ever meet with a cn)i>-earod monk of the 
tenth century, bo may, if he pleases, laugh at him for not 
having read Virgil; hut if he nliould be led to confe-is tb:it, 
though a priest of Christ's catholic church, and nourished in 
the Iangungi<s of Crceco and Itonie till tlicy were almost ok 
fiunilior to him as bia own, ho had never road a single png<! 
of Clirj'sostom or Basil, of Augu^jtine or Jerome, of Aiahrosc 

Limns Arm m dbatu op cbamuouom^ 1§ 

H — if he sbonld eonfen tbU, I am of opinioo tbftt jrn\ 

) p r monk would erots himiolC and make off wilhoot 

I* behind himV 

LI three yean after the death of Charlcmagifte an 

it t ehange wot introduced ia the Benedictine tcboob^ 

1 m ilam, by the decree of a Council held at Aix-U- 

( le, were no longer admitted to mitigle with the obUUt 

1 1 nkt, but received instruction in neporate daaica. g^*g 

and proliahly without the precincta of the roonofiterj*. Thsi 

dtntinetion continue«i to exiiit dttwn to the twelfth century. 

and may be regardt'd oa favorable to learning in lo far that 

the moNt leameil Inxly of tlio pc*rtud still continued to direct 

the education of the nccular clergy. 

In the iiolitical disturbances that ensued upon the death n i_i 

•tab «# 
of the great ciiiiK^rur tlie |Nroiipccts of learning liecame again •«*<i* 

cl<»uded, and the wliulani of the time are loud in their ^^ 

laments over the palmy days of the past, ami gloomy in their 

prngnoatications of the futtirc. The few who still essayed to 

impart to otlicrs somciliiu;; of lenming and culture, found 

llM'ir cflTorts iifu*l<*^ii uhilo a liarUirous soldiery plMtid<*riHl the 

monaHterien, .in^l tlio cotmtry rr^mmlol with the clang of 

arm«*. J/eu ! miiera diet qutim infelicior nox Btqttitnr! is 

llie eiclamation (»f PajM-lia^ius Ratlbc*rtus\ The deacon 

Morusy in the dismal strains wherein he deiicribi*s the fvlt^ 

ilisasten that followinl u|xm the divinicm of the em|iire, ^*^^ 

rfintnuts the pn»4|x^*tji of K nniing with the bright promise of 

iIm» time when (1iarU»m.i;jTi4» giiidt*^! the fortunes of the utate. 

'11i«* culli%aliMti of )i tt«r« i« nt an < imI/ writi-s Liipti«, bittli<^p i*^«^ 

t #^ m ^ 

«»f Kcrri* r« *, to Altwiim<i, 'mlio i% lli«rr wl»o d«*e« not di*|J<»r\? »••••• 

' TH MaiiIumI. lk,fi A #*-#, If. 177 t\** *-- r.ntvr.U U*r f<#vfft«l •li»tti^ii.<« 

' • ri •rl»*4A In m<Ka*tinA imti h •»..♦• ..f.|. r* 
J tUtit^f tiiai ««<#ftin 'lui •4«Uti •niil ' * T»»^ **).••! ml T-flf* •ffmr* la 

I* «t**trft*>ftim. «|*t| •# me •«*, ^rl »rl«A»it .«.•» iniiti* 1<» tl«r r«H U«« 

• *;-f»ffi |<«rt« m l«M^»f»iin •W"f^im lt»%i«c /^ •*. ♦•I «»l I r» !•.••. U^ •I4»4 ; 

• » « fntt|<lc mf 't U' H»"t.*«ttf . • If •♦• |l» •• '« • ♦»!» I *•••.!..*. f t«>||w Mr|»««-| 
•)• • tr mc !•>« rr • l|>i*. fvt ( * I »«t ftt I T >• »i.*>l« tl«l«t.««, « M sUv 

' .' . • V. I r «*■< • M t M • r in I >• »'•<* * **•. r* ••4 I'* !••«•• »4* r»l<J« 

' «•'• <>f /.V/.^./«*.« Jtm0 1.9 |r«t/tf • I .14 tf tfU, llljl#, Ti4. Cllt. 


nmm.^ the unskiUulness of the teachers, the paucity of books, tho 
want of leisnre'f In a letter to Eginhiml, he complains that 
thoBO who cultivate learning are regarded as useless drones^ 
and seem raised to unenviable eminence, only to be marked 
out for the dislike of the crowd, who impute all their failings, 
not to the common infirmity of human nature, but to theii 
literary acquirements'. The letters of this prelate are, 
indeed, among the most interesting and valuable records oi 
the period. We prefer them greatly to the intensely edifying 
correspondence of Rabanus, or even to that of Alcuin him. 
self; and it .must be owned, that the literary activity they 
reveal is in singular contrast to the representations of those 
writers who would have us regard the period that followed 
on the reign of Cliarlemagne, as one wherein learning suffcrtHJ 
a well nigh total eclipse. At Ferriercs, at least, its lamp 
shone with no uncertain light In a letter to one corre- 
spondent, we find the good bishop begging for the loan of a 
copy of Cicero's treatise on Rhetoric, his own manuscript 
being faulty (viendosuvi), and another, whicli he had com- 
pared with it, still more so*. In a second letter he mentions 
that he intended to have fon^'a^dcd a copy of Aulus Gellius, 
but his friend, the abbot, has detained it. Writing to anotliei 
correspondent, he tlinnks him for the pains he lias taken in 
correcting a copy of Slacrobius*; to a third he promises to 
siMid a copy of Ca»sars Commentaries, and enters into a 
lengthened explanation to show that a portion of that work 
must bo regarded as written by Ilirtius. In another lettit 
we find him begging that a copy of the Institutes of Quin- 
tilian may Ih3 sent to Lantraninus to be copied under hi.* 
au.spices*. When we consider that pursuits like these have 
been held to add lustre to the reputation of not a few of th«: 
most distinguished ])relates of our P^nglish Chtirch, it seem." 
hard t«> withhold the meed of praise from a poor Freneli 
bisht>p of the ninth century; unless indeed such labours arc 
to be regarded as creditable enough when associated witli 


' KpUt. 3J, Mignc, Vol. ncix. < KpUt, 8, IMil. 

» Kuht, 1, niiil. A Euint. r,»> 

» lU.l. 


the dignity and luxury of a modem biihoprie, bat qaite ,^ 
another thing when carried on lunid the ahuint of war and a *'''-*^ 
conntant struggle with povert}-, and where tiie writer liaa 
eveiy now and then to pau«e to tell of the cruelty of the 
ih»Idiery, the iic:inty provision for his hou8eh'>Id, an<i tlie 
tittenhl apfKin.*! cif liii iier%'antiC 

In the fierce aiita^^oninui of mce« amid mhich the Carlo- 
vingian empire l)p»ke up, we find little to illustrato the 
pn^grests of nlucntioti. Tlie light mhich illuniinevl the court 
flif C1iarlem.igii«\ aihI liii*:eri*<l mund that of Ctiarhii the 
lUM, die<l c»ut in the U-ulU ci*ntury, or took r^Tuge with the 
ji!it*n race that nitiil in Amlalunia. Li*aniiitg utill revulrt^U 
r«*utid the nioiKu^ttTV and niaintaitiitl itji exrluMY«'ly th(*o> 
I'-^iral aHHiM'i.itiMii.H. n«»w litlh* it thuh pnn*pi*ntl in Knglainl •<■•>• 
ist Mitfieitiitiv att«*!«ted hv the evidrnce of our kinjj Aelfrid, a **•*• 
utotiareli with !*>trnii^ points of rt'^ mlilance to ('liarl«*nin«;ne, 
til ho dccIariM] that In* kiirw ii«>t a Mii^le ni«iiik Houth of the 
Tliaimic c:ip:il»l«' of translating tin* I^atifi M-rvice. 

Having now li«»HfVir r\atnin«-«l, ►fif!i<*ii'tit!y for our pn*- 
*iit purp>M«. ^hal may U- t« rnnd tin* r\t«rn;d hi«tor\*of the 
•••hication of th« •*•• oMiturirH, y,k* iihall pPKi^-il to <»nd«av«itir 
Ut AM^*rtaiu. in turn, th»* nal value and amount of the M*auty 
Itaming thu» tran«mitt«d t«» tu**Tv \io\ti (u\ tim«-«. 

The fart that h* n* at oti4-«* nrr« ^tn our Attention in, that 
rIiIK* tfliKMtion na<i Marfwd and curtiiilt-*! hy th«! view* of 
<'n* tlH'«»!«»;^i;in, th«» Mili%?;i!ir«» an*! tin* faohi*»n of mhat mi**tw%M 
u t'l illy t.ui;;lit %n f. to A ^:n it «t!«*nl d'-ii*!-*! ffMin p*»;ran •••^^* 

• ufi^ *, arnl t!iu* |»M-«rv«d in A \»fy r« »n ifk.ililo niinn«-r ''•"^ 
tif traditioti*! of Itiitii i»i «MiItiip* TIm* Mnluiiry in^triniion 
siipirt* I in tli.' Mr. !.!!■• A',;« «». pri«»r t » tin- tv.lith onttiry, 

V i« .iItn«>ot «Mtir«Iv f«''ifil« I **u xhv %»«»rk« of fi\r nul1ior«,— 
^►r 'in*, M irt:.ititi*, H-* t)iPi«», ( * i--i«Hl> r«i« nil l*i<!"r«i-, — of 
''■•»«• M. If* i.itiM« 111 I |l « *?ini • %k« ii |» ■ ,' »•♦. '^ • o*l.« f % t "liri%» 

• tit vkiit. r« )*Mt .i!! (>>f tif tu>»ot ptrt -liv.^'i ««>iii|i!!' r^ fr*>tu 

it*y t^MiN ri<>r tJi»«L rii.d It»!ti»n tf« !:• ♦. l-« • »• In' 
••ni'tlv nti.|. f ••.-■! \Vi ij.i n* i .i- • •• tl. ■! n » otli« r author^ 

• • i.« n :i't\ l»Ml »»iiiipl\ til it tin *•• a'ltli'** u- fi- ill*' »«'l.«>i'l- 


nmi^ books of those times. A fiir irider range of i«adii 

«— V— ' ondoubtedlj Mcessible. Here and there a mind of sa 

energy aspired to overcome the difficulties of the 

tongue and gained an acquaintance with some of its n 

pieces as veil as with those of the Latin language. 

Latin Fathcis were not un&equcntly studied ; the Vulga 

Jerome was extensively in use; Aristotle, as a log! 

survived both in Augustine and Bocthius ; PriAcian 

Donatus are oft-quoted authorities in questions of gram 

but tlie limits within which such studies are to be rcgii 

w having directly influenced the individual are so norro 

to render it especially necessary to be cautious how wc re 

them as fonning any appreciable element in tlic cduo 

then imparted. 

^IjI^l The first of the five treatises above enumerated Tepro 

'^•'* the school histoiy then in use. Orosius, the cum] 

Ozanam remarks, was the first to condense the annals o 

world into the formula, divina providentia aijitur mwnd, 

njiBM^ homo\ It wat in the fifth century that Orosius wrot 

•Jj;^ time when paganism was loudly rcitemting its accusa 

'*^ '"■ against Cliristianity, in order to fasten upon the uplioldc 

the new faith the responsibility of the calainitiis that 

then falling so thickly on the empire. Aiigustine's elab 

vindication was but half complctc<l, and he called 

Orosius, who was his pupil, to prepare n briefer and 

Ifw «ill nil io qurFlinn, daima tor dain'R Di—rrtatinn mr I'Ktat 

thrm timeii ■ somevUal InrRcr liters- Phiiotophit KatartUe mi Dov 

tnre tlinn U nsiialty wliniltvd : — 'A Siit:lf,p.i6. Amonu UiO moKt i 

tmtcf l« f-poiinm da inoyen itso od CKtimnteii ot tbe Idtmiiig o( 

■ In l«s Qiiottions KnturclK'H ilu ugtM tlint oi M. Victor I« Cln 

li<iin]ue, le poi'TDe de LucK'cG, ](-■ Dotin'uble tot ila hi|>bly fnvi 

oa%rai;ii pliilusoiiliiigaca lie Cie-'ron, tbiiruter: — 'Qnnnt A la litldi 

Ivn livTcii J'Ai>nIi^.n>nKilt'L'iuiKio(liirc, liiliue, mu I'rn fuUsit qn'on nc 

de llrucr, elc' Brtbmhn Crilinurt A!\\ telle i|ue noim I'livoiiB a' 

•■r L'Agr rl L'Oriyinf 4rt Trailue- d'liiii. Cs mot tnip k'tf>reiiKli 

tivnt iMliHfi irAritUitf, vdit. IH^M. ployu tlo reiutiMKOiico den Ittti 

p. at. Mr lit'wcii {Hill, of I'hilmui. KsiiruitVaiiiiliiiiirTnaxlvllmil* 

yhg, II r&) <Ii mill * wlii'tlicr LnrTi'li 114 tUrtu'imt jwSut rrniMitilf,pi>Trr 

n<iild i-iwmIiIv liHvii Ihi'Ii txliMlid Ui n'/hiirnl V"i»' «'«rl':' ''' 

ill m .'It-lii^ivrlv Il..'.>1.-Ki.'i>I mi xi»-. Lill-'falrr ilr U France dU V 

lint liolh Iliil'iiiiii- MntiniK niiil Wil. ti:-m, fiil-^h. I :>.'>:>. 
liain ot CiitirliiK i,f]war to liiivu been ' Oniiinrii. Itiiturg »/ CiTlli. 

Umiliar Willi iwrtioim, at Uitxt, it in tht fi/tb CtHliirn, I hi. 
bis grvat jH.iiu. tiiv Cliurlta Joiir- 


dreamtUiitiAl reply. The ' Historm' are aeeonlinglj a kind n 
1 of abstract of the Ik CifUaU.—th^ tbeory of AagmtiM ^ 
wtUi<Kit his phikMophy, his eloqucDOO, and his fertilitjr of 
exponitioiL Such was tho origia of the volumo which after- 
wards became Uic school history of the Micklle Agc^ and it 
innst bo owned tliat it is a dcctdoilj sombre treatise. It waa 
tlie object of tho writer to shew, over am! above the exposi* 
tion of his main theory, that the times were by no means so 
eicepti«mal as to justify the hyp»tiiesis of paganism; that in 
all agim tho Stipreme Ruler liad, for His own inscnitaUe 
purpiMM^, trieil mankind by calaniities even grcsiter than 
Xhimi that tlio |M«Htilt*ii€e and barbaric invasion were then 
inflicting*. Him pngen are cuniM*«|uently filled mith famine*, 
pla;;U(*^ i*aft1i«|uak«-«i, Hi<*gi*s, ami liatthii; the tragic and the 
terrible make up the volume; Uiere is no place for tiie tran* 
quil days of the old lU^public cr f«>r the sunny age of the 
Antoninea. It im ditlicult u«>t to infer tliat, when generation 
after giiieration waji l«ft to derive its knowlitlgo of hist^iry 
from »ucli alMM»k, tlieefTixrt could ncarcely havi* In en otherwlna 
than too nitich in aMi*>nanci* with idea?! like that whirh has 
aln*aily ci»me ko promimnitly InTore un. 

Tlie tnati«M* of Mart in nun C<i|M*lla, fk XttpttU mUJiyitw nm 
ei itetxnrii et de Septrm Aiiibm LihcralihHS Lihri Xartm^ is sa 
the work of a native of Ciirtha'^e. a teacher of rtietork and a it^i 
eontem|ioniry prul«ably of Ormius. It is chanicterim*d liy 
the manneri»ni< of tin* Afrimn rhetoricians, an obiciire 
an*l furred tlirtior, a tiir;;i<l rliet<»ric, ami eiMlhiM artificer of 
meta|»l)or iin«l e\pn'««fftion, Mirh a^ lidon;; to the •chn«4 of 
A|i|Nil<'iMii nnd Arnol»iu». IIm* Ireati***. a* the title im|»lies, is 
raU in sn a!l<>^<>rirnl form: ati«l th«* fir^^t two biai^ks areTW( 
sInvMt en* l*i*i^(')v <!« vut«'«l to a Ntnicialiat ti*<|iotM ai>cmmt of 
the c« l«'l'f.iti'»n .if the niarri.i;;*' i»f M«TiMiry ^ith PhiUihipa, 
the g»Ml h ^ «»f •»[»••••* h. Ju|ntrr, ^ani«-<l l»v tl.e omrh ^, d»n- 

I Tt^f^n* tn.m •*in\ irmlttAf<m At*9 (Ki«*« tif-«r>li, l.if»*i» l*^/')r«'«i*i4tT« 

Ihr •! •. r II. • I '* **\ i' •• •t*%* • %' ruttf tl>«t Ih ] «• -I U f' f* 1 1 *. AtoJ oonUI 

#• trii !»»-|.» atf* 1 .• M-i •« r* ■•, -f •■.»•* • t»-l !•• ■ » '% !■•*♦ 9 t tt, m •••l*^ . 

V«<» i« • *••'.•( • \< r« ft . t « •! M I •:<! t • U>« \ «i. Ul tirvut^tw^ t4 

fm0l»mmm:Mt^i"«^. txtx f*'T. ttMtU-r i»<«rU f>«l( •'• i»f (try r«f litf 


rMk tchgs a mccUng of the godx and domandn the rightn of natn* 

^— ^ ndlzation for one Lithc-rto but a mortal vir^n; and Mercury 
assir^ to liU bride Rcren virgins oa her attendants, each of 
Khom is ia turn intnxluccd at tbe niarri.ige banquet and 
descants on tliat particular branch of knowledge represented 
by ber name. Such is the fantastic allegory wherein was 
transmitted to the universities of Europe tlte ancient division 
of tlie trimum and ^uadriinum'. To modem readers neither 
tbv instraction nor the amusement thus conveyed will appear of 
a very higb oiiler. The elaborateness of tbe machinery seems 
out of all proportiou to the end in view, the allegorical por- 
tion of the treatise occupying more thuii a fourth pai-t of tbo 
eutiro work. The humour, if not altogether xpiritless, is 
often coarse*, and when wo recollect not only that such allure- 
munts to learning were deemed adniiiwible, but that the 
pop<ilurity of this treatise in the lliddle Ages is probably 
mainly attributable to these imaginative acccKsoiies, we need 
Bi-ck for no fiirtlur evidence rcsi>ccting the standard of literary 
taste then prevalent, 

w»t- A course of study embracing Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, 

Aritlniiclic, Geometry, Muttic, and Astronomy, would appear 
a far frum contemptible curriculum; it is only when wo 
examine what was really represented imdcr each of these 
branches, that we become aware bow inaxlcfjuately they 
eorresponiled to modem conceptions of such stiiilics. The 
di-linitiou, indeed, givt-n by Martianus of gratiimar, would 
lead us to anticipate a coiiiprebcnaive treatment of tlie 

Mar. subject, — it is not only liacte tcnbere leijereqve, but also 

llie luud uDorcii of Silcnag lulcep 
uiuUt liie iiiniirtice ot hid dn'p 
polntioHB. Till- ki«H nliemith lllie* 
(iiricn witiili-H ]'liil<il<>f;iu ix licnnt 
lliri>ii!!lH>iit tlu' ntM'tiiM?, NiAil chim 
lilriii.nt it riiprrel, (ariital. Mm 
«r SiiU-Lnry {m-v MrluliKjIiMt, T.lli, iv) 
tnigih'iilt.r illiiHtniIcK bin i1iivtmn«ii 
by A n-fori'iiFu to IIiim nlii^iry m 

li-mrnii.y. i". (>n)wiiitl]r [nlllMinT tll llJK KpK. /.** 

' A« «[■. .-Tim tin llii- fullnwinj! Miny ImitiliiiiU-M fun. Ti'iimrkH 1A<n 

Hiifliru:-'!'!!" |>« llmt fxllow MHlIre, cluiitiniii.t lour jTi'trrciiPO A 

U,-,«> 11.0 .li«-..iir.u ■1,-tiv.T.^l l,y ),r«rtJ,..mH C. flhK. F.oirt >.>.'«■- 

Anllmirtit^ ore wii'piiful to 1< in- .,_ m^ 
hrrti] (ri lij luuglitLT, i>C(:aiiii>nci1 by 

See Hnnn'sn, Dr la 


if. Phil III -Xn. Tl.iii 

JlTi»i..U ol 

' wvimt liUtnl nrlK U 

lo 1mi (oiiiid 

A.W.I^lim■, /V Or,h 

:«-, e. 1:1. 

miM «.«i1.I tI..T.ti.r.. 

H.-. m t.> ■« 

<'mir slicn Im Rltril'n 

tCH it< lilTt 

rr<'l'ti<.ii tn Cnpi'tlii. 

S..0 U™,! 

iii..'1'ii Iiitr.-!. tu.-lrf/i 

I^ylra lla. 


ii(« nUH^-jtre jmJumiue. The Kinal infumialion i* 
,irv iti t'n- I'xtnitu-'; tin- pliy-i.-l-vy »{ nniciil.iti-m, it ia . 
, 1-. .«. i! w-1 witli II M. J-iiflriiri"- (iit-r mi.-l.l 
■ .im.-!. I'lit til-' writiT nii|H-:ir4 to rxiifiw '|;ity 

I i<-..iit'r.. I. :ii).1 it iii.1ii-:tt.-. Ili» n'-^'Wt iriu «I.i<-li 

t..', *i^:;^ :M.i tt!r.;,.l_v f.!!. ii ll.;.t. in tr-atiii- ..f il... 
|kiM-»i >>i .i<!\<'r1", til.- alliniu it.iil in-p'-ne 
I... .s. .i..,r:.'iv,- r,,.!.r I>...!.,ii.-, U.-I, !..> a,..) « 
..|.|.^^:., ,.>.- Ii> il..' ».- !.:>«.. th.- .■:■! 

:..! ^ ..I :l< ..I.-I iff.n:,!;-,. „•-.„» :,imI }.r..,.,.:m. 

■'.. : .^! ,1.1 f..mi!i..r t.. -t.i.|. i.t-..f -r Wu.f.Iv. 
!••■ . ■',. i-l.'i...i. ... kill.!- ..f I...-;.mI i.r,.j...". 

I ! |,.ii..i, ,i. »..',,i t.. l!i>.t-.ri.- .s.i,i.i;i,» tl... r iL- " 
-.,..:. . : t',. ..M.t.iV.r, .lii.iU ir.i,.(V.r...;,'.-.;v 
.. !,.iM !,!. «rir;i,_- t;. .t...lrv .-..i,,;-'. ..f li'Tl'.. 
■ ... ;....T.,!.l,_v. ;. -I,..,t .:,.[- i..rir..rii IMt.y *it!. at. 

, ., ' ■ . '.t.1.-:..r |).',! m.rl...l. 1,vt .\.^.r..■\ ii..d 


wng- few simple propontions concerning the properties of lin 

^v — plane figurai^ aiul Bulidfi, towards the clojie. Some of t 

blundcn sro amusing. For instance, Fliny had sta 1 t 

the Northern Ocean hod been explored under the a 

■jmimi of Augustus: Martianua, by way of embellishment, tells iis 

25Jj^ that Tiberius had, in his own person, traversed the wlioJo 

**"■**■ extent of the Northern Ocean and bad penetrated to the 

country of the Scythians and the Arctic regions, mat/no dehino 

permensQ ad Sc^iicam playam ac rigentta uadaa usque 

penetravit, — a Htatcinent for which we can only account by 

suppofling that he hod Gcrroanicup in his mind. Other 

tletiuls too numerous to bo notice<l licrc, have a certain 

iiituruit as illuHtnitivc of the knowlolge and nonicnolatiire 

of tlic tintes, Kj^pt he refem to, in common with othur 

geograpliurx, as Jiaiw caput; and, while admitting that the 

H»urfVMiiflheNili.-uruuiil<iiou'ti, imikoM mention of a tnulili'ui 

thill it tak<;H itit riitt; in n laK<: xitimtud in thi; lnwirr ti-^uui* 

of M.-iiinlaiiia. In NjR-iikiiig of Syria liu roli.TH lo thu Kma-w, 

bit I'aluntine and (Jalil>-e I'lill Ut Kll;,'•;l^st the iiamu nf 

**-««■ CIiristi.iiiity. The KcJeucc of Aritlimetic in discuwitfl cliiofly 

with rcffionce to the propf-rtii.* 'of numbt-rrf, mystically 

1^ interpreted after the miinncr of Pytling'ira.4. 'Muhic' iticliidi-s 

the sulijcct of metre, tojjetlier with a brief account of haniiuny 

■ w iB j . and of the Kcale of miisjcul notati<>n. Atitronomy in treat'.-*! 

according to the troditiuii!* of Ptolerny, and contains a hh"r( 

account of the heavenly Ixxlie^ an<l an inve.'^tigation, by far 

tlie miMt philosopliical portion of the trcatixc, into the 

Hupposi.lI lawN that ri.-gulate the movements of the piaiietii, 

the Kun, and tlie mimn'. 

1 It is, hnvcm, *Fry rcmarhaMo ijtiMtar, plnnetir quotiilio tnm hn* 
Uuit i<u|>t-rficinl >■ Ih tiii tri'uliiK'iit »t qilain ilivpri-itnti'o ■rriiiiant rireiilu- 
■^Iruii'iiiiy, lir jct ii|itiiiir>i li> Iinru nun. Niim r» Iih niillnm Mn* rt 

Iirniipiui lliiiiiy. Till' [hikhhi^i iIo- (ju<nI m t-ni, duliiiim tioti cHt, tmi- 

■rnr<>|niilri(ifin:-~'lJr>t (.TiH-niUliT ttini nrtoKinU treii eireitW lialura 

■ruiiilniiiii'nnrtiiiiirliiliMHi'liiiiFtBrtiiii ttuli-iii, prr ii"''* Ait ab finliitilMi hi 

rnrnlnio tkh' Ulliiri'iii. Ikv (r"i ni>n tiniiiiiiin rulil, niit ali fmli-ni in 

Iclicn'RiiiIiniiiFirciiliinim: iriiinTinm Rulilhiulrin liiiviitii rnMuvntur ; i"^ 

Diiuwli C('iitn>n cone imu diiliiiiui ; tt vuHiIi'in i|iii)i|ic niiilationiii cuninK'at 

illwl srncnile K'|ilvm oiiiiiiliiiH ibl. circuliinim. SiiliiuuniSiiInraiilicliini 

fFrt«n>lain,<|aoili)itiini miiiiiliMrjiM- nnnuram Imlwat, Mum iliii>fc« rlr- 

ilcm ilu«lui rvtntinuu tuiiiuuiU tur- cuJ'M tacit, luvia tltlla duwlecki 

Bomiiua S7 

It*. M IiM Uvn conjccturvtl", tlic alU-gory prciiciit4M] in tlic f« 
Ih (V'<Ji>Affi*i«rt# mUtsfjphitr of Dut'tliiiiN won concvivi^l in ^^^ 
iiiiiUtKiii of till* nlIi**^itru-Al tn-atiiu*tit atlupU'il by Martiatiu^. i •»■ 
\)\K' iVt «kiiul«l al«<iio |><»iiit t«> a wide ami carljr pi«[Mi!aritT 
(•.ktiKxl tiy t!ii' hittiT writer. — ii {loimlarity hir^rlyattribulaMc 
W \\w |»t\«!itirli«iii (or al»n<l;;riii<iits, uiakiti;; Hinall i!«-iii.intU 
ill t)u* liiiii* aihl attriititiii (if tilt* Mtnlrtit, wliiih clianiCti n«<«l 
t) «t( ^*i-iii nli* n;;i'. T]n* ri'piita'.ioii ari|iiirLiI liy )Lh tliiiM 
iv^li uu'ii A iiiorr sat i •« fact nrv !«'iiti<latiiin. Tlic lunici-^ ttkn 
viliuh tiiNtiiiL;«ii**lu(l htat<*«iii:iii r<'iitl«Ti'«] to p>*tfntT '■■■* 
li.ivt* Ut II •«titVi ri«l. to A t;n at i'\t«'tit, ti» |i:l^« fri>iii fiTnlIn tititi 
iwi ^iiitr ill it iiitii««i<iii nt liariiiii'^ Hliirli, ill tin* tliirti • ritii 
\tiiiiii\. «i<i}i i<«iili<l }ii'« pliiloH<i]>|iii :il tri-:iti-««i aritl l«il t«i 
il- ii fiiiji ii.if n<- ii« ;.'li 1 1 trftii lli:it tiriit'; liiit it i^ fiilv 
!>• I !•• It i.ii iiit.i r tliit !•• I^M tliiii^ Wi> •lUi* tin* tr;iri-rii:--'< ti 
ii tkii t.i till • r.i. o| ill. it • !< In* fi* I'f p«.ti !v (iri • k tli"tijlit 

«•'•! it I (f •! .iii-l rii rjtitif itit |li<iii^''i it fi..iV U'tMk .tittm if, 

%i «« iliH I. -■ t • h ■ I fittii I* V Ii* ir!\ f Ik »'•!• r* rti i.riiii;; ir-tflri* ti 
tl il.i \ii • .1 liiii |.)(i!'. "'iiliv |'»- 'f.'l liy \V« •• rii K'jp jit-. 

Il Hi ««iiii«iri tin »r. »!-i- liv li-pi Mifii. Willi fli.V i.fw*^- 
Miiriii.i^ Ml «li ill |.fiil-i''I\ iii« Ijii'- t»» ilii* I'liji t!i.i? • ■••- 
|i .'^.ll• iti ft l<>r A i!i!}' r< fit ari'l a Ii:/Ih r c !.'>«. Tin- 

• • I I ,• ; • I . ■ f II ■,'•! ^ *•• I *• n» •' r« I f»» -Ii 4 I •••? r- "-i-^ 

4 till • •! , I .r ■ Il I ■ •!• •• '1 • • I • !■ • A *• • • • • 

1 >|.' I'f- <|.liti It*. f.*l> •••!»■. •f«i-.*>I-| 

I < 

I * I .• I. , M'. / # ' *•• • i.r» "f I * I«t i*". *••*»•#». 

|.»/ « 'I'-" ■•"ti.*" t. •(•1<fitri*k 
' ' • vr I I. • f ' • » *• I ^•l;' ■ - 
r • , 1 * .1 • I •'. I *•■•.•••!••. "i m 
• , . %}».•• I • . ' ■ • I • I • 
. . ... \ * « , . J ! I . I ■ I ■ • ', . f |i .• 
. .. . .. . \? ' \ .■•'■'!■..-. .1 It 

I . . ■ ' . ■ .■•■'.• 1. .1 

• f 



I . • • • ' • « . I ■ • : 


> ■ • • • 

• I • • ■ • , t 

I • I • ■ • » I I - N • ■•! 

I ■ . . • ' ' ' ■ J ■ . 

■ , ■ . II-.. :♦! \« ■ . ; . . .J »«^ 

. ... M.I \. . 1 1 I.I '■ 

• • • ■ • • I, 


Aiitbmetic in UartiannB, for instance, occupies but 47 pagca ; 

• that of Boetliiui, in two books, nearly a hundred, and though 
to a groat extent founded on tbat of the Greek writer 
N icomachus, is far from a mere translation, being accompanied 
by numerous and useful additions'. A yet greater disparity 
is obeervablo in tlieir respective treatises on ifusic The 
treatment by Buethitu is not only far more comprehensive, 
but gives to the whole curriculum a dignity Bud coherence 

^ a]togt;ther wanting in tlio workH of the other compilers. The 

d somewhat trausceuiieiitul inutliod which he adopts is, iiidiKMl, 
perhaps the tnio explnnutioii of tlie prcfcn-ucc accorded to 
other writers on thi-Nu Huhjects during the Middio Ages. 
A pniwiou for niyhticinin, in an cxpuKiti'jn of thu exitct 
■dcncett, only tende<I still further to shroud such learning 
from the guzo of the ui.'Ophytc, mtr will the moth-m mathe- 
uintician tind much to rLjiay his curiusity in the diFtciissiou 
of the Imniiuuy of niiinUrs, t)ie giuenUion of the pcrfc-et 
DniiilH.T, and numlmrs pruportional and the division of 
uiii^iitudes ; nor in the siniilur method of treatment to be 
found in the five hooks on Music. T)ic trnnslittiou of Kticlid, 
howL-vcr, — that is to say of the first four Iiooks, together 
with tiieir figures, and a few additional propositions on t)ie 
pn>iH'rti(.-s of the rhombus, — is of n mure prn4'tical charneter. 

rt The rewilts of moili-rn criticiMUi wnuld Kccm to hiivc 
i-stuhlished the fact thsit IJo.thiiis cannot ho ranked nuiou;,';inily\ Tlie tJHolojficsd Inntjws 
mice nttrilmti'd to him ulTurd KiitiKfacday evidrnii; thiit they 
arc hy u •lilhrint hand, in fact, his <li;>i'ls to fnmiliarise his 

«)>i<'ll )ll- .li -tKi..^^ Ill<- Kl.l,10 K.ll.i.-<'t) 

A. M. r. K l:,„tl-ll df Anlhmrtira. 

l™r- »iliHi.i> t-i ill iii.Til-:— •i|imin 

fii-.^lli.. I"!?. 

(irillinii lii'iiiii) ii[iiiil llrfniw Sim- 

* ItiH-Uiiitm 't ClirUti Airlrim illf 

UurliMK ililiKi'iilcr •'I^ihikiiU. Ilinid 

NMIN fnh-r miillif ri nhitu rjlieilur. 

14 (]«• itiituui of s ni-iiit ciliti-r. 

iti<li) mni^iillriM vir II-HtiiiK Ijiliiio 

S<i] Jt, C'-o-l. Phil. I'd. OI'biiriiiH, 

lit lwlilBiiii.1111.' J>rArlilM' lM.rr, 

(ticuuiiti'Ti'il Lin tniG OK > niiuljT in 

Mxffw. LXi 1*17. OtI..r (..lli.«rni 

tile euit^ i-t .irtliu-lox}- nKniiiKt tliB 

ot Uuctl>iiii> HL-n! l!cli\ U.rUrt, an.l 

Ariniio. lUou^b HoiK'tiuuiHl \.y Itailir 

JoLn of SBli«bar)-. For ■ sn.-ciiH-t 
amxint uf llic iin-RrrsBof the wieucB 

up to tLi- tiuiu ol JJoilUiu* »«! C. V. 

lirub. Katijk-opaedif, ii i13. 

'.r|,V,-y. ,..1 ^ 


trnirt. seventy years of age, Cassiodorua effected Ina retrent to the^ 
■— ,— ' monastery which lie lia*l founded at Scylacium, tfl enjoy, far 
.n beyond the ordinary tenn of life, its tranquil solitudes antl 
Bludious repose. The Gothic History by this writer ha* 
sun-ivcd only in the abridgoment of Joniandcs ; but hif 
Epistles, a seriea of state dociinicnta prepared under the 
direction of Tlieodoric and JuMtinian, that may be compared 
to the Capitularies of Cliarlemagne, are a valuable illuatration 
of ihfse tiniei. His manual of education, liowever, with 
?irtS! *'''''^'' ""^ °'^^ ''""^ chiefly coucurned, — the De Ariilius oo 
Discipli'iis Liheraliuni Literaram, — is the most meagre of all 
the t<.-xt books of the Middle Ages, The four Nubjects of tha 
Quadriviuin, for instance, arc each dUmuscd in two pages ; 
tlie object of the writer being apparently rather to give 
a general notion of the subject than di'fliutc instniclion 
therein. In his general arrangement ho obNcrvcs the same 
traditional division that llnrtianu;^ and Boctliitis follow; 
and the example of the latter, wlioHe genius Cossiodonu 
wannly odniireil, is to be <li8Ccmcd in the adoption of 
Aristotle and Porphyry as the chief guitlcs in tlio book on 
DialocticM, — the only portion of the work that presonts what 
can he held to constilnto a real titudy of the Kiihjeet, An the 
proihii'tiiin, then, of an aged tnonk, hut of ono who until long 
p:ist his maidinixrN prime had mingled much with the world, 
l"inio high iidice in the state, and heW iiitorcourxe with tlio 
fi'tunioht Kpivitji uf the age, tins work siifTicientiy slicws how 
the triuliiions of [vigan cidhiru were dwindling before tliu 
cuiiibiiie<i inllueiiceN of a narrow ihiiology and l>arlKiric rule*. 
The wave of the Tjiiinbard inviuiion Kpent luiulf <m tho 
north of Italy, and while Grcg(iry was predicting from tho 
Kulltrings uf hie own nation the speedy dissolution of all 
things, a contvmpurar)- ccclesiastie, in the neighbouring 

■ikI lip Oreaiion of AriHtolle, wilu ranecmeDt of tbe work ii by M 

kdililiuiiB, B roniiJrmUle portion meuni inetliodicnl, and eltraueonl 

Lrinu IwrroTPd 'rom Apuleiu* and in>ittcr«BreintrcKlnGcdn'1iicb]'ruperIr 

Ux'tbinR. Hia aiiHljuifi ul the Or- lulling lo Bbctoric' IHnu MiLtmcl, 

f^iiun ilocB uol iiiclnda tlie Supliiiitie Introd. to Artii Logita RadimenM, 

lU-luUilioiii, Liut coulniDt a tcpunto p. Kxix. 

miDotVB. n 

leniniula of Spain, wit engaged in the oonpiUuion of one of 
be moet remarkable educational trcatiaet that belong to the 
liddle Ages. Tliough at various timet a full participant in 
be tufferings of tho empire, Spain had enjojrcd since the 
sitablisbment of the kingilom of the Visigti>tlis comparatiTe 
uimunity from invasion, and Isidorus could survey with h 
i cslmer eye than Gregory tlie portents of the time. 
)csoended from Tlicodoric the Great, son of a governor of 
'srtagena, and hinisvlf biiihop of an important see, he appears 
Itave pawtcd a life of honouniMc activity in freedom from 
Mlitical disquiet like that which n;^tatcd the coimtry of the 
tijtitificate. Con**idcrin^ the period at which he wrote, the 
venty book^ of the On^intM, a kind of Enc}xlopa*<lia of >&§ 
jcnnl and profane leamiug. uiu^ct undoubtedly be regardctl 
4 s remarkable arltieveUK'tit, a la!»(iri<»(*M collection of such 
m^iicnti* of knowledge ox were »till «li<«>vcniblc amid the 
;loim haAtciiing to yet more intetiso tiarknesji. The traili* 
ional claiMiificatitin of the Mibj«*ctA is retnine«l, but the 
rratment nhewn no a«lvanco on that of prcccling writi*M. 
terbal eiplntiationfi of iK:i«iitif)r t« rfii<( Mill m^^'V ^\\\\ \\\%i 
ft'CtAtton of rUariK*'* aii«l preri^ion i!i. ••it<|«iir«T afl* r r« .*il 
iioiile«lp». *llow cotiipl* tvly/ ol>M.Tve* Mr !>'wt>i, 'tlie 
!i.'i;;iiiftcent luliotirM of ]|i|»|«iniid l*to|ciiiy lunl vani^licd 
\km% the iceur, how uU< riy their riMilln nnd nMllMnU IijmI 
v<nl away, miy l>o t*^titii.itol on finding Uidore, in lii« 
!M|i(cr (»n tho ^ix4 of tli«* »*iiii mid the tiioon, nnablu to ^ivo 
H»ri pri'^'i'M' iiif«*nimti«>ti ih.ui timt llie i»Ufi i* lrr;;i*r tli.iii tlic 
irtli, find the ni«»«ni K«"» tin* fcunV* Y,\*u tin* •j«.irk 
iiiii'li Liil illiiniiiictl the dark |"^t^c of 51.irti:i!itj<i ;t{»|Kar« to 
.4%e explri-*!. 

Ill one n '•ix^ the OrinlneB pft^iit a novel siid notlri alilr ^««ri 
iture. — llie inc«»r| Miration (»f the rvm.iiii« **( pT^'nn l«aruiii:; »»••« 
ith tho new tlicol«»;:y. Of ihc twcnt) l««»k<i into wliirli 
>*v arc dividetl, <»!ilv tl»o fir*l ihift* ar« ih-votid to tl.c 
Ejects tn*ale«l by th'Hic pn-odinj* c*»fnpil«:n wh«»^ trf%it;»«-* 
uf occuptcti our atteutum; the rvmaiiiini* t^vculttn Uiti^ 

" liTVM (O. n\ lltii •f r%^lm0^7. II OK 


oomposed of An extraordinary medley of medicine, theolog 
J natural philosophy and natural history, political histor 
Architecture, mineralogy, and husbandry. The good bislu 
wouiJ seem, as though prescient of the future, to have song] 
to jjather and link together wliatever still remained 
kn-jAlcdge and learning before it should be irrctrievab 
1- »*t. Of the numen*us historical and theolojjical tnictates 
I-il'^ni-s — many of them mere reproductions in an abridg* 
f . rin of his hirger works, — we cannot here stop to siH?ak ; b 
^h.i^-ver will examine them for himself will have forcib 
l.r.^M^'lit home to him, in the l>arbarisms, the soItMUsnis ai 
tli..' p'Vt-rty of tlK»ught whereby they are charaotoriscd, tl 
ri't' state of learning in times when such productions con 
fc ifH:v to obtain for their author the reputation of being tl 
n:*.**. acc«Jmpli^he^l and erudite man of his age. 

Tlic more elalK»ratc researches of later writers h ivo tcnd< 

fc^Ti-jwhiit t«» <|ualiry the rcpresc'Utations of Robertson, Hnlln: 

in : t. titers who have slli^litlv exai:;rerated and sevjrelv cri 

^ ' : t!:* i^'h"r;ii»' «i nf llie.^o tinn's; but tlure still reni.ii 

- .' • : •/. cvi«!criCe ;im|ily to w.irraiit two general>it»ii 

- — 1. t!. it ilf litiTatnre of the sevmtli, eiijlitli, ninth, ;ii 

' • . '"i oiit^ni N wns sc.u»ty in llio extreme; -, tliat wliativ 

* .::.:!!' cvi^tvd was almost exchisivt.!v i>*o«l bv t 
4 *. : -v. Nor i:i there any ;ro(Kl reason f«»r believin'' tli 

• -.• C"!.c'M-i«»ns Would Ik) niateriallv in<Mlitled evin if 


•- .1 i r'.>V're to li^ht the wliole literature to whieli ti;^ 
*■ \"\\\^i< u^ve birlli; it wouM rather seem, that in wl 
r :.. i.iiS We have enou-^h to ilhistnite tlie real value a 
■ *. - 'iim-f wliat iut* lle»tual aetivitv existed, and are c nahl 
» : ■ '1 -. '.ru. with but little (lillietilty, the toreh <»f learm 
1' *-j. ' in >\i*-x»ii.n from the hand uf eaeh solitary rum 
V." . luaiiitaiii* •! the race in that darksome ni;^ht. In t 
r*: •':,.:!* \\\\^^ hav^.* just <K'cu|»ird our attention we can trn 
fr ii:*Virice. with t«»KT4ible distinctness, tlie transmission 
•; •; !:•.« r.irv sjiirit. (>ro>ius aj»|MMr> rrproilueln-^. under t 
!'i. :.:!i" of Au.:u>tine, the tlh'ol.^^iial int.rpn tation 
1 -' T\\ M.irti;inus, as su>*.jiniiig the traditiMiis of jui; 
r'; I)4xthia.s as imit; tin^ the alle.:ori«'al treatnn 

pufvu^ br Murtianot, and, in bU torn, iniipiriog Cmiodonn^ 
wlio. in bU monafttic solitude, feebly retnice<l tbe outlines of 
Wamiug markctl out by his more briUiani compeer; wbile in 
Kidorus the •n^ndM>n of Tlieodoric the Great, we seem to 
T\^\^i<«o the tr.inHtiiittcd influence of both these illustrious 
Ministers of the uuMtt cnli;;litcned of the Gotliic conqueronk 
Wtth the uanic of Nidorus again, is an^iociated, though in no 
tiuo CMun4*\ii»n, one of the n\o*i importint movements of the 
Middle Ai^*4, — the n<-xt proniinettt feature that airests our 
attention in pun»uing our enquiry*. 

Atuid the iiuni« n*\i% Ie;^«*ntK pretended miracles, and 
other iuMntioUN which, as ( hrintianity U^came corrupt, hid 
tSo hiinplunty of the faith fn>nt view, it is undeniable tliat 
t npiiit of un%\nH*ity f;rcw up, that, combining with the 

• i|vr>%tition of tlio n«^^\ Ucatne a prolific source of imfurtturr; 
All- 1 in tho uiiitli cent II ry >vo are pn-si'ntetl mith a notable 
iwinpliiuatit'ti i»f this tni'K wry, in an iHort at inve^^tin^ the 
«lrtta ««f l%'»n»«' with tin* npjHnrance c»f greater oiMpleti*- 
ii ^« aud Ct>ii!inMit\. u)ii«h, (••iiini* iic!ng in ilrhU*nit«* frnti*!, 
u!«'U «x|Mn«lt«l intii **u* *'( <!»•• I'l"-* •i'ji'iti"* lit- •'.irv 
t'l^iMi'l till! tif Wof!*! li.iH .111. Am«»I' ; •*!•' Iiilii • • •••< 

I !»»' hul »'"lli •■!* •! ihi* »l"<'i*i»»ii^ iif tlii« ( *litiri h «»ri inun* r *«i% '<■-•• ^ 
)kiiit4 HJitiii^ \'* di^« t|>Iin<\ (• n iiioiiji ^, and x\ir limit. i**"n^ 

• I tin* iiMtlifiilV att.ii liili;; t«» tin* *\'^\'* !• nt vi Trd i»f}if»-«. T'm* 
^••lU rtij.*\td ;i d«M|\«d ti pMtat h»!i. and niu«t «till 1*0 
i« ^ ird d a<i «>l hull \alMi* l>\ all V. lio m ck to f«*riii an ACt umte 

«(.iii.iti (»t tii< ».iiM'tii»n atl'-ril'd by tin* nnti«(Miti«>4 of t]i«r 

• !i III li !• r tilt* oii^< i\ati<'i'« cf th*' Kohiioli In «>ri«% 
!•«)••« I h>M« \«'r tliM triatJM* fnittl to ^itl^Iy tli<.* uiiifUofa 

•t> I 1^1 ii« t.iti*>ti. for it r<*rit.)iiH •! l:*,t!f that c**-i!<i 1m* i|U<>ti-t| 
'ii t.k\Miir if !li.' r\r|ii*i*«* pr« !i Tiijoli"* of thf K**tiii%h ••v } 

"!i'l, ni«»fi' «-|N«iMv. lli«- iliiMi tif •«»i. trinity, th«- *.inbrok<*n 
fi.ilitt<*n Itiiii til* tiMii" «'f St 1*1 t«r. «*»-mM h«»t U' tra«>fl in 

i li « |i.«« ^i.. a .ii«. ••.!«•(••( I* • • ^* •f •.'••« .i«'.t< •••« ♦ 1-1*11 

' %ii* •■►•I*, il I I ?<• f I't -i-i I ft !• » »< •« -.». * I* • V. irp. 






the Fal^ 

its pages; for between Clemens, the first bishop, aLcl 

who died at the close of the fourth century, the d 

the bishops of Rome were altogether wanting. But 

the missing Decretals were forthcoming. An i 

individual, who styled himself Mercator, brought 

what purported to be a completion of the work of 

inasmuch as it supplied what was necessary to consti 

work an entire collection of the decrees of Rome 1 

earliest times. No traces of these documents were 

able in the Reman archives, but they were ne^ 

accepted as genuine by Nicholas, and also by Hin* 

eminent archbishop of Rheims. It so happened tl 

time when this pretended discovery took place, 

bishop of Soissons, had appealed to Nicholas ag 

deposition from his sec by his metropolitan, Hin( 

was however doubtful wlicther he was justified i 

step, and Hincmar loudly affirmed that no such 

appeal existed. It was now found that, among t 

discovered Decretals, was one that established the si 

of Rome over all other metropolitans; Rothrad ^ 

stated in his episcopal chair by Nicholas ; and llin 

compelled reluctantly to bow to the authority h 

incautiously admitted. "When too late, he cn( 

indce<l to call the ccenuinencss of that anthoritv in 

but in so doing he only incurred the inevitable ir 

of havinj: thus acted merely from a selfish re<:jard U 

sonal interest and aggrandisement. From the reco< 

these Decretals the Papacy dates an iniportant ac 

legislative power, and the attainment of a posit 

which it never afterwards receded*. It was not u 

' *TLc Fnlse Pccrctals tlo not 
merely asRcrt tlio 6ii]»reninry of tLo 
I'opes^tbc di;:iiity auil i»riYilr;^o8 of 
the Kisljop of Home. Tbcy coiupre- 
Jiend the \sLole dojmiatic systt'iii and 
discipline of the Clmrcb, the whole 
liicrarchy from the highest to the 
loitest degree, their Fanctity and im- 
munities, their periJceutious, their 
disputes, their right of appeal to 
Kome. They are full and minute on 

Church p»*operty, on itfl 
and Bpoliation ; on ordi 
the Kaeraments, on baj'tii 
ation, raarrinpe, the Ki 
fftsls and festivals; the 
the cross, the discover}* ol 
of the Apostles ; en I 
holy water, consecration 
blessing of the fruits of 4 
the sacred vessels and 
Personal incidents arc 



ceuturies later, in the year 1151, that Gratian, a monk of 
Bologna, published a new Decretum or Concordia Ducor* 
dantium Canonum, wherein he incorporated the collections^ 
by the Pseudo-Isidoru3 with numerous alterations and '*** 
additions. Ilesj)ccting the amount of actual fraud contained 
in these labours, some difference of opinion has prevailed. 
It has even been pointed out, that Gratian, by the insertion 
of decisions unfavorable to the pretensions of the Romish 
see, has sufficiently proved the honesty of his motives ; but 
it is certain that the scope of the entire work was largely 
to augment the privileges and authority of the Papacy*. It 
seems difficult moreover to understand, how many of the 
canons could ever have been regarded as other than apo- 
cryplial for, in the sixteenth century, Pope Gregory XI II 
(loemed it ex^K^dient to expunge those parts which, however 
ihey might charitably have been supposed to have deceived 

to give lifo and reality to t}ic fiction. 
Tho whole is coni]H>si'd with an air 
f»f profound piit y and revtrtnco ; a 
^poeioasimrity an«l ocnisiuiiiil bounty 
in the morul ^nd nli./itMH ton**. 
There are ninny nxi«»,,.r of -• cniinirly 
sincere and vital nli ^'inn. Ihit for tho 
t«K» niuTiifi'st disi;^!, tlie njr^Tandi-e- 
r.Hiit of the St'o of lC<»nu* and tho 
i..,';,'randis( nunt of the wholr rlir;^ 
ill titilMirdi nation to the Soe of Home ; 
hut for the monstrous ifnionmro o£ 
history, Tvhirh lntraVH itself in ghir- 
iu;; anachroTii>nis, and in the utter 
tonfuhion of the ordir of evtntn and 
the hves of di-tin;aushed mei.— tho 
former awakening keen and ^ealouti 
»«u>|»i(ion, the hitter mnkin^ the d**- 
tM-iioTi of the t-j>urio!i'in "^s of tlie 
V li'ilc easy, ch'ar, iinfra;.'ahl \— -tlio 
^al^o IheretriN mi-'ht htill huvo 
Maintained th« ir phu-e in irc!«-siasti* 
«..l hihtt»ry. They are in.w ^'i\en up 
ly all; not a \oirv i^ raixel in their 
f.ivour; the utiiH»-<t that is diaie hy 
tlu)He who cannot siij-pn •»»* nil rej^"* t 
lit their explosion, is t(» palliate the 
ru'.i of the fof^.T, to call m q'Jestion 
< " to weakin the in'Iut nee i^hirh 
tliiv had in their o\\n dav, aiul 
tiiron;!hont the lutirhisti^ry of i'hris. 
tianity.' Mihnan, J lift. I Mint VhrU* 
t tntit'jf^ in lUi. A writer of a dif* 

ferent school olMicrrcfl, *TIie great 
(litTireneo l»etwetii the use which 
1 line mar mukeii of these decretals 
nt:d the advuntU'V to vhieli ti.ev are 
tun<«d hv Nieholas i^ that the hittt f 
huilds entirely n}>ou theui dntrinea 
hitherto unknown, and which could 
l»o t.upj»<>rted hy no «»ther pr«M»f, 
wliereu^ the archbishop of llheims 
quoh s them only as funii<«liin;; an 
ndditi'Mml cvidmee to tnitlin aln^ady 
(minted, and even withi>ut thtin easily 
eNt:ibli>h<-d or defended. In the 
latter case their (reuuiueDesH could 
be of little imiH>rtance, nor was it 
neces^sarily incumlxnt on the writer 
vho thus u«ed them to have Fatiffied 
himself without any doubt on this 
{toint. But when em)>loMd for snch 
a pur]^''e uh that for which they are 
aihann d by V*\**' Niehoho", nny defi- 
cit ney in the fullest proof that they 
Were iNith ^< i:uine and of authority, 
FuhjeetM thi I i.thor to a praver char;r« 
than even that of tlie nioft culpable 
n< ^!i reiM-e.' l.ifr and Tinu* <»/ JliM-' 
war, hv the h-te llev. James C. TricL- 
ard. M.A., p. 'SM), 

* In one passajrc dratian even 
poe-* so a* to a>M rt that the Pojie 
i^ n«'t l>otnul by the cunomt of his 
predecesK<ir»*. S<*c KKury, Truitiim§ 
JfU'-ourt $ur TUiftuirf Hcelrtiatti^ite, 



tbe original compiler, could not sustain the scrutiny of a 

^^ m^ more cntical age. 

The Decretum, as it passed from the hands of Gratian, 
consisted of three parts: the first being devoted to general 
law, and containing the canons of Councils, decrees of tho 
Popes, and opinions of the Fathers; the second comprising 
ecclesiastical judgements on all matters of morality and social 
life; the third containing instruction with reference to the 
rites and ceremonies of the Cliurch. The Dccretnm was 
received throughout Europe with unquestioning submission ; 
Pope Eugcnius III marked his sense of its merits by mising 
Gratian to the bishopric of Chiusi ; and Dante, a century 
later, assigned to tho monk of Bologna a ])laco in the 
celestial hierarchy, along with Albcrtus, Aquinas, and tho 
other great doctors of the Church ^ Such was the work the 
study of which known as that of the Canon Law, formed 
so important a part of the training of students at tlie English 
universities prior to the Reformation; which still survives in 
both Protestant and Catholic Germany; and continues to 
" demand the attention of all those who seek to grasp intelli- 
gently the history and literature of the Middle Ages. Other 
additions have been made to the Dccretum since the time of 
Gratian, but it is to his labours and those of his predecessor 
that are undoubtedly to be referred the most unjustifiable 
pretensions and accordingly the greatest misfortunes of the 
Romish Church ^ It was on the foundation of the canon law 
that those claims to temporal power were built up, which 
gjive rise to the De Putetftate of Occam, to the De Dominio 
Dicino of Wyclif, and to the English Reformation. 

•frmiof Somewhat earlier in tho same century that saw the 

completion of Gratlan's labours, Irnerius began to lecture at 
Bologna on the Civil Law. Erom the time of the disruption 
of the Roman empire, the codes of Theodosius and Justinian 
would appear to have survived as the recognised law of the 

* ParadUo, Bk. X 113. p. 8; the Intter writer, tlionjjb a 

' See a Lecture by 11. G. Pliillimoro Mtaunoli Catliolic, atlinits and doplures 

• On the Injltience of Ecclctiattical tbe eJTects of tbo excesHivo prttcn- 

jM%e on European Lepiittation ;* also Fions of the Decretals on behalf of 

Butler*B JIor<£ Juridiae Sub$ecivtr, tbe Papal power. 

ifi or 

tftxtatiUR. 37 

tribuiuJt that exited under tho Gothic, the Lombard, mud r 
the Carloringian dynamics; but the kiiowle«lge of them was ^ 
Yerj imperfect^ and indecil almost Taluclcwi, nave n% rrpre* 
tentative of a px^at tnuiition and marking the path that led 
to a more pyHlomaliHOiI ond comprehenMre theory". Tlie 
•chool fonndi^tl by Imeritis mirk^ the commencement of an 
iinpu»V(Hl or»l?r of thin;;*. The vtates of Lombanly were, 
at thi« time, advancing; with rapid ^tridoi in populotiiinoia 
hihI wvalth, and tlicir inrrcnnin^ c<»nimerce and manufa^uros 
il«*nnn«K*d a ni<>ro di'finito npplicnititin of thi* ailminblr coil«* 
tlu*y iiilirritrd. InKTim acconlin;;Iy not only f*x|wiun<l«^l hw 
tlio Kohiaii c*^\o ill It^tiirift, but iiitrodn«iil, for the fimt J^ 
tiiiu. tlio |i|.iii (»r ntiiiotritin;; it with bri<*f i>x|il:inntioti« cif 
tfnii« (»r K« n(i*im*<i, tlirM.* annot.'itiotiH Im^ih;; known under tlio 
I *inio of ^I••^^(•*•. Ilin rxntiiph* w.!** fMt|owctl in th*« next 
d'Uturv bv Acrur^iuH of KNinnro, wlia^o lnYM»ur« mar be aw 
ri*>^n)«><l ii% ronstitutin^ an iti in tin* bi-^tory of juri»>pnid«*nce. 
l*he pirriM^ valiio of tbi* MTvico n'udontl by thcM* gl«»^*iTt 
ka<ilM«ii till* Knbj«^t of fMiinr (b«(put*^ ; it in not dcni<<d that 
t!u\v pi«»in«t«d .1 inorr circfiil an«l int»lli^r»nt itit<'rprrtMi<»ti 
itf tbo «'><iK\ but Hoiiir b.'i\c* rf';:.'ir<l«'d it :i« n ^ruMiH v\'i\ tliat 
tlioir laUiiir* AlniiH«t *iU|M>rn«-<l<-4| tin* ^tu«]y of tbo trxt. Tlic 
c^in«tru«'(i>>n«M| by an r*riiiii<*nt ;rl«»^'«iHt np'*n an c*1»rure 
iir Joiibtful |Ki*>*«;i;;i' !M*cani<' itM-if th«* law, and to ma<itor and 
ilt^'«nt tbo \*iriou<i ihtoqirctAtiofin a M-parate and important 

It >»a« n<»w bowrviT that juri^pnidrnce lic^^an a;nin to i^ 
<*^%iiuto \\% till*' »bj;nity a4 a mj. nr«* an«l a pr«»fi»»ion, Tlir j'jj 
liHK" »l tin- 111 w \* .irniii;; fcpfi .nl r.'ipl'lly ibnMi'^b KMr*'!*-, aiMl 
iIh' »bM t|»l« * **( Irii* rni-* «!ifl'«i-r.| bi« t< arlnii;,'* in SiMtn, 
riiiiKt, .iiiil (Mrniutiy. In it* prt'-^'n** b<»»«\« r tbo •cini't; 
li«ki*l tlio ail !■>•««< iftil Ai'l til it Iml atti ri'bil thr r.itiofi law. 
.11*1 It 1% titniikaMc tliat a *tMilv iilit«Ii %ia% U*f«»rr l«»n;; to 
Uvouit' tlio ►I*' « lal ful'l of atitliiti>*n to tin* i c\ b %i i%t ic, 

^•••tiltit* •!♦'• l-ii •« I r •! .fM ;i •' V #-f l> •■ ••rrr fh«f<«f. r»it*l'»4l 

«*fiH ut.l (.Mr *'. I . t. r .• •rit f.r II •'. 'i/r«r/.'.«*^ W'f iietkUmun%* 

l« '«ra t» /• It \\« r:h l.tUn k I t t) n.' ri • r. 
^««l«*t«%, 0*»fh* il# «l. • /. «i«<A#« 


•hould, in tLo first instouco, have bcea viewed wiUi such 
- disfavour at Rome. Already, Ixsforo the appcfu-oncc of the 
Pandects of Amalft, it had beca forbidden to the religious 
orders, aud the interdict was renewed in 1139 nnd again in 
11G3. In 1219 HonoriuH III baniMlicd it from the univcrnity 
uf Parift, and tliirty-five yeun lulur Innocent Jll rc-lteruUxl 
the |>a]HiI aiiathemiu) in I'l'iuici;, Kn;;laiid and Spithi'. in onr 
own ctiiiiitry tliu Hii[H-rt(ir ck-r(;y ii[i}H;:ir U> htivo iiilvi)etiti;il iti 
rece|ition, and it in iini|ii<:Hli'jnabIe that VncarhiH K-utiiriMl on 
. (ho Pandec-tH at Oxford'; )ii< wiw «iI<!HCoil however by tho 
inunduto of king Stiith<'», and John of Satixbnry iiifonnH n ( 
that many of bin own ttW)imintanc'o ro;,'firiIefI tlio ni;w h^arnin;; 
with so much animosity that tlicy ilcHtroyod all the text- ' 
books that came wilhin their reach*. Tiio opposition of 
Stephen ia attributed by 8clden to tho monarch's piTsonal 
dislike of archbishop Theobald, who had Bhc\Nfn a disposition 
to introduce tho study. This state of feeling however was 

> 'CeK proLiLitioRa Inrrnt Tuincs. 
Chez noa4. au centre ct uii Doril. so 
propngeail en iBoguo Tul^-.iire In i6- 
diuliua Jrs coulume*, qui, una moinn 
Turiie* r|uc les ']iTi<<ion< [^cnlnlea, 
ient presquc la millinje i ' 

tut II 

e \in ili-<| 


Ces lu 

paji do coutmncs, furciit (I'vilii:^ 
cumme rniNOn •T-crilc, el, diiiiB h:S 
puf H lie droit romain, atl'iptdcn einiiin« 
loit. Kn IjinfpirJor, rllcK i^laicnt le 
dmit eomianD dii [invH ; TuuIuiihc bX 
UoDlpcllier Im cniH-i;niuiiiil, mi-jKe 
■TDut riii-titulion lip k'lir.H nuivi-r- 
MiU*. L'etiiIc dc Vbt'i/i, i|u'i>ii ainil 
todIq jvttf^nei dc ccltc iniiovntion, 
■'mburJit }uiu|n'il rceunnaitre 4 I'tiu 
el A I'nutrc droit mie iinrte iTffitmi ; 
lorsquVllc diit, en IH"^, tvti-a U 
dft.liirii(iun dc nculroHlv cniro Ifs 
papnuti'a riTutcs, fixer li'S eoiulilions 
necesnairea pour piv!.L'iUr Ir.t \iiiii- 
ficcn, cllfr cxit;rii iiiihfli'nniiiient ilrn 
itiqncii et den chela d'orjrea le LToda 
de doctcur ou do licriicii! toit cq 
tb^lui^ip. roH en droit enn.>ni'|no, 
foit eu droit civil.' V. Lu Clerc, 
Etal dft Ltltrn im W SiMt, p. 510. 
' Vftcarins nppcnra to liavo laiight 
*t Oxford about the year 11J9, al- 
niMt eiacllj the soma lima that 

(rratian pnUinbed bin Deeretmn. 
The ract tlat Ynrariiis langht at 
O.tFord bna been ctUleil in qiiiidioii, 
but tbv evideura appporc KuJllcit-uMy 
conclusive. (ierTiii~o ol Cintcrbuiy, 
a ccmleuii«imry writer Bays:— Tmm 
ia Angliaa primo 

I Oxauf/urditt 




aviiniy'ii criliciam throwii odcU- 
lioiinl lii;bt upon tliecireumiilnnce :— 
Itvliiu iiUr ni^tlirlio (Je;,i'ii-t:iii<lD 
P'raJc n-iitii.'icbrii Iteclit wiclili's und 
liuenllH'lirlirli i^'fuiultn wnrdcn wy; 
siv babi'n duljtr luigi-noiiiiubii, oi Bey 
zu^li'icb das canouiBclio Itcclit tuit 
Tcrpfliitizt worden, jn Mnnclio lialicil 
den Uulerriclit des YaenriuH Iciti^'Iicb 
nuf dna caiioDi»ii.'Uc Itccbt bezieben 
wolltn. Allcin diC'W i^nzc Sciinierig- 
keit oelieiiit mir obuo (irniid. Dn<< 
ciinoniKcbt I{?ebt vnr stvlo als Tbrll 
diT TbcobH^iie vuD dor UtiHilirbkeit 
cr'ernt nonlcn. no dasn vcder dis 
A'jfiiMsuuH dc« Dfcrfts Ton timtian, 
Docli desavn ErkUirung inder Scbulo 
r<in Di>lo|^n, bicrinoineii CBQZ ueuen 
Zustand hcrvorbrnrlito. Anders ver- 
biclt OB Bich mit dcm Jloiniscbta 



biit transitory ; bcruro tho expiration of tlio twelfth eentitrj rv 
the attractinnfl and direct importanco of a tcicnco a know- ^ 
leilge of which hail become CMcntial to tho««o concen^d to liZZ 
tho oimiluct of prucee<lingii before eccl(.*Mia<iticaI trilitnaLs CT 
prevail<)«I over nil pnjuclici.-^; St IS4>ninnI Cfniplainfl, cvfl*ti 
ill hin tiny, of tin* anlour «k!tli whirli tho th r^y t«.*t«i«»k 
tliciiiM*lvr4 to ili pnrMiit ; nii«l a n^uXury \:iU-r, a< wu nhall 
lirn*rtft«*r htt\ tin* uliply hnd fi^-^nhH**! Miirh |»rM|»i»rli«»ti«i a* thi? 
|i.ith to friiioliiiiH'iit aii«l hi;«h otlirf, that it i><*«iim-«I lik«*ljr to 
hriii;^ al#«»iit an uIiiim*!! t«#l.'il iM-^^h-rt of ilv^fht'j^y ntvl th«* rutt'^n ''•-•^ 
law. In Kii;^l;iti(l iri*h-«"l f h«* r.ifioii hiw wni inninly |'n-« r\* *l *^* 
from thf* ii«;^'h-«-t into nhi'h it f< II at a }«*t lalir p-ri***! on tho 
ofiitin'-nt, liv th«* fart that th** canonic aii«l rivilian wrrn 
<'f(<'n unit<<| in th«* sann* [KT«on, oimI <li<l n«»t, a^i in Fran^*^ 
ami (f<.niia!ijr, npn'^-nt tli^tinct and f»e[Mratc pr«»ft-»iiion^ 
It i.i to 11114 cotiihiiiatioii wc owe tl.c title, which fttill 
fcur^'ivfn, of Ll^ii. (fi.riiK-rly JX.lh or J^jcf'^r CtriH^jtte Jtirit), 
If we now turn to follow the faintly niarki*d pith of 
Irarnin^ and philttviphy fr^ii tin* tiiin* of (.'linrl«*in.i;n)*% wo 
»liall ixxm |>«r<ri\i* indirM'ioiM of nn aivakrriin^ n«*ti%ity<f 
thoii;;ht that proiiiiMfl l«<*t(ir thin^'* than the rn(ifi|iti'»iH of 
a ljr(;»«»rv or an Alciiin. IIi»w fir the 'V^trm >»liirh the 
Iatt« r iutti; at Toiir^ itiflticncid th«* c«>iir*4: of Aub^;«|UiDt 

Ittrlit. vctilK*, in Miti'r \\i«!«r> 
b<r«Utliit-f( U'lrrh (li** <»l<f «!• r* n. 
:9 <lrr Tl*jil < t« »« N' a* « « ar. / i- 
r'« '.f h •*■ r i«t • « tirii* rk' ffifi'*«r. «!■.•• 
V' r rr«'f«»*, »♦»'?! in p «f'.'.n 

*Mrifhl«n. ^r I.* • ;• , «f I. ;f... 

# .• • K«'l.? f T • i. t m..' St if 

k irt««».'l, •'• • 4r I f.-'i .'),• I ',•' 

*»«.!i. li^« l-.i* )k ,l.t* I'r .» •• ^'f 
•U • K ••tn »«!»«« I ;• • %» f •:l»".'t ♦ • r 

I* •*»* II ;n ) • 
« ::tr« fi k< .*i •: ■■ 

!«n •:•.•! Mil 1 

t < 

4 « 




. ..1 f *: 


r ;■ 

1. > r !•»':(.« ! 
• ii .t tl ^ •* • I 

* •■'» It l.*'l J- 

« • 

.ri I: 

• I • • 

. •.. • II K- ■ ! * • 

{' v\li . • «' I - i 

• • I J I 

i « 

I ;• f • • .*• ! in 
i«T. ••: !■• I.i f . .». I «!• ;i Htc 

■ : I Its < Iai'w I - ' !.f I ' ' I'a \t* 

r^»i*- St' I «.ariQ«. a!!^!.'* !« ;'it**l« Ita!.a 
in \*>.- tm, I •it/.' * ••Si't'f |'f*>l.i)'«.it« 
ri«- •'* »I. I »M rtt (•riciiar. Si i/.tar 
lri'*i« |r.f*''«|« l«>i fr;rt«>|it ftltr. 
r» .• !•.■■• r- •? i'f*!, I't r tt.*.!ta 
ti. • '..i.««I»r. •.*'[•** t' t f* •• 'nt'* 
1« •• I r- -f .♦,•!. \I!i «• tf •,n'»| 
f:. . ' • r fi# r « i*.t ; ''A I r J ■ « .«■ i u*« 
K: . • 1 1 * • ••%«:•'• f f ; • r I ■ n.j. 
! -'^M t* '*, firr«. •! ■ u.r.'if. c •*,. >. 
t • f*i m 1^ r* •■! t' '"*•''*:> ■ * -i'trt •i-&«ai 
t-i I 


1 1 r r t«) < t 

P ■. - .1 *.. 
I • • #•- ♦ ■ 
-• } r .* 



',■ \L» 

%' I r r ■ ««« 

'. r I It * • t*.« 

• .« I t M • I •• 1 -• 

' • I ■ • rj# 

• I- t •» I 

It! t M I'l^t ;.'• • •■, tl » !»'•• 

I iittf'tc I t I. f S».-.*^ l'#*'4i 

,: • . .■•I.I. 

r 1 ! f .«• J« • I. • f *» •! 
}• •! t .* ! «i • I ■ la r 


qtecuUtioD it ii difficult accurately lo dccidu', but it f 
' certain tbat^ before the ninth ccntuiy cloacd, there wore 
iymptoinB of returning vigour which plainly inOicntcd thnt 
the trediUonal limits voiiM cro long bo broken through, 
Tlio dogmA mitintAiiiciI by Pn-ichnsins concerning the real 
]m<ttcncc, and thnt which timlL'tichftlchiw rontiKcrtwl, on the 
anthority of Aiigiiwtim', CflUCi-niingprcileHlinntiim, attCHt how 
men'H min<lH were again cNMtying to grappio wilh tho pro- 
foitnilcRt qncHtions appertaining to tlio CiiriKtian failli ; the 
■olutionti proponnded, it is true, were, after t'lo fashion of the 
time, conceived in confonnity to the rc<iuircnient8 of a formal 
logic rather than in unison with the wants of men's inner 
nature, but tho controversies thoy were designed to set at 
rest were not the less the commencement of that great effort 
to bring about a reconciliation between reason and authority, 
belief and dogma, which underlies the ivliolo liistorj- of the 
scholastic philosopl^y*. It is impos.sil)lo to look upon tho 
\ arguments of Pnscliasius and his able opponent Rntramima 
as a mere phase of hygono lyihilH of thought when we 
remember that tlicy inaugurated a controversy wliich has 
lasted to the present day ; which has exercised, perhaps more 
than any other, the learning of Rome and the intellect of 
protestantism; and in connexion with which these two writers 
long represented tho armoury whence combatants on cilliei' 
side most frequently equipped themselves for the contest^ 

In John Seotua Erigcna, on whom it devolved to uphold 
the less rigid interpretation against both Paschasius and 

> ProfeiBOT Manricr, ipcakine «f tboChnrchof the ninth tcnlnry, and 
lb« tliroto^cal iliBpnles of Ihia lime, rsKchnsius lean sharp)]' rebuked b}* 

wir ol logic, of formal proposition on by IlnbanuB Muiirnn, thrn BrchbiHLop 

tbis side and on tliut. Ihtt xras the of Mn.vcnce. Al n BubiiFqitciil 'wrioil, 

thamrut which ll-e irhooti vf Alciin I'opo GrrRoiT VII dcclDtcd tlmt tLo 

iiiirf Charltmnint almmt iuttUa'A'j .view of I'necLnsiua, as riprwRed bj 

fart to it.' Mtdiitval rhilotoyhij, p, I.niifranc, was rcjii-li^J both by liim- 

41. uplf and I'llpr Duniiani. It »«s 

* Etmpien. S,ho1nilif Philotoptiy, seven centuries bHct tlio time ot 
r.37. See nl»o M. BfiKb^lemy tiaiut- JlntraanHB, that lliilley. ivbcil pl«ul- 
Ililnire, Dt ta Lagique iTAritlolt, iu? Uforc Ibo ronimishioneni at Di- 
li 191. f<ml, said. 'Tbis roan wa* Ibc first 

* Bollarmiue \iaa nnfnirlj rej're. wlio pulled tnc by Ibc car, ond frirci-d 
•ented ItstramnaaaBlboinaaRunilur inc from (be comuoQ error of tba 
dI lb« controTcrey; but tbo doctrine lloman Cbnrcb, to a more di1iG(-ii( 
ot tiHiBubituitiiitiun was p Lcrcsj in sranh of Scrii>tur« and ecclcsiiisticat 

JOIIS KC^JTl'S mi^Ji.w. 



r; « If id I ft Id HM, wo liavc a mi Innli vMrnn uf ll»e Pl:it«.»nic i%*i 
M*Iiiioi nj«|K»r\ri!i;» in Mir^ C'>titia<*t t«» tJ:'» — . 
ilMaMi-Ari-itnti'liaTi miot <.•.!• in uf tlic ucii-rn Clmrrli, In |ji« 

trt'-itiM* Ih Jh'rlsliihr X'tturn^ ]\t hih \V4 fioin St Ai1'j»i«' iii* 

!!iit llie < ':i* ••■,'«»!!• -! fill nli"'^'!lpT in tin- invi -.ti-ntiiin nf tl.*- 
<:iiini' nntiin*; In* iii:iiiit:i:ii«, in din llu-tiry <•! ]>rini**(*!>.kl 
i -iMM-**, nn ( - «i iiiiillv ililV* n nt C'liiri iitinn fmiii tli.'it imf (*-x*]% 
ill ifii* Ktliici tinil tilt- M< t:i]iliv«>itM ; ;iiif| Iii« nii'iilnl :itlltiit:>« 
t<i tli(« I'l:iti»niotii of tlif (;i<>li-rn Clinn-li an* Mitli*i*nli^ 


iii'licitful liy lii« ntt« Tiijit t«» |irn\i* td.-it tin* fir^t 4ti:i|*'«r in 
<iin«'«»i!i rrppwiTit^^ n<>t tlw rn :i!!«»n of tin* v:*i)il»* w..rl«l. liii* 
t'j." rvtiInriiMi i't' till- tyjii- :il i'!i 'i- in l^«' rri-ntivi* iiiinil. Witl* 
?'.f rxrrpf :..n >*[ :i J. i* ;ii t <!:»'i'n Iiy < 'lirili'i-litH of a {•■trTi'-n 
«r ria'-i*-* 7'*/:.'i'i*. Atljii-tilp' W.I- ii!iil«niit« iilv tin* •• 'Mrrf 

r 'I"'-? t«i till- „•■ •I' • !. ir.irT.-r ''f tl :it Ji!:i!o«i.!»liy it i» thr I ••* 

! •- iii'i-i -. rv t'» :;.• in? • i*;. r.-i;!, iii.-i-Timrli a-*, ilj.i»:,'i> li*- w.i* 

«■:.). ililv t!i. f;|.l .i; ».M ''V t>i ili'l'M*'* Ui*' III I. II Ifi- "fV « f 
*■♦•••:- :ii'. I ; • !!.■•;. i \> I- |i •• tit I* V. li:t 1j •■•!"! i- J i- :•: i 

;. ! |t!. I'. .1* 1 !. 

>!■.< .1 

'i|. f 

. ' . '■' -I ! :■«. I r. I*'-.- 

■;.!:!:•'. Ii .!i.- !■ .• ! . \ -.v ;";i:i t^ '. i ' 'v • '.••!»•»• \ !••:! ;- 

■ u!.!' !i \- f .". !■»■ I •'.■ .I':**! i 'x "1 Af ' •:!•■ fl> ii:-"" 
• Ar« •! ■ •:•' . !.■«••?.!. .»'• ' ix I''v ill t|j. rVir. !i. 

* -i-^M tl.- ti'.p- .■: 1'- L'l- I* 

I :i.'t:^-! »" ^' t I» :. •.-..• ii* i.* .i.- 1 u t'.t- A«»' «.fTwr. 

I* ■•■ 

At- •*•*". :i- ' :iV ■•.-. .r*. ?••• I- ■; ■ ]■ --f A'l n-. t' •• 

\ 111 •!. ii'ii*'i • 

.1 . • ' 

" !••. :i I • ;• "• ■ • ' 

:i \ • ■. :■ 

. t :•:. . 

Ai-- » 

. •■. T 

. 1 

• .!.V\ 

t i 


• i . • • 




• '. 

" 1 


11 ■• 




• • 


Staromcrefi emperor of Byzantium, to Louis le Ddbonnaire, 
v-^ which was asserted with cqtml tnith to bo the work of thin 
samo Dionysius. Tho production, from whatever pen it 
proceeded, is of small intrinsic value, being devoted to 
speculations respecting tho celestial hierarchy and tho ex- 
position of a highly mystical interpretation of Scripture; 
but its translation into Latin from tho Greek, undertaken 
by John Scotus, in order, in all probability, to gratify tho 
feelings of his patron Charles tho Bald, by rendering more 
accessible to tho subjects of the latter a treatise attributed 
to their national Apostle, — is an event of considerable 
tfkwki importance in the history of European studies. From this 
^TO period tho Pseudo-Dionysius occupied a foremost place in 
the estimation of tho theologian, and it is melancholy to 
note how long it continued to impose on the judgement and 
to inspire tho labours of some of tho ablest scholars of 
successive fjenerations*. 

With tho tenth century the darkness in France and 
England attained its greatest intensity ; it was the nadir of 
the intellect in Europe. Spain alone, under the beneficent 
rule of the Ommiades, offers to our notice any signs of 
general culture and refinement, tho instances observable 
elsewhere presenting themselves as isolated and rare pheno- 
mena. Of these the most remarkable is unquestionably that 
iTiTw- of Gerbert, afterwards pope Sylvester ir, and tho valuable 
additions recently made to our knowledge respecting this 
eminent man may be deemed sufficient excuse for attempting 
briefly to embody them in the present sketch. It is now 
nearly thirty years ago that antiquarian research brought to 
light the long lost history of his times by his pupil Richerus, 
and the information therein contained, together with the 
admirable life prefixed by 11. Olleris to the more recently 
published magnificent edition of his works', has somewhat 

' Poan Milman tnily obscrvcB tlint nam df Sijtintrf II., CoUatwn6e$ »\ir 

•tbo ffftct of this work on tlio whole /«•« Matiuicrititf Pr(c(dfet lU fa JUo' 

ccclcsiiiBtic HVPtfin, nnd on the |>oini- praphiff mtiviet de 2\ote» Critiquet ft 

lar faith, it is almoHt impossible justly Ilinturiquef, par A. Ollorip, doyen des 

to cfitiraate.* Hi it, of Latin Chris- Facult^fl de Lettrcs, Clcrmout-Fcr- 

tianittj, Bk. nil c. 5. . • rand, 18C7. 

* CLuirei de Gcrbertf Pope sous le 


Godcsclialclius, wo Iiavo a mctnpliyftician of tlwe Platonic 
school appearing in somcwliat Hingnlar contrast to the 
qiiasi-Aristotclian succession of the western Church. In his 
trcatiso Dc Divmonc Xatitra*, hd shews from St. Au^'ustine 
thnt tho (categories fail altogether in the investigation of tlic 
divine nature ; ho maintains, in his theory of primordial 
ratises, an essi'utially dilVerent conception from that put forth 
ill the Ktliics ami the Metaphysics; ami his mental aflinities 
to tho Platonisni of tho eastern Church arc Hufli<'iently 
indicated hy his attemi)t to prove that the first chapter in 
Genesis represents, not the creation of the visible world, but 
tlic evolution of the typical ideas in the creative mind. With 
tlie exception of a Latin translation by Chalcidius of a portion 
of Plato's Tiw(vu3, Augustine was undoubtedly the source 
from whence John Scotus derived his philosophy; with 
respect to the general character of that philosophy it is the i* JSIri 
less necessary to go into detail, inasmuch as, though he was 
probably the first distinctly to indicate tho main theor}' of 
scholasticism', his method was not that which scholasticism 
a<loptcd', and his somewhat singular eclecticism and Platonic 
jiffinities became lost to view amid the vastly extendetl influ- 
ence which yet awaitc<l the authority of Aristotle. His most 
marked relation to posterity is to be traced in the attention 
he direct eil to the writings falsely attributed to Dionysius 
the Areopagite. Legend, already busy in the Clnirch, 
though the time of its greatest activity was still distant, 
had ascribed to the Dionysius mentioned in the Acts of 
the Apostles', and afterwards first bishop of Athens, the 
conversion of Gaul, as the earliest Apostle to that country; 
ami in the ninth century there was in circulation a manu- 
script, a forgery of the fifth century, sent by Michael the 

«Tit«Tn on thin quoMion.' See Bel- eqnn!lv nnlike the pnrc Socrntic Pla- 

laniiiuo, I>f Sac. Euch. Hk. I c. 1. t«>nisino( wliii-li tliatwn** acfmi|»lioD, 

Milninn, Ui»t. of Lntin Christianittj, dilTennt in most inifKirtftnt re««pcct!« 

l^k.viii c. 3. from tho Au^ni^tinian Platoniitui, or 

^'Der friihc«*to nauihaftc Philo- (n>ni tliat <»f tlic <ini'k Fath'TH witli 

►"!»h der bchnlastiKchrn Ztit,' says t^liirh it stand" in murh cl«»«fr af- 

I'lnnfc^. S<'C his CrAchichtf dt'r finity.* Mnurirr, Mi-tlnrral Vhil(u*t* 

P'niUuinphif, II* lo;{-.lll. pUtjl p. OS. Sec nl:^ Cliristliob. 

• It wan *exreMin;!ly unlike tho l.rb^n und Lrhrf *Us Joh, Scotut 

.VIexaudrtah Piulonism* from which i:.'ri/7<n/i,notha, ISCU. 

it ba« been pupposed to be derived, • Acts xtii 3 J. 


m^ Stiunxncrcr» emperor of Bjzantium, to Louis le Ddbonnairc, 

^— ^ vhich wits aMcrtoiI with equal truth to bo tho work of this 

fdmc I>iofiy«iua. Tlio production, from whatever pen it 

procrx-Jcil, is of Kinall ititrinMic vahic, being devoted to 

•peculations rcsj)ecting tlio celestial hierarchy and tho ex- 

j^j^Ttion of a higlily myKtical interpretation of Scripture; 

l.'jt ilH translation into Latin from the Greek, undertaken 

Vy John Sci»tu.s in onler, in all probability, to gratify the 

frrtUiiti:^ of hi» patron Charles tho Bald, by rendering more 

arrrc>-^iblc to the Kubjecls of tho latter a treatise attributed 

t^ tlioir national Apostle, — is an event of considerable 

«»•» iinr»*jrlancc in the history of European studies. From this 

^Z^ fieri' kI the Pseud<»-Dionysius occupied a foremost place in 

^^ tbc tr-timation of the theologian, and it is melancholy to 

i.otc 1k»w long it continued to imi>ose on tho judgement and 

li> in>T»;re tho lalwurs of some of tho ablest scholars of 

.•■:cc'---ive j^oneration-**. 

\Vilh tho tenth century the < in France and 
K: j! .:i'i ;itta*UK'<l its «qeatost intensitv; it was tho nadir of 
*,]'.- iritvli'Ct in KumjK*. Spain alone, undor the benoficont 
r :'.o ••f the Oinmiadors, offers to our notice any signs of 
•^- !.- ctilturo and rofincTnent, tho instances obsorvahlo 
/-• v»i;. ro pn^viiting thcin>olv(s lus isolated and rare j>hc'no- 
: .'.r.a. (>f tlioo tin* most roniarkablo is un<iucstionably that 
— • ! (.M riH rt, allerwjirds pope Sylvester H, and the va!\ial)l«» 
:. i iiti^n^ r«c« ntly made to our knowlc<lgc respecting thi^ 

• T:.:r.^ Tit mnn may Ik) deemed sufficient excuse for attempting 
I r: :\y t«> emlnKly them in tlie prc>ent sketch. It is now 

• • *r!%' ihirtv vt-.TS a;jo that antiiiuarian rosear.'h broutrht t'» 
'. jl.t the h»ng l«i>t history of his times hy his ])npil Kieheriis. 
; :. ! the in:V»rmation tie-rein contained, tojrether >vi'.h tlie 

>«»«f : ".•,.:r.;)'h- life ]»ntix«-d by M. Olleris to the more recently 
T /•*.>!. v'l mai:nit*:ccnt edition (»f his works*, has somewliat 

* I' nn M.IiriTj trn'v ol-* nT« »;•'»•• *^** SuUfntrr JI.. ColUxtl^uCif *"r 

r. - . .ti.' •.' -!. :ii. niJil i'!l tho I«J'U- rrrytnf, mil trf iW S*'t** Crtti'iiif ft 

■ .r '.. 'i.. .1 :- a!m'-l ii:ij"--iMo jn-tiy lift- r •jurt, |vir A. Oil* ri-, J«»>* n <lr* 

•i «.r.n;i>.* Jli9t.otJ.ntin Cfiri'- Fa-nlti-i ilo Liltrcn, C U ruiuiit-Fcr- 

• -•» *v, nk. till r. 5. . ra:«l. l^*"'?. 



riiiKlirK<l the o^ncliioitiiis iircvioiiHlv funiietl rL'«iH't.tiii;; Imlli i^tr i 

til • tf 

ilio iticiividii.'il nii'l h'\< n:,'i', — llio ••li'sciirc p'-ri'"! nf tr.iti<»itii>ti '— • -^ 
v.lii'M llio so|»tir |«ri-!«i"d I ruin IIm' r':irl«iviii;;l;iii t»» llic Cii;-*- 
ti:i!i ihnrii'v. 

Timt tin* n»»lli'*I I'f nini'-riiMl ti'riati<»n iTiiiiItivi'I l»v i^. ••••' 
llcriMTl w;iH itltiiti«.*:il with tiint ^^f mir m*j*h rn • rn, t\w\ th.V, •*«••- 
;.• t!io ►ami' tiiii'-. hi'* kiio\\Iri!;;i« wru n-it «kri\'«l fr« in thc*'*"'"^ 

S.r.t.i ii»i, Mo'iI»| ;ip|ii ;ir to lir ri|ii:.lly w« 11 .T'Crrt .ilK'l fin?-*. 
'!':■* ill<«liA(* ainl <!i' .m1 wit!i nliirli til'.* .M:JiMiiii tail«« ]inl 
1 'II n^'p^aitl' •! I't. r •'ifirr *\i*' < 'r« •'Ci-ht ;ini| tli ? TV' -* f-ii- 
r. -Ill" •! fi«r t!i • j --!"!i «if Fi.iim-* ai pMlt''-!-. nr.*! i'.; 

I '. • -iMr!!^ ni f V "! tl.i ji ill!* ii '••:r«»»' \\:!li * liri ti.tii K«ir"!»;', 

• • • 

l!." •■:i!;i«' :i' -■!.'•• if Ai.i'o" v.ii.U :?!. 1 I't i\«r\*l'ii' 

>■ : ^ -tivi- Mt" \r i''!'' !!.:!':•!!■ » in lii-. v.ii'Mi,-., r ikI-t it i:i 

f' Ir- 'I' •• «!■ ,!• • ifj.M : '"!• fli.i» <i«il"it w.i* in.! *.*. 1 ¥ ••■«-• 

'•. ^::i!i «* 'iir. - |..i ill. Ill •!...!. Ti .i in- fh-"!. M. <»;!!.,• »-« 

I Mm- m-^ 

r -:''; 1*. i:i tv !i v.- •. • : •. ;;. "I ii !i il. fr'-M ti. -•.■.,. ,.\ 

'I'M* wli'ilii \\t' ' \- .!t v ]• 'l n'cl* »■ ?•.■•■. :• 

••;;■;! in;; t'l ii; •■.'.•■!•' . ^l . !!• A; -. :• «■! • |- • i •■'/ 

I t ji- ■■: •■ liv ^\ ! ■■- ■ I. • . -. ♦' .■ ' Ji • •!■ ■?- • •• • 1 ;• 

■■'« ktiTAM ■•ii"'.^ ii . !:i.!':? , . ■ .i!' 'ii!- 'l.!! • • . \' !■ I 

• • ■ 

> "• I. . . : , . . , . . 
• .. • 

I ■ ... . • . 

■ • » 

. .■ I 

' I 


• T 

■ ■•'.• ' • , ■ I • • r • . • . 

t • 

, , » 


I • 


• I 

I • 

tbe patronage of the princes of the hoiue of Saxe, Oerh 
' tAQght vith great success at Rheims, and the account gii 
h; Richenu of tbe system he employed and the auth 
upon whom be commented, is deserving of quotation ; 
must however be observed, that such instruction, at t 
period, can only bo regarded, in its tlioroughncss and exte 
( OS of an entirely eiceptional character: — Dialecticam e, 
otrJim libmrum peixiurens, dilitctdia tentcntiarum vet 
eaodavit. Imprimis enim Poi'pliirii ysarjogas, id est int 
duitionet aecundum Viclorini rhetoris translationem, i> 
ctiam easdem eecutidum ifanlium^ erplanavit; catliegorian 
id at pnedicamenlorum librum Aristotelis 'consequenter e, 
cleans, Tieri ermenias vero, id est de interpretatione libn 
cujua laborig tit, ajftisaime monstravit. Inde ctiam topics, 
est arffumeHtorum sedes, a Tullio de Greco in Latin 
tfamlata', et a Manlio consule sex comnieiitariorum lit 
dilucidata, siiis atidilonbua intimavit. i\'ec jion et quati 
de topicis differentiis libros, de siUo'jismls cathegoricia di 
de ypotheticia Irea, diffinitiunurnqne librum vnum, division 
wqiie vnutn, iitililer legit et expressit. Post quorum, labon 
cum ad rlieloricam suos provehere vellel, id sibi svsjyect 
crat, quod aine loculionum viodis, qui in jKietis diacendi sii 
ad oratoriam artem ante perveniri non queat Poetas i</> 
adhibuit, quilus asauescendoa arbitrubattir. Legit itaque 
docuit Maronem et Statium Terentiumque poetaa, Juvenal 
qitoque ae Persium Horatitimque satirtcos, Lucanum eti 
historiographum. Qiiibm assiie/actos, hcutionumqve mo 
CdmpositoB, ad rhetoricnm transdiixtt'. 

I'anbeT It fnnt ilone rcronnaitra * 'Uauliiu'iii,otcoaTBC,Boclb 

qnt Orrbcrt n'a TisiU ni Silvillc ni ico infra, )>p. 61—53. It wi 

(.'uTilnnr, qno m lunltrFii ftiiiviit uam^ly bo nrpesuary to mnke 

cll^jli^u^ qnc Ira anlviin I'lncfj cii- obncrvittion liad not Hock id 

tre ncii mniiifl ^Inipiit cpiii quo I'ou IthMrr rfii I'apf SijImWr 

fliiJuiitrnfrnnc('aTnn'.lr«inii'rn'aci- tnutuittjmr H.VAhhf 

vJIr^.mtreantrrsIerbillciirVictdrinnp, inpixniiM n totnll; lUScriMit pcrro 

Uaitinuiu Cnpelln, et niTtoat llo<>cc, bo ilcii^iiti'iL 

dont Ciix»io(U>re (ait on n ^am^rxa. * M. Oltcris corrcrlt}' oIifpt 

Aogo. Ctst elm Int qn'fl tniixn era ' Itirlirr m: tiompc qtiaoJ il lea |<i 

iK>ti»ni«flrimtifiqucBtniit*i)niirA-«p:ir iwiir uno tmrlnction.' 

Ir XI' nttXr, igiii liii lUmnn Iv* (ilrcB • Iliclifri (E.) IliitOTiarum Qua 

fntlmn do rhilasKptio, ilc 'nvniit, J.ihri, Lib. in c 40 Jk 47. Itt-i 

d« noDTran lioi-cc,' OUcris, I'le de Vij5. 
CrrlMTt, p. 21. 


Pupe Oerbert lired to tee the commeDoeoieiit of the ^ 
eleventh century and tlio inauguration of what may fairljr "-^ 
M n OS a leiis gloomy period, but the yean which ^TSI^^J 

mi fulIowiHl on the thousautlth Oirifttian year wore ■.«» 

idcd by a rccurrcnco of that laine terrible foreboding 
irli i occupied our attention in the earlier port of our 

uiry. Tlic Millennium was drawing to its clone; and tlie 

let, as they turned with trembling han«l the mystic page 
>f the Apocalypiio, declared that they cuuld only inteqirvt 
be solemn prediction which marks the opening of the 
ventieth chapter, into nn announcement that the end of 
II thing!* must now Im* lo<»ketl for. A pnnic not U^m severe r^^ 
tiuin that of the n;;e of Ji»n»iiic or of (Jn^gory seized upon *^^^ 
mcirs min«I.< The land wni loft untilh*«| ; tho |Niniuits of 
!iu<»incs(H and jlexMire wer ? alik** di«<rej»anlcd ; the ehurches 
•jri-ro throiip-il l»y terrified nuppliantK Mvking to arert the 
IHvine wrath. The paroxysm MilMtidtnl indectl aj thet'»»*«M* 
laMitis revolveil inith their aceiiHt<»me<l n*t;ularity, but the «i»-«— — • 
IiT;^ skilfully c<»nverted the predominant feelin** into clian* *'J^^ * 
.cU that Well «*olKiTved the inter* -^tn i.f tli«» (*li»it«'h. Tli^ 
>nlinary pieaniMe t<» il«eiU of gift of thi.«* ]•« ri«»il, — .V»##»#^' 
'ftftrffpuifjwintf t*'tmiii'f, — /utittnifite j'tm ftrr uttlrtrMum 
't'Jmm tt>tu*jrlicti (>tfmi, — att<'HtH tlie wid« -prrad eharacter 
.t:d the realifv of the c«»tivieti<»ri ; niid from thi^ time we 
n.iy date the cotnmenci niMit (»f that great architectural 
iiuvement uhieli i»til>M««|»iriit!y reare^l in the proude-^t cities 
*r Kun»|M* tin* ni«>nniiienti of Clirintian art and of Christian 
•'ir-tltviif ion. 

Iti no fc'iliMfnienl a;:*- do He TumI tlii* iH-liif, tle'i|'«h cvit Tw mm*^ 
Uid anon f«-<*«irrent, iiw ratio;: %ijtli an v*\*\a\ i^-'uir. TIi** •*•-'•** 
li' orv lia«i U« n n\ivid l«v the Mini* tit «»f t>r»(»}t«^r atid^ri** 
•y the bni it li.i% u*'\*-T -me.- ^t fir altrattnti ^^.'J** 
•';»ular utt^iitioii ti% to jur.i!\M» tin* a«ii\iihMi of a n.-i'l-^n 
u>\ t«» divert niiiltitti«l« % ir«»»n the fitdtn.iry n\««ca*i-»n< «-f li!*«». 
\* i« only iii'h'd in fart% like tie •«■ tint %ie n ili-e h ^w 
*"** Iv the avo«i-«l \h \u( u( \\i*p%4* a^«« «n« inf«*r»o\»ti %iith 
h« ir action, and, %ih«n ii«* find o.n%i«ti«!i t!»M% |»»*«iit to 
« Mrain the anioiir of the marri«»r ntel lo an* *t I'l** i id';«tr/ 


mo- <tf die peMsat, we begin in some measure to comp 

«-v— ' how great mast have been its power in the cloister w 

^■j^^ was bom. We begin to discern how all education, coi 

■*^ and directed as it woa by those who upheld and inc 

?•**• tliis belief, muitt necessarily have reflected its influcno 

conceding, as we well may, that in no other period 

known bintory of our race have events more emplu 

seemed to favour the construction thus placed upon 

we may claim that this conviction carried with it son 

to justify as well as to explain the narrow culture o 

times. And further, if we odd to this considerati 

recollection how imperfect was the possession then re 

of the literature of antiquity, the iudifTerencc with 

that literature was regarded by tho majority, ai 

difficulties under which it was studied and transmit 

may perhaps occur to us that tlic censure and the b 

so often directed against these ages, might well givi 

to Eomcthing more of reverence and grnlitiidc towa 

heroic few who tended the lamp amid tho darkness i 

•(■ew. The eleventh century saw the revival of the cont 

crt which Pascliasius had initiated. In contravention 
cTtreme theory which he had supported, Ecrenj 
archdeacon of Tours and bend of the great school f 
by Oiarlcmngne which still adorned that city, maij 
the entirely opposed view which regarded tho Lord's 

' It i» fomcichiit rrmnrkiil>l<.' tbnt flrpluli.lf cutBonndfanHcat. 

ro vi'll-inbinDCil ft vijfcr b» Mr Ivs linmmt!i,iuiiiul<i il'ulicl 

LmIv. in liM able ikotcb ot llic W- ■ccoatpni^p, tuiulill^rcnt 

lirf of tliMe cputurics (tn Wit. of dariu)tn:(u In Hv W 

Hi llonnliim, \<i. it Fbimltl Iinrc k-lt IH (oiiti-a jxirtn Ira fi'dco 

I1i:« tbcoi7 alinoKt allntn'tlKT uii- ili' Ivur Luik adninpiKiim 

nnlirtU. ^. I>iK(<t, Itrehtrehr* lar na luit A n'mmstrnira Iv* 

'( Keoln Hl>Sffopa!n rt Jlonatl. i 

lex uiuniti'ti'TN cit ruinr, ■ 

h p^>rl>,f< d, Irfr«, lino' in- "t"'^" f ^■» "«■ I'rin- . 

riiiiiil til tho opiiiuiu tlint il* iiitlii- on cbsot nouviini." J^t Kf 

nin-lhiKlHt1iPsn;^imti'.1, Wt I/111 rnjHilft. rte. p. !!ll, M. Ol 

Slailw iiiiott'i ^.lli^^■ ciiiluKU f">Til,ly rliiiniftirisr,! Dio k 

to Kliinr Unit till- n-n<ii»tnk-li><ii uI I«t.Tt' privitl. iil: — • IVrH 

tlir niiiuil rlmiTlii-H nml liiKiiri'u Kmi^-iitit A h'ili~tniirp. A 

imlil nfliT t]i<> Viiir KHUI; „t ll,u H'nri' .lix tivrcK i|iii nlliii' 

rhimiH! tlint tlii'ii lixih I'liUT In' DiiiH (tiii' hi o.iilt.iirnilioli lllii 

"uritvM: ■LiirH'inc riicun- qui Uivnil Vie tir i!rrbi-rt,\i.'i\. 

>•« *• 

nr.RCNOAa or toi-rji. 47 

KA purely etnUoroatical. This intcqirctatioo waf as okl af i^ 
ilcroens and Ori|rcn, but tlio principle which Berengar cod- -■ ^ ■> 
currcntlr aascrtcti stArtlM and arouMHl the Church, While J^ 
f\miliar with the writiiign of the Fathom, fur he wan one*^ 
t»f the mtMt lonnuti mon of his time, he rcfuned implicit 
»!o^r\*nce to thoir authority, and dtTl.iriHl that in the search 
f«*r truth n*aMm must be tlie piido. Tin* sacred writing 
tliomielve^ attrKtcnl, he ur^ed, tliat the highest of a]| truth 
liaJ Ux*u incuK^atfd bv thr Divine Mn%t4*r in a form that 
•vv**»*^niH*d tliiA fundament. il law. Such was the com mcncc- 
lu'itt of a fn^h (Miitrover«iv whirh, though familiar to m«>dt-m 
i.ii% fnvnird btian;;i» and |n»rtcntoUH t«» the eleventh ccnturv. 
T^o {OMtion ^liit*Ii I^Trn^^nr wan hnl finally to a>Mune4.t*» 
:%: •;iM>I a h«i^t of iiiitn;;i»ni<»t4. ForrUMst amoni; them was 
Liii?'iani\ tin* arrhbisliop of Cant'Tbiirv, an cci-lf^ia^tic who 
! iUii;^ t»n«s* r< iitiii)|»l:it«M| tlu» pn<fthMt>n 4if the jurist, and 
'fuht'tl tin* oi\il l.iw at I^»I<>;;iia, had afttrwanN tak«*n U|»on 
liiiiiM'lf tht* r« l<;:ii>Ui lil''» and un(MmprMini<«iii'^|yf"»|»i»M«i*«l it4 
1 •^t lijjid inti i|ir« tatioti. Krutn tin' va!ita^i* pr-uu'l of 
ailing ^n|N M If i-\»ii :» llint nl* 1*^ rrti'^.ir, li»" a«»-ai|id in 
i'l 'U I *«* !•! «t< in t> KmUi* thr a^*M:iilitt<-!i« o| tiir l.|ti«*r. lilt* IWanMaii 

:'it l.iitli. li«- iii:itiit.iin« d. tli'l ii.»t t'\liui-t it«4-!f in i IT 'fi *••*•• •*•• 

• It *'..u.ili* ti» tin- until r-t itidiii^ ni\''t«ri«'* aU'V«» human •*■'**••* 
I i]*ii )u u^ioii. aii'l i'f tJK'^i' \^a^ tliat of tli** U* al PfrM-nci*. 

i« I t'llii'l.' hi' r\«'l.iini'-<l. * tliat I should n ly ratlp-r on 
■ In III tt* i^oiiifi;; tliaii on til*' truth and tlit* nuthoti y of the 

/ !• /*tif'.ijji (I I't.rittff' C'ifti h'tr*. III tlo* •« irra^iii h*'re 

• j'lttl III \\%' II... ,f itif^ til it* lt«lr.iil ^iii^*-. Wi* 

• < I'lilliti tl %*( til it I'fi \ .»!« lit I'lilMi tit h '11 •»! !•••• 'f. a"* f»*«'!it .il^v 

I '. i!»»t'.-il .1 111. \» :i.i III in 4-i>ii)]>!<- \\;!.i <*» itiin ru*i «, 

t )i |K ill i]t« I.I .|«< til III ;iii\!li!».j « !-« t- *** f* I tin* *|.iiit ••( 

■•••^ III tlii-i .t •. . A wiU nit«r\i! h.* 1 U'*i trivir*. I 


I ' . I . •..■1.1 i • « ■ • ■ -' 'I 

M.i ..J. tj'«t.i, ■• .1 • .ii*' ^' l-i- 

■ . » . ■ I- . . I • .. , f / /'.'.IN . r, 

,' • » I I .•'! rlt i-'l 1*1 1" •' 

* f • , •|>t • jt.i li I. • . i ' , I, 


nnce the time when Cameades and the disciples of the La 
Academy proposed no longer to aspire to the possession c 
pooitive or absolute truth, but to rest contented in the hop 
that they had attained to the probable. It was one of tb 
effects^ and undoubtedly a very pernicious effect, of th 
almost exclusive study of the Categories, that the men of thi 
time were beginning to imagine that neither knowledge no 
faith was of any assured value or certainty unless reducibi 
to formal logical demonstration ; not merely that conformit; 
was deemed essential to those laws of thought of which tli 
syllogism is the embodiment, but that all belief was held t 
be susceptible of proof in a series of concatenated proposition 
like a theorem in geometry. It was consequently only ii 
compliance with the fashion of his time that Berengor thu 
moulded the form of his first treatise, aud incurred th 
ridicule of Lanfranc for his pedantry. In method lie fol 
lowed, wliile in argument he challenged, the traditions li 
had inherited. 

Tlie spirit in which Lanfranc sought to defend the oppo 
site interpretation indicates no advance upon tlic conventionn 
treatment; and the whole tenor of his argument reveal 
nither the ecclesiastic alanned for the autliority of his orJc 
than the dispassionate enquirer after truth. It must, how 
Jjj"^ ever, be admitted that the general tone of Berengar's treatis 
was ill-calculated to disarm hostility. If his mental charac 
teristics may be inferred from thence, we should conchid 
that he was one in whom the purely logical faculty over 
whelmed and silenced his emotional nature; one iiiiable t 
'comprehend that union of faith and reason which commend 
itself to those in whom tho reIi<^iou8 sentiment maintain 
its power.' The mind of thu archbishop to some exten 
rese?nbled that of the archdeacon. Tlien came the inevitabl 
collision. The ono sternly asserting the claims of autliorit) 
the other c«>ntemptuoiisly demonstrating the rigid conclusion 
of h»«MC. At fii'st it si'cmed that tho ft>rmor wouhl secur 
an ea<^y (rimnph. ]U*ivngar, to save his life, capitulated n 
the RiiinmonM of tho Hccoiid liatenui Coiineil, an<l formal! 
r«*cauted his o]iinioiis ; but, in a short time, ho had revoke 

oRioix or TBI acnouiflnc pinLo«orar. 

hit recanUtioii* and again betaking himaelf to those weapooa 
of logic which ho wiekled with mich remarkable adroitncai^ 
gaooeiftfully parried the attacka of hit opponenta. The 
dcciiiiona of three Bucceiwive Councib rainly denounced 
hii toncts. Protected by the powerful arm of Hihlebcand, 
the archdeacon of Angera died in full pciMii*sfiion of hia 
honoun^ uosilenced and unconvinced. Tlie following year 
died Lanfranc, and the mitre of his episcopacy dctcended to 
bif pupil Annehn. 

But before Annelm tucceeded to the see of Canterbanr, 
another controvemy had arisen, which unmistakably attested 2 
how the chord somewhat rou^ly touched by Berengar had 
found res{ion^ in the growing thoughtfulnens of the time. 
8pccuhitions once confined to solitary thinkers were now 
bi*ginning to be heanl in the schooU and to be discussed in 
the cl«»ii»ter. It wam at the re<|uest of his fellow monks, aa 
An^'lm himself tells ut»\ tliat he entered upon those subtle 
en<|uirii*s m herein we find the echo of Angii»tine*s fineet 
thotight, and the anticipation uf IX*>icart«*9i. Bt t it is rather 
as partici|Kint in the c»»ntn>ver>*y which would App^ar to 
m.irk the tnie coniineiM^»ment of the M'tiolnxtic era*, tliat 
thin illu*«trious thinker clnimii (Hir attention, and li<*re, before 
we Ui^inie invoKiMl in the jjn*ol nietn|iliyM'*id di«p<ito, it 

* * It mmx %Yf<* mr mi Sr«t tinrnW 

M-lf til til* tfiitMl of a m««fik ftt iWc 
•KmiM MiU U* tl.«* |<r>4.Utii of n»#U- 
|4it»»ra] iIm* {<v,« . atxl t)««ul<«»'T fm*t*t. 

%l.4fl f«»ll«»«*«l ••4tl. I«««<tiir> |t»4 («t<lir> 
»ir«|, hM l«|')> ••• • tita*t l«<<«tt»« iIm •»• 
lir>*»t. tin* •<«iti«* t)M>«i,*Wi •••oi^ 

pn. U* lomr f>»rr< .| i(*« :f I'ti l^ *«-«rt« •« 
»»• r»»%«#ri*.| \,\ \* v\*u%\f, if i)«*l r». 
)»«t«4 •«• IImmi^'IiI in*tirf.< m tit hf 
Kant. ri%l%«4 Mi 4iM''l..r f- rw X-y 
^\»»\\i%%^ «i»| ll'tT'l, K*!* rU !•«« 
U«n •1»*« M* ••! «itli »i«i.-iUr fiili««*« 
**•*! |i»»* iiuiff \,y M .|«t |(/f»ii«»«t. 
^»t »ilt It )«•>• »iir| ritt^ li^- li»"f» 
I '■ ^••«M».rv ft rt«* ti«» , %l..i f«tiii.4 l«ttt 
t*tr« i«# !•«.« 9^m^% ai*.| !*•*« Ill* «it«Mv 
*'**^ iMiital ftrffi>t« mi IIm* ««ri<v ol 

n»c«*«titrt tlii« MBi« ^«r«tio«. «liit% 
in Afffttlit-r fiifw 4i%iiM is MtVar 

riato ftn«l An»t«4lr. An»> Im an*! Imi 
r^.|«ii« *ftt«. (for o(>|«<fi«nt« \w l»«4 «^ 
|»i> rfMtilo<'<ll •Ml4l«t%*, t.«il«fi||J •ivl 
l^tf-k* . fill** li K«i(l f<« l*l t«i M'-^r tl», 
filiwli III* f>i>l!<««t r« }•«%# |«flti||i« 
U«>n«r««| lt» « iM « tt*»*l i«.tr«* «|« 
|<lir«>««>'«<VT !•»<•#•' Il«n rl«»r» l«t'«l, 
«|itr) in •(« rti" I. cii« .•!» I«%nn'4«i«»tt 
r«tl>« r in •«« mi*'.* tli^n »ti r««}ti« . Ili# 
i|tt«*tM*«i cif •!»> oil Hi*, t-tf |<r«ii*«rr, 

«!«••««••*«). II t» «« l"** •••• '.'•' «'f IH- 

•to*' ti»« . • r ft' |<M«* 1 •*» I I'ttl't^"*!*!, 

|-l« « r«.«.' ■ I t« t». |.' • ■ ••, r. > . » I- I .««• 
ftf lt.*f. i-f lt<>< li> •• •••M«V ll '^ l.l«r- 
ImI, tU If t I •«- %JiIn.**«. //*•! /^« 
« &#••' «*>rjr. |tk «MI r. & 


omiom or ths scholastic philosoput. 

to torn afiide awbilo to examine briefly a 
preliratnary and not unimportant qucHtion. 

It wmA originally aHMcrted by Cousin, and liis dictum hw 

been repestiAxlly quoted, that the scIjoloMtic pliiloMOphy Iiad 

Ha ori^pn in a sentence from the Isagoge of Porphyry as 

interpreted by Boethiua. ' Scholasticism/ he says, 'was bom 

al Paris and there it died ; a sentence from Porphyry, — a 

■ingle ray from the literature of the ancient world, — called 

it into being; the same literature, which when more com- 

pletclj revealed, extinguished itV' This statement, startling 

though it may appear, is probably substantially correct; it 

is cc-rtainly not conceived by Cousin in any contemptuous 

spirit ; but it has been insisted on by a later writer in 

snotlier tone, and apparently under considerable misappre- 

h<rn«ion with respect to its real import; and a fact which 

simply points to the scantiness of the sources whence the 

earliirr schoolmen derived their inspiration, has been wrested 

into fr»2sh pnxjf of their proneness to convert a purely verbal 

cr i^rammatical distinction into a lengthened controversy. 

It iJiay acconliii;,'Iy be worth wliile here to endeavour to 

a^o r.aiL, in what sense influences which so long controllcMl 

tl •L- "wholii course of e<lucation and learning can with accuracy 

:• r» f» md to so narrow and apparently inadequate a source. 

TliO pa'-siige in Porphyry, which is nothing more tlian a 

i»i--:n;; glance at a question familiar to his age but not 

a«i!:iit!ing of discussion in an introduction to a treatise on 

I'-gic and grammar, is to the following eflVct. Having 

pr'.mJM.'d that he must ecpially avoid (questions of grave 

irnj-'rtancc and those of a trifling character, he goes on to 

Ki J : — 'Thus, with resjK'Ct to fjeuera and species, whether 

Rur c« tto plirD«o ct nntour tVi llo «inc 
va |HH A \H\\ MO rtft«rimT uno j»liilo- 
Hoj.liic noiivi !!«•. L« «4 cotnnx nr«iii< iiU 
il«' r« tlo ]>]ti)*>H«>|ihii* Htronl M«n 
fnil»I«H, il < nt vrai, «l hi' ri-<»»« ntin<iit 
do Ih |»n.f«'' loirl'urit* thi li!ii|-«; 
ntiii-* ujio [«•!■< u«'r, lit |»ni»»«.i!HH* «!•' 
I'vlt n 111 )>r4>l>l« iiK* la «K'vt!«'|'i« rii il 
Itii ot»^rin» inin rMrri«'ro iiiitmitM'. 

I»p. HJ, KM, Ml». ol. \H\H, 

* T>:^ tfr»rnc«< of the Frrnch in 
B-'t ♦ *»i1t i»ri»c'nc«l: — tin rnifrn lU- 
r •-/ .1 r.m't , r».f.' la j'rttlwit, I'lni' 

f . •/ t ut rntiirf I't'tniijr,! Ml 

f* t ••:p«-«r,* lu» ft«M*, *\o iiioriilo 
1'.' . •! •; 'ni.t. In j»)iil«.««<'|»]iii« nnrun- 
r* .•.•«>.!»* !!%«<• !it ri%ili-:-.ti<'ii (Ixiit 

» f.!-ll |.irtji«, it la '•■li;MlO tt 

\r '■.•!*• ]«'.'n>i<|ur rjul rt\!tit f'lit 1ft 

% I:.' iJJf il*' otto |'lii!«>»«f|«li.f, Tt^' 

A • '. A U I l>ni*i» il«- r.'rj'li>r«» iIuiih 
U lr»»!n'tiou Utinr ilr ll^m-c. C'fwt 

Boiruira osf roRriirRr. SI 

ihey hare a tubitiuitud cxinUmco or cxuii onljr •• mere nmi 
coficopU of iho inUrllijct,— wlK*th«.*r, »iippfi*«in;( ilK*iii to liaro ^ " v' 
A •ulmUiiiijil exiHteiico, ilicjr oro miiU*rial or imiriatcrial.— 
and again wlietli«T tlioy exiNt in<li>p( ii«li*nt|jr of MfMihlo 
objecta or in them and an part of thnn, — I Mliall refrain frv#m 
enquiring. Fur thU u a qneittion of the yrtateH profuntlUy 
and dcmnndlnj Ungthtntd inrtMtif^itinn^* It in to Le noti-vl 
that of thii passage Uco trfxnnlntvmg were familiar to the 
•rb«>hini of the Middle Ages: the firnt that in the trausilation 
of Porphyry by Vici'>rinu^ to which B<K>thiu9 app«n«l€*<l a 
c«>mmentnry in the form c»f a dial*igue ; the >ee«)n<l that in JUJ" 
the tnin«*Ia(ion made by n*)ethiti.« hiniM-lf and aceompaut<tI ^^« 
by a second and fuller Cf>ranirntnry, also from hi« pen. In T!^\ 
the int<rr\al U'twtN-u the ci>mp>*»iti«>n «ff these two conimen* 
tiiriea it li evifh*nt, aa ( ou^in has %*ery elearly pointed out. 
tliat the views of I^H*tiiiti9 liail umh'rgime an impnrtAnt 
change. In the first he in**i*>tH n{v»n an ultni*Tlt''ili<»tie iiH 
terprctation, and tiotdd im-viii to have nii.<ipprihrtided 
Pt>q»hyry*s nn-anin;^ ; in the M^e^md, h^ inrliri**'* to a N«»nti« 
DjJiftic %i«-w, tihd pnmonnrxn* th.nt %'• nti% nnd ^p •«m»* have 
no objective existence*. Our c«»nciTn li«»iv«-vi-r •<• nith tmo 
ini|Kirtant facts wlii^h apjiear Wyon*! di^put**:— fir^t, that 
the pawci;;ir in PorjJiyry nas known to the Middle Agi*t 
thr(iii};h the mc^lium of two tnin*^Iations; M*cr*ndly, tiiat in 
Ifttth bis comni< ntarif's U«Kthiu4 r«*«i«^iMS the (|u<'Htion in* 
Volvf*! a<i one «»f iinmarv imiNirtanc***. Of tlii* the f«»llowinff o wi«< 
Uvjui;««-« an* r«in(lu«iv<* cvid« rnn* : ' Iln-c »e i*nttir INiriilivriu* *••■• 
l»fr%iti r ui<d;«-*rit« t*\hv |»r<»riiittit «*t|»'»n«Ti-. X«»n ••film in- ^'!J\2 
trt«|tirtioni» \u** f«jri;^'iri tnr, si i';i n'J»i^ a prinv'rdiM fufidir* t, 
a^I i|ti.i* nolii^ h.i << t.iiit i !;4r.i iiitpMliji ti'i pr* |»arat<ir. Si>n^ 

* A. n« •*«»«>•»;»»« tai •.!.>. *l '••"'. If. '•-•. VV rl UV^ K •• 

• •• #^.««tf 4t'^9 n 4#».*«««. fai I- •»• . -r t- I •• 4 f • jlti. •, •■• 

*«>♦•• %• ••'M »'#•• ••! •■•• 'rt * * • il** '■ M mfV !*■•• I*-*** t« 

• <•>»•••.•! ••« W^Kft ^«>|ii#«f i*0- *•'• ■ ' ,-'* '* ' ' ' * .'■• i*' ••* 
pfmt^it^t,^^ ^'.- i t. - • ' * <-. •! I • r* t«» l*r in 


igitttr introducti<mi8 moduin doctiraima parcitas dispatandi 
ut ingredientium viam ad obscuriasimas rerum caligines 
aliqno quasi doctrins stise lumine temperaret Dicit enim 
apud antiqoos alta et rnjognifica quastione disserta, quae ipse 
nunc paroe breviterque composuit Quid autem de his a 
piiscis philosophise tractatoribus dissertum sit, breviter ipse 
tangit et pnetcrit Tom Fabius :-^-Quid illud, inquit, est t Et 
ego : — ^Hoc, inquam, quod ait se omnino pneterniittere genera 
ipsa et species, utrum vere subsistant^ an intellectu solo et 
mente teneantur, an corporalia ista sint an incorporalia : et 
utrum separata^ an ipsis sensibilibus junctcu De his sese 
quoniam alia esset disputatio, tacere promisit: nos autem 
ailhibito moderationis frono, mediocriter unumquodque tan* 

TIic foregoing passage is from the first Dialogue on the 
translation by Victorinus : the following are from the Com- 
mentary by Boethius on his own translation : — ' Sunt autem 
qufTstiones, qua? sese reticere promittit et perutilcs; et 
secretap, et temptata) quidem a doctis viris nee a pluribus 

dissoluta? V 

fd 'Ipsa enim genera et species subsistunt quidem aliquo 

*j|» mode, intelliguntur vero alio mode et sunt incorporalia, sed 

5J^ sensibilibus juncta subsistunt insensibilibus. Intelliguntur 

vero pra?ter corpora, ut per semotipsa subsistentia, ac non 

in aliis esse suum hal)entia Sed Plato genera et species 

ca?teraque non modo intelligi universalia, venim etiam esse 

atque pra?ter corpora subsistere putat: Aristoteles vero 

intelligi quidem incorporalia atque universalia, sed subsistere 

insensibilibus putat, quorum dijudicare sententias aptum 

esse non duxi. Altioris enim est pliilosophia^, idcirco vero 

studiosius Aristotelis scntentiam exsccuti sumus, non quod 

cam maxime probarcmus, sed quod hie liber ad Pra'dicamenU 

conscriptus eat, quorum Aristotelis auctor est'/ 

rmmwm The view taken by Boethius of that which he thus con- 

kycMMin. ceivcd to be the Aristotelian theory respecting Universals, 

' Boethinii, Diahgui i. ed. Banil. Porphyrium a $e Trantlatum^ Lib. i 
t»p. 7 tnd S. ed. Baftil. p. 54. 

* Boctbios, CommentarioruM in ' Ibid. p. 66. 


it dcarljr analyictl by CouNini^'The final condiukiii of ^mji 
Bocthias,' lajrii thU writer, ' upon the tlirvc qucttiouf eooUioed 
in the sentence of Porpliynr, u (t) tlmt in one ten«e generm 
and tpectet may be regarded as po wcJ Miing an indepen«lcnt 
existence, thoti^h not in another; (2) that they are them* 
selves ijicorpon*al but exist only in corporeal objects of seni^ie; 
(3) tlint tlioiigli they have no real exif»tence save in the 
indivi«lual and nensible object, they may be ciinceived, apart 
from the neiii^ible and |mrticular, aft iucorpi^real and wif* 
subsintent, Acconling to Pinto, says B<»etliiu}k. gt*nera, Kfiecteik 
and univerNaU, i*iiM not only ok conccptii of the intelK-ct. but 
inde{K*ndently of Mcn.^iMo obj(*<*tH nnd ab!*tmrtt<d fn>m them ; 
sccunling to Ari>itollo, tliey have no r»»al exi«tcnre nave in 
iM'iiHiMe ol»J4H-tH nnd nre (mivf*n»al nnd inutLttcrial only ts 
s|iprc*hi*n*!«^1 )»y thi* tiiiritl. H roniainn but to a«ld thnt 
lit-^'thiun d«H*M not prrtviid to dtride U'twern the two; tlie 
dirUion of tlic rfiiitrovrf^y bf!oii;»H to a higher branch of 
pliiluH*iphy. If li»*Ii.iH yivt-n UH tli«» Afi«*t'»tMl'.in c»noIu«i«>n, 
it if« not Ucmuni' III* tT.|>t«i\««« it mtiHT •Kan tliat of I*' »»«i. Init 
U*caUAe the tri-atJM* on i^hiili In i<» o»nitn< iititi;; i« nn intn>- 
diirtion to tliv ( at«';jurii ?%,— tin* w«»rk of Ari*»«»tlf hiniM-lf. 
From till-* htatt np nt. uhiih i« im nijiti!<.n<»!y nrrtiraf'% it i« 
cvid«'nt that it r**Htltiu>^ in lii^ tir«t OMninrntarv monld %iH*ni 
to favour Hit lion t r«MTvation atid witli but httir jn*!p*ni« nt 
tlio rintoTiic tlMHirv, in tli<* Mrond, nithont n »ifii;I«- opinion 
n|¥»n tin* «|ii'>tion f>l l'niv«r-.iU that can Ik? calhnl hi^ <»wn, 
but Hiih'lv ill hi«» f.i|m«'itv :«* ♦r:in*!«*'»r and n»»if!ji«rjt 'o*" on 
Ari^toth . - !m a<!t>|>tH tl.i P*ri|i !*• tir th««»r%-. • tiotn i if«-» it 
Hith i-ipia! l«i'"«l>t\, f<i|l«*iK^ It off II*.. «*.?!•■!. t .1.*.* •!< f 111, 
d«\otifj^ hut a "Mi'^'h- hrn- t.» tht* tli»«iv o| |*. .* . ; an*! it 
H:i* thn«» t]iit...f tin- t%\.» '^u ,\ ^- I. ■•.!-. \\lii'h } *A Ai\'.*U*\ 
aii!««|iiitv. ••ii»' * \i''\ . ?I- it of A»''*"'!'. H..* fo :■!.> « \S nt 
kn>i»n, oif. ri»i;» iiili<«l «i.t!i i «|h- t t,* th |.'«*!'ii i>f 
l*«»riih\rv a -i.^trt!.** n it a!? •• !* • r *»♦:.♦ 4 • .»\. *•■•! at !• i-.t 
' !• -ir and Will d. fi't I A'l 1 <» tl i* t!. -t «!.. Ihf » -'i. • on 
hv Poriih^tN ai» I !l«- t»«» H'.l.* "( A' *••:!• ti.i' •' ••.! bv 

'^•« thlM«, Wff Hitfk* on \f*\c rftid trf I'll*. I \t . tha» t) « "« oImV 

^KT\' wtudn d anil »*<'»nni« tit««i ♦»» ••»•! thi* a'« 4\» m"i imtv 



^ irith Boethius; and it is evident that from this . exclusive 
^^ Study there could scarcely result anything but tendencies 
and intellectual habits entirely opposed to realism \* 

It will scarcely be deemed necessary that we^ should 
produce further evidence to shew — that not simply were the 
main features of the Realistic controversy carefully preserved 
in the pages of the best known author of the earlier Middle 
Ages, but that the Aristotelian refutation was especially 
familiar to the learned of those times; and it is further to 
«if be observed that the gloss of Rabanus Maurus quoted by 
Mr Lewes in his History of Philosophy, and erroneously 
^ attributed by him to Boethius, constitutes not the loctte 
^ classicus, as he has inferred, for the origin of the controversy, 
SST but is rotlier evidence that the controversy was sufficiently 
familiar to the age in which Rabanu.s wrote to permit him 
to indicate it by nothing more than a passing allusion*. 
Cousin, indeetl, luis ventured to sunnisc that, inasmuch as 
Rabanus was a pupil of Alcuin at Tours and afterwards 
himself hexul of the school founded by Charlemagne at Fulda, 
this gloss mciy possibly represent the dialectical teaching of 
tliose schools. However this may be, it is sufficiently certain 
tliat the great dispute respecting Universals did not remain 
fossilised iu three wonls from the time of Boethius to that of 
Rosccllinus, but that it was to a certain extent familiar to 
the students of the ninth and tenth centuries, and that when 
tlie daring upholder of ultni-Nominalism came forward to 

> Connin, Frapmeiitt rhUotaphi- 
que*, AbrlanI, pp. KR)— 102. Tho 
ar^imeutH wbicli boethiuH briiiKH fur- 
ward arcj borrowfd from Arihtotlo, 
MrUiptujnict, lJk8. Ill aud viii pp. 02, 
loH, 171. cd. IJrundiH. 

* The ft»llor,in^; in tlio original of 
tbc l>as^ftJ:l• quoted by Mr Lewes 
(///#/. of Phil, 11 *lT))\-—IuU'uth Por- 
phifrii e»t in hoc ojtrre /acili'in intfl- 
lectmn ml PnrdicanuHtn pnriMrare, 
tractanth dr quinque rthim vel vocibui^ 
grnere $cilicft^gpt'cie^ differentia ^ pro* 
prio et accidcnte^ quorum cognitio 
Talet ad Pntdicamentorum cofjnitio- 
uem. Mr Lewes (wbilo quoting 
CuuHii] as bis antborftv) bas, as it 
appi'ars tc me, fallen into error on 

tbrco points: — (1) in ascribing to 
lioetbiuH tbo fon'^oing pasKage, wbieb 
as CouHJu ex]>resHly states is part of 
the gb»Hs of Jiahunun Mauruf ; (2) in 
api>Iying tbc connneuts of Cousiii on 
tbo translation of Porpbyry by Bihj- 
tliiiis in tbo »ijth century, to tlio 
f;b>ss of lUbanus Maurus in tlio 
ninth; (ii) in leaving it to bo inferred 
tbut tbo abovo fragment of tbis gloHS 
was tbe 4ole $urx'ivinti j>a»*atje wberein 
tbe question of Universals was ad- 
verted to by Boetbius. So erroneous 
a representation of tbc bistory of 
what Mr Lewes bimself terms tbe 
*(Jreat Dispute* of these times, 
attests a very bast}' coubultatiou of 
bis autboritv. 


mge hb philotophie arguments in oooUaTenUno of tbe doe- 
trine of the Trinity, be did little more, m rq^aids the 
of metaphjrict, than add fresh fuel to a eontrorersj already 
frequently debated*. 

But thouffh it would appear that Roeoi*lIintts eannotni 
rightly be regarded as the first to renew the ancient battle, 
it is undeniable that he inrested it with a greatly incivased 
importance by the new element he introduced. Hitherto 
the existence of UnivenoUs hatl probably been regarded as 
little more than an abntract question, and indintinguisliable 
as such from the many numerous dincuMions that exercised 
the ingenuity of the dialectician. The new starting point iik 
aMOciated mitli the name of RoTtcclIinus, is that marked by 
tlio application, wliich lie was the fimt to make, of thej^^'j; 
concluHiotiH «»f the prfvailiii;; Nominalism to tliot great theo- JJ^"]^/ 
Lnrical «loctrinc wliicli <»n«^ writer lia** veiiturtNl to cbamctcriiie 
as the 'f«MiiHhition of all the motapliy*>ic:il thought and 
iipi*culation of the ft^«*M aft<»r Gr»n:*»ry tlic (ia*at/ — the doctrine 
of the Trinity. Tlic w-^Mnin;; rilovanry «»f liin opinion to 
tliis doctrine ftcarrt-ly rc^piircn to be in»lirnt«»«l. If indct^ it 
were po*wiblo to iili«»w that CHtHonren or «jii.»litict, ovi-r an*! 
sliove their pre^eno* in the in<livi(lual, had a tt-pinite entity, 
that thit entity a«^in wa* «omrtliiii^a|iart fn>m tin* c«»n .vpt in 
the miiid.^M|ually di^tinrt fn>ni t'lr m^nticnt Ktibjcct ami tlio 
•cnsible «»lij«*ct, — it mi;:lit M-rni to many to fulluifr that the 
gn*at my-t<Ty <»f a Triuno (^Mlliiad. tlic Thnv in Oti«% tlio 
ihie in Tlint*, wa** in i»*»nio «h j;r«*«' l>r»M!;;lit ncan*r to hitman 
appiX'hfii^ioiiV To *nt'li a con. lu*i«»n li«»m'\t r the Nonii- 

%tk%t% {tktti 0' A •'-#•«••• «•♦> • .f« f\«»ll /•'• « -tf *tt ♦' ' '1.'. •■ » t, •»««■« fm'il f 
•|t|r rv iltMttr |)*t •! |-4* |if*t<'«!Mr k <•'•• l fm mrt 4mt ,1 t i> 4* r*tf. f t ••# 

I »iit( tir ; It! ••! I '» •»•' '!'• '^ •^ •'* *^*i^ *• "' • ** it-f- " ••'«', i •«. • »•• » ''# mm—i 

•l««t |Mr1i« •<»r ultf »}•>••!• n H •■ < « ',f«»..««^.f 'w**! ».« |««r*. «.•»«.* 

f rrtiM* lU »ll •«»■'»• f ••!.•!. I »♦ *, tl / f ^ •■•. fc't / < ,' ♦. ^ '. , l».#»^ I'-. .' .r^ H, 

«t'M' I'ttlir *W t« 4-\*m |'r.!«r<l«t )<•«. at 'I I !*• ) . r «*i • «!.« fti w • %. 

