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THE UNIVERSITY CODE 

VOLUME II 

1942-44 



Regulations and Syllabuses 




PRINTED AT 
THE ANA^DA PRBSS, MADRAS. 



1942 

[ Price : Rs. 2. 



ANDHRA UNIVERSITY 

THE UNIVERSITY CODE 

VOLUME II 
1942-44 



ERRATA 

P. 138. Put an * sit the bouinniiitf of lines 10, 1 2, 18 and 21 and 
add the following a 8 a foot-note : 

* The detailed s\ llabiiM^ under this subject will come into 
effect us from the examinations of 11)44. 

P. 181. Rend 'JUl.V Jor '1945' occurring in Line 1 of the 
foot-note on the pa^c. 



THE UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II. 

\ 

CONTENTS 



r \GL 

XXXIII Admi-ion .i SSLC Holdei to Univerit> 

( oui -e<- oi ludy . 1 

XXXIV A. dm is- io u to Examination' .. 5 
XXXV Gtnt ril Kill- icLitnu; to Examination . 15 

XXXVJ F. L . 17 

XXXVII M.ilncuUtion . . 30 
XXXVIII. Matticul ition Examination 

Ri ^illations .. 31 

S)llabuse . 35 

XXXIX. lutcniu'diali Examination in Ait^ and 
SCK ncc 

Ivc^ulation , .. 53 

S\ II ibuM nl 

XL BA (i'a )P(i;n< E\ uniiiatmn 

R.-uhtu.a l()f) 

S>lKibu,i 120 
\\A BA (lions) Ut-nc Kvanuii Uion - 

Riyul.itum, . 170 

S\lLibu,cs .. 189 

\LII. B Com (Pi ) D.'^rer E\imin,Uion - 

R t ^;ul Uions (O1<1) 205 

S>llal,iue (Old) . 207 

XL1I-A B Coin (Pa, ) Derive E\.imm.ili(Hi - 

K( pul itions (Curt <>nt) ... 213 

^Jlabu es (Curr.nt) .. 216 

XTJII B OMII (lion- ) FV^icr Examination 

Regulations 227 

Syllabuses . 231 

XLI1I-A B Coin (lion .) Pr^rct Ex.inunation ~ 

Rr>_> ulation ^ (Nt-w) . 235 

S>Jlihu, (N< \v) .. 239 

XL1V Decree o) H.uli.-lor of Scu-nce - 

Regulations .. 247 

Syllabize, .. 253 



li CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Chapter XLV. B.Sc (lions ) 1 > giot Examination 

Regulations . 291 

S> llabuses . . 310 

,, XI, VI Post-'iiadu ite ind Research Degrees 

Regulations .. 342 

Syllabuses ... 358 

XLV1I. Decree oi Bat helor oi Education 

Refill itions . 365 

Syllabus .. 363 

XLVH1 D.-ne oi Master ol Edur ihou . 387 

XLI\ Decree of Bat InOor oi Medicine and Sundry 

Regulations .. 380 

SvJl.ibti es 407 

I, Dei-n < of Doctor of Mi dicine and 

Master oi SuriM'ry . 424 

LI Ornnt.il 1'itb - and CcrtifiL.itc , of 

# Profieiem v 

R ^ulations ... 420 

SNllibuM- . 446 
LI! D<HM< of B u'iiclor oi Oru rital L<\irninj: 

(BOL) (Pareena) .. 449 

L11I D. ur.-c of Mi, trr of OnenUl Learning . 4.11 

,, L1V Diploma in Music 

Rcyulatiuns . 4.">3 

S>llal)UM- 454 

)f LV Diploma in Librariansiup 

Regulations ... 457 

S>llabuses ... 459 

LV1. Cour ( , in French and German .. 462 

LV1L D.ite, ior Pa>ment oi Exam Fee etc ... 464 

LV1H. riine-Tablt- ioi Examination^ .. 467 
,, , L1X Transl er and Term or Annual Certificate > 

Regulations ^i 

Foiiu- oi Certiiuate, . 504 



ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE 

VOLUME 11 

CHAPTER XXXIII 

ADMISSION OF S. S. L. 0. HOLDERS TO UNIVERSITY 
COURSES OF STUDY 

1. Admission of holders of Secondary School-Leaving Certifi- 
cates to University courses of study shall be made in accordance with 
the following regulations which shall apply in the case of those who 
have appeared for the qualifying Secondary School-Leaving Certifi- 
cate Examination completing a course of instruction in the VI Form 
in one of the Schools situated in the University area of affiliation 
namely Ganjam, Vizagapatam, East Godavavi, West Godavari, 
Kistna, Guntur and Nellore districts. 

2. Only such holders of completed Secondary School-Leaving 
Certificates may be admitted to University coursea of study and 
registered as Matriculates under section 1 of Chapter XXXVII 
(Andhra University Code) as (a) have completed not less than 
15 years of age on the first day of the month in which the Examina- 
tion qualifying for such certificates is held unless specially exempt- 
ed from the operation of this age-limit, and (b) have been declared 
eligible for such admission by the Syndicate. 

3. A complete list of certificate holders declared eligible for 
admission to University courses of study will be published annually 
in the Fort St. George Gazette and a copy of this list will be fur- 
nished to the Principals of affiliated colleges. A certificate holder 
not included in one of those lists will not be entitled to registration 
as a Matriculate under eection 1 of Chapter XXXVII mentioned 
above except as provided in paragraph 8 below. 



2 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIII 

4. (a) All Secondary School- Leaving Certificate holders whose 
certificates are issued under the authority of the Government of 
Madras will be declared eligible for admission to University courses 
of study who qualify under the following regulations : 

(i) They should have presented at one time, for the Secondary 
School-Leaving Certificate Examination (a) all the live subjects in 
Group A (subject to the, condition that students who have been 
specifically exempted by the Director of Public Instruction fiom the 
study of the Vernacular Composition and Translation need not 
sit for the examination in that subject) and (7;) one subject under 
Group C. 

(ii) Those who secure not loss than 35 marks in English, not 
less than 35 marks in the selected Second Language, and not less 
than 105 marks in the remaining three subjects of Group A taken 
together, with at least 25 marks in each of these three subjects 
and not less than 30 per cent of tho marks in the subject under 
Group C. 

(iii) Those who secure not less than 35 marks in English, not 
less than 35 marks in the selected Second Language (except in the 
case of pupils who are exempted by the Director of Public Instruc- 
tion from the study of the Second Language) and 13,1 marks in the 
remaining four subjects, including the Group subjects, the marks 
being not less than 35 per cent in any two of these four subjects 
and not less than 25 per cent in ea^h of the other two. 

(&) The Principals of affiliated colleges will be permitted to 
ailmit for Mathematics in the Intermediate course only such eligible 
candidates as have presented Algebra and Geometry under Group C 
of tho Secondary School-Leaving Certificate Examination ; 

Provided that the Syndicate, on the recommendation of a 
Principal of a college, shall have power to exempt from the opera- 
tion of this regulation, a student who, in the opinion of the 
Syndicate, is likely to profit by the study of Mathematics in the 
Intermediate course. 



SEC. 4 8] ADMISSION OF S.S.L.C. HOLDERS TO UNIV. COURSES 3 

(c) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing regu- 
lations, a certificate holder who obtains in the aggregate not less 
than GO per cent of the total marks (i.e., 300 in five or 3GO in six 
subjects as the case may be) will bo declared 'eligible for admission 
to University courses of study though he may fail to obtain 
qualifying marks in one or more subjects, provided that he shall 
secure at least 20 per cent in each subject except English in which 
it should be 30 per cent. , 

>. The Syndicate shall appoint a Moderation Board to consider 
and modify, if need be, the results of the examination before 
publication. 

6. Any candidate for admission to Unnersity courses of study 
who in any year fails to qualify by reason of deficiency in any 
subject or subjects in which he has undergone examination will be 
required to appear again at the Public Examination in all the five 
subjects of Group A and one subject in Group C and his eligibility 
for admibsion will be determined according to the preceding rules 
by the marks obtained by him at the last examination. 

7. Certificates once scrutinized, the holders of which were 
found ineligible under the regulations in force at the time of 
scrutiny, will not be reconsidered. 

S. Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing regu- 
lations, the Principals of colleges will be permitted to make 
admission at their discretion of (1) women holders of Secondary 
School -Leaving Certificates whether the names of such holders of 
certificates are included in the published list of certificate holders 
eligible for admission to University courses of study or not, provided 
such students appeared for the qualifying Secondary School- 
Leaving Certificate Examination after completing a course of 
instruction in the VI Form in one of the schools in the University 
area of affiliation, and provided that they secure not less than 30 per 
cent in English and 30 per cent in the Second Language, (2) women 
holders of Secondary School-Leaving Certificates whose parents or 
guardians are either domiciled or resident in the Audhra University 
area, and who, after having studied in an institution in Madras or 



4 tHB ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODJE- VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIV 

in the Ceded districts or in Chittoor district, obtain marks qualify- 
ing for eligibility under the above regulations. Certificate holders 
so admitted to colleges will be registered as Matriculates under 
section 1 of Chapter XXXVII. 

9. The lists published annually in the Fort St. George Gazette 
will contain the names of all certificate holders, except those 
whose cases may be considered under the preceding section found 
to be eligible for admission to University courses of study in 
affiliated colleges, under the regulations adopted from time to time. 
It is, however, to be clearly understood that inclusion in the list 
confers on no certificate holder the right of admission to any 
affiliated college. The Principals of colleges are not only at liberty 
to restrict admission to such applicants as they may select but are 
further required to confine admission to such eligible certificate 
holders, as judged by their certificates, may be expected to profit 
by the particular course of study upon which they propose to enter 
in the college selected. 



BBC. 1 3] ADMISSION TO EX AAUNATJONS 5 

CHAPTER XXXIV 
ADMISSION TO EXAMINATIONS 

7. Every candidate for a University Elimination shall, 'Act, Sec. 33 

' (2) 

unless exempted from the provision* of tin* sfv tion fit/ rm order of 
the Syndicate made in accordance with condition* laid down by 
the Academic Council, be an enrolled' member <>J ((n affiliated 
college. 

2. No candidate shall be admitted to any examination until he Registration 

has been registered. A candidate shall bo it'ijintrrud afresh on each ce * or 

Examina- 
occaeion on which he presents himself for examination and no tion : 

candidate shall be registered until he has paid the fee prescribed for egu atlon 
the examination.* 

3. A candidate applying for admission to the Marticuliition Date of 
examination for the iirst time shall furnish as his date of birth the umvVrsity 

date as entered in his S. S. L. C. register. records: 

Ordinance. 

Candidates for whom S. S. L. C. register has not been main- 
tained, the date as entered in the school register at the time when 
he laft studied in the highest class of the secondary department 
shall be furnished. 

A candidate permitted to apply for admission to the Matri- 
culation examination without having studied in any recognized 
institution shall at the time of the first appearance for the Matri- 
culation examination furnish the exact date of birth. 

A candidate applying to be matriculated without appearing for 
trie Matriculation examination of the University, shall furnish the 
date of birth as given in his S. S. L. C. register or as registered by 
the authority which conducted the examination which in his case 
has been considered equivalent to the Matriculation examination of 
the Andhra University. 

Candidates who apply for post Intermediate examinations after 
passing an examination recognized as equivalent to the Intermediate 
or a corresponding examination of the Andhra University, 

* Vid* Chapter XXXVI 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. Ji [CHAP. XXXIV 



Refund of 
fe : Stat. 



Qualifica- 
tions of 
Candidatei : 
Regulation. 



Tacber and 
Woman 
Candidates : 
Regulation. 



shall be culled upon U> furnish the date of birth as given by them 
to the body conducting that examination at the tune they applied 
for admission to the examination. 

An entry once made shall not Ixi altered so far as University 
purposes are concerned and will have to be repealed at subsequent 
examinations 

Subject to the proviso that the date of birth of a candidate 
shall be corrected in the University records if the date of birth in 
his S. S. L. (\ has been corrected and duly attested by a competent 
authority. 

1. No candidate for examination shall be entitled to a refund 
of any fee he may have paid, but the Syndicate may at its discretion 
grant such a refund in any purlicular ease <>r class of cases. 

5. Each candidate for an examination shall produce such 
evidence as the Syndicate may direct ol having previously passed 
the qualifying examination piescnbed by the (/ode if any. lie shall 
alfeo, unless otherwise exempted, produce in the prescribed form the 
necessary certificate or certificates required by the Code. 

(}. The Syndicate shall have power to exempt by a special 
order a candidate for a University examination belonging to any 
one of the following categories, from being an enrolled momber of 
an affiliated college :~~ 
(i) Women ; 

(ii) "Pandits and Mimshis who hold Oriental Title Diplomas ; 
provided that in the case of Hindi pandits who qualified 
for the Diplomas prior to 1938 and Munshis who have 
qualified subsequent to 1933, the possession of the 
Oriental Title Diploma of the University need not be 
insisted upon ; 

The following examinations of other institution*, are accepted as equi- 
valent to the corresponding examinations of this University for purposes of this 
Regulation : 

Hindi Pandits. Vidwan of Madras University, Prabhakara of the Punjab 
University. The Sahitya Ratua. (Uttaina) and Visharad (Madhyama) 
of the Hindi Viswavidyalaya, Allahabad. 

Mnnshit. Oriental Title Diplomas awarded by the Madras University 



BBC. 46] ADMISSION TO EXAMINATION* 7 

(iii) Commercial Instructors who have passed the concerned 
technical examinations and the Technical Teachers' 
Certificate examination of the Higher Grade conducted 
by tlio Secretary to the Commissioner for Government 
Examinations ; provided that in the case of commercial 
instructors of Secondary schools employed prior to 
)2i)th November L ( J2l) the possession of a Technical 
Teachers' certificate of the Higher Grade in commercial 
subjects need not be insisted upon ; 

(iv) Teachers who have put in an approved service of not less 
than five years and whoso qualifications are such that 
there is no provision for them to take the Teachers' 
Training Certificate in their special subjects ; and 

(v) Any other teacher who lias passed an examination in 
Teachers' training of the grade for which lie is qualified 
by his general educational attainments. 

Provided however that no one coming under (li), (iii) and (v) 
shall be considered eligible for exemption unless he has put in after 
passing the special examination noted against each at least three 
years' service in a college affiliated to, or recognised by, the Univer- 
sity or an institution situated in the Andhra University area 
recognised by the Syndicate after duo enquiry or the Director of 
Public Instruction, Atadras, or the District Educational Council. 

No candidate however shall bo permitted to present himself for 
an examination in a Science subject for whit h a practical course is 
necessary under the Regulations, unless he produces ;i certificate 
from the Principal of an affiliated college to the effect that the 
candidate has taken such a course in the laboratory attached to the 
said affiliated college. 

The Syndicate shall satisfy itself in each case before granting 
exemption of the candidate's good conduct and diligent and regular 
study. 

Nojperson shall be considered eligible for exemption unless he 
or she has lived continuously within the area of affiliation of the 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL. II [CHAP. XXXIV 



Regulations 
re* exemp- 
tion from 
attendance 
certificates. 



For shortage 
of attend- 
ance. 



For students 



examina- 
tions in 
other 
Universities. 



University for a period of not less than two years immediately 
preceding the date of application for exemption or, in the alternative, 
passed the examination of this University immediately below the 
examination for which exemption is sought, provided however that 
in the case of the latter "category of candidates, service in any 
educational institution recognized by the Education Departments of 
a Provincial Government or in an Educational institution in the 
British Administered areas, Secunderabad (Deccan), shall be 
deemed as equivalent to service in a recognized institution as 
prescribed above. 

For purposes of this section candidates employed in the inspec- 
tion branch of the Educational Department shall be treated as though 
they are employed in the profession of teaching. 

7. In the ease of a student who has failed to keep during the 
year three-fourths of the attendances prescribed by the institution of 
which he is a member and is therefore unable to produce his annual 
certificate of attendance, the Syndicate may grant exemption from 
its production, provided that 

(1) the shortage of attendance does not exceed five days ; 

(2) the case is recommended by the Principal of the College 
of which the student is a member ; and 

(3) the Syndicate considers that the reasons given for failure 
to secure the prescribed attendance are satisfactory. 

Exemptions in the case of students whose shortage of attendance 
exceeds five days shall be given only in exceptional circumstances. 
Exemptions in such cases may be granted by the Syndicate but 
each case should be reported to the Academic Council. 

8. The Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption from 
the production of prescribed attendance and progress certificate for 
the first year coinse leading up to either the Intermediate or B. A. 
Pass or B. Com. Pass Degree Examination in the case of students 
who, after having undergone satisfactorily the prescribed course for 
the corresponding examination of any other University recognized 
by the University for the purpose, appeared for the examination of 



SBC. 711] ADMISSION TO EXAMINATIONS 9 

that University and for some satisfactory reason desire thereafter 
to appear for the Intermediate or B.A. Pass or 13. Com. Pass Degree 
Examination of this University provided such students belong to 
the University area and provided also that they present the same 
subjects which they had studied in that University and for which 
there is provision in this University. t 

9. The Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption from For new 
the production of certificates of attendance for Part II or Part III *** 1 
of the Intermediate or B.A. Degree Examination to a student who m Inter, 
having passed Part I or Parts I and II as the case may be, desires 

to present ;i new subject or sot of optional subjects under Part II 
or Part III of Intermediate or B.A. provided that the student had 
failed in the Part at least on two occasions and that the new subject 
or subjects offered do not require a course of Laboratory training. 

10. The Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption from For language 
the production of the prescribed certificates of attendance for the intermediate 
course in any language other than English and Telui^u in any part r 15 A - 

of the Intermediate or the B.A. Degree Examination to a student 
studying in a college in which the language in respect of which 
exemption is sought is not taught provided that the Syndicate in 
satisfied 

(1) as to the reasons assigned by the student for not study- 
ing in a college where the language in question is taught, and 

(2) as to the arrangements made for instruction being 
received by the student in that language. 

11. The Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption For Music in 
from the production of the prescribed certificates of attendance for Tater " 

1 * mediate. 

the course in Music as one of the optional subjects under Part III 
of the Intermediate or B.A. Degree Examination to a private 
candidate or one studying in a college in which Music, in respect 
of which exemption is sought, is not taught, provided that the 
Syndicate is satisfied 

(1) as to the reasons assigned by the candidate for act 
studying in a college where Music is taught, and 
2 



10 



THE ANDHR\ 



CODE VOL. U [CHAP. XXXTV 



For student 
migrating 
from one 
college to 
another in 
the middle 
of the year. 



For the 
Final 
M.B.B S. 
Degree. 



For candi- 
dates -who 
passed one 
part of the 
M.U.B.A. 
Degree 
Examination 
mnder the 
old by-laws. 



(2) as to the arrangements made for instruction being 
received by the candidate in Music. 

In the ease of candidates studying in a College, a certificate 
from the Principal of the Affiliated College to the effect that the 
candidate has undergone practical training under a competent 
Tutor in Music shall be produced. 

In the case of private candidates the certificate shall be 
produced either from tho Principal of a College affiliated in Music 
or from a member of the Board of Studies in Music or from any 
other competent scholar recognised by the Syndicate. 

12. The Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption from 
the production of the prescribed certificate of attendance for one or 
more terms of the first year course in a non-science subject under 
Part III of the Intermediate Examination in the case of a student 
who, after having studied for some time in one of the Affiliated 
Colleges, has to leave that college due to unforeseen circumstances 
to prosecute his studies in another college, provided that the 
Syndicate is satisfied as to the reasons assigned by the student for 
not studying in the first college and with the arrangement made by 
th Principal of the new college for instruction being given to the 
student in the completed portions of the subject requiring 
exemption. 

L>. The Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption in 
the case of a candidate for the Final M.B.B.S. Degree Examination 
who having failed in the examination is unable to produce an 
additional certificate of attendance for six months in one or more 
subjects of the examination in accordance with the Regulations, 
provided that he is recommended for exemption by the Principal of 
an affiliated Medical College. 

14. The Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption 
from the production of the required attendance certificates, to 
* candidates for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts who have passed at 
least one of the Divisions of the B.A. Degree Examination under 
the old by-laws of the Madras University and permit them to appear 
for the B.A. Degree Examination of the Andhra University ia the 



BBC. 1216] ADMISSION TO EXAMINATIONS 11 

Parts or Groups corresponding to the Divisions of the B.A. Degree 
Examination under the said old by-laws which they have not passed. 

15. The Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption from For B.SC. 

the production of the required attendance certificates to candidates p^gree 

r ^ holders with 

who having passed the B.Sc. Degree Examination with one optional one group to 
group are desirous of appearing for the same examination in another f 
another optional group, provided that there shall be an interval of at g rou P- 
least one academic year between the passing of one optional group 
and appearance in another group and provided also that such 
candidates shall be required to produce a certificate of having com- 
pleted a practical course from the Principal of a college affiliated in 
the subjects for which such certificates are required, to the effect 
that the candidate has undergone such a course satisfactorily in the 
laboratory attached to his college for a period of not less than one 
academic year, subject however to the condition that no candidate 
who has :already passed any subject in one group, either as subsi- 
diary or as main shall be required to undergo a practical course in 
that subject as a subsidiary nor shall he be required to sit for the 
examination in that subject as a subsidiary and pass thereat. 

16. The Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption from p or j n t ef . 
the production of the required attendance certificates to candidates m ediate or 
who, having passed the Intermediate Examination or 13. A. Degree holders with 



examination with one optional group, are desirious of appearing for a 
the examination in another optional group or another language in another 
the same group, provided thtot there shak be an interval in each I ' 
case of at least one academic year between the passing one optional 
group of the Intermediate Examination or B.A. Degree Examination 
and appearance at another group, another optional group or another 
language in the eame group provided that the candidate has not 
joined a higher class or passed a higher examination and provided 
also that a candidate, in case he wifahes to present himself in any 
subject for which a practical course is necessary under the Regu- 
lations, shall produce a certificate from the Principal of a College 
affiliated in that subject to the effect that the candidate has taken 
such a course m a laboratory for a period of not less than one 
academic year. 



12 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIV 

For B. Com. 17. Xho Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption from 

holders "with the production of the required attendance certificates io candidates 
subec^t w ^ 10 navm o P aS3ec l the B. Com. Pass Degree Examination \vithone 
appear for special pubjecl are desirous of appearing for the bame examination 
special i 11 another special subject, provided that there shall bean interval 

subject. o f a f. } eas t ono -academic year between the passing of one special 

subject and appearance in another special subject. 

For other IS. The Syndicate shall huvo power to grant exemption 

holders to from the production of the required attendance certificates to 

appear for candidates who, luning passed a Degree Examination other than 
B.A. Degree. 

the 15. A. Degree Examination and desirous of appearing for the 

15. A. Degree Examination, pro\ided that there shall be an interval 
in each case of at least one academic \ear between parsing the first 
Degree Examination and appearance at the B.A. Degree Examination 
and provided also that a candidate, in case he wishes to present 
himself in any subject for which a practical course is necessary under 
the Regulations, shall produce a certiiieaie from the Principal of a 
college ailihated in that subject to the effect that the candidate has 
taken such a couise in a laboiatory for a period of not less than 
one academic year. 

B.A. lions. Degree holders of this University with Branch VI 
Telngu Language and Literature shall be exempted from passing 
in that language under Part 11 of the B.A. Degree Examination. 

For certain 10. The Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption from 

to Appear th production of the prescribed certificates of attendance in respect 

for Telugu O f ^ e following classes of candidates who are desirous of appearing 

under Part II 

B.A. privatel \ for Telugu under Part 11 of the B.A. Degree Examination 

as an additional subject: 

(i) Those who havt passed a degree examination of the 

University with a language other than Telugu ; 

(n) ThoK) who are eligible to take a degree examination of the 
University for which no second language is prescribed ; 

(iii) Those studying Pass and Honours Degree Courses in 
Commerce at any time during or after their course of study. 



SBC. 1722] ADMISSION' TO EX VMFV YTION'S 13 

Candidates under category (ii) above shall be permitted to 
offer Telugu under Part It of the R A. Degree Examination as on 
additional subject along with the other subjects of their respective 
examinations in the same year provided the Tune-tables for the 
examinations admit. 

20. The Syndicate shall have power to grant exemption from For students 
tho production of an annual ceitiJicatc of attendance (1) to students undergoing 
who have been attending classes opened in a college with the pending 
sanction of the Syndicate pending affiliation, and (2) to students atliatlon> 
who are unable to obtain the nect'psary attendance certificate owing 

to the college of which they are members having to close for a 
time for reasons recognised by the Syndicate a.s satisfactory. 

21. The Syndicate shall ha\c power to grant exemption from For Oriental 
the production of either or both of tho annual certificates of Tltles - 
attendance required by candidates Tor tho Oriental Title examina- 

nations provided that the candidate 

(1) is at the tune of the examination at lea&i. t wuitj-tive years 
of ago, subject to the provision th.it this age rule shall not apply in 
the case of (i) women candidates or (n) candidates who, after 
getting themselves qualified for one Oriental Title, wish to appear 
for another examination in Oriental Titles or a Certificate of 
Proficiency in Oriental Learning, or (iiij candidates who have 
passed the 15. A. Degree Examination ol' this Uimersity or an 
examination recognized as equivalent thnvtn 

(2) is certified by the head of an AHibaled or Recognised 
institution, or by a member of the I'oard of Studies dealing with 
the subject of language ottered for the examination or by a 
Mahamahopadhyaya or a Sharnsul- ul-ulania or any other competent 
scholar, recognised by the Syndicate, to be qualified by his 
attainments to appear for the examination. 

22. All applications for exemption shall reach the Registrar Dates of 
not later than the 1st October for March- April Examinations and applications. 
1st April for September Examinations provided, however, that 
applications received after the above prescribed dates may, under 
special circumstances, be accepted on payment ot a penalty to be 
fixed by the Syndicate. 



14 



THE ANDSRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXV 



Exemptions 
permanent. 



23. Orders of exemptions granted under this Chapter shall be 
permanent. 

24. Notwithstanding anything that may be contained, to the 
contrary in the Regulations of the University it shall be competent 
for the Syndicate, with regard to students whose courses of studies 
in countries involved in or affected by the war (in September 1939) 
have been interrupted, to dispense with a strict compliance with the 
Regulations in regard to admission and attendance to courses of 
studies, admission to examinations of this University, syllabuses and 
text-books, or such other conditions as may be laid down in the 
Regulations each case being decided on its merit. 



Name of the 

University. 



N.B. The following examinations have 
the Academic Council on 15-3-tl) as equivalent 
ing examinations of this University: 

Examinations ^[l^n^of 

TT of the . the Andhra Um- 

University. yef 

(2) 

1 M.Sc in 
Chemistry. 



(1) 

(1) Benares 
Hindu 
University, 
Benares. 



(3) 

MSc in 
Chemistry. 



2. M.Sc. in 
Physics. 



M.Sc. in Physics. 



(2) Osmanla 1. Matriculation. Matriculation. 

University, 
Hyderabad. 2. Intermediate. Intermediate. 



(?) Travancore 1. Intermediate. Intermediate. 



been recognised (by 
to the correspond- 



(4) 

Subject to the condi- 
tion that the candi- 
dates seeking such 
recognition obtain 
the number of markt 
prescribed for the 
M.Sc. Degree of 
Andhra University 
viz. 50 per ctnt* 

Subject to the condi- 
tion that the candi- 
dates seeking admis- 
sion to higher 
courses in the 
Andhra University 
should have obtained 
50% of the marks in 
English in the 
Osmania University 



University, 
Trivandrum. 



2. B.A. (Pass) 

3. B.A. (Hons.) 

4. B.Sc. (Pas?) 

5. B.Sc. (Hons.) 

6. M.A. 

7. M.Sc. 

8. L.T. 

9. Sanskrit 
Entrance 
Examination. 



B.A. (Pass) 

B.A. (Hons.) 

B.A. with science 
groups. 

B.Sc. (Hont.) 

M.A. 

M.Sc. 

B.Ed. 

Admission Test 

Examination. 



SC. 1 7] GENEHAL BULES RELATING TO EXAMINATIONS 15 

CHAPTER XXXV 
GENERAL RULES RELATING TO EXAMINATIONS 

1. (a) Examinations shall be held at such places as may be Place of 
appointed by the Syndicate. A list of centres at which examina- ticns""** 
tions will be held shall be published annually in the Gazette in the Ordinance, 
preceding April. 

(b) When there is more than one centre for a written 
examination, question papers shall be given out to candidates on the 
same day and at the same hour in every centre. 

2. Examination in any second language or optional subject or 
group for which no affiliated or recognized colleges are presenting 
candidates shall be conducted once in the year, i.e. in March- April 
only. 

3. Gazetted holidays shall be considered dies non for the Gazetted 
purposes of the University Examinations. dies non 

Ordinance. 

4. The text-books to be prescribed and the syllabuses required Text-books 
by the Code other than those detailed in the Code shall be deter- !! n f 1<4buses . 
mined and notified from time to time by the Academic Council Regulation. 
after considering the recommendations of the Boards of Studies. 

5. The papers set in all examinations shall be such as a Standard of 
candidate of decided ability, well prepared in a subject can reason- paper^" 
ably be expected to answer within the time allotted. Regulation. 

6. No question shall be put at any University examination Religious 
calling for a declaration of religions belief on the part of the Regulation. 
candidate, and no answer or translation given by any candidate 

shall be objected to on the ground of its giving expression to any 
particular form of religious belief. 

7. All examinations, except practical and viva voce examina- Conduct of 
tions, shall be conducted by means of printed or written papers to f 1 ^ ) a ^ 1 . na " 
be answered, except in the case of Vernaculars or Asiatic Classical Regulation. 
Languages, in English unless otherwise stated therein; 



16 THE ANDHTM UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. IT [CHAP. XXXVI 

Provided that the question papers in non-language subjects, 
viz., Mathematics. Elementary Science and History and Geography, 
for the Matriculation Examination shall be set in English and shall 
be answered either in Enyhsh or in the concerned Vernacular; 

Piowded aKo that the <jiitsti.n papers in Music in Part III of 
the Intermediate and R V 1 >eu r roe Examinations shall bo answered 
either in EmjlKh <>r in Teliurn, 

Provided also that the question papers in Sanskrit in Matricu- 
lation Examination and in Parts II and ITT of the Intermediate and 
15. A. Decree Examma* ions may be answered either in English or 
Sanskrit at the option of the candidate. 

Duties of ( ^- The Examination Hoards shall report to the Syndicate the 

Examination resil lts of nil examinations conducted or supers i^ed by them, and 

Boards 

Ordinance the S\ ndicate bhall pui)li>l\ li^:s of those candidates who have 

passed the examinations in accordance with the regulations. 

Pass A certificate SIL-MC { b\ the Krirnti-ar shall ]>e iiven to each 

Or'dinancc^ successful candidate at an rxatmnat ion other thaa an examination 
for a degree, titlo or ilipioma. 

Application^ Applications for certificates of having passed tho Matricula- 

^ or tion and Intermediate Examinations shall roach the Registrar not 

certificate^. 

later than the l^t ^e[ f em!ier <>r 1st Fel^ruaiN MU'ce<'din^ r respei ti\ ely 

the March <>r September Exiunin.ition. A fee of thiee i upees shall 
be charged tor all certificates issued <n applications received after 
that date. 

Certificate * -^ special Certificate of Merit signed by the Registrar, shall 

of Merit. ^ e aw arded to candidates who, at the Final Honours, Pass and 

Post-Graduate Decree ExammatioiiH, obtain not less tha i 85 per 

cent of the marks in the ai^reijnte. 



SBC. 1] FEES 17 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

FEES. 

1. Fees payable to the University are classified under the 
r 11 i. j cation of 

following heads : f eet . 

Stat. and 

(a) Matriculation fee. Ord. 

(b) Examination fee. 

(c) Fee for registration of graduates. 

(d) Fee for supplying marks. 

(e) Fee for recognition of change of names. 

(f) Fee for migration certificates. 

(g) Fee for furnishing copy of application for an examination, 
(h) Fee for certificates not applied for in time. 

(i) Penal fee for non-attendance at Convocation, 
(j) Fee for scrutiny of S.S.L. Certificates, 
(k) Fee for exemption from production of attendance 
certificates. 

(1) Fee for recognition of examinations of other Universities 
and of S.S.L.C. Examinations or the European High 
School Examinations conducted by bodies outside the 
jurisdiction of this University. 

(m) Fee for the issue of a duplicate pass certificate. 

(n) Fee for the issue of a provisional certificate. 

(o) Foe for supply of an extract from the Register of candi- 
dates for an examination or the Register of Matricu- 
lates. 

(p) Fee payable to the University Colleges : - 

1. Fee for registration of -in application for admission. 

2. Admission fee. 

3. Tuition fee. 

4. Fees for residence. 

5. Games or athletics fee. 

6. Reading Room and Magazine fee, 
3 



THE 4.NDHR* UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. IT [CHAP. XXXVI 



For Matri- 
culation : 
Stat 



For Extni- 

Ations : 
SUt 



7. Library fee. 

8. University Onion fee. 
U. Laboratory fee 

10. Caution fee. 

(q) Fee for scrutiny and verification of the correctness of 
the additions of the marks recorded on the answer 
books by examiners. 

(r) Fee for supply of eligibility Certificates to eligible 
S.S.L.C. holders of I he University. 

2. Every candidate applying for registration as a Matriculate 
of the University shall pay a fee of Rs. -") on receipt of which his 
name will be registered as a Matriculate. 

3, Candidates for examinations and degrees shall pay the 
following fees : 

Matriculation Examination .,. Rs. 15 
Intermediate Examina tion 

Whole Examination ... 28 

Part I only ... 12 

Part II only ... 10 

Part III <mh ... 20 

Provided that no candidate bh.ill pay more than Us. 28 at a 

time whatever bo the number ol pirtK in which he appears. 

\fote : In the ca^e ol candidates with Science subjects, ail 

additional tee of Hs. .'V- for each Science subject 
shall be charged. 
B. A. Pass Degrre Examination 

Whole Examination ... Us. 45 

Part I only 20 

Part II only ... 10 

Part III only ... 25 
B. A. Hons. Degree Examination 

Preliminary Examination (Whole) ... 15 

Do. English only ... 10 



BC* 2*3] 



PEES 



19 



Preliminary Translation or Early South Indian 
History only 

Final Examination 
M. A. Degree 

Ph. D. Degree Examination 
Ph. D. for submitting u revised thesis 
B. Com. Pass Degree Examination 
Part I 

Part I (a) or P.trt 1 (b) 
Part 11 
Part [I- A 
Part I [-13 

B. Com. Pass Degrte K,vatmn<ihnns (lindor the 
Regulations) 

Whole Examination 
Part I 
Part 11 
Part III 

B. Com. Honours Degree Examination 

Part I (Preliminary Examination) 

Part 1 (a) or Part I (I) 

Part II (a) and Part II (6) together 

Part II (a) 

Part II (6) 

B. Com. Honours Degree Examination (Under the 
Regulations) 

Part I (Preliminary Examination) 
Part I (a) 
Part I (6) 

Part II 

B. Sc. Pass Degree Examination 

Part I 

Part II Main subject and two subsidiary subjects 

Main subject 

Eabh fcubsidiary subject 



Rs. 10 

60 

25 

200 

100 

15 

10 

30 

M 20 

20 

Revised 



Rs. 



20 
10 
25 



10 

60 

35 

,. 35 

. Revised 

Rs. 20 

15 

10 

n 55 

10 

45 

25 

., 15 



TEtB ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CtfAP. XXXVI 

B.Sc. Hons. Degree Examination (Physics Main) 

Part I (Whole) ... Rs. 15 

Part I (a) or Part I (6) ... 10 

Part II (Whole) ... 60 

,, Main subject ... 40 

t| Two subsidiary subjects ... ,* 25 

One subsidiary subject ... ,, 15 

B.Sc. Sons. Degree Examination ^Chemistry Mam) 

Part I (Whole) ... , 15 

Part I (a) or Part 1 (b) ... 10 

Part II (Whole) ... 60 

Part II Main subject ... 40 

Part II two subsidiary subjects ... ,, 25 

Part II Physics (subsidiary) ... 15 

Part II Mathematics (subsidiary) ..* 10 

B.Sc. Sons. Degree Examination (General Chemical Technology 
as Main) 

Part I (a) Mathematics ... Rfl. 10 

(b) Physics ... 15 

(o) Chemistry .. 20 

(d) Descriptive Engineering .,. 15 

,, (e) Pharmaceutical Botany ... 15 

Part I Physics, Chemistry and Descriptive 

Engineering together ... 45 
Part I Physics, Chemistry, Descriptive Engi- 
neering and Pharmaceutical Botany ... 55 

Part II ... 30 
\ 

B>Sc. Hon$. Degree Examination (Botany or Zoology or Geology 
as Main) 

Part I (Whole) ... R*. 15 

Part I (a) or Part I (b) ... 10 

Part II (Whole) ... 60 

Main Mbject ... 40 

Each subsidiary ttobject ... 15 



SBC. 3] FEES 21 

Under Old Regulations : 

M. A., Jf. Sc., P/i. />. Det/refi laminations Rs. 100 

Do. do. (For submitting the thesis a second 

time) ... 50 

Under Revised Regulations 

M. Sc. (Physics and Chemistry) Examination 

(thesis and written whole examination) ... M 80 

Written and Practical examination ... 50 

Thesis ... 50 

M. Sc. Exam, for B. S<\ P//s"? (First and second class) 
and for I>, Sc. 7/u //.<*. (Third class) at the end of 
I year ... 35 

For submitting a revised thesis ... ,, 50 

M. Be. in Applied Physics ... ,, 50 

Do. Examination for pass Graduates 

at the end of first year ... ,, 25 

M. Sc. in Chemical Technology ... 60 

M Sc. in Chemistry (special subject Foods, Drugs 

and Water) .,. 40 
Do. Examination for pass Graduates 

at the end of first year ... ,, 25 

D. 9c. Degree Examination ... 200 

For submitting a revised thesis ... 100 

J5. Ed. Degree Examination 

Whole Examination ... 25 

Practical Examination only ... p 10 

Written Examination only ... 15 

Jf. Ed. Degree Examination ... 100 

M. B. B. S. Degree Examination 

Fife- Registration Examination (first appearance) ... 30 
Separate subjects -each ..'. M 15 



22 THE ANDHRA UNIVBRBltY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXVI 

First M. B. B. S. Examination 

Whole Examination ... Ra. 45 

Part I only ... 15 

Part II only ... 35 

Separate subjects after tirst appearance 

Organic Chemistry ... 15 

Anatomy or Physiology ..... 20 

Second M. B. B. S. Examination 

Whole examination ... ,, 60 

Part I only ..... 20 

Part II onh ..... 50 

Separate subject after first appearance 

Pharmacology ... ,, 20 

Ophthalmology ... 15 

Hygiene or Pathology ... ., 20 

Final M.B.B.S. Examination (first appearance) ... ,, BO 

Part I only ... ,, 15 

Part II (first appearance only) ... ,, 50 

Medicine or Surgery ... ., 20 

Obstetrics and Gynaecology ... 15 



. Degree Examination (Under New Regulations) : 
Pre- Registration Same as under the Old Regulations. 

First M.B.B.S. Examination 

Whole examination ... R. 45 

Separate subjects after first appearance 

Organic Chemistry ... 15 

Anatomy or Physiology ... ft 20 

Second M*B,B.S. Examination 

examination ... n 45 



SIC. 31 FEES 2?, 

Separate subjects after first appearance 

Pharmacology ... R s . 20 

Hygiene 20 

Forensic Medicine ... 15 

Final M.B.B.S. Examination 

Whole examination ... 75 

Separate subjects after first appearance 

Medicine or Surgery ... 20 

Obstetrics and Gynaecology ... ,, 15 

Ophthalmology ... 15 

Pathology and Bacteriology ... , t 20 

M.D. or M.S. Degree Examination ... 200 

Oriental Title Examinations 

Vidya Praveena Preliminary or Final ... 12 

Bhasha Praveena Entrance Teat ... ,, 5 

Bhasha Praveena Preliminary or Final ... 12 

Bhasha Praveena Sanskrit only ... 5 

Bhasha E'raveena Modern Indian Language only 10 

Certificate of Proficiency ... ,, 10 

Matter of Oriental Learning ... 100 

Diploma in Librcinanship 

Whole examination ... 20 

Each group ... 10 

Diploma in Music ... 15 

Note : It shall however be competent fur the Syndicate to 
waive payment of the examination feeg by students belonging to 
the depressed classes subject to the following conditions : 

(1) that the candidate is appearing for the first time for the 
lamination concerned ; 

(^) that he is poor ; 



THB ANDHRA UNIVEKSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. 



For 

registration 
of graduates- 
Statute. 



For 

Supplying 
marks : 
Ordinance, 



For 

Change of 
name : 
Ordinance. 

For 

Migration 
Certificate : 
Ordinance. 



(3) that in the case of a college student, ho is recommended 
for the grant of the concession by the Principal of the college in 
which he completed his course for the examination ; 

(4) that he could not get the benefit of the concession 
shown in G.O. No. 2396 L. of the Public Works and Labour Depart- 
ment dated 20th October 1927 for want of sufficient funds with the 
Labour Commissioner, Madras ; provided that in the case of 
students belonging to the depressed classes a half-fee concession 
will be granted in respect of examination fees, if they satisfy the 
first three conditions above mentioned. 

4. A fee for Registration of graduates shall be levied as fixed 
under Section 3 of Chapter XXIV of the Code (Vol. I). 

Rs. A. 

5. (a) For supplying marks to a candidate obtained at 

any examination other than the B.A. and B.Com. 
Degree Examinations ... 2 

(ft) For supplying marks to a candidate obtained at 
the B.A. and B.Com. Degree Examinations for 
each part ... 2 

(c) For supplying marks to a candidate obtained at 

the Intermediate examination Tor each part passed 
separately ... 2 

(d) For supplying detailed m.irkn to a candidate 
obtained at examinations for the details of each 
subject comprising a minimum (additional fee) ... 1 8 



b'. The fee for recognition 
shall be Rs. 10. 



of change of name in each case 



7. A fee of Rs. 5 shall be charged for issuing a migration 
certificate giving permission to graduates and under- graduates of 
this University proposing to apply for examinations of other 
Universities ; 

Provided however that no fee will be charged in respect of 
students migrating to other Universities to take up courses leading 
to degrees not provided for in the Andhra University ; a 



415] FEES 25 

Provided also that applications for refunds of Migration fees 
under the above proviso, shall reach the Registrar not later than 
six months from the date of issue of the Migration Certificates. 

8. A fee of Rs. 2 shall be charged whenever a copy of an F r 

application for any of the University examinations in furnished. Examination 

application : 
Ordinance. 

9. A fee of Rs. 3 shall be charged for each certificate (Mutri- For 

dilation or Intermediate) issued on application received after the Certificates 

not applied 

prescribed date. for in time : 

Ordinance. 

10. The penal fee levied for non-attendance at Convocation For 

after applying for permission to attend the same shall be that pre- ance a t Con- 
scribed in Section 2 of Chapter XVI of the Code (Vol. 1). 

11. A fee of Rs. 3 shall be charged for scrutiny of the S.S.L. For 
Certificate of a candidate who sat for S.S.L.C. Public Examination in theV.S.L.C.: 
a previous year. Ordinance. 

12. A fee of Rs. 5 shall be charged for each application for For 
xemption from the production of attendance certificates. frnnTpro"" 

duction of 

Note. Applications for exemption received within 10 days certificate 
after the prescribed dates will be accepted on the payment of Or <hnance. 
penalty of Rs. 5/- at the discretion of the Vice-Chancellor subject to 
the condition that the reasons given for delay are satisfactory. 

^ 

13. A fee of Rs. 5 shall be charged for each application for For 

recognition of an examination of another University and of the of outside" 

S.S.L.C. Examination or European High School Examination con- examina- 
tions 
ducted by bodies outside the jurisdiction of this Unnersity. Ordinance 

14. A fee of Rs. * r > shall be charged for issuing a pass For 

certificate. ^P} 1 ? 

Certificate 

Ordinance. 

15. A fee of Rs. 2 shall be charged for issuing a provisional For 
certificate to a successful candidate before the Degree is conferred or Certificate 
before a certificate is ordinarily issued. Ordinance. 

4 



26 THE ^NDHRA UNIVERSITY rODE VOL. 71 [CHAP. XXXVI 

For ' ItJ. A fee of Rs. 2 shall he charged for issuing an extract 

frcm from the Register ot Candidates Cor an examination or from the 



Ordinance. Register of Matriculates. 

17. A fee of Rs. 5 shall be charged for supplying an Eligibility 

Eligibility Certificate to eligible S.S.L.O. holders of the University. 

Certificate : 

Ordinance. 

18. (a) The fee for registration of an application for admission 

O f the to Colleges of the University shall be Rs. 2. 

University : 

Ordinance. ^ The ^mission fee to Colleges of the University shall be 

Rs. 5 which shall be paid together with the first fees 
payable to the University. 

(c) The tuition fee shall be Rs. 40 for Honours courses, 
M.Sc. Degree Examination and Diploma courses in 
Science and Rs. 38 for Pass courses per term each 
academic year consisting of three terms. 

Note. It shall however be competent for the Vice- 
Chancellor to sanction the levy of tuition fee 
at half the rate prescribed above for deserving 
poor students, preference being given to 
Mussalmans, Oriyas, girls and members of the 
backward classes and castes approved under 
Section 92 of the Madras Educational Rules 
subject to the following conditions : 

* 

(1) Concession shall be given only in the case of 

those students whose parents or gurdians 
have been proved to the satisfaction of the 
Vice-Chancellor as being so poor that with- 
out the grant of the concession it would not 
be possible for those students to continue 
their studies. 

(2) That the students are natives of the districts 

within the territorial jurisdiction of the 
Andhra University. 



SBC. 1618] FEES 27 

(3) That certificates of poverty, if any, submitted 
by the students shall be from the Principals 
of Affiliated Colleges or officers of the 
Revenue Department of rank not lower than 
that of a Deputy Tahsildar and shall indicate 
the approximate annual income from all 
sources of the parent or guardian. 

But 110 student who is ia receipt of any scholarship or 
stipend or other monetary assistance from the funds 
or resources of the University shall bo eligible for 
the grant of the concession. 

The total of the fee income foregone by way of such 
concessions shall not exceed 5 per cent of the total 
fee income estimated on the basis of enrolment for 
the year. 

(d) The fees for residence shall be those prescribed by the 

Syndicate from tune to time. 

(e) The games or athletics fee shnll be KB. 3 per term 

which shall be paid with the tuition fee for each 
term. 

(f) The Reading Room and Magazine foe shall be Ks. 3 

per term which shall be paid with the tuition fee 
for each term. 

(g) The Library fee shall he Rs. 2 per term which shall be 

paid with the tuition fee for each term. 

(h) The University Union fee shall be Re. 1 per term 
which shall be paid with the tuition fee for each 
term. 

(i) The Laboratory fee (in the cane of the Jeypore Vikrama 
Deo College of Science and Technology) shall >be 
RE. 5 per term which shall be paid \vith the tuition 
fee for each term. 



23 THE AN&HRA ONIVBRSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXVI 

(j) The Caution fee (in the case of the Joypore Vikrama 
Deo College of Science and Technology) vshall be 
Rs. 15 which shall be paid with the tuition fee on. 
admission. 

Note. This mount will be refunded to the student at 
the time of his leaving the College after 
deducting the moneys, if any, due from him 
to the University on account of loss or damage 
caused to the properties of the University. 

(k) The Stationery fee of Re. I per year shall be paid 
with the tuition fee for the first term. 

(1) Medical Inspection fee of Re. 1 per annum payable 
with the tuition fee lor the first term. 

(m) The University Colleges and Chronicle fee shall be 
Re. L per year payable with the tuition feo for the 
first term. 

The above fees are compulsory for all students, and shall be 
paid within a week of the commencement of the term. The penal 
fee for the non-payment of fees on due date shall be reckoned at 
annas 4 for each day intervening between the due date and the 
date of payment or one rupee per week, whichever is less. Should 
however the period of default extend beyond fifteen days, the 
student's name shall be removed from the roll of the College and 
shall not be re-entered during the course of the term till all the 
prescribed fees and an additional penal fee of Rs. 5 are paid. 
Penal fees on defaults extending beyond a term shall be decided 
by the Syndicate. 

For 11). The fee for registration of an application for admission to 

Librarian- & l ^ 

ship the course in Librarianship shall be Rs. 2 and the tuition fee per 

Ordnance term for the course fiha11 be Hs ' a - 

For verift- 20. Information as to whether a candidate's answers in any 

valuation of particular head or heads of any examination have been valued and 

answers and marked will be supplied to the candidate on his forwarding, in 

totalling of -. 

marks Ordi- case he is a candidate appearing from any college, through the 

nance. Head of the Institution, and in case he is a private candidate, 



BBC. 1920] FEES 29 

directly, within one month of the declaration of the results in the 
examination in question, an application accompanied by a fee of 
Rs. 25 for each head 1 . If as a result of the verification made under 
this clause it is discovered that there has been an omission to value 
or mark any answer or answers or a mistake in the totalling of the 
marks, the fee for verification shall be refunded to the applicant. 

The fee is only for verification whether the candidate's 
answers in any particular head have been valued and whether the 
totalling has been correct and not for revaluation of answers. No 
answer paper shall be revalued by an examiner after the marks 
have once been sent to the Registrar. 



30 THE ANDHRA UNIV. CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXVII & XXXV1I1 



Matricula- 
tion of 
S.S.L.C. 
holders. 



Matricula- 
tion of those 
other than 
S.S.L.C. 
holders. 
Register of 
Matriculates. 



CHAPTER XXXVII 

MATRICULATION 

{Reg illations) 

1. 'Subject to such rules and dhections as the Syndicate may 
issue from tune to tnm, holders ot completed Secondary School 
Leaving Certificates issued under the, authority of the Government 
of Madras or such other authority as may have been accepted by 
the Syndicate, may be admitted by the Head of an Affiliated 
College to a University course of study, and when BO admitted shall 
he registered as Matriculates of the University. Women holders of 
such certificates who wi>h to study privately for the Intermediate 
Examination may submit their certificates to the Syndicate, and 
the Syndicate, if satisfied with their certificates, shall order their 
registration as Matriculates of the University. 

2. Other candidates for Matriculation shall bo required to 
pass some other examination accepted by the Syndicate as 
equivalent thereto. 



3. The Registrar shall 
dilates of the University. 



maintain a register of all the Matri- 



*Note. The following examinations have been recognized by the Academic 
Council, in accordance \vith Section 33 (1) of the Act, as equivalent to the 
Matriculation Examination of the Anclhra University 

S.S L.C. Public Examination conducted by the Provincial Government 

European High School Examination 

Matriculation Examination of any other Statutory Indian University 
including the Admission Examination of the Benare* Hindu Uni- 
versity. 

Mysore S S.L.C. Examination 

Hyderabad (Deccan) High School Leaving Ctrtificatr Examination 
(1st and 2nd Class Certificates only) 

Matriculation Examination of the O&mania, Univer c ity subject to tho 
condition that the candidate seeking admission to higher courses 
obtains 50% of the marks in English. 

Travancore S.S.L.C. Examination. 

Cochin S.S.L.C. Examination. 

Royal Indian Military College Diploma. 

Cambridge Senior Certificate Examination. 

London Matriculation Examination. 

Oxford School Certificate Examination. 

Duffenn Final passing out Certificate Examination in respect of both 
Executive and Engineering cadets. 

High School Examination, and Intermediate Exam, in Commerce con- 
ducted by the Board of Hi^h School and Inter. Education, Rtj- 
putana (including Ajmere-Merwara), Central India and Gwalior. . 

The High School Examination conducted by the Board of High School 
and Intermediate Education, Allahabad. 

The High School Examination conducted by the Board of Secondary 
Education, Delhi. 

The High School Certificate Examination conducted by the Board of High 
School Education, Central ProMnces and Berar. 



BBC. 1 4] M \TRTCUL \TTON EXAMINATION 81 

CHAPTER XXXVTII 
MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 

(R* 1 qulations} 

1. No candidate shall be admitted to the Matriculation Conlitiom 

of admission 
Examination unless he shall have completed the age of fifteen years 

on or before the first day of the examination ; provided that the 
Syndicate may exempt from the operation of this Regulation any 
candidate who is specially recommended for snch coemption by the 
Head Master of the school of which he is a pupil and who 
produces a certificate of physical fitness from a Registered Medical 
Practitioner. Applications for snch exemption must he forwarded 
so as to reach the Registrar before the 1st of December preceding 
the examination. 

2. Unless specially exempted bv the Syndicate no candidate 
who is not a pupil of a recognized high school shall be permitted to 
appear for the examination. 

3. A candidate who fails to pass the examination on the first 
occasion shall, on the next occasion on which ho seeks admission to 
the examination, forward a second certificate, in the form prescribed 
under Regulation 9 of Chapter TJX. No further certificates need be 
produced for subsequent appearances. 

4. Schools falling under any of the following cl isses shall be Recognition 
. T , xi TT -t (>f Schools. 

recognized by the University : 

(a} Schools recognized by the Director of Public Instruction 
of Madras as teaching up to the standard of the Matriculation 
Examination. 

(/>) Schools in Ceylon certified by the Director of Public 
Instruction, Ceylon to be organised and conducts \ so as to ensure 
efficient training up to the standard of tho Matriculation Exami- 
nation. 

(c) Schools in Indian States of Southern India certified by the 
Barbara of the State in which they are situated to be organized and 
conducted so as to ensure efficient training up to the standard of the 
Matriculation Examination. 



32 THE ANDHTl\ UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. IT [CHAP. XXXVITT 

Exemption > ^ le Syndicate shall have power to exempt from the 

from production of the prescribed certificate of attendance (a) candidates 

certificate who hold completed Secondary School-Leaving Certificates issued 
under the authority of the Government of Madras or such other 
authority as may have been accepted by the Syndicate and who 
have twice appeared for the Final Examination qualifying for such 
certificates, (b) candidates who, during the previous three years 
have been educated privately or in schools outside the territorial 
limits of the Andhra University, and (c) women candidates, provided 
that in each cane they produce satisfactory evidence that they are of 
good character and that they have received suitable instruction. 
Applications for exemption from the production of the certificate of 
attendance should be forwarded so as to reach the Registrar before 
the 1st October preceding the examination. * 



Courses of ^. r ^ lQ examination shall comprise five divisions : (i) English 

study and Language , (ii) Second Language ; (iii) Mathematics ; (iv) Klemen- 

subjects for ; "-,,-, , 

examination, tary Science ; (v) History and Geography. 



(i) English Language. 

Text-books shall be prescribed of which a detailed knowledge 
may be required. 

There shall be two papers get upon the English language : one 
paper of two-and-a half hoars' duration, which shall be mainly 
upon the prescribed texts, and shall be designed to test the candi- 
date's proficiency in composition and his knowledge of grammar 
and idiom ; and one paper of two-and-a half hours' duration, which 
shall consist of (a) composition and paraphrase not based on the 
texts, and (b) the conversion, expansion and condensation of 
sentences. Some of the exercises in the second paper shall be based 
on the texts. Paraphrase elnll be treated as a test of the candidate's 
power to understand and give the general meaning of passages of 
prose and poetry. 

(ii) Second Language. 
One of the following languages at the option of the candidate : 

(a) Classical Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian. 

(b) Foreign French, German. 



SBC. 5-6.] MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 33 

(c) Modern Indian Telugu, Kaunada, Tamil, Oriya, 
Sinhalese, Hindi, Urdu, Marathi, Malayalam. 

In each classical or foreign language there shall be one paper 
of three hours' duration divided into two parts, of which the first 
shall contain passages for translation from the text-books and ques- 
tions on grammar and idiom, and the second shall contain unseen 
passages for translation from the selected language into English 
and from English into the selected language. To the second part 
of the paper not less than half the total number of marks shall be 
assigned. 

In each of the Modern Indian Languages there shall be one 
paper of three hours' duration divided into two parts, of which the 
tirst shall contain questions on the text-books and on grammar and 
idiom, and the second part shall consist of original composition. 
The text prescribed shall be mainly in modern prose. To the second 
part of the paper not less than halt' the total number of marks shall 
be assigned. 

(i'i t ) Ma themat i<*$ . 

There shall be two papers set in Mathematics, one in Arith- 
metic and Algebra oi three hours' duration, and the other in 
Geometry of two-and-a-half hours' duration. 

(a) Arithmetic. The principle and process of Arithmetic 
applied to whole numbers and vulgar and decimal fractions. The 
metric system. Approximations to a specified degree. Contracted 
methods of multiplication and division of decimals. Practice, ratio 
and proportion. Square and cubic measure. Direct application 
of the term per cent ; including interest, present- worth, profit and 
loss, exchange. Square root. 

(b) Algebra. Symbolical expression of general results in 
Arithmetic. Algebraical laws and principles and their applica- 
tions. Factorization of simple functions, liquations, conditional 
and identical. Equations of the first degree in one, two and three 
variables and the principles involved in their solution. Solution 
of problems by means of such equations. Equations of the second 
degree in one variable and the principles involved in their solntion. 

5 



34 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY COOK ---VOL. II (CHAP. XXXVIII 

Theory of positi\e integral indices. Square root. Graphs of simple 
algebraic i'lnictionB. A working knowledge ui loyarithras (a 
knowledge of the theory is not required). 

(c) Geometry : Experimental. Construction of linen, angles, 
Circles, perpendiculars, parallels, tangonts, chords, triangles and 
regular polygons from given data Division of lines in given ratios. 
Bisection of angles. Graphical extraction oi Arithmetical square 
roots. 

Theoretical. Angles at a point. Parallel sti.nghi lines. Tri- 
angles and rectilinear figures \reaa. ttatio an<l pioportion of 
similar triangles. Simple loci. Momentary propositions on circles. 
Proofs oi the constructions in Experimental Geometry, Easy 
deductions. 

A detailed syllabus in Geometry will he prescribed from time 
lo lime. 



(u) Elementary Scie 
There shall be one paper of three hours 1 duration in Elemen- 
tary Science comprising Elementary Phasic* and Elementary 
Chemistry, as denned in a syllabus. 



(u) History a/id 
There shall be two papers >et in History and Geography each 
of two hours' duration. 

(i) History. 

(1) Outlines of the History of Great Hritain and Ireland a 
period or periods, as denned in s>llabus, to be pi escribed each year. 

(2) Outlines of the History of India a period or periods as 
defined in a syllabus, to be prescribed each year. 

(ii) Geography 

(1) Geography of India, Great Britain arid Ireland, as denned 
in a syllabus 

(2) Geography of Europe, Asia, Vfrica, Vmerica and Australia 
as defined in a syllabus. 



SYLS. GEOMETRY] MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 3 

7. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the exarai- Marks 
nation if ho obtains not loss than forty per cent of the marks in 
tho English Language and not less than thirty-five per cent of the 
marks in each of tho remaining divisions, provided that a candi- 
date who fails to obtain the required minimum in one subject only 
but who passes in English and gums fifty per cent of the total 
number of marks sh.ill be declared to have passed. &11 other candi- 
dates shall be deemed to have failed in the examination. 

Successful candidates who obtain not loss than sixty per Classifies- 
cent oi the a^cfreguto marks* shall be placed in the first class and UC cessful 
ranked in the order of proficiency as determined by the total marks candidates. 
obtained by each. Successful candidates who obtain less than 
sixty per cent and not loss than fifty per cent of the aggregate ^ball 
be placed in the second class and ranked in tbo order of proficiency 
as determined b\ the total marks obtained b\ each. All other 
candidates who pass shall be placed in the third class. 

SYLLABUSES 
I. Theoretical Geometry 

Angles at a point. If a -traight lino stands on another straight line, the 
i>una of the two angles so formed is equal to two right angles ; and the converse. 
II two straight lines intersect, the vertically opposite angles are equal. 
Parallel ttraight lines. When a straight line cuts two other straight lines, if 
(i) a pair of alternate angles arc equal, or 
(n) a pair of corresponding angles are equal, or 

(111) a pair of interior angles on the same side of the cutting lin* art 
together i-qual to two right angle,, 

then the two straight lines are parallel ; and the converse 

Straight lines which are parallel to the same ^traight Hue are parallel to one 
another. 

Trtangles and rectilinear figures The sum of the angle-, of a triangle is 
equal to two right angles. 

If the sides of a convex polygon are produced in order, the sum of the angles 
so formed is equal to four right angles. 

If two triangles ha\e two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other 
'ach to each, anH also thd angles contained by thbYr tide* equal, th triangles 
art congruent 



36 THE ANDIIRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL. Ti [CHAP. XXXVIII 

If two triangles have two angles of the one equal to two angles of the other, 
each to each, and also one bide of the one equal to the corresponding side of the 
other, the triangles are congruent. 

If two sides of a triangle are equal, the angle oppo ite to these sides are 
equal ; and the converse. 

If two triangles have the three sider of the one equal to the three sides of 
the other, each to each, the triangles are congruent. 

If two right-angled triangles have their hypotenuses equal and one side of 
the one equal to one side of the other, the triangles are congruent 

If two sides of a triangle are unequal, the greater side has the greater angle 
opposite to it , and the converse. 

Of all the straight hues that can be drawn to a given straight line from a 
given point outside it, the perpendicular is the shortest 

The opposite sides and angles of a parallelogram are equal ; each diagonal 
bisects the parallelogram, and the diagonals bisect one another. 

If there are three or more parallel straigh lines, and the intercepts made by 
them on any straight line that cuts them are equal, then the intercepts made by 
them on any other straight line that cuts them are also equal. 

Areas. Parallelograms of the same altitude on the same or equal bases are 
equal in area. 

Triangles of the same altitude on the same or equal bases are equal in area. 
Equal triangles on the same or equal bases are of the same altitude 

Illustrations and explanations of the geometrical theorems corresponding to 
th following algebraical identities 

/I (a 



The square on a side of a triangle is greater than, equal to or less than the 
sum of the squares on the other two sides, according as the angles contained 
by those sides are obtuse, right or acute The difference in the cases of 
inequality it twice the rectangle contained by ont of the two sides and the 
projection on it of the otker 



. Th* lotus of a point which is equidistant from fcwo nxe-d poiats 
h tfc* *rpladifeuUr bliwttof of the straight line joining the hro fixt'd points 



. GEOMETBY] MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 37 

The locus of a point which is equidistant from two intersecting straight 
lines consists of the pair of straight line which bisect the angles betu een the 
given lines. 

The locus ot the vertices of all triangles which have the same base and the 
sum of squares of their udes equal to a gi\pn quare is a circle having its centre 
at the middle of the base 

The locu^ of the vertices of all thr triangles which have the same base and 
the difference of the ,quares of their side^ equal to a given square is a straight 
line perpendicular to the base 

The locus of the vertices of all the trafngles which ha\e the same base and 
their vertical angles equal to a given angle is the arc of a segment of a Circle. 

TheCiicle - A straight line drawn from the centre of a circle to bisect a 
chord winch is not a diimetei, i^ at right angles to the chord ; conversely, the 
perpendicular to a chord fiom the centre bisect^ the chord 

There is one circle and one only, which parses through three given points 
not in a straight line 

In equal circles (or, in the same circle) (i) if two arcs subtend equal angles 
at the centres, they are equal ; (li) conversely, if two arcs are equal they subtend 
equal angles at the centre , 

In equal circles (or, in the same circle) (i) if two chords are equal, they cut 
off equal ar<'s , (ii) conversely, if two arcs are equal, the chords of the arcs are 
equal. 

Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre , and the converse. 

The tangent at any point of a circle and th rtdius through the point art 
perpendicular to one another 

If two circles touch, the point of contact lies on the straight line through the 
centres. 

The angles which an arc of a circle subtends at the centre is double that 
which it subtends at any point on the remaining part of the circumference. 

Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal , and if the line joining 
two points subtends equal angles at two other points on the same side of it, the 
four points he on a cm le 

The angle in a semi-circle is a right angle , the angle in a segment grtater 
than a semicircle is less than a right angle ; and the an fie in a segment less 
than a semi-circle is greater than a right angle. 



38 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE! VOL. It [CHAP. TXXVltt 

The opposite ang f s of any quadrilateral inscribed in a circle are supple- 
mentary ; and the con ffse 

If a straight lino touches a circle, and from the point of contact a chord be 
drawn the angles wh h the chord m^kes with the tangent are equal to the 
angles in the alternate iigments 

If two chords of a circle intersect either inside or outside the circle, the 
rectangle contained by the segments of the one is equal to the rectangle 
contained by the other and the converse. 

Ratio and Propo'tion (a) Definition and elementary theorems connecting 
the antecedents and con icquents. 

A given straight line can be divided internally in a given ratio at one and 
only one point and exteinally at one and only one point. 

A straight line drawn parallrl to one side of a triangle cuts the other two 
side^ or those side 1 * produced, proportionally ; and the converge 

If the vertical angle of a triangle is bisected inteinally or externally th 
bisector divides the base internally or externally into segments which have the 
same ratio as the other sides of the triangle ; and the converse. 

In equal circles, angles, whether at the centres or circumferences, have the 
same ratio as the arcs on which they stand. 

If two triangles have ono angle of the one equal to one angle of the other 
their areas are proportional to the rectangles contained by the sides about the 
equal angles Similarly for parallelograms having one angle of the ono equal 
to one angle of the other. 

Simitar Triangles. If two tramgles are equiangular, then their corres- 
ponding sides are proportional ; and the converse. 

Two traingles, which have one angle of the one equal to ont angle of tjie 
other and the sides about these equal angles proportional, are similar. 

The area> of similar triangles are in the ratio of the squares of th 
corresponding sides 

2. Elementary Science 

\The examination shall text whether the subject* included in the following 
syllabus have been taught by the aid of the experimental demonstration 
whetcver this is possible. The application of physical and chemical facts and 
principles to experience in ordinary life should receive particular attention. 

It is desirable that, as far as the accommodation and equipment ofihe scktol 
Vill allow, pupils receive practical instr*cti6n i* 
prbttsit* I* tinted in tKe 



TL1. BLE. SCIENCE] MATRICULATION EXAMINATION W 

a. Physics. Measurement of length Meaning of u unit And the measure- ^ Physics 
ment of a physical quantity. British and metric units; their multiples and sub- 
multiplei. Derived units of area and volume. Measurement of area and 
volume 

Measurement of timr. Unit of time. Rotation of the earth. Measurement 
by iimple pendulum. 

Speed : its measurement involving length and time ; calculation of speed in 
given cases. Elementary ideas regarding acceleration Illustration of First 
Law of Motion ; definition of force 

Matter: definitions. Measurement of mass. Hritrh and metric units; 
determination of mass by spring balance, and by ordinary balance. Density 
and specific gravity 

Gravitation : All matter attracted b> the earth ; illu tration of Second Law 
of Motion; attraction is mutual ; illustration of Third Law of Motion Univer- 
sality of gravitation Weight of a body. Distinction between mass and weight 

Properties of matter : extension, inertia, gravitation, divisibility, porosity, 
hardness, elasticity, transparency and opacity, cohesion, ductility, malleability, 
brittlens% plasticity, viscosity The three states of matter Changes of state 
produced by heating and cooling. Permanent and temporary effects of heating 
different substances ; effects on organic substances , tempering of metals. 

Simple machines . The lever its general principle and application to the 
common balance, and the wheel and axle The pulley, and the inclined plane 
application to the screw. 

Centre of gravity: definition. Experimental determination of centre of 
gravity in simple cases. Condition of equilibrium of a body resting in a given 
petition ; stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium. The common balance ; how 
ma^ is measured by weighing. 

Solids : Permanence of shape and volume which are only altered by applica- 
tion of force*. 

Liquids : no permanent shape. Surface of liquid at rest horizontal. 
Pressure defined. In fluids it acts in all directions and is greater at greater 
depths. Transmission of pressure and its evaluation. Bramah Press. The 
principle of Archimedes ; its experimental proof and applications. 

Gases : how distinguished from liquids Gases have weight. Balloons. 
Pressure of the atmosphere ; the mercury barometer ; variation of atmospheric 
prtiiure with height proved by mercury barometer; the water barometer. 
Evalution of pressure of atmosphere by means of barometer; applications, 
Air-pump ; Wattr pump. Pressure of a gas ; Boyle's Law. 



40 



THE ANDHRA UNIVEKStTY CODE VOL. It [CHAP. XXXVIII 



Temperature : Liquids expand by heat , the special rase of water. Thermo- 
meter used for measuring temperature by observing change of volume of 
liquid. The mercury thermometer; method of graduating, determination of 
fixed points; fundamental interval; the Centigrade and Fahrenheit scales. 
Thermal expan ion of solids, liquids and gases 

Distinction between heat and temperature Heat as a quantity and how 
it may be measured the thermal unit ; specific heat Changes of physical 
state due to heat Fusion and latent heat of fusion , evaporation and ebullition 
and latent heat of evaporation Water vapour present in thi atmosphere 
and determination of it^ amount. Coohng produced by solution and evapora- 
tion ; freezing mixtures. The conduction and convection of heat ; convection 
currents in the atmosphere and ocean: the trade winds; land and soa breezes 
and gulf stream. The circulation of water vapour in the atmosphere, clouds, rain 

Light Rectilinear transmission Rays and pencils of light, shadows etc. 
produced by different sources, and images of sources produced by pin-holes 
The laws of reflection of rays of light reflection of pencils by plane mirrors and 
images formed by plane mirrors. Direct reflection of pencils from concave 
spherical mirrors; experimental proof of law of distances. The laws of 
refraction of light : refraction of rays through a plate and a prism. Refraction 
through a convex lens experimental proof of law of distances , the principle 
focus of a lens Image formed by a convex lens : the sample microscope ; the 
photographic camera ; the telescope Analysis of white light by a prism ; the 
method of producing, and order of colours in the spectrum. The spectrum of 
sunlight, and of candle light. Rei omlnnahon of the colours of the spectrum 
into white light. 

Electrification by friction , positive and negative electrifications. Laws 
of attraction and repulsion. Conductors and non-conductors. Simple voltaic 
cell; Grove's cell. Electric current Magnetic effects of currents in straight 
and coiled wires. Simple galvanometer Heating effects of currents Simple 
facts of electrolysis. 

Magnetic substances. Laws of magnetic attraction and repulsion. Magne- 
tic induction. Methods of magnetization. 

Graphic representation by use of squared paper of the relation between 
any two of the physical quantities referred in the syllabus 

b. Chemistry Examples of mixtures and solutions- (1) sand and sugar, 
^ 
try. (2) sulphur and iron filings, (3) sand and salammoniac, (4-) copper ^ulphate and 

water. Explanation of the processes of separating the ingredients of these 
mixtures filtration, decantation, mechanical or magnetic separation, evapora- 
tion, distillation, sublimation. 

Chemical compounds. Characteristic differences between compounds and 
mixtures ; illustration. 



SYLS. BLR. SCIENCE] MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 41 

Chemical combination illustrated by (1) candle burning in air, (2) sulphur 
burning in air, (3) magnesium wire burning in air, (4) quicklime combining 
with water. 

Chemical decomposition illustrated bv (1) heating meroun^ oxide, (2) action 
of sodium on water, (3) heating potassium chlorate, (4) heating lead nitrate. 

Iron in contact with air and \ iter is converted into ru,t. Rusting is 
oxidation Copper, load, i> , cury, magnesium, ulphur and phosphorus, also 
oxidize; but their oxid.ition talvs pLie at dif!<rent temperatures. Rapid 
oxidation. Combustion of candle, the product, of the combustion are hea\ier 
than the i andle itself. One of th'* c product is a gas vvhn h turns lime-water 
milky and it is the ,ame product \vlu< li is obtained when chatcoal burns in air. 
Water is another product of the combustion Minuldi observation may be made 
and similar conclusions deduced when oil bums m air Sfru ture of a candle 
flame. 

TLeru-t or oxide is alway , heavier than th' substance from which it is 
formal. Wlien a substance (e. g iron or phosphoius) o\i lises in a confined 
volume of air, about one fifth of the air ultunateh disappear Remaining air is 
inactive (e. g. candle will not burn in it) Composition of air has two 
components active (oxygen) and inactive (nitrogen) 

Oxygen : its discovery , its mode of preparation and properties Oxides 
products formed when a candle, charcoal, sulphur, phosphoru , sodium or iron 
burns in Oxygen Burning in oxygen and aircornpind Illustrations of acid 
and alkaline properties 

Hydrogen produced by the action of sodium on \\at< i r Product^ of the 
decomposition. Same gas is produced by dilut" sulphuiic i< id or hydrochloric 
acid on /iinc, or on iron Propert'os o! ['xdto^en, its density, and its 
combustion with air or oxygen Water th (> s"l< p odu- t of tins combustion. 



illustt ited by the case of water 



iction. Solubility of gase^ in water, carbonir :u id ga , air and oxygen. Soda 
vater, spring, river, well and sea water Su pended and dissolved impurities, 
'urification by distillation. Extraction of salt from sea water by evaporation ; 
alt pans. 




42 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. IT [OHAP. XXXVIII 

Carbon- the different forms in which it occurs, their properties and uses. 
Carbon burnt in air or oxygen produces carbon dioxide. This gas is always 
forme ] \\-\\fn candle >, oil, etc burn Its preparation and property , Action on 
lin'c-n'ater exhaled by living amniils, action of plants on carbon dioxide. 
Solution of carbon dioxide in water and propertie , of the solution. Hard and 
soft 'vater ; permanent and temporary hardness. Method- of softening hard 
water. 

Nitrogen the inactive constituent of air ; preparation and properties. Two 
of its important compounds, viz nitric acid and ammonia. 

(a) Nitric acid its preparation from nitre and ulphuric acid. Its 
properties ; power of dissolving copper and mercury and many other metals. 
Relations between acids, bases and salts illustrated by (1) nitric acid and 
caustic soda, (2) magnesium oxide and sulphuric acid, (3) lime and hydrochloric 
acid. 

(b) Ammonia . its preparation and properties. Solubility in water ; power 
of neutralizing acid> and forming salts, such as ammonium chloride and nitrate; 
behaviour of these salts on heating. 

Hydrochloric acid and chlorine. Treatment of common salt with sulphuric 
acid and production of hydrochloric acid gas Properties of this gas , solubility 
in water. Production of chlorine from hydrochloric a id and manganese 
dioxide, its properties : its power of u-mbining with hydrogen arid with metals, 
uch as antimony, to form chlorides. Bleaching action of chlorine. 

Sulphur- the difierent forms th"ir properties The change-? induced by 
heat when burnt in air or oxygen produces sulphur dioxide. Sulphuric 
acid its pfopertte and U^PS. 

Phosphorus the different forms, their properties and mes. 

Silicon- occurrence in nature ( hief compound ihca. Occurrence of 
silica ia nature, free and coinbin-d as sihcatt -. Chief form of silica, quartz, 
sandstone, ftint. 

Metals and non-metals : their general properties 

Sodium and pota sium their occurrence and properties Distinguishing 
properties of the alkaline metal,; their more important compounds, common 
salt, Glaber's alts, washing soda, odium bicarbonate, caustic soda, potassium 
carbonate, potassium chlorate, caustic potash, saltpetre, potassium perman- 
ganate. Gunpowder. 

Calcium: Chief compound calcium carbonate. It. occurrence and various 
forms. Limestone burnt into lime in lime-kilns. Slaked lime. The use of lime 
in making mortar and plaster. 



8YLS. BE. HIST.] MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 43 

Calcium sulphate gypsum and plaster of Pans. 

The occurrence, general method of preparation, properties and u,e s of the 
following Metals : 

Zinc, iron, copper, mercury, load and silver. Their chief oxides arid their 
salts which have been used or produced in experiments and illustrations included 
in the above syllabus. 