•| »• r«»f|-liwi %%* f I'll* I tv 'Uii* r« tl# At > I %\. •♦. • f ll.. !• ' .*>' li • f !^« tl.i«« 

l"trv«iiai ti«>n 1« ti***ifr. 1 1 •}•*.. la «l.f t>if«-«KUr ->trt<«> ■•jt »« t I*.««l« 

U»*t\r9^ I«* f ffprr. . A' t !• t«l. •! t ftl* .1 • » ', ti .17 '.I 
• r»' *, trnitiittt <-«tt«ti4« >U - i.>ii.« ' *>'» >. ftt !•••!. «»• rvrlk-tilT iIm 

It r«*utt** . ()n<r le |>f^ ^ ^ int |«>«r %i«* ' \t.-«'*ti ' <^'«« f »■«• Ik « 'tin 

i«m«« tjk> I li*fr*«U*i«l»i<fl ff !'«•!? ilr. -a t^. • •••« A' ««>•»••, 4fMi'if'r »» i/f« 



of Ida 

nalism of Bo0cellinu8 which- appeared inevitably to lead up 
to Tritheismp oflfered an insuperable barrier, and hence the 
origin of that great controversy, commencing between this 
phUoeopher and Anselro, which so long divided the learning 
and the* intellect of these tiroes. Into the details of this 
long" dispute* it is not within our province to enter\ For 
more than two centuries it formed the rallying point of 
contending parties, and tlie Schools re-echoed to cries of 
nniversalia ante rem, and univerealia in re. John of Salis- 
bury, writing about the year 1152, relates how when he 
returned to Oxford after his residence at Paris, whither he 
had gone to study the canon law, ho found the wordy warfare 
raging witli undiminished vigour. The science of sciences, as 
Rabanus Maurus had called it, seemed likely altogether to 
absorb the rest. The enthusiasm of the disputants was 
puzzling to his cool, practical, English mind, and elicited 
from him expressions of unqualified contempt, — the earliest, 
perhaps, tliat greeted the ears of the learned of that period. 
*Thcy bring forth,' he said, 'some new opinion concerning 
genera and species, that had escaped Boetlnus, and of which 
Plato was ignorant, but which they by wonderful good fortune 
have extracted from the mine of Aristotle. Tliey arc i)re- 
parcd to solve the old question, in working at which the 
world has grown old, and more time luis Ix^en expended than 
the Ciesars employed in winning and yovcrning the univei'sc, 
more money spent tlian Croesus ever possessed. Long has 
this question exercised numbers throughout their whole lives; 
this single discovery has been the- sole object of their search; 
and they have eventually failed to arrive at any result 
wliatever. The reason I suppose was that their curiosity was 
unsatisfied with that which cilone could be discovered For 
as in the shadow of any body the substance of solidity is vainly 

modo pluret pntova^ quarnm siiifiula 
qineqttf est prrfectut Detu, tint Deut 
ttmi»r De Fidf Trinitatit »lve In- 
fntn'itione Verbis contra hlatphemiai 
Verbi, qiiotcnl by CouHiii. 

* For an impartial account of tbe 
cootroversj, see Appendix (A) to Pro- 
itnsur liuiu's Mental and Moral 

Science; Haar^>an, Philotophie Srho* 
la«tique ; Hump<len*8 Hampton Lee- 
turet, Lect. ii ; and, for the im- 
portant qncstion of tbe relation of 
tlio Categories and tlie Inago^ of 
Por]>ljyry to the controversy, Dean 
Mansers Arti» Logica nndimrnta. 
Appendix, Note A. 


■ought fur, K» in thow thii^ that bctoog to the intencct, ,f^^ 
uhI «an obljr be ooncvived u untTcnotla but ewmot cxiat u - 
«iiiTen«lii tbc nibttiuiGe of • more •ulitl eiiirtenoe canoot bo 
i]i««nt«d. To wear out a life in tilings of this kiod ia to 
■ork, leach, and do aotliing ; for theac arc but tba ahadowa 
of tkingi^ ev«r flwing away and vaiiiitliing the mnre ijuickljr 
thf mwn eagerly tlicy arc punui-d'.' It ia an oft n'pca(c<l 
n-miudcr to which )te give* utterance in hi* writingH, tliat 
ll>e diitlt>ctic art h<]W'L-v<>r adniiral>lo ii not the sum and end 
<^ human ac<|iiirt.-niviit*. To audi vagnriw the school prv- 
■iik-d uviT br li^-rnanl <>f Chartrci* at the cluse of the rk-vciilh JSjJJJ^* 
n-Htury otfvrn an agn-cnl>Io cmilnut. Grammar an<] rliv(<iric 
a|>|var to have llnrc btvn tiiiiKht after a far 1cm mechanical JiSj^ 
(iUiii>n; an nticniloii l» currt^ lAtinily was inndcat<'*l, aiyl *^ 
iWru and QoiTitilian w.-rt- Htiidiol iw nK-l.-U Tli<- R<>nian 
|KX'U wvn' n'>t ri<';;l<i.'(>il. and lliv whul<- i>)'i(< in of iii»tnic- 
ti«a rlicitf) (he c<»nm<-iidali<in of the writer bIm>vc (inotcd. 
It is to bt- »ilis.T\-.-.I iiMii-.ll. thai Lanfninc, AiiHclm, John "f y, ?^ 
K,liHh.,Ty'. and Cinildu*, KtuK- far irtircr Latin E'i;^ 
llLtni>i>Hli><>i--|<ii-(illy IoIn' f'inii'l ani'-ns th-™- »1i'»m- t.-i>li'».-u 
r«ni|ilcli'ly iixniiilt-il liy the lurKifti" vcroion* uf Ari-liale 

tl>.>t ». re'.l>i.)i.-.l l.y llil- lal. r S. I>...| n. 

Ill Ihi- >. II ll<i;i Aii-«liii di<-l ; it «.» lilt- vinrin «hi<h .4 cha-i.,-.,.!* ..r-'"'' n "''-i "f i-> "» !*■"«. .'ll';i; 

A IK hi* ).ii|>iN H..-. Al- l.iid. :>iid a f.-w y<.>r^ Lit. r «.- m-c ai.m 


■»^ the handflMae^ tmo, impetuoos youth diallenging bU n 
— ' to argument and completely diaoomfiting him amid t 
mntder and I4>plaase of his fellow students. We see him 
■gain, after his terrible fall and disgrace, ventaring once 
mon to lift bia head among men and asserting with far 
greater power and acumen than Berengar, the rights of 
reason against authority, essaying by an eclectic theoiy to 
reconcile to the intellect the mysteries of faith, and even 
daring to question whether Dionysiua the Arcopogite ever 
set foot in GauL It is veiy evident, from the crowds which 
huug upon his teaching, following him to his lonely retreat, 
and from the efforts of William of Thierry and Bernard of 

• * Clairvaui: to check the progress of the now ideas, that a spirit 
■» ^ps moving among men which the mere traditionalist regarded 

with Bpprt-hcnsion and alarm. Tliroughout Europe indeed a 
chnn;^c was to bo discerned. The preceding century, uahercil 
in amid dire npprcheusion, tind closctl in xplcndoiir. I1ic 
Imnnor of the Cross hiul boon seen floiiting from the battlo- 
nicnU of tlic Holy City ; the second Crusiide, already projocttit, 
wna nkindling utilhiiMioHin. 'Die univcriiity of Pari^ wnx 
attnicting nunicroim students; the teitcliing of Tmerius at 
Ut)li<giia WON difl'iisiiig a knowlu^lgo of tho Itoinnn luw ; tho 
poets and omtors of aiitiijnity were beginning to bo stndiud 
with a genuine admiration, and a less barbarous Lntinity to 
prevail ninong t)ie Neh<ilnr.s of the ago. ' It was,' olMurves a 
writer whom we have nlrendy quoted, ' n very critical moment 
in the history of KiimiMan ciiltnre, not nltogctlier unlike tlio 
one in individual life when the boy leaves tho school foniia 
for a more elaborate and syKtematic course of instntctiuu. 
In biith there is the ilanyor that what was vital and enorgetic, 
however ininiatnro, in tho firnt stagi', shuuld bo cxehaiigid 
fi>r formality in tho sfciunl; the etiual danger that tlii'ro 
should bo Si n'aetii<n n^ain^t tlii.H formality, niid that a. stormy 
hfc should take the plaec of a calm one'.' 

• Such were tho tendencies of tho ago which saw the great 
*• theoliigical tcxt-buok of the next three centuries, the 'Scn- 

' ProfosMir Muuricc, iledtiiial Phihtiopht/, p. 15<i. 


^■»f 'j.-*n'ik->:. IjiuQchcil upon the worM. — tb« 

..^ H.!..'* •! v.U'UipU toobtoin for tk« doctrines ■ 

... . > ^iiiiMK- •s>lciii'.' Little is known of the 

.. '..% .<.. i: tol-jnic. t1i<>ii;;li orcliliiiiliop of Parij 

I. >. v."<a' :_v of 1 1 is )N.-Tf'>nii.inrf hiu ninre 

>k . >. '<. -u i|iit'slion'. Our tiiain ci>ncvni, 

. . . :. .:■.<: i'(i-r AH ail cuilimliniL-iit of ll>c 

II 1 -iir t-Kikti, anil arc almost viitirt'lT 2 

. » ■ -. ..f f..iir fillKM of tW Latiii 

... \ .. r..-,-. Ililnrj'. un.) l'.-t-.i.««. tl.o 

■• ' • iii-liiitlv pimru'iiiiit. 'I'Ik- fif't 

■ ■ I'li-iit-ili', c>iiit;kiii4 nn r\{t>j<titii<n 

. ■. .■{ ill.' ClLiiri'li roiti'irniri;; lliin 

., . . /i,\(,r.-fj'„,ri iir.. .Uv..t,.l 1.. tUe 

■ .' i:..-.v..i..!I-K.k..i.titl.l/'. l(e,.,n 

-. ■ ■ •; Cif;i:»e't r-','..,t,':uf. .Ui,^. 

.. ','.«.* t]..- li.Hiii r iL.- 

., Will :iii.l llr!-iii:il Sin; tl»- l!i. -iv 

. . v*. .nti.ii I •!.,• t;-l r....,..'.'.-'l 

! l.-.k I- .1. t!,.|it!.-..f /A /,.,„. 

-, ,.| .i,.|, .,■,. .1...- ;., I ft 

..■ ,,'-.. v,l J-.-'.i. L S, .\.i....i 


^g™^ CKritti kiAuent m^ientuan parem cum Dto ; et ti omnia an 
■■"v"" fws iMwk 3. A' Chri$tua ment^ et tiln et nobU, et quid 

et quid tubi^. The fourtb book treats of the Sacraments, stu 
the distinctioD between the Old and New Law, the fitia 
jodgetneiit, the resurrection of the dead, the final happio' 
of the ssjnta, and the sufferings of the damned. 

A comprehensive outline of the work will be found io tin 
fienedictina Uittotre Litiimire de la France*; our mari 
concern, however, is with that new element which tin 
ij Miai t Sentences, wliile apparently resting solely upon patristii 
itasak, authority, undoubtedly wrved to introduce into the Btudj 
of dogmatic theoli)gy. Tlic dijilccti(.>« of the ngo wore jMrno. 
tmting to tlio very citadel of bulief, and the reo^nil iiiii 
afTonlcd to this tendency of the Unius nmy be n^iirdinl n; 
tlio cliiiracteriHlic featiiro of the work. Ah cnch article nl 
U.-lief is cnuuciatcil, an clfuH in made to dofine with gnvitii 
pri-cixion its true bearing and liuiitiitions; h<'nco a KeiU'f 
of DistincHum, ns tluy aro termeil, conceived in conformity 
with a dialectic of the KoverL'st order; Couxtn indeed \\i\- 
aiwertcd that in this roNpect tliey KiirjiaHS all previous <rlt'iii-ls 
of Kcholatitieism'. Of the value of such a method diflereiit 
opinioMH may lie entertaimil. It is easy, on the one hand, to 
point to the merest jnioriliticH, tlio natural result of ttiu 
application of the same process to details with respcet tu 
which, OS knowleilgo was wanting, the logician could but 
fight the air,— heresies, representing nothing more tlniii 
flights of the imaginiition, met by dugmajt resting upon nn 

> OneolDio qiicHti'inH llmt ilivi. • Vi.1. jni n. SSD. A [i liter nml 

■li-l ||u> im'1..k>1h ill ll.c liiiio >.( I'l-tniH *<>r7 CKn-ful one, l.iit )H.>r in 1>U'- 

«iiH uliitlicr till' Uivitio iinliirr, or mry < nii-iiliiin, in tii Ih> tnuml in ll« 

iiiiTy till' [H'twaiolily vl liio Sun, bo. Knal mr Ir* Srntritrri df I'kiir 

nine llirnninti!. AfliT Bumiuinjt up Lambanl CimMfrrfu rniu If jmint 

lliu i>j<iiiHinii «f llw l"ul!iim,li.'ci.ii- )b Vur UMorho-lfoiiamtiqHf ; Tlu'wi 

rJihlrH tliiit «!■ tini-t Bi'init tlint llio piinr ul.Iciiir Io (lru<1(< du Ilnrtii-lut 

IH'rMiD ol tlw Ki« liDH |>U( en huitiiin en 'Hi^iIukJo, par Jvuii UniKli, Kltiu- 

nalutc, lllil Diut [liu* Did diviiiu nnit boiuv, INiiT. 

lioiniui uatiirpn liiitc Ui-n nniird in ' Cuuxin ii|icnkii of Pclmfl Ijim- 

tbpSfiii. Wn^llirnr.irpHi-Kiivthiit bardii* aH <1iHliii<.nii>.1icJ -)iir uiiu 

Dm Son ha* Mirn un liiiii tlio niiliiro niivrrilj de iliiili'i'ti<|iie igne tnni> iw 

4it a Hlave, wu inlcinl n«t lu i'xi-]>i'1o tn<iivcri<-/ |Kiiiit iluiix k-n iw)ir>liu'li- 

rjio diviiir rmlnm Imt <in1y tlic |i. r- qiicH '|<ii lui >icjiil HnUriuun,' 'EHrrf 

MWiii «t tbe I'utlict oud ttiv lluljr (Uruwilo-), i VJi. 

TBI iiDimcn^ SI 

ti^nalljr uuttufMlor; fouDdaUon. On th« other ha&d, h ^ 
u cMtsin tbftt, in reUtion to funtUmciital vtida of belief, ^ 
thii rigid umlyiin of their meaning and whole eonteit, coold 
Karccljr foil to develop a more cli-ar and iDtelligeot conv 
prcheniion of the doetrinen of the Cliriitian (aith. 'No 
■ludcnt of dirinitjr,' cays a critic of acknowledged autborilj, n 
' read tlio fintt book, we tlioutd conceive, witliout acquir- ^ 

a deeper and clearer conception uf principle* in wbich lie 
impl)citl)r believi-d, witliout cultivating the precioua 
liabit of diatinction. And we doubt whctlter anj: atudt^t of 
philfwiphy can n-iul large portion! of (hat book anil of the 
tlin-e fulluwin};, without aciuirin;; a m-w MonRv of the dignity 
nml n-HiMMi-iliilily iif tlic nitiin- wliirh he hnn tnk''n i^ini 
liim, «i(li>mt niiiri'-»iri;; tlmt lliir dn^^nnliot Iiam tnH;;ht him 
111 Iw m<irv ofiiM i-ii<|iiiri-r tlinii lit* wiw iB-fiirc.' 

Till* ininlrHt htiit,iin^L- in kliich the r»ii>|'iU-r dc«cril>efl hia 
«ork, OM coul.iiiiiii;; witliiii n i-riinll ci>rtiji.-i'H the opinioM of 
l)ir fnthem, ta haw the i-iKpiiriT lliu tnxibk- "f tuniiiig over 

y voluniCH*, nii;,'ht Ki-«.'in ■uflirii-nt t<> have avi'tttil opp*^ 
kitii In llint on.hnvimr Icwrvir he win by n<t ntt-.xwt 

P-miJctvly Hiirci-wfiil. Like nil inn.rtvili.rti*. ihl^ ii|^>lii-nti.rfi 
of (Iw logici^in'a art wan ri-(H>''h-<l at first with di>likc am) a* 
ni>>IMcii>n The vuluinv which wni t» ln-oitnt.- tliu thiiilff^iitvl ■• 
t>-tt-ti(M>k nf nur uuivcrvitieo up to the Iti-fonnation. waa 
Mvcnljr criticiMil »n itJi first intnulucti'-n'. GualtvTU*, tb« 

' 'brrH nilitiiiB* *r«|,linBi Tb- hti p***"! inl" rmml* (4 npinlxw*. 
Ir.n •inlinli**. hiv^K" r—^m ll"j r<>'l l> »'l"tt»l. » i-<«lr< hi 

B"H til-n^m t.iii...r.-.UHB .i..|- ll^ r- —l—i. i.« •■( tl .t Mt»-««i.-M.e 

6I1.-...» 111.- .1. f1..ri. ..ft)' I. !«■ P.-II...I 

f>l..a.>i .(. ■.,! .1 il,. .^n>r lii~* )..-. ir>— .•./. 

r>l>«IU>l'ir..|t).r^r. .,.(..., lo i,. .,. .1 

ml...|. ll.J-tr M. ....... lU,f I. .!.... ..( I',. 

...-a fl,. I'.., tiM. Il-fl.'l ». I ■■«'« 
.>.li. 4.<.» 4-,<...* I., ll.. Il-!-n^..^ 
■IxU kii* Ji<l<iB*<l k-.-ii*! tlir iM|-«ta- 




I by 


Frior of St. Victoirei in his celebrated attack on Abelard, di 
not spare the prelate who appeared to have learned so miic 
from that philosopher, and denounced a method which h 
declared served rather to encourage doubt than to confin 
the belief of the faithful \ Nor can we assert that tli 
mistrust thus evinced was without foundation. Bome hi 
ever apprehended with marvellous instinct the approach ( 
danger,— of danger not to truth but to her own interests i 
power. The »Scntences of Peter Lombard exerted an in 
fluence which equally exceeded tlio intentions of the conii)il(< 
and the anticipations of his opponents. The api>cal one 
made from authority to reason, from implicit faith to logica 
satisfaction, the old method of treatment could not be re 
stored; the standard of the philosopher had been planter 
within the precincts of the Church*. The opposition evoked 
however, was but shortlived, for the Sentences appealer 
with singular success to both the wants and mental habits c 
the age. Before long it became the recognised obligation o 
each great teacher to reconcile his philosophic tenets witi 
the subtle definitions, the rigidly inflexible analysis of th 
commentaries of Peter Lombard To this task two of th 
massive folios of Thomas Aquinas, in the edition publisher 
at Venice in 1593, are devoted ; and in the great edition o 
Duns Scotus, by Luke Wadding, no less than six foIi< 
volumes, or half the whole number, arc occupied with th< 
same labour. Albcrtus Magnus, Bonaventura, Durandus 

natcncss of tho spccnIationR of their 
titu(^8.* Hnnipdcu's Scholastic PhilO' 
tophtj^ Lect I. 

' The gravamen of the attack made 
by Goalterus was quod qua sua estet 
sentfntiat nunquam fere aperiret; ted 
triplicem vulgo de omni quitstione 
proponeret opinionem; quarum prima 
eorum erat qui nee llaretici nee Ca- 
thoUei vere did poterant. 2. Eorum 
qui manife»te Catholici erant, 3. De- 
nique eorum qui ah$que uUo dnhio 
cemrndi erant haretiei, Omnes veto 
authoritatihui sacra Script ura et 
sanctorum Patrum^ ratianihus quoque 
et arffumentis dialecticis eonjinnahat^ 
non determinant qua vera essent et 
Unenda, niens nolle se ut lectori sua 

sufficeret diitputatto, "BxHtoxxB, Jliti 
Vnii\ Paris, ii 40G. 

* * Cet ouvrago dcBtin<< il tracer de 
limites & rcsprit bumain, & lai iu 
diqner lee sources oil il devait pui^c 
la tbeologie, a eu un effet tout con 
traire k sa destination. Jamais 1 
licence des opinions ne futplus grand 
qu*apr^s les Sentences; jamais Ic 
Scolastiqnes n'etudi brent avec pin 
d'ardeur la pbilosopbio palenno c 
n*en us^i*ent plus dans les matit'n 
de religic*n quo dopuis quo Loinbnr 
en eu montrc les dangers. Jamni 
r^tudo di»s PrTCs ne fut i»lus ndj;lij,'d 
que dcpuisqu'il Tavait recommand^e 
L'llistoire Littcraire de France, xi 

Eititu sra Mueely inferior fai tlieir atal m » 

pi The Cbardi. in gratitude lor tlte ngaal wrriee 

be cred, long celebrated the memory nt Peter 

Lorabft b^ in anDual commemoration in hii boooar, and 
ercn in Proteatant oommunionii, thoM who eould ■> &r 
iliveat themselrea of the prcjtidicvt of anociation ai to realine 
the ftandpoint from wtti-nco thow lalMun were ooncvivcd, 
have bonie c-rii|t1intie tcxtitnony to their merit 

Ilounil tlioautbi'ritativoiiltfmiiccvof thi) K^-ntcncco grvw 
Dp th« iltijimatic th<.-'>l"i:y tit mirrt'ciliii^ (^■n<-rati<(M,— the 
tliv<ilog]r iif tliu HohrHihinn, trnirHii and tramtn'-Med over a 
riipd iiclworlc of dinlcctirM, where iho fluwif often l<»t it* 
perfume and tlic fruit pcrii>lie<l. It wa% well fur ttio fuith of 
tlKMC ogva tlint, liefiirc the prevailing melliod Wl driven life, 
warmth, and Retinihttit y from out the pnle of belief, a thinker m 
of a different schoul from that of Peter l^mlwrJ anM« t<> * 
tnuwmit a loftier tni'Iitii^n. It mnj Iw doubted wliethvr 
even the Senieno-^ m<>rc atnwcly nfrt.-cted tlte habile ofm 
n-Iigioui thnii;'bt for tlie neit three centime* than did the ^ 
wrilingi of St. An<M'lm. Whatever of emotion iremhl<-« on 
tlie lipt of the Inter M-huulmen.—Biinaventura, Lincolniemi*, 
or OcTwn, — wlintevcr of thwlnpeal speculation ititl flung 
iu phimmel into ih-|>th* which di-Hol the aubtlcljr of the 
dialecticinn4^.owe<l itn innpiratioi), to a great extent, to the 
author of the rnnlopon. And jrel An«e|m waa no mere 
cntbii*iaHt; he wrw rather th<- iiKtiphj-KKinn, imlii^anllj 
rrpudintin;,- the i>h.-irkh-* whieh the new l<i-,;ic wu ca>ttng 
ariHmd en-iuirie* wliieh he n ^-aril'il a* the l.i|;h<-»t arliiity 
l» which mnn Ci'uM axpire. Hi* ar;^inienl.-<ti"n, for the 
m-M part. t« e.iiw!ly n-m'.v.-l ti.e j>ii. nlitiei «f the 
wlox'U and fri»m the ineonrhuiM- tb.ipvihr* ef the niy>tie. 
In hi* wrilin;?' 'h- »i.iril of St Aii;;ii«iiii<- ii*- * ak'^in, aivl it 
»M iod."l. in nil I.n>t«1.tlitv, rhully tl,fi.ui;ti t'li- inlt':. ii.i- 
••f the K»!:li>h at.-hU.h..j. thai lb- ;;.'i>ii>. ..f t)>e Afri.:.n 
Father rela n.-l it. hohl ni-u th- ...t..i. (l.unh. The 
'Vft/u il ii-tflli;i-im U-e.ime the k-y-i.-'li (o ail o.-w 
RH.(.nobh' in the Ulii'f of the Mi-MIe A;- • ; nii'l m-r.rn 
•{•eeuhlion, mrMTvin:; nf llie endh-<* *• ireh f.if ne iilal a"«ir. 




anoe in the phenomena of the external worid, has more than 
once returned to this subjective testimony, to reconstruct,-^ 
with a more elaborate synthesis, it is true, but on the same 
foundation,— the edifice of faith\ 

Our retrospect has now brought us to the threshold o( 
tho thirteenth century. Wo have endeavoured to trace out 
the chief elements and tendencies in the thought and culture 
that preceded that eventful age, and more especially to brii 
out in their true importance and relations questions wiiti 
rejpect to which, as it has appeared to us, the interpretations 
of certain writers have been defective or erroneous: and 
while the necessity for brevity has perforce diminished the 
value of our enquiry for those to whom the field is new, and 
its interest for those to whom it is known, we may yet hope 
that we have succeeded in indicating the more important 
materials for a more lengthened investigation. 

^ * La noaveaiit6 de cette th^logie 
Tient de ce qu'elle est une applica- 
tion an dogme, non de la logiqiie, 
iQai8 de la m^tapb^'siqne; Don de la 
dialectiqne d*Aristote, maia de la dia- 
lectiqiie de Platon. C^est done tout 
ensemble exag^rer et m<!*coDnaitre le 
hjle d'Anseline que de Tappeler un 
des createurs de la scolastique. U 
fandrait an moins faire one distinc- 
tion que Ics critiques omettent trop 
sonvent, entre la philosopliie sco- 
lastique et la tb^Iogie scolastique. 

Anselme n*appartient pas k la pre- 
miere; il a peu fait pour elle, quoi- 
qu*il ait ccrtuinement sa place mar. 
qn6e duns la philosuphie proprcmcnt 
dite ; et pour la seconde, il est Venn 
au moment ou elle se formait. II n*a 
pas ^t^ sans influence sur sa forma- 
tion, mais il n*en a pas pr^ntUfment 
determine le caractc^re. II ne ten- 
dait pas k la faire scolastique, mais 
philoHophiqae. II voulait fonder la 
philosophic du do{?me.* B<$niU8at, 
St Antclm de Cantorbery, p. 478. 


nctoi; tketch we have imjiiiI to point oat '*"'■ 
t mor« importaut data on which, up to the period 
1 the Univenrity of Cambridge fint grveta the rewarcfa 
of tha itorifu). our evtimatc of the culture, the philosophy, 
and 1 I ntal clmrnctirliiticii of the preceding ccnturiea 
r Oriii>(h the ilorknoM and the dawn which b)-IoDg 
to thw en it nciim fiitoit to >pe»k in k'»« grni-ml and un- 
•lualificd Innpirt^'t' tli.-in has oftrn l--n i'iii|i|'l. Tfin 
darknem, gn.-it an it uiidoiil>tt-<llT wn*, hud (till iti illumina- 
li"n ; ihc dnwn wai fnr fmin utt-ndv and cintinu»>u», Ittil 
father a hhifting, ciprici-iu* light, oftiii ailvnnfing only mgaia 
tutvcwic. We havr mi-n how imixrffct wa* the knowlii]);n 
of the hli-rntiirc uf niili<|iiity li> wliirh tliQ >>tudi-nt, in thmo 
tlmcii. DIM aMi> tu att.-iiii, nixl h'lw hiiiiliil waa tho circle 
to which wh:»l J.ur«iv.-I v( In.ra'urp w.n knuwn; huw, 
ntiiid t)i<' livrci.- Ji'-rki nn.l d.irk* ih.-tt prrrrtilt^ 
tin- concijili'-ii* of till' tlit-il.-^ n.r. n:>rT"nn-d mid o\it- 

Mi-iirity rvttirt»-.|. ati.l ll..- Kirl-jnan rvk.i'.vil'-i,"-.! a .tn.ti_-Ff !«*- 
ann. IfMniit-;: n-;iiii t'Mik li'titt, mil miri.i- lK;;iti I'luv in re 
to .o.i.ii..-, t.. .jK.-ii!:it.-, nti-l I.I th. r.ti-; !,■.» -. |.!im,ii,. 
«ith«.:.i-h, M.M.I..-I fr.rii tU «ni.-.uty ..f |..„-mii.(i.. a%. 
vi^I.^I tli. .I.H-triN.- -f til. ( !...« IK. .fily ..f Uw 
t..:|..<.r.| ■.iiK.r. II.. r. t.ini -f -M. n, .1 .r.l. r . t,.,- \h- |..Iili.»l 
• u-vinn-* of II. mc W hii to i.ii|-.^ oi. Kuti-[« a o.|« 



CBARj. fraught with unscrupalouB fiction; how, as the spirit of 
enquiry «woke and reason reasserted its claims, authority 
sought to define their prerogative by a more formal and 
systematic enunciation of traditioual dogma ; while, as yet, 
the philosopher questioned aud doubted, scarcely dreaming 
of ultimate diveigence, and the dogmatist distinguished and 
proscribed, equally unprescient of the contest that was yet 
to be, 
> It is at this stage in the progress of Europe that the 

ZSS^ English universities pass from the region of mere tradition 

^^Tom-. to that of histoxy. Fable indeed long beguiled the ears of 
our forefathers with the story of the ancient renown of Cam- 
bridge, and within comparatively recent times an historian 
of repute could unsuspectingly retail from Peter of Blois, as 
'an author of undoubted credit V the details of the earliest 
instruction given within her precincts. The canons of a 
severer criticism however have swept away not only legends 
of Spanish founders and Athenian teachers, of Sigebert for a 
royal founder, of Bede and Alcuin for her earliest doctors of 
divinity *, but have also pronounced Ingulpbus and his con- 

MMMMBi tinuator alike undescrvin<j of credit*. We are accordinriy 

iSuJTato- eompelled to abandon, as an imaginary scene, the not un- 
"** pleasing picture which represents the monks sent by the 
abbat of Crowland to Cambridge, expounding, early in the 
twelfth century, in humble barns and to enthusiastic au- 
diences, the pages of Priscian, Aristotle, and Quintilian. Our 
information indeed concerning the studies of both Oxford 
and Cambridge continues to be singularly scanty and frag- 
mentary up to the college era; conjecture must, on many 
points, supply the place of facts ; and it is only by a careful 

^ Hennr, Jliitt, of Enpland, in 438. bad boforo given to tbeRO accounts. 

* Carter, in bis Ilittory of the Vni' Sir Francis Talgrave inclined to the 

rertity of Cambridfjf, p. 7, gives witb- belief tbat tbo Chronicle of Ingul- 

oat any apparent doubt, a letter from pbus was not of older date tban tbe 

Alcointo tbe Scbolars of Cambridge, IStb or first balf of tbe fourteenth 

exborting tbem to diligence in tbcir century, and tbat it must be oon- 

atudies t See also Lydgate's verses sidered * as little better tban a monk> 

on tbe Foundation of tbs University, isb invention, a mere bistorical novel; ' 

Appendix (a). Mr Wrigbt regards tbe continuation 

> Uallam, in tbe later editions of attributed to Peter of Blois as equal* 

his Middle A get, (see eleventh edit, ly spurious. 
Ill 421) retracted tbe crc^U-nce he 

voiMAjr nmciiccn a wmoumd. C7 

tiaiy of tha cireunutantiaJ eriUenM that wa ars anablad to <"^ 
trriveat a lufficienttjr pmbabla tnttuctioo. The eh«f»ct«r uf j '— ■ 
the imluctioa oitmitB of being vcrj coiiciicly aUU-d. It ii a ^■►r ^ 
fact funilinr to the atuilcnt of our early biatorjr that before 
the Nunnon rictory on tho field of battle at Scnbe, a gentler 
MiI>|ugatton hnil ntrcodjr been impiM!)!. In tba huguai^ of 
Uaonulay, ' Engli'b prince* received thrir cilucation in Nar> 
mandjr. Engliiih Ktn and Kiigli^h tiitaU-)) were bentowed on 
XormanA Tlic Frcncti of Nomutndy wiu familiarly ipokcii 
in tlie palace of WL-Ntminnter. Tlie c»urt of Knucn Kcma to 
have been to the cuurt of Edward the Conf^iaor what the 
court of ViTwtilkit long aftcrwanU wa* to the court of Chaiiea 
tba Second'.' To Huc-h an extent did this itato of tliinga 
prevail, that at one juncture it even Memed probable that 
the Rpread of Norman iiiRui-nces would culminate in a peac^ 
fol ntablikhtnent of Nornian dominion *. Such a tequd waa j'^™ 
only prevent<-d by a grtat natioiial reaction ; and the qncs- 3',^'^ 
tion then full to tbo arbitration of the awvrd. But wben**^ 
a foreign dyu-xxty had Ut-ome firmly planted in our midat. it 
nvcewarily f->II<iwc<l that ibi-w.' iiiRu'-ni-en were •till further 
inteniilii.ll. To iiiiit.iif the n-fiueincnl, the rhit.-tlry. (be 
culture of the dominant mce, berame the BmbitioB of «rery 
Englioliman who iHHicht to avoid the reproach that allached 
to tite character of a Saxon boor. Teachen from V»rk no 
longer drew the oullinea ofi-duration at Paria; and the giuat 
aniventty whirb now rooo in the tatter city, to give tlw ton* 
and direetion to Kurnpcau thought, liecamv the »ch<>ul wbi- 
lh*-r every Kii;*li«hiiian. whu niiii'il at a eliarartiT f<tr h-ani- 
ing, pt-rf'-nf n v.rtf.i. TItv ex.iFiipli-. tin-re utiidinl nn^l tho 
K-.iming thiTi' nriiiiiriHl w.-n- n |>i.-l<in-<) nt h-mu-. Tlie eon- iwr^i* 
ttitiition >•{ till' iiiiiv<'r>ily <>f I'.iria fMiiiitil tlx- ni-hl »n {^^^ 
ahirh that ..f (>xf..Td an.I thai of raiiil.ri.h,-o *rn- f .nai--i ; 231C 
the eoiirM' of tli» eolL^iale ■votim. ewn iIh- uanla,' 
tiuDi of th<' S>Tlionne, wen' inu'.-tti't with M.-nii>ii1'Hi> fSh-lity. 
It wu iii>( until too c<-n(<iti''* af(<'r tL<- <*.>ii')iii-a that 
Koglikhmen could ackni>al<i|):i- tli--w <'t.lii;.iti-.n» aithotit 





oup. t liiimiliatioD, and ooald assert that, if their universities owed 
their oonstitution to Paris, the debt had been more than re- 
paid in thf^.teachers whom Paris had received from England. 
It is thus that, while the destruction of most of the early 
records relating to the mental activity of Oxford, and a yet 
greater blank in relation to Cambridge, present considerable 
difficulties when we endeavour to trace out the connecting 
links between these universities and the continent, the com- 
paratively ample data which we possess concerning Paris 
enable us to some extent to repair the loss, and, in the 
absence of positive information, to fall back upon reasonable 
presumptive evidence. It will consequently be needless 
further to explain why, in the present chapter, we stop to 
examine the constitution, early fortunes, and intellectual 
experiences of the university of Paris, before passing on 
to the universities of our own country. 

An important question meets us at this stage of our 
enquiry, which it is not within our province to investigate, 
but which cannot be passed by altogether unnoticed. If we 
accept the representations put forward by one particular 
school of writers, the rise of the universities would appear 
to have directly involved the downfal of the episcopal and 
monastic schools; and the period from Charlemagne to Philip 
Augustus has been indicated with fond regret, as the time 
when the Cliurch performed her fitting function, fashioning 
the whole conception of education, and watching with ma- 
ternal care over each detail of instruction '. Without entering 

> * Panrenni an r^^e de Philippe- 
Anguste, nooi touchoiiB A la fin de 
rcxistcnce glorieuse den ^coles ^pi- 
fcopnlcs ct monastiqut.Mi et k I'avdnc- 
meut d*im noovel ordre des cboses. 
Tous semble dcs lore con8pi*'cr coDtn» 
reducation claustrale, pou" en ac- 
c^drer la mine. Les prdlits habi- 
ta^d k la vie tumultucuso (!epuis les 
croi5adcs, se laisseut abp<'rbcr par 
les preoccupations temporelles, et bri- 
guent rbonnenr d'cntrer dans les 
conseils des princes ou do devenir 
leur ministres d'Etat. Les moines 
aVngonrdissent dans la rcUcbement 
et roisivite qu'amdne toujours aprOs 

elle nne trop grande opulence, et se 
trouvent sans force pour luttcr contre 
les nouveaux ordres rcligieux qui se 
sont empar^s des cbaires de Ten- 
seignemcut U n^est pas juRqu' k la 
transformation qui s'op^rait aloni 
dans la society flodale qui n*ait eu 
son influence sur ce denouement 
prdcipite. Co n*est pas quo le zUe 
des etudiants ee soit refroidi, au con- 
traire, jamais il ne fut plus ardent; 
mais les fils de ccux qui avaient 
second le jong des seigneurs ]>our 
s'eriger en municipnlites francbes 
se trouT^rent mal k I'aiso sous 
la discipline du cloitre, et voulu- 


into the abttnet meriU of Um qneiUoB. it It ■ 
to ptnat out tlttt th« hctt, u pleaded bj Thrincr' ftod Um n 
kUitre, haT« mot with a diitinct «ad specific denial Ifu 
indeed tlio guidance of other inrcntigatora maj be tnwtcd, u 
the thread tlinl connect! the iidionU ot CbariemasDo with tb« 
nniTenitjr of Purii ii to bo traced in unbrukra continnitj. 
'Alcuin,' najB Mouuivr, following in the track of the eoiB'f^ 
pilvnof the UitUArt LitUratn* and of Mabillon, 'numbered*^ 
among his OJaciplcs Ralionui and Hajrmo of llalbcraladl. 
Rabanna and llaynio of llalbcntadt were both the prccepton 
of Lupua Scrratiu'; Lupiu Scrratiu had for a pu|Hl Erie 
of Auxcrre'i Eric of Auicrre waa the master of lU-m^ of 
Auxcrrc', who tauglit in turn botti at Rhcimi and at Paris ; 
at RhcimN Rcmy of Auxprro numbered among hit pnpila 
Hildcbnid and Hlidnlphui, fuundi-n of tlic icboola of Lomine, 
and SigulptiiiR and Frudoanl, who carrinl on tlte irhnol at 
Rbeima and prcp^irvd the war for Gerticrt ; while at Paris 
ho united tlic two branches of the Palatial school, — the 
one reprewnttng the tmlilinn of Alcuin, the other that of 
Johannes SchIim, — and inlerpr^tcl to tlii-in tlte hifric allri- 
butcd to Ati}^isliiic and the tri.ili«c of Capella. His pupil 
aoa Odu of C'lunjr, who nkiitdlctl the monadic zeal and 
t mined numt-ruut «cliulani, — Avmer, IlaMwin, 0«ttfiied, 
Lonilric, Wulfad, Adhcgriu. KihV-tiald, I-:iixianl. and, must 
diriingiiiohod of all, John, hii bin{;mphtr. These were the 
iiien who, in conjunction with th<> pujiilt of Ocrbert*. sustained 
the tra<liti<>n of in>tnirtii>n in the ti-nlh n-ntury, wliiUt 
lliichald i>f Li<"^. |ir<x-<'«-<iiiij; ftoin St. <!:ill, inttnided tlte 
ntRoiM of St. < Iciifvii-vi' at Pari*, and lanj^ht in the cathcilral 
•chuuL lu tW rli'Vi-nth nnliirv Abl>o of I-li-urv and bis 

mt rMc4'*' Tur lil«« it* ptn^t* 
«>1W*. ),.■>•■ .1* f^.i>.Wlr* M* kD- 
J»nn-», llii^rrr Aii.ifl* rt •« tnt 

.:*flr. rl •■rf'.'lfrBt »*«r!««»»rt 
it U IrtM *• IL..t.-f*.' Una 

' If"' !•' ^W-/r.«r.T.n. 

rifr— 1. M.-'n^. >lii< UM 
• Ikmr ••' Auin*. 4. rut. ««. 

70 THE QVBsnoir a dispote. 

R K pnpOi QoaeHii, Hajmo the historian, fieroard, Harrena,' 
"^ O^dri^ <Mrud. and Tbieny, impartetl Tigoar to the cnltuio 
of thrir tim«. Drogo Utught with eminent success at Paris; 
and all the noighbouring schools, Chortrcs, Tours, and I« 
Bee, were attntcted by the learning of that city, the habitual 
residence of the Capction dynonty. The fame of the coo- 
trorermca there carried on soon drew together a crowd of 
teachers and scholars. Among the pupils of Drogo was John 
the Deaf, and John the Deaf hod RoHCollinusfor his pupil. 
Boscellinus was from the school of Ivo of Clmrtres, and had 
for his disciples Pettr of Quny, Odo of Cambray, ■William of 
Champcauz, and Abelard. The schools of Paris thus became 
a real federal corporation ; Vniversitas maffUtrorum et dU- 
etpu/orum, such was the unirersity: and thus, in the times 
when books were rare, the precious legacy of learning was 
transmitted from hand to hand acros^j the fleeting genera- 
tions ',' 
■ AVliatcver value wo may bo disposed to attach to this 

■•^^ representation, as a statement of the precise moilo of trans- 
misHion, it is certain that unqucstionablo autliority can lie 
quoted to prove that both the monastic and episcopal schools 
continued to exist long after the rise of tlic univcrsifios*; 
but it is obvious that if the former represented merely the 
stationary and conservative clement, while the latter attracted 
to itself whatever lay beneath the ban of unreasoning au- 
thority, — whatever, feared at first as a heresy, was soon to bo 

' }X-ai.a\a,McainttKinInSatn<:e. Clure, KlntitfiLfttmauXIVSifelr, 

p. 1S9. I 31)2, It in Iinwt-TCT un<1cn[abla tliitt 

' 'Enfin, OD ■'obcliDb k iRDorer tbiu^li botb tlio Monaiitie and Epii- 

Ic* profond* trtTnnx d' no Benedict in, copal ScLoola may huTO continued to 

da Tin^rable tondntcur de notre tuM, Ibfy bad sufTcrcd irafiildetcrio- 

KTUide HiKloire litl^raiie. qui attcs- rntion: Heppc quote* authoritj to 

trot, aur Icb Dit-'illcures autoiitV-n, quo the cdect tbnt, in tbe yi-nr 1391, fn 

Im tfoln dec 6vtf|n«< et cclleH den tltomouanlery ol St Qnll neilbcrlh* 

moDosltm Bvaiint eatitiuu^ de flea- nbbot nor any ol tbe moiikit eonld 

Tir avec Icb nouroUex Kocijlt* d'dta- vrilc; aud no Ilbtb it on tlio nluto- 

d». II tnut, pout n'aecniiei aiiml mcut olallcncdirlinobimwlf Ibnt in 

qui' IcH outre*, Ke liiiHKT fiiiro illnNiim Iho 1.1th ceiiliiry it wan tarn even in 

par bi haiiie ci'iitre toulo loi civile, bi* nun ontrr In find auynnc ac> 

coiitto Inntv Miicaliun pf-culitre, ct quiiintiil wiib eriiiuinnr. KrerbnplOT 

iu«nM> contTO tont nnlre ntiKii'un ipii cutilU'il IHr h'imirr vitil tkimirbiilfn 

»■ JORO ^lint 1* pii!tli incunipiitiblo lUt Miitrhitlrn in Tir Ilrppc'a .^JkHf- 

™. »»».».>».,:_ ~.i:,i. ., „i..„i.„ ,f,„„ ^,, Millflnllen, pp. 16—25. 

Meaptod tm toaiid pbiloaophy,— all that widoMd tit* Unmria • 
of luiowl«ilg« or «imehed the limit* tlntdy alfiaed. -tha 
compantiTe importuxw ot th« two agenctaa oooU Dot nmaia 
tlM Mine. Tho fonner muat ilccHno is pnportton ai tlM 
latter inercancO ; anO it needs Imt litUo ppnctratioa to dt» 
cern in thii illoj^ical coofiwion of the wcoiMUty c0vcta of the 
nniTenutica with their direct action, a geniiino vctatioo at 
the mnilt* that ni-cewtarily fullowc-d upon a blind ant niictdal 
adherence to tho tradition* of a hj-guno ago. 

At nearly tlio mme crn, the Intler pnrt of tho tweinh J^ 
century, the hioturinn became* awnre nf tho teeogni«ed eiiot- ^ 
ence of tlire«- peat tichoiilii in Eiimpe,— Bitlnf^in. Pari*, and 
Salerno. Of thcM tho firmt wm dixtinf^tiiahefl aa the achool 
of civil Inw ; tho fiecand, a* that of tho art^ and thfoliif^y; 
the third, as llmt of mtilinne. It is a Nif^iftmnt pronf of 
tho non-ri'Icvnncy of (ho Icnn I'nirmiluM to the mmyt of^ 
iludiet piiraneil in (hev ancii-itt si-ats of hitmiDg, tlial while T> 
Pari* hail romplL-tiil the circle of her studies Itmg U-f<ire the 
oonitncno-nietil of the tliirtwntli o-ntury, the term univer- 
Hty is fir^t fotnid i>i>pti<-<l to t«-r in the y<-ar lUi, in the 
rei^ of l*liili[i AngiiKtnn'; «htlo Ibdo^ma. whiate n-ei-^jniliito 
as a univi-rHily is of at hii^t (finnl nntifiiiily, po«/^«n| no 
chair of lhc<>l<>}7 U'furo tho latli-r half of the fonrteenth 
ecnturj. Ttio Icnn iinli-t-d whi-n firkt cmpltiycd, *Iuh) a 
difr(.tfnt mcniiinf* fnun that which it n<>w conveys. * In the 
lanpin;;e of llu- civil l:»w,' ol.i.-n<-s one writer, 'all enrpb 
ralinUk' weri' cnlhil UHirrr$it<tle\ ns fxrinirif; »nf w1m>I<- oiit of 
many in-liviiluoK In tin- (iinimn jiiri»con»iiIli< uniimiUia 
is the wunl fur a cnr|M>ralc t<<wii. In ll.ity it was n|>f>li<il to 
the inniriiiiratvd traik-s in thi- citit-«. In rc<-lr»ia»t iral laa< 
gunge Iht* ttnn was ■.iroitimi-* si)iilu-<l l<> a numlicr of 
chuTclK-s iiuitot un-h-r the »n|c riiitiddt'icf of i>no sn-hdracmt. 
In a pajal ti-«<:ri|>t <*f the )<ar (XM. it i* umiI of the Ixidy of 
the ci»u"n» of the thnrrb of Pi»o'.' 

If howvvcT we aj,T«,' to difinc a iinivrr»ily as a e9rp»' 
mfivM /ur tli4 cullimtivn o/ tt-tminy furmrd umltr Uy»t 

9S mxvxBSrrr or bolooha. 

our. 1 JuetioHt we dull find ontaelves considerably embarrassed, in 
"""^^ i&TMitigating the comparative antiquity of "Ptaia and Bologna, 
by the ftet that long before either received a formal recog- 
nition it possessed a vigorous virtual existence*. With the 
exception of the nnivetaty of Naples, the spontaneity of 
growth in these bodies forms indeed one of the most remJark> 

fliBtf* able features of the age. 'It would,' says Savigny, 'be 
altogether erroneous to compare the earliest universities of 
the middle ages with the learned foundations of our own 
times, established by a monarch or a corporation for the 
benefit of the native population, the admission of strangcts 
being accorded as a favour. A teacher inspired by a love of 
learning gathered round him a <nrcle of learners. Other 
teachers followed, the circle increased, and thus by a purely 
natural process a school was founded. How great must have 
been the rcputntioD and influence of such schools at a time 
when tlicy were but few in number, and when oral instruction 
was nearly the only path to knowledge ! How great the 
noble pride of the professors and the enthusiasm of the 
scholars, when, from all the countries of Europe, learners 
flocked to spend long years in Paris and Bologna that they 
might share in this instruction*!* 

If we look tlicrcforo rather to the spontaneous than to 
the formal clement, Imcrius may bo regarded as the founder 

•*tt* Ttiof the university of Bologna, and the movement which ho 
initiated is seen ac'iuiring a fresh dcvclopcincnt in the lectures 
on the Dccretum of Grotiau institutc-d by Eugcuius in the 
miilillo of the nnmc century, until the university became 
oflicially recogiiiscil in the charter of priviiegos which it 
rccoived from tlio emperor l-Vcdcric I, in the year 1158*. 

'iteMrd In this charter we find provision madu for the free odniixsion 
of foreign studentH ; for their protection from Icgid proceedings 

> 'Inilfr Tluit mm k*iin<Ior An- lliotimp, tliawonliir/nfivnrMdi-ifra 

fniiR ikr Uiiin-niUil dcBwiKin iiiilit iiicmit 'th' lehalf i>/ ynn.' Julnid. 

Ki-naa Iwrtimmt wi-nti'n, wt'il i>r(> tl'>r to MnnimfNia Afm1--mira, i »>iv, 

uirlit Ton ciiicr wiUkiibrlicliii) Htift- • tirtehieUlt drt U'-muchm JltehU, 

nnit aiuMii'iii!.' thiviKny, o. ii[ arc. S. e. x<x i>cc. GO. 

MrAmil.yn-mMkHtliiit'iiilliotIiir "" - - - 
li'Viilh uul fuiirtubiitli ci'iitiirii'ii 
MmiiKo an it mar appear to Diiim 
«iuicii>iainlvil Willi imlcDt Itltvra a 

m OOXSllTUTKU. 73 

fott&ded upon alleged offcnooa or dclrta in other eoontnca; * 
wbilo with respect to miiKlemcuioun committed within (be 
pncineti of the anivcraity, it is eowtod Uut anj Uwmit 
■hntl, «t the dtscrclion of the student, be brought befure the 
■ under whom he is studying, or before the bishop at 
the diocese. 

At first only a school of law, Bologna sueccsrivcly iooor- >• 
pontcd the other bnuichcs of lenniing. In 1316, a school •■ 
of arts and incdiciuo was formed ; and in the latter half f4 
the same century a scIhwI of theology was founded by 
Innocent VI.' It is to be noted that them schuoN were 
really scpamto uuivenitic* or corporations. Savigny puints 
out that the kIiooIm of civil and canon law were practically 
distinct ; and it has Ik-cu even ciisitoinary with Nomv wrilen 
tun-gnrdthi.-ni.togt.'tlierwitli the M-houU of arts and theol"gT, 
M represi-iitiii;; four di>titict uritvenitii-s. Under anotlicr 
a^jiect a certain fuMon of llieM.- Ixxlii-s was brought aU»ul; 
all studititM lH.-ing further dintingtiishcd as CifntmOHfani m 
ami t'itnimonlani, Italian* and fitnigtiini. Thus divided (< 
tiny eon-tituti'd the electoral Ixuly of the univcr«ity: tlie n. 
vftinrt Uiiifr fK-clcd by rli<- <>tii-l- nli and ni.vtcr», «hilc the *■ 
|in>fi-Mtors Ken.- milijivt tu the ollirem. It is a notin-ahle 
f-aturc that at tlii* univi-rxity, tlii- prufi'«*)ni wen;, fur the r» 
rucnt )iart, tti.tii)titim-<l at the |nil>lie <'!i|N'n<>e, and wi-rc not 
•li'|ictHlont upiin the cmtribulion^ uf the ntinlems. At the 
Ix-aii of the oflitvro wi-ri- ttic two n'<'t'>r«. one f»r varh body, a. 
mid nptiviitiii'4 tlie wi['ti iiii- niitli.irily. Th-re wen- al-iO 
t«TocIi:.ticill-'rH; ■cowi.-.i:..r.,' *},■> r. j.rt- n'. I the dilT.nnI .. into w)iii-li th." Ci/niHi-f-f'i'ii aii'l fUomm't-iHi wi-rc 
■h.i.l.i'; «<-. »ho r.|.N"i.t..l III.* .iiiiv.rMiy in it* 
• ttoinl n Litiotii (o tin- i>t:iti-: a ii<-t.iTv. a tn .t.uixr, nt»l Ixim 

l.-l.m. ■11..- .1. ;r"C '.f >WX.>T. i.'ii.-'t n. :. i.t a. the ;-^ 

■.iiiHn.ity il" If. '^i't'i'llv •'•'■».* il- 'ri;;!!! fr.iii tin- m- n; 
ii.r.i-1-..f tic . !i;.i ..f t.;..hir,n fnn-li-n il *... .-it - 'I'Ki.iIy , 
;.j||.l iw -.iry to limit to ll....c *t...m il- l.:«l 

' •I,., .!.• .1. Ifc.l ,T'; tr r- ■'**»» '• t-t,.<%nt k not .|'*« 
i-iri-.M .i»...i:i. la L.. r.f...l J .1 :. 1. i :' ■!. .Ii. I I ■> l'..l !• 
i'.;.,M .■..1.1,. ■...» <.i.iiu.i>, B."!'" y '-Il ;- ',.■-■* (»•'..• 

l''*ta.l.M<U/t,|>t<«|«l|.iM, «t ua U,*m J<i *■< >'< >.•■ — •, I \'7. 

74 univutaiTi or boumuu. 

WL reopgnind m fitted fc. tike taBk. The docton ftt Bologna, 

' ibo known aa magittri, domini, or judieei, were further 

M^'Jt- dirtiogQiflhed as doctorea hgentea and non-Ugenies — ifa 

^•n- i^ipcniited by the university to teach, and those not yet 

admitted to such a function, or who no longer exercised it: 

over the latter the city appears to have claimed a cert^n 

jurisdiction. The college system sever attained to much 

importance at Bologna, There were colleges, it is ^nio, 

M^» dedgned like our own early foundations for the assistance of 

poor scholars, but we have no evidence that these ever 

exceeded their original design or exercised any perceptible 

influence over the university at loi^. 

Such were some of the more important features which 
chaiacteriae the only school of learning that, at the com- 
mencement of the new era, might seem to vie with the great 
school at Paris. But the interest of Englishmen in the 
hif-tory of the univeraity of Bologiia can in no way compare 
with that which they must feci in the earlier annaU of her 
illustrious rival. If we except the impulse comnmnicated to 
Europe by the dissemination of one particular study, the 
example of Bologna would nppcar to have exercised but little 
MBrfdii influcnco north of Angers ami Orleans. She formed it is true 
*•••» the model on which these, and most of the other minor uni- 
versities were constituted, — Toulouse, Sloiitpcllier, Grenoble, 
and Avignon ; she gave fashion to the universities of Spain 
and Italy ; but her example obtained no further than the 
Danube and the Seine'. The universities of the rest of 
Europe, — Oxford and Cambriilgc in England, Prague, Vienna, 
Heidelberg, anil Cologne in Gennany, — derived their formal 
constitution, the tratlitions of their education, and their 
modes of instruction from Paris. The influence of this 
university has indeed emboldened some writers to tcirm her 
the ' Sinai of instruction,' — in the Middle Ages', From the 
, foregoing brief survey from tlio summits of the Appi^nnines, 
we now turn tlicruforo, to where, amid civic strife and ])oItticat 

• 'Tlio BiniU ot tlio MlJ<1lo Arm' 
«M «1ho a t«rm spjiliod by Ibo !)•• 
ncdiotlnvi to Mnnlo Cit«Hin». 

VRiTutsm or ruaa. 7S 

agiUtioB, Um iMdiog mind* of Earepe ndiatcd feith tbrir ; 
light, ukI the law wu gives rromth«cluun</tbeDoiniiiieuMb 
The point! of re*einblance betveea Puia and BcJogna 
few; thom of eonlnut, nuiD^roui and marked. lik* 
logna, Parii fintli her earlicut legiU recognitioD in iode- 
peiMlence of the ci>')C Kutlioritien. In the yvar ISOO Philip 
Anguntui pajucd A lair, that rtwlcnU or profifuwrs. vbargcd 
Kith any criminal oflV-r»cc, might be arrcatrd hj the proriMt, 
butihould bo ta'<on for trial Iteforc an ecclii>ia.<tiail tribunal'. 
Like Bologna, loo, Pariii nw it* unirrn'ity ri*e out of a 
•eric* of cntirt!y *pontanoou> eflTort*. But with certain 
p-ncnl feature^ mich n% the!>c. the revcmlilance ccaacs. \l*bile 
the axMiciAtidns of Bologna, during it* earlier history, weren 
iilnKMit csclitsivi'ly scctihr, thixo of Pari* wore as cicliisirclT » 
tlicologtral. Tho tcncliiii); i>f th" r»mier grew up round Iha 
Pandcctii ; that of the latt<T, round the Sfnti'nc<«i. Trailition 
|i»intK to the cchool attaclird to the church of St (lcnevi^Te 
x% the grnn of (he imivorvity. It i« rrrlain, that in (he 
«[Mri( ofanta^mi-m whii-h Farin rvlnrtil tovrnrda the wnrMlj 
lore of her Italian, nml in h< r ilftmni nation to guard 
Iitrmorc aspiring cnltnn! fr"m tin- «itl»<riii;' itiflm ni-"-* of 
the civil and caii.m Inw, wo muit hvik f-pf ihi; mi-c* thiit, at 
n lat<T pcri*"l. Mill r<pi lied th'*"- »twili'-« frtun hir curriciilnm 
to find ri'fiigc with the iicwly creatc.1 provincin] univcnitic**, 

■ nalni^ llfi Ft": ir I. of tU ILirtH-nlli tnian th* (tajv 

T kirtn* «t lit in l>.K ■«• rP.l..l.i<-l bj II..T>-nw in mai 

• >rlT,.rt utt)Mi|I<.rI..iitI. r...l..ri. lnn...i.lH: i:l In II.* Uli'f ).>ll <4 
■•••■••axlr.^r:,..! ki. .11 ...■>>:.* lU •■''■■.• nn- in <' Lr,J. I, Um 

(..tin- I.Jjr. h..i,'m,t VI, ri.r «l..t^ m 1. Ii (.<■ ..r •.:li IW 

' v",n.,n..r, .« (...■•■t>..ffw f-I /< ■ . r' • ' I '. ■« ll"M 

4.'>. .nl.r..i..r.l . „ „ .t.f K-t. I„ m -.M i !■ . •■ .f !■ : ■ tl .1. ,' .. . 

• .-'.- 1- r.r. i:,..|.,, t.i'lt (Ur li-.-tl..;- I 1.. ■.;,m."l >l>t> • -•■n 
■i.. I i.,'f..l; ,..; ■.fl.n, f..t il-i !■■ I ••■■■■ :)• ..-".r. 'i , • 1 .-.t. 

ir J !.„. |,-| ,,„ \,.|,».ut S,.,.-. ^.,1. r ,. -.I-. .' ' .tj 

..I -tl- II- ...: f- I. .,f«> t.. in . .-.I.-.- .It • . -.. . . ..'iu 

I. .. (.:!.-. ,1. SI- i,>.i f« v.- I-:- r ■ ' ■ ■■ ' ■ *• 

i; - .. I-. .... i.i.-»f-i. tl' ■■■■.•. • .-- ■ ■- ib- 

..■ . 1 . ,„ ,. ,t !■.• .. .B l!» ...II- ■ -t . ■ :, ..:■...!# 

76 traiYEBanr or pasis, 

r. I «ttd stIU ftttnctod to her schools the speculation, the contro- 
Tenie^ and the religious movementa of the age. The 
nnireinty of Paris again wos distinguished by its unity; 
and SaWgny attributes no small portion of its widely extended 
influence to the intimate connexion of the different facutti 
vhcreby the whole body became participant in a vo-st variety 
of scientific and theological discussions. Though Bologna 
again professed chiefly the study of law, her discipline was 
singuUrly defective ; while Paris, though she gave no heed 
to the Pandects, asserted far more effectually the rights of 
authority*. The former did little more than secure for the 
student the advantage of able instructors, and a liberty that 
too often degenerated into licence ; the latter forbade him to 
exercise any power in her assemblies, and required that ho 
should be completely subject to the professors', — a subjectioo 
which her statutes permitted to be enforced by that corporal 
punishment which became a tradition In the universities 
modelled upon her example. Another point of contrast is 
that presented by the early devclopement and importance 
of the college systent Bulreus indeed inclines to tlio belief 
that the system is coeval with the univeraity itself; we shall 
hereafter have occasion to noto witii wliat rapidity these 
iustitutioun succeeded each other in the fourteenth century, 

note tfaftt tht) period wbcn the civil TOUnflqneUescoDB&iucareBpTaliqni^i 

law mat moit in fivour ot Itomo et dcniit'res pounHciit forciuient Jci 

euM!t!y comspoDdB with tlio time Jncliiii.liouH si divcrscs. A BoIoEne. 

»brn _il wu rciMrdod with most la lilire.liiTilU quiregardcpir-dcasua 

•napirion (it Pan^, end tliis is in U Homo dca papcs Tora iliulua el 

Iwrii-ctaecorJ with Uio general tcDour na^j aulique, quelle (muIW Iri- 

the 6r-t loor centunea ot >l< cl>«l. ,„ ^ue de l^ut^rild. «Jteqai reBtbi 

, ' „ du cutiJ do Ciior et qui en tilite de 

> M.d'A«™llrhMh«i)piIylonchcd u-iiipa en trmi* i rinfuillibililj de 

npon thiH coutniHt -.—'Iav dcax pre- noiiveruina iKjiilirtH jK'ur Havuir coin- 

niitrw ii>iiTi'n>iti!H dii inonde no wmt mint cUo dnit d.Sci.liT xi co n'e>.t 

]>n>)KR.^,d<''Hlexiii'><i.''dF,iIuuxty|ivs imiwr, qiielto fiicultd duiuiiicr la 

do conslitulion Hwlairu .U^mit k* /,„„»; ,u nc..lo.ji,.' AlUrt U Gnnd 

qui'U dea lorn la chr^lii'iitd iiu'dilo, i 4IU. 

rt .lui iruuviiit lour rAilisati.m com- • BulKiwliMcndrtTOHrclio prove 

ld.t.Mlriu» 1 uHro *.>.ifll ot iHiliti-juo tlint, m ecrtaiit o«cni.iona, th.i -lu- 

<K->i <loii( W'Ulika qui uiit vmilii croiir d.ula «Dre mlroitlcf. to v.-t.'; un 

1 hcmmo A Inir iirmije. cuur..rni<$- iitfcrciieo wliiHi HuviAiy Imlda (u Ic 

lu<'titA]i'XPmi>1jun!d<'HcL<»c>idiviuoil quilo unwarri.i.U^ bv tlio furta. flt- 

qmlvn i^npltn |K.rt.i,t i-n oux, oftl „hicl,te du ll-MKhU JUihI., c. Xll 

pcnl-vtra luuHudti I'luton. £t vuj'ei ico, ao. 

light, ui't the law wiu given fntm tho chain oi the Dumiaicu 
The pfiinta of rc^cmbtnnce between Vom and Bolof 

are few; thorn; nf c»ntrD>-t, nHini'm>H and mnrked. Li' 
B»t<>;n>». Parit finds Ikt earliest If'gnl reongnitton in Id* 
[Kwh-ncf ci t!ie rjijc nnlliorit i". In tlio yvar ISOO Ph 
An^istu-i \v.\>-^v\ T. Inw, th;it st)i-k-nl« or priir<-«M>n, dur 
aith any crimina' ofli n*-!-, miirlit K- am-^Icd tiy the pfn 
tiiii shoiil'l U- «.ii.ti fnrtrinl lB-fi.r.> an ecc!>'«ia«tical trild-. 
Lite K"I";;n;i. ti"', P:iri> saw it* iinivt»ily ri«e «!♦ 
•'rii'4 (if iiilirf'v NiHitit.-iin-oii* t-fTort*. lliit with «r 
»■ ni-ral fi';kf iiri-< xmh as die-t', tht- ri":eriililance ccmm. 
ilie .ivni'i:iti<iii't of I>'-I'>;,'ti:i. 'turiri:; itt i-arliiT hulor 

aliii.»t r\<-Iii-i». !_v Mfiilitr, tli if I'arin wore U cHk . 

tln-ol-'pi'-al. Tlir l-.nliiii;; nf K\y fnrnxT grew gp n- 
r:iii.!.c'- ; thiit ..f ih.' I:itt.-r, r.tiini ili*- S-titvocen. ' '^ 
)-<iiit-> to tilt- *<\i"-\ a(t;i<-h>-*l t» thnrhurchof StL~ 
:n till- (.'''"I' "f 'h" iniivr-ity. It >• certain, 1. 
kpirti of aiit.-i-_"'iii-m n)ii<-U \\tj\* ••iin<*<-<l tuwardi t "• '' 
Ir.' of l,.-r ltLli;iii ri^..l. iiTL.I inl.r.lctflfi 
I,.rm..r- r.-j.irir.:: fiilfir- fr-m iIh- witU'fi 
!li. rW\\ mA <-.m>-» l:r.v. u.- ti)ii-.( 1.">k Af t 

n U> r I- ti-l. <li;i f jM !:• 1 tl ' ^l».lt-■ fm 

t'>lii.-i r.fii;;.' Willi t!..' i- uly cputfJ proti 


- -the application of 

■1 aspirontg to the 

precaution. Hence 

Mon of a unireniiy 

1 the posiicssion of a 

hing ; a rij/A(, which, 

. "^sed as a dwfy. The 

ihd the Scriptures; the 

sally in the schools or 

B who g^ned the degree 

9 held bound to devote 

ftigr tht Uarninj they had 

^(^ consequent upon Buccess 

I instituted, was vested, so 

irned, in the Chancellor; but 

- to make the degree of dodor 

■ Ti. ' It may be worth while to 

"Men, 'that it was this privilege 

. nny use the expression, which in 

~ eed the confirmation of the popes 

_ "■>. new university was founde<i. It 

* any sovereign might erect a uni- 

_ 'iiioDs; or if any difficulty were raised, 

M to a theological faculty : but it wai 

could make dcgiccs valid beyond the 

tty in which they wero conferred',' 

•'fit obtained at Bologna of Citramontaui 

was represented at Paris by the division 

.(-■sewcre four in number: — (I) the French 

; in addition to the native clement, Spanioids, 

'jreeks; (2) the Picard nation, representing 

4r rVnirtnitl de edt iiA D 

-r. LaClerere 

I itdrile p 

bodiclieri, E'catiiyant 

'»'s maltrei, quoiqail 
.iillu peat-etr« lenr im- 

.iiiD^i d'CprenTep, f<tat 
*li6}logie, an grsjo ds 
.lis oet eurcice trifoiuil 

... _. nsnfenoer too- 

]aura I'eHpHt daci la plui ^tmite \ 
prisDn, ill n'enBBCtit i\& trniu, ponr 
fniio, comme on disait, Icnr 'priU' 
ci]>e,' de commenter uniqaenMDt In 
liiTM de« a«uleBCC«." Klat da Ltl- 
tret aa XII* SiMf, i Ml. 

' Maldeii, On'tffn e/ Unlxertilitt, 

r ^ 

mi i T Mii n OT rAua 79 

■titdento from th« north-eut and fnm tlM Natbtriaada ; ai«» 

(S) tb« NonxuKQ nAtioB ; (4] the Engliih utioo*, eompriaii£ ""'" 
bciidfla itudcnU from thfl proviDcca under English nilfl^ thoM 
from England, Ireland, ScuUond, and Qvmuuiy'. 

It maj at fint appear aomewhat anomalous that Um 
j^reat centre of tkeologieal initnictioa in Europe, up to the 
SfU'enth ccntuij, sliould have been diiitinj;uuhcd rather l^ 
iu allegiance to tlie accular than to the s[NrituaI power. 1^ 
ill ■jrmpathy with the king* of France rather thaa with the 
popM of Rome. It does not however require much ac(]itaitit- 
ai I with thcM centuriM to be awan.- that tlio papal pt^ic^ 
■ ^ti tically din-ctcd to the diic«Minigemcnt of theo- 

o ruvcray aud K{icculutioD. At Paris the troJitiona m^ « 
ol r ar and KoHC«.-llinuH wre Mtitl fn>«h in the memories K pJ 
of o. Kvfu the cxc(H«-iit dcM^ns of Peter Lomhard i^ • 

ud to have strant^ely faik-d uf their avowed object, and 
to have fanned the flanict tliey were intended to alby. We 
Bca.'d nut wonder, thcrufi>n.-, that thin troublous mental 
activity and iinci-ruiiii;,' cviitmverhial spirit wore viewed with 
dis&vour and n|>|>reh<'niiioD at Riimc On the other hand. 
long before the time uf Wilh.-un of Occam, tlie univen>iiy 
had eviDce«l its ajmiiiathy «ith Myutty and lent its aid la 
repelling tho arrr-gnnt oK'^Ttiun uf tbv cccldiaHtical power. 
* Nawilluita&iling.' ubnentt M. Lo Cli-rc, 'the tivs '*•*' - r i 
boaud it to the puatilTa rliair, and tltv numlwrs of its dergy kui^ 
«bo had vuveil all<t,'iance to that authority, the university 
hod ui-vtT liecu wlmlly an ecrii-uuticol body. Though bora 
under the *had»w of the cnlUttlr.-il ehurrb, it tu»k furm owl 
(7CW up under the protect i->u of the m»nan-h ratluT than tlie 
litt'lai^- of (lie bidiop Tlie Freiieh kiii;;N who hM at fin4 

ooTMnkfl It but dubioua and privart aid. aa ■»■■« as they 

pi.'iceived the ai-o »ii.u to their o«n »lreiii;th to be derived 

' K— u iflfT lb* jm too •■ fwnU *ir*rmKia Irpbu* W** t«cl 

lU 'irr*«a D*ti.«. t'KxrnilaliB »aliaui >■ ^Mli^ 

* A Rini>|.'i.'liBc Jiniwa Isli ■■> ■«•* »!ui ■!:■ •li>i>Drts n* Wtt 

'-••r MlH*iiB»ii,>tituli4BlI'r*£iM, •:ii'r w4«>i>*tH. td w>ur lUiM 

V-ut. ||..a.U.rc •a' ■«<(■»•- ''*"*>« 4.»d.Bi» ' 5<«>»M ■/ 

a^ fiitn.^U^ MMrattka I'si- I'-i >/ I •'■m, IUumm. tf t«. 
'*"i t y>w pBTUH-BMBi !*• situ Ar- 


riAP. I from the new alliance, became iU avowed friends, while the 
popos, iu first and most ardent promoters, adopted towonls 
it a poUcf of mistrust, coldness, and opposition; and tbe 
chancellor of the cathedral, on whom it devolved, as the 
representative of tlic pontifical authority, to admit the licen- 
tiates of the higher faculty, and whose claims even amounted 
~ to a kind of perpetual presidency, ceased not, so long as his 

office continued to exist, to persecute the univenity to which 
he could not dictate'.' The force of this criticism will be 
more apparent when we have passed under review the new 
culture and the tendencies of thought that riveted the 
attention of Europe upon Paris throughout tlic thirteenth 
century; but, before proceeding to this important subject, it 
will he well to mark the rapid extensiua of the movement 
-of which the two moat conspicuous examples have already 
occupied our attention. 
JjJi^^^ Tlic only otlier universities in France that trace back 
J;.^ their origin to tho tliirteentli century are those of Toulouse 
11)1^ and Montpellicr; hut in Italy the impetus communicated by 
mtnotir. the study of the civil law bore fruit in every direction. Iu 
the year 1222 the civil discoi-ds that prevailed at Bologna 
im, drove a large body of students and professors to Padua, wliore 
they established a school of the new learning, the comroence- 
meiitof that illustrious university. A similar migration in 
■■B. 120i liad already given birth to the university of Vicenza. 
LTtRriB. Pisa, Vcrcelli, Arezzo, and Fcrrara rose in the same century; 
-■It while in our own country Oxford and Cambridge appear 
■iiUk- cmcrgiiig from an obscurity wliicli, greatly as it has otcrcised 
the imaginative faculty of some eminent antiquarians, seems 
to indicate that the period and circumstances of these founda- 
tions belong to a field of enquiry which the seeker for real 
knowledge will most prudently forego. It may however be 
i_^^ obser\ed that such data as we possess would appear to point 
1^1^ to an origin similar to that assigned to tlie university of 
(La. Paris ; the school in connexion with the priory of St Fri- 
'*' deswyde, and that of the conventual church at Ely, being 

' Em dtt Ltttm au Qnittoriihiu Slleli, 1 203. 

TRADinoy OP LKARNiyO I2f DCQUUra 81 

probably the inntitution from whence the anivenittes of ^^^ 
Oxford and Cnmlirid^^e rotipcctiYely uprang*. 

Tlie iicattcre<l litikn which K(*rve to mark the connczkm 
lictwooti the titneH of Rc<lc and Alctiiii and thouc of Rolicrt 
Grofi}«et(*Hte are few and imperfect. The chain of oontinuitT 
WM Knnppefl a.«undcr by the DaniKii inva-'.'^nA, and it wouM v^^" 
here be of Hmali profit minutely to inve«ti«^te the vvidenco ^^^ 
for a tnulition which can iicarrelv be iuii«l to liave existtcil. 
Learning, to uac tiie expn'ssion of Willinm of Malmenbury. 
wan biirietl in the ^^rave of llc^o fur four ct*nturieii*. Tho 
invadtT, cnrrvin;; bin rava;;ett now up the ThnniCf^ ami now up 
the HuuiIht, d«'vnvtut<'<l the enM«'ni n-;4i<»nM with fire ami 
swunl. The miblo libmriefi whieh ThtNidiin* and tlio ablat« 
Ibtflriau nvtd Ik'miliot had foundi.-«l were given t«i th<* flam«'«'. 
Ill the y«Mr S70 thi* ton u of ( *anibiiil;;i* wan totally dcMniye'l*. 
Thi' nioiia-ttTien of the lU iK«li''tinrH, the cliief inianliana of •^•■i* 
h-aniiu;;. a|»|)cnr to hav«' Imh'U O'niph'uU lifokrn up; 'it i« JJJJ, 
not at all iiiiproli:ililf/ kavs Mr Ki'inbli*, *thit in the miihlh* 
nf the t4*ntli (iMitiirv tlH-rr y^:i< mit a ^iiiuiin' Itt'tiiilifiine 
►•<*iity U'li ill Kiiiil.'iiid'.* Tin* <'\« itl««iis of Kin*/ A«*lfn««l 
n*»ton^l the w^imiU ntiil ftiriii«'d iii*\v lilu.nii**; tiiitl, un<h r 
thr nu»ipit-e4 of St. I)iiii<^t;iii. tlif iM'in-.livliiio onliT, remivateil tw« 
ft! iti* wmri^ 1 bv thr riH'riit e"»t;i!»li*hni« nt of ihi- (luiiiac ••^^ 
branch on tin* nMitintnt. %»a«» o'^aiii «M;ibli'«lniI. During tht» 
Tt'wzu of R-»d;;.ir, wh«-ii th<* lami ha*l r«'sl fn»m invasion, no nm*m» 
Um than f*irtv coiivi'iit"* of thin oph*r mtro fuumhil. But 
oiirc ngain tin* I>am-H ••Hrpi t-wr tin' r«Mintry and thr Wi»rk 

' 'Wl.-I" «<• f »•»• t t|». i!.t t'.il a I,' •"•• f- fiS I* •'■•I il« r*.fy*rili' tf. 
fifiKiilir^I'li t.iifii'«r t>f *i\, : tra i«'«t,i.. .t* ir ii I i>t<>r« m it* e*'Aw 

•* li|'« t «t Oi' r| III tl.i- I '• • Mil ff. • •..'!!• (• Ma ' ^ ti 1 • ItitltU. 

•••I t««!f I- . 1." • I .. \ft !*• f»i t I ■ 'f -• t I ■ • I. i lit f 

I ^1 it Mil ly • ■ I • ■ » j I • 'f J » , f- 't *'**•! • '■ » •* * « ■ • » • ' • » • • <• r^Wt 

« 4« fri'i;t • t •. -.' •. tl. it «• i' m • ntin* | • i • i.- t.* i i.> | r ■ I h —\i% 

•■f. ^iin .•,'. 1 f. f vrtM Ati I til |. iii». r»" **. • I /; -n-^ .|».f.*.f««, I 

'■ ' *l rL .r't •• r ;.'.!. r K « i < • r : - -i •• • •■; 

; ' .N tM !' . r. .. f 'i \« •• **r • •». !*». ' . . I.. I. ♦ i» I • f f'if»">- 

^* --i •!« li I f fA '.'«•. I -f Mil « r- ft •* r i: :.•**.♦. I • It 1m I J I., li 

' 'f r« ,■• I .ft II t • ( II t r« III. v.- ». !• .n- 

•« !(.•:..» . >%%•'* ''i,'»»-T M •• ..//t'#fw*/»^ l-«./p T*. 

t' I !• . I ,, X. r. •% . 1 I . '. I k. 1 •! 'A I . . * » f •■ / » 4* • '. II 

* ! .^ f n ll.. t ■ I I. '! M. I •! a !• 4 ..• ■ !• • ■• . r • %. | i *. ■•< 
•■ ti «• i( |« < *i!i# )i .J- .* ,:.t I ■• v ti S! ,» » «. •■ • .•! ■'»-• 'ft * •tf» IMi 

* ' «!• MMr AV I ft I'llfr rit«l '*" -'* * f ■ tM- • • t »• '••I ||»» 
** ^, It iiiiiu> i.^t. K f!t«ttj«*l It, fti.J lr>-l !«• /^ .1 < ..n.'^.f. I* t«ui. 



UK t <rf dflraiUtion mt repeated; Oxford was burnt to the gnrand 
^ in the year 1009; a like fate OTcrtook Cambridge in tbtt 
1*^ fbUcinDg year; the library at Canterbury pcriBhcd in the 
Kone visitation. The Benedictines indeed survived, and, 
when the reign of Knut restored tranquillity, notwithstanding 
the traditional jealousy of the secular clergy, their foundations 
Hrt rapidly multiplied. Under the pAtronngo of Eadward the 
jjiJ^ CoufcKsor tlio order bccnmo still further strongthcnnl and 
extended. The rival fouudntions of St AugiiKtino and ChriHt 
Church at Canterbury, these of Abingdon, St Alban's, Bury, 
By, Gtastonbuiy, ilnlmcsliHTy, Winchester, Westminster, and 
Bochoster, oil pmfvNscd the Bcnodictino rule. Ode, the 
haiiglity biNhop of Baycux, rcfiiwd to rccogiiiHe any hut a 
Bcnnlictino as a truo monk. But though the monoMterics 
oiico mora flouriHhc<1, the Iumscs to litcnituro were for a long 
time irr(-]i.imblo. Wilb tlio Hecoiid Dniiinh invnxion, nuthom, 
whom Alciiin and Aclfrcd hail known and studied, diKiipjH'nr 
furct'iiturirs: it mny indeed bo donlitcd vlictbcr tbo llanius 
thiit at diffcreiit tiiiiCM consumed tlio lilirarica of Home, 
Alexnndrin, and CiinHtnntin(i])1i-, infticted n moro ap]m'cijihlo 
loss U[>on tbo progress of education in wcstem Eiiroiic. At 
the time of the Cojui'icst, if wo mny ercilit tho testimony of a 
comjietent though somewhat prcjiidicod witncBH, an acqitaint- 
nncc with gmnimar marked out the possCHsor as a prodigy '. 
Such, in briefest narrativo, were tlio vicisHitudes tbieugli 
which learning in Etighiml bad paxscd at tho timo whon she 
once more bowed before the conquering sword, and other and 
more humanising influcncos began to give fs^ion to her 
culture and her institutions. 

Of Vacarius, and his lectures at Oxford on the civil law 
in the middle of the twelfth century, wo have already spoken; 
it was probably about twenty years before that an English 
ecclesiastic returning from Paris, and commiserating the low 

* " PcriisM BQtcm inm tnno per non poucit ante adrmtum A'oiiwi*- 

Danicu alinwiiio crtiplioupR otiincui nonim annii. CIrrM lilrratura (■• 

priMnun in Anjilin enulitiHiiiui, In- tHNllanTia tontmti vU SacrnmrnHi- 

cnleDtu* CHt testis Gailii-lmUB Mai- rum verba Lalkul tcbanl i mIvjhiH H 

meiibuncnBia.CoiiqnaCbtoruiCTOrTOK- miratvlo trat caetrrii, qui grammati- 

imiu. (Lib. III.) ' Liitraram,' inquit earn noMcf."* ConringiuB, De Anti- 

illc, 'tt rtligiimU ttudla abiaUvffaM qaUaUbvt AcaitmieiM, p. 28!. 



•tato of Ic&rning among his countrymen, essayod to rokindlo mAF. 
at Oxford some acquaintance with Latin and a love for letterSi 
The Sententiarum Liiri Octo of Robert Fullcn have been iM,ft% 
Riippo.sed to have suggested the Sentences of Peter Lombard. J^^^jj^ 
They are however characterised by strong points of difference; **** 
an absence of the dialectical element and the elal)orately 
established 'distinction/ less exclusive roganl to PatriHtio 
authority, and a moro generally Kcriiitural inetlKMl of intcr« 
pretatiou. His nam<? is l)rou;^ht forward l»y Anthony Woo«l 
to jirovo that Aristotle was Rtutlied at that ]K;riod at Oxford'. 
Tlio same writer, on the authority of lA'land, informs us that 
'Pullcyno taught daily in the ScluNds, and left no stone 
unturned wheri^by the Ihitish youth might flourihh in the 
learne<l tongues. Which goo<l and us(*ftd lal)ourH continuing 
several years, multitud(*s came to hear his doctrine, profiting 
thereby so exceedingly that in a short Hi>ace the University 
procee<led in their old methcxl C)f Exercises, which were tlio 
age lK»fore very rarely performcHl'/ Tlierc api>ears to bo no 
ruiuH<m why the g<»fHTal fiict here nTorchMl should Ikj n?j<»cti»il. 
Pulleyne, acconling to the consent of various authorities, 2iX7tA 
was f«»r some years a student at Paris, and it is Huiliciently oIiSli « 
cr*MliMo that what he had there leanit he should t^'acli at!!i^«f7!2 
Oxford. There also appi^ars to Ikj gmsl reason for lK*lieving 
tliat long before the thirteenth century, hcIhsiIs existed at 
(>xfonl (tradition points to the Bifncdictines as their foun- 
cl«Ts) and that these were presided over by teachers from 
Paris*. Mr Anstey, who lias devoted considerable attention 
U) the subject, reganls it as almost beyond disptite that the 
earliest statutes of his university were borrowc<l from the 
same source. 'The transition,* he says, 'from mere grammar 

* Woo(l*ii concluRion rests mi a 
rttlier narrow induction: — *K<»bfrt 
Pnllonie ^ho flourishfj an. 1146, 
dill U'foro tliat time rt'ml at Oxfonl 
optimarum Arlinin diteiplinai which 
i^itlirtiit AriHttitIv ho coald not weU 
do.' A lino In, I 2S0. 

* Annnh, i 142. 

■ S«} Mr Anntoy's Introdaction to 
J/vN/mrnfa Aradrmica, I xxix. The 
foonUation of the Umreraity of Ox- 

ford hy Kinfr Adfrod roatt be claA^cJ 
with the other hintorical firtionii 
with which the earlier pa;:e«i of 
WcMxrH work are (jUcnI ; an infatua- 
tion wliich in no f^nemUj truntwor* 
thy an anti«|U.nrian in alnioi«t in- 
explicahle, unlcn, indeed, we repinl 
th<Ko |*n);i'% ait aunie ha\'e done, at 
intended only for a {jotMltToos aiiJ 
elaborate ji>ko. 


L (. KbooU to I itMlium yenxraU, or, da wo cull it, ao uniTersit;, 
cannot be traoeil; the probability however, almost amounting 
to a certainty, is that it was effected by a nearly wholesale 
adoption of the regulations of the uoiverstty of ParisV 

TIic 'earliest authentic legal instniment,' to use thn 
g langna^ of Cooper, cantoning any recognition of Cambridgo 
as a vinireniity, is a writ of the second year of Henry iii, 
addressed to the sheriff of the town, commanding all clcrka 
who had been cxcummun Seated for their ndlicsion to Louis 
the son of the King of France, and who had not boon 
alisolvod. to depart the realm before tlio middle of Lent; 
tho^o who failud to yield obedience to tltin niaiuhito to bo 
arrested. ' If,' observes Cooper, ' (as seems very probable) 
the word cUrk is used in this writ aa denoting a scholar, 
this appcara to he the earliest authentic legal instnimont 
rifirriiig to the existence of n IJiiiverMity in this placeV Our 
iinivi-r-ity history wonld accDnlingly worn to date from tho 
cninmcneeinent of our true national history, frnm tlio time 
when the Norman element having bccomo fused with tho 
Saxon element, find tho invader driven from onr shores, tho 
gcniuH of tlie people found comparatively free scope, and tho 
national cliiiracter Iwgan to assume its distinctive form. 
Gulling evidence of the Conquest Htill exhibited itself, it is 
true, in the Poitevin who ruled in tlio royal councils, and 
the Itiilina who monopolized tho richest benefices; but tho 
isolation from the Continent which followed on tho cxpulxion 
of Prince Louis could not fail to dcvclope in nn insular 
race a more bold and independent spirit. Tho first half of 
the thirteenth century in England has been not inaptly 
^ designalcd ' the ago of Rrjbcrt Grossi;testc.' The cold com- 
mendation with which Hallam dismisses tho memoiy of 
that cmiiteiit reformer must appear altogether inadequate 
to those familiar with more recent investigations of tho 
period. The cncouragcr of Greek learning, tho interpreter 
of Aristotle, the patron of the mendicant orders, the cliastiscr 
of monastic corruption, the fearless champion of the national 

^ ilunimtnlaAradrmlta, p. xli», * AnnaU, i 87. 



cauBO against Papal aggression, the leader of thought at the ^ 
sister university, deserves a foremost place in the history of 
his times. 'Probably no one/ remarks his most recent 
editor, 'has had a greater influence upon English thought ifbi 
and English literature for the two centuries which followed 
his ageV Tliose familiar with the literature of those cen- 
turies will bear witness how often the name of Lincolniensis, 
the bishop par excellence, appears as that of an independent 
authority*. Grosseteste died in the year 1253; and the half 
century wherein he had been so prominent an actor had 
witncHsed those two great events, both inseparably associateil 
with his name, which gave a new aspect to learning and to 
the institutions of the Church, — the introduction of the new 
Aristotle into Christian Europe, and the rise of the Franciscan 
and the Dominican orders. 

The evils that rarely fail to accompany the growth of JJj;* 
coriwratc IxMJir.s in wealth and influence, had folIow4?d u])on yJ.J 
tlin aggrandisement of the 15eiiedictincM, and are attested by '"'*^ 
evideneo too unanimous to l>e gainsjiid, es|)ecial!y by tlie 
Kiirccssive institution of sulnirdinate orders, wliirli, wliilo 
ndliering to the same nde, initiate*! or rcHfori-d a severer 
discipline*. The Cluniivc and the Cistercian orders, thoso 
of the Camuldulcs and the Celestines, of Fontevrault and 
Gnuidmont, are to bo n^garded rather as refonned than aii 
rival societies, — attempts to do away with grave causes of 

' Vroiaceio ItolMTti GrositftfntfKpi' n<«lict'M rule, bcgtin by Bcrnon. abbot 

ifoto! by Uev. II. 11. Luard (Uolbi of (ii^i in Hur^niiidy, l>ut iocreuHil 

B4Ti<'f*). and pcrfect'-d by Olo, abbot of Cliini, 

" Even BO lato as in tlic couno of obuut k.v. OIH, f^nvo riso to tbe Clo- 

ftudicrt i»rer»crib<Ml for the rniversity ninn ord«r; ^.liich w»« tb© firj*t and 

of Tubi!i;.'«'n by Kinj; Ferdinand, in principal branch of the lk*ncdiclinei«; 

l.Vi5, tb«' name of *Liiiconicu«' ap- for tb<'y lived under the rule of St 

piarM \*ith tln'^o of Averroi'"*, Avi- 1Jcne<lict, and wore a black habit; 

Ci-nna, AUnrtiiH Matins, Aquinas, bni ob-ervin;» a differfnt discipline 

H«'otHH and Occam. Si-e Stimuituny wrn? ciilird by a difTtrent naiiif.* 

Hf-r U'iirtt'-mhfnjitrhfn Si'hitl Grtrtzf, Sco Du^'tlalo, \tnno»t. T ir. With 

dritle Abtbi iluii^', p. 1»1. re-p^ct Ui tbe Civt* rrian«, w#» ba\e 

■ llrhi.ictiii;,' tliu i»ri;;in of some of fbi* t» stiinttny of llii;?'», tbe I*«>i»t*t 
tbe minor orders, >ve liavc no natin- b^'ate, in bis b tt«r «»n tlnir drni in« 
fii'tory inforiiKilion, but thoMJ of stil»Jt:on, — 'nrrula: I*' .•^l:«^iroi l>i:o- 
Cltmy and tbe Ci-ttrcians undoubt- dirti q«i;im illtir tcpidenc ?:• .'li^-futcr 
cdly took their nne in tbe spirit in ef>«Um monaHterio t< imerunt, are- 
indicated in the text. *Tho rcfor- tiiin dcinccptt nt«pie i^rfc-ctiuj inlur- 
niatiun/ Hays Tanner, *of some thin;:M rere velle profe^H**?* fuiM*e.* Hid, t 
which seemed too remiss in St he- 31V. 

86 BisB or TBB taamicAST ordkss. 

UK t- tftMnliJ, vhile tbe traditions of monuticioin remained. Self- 
perfection WM ttill tbe profeased aim of tbe monk ; devotion, 
bamility, aedusion and obedience, bis cardinal virtues ; and ai 
be illumined tbe wroll or chanted tbe intercessory prayer, 
be beld bimself well absolved from tbe duties of a secular life, 
Tlie isolation practised by the followers of Focomius and 
Antony io the fifth, widely differed however from that of 
tbe Benedictine in tbe thirteenth century, Tbe former, by 
sbonning intercourse with thctr fellows, sought to escape tbe 
temptations of tbe flesh ; tbe latter, while they jealously 
guarded their privilcgcil seclusion, found for the most part a 
l^y^ solace ID unmiti^tcdacnsuolindulgCRCO. Tbe great fioncdio- 
"* tine movement in Nomuiudy in the eleventh century, and the 
gn-at CisU'rcinu movoiiicnt in Kiiglund in the twelfth, had 
ffiilwl to cffi-ct nnylhing more than a pnrtiiil and cvnntrNcc-nt 
rvfuna Tlio intc-ni-G sollishucss of a lifu which evaded tbo 
social duties only to indulge, with less rcNtraint, the indi- 
vidual appetites, arrested the attention even of that gross 
. and uncritical ago', and a striking picture of the actual state 
of alfairs at the latter part of the twelfth century has Ikjch 
preserved to us by the gmphic pen of CSirnldus Cambrcnsis. 
In the year IISII, when a young man, he became a guest on 
;J]32 bis return from the Continent to London, at the famous 
^' ' ■' monastery of St. Augustine at Canterbury, He was hospitably 

> XVitncii ipplieition bj OirnlJiw I, * keen wil. • joxitl pluralist, bat 

Cambrcniiis of tLo compnrisuu in- ninan iilculliiremitltrncnuni'Nliiou. 

■litutudbTJcroincU'twi-tiitlietnoiik IIu Imd b liviug at \VeKlbiir7-oti> 

nnil tlia m.'ciiltr i>rioiit tu hi>i owa Kuvcni, tcry a«tr tlio CJKti'rciita 

tiiun. (lintl<lii> «a« liiinacif nn sbU'y in Uiu turcxt ol Draii. Eu> 

cctliKinslio nii.l on >»]>iniiit to tlio cr.Hiilitiiciit by tlie CiHltrcinoB ou 

■ct of SI l)iiviil'ii. ■ JlniiiirlinH ciiiui Iiik cKririil ticlitH itiaj Luvu nil'lnl to 

Umiiuun tiulim cnitm. Vil Kiticiilnris tLo itnlii^iiitiim of bin unliro. Wlim 

dictUK, mii M.linH ciiniin nxil. Cti-ri- loi lii^ timiihIii, as JimtiM in Kjn 

cii" viTo tit.™ iiiiiltoriiiii ciimiii will. Inr ILo Kiuu. lio »m wont wbiii 

citari tcucliir. KmI JtiiriHo iiiiiiuirljiii tnkiujt tbo oiUb tint bo wontil do 

Indquttiu grnniim Irllici xiiliini iiia- c-iunl jiislii-o to alt, io excfpt Jow« 

ochii; cut buUui cloricuii tiiiii]uiiiu nnJ CiBtpreianH, ti mon to wliom 

eTimum (KTiuinniu, et in luirrrk l>o- tqua} juhltco was ftn klmuinatiun. 

miui Riitltuni fmclnm aDToiX'iis.' To- llix AjHcalypgo of bisliop Golins ia ft 

p.^jr.ip)iia SlibTnica. lik. Ill C. 30. fierce saliro OD tbe ilcbandicry Mid 

Tlia Itooil lutliro of (be friend ot atnsiinlitj of Ibo otJci. UiKbop Oo- 

(iiratJiK. Wultnr Mop, pnints in tbe lln^ ig nproriCLttd a» Mlontcd by 

■.'iiic diri-elion. SIup vaa arcbJca- tbo lonJoxt bopo tb>t be migbt dia 

con ol Oxford in tltereigu of liicbard dnink in » tavern. 


CDterUincd, but hii uUnuhmcDt »t whst b« witneaed wm i 
ioteoM. Th« cooremtion and msDncn of the mook^ be 
Affirmi, were mich that ho thouglit hinuelf nmoiig pUjm 
KDil jcstcni Tha tabic ftt dioocr wm rvgulaii^ UM vitb 
■iitevn coven. Fuh uid fli-Mh, rotuit and boiled, bigliljr 
K-aMned diHliM, piijiiant lancc*, nnd cxquUite cookery, 
tliinulat«d tlio fiti'4'4ing nppvtilo. Tlimigli tliv alo of Kcat 
wiiB of tbc bcHi, it WM rarvtjr taatod whcro clarvt, mead, uul 
mulbcnj wine were constantly flowing'. Tliere ia ample 
vrideoce that liifi in uo cxn^gontted dcMcriptioD, and that tlie 
mmiiuitt'ry nt C'nntcrhury w.-u far from exceptional io ita 
chnractiT. A viirietjr t/f ■tium'", it woidd w-i-m, had combinvtl 2 
Ui iinnldci; thin I.i\ity ofili^-iiJiiM'. I.ylt<ll'm iii hi* Hi^ory" 
of tlif Il< i;,'ti of ll'iiry ii iitltihoii-* tn iho civil war in i>h> 
pnwlitij,' rdj-n iliv uvir-.-i^";r:indi-«MH'iit i>f lh« m'>ii%>tie 
itrdt;n: the «<:ik nti<] the tinii'I t<H>lt refii;,'^- whi-rv al<>no 
it WM to U- f..iiiid ; uliih- thiML* who pirtiripitcil in tl»« 
Ktni;.'g!c Dftdi c<>iiimi(l('<i ntmeitiei fi>r whirh, cotivieDcc- 
ulricken, they ••iiiij;hl in aflvr yt:iri U' nt-iiv hy fotiodtn;; or 
vnnchiii;; r> li;:i.m- liono t*. I'l iii>tnn<f<, th«' «i:tlrlii.'r 
an-l inort' ]i»wcr(iil fuiin<l:iti<>n<t li.fl <>ht iitii-<) t-xcniptioit front 
nil eiii^oitivil niutrO ami wore n-Hinm-iMv »u\y Ut the Pttpn 
and h:« I. -;.lo'. 

Tlio iin\it:tl.If ttr.-ct* (if Muh wido-»j>n.(wl eomiption in w 
undcnntiiiti-; Ih" ifipular faith, were, f<>r a time, to ■utne 
eili'nt hy t».> im[H>rtiiiit m(iv> ment*. Tlie va«t 
iiiipiiN- hv lli-- t'ru^i.h!! (■. I'hri-rian Kon-]* 
)m.| iuV. r\r.| a .|..i[l.|,' I'^irfN. ■..■—)( hn-l t. th- tluno 

<.r rt Ii -u' ilh'i<i:>Mn, and l..->'l nir'.rd.' I t.> l)>.- in-rv n-rkh^ 

»(»! la«|. - m- inU rs ..f ..Ti. tv ih.- .■,.|-.rt.iini.v -f r.v.h. ili.-.- 
ti..M I.. \h<- < -l.-iM I, - n..t, i.i.l.'. .1. !■> il- .ili. t...ti..i. ..f «..f Idly 
•.ultl. I.nt 1.V n).|- dill.- to III"-- xiry iiMiii'-'* »l.> 
I \n-sii ni") (-[iiiiirri'ity l.-'k tli- ir li-', — tin' I'M' "f adu titnre 
Olid .xoil.ti.. ht*. Ti'l- iiltini.i^- I fr..i, of il til. iii..nl4« 

■^. !.«•-«. Ilf! 



expedittoiM widely differed however from those originally 
contemplated by Urban ii. Long residence in an enervating 
dimate, under conditions of so extraordinary and novel a 
character, could scarcely prove favourable to the habits and 
morals of those engaged. Whatever benefits the Crusades 
conferred on Christendom were probably more than counter- 
balanced by results of a different nature. If invasion was 
repelled &f»m Europe, and a bond of union created among 
the nations of Christendom in the place of internecine strife, — 
if chivalry traces back its origin to the spirit then evoked, — it 
is equally certain that an inlet was afforded to many baneful 
influences. Tire attempted conversion of the Saracen not 
only proved fruitless, but, as a recent writer has observed, 
it seemed, at one time, much more likely that the converters 
would become converted. The Manicheistic tendencies which 
infected the Chrif^tianity of the fourth and fifth centuries 
reap[>eared; the belief in magic and the practice of the 
magician's arts liecanic widely extonde<l ; the Communistic 
excesses of these times have been attrlbute<l, with no small 
probability, to the indirect influences of the Crusades. 
Everywhere might bo discerned the workings of a genuine 
but ill-regulated enthusiasm. The austerities and doctrines 
of the rival sects of the Patiirins, the Cathari, Bons Homines, 
Joseph ins, Flagellants, Publicani, and Waldenses, were 
regarded by the orthodox with apprehension and dismay*. 

Scarcely however had t}\ese secotnlary symptoms become 
manifest, when another movement l(;nt new prestige to the 
Church an<l revived tlie hopes of the faithful. Long l)efi>re 
St. Louis breathed his last on the coast of Africa, in that final 
expedition on behalf of the beleaguered Christian settlements 

•invented tho CniRRilcs as a new 
wnv for tbo laitv to iitono for tlM*ir 
nins and to merit Bolvutiou,' qaotcd 
by (liblKin, c. 68. 

' * Seo I*rofeK8or Brewer's preface 
to tho Atnnununta Francucana^ p. 
xxxvii; also Mr Lnartrs Preface to 
JiohiTti GronnctrHte Kpixtotte. Mr 
nrcw<'r regards tho doctrines of the 
Albi^ji'UHCs, which appear to liavp 
bct-n a form of MauicUeiHin, aud 

thoflo of the * Evorlaatincj Gospel ' as 
attrihtitahlo to tho same influonces. 
The CruKades appear rather to have 
increased than diminished the num- 
ber of those wlio took refuge in the 
motmstericR. Sec Michaud, Ilht. df$ 
Crohfuhn^ vr 255; also Milroan, 
whoso new of their collective and 
final effects is somewhat more favo- 
rable. Ui$t. Latin Christianitij, Bk. 
VII c. C. 

sm or rat uanickvr ordoh. B9 

in f^yn% to wliicti ho lind ruuK'O the flnfSpnK cnthariann of fPtr 
UU ty«Hti7mcn, ho hiwl bchcM with mlmiratH.ii tho rwo mhI '"'- ' 
nipi<l growth of lhi«o two ji;r<-ol oTtivn to whuNo uittiring 
(■■ill tho Chiin-h of IViinc w;i^ wi hii^-ly imK-btv*] in the 
(Uittvt>iith ntii) foimct-tith oiKiirii'N. Within U-kk than t«-n 
VL-an of with otlit-r, w^re fuini'lv<l the orJt-r of St, I>>ininic 
mill the onh-r of St. KniticiH of A«>i!ii. The m^ciutin t;I;nicc 
of Iiiiioeent lit hml •li>tiiigiii»hitl Wtwiiit thv p-iminu 
i)i-v<)ti<iii that ('hiinK'l<n>i->l the t-nrliur >iiitit of thexe onUn 
mill thi- fiiiKit ill-Ill of |>rtr-'.hii;r kii-In; hi- lim) tliv 
t:ihinhh- niil thti-. jirooil'^l !'• the Omnli ; ami it «:ui 
ii.';irly hit hi-t not to l>i".t<»v ii|-u the huiiihle followen of Si. 
Fr.itieiH hi% s;iiifti"ii n-.A h-'iii''lti'ti'>ii. 

Till- wIi->]<' !>|>irit ill uliji'h i)i<' iu-iitnlioii of thi'v- twn twmi, 
..fihT- w;us . ..ii.-.ivr.l .t— I ill si;.rtliii-,' f'ntr;i-t to tht i'h;"';;;.^ — 
ih.-ii ft>">ii:ii -.1 Hiili ill.- rvllyi'"!- I;!*'. Ki.r iMiIaiinn ffin t^iJ 
iii'iiiLin-l thin- vif m-w tvi iii)i]i[i>'>)*.-i sjiiri' •>( ev:iii^' li^ni 
H.-nhyf (h. :i|.M-t:.-:.-. , t-r ]oii..Iv .-Llii. . tin- r. i.-n.. 
.Lili.'iiof :(..|lh.l h..:'it..t^..ii: f.r I'- :,i;< ••r|>;.uMli 
|.-:.ri.ili-.':ili :-l!-:.! -.-.t!.;i.- .!■ i f- : " . ■■.■ I-.. : f-t ui.-l 

i-!r-ii.>tiil--ii'-- i!,. 1.1. t I..I. .,:.-l Ih : -t i..i)..-i,t; 

«],- r. w r vi. .' :.i. i ti.i.. rv liu 1 tl.. -.r ;i!-.h-, :,;.,i.| thr ~|<i:.|..r. 
J-i.ity, nli'I ^'llV. iiri;; i-f th.- ft —t «i.;.h..l i|ii.irl. t- i.f ttu- 

.1 ..f III. 1 



1 •.. 

..I ll,.> f..ri,. 


|.|»r ... 
l-i.i-ti.- ;i 

t..... 11,.. 1..-I. 


..■.1. .11..! 

r ,!„■ .,. 


..t' tl..- •!-!... 
■I. II ..1 >. 

■ \ .; .i 

I'--' """ <" 
■.■■.■^■. Tn. 


M Bni OF THE XEnnacAin ohdebs. 

■. I. pwentod hj both oidera to the inaetivitjr of Uie Benedicdse 
n e c iMw rily ^tpealed with lingular force to the mmta ui 
•Trnpatbiet of the poor amid the vicissitudes of that tempei 
^ tiiouB ceatniy. lie two ordcn extended thcmRolvea wit 
*■* nuiiTcUoua rapidity over Europe and yet remoter region 
Tlicir conroDta multiplied not only ia more civilized countrici 
but also in Russia, Poland, and Denmark ; their missionaric 
penetrated to the heart of Palestine, to the inacccBiiib] 
fastnesses of Abyssinia, and the bleak regions of Crii 
Tartuy. 'In a few years,* says Dean Kilman, 'from tli< 
nerros of Spain to the steppes of Russia ; from the Tiber t 
the Thames, the Trent, tho Baltic sea ; the old faith in it 
fullest mediaeval, imaginative, inflexible rigour, was preache 
in almost eveiy town and hamletV In England tli 
Dominicans met with Uss success, but this was fully com 
t^Of pcnsatcd by the' mpid progress of the Franciscans. Ver 
soon after the establtslimcnt of the latter order, they hai 
formed a Bcltlcment at Oxford under the auspices of Grossc 
teste, and had erected their lirst rude chapel at Cambridge 
U^ %Vithin thirty years from tlieir first arrival in U»e countrj 
"^ they numbcTcd considL'rably more than a thousand and hoi 
cstalilislicd convenU in most of the more iinpurtant towni 
' If your holiness,' says Orossetcste, writing to Gregory ix ii 
1238, ' could see with what devotion and humility the pcopi 
run to hear the word of life from them, for confession am 
instruction as to daily life, and how much improvement tin 
clergy and the regulars (clenia et rtliifio) have obtained b 
imitating them, you would indtxid say that tliey that dwel 
in the sliaduw of death ujKin tlicm hath the light shincd' 
Even by the existing religious orders they and their worl 
were regarded, in the first instance, with far from unfriend! 
sentiments; or, if jealousy were felt, it was deemed prudcn 

thcj wrred to iibev forth tho eoDnt- intellsatnal encrRj, vitboiit wliici 
■ emciing Icndcncies of a Tery memo- tboiio ngca would bnve boon vcr 
ralilo period. It each bcld down barroD.' Prof. Uaurioo, ilediaca 
tozae Imlh, cncb broti;:ht some siile J'liilomphg, pp. ir>3 — ICfi. 
of Imth into tiiibt wbiib ila rival > Hitt. Latin CMitiaailg. Bk. i 

would havo eniAbcd. It Ibey It'lt 
man; peniiciona influGocca to alter 
aK«, tbe; RwakcDcd a ■tiiiitual and 

TBI iriW ABVrOTUL f 1 

to reprent iU manifestation whilo the ciimnt of popular niAr. t 
fei^Iing flowod to itroogly in their favour. Roger of Wcnd- 
}ver, prior of tho Bcnedictino convent of Belvoir, dedarea 
that the labours of the now missioiiartet 'brought much 
Truit to tho LoitlV 

Witit tlic activity of tho Dominicans is associated the 
>tlier gr >vemcnt of this century, — tho introduction ofl ^^ " ^ 

ho w Uoj*opliy. Tho numemuYi fuundations planted by iJ^TST* 
:li* tho East, brought about an increased intefCouniQ 

W( tiiiRH! regions and \VeHti*m Europe; tlie influenoe 
the Crusades, as we Imvo already seen, was ten<ling to 
i like result ; the barriers which, in the time of Gerbefl, 
titerpuHod lietween Muliunu'tan and Clirintian tlniught, were 
>nikcn down ; and, Mmtiltane4iui<Iy with these clmngiii, the 
ibuurs of Averrixii, who died at Morocco in IVJH, were 
parading among tho Arabs a defemice for tlie authority 
•f Aristotle such as no preceding commentator or translator 
ind infipirctl. Another widely scattere<l Uidy suppliel the 
ink that brought tht*se lalxiurK home to Cliriii'eodom. The 
k'wa of Svria, and tlio^ who, under tho iMi»nifiillv tolerant 
n!e of the Samons in Sp.iin. fonnd refii^jt* fmrn the jn^tm^ 
'iiti'»u ami insult which c<»nfn»nted th«*ra in the grt*at cities 
•f Chri.otian Kiiro|K*, were dlMiiipii^hcd by their cultivatifiQ 
•f tho new phihHM>phy, and their a(H|uaintaiice with both 
Vrabic and L;itin enabh*<J them in turn to render the works 
•f Averri>cH nccr^nihlo to tho sc^holars of tho Ibimance 
•'iKitrii^s. It would m^^m to lie a wt II i*%tabli»hed couclufdoo tlie philo»-«»j»liy of Ari«»totli» ^a^ fir^t made knuwu to***' 
lie \\\^%i iniifiK tlirou;:)! tluM* vrr*i«»iii. Tlie raritr, at tlii< \'C>^ 
■ ri'nl. of a knoul« d;^«» *»( (Inek, and the attractions ofTeretl 
y the a«)dttit»tt:il aid atTord<-d in th** Ar.thic c«*tnni4 ntarit*)!, 
-•ure«l for tli« «»o tM^nrc** a pn frn»nce o\rr nliatever had as 
*t a|*|»<ared that hah fimndi d U}»>n an inmitxhato ac<|uaint* 

* *''rrtii irfitur in hrrxi hW or4o air*. vrrLnvi tit» f^r««hrftiiln^ H 
•f»''ir. |i«r .fU ••! tiitt«tr«iini . •|tu m»«f« *■*■' «, fr>i< i im j l.4f .» » *••! Iv^ni* 
t rl •«! t«fii t I.I* rtifit tu lit* I'U* fmmtft t ii%t. «4- \\*i«, |i. Sll. 

9s m wf AmsKftLt, 

t»Af. L aneo irith Uie Onek originals*. A eonaidorable i 
' ' " ol^wod boforo tt&nslations direct from tlio Orock a) 
i& miffidont nnmbor to nvol those from tho Ambi 
here it will be well bcforo wo proceed with tho constc 
(tf the iatcrprotaUoD of Aristotle adopted by tlie 
teachers of oar uoivorsitics, to diseriminato tho 
from wheiico tbcir inspuratiun would ap]>car to bav 
ri ' i ' i*! <■■ h ^^ ^"'"'^ already bad occasion to notice tliat tlio A 
Sl^Sit. <^ tbo Bcbooltnen, priur to tho twelfth ceutuiy, was i 
more than probably two of his trcatinoo on Log! 
CaUtjoria and tbo De IiUerpreUitiotie ; tho remniui 
tioD of the Organon, as trauslatod by Bocthius, beii 
mode known at the beginning of tliat century*, It i 
to expliun by what means the Middle Age translatioi 
the Arabic and those from the Greek have been diNtin; 
and identified. The theories of different scholars on tli' 
tion were for a long time singularly at variance. 1 
not be doubted that the source from whence those w! 
introduced the pliilosophy of Aristotle into Christian 
derived their knowledge, were Latin translations ; 
what instances these translations hod been made < 
from the Greek, and in what instances they were ■ 
from the labours of the Arabians, was in considerable ( 
Bnicker, in hia IHstory of Philoaophy, put forth 
confu3<:d and unsatisfactory statement; Hceren inci: 
the opinion that the revival might bo traced to 

■ 'On paisiiit pins valonlicn k Sfoalr,al,batitS. Uichafli'.l 
ccll« iwnrco qn'i rnnlre, psrco quo (qnoluJ by Jonrdain, p. 68 
In InuinclioDa ile Ri^Ltl-u ct do limrEvcr irould, »( couno, ( 
I'uabe t^Uiii'Dt i>Iuh Ittl^rnlra, ct to the actual knowlcilKO <^ ; 
qu'ou ; trouvnit ilea explicaliong * TUcaO portinnK of tlie ' 
qne robacutild da Icits reoiluit Iri-s- that it to sny, tlio Prior Kud 
DcifRsiiirr*.' Jounliiia, RtchtTehii m Aniiljtics, the Topic*, 
Vrifi'/iifi, etc. p. 16. Ulenchi 3ophiiiliei bl-camc 

■ TLe first koown tninalHtion di- as tlie Nora Loglfa, tho C 
rtctlruDi IbcGrL-t-kiathatufJocqacB and tho Do iLlerprctatiuns 
de Ycuii«, 11214. ' JiuoLan, clirricUB Loglta. Sec BoLeur, ill Hi 
do Vi'nitia, (raimtulit do grii'CO in obncrvci thst in Dunn Sc< 
Ikliuuia qaawtam liliroi AnKlotclU distinctian ap]<«arB to liave ) 
ct cuunncutiilns est. scilicet Topicg, by vbich the respective trcnl 
Annljtioit privrcH ot posleriiin's. et ftenGmlly known. Qcuhic 
KIcucbuiiiiiajiiuvtiiBulicimilmuiihitio Logik, lu 2UG. 

lupcr em luiWri'tar.' Bi,bcTti it 

almaatontiroljiixlcpendontof thoAmliietitnibitioM; BoMe niAr. i 
and T^ottcmaon MUoenUtl a contnry Ofunion ; TennomuiB 
fttU-inptcd to Tcconcilo tlio o|i|)i«in'; h^pntliCMca ; liut tt wm 
rocrrcd fur H. JoiirOain, in liiit cMuy dnt pulilwhed early •<« s^ 
in tbo prcacnt century, to urivo hj h wrica of UiigttMiiol 
and laborioui invcKti^linnN at ttiono oxncluxiutu wtiirh 
luiTC, with ft fuw qua]ificnti<inii, been now alnuwt uniTeriKlIjr 

Tlio tnotlioil omploj'ud Ity Jounlain wm to tako. In turn, w *"^ 
tbo writing!) of cneh of tlio arliooliiion, nn<l nuvfuUy to"^ 
roiiipnru wlmtcver ()ii'itntiiinH ]>»■*>■ itt*-<l tliomwKca frum 
AnHtotlv with (lie i-nrliixt Ivttiii vrrHimix wi> ]■««)■«>; Ih' wm 
tliuK L'lml'k-J not only mtiofiictiinly tnitcleniiino tlie pcrioil 
to wliii-lt tlio iiilroliidion of tlic Arintutclian ptiiliMnpliy 
muMt bo rcfi'mtl, but al«i tlic loiirce" to which each writer 
wu iixlclttcil. A" n^'ankil tho (.-.-trlivf Arinlotle, tho trmnt- 
htinni by Au;;u<>tiiic uhI Ilocthiii* were, of course, easily 
4lii<lingiliib.i1ilerri>iii(hi>H0 of ttic Inter pa Hud ; for, beaidotbo 
eviilriiec nfTinkil by llic rlinmctt-r of the writing ami tlio 
abbn.-viatiuiiH eiiiiiloyfl, the fomier Imii'lationi {imiwwcal a 
certain ehv»nei'nn'l fn'C<l"iti, while the latter wi'Tv clianrtvr* 
inil by extn-mc tit<-mliie<", — n woni fir word nulnititiitioti of 
Ifllin for (ireck which ofi.n ptntly added to tlic obscurity 
of the origiimL Twlmtcal trrtii*, mnittwcr, were left un- 
(ranalalitl, licing mrrt-Iy i ran»cril>C"l, th(iii};h the Latin 
mipplicd a pcrfi-vtly Mt i<f ictory c<|iiivah'tiL An c<|ually 
truoiKorthy te^t mnlilol bim to di>liii^ii<>b the vi-ninnt 
froii) tboCri-ik from tlic vtr-i'iui rctn the Ar-ibic ; for, in 
th.' Utter, be fc-'iu. i.tly f.Hiixl D.-tl Cnvk word* «hich, in 
ihi' a1m-n<% of an Arabic c|iiiv:i1<-ii>. Imd Uvn ntainnl in 
tho ori;,'inid v.ivi.>ii. Ht-re it)<-..rT<'4-tly nj-lt in the Uliii 
translation; t-nm tlim-^ %>•» th'- tr.n-htor in ixii'>rnf»cv of 
the |>nriM' nivaiiiti^ of nn Arabic W'-nl, left it ktaiidinj; 

> Ur tr>n>t<.'* .)..*( i,.*r !/.,(.. .. a. Il..t \-n; u, I b-l -it l>)->«T. *■ 

t.„ ..I i-..,^. i' i.ii t...^i..>.i 1 .1. |,..«.rto«l.t«M-»hKa 

J..-.r.Uin-<r... int.. ...!.• I .1 •r>..l W.^ t.tvt 1. I i. I *r..->. hi I U.a 


«p. t QBtruuUtod. ' In many casos again connderoble eollfttcm] 

"^^^ light was ftffonlod by tbo divisioDB of the chaptcn ; in tin 

Uctophynloi, for inxtAnco, and tlio troatiHO on Hotconi, tin 

diviHion of tlio Arabic vunuon diflvrcil friim tliut of tin* 

maniiKcript employed by tlio tmnHlator from the Orcclc, ttml 

Die diHcrcpancy, of cuurac, reappeared in tlio curreiipondlii;; 

Litin vcmiiiiiH. 

iTCti '^'''^ ciiiicliixiona Jounlnin was tliud onalilcd to CHtabllHli, 

•*» wero, in Hubittanco, cliiefly os follow; — ^Up to tlio coin- 

moncomcnt of tlio tliirtccnth century neither the pliilosojilii 

of Ariittotio nor the labours of his Arabian commentator 

and tmnNlators appear to have been known to tho Sclioolmon 

Tlicro were, it is true, translations of Aviccnuft and Alfarali 

by Qondisalvi, coming into circulation about the middle o 

the twelfth <*cntury, hut they failed to attract the attentioi 

of the Ican'ed iu Franco and England. Dancus rcninrk 

that the name of Aristotle never once occurs in the Mastc 

of the Sentences'. But by tho year 1272, or two year 

hefure tho death of Thomas A']uinas, the whole of Ari.stotlc' 

«-riting3, in versions either from tho Greek or the Arahir 

had become known to Wcslcrn Europe. Within a peril" 

therefore of Icsa than tliree quarters of a century, tlii. 

philofopliy, BO far as reganls Cliriatcndom, passes from a Ktal* 

of almost complete obscuratioti to one of almost perfuct 

revelation. A further attention to ascertained facts enables 

U3 yet more accuratety to determine the character of tlictiL' 

translations and the order of their appearance, and ad<U 

considerable illustration to the whole history of the ehta- 

blishmcot of those relations of tho Aiistotelian philosophy 

with the Church which constitute SO important a feature 

in the developcment of this ago, 

vtmi AVith regard to the sources from whence the respective 

pE^ translations were derived, it is in harmony with what we 

£'"■ fihould be disposed to expect from the attention paid by 

■* the Arabians to natural scicnco, that we find it was chiLfly 

tlie natural philosophy of Aristotle that was made knoi^'n 

through their agency to Europe, and constituted consequently 

■ ProlfgimenaliiPetHLomb. Senlatliai,lA\). i Oeaty*, IBBa 

r 9 

t.-. ■'•■ •• ; ' ■•■•'•. »• •■■■■ •' . V ■ 

' • . I* ..... "^^ . \'. ■■ ■ , 

1 :. ■;..••'.. »'..*••' 

. .'. • 

1 • I • « 

■V » 1 Ik* • 

• JO • ■ • 

,1 • 


1. &litJon« imprim&s do son amvrca n'offront ^'une traduction 
tatiM (fufie tmdiietion h^mAiiue ^um commentatre fait svf 
une traJaetitm artAe d'vne traduction tyriaque </'t(ii t&>t« 
gree; qaantl on songo Biirtout au g6me m (lifri5rcHt (Ich langiicx 
MJinitiqiicR ct do la lan^io f^rcrquo, et & rextrfmo mibtilittj 
till tvxtc qu'il R'n^B.«ait d'dclnircir'?' 
[•^ It was naturally to bo anticipated that, witli tlio Rtrong 
* prcpofwciwion in favour of Aristotlo which hi« trnditional 
■ aittliority oa a lugicinn had scourml, and which, as Jnimliitn 
rcmarkn, liad created a dispoNition to regard liin dicta on 
well nigh infalliblo in every field of knowledge*, tliix new 
litcmturc would at once command attention and form an 
importint contribution to the speculative philosophy of the 
ngc Wlien wc remember moreover that the Ambinna in 
their commentaries, by the light of which, as nc liavo 
already seen, tluR new learning was first studied, cxtoHod 
or interpreted the Aristotelian deciKions with but little regard 
to their anttgnnism to the Ciiristian faith, we perceive tlmt 
there was far greater probaliility that those decisions woiilil 
be receiv&l and adopted under the impulse of a first culhu- 
sia-im Hither tlian upon such reflexion as a more dt.-Iil»cr.iti! 
estimate might suggest. It must also be remembered thattlie 
traditional hostility to pagan learning inculcated byCregery. 
Alciiin, and Lanfranc, pointed more at the licentiousness 
of the poets than at the di>gm:is of the philosophers. The 
bitter invectives of Tertulliaii against Greek philosophy 
woidd have seemoil well nigh unintelligible to an ago 
wlirrcin that philosophy hud almost passetl from men's 
inciiiories, or what remained of it had been received into 
the Ixisom of the Church ; wherein Boetliius passed for a 
Ciiristian writer, and Plato taught sheltered under the 
authority of Augustine; while Scueca, if atndieii, simply 
enforced the rules of a virtuous life from a Bomewhnt 
difTertnt standpoint; and Cicero, U> use the expression of 
Xiebuhr, was a 0(ot ayvtatrrov whose attributes were but 

' Jrtrroii tt ArtrriiinBr, p. 63. qn'on 1e Teguilait oomms nn mnflre 

' 'La r^pntntioD dont Arifili>ta infallible cd toate ecp^cetlocciencc.' 

jodissnit, commo logieicDi duniUiit Scehertlu$ Critiquti, etc, p. 3. 

une ttllo cxteiujon il ion antoriM 

DimcuLTin or the crcsch. 97 

dimly, apprehended. Here bowever like Mincrra from the 
bead of Jupiter, bad luddenly appeared an entire and 
aymmetrieal phil(>H4>pby, — a iiystem the cunningly oontriTed 
fabric of whieh ]K*miittc<l not iho njectiuu of a part without 
diuigcr to the Ntahility of the whole ; a the<iry of ethiov 
honnonioutand miniirubly devrloped ; a p^ychoU*^, toniewhat 
at variance with the schoolnmn'M notiomt, but Ct>herent and 
well defined ; conjcctunil itolutionfi in nietAphyMoi, (ar Icti 
Imnnoniuus and intclli^^ihlc, but full of attraction for the 
dmlcctician; theories «>f govcTument for the fttatefunan; 
treatiiies on nearly every clasn of natural phenomena for the 
iuvcfttigator of physicil Kf^ieiice. It Keoincd eqiuiUy perilous 
to admit and to repudiate utoresi of learning sanctioned by 
such authority but yet opening up to Mich dangeroui tpecu* 
lation. llie ecck' ic and the iKholar, wc may well 
underbtand, were toni by contending emotions. 

It in due to the ifitobrant sagacity of the Church of j 

inc to acknowliNlr^o that »*hc htmiu detectc<l the h<^tile 

elrment latent in the new p|jiloM>phy. Vviy early in the 

c<*ntury her denunciation*! wen* di^tinrtly jtroiiounced. In 

the year 1210, at a coiin< il cunvcnid at rarij*, certain [^or- 

tioni of the wientiHc troatiM*ji were condemnor, and it 

was forbidden either to ti-arh or to rend the ct^minentarics 

by which thry were neon j»anie<l. M. Jourdain lias »hown 

that these were undoubtc<!ly tnin^Intion^ from the Arabic; 

ami we may readily admit th«* h^pr^tlK ^U that tin irc/udcmna* 

tiori wan the re.Hult rather »f tli«» pintli'i«»tic irit«qin tationf 

^•f thecomiiif Titator'* than of tli«* r»j»iniori^ of Ari^tott*' liintM If •. 

It in evident indei-d that I owrvi r njuch the f 'ni*ad«** may 

».ive bei»n in-^tnimt ntal in brin^^in;; aKiul that int«rc»»unie 

»hich led to tin* intro*l»i 'tioii of the new learning, the 

i^*«Iin;;j« thoy evokes] nec<*H%arily «li'»fv.*»Ml tlie Cliurch to 

•I'iU-d all Saracenic thou'dit a* ho*tiI«» to the faitk Nor 

* I^nsAy u#>r //^ t'«ri4 4n«f<tf/;i« it 9titi**'9 •tA!«<l tK*t th#y 
lunjt <m ih* SMtixTllj of III/ -f-lq* ^Ait A" <»^rr4/# t'wt'^fm^t, p |!^l. 

'•."^ tli«t mrtt lemorj on f%r A^'t '* n /•• tKtU * f^ f 4* 

• <«*«*.«.n: t«il Ju'ifiUtn !.«• tA- S^tmi 7^«»*« ^J^aia. iff ChAiit* 


^ mt dw pfttroiugs of the emperor, Frederifl n likely to 
irin maiAk &TOur for Buch literature*. He was himself 
acctiwd, »t a somewhat later period, of haviog written a 
book (now knowa never to have existed] which coordinated, 
as developements of a like spirit of imposture, the Mosaic 
the Christiao, and the Mahometan religions*; the difficulty 
with which he had been induced hy the Pope to join in the 
Crusades, was notorious ; and his sympathies with his llocrish 
subjects, who were numerous in the two Sicilies, equally so. 
I ' Accordingly, us the new Aristotle made its way, the anathetnai 
'" of the Church were heard following upon the study. In 1213, 
the Pope's legate repeated the prohibition of 1210. !u 1231, 
a decree of Gregory IX forbade the use of the treatines on 
natural science, in the same university, until they should 
have been inspected by authority and 'purged from all sus- 
picion of errcr*.' Wo learn from Roger Bacon that this 
prohibition exi>rC8!tly pointed at the coiiimentarii.'S of Aviccniia 
and Averrocs. On tlio aainc authority we gather that it wns 
about this year that tlic most considerable influx of tlic new 
learning took place*. 

* It vu probklilj abont the ytai 
1220 tlist I'rtderic II sent to the 
luiivinitj o[ BoloRnt tnnalationii, 
jMrtly Irom tbo (ireck, portly Irom 
till Arabia of Arintotlu anil 'otbcr 
pbiluMiiLen.' cLirflj Plolcmy; fiina 
aJhat, luiji Uie royal letter occotupa- 
Bjint; tbvm, ort^iniifinm dirtioniim 
Onlinaliimf eoiufrlat, tt rftiatarvm 
Ttilitim, qmiM til -tlai priiHa eirnert- 
wrtrt, oprrimrnlo tonUclat, Vfl homi- 
nit jffielui nut optrii ad Laliiia 
liMgaa notitiaBi nan pfrttiuil. I'o- 
Unttt igilur, ii( rrnrnmrfa tanlonin 
Offrnin limul aueloHlat apud n«, nnn 
ab$qiu tonmoiii comin iinibut, rocii or- 
gano Irodaee innatrKat; ra per viro4 
Irrlot, /( In ulrini'iue Unfair jirola' 
lionr jwrttiu, iiulaiilrr jiiiMimui r<r> 

trawftrri. Conringiu", Uf Antiq. 
Atad. p. 101. Prantl Mtacbea eon- 
■iJerable importaoce to tbe Empa- 
ror'i patrooage: — 'UiiiRpgon iitwohl 
aoxmicliiDEn, daKB Kit dcr Anre. 
ttDDH, ■cicbo FrieJricb RCEcbcn hatta, 
fcirtitalircnil an vcrecbieileiicn Ortcn 

dnreh Mancbe, Ton tr«]cbtn «lr oiebt 

einmal dio Kamcn keoneQ, ntae 
Uebcrtragnni^ii in Tafta gefUrili'rt 
wordcn kuuntcii.' GnehiehU iltr Ij>- 
gik, til 6. Among tb« tranebiluni 
employed by tUe emperor wim the 
celebrated Michael Scott, who vuii 
alBO pntroniHcd by HoDoriui III. 

* Tlio I>i Tribal Impoiloribm. 
■A biHik wan Kaid to havo eiinlcd at 
tliiH timr, wilb tbiii title : It biu nevi>r 
been diHCOverc<l. I have aecn arulRar 
production «ilb tlie title, of modiTD 
mamifacture.' Milman, /fttt. Lalin 
Chrhimniiii, Bk. x e. 4. 

' 'All bicc jiibemua nt magiatij 
artinm nuam lectioncm de FriMiano, 
et unam pout alinm ordinnrie (cmper 
li'guit, et lilins illiK niituraliliis qui 
in coDcilio proviueiali ci ccrta aeivn- 
tia proLibiti tnore I'ahaina, noa 
ntaotnr, quouiqna eiaminati loe- 
rint, et ab omni erroma anepieiose 
pnrpati.' Laanoy, 2)* rarin^ridote- 

THE qunmoK or the aok M 

Haro th«o wm k gimvo qaciti<m prcMiog npoa tbe Iwltm ; 
of the ago. Was tliia mawive and imporiog pbilwopfay to *> 
be regarded as lonie boatilc fortificiition menacing tbc rigbUSJ 
and authority of the Cliurch, or might it not be poMiUe far 
the Church hericif to gnrrison it, and hold it as ■ome rtnog 
outwork againat the foeT Waa the new Ariatotle to b« 
repadi«t«d and dcnuuncMi, even as Grrgorj lud dcoooDCcd 
all pegao literature, or waa it, if powible, to be accepted and 
reconciled with Chriiitian dognut The degcnera*^ Beno- 
dictiuea, it oenl banlljr be mid, cradcil tho difficnltjr and tba 
reaponsibility of lo momcntoua a dtxision ; upon the ichool* 
men, who, ai reprcavntatiTcs of tho progrcMivfl apirit of the 
thirtecntb ct-ntuiy, were to be found among tbe mcndicaat 
onlcn aluoe, it duvulvcd to acct-pt tho nobler allcroatire and 
to I'saajr a )N.'riloti« and anluuwi tatk. A concurrence of 
evcnta appttam to linvc lnrp.-)y conduced to tln-ir temporary 
•ucct.-)K. Ajart fn>m the rworcncc with which any writinga 
tJiat Iran tbc name it AHitotlc were tbvn n-ganlLtl, it is 
evident that thiiM> iii6iK'ncea to which we liave already re- 
ferrwl were oileiuling the anii.i of meiit-tl Kcti¥ity. The »* 
drcatl articipalionii <^ ]ire(.-iHliiig centurii-t no longer huitg*^ 
Roomily over thought and artinn ; and tlio impuW genenite<l "* 
by the CniJAdca and the mendicant onlerm wa* fully oharvd 
by the new and fmt incn*aAiiig O'nlrcn of clucation aati 
learning. Tliv M-anty litvraturv of the age faik-d alti-gitlier 
to mliaiy the griiwing n[i]ictitc. The cititrnvtr^y n«(>i-cting 
Univennlii ci>Mld ni>t I«-.t f.r even even the Itcncdictinca 
w<TC rtrtining tbrm-lvt"* to fn-^h lilcriry rffiirta; and llie 
rJM- of the Uhymiiis (lironirl.-r. in K»Kl:in.l and (hat ..f 
iho TroulKuh-um in Kranw are iiidi<-.i(i..ti<i of a very p-m-rsl 
craving. It »a< pr-vi-ly »lifn (hi* rraiini; w.-w at it* ln-iglit 
that tbt- new Ari>l<>tle ii|.p.-an-i. and, o.ti-iil.-n-'l in the li|>ht 
(•f the fact* whi.h we h.i%.' hr.iu;;lit t"K''.l"r in "ur I>ri-Orthng 
rhapter. it muxt Im* ailnuttnl that tli> h.t('nlii'<- «)i:<h (he 
^liiitvh at fit-t *.rtn;bl to imi--*'' M[»'n (he ortlx-l't. in dr- 
1 man<ling the r>ehi.i..n nf Mirb irni'irtaiit an-r«>inn« to 
[ |>bil<>wiphy, wa. one of no nr-linarv niv''"'"*''' 
■ Ami here, hedm- we pa-* im to nnte llie (ffnt* pnidiKe<l 


tr.L I7 tluM ftcoeMunu, and tho new literature to whidi they 
^^T gftTC Iwtli, it win be well to turn aside for a moment for 
^mg tbe jnrpoN of foiming a final eiitimatQ of the Bources from 
^ wbenoc^ np to abont the year 1230, men Ulce Anaelm, John 
of SaUabuijr, and GiraMu§, derived their leaming and their 
inspiiatioD. The two catalogues here annexed will Berve to 
famish a sufficiently just conception tif those stores. They 
are both probably of the twelfth century, —certainly not Uter 
than the early part of the thirteenth, — the one representing 
the library of the Norman monastery ut Bee, the other, that 
of Christchurch, Canterbury'; the former a purely Bone- 
dictine foundation; the latter, at the period to which the 
catalogue belongs, a more catholic society, where canons 
mingled with monks, and having somewhat the relation of 
a mother inatitutJon to other foundations throughout the 
Gountiy', — a relation which probably accounts for the nume- 
rous copies of the ordinary text books in its posficssiou. 
jjjj^ It will be seen that tlic literary resources of these two 
■■ great centres of monasticism were but little beyond what 
our preceding invcstigaf.ions would lead lis to anticipate. 
Tho meagre litemturc of the traditioiud Trivium and Quad- 
ricium is of course there, ilortianus Ca[>clla, repreHeiite<l 
by a single copy at Bee, has a quadruplu exiEtciico and a 
conuucntator at Canterbury ; but Ca.ssiodorus and luidorua at 
the Xorman foundation, and wautiiig to the other, may bo 

> Ttie Ant of tbesa eaUlosao* 1* tkirtrfotL century. 
Ukcn tram IUtbusod, Itappurt fur ■ ■ Tbe cutbcdral clmrch of Canl«r- 

If BMiothtqjui de COufH. Tba hnrj vh Dot k tnotiutery in lbs 

editor conniili-n that Uio maouicript tiaa» evniv aa that ol SI. Auffuntins'l 

■OBJ poDPiblj be ol the tbirtwoth in the rntmo cit; ; Ibo latter vu 

cvotar? Ip. 1G2 aoil Append, p. B7S) ; toaniicd tur moniutie pnrptnei ; tba 

but iL Iti-mtual oLiien'ea lliat tbo olber «u tbe mother ebarch o( Uw 

boolu giren bj the Bir>bopuf Bnveol wbole Idneilani, its monoilio «hu>o- 

cuuld nol ba*e been given liter Ibui ter beinft almoit occidenlaL Henea, 

11C4. the jreur of hi* death. Saint even in tbe Blrietest da;* of resnlar 

Ani'luu dr CtmorWry (Paris IBS 3), liiseipUae, it bad contained manj 

p. 45T. Tbe aecoud citabi^e, now clergy who were cot monks, UU 

printed for tbe first lime, ii from monj monks who were so oidj in 

ilH. IL S. 12, in tbe ColTerutr name. As at the first tho essential 

library, CombridRe. Ur, Bradidiaw, cbnrncler of its inmates waH priettly, 

to wbum I am iudrLlrd tor my not nionriKtic. so nii tiiuo went on, 

kDo*]iiI);o uf it. is of upinion tliat tboir ii.irci'HKorKiurludi'dbotbmouki 

tiie lu.tniiKcrii'l belntii^ to tbo end of and piieptH.' l^rof. Slublm, I'ruf. to 

tbe Iwcllib or tbo btjfinuiug of tbe Kpiit. t'oiifuarif puo, p|>. xxiii, uiv- 


ip« ^ii ill liUi 




ijflii ii.hi 


1 Ji nil ililllliiini^l' 

i IjllJllll 

i i I. 

I! I 4U4 



AKL held to restore the balance. The educational Bctirity of 
Chriatchurch U indicated by its numerous Priscians; five 
copies, that is to say, of the entire work, and, for those who 
might despair of traversing, like Odo of Cluny, 'so vast an 
ocean',' the same number of the portion on ConstmctiooB, ' 
Plato, whose name appears in both lists, moans nothing mora 
than the translation of port of the Timseua by Clialcidius. 
Bocthius the philosopher and Boethius the theologian sUuid 
side by side as one personality. Bee, rejoicing in the muni- 
ficence of Philip, the bishop of Bayeui;, exhibits a noteworthy 
array of the writings of Cicero, for which Canterbury con 
shew only the De Senectute and the De Amtcitia, but boasta, 
on the other band, eight Salliist^, three Virgils, four Juvenals, 
and nine Persiuscs, — names wanting in the Norman library, 
llocrobius, endeared to the Middle Ages by liis gossip nnd 
the fragmentary character of his lore, is possessed by both 
foimdations, and at Christcluirch is more numerous than any 
other author. The absence fnim the English catalogue of 
any of Anselm'a writings is remarkable, more especially wlimi 
taken in conjimction with the presence of his disciple and 
editor, RichanI, abhat of Preaiis*. No Greek author appears 
in the library at Bcc, a fact from wliicli 51. Rc^musat is pro- 
b-ibly justificil in inferring that neither Lanfranc nor Auselm , 
pos.'iest:ed any acquaintance with the language' ; nor will the 
presence of .1 Greek grammar {Domttiia grcce) at Canterbury 
tend much to mo<!ify such a conclusion. The Nova Logica' 
appears in the Englisii catilnguc in the Tupica and the 
Elenchi Sophistici, but is wanting in the Norman. The 
Institutes of Justinian in both, but the single Codcje 
nml Ii'/ui-tiiil'tm shew that the Ktudy of the civil law is still 

' ■ Iinnirtmini rHwiiini trnnfiit pronvi) ; (t quoiqnc, nlom, on poMiit 

tniifiiintiiiiilii iH'lagiin.' lliU.Cluuy, Juan mivnir cittc Iniii^up, ijuanil nu 

col. IS. rl) VinnH Ic:< ciirni^li'rvn. nuiTii no 

■ nirlinnliin, hUnt of rrntrlliim In voiroim niiUa rnisnn ilu fiiru tl'An- 

IbA I'tiivinrin lliilcininm'ii^ii. iticil arlmc mi'lilc lo pliiH fnililc i1(>h lii'Ili^- 

11H1. lie nlilnl Aiisi'lm'ii (■Diiinirn- iHlcB, panic '(n'M crait qndiino put 

UripK, nnil lihnsptf nrotr nllcKiirii'iil (jiio Inlilmlf w Jit Pn iw^ iti»'"i. rt 

hiliTpnlnlioiin o( tlii> pmiibcl". n. ii"iimli'motiill.'ri<il''in"'j'*jrHCijmm» 

Kmiiipntnn- nn IViit.Ti<ii"iiiv. rtc. H-rm'inmctlvfoi'lfmpInlio.' ^Bu-fnw 

Son (Mli.i 'Cl^ri-li.ian. xi h;i7,'m.1.-). • ./.■ C.i'i.l-tlirn', ]>. ^'.7. 

' ■ On rli'. bLrn qiip l.niifrniir fnvnit ■ Src p. L".i. ami p. 73 niito .1. 

scAimKBn or thk nnmro LrmuTcmc 103 

in ita infaacj at Bee, and their entiro abicnco at Gantafbory c«4i 
fuggcata that it had not yet found favour in tbia eountry, " 
Tbo abaenco again of the Dtcrttum of Gratian would lead oa 
to tumiiao that the Englinh eataloguca eould not have been 
drawn up many years after the half eenturj. 

On tho whole, it would be diffictilt to aelcct lairor or more 

orable apecimenn of the literary reaourcca of weiitem Europe 

t inter\'al from between the earlier part of the eleventh 

i > t thirteenth eentury ; ami aa we glanee through the 

J \ ay we begin to realise more clearly the poaitioii 

the scholar at that period, and to understand how little 

he would be disjiosetl to reject, Iiow eagerly he would wel* 

CO , whatever ofTen^vl itm.>lf as an acccAxion to these slendt^r 

res, especially when such nccesMions Uiro the name of tlie 

highest authority that couM be found in pagan literature. 

Tlie cataloj^iie of (liristchurch, again, is ettpecially worthy of ckMk« 

note, OS offfrin^ a striking crmtroiit to the extensive catalogue •fr^c 

cDDftisting of no less than (VJ.S volumes,-- <»arh volume eom- 

pn*ing on the avera;;»e s<»nie ten or twelve distinct works, — 

%*liicli we find repre«»entih;^' ilio library of the same fmndation 

little more than a liuiulrcd years later* ; that is to say, after 

tlic intnMluction of the new K-aming Hliicli we have aln-ady 

<K*^<TilKHl, nntl the ri>niui|uent a\«ukeiiiiig of that litrmry 

activity which we muht now proci'tnl to trace. 

The incr»'t|>in;C d«'»iire for what gnitifi*-*! either the imA<p* 
ion or the un^lerstanilin^. and th«' M^ntine^t of the exinting «M»te 
reMmm^H, weri* not tlie only rirruni*»tnnc<*M that favoureil tlie*^*» 
intriKlurtioii of tlM» n«w Irarnin''. It i»* rninnl thf nni%*rf>itv 
"f Pnrin thnt tin' ♦'.irli« r liiHtorv l»"tli i-f tli«* un'iplirant onh-rs 


aii«l of tlir ii<*w Ari*»»«»tK' m.iiulv n x«M\r'*, ari«l it %\a^ hut tvin 


}«.ini prior to tli«* prilnl i*ion of (Jn^'Mry I.\ that evjtitu, 
^liicli noiio r«»Ml«l li.i\«» f'>r» •• t n, atT-r*!* I tli«* lK»iniiii<*ans 
."* lon;^ Ct)\et<*«l f»|»j»i»ft»iTiity. At Pari*. pmlaMy, i*a< fir*t 
< \liiliitet| ill it KU«l«l« II ami fcrirpr 1*111;; «liiri^»' in tlnir tie- 
I H-.mour to ^liich ^*' hIi.iII li:i\<' o,t-;>*iMri li« rf.iflrr mom 


I'llly ig refer. Tbe authorities of tlic university soon 1 
nncvnu tliat the efforts of the UcndicaDta were 
J quit« iLS much to the ogigtandizemeat of theii 
I the conimon welfare. The spirit which had '. 
[ U> term hinijelf the leait of the apostles, hoi 
inilatcd l>y the Fianci&caDs in styling themselves .the 
- iliaor, but their coiduct alr^adj- began to belie the hi 
•■ of their profess i'jiirt, and the Dominicans were evide 
leaat Pftually tnteiit upon tlie increase of their own au 
and power. A special letter on their behalf was adi 
to the university by pope Gregory in the year 12 
with srarill avail. It became evident that a confli 
impeniiin^ ; wht-n, in the following year, an unexpecti 
of events secured to the Dominicans an easy triumph. 
The university, like all the other universities ' 
age, was frequently in collision with the citizens a 
civic authorities. Foreigners, young, arrogant, want( 
impc-rious, harmonised ill with the native element 
cheriidiing sullen und unreasoning antipathies. It i 
pcned that a boily of tbe students in a drunken outb 
more than ordinary licence, had fallen upon some 
townsmen and severely maltreated them. The outcrj 
against the whole university was loud and fierce. 
Blanche, hursulf, ajipears to have Bhared the general 
of resentment. 'i"!ic city guard were authorised t 
vengeance on the offenders, and executed their inatr 
with a barbarity which wo may well belicvo far e) 
the royal intentions. The real offenders had been 
Picanl natiou, but the fooling rou.iud was far too fi 
discriminate in its revenge. The students had ass 
outside the city walls for tlieir sports when they we 
dcnly attacked and compelled to take refuge in tl 
They were pursuoil through the streets, the citizens 
in the chase; some were dn^ged from their places 
ccalmcnt, among them two clerks of high dignity wl 
stripped and murdered; others were left for dead 
feelings of the whole university were roused to the 
pitch. A deputation waited on tho Qncen demandi 

THK D0)CnnCA!C8 AT PARU. 107 

medisto MtiifacUon. lliey wen met hy a hAoghty reftual, rmxr l 
•nd profeanora mkI icliolan alike, irtung by the iojaiticc; ' 
n.«olvod to quit tlic city. A itimult*noous migration took w n . _i 
ploco to Rhcimi, Angcn. nnd Orlcani ; all lectures were ku- *-r»r ih 
|M.-D<.lcd; the omcmliiicti were uo longer convvno)'. It wu 
at tliii juncture tliat Uvnrr ill imuvil * general ioTitatioii 
to the KtudcntH to cvme an<l settle vlicre they |^«Med id 
Rnglautl. Thu invilAtion wu re.^pomlct) m by large numticra 
Many settled at Oxfunl, many at Cambriilge ; and from the 
tinrrative of tlioRC refugt.-cM Mnitlicw Parts learned the details 
which we have briefly reprxxluceil'. 

The Duininicniis raw their opportunity ami haotened toTw ^i — 
'iiiprove it. The !<fces<iii>n of the students was rewutc*! both *■*■ »»— 
l>y the C'niwn iind tiiC ei'cli-«iastic«l authorities: the former 
iii>li^ai>t that the newly o>iistituted liodies at Orleans and 
A%'i'ni were diirin;; to confir di-^rtfi without the royal 
siiiction; the an-hhish><|)H<,';;rit'Vvd thiit theunivcnityahuuM 
luivc witliilrawn rmui tho ^I'hcn- uf hit juri^lietion. The 
t>iiniitiicaii« wen- u:iniily w lo.iii'il nti'I vn- itii[»owcr'-<l to 
"(M.'n two M-'h—h i'f til. ..i..,'y v,]«r-, -u-h r th- I.-ader»hip 'T 
Jonhiiiux, the gi-ii<ntl '^r their ••nl- 1, n i laii vuiiuvnt altko 
f-r hif virtue* nii.l l.i» tiih-tit-.. their nHTnl.-i. r.ipi-IIy ir- 
ma—l. Suih wtn^ thi- cintiiu-t.ui.-. - iin.i.r whirh AlU-rtu* tSS^ 
Mi-imi fir-t l»;p.n t- t..;,.-h in th.- ,.. i^-hl-urh—l .rflhei'»v 
-trt.-t that -till Uur- hi. i.^itu.*. II. l.:i.! -ilr.a.iy t.vight 
»ith sucrov, at <V.I"-uo. wImp- Th..ii.:i- A-fiiiiaji Iia-I U---11 
,.1.......,' hi., h. :.r. r-. .-.t,,! hi* f...... . n< at. .->i....i..!. r -f Ari.'.tl... 

• >.t>.In-wnr.«iu.) Iiim i.iitn. i-t.. nu-Vi-ur. , .-,• I':.r>v It i* 
■ whi-n wi' r-t--i.l' r in tlur tni-- r..tirii li-'ti !!..■ vi-nt* 
iIm'i .>.mhit.-l at 'hi- r.i--.. -llie i;- -,. t ,: . r.i^t _• f-f ff.-h 
:;.rmti- ih. -imnlMi..,. !■ .,. .,f t!,.- ,.!,i!. .-j.hy 


ouF. !■ and the fautaUation of the Dominioans ia tbe ehftin of 
nniTern^ of Ybiu, — that wo ars able to aomo extent 
twliM the force of the curreat on which the thought of t) 
Sta^te ma urcsistibly borne within those precincts whe 
it was destined so long and so imperioufily to reign. 
naDjaM- We have now arrived at the chief mental phenomi 
Vi'i ■'I'ltl ** °^ *^" century, — the Dominican interpretation of A j 
Of the Franciscan interpretation the earlier history is o 
porativcly unimportant, or serves only to illustrate the an' 
pnthies of the Church ; it was contlcmned hy authority, ai 
forsaken by the Franciscans of a later period. The 
tionat method must bo sought in the writings of All 
and Aquinas. Whilo Albortus has been atigmatiiEed as I. 
'i^ of Aristotle,' Aquinas has been reproached with equal 
servile deference to the authority of Albcrtus. To ea 
n iiidictmetit a large exception may be taken. It would c 

J\it*. taiiily 1)0 more accurate to dcscriho the former ns tlio 'a 

of Avicenno," and the latter, ia that lie followed Averrfj 
rather than Aviccnna, widely departed from the exampli; 
rMi**T«t his mfister'. Their method too was different; wliilo All'Crt 
■'""JVrf coiniKWdl paraphriiMcs of Ari»t<^tlo, Aquinns was the fii 
r^2ISI* *''"■ '™ imitation of the great commentary of AverrtJi 
surrounded the text with an elaborate excgOHls. It won 
perhaps be most correct to regard Albcrtus as the lalwrio 
collector of matcriabt from wlicncc succeeding schoolmen wi 
dJHtincter conceptions of science and method were afterwai 
to draw*, — Aquinas, as the inaugurater of that system 
scientific theology which formed the boast of the Dominici 

The philosophy of Thomas Aquinas can only be sati 
foctorily discussed by considering it both in relation te tl 

' • Avicenna tit le gianJ marirfl Aremii et VAv<m!rme, pp. X 

3'Albert. Lii foriDe Jf >on commro- 430. 

tBl™ ret telle d'Avicctne ; Avicenoe • Prtintl, whoiB eatinuita <J t« 

Ml ciW I clinqne pnco cie ««i fcrilj, Albertns and Aqninw inelinn 

tiuilia qa'AvcTTika ne rest qu'SBxex teierity, gtemly TefORU to kIIo* I 

nrcmotit, et parfoii epsnycr lo tonnra uny other merit thsa that 

reprocbo d'avoir mC cpntreUire ion an indc-fatii^nblfl comniler. 'Ki 

maitrc.. .Albert doit tout A AviecDoe; nnr Compilstor.'tuid Alles, t b< 

aaint Tbomns, comnm philoiiopho, Allen, «a» ct scbrcilit, iet nv, 

doit prenqnetonlAATotToOs.' Itrnati, gut.' Grtctiichrt dir Logili, nt 



mine thought of Aristotle and to the multiform material, chap, i . 

efly Arabian, which offered iUelf to the consideration of 

ilosophers in that age. But first it may be worth while 

notice that more general point of view from whence, in 

itradistinction to thinkers like Gregoiy and Alcuin, he 

»fosscd to discern the grounds of reconciliation between 

ristiam and pa^an thought It has been the fashion in . ^ 

dcm times, a fashion first set by Erasmus, to illustrate "'•■•^ 

J labours of the schoolmen by bringing forward some of 

; most profitless and frivolous details into which, owing to 

?ir peculiar exhaustive method of investigation, they were 

en led'; and, haviug selected these as fair specimens of 

; questions whereon tlie scholastic ingenuity was expended, 

dismiss, as unworthy of grave discussion, treatises occupied 

:h such fruitless enquiries as those that concern the attri- 

tes and capacities of angelic natures. It wa.s, undoubtedly, 

ich to the disiul vantage of the schoolmen, that forgeries 

e that of the Pseudo-Dionysius, — wherein no less than 

een lengthy chapters are devoted to unfolding the func- 

as, orders, and attributes of an^^^els, — st^xnl, to their appre- 

iision, on the same level as the Go.sp*!s or the Apocalypse*. 

ArticiiH *2 htiil S of QucHtio lii 
lie Srcundn Stcuudtr of iUi: Summa, 
f Uin fuvorite iIltihtrutionH : — 
t'tnim aiiplnH posnit chhc in 
rihiiB lociH Hitnul. S. Utruiii i>lurc-ii 
\li p«iHsint CH^o io ecKltia loco. 
*L't (]«ictt I)ionyhiuH* in an oft 
Jirinjj cx|»iXh>ion inA^iuiuus. Tor 
DgtLcned jk riod the bo^'k appian 
bave freriueiitly Rtiiiplauted the 
le as the basi^ of t'XiK>tfitioD in 
.'lish cburcbcs. GrocvD, so late 
:be year 141IH, selected the book 
be Hubject of a Mericii of lectures 
>t. Paul'ii Catbedrul. Its penaiDe- 
» bad, bowevcr, been already called 
luestion ; and having commenced 
lectures by strongly denouuciug 
b BcepticiRm, the Itcturer found 
tself compelled, before the com- 
iuQ of hid couroo, to inform his 
ieice that internal evidence too 
L-Iuiiive to be reiiii>ted bad brou^*bt 
le to his own mind the fact that 
book was undoubtedly spurious. 
Wood Bliss. I 31. Scebobm't 

Oxford Hrfurmert, p. C 1 . " Tlie •Cehs- 
tial Hierarchy' would couirusnd at 
once, and did command, aniter«al 
rehjrcct fur its authority, and nni- 
YerMal reverence for it« doctrines. 
The *Hiirarchv* threw upward th« 
Primal Deity, the whole Trinity, into 
the moMt aw f ul, niiiippnjachable, in. 
compnhcnHibledi-tauce, but it filled 
the widening intermediate space with 
a ref^ular HUccei:!«ion of su|>erhumaxi 
Agents, an ascending and descending 
scale of livings, each with his rank, 
title, office, function, superior or 
subordinate. The vague incidental 
notices in the Old and New Testa* 
ment and in St. Paul (and to Si. 
Paul doubtless Jewish tradition lent 
the nf mes), were wrought out into 
regular orders, who have each, as it 
were, a feudal relation, pay their 
feudal ser>ice (here it struck in with 
the Wentem as weU as with the 
Hierarchical mind) to the Supreme, 
and have feudal sufieriority or sub* 
jcction to each other. This theory 

; rctunicil ttitli it to Kng!:Lnil ii 

-•igau itiL^stii.iJiUe truii^uiv. N. 

,^ I sli;irc of the attention of the u^e 

liaa long been recognised'. In esti 

J rTio labours of the schoolmen, it ia onlj 

mind the nature of the subject matl.-i 

.tjttictimcs ciJIed to iuterprct and cluei 

said Aquinas, echoing the thought oi 

"r ttio end or reXo? of things, and to makt 

' 'ivf to tlio nccomplislimcnt of that eiul, 

•rehw of lino\ifIcd(,'0 may bo rcgnrdoil ii> 

:iily according ns they arc concerned witli 

' or leas importiinco ; but all these ends mcrgi' 

r>'iiLrc, all truth is hnrnionious. Tlic true phi- 

'~\f. who rising ahove these individual cnil«, HOik- 

i) end, the attainment of ultimate truth, ihc jilt- 

" ihe understanding. There are two patb^ wherehy 

Mvd to attain to this absolute truth, — reason ami 

&)nie tniths, such as the doctrine of the Trinity, am! 

ibo iDcamation, altogether transcend the jMwcrs '>l 

'AnKolmmttlicnnllibriRril Jewish Cbriatiiui who livf<) in th< 


tb» hanum onderabuiding. These futh only cui arriT* at, 5**>. 
Tbare *» others which reuon aMini nutbled to grasp m* 
aided bj rovclMioD, luch u the exutence and unity uf Ood*. 
Thia distinction, however, cunstitutei nn real diffi-reDcc in Um 
tnithi thenuclvM, for it exijitj ontjr in relation to the bomaa 
intellect ; with God, all truth ii one and simple. That rraaoo 
was never intendiHl to be our xule piide to belief, Aquinaa 
painted otit, was eviilcnt; iU insufficiency fur that purpoae 
it manifest. In the firet place, all natural ItnowMge takci 
ita riae in experience, or the evidence uf the senws ; Init how 
can seDiihlo ulgccts teach us to comprehend the Crraturt 
huw can the etfi.'Ct explain the cniitc ? Again, thin Itnow- 
Iwlge dilTcni fnmi itwlf in dc;;ro« and in kinti: the plijlo- 
wplier is famtliAr with id<-M to which the pli>«i;;hinan is a 
■trungi-r; the kn«wlii!;;e "f 'he nngc-l tranotvntU by a yet 
p>,-ati*r iiitcrtat that "f the philuwiphcr. And a^^in, eren 
in the pn)viRce that the n.itiiral n-a^'in enlU itt own,— the 
vi-ihle. the m-tinihli-, — huw iiK-iiiiphtc, «l»rrf^in.', owl Cwnfuwtl 
ii th(> kiii'Mti-il)^' it i-iin nr'|iiir<:! Ii>>w tlxn wt> tic 
Mir|>riMHl thU it On-iit'l fiil to :<ti lin u. tli<- mv-t' rt> < iif iIk- 
diviiio. tti<' iii\iMl>l<' nalnnr! If. iiioK-Hir, r-.t—n «<-rv !!••• 
oiitv (lath wlivrt-hy nkatikiri<l ctiiM .-itLiin (<> truth, how evil 
voiiM \<K our lot ! How ninny. Iiy xlx-t-r indiipmition fi>r tito 
t*%k of invi*iti;;:itiun, wouM fail Ut purine if. Tlic nverwin 
to '^■rious ii>till(xnu.-tl ctTorl, thi- pri-Nxinf; ain.ii of daily life. 
native iiKtohniv nrwl M<clnl claim', rail aw.-iy the many to 
ntoty fhtioiii |>nr<iiil«. Ho* nrrirtiin. ti">. nre thi- rcotlts 
I.. »lii«li tl,.' «Alnral r»a.-.n ran attain, how oficn art- they 
cvuK-%iiil .lll^l imrthrown': I'i'p|>.rly r> -^itr.l.-l. thtn-furv. 
iMt'ir^l Aii.l H'MiU-'l until uill nc[Nar iw f-iiipl' im-Htary to 
».uli ..ih.-T TIh' .l>%im- krio«|..|-.. in the inlnd ..( (Vri.t. 
vi;>l A<|inii.u, .!.>('* iii't i'\ti*i;;iii<>)i that in the liumAn loul. 



but iiiTetts it with a new brilliancyS The natural reason 
cannot prove the truth of divine knowledge, but may be 
worthily employed in illustrating and defending it*. 

Such, in general terms, is the theory which underlies the 
teaching of Aquinas. The thought may fail to strike us as 
original or novel, but that it should thus fail, is perhaps the 
strongest evidence how the influence of the Angelic Doctor 
has permeated our whole theology ; and it can scarcely be 
denied that it presents a sober and dignified estimate of the 
ground whereon rational belief may take its stand. It long 
inspired the defenders of the faith. It has been echoed in 
every variety of tone by tho^e whose contempt for the 
schoolmen has only been equalled by their ignorance of the 
scholastic literature. It was, after Albertus, the first serious 
and systematic effort to construct a general fonnula which 
should anticipate and meet each and every objection which 
scfpticism, in the garb of the phih)8(>i>licr, might urge against 
the Christian faith. 

The true test of every «uch pjonural formula must however 
bo sought in its siKcific application ; and it is when the 
transition hiis been made from the broiul platform of com- 
prehensive principles to the investigation of individual cases, 
that we are best enabled to gauge the merit of the dominant 
conception. On the other hand, it is only just to remember 
that errors of method may bring discredit upon the soundest 
hypothesis. But from whichever point of view we may form 

> Summut III QaiPBt. xx art. 1. 

* There is a marked resemblance 
io Aquinas in the theory developed 
by Dr>-(len in tho first forty lines of 
the Atliffio Lnlci, Tho following 
coincidonco of thought would sug^cHt 
tliat the poet must have derived tho 
idea either directly or indiret'tly from 
the Hi'htH»li!iaM : — 'St'iisihiliu atUoiii ad 
lioc diiccrc intelh'ctiim noHinim non 
poHHunt, ut in eis divina sulmtantia 
\idrntnr quid sit, cum Hint elToctus 
eauHn' virtutcmnon ii>quantes.* Contra 
Cfuti'i, I c.8. ' lli»w can tho less tho 
greater comprehend ? I Or finite rea- 
son reach infinity? | For what could 
fathom God were more than He !' 

Compare also Secunda Secunda, 
Qnrost. II art. 4. Dryden, as Johnson 
has remarked, was far superior in 
leaminf; to Pope, and though he enter- 
ed Trinity during the I^iritan ascend- 
ancy, ho shared in those scholaHtie 
influences which strongly affected 
our Anglican theology in tho seven* 
teciith century. Few of Macaulay*s 
criticinniH arc more unjust than that 
wherein ho aflirms of tlie |HM;t * that 
liis knowledge both of the Church 
which he quitted and of the Church 
which ho entered were of tho m«»Ht 
su|>erficial kind.' Uitt, Kngland, ii* 

TB(»US A^riXAK lis 

ottr ectimate of the nftnner in wbkb AqaioM derriopfd hb ; 
in»in theory, it niuMt bo Admitted th&t hit tre&tmeat of thv ^ 
AiiiitAU>1uui philosophy can acarcely b« accepted M a nti*- ^ 
TACtory tolution of a grvat difficulty. To rceoDcilc, indeed. '' 
ii ever a harder tank than Kimply to prowrihe, and it k Irat 
judt to retnetnhcr tliat it vm the fato of Arjuinas to eBCounlcr 
in their lirnt impetuous influx, a tide of thcorii-n, dn^as, and 
interpKtation% which might wt-ll have filled with dcupair a 
K-M miwcHlinc and xiiicwy intellect. Tlivro in much in the 
conflict which lii^ nffi h«-held lietwei-n (>rii.-ot:il an<l Oredan 
halnti of thiiu);lit and the widuly diflcrvnt tendencict of the 
WcHt. that very fnrcihly rrcnIlH the mental i^it-nomcna of th« 
fourtli and tifth o-iituriiii. The iiicrt' gcn^.'mphy of the intel- 
hi-lunl aclivity of tlicKe time* i^ iiii^!*<-'>tirc of the moetinj; of 
Mr<.ii;;l_v ..i-p .«-.| <urr. nt-., n K'ari' of 1 1 iff. rent ly ••..h.iinil lij-hl^ 
whi.h W.III in n-iine iii-l.-iui-.-i tn h;ivc ii. iwU iilli.f. 
in dlhcD' iiiiTi'ly l» liuvi- kIomI out in ii(i:iti;;i' iiin) iiihiirMi'«i- 
iiilH juxt;i]H-~ili<iti. Till- lliiiilii-i-v wh-t n( the roiDliieiKviii-ttt ^ 
• '( lie 01 iiHiry iii.«t;.'ly inlhii'ii-.-.l Kur..)--. Hen- «f S.- 7 
mitic mcf hikI p:i;::tii f litl ; whiL- t\.--- wh- r'«- within tlw "" 
(>'h«<re..fwi.l.'ly|>.r;i1..1 hiel.; AH- ri>i< »:•. n haliv 
(•rSwnbin; A'piiri.-)* ktii<li<-<l ut N.-ipli •. Iiik f:iriiitr wtw Itnli.ia 

nn.|<lisiini:<ii.|ie.|iuih<.->Mrvi,-.'<.r(helt«u f ir..hcnM..irern: 

Williiim «if M'-TL-ckc, the^ of Aii>t'>(h-, dii-<l arrli- 
bi>li»p of Corinlh ; Dimih Srotu* ».t<t pi.>l.alily a Norlbum- 
hrinn ; lt..n.iveuluTt w.-... a T<f-".>n ; Ah.«:in<h r Hnh-., nn YMfi- 
liohmni) wlif> ia<i;:ht at T-irii. Aiuid .-m uliti—t t hmiiii' n;.i;re. 
^linnof |i.L<t »iiil O'lit. rii|i->r;irv th-'i),:l>t ilic ;:r> it H'li'x>lni-in 
t.Hik hi- M.-.TI.I. nn.l Ntr..v.- (o'e^..k^ or.], r onl of r..n1-i.>-n. 
hin>i'.<iy out of .li«.'..r.l The .\.-->ui 
rr.«rii-te.Tii iiiii^iire (<• whi.'h i lel. tli. ■ 
<V ti. ).' r..|.....|; A tn-k Mi'h-i.-.t!vn 
Aii-t..i!.-. in th.t of Av.-tr.. * ;.l.-.Iii' 

*'r..t,.-|yl'l„! M-t ..fll J.t ill tl.. 

A'l-l..| Mi-tl.. r .:.iii.-'.l of .lirli'-iltv. I 
M..-,-4 M^inivHii.!.-'. f-.m »l.— I>^ 

,■. 1 

of K.I 

l.i.l in 

I. tt.. 

ere 1)m 

tn-f lit 

.-. Th« 


..f A'l 



.1 11,.' 


-nre of 



-MM A<|itinaa 


; -^-i .,, 


TV k. 

>>•■'. 1*^3. 11' 

.. urn. 



" (m neeot invMtigBtion has shewn) to largely drew, cod- 
tribated still Anther to the complication. If we add to these 
dementi bia frequent bnt capricious employment of the 
^ratntme lopc^ whidi afterwards produced such important 
remlta in the baada of Scotua and Occam, the Neo-Flatonic 
tendendea oi the widely drcuUted De Count*, we most 
admit that the task essayed by Numeniua or Clemens was 
one of comparative simplicity. We marvel how the great 
achoolman could have ever ventured to essay the passage of 
•o darit a current, wherein, as round the hero of old, 

1^9 course to wliich Aquinas found himself uUimatoly 
, impelled, may be briefly diarocteriscd as the sacrifice of 
* Averrdes to save Aristotle. As the interpretations of the 
Arainc commentators became more Fully understood their 
incompatibility with the tciicliingof the Cliurch grew evident, 
and in 1240 Guillaume d'Auvcrgno, tlio arclibialiop of Paris, 
denounced as heretical another scries of propositions taken 
chiefly from the De Causis, Tlio facts presented to our 
oLaervntion exhibit, accordingly, Aquinas as, on the one 
hand, following almost implicitly the method of Avcrri>cs 
and imbibing many of his tenct^ on tho other hand as 
strenuously opposing him whenever his teaching threatened 
to endanger tlio cause of orthodony*. M. Rcnon rcmarlcs 

Allmtui Uk^ni dre« from bia eecding bjr regalitr RruUtioiti, lb* 

vrilioRii mity lie toon in th« trcatiiia IiIca of creation triuiBfonnrd into tht 

ol M. Joi'l, IJieslna, I8I>3, doctrine ol x procoii ol OTolation 

> Tbe Dt Couiii vm Rnothcr Ki^undod in immoDont noccMitj.' 

popular torRCiy in tliCKo times; » Cliureh IIUI. Ttit iOn. 
tnnntation from tho Arabic o[ k 'It is not nmiiton.iitiiig to Dots In 

treatise tulsely ascKbcd to Aristutla. tbeae timm tlio first ftppeirsnce of 

M. JoDnlnin {Rtchrrchri Criliqu't, p. Ibit sinKiiltr tliouni, revived smiJ 

31!) cunKiili'rs it to bsTe broD in tbo mctnpbysiral ]i]gt;ler* of tbs 

scnrcrl}' less InToiir tbnn tlio I'souilu- present eontiiry, wbicb would ciplRln 

DionjeiuB. 'll conUiitiK,' xnjs Ke- all eoulriuliutiiiiiH liy suftKcfitin); wi • 

andvr, 'tbu principles of tbo Kco- solution Uiat wbat is tmo in seicoM 

I'lalotiio monism, as tbe lania vol ma; bo false in iliooloKj, and vict 

reducrd to form and syKlomatio Co- vrria, ItoRcr Baeim {Opiu Trrtiuni, 

bcrrnro by I'ktinus,— tlio doclrino ot o. 33, 24) indimantly repudiates tba 

tho Absoluto as tho snper-oiistent, uipliinm, and Mr. Lovei [//i«(. o/ 

from vbich issues forth tbo wludo rittlotvphy, ti S19) baa noticed bis 

dareloping proecM of being, pro- diaolaimer with eomploMinej. It is 


hoiraTer tlut id gsiMnl he »ppt»n to ha.rt regvdad ha <*< 
Anbuui teacher rath«r u & pKgan deMrviag pomp M iioa ia 
his ignonsco, than u & bUaphetncr to be exeentoL 

The detAiIa of the ayitcm punucd bj A<iuiiuu obviondy J^ 
lie beyood the nngo of our enquii7, but in punwuioe of oar 
endeavour at elucidating the peculiar manner in which lb« 
philoeophj of thcw timet entered into their wbote ipirit of 
instruction, we propone to brifflj point o*it how, on one 
important point, the method of tho Khoolmeo failed cqnall; 
to avert the censure of authoritjr and the reproach of the 

The theory n^portin;; the inti'lloct wliirh ArUtutlo Mia ^^ 
forth, in tho thini buok of ttio De Anima*. in familiar to all *» * 
NtudcnlM of pxycliolo^QT. He ri'ganls tlio tntellvctnal ttctiUj 
as cxihtiii]; umkT a twofold form, — the pamive principlo twm 
and tho active i>rinc)))tc. This thcwrj has its lams in • 
prvttinncd nimtnf^ ; as, tliroii<;liout nature, we are cmwcioiu^ 
on tliu one Imnd, of ninttir, n-[>rc-w:ntitit; tlio po1<-ntial esist- 
eneo of nKji-d*. niid mi the other of the canmtivc prinnple, 
or fumi, which ;:ivcH Ihi'ni nn ndiinl cxiHtt-im-, so we ant 
cntitliil l<> hi»k for a like ihuiliiy in tlx- huriinn ii>t<-ll(^; 
ami hcno! tin- AriNtdtili.tii ()i\i»ii>n of tlio mmiI into two 
dif^inct principles: — tho nrtivc iiili-llij^nre, mi imXtjpiff 
and tie |>.-uuivc intcDi^'itce, im ivini/uL Of tlK-ae tlie funiier 
is the su|N'ri(>r, and to it we aw-rilpo the ntlrilKilc* of im- 
perinhability and impAMiiliility ; this is the rtcmni pfittdplo 
which eiidurcH, while tlic tnorcly pOA^ive prinrijilu is th* 
wlijtTt of rhnitf*!-, and, iH-jinnitMl fri>m the nrtivo principle, 
pcriihi's. Such M Ihc thc..r>' unf-M-d in the Dt Anima,— m. 
th">ry •r^irr-ly in liaruKHiy, it it tni-', »ilh ntln-r (■•rtion* of 
(lie IVnit-itttir pliilitW'phy, iH-iii|; a ri'fl'i iip|>.irt-h(ly of llie 
■vCtof An:i\»;;i>ra«, but »Iii-ri' n^f^-iiiMiI iiliim*t invarisWjr 
inli-qin-t''<l AH a di-cioivc utlinmiv ••» the Jkirt nf Ariatirtlo 



5 tgaimt the beQef in the immortality of the toaP. Such' 
tMchiiig; it it endeiit» could not fail to encounter the con* 
demnatioQ of the Church; but his own heterodoxy was 
almost lost si^t of in the still less ambiguous theory 
maintained by his Arabian commentator. It was not im- 
possible for the schoolmen to maintain, as later interpreters 
have done, that Aristotle did not really mean to deny the 
immortality of the soul, and that the inferences that appear 
warranted by the De Anima are contradicted by the tenour 
of passages in his other writings ; but the corollary appended 
to the theory by Averrdes admitted of no dispute. The 
active principle, said this philosopher, if alone possessed of 
immortality must necessarily be anterior to the passive 
principle. But when we take the individual man we find 
the potential principle preceding the active, and it is con« 
sequently evident that the active principle, the imperishable 
and ever-existent, must not be sought for in the individual. 
The active principle is devoid of personality, is one and 
absolute. It was thus that Averroes deduced the doctrine 
of the Unity of the Intellect, known in the time of Leibnitz 
as Mouopsychism. 
iMiM How far this reasoning represents a legitimate deduction 

|jT*y««» from Aristotle we are not here called upon to enquire, but 
■^ it is w^ell known that his Arabian commentators have 
frequently brought into undue prominence questions which 
he has but very briefly indicated, or essayed in a purely 
tentative manner. His immediate followers had certainly 

' * n a bien dit qne Teiitendement 
f Uit un principe diviD daus Thomme, 
indestnictible, ^ternol. II a bien dit 
aaui qne ee principe £tait en nons 
nne vdntable substance. MoIh quelle 
unbfltance?. Kous I'avonB vn; dans 
Tentenderaent lui-morae, il y a une 
partic pi'riHBablo, comrao eont p^'riB- 
fiablci r imagination, la BcnBibilitv, 
la nutrition : et cette partie, e'est la 
partie passive, cello qui est, en quel- 
qne sorte, la mati^re de Tintelligible. 
L' intelligence active, celle qui fait 
rintelligible, snrvit ^temellement au 
eorps, qni seal doit p^rir. Mais dan« 
eette vie nouveUe, il ne reete rien de 

la personality hnmaine, de cette per* 
sonalit^ sans laquelle 1' immortality 
de Tfime n*est qn'un vain mot et 
nnleurre.' Bartb^lemySaint-Hilaire, 
PtycholoffU d*Ari»tote, Preface, p. 
xxxix. *L' opinion da pbilosopheJi 
cet ^gard ne saurait ^tre doutense. 
L*intellect universel est incorrupti- 
ble et s<<parablo da corps; 1* intel- 
lect individuel est perissablo et finiC* 
aveo le corps.' Renan, Avetrolt et 
VAverroisme, p. 153. See also Mr. 
Grote*s Essay on the Psychology of 
Aristotle, appended to the third 
edition of Mr. Bain's Sentet and the 



their prestige. It will be worth while to note how the uni- chaf. 
versity had fared since the time of its memorable secession. 
When the students and professors returned from Angers RHmd 
and Rheims they found the chairs of instruction occupied ^•^ ^^ 
by the Mendicants, and it was only by the exertions of 
Gregory IX on their behalf that they were reinstated in their 
privileges. For twenty years a hollow peace was preserved, nHmirsr 
during which the jealousies and rivalry thus evoked con- {{JJ^J^i 
tinued to increase, and at last broke out into open hostility 
when, one of the students having been kille<l in an encounter 
with the citizens, the new orders refused to make common 
cause with the university in obtaining redress. The uni- 
versity appealed to the Pope, and Innocent IV published 
his famous bull whereby the mendicant orders were sub* 
jected to the episcopal authority*. His death, occurring 
in the following month, was attributed to the prayers of 
the Dominicans. His policy was altogether reversed by his 
successor, Alexander iv, who, to use the expression of Crevier, 
was intent throughout his pontificate upon tormenting the 
university of Paris. Tlie Mendicants were restored to tlioir 
former privileges, and the old warfare was renewal with 
increased violence. It was at this crisis that William St 
Amour, standing forth as the champion of the university, 
assailed the new orders with an eloquence rare in the hostile 
camp. In his Perils of the Last Times, he denounced them ]5a,i^ 
as interlopers into the Church, unsanctioned by apostolic 
authority, equally wanting in honesty of purpose and in 
credentials for the high functions they assumed. Ac^uinas 
replied in his treatise Contra Impnjiuintes Dei Cultinn et 
Relijionem, and William St. Amour was finally arraigne<l 
before the archbishop of Paris on the charge of having pub- 
lished a libel defamatory of the Pope. When however the 


* • It is a clmrnctcristic trait of 
theff« PariR qiinrn'l»s that they wcro 
mainly caii«(e I hy tho vrilfiil courMC uf 
the iXtininicniiH in tlie preftt HcceHsion 
of V1'2\K This mcaMure h.'ul been de- 
creed by a gn'ht innjority of tho 
MoHteni, btit the Dominicann cHa- 
olteyod it, in order to get scholastie 

afTaira into their own bands dnring 
the absenec of aU other acndcmiciana. 
Naturally this iroa reseutid keenly, 
and imvlncetl dnp dintruMt. Their 
8ubnii*<iion to all univtr>ity re;n»la« 
tion8 waA now cxactetl with iiicrediwHl 
scTeritv.' HuU^^r's Knihith Vnirtr* 
iUir$, by Kewman, ii ir.». 


'- intrepid champion of the univereity appeared, ready to attest 
his innocence hy aolemn oaths over the relics of the holy 
iimrlyrs, the studea wlio accompiuiied him made such an 
■ imposing demonstration, tliat tho nrchbishop deemed it 
pnidcnt to ilismisB the chnrge. A few yearn l.tter tho Domi- 
iiicnnH ntuiiiied their end. The PerilB of tho Last Times 
waH burnt in the presence of tho Popo at Ann^ni, and William 
St, Amour was compelled to retire into exile, — a retirement 
from which, nolwilliNUkndin^ the efToftM of the univumty on 
liiH liehiilf, ho wiw not wifferud ii^iiiii lo cmcrKt''- 
^ But while tho caiwe of the MeudimntM was thus triiiinph- 

' ant, disunion begun to spring up between the two ordern. Tho 
^ fume of Albcrtuii and Aqiiinoti, the latter the cboHcn conn- 
wlliir of royally, ami tho prestige of the Dwmiiiicanii, omu"c<l 
the jeidfiusy of tlio I'Vanriscnnn, rankling unilrr the ruhnku 
wliich their Averroistic Byntpathicn had incurred. They 
begun, not unnaturally, to scan with critical eye the armour 
of the great Dominican for some vulnerable point ; nor had 
they long to seek ; the teaching of the Stagirite proved but 
slippery ground from whence to assail the heresies of the 
Arabians. It formed one of the most notable divergences 
from Aristotle in the philosophy of Averrues, that while the 
latter accepted the distinction to which we have already 
adverted, of matter and form as representative of the prin- 
ciple of potential and actual e^ist<rnce, he differed from his 
teacher in regarding _/brm as the indivxdvalisinff principle. 
Aristotle had declared it to bo matter, and in this he was 
implicitly followed by AquinaR. The individualising ele- 
ments in Sokrates said the Dominican, are htsc caiv, hoe 
ossa; if these be dissolved the Universal, Sokratitas, alone 

' 'LTnivereiWregrdlsinfiniment 
TCD mlisPtirF, et tile n'omit rion de 
« qui poDTait d^peudro d'elle pour 
oblrair ion nlour i rnri«. l)i!tU 
beratioDS frequent «. mortlficntioiia 
pTucur.'eii Bux Miaclinnn (iiQemis de 
ic doclenr, d^pnlaliona aa pnpe : tout 

rignifintnt epi>od«. Hii ffenlni anil 
eloqupDce hiid [he retDorkable effect 
of vinnine the Bympatbies of Uw 
loiref orders lo the utiivereit; Mate, 

fat in 

ile.' Cre 

1137. 1 


e thne 

anted witb tb« 

t further follow, lonui a III 317, SM. 

sonicwbat Bini^Inr conjunction et 
the Pope, the Crawn, and (be oew 
Orders on the one aide, and tb* 
nniTereity in Iohrub with the «doi- 
mooalty o~ " *" — "— ""' 

■•J "MT xca>icA!ira. 


-II ). 

toMv'linii^ here BgAin npiiliol 
"■m 'Ii-nfi- (lie Fniiici'Can« -Ire" 
■. V I«> iil<!-<'<I tti< /,nni-|- 
t ■.'i' iriiliviilii.-il fii»t in ttt« nnti- 

'IV «i>ii!'l liiiik l\iv IMiWL-r I'f I'll- 
■I. It- («"* aii;;.-!ic iiitim ». if ?!,.• 
.• I.i.kii,.;. Ii, f.,cl. i1„. .1,,.;.. 

,.' oliirl, 111..' r. ]o-I)i..|ivl'i< 

':ri';iti-iiiil to \aiii«ti fr«tin n»"<r. - J; 
t>.„..i..:,l,. «.,. . ,„|„. „.lv ^ ;. . * 

|Mll,i.<..ftl,.'l'>, in\.:„ 

■..I...-I- t.. Ill- »..i.l ,l,f. ..f I,;, 

J,.| .JjiJin. »• H...,i.-l.iii.-f.r. 

i...rt..f 111- Aii-'"i.!i,i..|..t,ii,. 

.1 I f»i.-l in .•.lli.-.r,- .;ll. 

.. ,r- ,fl.rl.i..I ,.ll, »,■ i;i..| •!..■ 
: I r..r CiMinU..:,.!. ,M „ 

-k I.:...-. !it l';,M. .ll.l.^Kr•.•il,.■ 
K■^^:.t■ll■v. :,-.',l.i.|..i. ..fC,,. 

.■I... ,.;.,..-.,„ ,.f|,i.: ..,-• - 
:. .-■■N I ..I. ::.. .i.--,M. . 

..,. I. ■.,„.;■ ■.■:,: t!..- t'r.i..:.. .V, 

:.': r, ill ll..' I.I' I II. I' tl.I.v i.f 

•,i./-,.,'.-»i ;v .,..■. 

i.'.r lL'7*. -iii.i r..iii..iifi..n, a! r^. 

1, .!,i:..,..,i.„i..,..r„ 

■ \v.. 


" •■ trust the opinioD of tho wise of old, divine wisdom placed 
him upon earth thsit he might c:;p)ain the darkest problem!! 
of nature.' Tlie Dominicans were as slieep having no shep- 
herd, and when tho teaching of their leader encountered the 
deliberate condemnation of tho Cliureh, the blow was fcU by 
the whole onler. The exultation of their rivals was pro- 
portionahly great ; the name of the Angelic Doctor began to 
bo mentioned in terms of small respect ; and at length, in 
1278, it was deemed desirable to convene a Council at ililan 

•y^for tho purpose of re-establishing his reputation. The priurs 

"*■ of the different monasteries were invited to give their co- 
operation, and, in tho following year, a resolution passed at 
Paris pronounced "that brother Thomaa of Aquino, of vene- 
rated and happy momory, having wrought honour to liin , 
order by the sanctity of his life and by his works, justice . 
demanded that it should be forbidden to apeak of him with | 
disrespect, even to those who differed in opinion from his . 
teaching',' This movement appears to have had the designed , 

■^' effect. From the end of the thirteenth century the Domi- . 
ntcons, who had themselves been threatened by schism, rallied • 
unanimously to the <lefcnce of their illustrious teacher. His ^ 
canonization, in the year 1323, placed his fame beyond the » 
reach of the detractor; and years before that event his great. „ 
countryman and disciple had with raptured eye beheld him, ^ 
■ prc-cminont in that bright band, — i, 

Ttz di Doi MDtro o di ae for corona, ^ 

which shone with snrpa.ssing lustre among tho Bpirits of the n 

blest'. Tho position thus assigned him among the teachers r>- 
of the Church the Angelic Doctor still retains; his fame, if 

temporarily eclipsed by that of Duns Scotua and Occam, was en 

more extended and enduring than theirs; and Erasmus, |^" 

standing half-way between the schoolmen and the Kcformers, «■ 

deciarcd that Aquinas was surpassed by nono of his race, in '",, 

' HsDtvaa, Philoiophie Scholaili- lowing pnuiQge, ia InterBfling w in in, 

aue, II 217. Bnlicaa, iii 44B. illuairation of the comporatiT* etti- bi, 

* Uantr,J'arndi(o,i tA. The vholo matioo in which the chief doclonot 

of the E)<ccch o( AqninsB, in the fol- the Cborch vera then brld. 



the vastness of his laboura, in soundness of nnderetanding, 5^Af 
and in extent of learning. 

The Sumrna of Aquinas has still its readers; but his 
commentaries on Aristotle are deservedly ueglected, and the E« 
crudcness of the reconciliation which he sought to find be- 
tween pagan philosophy and Cliristian dogma startled even 
the orthodox into dissent as the true thought of the Stagirito 
became more distinctly comprehended. The devout have repu- 
diated his dangerous temerity; the sceptical, his indifTerence 
to radical inafiinities. Even in the Church which canonized 
him there have been not a few who have seen, in the fallacious 
alliance which ho essiiyed to bring about, the commencement 
of a metli(Ml fraught with peril to tho faith and with disquiet 
to the believer. More than a century after his death, GerMon, {J 
the chancellor of the university of Paris, and long the reputed 
author of tho Imitatio Christi, declared that Bonaventura, as 
non xmmiscens positiones extraiieas vd doctrinas sceculares 
dialecticas aut physicas ierminia Vieologicia obumbratas more 
viultorum, was a far safer guide, and abjured both the 
Aristotelian philosophy and the attempted reconciliation. 
Cardinal Alliacus stigmatized the teachers of the new learning 
as false shepherds, and Vincentius Ferrerius complacently 
called to recollection the saying of Uieronymus, qvod Arts- 
totelea et Plato in inferno sunt Hermann, the Protestant n 
editor of Launoy, denounced with equal severity, at the 
commencement of tho eighteenth century, this male eanum 
philosophice Pfiripatetic(n sUulium, and declared it would have 
been well had the schools confined themselves to the limits 
marked out by Boethius and Damasceiuis, since they had 
retained scarcely a vestige of true theology. Immodicus Peri" 
pdteticas philosophue amor, wrote Bnicker a few years later, 
virum hunc sujyerstitioso cbsequxo philosopho addicium rtduxit. 
Hi theolojim vidnerilfus qua; pr<vpostertt philosophias commixtio 
ii'flixerat, nova addcret vulnera, sicqtte sacram doctrinam vere 
faceret philwiophicam, immo gentilem\ Still heavier falls tho 
censure of Carl Prantl, who indeed has treated both Albertus 
and Aquinas with unwonted harshness, even denying to the 

> JlitL PhiL III S05. 


V- !■ httar«n merit u an original thinker.and afGrming that il 
only Im the 'work of a coofuBed understanding,' 'ton 
tbe Aristotdian notion of substance in conjuncUoD with t 
ChrisUan doctrine of the Trinity, or to force the Amtote 
ethics into the garments of Christian moral philosophy*.' 
■sg* It is however scarcely necessary to observe that o 
jy*J* such OS vhese are strongly opposed to the prevailing sen 
*- mcnts of the Church before the Reformation, and it is i 
to understand that, contrasted with the ultra Xominolis' 
excesses into which the later schoolmen were hurried, t 
position of Aquinas mny have appeared one of comporati 
safety,— tlie true Aristotelian nicnn between unreason 
fiiith and unrcutrainetl spcciilntion. His rcpudiutiou of Avi 
IOCS was Dot improbably the salvation of bis own uuthoril 
for in the history of the Italian universities we have am 
evidence that the apprehensions of the Church with respt 
to the tendencies of the Arabian philosophy were justifi 
by the sequel, and Petrarch has left on notable record soi 
of tbe traits of that coarsely materialistic spirit, which, tnkii 
its rise in the teaching of Aviccona and Averrocs, bolii 
flaunted its colours, in his own day, at Padua and at Yeiiici 
If again, we pass from the rebuke of the theologian to tli 
of tbe philosopher, it is but just to remember the multiplici 
of the material that Albertus and his disciple found claiinii 
their attention and tho voHtncss of thu hilMurs they th 
incurred. Theirs was tho novelty, tho oliwurity, the c<' 
fusion ; theirs tho loono conn obit ion, thu viigiio nomenclatui 
tho mistiness of tlinugbt, throii(^h which mnhily hy its u> 
cxcrttiinH Hcholaslicisin wiut to arrive at firmer ground. ( 
them it devolved at once to confront tho iiifidul and to n 

> Qrtthichtt (It Jjisti, in 108. to tbo tmtnnl fcicnNiH, nncl tho o] 

■ rctmrch ovon wont ho tnr *• to riilicule vitb vliicli llic? t 

eominM « treatlsa fotitlcd De ml Mixwio accciiDituI llioCrrntion.cft 

IjHiuarliiiHffiiniinnlriTUNii.qNiiniHlta, tuntly cliccki^ miirb nympiitliii 

hnvind fur itH iilijmt tlio reljukiiiK ot . twrcii )iim Bin) I)icm. Itv wiw *i 

tlis pi'ii KTi'Iii-iKm wliicli wmi rifo toUU tlii'in thnt lio ounKiik'nil il 

amougt tlic young Vonrtinoi. In liU morn itaiwTtiuico to ox|ili>ra l\f i 

inlrrrunns with tbcm be trtU ua turo ot inan than tUat ut q>in<)ru]> 

that bo lound tlirm intvUectiinlly and and taht*. Seo (liDguAi^. Iliil. 1- 

■tnilioudy incliDcd. but Iheii devo- dUalu, Tom. ii p. S6. TirabOH 

tion, oader tbe tcacbing of ATMThts, t 4S. 

nmuM AQcnfAA. Its 

peu» tb« bigot, to nitore philoupby And to guud tlw ^*f^. 
bith ; tnd if th«]r failp<), it muat bo aJmittod thst tbeir nrj 
Culum guided thfl thiBkcn of tlio aucrccding ago ; that tbo 
)«rhi liity Inckcd out. if of^rworda dc«crt«d for other*, ■till 
jvd to commanding •umtnit«, whence amid a dcvtr air and 
from a loftipr ata&dpoiDt their follower* might turrvj th« 
unknown land'. 

It remain* to nay a frw word* rrsjiectiDg th« dovclopo- t -nM 
rocnt giiren by Aiuinu to the dialectical nelhod. In hiaaiilL'* 
aimmootarioi oo Artatutio, ho fullowiil. aa w« haro already 
)4t-n, the method of Arcrnk-n, but in tliow on the Scnii-ucoi, 
iuhI in th(? Smmum, ho followed ihnt »f Tt-lvr LwdNUil. U 
ni-irki, li-iw cvtr, the CulilruVvri>iAl ti-iiikiiry uf the pi-rv>d. 
tlinl wtiilu lyimlmnlna authoritnlivvly tiiuiicinti^l the di^ 
li'urtio, A'tuinaM iifofMUhdcl i-nrh lujpcal rvfincnu-nt a* a 
^Mintio, I1u' dc^i*i>ina w( tho M^tcr were, indi.-vd. aa jodi- 
rially pronounced a* bcfure. btit the chan;^ ft»m a limpla 
n-ninntiog and com|Mirinf; of difTcrrnl authoritin to a form 
*hirh M<rmrd lo invite (he rn<|iiirer to pcrpdua) acarch 
r*tli> r than lo a d''liiiite rv^nll, won ohvioii-Iy aoitlhcr a<)- 
Tannr in th<^ din<^!"ii uf dialeclioL TIip uLjfiliiin* which. 
at we have alivady •ren. hail Ut^ taken hy the Prior ol 
Si. Virlfiiro to ihr "ripnal wrthoil. bemtne m<iTv than rref 
a)-|<Urahle; f>ir llir)ii;;h the Ire.tMni-nl of A<|ilintw mi[;hl ■ecm 
I iliiiiMidr, the n-xxim'H uf ihr uUyfi-r wem ini-iWi>ti)iie. 

We hnvo alfi :idy ^)■•k■ n iif ihv rhnrm-lt-r of ihc tiana* t^s^tH 
l>il"ii» fpnii th" t!ri-.k. ahi-rrhy. with llrr ailvanr*)! of tlieJJl^l^ 
■••iiMry, llip ]'fi|B r tli.>iit;ht t.f Ari*i<>lle I- [;»n to Iw mora 
' 1> ^iily di-tiii^'<ii>1<. d ffoiii lliK ft )ii> Amhinn nuniiif-iitfttiifa; 
l«ii ■!. T'iii -111 •■(If. III." niid tiiiiiii.lh:;. lit lii-fthi'M •■fli-a 
'■lEid lli(< n>- .-III I It;; nnd td>«-iir<>l lti>' nr^iiHK iit )l wntM 

■ tl.. .4 ■^•T..4 Dial ■l»i'fr I Ih- wtm-iri U nunn -l-m *.«.irM> 

•'■cUfnml'r l.n~ «l |t*.<;lMi-i> !•*•*•• I'-llr ■'iim ■*w«:.|l*lb 

I ■••l'-ll.*l>4 *.,'.•»•• trm ■■••■ !•>■•. aff. 1 1 • \i-l il |«>Xa ft^t 

■•• t-klp 111. . ■ >l I" »<..p ll.> -U ■■.«- -Jl Ut ■i..4> ■•••■.Hi bw 

- "I.^.. -n ■). .<> lU- r..i.l' .■< I.. .r.« ,^,k , .>) W amm 

'•■... |.,rt..l k,il |.,1 u, t-.l •).• ••-•■if.Mi.o. ■■•■.•■4b<>«Ma,i 

"'••4 ll.'.wa.'l -((.I-* -|l>.( xmUmX •■d«.to«U<Bua' Jr*» 

-I *ftnla. M wilH* Jm laanllaa rai« >l r.1iirr-,mt, |k nl (^ IMV 



cmr. t appear that Aquinas himself towards tlio close of his lift 
became aware of the unHattsfactory character of these ve^ 
sions, for within three years of hia dcatli he prevailed upor 
William of Jloerbecke to imdert^ike the production of a new 
vereion which, known as A'oi-a Transfatio, was long regarded 
as the standard text, and still by virtue of its scnipulouf 
verbal accuracy possesses a value scarcely inferior to that ol 
the best mannscnpts'. The commciitariea of Aquinas hail 
however, appeared nearly ten years before, and were conse- 
quently liable to any error which might arise from the grossoi 
defects of the versions to which lie had recourse". 
rt wOatt uM The commencement and extension of the collegiato sys- 
tem constilutcs another feature in the university of Purl; 
affording valuable illustration of the corresponding movcmcnf 
in our own country. In France, as in England, Hie fourteentli 
century was the period of the greatest activity of this move- 
ment, but long before that time these institutions had been 
f _— »■ subjected to an adequate test in Paris. Crevier indeed 
jj>«^jij traces back the foundation of two colleges, that of St. Thoraa* 
JjiJ^'* du Louvre* and of the Danish college in the Kue de la 
Montague, as far as the twelfth century; while he enume- 
ra*x;s no less than sixteen as founded in the thirteenth 
century*. Of tliese some were entirely subservient to the 

> ' Snint ThomM d'Annin a'A cm* 
plny<^'|iio JmTcrKinnHiIi'rivi'rainiRio. 
ilmli'iiiriit dti Kn-o, Hnitiiii'il f-iit fniro 
ilf >i<Miv<-l1<-«, KxH qu'il ,M i>1>t><nu t1<-« 
poUntiiitiH d'lilK'ii'nni^ viTHiuu* nroo 
{'(•riKinnl, dt nit Ml niiiHi di'ii Tnrmn- 
ti'N. (luilUiiiiio Tmui. (Ihiih In vio 
qn'il nmm n tiiiiiih>(> ilo en itiuml iliie- 
tcnr. ditpwitivi'Lirnt: Seri/Hiil rliam 
mprr philouiphirtim nnliiralrm ft inn- 
rairm ft mprr mflnphi/iieaiii, fuarxM 
Ijirorvn ;ir(icHraril «( firrtl lunia 
tranilalio gua $eBtenliir Ariilattlit 
contiiirrtt clariiu rfHIatem.' (AtU 
Sinr. Antwerp. ■ COS.) Jomdnin, 
SfchfTclifi Criliquf. p. 40. 

• Il:i.l. p. 305. Frentl, GticMektt 
drr I.ogik, iii G. 

• •JiuuB cct (<tabliNivinciit m muit' 
tc«to roritriiio do niM bonniiorB, qui 
■ont rlo ji'iinpi mtn* pnuvrcu,. kui. 

qncU lo cul]r<|,-g (lout ill tout moni- 

hrcii fonmlt le loRcmont at In ta\mh 
tnncK, ou du main* Am »<xoan poni 
Rn1wi-itor)<(niiLititk'UTni'liiilpii, Citli< 
u'tivni do clinrllit nVIiiil piw iinnvi-tio, 
vt 11 y avc<<t d/'jA ioriKti'iiiH ijiix lo nil 
llolHirt ail nvoil Aauut rvx('ini>la en 
(iiitn-li'iiHiil du pnuvnm clcnv, <i'i"t< 
A-diro dv pnuvrcu tftudiimi. N<hii 
■vnim pn-iivo quo Louiii Id Jiiin< 
fiiixnit niiHni iliHtrilmcr den IJlMrnlitA 
i lie pnuTroti ■^oulirn pnr noa ({nnd 
Rumnnic^r. L'oiainrU ds 1> mauifl- 
ccnce de nut roia intila leu princM, 
lea erncdB, et In prdUta k rimitcr 
Cnltn bonne nuvre prit fafeur. ul « 
mnlliplia lieauooap pendnnl In trri- 
lifme et qunlorzii'me aitelel, kui 
quulf IS rajiporlo riimlilntion ili' I' 
pliipnrt dcH liouTficni dnoi niilri 
UDivprsil*.' Crovicr, I K'p'J. 

' Tlinj nre the CoIWro ilo Comtn"- 
tinnplo, do( HnturinR, do Bom K'l 

coinracEKDT or the couiot isa. 127 

|iiir of diSerent religious orden, while othen w«r^ -T*''i^- 

a hn time, little mora thui lodgiog^botiaee for poor 

in the receipt of & leuity allowance for their anp- 

rt [bo *). end under the direction of a m&rier'. The 

,p ant, lioth from iu nilMctiucnt celetiritjr and from 

> fi that it would app(,<ar to be the carlii-rt example 

a >re accular foundation, tliat ii to taj a college for 

! n clergy, wa» the Sorliunnc, foundt.<d about tbe ywi» 

lidO bj Ri>bcrt de Si>rbonnu*, Die domcrtic chaplain 

. Louia. Originnlly capable of itippoillnf; onlj nitcca 

X achwlani, fuur of whom were to be elected from each 

ktion.' and who were to di-rotc tlivmNclvea to the irtiidj 

theology, it cvonliiiiltyliccniiK.- the iiwwt illuHtriou* fiMinda- 

of the univcreity, ami furnicd, in many rcMpcctn, the 

■del of our varlic>t t:^n};li->h college* '. Fur a time, how- 

iT, tire moilent merit of thin nocic-ty we« o)<«icurc«l by the 

leiidour of a later fnundntinn of the fourteenth ccnlury. 

the year 13(15. JoAnue of Nnvnrrc. tl.c conwrt of Pliilip y£ " *■ 

r Fair, ftmridt'd the (,Tvat clh-ge »bich fchc named iftcr 

.■ country of her liirlli. In wvalrh ami external Jmport- 

w tlw colK-ge ..f Ninarre fir ■^urp^ the S"rU.nne, It 

J eu'loweil with n-vtiiueM Miflii-iiiit for tlit- nuiiiiti' nance 

twenty i«li"l;ini in t;ranitii:ir, thirty in h",;ic. ami twenty 

tlitt)|<igy, mid the iihli-ot tcailivni wvrv n-tnincd a* in- 

Ivalin-M nilinni Jijonrn-nl »iTiin»taa 

I j;i Ud.r'. It 

2****: ^ Btructora in each faculty. Throughout the fourteenth and ■ 
fifteenth centuries it was thi; foremost foundation of the i 
university, nor can it be Jenied that many eminent men 1 
received their education within its walls; among them wa»| 
MicoluOreamh'.aftenrardsmttBterofthecoll^; Clatnangei, 
no unworthy representative of the school of Qaspario and 
Aretino ; Pierre d'Ailly, afterwards bishop of Cambray ; and 
the celebrated Gerson. But though poverty was here, as at 
the Sorbonne, among the conditions prescribed by the 
founders as essential to the admission of a scholar, the 
associations of the college with rank and wealth soon de- 
veloped an Dmbitious, worldly spirit that little harmonized 
vrith the aims and occupations of the true student. High 
office in the State or iu the Chiirch were the prizes to which 
it became a tradition amongits more able sons to aspire; 
and such prizes were rarely to be won in that age without 
a corresponding sacrifice of integrity and independence. 
The influence acquired by the college of Navarre was un- 
happily made subaervient to the designs and wishes of its 
patrons, and the value of the degrees conferred by ttie 
university and the efficiency of the examinations are stated 
t) have equally suffered from the interference and the fa- 
'"^p* vonritiHm resulting from these courtly relations'. In the 
g^y* year 1308 was founded the Colk'ge de Baycux by the" 
l>ishup of that see, designed especially for the study of medi- 
ciuc and the civil law ; and the Collt^ge de Laon, in 1314, 

' For A brief ■eeonnt of thin to- 
tnarluiUe uiui aco KtW<'i'' L'lItUln- 
imt rn Franrr, I laS— IMI. Orcame 
WMOueof tbeeBrli«i>l polilical Mono- 
BiisU, and bii trrutieci on niHtlie- 
mntirn nnd bis linguiit'C eUaiiimciits 
cmislilula n phviinnieiiOD timuat an 
MiilCiiinr wlicii liiktD in connciiiin 
«ith Hip a\at iu whicli tlicj apr>i>urc<l, 
M t)io riTlliirn of ltt>K"r tlfcini hi tlie 
iiitiirif. Of Iii« iu'<|iinl>il- 

irith ( 

ruV il 

.llidl liui 

' 'Cu ful un mnltii' 
ooTponitiiHi i|tii avuit iKaiiin iI'IikK- 
pMidnnco, do n'ttn luiiM<r diiiiiliior 

par tea hoTmnea do octte naiinii, 
tn>p acoouluoija k toiia la (oloDti 
(le* roia et dea princca pour iiie da 
lion conarillcrs dana lea tmipa diffi' 
eilra. OdU vitbioDiuandaclal^reut, 
duiii iiitclf^a npiis, lea gaetm da 
rcliinoua. L'ancendant que Navam 
avait pria eur lo corpx enaoignaiit, 
loin <le lo fiirtiQot contra dea |><iili 
(in'il fnillait hnwr, I'afFaiUit at 
1 •<iii'rva, on Ini C'tniil fa-a 1 )k<d, da 
cuiiiiivonoo BVM3 dun prolrctelirn pDia- 
Mlit>. la liU'Ttd do xt* Icvntii it !■ 
pul>1i<'it« ilo M'a cxutncnK.' Lo Clrre, 
Klal drr J.rtlrrt ou QunlortlhlU Sifc 
tit, I iVfi, 'JU7. 

BDCBipnov OP x. u ana 129 

represented a similar design. The institution of tbe Ooll^ <■< 
do Plessis-Sorbonne, for forty schokn, in 1323 ; of the ColMgo 
de Bourgogne, for twenty students of philosophy, in 1332; 
of Lisieux, for twenty-four poor scholars, in 1336,— are 
among the more important of no less tlian noventeen (bnnda- 
tions which we find rising in., exi'ktence with the half 
centuiy that followed the creation of the college of NaTarre. 

• Had all these collogcs survived/ oliHerveii iL Le Clerc, 5ff 
*or had they all receiircd their full complement of scholars, 
the proccjwion headed by the rector of the university, who, 
as it is told, was wont to enter the portals of St Denis when 
the extreme rear was only at the Mathurins, would hare 
been yet more imposing. Many however contained but 
five or mx Hcholars who, while attomling tlic regular couno 
of iniitructioii in the ditTcrcnt fticulties, met in general 
assembly on certain days for tlu'ir disputations and 
confennoes; while others, founded for larger numbers^ 
maintained not m<»re than two or thrte, or were completely 
deserted, their n>venues having been loht, or the liuildings 
having fallen into diK^y. At the ginf-ral suppression of the 
small colli*;^s in 1764, Kome had a!ri aily roa^^etl to exist 

'Without addin;; .to our Ifn^hencd enumeration the 
great epiM*n|ial sch«»<»lM, which niiiNt l>e n^ganled as di^^^inct 
institutions, but including only the numerous foundations 
in actual connexion with the c<irp<»nition of the univiTsity,-* 
ss, for instance, the collr;;tjs of the diflffri'nt religious onlers, 
the coll«>^os founded for f<)rt'i;;n stutlnnts, tlie elementary 
schools or |Hn«»ions, «if {]%*: ixi«.t« nre of hIucIi, in IH'lS, wo 
have incont* stable eviilenc«», and th«* u'iattarh«:<l stndentJi. — 
we are j)nHi«nti'«l with a ^^»••rtn^ln i^liifh historians hav«^ 
scarrelv reco;:ni«*e«l in all it* •»li;tiitirniir«\ in this vast multi* 
tn«le vlii'h, urMlatintrtl bv ^^ar. |«"«ti!i'iir<\ and all manner 
of evIN. t1«H-krd to tlii* i:rr;it <•• ri!ri» fr **\\\'\\ and inm*a*r 
of kh*»Hli «l,;i\ Tilt fi* %*.i«» ita-'-^i'ttly ''tin tiling of ilI'i^iiMn in 
alltlii*«; bnt n'»M\ifli*t;ii»»lii';:. ev« n tli** »»••*! .'iM** af>d Mi*»«t 
lifinit'l ^luiltl have In M tliat tlit ir i»lnr.iM"ii ^a* d* f'-rtive 
l»'id they mviT niih|;lid %^ilh tin- c<'n^'»»irsi: of stndmts at 



'Towards the close of the sixteenth century, notwith- 
standing the disastrous religious wars, a Venetian ambassador 
was still able to say, ''The university of Paris numbers little 
less than thirty thousand students, that is to say as many 
as and perhaps more than all the universities of Italy put 
together." But Bologna, in the year 1262, was generally 
believed to number over twenty thousand. The enquiry 
naturally arises, how did this vast body of students subsist ? 
— an enquiry which it is by no means easy to answer, for the 
majority had no resources of their own, and the laity had, 
for a long time, been contending with a new inroad upon 
their fortunes resulting from the rise of the Mendicauts. 
The secular clergy, threatened with absolute ruin by the 
new orders, conceived the idea of themselves assuming in 
self-defence the pristine poverty of the evangelists. There 
were the poor scholars of the Sorbonne, the enfants pauvres 
of St. Tliomas du Louvre ; the election of the rector was for 
a long time at Saint-Julicn le Paiivre ; the College d'Har- 
court was expressly restricted to poor students, the statutes 
given to this foundation in the year 1311 requiring that t6i 
ponantur duodecim 2)avpere$, an oft-recurring expression: 
and indeed the university was entitled to proclaim itself 
poor, for poor it undoubtedly was. 

* The capHes of Montaigne, who were also, and not without 
reason, known as a community of poor students, were how- 
ever not the most to be pitied, even after the harsh reform 
which limited their diet to bread and water; there was 
a yet lower grade of scliolars wlio subsisted only on charity, 
or upon what tlicy might by waiting on fellow-students 
Boinewliat less needy tlian themselves. Of Anchier Panta- 
lion, a nepliew of Pope Urban iv, by whom he was after- 
wards raised to tlio dignity of cardinal, we are told that ho 
began Lis student life by cr.nying from the provision market 
the meat for the dinners of tlie scholars with whom he 
studied. This same humblo little company, which formed' 
a kind of brotherhood with a chieftain or king at its head, 
included in its ranks, besides other poor youths destined to 
become eminent, the names of Ramus and Amyot. 

UKUFnov or H. LI OMMC. in 

'The disliDguishiDg tniU of thii ttudent life, tbe iiieiB»> 
rie« of wbich mimTcd witb unguUr teucitj, were porcrtj, f 
Ardent application, and turbolcnce. The itudenU in the 
faculty of Arts, "the artista,' w)io«e numlwn in the four* 
tccath ccnturr, partly owing to tlio ropiitation of tlie Paiiuaa 
TVimuin and Quadrinutn. and partly in consequence of the 
declining ardour of the thoologian*, were conatantly on the 
increane, vcre by no monna the tnMt ill-di«ciplined. OMer 
studcnta, thoitc especially in the theological faculty, vitb 
their fillccn or lixtocn year*' course of atudy, acliievcd in 
this respect a far K"-'-'»t«'' uotoriuly. At the age of thirty 
or forty the atudciit at thv uniwrMty «a« itill a achnlar. 
Thin indeed is una of the facta «hich bcttt eipUin tbe 
influence thi'n ex<TriMfl hy a iKKly of RtuilvntH and their 
masters ovi-r thv nllaini of r(-l!j;ii>n niid of the ulate. 

'However RiTioiis the inn >n veil ieiiee am) the ritk of thut 
converting half a gn.-nt city into a M-hiHil, we have altundant 
evidence how great wan the attraeii'm rzerriwtl by ibis 
\ait scmiimn-, where the human ilitelleet •xhnusted it*clf 
ia cITurt* which pt-rhain yiehhtt Muall fniit though they 
pronii«c<l much. To w-ikern for knonliilffc the whole of tlw 
MoDlagnc Latinc wan n mTund f»llierlaiid. Tlie narrow 
■trects, the lofty houiefl, with llieir low architayti, their damp 
and gloomy couriK, and lialU htrvwn with >traw', were never 
t? he f<irgi>ttcn ; and when af^er many yean old fvllaw>nil- 
ilCDt* m<t af;;iiu at Itiime or at Jeru<-a!em, or i>n ihf fields 
if battle wlure Kninet- and Kn;;l.-iiid »t-«nl arrayed fur c»>o- 
flirt. th.-y sii.l to til. n.H-iv. .. .V.f /...»..-. «....-/ in 0,irl.uul,:,i 

cr th.-y reti.-mU r.d h-w th.-y Imd •-• -h-.titol in the ears 

'if the wati-li tin- d.-fi;in{ tneiiaee,— ,!//« nii ctuM Iliiiittiti, 
^'M (rourerfi •) ijui jKtrler'.' 

' Tlf Mmt in "l.-h ti:r rr.nri -In t»fn'!.i» •rtiim lOf-l J li •rh* 

:>:3l« «I !•„,« t,'il.«i 


mxr. n. Ix the preceding chapter oar attentioD has been maittl 
' directed to the three most important phases in the develop) 
ment of the great coDtincntal univeisity which formed to i 
laige an extent the model for Oxford and Cambridge, — il 
general organization, the culture it imparted, and the con 
menccment and growth of ita collegiate system. We aha 
now, passiog by for the present many interesting detail 
endeavour to show the iLtimate connexion existing in th 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries between Paris on th 
one hand and Oxford and Cambridge on the other, eod th 
fidelity with which the features we have noted were repni 
duccd in our own country. The materials that Fuller uni 
Anthony Wood found available for their purpose, when the 
sought to explore the early annals of their univeniities, ar 
scanty indeed when compared with those which invited th 
labours of Du Boulay and Crevier. The university of Parii 
throughout the thirteenth century, well-nigh monopoJisei 
the interest of the learned in Europe. Thither thought am 
speculation appeared irresistibly attracted ; it was there tha 
the new orders fought the decisive battle for place ani 
power; that new forms of scepticism rose in rapid succession 
and heresies of varying moment riveted the watchful eye o 
Itome; that anarchy most often triumphed and flagrant vice 
most prevailed ; and it was from this seething centre tha 
those influences went forth which predominated in the con 
temporary history of Oxford and Cambridge. 


The glimpses we are able to gain of our own universities chap. 
at this period are rare and unsatisfaictorj, but they suf- 
ficiently indicate the close relations existing between those 
bodies and the great school of Paris. The obscurity which 
involves their cariy annals is not indeed of the kind that fol- 
lows upon an inactive or a peaceful career,— 

Sach whofte nipioe fcllcitj bat makes 
In story chasms, in cpocba mistakes, — 

but through the drifting clouds of pestilence and famine, of 
internal strife and ciWl war, we discern enough to assure us 
that whatever learning then act^uired, or thought e%'olved, or 
professors taught, was carried on under conditions singularly 
disadvantageous. Tlie distractions which surrounded student 
life in Paris were to be found in but a slightly modified form 
at Oxford and at Cambridge, and indeed at all the newly- 
formed centres of education. The restlessness of the age 
was little likely to leave undisturbed the resorts of the 
youthful, the enquiring, and the adventurous. Frequent mi- 
grations sufficiently attest how tniublous was the atmosphere. 
We have already noticed that large numbers of students, in 
tlie great migration from Paris, in the year 1229, availed JJj^ 
tliemsclves of King Heme's invitation to settle where they 
pleased in tlii;} country; and the element thus infused at 
Cambridge is, in all probability, to be recognised in one of 
four writs, issued in the year 1231, for the better regidation 
of the university, in which the presence of many students 
'from beyond the seas* is distinctly adverted io\ By another 
of these writs it is expressly provided that no student hhail 
be permitted to renuiin in the university unless under the 
tuition of some master of arts, — tlie earliest trace, perhaps, 
of an attempt towanis the intro<luction of some organization 
among the ill-discipline<l and motley crowd that then re- 
presented the student community. An equally considerable 
immigration from Paris had also taken place at Oxfonl. Tlio 
intercourse between these two centres was indeed surprisinr^ly 
fretjuent in that age. It was not uncommon for the wealthier 

^ Coo^B Annals, i 43. 


atadents to gradnate at more than one university; 'Sund 
schook' were held, in the language of Chaucer, to 'tnsi 
subtil clerkes;' and Wood enumerates no less than thirty-ti 
eminent Oxonians who had also studied at Paris. Amoi 
the names are those of Giraldus Cambrensis, Daniel MerL 
Alexander Hales, Robert Qrossetcstc, Robert Fullcyne, Rog 
Bacon, Stephen Langton, i&jidius, Richard of Cornwall, ai 
Kilwardby; and it may be added that this list might 
considerably extended. ' Leland,' says Wood, * in the liv 
of divers English writers that flourished in these times' {s 
anno 1230), 'tells us that they frequented as well the scho< 
of Paris as those of Oxford de more iUustrium Anghrum, ai 
for accomplishment sake did go from Oxford to Paris and 
to Oxford again. Nay, there was so great familiarity ai 
commerce between the said universities, that what one knc 
the other straightway did, as a certain poet hath it thus : 

Fa procul ft propiut jam Franeut et Anglicui eque 
Norunt Parisiut quid fecerit Oxonieque, 

• This familiarity,* he adds, * continued constant till the tin 
of John Wyclevc, and then our students deserting by degre 
Fcliolastical divinity, Hc.ircc followed any other studies b 
lK)lcmical, being wholly bent and occupied in refuting li 
opinions and crying down the orders of Mendicant Friars 
We can hardly doubt that some q\iickening of thought mu 
have resulted both from this habitual intercourse and tl 
sudden influx of the year 1229; and that, though the foreij 
students were probably chiefly possessed at the time by fee 
ings of angry dissatisfaction with Queen Blanche and Willia 
of Auvergne, and full of invectives against the obtrusi^ 
spirit of the new orders, something must have been learnt 
Cambridge respecting that new learning which was excitii 
such intense interest on the continent, and which the auth 
rities of Paris had been vainly endeavouring to stifle. 

Within thirty years of this event Cambridge and Oxfoi 
uȣtL^ in their turn saw their sons set forth in search of quiet 
abodes. The division into * nations ' in the continental un 

» Wood-Gutch, I 20C— 214. 



TCTuUcs WH to umo extent repreteated in FftgJwn^ hf that tm*r. 

of North «nil South, and whm a ipcciml tource of diMerd "^ 
among the ituilcntfl. The aoimonitics dcscribeil hy tbeM 
foctioni belonged not merely to the younger portion of tba 
community, but pcrTSul«.-«l tlie whole univcnity, and beoune 
productive of evils againitt wliicli, in the collcgcx, tt long 
ftftcrwanl* liccamc npocwinry to pr<ivi<le by hpccinl enactment. 
It was in tho year ISfil thnt nti encouittor at Canibri«lge 
between two Ktudi-nts r('|>reNCiitativnt of tlio uppwitig par* 
tie*, gave rise to a g(.'ncTal nfTrny. llic tawnttnen took part 
with citlier lidc, nrid a lan^'uinary and brutnl •tni^lv en- 
sued. Oiitmgc cf t-vi-ry biinl wna committed; the liouae* 
wi-rc pliiiiilcrii), .ind the reconl^ of tho utiiventity burnt It 
wax in c<>tiM-))>i<'iicv of (lioc di^ltirKirm'* that a Ifily of stu- 
dciiM U-tiKik ilicm-u-lvcM to Nonlinmploii, whither a likewtai^ 
nii^tioii. iti<liic> d hy Mmil:ir cnti^i, li.nd ain ndy takrn place *"*■«* 
frt-iii Oifiird. Tlij nyal IIivhi^ wm even obtained fur the*^ 
ntaliliohnxnt of anotlier ttii-lium tftneralt, but to u<e tl»e 
cx|Hfi"iMon of Fiill'T, Oh- now fmindiilion 'nc.ver ntUiinei) full 
liac)ic-li>r.' fur in thr- yc.-tr li'tit (lie emigr.mtii wen- un)eTV<l 
by fiN-cial tii:iiiil:ile I" nliini t.. tin- >e^-w^ tb.y lia<l <|iiitlc«L 
Wiliiin tlir.-.-|i].iit<'r. i>r n c-nKiry fr-iii thi- •■vt-itt a like 
iiii-.TTitioii X—V |.!.i<-.- from Ovfonl t« Si.imf..rd. a i*-lt<-m<< m^m*. 
»bii'li t" jiiili:i' fr-'iii Mill-' -iiii-iil fti:i<-tiiieiils w»4 {■■r*''TiT<t|M<«^ 
in with konir t<'i>.iri(y'. It Would \<v Min-ly an i;;iii>t>le p«lU 
' -K..!)..!! lint f.^U'yt.lnVWf \U f>M <iti>nr»lM anJ r|ir«bm> 

r.l, u I m-M r*w. 


■rit.1'1-. «.ih a 


t»r. n. mate of the spirit that actuated these little bands which 
' would suggest to us that their enthusiasm was a dclusioD, 
And that, as far as we can c-stimate the vahio of the Icaniin;; 
they strove to cultivate, their text books might as well have 
been left behind. We shnll nithcr ho disposed t') honour tho 
stodfiLiincss of purpose that actuated tht'sc poor stuik'nts in 

■ tht'ir dcspondiufj exodus. Tln-ir cnrnostness and duvution 

invest with a cert^n dignity even their obscure and errant 
metaphysicH, their interminable logic, their artifictal theo- 
logy, and their purely hypotlictical science ; and if we reflect 
that it is far from improhablo that in some future era the 
studies now predominant at Oxford and Cambridge may 
seem fur tho greater part m much examples of misplaced 
energy as those to whicli wo look back with such pitying 
contempt, we shall perhaps arrive at the conclusion that the 
centuries bring us no nearer to absolute tnitli, and that it is 
the pursuit rather than the prize, tho subjective discipline 
rather tlinn tho objective gain, which gives to all culture Its 
chief moaning and worth. 

On Kiieh grmiudH, and on Mich alone, wo sliuuhl ho glad 
to know more of the ri'id Htiitus of our Htuduntit at thin pcriuit 
and the conditimis under whicli their work mm carried on ; 
in all Hueh I'liipiirics liowuver wu find ourHclvos oncnuntered 
by insiipernble dillicidticH arising from the destniction of our 
records. Aiili<iuurian research pauses liopelessty haltljil m it 
arrives at the barren wastes which so frer|ucutly attest tho 
inroads of tho fiery element upon tho archives of our uni- 
vcniity. This dcNtnictiun wiu of a twofold character, — de- 
signed and acciiluntid: the former however having played 
by fur tho more important part. A blind and unreasoning 
hatred of a culture in which they could neither share nor 
sympathise, ha'i frequently characterised the lower orders in 
this country, and Cambridge certainly encountered its full 
share of such manifestations. In the numerous nffmys be- 
tween 'town' and 'gown' the hostels were often broken 
open by the townsmen, who plundered them of whatever 


« ^.■wsMJe^MI of uiT value, and doatrojcd everjrthing that ni«p n 

puitv ± IcttvK*! wmniuuity. In I2(il tlie records uf the 

n-rutT '•ctv c'lumittotl to the (lam«.'n ; the yi-ar 13"!^,'^ 

1 -11.11 k«i '>» a ^tuilar art of Vaml;ili.itn ; m ISMl, durin;; J-'it.'-"*! 

iiMirr>.-v.i:"ii-> llivti jirvvnlciit tlir»ii^h'iut tlic nmiitrj, J— ^■•»t 

■■'i->t.:i-x- ^I'titi-I t)i<-ir niiiiii<i>ity tii di-triti-ti»ii "n .i 

,1-,. r ^ ilf. Al {.'■■T\»i9 (liriMi i.U the Ux.k". cK:irt«r., 

. »:--'i^s lvI"tu'"S t" 'hf siK-icly wi-re ilcstn'Vfl. Al 

'lut ^ ':k- <iii't-.r-ily i.-h<'.it W.1H I*ii>ktii cpL-n. nixl ull tho 

■I I.. I '• -i.v'^ ititli A MTiiilir fntf. TIti' iiLoiiTH mil! mIk^ 

s . . n: ■ii:.!.iiii..ri, Miiri ii' all tlitir iliatlcr'. iimrii. 

-. . :.;,ii.iinn, ali-1 ft nr:iiiil ci>rill;i;,'raliiiii t-iiin< >l til 

...^ '.; - . ji!i iimi'-rit l.<Uim>' N-.tM.n.l tli<' (»1.<"> 

^ ,!„'l.- ■ lI..Tl.rk.':' 

. L. , .,. ■■ ., -ii..ii. (iiilr:i;;.-..-riirn.| ill (h.- rti;:ii i.f 

, . ^ ■ t ■ . tn.ri' p I.. r:.l Ii;.v.^- *r.ii;:l.t nii-I.-r r-yal 

. ;. . ■ • M!L- i.f 111.- Il.f.rrtiiti .11. HL kli.ill liavvwra. 

, ., » , , ,.il,.r|.l..v. Tl..i-"i.ll.k''.i'i"f' tLoiIiii.j. 

. , :,- li;r|..i|-. :.>.'l •!. .'i»-i:%.*; (I Jt 

.:'.!• It hiiiti.r {-.I I t .i< 1I..I l.rrv^M 

. .... .....t »..-.^l,i l.v-.i.!.....i..!ii..: 'Wl-w"""" 

,. ■,■.,;! ...M-M-i i.i'h.ii iv. .-:!;.. ti„. ill- 

.... V .' ..\: li..ll.<n r I., .till.. .!.,). 

... . ".,.■. ,„. '...f.-M.|. „„.l,,,„.!l..,, ,t.l,.„j. 

-. . ...,.., -t, I,l.-r....!in,'. I I..M^' 

, ; . ... ..■.,-.t l.Ml ...i.ln.l.. H..I ni, . .j- . ,..I 

..'■ ..,. [.',....■ T1...T.-1''; i,.-„^-_ 

. . - ..,.,.\ [• ,■ H. .-. ii- .'.:■ !. .!. '.r. - *.■■'-: 
. ■.■:■, ■ ,„ !..■ .r.-.., .-.. . ..I :■„ .1..:. 


n. antiqaariaiu like Fuller, vhea the sceptical demosded v 
dence respecting diarteiB granted by King Arthur and Ca 
vallader, and rules givea by Seigius and Honorius, gravely 
assert that such documents hod once eiiatcd but had perieji 
in the variuus conflsgiations ', 
«. Another and ncit infrequent source of disquiet to bo 
M. universities was the celebration of tournaments in thi 
vidnity. 'Klany sad casualties,' says Fuller, 'were caused 1 
these meetings, though ordered with the best eautic 
Arms and legs were often broken na well as spears. Mu< 
lewd people waited on these assemblies, light housewives 
well 03 light liorscmen repaired tlicrcunto. Yea, such w 
the clashing of swords, the rattling of anns, the sounding 
tnimpcts, tlio neighing of horses, the sliouting of men i 
dnytimc, with the ntaring of riotous revellers all the nigl 
that the scholarH stuiHcs were ilisturln'tl, mfi-ly cmlaiigiTi' 
liMl;,'iiig straightened, chiirgcs ciihiffjoil, iilt pmvisioiiH biit 
uncoiixnoiinlily cnhanucil. In a wonl, ho tiiaiiy war iiors 
were l)roii;;lit IiithiT, tliiit Pi-yiLsus w.-ls IJkdy himself tu 1 
K))iit out; fi>r whore Mars ku-i'ii.s liin tcriiiH tlu-ro the iMiis 
may even iiiikke their vncalinti,' 

It will not ho necessary further to illuKt.rato Uiy pn'm'i' 
of tliOMe liiitiirhin}; ehmeiits iu wliigh Cnnihiidgo kIhiii 
fwarcely less tliaii I'ariw itsi-If; the mingled gowl and e\ 
resulting from tlio iiiltueiiue of the MenilinuiU were nt 
equally her heritage. It is however to ho noted, tht 
while at Paris the Dominicans obtained the OKcendane 
>- throughout England the Franciscans were the more num 
rous and inlluential body. At Cambridge, as early as 122 
the latter had established themselves in the Old Synagogue 
and fifty years later had erected on the present site ■ 
Sidney a spacious edifice, which Ascham long afterwan 

> ' We bave bat one trne and tai tht finit of our uiliigtuiisni to pc 

answer to rclnru to all Ibeir qncs- ceive tbtir real value. The absu 

tion», — " They ajo burnt." ' (Fuller, aunchroniKins tbev contnin are poir 

lliit. o/ llif Uiiic. p. 84). These e[loulbvDyet,Prir«'in-«,iSa;— *1 

forp;ric« nre givrn in MSa. Hnre, i • ' Ca^itnbnKiB primo rdfpe™ 

1—3. AVIint ophiiun llnro Limsclt IrutreH bnrgouHCS villio, aBnii^iiant' 

had of lUtir gtuuiufuesB bo lias not ein vetcnlm nyniiKOKiiiQ qua; tr. 

Il-U on t«cord, Uakci was pcrbapt cualiguft tarcorl. Cum voro ilitd 


described m va oraament to the unirerat;, and tb* fn- qari 
cincta of which were still, in the time of FuIIct', to be tneed 
ID the college grounds. In 1274 the Doniininms settled twa^ 
where Emmamicl now itandsL Aliout the middle «f the " 
n-iituty, the Citrmelitcs, who had origtDnlly occupied anTwc^H 
cstcnuive fuundntiun at Ncwnlmin, hut were driren fmra 
tlicnce by the winter itiundatioiiH, si-tlk-d near tlie prcwnt 
Pite of Qiiccnii' ; towards the chj»« of the century, the 
Au^istininn Frian, the fourth mendicant order, took upTw*«H 
thvir rcsiiloneo near the cite <if the old Iliitanic Clanh-n* ;**■*"" 
oppOHitc to Pik-rhfusu wire the While Cunoiis; Joiun was 
ri-]>n.-!ti-n(cd bv the luiinicrv of St. Uhadt-giind, a na-nolictine 
foiiii'latitm ; St. J<>hn'H C»1li-gu by (he no»]>)tal of the 
lin-thrcn of St-Jdhn; whilr ovoT>lin>l»u in^ nil the nrtt n 
wi-idih luid i)ii]><>r(:iii'-i- thin- r">c in thi- riiinioii.-itv mi^h-TWAwH 
lHmrlio.^1 Ihr iTiui y of th.- Att-uMii.iHii Otiim.^ nt ltar»w.-1L nlS 
Tlie p ii.i.d ..t-:.r.i-.iii..n i.f U.lh Oxf-pl iin.l I ■umhri.lgo',;^^ 
wiw. ax w.- I.:.v.-|y k. - n. iimm). 11.-.) ..i, „f I'.-.ri-, *».( ^'£P 
It Hill hen; Ik- w. 11 t- i.r.inl ••■it »li;il lii-jM nr I" h.m- Utii '•— 

llM'nii-in ootli f ii.:ii '.r;.!'.!/.!!;..!! ill iIm' |i. r!-.l «h<-n 

ll II.-.;.. .llli.rdidii"l.Ait ..r.v i.i-d r... npi-r. «-i;iM« 

iiilliu IX- (Ill- ntiii. lit Utii.: It i- ('> I.' t- iiiiinU rcl 

tli.i- ii* ft tint.- hIiiii lli.< i.iliii t'-ii^ii«' *!i- ll.*' ui'.li-nn of 
.-..minimi.»i) lHt».-.ii hi-( ..lii.Ml.d I... II. ll..- ^.hi.!.- ..f 
I><il)>it <>r:i('>ry and of f-rin;)! iit*tr.ieli<>ti, tlii' l.-in:;it;i:^- uf 
iK.idv all r.i-'.'^'iii-i'l lii.r:i'iiri-. a!.-!;:e of it «ai m 
t'-M-iilial lo a fctii'i'tit tnl.i n:; iiju.n a j>rr».-tilBi| r-mrM' of 
n'-n.Uinic >li|.ly. .t-i w->itld !■<■ tli<' ;il>i1ity to m..] «nle 

III* m-lhtT t..t,t"n- in t!..- ].m-. nt .!..y. Tl -\ tii.-r.t-re 

tl..- t'-nn 7-1" (f"--i, a* l!i.- lit-l .■..-. -f t!,.- Ttitium, 

;..l..,,t ll,.- U-l .-1,.,..; 

140 USE or THK ENOLisH mnvEBsmES. 

CBAP. n. jecioie, wu tbe function of the Magi^vr Ohmeria, i 
J. ' p officer vhose duties have been the subject of considenb 
rTi 1^ /f "" contioreny smong those who hare occupied thomselTes vil 
the antiquities of our university. It is not necessary ' 
infor that the instruction given by the Mogister extendi 
beyond the merest rudiments, — an excerpt probably fro] 
the text of Prifician, whose treatise formed the groundwoi 
of the lecture to the university student Tlie Trivium an 
Qtudriviam formed the ordinary course of study, culmtnatic 
as it was theoretically assumed in theology, but oilc 
abandonoJ on tlio completion of the Trivium, (which rcpn 
sentcd the UDdcrgntduato courae of study,) fur the supcrit 
attmctions of the civil and canon law. 

If wo now proceed to consider tho formal orgT.nization i 
the university, wo sliall scarcely bo able to offer a moi 
succinct and lucid ixitliuc tlmii Hint contained in tlio fullov 
iiig extract from the treatiKC by dean Peacock, an acceui 
resting entirely ou the unquestionable data afforded by tli 
SUttnUi Antiijiia'. 
(MSMtaa Tho uiiiver^^ity of Cumbnd;;o, in tlio Middle AgeH, 'cot 
rsKortaf siiitcd of a chancellor, and of tlic two lioii.scs of rcf^erits an 
^•Mnitm noil -regents'. The climicellor waa cliouen biennially by tli 
Jj."' rcgonU,n]id might, upon extraonlinury occiusiutis, be continue 
in office for a third year. He summoticd convocations c 

■ The boJf ot SUtiilcR from vkich IncrcMS of thg number of oollceei 

dean I'eiuuck'i outliue U ilcrivwl is the cbnnRHS of the govvnimeDt, ui 

tHitairuiiijtitiDonlenif timi^.ftnil the the reformntion of rcliiriun, necci 

dAkH Kr«, as bu hiTaiu'lf ubflirviii, 'ia wtrily produced ^nt uliuDgcn in tb 

l»Diu cwicsniiccrliiiiitii Iho eitciit ot etiinliticin, chBTnulcr, nntl viun-a, i 

tlio i,Tcnt biKly of ntuilciitii, Rod J 

tbo n^latiiin of tviKbeni lo tliuie wb 

were taught, yet wo enii diimivcr n 

arirmiil tii (lixtiirb llic diKtributioD < 

till puTTi'i* vxcniscJ by tlio vhuiice' 

loT and tbo hoiuoa of tcKi'titi so 

niin-riitriila.oroTt'ii to clwtiKi- uiitU 

riiilly tin cnnt'ililnrj iiwIIuhIi ( 

tciirbiniT, or tho furnu udJ ihtIihIh • 

Bnuliintiini.' Ot"rrvll"iif,yp.-ir;i' 

■ llinrre liku fi'ifi'n- (M>e p. 74) ku 

lo Irarhr llio TCi^-iiU wrro IhcM 

oiir.ii),'''!) in littrhiii^', tlio mm-rrKi'tit 

tlu-u who biul i-xiroiHi'il that fiiucti'« 

bat 110 luugvr luutuiuvJ lu <lu iw. 


a Mil 

iiiry.' 'Iti.n. 

-t nurprl- 

■iu:{ U 


™.' bewia-, '1 

Lliitt Wkt 



till eniic1.ii.'n1 

:k which 



n'8 eoiiltiidic'ti>r 

r toeacb 

Other, ■ 


»i- .ire tlnix d.. 

liriviil of 

Uiv mi' 

iiUH Of di<-liii|.-iii..Uiiti 

; tliu law 

d, tr.1 

<u Ibiit \.y i»bi.h it WDR«c,. 

.1. li 

11 the raicbit hi: 

Ih^ en 


III and fbi«-iirily liiieU 

itily II 

iriKu fmiii tlii* • 

-Hti*', wo 

Jlnii-iilty ill 




«iniit mill niiin 

> btril.ii.« 


■ of 

a ot llH) 

univ<'ri.ity, n 

lid IIjo |iriiiri|>1 

Iho great 


congregations of rcgcnU upon all occasions of the iolemii cwai 
resumption or reception of the regency, and likewise of both ^"^ 
houses of reg(*nts and non*regents to consult eonoerning 
affairs afroctin«; the common utility, public quiet, and geiKTal 
intorestri of the university. No gracos, as the name in some 
degree implii*s, couM be pro|Ki«(i*d or pnftM^d without ht4 
assent He presided in his own court, to hoar and dcciilc all a«a«i 
causes in which a Pchohir wan conci.»me<l, unleKsyadia/rxiCas^^^- 
rrf publican quidis }»erUrlxtiio re^piired the anient or cog- 
nizance of the public mn;;istrate^ or justici^-?! of the realm* 
He was not allo\v«*<| to Ik* ab<<t*iit from the univemty f'yr 
more than on«* mi»iith dtirin;; th*.> i-onti nuance of the rea^ling^ 
of th**« p* : and thMii;;li a vic«*-rhaiioe!h*r, or prenidcnt, 
mi};ht bf a]i|H»intt'd by tho ri-;:t nfj* fmm ytar to year, to 
relievo him frniii ^oinr pi>rti'>n ofhi** dtiticM^ yet he was not 
all«iwed to intrust to him tin* oiM^iiizanre of iho cau«MHi of the 
rc;;rntj* or n«»ii-r« ;;riitH, ex jmu-U rcn, of thi-** nhich relattti 
to the valuation and taxation of Iiimim-h or ImMi-N, or of 
lh«iM? whiili inv"lvf'«l ax tip ir piiiii«»liTiirnt c»th«'r c*xjHjUi*in 
fr»m the U!ii\« r-^ity ^*r inipTi^i nt r ••♦ A 'itrr Mfitutr*, cf- 
pri"»*«ivo of tlio i« .ih'U-* !««'!in*4 ui'li whicli tin' Mfiivi'r'«ity 
lN';;nn to n ;;:iri| tin* claim of iIh* bisl^'p of Ely to visitatorial 
ptwor and c<»nrirmation, f«»rbiiU the* eb*ction of that bishop's 
official to tho oHico of cliaii''«-llor. 

•The p«iwfp4 of the chano'llur, though confirmcJ and 
amplified by royal chart«T-, tv-re uni{UC'!itionably ecclesiastical, * 
V»th in thf^ir naturo nnd ori-^'in : th«' court, over which be 
|ir«'«'id«d, w;iii ;;itvi rri' d by tli.» prin«-ip!« 4 of fhe cani*n a« 
w»-ll an of •hr ri\il 1 iw ; and Oi«* |h.ui'r of cxr.iiiiniunicati^^n 
SM<1 ab-'il'i*i"ti, tbnx'l in tli- fir-*? iri-»*.suri* fptm th«' bishop 
<*f K!y. a!id *m!'-' 'I'li mIv ff-ni t!i« pjM-. lH<ami* th«* mo*t 
pr-iDpt a?i'l !'»rri.i'l iM* i!i**r«!! rit !* r ixriiii'iii^' b^ autb'^nly : 
th»* fi-rio. iik<^*i-i". "I •■ 'i-'iT ?i/ •!• «T» ' - fifil tl " kri««!in;» 
p.-rnri- ..f th*- |« r* -n i In. !*!••!. ;: ir 'h- \\\\v l-.tli 'f the 
a**. ; of l]if ;riMi"r.* V •■?* ^'i 1 ■ • '• • .-•■•■! *'it- r. -r * 

' It i* \« rv Ik »r\ , .1 ' ! •'• n !*• !> • • V. "m r* •!.*!•!• rin;* 

th'- •ii>^tribotf'>ri of :i«*th""*v in fl.** nrn •• •:•,• r-'O !i!ofion 
of tho univrMilv, to fc<'j»:ir.i»«' !!»•• J-«^%l r* 'T 'ho cli.if"« Il.»r 


vr, n. from tlioN of the regents or son-regents ; for the authorit 
^^ of the dumcellor liad an origin independent of tbe regenti 
^Mafmd bis jveTioas concurrence vos necesBar^ to give r&Iidit 
■M. to their sets : lie constituted, in fact, a distinct estate in tb 
academical commonwealth : and though he owed his appoint 
ment, in tbe first instance, to the regents, he was no 
necessarily a member of their body, and represented ai 
•atbority and exerdsed powers which were derived fron 
eztonal sources. Tbe andent statutes recognise the ex 
istence of two great divisions of the members of the ecconi 
estate of our commonwealth, the koates of regentt and non 
regenia, which have continued to prevail to the present time 
though with great modification of their relative powers 
The enactments of these statutes would lead us to conclude 
that in tbe earliest ages of the university, the regents alone 
a$ forming Vie acting body of academical teadiera and readen 
were authorised to form rules for the regulation of the termi 
of admission to the regency, as well as for the genera 
conduct of the system of education pursued, and for thi 
election of the various officers who were UGCcssary for thi 
proper administration of thoir 'affairs. We conscquentl; 
find, that if a regent ceased to read, he immediately becami 
an alien to the governing body, and could only be pennittei 
to resume the functions and exercise the privileges of tbi 
regency, after a solemn act of resumption, according U 
prescribed forms, and under the joint sanction of the chan' 
cellor of tlie university and of the house of regents. Th( 
foundation however of collcgiiS and halls towards the close o: 
the thirteenth and beginning of tbe fourteenth century 
as well as the estaVaRhment of numerous monasteries withir 
the limits of the univcrbity with a view to a participation oi 
its franchises and advantages, increased very greatly tht 
number of permanent residents in the university, who hat: 
either ceased to participate in the labours of the regency, oi 
who were otherwise occupied with the discharge of the 
peculiar duties imposed upon them by the statutes of theit 
own Bocietteff. Tbe operation of these causes produced 
a body of non-regents, continually increasing in number nnd 

EABLT coNsrrnmoK of cahbridoe. 143 

importance, who claimed and exercised a considerable in- cnxr 
fluence in the conduct of those affairs of the university which r»«m 
were not immediately connected with the proper functions *^\^ 
of the regency ; and we consequently find that at the period 
when our earliest existing statutes were framed, the non- 
regents were recognized as forming an integrant body in the 
constitution of the university, as the house of non-regents^ 
exercising a concurrent jurisdiction with the house of regents 
in all questions relating to the property, revenues, public 
rights, privileges, and common good of the university. 
Under certain circumstances also they participated with the 
regents in the elections ; they were a<lmitted likewise to the 
congregations of the regents, though not allowed to vote; 
and, in some cases, the two houses were formed into one 
assembly, who deliberated in common upon affairs which 
were of great public moment. 

* When graces were submitted by the chancellor to the 
approbation of tho senate, the proctors collected the votes 
and announced the decision in the house of regents, and the 
scrutators in that of the non-regents; and when the two 
houses acted as one body, their votes were collected by the 
proctors. It does not appear, from the earlier statutes, that 
the chancellor was controlled in the sanction of graces, by 
any other authority ; but, in later times, such graces, before 
they were proposed to the senate, were submitted to tho 
discussion and approbation of a council or caputs which was 
usually appointed at the beginning of each congregation. 
Under very peculiar circumstances, the chancellor might be 
Miperseded in the exercise of his distinctive privilege, when 
he obstinately refusetl the sanction of his authority for 
taking measures for the punishment of those who had 
injured or insulted a regent or a community; for, in such a 
cxse, as appears by a very remarkable statute', the proctors 
were empowered, by their sole authority, to call a congregation 
of regents only, or of both regents and non-regents, notwith- 
standing any customs which might be contrary to so violent 
and unusual a mode of proceeding. 

' Stat. Antiq. 57. D€ potettaU procuratcfum in dffectu eanceUariL 


JL 'The two proctora, called also rectors, after chancellors 
Tioe-chanoellor, were the most impoitaDt admiiustrati 
oEBcera in the nnircrBity. They were chosen anautilly, 
the t«atli of October, by the regents, the master of glome 
and two junior regents standiog in ncnitiny and collectii 
the votes ; they rcgnlated absolutely the times and modes 
reading, disputations, and inceptions in the public schoo 
and the public ceremonies of the university ; tbey superi 
tendc-d the markets, with a view to the supply of win 
bread, and other necessaries for the scholars, and to the suj 
pressioQ of monopolies and forestallings and those otbi 
frauds, in the daily transactions of buyers and sellers, whic 
furnished to our ancestors the occasions of such frequent an 
extraordinary legislation ; they managed the pccuniat 
afiairs and finances of the university; they posses.sed fb 
power of Buspendiog a gremial from bis vote, and a not 
gremial from bis degrees, for disobeying their regulations o 
resisting their lawful authority ; they collected tlie votes an 
announced the decisions of the bouse of regents, whos 
peculiar officers tlicy were ; tlicy examined the qucstionist 
by themselves or by their deputies ; they superintended o 
controlled all public disputations and exercises, either b 
themselves or by their officers the bodels ; they administerei 
the oaths of admission to all degrees, and they alone wer 
competent to confer the important privileges of the regency' 
"Tlie other officers of the university were the bedels 
scnitators, and taxors. The bedels were originally two it 
number, who were elected by grace by tho coocurren 
authority of the regents and non-regents in their respectjvi 
houses. The first was called the bedel of theolog}' an( 
canon law, and the other of arts, from their attending lh( 
schools of those facuUiea. They were required to be ir 

'■TbeproctorsiterCBliioQathoriscd vbich conld not be realised, in«n 

In thot» dnjt of poverty, to lake the pledges were not redeemed. Bj 

plcders for tlie payment ol [crs. wLich ■ Ute Statute (see Slatula Aallp" 

were n^nattf jewels oi maniiiicriiita ; Ka 1B3) DO nODtlccript writlen Oi 

these books or miuiDscnpts were book pnuted, on pojier insttad el 

Talu^ by Ibe nniversiljr itationaril vellam, wae allowed to be received in 

(the boDk>eners).«bo were not nnfra- pledge," PeMOck'» ObtmaHiui* oa 

qutntl; bribed to cheat the nniver- the StatuM, p. 3S. 
•it; b; pnlling a price npon them 

BABLT WP W irmiO H OP CAXBtmiB. 14S 


almofi perpetual atteiMUiioo opon the chAoeellor^ fntUm^ 
and at tlie duputatioDs in the publie ■choola. 

'The two scnitaton were elected bj the non-fegeoti at 
each congregation, to collect the votes and annomiee Iha 
dcciMoni of their hoime, in the ftame nuoaer aa waa done faj 
the two procton in the houne of regents. 

'The two taxon were rcgenta appointed bj the boote ef ' 
regentiw vho were empowerod, in conjanctioo with two 
bargCMCH Qiegomen)^ to tax or fix the rent of the boeteta 
and hooscfl occupied by students, in conformitj with the 
ktteri patent of Henry III. Tliey aliio aMisited the proc t o ri 
io making the a&Mze of bread and beer, and in the aflaira 
nUting to the n^gulation of the marketa.* 

It will eaitily be sceny from the above outline, that the 
example of the university of Pariii was not lent influential ia 
the organisation of Cambridge than in that of Oxford ; but a 
(act of much deeper interest al^ ofTen itself for our coa«rider* 
ation, — the fact tiiat it was in those actually engaged iu thegy^^ 
irurk of education in the univen^itv and in no one else, tliat ^IXS 
the management of the univemity was vested. The difE* 
cultiet of interconimiiiiir:ition in thoH* tiays of course pre* 
duJed the existence of a limly with powcm like those of 
the present senate ; but when we timi that not even rvsidi*nt4, 
when they hail erased to take part in tiie work of instruction, 
aere permittt-vl to retain the Mme ci>ntrul over the dir^^ioo 
nf the university, it is deHirable to recf»;niiw the fart that 
it is in no way a trailititm in the ci»n*>titution of the uni- 
vcptity, but a comparatively moihrn aiii»ninly, which still 
TnnLe?* the efforts of tliM^c wlio ore active lalMmrer* in her 
miiiht de|M*n(li*nt for the Hnnction of wtiatcver plann they 
may devise t4> render her di<»ci|>IitH« and itiitnirtion more 
iflfvrtive, U|>on tlniM? i*lio are n«-itlier n*i«!ent^ imr tiochert. 

It was not until the year 131S that Catiiliri'lj^e n<^i\e<l ^^ 
fn«in Pope John XXII a formal r«>co'^iiiti<*ri a% a SimliHm^\* 
OeneraU or UnirtrtilaM^t nheifliv il.e iii.i<»ti'r4 and Mholani 

* liriMi T«vne, with Itit ii«fi%| r«Ho>i!fr' I % tiin«rf«.tf — *q(i« 9% 

*>rf*imr«fl, ri)ili-'\vvar« to «rr«t \\tf ••fit aJui -t tnt r !■'-«!•, •% fti<lr iWmA 

•wt into r%iilrttr« CliaC ('Ainl'fft.l/r. trnipu* C'tti.ta* r.. :% %\A •Usham 

'^i'Mt Uiit Uoic, bAil 00 cUun ki Ur c*>Mr*lr. ftut l'i.i««r«ttA« kftltta f«- 



CHAP. n. became inreated with oil the rights boloog^ng to such a go 

f^B pomtion. Amonjf other privilc^jes resulting from Oiii san 

■ilili tti tion, doctors of tlie university, before rvNtrictcd to their ok 

Ed.""^ Aclioola, obtained the right of kcturinjt tliroiighout Chriatci 

dom ; but tliu mo8t iinportaiit was tindoiibtctlly that whJc 

conferred fnll exemption from tlio ccclciiicuitical and Rpiritiii 

power of the bishop of the dioccne, and of the archbishop i 

the province, — these powers, so far oh members of tli 

university were concerned, being vested in tlio chnnccUo 

It appears however tliat tlio immunity tims conferred wi 

not admitted by all the aubHcquent bishops of tiic diocese 

the right of interference was claimed or renounced ver 

much accnrding to the individual temper and policy of th 

bishop for the time being; until the controversy was final) 

set at rest, in the year 1430, by the famoua Bamvre 


TWMoM- If we now turn to consider the character of the in 

tellcctual activity which chiefly diatingnishcd our universitic 

at thin period, we shall fiixl that, as at Paris, it was th 

Mendicants who nssiimed the Icoilcmhip of tlionglit, am 

also, for a time at Icoxt, bure the brunt of that unpopularit; 

which pni>nl extortion and ambition called up among th 

laity at large. 

i w n —rf Tlicre is, perhaps, no instance in English history, of an; 

j^ «»« ' religioH-s body undergoing so suddt>n and complete a changi 

j|j*p«r«- in pf.pnlar esteem, as that afl'orded in this century by tin 

new orders. They entered and established themselves ii 

the country amid a tide of popularity that overbore al 

opposition; before less than thirty years liad passed tliei 

warmest supporters were disavowing them. The first aymp 

toms of a change are observable in the alarm and hostility 

iiwl, nnt priiilrcia sub nomine Uni- daitoitik, it 11.) But tliU fact prow 

verhhtiiti*. ULqiiiim ante id [i'ni]niii, niilliiiiit with respect to Vaiiii sni 

• hiiitiHiiiii iHitililiriliiii oliliunisKi-t' linhwis, Oxfonl nnil Caiiiliriile'' 

(AHti^i. Ar»it. V^iM. Aimli)!na,p.lll.) TliP oriRin mid fiiniiutjon of till* 

. It ifl of eoxiTfiv Irno llitit in llip rn«a uuinTsiliii in lont in obMuril; 

of tlie ninjorily of tLe nnivimilips *l>iw (pU.' "".V" Von Hi'uraer, 'vui 

cn-iili'd prior t» the llfformttiiin.tlw kciiiiT ikutRclicn UnivcrHiiiil. in" 
(fruiiliiiK of (In- I'tjihl Uoll wnK «rfn. 
eiilint «ii)i tlirir JlrKt Ioun<lfltii>ii. 
(Si-o VoD llAunter, Gruthiehuatr Pi- 


which the regular onleni found tlictnM*lvei tmalile any 
longer to dinguiiio. It noon ticcnmo oiipnrent that the friar 
no far from rcproncntin^ nicrvly tho humblo miMonarj 
to whom tho Xiwk of iuNtnictiii;; tho multitu«lifi mi}(ht lie 
complacently reHi^^nitl, wan lik(*ly to provo a formHlalile and 
unncnipuloufi rival in tlio rac<} for influrnrc anil wealth. 
Among the fimt to criticine their comhirt in him favourable 
langiinge, in tho Mattlicw Paris ^ Bcneilictiiie» 
fAniiliar by official experience with the ck-fectn and ManiUla 
of hirt own onler, and distin;:iii«<hc«<l by the energy with which 
lie touglit to bring nbntt a p^nend and real reform* Writing 
of the year 125.'i. he thin diHrriUii the conduct of lite new 
onleni : — 'In thiji year ct*rtiiin of the bmtheri Minor, to* 
jjether with iMinn» of the onler of Prearhcrn, ditl with extn*mc 
imimdence and in for<;etfiihi«-«n of the pn>f«*HMionii of their 
order, secretly make their way into certain n«»hle monanterieti, 
under tho pretext of the perfonnanc<* of tli«*ir dutitm ami aa 
though intcndin;; to de|>art after they hiul prcMchcd on the 

rrow (/lOfff cniMtinaiii prtnUrntinnnn). Kmh-r the [m'tenee 
however of illne«iH or of M»fiie oiht-r n:i-«»n. they pn»lonp*<l 
their Ktay ; and havin;^ conMnict***! a w«NNlcn altar ami pl.-ut*<I 
there«»n a »mall conM^crat***! altar of ht«ine whieh they carried 
with them, they perfonn<il in low ton<*« a KCTret ma^i^ and 
ci»nfe*«ied many of the pari^hioti«-r*i. to the prejudice of the 
pnestji {in pnrjitdicium rrrshtftrritrHm). For they aik*«»rtrd 
tint thev hail n.'O'ivrd autlioritv m» to <h); in onler, forwM»th. 
that the faithful nii|:ht c<»iif«oH to them niatti*r» ifthieh titry 
•vonld bhinh to n*v«*al to tlM-ir own pri«-t. mliom they mi;;ht 
• i^lain A% one involviil in like nin, «»r U nr, an i»im' pvm to 
•i.tenijieranci*; to mieh it tin* iliity of tlie brotlH-r* Minor 
t*' pn»«crilK» jM'nance ami i^rant :il»'«ti!«ilioiiV* 

A« at rari««. a;::iiii, I lie t>*o or«!« r-* \\«to iinaMe to rrpre^a 

' flittitriit .V.»'.«r, r«l \V»t«. f «r n.«-n ««f Sir r Mvl l«n, •rotrf-'»l«^ 

*'^ MK. Chi S.r»i l» V f..l 'i.T if.l '. M. i,.| uimI. f il.. «%f .i M«l- 

I I avr f* tti r .11* r« ft m I !•• tl. « •' • • I • • I .i- -- ' ' It ••. »i ■•? 

' * •» Tipt t»t<« «i u-.« / tlw //i.*« r 4 • %*' 'fi • f* « . tl . ..J- »!,( • t«l« t» Mr 

' '. ' uf M^tt' • m r 1*1* It m %« \r- I < . > t> I ••* • r » tl. t)*«- U\t cif 

^•11 liT J«>)iii Sl«i«. til* «nl.<|'ittr«, i»r » . I •• l.t \\«l«. K,4«». S#* hif 

' • An hiiiviif^. f'arkrr. taU ll»r m«« i'«l i V « 1 1. • • !*'• !s«r V* tbr llfU^nm 

10— a 

148 RISE 0? THE ENOLlSn univehsitiki. 

bmjip. n. llio BignB of a growing juiiloiwy of encli ollior's influoneo hmt 
' reputation, anil tlicir rivalry licfuro long broVc out into npin 
^mufttni warfnro. Tito Itonudictina liiHtorinD tloc» not fiiil to turn to 
CniKito Account flo gnivo a RcnnJiLl anil dcttcantH tlicroon with wdl- 
-jj^w» affected conntomiition : — 'And m tliouyii,' ho saya, 'no part 
of tho horizon might appear unvisitcd by HturinH,' (Iio in 
writing of tlio year 12i.'t) 'a controversy now aroso lietwccn 
tho lirothcrs Minor ami t!io Prcaclicrs, which cxcitcil thL- 
Mtoniiilimcnt of not a fow, mtumiicli 08 tlicso orders appeared 
to have chosen the path of perfection, — to wit, tluvt of poverty 
and patience. For while tho Preachers asserted that, as the 
older order, they were the more worthy, that tliey were more 
decent in their apparel, had worthily merited their name and 
{^co by thoir preaching, and wore moro truly distinguiHlicd 
by the apostolic dignity; tlio brothers Minor replied, that tlit^y 
had embraced in God's service a yet more ascetic and liumblu 
life, and one wliicli as of greater humility was of gri-ntcr 
worth, and that brethren both might and ought freely to 
pass over from tlic Preachers to thomsolvos, as from an 
inferior order to one more austere and of higher dignity. 
Tliis tho Preachers flatly denied, affirming that though the 
brothcni Minor went barefoot, coarsely clod (viriliter tumcalx) 
and girded with a rope, the pcnnia^ion to eat flesh and even 
yet moro luxunous diet, and that too in public, was not 
refused to them,— a thing forbi<lden in their own order : bo 
for therefore from the Preachers being called upon to enter 
th»5 order of the brothers Minor, as one more austere and 
worthy than their own, the direct contrary was to be main- 
tained. Therefore between these two bodies, as between the 
Tcmpl.-krs and Hospitallers in the Holy Land, tho enemy of 
the human race having sown his tares, a great and scandalous 
strife arose ; one too, all the moro fraught with peril to the 
entire Church inasmuch as it was between men of learning 
nnd scholars (wW literati et achdarea) and seemed to forbodc 
Boiiio great judgement imminent. It is a terrible, an awful 
presage, that in three or four hundred years or more, IIjl- 
monastic orders have not so hurried to degeneracy, as have 
these new orders, who, within less than four-and-twcnty 



]m^^h«roroarol]InK^g1lUHl^uulllioMMV>ft7Mtllop■lReMof ^^J^ 
KiogN. TIiow an now tlivjr who, viitoiipHff dty by i^J tlicir 
Mimptuoui odilic(.-H an«l lofly wkIIm, tlii>(ilujr tliuir eountloM 
wealth, tnuuijp.-)«ing witliuut iliaino, own u tlio OurmoB 
HiliU-giml forcUtH tlio limiU of tli« puwrty tltat fornu Ui« 
boMi of ttioir prufowion ; wlxi, iin]><-llcil \>j tlio love of gain, 
force tlicmw.-lvi'H iipun tliu {;n.-at nntl weultliy in tlio Ixmr of 
death, to Uio wnni;; ami cunU.'m|A of tlio unlinary (irwdi^ 
■0 thot tliL-y may in-ijco upon (.■mulumciitti, citort ctufuMMMn 
aod Mcntt wills, extolling thcnmclvci and tlK-ir onlcr abov* 
all tho na%. Inwmucli that noao of tlio faitliful now believe 
tliat they can Mxiiro >>alvation unk-Hi guiilol by the counaela 
of the Pn.-iu;h<'n ami lliu MiiiurituA. Ka-^t in ttio i>uraail 
of jiriviki^'M tlivy arv foiinil nclinK oh counht-lliin) in th« 
JHil.lCCN uf Kili;,nl nliil n<>bli->, Im dmiiilic-liniliil, In-oMiivn^ 
bii>k-><ni<.-li, or nuliiriLit uf iiiutTiii;;cH (Nuyrfiurxni pnrlo^uitlortt), 
ami an inMniiiuntN of [njuil oxlortion. In their [irvacbing 
tlicy arc u<ik iLilt'-rvn, iiuw ct'iisuun <>f ni'mt hiliti); tifuj^uct 
BOW rcvfahnt of cuiifitu.i(noi. iidw n-ckh ^* awiM-W. A« f<ir 
tho If^tiniatc «rlcis whum t)ic holy futhuni inntilutc-*!. to 
wit thow uf St. ItoiKiIici and St Au;pii>linv, on llii?*).' thej 
puur otnliiiijit whih* tb'-y magnify tliiir own fniti-mity ainra 
alL Tlio CiHltTcians tlxy ri-;;unl ax ni>lo and aitn[iJc. bolf 
UicMor nttlKf ni^ict; (hv Itt.-H;k Monk* an pmui] E{iicurcau*.' 

It waa not loiij; iK-furv thii am'}:rtncv ImniKht about on «^«— 
open trial uf otn-n^h U'twwn the- old ntid '.Ik- new onlen. ■— *m 
AiLong till- WL':il(liii!>( n Ii;;toti-i hon-< -, iliro(i|;l out the country ••*^ 
WW tbv uioiiajst' T}- nt the :int-i< iit !■•»» of lliir,,- Sl Fl'lfnund'*; 
ori^-inally a Kocii ty «f «'.-uioiii, it \i>-\. f-n r<' ■.-•ii- which we 
can -jnly i>iirmi«', mid t<>iiir.try to thv iiu'liiion of the I>;>ni«h 
mouircliR, Ui-u o<n\<'it'd liy ('nut ii.'u a lU iiidiiliiK- f<>itnd> 
atioii, and it* ri\ii>iir-< U>n l'»x- 'v ii'i;;iii< nl-'^l by 
•ucti-w'vu U-mf.utMr'i. In il li.itiii' of ih.- |ir>>hil'iti-in« uf 
(U abUt. uiid hul-.l by »'.»..> intlii. •.'...] I..>i... n. Dw 
Franciw-an* viidi-.ivi.ur- d in it..- \.;ir ]J'.^ to . ■,<:i«>i (h<-ni. n. pbb 
*lv.j mt Bury. A .tr».-;I.- u'.-i..! *!.i.h Li-t.-I f-r five"""" 
ywL Tbe friars vrvdol btiiMm,;*, wlmli tho muuki de- 
> Vtu, ^ •» iiii c^L N<» t< V ui 111 ». 

. moltsheil. Tbe dispute was carried by tho latter to Rome 
but their efforts io tliat direction provctl of but srufill aval 
while Alexander IV filled the papal chair, lu the ycai 
12(fl that pontiff died, and hia successor Urban iv issued t 
mandate re'[uirii]g the Franciscans to quit the town; thei 
mcceedod ia avoidlug actual expulsion by an unconditionit' 
submisrion to the authority of the abbat; but not before thuii 
protracted re»stance to the jurisdiction of a foundation ol 
such acknowledged dignity and antiquity, had, according ti 
Uattfaew Paris, 'greatly scandalised the world*,' 

In other quarters, where they managed to enlist on theii 

side Uie sympathies of the laity, tbe new comers proved toe 

powerful for tlieir ontaguni.stij. In 12-)9 tbo Doniinicaui 

established themselvoH at Dunstable, to the no small lujUT) 

nr It of the priory in that town'. In the year 1270 the xainf 

> order at Ouitcrbury, acting iu coujunctiuu with the townS' 
people, nearly succeeiled in driving tho luoiiks uf Ciiristchurcli 
from the city, ami Kihvardby, the archbishop, with difScultj 
allayed the strife. But a policy thus aggressive could nol 
long be popular, and it would seem that even during ttit 
lifetime of Grosseteste tbo enthusiasm which first greeted 

7 the Mendicants had begun to ebb. Foremost among the 

^ causes of this change must be placed the fact that they 
consuDted to subserve the purposes of papal extortion. I( 
was in the year 1249 that two messengers belonging to the 
Franciscan order arrived in England, armed with authority 
from Innocent tv to extort wliatever money they could from 
the ditTcrent dioceses, for the use of 'their lord the Pope.' 
The king, the historian tells us, was conciliated by theii 
humble demeanour, the mi-ssivcs they presented, and theti 
bland luldrcss. He gave them periniKsion to proceed o'l 

■ Mnitlivw l>i>riii, p.h WhIk, )>i>. K.7 

—A, Slid U7ll; AffiiUr )\WI;rl..„f. 
IInrI<-i>tn MS. KiH; UuLtlulu, Mo- 
nartic'H, III 100. 

* '(Jai do dia in diem icdiflenntei, 
coUfttiit aibi a quuDplnrimla loeis tir- 
emniKcDtibiu de quibus Prior et coa- 
v«iiti» reddttag dclient perciperel in 
nugDnm ejDNdem domoB detrimeo- 
torn, in brevi latRgiiDt laap^iait. Et 

qiiiuitiiin i|iHi in ipdiflciiii et fpntW' 
liidoriiiuH BuiJitK'iilaiitur, tuiito l'ni« 
ot ciilivoiitun 111 biiiiiij RU<K rt juriblu 
BiieiiKlirtntiir; qilik ntddituii '|Uoi> i 
mesaunciis tratribus collalis rMcpe 
Knt, Bibiminc ptnunt ; et oblutionM 
^UB «U dftri consucicrant, tr&trei 
i>m noviler venientes, pnrditatio- 
nibiiR gDis ari^ntiLu!>, fnnditna ntoi 
punl,' Malthcw rorit, p. OM. 


tlittr errutd, itipuliiting only tlutt tltcy nIiouM uk for flMmejr tn »r. 
u A free ofTuring nnil rcitort to do intimii]nti»n. Thcj Mcord- 
innly Mt forth on thtir inkiion; tln-y wore riclily tttiivl, 
Imx t«<l and spunxil, inounUtl on nuWIo jmlfrvyi, tlttr'ir swMIc* 
ornamented with g'»5d. In ^u^■1l gui-w thvy prcM(;nt<.-d them- j^.',;^' 
iel"et to CroK^wtente at Linculn. Ho hud i^va a wnrtn V^^ 
wifportor of thi-ir unlcr, hnviri;; even nt one time intvnd<t| u-^-h 
to tmrol IiiinwL'lf anmng tlifir niimU-r, won by tlicir dcvotioo, 
earieiitiicwi and miviiDiinry zrnL It miixt acconlin^^y hav« 
bwD a Mul diiK'nclinnlini-nt fur the gi>od bUhnp, nnd hi* hmrt 
mutt have Hunk within him. at he hHikt.-)) un llie two nny*- 
•on:ji'rH ami H-t'-mil !■> tlivir <h'Miiii>l4. Of what avail wt*re 
hii etfortt on l» half of • hiin.h r-'form. )ii<t «t.-ni dralins* with 

Ihi' d<--..n.'ri;.- atirli.-liii"-. wli'ii tl ill whom hio h»|»^ 

oil orf^l w<-n- thni l-illlii^ iiw.iy I'roiti ihrir |inir-«>i<>ii t 
Tticir di.'m.-in-l w:i- tli<' siiin >>( i^ix th'-i|viiid uimV*. an ex- 
orliitint ainiiiiMt vmh rli»ii.;li livii-.! l)iMii.,'h the l-niifth aitil 
hn^ullh of hU » id- l>i>h'>|.ri<-. It w...iM l»- .-.i<i:.1ty iiii|K.^il.le 
and dixh<m.>rahlr. hr •hcl^.r-.l. t.> piy it: ilt w..iiI.| \„ .-v.-d 
enttrtaili ihi'ir ait|iti<Mti.<ii iirittt \i- hid oni-idii.-] ihv nihtm 

of the Htatc. IH-..ii.-rrl.-d and r- i-nU-il th-y rvm teJ 

tlifir hfitM-H niid r.-I.- r.«;.y. It was n-t h"«.v«T th- only 
time that the M'lidii.inti njiiMMf"! Inf-irt! him <in MH-h aa 
prraad; on hin d":i'h Ixd hi- hiMKiit*-'! tlx- nnnm-r in which 
they hod K-nt th.-ifL-lv-H 1<> ih.- «M-rii'»tiaie i>.i(ioy of Rome. 
lli-iu^h he »(it) str->vi' to l-li.-vi' il.-it th<-y wt-n- only iu 

imwillit);; af |>1i<-- -. Itnl "<■ Ii •'l<.iTi':<li'i- vi.uo nxil.l n<it 

Us W hl,,r..I l.v th.- « .iM ..t III.-, Th- wrfi.., of th.- 

M-n.iic:.iit., it ,.'.n l.r, .■ii.|..,t..,t, H.r.. n..- d-tii-.-d to 

k- mor.' .n.Iiiriir,' thi>i i! I* il- c,,,.,.-,,,,^ ..r th^ 

I',; u- ih.- it...t ■.' .!.-il .•u-\ :<- tl,.- ...ily d. « 

t-r.t.jni.klv ;;.-tl, ;.«.iv. -■ |..--..| ll.- 1 -r J :.- • f tho 

Ulowir^ot'st l),..,H„i,"..,.|>- Fri f A-i-. 