3. History of Great Britain and Ireland 

Pre~ Norman Period. The early inhabitants of Britain : their modern 
descendants ; what languages they speak, where they live. The Roman 
occupation ; Agncola. The coming of the p'nglish ; their original homes their 
chief tribes. The con\ crsion of the English Oltu and Roman Ghn tiariity ; 
the supremacy of the latter, reasons, and results , the stru r u'le for supremacy 
between the Heptarchy Kingdoms tht supremacy of WPS-.I x The coming of 
the Northmen; who thev were, the results of their coining The struggle 
between Wessex and the Northmen , the \ i. tory of Wessex; Alfred Athelstan ; 
Edgor Dunstan The l>anish Conquest reasons- Canute The Kngli h line 
restored 

The Norman and early Plant agenet Period The N T orm in conquest* its 
cause, and effects. Character of the Norman kings and of their rule. Feudalism. 
The oppo ition of baronage to the royal power The anarchy of Stephen's 
reign Order restored by Henry IT. His aims his quarrel with Becket: 
reasons and results. The reforms of Henry H HU foreign pos essions ; extent. 
His quarrel with the barons. The lo s of Normandy, its effects. The baronage 
of a national party -truggle with John the Great Charter The weak rule of 
Henry III subservience to the Papacy ; foreign favourities The Barons' War : 
Simon do Montfort, his rharacter and aims Revival of the monarchy under 
Edwaid I effect of the baronial war seen in his leforms. The beginnings of 
Parliament The conquest of Wales The attempted conquest of Scotland. 
Scotland and France. Edward U's reign Bannockburn: temporary supremacy 
of the baronial party. 

The later Plantagentt Period. Edwaid Ill's reign. The Hundred Years' 
War causes Sluy* Cncy Poitiers the treaty of Brrtigny. the Black 
Prince. Increased power of the parliament Social arid economic changes: 
the Black Death, its result Wat Tvler the 'Peasants' Rebellions. The 
attempted autocracy of Richard II: his overthrow. Literary activity: 
Langland and Chaucer. Th<* Lancastrian kings the strength of Parliament at 
the beginning. Beginning of dynastic troubles. Early religious reforming 
movement- Wychff- the LolUrd-. Rebellions against Henry IV. Renewal of 
the Hundred Years' War reasons Has re Agin-court the Treaty of Troye. 
The minority of Henry VI : failure in the Hundred Years' War . reasons . clos 
of Hundred Years' War . effects Renewed social troubles. Outbreak of 



44 THE ANDITRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXVtll 

dynastic Wars of the Roses ; causes chief events. Warwick, the king-maker. 
The Yorkist Dynasty : its character and aims : reasons for its power. The 
effects of the Hundred Years' War on English political, commercial and social 
life. 

The Tudoi Period. Ik? stiength of the Tudor possession of the throne. 
Their despotic rule 'I he overthrow of rival claimants. The final suppression 
of the old baronage The creation of a new subservient baronage. The need 
for peace. Henry VH's policy. Henry Vlll's character. The career of Wolsey: 
foreign policy. Ecclesiastical reform the Reformation in England its causes. 
The overthrow of the Papal authority. The phases of the Reformation in 
England unde_r Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth. Comparison with 
continental Refoimation Luther and Calvin Social results of the Refor- 
mation the rebellions under Edward VI : Elizabeth's Poor Law. The jealousy 
of England and Spain : cause . English navigators : the development of 
English commerce. Elizabeth's, foreign policy the war with Spain: its 
results Literary actKuy <>f the sixteenth century, its connections with 
the Reformation and the Renaissance. The three religious parties under 
Elizabeth : the Roman Catholics : the Anglicans the Puritans their aims and 
characteristics : < hief sects of Puritans. The Anglicans supreme : policy of 
uniformity: absence of idea of toleration. The Puritans and royal political 
supremacy. 

The Stuart Period.\<\ng and Parliament. The difference between the 
absolutism of the Tudors and the Stuarts. Suppression of the Roman Catholics ; 
attempted suppression of the Puritans by James I. Growing hostility to royal 
power the influence of Puritanism in the party of opposition. The chief points 
of dispute between the Crown and Parliament. The failure of Charles I's foreign 
policy : increased opposition met by further claims of the prerogative. The 
Petition of Right. Temporary victory of the Crown. Renewed opposition over 
Ship Money and Laud's religion, policy. The Bishop's War^. Summoning of 
Parliament. Early acts of Long Parliament. Outbreak of Civil War immediate 
and remote causes. Chief events of the war. The victory of the Parliament: 
reasons ; Breach between the Parliament and the Army. The execution of 
Charles I. The Commonwealth rule of the Puritan Minority. Cromwell in 
Ireland and Scotland. The Protectorate Cromwell's character and aims. 
Reasons of his success and the failure of his system. The Restoration: why 
possible. Net gains of the Rebellion. Puritan Literature : Milton : Bunyan. 
The despotic and Catholic policy of Charles II and James II : the ministers of 
Charles II : his French intrigues. The Whigs and Tories : their respective aims. 
The Exclusion Bill. Temporary triumph of absolutism., Its overthrow at the 
Revolution : James's rashness compared with Charles's discretion. 

The Bill of Rights: the triumph of Parliament. James II in Ireland: 
William III and Scotland. The beginnings of Party Government under William 
III and Anne: the unicrupulousness of party politicians: Harly .- St. John: 



SYLS. IND. HIST.] MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 45 

Marlborough. The reforms of William III the Act of Settlement. The wars 
with France : causes Marlborough as a general : the chief events of the war. 
The treaty of Utrecht : English colonial gains. 

The Hanovtrian Period. The Whig supremacy . Reasons for the discredit 
of the Tories 1715 rebellion. The rise and power of Walpole, his policy and 
methc d. The establishment of Party Government with Prime Minister and 
Cabinet. The reasons for Walpole's long tenure of Office. The rise of an 
opposition. The Family Compact- hostility with Spain and France reasons 
Overthrow of Walpole. Whig supremacy continued with a war policy. The 
rise of the Elder Pitt. The war of the Austrian succession : England's share in 
it Colonial rivalry of France and England The Seven Years' War : its 
phases chief events. English gains in 1703. Pitt as a popular minister : his 
character and aims. The colonial policy of Pitt s successors the loss of tb 
American colonies. Chief events Overthrow of the Whig supremacy ; reasons 
for the weakness of the Whig party. Final check to royal control of politics. 

The Revolutionary Period. The Tory rule of the Younger Pitt. Internal 
reforms and domestic policy of Pitt : comparison with \he policy of Walpole. 
The outbreak of the French Revolution : Pitt forced into war. The revolu- 
tionary and Napoleanic wars :' Chief events on sea and land. Death of Pitt : 
his character. 

Nelson and Wellington : their careers and characters. Reasons for th 
success of England at sea. The role played by England in resisting the 
Napoleonic schemes. The downfall of Napoleon. Religious and literary 
activities of the period : Wesley . Burke. The industrial development : its 
nature and causes. 

The iqth Century. (1815-1902). The influence of the French Revolution in 
England. The great period of reform. Economic and social evils : their causes 
aud remedies : riots : socialists movements : the Chartists : the repeal of Corn 
Laws : Sir Robert Peel, Cobden and Bright and Free Trade : Factory Laws the 
spread of education. Political reform : the extension of the franchise : Cabinet 
government municipal reforms Great ministers of the period : Russel 
Palmer&ton Disraeli : Gladstone : Salisbury. Colonial expansion during the 
period. Wars of the period : mainly frontier and colonial : the Crimean war : 
the Boer war : causes, results and chief events. The life and influence of 
Queen Victoria. Great poets and novelists of the century. 

4. Indian History. 

Prt-Afufsalman Period : 

1. Physical configuration of India. Distribution of land and water: 
mountains, rivers and the sea. Position in relation to the rest of the world. 
Historical consequence of the foregoing. 

2. The aboriginal and non- Aryan races. 



46 THE ANDliRA UNIVBBSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXVlll 

3. The Indo-Europeans (so-called Aryans). Their immigrations and 
settlement. Aryan culture. Social and economic conditions. Caste (till circa 
500 B.C.J 

4. Social, economic, religious and political conditions in the sixth century 
B.C Jainism and Buddhism The growth of the kingdom of Magudha 

5 The satrapy of Darius (circa 500 B.C.). The invasion of Alexander. 
Its consequences and results. 

6. Breakdown of local independence. The Mauryan Empire. Chamlragupta, 
Asoka. Social, religious and economic conditions under the early Mauryans. 

7. The disruption of the Mauryan empire. Rivalry between Bnihmanism, 
Buddhism and Jamisin and the Pr.iknt dialects and Sanskrit. The Sunga, 
Kanva and Andhra dynasties (circa A.D 250). 

8. Foreign influence, invasions .UK! immigrations, Indo-Greek, Indo- 
Bacterian, Indo-Partlnan, and Indo-Scythiun dynasties Revival of Buddhism 
Kanishka's empire. Graeoo-Romari influence The Great Satraps of the West 
Religious and social conditions (till circa A D. 300) 

9. The Gupta dynasty .ind empire. Brahmanic revival Literary activity. 
Religious and social conditions. Fa Hian. 

10. The Huns, break up of the Gupta empire. 

11. The reign of Har^havardhana Social, economic and religious condi- 
tions (till circa A.D 650) Iliouen Tsang. The early Chalukyan empire in the 
Dekhan. The Pallavas in South India. 

12. Minor local dynasties in North India Kabul, Punjab, Sindh , Magadha, 
Kanouj, Delhi; Behar and Bengal : Bundelkhand and the Central Provinces , 
Ajmir, Malwa and Gujarat. 

13. The empire of the Dekhan to circa A D. 1300 The early Chalukyas, 
the Rashtrakutas, the later Chalukyas and the Yadavas of Devagiri. 

14. The South Indian supremacy. The Pallavas. The Chola supremacy. 
Cheras and Pandyas. Hoysalas and the Kakatiyas. Economic and social 
conditions. Dravidian literary and religious activity. 



Mediaeval India (to cirea ij6i) -. 

1. Early Muhammadan invasions 

2. Mahamud of Ghazni ; Mahamud of Ghori. The Slave, Kbalji, Tuglakh 
Shabi dynasties. Social, religious and literary conditions (circa A.D. 1400). 



SYLS. IND. HIST.] MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 47 

3. Break up of the empire of Delhi. Local Muhammadsm dynasties in 
Jaunpur, Bengal, Malwa and Gujarat. 

4. The Bahmini kingdom of the Dekhan ; its break up, 1526 ; final con- 
quest and absorption by the Mughal Empire. 

5. History of the empire of Vijayanagar till A.D. 1565. The successors of 
Vijayanagar to circa 1750. 

6. Rajputana till A.D. 1556. 

7. The Great Mughal*, 1526-1707. 

8. The Maharathas to 1714. 

9. Routes of Indo-European trade. The Saracen conquests and the results 
on Indo-European commerce. The age of discovery The Portuguese in India. 
Albuquerque Causes of the decline of the Portuguese power in India (till 
circa 1600.) 

10. The decline of the Mughal empire 1707-1761. The Maratha conquests, 
1714-1761. Ri*e of the Sikhs. Panipat. 

Modern India down to the death of Queen Victoria \ 

1. Importance of sea power in Indian History. Early English attempts to 
reach India. Rivalry between the Dutch and the English till 1623. The French 
in India till 1741. 

2. The Karnatic wars. Duplex, and Chve. French supremacy in South 
India. The English in Bengal. The Black Hole tragedy Plassey. Final 
French attempts. Coote and Lally (till 1761) 

3. The administration of Bengal, 175Syt771. 

4. Rise of llaidar Ah. The First Mysore war The revival of the Maratha 
Confederacy Madhava Rau Peshwa (till 1772). 

5. Warren Hastings. English politics and Indian affairs (1748-72). The 
Regulating Act. Rohillas Benares. The first Maratha and second Mysore 
wars. Effects of the American War. Suffren on the Indian seas. Tne First 
Armed Neutrality. Successful end of Hastings' administration. His work. 
Pitt's India Bill 

6. Cornwalhs and Sir John Shore. The Mysore war, Economic and 
administrative reforms. The policy of non-intervention. 

7. Wellesley. England and revolutionary France. War with Tippu. 
The second Armed Neutrality. The battle of Aboukir Bay. The Subsidiary 
System. Second and third Maratha wars. Minor reforms. Wllesley's work. 



48 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP, XXXVIII 

8. Cornwallis and Minto. Administrative reforms. Conference of Tilsit, 
Capture of Java. 

9. Marquess of Hastings and Lord Amherst. Ghurka war The Pindari 
war. Last Maratha war. Extinction of the Peshwaship. First Burmese war, 
The Bhartpur affair. Internal affairs. 

10. Bentick His reforms 

11. Auckland and Ellenborough. Rise and history of Ranjit Singh. 
Afghanistan and Punjab. The first Afghan war and the ' avenging expedition.' 
Conquest of Smdh Gwalior affairs 

12. Hardinge and Dalhousie. The first and second Sikh wars. Annexa- 
tion of the Punjab. The Second Burmese war. The doctrine of lapse. 
Dalhousie's annexations. Railways and Telegraphs 

13. Canning. The Mutiny. Canning's clemency. The Queen's proclama- 
tion. India under Crown. Financial and military reforms. 

14. India under the Crown to the death of Queen Victoria. 

5. Geography. 

/. South Continent*. 
Australia. 

1. Relief and Rivers of Australia. 

2. Climate of Australia. The Seasonal distribution of temperature and 
rainfall. 

3. Vegetation and animals ; relation between rainfall and natural vegeta- 
tion ; regions of Australia ; peculiarity of its animal life. 

4. Life and work of the people with special reference to (a) East Coast 
Region, (b) Murray-Darling Basin, (c) Mediterranean regions of West Australia 
and Victoria. 

5. Favourable position for trading with lands around the Pacific and Indian 
Ocean. 

Africa. 

6. Structure effect upon the coastline, rivers and lakes of Africa, relief 
and drainage. 

7. Climate and vegetation of Africa ; apparent seasonal migration of the 
sun and the duplication of climatic and vegetation belts North and South of the 
Equator. 

8* Chief natural regions of Africa. 



HYLS. GEOGRAPHY] MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 49 

9. Peoples of Africa. 

10. Trade routes of the Indian Ocean. 

South America. 

11. Structure and relief ; rivers. 

12. Climate and vegetation of South America ; the effect of a mountain 
barrier, of a cold current and of altitude upon rainfall and temperature ; Andean 
Zones. 

13. People and states of South America ; the importance of minerals in the 
past and present development of the continents. 

14. Temperate countries of South Ame,rica Argentina, Uruguay and 
Chille. 

15. Tropical countries of South America Brazil 'the world's chief store 
house of tropical products 

//. North America, 

1. Structure and lehef ; the work of rivers as illustrated on a large scale by 
the Colorado and Mississippi and as seen by actual observation of local streams. 

2. ClimaU- and vegetation : factors that modify clirriate as evidenced in 
North America ; natural regions of Nortel America. 

3. Population and political divisions ; immigration. 

4. United States- 

fa) North-eastern industrial and commercial region. 

(b) South-eastern plantation region. 

(c) Central farming region. 

(d) The basins and mining regions of the Rockies. 

(e) Pacific shorelands fruit, grain, timber and minerals. 

5. Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland. 

(a) Eastern Canada-agriculture, dairying, timber, fisheries, mining and 
manufacture. 

fb) Prairie provinces, 
(c) British Columbia. 

6. Mexico, Central America and Weit Indies. 

7. Transport and communications of North America and important linke 
ip round-the-world routes. 



50 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODB VOL. II [CHAP. XXXVIII 

///. Euratia and India. 

1. Surface, relief and rivers of Eurasia. 

2. Climate of Eurasia the major climatic regions, comparison of tempera- 
ture ; conditions on east and west margins ; effect of latitude and distance from 
the sea on range of temperature, causes of monsoons and their effect on climate 
of South-east Eurasia. 

3. British Isles : relief ; influence of the sea and the climate upon the life 
and activities of the people; fisheries and farming ; the chief industrial regions 
and their outlets. 

4. Western Mainland of Europe. France agriculture and industry ; 
position of Paris and Marseilles. Belgium plain of Flanders and the Sambre- 
Meuse Valley. Holland a delta land reclaimed from the sea ; its colonies and 
sea trade. Denmark co-operative dairy-farming. Germany plain and plateau, 
forestry and development of social industries ; industries of Ruhr and Saxon 
coalfields. 

5. Baltic Region the new border states ; Scandinavian peninsula 
forestry and woodwork of Sweden. 

6. Central Highlands of Europe ; Czecho-Slovakia ; its minerals and 
industries ; agriculture of the Mid-Danubian plain. Alpine region develop- 
ment of hydro- electric power and effect on industrial development. 

7. Mediterranean region influence of climate on plant adaptation and 
fruit culture. Spain its mineral wealth but lack of coal. Italy alluvial plain 
of Lombardy and its industrial development peninsular Italy. 

8. South-western lands of Asia region of plateau and deserts with one 
important alluvial plain ; its historical importance as a highway. 

9. Central and Northern Eurasia rich wheat and pasture lands as Ruma- 
nian and Russian plains desert conditions of the Aral Sea Basin ; tundra, tagia 
and steppe of Siberian plain ; contrast development of this region with similar 
region in North America. 

10. China her dependencies. Effect of climate and relief upon occupations 
and industries. 

11. Japan A mountainous country, yet productive ; agricultural, mineral 
and industrial development importance of Korea. 

12. South-east Asia and the East Indies. 

13. Position, relief, soils and minerals of India and Burma. 

14. Climate of India ; her chief climate regions ; means of irrigation. 

15. Vegetation and animal life of India. 

16. Peoples of the Indian Empire, 



8YL8. GEOGRAPHY] MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 51 

17. Survey of the Provinces and States 

(a) Mountain States. 

(b) Great Plain 

(c) Plateau states and provinces 

(d) Madras. 

(e) Bombay. 

18. Occupations and Industries of India. 

19. Trade, Transport and Seaports. 

20. Ceylon. 

IV. The World 

1. Studies in climate size and shape of the earth movements of the 
earth, day and night, the seasons, annual and seasonal distribution of tempera- 
ture, pressure winds and rainfall, ocean currents, natural vegetation. 

2. Regions of the world 

(1) Tundra and Ice-cap. 

(2) The Cold Forests. 

(3) Broad-leaved Forests. 

(4) Temperate grasslands. 

(5) Mediterranean Lands. 

(6) Desert Lands. 

(7) Equatorial forests and tropical grasslands. 

(8) Monsoon Lands. 

(9) Islands of the Pacific. 

(10) High mountain and plateau. 

(11) Industrial Regions of Europe 

(12) Industrial Regions of North America. 

(13) Regions of the Empire. 

Books ncommtndtd: 



(1) The New Regional Geographies Book IV. The World : Leonard 

Brooki. London University Press. 

(2) Any one of the following 

(a) India, World and Empire i Herbert Pickles. Oxford University 
Press. 



52 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

(*) Our World Morrison. Macro illtn. 

(f) Our World: Morrison and Subrahmanyam. Macmillan. 

(d) The World : Dudley Stamp. Longmans, Green & Co. 

Reference Books for Teafhert : 

(1) Physiography : Herbertion, Oiford University Press. 

(2) Every one's Book of the Weather: Franco Williams; Sheldon 

Press. 

(3) Out-door Geography : Hasted. Blackie. 

(4) Surface of the Earth : Pickles. Cambridge University Press. 

(5) Human Geography for Secondary Schools : Fairgrieve and Young. 

G. Philip and Son. 

(6) A Graded Course of Geography K. S. Price. G. Philip & Son. 

(7) The Rambler Travel Books. Blackie. 

(8) The World Howarth and Bridewell. Oxford University Press* 



oBC. 1] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 53 

CHAPTER XXXIX 

INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION IN 
ARTS AND SCIENCE 

(Regulations) 

1. Matriculates proceeding to a University course of study Course* of 
shall for two years each consisting of three terms ordinarily tu y * 
consecutive, undergo in an affiliated college courses of study in the 
following three parts : 

Part I English. 

Part II Second Language. 

One of the following languages at the option of the 
candidate 

(a) Classical Sanskrit, Latin, Arabic, Persian, Pali. 
(/;) Modern European French, German. 
(c) Modern Indian Telugu, Kannada, Tamil, Oriya, 
Hindi, Urdu. 

Part III Any three of the following subjects provided 
however no candidate shall be permitted to offer Biology along 
with either Botany or Zoology nor shall be permitted to offer any 
combination of subjects not approved in the foot-note * to this 
section ; 

(1) Mathematics. 

(2) Physics. 



* The following combination^ ar** approved 

1. Mathematics Physics, Chemistry 

2. Mathematics, Physics, Electrical Engineering. 

3. Mathematics, Physics, Mechanical Engineering. 

4. Mathematics, Economics & Banking, Accy. & Gl. Coin. Knowledge. 

5. Physics, Chemistry, Botany. 

6. Physics, Chemistry, Zoology. 

7. Physics, Chemistry, Biology. 

8. Physics, Chemistry, Logic. 

9 Physics, Chemistry, Agriculture. 

u*sl 6*. ike. ktittim. if tki ne.tt tare) 



54 THE ANDHRA UNIVEBSTTY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIT 

(3) Chemistry 

(4) Botany 

(5) Zoology including Human Physiology 

(6) Biology 

(7) Geography 

(8) Logic 

(9) Indian History 

(10) British History 

(11) World History in outline 

(12) Civics and Indian Administration 

(13) An Advanced Language an advanced course if the 

language taken be one taken under Part I or 
II or a less advanced course in a really third 
language. 

(14) Economic Geography and Economic History 

(15) Economics and Banking 

(16) Accountancy and General Commercial Knowledge 

(17) Agriculture 

(18) Electrical Engineering 

(19) Mechanical Engineering 

(20) Surveying 

(21) Drawing 

(22) Music 



(Continued from the bottom of the previous page) 

10. Chemistry, Botany, Zoology. 

11. Chemistry, Zoology, Agriculture. 

12. Chemistry, Botany, Agriculture. 

13. Chemistry, Biology, Agriculture. 

14. Logic, Indian History, World History. 

15. Logic, Indian History, British History. 

16. Logic, Indian History, Advanced Language. 

17. Logic ,Indian History, Music. 

(Continued en the bottom of tht ntxt page.) 



BBC. 2] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 55 

Transitory Regulations 

(i) For the benefit of candidates who failed in September 1935 
or earlier in languages, each forming as one of the optional subjects 
under Part III of the Intermediate Examination, the examination 
in those languages (with the same syllabuses and text-books in 
force up to the examination of 1935) will be held under Part III 
of the Intermediate Examination in March- April and September 1936, 
Thereafter no examination in those languages will be held and the 
candidates who fail in them in 1936 examination shall be permitted 
to offer any other subject approved by the Syndicate provided 
the new combination is one of those approved by the Academic 
Council. 

(ii) For the benefit of candidates who failed in Ancient 
History as one of the optionals under Part III of the Intermediate 
Examination in 1935 or earlier, an examination in that subject 
shall be held in March and September 1936. 

2. (i) The course of atudy in English under Part I shall Engliab. 
consist in 

(a) the detailed study of certain of the set books. 

(b) the perusal as distinct from detailed study of the 

other set books. 

For this course, books in English Prose and Poetry shall be 
prescribed. The books prescribed under (a) above iu any year 

(Continued from the bottom of the previous page.) 

18. Indian History, World History, Civics & Indian Administration. 

19. Logic, Advanced Telugu, Advanced Sanskrit. 

20. Indian History, Civics & Indian Administration, Advanced Language. 

21. Indian History, World History, Music. 

22. Indian History, British History, Advanced Language. 

23. Indian History, British History, Economics & Banking. 

24. Indian History, British History, Music. 

25. Indian History, Advanced Telugu, Advanced Sanskrit. 

26. Indian History, Advanced Sanskrit, Music. 

27. Advanced Telugu, Advanced Sanskrit, Music. 

28. Economic Geography & Economic History, Economics & Banking, 



THE ANPHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. TT [CHAP. XXXIX 



Second 
language. 



Optional 
subjects. 



shall not be more than one play of Shakespeare ; about 900 lines of 
Modern Poetry and two Prose books while those prescribed under 
(b) above shall not exceed two books. 

(ii) The course of study in a second language under Park II 
shall consist in the detailed study in all the languages of the pre- 
scribed text-books and in the rase of Modern Indian Languages 
the perusal also as distinct from detailed study of the prescribed 
books. 

(iii) The course of study in the subjects under Part III 
shall be as prescribed in the syllabuses. 

As for the languages the course shall be as indicated or 
regulated by the text-books which will be prescribed from time to 
time. 



First 
appearance. 



3. A candidate applying for the examination on the first occa- 
sion shall pay the fee prescribed for all the three parts of the 
examination though he may not be able to sit for all the parts 
thereof and thereafter may appear for any part or parts of the 
examination. 



Subjects of 
examination 
and duration 
of papers. 



4. A candidate shall be examined in 

Part I English. There shall be three papers in English each 
of three hours 1 duration. 



The first paper shall be on the books of poetry set for detailed 
study. The second paper shall be on the books of prose set for 
detailed study. The third paper shall be on composition and shall 
contain exercises designed to test the candidate's power to apply 
the principles studied in the course ; in particular, it shall contain 
(a) exercises in epitomising and paraphrasing passages of proso and 
poetry which shall not be taken from any of the books prescribed 
for detailed study or for perusal and (b) subjects for two short 
essays drawn from the subject matter of the books prescribed for 
perusal as distinct from detailed study and from topics of general 
interest. The papers in the examination shall be so set that candi- 
dates shall be able to get full marks in the examination^ without 



. 3 4] INTRBMBDIATE EXAMINATION 57 

answering questions on matters relating to purely literary criticism 
or scholarship. 

Part II A second language. There shall be two papers, each 
of three hours' duration, tho first on prescribed text-books on proso 
and poetry and applied grammar, and other on (1) translation 
from and into English of seen and unseen passages in the case of 
classical languages, or (2) Composition, subjects for which will be 
selected from the set books prescribed for non-detailed study and 
translation from and into English of passages unseen by the student 
in the case of Modern European and Indian languages, 

Note: In the case of Telugu, not more than one question 
carrying 20% of the total marks for the whole paper shall be set on 
Grammar (as per syllabus prescribed) in the paper on prescribed 
text-books. 

Part III Special Subjects : There shall be two papers each 
of two hours 1 duration in theory in each of the subjects Physics, 
Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Biology and Agriculture. Each paper 
shall earry 50 marks. There shall also be one paper in practical in 
each of these subjects. The paper in practical shall be of three 
hoars* duration and shall carry 50 marks 40 marks for the 
practical test and 10 marks for the laboratory note-books. 

Candidates shall submit to the Examiners before the hour of 
the practical examination, their laboratory note-books duly certified 
by their Professors as a bona fide record of work done by them. 

Iu the remaining special subjects (other than the six subjects 
mentioned above) there shall be two papers in each subject. Each 
paper shall be of 2^ hours' duration and shall carry 50 marks each. 

^Advanced Language. In the case of classical languages there 
shall be two papers, the first pap or being set on prescribed 
text-books relating to prose, poetry, grammar tuiH rhetoric and the 
second on translation from and into English of unseen passages 
only. In the case of Modern Indian Languages there shall be two 
8 



58 



THE ANDTIRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II | CHAP. XXXIX 



Marks 
qualifying 

for a pat*. 



Classifica- 
tion of 
successful 
candidates. 



papers, the first paper bing set on proscribed text-books relating to 
prose, poetry, drima, and tho second paper being set on grammar, 
piosody and poetics according lo a prescribed syllabus. In the case 
of English there sVdl be two papel's, the fiist paper being set on 
prescribed text-books and the second on rhetoric and prosody. 

The text-books for each of tho lungua^es shall be prescribed 
from time to time on the recommendations of the Roards of Studies 
concerned. 

5. A candidate shall be declared to havo passed the Inter- 
mediate Examination it' ho obtains (1) not le^s than 35 per cent of 
the marks in English under Fart 1, (,"2) not less than 35 per cent of 
the marks in a Second Language under Fart II and (.'5) not less than 
35 per cent of the maikrf in each of the three special subjects 
selected under Fart IT I. 

All other candidates shall be deemed to have failed in the 
examination. 

Out of candidates who pass in all the three Fails at one and 
(lit* i^irno examiirtlirm, thos* .vho obtain fifty per cent and more of 
the total number of marks shall he placed in the tirst class and 
ranked in the order nf proficiency a-* determined by the total marks 
obtained by each, and those who o! t tin less thau fifty percent 
of the total ji amber of mark^ shall be, placed in the second class. 

Candidates who p-ip4 in all lh F.irU at the name examination 

and obtain not IOSP tlr.m sixty per cj>nt in i ) art 1 or Fart II or in 

an} subject ol an optional i(u,u] nnde:* Firi III shall be declared 
as having gained distinction in that subject. 

Candidates who obtain the prescribed minimum number of 
marks in each part in separate examinations and are declared to 
have passed the whole examination shall be placed in a separate 
list in the second class ; provided that a candid itn offering any one 
or more of tho six Science subjects mentioned in section 4 supra 
shall not be declared to have passed the examination in that subject 
or subjects in Fart III unless he nlso obtains a minimum of 
30 per cent of marks in each division of the examination in each 



StiC, f> 7] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 59 

subject, viz., (i) written examination and (ii) practical examination 
including note-books. 



(Transitory Regulations) 

6. No examination under the Old Regulations (i. e. in force 
prior to the academic year 19:28-29) shall be hold a* from the 
Intermediate Examination of March 19,'U.* 



7. Candidates for the Intermediate Examination \vbn com- 
menced their courses of study lor that exaniinat ion u.sdor the 
Regulations in force prior 10 the academic jtai i. '2S- .',) fchsdl he 
permitted to complete tho Iniwrmedia'o K.vaminahon under the 
New Regulations subject to the following provisions : 

(a) A candidate who has parsed Par! { 01 (lie exo-m .nation 

under the Old Regulations shall bo deemed (o have 
passed in Paris I and II under tin- Now Regu- 
lations. 

(b) A candidate who has passed Part 11 of the examina- 

tion under tho Old Regulations shall be doomed 
to have passed in Part 111 under (he New 
Regulations. 

(r) A candi late who lias faded in both parts <>t the 
examination under tho Old Peculations rdiall be 
1*4111 red to p iss in all the thro<> parts of the exami- 
n ilion under the New Regulations provided that 
he shall take for Part II of the examination under 
the Now Regulations the same language in which 
he appeared for Fait I-IJ of the examination under 
the Old Regulations an I for Part III of the exami- 
nation under the New Regulations tho same subjects 
in which lie appeared i-r Part 11 of the exami- 
nation under the Old Regulations, it being at the 
option of candidates who look Group (ii) (Natural 
Science, Phyhics and (Mieinistry) under the Old 

For the Old Regulations, vide, Appendix to the A. U. Code for 1929-30. 



80 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODK VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

Regulations to offer any three of the followirig 
subjects : Botany, Zoology, Physics and Chemistry 
for the examination under the New Regulations. 
It shall be permissible in the case of candidates 
coming under this Regulation to take two languages 
under Part III of the New Regulations and the 
Examination in those languages shall in each be as 
for an advanced course in a second language. 

On and after the 1st June 1929 candidates for the Intermediate 
examination who had completed the lirst year course of study 
prescribed for the examination under the Regulations in force 
immediately prior to the academic year 19^8-29 and had earned the 
attendance and progrebo certiticates prescribed for that year and 
were unable to complete the course under those Regulations, will be 
permitted to complete the second year course of study by attending 
classes under the New Regulations and to appear for the examina- 
tion under the New Regulations. They shall be exempted from the 
production of attendance certificates required for the first year of 
the course. 

8. Candidates who fail in Part 111 of the Intermediate Exami- 
nation with the combinations deleted from the examination of 1941 
or 1942 shall be permitted to complete the examination with those 
combinations (with the same syllabuses and text-books prescribed 
for the examinations of 1941 or 1942 as the case may be) up to and 
including the examination of September J944. Thereafter, they 
should select the combinations from the approved list only. 



SYLS. TELUGU] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION til 

SYLLABUSES 

Part II-Telugu 
Applied Grammar 

X 



3. 

(i) 

(ii) 



^o ; e>x\ 
# axeo, $8b&3xe, Xceo, < 



(ii) 
(iii) 
(iv) iTotfabo, TJkftd, i>"St>cft, 



(ill) 
fiv) 



II 



5. ^ooT8'(t3'^w^ t A-^xSb, tfr3S';*x>, ^^1$^, eO^QSJr- i, 
I , 



62 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE! VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

Part III (1) Mathematics 

In addition to the portions prescribed for the Matriculation the course 
shall comprise Algebra, Plane Trigonometry and Geometry A candidate 
shall be required'to be acquainted with the use of logarithmic tables and to be 
able to solve questions by graphic methods. 

(a) Algebra. Algebraical laws and principles and their applications 
Ratio and proportion. Theory of indices 

Elementary Theory of Logarithms. Variation Simple surds. Solution 
of equations of the second degree in one or two variables and of equations of 
higher degree who^e solution depends on them. Theory of the equation, and 
expression of the second degree in one variable. The three progression^ and 
other series whose summation depends on arithmetical and geometrical series. 
Permutations and combinations \\here, the things are all unlike The Bno- 
mial theorem for the positive integral exponent <nd direct applications of the 
theorem for any exponent. 

() Plans Trigonometry Measurement of Angles. Trigonometrical 
functions and their relations to one another. Solution of simple trigonometri- 
cal equations. Addition, multiplication and division formulae. Properties of 
triangles, and of the circles connected with them. Solution of triangles 
Application of logarithms to trigonometrical computations, measurements and 
distances. 

(f) Geomet* y (1) Pure Geometry (plane). Similar figure ^ Concurrence 
and collinearity. Properties of triangles Properties of circles. Harmonic 
Sections. 



. The order m which the theorems are stated in the Syllabus *> not 
at the sequence of their treatment and practical questions may be asked 
in the examination bearing directly on the theory. 

Similar Figures. If two triangles are equiangular their corresponding 
sides are proportional and the converse. 

If two triangles have one angle of the one equal to one angle of the 
other and the sides about these equal angles proportional, the triangles 
are similar. 

Two triangles are similar, if the sides of the one arc respectively parallel 
or perpendicular to the sides of the other. 

If two triangles have two sides of the one proportional to two sides 
pf the other, and an angle in each opposite one corresponding pair of 
t^e,?e" sides equal, the angles opposite the pair are either equal or' supple- 



. MATH.] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 63 

If from the right angle A of a right-angled triangle ABC, AD is drawn 
perpendicular to BC, then (1) AD is the mean proportional between BD and 
BC, (2) BA is the mean proportional between BD and BC, and (3) CA is the 
mean proportional between CB and CD. 

If two triangles are similar, their corresponding lines such as mediant, 
altitudes, mradii, etc. are to one another in the ratio of their corresponding 
sides. 

Similar triangles are to one another as the squares on their corresponding 
sides 

Two similar polygons can be divided into the same number of trianglei 
similar to each other and similarly placed ; and the converse 

The perimeters of two similar polygons are to each other as any corres- 
ponding sides. 

Concurrence and Collinearity. The use of signs as applied to lines, angles 
and areas. If two parallel lines are cut by three are more concurrent transver- 
sals, the corresponding segments are proportional and the converse. 

If X, Y, Z are points in the sides BC, CA, AB of a triangle ABC, such that 
the perpendiculars to those sides at these points are concurrent, then 



or TlX'+CY'+AZ^CX'-l A 
and the converse. 

If any transversal meets the sides, BC, CA, ABof a triangle in D, E, F, then 
AF BD. CE~AE.Cn BE. 

and conversely, if the three points D, E, F, taken on th sides BC, CA, AB 
of a triangle, satisfy the relation AF BD. CE. equals AE. CD. BF, then D, E, F, 
are colhnear. 

If the lines joining any point to the vertices A, B, C of a triangle meet the 
opposite sides in D, E, F, then 

AF. BD. CE.^FB. DC. EA. 

and conversely, if three points D, E, F, taken on the sides BC, CA, AB 
of a triangle, satisfy the relation AF. BD. CE equals FB. DC. EA, then AD, 
BE, CF are concurrent. 

If two unequal similar figures are similarly placed, the lines joining 
the vertices of one to the conesponding vertices of the other are concurrent 



64* THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

Properties of Triangles, The three medians of a triangle meet in a 
point, and this point is a point of trisection of each median, and also of 
the line joining thecircumcentre to the orthocentre. 

If D is a point in the side BC of a triangle ABC such that BD equals 
\\n BC, then 

(n - 1) Afi* + AC* = n. AW + (1 - 1/) BC* 

The perpendiculars from the vertices of a triangle on the opposite sides 
meet in a point, and the distance of each vertex from the orthocentre is twice 
the perpendicular distance of the circumcentre from the side opposite to that 
vertex. 

The circle through the middle points of the sides of a triangle passes 
also through the feet of the perpendiculars of the triangle and through the 
middle points of the three lines joining the orthocentre to the vertices of the 
triangle. 

If a perpendicular drawn from the vertex to the base of a triangle is produc- 
ed to meet the circumcircle, then the distance of this point of intersection 
from the base is equal to the distance of the orthocentre of the triangle from the 
base. 

The feet of the perpendicular^ drawn on the sides of a triangle from any 
point P on the circumcircle of that triangle are collinear. 

The pedal line of P bisects the line joining P to the orthocentre of the 
triangle. 

If the vertical angle of a triangle is bisected by a straight line which cuts 
the base, the rectangle contained by the side of the triangle is equal to the 
rectangle contained by the segments of the base together with the square on 
the straight line which bisects the angle 

If from the vertical angle of a triangle a straight line is drawn per- 
pendicular to the base, the rectangle contained by the sides of the triangle 
is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendicular and the diameter of 
the circle described about the triangle. 

Properties of Circles -The locus of the points of intersection of 
tangents drawn at the extremities of chords of a circle which pass through a 
fixed point, is a straight line. 

If the polar of A passes through B, then the polar of B passes through A. 

If P and Q are any two points in the plane of a circle whose centre 
is O, then OP bears to OQ the same ratio us the perpendicular from P on the 
polar of Q bears to the perpendicular from Q on the polar of P. 

The locus of points from which the tangents to two given co-planar 
circles are equal is a line perpendicular to the line of centres. ' 



SYLS. MATH.] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 65 

In two circles, if any two parallel radii are drawn (one in each circle), 
the straight line joining their extremities cuts the* line of centres in one 
or other of two fixed points (called centres of similitude). 

If through a centre of similitude S* of two circles, a line is drawn 
cutting the circles, the radii to a pair of corresponding points are parallel. 

If through a centre of similitude S of two circles, a line is drawn cutting 
the circles, then the rectangle under the distances of one pair of non-corres- 
ponding points from S is equal to the rectangle under the distances of the 
other pair of non-corresponding points from S ; and each of these rectangles 
is a constant. 

In acyclic quadrilateral, the sum of the product of opposite sides is equal 
to the product of the diagonals. 

(1) Harmonic Section : 

If AB is divided harmonically at P and Q, then (i) PQ is divided 
harmonically at A and B ; (ii) AB is a harmonic mean between AP and AQ. 

If AB is divided harmonically at P and Q, and if O be the middle point 
of AB, then OP. OQ=OA* and the converse. 

Any chord of a circle through a fixed point P is divided harmonically 
by P and the poUr of P. 

(2) Plant Analytical Geometry . 

The straight line and circle referred to rectangle axes. 

Co-ordinates of a point : Distance between two points Co-ordinates of a 
point dividing a segment of a. line in a given ratio. Area of a triangle whose 
vertices are given. 

Equations of a straight line (i) in terms of its gradient and the 

interception of the y axis ; (ii> in terms of the length of the perpendicular 

from the origin and its inclination to the axis ; (iii) passing through a point 
and having a given gradient. 

(3) Passing through two givtn point* \ 

Co-ordinates of the point of intersection of two straight lines, and the 
angle between them; conditions of perpendicularity and parallelism of two 
straight lines; Distance of a point from a straight line- Equations of a 
circle in the forms 

** + ?*=*' and x s + y* + 2fx + 2/y + c=Q 

Condition that a given straight lint may touch a circle (by u^ing the 
property that the distance from the centre is equal to the radius). 
9 



6 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY OODBJ VOL. II [OHAP. XXXIX 

In the Intermediate Examination, there shall be two written papers 
of two hours and a half each, and each shall carry 50 marks. The first paper 
shall deal with Algebra, Trigonometry and the second paper shall deal with 
Geometry, pure and analytical. 

Part I II- (2) Physics 

No question shall be asked which cannot be answered by simple mathe- 
matical methods, 

The course shall include a more detailed study of the matter included in the 
Matriculation syllabus and in addition the following : 

Dynamics. The units of length and time. Displacement, speed, velocity 
and acceleration of a particle moving in a straight line. Newton's laws of 
motion ; the units of mass and force. Motion of a particle in a straight 
line under the action of a force in that line under the action of gravity. Energy, 
work, power and their units. Simple illustrations of the conservation of energy 

Conditions of equilibrium of a body under three concurrent forces (the 
parallelogram law), and under parallel forces. Centre of gravity. Simple 
machines. 

*The motion of simple pendulum, determination of g. 

Hydrostatics. Pressure at a point in a fluid ; definition and illustrations ; 
trantmissibility of pressure. Evaluation of pressure at a point in a heavy 
fluid at rest ; its uniformity in all directions. Resultant thrust in simple 
cases. The principle of Archimedes, floating bodies, hydrometers. Applications 
to practical determination of density and specific gravity The pressure of 
a gas and its determination ; the barometer. Doyle's Law ; air pumps and 
water pumps. 

Heat. Temperature and its measurement ; the construction and gra- 
duation of thermometers. The thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gase- 
and their accurate determination ; the air thermometer. Heat as a quantity ; 
the unit of heat, specific heat and the more direct methods of calorimetry, Laws 
of fusion, evaporation and ebullition ; latent heat j vapour pressure and how it 
is measured. Conduction and convection of heat ; thermal conductivity. 
Radiation ; absorption and reflection; law of cooling. The dynamical equivalent 
of heat ; the conservation of nergy. 

Light. The "experimental facts and lawt of transmission, reflection and 
refraction of light ; simple geometrical deductions from these, applicable to 

Only experimental proofs are required in these cases. 



SiTLS. PHYSICS] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 67 

small direct pencils incident on plane and spherical surfaces. Applications to 
the lens, telescope, microscope. The dispersion of light; the spectroscope. 
Radiation and absorption spectra. Total reflection. Determination of 
refractive indices. 

Magnetism Properties of magnets , poles ; Laws of magnetic force ; 
unit poles. Lines of force ; uniform magnetic fields and experimental methods 
of comparing them. 

The earth magnetic field ; the compass. Magnetic Induction ; the 
magnetic properties of iron and steel. 

Electricity. The more common forms of voltaic cells and the actions that 
go on in the cell while producing a current. The action of currents on 
magnets ; galvanometers depending on such action including suspended coil 
type. Metallic conductors and electrolytes. Laws of electrolysis. Electro- 
Motive Force ; Ohm's Law ; resistance and the simple methods of determining it. 
Dissipation of energy in circuit by current and heating effects. Electromagnet, 
Potentiometer and measurement of E. M. F. 

Sound. The production and propagation of sound ; the velocity of 
sound in air and its determination. Nature of wave motion and sound 
waves; Frequency of vibration; pitch, Amplitude of vibration ; loudness : 
Laws of vibration of strings and air columns. The deflection of sounds echoes. 

PRACTICAL PHYSICS. 

(1) The Balance to weigh a body correct to a milligram 

(2) Vernier. 
<3) Calipers. 

(4) Spherometer. 

(5) Screw gaugp 

(6) Simple pendulum Determination of ' g '. 

(7) Determination of acceleration with aFletchres' Trollev, 

(8) Parallelogram Law of Forces. 
<9) Parallel forces. 

(10) Inclined plane. 

(11) Specific gravity of Solids Principle of Archimedes. 

(12) Specific gravity of Solids Specific gravity bottle. 

(13) Specific gravity of Liquids. 

(14) Nichelson's hydrometer. 

(15) Boyle's law. 

(16) Co-efficient of Linear Expansion of Solids^ 

' (17) Co-efficient of Apparent Expansion of Liquids. 
(18) Volume co-efficient of air. 
(1$) Pressure co- efficient of air. 



68 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

(20) Specific heat by the Method of mixtures. 

(21) Latent heat of steam. 

(22) Relative Humidity Regnault's Hygrometer. 

(23) Comparison of Thermal Conductivities of solids. 

(24) Specific heat of a liquid by the Method of Cooling. 

(23) Mechanical Equivalent of heat Frictional cone's method. 

(26) Reflection at plane surface. 

(27) Refraction at plane surfaces. 

(28) Angle of priim and minimum deviation by the pin method-i-curve. 

(29) Critical angle by the pin method Refractive Index. 

(30) Focal length of concave mirrors. 

(31) Focal length of convex lenses. 

(32) Arrangement of lenses to form a simple microscope and a telescope. 

(33) Sonometer Laws of Transverse Vibrations of Strings. 

(34) Resonance Velocity of sound in air. 

(35) Mapping of magnetic fields Null points. 

(36) Deflection Magnetometer comparison of Magnetic Movements. 

(37) Vibration Magnetometer comparison of field strengths. 

(38) Measurement of current Tangent Galvanometer 

(39) Measurement of current copper voltameter 

(40) Verification of Ohm'-? law. 

(41) Comparison of E.M.F.'s Potentiometer. 

(42) Measurement of Resistance Metre Bridge. 

(43) Mechanical Equivalent of heat (Electrical Method). 

Part III (5) Chemittry 

/. Central. 

Chemual change, its characteristics and distinction from physical change. 
Distinction between chemical compound and mechanical mixture. Condition! 
that influence chemical action. Different kinds of chemical changes. Ele- 
mentary and compound substances. The fundamental laws of chemical combina- 
tion, (1) Conservation of mass, (2) Definite proportions, (3) Multiplt proportion!, 
(4) Equivalent proportions, and (5) Gaseous volumes. 

Statement and applications of Boyle's Law, Charles* Law, Dal ton's Law of 
Partial pressures, Gaseous diffusion, Graham's Law and its application to the 
determination of molecular weights. 

Simple methods of the determination of equivalent weights of elements. 
Atoms, molecules, the atomic theory and Avogadro's hypothesis. 

Definition of molecular weight and the application of Avogadro's hypothesis 
to the determination of 'molecular weights of volatile substances by Victor 
Meyer's method. Molecular weight of gases from G.M.V. 



6YLS. CHEMISTRY] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 69 

Atomic weight Simple methods of determination of atomic weights. 
Atomic weight from molecular weights. Dulong and Petit's Law and Law of 
Isomorphism. 

Valency Relation between equivalent and atomic weights. 

Chemical symbols and formulae. Calculation of empirical formula from 
percentage composition and vice versa. Significance of empirical and mole- 
cular formulae. Positive and negative radicals and their valencies. Writing 
the formulee of acids, bases and salts. 

The chemical equation and its significance. Methods of balancing equations. 
Calculations involving Weight and volume based on equations. 

Acids, bases and salts, General methods of their preparation, their general 
characters, classification and nomenclature, Neutralization. 

Relationship between molecular weight, equivalent weight, basicity and 
acidity Normal solutions. Their usefulness in chemical calculations. 

Solution determination of solubility, solubility curves, crystallization, 
water of crystallization, Efflorescence and Delliquesconce, supersaturation. 

Oxidation and reduction Catalysis. Elementary ideas of the theory of 
electrolytic dissociation. 

Elementary idea of the Periodic Law. 

Elementary ideas of the qualitative aspects of the law of Mass action 

//. Non-Metah. 

Occurrence, preparation (together with the industrial preparation of those 
in italics), properties, important uses of the following elements and compounds 
and proof of the composition of the compounds marked * : 

Hydrogen, Oxygen, water,* Hardness of water. 

Oione,* Hydrogen peroxide. 

Flourine, Hydrogen Flouride, Chlorine, hydrogen chloride, hydro-chloric 
Acid, chlorides, chlorine monoxide and peroxide, hypochlorous acid, 
aypochlorites, chloric acid and chlorates. Bleaching powder. * 

Bromine Iodine^ their hydr acids and salts. Bromic and lodic acids, and 
I a O a and their salts. 

Sulphur. Hydrogen sulphide * and metallic sulphides. Sulphur dioxide 
and triozide, Sulphurous and Sulphuric acids, sulphites, sulphates and 
thiosulphates. , 



70 THB VNDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

Nitrogen, important constituents of air.* Ammonia. 9 Ammonium salts. 
Dissociation. Nitrous and Nitric Oxides, Nitrous Anhydride and nitrous 
acid, nitrogen peroxide and nitric acid. Nitrites and Nitrates. 

Phosphorus. Phosphine. Phosphorus tnoxide and pentoxide. The corres- 
ponding acids and thojr salts. Phosphorus trichloride and pentachloride. 

Arsenic. Arsine. Arseni'* trioxide and Arsenic pentaxide. Their corres- 
ponding acids and salts. Sulphides of arsenic. 

Carbon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide* carbonates. Elementary ideas 
about combustion and structure of flame. 

Silicon, Silica, Silicic acid, silicon flouride, Silicates of K, Na, and Ca. 
Elementary ideas of glass. 

Boron, Boric acid and Borax- 

///. Metals. 

(a) Occurrence, properties and important uses of the following metals 
together with the important methods of extraction of those in italics : 

Sodium. Potassium, Ammonium, copper, silver, calcium, barium, Magne- 
sium, Zinc, Mercury , Aluminium, tin, lead, Chromium, Manganese, and 
Iron. 

() Study of the following metallic compounds, including their methods of 
preparation and important uses together with the important methods of manu- 
facture of Jthose in italics : 

Sodium Hydroxide, peroxide carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, 
thio-sulphate, nitrite, Nitrate and Phosphate. 

Potassium hydroxide, Chloride, Chlorate, Bromide, Iodide, Carbonate 
and Nitrate. 

Ammonium Chloride, Carbonate, Sulphide and sulphate. 
Copper Oxide , Chloride- , sulphate, Nitrate and sulphides. 
Silver Oxide, chloride, bromide, Iodide, Nitrate and sulphate. 

Calcium Oxide, and Hydroxide, plaster of Paris, Calcium carbonate, 
Carbide, Sulphate and Nitrate 

BariumOxide, hydroxide, carbonate, chloride, sulphate and Nitrate. 
Magnesiums-Oxide, Hydroxide, Carbonate, Chloride, Nitrate and sulphate. 
Zinc oxide, hydroxide, chloride, carbonate and sulphate. 
Mercury oxides, chlorides, Nitrates, and Mercuric sulphide. 
- oxide, hydroxide, chloride, tulphate and Alum. 



9YLS. CHEMISTRY] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 71 

Tin oxides, chlorides and sulphide- 

LeadLitharge, Lead peroxide, Red lead, Acetate, Carbonate, Chloride, 
Chromate, Nitrate and sulphate, White lead. 

Chromium Chrome Alum, Potassium chromate and Dichromate, Chromic 
salts, Chromic oxide and anhydride, Equivalent weight of potassium 
Dichromate. 

Manganese Manganese dioxide, Potassium perming anate t and Mangan- 
ous salts, Equivalent weight of potassium permanganate. 

Iron oxide, chlorides, sulphates and Ferrous sulphide. 

IV. Courses of Instruction in Practical Chemistry. 

The practical instruction in Chemistry in the Intermediate courses shall be 
on modern lines such as are indicated in Dr. Alexander Smith's Experimental 
Inorganic Chemistry revised by Kendall. 

V. Tables. 

Tables, such as Clark's Mathematical and Physical Tables (published by 
Oliver and Boys, Edinburgh) are recommended for use by students undergoing 
the Intermediate course of study in Physical Science. 

Syllabus for the Practical examination in Chemistry. 

Cutting and bending of glass tubing, fitting up of simple apparatus, e.g., 
wash bottle, separation of a mixture. Preparation and study of the principal 
properties of hydrogen, oxygen, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur- 
dioxide, nitric acid, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, chlorine, ammonia, carbon 
monoxide, carbon-dioxide. 

Crystallization and preparation of the following salts : Potassium nitrate, 
lead nitrate from litharge, ferrous sulphate from iron, magnesium sulphate from 
magnesium carbonate, ferrous ammonium sulphate, and copper sulphate from 
copper carbonate and oxide. 

Experiments illustrating the laws of definite and multiple proportions. 
Determination of the equivalent weight of metals with reference to oxygen 
and chlorine and by displacement of hydrogen and one metal by another. 
Determination of the solubility of solids and air in water. Estimation of the 
water of crystallization of hydrated salts, Molecular weights of oxygen, carbon- 
dioxide, sulphur dioxide, air and carbon monoxide. 



72 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. TI [CHAP. XXXIX 

Qualitative Analysis (by dry and wet methods) of simple substances con- 
taining not more than one basic and one acidic radical (excluding insoluble 
salts) included in the following list : 

Sodium, potassium, ammonium, barium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, 
manganese, aluminium, iron, lead, tin, mercury, copper, silvei, 
chlorides, bromides, iodides, nitrates, sulphides, sulphites, sulphates 
and carbonates. 

Simple volumetric analysis involving the estimation of the strengths of 
acids and alkalies by titration, estimation of ferrous salt by titration with a 
standard solution of potassium permanganate. Estimation of Iodine with 
standard sodium thio-sulphate. 

Use of the simple balance. 

Part III (4) Botany. 

First Part 

1. Living and non-living things and their main features; protoplasm; 
cell ; cell structure ; cell division ; changes seen in the cell contents and the 
nature of the cell wall ; meristem ; increase in the plant body and division of 
labour; tissues. 

Organic and inorganic substances and their main properties ; plants and 
animals differences and resemblances ; similarity of vital function such as 
feeding, respiration, movement, response to stimuli and reproduction. 

2. Green leaf ; its external and internal structure ; photo-synthesis 
parastic flowering plants, insectivorous plants ; transpiration ; adaptations to 
facilitate and check transpiration ; l<;af form and internal structure as well 
suited to carry on the above two functions. 

Leaf adjustments to light; phototropism ; arrangement of leaf on the 
plant ; struggle for light among plants ; climbing plants and epiphytes. 

General leaf forms ; stipules and their work; modifications of leaves and 
stipules. 

3. Root its external form and internal structure; apex of root; work of 
roots; absorption and fixation ; root cap; root hairs; region of root hairs; 
osmosis ; root pressure. 

Study of the soil ; structure and nature of the soil in relation to water 
contents. 

Branching of roots ; elongation and growth of roots in thickness; different 
kinds of roots ; modifications of roots ; response of rooti to gravity ; light and 
water. 



SYLS. BOTANY] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 73 

4. Stem : Work of the stem ; supporting and conduction ; its internal 
structure ; apex of the stem ; path of the sap current ; intercellular spaces : 
lenticel increase of the stem in thickness; cork formation; hard wood and 
sap wood , modifications of the stem ; response of the stem to gravity and light ; 
stems of water plants. 

Second Part: 

5. Flower Parts of flower ; functions of different parts; pollen grains; 
pollen tube ; ovule; egg cell ; fertilisation; seed formation; parts of a seed; 
germination. Arrangement of the parts of a flower; insect visitors; cross and 
pelf-pollination, wind pollination and inconspicuous flowers; inflorescences. 

Fruits ; kinds of fruits ; seed and fruit dispersal and its advantages ; 

vegetative reproduction. 

A study of the following families; Anonaceae; Malvaceae; Capparideaa ; 
Leguminoseae ; Cuuirbitaceae- Rubiaceae; Compo c itae ; Convolvulaceae ; Solan- 
aceap ; Asclepiadaceae ; Acanthaaceae ; Labiateae ; Euphorbiceae ; Hydro- 
chancleae ; Liliaceae ; Musaceae ; Palmeae. 

6. Euglena structure and locomotion ; all the life functions carried out 
by the single cell 

A brief account of Chalmv domonas, Pandorina, Volvox origin of Soma. 

Life histories of IJlothnx ; origin of sex ; Spirogyra ; Oscillacia ; Sargas- 
sum (only external characteristics) ; Moss ; Fern. 

External Characters of Gymnosperms (Cycas) and Angiosperms* 

7. Bacteria their structure and life history, Fermentation; Enzymes; 
Symbiosis , Patho?enic hartfru ; Fungi ; Parasites ; Saprophytes ; Yeast plant; 
Mucor ; Mushroom. 

Struggle for existence; survival of the fittest ; variety ; species ; heredity 
and evolution. 

8. Plant products starch; oils; sugars; alkaloids; gums; resins; 
caoutchouc ; fibres ; the plants and the parts of the plants producing them. 

Piactical H*otk Students are expected to examine with hand lens the 
exteinal features of all the plants and to be able to refer the plants to their 
families They should be able to prepare free hand sections of the various parts 
of the plant body for microscopical examination and identify the prepared 
sides of the forms mentioned in paras, 6, 7 and 8. Special attention must be 
given to experimental demonstrations of the various physiological functions of 
the plant organs. 

10 



74 THfl ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE- VOL. TT [CHAP. XXXIX 

NOTB. The first paper shall contain questions on Part I of the Syllabus and 
th stcond paper shall contain questions on Part II of the Syllabus. 

Syllabus in Practical Work. 
PART I. 

A. Technical description of flowering plants. 

B. Detailed examination of an epiphyte (Vanda) Parasite (Loranthus or 

Cssytha and Orobanche), Insectivorous plant (Bladderwort), Water 
plant (nymphaea), Xerophile (Opuntia). 

C. Examination of Bean, Curcurhita, pastor, Paddy or Maize, Date, 

Coconut and Rhizophora with a view to study the structure and 
germination. 

D. Examination of fruits and seeds with a view to study the dispersal 

mechanism. 

E. Examination of Type plants belonging to the Families included in the 

course. 

The students will be expected to draw floral diagrams and longitudinal 
actions of flowers examined. 

P\*T II. 
A. Cytology : 

Parts of the cell as seen in onion scale peeling ; stages in mitosis as in 
root tip of onion (slides) , ' teaming movements of protoplasm as seen 
in Ilydrilla leaf and Tradescantia btuminal hairs, organic cell contents 
like starch grains in p tato and Aleuroue grains in wheat, inorganic 
cell contents like raphides in Colocasia and cystoliths in Ficus ; living 
contents like plastids in Ilydrilla (chloroplasts), Thevetia (cbromoplasts) 
and Potato leucoplasts) 

*B. Histology : 

Cutting free hand sections, single staining and mounting of the parts of 
Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous plants for the study of normal 
internal structure (Root, stem and leaf). 



*The following change will come into force as from 1944 examination 1 
(a) Under Part II of the syllabus in Section A. Cytology add the wordi 
" and paddy" after starch grains in Potato and substitute the words 
" and Castor " for the comma after the words " aleurone grains in 
wheat ". 

(.Continued on the bottom of next page) 



8YLS. HOT ANY] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 75 

C. Physiology : 

Study of the main physiological functions in plants by demonstration 
experiments 

1. Osmosis illustrated by Thistle- funnel experiment. 

2. Experiment to demonstrate Root pressure in plants. 

3. Ringing experiment to demon' trate the path of sap current. 

4. Experiment to illustrate Transpiration in plants (Bell-Jar Experiment) 

5. Experiment to illustrate the rate or Transpiration (Ganong's 

potometer). 

6. Experiment to demonstrate evolution of oxygen during carbon 

assimilation. 

7 Experiment to demon Irate the absorption of oxygen and evolution 
of carbon-dioxifle during respiration. 

8. Experiment to illustrate the release of heat (Energy) during respira* 

tion (Oewar's Fla^k Experiment) 

9. Measurement of growth in plants ; simple auxo-meter. 

10 Experiments on Fhototropism an) Geotropism (shoot and root) and 
the use of Klmostat. 

D. Cryptogams and Gymnosperms : 

1. Examination under the microscope of the following forms: 

Bacteria, Oscillaris Euglena, Chlamydomonas, Pandorina, Volvox, 
Spirogyra Ulothnx, Sargassum (only external characters), Yeast, 
Mueor and Agaricus. 

2. Detailed study of vegetative and reproductive structures of Mots, 

Fern and Cycas. 



(Continued ft om the bottom of previous page) 

() In Section B. Htstoloy, add as the first paragraph the following : 
" Examination and identification of the different important tissues like 
Meristematic tissue 
Parenchymatous tissue 
Epidermal tissue 
Cork tissue 
Vascular tissue 
Mechanical tissues in Angiosperm plants" 

keeping the existing paragraph as the second one. 

(t) In Section C. Physiology, substitute the following for the existing 

9th experiment 
" Experiment to show that light is necessary for Photosynthesis." 

(d) Add the following at the end of the syllabus as a foot-note : 
NOTH. Candidates shall submit to the Examiners before the hoar of their 
practical examination their Laboratory Practical records and the records of 
their field observation!. 



76 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. tt [OHAP. XXXIX 

Part III (5) Zoology including Human Physiology 

Zoology. 

The chief characters of living organisms. Protoplasm. Cell. Plants and 
animals; how they agree and how they differ. Meaning: of the terms 
Biology, Morphology and Physiology. The theory of evolution treated 
in an elementary manner. Fossils , their bearing on evolution. 

The structure of the following animals treated in an elementary manner with 
special reference to their physiology. Amoeba, Paramoecium, Hydra, 
Obelia, Tapeworm, Round-worm, Earth-worm, Fresh water mussel, 
Prawn and Scorpion. Outline of their reproduction 

A more detailed study of the external character and of the general arrange- 
ment and relation of the chief internal organs revealed by dissection in 
the Cockroach, Fish (Teleost) Frog, Bird and Rabbit General outline 
of their life history. Life history of the butterfly and mosquito. 

All the types above mentioned to be studied with special reference to their 
environment. 

Candidates will be expected to be able to draw simple diagram, to show the 
arrangement and general features of the chief organs and structures in the 
animals enumerated in the above syllabus 



Human Physiology. 

The human skeleton and its parts. The action of muscles. The arrangement 
of the chief viscera in man The leading farts of human physiology The 
nature of food and the manner in which it is digested and absorbed. Glands. 
The liver, its structure and functions. The nature and functions of blood The 
heart and the circulation. Respiration. Waste products and their removal. 
The temperature of th body and how it is maintained. The chief functions of 
the central nervous system, nerves and sensory organs. 

NOTE. The first paper will include questions on Zoology and the second 
paper on Human Physiology. 



Syllabus in Practical Zoology. 

1. Microscopic examination of Amoeba, Paramcecium, Hydra (Ectoderm, 
Eindoddnn and Nmato'cy'ts), Obelia (Perisare, Ccenosarc and 
members of the colony). 



SYLS. ZOOLOGY & BIOLOGY] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 77 

2. Earth-worm External character?, dissection of the alimentary canal 

up to the level of the 22nd segment, Spermatheca, nerve ring and 
the nerve card. Microscopic examination of the transvei' e ^ection. 

3. Prawn External characters, examination of the appendages 

4. Cockroach External characters. Removal and examination of the 

mouth parts. Dissection of the alimentary canal and of the 
vf ntral nnrve card. 

5. Scorpion External characters. 

6 FrPsh-\\ ater-musbel --External characters of the shell and soft animal 

Pispotion of the Pericardium and its contents Examination of the 
TransVeise Section. 

7 Tel^ost External characters (including gills) Dissection of the 

heart and th'- alimentary ranal. 

Frog External characters including those of the mouth. Dissection of 
the alimentary canal. Dissection of the heart. Systemic arche^. 
The dorsal aorta and its main branches. Examination of skull and 
the limb girdles. 

Human Physiology Examination (by prepared slides) of the chief 
tissues including blood, the parts of the skeleton. Examination of 
the section of the wall of the stomach, intestine, kidneys, skin and 
spinal cord. 

The practical examination will bear upon the above syllabus only. In 
addition, the students mav be encouraged to do such further practi- 
cal work, as will help thorn in their theoretical course. 

Part III- (6) Biology 

Theory. 

1 Biology General : 

The distinctive properties of living and non-living things. Differances 
between animals and plants. The nature and properties of proto- 
plasm. The structure of the cell; cell division; gametogenesis, 
conjugation and fertilization. 

Variation. Evidences for evolution. 



78 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, II [CHAP. XXXIX 

II. Botany- 
Theory : 

(1) Study of the life-histories of the following Chlamydomonas, 

Volvox, Spjrogyra, Moss, Fern Origin of soma and sex. Alter- 
nation of generations 

Life-history and Physiology of Bacteria Saccharomycas and Mucor. 

(2) The external morphology of Angiosperms characteristics of the 

following families : 

Anonacece, Malvaceae, Paptlionaceae, Rubiucese, Compositae, Acantha* 
cess, Labiatse, Euphorbiacese, Amaryllidese, Palmre. 

(3) Internal structure of root, stem and leaf in Dicotyledonous and 

Monocotyledonous plant^ 

The main facts in relation to nutrition, growth and movements in 
plants. 



*The following changes will come into effect as from the examination 
of 1944:- 

(i) BotanyTheory. 

(a) Under section 2, read " Liliacete " for " Amaryllide;e " 
(*) Under section 3, add "respiration" after " nutrition " and " Struc- 
ture and germination of seeds like bean, castor and paddy " after " seed forma- 
tion'* mentioned at the end. 

(11) Botany Practical. 

(a) At the end of the second and third paragraphs in section 1, add the 
word " Slides " within brackets, 

(3) In section 3, add at the end of the word " normal " within brackets. 

(c) In section 4, add the following as a fresh paragraph 

Experiment to demonstrate Osmosis (Thistle funnel experiment). 
Experiment to demonstrate Transpiration (Belr jar experiment). 
Experiment to ihow that light is necessary for Photosynthesis. 
Experiment to demonstrate that Oxygen is evolved during Photosyn- 
thesis. 

Experiment to show that Oxygen is consumed and Carbondioxide is 
evolved during respiration. 

Experiment to show that heat is evolved during respiration. 
(d} Add the following at the end of the syllabus as a foot-note : 

NOTI: Candidates thall submit to the examiners before the hour of the 
practical examination their Laboratory Records and the records of their field 
observations- 



*YLS. BIOLOGY] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 79 

Reproduction, vegetati\e and sexual. Anther and Pollen grain*; 
parts of the mature ovule; pollination, fertilization and seed 
formation. 

Practical : 

(1) Examination under the microscope of Chlamydomonas, Volvox, 

Spirogyra, Bacteria, Saccharomycas, Mucor. 

Sections showing antheridia and archegonia in Moss and Longi- 
tudinal section of Moss capsule. 

Sections of Fern prothallus showing antheridia and archegonia. 
Fern leaf showing sori and sporangia. 

(2) Technical description of Angiosperm plant and identification of 

plants belonging to the families included above. 

(3) Cutting free hand sections of parts of a Dicot or Monocot plant for 

the study of internal structure. 

(4) Sample experiments to demonstrate the main physiological functions 

in plants. 

III. Zoology- 
Theory : 

(1) The structure, life-history and physiology of Amoeba, malarial 

parasite, Euglena, paramoccium, Hydra, Obelia colony, Round- 
worm, Earth-worm, Freshwater mussel, and Cockroach. The life 
history of mosquito. 

(2) The anatomy of a common Teleost, Frog, and Rabbit (muscular 

system and the nerves in th^se three types to be omitted). 

(3) Life histories of the Frog and Rabbit. 

(4) The general characters of the Phyla to which all the above-given 

types belong. 

(5) Comparative study of the axial skeleton, vascular system, the central 

nervous system and urino-genital system of the Teleost, Frog and 
Rabbit (Dog's skull may be substituted for the Rabbit's). 

Practical : 

(1) Examination under the microscope of : 

Amoeba, malarial parasite, Euglena, Paramoecium, Hydra (including 
Transverse Section). 

Obelia colony. Transverse Section of the Hound-worm and of tha 
Earth-worm. 



80 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODHJ VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

(2) Freshwater mussel Examination of the shell and the external 
features of the soft animals. 

Earthworm External features and dissection of the nerve ring, 
anterior part of the ventral nerve cord and spermathecoe. 

Cockroach External characters : mounting of the mouth-parts. 
Dissection of the alimentary canal. 

Teleostean fish External features including the gills Dissection of 
the heart and ventral aorta 

Fiog External characters including those of the mouth. Dissection 
of the heart and the main arteries and of the alimentary canal. 

Rabbit or Dog Examination of the larger bones of the skull and of a 
single dorsal vertebra. 

Part III (7) Geography 

I. THE PHYSICAL BASIS OK GEOGRAPHY : 

(a) The Atmosphere. The local and world distribution of temperature, 
humidity (including precipitation) and pressure ; the circulation of the atmos- 
phere permanent, seasonal and local winds. The collection of climatic data, 
and the preparation of weather charts and climatic maps. Types of climate. 

(#) The Hydrosphtit The form, extent and distribution of the oceans , 
depth, configuration and compo ition of the ocean floors, continental shelf , 
composition of sea-water, distribution of salinity and temperature, movement 
of sea-water waves, tides and currents , coral reefs and islands. 

(c) The Ltthosphae. Land-forms; materials of the earth's crust and 
the forces that shape it; soils; changes in the earth's crust, elevation and 
subsidence ; the agencies and processes of denudation rivers and the develop- 
ment of river-systems, under-ground water ; snow and ice ; lakes. Wind as an 
agent of transport and depositipn, Volcanoes and earth-quakes ; shore-lines; 
rising and sinking coasts ; deltas and estuaries. 

II. GENERAL REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY ON WORLD IHsis : 

Structure and relief climate vegetation a study of the major natural 
regions with reference to prevailing economic conditions distribution of popu- 
lationchief world commodities, vegetable, animal and mineral localisation of 
industry transport routes and trade centres 

III. DETAILED STUDY OF EURASIA AND INDIA.- 

Eurasia. Coast-line structure and relief climate vegetation com- 
munications and population of Eurasia as a whole. The study of the 



SYLS. GEOGRAPHY &C.] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 81 

characteristic geographical features of the following natural regions : tundra, 
forest-lands and steppe lands of Eurasia ; the British Isles, the Central Plains of 
Europe ; the Central Highlands of Europe ; the Mediterranean Region the 
South- western Lands of Asia Mid- Asian deserts the Monsoon Regions. 

Detailed study of India, Burma and Ceylon. 

IV. PRACTICAL WORK 

(#) Shape of the earth determination of position angular measure- 
ment and latitndt parallels and meridian Greenwich time and Indian 
standard time- a study of the Dimple type 1 oJ map projection. 

(3) Study and interpretation of Indian Ordinance Survey maps 
methods of showing relief. 

(c) Principles of field mapping by plane-table, prismatic compass, 
clinometer, the use of a levelling stave, and aneroid barometer in determining 
height. 

(d) Collection and tabulation of data diagrammatic and catographic 
methods of expression. 

Part III (8) Logic. 

Elementary principles of Logic as indicated in Creightoii's Logic Parts I 
and II. 

Part III (9) Indian History. 

The first paper shall deal with Ancient and Mediaeval Iridnu History down 
to 1526 A. D. and the second paper shall deal with Indian History from 
1526 A. D. to the present day. A knowledge of Geography shall be required 
from candidates. 

Part III (10) British History. 

The History of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The first paper shall deal with History down to 1603 A.D. and the second 
paper shall deal with History from 1603 A. D. to the present day. 

A knowledge of Geography shall be required from the candidates. 

Part III-(ll) World History ia outline. 

The first paper shall deal with World History up to 1450; and the second 
paper shall deal with World History from 1450 to the present day. 

11 



82 THE ANDHR\ UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

NOT*. Tt is only the main head"? under which the subject has to be studied 
that are given below. The etact scope of the subject is to be inferred from the 
text-books recommended which is the practice followed in the University in 
respect of History of India, British History and Ancient and Mediaeval History. 

Section 1 The Pro-historic Age and Early Man. The old and the new 
stone Ages The age of MetaK Human migrations. Languages of Man. 
Evolution of writing. Counting and the calendar. 

Section 2 Thp Far East in Ancient times China. Chinese Society and 
culture. India. Indian society and culture. Buddha and Confucius. 

Section 3 The Near East in Ancient time*. Egypt. Egyptian Socioty and 
culture. Babylonia and Assyria Syria. Phoenecia* and Palestine TIktorv 
and culture of the Mede? and the Persians. 

Section 4 Greece. The Aegean age. The Greeks. Their city states. 
Greek expansion. Sparta and Athens. Persian Wars. The rise of the 
Athenian Empire. The age of Pericles. The rise of Macedonia. Alexander 
and his empire. The Hellenistic age. Greek life and thought. 

Section 5 : Rome. Plebeians and Patricians Unification of Italy. Rome 
and Carthage. Roman conquest of the Hellenic East. Economic and social 
changes. Th^ decline of the Republic. Julius Caesar. Transition to Empire. 
Augustus and his successors. The later empire. Government and law. Graeco- 
Roman culture 

Section 6: Transition from classical civilisation. Rise and spread of 
Christianity. Development of the Christian Church. The barbarian invasions. 
The fall of Rome. 

Section 7 : The rise and ipread of the Muhammadan power. Thp Caliphate, 
lilamic culture and civilisation. 

Section 8 : European civilisation in the middle ages Charlemagne. The 
Bytantine Empire The Holy Roman Empire. The power of the mediaeval 
church. Feudalism Thp growth and development of towns. Mediaeval Art, 
Architecture ; Languages and Literatures. Science and Invention. 

Section*} The transition from Mediaeval to modern civilisation in Europe. 
The Crusades. The Mongols and the Turks. Geographical exploration^ The 
classical revival and the invention of printing. 



SYLS. civics &c.] INTERMF;DTATE EXAMINATION 83 

Section 10 : The beginnings of modern times. The break in the church. The 
growth of national states. The rise of autocracy. 



//*ff 11* The grand Monarchy in the 17th and the 18th centuries 
expansion of Europe The colonial trade and empires. The enlightened despots. 

Section 12 : The American and French Revolutions The Era of Napoleon. 

Section 13 : The Industrial Revolution Improvements in Agriculture, 
Manufacturing, Tiansportation and Communications. Modern capitalism. 

Section 14 : Democracy and Nationalism. The unification of Italy and 
Germany. The Balkans The growth of Democracy in England and France. 

Section 15 : Imperialism and Expansion. Russia in Asia. The opening up 
and partition of Africa. The great powers in A<-ia The United States 
and Japan. 

Section 16 : The Great War and After. The causes and results of the War. 
The problem of World peace. The League of Nations. Us achievements and 
failure. Dictatorships. 

Part HI (12) Civics and Indian Administration. 

The first paper shall be set on Civics and the second paper on Indian 
Administration. 

Civict. 
The nature and scope of Civics. 

The individual and society The variety of social institutionsThe family, 
the caste, the class, the religious group, the vocational group, the nation and 
the state. 

The State The citiieii as a member of the state. The citizen's duties and 
rights Law and Liberty. 

Forms of Government Democracy and its character. Its merits and defects. 
Public opinion Parties The electorate. 

Organs of GovernmentThe Legislature The Executive. The Judiciary- 
Civil Service. How the Laws are made. How they are carried out. 

Different levels of Government Central, Provincial and Lc.cal. Federal 
and Unitary types of Government. 



84 THb ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODK VOL. II [CHAP. XXXlX 

y of the modern state protection, Welfare and national develop- 



ment. 

Nationalism Internationalism The ideal of World Peace. 

Indian Administration. 
NOTK. The scope is indicated by the text-book recommended. 

A short historical introduction The mam land-marks. 

The 'Home' Government, (a) The Parliament Its control over India. 
(b) The Secretary of State for India. His relation to the Cabinet and the 
Parliament. His powers and functions, (c} The Secretary of State's advisers. 
(</) The High Commissioner of India. 

The Central Government of to-day, (a) The Central executive. The 
Governor-General. The Executive Council. The relations between the two. 

(b) The Central Legislature. The Legislative Assembly. The Council of Slate. 

(c) The relation between the Executive and the Legislature. 

The Federation of India Unitary and Federal states. Rt asons for in- 
troducing Federation. The Distribution of powers. The position of states and 
the provinces. The Federal executive^ The Governor-General, the Viceroy and 
the Crown's representative The council of ministers. Dyarchy. The Federal 
Legislature. The two chambers. The Federal Court. Federal Finance. The 
Federal Railway Authority. The Reserve Bank. 

The Provincial Governments Provincial Autonomy The Provincial Execu- 
tive The Governor. His powers and functions- The council of ministers 
Collective responsibility The Provincial Legislature Bicamertlism. Con- 
stituencies and Franchise Function* and powers. The relation of the Executive 
to the Legislature. 

Local Self-Government Municipalities and Local Botrdf. 

Judicial Administration Organisation of;Courts The Executive and tfce 
Judiciary. 

Some Departments of Administration Defence, Police, 
Education, Welfare and Economic development 



8YLS. ADVANCED LANGUAGE] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 85 
Part HI (13) An Advanced L&aguage. 

/. Telugu Grammar, Prosody and Poetics as Advanced 
Language : 



2. 



II. 



2. 



3. 



rtdooco. 



6. (i) 



86 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP* XXXIX 

(ii) 



'(0 

(iii) 
(iv) 



, 



III. ^^^ 






6. 



2. etfc<tiat>^cd^ (analysis) : "gt)^n^ (Parsing). 
8. 



SYLS. ADVANCED LANGUAGE] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 87 
5. 



(ij 



(Hi) 



2. 



3. 



IV. 



V 

w 

1. T^ce^rs^ - T 6 "^^ - tfXStoeo '^6^S S 'O store aba. 



88 THE ANDHRA. UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. IT [CHAP. XXXIX 

2. Oriya : 

Syllabuses in Grammar, Poetics and Prosody in Oriya. 

Grammar. Krudanta, Taddhtta, Samasa, Kriyaprakarana, Upasarga, Sandhi , 
Stripratyaya, Avyaya (Reference : Vyakarana Pravesha by Radhanath Roy) 

Protody. Chakrakeli, Asaban, Astadhasukla, Kamodi, Chokhi, Ramakeri, 
Rasakoila, Bangalasri, Shankarabharana, Kali, Kalasa. 

Poetics. Upama, Rupaka, Utpreksa, Atisayokti, Drustanta, Prativastupama, 
Nidarsana, Sainabokd, Kavyahuga, Arthanataranyasa, Srnarana, Svabhavokti, 
Bakrokti, Byajastuh, Shlesha 

2. English : 

The course shall consist of: 

(a) A course in Rhetoric and Prosody. 

(3) A detailed study of set books in prose and poetry. 

Rhetoric and Prosody. A student taking up optional English should 
have a sound knowledge of the principles of Rhetoric and Prosody as a basis for 
further study either in B. A. Group vi optional English or in English 
Honours. 

The scope of the paper may include questions on 
(a) Sentence and paragraph structure. 

() Sentences to correct or criticize with regard to grammar, idiom 
etc. 

(c) Figures of speech to be recognised or illustrated. 

(d) Explanation of metres. 

(e) Scansion of simple passages. 

(/) The principles and forms of style. 

(f) The structure and outlines of essays. 
(h) Exercises in punctuation. 

Thepaptron set book* Prose and Poetry. The portion shall consist of about 
1,600 lines of verse and about 125 pages of prose. The books will b of slightly 
more advanced standard than the book set for detailed study under Part I. The 
prose books will not be earlier than the Age of Johnson. 



SYLS. BCO. GEOGRAPHY &<J.] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 89 

Part III (14) Economic Geography and Economic History 

(Syllabus in force till the end of 1943 Examinations.) 
SKCTION 1 (ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY) 

1. General Geography Detailed study of India under the following 
heads : 

Structure and relief ; climate and rainfall ; irrigation, vegetation, 
population, occupations and industries, communications and trade 
centre, including ports, survey of the chief Provinces and States. 

2 Climate, temperature, pressure of air, the wind system, rainfall and 

distribution, ocean currents, weather reports. 

3 Climatic and vegetation regions of the world ; influence of climate and 

physical features on the economic activities and organisation of simple 
human societies and advanced peoples 

4. Forest resources of the world and of India. Forest industries. 

5. Agriculture : The staple crops of the world and of India in particular. 

Conditions of consumption, production and trade of rice, wheat, 
millets, and oilseeds, sugar, tea, coffee, rubber, cotton, jute and silk. 

(>. Live stock; particularly sheep and cattle wool and dairy produce; 
Other animal products. 

7, Geographical aspects of manufacture. Localisation of industries 

British and Indian examples. The supply of raw materials ; mineral 
resources of the world and of India. Power resources of the world and 
of India coal, oil and hydro-eleclricity. 

8. Study of the following industries with special reference to India : Iron 

and Steel industry, textiles, paper, leather, glass, sugar, oils. 

9 Transport and communications land routes ; roads and railways. 
Waterways ; river and canal transport, ocean transport ; Steamship 
routes. Air Transport and air routes. 

10. Development of trade centres and ports relation to interland and to 
world markets. 

SECTION II (ECONOMIC HISTORY) 
Recent Economic History from the Industrial Revolution to 1914* 

Economie History oj Great Britain. The state of industries on the eve 
of Industrial Revolution ; the meaning ol the term ' Industrial Revolution ; ' 
favouring conditions ; features : inventions ; economic and social effects of 
12 



90 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODK VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

the Revolution. The industrial and ecoiioimc policy during the 19th century ; 
the Agrarian Revolution ; the development of mechanical transport ; its effect ; 
on trade and agriculture, the Corn Law* and their repeal; administration of 
Poor Laws ; Factory Legislation, Co-operative movement ; the origin and 
history of trade unions ; finance and banking ; free trade and protectionist 
reaction ; individualistic movements and collectivism ; their economic achieve- 
ments ; Constructive Imperialism. 

Economic Development of India. Growth of the empire ; system of 
farming revenues ; its evil ellectb ; land revenue settlements ; Zamindari 
Settlement in Bengal and in other tracts administered by the Company ; 
Ryotwari Settlements in Midras and Bombay ; Mahalwari Settlement in 
Northern India ; Land Settlements in the Punjab and in the Central Provinces. 
Tenancy Legislation under the Crown in the various provinces, Permanent 
vert us temporary settlement. 

Decline of handicraft >; rise of Plantations and Factories, Indian duties; 
tariffs and their history from 1858 ; famines and remedial measures adopted ; 
railways and irrigation; finance and economic drain ; the Indian Debt ; Local 
Cesses ; industrial transition and transition in agriculture ; labour and trade 
unions ; factory legislation ; imperial preference ; protection to industries ; 
Growth of towns ; rural reconstruction ; Co-operative movements. 



Part III (14) Economic Geography and Economic History 

(Syllabus in force as from 1944- Examinations) 
SECTION' I (ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY) 

1. General Geography 

Structure and relief , climate ami rainfall , irrigation, Vegetation, popula- 
tion, occupations and industries, ( onnnunications (Examples from Indian 
conditions) 

2. Natural regions of the World 

Influence of climate and physical features on the economic activities and 
organisation of simple human societies and advanced peopl-s. 

3. Forest resources of the World and of India 

4. Agriculture 

The staple crops of the World and of India in particular. Conditions of 
consumption, production and trade of rice, wheat, millets and oilseeds, sugar, 
tea, coffee, rubber, cotton, jute and silk. 



SYLS. ECO. GEOGRAPHY &U.J INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 91 

5. Live stock : 

Particularly sheep and cattle-wool and dairy produce. Other animal 
products. 

6. Geographical aspects of manufacture : 

Localisation of industries-British and Indian examples. The supply of raw 
materials; mineral resources of the World and of India. Power resources of 
the World and ot Indian coal, oil and hydro-electricity 

7. Study of the following industries with special reference to India : 

Iron and steel, textiles and sugar 

8. Tnmspott And communications 

Road, nwr, canal and ocean transport, trade routes, development of trade 
centres and poi ts-relation to inter-l,ind and to norld markets. 

SECTION II (ECONOMIC HISTORY) 
Recent Economic History from the, Industrial Revolution. 

1. Economic History of Gieat Britain The state of industries on the eVe 
of Industrial Revolution; the meaning of the term 'Industrial Revolution; 1 
favouring conditions ; features ; inventions ; economic and so lal effects of the 
Revolution. The industrial and economic policy during the 19th century; the 
Agrarian Revolution ; the development of mechanical transport ; its effect on 
trade an*d agriculture , the Corn Laws and their repeal; administration of Poor 
Laws ; Factory Legislation, Co-operative movement, trade unions ; finance and 
banking, free trade and protectionist reaction ; individualistic movements and 
collectivism ; their economic achievements ; Constructive Imperialism. 

2. Economic Development of India Development of Agriculture, per- 
manent vs, temporary settlements, history of tenancy legislation in the Madras 
Presidency, development of irrigation, famines and remedial measures adopted, 
Co-operative movement 

3. Decline of handicrafts. Rise of Plantations and Factories ; Develop- 
ment of transport, railways, factory legislation, trade unions, imperial prefer- 
ence; protection to industries; Growth nf town,; small scale industries and 
rural reconstruction. 

Part III (15) Economics and Banking 

(Syllabus in force till the end of 1943 Examinations) 

(1) Economics 
Scope of Economics Relation of Economics to other sciences. 

Fundamental concepts Wants economic goods, utility,* ' demand and 
supply 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, II [CHAP, XXXIX 

Consumption Necessaries, comforts and luxuries. Law of diminishing 
utility, consumer's surplus. 

igents of production Land Law of diminishing returns. 

-abour Law of population. Efficiency of labour. 
Capital Its growth and forms. 
Organisation Its place in Indian Economy, the entrepreneur. 

Division of labour Localisation of industries. Large and small scale 
production. Industrial combination. Trade Unions. Constant, 
diminishing and increasing returns. 

Market World market influence of time on value monopoly value 
Rent : interest, wages and profits, 

Money Barter economy value of money. Forms of money. Functions 
of banks. The London money market, the bill of exchange, gold 
points. 

Foreign trade the law of comparative costs, Gains from foreign 
trade Free trade and protection 

Public Finance Principles of taxation, direct and indirect taxes, 
incidence of taxation, public debts. Government and industry. 



(2) Banking 

Gtntral Printiples. Definition of Banking. The functions and 
Economic significance of banks. Growth of the cheque system and 
the Deposit banks The sources of a banker's profit. Banking 
Investments. Regulation of Note issue. Reterveg and Discount 
Crites and seasonal Trade Depressions. 



Tkt structure of the English Banking System. -The Bank of England 
and its relation to Government, the banking world and the General 
Public. The Bank Act of 1844. The clearing House. Recent 
developments 

History and Organisation of Banking in India. The Imperial Bank of 
India ; its constitutions and its relation to the Government and the 
other banks. Indian Joint Stock Banks, Exchange Banks, and 
Indigenous Bank*, and the part played by them in the Indian Money 
Market. The clearing system. The Reserve Bank. 



SYLS. ECO. & BANKING] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 93 

Currency. Functions oi good money. Various forms of money. Metallic 
currencies and coinage Methods of economising Metallic currency 
and the service of Bunks in this respect. The Gold standard, 
the Gold Exchange standard and the Gold Bullion standard. Token 
money, Legal Tender, Currency Deterioration its causes, measures 
and remedies Gresham's Law Purchasing Power ot money and 
variations therein. Paper Money. The proportion between the 
Note circulation and reserve in England and India. The Gold 
standard Reserve and the Paper Currency Reserve in India 

Outlines of Foreign E vchange. General Principles. Indian Exchanges. 
Functions of Council Bills *ud Reierve Councils. 



Part III (15) Economics and Banking 

(Syllabus tn force as jrom 1944 Examinations) 

(/) Economics. 
(Principles to be illustrated from Indian conditions). 

1. Definition and scope of Economics. Relation of economics to other 
sciences. 

2. Fundamental concepts Wants, utility, demand, supply, wealth and 
income. 

3. Consumption Necessaries, comforts and luxuries Law of diminishing 
utility, consumer's surplus. 

4. Production. (a) Land. 

(b) Labour Demand for and supply oi labour, efficiency 

of labour. 

(c) Capital : Forms and growth of capital 

(d) Organisation Division of labour-localisation of 

industries large and small scale production. Growth 
of Joint Stock Companies Constant, diminishing 
and increasing returns. 

5. Exchange-. (a) Fundamental concepts of value, market, money and 

banking. 

(b) International trade -advantage! free trade and 
protection " 

6. Distribution : Income from property. Income fro* labour- 



94 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [C&AP. XXXIX 

7. Public income *nd expenditw e Growth of public expenditure in 
modern times, Sources of public income. Direct and indirect taxation. Public 
loans. 

(*) Banking. 

Money Functions of money. Various forms of money. Metallic currency 
and coinage. Bank money. Standard money and token money Gresham's Law 
Monetary standards. 

Banking 

(a) General Ptinciples . Definition of Banking. Functions and economic 
significance of banks. Growth of Cheque system and the Deposit Banks. 
Sources of banker's profit Banking investments. Regulation of note issiio 
Banking ciises. 

(b) English Banking System . Bank of England and its relation to 
Government, the banking world and the General Public. The Bank Act of 1844, 
The clearing House, Recent developments 

(c) Banking in fndia -Reserve Bank of India; its Constitution and 
functions, its relation to the Government and other banks Imperial Bank of 
India, Indian Joint Stock Banks, Exchange Banks, Indigenous Banks, Indian 
Money Market, Recent developments in Indian Banking 



Part HI (16) Accountancy and General Commercial Knowledge 

SECTION I. Accountancy 

(1) Book-keeping; its principles and practices by * mean of double 

entry. The uses of subsidiary book*. Accounts of trading and 
non-trading concerns. Preparation of Final Accounts (viz,, Trading 
and profit and Loss accounts) and the compilation of Balance 
Sheet of sole traders, Partnerships and Joint Stock Companies. 

(2) Depreciation, Reserves. Reserve Fund. Sinking Funds. 

(3) Capital and Revenue, Receipts and Payments and Income and 

Expenditure accounts. 

(4) Accounts Current and Average Due Date. 

Forjhe revised syllabus to come into effect from 1944 examinations 
it the end. 



8YLS. AGRICULTURE] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 95 

(5) Treatment of Accounts in respect of Bills of Exchange, Consign- 

ments and Joint Adventures. 

(6) Single Entry. Book-keeping, its defects and conversion to Double 

Entry. 

(7) Partnership Accounts including question of goodwill and 

dissolution. 



SECTION II. General Commercial Knowledge 

(1) Joint stock company accounts. Share capital and share records. 

Issue of shares. Allotments. Calls. Statutory Books and 
Returns. Debentures Premium and Discount on Shares and 
Debentures. Purchase of business, Conversion of Partnership 
into a Limited Company Goodwill. Reduction of Capital. 
Elements of Reconstruction; amalgamation and absorption. 

(2) Industry an$ Trade. Divisions of Industry into Extracting, 

Manufacturing, etc. Home Trade wholesale and retail, Depart- 
mental and Multiple shop, Mail order b usiness and co-operative 
stores. Foreign Trade Importing and Exporting, Customs and 
Excise, Insurance, Documents used and methods of payment for 
goods. Advertising. 

(3) Outlines of Money, Exchange and Banking. (Fundamental notions 

only.) 

(4) Carriage and Affreightment. Common carriers, Railway Com- 

panies and Shipping Companies. Warehousing. 

(5) Organised Markets. Business intermediaries. Produce Markets. 

Spot Transactions and Futures. Hedging operations, Stock 
Exchange, its organization and influence. 



Part 111 (17) Agriculture. 

Theoretical : (2 hours a week for 2 years, each year consisting of 32 working 
weeks total 128 hours). 

Weather \ Climate, seasons, monsoons and rainfall, as affecting the growth 
of crop. 

Soils : Origin and formation. Weathering agencies. Soil and sub-soil, 
Pifferent kinds of soils in the Madras Presidency, alluvial, black cotton, red, 



9G THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL. II [CHAP, XXXIX 

la*eritft and sandy soils. The proximate constituents of soils and their eftect on 
the condition of soils and crop growth. The chemical composition of soils. 
Elements in which soils are usually deficient and their replenishment. Biologi- 
cal changes in soils. Nitrification and denitrification. Root nodules. Soil 
fertility, its maintenance and improvement. 

Land Measurement : Measurement of land. Laying out of fields. Cal- 
culation of areas. 

Tillage and Tillage Implements Necessity for and effects of tillage. Tilth. 
Tillage operations in wet and dry lands. Ploughs and ploughing. Wooden and 
iron ploughs. The parts ol a plough and general adjustments. Harrows, 
Guntakas Cultivator-,, Roller^ Tools employed in tillage operations. 

Seeds and Solving Preparation of land for sowing. Deep and shallow 
sowing. Broadcasting and drilling. Implements used. Preparation of seed for 
sowing. Quantity and quality of seed. Selection of seed. Germination of seed. 
Seed beds Nurseries. Transplanting 

Plant Life Plant nutrition as illustrated by the growth of farm crops. 
Functions oi roots, stem-, loaves, flowers and seeds. Reproduction irom seed 
and by vegetative growth. Weeds and their distribution inland. Eradication of 
weeds. Interculturing. Implements and tools used. 

Irrigation Necessity for water. Sources of water-supply. Laying out 
irrigation channels in the field. Methods of lifting water. 

Manures and Manuring : Necessity for Manures. General principles govern- 
ing the application of manures. Classification of manures. Farm manures, 
their collection and preservation Synthetic Farm Yard Manure Green 
manuring, oil-cakes, bone-meal, fish-manure Ammonium Sulphate, Sjdium 
Nitrate, Ammophos and superphosphate. 

Harvesting Harvesting, threshing, cleaning and measuring or weighing 
of produce. Storage of produce. 

Crops and Cropping : Crops and Cropping. Rotation > and mixed cropping. 
Fodder and Green manure crops. The Chief Cereal pulse and industrial crops of 
the Ciicars. *Paddy, Ragi, Cumbu, Cholanv Groundnut,, Green and Black Gram, 
Gingelly, Tobacco, and Sugarcane. 



* Deccan Cholam, korra, cumbu, ragi, paddy, cotton, groundnut, Bengal 
gram, red gram. 

Carnatic : Paddy, cuoibu, cholam, lagi, tenai, groundunt, green gram, red 
gram, and gingelly. 

(Continued on the bottom of next page) 



SYLS. AGRICULTURE"] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION . 97 

A practical working knowledge of the local rrops is required, deduced as far 
as possible, from tho students having taken part in all field operations including 
the preparation of the land, sowing and planting, manuring, irrigation, weeding, 
harvesting, threshing and preparation for the market. 

Damage caused by the following crop pests Control measures 
Insect Pests Paddy caterpillar (Spodoptera mauritia) ; Rice hispa (Hispa 
aenesceus) ; Paddy stem-borer (Schocnobious intertellus), Grass hopper 
(Hieroglyphus banian and oryziverous) ; the Pink Ball worm (platyedragossy- 
piella) ; the Spotted Boll worm (eanas insulana E Fabia) ; Mango hopper 
(Idiocerus) ; Rhinocvrus beetle (Oryctes) ; Mealy- wing bug* (Aleurodes). 

Fungoid Pests Paddy ' Blast ' Tiricular oryzae. Paddy (Ilelmin thos- 
porium spp ) Groundnut 'Wilt' (rhizoctonia batatirola). Cholum 'Smut' 
Sugarcane ' Red rot ' (Collectotrichum falcatum). 

Farm Animals and Feeding : Care and management of cattle. Breeds 
of cattle, Breeding:. Points of good animal. Common ailments and First- 
Aid treatment. Cattle foods, roughages and concentrates. Rations for 
growing animals. Working cattle and milching cows. Milk and its general 
properties. > 

Practical work in Agriculture. 

1. Recording the local rainfall and its effect on crops and Cropping 

2. Calculating the area of a given field by chain survey. 

3. Laying out plots of given area. 

4. Ploughing with country and improved plough^ to ^tudy the difference 

in structure and function of their parts. 

5. Assembling the parts of an improved plough. A study of their adjust- 

ment for width and depth of furrows. 

6. Ploughing under water (puddling) to study its effect on tilth. 

7. Other uses of the country plough ; to cover seeds and manures and to 

conserve moisture. 

8. Use of the Gorru (the Madras Seed-drill). 

9. The planet junior hoe for the inter cultivation of sugarcane. 

(Continued from the bottom of previous page) 

Central : Paddy, cholam, ragi, groundnut, red gram, sugarcane and gingelly. 

South: Paddy, ragi,- groundnut, red gram, cotton, tugarcane, tobacco and 
gingelly. 

West Coast : Paddy, cocoanuts, pepper, plantains, arecanut*, ragi, gingelly 
and groundnut 

13 



3 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

10. Harrows and their use ; the triangular harrow and the blade harrow. 

11. Use of agricultural tools ; the spade, the crowbar, the pick axe, the 

hand hoe and the tickle. 

12. A study of the qualities of good seed ; the seed rate crops ; the depth 

of sowing. 

13. Making germination test to find the percentage of germination of seeds. 

14. Methods of sowing seeds : 

(a) Broadcasting. 
(t) Dibbling. 

15. Sowing seeds with a drill (Madras seed-drill). 

16. Preparation of nurseries, such as those of paddy, ragi and tobacco. 

17. Lifting ragi seedlings and transplanting them in plough furrows. 

18. Transplanting paddy and tobacco. 

19. Planting surgarcane. A study of the vegetative method of propagation. 

20. Selecting sugarcane seed material free from Red rot, and picking 

Jonna seed for protection against smut. 

21. A study of the parts of a plant and their functions. 

22. A detailed study of the flower. 

23. A study of the' important local dry land and Wet land Weeds and their 

identification. 

24. Constructing beds and channels, ridges and furrows for irrigation. 

25. Checking evaporation of water from the surface of the soil by hoeing 

and mulching. 

26. Working a picotah. 

27. Working a single mhote. 

28. Preparing farm yard manure by different systems ; the heap, the pit, 

the loose box and urine dry earth. Its storage. 

29. Preparing the synthetic farm yard manure. 

30. Making compost : the ryots method and the indore method. 

31. Green manures and green leaf manures ; their incorporation into the 

soil. 

32. A study of the cakes and other concentrated manures ; their identifica- 

tion. 

33. Application of manures ; the farm-yard manure, bone and bone 

products and the fish manure. 

34. Application of concentrated manures. Mixing manures. A study 

of the principles governing the mixing of manures, 
35* Trenching. Wrapping and propping sugarcane. 



BYLS. AGRICULTURE] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 99 

36. Harvesting sugarcane and preparing jaggery. 

37. Harvesting crops. 

38. Threshing by different methods. 

39. Curing tobacco. 

40. Different methods of storing produce. 

41. Methods of seed selection, from the field and from the bulk. 

42. A study of the external characters of the important groups of insects. 

Their identification. 

43. Preparing the Bordeaux mixture, the crude-oil emulsion and ths 

tobacco decoction. 

44. Working the sprayer ; Dusting and fumigation 

45. Mecha'nical methods of control such as hand-picking, netting and using 

light traps. 
46 Selection of a cow for milk and a pair of bullocks for work. 

47. Feeding cattle with bulky and concentrated foods. Working out the 

cost of maintaining a milch cow and a pair of working^cattle. 

48. Making ensilage. 

49. A study of the important breeds of cattle the Ongoleb, the Alambadis, 

the Kangayams and the Scindhis. 

50. A study of the general properties of milk and common methods of its 

adulteration. 

Notes of Instructions. 

1. The subject should be treated from a practical point of view. 
Applied sciences will be taught to a minimum extent: just enough to 
elucidate the general principles of agricultural practice. 

2. (a) The subjects -should be taught with special reference to Rural 

Economics and Marketing. 

(a) The lectures on Elements of Practical Horticulture should l>e 
arranged. 

3. Local crops should be grown on tjie farm in preference to others 
supplemented when possible by those specified in the syllabus Which are 
not cultivated in the immediate vicinity. 

4. Sufficient area of land should be attached to a college for 
ploughing and other field operations by students, and this farm should 

b wall-equipped with the necessary implements, tools and other 
and rattle. 



100 THE ANDHRA UNIVBBSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

5. Students should be taken on short excursions to typical tracts with 
a view to enable them to have a wider outlook than they learn in a 
small farm. 

Part III (18) Electrical Engineering. 

Section f. Mechanical Engineering, 

1. Geometry (under Mathematics Experimental Geometry}. Add 
tangents, inscribe and describe figures. Areas of plane figures, plane 
curves such as parabola, ellipse and hyperbola, methods of drawing and chief 
properties, cycloidal, spiral and other common curves and loci. 

2. Solid Geometry. Lines, points and planes. Projection of simple 
solid*, Regular solids. Sections of solids. Isometric projection. 

3 Graphics. Problems relating to the reduction of a system of 
forces in two dimensions. Arithmetic. Plotting of the curves from given 
data. 

4. Machine Drawing. Ability to copy accurately to scale and supply 
additional views. The preparation of drawings of simple machines from 
dimensioned sketches, models or actual parts of machines. 

5. Strength of Materials. Mechanical properties of Engineering 
materials. Stress and strain. Modulus of elasticity. Elastic limit. Ulti- 
mate strength. Factor of safety and working strength. Statics and application 
to structures. Co-planar forces. Application by graphical methods to simple 
frames within joint such as cranes, etc. Elementary study of beams 
Bending moment and shearing force. Sections in iron, steel and wood 
Struts and columns. Formula of Gordon and Euler. Simple sheer and 
torsion. Strength of shafts. Principle of work. Potential and Kinetic 
energy. Centrifugal force. 

6. Materials. Characteristics of cast iron, wrought iron and steel. 
Ordinary forms of wrought iron and steel. Working strength of these 
materials in compression, tension and shear. Characteristics of copper, brass, 
gun metal and aluminium. 

7. Shafting and Bearings,-FQYm* of shaft and shaft couplings, friction 
and dog clutches, universal joints, arrangements of simple pedestals and 
footstep bearings. Materials for belts. Forms of ordinary spur and bevel 
wheels and their velocity ratios. 

^Section It. Electrical Engineering. 

'8. General Principles. Electric magnetic C. G. S. Syitem of units; 
Principles of Electro-magnets induction : practical iystem of electric unit* ; 
Electro-magnets ; Magnetic force and magnetic induction; Hysteresis loop; 



SYLS. MECH. ENGG.] INTEKMEDIATE EXAMINATION 101 

Eddy currents ; Production of alternating currents. Commutation. 
Alternating E. M. F. and current RMS values; Frequency; Power; 
Factor; Polyphase currents: Capacity, Inductance and Impedance. Star and 
mesh connections. 

9. Measurements. Ammeter, Voltmeter, Megger, Watt-meter, Watt-hour 
rneter, Power factor meter, Frequency meter 

10. Generators. Continuous current generator (Shunt series, Compound). 
Alternators their characteristics and methods of testing their efficiency 
and voltage regulation. Transformers and their uses. 

11* Motors. Continuous current motors, shunt series and compound, their 
characteristics and uses. Alternating current motors, inductions motors, 
synchronous motors ; methods of starting and their application 

12. flatteries, Construction and management of secondary batteries, their 
practical applications. 

13. Transmission Methods of transmitting electrical energy, calculation 
of conductor, size and transmission losses 

14. Distribution Methods oi distributing electric power in streets, 
overhead and underground mains 

15. Illumination Candle power, Photometers, use of shades. 

Part III (19) Mechanical Engineering 

Geometry (under Mathematics Expeiimental Geometry} Add tangents, 
inscribe arid describe figures, area., figures, plane curves such as parabola, 
ellipse and hyperbola methods of drawing and chief properties; cycloidal, 
spiral and other common curves and loci 

Solid Geometry. Lines, points and planes Projection of simple solids. 
Regular solids. Sections of solids. Isometric projection. 

Graphics, Problems relating to the reduction of a system of forces in 
two dimensions. Arithmetic Plotting of the curves from given data. 

Machine Drawing. Ability to copy accurately to scale and supply 
additional views. The preparation of drawings of simple machines from 
dimensioned sketches models or actual parts of machines. 

Strength of materials. Mechanical propertie> of Engineering materials. 
Stress and strain. Modulus of elasticity Elastic limits. Ultimate strength- 
Factor of safety and working strength. Statics and application to structures. 
Co-planar forces. Application by graphical methods to simple frames with pin 
joint such as curves, etc. Elementary study of beam. Pending moment and 
shearing force. Sections in iron, steel and vrood. Struts and columns. 



102 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX 

Formula of Gordon and Eulcr. Simple shear and torsion. Strength of shafts. 
Principle of work. Potential and Kinetic energy. Centrifugal force. 

Heat Engines. Properties of steam, sensible and latent heats. Dry 
saturated and superheated steam. Boiling point of liquids. Relation between 
temperature and pressure of steam. Laws of perfect" gases. Curves of volumes 
and pressures. Theoretical diagram of work and estimates of mean pressure. 
Work done in the conversion of water into steam. Work done in cylinder. 
Efficiency. 

Steam Engines. History and early types. Modern type of land, marine 
and locomotive engines. High speed engines. Uniflow engines and steam 
turbines, description and working, essential differences and scope of usefulness. 
General design as affected by conditions of working. 

Internal Combustion Engines. Early history and development. Later 
types. Modern, high duty, high efficiency engines. Carnot's cycle, fire 
engine cycle. Modern engine cycles and their applications. Types of engines 
as affected by requirements of power and the nature of available fuel as petrol, 
kerosine oil, crude oil and gas (suction and pressure) 

General construction of the above types of engines Characteristic properties 
of coal, lignite, peat, crude oil, light oils, petrol, benzole and tar oils, 
alcohol and vegetable refuse (Bagasse and Paddy husk), Producer gas 
Suction gas plants. 

Boilers. Description and working of Cornish, vertical Lancashire 
Locomotive. Water tube and Marine Boilers. Feed heaters, Rconomisers, 
superheaters and other accessories and mountings. 

Machine construction and design The production of sketches, working 
drawings, tracings and finished drawing of more complex parts of machines, 
the dimensions being taken from actual machines or models The details will 
be chosen from the following: Engines, gearing, valves, hand and machine 
tools, workshop fittings and appliances, boilers and riveted joints, screws, belts 
and nuts, flanges, cottered joints, plumber blocks and brasses and stuffing boxes. 

Materials. Characteristics of cast iron, wrought iron and steel. Ordinary 
forms of wrought iron and steel. Working strength of these materials in 
compression, tension and shear. Characteristics of copper, brass, gun metal and 
aluminium. 

Connections :~Forms and properties of rivets and arrangements of rivets 
in lap and butt joints, single and double riveted. Pitch of rivets. Treatment of 
three or four overlapping plants. Junction of plates by angle and T-irons. 
Forms and proportions of bolts and nuts. Flange joints : different forms of 
threads ; lock nuti -, key and rotter fastenings. 



SYLS. SURVEYING] INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION 103 

Shafting and bearings Forms of shafts and shaft couplings friction 
and dog clutches, universal joints, arrangement of simple pedestals and 
footstep bearings; methods of lubricating bearings. 

Belt and toothed gearing Forms of belt pulleys Velocity ratio of 
a pair of pulleys. Stepped speed cones. Tension of bolts, joint of belting. 
Materials for belts. Forms of ordinary spur and bevel wheels and their 
velocity ratios. 

Engine details \ Usual forms of cranks and levers. Methods of fixing 
crank pins. Forms of excentrics. Ordinary arrangements of connecting 
rods, cross heads and coupling rods. Forms of cylinders, flanges and 
covers, simple forms of pistons and methods of packing, attachment of 
piston rods. Simple forms of stuffing box and gland. Construction of simple 
slide valve. 

Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering : The instruction in 
these subjects should include considerable practical work in workshop and 
laboratories supplemented by visits to various Engineering works. The 
range covered by each of these subjects is necessarily very wide and the 
knowledge expected in many portions of the syllabus can only be general and 
descriptive. It may be necessary to allot extra hours for practical work as 
for example Saturday mornings. For satisfactory instruction, equipment 
by way of workshop and laboratories are required. 

Part III (20) Surveying. 

Chain : Prismatic Compass and Plane Table : Running a chain lines ; 
measuring offsets; use of the cross staff; optical square, survey of area ; 
With chain only ; Well conditioned triangles, check or tie lines ; testing the 
chain ; mode i< of passing obstacles ; chaining across a river or other obstacle ; 
survey of areas with prismatic rompas^ ; keeping the field book; plotting 
surveys made With chain and compass ; survey of areas with plane tables ; 
inaccessible points ; filling in a survey ; finding one's place in a survey. 

Setting out : Ranging straight lines by eye. Laying out curves by chords 
and offsets. 

Level: Permanent and temporary adjustments: levelling field book ; two 
methods of reducing the field book ; levelling ; contouring ; cross sections ; 
correction for curvature of the earth and refraction ; check levels ; bench 
marks ; use of Abneys level ; clinomet r and Ghaut tracer ; setting out 
gradient for railways, canals and sewers. 

Theodolite Use and adjustments of theodolite ; traversing ; Gale's 
system ; setting out straight line and curves. 

Drawing and mensuration: Use of Drawing instruments, construction 
of scales ; conventional signs ; estimation of acres ; use of pUnimeter and 



104 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODB VOL. II [CHAP. XXXIX & XL 

peatagraph ; plotting lines of levels and taking out quantities of earth-Work; 
copying plans to different scales by squares ; representation of ground by 
contours ; section on contoured plans ; location of roads and railways on 
contoured plans showing cuttings and embankments; estimation of areas and 
volumes ; reduction and plotting of a theodolite traverse. 

Part III (21) Drawing 

Syllabus not yet framed. 

Part III -(22) Music 

There shall be one paper of three hours' duration on Theory of Music and 
one practical test, each carrying 50 marks. In the practical test candidates 
will be expected to sing or play on one of the following instruments: Veena, 
Violin and Flute. 

Theory: 

1. Fundamental terms ; musical sounds and intervals ; laws of vibration 
of strings and air columns ; harmonics and upper partial tones ; pitch, intensity 
and timbre ; sthayi, sruti, svarasthana and svara , consonant and dissonant 
intervals ; vadi, samvadi, anuvadi, and vivadi. 

2. Definition and lakshanas ofraga; raga classification; the scheme of 
72 melas, lakshanas and sancharas of ragas specified under practical. 

3. Tala system ; tala dasa pranas. 

4. Knowledge of the different types of musical composition including 
Gita, Varna, Pada and Ragamahka. 

5 Carnatic notation 

6. History of Music with special reference to the life and Work of the 
following scholars and composers Govinda Dikshita, Veokatamakhi, Tulajaji 
and Govm'lacharya, Jayadeva, Tirtha Narayana, Purandaradas, Bhadrachalam 
Ramadas, Kshetragna, Tyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshita, Syama Sastri, Subba- 
raya Sastri, Gopalaknshna Bharati, Vina Kuppier, Patnam Subramanya 
Ayyar. 

7. Description and use of the chief musical instruments of South India. 

Practical : 

Knowledge and practice of the following 20 ragas with ability to render 
at least one classical composition in each : 

Todi, Dhanyasi, Mayamalavagaula, *>averi, Vasanta, Bhairavi, Mukhari, 
Anandabhairavi, Sri, Kambhoji, Madhyamavati, Mohana, Surati, Sahana, 
Sankarabharana, Bilahari, Arabhi, Begada, Pantuvarali and Kalyani. 

Candidates will be expected to render briefly the alapana of the above 
ragas. 



SEC. L 2] B. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 105 

CHAPTER XL 
B. A. PASS DEGREE EXAMINATION 

(Regulations) 

1. Candidates for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) shall Conditions 
i . n of Admis- 
be required sion 

(i) to have passod the Intermediate Examination in Arts and 
Science of this University or the Intermediate Examination of any 
other Statutory Indian University accepted by the Syndicate as 
equivalent thereto ;* 

(ii) to have undergone subsequently a farther course of study 
in an affiliated college aa prescribed hereunder, extending over a 
period of two years, each consisting of three terms consecutive ; and 

(lii) to have passed the Examination for the Degree herein- 
after prescribed. 

2. The course for the B.A. Degree shall comprise the following Cour^ of 
subjects of study : Stud y 

Part I English Language and Literature. 

Part II A Second Language. One of the following langu- 
ages at the option of the candidate : 
(a) Classical Sanskrit, Latin, Arabic, Persian, Pali. 

*A*0/* The following examinations have been recognised by -the Academic 
Council, 111 accordance with Section 33 (1) of the Act as equivalent -to the Inter- 
mediate Examinations of the Andhra. University : 

(1) Intermediate Examination f all other Statutory Indian Universities. 

(2) Intermediate Examination of the Travancore University. 

(3) Intermediate Examination of the Osmania University, Hyderabad subject 

to the candidate seeking admission obtains 50% of the marks in 
English in the Osmania University. 

(4) Intermediate Examination of Board of High School and Intermediate 

Education, Rajaputana (including Ajmer-Mrrwara) Central India and 
Gwahor. 

(5) Intermediate Examination in Commerce of Board of High School and 

Intermediate Education, Rajaputana (including Ajmer-Merwara) 
Central India and Gwahor. (Subject to the conditions imposed on 
candidates taking commercial subjects in Inter. Exam* of the Andhra 
University). 

(6) Intermediate Examination conducted by the Board of High School an4 

Intermediate Education (United Provinces) Allahabad. 

i* 



106 



THE ANDHRA UNIVBBSITY CODE VOL. IT [CHAP. XL 



Eligibility 
for the 
Degree 



Option to 
appear at 
whole exa- 
mination or 
parts 



(b) Modern European French, German. 

(c) Modern Indian Telugu, Kannada, Tamil, Oriya, Hindi, 

Urdu. 

Part III One of the following groups : 
(i) Mathematics. 

(ii-A) Physics Main with Chemistry or Mathematics as 
subsidiary. 

(ii-B) Chemistry Main with Physics as subsidiary. 

(iii-A) Philosophy. 

(iii-B) Philosophy. 

(iv) History and Economics (History main). 

(v) History and Economics (Economics main). 

(vi) One of the languages included in Parts I and II above 

(vii) Music. 

3. No candidate shall be eligible for the Degree of Bachelor of 
Arts until he has passed an examination in English Language and 
Literature and in a Second language, and in one of the Optional 
groups prescribed. 

4. A candidate for the H. A. Degree Examination may at his 
option present himself for the whole or for a Part at any one time. 

5. Candidates shall be examined in 

Part I English Language and Literature 

There shall be four papers in English, each of three hours' 
duration. 



Subject! for e course sna ^ ' )e ( a ) Composition on matter supplied by books 

composition set for perusal, (b) the study in detail of certain prescribed books 
and of the History of English Literature so far arf it is represented 



of papers 



by these books. 

The books set under (a) shall consist of two books and may 
include works of fiction, literary criticism, biography, history, 
science, philosophy or sociology. 



BO. 3-5] B.A. (PASS) DEURKK EXAMINATION 107 

Books set under (b) ^ shall be arranged in the following 
lasses : 

(1) Two plays of Shakespeare. 

(2) Modern Poetry : about 2,000 lines. 

(3) Modern Prose : Four set books, the total number of 

pa^es generally not exceeding 500. 

The paper on the books under (a) which shall be of three 
lours' duration shall consist exclusively of subjects for short essays, 
md of these the paper shall contain a larger number than the 
iandklate ia required to attempt. 

Under (b) the papers on Shakespeare, Modern Poetry and 
3 nxse shall each be of three hours 1 duration. No question shall be 
et on the General History of the Drama or on General English 
literature in the papers on Shakespeare, Modern Poetry and Prose. 

Part II A Second Lrtngimtjr. 

There shall be two papers of three hours' duration each, 
(t) Classical Sanskrit, Latin, Arabic, Persian and Pali. 

The course shall comprise (a) a detailed study of prescribed 
ext-books on prose, poetry and drama and applied grammar and 
)oetics ; and (b) translation of seen and unseen passages from and 
nto English. 

The first paper shall be upon (a) and the second upon (b). 

(it) Modern European French, Gorman : The course shall 
joinprise (a) a detailed study of the prescribed text-book* on Prose, 
Poetry and Drama and applied Grammar and Poetics, and 
[b) Translation of unseen passages from and into English and a 
short original composition, the subject for which shall be usually 
based on the text-books. 

The first paper shall be upon (a) and the second paper upon (b). 

(m) Modern Indian Telugn, Kantiada, Tamil, Oriya, 
Hindi and Urdu. 

The main object of the course shall be the training of th 
Bttldent to employ the language ae a vehicle of expression of 
modem thought. 



( THK ANDHEA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

The course shall comprise (a) a detailed study of prescribed 
text-books on prose, poetry and drama and applied grammar and 
poetics ; and (b) original composition, composition on text-books in 
prose set for non-detailed study and translation from English only. 

The first paper shall be upon (a) and the second upon (b). 

Part III One of tlie groups mentioned under Part III in 
section 2 above at the option of the candidate. 

Group (i) Mathematics 

There shall be six papers set in this group four of which viz. 
on (1) Algebra and Trigonometry, (2) Astronomy or Statistics, 
(3) Pure and Analytical Geometry, (4) Calculus, shall l>e each of 
three hours' duration, and two of which viz. (1) Dynamics and 
(2) Hydrostatics and Properties of Matter, shall be each of two 
hours' duration. 

There shall be no practical examination in Hydrostatics and 
Properties of Matter for Group (i) candidates. 

Group (ii-A) Physics (Main) 

The course shall comprise the study of 

(1) Dynamica and Hydrostatics, (2) Properties of Matter 
and Heat, (3) Light and Sound and (4) Electricity and Magnetism. 
There shall be four papers m theory, each of two hours' duration 
on each of the above four subjects. 

There shall also be a practical examination of three hours' 
duration. 

Chemistry (Subsidiary) 

There shall be one paper iu theory and one paper hi practical 
each of three hours' duration. The course and examination shall 
be the same as that for B.Sc. Chemistry subsidiary. 

Mathematics (Subsidiary) 

There shall be two papers, each of three hours' duration, one 
mi Algebra* Trigonometry and Analytical Geometry and the other 
on Calculus and Differential Equations. The syllabus and exami- 
nation shall be the same as that for B.Sc. Mathematics subsidiary . 



SEC. T> CONTD.] II. \, (PASS) DkimEH UXAMIN.YTION 109 

Group (ii-B) Chemistry (Main) 

The course shall comprise the study of 

(1) Inorganic Chemistry, (2) Physical Chemistry and 
(3) Organic Chemistry. There shall he three papers in theory, each 
of three hours' duration, one on each of the three subjects. 

There shall also be a practical examination of six hours* 
duration. 

Physics (Subsidiary) 

There shall be one paper in theory and one paper in practical, 
each of three hours' duration. The course and examination shall 
be the same as that for the 13. So. Physics Subsidiary. 

Group (iii-A) Philosophy 

The course shall comprise the study of- 

(I) Psychology, (2) Ethics, (.T) Logic and Theory of 
Knowledge, (4) A philosophical work bearing upon a school or 
period of Indian Philosophy, and (5) A Philosophical work bearing 
upon a school or period of European Philosophy, 

Text-books or syllabuses will be recommended from time to 
time as indicating th scope and standard of the examination in 
subjects (1 ), (2) and (3) above. 

There shall be one pap^r of three hours oaoh in Logic and 
Ethics, two papers of two hours each in Psychology and one paper 
of two and a half hours each, in European Philosophy and Indian 
Philosophy. 

Group (iii-B) Philosophy 

The course shall comprise the study of 

(I) Psychology, (2) Ethics, (3) Any one of the fallowing 
subjects at the option of the candidate : 

(a) Indian Philosophy, (b) European Philosophy, 
(c) Experimental Psychology and (d) Educational 
Psychology. 

(4) & (5) Any two of the following aubjoctg : 
(a) Economics, (b) Politics, (c) Sociology. 



110 THE ANDriRA UNIVERSITY CODK VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

Syllabuses mid text-books shall be the same as those prescribed 
in the corresponding subjects under Groups (iii-A), (iv) and (v). 
The scope and standard of examination in Experimental Psycho- 
logy and Educational Psychology shall be indicated by the text- 
bdoks recommended from year to year. 

There shall be two papers, each of two hours' duration on 

(1) General Psychology, one paper of three hours' duration on 

(2) Ethica, one paper of two hours and a half duration on the 
optional subject under (3) above, one paper of three hours' duration 
on (4) Economics and a two hours and a half paper on (5) Political 
Science or Sociology. 

Group (iv) History and Economics (History Main) 

The course shall comprise the study of 

(1) One of the following special periods of Indian History :-- 

(a) Early India to the death of Harsha. 

(b) Mediaeval India from the death of Harsha to 1556. 

(c) Moghul and Mahratta India from 155(5 to 1761. 

(d) India under the East India Company to 1858. 

(e) Modern India from 1858 to the present day. 

M?te. The students shall U-ive An acquaintance, with tjie Constitutional 
History of th* prescribed special period, but shall not be required to mak^ a 
detailed itudy of the subject 

(2) Constitutional History of India during the British period. 

(3) Modern History according to a syllabus. 

(4) Economics General. 

(5) Politics, 

There shall be set one paper of three hours' duration on each 
of the subjects mentioned above. 

Group (v) History and Economics (Economics Main) 

The course nhall comprise the study of 

(1) Economics General. 

(2) Economics Special L 

(3) Economics Special II. 

(4) Modern History according to a syllabus. 

(5) Sociology or Politics. 



SBC. 5 CONTD.] B.A. (PASS) DEGREE EX \MINATTON 



111 



There shall be set one paper of three hours' duration on each 
of the subjects mentioned above. 

Group (vi) One ol the Languages included in 
Parts 1 and II above 

One of the following languages, which shall be taken in 
conjunction with the related subject or related language, if any, 
specified for each language in the following lints : 



Selected Language 

Sanskrit, 

Pali. 

Persian or Vrabic. 

Urdu. 

Telugu, Tamil or Kaunada. 

Oriya. 

Hindi, 



Selected Language (Main) 

Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian. 

Telugu, Tamil or Kannada. 

Oriya. 

Hindi or Pali. 

Urdu. 

English. 



Related Subject 

Early Indian History. 
Karl} History of India. 
Early Muslim History. 
Indian History Prescribed 

Period. 

Early South Indian History. 
Early History of Orissa. 
Mediaeval History of Northern 

India. 

Related Language (Subsidiary) 
None. 
Sanskrit. 
Sanskrit. 
Sanskrit. 

Arabic or Persian. 
None 



The courses of study in the several languages shall be as 
follows : 

(1) Sanskrit 

(A) Sanskrit (Main) 
Sanskrit Language and Literature. The course shall be : 

(a) Selections from the early period, including Vedic 
Mantras, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads and the Sutra 
Literature, 



112 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, II [CHAP. XL 

(A) Selections in prose and verse from the Later Period 
including the Dharmasastras and the Ithihasas, Kavya and Nataka 
literature. 

A knowledge of Alankarasastra will be required sufficient 
for the correct understanding of learned and recognised commen- 
tators. 

(c) Sanskrit Grammar treated historically and comparatively 
in accordance with a syllabus. 

(d) Translation from and into Sanskrit. 
(f") General History of Sanskrit Literature. 
(/) Early Indian Hintory. 

In the examination there shall be two papers, each of three 
hours' duration in subject (7/) and one paper of three hours' 
duration in each of the other subjects except Translation which will 
form part of the papers sot on () and (b] above. 

(B) Sanskrit (Subsidiary) 

The course shall consist of the study of one drama of tho 
classical period and portion of one, Kavya. In the Examination 
there shall be one paper of three hours' duration which shall 
include pieces for tmnfllalion from Sanskrit into the main 
language. 

(2) Pali 

The courne shall comprise the study of 

(1) Certain prescribed text-books in poetry and prose. 

(2) I'ali urammar treated comparatively in relation to Sans- 
krit and the middle and modern Indian languages. 

(3) History of the literature of the language. 

(4) Translation from English into the selected language and 
vw versa. 

(5) Early -History of India or Sanskrit, 



SEC. 5 CONTD.] 11. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION ' 113 

There shall be two papers on the prescribed text-books under 
1 and one paper in each of the other subjects, all of three hours' 
duration. 

(5) (a) Arabic or Persian (Main) 

The (.'uurse shall comprise the study of 

() Prose books selected from different periods. 
(/>) Poetry books selected from different periods. 

(c;) Translation from prose books other than set books ; 
translation from the set poetry books and from English into Arabic 
or Persian Prose. 

(d) Grammar including Rhetoric and Prosody. 

(e) History of Language and Literature with special refer- 
ence to the set books. 

(/) A selected period of early Muslim History. 

The periods of History for Persian or Arabic may be one or 
other of the following : 

(1) The four first Khalifas and [I may y ad Khuhfate excluding 
Africa and Spain. 

(2) The Abbasid Khalifate, excluding Africa and Spain and 
the Wars of Crusades. 

(3) The Muslim Conquest of Egypt and Northern Africa 
until the fall of the Abbasid Khalifate and excluding the wars 
of the Crusades. 

(I) The Arab conquest of and rule in Spain. 
(5) The wars of the Crusades. 

There shall be one paper of three hours' duration in each of the 
subjects mentioned above. 

<b) Arabic or Paraian (Subsidiary) 

The corn-do shall consist of the study of selected pieces from one 
poet of the classical period and selected portions from the works of 



1U T\IS ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. it [CHAP. XL 

one standard prose writer. There shall be one paper in the exami- 
nation of three hours' duration which shall include pieces for 
translation from Arabic or Persian into the main language. 

(4) Urdu 
The course shall consist of 

(a) Prose books from different periods including at least 
one modern work. 

(b) Poetry books from different periods, including at least 
one modern work. 

(c) Translation hum prose and poetry books other than 
the set books : translation from English into Urdu to be made in an 
approved modern style. 

(d) Grammar including Rhetoric and Prosody. 

(e) History of Language and History of Literature. 

(f) Indian History (1) Any one of the following periods 
to be prescribed from year to year : 

(i) 1347-1707 Decejin Kingdoms. 

(ii) 1708-1857 From Aurangazeb to the Indian 
Mutiny. 

(iii) 1858-1920 

or (2) Arabic. 
or (3) Persian. 

There shall be one paper of three hours' duration in each of 
the subjects mentioned above. 

(5) Telugu, Tamil or Kannada 

The course shall comprise the study of 

(a) Selections representative of the several periods of the 
literature of the selected language including one or more inscrip- 
tions. 



SBC. .*) CONTD.] B. A. (PASS) DBOttBB EXAMINATION 115 

In the case of Telugu the scope of the prescribed books shall 
be as follows : 

(1) Poetry : About 1,000 stanzas 400 from the Puranic 

Period, 400 from the Prabandhas and 200 from 
Modern Poetry. 

(2) Prose : General Prose works including works 

bearing on Literary Criticism and the History of 
Language and Literature. 

(3) Drama : Two dramas one of which should be a 

translation from Sanskrit. 

(4) Ancient Inscriptions. 

(b) Outlines of the Histoiy of Language and Literature 
according to prescribed syllabus. 

(c) Grammar, prosody and poetics according to prescribed 
syllabus. 

(d) The elements of the Comparatne Grammar of the 
Dravidian Languages 

(e) Composition. 

(f) Early South Indian History or Sanskrit. 

There shall be feix papers, the first paper shall be on the set 
books (Poetry and Drama) and Prosody and Poetics, the second on 
the set books (Prose and Inscriptions) and Grammar, the third on 
the outlines of History of Language and Literature and the 
remaining three papers, one on each of the subjects (d), (e) and 
(/) supra. 

(6) Oriya. 

The course shall be the same as for the Dravidian Languages 
with the substitution of Gaudian Grammar for Dravidian Grammar 
and of the Early History of Orissa for Early South Indian History. 

(7) Hindi. 

The course shall consist of 

(1) The study of certain prescribed text-books in poetry 
and prose. 



116 THE ANDfeKA UNIVERSITY CODE- VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

(2) Elements of the comparative grammar of the Gaudian 
languages. 

(3) History of literature with special reference to the set 
books. 

(4) Com position. 

(5) Medieval History of Northern India or Sanskrit. 

There shall be two papers on the prescribed text-books under 
(1) and one paper in each of the other subjects, all of three hours' 
duration. 

(8) English 

There shall be six papers each of three hours' duration i 

(1) Drama : Two English plays and one classical or Indian 
translated into English. 

(2) English Poetry : 16th century onwards* Het books, 
C. 2,000 lines. 

(3) English Prose ; U5th century onwards. Set books, Tour 
books. 

(4) History of English Literature from Chaucer, and analysis 
of literary forms. 

(5) History of English Language, and either (a) Select 
passages from Sweet's Primer of Anglo-Saxon or (b) A set book 
from Chaucer, 

Note : More than a third ot' the paper shall be on the History 
of the Language* 

(6) General lifcsay. 

Notes : (i) The questions on subjects 1 4 will be on thd 
contents and criticism of only the books prescribed. 

(ii) Set Books shall be current for three years 
approximately one-third to be fresh each year. 



SBC. 6") B. i, (tASS) DEOKEE EXAMINATION 117 

Group (vii) Mu*ic 

There shall be two papers each of 3 hours' duration on the 
Theory and the History of Music in the written examination and 
three tests in the practical examination as follows : 

Written : 

(1) Theory and History of Music I paper. 

(2) Theory and History of Music II paper. 

Practical : 

(1) Rendering of Compositions (2) Alapana of Ragas and 
(3) Rendering of Svaras. 

6. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the examina- Marks 
tion in English if he obtains not less than 3," per cent of the 
total number of marks. A candidate shall bt> declared to have 
passed the examination in second language if he obtains not less 
than 35 per cent of the total number of marks. A candidate shall 
be declared to have passed in an optional subject if he obtains 
not less than 35 per cent of the total marks and not less than 
30 per cent in each division of the examination as prescribed 
hereunder. 

Provided that a candidate offering Economics and Political Divisions 
Science or Sociology under Group (iii-B), shall obtain a special 
minimum of 30 per cent of the total marks of the two papers on the 
two subjects taken together. The division shall be as follows : 

Group (i) (a) Pure Mathematics, (b) Applied Mathe- 
matics. 

Group (ii-A) *> (a) Written examination of the Main subject, 
and (ii-B) I (b) Practical examination of the Main 

subject, and (c) Subsidiary subjects 
(written and practical taken together). 

Group (iii-A) All subjects to be treated as one division. 

Group (iii-B) All subjects to be treated as one division 

subject to the proviso under para 1 above, 



118 



THK ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. U 



[OHAP. 



Classifi- 
cation of 
successful 
candidates 



Group (iv) (a) Indian, Constitutional and Modern Histories, 
(h) Economies and Politics. 

Group (v) (a) Economics, (b) History and Sociology or 
Politics. 

Group (vi) (i) Languages other than English. 

(a) Selected J .anguage ; 

(I)) Related Subject or Language. 
Group (vi) (ii) English. 

(a) Drama, Poetry and Prose, (/>) History 
of English Literature and Analysis 
of Literary Forms, History of 
English Language and Essay. 

Group mi) MIIRC (a) Written Examination, (ft) Practical 

Tests. 

All other candidates ^hall be deemed to ha\e failed in the 
examination. 

There shall be separate pass and failure lists for the English 
language part, for the second language part, and for each of the 
optional groups. Successful candidates obtaining not less than 
<i() per cent of the total marks in English or in a second language 
or in the optional group shall be placed in the first class and ranked 
in the order Of proficiency as determined by the total marks obtained 
by each in the part concerned. Successful candidates obtaining 
less than GO per cent and not lees than 50 per cent shall be 
placed in the second class and ranked in the order of proficiency as 
determined by the total marks obtained by each. Successful can- 
didates obtaining less than 50 per cent shall be placed in the third 
class. 

Transitory Regulations. 

7. For the benefit of candidates who have failed in the B.A. 
Degree examination of 1931 or earlier, the B.A. Degree examination 
under the Old Regulations (i.e., in force up to and inclusive of the 
examination of 1931) will be held in the months of April and 



SBC. 79] B. A. (PASS) DEGEEE EXAMINATION 119 

September 1932 under Old time-tables. Candidates for the B.A. 
Degree examination who completed their courses of study and earned 
the prescribed certificates of attendance and progress for two years 
under the Old Regulations shall be permitted tn appear for the B.A. 
Degree examination of 1932 under the same Regulations. Candi- 
dates who have been exempted from the production of attendance 
certificates may, at their option, appear for the examination of 1932 
under the Old Regulations. The text-books and syllabuses will be 
the same as those prescribed for the examination of 1931. 

8. No examination for the H A. Degree under the Old 
Regulations (i.r., in force up to and inclusive of the B.A. Degree 
examination of 1932) shall he held as from the B. V. Degree exami- 
nation of 1933. 

9. Candidates for the B.A. Degree examination who completed 
their courses of study for that examination under the Old Regulations 
shall be permitted to complete the B.A. Degree examination under 
the New Regulations subject to the following conditions : 

(1) A candidate who has passed Part [ of the examination 

under the Old Regulations shall be deemed to have 
passed in Parts 1 and IT under the New Regulations. 

(2) A candidate who has passed Part II under the Old 

Regulations shall be deemed to have passed in Part III 
of the examination under the New Regulations. 

(3) A candidate who has failed to pass in Part I of the 

examination under the Old Regulations shall be exempt- 
ed from the examination in a language under Part 11 
of the examination under the New Regulations, but 
shall be required to take five papers in English, com- 
prising the four papers under the New Regulations 
and one additional paper in the 17th and 18th Century 
Prose to be set on the text-books prescribed for the 
examination of 1931. This Regulation shall be in force 
till the September examination of 1935. Thereafter 
candidates will have to appear for the examination 
under the Regulations then in force. 



120 THE ANDHRV UNIVfiitSITY OODK VOL. II [CHAP, XL 

(4:) A candidate who fails to pass in Part II of the exami- 
nation under the Old Regulations in a Group other 
than Uroup ii Physical Science or Group iii Natural 
Science, shall be required to take the papers set for 
the corresponding group under the New Regulations. 



On or after 1st .Tune 1931, candidates for the B.A. 
examination, who had completed the first year's course of study in a 
non- science or Mathematics group prescribed for the examination 
under the Regulations in force prior to the academic year 1930 31 
and hud earned the certificates of attendance and progress proscribed 
for that year but are unable to complete the course under those 
regulations, will bo permitted to complete the second year course of 
study by attending classes under the New Regulations and to appear 
for the examinations under the New Regulations. They shall be 
exempted from the production of the attendance certificates required 
for the first year of the course. 

SYLLABUSES 
Group (i) Mathematic* 

In addition to the ^ubjects prescribed under (a) Mathematics and (6) Physics 
for tli** Intermediate Examination, the cours^ will comprise Algebra, Plane 
Trigonometry, Elements of the Calculus, Dynamics, Hydrostatics, Astronomy 
arid Properties of Matter. 

PURE MATHEM \TICS. 

Algebra. Inequalities, Limit^, Elementary theorems in convergence and 
di\ergence of series I lie binomial theorem for a rational index. Exponential 
and Logarithmic series. Partial fractions, elementary methods for the 
summation of series. The elementary properties of continued fractions 
Intermediate equation of th>^ first degree. 

Klementary properties of Determinants. Typiaal Graphs. 
y = ax.", y = a/x, y = ax + b-i-c/x, yax-f-b-f cjx* 



Graphical solution of cubic and biquadratic equations. 

General properties of the equation of the tith degree and its root-, and 
co-efficients. Th<> derived functions. Sjmply transformations of equations. 
Reciprocal equation-. Approximate solution of numerical equations. 



SYLS. OR. (i) MATH.] B. A. (PASS) DT3GREB EXAMINATION 121 

Trigonometfy. Fuller treatment of the Intermediate course. Quadri- 
laterals inscribed in and circumscribed about circles. Regular polygons. Limits 
of sin x\x and tan x\x as x tends to zero. Inverse Trigonometrical Functions. 
Complex numbers and their geometrical representation. DeMoivre's theorem. 
Series of Cos x t Sin x t Tan x in terms of x (without proof). Hyperbolic 
Functions. Summation of elementary trigonometrical series. 

Pure Geometry, Inversion, Orthogonal Projection. Solid Geometry 

(Standard as in Hall and Steevens Geometry Part VI.) 

Questions in Geometry may be allowed to be answered by methods either 
of pure Geometry or analytical Geometry. 

ijeomettital Conies. 

Such leading properties of conic sections as axe specially suitable for 
treatment by elementary Geometry. 

Focus Directrix, definition of the conic, shape, axes of symmetry, centre, 
foci, the ellipse as orthogonal projection of a circle 

Geometrical treatment of the following propositions and their immediate 
application 

(i) If a chord PQ of a conic, whose focus is S, meets the corres- 
ponding directrix, in R, SR is a bisector of PSQ. 

(\i) The tangents from any point to a conic "uhtend equal or supple- 
mentary angles at a footis 

(in) The serm-latus rectum is a harmonic mean between the segments 
of a focal chord. 

tiv) The locus of midpoints of parallel chords of a conic is a diameter. 

(v) The sub-tangent of parabola is bisected at the vertex and the 
subnormal is constant. 

(vi) The foot of the perpendicular from the focus on any tangent 
of a parabola lies on the tangent A\ the vertex. 

(vii) The focal-chord of a parabola parallel to the tangent at P is 4 SP. 

(viii) PV a 4 SK. KV where PV is an ordinal* 1 to the diameter of .1 
parabola through K. 

(ix) The sum or difference of the focus distances of any point on a 
central conic is constant. 

16 



122 , THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

(x) The tangent and the normal at P, bisectors of SPP. 1 in the case 
of a central come and of SP and the parallel to the axis 
through P in tue CA e of a parabola. 

(xi) Thf fe^t of th* perp MI hjnla'-s from the foci on any tangent lie 
on the auxiliary Lircit; and the rectangle under these perpendi- 
culars i- constant 

(xii) The sum of the squares of conjugate diameters of an ellipse is 
constant 

(xiii) The locus of meets of perpendicular tangents to conic is a circle 
which reduces to a straight line when the conic is a parabola. 

(xiv) Every plane section of a right circular cone or cylinder is a conic. 

Analytical Geometry. Fuller treatment of the straight line and circle 
referred to rectangular axes The parabola, ellipse and hyperbola referred to 
their principal axes, and the rectangular hyperbola referred to its asymptote*-. 
Tracing of conies from the general equation ol the second degree. The polar 
equations of the straight line, circle and the conic. Simple problems on 
the above. 

Calculus, Standard forms and fundamental processes of differentiation and 
intergration Simple applications of the derivative to geometry, algebra, 
mechanics and physics. Maxima and minima values of a function of one 
variable. Theorem of mean value (graphical proof). Taylor's and Maclaurin's 
Theorems (without proof) Approximations and small errors. Curve tracing. 
Curvature. Cartesian formula for the radius of curvature Integration by 
substitution Integration by parts. Integration regarded as summation, with 
simple applications to areas, volumes and surfaces and to mechanics. Differential 
equations of the first order and first degree Linear differential equations of 
the <econd order with constant co-efficients. 

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 

Dynamics. Resolution and composition of displacements, velocities and 
accelerations. Curves of speed and velocity diagrams. Motion of a particle 
in one plane under constant accelerations Simple harmonic motion; 
composition of simple harmonic motions. Angular velocity and angular 
acceleration : moment of velocity. 

Absolute units of force Resolution and composition of forces. Angular 
nvm p ntum: moments of inertia in Dimple ea es , tti** p^nlulurn, determination 
of ft Work, energy, conservation of diagrams. Impact : the ballistic pendulum ; 
Dimensions of dynamical units. Condi-ions of equilibrium of a body acted 
on by forces in one plane. Moments and couples. Centre of mass. Th theory 
of simple machines. Laws of friction. Graphical methods of simple 
applications. 



SYLS. GR* (i) MATH*] B. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 123 

Hydrostatics ', Thrust of fluid on plane and curved surfaces. Centre of 
pressure in simple cases. Floating bodies and conditions of stability. Properties 
of gases ; determination of height^ by barometer. Pumps ; pressure gauges and 
hydrostatic machines. Capillary phenomena and their explanation by surface 
tension ; general theory of surface tension. 

Astronomy. The apparent motion of the heavens. Circumpolar sUuri. 
The principal constellations and the most conspicuous stars. 

The celestial sphere Points and lines on it- Horizon, zenith, pole, 
meridian etc., equinoxial points etc. 

Celestial co-ordinates; right ascension; declination etc., Latitude and 
Longitude. 

The transit circle, the equatorial, the clock. The transit theodolite. The 
sextant and chronometer. 

Phenomena depending on change of latitude and longitude of the observer. 
Magnitude of the earth. 

The apparent annual motion of the Sun. The constellations ot the zodiac* 
The ecliptic and its obliquity. The equinoxes and the solstices. The earth's 
motion round the Sun. The seasons. 

Sidereal time, apparent soUr time, mean solar time. Equation of time* 
Standard time (India) Civil and astronomical reckoning Conversion of time. 

Explanations of astronomical refraction and parallax. Twilight, 

Determination by observation of clock ; error and rate of Right ascension 
and declination of a heavenly body and of the latitude and longitude of a 
station. 

The solar system and the motion of the planets. Kepler's law. Comets 
aud meteors. 

The motion of the moon and her phases. The plane of her orbit The nodes 
and their motion. The moon's sidereal and synodic periods. Her diameter 
and distance. 

Distances and magnitudes of the sun, moon and planets. 

Causes of the eclipses of the sun and th moon. Ecliptic limits. Number 
of Eclipses in a year The Calmdar. The use of the Nautical Almanac. 



124 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, II [CHAP. XL 

Formulae for the solution of right angled spherical triangles. Ele- 
mentary problems on diurnal motion involving the use of right angled 
spherical triangles. Determination of the first point of Aries and the 
obliquity of the ecliptic. Precession, Nutation, Aberation. 



STATISTICS. 

1. Scope and mtaning of Statistics 

Collection of Statistics, taking the census as an example 

2. Statistics of variables 

(<0 Necessity for classifying the data collected, choice of class interval, 
Frequency distribution, Frequency polygon, Histogram, Frequency 
curve. 

(6) The mean, mode, median, quartiles and percentiles 

(t) Mean deviation, standard deviation and quartilo deviation, 
measures of skewness based on these. 

(d) Two variables, lines of regression and co-emcient of correlation 

3 Elementary Theory of Sampling' 

Binomial distribution, normal curve developed from symmetric bino- 
mial distribution, meaning and significance of the probable error, use of the 
formula for the P. E. of the mean. 

4. Graphical and numerical work 

Th ^tudent is axpected to be familiar with the following : 

(1) Calculation of averages, deviations and correlation co-fncient 
(using multiplication etc. tablet). 

(2) Drawing histograms and skecthing frequency curves by free-hand 
drawing. 

(3) Fitting of easy parabolic curves by the method of least squares. 
(4-) Fitting of the normal curve by the method of areas. 

(6) The ogi\e and its use in the determination of the mode, median, etc. 

(6) Logarithmic graphic representation (using semi-logarithmic paper), 

(7) Index numbers. 

Standard as in Oavett Fifst course in Statistical Method. 



SYL8. GR. (i) MATH.] D. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 125 

The following books are recommended for reference 

U. Vale Introduction to the Theory of StatisticsChapters I, VI, 
VII, VIII, Xliand XV. 

D. C. Jones A First Course in StatisticsChapters I to XIV 

Properties oj Matter. Elasticity. Hooke's Law. Compressibility o/ gases 
(at high and low pressure) and liquids Compressibility and rigidity of solids ; 
the elastic limits. Strains due to Minple longitudinal pull; Young's modulus 
and its expression in terms of k and n. Bending in one plane of ba^ of 
Dimple cross sectional area; Sexual rigidity; application to girders. Simple 
twisting of wirrs of circular cross sectional area b\ couple in plane at right 
angles to length , torMonal rigidity , applications to torsion balance and shafts. 

Diffusion of liquids and gases ; analogy with conduction of heat 
Osmose, viscosity. Pressure of a gas and its explanation on the kmrtic 
theory; Avogadro's hypothesis; Van der Waal's equation 

PRACTICAL PHYSICS *OR GROUP (i) 

There -hall be no Practical Examination in Physic^ for Group (i) 
Mathematics 

The following scheme is intended to indicate the nature and extent of 
the course of instruction in Practical Physics for candidates in Group (/) 
B. L Degree 

(1) Application of the method of least squares to the treatment of a 
series of observations : probable error 

(2) Observation of -lamped oscillations logarithmic decrement 

(3) Composition of Dimple harmonic motions of different phases, 
amplitudes or periods, in the same or different directions. 

(4) Calibration of a glass tube. 

(5) Comparison of aneroid and standard barometers under different 
conditions of temperature and pressure 

(6) Surface tension. ' 

(7) Viscosity of a liquid by flow ; n a narrow tube. 

(8) Strees- strain curves : Young's modulus elastic limit. 

(9) Determination of moments of inertia. 

(10) Determination of g : compound pendulum. 

(11) The balance Zero of unloaded balances- curves of sensitiveness; 
ratio of arm* . calibration of a set of w eights 



126 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAt>. XL 

Group (ii-A) Physic* (Main). 
Properties of Matter. 

Balance. Circular motion Centrifugal aud centripetal forces their 
practical application Centrifugal machines. 

The compound pendulum; determination of 'g* Elastic oscillations of 
springs and determination of ' g ' 

Gravitation and gravit) Gravitation cc nstant, mass and density of the 
earth. Experiments of Cavendish and Boys and determination of ' G '. Method-; 
of comparing ' g ' at various places 

Mean, solar and -iderial time Sundial, rlorks, watcher 

Hooke's law, stress and 4rain Modulus of elasticity Strains due to simple 
longitudinal pull Elastic limits. Poisson's ratio. Compressibility and rigidity 
of solids. Young 1 ^ modulus and its determination Expression for Young's 
modulus in terms of 'n' and 'k'. Simple twisting of wires of circular section 
by a couple at right angles t<> its length Torsional rigidity and iu determina- 
tion. Torsion balance. Unifoijn and nun -uniform bending of rods of circular 
and rectangular section Cantilever- Relation between the bending moment 
at a point and curvature Determination of ' Y ' ' I ' form girders 

Compressibility and elasticity of gases. Boyle's law and deviations from it. 
Van der Waals' equation. Browman motion. Elements of kinetic theory as 
applied to gases. Explanation of pre^ure, viscosity, cltusion, transpiration 
and diffusion. Molecular speed and absolute temperature of gates. Atmospheric 
pressure variation with altitude Isobars. 



Fluid Thrust Thrust of fluid on plane and curved surfaces, 

Centre of pressure in simple cases (i) rectangular lamina with one side in 
the surface, (ii) triangular lamina with one side in the surface, (iii) triangular 
lamina with vertex in the surface and the base horizontal , alteration in the 
centre of pressure as the body is lowered in the fluid. 

Floating bodies and the conditions of stability. The common hydrometer 
and its graduation. 

Barometers mercury and aneroid. Determination of heights by barometer. 
M eta-Centre and its practical determination. 

Hydrostatic machines ; Pumps water pump, air pump, mercury pump, 
rotary pump and diffusion pump. Mcleod gauge. 



BYLS. QR. (ii-A) PHYSICft] B. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 127 

Capillary phenomena; Surface tension of liquids and surface energy, 
Determination of surface tension by capillary rise. Tornon balance , drop 
method Variation of surface tension with temperature. Vapour pressure 
over curved surfaces and formation of liquid drops. 

Compressibility of liquids Regnault's experiment Diffusion of liquids 
and gases analogy with conductivity , Fu*k's law 

Osmosis and laws of v osmotic pressure, vapour pressure, Boiling and 
freezing points of solutions 

Viscosity Coefficient of viscosity of a liquid bv capillary flow. Comparison 
of viscosities. Effect of temperature on viscosity 

Heat 

Thermometry : Liquid-m-glass, resistance, thermo-electric, vapour- 
pressure ami gas, thermometers Pyrometry and lo\v-temperatur^ thermornetry. 

Expansion Solids, application to temperature compensation. Liquids, 
apparent and absolute. Gases. 

Calorimetry : Spscinc heats of solids, liquids and gases. Ratio of the 
specific heats of a gas and its determination. Latent heats and Latent Heat 
calorimetry. Total heat of steam. 

Vapour pressure Static and dynamic methods. Vapour pressure of water 
and high and low temperatures. Effect of pressure on boiling and freezing 
points. 

Isothermals Critical temperature. Andrew*, and Amagat's experiments. 

Change of state . Equilibrium between different states. Triple Point 

Van. cler Waals' equation. Critical constants. Law of corresponding states. 

Internal work in expanding gases ; Joule's experiments, porous-plug experi- 
ment. Tuule-Thomson effect. Liquefaction of gases. 

Adiabatic transformation. Equation for the adiabatic of a perfect gas. 

Conduction and diffusion of heat in sohds. Searle's and Foibe's methods. 
Lees' method for bad conductors. 

Convection. 

Radiation : Newton's and Stefan's laws of cooling and their experimental 
verification Theory of exchanges. Emissive and absorptive powers. Kirch- 
choff's law. Measurement of radiation. 

Laws of thermodynamics. Work done in isothermal and adiabatic expan- 
sions. Indicator diagram. 

Carnot's theorem. Reversible cycle. Cycle of a refrigerating machine. 



128 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODS VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

Steam engines and internal combustion engines. 

^ Applications of second law. Thermodynamic scale of temperature and 
ideal pas scalo. 

Ltght. 

Reflection und refraction Optical lever and sextant. Total internal reflec- 
tion. Spherical mirrors, Thin lonses ; combination of two thin lenses, Liquid 
lens ; loss of power 

Prisms Minimum deviation and 1-D curves 

Dispersion and dispersive power ; irrationality of dispersion. 

Chromatic aberration : achromatic combination of prisms and lenses in 
contact. Direct-Msion spectroscope and constant deviation spectroscope. 

Eye-pieces- Kam&den's and Iluyghens' Telescopes. Compound microscope. 
Epidiascope Intermittent illumination 

Photometry Lummer- Brodhun Photometer. 

Velocity oflight Reiner's FiZ^au's and Fmicault's methods. 

Wave theory Iluyghens' principle, Rectilinear propagation of light, 
zone plate. 

Explanation of reflection, refrat tion and total internal reflection. 
Action of mirror^, lenses and prisms reviewed from wave theory. 
Interference: Simple interj etern'o phenomena Young' experiment. 
Fresnel's bi-prism and bi-mirror Rayleigh's interferometer. 
Colours of thin films. Newton's rings. 

Diffraction Straight edge, narrow wire and narrow rectangular slit. Plane 
transmission gratings. 

Re oh ing power of a telescope. 

Spectrum analysis Emission and absorption spectra. Ultra Violet and 
infra r-d spectra. 

Doppler's principle and its application 

Double refraction through calcite Construction of wave- surfaces. 

Production and detection of plane, circularly and elhptically polarised light. 
Quarter-wave plate, half-wave plate. 

Rotation of plane of polarisation Fresncl's explanation- 
Polarimeterg, 



tfYLS, CJR. (ii-A) PHYSIC'S] B. A, (PARS) DEURHH BXAMI*. 1#9 

Interference of polarised light ; rings* an-l brushes in uniaxial crystal*. 
Scattering of light ; him of the sky. 

Afafttttiftn. 
Inverse-square law, Gauss's proof. 

Magnetic potential , Equi-potential surfaces ; potential at any point due to a 
short magnet ; couple acting on a short magnet due to another magnet. 

Mutual force between two small magnets with their axes in a straight linn 
and their axes mutually perpendicular, one bisecting the other. 

Magnetic she]], potential due to a shell and its potential energy in a 
magnetic field. 

Total normal induction u.nd Gauss's theorem. 

Molecular theory ol magnetism Elements ol Para, dia and Ferro-magnetism. 

The magnetic field of the narth. Terrestrial magnetic elements their 

\ ariation and rneasurement. Magnetic charts 

Dip circle. Manners' compass and its use.s. 
Intensitv of magnetisation and magnetic induction. 

Magnetic susceptibility and permeability ; their measurements. B-H and 
T.H Curves : Magnetometer method. 

Electrostatics. 

Inverse-square l.tw , Gauss 1 *, theorem. 
Electrostatic potential and capacity 

Electric field du* to a charged sphere, charged mlinitp- cylinder and con- 
ducting plj,rif. Cavendish's proof of inverse square lavr 

Coloumb's law. Mechanical force on charged conductors 

Lines and tubes of force. Spherical and parallel plate condensers and their 
capacity. Dielectric constant. The attracted disc and quadrant electrometers. 

Measurement ol capacity and dielectric constant 
Energy of charged conductors and condensers 

Wimshurst machine. Distribution of charge and action of points Lighting 
conductor 

Currtnt Electricity. 

Magnetic field due to a circular current and a solenoid. The Hclmlioltl' 
galvanometer. Kirchhoflf's laws : application to the WheaUtoneV network. 
Callendar a-nd Griffith's bridge. 

17 



130 THE AHDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [OHAP. XL 

Electrolysis ; conductivity of electrolytes, lonisation and velocity of ions. 

Cells and accumulators lead and Edison types. 

The potentiometer : Measurement of E.M F , current and resistance. 

Thermo-electricity. Seebeck, Peltier and Thompson oftectt. Measurement of 
thermal E.M.F. Thermo-electric diagrams. 