It »...lMl.tli .!-'-■ ""J"*' "■-' t..t.-.-^r.i-.,t 
tU- ..lit, U ...i.lvr :, -,- ■ ■ 'I ■'■• ''^ ••'• ■- " 

. I- 


til.; ho.litity ..ft! I.'.rs... .-■;.. Tl t .;.-'■■" ■ I'" 1«- 

-.,-:iudiMn, a^:tiii, diu-clly <la-«h.-.I »i'h tin- l-,iic!i'>iu of tin- 


our. A parochial eleigy. EveiTwhere the parish prieat fouod hii 
fc^ V aathoritj omtenmed, his sphere of actioo invaded, his mode 
CS? of life ooDSored and decried, by their unscrupulons zesL 
For a time, hj talents of an essentiaHy popular order, they 
tnaoaged to retain their hold on the afTections of the common 
people, among whom indeed their example of mendidty 
proved at one time so attractive that it is almost surprising 
that all England did not turn able-bodied beggars. But with 
the fborteenth century their character and popularity rapidly 
declined, and even before the close of the thirteenth, it had 
become manifest that the new movement which hod enlisted 
the warm sympathies of the most pious of monarchs, the 
most sagacious of popcfl, and the most highmiodcd of 
English ecclesiastics, woa destined, like so many other 
efforts commencing in reform, to terminate only in yet deeper 
?^ IK if degeneracy. Consideremus religiosos, snya Roger Bacon, 
viltriM^ writing in the year 1271, himself a Franciscan friar, nullum 
^^kM ordineni excludx Videamus qtiantum ceciderunt ainyuli a 
■»'. itatit debito, et n&vi ordinea jam horribiliter labe/acli suiit a 

pristina dignitate. Totua clems vacai auperbtw, luxuricu, et 
avarili<B'/ and, recalling the enormous vices which had 
recently rendered the university of Paris a scandal to Europe, 
he solemnly declares, homo deditua pec'catia non potest pro- 
ficere in sapientia\ Tlie literature of England during the 
Kliildlo Ages, says Hnllam, consisted mainly of 'artillery 
directed against tho clergy,' and of this artillery the Men- 
dicants undoubtedly bore the brunt. ^Vllettlcr wo turn to 
tho homely natiro of the Vision of Piers tho Ploughman, tho 
compoxitiou of o Londoner of tho middle cla.s.s, — or to tho 
masterly (U^liiications of tho different phnflcs of contemporary 
society by Cliauccr, tho courtier and man of tho world, — or 
to tho indignant invectives of Wyclif, foremoHt among tho 
sclioolmon of his time, — wo equally discern tho inheritance 
of luilrcd and contempt whidt followed upon tlio apostoj^y of 

■ Camp. Studii Phifotophta, o. 1. 
Thia trcBtiw, writtcD id 1371, mast 
bo CKtsfutly lUatinenUlicd from tho 
Comptndiitn Slmlii Thtologi* tt jwr 


:» i«« •jnicrt 'Vom their bigh proTemiotu, until it cnliniB&leii < 
titLi *bw <4.\ievi)tii omiity, in tlic poluhcJ aarcaimii of the 
HM/fiMxm M-r^e ind ihit burning Iicxamctvn of the Fran- 

rwwtivM-.' i'l-vi :!i li-''3, *;tliin five yeam of tbo day » 
..iiii ■:iM VV.iiii.'^'-Ln i:mi4.<(rii.-s knocke<l nt liin 'Iot. It 
.--* -.It -iiHiM-. 'II w!i;.-h he liiul even in Iiih lifetime 
... .1.^. --.I... •■Vi^'\ lii- d<wiii}: jvars were vcxitl liy ar- 
. - vu.' .:■!.. ■■f'i:.;li llio Pnjw nppoarc<I to liim iw Aliti- 
.: - , ■.!.. • - . i.iir!' " N['iril M a nfirmer Iiail ciII-'J up 

. . ..*i.. -^ .1* li"ini*. it MM Vet bt''i>-vfj tliat at 

, - ; r'l o 't-ti:il niiisic wait lionnl in tin- air. 

i .» . ■■Mil tJrtlily iih-l'i-iy rliinn-il iuit'jiirhi-i 1>T 

!. ,■ 'i.i Mtrtly "if^ii tni'-i'<l n fnr !•■« 

. . , . 'l, !ti I..I Siir,.>n .1.! M..Mlf..rt wr"ii;;l.t 

... - . .;. ■! •.'..■ w..rl<l [■■litir, tt,:,ii .ii-l dr.— tvl« 

. . . .:. .v.! in ill.- (-|.<irt-1i. ll.t Ii;k1 i.timiiUc-1 ^ 

..... . .: .-.iv.-I t.;,n.ii.-: I,.. 1...1 ...ncl-.i the - 

. ^ .-. : !i^' ).u'l l.rvi^'l.t kirk .li^-i|.lin.- an.I 

• . , :,,• (Ik* ■.:'!.-rr.:i;,-i-iH ..r-l-r.. hel.-ul 

... . ■ . ■:■■«; lii- Ii.i-I c .iit't..ii'->I til'.' e\t'rti.n 

, ; . - 1. -v ,t, 111.. n.-ti!iy ..f ili.- [x-jul i>-i».r, 

.. . !i »'.i!! •iil-jifi* hi- itnnfTV tu K'ii;I:«ti. 

., V,i,.l 1,1.1 l-.n li.:ivy '..n III... 

, . ;. -..v li.l.-riili. ii..1«'itW ,,,.!;„„. tl... 

,1, ■• {\.x' •'{■'.•T, li:i- I. ft it -m r-i.-fl, 

■ ... ,.■.,,.-. tl... I,., h:., ;.nf^,..r,,...^ 

'■■'. i-'-:'---"- ■'"^■•^L 

• ■ '■■•"'■' » ■'■ '"■- /'.''• ;■'■■■• 

: I ), I.,! - 


oiAF. iL study of Greek by inviting Greek scliokra over to this 
country, whom he appears to have placed on the foundation 
at St. Alban'a. His own echolarship did not enable Lim to 
translate from the original unaided, but as soon as ho had 
g^ncd the assistance of others, he at once perceived that hy 
far the greater number of the difBculties that obstructed tlie 
com prehension of Aristotelian thought were to bo attribiittd 
to the wretched character of the existing translations and tlio 
inechauical spirit in which tho translators had pcrfurtncd 
their task. To this conviction wo may refer the fact, which 
Sluua"* '''"^ seems no gowl reason for calling in (juestlon, that he 
!iiruj;c-lf causoJ to be prepared, and superintended the pro- 
duction of, a new translatioa of the Ethics'. Of such 
■J^jg*- translations as were already in use he Utterly di-spajrod, and 
y;;',;;^',^'; asserted that those who wished to understand Aristotle 
must study him in the original. His views were fully shared 
m^^tmB. by his disciple and admirer, Roger Bacon. ' Sure am I,' says 
' ™* the latter, ' that it would have been better for the Latins had 
the wisdom of Aristotle remained untranslated, than that it 
should be handed down amid such obscurity and perversity, 
OS it now is by those who expend thereon the labours of 
thirty or forty years ; and who the more they toil the less 
they know ; as I have ascertained to bo the case with those 
who have adhered to the writings of Aristotle. On which 
account my lord Robert, fonnerly bisliop of Lincoln of holy 
memory, entirely neglected the books of Aristotle and their 

modes of reasoning Had I the power. I would have all 

the books of Aristotle burnt, as it is but waste time and the 
cauHC of error to study tliom.' Of the practical inconve- 
uieuces resulting from the use of such translations, ho had, 
indeed, himself had some experience, for when lecturing on 
Aristotle in the schools at Oxford, ho hud on one. occasion 
alighted on some Lombard or Spanish words inserted by 
the translator to supply the place of the unknown Latin 

■The tut faoibern called fu qne«- (rari«,IR61),p.328:bntiie«Joiirdsln, 
lion bj M. t'mile awrks. n-yjtr R"lf'cl'" CrUi,iu'M p 611, and Mr 
i/ocon, M Vit, in Oarragci, tt«. htaid a Vietwx to Ihe kiiiHota. 

«qiiiral«nU, Kod on hi* ttumltling over tbc stmoge diffieol^, cvtr i 
Iiii KboUn, with the mdenen chnractcrUtic of the timei, ' 
\ad openljr derided hii perplexity'. The efforu of Ai|uiiiM 
towanlM remolying dvfccta like theae. do not «ppe«r to hare 
vltdtcd &ny eulogium from the < fxfiml FraDci«cin, wbile Wil- 
liam of Muerbvcke it tiinglcil out by liiin fur ipecial Attack ; 
nod the following vcnlict. ilvlivcrGil in biit CompemfUum 
Sladii Theologire, shitrtly before his death, may protwbly be 
regarded as rrprotienling hia dulibi-ratc oinnioo : — 'Tboo^jy;,^^ 
we hare numoroiia tmiiniitliuM of all the (ciencm by Genrd -*|',|^ * 
of Cremona, Michncl Scot, Alfrud the Kngliiibinan, Ilermano 
the GcTman, thcro iH niidi an utter fntaity in idl their writinga 
that none cnn aiifticii-ntly wonder nt it. Fur a tmi)<ila(i<iD to 
be true, it i» tu-cvstary that i tmii^lnlor xhould know lh« 
language fnim which he to tmttHl.ttiiig, the Inngiin;^ into 
ahich hi! t ran slat t-s, utn) (lie Hcieiiee he wishc'i to Imn^Uta. 
But who [» ho f and I will jintif! him, fur lie baa dime mor- 
vfllouii thii;^ C'l-rtiiiiily none uf lhi> above n.tined hnd any 
inio knowl>-<!|;t; of the I'lni:!!!-* or the M-ienw*. m in dear, 
t from their tnin^liilii-nH only, but their coiMlitiou (if life. 

Hermann iliu (lerinnn. who wa-i very intimate with 

Gi-rnnl, i^ srill alive, and a liMi'>p. Wh.-n I (|u<->li<>i,.tl him 
ahifut certain ImhiIch <>f h.^'ie whii-h he b:id to tmnO:i(e fnim 
the Arabic, he nmndly i..ld mm- he knew n.-thing uf l.^nc 
and tbvn'foro di.l not d^re to tr:in>lale them ; and crrtaitily 
if he wjw nnar<|iiainl<-*I wiili li-^-ie he c>nM know nothing t4 
any other M-i-iiie a* he ■•ii<;lit. Ni>r ili<I he niidi rot.ind 
AralMC, an I..- i-onf.-.-.|, l-....i«- he »>:i< Mth. r an a-i.tiint 
■n the traii'Iati-iii* tlinn th.-'.it.T K-r he kei* 
.•virricena al-tiit him in S|«in mIio bid .1 ]«ii.. i[^d b:ind in 
l.i< tran.l:.ti..n-.. In the ^.m.- »..y -Mi- b -I ibe Sc.,t , hiin,.,! 
till- merit of nnnii-roii* tr.iM.i.iti..n" It'll it i- ei itiin tbal 
Andrew, a Jew. l.iL>iiriil at tb.t.i m-r- thin b- ■bl And 
iv.n Mieh...-I. :,-. Il.nnaim re|c.rt..l. did n-t .iwd.r.taml 
'ilhcr the wi. nis < or tie- t-i.-.i. «. And - • -f tb.- r- -t. e^|»- 
cwlly tbc not-.rioiM Wilb^m Kb nm.- -b- 1- n..» m «. b 
r»-imUtion. Wbin-a* it i« *<» kn-wn t- "11 the bt. rati of 


CHAT, n, Paris, that he is ignorant of the sciences in the origins 
' ' ' " Greek, to which he makes such pretensions; and therefor 
he translates falseljr, and corrupts the pliilosophjr of th 
Latiufl. For Boethius alone was well actju^ntcd with th 
tongues and their interpretation. My lord Robert, by reasoi 
of his long life and the wonderful methods he employei: 
knew the sciences better than any other man ; for though In 
did not understand Greek or Hebrew he had many assist 
mnidMot Roger Bacon was of the Franciscan order, and the per 
eocution he underwent at the hands of that community ai 
Oxford when be essayed to prosecute hia scientific researches 
is a familiar talc. Wille Albcrtus and Aquinas were thi 
guests of royalty and expounded their interpretation ol 
Aristotle to admiring throngs at Cologne and Paris, the pooi 
English friar, as far as we can trace out the obscure reconL 
of his life, waa atoning for a mental activity in no wise less 
honorahle, by isolation, disgrace, and banishment ; and while 
Aquinas was trusting to such aid as he could find in men 
like William of Moerbecko for a clearer insight into the 
thought of Aristotle, the occupant of the humble cell at 
Oxford had, by his almost unaided efforts, raised himself to 
be the first scholar of his age. 
Jg^™*" The writings of Roger Bacon have a value of an almost 
"'**' unique kind. They not only give us on insight into the 
learning of the age, such as is afforded by the writings of no 
other Englishman in the thirteenth or the succeeding cen- 
tury, but they also supply us with that most assuring of all 
corroborations in our estimate of a remote and obsolete 
culture, — the concurring verdict of a contemporary observer. 
When the Oxford friar denounces the extravagance, the fri- 
volity, and the shortcomings of his time, we feel less diffident 
lest our own impressions may be chiefly those of mere preju- 
dice and association; and, in bringing to a termination our 
sketch of this era, we can scarcely do better than record the 
conclusions wherein his penetrating intellect has summed up 

Boont JUooK. tS7 

itM tten indictment, h hif c«gle gbnee lai^ed over tb* < 

domain of knowledge, ud noted with wbat ctpriM; what 
perrenitj, what blindac«a^ the Ubourni jet tilled, pinntcd. 
and e«*jed to gather ftxiit on tn angnteful mH, whik all 
aroond them brood and fertile acres stretched far mod wuie 
or faded from the gaze on the din and distant horizon. It m 
waa in the year lSli7 that Bacon completed thoee three trea- ^ 
tiivt which lie had, io obedience to the wishes of hii patron 
Pope ClcmcDt it, drawn up in illiutrntion of hia rieva, wxl 
which, known aa thv OpuM i[ajii», the Optit 3finiiM, ani the 
Oput Teriiutn', arc i^ill eitant, and conititute m remarkable a 
monumcut of hit gcniiu. It is front these writing*, together i« 
with two other treatisci written at a later period, that wcmi 
gnin an inniglit into the nctual cliication of the time, sach 
as we shniild vniolr Mik eW-wbcre; and as the writer reriewa 
with tcomful imp-iTtialitjT the vrron and dt-fi-cta of the pro- 
railing methodf, we **ccni rather to hear the roice of hb 
great namenkc, spi-nkiiit; fn)m the ranta;;o ground of three 
additional centurii-n, limn that of a hiimhlc friar of the daja 
of Ucnry ill. Hifi rcniun- falLt alike ufxtn Dominican 
and Francincan ; upon A<|Hiiiaii and liiH nx-thod, — whcn-in be 
can only see philiiMijiliy a-piriiig to UMirp the province of 
lliL-ology*, — anil upon Alcinndcr Unit-*, to whom th<- tnio 
thiiughtofAristolIvlioit iievi-rlK.fnkniiwii,anil wlioae writings 
he note4 will) Kttiiroction, are aln-aily fallin}* into oi'gWcl'; 
upon tho iiu|»T-titiou4 rcvi-n-nc<- )-i*'Mf<l to the SL-ntt-ncc* 
MJiile the Scripturoi wore nrgU'cled and svt aside*; <« the 

" tl m>7 W «( -tt™ h.™ u, 

ll>r«fT-< flltinn |.« tlM lt«II« M. 

IImoo tn vhirli r.rrr<nrr m,\: Irr. 

• »;.v. V.—. H Bn««. p. tn. 

qo.nlW b« iii*.k *ilh Dm m* >■»■■) 

• l'„i. r Wi s.'J. 

dit.a(^t)>rirr«iii|»ili"n •(■i'>/Hii 


X';«. |..lit..l If t<r J>l.b. ITU'i 

n.™. .,■'. t^'-i ■■■- -""" n-l- Et 

'•;i- Uf<a il.«« 1. itM.t o.,lj M > 

f- Viuim ilJim I. .-nt vnt. jaM 

lr.-m.nli: *(>> "/■"• T-r,.... .,«. 

| » J' nil-.!". tt^l'Vl*. 

U...I..I *>• |.i.^-' 1.. tl- f.. I..t. 

.|.,..M. . ....,.«;..-. iri'. •■>><» |w. 

«.r). I.'..... -7 Ir. ,..«- 

t.m -, t. iln. l.l lwi.l.r,a. ^ai 

!■:,...«. sitl. I'* r. J.;, t ..f l'..|* 

1. .-1 i.^i,.. .. '.-^<.t \.-:-n Sm. 

(!-.„,i.t„; M.^.^.,,^./.,-.^■.J,. 

1' I*.,.!...,, l;;l; 1,1 .-..-,*....»■ 

,...,,.1 .. I. ..>.'..t .< 1 .f.MM. 

M-./-. ri,.r.t~„j i.lill in m ..... 

N.m ,'. .!■'■ l-." <-M-"l..' W»l IrJi. Tl.* *>t.mli d-nrto 

r"-"!-- f..Dl..-..lffuf«l«» 

ll-> iRslucs InclBinl la rivlr.M 

*>*M i.luuUIra, UUI H •««««■ 



oiiF. II. errors of the Vulgato', the false Aristotle, the neglect of 
science*, the youth and inexperience of those from whom the 
ministers of the Church were recruited", the ovor\i-eening 
Attention given to the study of the civil law as the path to 
honour and emolument'. 

JJj™;2r ^"* Bacmi "■as no mere iconoclast ; and while he Bevercly 
Kcrutitiisi'ii cxistiji;,' ilufecfs he was not less explicit in the 
remedies he advocated. Logic was, indeed, to be dethroned, 
b»t its place was to be Ailed by two other studies, which he 
regarded as the portals to all knowledge, the study of language 
and the study of mathematics. To the prevailing ignorance 
c^ the original tongues he ascribes the confusion then so rife 

^ ^^ ■f io theology and philosophy. The earliest revelation to man 

lyi y*"^ bad been handed down in the Hebrew tongue ; the thought 
of Aristotle was enshrined in Greek ; that of Avicoiina, in 
Arabic', How important then that these languages should he 
thoroughly known ! And yet, he affirms, though there are 
many who can speak these langui^es, there is an almost 
utter ignorance of them in their grammatical structure. 
'There are not four men among all the Latins,' he writes, 
'who know the Hebrew, the Greek, and the Arabic tongues 
grammatically; I know what 1 say, for I have instituted 
rigorous inquiry, both at home and ahroail, and have gone to 
considerable pains in the matter*.' Of the great work, which 
amid all the puerilities anil extravagancies of dialectics was 
really being performed by the schoolmen, the subtlety, pre- 
cision, and vastly extended nomenclature that they were 
imparting to the Romance languages, he seems to have had 
no conception. 

It is to Mathematics however that he assigns the foremost 

rt ntafnm ariiil Trlii.'in*')". ^il 

3ni li^nt ]liMi]iiii, rnn-t liix M tnm- 
imt luimiii )ii!<'iHli, fi'diiiilum ijikhI 
t>1ii«et Icrtori Stiiti'iiliarnm.' Iblil. p. 

> tblJ. p. STO. 

* tliid. p. H2.t. 3£S. 

' Comptiiilium Sluilil Pliileinphiit, 
p. 42f.. 

* 'Nam pliK lanJntar in ccrlciii* 
IVi nniiii jnrliitB rivilio, licet noliim 
itdat jiiR eivila et ignorat jw CMionI> 

cum Pt tlirnliKiniii, qaam niiuii mi- 
gMn in iliciiluuiii, ot ciliiin clisitur 
ml pcrlciiiRKliniK i1i){iii(iitori.' Ujihi 
Trrlium, pil, llrcwrr, p. 81, 

■ Ihiil p. a-i. 

* 'Xnm nin nant qnatnnr lastini, 
qn) ariuit rti mmnltcnni Hchntionim,' 
ct (ircconiiu, ct Anilimn : bene cDin 
ci>t!iin>'CO no*, qiiin pt citn imit at 
nitrft ililipunl<>r feci inqiiiri, at mnl. 
tnm in hiH Ubonyi,' Jbid, p. M. 



place. Divine Mathesis, f'.nd she alone, can purge the intel- cwafj 
Icctual vision, and fit the learner for the acquirement of all r^i^u- 
knowledge'. As for the implied non-approval of the study, J{JJJ*J|^* 
which, as some would have it, had been conveyed in the 
silence of the fathers, he urges that in the early days of the 
Church mathematics were almost unknown, and consequently 
could scarcely have been either condemned or approved; 
but, so far as any evidence existed to shew, had not Isidorus 
carefully discriminated berween the use and abuse of the 
science, in the distinction he had drawn lietween the study 
of astronomy, and that of astrology or magic* ? The uses of 
logic cannot, he insists, compare with those of mathematical 
or linguistic studies, for though its terminology is a matter 
of acrjuirenR'ut in the hmguage which we speak, the 
reasoning faculty is itself innate, and, as Aristotle had him- 
self achnitti»d, even the uneducated syllogise*. Amid the 
many disappointments wlii:h befel him in his troublous 
career. Bacon was yet sparc<l from foreseeing how completely 
his estimate would, in a few years, be set aside at Oxford, 
and how h)ng language and mathematics would be doome<l 
to wait without her gates while lo^c reigned supreme 

And yet there were grounds for hope in the events that 
were going on around him ; for at the time that these three 
treatises were written, there hnd already been founded at 
Oxford an institution, to which indeed we find no reference in 
liis writings*, but which we cannot but 8UpiH)se must have 
sugge8te<l to him a eoiuing ivj^o when learning should be set 
free from petty obstructions and ve.\ati»»ns like those that 

* 'KiHS minim ni nniniA wmntiir 

iv*r tnittlKiiiiitic.'itit, quia oiniir>H 

M-icntiii* Hiint r<>iiiM>xip (iit hU)N-riu<4 
•lixi) licrt qntililHt Hiinitl ctttii liiic 
ItiilHiit nuum i>ru|)ri< titUui.* Ihifi, p. 

• /^»r^ p. 2n. 

' 'l>e liM^'ira cnim non oai vim (anta, 
qniii sriiiiiix mm ]U'r imtiirnm. licft>iili toxica inltii^'iia,«|u:iutimtir, 
n'l.-rriruua |H«r doctriiium.* IbiH, p. 

* Mr pprrival, in liin <s1{ti<in of the 
Foiiiiil-ition Statiitr« (if Mcrton Col- 
\oirv (Oxfonl. lMl7t, )m«« i«tnt4*«l in 
liiH IntnMluction. tliiit * ll<»i;i*r Itaroti 
...titiii;)it jtlitloMipliy aii'l rlictorir in 
iho m'IjooH of M« rton;* an aHHcrtitm 
wliirli np|K'.ip( )inr«l!y nTunriluhle 
uitli wlmt we know of ]Won*fi lif«t: 
nn«l I miiv aM, on tfM* autliority of Mr 
Cot<* of tlic H'NlI«'ian. tliat no known 
fxi*<tin'; *Miiiri*<Hof infonnatiou hruW 
any liglii on tlio qncHtion. 


iHtod b 1. The walls of Morton Collt 

1 nlfeady rcoreu', though his soul would have Ik 

l-litUfi ijladdciiod could it have descried, in the futu 

I Scotiis dcscfintitig to breathless audiences on t 

s of the inlaitio secunda, he might have derived boi 

c could lie have forcticen the work of Occam and Wye 

Tlio achooU of Oxford had been rising rapidly in impo 

) over since the nirival of tho Franciscans in Engloi 
^nilcr the aunpiccs of Grossctcstc, first in his capacity 
' tchoturum and BulHcqucntly as diocesan* and uni 
tlic teaching of Adam <lo ilurisco and others of tho Franciw: 
onlcr, the university to attain to that celebrity whi 
culminated in Hio early part of tho following century, 
ytdiiM not apjioar howL-vcr that cither GroHsotcJitc, or Adatu 
Marisco, or even Rog' Bacon, though all moro or less keoi 
alive to the evils retii ting from the abuse of the papal pov 
and the laxity of monastic discipline, hod ever seriou 
contemplated the Eeverance of tho work of education fn 
its traditional associations. They looked for reform fn 
within rntlicr tlian from without. Tlie developcment of 1 
new conception nmst be sought for in another and in ma 
rc.«pects a widely diffircnt school. 

So far back as the time of Cnut and Harold, tho idea 
J; founding colleges wliich should not be monasteries, and 
training clerg}incn rallier than monks, had found occasioi 
expression, ll is one of tho early indications of the strugi 
between Teutonic and Latin Christianity ; for Harold i 
doubtcdiy borrowed his conception from what he had seen 
Gennany, and the system of secular colleges appears to Iw 
been first established in Lorraine under Clirodegang bbli 

' The piu'Iicrt cnllf^ ronnilation i^m. Ifae 

at Oxford appenra reoll; to liiivc beta .. - - u 

UniTemty ColleRe, /ontiiieil by Wil- fii,u,.j ibn u 

lian of DurbniQ nlio. d}-ini! '•> 1249, bam'a b . , . u -^i 

b«^iieat1i(Hl 310 iDiirlu tot tlie Knp- by Uifl u . .- U^ 

pnrt ol poor Bolioliim, His l^qiitBt honxc*, »,.A ■ "i* 

mnwnnl nmri''''^' '>"' "lany yrarii, linllH foanilol In j 

dnrinR wbirb iiilprval MvrtiinColti'UO J/NitiMrnfi . <■• i. ' 

WM fuunJi'il. Mr Analcy coDuidtTi ' Li»nl, — to ^ 

thiit Antbun; Wood ii RnlUy ol «om« Epi$ti>la, pp. « uid xi. 
dUiDgcDUuanuiEB in clnimiiig, iuid«i 


■ t 

plnco. Divine MAthcHiA, i.nd ulio nlono, can piirp 
K*ctunl viHiim, aixl fit th«> |oani«'r for tlio acquin 
knowledjl^c*. A<< fi»r the inplird tiotMipproTal r- 
wliich, Ari Romo wmiM li:i»o it, li:ul In-cii con^ 
mlfiico of the fathiTs, h<* uri;i-s tli:it in the earl* 
Chtitch liintIioin:iti(**« were nhiiiHt unknown, aii<' 
C'Milil scarrrlv have Ihtii eitlier conileinm-il 


hilt, •to far as any eviih nee exi^ttvl to xhcw, h 
cart't'iilly (liMTJiniiiatiil In-'^^cfn the use nU' 
scien<*e, in tin* ili^tini-titin fi«* tia<l ilniwii In** 
of ;LHtron<»iii\\ aii'l tliat nf a^tr^lo-jv nr nin:nr 
lii;;ie raiinot. he iii^l*t»». oini;»iri* with tlioMO • 
nr liir^'nisiio s!ii«!ii ^, f.»r th nii^h it"* termiir 
of ai't|niri!ii« lit in tin- I.i|i.;im;;«» which 
r« a<'>nin'^ t.u nlty !<« it^i It* iMiatc, ami, on / 
H-lt .I'lniitt. il, ivi-ii thf nn ■lihMtfil i»y!i. 
liirmy (li^:i|i]hMnttiii-n*«> \\hi'h U'tol liiii 
«Mif«T, l»:n«»n \\;i* y«t -jnr- •! Ir"iii furcM** 
hi-* cstiin.-iti' WiHiIil, in a fi'»' %*• 'fs ^h» 
ami hi'W |i»iii; Lih'^Mi ■.^.- :i!i.| ii.:ith«-iiiat:- 
to wiiit \\itlii»M? li»'i ;;•!•'* uhih* h**' 

AihI v«'t t! ifi' \\t fi' irrniiiiils fi»r h«' 
\^*rv \^*»\u\i till afiii;"!! him ; t .r at th* 
trr.iti-s w.f.- wrirrtii. tli- rr h: •! nlf' 
'K*»in| ait iii-titi;»:- M t.t will! Ii iliih*fi 
; 1^ w 1 .1 ::i,; ' *. ^"» w' \ \\i- i mimt 
'■^-U'' '•*'■■ 1 ti» li:i"» I - . • ,• ■_••• wh» 
Jr- •* lYtiin j'-V\ il-'i'i • ■M'. tiiil \ 



>•* ' ■ 

• .. 




• ■( : r 

.' II 

. •■••1 

\ • !«t«ii ftt. I 

•• l\mm lif ll It 

llir l«»»«» 

• « •• ll. - k • •• « 

-Mitt •!•>• 1*4 
'^U (V. UWi. 

M»l m II .M \i 

L ^ 1^ /■••«- 


11 • 


Kiliiny widely .litlViviit. (lid not bLcmno a 

Sucfiiiil, lilkTul of iiinitlicr 

t'diiiiiliitioii liy w.'iy ol' (loinjj 

Ouitcrlmry. Ilurold foumlwl 

, thorn King Hunry drove out, 

uistin Canons in tlicir place 

' iccd inliis newly foundod minster pricijta, each man living on liia 

tliem, it would acom, married 

iluiiild'a preference for the secular 

lie share in bringing upon him the 

igoL-s at the handu of so many ccclc- 

iifi not only the perjurer, the usurper, 

hiind wns closed against the monk and 

■ I priest, who won tlic hatred of Norman 

i'jr* With the coming of the Normans 

triiimphed. Mona^ticism, in one Ibmi or 

iphaut for some ages. Harold'u own fouii- 



short, the foundation of Walthani, instead of being wmply chap, 
slurred over as a monastic foundation of tho ordinary kind, 
well deserves to Ix) dwelt upon, both as marking an era in 
our ecclesiastical history,ond also aslwaring the most speaking 
witness to the real character of its illustrious founder^/ 
Such was tho conception which Roger Bacon saw revived in JJJJJJJjj!^ 
his own day, and which is still to be studied in tho brief \?22JJ 
and siniple statutes of the most ancient of our Kn<;Iish col- 
leges ; the outcome of a mature and sagacious cstiniato of 
the wants and evils of the time, not unworthy of one whoso 
experience combined that of a chancellor of the State and a 
bishop of the Church ; of one who in his youth IkhI sat at 
the feet of Ad.uii de Marisco', but whose rip'ned judgement 
comprehended in all their bearings the evils that must 
necessarily ensue when the work of education is monopolised 

* JliMt. of the Sormati Conqufitl, II 
•140, 412, 414-5. I may ijrrhaps 
venture to gtuto tliat I hnd origin* 
nllv been inelinetl to till- 
w?ut from the view hero enforced l>y 
Mr Freeman, but a communication 
with which ho has very courteon>!j 
favoured mc on tho Fubject, and a 
careful jierUKal of ProfeNsor Stubbn's 
Prefaces, havo placed the matter in 
another li;{ht. At the Kanie time it 
may, I think, 1h' questioned whethir 
llaroUrH conception was of ipiite to 
unique and anti-Nonnan a cliaractrr 
as Mr Fneman's I:inj;ua;^e nii^^ht h ad 
tiH to infrr, an«l in support of thin 
opinion I would hulmiit the f<dlo>K. 
iu^' furts:— (h In the year 10112, 
I'irot, the Sitniitin sheriff (d Cam- 
brid;:i'shire. a man notorituis for hi \ 
uii^rulc and r.ip.K'ity in hf^ b:iili- 
«ick, instituted Sicuhir Cnnoun a. 
St. liibs in C'ambrid;:*'; the foun 
d:!tion l>ein;x afterwards changed h\ 
I'ain IVverell. ti:f standard-bearer of 
It'lMTt, duke of Normandy, into one 
for thirty Au;'U>tin:an Canons, and 
runoved to liumwill, where i: fonu- 
el the pri«.ry. (C«k»]u r, .lint'tit, i 'JO. 
//<*r. of Ji',irinr,ll Al'L'>t,\i, 10, 11.) 
<-( I.anfranc, who had been ehirutid 
hi the ni(»iiast«'rv of lire, e>tabli>h«-d 
St, utarCatntu* ai St.C»re;;oryV, whom 
archbishop Corboil afttrwanls re- 
niovrd, putting Ue;;ul.if or An}:^is- 

tininn Canons in their place. (Le- 
land, Collfctanen, i iVJ.) (3) Tho Socu- 
lar Canona on Harold's foundation, 
thou^di certainly treated with aomu 
se\erity hj tho Conqncrt»r, remnine<l 
undisturbed f<»r more thnn a centorr 
of Nnnnan nile. i.e. from l(H*»f> to 
1177; and oven thou, if auycreiUnco 
is ti» he pvon to the rea^^on aAsi$^ici 
in tho royal letter for their removal, 
it was on acconnt of their havin;* 
iMcomo a scandal to their nei^hboorti 
from tluir laiity of cUscipliuo. not 
from hostility to tlndr nilo. 'Cum 
in ca canonici s'Tularea nimit ir> 
r»lij:i'>so et carnalitt-r \ixis-ient, ita 
quod infamia c<inviniati«>iiis illomra 
niiKlum e\ced( ns muitos srah'tali' 
za^Ml.' I>u^'»bilo, .Voi/.i>/»fv»M, VI fu*r. 
or, in the lan^-ua^e of ulie acco'int 
quoted by Pu^dale, *quia.. inumlani^ 
opt-ribus, et ille«^*brirt illicitia majri^ 
qnani divine servitio iutendobant.* 
VI 57. 

' Such at least is tin? opinion of 
hi» bio„T:ipher, «ho founds his Ulief 
«|sui the fact tlnit Walter do Morton 
was the beanT of an introdiu-tnry 
h tt« r (win Adanr do Mari-ct*, when 
he pre-«tntid him**(lf to <tri»?«'»otiHte 
fi»r sub.U acun's onlers. See Skftrh 
of tlf life of U'fitttr tU .!/• r/ij«, bv 
Kdnniiid. Ihshop of Nel><»n, pp. i • 
and r.l; al»o MunnutihUt Fruncitcttmt^ • 
UtXvr 24*1. 



\f vUota tlic intcrcstfl of an orJcr are likely to 

liiw intoreaU of thoir diaciplea, Ta ni-ise up an 

^ blioald baffle that eimroaching spirit of 

tlixl Orossetcsto from his allegiance, and 

I to education tliat hIiouM diminiKh iU 

mniy oci^K'sinxticid iilenN, Ntich wok tlio 

f WnttCT du Murton' ; wlii-n wo add timt ]\U KtntuU;)! 

rtiui mmlfl oil wliidi ilidsc of the carliiT colltjfuN 

LOxf'iril and at (Jamtiridgc were fruHR'd, wo Rliall 

jDicUM fur dwelling nt suinc length on thoir scoik) 

k Ant hmad fact llmt chalk'ngca onr attention in tlit^o 
I is tlio rcMtriction whtTcliy 'iio religioiiH pgrwin,' 
osus, 19 to lie fulmitted on the foundation; a pro- 
ihkh it may l>c v/eU to plaeo beyond all possible 
rehension. In those times, it is to be remembered, 
f fixisu-d only two profe.'isionK, — the Church and the 
military life; the religious life, whether that of the monk 
or the friar, was a renunciation of the world; the former 
withdrawing from all intercourse with society, the latter 
ilisavowing any share in worldly wealth; and both merging, 
as it were, their individual existence in their corporate life. 
r Such were the two classes whom AValter do Merton sought 
to exclude. It was liis design to create a seminaiy for the 

> ■ ETpr a mrm advocalo ol the 
lilierty of tlic sulijcd, iikI a Btnimch 
patron ol cduontiun, Mvrtou niiiNt 
liBTa Titnml sitli a jculuTis cyi< tlie 
k.IvBnn.1 of llnmc and tlir> iiicicnHm<; 
liiHufTice of bcr piniHuarits in tlie 
cunnti;'. Wliilc Hlltiiii tliv biRli nflice 
ot cbunncllor of KumIuii'I, he Lul 
Ifaniril l>f vxpt'rii'iivii liuw viiiii vim 
tlip atti.-iii|it to Ktrtifutlo witli tlip du- 
niHtern ol llixiie wlwii nnco wrultli 
Mill ponitioii hnil Riveit Uu'm nn nvrr- 
n)ielmii)(c Biillinril.v in Cliiirch nml 
8lntc. He tbrieb'Te dirccUil bU 
altcntiiiii to tUo prinri]iiil k-jX nl 
eilncnlicin, and enilcnvoiirM to riiise 
in tbe weuliir hcIhwIs a psnu »pLic!i 
, miylit, Ij- crunLiiiK llic alrmxtli of 
tlic iiiotm'[i.-ri(-<i, c)i(.i:k tbe in^nlli uf 
tbe papal iullui'Dce in tbo buiL' 

rerciTul, Introd. to SInlNlri nf^^rrlnn 
C>.ll--7r. p. liv. It is notnl by tlie 
liishop of Kelson, an a proof ol tba 
lii^b ertimalinn in vbich AVallcr ds 
MiTt'Oi vii» held bj tbo rovnl fmnilj, 
Ibat nil ita luciiibt'n GuiitribnU'd iu 
fionir way to tbe fomiilation of bit 
eolli't^. ll,ifr, p. 7.) Hu wa* cban- 
ci'llur in llio jrani 1201-3, a time 
«bcn the tnmldi'R of Henry Il[, 
mero at tlwir bviubt, aiMl lio not im- 
prohaldy canitil tlic k'TntitivIc nllba 
rotiil family by bin able ailminiBtra> 
tiun dnriii|> llie monareb's abitDM 
fioin tbe kinRilom. 

' The stnliites bere referred to are 
IboBo ol li70, and may bii rcgurJfd 
an emiBMljiiig the final vicwa and 
ol tbo foundiT. 


Church, and he accordingly determined to place it beyond fnAF. 
the power of either monks or friars to monopolize his foun- 
dation and convert it to their exclusive purposes. All around 
him, at Oxford, were to be seen the outward signs of their 
successful ambition : the Benedictine priory of St Frideswide, 
the Augustinian Canons ut Oscnoy, the Franciscans in St. 
Ebbes, the Dominicans in the Jewry, St. J<»hn*s Hospitid 
where Magilalcn Colirge was one dtxy to stand, the Augus- 
tinian Friars on the future site of Wadham, the Cannelitc-s, 
and tlie Friars dc P(i3nitcntia. lie might well think that 
cnougli had been done fur tlie rcchiso and the tiK*ndic:int, 
and that somctliing nn'ght now Ik3 attempted on behalf of • 
those who were destined to return agiiin into the world, to 
mingle with its affairs as fellow-citizens, and to influence its 
thought an<l action by their acquired leaniing. On the other 
hand it would be erroneous to infer that Morton College was 
originally any thing more than a seminary for the Cliurch, 
though such a limitation loses all its apparent narrowness 
when we consider that the clerical profession at this period vwMy 
included all vocations that involveil a lettered and technical 

preparation. The civil law, as we know from Bacon's testi- 
mony, was already an ordinary study with ecclesiastics; so 
also was meilicine, though professed chiefly by the Men- 
dicants; while chancellors of the realm and ambassadors at 
foreign couils, like William Shyreswood and Richard of Bury 
or Walter de Merton himself, were selected chiefly from the 
clericid ranks; ami even so late as the reign of llichard II, 
churchmen, like the warlike bishop of Norwich, might ride 
forth to battle, cla<l in complete armour, brandishing a two- 
handed sword, and escorted by a chosen body of lancers'. 
When such were the customarv and recojjiii<ed associations 
(»f the clerical life, it obviously becomes an unmeaning 
reproach to speak of the Church as usurping the functioiiS 
of laymen; the truth wouM rather appear to Ik?, as has been 
recently observed, *that in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries statesmen and lawyers usurpeil the prefermentb of 
the Church than that ambitious churchmen obtruded on* 

1 Dlomefield, IlUt. of Not/oJk, iii l</9. 



fcjL dril ftnd Ic^ officoiV llie rcstnction of Mcrton College to 
i§^ the clergy caonot consequently be held to have excluded anj 
of those profeiaioss that possess a eurriculum at either 
OxTonl or Cambridge at the present day. ConKidcmMo stnws 
has indeed been Ltid on the extent tu wliich the loono-stio 
mode of l>fe was rejvoduccd in the discipline imposed upon 
our cullcgos, bnt a very slight examinutioa of tlio early 
Htatntcs in sufficient to show tliDt such an approximation wns 
Bimply for the purposes of oivtiniiMition and economy ; tho 
essential couccptioQ of the college was really anti-monuslic, 
Olid its limitation to those designed fur tho clerical profession 
was simply a necessary consequence of the fact that the acti- 
vit J of the Church embnice<l nearly all the culture of the age*. 

' Dcui Hook, I.irti ef tlu Arrk- 
bUhnpM, IV 73. T1k> eiprctuiiuu used 
L>v Iii]i:li ll^ilnlmra (x..u. liTU) in liis 

Ijii/hi'Ii aiid rlirli 
• (lie I 


(. iluivaliiilB to llic Diolk'l 

will 'giHtu,* JIuHimriita AeaJ. I vi. 
At lilt? Mine time Uia very Viiri<-<l 
cliiinieltr lA tlic nclivitjr of clxitcli- 
TO' n ill llie lliillle Aviti lian ili-liiLi J 
1D11113' tu tniiiiituiii lliHt tlic iinivinii- 
lic>- si-ro en lulicll M-TUIUT sh t-u-IcHi- 
A-lirnl. 'Ii'iliiI<i>rtulitci|urKtiiili,'Kii}'4 
JI. TliiiRit, in lii- xtiy Me tnutiHr, 
■Jc Hsviiir H rCiiivirHilv ulait un 
ciTi" liilc on i.-n'IiiiUKti<]ii« *. Hi ttm- 
ji>'jri<ri>iitrovcrlL-c...Kll« tut tonjiiim 
in ciHps ccuIi^KiBritiriilo 


1 liii' mi liv* vt 

it uii'iup fhWrolimi-iit tniil&> ei 

;-I*'. he rilrwiHii'iliim ilf rKi<- 

i:intmm I'Vmr.nili <lr P.trU 

I M.iiiiti..\ie. Via fliartes 'fliurut. 


• 'It U (LisinniaTy wiili tbc >iaio- 

ii», biit, I 

it.\ with tlie 

l-larly iutliv I:!lL cintiiry ('■c ^iiiii 
Ugiiii lo i-rvvuil, tbut tlM munui 

injiiil; the ednoitiuD wbich llie iin- 
muvul Htale i>t uirii'ty Ueuuinilr-l. 
The I'Tiiiiur.v «l>jcrt uf Ui« iiHiniiHlcrjr 
miH, til Iniin uivn fur shut vux ttvh- 
nieiilly calkil "tlie rfti;iiiiu« life," 
—the life ot a lU'tiL. Tlnw «Itii 
dill not Li-ciniv iniiiiki availiil IIumh- 
iwlvcii of tho ailvBiitii^'t'ii otFeri'il in 
diu lUKuaiilio Ni'liools; Init Htill, « 
miinnHlie m:hiici| wuh dm ninrli ili> 
ei^nicl to niiiko iiii-n iiionkH, mh a 
lruiiiiii-( Miliuul, nt tlic prtm-ilt tilin-, 
in (It'sitjtiiil tu iiiulie nipn Hvb'iiit- 
nuKlirH. allliouuli wiinp who are to 
Iruini-d Id lake lln-iusi'lvcB to i.lliir 
imia-Kiuim.- Itllill JIi.»k, ;,ji'r> r./ 
the ArrlAUhai», ill XVi. 'Oiir (•HIIi- 
iliT'B cl-jiut," niiiiirliH llio liinltiin tj 
KclKon, -i ciieeivo to bi.Vo Ux-ii l'> 
lu-cnre for liJH own onlvr iii tlio 
Cliiin-li. for tlie nccular prieKtliwHl, 
tlic nciiiicinieal Lcnelits irliicli tlia 
riUKi'iUB onlora ncro bo IiuwIv cn- 
jovlu^, BU.) tu thiH end I think all 
iii- ]<r«vi>i.a.i. luc found tu bo o-ii- 
Risli'iilli-frHiiicd. He bnrrnwril (rnni 
the iwiniihiic jiistjtnliuiix tlie i<\\». of 
an esilt<-ii:\\e bmly Iivlii;{ bv coiiiituiii 
rule, \\H.\,-T a oniinon iiia.], im- 
vi.teJ vith nil Ibiii;:* ne.-.lmi f.T a 
cutpomto niid periH'tnul life, fnl by 
itx /icuiiml ciiJoK'inCTi(% feiicoil tnmi 
pU (-xtrnial iiitcrferciiec, CXrcr' •'»'* 
ot it4 lanfal |Kitn>ii ; but afltr lur- 
ronins tliii» niiirb, he •titTeri'iici'il hi* 
inKtiiutluii by Riviii;; hiK hpiicDi'iiiricH 
(|uito a iliilinct cmpbijTiK'nl, niid 
kc.'e|iing Ibi'in free Iimin all IhiMi 



The noxt impnrtint foatiirc in tlic character of the cultiirv •^•*' 
which the fouiiiler dcsi^^nuil HhoiiM pnnlotniiiate ainoii;^ the f^«»« 
iicholani*. It wan liU aim to cstahliinh a 'coiiHtant fiticci-<<Jiiii ^^m-^ 
of Hcholara dcvotnl to the piirMiiitM of Iit/»ratiire/ • liouml to 
employ tht^'mRclvcfl in the ntiiily of avU or phil*iM«ipliy, the>»ln;;y 
or the canon hiw;' 'the ni:ijority to c«intinue en};:i;;i*«i in 
the hboral arts anil phih»M'>p!iy until *):t«i4i.*«l cm to tiiv ntuily 
of tlu*oIii;^y, hy the «lc4'i«iii)ii of tin* w;inl«*n ainl frllnw^, and 
at the res u H of m erltnn • » im pntficir n r»f in (li e firtt* iin mM anlp* 
j*xiit\' The iinliT in whirh the (litr«*n*nt 1ir:in''hf*4 an? ht-rc 
i-niinu'ratril may be rru'<'irthil, an isi the cani? with all the 
early col It •;;<. statute^, :\n si;;iiiticant of the relative imipirtano? 
:ittache<l hy the foiin<|iT t«> the ditTorent Htmlii*^ Tin- t^— ** 
canon law in nro;;ni^«'«l, hut the stuih-nts in that faculty ap****^ 
rxpH'ssly limiteil to four or five ; to the civil law even K-** U rZ 
tavour is sh«'\vn, for the Htuilv \h ttiTmitti «I only t»t thf aTI-!* 
canonists, nnil .'l*i ainMllary to thi'ir N|NM*ial *itii«ly. /mi uttlittttr 
icclc^uutici re*fl nil Ill's, an>l ih«* tiin«* to 1m* «li'Viit«il to it t^ 
nia'li* (h'|)<>nili'iit ou tin* iliMTt-tiou of thf uarih-n. A juili- 
cimiH rfuii'ily tor tin* pp'V.ii'irii; i'^rn'raii*'*' of ;;r. miliar nhirh 
liacon so emiiliatirally l.iiii* rifnl', !<« pn>\i'li<i hy a f!ii|<M* 
n«|iiirin;; tint t*ur of tin* t. IJiw-* kn^twu i.h th** n.'ttmnui*>rHn^ 
•K.tll ik'Votf hiiii^i If i-xiin -^-Iv to the ^t•l•lv, an I «lirc-< tiiij 

''ill 1 till' I of til t* r li / ■«• riiiiti fi*. U I r> »i r !'•« It • II 

1-^ .Tl.f \'t*'i4 i<f |.i« «!• -■• t" .k\-.' .'« ! i li* li • I I I r> riff* 

'• M (it till' I ii'ifi ri !hr.'-i -li .1 I- •*.• r t:. !• ■•! •- ■ ■•■, •'.*■• '■!."ii * ii! U Jr »^n 

• ! !• I't 1 m.:|!ir I" •!.-.l. :i'. to I. '.}• 'i. t 

■• f« .'jil. h'» HI !ln )i"«r I'f t'.' If • • W J I'l lir |f.'i*'« f ' r • '-••I 

•• i' I'. «. I. :'. Ill *!,• |. I. . ir if 1' . V . • i' . ! ■ •■. » i ■•■•.!-■ i- I 

jri :'n lii'i f f 4 I r' I ii:« < f •> 'I ■ I.' ^- .' » !. I I ■ » I . ■ ' ^- • • i'f 

*' ■ * i'- . i If* I I- • ' , III • • • :- ' f- • J I* •■/ 

' • ,.f I . I .. - . ■ • I ,■ I, .«. .1 .■• I • t ■ f . I I ' . I 

» -« !• 'l 1 f 1 ■ ••■ -r. |i. I ill • .' i ■ .■ I !»■ t , I ■ • I . 1 •.. I 

t ■ n I . . f I ■.•...; t > : - ■ • » . • • • .• ■ * . 

• •• t.. • t I . I I ■ • ; .*. I, . ' • !» ■ '• 

' • !• I. •. .1 t . .'1. • •* if |'i. r. " . ' . .: . 1 •.••■« 

• . f . • !:■• . f N . I. /. . . f : • . ' • ' . . i ■ 
Jl 1 •'./■■/•■. ^. J, • 1-. . • • ■. . ••■..■ 

' I I . Ii ■ .1 ■ . ' • til i> l« ft ! ' • ■ . J • ' . I. • • I 

.■ ' I- I ». I . , ■■ . I .*. lit !•> ' f- : f • 1 ' ' • • .1 . :. lu rf ^ 

' •. ri I -r I I'i - I ■ ■• »!.i! .!• •, • * ' 

• • 

I.I i-.ti/ i« •; \. .\ t.,'i:«*> • !♦• * < t i'- >mfK,f^ ff«|. 

f* '^ I i'} till ri»ti. i«- ••( till li'-iii nrt«tr, |- II < 


- iLftt he siliall be providcil with all tlic nectsiary books, and 
shall regularly iustruct tho younger Btudcnls, while Uie mure 
Bilvanct:<J students arc to have the Wnefit of liis assistiinca 
vbeD occasion may re<iuire. It is to bo noted that Engtisli 
as well as lAtiu ODters into his province of instruction, 

*■ It is signiRcaut of the fomulor'e intention tliat only real 
Htudcnts sliould tinil a home williin the walla of Morton, 
that another statute provides that all students absenting 
themselves from the sclioola on insufficient grounds shall 
bo liable to corresponding deductions in respect of their 
scliolarsliips, and even in cases wliere proper diligence in 
study is not shewn, the authorities aro empowered to with- 
hold the payments of the usual stipcuds. Tlicre is atso 
another regulation, perhaps the oidy one of any importance 
which may not, in sumo form or other, be found emWlicil in 
the rule of subsequent foundations, jiroviding that a year of 
proliatiuii is to precede the ndniis.siun of o:icli Ki'hular as a 
penuancut member of tho society'. With this somewhat 
remarkable exception, we tind that tho statutes of Mertou 
becaiue for tho niiwt part the model of our KugliKh cullogosj 
and it will be diflicult for nn unprtjudiccd mii.d to di.-ny the 
tolerant spirit, the wisdom, and tlio thought fulness by which 
they ore characterised throughout. In the cunstructiun of 
tlic curriculum, were it not for the absence of natural science 
from the prescribed order of studies, we miglit almost infer 
that the counsels of Roger Bacon had aided the delil»eratiiiiw 
(if Walter tie Morton, It appears indeed thnt, a few years 
after, an attempt was made to remedy tliia deficiency by 
establishing a faculty of medicine in connexion with tho 
ciitli'go; an innovation which archbishop Peckham, in 12f*i, 
tli-ctded wan contrary to the tenour of the statutes, and on- 
Ki'ijUently nbiiliKliod. 'We ilo not conceive,' says Walter do 
Ak-rlon's biographer* in summing up his estimate of tlu^sc 
statutes, ' that there nee<l remain any doubt that llic par- 

* SiaiHlm, isl. Pvrriva), p. 20. cciitiirioH, nn<I in a cnpitnlnr onTrr nl 

' ;fci.(. p. .15, 'Mnliciiip fnwor- Ifiitl 1h ruxiKiMw-il hh a philiwni-Iiinl 

tl..lo-:i iitl..rwiir.l» iHH-itiiio n HoHriKh- iirt.' Il|>. «f N<'1h<>ii-k Lift u/ tt'alttr 

iiiR ill llio ri'lli'^ii iluriiiK llin rfc- JUrtm, i>, Vi, uutv. 
lotirM'Ulb, miu'iiUi, uid MxkQiilL 

Dvm ■oorci. 14B 

ticubtr benefit which tite foundvr Jodgnod to eonfcr on tha ntAr. 
Church wu the impruvcmvot of hia own order, the ■v«nUr " 
pnerthood. by giving thoia fint & good clerovntary, sad tJivn 
& good tlicuiogical education, in cIom connexioa with » 
univcmitjr, and with the mond and religiuiu truniog of a 
Nchotnr-fiuniljr living under nilun of |>it.-t]r uid dijci[iliiK>. 
And Uiia diiiign wiut, wu havo gooil rcoxun to bclivve, id the 
in&in achieved. Whiliit the Vixitor o( litH briuga to light 
the fact that worldlinuw and sc-lf)i>Iiut''a were in auiite degrcv 
inaning the original dt.-8ign, tlicrc are abtnidant witocM«.ii to 
it« gcnural iiurct.>Mi. During the firat eiglily jvon of the lifij 
of the iiiHtitiitiim, a brillintit Kucn-wtion uf n»meM, dtvinct who 
vvTv oImo •chulan and |ihil>n»|th('nt, hImiuo furth, bimI kimlk-a) 
utIitT fuiiiidiTi to di-vutv their HtilnUncu Vt llie cn-ntiiin iif 
Muiilur niirx-ricn of li-.irriid ckr^y. The enrlier KtatuUit uf 
lUlliuI, Univirxily, OriL-l, IVtiriKinxe ((.'uiuUid;,^). all Imtr* 
Mwi-d with innro or U-<t vhi^-wsn oiid uvoviil, tliv Jtryita 
Mci1oneu»i», and tliUH jitstilkd tin- awrtiiin whicli (Iw Mjral 
f.<iin<1fr of Klon Rfd-rwardu u-iil, thut the hitt-r o>N<-giii Imrc 
& diildliku n-!H'iitlil:iiic(; to tluir cotuinKM {nrkiit, relut imagt 
jnirtniiM in prvle nhiroit*. 

\Vc CJiM rvrtaitily liavo litthr h<-i(nti«in in a<uort!iiK lliatif JJJJ^ 
the nniiilxT of oiniiicnt mm who pnicevdcd from tho new 
fuurHLliiin may Ih> rr;;nnlvil ox cviili-iicv of the windom awl 
ditccninii-nt of tht? founder, no collt-^c can lie held tu hava . 
iDMiX' ani|>ly JiioliKol tin- niotivcn tliitt didntiil iIm rn«ti<«. 
Within the wall" of M.-rton w.-rc tniim-l (lie niiinN that 
'iiivriy iHtliK'iiii<l thi' th»iii;l<t of llx- fotirl.-iiilh o-nturj. 
Ii«:m th<'r<> tti:it Duiih Scotuo wo- <-<l<ii .il< >1; it w:ik tWrv 
ili:tt Ik- lir.l t.>ii;;ht. TImikx- I.-> c >nK' \Vi!li:iiii i.f iKintn. 
il>- r.'V..I.iti..iii..'r ..f th.' |.l.;i..<'.)>1.v ••( hi- »^>-. .-».d TI.'Hmm 

l:r..|KanhiK', klio»U lhroii-1 1 <'<Uml ii< the l)-l<4- 

ri-<riiii<tu'<, wh«M< inlliK mi' uii;;lil m- •«<■( mth -1 ihv 
lkTi..rlnvin.'iMr; ki.-h.-.p| Kit/i..l|.lMl.. )••. • .....r -I Wv.hf; 

\V.,1i,T It.itl.-y. U..Urt H-I.--I. u»d n l..»t .-t ...f. n-r -^ 

'"ii null noi.dtti' in thi-ir "wii diy In .iii' iiij'tii.^ t>i 
illii-liiiio ihc (iilluic aixl nu'itlal ii ti.h ix i. * ••! ll>« ■■ rn-l 


hjip. It we can do no bettor tlmn turu bricHy to consider tho dpcciul cba- 
' racterlstics of tlie tlircc most eiiiiiiont Mertoniaiia of the tima 
Hitlicrto, tbo chief rcprosciitativi; of progrcusive tliou^'lit 
ftt Oxford has been found in one solitary if'ronciscan friar, 
whose superiority to the supcratition, the mental servility, 
and the ignorance of his age, seems rather to bring out into 
stronger contrast the prevailing characteristics tlian to redeem 
tliein from one general censure. It has indeed been asserted 
on high authority, that the insight shown hy Bacon into 
qucstiuiis like those disKussud in his Opus Majas, taken in 
conjunction with the time in wliich ho wrote, is itself an 
incxplicahlc phenomenon'; but the additions that have been 
mude by recent research to our octiunintance with the Arabic 
litttrature of tliat period, have revealed the sources from 
whence he drew, and afford an aduquate solution of tho 
difficulty. In fact, althimgh in his preference for physical 
rcKcarclies, and Iiis distrust of tiie current AriiitotcliiLnisni, 
Bacuii undoubtedly presents strong points of difference from 
the schoolmen, there are oUier points in which nn e'|Uik1Iy 
strong rcseinblanco may be discerned ; and in cstimnt'ng t)iu 
W 8 M< , gtnius of Duns Scotus, who nc.\t occupies the foreground in 
* the ocudeniicid life of England, it will be imj>ortant to notu 
the siinihirity not lei&H than the dissimilarity of their v'mvin 
uiid ainiK. 

Tho spectacle presented by Oxford at t)io beginning of 

' 'It i<i Jiffleiilt to concoivo liow trftimliiliimit, wtiich ecrtoiiil; ^ipmr 

anrh a clinrnt'tcr ennlil then cxikI. to Imvu muriliil all Iiih auvurity. Of 

Tltut lio rcci'ivi-il mui-li ut liiii kiiuw- biitb Aviccniia anil Avi-rrovii lie 

Uiljp- (mill AniUic wtilr^rs tlirri' i- r.n ii]><'iikii with itivuriiiUo ri'sjK'ct Ut 

■toiilil; for tliry wiTD ill liiH time tliu Lvvoa nmnrki, 'I Mil tiijit-tf but 

Ti'|Kistl»rU'ii III iill triulitioiiiil kiinw- very HUiNTliL-iully aajuniuti'il with 

l,-.!-.'. Hut tliiil }i.i (lirvi.! from (tliu Aniliiin) wrilitiK^ >-ct I 

tli'iii liiH iliH|>iwitii>ii Ui iili:iko i>tr tliu linvu diacovuri'il eviiliiino rnoniili hi 

■iitliotily III Ari'<i..tlo, |.i iiiiiiiilniii mnko tlio i>!<H) ut Ihiiti-r llw«i 

tlio iiii|»rlBnro of i-\|Kriiin-iit, iin.l niiilo cx|>lii'*li1u witliiiut in ilic Uivi 

tu liHik n)Hiii kuuwl<-'lf!i' at. in itH in- iliiiyitii; hlin extnumlinwy nuiit.' 

f«ii.y. 1 ni>iii.>t IhILvc.' (Wli.-u.-ll, Ilht. t.f fhlt. ii »1. Mr sriirl.7, in 

lli^l.^•flh^■lH,lacl;rr:Srirrm,^1^,i^.) tliu InlnHliicliuii to t)io FH^rifili 

It iiiny Ik' ilriiiliic.! ulH'tlu'r imy yon- Xizimiurnm, |i. L tins cvl-ii ruim iw 

MIS'" ill ItiiriMi'K writinys cnn In; i'')ii- fiir ii« tu nssi-rt tlint wo Iiutu in 

^tru<■d into iiii|iali<'ui;o i>I tliu aulliii- V.>v)!T Huron ' ttiu nunuiil tv|-i' «f iu 

nij i4 ArixU^lo lii 11: a ntrvtul Kn^li^li Tiltiliiii(>iilu.'r' ol tlw lUr. 

i-XHiiiiiuiliiiii will hIii'W Unit hiH vi'n- tucuUi d'Htiiry. 
■uit'M iini alKufH <Ui'i'Ct(.-il ul Did liiitin 

Dims KOTVJI. 171 

tho fourteenth century in one oT the moRt remarkablo ftironlt<J cwa^> tt 
hy any univeniity iiincc the conimenivnient of the* now cni,-^ tH^u*^ m ai 
tlio carlicHt ilcvelopemcnt, in <»ur own coutitry, of that Mn;^iLir Z^S't'm 

la^sn* * sift 

ami almost fifverihh activity of thou«;ht which iitan<lM in mich <««««a- 

inarkcd contrast to the ;c<-^nenilly l<>w culture of the periiMl, 

nml which bec<»nies intelligible only whon we bear in miml 

aII the circumNtanci.*s that, in the preoe<Iing chapter, wc 

liave en(leavoure<l to bring together in th«ir mutual tnit* 

rxlatioiiH. At a time when learning hod fewest fullowen 

iiiimls are to be found niont exrtted ami u\**^i en«|uiring. In 

a century during which (2ri^*k Hcliolar^hip in Kngland \% 

rr|»res<-nti*«l by a siiig!«* name, niid wherein the C(»ni|i;irative!v 

••••rreet L'ltiiuty of the twelltli eentun*. Mirh a* cliaract«*ri*Mt| 

uriteni like (hraMiin and Jolm of Sali^btin*, won Mi{ip!ant<i| 

ly a iKirliimMiK j:ir;^>in\ Oxford ap|NMrH its the centre of n 

•un^ly |»hilosi»pliic ferment to wliieli the hid>M*«|iient annnU 

»f n/ither university priM'iit a parallel. A young Frann%. 

all. originally a htiidriit at M-Tton, riM.>stip; di'»ptit«-^ with 

»Mditlety nev«r 1m lore r\liiliit«>«l tli*' coiirluHinHH «>r hi*« |>rc. 

kii>sors; gxitliiTH rotin<l liiiii vast and rntliM<«iaHtic aiidieiin*^ 

^ lie suitv^*i\ily rxpHnnU lii^ d«N-trine«» at <Kfonl, l^^irin, 

imI ('oj.Hrno; and is c.irri«d ofT at tlie «-arly a;;e of thlrtr- 

Mir. wliile in the /«-nitliot hi^ fiiiK*. Iraving iM-liind a npiita- 

••11 uiiMirpioM d Uitli for saiirtity and for l«:iniiiig. tli% 

n.itiM'H iMVoine tin* t» xl-lM-.k«» of Kn;:li'*li « i|(ir:t!it>ii np to 

■K time of tin- U( f«innat!oii; aiitl lii<« tli< orii^ f<*im th'- g* nil 

t tlcit dial< etii' fn « ili*ni of div iih.:.»ii wMrli n!t:in.iti !v ^n.ipt 

» Mitl, r tlir link-* wlitTiwitli AH- r^'u and A'l'tina* 

»'"'Ur«iI t«i unite p!ii!'»'*»pliy and f.ul*i. Tin- !■ .lil- rdiip «.f 

' * l»"*n til lilt t '. f ti . • *.* r. It i»\ 

' ■.' I |J"1 U « !•< * ■ • • t •! •■■ . ? 

■ ■■ '• r« «»f 111. ' • »t I ■•»■•■•» 
M .t ii M II. •* \| I !. \ ■ . I. •* 

■ • ■ f I. il II "Ml' .\ I • ■ t * < ■ 

* ■ I |t . . -. I . { 1. •• I ; !■ II 

• ' ' . • 1. '.-r. I tl r . ! ' - . . 

' ? I I l\ t f ! . * . . k! • . • 

•• I". ■ |.. I, . ,' .. !• • . f •' 

t«- II . !• •:• 1 i.*i 11 •" if \ /f. Ill 
'* • ill ' f \ ."^ t . I-. !• I ■ I ^'i t't r 
•i t; . .1. I . . f il . |,M. , f, ,„ 

! *« f I .i.« .t« i.f . I.. , , ,. 
'*!■• ll.irt>« iii'i «» iiliin, tt r<<r 

r-i- : n *- .?M. f 1 If.' 

\ If .•*. . 1 -1 

n . \ t- • • . 1 1 . .! ' 

.■*«.* 1 . . 

.• • 1 1 ■ r t ■. 1- ! 

• 'f . , 

• .'» . r t • 1 .f • •■ 

• . ' i .1 .. 

t. ■ .. • 1 . f •» 

1 \ t 

i! ,■ i .;..... . 

' • 1 'i • . 1 

r t' I » • » 1 . • • . 

■ . .f 

IJ • • I . 

' '• . 

j- 1 " » . * ■ .. 

• t 

• • • • 1 

' ■ t 

I. . - . • '1 

• . 

Jr. •'■■,. .» '1 

1 ' . 1 . f. I 

. ' I' -.If. 1 . ' J . 

• r. i ' • . 

f-> '• 1 • • t^ 

•1 * ». 


cTiAp. n. the age had pa-sscil from tlie Dominicans to tlie Franciacar 
nor con it be denied that to tho latter order England w 
mainly indebted for such profundity of thought and vigour 
Bpcculation as the fourteenth centuiy bohcld'. 

Ttie causes of that onesided developement of meut 
activity that is now presented to us are not difficult to assij 
Ti--nrnn ''^'® I*"?"''! culture of the Benedictines bad been thru 
^^,'^^.^'" aside by the fervid inteltectualism of the Mendicants. B 
iSiS^ in the very character of that activity the observer of t1 
" ' fashions and revolutions that succeed each other in tl 

evolution of human thought, will discern a significant illusti 
tion of the interval that separates us from the mind of tl 
scholastic era. Precisely that contempt with which tl 
ordinary scholar now regards the metaphysical researches 
the schoolmen, was felt by the schoolman of the fourteen 
century for researches such as have mainly occupied many 
the learned of our Oivn time. Discussions on Greek mvti 
and disijuisi lions on Etruscan pottery would have apjieari 
to the Oxonian of the days of Kilward i, but solemn trifliii 
while the distinction between the prima and secujula iiileni 
still remained uninvvistigated and the jirincipium indh-idu 
tionia undetennined ; and students who could not ha 
written a Latin verso or a page of Latin prose without sol 
Ctsms that would now excite the laughter of an avera 
English public schoolboy, listened with rapt attention 
series upon series of argumentative subtleties such as hu 
taxed the patience and the powers of some of our acuti 
modem metaphysicians, 

Tlie name of the oracle of the fourteenth and fifteen 
centuries, to whom Coleridge has assigned the pmisc of hci 
the only Englishman (if such ho were) possessed of 'hi] 
metapIivBical subtlety',' has pai^scil, by a strange caprice 
1 fortune, into an epithet for the grossest ignorance ; and as ^ 
turn the leaves of the ponderous tomes which enshrine t 
thought once deemed the c[uhitL-ssenco of human wiisdom, < 

■ Tlio |>r>-i>]ii'rity iiiiil niiUmriljr ut niiivcroil; intlilMcriitiiry a>>> 'lii'i 

Did DoniiiiininH ii|i|>ii>r ti> luivu Livii LUiw' ti> tlio unkr. tkv tuti' 

vi'ty rltwly nKMwiiiUil witli Oin [ini- y.iiaMi<if«m, \*. li. 

KIHTily <'t tlit< iiiiiv<'r>>il.v nI I'lirlH. * (Ailiriith-ii'i lAUtarg Itrwii 

Ur tiliirU'y ihiIuh lliu tUvliiiu ol llmt Iti 21. 

BtTts K-OTva: 173 

t nin miist' bo th« effort to rc«lin the condittoiu ra*p tt 

iiicii 'liiti tIi»u:;Ut wnn omcoivLtL Tlic nuttfiati aihl 

mitiiVK That ■'h>>ii!<l iMialilo \n to recover Home uli-riiiate 

• >ii <r' '\\-rv hivs lijv« ntikc vaitiHliol. It woiilil r«n- 

y 'h: "r-'tilt-w to tvvV to <I<'pict t!ic Oxfonl of tlic 

lii 't "ii- Tixirtiontli O'litiiry. or to giw ci'lunr nu-l 

u-c :iin-. r .l" 'Mv i.Ti-at<.->t i.f Urn Hii;;li'>Ii hcti.KjIim-i.'. 

-L -SI-* -y i.\"ii llio fr:i^iiiL'iit:iry il.ita Wl^ |i.«-.-.< 

■i-^ iM- .Mr-.vr: its o:irly (riiiiniili nixl in fni'M'it 

•M. ■•• If- ■.■>>iitr'Vtr-_v cimiiTiiiiis tin- lfnitnciit»:c 

;. 11 * x'-\ \f' •KA* KiiiiitiKiii-il I.. Purit to iilby; tin* 

1* ■. ■ :.i ■■ ■!! ■>l".lt'-iiri' t<i wlik-Ii lie rtji:iin-'I m 

\ ■■■ ■ . ^'i.- ri-iii ttif ;*r<-<ii \\A'\* ti> nr I*uri!> wli<-r<> 

-.■ -v , 1 'fi'liiii:; >|i.'i'— iif rji"-'-, )iis mnti>iTri|>t4 

> < '>:- A> :N (•• lii- trii-ii'U iiti'^iKl ; liis im-tvri- 

'. . . ■ •■■ .!.-.k mi ir. tli;.t -r.tlK-r.-l r...ii'..l fic 

.■ -l.Tt bi.t .-v.titr.-l lif.'. WKntr^vrM- 

(■■■:!- ti d lirii f.T l>iitiw S-.itiis I I l.> 

:■■■: ■ r„i.|.T.iti..i, ,.f Ii. ,.U j.!,yni,.I I.M 



". parnlivclj tnin<|uil and ck'.ar, wo naturally look for tho 
Tiiatiifestations of a more critical spirit unJ a mora Jclibcrato 
c-tiiiinte. Nor shall we Lo disapjioiutcd. Tlic dcciaiong 
(IvIiverL'd at Paris, if not altogether reversed at Oxford, ro- 
opiM-vircd only with nuiiifvoiiH mid important inodificutiona. 
An improved canon and the accession of new material eijually 
conduced to such a result 

There is, indeed, no graver error with respect to the 
Bclioolmcn than that which would lead us to regard them ai 
expending tlicir etfortji in one uniform direction, their argu- 
ments revolving in one vicious circle and around the same 
hopeless points of discussion; and, so long as metaphysics 
hold their place in the domain of speculative enquiry, the 
thioker who anticipated Ho<rol on the one haud, aad Spinoza 
on the other, would seem entitled to some recognition in the 
history of human tliouglil. Nearly half a eenturj' ago arch- 
tiishop Whately called attention to the want of a treatise on 
the literature and anticpiities of the science of Logic, ami 
while he insisted emphatically on the high qualificiitinns 
rciiuisite in the writer of such a work, fully recognised tlic 
interest and value that its efficient performance would possess 
for a select, though somewhat limited, circle of students'. 

' 'Tlie eiteniiiTS rcwarch uliicli 
voiilil [iiTm oue iiiJiniK-niiiililc qiiiili- 
lic»ti.,u fur Micli > tnok.n-oiiia U- only 
one out of mnny, uveu Ir^H coiiimun. 
ijiuttilivRtiiiiiH, mitliuiit nliivli Micb a 
work 1K.11U Lc worHo lliun nHcki-H. 
Till' nnl)ll<^^1Ioal■l be niiv tIiiT(in;:li1y 
vu Iii» KUHnI fti^iiiHt tlip (laiiiiiuti 
t.'rn>T of ci|ili>iiiiilui){ tciiiPllur, or 
li-siliiifl III* rciiilvn hi «>iiriiiiiiil, uu 
iiitiiimta aeiiuaiiitanec vjtli mmiy 
iMHiliH nil a (nvcii lubjift, ami ft 
di'.'ir in~i£lit iuln llir xubji'ct it^'lf, 
Witli uLility 1111.1 itiiliit^try fi>r iiivi-*- 
tii^iliiij: n iijiiltitiiilc of iiiiiiulu |>niti- 
ciilaoi, lie iOk.iiI.1 |K»wt« llw i«.«iT 
ul riplill.!' otiiijaliii^' curli Hroirilhij; 
t» ill iiitiiiirii: iiiiiH'rtiiiit'', mill iiol 

jii^' lo tliL- J-Tiivc ..f */.W-.ri,.«< r--. 
..,-t 1,1.11, .-r tlio 

the opinionti ami txprcBuionii of vs- 
rii'UH aiitlion on puiuts of Kcii'nn', 
tu j.niarcl liutL liiliixt-lt KI1J lit* niuln's 
nkMiuht the iiii>^tnl:« of iRkine Uiy- 
tliiiij; on anthoritj tliHt uutllit '~ ' 

liy HvieiiliKo 


(til, isfiai. r- *■ 

111 HriKiiiR coiitrUKt W llie *ie* 
ftUivu i111licnl1.1l, Penn MniiM'I «">■ 
fiilom tbnt 'a biHtorieal accoiiDt bl 
llto Scliiila^tie Lo({ie ought to cit- 
II11C ilwlf lo coiiiniciit«Tiii!i mhI Uvn- 
lisi'i i-x]>n.wily on llie Ncieiice i MhI 
II10 kcLuIiikUc eoiitrilnitioiiH to lln' 
nintliT of IjiiKie Khonlil Iw tonlint-il 
!<■ hudi Kilililixnn to tlie Aruitnti- 
liiui ti'Xt OH liiivv Ih'ch iii(i>r]'i>i)iti'>l 
iiilo Ibc iMgicit diKTM.' (Inlnid. 1" 

' - /,.«r. ;;«./. p. an lint in 

ff III. 

-'<•■[. All. 


tri'nlhi;- 11 liiiic wliiii Uic nililioiti" 
(1 iry tniiliix- lit iKli.lriclio elmntHn 
It ill evMiiit lliut ti> n'Nlrii-t tlw lii' 
torknl Mirviiy tu tliu nliKlmrt ni 

Dcss scorra. 175 

Tliifl want, at lenAt up to the conchiKion of the achola«tic era. ^>^ 

h:iM now IxH'ii to a ^at oxt^rnt fiii|)i>Iio<l liy the lakium of 

Pnuitl, to wh«wo ivsoiircho?*, top'thtT with thoso **( Hatin'-aii 

ami (JharlcH Jounlain, wc* have Imtr «o far iii«h-htcil that it i^ 

iii.'C»-*>;irv to Ntati' tliat, withniit the ai«l of tli**!**' writcn*. nianv 

]i:ii^*s of this vi.iltiiiie tiir.<4t have n>iii:iiiiii| iitiviritt«*ii. T«i tlie 

tii>t ii.imetl we are «>>|N'ciaIly iiidrhtril I'nr an itive>ti<jpti<in iiitt* 

tlie pnn^e-vs nf iliat new ehiii«*Tit, thftetinnn totho new Ari*- 

tnile iinil the Ar:ihian c<»nini<*ntatt»r<, wliirh hitherto 

in;; only at intervaU and cx«TeiNin«; hnt little inthieiicx* f»n 

the jihilt»*"p!iy "f the >rhiM»liiirn, now :L^onin«tl in fhewriiin'^ 

'i I'liri'* SiNif'.i^ Hii.'h etin'^iiliTahle :iii<I .si;;iiiti(\irit ppi|»iirtii»ii4. 

T!i«' liV/.tii'Mie I*»::i<' han a iKruIiar interest, ina^hl1llh as it t«««« 

ivM-ciat' ^ tlif li-.i!iii»ivr "f th»' Litiiis with tliat *»f the (•ri'^.ii 

t iiii'ii* . .iihi Tniv In" fi'-anii'il iv* a stray fm-'nu'iit of th«**i' 

:itii:iiv tit.i«>iii> uhii-ii. iw* rf-ntiiiii-s lat* I. n*tle«i in »iicli 

'ii"Pi«»iini !T"Iii lli I!.i'» into wr-^trrn Ktir'»jH'. 

Iti till' ^!'\'Mt!i r«'iiliiiv tl»»' si at nf th«» (j^ars of thi* 

K.'^T. wiiii'i 'j !■! Hti iifti !i •!• ?!' .| th»* fi« n-t *t nH«.iiiIt4 t.f ihi- 

inM'i- 1. I'i'i '. I i I -it vt t h»» ;i ^Mliin-^aN i| t • tlii- r»i'»* •■! an i!''ft - 

•a'»- I-i* M ''\\\ >*\\ Htiil iin *i ! w .| •»..*iif ?iai • «« nl tliat ii?i rarv 
- • I « 

-»!•. '• t:: r •!! tin- \V« -^t \\;ln alni«'*i •••!■ Iv r» iir«*t i!?»-.l !•%■ tl •• 
\ ■• '"I •..•«•» S,'! .!• ' iiH. Till- iii;i^*' Tp » «■• * ot tirt-«'Mn i;« fiiii-* 
^*' Ti- s!:II -»♦■,':. -1 .Hill ai-{<i« f I I't •! ; tin* I Ir« • k laii^irr.i- Hn^ 
^: !1 H! •',. »• \\\\'i a itMiitv lliil ^MiHi^'lv «• iti^r-i-ti -1 uith th-- 


■i'- *!: .' !. I ■ -v. it.ik" !i till" ti«i. jih i.! t 'i«'. I.I aii'l \ '.f'^vr, nii*i 

■ • 


I . 


I ■ I ■ ■ ■ ■ .'•■.■. 

I ■ . ■ . • • • 

■ • 


. I • 



• \ 

»« . ! ... 




•a'-w. works of extensive erudition and much critical acum( 
tested, from time to time, that though the age of poetic ^ 
and original conception was past, scholarship and les 
were still represented by no unworthy successors of S 
and Aristarchus. Among such writers the name of M 
CSonstantine Psellus, a learned professor at Constant] 
towards the dose of the eleventh century, deserves a for 
place; and to his treatise on logic, 'Evv(y^t<; eh rfjv *A/ 
T€Xou9 Xtrfiietjv ivumi/iffv, we must refer those inflii 
upon the method of the schoolmen which now offer 1 
selves for our consideration. This manual, though repn 
ing, according to Prantl, little more than ' the content < 
school logic received up to the close of antiquity",' and 1 
fore in no way comparable for originality with the woi 
Avicenna and Averroes, would, notwithstanding, seem to 
affected the developement of logic in the West to an e 
singularly in excess of its real value. Among the coi 
poraries of Aquinas was the once famous Petrus Hispai 
native of Lisbon, who after a brilliant career as a sti 
and teacher at Paris, was ultimately raised to the 
chair under the title of pope John XXI. His literary act 
which might compare with that of Gcrbert himself, ext( 
to science, theology, and philosophy, and he was, unt 
cently, regarded as the earliest translator of the treati 
Psellus*. This supposition however has been altog 
disproved by the researches of Prantl, who has shewn 
Petrus Hispanus was forestalled, by at least twenty yeai 
an eminent Oxonian, William Shyreswood, whose r 
though it has now passed from memory, was long iden 


vho hace escaped ilie contai;ion, are 
thof«e >A-lioiu we follow, and tbcy 
nloiie are worthy of our iuiitiitioii. 
In fiiiuiliiir discoiirMt ilicy htill Hpi'iik 
the tongue of AriHiophanes and 
Kuripidctf, of the biKt<»riunM and phi* 
lr»8<»phers of Athens; and the Htyle 
of their writinf^s in still more elabo- 
rate and correct." * Gibbon, c. Ld. 
Till 105. See also Hallaui, MidtlU 
Age*, III 4C(»— 8. 

> Qfch, d. Log, ii 2r>5. Anm. 6. 

' I>can Manscl, in tbo lutrodue- 

tion to hi« A rti« Lnrfirfn Jludi 
liiiH expruHsed Iuh belief, in wh 
iiiforniH UK he is supported by t 
tbority of Sir William IJiiii 
that the work attributed to I 
in, in reality, a trunHlation into 
of the work of PetruH HiHp 
In the later editions of the 
work he has however omitt 
notice the most recent contril 
by PranU to the literature c 
whole subject. See sixth edit 
Artii Log tea Hudimenta, p. S3. 


at Oxford with the introduction of the new element WHKam 
Sbjreswood wae a native of Durham, who» after haniig 
studied both at Oxford and Paris, succeeded to the dignttj of 
the chancellorship at Lincoln' ; where he died in the jrear If 49. 
As a writer on lo^c lie exerciiiod a jiotent influence oo the 
devclopement of that stutly in EnglaiuL Internal evidence, 
indeed, favours the supponition that there existed a verrioii 
of portions of the treatise l»y Pm^Hus in circulation prior even 
to that of Shyrcswooil, but on this point we have no certain 
information; and the method of Duns Scotus^ which was 
founded, in no small degree, upon the Bysantine logic, does 
not appear to have traced liack iUi inspiration further than 
to this writer. In ShvrcHWood we flnit meet with the fami* 
liar mnemonic versos of the M«iods of the Four Figures, still 
preserved in every treatise on fonnnl logic*; and it would 
appear, that from the time of Ib>^er nac^m dt>wn to tliat of 
Ben JonH<»u* his n*putntion tm a higician was undiminished 
in the univernitv which he A<h>m4Ml. 

As reganlH IVtrui< Ilis|innii.s it wouhl seem, if we accept 
the concIusiouA of Prantl, that hr wnM not onlv not the fimi 
transhitor of IWIhis. hut that hi<« p<Tf«>riimnct> was in evtry 
wav inferior to that of oiir imn countrvman : tlie work of the 
one iK'ing hpiritle««M and iM-rvih\ Hhile that of the r»ther »hcws 
indicatiiiUH of a piiuine efTort at int4lli;;f*ntly appreciating 
the meaning of the original. rharaet4Ti<«tic< which we may 
suppose c«iritrihiite4| not a little to pnMMire f<*r him tlie warm 
etihigitim of Baron*. tali^M* weveri"»t contempt waa always 
revn**^! for a m<*t*hanical npirit i»f interpri-tation. mh»«ther in 
tf-scher or h-amer. The hiMorian ha*, in<i««Ni, vwn vcnfuretl 
lo Conjecture that Pop«» John may merely have tninM*hli«N| a 

* Fcir dntit • of tb» rhanr^llor of • >> if ^ i)i*> fe^k i*h nt<M i% 

rtthHral M>« l^nranf^. • v. Cif • 'I SS*rit.«^| • i.««i« * 

nomii. rViA-/.(>ffi^«rr^f. /Vff'in^, qm-fiin ui •!• «*l fr»frf %P#rl-i* i* 
hmT*ff*^ Jfartpr. fr/«t.hfi»«, /»!•• #*fi!i? r I'ra tir -it. r.m. •!!•!« ••! 0«* 
"•»•. /MfUi. /Wun/.». /.Vi#i,«. Iirl'ni* Am M." P* U lh#«*-irmn-M 

U t\rr *-i|-tMi. f \r »! • >«m la 
' • IUr» !• to tli# fpiil of Trtn. 1 1 il.-*- |*.i« r« i-rtMiii iimI'u* trt^at 

(•mfu^l iiprifi Stalf hit •im.. t«t r^ ' **^-»» 7*t**-»» t f 




\ n. Latin veinon that he found ready to his hand\ But, how- 
ever this may have been, it is certain that the prestige which 
necessarily invested tUo labours of the head of the Church 
soon cast into the slmdo those of the English ecclesiastic, and 
though the name ofWiltiamShyreswood was long remembered 
at Oxford, his reputation in Europe coald not compare with 
<n that of Pctrus Hisp.'knus. For two centuries and a half the 
'I "" Summufa LogicaUs of the latter writer reigned supreme in 
^- the schools, and during tlie hundred and thirty years that 
followed upon the invention of printing, no less than forty- 
eiglit editions are ennmemted by Prantl as issuing from the 
presses of Cologne, Lcipsic, Iicydcn, Venice, and Vienna; 
while alrendy, with the commencement of the fourteenth 
ccntuiy, the importance of this new ctcmcut had become so 
generally recognized, that to reconcile the same with the 
previously accepted <Iicta of authority had become a t.Tslc 
which no one wJio a-spinil to he r(-;,';irilcd an a teacher of the 
ng.- fr.tnid it jH-ssiMr to deelinr-, Jtist tlim-fore an it had de- 
volved upon Allx-rtns and A-|niniw to dceido how far the 
Ariihiun coiiimentalors k<h\\A 1h: reeonciled with the orlhuilox 
inkrpiclitliou of Aristotle, so did it devolve upon Duns Sc^itus 
to incorjKirate or to hliew reasons for rejecting tlio new 
■«j^ thought presented in tlie Byzantine logic. The clement, 
j;^ accordingly, wliicli in Albertiis, Aquinas, and Grosseterte, is 
^'' but an exceptional jilienomenon {vereimelten Eracheinumjeu), 
now bceimici in the great si-tioolrnanofOxfordapmlominaiit 
feature; a fealnre wliieh Prantl in his ahnost cxhaiistivc 
treatment of the subject has fully investigated ; and though it 
IM neither practicable nor desirable for ns to attempt to follow 
him into those technical details wliich belong to the special 
province of liis work, it is, on the other hand, essential to our 
main puiposc to make some attempt at explaining the coo- 

' 'JvilcnlalN iiA untfr ilcn iilinll- 
cli<>n Kr/eii|;iti'wn ji'ucr 2t'it ilas 
CompciiiUuui Jes Pi-tru* lliKpHiiui 
ilai Ki'iKlkwcKtv, iwrnlftne en olino 
irci^il fiiicn riiiiisin eiKtiitn 
(InlHiikra Dllr don (iruiiilt('<(t Act 
noa rinecrulirteii lij'XHUtjiiiiicliFii 
lyigik niciliTbulL Ob ilcr V«rriiK»«r 
■leB GriDchieclKn miiclitiR war, uin 

i]cn Px-llti« zn Ubenctxcn, oiI«r ob 
VI nwalH AWIirt-ilicr ciner Urtih 
vnrbHiuloDeu getrcucu Uclicroetzaiiit 
"ii'b Bcinen „ wcJlitMcliichllidi™" 
KiiiftuM erriiiifiCD hnLe, liiKiit rirh 
niclit ftitscliciiU-n ; iter „Kdiirci« 
i]('H Angi'.iiclitcs" kBDninkciiH'nKliv 
bci'lcn Fiille groKs i,'eir«)icn niu.' 
Ill 34. 


iitnirtion placed upon tlic Bymntine logic ami the dircctina i 
in wliicli it opcnitv<l. ' One Tni;;1it VM'ly be inclined to «t|w 
pote,' obncrve)! our niitlinrit^r, 'thnt its influence bpU«{:«Nl 
purely to the lilcnttiire ftf tlie wtuHtl*, And Iiad no(liin|* at alt 
to do with the Araliinn ArivtotcIinniHin niul the eontrom«t<^ 
ppringinj; friitit thotire, but the m^wI Micwt thin Bnan- 
tine »cod-;jniwth •ont itmifT-bodls dcop into thclnj^cal p«flT 
content ionx, ninl honce int'i the «n-call<><| |ihil'i*o|thr of that 
time, nml thnt ("iiict- Orcnm nnd hin followen* a knnwtn!^ 
of the Dyxniitiiie niMiTi:>l io the nnly kry to the wJiiiinn of 
the tift-I;iMU'ntvil iiuinlclli^ihilitv of iiinnv entire «Titin;;«M 

It will hire tic nii-i".>:iry.inonUT to;,'ainKn>rrert impn^ " 
nion of till- pri'ci-e |HHitiiiii nf Diiiih Scot'ix in n-L->.ti»n to ihc J; 
|ihil<i«>]ihy 'if till- liiiii-. liriilly to n-rnll thiw impxnint ^ 
niiHlilii-.-iii<iiii nf iIk'Tv ticit hri<l .ilnii'ly n-^iildtt fr-io th- T 
«'Vim-.i.f ih.- j.T.'.<.liii;.' r.ntiify. Tin- (ii-t . (I.*"^ irf'Hn- t» <t « 
Ari*l"tl>' n]>"u til*- -'Ii'X'N M'ltiM ui'iii. n< mtiy be infiirilly 
liiiI>|H— -il. I" ).:.\-l.'ii.|. ■! I<.n:.r>l< — l<i< •liri>ltiiilt<.|> 'if •t- . .ti„i-,li..i. in nt.l' h I-/,- U.\ hill,. >|., U. n Ih M. S-. 
Imn n<i th.- A-''/".'*'', ill- (',,(. L',.ri-...'it.'l ll." /»«• Int.ri.t.Utd-.Hf 

ni.r.H.iil.-.I il Ill of t)i. 

' l.ilo»l 

11 Ihoii.-l.t of ih- SMx'nt.'. 

tt..''rn,...Tlrii...'..fh^>:,l .. i 



lhe.tii-ly h.i.l.-.mi.MM.|..| 


III- .itt-ii!i-ii i:<il a« Hirin 

a* il HM, .!i..„\.T..l tl,:,l 


rl. hit,... It l:..| r...^>.»l 

Mt'h l>r:>h.| f [.l.i! |.1 

.y :.. I 

■Iif.-i-*. III. t.-i].Ii\>i<% ()h]>*. 

aii'i Ih.t it w;is .litii- III- 1 

.. . .y 1 

low f.r it ,-..,M U-,.ro*..i 

thru h- 1.:>.1 ,.^,,r.l. .1 l..-i.- 


■■in:: 'iioio .in in.trn- 

m-iit of •>i<|iiirr. Mhiln |], 

1.- All- 

'..fllni. lt...|ili-i. Ii.ol m.. 

.l...|).>..]]vl...-hth:.t il«... 

:iii -i-t 

:iti.I u-.\ n •>'V'i-r-lhil i*. il lr..l f..r it,! 

• Ii.T-.l 

r 1... r l.ta.MUl l.w. ..f 

lli-iiiL'Iit. l.-it w:.- in.r-lv .ii 

1 :.rl.--T 

III ].; ■ ■fii--«<-l f.r 

t!i.-l..ti..ritn...i;:.'i...i'..f , 

t. .1 k>, 

.■,;..!.•.'.— th- jir .ti;.- ..f 


IF a the diakctic ait l)ecame correspondingly lessened. Aquinas 
and Roger Bacon, little as tliey agreed in other respects, 
seemed in some sense at unison ou this point. ' The subject- 
matter of logic,' said the former, ' is nut an object of investi- 
gation on its own account, but ratlier ns a kind of scaffolding 
to other sciences; and hence logic is not included in upecula- 
tive philosophy as a leading division, but rather in Buhser- 
Tiency thereto, inasmuch as it supplies the method of enquiry, 
itAnc« it u not ao much a science at an iiistrument^.' llie 
fiew of Bacon, according to which he regardc-d tlio lorjica 
mUju as a natural inborn faculty, and the lofftca docena m 
merely ancillary to other sciences, has already cotno under our 
notice. That such views failed to find expression in a cor- 
responding inodificution of practice, and that, notwithstanding 
the more intelligent cstimato of science that now undoubt- 
edly Wgnn U> prevail, Icigic cimtinmd fur more than two 
ccuturicH to occupy tho Knniu 'bnd eminence' both at Oxford 
and at Canibriilge, must be attriliuted to tho Ityzantiue logic, 
to Pi'tniH IliHpanus, and tu Duns ScotuH. 
!5? 'Tho logic of Duns Scotiis,' says I'rmitl, 'which gave 
Xm birth to an abundant crop of Scotistic Htcniturc, docs not 
indeed proceed in oiitiri'ly new paths which ho had opened 
up fur himself, — ho is, on tlio coutriiry, as regards tho tra- 
ditional material, Just as depenilent and confined {aliluingig 
vikfl Mtiiyt) OS all tho other authors of tho Middle Ages. 
Diit he is distinguished, in the first placv, by a {leculiarty 
ciipious infuHion of Ilyzanlino logic, and secondly, liy the 
comprehensive prL'cisiiiii and coiisiHteiicy with which ho incor- 
porates the AriHtotelinu, Arabian, and Byaiutine material, so 
that by this means many new views arc, in fact, drawn from 
the old sources, au<l, in spite of all o|ipoHition, tho tninsition 
to Occam cfT'-ctedV The treatise of pMellus, as translated by 
Petrus llispanus, thus enunciates tho theory which Duns 
Scotus developed; — Vyaleetiea est ars artiiim, nwitia «ciCT- 

■n raiinlnn iiili>|itp<1. klmoat to a 

b^ ttia JtHiiit. Duniiiiifiin.nml Irnii- ii 

rtiwnTi CurmmU-lK.' Mora acciinito 1' 

' QfKhirhtt iUt iMBiy, tl 


iiarum^ ad omnium metkodorum principia viam iobem, 8dm 
€nim dyaleetica probabiliter disputai de priiicipiU cmmimm 
aliarmm scientiarum, Ei ideo in acqHi$ition€ §ciemiiarmm 
dyaleetica dthet esse prior '.* ' Piiybics, mathematici, meta- 
physics/ said Albcrtus Magnus, *aro the three speculative 
sciences, and there are no more, — logic is not concerned with 
l)eing or any part of tK*ing, but with second intentions^* It 
was in connexion with this doctrine of the intentio seemnd'i 
that Duns ScotUN sought to find that ' ctmsiftti 'urj * of whicli 
Prantl s|icak4, and to retain or even to augment the old 
supremacy of higic. 

It may l>e dcsiraMc bricHy to restate the i|umti<»ii as 
it pre.«(ent<M| it.^'lf l^'fore the enunri.ition of thin tlittirT. 
l40gic,Kii«l th<* 1*hoiiii>t, \H an art and not aM'irnri*; a ncirnr^ 
in ctinc4Tni*d with rt-al f:irti. with vrritiibh* t*nfiti«*4. n<iC miih 
artificial |»r<K*cHsi<« or arbitrary hi^n. M<'ta|ihy«ini an* a 
wiun«r«% asironomy In u m'ifiirr, but l«»gir, an o>nci*rn«t| only 
with th«>«»e H(.T«ni«l;iry pnM'«'*»*i'H of ||m» mini! which it w«'k« to 
di'finc and n*;:iilat(*, han no iintiiitinnH to mnk a<i «ii«-|i. 

While tlirnfi'tr tlifV ii'iN-iilid, as Alli«'rtU«i h:t% M»n«*, th'-J^^^ 

Anibian tJMMiry of lh<* iutvutiit ftn-nmhi, by far |Im« m«»»t 
ini|i*»rtant roiitrtbiiti«iii to iut't:i\tU\^\v4 ^ill<'«• the tiiiir* iif 
Aristotl*'*, they ntopinil jthorl |irii*i*« ly at tin* |N»inf wImto 
that tlh'ory tourh<<l ufitiu tin* «|tirHtioii of the n;:ht of |fij;^ir 
to In* inc*lnd(*<| anions the M*iriier<i. 'I'lmt th«-«try a'lniiu of 
lieiu2 htat'il in a few wnnl< Tlie ifite)li<<>t ai it •lin^ti it«»-If 
\i H tenth' US s€) towardn obj. rt«». di'»«irn\ fi»r i-vani|4<\ 

' I'nintl nnufV*. •ilii-.r Snt* m.iiii.U*' V'f-tt- • I. I P«r «tly 
frhll III iiini ri III li%t«»«!»« l*«tl:ii«; •«•!■« iti •hi'h \'»- rtn* •ffvwr* •«» 
rr i«t wolit H'l* (Icr »:< wt'dtiln li« n !-•• )••«•• U«ri »! !«■ !•• ?*•«•.•«.••• ^ ^'i' •• 

tt)itifiiM-|ii n Tr»'litiiif| »<|f,.H tM'tll- A ». iiiKi » !• «• /•-*...• I 9.m% ga« 

in« n.' Ill 41. Ill iht' •.l.ii'fi iif thi» i|ti • ,''n- II- l'r«iili. Ml ■•■/ 

h%iHi|»-i« l»r A%ni/' f •• l» i»»'. I<«««' * ■ I ' • 1 • ' • f «l •• ■*•• ♦■ •! •■I !■ I ••J» 

«%«r, t)»f or /Ml tl <trt«W- ^a\*«v.«^ \\**- ^r .'■».•• %>> il- t« il 'f ^n*** !*• 

/#N t^l»^ r«]|».'r •«! iw%0^*:m^ '••• \* \\ * ♦# • ' '•t. I ■' •!■» 'lu n !•!•••« 

9f^^9 wfKi f\% •*««•» ♦-# itt*JS^9 ft'»» t« I •' ■ / ■•».••<-• T» !• I« 

•t ^Af %\a9 /(tifc. s«< Kk ♦•« •» h »9 f II I III t' « • ! ** ■■••• • t «t>' < •»•.*•• 

• »»f«« »*» /»»#'^iM.-r », .'V •*'•• *•!• rt«»* A^i'i-- l! )•••'•■• U-^ 
A«3\«ar,«iy ^1^ I I. I' I. 'l-i't-'l l.y tr . . I I. K\ ' • urn T* t» * %f •» •» • 
priMtl ^ • ■ .If f » I .' * ♦ --I* / *• »•• *t !>•♦ 

• • !•»« itfitiir •lint lr»« •»"■ ti«- tJ -••■ .■ . •• n .• *■■ ^' ■ •.*•» *♦»• 

»t««-MNti«*.ti tfinsiini pl>ir<« Vi i«.iSi.t»». i.. n ..»♦»>• *^ »-•*••••# 

• Ml* liyi^-w n«*n ri>ffi*i>|.ranl efft* «t ti« ■ •■• **■ ." ^I^*- •' /•»'■-' *• 

r^rttniiiitu Ali«|!UinB.M-«l ibtinti ttit* I" • / • * • ' » »»>» 



r. n. SocnteiiD liit pore indindunlit;, anil ttie impression thus 
' ' received is to be distinguisiied as the intentio prima. But 
vbcD the existence of Socrates has thus beca npprebcniled, 
tbe refiective faculty conies into piny; Socrates, by a se- 
eoodarj process, is rccognizi-d as a philosopher or as an 
amiiM] ; be ta awgned to genus and species. The concep- 
tioD thns formed constitutes the intetitio secunda. But the 
imUntic ieeunda exists ouly iu relation to the human intellect, 
and hence cannot bo ranked among real existences; while 
tbe objects of tlie extcnini world, and Universola which have 
tbc4r existence in the Divine Sliiul, would exist even if man 
H were Mot. It wM in respoct of this theory of the non-reality 
"■^ of the tHtentioHea tecnmlie, that Duns Scotua joine<l i»nio 
with the XhoniiKlK. It is tnic, lie rejilicd, that existence 
roust of necessity bo lii>t coiicedetl to the objects which 
correspond to the primary iiilerition, but it by no incnnn ful- 
lowM th:it it \s tliiTefore to Imi <1ciii<'d Ut the c<>ncc|iti>iiM 
which miswiT t<> tho ii-lrnti'> ufani'lii, tliiit tlu-su iiru Ui'tliili^' 
more than crcaliotis of lliu inlclhrt, aii<l liavi: ci>iisc<()il('ii(ly 
• only a subjective cxi»ti'iice. Tln-y aro ei|uiilly rerd, iitiil 
••• thou[;h the rccogiiitinu of tVir cxiwtciicu is posterior to that 
of the phenomena of the cxtorii:il world, ' man' nnd 'animal' 
arc not less true entities than SiKinitcs hiniNelf. Hence wo 
may oflinn that li>gic etiually with pIiyMJcal science in con- 
cerned with necessary not contingent subjeet-niatter, and is a 
scienco not less thmi an art'. 

' ' AiifL ili-n Untriwliiiil, wrlcliiT 
■wiorlK'ti l-itik uiiil Jti'tii|<li.v..ik 
nrlii'U niBiiplii'ii IkrUlinTni^-Hiiiinkltn 
duch ■)» viii urncntlirlivr WhIgIiI, 
rrblicVt Sentiii ebcnni via all hciim 
itltcrtn nnd jtinfjcran ZcilgcnoBwn in 
{cDCr iHlrntio trcumla, vcli'licr wit 
nnn wit ilrn Anibfrn htctR grliun l>c. 
mnu'tcn. nnd cr Kprirlit in niiniiiR- 
(alii hi'" WeiiiliiiJ|.'''U nJi'iIcrLolt <'KaiiH, 
dww die LoKik j<;iio Moiiirnto, wclcho 

tonrrplnt aiin(!«lii'ii,kiir7aliiO(li'riiub- 
jcctivFu AVcrkHiiiKo aiif^'liiirvn, auf 
dnt olijpcliro AVvkcd di'F Diii({0 " an- 
wendp," aj'ptUarf. Elien Licdurch 
ratschnidrt er nnch jrns i'toge, ob die 
Logik alt ffloif Hiir JrHdi nellist ciiK Wit- 

arnwliiirt wl, Im AnKwIiliiiiM) an Alt* 
arnlii dnlilli, diMR ilia lywik pini-niriU 
nU rfiH-fNn wirklicli cino WimivnNlMft 
iHt unit andrcrwita ala ulrm den 
mkhImi f iir alls iibriiicn entliittt, no dam 
vir )iicT...dcn Bci^riff einer "anfle- 
vandlcn Lu)nk" IrcITcli.' PrautI, 
Gri(kifhU drr Lngik, til S04-S. 
AccoTdinj;, llicn-fore, to IhiR Tim «t 
liBve, lyijacn Dm-cnH=l'uro Lnf(ie-=ft 
SficDcc; Ijiigint Ut(.-nii=Ap|>liiMl I-ogia 
= an Art. Tliis apptara almuirt 
idpiilicai witli t)io view HtiIiHO|i>ciitt7 
eBl«Hiuil lij Wolt, nnd by Kant, nbo, 
iu iIuBiiing llio Lngicn Jlurra* ai 
• TLo Science ot tbo NiTtsHoij Lawi 
of TbonKbt,' arrived, Ibonsb ^J ' 
very diSereul iitoccbb, at tbo aanw 


Thii ooQcepUon of logic fonned tlio Iimm ef th« Rcttlum < 
of DuDi Scotua, Mul the infi-ixnicvft lie ilLTived tlMTtrfnxn 
struck deeply it tliu foiimlntion iif ttl tlteorim eoncrmiiig 
education. Tlic C'ik^t(•^inIl tlivjiiin wom t)ntli f<irvst4ll(tl aixl 
excccdcti ; for it iit vvjilL-nt tliut in postiiUling for all tli« 
arbitrary itiviMniia atii) iliNtiiK-limiH mnrkod tnit by ttic inii-l- 
It-ct a rvality as curii|>li-tc na iImI rtf all (.-xtoninl iii<livi<tiial 
cxintcnco*, tlio tlifiry wliifli t'litiiini) f'lr i-vi-ry (li>tiiH-t om- 
ct'lition of tlic IiiiikI h (i>rn oiximlini; nbjifl iv<- n-ality, «&•• at 
once invoIvLt] aii<l ctill furlln-r i-xdiiileil. Willi Si>tii« tW* 
conception K-iM itM-lf rli< r<-.-iliiy; nixl b<-ii<f, ii.h an iiiivttubk> 
ri>rullary, tbcru w;i-, <|i-<liici'i1 :iit .■x:i-_'i,'iT:iti-il ^l■p^-^• iit.iti«n "f 
tlic fiiiictiidii of I'-;;!'' ii1t'<L'>'th(T i(i(i>iii|t:itili|<- wilb n jii«t 
rcipinl lo tli'^u «-ii-n.-.H Hhidi .b|"tiil w. hir-^.\y (.,t lli<-ir 
d^'Vr]<-]iont>-tit iiiH'ii rxifii'tii"" im-l iili>iTv:iti<ai. L-^ir, n-i l> 
l<iH|;iT till! Iiani|iii:iii|i'ii. Ihimhk' tin- iiii<tt< -<. — tito 'w-ifiiov 11 

«r>icil-lltf>.;' Ill'-H H<|vt:itl.;lit li> IhUcVi- lli:it lli>- l.-^ii-al ..i>ll- 

ojit tiiiLjbl tuli.' III.- |.l..<<' •■( ll>« vnili.-il >|.-(iiiiri.4i. nt..| 
tlial «1 /ir.'>»r n;i,ni,ii,- i„i;:l,t .ii|.|.ly lli:.l Lii-.ttl- .I-;'- «l."!i 
can tilily 1h- u.')|i;i..1 \,\ n |.iti.iil .tii.ty -I ».j..i.t.- 
Wiuir.-'.'li..tM-. l»A lal.-il.>-.-, Ml.irl. |^..v„, |,:..| r.- 

(■ iiH tl>.- ttt.. i-ittal- t.i :itl I'.oi.ii.u', Hi-n- t.. -/tM' 

]>l>u-i- totUiit M-KUrv nli> ni hIhii.- I.) I.- l..tiii.l tix- |itl.«-t 

cinli', mill till- r. iiiiily Inr \U.- inriMiir-iiy nHi| v:i;.'t|.-i ,J 

ii-iniciiolHtiir<' aii-l ili'ii"ii. Tin' i-|.r.-:n-l> »iii>li ('oii.iii hj 
iiiijri-rly i-n-t iii>"ti I/-ki-,--iii n |il_v !■• tin.' »Iiii.r.t v<iti:illy 

*"!•.«! M,n. l-..r iir:l ►■■. I .1.1. Il.,..r..t. 

tvii.i.. 1 .,.!,!., .,.<;>.. I'.. 
•i-'i ..I ■ •..-I ikW i>. ... >i.:i 

^.(.■«J.M.(. ...I,. iL... l.:.l. 

SdrnJta kiluc CrkiiUitui-t 1,-iln 


nAK It, utiJDBt assertion of the latter, that theological and scientific 
disputes are generally little more tbnn mere logomachies, — 
tlmt he regarded Rcience as nothing more, to use ihe njihorism 
of Condilliic, than vne iaii/jue hien/aite', may, with the change 
of a uDgle word, be applied with perfect propriety to the 
Subtle Doctor. 'Cela pos^,' says Haur&u, after aa able ex- 
poeitioD of the Scotian theory, ' cela pos^, il va sans dire qu'i 
toutes lea pens^s correspondent autant lie chosea, qu'on pent 
iDililfifreintneDt e'tudier la nature eo observant lea faita de 
conscience ou eo observant les ph^aotn^nea du mondo ob- 
jcctif, et qu'uiig logtque bien faite pent supplier & toute 
physique, h, toute in(!taphysique*.' 
jgJ5^ It will not repay us to follow our laborious guide through 
t^ttl. tlios«) minute and subtle (inquirieB whereby he has deroon- 
"**^^«trated the presence of the new element in the applied logic 
ofScotiis, — our object being not to resuscitate the pednntryof 
the fourteenth century, but to trace, if possible, the direc- 
tion of the activity that then prevailed, and its influence 
upon subsequent education. Nor will the foregoing outline 
appear irrelevant to such a design if we remember that in 
this Byzantine logic arc to be discerned not only the influ- 
ences that raised the logician's art to so oppressive a supre- 
macy in the schools, but also the gcnns of the ultra-nomi- 
nalism developed by William of Occam, — the rock on which 
tho method of scholasticism went to pieces in our own 
country ; though in the obscurity that enveloped alike dogma, 
philosophy, and language, men failed at first to perceive the 
Hignificance of the new movement. But before we pass from 
Duns Scotus to his pupil and successor, it is but just that we 
should give some recognition to that phase of his genius 
which honorably distinguishes him from Albertus and Aqui- 
jJJj"*J*nas. Tho logician who riveted thus closely the fetters of 
UX'*" ''"^ schools, was abo the theologian who broke through tlie 
^ffiSi barriers which his predecessors had so complacently con- 
(h. stmcted ; and it must be regarded as an important advance 

' Phili^ophif ir iMcIf, 5tb nlil., Lnflie, i* IB7. 
T>. 292: CI. Lock«, Enaif on Ihr Hu. ■ philorophU Sculatliati/, ii 3U. 

MflH L'WrnronrfiNff, ill 3, 4; MUl, 

LOGIC or DUNS 8C0TU& 185 

in philosophic apprehention, that Scotut could adratt ths 
fact, that there were in the proviace of faith not merely 
truths to which the human reason could never have attained 
unaided, but also myBtorieA which even when revealetl tran* 
•cended its anslysii. It is true that in the theory of the 
principium individuationiM which he maintained, be sought 
to escape from the perilous ponition of Aqtiinas by a solution 
satisfactory to the comprehonnion ; but there were al«o many 
other points in relation to which he couM say with Ter* 
tullian and AuguMine, Credo quia ak$f9rttym\ The strain 
beneath which the formulas that Albertus and Aquinas had 
constructed W(»re lK*ft>rc long to give way, grew heavy un<ler 
the supremacy of the Subtle Doctor. He saw, too, far more 
clearly than they, the nsil tendency of AriKtotelian thciuglit, 
and that the theory of the vital principle ptMnt<'<I unmi^take* 
ably to a renunciation of the do<.'trinc of a future life'^ And, 
while he rec<»giiix*<l in all itn foree that deMrc for Unity*, 
i^hich hoji proved b<»th the {Hilar i»tar and the tV^nu /ilifict 
of philaM»|»liy. he ovuiili'd \iith f»<|i!al iii^i^lit that the<*ffy of 
n\ibsi>qition, to%ianls \vhi«-h tli»' niVHtitiHtn of Ilona%*cntura 
had advanci*<i so cloH^'ly, an<l pn-fi-rn'*! Minply to n*gard the 
bcli<'f in human imiiiortalitv as a ri*veal<il trutli. 

If, accorJin^ly. ^e ci»iii|wro Duni* So»tus with Roger 
Bacon, there ^ill be f<»un(|, as me have alft*ady remarked, JSS 
connent as well as ointrast in thrir views. B<»th were di«* 
tinguihhe«l by their devotion to the mathenuittcs of their 
time; btith said that kuowl«*<|^'«» munt have it% lioginningn in 
experience*, — and in Dunn Si-otu** ne |M'rhn|»H diMCtTn the 

' *Attrh l«r*itft 8r«fta« djtnn on- pf>nr U r<>nn«itr^. il ttit UUtf %m* 

•trt SjBufttthif*. fUa« er (—urn mil Ari«t'4«« fui «'• luir^ •!«* rit«'ii* «lr W 

■NuirmrnWortru/q •pr«^li«fi^i«u| C'^'"*".' ll*'»r«.**u, i'K*i. .V«»'-«»fiffir, 

<Wr l*nrrki-nnlM%rkt il •!<• Al*«>lutrtt ii ir/.i 

•Ulal. d%%* t-r af* Iti«lilrriu.iii*t 'li* ' ' OiAnift ^r«» •ntit, m^<ioJ«ss 

tK«4njatir)H 1*iiti-r>'r<liiufii( <1*'« rr4k* m«»liiiu »i>'t r«.n««-n.« 'tUni H |«»«»l* 

ti«» li> n uiit« r ila* Tli« ■ r« tiM 1m' «rit- I I't mi uti.l^li lu af |« (niit.* /^^ tt rmm 

»liu4«n lirkAftifft. mil «!*-• rr >l> r i*r,H..f-». (^-4>«t tii 1. l>rrt|U 

Tlir»'l -^ii* tiiir • iii«" |»r«kti«*'hr W.rk- ri-»'j -i "f tl..« •! -<',•• .? lUr •''-«•• 

Mt:V.*tl im (M'>*i«t«> •!■ « pr4kt:*--lt« o «/m«« m.. ;*(•*, •«• l|«'jrf'»\ ii 3 *>.'•. 
(*!4iUt)*iti «t i»t ' rrafilJ.'.V.- * ■' »# • I'r .f VI»ir. r r f..jiff« tl^t • 

W/r /..►iii , 111 •.►•»J| r«rl i|t| i»'-/ . 'i'/ •••..I. 'i^^. tk* «!► 

*Su\«»»t l»un* Sr«.|, rtltc \<tr\^4 |« •• I !•• t! • •!* I -* '«• i«t!»f»l f«f 

n< M pr«>fi%r f«»« *'Aniniainr«*« iiu A'|i.n«* r •••.i».-r| !♦' %b'«W 

*^•r:l!•|^ |>tot.«ri »"*% |«i*l«%l." #1, }t*u,*>M9 r.l«f >' I^i (%;^rim«ii. 



K n. firat ngna of the gravitation of controTersy towards the ques- 
tion with which, since the commencement of the seventeenth 
century, it has been mainly occupied ; both regarded logic as 
essential to the right acquirement of knowledge', though 
differing widely with respect to its relative importance; 
both relegated to theology those deeper mysteries which 
the thinkera of the preceding century sought to determine 
by dialectics'. 
ST The reputation of Duns Scotus in our universities is 
Z*m rivalled by that of Aquinas alone, and in all but theological 
« questions the influence of the former was probably far the 
greater. His realiiim, it is true, was displaced by the nomi- 
nalism of Occam, but his authority as a logician ami a theo- 
logian remained uiiimpairoil. The literature to which his 
theories with respect to isolated questions gave birth, would 
alone fonn a considerable library. Even so late as the 
seventeenth century, alniost a liiindrcd years afier he had 
been dragged so ignominiously from his pedestal at O.tford, 
jif an edition of his entire works appeared under the auspices of 
the Irish Franciscans at Lyons, unsurpassed by any edition 
of tlie schoolmen fur beauty of typography and accuracy of 
execution ; while in the dedication of the work to Philip iv 
of Spain, John Baptista a Canipanea, the general of tlic 
order, unhesitatingly claims for his author the fame that 
belongs to ingeiitis fam'dke Hoti'sslmus praceptor, amplisaiiiue 
acholiB }iolilis aiites'^/ nanus'. 
" Among the most distinguished schoolmen in the genera- 

tion that succeeded Duns Scotus were Mayronius, Petrus 
Aurcolus, bishop of Aix, and Durand de Saint-Por^ain ; of 
these the first was long a text -book in our universities ; the 

tol (ciulciiciea o[ Itocer Bbcod ex- 
pressed the metliixl whicli lie Imd 
jeBTUcJ trom tbe Blrictly iDilivtdiiRl- 
isiog mind o( hiH (uuiider. Francis 
of Ajtii-i could look only at indivi- 
doals, could only rine tu the uiiiTcmal 
tbroii^li iDdivijitnlB. Tb«DCC came 
hi9 geniiil sjinj'ntli}', tbonce cuce Lis 
■upcrstition. ^Vbnt Bacon trenx- 
ferrcJ to pbyaics at the peril of his 
cbOTBCter and Ubeity, Dnni Scotot 

carried into metaplijniei and theo- 
logy, and 80 liecume tba toimder of 
tlie great Middle Age >ecl«liii:bbnil 
his Dame.' itoial Phil. p. 5. 

> ' Et ccrtB si logicsni ncaeirit, noa 
politil alias seiie acientias, sicnt 
decet.' Comp. Sliidii. e. & 

• Oput Mnjait cc, ' '" 

' Optrn Omnia, t 
dingil, Lugdoui, 1ft 

a Lucari Wal- 



second is credited by Haur&u with having been the leader cnAi 
of the attack on the theory of Universals ; while the third 
acquired distinction by his denial of some of the chief 
doctrines of the Tliomists, — among them that of the 'first 
intelligible' and that of representative ideas*. Both ap- 
proached the confines of that border land where the pliantanies 
of realism were to be seen fleeing before tlie approaching 
light It is impossible indeed to follow the reasoning of the 
most eminent logicians from the time of A(|uinas without 
perceiving that clearer and juster metaphysical thought was 
being evolved from the long discussion. It needed but a few 
l)oId strides, and the regions of realism, so far at K^asi as 
the theory of Universiils was conccnied, would be left be- 
hind. It is hardly necessary to add that such an advance 
was soon to be made, and that it was to be made by William 
of Occam. 

'The demagogue of scholasticism' is no inappropriate wmku 
title for one who, at little more than twenty years of age, d. uS 
defied the authoritv of Boniface vill, in a treatise ajjainst the 
spiritual j)owcr of the Pojkj*; who, in mature life, stood forth 
in defence of the vow of |)overty and of his onler against 
John XXII '; and who so far reverse^l the tradition of the 

' HaareBU, Phil. Scolantiquft ii 
410—416. PranU, Gftchichte dtr 
lAHfik, III 292. 

* That the Difjnitatio tujtrr Potm- 
tatf was written duriu^ the lifetime 
of Dunifaec Reemn certain. (Seedtil- 
d:i«<tU8, J)f Monarvhia S. Jiotnani Im- 
p^rii, t<l.' IfiTi, i». 13). Occam coultl 
tbcreforo, if bom in I'iHO, have been 
httlo more tlian one or two and 
twenty, for Boniface died Oct. 11, 
\''^»y6. The I)i$pHta*io is in the form 
of a dialo;nic between a KoMier and 
a priest, and it is certainly iome- 
vbut startling to find seiUimentH like 
the fnllowio};; proce<Hlinj» from the 
fH-n of a Franciscan of the fourteenth 
ctnturr. 'Clericus. Inimocerte con- 
tra omne jatt, injnriaH innnnieraa 
m>tineunisi. Mih-H. Scire vellem, 
quidvocatis juH. ClericUH. Jusvoco, 
— tlecret* pa tram et Htatnta Roma- 
nonim |M>ntificni>!. Miles. Quh; illi 
'tatuunt, si do tcmporalibui ktatuaut, 

Tobifl possant jura evae, nobi^ Tero 
non Kuut. NuIluM enim potest de iia 
fitutnero, aaifer qnie constat ipnum 
dominium non haliere. Sic nco 
Fncncomm rex iKitesl xtatuere auper 
imperium: ueo Imprrator au|>er 
re^^num Frnnciie. Kt quemadmo- 
duin terreni princi|H:a non po*>4unt 
aliquid ntatuere de veatritt Hpirittiali- 
buM, auiKT qaiD non arcepemnt 
potetittttem : sic nee vos de temporm* 
libu«< eomm, aupor *\\\xi* non bab<*tit 
anctoritjitem. I'nde frivolnm e^t, 
quicfiuid atatni^tia de temporalilma, 
auiM'r qun potestatem non accepiatit 
a Deo. Undo nnper mihi ri^ua 
magnns fuit, cam audi^^tem noviter 
statutum e^ae a IVmifacio oetaro, 
qa<Ml *' ipM est et ense debet iia|ter 
omnes principittua et retma,** et tit 
facile p<»te^t nibi jaa acquirt>re atiper 
rem quamlibet.' lUitL p. IS. 

> Milman, iMlin Chrittianity^ Tti 
877. Bk. XII c 6. 



I^n- schools, that from his time nominalism obtained the s 

C fmges of the learned, while realism, in some instances, ^ 

^iy even r^arded as a heterodox doctrine. The triumph of i 

jBm minalism as opposed to the realism of this period, was I 

p the victory of more sober sense over the verbal subtleties a 

^ subjective phantasies that had hitherto dazzled the oth 

wise acute vision of the schoolmen; and the brief sen ten< 

in which William of Occam sweeps away the elaborate w< 

spinning of his predecessors have their brevity as well 

their logic reflected in the pages of Hobl)cs, of Locke, a 

of Mill. Le caracthe pwpre da nominaliame cest la si 

pliciU, says Haureau, in apology for his own brevity in < 

pounding the doctrines of Occam; and though the applicati 

of the method is miKlified with each se})arate thesis of realis 

the point of departure is the same, and the result is eas 


The nominalistic philosophy, therefore, as represent! 
not an obsolete system but conclusions which have won 1 
suffrages of succeeding thinkers, re<|uires no exposition 
our hands, but it will be necessary, having followed Pra 
thus far, to explain in what manner, according to his vi< 
the Byzantine logic exercised such important influence on 
fundamental a controversy, — an influence in the absence 
.which he even ventures to assert Nominalism would not hi 
made its appearance at this era*. As the chief contributi 
of the Arabian philosophy to the metaphysics of the age l 
been the theory of the intentio sectinda, so that of the Bvk 
•'•*" tine logic was the theory of the suppositio, a conception 
which no trace appears in Duns Scotus, notwithstanding ^ 
very appreciable influence of the Byzantine element on 
writings. According to this theory neither the intentio pr 
nor the intentio secunda is a real entity ; the intentio pr 
is but the name designating the external object, while 
intentio secunda is a generalisation from the intentiones pr 
Both are but t}T)os of the reality, the former a sign c 

* 'Aber gcwiRs int dasB ohne nalinmuB stigniAtlBirte, nie! 

we byzantinische Logik jene Rich- ttiiDdcn wiire.* m 233. 
tang, wclcbe man spatcr ah Noiui* 


VILLtAX or OCCAX. 169 

Ktire entity, tbe Utter the cotlectin nga of mguL And, ' 
Tor wu Occftm from claiming fur the inlentio atnnth « 

and difltinct exiiit«nco, lu Uuns Scotiu had done, awl 
iring tlicrcfroin tlifl bif;h prerojniive of logir. that he 
oan to liavc n-gnnlrd tliis u a <iti«-iition in which \ofpe 

no concvni'. But whiltr ()crnm Mniok thus hiAMy at ihc ^ 
ndntion of n>ali-iin, lie cl'-.irlv (liwvrntd ihnt individnaN. ■< 
Itch, ciiuM aff»rd ii<> n-al knouliilp.-, wnil hence Univor«Al> ;,' 
iniitl fur him tlicir tntv vuliio ai tin- aim of all xii-utttic '" 
ictiiiM. Thi*. tlii-ii, wax the chiif wrvicc whirh CX-'-aiii 
k-ntl tw iihi1<w>|>hy. Ih- liPMi^ht a;;.'iin to Ii;:hl, fntm th>< 
knt-ss tu Mhii-h iTii-iiliiit; liij^tciinis hail c<>n-i}^io<l it, tlio 

■ value* of tliL- iiiiluctivi' nivlh'Ml, a.-* nuxili:iry l» ihc iU-<Iii<-- 
,— the ^cnt (nilh whirh Arii>t<>t1i.- hail imliratMl and the 
mIimui had shut "Ut. Aft'T a laj'H; of fiKKtii-n rvnrurit-% 
pn>|HT fiiriL-ti<in uf i.yIliH^i»m, a» the hriili;!- CKn-tnictc-d hy 
ictiou fur dti|iictii>ti III jin.-.^ ovir, N<-i'ni'-<i likdy at U^t In 
■(.•civ^iiixit. Tliat the jKxili'in (Vi-am thut twik up wan 
suh->i-ijut'iitly r>r'>;;iii><-il in all il.x iiii|fna()C<- nt the (fiui- 
iuni iK-twuin |iliil<— .[ihy and w i. iin-, mii-i U' nfi-rn-il i-> 

vnvin of vil en it.r r<]nii:itiiiti-, uli", in iIm- hlnn^ 
-M<in friitii ><')in!;>i »l.ii-)i s.'( ill nlrh tli'> !>ixt>-<>...h 
iirv, visiriil «iih iinli-itiiiiin:iti- •fii-ur'- ir^ d al M-ni- • « 

■ •-li IK. it. f..]li.. ati.l iiiiMAo. -In xli'Tt; ».-•>■. rnnil. 
Iii.a ■iiiT-.-K.^ ill (i.v-:>iit on th.- la-i. ..f an Ari.t lim 

I'lnm ii'it.;nl.i:.«*iii! r< 4I.!. r r'Xin. an I Cut I>..lina> ■•-in 

.1. ■.:.>.. ,11 •i.iii,* >ii ..'.' .'tir ..t 11 r.-n. ., I, -HI. <••» 

n'.. 11.11 1.1 p'i'i-'iiiu •11 ■l.i'S Mr S>.»l* i^li II--I. . o 

'1. .,.i'.'l.,i...;i jr.'i.'. i'.;.-." .I'l.. I.-' ■•■ ! \ •■ III >..- ■'< «n 

I 1." i.t'.M 1. l,.-l . .,-.|. fr.l .-.I .. .■ 1 I--.-'. .. .-. 1" 

1 ■...-■ .1I...I .1.1 .T|1 1..1 I '■■■■ {■■■■■ ■■< •• '■ -M ■l- 1. 

■■|M'-ll'r.4l.. '.."[ «'l",'.'l li'.i, I.'.-.-!. ..■•.-^ I.-l l>il-i.! ■■• 

"1 'I'.i'-ji \-''^'-t' i ', ■•■■ I li. r.' ,■. ., I. -■ I. :'t^. 

. ..-i,!!! .1.' ii..i. ■.■..•!';■ •■ ''/':''■'■; •;".•■"'"'- 



^J'JJ' empincism, which, along with tlie admiNsion tliat all hitman 
knowledge begins with the perception of sense and of llie 
individual ohjeet, combines the claim that every Bclence, os 
Mich, can treat only of UnivrTunli*; a fiindnmeTital conception 
which npponn) clutlicd in Uy/Jiiitino tenjiinology, when lio 
sayit ihftt the conipfuierit parts of judgeinentH iu every owe 
occupy the place of sinf^ilar itidividimU l»y means of «i//i/m. 
ttlSo, hut f'»r Mcicncij only termini mt'tKernahM arc of iriiii;li 
worth'.* A'T'oriJiti),' lo iIiIn view tliu iiijiv^rHiiI, it \* hiirdly 
m-i-iiMury to p'jint out, in ripn^Nciiti-d in Oicain hy tlio iulfv- 
t'w HerunJa ', nitd in this iinionnt of conxent lictwcrn tlio juira- 

On-nm ri:>r .: ' 

lilK-l.rn J .. ". .l.-r n>il 

iIi-tD '/.".' --,■'■. >...!' ~ nidn- 

Klilidit \W. -• 11 1.11 Jii Siini*"- 
itdhnichtDiiiiK aa<\ ri.n i!i u V.\utv\a- 
ObjvcU'ii aulu-iit. ZDRlcicti llie For- 
dfruu^r TCTkntitill, ^iioii jrde WU- 
KFurliaft ii\» loluLe dot vuu L'nlvpr- 
■clli'm Itnuiilp, cine (sranilstLtzlicho 
Aiillaiwnntc vtlclie in byiantinincLo 
Tf nniuult^o nui^'kti-iilpt int, wciin 
Ocrniii BKRt, &»»» HllrrilinRii [tic Hc- 
lUudlluils (Irr UKliiilK niilli<l»( mip- 
jn.tilia Rn SlPlle >iiiEitli;rfr Ilidivi- 
(Incn hirlipn, iiImt fiir Jie AVisspn- 
ncLiitt U"fli rnir llie Irrviiiil valirtr- 
lal'i xtirlb\o\\ «JiuI.' Ill »:13. 

■ Tlie toi:o«'iiit; iiiuilntioiio from 
the tfumllibrta and tliP Sm-mi To- 
tiHi LiiflifiF, iiiilirale uitb Burh 
rraiBrkstle ilciinieKB tlie \ievn of 
Occam ID eonfonnity nitU tLa By- 
MDtine vleDiFDl, Ibm I hnve Dianflit 
il worth V'bile la fnre llicm in [nil as 
piiiitnl by Prand in itlumnilioii of 

Iruiio priiun esse Fij,-niiiri iiilcimiiiile 

Uli*. inrFMf^i)lcuntrrK,qiiiinouKiint 
wtniiHcftlii'd', »td ctiam KytitatrgK- 
rcnmntn unitntJA ct vprbtt tt nin- 
jniicliiinra et hujQunodi iliruntnr 

-IkIiiIh. liincn nfiniliii 

naluntllK Hit;!"' i- < ', 

Mjilir, hPiI rlinm |ir"iil yvjjt 
tutifl. bJ |>1nriiam Miniifiriiiiii 
tiyiicuti-KoniTiiDnticB mcutalia ^ 
luu'lo forle Hon hnb^QinH taisi Torik 
mmrf^uilfnii inlentioni nwiini. 
mricle HUtfin accipiendo dicitor 
tentio HrcniiJa enueeptnii, qui ri 
cike Kii:nilirKt intnitioncs nalnrali 
si^^Tificulivas ciTJiimioili nuiil n'oi 
Klfcicn, ililT»reiilifl et ntia IiiijiiMai 

Itii rie intrnlionibns priiiii<,ii 

#iip|)iuiuiit pro relins, priiiiiciii 
niiiis n>!i*c]>lmi winmtini", iiii i 

Liive Die f-.i:... !■ .■!!> . ' 

eht qaoilitnin m ' 

mim nnlnrnliii r -. -i n.. m,- i ■ i. 

pro qno puli'sl >.U|.i,uii.- 

; pats pr.iiiu»it 

ill*. Tale nntem duiilei tti. l'- 
num, quod est nt^um alieojiui rrL 

qnrr non eat Inle aifniniii *t illuj 

Tooitur inlenlio prima iBRf 

didlur inlcntlo prima omnn riimutii 
inlrntiunale ciiateHB in ■ninm. qiii>l 
lion nignifirat inlciilionta vd 11^1:1 

pratise et illo mmlo «■'!'• 

mpiiUIia et iiyncBUtsorFiiiiinlA in'r 
titlia, ailvErtiin, nmjuiii'tli'Hi", >'- 
hnjuamoill po^snnt Hid jirlinlii'r< - 
prima-, ijtricte aiitpm voruliir i;' 
teutia prima nomcn mmtnJi' n^lm^ 
pro tuo ■iRiiinralA mppanere. lii 
tfntio nnlcm jwunJn t$l ills, qu» 
est Mgnuni Ulimn in leu lira 11 in i>n- 
manun, enjunninli sant tiil" ii 


(lox of the tnaKtcr* and the true diaccmment of the pupil, we n 
have a striking ilhiKtration of the relevancy to true philoso- 
phy, which, notwithstanding tlieir many va^^ries, the con- 
trovcniii;<< of M>h«iIaHtii-isrn in rclatinn to tliifi ttJ'nta qufr»tio 

ni.'iy inidoiilit«-<lly claim*. 

Th«' workj4 Iff thi? wliixilmcn Iiavc ofti-n l»c<.'n cninfian^l to 
the* pyiaiiii'N; vsiht, indi-id, in thi-ir n;:;;ri';;:it4\ hut ti-«lioit«ly 
niiniit<f MMil m<>iiotMiioiiM in d«-t:iil; and i:\fn an K;fyfiti:in 
tr.'ivrlli-rN hIii» hiivir \< iiturMti^ly i-^-.-iy«-«l thi* hihyriiith^ «<f 
tliM4i' fiii«-iiiit •■trip tiir« it, hiiVf t\i'mrtt\tf\ thi-ir ff hn;;* ftf 
iiii'X|il«-—i<'l<' pli'foii r<;;:iiMiii^ th«* li;^dit ofdiiy, m», «i* -nn* 
hilt hilt rtMH'cjir, iinluifh-ttaiMliii;; fh<* cnthnxiavm from tim«* 
t<* tiiiK* i'Vi'k' d, th<* iiK-ii Iff flu* f«iiirt<'«-nth ft-iitnry iiin-t li.ivi* 
pjoii't'd fiH iIh'V HJiw hufin- |»ri(ifii«<* I'f i'mtijh' from I'n'II'--^ 
|H r|M«'\ify and t<»il. It in in-pinfiii;; to nulf th<* ••.•!•«• i»h»n- ^ 
HJth thit Kiiu'li'^h Hi'li«Ni|iii:in ili*>« !itaii;;l'*N liimo«-lf fr'*m tfn* 3^ 
t**!!-* of t hi •••!.. ;;:r;d dii;:iiia'» liV his |iroiii|it di*nvowal of th«- '.^ 
fliiihitioiiM nll-*»iit)irif-ni-y ttf A«piin.'i'<, a fi-atun* in wliiMi thf 
iiithitiHO of hi^ t«aih«r S«MtHN is [ifoliahly to l»o di^< nifl. 
Ihil ill'* tlM'»!";:i.i!i »" « k to Im- iiif'nniK'd uliith* r thi* ilivin<* 
iiit«-llii;i ni'«' wrir till* tir*t itVirtlvt- iai!*<» of all i*\i**« nc** ? 
' I kn«»\v n<'t.' pjiliid Orr.-mi; 'i-xji* i iiii«i* ti IN m«» noihin;; i-f 
till- < *aiis#- (if ;ill (MM^' ^. till' riM^'-ii li'i" ii'-itlit-r til** ni^lit ii-t 
the |»«»\MT to |i* III tiati- till-* tii;ify nf tin' I^ivini-.* W.w 

ti'i'« ■•/•!.v '*■!' ■■* "• •* •'"' fi'n. !**•■' if n r*l«r»inff««r.«* 

I. I, i-n. .li ■ >■• I'! .it1. II! U.' ill I ' • . ■ I *!:.*.■ ■ III '.'•M 

• 1 :..!». ii »-• t. •*.■■«■* *^' • - ■ **■ • It .• !i. Ill ^*'\ iTi. M ::• 
Iff • ] . 11.' * • • V ■». . 1 ;■'•.- / . I .. I! . 1, '.•. fttil V !»• 1. 

\ I \ . • J .; . .1' ..■ ■. f. ■ !•«■ !'■ I- ■ \' •.:.■••■ r^l • II. »i ■ I »■ 

..- J . - , I . •. • . . • 1 . • ■ • I I ' '• ■ !I. I i'.".«. tit I •rt* 

1. ',»,..»■ ■ i-j .1. M ^.- ' I ■ '. f ■ ' \ mrr .• ■ M.t r l i f 

. • , . • ■ I * ... f ■ . ■ .• .. ^ tit !• . ■■ - f 

, ..• »,'..■. }-, I ■■ » ■ * I *; '■ .-. 1 t= •. .ft'. !■•»■ f 

; . I f , . .. ; . ,t, r I •■ • . I 'I ■ • i" M t I!f I •■.•• t vf. • • ." S 

. - ■ . I ....... I ■ '. • • • ! . ■.. I f s -u.«. ■ f 


■. . ». i I ■: . I . ■ , . • T • f 

T I 

. , , , ■, ■■■ • . . • 

. .... .1 .....■..;■!■ • / ■■:!••./ ^ 

. : .. «. 1., «....'. I • / • I » .•^" I 1 T .• ■: . • . 