Energy of a circuit carrying current when placed in a magnetic field. 
Force exerted by a magnetic field on a coil carrying current. 
Moving coil instruments, : Voltmeter, ammeter and Wattmeter. 
Ballistic galvanometer. 

Electromagnetic induction : Lenz's Law. Coefficients of induction. Induction 
coilt. Comparison of mutual inductances. Foucault's currents. Earth inductor 
Measurement of H. and V. 

Dynamos and motor* shunt, verie^ am i compound wound machines and the* ir 
characteristics Efficiency of a motor 

Technical applications of electricity to lighting and power transmission 

Elementary study of wireless. Thermionic valve. Simple receiving set. The 
microphone, loudspeaker and gramophone pick-up. 

Discharge of electricity through gases, cathode rays ; X-rays Coolidge Tube, 
Alpha, Beta and Gama rays 
General ideas of atomic structure. 

Sound. 

The transmission of energy through material medium by wave motion. 
Equation for a simple harmonic wa<\e. Progressive and stationary waves 
Composition of simple harmonic motions. Lissajou's figures. 

Characteristics of a musical note. Velocity of sound in a gai. Effect of tem- 
perature, pressure, humidity and wind on the velocity of sound. 

Rt'fie tion aiifl refraction of sou/id 

Interference and diffraction phenomena. Illustrations beats. 
Doppler's principle. Speed of transverse \saves along a, cord. 
Laws of transverse vibrations of strings : Melded experiment. 
Velocity of longitudinal waves in a rod . Kundt's experiment. 

Vibration! of air in pipw. Determination of frequency-stroboscopic and other 
methods. 



SYLS. GR. (ii-B) CHEMISTRY] B. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMN. 131 

Free and forced vibrations ; Resonance Holmholtz's resonator*. 
Musical scales. Muncal instruments Gramophone. 

Manomptnr flames, sensitive flames Maintenance of vibrations , Concord and 
discord 

Vote Candidates must submit to the examiners before the hour of the 
practical examination their laboratory note-books duly certified 
bv thfir Professors as a bona-fidc record of work done. The 
laboratory note-books shall be allotted 20% of the total maiks 
under practical, the remaining 80% being allotted to the practical 
examination (Main subject) 

Group (ii-B) Chemistry (Main), 

Physical Chemittry-. Same as that of B Sc. (Pass) Chemistry (Main) 

Inorganic Chtmisti y Same as that of B.Sc. (Pass) Chemistry (Main) with 
the omission of the 1st paragraph beginning with UK- words " Historical 
development " and ending in \vords " quantitative period " 

Ori*nic Chemistry Same as that of B Sc. (Pasi) Chemistry (Mai/-). 
Practical examination in Chemistry shall include the following 

(1) Qualitative analysis of Inorganic mixtures containing not more 
than four radicals (acids or bases). 

(3) Volumetric analysis Preparations of standard solutions, acidi- 
metry, alkalimetry, oxidation and reduction methods involving the use of potas- 
sium permanganate, potassium dichromate, lodometrv, precipitation methods. 

(3) Gravimetric analysis of Hydrochloric, Sulphuric and Phosphoric 
acids, copper, iron, calcium. 

(4) Identification by physical and chemical tests of the following 
organic compounds given singly . 

Methylalcobol, Ethyl alcohol, acetone, chloroform, Formic, acetic, 
oxalic, turtaric, citric, acids, glycerine, urea, glucose^ cane- 
sugar, starch, benzene, aniline, phenol, resorcmal, benzaldehyde, 
benzoic and salicylic acich. 

Note : Candidates must sumbit to the e<cammeis before the hour of the 
practical examination, tln'ir laboiatory note-books duly certified 
by their Professors us a bona-fide record of work done. The 
laboratory note-books ^hall be allotted 20% oi the total marks 
under practical, the remaining 80% being allottee! to the practical 
examination (Main subject). 

Groups (Hi A) and (Hi B) Philosophy, 

No detjiiltd syllabu* i* prescribed. 



i.32 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

Group (iv) History and Economic* (History Main) 

1. CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF INDIA DURING THE 
BRITISH PERIOD. 

SECTION I: INDIA UNDER THI COMPANY (1600-1858) 

1. The Cimfany at a Trading bdy. The incorporation of the Company 
under the Charter of Queen Elizabeth. It growth and acquisition of 
* Sovereign ' powers under royal charters after the Restoration. The struggle 
between rival companies after 1688 and their union under Godolphin's award. 
The Government of Factories, in general and their relation to the Indian rulers 
of the day. 

2. Tkt Gwtrnmtnt tf India. The Govtrnor-Goneral in Council, King- 
maker. Power without responsibility and its evils. The Diwani and it* 
importance. The Regulating Act, its nature and defects Fox's India Bill and 
Pitt's India Act of 1784. The ascendency of the Board of Control. The Charter 
Acts of 1793, 1813, 1833 and 1853. The Mutiny and the transfer of the Indian 
territories to the Crown by the Act of 1858. 

SECTION II: INDIA UNDER THE CROWN (18581918) 

1. fftme Government. Theoretical sovereignty of Parliament and its 
actual control over Indian affairs. The Secretary of State in Council and his 
powers. The powers of the Council. Relations of the Secretary of State with 
hit Council and with the Government of India. 

2. The Government of India >~-'\\L* Governor- General in Council, changes 
in the respective positions of the Governor-General and his Counctl since the 
time of the Regulating Act. 

3. The Provincial Governments. fh* growth of the Provincial system 
under Governors, Lieutenant-Governor* and Chief Commissioners. The 
history of their relations with the Government of India. The Policy of 
f>n trail *ation culminating in the Charter Act of 1833 and the process of 
dlcentraUtation since 1861 and 1870. The position on the eve of the Reforms 
of 191$. 

4. The growth of Lifitlativt Council*. Executive in the role of the 
legislature. The gradual process of differentiation between the two from 
1833. The Indian Councils Act of 1861 and its importance. The Indian 

' National Congress and the Indian Councils Act of 1892. Political discontent in 
th* country and the Minto-Morley Reforms, the principles underlying them an 
ft elf working. 

SECTION III: TOWARDS RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT (1918-1935). 

fcvtnti leading to the Reforms of 1919. The Great War and its effects. 
The Confcrett- League Scheme. Agitation for Home Rule. Montague*' 



STLS. GR. (iv) HISTORY] B. A. (PASS) DEGREfc BXAMN. 133 

announcement in the House of Commons in 1917. The Joint Report and the 
four cardinal principles underlying the Reform Scheme. 

The Division of Powers bet-ween the Centre and the Provinces, and the 
sub-division of the Provincial Powers between the Governor-in-Council and 
the Governor acting with Ministers. Dyarchy and its peculiar features. The 
composition and powers of the Provincial Legislature. The Governor's 
extraordinary powers in relation to the legislature and the executive. Defects 
in the nature and working of dyarchy. 

The Central Legislature its composition and powers. The extraordinary 
powers of the Governor-General in Legislation. 

The relaxation ot control by the Secretary of State in Council over the 
Governments in India. The extent of Devolution ami Decentralization of 
Power. The Government of India in its relations to the Provincial Govern- 
ments. 



SECTION IV- INDU AS A 

1. The Jorees leading to the Federation. 

2. The division of Powers betwten tht Central and Provincial Governments. 
three lists. The diviion of powers between the Federal Government and 

the Indian States. 

3. Tht National Government. The Governor-General's Reserved Depart- 
ments and special responsibilities The Federal cabinet and its nature. The 
composition and powers of the Federal Legislature. 

4. Provincial Autonomy. The Governor and his Ministry. Composition 
and Powers of the Provincial Legislature. 

SECTION V- GINR\L. 

1, Tht Judiciary. Itn early history under royal charters. Reforms- of 
Warren Hastings. The establishment of a Supreme Court in Calcutta in 1773 
and later in Madras and Bombay. The Amending Act of 1781, The History of 
the Company 1 s courts. Their amalgamation with the Supreme Courts undei the 
Indian High Courts Act of 1861. Subsequent changes under the Acts of 1911, 
1919 and 1935. The establishment of a Federal Court. The organization of 
ubordinate courts. Appeali to the Privy Council. 

2. Loenl Self -Government. Municipal Government in the Presidency 
Townt. The Acts of 1842 and 1850. Need felt for local taxation after 1858. 
Lord Mayo's deCentraliiation scheme. The Resolution of Lord Ripon and- its 
importance. The extent of advance before the Reforms. The firit principle in 
the Joint Report and the Local Self -Government Resolution of 1918. Progress 
face 1980. 



134 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. tl [CHAP. XL 

3. Tht Public Strvices. The early history of the services and their reform 
under Lord Cornwall!*. The Competitive system since 1854. The problem of 
Indianisation. The Acts of 1861 ami 1870. The Statutory Civil Service. The 
Aichison Commission and their recommendations. The system of luted posts. 
The recommendations of the Joint Report. The Services in relation to the 
Ministers. Their privilege*. The Lee Commission and its recommendation. 
The Present position. 

4. Tht Indian State/. The Company'! relations with them. The change 
of policv after the Mutiny. Guarantee of their permanence in the Indian 
political system followed by increasing control of the Paramount power over 
their affairs. A new policy since 1906. The establishment of Chamber of 
Princts. The rights and obligations of the States. Nature of Paramountcy. 
How far Paramountcy is affected by their entry into the Federation. 

2. MODERN HISTORY (15001918) 

The syllabus shall be the same as that under Modern History in 
Group V History and Economics (Economics Main) 

3. ECONOMICS. 

(Students will be required to show a clear understanding of economic 
principles by intelligent application of economic, theory to Indian facts and 
problems]. 

General. The scope of Economics. Relation of Economics to their 
Sciences. Methods of Economic enquiry ; deductive and inductive (e.g. family 
budgets, village and city surveys, statistics), History (in broad outline) of 
Economic thought. 

Psychological Basis of Economics and Consumption. ClMiifaiiion of 
Wants, Stability. Wants in relation to activities. Elastic and Inelastic 
Demand. Economic meaning and types of Consumption. Conception of 
Utility and Value. Economic motive ; the Economic Man. Influence of 
family system. 

Tht Production ej Wtalth. Definition. Production at (a) creation oi 
use value, (b) creation of exchange value. Classification. Production foi 
producer's use. (a) Individual, (b) Social. Production for the Market. 



and Production. Natural forces and materials ; soil, sun, rain, 
mineral, etc. The Principle of Conservation. Material capital (Classi- 
fication of forms, social and individual capital). Human energiei 

(a) physical, (b) intellectual. Theory of population. Efficiency dependent 
on (a) individual physiqu-e, nutrition, knowledge, skill, moral quality, 

(b) social condition! g. social order, co-operation and division ef labour. 



SYLS. OR. (iv) HISTORY] B. A. (PASS) DEGRBE EXAMN. 135 

Methods of conserving past Acquisitions of skill and knowledge (e g. hereditary 
occupations, apprenticeship ; industrial education). New acquisitions 
(e.g. research and invention). 

Characteristics of Modern Production : Basis. (a) Individual Property. 
(b) Contract. Character (a) Mercantile, (b) Capitalistic Forms, (a) Individual 
(peasant and craftsman); (b) patronal (individual employer and joint 
stock company), (c) Co-operative, (d) Collectivist (State and Municipal) 
Specialization, Concentration in agriculture, manufacture, transport, commerce 
Horizontal and vertical combination Competition and monopoly. 

Extent to which Indian industry possesses these characteristics 

Stages of Production. Extractive Industries, Agriculture, Fishing, 
Forestry, Mining, etc. Manufacture. Laws of Diminishing Returns and Increas- 
ing Returns. Transport and Commerce, local, international. Money, credit , 
and insurance as auxiliaries to production. 

Mechanism of Exchange. Nature and functions of money. Different 
kinds of money. Monetary standards the Gold Standard, the Gold Exchange 
Standard and the Sterling Standard. The Paper Standard. Banks and their 
functions. Central Bank in England and India. Value of money. Changes 
in the price level, their measurements and their effects. The basis of inter- 
national trade. The principle of comparative advantage. Free trade and Protec- 
tion. The mechanism of foreign trade. Bills of exchange. Gold points. Price 
levels and rates of exchange. 

Exchange Value.- Theory of Value, equilibrium between Demand and 
Supply. Market value and normal value. Value, of money ; meanings of 
phrase. Variations in value of money. 

Distribution of Wealth. The Share of Land : Rent, Supply and Demand in 
relation to Land. The Ricardian Law ot Rent. Economic Rent. Customary 
Rent. Rack-rent, The sharing of Economic rent in India. 

The Share of Labour. (i) Wages. Supply and Demand in relation to 
Labour. Theories of wages (a) Minimum subsistance ; (b) Standard of life ; 
(c) Marginal productivity. Combinations of employers and employees in 
relation to wages. 

(ii) Salaries. Supply and Demand in relation to acquired knowledge and 
skill and exceptional ability. 

7 he Shate of Capital' Interest. Supply and Demand in relation to Capital. 
The accumulation of capital, Conversion of capital from unspecialized forms. 
Interest on loanable capital. Interest on investments. Capitalization. 
Promotion. 



136 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. IT [CHAP. XL 

The Share oj Capital \ Interest.*- Supply and Demand in relation to Business 
Organization. Profits and the Entrepreneur. 

The Skare oj the State : Taxation. The community as worker and sharer 
in the product. Duties and Exp a nses of Government. Forms of Taxation. 

4. POLITICS. 

SECTION I The nature of Political Science Definition of Political 
Science Its scope The methods of Political Science Its relation to other 
sciences like Economics, Ethics, Sociology arid Psychology. 

SECTION II. The nature of the State Definition of the State The State 
as distinguished from other Associations The constituent Elements and Attri- 
bute of the State -Population, Territory, Government, Sovereignty, State in 
relation to Nation and NationalityDevelopment of the principle of 
Nationalism. 

Historical origin of the State Influence of kinship, religion, industry, and 
war The Evolution of the State The Tribal State The City State The 
Oriental Empire The Roman Empire The Feudal State The National 
State The Modern Imperial State Theories of the nature of the State 
The Divine Right theory The Social Contract theory Organic theory Tht 
Idealistic theorv. 

Sovereignty Its characteristics Legal, political and popular sovereignty- 
Location of Sovereignty Limitations on Sovereignty Modern attacks on the 
theory of Sovereignty. 

Liberty Its relation to Sovereignty Different kinds of liberty Their 
mutual relations. 

Equality Different kinds* of equalitv Their mutual relations Relation 
between Liberty and Equality. 

Rights Natural rights Fundamental rights Guarantee of rights Rights 
of the Individual and of the Group. 

Law Development of Law Enactment and creation of Law. 

Forms of State and of Government Monarchy ; Its strength and weaknets 
Aristocracy : its strength and weakness Democracy : its strength and weakness 
Cabinet Government Presidential Government Unitary and Federal 
Governments. 

SECTION III. The Organisation of the State Constitutions Written and 
unwritten constitutions Rigid and flexible constitutions Amendment and 
growth of constitutions Conventions Judicial interpretations. 
/ 

Separation of powers Theory of the separation of powers Eritiasm. 



8TLS. OB. (iv) HISTORY] B. A. (PABS) DBGHBR BXAUN. 1$7 

The electorate Nature of the electoral function" Arguments for and 
against universal suffrage Minority representation Proportional representa- 
tionTerritorial versus functional representation Compulsory voting. 

The Legislature Merits and defects of the Bicameral system Structure, 
composition and powers of Upper Houses in the more prominent States 
Structure, composition and powers of Lower Routes Relation between th 
electorate and the representative Organisation and procedure of the Legisla* 
ture Defects of representative legislature Referendum, Initiative and Recall. 

The Executive Nominal and real executive Parliamentary and Presidential 
executiveTheir relative merits and defects The working of the Parliamentary 
executive in England and France. 

The Judiciaiy Functions of the Judiciary Organisation of the Judiciary-*- 
Selection and tenure of judges Relation of the judiciary to th executive-- 
Administrative Law and Administrative Justice 'Relation of Judiciary to 
Legislature. 

Political parties Their functions Two party system and Multiple-party 
system Public opinion its nature Its formulation. 

Federal Government Sovereignty in the Federal State Division of 
powers Advantages and disadvantages of Federal Governments. 

Local Government Administrative areas for purposes of Local Govern- 
ment Relations with Central Government. 

Associations of States Personal Unions Real Unions Confederations 
The British Commonwealth ot Nations Conduct of international relations- 
Nature and aims of the League of Nations. 

SECTION IV. The Functions of the State The ends of the State The 
nature oi the functions of the modern State Compulsory and optional, 
functions. 

Theories of State functions Anarchism Individualism State regulation 
Socialism Syndicalism Guild Socialism Bolshevism Fascism. 

An outline knowledge of the working of the Governments of England 
France, the United States and India is required, 

Text- Books : 

1. Gettell Political Science Ginn & Co, (1933 edition). 

2. StrongModern Constitutions. 

3. llbert and Meston The Indian Constitution. 

18 



138 THE ANDHRA UNIVlSR3ITy OODB VOL. II [CHAP, Xt 

JBotktftr reference : 

1. Garner Political Science and Government American Book Company* 

2. Laski An Introduction to Politics Allen and Unwin. 

3. Petric A short History of Government Methuen. 

Group (v) History and Economic* (Eccmonics Main). 

1. ECONOMICS. 

A. Economics General (A gentral survey oj an elementary character} bated 
' on the Syllab&s prescribed Jor Group (tv), 

8, Economics Special. Any two of the following subjects : 

(1) Banking and Currency (includes money, credit, foreign exchanges 
and prices). 

(2) Public Finance (includes the economic functions of the State, th 
raising and spending of taxes and public loans and the regulations of tariffs.) 

(3) Labour Problem (includes trade unionism, socialism, labour legisla- 
tion, welfare -work). 

(4) Indian Land Tenures (includes the development and main features 
of the principal systems of land tenure in India.) 

(5) Rural Economics, (includes the organization and financing of 
agriculture with special reference to the co-operative movement in relation to 
agriculture). 

(6) Recent Economic History of India and England. 

(1) BANKING AND CURRENCY. 

Currency : Money : Definition. Qualities of Money, Functions of Money, 
Token and Standard Money, Gresham's Law, Mint Laws, Numbers of Prices, 
How they are struck, and their purposes ; Value of Money, Quantity theory 
and otlier theories, Bimetallism, Gold Standard ; Its working before 1914, its 
failure and its future, Managed currency, Prices, Rising and Falling Prices and 
their effects, Inflation, Deflation, Reflation, Foreign Exchanges Purchasing 
Power Parity Theorv. 

Banking : Early History ; Meaning of Banks and Credit, Paper currency t 
Laws regulating Note * issue, Bank Act of 1844, Currency and Bank Notes Act 
of 1928, cheque system and clearing houses, Functions of a Commercial Bank. 
Big Five of London. Central Banks and their functions, Bank of England, 
Federal Reserve Bank, Bank Rate and the Money Market. 

Indian Banking : Early history, Indegenous bankers and money lenders, 
Joint Stock Banks and Causes for their failure during period 1913-24. Imperial 



GB. (v) ECONOMICS] B, A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMN. 109 

Bank of India, Foreign Exchange Banks, Land Mortgage Banks, Co-operative 
Banks, Reserve Bank of India, Hill market and the Bank Rate, Defects of the 
Indian Money Market. 

Indian Currtney : Early history, Currency from 1835-1870, closing of the 
Mints and its causes, Herschell Committee, Fowler Committee. Evolution of 
the Gold Exchange Standard from 1902-1913, Its defects, Chamberlain Commis- 
sion, War and its effects, Babington Smith Committee and the failure of its 
recommendations, Hilton Young Committee, Currency Act of 1927, Linking the 
Rupee with Sterling, Gold Exports, Council Bills, Reverse Councils and Sterling 
Tenders. 

(2) PUBLIC FINANCE. 

(Public Finance, including economic functions, of the state, the raising 
and spending of taxes and public loans and the regulation of tariffs). 
I. Central Considerations : Public Finance, the basii of good Govern- 
ment, 19th Century theory of " Laissez Faire " in regard to governmental 
functions, recent socialistic influence of state activities. 

II. Public Expenditure Reasons tor the increase in public expenditure 
with special reference to the increase of State functions in the post-war period. 

Classification and Canons of Public expenditure -principle of maximum 
social advantage -effects of public expenditure on production, distribution and 
employment. 

Public Income : (a) Sources Charateristics of a good revenue system 
classification of- public revenues. 

(b) Definition of a tax caucus of taxation progressive, regressive, 
proportional and degressive taxation. 

(c) Taxable capacity relative and absolute determining factors- 
estimates of taxable capacity in British India. 

(d) Direct and indirect taxation merits and demerits relative position 
of direct and indirect taxes in India. 

(1) Taxation of land : Different bases of taxation. History of the 

Indian systems applicability of Adam Smith's canons of 
taxation to Indian systems. 

(2) Income-tax: Main types principles of graduation, differentiation, 

abatement etc. History of the Indian system super tax and 
sur tax features of the present system. 

(3) Customs duties: Tariffs for revenue vs. Tariffs. for protection 

relative importance of customs revenue in India and England. 



JL4U THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. 11 [CHAP. XL 

Tariff regulations : Ad valorem vs. Specific duties recent tendency to the 
abandonment of ad valorem duties. 

Hiitory of Indian Tariff policy : pre-war revenue tariffwar timt fiscal 
measures changes after the war. 

(e) Stafle vt. multiple taxes difficulties of avoiding double taxation. 

(f) Incidence of taxation : Nature and conditions of the shifting of taxes 
Incidence of customs duties, salt tax, sales taxes and tax on land. 

(g) Effects of taxation : On production, distribution and other effects. 



Dtbts : (a) Special features and conditions of state borrowing 
merits and demerits of public debts. 

(b) Forms of 'Public debts, voluntary and involuntary, internal and 
external, productive and unproductive, funded arid floating. 

(c) Burden of Public debts on the debtor community method of estimat- 
ing the burden redemption of public debts principles of conversion question 
of capital levy. 

(d) Comparative study of Indian and British Public debts, 

III. Indian Financial Adminiit ration (a) Central budget : items of in- 
come and expenditure separation of railway nftance from general finance 
Outline study of budget preparation, presentation and legislative sanction. 

-<b) Historical review of the financial relations between the central and 
provincial governments from 1870 central budget deficits and Meston award 
allocation of revenues discussed in Layton's report, report of the Indian 
statutory Commission and of Federal Finance Committee. Position of Central 
and Provincial Finance^ in the Act of 1935. Financial Assistance to provinces 
proposed by^Slr Otto Nimeyer. 

(c) Local Finance in India. 

<5) RURAL ECONOMICS 
(N.fe.^-To be studied with special reference to India). 

1. Importance of rural economy in World economy, Interdependence of 
Vfriculture and manufacturing industry, characteristic features of rural 
economy in Western countries, Japan and India. 

II. ProdHttion : Commercial farming viz. Subsistence farming, Transi- 
ion in India. Basis for estimating agricultural production (per unit of land 
ifta or pr unit of population). 



STLS. OR. (v) ECONOMIC^ B. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMN. 141 

(1) Land : (a) Size of holding, sub division and fragmentation, Economic 
holding, Types of crops ^own. 

(b) Productive capacity, mechanical, chemical and biological properties of 
soil*?, the problem of manure supply, moisture ^eed, implements, etc., Rotation 
of crops, mixed cropping. Special study of moisture supply : Irrigation 
projects and Works. 

(c) Extensive and intensive cultivation The Law of Returns and its 
importance. 

(d) Forest economy in relation to agriculture Forest consrrvation. 

(2) Labour i (a) Human labour force adequacy and efficiency cultivating 
land-owners, casual labourers and permanent labourers Economic dependency 
of permanent labourers migration of agricultural labourers (seasonal or 
periodical). 

(b) Animal labour : Its --pecial importance in India Efficiency feeding 
and breeding problems diseases ol live stock and their control. 

(c) Mechanical labour appliances peculiar conditions in India. 

(3) Capital and Agricultural financing Relative difficulties of agri- 
cultural financing Threefold division of crrdit Sources of Credit Supply : 
The role of the money lender measure- taken to combat his vagaries- 
G6vernment as a supplier of credit The place of Nidhis, Joint Stock Companies 
and Reserve Bank of India in agricultural financingCo-operative credit ; 
history of the movement and the extent of its ubefulness in India 

(4) Producing Organisation :- -Private, Joint Stock and Co-operative 
Organisations in Denmark and Holland, and India. 

III. Distribution: (1) Rent of land; different systems of land tenure 
Recardlan Rent theory cash rents vs. share rents. 

(2) Wages . Low agricultural wages in India Estimates of agricultural 
Wages. 

(3) High rates of interest in agriculture, particularly in India. 

(4) Agricultural profits : Composite character low profits of Indiar 
agriculturemaximisation in other countries through agricultural unions 
combines, pools, etc. 

IV. Agricultural Marketings Marketing organisations in America am 
Canada conditions of marketing in India marketing surveys Co-operativi 
marketing Regulated markets Aids to marketing - Communication linei 
fU!ght rates, storage facilttie ,, etc. special study of the marketing of wheat o 
cotton- 



142 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP* XL 

V. Additions to agricultural I'HIOM: -Cottage industries mechanised 
mall scale Industrie! in rural areas Importance of power suppl) State aid 
of different kinds, the rural industriesco-operative organisation of rural 
industries. 

(6) RECENT ECONOMIC HISTORY OF INDIA AND ENGLAND 
(A) India. 

I. Agriculture-. DevelopmentPolicy of the Government Hiitory of 
system* of tenure and settlements Agricultural indebtedness Legislation 
dealing with it and its value Development of agricultural marketing. 

II. industry. Growth of modern large scale industries Post War 
Industrial position " Discriminating Protection " and its value. Leadership in 
industrial organisation managing Agency system 

III. Transport : Improvement of road transport History of Railway 
Transport Effect of improved communications Steam transport Katewars. 

IV. Commerce: Trend of foreign trade down to 1914 Tariff changes after 
the Great War Work of Tariff Boards India in the scheme of Imperial 
Preference Present condition*;. 

V. Banking and Currency Rise of Banks of European types Indi- 
genous banking systems Reserve Bank Expansion of Co-operative banking 
>y stem Closure of Mints 1893 Gold Exchange Standard changes in the 
currency policy after 1914. 

VI. Financial ay item . Financial Centralisation in the 19th Century 
Decentralisation movement effect of the Reforms of 1919 and 1935. 

VII. Labour movement : Rise of Trade Unions Trade Union and Trade 
Disputes Legislation Present position of the movement. 

VIII. Co-operative movement : 20th Century legislation n^bfrvflmeuts and 
weaknesses of the movement. 

IX. E to nomit prosperity \ Periodic fluctuations Price changes and their 
effects Estimates of national income. 

(ff) England. 4 , 

I. Industry. " Industrial Revolution," Favouring conditions, features 
and economic effects Recent Trust movement. Factory Legislation in the 19th 
Century Trade Boards Act of 1909. Workmen's Compensation Legislation. 

II. Agriculture : " Agrarian Revolution," its features and effects 20th 
Century tendencies. 

III. Transport : Development of mechanical Transport Effect of Steam 
Transport on the International Position of England* 



SYLS. GK. (v) ECONOMICS] B. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMN. 143 

IV. Commerce : Free Trade movement and growth. - of British Foreign 
Trade 20th Century Protectionism and Imperial preference. 

V. Banking and Currency. Suspension of Bank Charter Act 1844 
Currency and Bank Notes Act of 1928 Present position of note issue The 
' Big Five ' concerns. 

Vicissitudes of gold standard in the 20th century present paper sterling 
standard. 

VI. Labour movement : Origin and history of Trade Unions Trade Union 
Legislation Post War Legislative action ou strikes Growth of labour party 
in Politics. 

VII. Poor Relief : Poor Laws from 1834 and their administration un- 
employment Insurances Old age pensions. Labour Exchanges. 

VIII. Cooperative movement Development of the distributive side 
Co-operative Congress. 

IX. Socialistic movement. Fabian movement, Guild Socialism, State 
Socialism etc. 

2. MODERN HISTORY (1500 1918). 

(1) Introduction 

Features of Mediaeval Europe : Papacy Empire Feudalism their decay. 
Decline of Byzantine Empire. 

The. New Age Renaissance Reformation Maritime discoveries Transfer 
of political power to Atlantic States Spam Portugal France Holland 
England. 

(2) Sixteenth Century 

Supremacy of Spain under the Hapsburgs 

The development of the Hapsburg power and its extent under Charles V and 
Philip II. Its challenge to Europe : 

(a) Fiance, (b) Germany, (') Netherlands, (d) England, (e) Turkey 
The relation of the Reformation and Counter Reformation to the struggle 

(3) Seventeenth Century. 

(A) Ascendency of France. 

(i) Henry IV Richiliou Mazarin. Opportunity afforded by religious 
struggle in Germany. 

(ii) France under Louis XIV Hi* system of Alliances : Sweden 
Turkey England. Thte 5 challenge to Europe : (a) Holland 
(b) Spain, (c) The Empire, (d) England. 

(B) Northern Europe. 

Ascendency of Sweden under House of Vasa. Her challenge to North 
Europe : (a) Denmark, (b) The Empire, (c) Poland, (d) Russia. 



144 THB ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

(C) Sooth-Eastern Europe. 

Revival of Turkish Powerits relation to Western politics its chal- 
lenge to Austria and Poland. Position of Turkey at close of 
century. 

(4) Eighteenth Century. 

The rise oi England Prussia Russia. 

(A) England- Her position in Europe and overseas after Treaty of Utretcht 
Expansion and challenge to (a) France and Spain, (b) Holland. 

(B) PrussiaUrr position unde. Frederic II. His challenge to Austria and 
German Princes Relation with France Russia England. 

(C) RussiaUtr position in Baltic after Treaty of Nystadt. Her challenge 
to (a) Geiraany, (b) Poland, (c) Turkey. 

(5) French Revolution.' 

(A) Its causes, characteristics and course. Its challenge to Europe 

(a) The Empire (Netherlands, Germany and Italy), (b) England. 

(B) The Napoleonic Empire. 

Its rise and development its challenge to Europe : (a) The Empire, 

(b) England, (r) Russia, (d) Spain, (p) Portugal, its overthrow. Congren of 
Vienna. 

(6) Affnttttntk Century and ajttr 

The challenge of Vienna to Liberalism and Nationality. Influence of 
Matternich. 

(A) Liberal movements. 

(i) 1815-1825 Germ.uiy-Spam-Italy, Suppression by Quadruple Alliance. 

(li) 1830. Revolution m France and its consequences in Austria-^- 
Hungary Italy Prussia England Collapse and reaction. Fall 
of Metternich establishment of the Second Empire in France, 

B. National movements : 
(5) Union of Italy. 

(li) Unification of Germany and the establishment of the German 
Empire- the French Republic. 

(C) The Eastern Question. 

Russia's challenge to Turkey Anglo-French support to Turkey, 
(i) War of Greek independence, 
(ii) Turko-Egyptain War. 
(iii) Crimean War. 
(iv) Balkan Risings and Ruiso-Turkish War. Congress of Berlin. 



SYLS. 0R. (v) ECONOMICS] B. A. (PASS) D1GR8B BXAMK. 145 

(D) Growth of the Balkan State. The young Turk RevolutionThe 
Balkan War The Treaty of Bucharest. 

(E) Germ in attempt at World Supremacy. The Anglo-German rivalry 
European Colonial ambitions The Triple Alliance The Triple Entete The 
Great WarThe Treaty of Versailles. 

3. SOCIOLOGY.* 

1 Introduction Nature and scope of the subject : its relation to 
Kiology, Psychology and other sciences. Methods of investigation ; evolution 
in social phenomena ; progress and determination ; social life as influenced by 
physical, geographical, biological, psychological, ethical, religious and historic 
factors. 

*The following will come into force as from the examination of 1944: 

I. The nature and method of Sociology'. Definition and scope of the 
subject. The place of Sociology among the social sciences. Its relation to 
Biology, Psychology, Anthrology, Economics Politics, History and Ethics, 
The method of Sociology. The concrete method and the scientific approach. 

II Social life and the fundamental consideration : (1) Man and Society ; 
Definition of Primary concepts ; society, community associations, institutions, 
modes and folkways, and customs. Origin and growth of society. In what 
sen e man is a social animal. Individuality and society, co-operation and 
conflict, 

(2) Environment and social lite. Different aspects of total environment. 
Geography as a social determinant. Social heritage. The adjustment of 
civilised man to his environment. 

(3) Heredity and social life. Theories of heredity. Natural selection 
arid social selection. Eugenic school, 

(4) Social change. Concepts of evolution and progress. Biological 
technological and cultural factors of social change. 

III. Social Organisation: 1. Family, Sociological significance of 
family; its functions. Early forms ot family life. The lamily of to-day The 
family and the state. 

2. Marriage. Types: promiscuity, Polyandry, group marriage, 
monogamy. Evolution of marriage. Marriage rules; endogamy, exogamy, 
hypergamy, levirute. The position of woman in the West and in India. Prob- 
lems of consent and of divotce. 

3. The clan (sib), phiatry, tribe, and nation. The class, caste arid race 
ideas. The ilve!opment from the earliest state to modern state. Federations, 
empires, leagues and other groupings. 

IV. Religion and Morals i 1. Religion; origin and growth of religion. 
Rise of priest-hood. Different foims of religion. Animiam, ancestorworship, 
fetishism, magic, polytheism, henotheism, and monotheism, religious rituals and 
ceremonies 

2. Morals and justice in early and modern communities Taboo The 
development of social justice, blood revenge, oath, order and other social codes. 
Public opinion and social control. 

V Social Pathology \\* The nature of social pathology. Poverty, 
crime, degeneracy, disease, illiteracy, defectives, and other types of human 
maladjustments, causes and remedies. Methods of betterment of social life and 
harmony. 

19 



146 THB AffDHRA 05IVBRS1TY CODH VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

3. The family ^* organisation and formi : maternal and paternal 
descent; kinship, relations and usages; relation of sexes; sexual division of 
labour, segregation, adoption, education, systems, 

3. Marriage: Sexual communism, polygamy, polyandry, monogamy 
exogamy and endogamy. Evolution of marriage. 

4v Forms of social structure: The clan, tribe, caste, nation; the city 
state, modern state, federations, empires, and other groupings Social stratifica- 
tion, castes and classes and their developments. 

5. Origin an<f growth of moral and religious ideas: Social value of reli- 
gion : religions and their beliefs in their bearing on social relations : influence 
of Magic; animism: ancestorship. polytheism and world religions on social 
relations ; religious institutions, rituals and priesthood. 

6. The Social Order ? Its development, blood feuds, retaliation, com- 
pensation. Primitive courts and processes ; Oath and the Ordeal. Growth 
of public justice and rational procedure. Social evils and their remedies: 
poverty, crime, disease, illiteracy, depressed classes. 

7. Eeonomie Activities : Their effects on Society : Occupations and Social 
divisions. Property, Hank. 

4. POLITICS. 

M B. The syllabus for the above is the same at that in the case of History 
(Main) Group. 

Group (vi) One of the Language* included in Part* I and II. 
1. Sanskrit Grammar* 

[Knowledge, accurate, so far as it goes, but neither extensive nor minutely 
detailed is expected under each head. The following abbreviations an* used 
hereunder: P.I.E.=Primitive Indo-European; Jnd-If =Jndo- Iranian ; Skt= 
Sanskrit ; Gk=Greek ; Lat=Latin ; Teut=Teutonic] 

A. GENIRAL. 

1. Elements ry Phonetics . (a) The organs of speech production and 
classification of speech- sounds. Quantity; accent, sentence, word and syl 
lable-accent Glides. 

(b) Phonetic description of all speech-sounds treated in the course. 
Phonetic transcription. 

(c) Sound-change; isolative, conditional, defective imitation and the 
rtsult of analogy* Meaning of the term ' Law' in Linguistic Science. Dialect 
separation* Growth of Literary Languages. Families of languages. Cognate 
wards and loan words. 



frtLS. OR. (ri) ] B. A. (PASS) DUGREB EXAMINATION 147 

2. The Indo-European, Family oj Languages. The original speech and 
its earlier dialect divisions. Branches and sub-branches of the Indo-European 
Family. Some distinguishing characteristic^ of the Indo-lranian, Hellenic, 
Italic and Teutonic branches. 

3. Indo- Iranian. The Indian Sub-Branches, Dialects of Vedic time-;. 
Epic dialect^. Classical Sanskrit Middle Indian Speeches* New Indian 
Speeches. 

B. PHONOLOGY. 

4. The P.I.E. Vowel System-^The oldest conditions'. Primary vowels: 
changes resultant on accent ; secondary vowels and syllabic liquids and nasals. 
Vowel-gradation, quantitative and qualitative : its relation to accent and it* 
bearing on morphology. The latter P I.E. vowel system prior to the period of 
language separation. General treatment of the P.I E. vowel-system in the oldest 
Ind.-Ir M Gk., Lat. and Teut 

5. The vowel system of Sanskrit in its relation to P.I.E. and to the vowel 
systems mentioned in 4. Vowel-gradation in Sanskrit. 

6. The P.f.E. Consonant System Classification of the P I.E. consonants. 
Earliest dialectal variations ; the ' centum ' and ' satam ' divisions. Treatment 
of the P.I.E. consonant generally in Ind-Ir., Greek and Teutonic. 

7. Representation oj the P.I.E. Consonant-system in Sanskrit liquids and 
nasals. Plosive consonants. Cerebral consonants (Fortunatov's Law), Palatal 
and velar consonants, (the law of palatalization). The law of aspirate (Grats- 
man'f Law) Spirants, Semi-vovelt. 

8. Sandki, external and internal. Glide* in Sanskrit Anaptyxis (Svara- 
bhakti). Haplology. 

C. ACCIDENCE. 

9. Word-formation, Base, Stem and suffix. Prefix-Infix. 
10. Sansk+4* compounds, nominal and adverbial. 

It Sanskrit suffixes, primary (krt.) and secondary (taddhita). 

12. Nominal Declension. .\3L. : conditions : Number, Grammatical 
Gender. Cases and ease-endings. P.I.E. case-endings. Syncretism, Conta- 
mination, Classification of noun, declensions according to suffix. Vowel and 
consonant-stems* 

13. The noun declensions in Sanskrit treated historically and compara* 
lively with reference to P.I.E. Greek, Latin and Teutonic. Philological 
explanation of all case* endings. Comparison of adjectives and formation of 
adverbs treated philological ly, 

14. <Vtt*i*r<i/,r. 'Philological treatment ef tb Sanskrit numerals 



148 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODB VOL. ll [CHAP, Xt 

15. Pronouns &nd Pronominal adjective** The Sanskrit numerals. 
Pronominal adjectives treated philologically with reference to P.I.E. 

Greek, Latin, and Teutonic. 

16. The Verb. The P.I.E. verbal system generally treated ; voice, mood, 
tense, augment, reduplication, personal endings. Thematic, Athemetic stems. 
Types of verbal action. 

17. The Sanskrit verb in its relation to the P.I.E \erbal system, present, 
perfect, aorist and future system in Sanskrit, Transfer from the athcmatic to 
the thematic class. Periphrastic formations, Analogy in the Sanskrit verbal 
system. Derivative verbs causative, denominative, desiderative, intensive. 

18. Voices, moods and tensts in Sanskrit Infinitive verbal formations, 



2. Tslugu Grammar, Protody and Poetics 



(\\ 
(2) 



5fcottt>iixt, 



IL 

(i) 



(4) 



SYLS. GR. (vi)] B. A. (PASS) DBGREE EXAMINATION 149 

(6) tf^jfciHje*^^ (*5fc*v. *ff-^ L 0s. 

r*'c &--vtf~K &X'fa*'\ d&coo 

^ cA, rp 

-\e fa -w Vv *J^ ^vt>i)i35 . W^ 

!r cx^ ^r* x Sfcc^KSfc <>otlvco 
2) * ra O cp 



(a) 



HI 

(0 






: 7$ 



"!) 2 ^ 



150 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

(b) r^O^SBotfw 55bs^]T k o*>e& 



Tfc* Po 

5 



T ?TQ 






"O^dttbAo 



(a) 



*YL8. OB. (vi)] B. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMIHATKW 351 



(c) 



ld*t> 



ildin 



r* 

, )oX S)$ f 



TUB ANDERS UNITBKSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. 

jy* ^S'c^oSS'tfrasSx). 

*> 1-2 



3. 

a) 

' / T O 



(b) 



2. a) -srMieo^tt vv> " 
$ sr'S QD~l^^vt. 

(h) ^v^rsS.t)^^, "IsS,^^, tfo^^rf^" a fc 



. (Vi)] 3. A. (FASB) UHteBTO B*AMJNAMQlf 



(e) 



(c) 



(f) 



6. 

(a) 

(b) 



(c) 



(d) 



\ sp 
(g) 



f 



154 THB ANDHRA 0NIVBR3ITY CODB VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

(c) fctf 
(f) * 

V. 

ar<8d*A Stated* 1 *) ^otft 
(a) 
(b) 
(c) 



(d) 



(f) 

VI e>ex>-3-tf 



2 (a) 



OR. (vi)] B. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 155 

(d) 



(e) 
(f) 



o^6 6, 



(g) 



(h) 



5. The Comparative Grammar of the Dravidiaa Language* 

1. Introductory : () The origin of languages. Classification of languages 
Dialectal separation and growth of literary standard languages. Dialects and 
cognate languages. 

(4) The Dravidian group of languages and their chief characteristics. 
Reasons for choosing the word Dravidian as name of this group. Enumeration 
of Dravidian languages. Meaning of the names 'Tamil', ' Telugu ', ' Kanafese * 
and 'Malayalam'. Where they are spoken. 

(c) Relation between Dravidian languages and Sanskrit, Dravidian ele- 
ment in North Indian vernaculars, Affiliation of Dravidian language to the 
8+ythian Group. Tamil, the most primitive of PravidUn languages. 



i&6 THE A&DHBA UNIVERSITY CODfi VOL. tl [OHAF. it 

II. Phonttict. -Production and classification of speech founds. Sound 
changes and their causes. Sounds and symbols. Conditions of a good ortho- 
graphy. 

III. Dravidian alphabet*. Their history. Differences among existing 
alphabets. Their adequacy and inadequacy. Comparison of Dravidian sounds 
with Sanskrit and English sounds. 

IV. Dravidian Phonology. The primitive Dravidian parent language. 

(1) Vowel system Changes. Accent. Harmonic sequence of vowels, 

(2) System of consonants. Origin of cerebrals. Dialectic interchange of 
consonants. Euphonic permutation of consonants. Sandhi. Nasalization. 
Anusvara and Ardhanusvara. Prevention of hiatus. 

(3) Dravidian syllabation. 

V. Roots. -Dra-s idian roots arranged into two classes. Verbal root. 
Nouns. Lengthening of roots, Formative ad lition to roots. 

VI. Atcidenf* : 
(1) The fount. 

(a) Gender. Dravidian nouns divided into two classes denoting rational 

beings and irrational things except in Telugu in which they are 
classified as Mahat and Amahat, the Utter including words 
denoting women* Companion between Dravidian languages 
on the one band and Sanskrit and English on the other. 

(b) Number Singular and plural. No dual. Singular Masculine, 

feminine and neuter. Plural-principles of pluralization. 

(c) Case 'Principles of case formation. Dravidian cases. 

(&) The adjettivt*. Their agreement with substantives like those in 
Sanskrit. Formation of adjectives from sub tantives, relative participles of 
verbs and past verbal participles. Comparison of adjectives. 

(3) The numerals.*- Different views about their origin. The cardinals 
and ordinals. The neuter noun of number and the numerical adjective. 

(4) The Pronouni Light thrown by pronouns on relationship of 
languages. Persistence of personal pronoun-'. Pronouns of the fir^t person 
singular. Comparison of dialects. Analogies. Pronouns of the second person 
singular. Comparison of dialects. The reflexive pronoun Pluralization of 
the per onal and reflexive pronoun Demonstrative and interrogative pronouns. 
Demon trative ca es Interrogative ca-e . Demonstrative and Interrogative 
adjectives Demonstrative and interrogative adverbs Honorific demonstrative 
pronoun?. 



. Gift, (vi)] B. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION iSt 

(5) The Vtrbs. -Structure of the Draviclian verb Root med either as 
verb- or noun . Formative particle often added to root Cla ification of 
verbs into tran< itive and intran itive. Ways \\\ which intran itive verbs 
change into transitive. Sanskrit analogies 

(a) Causal verb. Causals from transitives. Origin of Dravidian causal 

particle. 

(b) Frequentative Verb*. 

(c) Conjugational system. Formation of the ten.es. Verbal participles. 

Their signification and forces. The present tense and its forma- 
tion. The preterite tense and it^ formation The future ten*.?. 
The future formation ID Dravidian languages. The relative 
participle . 

(d) Formation of Moods Method of forming the conditional, the 

imperative and the infinitive, origin ol the infinitive suffix. 

(e) The Voice. Acti\e and Passive Tiie negative voice Combination 

of negative particles with verbal theme . The Dravidian 
negative particle. 

(f) Formation of verbal nouns, derivative nouns and abstract nouns. 

(6) Advtibs. 

VII. Vocabulary. (1) Borrowing and its causes Social, commercial, 
political and tehgious. Borrowings from Sanskrit, borrowings from other 
languages. 

(2) Structure and form Th* p-<entiah for ihe individuality of a 
language. Vocabulary cannot change the character of a language. Hybrids 
Gain and loss from the mixed character of a language. 

VIII. Compat ative Syntax. The Syntax of the several languages com* 
pared. Difference^ and similarities. The extent of Sanskrit influence over the 
syntax of the several languages. 

4. Th History of the Telugu Language and Grammar. 

I. General. The origin and meaning of the word * Telugu '. The place 
of Telupu in the Dravidian family of languages. Us antiquity and its geogra- 
phical distribution. Period of its early cultivation us inferred from the inscrip- 
tions. The extent of Sanskrit influence over 1 elugu Grammar. 

II. rtnods cf 7 Itigu Language* The pre-Nannaya period, the Nanuaya 
period, and the pot-Nannaya period. Illustrative literature of each period. 
Grammar of each period. Difierence between languages of different periods in 
point of vocabulary and grammar. 



158 TfaB AND&RA tfNlVEfcSITf CODE VOL. II [CHAP. Xt 

III. Language and Dialtct. The standard of literary language and 
spoken language. Their relation and mutual influence. Dialects. How formed. 
Different localities and different classes of people in the same locality have 
different dialects. Are dialects discernible in ancient literary works ? 

IV. Telugu Alphabet 

(a) The Script. Its gradual development. The Telugu-Kanarese form 

and its relation to Brahmi, Vengi and Chalukya script. 

(b) The sound-values How far the alphabet is phonetic. Its pronun- 

ciation. The spoken sounds and the written symbols. 

V. Phonology. (a) Vowels and their relation to the primitive Dravidiau 
vowel-system. Classification of vowels according to the place of production, 
Diphthongs. Accent and emphasis. Accent determining change. Mutation of 
vowels. Vowel harmony, vowel sandhi. 

(b) Consonants and their relation to the primitive Dravidian consonants. 
Classification of Telugu consonants according to the place of production. 
Consonantal diphthongs. Mutation of consonants. Assimilation of conso- 
nants and consonantal sandhi. Other changes in consonants. Palatalization, 
Dentalization, Voicing, Unvoicing, Compensatory length, etc, The theory 
of ardhanu^vara and the caoummunal. Dialectic interchange of consonants. 
Telugu syllabation. 

VI. Accidence.--(a) Nouns. Gender. Nouus denoting mahat and amah at 
Number. No dual. Principles of pluraliaration. Different treatment of 
tat sam a and aeehiha words with regard to the formation of number and 
gender. Casr and case-endings. Principles of case-formation. Aupavibhaktikas 

(6) Adjectives. Classification of adjectives. Their agreement with 
substantives. Formation of adjectives from substantives. Comparison of 
adjectives. 

(t) Numerals. Ordinals and cardinals. Declension of numerals. 

(d) Pronouns. Classification of pronouns. Declension of pronouns. 
History of the Telugu pronouns. Demonstrative and interrogative adjectives. 
Demonstrative and interrogative adverbs. Honorific demonstrative pronouns. 

(*) The verb. Structure of the verb. Causal verb. Atmanepada verbs. 
Voice : active and passive. Tense : present, past and future. Moods : condi- 
tional, imperative, infinitive, and negative. Formation of verbal participles. 
Verbal nouns, derivative nouns and abstract noun^ 

(/) A<l\Hrb>. Nu real adverbs iu Ttlugu. 



STLS, (*R. (Vi) B,A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 159 

VII. Vocabulary (a) General character of the Telugn vocabulary. The 
native element. The so-called acha-Telugu. Borrowing and its causes. 
Formation of compounds. Coming doublets. Dravidian basic element. Tamil 
and Kanare<?e element. Causes of admixture. Various periods of entry of 
Tamil and Kanarese words into Telugu. 

(J) Tattama words. Samskritasatna and Prakrita*ama. Laws of forma- 
tion. Period of extensive Prakrit borrowing, Tadbhava words. Sanskritabhava 
and Prakritabhava. Laws of formation. Other borrowings. Hindustani, 
Marathi, Oriya, English, French etc. 

VIII. Word- Buildings, (1) By composition. (2) By derivation. The 
various suffixes used to form nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs etc. 
<3) Root-creation. 

IX. Semantics. Changes in meaning and usage. Elevation and 
degradation Specialization and generalization of native and foreign words. 
Obsolete words. 

X. Syntax. Order of word 1 ? in a sentence The difference between 
Prose and Poetry as regards syntax Deviations from the normal order of 
words in a sentence and their ca^es. San kritic con -truction in Telugu,. 

5. Outlines of the History of Telugu Literature. 

(I) Pre-Nannava Period Beginnings of Telugu Poetry and the impetus 
given by the Chalukyan Kings. 

v (II) Age of Nannaya 1050-1250. 

(<i) Nannaya's Bharatam His style and method of translation and his 
personality. 

(b) Nannechoda's Kumarasambhavam. 

(c) Palkuriki Somanatha's poems His Dwipada. 
(</) Ranganatba Ramayanam and its authorship. 

(III) Age of Tikkana 1250 1300. 

(a) Tikkana's personality and genius His style and method of 
translation. 

() Ketana and Marana as his followers 

(IV) Age of Yerrana 1300-1350. 

(a) Yerrana's contribution to Bharatam and his claim to be regarded 
as Prabandha Parametwara. 

(4) His Harivamsam compared with that of Nachena Somana. 
(;) Bhaskara Ramayanam and its authorship. 



160 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. Xfc 

(V) Age of Sreenadha 1350-15CO. 

(a) Growth of Prabandha Literature and Sreenadha's contribution to 

it His works and style and personality. 

(b) Bhagavatam and its authorship and Potana's lyrical nature 

(f) Some important other poets of the age, such as Ananta, Amatya 
and Jakkana, etc. 

(VI) Age of Krishna Oeva Rava 1500 1600. 

Achievement of Prabandha Poetry and a general vtudy of some of the 
best Praban'lhas of the age. 

(VII) Na-aka Literature 1600 1775. 

(a) Growth of various types of literature and their characteristics. 
() fanjore, Madura and Pudukottah Schools, 

(VIII) Age of decadence ~1775-lb75. 

Signs of decadence and its causes. 

(IX) Modern age 1875. 

Modern tendencies and the circumstances which influence them. 

N,B: In the rases of all major posts, their personalities are to be under* 
stood in relation to their Works and time^. 

6, Ortya. 

A"/?: The History of Oriya Language and Literature is the same as that 
prescribed for Bhasha Praveena Final Examination. 

7. The History of the Kannada Language and Grammar 

I. General. The origin and meaning of the word ' Kanarese. The 
place of ' Kanarese' in the Dravidian family of languages. Its antiquity 
and its geographical distribution. Period of its early cultivation as inferred 
from the in criptions. The extent of influence of Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam 
nnd Marathi, etc if any, and of Sanskrit over Kanarese grammar. 

II. Thepeiiods of fCaitarese Language 

(1) The petiod of the written ancient dialect. 

(2) The period of the mediaeval dialect. 

(3) The period of the modern dialect. 

Illustrative literature of each period. Grammar of each period. Difference 
between the language*; of different periods in point of vocabulary and grammar. 



ftYLS. OR. (Vi)] B.A. (PASS) DEGREE 1XAMINATIOH 161 

III. Language and Dia/ee/.The standard of literary language and the 
spoken language. Their relation and mutual influence. Dialects. How formed? 
Different localities and different dialects. Badaga, how an ancient Kanarese 
dialect. Are dialects discernible in ancient literary works ? 

IV. fCanarete Alphabet 

(a) The Script. The Kanarese alphabet a variety of the so-called 

Cave-character. Its gradual development. The Telugu- 
Kanarese form and its relation to Brahmi, Vengi and 
Cbalukya scripts, and the script of the sasanat of Cochin. 

(b) The sound-values. Unlike the Tamil and Malayalam alphabet, 

the alphabet is perfectly phonetic. The spoken sounds and 
the -written symbols. 

V. Phonology.~(a} Vowel system. Vowels in Achagannada and those 
borrowed from Sanskrit. Vowels and their relation to primitive Dravidian 
vowel system. Classification of vowels according to the place of production. 
Diphthongs, History of the vowel sounds. Accent and emphasis. Accent 
determining change. Mutation of vowels. Vowel harmony. Vowel-sandhi glides. 

(6) Consonant system. Consonants in Achagannada and those borrowed 
from Sanskrit. Consonants and their relation to the primitive Dravidian 
consonants. 

Classification of consonants according to the place of production. 
Consonantal diphthongs Mutation of consonants. Assimilation of Consonants. 
Assimilation of consonants and consonantal sandhi. History of consonantal 
sounds, doubling of consonants, palatalization, dentalifation, voicing, unvoic- 
ing, compensatory lengthening, nasalization, dentalifation, etc. Dialectic change 
of consonant-,. Theory of Kula and Kshala L's and the history of r and /. 
Kanarese syllabation. 

VI. Accidfnee. (a) Nouns. (1) Gender. Are Dravidian nouns naturally 
neuter ? Nine genders according to the grammarian Kesiraja, reducible however 
to three, masculine, feminine, and neuter. Gender prefixes and suffixes. Gender 
in metaphorical diction etc. 

(2) Number. Words plural in form, but with a dual signification^ 
Principles of pluralization. The epicene plural, the neuter plural, double plurals. 
Gender and noun treatment, how they differ in old, mediaeval and modern 
Kanarese. 

(3) Case and case-endings in old, mediaeval and modern Kanarese. 
Principlti of cas formation. 

31 



168 THE ANDHRA UNIVHRSITY COM VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

(6) Adjective or attribute nouns (gunavachakas)- Classification of 
adjectives. Formation of adjectives. Their gender and agreement With 
substantives. Ordinary nouns and pronominal nouns used as adjectives. Adjec- 
tives used as adverbs. Comparison of adjectives. 

(c) Numerals. The cardinals and the ordinal-, the multiplicatives, 
appellative nouns of number in Kanarese and the history and the principles of 
their formation. 

(d) Pronouns. Classification of pronouns. Their forms in the dialects of 
Kanarese, Declension of pronouns, History of pronouns, Reflexive pronouns, 
demonstrative and interrogative pronouns. 

(e) Verb. 1. Structure of the verb. The base, the tense suffixes. 
Classification of verbs into transitive and intransitive though felt but not 
mentioned by Kesiraja and Nagavarma, but introduced by Rhattakalanka. about 
400 years later. The modes of forming the causals and the transitive. 

2. The passive voice. The different modes of expressing the passive 
significance. 

3. The various modes of expressing the negative significance. 

4. The imperative form of the verb, the mrinitive. 

5. No moods in Kanarese the conditional or the subjunctive how 
expressed. 

6. The primary tenses the present, the preterite and the future, the 
history of their formation and their uses. 

7. Other compound tenses, such as continuative perfect, imperfect 
future, perfective, etc., though not specified in ancient grammars, how expressed. 

8. Formation of the verbal participles, verbal nouns, derivative nouns 
and abstract nouns. 

9. The various modes of expressing the English auxiliaries in Kanarese. 
10. The frequentative or iterative verbs in Kanare e, hut a kind of such 

verbs formed by simple (fugalochcharana) or triple repetition (triprayoga). 

(/"). Adverbs the different modes of their formation and their hi tory. 
Conjunctive* and their history. 

VII. Vocabulary. (a) General character of the Kanarese vocabulary. The 
so-called Achagannada. Borrowings and its causes. Periods of borrowing. 
Character and comparative extent of borrowing at each period. Hindustani, 
Marathi, English and Portuguese element. Loss of old words. Nature and 
exUnt, 



C4A. (vi)] B.A. (PASS) DBGBBB BXAMINATION 163 

(*) Samasamskrita Words, tats am a words, tadbhavas or apabhramsas, 
laws of formation. 

VIII. Word building. (I) By composition. (2) By derivation. The 
various suffixes used to form nouns, verbs, adjective^ and adverbs etc. (3) Root- 
creation. 

IX. Semantics. Change* in meaning and usage. Elevation, degradation, 
specialization and generalization to native and foreign words. 

X. Syntax. 1 Order of word- in u ^entencc. The difference between 
Prose and Poetry as regard-- Syntax. Deviation from the normal order of Words 
in a, sentence and their c.is<^. 

2. The different kinds ot karaka or the relation of the noun to the verb. 

3. The uses of the cases. 

4. The uses of the singular for the plural and vice versa of nouns, 
pronoun, and verbs in a sentence. 

5 Use of the singular and plural of Sanskrit adjectives and their agree- 
ment with nouns. 

8. History of Kannada Literature 

Introductory : Definition of Literature Influence of political, religious and 
social conditions on Literature Classification of Kannada Literature Variety 
and volume of the same The Kannadt people and their characteristic religious 
tolerance. 

Pri'tfripatunga Period Up to 814. A.D. Highly developed Kannada 
prose and poetry even as early as 5th century. Northern and southern schools* 
Bedande and Chettana as the two types ot composition. 

Durvineetha and others as prose writers, Srivijaya and others as versifiers 
Sri Vardhadeva and his unique Work containing 90,000 granthas. 

Jaina Literature: The Jaina religion in the Kannada country. 
Ancient Klannada Language -Champu form of composition. 

(a) 814-1160. Nripatunga and his KaVirajamarga, the earliest extant 
Kannada work. Its informational importance. The three gems viz., Pampa, 
Pona and Raima and their works. 

Other poets of the period. Nagavarma I, Cbavundaraya, Sridharacharya, 
Gunavarma, NagachandraKanti, the earliest known Kannada poetess, Nayasena, 
the protagonist of pure Kannada, Rajaditya, Keerthivarma, Nagavarma 11, 



164 THB AHDHBA UKltBRSITT COD1 TOL. II [OHAP. XL 

(b) 1160*1600. Ncmichandra and his Le*lavathi, the earliest known 
specimen of genuine fiction Janna, the third member of the trio (Ponna, Ranna 
and Janna) entitled as Poet- Emperor and his work. Andayya and his celebrated 
Acchagannada Kavya, viz. Kabhigarakava. 

Other poets of the period. Mallikarjuna, Kesiraja, Rattakavi, Mangaraja I, 
Bacharata, Mangaraja III, Abhinav* Vadividyananda, Salva, Ratnakarayarni. 

(c) 1660-1868. Bhattakalanka and his great Grammar, Sabdanusasana- 
Dharanipandita and his Bijjalacharite. 

Other poeti of the period. Madbava, Devachandra, Chandrasagaravarni. 

Veerataiva Literature: The rise of Lingayatism-Social and political 
conditions of the period-Transition from Ancient to Mediaeval Kannada. 
Numerous prose works. 

(a) 1160-1430. Basava and hii Vachanagalu. 

Other poets of the period. Hareesvara, Raghavanka, Palkurike Somanatha 
Bheema Kavi. 

(b) 1430-1600. Chamarasa and his Prabhulingaleela. 

Other poets of the period. Singiraja, Nijagunasiva Yogi, Gubbi Mallanarya, 
Virvpakshapandita, Shadaksharadeva. 

(c) 1660*1868. Sarvajnamurti and his Pad a gal u. 

Other poett of the period. Baiavalinga, Kavi Madanna, Maruhatiddi, 
Basavappa Sattri. 

Vaishnava Literature : The rise of Vaishnavlsm-Ramanujacharya and his 
role as a religious reformer-Madbwacharya as Dwaitha Doctrinaire and inspirer 
of Kannada Dasakuta Literature. Transition from Mediaeval to Modern 
Kannada. 

(a) 1160- 1430: Rudrabhatta, the leading writer on Vaishnava theme. 
Narahari Theertha and his dwaitha lyrical songs-Kumara Vyasa and his Bharata. 

(b) 1430-1750 : Institution of Das akuta-Development of Karnataka music 
with the composition of Dasaknta devotional songs. 

Sripadaraya, Vyasaraya, Vadiraja, Purandara Dasa, Raghavendra Theertha, 
Varadendra Theertha, Vijaya Dasa, Gopala Dasa, Jagannatha Dasa, and their 
Padagalu and Suladigalu. 

Other poets of the period. Kanaka Dasa, Thimmanna, Kumara Valmiki, 
Chaktt Vittalanatha, Lakshmeesa and their works on Vaishnava themes. 

Sri Vaishnava poets of the period. Tirumalarya, Chikkupadhyaya 



STTLS. QB. (vi)] B.A. (PASS) DEQBEE EXAMINATION 165 

(c) 1750-1868. Mummadi Krishnadevaraya, Jayarayacharya, Krishna- 
chary a and their works on Vaishnava themes. 

Modern Period Karnata Sahitya Pari^hat formed Publication of and 
criticism on ancient works Translation of Sanskrit plays-Translation of novels 
from foreign languages-Increase of educational and informational literature. 
Impact of western thought and influence of English Literature on Kannada. 
Adoption of dialectical language and blank vor^e for literary composition- 
Attempt at short stories, poems and plays 

Subjects for topical study. 

1. The Kannada country, it boundaries political divisions, population 

and dialects. 

2. Formal changes in ancient, mediaeval and modern Kannada. 

3. (a) Characteristic 1 of Hiodu Parana, Characteristics of Jaina Purana. 
(b) Authors of Hindu Puranas, Authors of Jaiaa Puranas 

4. Jama version of Kamayana, liharatha and Rhagavatha themes. 

5. Kanuada writer- on -cience and arts subjects. 

6. Extent of royal patroragp to Kannada literature. 

7. Some great poetesses 

8. Eminent writers in two language* -Sanskrit and Kannada, Telugu and 

Kannada. 

9. Development of Kannada prose 

10. Volume of Sataka literature 

11. Development of Kannada plays. 

12. Dasakuta literahue and its outstanding characteristic*. 

13. Some popular indigenous metres. 

14. Influence of % Sansknt and English on terminology and technique of 

Kannada compositions. 

15. Leading European ^cholars and their service to Kannada Language 

and Literature. 

9. History of the Tamil Language 

I. General. The origin and meaning of the word " Tamil ". The place of 
Tamil in the Dravidian family of languages, its high antiquity, the geogra- 
phical area where it was spoken in ancient times as referred to by old commen- 
tators, the twelve Sen-Tamil and the twelve Kodura-Tamil Countries. Very 
early cultivation of Tamil as a literary language ; the three Sangams how far 
historical ; Agastyar ; his contribution to Tamil Tolkappiyam ; its importance 
for the study of the language. The extent of Sanskrit influence on Tamil 
Grammar. 

II. The period of Tamil language. (V) The old or Sangam Tamil, (2) the 
mediaeval Tamil and (3) the modern Tamil. Illustrative literature of each 
period. Grammars of the different periods. Tolkappiyam Virasoliyam, and 



i&> THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [C^AP. XL 

Nannul. The difference between the language of the different periods in point 
of vocabulary and grammar. 

III. Language and Dialed. The standard of literary language and the 
spoken language. Their relation and mutual influence. The difference between 
the two. Sen Tamil, Kodum Tamil, lyal, Iiai, Natakam. Tamil Dialects: 
how formed. Different localities and different classes of people in the same 
locality have different dialects. Are dialects discernible in ancient literary 
works ? 

IV. Tht Alphabet (a} The Script Its gradual development. Vattehittu, 
the grantha Tamil characters their geographical distribution, origin and history. 
The relation of Viitteluttu and grantha Tamil characters to Brahmi. The lorm 
of Tamil characters how far determinate from Tolkappiyam and the other 
grammars and commentaries thereon. The dotted e and o. Gradual changes in 
Script Changes credited to Beschi. (6) The sound valuer. How far the 
alphabet is phonetic. Its pronunciation, the spoken sounds, and the written 
symbols. 

V- Phonology. (a) VoweK and their relation to the primitive Dravidiaa 
vowel system. Classification of vowels according to the place of production. 
Diphthongs. Accent and emphasis accent determining change, eduttal (rising 
accent), paduttal (fulling accent), nalital (level or vanishing accent.) The 
influence of accent on Word change and in prosody \ alapedai. Mutation of 
vowels, Vowel harmony, Vowel sandhi glides. 

(o) Consonant^ and their relation to the primitive Dravidian consonants, 
classification of consonants according to the placo of production. History of 
consonantal sounds palatalization, den tahsation, voicing, unvoicing, consonant 
length. Assimilation. Consonantal alapedai. Dialectal interchange of conso- 
nants. Consonantal sandhi. Laws of Tamil syllabation, the initial, the 
medial, the final letters in a word, the difference between Tolkappiyam and 
Nannul on this point. The light thrown by the reles of syllabation on the 
nature of loan words. 

VI. Accidence. (1) Nouns Gender and number ; how mutually expres* 
sive and interdependent. Are Dravidian nouns naturally neuter ? Gender 
prefixes and suffixes the epicene plural as distinguished from the Neuter 
plural, the neuter plural suffixes, double plurals gender and number treatment, 
how they differ in old and modern Tamil. (2) Case, the number of cases and 
Sanskrit influence, the formation of the oblique case, the inflexional base, the 
inflexional increments or augments, their varied uses, the suffixes of the various 
ca^es, their probable origin and history, the uses of the various cases. Old 
Tamil) modern Tamil, how they differ in the formation of cases. 

(2) The Ptonoun Their form in old and modern Tamil, the three 
persons and their plural forms the oblique forms of th pronouns, tht 



SYLS. OR. (vi)] B. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 167 

phonetic relationship between the oblique and the substantive forms of the 
prpnoun. The reflexive pronouns, the demonstrative and tht interrogative 
cases, old and modern forms. Honorific pronouns. 

(3) The Verbs The structure of the verbs, the base, the tense infix and 
the pronominal suffix, classification of verbs into tan-vinai and pira-vinai. 
How far this classification is synonymous with ' transitive ', and 'intransi- 
tive ', the casuals, the modes of forming the casuals and the transitive*. The 
various casual suffixes, reduplication. Appellative verbs. (2) The passive 
voice, the history of padu } the different modes of expressing the passive signifi- 
cance and of negative particles in old and modern Tamil. (3) The imperative 
form of the verb, how the infinite is formed, the various suffixes in old and 
modern Tamil. The subjunctive how expressed in old and modern Tamil. 
(4) The Tenses : The ten^e infixes (idainilai, the present, the preterite, and 
the future). Is there no referenr-e to the present, tense in the Tolkappiyam ? 
The difference between the old and modern Tamil as regards the tense 
formation. Kirukinrn, t /, r, and in ; and p. and v. their history, phonetic 
relationship etc., and the principles of their use (5) the relative and the verbal 
principle, the suffixes forming them. 

(4) Tht Adjectives and the Adverbs uriceol.l^t adjectival and the 
adverbial participle-, their origin and history. Tht numerals. The cardinals 
and the ordinals and the multiplicatives, the numeral bases mainly adjectival 
in nature, formation of substantive numerals from the case, the principles of 
formation. The double forms such as ir, and ir, mu and mu, etc. their uses and 
the laws governing them. The light thrown by the numerals on the antiquity 
of Tamil. Tht particles (idaiccol), their origin and significance (Interjections) 
and the conjunctive particles. 

VII. Vocabulary. (a) The general character of the Tamil Vocabulary at 
different periods, the i o-calle^ pure Tamil. Borrowing, its causes. Periods of 
borrowing, character, comparative extent of borrowing at each period. Doublets, 
Telugu and Kanarese element, causes of admixture, various periods of entry 
of Telugu and Kanarese words into Tamil. Loss of old words. Nature and 
extent. 

() Sanskrit words; Tatsamas ; San^kritasamas and Prakritasamas. 
Laws of formation. Tadbhavas, Sanvkritahhavas and Prakritabhavas. Laws 
of formation. Period of extensive Prakrita borrowing. Other borrowings, 
Hindi, Portuguese, English, etc., Manipravala style: Hybrids, tests for 
distinguishing loan words. 

VIII. Word building in Tamil (1) By composition, compound words like 
Kadu vay, etc. Several kinds of compounds or tokai : Ummai Uvamai, etc. 
(2) by derivation, the various suffixes used to form nouns, verbs, adjectives and 
adverbs, etc. (3) Root-creation, bank formation, double bases like, nai, nan, etc. 



168 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XL 

Old and modern Tamil compared as regards the capacity to foim new words and 
also the method of forming the word p . 

IX. Semantics. Changes in the meaning and usage Elevation, degrada- 
tion, specialisation and generalisation of native and foreign Words. 

X. Syntax. Order of words in a sentence. The difference hetween 
Poetry any Prose as regards syntax. Deviations from the normal order of words 
in a sentence and their ca\r es. Sanskritic constructions in Tamil. 

10. History of Tamil Literature. 

/. Introductory Definition of Literature. Literature as reflection of a 
nation's life. Influence of political, religious and social conditions on literature. 
The Tamil people and their language. 

The three divisions of ancient Tamil learning lyal, Isai and Natakam, 

*. Pre-hi*torical literature The story of the submerged land and of the 
Mudal and Tdai Sangams. Aga^tva, father of Tamil learning historicity of his 
personality-Ms disciples, and his work^. 

,?. The Sangam Age : General 

Different views regarding the date of the Sangam Age. Sen- Tamil and 
Kodum Tamil lands. The Cera, Sola and Pandyan kingdoms. Feudatory states- 
Political, social and religious conditions of the period Aryan influences on the 
language and literature of the land. 

Tolkappiyam \ Its sources dlvi-ion-, it> place in the history of Tamil 
grammar Porulaitkaram a mirror of the culture and civilisation of the times, 

Sangam wtrks Their division -chronology of Sangam works-selection 
of subject matter-Agam and Puram. Metres-absence of painam stories and tales 
in the work*. 

History of the Cera, Sola and Pandya kingdoms- the seven vallals. 
4. The Sangam works in their historical settings. 

(a) Pattupatttt or the Ten Idvlls Nakkirar, Mangudi Marudanars, 
Mutumokkaniyar, Rudran Kannanar, Nattattanar, Perunkou>ikanar, Kapilar, 
Napputanar. 

(b) Ettutoffai or the Eight Anthologies-their compilers and their patrons- 
Narrinai, Kuruntogai, Ainkurummt, Patirruppattu, Paripadal, Kaiitogai, 
Agananuru, Purananuru 

(c) Pttinen-kil-kanakkii or the Eighteen Minor works-Naladiyar, Nammani- 
kadigai, Karnarpatu, Kalavali-narpatu, Inia-narpatu, Inna-narpadu, Ainthinai, 
Thiru-kural, Tiru-Kidugttm. Asara-kovai, Palamoli. Siru-panca-mulam, 
moli kanci, Elathi, r ,Innilai-narpatu. 



SYLS. GR f (vl)] B.A. (PJLSB) DEGREE BXAMIWATIOK 169 

(d) Some Sangam potts-Kapilar, Parantr, Avvai, Nakkirar tad Thiru* 

vallavar. 

() Women in the Sangam age-Royal poets-Wandering minlstrels. 

/, Tht agt of Bud d hi ttt and Jain* : Their entry into the Tamil land* 
literary and traditional evidences their first homes archaeological remains- 
Jain caves and Buddhist monasteries their doctrines. South Indian school of 
Jainism and Buddhism. 

Jain and Buddhittic wtrkt : 

(a) Among the major kavya*, Silappadhikaram, Manimekalai, Jivaka* 
Cintamani. 

(b) Among the minor kavyas, Nilakesi, Sutammani, Utayanam katat. 

(c) Perun-katai. 

(d) Meruuantira-Puranam. 

(e) Lexicons. Divakaram and Pinkalantai. 

(f) Vajranandi's Tamil Sangam religious persecutions-contributions to 
Tamil language and literature-condition of the Tamil music and drama. 

(g) Beginnings of Prose- Admixture of Sanskrit and Prakrit words-Mani- 
pravala style. 

(h) Metrical change s-introducti-on of pa-ineams. 

6. Tht agt oj Ttligio** revival \ 6th to 10th century A.D. 

(a) Tirumandiram by Tirumular other early Nayanars and Alwars. 

(b) The four Saiva-samaya-acharyas their dates and their works-Tevaram, 
Tirvvacakam and Tirukovaiyar. 

(c) The twelve Alwars-their dates and their works. 

(d) Panniru-tirumurai and the four-thousand divine psalms, their compila- 
tion and their contents. 

(e) Pattinathar. 

(f) Kalladanar. 

(g) Perundevaaar's Bharatam. 

7. Grammanan*\ Iraiyanar Ahapporul and its annotationt-their dates- 
Pnrapporul Ventramalai by Aiyanar-iianar- Ahapporul Vilakkam by Narkavi- 
raja Mambi-Yapparum-kalam and Karikai by Gunasagarar-Nannul by Paya- 
nanthy-Virasoliyum by Buddhamitrinar-Neminatham by Ounavirapandithar. 

8. Lattr Choi a ptritd littraturttotk to nth ttHlnri*/ : 
JCtmlan, his Ramayana and other works-his date-his contemporaries, 
Otttk*th**-\dt date-his works. 



THB ANDHRA UNIYBR8ITY CODE -VOL. II [OHAP, XL 



Religious works and their authors \ Nambiandar Nambi, Sekkilar, Kachiappa 
Sivacaryar. 

Prabhandt works- Ulas, Paranis, Pallus. 
Music and drama of the age. 

g. Siddhanta works, 13th and 14th centuries. Santana kuravars and their 
works-Meikanda, Arillnandi, Umapathy and Marainanasambandar. 

to. Commentators; Ilampurnar-Peramytr, Senavarayar, Naccinarkkiniyar, 
Adiyarkunallar, Parimelalagar' Sankaranarnasivayar. 

//. Mutts and their contributions to the growth of Tamil-literature. Tiru- 
vavaduturai, Dharmapuram, Tirupanandal. Some authors-Swaminathadesikar, 
Sivananamunivar, Kumaraguruparar and their works. 

12. ith and i6th Centuries A.D. Kalameghar, Irattayar-Niramba-Alagiya 
desikar-Ativira-rama-pandya-Varathunga Pandya and their works. 

Villiputturar-Bharatam. 

Arunagiri and his works. 

Paranjoti-Thiruvilayadalpuranam. 

Poyyalamolipulavar, Virakavirayar, Mandalapurusar, Thayumanavar. 

fj. jfth and iSth Centuries A.D. Age of prabhandams and puranams. 
Pillaiperumal Aiyang^r, Padikkasupulavar, Nalla-pillai. 
Muhammadan and European po2t<>. 

/^. jqth Century A D. Minakshisundaram Pillai, Ramalingaswamigal and 
other poets. 

IS> The modern age Tendencies modern prose-political Writings-drama 
and 'novels-influence of western literature on Tamil-research- Work of modern 
Universities-Tamil journalism-some modern personages. 

Books for consultation, 

1. Tamil Litetature by M. S. Purnalingam Pillai. 

2. Tamil Varalaru by K. Srinivasa Pillai. 

" 3 Tamil Ilakkiya Varalaru by K. Subrahmanya Pillai. 

4. Tamil of the Sangam Age and 'Later Times Mahamahopadhyaya 

Dr. V. Swaminatha Ayyar. 

5. Tam\l 1,800 years ago Kanagasabhai Pillai. 

6. Pulavar Charitram Kumaraswami Pulava.r, 



OR. (vi)] B.A. (PASS) DBGKBB EXAMINATION 171: 

11. Early South Indian History. 

(As a related subject to Telugu, Tamil or Kannada) 

1. The limits of the Andhra Country Early inhabitants and their 
civilisation The Aryan expansion Southwards. The Mauryan rule and its 
influence. 

2. The Andhras ; th^ir original home; their early history; Andhras 
in the Puranas ; the latter Andhras ; the extent of the empire and its division ; 
religion, literature etc. under the Andhras ; break up of the Andhra Empire. 
Contact with the outside world commerce and colonisation 

3. The Andhra country ajter the break up of the Andhra Satavahana 
Empire.The Pallavas The Chutus The Abhiras The Vithnukundinv The 
Salankayanas--The Vakat.ik.ir Samndragupta's invasion The Gangas of 
Kalinga. 

4. The Chalukyas. Their conquest of Vengi The Eastern Chalukyan 
kingdom Rajaraja Relation with the Cholas. The Cholas in the Andhra coun- 
try Kulottung a and his successors The Chola feudatories The Velanate 
Chodas The Telugu Chodaj:. 

5. The Kakatiyas. Foundation of the Kakatiya Power, Prola-Prataparudra 
transfer of capital to Warrangal Mahadeva Ganapati Kudrama Piataparudra 
II Muhammadan invasion in his reign Krishna, his son, the last ruler of the 
dynasty. 

The Reddis of Kondavidu The Reddis of Rajahmundry. 

6. The Muhammadan invasions and the foundation of Vijayanagar. 
Muhammadan invasions of South India; their character, extent, and result^ 
the empire of Muhammad Tughlak, Muhammadan possessions south of the 
Vindhyas ; Hindu struggle Vijayanagar and the Bhamani kingdoms. 

7* Vijayanagar under the first dynasty. The first dynasty, Harihara and 
Bukka r the wars of the latter; Harihara II, assumption of Imperial titles and 
responsibility; relations with the Bhamani kingdom under Harihara and his 
successors; the Bhamani wars and their character; Devaraya II, the greatest 
ruler of the first dynasty; the city and the empire under him ; rise of Orissa ; 
alliance between Orissa and Bhamani kingdom ; Devaraya'e successors ; condi- 
tion of the empire. 

8. Vijayanagar under the Saluvas and the Tuluvas.ThQ rise of the 
Saluvas, their position in the empire; the Bhamani and Orissa invasions; Saluva 
Narasinga ; his services to the empire, Nat; as a, de facto ruler ; his ton Nara- 
sirohaa II and general rebellion in .the empire ; accession of Krishna J>evaraya ; 
the condition of the Bhamani Kingdom during this period ; wars against the 



178 THE ANDHBA tTIflVBRSlTY COOHVOL. II [OHAP. XL 

Bhtmtni kingdom and the Raiehur ; the condition of hit later administration ; 
rise of Achyuta's brothers-in-law, the elder empire ; rebellions in the empire 
and last years of Krishna. Achyuta's restoration of order in the empire, 
character of his and the younger Tirumala ; Sadasira ; the rale of the brothers 
Rama, Tirumala and Venkata. 

9. Vijayanagar under the de fact* ruff of the brother*. Sadasiva, the 
nominal ruler; relations with the Bharaani kingdom ; condition of the distant 
south; " fishery coast" and Travancore ; foundations of the Naykaship of 
Madura ; the Portuguese ; Talikota and its results ; condition of the empire. 

10. The later Empire at PtnuktnJa.Tb* new empire atPenukonda; 
Tirumala; the successors of Tirumala; division of the empire; Sriranga 
empire ; his struggle against the advance of Muhammadans ; the empire reunited 
under Venkata ; disaffection in the southern provinces; wars against the 
Muhammadans ; end of the Viceroyalty of Seringapatam ; foundation of Mysore; ' 
death of Venkata. 

11. The Decline and fait of the Vijayanagaf Empire. War of succession; 
the weakened condition of Vijayanagar ; the province of the empire ; Gingt, 
Tanjore, Madura, Mysore, and Ikkeri, the advance of the Mughal in the Dek- 
khan ; precarious condition of the Vijayanagar empire ; the last emperor. 
Sriranga ; his struggle for a united empire ; end of the empire. 

12. Early Indian History. 

(As a related subject to Sanskrit or Pali.) 

1. Physical configuration of India. Natural divisions Mountains Rivers 
The Sea Deserts Production Position in the rest of the worldHistorical 
influence of these factors. 

2. People of India the aborigines The civilisation of the Indus Valley 
The Dravldiaas Aryans Persians Greeks Sakas Yuechi*~Huns Muslim 
invaders. 

8. Age of the Rig Veda geographical data and their significance- 
Tribe's and Tribal warfare Political organisation Social customs and 
distinctions-fcoccnpations and groups Vedic gods- Pantheism -Beginnings of 
Monotheism. 

4. The Later Vedic Age The later Vedas The Brahman as The 
Aranyakas The Upantshads Extension of Aryan civilisation Changes in 
social conditions The system of Caste Government and the administration-* 
Industry, Arts and Science Religion and Philosophy Chronology of the 
Vrtfe Literature. 



SYLS. OR. (Vi)] B. A. (PASS) DB&RBB BXAMIHATIOlf 1*8 

5. The Sutras Epics Puranas Social and Political conditions as reflected 
in them The rise of new religions Jainism and Mahavira Buddhism and 
Gautama Buddha. 

6. Political conditions in the Buddhist age The rise of Mag adha The 
Saisunagas. The Nandas Invasion of Darius Invasion of Alexander the Great 
Effects of these invasions. 

7. The Mauryan Empire Sources Chandragupta Kautilya Bindusara 
Atoka His service to Buddhism The Mauryan system of administration- 
Downfall of the Mauryan Empire. 

8. The Period of many Kingdoms The Sangas The Kanvas The 
Andhras Indo- Greek and Indo-Parthian Kingdoms The Kushans and 
Kanishka His empire Religion Art Alleged influence of Hellenism on 
Ancient Indian Culture. 

9. The Gupta Empire Samudragupta and his conquests Chandragupta 
II. Vikramaditya The Western Satraps The later Guptas The Huns The 
decline of the Empire The glories of the Gupta Age Literature Kalidasa 
Art and Science Trade The Beginnings of Modern Hinduism The Travels 
of Pahien. 

10. The Empire of Harsha HU conquests His religious Policy The 
travels of Hiuen Tsang Buddhism in its decline. 

11. The History of the Deccan The Andhras The Chalukyas Pulikesin 
II The Rashtrakatas The later Chaluky as Jainism and Buddhism Their 
decay The Yadavas The Kakatiyas Hemadri. 

12. The History of South India Early Tamil Civilisation The Three 
kingdoms The period of Pallava Supremacy The Choi as and their Empire 
The Pan dy as The Cheras The Hoystlas Intercourse with the West and the 
Fat East. 

13. Mediaeval Kingdoms of the North The Rajaputi Their origin-** 
Kashmir and its history Raj atarangini The Gurjara Pratihara Kingdom 
Bbavabhuti and Rtjasekhara Delhi and Ajmere Paramaras and Bhoja 
The Palas and the Senas. 

14. Religious and cultural movements Decay of Buddhism Bhagava* 
tism Pnianic Hinduism Siva and Vishnu Cults Saakara and Ramanuja. 

15. Indian Hiatory. 

(As a related subject to Urdu). 

AT..-~Each of the periods marks a stage in the growth and development 
of the Urdu language and literature. 



174 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE YOL. It [CHAP. XL 



First Peritdwri'jot'&arly Urdu. 

1. Preliminary. -The early Muslim invasions from the North-Weit. The 
Sultanate of Delhi, particularly under Khilji and Tughlak dynasties. The early 
impact of Muslim civilization on India, and the evolution of the Urdu language 
in North India and in centres of Muslim Military camps in the Deccan. The 
fall of the Sultanate of Delhi before the Moghuls. The Early Moghul Kings 
Sher Shah and his reforms Akbar and his Policy Persian as the court 
language Literary and religious movements and their effect. The latter three 
Moghuls Their policy Causes of the decline of the Moghul Empire. 

2. The Muslim Kingdom of the Deccan. The rise of the Bhamani 
dynasty. The break-up of the Bhamani dominions into separate independent 
kingdoms - Imad Shahi dynasty of Berar : the Nizam Shabi of Ahmednagar ; 
the Adil Shahi of Bijapur ; the Band Shahi of Bidar ; and the Qutub Shahi 
of Oolkonda. Their piecemeal annexation -to the Moghul Empire. The 
fostering of the Urdu language at the courts of the Deccan and the patronage 
of the Early Urdu (Dekhani) literature in Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Golkonda. 

Second Period 1708-1857 Development of Urdu. 

The break-up of the Moghul Empire. Provincial centres of Indian Muslim 
culture ; Hyderabad Deccan, Lucknow, Mur^hidabad (Bengal) and Arcot. 
The growing power of the Sikhs, the Maharattas and the Bast India 
Company. The Third Battle of Panipat and its effects on the MabaratU 
ascendency. The battle of Buxar and tht strengthening of the power of the 
East India Company. The annexation of the Carnatic. The fall of Tippu 
Sultan. The establishment of the British supremacy in 1818. The annexation 
of Oudh. The Mutiny, 1857. The death of the last Moghul emperor 1862. 

Third Period 1838-1920 Modern Urdu. 

The Queen's Proclamation. The Viceroys (Canning to dhelmsford). The. 
material and moral advancement of the country. The influx of western 
ideals and their reaction on the thought and life of the people and on 
their literature. The foundation of the Universities. The Panting Press and 
the progress of Urdu literature. The use and development of journalism in 
India. Minto-Morley Reforms, 1900. Effects of the Great War on Indian 
thought and culture. Montford Reforms, 1919. 

14. EnglUh. 

The speaking apparatus of man and how it functions the sounds of 
English vowels and consonants how produced and how they may be 
analysed diphthongs and glides syllable accent and melody in speech- 
English spelling and its defects pihonetic alphabet and phonetic transcrip- 
tionthe problem of sound changeanaiogy-i-standaid language and 
dialects. 



SYLS- OB. (vi)] B.A. (PASS) OTGBBB EXAMINATION 175 

English in relation to other languages of the Indo-European family as 
determined by comparison and reconstruction the Germanic Branch And its 
principal features the great consonant shifting* Verner's 



The Old English period sounds and spellingThe main qualitatire 
and quantitative changes Fracture, mutation and lengthening of rowels the 
principal dialectal divisions the language of Alfred the Great. 

The Middle English period Old English sounds in Middle English new 
diphthongs vowels in unstressed syllables French influence in English 
spelling the language of Chaucer the dialect of London the slow evolution 
of a standard language. 

Modern English period the great vowel shift the language of 
Shakespeare changes in consonant sounds lengthening and shortening of 
vowels. 

English inflections their variety and richness in Old English how they 
develop in Middle English and survive in living English strong and weak 
verbs. 

English vocabulary extraordinary mixed the various elements in it 
native and foreign Loans in old English and Latin new influences in late 
old English and Middle English periods Scandinavian and French loan 
words in Modern English French, Greek, etc. Changes of meaning. 

Syntax of English Evolution of it Synthetic and analytic structure 
word order. 

15. Music. 

In addition to the Intermediate syllabus, the course shall include the 
following : 

Theory. 

1. Indian music and its place amongst the musical systems of the world. 
The distinctive features of Indian Music. 

2. Acoustics. Production and transmission of sound Waves. Reflection 
of sound waves and echoes. Resonance Sympathetic vibration. Scales of 
just intonation and equal temperament' Melody and harmony. Absolute 
pitch and relative pitch. Model shift of tonic. Acoustics of muuc halls. 
Gramophone and the radio. 

3. Physiological acoustics. Larynx and the ear. Types of Sarira. 

4. Detailed knowledge of the notation used in the South Indian music. An 
outline knowledge of the staff notation. 



1T6 THE ANDHRA tJKIVlBSITT OODB yOL. H [CRAP. XL 

5. Art music and folk muiic. Musical forms and their classification. 
Lakshana of tht principal musical forms. Musical forms figuring in the operas, 
dance. music and sacred music. An outline of the knowledge of the older 
musical forms. Folk music and its characteristics. 

6. Musical prosody. 

7. A detailed knowledge of the talas used in South Indian music. 

8. Systems of raga classification in rogue, Raga lakshana in general; 
Study of the trayodasa lakshanas mentioned for ragas in the Sanskrit works of 
music. Detailed knowledge of the 72 Melakarta scheme, the nomenclatures of 
Venkatamakhi and Govindacharya, for the 72 melas. Katapayadi formula and 
its application. 

9. Detailed Lakshanas and sancharas of the following 25 ragas : 

Asaveri. Kedaragaula. Punnagavarali. 

Yadukulakamboji. Gaulipantu. Hamsadhyani. 

Bauli. Kedaram. Chakravakam. 

Malayamarutam. Nilambari. Deragandhari. 

Saurashtram. Atana. Ritigaula. 

Varali. Nata. Kharaharapriya. 

Purvakalyani. Sriranjaai. Shanmukhapri ya. 

Huseni. Saranga. Natakuranji. 
Sunhendramadhyamam. 

10. Twenty two srutis and discussions relating thereto. Nomenclatures for 
22 srutis. Gamakas and alankaras. 

11. Manodharma sangita and its forms. Raga alapana paddhati and 
Kalpana swara rendering. 

12. Musical appreciation. Styles in musical compositions. Critical study 
of two kritis each of Thyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshitar and Syama Sastry, and 
one kriti each of any six of the other composers mentioned in para 15.- 

13. Musical instruments and their classification. Knowledge of the princi- 
pal concert instruments including their construction. The tuning of Vina, 
Violin and Thambura. 

14 Origin and development of scales. Systems of raga classification and 
their evolution, from the Grama-Murcbana Jati system to the modern classifi- 
v cation of raga< Musical forms and their evolution. History of musical 
instruments. 

15. Biographies of the following composers and their contribution towards 
the development of South Indian music : 

Jayadtva, Talapakkam Chlnnayya, Purandara Das, Tirtha Narayana Swami, 

m.*).^V.1. T>__.J. IT .!***..** C. .../._*-.! B_i.l_1*, /^..M.MnoAt.J C.-A.t 



STLS. GR. (vi)] B. A. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 177 

Ramaswami Dikshitar, Thyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshitar, Syama Sastri, 
Subbaraya Sastri, Swati Tirunal, Muvvalur Sabhapati Aiyar, Pachimiriam 
Adiyappiah, Pallavi Gopalayya, Vina Kuppayyer, Anayya, Subrahmanya 
Kavi, Gopalakrishna Bharati, Karur Dakshinamurthi Sastri, Pallavi Sesha 
Aiyer, Mysore Sadasiva Rao, Tiruvothiyur Thyagayyer, Patnam Subrahmanya 
Iyer, Dharmapuri Subba Rao, Ramnad Srinivasa lyengar, Pattabhi Ramayya, 
and Thachur Singaracharlu. 

16. An outline knowledge of the substance of the following works on 
music : 

Bharata's Natya Sastra (Musical Chapters only). 
Sarangadeva's Sangeeta Ratnakara (Chaps. 1 and 2 only). 
Ramamatya's Svvaramelakalunidlii (Swara and Raga). 
Venkatamakhi's Chaturdandi Prakasika. 

17. Principal scats of musical learning in South India. The influences of 
exotic music on the development of S. I. Music. 

18. Developments in contemporary music. 

PRACTICAL. 
6 ordinary gitas and 2 lakshana gitas. 

2 Adi tala varnas, 1 Jhampa tala varna, 4 Ata tala varnas and 1 Pada 
varna. 

25 Kirtanas in the ragas pre^cribtd under Theory (paragraph 9 above), 
2 Astapadis, 2 Tarangas, 2 Adhyatma Ramayana Kirtanas. 
4 Padas, 2 Javalis, 1 Ragamahka and two Tillanas. 

The compositions shall be representative of the composers mentioned in 
paragraph 15 above 

Alapana of the 25 ragas prescribed. 

Rendering of Kalpana svaras to compositions in the following 12 ragas : 

Todi, Bhairavi, Kambhojj, Mohana, Sankarabharana, Kalyani, Saveri, 
Madhyamavati, Bilahari, Pantuvarali, Kedaragaula and Atana, 
and in the following talas 

Adi, Rupaka, Tnputa, Chapu and Jhampa. 

In the practical examination the candidates shall offer Vooal music or one 
of the following instruments : 

Vina, Violin, Flute. 

23 



178 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLI 

0andidates excepting those who offer Vina, shall sing or play to tne 
accompaniment of the Thambura. 

Books for Reference, 

Bharata's Natya Sastra, 

Matanga's Brhaddesi. 

Dattila's work on music. 

Narada Siksha. 

Narada's Sangitamakaranda. 

Sarangadeva's Sangita Ratnakara. 

Ramamatya's Svaramelakalanidhi. 

Somanatha's Ragavibodha. 

Ahobila's Sangita Parijata. 

Raghunatha's Sangita Sudha. 

Venkatamakhi's Chaturdandiprakasika. 

Tnlajaji's Sangita Saramruta. 

Govirida's Sangraha Chudamani. 

Sangita Sampradaya Pradarsini by Subbarama Dikshit if 

Tachur Singaracharlu's works, 

Pallavi Svarakalpavalli by Tiruvothiyur Tyagayyar. 

Sankirtana Ratnavali by Tiruvothiyur Tyagayyar. 

Sangita Svara Prastarasagara by Nadamuni Panditar. 

Gana Bhaskara by K. V. Srinivasa lyengar. 

Tyagaraja Hrudayam by K. V. Srinivasa lyengar. 

Sangita Sudhambudhi by K. V. Srinivasa lyengar. 

Satakirtana Svaravali by C. S. Krhlwaswami Iyer. 

Helmholt's Sensations of Tone. 

Sound by Richardson 

Acoustics of Auditoria by Davis and Kaye. 

Music of Hindustan by Kox-Strangways. 

Music of India by H. A. Popley. 

Musical Instruments in the Calcutta Museum by Dr. Meerwarth. 

Madras Museum Bulletin on Musical Instruments. 

South Indian Music I to III by P. Sambaraurti. 

Melakarta. Janyaraga scheme by P. Sambamurti. 

Syama Sastri and other famous figures of South Indian Music by P. Sambammtj. 

Indian Melodies in staff notation by P. Sambamurti. 

Nowkacharitra of Tyagaraja edited by P. Sambamurti. 

Tyagaraja by M. S. Ramaswami Iyer. 

The Journal of the Music -Academy, Madras, 



12] fc. A. (HO&S.) DEkRflK tifcAtal&ATlON 179 

CHAPTER XLI 
B. A. (Rons.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 

(Regulations.) 

1. Candidates for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (Honours) Conditions 
shall be required- Admission 

(i) to have passed the Intermediate Examination in Arts 
and Science of this University or the Intermediate 
Examination of any other Statutory Indian University 
accepted by the Syndicate as equivalent thereto ;* 

(ii) to have undergone subsequently a further course of 
study in the University College as prescribed here- 
under extending over a period of three years, each 
consisting of three consecutive terms ; and 

(iii) to have passed the Examination of the Degree herein- 
after prescribed. 

2. The course for the B.A. (Honours) Degree shall comprise courses of 
instruction in stud y 

Part I : 

(i) English during the first year. 

(ii) A simple course in French or German, or Early South 
Indian History prescribed as a related subject for the 
B.A. (Pass) Degree Examination (under Part III 
Branch VI) in the case of candidates offering Telugu 
Language and Literature under Branch VI, during the 
first year. 
Part II : 

One of the following branches of knowledge during the 

three years : 
I. Mathematics. 
11. Philosophy. 

III. History, Economics and Politics. 

IV. English Language and Literature. 
V. Sanskrit Language and Literature. 

VI. Telugu Language and Literature. 

? foot-note on the first page of Chapter XL. 



180 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLf 

Eligibility # (a) No candidate shall be eligible for the B.A. (Honours) 

I^e re* Degree until he has passed an examination in one of the branches 

of knowledge contained in the courses of study. 

(b) No candidate, other than those hereinafter exempted, 
shall be admitted to Part II examination in Honours unless he has 
passed in Part I. 

The Examination in Part I shall be the examination in English 
of (1) a three hours' paper based on two prescribed text-books one 
for detailed study and the other for non-detailed study, the books 
to be prescribed being of modern publication (the paper shall be the 
same as for B.Sc. Degree examination in Part (I), and (2) a two 
, hours' paper on Translation from French or German into English 
and vice versa in the case of candidates other than those offering 
Branch VI of the Honours Course. Three alternative passages 
shall be aet in different Arts subjects and a three hours' paper on 
Early South Indian History in the case of those offering Branch VI. 
This last paper shall be the same as that under Part ill Group (vi) 
B.A. (Pass) Degree Examination. 

A candidate for the B.A. Honours examination may present 
himself for Part I Examination (i.e. in English and Translation 
or Early South Indian History) at the end of the first year of the 
course and thereafter at his option present himself for English or 
Translation or Early South Indian History or English and Transla- 
tion or Early South Indian History, provided that candidates who 
obtain qualifying marks for a Pass in either English or Translation 
or Early South Indian History need appear again in that subject in 
which they failed. 

A candidate shall be declared to have passed in Part I if he 
obtains not IPPH than 40 per cent in each of the papers on English, 
Translation and Early South Indian History. All other candidates 
shall be deemed to have failed in the examination. Successful 
candidates obtaining not less than 60 per cent of marks in each 
subject (i.e., English, Translation in French or German and Early 
South Indian History) shall be declared to have passed with 
distinction in that subject. 



SEC. 3- 6] B. A. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 181 

(c) No candidate shall be admitted to the Examination in 
Part I unless he has passed the Intermediate Examination in Arts 
and Science in this University or an examination in some other 
University recognised by the Syndicate as equivalent thereto. 

Candidates who have passed in French or German under Part II 
in the Intermediate Examination shall not he required to undergo 
the course in French or German prescribed for the Honours Degree 
Examination or to sit for the examination in either language. 

4. Selected Pass Graduates of the University may be allowed Eligibility 
to take the Honours Degree examination after a further period of ^ r | n * U * tCS 
study in the University extending over not less Umn two years, degree 
provided they have passed the B.A. Degree examination in the 

subjects for which they desire to appear. They shall be exempted 
from passing Part I provided they undergo one year's course in 
Frehch or German or, in the case of those taking Branch VI Telugu 
Language and Literature in Early South Indian History. Pass 
graduates of the University taking the Honours Degree Examination 
in Telugu Language and Literature shall be further exempted from 
undergoing the course in Early South Indian History if they 
had passed the corresponding examination in the B.A. Degree 
Examination. 

5. A candidate for the B.A. (Honours) Degree shall appear for period 
Part II Examination in Honours (i) not later than the end of j) U a ri |If e whte * 
the fourth year after he has been admitted to the course or (ii) in should be 
the case of Bachelors of Arts proceeding to the Honours examina- 

tion, not later than three years after commencing the Honours 
Course in the University College. 

6. No candidate shall be permitted to undergo he examination Appearance 
in Part II in Honours more than once. A candidate for Part II only once ; 
examination shall be permitted to withdraw from the examination, after notice 
provided he has not sat for the last paper in the examination and 
provided he has given notice of withdrawal to the Registrar within 

three clear days from the date of the last paper which he answered. 
He shall be permitted to appear again for the examination in Part II 
in the following year without producing any additional certificate 
of attendance. 



1855 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLI 

For purposes of this Regulation, the examination in Part II 
shall be the examination in one of the branches of study (including 
practical examination if any) in Section 2 (iii). 

When B.A. ^* * n *k e event of a candidate for the B.A. (Honours) Degree 

failing to satisfy the examiners he may be recommended by them 
for the B.A. Degree provided that he obtains not less than 33| per 
cent of the total marks and not less than 25 per cent, in each 
division of the examination. 

Failed candi- $ A candidate not already eligible for the B.A. Degree, who 



Pniiit- k av * n 8 failed completely in the B.A. (Honours) Degree examination 
B.A. Pass or after having completed the course becomes ineligible to appear 
nrination ^ or ^ e examination in Part II desires to appear for the B.A. Degree 
examination, shall be allowed to do so without the production of a 
further certificate of attendance in the University College. 

A candidate appearing under this Regulation for the B.A. Degree 

Examination shall appear for all the parts of the examination and 

shall take under Part III the same optional subject which he 

studied for the Honours 'course. 

Subjects for 9. The course in each branch of knowledge shall be as 

Examination < n ii nwH . _ 
and duration I0110WB 

of pP ers BRANCH I MATHEMATICS. 

A candidate shall offer for the Honours examinations in Mathe- 
matics the following 

A. Pure Mathematics. 

(i) Pure Geometry including Protective Geometry. 
(ii) Co-ordinate Geometry of two and three dimensions. 
(iii) Algebra, Theory of Equations and Trigonometry. 
(iv) Differential and Integral Calculus, including Fourier's 
series. 

(v) Elementary Differential Equations. 
(vi) Theory of Functions. 

B. Applied Mathematics. 

(i) Dynamics. 
(ii) Statics. 
(iii) Elements of Vector Analysis. 



SEC. 79] B. A. (HONS.) .DEGREE EXAMINATION 183 

C. -Optional Group. 
Any two of the following subjects : 

(a) Gravitation and Electrostatics, (b) Statistics, (c) Astro- 
nomy, (d) Relativity, (e) Hydrostatics and Hydro- 
dynamics, (f) Theory of vibrations and sound, 
(g) Thermodynamics, (h) Kinetic Theory of Gases, 
(i) Theory of Numbers and (j) Electromagnetism. 

There shall be eight papers for the Honours Degree examina- 
tion. All the papers except that on Theory of Numbers' shall 
be of three hours 1 duration and the paper on ' Theory of Numbers' 
shall be of four hours' duration. Each paper shall carry 150 marks. 
The first two papers shall be on (i) Pure Geometry, (ii) Co-ordinate 
Geometry, and (iii) Algebra, Theory of Equations and Trigono- 
metry ; the third and fourth papers on (iv) Differential and Integral 
Calculus, (v) Differential Equations and (vi) Theory of Functions 
under A above ; the fifth paper on (i) Dynamics ; the sixth pap^r on 
(ii) Statics and (iii) Vector Analysis under B above ; and the 
seventh and eighth selected from C optional group above. 

The scope of the subjects shall be indicated by the syllabuses 
prepared for the purpose. 

BRANCH II PHILOSOPHY. 

A candidate shall offer for the Honours examination in 
Philosophy the following groups : 
I. General Group and 
II. Special Group. 

I. The general group shall consist of the following 
subjects : 

(i) Logic and Theory of Knowledge, 
(ii) Outlines of Indian Philosophy. 

(iii) History of European Philosophy with special 
reference to the systems of Plato, Aristotle, Dee- 
cartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Loke, Berkeley, Hume, 
and Kant. 



184 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLI 

(iv) General Psychology. 

(v) Contemporary Philosophy with special reference 
to a prescribed work. 

(vi) Essay. 

II. The special group shall consist of any one of the following 
sub-groups, A, B or C : 

A. Any two of the following* : 

1. Experimental Psychology and Mental Measurements. 

2. Child and Educational Psychology. 

3. Abnormal Psychology. 

B. Either 

1, Special texts on Advaita Vedanta. 

2. Development of the Advaita doctrine studied from 
Gaudapada's Karika, Sankara's Brahmasutra Bhashya 
and selections from Appayya Dikshita's Siddhanta- 
lesasangraha (Chapter I-Sections 1 to 5, Chapter III 
Sections 1) to 12 and Chapter IV -.Section 5). 

Or 

1. Special texts on Visistadvaita. 

2. Development of the Visistadvaita doctrine. 

C. 1. Ethics. 

2. Social Philosophy or Political Philosophy or Philo- 
sophy of Religion. 

There shall be eight papers for the B.A. (Hons.) examination, 
each of three hours' duration. There shall be six papers one on 
each of the subjects including essay in the General Group and two 
papers one on each of the subjects in the special sub-groups A, B 
or C. The paper on Experimental Psychology and Mental Measure- 
ments in the special sub-group A shall be a practical test which 

*The following change will come into effect as from 19*5 examinations. 

In Chapter XLI (B,A. Hons. Degree Examination), Section 9, under sub- 
group A of the special group under Branch ii-Philosophy, after '3. Abnormal 
Psychology" add "4. Social Psychology." 



SBC). 9 CONTD.] B.A. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 185 

shall comprise (i) practical examination and (ii) viva voce exami- 
nation. At the practical examination candidates must submit to th* 
examiners their class records duly certified by their professors or 
lecturers as a lona-fide record of work done by the candidates. 
The marks for the practical teat shall be distributed as follows ;-~ 
Class records 40 

Practical examination 40 

Viva voce 20 

100 

The scope of the subjects in. the General and Special Sub-groups 
shall be indicated by the books recommended for study or by sylla- 
buses where prescribed. 

BRANCH III. HISTORY, ECONOMICS AND POLITICS. 
(1) A. candidate shall offer for the Honours Examination in 
History, Economics and Politics the following Groups : 
(i) A General Group, and 
(ii) A Special Group. 

(i) The General group shall consist of the following sub- 
jects : 

(a) Indian History any two consecutive periods from 

the following : 

(i) From the earliest times to 1200 A.D. 
(ii) From 1200 A.D. to 1707 A.D. 
(iii) From 1707 A.D. to the present day. 

(b) History of Europe from 1450 A.D.* 

(c) Economics, and 

(d) Politics. 

*The following change -will come into effect as from 1944 examinations : 

SuttHtttte "History of Europe 1500 to 1919 A. D.*' f*r "History of 
Europe from 1460 A.D." 

34 



186 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XIiI 

(ii) The Special group shall consist of the following sab- 
groups : 

(a) History sub-group. 

(b) Economics sub-group. 

(c) Politics sub-group. 

The History sub-group shall consist of : 

(a) A special period or subject of Indian 

History. 

(b) A special period or subject of History 
of Europe. 

(c) A special period or subject of Oriental 

History other than Indian History 
(To be selected from time to time). 

The Economics sub-group shall consist of : 

(a) Modern Economic History with special 

reference to England and India from 
1700 A.D, 

(b) Two subjects relating to different bran- 
ches of Economics to be selected from 
time to time. 

The Politics sub-group shall consist of :- 

(a) History of English Constitution from 

1603 and the Constitution of British India. 

(b) Modern Political Thought (from the French 
Revolution). 

(o) A special subject to be selected from time 
to time. 

(2) A candidate for the B. A. Honours Degree shall undergo a 
course and be examined in-*- 

(a) The subjects constituting the general group ; and 

(b) The subjects constituting any one of three special sub- 
groups. 



. 9 GONTD.] B.A. (HON8.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 18t 

(3) There shall be eight papen for the B.A. (Honours) 
Examination, one paper on each of the subjects comprised in the 
general and the special sub-groups and an Essay. Each paper shall 
carry 100 marks. 

(4) The scope of the subjects in the general and special groups 
shall be indicated by the books recommended for study or by 
syllabuses prepared for the purpose. 

BRANCH VI. TELUGU LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 

(I) A candidate shall offer for the Honours Examination in 
Telugu Language and Literature the following : 

(a) A General part, and 

(b) A Special part. 

(a) The General part shall consist of (i) prescribed 
text- books bearing on the different periods of 
Telugu Literature ; (ii) the history of Telugu 
Literature or the history of the Telugu Language 
both of a less advanced character than those 
under the Special part candidates taking the 
literary course under the Special part shall take 
the history of the Telugu Language and those 
taking the Linguistic course shall take the 
history of Telugu Literature under this head ; 
(iii) Telugu Grammar, Prosody and Poetics ; 
(iv) Elementry Sanskrit and Elementary Prakrit 
Grammar ; and (v) Essay. 

(&) The Special part shall consist of either a distinctly 
literary course or distinctly linguistic course. 

The course under the literary group shall consist of the 
following subjects : 

(i) History of Telugu Literature, 
(ii) Principles of literary and textual criticism, 
(iii) Intensive study of the literature of a prescribed period* 
The course under the linguistic group shall consist of the 
following subjects : 

(i) History of Telugu Language. 



188 THE ANDHBA UNIVBfcSlfY OODfe Vot. II [btiAP. 3til 

(ii) Dravidian Grammar and Principles of Comparative 
Philology. 

(iii) Phonetics and Dialectal study of a prescribed period or 
portion of the Teiugu country. 

(2) There shall be eight papers for the Honours Examination 
five papers under the General part and three under the Special 
part. Each paper shall be of three hours' duration and shall carry 
100 marks each. The subjects for the several papers shall be 
arranged as follows : 

General Part 

(i) Poetry and Drama, 
(ii) Prose and History of Language or the History of 

Literature. 

(iii) Teiugu Grammar, Prosody and Poetics, 
(iv) Elementary Sanskrit and Elementary Prakrit Grammar. 
,(v) Essay. 

Special Part 

Literary Group : 

(i) History of Teiugu Literature, 
(ii) Principles of literary and textual criticism, 
(iii) Special period of Teiugu Literature. 

Linguistic Group : 
(i) History of the Teiugu Language, 
(ii) Dravidian Grammar and Principles of Comparative 

Philology, 
(iii) Phonetics and Dialectal study. 

Marks qntli- 10. A candidate shall be declared to have taken Honours in 

one * fche Branches of Knowledge for the B.A. Honours Degree if 
he obtains not less than 40 per cent of the total marks and not less 
than 30 per pent in each division of the examination, provided 
candidates taking Honours in Branch VI .Teiugu Language and 
Literature shall obtain not less than 35 per cent in each division 
and also a special ininimnm of 30 per cent for the two papers on 
Telngu Grammar, Prosody and Poetics and Elementary Sanskrit 
and Elementary Prakrit Grammar taken together under the 



EO. 10-11;) B.A. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 189 

General part. The divisions in the several branches shall be as 
follows : 

BRANCH I M ATHEM ATICS. 
(i) Pure Mathematics ; and 

(ii) Applied Mathematics and the subjects under C Option- 
al group. 

BRANCH II PHILOSOPHY. 

(i) The general group of subjects ; and 
(ii) The special sub-group of subjects. 

BRANCH III HISTORY, ECONOMICS AND POLITICS, 
(i) The general group of subjects ; 
(ii) The special sub-group of subjects ; and 
(iii) Essay. 

BRANCH Vf TELUGU LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 
(i) The general part ; and 
(ii) The special part. 

11. Candidates obtaining Honours shall be ranked in the order Classifica- 
of proficiency as determined by the total marks obtained by each g^^/g^ 
and shall be arranged in three classes : candidates 

The^rs^, consisting of those who obtain not less than 60 per 
cent ; the second, of those who obtain not less than 50 per cent ; 
and the thirch of those who obtain not less than 10 per cent of the 
total marks* 

SYLLABUSES 

PART I 
French 

First Term : The Alphabet and sounds. Pronunciation. Elementary 
Grammar. The articles, simple verbs and the more usual nouns and adjectives 
with their genders. Easy sentence and phrase drill. 

Second Term : Exercises in Translation. The auxiliaries and the more 
frequent regular and irregular verbs (pouvior, fallior, vouloir etc.) The peculia- 
rities of the four conjugations. The use of the Perfect, Imperfect and Preterite 
tenses. Idioms and Groupes figes taken exclusively from the text-books prescrib- 
ed for a particular examination. Written Translations and Explanations of 
texts, 



19U THE AKDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLI 

Third Term : Training in rapid translation at sight ; graded exercises of 
unseen passages-preferably from works pertaining to their subject. Revision of 
the important elements of Grammar syntax. Peculiarities of the Subjunctive and 
other moods which entail difficulty in translation. 

German 

First 7 erm : The Alphabet and sounds. Elementary Grammar ; the 
articles, vocabulary of simple verbs, nouns and other words with due regard to 
their frequency ; easy sentence and phrase drill. 

Second Term: Exercises in translation from text; complex and compound 
sentences made up of gerundial and participle classes ; familiarisation of more 
complicated forms of construction, regular, irregular, separable and inseparable 
verb>, idioms and set phrases taken exclusively from text-books proscribed for a 
particular examination, enlargement of vocabulary, use of dictionary. 

Third Term: Training in visual mental translation, graded exercises of 
unseen passage : grouping of students according to subject and making them 
translate extract^ from publications pertaining to their special subjects ; revision 
of the most important elements 

PART II 
Mathematics 

A PURE MATHEMATICS 
1 and 2 Pure and Analytical Geometry 
* (a) Plane Geometry. 

The metrical properties of the point, the straight line, the circle the 
parabola, the ellipse and hyperbola treated by pure geometric methods, by 
means of Cartesian co-ordinates, polar co-ordinates and trilinear and areal 
co-ordinates. 

Cross ratios, Harmonic ranges and pencils. Involution ranges and pencils. 
Perspective. Principle of duality. Reciprocation with respect to conies. 
Line co-ordinates, application of tangential equations to conies Projection 
Imaginary points and lines. Circular points and line- Projective properties 
of conies. Invariants of conies and the corresponding geometric relations. 

*The following w ui come into effect as from the examinations of 1944 : - 

(1) In Chapter XLI [B.A. (Hons ) Degree Examination] of the Code, 
Volume II, add the following as a fresh paragraph at the end of the existing 
syllabus on (a) Plane Geometry :- 

(i) Th,e treatment of Homogeneous co-ordinates with special reference to 
trilinear and areal co-ordinates, (ii) the P conic and the F conic. 



MATHEMATICS] B.A. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 191 

(*) Solid Geometry : 

The line, Plane and the regular solids treated by pare geometric methods. 

Analytic Geometry oj three dimensions with cartesian co-ordinates : 

The straight line, the plane, the sphere, the cone, the quadrics, their 
plane sections and generating lines. Confocal quadrics. The reduction of the 
general equation of the second degree. (Standard as in Bell's Co-ordinate 
Geometry of three Dimensions.) Curvature and torsion of space curves, indi- 
cutrix of a surface principal sections and radii of curvature. 

3. Algebra and Theory of Equations including Trigonometry. 
Inequalities and limits. Convergence and divergence of series and of 
infinite products. Binomial and Exponential Theorems. Logarithmic series. 
Summation of series. Theory of numbers. Elementary propositions in 
Probability. (Standard as in C. Smith's Algebra.) 

/ 

\Theory of Equations. Relation between the roots and coefficients. 

Symmetric functions of the roots, transformation of equations, binomial and 
reciprocal equations, properties of derived function, Rolle's theorems. 
Location of the roots. Sturm's theorem. Solution of numerical equations 
by Horner's method. Graphical solution of equations. Determinants and 
Elimination (Standard as in Burnside and Panton'^ Theory of Equations.) 

Plane Trigonometry : Fuller treatment of the B.A. (Pass) course. 

Properties of triangles and quadrilaterals. Complex numbers. De Moivre's 
Theorem and applications. Factorisation. Infinite series. Convergence of 
complex series. The power series Trigonometrical expansions. Determina- 
tion of ||Summation of series. Elementary properties of hyperbolic functions. 
Convergence of infinite products. Expressions for the Sine and Cosine as 
infinite products (Standard as in Loney's Trigonometry and treatment as in 
Hobson's Trigonometry.) 



* The following will come into effect as from 1944 examinations : 

Add the following as a fresh paragraph after the first paragraph under 
(3) Algebra and Theory of Equation* including Trigonometry : 
(i) Simple and recurring continued fractions. 
(ii) Indeterminate equations of the 1st and 2nd degrees. 

fin the paragraph relating to "Theory of Equations," add the following 
after the comma after the words " reciprocal equations " in line 3 of the 
paragraph 

" Algebraic solution (a) of the cubic, () of the biquadratic (Descarte's 
method), Fourier and Sudan's Theorem on the location of roots. 



192 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY OODB VOL. II [OHAP, 

4. Differential and integral Calculus and Inflite Series and Integrals. 

Functions of one real variable. Derivatives general theorems and rules 
for differentiation, repeated differentiation. Leibnitz's theorem. General 
theorems concerning derivatives. Rolle's theorem, mean value theorem . 
Geometrical applications of derivatives. Integration as the operation inverse to 
differentiation, standard forms and processess of integration. The general 
mean value theorem of the differential calculus, applications to maxima and 
minima, to evaluation of limits, and to contact of plane curves, Envelopes, 
Taylor's series, convergence of the standard Taylor series. Integration of 
bounder functions according to Riemann, integrability of continuous functions 
and monotonic functions, the fundamental theorem of the integral calculus. The 
first and second mean value theorems of the integral calculus. Functions, 
denned by the definite integrals, their continuity, differentiation and integration. 
Application- of definite integrals. 

Functions of several real variables continuity. Implicit functions, idea of 
their existence (without proof), Partkl derivatives, differentiation implicit 
functions and composite functions, Euler's theorem on homogeneous functions 
Taylor's theorem for functions of several variables, simple applications to 
maxima and minima, and to the finding of singular points and asymptotes, of 
algebraic curves. Double integrals, line integrals, surface integrals, and triple 
integrals evaluation in simple cases. Green's theorem, Geometric applications 
of multiple integrals. 

Infinite Series and Infinite Integrals : 

Series of positive terms. 

Simpler tests of convergence. Series of positive and negative terms, Abel's 
and Dinchtet's te.ts. Absolute convergence, effect of change of order of 
terms on sum. Absolutely convergent double series. Multiplication of 
absolutely convergent series. 

Series of variable terms \ Uniform convergence, Weierstrass's M-test, chief 
properties of uniformly convergent series as regards continuity, differentiation 
and integration. Fundamental properties of power series, standard power 
series. Fourier series of bounded functions with a finite number of maxima 
and minima and a finite number of discontinuities. Infinite products, the 
standard infinite products. 

* Infinite integrals: Functions defined by infinite integrals. Uniformly 
convergent integrals, their continuity, sufficient conditions for differentiating 
and integrating under the sign of integration, limple applications to the 
evaluation of infinite integrals. 

The following change will come into effect at from the 1944 examinations 
Add the words " Improper Integrals " at the end of the paragraph under 
Infinite integrals, 



SYLS. If AflttfcMATX08] B. A. (HOlfS.) DEfcBflB EXAMINATION 193 

5. Differential Equation*. 

(a} Ordinary Differential Equationt involving two variaotet : 
Formation of differential equations, character of solutions, geometrical 
meaning of differential equations. 

Equation* of Jlrtt order. Variables separable, linear equation, Berno- 
ulli's equation, homogeneous equation, one variable absent, AfJx + tfdy=0. 
integrating factors and their discovery in simple cases. Equations of 'n'th 
degree that can be resolved into component equations of 1st degree, equations 
solvable for x or for y, Calairaut's form. Singular solutions, the t and 
C discriminants, geometric interpretation. 

Linear equations with constant coefficients ; Euler's linear equations. 
Exact equations. 

The equation / n) */ (x),y (n) =/ <jy),/ (n) */ [ y (n "" 1) j . 

y ^ u 'mf \y * ' j . Depression of order when one variable is absent. 

Squat ion* of tecond order. The complete solution in terms of known 
integral relation between integrals. Geometric applications, finding of curves 
with given properties, trajectories. 

ft) Ordinary Differential Equation* involving ;?*** than two 

Variables. 

Simultaneous linear differential equations, the equation dx | P=dy \ Q^ 
dz | K and its geometrical interpretation. Total differential equations (with 
three variables), the condition of integribility, geometric interpretation of the 
equation and its solution. 

(c) Partial Differential Equation*. 

Their derivation, classification of integrals of partial differential equation 
Hp + Qq-R. Charpit's method. The standard forms. 

6. Theory of Functions. 

Preliminary. Irrational numbers. Simple notions as to their genesis 
obtained from the intuitional properties of the straight line. The linear, 

The following change will come into effect as from the examinations 
of 1944: | 

(5) Substitute the following for the matter beginning from Irrational 

numbers to continuum in lines 1 to 3 under the beading " Preliminary " 

under " 6. Theory of Functions " : 

* Irrational numbers according to Dedekind, Real numbers, Sectioas of 
real numbers, the linear continuum/ 1 



194 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE- VOL. II [OHAP. 

continuum, infinite sequences, limiting points, upper and lower limitt. General 
principle of convergence. General idea of a function of a real variable, the 
elementary functions and their graphical treatment. Limits of functions of a 
continuous variable, continuity of functions, properties of continuous functions. 
Inverse functions proof of existence when original function is steadily increasing 
or decreasing. 

Uniform Function* of a complex variable 

Complex numbers, their geometric representation. De Moivre's Theorem. 
Definition of a function of a complex variable, uniformity and multiformity of 
functions. Analytic functions, the Cauchy Riemann definition, the differential 
equations satisfied by the real and imaginary parts of an analytic function. 
Conformal representation of one plane on another, complete discussion of 
transformations. 

as Tl<^ > ~' ( a positive integer). 
Q ^ (with simple variations). 

Cauchy's Theorem for simple Contours and functions which are 
analytic inside and on the contour. The fundamental formula 

/(*) = * ", ^ > <** Taylor's series, Liouviile's rem Laurent's 

6 " t X 

expansion. Point at infinity, development in its domain. Weierstrass's 
theorem on the asymptotic behaviour in the domain of an isolated essential 
singularity. Weierstrass's theorem on a series of analytic functions. Funda- 
mental theorem on residues with simple applications, including evaluation of 
simple definite integrals. 

Weierstrass's theorem on the infinite product expression for an integral 
function. Mittag Leffler's theorem on the expression of a function with isolated 
singularities as a series of rational functions. 

Simple periodic functions, expansion of an integral simple periodic 
function. The impossibility of an uniform analytic function having three 
independent periods. Elliptic functions, their general properties about the sum 
of the residues, the number of zeroes and the number of poles, the difference 



The following change will come into effect as from the examinations 
of 1944: , 

(6) Add the following at the end of the penultimate paragraph under the 
heading Uniform Functions of a complex variable " : 

11 The addition Theorem for the P. Function and the algebraic relations 
andP(p)." 



TL8. MA'THEMATTOS] . A, (HOH8.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 10J 

between the sum of the zeroes and the stun of the poles in a parallelogram of 
periods, algebraic relation between elliptic functions of the same periods. The 
Weierstrassian function />()) and its fundamental properties. 

The fundamental properties of power series of a complex variable, element 
of an analytic function, the process of analytic continuation, Weierstrass's 
conception of an analytic function. Singular points, their place in the Weier- 
strassian Theory. Functions with natural boundaries, limple examples. 

B APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 
(*') Statics. 

Forte* at a point. Parallelogram of forces. Parallelopipoid of forces. 
Geometric and analytic reduction of forces acting at a point. Conditions of 
equilibrium of such forces. Friction. Equilibrium of a particle on smooth 
and rough curves and surfaces. 

Forces in one plane. Parallel forces. Theory of moments of forces and of 
couples, reduction of coplanar forces and conditions of equilibrium of such 
force*. Action at smooth and rough hinges and joints. Principal of virtual 
work as applied to coplanar forces. Astatic equilibrium. 

Graphical Statics. Centres of gravity of arc, plane area, surface and ,olid, 
Stable and unstable equilibrium. Machines with and without friction. 

Forces in three dimensions acting on a rigid body* Reduction of such 
forces to a force and a couple ; general conditions of equilibrium, principle of 
work applied to any system of forces. Work or potential function. Stable and 
unstable equilibrium Poinsot's central axis ; wrench, screw, resultant wrench 
of fcwo given wrenches. The cylindrotd. Reciprocal screws. Reduction of 
any system to the forces. Conjugate lirtes. Nul lines and nul planes. * 

Equilibrium of it rings. General conditions of equilibrium of an inertensi- 
ble string. The common catenary, the parabola of suspension bridge, the 
catenary of uniform strength, strings oa smooth surfaces and curves, strings on 
rough curves, strings under central forces, extensible string. 

(it) Dynamics. 
(A) Dynamics of Particle. 

Preliminary. 

Velocity and acceleration, relative motion, angular velocity, laws of motion, 
impulsive forces, Units. 

Rectilinear motion, 

Equations of motion, simple harmonic motidn, constant disturbing forces, 
periodic disturbing forces, damped and forced oscillations, various laws of 
resistance. * 



196 THE: ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE Vot* n [CHAP. 

Met* on in two dimeneiont. 

(1) Cartesian Co-ordinates. Composition of simple harmonic motioni, 
motion of m projectile in vacuum, in a resisting medium, different laws of 
resistance. Equation of energy. Rotation of axes. 

(2) Polar Co-ordinate*. Velocity and acceleration in polar co-ordinates. 
Central forces, differential equation of orbit ; orbit for various laws of force. 
Disturbed circular orbit ; apses, Law of the inverse square ; construction of 
orbit, hodo graph, time of describing an arc ; Kepler's law, correction to 3rd law : 
perturbations. 

(3) Constrained Motion. Tangential and normal accelerations. Motion on 
a fixed smooth or rough curve. Motion on a smooth or rough cycloid,, motion 
in a circle, time of describing an arc, series for time of oscillation, small oscilla- 
tions of simple pendulum under resistance proportional to square of velocity. 
Motion on a revolving curve : motion of a particle in a revolving tube. 

(4) Motion of two or more particles. Principles of conservation of energy 
and of angular momentum. Two particle-, connected by a string passing over a 
pulley. Impulses, motion of a chain, motion of varying mass. 

{ff) Dynamic* of a Rigid Body. 

Moments and products of inertia, momental ellipsoid, momental pellise, 
equimomental systems. 'Principal axes. D'Alembert's principle; general 
equations of motion. Independence of translation and rotation. Impulsive 



Motion about a fixed axis. Fundamental theorem. The compound pendulum, 
centre of oscillation. Tor^ional oscillations, binlar suspension. Pressures on the 
fixed axis, bodies symmetrical and not symmetrical. The ballistic pendulum. 
Impulsive forces, centre of percussion. 

Motion in tw* dimension*. -Finite forces. General principles of conserva- 
tion of energy and of linear and angular momentum. System with one degree 
of freedom, oscillations about equilibrium Impulsive forces, impact of a 
rotating sphere on the ground. Systems of two degrees of freedom, double 
pendulum oscillations about equilibrium. 

Generalised co-ordinates. Lagrange's equations with applications, 
UmUton's principle and the principle of least action. Hamiltonian equations. 
Contact transformations. Solution of the canonical equations by means of the 
Hmm ilton* Jacobi partial differential equation. 

(Hi) Elementary Vector Analytic. 

, Vectors, addition, scalar and vector multiplication. Laws of commutation 
stribution. Expression of vectors as sums of three rectors and products 



8YLS. MATHEMATICS] B, A. (HON8.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 197 

of such expressions Differentiation of rectors. Gradient of a scalar field 
Transformation of vector components. Tensors of second order. Vector fields. 
Divergence and curl. Gauss' and Stokes' Theorems. Tensor fiel Js and vector 
divergence. (Standard as in Haa*' Introduction to theoretical Physics). 

Vector Analysis should be taught along with its applications to Geometry, 
Dynamics and Statics, and that Vector methods should be used in general 
wherever found suitable. 

C. OPTIONAL GROUP. 
(a) Gravitation and Electrostatics. 

Gravitation. Law of inverse square. Attraction and potential of simple 
bodies spheres, rods, discs, cylinders etc. Potential at a distant point. 

Electrostatic* Coulomb's law. Fundamental physical conceptions, 
conductors, insulators, induction. Intensity of electric force at a point, lines 
and tubes of force. Potential. Gauss 1 Theorem. Laplace's and Poison's 
equations. Spherical harmonics. Equipotentials and lines of force general 
properties. Fields of force due to special distributions of point-charges. 
Doublets Potential and capacity of simple conductor and condensers. Conductors 
in given fields. Electric screening System of conductors energy and 
mechanical force. Dielectrics and inductive capacity. Applications of the 
method of images and inversion. Conjugate functions. 

(*) Statistic* (including Probabilities and Errors of observation). 
Probabilities a priori*.- 

Mathematical definition, elementary theorems and examples. Addition and 
multiplication of probabilities, with example*. Binomial distribution and the 
most probable event. Mathematical expectation. 

Apostericri or inverse. Baye.s' Rule and its criticisms* 
Theory of variables* 

<*') S}tnm*trig*t Frequency distribution. 

Errors, different kinds, nature of accidental errors, Gauss's Law of firror, 
its proof based on the nature o'f accidental error. Error curve. 

The law of least squares and deduction of the principles of arithmetical 
mean. Thfe median and the law of error based on the median. Application 
to one unknown, measure of precision, mean square error, probable error. 
Observations of different weights. Adjustment of indirect observations involv- 
ing one unknown and more than one- unknown. Normal equations ; their for- 
mation and solution. Probable/ error of an observation of unit weight Pro- 
bable error* of unknown and determination of their weight. Adjustment of 
conditioned observations. Rejection of observations. 



198 ME AflDH&A UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLl 

*() Asymmetrical Frequency distribution. 

The median, mode, standard deviation. Method of moments to derive a 

formula to tit a particular statistical experience. Curve fitting (Pearson's 

curves). Skewness. Theory of Dispersion. 

(tit) Frequency Distribution of two variables. 

Correlation and contingency tables and their representation by surfaces. 
Correlation, regression, correlation coefficient and correlation ratio. 

(iv) Frequency distribution of several variables Partial correlation 
Theory of sampling. Normal correlation. 

Theory of attributes Classification, consistency, association, partial 
association. 

General statistical methods with illustrations. 

The Principles of Index Number making and using. 

(f) Astronomy General and Elementary spherical 

The celestial sphere, astronomical co-ordinates. The diurnal motion of 
the heavenly bodies and its explanation hy rotation of the Earth. Arguments 
and proofs for the earth's rotation. Change of phenomena due to a change 
of the observer's place on the Earth. Form and side of the Earth. Simple 
problems connected with the diurnal motion solved by using spherical 
trigonometry. 

The apparent motion of the Sun among stars. Variation in the length 
of the day at various places. Twilight. Explanation of the phenomena 
on the supposition of the annual motion of the Earth round the Sun and 
proofs for this hypothesis. The determination of the first point of Aries 
and the obliquity of the Ecliptic. The signs of the Zodiac. Effects of 
Precession and Nutation. 

The Earth's orbit round the Sun. Kepler's laws and Newton's deductions 
therefrom. True anomaly, mean anomaly and the lengths of the different 
seasons. 



*The following will come into effect as from the examinations of 1944: 
Insert the following matter between the words " (Pearson's corves) " and 
11 Skewness" under the heading, (ii) Asymmetrical Frequency distribution 
under (b) ' StatMics-(including Probabilities and Errors of Observation)": 
"(i) Goodness of Fit-tables for P and X. 
(ii) Calculation of the mean value of ZX Y*. 

(iii) Probable errors of the mean, the standard deviation, and the coefficient 
of correlation." - ^ , 



. MATHEMATICS] B. A. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 19& 

Finding by observations the latitude and longitude of a place and the 
error of the clock. Different units of time and the conversion of one another. 
Sun dial, Equation of time. Different kinds of years. The Calendar. 

Corrections of observations for astronomical refraction, parallax and 
aberration and the fundamental formulee embodying these corrections. 
Determination of parallax of heavenly bodies and their distances. 

The Moon Its orbit round the Earth and the Sun. Its rotation and 
vibrations. Synodic and Sydereal months. Eclipses and their causes. Ecliptic 
limits. Number of Eclipses in a year. The Saros. 

Members of the solar system. Elements of a planet's orbit. Direct and 
retrograde motions of the planets. Pha.es of the planets. Transits of planets 
across the Sun. Comets and Meteors. 

Principal constellation and stars. Double and multiple stars. Binary 
Stars. Nebulae. 

The observatory. The principal instruments. The astronomical clock. 
Transit instrument. The transit Theodolite. Equatorial. Sextant. The 
principal errors of the Transit Instrument and their correction >. 

<rf) Relativity 



(e) Hydrostatics and Hydrodynamics 

Hydrostatics. Definitions of 'perfect fluid' and 'pressure' at a point 
in all directions, general conditions of equilibrium of a fluid and of a liquid 
in particular. Fluid at rest under the action of (1) gravity, (2) central 
forces. Rotating liquid. Resulting thrusts of fluid on plane areas. Centre 
of pressure. Thrusts of liquid on curved surfaces. General condition 
of equilibrium of a floating body, Surfaces of buoyancy and floatation. 
Positions of equilibrium. Potential energy stored up by the immersion of 
a solid. 

Stable and unstable equilibrium of a floating body. Metacentre, expression 
for metacentric height. Experimental determination of metacentric height 
Stability of equilibrium (1) of a hollow vessel containing a liquid floating in 
another liquid, (2) of bodies floating under constraint, (3) of bodies floating in 
heterogenous liquid (simple cases only), Theory of stability based on the 
principle of energy. 

Hydrodynamics. 

Central theory and Equation* of Motion. Motion of a fluid element. 
Operator D and expansion <f> Eulerian equations of motion, equation of 



200 THE ANDHBA ITNIVBRS1TY OOI>B VOL. II [CHAP. 

continuity. Boundary conditions. Equations of impulsive motion. Inte- 
gration of the equations of motion. Steady motion, rotating liquid, irrota- 
tional motion, velocity potential, pressure equation, efHax of liquids. 
Lagrangian form of the equations of motion. 

Theory of irrotational motion of a liqui </. Flow and circulation. Stokes* 
theorem. Constancy of circulation in a moving circuit, permanence of 
irrotational motion. Velocity potential, physical meaning, and general proper- 
ties, Green's theorem expression for the Kinetic energy, case of infinite 
boundary. Cyclic and acyclic motion. 

Problem* in irrotational motion oj a liquid* Sources and sinks. Stream 
function. Conjugate functions. Method of images. Moving spheres and 
cylinders in liquid. Rotating cylinders. Initial motion of liquid contained 
between concentric spheres or coaxial cylinders. Stokes' stream function. 

Wave*. Wave motion, progressive and stationary waves. Sample cases 
of irrotational wave motion in liquid under gravity, long waves, surface 
waves. 

Cf) Theory of Vibration* and Sound 



(f) Thermodynamics 

(h) Kineti* Theory of Gase* 

* % 

(i) Theory of Number* 

Unique factorization theorem; arithmetical functions ; linear and quadratic 
congruences : Pell's equation. 

Elementary inequalities of the prime number theory ; Dirichlet's theorem 
on the primes in an arithmetical progression (theory of characters and 
L series). 

Representation of a number as a sum of 2, 3 and 4 squares (Farcy's series, 
Lagrange's theorem, Jacobi's theorem, on the number of representations of an 
integer as a sum of four squares). 

The class-number of linary quadratic forms (ftniteness of the class-ninriber, 
calculation of the class-number). 

The orders of the arithmetical functions d (n), <f> (n), O (n). 

Text- Books : 

Landau, Vorlesungin uber Zahlentheoric, Band I, Parts 1 4; Landau, 

Prirnzahlen (selected topics) ; Mathews, Theory of Numbers, Chapters 1 3 j 
Diokson. Introduction to the Tfceory of Nunibers. 



MATHEMATICS] B.A. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 

(/) Elettromagnetism 
Preliminary : 

Elementary theory of the Newtonian potential ; the theorems of Gauss, 
Green and Stokes ; the equations of Laplace and Poissou ; uniqueness theorems 
and Green's function. 

Electrostatics : 

Electric charge and Coulomb's law ; density of charge ; strength of field and 
potential; equipotentials and line-, of force, Faraday's tubes of force; 
conductors and dielectrics ; boundary conditions at the common surface of two 
dielectric^ ; Maxwell stresses and Maxwell's displacement theory, displacement 
ellipsoid ; simple problems solved by the methods of images, inversion and 
conformal transformation. 

Magnttostatics : 

Magnetic poles and doublets ; potential of a uniformly magnetised body ; 
Poisson's theorem ; energy of a magnet m force field ; induced magnetism. 

Electrodynamics \ 

Laws of electrodynamics ; self inductance and mutual inductance ; Max* 
well's displacement currents, Maxwell's equations ; Poynting's theorem ; equa- 
tions of motion of an electricall> charged particle. 

Electromagnetic wave* : 

Propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space and dielectrics ; simple 
theory of the optical behaviour of metals and Diude's equations ; electro- 
magnetic waves in anisotropic media and Fresnel's equation, uniaxial And 
biaxial crystals, equations of the wave surface; reflection of electromagnetic 
waves at the interface between two isotropic media : polarisation by reflection 
and Brewster's law. 

Mathematical formulation of Huygene' principle ; KirchhofPs diffraction 
formula ; simple cases of Fresnel and Frauuhofer diffraction phenomena. 

Books for Study : 

Relevant portions in 

A. Hass ... Theoretical Physics, Volume I. 

L. Page - Theoretical Physic^. 

H. A. NViUon ... Theoretical Physics. 

Books for reference 

J. H. Jeans ... Electricity and Magnetism. 

R. Becker ... Theorie der Elektrizitat, Volume I, 



202 THK ANDFIRA UNIVERSITY CODKVOL. TI [CHAP. XLl 

TELUGU 
Outlines of the History of Telugu Literature 

N. B.~Tfie Syllabus is the same us that prescribed for B.A. (Pass) Group VI 

History of Tclugu Literature (Special Part) 

I. Introductory. 

Definition of Literature literature as reflection of a nation'*; life 
influence of political, religious, and social conditions on literature the Andhra 
people and their language. 

II. Prt- Nannaya Period. 

Literature in the making paucity of literary documents importance of 
inscriptions beginning of the differentiation between Marga and Desi types 
and their subsequent history. 

III. Age of Nannaya 10001250. 

Nannaya, the first great Tclugu poet the father of Telugu poetry his 
contribution to Telugu literature his method of 'translation the characteristics 
of his *tyle. 

Other poets of the age Nanne Choda Panditharadhya, Somanatha and 
Buddharaju compared as Dwipada writers Tho place of Somanatha in the 
Dwipada Literature. 

Buddharaju authorship of Ranganatha Ramayanam compared with 
Valmiki. 

Siva poets their religious outlook as reflected in their literature. 

IV. Age of Thikkana 12501300. 

Thikkana political, religious, and literary condition of the period the 
many-sided genius of Tikkana his genius for harmonising conflicting 
elements in religion and literature his method of translation compared 
with that of Nannaya characteristics of his style his Nirvachanottara 
Ramayanam how it shows the maturity of his artist genius the influence of 
his Bharatam on subsequent Telugu literature Thikkana as an epoch maker. 

Other poets of the age : Ketana, Marana, Manchana. 

V. Age of Yerrana 13001350. 

Hia claim to be regarded as the maker of an agehis contribution to 
Bharatam comparison with Nannaya and Thikkana the development of the 
Prabanadha type. 

Other poets : Bhaskara authorship of Ramayana comparison with 
Ranganatha Ramayanam Nachana Somana his poetry compared with that of 



SYLS. TELUGU] B.A. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 203 

VI. Age of Sreenadha 13501500. 

Age of Transition some characteristics of the age introduction of new 
elements into poetry Sreenadha's methods of translation compared -with 
those of his predecessors his contribution to the growth of Prabandha 
importance given by him to Sringara sara the scholarly and the lay 
elements in his poetry traditional account of his character the evidence 
of his works -the influence of his life and character on his contemporaries 
and successors authorship of Veedhi Natakam and the satirical element 
in it his patriotism as seen in his ballads and other poems. 

Pothana Authorship of Bhagavatham Pothana compared with 
Thikkana on the one hand and Sreenadha on the other in regard to literary 
equipment, temperament, and outlook his lyrical gift the influence of his 
devotion on his poetry the influence of his Bhagavatham compared with 
that of Bharatham in the moulding of the Andhra character. 

Other Poets : Jakkana and Anaathamathya compared Gaurana and 
Dwipada writer source of his Harischandra. 

Pina Veerana his Sakuntala and its sources marks as advance in the 
evolution of the Prabandha. 

Duggana, Narayana Kavi, Vennalakanti Surana, Nandi Mallayya, Ghanta 
Singaya. 

VII. Agt of KrisKnadevaraya 15001600. 

Political and social condition of the period Greater Andhra the 
dominating personality of Krishnadevaraya authorship of Amukta 
Malyada the golden age of Prabandha characteristics of Prabandha. 

Some great Prabaudha poets : Peddana, Tliimmana, Dhurjati, Surana, 
Murti, RamakrisUna. 

VIII. Nayak Literature 1600 1775. 

Andhra conquest of Tamil Nadu political, social and geographical 
conditions leading to freedom from the literary conventions of the Andhra 
Desa and the consequent growth of various types of literature, such as 
prose, song, Yakshagana the emergence of -women writers, a distinct cha- 
racteristic characteristics of the Tanjore and Madura schools. 

Contemporary poets in the Andfrra Desa : Thimma Kavi and others. 

IX. Age of Decadence 17751875. 

A century of darkness causes of decadence political and socia 
condition some bright stars like Paparaju. 

X. Modern age 1875. , 

Signs of Renaissance foreign influencest reaction of political and social 
conditions on literature' revolt against authority and convention gooil and 



204 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLII 

evil effects of the same growth of new forms of literature like the novel, essay, 
short-story, lyric Veeresalingam, the father of modern prose age of 
experiment rather than of achievement. 

Special Period .Candidates are expected to be familiar with the books 
which fall within this period and to have first-hand knowledge of the best 
portions of them, and to make a comparative study of the authors who have 
written on similar or same subjects, and to study the poets in relation to their 
times. A detailed study of the books is not expected. 

Sanskrit and Prakrit 

1. Prescribed Prose and Poetry. 

2. Translation from Sanskrit into English later. Part II standard. 

3. Grammar. 

(1) Classification of soundv. 

(2) Sandhi. 

(3) Declension and conjugation of vub^tantives and roots of general 

occurrence. Elementary knowledge of primary and secondary 
suffixes and a general outline of derivative verbs such as casual 
desiderative, frequentative, etc. 

(4) Compounds of general use. 

(5) Syntax relating to nominal ca^. 

4. Prakrit : Chanda's Prakrit Grammar. 

Principle* of Literary Criticism 

1. Fine arts and their fundamental affinity with one another Defini- 
tion of poetry its place in the fine arts Function of poetry in human 
activity Didacticism in poetry Poetry and metre Poetry compared with 
science (physical and metaphysical) Equipment of the poet emotion, 
imagination, sense of beauty, culture. 

2. Rasa its varieties Rasa as a subjective reality. 

3. Poetry subjective and objective. 

(a) Subjective poetry love lyric Nature poetry Elegy Devotional 

poetry and patriotic poetry etc. 

(b) Objective poetry sub-divided into Dramatic and Narrative. 

Jjramatic poetry- Comedy Tragedy Prakarana Prahasana etc. 
Narrative pjtti y : Purana Ithihasa Kavya Ballad Story. 

4. Novel and Drama compared. 
6. Study of the thort story, 

6. Criticism as an art and as an impetus to creation. 

7. Biography and Its place in criticism. 



SBC. 12] B. COM. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION (OLD REGS.) 205 

CHAPTER XLII 
B. COM. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 

(Old Regulations} 

1. Candidates for the Degree of Bachelor of Commerce shall Conditions 

ofadmis- 
be required t ion 

(i) to have passed the Intermediate Examination in Arts and 
Science of this University or the Intermediate Exami- 
nation of any other statutory Indian University accepted 
as equivalent thereto ;* 

(it) to have undergone subsequently a further course of study 
in the University college or in any college affiliated to 
the University for B. Com. (Pass) as prescribed here- 
under, extending over a period of two years, each consist- 
ing of three consecutive terms ; and 

(iii) to have passed the examination for the degree herein- 
after prescribed. 

2. The course for the B. Com. Degree shall comprise instruc- Course* of 
tion in 

Part I (a) Commercial Correspondence and Precis- writing 
and (ft) Translation (Hindi). 

Part II (a) (1) General Commercial Knowledge and Com- 
mercial Arithmetic. 

(2) Commercial Geography. 

(3) Book-keeping and Accounts. 

(4) Law and Practice of Banking in India. 

Part II (b) (1) Business Organisation. 

(2) Economics. 

(3) Mercantile and Industrial Law. 

foot-note on the first page of Chap. XL. 



206 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLI1 



igibility 
rthe 



tbjects for 
B Eia- 

aation 



(4) One of the following Special subjects : 
Advanced Accounting and Auditing 

or 
Advanced Banking and Currency 

or 

Recent Economic History of England, 
Germany, Russia, Italy, U.S.A., Japan each 
with special reference to India, and India. 

3. The courses of study shall be as defined in the syllabuses. 

4. No candidate shall be eligible for the Degree of Bachelor 
of Commerce until he has passed the examination in Parts I, II-A 
and II-B. 

5. A candidate for the B. Com. Degree Examination may 
present himself for Part I at the end of the first year of the course 
and thereafter at his option present himself for the whole of the 
examination, i.e. Part I, Part II-A and Part II-B or one or more 
of these, provided that candidates who obtain qualifying marks in 
any of the parts need appear again and pass only in the remaining 
part or parts in which they failed. 

6. Candidates for the B. Com. Degree Examination shall be 
examined in 

Part I (a) : There shall be a three hours' paper on Commercial 
Correspondence and Precis Writing. This paper 
shall include an essay on some general 
Commercial subject. 

Part I (b) : There shall be a two and a half hours' paper on 
Translation from Hindi into English and vice 
versa. This paper on Translation shall include 
a simple essay (on commercial subject) also. 
Part II : There shall be nine papers, each of three hours' 
duration, one on each of the seven general subjects 
(including the essay) and two on the special 
subject. 

Graduates in Economics shall be exempted from attending the 
classes in Economics but shall be required to take the exami- 
nation in that subject. 



SBC. 38] B. COM. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION (OLD KEGS.) 207 

Candidates who have passed in Hindi under Part II in the 
Intermediate examination shall not be required to undergo the 
course in Hindi prescribed for the examination or to pass in the 
examination under Part I-B. 

7. A candidate shall be declared to have passed Part I of the Marks 
examination if he obtains not less than 35 per cent of the total for a pan 
marks in each of the subjects. 

A candidate shall be declared to have passed in Part 1 1- A and 
Part II-B of the examination if he obtains not less than 35% of the 
total marks in the subjects comprising Part 1 1- A and Part II-B 
respectively and not less than 30% in each of the subjects included 
therein. 

There shall be separate lists of successful candidates in each 
part. Candidates obtaining not less than 60 per cent of the marks 
in each subject under Part I shall be declared to have passed in that 
subject with distinction. 

8. Successful candidates in Part II shall be arranged in three Classifica- 
olassea the first consisting of those who obtain not less than |{^f u i 
60 per cent ranked in the order of proficiency as determined by the Candidate! 
total marks obtained by each ; the second, of those who obtain not 

less than 50 per cent ranked in the order of proficiency as deter- 
mined by the total marks obtained by each, and the third of the 
remainder. 

SYLLABUSES 

Part II (a) General subjects 

1. Economics. General principles of Economic Theory, particularly 
regarding Production, Consumption, Value, Distribution, Money and Banking 
and International Trade, with special reference to India. 

Production. What is Production? Agents of Production, viz,, Land, 
Labour, Capital and Organisation. The Laws of Returns ; the supply of Labour 
and theories of Population ; the classification and functions of Capital, 
Business Organisation and forms of Industrial Organisation. 

Consumption. What is Consumption ? Necessaries and luxuries, Wants ; 
Utility and law of Diminishing Utility, Demand and Elasticity of Demand, 
Law of Demand. Principle of substitution, Doctrine of maximum satisfaction 
find Consumer's surplus. 



208 THK ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLII 

Value. Fundamental ideas. How value is determined, Market value 
and normal value, Value and the Laws of return, theories of value, Joint and 
composite Demand, Joint and composite supply, Value under Monopoly, 
Speculation, Markets. 

Distribution. The nature of Distribution, Rent and theories of Rent, 
Interest and theories of Interest, Wages and theories of Wages, and Profit and 
theories of Profit. 

Money and Banking. The nature and functions of money. The value of 
money, Quantity theory, Monetary standards. Credit and types of credit 
instruments, how credit is created, the role of Banking. Functions and 
principles of Commercial Banking, Importance of Bank Reserves, Clearing 
Houses, Central Banks and Note issue, Bank Rate and its influence on the 
Money Market, Bank of England, Imperial Bank of India and the Reserve Bank, 
and a study of the London Money Market and the Indian Money Market. 

International Trade. Theory of International Trade, Law of Comparative 
costs, Gain from International Trade, Protection versus Free Trade. Elements 
of Foreign Exchange. Trade cycles and causes thereof, theories of Trade cycle, 
World Trade Depression and remedies therefor, including Problems of 
stabilisation. 

2. Law and Practice of Banking. The legal relationship between 
banker and customer. Current accounts, Deposit accounts, Trust accounts, 
Loans, Overdrafts and cash credits. The Pass Book. Secrecy of the state 
of Customer's account. Cheques and documents analogous to cheques. Pay- 
ment and collection of cheques. Payment of cheques by mistake. Forged 
cheques. Securities for advances in general. Pledges and mortgages of 
negotiable instruments, stocks and shares. Commercial credits. Realization 
of securities. Banker's guarantees. Miscellaneous securities, viz., Lands and 
Buildings, Life Policies, Book Debts and Ships. Subsidiary services of Banks 
and the Law relating thereto. 

3. Business Organisation The nature and constitution of business 
houses. The sole Trader, Partnerships, Joint Stock Companies, Trusts, Cartels, 
Holding Companies, Municipal Organisations, Co-operative Institutions, 
Co-partnership, Profit-sharing, Nationalisation and Guild Socialism. 

The financing of business. Nature of saving, Investment, Fixed and work- 
ing Capital, investment and the'division of risk bearing. Types of investment, 
Competitive Demand for savings and function of the rate of interest : Financial 
institutions, their types, functions, and relation to other business. Tho promo- 
tion of companies and the raising of long-term capital. Relation of different 
classes of investors. Financial problems of depreciation and obsolescence- 
foreseen and unforeseen. Supply of short term capital Bank advances, Bills of 
Exchange and Documentary Credits. 



STLB.] B. COM. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION (OLD BEGS.) 209 

Control of retponsioility, Office Routine and Scientific Management.** . 
Internal relation of staff inside the business firms, the machinery for taking 
decisions involving different views and interests and the recruitment, training, 
promotion and retirement of personnel. The organisation for training Junior 
executives to become Managers and Administrators. The machinery of Co-oper- 
ation of firms within groups, particularly that for enabling holding companies 
and their subsidiaries and other firms working together. 

The external relation of firms and groups of firms with the outside world 
particularly trade associations, professional associations, scientific bodies , 
Government Departments and Governments. 

Cost and marketing policy, Investment policy, the replacement, increase and 
withdrawal of Capital from fields of production in relation to costs and profits. 
Location, sise and specialisation of plants determined by markets, raw materials 
labour supply, transport etc. The location of branch factories and assembly 
plants and the allocation of space within a plant location. The purchase of 
lease of factory premises. Organization and policy in the carrying of stocks 
and work in progress. Buying, storing and issuing materials, and the timing of 
manufacturing processes. Organisation and policy in determining manufacturing 
processes. Planning and routine. Price Policy. Forms of pricing including 
tendering, open prices, discrimination between market prices, adjustment to 
demand and supply fluctuations, the condition of contracts. Influence of types 
of business in price policy, price changes and discounts. Selling policy, 
including forms of selling organizations and relation with competitors and 
consumers. Marketing problems of distributors. Wholesale businesses. 
Organized and unorganized wholesale markets. Speculation and trading in 
future Hedging operation'. Internal problems relating to departmental 
organization. Merchandiss, control, buying and selling control. Selection, 
training, payment and control of 'Sales force.' Sales method, sales planning 
and budgeting. Relation of the sales department with other departments. Retail 
business. Types of consumers' demand. Organization of retail distribution. 
Department stores. Speciality stores. Chain stores. Retail Co-operative 
Societies. Buying policies stock control and selling policies. Co-operation 
between retailers. Instalment Trading and Hire purchase. 

Methods of Remuneration, Degree of specialisation and automatism in 
relation to labour supply. Wage systems. Industrial efficiency. 

Skilful advertisement. Functions of specialist advertising firms, different 
forms of advertising and relation to types of goods sold. Trade marks and 
Brands. 

4. Book-keeping and Accounts :~ Principles of Double entry. Keeping of 
subsidiary books, posting to ledger, preparing Trial Balance, Trading and 
Profits and Loss accounts and Balance Sheets of sole traders, Partnerships and 
Joint Stock Companies. Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes and Cheque*,. 
Accounts Current and Average Due Date. Depreciation, Reserves and Sinking 

27 



210 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLII 

Funds. Capital and Revenue, Receipts and Payments and Income and Expenditure 
Accounts. Consignment Accounts. Joint ventures. Partnership accounts, Company 
accounts, including Reconstruction, Amalgamation and Absorption. Single 
Entry Book-keeping and conversion to Double Entry. Departmental and branch 
accounts. Hire purchase accounts, Royalty Accounts. Self-Balancing Ledgers. 