■■.♦■. I . . ' ■■ ! ■ ' • ••!-■' « I 

\ ■ » !■■!•'• 

I ■■■•...Ml.'? I ■ ' • - • ■•: r ■ V -J . f 

i ..■.•.»! Ii. 1 - • • • ' • ••■.'■ • • ■■ • ■ ' 

• ■„ .' 


ij^ that Ctivae of causes omnipotent J asked the theologian. 
f ' According to logic,' was tlio reply, ' tlio mode of existence u 
tlic Kimo in tlio cause na in tlio rlTecti. ; but the effects of the 
Kimi CaiiNO are finite, the Cnuso itself is infinite, and in there* 
(•m roiiii'vctl from the province of my ln^'ic.' Siicli infinly 
KnsG (iiidx an cclm in our lionrts, We are rcnily tosurremler 
lo Luke Wiuldiny his nilnrcil Scutus an a cunipatriot, in our 
gratification at finding in tliis indnhitiililo Knglislininn the 
carlicHt diBcenimvnt of tbo limitH wliich more modern thonglit 
kiu «> diHtincUy recogniNcd. 

It would roigiiiro very cxtcndc<l research in his writingii 
to enable us to nffirm that Occam in no case recognised the 
existence of an tiUimato major premise, that is to say, a 
major premise which could not, in conformity with the 
noroinalistic philoaophy, be shown to be resolvable into 
an induction from observed facts. But it is to be remem- . 
bercd that the question of innate ideas was not familiar to 
the schoolman. The belief in their existence had been 
roughly rejected by the chief teachers of the early Latin 
Church; and it was not until Plato had again become known 
to western Europe, that the theory began to advance 
towards that position which it has since assumed in the 
arena of phtlosnphic controversy. There is nothing in tho 
peculiar direction of the prejudices which characterise the 
age in which Occam lived, to suggest that he might not 
have employed, witli perfect impunity, the reasoning used 
by Locke against an innate belief in the divine existence; 
liut when we consider that Locke himself undoubtedly failed 
to grasp the true bearings of nominalism upon the whole 
theory of inno.te ideas, we may well hold his predecessor 
by more than three centuries exonerated from reproach in 
his corresponding lack of apprehension. On more perilous 
ground it proved, in all probability, of eminent service to 
the progress of speculation that Occam so definitely refused 
iMiM 'o render his method subservient to the test of theological 
*j™ dogma. It might seem a bold step for a Franciscan friar 
■*™T. thus to proclaim the severance of logic from theology ; but 
the impossibility of that alliance which Aquinas had en- 


dcavourcd to cfftct, yndh bcooming incrctfiiiigly qipomit, ciiaf. 
and tlio path punuetl by Occam Acomed at leant to relieve 
him from tlio anliioiiM taj^lc of rcc«incilin|; what lioth Badrti 
aiitl the Cniiin*li hml (Kn'tanil roiiM ii«»t n.*nlly Im at variance. 
Tf> Nomo he mny iii<l<-ril fip|>«*nr only to have evaihil the 
• difliciilty, iHit in the n-Htrii'tioiiM ho thiin iiii]ii»i4*«l iiti hi;nc 
it iM vtmy to mm* tliut \w imrniwc*! th(* fit^M of c*>titnivi-rwjr 
with tilt* linppirNt n*HiiltK. The do;rina hail hitherto licvn 
the rallying |Kiiiit for the rH-rct*At ri»iitn>verHi**N. Tlie lU^al 
ProM^nce, the Incarnation, the doctrine of the Trinity, tlio 
cxiKtenco of an;(< lie nntnreM, the Ininmnilato (.unri'|iti<in, 
HHcli had lK*eii the i|iii*MtionN wlii<*li dn.'W niund e.irh i;n*at 
doctor the oxnt«Ml untJifhceM of those centuries Tlie earn* 
entneMH with whirli nu-n then K«in;,'ht to approve to the n.'uiwifi 
that which it wan nut ;,nven to the navin to explain, L« 
among the most remarkahl«», piTliapn the moMt {Runful, 
features of thiM* times. With William of Occam wo «ec 
these feverish eflurts sinking fur a time into compnrati%*e 
repose. Univer.^iU thenceforth, at hast in the Knghsh uni- 
versities, ceaM'd to invit«» tho iri;;t'niitty ''f the hig'**:il dis- 
putant ; and eaeh n«*\v oiiiu-r, nlii vol from the mie^^ity 
of shewing h(»w his dixt lines lui^lit lie n*ei»iiril«.-il with 
dogma, cast his metaphysiral tli'<iri*-H info the an.'na of 
t)ie hchooN to In* toHMMl fioni ctnr fliHpiitant to nnoth«T. in 
conijiarative frce«l«nii from apprrlirnsion c«»nceming thiir 
lii'aring u|n>ii t1ii«i|i*;{i(*a! controversy. An imniiiiM* acft!^- 
sion hail lM.-en gain«-i| to tin* ratisi* of fti«*«lom in lh«rtight, 
and fi'W will Im* (liHifiM-fl to rail in «ph*-»ti'>n th<* jtistirv «if 
llie oimmi nt of Ilallani, that * titis ni<-t.i|*liy«!ral rontentiuo 
tvpifi* s the :»r«:4t rtli-^ioiis ron\n!-i'>n' <»f a l:it»T •iine. 

Wr |i.i\r alje.nlv alhilvl t«» iho^i- wiit-.n^'* of ( )i>«am tw r««a 
^hi'ri'in h** ai»ii* ii««l as the r'»n!r»»»i*' r <»f tip- ji.i| .iH-^iitiiiw -^^.^^^ 
tions; and the >%)i"Ie Cfii!i«»\« i-y Uru«<!i tli«- f* j«e at* 
Avigtmii ai'd thi- Kiijl^li Fnii'i-i .I'l- j-» -«• j»- ft:ii»fit t» tli«? 
Iti-lory of Kii:;!i-li th-i'i;:lit at thi- i- u ■*!. thit w« "In*! nt»«| 
M'i ixeiiM* f«»r I MM '•III;;; f^r a wliil« t« ii"*»' n.» ii..i;n«ir« « 
c»f this Pinarkahle epi- -h* Wi- 1. i\e alv'ft-d in tho 
iTiivliiig ehajiter Ut the lapid il- -• Ji- H' > "t ti"^ M* i-ii* .itit«. 


*. n. antl it in uti'loiibtolly somcwtmt difHciilt, at fimt mglit, to ro- 
concilo ;' ,)sc gont-ml clmmctcristicn which drew from Wyclif, 
the mnfltcr of Biilhul, Buch Btcni rebuke, tind from Cower, 
Cli-iiicur, and Langlftiidc sncti tn?nch;iiit H.-trcasm, with the 
merits of tliat order which could trace from Adam de 
llarisco so tllustriouii a xuccoRsion ok in presented, in England 
!* alono, by tho nninex of Richard of Coventry, John Widtia, 
'""■ Thomas Duckyng, Thotnut Uungay, IV-ccham, Hiehan] Mid* 
dlvtoa, Dunn Scutiin, Occam, and Diirley. It ie not Icm 
singnlor to And tho order wliicli sacrificed the tiympatliy of 
GruMsotCflto Ity its suluiervicncy to pnpal nggrcssion, now 
foremost in the ruiiMtjince to the pnpnl power. 
;|^ Of ihc hitter phenomenon a suflicicnt explanation is 
ST oflbnlu] in tho policy of Boniface Vlii, and the subsequent 
removal of the pontifiutl court to Avignon. The rapacity 
of Boniface had efTectuaUy alicnateil the sympathies of the 
English Franciscans'; tho Bubscr\ioncy of the court of 
Avignon to French interests roused the indignation of all 
tnie Englishmen. For seventy years, after tho conchision 
of the stniggic between tlie crafty and able pontiff and tho 
equally crafty and able Philip the Fair, tho pope was the 
liumbic vassal of France; and when at length ho again 
resumed his rcnidenco under the shelter of the Vatican, it 
was soon discovered that, in that long humiliation, much of 
the awe and reverence that once waited on his authority hod 
passed away, and that bin mandates, his menaces, and his 
nnathemoH were but fuehlo echoes of tho thunder that 
Ilildubrand and Innocent III hud wicldcil. The efTccts of 
that long exile wt'rc indeed such as wo may well suppose 
none of the Fi-ench nioii.irclis fureseon. Tho power of 
France, at the opening of tho century and up to the days 
of Cn5cy and Poitien*, was a menace to all Europe, and 

tlirtt «f t)io vcHi'Kt tniHliTii i>)iiir|>i'r, 

|iriicti»illi.vt{»iiiIucoi>ii tliuKruiiciii- Ktnct imiun, llimiii-tiimt mo miriu. 

CHtiK lit Kiii;Iuncl, neo Miltiiiui** iMHn utid now in coinmnitJ not merely nl 

ChriMliiiniKj, Uuuk II c. 'J. ' ll vbh.' tliu ]iapulu minJ, l>ut of the I>r 

TpmnrkH lliat aullior, 'a Iiotil anil tuundciit thcologj' of tbu >;;o.' 

dcuptiuto mcMure, otcd in • Pupo, 


it woji with unreigninl dismay that tin* iinrroiifiiling nations nia 
1»i*helil the unHcriiptiloiiM hfiirit and immiNliTntc ] otcnAiun* 
of Philip cnliHtiii;; in thi'ir Nii|)]Mirt the Hcn'ilc conperatidfi 
of the Pnpacy. In Italy the prevailing fkcntim«-nt %xx tli.i? '■'^ 
of angry tlissatisfaction. Petnin-h, himself a xiwctator of tlic 
hhanielesM pri»fii;x.'icy that p'ith<'ro<l round tlic conrt at Avi;;. 
non, Kan*astic:il]y otnipan-tl tlie fxile f»f thf* {Hint iff tii the 
liiihyloni^h r.-iptivity. Kivnzi, during Iuh Lrii-f tenure "f 
the trihiuifship, siirurnonitl * Irnifnt v to return to lUinic. 
But it may 1»e douhtrd wlicthcr the indignation of Italy vr.x4 
not Huq»:iH«*i'«l hy that of Kn;^!anil. In our own c»»uiitr)" tl^ J^J 
national f^-'liii'^ w i«4 rallrd fuilli as it ha«I nrvrr Ihi-m l>i 
Tlie rex nl III' lit f« It in tin* pn r.-iling n'Mtury at the ni»»nt»- 
|>'»ly of tlir riflii''t li'-n<tii'i -i hy It.ilian piii st?*. *as tiiflifi:* 
conipari'd witli that i-vnkid hy th(.> siiuu: ninnt'i^^ily wIpii 
c!aiiiK-d hv the n»»mini'« s of a fini'-n f«H». Thr n.itiiina! 
chanirliT WM'i now* tullv funm-d ; tin.* two nati<<n« 
hIrntU*il into iiiif ; an-I tin- Ntpifii; pnrp'"»e of the Sixttn an I 
tliL* hi^li >pirit of tli** N«<rnian alik*.* tnund rxpn-s^i'in in thi* 
Statut*' of I*nivi^ •i'* saiii'Miiii* ■! i'\ tli** ini»st ••oiir.i-^i m* i-^ 
Engli*«h ni'inanln, and tin- d- ni il of tin- pajicd pn t.- i-i-.n* 
to ti iniN>ral |H»wir :i>Mrt« d l»y tin* IhiMi -.t of the Kn;:H»h 

It ean roij«*»Mj!iiTilly ••\'*lt«» l«i.t litth* surpri'*!* that, whi n l^Z. 
tin* o]»poiiriit of tip' P.i|«.i'y ap|H;iird a^ tin* aiitlM*r of a 1^ ^ 
n«'W plii|i.«...pliy. hi'' d - frint -^ !"• 11. at P.irU. und« r the i^- '"^ 
rl» •»i;i-tir;d o !i*iin Tii*' wmOi i.! |»"I"' •h'l.H XXfl »a* 
t'l rn- :i'^Miii-.t tli" wli ■!• Fr -ip - iii «f'l'T; j^ii'i-»t th-* 
Spiritn.d rraii-'i^'MJi" ^^li'» JJi^- -' « I .«J'M>-» t!i«' r-irr'-pfi- !«• 
of A\;!,'li<'?i. .iiid a^Min-! ♦).«• p." • '" •■* * *' • ••" ^*1;« d- !.!• d 

I.Ih rl I'lii^ t'l t' !iip ■!.il p ' ^ t. J' u'*:!-:- ■•*" tl . Ki.:!.*-! 

Frain>. Ill \\i i.« i-iiirm"- ! ?■ ''i *' o • -r •! ?•. -t- f* *-( 

.irr*. w. ii- !".r:«:-i.i- »i t.« t- i- i 1 '- «! • 'ii- . - < » ■ i?'i lii'ti- *I ••*'« 

Wax a ]'r:* u* i :it .\\'j'«"»i. :i' I • '" v • |' • ■■ ''< '•> • »■ ' * 

M :.'!!• i"! ? ikii.j f.'M,- i' M :• ■ \- •' I. ■■ = ' ■•! T'Vif I ' ■ - 

\\l,«. »'I|'|"'TS •! •• ■ • i'!-' • ! •' ' I . -' • ' • i-. ?!.. I' •••■- 
/• itr. l'r..I;i M'll:-.h li- w-.'-.l i !■.■• I • •'• \.- \ ^^i'\t 
III- :iijt.i-..|ii,t^ u|niIi til" •('!■ -•: 11 'f t'.. I' ! il f»'»'r. !>.« 



L maotftst Mipcriurity over liis untn^'oiiiHtK extorting the aj- 
mimtioii evL-n of tlio hostile ]M>iitiff, who Btylud him the Doc- 
tor Invincibitis. In EnglanJ, where the Franciscan order was 
most powerful and the feeling excited hy the usurpations of 
the Papacy most intense, the sympathy evokcti on his be- 
half wfi.i proportion ah ly strong. From the time of Grosse- 

' te.->te there npp*.-ars to have lieen gi'owiiig up n distinctive 
school of English thoujjlit, scjuirutcd by strong points of 
contraiit from that developed under the influence of tho 
Dominicans at Paris ; and not a few of our countrymen 
rcgartlcd with exultation the vigour and freshness of specu- 
lation at home when compared with the coiiiicrvatism tiiat 
prevailed at the great continental university'. Traces of 
this contrast of fee-ling are to be discerned long after the 

^ time of Occam. Even so late as the lattfir part of the 

, fiflecDtli century we fin<l that at Paris, when the ban under 
vhich Louis XI had placed the nominal istie doctrines was 
removed, and the chains which bound the forbidden vuhimes 
were loosL-ned, tho German nation, originally known as the 
Knglish nation, alone receivcil with any manifestations of 
joy the withdrawal of the proliibltion'. 


' ' Tilt Rcliool of pliilosophen 
whicli llim (in tlic tliirlt-eiilii ecu 
turi'l krone in thix rnuiitry «iis din 
tiiii.-iii>lic<l, ill the juilKi'iiiciit ul cun 

tioK. I>v n hiiI'IId null 


ltnnm,K o( llio cuiili.iMit.— |-r..r. 

Shirli-y, Intml. to fatticuli Ziia- 

«,-»..«.. p. xlviii. 

' ■ Oh voit. Ill 1173. Ics livrcK ilcs 

XI, ruf<TniV» HOHK JcH .'liiiiiici .lu' mia 
•a tern, roiuuiv ilit llt)lwrl Cii^iiii, 
ponr p'rlre-'ilrt'Iourw tl Ji'tenin*"," 
qni btiit mm ai'ri'i. au iii>m ilu iii>''me 
iiA. par lo pr^vOt ile rnriii. qui ili-- 
elnni qu'il I'mviiir, "rliatim j i^la- 
dicra ijni viiinlru." Rpiile tIniiH I'tiiti- 
vcniu' la iuitii>n ■I'Alli'inui.'iio rv^^xA 
Bvcc uiH) Kninile joit rctlc iiiitarinn' 
(ion de In lire." Uitlcirr Lillrrairr Je 
la traptr nx QiiatoriSmf SHelr. pat 
Victor Lc C'lrrc, i HSU. Tbc Kii;,'lisb 
nnliun at the ntiirerhU}' of I'uriii be- 
oima luumu w tbo Uciuiun nation 

in tbo year 14:10. Tbe biKtnrion at 
llic niiirerHity of BaHte, 1>t Vischcr, 
olisrrTCB lliitt nt ilu SrHt louiidttiuD 
ill tbo j'cnr 14ilil tbo Htill mEiiiR am- 
triivi'rny iiitroiluctil an clement o( 
ili>wiinl. Of [|ia iliRvri'iit )i1iuni,ii ot 
iKitiiiiiiiliKin i:i tbat ciiitiir^-, Ik olt. 
■erven:— ■|)cr NnmiiiniiHinuii verci> 
iii;.-t jcUt urn kicti dio kiiiiihi ergun 
dii' kirciiliclKti MiKKliriiiicbc nnliiiliip- 
(rnilo, nciii'nulc INirk-i, «elFhc la 
dtii Cuiiellii'ii uiiun Wi-u lur Vvrbeit- 
Hcniiii- dvr Kirrho aucbt, nnd, M 
BiilTalti'Dil es aitch aut den erKten 
Jtliirk [tt.iTsfJit'intcriii UiJcuteuiIcn 
Vi-rln-lcm noKar niit doin Myiiliciu- 
niiia VLTbiiudcii. Er fuuJ trotii dem 
Wiiltrstundu dcs mit dcr riiuiiHclicn 
Ktn'hv vcrliundciicn lU'uliKiiiiiii iin- 
UH-r mi-hr Vvrbnituiic luif ibii Uui- 
vi-nilJiti'n, uiid wnrilo mil Kiiilo ■U'l 
vicrr.i'ltnti'n mid iin Altfnni; dif [iiilt- 
Billist uiif dcr Puriscr Univer-itiit.' 
Ofirhichlt Jcr UnU-irtitat Haiti, 
p. 13U. 



At Oxford however the doctrines of Occam obtained hia 
a decided, though by no means an undisputed, superiority'. iNif«i 
Occasionally, indeed, supporters of the older philosophy moJ 
avowe<l their dissent from his teaching ; of whom the most 
eminent was perhaps Walter Burleigli, a pupil of Duns 
Scotus, whose Expositio Sftper artem Veterem long continued 
a text-book in the university, and whose Liber de Vita ae 
Monhus Philosophorum is interesting as perhaps the earliest 
attempt at a connected view of the history of ancient 
thought But by far the greater number followed in the 
new track. Among them were John Bacanthorpe, Adam 
Goddam, and Armand de Beauvois ; while some even sought 
to press the arguments of their teacher to yet more extreme 
conclusions. Such was Richard Holcot, who did not hesi- 
tate to insist upon that distinction between scientific and 
theological tnith which, as we have seen, lioth the Church 
and Bacon dechiroil to be imposjjible, and at which Occam 
himself apjK^ars to have stopjied short*. If we accept the 
views of certain writers we shall \\c dispose<l to l«M»k up«»n 
the distinguisliiiig feature of sc*holasticism as wril nigh 
obliterated with the progress and ditl'usion of nominalistic 
doctrines. *TIie triumph of Nominalism,' says Dean Mans<»l, J"Jj|J| 
'involved the downfall of the i)rincipal .applications of the v^*^ 


scholastic metho<l.' But, on the other hand, the facts shew w^m^ 
us that metliod as not less rigorously jMirsued l»y Brad- 
wardine and Wyelif than by Albertus ami Aipiinas. Pro- 
fessor Sliirley, whose views on such a subject must carry 
considerable weight, inclined to the o)>inion that a modifie«l 

* WiKxl PJiys, <tii/> aunn 1313, Mho 
diviHiotis lN.*twf4>n tlit* Niirclieni oinl 
the SoutlifTii cUrkH wen' now ah 
pri-iit, if not nion*. ns thosr Ufore. 
'J'h<»)'<> r»f the north ht'hl, a-4 'tis Hiiiil 
%ith Scotii'', :uhI thohc of th<> Hiiitli 
vith Orkh.tJii. un«1 in all thrir ilihpu- 
tiitioim wcir ho>ioI(iit thut tho {K-Hce 
of th»« uiiiv^r-'ity w.ih thtn-hy not 
a little tlisturhcii.* Wo<Hl-'Jiitcb, i 

• • NVqur ilicAfi, cum Roliorto ffol- 
P<H»l in /Vim. .sVw.viif.|ihiloHii|ihi>niin 
ntioncD vcTAh c^hc i>u>hc xruiitliuu 

rntionom nnturnlcm, artimlo^ roro 
tht'oln^'ico?* \rritat('ni Hihi vin«lirare 
M>tMni«linn rutionfni Hn|K>rnAt(irul<'Ui. 
Nam <iit ait S. ThnmuO niiUo )*firto 
vcriini \\\U'T\ voro n'piifnimre fnitint 

Quii|»n»i«trr Thomas, in Coin- 

nifut. A<1 Lih. Trinit. IkHlliii, prrihit 
(juinI hi qniil iiiviiiiatiir in *lirti4 
|)hiloo^^o|i)ioritni WAv'x rt'i>u*manM, illu<l 
non k"*M* i»hiloMi|i|o*»i «I«'suiii|*ttmi, 
i«c«l v\ rjiw nbiiMU }»n»c«tU-r«' |»n»i»t«T 
rniioniM (hfcctnni.* Nf:i7^>ninK in 
Vnii. PiiitnniM rt Ari*9. l*hiht**»pk, 
p. 2*11. (^)iutvd l>y lUurvttU, u. 471*. 


•. ti. form of realism still prcvniled, though tlie theory of Uni- 
\orsaU 03 ohjcctivc exii^tenci^s ifos abnndonoil. ' It is possi- 
ble,' he says, ' that in order to be consistent with a revealed 
religion, nomiDaJism roqiiircs a definile boundary to be 
drawn between the provinces of religion and philasophy, 
and to this tbe whole genius of scholasticism is opposed. 
But this at least is certain, whatever be tlie cause, that 
almost all the rcligiouii life, and even all that was continuous 
in the intellectual life of the middle ages, belonged to one 
or other of the various shades of roaliiim. In the latte'r 
lialf of tlio fourteenth century, whatever there was among 
the clergy, cither of such religious feeling or of intellectual 
activity, was to be found, speaking broadly, among the 
secular priests. As a body, therefore, tlicy were uatumlly 
realiitsV It is evident, indeed, that if nominaliKm, in a 
form incompatible with the sehohtstic metlxHl, had liecoine 
prc<lominant to the extent that sunie authorities have re- 
presented, t)ie result must have inevitably led to a com- 
parative neglect of those writers in whom that method is 
the all -pre vailing characteriKtic, but a very imperfect ac- 
quaintance witli the studies of the fourteenth and Hftccnih 
centuries suffices to shew us that such was not the case. 
The pretentions of scholasticism were lowered, but its policy 
was the same. The provinces of reason and faitli may have 
been no longer regarded as contenninuus, but logic was sliil 
the weapon that the theologian most relied upon in con- 
troversy, and its popularity was inidiinini.shed in the schools. 

"1^ If ])roof were reipiired of our statement, we could scarcely 
ailducc better evidence than ix afforded by the great treatise 
of Thomas Bradwanliiie, arehbi.slinp of Canterbury, — the De 
Causa Dei, and the rapid and ]>ermancnt success that it 

■itoi obtained. TJii.s treatise, addressed ad sitos Merlonenses, may 
be regarded as one of the chief sources of the Calvinistic 
teaching, HO far as it has found expression, of onr English 
C'hureh; foundetl for the most part on the work of Augustine, 
it aims at developing, by a series of corollaries from two 

■ Inlrod. to Fattituli XUanioTHm, p. lii. 



main propositions, tho reasoning against Felagiasism. The <«i 
mode of treatment, which is almost as much thai of the 
geometrician as of the school logician, is perhaps the moat 
remarkable instance of t)ie scholaiitic method to be fomid ia 
the whole range of middle age literature'. How soon its^jr^ 
authority as a classic work on the controversy became racug- ^^ 
nised, may be inferred from the simple yet rcrereotial 
language which Cliaucer has put in the mouth of his Noone 
Prcst: — 

* Dot vlmt tbat God furwot mott ofctkt bs 
After Uie opynyoun of et* rUio clcrkii. 
WitnenRe ou him, tliai ray clerk U, 
Tliat iu iicole is i:ri t alt<rciictuQ 
lu tbit maticr, aud ^rvt (l«»H|Hitea<Hin, 
And hath b«u of an handn>l thoaneod SMa. 
But yit I can not bult it to tb« brao. 
An can Ihu h«>lT dfci«»r An)(itiit>-u, 
Or liiK'Cc, or (/»*• hi»cht*p llnt*ltrardi/m^ 
^\1H■th^r that (itnldifi vurthy furvt'tyiig 
8tr<*i;nu-th lue netMUlj for to do a tbia^ 
(Ni*fd»'Iy clrjHj I fiimplc nccrmit*'); 
Or cIKmi if frc choyi be irrutit<d me 
To do thnt i*jmc thinf* or to do it D<Ml|i:bl« 
Tlntti^b iiud fonrut it, rr that it «a« ■ins|[ht. 
Or if hi4 witrn^ utrcyntth ncvvr a dec]. 
But by n<CiN«it<' coijthctoiiil.* 

The work to wliicli dianorr thuN deferentially alliidet wae 
received witii unaniinourt Applau**!.* by the learned of Brad* 
wardine's time; it found xU way to nearlv all the libfmriee 
of Eun){>e'; it was editeil. in KilH, with lalK>riotts care bj 

' A Rood r>iit!inr of the fr«*m>ral 
aeopc of tTio «>'rk «ill Im* fn'itid m 
iVan !f»»«»k'« /.i" '^« »*f ttf .ir» hf-ith' ;^ 
€»/('iial# rhurt, i\ "T - ***i an I a r »fv 
ftil fttiidv of it in \^ «'M« r'« /<• 1 1 .'*»%'% 
//r»ii/*'«ir»r H.» (*< Mitt, h'.i'h* L'p«-t, 
l*ui'i. ShmU* \"^\* U|x.ti llrilktr- 
dnie'a ni« th***! a« tini|iii': 'lti|«te 
I^firuu*, «|u«-l •<ii»ii, «t ••»l'i« !.»»•<• 
\itiii (i n(.i«it in I ».« "l-VM .«. ut f.l.i 
Mulht m ill- • I'l «'•! •.'»• • *«'H!» V f" I, 

h\|»tlM-i4 il'll-l |fM»' I I I. » I « % M« 
f«ft»%IIIJt l|Mi>|i|« •!• I«|« «i''.f til I ', it 

ci>ri>lltrm d«-liut iflti. |<ititi«» « *.•»»! 
ft LiKlitlc |>robalK>ttibu« ; ikiti(%|'i 

rt hypi»thr«;1»tt«, ri 
n Iipia ctiiii^ |*i *\n t«ta ^€T>ic a^l Si 
n-<- i< ••|<in« att*-t« ffl'i, i|*tA If at 
(..•,• *<i'i •'It « (jf ^•itf>i%fii f*>rta*«# 

Mi it'illti'.l ;< « t |>r*>|»«*ltl'<fllt'«1« Aii« 

>«'i|<*r ••.•l«ta# il' »»tt tnath'titaU* 
ri'i I*' :il «i*|j' I'Miir a-vfoifu, 
III. mill' fit I*' *.--n t! ti t.| «nH •ei !«§■ 
|>i' i>. I iiii. •• I ••ii. ♦ • t • . «|'t »Mi tfaf*- 


!!■ ll. ' 

/• • /"» t%. 

* ' I ..t I.. !i> r. •!*'ii.« at.|«M 
f 1 * ■• • I, I I* to « rii* ■ :'ii •! «'* <tf>iin 
t \ • I • !• »• • • » 'I. i! |» f « •!»»■« • f« fia 
l-ii ,\ tU«- •• li>(ti« l.urff<4 «l«i«ffdtc* 
111 if/ /'../ 


tMT. n. Sir Henry Savile, — one of the latest of tliat eminent sctiolar'a 
~'^~' services to literature, — appearing os a. folio of some 900 
pages; and even so late aa the last ccntuiy, Dean Milner 
deemed it deserving of a lengtliened and scrupulous analysis. 
In the account of Bradwardino wliicli Savile prefixes to liia 
edition, he extols in langiinge of some exaggeration the 
learning of his author, who, !if fiajs, solidam ex AHslotetis 
et I'latuiiia /ontihus haunt jiln'losojiliiinn. What kind of 
[4iilosophy BradTvardino was likely to have imbibed as that 
of Aristotle, we have already seen ; as for Plato, there is no 
evidence in the De Causa Dei that the author )ind ever 
had access to any of that philosoijhcr's writings except tho 
old translation of the TitiKinis by Chalcidiiis. At the sama 
time it must bo admitted that his references to ancient 
authors are surprisingly numerous and extend over a wide 
JJ^ range. Hia pages bristle with quotations from Ptolemanis, 
rrl^ C^-prian, Lactantiiis, Jerome, Augustine, Gregory, Boethiiis, 
"^ Seneca, Casaiodonis, Isidonis, HormcH, Johannes SCotus, tho 
Pseud o-Dionysius, Daniascenua, Bcdo, Ansclni, Grossoto-ste, 
Aviccnna and Averriics. Even had he at that time attained 
to the dignity of the archbishopric, bi.i literary resources 
would appear far beyond what we should look for at this 
period. Our knowledge of tho facts of his life offer how- 
ever an adequate explanation of tins erudition ; for we know 
that Bradwardtne bad access to the library of the author 
of the Vhilohibton. 
Jj^ There was no Grossetcste in the fourteenth ccntuiy, but 

51 his love of learning and liberality in its promotion were 
worthily represented in Richard of Bury. The son of a 
Norman knight of that ancient town, UichanI received his 
education at OxfonI, where his academical distinctions were 
Hucli that he was Heleeled to fill the post of tutor to tho 
Prince of Walesi, aftcrwnrd.H IC-lward lil. At court his 
]MjMilii>n was a diHiinlt one; f>ir the rival particH weru con- 
t^jndiiig in hitter enmity. Ity prudent nwcrvo until tlio 
time for uetiuu had arrived, he was however cnaliled tit 
render important Kerviec to bin pupil's canse. To Iiis 
coiniseln have been uttrihiited tlio ileiilierately concertfl 


rapture forced on between Edward li mud bb brotber-ia- nu 
law, Charles the Fair of France. It was be wbo^ aa tbe w^^ 
royal treasurer in Ouienne, forwanled the reTennes be hail ZiJ^ 
collected to Isabella on her arrival in Paris; a daring step 
which subsequently maile it necesimry for bim to lice for 
his life, from the pursuit of Edm-ard's lieutenant, to tbe 
campanile of the Franciscans in that city. Durinj^ the 
administration of the queen and Mortimer be appears to 
have retained their favour without subsKH|uentIy liecuminj^ 
involved in their diKgrace; and when the youthful Eilwanl 
had shaken off their dictation it soon becnnie apparent that 
his former tutor was the man whtini he deli;;hted to b«inotir. 
In 1330 Richanl was appointoil amlia<«idor to pope Jolin 
XXII at Avignon, and the successful concluMim of tlie 
business then entnistetl to his care f^rnetl fur him the 
bishopric of Durham. The stewanlship of the Palace, the 
ki*eiK?r>hip of the Wanlrolio, ami the guanlianHhip of the 
Privy Seal, had already fallen in rapid KUCces.M«>ii to his 

Tlierc st.»em« to be little n^ason fi»r iiiferrini» that RirhanI w.* 
of Bury was a man of profound acquirements even wln-n ■* '*" 
niea.Hiin.Ml bv the Ktandard of that illiterate n^^e. Petmrrh. 
mho made hin ac«|uaintanro at Avi;;tM»n, deMTil»rH him as 
a man of ardent tem|HT:inient, not i;;iif»rant of literature, 
and with wtiong natural in<|niHitiv**ne<«4 into olMnire atnl 
out of the way Ion*. The {XH't, indeiil. Hattenil him^'lf tliat 
ho had found the very man to H«i!ve for him an antiipmrian 
dit!ienlty he wan th«*n M'tkin;; to nnravt I, — the ^•^•jn^l^liy 
of the Tliiile of tht* anei< nt**, — and |>r*i|K»tihd<-<l hi^ qii«-«ti«»n 
f«irthwith. We Irnrn iiitit re;^ri t tli:it our eminent e«»untry* 
nian pn-vi^l no (Klipu** i»n tlii^ (N'ri^i«>ti Id- t«»«»k r« fn;**' 
ill a v;i;:ne vaiintiii;; «»f tlmM- liti nrv ••(••n •« In- na* th<ii 
hiviinnil.itin;; at lioinr, and « \|>ii ^*n\ ; lii<* < 1 1 f un \m |i« f iii:it 
(•It lii«( r< turn Im* •»liMii)d Im ith'r at i'ii« • tt» IumI tin* iii«-« *^%r\ 
Mif«>rni:iti«i|i. |»iit thi*ii;;li iNtr.ifdi, In \ . vni.' that lh«* pi* «• 
•<ir*' of iMi*rr iiiijiifitaiit atl.iii«* imjlif liiv< i]fi\«fi tin* Hiii- 
^•iviliMii fiiiiii llic hiiiiil of llii- Kn-!f-li itiiJi I** i'l»if. iif»»f«' 
|M'«- and a;;:iin to ii niinil ln^ l'*i«Mii|« **i j^itliun of lii% 



ntr. iL pmrniKc, the oracle, grcfltly to the poet's diHappomtment, 
"^^ pre»pfv«l an oUlinato Bilence', From various <Iata we 
ijiaj', in<Iec<l, rex'-otiably sunnuc tliat io Ridianl of Bniy 
the literaty cntlmsiait and the hibllophilist prevailed over 
Jjjf;^, the accurate schoiai'; Qor docs the appearance of some 
^■^ half dozen Orti;I; wi^ in tlie I'hil'jbiOlon warrant ujt io 
concluding that the author had any extended acriuaintance 
with the languaj^. Our admiration will more judiciously 
select his really strong points : — bis indefatigable eSbrts in 
rescuiDg valuable books from oblivion and destruction, — tlio 
genial manner, tinged ^vith a harmless pedantry, in vhich 
he descants on the advantages of learning, and on the 
care, the respectful care, to which its treasures are en- 
titled, — bis princely bequest to Oxford and wise provisions 
for the maintenance of that bequest in its integrity, — the 
kindliness of bis nature and his quick eye for genius, as 
shewn in the men who formed the literary circles which 
he loved to gather round liim in bis palace at Bishop's Auck- 
land. Among these was Thomas Sradwardine, one of the 

' T1i« HtcIt mBnnGr in wliieh Pc- 
trarcb Iibb rolutcil tliis snccdolo iti- 
Jtm'H mo to tranwribe tho orij^nal 
Latia: — 'Milti qniilcin do line ro 
cum Iticlianlu quoiiiluni An;:1i>ruiu 
rrKis canccllnrio, rcrmo noti ocioi^ug 
fuit. Tiro ordrntin iDRcnii, nrc lite- 
ramm iiMeio, et (iiii ut in Britannia 
gcoitiu atqae edumtun, abilitaruin- 
que Mrnm ab adoIcwoDlia aupra 

qiin'Hiiiiiiciiliii oiioiliiiiiliii n|itiKKiiuili 
viilcntiiT, illo aiili'iii, m'ii ijiiin i>ia 
ti|H'ran-t, wu quia innltri't ii^mran- 
tiaiD falori (qni iiiiw Iii-diu iiiullunita 
cut, qui mm iiilvlliioirit quanta nio. 
di-Ht)iDlanKHil,)Hiiiiint iiHti),ii(-eiii>«He 
tiiiiiiiit vulcnti, iini>itt<ri itwiinc no 
ncKi'iru ■■■■■hI mwinl) nvn UnUi, iiuixl 
niHi Hiiaiiirrir, ijiiiii liujiia iiti)>i Nrninl 
Ddliliiiii iiiviilcn-t: ri'KiNniilil, wrto 
m (luliit'Uiti iiii'iv HiitiFfiirtiiniia, m'iI 
Hon priiiKqiimi) lul lil>r<M kiiiui, qiio- 
Tum ncriio cojiimi'ir fiiit, in pulrinm 
n^'iTiiHwl, I'riil (>iiitii •liini in iiiiiiti. 
tiam i-jiiK jiiriili, tniptniiilix itoniiiil 

ca Kvilivi-t tuiuiVBtatc, 

qnn inter pr«tatnin dominnn) Rnam 
Gt Fraiieorum reKcia primi iliuturul 
belli Hi-inina iiuliuinluuit, iium cruin- 
tain mcHM-m piiHtcn prutulcro ; nvo- 
duill rC[HMitll' fiilcvH But cliiiiKa Hiiut 
borrpo, hcil dum promiKHor illo rncai 
aliJMitt, sivo Diliil intx'nieni, Hi*a 
nnvitir injancll pontiliciilia ulBcii 
gravi muncro distractua. quamvii 
■■'po lilcria interpcllatua, ' 


n aliU'j 
liob'cit.' >.>■>. 

yam. Lib, iir. ril. UnKil. p. liTi. 

• 'IhIii aniiiino dili ttiilmtiir In 
mnlliluilino lilirnrum. lliirrK onim 
liliioH Laluit, aicut )HiHHiin iliccbalur, 
qiiiiin iiiiiiitK Puntillcvn AiiKlii"- Kl 
)>ni'tcr ma qniia biiliiiit in divcrvli 
iimiit'riiH Miin, ri'jHiKiliM RriNinilim, 
uliit-niniHo ciMii Hna tamiUa rcHiibt- 
luit, lilt liliri jiiroliant iqianilm In ca- 
iii<'TBi|iiuili>rniivlt,qund iiwriMlii-utM 
vix Htaru tHidTiiiit wl Inrtdcro iiihl 
lilinitn iili'inttii pcdibiia ciiiH-alra- 
n-nt." V,'. du, f.Milii.n«fio 
Jlitl. llumtm. Kiirti't'B Society, |>- 
l;ill, {qiiiil(-.l l>y Jlr Jiacray, AnMih 
b/ Ihf Jtodlfian, i>. i). 

KicHAKD or Bcmr. SM 

Uiiliop'ii chaplains; ami from tlic liljRirjr of the epinfinpal rwi 
reffMence the author of the //f Caum Dei etiricb«l th^mT^ 
pageff of hiii treatine. A certain o^#rnrnijfiit v ##f t:fT9Mt liet ir«<f» IZJ 
the bishop an#l hin chajiLiin mouM, mh^X^ pwj^jjrr^i tliat 
they drew fp>rn orirnrnon utorefi, for l««/tb are to be f ion«l 
rfferriii;; in th'.'ir writin;;4 t/# a pv/rrjr pri#-m« ZV VetmLt^ mm 
the work of 0%'M'. In acairotiLitin;; hU collfctioo, with all 
the aih'anta;^ of roval sanction and his own hi|;h positi'^ii, 
the English prelate had spared no effort His agents ex- 
plored the chief tom-ns of France, German v, an«l Italj. 
He had hinisi*lf contliictiMl the tk-arch in Paris and auHiog 
the more important mona.steries in Eii;;Iand ; aii«l at the 
magic of iiis gold, nianjr a n-ligioiin hoaM.* and manv a 
fonn«lation k*Iioo1 had yieMe«l up from its dark rer«*w«e« 
and fn>m mouldering clii*>tH Mjnie negUTte«l, hilf-ftirgoCten 
Volume, giiawiMl hy tlu' mice, eati>n by the moth and the 
worm, and covcn-d with miMuw an^l uitli 

It is )^tifviii;( to find that, unlike many libraries tliat ?**** 
have n^prcM^ntid the litoniry zrul of n lifetime, the st«fn-« ^'^T 
which Ui**hanl of Hur\' lia»l collrrti-il iM-rr not M-atter^-d v4^«« 
at bin death. At the clost; of thr tliirti*< nth centunr the 
monks of Dnrliani ha«l ft»tiiid(tl for tlnir onb-r at O&fonI 
a collc<;(\ fir.-t known ai Ihiiliatu anil attrrwanU nt Trinity 
('oll«';;i\ and to tliiM fnundatioii be lH«|U(atbed bis library*. 
Tlie so<*ii'ty was n^ipiintl to priM-rvr tin* volunii-«i in rbe^t*, 
and the rulrn laid d«>wn for tlirir u>e and pri*M.*r%'atiun are 
iiiten'stin;; a-H af)'«»rdin;{ the rar!i«Ht iii<«tanri* of the r3ii*f« nee 
«»f the ph-iip^o KV'^teiii in our uuiviTHitii ^ and al<»o an anolbf-r 

' Amiiti}{ t*flirr npt^'nt-f-ikl l^vV* «ii!-i<iM<' <>••*!•• i*«>n ltf<|fiffti)i«*| tiy 
•hil »ritt r<* »l ••III lir.i'l«iir>iiiii nti •. 'J!, in •»<'.)•). tin. >••)•• p ••' \\i>rrt«- 
l»-:<!i«, of r*'ur^*\ till- i»i.M|'f» *• nl t« r . Pi U.« }* »f I ■.••». !• ,t !*•• f »illi 

l*h>ii\«iii«, «!• ),n\t |i.i- I If • ' •! ff tl" •• *» I ■• '(• 1 1 1 I; • }. *' I . f |:ii»Y. 

rSil**. till* /'•» If iiif./. ' of 111 riiM «, niij 111 ori tt-i'. ■' ' '• for td* r* /< -•• 

til* S>ti. lit S' . ft h.rtim ff \rf\*l]v tr 'I *f li • !» * *'} i» i »• ■< *• Mf 

• S'lm i.f i) t ^ l««.V<. «■•! tl •■ ill*- A» -li » . V - . . •■! !■ -•.'• — ■ ■«, If 

^ Iiifit ttf till- ('<i:!i /• lit l!ii>r\«tti. •'■.*7» Pi- ♦-- i- ■*• f» li. K il.iif«<.|, 

•.ft •••••I Iti It ivi I- » ft tr »i -'• 0»«l !•» ' ,11 I « »■ ' ■ ■ { •'■If,' • • •■ !*• in* 

I*uV« l|iiiii|'l n >*•« , iii.'l -••ltii> m . • , '. '. ■ (i- * i I. i (■ t'%ri i4 

t«i I ill:i| I «■!'•,•. M«<'t%, l'Ni/« t),i ],» f »*. .■ . II i .• ifi i*'it- |.t 

iftir t-'-lf't'iH, p .*§ 1 1 « I lil^if f--fl» I I*, w 1. . 1. in ••f^lcf |t> 

•it> !.iliriir\ nt (l\ftiri| m i« ri in ?•)•• «*«'.*'^ f -i !^> )>\t**i%ft. 

IxtflMil III lJf«7, cm t)i« fui.Ja Bl.t| 



■». n. proof of the extent to which the rcgtiktiona that obtwnod 

^ttM at Para were reproduced at Oxford '. Five scholars deputed 

EC bj the master of the Hall were to have the custody of tlie 

books, of whom the entire number, or three, hut not fewer, 

were competent to lend the volumoi for uro and inRpoctioa 

only; no volumes were to be allowed to go Iwyond tlie walls 

of the Hall to be copied or transcribed. No book was to bo 

lent to any but the scholars of the Hall unletu there wm 

a duplicate in the library, and then only when security hod 

been given exceeding the value of the l>ook itself. The 

ecliolitrs were allowed free access to the library and use of 

the books, the scliolar's name and the day on which he took 

away any volume having been duly rcgirttcrcd'. 

^SZ^ '''he lives of the three cmiiicrtt men whose labours we 

^^mT have thus briefly reviewed, ail terminated at but n Kliort 

' Tlio rfsnlntioim rrracrilxil by 
Hiclianl of liiiry ayjrria lo Iiiivu been 
■tiiiimt i<U'iilii-iil Kill) lliiwi lit Hid 
Borbunii,.. M. Virt..r .lo Ll.Tc. .ilt.'r 

•\<S I'll 


II i:iii,hl'i 

tAflto, BI1.I tlio liiKb poHition wliieli 
bu w«i4ii<iil in tliu lilcniry worlJ. 
pivo liiiii .nsy iu-cusfi t.i tlii* luhlitii. 

nut full U> viHil llHi lilirury'itiHl Jciirii 
'■ iltiwrn tlio tiiIi-h" ■ 


|-(Kt..r'l. nrri'iliiU | 


It 1< ■ 


e iti. I 

, it ml- 

tu ll«< /'hi 

tirnl ,V.,( 

-. i.»11m 

lo jiriiwijH' <1ii iinl. IVjA vi-ni lii lln 
* •Mtrklixlivri'iiilulY^liHPcnth^' 
■ ill- Cliriimiit iHiiiviiii'iit i-ttf J-ro- 
l/AV^liU' ilo 



\ -in I 

, niiiin«- 

imlil A IK' 

I, ]■. a7. 

- i-iiiuiMMuH, c. xix. TJio nmoiiiit 
ot illiiKlnitiuii Ihio trtnlliu Imk ru- 
cchHy nci'ivi'il nt oltiiT linniln t>m- 
dun ■ iiiiiru k'iiKOii-ii<-<l imti'-o luff, 
IxK. iiMf-Mtrv. rmrr-sur yUaV-y Iihh 

- ' ■ *• ..( it" .'«. 

I.' I'll 

., II 

iik'<i ilu I't. 1, I'l'. l;l — 'i7. IkMiii lliii>k )iiw 

it>-liilii>ii) R'OiHrkH B 
iK'y (llio rwi1i.ti.>ii> 

111!' I>i>iliii|i I if Diirlmt 
I.Tii.ll.v .limr fMiii 

lo ImiTily t, 

I...1 ,. 

fiirc i|iiili- iiniHi-niLIc nut Ifl I'orccii'o 
til" iniilnli<'ii. It Ix, ln'^tilox, t:ai»y 
Ui oxi'lniit tliin bomnrinft Irr II1117 
riom tho SorUiQiic. Ills iitcnuj 

.; fi-utiirvH III lilnlifii 
i>r ItniilniinlliM., (/.I'm »f Ihr Atrh- 
hiihaim, \,A. IV), Tlio orlifiiinl w.rit 

liiM U-cn i'liilH.n>ti'l7 villti'il liy 31. 
CiK-tii-rii, <l'iiri«, 1K.W,,) trum tlie 
MSS. lit tlio ImiKTiHl Lilinry i>t 
I'lirix, wit)) viiliiiililo biiiKnililiirnl, 
bi Minimi ill iciil, mill litiTiLry cuiir- 
HiHcs ; Ilii'TO i* nn Aiticrii'nii tniii>lii- 
tiuti i>f m* eililiiju (Albniiy. iMTil), 
to nliicli t)iD tilittir luiH nilik-il tliu 
UiiKlisli Innsliiliiin by John II. Iiis:li>V 
(I.IIII.IIIII, Iru:!); HiiN Intlvr trauHln- 
tiiin U n vory ilincviimto iicrfiina- 
niirn. I liiive ukcJ llio MS. in llw 
Il^irli'iiin Culltrti'iii. No, Vjrl, «liirh 
niipiiir* in wnnc ixfiMTtH iiii|HTi>ir id 
nnrnniry lo tUoxe towhivli M.Cochcril 

RiaiARD or BCRT. 205 

interval from the cIuHe of tlic linlf century. Richard of n 
Bury dicil at hin palace at Auckland in the yi-ar 13l.*»; 
William of Oi*cam. in exile at Munich, in 1347; TliMniA% 
BnidwarJine, uftcr hi^Miii;; the sci.* of Cantcrliury f«ir a f'-w 
nitmtlis, \v;ui Carrii'd otV liv the pri'valciit <*|*iil*.*niic, the 
j»la;;ue of Flureiuv, in 1.*1H>*. While r»»oi'^iii»inj; tin' 
|»ceuliar excellniiv of each, \Vi» nni-^t In: ciiieful h*t th* \r 
conN]»iciious merit lilind u.h to the leal character of ttn' »;;<.* 
in which they lived. There have l»e<.-n writir;! wIh*. mth 
that eaprice \vhi«'h i^ to he m<-t witli in every a;;**. li«iHi-\«r 
Mi|N>iior to |Mvee«liii<^ tiiiirs, have piofi-^^e*! to Ulii-vr 
the Kii;:!aiid of the t'lMiitii-nth ei-iitiirv cxcelhd the Kr"^'-;ir.i| 
of the Nixtieiitli*; hut a very cursory glance tlipiii^h thf 
K'i<r(> fif the I hifiihihhiH .siiMi«'i-*< to show li?« that the author. 
eiithii**ia«t thniii^h he uiitlntiKti dly w:i«, hail finm-*! imviiy 
hM|N>ful t->tiniate (»f tiie culture antl the men of hi« tiun d.iy. 
The eetiMires df lJ;ii-in, uhi«'li have aluady o«rn|ii«il »i»:r 
attention, are f<irei1>lv ii«rr<ilMii;itt-<l l»v UiehanI nf Iturv wh- u 
he ti-IU u^ h<iw he Ih eip|i-:iviiuriie^ to ii mm dy th** aiiii"-* 

tllli\il«al i^li«'t;-li(-e nf ;:r;iliilli:ir \*\ the pfi |i;ir.iti<*ll of li . 

• l»r l.«'1 '• r! :i. .:. '1 .. :.l!».i i\4''.' • |...'J:i i-t ffil;. 

riiif • lilil It '.l • f I . I I i r . < Ni |tn I .'I.I r ■ I ri.\if.i» Bf I • • •■■ 

»lil:i;'» ff In ll * I • ,H •' • ■ '■• I' : *» ••« 'I" M •' . • • In- • • l'ii •• •■ i 

ti : |-« r. i\ III '' ■ f« "■ « : ' | >' . >•( "i li ■ i '• M %•■•*, i it i < • .• ' 1. 

M t t> I • • - ' I'f.. '■ .ii'i:' i* « 1 I . -I li : ■••t I ■ ■ ti' ■ I »i Ml \. • ! I 

ijiixl \i'i> h.i:-. I • >| • ■! ••'.•■ • ,'.'..* ii'l .1 • : . I ■ ■ 1 r , I • ii-iii.'.* I • .. 

' ■ I •*,•;■ I 1 1 ■ . I ■ . I . Ill . .1 'til. 'in • * . * t . 

\\ ••• )- JI-1 


t .!• -• 1. 1 I! '.. I !■ '■ ■ ■.':■■ ••' '- I \« I' -ii *■•.'• I I f' .t I !• • ■• • • •» 

I .!!:• I.- 1;> i- -• ■ ii.i :.: '• I I" .'. ii. I'l .. •; • f M »• |' ?«. i 

Mli-i'.!l"j'»-i!l|i|l|fifl'-It^i|*«l'' !•• I'-.t J'l-. 'I.*!*'! It 

f' '. ■ r. . I x!i!t r-i: t, 1.1 ■,':! I • \ :' •. t« !■ | • ■ »••*■.•'. f •-!, i I ..-■.• .• 

'. .1 I: I I -1 Ivi I- .' II !'i I .i II • ■• ■■ •■ ' ■'• ' ■ ■ ■ ■ I I I r '••••• •. 

I ■■..■.'•.■... it M. . .1 , i "I ] . ■ .: It . . • ' . ■ • .• I ■ '« ,' I 

' . ■ ;ii .,■•.■ -Ill r ! . • ' ■ .1 f ••• » 

ii ;•. I .■ ', . , .1 . ', j . • • • . ' ■ • • J • 

I ..:.!. .. • : • -. -i . !■ 1. ' ; • . . . . .'. ■ : I 

I ■. .' . t ? I ■ .• « !l I i ' 

I : . .. .',,:■■■•....■• ■ : ... : •■.. 

^f .\ .1 i, r- I'l i. . , » -■ ■ I". •. : ' •••.'■'•; I 

r •■ ■' r, t . ,. ■ ,1 !."••!•■ I • . I ■ ■■..•. 

» • • .-t . 1. , . ' r. ^ ■ I- : ■ " » t ' ■■ •' 

I ■ • • i I •'.!'• I 


■ ••III* '.■■• I * 



I • f 

li. •.•,?•■■.! ■ » .' ■ ' 

t , ■ . I . • ■ ■ ■ . 1 I • . . I ^ ■ • 

! ■ •. ••■Ill ■ • « ■ •. • y t . .. ■ 


i naals for tlie stndcntfl, — when he contranta the ardour of 
Anti()uity iu tho puniuit of learning with the superficial 
impfttience that marks the cultivation of letters among his 
contemporaries, — and especially when he thus charactcriRes, 
in longuago which might almost pom fur n passage from tho 
Opus Tertium, (he prevalent characteristics of tlio students 
who composed tho great majority at Oxford and at Paris:— 
' 'and forasmuch as,' he writes, 'they are not grounded in 
tlieir firat nidimcnts at the proper time, tliey build a totter- 
ing etiificc on an inHeciiro foundation, and then when gruwn 
up they nro ONlinmed to Iciirii that which thoy should havo 
nc<[uin.'d when of tender yeani, and thut; munt needs over 
pay U)c penalty of having too liaxtily vaulted into the p<>s- 
Ncssinn of authority to wliicli thoy had do claim. For those, 
niid liku re.aKiiiis, our young stuilents fail to gain hy tlieir 
M-utily liieiihriitiiitiH that sound lenriiiiig to wliicli the an- 
ciciil" attained, however tlii-y niiiy iKrujiy honoralile pimts, 
l>c ndU'd hy titled, )m investeil with the giirb of uflice, ur Iw 
H'lleuiiily inducted into the waU of their Ncniurs. SuatcliiHl 
from llnir crailles and liostily wcaneil, they get n Hniiitteriiig 
ijf the nitcH of I'lixL'ian ami Doiiatns; in their teens iinil 
heardlesH tliey ciiatter childishly coneeming tho Categories 
anil the Pcrihermenias iu the cunipvsitiuu of which Aristotle 
spent his whole kouIV 
^ In no way less emphatic is Iitm testimony to the decline of 
Ij, the mendicant onlers, whom he descrihes as altogether husicd 
' with the pleasures of the tahle, tho love of dress, in which 
they liisreganlcd all tlic rcjitrietions of tlieir Older, and with 
tlie erection of splendid e<lifices*. Amid all Uicir widc-sprewl 
activity, learning was falling into neglect; they still pnMC- 
lytised with undiminished vigour, but they no longer helped 
on the intellectual progress of the ago. There is indeed one 

' PhiMiiUnB, c. 0. eirta InbCTitis corporis ii]dit!eiil>» 

■ ' Seil (|iruli dulor) tam lion qnam occupnli, at lint epiils iplcndiile. 

alioi istonim Bcrlnutes cflicicm, a TCKlOKqiie coiiira ivmiliuD dclicatic, 

palema coltnra libronim aubtraliit neciion et icilificioruin tiilHcic, at 

triplex cura: cura BupcrHiia; vvulrii eastrorani prupiii^iiiculn, titli proce- 

Ti», TcBtidiD, et ilnnionim. Sie HUnt rilutc, qnie i<na|irTlati nim camfml 

enim (ntglifla Snlvaloria proviilm- cutltaln.' c. i. QiitrimmiHHi Librv- 

tin, qntni INinluihln ciivo pnuin-rcm rem contra lltligiotot MrnditaHlr*. 
ct mcndiemii pruniittit else Boliriliun) 



ponogo which, taken in jts isolatcil, might seem to in- nu 
dicatc thiit he regiirdc<l the Mcmlicants with high fiiToar.^h 
18 that wherein he beant testimony to the aid he \isA rceeiTed 
from them in his researches, ami to the in^'aluaUc lite- 
rary stores of which tlieir foundations were tlie rc"i*ositorit?* ; 
hut on a comparison of those encfimiastic expressiunj* milh 
other portions of the Phibthihhm it will l>c wen that the 
pniise Ixriongs nitlior to the workers of a prior general ion, and 
modifies hut very sli;5ditly the impression convcywl in other 
|Kirti<»nH of the treatise. 

It is ho\v«*ver hut just to notice that the reli;;ious onlrr«, ^l! 

and m«»re esjHci.dly the monastic: foundations, w«-40 alreaily III 

hi';(iniiin;^ to feel tlie <lV«'ctH of intluenf^fs l>eyond their oin-*i 

trol. We have alnrelv M-eu* thedicliiic of the epi?»Cii[Kd 

K'lnHils on tlie coiilim.nt lias Im' n attiiliuti'd. wheihi-r ri'ditlv 

Ktx not, to tlie Mi]H ilor attraelioiis of tlir nniver*«ttii-4, and 

it wduM C'Ttainly srrin that ( )>.lord and (*ani1iii«lp* niii<«t In- 

nj^nrdid as to sunn* 'vxt'iit th<' eaii^r, the intiiu'itit raUM\ of 

the similarly raplil d«eliiiM of tin- ni'»na*lii' oph r-* in |Mipular 

e«.timati«in in Kiiu'"«n«l. Without d«'nvii \i fit.-it ti in fhe in- 

litTrfit d«f« rt of till ir C'Hi^tiiiitii.n, \\\*,., orih i.<« niu**t in all 

prohahility liave «li';^MniTari'.|, just as nil othrr onh-r'* hail 

de«'«n«ratiil in rvrrv pree. ijin'^ a-^'i', wi- niav vet allow that 

tlhir fa'*' oviilonk tiMin \\^\\\ ne-i'' rapid '•tijih •« owin;; t«i 

the cornspontlitii^lv rapltl t iHn»a<hnM'nts m.uh hy tin- n'W 

c«iitres of Ir.iiiiin;^ up^n thrir pn»\ini-e .-m instrnrt.irs of th*' 

jKuple, anil to tin* h*^" "f that oi-.-nicitinn uiiii h. :itiiid tli«ir 

iiiaiiy shiifteoniini;*. h.ul t;iv« n >*^\\* tluni; nf di„'fiity to thi ir 

•••H^'e. \Varti»n apj»« jj> tn ^:^ tt» li:i'.<- h* ft- p<.;iitti| niit Sh«- ** 

''••ntiexion nf ca's-i* a::«l • th « t vj i\ JM'^ti*, - A-* i!h' univi r- 

^i'i'N.' he sriN^. ' li. :;;ii! t'» tl"Mii^h i't i.-ii- '(tn i:i •• ».t' tie' t!i^- 


tiii''tii»n«« and h"n"Mi« \\]i«»h i;i« v »■;!:• iii-l **u «>i'h"!.tr'». ?h«* 
^^t.iMishtii*nt nf ••■•II« l:'-^, tip- ihU-l'i- 'i 'ii •"! n- \\ •.\h?i m^ ,.f 
^ i« i.<*'\ tie* uiii\'i-il ai'!"'ir \\li:'li p'-'«'l "if hri • 'lin-^ 
:i!ni'-it all p.'r^««n^ t-) |. M-r-. aj.l tl . .l^■■: ti..n nt iXflu- 
'ivi' ri;jhl tif t»-a<"hi!f^' vhi'h tii.- iii'»«» i'** i .» «• I. i«| >•! l"!i^ 
■liiuii^l; the nit'liM-ti U' -. -t r"'si>'. u '^ :>m:*. htivi* to >!u- 

» S.. ,1 

I •• 



tKAP. a dies which vere more strongly enpouraged, more commo* 
(lioiuljr purmied, aod more successfully cultivated in other 
places; they gradually became cootemptible as nurseries of 
learning, and their fraternities degenerated into sloth and 
ignorance'.' It will devolve upon us, at a somewhat Ut«r 
stage in our enquiry, to point out bow a like decline awaited 
the prestige of tbe mendicant orders, the penalty of their 
own nrrogaoce and bigotry. 
■ •■A* In bringing to a cluse our retrOHpcct of the intellectual 

IJJUJJ^ activity of England at this era, a yet more important decline 
even than that of the monastic and mendicant orders prcwies 
itself n[)0u our notice and ik'TuandH sotnu cxiilaiiation. IIuw 
is it, that from the middle of the fourteenth century up 
to the revival of classical learning,- the very period wherein 
the munificence of royal and noble founders is most con- 
spicuous in connexion with our university history, such a lull 
cimie:! over the niitital life of both OxfonI and Canibrid;^', 
and so few niitncN ofi'iiiiiKiii'i', Wyeiiffiini Uigiuntd IVthcIc 
King the most notable exccptionM, invite our altinitionf 
From the death of Htudwardinc to llic first kiltie of St. 
Alban's, more than t]iri.'e quarters of u century intervene, 
during whith no adaiuatc external cause of distmction a]>- 
peare wliicli may be supposed to account for the comparative 
.)-• «•«■ inertness of the universities. The obsciTation of Anthony 
ii-rtMi Wood, alvcaily quoted, tlint, after the tunc of Wyclif'the 
■■■^^ sliideiits ne^k'ctcd suhol.i.stical divinity and scarce followed 
any studies but jKileinieal, being wholly bent and occupied in 
refuting lits opinions and crying down the orders of nieudicniit 
friai-s,' )>reseiits us with a true hut oidy a partial explanation. 
Other causes were at work, some of which will be best cx- 
]>!ained in a subsequent chapter, but it can hardly be ques- 
tioned that the most baneful effects in the fourteenth century 
are to be traced to the bias given to the studies then pursued. 
j^jj«^ TIio shortcomings and cscosses indicated by Bacon consti- 
^'i^, luted llio prevailing chanict.cri sties long after Ins time, and 
the absorbing attention given to the civil and canon law was 
undoubtedly one of the must fruitful sources of those evils. It 
* Dintrlation on liilrodaelion of Learning into En$\aad, p. cxili ed. 18J0. 


pamago which, taken in jN i<i.' • 
(licato that he n»',';inkM| the M» H'^' 
is that wherein he Wirs tcstiin'" «. 


from them in his r« MNin-h* -. . 
ran' stores of wli if 'h tli«ir fn!i!i.^ • 

hut on a coiiip;in-i)n uf lit 

otlnT portions of tlio 7V/i/..'/" 
jiraise lK.'lt>ngs ratln-r t«i ihr m. -' 
nicMlitifs hut very sliijlitly lli- • 
jHiftions of the tn-.iti^r. 

It is howi'vrr h'lt jii-t. to }■ 
ati'I luiirr <'Njn-cially tip imi-i: 
hi'^imiiiii; to fitl tin- • i). . ■- ' 
trnl. W*' IiaVL' alii:i':\ -■ • n ' •' 
M'luHiIs nil ihr e-'itlin- i;' I. '- ; 
or ijnt, t'» till' ^iiii' li. : ,." ■ 
it woiiM ci rt.iinlv ^i ■ i 

n ;^.;|iliil ;is t'» vHn" • 
tlir Niiiiilailv r.iii:.| .I- . 

■ i 

« -tiniatiiiii in Mn .' m ■' 

ln'I'-Ilf llifl i't l»t i'. ! 

|»j"h iliili*v lia\-' -'■ 
'i'l;' ii« ra*iil in • \ ■ V, ' 
111' !r fi'i' fi\» i?.i..!. * 
•In- »'"M|. N|»«nil;i:,''\ •. 

!'• !•!• . .111-1 to ^h" ! . 
' : i'.\ '•li-'l lr.'!?:"i ■- 

• ^ 

I * ' 

f • 

• • 

'!■.• \;-! 

■ .-! .•..- 

■ ■ In 

•l 'l- 

.!..! !. 

■ ■ ■:^"-'i 

ll- v.! .-1 


:..■ '!• 

■• .1" 

J.... .: 

« • 


,-- iMt It would be a nil 
«:-rJ :?i«e two branches 
:.. ::mc the provinces 
-.•<r:Tcly. It ii jiart '.f 
— ."?a in the year 127**. 
?>n found the ilintino 
-. •- cIudeA the HtM^h-nt*?* 
•'yy ^^ tliosc timr-s. 
- " to his Comment arit-i '•««» 
■'. law as fri»m thi^ fir-t .*.; • 
- mil contrntlini* in its*-'* 

.in that i^fTi-nil l»v tho 

r ;^ici^xd law'. Wc liavc 

1 verj* imiH^-rft-i't arro-ir;! 

: <amo consiTvati-m that 

^ntenc'-s and of tin* ipw 

( the Konian Lim. I*u*. 

■; ci iitury tlii^ oji|Hi^ifi. n 

-•IV I"* ^« •■»! fioni tin* f'I» 


4 11 to our own tinn «*, I am '';«^ 
^ that vhirli has U'l-u a-l- /, 
**-iiin'' the caus«s of <rr«'r^ 
^ •' * which havi* niultii>!:> i i-*. 
^_ ••> tHiiiil oui how trr-ir ^-i 
•'.it iitinr tin* apptMarh of 
V iroohle must \**> ii« ar at 
,: li.ilv chi- f ix'ii'.tV. wli 1 in 
: tin*'* ei'i"' ^ "' irr-r an-l 

# ■ • • ■ * 

., • > . • ■^ ^ •" -^ ' " ^' •- •■. t ■• 

I .1 • I ■ • 

■ ■ ■ • '. 

• • • ■ - • 

I f 

• .' »■ 

I I 

•• »" 

«. ..■.'•■ • • 


:■'.■• • 





n. restore all things to tli r state. Of these causes two 

hare, in the last fort; ] s, attaioed their climax, of which 
one, the abuse of the civil i of Italy, not only destroyB the 
desire of learning but the Church of God and all kingdoms. 
And thus, by thia abuse, all tliose five before-mentioued 
grades of learaiog are destroyed, and the whole world exposed 
to the t-vil one. But as for the way whereby evil-minded 
jurists tjestroy the love of learning, that is patent ; namely 
that by their craft and trickery tliey have ao preoccupied the 
minds o: prelates and princes that they obtain nearly all tlio 
eniolument.s and favours, so that the empty-handed etudeuts 
of theology and philosophy have no means of subsistence, of 
buying books, or of searching and experimenting upon tlie 
secrets of Bcience. Even juri.sts who study the canon law 
possess the means neither of subsistence nor of study unless 
tliey previously jjossess a knowledgtr of tlio civil law, 'Whonce, 
JTist as with I'hiloso pliers and theologians, no regard is paid 
tliem unless they have a ropiitalion iis civil jurists, with the 
abuses of whicli study they Ii.ivo di jligurcd thu sacretl canons. 
Furthermore, evety man of superior talent, possessing an 
aptitude for theology and philosophy, betakes himself to civil 
law, because he sees its professors enriched and honoured 
by all prelates and princes, and also that few, out of regard 
for their kin, adhere to the study of pliiloaophy and theology, 
because the greedy faculty of the civil law attracts the great 
■ body of the clergy. And not only does the civil law of Italy 
destroy the pursuit of l<;arning ia that it carries off the re- 
sources of students and diverts fit persons (from that pursuit), 
but also in by its associations it unworthily confounds 
the clergy with the l.iity, since it is in no way the function of 
the, but altngcther that of the layman, to have 
cognisauco of such law, — as is evident if we bear in mind 
that this law was compiled by lay emperors and for tho 
povcrnment of the laity at large. And, indeed, the professors 
of the law of Bologna are willing to be styled either teachers 
or clerg3men ; and they reject the clerical tonsure. They 
take to themselves wives and regulate their household en- 
tirely in secular fashion, and associate with and adopt the 


customs of laymen. From whence it is evident that thejr are chjl 
separate from the clerical office and stationV 

With the fourteenth century the combination which Bacon ^!]!^ 
thus loudly censures of the study of the civil wiih that of the Iwar 
canon law, had become the rule rather than the exception. 
A powerful impulse had been given to the former study by 
William of Nogaret,whoin his capacity of legal adviser to Philip 
the Fair, in that monarch's struggle with pope Boniface, had 
developed the resources of the code with startling significance. 
Compared with such lore, theological learning became but a 
sorry recommendation to ecclesiastical preferment; most of 
the popes at Avignon had been distinguished by their attain- 
ments in a subject which so nearly concerned the temporal 
interests of the Church ; and the civilian and the canonist 
alike looked down with contempt on the theologian, even nn 
Hagar, to use the comparison of Ilolcot, despised her barren J^Jj 
mistress*. The true scholar returned them equal Kcorn; 
and llichard of Bury roundly averred that the civilian, T»«rt« 
though he might win the friendship of the world, was the **«^- 
enemy of God'. Kijually candid is the good bishop's ex- 
pression of his inditlVrcuce, notwithstanding his omnivorous 
appetite for books, fur the volumes of the glossists, which 
alone he appears to have been careless of collecting or pre- 
8er\'ing*. It is not improbable that, as M, Le Clerc lias 
suggested, the study of both codes had a genuine attraction 
for students in that age, inasmuch as it provided, along v-Ith 
the gratification of the love of subtlety induced by the train- 
ing of the schools, an outlet for practical activity*. But it is 

* Compfndium Stitdii Philo*ophit^, enpoffAcn<lA nacrm Feriptann inr«tcrift 
e. 4. * it nrcnna fidci McmrnrtiU, filiin lurit 

• IhAcoi, Suprr T.ihnnn Sapirnthf, coiiforl: utpotn qiiiti UiMpiinit l>oru- 
Pntf. ]>. * Iaimm oiiiiii,' li<i ndiN, *('t ]iarit<-r ad Bfiiirilittin )iiij«i« nniiitU, 
cuiionfi iMtih t<'in|w>rilMi<« iniriihilitcr jmt qiinni homo, JaroUi ti'*>tfiiil(*, IM 
f<i'(Miiiilm roii<M]iiiii.t (livitiiis rt |>a- cotiotituitur iiiiiuicuM.' J'hUoLiblon^ 
riiiut (lipiitulcH. Kt iMco Harm Kcriii- c. 11. 

tnru qiiii* est onitiium M'iontiiirniii ^ *miniifl tAmrn liUronim Hrilinm 

(lort'Iictii rnt; ct a<l \\U\s nHluit quasi ap|HtitiiH iioittri«i •tlliirNit •flfcrtilMifl, 
tota muItitiiJo ncliuluritim.' , luinuHqiiM liujufniodi Tolnminibu4 

' * lu lihris jiiri^ |»osilivi, lucrativa acqnircuilia cunci-HMimui tarn opcm 

poritia ilis|)on&an(Ii«i torrcuis accom- quam expcDss.' Jbid, 
moda. qtuinto hujiw g.Truli filiif • Et^t dei Lettre* au xif* Si^U, t 

famulatar utilian, tanto miiiiif, ad ^oo, 



UF. n naj to soe that its cliief value io the eyea of the muiy, of 
those who valued knowledge as a means rather than as an 
end, wu that asserted bj Bacon, — that it was the path to 
emolument, to high office, to &vour with 'prelates and 
jRiDces.' 'Who ever rose pricked in heart from reading the 
Iftws, or the canons f asked John of Salisbury, when he 
loaght to draw away Thomas jk Eecket from his excessive 
attention to the study'. But it was under the shelter of tho 
canon law that the archbishop fought out his strugglo with 
tho king of England. As for the ho)W to which Bacon had 
given cxpreNflion, that some ' most holy pontiff" might arise 
who bhould reform these crying evils, it is sufficient to noto 
tbo Gxclimation of Clement Vll, — a popo wliosc solo recom- 
mendation to the tiara had been his unscrupulous political 
genius, — when ho hoard at Avignon tliiit a young student of 
proiiiiso in tho university of Paris was devoting his attention 
I*J. to theology : — 'What folly,' he ejaculated, 'what folly, for 
I? him thus to lose his tiiucl Tlicso theologians are all more 
dreamers'.' Ncitlicr from Rome nor from Avignon were 
those iiifluonccs to como which should guide into happier 
paths tho fitudiea and learning of Europe. 

' ' Pronmt qnidcm legofl ct ennoncs, Plus dieo: Bcbolaris exercitatio in* 
■ed miM credit?, qaia ntuiB nan crit tcTiInm Hciesliam anget a<I ti 

bis opnn, Son hoc itta tibi t^mptit aed Jevot 

rrlacula poicit. Siqaidciiinon lam qnnm iuflommnt.' Epiiit. 138 [A-O. 

otioncm cxciluDt, quiun ciiriosi- llfiS] nd. J. A. UiIm, i IM. 

tntcm Quig e Icclionc' k'l^m, nut * Crcvicr, in 1S6. 

cliuu caDonDin compuuctiia BiUfitF 



!■ ii, in tlio pn-ccilinK cliapliT, lurns iPtTeJ eju 
■iixi fU'tivitv of K();;Iis)i thtnixlit wouM ^ 

1 iw rtin;; (Imt, witli tlif iflvaiieo of tlic Z"^. 

■■■■■ ;M!m ..r iiit'llor'.iial Mipi riuntr lia-l".^ 
.,. i'ir>t'>lli.> Kiii.'IMitiiiiviT«.itk-t. \Vith-»^"" 

. : Wr-.^ S.-..Uii. w.- irwy Tiirly a-k wl,-.- 

-.') iMii i>"iiit, at tills jiiTii-l. til imti 

-.-■-. In.- lAC 'l.ii.-. - nixl »»tiii.l. .1 

MVotn. Ilr;..Uar.l ,»-. .ti.-l nu-l,.-.r,| 

■:,., t.. ^:.^.■ -JivTi t- INf.-r-l at -1 

- .. I tl.-^r ..r.-.i, -,liri. Ovf-r-l cm 

:•.. ,..■.,■ .f l,r ;'.!.-! ;...I I.i--'. 

\. t!,.' r. I . »ii •( tl-"- nil!!., t.! 

!. I,,.-. .M i>-t U: I., ii-t. !t. 



UP. iiL comparativo sterility of the contiDcntal uniremty, Fe« 
trarch ezultiogly pointed to the fact that her greatest names 
Trere those of men whom he claimed as compatriots^ Bi« 
chard of Bury^ while he dwells with enthusiasm on the lite- 
raiy wealth and established prestige of the French capital, 
does not hesitate to imply that her preeminence is already a 
thing of the past, and attributes to his own country tlie 
merit of according a far more ready reception to novel trutli ; 
Paris, he declares, in her regard for antiquity, seems careless 
of adding to her knowledge, while the perspicacity of 
' English thought is ever adding to the ancient stores. * We 
behold the palladium of Paris/ he exclaims, writing while 
the soldiery of Edward III were ravaging the French pro- 
vinces, 'borne off, alas, by that same paroxysm which afflicts 
our own land. Tlic zeal of that illustrious school has become 
lukewarm, nay, even frozen, wliose rays once illumined every 
comer of the earth. Tlie pen of every scribe is there laid 
aside, the race of books is no longer propagated ; nor is there 
one who can be regarded as a new author. Tliey wrap up 
their thoughts in unskilful language, and are wanting in all 
logical propriety, save when they learn by secret vigils those 
refinements of English thought which they publicly disparage/ 

* 'Est ilia civitas bona quidem, ct 
insipiis Bcgia prirsciitia, quod nd 
Btudiura attinet ccn niralis est cala- 
thiis, qno poma undiquc percffrina et 
nobilia dcfcrantur; ex quo cnini stu- 
dium illud, ut legit ur, ab Alcuino 
pnDCcptore Caroli rejjis inst itutuiu est, 
nunquam quod audierim ParisicnsiH 
quisquain ibi vir clanis fuit. Fed qui 
fuenint cxtemi uti<|Uo et niBi oilium 
barbari oculos perstrinpjcret, mn^in 
ex parte Itali fuere.' Contra (ialli 
Calumniaff (ed. liasil, 1554) p. 1102. 
Ho enumerates in support of bis 
assertion Teter Lombard, Bona- 
Ventura, Aquina«», and iKgidius. To 
tbese observations M. he Clerc re- 
plies, *Cett6 remarqne est juste, et 
continue mi'mo de I'Otre pour les 
eiecles qui suivirent. Mais elle lie 
prouve rien contre la puissance et 
Tautoritd de ces grands centres d'ac- 
tivit^ intellectuelle qui se chargent 
de Tdducation dcs pcuplcs. Uk feont 

les maitres qui forment, dirigent, 
delairent; qui nsent leur esprit et 
leur vie i\ co labeur de tons les in- 
stants, ct ne se ^entent pas hnmili^ 
d'avoir des disciples plus bardis et 
plus ctli'bres qu'eux. On sait bien 
que la critique n'cst point Ic gdnie; 
or, dans les grandes villcs, dans les 
grands foyers d'instruction, la cri- 
tique regno prewjuo sans partago. 
L'ancienno Homo, qui fut long temps, 
commo Paris, uno sorto d'^ole uni- 
verKolle, n*a comptd uon plus qn'un 
pctii nombre de ses citoyens parmi les 
orateurs ct les poetes que Petrarque 
B*enorgueiUit d'appeler des citoyens 
romains; et elle n*en a pas moius le 
droit de revendiquer, entre ses titres 
d'illustration, la gloire litterairc.' 

Etat des Let tret an 14"^ SiMe^ ii 81. 
An ingenious defence; but Petrarcb, 
I imagine, wonld bave regarded the 
parallel instituted as defective. 

( THE roi'BTKESTii cysnnr. 


t-.,, ■«,. -n.-iy p.-a'iily fulijiit that tli« U-mponrr < 
.■*-in« 4i!<i>I'.'<l tt by I'l'-li-ip] «f Biirj ha*! th'ir 

^i;'!-,' iy.'iit 'iiH J'.rlrMc. it woiiM t^cm that tLc ;' 
■.u;-i.' must I'c soitglil in a Ion;j prior oectirrencc ; n 

••'.m'-'.v :ij the removal of tlic papal court t-i*"* 
Li wu :ii-i-e refer that para1y.«i<i wliirli fe«-nn t'l 
.■ II 'h-i ^.ni'H of 'lie tiuiion. Tliv I>"P^, uLi'- 
_-l'!!k'1 t-i tlio p-litic-il p'>licy "f llie Vku'I: 
• . ■.!\- -xi- Rt in'Ieiiiiiifi''l Itlm'-elf hy the a—Tti'-n 
r inifHty <.n.r tlie o-iitre^ r.f e'luration ati-1 
L. ■;*;'■■-. "Willi Mieli ii mi;;iilifitir,' r»rnarii<r" 

■ V, ■ i.'ii.Ili c'.'inl iiiil',ii'.'ii<l<-n"- wa> imfir-.i}.;.-.'" 
■1 ..iv iii-nili'-.-itr..!is Mitfi-ri'I liy the pri-Ie «f 

• ; K"[i :i pln-;.i <in tlie prirt nf ili*; iirii\' r- 

■ • - ill !• Iiiiii a li-t f.f til'- lectnnt ml- .ii- 
■■ r w:i!i till' n.'imiMtf Mich "f Iht iit'>fc""r-, -r 
. •'■.-.l :;r;iilii:iti -. ns ^h•■ wi-hi-il I-i rwimii!i.til 
.. V.' ;; r,..«iu.e h;..| in vain w;h 

■■ .■ iMiiv. r-itv t.. .i..l,ii SMI. Ill i;ii<; ll...' 

.V . ■.■:.,-.... v:., ,.M t., .!,- ,i..«|v..l..:..l 

■ ,-il ill- ITL-li.-. M,.n tal.ll-i,,-.! ...... 

■. !:■.-:. -i.:.ii.-M .n.nlii.- :>i..: .■m..!„m.i,;, 
■;;. .;i t;,.' iir.f- "-ir.; aa-l fr-tn tl ..t tii!:- 
■ ', n*!i.T rj!i" • W'lf. iii-i'-'I. in <■!- - 

:■■:..,:.. 1...1I t; ,!v sr-.t ..t,....r'.f 

.'. ri.. liiii- h;.i r. I-..- »:.n iM, 

■, ■ . T:i.- A■^.,.■^:\ f..T :.:.ri..!.: v .. 


,. J... 


?*■ loft, at a time wlicn Franco was torn by division and liuini- 
— litttcd by dcfoat. To Oxford passed wliat remained of her 

inU-Uoetual empire'.' 

!^ It i* acconlingly by a natnml and inevitable transition 

3 *Iuit, in tracing tlic progress of learning, tlio liistorian finds 

^ fcinwcif passing witli tlic advance of tho fimrlccntli century 

••fc fn>riitlij contincut to Kiiylim J ; and, liaving examined KuiTi- 

*scntly for our present purpose, tho character and tltrccUon 

<it tlio new activity at Oxford, wo may now proceed to 

^MuiduT tho riao in our own university of thoso now InNti- 

tatiods, which, reflecting for tho most part tho examplo 

Why Walter do Morton, occupy tlie foreground of our Bub- 

jwt in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Lengthened 

** (Hir preceding entpiiry bag been, it has not been irrelevant 

■0 our main purpwto. Tlio commencement and early celebrity 

"' tlic university of, Paris, its remarkable mental activity 

"nJcr the influence of the Sfendicants, and its rapid collegiato 

S^owth, are the three cardinal features in ita early annals 

'^hich Oxford reproduced, in all essential points, with sin- 

S^'or fidelity. It would be gratifying if our information 

*"'aljlcd us to trace out a similar resemblance at Cambridge, 

"^ the obscurity which hangs over licr ancient history, and 

iho loss of much that might have served to attest a corre- 

*]»ading process of developcment, prccludo us from a like 

^"•"se of treatment. Beyond those broad outlines which we 

''si'o followed in our preceding chapter, there is little that 

** Icnow concerning our ante-collcgiato era; presumptive 

'"'J^nco affords our principal guidance; it is not until the 

"** «)f the Hospital of St John tho Evangelist and of Petcr- 

- j.*^«ilrod. to Faitinli Zhantanim. procUm<<e Icor mire, n« non« paMt- 

■■ * nlher tkink, liy tliD numcroQi pfMtigB qui cniironnc an loin ion 

^^^inontii,politienUndt!]H)loKic»!. nom, qu'eUs Be 1« fut pendknt ea 

cfa (onn.t ■ ctulrj at Taiis .luring sitcle an ecnlro mflmo dn rojanme, 

^\ «nlDry, mow-mcnti bovever h rarii, ct ilani noire propre h'u- 

2* wpn^Bcnt tLo ronsorvBlinn ra- . toLre; car janniia. dcpuia qn'eUa fnl 

^^ tLm 11,0 adTanipment of tlio miK-e am affairei du fflondo politi- 

m n ? *'ainicJ for hii unitvreity que, cllc n'tierpk, piOs de cinqnanU 

tic* influcncB and prog, ui da anile, un tel ponioir am !•■ 

w o7" ^H" **"". ""'^f"'" ^•' !''• eiprin.' EM det Lwrti ou »- Sit- 

*" 't*»et ot h<ai da Fnuwe, ont ' 



intcrral from the cIunc of the hnlf ccntuiy. Rkhanl of r 
Bury died at liis palace nt Auckland in tho yvar ISIJ; 
William of Occam, in exile at Jliinicti, in 1347 ; Tlium.iH 
Bradwunliiic, iiftc-r Ii»Miii}; tlic hce of Caiitcrlmry fur « {••v 
tiiuiitlis, wiut Ciirrii-il otT hy tlic prevalent (.-piilvmic, tliv 
plii^ic of Florciici-, ill 13ta'. Wliilc reouiiisiiig the 
IK.'Ciiliar fxttllciicc of i-acli, wci iiiii-^t W carvfiil k-*t tli'-ir 
cuiis|iiciioiiH merit hliiid lis to tlic rviil clinractcr of tliv .i;;o 
in whicli lliiy lived. Tlicro liavo ln-en writ<-r8 wlui, witli 
that caprico whi'-Ii is to be mot willi in tvery ii^f. Iihwcv.t 
MijM'i'ior til |>rtivliii;j tiims, have ]iiiifis!icii to K'litVf tliat 
tlie Kn^laiid of llx: foiiit'tiitli (.tiitiiry oxcelk-d tlie Kii^Iai.<l 
of tho ^ixtri-iitli'; Imt a very cursory glaiiw tlir"ii;:li tin- 
[a^<.'s of tin: ihlhjUMm siUliaM to h)iuw nn lliat (lif aiillior, 
u.ll.u-.taH l)i..i>-l. I>.' uiidoiihtolly was I'-") f-nix-1 ii<> v.-iy 
ln'jH-fiil r.-iiriialf of tliL' cultiiro and tli<.' nioii ni lii* uwn dav. 

TI>o censOKs ..r Ri' ul.i.'li liav.' ati.ady <K'c.ipi»l <.-'ir 

attuitiui], arc r.i.iMy (■Hri..U.rat. d l.v Itirli:.r.| ..f It.irv wli. ti 
Ik K'lN 11^ li..w 1..- is . nd.av.uiiii^' |.. (1.- aIiM....t 

.-..,■■ ..-I l-'^t ..f l-.i. 


B18S or THV raousH uNivEiisrnEaL 



nuab for the siadcnii, — ^when he contraiitfl the ardour of 
antiquity iu the pursuit of learning with the superficial 
impatienee that marks the cultivation of letters among his 
contemporaries^ — and especially when he thus charactcriKcs, 
in language which miglit almost pass for a passage from the 
Opus Tertiumf the prevalent characteristics of the students 
who composed the great majority at Oxford and at Paris : — 
'and forasmuch as/ he writes, 'they are not grounded in 
their first nidiments at the proper time, they build a totter- 
ing e<lifice c»n an insecure foundation, and then when grown 
up they are aslmnied to Icnrn that which they should have 
ac«|uircd when of teuder years, and thu}^ must needs ever 
pay the penalty of having too hastily vaulted into the pos- 
session of authority to which thoy hsid no claim. For these, 
and like reasons, our young students fail to gain by their 
M*anty lucubrations that sound learning to which the an- 
cients attained, however tliey nuiy oeenjiy honorable i>ost.M, 
he ciiIKhI by titles, Ik) invested with the garb of ofliee, or 1)C 
Mi»lenuily inducted into the Heats of their seniors. Snatclifd 
fmni their cradles and hastily wcuned, they get a Hnuitteriiig 
of the rules of IViseian and ])(»natus; in their teens and 
U'anlless they chatter childiHhiy concerning the Categories 
and the Peri herrnen ins in the conii)osition of which Aristotle 
spent his whole soulV 

In no way less emphatic is his testimony to the dcclijic of 
the mcndic'uit onlers, whom he describes as altogether busicii 
with the pleasures of the tible, the love of dress, in which 
they disreganled all the restrictions of their oidcr, and with 
the erection of splendid edifices*. Amid all their wide-spreail 
activity, learning was falling into neglect; they still prosc- 
lytisetl with undiminished vigour, but they no longer hclpctl 
on the intellectual progress of the age. There is indeed one 

circs laboiitis corporii indi^tetitiM 
occapAti, ot Bint epiils iplentlidc. 
Tentcfique coutra regularo delicatie, 
necnon et irdiflciorum labnoe, nt 
castroram propufipiaculn, tali prow* 
rituto, quna paui>ertati non amvcnit 
cxaltata^.' c. i. QHtrimonium Lil*ro' 
mm contra JMigiotot Mendicunirt, 

> PhUohihtnn, c. 9. 

* * Sed (pruh dulor) tam bos qnam 
alios istonini sd'tautes cfligicm, a 
paterna cultura libronim subtrabit 
triplex cara: euro supcrfliia; rcutris 
▼iz. %'eiitium, et (lotnoriim. Sic Munt 
ouim (luglccta Snivutoris proviUen- 
tia, qnciu ^ll(lllni^ln circa paiipcrcm 
et mcndicum promittit esse solicitam) 



' Moreover, the firht by priority ui tho tint by Icgd rights csaj 
and therefore he who first offers the caution to tho landkml «J^ 
of the house, his caution shall stand, and that name caution !7n! 
must 1x5 preferred in tlic presence of tlic chancellor, JliT 

* Moreover, the M'liolar who Is to jjivc tho caution inn«t *»^* 
come in person to the laiKilonl of the hostel, on tho aforesaid j;;^ 
day or within [the al>ovenanie(IJ iM'riod, but tho notmcr the **' 
better, and in the presence of a boilell or a notary, or of turo 
witnesses, pnxlnce his caution, j^jiving effect thereto, if ho 1« 
willing; by effort is intcinlrd either a ctvitio ftlrjn$9orin or 
pignorailcia^ that is, two sureties, or a book or somethinp^ of 
tho kind ; and if he be not aduiittcfl the same scholar is« 
forthwith to repair to the cliancrllur and pnyluce his cau* 
tion in the presence of tho a'oresniil witnesses and say in 
what wav the landlord of the h(»stel has refused him in tho 
matter of the acoeptanre of the caution ; an<l thin harin^ 
been proved the chancellor shall immediately admit him on 
that caution and to tliat prinrip:il>liip notwithstanding the 
ri'fusal of th«' propri''t«»r. 

'Moreover, he who is n scholar and the principal of any »'«^« 
hostel may not pive up ix»s>r'ssii»n or rmounee his ri;;ht in •■■■^ 
favour of anv fi/llo\v-stu«lrnt, but to the Inmllord of tho hostel 



'Moreover. res'.itnH of this ki»id are forbidden, because 
they have proved to the i)njndiee of the landlord of the 
hostel, whieh oni^ht not to 1m». 

•Moreo\cr, if nnv on*' U* nrinrinal of a Ih^tvl and anr %^Bto« 
other scholar «K*>ir«» to iKvnj»y thr same ho>tel as principal, ••';^ ♦ 
let him *;o to the landlonl of th«' ho^t«l and proftVr his cau- t^i^ 
tion. as aln^ve (lirecttMl, \\\tli tlM-^c xxonU: — 'Landlonl. if it 
please tliee. I df^iif to be a.hir.tti«l t-* tli" prineipaldiip <if 
the Jiostel in sueh and surh a p:iri^li, win n^«H\er the princi- 
pal is ready to P-tin* or to j^iv nji Iil^ rii^iit. .•»•> that I may 
first, as principal {priucip'ihti'r] vni-cf. d him, if you are iiill- 
in;;, without pn-jmlice ti» hi'* ri;:h? th. r« :■•, v* Ion;* a-t he 
►hall be princi|vil.' If he d» n-t ri,a««'. lh««u niiw'^t pn*- 
<luce thv caution Wfore the rhaii«'« !I»r that Im* m.iv a'lniit 
thee on the Cun<iiti«m that wlienuxir there sliall bv i|o prin- 



mi fipfl ihon xnayost be master and maycst succeed him (the 
L fDrmer prindpal) in the same hostel rather than any one 
f cbe; aod the chancellor shall admit thee even against the 
wUh 61 the landlord and that of the principal. 

* Moreover, if any landlord shall say to any scholar, — 
' Dost thou desire to be principal of this mine hostel V and 
the scholar answer ' Yes/ but the landlord says that he does 
not wish that the hostel should be taxed in any way, and 
the scholar says he does not mind, and enters into occupa- 
tion as principal and receives scholars to share the hostel 
with him, — ^thoso same scholars may go to the chancellor 
and have their hostel taxed, contrary to the wish of both the 
landlord and the principal, and notwithstanding the agree- 
ment between the landlord and the principal, inasmuch as 
agreements between private persons cannot have eflTect to 
the prejudice of public rights. 

'Moreover, no one is to deprive any principal of his prin- 
cipah»hip or to supplant him, iu any fashion, so long as he 
pays his rent, or unless the landlord desire himself to be the 
occupier, or shall have sold or alienated the hostel*/ 

The rude Latinity of this statute, its simplicity and bre- 
vity, would alone suggest its superior antiquity to the one 
quoted in i\iQ Statuta Antiqua; but further internal evidence 
may be noted in favour of such a conclusion. It will be 
observed that with the exception of one clause, its purpose is 
1^ to assert the rights of the university over the town. The 
presumably later statute contained in the collection above 
referred to enters much more into detail; it secures tho 

' 8c6 Communication made hy 
Henry liradshaw, M.A,, pabliBbcd 
with Jlrport pretentrd to the Cam- 
bridge Antiquarian Society^ May 11, 
18G3. 'A statute/ observes Mr. 
Bradshflw, 'coDcemiogHostebi, made 
in the rei^n of Edward tbe First, 
carries ns back to a time in the his* 
lory of the uniTcrsity when Peter- 
bonse was the only college, and nearly 
all the members lived in these Uos* 
pitia. It is therefore less remark- 
able that we do not find this statute 
among the Statuta Antiqua in tho 

printed editions, as the old riroctors' 
books, from which the materials 
ehicfly came for the edition of 17S5, 
seem not to have been drawn up tiU 
the end of the 14th centory at the 
earliest, and so represent a time when 
the collegiate system had begun to 
get a firm footing in the University.' 
The quaint character and eccentric 
grammar of this ancient statute baf 
seemed to render it worthy of inter* 
tion in its original form: see Appen- 
dix (C). 


.■«!::e iiniTcniity; it t 

' Moreover, tbe firht 1>y priurity id (T ' --.I4 should Im> occu< 
and therefore he who firet offew the c ,.,„, 1],^ otijoct being J 
of the house, hin cnntion ithnll stand, . ^(.Xeient niimltcr of* 
mu«t be pn'fcrrcd in tlio prcuriico of r..._.ciion; it proritlc* 

' Moreover, iho w-holar who is t" ^^.;!.;ef.r the pa%-mcnt 
romo in piT-on to th'! Intniliiril of t1; 
day or witliin [the nlM)venanicilJ ^i- 
bi'ttcr, and in tlio prewncc of a 1" 
witncmcs, pnidiicf lii* eniitioii, pv:. 
wiUing; by ifiV-H U intvndi'd *■!'' 
pitjnoriUi'n'a, tbut i-", tw<i Miretif"^^ 
tlie kiiul ; ntnl if htf be init n' 
fortliwttji t" r-i>air to tbo clin* . 
ti.m in tin- pn-cnco of tin: n-' 
wIiMw;u- ibe ImiUA of lb.- ' . 

IllJltUT l-l 

N.n jir.A. 
tiiat o;ui;:. 
nfii^al o:" : 

b-.;.l ni.^j 

• :io'cl>tanre "1 ' 
till- clianixlW «' 
:i;il t.tnnt pr:- 

;nict with one p«?r- 
■ ;,i..' of advcraarica;' it 
"xvivcr of the aiipcrior 
•n'lii- ^Ve can hanlly 
-aiv to a later pcriml, 
-.1.1 become malttri «f 
. . rtor xtitutc wc iie<'Ri 
.- that turbulent poriml 
.ntions vox ill dvlint.'d, 
lif tho primary- obji.'tl; 
■i probably in virtue of 
-j^i»o tliat vc find, in the 
nt.- Ralph du LuiccstiT id 
>T of which tbc I'riiT of 
.n, Uioagh a sufficient cau- 

^virtt by the institution of g^ 
icr( limit^il rhnractor. Ifi^ 
j^gA vxt prwtfrtii'n agaia*t L» 
^, twiwr; the jiriiiciiKil ap- •»*. 
.co.t:!i->1 »i'b tbv in-*-ruc- 
^'^^> Vr.-:>V'-! »;tbii:.pu. 
_^^^^^* y.!!i w. :.■:';■-■»■(• 
Kn-.. -..:.- ; --^ l-f*- 


-.-' ■■' ' 

i..ii bci— ^ *■ ' 


*1ie enthusiastic, and the amUtioiu, 
.. the great teachers of the age 
- order the most congenial nsso- 

— ■■■; for the most Biiecessful career, 

'^•^ss--. ■ character of such men as Roger 

.^ ""-■:. I (.fccain, and not to anrmi^e that 

, .v.s of the Franciscan was the result 

.i^-ltig activity to which they were ex- 

(nvn mature and dellherato choice. 

"" ' - — ■ ii iigreeil well together,' says Fuller, in 

■ I i.i-ro the circumMtances under which lads of 
. I" aiqnire a uuivcrsity education, we need feel 
• ii...t both the academical authorities and private 
■ ■■ were roused to action on their behalf. In 133C 
. 'ir own university forbade the friars to receive 
:-krs any schnlars under the age of eighteen 

■ liMiro which it rorjuired the united infliicnco of 

■ iiTS to repeal'. To such an extent had tlic evil 
, ■ Oxford thai, in the pri'.indjle tif a statute passed in 
'.I' find it asserted as a notorious fact, that the nobi- 
td commoners alike were deterred from sending their 

M the university by this very cause, and it was enacti'd 
:: if any Mi-ndicaut sliunld induce, or cause to bo induced, 
. ;:y niendier of the univei-sily umlcr eighteen years of age to 
'.i\ the saitl friar.i, or shoulil in any way a.s,siht in his ahduo- 
\\>U, no graduate belonging to the cloister or Kiielety of 
which such friar was a nicmbtr (diould lie permitted tn 
give or attend ketnres in Oxford or cNewhero for llie year 

It iiKiy 1)0 (luestinncd wliether, at any pcrioil in our mo- 
dem era, the spirit of cooperation has been moro active in 
this country than it was in the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies. The rapid spread of the religious orders, and tho 
numerous gihls among tho laity .ittost its rcmarkablo power; 
but, save for the purposes of propagandism, as among tho 
lilendicants, wo rarely find this principle developing a novel 
' Cooprr, ^nnat<, i 109. ■ Jmtirj, HvniBifiila AemUmlea, i SOI-5. 


conception. Tho gilds of the Middle Ages, while sometimes chap, n 
subserving the purposes of superstition, were mostly societies ^^^^^ 
for the protection of tho presumed interests of a class or of a 
branch of industry; they represented the traditions and pre- 
judices rather than the advanced thought and enlightenment 
of the time. It is therefore no matter for surprise that the 
foundation of our colleges was left to the philanthropy of a 
few illustrious individuals, and that it was not until tho 
example thus set had been six times repeated in our own 
university, that it occurred to any corporate bodies to com- 
bine fi>r a like purpose. 

So early as tlic tw-lfth century, in the vear 1135, the ; '■ ■ •; '<" ■ 
Frosts, an ancient and charitable family in Cambridge, 52i^J^ 
founded there a ]iospital dedicated to St. John the Evan- 
gelist, under tho management of Augustinian Canons. Tra- 
dition has assigned to Nigellus, the second bishop of Ely, 
the honour of the foundation, but in the list of benefactors 
the name of Eustachius, tlio fifth bishop of that see, stands 
earliest, and this must be accepted as conclusive a<;rainst the 
claim put forward on l)ehalf of his predecessor. The bene- 
factions of Eustachius were of a princely character, and the »w-iru 
privileges he obUiincd for the new foundation addetl largely 
to its importiuicc. IRs example was followed by his sue- "Jjj^ 
ccssors in the bishopric; by jlu;;!i Norwold, who obtained |^"*{iJ4 
for tho foundation exemption from taxation (a matrrial 
relief at that prriod) in respirt of two houw-s near St. Poters 
(.'iiurch; and by William of Kilkenny, the founder of ()urwmui«i«r 
earliest university exhibition, William of Kilkenny waste;''!*;! 
Kucccedcd in the bislmprie by Ifni'li I>alsham. Ilni;!! Ual- "•^h 
slmm was a monk and Hubpric»r of Ely, and his election to}l^.'f{j^ 
tho vacant sec has a sjKTial interest, for it repn*sonts tho 
installation of a bishop throu;,di local influence in opposition 
to tho nominee of both the Crown and the archbishop, — tho 
representative of a Benedictine community, in preference to 
the foremost Franciscan of his day. It was the monks of 
Ely who elected llu^di Balsham ; the King quashed the nh^ 
election and nominated Adam de Marisco*. *A proceeding,' 

' *Dominii8 Bex, qni dominam IIcnneTim do WeogluiTn, al^ni tvi 



tajt Matthew Paris, ' which excited the wonder of all ; for 
neither the election nor the elected could be condemned 
with jii8tioe» nor any fault be found with the elect\' It was 
only by recourse to the usual bribery, and an expensive jour- 
ney to Rome, that Hugh Balsham succeeded in obtaining 
the papal confirmation of his election. It may possibly 
appear to thoso who have read Professor Brewer's sketch of 
the eminent Franciscan, that the friend of Grossetcste and 
Simon de Montfort, and the founder of a distinguished 
school of thinkers at Oxford, would have added more to tho 
lustre of the episcopal chair. But we must not forget that 
Adam de Marisco was chiefly distinguished in connexion 
with the Franciscan party, and wo can hardly imagine that 
the interests of his order would not have influenced him in 
his capacity of diocesan. We may feel assured that he 
would never have become, what Hugh Balsham became, the 
founder of our first Cambridge college. He was moreover at 
this time a worn out man, and died within twelvemonths of 
the election; while Hugh Balsham filled the see of Ely for 
nearly thirty years. Though therefore the Benedictine prior 
might not compare with the Doctor Illxtstris* for genius and 
varied learning, we can well understand that as a Cam- 
bridges-hire man', with strong local sympathies, and an 

bajalnm, promovcro cnpiobat, spcci- 
bIv* litcras nupplicatoriai ct solcnnci 
iiuncioii convcuttii ElycDRi dircxit; 
pftenii ur{;<'nU'r ct instnntor, ut dic- 
tum dotiiiiiuiu Ili'iiriciira iu C)iiH<*o- 
piiin et Atiartim cliK^Tcut pnHtorcm 
atiiiDAnini. CoiiveutUH auUnn con- 
pidtrnna iiotitiam hui HUp]>ritiriH, ho- 
cuudtira illud iUiicuiu:— /.'//loffim tihl 
*rit noli pntjHUifrf notii, ipsum tno- 
mnmtuiu Huiiiu Priorcui, Ilu^'oncm 
Tid(Iic4't dc Ik'lcKalc, in siium fpiHCo- 
pQui eli'k't'runi.' Turii, Jlist. Major, 

cJ. WfttH, p. y.'m. 

^ *8u]K!r quo facto mirati sunt 
euncti AudicntcK, «piia cUctuR nco 
clcclio rrpnilMiri de jure potcrat, nco 
in oindfui vilium njn-riri. S<*d prw- 
Tarirntort'M, qiian-ntcH mNlani hi wir- 
po, ft Anf^iliim in circulo, imposuo- 
runt C'i ipKid HJtnpkx cIuiiHtrtiliH fnit, 
tii-c d(* imftfc'i'iH MLCultiribuif cxcrcit.v 
tan nl i'XiiCTtuji, «t iH;iiitUtf iuMulIi- 

cienR ad cnstodicndum et tncndnm 
Dobilcm cpiscopatum Elyensom, et 
inMulara, qu(c ab Autiqno OMvlum cxti- 
tit rcfuKii cmHiibnH opprcMis tcmporo 
tribubitioniH.* Ibid, p. U5<). 

* T)io cbiim of Aditin do Mariftco 
to tliJH title in, Prof. Bn-wcr oJwcrvon, 
Imrdly bonio out by biH Icttcm, bin 
only extiuit writinpt; but bo quotm 
frcmi tlio Omit Tertium tbo cmpbatio 
t4-Hiiuiriny iMinio by l(o(^r lUieon to 
t)io nttninmentfi of biH illuHtrionii 
brotbcr FranciHCAii. Boo MunumeHta 
Fruncinetina, I'ref. p. c. 

s Balnbaui, a villa^^o abont ten 
milcii to tbo eoiit of Cambridge, wmi 
formerly ono of tbo manor Hcati* of 
tlio biHboprio of Kly, and Kimon 
Montacute rcNidcd tlitro. Fuller re- 
markn tliat it wan cuHtomary at tbii 
|M-riod for cb.TQ'nif-n tf> tolco tbeir 
Hiiniutoo from tbo place of tbeir 
lirtb. Id tbo accouutM of ibe I're 


eminently practical turn for grappling with c i and ^^'- " 

evils which ho saw around him, 1 may have ^' v - 

appeared to many to outweigh even the Dame and influence 
of the Franciscan leader. 

Some three and twenty years elapsed before the new 
bishop of Ely founded Peterhouse, — ^years during which he 
was acquiring a real knowledge of the state of the neigh- 
bouring university; and it would be difficult to point to any 
patron of learning cither at Oxford or at Cambridge who 
has combined with such enlightened activity such generous 
self abnegation. Other founders have equalled Hugli Bal- SlS*^ 
sham in munificence and in earnestness, but mostly where 
they have established a claim to gratitude they liave sought 
to assert a corresponding authority. It was this prelate's 
distinguishing merit that he could at once voluntarily sur- 
render his powers of interference and increase his benefac- 
tions ; be more a helper and yet less a dictator ; could cede 
the ancient claims of his predecessors to control and com- 
mand, and yet labour on in the same field where those 
claims had been asserted ; preferring rather to survive as a 
fellow-worker than as a lawgiver in the memory of a grate- 
ful posterity. Of this spirit a signal instance is afforded usJJ'jj 
in the letters which he issued in the year 1275, whereby he JJJi JiiJj^ 
distinctly limited the jurisdiction claimeil by former blshoiis, *****' 
and extended that of the chanctllor of the university, by 
re<)uiring that all suits in the university hhould Ix* brought 
iN'fore that functionary, and lestricting his own auth'irity as 
l)i.»*hoj) to tlio power of receiving ap|xals'. 

In tlie fi»]I.>wiiig year, wIm-m he was called upon to ailjust JJJjfSi. 
a dispute betwe<Mi his own archdeaciin and the authorities of JjJJjJ^ 
tlic university, his decision wiis given in the same spirit. JSIh^*" 
The archdeacim, itapiwars, not only claimed jurisiliction over 
the churches in Cambridge as lying within the diocese, but 
also, through the blaster of the Glomerels, whose nomination 

c<ntor of Ely CatliHlrnl, in tlio year 
l.ViV, no ha\f the foIlowiiiK Mitry: — 
*1'Uis l'ri'«tiiU»r, U'^li^H to J*»ttli«lmrij, 
to «;ji<|uiro f'^r Um/Iui, 0% 7**.' Hw 

iai>|ilMiH •T't to Dc utham, f/ht, of Ktf 
t'athninit, |ip. 61, Hf;. 

» !>>« r. I'ririlrrf^g itftkf Vmir, f «. 


*^- ***■ wu Tested in the arcbdeaconiy, laid claim to other authority 
■w-w vhich threatened to eocroach upon the rights of the chan- 
cellor. The Glomerels, aa we have already seen, constituted 
a body distinct firom the scholars of the univeisity, and it 
liecame necessaiy definitely to mark out the limits of the 
jarisdictioQ exercised by the heads of the two bodies. Hogh 
Balsham's decision was clear and equitable. He decided that 
the Manitter (llomerim should be arbiter of all disputes con- 
fined to the Glomerelrt themselves, or between Glomerels and 
townsmen, but that wlicncvor a dispute had arisen between 
Glomerels and scliolars there sltouUI be a power of appeal 
from the decision of that funclionni^- to the ehancellor'. On 
other points, such as the jurisdiction over university ser- 
rants, over priests resident at Cambridge merely as cele- 
brants, and priests resident for the purpose of study, the 
bishop's dccviions arc equally clear and deserving of com- 
menilutiun; but the most important is undoubtedly that in 
cunlirmalion of a. statute previously passed by the chancellor 
" J^ and masters, ' that no one slioidd receive a scliolnr who has 
UJJr* not had a fixed master within thirteen days after the said 
scholar had entered the university, or who had not taken 
care that his name had been within the time aforesaid 
inserted in the matriculation book of his master, unless the 
master's absence or legitimate occupation should have pre- 
vented the s:ime.* To thi^ 'commendable and wholesome* 
statute, as ho terms it {xtntiitHm Inudahile et salubre), the 
liishnp Kivcs his hearty Kinetioii. 'In fact,' he further adds, 
'if any Mich persim be found Vi remain under the name of a 
S(jh>i1:ir, ho shall l>e either exjiclloil or detained, according to 
the King's pleasure." It will be readily allowed that the 

1 ■ It irpcnn tram tlie pero«n1 ot over viil rend (ta Imts lh« tateh tt 

thrno vcr}' renjirknMo Jucuiarnli, rriiimfii) in thoM tcbooli, rcceiHnit 

Ihtt Oic iiin<U'r of clonipiy n-rrivnl tram tlit wlioliin or gtomtrtlli t)io 

lii9B|>|>i>inliii('ntniiilini>tiliitionfrani kcctiHtoinril rof/rrte or feci; that be 

llio arrlidiiiton nf *i:i>, tu wliixv jn- «■■ olno altMided bj Iiia proper be- 

ri-uli<ii<>n tlm rrintliiliiin nml rollH- AiW (iinw mIiI to tw llie fcniiiRti Iw- 

ti<>ni<tt1ir-p|iiK>l<>«f L-rnimnnrorilio dill), nnrltliat li« (xurciKi-J orirliii 

iiiiivrroil.v iin'M'riiiliviiljr tH'!riiii.:<i1 ; (tlniiii'ifllii the Uxiiiil jimwlirtkin of 

tliiit liu uiiH ri->|Min'<l tn nwt'nr iiU'ilU nt'i'iit mBHlcrii owt Oinz ■clroUr*.* 

oiru li> tlm uTli'li'ivon nml \x\» uttU Hvbii l>ion>clc Ul$maUimt m ff 

cuIk: IUbI it «iu< tii* iliit; to pmi Jo Statutn, K\iV^iiA\\ A. 


PETCRnorsc 227 

arbitrator in matters requirin,? mich careful inTCntigation an cvi 
the foregoing, must have hi'l ample opportunities for a dear ^ 
insight into the defects and wants of the univeivitr, nor can 
we doubt that the knowletlge thus gained found exprcwion 
in tlie design wliioh he shortly afterwanls carried into exe- 
cution. 'His ntf^'Ctinn for Icaniing. and the state of the 
poor scholars who were much put to it for conveniencj- of 
lodging from tin* !ii«;li rents exacti'tl hy the townsmen,* li«-in:; 
the causes a'^Mirnod hv the clirouiflur as weijiing with Hu:;h 
Kiltfhnm in his ni'W oiidc'ivunr*. 

If we adopt tho account accepted hy so tnist worthy a y^ 
guide as IJakcr. his rfVorts wcn» first directed towarils a JI^.V 
fusion of those two olcinnits which Walter de Mcrton hail i *i. 
Ftrivon to keep distinct. 'Having fir>t oht:iine<l the King's* ***" 
license and the consent of tlie hrctliren, he hniught in and 
engrafted secular :»eln.lars up.»ii the oM stock (the Hospital 
of St. Jtihn tin.' Kv:iiiv;»']ist', i-nlnwini: tht-m in c»»mnion 
with the ri'lisrious liiitlin'ii, as wrll with the ri'venues of tho 
old house, as witli n'MirJMn:;! n\«ii»i«'s, grnnted with n-^nl 
to, and in contf»iiji!;itinn i»f hi'* n«'W f«»u»iilntio!i ; and so th»^ 
regulnr canons and •• ^••ImlarN iH-cjiTno i/ii'//** cor^pt* rt 
uvum coUvffuiw, am! \\i rr tlif fiF-t i>nd<>\v<il ctil!i -je in ilii«« 

n»nver>itv. .".nd i»'»H^il,!v in nnv nilji r nnivirMtv wjiatevi rV* 
• I • • • 

Tl:<* Jittiiniitftl e.i!iihiii !?;• 11 \v;i^ n-'t ^wr -^fnl. *Tln* vli-- •'■'•" 

lir*.' ol»servrN Piiik'-r, 'w-rf t«M» >\!«i', and tlp' l>Mthrtn p'*-^*^! 

siMv over pMul;' :iTid Hu-^li lViKli;M»i. afii-r x.iinly end«a- 

voii'in'! t«» ;.!l.iv tin- ^!iit.' tli:ir sjiMi!-r hm In tu.- ii tlie tiR.» 

l.iiiir; w*a< •• iiiT*' ll« 'I to t.i\.- un \-'\\' - ♦• r t'li Ir ^" hiriti'-n. 
• • • 

» ,f./.;.f.. •• f . «■.■.' ". «■.■: Jij. ' ■ ■ •. I • ^ n'o ?■•■•' i- *•*• '•\''- 
•:'5 "i I 111 rn'^ii i*;-. p r-" • ■ »■■ ■'• '■•i'-* **;!■» n *:■•'■ 

• //i.f. I •■ f. t . ' s' .'. '.-I '. . » i-... \.i>.i \ i. ,ir 

:"-■ i .-i-t •.'. .f. 1\ I .:. . I ."■r. t ' : !■■. I r ;. j r. .. -i, 

• l.'.i.l ».y J. !.n i: n V.iy'. 'Mi \ ■ ' » ■■•:.:. 'i •? *M« 

•Ti'.t !•:.».. 1 ■■" vl. ■»■.•' .. . • ! ••.;.•'••'«■. t .M 

; • 'i \. 

« . .1. Hi, I r 1 . w ;. I • . ^ . ! •. ■ ■ I ' ' * ■ « 

• :l..r. .1.. ^ II. I ..■." .-'v • ' '; '• . ' ■- * ' • ' •■■ '■ • '» 

' : lI-.-i,li il . 1 ■■ ■ I ■•' ' • ■ ■ ■ *.-!:'{■!.: 

vu, 1.1 V. I .:'••!:■•;*' ■ t ) ^ . t i . 


' •-• uv. t . • ■ !■ ■ .7. 1 ■.'■;..•». 

I _ I 

: I" .•! I ■ ! I . « 

• . f 

..':. • • : I 

I 4 

! ■ . \ . I • ■ . » • I .1 . J .* 

.•« I ?«• I'l ' . I t ■ ■ I \ . •. I 
'.I.- M. -I I ••! f i.\\ 

>i :: •< I 



Such a proceeding involved, of course, a division of the com- 
mon property, and the canons, who appear to have been 
moBt anxious for the separation, were considerable losers by 
the result. They resigned to the secular scholars the impro* 
{HTiation of St. Peter's Church with the two adjourning hos- 
tels already mentioned, receiving in return a hostel near the 
]>>minican foundation, afterwards known as Rud's Hostel, 
and some old liouscs in the vicinity of the hospital. To the 
two hostels of which they had thus become the sole proprie* 
tors, the secular schohirs removed in the year 1284, and there 
formed the separate foundation of Peterhouse. But though 
to that ancient foundation undoubtedly belongs the honour 
of having first represented the Cambridge college, as a sepa- 
xate and distinct institution, to the Hospital of St John the 
Evangelist belongs the credit of having first nurtured the 
collegiate conception \ 'No doubt,' says Baker, 'our good 
bishop was much grieved with tlicsc divisions; but could he 
have foreseen, that this broken and imperfect society was to 
give birth to two great and lasting foundations, and that two 
colleges were to be built upon one, he would have had much 
joy in his disappointment*/ Within another quarter of a 
century the foundation of Peterhouse was farther enriched 
by an unexpected addition. The immunities and influence 
enjoyed by the Franciscans and Dominicans had excited the 
emulation of not a few rival sects, until at length the Church 
found it necessary to set bounds to a movement which 
threatened to terminate in disaster from a too complete suc- 
cess. At the second Council of Lyons, held in 1274, it Mi 
decreed that only the four great orderi of Friars should 
henceforth be recognised, the other sects being formally sup- 

* * It may oven bo urpcd,' obFoncB 
Mr. Cooper, * tlmt St. John's colle^o 
is of iiuiH>rior autiquity to any other, 
as tho HoKpital of St. John, on the 
site of which it stands and with the 
revenues wlicreof it is endowed, al- 
though a reh^iouM house, was u\m a 
hoUM* cif hnniiii(% itn nu'UiberH being 
intithnl to aradnnic drK'rees.' Mr- 
moritilut II 2, note. Ho Colo, who snys,* 
'St John'M eoUoKo, now (grafted on 
that hoKpitul, and iitiU enjoying iti 

possessions, may jastly be aeeonntoit 
tho first of our present colleges.* Ba* 
kcr-Mavor, it GOl. 

> IbUL p. 26. ' By his last will he 
left to his scholars many books in 
divinity and other sciences, and 300 
marks for erecting new buildings; 
with which sum thoy purchased ft 
piece of ground on tho s<»uth side of 
the snid church, wliero they built ft 
Tory fine halL* MS. Harloian, «M 
quoted in Bcntbam, p. 151. 


pressed. Among these was the order De PcmUmdia /cm. niAf 
the site of whose foundation at Cambridge came into the ^ 
possession of Peterhousc in the year 1309; the earliest 
instance of that species of conversion which so bigelj aug- 
mented tlie resources of the universities at a bter era. 

The example set by Hu;;h Balsliam was worthily followed 2^ 
by Simon Montacutc or Montague, his successor in the^rll 
bishopric. The first effiirts of tiiis prelate were directed to a 
more equitable ailjustment of the terms on which the canoos 
and tlio scholars had parted company, for tlic dissatisfaction 
of the former fouud unremitting and clamorous expression ; 
the society at Peterhousc was conHnncd in its possession of 
tho two hostels but subjected to an annual payment of 
twenty shillings to the brethren of St. John a. If we further 
pursue the fortunes of these two foundations, we bhall with JjJ^ 
difficulty avoid the concIu>ion that thrir Kefiaration repre- 
sented a real and r.'i<]ical innfliiiitv. Both liocame enriched 
by valuable endowments; but uiiiler the in:uia;;ement of the 
canons the fortunes of tliiir ^i<rn^<Ml\\iiiil!ed, while the ni^'ritA 
of the scholars of IVtcrljousL' altraci^*! further munilicencc 
to their foumlation. Of tin* former, Baker telU u«, a oim- 
mission apinunted in the ni;,'ii of Iliehard II report e«l h«»w 
* by tho iievjieot of the wanlni tin? number of studt-nt^ had 
become diminished;' * lands nntM. and ]i<)sses5ions gnittted 
them by Ed wan I ill waNlnl and dt"«tniyid;* •chartvn*, Ixv^kn. 
jewels and other monument.s, pMH|<i and chattrN, alieiiatt^l 
and sohl bv the wanleii and his niini^t'T-* or M-rvant^;* how 
'debates, dissensions, and diM-ords' hail arisen U'twixt the 
master and students, 'st) that th«.' stud« nt< jid a drsnh-ite life 
and could by no means alttu.l t«» !• irnin;; and ^tudyV* 
Very diffi Tent is the aivotint c-mhi rnin.; lVt«rh":i«\ witlnu 
a few years of the al»ove n']H.rt; f«»r fritin tip* ^\\\\v wril«T wo 
learn how that John Fordham, hi-lp>j) "f Kly, Miavin^j ci>m- 
pxssion of their case, and a trndi r nu'i'l *•» tin ir ii'it<»riot|ii 
indigence, iw likewise with p ^vir 1 to t!.< t • . !• bratrd virtin-^, 
as Well as continued and tinw<aii(d i \« !• i •' in diM'i]i!iiio 
and study, and as an iiiexpiif^naMe hulvvatk aj^ain^t the |H;r* 


R. m. v«ne ud ncrilegioiu doctrines then prevailing,* made over 
'^^ to them tb« church of Hinton, as a college property'. The 
former foundaUon regained its exclusively rcUgiotit cho- 
nct«r; shared the corruption and degeneracy that mark 
neariy all the religious fuundations from the thirteenth to 
the nxtccDth century ; and vos finully dissolved in the reiga 
of Hcniy viii, to be converted into the college that now 
l)ears its name*. Tho college of Pctcrhouse, on the otticr 
hand, developed tho scculnr conception, and, further aug- 
nicnted by the viso munifieenco of its masters, sent forth, 
during the same three centuries, many wclUtrained scholars 
•nd not n few able men; offering, in both its utility and 
Titolity, a mailed contrast to the institution from which it 
ijjf^ It mnst be regarded as a signal proof of the moderation 
5^,^ of Simon Moiitacutc, that ho restjjnwl to the college tho 
^■t valuable right ho possessed, in virtue of his ofBcc, of pre- 
senting students to the fellowships *, — nn act conceived in a 
very different npirit to that displayed by some of his sue- 
CT^ssors a ceutuiy later, when tho encroachments of the sec 
of Ely gave rise to tlic famous Barnwell Process. But tho 
most eminent service, rendereti by tliis prelate to the new 
foundation, was undoubtedly tliD body of statutes which he 
caused to be drawn up for its government. To the c<m- 
sidemtion of these we shall now proceed. We shall veiy 
sliortly, it is true, find a body of collegQ statutes of yet more 
^ff^ ancient date en^ging our attention, but, as the statutes 
wn- given by bishop Montacute appear to have faithfully reflected 
JMD) the design and motives of the founder, tliero seems good 
reason for regarding them as tlto embodiment of tho earliest 
conception under which our college life and discipUne found 
fi^ That the statutes of Peterhouso have no claim to origi- 
Ja^^ nality has been already observed ; tho phrase ad inttar Aulm 

) Dftkcr-Uftfor, i 33. fa> tfa* nnlTenltT, lie wm eonmenui- 

■ md. 1 60, CO— CL ntcd In Um udrat bnnnlur of 

* ' For which pwtienlar hvonr, m eonincinonUoK ud prying l«r oV 

wvU u for prinl«sef enated b; liun banatMlon,' md. ■ S3. 

rcTEiuiuUbi:. 231 

de Merton meets us at almost every page*. Tlie •eoood at*- cair 
tute affords a defiDite exposition of the purpoae of Hugh ^ 
Balsbam, as interpretoil by \\U successor, 'of proviiliDg, as 
for as lay in his {>ower, for the security of a suitable main- 
tenance for poor scholars desirous of instruction iu the know* 
ledge of letters/ A master and fourteen peq>etual fcHuir**, Jjjj 
'studiously engaged iu the purhuit of literature/ reprein-nt !I^ 
the body siipiwrted on the foundation; the 'jicnsioDer' oflm" 
later times being, of couriik*, at this period, alrcaily provided 
for by the hostel. In of a vacancy among the fvIlow!i ^^^ 
'the most able bachelor in logic' is designated as the one un 1^V*< 
whom, ceteris jhirihus, the election is to fall, the olhfrri/' 
re^uirenunts biing that, 'so far as human frailty admit/ he 
be *honorabK\ chiLste, pL*act.'abh», humble, and ni«Kle>t' Tin- ^^' 
'scholars of Kly,' fur by this name they were known, 
were bound to drV(jt<; tlu'iMM.'lvi's to the *htu«ly of art-*, Ari- m^« 
Ktotlo, ca:n»n law, or tln'oli»;:y;* but, a-^ at M«*rt<'n, the lKL<^ii 
of a sound libi.Tal (Mlncatinn wa^ to be laid Infore the »tutlv 
of theoln^ry was riitrnMl n|ht!i ; two wi-ri* to U? ndniitti-ij In 
the study of tlir <'ivil anil r.uinii l.iw; Hilt*, to fh:it iif niriji* 

cine. WIm'I) anv li Il'»w alHnit to iiic«i»t iu anv faoultv it ^^i* 

r^» • 
devolved up'in ihr iiin-tiT with tin* ri'>t of thi* felloWd tu''»* 

onijuire in what maniirr In* ba.l nin<lucti'd liini^<-lf and •••ine ■"' ■* 

thron';h his txt'rci>«vs in tji'.' M;linla>tic acts; how hiu;* In* h.ii| 

h«*ard lectun-s in tli** farulty in wlii<:li liu ilo'^iritl to inct'pt; 

and whotliiT ho hail p»nr thnniuh the funiM a«voriKn|^ !•» 

tli«» statntrs <»!' th»* !iniv«T'»ity. Tin* -ti/ar i»l" latiT tinifs i<« 

rt'0«»;,MiiM*d in tlir |)r«i\i>hiii that, it tin* IuihI^ nt* tJM* fnund.i- 

tion pninit, tip* nia^ti-r aii«l tin* two <!• an^ •»liall m hi-i two 

' Tin* ll.ltt* ft*«!,'IHil ti« ll.« ■«• "•■*• f"iU:<l ili 'Tl Vi '!■ kl«.««| «• llii* • .' . 

tuti « III till* N'lr^'if I f iifr /■■ r i< 1 • I-4, /•!'« • lit iri I'r l<-r t<> iiii-.<l ti>r ■ rt . 

l'»it in*tr* «*Mil' i.« •' *}•■■■- !l .il In"':- i»i:| r» •••■•n ^IjI'Ii tip" u»'' *t 

»mii«« of tl • T:i nri' Ht )• i-! f "r >• ir^ t'n- l:4'.?»r ti 'tn »• «M U« ilil* I 

Utir. In tl.i* :..''th •* itii*.< n'. ni.i- t«»i"\'. I ?.»*•■ n:i !•>«■! Il.r 1 1 t r 

i* lu.i'lo 111 t* f |'!.»\iii' •■•■■; t I- tlirt 1 ■.»•.. .^- I.* •■.* fr.'iii A I »-• . ▼ 

ti«'!i I f ^r !'i-.')i. li >!f .?f r I i.'.li i!i <'.:■••', l! y Wi ••• t-iA.i. r, k.Ir 

Ul. t^:^ I.. 11,1 \. ir lU'J li.' " /■ c..iN I f« ■'»"•»'! I ■• i.» 
iiftt'irv ff >.•!.• Il Mi'i t.i- '»•■■ .t-'.f- 'V:'' \ •'■• X" -I l'.nun««'Mo« 

III l.-i\f» l-fi II ,;i\iii «iij t!.i' T .:''. if ♦ ', . I . ; 

Apftl. IIN. r. : J •'.> -I If I. n, Kfi lu'ir Mlourt 

• Ai Cr-i i!ic frr-ut vi A I ::• :• •::.• /. ■ • /■■ ■-. 


ta. or three joatlu 'indigent scholars well grounded in latin* 
m^ (JNvenes indiymtea acholarea in fp-ammattca twtabUitm' fun- 
^ datoi), to be maintainod, 'as long as may eeem fit,' by tlio 
college alms; such poor scbolara being bound bo attend upon 
the master and fellows in church, on feast days, and at other 
ceremonial occasions, to serve the master and fellows at 
^^ Moaonablc times at tabic and in their rooms. All meals 
were to be taken in common; but it would seem that thiit 
regulation was intended rather to conduce towanU an econo- 
mical management, than enacted in any spirit of stiidicJ 
conformity to the monastic life, for, adds the statute, 'tho 
■cholars shall patiently support this manner of living, until 
their means shall, under God's favour, have received more 
plentiful increase'.' 

Wc shall be able, in a future chapter, to avail ouraelvcs 
of many of tho interesting details observal'Ic in those sta- 
tutes, which we shall here pass by; hut one of tho statutes, 
relating to tho dress of the scholars, thoiii^li appertaining 
to a minor point, affords such pertinent itliistratlon of the 
whole conception of the founder, that it seems to demand a 
notice in this general outline. 

Among otlier features that illustrate the character of the 
clergy at this period, is one which forcibly attests how largely 
they then intermingled with the laity and how liltlo ri'str.niiit 
their c.illing imposed on their mode of life,— their disregard 
j*» of the dress Iield proper to tho profession. At the univcnii- 
"^ ties this licence had reached its highest point. The student'^, 
we quote from Mr, Cooper, 'disdaining tho tonsure, tho dis- 
tinctive mark of their order, wore their hair either hanging 
doTk-n on their shoulders in an effeminate m.inner, or curled 
and powdered: they had long beards, and their apparel more 
resembled that of soldiers than of priests; tlioy were attired 
in cloaks with furred edges, long hanging sleeves not cover- 
ing their elbows, bIiogs chequered with red and green, and 
tippets of an unusual length; their fingers were decorated 
■with rings, and at their waists they wore large and costly 
girdles enamelled with figures and gilt; to these ^rdlcs 
' DocHnUBtt, u 1—43. 



huQg kmvea like swords'/ In order to repress such laiity of cbai 
discipline an order was issued in the year 1342 bj Arch- 
bishop Stratford, whereby every student in the uniTentty 
was rendered incapable of any ecclesiastical dfgrce or honour ^T;« 
until he should have reformed his ' person and apparel ;* and 
it is with express reference to this order that the following 
statute of Peterhousie appears to havo been drawn up:— 

'Inasmuch as the dress, demeanour and carriage ofjj^ 
scholars are evidences of themselves, and by such means it i% 
seen more clearly or may be presumed wliat they themwlve^ 
are internal! v. we enact and ordain, that the master and all 
and each of tiie scliolars of our lumse shall adopt the clerical 
dress and tonsure, as becomes the condition of each, anil 
wear it ontormably in every respect, as far as thry conve- 
niently can, anil not allow their beard or their hair to ;;row 
contrary to canonical prohiljit!'»n, r or wear rin;;s Ufwn their 
fingers fi»r iheir own vain >,'lory antl boasting and to the per- 
nicious exinipl'.' anil Mcanil;il of othersV 

Similarly, a"* it was forlntldi'n tlio chrp^y to play at dic»», ts«* 
so is the s;ii:ie n.i^tinio fiirl>i«l'K'n the *scli«»lars of KIv/ On ■**» 
tlie otlier luiii«l tin' n«»n-ni'»naNtii' piiqvxes of the found«T ^'^r. 
are insisr^d upon ^ith fnii;il rxj»li<'itness ; hluuild eitlior the r. "^ 
ni.i>t'.T «T I'Tie ol' tin* trll-'Ws tlr^in* !•» niter anv of tin* 
approvni ni.'ii.i-^v.c ••i»li Ts, it i^ |»rn\iili-d that a yrar i»f ijnii'c 
J*ii.iil l«o |;i\eri liitn. l«iit at'ti r that, nnntlier shall In,- 
el- e'ed in \i\^ ji! i^-i-. ina^innrh m«« tin* rrvcnui'* i»I' the fi><iii. 
u.iV.'-n ;ii«.« i!.^' -^i ,1 f-T ill-'"!' orilv who are actual ^ttiil<>nts 
a:i«l •!• «»:r«,M:^ ^>^ !'M\:!!^ i«:"_::» "h jt* nrf 'iiltffr ^t''dt'iitihus 
c' rir'.7*r-.'v V..*.-.' '• ,' . >i.» s:\x\izt r < vi!rii«'«» oiuM lHMli'.ir<'«l \\' \\ .1^ •-. :';.» 01^.' ot" M- t!."?i e-'!I. ^'•■. it w .^ t!:«» 
li' ''.'^u ■•:" :'■•.' !" .•! 1 r t» |»r"\il- a--'-!.if.o«' f-r hViih ii!^ 
•ri!'.::';r«..i l«v •.'■ ,» -.i a^x tv ..f i!-.|-.'! li i .: the Tni"n:i«'!ie l:*\\ 
:i ■':':j'^ '• ■^' '■: \ . ••. • i%*\->'n x^.i, i'i:.r:!i.l, but a* it ik.^s 

!»'r '.'se . '•.:<*. .'!" l!.:^!i li."-' i!!i t • l"'::i! a in-'n.T'.t.*r\-. the 
V'".... ^^ \\ i-* •• » 1- »■ • ■ • : \\_.' : ; .:.'.^ 1:' wi' ;i«l I t»» the ("W" 
y .'^ Vi'. .'.. ^ '.:.»•. .1'^ v: 1 !'\ !' • ^' »• ■.•■* x^liiih proii!.^, 
'.-i.i: ■•:i .iv\ v:.»^ >u\\v -M- !.' a !•::■• e v\ t!ie ann'ial 


BL value <^ one hundred shiUiogs, he shall, after a year's gne^ 
IV .vacate Iiis fellowships we shall have enumerated the princi< 

pal pointa in thene concise and simple statutes'. 
^ An interral of forty years separates the commencement 
"^ of MichoelhouH from that of Peterhouae. In the year 13S4 
We find Bervey do Stanton, chancellor of the exchequer, and 
canon of Bath and WcIU, obtaining from Edward II permis- 
aiuu to found at Cambridge, — where, as tlie preamble informs 
OS, txercitium atudii fulgtre dinotcxtur, — the college of the 
■^ * scholars of St Michael' Though itself of later date, yet, oa 
J^ an illustration of early college discipline, Michaelhouso is, 
"■ in point of fiict, of greater antiquity than Pcterhouse, for 
tlio statutes given at the time of its creation preceded those 
given by Simon 3Iont.icuto to the latter society by at Icnxt 
^ fourteen years. The foundation itself has long been mergo<l 
^ in a more illustrious society, but its original atatutcx are still 
exUint, and nrc therefore the earliest embodiment of the col- 
lege conct-ption, ns it found oxpresaion in our own univer- 
sity*. Their perusal will at once su^esit that they weru 
dntwn n\i in a sninewhut h-s^ libciul Kpirit than prescntM 
l^itself in tlu' tinIu of Ilii;;h IJidnliiuii, Thu monk and the 
l"* friar are i-:K-luilud from ihu Nix-irty, but tlw; rulu of M<-rt»u \» 
"^ not mentioned. It in in honour of thu holy iind uudiviihil 
Trinity, of the hie.ised Miiry, ever iv Virfjiii, of St. Micliiicl 
the Archangel, and all the tuiiiits, that the fuundation Htuno 
is laid; the fellows are to bo priests or at Iciut m tacru onti- 
nibua constituU; they mu^t have taught in the lilxiral arts or 
in philosophy, or bo at loiut bachelors ineepting in thoHc 
branches, who intend ultimately to devote thcniNelves to the 
study of theology; the celebrution of service at the iieigh- 

■ 'Thoae slntutes,* obsrirei Drnn prble^ and m the earllnt cotlf§t 

pMCock. ' prcscDt ■ TCTj remaikaljle itaiuttt ol our nnivenitj Iuts cod- 

cmtnal to tniuir of the later eoJea Mqaentlj u«med dfurriii;; of ioKT- 

olittlQtw.vliicli Rttemptedtortgn- tion i« txtnuo: t«e Appcodii (D). 

Ule anU control nenilj ever; truDi- I have printed them trnm a Iraiu. 

■ctioD in tifp, and wliich einboitied cript of the original in OttringkaM, 

nearly evciy enactment wLick tba or the SlicliaelhonAe Book, now in 

eiperiFDcv ol alher and mure ancient tlio pnascaiiiiin of Die aalhoriUn ol 

bodici lind dhoft-D to be KimetionTi Trinity eollcee. ThcT« ii al«o k 

required.' Utiitrvaiiont on the Si-i- eopj ot tliene atatntea in UAktr U8S. 

) ibeae atatale* ba*e Doror Iictn 

IX 7; till IGO. 

uicnACUiousK. 235 

bouring church of St Slichacl U proyided for with greit ciu 
minuteneM ; the senrices to be performed are specified. 80 ^ 
much prominence, indeetl, is given to this part of the foun- 
der's instructions, that he dooms it necessary to explain 
that it is in no way his intention to prejudice the study of 
secular learning: — *It is not/ ho says, 'my design hen*in to 
burden any of the ofhciating scholars with the performance 
of mosMC'S, us aforesaid, 1»oyond his convenient opportunity, 
so OS to prevent a due attention to lectunn, distputations in 
the schools, or private study; but I Iiave considered that 
such matters must I>e loft to individual discretionV It \i* 
re4|uired that the fi'llows shall pray daily for ' the state of 
the whole Church/ and ' tlio iMsict* and tran<|uillity of thr 
n»alni,' for tin; WLllaro of tlio kin;,', of tlir c|UiH-n IsaWlla, of 
Prince K<lward and the rest of the royal family, of the Ii>nl 
bishop of Ely, of the prior an«l convent of Kly, of the foun- 
der and his familv. Tlio consent of tin* bi>lioii nf the dio-f-^ 
ci'se had, like that of tlio rci^^iiin;; monarch, Imi-u m-o-ssan*; |^^ 
and if, iih from tin* tmonr o\' difrinnt statiit< h a]i|H*fin pi<». 
IniMo, till* ^mrrid xrli<-nio nf tlii* iii*\v fMunilation liii«l U 1 u 
draun np nndtT lli«- aii*>pi(-r* of ifnlm llotliiiiii, hIio at thit 
(inio filiiMl tilt; rpi*4(*n|t:d cliair, tlir pintiiiiitiii-** ;4ivin tti tin* 
n*li}^iun*4 NiTviccM to 1h* ulisrncd will U* r('h«l(i«'«l ni<»ri* in* 
t('lli^il)I«*. That bi-linp, tlinn;;li a pnlatt* of difitiii;,'ni<ilii d 
ahility, unlike Ilnt^di Halsjiuni, dinrtrd hii (>nor(N almost 
exclusividy U\ eniifliin^ and htriMr^tlicnin;; the ni«»na^tif 
foundatioiiH of his diiNTM*. ami h t't it t'» Sini(»n ^[ontacutt^ lii<« 
succvsMur, to as>i»t in tlio ilc\cl«»| nt of the m«'ro M.x* 

The regulations cuioi-rnini; a ri>ni!in»a ta)»!<\ a distinctive 
drcs.'i, anil other d(>tails of di'<ri|»!in«» to be foufal in tin "k? 
statutes, oftVr but frw p<»intH of difV.rrnc«' whrn c«>ni|i.irit| 
with those of Pctorhouso, but many ti-rs aro unpmvido^l 

' Coinpiir(»iioti»!>p. 210. th.»t •» M " \ \y lU'^rr. ntm.^y bit 

• • An •c'.iTo pnlulf/ »ut« lUkrr. ini. •'. r- 1 ■ » ri i.iTi«\».i|i ».ih >L 

•anil li»iii*»lf in r\«r\. J. J m • »1 -• .• il. in Mim: iLe m.-U 

Ihin;: tbnt Ml inlhin llio mtium** if » f i!.- 1 1. * • •> • f t'.r i n-'f ff U U 

h»« jurivhcUnn.' ^lUikir Ma)i>r. i »i- •:•• *f l.»' //if.*//.'/ 

.'U). I fail ta tintl any otLrr r'*'*'f *'t I .ifA^-'*"!!.'. i p l^'>- 1>- 
bit iatirctl in tbt unnmity tban 


IP. n for ooncerniiig which the code of the latter college is circum- 

^^ ■tontial and explicit, while there is nothing to indicate that 
the example of Walter de Mcrton wan present to the miud 
of Hervej de Stanton. 

I***, The two foundationa which next claim our attention, that 

"* of Pembroke Hall in 1347, and that of Oonville Hall in 
1330, afford satisfactory evidence that the college was not 
necessarily regarded as on inatitution hostilo to the religioua 

»iiM orders; the former owed its creation to Marie de St Paul, a 
warm friend of the Franciscans; while the latter was founded 
hy Edmund Oonville, an equally warm friend of the Domi- 

^SL nicaus. The allusion in Gray's Installation Ode, where in 

J*"* enumerating 

■All that OD OruiU'i trniUul plidn 
Bieh itrcuni ot regal booiit; pound,' 

the poet, himself a Pembroke man, designates the foundress 
of liii colk'(;o, oh 

■ — Mil CImtillun, riii licr brMot mom 
Tlial vppt bor bIcvJiiiK lovv,' 

u foumlod on a mere fiction'; but it is certain tliat tlie 
untimely Ions of Iier cliivalrous liuslHtud Jirst turned the 
thoughts of Marie do St. Piuil, Ixittt-r known as Mary de 
Valuncu', to dgctls liko tliiit to which Pcnibruko Cullegu owes 
its rise. Largo endowments to a nunnery of MinorcNSCR ot 
Waterbcach, and tlio foundation of Dcney Abl>cy, had fully 

' 'IIovcTer premntara ha drnth 
iniiy hnvs been, it BtiBitn-ilIy Jid not 
Uke rlBce BO iiooii bii oiir pucl rvprf. 
Knin. N'ot tlint ho ia cbnrecnbla 
■ilL tlio inTcntion of thin intcrcntinR 
tale. Ho only relnlci vLut vim and 
U lo tlii» Jny curronlly believed to 
be tnw. And jtrbiipi (tio lovtrs of 
poetry and roDiaore, who linvo betn 
■ceai't'iiiK.'d lo iii'lulKu i titlini; of 
»TniTratby f'* tlifl iin)iapp)' Int (.( 
tb>> l» r< ari .1 Ifly, ■"tild r»ib. r lh«( 
' - - t.ti.i,.|k- "■■ 


d»ubtli > 

(.r tbi i>iiliiiitli c 


i.iilb..rily of 
...mils >ti.I ■u™.-.Hlin« .ri- 
to Um jirtwnt lime, trend- 
ir i>li-p«, xtalo Ibul nbo «u 
III tliu luuBa day k y'uipa. 

wife, and widow, bor biiiibiiDd bBTiiiR 
been killLiI by i janhtiiiK on the Teiy 
cbiy ot bis mnrria;^. Tbe dale ot 
h\> tuBrriage brin;; howGTcr UMT- 
taJood Ibo more detuil o( nibiieqilFDt 
erentn occarriog during hii lifclime 
will at once provo tbe whole ■erannt 
to bo K fuhlc.' Mrmnin of Jtarie dt 
SI. Paul, pp. IG~2S. By UiJbcrt 
Aitihlie, MMslrrotl'L-nibrd^eColtr^, 
CaroKri'Ik-e. I<tl7. I am indebted lo 
Ibc ciirti i>y of Ibo iiri'iient Mailer of 
]■. «il.P,ke. tb<.- I!.:T. J. l'..w'f, ('* ae- 
CfK* III tbi* viJuublo and iulemtii'it 

' "Afttr b*r marriaiiii «b« waa 
never knowa by any olber agrnama 
Uian that ol St. Uol.' ttid. p. S7. 



attested her liberalitj of disposition before tlie Awta 
IhmMi de Valencemarie arose. ^ 

It is much to be regretted that the earliest role giTeii to 211 
the new foundation of Pembroke Hall is no longer extant*. iST 
A reyiscd rule, of the conjc'Ctural date of 136G, and another 
of perhaps not more than ten years later, are the sole data 
whenoe the subjoined outline has been drawn up'. The 

' Tbtf preamUe in ITcrwood, Fsor* 
iff Siatutet, p. IVJ, anil that in Do- 
emmentM^ ii VJ'i, are calculated to Kive 
the impreKKxuii that the htutute« of 
1347 are btill cxtuiit ; but Mirli 14 not 
tlioca<(e. *Altljou:;Ii no ot»]iyof tliMU 
ia ostant/ mvh l)r. Aiiixlir, ' vf-t it in 
ci-rtain tliat iUv\ wi-rv cniu'tol in tho 
yfar L'M7, biiur the r<vio<'il copy of 
ktatutcH, byiftliiih tlhy^irr m>|» t- 
icJiil, tliuii^'li it^i If uiiiitiii;; in ihi'.p, 
e\|ilicitly htjitis t).:it fuit. The 'hi- 
cunii'nt cttiiti.nini; the rcvi^'id kIa* 
tutiK 1.4 in thi fxiiii i>f nil in>h iitMn*, 
t<> uUt' l>)irl I'f ih].ii]| ri nmilii*';.' i^itll 
tlio cm1!< .'i* wito ni\\* I t).i M 111 fif (iiir 
\.v\y% iiM'l to thi* ( • 'iiiti i|> lit n iTi.iiii' 
vv* «ith h< r till- >• il ff :!.« i<:!«/i>. 
Tiic I'-iTt ri III <:•. I'.: Hith liii ««•!'.• j"' 
%i:iv n|*«*n -I >■:(• 1 •{■!• tit ti \i :•>••, • ■ h* 
11 111 •! hynttt r.' • if Ihi •>• .il t< • 'li r 
Willi t'li- ti.iiiM 4 tf l}'' \\;'T • • •!. 
TI'*' iIiH-iiiii> lit !!• \t r ) I 1 n ■! ■'• It 
lii.iv ^1' •■•■Jiji • J'ln ■! l.i I •■ III- ■:! tl i» 
\«iir |:t<'.i'i. 'Jill- likt M.r t of II A iW 
tfifitiH t)io p.iiiit' III.- • il lint '. t>iir 
tliu tiliii- rit ^liiih tVi •••••■■•I ri\i- 
M«'ii «:i-* III .I'*. All ]'• ill ■: « t) 
i'un U'utVrtM<<l «ii\ i->r!.iint-- i«tl.:it 
it «&^ I'-' ii: l1<* ! .*• r tl •!! tT •• \< .ir 
ll.Ni. '\\ t^ mull Ht li i-t t).ir> 14 
iiiti mil! V . ■ '•• Il *■ ii« |'ri-\i'. if n t im« 

ll««il thit II u..« Tl. i.Ii- l',\ :' I f< 'III- 

urt--* !ii r'. :f. l» I* !•. }»'. r. V-*. h 

17, i«:'". :* 

« p.- f :: 

fr lu tl 


• u 

• I %.n x'i I'r \ 

» .- ! 

r * i« 

-• 1 



c ■ 
1 ■ 

?..,»» ; . • i • 

: ■ • • 

I. , ■ .-. 

t- 1. • .. - i .: I . I 
t -.-u t . ■ r I.- '« I : ■ t . 
v« «'•«■ ]f> I » 1. 4 t • t' •■ |« 

N I 

.t*l"t I- !!l T"i* 

...I . • 11.,- 

It , !!»•' -r 

t • 

* • 

clttns. If the whole Bunber of feDovi 
wan eoniplcte, fix at leaat vera in be 
iu holy onlfni; if Uiera vcfe tvcntj 
there wore to be at leaitt fuor ; and if 
twelve or iipiranl!i, thf-re v»re to be 
tao fi>r till* perfiinnance of dirine 
M'niro. The«4* |iritpfirti<iiM «rrrr a!- 
t«nil in the mxi cinle tlian: if tb«re 
mere ten fcnuWH or uiiaorJo, there 
were to If* at h-a'^t nis in onliT«; and 
four, if the nuiuUr aan lto«. 

*Thc fflhmN were to apply tl«ea- 
Klvi't wilfly to the faculty <if art « or 
th* olii.'y ; till* ni:i««t4-r liii^'ht t \« rr:«« 
More than one fHr'ilty, h«-r«>rilini; to 

thi- jllil;'i III* lit Mu\ llp|>ri>l«ili><n of 

til* tMofit'-r*. Aii'l »Ih n an]b iiiit* 
r-l.«-ti|il l:ti\4> hi4 |irtiiri« m 
nrt", li> v.," i't U *ii.' hiiii ■• If I't tit* • 
oil. 'V. 

* I II" )i« I'l I'f thr ri.lh v'i' «it« lu l« 

||iit><lli\ till- f<l|i'Hil liliil til 1« Ji«. 

tit. "'I l< 1 I'V till' titli' i>f K*i|4r t>f 
till llf'i*' : uiitl hv «H« til htkXv a /•/• 

f Mill tt 11' n«. 

*'| I.I tf ui fi-t'i !•■ annni^lv «!•■«>•« 4 
t»'i ri "fi'f", llf utir n i n*ir .t/i««<r, 
(l« illi* r n M •filir, nln* «h«iiiMlii\e 

t:ik< II •!! .'t* • > III till- Ultl\l r*itv. Thi T 

%«• ri- to ii-liiiil fi Ilii»« «hf-t. an I to 
hiv> M*:*> ri>il ;iir:-lM Inn, «l.iih 
nfii r t^i- ih ..t*i of till fi''iii<lri •• th'j 
u> ri t I • VI n i-i- I %i It \'\* T tl.r »t%. 
tut" ' \*:!li t!ii- «. Ti-t T,l if tl.« n !Ii,'«r 

* III ] !*• r r< II- lii'Uixtr il. I n- 1 
t! I- r-\ r- u\ n!I. lut »p. 
I *.].• .r »i «• r.ii il ii.t • t > t .41 


1 • 

r • :J.i r ■..! r.i i-r .11 «■ i,_ 
■ • • r. '• ■ f !:.• f« "■ 


• • V 


• »■ r tie 

-.. 1 !i 

• -.t 

1 1 

• • I 

•i a^v 




J i. 

• • 

• »'.! 


r. :. 




• ! 

.-n ! ■ 

f ■ 

- f 

••'»■ r r- 






•i .f 



. « !!.•■ 






. pmnti ci eoDtrut in those two later codes- are tunrerer 
d ona t i ng of clow attentioQ ; especially that vberebj the 
putidpatioa of the Franciscans in the management of the 
■odety, secured to them by the earlier statutes, is abolished 

ioa a Mcood revision. The scholar, in the sense in which the 
term ia now used in the university, is also here first to be 
met with; it being provided that six of the 'scholars' may 
bo minor ulwlara, eligible at elections to major scholarships, 

'ie. fellowships, or subject to removal. It is in connexion 
with these six that wo find, again, the standunl of college 
education so far lowered as to include Latin, (ijrammatica), n 
knowledge of which, as we have before had occasion to 
obscn'e, was generally looked upon as an essential pre- 
requisite to a course of university study. Here, too, we 
meet with the earliest formal recognition of tho necessity of 
providing Against those local prejudices and partialities 
wliich so often endangered the harmony of both university 

ntn vM tn be (tivcn lo tlio luoHt or- 
itilj, tlio Lft |iniricii-nt in Lia *(ii- 
diM, U'iim Kithiil trr<-U>rn ■ml li^- 
liniBlc; pniviili'il lie w<'to n liiii'liclnr 
rr (niiliiiit in ll^l^ nr nl Irani lioil Ktu- 
dini tliti-o ycnn in lliat tucuilj'; itiil 
lie niii:lit liu bt an; nnlitin ur realm, 
lliat of Franca rK|in'iu1lv, it tlicro 
■liualrl Iw (.>nti.l niiyniiv ot that riiiin- 
tiTi]nalitir<I.a>alH>vn>tiilcd, itirilliiT 
nuivcTMity ol Cainbriilin' or OiIuriL 
Tlie DumlicT ol fi^IlovH i>f »nj ona 
(MnDtTvai nnlln rirc«<l nix, nor the 
fHirtli THiTt ot the tcllovH. The t<-\«: 
Lim alsti ni>f;hl bo elL-cteil iiiiliftir- 
I'litly Iriiiu aiannit tbe ■tndculi <>t 
I'lnibriJup nr Oil'inL 

■Tlip fi-lloT rl.ft *-an nijninvl to 
*vpnr lie ti.i.l i^-illirr by inbe- 
rilniif' imr <>t W,* owti abont 
flirty '.billiii;,-H a yenr In BiN'tiJ. llv 
ui iluubltif, 

' rh«l 

of a li'lb 

Crevioimly to imcli promotion lio bad 
I'c'iimo inaHtcr; for tb« nanter -km 
Dlbinnl In hold oiir prefvmipnt cou- 
]>iitil>U- with bia iillirv. Tbo nrxt 
ci"lf ilid a«av with thi- year of pro. 
bntion, anil iljrrctcl that tlio nlcJsiD 
MhoiiU he li> VHcnlo on tb« oxpintioti 
ot Olio ji-nr nllor «ath protniilion a* 
v'uubt ciiablo tbe fi'Ilow to cxprnd 
abuve niimnrlisi nnlru promoted in 
tbfl moantiiDO li> tlio maslprahip. 
llraide Inking dq oatb of Sdeliljr to 
th« rnllF^'c Rtid of obedience to tha 
tt:itulo«, pacb fellow swore tliat. It ei[ioII(>J from the aocicty, Iw 
«r>iihl hubiuit lu the (cnteuM witli- 
uiit any remedy at lav. 

'In the choice of ocholara thnw 
*pre 111 I* preti'rred, who came dulj 
ijii'iililliil frtuii tliepiirinlira pcHaiiUng 
ti< the <'.iUi'i:e Ti'i-lorii>«; but tlioni 
«'''n< not to 1m' inoTu Ibiin two ot Uw 

' Hirrv fi How li'tiim adrntrndnn 
ih-Jeed liiiu..'il tu vucale liiH frlh.w- 

1 any moro locnilive place, uiilcKa 

■Ami HH h>-r Hnul XaU, tlip foDll. 
11 till afiiT tho dread ioli'iiinly adjiirra tlio telluw* to 
hill Ihi- iiiiijor iiiTO im nil orcniioiin their bcntmnn- 
li^Ut witlihuIJ aol mill aiil t« tho nhl«'u and niKtcri 
ot IS-iiey. wlx. had fnini Iicr a oun- 
luiHi oriinn with thrin; and alio ad- 
luniiiihi-K Ibein tuftlipf to l« kind, 
i^cvotiil, mid trrateful tn all n-ligioBi^ 
ftjiteialty In ihe J-'rian ilixar.' 


and college life. In days when intercourse between iridelj cbak \ 
severed localities was rare and difficult, the limits of coun- 
ties not unfrequently represented differences greater than 
now exist between nations separated by seas. The student 
from Lincolnshire spoke a different dialect, had different 
blood in his veins, and different experiences in his whole 
early life, from those of the student from Cumberland or the 
fitudent from Kent Distinctions equally marked character- 
iMcd the native of Somersotshire and the native of Essex, 
Hereford, or Yorkshire. \Mien brought therefore into con- 
tact at a common centre, at a time when local traditions, 
jir.'jndices, and antipathies, opera tc<l with a force which it is 
difficult now to realise, men from witlely separated counties 
were guided in the formation of their friendships by common 
associations rather than by individual merit; and, in elec- 
tions to fellowships, the question «if North or South often 
roJuced to iiisiirnificancc considerations draim from the 
comparative skill of <lia1ecticiaii.« or learning of theologians. 
That statute accordinjjjly is no capricious enactment, but the 
rrllcxion of a surious evil, whi<li provides that the number of 
ffllows from a single county shall in no case exceed a fourth 
of the whole body. Another pnivinion is explained by the 
descent and early life of the foundress. The countess bad JJ"^^^, 
inherited from her father, John de Dreux, duke of Brittany, J^l*' 
extensive ]>os8essions in France; and it must be regarded 
rather as a graceful recognition of the country of her birth 
than as a national ])rejudice, that at a time when intercourse 
between the two countries was so frocjuent, natives of France 
l)elonf;ing to either of the English universities were to be 
entitled to preference in the election to fellowships. 

The foundiT of the next colloj^o that claims our attention ^ ^^f ^ 
was Ktlniund GouviUe, a memlnT of an ancient county family, "^"^^ 
a (•Icr;:y»uau, and at one time vicar-general of the diocese of 
Kly; his sympathy with the Mendicants is indicated by the 
fact that tliTouj^h his influence the earl Warren and the oarl 
<»f Lancast<T wore induced to create a f(»undation for the 
Dimiinicans at Tlii.*tf<»nl. In the year 1348, only two years 
ber<»re his death, he obtained from Edward ill permission to 


240 siBLT coLLEQi wowuxnom. 

establish in Lurtebargh Une\ now known as Freesehool lani 
a college fiv twenijr scholan, dedicated in bonoor of the An 
nunciation of the Blessed Virgin*. 

The statutes given by Edmund Gonville are still extani 
but within two yoars of their compilation they were consi 
derably modified by other hands; they cannot therefore b 
regarded as haying long represented the rule of the nei 
foundation. Tlieir chief value, for our present purpose, is i 
the contrast tliey offer to the rule of another college, founde 
at nearly the some time, — that of Trinity Hall,— to the con 
ccption of which tlioy were shortly to be assimilated. A( 
cording to the design of Edmund Gonville, his college wa 
to repri'sent the usual counso of study included in the 2Vt 
riiim or Quadrivium, as the basis of an almost ozclusivel 
theological training. Each of the fellows was required t 
have studied, read, and lectured in logic, but on the compk 
tion of Ins course in arts, theology was to form the mai 
subject, his studies bciug also diri'Cted with a view to end 
hiing Iiim to keep his acts and dispute with ability in tli 
siclxMils. The unaniinotts consent of the master and fellow 
was necessary l)efore ho could apply himself to any othc 
faculty, and not more than two at a time could be pennitte 
to deviate from tlic usual course. It was however purmitte 
to every fellow, though in no way obligatory upon him, t 
devote two years to tlic study of the canon law*. 

The fore«(oing sclienie may acconlingly be regarded a 
that of an English clergyman of the fourteenth ccnturj 
actuated by the Kiniple desire of doing something for th 
encouragement of learning in his pntfeasion, and well ac 
quainted, from long residence in the diocese or in neighboui 
ing (lioce^^es, with the siK'cial wants and shortcomings of hi 
order. It will be interesting to contrast his conception wit 
that of another ecclesiiistic reared in a different sohool. 

Tlie see of Norwich was at that time filled by Williar 
Bitenian, a bishop of u different type from either Hug 

* Or I.uthJji rnr-ltn^: fco Mantcni* AftUcated^ wan ctripnallj knovD I 
Jlttt. of Corpus L'hriiti VjHiyr, cU. the n«me o( GunvUlo IlaU. S« 

• Tu« collt^ koire\cr tboagh thu * MSB. Cik:r, va, 3Ce<*970l 



KiLsh-iTTi or John Hothatn; one who had earned a high repu- cm 
Uitufii tit Cambridgo, b; his proficiency in the civil and canon ^ 
L-.V ; V. I:>j had held high office at the papal court and residcil 
long at Avignoq ; and who, while intent it would seem, on a 
cardinal's hat rather than upon the duties of hi.s diocese, hail 
finished his career amid the luxury nud dissipation of that 
splendid city'. It is acct)rdingly with little surpri^te that wo 
find a man of such m;sr)ciations deeming no culture n\*jr*i 
desirable than that which Iti^er Bacon had declarctl inimiral 
to man's hi;:liest interests, hut which pnw Clemt-nt vii 
ri'ganleil as the true field of labour for the ecch^ia^tic mho 
aiini<l at etuinence and power. 

The vear l.SH» is a nn-niorable one in English hi'^tiirv. '^*»' 
for it wa.s tlie y ar af the Great Phi^ue; and it wmiM 1^.. "*• 
diflicnlt t«i «'x;i;:'^iTate the effects of that visitatitin u|nhj the 
political and sneial institutions of those da vs. Villair'-s wero 
left without an inhabitant; the fl'»cks piTishc^l for want of 
tlu» henlsni;r.i*K can*; hoii^Jrs fr-11 into ruins; the crfips rottnl 
in the fii'M<. In tlie dcnioralization that eTi«ueil exi^tiir:^ 
in'^titiitiiin^ wm* brokm nj> r»r »»*"n''| to tln-ir bxM*. The 
wor>t rxc< *><s f.f I^iII.mlisni atid the ]H)|Milar inKurr<ctii<n'i i»f 
tlie latttT part nf tip' cMitnrv ni.iy b«itli Im* tnicr.l tii tifo 
pTMTal di>f»r;:ani/atii.n, !'|H.n tli«' •i!iivrr^itit*'i t!ic |ila;»'ic ft !I 
with srvi ritv. Oxford, wliich rln't« ri*\il ••xa:;;i«rj!i»ni f« 
hai) crciiiteil wi*li thirty tliciikauil >tii(li nts. wa> lialf •!i-TH>pu- ^ »- 
latnl, arnl lur nMiolM ih ;p ver :iL:-iin ajijin ai-ltiMJ tlifir f<irni*T 
hmttN. At Canibii'lj", tljt- 1» iri^!iii»rHi^. to ii*r tin- ♦•xpn *-:..ii 
of li.ik* r, 'WiTi- "-w* [it ; \\:\\ ill Ipap-:' flifii tl:f Ifoopit.i! •■:" 
St. Jiilm tliiiM iii.i-'« r- HI 'ni- ^p.i>'- I'f «»•• ninny ni'fitlti. Ht rt- 
ciinii •! i'lrlli f^r li'Jii.i!'. Tip* cI* i^'v thi"Mj|jMit tijf cuntf v 
f'll \i«tiTii^ in ;jr. it nnih^'r^: it l..i«» l»»iii •;,i!. tilati il iK.»i 
niori- til i»i tun ii'i?-!^ it' tl.i' |Mr>)i jin'-'t-* in tl i* \Vi *• 

iJi'lil'j -!|i -I ; mil. I!.i-T l*.!''ij. ill N'«'tM':;'i:ii!"»'ii!''. :i!m1 tl f» 
i1:m .^' -N r-Mi.-i t ' i!;.'-' i-'^'i* tl.t I — ' ^ wiT.' Ij.jiiIIv N-«.n t\i n '. 

■ . I : • ' }J. ' I r .r : 1 /.. ,.r. ■• } . \ ... J...1 I V •• i 

1 ■ »' I » \ • ■ I :• .'i ". i.f .'i r . 

• .* • r . ' .r .« ' 1 i . ■ '•! .T.I \ 

\- ■. '.. i .. I . • > . .••-.• , # / I 1 /'• '^ 


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'• nt It vif ditefly with a view to recniiting the thinned lanka 
Z^ ot the dergy in his diocese, that Wjllinra Bateman proceeded, 
**■ in the year 1350, to the foundation of Trinity Hall'. In fact, 
kiM no Jen than three of the colleges that rose at Cambridge in 
this centuiy, disUnctly refer their origin to the plague. 

In the Rtatutes of Trinity Hall tho design of bishop 
Bsteman appears in its original nod unmodified form. Tlie 
^^ cidlcgo is designed for students of tho civil and canon law, 
^^^ and /or tuch alone, the balance inclining slightly in favour of 
tlio civilians, Tlio foiindntion, it is contemplated, will sup- 
port a master and twenty fellows; of these twenty it ia 
required that not less than ton shall be students of the civil 
law, not less than seven students of the canon law. A civi- 
lian may, at a subsequent period, devote himself to the study 
of tho canon law, or a canonist to that of the civil Uw, so as 
'^H^ to augment the number of canonists to ten or that of the 
i^!Z^ civili.ins to thirtc'cn-, but these numbers represent tho max- 
""""imum limits of variation allowed in the proportion of the two 
elements. Tlirico awcck, on tlie evenings of Mondays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays, disputations are to be held, at which some 
question taken from the decretals or tho Pandects is to sup- 
ply tho placo of the ordinnry tlieological or logical qwestio. 

All tho fellows ore to apply themselves to the prescribed 
course of study until qualified to lecture; and are then to 
lecture, the civilians on the civil law, the canonists on the 
canon law, so long as they continue to bo bachelors, until 
they have gone through the customary course of reading*. 

Tol. n. It ii liow«Ter opcp li> qnei- wben tboj ctms to Cambridge. K- 

tion nhelhei tfae writer'! iult'rcnccs ibop Batcmaa sftenc&rda idiuIb an 

Kre qnjts jualifioJ by LU (acta. Tv.o eicLingii with tbem, and gave tbna 

Uiiida ol the btncliceH in tho WuHt MieraliiariHniaEe* for the said boftls, 

Jlicliiie mL'lit be laciitwl without tfo and conTciud it into a eolIc(» or 

tliirdi of Ui8 prici.tii djing. Let ii» baU.' Vitma.niiUoJTnuittllaa, 

•uppoM (our btneflccB A, B, C. D, Cole MS3, Lviii 86, 

*orlh re«pcclivcly *)0, 300, aon, and • ■ Votmnas enim qaod So«il om- 

100 marks. The holder ol A die>: UMatDdiointemUnt acholaitieo dili> 

tlicn the liiilJcr of B ia promal^ to gentcr, qnousqae baLilea luerint ad 

A, tbc holitcr of C to B, and I )io hnl- Ifgeudum ; et ex tone sd legeodiUi 

der of D to C. Thus one death ei^es Continue in statu Baccalsnn.'i ra eoD> 

vise to ftiur vacancies, TCrtiinl, quoQsqoo volnmina in Jnn 

> 'It hnd brfura liecn k hoatle be- Cirili Lch*!"''. ct lilma DccretalitUB 

lontriuE to tlie monks ol Ely: John DecraliHta', mure pcrlcf^eriiit Miitn» 

«t Croudvn, ons ot Ibcir ]<rion, imr- to.' t>ociimtntt, ii 41U. 
vbued it lor bli monki to atad; in 

TRmiTT BALL. Sft3 

A fell'*v, wIi«:Uior a civilian or a caiKmitt« is digifale to the chap. 
mAAtcr-'iip; }iut filiould none of the fellows qipcar descrriiig Z^ 
of the dignity, .1 inaftter of arts may 1)0 chosen firom the ani- 
vcrsity at hirgc, whoso reputation entitles him to sueli a dis- 
tinction. On a vacancy otxurring among the felkfwsliipa '^■<>; 
appropriated to civilians, it may be filled by electing a ba- ^^ 
chclor or a scholar of three* years standing, whose studies r /^ 
have been directed to the civil law, or by the clectioo of a 
master or a iNichclor of art.s (the latter to be within a Tear of 
incepting a.s infuitcr), provided ho bo willing to cnn>l him^^clf 
in the fiiculty. On a like vacancy occurring among the 
caiKiiiistM, whereby their number is reduced beluw seven, the 
vacancy may 1>e filled by the election of one of the civilbnA 
alrealy holding a fellowship, on his signifying his nadim-m 
to b(.*com<; a canonist, ami to take holy orders'; but »houIJ 
seven canonists still reniaiii, the vacancy may be filled by 
the election of either a civilian or a canonist as the majority 
may decnle. It is, however, ini]H.Tativo that whoever elects 
to brcoiiie a Canonist, shall within a vcar from his electiou to 
a fellowship, take upon liinisc-lf full priest's onh-rs, and forth- 
with qualify himself fnt the {KTformancc of masses". 

A lihrary ;^Mven by the bishop to the now colli'ge affonls ijiim i 
additional illnstratinn (»f the couipiirative importance attached 'j^*'*" 
by him ti» tlnMilo;^ical and juridical stu«lirs. No less than ^^ 
four cnpir.s nf the cnle of the civil law, each in five vii|unK"s» 
xntcnntm ft fjUtsntnm, head the ratal«»;;ue; these are fitlhiweil 
by v»hinii > «ff thr hctuns (»f Clinius, llaynenw, and IVtruic, 
oil the C*im1«x, Ihf'trcidUim, and A»tthattirn. The vnlui:iiK uf 
tlie caii'-n law are stvcnttin in niinil»»T; iIhim* in thenltigy 
• •niv llm'r! vi/. a .sni-i!! hiM**, a (''^iiijiethlinin lUblif, i.i ii«iU 
jHirvo ]ntlcnj v-jluininc, and uuuin lihrum lUcapitufuciuuis 

* •*^i <|';is i.-fiii h-1 R'r.lii it<!'itn ir-i!*: iri."' ir« I rMr»*-fiJ» I*i'<»i !*!••, 
j-iri<".,n :. . .1, , ♦ ...| ,M I i :ri I'll -I * - i|ii ■:i..|.i. :i.i»-l*i niii* f'f • ii. I'.At'if, 
tin ^tl*. !ii 1!. ,:..rf.' 7' .-uimi »..'*, :§ I •' i i m 'i.:ii in Jtin- * ii- »i.i-tt ilt- 
II > .*1 ) -it .!■:.•« :i LIl !>t ,l!i (' iTi t..>:< ■!■ 

• • !?■ Ill ■! i*'i:iii-'H 1 1 i.r?!»iii»n':*, I ;.» 'i' ■ ■ '-i-. ii.'r:i .lil:i { rt-iiiiil 
»j'! l * \- . ' ' . ■ r . ' ! it.'* Ill Jiir« < I n it. iT'i I ■!;• -I'M H'\f\ *•■:* fiitf.l in 
\; I. ; . I • u . I .'.f-.i ti i:.| ;« . I t : i < i.i -i-l ii:i. •'■-•.#* j -fi • 
u.' I ■ 1.11 :• .,1 . ! it I* i-< ti I "i. ,.' . ■ I |.- • • ; ■■ •:. ff /• »t 

I M' 1 , . Ill |<r I fi I' .r. « I |». < ;. : .\ a t,. • ' . ' ": « ». • .' n • -^ •/ ».•.■!. if ••• /. 
Jurial i\ ill • I" r 1 >• ' i.i.iiu I i>-\iii>'iiu r.t.r m t •• •. ' '.i«j ii ci •'• l^'^AaJ.!.* 

IC— 2 



* JKUu; There is bowever a secood catalogue, the volamee 
in which an renrrod by the bishop for hia own uae during 
hia lifetime, wherein theology ia somewhat better reprfr- 

It ia mflScicntly evident from this outline that the new 
foundation was certainly not conceived in a manner calcu- 
lated to remove the evila which Ro;;er Bacon deplored; tlie 
coml>ination of two branches of study which he licid should 
be regarded aa radically distinct, — tho predominance given to 
the Bccuhir over the sacred branch, — the subservience in which 
theology and the arts were to be placed to both,^-all point to 
the training of a body of students either wholly given to 
what he deemed, and what probably then was, an ignoble 
and coTTUpling profession, or, to use his own expressionf 
avUUer jut canontcum traclantes, and thus debaung a reli* 
gious calling to secular and sordid purposes'. 

\Vc must now go luck to trace ttie fortunes of Qonville 
HoIL The plans of the founder, it appears, were so lar 
from being fully consolidated at tho time of his death, tliat, 
either from iiisufHciency of funds or some other cause, the 
college would probably have ceased to exist, had not the 
founder of Trinity Hall given it effectual aid. In the same 
year that the original statutes were given, the year in wliicb 

L Edmund Conville died, bishop Bateman ratified the rule of 
the house, and announced his intention of canying out the 
designs of the founder. ' Wisdom,' he says, in a somewhat 
pompous manifesto, 'is to be preferred to all other posses- 
sions, nor is there anj-thing to be desired that can compare 
with it; tliis the wise man loved beyond health and eveiy 

< Wbttso, Nitl. of Trinitu Hall, 
MS3. Col<, mil 115—18. 

» The prominenos given to Ibe 
itudy or tbe civil law both at Oilord 
and Cam Iridic in the touiteenth and 
fiftrfntb centiiriri accmi to hare 
altiicetlicr escaped the oWrration ol 
Uabrr. 'Tlie department of civil 
law.' be «tyt, ' which wa> o( nntionnl 
ImpnrtBncc, win but limited; aod 
the nnmber of iodividunla who itn- 
died it was too uuatt to coottitute a 
■ehooL' Knnliih Uiiernlli,,. 1 158, 

IS'J. A cIoMT RcqiuiiiUDee with 

our colloge hiitor; would hvit uni 
him Inim thii miMonoeplloB. It 
haa been poinU'l mil In nm i)mt, 
fnaiiiDiieh ■■ llp^- I. [Ihm-s nf Trinlly 
Bill were pnihi I 'i '.>',! h_r ••! lite 
Rtutnte* trott) (icrr.i „h'„i i,i praellie, 
the defim of tti' T'ljii'li-r up|>rnn to 
hare bei'n to eii''"ii].i^<' ilic iliidj o( 
tbe ciril law rati"! Hmi) ili priwlinl 
protewioD; bnt, on thi- I'ther haiiil. 
tbe Ter7 neeentity for ■uch a V"- 
rinion tDiHt ba ritnirde>l b> uf-tbrr 
imlieatioD of tbe mtm'narjr iplrlt in 
which tbe itocij WH thea panWf^' 



good thing/ preferring it even to life itiicUl The foonder of cw u 
this college proposed to create a perpetual oollcgo of scholars ^ 
in the univeniity of Cambridge, in the dioccso of Eljt iMit 
death preventeil the execution of his praiseworthy design. 
We therefore, bishop of Norwich, by divine pormisKion,-^ 
although already over-bunh*ned with the founding ami 
endowing of the college of Scholars of the Holy and Undi* 
vidcil Trinity, in onler that so praiHcworthy an endeavour 
may not wholly be brotight to an end, and considering tho 
great benefits that must result in the salvation of houN and 
to the public Wivii, if the sends of the knowledge of Ictt'^n 
becoming moistened by tho dew of scholastic teaching brin« 
forth much fruit, — being also tho more incited to such work 
in (hat we have here ourselves receive<l the first elements of 
leaniiiijjj. and aflorwards, though unde5«erve<lly, the doctorial 
degree — desiring that this <K*sign may be brought to its f»ill 
aceoni|)lis1iin(>iit, do constitute, prdain, and appunt tlio vaid 
Ct»II«*g<\ II nd mnroovor con firm and will thnt tho sai*! c*i|h-^'o 
be calli'd tho olli-go of the Annuiiriiftion of tho lijr^^il tw« 
Man*, proposing; by the assistance <»f the said ghirious Virgin. •*^^ 
so to cmlnw tho F;iid collt-go with revenues and sufficient •^-*^ 
resourn's. (when tho pn-sent site or any other shall have \iZ^ 
been approved by our di«»ce.*-an bishf»p of Ely.) that they 
shall, in all future time, be able to obtain the things nc^ct-A- 
san' f«>r lite*.* 

Within three months from the time when thin dt ten men! 
n-ceivrd thr l»ishop*««si;^iature, we find the royal license i<Mi« 
iie^ to th*' «h:meil]nr <»f iln* university and the }»rrthn*n of 
tin- Hnxjiiral i.f St. Jnhn eiupt.wcriti;; tln'm t»» tran^fiT to llio 
new fniiiid.itiiiti nt' tin* Annunciation «»f the TiIivm-*! Marv 
two !ni-^iia:;i> in I.uitilnirL'h L i»m', Vftnsn jtnrtlitto f'MAf«*c/i.« 
ft SrhiJ'iri'iin C"htitfi'i*. Th'* jthra-r in thi* b:"»hi»p's mani- 
liitn ill;; a |ni-^i)ili' i h.'iiiijf nf liK'ality, is pr-'Uibly t<» 
U» nf. rr" •! t-i ^"Ui*- u?m« rt.iinTv at tin* tinn' as to the |H-rTii.i- 
n» lit M«:!.!u.iit I'f til*' <•..!!. ^'f m L'lrshuri^h Lane. t«T ^e 
tin-I Ml the t'-!I"»\\iii:: \\,\r an r\i hai.:;*' ef iiii'ju'itv *i;ls 

» S.«- .Sf.i».;Pf.. >„n.^,., ,,.. j,.f .Vn - t; •• VsS I'litk* r, lIll'iTl. 
Her. I',ittrn lufn U'ii'i'mi lUtrm.rm » /' i./. li:i j;.'. 


n m. efibeted with tiie Gild of Corpui CliHgti, And the scholon 
^^ vero removed from that part of the town to tlie preaont Mite 
cf the ooll^ in clow proximity to llichaclbouse. The Hall 
of the Annunciation was thus also brought into the .irnmo- 
diate neighbourhood of Trinity Hall, and under the bishop's 
■■it. auspices a formal agreement of a somewhat novel character 
^ woa entered into between the two foundations, — a Comjxmtio 
"mi dt AmieabUitate, — which, unnccciMary and unmeaning as any 
i^j** nich convention would now appear, was probably of real ser* 
vice in preventing rivalries and feuds between colleges in 
doeo juxtaposition and schools of the same faculty. By this 
agreement the members of the two foundations, as sharers in 
the protection of a common patron and living under nearly 
tlie Bomo rulo, pledge themselves to dwell in perpetual cod- 
eord, in all and each of their necessities to render to one 
another mutual succour, and throughout life as far an in 
them lies to aid in promotiij;^ tlie rc'|iutation and wclfiiro of 
Uic sister college and \ta in<lividiia1 souk On all public occa- 
sions it is stipulated, however, that the scholars of Trinity 
Hall shall have the precedence tanqtiam primogeniti et pra- 
j^ But the original statutes of Gon\ille Hall barmoniiicd 

»o£ but little with bishop Bateman's views, and his aid, unlike 
*<*r that of Hugh Balsham, was to be bought only with a price. 
i^ua Xo the bustling canonist Avignon and her traditions were all 
in all; to him, as to pope Clement, the theologian seemed 
a ' dreamer,' and the civil and the canon law the only studies 
deserving the serious attention of young clergymen aiming 
at something better in life than the performance of mosses 
and wranglings over the theory of the Real Presence or the 
Immaculate Conception. Accordingly, without explanation, 
and even without reference to the former statutes, he sub- 
stituted as the rule of the foundation of Edmund Qonville, 
twelve of the statutes, but xlightiy modified^ which he had 
aheady drawn up for his own college*. TIio direction thus 

I Het Ulahitilh Fatidacionii, ife. tempore tnrrint plena ft iiite(;i>liln' 

Bkkcr MSS. xxii 179. tocinnl ct oLKcrvcnt omnift et liiifli^ 

■ 'VolniDaiiiKnperitiodonuieiet que in duodceim StatutU Sodornm 

tuenli Mcii dicti CoU«eii qui i>ig Colkgii 8uci« IrinitBtii pci eM F- 

CORPUS cimmn. S47 

given to tho eoano of study ii a kind of mean h rt weon that cr 
designed by tho original founder and that of Trinity HalL Z 
Tho Trivium and Qaadrivium aro retained in the promi* 
ncnee originally astsigned to them, but the requiremcnU 
with respect to the study of theology arc abolished. All the 
fellows are to 1)0 elected from the faculty of ortii, and are to 
continue to study th(*rciu ur**^ they have attained to the 
Ktanding of master of arts, and even after that period thoy 
are to lecture onlinnrie^ for one year; but from tlio expira- 
tion of that year it is refinirctl that they shall derute them- 
selves to tlie study of either tho civil law, the canon bw, 
theology, or medicine; but only two arc pennitted to cnti-r 
the last-nnmed faculty'. Tlie order of enumeration woiijil 
alone sn^^^cst tlmt the first-named branches held the prefer- 
ence in the bisliop'H estimation. Tho princip-il provinion in 
reference to other studies i«i that requiring that all students 
cli'Ctefl to felliiwsliipH kIi:i11 not simply havo guno thniugh tliu 
UHiial course, but kIihII have attend«Ml lei*tures in logic fur 
three years; the three years l>eing re<lucibIo to two only in 
cases of fliKtiii^^uislied prnficieiicy. 

The co!li*;^e of Coq)us Christi is another foundation, J 
whose rise may Im? attribute<l, tlioiiifh in this case less directly, J • 
to the effects of tho pla^^iie; but the wholo circunistanct*s uf "* 
its origin are pectiliar. In tin? foiirttvnth century Cambrid;:^* 
was distini^tiiOieil by its nunieroiis (liMs, among which th«ru* 
of the Holy Trinity, the Annuiiciatinn, the lilesscti Virgin, 
and (ynrpus Cliri.Nti, appear to have Ix-en the more important. 
A reciMitly piibliHiii-.l vuliiriie l>y a !alH»ri«nis investigator of 

ratix. rt tnTii |i« r Ar. ^!• |>iiiii (Viiituir il-tiiM-* m r.i''t>lt\« Arrium S«-irn!.:'^ 

quiiiii |Mr I'll. \i r. ,! i», iiM his! i! ri.?: Ill ■ r r.iiii itiv k!i <m it: »tKtni»in« rt 

C«i|i!;«, in ('* nfii.Mx it i-r t 'i ■ v: ;-. i|';'-| i<tiitli-4 S^rii «l.iti 

J» 't-:iMi . pit lit -M «■•:•;•• 't'l'^ ' /» •■ ^l !•:<•!!• .'ii •■ji ]t » !• v-t- fc f.;**- 

fif't. .,»•, II •jjH. Im y* .. t-.,\f*, I r-'il. -^iri \rt; ! -. « i in ilU fj*-M*M!i» 

l'""», •■:-!. "p lil'iPl.l'l !- -j ■• ■ I «'f 1 '•.:'. V. ■ '.!, ., :■ J-t'li" in ll!l ^! I ■■•. 

A^ li iiiii ' * I irr .' i •■ .( I \ ,!'• ' iM t< r.i .'' i I in •■•''-:• ri* !. tt f« r an- 

lihtn-r* ill >•.>!'.• -ti''it'- ti> I ■.'I- i.'-"i III I . I« Ji • T i.! r.i- !• -■• rir.l, til 

\i\\" 11 i!l .' f r I itr. I ,f tti- II. iv I • •■ ? ■ <;■■ ' •• i':tll f--t !»• ! -n 

ri-.i«l •.' J. •..!», f. 1-. .'1 \ ':•::, i • ul Jit»» Til ■ » 

' 1 ■ r 1 \| ! I'l i!i..n • ( 1':.^ t rvi -• i» ► » < i I :. : :•• •-:! j 1 ^I,-. 

cliap'i r IV. i! . ' • ■ ■ ! I" 1 ^ .\! I • ■ r»!!i i '. • .». 

• ■ In jTiinn r»i»n n 1 l.-»i ri •;« T*i i t ■ "i i: ■ ' ■•i •••!•• '• ffv * /•■.■•- 

A? l.'lii\iT-il i!!-*!!!! --ri -ti iiiii%« r-< |-ii> •ii ' '#, 11 JJ*'. Lia!kt f M>S. \tll .^^J 
UU;Ti&U9 n'iL:U*.ii- (• ui- iitiMii l-ro err- 


VBi tli6 fiibjeet baa thrown considerable light upon these ancient 

m^ institutions^ and tends considerably to modify the conception 

' that before prevailed concerning their scope and character\ 

■tdv 'They were not,* says this writer, 'in any sense superstitious 

foundations; that is, they were not founded, like monnsteries 

and priories, for men devoted to what were deemed religious 

exercises. Priests might belong to them, and often did so, 

in their private capacities. But the Qilds were lay bodies, 

and existed for lay purposes, and the better to enable those 

who belonged to them rightly* and understandingly to fulfil 

their neighbourly duties as free men in a free State. It 

is quite tnte that, as the Lord Mayor, and Lincoln's Inn, and 
many other as well-known personages and public bodies, 
have to tliis day a chaplain, so those old Gilds often took 
measures and made payments to enable the rites of religion 
to be brought more certainly within the reach of all who 
l»elonge<l to them. This was one of the most natural and 
l)Ocoming of the consequences following from their existence 
and character. It did not make them into superstitious 
bodies V 'Though it was in this way very general,' observes 
his continuator, 'to provide more or less for religious pur- 
poses, these are to be regarded as incidental only; and this 
icm-is curiously exemplified by the case of three Gilds in Cam- 
bridge, one of which, the Gild of the Annunciation, excludes 
priests altogether; another, that of the Holy Trinity, if they 
■li come into the Gild, does not allow them any part* in its ma- 
« nagement; while the third, that of the Blessed Virgin, has a 
chaplain, whose office however is to cease, in the event of the 
funds proving inadequate to his support in addition to that 
of the poorer brethren*/ The statement, accordingly, made 
by the historian of Corpus Cliristi College, with reference to 
the two Gilds to whose united action that College refers its 

> Fngtiih Gilds. Edited br the • The Old Crmcn Ilotue, bj Tonl- 

lit« Tou'njin Hmitb. With Intro- miti Smith, p. 31. 

(loction and OUmnMy by Lucy Toul- • hnglith Gildt, Introd. p. ixll. 

nin bifiitb, and l^reliminary K§my 'The f-enioei of a chapUin were 

tm thf lUitory and Devehtprment of deemed qaite rccoDiUry to the other 

Qildt hv Vt iircDtuno. 1h70. Puh- pnriH)M;s of ibe GUdn.* Note, p. 

lixhed hy the Early English Text 2fA. 

conpci cmtnTL S49 

origin, that 'thcjrseem to liftve been prineiptlly imrtitatod ni«i 
for rcligioua purpotm',' in Rcarcvl; accumtc; but, though Z^ 
incorrect with rcxpcct to the Giltlx, it itaj bo applied with 
perfect accumcy to the college which they (buTMjo). Il^j^ 
would Appear thnt amon^ tlic many MCondary cflcctM thnt ^^. 
folluwet) U])on the plnirtic, the ^rri'nt mortality atnon;; the 
clurgy had imluntl the HiirvivurH in that prorcwion coDo'ultT' 
alily to augment the fceit they deinnndeil for the celebration 
of ma-sHCH'; and there in good renson for inft-rring that the 
exorbitancy of their demands wij.'jtitod to the nn-mUT* (if 
the GtldH of CoqniK ChriKti and the Ith'Mr-d Vir;,'in the !•!•■» 
of founding a cnUfgo f<»r llio fdnration of tho ch-p^y, whi-re 
it Khmild Ik: olj|i;;;itoTy on tlio Ncholnri to c-h-limtc m linti-vtT 
man-ies nii;;ht Iw di."«ireil for tlio roif**; of the »iul> of 
departed nn'mljcrs of tin- two Gilil". The diikc of IvintTi*t»T. 
known as thu '^'orxl dnl«-,' h.i<l Iwin eli-cl-d hy thu two 
CiiMM an their ' Aldcntinn*' <ir pn-^iih-nt, and thr'ni;;h \iU 
oftic'H the mval ltr<.'n<'c yKut <>litnin<-<| to r<inn<l thi> c»ll<v<* 
now known hy tin- iiriini- ..f ('"rj>n.s Chri-fi'. Wii"n -uch '••■ 
was tilt' pri;viiilinj,' nvitivo, wi- sl>;ilt w-arinly h"ik for a vir^ "; 
on lighten I'd (.iinc- ptiun "f ('•Inoiitimi in tin' •<'atiit<« :;ivt»n t«' ."j^ 
the new foniidiifion; th.-y jir.M-ut ithL-.-.I liltic orij.'in:i!ity. 
thi- grcjitiT pnrt ftp[>.Mrin;: to hnvi- \«<-.\ t.ik-n from t!.-*.> ..f 
Mich;ii;Ihi>nw, snmi' ]):i— :i'^cs in tlj.' 1:iM'T hi-ini.' npri-Iiiml 
TerbatiiN*. Tlic Ncholani sire -li ■ii-ril'ol w t'lpt-Hani. lhou,;h 

''.■ * ..f t> -■ f 1 

' Mii.t^r.-L«mb, pS 
ot lti.|i»ra<>[ 1 

D.lf. .<.ll-tH lll^l.-l-.! 

of il;'> 1.^.1 t.( tb.' !::■ 
I1.;.L !■, I.-,. 

... 1 \ 

!,'. -t 

in tl.-> 


rrln :;.:;; "J /:v'-/" 

..IT 1.T 


';. ; . 



U) n. it ia mtimatod that others may be admitted to the found** 

yj'r tioa: it is required that they shall 'one and all' be ia 

fttt priest's orders, and shall have lectured ia arts or philosophy, 

C** or at least be hacbelora in either the civil or the canon law 

or in arts, intending to devote themselves to the study of 

theology or of the canon law, the number of those devoting 

themselves to the last-named faculty being restricted to four. 

If however ve compare the general tcnour of these statutes 

with that of the ofdinances of the Gilds themselves, we shall 

have no difficulty in discerning that the religious sentiment 

of those bodies found its chief expression in the foundation 

of the new college. 

^ij^ The havoc wrought by the pestilence stimulated the phi- 

"**'^ lantbropy of others besides bishop Bateman. Within ten 

years from its visitation of this country, we find Elizabeth de 

Burgh, Countess of Clare, and gnind-<taughtcr of Edward i, 

largely augmenting an already existing foundation'. The 

following passage from the preamble to the statutes given by 

the Countess in the year preceding her death sufficiently 

explains her motives: — 

SJi^ 'Experience,' says this august lady, 'doth plainly teach 

jSl*" us, that in every degree, ecclesiastical as well as temporal, 

alcill in learning is of no small advantage; which, although 

sought for in many ways by many persons, is found in most 

perfection in the university, where general study is known 

to flourish. Moreover, when it has been found, it sends out 

its diitciplcs, who have ta^ited its sweetness, skilful and fit 

■liieli if not, I boTioTO, eiint in * 
pTMitiil fiirm. Aniiiiiu tlio i<iiii>uihc]| 
ri'liiliuiii III tlio Hlntiiti'H ol Mirlini'l- 
liiinw >iii1 tliiMo ot (.'iirjiiii Oirixll, 
I luiij i|ii<iU) llio t<illiiiiiii|^ Kliii'h 
iinm-nlii iIh> rvKiilBlionii Iniil ilimru 
fur tlio ti-li-lintiiHi at >i]<tvM Mnkmii: 
— 'IVr bi>c tniiMn Inti>iitiiiiiiH nuHtra 
BOD rtinlit (tmiid HeliulBiiiiin Cnix'l- 
luioniiu aliijiHin ultra jHRiHilnlitiilDm 
■luni coDKTibVji mxprt liiiriiiu Miiuo- 
mm ci'tcbrutiouitniii focirniliR one- 
nra nnumiuiu Icetioniliui ilinpa- 
talioDiliui in Scholia mh ■tti<lio 
TBcaro lalMt conipctcatci inpcr qoo 

comm coDMicntiM onenuDtu.' CI. 

' Tlio ilcalb ot k brotlipr, OilWt 

tl>nl, «llU tell Kt llKIIIKtckllURI, 111*- 

iiijt no Iwnn, liiul jilncpil tin vliula 
of Ilia luiniiy (-hUIuii, itliivli wrro ot 
■ jiriiici'lj Elinrmcli'T, at tl» ■li-po*'! 
ol lIio ConnU'w anil Iter two niiitFn. 
8ru l'(>oj«r, Mrnmriali. i 33—80. 
Tlio cliniiKe In tlio nn mo of Ilia fonn- 
dntiou frum Univenity to Clara Hall 
ia Bnjd to liavo been ffflcctol nndcr 
a cIiBTloT nniitod b; Edward lu In 

lasa-o. UuL p. X). 



members of God'i church and the state, who shall, at their c 
merits demand^ rise to Tarious ranks. 

'Being therefore induced by this considermtioii, and 
desiring, as far as Qod bos enabled us, to promote the ad- 
vanccmcnt of divine worship, the welfare of the state, and 
the extension of these Rcicnccs, which, by reason of thcu 
pestilence having swept away a multitude of men, are now p^ 
beginning to fail lamentably, and directing our obsenration * 
to the university of Cambridge in the diocese of Ely, in 
which there is an assembly of students, and to a liall therein, 
hitherto generally called University Hall, now exintiog by 
our foundation, and which we desire to be called Clare Hall 
and to boar no other designation; we have causv<l thtA to 
be auginontc<l with resources, out of the property girca us 
by G(xl, and to be placed among the number of places for 

• We have also hod in view the object, that the pearl of 
science, which they have through study and learning disco- 
vered and ac<|uired, may not lie umler a bushel, but l«c 
extended furtluT and wider, and when extcndetl give light 
to them that walk in the dark pjiths of ignorance. It is aI»o 
our design that the scholars who have bci'n long nince dwell- 
ing in our house, may, by IxMng protected untler a atrungrr 
bond of pt^^ace find benefit of concord, devote themK^hes 
more freelv to stndv. With this view we have, with the 
a<lvicc of exiK'rienciMl |KT»i«»ns drawn up certain statutes and 
onlinances which f ijlow, to last f«»r everV 

The di^tinirui^-hiiiL' char:i(t«ii^lic of the de^i;^^ of tlii^ i 
foundress would a|»|>«rir to b«* a juater lilnTality in iho • 
n'<[uipinrnts n*«p«-nln'.; the jtr"!* >>elly chiioal elem* nl. '^ 
I llie ^eh'hars or ft Hows an- t^ h • l\\t nty in nutiiln r, i.f i^ht'iu 
it is rrt|ninMl that six shall Im- in |ui«^?«'' or»h pi at tlic lime 
of th'ir adnHNsi.iii; but cnpjp.iMtiM \y littlr ».tr« *.«♦ i% laiil, a* 
at Mieha«llH»u-«'. on th«' or-h r or |»«r!:« m! ir eharactiT of the 
reli;;i'HH s«Tviees. and tlie ]»r.»\ i-i-ii i-* iiiade ap|»,iri t»t!y 
rather wi»h the virw i»f sr«^'nnu' *'" V^' ^•■•>tv *»f ^ ^utlieiitii 
numlxT r»r the |H.'rt*t»rnianee "t s«irli •.irviei-*, tlian for the 
^ D4kor. MS. llaruiftD lU&l. Q. U-oJ. l}.<um€mt$, ii lil. 



p ^ u poge of ereating a foundation for the ehaTcli\ The 
** remaining fellows are to be selected from bachelors or soph- 
laters in arts, or from ' skilful and well-conducted ' civilians 
and canonists*, but only two fellows may be civilians, only 
one a canonist Throe of the fellows, being masters of arts, 
are to lecture; and on the inception of any other fellow, one 
of the three has permission to retire from this function, 
provided he has lectured for a whole year. This permission 
does not, however, imply permission to oease from study; he 
is bound to apply himself to some other service wherein, con- 
sidering his bent and aptitude, he may be expected to make 
the most rapid progress. The sizars are represented by ten 
'docile, proper, and respectable' youths, to be chosen from 
the poorest that can be found, especially from the parishes of 
those churches of which the master and fellows are rectors; 
every Michaelmas they are entitled to receive clothing and 
necessaries to the value of half a mark sterling; they are to 
be educated in singing, grammar, and logic; and their tenn 
of residence is to extend to the completion of their twentieth 
year when, unless elected to fellowships, they are to with- 
draw from the foundation. 

The statutes that next claim our attention are the last 
in the fourteenth century, and oflTer some noticeable and 
novel features. So early as 1326, thirty-two scholars, known 
as the King's scholarn, had been maintained at the univer- 
sity by Edward |l. It is probable that he had intended 
thereby to extend the study of the civil and canon law, for 
we find him presenting books on these subjects, to the value 
of ten pounds, to Simon de Bury the master, from whom 

1 Ono of tho claaHcs, lomcwhat 
ambiKnouNly exproMKoiI, ami, I bum- 
poet, eorrupt, KOfmn dcffi^od to no* 
cure thono undertakinf; the {wrform- 
ance of the servioen apiinMt laboaring 
under any disadvantage when com- 
pared with the rest, by providing for 
the retirement of one of the six every 
time thnt there ia a new election to 
a fellowhhip: the oxpreitRioo, in fa- 
nrribuM recipirndiM amplius remoti, 
refcra, probably, to opportiinitioa of 
leaving tL« college and poahing ooe*i 

individnal claims to nrefonneni a- 
mong the diN]ioHcra of bonciicoa. See 
DoeumrntM, ii UK). 

* Only two civilians and one ea- 
ooniat are however permitted to 
bold fellownhips at the same time. 
The cUniiea relating to the stadiea to 
be pmnued after the year of lectnre* 
ship are apparently intended to dis- 
courage both tbcae branches of the 
law; poHiiibly aa an equipoise to 
biabop Bateman*s eoacimonte. 


kino's hall. 253 

they were tubaequently taken away at the oomniaiid of ci 
queen Isabella. It had also been his intention to pnmde ^ 
his scholars with a hall of residence, hut during his lifetime 
they resided in hired houses, and the execution of his design 
devolved upon his son, 

•Great Edward with the UliM oo bis hnm 
From haughtj OaUia torn'.* 

By this monarch a mansion was erected in the Ticinity of «■ 
the Hospital of St John, ' to the honour of Ood, the blessed ^ 
Virgin, and all the saints, and for the souls of Edward ll« of** 
himself, of Philippa the Q^ecn, and of his children and his 
ancestors.' As Pctcrhouse had been enriched by the advow- 
son of the church at Hinton, so the now foundation, now 
known by the name of King's Hall, was augmented by that 
of the church of St. Peter, at Northampton. Such wax the 
society which amid the sweeping reforms that marked the 
reign of Henry viii was, in conjunction with Michaelhoose, 
Bubse<)ucntly mergeil in the illustrious foundation of Trinity 

The statutes of King's Hall, as given by Richard II. are «« 
brief and simple, and Ix^ar a closer resemblance to those of C 
Morton than those of any of the precc<ling foundations, 
Peterhouse alone excepte<l. It is somewhat remarkable, and 
is possibly with a view to the youthful monarch's own ciliH* 
cation, that the preainMe moralivs u{M»n *the unbridUxl 
weakness of htiiuanitv, pmne by nature and from Touth to 
evil, ignorant how to abstain from tilings unlawful, easily 
falling into crinu*.* It is n <|uin-«i tliat each M^liolar on hi% u 
a<lnnssion Ik* proved to Ik* of 'go.i.l and ro{>iit;ible c«>nvrr\A- ^ 
tion;' and wo liave here tlie ealIil•'^t inforiuation n*'»|»»Tlifi;; 
the coll'-ge limitation tis to (/y<*. tin* .^lu'lrnt not Uin'^ Aibiit^* 
hible un<ler ft>urleen years ol i'^**. a \>**\u{ on >*liiili tho 

* It in ihnn th»t C$T%y, in )ii« In* r«.»'lt ! n^ tl.r f-nnlrr of the in«ti. 

«f(i//<*rif>ii Oi/^, hA4 n |>r«Miitt'l r.<l> t It -II. Mill i« ••> <!• <i»-i*4tt I in lb« 

tiaril in *• lh«* f'Hifi'it r »•( Ti:':itr «n< .1 iit iui:\.r«.!y »t ititr, /v *r^» 

C«iln?«^. lint tin* lH«iii«iir mi-rr yro- ■/'« • w ••*..-' -1 rrt. '*rttntt », an I«-r 

p* r'.y bi-l«»!»^* t«» Kl»arl 11, ftir. »< \»)i«!i ^ •<« «\i;it« mirr f^rfi-rr-*'! 

Mr. C«N.|»»r o).«<-m«, * a!lh."i.'»i t! tl iii !» •■ f.'lli • f Miv Atrn'mtlT * Me. 

lonnArih dill hot li«« to r:trn oil*. ht4 ««' i.'f. 11 I'Ji. Cf. i><<ii u-nu, | 

iotrntiou of vncUug a Lali Lv «a« 4«\>. 



fcOt Ibster ia to be latigfied by the teBtimoDy of trustworthj 
%^ witnetsea. The student's knowledf^ of Latin, on his admia- 
^^ »<m, most be such as qtialify him for the study of logic, or 
of whatever other branch of learning the master shall decide, 
apon examination of his capacity, he ia best fitted to follon*. 
On enrolment in a religious order or succession to a benefice 
of tho value of ten marks, the scholar is to retire from the 
foundation, a year being the utmost limit irithin which his 
■tay may be prolonged. On his ceasing to devote himself to 
■tudy, and not proving amenable to admonition, a sentence 
of expulxion is to be enforced against him. From the general 
tcnour of these statutes we should incline to infer that the 
enforcement of discipline, rather than the dcvelopement of 
Any dominant theory in reference to education, was the para- 
mount conHidcration. Students are forbidden to truiisfcr 
themselves from one faculty to another without tlie approval 
and consent of tho master, and baclictors are required to bo 
regular in their attendance at rcpctitiooK and disputations; 
but no one faculty appears to have very decidedly com- 
manded the founder's preference. On the other hand, there 
, are indications in the prohibitions with reRpect to the 
frequenting of taverns, the introduction of dogs within the 
college precincts, the wearing of short swords and peaked . 
shoes (contra honestatem clericalem), the use of bows, fiutcf^ 
catapults, the oft-repeated exhortations to orderly conduct, 
»fc^ and perhaps in the unusually liberal allowance for weekly 
''2' commons, that tho foundation was designed for students of 
**"** the wealthier class'; poverty is not, as in the case of most of 

li»Te been printed in Bjinor, tii 339, 

' 'Bone convcrulionJB «it et fao- 
ntlle, Blalii iiUBtuordccim annoruiu 
Tel nitn, cie iiuo lolumae quoti pru- 
foto CuKtadi bdo cli(;nomm tcilimo- 
pio fist Gdra; qiioili|UB talia sic ad- 
mitlcnJiu in n-RuliH eraniniutirnli- 
Lat ita anflicivnlcr nit iimlrucli^K, 

3 nod cunKTUo in uHo lliulvclic* atu- 
era i>u(iTil ran in iiIi<]Uii ulin tacul- 
IbIo ad qnun pni'IutUH C'UHtoi )io4t 

duiirit iltiiui <Ii'|ililuii<liiiu.' Stu- 
tula of Kltt'/i Hull (fnini tmn<icri|>t 
iu pcnhci^ii'n of till- HuUiiititii'H ut 
Triuity Culli^-o). Tbcrc >t«latci 

» Tlio I 


Eine'i acboliLTKU 
touitfen pence: — ' exjicuw! commcn- 
SB leu njiii^ulorum ncliuLirium iiinpilil 
■('|>tiuianiii muumam quntuorilrciio 
dcnario* nnllatenni cicttlant.' Tliis 
trail In 13?Ji Do mora wen «]lo«(il 
at PcIcrliouMi in ISlOi tiic allow- 
aneo at Clara Hall in Uie aiimu ccn- 
tnr; waH tnclvo ]•«»«■, *t (iuiiville 
Hnll oiily ten pi'tk'cI At Cori'iu tlio 
alluwiuice won DuiHt IDieral, iiiiiinint- 
iUR to xixtei'ti )ieiiec. Cliiclieh'j, 
«li«B eoulUied to Ilia ruouu by a 


tho otlior coHc;:^, indicated as a qualification ; and it tccmi cvaf 
re:L!!^>ii;ib!e l*» Hiipposo that a foundation representing the <«^ 
mutiifto^iicc .lU'I ]>atronage of three succeKHive kings of 
Englauii, wo<:!'I naturally become the resort of the more 
aristocratic oltMn^ut in tl»e univertiity of those days. 

It is dilUcult perhaps to trace any real advance with IJ!*)^T 
respect to the theory of education in the statutes of thi*!^'t>Vl' 
seven Cambridge foundations wliich we liave now pasLs^Hl »^^* * 
under review, but it must be admitted that they afliird con- '-'■■' ^ 
sidcrable illustration of those ditferent tendencies that have 
occupied our attention in tlie preceding chapters. In Peter- 
house, Clare, and Kings Hull, we are presented with little 
more than a repetition of Walter de Merton's main conci-[w 
tion, not unaccompanied by a certain vagueness as to the 
chnnictor of tlic ediiratit^i to be imparted, and an appnn*nt 
disinelinati(»n striously tn a^M-.^s the eomiurativo value of iho 
ditferent studies of tlie time. In Trinity Hall and in ^""U- J^r^ 
ville Hall, (as miMlitictl by its second found'T.) we h-ar^TT^* 
nothing more than an n'lio i»f the traditii»ns of A\i;n»«»n, — ••-*^- 
traditions, it need scairily )u' s.iiil, n! a kiitd ai::iin»»t whirh 
all centres tjf culture nf tip' liiurlpT or«!ir have >|Hcial nud 
to '▼uard. The nuistiun >\h»lli<'r a univ« r>itv mav advan- 
ta;:«'o\islv c»»nceni it-M-lf with i«lin"iti«»n of a imrelv t«'ehnii-al 
charactiT, was one wiiiih pn >riiti«l i!^«!f to tlie min!'* nf llic 
lliirteenth and fnurt^rntli eiiitMiii> a> wi-ll a«» to th« m? i»f the 
nineteenth. At Paris, it> we h.ive a!r« ady si en, it h.ul In i-n 
drcidid Ilk the ne;^ativi\ Tin* «i\il aiiil th«' ean«»n law |i;i I 
U'cn exelndrd fii-ni ciiiiifiiliim. l«r in the liand<< of iIm* 
jurist and the e.inini^t thcv i..i<l iHCoim- a tt:i>h' ratht r than 
a hranrh i-f lilM-ral hiirriii .;'; aril it i-^ ivi.l-nt th it tli- -e 
wlio thru 'juiih il tin* j»r-j!i -n •■! i«!' -^ at ^aI'.^ i\)i:itivtr 
mav have hei ii tl.« ir iriiM^ aii>l >!i i*- i-ii.i:.^'*.. saw cl« iilv 
liiat if i-n^e tla.- h'Wir ai:>, t 'LiIi:' i\i- < !.:• :!\ tn worlilv 

■ m 

hi\Mv i!!? .-^ Ml 1 :■» • 1, 14* N. '\ « 1 « I . . •• . ' : - it 1 - 1'! s ..' 

1. ■-. v\i,:.\. I i u::- •» • . I !.• ».-«':; r :. •♦. • .-. ■.....: 

1 .ti fi r !:« I . •: ii ■ I 1 u*. l!.i r.i'i • f | • I i • i i .'. I • ■ u.i 

^ ''• \w .':. ^ •• ■-. r, . . ■ i I.. 1 , .r'.. ■ /• . t ..■. 




■ and profeMional advancement, were admitteil withia 
■, . - the walli of a uoiversity, they would soon ovenlindow and 
bli^t thow fltudiea that appealed to a less sellisli devotion'. 
To bishop Batem&n the question appeared in nuutlier li<,'hL 
The dvil and the canon law were -the higli road to ecclom- 
aitical prefeiment, and he aimed at traibi^i^ np a tuily of 
/ shrewd, practical men, who, though they might dt* liitle to 
/ help on philosophy and science, would be heard of in after- 
life aa high dignitaries tn church and state, and would exer- 
cise a certain weight in the political struggles of the day. 
But if the reiterated compltunts of the foremost thinkers of 
the time are to be r^ranted as having any basis in fact, it 
would seem that the bishop had rendered his university but 
a doubtful service; and though colleges multiplied at Cam- 
bridge we may vainly look for any corresponding growth in 
her intellectual activity. The statutes of the other founda- 
tions scarcely call for comment Those of Pembroke are 
interesting as an illustration of the persevering endeavours 
of the religious orders to np.sct what it is no exaggeratiuu to 
describe as the fundamental conception of the new iuHtilu- 
tions, — an endeavour which, as we shall shortly see, was pro- 
secuted at nearly the same time with greater success at 
Oxford. In Michacihouso and Corpus Ciiristi we recognise 
little more than the sentiments of the devout laity, inspired, 
in all probability, by the priest and the confessor. 

It will scarcely be denied that in connexion with these 
foundations questions of grave import were contending for 
holution ; nor can we doubt that fuller records of our univer- 
sity life at this period woulii reveal that the antithesis rcprc- 
Bcuted in tho statutes of Peterliouso and those of Trinity 
Hall, was a matter of keen and lively interest to the Cam- 
bridge of thoHC days; and inasmuch as an opportunity here 
presents itself for a slight digression, — for between the ttor 
tutes of King's Hall and the foundation of King's College 
(tho first foundation of the following century) more tlum , 

■ ■ n 7 iiTtJt t ersindn qn'nne linciilii-mncnt mIIm it tUotosi*. 
4eoIg il« droit eml niie toil onTCrte Crevier, * lfi6. 8m p, 76, nwt* 1. 
IM nt d^Mrt«r tonUa let ■nlra, et 

coHCLUiaoir. 157 

siztj jMn iBtorraie^ — ^we shall now proceed to illiirtnile 
nuira fiiUj lira scope and bearing of that antithetic from the 
histoiy of the sister univenity and the progress of thought 
in the country at large. 





Part II:— the fifteenth century. 

It was on tho sixteenth of September, 1401, that Thomas 
Arundel, archbi<»hop of Canterbury, arrived in *a stately 
equipage * at Cambridge, upon his visitation as metropolitan. 
The chancellor, doctors, and masters, whom he had already 
cited, appeared before him the following day in the Congre- 
gation House, and rendered their canonical obedience. Com- 
missioners were appointed by the archbishop, who visited 
Trinity Hall, Clare, Gonville, Michaelhouse, Peterhouse, Pem- 
broke, St John's Hospital, St. Rhadegund's Nunnery, and tho 
House of the White Canons*, and on the nineteenth his grace 
departed for Ely. Before his departure, however, ho liad 
privately put to the chancellor and tho doctors, successively 
and individually, ten questions, having reference to the dis- 
cipline and general state of the university. Among them was 
one which, at that juncture, possessed no ordinary signifi- 

1 King's Ilall and Corpus CliriKii 
do not appear to liave been Tinitccl. 
Cooper obser\*e8 that the mAster of 
the latter college, Iticbanl Billing- 
fordt WAS cliAnecllor of tlio univer- 
fifty at tlic tiino. Annnh, 1 147. * As 
for Iiofttels, tlie wonder is not so 
preat, why those conimi»HioncrH stoop- 
ed not down to viKit tliem. First, 
liceaam) dependent hostels were, no 
doubt, visitetl in and under those 

colleges to whieh they did relate. 
Absolute hostels, who stood by them- 
selves, being aU of them unendowed, 
by consequence had no considerable 
statutes, the breach whereof was 
tho proper subject of this visitation. 
Besides, tho gra«1uatos therein may 
be presumed for their personal de- 
meanours visited in the collective 
bo<ly of the university.* Fuller, 
nut, of the Univ, 


ctinoe; — ^'wero there any/ the aTchbiHbopiiiikeil/aai|iectad of 
LollardiAmf Tlio o^hes of Wyclif had not jct been cut into 
the Swift, and his memory was utill cheriHhed at Oxfoftl, but 
the preceding year hail seen the appearance of the writ Ih 
Ilanretico Comburendo, and, but a few munthii lieforc, the firet 
victim of tliat enactment, William Sautrco, had perishcii at 
the stake. Suc)i an imiuiry, therefore, from a man of Anin- 
dcl's determined character and known views', coukl scarcely 
fail to strike ominous forelxxiings into the minds of thosio 
students who fuvouri'd the doctrini-s of the great reform* r*. 
Tlic numlxT of these at lH>th tlie En;{liHh uiiivfmitics woa 
already far from coiitcinptililo; niid the intimate c<»nni*3ii*>n 
of LollanllMn Mitli the wliolo «|a(*stion of university i«tii<lii*<, 
as it presented itself to the theohn^ian and the canonint at this 
peri<Ml, will here demand some consideration, a** aflTonling una 
of the main clues to the ecelesiastioal and intellectual move- 
ments of a somewhat ol»scure century. 

In our brief notice of the rare<T of William of Occam, we iw^ 
were occupit^l mainly with his nietnphysiral theory and his«vo^t 
influence in the Ke}i*M»ls, but his opinions with resp-ct t«» the y^^ 
political p>wer of tin* po|M> form a not les.s impirtant eleni«*nt pJT^ 
in the thou<;ht of the fourt(>enth century. We have alrea^Iy *m^ 
advertc<l to the fart that tlu* n)o>t indi'f«*nMbI«« |tn*ten!iinD!i uf 
Rome were undonlitrdly th«ise which were fi>unilej u|i«»n 
the KUCcesMve foi-;;iTies and iiu]Mistun-s wliirh make up «» 
lar«;o a |>ortiou of the canon law. IltT trni|Miral Mipi\niary. 
in the days of Oerani ami Wv«'lif. iHiintetl f*»r itn tlnHirt-tical 
just itirat ion to the eunniti;:ly i:i1»rir:iti il N\«>teni. known in tlitr 
liarlKirous diet i« in o( that ;i:^«- an tlu- Pnic^tum yut'n9n, laj'tr* 
ttttt*tm, and Wtus, — th«' loa-^ive ti»nir«» that, with the lalN.ur* 
of the connnentators, lurrnMi |iroiiiinrnt a t'.itun' in ••urni<».«i 

**It nf\« r Mcni* l»»l»ft*r<»ci-tirri-l l«» in\tr jTnl-iAti-l a\ *i\h*r of lb* 

Aniii'lflVtiiiii'l. liiiit<>|>)*<i-iitun< xii'l mi m r-s!i' ■« ' ll<--k'« / 'i^t. i« 4"»l 
I* lurt \'\ fti"\tl.:i»^ -Ij'Tt «»f |'K\« • I'll >• »'- 1 il* r 'fclmi .\ri«i-lt| 

Mrul fiirri'iT iliri- I li /i-I.»ii«ii. Mo y.^i*-* I «Kf»l f.r a I.'i-i i'ir|«.«-. \.w 

m«« l>ini«i If nil «• lifl ir l.«»un*i.ily ni i^ v,> \ l«\ {•.*• n. -t di :• *itiiiir*| 

A Ii.ii-Iii Ii>r I'f iirt«; aii-l In* li.f *i ■■ -ii.-.'i n. i» 1 « ■!.'•■ t •! ; t^ 

krn i.f Bi OxfiTil in lirm- o.iiii' ir t • ) ?■•.:- if ^ ■ • i* ■ m h.,. tli* 

iLti.i* «).iih w.iiM W *iuy\\*'\ iM i»" ' '-* •» ' ''in! in \\<-^l imu h. i 

tlif |Ti.(Tit il:i>. if A rlirk Hii ri- n ». 4'«"« I — 
tiiiiiKl«-<l til «ii 1 1 •>»•'• •! till M-r «!»•» li k*! 

17— i 


t college libraries. From these sources were drawn ftll . 
^^ thoM aubtleties vhich, from the dayfi of Hincmar'to thoue of 
Boni&ce Tin, gave the Church such formidable advantages lo 
ber rtjugglei with the nccular power, and it woe against the 
broad principle implied in the whole syatcm that 'Occam 
raiRcd the atantl.-inl of insur^'oiicy when, in his De Potettate, 
he propounilcd us an open ({ucstion for discussion, tlio query, 
— Can die npiritual and Imj jx>wer dviell in tlie same perton t 
It ix cvidcjtit UinL ina.«miiL-h an the awiumc<l nffirmativc formed 
tiiH Wiiti of tlic Itoiiiixh polity nt the period, t)ic mere moot- 
ing (if MR-h enquiry ciilkii in i|iiCMlion what had hitherto boon 
an nrticic uf fuith, tho infiillibility uf the pupal dL-creoH, and 
tliuR again opoueilnp a way to Htilt wider nml more important 
diHCMHMionB. It wnx of conrRO impossihlv that a ohIc, pro- 
nounct.-<l by tlic pi>i>o to lie the binding law of CliriHtcndom, 
conM Im' challenged, witlmnt ill volving the far wider qncsitinn of 
bttiffiii tli<''ihi;;ic.-dilii^'mn: nnd wlicn a Franciscan Hclionlmnn 
^^^ wns to be fonnd nsking, 'Whether the pope conhl be a hcrc- 
™ g ^* ^ tic f lie wan manifestly calling in qnestion tlic whole theory 
251^ of nllegianec to spiriHial authority. Nor is it difficult to see 
Tjf£ the relevancy of such discnwsiiin to the cimtendiiig theories of 
m^m. ncoilemic eilncatioti. If the canon nnd the civil law were to 
lie the Ht.-tnilanl to wliieh, in those un'jniot time", a)) disputcH 
oitci-ming public nn'I private ri^'htH were to \iv refcrnil, 
thi^ im'jxirtJinw! of thoHC twn cinli-s w.nld mmm-Xy in: cxaff* 
yeniteil: but if the nnlliorily nfi-ither one or (lie other cunhl 
\h: disputed, tlie value of Imtli, from their intimate cot.iiexiott 
nt that tiini-, would snner si-ri'ius diminution. If again, all 
theolo^'y, on tl'e other haml, wns fo femiinntc in an implieit 
occi-ptiince and promulgation of already chtablislHt] d'pginn,— 
to 1>o no loti;;er regarded as a progres.sivc science, and to be 
rednc^f) to 11 merely traditioitul iiiterfiretation of ilodrine,— 
it nnist at occe siitlc into secondary importance, for it lacked 
almost entirely that objective volue which imparted so much 
Btgnitieance to the civil and the canon law. It waa in o^ 
position to any sncli conception of the theologian's province^ 
that William of Occam aD<l his brother Franciscan, Uarsilio 
of Pailua, waged war in the icterest of the schoolmen : 
against tho canonists of Avignon. 



An we have already socn. Uio appHcatinn of hift own me- < 
thod to specific dognian, was not maile hj William of Occam ; 
nor was it made bv Wvclif, wlio mav fairlv W re;r*T^l<*'l ** *h* ' 
representative of Occam in his &<isortion of the ri«»lit of pri- 
vate judgement against priestly autlir»rity. Some writ.r*. i 
indeed, have siwiken of Wvrlif. as in all rt'si>rct* a tliii.ker ''t 
the same sclioul as Iiis prcdorcssor. * He was/ hny« Jam» *. 
tlie loarni'd lihrarian of tlu.' HHlleinn, 'a profi'ssiil fdhtwi-r of 
Occam';* such a stati-tiitiit howrvi-r can In* arc^-ptid nnly \\'.*\i 
an important n'M-rvati'tn; in niattiT* of '■ci'lr».i:i»ti«*al !►•!:• v 
aihl religions lMliff\Vy<'lir!in'l«»Mlit<.-«lIynihipt«-iIa!iil il« v^.!. j» ! 
tin* thtMirii"* i»f Oirim, hiit in tin* M-hi"iU f»f OxTirl lir » .• 
known li** a Ira«l«'r of th" o|»]nii»iii|r party, Ir'ng an npli"! ■■ r 
of tli«* tln'orii's of til" Il'-ali^t**. Wliilo, a'^ain, O'-^'ain u.»<i •'• ■' 
champjiin of tlir Kran<i>rans. Wvolif uu'* tlnirni'M funnil i^!- 
opp»nrnt; an<l wliil*' iIm- ft»rniiT d" f* iMh«l tin* «^i|i<*if:it:'>n -f 
alms, thi' latter iii>titnl«d his S'lupli* pri«-.t>/ ti» Ik* an ixi!m- 
ple to tin* world of fvaTi' \\i»)ioMt ni< !idi«-ity. Th»* j-w 
hition of Wvilif in n-I.iMnii ti» t1;«' M- iii!!-* : n will !••• !•.• 
umlriNtoiMl !y tin* li'jlit of tlit- iumti- imo -i* »!rt jKi'-t,'- * in th* r 
can-'-r at tlii- lln^/li-h iiiii\« T*iti'«» in t?i«- f'-irt*-' nt!t o n»'ir\. \ 


jM-ri'Hl will nifi tlii- r'lirMpM'in and '!• ii.'*: i':/.<*l'n of f},- -j 

ord'Th ppN I . •!. ij uifh •.Tnin"'!" ri|»; Il'y. Tin- • i!- hid I -t 

it-* 'iaviiiir ; ^iml iiitlui ?.•■■ - uhi-li lj:nl «i'i'«- p pr< -• itf • •! --n 

fiuT'j^'i^hf^ iriijt'il •• In iIm ilift i *\ n nf a Ii'-^di* r • 'jit':»"« . !. I 

d«' '• ii'-rati-d iiitM a rm-i lii- \«iir- arid *\i ''Jihinj i '• r.i- r • 

l>iiM!iii-tI\i- unlv • f -Ml'*' "Ti'l .iiiisi ifv, ;ifid •• n* m-!\ ■!• !t;- 
I • • • 

ni'-rital ti» flu- |iiir-';it •■f tr'ii- I- inr.'.,^. 

With th'- l:jtt. r iMTt i.f til" r. iit'i'v tl •, I \il I. J I r- i« 1 • I ' 
a climax. TIm- i** i**'?!'! ?li i^ *! ■ l.t;.''""'! Vr.iU' '-■a'l* I'*. I' 

« /.!»> .Y 11, . ■/.. ai ;-i I. I I.. 
Tf" t'. ■•' I r. t' ■■ * ■ : ." •■ ..' '• 

M Ihr i: t , J I r r, !!.* • I, :•' - 

' ' n • jrii!.. ■ • ■«:.!•• • '. !i 
'•nr ;:ri tt •■■ !•.:•".• .1. Vi lUi .f 

Oi-i ar-i. *. . I J -t r, . !■ f« I ! 

rn'i' I }i .r '•'} I. i\r • • II 'ir.s", ■■ '■ . 
l-jt !l \ .! ■ !.. • .. , -M !■■ 1 •■ ■ '- •■ 
• MPiii. I'.x.Wi.: ' ■ \f- !• ■ ■ • 

Av..!i, /■..;./ /;. .. \,r :•:. 

S»< h ■•«■ ^l f tl «• r 1- • ■• i . !• 1 ' » 
I"ri-f SJ.irl.i il'r. f |.- I ii- 'i 

f - . » . . f I • ■ • I • • . • ■■ 

:■ . f- • i* I ■ "i '■•:.- r- 

' t • ■•■»•».■-*■ 

I . ■ ■ • .! "1 ■' ■ ■ f 

i. ■ •» • ■ • bt 

•* • ' •■ 1 • . 


Hit. BL o0Bied to Bonifoeo Tni, tbough it wore perhaiM at tbe time 
^^. SD air of patriotum, was in reality actuuod bjr little besides a 
keen aenae that their own interests were nt stake. The vtru;;- 
^e with Joha xxil waa also at an end. Their differences with 
Bome had hcen composed, and llicy Iiad betaken themselves 
with UDdiminiKticd energy to the tattk of pilli^ng the laity. 
^^•a In the univeniltiett their activity atsunied a less sordid though 
2^,^ Dot a li!ss hnniirul diameter, and Paris, OxfonI, and Otin- 
bridge were each in turn distracted by their assertion of in- 
dcfeusihlo rights and of equally indefensihlo immunities, 
Koithcr the ambition nor the interests of tbe two orders 
would permit them to furego the great centres of education 
and progressive thouglit; while their vows and their aims 
were incompatible witli the obligations involved in tiio oaths 
odmiiiistereil by the univcniities. It was their object accord- 
ingly to ciuatc an Vm/wn'uwt in itiii>eno, and, while availing 
tliemselviM iiftliose Centres as fields of pro]»iigandism,tliey were 
n-;dly intent on tho cri-ntion of o rival if not of a hostile nu- 
thurity. 'The hiiltle of the Mondimut!>,' suyn Iliiber, 'was 
fuU};lit sintMltuuiniiisly in all the universities of Chris lendom.' 
Jt Im'Piu however at I'aris long U-fore it iL-^sumed any coiisi* 
dimhle pro)i<<rtions at either t)\funl or Canihndgo. I» the 
■t>— M tbirteeiit Ii ci'ulury tho DoniinioaiiH, supjHirted by |mi|h: Alexan* 
K tiM- diT IVf hud, after n protriicted Htni;;gle, beL'U uiluiitted t<i a 
IMrticiiniliou iu tho McliolaslJc nets mid jirrvilcgi-H uf tho 
ftinner university, and, tliongh exehided from ull sharo iit ttio 
goveninieiit, their admission bud led to im|»ortant changcx, 
among utiiers tho He}»;ir.ition of tbe faculty of theohigy from 
the faculty of arts. The annala of our English uiiiventities 
«{ual]y attest the jealousy <if tbe academic authorities and 
M?^ the ixirtinucious intrusion of the friars. Wc have already 
3*5* adverted to the stringent provisions passed at Oxford to check 
"■^ the widespread evil of prosetytism. In the year 1311 the 
Mendicants appealed to Rome against some of the provisions 
cnactL-d for the liniitntion of their independence, and in the 
year 131 4 a formal decision wa.s pronounced by a Cumniission 
jointly cuni]>oscd of representatives of tbe university aud ol 
the four orders. The verdict was a SL-vero blow to the latter, 


for it involved the transfer of numerous acts and disputations^ 
previously held at their different houses, to the church of 
tiU Mary, the recognised arena of academic ceremonieflL The 
sole concession in favour of the friars required that every 
biichelor, when he had commented on the Sentences in the 
puliiic schools, should be bound to repeat his lecture at the 
Kcliof>l of the Dominicans before he was admitted to teach in 
tlicology. The decision, Wood tells us, sorely dejected the 
Doiiiiuicans, who were thus compelled to witness large nuro- 
l^crs of the students diverted from their doors and their own 
h' Mill OS of emolument considerably curtailed \ In the uui- 
vcrHity of Cambridge we find, in the year 1359, a statute 
< niH'Led prohibiting two friars of the same order from incept- 
iiig in the same year; a subsecjuent statute re<iuired that two 
ri^xrits, whether doctors or bachelors of divinity, of the satne 
Jt'jiL^^, should not concur in their 'ordinary* readings, whether 
ot tlic Bible or the Sentences, but that one of them must read 
i:i ]'i j own convent, and the other in the schools of the univer- 
sity. ' These statu t(;s,' Miys deun IVacock, ' would mnrm to have 
been framed with a view of com|H.*lliiig them [the friars], if 
admitted to the regency in the univernity, to take {Kirt in the 
pulilic duties incuiiib4;iit u|Min other regents, and not to con- 
line their hilxMirs within the walls of their own monasterieMV 
Such legislation on the ]iart of the university was ki*enly • 
resented l)y the friarH, and in the year l«)(j(i, the universities! 
on the one hand and the Mendicants on the otlnT, 
]uirlianient with angry nrriminations. The ehanc*ellor ami the 
jirociorH, and the provincials and ministers of the four onleniy 
reiKiired to Westminster and submitted their «lisputes to tho 
royal decision. The conclusion arrived at by Kdward III, to 
which the bishops, dukes, earls, and Imrons all signified their 
assent, w:is so far favourable to the Mendicants that it re- 
scinded the statute forbidding them to receive into their order ] 

1 WfMxlCiutch, I 3S2->nH4. *No- the |)crfonnance of Uieni ibcydo not 

Uiiu^ uaM ^antiHl to the friurft, but cutiiuch UfNtii, or cmitnuljct. tlM 

ouly tlittt tbi y iihouM enjoy tlu-ir btuilviitit of the iiumTHity.* lbi*i. 

ftch<iolii uithiu thu |irii'iuct« u( their * C«h>|m.t, AnHttU, I lo*!. 1V«- 

hoUM!, to be frte for IcctiircK, (IIm- cock, tthMrcatioHs, itc A|>|«lid. jl 

)Mit;itioui», Aud (IcttTtniiiutioiiN, mud xlUi, uutv. 
liothiu^ Um, cuuditiouuUy, that iu 


UK. m. adMihn aDd«r eighteen yean of age, and forbade the ebaci 

, _, L tnentofaoynmilKT statute: a &r more important pmviiiiii 

bowerer was that whereby all bulls and processes from IU>m< 

&TOttritig the Mendicants in their relation to the uoiTcrsitj 

were defimtely set aside, and the renunciation of all ndvai 

tagea derived therefrom rendered compulsory'. But tin- jk\ 

tinadty of the frian was not easily to be overcome; forwitlii 

ninn years after tho enactment of the al)ovo provisions. Htv 

obtained through the assistance of Christ Church, Cuntei bur 

t^^tm • biill enabling them to dispense with a statute whii it n 

SKrtsw quired that all persona should bo regents in arts befora yn 

cecdiug to the degree of doctor of divinity; in other wurd 

enabling them to proceed to the highest academical *ic'4r' 

without having previously borne their port in tho worK i 

university instniction'. 

rrf- -- Oilier events occurring about thin time sufficiently im] 

SH73 cato that the theory advocatctl by Wrdtcr do Mertott im 

Hugh was cnrouutoring cotixiderablc oppoMiioi 

It in gcnunitty alloweii tliut, fi>r a Kliart thmtyli not exncti 

ascerUiined period, Jidin Wyclif was maNterof liallinl CoUcg* 

llifJ'.fc. *'"''* '*""*'" •" Bitlliol Hull; and in the year ITilil, during lii 

;^^ tenure of that office, wo (iiid hint exerting himsulf on bclial 

•■*'■ of the Hvciilrir clerj.'y maiutahicil on the foundation, by prr 

curing; a pupal bull j>LTtnitling the ini{>ro))riali'in of the livin 

Sta •fcrff of Al»lx)teNley, recently presented by Sir William dc Fvlton t 

the college, for their support. In the recital tho bull set 

forth how his holiness hod been petitioned by tho clerks am 

mat et •nint pro lempflra, qnamTl 

Don rexprint in fatijiiHiucKli artiun 

liicultiile, ilnminoJu iiliiu in prinii 

tivix ncii-nliii infliciiriiti! tucriiit iii 

muiuiK and k-vturini; at tlicir own ■Irucli ae eurKUii luoi fociriiit ii 

■clwlx iluteMl uf tlicine IclutiRing lo lliculiiirica faeultato, et por ilili|,-vn 

tlie niiivwitT: that tbcj iliil uoC Icm ttiatniiintioni'm, jnit* nioren 

claim «X(-iu|<lion from liie couru of ijiHiuH itudii, ■iillki>-Dl« et iduui; 

iiutrudiuu lliut jiivciilod Ibc period nif'Tti ^xtitvrint ail niafiiHlerioia w 

of Jtpiuey in itidenl froin tlie Inn- cipiFQilaii) in rwlein. ad bujnnDod 

guaw; of .Un'piry;— "Sos igilur vo- macintcrii liuiioroui et iIurt'Ddi lii-mi 

K'lihK oiHlrui cui.(u<Iem el ralle^lani tiaai in ipxa iLi-oliigica fuctiltala i' 

fatiirp iwosi'riui, Kralii-M Imjniimudi Itiidiu nupniliclo ■Dlilalocu 

■upplimtiuuiuaii iuclinuti, Tulumua jniililivt UitUvultatia obataculu, Ubor 
me rixlvm i-u«l«-li et eollecio apiu ailniiltaotur, etc.* Sre Collrrt. o. 
■bJi» auclnriuh- ennrodiQiiu, qnod Piiprn and lUoinli, Ibid. p. VJrt. 
coitua vt wndotL-a divU culli'ipi qui 

" Cooper, >( 


I 109. 


■.,rt<(. p. 11. 


Otiwt of tllG 


oiiitg ai'iiri 

Lave Ikch lu 


. tlie privil 




.0cholara of Balliol Hall who had reprcaented that ' tbero were 
many students and clerks in the said hall, and that ererj one 

of them had anciently received only pence* a week» and 

when they had taken their degree of master of arts were 
immediately expelleil the said hall, so that tliey coald not^by 
reason of their poverty, make any progress in other atadica, 
but sometimes were forced, for sake of a livelihofHl* to follow 
some mechanical employment; that Sir William do Fclt«»iiy 
having comi>assion on them, desired to augment the numlier 
of the said scholars, and to ordain that they should hare, in 
common, books of diverse faculties, and that every ooeoftliem 
should receive sufficient clothincr, and twelve pence erery 
week, an<l that tliey might freely remain in the said ball, 
whether they t<H»k their masters or doctor's d**grce or no, 
until tliey lia<l got a r<»iniKtent ccclc*Mi:isfical lieiiefice, aiid 
thru should lrav<! the liullV On the Jfith of May in tlio 
K'Hiie year tiiat Wyelif exliil>itefl tliin hull to Ciyuwcll, liislitip 
of Lihcoln, he w;m liiinHiJi' iuntitnted, on tho pn*S4*ntati<»ii t^f ' 
the colli gr, to the p-rtory of Fylinghani, in l«ih<'<»lh^hin% and 
shortly nft<r, proh.iMy as MM»ri us hin term of grart? wan ••«- 
pifcd, nsigmd the ni:iHt<'r>hi|i of the College and went to 
rrnide ou hin li\iiig. He did n«»t Ihtoum* |H-rmanently n*»i- 
driit again in Oxford until l.*i7K hct in (KtolN-r, Klliri, Im* ia 
found renting rooms in <^ni«iiN ('ollege, antl in ItiM be 
ohtained two ycaiV h avc of ahsence front his living for tbg 
pur(M»se of pn'^ernting his >tiidieH at the univen»ify*. It wan 
prohahly tlicnfore wln-n at Fylingham that he heanl tho 
hi>tor}' of ^illliI;i^ efVorts to his own on Uhalf of the mTuIar 
el« r«:v, in ci'mnxion with ( aiiN-rlnirv Hall. It in tho 
year l.*{(;i, thr same year that \V\elif nht.-ijnisl the |ia|vil Indl 
alnive ijiioted, th it Sinioii Islip, ap hi»i<«htip of C*ant«-rl»iirr. a 
K"M.;lit to earrv out a plan reM-mhlin*? that c*»nei'i%*e«l hv • 
lln;;h I»a!N)iaiii. — a Ci>nilMnatiun of tin* .seculars and the nli- 
pi.niH on the same fiiniid.«tii»n. Ife li.ifl fMuiided C*anti*rliurT 
ill!!, and had adiiiitte*! to tie* s44-i«tv a wanhn nnd thrtts 

i ■ It k Hi I^ »i«. •, I'ri f. U> #'««« i<-«/i /• j«. 

*!'t»t'i», nj.t i vt*rlU'ita fflhfj.t»h,p l^„J..l.m H y< /o», |i. ii?. 






flcholats who were monks from Christchurch, Canterbury, 
and eight other scholars who were secular priests. The studies 
prescribed were logic and the civil and the canon law. But, 
as at Cambridge, the project served only to bring out more 
clearly the incompatibility of the two elements. The monks 
and the seculars were perpetually at variance, and Simon 
Islip, perceiving that harmony was hopeless, in 1365 expelled 
the warden Woodhall, togctlier witli the other monks, and 
constituted the college a foundation for the secular clergy 
cxclu8ively\ The successor of Simon Islip was Simon Lang- 
ham, a monk by education and entirely monastic in his sym- 
pathiea Under his aunpiccs and by the use of considerable 
influence at Rome, the monks obtained a reversal of Simon 
Islip's decision. The seculars were all expelled, and their 
places filled by their rivals. Such a result must have 
proved a bitter disappointtnent to the more liberal party 
nt the uiiiv<?rbity, and the feelings of Wyclif when he catiic 
up to Oxford in the following year, having obtained the 
leave of absence from his living above mentioned, can hardly 
have been tliose of much friendliness to either monk or 

While the seculars were thus contending under numerous 
disadvaiitages against their powerful foes, the laity in their 
turn were seeking to circumscribe the power of the whole 
Church. To counteract the rapacity of Rome the Statute 
a<minst Provisors was re-enacted six times in the course of 
the century; while, for the purpose of limiting and defining 
the functions of the ecclesiastic, we find parliament addressing 

1 Tbifl fact id not brought out by 
Dean Hook in bis life of Simon 
Laii^biim (Lirrti, iv 210), but it is 
dihtiuctly Ktutitl by Lewis, Life of 
Wtjclif, i>. 13, ftiul by l*rofe8H4»r Shir- 
ley, h'lmciculi Xizaiiiifrtuii, p. C15. 
Ihiiu HiK>k tiikcH notieo of the do* 
]H>Mition of \V(NHlhtM(l or WiNhlhuU 
only. The new wiinlen npiNiinted on 
thiK occiihiitMi WHH John NVyclif «/ Maij' 
Jitlily whom Prof. Shirley htiH, it may 
be conKidered, ftatii « -leUtrily proved 
U> have been uIho f'jo fellow of Mer» 
ton Colk'KO (seo it vie. qh tlu Tico 

John Wyclif*, appended to tbo Fate. 
Zi2,)\ such a conclusion, of courde, 
cancel many pages in tho Life by 
Lowis, and in tho Monograph of Dr. 
Itobert Yaughan. The testimony of 
Wotleford, on which tho hitter writer 
chiefly relies in undoavouriug to 
itnivo that tJio warden of Canter* 
iMiry Hall and Uio refonuer were 
the sumo )H,*rMin, is shown by I'ro- 
fvKttor Shirley, niHtn a si>archiug cri- 
ticisni of the wholu evidoucc^ to Lo 
uucuUtlvd to crtHlvuco. 



the Crown, in the year 1371, with a general remonstranoe chap, n 
against the appointment of churchmen to all great dignities '^"* "" 
of the state, and petitioning that laymen may be chosen for 
these secular offices. The movement was attributed by 
many to John of Gaunt ; but tliat Wyclif was the adviser of 
his patron in this matter we have no evidence. Such data 
as we possess would rather lead us to the conclusion that his 
career as a reformer had scarcely commenced '. Tlie long 
neglect into wliicli his Latin treatises have, in this country, 
been allowed to full, has indeed tended to create considerablo 
misapprelieiiHion as to his real character. Wyclif with all 
his noble aims in the direction of Church reform and the 
purification of doctrine, his translation of the Scriptures, his 
Phiglish tracts, so full of pathos, irony, and manly poMsion, J^**'**'* 
his denunciations of Roniibh innovations, was still the 
Sw'lioohnan, the diuleciicinn, and the realiHt*. ' lie was second 
to none,' Kays the monk Knighton, 'in philosophy; in thewydir 
discipline of the schools he was inconii>arable.* 'He ^''^Vj^SJ 
says Anthony Hnrnier, ' far from being condemned at Oxford, 
during his own life or the life of the duke of Lancaster, but 
w:is luul in great esteem and veneration at that university to 
the last; and his writings, for many years before and after 
his death, were as much read and studied there as those of 
Aristotle, or tlie M;uster of the Sentences*.' * A most pro- 
found philosoplier and a most distinguished divine; a man 
of suqntssing and indeed superhuman genius,* is the venlict 
of Anthony Wood. When such is the testimony of preju- 
<liced if not hostile judges, we need seek for no farther evi- 
dence to shew what was really the generally accepted repu- 

' Milinan, Latin Chnnthnlttj, Bk. 
xni c. 0. Dr. UoIntI Vuu^'lmii has 
quoted from (lio F.ccltgiw lirqinuH 
(C'ott«.ii MSS. Titu««, I). 1) |.a^Mi«i-ii 
^Iiitli hIkw that \V\i-lii niih- 
Ni|iuiitly n|>]*ni\r«l Ihc vif^^n uracil 
«>li tliJH ^'ni-ioii; \\\i^ (liiti! of tliirt 
inuiiimcrii't \n iiimituiii, Imt tlitTi* in 
f\<-iy riiiMon for hUi>i»ot«iii^ tlnit it in 
tlie I'rtMliictioii uf a tinuli lute r |H.Ti<Hl 
in NVvclirh lifr, when lie had attu- 
ally uHMiiued the |Htrt of a n'fornuT. 

^ Lfcwin hu<i a»M'rtcd that Chaucer, 

in his di'Acription of the PariMli rrical, 
*iieemM to havo bad him (Wyclif), 
thin fn«nd and ac4|iminlanctf <if Lia, 
in hiN th<>u)'htH.* Liff «/ tyjfefi/, p. 
4.>. Mr. lloU-rt lUll, in hiH |»n-f«ro 
to (Mutnci r, ol**»er\eii, «mi ihtt otlM*r 
hand, that ' th«* aiitnt^niiiini in |ier* 
f«M't;' and that if ('hnuiir meant Ut 
apidy the hketeh t«> \V\elif, it mui>t 
have lieeti un nlll^ked MUnutUi auJ 
Hot aa a |»iin«-^'ritf. 

> Anthony llarmer*a Sff€ime% p» 
15 ((luutcd hy LA.'wih). 


^^r. m. tAtion of tbe character to whom the; rcfor. It woiiM M 
"""^ "•- indeed that, during the greater part of hia life, Wyclif ' 
chiefly known as the most eminent uhoolman of his d. 
even bis memoraltle citation before the archhiiihop of Conl 
biiiy, at St Paul's, was the result of his political rather tl 
of his religious tenets, and the mcoKuro was probably ain 
at his patron rather than at himself*; while his gen« 
acceptance of the doctrinal teaching of the Cburcli is st 
cicntly indicated by the fact that it was not until withi] 
few years of his death tliat his bold revival of the docti 
lield by Bcrcngnr exposed liim to the charge of h<'re8y. T 
doctrine again was une which related to a controversy t 
had agitated both the eastern and the western Churcl 
and which was peculiarly calculated to attract the ingeni 
of the schoolman ; and whatever of mtstmst the name c 
refuted heretic might awaken, there were not a fewatO.xi 
who couM remind thase around tlicm that the argument 
Berongar had been those of the true logician, and who co 
recognise in tlieir ilhistrious contemporary the same or c 
yet greater mjistciy over the acknowledged weapons 
wrrMTHi debtte. While 6nally, if we carefully examine the origit 
jj^j»^JU*» LIk hostility to the Mendicants, we shall find good reason 
inferring that hod they suffered his teachings in the sclu 
to para unchallengei), the fiercest po-ssagcs and the heav: 
indictments that proceeded from his pen would never h 
been written. A highly competent critic, the most rec 
editor of the Trialogus, is even of opinion that Wycl 

* ■ It W}:di( bad FODGwd bii< leMh- 
init tu tliu iirli.inlo. be ooulit pro- 
hiUj liiLVO nmniupd unnioksliiL 
Cuii-iilrrnlilc Inlituile in i<|MfiiIalion 
wu allowi-il ^■ llus ■cliiHilmtn ; and 
lb« bniiU of lite Clinreli <■( Kii);1aiid 
■t (hat tiius mred little fur theo- 
li«iiiti divuittiona. TIib niiivcnitj 
van, il"pH. Vfhemfn'.lj aiiti papal, 
loni! beture Wri-lif wut matriciiUtcd; 
mid hio HiiliimUy tu the Cliurrh of 
iiihfritniice on tLu part 

In ( 

E the 

doing, BO long u tb« popea mna: 
at AiiRnon. In ripofdng tbe h; 
eriH; of iLa monki, lie acted < 
the applaiiiw of tbe luHlinpo, wl 

Srimlictiun Ihej njectvO ordevpi 
e had not only the two uniTi 
lien, but all tbe clecjcr, regular 
acciilnr. with him when be attai 
tbe Mendicant!. Fili-Halph, ' 
preceded him, and va) eiiuall)' 
lent in hie atlacki npnn tbe n 
d leant on tern, had been rewai 
milli tbe arcliiepiwwpal mitre of 
irnuih.' ll<H>k, Lixrt d/ tht A 
Utkof, lit U3. 



original scntinicntM towardM thoM onlcre wcro ocrtainly not n 
of ft liojitile clinracter*. ^ 

It wan umlouliteiUv on evil liny for tlie Menclicantu when rk 
the great Hciioolinan at hxni ptit on tlic armour of William of '•' 
St. AnifMir. Tiie cl.'UiA hiMtilitv of the Uene<lictim; historian. ^* 
tlic honest aversion of Kogrr DacoUp tlie wircitsm and ci»n- 
tenipt of Lianglande and C'haueer, evi-n the hot anger of 
Arinaehanns, Rcem tame and fuelile when comp:in-«l with the 
glowing diatribes of tlie Oxfonl scho<»hiian. Tht-y had but 
denouneed the abuses of those onliTs of whom he deman«h *! 
tlic extini*tion ; wlioevcr in far^t wishes to know the wtir^t 
that could U* i»:ii<l against the Miiidicanis in the fourttvnih 
century, unmodiH«'d hv anv iiailiatin;: cireuni stances or 
Counter considerations^ will find it in the Kehi»l;L«tic fngi-s of 
the Truih*ifits and the simpler dic(ii»n of the Kn;;Iis|i irartH. 
With much of e\a;:;^MTafii>n in detail hut with undffii.dile 
fidelity of outline, the fault j, vicrs, inconsistencies, and ^h••^t- 
comings of his adversaries are there heM up to \irw. nuil it 
i<(dithi*ult indeed to believe that we have In-'fure ns the n-pro- 
S-.'iitatives of tho>e who^e h'rt4^m and se!f-devotion hail wkii 

» Tlio Into Pr. llol.l. V:iii.']i:im. in 
liii wiirk tiit;t!«il J.*hn tU My. .'./'«. 
l*.h., tt M"ii,'Oi,ij.h, nt\!i 'Ill-Ill 
vliHt ^v ktiDW nf i|i«- PoiitruV) r-v hh 
r<<ii hictiil l<y III 111 r<>, iukI fn-iii n\\ «•• tiii>l lit:knii^ ii|^>ii It Hi t)it« 
I lit r %iiirk«i »if llii" n f. rin* r. j* i- lint 
<1. nil-lilt to jiit|/t- i.f ilif III iii.i r III 
tvlhli 111* ii(*'|i>i'!i i| iiiiii^i !f III rill 
thill til It lit tt.i-> I :ir::i r fill- 1.' 

(S.f|i. KM. I lli.w fir Ihi" llifi It I . 1- 

\i»TK- lu.Av lo jn^ri;,i«l \\ *.\ s f .!. 
li.a\ !•«• »i « II ffoiii t!ii' ?■■'■ .M*.! 
*i'r«lH i.f hr. I.iiMir- ' >i«i W ; .1 
fiiiii ii'ii II jriiiio II :ti<i •!•' *!i.i!r ■ i« 

llil!ii«ril--|'*,' *JI;i .r.,!«Ml :-." I'!l 

•1' i- , \\.\ *- ll". 't , |i 'ill ■ •■. . 'l • •■' 

!■ -tiiM i\ I- I . i:i I .ii.'« ■ ■ i:it t '. 

•I - tr:i .i iii« • !f ii .. : .1 ■ .' .■■■. 

t ' ■ ':|r I'll .1 ■! r. . |:.i ! .1 .■.'• ■ .1.1 
! : ■■ 1- ■■ . i| -iti- . ;■« 1.1 I ' ! ■ .r 
< .11' « "l III ll.i ■!.■ M I.. -. If • . .« 

h '.■■".} :: I r I I ■ :. Ii- iv -j . 1 .1 ■ 1 
!-?.■ .r -.1 .1- rr u» 1 "..i . -t .•-.. V. . 
1' ;• •. I j't r I I ;■ «■ 1 .1 | 1! . f ■ .' . 
I .■ i:-ii- ■ Ki.ii.i'iiu lit : ■'.. I . ■• 
l.ii>riilii t!i ivt'!i «ia lU-iuat..! M,'i :i- 

tiiini ArrrriRi 'R r*-r |"itri'no<« rl 

\iii-liri«. (J-iixI ruiii tii'n aiiTf a;i- 
ii'iiii 1:1*41 f .•iniii I , ft ii!iii iii 't. 1- 

lilt ht.t I t hi'l I Jl>» t1> I: iuMi t«| i> « |. 

••1 'M-ti fi -'iMi.-i iii-inl. I»|i • • ! I'j :• t •!, 
'I'm .!• r:iMi .i':t lii>r ^ -'1 11 n .i-.-i.o 
I it' nil I •• .* !'*■•'. tt-t /rii' . um. j». 
if. It a!-. I'll ill'* :pi*)i>>mI\ if !«'■ 
lilt I. /»r s,ii/.f.*. |i. .i7'.». tf--«r!« 

!»! 1! \\ v iif I.. ■ .11. t'.\ ■> 1 1:.\ 

!■• .\*' 1. V !• « Mi » 'h .i« •-. II I »- 't*-. 

I ■. I 1 '. * '. T . f I .. I".;'* .,! K'\* • 1. 
' 111 1' . » :. : in . I • - 1^ • J . ft 

II 11 :.'" \ !.■■'• ••.'.«■ * f ll • I* •! .: 
I.. ■ f !' ■ ' . ■ .■ I ' . ir-.. » . . . a\ 
f.l ' J I .: I (■ I •! ii- i ■ I ■ • - 

!•!,». . . r ■ . ,■ e ■; I - . • •• ■ ^ 
II • t ' . ■ ■ • • . I • I ••■•"•.' • 

t ■ ■■ I H- I :•■*«. 'i 

; :. ' I .'1 Ml. 

■ . ■ . . ■ • '. " . ! • 4 : t . I 

, • .t ii.ii It'll 

; ■ ' \ ■ « I ' : .• 


I. • 
•X ■• 

t. ; 

I.. II 

■ ^ . I . I 

270 TirB PIFTF.E3tm CEKTCnr. 

*>-m. tho ftdinimtion of St. I/iitis nnd of Rnbnrt QroHiotosto. Tha 
m,^ TOW of poverty hod long boon (liNrcgardcd ; tho rmidenecB of 
t)iO orders wcro among tho iiiont mngniftccnt Btraetures of tlio 
timo, HO thickly Honttcrc*! too throng! lotit tlio country that 
a cotitcmpomi^' poot wtu HCnrccly (;<uUy nf cxnggcratiim when 
ho declared that tho friar migiit make a tour of Uiorcnim 
mil Hli-cp cncl) night uiidcr tho Rlioltcr of somo ono or other 
of these palfttifti nbodca'. To Wyclif they appeared little 
better than tliow ancient gtrongholds where hiwtcaa horom 
wero wont to net law and order at defiance, issuing forth at 
intcr^-aU only to uprcad terror among the quiet homestendii 
of tlieir ncighlKiurs; ho termed them 'Calm's Castles'.' A» 
for tho mendicancy which supplied the placo of force, ho 
declared that ' begging woa damned by God both in tho Old 
Tcslomcnt and the New ;' whilo tho proselytism of the 
orders, he described ns habitually carried on by ' hj-pocriaio, 
)esings and stcling.' In short, after making all allowance for 
the plain speaking of tho period, it is difficult to conceive 
that the resources of our Middle English could have supplii'd 
the vocabulary for a much heavier indictment than that 
wherein he stigmatises his antagonists as 'irregular procura- 
tors of tho fcndc, to make and maintain warrs of Christen 
men, and enemies of peace and ch.irity,' ' Scariot's children,' 
'a swallow of simony, of usury, extortion, of raveynes and of 
theft, and so an a nest or hord of Mammon's tresour,' ' both 
aiglit thieves and day thieves, entering into tho Church not 
by the door that is Clirist,' 'worse enemies and steers of man's 
«oulc than is the cruci fendo of hell by himself,' 'envenymed 
Xith gostly sin of Sodom,' * perilous enemies to holy Church 
ftnd all our. londV Wo need scarcely wonder that charges 

' 'For JO now vendm IhronRh bj Wjelif u ■ term o( TcprOMb. m 

tha rralmc, siid nh DigLt vill iig ctulnHlyiiiR tbe inili&l lotten ol tb« 

in your ownc eoiirttii, and «o mow nainoi of tho four meiiiliMilt ordm, 

bat HrIiI fear loril* do.' Jack L'plaod CarinclitcK. Angaiitiniuiii, Jicobtln 

(ijiK.Ipd by Levi'}. nr l>oiiiitiii;aDi> (eallod JaeoLile* from 

* Ciigmrt Citlflit. 'That i* Cain'i tbo Riio St. Jaciinei in I'arin, vbcre 

Ca-'tlcs; f>iT in WjcIylTe'* lima Uia Ibrir faiiinOB conrciit Blood), and Ui- 

^ropoT nniiio Cnin a|<|>viirs to baTe norjlcn Or Fraueifcann.' 8«e nole by 

»W>1 r 

Roil. 1 

l>iK Now Tc-taiiiiiit: "Ab.! of. iienti-^, Ur KteUtia tt Mtmbm fjia- 


1 nivplio mitni aaeriHcc tbnnn ' Tko thort Trealif a-miift <*• 


to (i«i.'' Tbo wor.1 in uud OrJrn of Ibe Ilt-jgiaa Friin. t>\. 



and q)ithet8 mich on thc*M^, miulo moreover bj no olMmro cvap. n 
pariflh priciit but by tlio moRt eminent Englihh ichoolman of ZlZ^ 
liiri day, Rhould liavc ca11c<I ap tho undying hatred of tlio 
four onlcn. WyrlirR encmicH could wiy no wonie of liim 
than lio liad wild of thcin. Nvtter and Kynyngham ara 
modclfi of courtoRy by comiiarisoti*. 

It w ncarccly necessary to point out tho relevancy of iw** ^ 
these leading fcaturcH in Wyclifii teaching and influence, ^^j;^*^ 
to tho dcvelopoment of thou;;ht and education in thoiX**** 
univcnnticfl ; but wo may obscr\'e that we have Iiero dectaive 
evidence that the systematic oppfinition to the comiptiona of 
tho Cliurch, which had Ik'^uu to manifost itself in Occam and 
was carried out by Wyclif, was c^ssentially a university 
movement While conscTvntism found its chief support ia 
the superstitious zoal of tho provinces, the spirit of reform 
was agitating Oxford and Cambridge ; having its r»rigin indeed 
in a widespread sen«^ of grave abusi's, but mainly indobtixl 
for its chief success to tho advcx^acy of the most distingui^he«l 
schoolman of his day, whost; arguments wen* cnf(»rccd with 
all the subtk'tirs of the srhola^tic logic, as wi'll as with tlie 
simple rlu'toric of his nativ** tnn^Mu*. Tlu' uidwr^itii'^ thii!« twmm 
became the strongliolds of Wyclitism'; of I^dhinlism, that S' t T^ 
is to say, free ft»r the n»ost jwirt fn»ni thns** abu«i's and extra- "^ 
vagancies which bmuirlit dism-dit u|H»n tlie cause, a*^ M^*n in 
socialists like Jolin Ilill, antl fMnatirs iiko Swvndi.*rbv. but 
firmly holding to tln» right «»f j»rivati.* jndgrnu'Ut in the ac« 
coptancc of theological di»giiia>. Tin* vi«'\v«< <.f IVn-n^ar wrre 

Janice, Oi fori, IfiOrt. I^ni-. /.i»> »•/ \iTi!y t«» r«*ilo «"n ]ii« umn IiMnc 

HV/i/. pp. u:» :i«». If tl:« r. il. r ull.t t.i /i»^ I'lr pm^ 

* I.ilii^Hril h:i* iiiitnrnllv iint fmli-il tif r.-".j:ii:-i'. !;•■ i .iiiii««l r» fi:«r V* Ifc^m 

to fiii.I in \V_\fl:f'K \itup r iti'-iM mi \\i* i-in f n ■!• r.ili 'H.' //i»r. «•/ 

etrii]|i.itiiin «■( tin" ii]i]'M«itt« p:irt\ : /.■■■.■/•■-fm .;*'7. 

' ll «itl not r\riti« iiiir|iii*i\* |ji« ».Ji « Of it- |.t. •• . •• ftlO\f.nt «r li^ir 

*CTM-\ * it iii\ii-ti\c4 ^11 rufir-t', ii!i<l n •! ■•■ »1 jr -f n. tl » f i* t !*mI mith- 

(l«<rtriiu>4 Ml )iri j'lili' t-i tlr« ir i'l- n n fi >* ^• i*- .i': r iJn f •■:!i i.iti-ii ^f 

tiTi-t-.. nViniH I ivii'l irTil.i'il tlir N- * < •■!• ■• \'\ 1 s-'», ^*- t.» ! \\n* 

**»ti:y. Tli»y npj^ i!' 1 f«T pr !.-■■ i i't-r J''. '. • / ^\i'.lm i-f 

li"ii t.» thf'knu- atMl Hi. |-"*:T; \N; •' i«-.. '.' ■ ' l.r, n/.'. » mr^ 

l»ul !li.i!i,]i !!i. ir nj'ittM'!! u»'l f r r.i . I p .i ■•■ *\ <■! J • •• ■_* . *•! 

!'H»-4 «! tv nl '^* t\t tl'iv ». M.'lit i.'t I ■• t . ' 1 . 1 • • ■ ■ » •! - !'•• . « I*. 

ti» rtM ii;;c till ii: < t\i ^ nil tl.i ir nh i i|. wi' i, !' ■ "i .'i N. II •!. 

^rr-ir>, I'lit Uiff C"t>!i Ht %Hlh Rfi i'l'i"' ' • , ■ • fc • f .",. ■*-^, 

t-rJi r |i»r Iii4 riiii«>\iU fr>-iii lln- uni- l> M ••■'■■ • ! •' N\.iltiii, i* -^i. 



k*L BL rcMSortod by Wydif, nut simply in connoxton with a specific 
^«r toDot but with tho wboto fidd uf rulit^ioui enquiry; uhI it 
WW tliis H|iirit tlint, fur tiiuii) tlinii tliu Inttdr'M ojmiionti c»n- 
ecrnitig C'liua-Ii niid KUito, Ix-Ufiii, moii nftcr IiIk dootli, to 
sprcful with such ni|iidity at Oxford nti<l Cambrid}(0. Tito 
prcainblo to nrcliliiHliop Arundol'ii ConDtitutJonit, publixhod in 
1408, iudicatcs vcty cleorly tlio gravatnon of Uio offence 
kMMH given by the party uf refurm to tlio ecclcsiosticul autlioritics ; 
7 'Hodous an injury to themoHt reverend synod, who examines 
its dctvnniDationii: and since be who dtxputos tlie supremo 
esrthly judgment is liable to tbc punishment of sacrilege, tu 
tiieatitfiorityqfUte civil law teaches us; much more grievously 
are tbeyto lie punished, and to be cut off as putrid membcn 
from tbc Cliurch militanl, who, leaning on tlieir own wisdom, 
Tiolato, oppose, and ilcspii^, by various doctrines, words, and 
ik-cils, tlie lawi and cuivnis imtde ty tlie keif-keejyer of eternal 

U/eanddmlh when titey Iiavc bten published according 

to form and cause, arxl observed by the holy futbcrH our pa- 
decessiirs, even lo the gh)riou3 effusion of their blood, and 
dissipating their bnttnsV In the same Constituti<:ms it a 
pruvidifl (I) tlint no master of nrlH or grammar shall instruct 
his pupiU upon any theological puint, contrary to the deter- 
mination of the Cliurch, or expound any text of Scripture in 
other manner than it hath been of old expounded, or permit 
bis pupils either publicly or privately to di:«pute couceming 
the Catholic faith or llie sacraments of the Church ; (2) that 
no book or tract compiled by John Wycbf, or any one else in 
his time or since, or to be compiled hereafter, shall be read or 
taught in the schools, hostels, or other places in tbe province, j 
until it has first been examined by the universities of OxfonI 
and Cambridge, or at least by twelve persons to be elected 
by each of tJicse bodies, and afterwards expressly Bppwved 
by the archbishop or his successors: (3) that whoever shall read 
or teach any book or treatise contrary to the form aforesaid, 
shall be punished as a nowcr of schism and bvourer of 
heresy, according to the quality of his offence'.' 

> Qnoted \>j DraD Hooh, Livn, ni * Cooptr, Amnal; i lU. tniklM. 


Into tho qiiOHtion of tlio ]viIit!cAl bcarin;^ of WVclif*! nup 
(]octriiio8 wo nro not ciillc^d iipim to enter. Tli<*y a[i(ii-ar to ^ 
liiive been cniricti to ilan^^croiiM ex^NM-rt hy tho fjiiiati<*4 »lii». Jj.'.T 
under tlio pMieml desi^^hutinn of I/tdbrdn, n-pn'^'htftl n*»t i<. i^i 
merely, ah Profi-Ksor Shirley ohsrrv«'H, 'every Hjni*i<fi of rc- 
lijL^iuiiH m«'doontent/ hut deHi;;nM inron.4i>tent with the then 
existing form of government. Aj^ainst these tlic htatnte 
De Ilttretico Comburemlo wiw reallv ninie<l ; but tlic ooi-le- 
siahticnl authoritiefl suhsetpiently found their ailvant.-ixe in 
confusing the theolo^nral and political as|H*cts of tlie ni«»%c- 
ment, and rejire-i'iitin;; tlieiu jls inse|iandde. Undrr Imlh. 
the followers of WvcIif st mined his truehin^T* to c«»nciii%iiMM 
that could scarcely fail, at any time, to excite aLinn, and 
call forth vi^^oFDUs me:t^ures of rr|jre*>ii>n' ; and while we 
honour the int<';:nty. the vi;^'<nir of tijuu;,'ljt, and the uniinrj;; 
zeal of their h.-iiJiT, wr* >hall n'>t th'.* h i'> lam«rnt the extni\a- 
gJiUcit.'.H which f*lw:iipd th** ori;;ifial In-tre of hii tli-i;;ii, and 
contrihutvi] in un hinall di;;p*e to th«j « of a n'»l»h; pur- 
pisc. It is crtain that, in ihi'» CiUhtry, m>.';L-np"« likr t!i"^» 

which Anindi-I, ( *liii Ii» I'-v. :ii»d I5«aufMrt miv«-» ••iiciv i.arH* I 

• • • 

out wep" altrn'hd uith alni'-t foiii|M.-t«; >»i«*»* v; an«l th^* 
oft-quot« d ^i!IliI^' of F«»\f tvj.lti* «i ujili .-iui^ilar f-li«. ily th-- 
hi^tiiry of W\r!if*!* iijjlji.iif-. A.s lIi** a* lit-* i'f tlr' ::ri at 
reformer wt-re Uinie hv th** Avtin nuA th-* S-v«m fir fr-ia 
the sixjt wlure th«'V ui ri* lir-^t r.»h-i^Ti'^l ti» p.*?, i\«n ^i Li* i-^*^-* 
doctrines, will-ni::h rMiii;;ui-!i' •! in K!iL;l;»iid. p-*" a.riin in J^^ -^ 
new purity atni \i:^«»nr in a ili-t.m! I.m-l. Amid a SI.;\'in:i- ►*"-• 
rai*o, in the citii.> «»f Im-Im snii. tlii* •» n *»( .f.-hn i-f ii.i'iTit* 
dinnrtrd the jHTM-cu'ln^ ^wi^ril .i-_'»in-? t!if t.-nttn i-f nlirli 

' *Ani»l!irr r'A^*, a<« In.Iv a'^u I: im !*i r» ^ '* •jpn-^r! it'^'f !•» 

fn»i» Ik« »j ifit ii« fct T, mil V. V. tl . 1 » I I ii «'i-i. l« it'.'r- •••- 

b».:in PI tin- I • x! ,:*U'r\'\ -n t.* nj». |- .•• 1 !'. v : n'^-^r* -m ■• »::. 

1^' ir m r>>ii-i !• r il '-•• is niU r. ». ■•• t' . . .■ •. • f !■ ■■ l! ! K« il.* 

t!.i' III 11 «| .> ri.<< ■• !. .iH i:;, t '-^ \ II -l I-. '.■: .♦ l'..- [■':•*. -1. 

••f ll.v < !iT;«* I'l T, ■ ..J 51. »..,-. 'If !■• ■' ■ , •,".:' I »■:. M i! • 

«il I II »t al|« ir I I'l • ! .I*. ••: ft-!' ■■ 1. ' ''■■ ■■ I • • I ' t ■. •' I !■> *'■ •! 

>«••* !..*'l..i- .f I;..- li ■■! I'l .» . ■ ■ ' ■ i' * i!!."! li e 

1« »'i ■ r. \.r !» . • I 1 M.i 1 . ■■• * . , .' \. V ' Ir * > I'l. », 

1 <l !i« Id : li n .1. 1 '.» -. fi ■. .1 ' » I T. ■ ' 
iiii«!i r-i '•i ^»; .'f I'-.- * h--.*'. »M . f '.■.- • t »T .' 1 ■ 

tAPC|4, th.ll «|.| h j^: I., MOI« t> 

\ ■ 




his illastriaas father been a foremost protector\ But 

at home, LolIardiBm, i it lived at all, survived rather by its 
aeoondary effects than direct tradition. ' Notwithstand- 

ing/ says a writer wli Htudied this period with special 

care, *the darkness t i rrounds all subjects connected 
with the history of th- 15 century, we may venture pretty 
safely to affirm that LoIIardy was not the beginning of mo- 
dem Protestantism. Plausible as it seems to regard Wyclif 
as " the morning star of the Reformation," the figure con- 
veys an impression which is altogether erroneous. Wyclif's 
real influence did not long survive his own day, and so far 
from Lollardy having taken any deep root among the English 
people, the traces of it had wholly disappeared long before 
the great revolution of which it is thought the forerunner. 
At all events in the rich historical material for the beginning 
of Henry the Eighth's reign, snpplie<l ly the correspondence 
of the time, wc look in vain for a single indication that any 
such thing as a Lollard sect existed. Tln3 movement had died 
a natural death ; from the time of Oldcastlc it sank into in- 
significance. Though still for a while considerable in point of 
numbers, it no longer counted among its adherents any man 
of note ; and when another generation had passed away, the 
serious action of civil war left no place for the crotchets of 
fanaticism. Yet doubtless Ix>l!ardy did not exist in vain. 
A strong popular faith does not entirely die, because it never 
can be altogether unsound. The leaven of the Lollard doc- 
trines remained after the sect had disappeared. It leavened 
the whole mass of English thought, and may be traced in 
the theology of the Anglican Church itself Ball and Swyn- 
derby were forgotten, as they deserved to be ; extravagance 
effervesced and was no more ; but there still remained, and 

> Antony Wood Ktntcfl, I hare beon 
onahlo to asccrtnin on vbat f^'oundd, 
that HuHR Rttidied at Oxford, where 
he *Dinde it hiH whole employment* 
•to collect and transcribe* WycliTg 
doctrines. The (generally receivetl ac- 
count ia thnt Huhs became acquaint- 
ed with thope doctrinea through writ- 
inffs 1>rouplit by one of his acliolnra 
who had l>ecn studying at Oxford. 