5. Mercantile and Industrial Law. Contracts (Sections 1 to 181 of the 
Contract Act), Agency, Sale of Goods, Partnership, Negotiable Instruments, 
Company Law, Societies Registration Act. Elements of law relating to Life 
Assurance and Provincial Insolvency. Elements of Industrial legislation, 
particularly regarding Factories, Workmen's compensation and Trade Unions. 

6. Commercial Geography. Physical Geography as the basis of various 
types of civilisation and a determining factor of natural and economic develop- 
ment. Chief commodities of Commerce Agricultural and allied products, 
minerals and manufactures, conditions and regions of production, preparation 
for the market and chief processes. Trade routes by land and sea. Present day 
production and foreign trade of India, Great Britain and the leading commercial 
and industrial countries of the World. 

7. General Commercial Knowledge and Commercial Arithmetic. 

(i) GENERAL COMMERCIAL KNOWLIDGI 

(1) Office records in -hi 'ing filing, indexing and the use of mechanical 

devices. 

(2) Importing and Exporting. 
(9) Customs and excise. 

(4) Port Trust Authority. 

(5) Chamber? of Commerce. 

(6) Board of Trade. 

(7) Elements of Insurance; Life, Fire and Marine. 

(8) Advertising. 

(9) Goodwill. 

(10) Stock exchanges. 

(11) Elements of money, exchange and banking, with special reference to 
India. 

(12) Elements of public finance and taxation with special reference to 
India. 

(ii) COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC 

(1) Short methods in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division* 

(2) Decimals, including approximation. 

(3) Decimalization and de-decimalization of money. 

(4) Calculation of prices : practice, simple and compound 

(5) Ratio and proportion. 



SYLS.] B. COM, (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION (OLD BEGS.) 211 

(6) Averages and percentages including -commission, brokerage, pre- 
mium, cash discount, calculation of selling prices, given cost price and 
percentage of gain on cost price. 

(7) Metric measures and decimal monetary system^. 

(8) Indian money rapid calculations. 

(9) Square root and application of square root. 

(10) Simple interest including short methods Banker's interest 
Formulae. 

Part II (6) Special subjects 

1 Advanced Accounting and Auditing. (a) General Accounting at in 
Book-keeping and Accounts in greater detail and accounts of different commer- 
cial undertakings and Public utility companies Assurance Accounts. Bank 
Accounts Bankruptcy Accounts. Outlines of Cost Accounts and Income-tax 
Account^. 

(4) Continuous and completed audit, detection of frauds, technical errors, 
(viz., of omission ; commission and principle), Internal check, vouching, 
verification and valuation of Assets, different classes of audit, forms of 
accounts and balance sheets, certification of balance sheet, Auditor's reports 
and certificates. The appointment, duties, rights and liabilities of auditors. 
Investigations, certifying of average profits, etc. Legal decisions affecting 
Auditors, particularly regarding depreciation, profits available for divi- 
dend etc. 

2. Advanced Banking and Currency (i) Banking. (a) General princi- 
ples, cheque system, Development of Deposit Banking, Clearing Houses. 
Banking Investments. Short loan Fund. Regulation of Note issue. Reserves 
and Discount Rates Central Banking. Financial and Commercial crises. 
Modern Developments. 

A short account of different kinds of Banks in Great Britain, France, 
Germany, U.S.A. and Japan. 

(V) History and organization of Banking in India. The Imperial Bank, 
its constitution and relations with the Government and the other banks. The 
Exchange Banks and their place in the Indian credit system. Joint Stock 
Banks Indigenous bankers, shroffs, Mahajans, etc., and their place in the 
Money Market. Recent conditions. The Reserve Bank and its functions. 

The co-operative credit movement in India, Provincial and District 
Banks, Unions and Credit societies and Land Mortgage Banks. 

A short account of .different kinds of Banks existing in India, vii 
Savings Banks, Industrial Banks, Labour Banks, etc. 

(c) Comparison between the systems of Banking in India and the leading 
countries of the world. 



212 TttB ANDHRA UNIV^RSl1?Y dob* VOL. tl [(MAP. XLtt-A 

(*) Current?. (a) General principles and economic significance of 
Money. Money and its functions. Qualities of good money. Origin and 
Principles of Metallic currencies and Coinage. Mint Regulations and Coinage 
Laws in England, France, Germany, Japan, U.S.A. and India. Currency 
Deterioration, causes thereof and remedies therefor. Gresham's Law. Princi- 
ples of Token coinage. Legal Tender and various systems thereof prevailing 
in the leading countries of the world. Monetary Standards, Paper Money, 
Decimal Coinage, Tabular Standards. The purchasing power of money and the 
Quantity Theory. Price variations and effect thereof. Inflation, deflation and 
reflation. The problem of stabilization of prices. Monetary Reform. The 
Gold Standard, its breakdown and its future. Various proposals for an inter- 
national monetary standard. The world crisis, its explanation and remedies 
therefor. 

(*) Indian Currency Problemt.-~ Early history of demonetisation of 
gold. Fall in the value of Silver. Herschell Committee and closing of the 
Mints to Coinage of Silver on private account. Fowler Committee and its recom- 
mendations. India and the Gold Mint. The Gold Standard Reserve, its 
composition and location. Chamberlain Commission and its recommendations. 
Currency during the war and after. Babington-Smith Committee and its 
Report. Failure of the attempt to value the Rupee at 2 sh. Hilton-Young 
Committee and Gold Bullion Standard. Note-issue of the Presidency Banks. 
History of currency notes till 1914. Effects of war on the Note-issue. Changes 
proposed by the Babington-Smith Committee. Proposal to transfer Note-issue 
to a new institution. The Reserve Bank and its role in Currency. 

(*) foreign Exchange What is Foreign Exchange ? Importance of 
Foreign Exchange in modern economic development. Mint Par of Exchange 
Gold Points. Fluctuations in Exchanges, causes and effects thereof. Rates of 
exchange Long and short rates and Sight rates. Silver and Paper exchanges. 
The purchasing power Parity Theory. Forward Exchange, Problem of stabilisa- 
tion of Exchanges. Terminology of Exchanges and how to read a Foreign 
exchange article. Indian Exchanges, Pre-war and Post-war. Present Condi* 
lions. 



fiBO. i 2j fc. COk. (PA&S) DEGltBE EXAttttUTIOK 2 13 

CHAPTER XLII-A 
B. COM. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 

(Current Regulations) 

1. Candidates for the Degree of Bachelor of Commerce shall Conditions 
be required- ^ d - 1 " 

(i) to have passed the Intermediate Examination in 
Arts and Science of this University or the Inter- 
mediate Examination of any other statutory Indian 
University accepted as equivalent thereto ;* 

(ii) to have undergone subsequently a further course of 
study in the University College or in any College 
affiliated to the University for B. Cora. (Pass) as 
prescribed hereunder, extending over a period of 
two years, each consisting of three consecutive 
terms ; and 

(iii) to have passed the Examination for the degree herein- 
after prescribed. 

2. The course for the B. Com. Degree shall comprise instruo Courset 
tion in : 

Part I English 

Part II Hindi 

Part III The following groups : 

Group (A) (Compulsory) : 

(1) Economics, including Money, Exchange 

and Banking. 

(2) Accountancy. 

(3) Business Organisation. 

(4) Mercantile Law. 

(5) Commercial Geography. 

Wdt foot*aot on tht first pagt of Chap. XXXIX. 



214 



THfi ANDHBA ONIVBRSITY CODBS VOL. II [CHAP. XLII-A 



Eligibility 
for the 
Degree 



Option to 
appear for 
whole or 

parts 

Subject! for 
the Exami- 
nation 



Group (B) (Optional) Any one of the following sub- 
jects : 

(1) Advanced Accounting and Auditing. 

(2) Advanced Banking and Currency, includ- 

ing Law and Practice of Banking. 

(3) Transport. 

(4) Statistics and their application to Com- 

merce. 

(5) Recent Economic History of England, 

Frince, Germany, Italy, U.S.A., Japan 
and India. 

3. The courses of study shall be as defined in the syllabuses. 

4. No candidate shall be eligible for the Degree of Bachelor 
of Commerce until he has passed the examination in Parts I, II 
and III. 

5. A candidate for the B. Com. Degree examination may at 
his option present himself for the whole or for a part at any one 
time. 

6. Candidates for the B. Com. Degree examination shall be 
examined in : 

Part IEnglish 

There shall be three papers in English, each of three hours' 
duration. 

The course shall be (a) Composition on matter supplied by 
books set for non-detailed study, (6) the study in detail of certain 
prescribed books and of the History of English Literature so far 
as it is represented by these books and (c) Commercial Correspon- 
dence and Precis-writing. 

The books set under (a) shall consist of two books and may 
include works on fiction, literary criticism, biography, history, 
science, philosophy or sociology. 



SBC. 37] B. COM. (PASS) DEGBBE EXAMINATION 215 

The books set under (ft) shall consist of (i) Modem Prose : 
2 set books : (n) Modern Poetry : about 1,000 lines. 

The paper on the books under (a) shall consist exclusively 
of subjects for short essays, and of these the paper shall contain a 
larger number than the candidate is required to attempt. 

Under (';) the paper on Modern Prose and Poetry shall not 
contain any question on General English Literature. 

Under (c) there shall be a three hours' paper on Commercial 
Correspondence and Precis-writing. 

Part II- Hindi 

There shall be one paper of three hours' duration. The course 
shall consist of 

(a) The study of certain prescribed text-books on Prose and 
Composition thereon. (Commercial Hindi will be 
laid stress upon). 

(Jj) Translation from Hindi into English and vice versa. 
The main object of the course shall be the training of 
the students to employ the language as a vehicle of 
expression in the commercial world. 

Part III Subjects 

There shall be seven papers of 3 hours' duration, one on 
each of the five compulsory subjects under Group A in section 2 
above and two on the special (optional) subject, selected by the 
candidate from the subjects under Group B above set forth. 

Bachelors of Arts shall be exempted from taking the examin- 
ation in Part I. 

7. A candidate shall be declared to have passed Part I Marks quali 
of the examination if he obtains not less than 30% of the marks 
in (a) and (6) combined (i.e. General English) and 30% in 
Commercial Correspondence and Precis- writing, and not less than 
35% of the total number of marks. A candidate shall be declared 
tQ have passed Part II of tfce examination if he obtains npt less 



216 



THE AKDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLII-A 



Clarifica- 
tion of 
successful 
candidates 



than 35% of the total number of marks. A candidate shall be 
declared to have passed Part III of the examination if he obtains 
not less than 30% of the marks in each of the subject* under 
Group A and B and 35% of the total number of marks. 

8, There shall be separate lists of successful candidates in 
each part. Successful candidates in each part shall be arranged in 
three classes the first consisting of those who obtain not less than 
60 per cent and ranked in the order of proficiency as determined 
by the total marks obtained by each ; the second, of those who 
obtain not less than 50 per cent and ranked in the order of profi- 
ciency as determined by the total marks obtained by each, and the 
third of the remainder. 

Transitory Regulation 

9. For the benefit of candidates who fail in Part I of the 
6. Com. (Pass) Degree examination held in 1940 or earlier, an 
examination in Part I under the regulations in force up to and 
including the examination of 1940 will be held in March and 
September 1941 under the then time-tables. Similarly for the 
benefit of candidates who fail in Part II-A or IT-B or both of 
the B. Com. (Pass) Degree examination in 1941 or earlier, an 
examination in those parts under the Regulations in force up to 
and including the examinations of 1941 will be held in March and 
September 1942, 1943 and 1944 under the old time-tables. The 
text-books for Part I examination of 1941 and Parts II-A and 
II-B examinations of 1942, 1943 and 1944 shall be the same as 
those prescribed for 1940 and 1941 examinations respectively. 

SYLLABUSES 

PAUT I 

1. Importing and exporting-Formalitiee and terms. 

2. Customs and Excise. 

3. Port Trust Authority. 

4. Chambers of Commerce. 

5. Element! of Iniurance-Fire-Life Marine. 

6. Stoek exchange. 

7. Elements of Banking and exchange witfe reference to India-Banking 
P opujntnts-correipondence, 



SYLS. GB. A] B. COM. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 217 

8. Terminology of Exchanges and how to read Foreign Exchange articles 
and money Market reports. 

9. Duties of the Secretary to Company-regarding meetings-Notice conven- 
ing meeting-Agenda-Statutory meeting-Annual General Meeting-Extraordinary 
meeting-Annual reports-proceedings of meeting-Meetings of Directors- 
Minutes-Reports of committees-Meetings resolutions-ordinary-special and extra- 
ordinary. 

10. Business letters of requiring order-reference-execution of order-advice- 
collecting-sales-stock Exchange transactions-Ordinary and follow up letters. 

11. Letters of credit-circular letter of credit-confirmed and unconfirmed 
letter of credit-documentary letter of credit-Letters of application and 
preferred CervicesAgency. 

12 Inward correspondence - outward correspondence - filing - index ing- 
cross reference-mechanical devices in office. 

13. Precis-writing. 

14. Any Essay on a general topic of commercial importance. 

PART 111 GROUP A COMPULSORY SUBJECTS. 
(/) Economics, including Afoney, Exchange and Ranking. 
Economics General Principles of Economic Theory, particularly regard- 
ing Production, Consumption, Value, Distribution, Money and Banking and 
International Trade, with special reference to India. 

Production What is Production > Agents of (Production, viz. Land, 
Labour, Capital and Organisation. The laws of returns ; the supply of Labour 
and theories of Population ; the classification and functions of Capital ; Busi- 
ness Organisation and forms of Industrial Organisation. 

Consumption What is Consumption? Necessaries and Luxuries, Wants, 
Utility and Law of Diminishing Utility, Demand and Elasticity of Demand, 
Law of Demand, Principle of substitution, Doctrine of Maximum Satisfaction 
and Consumer's Surplus. 

Value Fundamental ideas. How value is determined, Market value and 
normal value, Value and the Laws of return, theories of value, Joint and com- 
posite demand, Joint and composite supply, Value under Monopoly, Specula- 
tion, Markets. 

I 

Distribution The nature of Distribution, Rent and Theories of Rent, 
Interest and theories of Interest, Wages and theories of Wages, and profit an<J 
thor\es of Profit. 

2$ 



218 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLII-A 

Money and Banking The nature and functions of money, the value of 
money, Quantity theory, Monetary standards. Credit and types of credit instru- 
ments, how credit is created, the role of Banking. Functions and principles of 
Commercial Banking. Importance of Bank Reserves, Clearing Houses, Central 
Banks and Note-issue, Bank Rate and its influence on the Money Market, Bank 
of England, Imperial Bank of India and the Reserve Bank, and a study of the 
London Money Market arid the Indian Money Market. 

International Trade Theory of International Trade, Law of comparative 
costs, Gain from International Trade, Protection versut Free Trade. Elements 
of Foreign Exchange. Trade cycles and causes thereof, theories of Trade cycle, 
World Trade, Depression and remedies therefor, including Problems of stabi- 
lisation. 

(a) Accountancy. ( 

1. The theory of Double-entry Book-keeping. Advantages of Double- 

entry over Single-entry Book-keeping. 

2. Keeping of Books of Account. Distinction between Financial Books 

and Memorandum Books. Entering in Books transactions of the 
following nature. Credit purchases and sales ; Cash receipt*? and 
payments ; banking transactions ; Cheques received and issued ; rent, 
salaries, trade charges and expenses, interest, commission, postage, 
etc. , Bill transactions ; assets and liabilities; returns of goods in- 
wards and outwards bills of exchange, promissory notes and 
cheques and transactions relating thereto. 

3. The journal and its uses. Subsidiary journals of day-books and 

their uses, viz., the purchases book, sales book, return^ books, bills 
receivable and bills payable books. 

4. The cash book- simple and columnwar. Distinction between trade and 

cash discount. How to enter bank transactions in the cash book. 
Bank reconciliation statement. Petty cash book and the Imprest 
system. 

5. The Ledger different kinds of accounts and how to balance them. 

Preparation of the trial balance ; objects of the trial balance. Errors 
disclosed and not disclosed by the trial balance, How to correct 
errors by journal entries and to recast correctly a wrong trial 
balance given. 

6. Final accounts of a so^e traderthe trading and profit and loss 

account. Closing entries. Adjustments necessary for the ascer- 
tainmen^of net profit for a given period, viz , provision for unpaid 
and prepaid amounts, bad debts* discounts on debtors and creditors, 
etc. Ascertainment of closing stock and evaluation thereof. The 
manufacturing account and the working accounts. 



SYLS. GR. A] B. COM. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 219 

7. The balance sheet, its definition and preparation. Significance of 

a balance sheet. 

8. Accounts current and average due date. 

9. Distinction between capital and revenue; receipt-, and payments 

account and income and expenditure account. 

10. Consignment accounts. Consignments inwards and outwards. Dis- 

tinction between a consignment and sale. Delcredere commission. 
Proforma invoice. Accounts sales, Joint venture accounts. 

11. Depreciation and what is meant thereby ; various methods adopted 

for providing same in accounts. 

12. Sinking funds and reserves. Distinction between reserves and 

reserve funds. How to provide for these in the accounts. 

13. Single entry its meaning ; conversion of single entry into double 

entry. 

14. Partnership accounts ; fixed capital and current accounts- ; taking 

in a new partner; revaluation of assets and liabilities on incoming 
and outgoing of a partner ; purchase of a firm as a going concern ; 
goodwill, its meaning and treatment in Partnership accounts under 
various circumstances. 
Interest on capital and drawings, partner's salaries and loans. 

Dissolution of partnership application of Garner versus Murray deci- 
sion in dissolution problems. Realisation of assets and distribu- 
tion between the partners ; interest calculations from the date of 
realisation of assets distribution when assets are realised piece- 
meal. 

Joint-survivorship ; life assurance policy taken by a firm and its treat- 
ment in partnership accounts. 

15. Company accounts distinction between a partnership and a limited 
company. Formation of a company. Memorandum and articles of 
association. Principal subsidiary books of account required by 
companies. Statutory books. Preparation of* statutory returns on 
prescribed forms. Share records. Different kinds of shares. Dis- 
tinction between thares and stocks. Issue of shares, under-writing 
of shares. Application, allotment, calls calls in arrear and calls 
in advance. Forfeiture of shares. Preliminary expenses. Deben- 
tures and register of mortgages. Different kinds of debentures. 
Application, allotment and calls. Reserves and sinking funds. 
What are divisible profits. Distribution of profits as dividends. 
Profits and loss appropriation account. Redemption of debentures 
and various methods thereof. 



220 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLII-A 

Reduction of capital reconstruction, absorption and amalgamation 
problems. Holding companies and their accounts. 

Purchase of business by a limited company. Goodwill and its treat- 
ment in accounts. 

Valuation of shares. 

Preparation of final accounts for audit. 

16. Department and branch accounts (retail and wholesale) inland and 

foreign branches. 

17. Departmental ledgers, trade ledger, private ledger, etc., the principle 

or self-balancing ledgers. 

18. The double- account system. Outlines of railway, electricity, gas 

and water works accounts. 

19. Royalty accounts, Hire purchase, goods on sale or returns and sale 

by instalments accounts. 

20. Outline of bank and insurance accounts. 

(j) Business Organisation. 

The nature and constitution of business houses The sole Trader, Partner- 
ships, Joint Stock Companies, Trusts, Cartels, Holding Companies, Municipal 
Organisations, Co-operativ* Institutions, Co-partnership, Profit sharing, Nation- 
alisation and Guild Socialism. 

The financing of business Nature of saving, Investment, Fixed and Work- 
ing Capital, investment and the division of risk bearing. Types of investment, 
Competitive Demand for savings and function of the rate of interest ; Financial 
institutions, their types, functions and relation to other business. The promo- 
tion of companies and the raising of long-term capital. Relation of different 
classes of investors. Financial problems of depreciation and obsolescence 
foreseen and unforeseen. Supply of short term capital Bank advances, Bills 
of Exchange and Documentary Credits. 

Control of responsibility, Office Routine and Scientific Management- 
Internal relation of staff inside the business firms. The machinery for taking 
decisions involving different views and interests and the recruitment, training, 
promotion and retirement of personnel. The organisation for training Junior 
executive to beeome Managers and Administrators. The machinery of Co- 
operation of firms within groups, particularly that for enabling holding com- 
panies and their subsidiaries and other firms working together. 

The external relation of firms and groups of firms with the outside world 
particularly trade associations, professional associations, scientific bodits, 
Government Departments and Governments. 



SYLS. OR. A] B. COM. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 2^1 

Cost and marketing policy, Investment policy, the replacement, increase 
and withdrawal of Capital from fields of production in relation to costs and 
profits. Location, sice and specialisation of plants determined by markets, raw 
materials, labour supply, transport etc. The location of branch factories and 
assembly plants and the allocation of space within a plant location The pur- 
chase of lease of factory premises. Organisation and policy in the carrying of 
stocks and work-in-progress. Buying, storing and issuing materials, and the 
timing of manufacturing processes. Organisation and policy in determining 
manufacturing processes. Planning and routine. Price Policy. Forms of pric- 
ing including tendering, open prices, discrimination between market prices, 
adjustment to demand and supply fluctuations, the condition of contracts. 
Influence of types of business in the puce policy. Price changes and discounts. 
Selling policy, including forms of selling organizations and relation with com- 
petitors and consumers. Marketing problems of distributors. Wholesale busi- 
nesses. Organized and unorganized wholesaTe markets. Speculation and trad- 
ing in future. Hedging operations. Internal problems relating to departmental 
organization. Merchandise control, buying and selling control. Selection 
training, payments and control of ' Sales force '. Sales method, sales planning 
and budgeting. Relation of the sale department With other departments. Retail 
business. Types of consumers' demand. Organization of retail distribution. 
Department stores. Speciality stores. Cham stores. Retail Co-operative 
Societies. Buying policies, stock control and selling policies. Co-operation 
between retailers. Instalment Trading and Hire purchase. 

Methods of Remuneration Degree of specialisation and automatism in 
relation to labour supply. Wage systems. Industrial efficiency. 

Skilful advertisement Functions of specialist advertising firms, different 
forms of advertising and relation to types of goods sold. Trade marks and 
Brands. 

(^) Mere ant He Law 

Contracts (Sections 1 to 181 of the Contract Act), Agency, Sale of goods, 
Partnership, Negotiable Instruments, Company Law, Societies Registration Act, 
Elements of law relating to Life Assurance and Provincial Insolvency. Ele- 
ments of Industrial legislation, particularly regarding Factories, Workmen's 
compensation and Trade Unions. 

(S) Commercial Geography. 

Physical Geography as the basis of various types of civilisation and a 
determining factor of natural and economic development. Chief commodities 
of Commerce Agricultural and allied products, minerals and manufacturers, 
conditions and regions of production, preparation for the market and chief 
processes Trade routes by land and sea. Present-day production and foreign 
trade of India, Great Britain and the leading commercial and industrial countries 
of th World. 



E82 THE AKDflRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLII-A 

PART III GROUP B OPTIONAL SUBJECTS. 
1. Advanced Accounting and Auditing. 

(a) General Accounting as in Book-keeping and Accounts, greater detail, 
and accounts of different commercial undertaking! and Public 
Utility Companies. Assurance Accounts. Bank Accounts, Bank- 
ruptcy Accounts, Outlines of Cost Accounts and Income-tax 
Accounts. 

() Continuous -and completed audit, detection of frauds, technical 
errors, (vi*. of omission, commission and principle), Internal 
check, vouching verification and valuation of Assets, different 
classes of audit, forms of accounts and balance sheets, certification 
of balance sheet, Auditor's reports and certificates. The appoint- 
ments, duties, rights and liabilities of auditors. Investigations, 
certifying of average profit! etc. Legal decisions affecting Audi- 
tors, particularly regarding depreciation, profits available for 
dividend etc. 

2. Advanced Banking and Currency, including Law and Practice of Banking 
(i) Banking. 

(a) General principles, cheque system, Development of Deposit Banking, 
Clearing Houses. Banking Investments. Short loan Fund. Regu- 
lation of Note-issue. Restrves and Discount Rates. Central 
Banking. Financial and Commercial Crises. Modern Develop- 
ment. 

(V) Histoiy and organization of Banking in India. The Imperial Bank, 
its constitution and relations with the Government and the other 
banks. The Exchange Banks and their place in the Indian credit 
systems. Joint Stock Banks. Indigenous bankers, shroffs, Maha- 
jans etc. and their place iu the Money Market. Recent conditions. 
The Reserve Bank and its functions. 

The co-operative credit movement in India, Provincial and District Banks, 
Unions and Credit Societies and Land Mortgage Banks. 

A short account of different kinds of Banks existing in India, vi*. Savings 
Banks, Industrial Banks, Labour Banks, etc. 

(A Comparison between the systems of Banking in India and the leading 
countries of the world. 

(rf) LaW and Practice of Banking The legal relationship between banker 
and customer. Current accounts, deposit accounts, Trust accounts, 
Loans, Overdrafts and cash credits. The Pass Book. Secrecy 
of the state of customer's account. Cheques and documents 



SYLS. GB. B] B. COM. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 223 

analogous to cheques, Payment and collection of cheques. 
Payment of cheques by mistake. Forged cheques. Securities for 
advances in general. Pledges and mortgages of negotiable instru- 
ments, stocks and shares. Commercial credit*?. Realization of 
securities. Banker's guarantees. Miscellaneous securities, */**., 
Lands and Buildings, Life Policies, Book Debts and Ships. 
Subsidiary services of Banks and the Law relating thereto. 

Note. Law and Practice of Banking in India only need be studied. 

(ii) Currency. 

(a) General principles and economic significance of money. Money and 

its functions. Qualities of good money. Origin and Principles of 
Metallic currencies and Coinage, Mint Regulations and Coinage 
Laws in England, France, Germany, Japan, U.S A. and India. 
Currency Deterioration, causes thereof and remedies therefor. 
Gresham's Law. Principles of Token coinage. Legal Tender and 
various systems thereof, prevailing in the leading countries of the 
world. Monetary Standards, Paper Money, Decimal Coinage, 
Tabular Standards. The purchasing power of money and the 
Quantity Theory. Price variations and effect thereof. Inflation, 
deflation and reflation. The problem of stabilization of prices, 
Monetary Reform. The Gold Standard, its breakdown and its 
future. Various proposals for an international monetary standard. 
The world crisis, its explanation and remedies thereof. 

(b) Indian Currency Problem, Early history of demonetisation of gold. 

Fall in the value of Silver. Herschell Committee and closing of 
the Mints to coinage of silver on private account. Fowler Com- 
mittee and its recommtndations. India and the Gold mint. The 
Gold Standard Reserve, its Composition and Location. Chamber- 
lain Commission and its recommendations. Currency during the 
war and after. Babington-Smith Committee and its Report. 
Failure of the attempt to value the Rupee at 2sh. Hilton-Young 
Committee and Gold Bullion Standard. Note-issue of the Presi- 
dency Banks. History of currency notes till 1914. Effects of war 
on the Note-issue. Changes proposed by the Babington-Smith 
Committee. Proposal to transfer Note-issue to a new institution. 
The Reserve Bank and its role in currency. 

(f) Foreign Exchang t. What is Foreign Exchange? Importance of 
Foreign Exchange in modern economic development. Mint Par of 
Exchange, Gold Points. Fluctuations in Exchanges, causes and 
effects thereof. Rates of exchangeLong and short rates and 
Sight rates. Silver and Paper exchanges. The purchasing power 
Parity Theory. Forward Exchange, Problem of stabilisation of 



284 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, II [CHAP. XLII-A 

Exchanges. Terminology of Exchange and how to read a Foreign 
exchange article. Indian Exchanges, Pre-war and Post war. Pre- 
sent conditions. 

3. Transport. 

(i) Elements of Transport. Functions of Transport The development of 
Transport The essentials of a Transport System Road, Rail, Sea, 
Inland, Water and Air Transport Forms of Transport Under- 
takings Monopoly and Competition Co-ordination State Con- 
trol. 

(ii) Railway Transport. Construction and Maintenance Problems 
Capital and Finance Reserve and Expenditure The Indian Railway 
Net Its origin, development, and control Rates, Fares and 
charges Passenger and Freight Traffic Operation The State and 
Railways Private vs. State Ownership The Road Rail Question. 

(iii) Road Transport. Economics of Road construction and Maintenance- 
Fares and Rates Motor Traffic, Freight and Passenger Tramway 
Undertakings Municipal Ownership Road Transport in India 
The State and Road Transport. 

(iv) Sea Transport. Types of Ocean Terminals and their administration 
The Great Ports of IndiaTypes of Ocean Traffic and their 
organisation Principles of rate making Economics of Marine 
Fuel Competition Conference, Pools, Rings Marine Insurance 
Reservation of Coastal Trade and the Indian Mercantile Marine 
The State and Shipping. 

(v) Air Transport. Characteristics Economic Factors in the operation 
of services Passengers, Freight, and Mail-. Ground organization 
The State and Air Transport. 

4. Statistics and their application to Commerce 

Meaning and scope of Statistics. Various definitions of statistics Laws 
of Statistical Regularity and Inertia of large numbers. 

Statistical Investigation. General methods Collection of primary and 
secondary data. 

Tabulation. Single, double and manifold. 
Clastiftcation of data. 
Frequency Distributions. 
Accuracy and Approximation. 

Averages. Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic. The mode and the 
median Weighted averages Characteristics of the different averages. 



8TLS. GR. B] B. COM. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 225 

Methods of Presentation. Diagrams Cartograms and Pictograms Map* 
Graphical representation Simple, Logarithmic and semi-Logarithmic graphs. 

Dispersion. yit&ning and Importance Various measures of Dispersion and 
relation between them. 

Skewness. Meaning and various measures of skewness. 

Serial Statistics. Time series seasonal, cyclical and Random fluctuations 
and methods of eliminating their influence Secular trend. 

Correlation (Linear only}. -Meaning and measurement of correlation (with 
respect to ungrouped data only). 

Interpolation Meaning and Importance of Interpolation Interpolation by 
graphic method only. 

Index N"umbers. Meaning and importance of Index numbers Various 
types of and construction of some important index numbers, as simple and 
weighted Arithmetic, Geometric and Aggregative. The two reversal tests 
Fisher's Ideal Index Cost of Living Index Index number of wholesale prices. 

Government Published Statistics. The nature of the Statistics publications 
of the Various Provincial Governments and of the Government of India. 

Study of the Indian Census. 

Vital Statistics. Birth rate, Death rate Crude, corrected and 
standardised. 

Methods of Economic Survey. Preparation of schedule* and questionaires. 

(S) decent Economic History of England^ France, Get many ', Italy, United 
States of America, Japan and India ("vith special reference to England and 
India.) 

England-. Outlines of the Economic History in the pre-Iudustrial 
Revolution period Mercantalism The Industrial Revolution Industrial and 
Commercial Policy Agricultural and Commercial Revolutions Economic 
Imperialism Economic Legislation Trade Unions, Factory Legislation, Poor 
Relief, Free Trade Socialism and kindred movements The Great War and its 
effects Recent Economic problems The growth of the philanthropic spirit. 

Prance ; Outlines of Economic History during the Pre-Kailway Age 
Industrial conditions during 1815 1848 Money, Banking and Investment 
during 1815 1848 First Railway and Telegraph Act Rural Finance from 
1848 1914 Industry Industrial policy and Labour during 18481914 
Communications, Commerce and Commercial Organisation, Money Banking and 
Investment etc. during the Railway Age The Great War and its effects 
Recent economic developments 

29 



226 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XL1I1 

Germany : Germany in the beginning of the 19th century Agriculture, 
Industry, Commerce and TransportReorganisation after the Napoleonic Wars 
The Zollverein Progress of Agriculture, Industry, Commerce and Transport 
Colonisation scheme Industrial and commercial policy Labour move* 
menti The Great War and its effects Recent economic developments. 

Italy '.Outlines of the economic History from the middle of the 19th 
Century to 1903 The change in 1903 -Economic Policy from 1903 to 1922 
Growth of the Fascist Spirit The Revolution in 1922 and victory of Fascism - 
Establishment of the " Corporate State" in 1926'' Labour Charter" 
of 1927 The " New Corporation, Law " of 1934, establishing different corpora- 
tions for different branches of economic activity Colonisation schemes- 
Industrial and Commercial Policy under Fascism Recent Developments. 

TAt (7.S.A: Struggle for commercial and economic independence The 
Industrial Revolution and the Westward Movement Development of Transport 
Economic effects of the Civil War Main features and causes of the agricul- 
tural, industrial and commercial development Immigration policy Recent 
trend. 

Japan: The Economic reconstruction of Japan after the downfall of 
Feudalism The changt from the Domestic to Factory organisation Main 
features and causes of recent economic progress in the country The Great War 
and its effect > Recent developments. 



: Economic conditions at the time of the downfall of the Moghul 
Empire Period of economic disorder Parliamentay control Industrial 
decline Preference to British interests Early Land Settlements in various 
Provinces Development of Transport Industrial and Commercial Revolution 
The Policy of the Government in regard to Commerce, Industry and Agricul- 
ture in the country Transition period Industrial development Labour 
Leiislation Growth of the Co-operative MovementRise of Economic 
Nationalism Change in the economic policy of the Government Fiscal 
Autonomy Recent developments 



. 12] B.CtfM, (fcONS.) PEGfcEE XAlJlNA#IO# 22^ 

CHAPTER XLII1 ^ 
B. COM. (HONOURS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 

(Regulations) 

1. Candidates for the Degree of Bachelor of Commerce 
(Honours) shall be required 

(t) to have passed the Intermediate examination in Arts 
and Science of this University or the Intermediate 
examination of any other statutory Indian University 
accepted as equivalent thereto ;* 

Note : Admissions to Honours course shall ordi- 
narily be restricted to those candidates who have 
taken one or more Commercial subjects as 
optionals under Part III in their Intermediate 
examination ; 

(ta) to have subsequently undergone a further course of 
study in the University College, as prescribed here- 
under extending over a period of three years, each 
consisting of three consecutive terms ; and 

(in) to have passed the examination for the degree here- 
inafter prescribed. 

2. The course for the B. Com. (Honours) Degree shall 
comprise instruction in 

Part I Preliminary Examination (a) Commercial Corres- 
pondence and Precis Writing and (b) Translation 
(Hindi). 

Part II-*-Final Examination. 

A. 1. Commercial Knowledge and Commercial Arithmetic. 

2. Commercial Geography. 

3. Business Organisation. 

4. Law and Practice of Banking in India, 

* Vidt foot-note on the first page of Chapter XL. 



228 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIII 

B. 1. Economics. 

s 

2. Book-keeping and Accounts. 

3. Mercantile and Industrial Law. 

4. Statistical Method and Applied Staitetics. 

5. & 6, Any two of the following special subjects one from 
each group. 

Group (a) 

1. Advanced Accounting and Auditing. 

2. Advanced Banking and Currency. 

Group (b) 
L Economics of Transport. 

2. Actuarial Science. 

3. International Trade and Foreign Exchanges. 

4. World Trade and Organisation of Markets. 

5. Insurance. 

6. Recent Economic History of England, Germany, 

Russia, Italy, U. S. A., Japan (each with special 
reference to India) and India. 

Eligibility 3 ( a ) ^ candidate shall be eligible for the B. Com. (Honours) 

De'ree , Degree until he has passed both the Part I and Part II Exami- 
nations, 

(6) No candidate other than those hereinafter exempted, 
shall be admitted to the Part II examination in Honours unless he 
has passed the Part I examination. 

4. The examination in Part I shall be the same as the examina- 
tion in Part I for the B. Com. Pass Degree examination, 

A candidate for the Honours examination may present him- 
self for the Part I examination at the ead of the first year of the 
course and thereafter at his option present himself for either 
Commercial Correspondence and Precis Writing or Translation or 
both, provided that candidates who obtain qualifying marks fpr a 



SHO. 36] B. COM. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 229 

pass either in Commercial Correspondence and Precis Writing or 
Translation need appear again in the subject in which they failed. 

A candidate shall be declared to have passed in Part I if he Marks 
obtains not less than 40 per cent in each of the subjects. All other ^^I^f 
candidates shall be deemed to have failed in the examination. 
Successful candidates obtaining not less than 60 per cent of marks 
in each subject shall be declared to have passed with distinction in 
that subject. 

5. Selected graduates of the University (B, Com. Pass Degree Exemption 
holders and B.A. Pass Degree holders with Economics (Main) as their 
optionals) and such other graduates as may be recognised by the 
Syndicate as equivalent thereto may be allowed to take the Honours 

Degree examination after a further period of study in the Univer- 
sity college extending over not less than two years. B. Com. Pass 
Graduates shall be exempted from passing the Part I examination ; 
they shall be required to attend the classes and appear and pass the 
Part II examination in the subjects under General and Special 
groups. 

Candidates who have passed Hindi under Part II in the Inter- 
mediate examination shall not be required to undergo the course in 
Hindi prescribed for the examination or to pass in the examination 
under Part I-B. 

6. The Part II examination shall be conducted in two parts, Subjects for 
Part II-A and Part II-B respectively ; the subjects included in the tf e n Examilu " 
above shall correspond to the subjects under the corresponding 

Parts mentioned in Section 2 above. 

The papers set in each subject shall be as follows : 

Each of the special subjects 3 papers of 3 hours* duration 
each ; 

Rest one paper of 3 hours' duration each. 

Candidates for the Honours examination are expected to have 
more detailed knowledge of the common subjects than is required 
in the case of candidates for the Pass Degree, a higher standard 
than B. Com. Pass course is required in passing the Examination. 



230 



THB ANDHEi UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLllt 



Admission 
to Part II 
examination 



Notice of 
withdrawal 



Marks 

qualifying 
for a pass 



7. Candidates may be permitted to appear for Part 1 1- A at 
the end of the 2nd year of their Honours course, A candidate for 
the B. Com. Honours Degree examination shall appear for the 
Part II-B examination not later than the end of the 4th year after 
commencing the Honours degree course in the University College ; 
provided, however, graduates (vide Section 5 above) proceeding to 
the B. Com. Honours Degree shall appear not later than 3 years 
after commencing the B. Com. Honours Degree course in the Univer- 
sity College. 

8. No candidate shall be permitted to undergo the examina- 
tion in Part II-B for the Honours more than once. A candidate for 
the Part II-B examination shall, however, be permitted to withdraw 
from the examination provided he has not sat for the last paper in 
the examination and provided he has given notice of withdrawal to 
the Registrar within three clear days from the date of the last paper 
which he answered. He shall be permitted to appear again for the 
Part II-B examination in the following year without producing any 
additional certificate of attendance. 

9. In the event of a candidate for the B. Com. (Hons.) Degree 
failing to satisfy the examiners in Part II of the examination, he 
may be recommended by them for the B. Com. Pass Degree provided 
he has obtained not less than 30 per cent of the marks in Part II-A 
and 30 per cent of the marks in each of the divisions in Part Il-B 
of the examinations, viz : 

(1) General Group, and (2) Special Group. 

10. A candidate who is not already eligible for the B. Com. 
Pass Degree and has failed completely in the B. Com. (Hons.) Degree 
examination shall be permitted to appear for the B, Com. (Pass) 
Degree examination without the production of a further certificate 
of attendance in the University College. 

11. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the Final 
examination if he has obtained the following minimum marks : 

. Part II-A. 30 per cent in each subject and 40 per cent in the 
aggregate. 



SEC. 7 IB & SYLS.] B. COM. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 231 

Part II-B. 33 per cent in both the special subjects taken to- 
gether ; 30 per cent in each of the remaining subjects ; and 
40 per cent in the aggregate. 

1*?. Candidates obtaining Honours shall bo ranked in the order ciassifica- 
of proficiency as determined by the total marks obtained by each s|^eslful 
and shall be arranged in three classes ; ths first, consisting of those candidates 
who obtain not lesa than 60 per cent ; the second, of those who 
obtain not less than 50 per cent ; and the third, of those who obtain 
not less than 40 per cent of the total marks. 

Transitory Regulation 

13. For the benefit of candidates who failed in Part I-(a) 
English at the B. Com. (Hone.), Degree examination held in 1936 or 
earlier an examination in Part I-(a) under the Regulations in force 
up to and including the examination of 1936 will be held in March 
and September 1937 under the then time-tables. Similarly for the 
benefit of candidates who fail in Part II of the B. Cora. (Hons.) 
examination in 1938 who are eligible to appear another time, the 
B. Com. (Hons.) examination in Part II under the regulations in 
force up to and including the examination of 1938 will be held in 
March April of 1939 under the old time-tables. The text-books 
and syllabuses for Part I- (a) examination of 1937 and Part II 
examination of 1939 shall be the same as those prescribed for the 
examinations of 1936 and 1938 respectively. 

SYLLABUSES 

Part H General Grtup 

1. Economies. Same as for B. Com. (Pass) Degree, but in greater detail 
plus Outlines of Public Finance and Taxation, Problems of Labour and Capital 
and Co-operation, with special reference to India. 

2. Law and Practice of Banking in India. Same as for B. Com (Pass) 
Degree plus important legal decisions affecting Bankers. 

3. Business Organisation. Same as for B.Com. (Pass) Degree plus Export 
and Import Trade Organization and outlines of Transport. 

4. Book-keeping and Accounts. Same as for B. Com. (Pass) Degree plus 
Accounts of different commercial undertakings and Public utility companies, 



232 THE ANDHBA UNIVEBSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIII 

Assurance Accounts, Bank Accounts, Bankruptcy Accounts, Outlines of Costs 
Accounts and Income-tax Accounts. 

5. Mercantile and Industrial Law '^ame as for B. Com. (Pass) Degree 
plus Rights and Duties of Liquidators, Tru tees and Receivers Law of 
Arbitration and Award. Trade Disputes, Employers' liability. 

6. Commercial Geography. Same a'/ for B. Com (Pass) Degree plus Regional 
and Commeicial Geography of India, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, 
Russia, U.S.A. and Japan. 

7. General Commercial Knowledge and Commercial Arithmetic. 

(i) GENERAL COMMERCIAL KNOWLEDGE. 

Same as in the Pass course in greater detail plus criticism of a Company 
Prospectus. The Co-operative movement in India, and outlines of the Indian 
Constitution including the recent developments regarding Federation. 

di) COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. 
Same as in the Pass course in greater detail plus the following : 

(1) Mental calculation of prices including short methods. 

(2) Mensuration of rectangles, parallelograms, circles and rectangular 

solids. 

(3) Duodecimals. 

(4) Builders' quantities and estimates. 

(5) Business forms, such as invoices, debit and credit notes account sales 

and statements of account. 

8. Statittical Method and Applied Statistics Definition of statistics, 
collection, tabulation and presentation of data, graphs, averages dispersion, 
skewness correlation and index numbers. A brief -tudy of British Indian 
statistics official and non-official. Application of statistics -to -economic and 
commercial problems. 

Part II Special Group. 
Sub-Group A. 

(1) Advanced Accounting and Auditing (a) General Accounting as in 
Book-keeping and Accounts. Columnwar Book-keeping, Fire, Loss of Profits 
and Compensation Claims, Accounts of Professional Practices, Hotel accounts, 
Investment accounts. Cost accounts in greater detail, and Income-tax accounts, 
including law and procedure of Income-tax. 

(b) Auditing. Same as for B. Com. (Pass) Degree plus Audit Programme 
Share Transfer Audit, Miscellaneous Problems, Foreign, Branches, Maintenance 
Contracts, Hire Purchase, Shares as consideration for sale, Vendor's guarantees, 



SYLLABUSES] B. COM. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 233 

"Family" companies, valuation of shares in private companies and underwriting 
agreements: 

Investigation into and criticism of accounts, including 

(i) Classes of investigations, liability of the investigating accounts, 
investigation beyond the books, Examination of accounts with 
particular reference to Stock and Foreign investigations. 

(ii) Criticism of balance sheet for prospective loan creditor or purchaser. 
Criticism of prospectus certificate. Special points regarding 
purchase of a business valuation of good-will. 

(2) Advanced Banking and Currency (i) Banking. Same as for B. Com. 
(Pass) in greater detail plus outlines of practice of several kinds of banks in 
Great Britain, France, Germany, U.S.A. and Japan. 

(/'*) Currency. Same as for B. Com. (Pass) in greater detail plus the Various 
currency theories and their criticism. 

(Hi) Foreign Exchange. Same as for B. Com. (Pass) in greater detail plus 
Arithmetic of Foreign Exchanges. 

Sub- Group B. 

(1) Economics and Transport. (a) General principles relating to Railway, 
Road, Inland Waterway, Sea and Aerial Transport. The place of Transport 
in Industry and Commerce. General organization of each means showing 
distribution of functions. Control exercised by the State at inauguration and 
overconstruction, operation and charges. Monopoly and Competition. Co- 
ordination of Transport Relations with public. 

Railway Transport* Capital and Expenditure. Gross and Net receipts. 
Economics of Railway construction and maintenance. Growth of passenger 
traffic. Passenger fares. Influence on distribution of population. Freight 
rates and their theory. Rate making in practice. Influence of production, 
costs on rates. Classification of goods, Special rates, Discrimination. Control 
of rate! by maxima, by commissions of tribunals, Competition. Traffic pools. 
Effects on rates and fares of State ownership and State guarantees of interest. 
Influence of railway rates on distribution of industries. 

Road 7V<j*//<?r/. Economics of foad construction and maintenance, 
Theories of rates and fares. Variations caused by types of road transport 
Competition with railway transport, relation of road to railway transport. 
Municipal ownership. State control. 

Inland Water Transport. Capital Expenditure. State aid. Tolls, 
Economics of Haulage. Local nature of influence on industry. 

30 



THE A*HBA gXiYjBRftm C0OT*~VOL. II [CBAF. XUII-A 

8** 7Yfrflfjp*rf>rUo0k a*4 Quays. Co-ordination of rail aid water 
terminal facilities Port dues. The ship economics of marine fuel.* Charter 
party. Bill of ladinf. Seaworthinses. Freight^ on liners and tramps 
Agreements to control competition. Navigation Laws and State regulation* 
Freight making in coastwise transport. Marine Insurance. Average salvage. 
Th* ship canaL 

A trial Trantport. Growth and development. Principles of ratemaking. 
(k) Rights and Duties of common carriers and their customers* 



SBC. 1-2] B. COM. (HONS.) DBGRBK BXAM. (N1W &BGS.) S35 

CHAPTER XLIIt-A 
B. COM. (HONOURS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 

(New Regulation*) 

1. Candidates for the Degree of Bachelor of Commerce Condition 
(Honours) ehali be required- Admisioi 

(i) to have passed the Intermediate examination in Art* and 
Science of this University or the Intermediate exami- 
nation of any other statutory Indian University accepted 
as equivalent thereto ;* 

Note : Admission to Honours course shall ordinarily be 
restricted to those candidates who have taken one or 
more commercial subjects as optiomxls under Part III 
of the Intermediate examination. 

(ii) to have subsequently undergone a further course of study* 
in the University College, as prescribed hereunder 
extending over a period of three years, each consisting 
of three consecutive terms ; and 

(iii) to have passed the examination for the degree hereinafter 
prescribed. 

2. The course for the B. Com. (Honours) Degree shall com- Course ot 
priee instruction in Study 
Part IPreliminary Examination^ the end of the first year): 

(a) English. 

(6) Translation (Hindi). 

Part II Final Examinations 

A. 1. General Economics. 

2. Banking. 

3. Accountancy. 

4. Business Organisation. 

5. Secretarial Practice. 

6. Commercial Geography. 

7. Mercantile Law. 

8. Statistics and their application Id Commerce. 

* Vitt foot-not* on the first page of Chapter XL. 



236 THE ANDHBA dNIVBBSITY COBEVOL. II [OHAI*. 

B. Any one of the following subjects : 

1. Advanced Accounting and Auditing. 

2. Transport. 

3. International Trade. 

4. Currency and Exchange. 

5. Recent Economic History of England, Germany, 

U. 8. A,, Japan and India. 
*6. Insurance. 

Eligibility 3. (a) No candidate shall be eligible for the B. Com. Honours 

for the Degree until he has passed both the Part I and Part II examinations. 

(b) No candidate other than those hereinafter exempted, 

shall be admitted to the Part II examination in Honours unless he 

has passed the Part I Examination. 

Subjects for 4. The examination in Part I shall comprise (a) two papers 

Part I Exam. Q ^ nree hours' duration each one based on two prescribed text- 
books of modern Prose for detailed study and the other on Com- 
position based on two prescribed modern text-books for non-detailed 
study and (6) a three hours* paper on Translation from Hindi into 
English and vice-versa. (This paper on Translation shall include a 
simple essay on some commercial subject). 

A dm is ion to A candidate for the Honours examination may present himself 
Part I Exam. ^ p arfc j o the exam i na ti on at the end of the first year of the 
course and thereafter at his option present himself for either 
English or Translation or both, provided that candidates who obtain 
qualifying marks for a pass either in English or Translation need 
appear again in the subject in which they failed. 

Marks A. candidate shall be declared to have passed in Part I if he 

obtains not less than 35% in each of the subjects (i.e. English and 



in Part I Translation). All other candidates shall be deemed to have failed 
xamina on . Q ^ e examination. Successful candidates obtaining not less than 
60% of the marks in each subject (i.e. English or Translation) shall 
be deemed to have passed with distinction in that snbject. 

Bachelors of Arts shall be exempted from taking the 
examination in Part I-A. 

To come Into effect as from the examination of 1944. 



SfiO. 3-8] fc. COM. (HOISTS.) DHGREfi EXAM. (NEW REGS.) 237 

5. Selected graduates in Commerce of this and other Uuiver- Exemption 
sities may be allowed to take the Honours Degree examination after 

a further period, of study in the University College extending over 
not less than two years. Pass graduates in Commerce shall be 
exempted from passing Part I of the Examination ; they shall be 
required to attend the classes and appear and pass Part II of the 
Examination in the subjects under compulsory and optional groups- 
Candidates who have passed Hindi under Part II in the Inter- 
mediate examination shall not be required to undergo the couise in 
Hindi prescribed for the examination or to pass in the examination 
under Part I (6). 

6. The Part 11 examination shall consist of one paper of Subjects for 
3 hours' duration in each of the compulsory subjects, and two P ^ t ati ^ n exa 
papers of 3 hours 7 duration in the special (optional) subject. 

Candidates for the Honours examination are expected to have 
more detailed knowledge of the common subjects than is required 
in the case of candidates for the Pass degree ; and a higher standard 
than B. Com. Pass course is required for passing the examination. 

7. Candidates for the B. Com. (Hons.) degree examination Admission tc 

shall appear for Part II of the examination in Honours not later P"* 11 

examination 
than the end of the fourth year after commencing the Honours 

degree course in the University College, provided, however, 
graduates (vide section 5 above) proceeding to the B. Com. (Hons.) 
degree examination shall appear not later than three years after 
commencing the Honours degree course in the University College. 

8. No candidate shall be permitted to undergo the examina- N ot i ce O f 
tion in Part II for the Honours more than once. A candidate for withdrawal 
Part II of the examination shall, however, be permitted to with- 
draw from the examination provided he has not sat for the last 

paper in the examination and provided he has given notice of 
withdrawal to the Registrar within three clear days from the date 
of the last paper which he answered. He shall be permitted to 
appear again for Part II of the examination in the following year 
without producing any additional certificate of attendance. 



238 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. U [CHAP. XLIH-A 

9. In the event of a candidate for the B. Com. (Honours) 
degree failing to satisfy the examiners in Part II of the examination, 
he may be recommended by them for the B. Com. Pass degree pro- 
vided he has obtained not less than 30 percent, of the marks in 
each of the divisions in Part II. 

10. A candidate who is not already eligible for the B. Com. 
Pass degree and has failed completely in the B. Cora. (Hons.) 
degree examination shall be permitted to appear for the B. Com. 
(Pass) degree examination without the production of a further 
certificate of attendance in University College. 

Marks quali- ^' ^ candidate shall be declared to have passed the Final 

fying for a examination (i. e. Part II) if he has obtained 30% in each subject 

pass in ^ ' 

Part II Exam, of Group A (i. e. compulsory subjects) arid 33% in the special 

subject selected by the candidate from Group B and 40% in the 
aggregate. 



Classifica- 
tion of 
successful 
candidates 



12. Candidates obtaining Honours shall be ranked in the 
order of proficiency as determined by the total marks obtained by 
each and shall be arranged in three classes ; the First consisting of 
those who obtain not less than 60 per cent ; the Second of those 
who obtain no f less than 50 per cent ; and the Third of those who 
obtain not less than 40 per cent, of the total marks* 



Transitory Regulation 

13. For the benefit of candidates who fail in Part I of the 
B. Com. (Hor.s.) Degree examination held in 1940 or earlier an 
examination in Part 1 under the regulations in force up to and 
including the examination of 1940 will be held in March and 
September 1941 under the then time-tables. Similarly for the 
benefit of candidates who, withdraw from Part II-B of the B, Com. 
(Hons.) examination in 1942 and who are eligible to appear another 
time, the B. Com. (Hons.) examination in Parts II-A and II-B under 
the regulations in force up to and including the examination of 1942 
will be held in March April of 1943 under the old time-tables. 
The text books and syllabuses for Part I examination of 1941 and 



SYLg. GB. A] B. COM. (HON8.) DEGREE EXAM. (NEW BEOS.) 239 

Parts II- A and II-B examinations of 1943 shall be the same as those 
prescribed for the examinations of 1940 and 1942 respectively. 

Note j The candidates who fail completely in the B. Com. 
(Hons.) Degree examination of 1943 and who are not eligible for 
the B. Com. Pass degree, shall be permitted to appear for the B. Com. 
(Pass) Degree examination without the production of a further 
certificate of attendance in the University College up to and includ- 
ing the examinations of March and September 1944 under the old 
time-tables. The text-books and syllabuses for Parts 1 1- A and II-B 
examinations of the B. Com. (Pass) degree held up to and inclusive 
of 1944 shall be the same as those prescribed for 1941 examinations. 



SYLLABUSES 

PART II 
Group A. (Compulsory) 

1. General Economics: Same as for B. Com. (Pass) degree, Without the 
section on " Money, Exchange, and Banking, " but including outlines of Public 
Finance and Taxation, Labour Problems and Co-operation, with special reference 
to India. 

2. Banking \ 

(a) Outlines of Currency: The Functions and economic significance of 

money various forms of money metallic currencies and coinage 

, currency deterioration ; its causes, measures and remedies Legal 

Tender Paper money Monetary Standards The purchasing 

power of money and quantity Theory Indian Currency Problems. 

(b) Principle* of Banking : The nature and utility of Banking the 

functions and economic significance of Banks simple banking 
operationsGrowth of the Deposit Banks and the Cheque Sy>tem 
The sources of bank's profit Bank Investments Banks and the 
money Market. 

Central Banks Regulation of note-issue Reserves and Discount Rates 
Clearing houses. 

Financial and Commercial crises. 
Branch Banking. 

Outlines of the history and growth of Banking in England. The Bank of 
England and its relation to the Government, the Commercial and Banking 



240 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODB VOL, II * [CHAP, XLlIl-A 

World and the general public. Indian Banking. Money-lenders and indigenous 
bankers Their importance in Rural Finance The Joint stock Banks The 
Imperial Bank of India The Exchange Banks The Reserve Bank of India 
Outlines of Co-operative Credit movement in India Provincial and ^District 
Co-operative Banks, Unions and Credit Societies Land Mortgage Banks. 

(c) Law and Practice of Banking in India : The legal relationship bet- 
ween banker and customer. Current accounts, Deposit accounts, Trust 
account*;, Loans, Overdrafts and cash credits. The Pass Book. 
Secrecy of the state of Customer's account Cheques and documents 
analogous to cheques. Payment and collection of cheques. Payment 
of cheques by mistake. Forged cheques. Securities for advances in 
general. Pledges and 'mortgages of negotiable instruments, stocks 
and share. Commercial credits. Realisation of securities. Banker's 
guarantees. Miscellaneous securities, w'x., Lands and Buildings, Life 
Policies, Book Debts and Ships. Subsidiary services of Banks and 
the Law relating thereto. 

3. Accountancy : Same as for the B. Com. (Pass) Degree plus Accounts 
of different commercial undertakings and Public Utility Companies, Life Assu- 
rance Accounts, Bank Account!. Bankruptcy Accounts, Liquidation Accounts, 
Outlines of Cost Accounts and outlines of Income-Tax Accounts. 

4. Business Organisation .Same as for the B. Com. (Pass) degree plus 
export and import trade Organisation and outlines of Transport. 

5. Secretarial Practice*. 

The Right* and Liabilities of a Company Secretary : Duties at time of 
incorporation of Company Duties after, Incorporation Qualifications 
Appointment and Remuneration Secretary's responsiblities and Liabilities 
Position of Secretary on Liquidation or appointment of Receiver for Debenture 
Holders. 

Incorporation and Formation of Companies : Dnties of person acting as 
Secretary protem in connection with arrangement and attendance at all meetings 
of promoters Advice to promoters on matters incidental to registration of in- 
tended company Different kinds of Limited Companies Companies limited 
by shares. Companies limited by guarantee. Companies with unlimited liability. 

Piomotion Functions of a promoter His remuneration. High grade and 
low grade promotion Preparation of Preliminary and underwriting Contracts 
Different kinds of underwriting agreements Underwriters' services Their 
remuneration. Framing of prospectus Documents to be filed on lacorpora- 
tions Memorandum and Articles of Association, List of Directors, etc. 
Miscellaneous Matters Name of Company Change of name, Seal and teal 
book. 



STLS, OR. A] B. COM. (HON8.) DEGREE EXAM. (NEW REGS.) 241 

Certificate of Incorporation and commencement of business. 

Office Organisation and Business Methods. The Business office and its 
Equipment Departments Division of Responsibility Buying, Selling, Ac- 
counts and cash, General Administration, Secretarial Department. Appointment 
of staff Staff management and records. Business ^nethods -Handling Mails. 
Incoming and outgoing Mails Orders outwards. Methods of filing Purchases, 
Invoices etc. Paying Accounts Handling sale Orders Recording payments by 
customers. Paying of wages Internal checks Office aids, Machinery and Ap- 
pliancesFiling cabinets Card indexes Loose leaf books Typewriters 
Letter-copying machines DuplicatorsPhotostat Time recording clocks and 
devices Cash Registers Com Issuing machines for change Adding and Cal- 
culating machines Tabulating machines for costing, statistical and sorting 
purposes-Dictating machines -Automatic Cash and document tube conveyors. 

Correspondence, Filing and Indexing. Composition of Business letters 
Drafting of circulars Filing systems vertical, horizontal, card indexes, central 
filing etc. Advantages and disadvantages of each. 

Precis-writing^ Draftint Report 's, Circulars. Precis ; Definition, prepa- 
ration length uses, Reports : Statutory and Annual Reports to Directors-- 
Committee Reports Financial and Statistical Returns Circulars When 
issued Need for careful drafting. 

Application and allotment procedure. Issues to Public- Different kinds of.,* 
shares Rights attached thereto Procedure on allotment Issuing allotment 
letters' Partial Allotments Letters of Regret Recording Allotment Moneys 
Filing return of Allotments -Statutory and other books of the company Register 
of membeis and share Register -Indexing, writing and balancing up of Register- 
Issue of share certificate-Procedure on i ^sue of share certificates-Issue of Bonus 
sharesProcedure on allotment of Bonus shares Oth^r methods of giving 
shareholders a Bonus Splitting allotment letters, Dealing with Renunciation., 
etc. 

Calls and Forfeiture: Procedure on making a call-Forfeiture of Shares* 
Reissue of Forfeited shares. 

Transfer and Transmission. Legal effect of a Transfer. Certification of 
Transfers-Duties attending certification procedure on Registration of Transfer- 
Transmission of shares Formalities on Transmission Miscellaneous matters 
in connection with Transfer and Transmission Transfer and Transmission fees 
Transfers executed under a Power of Attorney-Forged Transfers Closing of 
transfer books - Issue of duplicate share certificates etc. 

Payment of Dividends : Procedure on Payment of Dividends - Payment 
to shareholders' Bank Accounts Income Tax Requirements Unclaimed Divi- 
dends etc. 

Alteration of Capital : Procedure on Increase of Capital-Procedure on 
sub-division of shares- Procedure on consolidation- Procedure on conversion 

31 



242 THE ANDHHA ttNIVBRSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIII-A 

of shares into stock and reconversion Procedure on Reduction of Capital 
Procedure on alteration of rights attaching to shares Reorganisation of share 
capital, 

Debentures : Issue of DebenturesRegistration and filing of charges, 
securing debentures- Transmission of Debentures -Payment of Interest- 
Redemption. 

Secretarial Duties concerning meeting* : Notice convening the meeting 
The agenda Loophole agendum The Statutory Meeting The Statutory Re- 
portForwarding and Filing Statutory Report Annual Meeting Closing of 
Transfer books The Annual Report- -Proxies Polling Preparations Extra- 
ordinary meetings Meetings of Directors First meeting of Directors Prepa- 
rations for meetings of Directors (Immediate and at the meetings) Committee 
meetings. 

Resolution* : Propositions Motions Ordinary, Special and Extraordinary 
Resolutions Drafting Filing of Resolutions with Registrar. 

Minutes Compilation Main Essentials Indexing of Minutes Signing of 
Minutes Alteration of Minutes Minutes as Evidence Failure to keep 
minutes Inspection of Minute Books 

Procedure on Reconstruction^ Reorganisation and Amalgamation. 

Private Companies .Privileges and Restrictions. Conversion into Public 
Company. 

Statutory Companies -Formation and main differences between Statutory 
and limited companies from the point of view of Secretary. 

6. Commercial Geography \ Same a^ for B. Com. (Pass) degree plus 
Regional and Commercial Geography of India, Great Britain, France, Germany, 
Italy, Russia, U.S.A. and Japan. 

7. Mercantile Law. Same as for B. Com. (Pass) degree, plus rights and 
duties of liquidators, trustees and receivers. Law of Arbitration and Award 
Trade Disputes and Employer's Liability. 

8. Statistics and their application to Commerce : 

Meaning and Scope, of Statistics : Various definitions of statistics Laws 
of Statistical regularity and of Inertia of Large numbers. 

General methods of Statistical investigation ; Collection of data, primary 
and secondary. 

Tabulation: Single, double and manifold. 
Classification and Frequency Distributions. 
Accuracy and Approximation. 

. Averages j Arithmetic average, Median, Mode, Geometric mean, Harmonic 
mean, Weighted average characteristics of different average t. 



BYL8. OR. B] B. COM. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAM. (NEW REGS.) 243 

Methods of Presentation : Diagrams, cartograms, maps, etc. Graphs 
Simple Logarithmic and semi-logarithmicgraphic method of representing 
frequency distributions. 

Dispersion : Its meaning and importance, Various measures of dispersion 
Relation between various measures. 

Skewness : Its meaning Various measures of skewness. 

Analysis of serial statistic* \ Time series Seasonal, cyclical, and random 
fluctuations and methods of eliminating their influence Secular trend. 

Correlation: (Linear Correlation only) Its' meaning Measurement of 
correlation (with respect of ungrouped data only). 

Interpolation : Its meaning and importance Interpolation by graphic 
method only. 

Index Numbers : Their meaning Various types of Index numbers Con- 
struction of some of the important types such as simple and weighted, 
Arithmetic, Geometric and Aggregative The two reversal tf ,ts Fisher's Ideal 
Index Co c t of Living Index and Index number of Wholesale prices. 

Government Published Statistics -Nature of the Statistical publications of 
the various Provincial Governments and Government of India. 

Study of Indian Census. 

Vital Statistics Birth rate and Death rate Crude, corrected and 
standardised. 

Methods of Economic Survey : Preparation of Schedules and question- 

aires. 

Group B (Optional Subjects) 

1. Advanced Accounting and Auditing : 

(a) General Accounting as in Book-keeping and Accounts. Columnwaf 
Book-keeping. Fire, Loss of Profits and Compensation Claims. Accounts of 
Professional Practices, Hotel accounts, Investment accounts, Cost accounts in 
greater detail, and Income-tax accounts, including law and procedure of 



() Auditing : Same as for B. Com. (Pass) Degree plus Audit Programme, 
Share Transfer Audit, Miscellaneous Problems, Foreign Branches, Maintenance, 
Contracts, 1 Hire Purchase. Shares as consideration for sale, Vendor's guarantees 
1 Family ' companies, valuation of shares in private companies and underwriting 
agreements. 

Investigation into and criticism of- accounts, including 

, (i) Classes of investigations, liability of the investigating; accounts, 
investigation beyond the bdSks. Examination of accounts with 
^ particular reference to Stock and Foreign investigations. 



244 THE ANDHRA tmiVfifcStTY C0i> VOL. ll [CHAP. XLIII-A 

(fi) Criticism of a balance sheet for prospective loan creditor or purchaser. 
Criticism of prospectus certificate. Special points regarding 
purchase of a business, valuation of good-will. 

(e) Advanced Banking and Currency (i) Banking Same as for B. Com. 
(Pass) in greater detail plus outlines of practice of several kinds of banks In 
Great Britain, France, Germ any, U.S. A. and Japan. 

(iij Currency : Same as for B. Com. (Pass) in greater detail plus the 
various -currency theories and their criticism. 

(iii) Foreign Exchange Ssme as for B. Com. (Pass) in greater detail 
plus Arithmetic of Foreign exchanges. 

2. Transport \~(a) General principle relating to Railway, Road, Inland 
Waterway, Sea and Aerial Transport. The place of Transport in Industry and 
Commerce. General organisation of each means showing distribution of 
functions. Control exercised by the State at inauguration and overconstr action, 
operation and charges, Monopoly and Competition. Co-ordination of 
Transport. Relations with public. 

Railway Transport : Capital and Expenditure. Gross and net receipts. 
Economics of Railway construction and maintenance. Growth of passenger 
traffic. Passenger fares Influence on distribution of population. Freight rates 
and their theory. Rate making in practice. Influence of production, costion 
rates. Classification of goods, Special rate^. Discrimination. Control of rates 
by maxima, by commissions of tribunals. Competition, Traffic pools Effects on 
rates and fares of state ownership and State guarantees of interest, Influence 
of railway rates on distribution of industries. 

Road Transport: Economics of road construction and maintenance 
Theories of rates and fares. Variations caused by types of road transport. 
Competition with railway transport, relation of road to Railway transport, 
Municipal ownership. State control. 

Inland Waterway Transport- Capital Expenditure. State aid. Tolls. 
Rates, Economics of Haulage. Local nature of influence on industry. 

Sea Transport : Docks and Quays. Co- ordination of rail and Water terminal 
facilities. Port dues. The ship economics of marine fuel. Charter party. 
Bill of Jading. Seaworthiness. Freights on liners and tramps. Agreements 
to control competition. Navigation Laws and State regulation. Freight making 
in coastwise transport. Marine Insurance. Average salvage. The ship canal. 

Aerial Transport : Growth and development. Principles of rate makiftg. 
() Rights and Duties of common earners and their customers. 

3. Intimation*! Trade :< General features of International Trade History 
of the Theory of International Trad^-The Theory of Comparative costs The 
equation of International Indebtedness Money in- International Trade-* 



SYLg. OR, B] B. COM. (HONS.) DBGKBB EXAM. (NBW BBGS.) 245 

Outlines of Foreign Exchange The influence of foreign trade on the inte rnal 
distribution of wealth Taxation for Revenue and its effects Free Trade vtrtus 
Production Some controversial points in International Trade Counter- 
theories of International Trade. 

4. Currency and Exchange : 

(i) Currency: 

(a) General principle s : Economics significance of Money. Money and 
its functions Qualities of good Money Origin and principles of 
metallic currency and coinage Mint regulations and coinage Laws 
in England, France, Germany, the U.S.A. and Japan Currency 
deterioration, causes thereof and remedies therefor Gresham's 
Law Token Coinage Legal Tender and various systems thereof 
pra vailing in the leading countries of the world Monetary standards 
Paper money Various theories about the value of money and 
criticism thereof Price variations and effects thereof Inflation, 
Deflation and Reflation The problems of stabilisation of prices - 
Monetary Reform The Gold Standard, its breakdown and its futuie 
Various proposals for an international Monetary Standard The 
1931 world crisis and its explanation Recent developments. 

() Indian Currency Problems Early history of demonetisation of Gold. 
Fall in the value of Silver. Herschell Committee and closing of the 
Mints to Coinage of Silver on private account. Fowler Committee 
and its recommendations. India and the Gold Mint. The Gold Stand- 
ard Reserve, its^composition and location. Chamberlain Commis* 
sion and its recommendations. Currency during the war and after. 
Babington-Smith Committee and its report. Failure of the attempt 
to value the Rupee at 2 sh. Hilton-Young Committee and Gold Bullion 
Standard. Note issue of the Presidency Banki. History of currency 
notes till 1941. Effects of war on the Note issue. Changes proposed 
by the Babington-Smith Committee. Proposal to transfer Note - 
issue to a new institution. The Reserve Bank and its role in 
Currency. 

(<?) Foreign Exchange : What is Foreign Exchange ? Importance of 
Foreign Exchange in modern economic development. Mint Par of 
Exchange, Gold points. Fluctuations in Exchanges, causes and effects 
thereof. Rates of Exchange, Long and short rates and Sight-rates. 
Silver and Paper exchanges. The purchasing power Parity Theory. 
Forward Exchange, Problem of stabilisation of Exchanges. Termi- 
nology of Exchanges and how to read a Foreign exchange article. 
Indian Exchanges, Pre-war and Post-war. Present conditions. 

(ii) Exchange-. 

O) General Principles : The meaning of Foreign Exchange. Importance 
of Foreign Exchange in modern Economic Development Mint Par 



246 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIV 

Gold Points Fluctuation in Exchanges, causes and effects thereof 
Rates of Exchange viz, long and short rates, sight rate, etc. Silver 
and paper exchanges. The Purchasing Power Parity Theory and 
ExchangesProblem of Stabilisation of Exchanges Terminology 
of Exchanges and how to read a Foreign Exchange article Arith- 
metic of Exchanges. 

(If) Indian Exchange Pre-war and Post-war-Gold movements. The ratio 
controversy-Recent developments. 

* 5. Recent Economic ffittory oj England, Germany, [/. S. A., Japan, and 
India t 

England : Same as for Pass course but in greater detail. 
Germany .'-Same as for Pass course but in geater detail. 
U. S. A : Same as for Pass course but in greater detail. 
Japan : Same as for Pass course, but in greater detail. 
India : Same as for Pass course, but in greater detail. 

* The following change will come into effect as from the examinations 
of 1944: 

Add the following Syllabus after the syllabus under 5. Recent Economir 
History of England, & etc. 

(6) Insurance: 

(a) Nature and the use of Life Assurance. The Science of Life Assurance. 
Special forms of Lifp Assurance. Investments of Life Assurance 
Companies' Funds. Outlines of the Law relating to Life Assurance- 

() Fire Insurance, Marino Insurance, Motor Insurance, Personal accident 
Insurance, Employer's Liability. Insurance and unemployment 
Insurance (outlines only). 

Book* recommended: 

1. Life Assurance by J. H. Mages. 

2. Life Assurance by Hubner. 

3. Insurance Companies' Investments by H. E. Ruynes. 
4. Principles of Life Assurance by Maclear. 

5. A Guide to Life Assurance by Leigh. 

6. . Marint Insurance Its principles and practice by F. Templeman. 
.7. Principles and practice of fire Insurance by F. Godwin. 
'' & Motor Insurance by W. F. Todd. 
9. Personal Accident, Disease and Sickness Insurance by J. W. Wilson. 

10. Workmen's Compensation Insurance by G. E. Golding- 

11. Indian Life Assurance Companies Act (latest). 
_ }?. Ipdia Workmen's Compensation Act (latent). 



SBC. 12] B. SC. (PAS8) DKQRBB EXAMINATION 247 

CHAPTER XLIV 
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE 

(Regulations) 

1. Candidates for the Degree of Bachelor of Science shall be Conditions 
required *f- 

(1) to have passed the Intermediate examination in Arts 

and Science of this University or an examination of 
some other University accepted as equivalent thereto*; 

(2) to have undergone subsequently a further course of 

study in an affiliated college as prescribed here under, 
extending over a period of two years, each consisting of 
three terms ordinarily consecutive ; and 

(3) to have passed thereafter the examination for the Degree 

hereinafter prescribed. 

2. The courses for the B, Sc. Degree shall comprise iustruc- Courses of 
tion in 

Part I English ; 

Part II -Thiee of the following branches of knowledge, of 
which one shall be the main subject (Part II-A) and the other the 
subsidiary (Part II-B) 
i. Mathematics 

ii. Physics 

iii. Chemistry 

iv. Botany 
v. Zoology 

vi. Geology 

vii. Physiology 

Provided that (a) with Botany Main, Chemistry shall be Uken 
as a compulsory subsidiary subject, and either Geology or Zoology 
as the second subsidiary, (b) with Zoology Main, Chemistry shall be 

Je foot-note on the first page of Chapter XL. 



248 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIV 

taken as a compulsory subsidiary subject, and either Botany or 
Geology as the second subsidiary and (c) with Geology Main, 
Chemistry shall be taken as a compulsory subsidiary subject, and 
either Physics or Botany or Zoology as the second subsidiary. 

The course of study shall be as defined in the syllabuses. 

ibility 3. No candidate shall be eligible for the Degree of Bachelor 

the of Science until he has passed the examination in Part I English 

I*CG 

and in Part II viz., three of the optional branches of knowledge 
contained in the courses of study. 

4. A candidate for the B. Sc. Degree Examination may present 
himself for Part I at the end of the first year of the course and 
thereafter at his option present himself for the whole of the 
examination (that is, Parts I and II), or for either part, or for Part 
II-A or Part II-B, or Part I together with either Part II-A or Part 
II-B ; provided that candidates who obtain qualifying marks for a 
pass in either Part II-A or Part II-B need appear again only for the 
sub-division A or B in which they failed ; 

Provided also that candidates presenting themselves for any 
part of the examination ;it the end of the first year of the course 
shall take the examination with the text-books and syllabuses 
prescribed for that year no matter when they would be completing 
their course in the main subject. 

5. Notwithstanding anything contained in Section 4, candi- 
dates who have passed in one subsidiary subject under Part II-B at 
the examination of 1931 shall be given credit for the pass in that 
subject and they need appear for and pass in the other subsidiary 
subject only to complete that Part. It shall also be permissible for 
candidates who commenced their B. Sc. Degree course of instruction 
in July 1931 to appear at the examination of April 1932 for one 
Subsidiary subject under Part II-B and candidates who pass in that 
aubsidiary subject in that year shall be given credit of the pass in 
that subject and they need appear for and pass the other subject 
pnly to complete that 



BBC. 36] T B. BC. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 249 

6. Candidates for the B. So. Degree examination shall be Subjects for 
examined in Examination 

Part I English. 

There shall be one paper in English of three hoars' duration 
based on two prescribed text-books, one for detailed study and the 
other for non-detailed study. 

Part II Any three of the subjects mentioned under Part II 
in Section 2 above, of which one shall be main and the other two 
subsidiary. 

The scope of the papers in the several subjects whether main 
or subsidiary shall be as stated below. Each paper shall carry 100 
marks and shall be of three hours' duration except where other- 
wise stated. 

MATHEMATICS (MAIN) 
Six papers 

(i) Algebra and Trigonometry. 

(ii) Pure Geometry, 

(iii) Analytical Geometry, 

(iv) Calculus, 

(v) Statics and Dynamics, 

(vi) Hydrostatics and Astronomy. 

MATHEMATICS (SUBSIDIARY) 
Two papers 

(i) Algebra, Trigonometry and Analytical Geometry, 
(ii) Calculus and Differential Equations. 

PHYSICS (MAIN) 
Four papers in theory and two practical examinations 

(i) Dynamics and Hydrostatics. 

(ii) Properties of Matter and Heat, 

(iii) Light and Sound. 

(iv) Electricity and Magnetism. 

PHYSICS (SUBSIDIARY) 

One paper in theory and one practical examination, 
33 



250 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [OHAP. XLIV 

CHEMISTRY (MAIN) 

Four papers in theory and two practical examinations as 
hereunder : 

(i) General Chemistry including History of Chemistry, 
(ii) Inorganic Chemistry, 
(iii) Physical Chemistry, 
(iv) Organic Chemistry. 