The number of stndenta from Bo- 
liemia at the Englinb univerFity at 
this peiiod is a noticeable feature, 
find is probably attributable to the 
increased intercourse between the 
two countriea that followed upon the 
roiirriago of king WenzeKa sister to 
nirhard ii. WikmI-Ci utch, i 585, (>SS. 
Milman, JmUh ChrUtiauitjft Bk« zitt 
0. S. 


to this day continucn, much that is far more aooiid than c 
unsound V 

But while it would seem indisputable that the doctrineH " 
of Wyclif were effl-ctually supprcMscd in this country, it in r. 
necesKary to guard against a tendency to refer to their sup- r^ 
pression consequonces which demand a wider solution. Tl*e **- 
following ]>aKsage from Hulter, fur example, is exaggerated in 
its cunception and erroneous as a Ktatement of fact: 'Chio 
miglit have exp<.'Ctod/ he Hays, ' that this great hattle should 
be fought out at tlic universities ami tli«it the cmcr]gfnry 
would have calk*d out the most brilliant talents on Imth 
sidc^ It miglit have been so, had not tlic higher powon 
fn)m without, lK>tli temporal and spiritual, at each Rucces!«ive 
crisis cruMhiHl the adverse party in the universities; tluM 
entailing intellectual inil)ecility on the other side IikewiM\ 
when a Uittle essontially intellectual ami spiritual was m*\or 
allowed to Ik; fiiirlv fo!i;'lit out. Tliis has ever been the 
effi'ct cverywiiere, but i^jnTially at tin? KngliMi univi-r»itit s ; 
ami it explains the cxtPiiM* languor .tnil torfoir which pn* 

Viijleil in them at that time Almost a c*i*ntury pa«M-f| 

after the snppres-^ion of the Wykliflite outburst, Ikfure rla-^-i- 
cal litudies were adopted in Kn;;land: and during thi^ 
whole i»eriod the universities tni»k no such prt»niim-nt |iarl 
in the great i^celesiastiral ijue»«tiitiis as might have lut-n 
exp(*cteil rri»m their aiirient ri'potatinn. In tin* thirteenth 
and fourteenth c«'iituri*'*>. tlie imiverMtv of Oxfunl| renn<«i 
and siMit forth s<iiis who attraeted Kiiri<|M<an reg:inl : but in 
the gn'at i'uuneils of tlie ('Imnh of the tifieeiith e«'ntiiry, 
she was n(»wli<Te to l»e finniil'/ A iii'»re ran-fnl eonH;i|iirat:t»n tii 
of the iihenotiii'iia of ihf Srnlum S'/ii'-f*if*', and a m^n* •* 
intimate aeonaintanee wirli i»iir iitii\eiHJtv hi^titrv. monhl 

Fihahlv lia\e led tin* wiitiT c<in^ii|i r.JiIv t(» ni<>ilifv if ni*t 
• • ■ 

* i'i»rffi.f|/ifry /4V1 iVir, Till. II, /f.'-V n.i* t«» ).\* r-'int'^inm )hi| % aliitrt 

ThnHtiht in tif tiitifHth 1 rut 11*1, \y I-! 1 • , »>« 11 •!iii.| • 1 mti'i •!.!*• 1 !•« 

Jiiiit •• (iiiiriiiifr. M:lt>>ii. !>-ii^* ■4'!i ''. lli- \-]* .i-i I | •• •<• « fi^r »ii nr •! %in 

n<iti il nii>l I iitiiiiii nti il fii th.« •■! :>!« 11 Ki ■ '<«' rt-.'i-' '" /•'-•.vi.-.ffi. « i« 

rttiiii*(i,.ri iif r*i>'Tui 111 Ki:i'l«ii.l / '. I-r. i. II '.'• !•% m. 

•\VmUiI^*« pn .i.-iiiiik'.* Ill -i>-. • mX II ..'■■• 

^Itirb ail tlif n'tirii-iiiiit; nfi''iii«f« • ITil'.', /ii'.i'i f'mutr»,t»f§, 1 

niure cffiTtuttllv li,;liU«l Uuir U\^t», l'«>>. 



g VB. altogetber to caned this possi^ lu the first place it Is 
C* certain that both Oxford and Cambridge were represented 
[jS^ *t the council of Fisa' ; and when the deputation from 
p!^ Oxford was passing through Paris, it was oddreHsed by Qeison, 
|Bi- then chancellor of the university of Paris, and complimented 
^ on the spirited interest in the welfare of the Church, which 
the body it represented had displayed at so important a 
juncture*. At Constance, where the suppression of Wyclifism, 
as that heresy had reappeared in the movement led by John 
Uiiss, occupied a prominent place in tie deliberations of the 
council, Cambridge was represented by its cliancellor and 
other delegates, and Oxford by some of her most distinguished 
Bons*. Both univcisitics, again, were addressed by the uni- 
Tcrsity of Paris with a view to concerted action at the council 
of Basel* ; and the fact that neither would seem to have so 
far responded to the invitation as to send delegates, is satis- 
factorily accoimtcd for by the comparatively languid interest 
which the whole country, on the eve of political disturbance 
at home, appears to have taken in the leugthoncd proceed- 
ings of that council 

That the suppression of Lollardism acted as a check upoD 

free thought at the universities is probable enough, but it is 

far from supplying au ndenuate explanation of the 'torpor' 

and ' languor' to which Hnbcr refers, and which undoubtedly 

prevailed. Between heresy of the most uncompromising 

• character and complete subserviency to mere tradition, there 

was yet an iiiter\-al that afFonlcd sufficient scope for vigorous 

speculation and active organic dovclopcmcnt ; of this tho 

g^. position occupied by the university of Paris during tho earlier 

,tr- part of tlic fifteenth century is i i icon tCNti bio evidence, llio 

tfr centre i>f intollcctunl activity bail ogain been shifteil; anil 

during that peritHi Paris wan again what she had Itc-en in tho 

' LnWifl Mill Cn,Hiirt, II IWl; pTopmUio/arlaaJ.arTimtafrfMrU 

Wi«.l-( :.i|i-li. T, 1 (. VmivnUHti* rnntm AliglMt Puriwlm 

■ ■Kc^i' ijiiiil iiri'clnra Qnlvmilaf rnntUmt mlSafnim ('uHMlllum l'l$l*, 

Oiniiii'U.i-, niKlc i-ibi tnrrnit n.ti- (/jx-ro, ml. llii)>i IW. 

gnliilnri, pHilcTn wl Iio« Cmir ilium ■ Cunjipr, Aimah, I IM. 

lwl«ii<lu]it ilplemiinavit M et roiHit * MS. LanilnlLluiii, No. 4t7, h, 
143 (qaoti'd l>j Coi>pi!t). 


daji of Albertus and Aquinas. Never, declarea Oerier, had cbai 
she been consulted and listeneil to with greater dcfcreiwe ; ll 
never had she taken no conspicuous a part in the decision of 
affairs of such iniiK>rUince ; while the names of Nicbohw de 
Clamangis, Pierre d'Ailli, and Jean Gerson might vie with 
any that had yet adumo«l her academic annahi*. It was the 
era of the great councils ; and hud the views advocated by 
the two last-named illustrious scholars of the Coll'^se of 
Navarre oLtainctl a pcnnancnt triumph over papal obatinacr. 
it is not improbable tliat the fierce convulsion of tlic six- 
teenth century nii;;1it have b«*en anticipated by more mode- 
rate mezusures in tlie tifieeiith. A reformed and ethicated 
cler^n'f and the admitted ri;'ht of kvuimIm cccumenical to over- 
rule the authority of the (Hipc iiinis<df, might have float«xl 
the Romish NV>toin over the two fatal rocks on which, ia 
Germany and in Kii;;land, it went to pieces'. 

Of (jersf)n himself it has 1>een trulv Kaid that 'he Jocsjimi 
more tlian aliiM^t anv other man to link the thonchtii of «-«•» 
dilTercnt perluils t«»j;tiher';* for, thi»ii;;li evsentially a n*prv-<i«s 
sentative of iiK-di;evaI thiiii;;;ht, he pn-seutH a union of »i»nic 
of its most dis^iiiiihir phit^rs and tentleneies. Tlie nominalist 
and yet the mvstic ; full of conteiiijtt for 'the fine spun c*ib- 
wclis' that (N-cupii'd the ingenuity of the M'hoi»k, full of re- 
verence for l)ii»ny>iiis, 'tin* htdy and the divine;' intent on 
reforniatii»n in the (Ininh. yet consenting to the death of 
the nohh'st rrlMrnu-r of tlie nu'** ; evrr y«-arning for p«*arc, and 
vet ever fiiri'Un»st in tlie lortiovnsial li;;ht,— he a«lds to the 
nnniiialiis of a triiii'«iti<'iial |mii<m1 tin* fiaturr«« i)f an intli- 
vjihial i<I«'rtiriHiii. it '\> t^n i:^ii in •»nr purjHisi- to enter iM-n* 
U|»<»n any diMii«»<»luu i»f tin- \ieWH uhirh fnid fXpi« ^'•i«»n in tin? 

' ('ritii-r, tit :i. In \* ]■* •■ !• < t ^'i.v •iti-<i|-|«"rli I !•« tli4» 

•'.x, i.f A •i»iin'«1ril t i\r\\> T li.- • .1 ■ ■ f ' ■■! !. ri i.f tin I Juiirli fr- rn 

)>«-iiii>l 111 l.ti ■! Ill I, Mr li.";I«- •■••■ vl I- 'i I* ri . i<- III ■ 1 |--«t ifi^l 

MMi-, -If ll,.< hi.k I'll -t ir.j.l-. • //'./■ /••'•■/. I "i. 

li^. I, or if i:».i..ii.i II ii.i.l P :.. li!. I * 1 1- r m ^'- ' '•• />•■'•• 

til* liii; • I i<r till ri i- » I . I,. 1-. !l,t. • ; ■ . 1 I' . . ■ .r:» s l.ii.i It .1.. 

II ■ !• I . ' ■ il > • Il III WKi.l I I l\i I i • •! »i I . . -. » .. n I'l .f III III • I . fi-A" 

►In I tl.i III -f lii:'!! ■ f It l« •>. r ill I , . ■ II ••! '• ri I M • •.! *\ 

I I I.I M-. It 1 »i r-t al'M-i • %» -i'. I J I ■ . I . , J !■ - I • I . II 1 • I. . J.:-;. 

I • I' I .iM- ti iiMMi-.*t i. III. I ll I' n 'or- CI'!'. • ■•'-.It III. /.«•••• 

Iri:i->ri nf ilioliiiif III till* iMli r«fi- »ut J ii <•• " . |' >". 
tu> «i'un Iia\c Uiii Mt to !:Jil lU 


■ J>f Tr^Ud nietA)ffia or in tlie De Sfonta CotUemplatio 
bat ia two of Oerson'a shorter and comparatively unkn 

, trestisea, the Be Madia Siffnificandi, and the De Conco 

m. Afetapk}/naB cum Logica, we have a valuable expoutio 
tbo state of metaphysical science at Paris at this period, 
an inoontrovertible proof of the progress which that sci< 
had mode sinco the time of Abelard. In the fifty pr 
oitions into which each of these treatises is divided, 
nominalistic conclusions are stated with a conciseness 
clearness that far exceed wlint is to be found in any o 
writer of tho century ; it may not indeed l)C easy to e 
any appreciable advance upon tlie views arrived at by Oc( 
Lut it is certainly a noticeable fact that those views are 
reiterated with emphasis by one who had tilled the offii 
chancellor in the Rainc iinivcnjity that had seen tlie wril 
of the Oxford Fniiciscan given to the flames. It is t 
noted also, as pcrli:ips tho most significant feature, thai 

L nominnlistic doctrines arc here identified with the i-enl m 
ing of Aristotle, while the pasitions of the realists, 1 
Amalncus down to John Huss, are exhibited as instanc 
philosophic error'. Tlie distinction to be obsen-ed bcti 
metaphysics and logic, on which Occam had insiste<1, is 
asserted with even yet greater distinctness. It belong 
the metaphysician alone, says Gorson, to investigate 
essences of things; tho logician docs not define the tl 
bnt simply the notion*; his object being, in more mo 
plinL^-i'lijgy, 'to produce dixtiriclticss in concepts, which 
the Viiiiga of lo;{ic.' Tho theory to which the rcalislH 
aillunt] with Mueli tenacity, that in sonio yet to bo disco* 
In-niiHe of the Stngyrito wonid bo found the ncccsHaiy c 
Hilion iif the functions of higic as concerned with tliodefin 
of things t hcnii<i-lv('s\ is hero given to tho windx; nnd 
posittiut taken up by Oeeaiii with n-fi-renco to theohij 
sniictionevl by the greatest niithurity of tho fifteenth ceui 

t Oprra, ti\. Oaidn, t* KJIt. S27. i-lRnnifi Mt, finpwrtim In « 

■ ■Sninaliir n hU iliillnrliiiiiiliii* ■|H-cUtM<1|,'nuniUKlieiiiuv«llu|,-i 

hiM niiirn, iinwl emuMiTiiliii n-i, nt Ibid, iv K-iU. 

K* ri>l, Hti<rtat kd nw'Uplijnuriini. * IVaiiSIiuinel, jfrfJ* i^fctf 

CMuUi'i>liiit<t«ni,atUMbuiui>uilu Hmid, p. 40, note*. 



Such then was the harvest wliidi Hcholaaticimii filially leaped cha 
in tbo fields of pliilosiopby ! After the toil of ecntoriea it bad Zl 
at last 8ucceede<I in bringing back to view the original text 
of the great master, which the vagaries of medieval specula 
tion had well-nigh obliterated '• 

But it is not the nominalist only that appean in thew l^^ 
pages ; the mystic and the theologian are also discernible. H^' 
The grand old nu'(lia*val conception of theoldgy. as the science Vln 
of sciences, Ktrii<;;;lcs for expreM<<ion. Tlicology or ratluT 
ontology, in (lerMiirH view, is not nrceswirily a terra imayniia 
for the iutelitK!t because not nnienable to the rcaw»ning« 
which bclon*; to the pmvince of the dialectician. 'Evi-n/ ho ^-^^ 
says, 'uM the sculptor rcvoals the statue in the block ' (a simile ^«- 
bom>wed from his Kivorito Diony.sius) • not by what he Iirinj;;^ '^~' 
but by what he nrmoves/ own so the divine nature is to lie 
apprehi'iiilcd by the man, only as he ceasen to be the higician 
and tioars bc'Vond tlic n';;ion of the Ciiti-goricH*! Of tliv <li»- 
putes of the thcologiuiis CttTson npiH'urs altsolutely wt>ary ; 
affinnin:; that it wwe hotter oontrowrHV hlmuld ci*aso alto- 
gi'ther than that tlisi'nnls liko tlio<r which h(* ha«l witm-xMNl 
should continue to hcanilaliso alike th*,' faithful and the in- 

The date of the coinp(»ition of the^ic two treati&ct ex- 

* A rownt critic Itowi-vrr niih in 
Grnmirii trruli^o luitiit tliiti;* iiiuru 
tlmii a int'it* ll^tl•rilll mi t>f Ati'-ti*- 
ti-Uaii tlii'ii;!lit. *T]if till t>i]>li\-i' il 
iilii!t»«ii|'liy lif tlir ^llI•ll•• A;i •, uiili 
)t*i il iiiiii.ttiii/ li'M'rii **■} lii>\iiii 
r«-:ili<'iit mimI iii'iiiiii lit III. tl it I", 

li4'tHirtl llM t >|'fi> !•' Illl\*>l X^kIi <II- 
|ii!.i;!V :illl III- !.l]»li>- H" |-Mr«-. I- II 

]<ii}iifii| ««>rkiii.' \t\i\ !•• till' )>*.iiit 

<if \|i \% will! !i .\it<ti-l! ii-M I. lilt I 

A ri 'li'i'i'Xi ry •( )»t* iiiiunin/ I'MI 

Ht til - itlli llli>i> it «M« H fi |>li"1-i. . 

tii-ii i>f III* i.ii III it> ' III n 1 • «« II' ■! 
<iri,'iiiul iiu'iil-l, ■<• tli'il lilt fi>Mii « i« 
»itM]<li r iiini I !• Ill r, till 1 tl'i I' 'iiti.k' 
ilii "ii'ii* %^! .■ I' \ii-!'-ll« '■ •'i •!« ""1 ' '1. 
tmii I, lit il*i'--'iil-i'i ilii'iiiif i'li'i' •■ % 

«t|tl| It.l !.l| ll\ -!•*, Hi fi* liroH^Ilt III 
^>«W. i/iia If fa fl t/'iilf »tt y 111 iii/« 

i>iiri, iiltliiiii,'li III! «"if u« y t nii'-t« 
IU|iiMo vl lllllliillllll-;; A |>lll|llllu 

of miliition for t)i« «f mtitrm'lic?iiia«. 
Jtiin riiurliiT .Ir (irr»<iir« «iirk, /■# 
Mt-lt* .Sf |ifi/ir<ii'i/i Aii-I /»r C*f>N<-i*/i/i« 

.Vl f<'yi/i <,■(•' 1^ rttm i.nnrit, tMty )« 
t ilti 11 II* nil ft|«>liiiil if tlif r« •til'a 
fi! . ■•• I >i\ S (.■■l.i^tii I'lii . »>• I ll i« 

I ir >" ■' !■ ' !•• •' •■ till' I i* * ■ 't* 'II- i.t 
)m ! ^ I • 11 it iii-l iii>>-l> III K (t'ti III, r.i».| 
tl ■ 'I f >i> i! •• I f iiiM< !• )- -r>Ki4ii*i ii«. 
J l.i' j'.\. tl I* ll'i f» - i!^ « f I fl 

\ :•• i<« ] I . -| li^ . 'Ill- 1 t* • •• • I tif 
III. !■ rii I I i'' • ; ll • .' ?•' ■ '• "'tl 

II II . I ,, i . .....I k.-.. .. •- : t 

• ' I . I I 

llll ■ I til 

ki r.j ' r. i| ■ 

lllll .ill ■ 

*• I I *• It • !• nn 

iii.. I ..■ ,\. ■■ I. I* n-i Ml ii« 

In !•■ l.i, I !• I »ii'.s r \* ('j<«>«. 
1% ••-•7. 


/ I ■ -in-/ S|-«. . |« • 11 

\ • I I • ll ■■ • f f I • • III 
■« I • r I % I • I I 'I |m 


( H ■ llll 

i r ff I , 

■ I 

i' • I 1 >• I 


hfL plaim th«ir tone aod investn them with additional intereat 
& Oenon at thii time was, no longer chancellor of Paru, The 
noblest act of a far from ignoble career hod made the duke 
Sf ot Burgundy his mortal foe. In 1418 he fled from the dty 
' in which it is no exaggeration to say, that he had ' for a time 
i mled like a king'.' He first took refuge in Bavaria, and 
finally found a home in a motiastciy of CclcHtincH at Lyonli, 
of which his brother was prior. It was here that on the 
eve of the Nativity, in 1420, he summed up the foregoing 
'conclusions.' Tbe medinival student loved to bring ftome 
cherikbed labour to its close at that sacred scanoa of the 
year; and Gcrson, as towards the end of life be thus enun- 
ciated hi? pliilosophical belief, glanced forward to a time, for 
him then very near, when these paths of tboiigbt and spccn- 
latlon, which now cnisscd each other with bewildering com- 
plexity or vanished from the mental eye in widely opposed 
ilirectionx, sliould be found harmonious and concentric; when 
he should discern tbe true reconciliation, not merely of meta- 
physic and logic, but of all knowledge, ond see no longer as 
tliroiigh A glass darkly'. 
5" The intercourse between Paris and the English univer- 
•m^ sitiea appears to have died out about the time of Gcrson's 
^^ chancellorship, and we have failed to discover any evidence 
that bis speculations served in any way to stiniiilnto the 
progress of pbilosopbic thought in England tlironghont the 
"„^ century. Over both countries the storm of war burst with 
'^. peculiar severity : and when the fierce feuds of tbe Armng- 
Z« naca and tbe Buri,'Uiidians, the struggle between the two 
■^ nations, and the Wurs of the Ruses were over, tlic supremacy 
I of Paris as tlio chiof seat of European learning was also at 

• Prof. MiiuH(«, M'xtfTH Philo- 

■ *('unc(>r<tla mrtuiiliyHlra cum 
lhn>l<>iriii Ki't, i>i niiixiilifuliir rim 
»iiii|>lipiliT v«l t'nii iMituin, vel mm 
nriirnwIitiT fi-rfii'liiiii, i|iiihI ml 
Itpm. .tilt ff riiiihiiU'ntiir erncnilU 
•vtio i>b)(«-tii1iri eiitiii. Scenniliim 
(■livrtiil ml tn<'tn|i)i,rHKain : jirimiiin 
|.niprit- ml llniilnKliilu, in (|'iii ileim 

t>t ■iilijtiiitni. KhI aiiina tbcutuiila 

diiploi, Rriliret vin et pittriir. Tb«o- 
loKin viK) teK]ih-it rn* primnin nt 
cnililiim cniu Hiiin ■tiribiiliviii ihm 
0X1-1 ihlcnild iiili-lli;ti'iil'<un do mnllU, 
ThniliiKik aiitrni |iNlriM< rri>]<{cit cm 
liriinnni nt fuirinUu-r vlnuni rt iilijre- 
tiililiir In H'i|>iii>, mm in hihtkIii tiI 
M'liiKinatr. Ornllax i)Ml qui ii|>i'niit 
Imnc niiicordiUD Lmniniliuii bon* 
vuluututik.* Ojirni, iv tUU, 830. 


an end. It may appear but natural that luch a letolt thooU oiam 
have followed upon the reign of the Cabockien and the <Dor- <l!^ 
clieur; \% may even seem a fitting nemesis for the sentenoe 
whereby the university consigned the Maid of Orleans to 
her fate ; but so far as it is within our power to assign a 
cause, it would rather appear that the decline wbicli now 
came over the prestige of the university of Paris must be 
attributed to etforts as honorable as any which mark the 
history of that illustrious bu<ly. It is well kmiwn that the J^IS 
policy of the three great councils of Pisa, Constance, and 
Rasel rested uin>ii the rcco<rnition of one fundamental prin- 
ciple, — the absolute niitliority of such assemblies over the 
fiat of the iM)]»e liiinself. At the assembling of the council 
of Basel however the course of events had given a diflt*r^*ut 
Complexion to the lu^sortion of such a principle in the oyce 
of different nations. The schism of the West had bt'cn 
brought to a termination ; an<l the papal authority was again 
concent rateil in a sin^^lc undivided head at Rome. English- 
men accordingly no lon^^^cr rr^^arded the pope with the sus- 
picion that hail attacht'il to the sole or rival p<»i>cat Avi^'non; 
and when the French <l<-piitirs at RiscI, pK*«IgiHl to support tw^ 
and carry out the polii»y of (ItTson, dfrnamli**! measures «»f^*^«i 
reform to which En^'<'nius iv rcfus«d his K'inction. they ft»unil I"^** 
themselves oppisiMJ by an Kn;;li.'^h Tit rami mtane i^irty, rv- ^•••^ 
]»resented by John Keiir.), tlie an-libi*«lM>p of York, who ftU|H 
jH>rted the papal supreniaey. This up|Hisitiiin wiu suctv^iful. 
From the break in;; up of the nMincil of Iia^^el we date a 
nrw theory i»f the |>«inlifieal |Hi\vvr. Tlio Mi|)renie iNintitT 
no lon;;er ap|H'ari.'il as ejUMCtpu^ infrr y*«>rf.*, hut :l«* tin" uni- 
vers'd bishop, fpini ^h«»ni all hi^lptp'i in "thi-r otuniiien r\*- 
e<'ive«l thfir authiTitv and !•• nh'nn tip v i»w«d alli-;/i:inco. 
The Strriiiiim S'funhtlc was at :\n mil*. 

But liefore the fitnn-il ff l».i-»'l lia.l e.-.iHnl to sit, Fr.uuv y^—* 
had weured fi»r luT^rlf at Lnni ;;•■»« in-!' in n-hntv nf K<pfiii- • - •"*•■■ 
uliich she had vainlv Ktriv< ri ti> :i*^<<tt m tip- ii< iiin* tiu.d 
C'liifieiN. Till" l*rav;tii.itic S;ifMti.»ii. !•• • r i- *■ ! in 1 J.'»\ \i st« «1 
ill the crnwfi the ninsl vahnhh* ehuM li jh*t"Ti i^».- nf the Ung- 
> iVan II.M.k, I.nn ..» Hu- .I-."-' ,^.^ -M'". ■.'l-'. 



m. m. dom ; it mi to Fnnce fur more thnn tho itatutes of Fn^ 

^JL viaon uxl i^omtmire had over been to England ; for more 

tlun half a centui;, Niya Ranks, it was believed to be the 

;^i^ palladium of the realm'. But, in the mean time, her od- 

^" bcrence to the policy nf Gerson drew down upon the uoiver- 

' nty of Paris the eDmi;y of Huccessivo popes, who repaid the 

attempted limitation if their atithurity by a not unsuccessful 

JS endeavour to dimioL"'! her influence and prestige. Hence 

the encouragement now so conspiciioiixly extended by K«ime 

to the creation of new centres nf learning. In the thirteenth 

century only three uoiveraitics had riNon on the model of 

that of Paris ; the first half of tbo fourteenth century wit- 

nessed the rise of the same number ; the second half, sovcn ; 

but the Sfteeuth century saw the creation of eighteen*. We 

' ■!*» JiKrrnrcii Kiiit cneorcplns 
fnpimiites ai Ton ciuainc w ul-'iuiiit 
le noiiiUra df ■ Kaciilt/H do tLi<iili>t:ia 
anloriiu'e'i pu Ich piipc*: mi* HJbele, 
1; HIT- ub<-]v, avniil l»7tl, Side 13Ttt 
1 1-''<00, 27. Hi I'uu rH|<|<nvLc era 
ebiHrea dvi JT^nmicnlii nrli(pcui et 
poliliqan auit|ut'li rUiiivtTr^iM da 
Pari* a Ht uii-liii, on trriuvcra i|iie 
lv> UnivrmU'ii no mot pliiH psHicu- 
lii-rFiiii'Dt mullii'liteii k pnrlir da 
•cl■i^lI]<', ilea c(incili'4 do IJfilu tt da 
Coualaliw. da la (tni-rro dea AnuAK- 
•Mca t'i i!eit IJuarviiii^iiixi'ii ilo I'iu- 
TtKliin aiiKlniiw, On cut }xiti JL en 
eniiclure i|iic rea <teiiciiirii(ii, nrcom- 
rU< viiire l3Ttt cl U:m, n'mit pan (t£ 
mil iullurnei) aur la iniillt)>lii'nlioii 
dn L'liiiinit^. l.'.Hado dcH riilla 
coiifi mic oelte cnnci iisi' m . . . I^ii |u piv. 
I'ariii iliiiia IcH ccitii'ilra dc C'(iiiHl:iiir« 
rt dp UilP. 

Kn Fr» 

v,:i.* |... 



orur |-t'iiiv(^il.^ do l>i 
VII la d-'-tcalnit [lanM igii'i lU avail i-li 
i)<>niiiiA> piir lea >iip|<i'ila ile la nation 
riearde, ■iiji'ti' du iliic dp Unnrn^i^e. 
La fuiirilo do Il^'ile dDiiiuiit pva da 
Kitiotuciion nu pspe Eiig^oe tv. En 
lUT, iU auturul-nnt Wua d«ui U 

Bk. ronJatlon d'nno Uuivwaitj eouiiU-la 
k Cnpii, au milieu d'liiie den Kationa 
luH pliiH ricIipB ptlea plus importuiitra 
do rUniivrxiU He Piiria. CImriM 
Til, rceuiiim rol au and dn la I«<ir«, 
av:iil i]i!ji\ nuturi^j utie lliiivcmld A 
r.>iliora |14:lll. Kiw'^'io f arconia 
(Utl). LoniHXict rielinopoiiTBient 
ninniincT du a'enlcuilro coiitre t'Uul* 
vpiKild do I'liria, qiil eoulcnait dca 
tnjpta de CbaTleii-IO'Tfiiioruire, rt fill 
MoalfHait la praginnliiat MNrliii*. 
Iteox Univcr»ittH fureul autorii^e* 
iluia Ipa deill provincta qui elivoj. 
ai'iil le I'luH il'i't lid inula ft In Naliun 
dp Fniiipp, I'll llrctiiKtiPiSaiilen. IIIW) 
ct ni ll<.-n>- lUonnivi-, 1 1111 )■' Thiimt, 
Ih- l'Vrgaui.aU-M dt VF.HflgnrinrHl, 
ptc. pp. sun, 3i>H. I ma; otirpria 
llint tliu liiuiiiliiljiiii ot the nill'fiiHiit 
(it/JHfwat lAnvalii, in 14'i<i, wliirfa 
i^ amnnit tluwp pniimcnitnl U; U, 
Tliiirot, ia linrdly an illiiilrnli'iu ot 
liU KtnEvinpiit. It van toiiuilcj uiulrr 
(fap an-piicH III llio Duke i>t llmliiiiil, 
and doiKiivJ fur all llie luriiltii-* 
larf lli'tl of thrvUiiig; IIm ]>riiiiat7 

olijvct Ik'Iiik lorrcntun iiudiim $riu^ 
r-lr nlicru llio youtli of »» 1am 
Ciiimttip* iiiluht roppiio a liiftlier In- 
alrnrtiiin williuot tcHuriiu^ to I'arii 
or Culoi^c, and encuunleriui,' tba 
btAiy ei|icn*«a auil nameroaa temp- 
Uliima iLat bcHet Uie wealthipr ntu- 
dcnta in Urge cilica. Sco ilimoim 





have already noted that the English ' nation* at Paris was crap, i 
known after the year 1430 oh the German 'nation'; but 
within ten years from that time the German 'nation* bad 
in turn become temporarily defunct, for neither master nor 
student remained*. The nei\' universities, it is true, were 
constituted at a trying period, when scholasticism was begin- 
ning to yield before the new learning, and an age of revo- 
lution was not that in which young institutions, conceived 
in conformity with old traditions, wei-e likely to find steady 
and continuous dcveIoi>cment But, notwithstanding,, they 
each exerted more or less influence over a certain radius, S>£l^ 
and the students attracted to each new centre were, in con- 
siderable proportion, diverted from the schools of Paris; 
others again were driven from France into Germany by the 
persecutions which Louis XI revived against the nominalists; 
and the professors of the Sorbonne and of Navarre, as they 
scanneil the ouce densely crowded lecture rooms, could scarcely 
have failed to be aware that the representatives of the Teu- 
tonic races were gradually disappearing from their midst,— 
jKTliaps sometimes recalled, not witliout misgiving, how 
largely the teachers whom that race had given to their uni« 


Mitr let tifux Prrmirn SiMr$ de VVni* 
rrrnU de lAiuvnin^ par le Uaron do 
lU'ifTi'iibcrp. Bruxc'llcs, 182y. None 
of thone tiftt-enth century univer- 
fities hbcw any iidvanco in tlieir con* 
reption ufxtu the tnulitional i(lea'<. 
I^-ip/.ic, foandcil in MO'J, adopted 
iu the first instance the course of 
study nt Tra^^ue (fnunded 13 4H) with 
►'•ircf'lv finv nuHlificntion. St-e Die 
.S ntutetihiirhi'r der I'n'tvrrtitUt Lcip- 
:i<\ mm d»n Kruti'u 1 '»<» J^thrfu IhreM 
llmtt'hrini. V(»n FriMlrich Z.-irncke, 
p. 311. * Item die et lorn, quihUR xu- 
pr.i.jdacuit nm,:i>triH pro tunc fucul- 
titttni n-pr(('^« iitaiitihuH, qutMl lihri 
j»ri» j;r:idihu»^ nia';i>'triii et i»ac«Mlnri- 
iitUK ill uiiivt r^itute rrMu'»'n?«i »«iiiiili- 
it<T hio p« riimin p* d« l»«!iiit Hini* nd* 
dirioiir (t diiniiiiK-iMrT ml nntu:iii. 
(^ii«» liuitc) pi»"it ti«ii niutario, nd- 
dirio mA ditiiiiiurio juxta plaritum 
f.u-ultatin. r.t idem phicuit dr p.-irvin 
lovralihiiM Miuilfclt pni C'xereirii«« et 
ordinario Mrvandin ad idem t<'mpa4 
et po^itca juxta volimtatcm facultatis 

Qltennn cnntinnandis Tel immntandit 
in alia pnr%'a loycnlia, aciliivt Oreffin* 
Btein vel Mantilii vel alteriuM.' Th« 
authont and Kubjects reipiirctl b«>th 
for the l':ichelnr*ii and the ma^tcr'a 
d^'pn-e are enuin<*ratc«l, and Ari!«t4itl« 
is nearly the Alpha and the OuifTKi 
of the courne: in the fintt the candi- 
date must hare attended lecture** oo 
the !«»j,»ic of IVtnH Hi«<|»unn% and an 
ahri 1^r«'nient of Pri-iiiin; the whole 
of the ()rjrjin«m — spi-citieil a< thelVfac# 
Jr$, the Prior and r^wterior Analy- 
tics, and the Klenchi S«>phiAtici; the 
rhv>.ir^, the I>e Aninia, and tha 
Spl'Mia M.itirialiM; in the KHCond, 
thf T«»i'i«i, th«- J>e ("Kdo, IV<»vnc- 
ratioTH*. I>c Mt'.^-ori", and Tunra 
Natural i:i: the Kthic>, the l*u!itici«, 
and 'he K«ii!ii»!fii-«; common per- 
>.|M"tiv«, the till- »ry of the phmitf*. 
KiK-liil, the huTC of He-bniH, ci*m- 
tnoii aritbitictic, mu<«ic, and lueta* 

> Thurot. De rOrfianimtiom 4t 
VEH*i'i*jHtmrnt^ etc. p. *J'Jd. 



n. Tenity btd contributed to her ancient fame. In the decline 
^ that thus befel the university of Paris the English univer* 
sitiei undoubtedly shared ; the cesaatioD of their fomier in- 
terchange of thought was a loss to both nations ; and not 
least among the disadvantages that resulted to Oxfgnl and 
Cambridge is the fact that Gerson's remarkably able expo- 
sition of the Aristotelian nominalism appears to have alto- 
gether failed to arrest the attention of our couittiynien, and 
that nearly two centuries elapsed before philosophy in Eng- 
land resumed the thread of spcculaliou a^ it had falleo from 
the haodn uf the great chancellor of P.irio. 
',% ficsidiis the furcibic supf^rc^sioii of Wyclif's dcjctHne*, 
I and isolation from the contim-nt, a third ciuiio olfi-cted yut 
more chwtiy the material proupcrity of Oxfonl and Cam- 
bridge,— the actiuii of the Ntatute of Provisom, Tlmt Mtatntc, 
after having been r(;|K'Htclly c<»itinti>.'d, wok fuiin'I to bo ko 
inimical in it.H o]>cration to the inturosta of luarning that it 
bogan to be regarded with disfav>jiir. Even bo early an the 
year IS.OZ, the council of state hud advised some relaxati'jn 
of its enactments, their recomniomlation being expres.dy 
urged with a view to the relief of the universities. In the 
year 14U0 the house of commons U found petitioning the 
new monarch with a like objccti arnt in the year 1416 we 
are Cxinfronted by the comcwhat startling fact, that the do- 
presseil stale of the clergy and thu of 'great and in- 
tolerahle heresies' are attributed by the .inme assembly to 
ibe o[)cration of the same statute'. Fatninagt.', it bud been 

* 'Item anpplioTint ina bnmUt"- mnirnti<mriil io Spii)t« r*i;Ii>«, «t 

Cicut Ten Couiiniiiii'*, i|ne come jiiJ}'> iiurce< imnli/ii'it iriF l^-i •In I'lrrkM 

lafkn.'ii-JeUUi'inlinofui-t'irt^hniit elii.linri: ■ . ., '. i. 1 •■ I. ;,iN,,iit<^ 

H fli>urjiit ft i>n)fitiiiit eii vo;; L'lil- itoiwmi^l <>',«! 

Terhitrra d'Ouiil'-rrl il Caiilelir>>(,'L,-c>, nnricei.. i. . iiwi^ 

pDi-cI'<ur>iF'i Iliviiiiter,<itlcr<I.<-}L'a tiie.ct h. ; i .: i l< r^da 

(.'ui.<notC'i<i1l.plfoiirA'ilt<.«Joinnn- ii'e>-t ei'i<.:..i i. .l ,...i...-. ^•jx.i.k at. 


t pr.ilil •! 


Maiitrerri'visuunifnitluilpnr I'urle- 
mint, la Clcriiii- en los <li1z Uiiirer- 
■ilccn lann.'HUil'ti-nietit cut rxUiicte, et 
ta iiliinvilTii I'ailicii ilvspul«, ■ gmudI 

)it« d« viitra Itoiiilmc kiiiiiI nn.lpiin 
eusiirdi I. NKDUutM Minckin dociilii* 
de una S> iuls Pitt*. H il«t«nuli>flllus 
• tont Siint Ki%U*b; M •! r«TaiiMt 
diti UDirenittM onnt ui}a en haut* 



found, oould be as much abused in England as at Rome ; and crap. 
its exercise by tlieir fellow-countrymen had proved specially <«»-v- 
disastrous to students. The prevalent indifference to learn- ^p«« 
ing shewed itself in the nomination of uneducated men to g^M- 
valuable benefices ; while the claims of those trained at Ox- 
ford and Cambridge were altogether passed by. The papal 
patronage had rarely been characterised by partiality so un- 
just : foreigfiers had indeed been generally appointed to the 
more valuable benefices, but wlien the election lay between 
Englishman and Englishman, the pope had rarely fi&iled 
to shew some apprc^ciation of merit, though it might be 
only that of the ci\'iiian and the canonist*. But at home 
nepotism, or yet more mercenaiy motives, prevailed over all 
other considerations, and the pre<]ilections of the English 
patron proved but a poor exchang«j for those of Rome and 
Avignon: while* preferments fril all around the univentitios^ 
they, like Gideon's fleece, remain«vl unvi/fitefl by the refresh* 
ing shower*. Precisely similar hnd been the experience of; 
the university of Paris. In the year 14<)S, we find Cliarles Vf 
recognising by royal letter the inrfii'i^.iit working of home 
patronage. It had b«:en determineil that a thou.sand bene* 
fices should be set apart for the university, and four prelates 
had been selected to recommen<I, from time to time, those 
graduates whom they might deem most worthy. But thrr*ngh- 
out the countrj' those on whom it directly dev#dve*l to cany 
out these recommendations hatl for the mrist part treated 
them with contempt, «ind pre.sente«I ignorant and unfit per- 
sons*. A like comi>Iaint was urged in the latter part of the 
centurj', when it wa.s alleged that the Pragmatic SanctioD 
had utteriy failed to secure a fair consi<leration of the claims 
of graduates to church preferment*. This very noteworthy 

lamf^ntntion (1f>«r»Intion, ct dinliori- 
tinr«' t\v FC7. Kh;»iritiulx nitz ot pro- 
fjiulilfs Htiidiuti/, a ^'riiiitit desronifort 
ct i»n*jiii1ir<» <lo tonte Si-inte EHjrIise 
puiti dite, et p\tiiiction tie toie ChrU- 
tun, i't nmlo rxtni]>l<' h toiitz autre* 
CrintinnA lloiolmefi, hi lianty reiDO<lie 
ne Roit fait en cfnte matore ti boiioin- 
able.' KoL Pari, it 81. 

* Linj^rJ, JlUt, of En^Umd, m 

• Woml Onicb, I S17. Coopn; 
Annah, i IGH. 

s hnlitnn, x ms. 

« Ibid. T 775. 'Lm PrrUlM, eoOA* 
tcnrf, ct fmlnm^ c<rK'«iiAiiti«iiiet im 
gar(loi«'Dt nc cntrrtcnoieot 1a Ptm* 
matiqae-Sanetion, en tantqiieUMKlM 


pb&no of the religious liistory of the fifteenth century baa 
Jeon but lightly treated or wholly sUirrt-d over by tnoat of 
•or recent historians, but the comment of Huber places it 
> itg true light: — "It is not," he saj-s, 'to l>e inferred that 
»«tth patronage was any the better bestowed when con- 
>«3«1 to native holders and native clergy ; and it in certain 
•-t the universities in particular gained nothing by the 
*J-R<inii»h system. In fact, after the end of the fourteenth 
XUry, thvir complaints against the Pneaiuntre are still 
■ro frciptent and violent than thc-y hn<l been against the 
'Mk.l pmviMions; insomuch that they occasionally cxtorte<l 
'•i the king exceptions in their own favour, 'i'heso were 
■"'«s temporary alleviations; but at the time of the great 

- »»iblii>3 of the Church the gricvunce was urgeil no forcibly, 
t the king and prelates, not choosing to open the way 

■ *» for Rome, sought for another remctly. In the con- 
*-*:>inn of H17, thu patrons of livings wero ordered to fill 

*-lieif appointments in part from university students, ac- 

• • ng to a fixed arrangement. In practice however the 
^^^^rsilios were tho first to object to the working of the 
-■^sm; nor did the patronw aJhero to the nilc prcscrilied. 

- same onlers were re-enacted by the prelates in 1+S«, 
without effect; which is not strange, considering iho 

* ^ ical aspect of the limes. The universities gained no 
^^f, and continued to r*.-iterate their eomplainta. Tiiiis 

■ * the Roniisli and the national systems failed to co-opirato 
^^it with ilie aeademico-ecdvsinNtical institutions; and 
' *^iever system wa^ at work appcare<I by far tho mure 
T**\^!gtivo of tho two',' From tliis criticism wo arc cnnbled 

Xinderrfaiid more cleariy how it was that the uiiivcrnity 

WnrflpM i|nl CKloimt et itprniit prrBi-nliilinn wM Inrndd liy Ihl 

^bactrllrctox uut 1,-nuluFtcl uom- |niuil ciniiti*, linil nriaiiiHllr tir"- 

**!« lie Unitinitrx.' Tr.k<4t the cmiirUitita whirb Hi* 

I ' Huber, HvpUtb Vnirmllir; t rcmliT lian in frcqnmllj luitinnl. «nd 

yj'i, 171. Roe dImi England ninltr now nrre jviu\j to aatiinH tu s niin"( 

,f^"//o"« o/Lanciuter, (ip. 185, 150. mtriflce. ntlier Umh allow Ihn «■ 

Tbe Iratli In,' aty* LinRud, * tbai ppul ol tlie MntUtcB *liivh »mHT<l lo 

^ penouB wUf cliiefly luflerdl from tiifin the Influenn ot jialrunaae. rtiid 

tlo practice of prnviiiioiii, ami slin abiclcled Uiera from lb* uiU-ff*Trii« 

^luvO^proflti'il t? the MalutMamii»t ol Ibe poulilTe.' tlitt, t>/ Knjfland 

thcTn, were the hioher onion of tbe lii £39. 

dcrgf. Tbeie, m their right of 


of Paris, following in the steps of Qerson. re-cnactod the cbat. i 
Pragmatic Sanction; while the English uniTenitiet led faj ** 
the Ultramontane party sought to set aside the statute of 
Provisors. At Cambri(l<;c indeed there can be no qaestioD n«» 
that tlie influence of that party predominated thmughoat y^: 
the century, and of thix anotiicr proof is afforded by the cele- 
brated Ram well Process in the year 1430. 

We have ah-eadv iH.'en that one of the earliest measures iw ^•w 
ascribed to Hu^h Balsham had for its object the more***-*^ 
accurately defining tlic jurisdiction respectively claimed 
by his own arclideacon, by the Mivjister Glomerim, ami 
the chancellor of the tinivci-sity. The e<|uitablc s|ririt in 
which his dorisirm was concc»ive«l l>ore fruit in the com- 
parative ab^'iire at Cainlirid^^e of disputes like tlinne 
which harassed the university of Paris; and indi-e<l 
thniu^^hout tilt* history of our universities the aljM*nce of 
Vexatious interrereiice on th<; part of the difN*(*s.'m nutbori* 
ties is a notirral)]«» feature. If wo admit the pretrn^on^ »*w*^» 
asserted hj the university, the iniinunity was founde«l upon VJ;*;;;;^ 
ancient antl ifnleff.-isihle ri;4hts'; but r»rra*« ion ally a bi«ibitp ^^T^'? 
of Ely ap|)eared uho ralhd tln-se ri;:ht** in «|uej*ti«n, and*' 
endeavoure<l to establi>h his own ri;;ht i»f interference. 
In this manner, during the t«*nnre of the we by Anindfl, 
the questioM tif the allf;;ianci' of the rhanecllur «»f the uni- 
versity to the bisliMp of tiie di<M'csi\ hatl l»oen raiwil by the 
refu»*al ef John i\r Donrwvc, who had a sfoonil time ln-cn 
eU'Cted chancell»»r, to take tlie (»:ith of c:inoiiic:d olK'iIieni'c 
to the bi^hoj). Aruiph*! was n'»t thr m i!i t«» HMbniit t<» any 
aU'itement iif his a-ith-iiiiv witlmtit a ^jrn-j.:!*', ami be rit«tl 


the ch:incilli»r ti» take th" o:i»hM on a .-p- «ifi«-d day, TIm» 
dispute was finally c.irii« «1 Ih !'..rr th** i'ouit of Arcln*s niid 
decided in the bi'^hoj/s favonr". It is j>ri»li iMv as tin* result 

ti«)ii'|M, trrlnh .iriift*. ii'i.l il,. if 1 !*; tl.i- I'M'-r ff P. .'!.«• "l. ni'i«l I* rr» 

crr« !•• )i»vr liiitn*«I\«« ii.!.r«!* rI*- t:irl« I u-* \« r\ # r. ; !;<- It •litn>>iir. 
•taint il from aH nn 1 i\«r\ kii.>l ••( * ( -{ir, (•■• i*. i li'i *|li-li>-p 

jnn»luiii<n ct^lt '?!!<« ti- ul mil -ji- Hir!:-!* i !i.!t • • t) .■ i:*uaI »»«0 • 

niiiAl 111 Ihr »iiitl n».j\tr-!¥ ai: I liV.ii !•> •.!.«■ • '; ir.." r* 4«n ll» tf 

oirr the KO^rnn-r aii'l in« ii U r* nf •lni.--i"ii ••■ I • • *i-« • fa'-'B ftll hw 

the Mine.' Ilarnicrll /Vi<r#i, Hi v. Iiiip-, ^\i\v *<*> . i-n U> lLi« et«nU«L 


R. tn. of the reoognitioD thus obtained of his diooesao urthority, 

'!'•- that we finii Aniadel asaumiDg the right of visitation when 
metropolitan, in the manner already described at the com« 
mencement of this cbnpter. The exercise of such right was 
however ao rare that it invariably gave rise to critidam if 
not to actual resistance; so that we find Fuller in his His> 
tory asking, with rcfcrcDce to Arundel's visitation, 'what 
became of the privileges of the university on that occoijioni)' 
Whatever doubt existed respecting these privileges was now 

klKv to be finally set at rest. In the year 1430 pope Uartin V 
issued a bull reciting how that the doctors, masters, and 

^ scliolam of the univcrHity of Cambrldgo )iad lately oxhibit^.'d 
to him a petition, 'setting forth the bulls of Hononus I and 
Scrgius I, that by virtue thereof tlic chancellor of the uni- 
Tcrvity for the time lieing bod been accustomed to excrciso 
cxclnsivo ccclesia'^ticnl and spirituol junMliction; that tho 
originals of these bulls had boon loxt for seventy yearB or 
more, but that there were ancient copies in the archives of 
the university, and praying tliat ho would of bis apostolic 

ennvtaiilly iiwiiit nil llie clmiirfiliir'H 
lnkiiiK Die unlU*. but Hcimrtiliii'-> Oil- 
ttilliil »i>l roiiliniiiil tlntti «i()M>iit 
it: nrrrrthrlrn, tarinii (« thi-mtrlrit 
mm4 iHcr.-imiri {hr rijilit «/ fj.iftiHg 
it tehm rrr Ihry •Ii-hIiI fliliil fit tn In 
A,: Ik'iitliniii, lli't. nml Aiili-l- »/ 
KIg, p. liiS. Ariiii'irl BiiiKiiw to 

•!« of I'lly: iiLii CiH>|>i'r, Annul' I 

IM. Vi*. 133. Ill iIh. i:w;i lio 

iriw iil>]H>iiil<iI l.y til.' kinu l.> nvt OH 
Vi-ilif i<f Kiii^'K Hull. ('.m,l>n.l;:.'. 
wlivrv KTi'iil irr.'^-iili.rili.'H Ui iHk.ii 

luto Ai-ny, ni-l ll.i' \-».U u>m1 »tlirr 
HxAn )mvitii{ Ix'i'ii )iiirli>iiK'il. lUiii'- 
tram A>un<lit, [•>!. lINj (cjuuIihI \ij 
Peui H.wk, IT iW). 

I ' Some « ill any. when were now 
Um privilff^ of tlio ]>ope> eienipt- 
Ing Cnniliridge [rum arcliippiHcopnl 
{aruiJictiouT I conceivo Uip; ara 
arm put up in tbo luune f1in>t «itl) 
Oifonl ptivilcgd (]>nitcniling la §t 

RTonl imniimitiM) : I monn, tlutt lb* 
valiililv ci( llirni both, ttinnuh nut 

CHIK't-liul, WIU IIUK|H-Il<Illl for tbo 

prc'KC'iit. It it bo inio, timt Uis 
Ir^inlf <lr lalfff Imlli In •oint tMV* 
niiiiil power with Die piqio. wbirii ba 
T.']>rtM>iil-: nii'l il it i« Iriip, wliiih 

iiiny Huy til lliii ]>>iiHi, enr Un fiuut 

it villi ixit Hut« [or uiiy in tbnt K" to 

di-pulc tbu |M.«<.r •>[ Tlmioim Anin- 

lie), lint prnMlily llio uiiivirKilliK 

williiii-]y WHnHl tli< 

\ft9* ; Htiil it RO, til 

lr«l:bHf. IritlJ Kill'. - .."I.I.:; 

lliix wnv, b(.w till ^. l...l-1'K o.'ra (but, lliO -iil.r.."!.' JW-W 
("■i.iK 'l...i>r-ll..f.ll>"f« 
li>y no ii|>iH't(I froiih lu.ii <»bi-n 111- 
uiri..H-) mvn to H'- l"'l«' "b'""-- 
iVIivntoni t)H) miuli ii'-. <li*l ""•)' 
mijlUt Lave a nrsr.r aixl il.di|*r 
ntlrefii, dmired to It' <.ii'«.''i <•( thrir 
bur<1cii*ome immnnilii*. aiid ><<l>- 
miltcd tliemvcKni to airhiipi-'upal 
*iHUlion.' Fuller.//"^ ojlbtliur. 
9J Cambridge, 

Unignity proride fi)r the iadaniDitj of ttMi Md tta MiMfw a 
ntj in the premisM*. He thardbn ddcipted tW.|riv «r I 
Bemewell and Jdm Depjn^ cmwb of Liaeol;^ m mm «t 
them, to hemr «nd detenatiM apoo this dua. 

'On the tenth of October. John HoUmok^ BA, ^aa- 
cetlor, and the mmsten, doctMi^ uid Kbolac^ lij tm fartn- 
ment nnder the common Mai of the oniranttj, w— tilnhJ 
Unaton Balplio Duekworthc, John Athyle, WUIinM Wnw 
hye, ud William Sull. deriu^ or citlier of llwMb l^ar 
pTDCton in this afliiir. 

'On tlio fourteenth of Odolier the poponi UJI «m cs- 
hiUted by WiUiam Wnwbjre^ in the euavMitMl diard «f 
Bcnicwcil, to tlio pritir of that house, who ew si g iied tlw ■<• 
tcvnth of the mmo month in bU chapter Iioom^ fur pfMCwl* 
ing in the biiMiiiifw. At whtdi time aixl i4w», WilliiM 
Wniwltyu fxliibiluil Nix artielvit, suttiuK fi«th the daiia uf 
tlio rlinticullor lif tho iinivi-ncity tu occlinunNtice) JuriMlietiott. 
dir/uaira of any anhbukop, buhap, or litir t^fm^t hdI 
pttHhirvd OK witiii.-w.-H, Ji^lm Dyttiie, Uff-A TJ, Juhn Tburj^ 
agcti AN, WhIUt Burlcy, aged 3H, Thomas 3(aj)(hiidi% i^wl 
40, William UvtiKk-r, o^-A 4S, Jw)m Tl.itkjII, Oftod 40^ and 
Willinm Hull, ngL-d 26, who dcpuM-d to tlio vw of eedBsi- 
ftHticol niithnrily by tbu cliuiiOL-lb^r, an far as their rvifH.'etive 
mt-moritH oKh'riiletl The |iruc<n.->liii|{H wvru tlien wfjuunM^ 
to tliu Kiiiio plnco on the l!ltb of tbnt month, wlufU llicre 
WMM |irri(|Hcu>l nn initlrumuiit Attttitcil liy a mrfniy ami ntb**)^ 
Mfttiiii; forth the tmlU of John XXII ami UmibiM IX, ami 
r(>lii<'H of t!ii! bullH uf llnnoriiis I aiHl H«-r]piM I, takva IKaa 
an-',;iKtvr U.'loii^iiig to tlio uuivcrkityi alit» varioun alatutL-a 
of tlittt bixly. On the 2Utli tho |iri<tr in tite chaiitL-rhouao 

* ■ It> Inc mUlbM or K-l tlirniiuh thai tl'itcirlaa tilHi>#H ma « rtafcal 

tl>rn-irll;Miri. ■■( tin ir ki "ix n ■« I'/ In |Ih> witrlailt ■>H«r"*'W- I***** 

•itlK r ri»iiiillH-,' U llw {iirllH-r p|. IIh- 1Ii>I »f i-nr itBin^Ht* liHiVMM 

rWi-t n<ii-l. T>H> vMo pru- in ah-nn tli ■ rrilirml lawiily rmttt^m 

tr-< 1> an a •inn ci>ral4iia(h><i i>l Snjr a|>)iic-'ialil» ■rixM, I^Mj ••k^ 

l)v Klriri ■•l>M-rtai>Pr ut Ir.-al (LirtDal- •!< il m-xmahlo K> » «H n. tkM 

itHi oilb a n>ui|<lrt* imlifltniirv fat H- ixiciu-.obrli a •■•r.ala.M U wM 

Dw tiil.i- »[ iIh- ^\vA.n., ..11 >I.Ji-b frin iulv, •• Ik- T'* tfmtmrh to ha 

Iha «li..|r ,4 (W ■■•uiuili.Hi rr>(rJ. a >iii.l.i>i ai CanlnliiPF* rnrtlvn 

Tbc bull, it najr be uU..rt«l, iinj'lira •/»<■ I aii'. -JV^mi. i HV. 

19 • 


gaifv his definiitfe leiitenee in &Toiir of tlia priinlcgiei 

When we note Uiat thb bull was granted by a pontiff 
whose most vigorous efforts had been directed towards re- 
pressing the spirit of independence in England, and that it 
was confirmed three years later by pope Eugenius iv, who 
endeavoured to break up the Council of Basle, we shall be 
little likely to mistake this impatience of home jurisdiction 
for any real growth in the direction of intellectual freedom*. 
In fact there appears to have been a decided tendency in 
l>oth univcrHitics at this time towards Ultramontane doc- 
trinoM, an«I of this tendency the celebrated Reginald Pocock, 
of Oriel College, Oxford, affords an interesting example. 

lU-giuald Pccock, bishop of Cliichester, the author of the 
ablest English pamphlet of the fifteenth century, was, like 
Gt-nK>n, an eclectic; and an eclectic of a yet more puxzling 
description. By many he has been mistaken for a follower 
of W vol if, and he is even described by Foxe as one of those 
'i^ho springing out of the same universitie, and raised up 
out of his ii>lies, were partakers of the same persecution;* 
while lie npiH*arH in reality to have lK*en as he is character* 
iM>l by (lean Hook, 'an ultra-iKipiMt, a su])p(>rter of that 

1 Cof>j*cr,Annrth, i 2H*2. 2H3; llrj- Martin the Fifth, nn. MSO, hiii bnlls 

wnn«I. y.itrly Camttrithi^ Sttttutft, iHl to thlH |iUr|HH«o, ilircctiMl to th« prior 

->*in. IIhIh r, jiiil^tiK frt>m hin Un- of lUniwcll miilJohn I>i>|iiiii;{ ciuiun of 

iriiit:«*,«oiiMftii|t'»r t«thnvclN'<nifni<>* Liiictihi: John ]V|>iiiK ^fim; a at* 

rutit of til 14 «liK*uiiitut. Sco Knijliih eitlar man not funtl of nuch fntploy* 

I unrr. ii.$, I v,:\. tnt'tit, biit tho |iiii>r of lUimwi'll 

* l<:iktr, in liiM Ili*iortf, nn'inft t > v.ih a ninn for the |»iir|ii*Hi», wIm> 

\— i\u- tirtt «r<tir i^ho hns i;rH-|M'(l Hut nml h«'nril tlio |iriic«*«4 iil«inr,nii«l 

tl«*> U*\ tltiit till* lliiniw«ll l*riM'i»ii tho Imllii of lh»H«»ritN iin«l S«r^M*ii 

«.t« nn \ ltr.tTn**iit:itiixt iiio\i>iiirtit. tho Kirnt iH-iiit' }iriMhir«i| (who hiMl 

Sjx.iViiii? of the rt.iiifirimtivo iiohf* no ni'irr nnthoriiy hi KnKlnii<l thnn 

f- ri lire *»)ii>kii |iy t)io t«o hi<«)io|»<« of they liiul at Jii|iiin) ho vi-ry h-nrn* 

1 ly, .T..»iii r.>r>l)i.itii (l>p. l:WH__ II •.».') f.,Uy pivo m iitrncu ftif tho unison- 

ftM<l riiilip Moiviui (h|». ll'iiV.-li:L'ii, ity u|h»ii two m mnk forp*rio<« m 

to tbo niTiiin* of ilio iro^pitiil of St. ever wrrr; fi»r tho wholu iitrt*iMi of 

J.'li!!, 1.0 ►Ji}^. ' Th«-<» two biMhopg tho c«»nlrovcriiy tiimi*«l U|Kin tbcut 

Lai K.ino n.i^on to lio out of hu- biilU. Hut tho pn-M'iii iii>|>e was 

mx'ir with the rcli;ri«'n4 a^ will aa willioff to U'liovo l\wn liml bcm 

witli thr u!iivir»>ity. whonccm tobave Rach a power exerci'Ktl in EoRbuid 

ci-ioprol an«l joiiu<l in tho ^Auie by hifl nn-iU-coHitur« to many yean 

dt <:/;i of iTiH-iirtii;; (vmptions fntiu a^, ami tho honrMt prior was to 

e) ioCojm! juM-<l:it:i>n. For it wan follow hin inKtmctii n*. AuilMitliem 

tiiihr tlii<* l>i-!iiip thnt the Kr« ai w m an cml of onUnary juriMli cU wii** 

I!, w wa4 Ki\i u to thr mo of Illy by Ihikcr-JJuyoT, I 13, IL 
tho iuiiM*r»ity, by obtaiuljig irviu 



'doctrine which would, in these days, be called Ultramon- cbat 
tane.' In some important respects, indeed, the views held 
by Reginald Pecock were identical with those of the great nn 
reformer. Both strenuously contended for the right of 
private judgement and the necessity of approving to the 
reason whatever was accepted as doctrine. Under this 
aspect the English bishop, like his predecessor, offers a good 
example of the effects of the university training of his day. 
It was his great desire that every man, however humble his 
station, who accepted the teaching of Clinstianity, should 
have a rational faith, and the rational, at that period, it is 
hardly necessary to add, was regarded as almost a synonym 
for the formally logical. It was his belief that a largo 
amount of capricious scepticism and unmeaning declamation 
might bo done away with, if a knowledge of the method "•'^ 
unfolded in the On/anon were to become general among the it^iJi 
laity. The Ars Vetus was his panacea for all forms otZSii 
heresy, from Gnosticism to Lollardism, and he loudly lament- ^""^ 
ed that it was shrouded from the apprehension of the com« 
mon people by a Li'itin garb. ' Wouiil (]<h1,' he cxrhiimed, 
'that it were loarnod oi" tln»m in their mothers langtingo, 
for then they shotildeu 1k) put fro much rudeness and boist- 
OHoness which they have now in reasoning.' Ho even pro- 
posed himself to undertake the remedying of the deficiency, 
though he does not a|»i)ear to have ever carried his purpose 
to its accomplishment*. 

Assuming then that the Scriptures were true, and ^^^{JJJJ 
all truth was capable of being approved to the logical fiiculty, JJJJJH 
he repudiated the notitiu that Uicn were, in any cane, liound 
to an implicit acceptance of dogma. So far as his writings 
afford an indication, it may bo doubteil whether in his 
opinion, the reason could ever be called ui)on to abdicate its 

* *— ami tliAiiDO Rcliulden thci not 
be so olfHtiuat a^ens clcrkit aud ageiis 
ber pri'luti'4, aM huinuio of bi-m uow 
Ud. for ilifuut of iH-n-cuyii}; wlianno 
an ar/7iiut'nt proct diUi into bin ton- 
cluKioiin iH'ctliK and whuiiiiu bo not 
Ro dooth but KMUith cmhiH so do. 
And niic'ho ko<m1 ^oldo como forth if 
A tclAort coiupcudioKO logik wuro do- 

nyn'uX for al tlie eomown peple ia ber 
mixUriM luni^ee; and certia to men 
of court, \vi rnyng the KingiM lave of 
Yn^'Ioml iu tbffio diiii'^, tbiUc now 
Mid Kcliort coniiK'ndiorto b*:{ik wert 
fill |»rccii»Mc. Into %\nt% ni.ikinff, if 
(KhI wolo ^Auntu h'uo and Icy^-r, y 

1»iir|H»iio Niinitynie aftir inyn otbcro 
liN^ttvaMiilurtouiiuut;.* Jirprestor^p^Om 



R m. fmu^ea, and to veil its face before the ioeflable aai IXm 
Cib. divineL In respect to the moral law, be appears to have 
held almost precisely the same view as that which Clarke 
and CudwoTtb advocated so ably at a later period, — that the 
principles of morality are not derived from Revelation but 
are discoverable by the unaided reason, — if only that reason 
be rightly and honestly employed. Right and wrong are aa 
patent to the reasoning faculty, as a proposition in geometry; 
and would be equally perceived if the Scriptures did not exist 
As reason is sufficient to provide man with a law of moral 
action, so it is also the standard whereby he must decide 
Qpoa the interpretation of Revelation. 'And if,' said Pe> 
cock, 'any soeming discord be betwixt the words written in 
the ontward book of Holy Scripture, and the doom of reason 
writ in man's soul and heart, the words so written without 
forth oughtcn to be expowned and interpreted, and brought 
for to accord with the doom of reason in thilk matter ; and the 
doom of rt'axon ought not for to be expowne<l, gloscd, inter- 
prct«l, and brought for to nccoril with tlio said outward wri- 
ting in Holy Scripture of the Bible, or anyivbero else out of 
tho Bible.' How bo proposed to provide for tbsit class whom 
Aquinas indicnted, whom nntuml incapacity, or tho cares, trials, 
andtcmptationsof htiman lifo shut out from this high exorcise 
of reason, docs not appear: but it is cvi<!ent, from various 
■Ml pastuigcs in his writings, that ho was prepared to set osido 
-;*- both tlio Fathers and the Schoolmen if tlicir conclusions 
'«£?*** appeared to him erroneous. Views like these aro now 
-^^ neither strange nor singular, but it must bo admitted that 
such an adju.stmcnt of tlio rospcctive provinces of faith and 
reason, could hardly fail to startle the ears of the men of 
the fifteenth century. 
-Jj«»- The anomaly however which more particularly challenges 
2^*" the attention of tlie modcmstudent,is, that with all this bold- 
^'Irf ness and independence of thought, Reginald Fccock should 
"'^ have been u much the advocate of unconditional submission 
to tho temporal authority of the pope, as Occam had been its 
. antagonist ; and that his ' Repressor' should be mainly occupied 
with a confutation of Wyclifs leading doctrines anda vindica< 


iion of the practices of the Mendicants, whose 'Cain's Oastlcs' cii 
find in him an ingenious and elaborate apologist As for the <J 
claims of the uncultured Lollardii to interpret for themselTes »i 
the meaning of the Scripture^ he declared that sach an i^ 
attempt, for an intellect untrained by AriHtotlCp was a work 
of the greatest peril. ' There is no book/ he says^ 'written in 
the world by which a man shall rather take occasion to err/ 
Willie therefore his agreement with the followers of Wyclif 
was sufiicient to alienate him from the Romish party, his 
diven^'nces from tluMn were such as totilly to preclu«le the 
IN»Ksibility of his gaining their moral support; and on the 
single point wlicrt* they and the Mendicants wore at one. ho 
again was at issue with l>oth. 

p]vai)geIisin,or the p<»]mlar exp>sition of Script'ire. was a 
cardinal point with Inith the Lfjllanls and the friars; with the 
latter it had been the weapm whiHi had given them the 
victory over tln*ir earlii-r aiita;:onists and omtributeil so ma* 
tt'iially to tli«ir \vi«lr'*|»PMd surcc-s; and a noticeable illustra- 
tion ot tlio v*tiiiinti«»n in \\lii«'li till* pri'nrliors art w;is li«|.| 
bv tlnir ii.utv. is :jjV..mI' .1 n-» «*ln«rtlv ix-forc the timo nf Pc- 
Cock, nliniit th<* comnn iimni-nt of" tin* nnturv, in rtinnv\i-*ti 
vith tlio uiiiv«r>itv nt' ( 'aii.brid;:*'. Anioni; i\uvm who taiijbt 
ut the univrrNJtv at iM-ri'MJ \v;is Jnhn lSri>iiivanl, lb- i^ 
antlmr or O'linpil'T of tin* Snmtmt /Vrw/iVernfi'riw. He wa,* a ••• 
lK»!iiiniran, was Imth linctur Ufrinx»ju^ J*in's and master t.f '••■ 
tliitilo^'v, and a stnntmii"* '•]ni..v..r •»(* \Vyrlif'i« te.irhin;; ; h:4 
c*'tini ite of tin' iniji'TtaiHN- "t" tli'' j>m"li«*r'> function liii\\i*vt*r 
is rji-a'Iv aMi Nii •! Iiv tli*- vi i-'*i\«* v«'lii!nt' wbieh he put {**r\U 
Sn a |ir"t'.* ril jiid i.» tli"-«' \n1m» \\<p» r»l!.«l ui>'in to exfti-und 
tlio SrrlptM!- * t«» 0\*- ]•! .'i»l'-. TIm' ^^ -Ik rrjir'-^-iit^ a v.^ri* h 
<»t" skil. f«'i ^'ii:! •!!*. ;irri'.:«l Ti«r un-!' r t« x**. but uniU-r 
si!)i:\' w.iri!-. lAj'T- --:\' i»t' .I'-tt.i t «|-! il:»i. ■«, *»inli as J'.*fi- 
iif.f- f. .I.f ..';?( .. .!'».••♦''?. <*■• *■ '"" ■"'. /'i'/f*. /»ffiVnfi-i. 
l\t'ij^*t'l<. /Vfi'?'*. l''-?V\i*«'. «;i«*li Ki'.^^sl liy a 
biirt".\|. -.!■..!». r'.i^Ti ,*.. I '.y !:. ri. T-.» ••: •.ir-- ii* fr-'Ui !?!•• 
K.nli.i^ .\\\\ o .i.i..!- i;:\ l.v ..'i ;iT»P - • . •.•:«•«• l"!e'. Tl.i' 

t ■ I ■ • _ • 


RK sz^eila !• cold, formal, and BjBtemati^ not vithont that 
^ ainoQnt of the lofpcal element vhich finds ezpresaioD id con- 
dotions derived from a Bcriea of observations each commanding 
the moral anent, but rarely deducing any norel aspect of 
truth, and taking its stand, for the moat port, entirely tuper 
onf^uofl nos. In the contrast prcseoted by this laborious, 
•careful, and learDed production to the speculative tendendes 
^ that belong to the doctrinal expositions of Fecock, we may 
** perhaps discern the earliest instance of that antithesis which, 
0^ with occasional exceptions, has generally characterised the 
■w theological activity of t)ie two universities; that however 
with which we are here more directly concerned is, the widely 
different implied estimate of the value of preaching when 
compared with Pecock's views on the same subject Neither 
WycliPs 'simple priesC nor the eloquence of the Dominican 
appears to have found much favour in the bishop of Chiches- 
^ ter's siglit. He seems to liave been ofopinion that there was 
a grot deal too much preaching already; and in an ago 
when the great majority of men were compelled to learn by 
oral instruction or not at all, and at a time when the in- 
difference mauifcstcd by the superior clergy to the instruc- 
tion of the lower orders, and the numbers of Dou-rcsidenta 
and pluralists were exciting widespread indignation, this 
eccentric ecclesiastic thought it a favourable juncture for 
compiling an elaborate defence, half-defiant, half apologetic, 
of the conduct of bis e)>iscopal brcthroo. It can hardly be 
said that in the pages of the ' Repressor ' the author shews 
much confidence in the resources of his logic to produce con- 
■akh viction ; rhetoric plays a much more conspicuous port At 
*K one time he seeks to shroud the episcopal functions in a veil 
of mystery, — the bishop has duties to perform which the 
vulgar wot not of; at another, he makes appeals ad miteri- 
eordiam, — bishops, after all, 'ben men and not pure aungels;' 
again, only those who enter upoi; the office arc aware with how 
many difficulties it is beset; no man, to use his own some- 
what too familiar simile, knows bow liard it is to climb a tree 

9t to JuKiJuJ > fa»» Mw tU MM ttrt VmmKmmfiA it'. «■ 

Inbop to pcmrid* lor ud putieipBto ia At ipUtarifartn^ 

tioB of hh diooeM^ mch ugntMaU eovU ealj kn« appHnd 
•Budadooa pisoe of ipecuJ pliaHwy m IrfwiBi if «■• of 
the wont abaae* of the Choidi. ud tti mUmt, mbA h ha 
ifpeuB to deu Hook, u UltnuBoataut «f the dnpMk ^ 

It HBWjr to MO tbmt BeguwU rirnrt ttii hnlli inMi<fci^ 

mora and Nmethii^ lea thutUi; bat kkMltaaUMMledSSl 
bim to aeTer bimself fmn botb paitM^ at a tina v^aa aacb ■«■ 
iM^ation wa« unsafe if Dot impoaoble*. HaaBwIaday— ai a>«i 
fid Mctioa at bom^ wbo atill adbered to tba tiMarjr «f tW*^' 
great oouttdU, Ij hi* aMettion of tba abaohto aatiktrilf af 
the pope. The unirenitie% if coaeilJatad bj Ui "tf^ ^ 
tbe theory repreaentcd bjr the BanweO IkoMaaaad lit afp^ 
aition to tbe atatuta <rf Proriwr^ wan aeaadaliaad bj Ui 
attacka ob two of the fatbeia, St Ambnwa and StA^ftiaa, 
wlioM tcachiag was enslirined io tbetr miTenal teat-boak, 
the Sentences. While tbe biithop^ far fiiita briag was hgr Ua 
&otartie dcfetM^e of their order, dciicned bf-my in tha aaa** 
ner in which be had callwl in qneation waA daclfiae* aa tbe 
Third Person in the Triaitj, and tbe dcaoent of Cbrat nla 
Hades. At CambriJj^ he eDooanteicd p awa rfii l CBaarie^ 
Among them wrrc William Millington, tbe int pveiaol af 
King'ti*, — a man of honorable spirit, and «>imdw a l 4 e allaia 
ncnt^ but of vioU-nt ami unsenipulons temper; Bogb Dim* 
Ittt, master of Pembroke, who offered to pron ftvm Peeack^ 
writings that he wxt guilty of tbe wont bero^, and wW 
formed one of the commi.'»ion b^'foro which he was ai 

Jiraaiiy priAf t?."^*, iiOitrJIur tba * (.'arfT*** ■■«■ al hiNk 

Itill* SiTiP-. !■> I'rii. I'LurcluU U»- U-lic;* in^iu' 

biDf1.-n. ■■>. I loJ-Uli. lillrntntm. ar 

' ■ IVrlia|'< it ^oa'.l B"l I* Witly ti»«c»>Tr*»'* 

VT>Ii( t.- ■•Tl IVvk (UuJl •ilk llimrvi 

hi;f m«T Nt*.-.<i thr Ibinh at t4.-mi t» 'ir C 
H-w nil It,' iU-ir^-U .>) K-i,-:4ii.l. M 

t':..n.«..,.!. tl, H,* ..I L.. miul li.«. .N 

Ii»«iTr li.iv' i<i'<<r AR.-!.ri.i lliia tir-t I' 

<|KiarnL Sat. u 

^ m. GDbert Wortbii^on, uid Peter Hirfbrd^ who bid wpenati 

P!*'- and ■obseqnently reDoonced tba tloctriiKe of WjdiT. TtM 

MendianU wbom, in spite of his sdntcacy od Uieir b«lwlf, 

be had mule hia Utter eaemics. were equally tetlotn in their 

■%• pcntocutimi. His onaignrnent before archbishop Boiirchin'. 

■■■ bis humiliating recantation, and sulMequent consignment to 

that olMCuritj in wliicli Iiix dajrs were ended, are dtitaila that 

bel'tng to otlior pagi^ tlmo oiim. 

It ha* been onjertured that political fbeling had itx 
•bare in the hostility wtiich lie encountered*. Tlie IjincaN- 
trian parlj was diHtir>gtitshc<l hj iu leaning towards Ultra- 
montanUm, and it wan within two yean of the first baltlo of 
St. Albans, when the Yorkists were everywhere in tlin a4< 
Cendant, that IV-cock was bronght to trial. It is certain tliat 
in both unircniities \m doctrine a'ttiiiiied to onKiflcmUs 
notoriety and commanded a certain following. In (ho year 
14j7thpy are to be found prominently cngnging the attention 
^'li' of the authorities of Oxford'. In the eiirly fitatiitc.-t of King's 
***" College is one binding evory scholar, on the completion of liii 
yearof probation, 'never tlironghout his life to favour any con- 
demned tends, the errors or heresies of John AVyclif, Reginald 
Pecock.orany other heretic';' and tins prohibition is repealed 

I Codiirr. Arfali, I 153. Har« «)io **■ CDtlDrine liardiliin in llw 

HH^. 11 -iC. Lewii, Li/f 0/ JV<:,H-t. pupil cauae; tlr^mij ■ >uffr»r. SnJ 

p. ll'J. diHtueit pMiiliJr to Lcciiinr s martyr, 

• Sw dean Hook. Lirrin/lheAr^h- And Prtixk *»• nul iniat .km. Fi>rtll, T KM. rerock, mm ttiu ranie itiUu'maUiix trom lUaut tbna 

vTilrr, -hul nuOfreJ in the nqiw ut Lull>, Jir<Tlnl ■(uiriKl tli" pHtnar* t4 

tlM pup«. 1I« LhJ BiuDlaiiH^ llic Kti|(]iind. in riadi''*U<in of llw iMilxip 

papal canoe aisin't 11,* n-ancil* ut o( Cliirbr-tcr.' Tim* bgtU Bttb- 

tl« CbiucL; lir h i4 aa>4'itrl, with hithny U-iartUitr irtami-ii tu tvttit*. 

Unnini.tliit tlir p<p"va>ILeiiiu- ■ Woud^tiiiltb, I (Ml— r/M, 

nirchnl iLvCLTir.-L, ■□■lUiut rver7 * 'lt<-ni *latDiuiu> quol qal- 

biihop ■>* oi Iv tie poiv'-drtrvat«: lilwt ai'liularii .jnni qaul mm 

be lial tlttfie UpUIv *iat Marim T CaTrbit vfjniiraibiu, damtijaiia #n^ 

Iifl ulkd api-D (.'Lirlirlrj and ib« rilrtii, ant liarrMLoj Juduiiiin Wtdi, 

Uh>)i (.( li,t tiiu< to do; Ik bad Irff, U-eiualdi K^orkf, d»|m M- 

ptDt'-itd again'-t tb'Mf ntntalr* d «ija« altitiM lurHiFi, ^tuMdi« fli. 

PJi"i''T« and prainiinire aliirli tba ml in but BiDndu, Mb fiuiM par* 

< '1? lid I Jti lud |>a>» d ■> a aa^C' jnrii d n|>at-uiiii i|r-« (ai-lu/ AUf. 

S" ri asinrt ps|al aisTH-iua; aud („«. H-fl. i:..i.iaU. «. lall, ia 1m. 

T"''? IL« jwjw »o>iJd uul d»*Tl kiis ti.* 11I4 I'rof. UaUii^ia'a luteal, to 

« li i boor of lit ^d. If Uk pt>ii« i1h H.f"u^. f. m»1t. Tba dato 

£~''^sid or r:B;u>cl iLc iaii<friuB'7 amp>cJ lu Ibr aLutc ■'-'t'— !■ da* 

■°|J>bichI'«eurk«Rit-udat.bcm«aM tMtMmrmU u ItU; b«t M tbaitl^ 

'^'T ria-e:ae it in b-lialf id «tf. l>teMk'a durtriow waa M( M^ 

' poooio BRAcaoLDn: 

even so late as the year 1475, in the Aotete Amtij^^cfr^t 

Queens' College". H 

The literary activity of the fifteenth century fare:*b-^ 

but little illustration of much value with refpxi to na:Ter«itT 

stuilies aft'.T tlic time of K*-;;iri<iM Pccr<'k. The qTi:cl-[-5:ir: * 

of tholI;:^t which ha*! fr-llowo'l upon the in*.n>!TKt5.« r/ tlv* 

Now Ari'totli* Ii.'i'l «!i«-«l away. •S'hola-'»*ici-m h»i «i-.>o^ It*--**- 

wurk riiJ«l wa-^ fillin;,' into its thfin'^o, E**«.D l^fope t!*^ •.^!. •-*•« 

hrcak of th«; civil v.:ir*, Oxf'»nI, in a m«in'»ra'-Ir jiLiiriit jr*- 

h*'T\'f*l to iH hv \V*/«^I, 'l«^I;in;*l that h'.T li.i!I» avl L -'•!• 

Hvp; il« -' rt'-«l. i'lM'l that pJ:' wa«« ftiFri'^t al-arfl'-f:.-] ..f I-f*^** 

»^ -ft 

own cliil'lri-n*. Tli': iuf*Tr>,ur^t: v.ilii the ^intii;' rit »x« rvw 

nrc nr:'l fitriil. Pari-* attrar*t«'«l litil fiv. Efi:;Ii*I.ri> & t-» l.«r 
s*-hiNiI»j: tlr*' f'P ii,ai'r wrt** .i'!«lom to Im.- fM«.ri in t?.»' •Tr»t.*.* 
of < 'aiiiliri'!'''' *;r 0.\f«»p!. Ooa^ionailv in«l».i-«I ciH-p-i'T c^r 
ii- co«-it\' l»p»ii;;]it ."* '1110 c"ntiri'-ntal >*th'»Iar to our •!:»«n.-*. J^jt 
tlio j^"S* ij^^i iraiict' aii«l tincUitup «I ton'.* that i.-vtrT»*.-rp» pf»-- 
vailvil •'tT'.'« •»::illv «!!-'"« •iir:i-.:»»l a hn-'th'-iK-^l »««»•• 'Mni. Am-'r-'T.**'^ 
tli'i^o A^li'^ v.iP' t)iii'< iiii[M !!i-.!, in tip- ••arly j»;irt *'( t!.^^ ^ r- *'"' 
t'lrv, wa^ tli»*<li-MTi'/!ii'-Iii #! Italian Vi^*nn I'ri.^:. 't: 

Ho caiiM' fii--!i fp'iii tin* ili \iTVof ni.'iiiv a li^r-'l- «• ?r.:i«T«'- 

j'i'-oi'of I^itiii litt nftirr, :int! fpiin int' rri>!ir^- f\i?Ji x]:.\* ri*:: z'».il iif It;il:.»n lit« rati, p jip-tiiliil hy nii n iiko .\r*?.^•^ 

ir -'■s-r. iir-1 r. r* .:»i!y 1: i-l ri t N i n f;!;i r.i ■rii.^rmr.t t%m. S • •:- rw*. 

*• r.-Ittaii'-i 111- I-* t!.ir»f-ri« hii- th I'ntn* tfiir.ln U !'• r:a E:r-rr 

I •.!.• r :i -Vi'i-f if a li\ !.•■ i'« in* j t i";ti::i'iifi:'|':i« f^-:**t^ J-' <•:••-* 

t::.- •: •? •! •- • ^rr' T.rrf». v*. tJs' i»i- t:"i •■-I p .•».•: in n« "^r'na , Iax •• -m 

<■ r; . • ,•: ii if a \ .*• r 't.i'i!!- iii 0.** u. -m • r »■■ !s -!.■ a i ;r .: • rt »• . .: 

^' ■■ • 1 -< • ■ . r if •• ir #■!!.'.-. ii. ■•.•>■ Ii ■ r- i '•;■-! i • •_: • i 

T- ■ •. ,■ \ I- • ■■ .• !j !; »! l! :- • f II I t '.•■■•■.: ir. Ill %• ■ , . : .1 ; . ■ • : 

a ■ • r ' •• • M r' • ui.i II !:.€ nJ i- \.. ■ : •• •■! I :. ".■ m ■;.:•• 

I :.■•.-.•■■.•.-:.••»■ pt* .1 ! :. 1 I » . '.r 1 \t : ii -. • 

■ !•! " ■ 1 1.1,1 '• ri ■!!■■!* «• li r •»•■.'.• . • «■. : i «• . .r ? -t •. i 

f ' ^y ' .• ;. r •■ 1 \ \ ti • !.': 'i • ' ! ' '.■•'.■ r«;r!i ,,-. ^_ ,• ^^ 

•'•.'• I • t. f..i. > .• ;|- t f • . • » . ■ ' r -T ■• . t ' .- t t -i 

I ■'. ' ■. • ' \ .'.-•■.- .Ii' ii. I * ■ ".f I ' . 'I I f i"» f-.. ■ •■ • • ■ ^ 

' • . V. . . ! . . ■ ! r. ■ ' ' . B'? I.- ■ : ■'-■.• } r t-.i ft >'. - ". »: 

' ■ . , ". • - I • • • ; I • r n 1 '•' i * \'- ' '.pi' » . . » 

, • •• N N- • '. ..' n» 1 ■ ■' . r ' .-. ■■ T 4 V- • .* 

. • f ■ . •'■.'.. 1 I - !■ ■ ■ .1 r« f »f . • ii 

. I 

w> I. ■ ■ ■ I .■ I • ■.» , I ••! " - 
V .; r ! •■! f ■ .' I . ■ ■ ' tl.. ■. I ;*.-•». • 
Ill ■ \ ■ ) . 'I ■ - ' t ' ,11 t I 

I ■ ■ I . . • ■;.,'. - . . i I . , - I \ ■ • I { I « 


in- Tr&Tenul, Qnsrmo, and Valla. From such seaoty reeorda aa 
_ lemain of hu imprestioDS we might conclude that the Boman 
I poot on the sboren of the Euxine found a scarcely less conge- 
'*' nial atmosphere'. If indeed all that the fifteenth ceotuiy pro- 
■ dnced in England were suhtmcted from our libraries, the loss 
would seem singularly small, and the muses, like the princess 
in the encliautcd caatic, miglit bo held but to have slumbered 
for a hundred years. Wliutcver still survives to represent 
tiic nntioDat gouiun, is chiefly imitntivo in its chomctcr, do- 
rived from writers like Bucaccio and tlio French romancers, 
who thoDgli they might <|nieken the fiincy did littlo to de* 
Tclopo and strengthen the mure masculine jHiwcm, and, in tlio 
opinion of Ruger Asclmm, were praised by tlioao who sought 
to divert tlieir countrymen from that more sulid reading 
which, while it developed habits of observation and reflexion, 
could scarcely fail at the same time to direct the attention to 
the necessity for ecclesiastical reform'. The few original 
authors of tiiis period, such as Capgrave, Lytlgatc, Peowk, 
and Occleve, sc<m but pale and inctlectual luminaries in the 
prevailing darkiicss. 'Learning iu England,' says Ilnllam, 
'was like seed fermenting in the ground through the fifteenth 
century.' Not surely a very happy simile : for the rich sheaves 
that were afterwards to enter our own ports, were the fruit of 
seed sown in other lands. But before we permit our attention 
to bo drawn away to events pregnant with very momentous 
changes, it will be well to follow up the course of external 
developcment at Cambridge, and also to complete our survey 
of those iDEtilulions which may be regarded as taking their 
riite still in implicit accord with those theories of education 
which were shortly to undergo such important modifications. 

> V^vs^o TiiilcJ Kiii>tanil at tLo tempo, pprihiacchk cgll die«, eb* 

tDTitatioD ofcnrilinnl Ufutilurt. 'Tlie dopo Inngo intcrrallo torno fiiul- 

Biotivc',' Mrs SlifplxTd, 'vliich in- menl« illn Corte.' vi 701. 'DarHn- 

dncf^ liim lo tnko tliiii step neeiD lo msDMt nrRinx sich in ^froRiien Hoff- 

lie eonorilL'd iu iladied tail nij-Eto- Diiui^n, tliciU ml dem britiuben 

rioiu iiiU'ucc' Lift of I'lipffin, p. IhuleQ nirh mnnchcn Tcrlortiieo 

12 1. Tinil«)Bpl)i unva ' ' Ki viiiR^io CloBaifccr vinlcn^iiAndi-n, tbeiU niilrr 

BDcorn cicii il Itia nctl' Iiiiihillcrm, dcm Stbiiliia dca kiiuifilicbra Prii- 

WDcbi'' non ki Kn]>]<iii pni-iaumi-iita laten nciii Uliick in loBCben.' Voigt, 

per quel lualtivo; di-l qua) vin;,';^(i Die Ji'itJtrbtlrbunj dtt ctaulielum 

Ik cijti Blcsao pin volte mcnzioue; ^frrrrbHou, p. STl. 

« pare, die ci ti trattcnoHe non poeo ■ ScboUmoMttr, ed. Msjor, p. 81. 

BBccnoH or icbooul fM 

It will be remembered thai the papal dednoa in the ci 
yev 1314 with reference to the priTilcgci of the UcndicutU ', 
in the universities, woa regarded b; them u a great blow to 
their order, inostnucli as the; were oo longer permitted to 
receive the general body of students in their houses fur 
lectures and diRpntationi)'. Up to the fourteenth ccntunr, it ^ 
docs not nppeartliatcitbvrunivL-rHity wiupowcMti-dof hclio»lii, ^ 
in the kdhc of buildin<^ exprciwly erected for the puqtuM.-; ■ 
llio rooms to wliicli it wim tH-cc^Kiry to have tccnunc were 
those in the ordiiinry lioNtoIn*; nml when InrpT axM-mldiva 
wi-ro cimwnoil, Si, Mary'ti clmrcli, or (but <if th« (Jniy Krinns 
Hii|i|ilii''l tliu n'<|<iiri <i u'l'iitiiiitvdiilixii'. UihIit Uhw circiiiii- 
Btiumii tlio imiH'siii)} dncliiiiirH of the dilRfitit n-lij'iou^ or- 
din bnd givi-ti tlicin an oilviiiitagu of which th<-y wi-a' ii'it 
slow to av:til tli(-iii.sflTtii in tlieir roliry of pfuM-lytiiin and 
Eclf-og'^audisuiiic-nt. At OxfunI, in (he thirt<.>ciitb cvntiiry, 
the fiiculty of thi.'<>l»<^y hud been iiid<jl>t(.-«I to Ibc Au;;ii>>ttiii4ii 
cnnoiis fur n. Iuc»l linbitiitioii, Ami cvt-n in the lift<fi«lh n-D> 
tury the uiiivvrsitv liad ln^«u fain to take on liiremunii which 

" s«*rr-: 

JCa-S. ■Tl.ftT.'fl 


I't nrt'. ■nil iiurh u Alt nllnl lb? 

In tlw m-Ih- 

>1 MT»t ot 4.111111.1 

Rrrat f urri.i.-*. lu tlic I'triiiui atN 


111 ■ tia><- tfrii 

J..NI1 .lu 

IWlml. cli: 



t.i|.My ri.ll.-a /..irr,.Mr.rt. t>L>n i«l 

■iiU llj- ■• 

>-,nMy ,.t il,r 


rik-i'tit M'l 

ii..|..r., (.. 


ri -■•: ». S.1- bIv iiv l-J-J, la 

Willi .m .W 

. AM. il rl, fn. 

t. M.A. 

ul l.iff »/ iM^ruM Iifuriiir, cX 


l.i.>»<..>'. :.- K 

:.l«. ill. 


|i;ic;- 71.- 


' ■ ttn- n^ i.t St. M.IJ-* rharrb 

' II I.'.- 

. 1 •M<i- 

t'.Jt m:>-.t<r....I ., 

Li>i* U.i> rullv . .1 .1 1..I..-J !.'.*• 

in i1m. 1,.,' 
J..!]-.!, in til 

■It ..1 .Ill 


,- 11.11 

il,.. .,|.| ..( I!,r t1,„-..,.tb r.M..,». 
l..l-.'7.t.l.. I,l!.,.|SulU„ 


BL, tfa« ridi kbliej of Oseney had erected witli the express pur- 
-r pose of letting them for such uses. It was not until the 
year 1480 that tlio divioity schools were opened; and thea 
ool; by nmistaneo begged from eveiy qiinrter, and aflcr Uio 
U[Mo of many ycnni from tho timo of their foundatiom In 
striking contnwt to litis duRcicncy in tlio rc'wiunxiH of thu 
anivcnity wcro to ho 8cen the dwellings of tlio Mvudicnntit; 
rvmarkahlo not uiertly fur thvir size and extent but for tliu 
^ Iwauty of ihfir dotiiik Wu know from a contouipomry 
« poet how tho wh'ilo L'tTi^ct iiiii<<t hiwo boon cnloiilntut t» ovvi- 
H awo nnd nttruct the youthfitl Mtink'nt; bow the eiiHonMly 
wrought windowH, whore ^'h-iuned tlio arms of iinuiiurmhlo 
bcnufactuni, tho pillarx, gildvd and ixtinted, und carve)! in 
curious knots, the ample jtrccinctit witli privnto ptMtvrni^ 
enclos'.Ml orchardi) and arbours', must have fascin.ttcd iimiiy a 
poor lad whoso home wan represented by the joint occupancy 
of some obscure garret, and who often depended on public 
charity for his very subsistence; and wo can well undorstund 
the chngrin of llie Mtinlicants at fimling ibcmselveH pro- 
hibited from reaping the mlvaiitago which suili opuleiicu and 
Kptendour ]»laced within their reach. With tliu fourteenth 
century, however, the universities began to seik for u more 
clfectual remedy than was atVonled by mere prohibitory niea- 
r BUrea. In the lulter part of the century Sir Ilf)lH.rt iJc 
Thorpe, lord chancellor of England, and sometime maHtcr of 
Pembroke, had commenced tho ercctionof the divinity schools*, 
which was carried to comjiletion by the executors of liis 
f brother. Sir William de Tluirpo, about tho year ISDH*. But 
i< the grand effort was not made until the latter half of the 
k following century, when Lawrence Booth, the chancellor, 
resolved on raising a fund for the building of arts schools 
and schools for the civil law. Contributions were accord- 
ingly levied wherever there appeared a chance of success: on 
tho^ who hired chairs as teachers of cither the canon or 

' Crftd of Firrt Floushman, oJ. Tnom. 'Tnnjonn la pIiirteI,'ob«eTTM 

ITriekt, II 4GI). 4'il. Tliarot, 'mi'ioa jtoai ilciignar ods 

■ C<n>i'pr, AitHalf, 1 III. It ia 10 be Mile nniqne.' 

<Wrvn] tbst Iho n-u of llic pliir*! ' Ibid. 1 143. 
£uM uot iiiiply inuri' Itinu ouv kcturs- 

EREcnoy OF scnooLa. 

rivil law, apon every rcflident religioas, whetlier Ekr 
Benedictines and the canons recognised ownen of 
wealth, or like the ]^Icndicnnts avowciily sworn to 
on tiio wealthier clei^y, and on the higher dignitahe» of 
dinrch, — though in the htst cilso asxiMtancc wa« tA'».^*^: 
nth(T than authf>rit2itivrly cuforcitl. Ky efftftji like tl^^* 
the luiivorsity iN'gati to attain to a rt*al n^ wi-ll as J-v^ 
iniirp«*ndonrt* of tho friiirH; and it wan |inilicihly aU'it !:.:• 
tini'.* tlmt a Ntattitt; wan fi^rnicd making it olilii:atiirT un all 
wliii l«rtur<Ml on the raii'm or the civil hiw, tii hirt* tlic »« « 
pMiniM and deliver th<'ir IcrtnrrN th(*ri**. 

i^lowlv, hilt HUirly and incvitahly, tho liilo «»f h-ar^irij J*** 
1ft ;w ri»llin;; on away from the friaiy and the ni«iiivt«ry. *"" 
Fn»m an attiinptid rond>inafion of the Nifiihir anil n li^n ''2« 
i'li'iiirntH like that p*pivsiiitiil in tlic IloMjiital of Sl J*»hn 
anil IVrnhmko Colhgi*, and a vignrouM cITifrt at imU pi n*]! ncv 
on the part of tho university like that illtiHtrateil in tin* f <v- 
going details, wi* pavs to a fresh Ktago in the Manic nifiittncrit, 
^tli*.' dirci-t diviT'^ion i»f prn|M'rty frnni the n-ligi'HM nnl»n 
to the nhivei«iM«-<. It is iviiliiit uitli flu- llfru ii!*i 
cvntnrv a ii«*w f'eliri;r )iej;ifi t<» pM--i*^ the miird^ i»t niiii%* 
With re^'p'-et to the nn>na*«tic l«HitMlatii>ns, — the fi liii;; i.f 
despair. Thero apjM'ars to have hi^rn as yet no di^tinet i-fj- tw i 
tiim lit <if aviTNiiiu to nittnaxtiii-m as a theory, Imt i*! n tht *-•-- 
h»ver I'f thf ni"na'»t«rv In'mu tn ih-fiair of ihi- monk; aii«l it !_** 
is am'>ni^ ihr* nn'*t si^^nifi' ant pr«N»f4 of the? c«»rnipli»ifi of 
tlio ditV< P'ht re1i"i<'U*i nnhrs at tl is ftariml, that tlic ffiin- 
dat'oii- thit hei;:i'i t«» ri*e at U'tli ii.iver«»itii s are ti» U* r«.— 
firri'il n^t !<• aiiv i!:*!ik«" "f tin* sv^f 'iii ulii.Ji lli«»*f unl. n 
repn— ti'i'tl. Imt tt» tire r- ■!i\ i' ti-iii tli;it f!ii' rule they 
rii-vived w.i'^ |,.iMTii:i!'y a-el w.'iiMy \i..!iT. .1. In the f>>im- 
dati'in. a! (Sl-ri!. "f N- wi' !'■ Z' ^y ^VlImih i.f \V\k' h.uu »•■ J -^ 
have a >i::ii il pp-'f «'f i'- * *r.i'' *( ti •!.!..•. Tie* ri-Ih^jv 
itself, thu'uli huilt up .\> :t uiT-- "'it •■! tl..- r-i;n'» i«f iiiun^^tK- 

■ Ilinrv t^o fr t t <• ?v. • .n ^ •' -▼ »:' ..•..!• ^^ C" • tmr, 

9eMi,tmjurr.,^,: . ?N. '.■. - ^ i t ■ f r ■ I .-.•«.,... f -i- • 

Afili; r;ru*-/ /I- I ni- n: I^e !•• ii. '-.. f. f.iM. 

drUiktl arc I if lU ^n '..■..ilirAl J" '■ » I'- ' 

% .r 



n, foandationa, retained more than any similar society, th« disel* 
»• pline of tho monontic life. It was, in fact, half as a substitute 
S^ for the moDosteiy that tho college appears to havo been 
designed. Long before it was constituted, William of Wylte- 
ham luui sought among nionks and mendicants to find a less 
glaring discrepancy between theory and practice, and ho liod 
K'Ught in Tain. ' Ho had been obliged,' says one of his 
biographers, 'with grief to declare, that ho could not any- 
where find that tho ordinances of their founders, according to 
their truo dcnign and intention, were et present observed by 
any of them'.' 
■£„ Tlic extension given by this eminent prelate to the con- 
i^ ccption of \yalter de Merton is represented by the fact that 
ho endowed his college with lands purchased from religious 
houses, and though tliere was nothing in such «n act which 
the most strenuous supporters of monastic institutions could 
directly impugn, in.'ksniuch as the new foundation was de- 
signed for tho secular clergy, wo may Ijc quite sure that tho 
alienation of the propeity from the cununuuitics to which it 
originally belonged, was a measure regarded by many with 
distrust and suspicion. It needed the HUunless reputation, 
the noble descent, and the high position of the founder to 
sanction such an innovatiun, and tho precedent probably had 
weight in those more decisive acts in the same direction 
which belong to the two succeeding centuries. But there was 
nothing of an arbitrary cliarncter in William of Wykeham's 
procedure; the lands which he piirchasol from Oscncy Abbey, 
the priory of St. B'ridesivide, and St, John's Hospital, were 
bouijht with the full consent of the proprietaries', tho signifi- 
cance of the proceciling consisted in the fact that such large 
estates slionld be appropriated by one, whose ezaraplo was 
BO potent among his countrymen, to such a purpose. 
r The scheme uf his noble foundation throw into the shade 

every existing college whether at Oxford or Cambridge, Bn<l 
was the first iu our own country which could compare with 

I LoKlb, Liff of William of ll'iikf. lovcrnl orJtTii; bal Iminie ho foond 

kan, p. 2t. tu c:tac(t> Bimiliui'tTitt Hint luw or aoua ot tliem liTcilupto 

it IliG Iiui^'unKC uf Cok't'* liotjnit'licr: Umur towu auJ piofcuiou,' Klkicbt, 

—'Mot tlut hi luted ujp ono ol their Lift of Colet, p. 7i. 


KEW college; OXPOBDl SOS 

tliatof Narane. It was intended to promote all the reeogiuBed cvai 
branches of learning. Tlio society was to consist of a waiden ^ 
and seventy fellows, of whom fifty were to be stud<*nts in arts 
or divinity, two being pemiittcd to study medicine and two 
astronomy. The remaining twenty were to bo trained for 
the law, — ten as civilianH, ton as canonists. All were to bo 
in priest's orders within a fixed period, except where reanun* 
able impediment could be shown to exist There were moro-* 
over to be ten conduct chaplains, three clerks of the cliapcl, 
and sixti^cn choristers. Hy rubric r>8, one of the chaplains 
was n.M(uirc<l to learn gnuniimr and to be able to write, in 
order to assiht the treasuror in traiiHoribing Latin evidenoc. 

' From this princely and accomplished man,' says his 1^* 
latest biographer, ' not only Ucnry vi at Eton and King's, !l^ 
but subsequent founders dorived the furm of their institution. 
Tlie annexation of a collt';;e in the university to a depi.'ndent 
school, was followed hy Wulsoy in hi.s foundation of Cardinal 
College and Ipswich Sc1wm)1 ; ])y Sir Thomas White at 
St. John's College and MtTcliaiit Taylors' School; and by 
Queen KlizaUth at WLNtini!i>t«r and Christ Church*. • 
Chicheley and Waynfleto almost litmlly oipi*-*! his Matuti-n. 
The institution of colle^^'e di>putatinns, extenial to the public 
exercises of the university, in the presence of deans and 
moderators ; the cotemiM»raneous en-ction of a private chapel ; 
the appn»priali«»n of felh»WNhi|»s for the enc«mni;;ement of 
Ftudents in iiegleetctl hniiiilHH of l<'ariiiii<;. were among flio 
more prominent mj^iih of that which uiunI l»e virwe*! more as 
a creatiiMi of a new sy.'^teni, than as the re\ival of litcnituro 

in its decline V 

The next foundation that daitns our attention «^i««cl^>'<^« a J^ 
further advance in the ilinctiini marked **hI hy William of J^; 
W\kehnm; from the ^imJ•^• convirMMii, hy puahaM*. ofL*, 
niouastie ]»rojKTty into c»»Il";:e |ir« prrty. wr arrive at the 
htavre of diri.^t and forcihh* ai«piH]niaM"ii. The alim priories 
Wire the tirst to stitfer. tin* war- wi'h Ffjiji* atV..riling a 
l»la\iNil»le pretext fer the M-i/i:r<.' fl" w.t'.th whi- h wii»t niainly 

» An.t. it m%x be AdJiJ. si Tiimijr « ^v i' it. n ..■ f ir,uka» 


*. itL to enrich the foreigDer. ' These priories,' says Qough, ' wen 
^^ celLi of the religious houses in Englaml which belonged to 
r£ foreign roonasteries : for when manors or tithes were given to 
"^ foreign convents, the monies, either to increase their own 
rule, or rather to have faithful stewards of their revenue)^ 
built a small convent here fur the reception of such a number 
as they thought proper, and constituted prion over tbeoL 
Within these cells there was the same distinction as in those 
priories which were cells subordinate to some grt-at abbey; 
some of these were conventual, and, having pnors of tbeir 
own choosing, thereby became entire societies within them- 
selves, and received the revenues belonging to their several 
houses fur their own use aud beuetit, paying only the ancient 
apport, acknowledgmcut, or obvcution (at first the surplusage), 
to tlie foreign house ; hut others depended entirely on the 
foreign houses, who appointed and removed their priors at 
pleasure. These tmnsniittod all their reveitiies tu the foreign 
head huii.scs ; for which rcn.son their estates were generally 
seized to carry on the wars between England and France, 
• and restored to them a^aiu on return of peace. These alien 
priories were most of them founded by such as had foreign 
abbeys founded by tbcmseives or by some of their family'.' 
w The first seizure appears to have taken place in 128j, on 

nbrthe outbreak of war between Fniuce and England; aud tu 
•• 1337 Edward HI confiscated the estates of the alien priurics, 
and let them out, with their tenements and even the priories 
themselves, for a;term of 23 years ; but on the cstablishuient 
of peace they were restored lo their original owners. Other 
sciiucstrations were made in the reign of Richard 11, and | 
under Henry IV, in the parliament of 1402, it was enacted 
that all alien priories should he suppressed'; the Privy 
Council indeed actually received evidence in his reign, con- 
cerning the diiTurcnt foundations, with the view of carrying ! 
the enactment into elTect: but the final blow did not come I 

I Somr Aftount o/lhr Atirn Priorlet bj Qoni;h in hii brief Bkclcfa, vim* 

and n/ inch Ijiadiiu th.-ii are kmirH be tfraku nl tlie pulicf ol Kecrj ir 

to hart umtrnril jn Enghind and M niurg Ittvonibls lo the nuiiuU- 

Waitt, LimJ. 1TTQ> Vni. to Vnl. i. nsnce ul Uie luruiipi iutecuitU. i 

• Xkii iiuiHuLuit fact U uuullvJ ii, k. 


until the war with France in the rciCT of Henfr v ; when in n? a? 
the year 1414, i'l prospect of that f^ai Htniggic, no le^s' 
than 122 prinri* % were confiscated under the Jirertion of 
archbishop Chichcley, and their revfiiues, for the tiro**, aV 
sorbed in the n>yal (»xcliC(jU(»rV From this exti-nsive confis- 
cation wiTc derivod the revenues of that princi-ly fi*unJati'-<n. 
which, thirty years later, rose under the aii.spices of Hf nry vi 
at Canil»rid;;c». 

It is a-iserted that it had Iwen the oriiHnal inteuti<>n of »"--*« 
Henry V tu appropriate the whole of the ievenu»-s to thv ^, ^ 
endowment <»f on** ^rn-ut cm|I»';^i' rit Oxfunl ; his son lii»wov. r ; ^ ; 
detenniind tli:it th<*re should Ik* two c«»lh*<L;e«. antl that 'f '•' 
these one nIiomM he at Ktnn and the otln.-r at r';im!ir:dj^*V 
In turninLf to tr.ire th«' oriijin of one of our gr-a!* -it C'»ll. :;. s 
and <'f "Ur L'liati-^t iJuMi)" sch'"»!, w«* :ire aeenplin-'lv r-n- 
fn»nt'«! hv tie- iiame.^ <.f iIimnj. vet in^ro anoi» iit in*tit«iT: .?i'<, 
which s!ijnT^titi«»n (»r p'liliiithn'py had n ared f»u \\f p! iirj^ 
of Norniahilv uli«ii tli" nrii'.i'i>iti. «< tln!n*« !\i-^ hail n* 
oxi> 'Mil'''. Kr'iJii t]|i' \i ii'r;ii»I«' al»)"«-v "f I'< c \%.\- '.r ^T-lw^,.^ 
the ]uii»rv of n\. )i!iiiM\ tl:-- \\t .i'"l.i< -f »•■ M in K: j! m!*, a 
maii'»r at Tvl'l« -\\*\' in ^'-iiiv. I'l mm 1 ;»!;■ rl.i r at F- '*•■ ! in 
Iv-i'X, P'pi« -• iiT' ■] *:n- :«li' III*, d \\t aMi of tl:«- •:)'!► y :i\ 
Cai-n ; tie- ni'iiii-** jv mI" Sr 1*. i. r 'l- < 'oiit h* - r-rft'!--! iii.nv 
a l»r-'ad arre in Waiwii 1. -ii:i.-, \V--ii.-f i-^liiii-, ah«I N-'rf-'.K , 

estat'.s in Lim- lij^lnre, i ii- \\!.''l hv tli*- aM"-v i.t" Sv 

Nie!it»l:i.«i in An^- ;-. .ind 'M • r^ t!..»* h.i.l inri«hiil t^•• pr^i-nt* 
of I?rv*«tt in SitV !k. — a <•!; ♦•■ trii- iiri- rv "f N'-hiliar u- \r 
Linio^'i^, — nuiii' :<•'!« p\« i>;"!i- fr-'Mi • -t.i'i* c)f w.y.i' r iiiij^r- 

* Oiilv t^..-. |.'. 

- Win .!■ .'. 1 


• 1 


1. - •• •! K ",• P- •■'^ 11 >^ 

«!:: li \.i\ .:•.". 

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k atxr. ra. Iadco and various hostels in the town, completed the 

*"'" '^ roll of the revcDues of ' The King's College of Our Lndy 

St. Nicholas" at Cambridge, 

•HHM The history of the newfoundntionafTordsanotheTillu! 

t >j ^^ tion of the way in which Ultramontjuiist theories wer 

this time successftilly contending for the predominanci 

our universitica, and the principle asserted in the Bam 

Twwm Process receiving further extension. The commissio 

— «* originally appointed to prepare the statutes were Will 

Aluwick, liishop of Lincoln, William Aiscough, bisho 

Salisbury, William LyndewoJe, keeper of the privy i 

John Somerseth, chancellor of the exchequer, and J 

langton, chancellor of the university ; but in the year 1 

tMrn«. (iijg commission was superseded, the king himself uu 

taking to provide the rule of the foundation. There sc 

I to be good reason for supposing that, in some way or ot 

I tlie proposed scheme had failed to command the com 

aioners' approval, fo' it was at their own roquest that 

work was conftdcd ti- other hands; tliey themselves beinj 

they pleaded, fully oecupie"] with other husiuess, nejotii 

occiipationibus impediti. But it is difficult to believe 

the design of so important a foundation could have fnile 

be a matter of lively intercut to the bishop of a neighbou 

diocese and to a chancellor of the university ; and indeec 

know that Langton bad been the first to suggest the crea 

of the new college to the royal mind. At the same t 

that the king undertook to provide for the preparatioi 

wjjjiiji the new statutes, William illillingtoD, the rector of 

g^J2 original foundation, had been retained in his post under 

name of provost; but when the new statutes had recei 

the royal sanction, he found himself unable to give a i 

SMtolba scientioua assent to their provisions and was aecordii 

StjmtSm- ejected by the commissioners'. It will be desirable to p 

> TbB tiirtlii1it7 ot kinR Henij made proTrat, and vliieh the 

bring OD the (cB«t ot St. Kicholu. dran'n MalutM eirmplcd him t 

• tolo inye, 'tiie trne rPHMnofbiB besides lie v>b not llioronnlily ( 

rrraoval mvm* to procccil Imin him- fi«i tlml thf tr-holon thimUl nil 

wl( and k poin' "' ctniH'iiQcp. he /niin Kion Sfhooi: Mr Willi 

hiiviug tnkeii the o>lhi la the cbuu. who hn« ctrefully invert I (itUd 

Mllur ol tbo DOtTcnit;' b«tor« he uu Khole ovidenco conccruine the 



out the character of those innovations with respect to which cni 

his difficulties arose. ^ 

The elaborate nature of the code now given to the 
foundatiou corresponds to the grandeur of its endowments, 
and presents a striking contrast to the statutes of the colleges 
founded at Cambridge in the preceding century. It in how- 
ever entirely devoid of originality, being little more than a 
transcript of the statutes which William of Wykeham, after 
no less than four revisions, left to be the rule of NewTi»f 
College*; but the minuteness of detail, the small discre-rn«i 
tionaiy power vested in the goveniing body, the anxiety coik 
shewn to guard against all po&sible innovations, must be 
regarded as constituting a distinct era in the history of the 
theory of our own collegiate discipline. The Latinity, it is 
worthy of remark, h' more correct, and copious to a fault; 
aud there is also to be noted an increased power of expres- 
sion which makes it difficult not to infer that a greater 
advance must have been going on in classical studies during 
the preceding years, than writers on the period liave been 
inclined to suppose. 

provost of bis colle^, endorRCs this 
account, au<l observes, *tbAt tbe 
founder bad nothin;; to do with his 
ejection, and waa extremely sorrj* for 
it, is confirnuHl by a fact which Mr 
Kearle has brought to iny notice, viz. 
that in 14 1*^, only twriyjurs after his 
removal, he was appointed, in con- 
junction xsith others, to dniw up sta* 
tntcrt for Queens' Colb^'e ; and that 
t)iisapiH»iijtnu'nt was twice renewed.' 
S*'e SolictM of Williain Millitiiiton, 
firft Vro\o.^t of Kiii'/n O'llf^jv^ by 
(ieor^o William", ii.i>. , Ftllow of 
Kin^^'s Collide, Com niiuirtifnnn of 
L'amhr'ulje A ut'munrian Socitty^i 287. 
Cf. Ihtrumnitf^ III 4. 

* Mc**srs Heywoixl and Wri;»ht at- 
tribute them to Chedworth (see I'ref. 
to Kitifi'i CoUeijf Statutfi, p. vii\. 
Mr Williiims, uho i* followed by 
CoojKr (.Vfmor/.W#, i lH2), wiys • My 
own 1»( lii-f i" tluit tije provost of Ktoo 
(^yuiIJt!t•^t) was the franur of the 
cu>tiij;» code, or, I should rather 
wiy, that he it was who adaptc-d the 
statutes of the two fcmndations of 

William of Wykeham to tb« two kin- 
dred foundatiout of H«urT ti. WU- 
liam of Wiiiulleft bad been edocated 
at Winchester, and on tlie first foand- 
ation of Eton (a.d. 1441) had l>een 
transfcrre<l, half the VV'inclieHtvr 
scholar!*, to Eton Culle^re, as its firnt 
h«ad master, and U-came (a J>. 141:1) 
its second or third provtMt. He it 
kntiwn to ha\e enJ4>y«'d the nmfi- 
den«*e of the founder in th«> fullest 
measure, and (.'ap;Tave*s witni'vs to 
this fact, and the cauH» of it, may 1<« 
statiMl, from the passn;rv fol2«>«inc 
that T^bich relates t<» Millincton ; 
Alt ft nntt-m t!irtnf Majittrr n*i7/i>l- 
mui Ifiif/N^/ffff* Hon mttftttm priori 
(iintimilin^ carut ut pHlnlHT Hnmimn 
lU'ti Unhftur^ non Mm pruptfr #rr>!i- 
tinm nt'nfarvm quam ritn*n rrfiftrm. 
The vifbul a;rreenjent of mont of tbe 
st^itutt"* of Kt4*n and Kiiitf's, with 
tl.ove of Win* h«-ter and New Colle;re 
r« •|'<rtiN<l\.N\i»ul.n.efuily aceount«*d 
for by th< Ion;! and intmuto cimnee. 
tion of Wainib't with tbe earlier 
foundation*.* llrta. p. 203. 




XAT. m, The college is designed for the maiotenKDce tiS poor ai 

' • _y • need; acbolara, who must be iutendiDg to devote themselv 

■"■■f to the sacred profe^8ion, at that time (says the preamble) '. 

■™v. severelj weakened by pestilence, war, and other hnnii 

calamities';' they must wear the 'first clerical tonsure,' I 

^^mmm. of good morals, su&iciciitly iaitnictcd in grammar*, of hone 

convcrsatio)!, apt to learn, and desirous of advancing i 

knowle<lge. A provost, and seventy schularM (who muKt hai 

alrcnily been on the foundation of Eton for a period o( ni 

Pk less than two years) wliosc age at admission muHt be Wiwcc 

fifteen and twenty, are to be maintained on the foundatioi 

The curriculum of study is marked out with considcrabi 

■•^ ^ precision ; — theology {naera Kriptara sea pagind), the art: 

'■"■^ and pliilosophyi are to constitute the chief subjects and t 

form the ordinary course ; but two masters of arts, of superie 

ability (rivacis ingenii) may apply themselves to the. study c 

the civil law, four to tliat of the canon law, ami two to ih 

science of modicino ; astronomy {scientia asfrorujn) is pci 

mitti-d ai a st'uly to two more, providiHl that tliey obscri' 

the limits imposed by the provost and the dean, — a pre 

caution, we may infer, ng:iinst the forbidden researches of lln 

astrologer. The transition from the scholar to the fellow i 

I TLne lUtntH are i«iD&rbaM« 
for tbeir verUisiljr uid jilcuuaslic 
mode o( eipre«aion : — i. g. ' ac pripci- 
pD« nt fenentiiu et (rrquenliuii 
Cbristari etangclizctor, rt fiJea cnl- 
tnK)na dirinl Dominis aiiRcatiir, et 
fortius eiiBtenlPlur, aacm iiisiiper 
thciilri|-iic ut diliit*lnT lau*. Rulit'nis- 
tor ecrlcnia, lifiur atqne fervor C'brie- 

of the (n'riun «iU huTe been arrom 
ptUbcd at Eton: — 'Et qaia i^uiumi 
alTei'lamDgi ct Tolama^ quod mitnem 
Mbolariam et Boeiomm In dirto una 
tro Brt;ali CoUrdo Caotiilrieiie l« 
Boe Biiperins ioBtilnlnji, plctie et per 
tecte )>er Dei graliiim perpetiui fuln 
ris l[-ni)ionbus tit eompli-la>: ai 
CouHiili'raiilrB alteule quod cram 
nr prim. 

eiiliiH liUernlilna repulalnr. fnnda 

IrMant. neenon ul gineralem mor- 

tnenliuD, janua, et origo omninn 

buiu niilitiiF cleriealin qiiam propter 

tiamm exialit; qundqne eioe ea cr 

ria. et aliis roiii.<U miKeris Rravilcr 

TDloeniri coiis|Kiimii». dcsoletioDi 

non poHinnI, nee a<l enrum nnii 

eoDipatieiilea lam trisli, partim alle- 

coRiiiiionim et perficlionem quit 

Tare pun-imiiH, qticni in tola sainre 

Temciter uod vntcina?, ad quod re- 

di^iiia faveiite dementia, de U.iii. 

tera pro uostric di'Toti.iDii aiiino 

iif.blris a Deo eoltali* nrnim alioi 

ooatros rcjrios api-oniraiis libc-iler 

lt<,»Ie colL't-'inm in villa nostra d, 

UborcB.' SM»U', by Hej-wood aud 

V>ri!:l.t. p. 18. 

toiiDDs etc' lOU. p. 21. 

* It is UBomed tbat tba first staga 



kino's college. 309 

here first clearly defined It is not until after a three jrean' ci 
probation, during which time it has been ascertained whether %i 
the scliolar be ingenio, capacitate senswf, maribus, conditioni" 2] 
6iM, et sctentia, dignus, habilis, et idoneus FOR FURTHER STCDT, S^ 
that the provost and the fellows are empowered to elect him * 
one of their number. 

'In mMition to the various privileges granted by himJJ;;; 
with the sanction of Parliament, to the college, the kin;;?'^ 
obtaine<l bull.s from the poj>e exempting the cJIege and 2^ 
its meml>erH from the power and jurift'liction of the arch- 
bishop of Canterbuty, the bishop and archdeacon of Ely, and 
the chancellor of the univen$itv: and on the 3Ist of Januanr, 
144S— 9, the university by an instrument under its common 
seal, granted that the college, the * provost, fell >ws, and 
scholars, their ser%'ants and ministers, should be exempt from 
the power, doniiiiion, and jurisdiction of the chancellor, rice- 
chancellor, proctors and ministers of the university ; but io 
all matters relating to the various scholastic acti*, exercUes, 
lectures, and disputations necessary- for degrees, and the 
sermons, masses, general pr» •cessions, conp^«-^'iti«»ns, cmvoca- 
tions, elections of chancellor, proctors, and other oflicers (not 
being repugnant to tlieir peculiar privileges), they were, as 
true greniials and scholars of the university, to be obedient 
to the chancellor, vice-chancellor, and proctors, as other 
scholars were. To this grant was annexed a ccmdition that 
it should 1k» void, in the bishops of Salisbury, Lincoln, 
and Carlisle, should consider it inconsistent with the statutes; 
privileges and laudable customs of the university'/ 

It will be seen that, just as the Barnwell Process had «fi 
exempted the univei'sity from ecclesiastical control, it was "^ 
now sought to render the c«jlh»ge independent of the uni- 
versity ; to obtain for the new foundation, in short, an 
independence similar to that enjoyed by the different friaries: 
such was the provision to which William Mi-lington found 
himself unable to assent ; it also affords a sufficient explana- 
tion of the resignation of Laugton, who, if sticli an idea had 

^ Cooper, MtmoriaU, i 192, 193. MS. Ilmro ii 139. 

1 J 


. BL beeo is snj w&y foreshadowed, could hardly havi xpptani 

V » proposal to rcikder any college independent of the juriadic- 

tion he peisonally represented, and whose privileges he waa 

boand to guard. Another and equally valid objection urged 

iM* by Uillington, appears to have been the limitation of tho 

"^ advantages afforded by so splendid a foundation to the acJioUurt 

of Eton txchiskehj. 

Tlie countenance given to the new scheme illustrates, 
not less than the opposition it cncounterhKl, its true nature. 
Within throe years after the foregoing statutes bad been 
given, cardinal Beaufort, the leader of the Ultramontane 
MM party', be< pica thud the large sum of XIOOO to augment tlio 
J*"* already princely revenues of King's College and the founda- 
tion at Eton. -His own student life had been passed chiefly 
at Aix-la-Cliapclle, where he waa distinguished by his attain- 
ments !n the civil law ; but he hnd been a Bcholar at Peter- 
house in US8, and studi.Ml at Oxford in 1397, and the 
preference thus sliown for tho new society over bis own 
college is a diet of no little significanco'. 
tatf Within five years of tliwe enactments the university 

•M> made n Ktrenuou.'i etlbrt to rons.sert its rights of jurisdiction, 
•« and the scholars of King's College were prohibitoil from 
t"* proceeding to degrees until they should, in their coUcetivo 
cap;icity, have renounced their' exclusive pretensions. This 
prohibition however was iinmetlialely followed up by tlie 
royal mandate compelling the university to rescind its reso- 
lution*. Eventually, in the year 14.'i7, an agreement vM 
entered upon by the cliiinccllor and the doctors regent and 
nnn-rogont on the one hand, and tho provost, fellows, ami 
scholars of the college on the other ; and as tho result of thin 
composition the college succeeded, after some unimportant 

< ■ lUaiifort, tlioTichqni<?>^«Dl,vaB t»eale Maria il« EtonjaiUWimlewr, 

ntHloiiKioltj' tiio niuiti iiiiitrutncut ia et MDcti Nidioloi Cintabri)0{'. prr 

iiilriHliiriii)! tLe new )>npal tihtirjMi- lUctuin tlomiiinin mcum lUi^ia ex 

tiuH.' l>iuii Il'->k, Lirrt, v 1,W. «iiii:nliiri I't prB«i|iua mA JoviicioM 

■ <iniii.'li, .Villi MMrniii VftniiH, tt ail ilivhii ciillim aiiRniPiilnm ealboll- 

li. lIiMiidirt'ii la'iiii'-t i"iiiikM'r»ii<l ciogiio flilci utalturinui'iii hdrIa aa 

n>.lii'it, biiiriTii.' iliiki A|<rit U, 1 1 17. luliilirili't riniiliiliinnn. tie.' NiclHilK, 

'riie iirvnttiMc i« na r..llui>it:-' lum tUyul nail \.ihlf fVilli, p. 3.1S. 

» illiirriiii niilalii- ' Cwiiwr, AanaU, l UUS. 

miijuiuui CuUi'ijloruiii, vii. 




oonocssions, in retaining those privileges which have formed 
the distinctive feature of the foundation up to our own 6ay\ 

It has been conjectured, and the conjecture is sufficiently J"^ j' 
plausible, that this imperium in imperio which tins society Jjj;^ 
succeeded in establisliing, took its alleged justification in£^ 
those immunities and privileges which the Mendicants so 
long enjoyed and for which they so strenuously contended*. 
However this may have been it will scarcely bo denied by 
the most enthusiastic admirers of the conception of William 
of Wykeham, that the triumph gained by the fellows of King^s 
College largely partook of the character of a Cadroa^an 
victory, and it reflects no little honour on the integrity and 
sagacity of its first provost that ho protested so vigorously 
against so suicidal a policy. It would indeed bo useless to 
assert that a society which has sent forth scholars like Sir 
John Cheke, Richard Croke, Walter Uaddon, Wintertoo, 
Hyde, and Michcll, mathematicians like Oughtred, moralists 
like Whichcotc, theologians like Pearson, antiquarians like 
Cole, and even poets like Waller, has not aildeil lustre to the 
university of which it forms a part ; but it would Ik' erpially 
useless to deny that when its actual utility, mcasuHMl by tho 
number and celebrity of those whom it has nurtured, is 
compared with that of other foundations of far humbler 
resources, its princely revenues and its actual 8<?rvices seem 
singularly disprojx)rtionate. For more than a century from 
its commencement this royal foundation was by far the 
wealthiest in the university. In the survey of the commis- 
sioners, Parker, Redman, and Mey, in the year 154G, its 

' A Ritif^iilar illufltmti<*n of the im- 
miiniti( <* cmiittMl to the C4iIK'(*c tliir- 
ii)t{ tho lifctituo of tlie fotuiiU-r in to 
bf found ill ail act pa**-^* «1 in tlio year 
11'*:* for rui^iii;,' 1:1,<hm» Rrchew fi.r 
the kin;;*H m-rvict', ^hcriin a clonso 
expri'Ssly exc-inpt"* tJie )»rov«»«t and 
Bcliolurn of this foiitidiitioii fruiii tho 
ohh^Mtion of furnishing' their C|iiota 
to lln' l<\-y imposed on the r<iunty of 
Ciiiiihj idi:e. J:„t. V.irUament. v i.Ti. 
Co4»|n'r, Annnh^ I 2o.'i. 

• JIiMjk, lAvmofthf ArrhhpM., IT 4. 
It iH C4-rtain that, in the »pirit in 
ivbich itii btatutea wcro oouccivi^l. 

Kin^'ii Colle^o tnA«]o * elon^ up. 
proach to the nionaitie Cf>n4*«»ptioo 
than any other collei;e at CamliriJ^. 
' Sonic of their nio««t reiiiarkAbU 
character! sticM,* oWr^e the Mlitors, 
*wen; tak«u frt»m the old iU(»naKtie 
di'-riidine, Hitch a<« tbo mish to pre- 
perve the iniiiiiti*^ fn*ni external e»n* 
neetioiiM, the extensive |Mi«er i;iven 
to the provoHt. the lenj.'thy cwtha al 
i'wry »«t«-p. and th<« ur)*i nt manner 
in ^hirli e\ery nienilNT «a< di«in-<l 
t4> a«*t as a npy n|Miii tbo c«»iidaet of 
]ii<« fillowM.* Vrrfate bj li«jrwooil 
and Wright. 



ut in rcT«nuc9 were douTjIo tliono of St. Jolm's, vfhich stood Bccond, 

■^_ Kad wvn only Biirpawiit when tho Inrgo ondowmont of 
Trinilj- ofowj at (lie end of the same ytar'. Tlic compara- 
tive wealth of thcBQ three colleges remained nearly tho name, i 
until the fur nidor nctivily of the two younger foimdntionB 
Rapol a natural and honorahlo ri'ward in the grateful ! 
tnnniftcvncc nf ihcir wonn mid th« g^ncroii!* tiyinpiitliy oC ! 
itiat^n; while the foundation of Henry VI, i>hiit in and 'j 
mrmwud hy coilleait rent rict ions, debarred from oxjuitiMioa i 
with the re<[uiren)<-nU of the age, iind hcU-cxcI tided from i 
conpcrxtion and free intercounto with the univen>ity at Inrgo, I 
long remained, to borrow the exprcaKion of dean Peacock, 'a I 
■plcmlid renola|ih of learning,' — a signal warning to founden 'J 
in all ages against leeking to mctuiuro the cxigeneim and { 
opj'^"oit'<^ *>f future gcneralionB hy tbow of their oura ■ 

■w (lay. and A n'daltio illtutrution of tlio imwiiulom which in a 
KnijxdixM alhereiici^ to thu letter of a fuunilei^u iiiMtnjctionv 
viohiIeK tho Hpirit of hiti purpiwe. 

^■^a Another nyul foitn<]utioii followed upon that of King's. 

•^ In tho year }H't the party le<l by cuTiltnal lieaufiift had 
Bucco<^'ilcd in hriii^ing ulxmt the marringe uf llio youthful 
m'liifirdi with M^ir^iirut of Anjou, dnnghtiT of \li!u^ titular 
king of Sicily anil of Jeruwdem. It van lioped that the 
pt>licy of tho Viicillating nud fcelilo liiixltand might I»o 
HtrengtlKncd hy the iuHuence of a coofiort endowed with 
mnny rare (iniilitieii. The civil wars wcro not calculated for 
the exhihition of the temiiiine virtues, but there is sufGcicnt 

■Mtf rcasun fur believing timt Margaret of Anjou, though facr 
name is nsMwinted with ho ntucli that bclongn to tlie ilarkciit 
|-lia-<e of human mituro, wa.i cniel rather by nccowiity than 
by di-iiK»>itioii or ehuicc*. But whatever may have bccD tha 

' Tl.» TOTninr- of King*- C..II050 

1. 1T>. 44.1.1 tlMNM >rU( 

«..'1,-l on Tri.iilr 'f'.ll'W 

., ™ tU 

Wlirn »a-M iiitu miulnrm \>J lb* 

3llll "f IVr,-mlNr in tU -I 


Dniniinly n-unln of mrn w)io pun^hl 

»ii«'""t"U.i tl'."-". Sj. Ol'l 

to blarli.'ti Lfr chMtd e)iitmelrT. la 

• - Tli.-.e ««..,. .ilii.ii; ill 


iDoutt brihgibuil. ■ndlaU-Urdin 

lier rbikl, ulie mintaik omrltr tnt 

ntrk.'.! "licr »nl (or m 


flmiiin- ; and i>b« wbo, at U>)* linMh 
Uai*l M tht liflbl ol UoH M>ii 

Ib-Ufli tlu r« wrUJul; xrrc 


queens' college. 313 

.....a or •iornorits of bor pcrHonftI clmraetcr» it i% ccrUin tliat nri 

]\\:t -*vnipiit:iiL-*( wi.*!x> ofttiroly with tlic UltmniontaniNtM, nn*! ^ 

■ior t>m;''v wiv* '.\>*tiT!i.itiraIly diructod to the cncoiimp'fncnl j.'" 

:' :"riviii*ly rvi.iii'-ns with her own country, in oppo!«iti(jD t-i *■ '^' 

'.'10 i^'jMiitr Ti.irTy !\-pri."<i.'ntnl by the ihiko of Olouci»j»trr. 

!: v..i'» ^irif'v; ;i hri«'f Itill in that tc'!np(*«*tniMH* ccntnrv, 
\\\k*.-ii :•••.• Aiir :'i Frinco h.'wl In^-n susiK'n«UMl hy a truor, athl 
vit. w: •% ir ai "iMiiio had not ConniK'necd, that the fi»II«iwiiig 
•H.::r:- :i -sii- iiiiirL-^sid hy thi.'* roval ladv to Iier hn*»hanil: — 

r • ■ • !\:'i-' riiv sitiiwrain h»rd. ??•• 

'•:>.-« 'i' r!i iinkfly Margante qut'ne of En^'lonil yonre »»* 
:i;ii .-.• \ •. :'■ r.iNiMiiclie as yoiiu* nn»<»st nohK* jjracc hath 
■li. \'..y I . li:"'! and .stahli^sh«'d a cullage t>f scint IV-manl in 

• .e ■ •.»'-:-.o -if CaTiihri;rij<? witli ninltitudt* of jjrrtc an-l 

• i.ri. '-i . .;• N jh rjM'tinlly ;ij»pnrt<'nyn;; unto tho •»anie a«* in 

• ■ ill ■ • ■ ..' iiT. s th(TU|»<iii inadr nmrr ]»lairily hit ai'jN-n 'Ji 

V. 'ihivirsilu is no r<ill;i;4<' I'lMMhhil hy my ijMi-sio 

; '.: , i r towanl, Vh-^r hit ihrrtMnn: nii».» vnur** 

^ . -' ,- ,■• :\}\t\ L^'iannt*' Miitn y«»'in' ^• ii!i- !iMi.-li!i- \\:t" 

•i ;' 1 i!i fi rmi?i'M oil ••! iIm -• |i| <••.!!•_;•• t-i '•<.• 

. . . ■... ; ?:tr \*'i< iM-^ I ■ill.i^*- iif -alliTt- M ii;^ jfi ?•• an I 

■ • -iir. '-•••ir. aini t)ii-rii{>>n t"r t'l! .\;.!. 'i •• 

-■• •• • • a!ii| pMAlr t'l Ii_v Mm- ttiT'.t •»•< ip- ill I., r 

• .. ■'■ ^ .T ■. "! "i l»v otIm r il« |»'il'' <'f h'T a-^i:;fi« iii« fit. »»i 

• -. . . !•■• ..•»?■• i!ii!il«- :iii-l u'l'iri" n** rM|!;i.;i' T*'i:\\ of i-'t 

■ N '.. ' .^ l-'iU'l- •! !'V \-»iir hi^'jru --" nriv !-• 

^. • .1 -.•■!.••• ^ aU'l :..■ 'i!'. ■ - t:).-'!"^'i-...f'« tl..-*«^ 
. ' •'."'■ •! "f !•! I'll Itt'iTi- aii'l •vj'"»'irin !■»- 

• » •-* *■!.!■ I.. .■ .-'I'. • • ^'* ]•■ i» -r! .' 1 ,! . '\ •.^■• 
:, i.: till- «■ :i*' '.. ■ - . !'■ Ill ••■:n' !<« !■ • 


• , M» 'V. 

.-■,'' ■ 



■ « .- 

. .■ 

1 ■ 

■ . 

■ . 1- 1 !.» 

. • • 


* • 

: T l.» : . r 1 



lAP. m, publiqiu audience c alle men frely bothe nculiets and 
I religietu to the ms lificence of denominacSa of auche a 

Quenes colla^re and t Inud and honneure rf sexe femenine, 
lilie as two noble ani dcvoute contesses of Pembroke and of 
Clare founded two collages in the same uoiversite called 
Pembroke bolle and Clare hnlle the wliiche ore of grete 
reputacon for good and worshipful clerkis that by grete 
multitude have be brcdde and brought forth in theym, And 
of youre more ample grace to gmunte tliat all privileges 
immunities profits and comodites conleyned in the Irea 
patentes above rchei ^ may stonde in thcire strength and 
pouoir after forme and effect of the conteine in them. And 
she shal ever prcye God for you'.' 
hrt '^^ Aliltiades' trophy in Athens,' says Fuller, 'would not 

"^ BuiTcr Tlicniistoclcs to sleep, so this Quocn beholding her 
huslund's bounty in building King's College wai restless in 
licruelf with holy einulntioii uutil slic had produced some- 
thing of the liko nature, a strifo wherein wives witliout 
brcuch of duty inny contend with their husbands which 
tiliouM exceed in piuus porfomiiinccs,' Tho collcgo of St. 
■"■•^^ Ucrimnl, to which reffrenco in nuulo in Mai-gnrot of Anjou's 
pelitiuM, wan Imt a (ihorl-livcd institution. VVe find, from 
the enrolment of tlie charter of the first foundation preserved 
in the Public Record Office, that it was designed 'for the 
extirpation of heresies and errors, the augmentation of the' 
fnitli, tho advantage of the clergy, and tho stability of the 
church, whose rnystt-rios ought to be entrusted to fit persona.' 
Ilut before it had taken external ^hapo and form, tho society 
had acipiired land and tcuciueiits on a different site from 
th;it originally pn^poied, — tho site of tho present first court, 
cloister court, and (Kirt of the fellows' building of Queens' 
College, Tho original charter wa,s accordingly returned into 
tho chnnceiy with the petition that it might bo cancelled and 
another issued, authorising the erection of the college on the 
newly acfjuired site next to tho house of the Carmelite friars, 
whore greater scope was nfTonlcd for future enlargements. 

JmiIo, ho.. If. It, 1(L 


The petition was granted and another diarter, thit of nur. 
August 21, 1447, was accordingly prepared, pennitting Uie ■TlC' 
foundation of tli« college of St Bernard on the new rit& ' In 
this charter,' xayn Mr Searle, 'the king a)>pcan in imne f«*. 
degree to claim the creilit of l>eing the founder of the college, "^ '«■■ 
na the reason for its cxcm|>tiuu from nit corTodicii, pen^ion^, 
etc. (which ini^lit be ;^i)tc<l by the king, rativM dicta 
/aiulathnia Hoatrii in i>xprc.'^-<cd in tlio wonl*, «o quod eolle- 
giuin pretlictam de fiindattoae iiottra, tit {wtmittitnr, txutit'.' 

It wofl at this juncture of atTaini that Margaret of Anjou ^^jf*" 
prcwntiij her petition, and m the rcHult, the charter of 1447 "■™* 
was hko it-> pr'-<lcc(.--sor cancelk-<]', and the ne«r file with the 
tcncnifiits thin-iin was transftrrt-l to the (]UM-n, with licence 
to niiiku and csuililish another collr;^ to be calU-d the 
'Qiiiiii's C..11"--.- of St. .M.-ir„'nret ami St IVrnnnl in tht |^-- 
uiiivirsity uf (.■;iiiiKri.I;;c.' In fxeni-c of the ]>>Tnii»iim th'ii *■"* 
cinictil'd llio nnal Imly, by nn in-ilrnntLMt N-ariii" d.-vte 
i:» Aj-ril, I l-f*, f.iiiii,l..| :i ii.-w,-.Ki.ty, ft.rai>rr<idcntin..l f-nr 
fi-IIow»; hlii; w.i. :.t tliin lii.i.- «i.r."i ly tw-iifi y.m ..f .-,;,; 

hill hiT iil.lliiii- ami ■■ ;;.r:.- t.tni-rani.nt, cniMi- -I »i*li 

h'T iNiiiiiiiatntiii;,' (i."iliiii. hail air- ady ni:i'i>- InT |" rhajn tlie ...r...,. in th.' r.alin. ■n.-'ar.liv. , ..f il.o cM-^^ 
Hiill pr<M rvi* to 11- the n-i«-ct nii'li r which the work prc- 
fi'iil-.d it-<;lf to h-r iiiiii'l. and tin- niolivt-H that I'd I- itiiv-ii 
foiii->-|>tti>]i. It is as the wnrld ndvanci- to il« eld a-^ an-l 'J^ 
n-j virtii>' i- fKliiiL; aw\v. as th.- w»iili-d d<-v-tioM of m.nikind 
i< 1m . ■i.iiii- Ink. » ini. thv f. :ir ..f C-l d.-clininx. nn.I nn-lcr 
l]i.'.-.,i,u.T|..„ tint ih" -<-i"d ]-<t- of (-„iil)'i'-U-. -..iir f..>r 

nii.t iriKo l..!rTii-tli.'i-.'-ui..!.rwI,....'.-.,r-!li.-<U.-!.-n.i,r.-b 

-I Kiiuloi.l ],.!.iv lI...iri-K..i; i, t-i-t d.t.-ii.Tiiir-- that 
M.i^iiM ..( A.ii..u ".-ks t.. U^ tb-,.UM..n -i-m- ..f tbtf 
r..;:,^. .,r S!.'M..iu-r.! and S'. rHir:.,d. \\V hive nv 
C\i>l. rii-.- !lj it anv -Mtiit.i «ir- i;:\.ii t" l!i>: tu-w •-■■i. tv!,.• ill.. i.l-i',.f ll.iity vt. .,■,.] it i- i.r.b.l.:,- that tC 

t t I a ti ii'inT.iry 
• r.J f If.. 


. m. ocoicInsioD, a code vt giren to the college by Elizabeth 

i. 'Woodville', the queer of Edward iv, who however reeerred 

to hcTself, the preside t and five of the senior fellowii, full 

power to alter or rcflci id any of the provisions during her life- 

■ time. Elizabeth Woodville lind once Bympftthiae<l strongly 
Sk with the Lancaistrinn party : she had bccEk one of the ladies 

in waiting attached to the person of Margaret of Anjou, and 
her husband had fallen fighting for the Lancastrisa cause; it 
is not improbable therefore that sympathy with her former 
mistress, then pissing her days in retirement in Anjou, may 
have prompted her to accede to the prayer of Andrew Doket, 
the first president of the society, and to take the new found- 
Ation, henceforth written Qucen<' College, under her pro* 
dM 'The duties of our royal prerogative,' says the preamble, 

■ 'rc(]uirc, piety su^u'gests, natural reason demands, that we 
■■* should he sj)ocia1ly solieitoiis concerning those matters whcre- 
^- by the safety of souls and the ]nihlic good are promoted, and 

piwr wchoJnrM, desirous of ailvniiciiig tlicmselvi.'s in the know- 

leilgo of Icttera, are assisted in their need.' At ' the hundilo 

rc<niest nnd specinl requisition' of Andrew Dokot, and by the 

advice of the royal counsellors assembled for tlie purpose, 

statutes arc accordingly given for 'the consolidating and 

strenjjthcning' of the new society. Tho foundation is de- 

tvigned for tho Bupp<trt of a prcKidoiit and twelve follows, — 

all of whom arc to be in priest's ordi'rs. Every fellow must, 

"'^' at the time of his election, ho of not lower status than that of 

t!^ a qucstionist if a stuiU-ut in arts, or a scholar, if in theology. 

Wliou elected ho is bound to devote his time cither to 

^^ philosophy or to theology, until bo shall have proceeded in 

""* the intervening sUiges and finally taken bis doctor's degree. 

On bfcoiuinjf a master of arts ho is qualified to teach in the 

i.jiif tneimii luul tjiiitfln'rinnt for tho space of three years; a 

"*** function whieli, as it npiiears to hnvo been a sonrco of 

m emolument, being rewarded by a fixed salary from the collegCf 

< I sia indeblnl to the eocrtMj of to nie tb« mannieript eopj ol tfaoM 
the rrchi'tpnt of Quecna', the Itov. *UtiilM, wlitcb bsve oerar baon 
C«*jrge rlullipi, &.D., tor pcimliuon |>iiuted. 


is lunitod to that period ; ita exercise, on the other hand, k fliAr. 
not obligatory, providctl tliat the fellow's time be derotcd to I^ 
the study of the lilieral scieoccn. or to that of the nataial, 
moral, or mota)))iyRini! pliilooophj of Aristotle. On the 
completion of ttiexc tlircc years, if a felloir should have no 
dcfire to study tti'tiln^y or to proceed in that faculty, be is 
permitted to turn his nltetitiuii to either the canon or the"**" 
civil law : but this CJiii only l« by tin; conwot of the iiLX-tor ^;,- 
aiid the majority of llic ffllutts, and the coiicv-siiivo chAracicr t*™** 
of the clause would incline u.t to infer that such « Cuurw 
would l>e the excrpti'm rather than the nde. 

ReBpi.'Ctiiif: Amlniv Pnket, the first prexiilent of Qiicen*', rtn* 
we have tuffiiicnt itif.innr»ti..n to enable us to surmiM* thv "-« 
dmr.icter of the iiitlm-noe tlint prevailed in the ctilK-p- of 
SL JJernnnl ami snlwiii'i'iitly in Qn<t.ns'0>tlege diirin;; tb6 
thirty-eif;lit years I'f liis rniT;;<_tic rule. He bad luforc bci-n 
piinrip;.! of Si. It.niard"- li..-l.l. and iiKiimlK-nt of St. R.t-.lpii"< 
cliurcli, and witlitn fiiir y<;irs fn'ni t!ie time that the f'«rtf- 


Ml..'h \V...1vilK «.- find 

him cxwutin;: a i|. . .1 -f ini-,iti..T' l- 'wv.n the «*-i. -y 
overwiiid. be J..-;.!..! r.n.l •),.■ IV.i.. l-.-n*. ^^b.. ■ f.-imdi- 
tion tboii occiiiii.d llir )>r. -.tit -it.- ..f Sj.ln.-y. \\V ha*o 
evidence nt«. whi-b wuiil.) bad us t- c.ti.Iude that he wa* 
a hard stud, ut i.f the ran-n law. but n..thit.;j in indii-alc tb^t 
ho vtit in nnv wav a pn-uiMtir 'if ibat m-w ha'iiiii!; «!iii-h 
aln-ady M-u- bis .I1..1I. «a.- U-iuni.i- to 1« h.-aid -f at 

A far liundil'T sm-i.-tv vi-ai tbi- ne\t t.i ri"e after the t«n r.^« 
rtival< A."n"t.„' tb- -l.-lir* -n ihe ..rij:i.,.»l ^."w- 
f..uudati..nnfKli.u^r..:i,^.-,,...i:..b.M\V„.iU,k.aft.r»ar.U ■*"" 
f..m.d..Tandu.a-tr..f.'^l ( ■..lii-iir.. ■. II..;!. Ou CbMU-.r-!.'. ::;^ 
n-lireni.uit fr.nn ih'- [ir..v.--l.bip --f Kin/-, «li.n t.. 

the bi.t,.,|.n.- ..f i.iii.-..:ii. \VM..!:,Tk «.- .,].],i..d bi.. .u.-. 

C'^-H.r. and uii.l. r bi- ;;.u,lii,.. il... .■.:!■ ;- «mii,- ff..r.i tl .• 

uni\.r.;ty tl |■,>^,U■l.■. -■■■i.- "^:.'i '■■"■ ■>''• .iv.-^;;.-i 

our atl^■n^i-M. Tb .1 li. « i- ^^'i ■''■:■■ ^ i...,y 



L be iofnred from the prominent put assigned to bim on 
tUfierent ooeuion& His name appears foTemost among those 

" of the qrndicate appointed for the erection of the new 
schoob; he ww clerk of the works at King's College, and the 
spirit with which he carried on the builJinga during the civil 
wsn, when Heor^ vi vas a prisoner, earned him but an 
iDdifierent recompense : for confiding in the fortunes of the 
bouse of Lancaster, and relying prolmbly on his royal master 
for reimburse ment, ho was left to sustain a lieavjr deficit of 
nearly £400 which be hod advanced from his private fortune'. 
Such public spirit would alone entitle bin memory to be had 
in lasting remembrance in the university, but ' herein,' snys 
Fidler, 'he stands alone, without any to accompany him, 
being the first and last, who was master of ono coUcgo and at 
ihe same time founder of another.' 

I There is little in the statutes given by Woodlark to the 
college which he foimded, deserving of remark, beyond the 
Jact that both tlio canon nnd the civil law were rigorously 
excluded from the course of study. The foundation wa* 
designed to aid 'in tlio cx.tllntion of the Chritttian faith and 
the defence and furtbcmncc of holy church by the (towing 
and administration of the word of God.' It appears to have 
been tlie founder's design that it should bo exclusively Hub- 

r servient to the rcquii-cmeuts o*" the secular clergy. The 

■• following oath, to be a^lminiHtered to each of the fvHowH on 
bis election, tihows how completely the whole conception was 
opposed to tliat of bisliop Bateman: — Item jitro quod nun- 
^iiani consentiam vt ali'juis sociiis liujia colleyii sire aiihc ad 
ali'j'uim alium tcientiam sire /aailt'itcm ullo vpfjuam temimre 
te dirertat pntjiler alvjueui jnidinii infra unitertiUiUm mid- 
piendttiii, pntterijuaiu ad philosojihiam et sncram Vteologiam, 
aeJ pro poite meo reiista m 

' ' Id prowmlinn at the TojtJ 
mebemr. it wu uii;^nallf euniiiun J«I 
Uikt £l'ri) per aupam ibunM be 
pai'I to \Va»)Urk oal ut Ibe uUtti 
ot Oieda^hjot ljtiit»1ei; tnl vwiug 
totbet'ian:^ et diu>tlT and olLti 
nn-H-, « Ur^* WiHp'ni U la*t 

froTttt.' AulMTf M'M>iE('«rt,L](.'liArl«* 

m.K, C*». AkHi. I 

11 ejfectu'. 

IlaHwkiM, I 

■ Anwrilinii)/, in Itx Mfmj «W(b 
Wuoiltotfc haumti DO \At (waa4a- 
lion. wA a liiiele lulnid* lA tit* Mooa 
or riij] U« ■n**"'. fbc Calalifiu 
oftiu ytnelt.tle. eJitcdLjUiCvrrtoi 
C«. AMi^. HiK. fab. K«. L 

kino's colleok. Sll 

eonccsrions, in reUming thow privileget whkh bare fomed nur. 
the diRtinctive feature of the foiinJation tip to our own dar*. -L^ 
It hns been conjcctiirotl, and the conjcctura ii lufficic-iitlr r»^ ^ 
plniisiblc, tlint tliiit imi>eriiim in imperio which thin kocil-Ij ^;^* 
succeittcd in estnlilifhing, took itH olh-gcd jiixtifiratiwii inj^'" 
those iiniDuiutic-H ami privih-yi-H which the Mcndicantii m 
long oiijoywi and for wliich they m rtlrfniiotisly c<Rit<'*. 
However thin may hnvo been it will srarcc-ly bo d<-nic<l bj 
the most euthiisioNtic adiiiiren of the concc])tion of AVilltaia 
of WykvhiiTii, that the triumph gained by tlic fillovi of King'a 
College liip^'ely partook of the character of a Cadinn-an 
victory, and it rethct^ no little honour on the integrity and 
sngncity of its first pnjvost that In- pn>te!«tc>l so vijjoruu-ly 
ii;jiiinst w) Miiciihd a polity. It woiilil iiidei-d Ito uwlt-wi to 
n.-.s».rt ttiat a m^uvty wtiicli has dont forth ^ehulani like Sir 
Jolin CIkUo, Ui.hanI ffke. Walt.r Iladdi.n. Winterton, 
llydc, iiml Midicll, matlKiiiatician.t Uac Otightrcd, nioralista 
like Whi'li'-oif, lli<-<il<>;;t:iii-< like Pranton, ariti<|uarians liko 
Cul.>. !Liid .'V. n p.» ts likr Wull.-r. has not o'hl-l lu-trj to tlio 
uiiivcrMty "f «hirh it fnrn.s a ji.irt ; hut it wotild U- c^uiIIt 
tiM'hss to .1. iiy th:it «liin its iulual utility, ni'avii.-.| l.y the 
iintnlHT atnl r.lil.rily of tlmso wlmin it Iish nurtun-il, ii 
corii]):ir<-d \tith that of oiIkt riiiii<l:it:"iit of fur humbh-r 
fisimroH. it>j riv.iiiK'^ and itt artiial f-rviixt wim 
fiii;4idarly ili-iir-ij-irliMiiali-. Kt iii-irc than a c-ntut^' fnm 
its ('■.iiniiuiic Niirit lliit royal »!w hy far (he 
wialtiii— t in tlio iiiii*.T-itv. In the ».iirvrv of thTiiinini*- 
fcioiLT-s PaiL-r. U..ini,iii. a-..! M,y, in thi- \:•^^l. iti 



R. in. reremiM wen doaUo tboae <^ St. Jolin's, which liood k 

%mf ftod won oalj nipuKd when the large endowment of 
Trinity mnm at the end of the nine jcar*. The compan- 
tite wealth <rf these three collegea remained nearly the eamei 
autil the fiur wider actirity of the two younger foondationa 
reaped a natural and honorable reward in the gratoful 
munificence of their sons and the generous sympathy of 
•trangers; while the foundation of Henry ti, iihnt in and 
narrowed by endless restrictions, debarred from expnntdoa 
with the requirements of the age, and self-excluded from 
cooperation and free interoounw with the univeisity at Inige, 
long remained, to borrow the expression of dean Peacock, ' a 
splendid cenot^th of learning,'— a signal warning to foundera 
in all age* ^piinst seeking to measure the exigencies and 
opportunities of future generations by those of tlicir own 
day, and a nubiblo illnstRition of tlto unwisdom which in a 
RcnijxiluiH adherence to thu letter of a fuuodcr'ii instnictioas 
violiitcs the Hpirit of liis purpose 

Mk* Anolhor n.yid fonndntioii followed upon that of King's. 

•■■ In tho year I44j llic piirty led by canliiial lienufort Iiiul 
succctilcd in brinjjing abrnit the marriiigc of tho youthful 
moniinh with M;>rynri;t of Anjou, daughter of IWinJ, titular 
king of Sicily and of Juruiudem. It was hoped that tho 
policy of tlio Viicillating and fccblo husband might ho 
Ktrcngthened by the tnHuencc of a cnnaurt endowed with 
mnny rare qnalitios. The civil wars were not calculated fur 
the exhibition of llie feminine virtues, but there is sufficient 

P«ac reason for l>e1ieving that ftlnrgarct of Anjou, though her 
name is associated with bo nmch that belongs to the tlarkoHt 
fliosc of human nature, wn.s cruel rather by neccKNity than 
by disjMNition or cliuicc*. But wliatcver may have been the 

' Tilt roTcnnp* of Kind'" CoIIpot 
Stnounlnl toillOlO. )2<. 1I).I. ; t)ii»« 
ol m laha'* ln£r,3r,. 17i. H-t.: tbnM 
wl11»l on Trinity C'lllrgo, on tba 
3ltli .if lliiTinlTr in tlio mme }*oir, 
UHonntitl to £im*. S., 91i/. 

' ■ Tbrra wan nolliiiiR in lier nrl* 
y««r«," ntjt ■ roCTPt writer, 'wliich 
muVe-l hor oat for mi AmixoD, 
tbongli tlior* eertuuljwcro •oiu* la- 

diciflun* of tliat nnjioMinit aplrlt 
wlijeh aflorwariln hurrieJ hnr into 
acta of pcrliily, vinhiiiec, ami crimen 
Wliflii K<iailp<l into mailnrm br ''>• 
anmnniy axiuiqllii of men who ooaetit 
to Miirln.n bsr cluiiU eharaeter, to 
iniiult lirr hunbanrt, and to ba^laritiM 
lier ebild, iibe mialaok cmi'ltr tor 
tlmiiii-)ui ; an J ulie who, at lliia time, 
lainted al tlit ii«ht of blooJ, OodU 


fonndation and ordinance of their foanden there oaed. eoold ^' 
not be diJtchargcd by themV In the jear 1497, thrxigh ^ 
the exertions of John Alcock. bi.«h'»p of E!j, the nann^-rr j-4« 
was acconlingly suppn??.*c«l by rrival patent ; the bl-hop waj» '*' ' 
a munificent encourager of th'* arts, and to hiJi liYic-ralitj and 
ta<;te the church of Great St. M.iry an<l his own chaficl in the 
episcopal cathedral are still e^tfiucnt though silent witrK-x^-*'; 
and under his auspice* Jesus Colli-ge* now rose in the plare 
of the former foundation. The historian of the colle^<«, tw< 
a fellow on the foundation in the 8e%-cnteenth century-, ^■ 
remarks that it appears to liave been di.-.<*igiic«i tliat, in firm 
at least, the new en-ction t-liouM nu;:irc»l the monastic life* ; 
and to this resomMance the rctireil and tranquil chanrt^LT 
of the site, which long aftrr eamtii for it from king Jamc-s 
the designation of jnu.sannn CanV.ihngicnsium museum, still 
further contributed. 

TIk original statutes of the college were not given nntll t^h 
early in tlie Fixtuenth ci-ntury. Thirir autlior was Stanl«*y, «- '• 
the suo'<.<>nr, oin^ n*inov«'d, to Alc«»<*k, in the opi»<*o|ial chair at -^■'; 
Ely, and son-in-law of M.-irpin-t, c««»ritr-i^ #if Kiclii«»»n'l : *'.' 
tlu'V Aion* Mil»*'OM'r»tlv r'Ti-i'l" ra'-lv ii.«-!lfitil bv iii'* ii;»>- l -^ 
trious sucr'i*s>«)r Nicliol.ts \V(*t, fi lluw of King's, and tie * ^ 
friend of bi>hop Fi-'litr and Sir TIi-'Uk-w Jb»re*. The mw 

* Cooj<r. .Vf wjMr/'/«, I 3r.|. 7»,i. \'W.\o ViTA\n\*T\M^ frr-lmtit «j^» 

evmrtitt, lit yl. Hitt't- iii'-'j:; ?• rritij c!i iri.r:*:!il ^ f« r»V t% 

rill ('"fl>;iti Jt'H (.'.j.'.fj'.n^/i'f.Ji*. 1 .1, ij:i iTi:';i:i ill nl .in, 1<1 *jf.»* |i<i **- 

H:ilIiWi;i, p. 'J'l. r-i| it, '1 I'-l liii-i- f! »^« n.»*i'-l». 

■ Ali-.rk ifc.i- hl^i A r. n-i'.ri: !.« ti -.n,-. :.. \i.'. !»'• "l | • I »».- run •Sr^ 

briiifitit. r til I'lT-r' ■::'!• M -j-r, | it:i • '. t-iVi'.lt'i r» ' .• : -•itua.' 

ji/i mi.n,.'., I :',»..i . ! .. u.ii. I.', r t-i s) //••■•». r ■-"■ 

thi- inif.-rt I.:.* Ill \ ':■::! t. . • ■ >: .! i* i n. •.;• r ' ir I j. Js»:^. 

lUiiMil ffi ::s I -I I'V li . 1;.- /' •.. i. •■■;•«■■ : : !.». ■;: t J i ":• 

liiti-r. r.i».tl-.iiM. //;.'. ':•;./ .4f..'./. S. .r . .- ] i ? '■ 1 !i ::.-»■!•. -— , :I 

' ■ ■*••' ■' i' r. >.'. it • \ ' .'.\ f ■ ' ■:• It :-i. »■:'.' r:UU 

^ •.! > \\*- li.n A] • .. k * .• ■ .'it -'■ !•?»■• .1". 

J l^ .■ 1 » ,. , .. .• I . ' * ' .1 -ill r ■.'. 1 • .S 

I ■ - I 

ti .'-•■.•..».•. ■ ' • ! •■ »!♦■ *. ': • •■ 

• ■ .■!"-«i*'.r ' • %.'!•-••■• 

UiiJi'»». . 1 :•.!■' •« . • ».>.••.■■■% r- 4 . 1. 

liftTiM*.' t! 11 » I I '. !. ' r - : • • . I ■ ■ '■ ■' ■ ' ■ - •• 

tilli, t!i.i .! ii., ».'*•■ '. •. . ■■..■»■•• . ■ .. « • 

Ji*ii- r, '.!. .., .• /. ..f , !*: • ' .• I .-. • 

* •C'ii:*,iuai itt !. .:, ,4*- ip.t ... •■ I- I-* •'•■.»•.« 




L ttatatcfl however van In profened eonfonnify irith tlt« 
prammcd intcntiona of the fouadcr'; it is coDBeqaentl; nil 

• the more Bignificint that, though both Alcock and Wort 
were distingiiishcd by their acquirements in the canon law, 
of the twelve followd to be maintained on the foundation 
not one if permitted to give his attention to tliat br&ndi 
of study, and only ods tc that of tlio civil law ; the otbeiB, 
•oaoon SB they have graduated and taught as masten of 
■rti^ being required to apply thomsolvca to the study of 

But though the injurious effects of such encouragement 
to students as that extended by bishop Bateman had by 
this time become apparent to nearly all, and though it is 
evident that the founders of the fifteenth century were fully 
sensible of the necessity for a diflcrcnt policy if they desired 
to stimulate the growth of honest culture, wo shall look in 
vain within tho limits of this ccntiiiy and of our own 
university for much indicative cither of healthy intellectual 
activity or true progress. Tlie tono of both tlio piitrons and 
tho professors of learning is despondent, nnd the general 

^languor that followed upon tliu Wars of tlio Ufm» luted 
nearly to the end of tho reign of tbo first of tho Ttidom 
Before however we turn away from this sombre perifid, it 
will bo wcI' to note not merely tho studies enjoined upon 
the student but tlio literature within his reach ; to examine 
the college library na well as tlio college rtatutcs ; and briefly 
survey the contents of the scantily furnished shelves as they 
appeared while the new learning still delayed ita onward 
flight from its favoured haunts in Italy. 

In a previous chapter' we have devoted some attention 

brpolAtii, ■numnensiain iDcnria ar- 
ntii Kiiteiileii. intpr m diiiooriJantei, 
■inJU «iitliortUt« epiKopkli mimitu.' 

■ 'Cetenun qata tMttu pit«r 
morto pncveBtni, qaod pio eonccpe- 
nt Miima, tuflcrn, «t optit turn m»- 
monbile ■biwlvcro non potait, quo 
fit, at o*« pro t&nto niuncro ■nsli- 
DflD^ «ollcgiiini prsdictiua laOiciMl- 
ter dotSTcrit, dm pn boco itnilei)- 
Unm icfiiiuiM i» i«et» ot qui*to 

TiTonili orilne, lemuLlii .i^tiin R-it 
ordinatioDoi aii<]oa< imI'Iiii' <.\i ciif* 
flcioulra •didorit: >--i- ii'i'nr rjiuii 
lini pinrn faunquB iii--. i; |ji|i-<r, «| 
oplimi prosnlii proi-iiKi'iii'i, ii>. : -le* 
tn diTiiia, nt ■pentri'ii-. iiciiuui, 
qnantam earn Dao pouiunni, at ij^* 
ritnslitor ot tcmporftlitw fiimilw 
ttaliliri patemo allceta intttideatM 
•t n»i{>iopore ea^anlo^ tta,* Dot*- 
■rati, iti 94, 
■ Soa npn pp. IM— t. 


to the catalogaefl of two libraricfi of the period when the citap. 

earliest universities were first rising into existoneo; tho 1^! 
period, that is to say, when so many of the authors known 
to Bode and Aleuin had been lost in the Danisli invasions^ 
but when tho voluminous literature to whieh the Sentence^ 
the Canon Law, the Civil Law, and tlie New Aristotlo 
rcspcetivcly gave birth was yet unknown. A eomparison 
of these two catalogues with tliose of libraries at Cambridge 
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries will present not 
a few points of interest. 

It was on a certain seventeenth of November, the feaiit ri niis 

•f llM !*■ 

of St Hugh in 1444, tliat Dr Walter Cromo presented to the 
university a collection of books designed to increase the 
slender stores of a now room, just finished and ready for 
use, erccte<l for the purpose of giving shelter to the recently 
founded common library*. Tlie libmry appears to date from 
tho earlier part of the same century, and a Mr John 
Crouclicr, wlio presented a copy of Cliaucer's translation of 
BoetliiuH De OjnJtolfittone, seems entithnl to In) n*ganlrMl as 
the original founder. One Ilicliard Hohn^^, who duA in 
1424, appears as the donor of K(>v(rral vohimcs; many othon 
presented single works; and in this manner was formcfl, 
within tho first quarter of the fifteenth century, the littlo 
library of fifty-two vohimcs, tlie catalogue of which wo still iwwh; 
poMfiess. Next to this catalogue comi'S ono drawn up by 
ll'ilph iSonger and Uichanl Cockeram, the outgoing proctors 
in tl y(?ar 1473, containing 330 volumes. This later cata- 
logue possesses a special value, for it shews us the volumes 
as classified and arranged; and we have thus brought twj 
iKjfore us tho single room (now the first room on entering 
tho library) where these scanty treasures lay chained and 
displayed to view, with stalls on tho north sido looking 
into the quadrangle of tlie Schools, and desks on the south 
side looking out upon the rising walls of King's Collogo 
chapel. These two catalogues do not include tlie splendid 

^ Tro LUtt of nookM in ttuf Uni- Bnulnbaw, m.a. Hte iIm The Vni* 
renity Library, Cam, Ant. Soe. Pub. rerrity Library, article \ij tb« 
No. uxL CommttPJcatod by Heniy in CawL Univ. Omiettf, Ko. 10. 




. wUition of Kmo two Iiundrcd volumes, made bjr Thonuu 
Bothcram V017 shortly aitor; but tho liberality of tliat 
eminent boDcfiutor of tlie university won already conapieuouH 
in tho completion of tho library and of tho cost part of tho 
quadrangle ; and tho new buildings, bright a« they appeared 
to that generation, 'with polished stone and BumptuouH 
aplendowr'/ were already evoking thoso Hcntiments of grati- 
tude towards tlie illuxtrioua chancellor, which, two years 
later, led tho assembled senate to decree that his name 
should be for ever enrolled among those of tho chief bene* 
fiictoni of tho uiiivcrHity. 

The two nbove-nnnicHl catnlogiiea alone constitute vnliiO' 
) bio evidonco reHpcctiiig the literature at this time moit 
ji, cNtcenaJ at Cambridi^e, bnt other and ampler evidence 
!•) rcnmiuM. It van on ChriHtmoH £vc, 1418, exactly eight 
yi.';iM befaro Otrnon drew up Mh JJe Concordia, ihnt an 
imkiiown hand at Pctirlioiitto completed a catnlngiio of tho 
librmy bolonghig to tliiit fuundntion'. Ak HlirancN, in thoHC 
diijH, wcro almuKt entirely tho acctimulatioDH of giflu from 
Kiiccfs.sivo benefactors, the most ancient cdllfjju hail, oh wo 
Hhould expect to find, acquired by fur the Inrgest coll(«tion 
and posse»i«d no less flian from six to seven Imndrcd dislhict 
Irt-atisL'BL The library given by bishop Uatomon to Trinity 
Hall has already cornc under our notice'. If to these col- 
lections we add a catalogue of 140 vohimcs presented to the 
library of PembroV.e College in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries', — one of the library of Queens' College in the year 
rectum, tehuh 

"Qaoniftm ratio hnmamlwiijnn 
mjuinre viilctar at inprrioribua uo- 
b» bcDefartoribnp, ctri dod (vn- 
diirau, Kollcm nlcooque cunKniui 
rettnimnn EUkt'o'i eisqno juxtn vi- 
rinni csilitatcm, nl possnintifl, mori- 
toria oba'-iiDia ralilnniua. hiiio est 
qnod mcritu cam proUitalii Inm bo- 
Horn m opemm fxliibitione reTcrcn* 
dan inCliri^tii i^nlrr ac il.>niiiius domi- 
DQj TboQinn llutbcnini Jivinu iDiHcn- 
tion« Lincoln icnsin FpiscopuH ac mag- 
nas AnKliiE (jcncralii bujusijiis alma 
liiiivcn>ilatiB pmiipaaa dignnsc|ae 
fantfllflriim et sinciilftrin patniniu 
tun in bonorem liei, iiiereuii'Mitm 
HaJii, et imivwuuiii DOftrtB |>ra- 

iraBiqiu nptrim 
tiorariam p-uiir lapld/, mm/irucia 
jKimpa, ac dh'"" •rd^lleiiM prrffttrH. 
camiinB, onjiiiljUB ut dcsnit robin 
eiarunUuD, non pnncia tpI rilibn* 
librisopulenliiiij rrddidiLpliuimni'in 
imiuprr ali& Imna cidcm ncireniiuli 
procurarit, ifc: Dr rtrqiilU Ihoaia 
Snihrram, D--umrHl., I Jl4. 

'li'lited la tbs aiitUo- 
riliea of pKlcibouiic for ptrmuainl 
to eonanlt tbc Tolntue in wliieb It U 

■ See anprn pp. 343, S41. 

• A I.lil of hnokr jirfMrnli-iJtoPfm- 
bToki Cellrgr. Uonl-nJ-jf, If lUfrrt'l 

' TbiB ei 
: lai 

CAMnniDOK LiniURTEf!. 3U 

1472*, amounting to SSI volamofl, — ami one of tho library offtiip i 
St Cathorino'fi Hall in the year 147.">, amounting i«* 137 ^^ 
▼olumcfi',— our data, ho far oa CainUriilgc iff conccrracd, will 
bo sufficiently cxtemleil for our puq^iso. 

A ByHtcinatic Htu<ly of tliese Hcvcral catalogues and an 
enquiry into tlic merits of each autlior, however intcrcHting 
such researches might be, is evi«lciitly not necnled at our 
hands, but it will be dcHiniblo to state some of the general 
conclusions to Ikj derived from a more cursory view. On 
ref«.'rring to tlie contents of each catahnnic it will be Sf-t-n irwmm 
that they represent, in much the same p^lIK)rtion^ lh'»^- ■• ^^-^ 
new contributions to nn'dia;val literature which have aln-inly l* ^ 
so long <'n;^':i;;*.'d our att<'iition. AnM'lm, AIImtIu'*, A(|uiiia«, *-"*"•■ 
Ah:xandrr ll.ih's, Docthiiis. Ijoiiavciitura, Walti-r Hurl«-v. 
Duns iSc'otiH, ]I«»|n>t, L:iri;,'ti»n, Jnim of S-ilinbnry, (iri>— ^^ 
teste, and Kirhard Middlt-tori ; AriiKirhanus a;^aiii<»t the 
Fniiiciscaiis, Wodrfoid ni^.iin^t Arin.irlianim ; tho diM-niir-M-^ 
of lt(>ppiii;^'tcii, hi^liMp nf Liiiiulii. diin* :i T^fillard, liut .'iftrr* 
wardn oia* of tlu* li« i'»-t npiMUii hr<« of tin* sirt ; //•*'•. rjV« 
(Jhrunioilts^ (>r iih trir:il lii-tfii* ^, ;jt>»r tlif niMiiiiT "^ l.i\.i- 


moil and U«)hort of (•l«ni»N',i«r, su'li ;l^ it was rii'^tniii iry l-* 
recite in th<? C'»ll«''*.' hall on davs «if !• itivltv ; — imiif 'tf tlps^ 
are wanliii*j. and th<'y c»»ri-tit!ite pprisrU* the litcratuiv 
which o!ir prtst iMi«juirirs w.iulil !• ai| ns to rx|N-ct t-i find. 
But besides th"^i\ i)th<-r nani> s :i]i{u:ir. nnruf-i nhidi have r««kwi 
now ahiio^t pa^^rd Irom in«-iiinrv nr an* tainihar i»nlv ti> ••■.-"«* 
those will) have in-id»' a «ii)r»' .s?»i'!v nf rliis ih ri««l. A'jiiii «^ • - 
and again we an* CMntrniit'''l hy tip- pjir* -• iiT-itiv.-* nf tli t "^^ 
groat sch«»ol of niedi-rval th 'I"jy win* '•. th iMjh it a*pin-'! 

K'^s sv»»tcin;iti«*:i!Iv t«» tin' •.!> ■•■: il • i-lx ••*' r' ^i-lin-n. — T?:o 

reconeili; ««f j>h'!MS ipliy a!jl •!'_:'!ii. — «.«'» '•••.ir«*'-!y h v« 
inthirntial in tht-i* ciit'iiit-i 'li -n r',.- 1. ■ ■! i.f All«» r*i< a?--l 
A<piinas. I)i\inrN fpiin tlir riiu'M- - li"-! ••!' St. V-.i • t nl 

/> ■f:rt'f..?ir.'i I T'l//*''! »^ .J"// ' 1 1'« ! ■ ' '■'•■■••* ''i !'. ••. 1'^"%. 

f. ' Mf'i r ■,■.{•„ r , i. r.\ t '.']:■ I •• !' .<■• ■ "^ '* 

<". rr;.. i- |. . \: ..•.. r f »■ .■: i". ' . -.- • ' •' ...... .• f ,. 

Ci'i .|.;V >..•./•'. N . Ill •'■ ' • -'■ ■ .'»:•.; • 

Qi..H* i:l),.if in MTJ ; r.'iiM.m.s. r -r . i ■■ • i .( ? > v T.' 
c^ua by tU- Kit. W.U. S^ jIi. m.a . No i »' > :• * ' 


tKin. Fuia*; and preeminoDdy Hug<\ 'the Augnstine of the 
r^""- tveUth ceniaij,' who sought to reconcile the divergent ten- 
»^ denciea exemplified in Abelard and St-Bemard, and who 
"■■ though carried off at the early age of forty-four left behind 
him a whole library of annotations on the sacred writinga. 
Not less in esteem than Hugo of St. Victor, was the Domi- 
•J* nicon, Hugo of St Cher (or of Vienne), whose reputation, 
■^ though it palttl before tlie yet greater lights of his .order, 
long survived as that of the fiithcr of the Concordantiiits and 
the author of tho Sjiecalum Ecclesiio'. Whilo inferior to 
nvithor of tliuHu iu fuuiu or lunniing comcM tho FmuciHcan, 
ttm NiclioW do Lyra, who diod towards tho middle of tlio four- 
^^ teeuth century in high repute both as a Hebraist and 
a Qrock scholar; in whow pages are to bo found, most fully 
elaborated, the cliaroctcriittic inctliajva] diHtinctions of tho 
literal, the vionil, the idleijoriad, and tlie anagogio sense 
of tlio ii)Npin.'d page,-~diHti net ions which Furitaiiiitm, though 
oil contuiiiptuous of inuiliii.'val tliouglit, reproduced in un- 
conscious imitation,— the familiar commentator of his day, 
whose Pustilla commanded, even down to tho eighteenth 
century, the same kind of regard that in a later ^e has 
iHHarf waited on the labours of a Lcighton or a Scott. In contrast 
jj'j^Jj^ to tho spirit of tho Italian universities throughout this 
■*■ period, we may note the entiro absence of the Arabian com- 
mentators from tho college libraries, and tho solitary copy 
of a treatise by Aviceuna and of another by Avcrroos in tho 
»«<■■*« university libniry. In the hitter, again, Mr Bradshaw has 
*«llh(ic pointed out tho comparatively small proportion of libri 
'USa^ logicaUs and libri UiedogifB disputata, and the observoUon 
ia nearly equally applicable to the catalogues of the former. 
Si^Il^ It is important also to obncrvo how small is the element 
tm^t^*' furnished by patristic literature. Ambrose, Gregory, Jerome, 
and Augustine, the four great doctors of the Idtio Church, 

t ' It would not ba ttrj,' obMTTM 
tbo urbtjixliop of DabliD (irho hu 
• ally viiidicutMl (tie Latin potlij ot 
Ujcm mgn Uont Uio oonleiniit of tlio 
eUiBieut). 'to ex4CRiinii« tLe in- 
ttucBM tor good wbicti went Ivrth 

from thb inititnUon during tlie 
twelftb Moi tliirtccDtli omtnriM ap. 
on tho whole Cliordi.' Saeni ImU» 
Portry, p, $3, 

' FlOiriciuis Bmiothtet hit. HU. 
et In/, ^u-tii. 


an indeed represented, bat only putu%, lAIk wemtlj <uj 
uiother uune of importaaco appcut. Ilo entira alaeBce ^ 
of Qreok authors, and the almost equally eotiie abaeeee ofn*< 
all that, in the ejea of the classical icholar, ^rea iu value ^ 
to the lAtta literature, are the remaining featniea which 
it ii sufficient simply to point out in ooncluding thew fvw 
comments on the leorninf; that nurtured the mind of the 
Cambridge student at the time when medionl hiatoij waa 
drawing to its close. 


AT. jr. Our researehes into our university higtory during the Middle 
^ Ages are now approaching their completion. We have ar- 
tJSmU rived at the boundary lino which, by general consent, has 
5r™* been drawn between the old and the new order of things, — 
the time when the tmditions of the past begun to give place 
to those widely differing conceptions which the fifteenth 
century ere it closed naw rising upon Europe. Momentous 
and startling aa been the clmngcs of the present cen- 
tury, it may yet bo questioned whtthor they do not yield 
in importance to that ushered in the Reformation, 
The downfall of dynasties, the manifest shifting of the centres 
of political power, even the triumphs of mot'em science and 
art, can scaicc-Iy compare with influences like those that 
readjusted the whole range of man's intellectual vision, and 
transfonned hia conception of tho universe. It was then 
that tho veil was lifted from the face of classic Greece, and 
the voices which had slumbered for centuries woke again; 
that the accents of ancient Hellna blended with those of 
regenerated Italy; while Teutonic invention lent its aid in 
diffusing with unprecedented rapidity both the newly dis- 
covered and the utiscent literature. 

' Aaother natora uid a new nunkind' 

stood revealed bejood the Atlantic wave. .The habitablo 
globo itself dwindled to but a point in the immensity of 
space; and the lamps of heaven now glimmered with a 
strange and awf<il light from the far recesses ofiofinity. But 
before wc .turn to trace out and estimate the changes thus 
brought about in the culture and mental tendencies of the 


age, it yet remainB to attempt a somewhat more eonnecCcd cha 
view than we have as yet been able to gain of the cham^ ^^ 
teristics of univeraity life in the period already traTened. 
Hitherto we have passed by many interesting minor facts 
in order to bring out more distinctly the general outline, 
— the principle indeed which has guided our whole treat- 
ment of the subject Wc slmll now endeavour to bring 
together a variety of details which tend to illustnite the life 
and habits of those times, and to give a portraiture of the 
onlinary student's experiences at Cambridge in the Middle 
Ago& Such a piecing together will form, at best, but a very 
defective whole. The mo.saic will be wanting both in c«»lour 
and completeness. But we shall but share the difficultii-s 
that beset all similar endeavours to revivify the fonns and 
fashions of a distant age. 

A brief survey of the phvi^ieal aspects of the locality will f*^^ 
not be irrelevant to the sketch we are aliout to attempt. 9^ 
Tlie river Cam , funnerly known as the Grant, is formeil by 
the union of two minor stn-ains; of which one, the Rhco, 
rises near Asliwrll in Hortfi^nKhin', the other at Little Ilon- 
ham in Kssl'X. Tiie {Niint of junction is lH*twei-n Hau\t*in 
and Grantclifster. As it apj»ro;iches Ciunbri»l;;c the stream 
widens, but raru-Iy attains to niiirh dt-pth until the town isi 
passed, after whicli it flows on in greatly inrr^*a.*ie«l vulumo 
by Chesterton, Wati-rlh-acli, rpware, nnd Ilarrimcre, until 
Ely is n-ached. At Harriinere it tlian:;« s its name to that 
of the Oum', a chan;;e liow^vvr wliirh n«» Itnipr rrpn M-nt^ 
the actual point i>f cnntlnt nc*- ; at tin* pri m nt tiini* tli*? 
Ftream still, save on the •HTiirii'iM.- nf un?i'.»ial ti«Hiil«i, pur^uiA 
its cour>o hv wav of Klv and Trl" K\\il!'»w to IX iivtr )> f ^ro a 
drop of (>use water niiii'jl« -» uitli it^ lurr'iiV Tlio cai»«»o of 
tliis deviation is an imp 'rtant f;i''t in tin- hi-tory I'f t!ir riwr 
system of the wliolo ili^lrict. TIj*- ti.iot kn.i^n xs tho K<*nTw»i 

> Tli«»Crlti<»w^rtl t.if»i. wK«.h I.'tij: »» 1- n V"*.:* •■!!•. 'M.f \t' 

pnrvivf-1 ill rfi.-li-)i. nx III- .*' '■ '. r.f..::- -i- ■•'> '.i«'t.' Ar» m 
III Sli.iVi <k|t< .in*"- *'i'r-.»/.i» in. Ss- I'lpi* »i* 1 > • » - II-- i.. f II, Ii'« •• nti ■• «, 

*•>• I'f lllO liVtC tif MlfMII*l« .^,'np h| . I'k ■ i I A ♦! I! I l»,«'. I« •• J • Atli 

1'4** argtiiiiiiiU. •Thi» i« clean ir-^/ tti- .■ i ' II ■ '*«. M cd, p. >..' 


UP. TV. eoontij la tnTeraed by the Nen, the Great Otue, and the 
^^ Iiittlfl Onae; Of these the firvt, which noir flows in a nsvi- 
^S£t gable stream by Uarcb, TJpwell, and Outwell. and dischargei 
itself into the Ouse near Denver sluice, formerly on arriving 
i,,i at Peterborough turaod to the right, and malcing a circuit 
ST*"" through Whittlesey, Ugg, and Ramsey Meres, pulsed them in 
a nearly direct course by Uarch to Wisbeach. The second 
enteie the fens near Earith. At this place it formerly bifur- 
cated: thb larger stream flowing by Horrimere, Ely, and 
Littleport, then by what is now called the Welney river tc 
Wisb«ich, where in conjunction with the Nen it flowed on 
to the sea. The other stream flowed towards the west, snd 
is now known as the West Water: its course is fixnn Earith 
to Benwick, where it formed a junction with the Nen, At 
the present time however both theBe ehantiett are closed tc 
the OusG, which is conveyed in a straight line by tho Bedford 
rivers to Denver, where they form a junction with the Little 
Ouse and are conveyed in its channel to the sea'. Wisbeach' 
accordingly constituted the natural outlet of the principal 
waters whose course lay through the great tract known as 
the Bedford Level ; and such was the ' plenteous Ouse' when 
Winn* Spenser in his Faery Queene described it as coming 

'tax from Und, 
Bj bud; a dtj ud by xamy ■ town. 
And nun; liToif Uking ondeC'huid 
Into Ml mten u he puieth done, 
The Cla, Uie Were, the Oruit, lbs Btnie, the fiowae. 
Thence doth by Httntingdon ksd Cunbiidge flit, 
M7 nothet CunbriilBe, whom u with a aravna 
Be dotb ftdone, and la adorti'd ol U 
^itb 11UD7 a geatle Mate and man; a laamad wit*.' 

!>*B>stoi Of tho Bc<<ford Level, the whole extent of which amounts 
to some 400,000 acres, nearly half lies in the conn^ of 
Cambridge, representing tho fen country. Originally, it ii 
probable, the inundations to which it was exposed were far 

■ See paper bj Prof. G- C. Babing* eonjeetnredrii a eompUoB of OoN. 
Ion, Cam. Antig. Soe. Pub. 111 C9. beach. 

' The name, 11 baa been planaibljr ■ fatrf Queeut, iv li S4. 




less extensive and disastrous than those of a later period, a 
The Romans, it has been conjectured, brought their sdenoe ^ 
to bear upon the difficulty and mitigated the eviL Othen 
have supposed that the gradual silting up of the channel 
directly communicating ivith the Wash sufficiently aocounU 
for the increase of the inundations in the fourteenth, fif- 
teenth, and sixteenth centuries. It would seem certain that 
with the supprc»sion of the monasteries by Henry Till 
many of the precautions which the monks hid vigilantly 
enforced were no longer observed, and the evil became 
greatly aggravated. ' The fens of England,' it has been said, 
'enter largely into its early history,' and the remark is 
specially time of Cambridgeshire and its university. In 
Uugdalc's elaborate work, the Ilistory of Embanking andwA 
Draining, there is a map representing the Bedford Level at jj>* 
the time of an inundation. The waters are to be seen 
extending in one continuous sheet from Downham Market 
to Homingscy Common, from Peterborough to Mildenhally— - 
a few ti-acts of higher ground about Ely, Littleport, Soham^ 
Haddenham, Wingford, Chatteris, and Wliittlcsea, appearing 
like islands in the midst'. On the frontier of this country 
Cambridge stands, and often shared, though in a less degree, 
the disastrous consequences of such visitations. In the yemr 
1273 the waters rose five feet above the bridge in what is 
now known as Bridge Street ; in 1290 the Carmelite Frian 
removed from Newnham into the parish of St John's, driven 
from their extensive precincts in the former locality by floods 
which frequently rendered their attendance at lectures or at 
market impracticable; in 1520, Garret Hostel bridge, now 
known as the town bridge, was carried away by the waten^ 
Even so late as the close of the sixteenth century, when 
legislation had but feebly grappled with the growing evil*. 

^ The termination •<» or -y de« 
notcti Id SaxoD an iHlond ; Anifsach 
were formerly ChiMerlcy, Dt-nny, Ely, 
lloniin^f-ey, lluuibcy, Suthrey, Thor- 
noy, WiUktica, etc. ; whilo the pas- 
turu-laod called rnrare muHt onco 
bavo been tbo bod of an inland lako. 
Taylor, Wurdi and VUuet, p. S72. 

' *Tlie moat important work ss to 
public utilitT, prior to the Itcfonna* 
tion, waa the f^at ehanncl nuuto 
by liiHhop Morton, which wtsrvtd th« 
double purpoho of diMcharguifC tb« 
overflowing of the Ncue, an«i alfunl* 
ing the convenieneo of vater'Cmr- 
h^ftgo (ivm WiiUich to rctoliorcni^'b. 


MEnij;:rAL student life. 

^- tra/Jition wont to foret^-Il tJiat all Holland waa dej^tin(yl 

^ be »ubi rged by the waters of the WelJand and the OuBe, 
^d thai abode of leaming would be transferred from 

Cambridge to Stamford ^ 
r«^ From facts like these we are better able to understand 
1%, how it was that, in times before the university existed, the 
town that still represe ted the Camboritum of the Romans 
"^ras confined to the k bank of the river, where upon the 
rising ground above, secure from inundations, rose the little 
church of St. Peter (St. Peter's juxta castra), which together 
^th some three or four hundred tenements, many of them 
fallen into decay, composed the Grantbrigge of the time of 
the Norman invasion. It is worthy of remark that there is 
nothing in Domesday Book that lends the slightest counte- 
nance to the theory that anything resembling a university 
existed in those days. The Norman occupation gave how- 
ever additional importance to the to^vn. Twenty-seven 
houses were pulled down to make way for the new castle ; 
then followed the erection of the church of St Giles by 
Picot, the sheriff of the county ; and probably soon after, 
that of the 'school of Pythagoras/ imdoubtcdly a structure 
of this period, and probably the residence of a Norman 
gentleman. But the attractions of a river in those days 

It has been said that after the dip. 
aolution of monasteries, t)ie fenny 
countrv became more overflowed than 
it had formerly been, the Bewurn and 
banks, ^rhich through the care of the 
reli^onti houseH had been kept in a 
state of good repair, hanng been 
neglected by the new proprietors of 
the monastic estates. The firKt pro- 
ject of a general drainage (whicli in- 
deed was before the making of biMhop 
Morton's canal) appears to have 
bi*<'n in tlio ri'i^n of llmry vi, when 
Gilbert Ilnltoft, one of the banms of 
the excheipur, who rcsidcMl near Ely, 
had a commission for that purpose, 
under which ho proceeded to make 
laws, but nothing ctTectiinl was then 
done.' Lyfions' Cauihrhlfffi'hirf, p. 32. 
1 'And after him the fatal Weliand 
went, I That, if old saws prove true, 
(which God forbid!) | Shall drowne 
aU Uolkud with lasoxcrcxucut, ) Aud 

shall see Stamford, though now 
homely hid, | Then shine in leaming, 
more then ever did | Cambridge or 
Oxford, England's goo<11y beaiues.* 
SjKjnser, Fatry Queene, it xl 35. 
The * old saws * here referred to are 
those mentioned by Antony Wood, 
sec p. 135. •Holland', or * Little Hoi- 
land,' as it was sometimes culled, it 
a division of the county of Lincoln, 
the S.E. portion, having the North 
B<'a on the ea^t. The \HHiVH mean- 
ing, I a)>])rehend, is that iunNniuch 
ns an inundation of this country 
could not fail to extend southwanls, 
and greatly to aggravate the evils to 
which 'Cambridgishiro was periodi- 
cally liable, the lattrr county would 
bo rendered comparatively uninhabit- 
able; while Stamford, as lying with- 
out the ne<1ford Jx>vel and on the 
rising land above the Wclland, would 
bo boyood the reach of tho waten. 

THE ra covxm. 83$ 

were all powerfal and tiy ami b3rc a raborb waa fonned en 
on the opp<wite bank ; thU nuburti gradtiall/ ejrt«nded itiielf 
until it incorporated wliat wa« profiablj a distinct irillage 
encircling the church of St. Benet Then the society aTfecalar 
caiions, founded by Picot, crossed the rifer, as Augnstiniaa 
canons, to Barnwell ; private dwellings began to multiply ; 
numerous hostels were erected ; the period of college founda- 
tions succeeded; and at last the new town completely 
eclipsed the old Grantbrigge^ which sank into an obscure 
suburb ^ 

Such may be regarded as a sufficiently probable theory of tw 
the early external growth of Cambridge, but it still remains {^ 
to explain how such a locality came to be selected as the ^' 
site of a university. Compared with Stamford, Northampton, ^*^ 
or even Huntingdon, all of them seats of monastic education, 
Cambridge, to mo<lem eyes, would have appeared an un* 
healthy and ineligible spot*. It was the frontier town of a 
country composed of bog, morass, and extensive meres, inter- 
Hpcrsed with occasional tracts of arable and pasture land, 
and presenting apparently few recommendations as a resort 
for the youth of the nation; the reasons therefore which 
outweighed the seemingly valid arguments in favour of a 
more inviting and accessible locality have often been the 
subject of conjecture. Fuller himself seems at a loss to 
understand why the superior natural advantages of North- 
ampton did not win for that town the preference of the 
academic authorities. 

As regards the first commencement of the univenity, an ajj 
obvious explanation is to be found in the fact that, in all*|2 
probability, no dufitiito art of selecticm ever took place. Like 
Paris and Oxfonl, Cambrid;je grew into a centre of learning. 
Somewhere in the twelfth century tho university took ita 

^ 11)0 c<>nil>in(Hl popnUtlon cTon bnMfre,' lAyii ITarriikm. writing Id 

iowanlK the clohe of tho tliirtooiith 1577, ' in i«oiiirirbai lowe aiul n«er9 

Ctntiiry iIoon ijot Apponr to hare ex- tinUi tho fi*nnf*fi, whrnrhjr tb« bul« 

ecHtUil UtOO, Boo Cooper, Annal*, luinicncfNO of the a.vre tlH-re ia ik4 m 

X CH. littlo corrupU'd.* JloUiiabed't C'Arv* 

• In the Rixt4*onth contuTy writ4>ra ?iic/r, 73 b. 
begin to rceognibo this (act. 'Cam* 


««r IT. rise ; ori^nat'mg most probably in an effort on the part of the 
" ' " " monkfi of Ely to render a, position of some military impor- 
tance also ft place of cdiicntion. Tlio littlo school prohperor], 
Tlic canons of St, Giles lent tlioir aid ; nn'I when at length, 
as at Paris and Eolo^a, a nucleus had been formed, its 
exiBlence bucami; an accepted foclj royalty «xteadeil ita 
recognition, and Cambridge became a university. 
kgatt But when we enter upon the wider question, why the 

^* drawbacks to the situation did not finally cauao the remooai 
of the univcntity to a less objectionable locality, wo fiod our- 
selves involved in a more perplexing but not uninteresting 
inquiiy. It can hardly be supposed that at a time when the 
university had acquired but little property in the town, and 
when the smollness of the worldly possessions of the student* 
as described by Chaucer*, rendered removal from one part of 
the country to another a less formidable undertaking in some 
respects than even at the present day, that the dijfficuUiea 
attendant upon a general migrotion deterred men from al^ 
fci^fa w tempting it. The question of a partial migration, or of tho 
h rS' i foundation of a third university, stood upon a different foot- 
ing. Such measures were resisted to prevent the loss of 
prestige and diminution in importance which it was supposed 
the older universities would necessarily undergo ; losses like 
those which the foundation of the university of Prague in 
1348 undoubtedly inflicted on Paris, and which the founda- 
tion of tho university of Cracow in 1400 inflicted in turn 
on Prague. We shall probably find the best answer to our 
question in a consideration of the very dificrcnt point of view 
.i.iiii -11 from which it was regarded in mediaeval times. And first of 
j-»™^ all it is noccfwaiy to remember how entirely monastic ideas 
jjj*"^ pre<lominatcd in the early annals of both Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, and also how prominent a place among those ideas 
krwMb asceticism has always, at least in theory, held. The theory 
■*^' that inculcated a rigorous isolation from mankind almost 
necessarily debarred tho monk from tho selection of the most 
inviting ard accessible localities ; and so long as the locality 
produced his two chief requisites, timber and water, for fuel 
■ rndogoA to Canttrburf Taltt, SS7— 810. 


and food, he professed to craye for nothing more. If we eiii 
examine the sites selected for our earlier monasteries we 
shall see that it was neither the bracing air nor the fertilitj 
of the soil that allured the founders to the mountain summit 
or to the far recesses of the vala It was not until the^ 
Church began to rival the temporal power, not until thefS; 
piety or the penitence of the wealthy found expression in the 
alienation of largo estates to the different orders, not until 
asceticism had been practically set aside as the rule of the 
religious life, that the houses of both the old and the new 
societies began to rise on commanding eminencef^ in the 
centre of productive and well cultivated districts, looking over 
rich slopes and undulating plains whose fertility moved the 
envy of the wealthiest nobla It is indeed a common ob- 
servation that the monk had a keen eye for the fattest land 
and selected the site of his residence accordingly : but it is 
questionable whether, in many cases, effect has not been 
mistaken for cause, and whether the skill and industry of 
the new colonists did not often supply the place of natural 
advantages and impart attractions which were afterwards 
supposed to be natural to the locality. Of such a conversion 
in the district adjacent to Cambridge we find a notable 
instance in the pages of Matthew Paris, whose account can h,^ 
hardly be better rendered than in the quaint version bySS 
Dugdale: — 'In the year 12.")G, William, bishop of Ely, and 
Hugh, abbot of Ramsey, came to an agreement upon a con* 
troversy I)otwecn them touching the bounds of their fens; 
whereof in these our times a wonder happencfl ; for whercaii» 
as anticntly, time out of mind, they were neither acccssiblo 
for man or boast, aflonling only deep mud, with sctlgo and 
roods; and posscst by birds (yea, much more by devils, •• 
appcarcth in the life of St. Guthlac, who, finding it a plaee 
of horror and great solitude, began to inhabit there), is now 
changed into delightful meadows and arable ground; and 
what thereof doth not produce com or hay, doth abundantly 
bring forth sedge, turf, and other fuel, voiy useful to tho 
borderers * * 

' Parifl. Ui$toria JJqJor, ed. WaU, p. 929 ; Dngdmle, Embankimf mtd 

Drcining, p. 356. 



'• There U good reason for believing that the motiret vhich 
weighed with St Guthlac were, in a great measure, those 
which chiefly influenced the monk in his selection of places 
like Thomey, Ramsey, Crowlond, and Ely, as sites of religious 
houses, all probably originally scenes of ' horror,* but rendered 
not only habitable but inciting by patient toil*. The de- 
scription given by the soldier to William the Conqueror, as 
recorded in the Liber Etiensia*, of the localities which he had 

II visited, rescmblnti rather that brought by the spies to Joshua, 
than the picture which the name of the Fens is apt at the 
present day to suggest. Fertile islands, like those of Bamsoy 
and Thomey, rose amid the meres, adorned with verdant 
pl^ns, rich cornfields, nnd stately woods; timber was plentiful, 
the ash in particular attaining to unusual dimensions; orchards 
abounded; the vine was successfully cultivated, sometimes 
trained aloft, sometimes extending on framework along the 
ground; the rich turf supplied abundcnt fuel, and, conveyed 
up the river in boats, often blazed on the winter hearths at 
Cambridge. The fertility of the soil surpassed that of all 
other parts of England. The red stag, now extinct in this 
country, the roe du'cr, wild goats and hares, afforded ample 
occupation far the ImnUman. The wild goose and watci^ 
fowl of various kinds multiplied in every direction. The 
tranquil mere, which rolled its tiny wave to the island shore, 
teemed with all kinds of fish, snd yiehlcd an unfailing supply 
for the Cambridge market. Ely itself, if we may trust the 
authority of Bedc, dcrix'ed its name from the abundance of 
eels once found in the surrounding waters*. Porch, roach, bar- 

* Tbe Tinoroiu diclion of ('oljbctt, 
la hi> cccvDtrie llittory oj thr I'ra- 
UflaiH Rtfarmalim, ban cfli'cliTtlj 
llliiKtntcil tliiii fiivonmUo ]>1ibhi oI 
Eiiiiliiib monimtiewni ; — 'Tlio nio- 
niU'tii-K built u wi'll M VToto for 
poxlcrity. TI18 ncTrr-clfioR unture 
ol Uicir iiiHtitiitiona get itxijo in dl 
Uicir uuclcrtakJDt;* tivory citlculntion 
u to liiuo and age. AVLclber the; 
built or plnntod, tbe; Mt tba fifiie- 
toaa «ukiuplo of provliliu); lot tb« 
plrninrc, tUo lionour, tba wealth, 
■Dil grciitiiciu of RcncrotionH yet uq- 
bon. Tluiy oiocutoil ovcijUung in 

tbe veq* beat muinar: tboir eardcma, 
fiHhpon>bi, farms, vera aa near pct- 
fcctioD aa the; cool J make tbem; 
in tbe vholc of their economr they 
art an ulamplo tondinR to miiliD tbe 
couutr; bcnutiful, to luako it an ob- 

noutly great.' 
• Liber Klitrait (ed. IMS), 1 291 
■ 'DieimuB antem Ely AngUee, id 
eft, a eo)<ia anguiUaram qoa in d*- 
dem capiuutnr paliuUbni, nomen 
anrnpnit ; nicut Ueda AngUinun ili- 
•ertiJuuniu docct' /tlj. p. S. 



bcis, and lampreys were scarcely less plentiful; pike, known chai 
by the local name of ' hakeards/ were caught of extraordi- 
nary size; and the writer in the Ramsay Jteffuter declares, 
that though the fisherman and sportsman plied their craft 
unceasingly the stipply seemed inexhaustible. With such 
resources at its command the fen country was in those days 
the envy of the surrounding districts; and when spring camo 
the island home of the monk seemed, tiie chronicler tells us, 
like some bower of Eden. 

It will bo observed that we have referred to the earlier 
monasteries as affonling the chief examples of the practice ^^^^^ 
of the ascetic tlieory. But as generation after generation*^"' 
passed away, and Benedictines and Mendicants vied with 
each other in splendour and luxury, that theory was as little 
regarded as the theory of Gregor)- the Great concerning 
pagan literature'. Its disreganl however always afforded 
occasion to their adversaries for sarcasms which they found 
some difficulty in repelling; and the following episode in 
the life of Pog^o Bracciolini, a man who, though his sympa- 
thies were ^.vith the Humanists, yet always cxi»r:ssed the 
greatest reverence for the religious life, affonls a sinydar illus- 
tration of the whole question with which we are now occupied. 

It was aljout the year 1429, that a new branch of the 
Franciscan onler, calling themselves the Fratres Observantue, ^^^^^ 
and professing, as was always the case with new communities, 
a more than ordinarily austere life, attempted to erect in tho 
neighbourhood of Arezzo a convent for their occupation* 
The rapidity with which these new branches were multiply- 
ing had however before this Income the subject for serious 
consideration with the main onler, and it had been resolved 
at a general assembly that no more such societies should bo 
formed without the consent of the chapter. It aocorJingly 
devolved upon Poggio, who at that timo filled the office of 
secretary to Martin V, to prohibit the new erection at Arezzo 
until the pleasure of the chapter should be known. This 

' It would be an interesting in- with the Mcn«licantA, whose |tfvfm« 

qniry, were we at liberty hero to iiion certainl^v did not indiKle the 

foUow it up, whether the change in idta of iiiolatioo from manfcind. 
tho nbove rcfpcct did not come in 




r. interferaBOe, though simply a discharge of hii offid&l duty, 
' at once marked him out for calumntes and inrectirea like 
those which at this period were the ordinary defensive 
ivcapons of the religious ordera. It was notorious that he 
regarded the Mendicants with no friendly feelings, and the 
Fratres Obaervantio) accordingly now hegau to denounce him 
as a foe to the Christian fnith and a subvcrter of all religion. 
Their outcries and misrepresentations were bo far successTuI 
that the good-natured Niccoli Niccolo was induced to address 
to Po{^o a few words in their behalf. But the antagonist 
of Filclfo and Valla wos quite equal to the occasion, and in 
his reply to the Florentine Moicenas he gladly availed him- 
self of the opportunity thus aSbrdcd him of exposing and 
ccnsunog the habitual practice of the whole order. ' He was 
far,' he said, 'from denying that the friars had substantial 
reasons for grumbling, for they had been driven from a 
delightful region, the vineyards of which, producing a drink 
that Jove himself might envy, attracted visitors from far and 
near. But surely sucli spots wore not for those who professed 
alifcofanstcrity and poverty ! Plato, who bad known nought 
of Christianity, had selected an vtihealthy place/or his academy, 
in order that the mind mitjht be strenrjthened b^ the weaknesi 
of the body and the virtuous inclinations havi free scope. 
But these men, although professing to take Christ aa their 
example, chose out pleasant and delightful residences, and 
these moreover not in retired spots but in the midst of popu- 
lous neighbourhoods, where everything allured to sensual 
rather than to intellectual delights'." 

\* [mtrilns qiirnintai 

ri pnlrJA atuociiix 
JQilieio hnud injana ij oRunt. lltud 
mim DoslniiD npctnr, JoTJa potDi, 
mutton alUcit non lolan) pcrc;;riii(Hi, 
■edetdves. rinto, Tir minime Cbris- 
tinnns, clr^t Acailcmirc locum iniiB- 
lalirrm, quo mflKi* intinno corpora 
■niinuii ctM>t flrmior, ct bonm mrnti 
mcorrl. At iilf, ipA no Clirlrluni 
•c<|a[ nimalnnt, loca c1i;;uiit nraccna, 
Toliiptaaxn. oiitiii rclcrtn jucaudiutto. 

I «oli[i 

. iwJ i 

Kliltto\tt{tiii. Mcba*. Fk>ront!n,17n!)). 
Lib. xiT 41, noe iklio mit 8. Wilb 
nwpect to I'lato nolo JCIUd. T'ari't 

¥*, ' ax (yrit «!■ dr mtt itrdni 

Tipti\iriri'=i-' It i»notunIikclyu'>'•■ 
cvcrtlllltl^'^;^lol<nJ in Uk ir>iiiJn 
puiisiiRa in St, Itti-il, I>r IfjrnAid liMt 
Umfitium.c. t'J:-A<d3^>aIIIX>ri*J 

pun H* i' auiiarat p,tiflv rpanU- 

r- wJ 


It u ticrtainlj somewliat eurprising to fiod & man of ""^ri 
Poggio'i intelligcncG implicitly fLwcrtinj; that the unhedthi-r^*..!. 
mm of a locality n;cnmmcn<k-)l it lu* a plncc of cihicntinn fir ** - '■ •-' 
youth; but the fact affunLi J'Misivo cviJcncc that such wa' '«. ■• 
the theory then generally recognised, Tlic mftu gnna ira« 
not to bo 8o\iglit in corp-jre tano. Tlic nioileni iheoTy of 
cducatioD requires the simultancoufl <Ievi'l<)p_-inent of thf; 
pliysical and mental powers, or rather ti-ichii iw to I'-'-k 
upon them as only moiKs of the Ranic fircf, — a fi-ra? ptir- !y 
phyHical in its orijjiu. In those dayit th<'y wep." I'^-iV.'-I »j>r,n 
as antagonistic; the miml, it wn>. held, was stK-njlh-n-I l.y 
the Weakening of tlic l^i'Iy. Occa-ionally iiidetd m-ri i.f 
more than ordinary disciTiinii nt n-lvocaf-il a s<uindiT vi- w. ^-^•*^ 
We find Gros<etciti.',he w]ioc(nd"Iclic TilyHig;;t'!'t t-ia ni'-U:!- -^j- ^* 
choly brother an occa-iion:.! cip of wiiie n* a n iiudy f-T 'iv.r 
depression, objectiiis <m sitriitnr;- Kroiin^ls to low and uiar-liv 
districts'; and Walter IliirU-y. if wi- may tni^t !)r. Pl.t** 
Rccwunt, seriously In.'li.v<-d pliil.i'^"iili r, fr-ni Vn^i^; I il 
wleete.1 Oxford as tli.- s.tue nf f h- ir h.'-uri -n n<-, .,f,fll,.sifnli..n'. ^i■^^< 'i'k- '>i. .- w. r- 
certainly llie c-\ci.'ptii<n. ati-l tii.i ].v.'v:ii;iii^' tli«'-ry h.t. l\, it 
on whirh l»..;.';;i<> t=o niinuT-ifitUy iii-i-*''i'. ri,r.;i-.ti:il.:.- 

Tif "AmBi^iIo* icaTaXa^lrrr /{.Wr.**!. m"' "' l« t' " •'■"•h ii I '•-! ; 


^ that theory now appears, it will be found, like 

r nhantloned crotchets of mediaeval ism, to contain 

f tnitii. The highest state of physical well-being 

1F*1ll» most favorable to severe mental application; 

tHy a college tutor in the present day could probably 

inony, tlmt the high tension of the nervous system 

y athletic training often materially interferes with 

y of the student to devote himself to the sedentary 

»f an Honour course, 

^iig pursued, as far as seems necessary for our pro- 
se, our inquiry into the causes which may be sup- 
have determined the localisation of the university, 
ay DOW proceed to examine the character of the stu- 
afcof these early times. If then we accept the theory 
'f put forward of the commencement of the university, 
narily follows that we shall be prepared also to accept 
' modest estimate of the culture that originally prc- 
rruled. AVe shall postulate neither Greek philosophers nor 
roval patrons, but readily admit that the iuKtniution given 
CMiid only have bsen that of the ordinary grammar school of 
a later period. The Liitin language, or ' gi^ammar' as it was 
designated, formed the basis of the whole course: Prisciiui, 
Terence, and Boethius, were tho authors commonly read'. 
There were probably Bomo dozen or nioro separate Kchmds, 
c.uh presided over by a master of grammar, while the ilfaijii- 
fcr Glumen'm represented tho supremo autliority. It is in 
coDiiexion with this officer, whoso character and functions m- 
long bailed the researches of thu antiquarians, that wo havo 
an explanation of those relations to Ely, as a tradition of tho 
earliest time.", which formed tho precedent for that ecclcsi- 
osttcal intcrforenco which was terminated by the Bamwcll 
Process. The existence of such a functionary and of the 

bpforo Uio »lUick o( roKgio on lira klcl.r in Iii« JliilorUnt Skrtehf, m 

ObHrrrnntitln : bnt nn llio other an illiHtmtion of inciUaiv>l noliriDi 

Land it i> to bo uoled Uinl it is (lia with rc>.pc<l to tlio beat Mttm fur nui- 

loiigun;^ of a layman, and (lint tlio Tcmilitro. 

oniTcrait? of Lourain vaa (onnilcd ' Tcnaea h<r>!evn p-imefllrner I 

for kU tho facnitiri tin-t that of llieo- thi!Rraniinari>chaul, alalaterpriioi). 

frj^. (3eo p.2.''2,iioto a, aniErraia.) nn-ia» to hnvo hccn alio known undw , 

Nothing certain); can justify Or the designation ol the thaul nf T*' 

KeirmoD in »dditd»ig LoQtun, •■ rriiti. j 

BTUDEirrs or oeasixab. 341 

gnmntftr schools, prior to the unlvenity, enables u to on- chap 
dcrstaDcl how, in the time of Hugh Ralsham, an exertion of ' 
the episcopal autlioiity, like thnt which has already come 
under our notice, becnine ncccssarv in onlcr to guanl against 
colliition between the represent at ires of the oil and the 
now ordcn of things,— hot wt-cn the c-Ntahlii<hcil rights of the 
Master of Glomcry and ri'^htti hkc those which, bj one of 
our most ancient statutes, were vc'sted in the rcji^-nt masters 
in the exercise of theit authority over thoHe stuJcntK en- 
rolIcJ on thvir Ik-oVa, If wo jiicturc to ourwlves jiomc f-.w 
hunJn'd tituiK'iitK, of nil a^i,'3 frum early youth tocompk-te 
manhoml, nmstly of very s!>;iiil'-r menu!), luokin;^ furwarj to 
the monastic ur the ck<ric:tl life as their fiiiure av«nti'>n, 
l"'Igi»g among the t^nvIl^fl■lk, ami rec<'ivinK such aocfinni-^ 
•htion as iiii-yperivncci [mviTty might hi- likely to obtain at 
the baiiils of ]'rrii:tisisl extoitiuiier'j, n-s'iriiii^ P-r iii>(ni(-ti-jD 
to one largi- buiMiii^. the ;;r;immiir srluioN, ur 1,41111.-1 imc4 
ctmsTTi jiUiI ill ill.' inrrh- ■! uf ll.iir re<pii'tiv>- mn^'tir*" hnu*.-^ 
aii<I th.r.; r.i'-.iviu,- mkIi iii'tiu.tinri in I,;itiii a« a p nI!Ti~ 
from Tereiicr. I'-, tdiii^. „; dr. hi*, .k..l .mt by the in rc 
tkmeiitarv riil< - fr-'iii I'ri-iiiii 'if l>'>ri:i)iis wi-nhl n [-n- 
M.„t,— Ke\l.i»:i i.i-..lnl.Iy Im- f:i;..j...l tije m:iiii f. :.V;r- ■< 
t'f a t'aiiibri'!:;!' C'.i;i-' at tin' jxiii"! wIiii IniTiiiH l-_-in 
to Krtiir.' at li..l-,-'i.'. Variiin- iit Uxf.Tii. aii-l »hui iMer 
I, c-m].ll. .1 ili- S. uii'nr, ,. 

Mv.i^n- as II ■f..'ii..' uiiy a[.|«Tir, th-rc ii ev<-ryfw«tf 
r-M-i-n fi.rbi!i. \ii.^ tl..i! it Ttiii. I. l-r o ut-irl--.. n-.v!y t!;.- ~]£^ 

.l.-ilt. 'IV L-..I.1].:. ;.■ Iri.i- ri. I .::..>ul l.y tK.- yl tiiMr.-f.r- 
mi.l.ib;,' ^ ,(,;rr i.w.i- !..!!.. >■■:.! L.-h't},..- aml.ili-n a;: 1 
the n-^..-i',-. -i 1.1' ill.' ..!.i;i;iyy ■' : "'ir. H'^ ;>iiii ii-:i- -iiiij-ly 
t- <imV.:U- l,i!i.-.'i ■:-: h W '■:■]■:■. ;- 1 "n- Sir Smif!, or 

t . ..!.-:ii» a I;.- :.. t- L .,- !. t!.- I. ,'::. •■■-■:.■. F-r •!,:- t'.o 


'. pablio dispaUtions on gramtnar, to hare gives thirteen lec- 
tares on Prisciaii'B Book of Constroctions, and to have ob- 
tuned from three masters of arts certificates of his ' learning, 
abili^, knowledge, and moral character,' satisfied the re- 
quirements of the authorities*. His licence obtained, h« 
might either be appointed by ono of the colleges to teach in 
the grammar school frc<iuently attached to the early founda- 
tions ; or he might become principal of a hostel end receive 
pupils in grammar on his own account; or he might, as 
a secular clergynuiD, be presented to a living or the mastei^ 
ship of a grammar school at a distance from the university. 

■ With tho latter part of the twelfth century the studies of 
the trivium and quadrivium, or in other words the discipline 
of an arts faculty, vcre probably introduced at Cambridge. 
This dcvclopcmcnt from a simple school of grammar into a 
studium generals was not marked, it is true, by tho same 
(fclat that waited on tho corresponding movements at Bo- 
logna, Paris, or even Oxford, but it is not necessary to infer 
from tlienco that Cambridge was much inferior either in 
numbers or organization. Tlio early reputation of those scats 
of learning survives almost solely in connexion with a few 
great names, and tho abscnco of any tcachor of eminence 
like Imcrius, Abclard, or Vacarius, at our own university, is 
a sufficient cxplanatiou of tlie fact that no accounts of her 
culture in the twelfth c<:ntury have reached us. On the 
other hand, the influx of large numbers from the university 
of Paris, which wo have already noted us taking place about 
tlic year 1229, can only bo accounted for by supposing that 
the reputation of tho university was by that time fairly 

' catabli.slicd. Of tho frcrjueiit iutcrcourso between Paris and 

^ tho English univcRjJtica in tho thirteenth, fourteenth, and 
during part of tho fifteenth century, we have already spoken. 
This intercourse, it is to bo observed, is to bo traced not 
merely in the direction osHumed by tho mental activity of 
C^iford and Cambridge at difrcrcnt junctures, hut also in the 
more dgfiuito evidence a6ordod by their ro^icctive statute 
books. It was natural that when a Cambridge or Oxford 
■SUtnteUT. De heffturii In anmmaiiea. Doe9mttiU,ttH. 


gTThJuate hod apeot two or tlircfl yean and perhapa taken ni. 
aa adilitioQiil degree at Paris, he should, oa hii return, be *" 
iacliaed to comment oa any pointa of differenco between 
the ret^'jiremcnts of the illu:itriou9 Wly he bad quitted and 
tJoA' of his own university. The statutci of both Oxford 
and Cambridge had originally been little more than a tran- 
S(.-ript ot those of Paris ; but the changes JntroduciHl at Paris 
among the diObrvnt 'natiuns' were so numeroui n mate- 
rially to modify the courttc of study iu the fiftLvnth centurr 
when cuiiipan-d witb that of the thirteenth. In many in- *^ 
stanccii we tiud that these cliangt-s w.-re xubsiijui-ntly ailupttd J];^ 
at Caiiibridgo, and, an tlie chroiiulogy of the statiitei at PAris ^'. 
i,i far more regularly pn.'ser^e>l, thi-y often nflurd us valuable I'l'l 
guidance rinTe e^iiociatly thrise of tlie Xatiun Anglai-if, or "- 
XaiMt AlkiiftH'h HA it wa.'i Riib.-^iiuently calii-J), in <!etvr- 
iiiiiiliig tile rL-!.itive anti<[iiity of two ^tuliiteA in uur own ci^ie. 

t'ijr a coiniiiuraWc ]H.Tiod the studi-iils and maiiter^ of '■"••" 
l^ttiiiiar w TO ]>Mliil>ly. in jmint of ihiiuWt.'I. by f:ir llic m'/-l *^ 
iiiilKTtaut I-:-. i;k lit ill the tiiiivi-r>ily, b'lt lli'-y tvx ivo .[iiit.- a " 

Th.- c..J..r if the iirts sti|.|.nf. ..» tl.e ..ih.r Ir..,.I. iM- K- " ' 
trrfvd Hi'.ii t'.:.-j.i1.I.' pr.r;.i<in. and. ujlli (h.^ O'll.t'.' m! aid 
ix\X-f\'-<\ I.y t'...— :.Uiil.s i.f I'iim ai<d Oxl-nl, »e ar.M.i...l.!.d 
t.> ;;iv-.' a i^i\ ir'.i-twi.rthy ski-tih of suih acar. .-r in tl.-j 
f>ui'!i an.! ti!';.imli c^ntiirii-. Th'-re in pH»l ri'a*'<Q 
li-.iKiir f r -ij ['■•-iii^ i.rigiiially the ina't-ri and etu- 
.!,;■, ^,;' _...,.. ..ur H.I.- i]»[ I.iiV..! ii|-ii ai imni-jipi;- nn 
■." T .::\ ■:■■.;: r |.-;'i. n ; t!i.:r d.ilit..- in .-lini.i':-.ri ».-«^ 
:■■'■ ■ ,r !y :! ■ -.,.i!; ,.;■ t!i..-.' i:.,w a.l.liti-in* (■• iinic r-;t* ■-■-»• 
'■ . -' 1^ «■: ''. ! n,. n-.-i].:..! ..'ir nlLLl-Mn in |t. .■■■Ln,- 
- .--.->. W !!i ;'.- I:.M..-I'i.'t;..n ■■(' iIm'- p-m.-n .-f ::...• 

'. ■ , -. :i %,-, •■: ^* ■, ;-, .«„ ::- ill-' S--t A>-. \--\': tl .fM 

:.■. T. 

...I ,„ tl.' - 

.■..-. I., i! 

. r. }.<.'. ■: J. 


f.n; Btaitling the learned of Italy, fuled for a long time to amiken 
asy interest in the northern unirerrities. The splendid 
lilmi7 which duke Humphrey bequeathed to Oxford, though 
received with profuse exprcssious of gratitude, waa valued not 
for its additions to the known literature of antiquity but for 
its lichncss in mediajval theology. Hence the grammarian's 
art declined relatively in value, and the study of logic over- 
shadowed all the rest. With the sixteenth century the 
balance was readjusted ; the grammarian along with the 
rhetorician claimed equal honours with the logician, and the 
couree of the grammar student was correspondingly extended*. 
During the latter part of the Middle Ages however it was 
undoubtedly the dialectician's art that was the chief object 
of the scholar's reverence and ambition. A course of study, 
moreover, in but one subject and occupying but three year^ 
was ubviou^ily not entitled to the same consideration as a 
seven years' course extending through the trmum and quad- 
rivium. Tlius the masters and scholars in grammar grad- 
ually subsided into acknowledged inferiority to those in arts, 
an inferiority which is formally recognised in the statute 
requiring that the funeral of a regent master of arts or of a 
Bcliolar in that faculty shall be attended by the chancellor 
and the regents, and at the same time expressly declaring 
that ma.stcni and scholars of grammar arc not entitled to 
Mv*. sucli an honour*. The grammarian indeed in those dayN was 
ku> nolliing moro than a schoolmaster, and the estimation in 
• which tliat vocation wax In;ld had pcrhapH reached its lowest 
• point. The extended sense in which the term gravimaticvs 
hod been originally unilcrstood, and in which it waa again 
bcfor'i very long to be employed, did not apply to the master 
of a grammar school in the fourteenth century. He taught 
only Echoollwys, and they learned only the elements. It was 
Kully significant moreover of the character of his vocation 
that every inccptor in grammar received a ' palmer' (ferule), 

■ Tho liut dcgrcu in Hnmrou »t tonim, ' UUi taatDmmoda oxeqiUi^ 
CambriJKe vai confcncJ iu tba yoar qui artom MUn doccnt val tn&taX 
1612. reacock, OUmatimu, eU; ftmunmUeain, sd qnoram eiaqniai 
Append, p. Ill Doto. nisi ei derotion* non vu^snt voifn 

■ SUtulo ll», Dt EztttuiU Define- dietl.' DoevmmU, 1 401. 



and a rod, and then proceeded to flog a boj pablidj In the 
8chooIs\ Hence Erasmus in his Encomium iftmtt, dear as 
the cause of Latin learning was to his heart, does not hesitate 
to satirize the grammarians of his time as ' a race of all men 
the most miserable, who grow old at their work surrounded 
by herds of boys, deafened by continual uproar, and poisoned 
by a close, foul atmosphere ; satisfied however so long as 
they can overawe the terrified throng by the terrors of their 
look and speech, and, while they cut them to pieces with 
ferule, birch, and thong, gratify their own merriless natures 
at pleasure/ Similarly, in a letter written somewhat later, 
he tells us what difficulty he encountered when he sought 
to find at Cambridge a second master for Colet's newly 
founded school at St. Paul's, and how a college don, whom he 
consulted on the subject, suecringly rejoined, — ' ^\^lo would 
put up with the life of a schoolmaster who could get bis 
living in any other way* V 

From the career and prospects of a grammar student we 
may now proceed to examine those of the student in arts'. 
As the university gathered its meml>ers from all parts of tho 
kingdom and many of tho students came from districts a 

* •Then Bball tho netlcll purvay 
for every luawtcr in (irniner a KiircwJo 
n<)y, iv'liom tho tniiMtcr in (irnnier 
fihall U't<! ojKiilyo in th<> Si-oIvm, an<l 
thn iiKiHtir in Cirnwor hhull ^;i\(*tho 
])f*yo n (iroiii tor Uyn I^ihciiir, muX 
uriotht r (iroti* to liyni that piovyih th 
tJio lloth' iin«i tho l'uhn«r *U\ lir Hin* 
liiiU». And thiiH ( mlytlio tho Act** in 
thftt rnrultvo/ Stoha* Jfook, iVn- 
c<tck, Obnrrcationj, Append. A, p. 

• S<cl)oliin,Oj-/»»rrf Jlrformfn, 2'J0«. 
8<»o iiIho Mr AnHtiv'H renifirkH, Mu- 
nimrntn Acatlnnira, p. Ixiii. It in 
Honirvihat Hurpri^'int;, when nnch wnii 
tho prcviiilinK' i-'ttiMtuto ttt tho imnn' 
tinrinn'H fiinrtion, to iind tlmt tin ro 
wt-ro iiotwithHtiindiri;{ rnthii»<iu«'tH in 
thr piin-lv ti< hni< III hritni-h f»f tho 
Htiidy. The fi*ll<>uiii(^d( '<rripti«'n 1'>r 
inntunco nii^'ht ahno^t Ncrvo for tho 
oripnul of tho chiirurti-r wliirh Mr 
Brifwnini* had f(o powirfully dclincat- 
od in Lin Orammariatii Funeral: — 
*KoTi qucndam roSvT€X''9TaToif,OTtB' 

cam, Latinnm, iDathcoutieitiii, fhU 
hiMopbuin, modicum, gmt rttvrm fia^i* 
Xi«o#, jam hoxAfi^-nftriam, qai ect^rli 
ri'liim oniiMniii, annirt iduN vi^inti m 
tori|iut nr diHrnif iat in icnimui«»tirs, 
jirofHUM fciicfm M) foni ratUM hi tarn* 
din lircfii vi\i'ro dom-c r« rto iitatual 
i\wniunht di^^tinf^ifidii* Ninl orto |«ir» 
to 4 orntioniK, t\utm{ harti-nnd iM-mo 
(ini rornin unt lAtinorum %*\ ph'hnm 
pniMtaro vohiit.' Knromium M»riif» 
' It in dilhcult t«> form %uy ^trf 
exact ronchi^ion mith r«-'iMTt to tho 
Chtimution in which tho adratitaiTMi 
id a nnivi rnity c-dnmtjon v<-r« hikl 
in thcM* tinicH. Mr KuAty \n «>f opi* 
nion thut a hi«l wai M-nt to Clxfonl or 
Ciiiiilfri'l/f mhen hi* M-^'nud '(it f<*r 
nothing ••No.' Vi%tUs-or XUkh'Tm pata, 
'Th'Tc vkttM an k««-ii an atnhition in 
thfiKO diiyn nnion^ the ftinitll propri«>« 
torn to Mtid onir of their ^ont lo tlni 
nnivrfhity, an thi re in now in IndanJ 
to 4^\\i\[t a toy at M.iynm»tb.* Ilia* 
lorical Gleaningi^ 2iid Kricm, p. 17. 


week's journey remote, it was customary for parents to 
eDtruit their sons to the care of a 'fetcher,' who after making 
a ])relimmary tour in order to form his party, which often 
numbered upwards of twenty, proceeded by the most direct 
road to Cambridge. On his arrival two courses were open to 
th« youthful freshman :^ho might either attach himself to 
one of the religious foundations, in which caue his career 
for life might bo looked upon as practically decided ; or he 
might enter himself under a resident master, as intending to 
toko holy orders, or perhaps, though such instaocca wcro 
proliably confined to the nobility, as a simple layman. In no 
case however was he permitted to remain in residence except 
under the surveillance of a superior'. Unless it was the 
design of his parents that ho should follow tho religious life, 
be would probiibly before setting out have been fully warned 
against the allurements of all Franciscans and Dominicans, 
until a friar had come to be regarded by him as a kind of ogre, 
and he would hasten with as little delay as possible to put 
himself under the protection of a master. Tho disparity of 
age between master and pupil was generally less than at tho 
present day ; tho former would often .lot be more than 
twenty-one, the latter not more than fourteen or fifteen; 
conf-eipicntly their relations were of much less formal charac- 
ter, and the selection, so far an the scholar was concerned, a 
more importint mailer. A scholar from tho south choso a 
master from the same latitude ; if he could succeed in meet- 
ing with one from the same county he considered himself yet 
more fortunate; if a<:piring to become a canonist or a civilian 
lie would naturally seek for a master also engaged upon such 
itudioa. The master in turn was expected to interest him- 
iclf in his pupil ; no scholar was to be nidcly repulsed on the 
icore of poverty ; if uuablo to pay for both lodging and 

> SUtate 42. Dt Imm«nit<itf Scho- 
'aHun. 'Inilii^uni ctse jnJicaoiaB 
lit qui* ccholniein tiiciiluT, qui cer- 
ium ma^iitrnia intra xt iliis poKt 
iJDi ini^cNstim ID uiiivtn>itnto non 
tia mcril nut uouivii bdudi itiFru lyiD> 
pQl pra liljittuiii in iiutrkulA loaKis- 
tri lui roJiiji'r* iiun curuuTit, oU.* 

DncHwnM.t S33. Tbti stataU which 
vai promulgited In the fittceoth of 
Heni7 III is eviilenlly an c«bo of thit 
o( 111* nnivcrsily of rnriii paiscd ilx- 
tccn j-eurii boforo b; Robert do Conr- 
(oo. •NiillM Hit icLolnria PuisiiK 
qui cDriiiin tna^iitnun uon h«b«aL' 
Luliuiu, 111 8i. 


tuition he often rendered on cquivslcnt in the eba^ otrtrj ta^r v 
humble servicca ; he waited at tftklc, vent on erranJi, *ai, 
if we may trust the autlioritj of the Fwudo-Boethiui, wa« 
often rewarded by his master's Icfi-ofl* garments. The aiil» IXH^' 
held out by the nnivorsity were then but few. There were •*'•* 
rome nine or ten pixiHy cmlnwetl foiindation>i, one or two 
university exhibitions, and Riinlly the university chest, from 
whii-h, oa a last ri.M)tirco, t)ie )iard-pine)iLil wlu-lent mi;;lit 
borrow if he liii<I aii;;lit to pli-.!;!.-'. llio h(MiU-l whirc li..> 
resided protectcil him fruni p(i-.itivo cxtortiun, but he was «ill 
under the nci.\'>^ity of rnnkiiif; certain imtmnti tnwanlx the 
cxjK-nses. The uiuliliit-r el:i.-i ,i]i|H-iir to have been umKr at 
pecuniary obli^'ati'jin whatever. Whuii th'-rifore a sclwlara 
fund.') entinly fiiliJ Iiiui, ami \iU Sentences r.r hi» Stiniituilir, 
his Wmtiaii eutli-rv. .-m.l hit wiTif.r H..ak hn.I all fuuitd 
their way iiiti> the jir.i'tMr's haii-h tn i-.-curity fT inunic* 
adviiiiccil, hi' w;is i-uiiipillc'l to Iiavi' ri.c'nn>'- lo i-tlit-r moan*. 
His acaili-riiif lilV was Dir fr-un biiu;; c<>ii»^iiler>-d to precludf 
the idea •>( u>:ui\i:i\ lali..iir. It |jai be- n r.-tij.r;iir(Nl, by a 
high aiith..rity. tliat tli.- I..-,- va-;ili..u w;i, ..H-lcatly.I. -i.-r.ol 
to allow <jf iii'.iiibiT* <•{ th.' nniv.r-iti.-. a-i^tin;; in the thin 
all-imi>orl:iiit (i|iiT:itiijii <.|' tij.' ii,-at!iii:ii;; of tbi- harv. -l'. 
Uui however tliii iii.iv li.i\" b. . n, tli. nr w;w a fir iii' rg r.v*m. iiiethml of nj'!- i.i-Iiiir,- an ( imrw*, n inelb-J »■«« 
whiuh the exa.,.1.!.- -f Ih.; M..„di.-..r,N h.^'l rL...lm-l all .-iiid thii wa^ I: , ,.t!,. r thiii br.-^in- "ii thi- ]"i>'r.e 
hi^liwaVH. Alii-ii;: t!:- %■> ■ . .f ti: .; rn.i.' a^.' ] w.-.« 
rirJy mi.-, tin- vn. ni- ..f . ■. -.■/.•y !- in.,- i„ f,.-t i _• ir'.. I a* a 
r.'li;,-ii'U.s du!y. rii;v.i-i! '._■.•■.:._• j'.,!.;;. , iiuiv^r-il irr.iii^. 
And ■'-> it II"*' iiiilr'- !'!■ :.;!> Imjij. ;...', ;!,■,' tl.. W(,.:!!iy mer- 
I Tl.-* (■11-1 1. 1 :■ -. ■ ■ I V . , ■ ■- :. ■ . .-,. f..- .. ._,. ^ . i -■■, .. 



tF. XT. chuit, jotmeying Iwtween Ijondon and Norwich, or the vell- 
' beneficed ecclesiutic or prior of a great house oa his way 
to Bome monastery id the fen countiy, would be accosted by 
■omo Bolitoiy youth with a more intelligent countenance and 
mora educated accent tlinn ordinary, and bo plaintively 
solicited either in Eriglisli or in Latin, as might best MUtt the 
cnRC, for the love of Our Lady to nsHist a distressed votary of 
learning. In the course of time this easy method of ro- 
plcninhtng an empty pnrso was found to have become far too 
popitlar among univenity students, and it was considered 
lOaM nea'iwary to enact that no scholar should beg in tho higliways 
iSoSr until tho chancellor lind satisfied himself of tho merits of 
cacli individual cono and granted a ccrtiflcatu for the purpose*, 
■rtt* It would appear from the phraseology of tho statutes tliat a 
scholar always wore a distinctive dress, though it is uncertain 
in what tliis consisted'. It wm probably both an unpretending 
and inexpensive article of attire, but however unpretending 
it is amusing to note that it wm mnch more frequently 
^jja, falsely assuined than unlawfully laid asiile. In like manner 
'JP ambitious sophi-stcrs, disguiHcd in bachelors' capes, would 
endeavour to gain credit for a perfected acquaintance with 
tho tDystcrica of tho trivium ; while bachelors, in their turn, 
at both universities drcsv down upon themselves fulmiuations 
against the 'audacity' of those of their number who should 
dare to parade in masters' hoods'. In otiier respects tho 
dress of the undergraduate was left ver^- much to his own dis- 
cretion and resources, until what seemed excess of costliness 
and extrayagance, even in the eyes of a generation that 
delighted in fantastic costume, called forth a prohibition like 
that of archbishop Stratford*. 

> Cooler, An.-aU,i Th« 
fnllowing Aulborizntioii occurs MDODg 
tlie CbonccUur'i Acti at Oxioti in 
llie ye«r HCl;— 'Eodem dig Diony- 
t'nx* Uiirncll ctlubanoeiBrovp, psa- 

KrMscboliirM ilcanlft ''A.i.-toU'tis," 

■tgilla ofllcii Bd pclenJuin clci'iao- 
■)^am.' AdbIcj, iluiilmrnta Ata- 
ttemira, II GHi. 

■ MrAuBtoyiiorDpiman tlikt 'ao 

nbom ho itrma ' 
lutrod. to ilunimfnia AeadimiM, 
p. liii. Bat in it&taU 43 ol our 
Slalttln Anliqua it is eiprenl; n- 
qairtJ that &I1 qu{ iprtltm gmmt 
teholiittltam shill reaU^ be KboUTl 
ol tha nniTcnilr. Documfntt, i S3S. 

* SluHimtnta Acadtmiea, i UOl 
IhrumenI; i 403. 

• Sm p. 333, 

■» Bul, in the fifteenth niir ' 
■u .-uaeii » certain acqaaint- t^^X 

, :■; inivcfsitT; bot it is toTr^ 
- 1 -ticli knowW^ was ii'fi "- '.' 
•u vTi-at centres i-f learning. "-^ 
ivit::)ioiit tliC couiitn', t>jii.- 
LoIUrili-iii, n-K:ir.lwi tlio 
■ It witli Cfjii-iilinMi- jf.ili.n._v. 
. -. -cinwU was Ny-t-mritictlly di*- ^ V!' 
NK- it was p(.'tial f-.r parctitH t->? .,J 
., ■i.-iclicr. At Irn;-h in 14:11 . ! " 
7 :iic cn.'.ili'iii nf fivu a-Mitii'iml i.l " 
.i.y fKirtiitl nlivf, nn-1 tlictitimlvrs 
jivintiial ^dl■..lI■^ tl:h'ti:;li..ut tlio 
.. :iiL'utly lrir;.'o'. Acc'inliu^Iy in tin.- r-i^t. 
\ ;;liaiii lU r:^ti;iin, T'.ct'tr of St. J.-hn '■ " -i' 
■.■liin; a ■c"iiiri'>ilii<ti» mantt'Hi ' cal!(.-J 
.. Ill;; it iHi'I'.T tln' •■iil>'r\iMf>n of tlic 
■|i:i. Mo tilt cnil tljnt tw fitv-f.i-tr 
..■i..ri ;iTi.I X"V-n.iii. tit .f n In.. I 
.. -^iIly.-.I.i.-:,'-.l,iii..l 1« fr..-.. ■'.-,.-.- 
.,;i! ^iiiii-^-i'm, into ililV< nut p;irTj. i.f 
■ - »!n.Tr J,'rr>1lllli:ir stli-'K )j:i.l f ill- « 

■V Put v.lii!ivi.r mi:.;!it U- th-r... 
. ■■ iH'iiiiiiicir. it U \'T->Ui\.\\: tl.T a'"-' 
■■ ;i III tl •■ .-Til'i-' t w,i, itivar..i!-:y '" 
. i; ■•];\r.\: Ill-TV |i-r1i ij- w;i^ Ja'!.:'.*. 

.\- .i.-Ki....i «- i...:-i.i. I it. !:,: 

.- --v ;; .■.v.ii;.*.- f T W:.- .'.trr-tf .f 
.. ■■ ■.■T ■ :, ■, V::_-.;.r«P,;l.;,„l 



r. tr. also some iostruction in tho rules of Latia venification*. The 
' study cf gramnuu- was followed by that of logic : and in this 
lita. bnuifh tho Summula was as much tho universal text-book 
an the ScDtcnc<« in that of theology. We have already noted 
its jtrCficribcd uuo in tlio u'nivcniities of Prague and Lcipnie ', 
OcTioti eoinplainig that in Iiih day it was thntHt into thchouds 
of youthful students at Fnns long before they could compre- 
hend its moaning'; Rcuchlin when ho went os a student to 
Freiburg found it in general ueo there*. Its uno in our own 
university is sufficiently indicated by the occasional reference 
to the Parva Lo^icalia, — a portion of tho work which treats of 
ambiguities attaching tu the use of words with a vaiying con- 
notation*; and if other proof were wanting that the Byzon- 

llrre it Prlirien, It traitt it Dmat 
tnr In fgnm prammalleair; rOrgt> 
fur/nt loHJ'iuTt nu nomhrt dn Urm 
que If camlitlaU Aftaittit aveirtn- 
I'RiIiK.' De VOrganimlinJi, ots.p. 4G. 
Tlio OirnrU Bintiitr, of t)io ditte 1l ,7, 
iTiiiircs Ibnt Dip; hIioiiUI Imvo bmrJ 
llu) lie Contlrartionihu. I'risf iuiii l,w, 
JliirbarhMHi ]><>D>ti nmi'l.' >V»NJ- 
11.31. TIio Ktuliita 

> Mr Annlcr'H nceonnt o( Ilia oluily 
ot cmininftr ilifFcrH Homcwlint fruiii 
tlinl wliic'li I hnvi ' 



prominenca to tlie tnct llmt tlicro 
rxiHtpil niDiultiincouilv. (I) n lUhtitict 
fnenlty cf Rniiimiir fur those nlio 
■itniil at niilliiiiH more thnn a prniti- 
uianli Ei^'O; iiikI |'J) i,'rniuiiiiir iilinuls 
fur tli»?<> rncnp'd ii]<iiii nu nrtii 
coiirxc Ho li'iH ciiiinniiicntly rriira- 
M'tilixl llio i^iimiiiiiT ncbwil an allnuc- 
tlirr distinct from tbo orta coiirw, 
aiij iLo HtuJciit >■ oulj an flrtJHt 
vhrn ha liml ciiton-d upon tlie ilnd? 
of lopic. Tlie Dcbtitar, lie HnvB, in liis 
Taliinlilc eki'lfli, 'liaa M)iu]i]cl<\l his 
grammnr Bcliool life and in now to 
cnt^r npon liiti coarse of trainint; aa 
an ■•arlirt:" I cannot Ibink lliat 
the first ntace of the tririiim va» cTcr 

olh«r («n. The e]iiKteneo of a din- 
tiiict tnciThT of cramnioT. RJinilar to 
that I'n^i.lcd over by our onn ,l/<i- 
giil-T illiimrriir, ii clearly iiidirikti-d 
in Ibt ilnliiiia Onfi'niKmnn pTfn in 
Mr Atistey'i second voliinip, pp. 442 
— 44.1, nhero tbo oflice ol a rfitriit 
in gniiiimiitifa is di»liTiclly mtTtrted 
to. Tho oiiEtenoe of this faculty il 

, skotTh"' ' 
tulips to thoBO Ordinances ft dnie 
certniuly prior to 1330, and prolalily 
much earlier. But on the other band 
graroinar icas ceilninly part of tbo 
■ortist'a' coarco. II. Tharot sajl 
that tor detcnniniiig bocbelon, 'Lt 

■ I Stnr 

. A»ii', 

'quoil qiitlilH't detenninaltirui aildie- 
rit in echoliii onlinoric, lilirani Tt- 
tfHlii Kilkft, per UonniuDi, loRicali* 
Toruni per annum, naturalia qaoque 
ncn RietaphyBicnlia aecimduiu qnoil 
■ao tempore ea legi coiitigcrit per 
annum.' DocHmrMi, i 385. ^\liilB 
tbereforo there vcio certainly many 
sludents of ttrnmmu nbo were not 
' arlisl",' it acoms lo Iw eijully tloar 
that iiintrnctinn in erammar always 
fonncd part of tbo ' artist's ' coarKC. 

' 'ApudloKicosSimiMiifrfrctriHis- 
pnni Iradunlur nb initio noTia pneris 
ad mcmorilor rcciilondiim, et si non 
■tntiin iolcUiRnnt.' Opfm, i 31. 

' (leiger, Julionn IleurMiit. p. B. 

* Tho following pnii!n(;o gircs (1i« 
most satisfactory explanation of the 
origin of this trcatira and its Kope 
that I haTo been able to meet with; — 
' Logic;! iioTA...doeot principaliter do 
Iota nrRumonlnlione et habet qna- 

taor liliToa. etc LopeaTctnii aj^il 

da parlibns uj^mentomm et baUet 
daos libro* apad Alistololem (i.e. Cat. 
and Dt ln(crp.) proprieUliboi 




tine weed*growth, as Prantl terms it, had reached the waters cha 
of the Cam, it is to be found in the scanty library of an 
unfortunate student in the year 1540, where along with the 
PandoctSy the Gesta liomanorum, a Horace, and the Encomium 
Mori(9, the omniprcRcnt Pctrus Uispanus again appean, newly 
edited by Tartarctus'. In the lectures on logic the lecturer 
probably had most frequent recourse to the commentary of 
Duns Scotus. In his fourth year the scholar was rcc{uircd to 
attend lectures on some of the 'philosophical' writings of kwh 
Aristotle, — ^generally it would seem the Metaphysics or the 
Xaturalia, — where Duns Scotus or Alexander Hales again ii^c 
supplitMl the office of interpreter. The fifth year was devoted 
to a course of arithmstic and music; the sixth, to geometry Maik 
and perspective ; the seventh, to astronomy. It would ccr- jjJjm 
tainly be erroneous to suppose that under the last three JJjj^ 
subjects nothing more was comprised than was to be found 
in the treatises of Capella and Isidorus, or that no advance 
had been made since the days of Roger Bacon, when accord- 
ing to his account the student of geometry rarely succec^led 
in getting beyond the fifth proposition of Eucli«l. We find 
that in the university of Vienna, so early as 13Sf), the candi- 
date for the degree of master was reciuired to have read the 
Theory of the Planets (a treatise by the Italian mathema- 
tician, Campano of Novara), five books of Euclid, common 
perspective, a treatise on proportional parts, and another on 
the measurement of superficies'. It will be observed that 
most of these subjects aro included in the statute of the 
university of Prague adopted by the newly founded univer- 

antom tonninorani, ne. Ftippofitione, 
ainplintione, npi>« Ilutione, reHtric- 
li)iro8 n<m cdiilit, sal alii aatores 
ntiU'S tract :ittis rdidcrunt ex bis, 
qnjT Bpnniim phil«»snphus in Buisi 
lihrin, ot i»ta sic edita di> 
cuntur Parva JiOiiioAi.iA eo quoti a 
minnrihug autnrihu* r^npfrti Arifito- 
tclis Punt I'tlitft.' From Preface to 
JoIianiirR Jo Wmh^ii'ii Kxercittita 
Parvornm Lngicnlinm tecumiamViam 
MinUmnrum, IteutlingeD, 1 W7 (quo- 
ted by Trautl, it 204). 

* Ccopcr, AnnnU t 899. See wXfo 
letter of Mon* to Martinnn iHirpias, 
Errt$ini EphtoUet ed. I^rden, pp. 1S97 
— 9 ; and Vivos, Dr CauMig, Opera ri 
144 — 5<> More, inbi* f f •)/>#«, vpeaks 
of tbo iiibabitnnts of that Uland a< 
ipiorant of *aU *boM nilet of reMtri^- 
Ter}-o witti'Iye inurntel in the smaU 
I^j^cancs, trhyrhf hrnre onre ehiliirm 
in fiwry pfacr tto Uamr.* TransL 
bj Roliin^on, ed. Arl»er, p. 105. 

* Kollar, Stntuta CmiteniUtU 
irienntHiit, i 237. 



TT'. sity of Leipzic in 1409, ^vhic]l we have quoted in a preceding 
chapter*. Wo have also evidence that at Paris, where such 
precedents were likely to be most influential at Oxford or 
C!ambridge, the sanie subjects were introduced at nearly the 
same period, though it is not altogether clear how far they 
formed an obligatory part of the arts student's course*. 

It will be observed that we have avoided, in the foregoing 
account, referring to the student, at any stage, as an under* 
graduate. We have abstained from the use of the term in 
order to guard against the misconception to which it might 
lead. The probability is that originally bachelorship did not 
imply admission to a degree, but simply the termination of 
^ the state of pupildom : the idea involved in the term being, 
that though no longer a schoolboy, he was still not of suffi- 
cient standing to be entrusted with the care of others'. It 
is probable that as soon as a student began to hear lectures 
on logic, he was encouraged to attend the schools to bo 
present at the disputations, but it was not until ho had com- 
pleted his course of study in this branch that he was entitled 
to take part in these trials of skill and became known ti» a 
•general sophister.* After ho had attained to this status ho 
\vaa permitted to present liimsclf as a public disputant, and 
^t least two * responsions * and ' opponcncics,' the defensive 
<xnd offensive parts in the discussion of a quastio, appear to 
Iiave been obligatory, while those who shewed an aptitude 
lor such contests were selected to attend upon the determiners, 
t>r incepting bachelors of arts, as their assessors in more 
ardent disputes. When the student's fourth year of study 
Avas completed, it devolved on certain masters of arts appoint- 
ed by the university to make enquiry with respect to his 
age, academical status, and private character*. If they were 

» Soc ?. 282, note 2 ad fin. 

* *Ii08 rC-formcs de 13()6 et de 1452 

Erescrivcnt pour la licence qnclqacs 
Tr«« cle mathdmatiqncs, et d^astro* 
Domie, Mans Um indiqufr avec pri^ 
cUionJ' Tbupot, De VOrganisation, 
etc. p. 81. Tbo same iudcfiniteness 
characterises our own statutes on the 

* 'Les ri'glcmeQts de la Facult£> de 

thcologie montrent clairement que le 
baccalaoreai n*^taii pas grade, maii 
an itat. En rdalit^, ee terme signi- 
fiait apprentUiage, rupprcntissage de 
la maltrise. Le bacxielier ^tait celni 
qui u'^tait pins ^tudiant et qui n*^taii 
pas encore maltre.* Thorot, p. 137. 
^ * It was tbo danger of not being 
able to provido proper testimony of 
this kind or of not being able to take 


bese points, he wu permitted to proceed witli ««<>■ 
inn which he muKt pus before he could p * 

quetliunift, ad rttpondendum qvaationi, Tbitt w 
Inco in tlie arts Khooli, where he wu euuniat.'d 
s, ' poscrH,' and regent mutcni of Hti : u s tc«t 
it appcnra to h&vo corrcsiMuJcd to the prcacnt 
tion for tlio onlinary degree or for honoun, umI 
been passtxl the candidate received, either from 
« of his colli-ge or tlie muter of bis bo«>l, a 
ho cltancvllor and the seoate. Tbia npfitieat iw_ 
tvorably entertained he was allowed to present 
[uculi'iiiixt. Of thix ct^rcmonf, which was pro- 
-)»; than a matter of form, we have an amufiog 
oJ-'/j Uwk, a voltirac compiled io the Hiiti-votli *-*^ 
fellow of King's Colltgo who had filled for^^ 
"fiiee of t-«iuire iHtUlI, and tliat of re;p»tr*rT Ji"".— 
sity. Oil the .ijijiointod day one of the bcdvJN 
ii-;imnce in the o>iirt of the college or h<i!>t<l, 
nine n'clock, rryimr ' -I''""*, n'Ajiit, g«K', MisTir-. 
,ng fi»-'iiililiil iii.iMvr-i, hiiHielors, K-hnt-ir*, aiiJ 
ud ni.'irs)i:)]li-d 'li'Ui in due order, pruCCvded to 
to tho (iris silnnjl*. Ah they enterL-d. one of 
e<l, .Vcttfu ni'itiT, Iviiit iioni, bona nora. and tho 
■.■l|.';;e' t.i.)k liix nat iii the n-ipunMKni' chair, 
it:!ii'Iin;; over n;;ain»t him in order.' Then tha 

■: to tilt' fitli-T. 

Kiid, li.wr,jfle pittr, liettnt 

•.■hr^. r! rr-,.y<criV 

i »i' j'fij'-ft. Tliin the father 

.r.-p....n.l l,i- .,^- - 

:i.>ti-i tu c.-uh of his childrrn 

U..U they \M 1" 

,-11 .Inly ^i»w.T.'d he >unin)i-d 

i-i..nv Tills .[■!. 

.!i..;ii;:^- :iL;»iii wax jir..!K.MT 

ill its cli.irn't.r. 

{■■T it a]]" ;ir^ t«> have K-cn 

ii]>.ir-iit:t1 ilk ().■' 

i'xlr.M.e It' h.* rf|'litti to aay 



r. of bifl cbildren and involved a feeble qaestionist in argument, 
it being expressly provided that if be thus unduly lengtbened 
the proceedings the bedell might * knock him out,' an opera- 
tioD which consisted in hammcriog at the school doors in such 
a manner oa to render the voices of the disputantii inaudible. 
When each qiiestionist had responded the procession was agun 
formed, as before, and the bedell escorted them back to their 

The above ceremony, it ia to be observed, was always held 
a few days before Aah Wednesday ; on its completion the 
questionist became an incepting bachelor, and from being 
required mpondere ad ^asttontm, was now called upon 
detemiinare qjuMlionem, that ia, io preside over disputations 
similar to those in which ho had previously played the port 
of opponent or respondent, — in the language of dean Peacock, 
'to review the whole question disputed, notice the imperfec- 
tions or fallacies in the arguments advanced, and finally pro- 
noimco liis ilcciniona or determination, scholaatico vwre.' As 
ho was required to a]>i'onr in thia cnpacity throughout the 
whole of Lfiit, ho wan wiid Mlare in ijuniintijenrua, and bUiha in 
qunilrti^vtimii wtia the ikciidi.-iairal (IcHigriution of an incttpting 
bacliclur of arts; as however tho iiiiriinitim numlwr of diiys 
on which ho woa rcquircil to dotcrmiiiu wim nuvcr Ichh than 
nine, and tho discharge of hucIi arduous diitira for so lengthen- 
ed a period might prove too serious a demand on tho resources 
or coumge of some youthful bachclora', the determiner was 
allowed, if ho demanded such permission, to obtain the assiat- 
;■ anco of another bachelor and to determine by proxy. We 
" find accordingly a statute which relates to those determining 
for others, whereby it is required that those badielors whose 
services were thus called into request should always be at 
least a year's standing senior to those whom they represented*. 


■ Aceording to >n rarly OxTord 
•Utnle ddcrmiLflra wert reqaired to 
diaputo logic every daj ttrepX FriJij, 
«bea tbe; diipDted or picKided oter 
>tiipatatJoD9 iagravatar: and on Ibo 

lint knd tut daja of tbdr detvni- 
nrntion thej diipDled qumttiann, ' 
probsbl;, dibalid pouiti in th« 
ofdiSercDttrratiMiot AiiitctU. Sm 
Antloy, iluniwunla Aeadtwtira, i 


But while the timid or inoompotent shunned the lengthened ^ 
ordeal, the aspirant for distinction hailed the ceremony of 
determination as the grand opportunity for a display of his 
powers. In the faculty of arts a scholar was ant logicua aut i. 
nullus, and every effort was made on these occasions toi£ 
produce an impression of superior skilL A numerous >^ 
audience was looked upon as essentiaL Friends were 
solicited to be present, and these in turn brought their own 
ac(iuaintance : indiscreet partisans would even appear to 
have sometimes placed themselves near the entrance and 
pounced upon passers-by and dragged them within tlie 
building, in order that they might lend additional dignity 
to the proceedings by their involuntary prescnca One of 
the Oxford statutes is an express edict against this latter 

Before the bachelor could become a master of arts^ he iw 
must pass through another and yet more formidable ordeal, 
he niUHt commence. On notifying his wish to this effect to 
tlic nutlioritirH. either {lersonally or through the r«*gont by 
wliorn li(* w/Ls ofilriHlly r«'|ir<Mi!iitfMl, ho wiin riniuin-d to 
niiNwrr tijrco qucHtioiiM, — Stii^ qwt, — in quo loco aut uhi, — quo 
tempore nut qiianih^ — ind/trrcl, Tho day fM;lccte<l wan, utiil<T •«»• 
ordinary circuriHtanccM, i\u: day of tlin (jrent (>(>mfiieficf*mefitf |2^| 
the second of July, and as this was the chief ncadetni<uil '**' 
ceremony of the year, it was held not in the arts schools, 
but in the church of Great St. Mary. It would appc*ar that 
on the ])rece(Iing day other exereines took place in the arts 
schools, which from their immeiliately preceding the day 
of inception were known as the Vefiperue\ But tlie crown- 
ing day was undoubtedly that of inception. As the disputa- a«h 
tions were preceded by the celebration of the mass, the»^ 
assembly was convened at the early hour of seven, when the 
sacred edifice became thronged by doctors of the different 

^ ' Item, inLibot dominus cancel- lenter tnhAnt, neii iii qiuinc«iB^iM 

lariat, Rob ptrua excommunicatioiuH riolcntiam inferant, ttee inTite id- 

c>t incarc4*rationis, oe aliqui, tempore trare compeUaut.' Mumiwtemtm Jrs* 

(letenuinutioiiis bachilariorum, ante drmirat i 217. 

uttia ftcLoIarum stantcfi, sea extra ' Peacock, Obfcrrariefif , p. 11« If* 

per TieoB Tagautet, tranieontet no- pend. p. xz. 



^'T* fccultie«t maaterB regent and non-regent, and spec 

ewerj grade. When the exercises began, the 

master, with the regent master of arts who acted as h 

' took up his position at an appointed place on the ri 

ride of the church. The father then placed the cap | 

the sign of the magisterial dignity, on the inceptor*s 1 

would then proceed to read aloud a passage from . 

From this passage he would previously have sele 

submitted to the chancellor's approval two affirm 

questions, which he pro])osed formally to defend u 

dispute against all comers. It devolved first of a 

youngest regent, his senior by one year, who wa 

from his part on these occasions as the prcevaricatar^ 

up the gauntlet The inceptor, if placing a modest 

on his own powers, would probably have selected soi 

defended thesis, and the prcevaricatar would find all 

lectical skill called into request by the attempt to. 

almost unassailable position. He was however ind 

to some extent by the licence which he received • 

occasions to indulge in a prefatory oration, whereii 

permitted to satirize with saturnalian freedom the 

characters' in the university or more prominent trai 

of the preceding academical year. When this often 

performance was over, and he "had fairly tested the c 

powers of the inceptor, the proctor said Sujfficit, and t 

of the regent was forthwith filled by the youngest noi 

On the latter it devolved to sustain and carry out th 

of his predecessor, and when he, in his turn, had sul 

tasked the ingenuity of the candidate, the younges 

of divinity 8tep]>ed forward and summed up the con 

Other formalities of admission followed, until at 

inceptor was saluUxl by the bedell as Nosier magistet 

the same time prc>nounced his name ; he then retir 

the arena, and the next incepting master stepped 


Such formalities, when compared with those of 
2^ sent day, would seem to constitute a soniewhat tryin 

> Ibid. Appma. p. ixtL • Col« MSB. xnt 22 

fer • diiBdnit matt, bat it ii pnifaBU* dot fa HMgr fariMM a 
thej wtn regarded with &r bM apimlMBMi thM Am» Igr ^ 
wlueh thajr vera meoeaded. It baa at sDtiBMkMlftfii- 
tiiKtlj arowed artide of &ith with tba mqori^ af HivMritf 
•todeots tbat the depremoa af Kfiata iarfdaifc vftm wtmn 
mental exertion ibould be reliend by oeoMioMl if Mt 
fte^eot fe«tiTitic% and Cambridgeand Oz&ad^ otm fa tbaaa 
•daya ot professed Mcetieum, were no au^tkB to At flofa, 
The different >tagea <tf aicademie pnig M aatwHy mggmimi 
tbemaelvcs as fitting opportaoitiea (or aittli idaialisMb Aa 
main dispute between the authorities aad tha ahidMrta baiag 
iq>parently simply a question <rf' degree^ Huh avM tbau 
youtliful sopbUter, at the time of his lespoDMMi fadajgai m m 
an expenditure wliich the dunoellor at Olfad iiad it* 
necessary to limit to^ sixtcenpeoce'; hadidat^ itaaim «a 
fuadrajaima, scandaliud the luircrntj by baeebaMliaB 
gatberiugs cvtsB in ' the holy season of LoiV BBtil thty van 
forbidden from holding any such eekbnttiona wbalavcr% 
while at Paris, Oxford, and Cambridge, the ptp^ antborily 
was invoked to pniyont in<vpt<>rs cxpomling Bun tfaas 
tria millia TuronenaiuM, a sum wliich as thna axptCMed fa 
the silver coinage of Tours equalled nolisss than X41. ISa M. 
Engliiih money uf the period, or some five hundred panmla 
of the present day*. It is in the btgbcst de^co inpialaUa 
that the avf mge expenditure of incepting maalen of uta 
made any approach to a sum of this magnitnda, but fa all 
coses the expense was considorable. PrMcnta of gowna and 
gloves to the different oflSceri of the uuircnuty, (ogvtber witb 

anntW iaotaxa ot tha fatiMiS •» 

ne-H. " 

nrii<« Uiat fiioaJ Im Ihas ^w 

■ ibij. II m. 

Utmtax 1-aria and CaaUUn that 

thi* atatula appnn !• hm h»m 

eulliU inrrixuri quud ullrm tria 

B.Ui<t»l viiboBi ilM *li«liU4MaM. 

nillik Tiiniiiruiiiuni Mptiln-nim 

«ti..i> aiiJ •.» villNMit lUttMHe 

Uu-s Ukra to »»prrM lU knJfK 

rirra il,i. [..raliiiu aut naKi'lrriiim 

tUiKUrJ I.T ii> Knrtl-k Malnlral. 

lutii'iKl ti'in FiiHoJaiit.' li-fm- 

Ir. \Vw<>l-IJutrb Um Mth NfakM 

■bKK. 1 3Vt. I'r<-(><«<r UilOni ob. 

-qiloj niHi ri|>milr* in lMrtt«» 

mr\r, il>..i il.l. rUux ba<l it* <>tir>E 

lb a ,1. ^n •• <>t |..|« (-!■ iM •>! V. riivU 

itr..>*i4iin : ' Uia fatl tmi r«fc 

in Mi. i-'i-'ut\U .UAibJ ariiu.l 

Nrovi arro lli» MiM. rvwvck, r«. 

llM nu.,.r-iiy ..( lk4.q;.uL It i* 

*.rr>rli»*>. ;l|t<tn>l. A. lU. 


their entertunmcnt at a banquet, along with the regents for 
the tim» being and the incoptor'n pomooal friends, tniut «( 
■11 times have isTolvcd a forniidablo outlay, and onablos ua 
to nndcntand Iiow it is tbnt wo find the wcaltliior inccptors 
somctinics xnceptitij for otfiers, a phrase whicli probably 
implies defraying tlie expenses of the ceremony and there- 
with obtaining increased opportunities for the display of 
their dialectical skill in the public exercises'. 

"When the year of his inception was completed the master 
of arts was required, if called upon, to give on ordinary 
lecture in the arts schools, for one year at least r while thos 
oflSciating he was known as a regent master of arts*. 

Such then were the successive stages that marked the 
progress of the arts student : — that of the aophistor, or dis- 
putant in the schools, — of the bacht^or of arts,^ eligible in 
turn to give subsidiary or cursory lectures, — of the incepting 
tti.iator of arts who had reccivetl Ins licence to teach in any 
University in Europe, — and of the regent master of arts 
who lectured for a deHnite term as the instructor appointed 
by tlio university. 

It Wl now be necessary to enter upon a subject of some 
difficulty, namely, the system of instruction that prevailed. 
Tlie bachelor, after the completion of his year of determina- 
tion, was, as we have already stated, qualified for the office of 
a lecturer ; as however he discharged this office while his own 
course ofstudij was still incomplete, he was himself known as 
a cursor and was said to lei*'ire ciir«on*e; we must be careful 
not to confound these Icct. res with the ordiiutry lectures 
given by masters of arts'. The staple instruction provided 
by the univ*irsity for arts students was given by the regents; 
and OS the funds of the university were not sufficient to pro- 
vide this.iustruction gratis, while the majority of the students 

I AoMry, Inlrod. to Uuniment* Inml to uiign to tfati tern t»rtortr, 

Jfiiitr—ir*. p. Tc'i. i1iffi-ra frum oilliet of tlioas wbteb 

■ Slntiito l:ll. !>e jaramtatii a <luiui rcHcnck and Mr AuHtaj lwT« 

iKngittrii in iiifrftiuntliiit rt Multitni. litvii iiivtiiicil lo adupt. I Iuiv« as. 

but r'tHmpiwHitiii jiT,rita«dU. Do- C'>r<liiiRly iiuii|>1iiil in Appcuilii <E> 

' ""' Uia krKiimciiti fur ttw *»« ■duptC'l 

lu tlu (irrK'iit <h>Lit<-r. 


could afford to pay but a trifling fee, it was found necessary at a 
to make it binding on every master of arts to lecture in his ^* 
turn, if 80 required, — the fees paid by the scholars to the 
bedells constituting his sole remuneration. Tlie I'srtures thus 
given took precedence of all others. They were given at 
stated hours, from nine to twelve, during which time no 
cursory or extraordinary lecturer was permitted to assemble 
an audience. They commenced and terminated on specified 
days, and were probably entirely traditional in their concep- 
tion and treatment of the subject. It would frequently hap- 
pen that overflowing numbers, or the necessity of completing 
a prescribed course within the tenn, rendered it necessary to 
obtain the assistance of a coadjutor, who was called the leo- « 
turer's * extraordinary' and was said to lecture extraordinarie\ 
[f this coadjutor were a bachelor, as was generally the ca8<^ 
he would be described as lecturing cursorie as well as extraor^ 
dinarie; but in course of time the term cursone began to be 
applied to all extra lectures, and hence even masters of arts 
are occasionally spoken of as lecturing cursone, that is to say, 
giving that supplementary assistance; whicli usii.iHy devolved 
on the bachelors. 

If wc now turn to consider the method employed by the M^s^m 
lecturers, wo shall readily understand that at a time whentwiM 
students rarely possessed a copy of the text of the author under 
discussion, — the Sentences and the Summulm being probably 
the only frequent exceptions, — their first acquaintance with 
the author was generally made in the lecture-room, and the 
whole method of the lecturer ro . jt have differed widely from 
that of modem times. The method pursued appears to have 
been of two kinds, of which Aquinas's commentary on Aristotle 
and the Quccstiones of Buridanus on the Ethics may be taken 
as fair specimens. In the employment of the former the plan 
pursued was purely traditional and never varied. Tlie lecturer tw^ 
commenced by discussing a few general questions having 
reference to the treatise which ho was calknl upon to explain, 

* 'Tx*HcotirHrxtraonUnftirrfl ^tiiicnt nn-nt.' Thiinit, p. 7^. Sc^ aI«o 

poitr Ifs btuhtlicrH uiio occiHion do lV«u<l()-D4 ictbiun, J>r J>tVi^if(« 5cikv 

nrruicr nn auditoiro poor k'ur niitl- Inrium, e. 6. 
tri^c, et do t*ei<»rcer k Tenst'^jaie. 


f^ and in tfto ctutomary Aristotelian fiutiion treated of its mate* 
rial, formal, final, and efficient cauiie. He pointod out the 
principal divisionH; took tlio first division diiiI KulxJividt-d it; 
divided again the iiubdiviition and repented the proceao until 
ho bod subdivided down tu the finit chapter. He then agua 
divided until }io hitd reached asutxiiTixion which included 
only a stuglo sentcrco or conipluto idea. He finally took 
this Bcnteiico and expressed it in other terms wliich might 
servo to make the conception more clear. He never passed 
from one part of tho work to another, from one chapter to 
another, or even from one sentence to another, withoat a 
minute analysis ofthn reasons for which each division, chap- 
ter, or sentence was placed after that by which it was imme- 
diately preceded; white, at the conclusion of this painful toil, 
he would Bomctiincs he found banging painfully over a single 
letter or mark of punctuation. This minuteness, especially in 
lectures on the civil law, was deemed the quintessence of 
criticism. To call tn question the dicta of tlie author him- 
self, whether Aristotle, Augustine, or Justinian, never entered 
the thoughts of either lecturer or audience. There were no 
rash emenJations of a corrupt text to be demolished, no 
theories of philosophy or history to be subjected to a merciless 
dissection ; in the pages over which the lecturer prosed was 
contained all that he or any one else knew about the subject, 
perhaps even all that it was deemed possible to know. 

The second method, and probably by far the more popular 
one, waji designed to assist the student in the practice of 
casting the thought of the author into a form Oiat might 
serve as subjeomatter for the all- prevailing logic 'Whenever 
a passage presimted itself that admitted of a twofold inter- 
pretation, the one or other icterpretation was thrown into 
the form of a gurcslio, and then discussed pro and con, the 
arguments on oithcr side being drawn up in the usual array. 
It is probable :hat it was at lectures of this kind that the in- 
Btnictton often assumed a catechetical form, — «ne of the 
statutes exprewly requiring that students should be ready 
with their answers to any questions that might be put; 
'according to the method of questioning used by the masters. 



if the mode of lecturing used in that faculty required qucn- our. 
tions and answers '/ Finally the locturer brotight forward hin 
own intorpretation an<l (lefoii<lcd it ajjainnt ovcry ohj'*ction to 
which it might api>ear liable : each Holution l>eing f jrmulatcd 
in the ordinary syllogistic fashion, and the student being thus 
furnished with a stock of qmtstiones and arguments rcquinite 
for enabling him to undertake his part as a disputant in the 
schools. Hence the second stage of the trivium not only 
absorbed an excessive amount of attention but it overwhelmed 
and moulded the whole course of study. It was the science 
which, as the student's SitnunnlcB assured him, held the key 
to all the others, — ad omnium methodorum principia riam 
hahens. Even the study of grammar was subjected to the 
same process. Priscian and Donatus were cast into the form 
o{ qucestiones, wherein the grammar student was required to 
exhibit something of dialectical skill It was undoubtedly 
from the prevalence of tliis method of treatment that dis- 
putation became that besetting vice of the age which the 
opponents of the scholastic culture so severely satirized. 
' They dispute,' said Vives, in his celebratetl tp-'atise, ' before 
dinner, at dinmr, and after dinner ; in public and in private ; 
at all places at all times V 

When the student in arts had incepted and delivered his 
lectures as regeut, his d ities were at an end. He had 
received in his degree a d.ploma which entitled him to give 
instruction on any of the subjects of the ti^iviuni and quadri" 
vium in any university in Europe. He had also discharged 
his obligations to the university in which he had been edu- 
cated, and was henceforth known, if he continued to reside. 

^ * Item strttuimus qnod, audientcs 
teztuin in quacunque fHCultate, pro 
forma in <>A<4cm fucultate ntututa ct 
requihita rite eaiulem au<liro teiiean- 
tur, una cum qun stionibuA juxt.i 
XD'Hlum mnpstronim liuurum in quF'- 
btionaiidu ucitiituin, m ukmIuh It ^eutli 
in ciflcm facultato quii<>tioniiu re* 
qtiirat.' tU-itute 13«. Iht^-umnitf, i 
3*<<. PtK'H not tho phru'-i'olujry i»f 
tliis statute offer very Mtrong pnxif 
that tlie t4 rm ordinarie did not im- 
pJy, n^ Mr An«tey has conjectured, 

the employment of the eatecbetifal 
method? Otherwise, why eo much 
circumlocution to ezpre^^ what mi^ht 
have been ciknreyed in a tingle wurdf 
See Appendix (K). 

■ De Cormjitig ArtihuM, t SIS. A 
good illii-tration of the appli^4tion 
(•f th<> di*«put:ttuin to the mathema- 
tirul thc*>i*4 will itc found in Itaker- 
Mayor, p. lO'Jo, in a d*->^ripti<»n given 
by \V. Chutin of Kuiit