The practical examinations shall be of six hours' duration each. 

CHEMISTRY (SUBSIDIARY) 
One paper in theory and one practical examination. 

BOTANY, ZOOLOGY OR GEOLOGY (MAIN) 

Three papers in theory and three practical examinations as 
follows : 

Botany : 

(i) Cryptograms. 

(ii) External Morphology, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. 

(iii) Physiology and Histology. 

Zoology : 

(i) Invertebrata. 

(ii) Vertebrata. 

(iii) General Embryology and General Principles. 

Geology : 

(i) Physical Geology and Economic Geology, 

(ii) Crystallography, Mineralogy, and Petrology, 

(iii) Stratigraphy, Indian Geology and Palaeontology. 

Practical under Geology. 

(i) Crystallography and Mineralogy, 
(ii) Petrology and Blow-Pipe analysis, 
(iii) Structural Geology and Palaeontology. 

Laboratory and Field Note-Books specimens. 

BOTANY, ZOOLOGY OR GEOLOGY (SUBSIDIARY) 
Botany : No division of Papers, 



. 78] B. BC. (PASS) DHGBEH EXAMINATION 251 

Zoology: (i) Invertebrata. 
(ii) Vertebrata. 

Geology : 

(i) General, Structural and Stratigraphical Geology and 
Palaeontology. 

(ii) . Crystallography, Mineralogy and Petrology. 

Practical under Geology : 
(i) One on the above subjects. 

Two papers in theory each of 2 hours' duration and one practi- 
cal examination of three hours, 

PHYSIOLOGY (MAIN) 
Two papers in theory and three practical examinations. 

PHYSIOLOGY (SUBSIDIARY) 
One paper in theory and two practical examinations.- 

7. A candidate who has passed the First M. B. B. S. Degree Exemptions 
Examination of this University will be permitted to appear for the candid^' 8 ' 
B. Sc. Degree Examination in Physiology as a main subject after he offering 
puts in a regular course of study in that subject for a period of Main ** 
one year in a college affiliated to the University for the purpose. 

The Syndicate shall have power to exempt him from taking any 
subsidiary subjects. He shall be required to appear for and pass 
Part I English of the B. Sc. Degree Examination but the Syndicate 
shall have power to exempt him from the production of the required 
certificate of attendance in that subject at an affiliated college. 
The result of the candidate at the examination shall be determined 
by the marks he obtains in Part I English and Part II Physiology 
as a main subject without reference to the subsidiary subjects. 

8. A candidate shall be declared to have passed Part I of the Marks quail- 
examination if he obtains not less than 35 per cent of the marks in Wff for * 
that Part. 

A candidate shall be declared to have passed Part II of the 
Examination if he obtains (a) ia the main subject, not lew than 



252 



THE ANDHBA UNIVBBSiTY OODB VOL. Il [CHAP. 



it of 

;cessful 

tdidates 



issifica* 
a of 
cessful 
didates 



mission 
5. As. to' 
ear for 
tc. 
urination 



35 per cent of the total marks and not less than 30 per cent in each 
division of the examination, and (b) in the subsidiary subjects, not 
less than 35 per cent of the total marks of the two subsidiary 
Subjects and not less than 30 per cent, in each of the subsidiary 
subjects. All other candidates shall be deemed to have failed in 
the examination. The divisions in the following subjects when 
main shall be 

(i) Mathematics, 

(a) Pure Mathematics, (b) Applied Mathematics. 

(ii) Physics, (iii) Chemistry, (iv) Botany, (v) Zoology, 
(vi) Geology, or (vii) Physiology. 

(a) The written examination in the main subjects. 

(b) The practical examination in the main subjects. 

There shall be no divisions in the above subjects taken as 
subsidiary. 

9. There shall be separate lists of successful candidates in 
each Part. Candidates obtaining not less than 60 per cent of the 
marks in Part I shall be declared to have passed with distinction in 
English. 

10. Successful candidates in Part II shall be arranged in three 
classes The first, consisting of those who obtain not less than 60 
per cent ranked in the order of proficiency as determined by the 
total marks obtained by each ; the second, of those who obtain not 
less than 50 per cent ranked in the order of proficiency as deter- 
mined by the total marks obtained by each and the third, of the 
remainder, provided that first class and second class shall be given 
only to those candidates who pass Part II-A and Part 1I-B at one 
and the same examination. 

11. Candidates who have already passed the B.A, Degree 
examination with Physics, Chemistry or Botany as the main subject 
hall be eligible to appear for the B. Sc. Degree examination subject 
to the condition that they shall have undergone subsequently a 
farther course of study in an affiliated college extending over a 
period of one year consisting of three terms ordinarily consecutive 



SYL8. MATH. (MAIN)] B. SC. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 25<J 

in a subsidiary subject other than the one already taken for the 
B.A. Degree examination. 

Such candidates shall be examined in 
(i) the main subject which shall be the same as that taken 
for the B. A. Degree examination, and 

(ii) the new subsidiary subject. 

They shall be exempt from sitting for an examination in Part 
I English and in the subsidiary subject presented for the B. A. 
Degree Examination. 

Classification of successful candidates shall be done as per 
Section 10 above, subject to the condition that the candidates shall 
have the benefit of the marks obtained in the subsidiary subject of 
the B. A. Degree examination in determining their class. 

SYLLABUSES 
Mathematics (Main) 

The course will comprise Algebra, Plane Trigonometry, Geometry, 
Elements of the Calculus Dynamics, Hydrostatics and Astronomy, the standard 
being that of B. A. (Group i) in- such items of the syllabus as are common. 

PURE MATHIMATICS. 
Algebra. 

Direct problems on the notion of algebraic inequality. The theorem on 
the Arithmetic and Geometric means and the allied results in maxima and 
minima. 

The definition of a limit and deduction of the theorems on the limit 

n n 
of the sum, product and quotient of two functions. The limit of as x 

X A 

tends to a. Definition of a continuous function. Continuity of polynomials. 

Definition of convergence. Absolute and conditional convergence. 
Statement (with graphical illustration) that a monotonic sequence tends 
to a limit or to infinity. Tests for series of positive terms by (i) Com- 
parison of series, (2) discussion of series 2 (3) finding the limit of 

nP 

- . * Test for the convergence of an alternating series. 



254 MB AtfDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. il 

The Binomial theorem for a rational index and the Exponential theorem 
(proved by assuming the theorem on the multiplication of two absolutely 
convergent series). ^Series for log (1-fx). 

e 

Partial fractions. 

Evaluation of (1) S Un and S j-fc 

Where Un = [a-f b } f a-f 
<- ( n .fi) ) I 

)...(a-fn Ix) 



(3) g f (n) n 1 where f (n) is a rational integral function of n. 

Elementary properties of simple continued fractions (excluding jecurring 
continued fractions). Integral solutions of equations of the first degree. The 
theorems on the interchange of columns and rows, simplification, development 
and multiplication of determinants (proved for determinants of the third order). 
Elements of the theory of numbers. Format's and Wilson's theorems. 

Typical graphs : y = ax , y= J , yax-hb + , y = ax+b + -j 

The equation of the nth degree. Statement of the theorem that an equation 
of the nth degree has n roots real or complex. Relations between its roots and 
co-efficients. Simple transformation* of equations. Reciprocal equations. 
Sum of integral powers of the roots of an equation. Occurrence of imaginary 
roots in pairs. Descartes' rule of signs. Change of sign of a polynominal as 
an indication of a Zero The least number of the real roots of an equation 
The derived function. Multiple roots. Rolle's theorem for a polynominal. 
Horner's method for the numerical solution of an equation. Graphical solution 
of Cubic and biquadratic equations. 

TRIGONOMETRY 
Fuller treatment of the Intermediate course. Quadrilaterals inscribed 



\n and circumscribed about circles. Regular polygons. Limits of -^-? and 

- as x extends to zero. Inverse trigonometric functions. Complex numbers 

and their geometric representation. (Argand's diagram). De Moivre's theorem 
and its application to (I) expand Cos nx, Sin nx in powers of Cosx and Sin x. 

(2) expand Cos nx, Sin nx in terms of Cosines and Sines of multiples of x. 

(3) factorise x a + I, X 2n 2x n Cos n +1. De Moivre'i and Cote's properties 
of the circle. Series for Cos x, Sin x, tan x in termt of x. 

More stress is to be laid on applications than on formal proofs. ' 



8lLS. MATH. (MAIN)] B.Sc. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 255 

Summation of elementary trigonometric series ; Splitting the general term 
(simple eases). Series of Sines and Cosines of angles in A. P Series whose 
summation by the use of De Moivre's theorem ultimately cUpends on geometric 
or binomial series. 

Elementary transcendental functions of a complex variable ; Exp. Z defined 
by series. The addition theorem. Periodicity of Exp. Z Hyperbolic functions. 
Log Z and its multiple valuedness. 

Definition of Sin Z. Cos Z, Tan Z and deduction of the ordinary properties 
of circular function. Separation of the above functions into real and imaginary 
parts. 

GEOMETRY. 

W.B Questions in Geometry may be answered by methods of pure Geome- 
try or Analytical Geometry. 

Pure Geometry 

Coaxal circles. Circles orthogonal to a coaxal system. Limiting points 
inverse to every circle. Common tangent to two circles subtends a right angle 
at a limiting point. 

Cross-ratios. The different cross-ratios of a range of four points. The 
cross-ratio of a pencil ; coplanar homographic ranges and pencils. Homo- 
graphic axis. The harmonic property of the circle and complete quadrilateral 
and quadrangle. Orthogonal projection. Projections of parallel straight lines. 
Their ratio. Perpendicular lines which project into perpendicular lines. The 
area of the projection of a closed figure. Projection of a circle. The theorem 
on the projection of an ellipse into a circle. 

Inversion. The inverse of a straight line and a circle. The intersection 
of the inverse of coplanar curves. The distance between the inverses of two 
given points. The inverses of a circle ami a pair of points inverse to it. The 
inverse of a coaxal system. Proof by inversion of Keuer bach's theorem. 

Reciprocation. Polar reciprocal of a circle with respect to a circle. The 
theorem on the reciprocation of a non-intersecting system of coaxal circles into 
confocal conies. Solid Geometry. 

Geometrical conies. Such leading properties of conic sections as are 
specially suitable for treatment by elementary geometry. 

Focus directrix definition of the conic. Shape axes of symmetry, centre, 
foci. The ellipse as orthogonal projection of a circle. 

The following propositions and their immediate application : 

(i) If a chord PQ of a conic whose focus is S meets the corresponding 
(Urectri* in R, SR is a bisector of angle PSQ. 



256 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIV 

(ii) The tangents from any point to a conic subtend or supplementary 
angles at a focus. Also the two tangents are equally inclined to the focal lines 
through the point 

(iii) The semi -latus- rectum is a harmonic mean between the segments of 
a focal chord. 

(iv) The locus of midpoints of parallel chords of a conic is a diameter. 

(v) The ratio of the rectangles under segments of two intersecting chords 
of a conic in two fixed directions is independent of the position of the chords. 

(\i) The Sub-tangent of a parabola is bisected at the vertex; the sub- 
normal is constant, 

<vu) The foot of the perpendicular from the focus on any tangent to 
a parabola lies on the tangent at the vertex. 

(viii) The focal chord of a parabola parallel to the tangent at P is 4 SP. 

(ix) PV = 4SK. KV where PV, is an ordinate to the diameter of the 
parabola through K. 

(x) The sum of difference of the focal distances of any point on a central 
conic is constant. 

(xi) The tangent and normal at P are bisectors of angle SPS in the case of 
a central conic and of the angle between SP and the parallel to the axi* through 
P in the case -of a parabola. 

(xii) The feet of the prependiculars from the foci on any tangent to a 
central conic lie on the auxiliary circle and the rectangle under these perpendi- 
culars is constant. 

(xiii) The sum of the squares of conjugate diameters of an ellipse is 
constant. 

(xiv) The locus of the meets of perpendicular tangents to a conic is a circle 
which reduces to a straight line when the conic is a parabola. 

(xv) Any tangent to a hyperbola forms with the asymptotes a triangle of 
constant area. 

(xvi) The portion of any tangent to a hyperbobla intercepted between the 
asymptotes is bisected at the point of contact / 

(xvii) Every plane section of a right circular cone or cylindtr is a conic. 

Analytical Gtometry. 

Of two dimension* Fuller treatment of the straight line and circle 
referred to rectangular axes. The parabola, ellipse and hyperbola referred to 
their principal axes and the rectangular hyperbola referred to its asymptotes. 



BYLS. MATH* (MAIN)] B. 8C. (PASS) DESK IB EXAMINATION 257 

Tracing of conies from the, general equation of the second degree. The polar 
equations of the straight line, and the conic. Simple problems on the above. 

Of thret dimtntiont. (referred to rectangular axes) Th* plan* and the 
lint. Their equations. Distance of a point from a plane and a line. Planes 
bisecting angles between two given planes. Intersection of a plane and a line. 
Conditions that two lines be coplanar. 

The shortest distance between two given straight line*. 

The Sphere. Its equation. Tangent plane. Radical plane of two spheres. 
The Elliptic 4 referred to its principal ax**. Its equation. Tangent plane. 
Normal polar plane and polar lines. Equation of the plane of section with 
a given centre. Enveloping Cone and Cylinder. Conjugate diameters and 
diametrical planes. 

Galtutut. 

Standard forms and fundamental processes of differentiation and integra- 
tion. Simple applications of the derivative to geometry and mechanics. 
Successive differentiation. Leibnitz theorem. Maxima and minima values of a 
function of one variable. Ro lie's theorem (without proof)* Theorem of mean 
value. Taylor's and Maclaurin's theorems (without proof). Evaluation of the 
undetermined form. 

Partial differentiation. Total derivative and its application to the 
differentiation of implicit functions. Total differential as the sum of 
a partial differentials. Approximations and small errors. Transformation 



A knowledge of the shape of the following curves is required 
Cartesian : The Catenary, the Cycliod and the Cardigid. 
Polar : r=a Sin n 0. The limacon and the lemniscate of Bernouli. 
Curvature. Cartesian formula for the radius of curvature. 

Integration by substitution. Integration by parts. Integration regarded a<? 
summation with simple applications to areas, volumes, and surfaces and 
to mechanics. 

Differential equations of the first order and first degree of the types 
Variables Separable. 

Homogeneous equations 
Linear equations. 
Exact equations. 

33 



258 *HB ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIV 

' -Discovery of integrating factors with functions 6f one variable only 
Solution of the equation 

g* 4+ by=V. 

where a and b are constants and V it a sum of functions of the type 
Exp. nx, Sin nx, Cos nx and polynominals in x 



APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 
Statistic* and Dynamics. 

Resolution and composition of displacements, velocities and accelerations. 
Rectilinear motion of a particle under constant acceleration. 

Motion of a protective under gravity range on a plane through the point 
of projection. Parabolic path and its construction for a given velocity of 
projection. 

Circular motion : Normal acceleration. The conical pendulum. 

Simple harmonic motion. Composition of simple harmonic motions of the 
same period. 

Angular velocity, angular acceleration, moment of velocity. 

Absolute units of force. Resolution and composition of forces. Dimen- 
sion! of dynamical units. 

Angular momentum. Moments of inertia in simple cases. The pendulum. 
Determination of g. Work, Energy, simple applications of the principles of 
energy and of linear and angular Momentum. 

Impact of a smooth sphere on a fixed smooth plane and impact of two 
smooth balls. Loss of Kinetic energy. The theory of the ballistic pendulum. 

Rectilinear motion in a resisting medium. The clamped oscillation. Motion 
under constant force, the law of resistance being linear or quadratic, Central 
forces (Elementary course). 

Constancy of areal velocity. Motion under (1) the law of direct distance 
(2) the law of gravitation. The velocity in the orbit. Kepler's Laws and the 
law of gravitation. 

Conditions of equilibrium of a body acted on by force* in *** plant. 
Moments and couples. Centre of mass of a tetrahedron and cone of arc and 
sector of a circle and of the volume and surface of a zone of a sphere 
Stability of equilibrium when surfaces in contact are spherical. Simple 
machines. Friction : its laws. Equilibrium on a rough inclined plane, and tfye 
manner of its disturbance (toppling or sliding.) 



, MATH. (MAIN)] B.8C. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 259 

Easy problems in Graphical statics involving the method of Force and 
Link polygons. 

The common Catenary. 

Hydrostatics. 

Thrust of fluid on plane and curved surfaces. Centre of pressure of a circle 
and of a parallelogram and a triangle with a side horizontal. 

Floating bodies. Conditions of pquilibriuni. Stability in the case of 
spherical-bottomed bodies. 

Problems on Boyle's law. 

Determination of heights by barometer. Pumps. 

Astronomy. 

The apparent motion of heavens. Circumpolar stars. The principal 
constellations and the most conspicuous stars. (Diagrams not required). 

The celestial sphere. Points and line* on it. Horizon, zenith, pole, 
meridian etc. The equinoxial points etc. 

Celestial co-ordinates. Right ascension and declination. Latitude and 
longitude. Altitude and azimuth. Hour angle and declination. 

The theory of the transit circle, tjje equatorial, transit theodolite and 
the Sextant. Collimatlon, level and deviation errors of the transit circle and 
their correction. 

The use of the astronomical clock and chronometer. Determination, by 
observation, of clock error and rate and of right ascension and declination. 

Phenomena depending on change of latitude and longitude of the observer, 
Magnitude of the Earth. 

The apparent annual motion of the Sun. The constellations of the Zodiac. 
The ecliptic and its obliquity. The equinoxes and the solstices. The earth's 
motion round the sun. Seasons. 

Sidereal time, apparent solar time, jnean solar time. Equation of time. 
Conversion of time. The use of the Nautical Almanac. 
Standard time (India). The Calendar. 

Explanation of astronomical refraction and parallax. The tangent formula 
for refftfetion. Twilight. 

Determination of the latitudes of a station by ' meridian observation and of 
longitude by chronometer. Summer'* 



THE ANDHRA TJNIVB&8ITY OODB VOL. II [OHAP. XLt? 

The Solar system. Planetary motions (taking coplanar circular orbits), 
synodic and sidereal periods. Rough comparison of orbital dimensions. 
Stationary positions and periods of retrogression. 

Kepler's laws. 
Comets and meteors. 

The motion of the Moon and her phases. The plan of her orbit- The 
Nodes and their motion. The Moon's sidereal and synodic periods, rter 
rotation, Ubrations, diameter and distance. 

Distances of planets from the sun by observation of a superior planet at 
opposition. 

Causes of eclipses of Sun and Moon. Ecliptic limits. Number of eclipses 
in a year. Elementary problems on diurnal motion. (Use of the sine and 
cosine formulae for right angled spherical triangles). 

Determination of the first point of Aries (Flamsted's method) and of the 
obliquity of the ecliptic. General description of the phenomena of Precession 
and Nutation. 

Aberration : Annual aberration. Earth's way an apex. Correction for the 
position of a star. Representation on the Celestial sphere. The relation 
between the coefficient of aberration, velocity of light and solar parallax. 

Mathematics (Subsidiary). 

AND TRIGONOMETRY. 



Determinant*. The theorems of the interchange of columns and roWs, 
simplification, multiplication theorems (proved for determinants of the third 
order). Use in the solution of linear equations. 

Convergence and Divergency of Infinite teriet. Definition. Absolute and 
conditional convergence, tests for series of positive terms by (1) comparison 

1 u 

of series, (3) discussion of the series 5 ^\ ( 3 ) finding the limit of u 



n 



**1 



Test for the convergence of an alternating series. 

The exponential /Af*r*f. (Proved by assuming the theorem on the 
multiplication of two absolutely convergent series). 

The logarithmic *erie*> (More stress is to be laid on applications than 
on formal proof). , 

Partial Fraction*. 

Complex number* and their geometric representation. (Argand Diagram). 

&e Moivre** theorem : and its application to 
(1) Expand cos n x, sin a x in powers of cos x and sin x. 



BYLB. MAfcH. (SUB.)] B. SC. (PASS) DECREE} EXAtfltfAtflOtf Srjl 

(2) Expand CDS'* dp sin 1 * x in terms of cosines and sines of mutiplcs 

of x. 

(3) Solution of x**By where n is a + ve integer and x and y are 

complex numbers. 

Co-ORDiNAfB GEOMETRY. 

fuller treatment thin in the Intermediate course. 

Straight line and eirth. Orthogonal circles, length of the tangent from 
a point to a circle, radical axis, coaxal circles. 

Parabola. Equation with respect to axis and tangent at vertex. Trans- 
ference of origin keeping axes parallel. Equations of tangent and normal. 
Parametric^equation of chord and tangent. (Propositions and problems relating 
to the three normals to a parabola from a point are not required). 

Ellipse. Equation with respect to principal axes. Transference of 
origin, keeping axes parallel. Equations of tangent and normal. Parametric 
equations. Conjugate diameters. Geometrical properties of an ellipse. 
(Propositions and problems relating to the four normals to an ellipse from a 
point are not required). 

Hyperbola. Equation With respect to principal axes. Transference of 
origin, keeping axes parallel. Equations of tangent and normal. Conjugate 
diameters. Asymptotes. Geometrical properties of a hyperbola. 

Rectangular Hyperbola Equation with respect to asymptotes. Trans- 
ference of origin, keeping axes parallel. Equations of tangent and normal. 
Parametric equations. Geometrical properties. 

Pole and Polar. Poles and polars with respect to circles and conies. 

Polar Co-ordinates. Change from Cartesian to Polar-co-ordinates ; equa- 
tion of a conic in the simplest form, with a focus as the pole (riders or 
general formula, not expected). 

The standard in plane co-ordinate Geometry is lower than that of B.A. 
(Pass) Mathematics Main. The standard is that of Fine and Thompson's 
Co-ordinate Geometry. 

CALCULUS AND DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 

Differentiation of rational integral functions. Differentiation of sums, 
products, quotients, direct and inverse trigonometric functions, and 
functions of a function. Differentiation of a x. and log x. Application of the 
derivative to geometry and mechanics. Successive differentiation. Leibntii 
theorem: Maxima and Minima values of a function on one variable. 
Taylor's and Maclaurin's theorems (without proof.) Evaluation of the 

undetermined form-. 



262 THE ANDHRA tlNlVBUSlTY CODEVot. II ctfA*. XLlt 



Partial differentiation. Total derivative and its application to the 
differentiation of the implicit functions. Total differential as the sum of 
partial differentials. Approximations and small errors Definition of hyper- 
bolic functions. 

Integration by substitution. Integration by parts. Definite integral 
regarded as the limit of a sum. Simple applications to area. Volume and 
surface and to mechanics. 

Differential equations of the first order and first degree of the following 
types 

1. Variables separable. 

2. Homogeneous equations. 

3. Linear equations. 

4. Exact equations. 

Solution of the linear differential equations 

4L2 + a & 9 + j^v, 

where a and b are constants and V is a sum of functions of the type sin n x and 
cos 11 x and e nx. 

Book of ^reference : 
G. A. Gibson Elements of the Calculus. 

Physic* (Main). 

Properties of Matter. 

Balance, Circular motion. Centrifugal and centripetal force their practi- 
cal application. Centrifugal machines. 

The compound pendulum : determination of ' g '. Elastic oscillations of 
springs and determination of ' g '. 

Gravitatson and gravity. Gravitation constant, mass and density of the 
earth. Experiments of Cavendish and Boys and determination of ' G '. Methods 
of comparing ' g ' at various places. Effects of the latitude and the rotation of 
the earth on ' g '. Variation of ' g ' (i) above and (ii) below the surface of the 
earth. 

Mean, solar and sidereal time. Sun-dial, clocks, watches and chronometers 
and their principles of working. Time signals. 

Hooka's Law, stress and strain. Modulus of elasticity. Strains due to 
simple longitudinal pull. Elastic limits. Poisson't ratio and its practical 
determination. Compressibility and rigidity of solids: Young's modulus and 
its determination. Expression for Young's modulus in terms of ' n ' and V. 



PHYSIOS (MAIN)] B. SO. (PASS) DHGRHB EXAMINATION 263 

Simple twisting of wires of circular section by a couple at right angles to its 
length. Torsiojial rigidity and its determination. Torsion balance. Uniform 
and non-uniform bending of rods of circular and rectangular section Canti- 
levers. Relation between the bending moment at a point and curvature. Deter- 
mination of ' Y ' ' I ' form girders. 

Compressibility and elasticity of gases. Boyle's law and deviations from 
it Van der Waal's equation. Brownian motion Elements of Kinetic theory 
as applied to gases. Explanation of pressure viscosity, effusion, transpiration 
and diffusion. Molecular speed and absolute temperature of gases Atmos- 
pheric presstnre variation with altitude. Isobars. Monsoons, cyclones and 
anticyclones. 

Hydrostatics. 

Fluid Thrust : Thrust of fluid on plane and curved surfaces. 

Centre of pressure in simple cases (i) rectangular lamina with one side in 
the surface, (li) triangular lamina with one side in the surface, (iii) triangular 
lamina with vertex in the surface and the base horizontal ; alteration in the 
centre of pressure as the body is lowered in the fluid. 

Dispersive and resolving power of a grating. Resolving power of a 
telescope. 

Spectrum analysis. Emission and absorption spectra. Ultra-violet and 
infra-red spectra. 

Doppler's principle and its application. 

Double refraction through calcite. Construction of wave- surf aces. 

Production and detection of plane, circularly and elliptically polarised 
light. Quarter-wave plate, half-wave plate. 

Rotation of plane of polarisation Fresnel's explanation. 
Polarimeters. 

Interference of polarised light : rings and brushes 111 uniaxial crystals 
Scattering of light ; bluje of the sky. 

Magnetism. 
Inverse-square law, Gauss's proof. 

Magnetic potential : Equi-potential surfaces ; potential at any point due to 
a short magnet; couple acting on a short magnet due to another magnet. 

Mutual force between two small magnets with their axes in a straight line 
and their axes mutually perpendicular, one bisecting the other. 

Magnetic shell. Potential due to a shell and its potential energy in a 
magnetic field, 



264 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [OHAP, XLIV 

Total normal induction and Gauss's theorem. 

Molecular theory of magnetism. Elements of Part, dia and ferro-magnetisra. 

The magnetic field of the earth. Terrestrial magnetic elements: their 
variation and measurement. Magnetic charts. 

The Kew Magnetometer and Dip circle. Mariners' compass and its uses. 
Intensity of magnetisation and magnetic induction. 

Magnetic susceptibility and permeability ; their measurements. B-H and 
I"H curves : Magnetometer and ballistic methods. 

Hysteresis and dissipation of energy. 

Electrostatic** 

Inverse-square law ; Gauss's theorem. 
Electrostatic potential and capacity. 

Electric field due to a charged sphere, charged infinite cylinder and con- 
ducting plane. Cavendish's proof of inverse-square law. 

Coluumb's law. Mechanical force on charged conductors. 

Lines and tubes of force. Spherical and parallel plate condensers and their 
capacity. Dielectric constant. The attracted disc and quadrant electrometers. 

Measurement of capacity and dielectric constant. 

Energy of charged conductors and condensers. Dielectric and displacement 

currents. 

Wimshurst machine. Distribution of charge and action of points. Lighting 
conductor. 

Current Electricity. 

Magnetic field due to a circular current and a solenoid. The Helmholti 1 
galvanometer. Kirchhoff's laws : application to the Wheatstones* net work. 
Calleridar and Griffith's bridge. 

Electrolysis : conductivity of electrolytes. lonisation and velocity of ions. 
Cells and accumulators lead and Edison types, 
* The potentiometer : Measurement of E.M.F. current and resistance. 

Thermo-electricity: Seebeck, Peltier and Thompson effects. Measurement 
of thermal E.M.F. Thermo-electric diagrams. Application of thermo-dynamics 
to a thermo-couple. 

Energy of a circuit carrying current when placed in a Magnetic field. 
Force exerted by a magnetic field on a coil carrying current* 



STLS. PHYSICS (MAIN)] B. 8C* (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 265 

Moving coil instruments : Voltmeter, ammeter and Wattmeter* 
Ballistic galvanometer. 

Electromagnetic induction : Lenz's Law. Coefficients of induction. Induc- 
tion coil*. Comparison of mutual inductances. KoucaUlt's currents. Earth 
inductor. Measurement of H and V. 

Dynamos and motors : shunt, series and compound wound machines and 
their characteristics : efficiency of a motor. 

Technical applications of electricity to lighting and power transmission. 

Elementary study of wireless. Thermionic valve. Simple receiving set. 
The microphone, loudspeaker and gramophone pick up* 

Discharge of electricity through gases, Cathode rays ; X-ray-Collidge 
Tube. 

Alpha, Beta and Gama rays. 
General ideas of atomic structure. 

Floating bodies and the conditions of stability. The common hydrometer 
and its graduation. 

Barometers mercury and aneroid. Determination of heights by barometer. 
Meta-Centre and its practical determination. 

Hydrostatic machines: Pump's water pump, air pump, mercury pump, 
rotary pump and diffusion pump. Mcleod gauge. 

Capillary phenomena: Surface tension of liquids and surface energy. 
Determination of surface tension by capillary rise. Torsion balance ; drop 
method. Variation of surface tension with temperature. Vapour pressure over 
curved surfaces and formation of liquid drops. 

Compressibility of liquids Regnault's experiment. Diffusion of liquids and 
gases ; analogy wiUi conductivity ; Pick's law. 

Osmosis and laws of osmotic pressure ; vapour pressure. Boiling and 
freezing points of solutions. 

Viscosity Coefficient of viscosity of a liquid by capillary flow. Comparison 
of viscosities. Effect of temperature on viscosity. 

fftat. 

Thermometry : Liquld-in-glass. resistance, thermo-electric, vapour pressure 
and gas, thermometers. Pyrometry and low temperature thermometry. 

Expansion : Solids, application to temperature compensation* Liquids, 
apparent and absolute. Gases. 



266 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, II [CHAP. XLIV 

Calo rime try : Specific heats of solids, liquids and gases. Ratio of the speci- 
fic heats of a gas and its determination. Latent heats and latent heat calori- 
metry. Total heat of steam. 

Vapour pressure : Static and dynamic methods. Vapour pressure of water 
at high and low temperatures, Effect of pressure on boiling and freezing points. 

Isothermal? : Critical temperature. Andrews' and Amagat's experiments. 

Change of state : Equilibrium between different states. Triple Point. 

Van der Waals* equation. Critical constants. Law of corresponding states. 

Internal work in expanding gases : Joule's experiments, porous-plug experi- 
ment Joule-Thomson effect. Liquefaction of gases. 

Adiabatic transformation. Equation for the adiabatic of a perfect ga^. 

Conduction and diffusion of heat in solids. Searle's and Forbes' methods. 
Lees' method for bad conductors 

Convection. 

Radiation: Newton's and Stefan's laws of cooling and their experimental 
verification. Theory of exchanges. Emissive and absorptive powers. Kirch- 
choff's law. Measurement of radiation. 

Solar constant and effective temperature of the Sun. 

Laws of thermodynamics. Work done in isothermal and adiabatic expan- 
sions. Indicator diagram. 

Carnot's theorem. Reversible cycle. Cycle of a refrigerating machine. 

Steam engines and internal combustion engines Steam turbine-general 
principles. 

Applications of second law. Thermodyuamic scale of temperature tnd ideal 
gas scale. 

Entropy. Entropy diagram of a Carnot cycle. Entropy and available 
energy. 

Light. 

Reflection and refraction. Optical lever and sextant. Total internal reflec- 
tion. Spherical mirrors. Thin lenses: combination of two thin lenses. Liquid 
lens ; loss of power. Thick lenses. Principal points ; revolving table. 

Prisms : Minimum deviation and I-D curve 

Dispersion and dispersive power ; irrationality of dispersion. 

Chromatic aberration ; achromatic combination of prisms and lenses in con- 
tact, Direct-vision spectroscope and constant-deviation spectroscope. 



8YLS. PHYSICS (MAIN)] B. 80. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 26? 

Eye-pieces : Rams den's and Huyghen's Telescopes. Compound microscope, 
Epidiascope. Intermittent illumination. 

Photometry : Lummer-Brodhun photometer. 

Velocity of light: Roraer's Fizeau's and Foucault's methods. 

Wave theory : Huyghen's principle. Rectilinear propagation of light, tone 
plate. 

Explanation of reflection, refraction and total internal reflection. 
Action of mirrors, lenses and prisms reviewed from "wave theory. 
Interference : Simple interference phenomena. Young's experiment. 
Fresnel's bi-prism and bi-mirror. Rayleigh's interferometer. 
Colours of thin films. Newton's rings. 

Diffraction : Straight edge, narrow wire and narrow rectangular slit. Plane 
transmission gratings. 

Sound. 

The transmission of energy through material medium by wave motion. 
Equation for a simple harmonic wave. Progressive and stationary waves. 
Composition of Dimple harmonic motions. LKsajou's figures. 

Characteristics of a musical note. Velocity of sound in a gas. Effect of 
temperature, pressure, humidity and wind on the velocity of sound. 

Reflection and refraction of sound. 

Interference and diffraction phenomena. Illustrations beats. 
Doppler*s principle. Speed of transverse waves along a cord. 
Laws of transverse vibrations of strings : Melde's experiment. 
Velocity of longitudinal waves in a rod : Kundt's experiment. 

Vibrations of air in pipe*?. Determination of frequency stroboscopic and 
other methods. 

Free and forced vibrations, Resonance. Helmholtz's resonators. 
Musical scales. MuMcal instruments. Gramophone. 

Manometric flames, sensitive flames. Maintenance of vibrations : Concord 
and discord. Analysis of sound. 

Practical Examination : The practical examination will be held in parts 
and extends over three hours each, not on the same day. 



268 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIV 

Candidates must submit to the examiners before the hour of the first 
examination their laboratory note-books duly certified by their professors as a 
bonaflde record of work done by them. 

Physics (Subsidiary). 

Properties of Matter. 

Balance. Circular motion, Centrifugal and centripetal forces their practi- 
cal application. Centrifugal machines. 

Determination of 'g'. Elastic oscillations of springs and determination of *g*. 

Gravitation and gravity. Gravitation constant, mass and density of the 
earth. Experiments of Cavendish and Boys and determination of 'G'. Methods 
of comparing ' g ' at various places. 

Mean, solar and sidereal time. Sun-dial, clocks, watches. 

Hooke's law, stress and strain. Modulus of elasticity. Strains due to 
simple longitudinal pull. Elastic limits. Poisson's ratio. Compressibility and 
rigidity of solids. Young's modulus and its determination. Simple twisting of 
wires of circular section by a couple at right angles to its length. Torsional 
rigidity and its determination. Uniform and non-uniform bending of rods of 
Circular and rectangular section Cantilevers. Relation between the x bending 
movement at a point and curvature. Determination of ' Y '. 

Compressibility and elasticity of gases. Boyle's law and deviations from 
it. Van der Waals* equation. Brownian motion. Elements of kinetic theory 
as applied to gases. Explanation of pressure viscosity, effusion, transpiration 
and diffusion. Molecular speed and absolute temperature of gases. Atmospheric 
pressure variation with altitude. Isobars. 

Hydrostatics. 
barometers mercury and aneroid. Determination of heights by barometer. 

Hydrostatic machines : Pumps 'Water pump, air pump, mercury pump, 
rotary pump and high vaC pumps, McLeod gauge. 

Capillary phenomena; surface tension. Determination of surface tension 
by capillary rise and torsion balance. 

Compressibility of liquids Diffusion of liquids and gases ; analogy with 
* Conductivity : FiCk's Law. 

Osmosis and laws of osmotic pressure. 

Vlscoiity Coefficient of viscosity of a liquid by capillary flow. 

tfeat. 

therinometry { Liquid-ln- glass, resistance, thermo-electric vapour-pres&ure 
and as thermometers! Pyrometry and low- temperature thermometry. 



SYLS. PHYSICS (SUB.)] B. SC. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 269 

Expansion: Solids, application to temperature compensation. Liquids, 
apparent and absolute. Gases. 

Calorimetry : Specific heats of solids, liquids and gases. Ratio of the 
specific heats oi a gas and its determination. Latent heats and latent heat 
calorimetry. Total heat of steam. 

Vapour pressure : Static and dynamic methods. Vapour pressure of water 
at high and low temperatures. Effect of pressure on boiling and freezing points. 

Tsothermals : Critical temperature. Andrews and Amagat's experiments. 
Change of state : Equilibrium between different states. Triple Point. 
Van der Waals 1 equation. Critical constants. Law oi corresponding ^tates. 

Internal work in expanding gas^s Joule's experiments, porous-plug experi- 
ment. Joule-Thomson effect. Liquefaction of gases. 

Adiabatic transformation. Equation tor the adiabatic of a perfect ga^. 

Conduction and diffusion of heat in solids. Searle's method. Lees' method 
for bad conductors. 

Radiation : Newton's and Stefan's laws of cooling and their experimental 
verification. Theory of exchanges. Emissive and absorptive powers. Kirch- 
chofPs law. Measurement of radiation. 

Laws of thermodynamics. Work done in isothermal and adiabatic expan- 
sions. Indicator diagram. Carnot's theorem. Reversible cycle. Cycle of a 
refrigerating machine. 

Steam engines and internal combustion engines, 

Light. 

Reflection and refraction. Optical lever and sextant. Total internal reflec- 
tion. Spherical mirrors. Thin lenses. 

Prisms: Minimum deviation and I-D curve. 

Dispersion and dispersive power ; irrationality o( dispersion. 

Chromatic aberration ; achromatic combination of prisms and lenses in 
Contact. Direct-vision ipectrot-Cope and constant-deviation spectroscope. 

Photometry t Lummer-Brodhun photometer. 

Velocity of light : Fiieau's and Foucault's methods. 

Wave theory : Huyghens* principle. Rectilinear propagation of light. 

Explanation of reflection, refraction and total internal reflection. 

Interference ; Simple interference phenomena. Young's experiment. 



27U THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIV 

Fresncl's bi-prism. 

Colours of thin films. Newton's rings. 

Diffraction : Straight edge, narrow wire and narrow rectangular slit Plane 
transmission gratings. 

Spectrum analysis. Emission and absorption spectra. Ultra-violet and 
infru red spectra- 
Double refraction through calcite. 

Production and detection of plane, circularly and elliptically polarized light. 
Quarter-wave plate, half-wave plate. 

Rotation of plane of polarization Fresnel's explanation- 
Polanmeters. 

Magnetism. 
Molecular theory of magnetism. Elements of Para, dia and ferro-magnetism. 

The magnetic field of the earth^ Terrestrial magnetic elements: their 
variation and measurement. Magnetic charts-. 

Dip circle. Mariners' compass and itb uses. 

Current Electricity. 

Magnetic field due to a circular current and solenoid. 

Electrolysis ; conductivity of electrolytes. lonisation and velocity of ions. 

Cells and accumulators lead and Edison types. 

The potentiometer, Measurement of E. M. F., current and resistance. 

Energy of a circuit carrying current when placed in a magnetic field. 

Forces exerted by a magnetic field on a coil carrying current. 

Moving coil instruments : Voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter. 

Electromagnetic induction : Lenz's Law. Coefficients of induction. Indue* 
tion coils. 

Dynamos and motors : shunt series and compound wound machines and 
their characteristics. Efficiency of a motor. 

Technical applications of electricity to lighting and power transmission. 

Elementary study of wireless. Thermionic value. Simple receiving set. 
The microphone, and loudspeaker. 

Candidates shall submit to the Examiners before the hour of the practical 
examination their laboratory note-books duly certified by their Professors as 
a bona Jide record of work done by thn. 



SYLS. CHEMISTRY (MAIN)] B. So. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 271 

ChcmUtry (Main). 

Physical Chemistry. 
Only elementary treatment is expected. 

The atomic concept of matter : Laws of chemical combination ; tho law of 
conservation of matter; Avogadro's hypothesis; Dulong and Petit's law; 
isomorphism; Prout's hypothesis; the periodic classification and its defects . 
Atomic number ; isotopes ; electron ; Valance and electron arrangement. 

Energy in chemical system: The 'lefinition of energy; force; the unit of 
energy; dyne and atmospheric pressure ; the law of conservation of energy ; the 
heat content of a system; the heat capacity of a system ; heat of chemical 
reaction ; heat of reaction at constant pressure and constant volume ; Hess's law 
of constant heat summation; heat of formation; heat of combustion; heat of 
solution ; heat of dilution ; heat of neutralisation ; heat of ionisation ; 
calorimetric methods ; variation of heat of reaction with temperature. 

The state of aggregation : The fundamental gas law ; kinetic theory of 
gases; Dalton's law of gas mixtures, specific heats of gases; heat capacity 
of gases at constant pressure ; ~ thermal conductivity of gases: expansion 
of gases; Joule Thomson effect; deviation from the ideal gas law; Vander Waal's 
equation ; energy changes accompanying expansion and compression of gases ; 
Critical temperature ; critical pressure ; critical volume ; isothermal P. V. curves : 
Vander Waal's equation and P. V. isothermals ; the law of corresponding state ; 
vapour pressure ; Ramsay and Young's rule ; vapour pressure and external pres- 
sure ; surface tension ; molecular association ; viscosity of liquids ; crystal form; 
classification of crystals, crystal structure ; elementary notation regarding 
X-rays and crystal structure : liquid crystals ; melting point of a solid. 

Relation between chemical constitution and physical properties-- Relation 
of chemical constitution with atomic and molecular volume, specific refraction, 
rotation of the plane of polarisation, emission and absorption spectra. 

Velocity and mechanism of gaseous reactions. -Homogeneous and hetero- 
genous reactions ; the mass law ; monomolecular and bimolecular reactions ; the 
time of half change ; the influence of temperature on the velocity of reaction ; 
opposing reactions; consecutive reactions ; concurrent reaction^ ; the order of a 
reaction : heterogeneous reactions involving gases ; catalysis. 

The direction of chemical change : The state of equilibrium ; the ideal 
chemical equilibrium ; spontaneous process ; reversibility and irreversibility ; 
maximum work ; cyclic processess and Gibs Helmholtz equation ; the nature of 
the free energy change ; the sign of the free energy change ; free energy and 
equilibrium. 

Solution : Gaseous solution ; composition of solution ; ideal solutions ; 
yapour pressure lowering ; the raising of the boiling point ; the lowering of the 



272 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIV 

freezing point ; steam distillation ; osmotic pressure and its experimental deter- 
mination ; the determination of molecular 'weight in solution ; thermo* dynamic 
consideration of the laws of dilute solution ; relation between psmotic pressure 
and vapour pressure lowering of solution ; Raoult's equation for vapour pressure 
lowering; relation between osmotic presure and boiling point-elevation; 
osmotic pressure and freezing point lowering; mechanism of osmotic pressure. 

Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria Chemical equilibrium from 
tho stand-point of kinetics ; chemical equilibrium from the stand-point of 
thermo-dynamics ; relationship between Kp andKc; the formation of equili- 
brium conditions with temperature, pressure .and concentration ; Le-chatelier 
Braun principle ; effect of pressure upon chemical equilibrium ; reactions without 
change in the number of molecules ; the water gas equilibrium ; reactions in 
which the number of molecules changes ; dissociation of carbon-dioxide and 
water vapour ; dissociation of nitrogen tetroxide ; phase rule ; phases ; compo- 
nents ; degrees of freedom ; system of one and two components. 

Electric conductance and ionisation : Classes of conductors ; uni polar 
conduction ; theory of metallic conduction ; effect of temperature on resistance of 
metals; laws of electrolysis; electrolysis of fused salts ; theory of electrolytic 
dissociation; specific, equivalent and molecular conductance; experimental 
determination of electric conductivity; equivalent conductance at infinite dilu- 
tion ; migration of ions and transport number ; determination of transport 
number indicators, hydrogen ion concentration (PH value.) 

Ionic Equilibria : Law of mass action and* ionic equilibrium; range of 
applicability of ma*s action law ; ionisation and chemical constitution ; isohydric 
solution ; ionisation of water ; inversion of cane-sugar ; hydrolysis of esters ; 
solubility product ; amphoteric electrolytes. 

Photo-Chemistry -Photo-chemical absorption law ; Beer's law ; actinometry 
law of photo-chemical equivalence. 

Colloid state: Formation of colloid particles; method of obtaining 
colloidal solutions ; sols and gels : kinetic theory and colloid particle ; osmotic 
pressure of colloidal solution ; diffusion of colloid particles ; properties of the 
colloid system : absorption ; absorption of gases by solids ; absorption from 
solution"; absorption and surface tension ; electro endosmosis and cataphores is ; 
coagulation. 

GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHBMISTRY, 

Historical development: The prehistoric period; the period of alchemy ; 
period of iatro chemistry; period of sceptical chemistry; phlogiston period ; 
quantitative period. 

Hydrogen: Laboratory and industrial methods of preparation; technical 
application of hydrogen* properties; hydrides; place of hydrogen in the 
periodic classification* 



SYLS. CHEMISTRY (MAIN) B.SC.,(PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 273 

Oxygen: Laboratory and industrial methods of preparation) properties; 
theory of rusting of iron ; oxides ; oxidation ; reduction ; oxidising and reducing 
agents ; autoxidation. 

Ozone : Preparation, properties and constitution. 

Water : Hydrates ; phase rule ; composition of water (volumetric and 
gravimetric) ; hard and soft water. 

Hydrogen peroxide : Preparation, properties and characteristic reactions ; 
composition and constitution; thermo-chemical consideration; peroxides; 
peracids ; per- salts. 

Halogens : A comparative study preparation and properties of fluorine, 
hydrofluoric acid and fluorides ; laboratory and technical methods of preparing 
chlorine and hydrochloric acid ; period of induction ; chlorides , Werner's 
co-ordination theory ; oxides, oxyacidv and oxysalts of chlorine ; preparation 
and properties of bromine, hydrobromic acids, iodine, hydroidic, iodic, and per- 
iodic acids, iodate and periodates. 

Sulphur : Extraction and properties ; allotropy of sulphur ; triple point ; 
consideration of phases ; transition point ; hydrides of sulphur ; sulphides 
and per sulphides ; halogen compounds of sulphur ; oxides and oxyacids of 
sulphur ; sulphurous, sulphuric per and thiosulphuric acids and their salts ; 
constitution of sulphuric and sulphurous acids , thionyl chloride ; sulphuryl 
chloride ; thionic and their salts. 

The gases of the atmosphere. 

Nitrogen : Allotropy, preparation and properties ; hydrides ammonia ; 
hydrazine and hydrazoic acid , oxides and oxyacids ; fixation of nitrogen ; 
hydroxylamine and hyponitrous acid. 

Phosphorus : Preparation and properties , allotropy ; phosphine and 
phosphonium compounds ; halides ; oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus. 

Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth : Their more important compounds and 
reactions ; a comparative study of elements of the fifth group. 

Carbon : Allotropic forms ; oxides and oxyacids ; water gas reactions ; 
photo-synthesis. 

Silicon: Hydrides, halides; oxides; silicic acid and ^silicates ; ceramic 
and glass industries. 

Boron : Boric acid and borates ; borax and its industrial uses. 

The following metals studied in detail with particular reference to their 
metallurgy and their more important compounds and with special reference to 
their industrial modes of preparation and technical applications. Alloys. 

Sodium, potassium, ammonium, copper, silver, gold, magnesium, barium, 
stronsum, calcium, zinc, cadmium, mercury, radium, aluminium, tin, lead, 
chromium, Manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and platinum. 

35 



274 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIV 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 

Purification and analysis of organic compounds ; empirical, molecular and 
constitutional formulae , isomerism. 

Hydro carbons of Methane, Ethylene and Acetylene series and their 
derivatives , Alcohols ; Ethers ; Aldehydes and ketones ; Alkyl esters of 
inorganic acids ; fatty acids and their derivatives , esters ; Glycerol nitro- 
glycerine , Allyalcohol ; Acrolein ; fats ; soaps. 

Aliphatic amines; cyanogen compounds; organo-metallic compounds of 
zinc and magnesium; urea; urethanes ; glycols ; dibasic acids and their 
derivative^. 

The hydroxy mono and poly basic acids and their derivatives ; stereo- 
isomerism; unsaturated acids; ketonic acids and esters; B diketone ; amino 
acids ; mono-saccharidos and dissaccharides ; starch , cellulose ; nitro-cellulose ; 
Glucosides. 

Phenols, aromatic Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Acids and their deriva- 
tives ; constitution of Benzene , aromatic halogen, nitro and sulpho derivatives ; 
reduction products of nitro bodies , Diazo compounds and their transforma- 
tions ; Azo compounds and Azo-dyes ; Hydrazines. 

Phenols, aromatic Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Acids and their deriva- 
tives ; Quinones , aromatic Hydroxyl ; Aldehydes and Acids. 

Diphenyl ; Diphenyl methane; Triphenyl methane; Malachite green; 
Rosanilines ; Aurines ; Phthaleins and Indigo. 

Naphthalene, Anthracene and their important derivatives and reactions ; 
Alizarine. 

Pyridine ; Quinoline ; Iso Quinoline , Nicotine and Quinine. 

Simple proteins: 

Practical Examination in Chemistry shall include the following : 

1. Qualitative analysis of inorganic mixture containing not more than four 
radicles (acids or bases). 

2. Volumetric analysis. Preparation of standard solutions ; Acidimetry ; 
Alkalimetry ; Oxidation and Reduction methods involving the use of potas- 
sium permanganate , potassium dichromate , lodometry ; precipitation methods. 

3. Gravimetric analysis of aluminium, iron, calcium, magnesium, copper, 
silver} lead, zinc, manganese, sulphuric, hydrochloric, phosphoric and carbonic 
acids, silver coin, gravimetric separation of copper from zinc : gravimetric 
separation of iron from manganese. 

4. Preparation of some common inorganic substances so as to ensure thfi 
candidate's acquaintance with ordinary chemical operations* 



SYLS. CHEMISTRY (SUB.) B.SC. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 275 

5. Physico chemical determinations of boiling point, melting point, 
molecular weight by vapour density, cryoscopic and ebullioscopic methods, 
transition point hydrolysis of an ester and parlition co-efficient. 

6. Identification by physical and chemical tests of the following organic 
compounds given singly : 

Methyl alcohol; Ethyl alcohol: acetone; chloroform; formic, acetic, 
oxalic, tartaric, citric acids; glycerine; urea; glucose; cane-sugar; starch, 
benzene ; aniline ; phenol ; resorcinol ; pyrogallol ; benZal-dehyde ; benzole, 
sahcyclic acids ; alpha- naphthol ; beta-naphthol. 

7. Preparation of the specimens of any six of the following organic 
compounds : 

Ethyl acetate; chloroform; ether; acetic anhydride; nitrobenzene ; 
aniline ; phenol. 

Benloic acid from toluene; chloro benzene-(by Sandmeyor's reactions). 

At the practical examination candidates must ^bmit to the examiner or 
examiners their laboratory note books duly certified by their professors or 
lecturers as a bona fide record of work done by the candidates. 

Candidates shall be permitted to consult text-books on Practical Chemistry 
during the period of their practical examinations in Chemistry (Main). 

Chemistry (Subsidiary) 

General Theoretical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry Methods of deter- 
mining Equivalent; Atomic and Molecular weights ; Theory of Electrolytic 
Dissociation, Law of Mass Action , Valency, Kinetic Theory ; Osmotic 
pressure , Colloids ; Mono-molecular reactions, ; Elements of tliermo-chemistry. 

The elements (excluding the rare metal?) and their important compounds 
studied in detail. 

Chemistry of carbon compounds from-an elementary stand-point. 

Purification and analysis of organic compounds. Constitutional formulae , 
ibomerism. Preparation and properties of the following substances : 

Methane, Ethane, Ethylene, Acetylene, Methyl and Ethyl Alcohols, 
Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Ether, Acetone, Formic and Acetic 
acid*?, Ethyl Acetate, Oxalic and Tartaric acids, Urea, Glucose, 
Cane-sugar, Starch, Coal* tar and its fractionation products, Benzene, 
Nitro-benfene, Aniline, Phenol, Benioic acid. 

Practical examination in Chemistry (Subsidiary) shall incline the 
following : 

(i) Qualitative analysis of inorganic substances containing not more 
radicals (acids or bases). 



276 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. It [CHAP. XUV 

(ii) Volumetric analysis : 

(a) The following syllabus will be current for the examinations of 1943 
only : 

Preparation of standard solutions; Acidimetry ; Alkalimetry ; 
Oxidation and Reduction methods involving the use of 
Potassium Permanganate, Potassium dichromate, Iodine and 
Sodium Thio- sulphate. 

() The following revised syllabus will come into effect as from the 
examinations of 1944 : 



I. Acidimetry. 



II, Ptrmanfanametry. 



HI. Dichrometry. 



1. Estimation of caustic soda and 

sodium carbonate 'in a mixture. 
Two indicators method (Warder's 
method). 

2. Estimation of sodium carbonate and 

bicarbonate in a mixture (Warder's 
method). 

3. Estimation of ammonium salts 

(Indirect method). 

4. Estimation of copper sulphate 

(Back titration). 

5. Estimation of Barium Chloride 

BaCl f 2H 2 O. 

6. Estimation of Ferrous Iron in 

Mohr's salt. 

7. Estimation of Ferric Iron in ferric 

salts. 

8. Estimation of Ferrous and Ferric 

salts in a mixture of both. (Zn 
method of reduction to be em- 
ployed.) 

9. Estimation of Calcium in a calcium 

salt using the precipitate. 



10. Determination of ferrous 
(External indicator). 



iron 



LI. Determination of ferrous and ferric 
iron in a mixture (Sn Cl reduc- 
tion). 

12. Determination of potassium chlorate. 



StLS. BOTANY (MAIN)] B. SO. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 277 

IV. lodometry. 13 Standardisation of thiostilphate 

using dichromate and permanga- 
nate. 

14. Determination of copper. 

15. Determination ot arsenic trioxide. 

V. Precipitation Method. 16. Estimation of chlorid* using stan- 

dard silver nitrate using chromate 
as indicator. 

At the practical examination candidates must, if required, .submit to the 
examiner or examiners their laboratory note books duly certified by their pro- 
fessors or lecturers as a bona fide records of -work done by the candidates. 

Botany (Main) 

1. The main points of structure, life-historv, development and taxanomic 
relationship of the following groups m general and the Genera in particular. 

Myxomycetes. 

Bacteria. 

Cyanophyeeae . Oscillana Nostoc, Rivulana and Scytonema. 

Diatomaie. 

Chlorophyceac Chlamydomonas, Pandorma, Eudonna, Volvox, Ulothnx, 
Oedogonium, Ulva, Enteromorpha, Coleochaete, Protococcus, Seen- 
desmus, Hydrodictyon, Cladophora, Vauchena, Bryopsis, Caulerpa, 
Botrydium, Spirogyra, Zygnema, and Demids. 

Characdesc : Chara, Nitella. 

Phaeophycete : Ectocarpus, Fuous, Sargassum, Dictyota. 

Rhodophyceic : Liagora (N email onanceaj), Batraehovpermum, Polysip- 
honia, Gracillona, Corillina. 

Fungi. 

Phy corny oetes : Phytophthora, Mucor or RhiZopus, Pilobolus, Sapro- 
legnia Cystopus. 

Ascomycetes : Saccharomyces, Eurotium, Pencillium, Erysiphe, PexiZa, 
Xylaria. 

Basidiomycetes : Ustilago, Puccmia, Agaricus, Lycoperdon, Polyportts, 
Phallus. 

Lichens. 

Bryophtes : Riccia, Marchantia Anthoceros, Foaana, Polytriehum. 



278 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. JCLIV 

Pteridopliytes : Lycopodium, Selagmella, Isoetes, Equisteum, Ophi- 
oglosum, Gleichenia, Osmunda, Angiopteris Tnchomanes, Pleopeltis, 
Adiantum, Marsiha, 

Gymno sperms ; Firms, Cycas. 

2. The morphology and development of the reproductive organs of 
Angiosperms. 

3. The external morphology of Angiosperms, the general principles of 
classification and the distinguishing characteristics of the following families as 
used in the Flora of British India : 

Ma^noliaceae, Anonaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Cruciferae, Capparidae, 
veceae, Stercuhaceae, Tiliaceae, Geraniaceae, Rutaceae, Meliaceae, 
mnae, Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Leguminoseae, Rosaceae, Com- 
iceae, Myrtaceae, Lyfhraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Umbelliferae, 
laceae, Compo^itao, Sapota^eae, Oleaccac, Apocynaceae, Ascle- 
aceae, Boraginac<\ie, ConvoK ulaceae, Solanceao, Scrophulanneae, 

ithaceae, Verbenaceae, Libiatea^, Amarantaccae, Loranthaceac, 

Euphorbiaceae, Urticaceae, Ilydracharidae, Orchidae, Scitaminae, 
Amaryllidae, Liliaceae, Commelmacae, Palmae, Aroidae, Cyperaceae, 
Gram in ae. 

4. Physiology : 

The chemical composition of the plant ; materials of plant food and 
their sources ; the nature of ^oil and importance of its constituents and micro- 
organisms ; movements of water and gases ; assimilation of carbon and nitrogen; 
transpiration and translocation of the assimilated products ; parasitism and 
other modes of nutrition ; metabolism ; respiration ; the influence of light, heat 
and gravity ; growth ; movements and irritability in plants ; sexual reproduction 
and its significance ; vegetative reproduction ; the phenomena of cross- 
fertilisation ; variation, heredity and mendelism ; theories of evolution and 
origin of species. 

5. Histology : 

The structure and modes of division of the cell ; the nature of cell 
contents, the nature and mode of origin of plastids ; cell- sap and other cell 
contents ; the physical and chemical properties of protoplasm and cell wall ; the 
oiigin, nature and development of plant tissues; primary and secondary tissues 
and their distribution in the plant body. 

6. Ecology : 

Structural adaptations to environment ; plant communities, 



SYLS. BOTANY (SUB.)l N.SC. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 279 

*7. Economic Botany. 

A general account of the economically important plants of South India 
like those yielding cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, timbers, spices, drugs, 
fruits and vegetables. 

A general knowledge relating to the cultivation of the Agricultural crop 
plants like paddy, sugarcane, cholam, cotton and groundnut; their diseases and 
the methods of control. 

Methods of plant propagation a=; practical m Horticulture. 

8. Practical work : 

Candidates are expected to be able to make preparations illustrating the 
form and structure of any plant of the groups mentioned in the syllabus and 
describe them -with sketches sufficient for the identification : to make dissections 
with the simple microscope of the floral of phanerogams, to make drawings, 
to construct floral diagrams and refer them to their families; to describe in 
technical language plants belonging to any of the groups in the syllabus and to 
set up and explain simple experiments in plant physiology. 

At the practical examination, each candidate must submit his laboratory 
note book, a collection of named plants collected and preserved by himself 
and^a record of field work showing a thorough acquaintance with the local 
flora. 

Botany (Subsidiary) 

1. Structure and life-history of the following : 

Bacteria, Oscillaria, Chlamydomonas, Pandorma, Eudorma, Volvex, 
Ulothrix, Oedogonium, Spirogyra, Eetocarpus, Polysiphonia, Chara 
or Nitella, Rhiiopus or Mucor, Peziza, Puccinia, Agaricus, Lichen 
(Ramalina) Marchantia, Mosse^ Selaginella, Pleopeltis or Adiantum, 
Marsilia, Cycas, Pine. 

2. External Morphology of Flowering plants, 

3. The general principles of classification and the characteristics of the 
following families : 

Anonacece, Nyhpheaceee, Cruciferse, Nalvacese, Rutaceae, Rhamnse, 
Leguminosefie, Myrtaceae, Cucurbitacea?, Umbelliferaae, Rubiace, 
Compositre, Apocynacese, Asclepiadacere, Convolvulacese, Solnacene, 
Acauthaceae, Verbenaceoc, Libiaatee, Amarantacene, Euphorbiace*e, 
Urticacece, Hydrocharidse, Orchida, Scitaminece, Amaryllidw, 
Palmse and Graminse. 

* Comes into effect as from the examinations of 1944, 



280 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIV 

4. Plant Physiology. 

Chemical composition of the plant : soil and its properties ; photosynthe- 
sis ; transpiration ; respiration ; metabolism ; heterotropic plants ; growth ; 
movements ; irritability ; reaction to external stimuli ; adaptations ; repro- 
duction, sitxual and asexual, cross and self-pollination and fertilisation ; 
variation, heredity and Mendelism ; theories of evolution and origin of species. 

5. Histology. 

Cell structure and cell division ; plastids, cell sap and other cell con- 
tents, the origin, nature and development of plant tissues; primary and 
secondary tissues and their distribution in the plant body ; the relation of 
structure to function. 

6. Practical work. 

Candidates are expected to be able to make preparations illustrating 
the form and structures of any plant belonging to the groups mentioned in the 
syllabus and to describe with sketches sufficient for their identification ; to 
make dissections with Dimple microscope of the floral parts of Phanerogams r 
to make drawings, construct floral diagrams and refer them to their families ; to 
describe in technical language plants belonging to any of the groups specified 
in the syllabus. 

Candidates shall submit to the examiners, before the hour of the practical 
examination, their laboratory note books duly certified by their professors as a 
bona fide record of work done by him. 

Zoology (Main) 

The scope of Zoology. The leading features in the structure, the im. 
portant points concerning the development, and affinities and general classifica- 
tion of the forms included in the following groups : 

Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelmia, Nemertini Nematoda, 
Acanthocephala, Chsetognatha, Rotifera; Brachiopoda, Annelida, 
Phoronidea, Polyzoa, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and 
Chordata. 

A comparative study of the Physiological activities of the animals such 
as locomotion, feeding, respiration, excretion and reproduction of the groups 
mentioned above. 

A general acquaintance with the Vertebrate Fauna of South India. 

The geographical and geological distribution of the Chordata treated in an 
elementary manner. 

Outlines of the theories of Organic evolution, Heredity and Adaptation. 
/i.n elementary knowledge of the Cell and Cell-phenomena. 



SYI*S. ZOOLOGY (SUB.)] B. So. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 281 

Practical work t Candidates will be required,'to examine, describe, idtntify 
or otherwise deal with specimens and preparations illustrating points of zoo- 
logical interest in connection with any of the preceding groups. They will, in 
addition, be expected to have a full practical knowledge of the structure and 
will be required to make dissections and simple microscopical preparations of 
any of the following types : 

Amoeba, Vorticella, Hydra, Obelia, Jelly-fish (Chrysora Rhizostoma), 
Sea-anemone, Neries or Eunice, Earthworm, Leech, Prawn and 
Crab (external characters), Scorpion, Centipede (external charac- 
ters), Cock-roach, Fresh-water Mussel, Ampullaria, Sepia, Amphxut r 
(preparations and sections:) Dog-fish, frog, Pigeon and Rabbit. 

Candidates may also be examined by viva vote questions. 

Candidates shall submit to the examiners before the hour of the practical 
examination, their laboratory note-books duly certified by their professors as a 
bona fide record of work done by them. 

Zoology (Subsidiary) 

The scope of Zoology. The leading features in the structure the most 
important points concerning the development and affinities of the forms 
included in the following Phyla in general and of the following types in 
particular. (Students will not be expected to be familiar with characters of 
orders or other sub-groups not mentioned in the following scheme. The 
animals are to be studied with special reference to their habits and 
environment,) 

Protozoa : Rhzopoda (Lobosa, Foiamnifera, Heliozzoa, and Radio- 
laria.) 

Mastigophora. (Flagellata.) 
Infusoria. (Ciliata.) 
Sporozoa* 

Types. Amoeba, Euglena, Volvox, Paramoecium, Vorticella, Mc-no- 
cystis and Malarial Parasite. 

Coelenterata : Hydromedusae (and all its orders). 

Scyphomedusae (and all its orders). 

Anthozoa (Zoantharia and Alcyonaria). 

Ctenophora. 
Types : Hydia, Obelia, Aurelia, Sea-Anemone and Hormiphora. 

Platyhelminthes : Types : Taenia and Liver-Fluke, 

Nemathelminthes : Types : Ascaris. 

36 



282 THE ANDHRA pSiyBRSITY CODE VOL. It [OHAP. XL17 

Annelida : Archiannelida. 

Caaetopoda (Polychaeta and Oligoohaeta). 

Hirudinea. 

Echiurodia. 

Types Neries, Earth-worm and Leech. 

Arthropoda : Crustacea (Entomastraca and Malacostraca). 

Types : Streptocephalus, Lepas, Sacculina, Prawn and Crab. 

Onycophora : Peripatus. 

Myriopoda : (Centipede and Millipede). 

Insesta . (Aptera Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenopter a, 
Hemiptera, Diptera, and LepidopUra). 

Types : Cockroach. 

Arachnida : Scorpion, Spider and Liraulus. 

Type r Scorpion. 
Mollusc a : Pelycypoda. 

Gastropoda. 

Cephalopoda. 

Types : Mussel, Chiton, Pila (Ampullaria), (Ahpullaria) and Sepia. 
Echinodermata : Asteriodea. 

Ophiuroidea, 

Echinoidea, 

Holothuroidea. 

Crinoidea. 

Types : Starfish, Brittlestar, Seaurchin, Sea Cucumber, and Feathe r 
star. 

Chordata : 

Prochordates : Balanoglossus, Ascidia and Ampbioxus. 

Vertebrata : 

Pisces : Elasmobranchif, 

Teleostei, 

Dipnoi. 
Amphibia : Anura, 

Urodela, 

Gymnophiona. 



GEOLOGY (MAIN)] B. SC. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 283 

Reptiha : Lacertilia, 
Ophidia, 

Chelonia and Crocodilia. 

Av*s : Archaeornithes, 

Neornithes (Ratitae and Carinatae). 

Mammalia : Prototheria, 

Metatheria (Diprotodontia and Poly-protodontia.) 

Eutheria (Edentata, Sirenia, Proboscidea, Ungulata, 

Cetacea, Carnivora, Rodentia, Insectivora, Chiroptera, 

Prosimiae and Primates. 

Types : Balanglossus, Ascidia, Amphioxus, Dog-fish, Bony Fish, Frog, 
Caloter, Pigeon, and Rabbit. 

A general knowledge of the theories of Evolution, Heredity and Adaptation. 



Pratiical #V .Candidates will be expected to have a practical 
knowledge of the structure and shall he required to make dissections and simple 
microscopical preparations of any of the following types Earthworm, Neries 
(external features), Leech, Crab (external features), Scorpion, Cockroach, Fresh- 
water Mussel, Ampullaria, Sepia, (external characters), Frog, Pigeon, (nerves 
excepted) and Rabbit (nerves excepted). 

Candidates shall submit to the examiners before the hour of the practical 
examination, their laboratory note books duly certified by their professors as a 
bow jlde record of work done by them. 

Geology (Main) 

A course of lectures on the following : 
1. Physical and Dynamical Geology 

The aims, methods and applications of Geology as a science ; its 
sub-divisions. 

The Earth : brief review of its origin and its relations to the mem- 
bers of the solar system, its evolution ; movements and their 
effects ; its shape, size, density ; main principles of determination 
of the age of earth. 

The atmosphere : its nature, extent and movements ; climate ; 
weather, seasons ; elements of meteorology. 

The Hydrosphere : extent, composition and movements ; effects 
on climate. 



284 THB ANDHBA UNIVBBSITY CODE VOL. n [CHAP. XLIV 

The lithoiphere : constituents of the cruit ; probable nature of the 
interior ; rate of downward increment of internal heat ; main 
divisions of rocks and their mode of occurrence. 

Geological Agents : Hypogeny igneous activity ; volcanoss, their 
form and structure ; their action, cause, results and products. 
Earthquakes nature, origin and effects; relationship to volcanoes. 

Epigene : Heat and cold, water, wind, ice and organic agents. 

Erosion, transportation and deposition considered with each of the 
agents. Characters of deposits, terrestrial fluviatile, marine 
lacustrine, glacial, and organic. Earth sculpture. 

2. Crystallography and Mineralogy 

Distinction between crystalline and morphous substances. 

Crystals : lines, planes, axes and centre of symmetry. Laws of 
crystallography. Crystal systems ; crystal notation ; important 
holohedral and hemihedral forms and their combinations ; con- 
tact goniometer ; principles of re8ectmg goniometer ; the impor- 
tant types of twinning and twinned crystals, element^ of crystal 
drawing. 

Physical characters of crystals ; isomorphism, dimorphism, iso- 
dimorphism, paramorphism, pseudomorphism. 

Simple, dry and wet tests for identifying minerals. 

Main principles of optics leading to the recognition of minerals ; 
pleochroism and absorption ; extinction angles ; interference 
phenomena ; 

Study of the more important rock-forming and economic minerals. 

3. Petrology- 

Aqueous, igneous and metamorphic rocks ; their origin, mode of 
occurrence, composition, structure and texture Study of the 
leading types in each of these groups. Alteration and metamor- 
phisxn (including contact and regional of rocks). 

Construction and use of the petrological microscope ; its use in the 
identification of minerals and rocks by means of ordinary and 
place polarized light 

4 . Structural and Field Geology- 

Structural features of the different classes of rocks , lamination, 
bedding) joints, overlap, unconformity, strike, dip, faults, folds 
their effect on topography. Relation between geological structure 
and surface features. 



SYLS. GEOLOGY (SUB.) ] B. 8C. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 285 

Construction and interpretation of geological maps and sections. 
Simple problems in structural geology. 

5. Economic Geology 

Forms and origin of Ore deposits ; impoiunt characters of the main 
types magmatic, pneumatolytic, hydrothermal, metasomatic, 
metamorphic and detital. 

General knowledge of the chief economic ores and minerals of India 
and their main uses Coal, petroleum, water, building stones, 
salt, mica, magnestite ; gold, silver, manganese, and iron ore, 
tungsten, chromite, etc. 

Elementary principles of prospecting. 

6. Palaeontology and Stratigraphy 

Fossils ; their nature and mode of preservation and uses. Distri* 
bution of the main croups in time; recognition and drawing of the 
more important types. Correlation of strata ; Homotaxis and 
contemporaneity. Importance of the study of fossils in problems 
of evolution. 

Standard European geological formations ; their lithological and 
paleeontological characters ; Indian stratigraphy studied likewise ; 
physiographic and climatic conditions of the different epochs and 
systems. 

Practical Work- 
Physical properties of minerals density, hardness, fusibility. 

Examination of important rock-forming minerals and rocks in hand 
specimens and- under the microscope Dry and wet tests for the 
identification of important minerals. 

Reading of geological maps and construction of sections. General 
acquaintance with- field work, including the maintenance of field 
notes and specimens collected in excursions. Study and drawing 
of a representative collection of fossils. Laboratory note-books. 
Viva voce questions may be asked. 

Geology (Subsidiary) 

Gtntral Otology. The aims, methods and applications of geology. The 
earUi, its movements and their effects. The nature and character! of the 
atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Work of the Geological Agents * 
hypogene such as volcanoes and earthquakes, and epigene such as air, water 
and organisms. 



286 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE -VOL. ll [CHAP. XLtV 

Crystallography and Mineralogy. Si* systems of crystals and their sym- 
metry characters ; Weiss and Miller notation. The holohedral and the more 
Important hemihedral forms. Simple twins. 

Study of the most important rock-forming and economic minerals : their 
crystallographic and physical characters and chemical compositions. 

Native gold, silver, copper, nickel-iron, diamond, graphite, sulphur; 
corundum, quartz, chalcedony and opal, cuprite, hematite, megnetite, spinel, 
chromite, ilmenite, cas&iterite, bauxite limonite, pyrolusite and psilomelane ; 
pyrite, pyrrho-tite, chalcocite, chalcooyrite, bornite, stibnite, zinc blende, 
argentite, realgarg orpment, galena, cinnabar, pentlandite ; fluorite, halite, 
sylvite, kieserite, carnallite, borax ; calcite, dolomite, magnesite, siderite, 
malachite, azurite, cerussite ; the feldspars, nepheline, sodalite, garnet, beryl, 
amphibles and pyrovenes (tremolite-actinolite, hornblende, bypersthene, 
diopside, augite), epidote, dlivine, muscovite, biotite, chlorite, kaolin, talc, 
serpentine, gypsum, barite, apatite. 

Petrology. Nature of rocks and their classification. Study of the chief 
types of sedimentary, igneous and metaraorphic rocks in hand specimens. 

Structural Geology. Structure of rock masses bedding, joints, striks, 
dip, folds and faults. Outcrops of simple structures in relation to topography. 
Study of topographical maps and simple geological maps and construction of 
sections across them. 

Historical Geology. Fossils, their mode of preservation and uses. The 
stratigraphical record. The standard European stratigraphical scale ; correlation 
of strata; important rocks and fossils of the chief periods; elementary 
knowledge of Indian Geology. 

Practical work. Description and identification of important crystal forms, 
minerals, rocks and fossils ; easy exercises on geological maps. 

Physiology (Main) 

(A) Physiology. 
General \ 

History and scope of Physiology. Characteristic features of living tub- 
stance. Conditions of life. Structure and Chemistry of Protoplasm, Surface 
tension, Osmosis, Hydrogen-ion concentration. Colloids and their behaviour. 
Cell protoplasm. Nucleus. Reproduction of cells. 

Circulatory System: 

Origin, composition and properties of blood. General character and forma- 
tion of Lymph. Blood and Lymph as protective mechanisms. Circulation of 
Wood, Physiological characteristics of the heart. Work of the heart, Cardiac 
cycle. Nature of cardiae contraction. Sounds of the heart. Nervous control 



SYL8. PHYSIOLOGY (MAIN)] B.Sc. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 287 

of the heart. Circulation through various organs. Physiology of capillary 
circulation treated in an elementary manner. Blood pressure, methods of 
measurement of blood pressure. Effect of the heart beat on blood pressure. 
Pressures in capillaries, veins and lymphatic vessels. Features of blood flow. 
Influence of posture and gravity on circulation. Shock and its general causes 

Respiratory system : 

Organs of respiration. Internal and External respiration. Mechanism of 
external respiration. Movements of respiration. Amount of air respired. 
Interchange of air by diffusion. Respiratory sounds. Respiratory Rhythm. 
Nervous regulation of respiration. Interaction of circulation and respiration. 
Influence of the heart on respiration. Internal respiration. Effects of respira- 
tion on the air breathed. Effects of respiration on the blood. Causes of respira- 
tory exchange. Blood as carrier of oxygen and carbondioxide. Ventilation. 
Asphyxia. 

Digestive system : 

Nature of food. Proximate principles of food. Sources of the proximate 
principles. Dietetics. Digestion of the food stuffs. Secretion and properties 
of the digestive juices and bile. Movements of the stomach and intestine. 
Mode and channels of absorption of food. Storage of surplus food. Functions 
of the Liver and Pancreas. 

Metabolism : 

Factors influencing metabolism, age, climate, nature of work, etc. Basal 
metabolism during starvation. Metabolism of proteins, Carbohydrates and fats 
treated in an elementary manner. Insulin and carbohydrate metabolism. Regula- 
tion of temperature. 

Muscle nerve physiology f 

Functions of the muscular tissue. Muscular movement. The graphic registra- 
tion of muscular contractions. Methods of stimulation of muscle and nerve. 
Character of contraction of muscles. Chemistry of muscle. Heat production 
in muscle. The neuron and its conducting paths. Phenomenon of conduction 
in nerve. Reaction of nerve and muscle and constant and interrupted electrical 
currents. 

Excretory system : 

The secretion of urine. Expulsion of urine. Micturition. Composition of 
urine. Functions of the skin and its appendages. 

Nervous system : 

Significance of the nervous system. Functional arrangement of the nervous 
system. Reflex action. Functions of the spinal cord. Functions of the auto- 
nomic system. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Functions 



288 THfl ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. H [CHAI*. XM7 

of the mtdulla oblongata, and associated nerves. General function? of the ' 
cerebrum. Cerebral localization. Function! of the cerebellum. Formation and 
properties of conditioned reflexes. Cerebro-spinal fluid, its formation, composi- 
tion and functions. 

Sense Organs : 

Classification of sense organs. General features of Receptors. Physiology 
of the ear and eye and other sensory organs treated in an elementary manner. 

Endocrinology :-~ 

The thyroid, Parathyroid, thymus, adrenal bodies, Hypophysis, pineal 
body. Testes and ovaries. Haemolymph glands. 

Reproductive System : 

Growth, regeneration and reproduction ; Physiology of the male and female 
reproductive organs treated in an elementary manner. Functions of the foetal 
membranes. Nutrition of the embryo. Foetal circulation. 

(B) Histology 

* 
[Lectures are to be correlated with practical work and students Will be 

expected to be familiar with the standing methods. 1 

Cell : 

Structure of the cell. Cell-division. Connective tissues. Pigment cells, 
Adipose tissue. Wharton's Jelly. Elastic. Ferrous and hyaline cartilage. 
Ossification and bone. Contractile tissues. Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle 
and heart muscle. Nerve cell. Structure of the spinal cord at various levels, 
cortex and cerebellum. Nerve fibres, Nerve endings. Ganglion cells. 

Blood vessels : 

Aorta, smaller artery, bronchial artery and vein. Lymphatic vessels and 
tissues, lymphoid tissue, lymph gland, spleen and tonsil. 

Alimentary tract 

Tongue, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, salivary gland, Pancreas and liver. 

Respiratory system : 

Larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs. 
Urinary tract Kidney, ureter. 

Ductless glands Thyroid, parathyroid, thymns, pineal body, pituitary body, 
pancreas, adrenal body. Reproductive system Testes, ovaries, vat defences, 
uterus etc. 



ST^S. PHYSIOLOGY (SUB.)] B.Sc. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 289 

(C) Experimental Physiology 

A working knowledge of the electrical apparatus in common use in physio- 
logical experiments. Cells, electrodes, key, Commutator. Rheochord and 
Induction coil. 

Certain simple experiments illustrating the use of the above apparatus. 

The muscle-nerve preparation. The recording of muscular contractions. 
Superposition. Tetanus. 

Action of Veratrine and Curari. Effect of fatigue on muscle. 
Polar excitation of nerve, electrotonus, Galvanism and Faradism. 

The Frog's heart Stannius' experiments. Peculiarities of Cardiac con- 
traction, Cardiac nerves of frog. 

The capillary circulation in the frog's Web and mesentery. 

Sheep's heart, action of valves, the use of the Dudgeon Sphygmograph. 

Arterial pressure in man. Sphygmomanometer. 

The respiratory movement in man. Stethography. 

Vital capacity. Artificial respiration. 

Reflex action in frog. De-cerebrated frog. 

The enumeration of blood corpuscles. Estimation of Haemoglobin. 

(D) Bio- Chemistry 

Students will be expected to have a fuller knowledge of the portions 
specified in the syllabus as a subsidiary subject in. addition to the following : 

Theory : 

Vitamins, Chemistry of bile. Vanderi Bergh's reaction. Bacterial 
decomposition in the intestine Physiological detoxications, glycol and 
ornithin derivatives. Glycourates. Ethereal sulphates. Methylation. Oxida- 
tion and reduction and acetylatiori. Chemistry of internal secretions. 

Practical : 

The preparation and estimation of amino-acids. Hydrolysis of fats. 
Quantitative estimation of carbohydrates. Indirect calorimetry. Basat 
metabolism. Estimation of PH. Quantitative estimation of important constitu- 
tions. Alkali reserve. Blood gases Analysis of air. Quantitative analysis 
of urine. Liver and kidney efficiency tests. Analysis of gastric contents. 

Physiology (Subsidiary). 

(A) Physiology 

Chemical composition of the animal body ; physiology of the cell. Histo- 
logy of animal tissues. General physiology of muscle and nerve. Food an4 



290 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLV 

dietetics. Digestion, absorption and nutrition. Blood, lymph and tissue 
fluids. Physiology of the heart and blood vessels. Respiration, Excretion, 
Metabolism and regulation of temperature. Skin and its appendages. Central 
nervous system Autonomic system. Special sense organs. Endocrinology. 
Reproduction. Elementary facts of general physiology as indicated below : 

Protoplasm, its ttructure and properties, surface action, surface tension, 
absorption etc. Properties of colloids. Permeability of membranes. Osmotic 
pressure. Electrolytes. Functions of water. Catalysis. Enzymes. 

(B) Bio-Chemistry 

The Chemistry and metabolism of food stuffs. Enzyme action. The chemi- 
cal constituents of blood, their origin and physiological conduct, Acidosis and 
alkalesis. The Chemistry of urine and faeces : Urinary pigments, reactions of 
proteins, rats and carbohydrates. Quantitative estimation of sugar. Digestive 
enzymes and bile. Qualitative analysis of some common food stuffs. Deriva- 
tives of Haemoglobin. Spectroscopic examination of Haemoglobin and its 
derivatives. Coagulation of blood. Haemoglysis chemical tests for blood. 
Preparation of Haemin and Haemoglobin crystals. 

Quantitative estimation of sugar and urea in blood. Use of the calori- 
meter. Estimation of PH of urine. Testing for the various constituents. 
Urinary sediments Quantitative estimation of Chlorides, phosphates and urea. 
Identification of substances of Physiological importance. 

(C) 

Candidates will be expected to have undergone a course of practical instruc- 
tion in Practical Physiology, Histology and Elementary Bio-Chemistry, and 
certificates of such attendance should be produced from the Professors concerned 



SBC. 13] B. SC, (HON8.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 291 

CHAPTER XLV 
B Sc. (HONOURS) DEGREE EXAMINATION 

(Regulations) 

A With Physics or Chemistry as Main subject 

L Candidates for the Degree of Bachelor of Science (Honours) Conditions 
shall be required- Admission 

(i) to have passed the Intermediate Examination in Arts 
and Science of this University or the Intermediate 
examination of any other Statutory Indian University 
accepted as equivalent thereto* ; 

(li) to have undergone subsequently a further course of 
study in the University College as prescribed here- 
under, extending over a period of three years, each 
consisting of three consecutive terms ; and 

(iii) to have passed the examination for the Degree herein- 
after prescribed. 

2. The courses for the B.Sc. (Hons.) Degree shall comprise Courses of 
instruction in Study 

Part I (a) English and (b) a simple course in French or 
German. 

Part II Any one of the following branches of knowledge : 
(i) Physics as the Main subject with Chemistry and 
Mathematics as Subsidiary subjects. 

(ii) Chemistry as the Main subject with Physics and 
Mathematics as Subsidiary subjects. 

3. The examination in Part I-(a) English shall be a paper of Part 1 (a) 
three hours' duration based on two prescibed text-books, one for p"f t \ S (b) 
detailed study and the other for non-detailed study : (this paper French or 
shall be the same as that for B.So. Pass Degree Examination) ; and 

in Part I-(b) a two-hour paper in Translation from French or 



292 THK ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLV 

v 

German into English and vice versa, similar to that of the B.A. 
(Honours) Part I, but alternative passages for translation shall be 
set in the different subjects. Candidates who have passed in 
French or German under Part II in the Intermediate Examination 
shall not be required to undergo the course or sit for the examina- 
tion prescribed for Part I-(b). 

Part M 4. The courses of study in the Main and the Subsidiary sub- 

jects under Part II shall be as detailed below : 

Physics (Main) 

(Main)* "^ can did a te shall be required to have a sound knowledge, 

experimental and theoretical of : 

(i) Properties of Matter and Dynamic Theory of Sound. 

(ii) Sound and Heat, 

(iii) Light, 

(iv) Electricity and Magnetism. 

(v) Modern Physics. 

Each candidate shall submit his laboratory note books con- 
taining the record of all his practical work performed during the 
period of study for the examination. The record shall be counter- 
signed by the Professor or Professors under whom the candidate 
has worked and shall be certified as a bona fide record of work 
performed by the candidate. It shall be submitted on the first 
day of the practical examination to the Examiners engaged in con- 
ducting the examination. 

There shall be six papers in theory, two on Modern Physics and 
one on each of the remaining four subjects. Each paper shall 
be of three hours 1 duration and shall carry 100 marks. 

There shall be four papers in Practical Physics as detailed 
below : 

(i) One paper in Properties of Matter, Sound and Heat 

3 hours, 
(ii) One paper in Light 3 hours. 



SBC. 4] B.SC. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 293 

(Hi) One paper in Electricity and Magnetism 3 hours, 
(iv) One paper covering the whole syllabus 6 hours. 

Each paper in Practical shall carry 100 marks and the Practical 
record submitted shall carry 100 marks. 

The scope of the several subjects shall bo as defined in the 
syllabus. 

Chemistry (Main) 

A candidate shall be required to have a sound knowledge, Chemistry 
experimental and theoretical of : 

(1) General and Historical Chemistry, 

(2) Physical Chemistry. 

(3) Inorganic Chemistry. 

(4) Organic Chemistry. 

(5) Any one of the following special subjects : 

(i) Electro Chemistry. 

(ii) Technical Gas Reactions, 
(iii) Analytical Chemistry, 
(iv) Chemistry of rarer elements and their industrial uses. 

(v) Tinctorial Chemistry, 
(vi) Bio-Chemistry. 

(vii) Chemistry of Sugars und Carboh^rt rates, 
(viii) Chemistry of Colloids, 
(ix) Chemistry of Foods and Drugs. 

There shall ba five papers in theory, each of three hours 1 
duration on each of the above five subjects. Each paper shall carry 
100 marks. There shall be four papers in practical, one on the 
special subject and the rest on the general subjects, viz., Inorganic, 
Organic and Physical Chemistry. The practical examination in the 
special subject and Physical Chemistry shall be of 6 hours' 
duration each and that in Inorganic Chemistry and Organic 
Chemistry shall be each of 12 hours' duration (6 hours per day). 
The practical examination in each subject shall carry 100 marks 
and the oractical record submitted hall carry 100 marks. 



94 THE ANDH&A UfclVBBSITY C6DH -VOL. II [CHAP. 

Each candidate shall submit his laboratory note books con- 
taining the record of his practical work performed during the 
period of study for the examination. The record shall be counter- 
signed by the Professor or Professors under whom the candidate 
has worked and shall be certified as a bona fide record of work 
performed by the candidate. It shall be submitted on the first day 
of the practical examination to the Examiners engaged in conduct- 
ing the examination. 

The scope of the several subjects shall be as defined in the 
syllabus. 

Mathematics (Subsidiary to Physics Main) 

There shall be two papers each of three hours' duration. Each 
paper shall carry 100 marks. 

The examination and syllabus shall be the same as that for the 
candidates taking the course in Mathematics as a Subsidiary subject 
for the B.Sc. (Pass) Degree examination. 

Mathematics (Subsidiary to Chemistry Main) 

There shall be one paper of three hours' duration carrying 
100 marks. 

The examination and syllabus shall be common with Part I (a) 
Mathematics for the B.Sc. (Hons.) Examination with Chemical 
Technology as Main subject. 

Physics (Subsidiary) 

There shall be one paper in theory and one in practical, each 
of three hours 1 duration. Each paper shall carry 100 marks. The 
examination and syllabus shall be the same as that for the candi- 
dates taking the course in Physics as a Subsidiary subject for the 
B.Sc. (Pass) Degree examination. 

Chemistry (Subsidiary) 

There shall be one paper in theory and one in practical, each 
of three hours' duration. Eloh paper shall carry 100 marks. 



SBC. 48] B. SO. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 295 

The syllabus shall be the same as that prescribed for the 
candidates taking the course in Chemistry as a Subsidiary subject 
for the B.Sc. (Pass) Degree Examination. 

The scope of the subject shall be as defined in the syllabus. 

5. No candidate shall be eligible for the B.Sc. (Honours) Eligibility 
Degree until he has passed the examination in Part I and in one Degree 

of the branches of knowledge in Part II detailed in the courses of 
study. 

6. A candidate with Physics as his Main subject shall be 
permitted, at the end of the first year, to appear for the exami- 
nation in Part I (a) English and (b) French or German and at 
the end of the second year in the Subsicjiary subjects. A candi- 
date with Chemistry as his Main subject shall, however, be 
permitted at the end of the first year, to appear for the examina- 
tion in Part I (a) English (b) French or German and also in 
Mathematics (Subsidiary) under Part II and at the end of the 
second year in the remaining Subsidiary subject. 

7. The examination in Part I shall be (a) a three hours' Marks 

qualifying 

paper on English Composition and (b) a two hours' paper on f or a pass 
Translation. A candidate may present himself for the examination m Paft * 
in Part I (i e. English and Translation) at the end of the first 
year of the course and thereafter at his option present himself 
for either English or Translation or both provided that candidates 
who obtain qualifying marks for a pass either in. English or Trans- 
lation need appear again in that subject in which they failed. 

A candidate shall be declared to have passed the Part I 
examination if he obtains not less than 40 per cent in each of the 
papers on English and Translation. All other candidates shall be 
deemed to have failed in the examination. Successful candidates 
obtaining not less than 60 per cent shall be declared to have passed 
with distinction in that subject. 

8. No candidate shall be~admitted to the examination in Qualification 
Part I unless he has passed the Intermediate examination in Arts [fo^to the 

Science of this ;University or an examination of any other Examination 



296 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. IT [CHAP. XLV 

statutory Indian University accepted as equivalent thereto and 
has undergone the prescribed course. 

Admission 9. No candidate, other than those hereinafter exempted, 

examination 8na ^ ^ e Permitted to appear for the examination in the Main subject 
in tKe case of candidates offering Physics or Chemistry as the main 
subject unless he has passed the Part I examination. 

B. Sc. Pas 10. A candidate for the B.Sc. (Honours) Degree who has 

passed the B.Sc. (Pass) Degree Examination shall be permitted to 



for Honours appear for the B.Sc. (Hons.) Degree Examination after a further 
two years' course in the University College, provided he has passed 
the B.Sc. Degree examination in the subjects in which he desires to 
appear for the Honours examination. He shall be exempted from 
passing the examination in Part I and from the examination in 
the Subsidiary subjects, provided he undergoes one year's course in 
simple French or German. 

B.A.. pass 10- A. A candidate for the B.Sc. (Hons.) Degree Examination 

a^eai^f or t0 w ^^ ^ nvs ' cs or Chemistry as the Main subject, who has passed the B.A. 
Hons. Pass Degree Examination shall be permitted to appear for the B.Sc. 

(Hons.) Degree Examination after a further course of three years in 



Physics or ^he University College. He shall be exempted from passing the 

Chemistry as . 

main subject Examination in Part I provided he undergoes one year's course in 

simple German and from the Examination in the Subsidiary subjects, 
provided he passed the B.A. Degree Examination with these subjects. 

11. A candidate for the B.Sc. (Honours) Degree shall appear 
for the examination: in Part II not later^than the end of the fourth 
year after commencing the Honours Degree course in the University 
Colleges, provided however Bachelors of Science proceeding to the 
B.Sc. (Honours) Degree examination (vide section 10 supra) shall 
appear not later than three years after commencing the B.Sc. 
(Honours) Degree course in the University College. 

For purposes of this regulation, the Part II examination shall 
mean the examination in the Main subject in the case of Physics 
and Chemistry main groups, 



SBC. 915] B.SC. (HONS.) DEGHHK EXAMINATION 297 

12. No candidate shall be permitted to undergo the exami- 
nation in Part II more than once. A candidate for the final 
examination shall however be permitted to withdraw from the 
examination provided he has not sat for the last paper in the written 
examination or the last practical examination in the subject ; and 
provided also he has given notice of withdrawal to the Registrar 
within three clear days after the date of the last paper (theory or 
practical) which he answered. He shall be permitted to appear again 
for the examination in the Main subject in the following year 
without producing any additional certificate of attendance. Nothing 
in this regulation shall apply to the examination in the Subsidiary 
subjects. 

13. In the event of a candidate for the B.Sc. (Hons.) Candidates 
Degree failing to satisfy the Examiners in Part II of the examina- fecom^ne^d- 
tion, he may be recommended by them for the B.Sc. (Pass) Degree ed for B. Sc. 
provided he has passed the examination in Part I and has obtained P * SS eere 
not less than 30 per cent of the marks in each subject, both Main 

and Subsidiary, in Part II. 



14. A candidate who is not already eligible for the B.Sc. Candidate! 

(Pass) Degree, and has failed completely in the B.Sc. (Hons.) ^Sc.^ ** 

Degree examination, shall be permitted to appear for the B.Sc. Honours 

may appoar 

Degree examination in the subjects in which he has already for B. Sc. 

appeared without the production of a further certificate of atten- P nvatel > r 
dance in an Affiliated College. 



15. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the B.Sc. Marks 
(Hons.) Degree Examination if he has obtained not less than 40 per 
cent of the total marks in the Main subject and 40 per cent of the 
total marks in each of the Subsidiary subjects under Part II, provided 
however no candidate shall be deemed to have passed in the Main 
subject under Part II unless he gets not less than 33 per cent of the 
total marks in each of the two divisions of the Main subject, viz.. 
(i) Theory of the Main subject ; (ii) practicals of the Main subject, 
including the practical records submitted, 

38 



298 THB ANDHRA UNIVERSITt CODE VOL. II CHAP. XLV 

Clasiifica- 16. Candidates declared to have passed the examinations in 

succe'fcful fc ke Subsidiary subjects shall be classed in each of the Subsidiary 
candidates : subjects as noted below provided the candidates pass in all the sub- 
subsidiary jocts afc the firflfc appearance : 
subjects 

The first consisting of those who obtain not less than 60 per 
cent, the second of those who obtain not less than 50 per 
cent, and the third of those who obtain not less than 40 per 
cent of the total marks. 

in the mam Candidates declared to have passed the Honours Examination 

subjects shall be ranked in the order of proficiency as determined 

by the total marks obtained by each in the Main subject 
and shall be arranged in three classes as noted in para- 
graph 2 above. 

B With Chemical Technology a Main Subject 

Conditions ^' ^ candidate for the B.Sc. (Hons.) Degree in Chemical 

of Technology shall be required 

Admission ' ^ 

(i) to have passed the Intermediate examination (with Physics, 
Chemistry and Mathematics as optionals) of this Univer- 
sity or any other examination accepted as equivalent 
thereto ;* 

(ii) to have undergone subsequently a further course of study 
in the University College, as prescribed hereunder, ex- 
tending over a period of three years, each consisting of 
three consecutive terms ; 

(iii) to have passed the examination for the degree hereinafter 
prescribed ; and 

(iv) to have undergone at least 2 months of practical training 
in any approved factory or workshop either during the 
coarse or immediately after its completion and before 
the Degree is awarded. 

* Vide foot-note on the first page of Chapter XL. 



BfcC. Itv 20] B. 8C. (HONS.) DBfeREB EXAMINATION 499 

18. The courses shall comprise instruction in Courses of 

Study 

Part I (a) Mathematics, (fc) Physics, (c) Chemistry, (d) Ge- 
neral Engineering including Machine Drawing and Work- 
shop Practice and (e) Pharmaceutical Botany in the case 
of candidates offering Pharmaceuticals and Fine Chemi- 
cals as Special subject under Part II. 

Part II Chemical Technology, Chemical Engineering and 
any one of the following special subjects for the study of 
which provision may be made by the University : 

(i) Sugar ; 

(ii) Pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals ; 
(iii) Oils and Fats (including essential oils) ; and 
(iv) Ceramics. 

19. The scope of each subject shall be as defined in the sylla* Scope of 
i u j subjects 
bus prescribed. 

20. The examination in the several subjects in Parts I and II Parti: 

, ,. , , , .. . , . Mathematics 

shall be as detailed below : Physics, 

T . T Chemistry 

PART I. and Gtnerml 

Mathematics : There shall be one paper of three hours' n s mcenn * 
duration, carrying 100 marks. This paper shall be common with 
Mathematics Subsidiary to Chemistry Main B.Sc. (Hons.) 

Physics. There shall be two papers, one written, of three 
hours' duration and one practical, of three hours' duration. Each 
paper shall carry 100 mark a. 

Chemistry. There shall be three papers in theory and three 
practicals, one each in Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and 
Organic Chemistry, respectively. Each paper in theory ihail be of 
three hours' duration and shall carry 100 marks. Each practical 
examination shall be of six hours' duration. Besides the above, 
there shall be an oral examination. The marks for the practical 
and oral examinations shall be allotted as below : 

Inorganic and Physical Chemistry 200 marks. 

Organic Chemistry 100 

Practical records 50 

Oral $0 , 



300 



THE ANDHEA UNIVERSITY CODB^-VOL. II [CHAP. XLV 



Part It : 
General 

Chemical 

Technology, 

Chemical 

Engineering 

and one 

Speeial 

subject 



Marks 

qualifying 
for a pass 



General Engineering. There shall be one paper in theory 
carrying 100 marks and one in practical (workshop practice) each 
of three hours' duration. The practical examination shall carry 
50 marks and drawing records 50 marks. 

Pharmaceutical Botany. There shall be two papers, one 
written of twd hours' duration and one practical of three hours' 
duration. Each paper shall carry 50 marks. 

PART II 

General Chemical Technology. There shall be two papers in 
theory of three hours 1 duration each and two practical examina- 
tions of 6^ hours' duration each. Each paper shall carry 100 marks 
and the records 50 marks. 

Chemical Engineering. There shall be one paper in theory of 
three hours' duration and one practical of six and half hours' dura- 
tion. Each paper shall carry 100 marks and the records 50 marks. 

Special Subject. There shall be one paper in theory of three 
hours' duration and one practical examination of 6^ hours 1 dura- 
tion. Each paper shall carry 100 marks and the records 50 marks. 

21. A candidate shall be considered to have passed the exa- 
mination in the several iubjects detailed above if he obtains marks 
as hereunder : 

Practical 

Subjects. Written (including 

records and 
oral if any). 

Mathematics 40 per cent 

Physics 25 

Chemistry 35 

General Engineering 35 

Pharmaceutical Botany 35 



Admission 
to the 
Examination 



Aggregate. 



40 per cent 
35 per cent 



General Chemical Technology 
Chemical Engineering 
Special Subject 



35 



22. A candidate shall be permitted, at the end of the first 
year, to appear for the examination in Mathematics and at the end 
of the second year in the remaining subjects in Part L 



SBC. &L-26] B. SC. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 3UJL 

23. No candidate shall be permitted to appear for the exami- 
nation in Part II unless he has passed the examination in Part I. 

24. (a) A candidate for the B.Sc. (Hons.) Degree Examination B.Sc. or B.A. 
in Chemical Technology who has passed B.Sc. (Pass) Examination datefo dl " 
in first or second class with Chemistry as the Main subject, provided appear for 
he had Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry as optionals in the Examination 
Intermediate, shall be permitted to appear for the examination 

after a further course of two years in the University College and he 
shall be exempted from passing the examination in the Subsidiary 
subjects that he has already passed in the B.Sc. He shall sit for 
the examination in Chemistry and General Engineering in Part I 
at the end of the first year's course and in Part II at the end of the 
second year. 

(b) A candidate who has passed the B.Sc. (Pass) Degree 
Examination except with Chemistry as Main subject or B.Sc. (Pass) 
Degree Examination in third class with Chemistry as Main subject 
or B.A. (Pass) Degree Examination, provided he had Mathema- 
tics, Physics and Chemistry as his optionals in his Intermediate 
Examination, can appear for the B.Sc. (Hons.) Degree Examina- 
tion in Chemical Technology after a further course of three years in 
the University College. He shall be, however, exempted from those 
subsidiary subjects in which he has already secured a pass. 

25. A candidate for the B. Sc. (Hons.) Degree shall appear Restriction 
for the examination in Part II not later than the end of the fourth appearance 
year after commencing the Honours Degree course in the Univer- 
sity College. 

26. A candidate who appears for the examination in Part II Permitted tc 
at the end of the third year after commencing the Honours Degree twfce" Q ^ 
Course in the tJniversity (Jollege of Science and Technology and 

fails, may appear again for the examination in Part II in the 
fallowing year provided the candidate undergoes the final year's 
Honours Course again and produces the additional certificate of 
attendance for the fp^r.th year, 



#02 TtfE AflbtfRA tJNlVteRSlfrf COftfc VOL. II cttA*. XtV 



Clafiifica- 27. Candidates declared to have passed the examinations in 

successful tne subjects nnder Part I shall be classed in each of the subjects as 

candidates in no ted below provided the candidates pass in all the subjects at 
the subjectt r r J 

under Part I the first appearance : * 

The first consisting of those who obtain not less than 60 
per cent, the second of those who obtain not less then 50 
per cent, and the third of those who obtain not less than 40 
per cent of the total marks. 

Classifica- Candidates declared to have passed the Part II Examination 

successful shall be ranked in the order of proficiency as determined 

candidates in by the total marks obtained by each in that part and shall 

Examination De arranged in three classes as noted in paragraph 2 above. 

C With Botany or Zoology or Geology as Main Subject 

Conditions 28. A candidate for the Degree of Bachelor of Science 

(Honours) in Natural Sciences shall be required 

(i) to have passed the Intermediate Examination in Arts and 
Science of this University or any other examination 
accepted as equivalent thereto ;* 

(ii) to have undergone subsequently a further course of study 
in the University College, as prescribed hereunder 
extending over a period of three years, each consisting 
of three consecutive terms ; and 

(iii) to have passed the examination for the Degree herein- 
after prescribed. 

Courses of 29. The course shall comprise instruction in 

Part I (a) English and (b) a simple course in French or 
German. 

Part II Any one of the following branches of knowledge: 

(i) Botany as the Main subject with Chemistry or Zoology 

or Geology as Subsidiary subject ; 

(ii) Zoology as the Main subject with Chemiitry or Botany 
or Geology as Subsidiary subject ; 

Vide foot-note on the first page of Chapter XL. 



&BO. 2731] B. SC. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 303 

(iii) Geology as the Main subject with Physics or Chemis- 
try or Zoology or Botany as Subsidiary subject. 

30. The examination in Part I (a) English shall be a paper of Part I (a) 
three houri' duration based on two prescribed text-books, one for 



detailed study and the other for non-detailed study : (This paper Drench or 

German 
shall be the same as that for B.Sc. Pass Degree examination) ; and 

in Part I (b) a two-hour paper in Translation from French or Ger- 
man into English and vice versa similar to that of the B.A. 
(Honours), Part I but alternative passages for translation shall be 
set in the different subjects. Candidates who have passed in 
French or German under Part II in the Intermediate Examination 
shall not be required to undergo the course or sit for the Examina- 
tion prescribed for Part I (6). 

31. The courses of study in the Main and the Subsidiary 
subjects under Part II shall be as detailed below : 

Botany (Main) 

A candidate shall be required to have a sound knowledge, ex- Botany 
perimental and theoretical, of : (Mam) 

(1) Morphology and Taxonomo of (a) Thallophytes, (ft) Bryo- 

phytes, (c) Pteridophytes, (d) Gymnosperras and 
(e) Angiosperms. 

(2) Ecological and Geographical distribution of Phanerogams 

with special reference to South India. 

(3) Fungi, specially with reference to their economic impor- 

tance. 

(4) Plant Physiology. 

(5) Plant Histology. 

(6) Physiological Anatomy. 

(7) Palseobotany. 

(8) Cytology and Genetics. 

(9) Principles of Evolution and Heredity. 
(10) The Chief Economic Plant Products. 

Each candidate shall be required to present as a special subject 
a topic chosen from one of the sections mentioned above. 



304 THE ANDHRA (WIVBRSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLV 

A candidate, during the three years 1 course of atudy, shall put 
in at least six weeks of field work for studying the various repre- 
sentative floristic regions of South India. 

There shall be five papers in theory, each of three hours' dura- 
tion on each of the following five subjects : 

(1) Algae Fungi and Bryophytes. 

(2) Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Morphology of zVngios- 
perms. 

(3) Histology, Physiology, Ecology and Distribution. 

(4) Systematic Botany, Economic Botany and General 

Principles. 

(5) Special subject. 

Each paper shall carry 150 marks. There shall be four papers 
in practical each of tkree hours 7 duration. The practical examina- 
tion may include (1) the identification of Indian plants with the 
help of a flora or any other books allowed by the examiners ; 
(2) the preparation and correct interpretation of microscopic sections 
of plant ; (3) the examination of a diseased or abnormal plant and 
(4) practical Physiology and viva voce questions. 

Each candidate shall submit a collection of named flowering 
plants, collected and preserved by himself. There may be also 
plants of any of other main di visions of the vegetable kingdom. 
The record shall be countersigned by the Professor or Professors 
under whom the candidate has worked and shall be certified as a 
bona fide record of work performed by the candidate. It shall be 
submitted on the first day of the practical examination to the 
Examiners engaged in conducting the examination. 

Zoology (Main) 

Zoology - A candidate shall be required to have a sound knowledge, ex- 

* perimental and theoretical, of 

(1) Invertebrata, including Invertebrate Embryology. 

(2) Chordata including Vertebrate Embryology. 

(3) Minor groups, Palaeontology and South Indian Fauna. 

(4) Genetics, Cytology and General Principles, 



ftBC. 31] B.SC. (HONS.) DBCBBE EXAMINATION 305 

(5) Any one of the following special subjects. 

(i) General and Comparative Physiology. 

(ii) General Entomology. 
(Hi) Parasitology, 
(iv) Marine Ecology. 

(v) Agricultural Zoology, 
(vi) Forest Zoology. 
(vii) Genetics in relation to animal breeding. 

There shall be five papers in theory, each of three hours' 
duration on each of the above five subjects. Each paper shall carry 
150 marks. There shall be four papers in practical, each of three 
hours' duration and one of the practicals may include questions 
bearing on the special subject. The practical examination in each 
subject shall carry 100 marks and the practical record submitted 
shall carry 100 marks. 

Candidates may also be examined by viva voce and this may 
form part of any one of the four practicals. 

Each candidate shall submit his laboratory note books contain- 
ing the record of his pn etioal work ; alwo preparation of serial 
sections (not less than 24 slides) made during the period of study 
for the examination. The record shall be countersigned by the 
Professor or Professors under whom the candidate has worked and 
shall be certified as a bona fide record of work performed by the 
candidate. It shall l}e submitted on the first day of the practical 
examination to the examiners engaged in conducting the exami- 
nation. 

The scope of the several subjects shall be as defined in the 
syllabus. 

Geology (Main) 

A candidate shall be required to have a sound knowledge, Geology 
exp erimentsl and theoretical, of (Main) 

(1) General Geology Physical, Dynamical and Structural 

Geology. 

(2) Crystallography aud Mineralogy. 



3U6 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CRAP. XI* V 

(3) Petrology. 

(4) Indian Geology, Stratigraphy and Palaeontology. 

(5) Economic Geology with special reference to India 

(Special subject). 

There shall be five papers in theory, each of three hours' 
duration on each of the above five subjects. Each paper shall carry 
150 marks. There shall be four papers in practical each of three 
hours' duration on all the above subjects. Each practical Exami- 
nation shall carry 100 marks and the Field and Laboratory Record 
and viva voce shall carry 100 marks. 

Each candidate shall submit his field and laboratory note books 
containing the record of his practical work performed during the 
period of study for the examination. The records shall be counter- 
signed by the Professor or Professors under whom the candidate 
has worked and shall be certified as a bona flde record of work 
performed by the candidate. They shall be submitted on the first 
day of the practical examination to the Examiners engaged in 
conducting the examination. 

The scope of the several subjects shall be as defined in the 
syllabus. 

Physics (Subsidiary) 

Phyks There nhall be one paper in theory and one in practical, each 

(Subsidiary) of ^^ hom . g . duration. Each paper shall carry 100 marks. The 
examination and syllabus nhall be the name as that for the candi- 
dates taking the course in Physicn as a Subsidiary subject for the 
B.Sc. (Pass) Degree examination. 

Chemistry (Subsidiary}. 
Chemistry There shall be one paper in theory and one in practical, each 

f SttDSlGl&rYf 

of three hours' duration. Each paper shall carry 100 marks. 

The examination and syllabus shall be the same as that pre- 
scribed for the candidates taking the course in Chemistry as a 
Subsidiary subject for the B.Sc. (Pass) Degree examination. 



SEC. 3l 33] B.SC. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 307 

Botany (Subsidiary) 

There shall be two papers in theory carrying *>0 marks each Botany 
and one practical paper carrying 100 marks. The written papers 
shall be of two and a half hours' duration each and the practical 
paper of three hours' duration. 

.The examination and syllabus shall be the same as that for the 
candidates taking the course in Botany as a Subsidiary subject for 
the B.Sc. (Pass) Degree examination. 

Zoology (Subsidiary) 

There shall be two papers in theory carrying 50 marks each Zoology 
and one practical paper carrying 100 marks. The written papers < Subsl<liar ^ 
shall be of two and a half hours 1 duration each and the practical 
paper of three hours' duration. 

The examination and syllabus shall be the same as that pre- 
scribed for the candidates taking the course in Zoology as a Subsi- 
diary subject for the B.Sc, (Pass) Degree examination. 

Geology ( Su bs idia ry ) 

There shall be two papers in theory carrying 50 marks each Geology 
and one practical paper carrying 100 marks. The written papers (Subsidiary) 
shall be of two and a half hours' duration each and the practical 
paper of three hours' duration. 

The examination and syllabus shall be the same as that 
prescribed for the candidates taking the course in Geology as a 
Subsidiary subject for the B.Sc. (Pass) Degree examination. 

32. No candidate shall be eligible for the B.Sc. (Honours) Eligibility 
Degree until he has passed the examination in Part I (unless other- * r ^ e 
Wise exempted) and in one of the branches of knowledge in Part II 
detailed in the courses of study. 

33. A candidate shall be permitted, at the end of the first 
year, to appear for the examination in Part I (a) English Composi- 
tion and (6) French or German and iu the Subsidiary subject muter 
Part 11. 



3US THB ANDHBA UNIVEB8ITY CODE VOL. II |_OHAP. XLV 

Marks quali- 34. The examination in Part I shall be (a) a three hours' 

fy^Sj^J * paper on English Composition and (b) two hours' paper on Transla- 

Part I tion. A candidate may present himself for the examination in 

Part I (i.e., English and Translation) at the end of the first year of 

the course and thereafter at his option present himself for either 

English or Translation or both provided that candidates who obtain- 

ed qualifying marks for a pass either in English or Translation need 

appear again in that subject in which they failed. 

A candidate shall be declared to have passed the Part I 
examination if he obtains not less than 40 per cent in each of the 
papers in English and Translation. All other candidates shall be 
deemed to have failed in the examination. Successful candidates 
obtaining not less than 60 per cent shall be declared to have passed 
with distinction in that subject. 

Oualifica- *^* ^ candidate shall be admitted to the examination in 

tipn for p ar t 1 unless he has passed the Intermediate examination in Arts 

admission to 

the Exami- and Science of this University or an examination of any other 

nation statutory Indian University accepted aa equivalent thereto and has 

undergone the prescribed course. 

Admission to &> No candidate, other than those hereinafter exempted, 

g^jj be p erm itted to appear for the examinatio 
subject unless he has passed the Part I examination. 



tht Final g^jj be p erm itted to appear for the examination in the Main 



B.Sc. pa^s 37. A candidate for the B.Sc. (Honours) Degree who has 

candidates passed the B.Sc. (Pass) Degree examination shall be permitted to 

to Appear 

for Honours appear for the B.Sc. (Honours) Degree examination after a further 

Examination ^ WQ y ears ' course in the University College, provided he has passed 
the B.Sc. Degree examination in the subjects in which he desires to 
appear for the Honours examination. He shall be exempted from 
passing the examination in Part I and from the examination in the 
Subsidiary subject, provided he undergoes one year's course in 
simple French or German. 

38. A candidate for the B.Sc. (Honours) Degree shall appear 
tor the examination in Part II not later than the end of the 
fourth, year after commencing the Honours Degree course in the 



SEC. 3442] B.SC. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 309 

University Colleges, provided however Bachelors of Science pro- 
ceeding to the B.Sc. (Honours) Degree examination (vide Section 
37 supra) shall appear not later than three years after commencing 
the B.Sc. (Honours) Degree course in the University College. 

For purposes of this regulation, the Part II examination 
shall mean the examination in the Main subject. 

39. No candidate shall be permitted to undego the examina- 
tion in Part II more than once. A candidate for the final examina- 
tion shall however be permitted to withdraw from the examination 
provided he has not sat for the last paper in the written 
examination or the last practical examination in the subject ; and 
provided also he has given notice of withdrawal to the Registrar 
within three clear days from the date of the last paper (theory or 
practical) which he answered. He shall be permitted to appear 
again for the examination in the Main subject in the following year 
without producing any additional certificate of attendance. No- 
thing in the regulation shall apply to the examination in the 
Subsidiary nubject. 

40. In the event of a candidate for the B.Sc. (Honours) Candidates 

Degree failing to satisfy the Examiners in Part II of the examina- o{ Honour f 

recommend* 
tion, he may be recommended by them for the B.Sc. (Pass) Degree ed for B.Sc. 

provided he has passed the examination in Part I and has obtained Pass Degrte 
not less than 30 per cent of the marks in each subject, both Main 
and Subsidiary, in Part II. 

41. A candidate who is not already eligible for the B.Sc. Candidates 
(Pass) Degree, and has failed in the B.Sc. (Honours) Degree 



examination, nhalJ be permitted to appear for the B.Sc. Degree appear for 
examination in the subjects in which he has already appeared with- privately 
out the production of a further certificate of attendance in an 
affiliated college provided that he shall undergo the prescribed 
course and examination in th.e second .subsidiary subject and obtain 
qualifying marks in that examination also. 

4-2. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the B.Sc. Mark* quali- 
(Honours) Degree examination if he has obtained not teas than ^ g * cr * 



310 



THE ANDHBA UNIVBBSITY CODS VOL. II 



[pHAt. 



Classifica- 
tion of 
successful 
candidates 



40 per cent of the total marks in the Main subject and 40 per cent 
of the total marks in the Subsidiary subject under Part II, provided 
however no candidate shall be deemed to have passed in the Main 
subject under Part II unless he gets not less than 33 per cent of 
the total marks in each of the two divisions of the Main subject, viz., 
(i) Theory of the Main subject, (ii) practicals of the Main subject, 
including the practical records submitted and viva voce. 

*43. Candidates obtaining Honours shall be ranked in the order 
of proficiency as determined by the total marks obtained by each in 
the Main Subject and shall be arranged in three classes. 

The First consisting of those who obtain not less than 
60 per cent ; the Second of those who obtain not less 
than 50 per cent and the Third of those who obtain not 
less than 40 per cent of the total marks. 

SYLLABUSES 

Part I, French and German (Same as for B. A. Hoiis. Part I) 

A Physic* (Main) 
Properties of Matter. 

Units and dimensions, dimensional formulae, homogeneity of dimensions in 
a physical equation, dynamical similarity, simple applications. 

The'balance, sensibility, stability, faults, Hydrometers graduation. 
Uniform circular motion, centrifugal force, conical pendulum. 



Classifi- 
cation of 
successful 
candidates in 
the subsidi- 
ary subject 



Classifica- 
tion of 
successful 
candidates in 
tfceraain 
subject 



Substitute the following as from 1945 examinations : 

Candidates declared to have passed the examination in the 
Subsidiary subject shall be classed in the subject as noted 
below provided the candidates pass in the subject at the first 
appearance : 

The first consisting of those who obtain not less than 
60 per cent, the second of those who obtain not less than 
50 per cent, and the third of those who obtain not less 
than 40 per cent of the total marks. 

Candidates declared to have passed the Honours Examination 
shall be ranked in the order of proficiency as determined by 
the total marks obtained by each in the Main Subject, and 
shall be arranged in three classes as noted in paragraph 
2 above. 



. PHYSICS (HAIN)] n. sc. (HOSS.) DECREE EXAMINATION 311 

Rotational motion; moments of inertia; torque. Energy of rotation, 
angular momentum. 

Simple harmonic motion ; superposition of two Simple Harmonic Motions 
in the same direction and in directions at right angles to each other. The simple 
pendulum, the compound pendulum. Kater's pendulum ; corrections due to 
(a) finite arc of swing, (h) air effect, (c) curvature of knife edges, (d) yielding of 
support. Determination of 'g 1 ; variation of *g' on the surface of the earth-' 
gravity survey. 

Vertical oscillations of a loaded spring; binlar pendulum; the ballistic 
pendulum. 

Gravitation. Two-dimensional motion, radial and transverse velocities and 
accelerations ; central orbits, areal velocity. Keplar's Laws of Planetary 
motion : Newton's Law of gravitation ; gravitational attraction and potential-*- 
calculation of simple cases- Methods of measuring constant of gravitation ; 
qualities of gravitation. 

Elaiticity. Solids -Hook's Law; behaviour of a loaded wire under 
different conditions ; effect of loading on structure. Moduli of elasticity Y, k, n, 
expression Y and J (sigma) in terms of k and n; torsion of a cylinder : applica- 
tion to shafts ; torsion of bars of non-circular cross section, St. Venant's results 
and their application to galvanometer suspensions ; torsional pendulum. 
Bending of beams, I section of beams ; vibration of loaded bars ; stability of a 
loaded pillar; flat spiral spring; determination of n and Y. Experimental 
methods of determining elastic moduli optical methods Searle Ferguson and 
Andrews. Testing of materials elements. 

Liquids measurement of k. 

Kinetic Theory of Gases ; Calculation of pressure, gaseous laws ; mean free 
path ; probability of path of given length, collisions with a solid boundary ; the 
co-efficient of viscosity ; viscosity gauge ; thermal conductivity ; calculation of 
molecular diameter and a mean free path. 

Diffusion: Pick's law of diffusion, Co-efficient of diffusion ; diffusion and 
osmotic pressure ; diffusion of electrolytes. Diffusion in gases. Production and 
measurements of high vacua. 

Virial theorem, Vander Waal's equation, size of molecules, BroWnian 
motion in liquids. Perrin's determination of Avogadro's number, Brownian 
motion in gases. 

Surface Ttnsian : Surface tension and surface energy. Liquid drop in 
contact with air and resting on a solid or on another liquid ; angle of contact ; 
pressure and curvature of a surface, general case of a curved soap bubble ; 
stability of cylindrical nlmt. Methods of measuring surface tension (a) capiflary 
elevation, (b) Quincke's method, (c) ripple method, (d) Joger't method, 



312 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLV 



(e) Rayleigh 1 ' jet method, (f) Method of drops Rayleigh, Worthington, Iredale, 
Horkins and Brown, (g) Soap film method. Interfacial surface tension between 
two liquids. The capillary curve. Force to pull a plate from liquid surface. 
Surface tension of solution*;. Vapour pressure over curved surfaces and the 
formation of clouds. Theories of capillarit. 

Viseosity Flow of liquid through a narrow tube; corrections to 
Poisetiille's formula. Dynamical similarity, Reynold's number, Turbulence. 
Methods of measuring viscosity of liquids (a) oscillating disc method, (b) rotat- 
ing cylinder method, (c) Stoke's method. Variation of viscosity with tempera- 
ture and pressure. Lubrication and viscosity general principles. 

Flow of gas through a narrow tube and measurement of viscosity of a gas-~ 
Rankine's method Variation of viscosity of a gas with temperature and 
pressure. 



of continuity; Euler's equations of motion ; 
" velocity potential ; Bernoulli's Torricelli's theorem. 

SOUND 

A> Dynamical. Harmonic waves, longitudinal progressive waves ; plane 
waves in a gas. Speed of sound in a gas and along a solid rod. Speed of 
transverse waves along a cord. Reflection in a fixed and open end. Energy of 
progressive waves. 

Damped S.H.M , forced S.H.M.; energy of forced vibrations and sharpness 
of resonance ; coupled oscillations without damping, multiple resonance. 
Theory of combinational tones. 

d'Alembert's equation and it< solution , vibration of strings plucked 
string, struck string and bowed string torvimial vibrations of rods ; transveise 
vibrations of bars. Application to tuning fork ; vibrations of stretched 
membranche rectangular ; Chladni's figures. 

Vortex formation and Aeolian tones ; vibrations of air in wide tubes ; 
open-end corrections ; conical tube ; edge tones; organ pipe. 

B. Physical. 

Resonators Helmholtz's resonator, theory and application ; resonator with 
variable neck and multiple openings. Rayleigh's disc and phonometer, hot-wire 
microphone, striae in Kundt's Tube ; pressure of sound waves ; sound radio- 
meters ; pien-electric quartz resonator. Electrical analogy, acoustic impedance, 
mertance ; and capacitance; acoustic filters; double resonators, applications 
to sound intensity measurements and measurement of absorption co-efficients by 
stationary wave method ; absolute preiiuf e measurements. 



bS, PHYS. (MAIN) ] B.SC. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 313 

Velocity of sound in solids ; liquids and gases and its determination 
quency of sound and its determination ; reflection and refraction of sound ; 
ppler's principle. Sound-wave photography, acoustics of buildings, spark 

ripple-tank methods, reverberation. 

The ear, limits of audition, minimum amplitude audible and its measure- 
it, theories of audition, mechanism of nerve conduction. Consonance and 
sonance, the musical scale^, temperament. 

Qualitv of sound, its analysis in various musical instruments, acoustic 
ctra. Miller's-Phonodeik, oscillographs; the voice: analysis of speech 
Hls, harmonic and inharmonic theories, Paget's experiments, Miller and 
indall's work. Speech power , sensation unit-decibel ; noise and its 



. "\ 

Gramophoifes and loud speakers ; the photophone and phonofilms. 

HEAT. 

'. Mercury -ui-glass thermometry : special types of liquid 
compensated air-thermometer; standard gu , -thermometers ; 
re and constant volume types ; reduction of actual observation 
ss to the perfect gas scale. Platinum thermometry; thermo- 
ictrti' Cermometry. 



tiy. Specific heat of solids method of mixtures; Nernst 
lonmeter E. H. and E. Griffith's experiments, liquid air and liquid hydrogen 
lonmeters. Experiments at high temperature^. 

Specific b ^at of liquids method of mixtures. Callendar's continuous 
xture method ; method of cooling. Specific heat of water experiments of 
ule. Rowland, Griffiths, Callendar and Barnes Laby and llercus. First Law 
Thermodynamics 

Specific heat of gases (i) at constant volume Joly's steam calorimeter, 
er's explosion method. Eucken's experiments on hydrogen at low tempera- 
res ; (n) at constant pressure experiments of Rognault, Holborn and 
-nmng, Swam, Scheel and Heuse. Ratio ot specific heats experiments of 
ement and Desormes, Lummer and Pnngsheim, Kundt, Partington and 
lilling, Dixon 

Fusion. Latent heat of fusion ; Bunsene's Ice Calorimeter; Measuremtnt 
latent heat of fusion of metals. 

Evaporation : Latent heat of vaporisation experiments of Henning*;, 
.mon and Lange, Berthelot, Awbery and Guftiths; Trouton's rule. 

Thermal Expansion Linear expansion of solids, of crystals. Fizsau's 
iterference method, Rober's optical lever method, Grunaisen's law. 

Af\ 



314 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLV 

Expansion of liquids. Hydrostatic method, Callendar and Moss' 
apparatus. 

Continuity of State Compatibility of gases at high pressures, Andrew'-? 
experiments, properties of Vander Waal's equation, comparison with experi- 
ments; law of corresponding states; Berthelot equation of state. Critical 
phenomena, properties of a -.ubstance near the critical point. LiqueJ action of 
gases; principle of cascades; Joule-Thompson effect, the poru>-plug experi- 
ment Hoxton's apparatus ; air liqueners; liquefaction and solidification of 
hydrogen and helium; use of liquid air and other liquefied gases. Measure- 
ment of vei y low temperatures. | ^ 

Thermal Conductivity: Rectilinear flow of heat in an isptropic body. 
Fourier's linear diffusion law, diffimvity ; - teady state. Ingen-tfausZ's^ 
experiment; Forbe's method, Angstrom's method; conductivity of earth's 
cru^t. Electrical methods Kohlrausch, experiments by Jagei audj)iesselhorst. 
Conductivity of poorly conducting materials. Wiedemann- Farn|( ( iaw, simpltoil 
theory Drude, difficulties of the theory. Super-conductivity^- Euickan's 
determination of conductivity of crystals. 'r**?* ,, **i 

^ *r,f 

Conductivity of liquids film method. 



Conductivity of Gases Hot-wire method, cooling, thermometer^ J^hod, 
film method; variation of conductivity with temperature and pressure, ration 
between thermal conductivity and viscosity : dererminatiori of molecular 
dimensions. 

H 
Thtr mo- dynamics. First law, application to specific heats, work done in 

isothermal and adiabatic expansion . 

Meat engines, the Carnot engine, efficiency, Carnot's theorem ; Rankine's 
cycle, performance of an actual te;im engine, the indicatoi, the I. H. P and 
B. H. P , mechanical efficienev, thermal efficiency. Internal combustion 
engines the Otto cycle, the Diesel cycle, refngeiatmg machines, co-efficient of 
performance, Second law of thermodynamics, absolute scale of temperature; 
entropy, reversible and irreversible processes, principle of increase of entropy. 

Mdxwell's thermodynamical relations, application to specific heats, Joule- 

Thompson efiect, correction of gas thermometer ; thermo-dynamic potential at 

constant volume Gibbs-HelmholtZ equation, thermodynamic potential at cons- 

tant pressure application to change of state, equation, of Clapeyron and 

Clausius- ; specific heat of saturated vapour, triple point 

Radiation. Theory of exchanges ; KirchhofTs law applications and quanti- 
tative proof; temperature radiation, black body realisation of; pressure of 
radiation experimental proof, energy, density. and pressure of diffused radiation; 
BoJtimann's proof of Stefan's law, experimental verification and determination 



YLS. PHYSICS (MAIN)] B. Sc, (HON8.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 315 

f Stefan's constant Coblentz. Radiometers ; radiation pyrometers Fery, 
ptical pyrometers, Solar constant pyrohehometers, affective temperature of 
tie Suu total radiation method. Wien's distribution law method. 

Adiabatic expansion of radiation. Wien's displacement law, experimental 
erinration. 

Number of independent vibrations of a continuous medium, Raylftigh's 
adiation formula, Planck's radiation formula, experimental verification of 
lanck's law the isothermal chromatic methods, determination of h/Planck's 
3iistant. 

Specific tfeats and Quantum Theory Solids Dulong and Petit's law its 
ailurc. Einstein's theorv and Debye's theorv of specific heat of isotropic 
olid 1 , comparison With experimental results 

Gases. Degrees of freedom, the equi-partition of energy specific heats, 
omparison with experimental values ; specific heat of hydrogen at low temper.v 



ure 



Gases. Degrees of freedom, the equi-partition of ene 
parison with experimental values ; specific heat of hydro 
s. Application of quantum theory to di- atomic g^ses. 



LIGHT. 



Geometrical Optics. Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical sur- 
aces ; principles foci and focal planes, linear and longitudinal magnification , 
hin lenses, combination of two thin lenses, cardinal points, equivalent lens ; 
hick lenses, cardinal points, linear magnification. 

Dispersion and achromatism dispersive power, irrationality of dispersion; 
aromatic aberration, achromatic combination of priffms, of thin lenses ; object 
jla^es and eye-pieces. 

Spherical aberration, caustics, circle of least confusion, focal lines formed 
jy refraction, aplantic surfaces, aplantic points and microscope objectives : 
nvestigation of and remedy for spherical aberration ; coma, astigmatism, 
curvature, distortion Figuring of a spherical surface Foucault's te.t. 

Optical instrument Spectroscope, constant deviation type and direct 
/ision type; telescope, microscopes ; sextant ; binocular ; sterescope ; photogra- 
phic camera : telephotography and microphotography. 

Spectrometry : Experimental ; Calibration ; Hartmann's dispersion formula. 
Production of spectra types of spectra Doppler*s principles applications. 
Spectroraetry of infra red rays, of visible rays, and ultra-violet rayi. 

The Rainbow -. Spurious bows, Airy's explanation, Miller's experiments. 

Velocity of Light : Fizeau's method, Foucault's method. Newcomb's 
experiments , MicheUon and Pearson's experiments The astronomical methods, 



16 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. &LV 

Wave Theory \ Huyghen's principle reflection and refraction at plane and 
spherical surfaces ; optical length and optical distances ; Format's principle and 
its application. Rectilinear propagation of light ; zone plate. 

Interference', Conditions necessary for interference; Fresnel's mirrors; 
bi-pnsm ; Lloyd's mirror ; bi-plate ; split-lens. Tho plane parallel plate, colours 
of thin films ; thick plate; Newton's rings ; Haidiuger fringes. 

Refractometers ; variation of refractive index with density. Gladstone and 
Dale's Law, Lorentz Mossoti formula, Michelson's interferometer, determina- 
tion of refractive index and dispersion, determination of the length of standard 
meter, measurement of the diameter of stars , the echelon grating: Fabry and 
Perot' interferometer ; Lummer and Gehrcke's interferometer. Stationary light 
waves, colour photography. Testing glass plates for flatness and plane- 
parallelism. 

Diffraction : Elementary theory of diffraction at a straight edge, narrow 
wire, narrow rectangular aperture, circular aperture, circular disc. Babinet's 
principle ; halos. Young's Eriometef. 

Plane diffraction grating, dispersive power, resolving power, purity of 
spectrum, absent spectra ; concave grating, Rowland mounting, Eagle-mounting ; 
measurement of wave length. 

The graphical method of investigating the intensity ol diffraction patterns 
in the cases considered above. Diffraction at a straight edge. Fresnel's theory, 
Cornu's spiral. Franhaufer diffraction phenomena, determination of maxima 
and minima in the case of a narrow rectangular aperture, two equal rectilinear 
apertures and the diffracrion grating. 

Resolving power of a prism, of a telescope, of a microscope. 

Polarisation ; Polarisation by reflection and refraction ; Norrenberg's 
polariscope ; law of Malus ; pile of plates. 

Polarisation by double refraction, the Nicol's prism. 

Huyghen's construction of Wave surfaces in uni- axial crystals- ; experi- 
mental verification. Fresnel's theory of double refraction ; the normal velocity 
surface ; the wave surface ; Axes of smglt wave velocity ; internal conical 
refraction ; axes- of single ray velocity , external conical refraction. 

Interference of polarised light colours of thin crystalline plates (i) parallel 
plane polarised light, (ii) convergent or divergent plane-polarised light ; 
isochromatic and achromatic lines in uni-axial and bi-axial crystals. 

Production and detection of (1) plane polarised light, (2) circularly polarised 
light FresneVs Rhomb, (3) elliptically polarised light Babinet's compensator, 



. PHYSICS (MIAN) ] fc.Sc. (#ONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION ,1l7 

determination of the constants of elliptical polarisation. Elliptical polarisation 
by reflection. 

Rotation of plane of polarisation ; Fresnel's explanation of rotation ; 
Fresnel's experiments ; Cornu's prism ; Babinet'v experiments ; rotation of plane 
of polarisation by liquids; polarimeters. Rotatory dispersion. Experimental 
study of the Faraday Effect. 

Electro-magnetic Theory of light : Derivation of Maxwell's equation, 
displacement currents, equation for an electro-magnetic wave velocity of the 
wave; deduction of the law^ of reflection and refraction for transparent media; 
perpendicular incidence ; explanation of total reflection ; explanation of metallic 
reflection. 

The theory of dispersion Cauchy, Sellmeier, Helmholtz , Electron theory 
of dispersion ; normal dispersion, anomalous dispersion. Selective reflection 
Rest-Strahlen residual rays from powders. 

ELHCTRICltY AND MAGNETISM 
Magnetism : 

Inverse square law, magnetic field due to a magent ; Magnetic potential 
Couples and forces between magnets. 

Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Magnetic elements and their determination. The Kew Magnetometer, the 
dip circle, variation in magnetic elements, recording instruments, magnetic 
maps. Ships compass deviations produced by the magnetisation of a ship. 

Electro- statics. 

Inverse square law, dieledtric medium ; electrostatic potential ; ecjuipoten- 
tial surfaces ; electro-static charge capacity of a conductor, laws of energy on 
sharing charge. Total normal induction, Gauss's theorem, electric intensity in 
simple cases ; tubes of induction and lines of force, energy in medium ; ftress in 
tubes of induction ; Maxwell's theory its limitations. 

Distribution of charge on conductor ; force on an uncharged body; boundary 
Conditions ; uncharged sphere in an electric field ; electrical images conducting 
plane And sphere. 

Capacity of a condenser spherical, cylindrical and parallel plate, effect of 
dielectric on capacity ; condensers, construction, different types. Electro- 
meters, absolute and quadrant types. Practical uses of DoleZalek Electrometer ; 
sensitive electroscopes and their u^e. Comparison of capacities and determina- 
tion of di-electric constants. 



318 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLV 

Electro-magnetism Theoretical. 

Magnetic shell, Ampere's theorem; strength of the magnetic shell , magnetic 
field due to an uniformly magnetised sphere. Circular current; Helmholtz 
galvanometer ; solenoidal current. 

Work done in carrying a magnetic pole round a current line integral 
of magnetic field, magnetic field due to a straight current and a solenoid. 
Magnetic permeability, magnetic induction boundary conditions; force on 
magnetic body in uniform field , force on current in magnetic field; suspended 
coil and ballistic galvanometers; effect of current on current , co-axial coils, 
Kelvin's ampere-balance. Simen's electro-dynamometer , Grassot fluxmeter. 

Theoiips of magnetisation Weber, E\\mg, Magnetic induction, intensity 
of magneti ation. Study of magnetic property in iron and other materials, the 
magnetometer method, the ballistic method. Hysteresis, hysteresis tester 
Weak and strong magnetic fields. Variation of susceptibility with temperature. 
The magnetic circuit , Bar and Yoke tests. 

Electro-magnetic induction. Lenz's law , self-inductance and mutual 
inductance. Growth and decay of current ; units of inductance. Charge and 
discharge of a condenber , current and charge in the secondary circuit , the 
induction coil , methods of measuring inductances Growth of current in a cir- 
cuit with inductance, capacity and resistance when a ^tesuly E.M F. is applied , 
frequency of oscillation , discharge of the condenser when the applied E.M.F. is 
removed. 

Alternating Currents. 

Circuit with inductance and resistance, representation by a vector dia- 
gram, measuring instrument^. Virtual current and E. M. F Measurement 
of inductance and power in alternating current circuit ; Wattmeters. Circuit 
containing capacity inductance and resistance Choking coil , oscillographs, 
transformers. Resistance and inductance of wires for currents of high 
frequency ; shielding effect of a mass of metal ; repulsion between conductor 
and circuit carrying alternating current , rotating magnetic field ; single phase 
and polyphase motor, imaginary quantities, rotating vectors ; application to 
circuit containing inductance capacity and resistance , different inductance 
bridges ; Maxwells Anderson's Vibration galvanometer. Unit-. 

Electro magnetic and electrostatic system of units ; their relation and 
practical determination of the ratio, determination of the ohm. 

Electrolysis. 

Electrolytic dissociation, osmotic pressure. Migration of ions. Ionic 
velocities, theory; experimental determination. Conductivity and its deter- 
mination ; theory of reversible cells, concentration cells, capillary electro- 
meters. Accumulators. 



SYLS. PHYSICS (MAIN)] B.SC. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 319 

Thermo-electricity. Seebeek, Peltier and Thomson Effects. Thermoelectric 
power, therm o-dynamics of a thermo-couple , the thermo-electric diagram 
applications. 

Electric Instruments. 

Ammeter , Voltmeters ; Hal variometers string galvanometers, ballistic 
galvanometers ; dynamom- ter- , Wattmeters, potentiometers, bridge ; measure- 
ment of current, ru i tancc <iurl \oltage 

Applications oj Klectrzcit y 

D.C. and A.C gener.itoi s and motors. Characteristic curves and efficiency 
Induction motors, transformers and transmission of power. 

E lectio- magnetic radiation 

Plane- waves. Oscillatory discharge. Hortz's experiments; determination 
of wave-length by stationary oscillation, oscillators and detectors. The triode 
valve Elements of wireless telegraphy and telephony. 

Discharge of Electricity through Gases. 

Discharge at low pressures , Cathode rays and their properties ; Determina- 
tion of velocities and the ratio mje of electrons, different methods of determina- 
tion of e. C.T.R. Wilson's experiments, Millikan's modification. 

MODERN PHYSICS 
/. Dielectrics. 

Dielectric polarization. Clausius-Mossotti Law. Relation between index 
of refraction and dielectric constant. LoreiiZ-Lorentz Law. Polarization in 
certain dielectrics. Failure of Clausius-Mossotti Law, Debye's theory of clipolu 
molecule . Langavin Debye formula for electric polarization. 

Determination oi dielectric constant using high frequency volve oscillators. 
Different methods of determining the electric moments of moleeul<>s. Electric 
moments and molecular structure 

//. Magnetism. 

Electron Orbit theory Effect of electric and magnetic fn>M on moving 
charges. Larmor's theorem. Diamagnetism. Langcvin-Pauh formula for the 
diamagnetic susceptibility. Atoms and molecules. Comparison with experiment 
Pascal's additive law. 

Paramagnetism. Langavin's theory. Curis Law. Application to solids. 
Internal molecular fields. Curie- Weis > Law. Experimental results. The Wei ><? 
Magneton and the p- values. Anomalous paramagnetism. 

Ferromagnetism. Internal molecular fields and ^pontaneou. magnetisation. 
Laws of spontaneous magnetisation. Curie point. Behaviour of ferro- 
magnetics above Curir point. Specific heat-, of ferromagnetic substances. 
Magnetocaloric effect. Production of low temperatures by the method of 
adiabatic demagnetisation. 



320 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP, XLV 

Methods of determining the susceptibilities of weakly magnetic substance 
gases liquids and solids. 

Quantum theory. Orbital and spin angular moments and the corres- 
ponding magnetic moments. Space quantisation Electronic and atomic 
quantum numbers. Pauli exclusion principle. Spectroscopic states and 
magnetic moments of atoms. Relation between the angular momentum and 
the magnetic moment. Lande splitting factor. The gyromagnetic effect. 
Experiments of Stern and Gerlach- Zeeman effect-Normal and anomalous, 
Paschen-Back effect. 

///. Radio Activity. Nudear Physics. 

Phenomena of radio-activity; radio-active substances ; Characteristics of 
radio-active radiations. Nature and properties of oC, /? and r / rays. Methods 
of measurement the oC ray and the $ and 7 ray electroscopes, electrometer .. 
Counting of 7 particles. Scintillation, method, electrical method from the 
amount of helium collected. 

Radio-active decay radio-active constant. Mathematical theory of decay 
and of successive transformations by disintegration. Transformation Aeries of 
radio-active substances. Radio-active evidence of the age of the Earth. 

Radio-active gases or emanations, discovery, nature and properties ; 
methods of finding the half value periodRutherford, Curie. 

Range of oC particles, range and velocity, ionisation at different parts of 
range the Bragg curve. Relation between range and radio-active constant. 

Scattering of oC. rays explanations, Thomson's model of the atom. Ruther- 
ford's model. Mathematical theory of scattering and experimental verification. 
Size and charge of nucleus from scattering experiments. Theory of impact of 
oC parcticle With the nucleus of a light element. Rupture of the nucleus by 
OC ray bombardment. 

Theories of radio-active phenomena -elementary exposition. 

Thomson's work; discovery of Isotopes; improved focussing methods of 
Aston and Dempster in obtaining mass spectra. 

Packing effect. Theory of the constitution of the atomic nuclei!. 

/ 

IV. Optical Spictra. 

Arc and spark spectra ; series in line spectra ; series relationships, laws of 
Rydberg-Schuster and Runge ; spectral terms. 

Hydrogen spectrum Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, and Brackett series. 
Rydberg and Ritz formulae for spectra of the general atom ; Ritz combination 
principle. 



SYLS. PHYSICS (MAIN)] B.Sc. (HONS.) DBGRHBS EXAMINATION 321 

Quantum theory of spectra, Bohr's fundamental postulates. Theory of 
Hydrogen spectrum ; effect of nucleus, Bohr's correspondence principle. Elliptic 
orbits Sommerfeld, total quantum number, azimuthal quantum number, radial 
quantum number. Relativity, change of mass, fine structure of hydrogen lines, 
results of Sommerfeld theory. 

Elements of molecular spectra. 

V. X-Ray. 

Production of X-rays. The gas tube, the Collidge tube ; the absorption of 
X-rays, nature and properties of X-rays, practical applications and uses of 
E-rays, elements of E-ray technology. 

Measurement of X-ray wave lengths, X-ray spectrometry. 

X-rays and crystal structure with reference to Kcl, Nacl, Zns and C. 

The continuous X-ray spectrum : determination of Planck's constant ; total 
intensity and distribution ; experiments of Wagner and KulerikampfT. 

Quantum theory of X-rays ; K.L.M* and N. series. Mosley's law. 

Scattering of X-rays ; Compton Effect. 



VI Ionisation and Radiation Potential*. 

Methods of determining ionisation and radiation potentials, electrical and 
spectroscopic methods electrical (i) Lenard (ii) Franck and Hertz (iii) Davies 
and Goucher distinguishing P radiation potential from ionisation potential* 
(iv) Franck and Einsporn, (v) Partial current method. <vi) Hertz methods, 
Spectroscopic Franck and Hertz. 

Elastic and inelastic collisions. 

VII. Scattering *f Light. 

(a) Classical Scattering. Theory of molecular scattering. Rayleigh. 
Scattering by gases and vapours, experimental. The blue of the sky. Scattering 
by liquids. Intensity and polarisation measurements. Theory of Einstein and 
Smoluchowski and of Raman-Ramanathan. The colour of the sea. Comparison 
of the depolarisation in the gaseous and liquid states. Optical anisotrophy of 
atoms and molecules. 

() Raman Scattering. Discovery of the Raman Effect. Experimental 
method of investigating the Raman Effect. Intensity and polarisation of Raman 
lines and their qualitative explanation. Relation between Raratn Effect and 
infrared absorption. Raman Effect in the three states of aggregation. 
Relation between Stoke f s and Antistoke's lines. Raman Effect and chemical 
Constitution. 



322 THE ANDHBA WIVfiBBITY CODE VOL, II [OH^P. 

Pfeytic* (Subsidiary). 

Same as that prescribed for Physics (Subsidiary) for the B.Sc. (Pass) Degree 



Examination. 



A Chemistry (Main). 

GENERAL SUBJECTS. 
/. General and Historical Chemistry. 



a. Physical Chemistry. 

In addition to a fuller treatment of the subjects prescribed for the B.Sc. 
Pass, a study of the following should be made :~~ 

Reaction isochore ; velocity of trimolecular reaction ; determination of 
the order of reaction ; theory of indicators. 

Theory of galvanic cells ; single electrode potentials ; decomposition 
potentials; concentration and gass cells ; hydrogen ion concentration 
and elementary knowledge of ionic activity; determination of "e." 

Determination of Avogadro's number. 

Arrangement of atoms and molecules in crystals, and in unimolecular 
films. 

The practical examination shall include Physico-Chemical experiments on 
the following subjects : 

Setting up of a thermostat. 

Molecular weight determination. 

Viscocity. 

Surface tension. 

Velocity of typical reactions. 

Determination of the order of reaction. 

Heat of neutralisation, solution, dilution, ionisation and of con 

bustion. 

Determination of refractivity. 
Polarimetry. 
Spectroscopy. 
Conductivity. 
Transport numbers. 
Ionic Velocity. 
Concentration cells. 
Electro analysis. 
Transition point. 
Partition co-efficient* 



StLS. OSBMISTRlr (MAIN)} fe.SC.(H6*8.) DHGRfcA EXAMINATION 323 

j. fn organic Chemistry. 

In addition to a fuller treatment of the subjects prescribed for tbe B.Sc. 
Pass, a study of the following should be made : 

History of Chemistry since th earliest period up to the recent develop- 
ments. 

Atomic structure ; atomic number ; periodic law ; theories of valency , 
determination of equivalent, atomic and molecular weights ; radio-activity , 
isotopes ; chemical crystallography , isomorphism ; double and complex salts. 

A comprehensive study of the Chemistry of all the commoner elements and 
their compounds. A short study of the rarer elements, radio-elements and their 
compounds. 

Metallography and Metallurgy. 

PRACTICAL COURSE 

Qualitative : Analysis of mixtures containing not more than six radicals, 
positive and negative, excluding rare elements. 

Preparation of typical compounds like Ferrous Ammonium sulphate, 
chrome alum, anhydrous aluminium chloride, sulphuryl chloride, phosphorous 
trichloride, hydrazine sulphate, chloropentammine, cobaltic chloride. 

Quantitative : Gravimetric estimation of the individual positive and 
negative ions excluding the rare metals. Separation of iron from aluminium 
iron or aluminium from zinc manganese, nickel and magnesium ; lead from 
antimony ; copper from zinc, iron or nickel ; calcium from magnesium. 

Acidimetry ; alkalimetry; oxidation and reduction methods; lodometry; 
precipitation methods. 

Analysis of typical alloys like : brass, bronze, German silver. 

Analysis of minerals: hsematite, pyrolusite, dolomite, limestone, pyrites, 
chromite. 

Analysis of blk'aching powder, red lead, water reagents etc. 
Analysis of air and coal gas. 

4. Organic Chemistry 

A fuller treatment of the subject given in the B.Sc. Pass course with special 
reference to recent developments. 

Cyanogen Compounds and their Oxy and Thio-derivatives, Their isome- 
rism, ketonic ac^ds and Di-ketones. Polypeptides. Proteins. Configuration of 
monosacchtrides. Chemistry of starch ft&cl cellulose. 



324. TriE ANDHBA UNIVBBSITT CODE VOL. II [OHAP. 

Cyclo- paraffins and Cyclo-olefines. Benzenoid. Hydrocarbons and their 
important derivatives, Phenanthrenes. Triphenylmethane and Anthracene 
dyestuffs. Furane. Thiophene. Pyrones. Coumarins. Chromones and 
Flavones. Xanthones. Natural colouring matters of the Flavone and Xanthone 
series. Anthocyanins. Diazoles and TriaZoles ; Pyrroles ; Indoles ; Indigo, 
Carbazole. Pyridines. Quinolines. Isoquinohnes. Acridines. 

Monocyclic, dicyclic and olefinic. Terpenes, Camphors. Pinene, Camphene, 
Bronylene. Fenche. 

Pyrimidines and Puriness. Alkaloids. 

Special types of condensations. Fuller treatment of Geometrical isomerism, 
automerism, and stereo-isomerism of Carbon and Nitrogen' compounds. 
Beyer's Strain Theory and modern developments. Relation between Chemical 
constitution and Physical properties. 

W.B. The course may and should be varied from time to time to admit of 
references to questions more immediately engaging the attention 
of Chemists. 

' PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 

Texts for the recognition of the important classes of Organic compounds. 
Identification by Physical and Chemical tests and the preparation of derivatives 
of about 16 pure Organic substances. Separation of about 6 mixtures contain- 
ing not more than 3 different compounds. Estimation of the more important 
groups occurring in Carbon compounds e.g., Nitro, ami no, hydroxy, carbonyl, 
methoxy etc. groups. Ultimate analysis by combustion of carbon, hydrogen, 
and nitrogen in organic compounds. Estimation of halogens and sulphur by 
Carius method. 

Preparation of at least a dozen organic compounds of an advanced type 
involving the application of important typical reactions. 

SPEC i A I, SUBJECTS 
/. Electro^ Chemistry 
The scope of the syllabus is indicated by the baoks recommended. 

*. Technical Gat reaction t 
The scope of the syllabus is indicated by the books recommended. 

j. Analytical Chemistry 
The scope of the syllabus is indicated by the books recommended. 

4. Chemistry of rarer element* and their industrial uses 
The scope of the syllabus is indicated by the books recommended. 



SYL6. CHEMISTRY (MAIN)] B.8C. (RONS.) DEGREE EXAM. 3^5 

PRACTICAL COURSE. 

Qualitative : Analysis of mixture containing rarer elements ; spectral 
analysis ; micro-analysis. 

Quantitative-. Analysis of more complicated minerals, ores and alloys 
which may contain rarer elements; analysis of ordinary and special steels; 
electro-analysis ; conducto-metric and potentio-metric titrations ; assaying. 

Special students are required to consult original papers on the subject. 

5. Tinctorial Chemistry 
The scope of the syllabus is indiacted by the books recommended. 

6. Bio-Chemistry 

Definition and scope ; Reactions in the living cell ; application of Physico- 
Chemical principles to their study ; Chemistry of the colloid state ; Enzymes and 
the mode of their action ; Fermentation of sugar into alcohol ; Yeast and its 
properties ; theories of alcoholic fermentation ; Chemistry of fat% sterols and 
lipins and their metabolism in the plant and animal cells ; Proteins and Carbo- 
hydrates and their metabolism ; Drugs ; natural and synthetic action of drugs 
and their relation to Chemical constitution ; Chemo-theraphy , Chemistry of 
food; dietetics; isodynamic value of food; Calorific requirement and surface 
law ; normal diet ; the energy equivalent of growth , nitrogenous bases forming 
the active principles of internal secretion ; their Physiological action ; effect on 
sex metabolism : blood and its Chemical composition ; plasma, serum, fibrinogen 
etc., mechanism of coagulation of blood ; Chemistry of Haemoglobin ; Specific 
oxygen capacity of blood ; bosal metabolism ; action of light on biological pro- 
cesses ; effect of light energy ; photo-synthesis in plants ; Chlorophyll. 
Vitamins. 

W.B. -A course of dozen lectures on human Physiology should be given to 
the students to supplement their course in Bio-Chemistry. 

PRACTICAL BIO-CHBMISTRY 
A. Bacteriology. 

Making of sterile water and storage. 

Making and storing of media : Nutrient broth, Nutrient agaf. 

Preparation of sterile tubes and plates of agar and gelatine. 

Preparation and examination of cultures. Staining of cultures by (a) dry 
and (b) wet staining process. 

Cultivation of anaerobic bacteria by two distinct methods. 

, Isolation of bacteria from (a) soil and (b) air, and preparation of a pure 
culture* 



326 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL, it [C^Al*. itv 

Counting of Colonies on Pefri Dishes 

Photo-micrography. 

Preparation of a pure culture of yeast and determination of its efficiency; 
Analysis of water : Chemical and bacteriological, 

Preparation of indicators and buffer solutions. Determination of Ph. values 
of (a) urine and (b) a plant sop by electrical and indicator methods. 

Tests for proteins. Determination of iso-electric point of Casein. 

Preparation of the following am ino- acids from natural sources : 

(a) Glycine ester hydrochloride from gelatine. 

(b) Histidine from animal blood. 

(c) Cystine from hair. 

(d) Tyrosine and Leucine from horn shavings. 

Determination of nitrogen in amino-acids by Van Slyke's method. 

Mono-Saccharides : Common tests. Estimation of sugar by (a) Bertrand's 
method (b) Polarimetric method. Experiments with starch. 

Yeast : Preparation of a pure culture, determination of fermenting power. 
Deduction of Chloral to tri-chloro-Ethyl-alcohol by Yeast and Sugar. 

Enzymes : Pi eparation of Lipase from castor, beans, determination of its 
splitting action. Preparation of malted barley and diastase. Estimation of 
di astatic power of malt. 

7. Chemistry of Sugars and Carbo-hydrates 
SYLLABUS FOR APPLIED CHBMIST.RY OF CANI SUGAR AND OTHER 

IMPORTANT CARBO-HYDRATBS 
Leeture Ccursc. : 

Detailed study of the properties and constitutions of the mono and dis- 
accharoses, starch and cellulose. Elements of soil and plant chemistry with 
special reference to the sugarcane crop. Cane sugar manufacture in detail* 
Sugar refining. By-products of cane sugar industry and their utilization. Other 
sources of sugar in India. Elements of the manufacture of starch, paper and 
artificial silk. 

Later at try Course : 

Identification of the more Common carbohydrates. Graduation and 
manipulation of the scientific instruments and apparatus used in sugar 
analysis. Preparation of reagents required in , sugar analysis. Detailed 



8TL8. CHBM. (MAIN) ] B.SC. (HON8.) DEGREE EXAM, 327 

analysis of sugar-cane, sugars and sugar products. Detailed analysis of all 
factory products and Wastes required for the proper chemical control of white 
sugar manufacture., Estimation of starch maltose and dextrin. 



8. Colloid Chemistry 
Thioretical : 

The Colloidal state, methods of preparing colloidal solutions, suspensoids 
and emulsoids, lyophobe and lyophile colloids. 

Physical properties of colloidal solutions 

(1) Diffusion of Colloidal particles, Perrin's work. 

(2) Osmotic pressure. 

(3) Tyndall's phenomena, light scattering by colloidal pai tides, the 

ultra-microscope, size and shape of the colloidal particles. 

(4) Surface tension and viscosity of colloids. 

(5) Cataphoresis and electrical endosmose. 

(6) Dialysis and ultrafiltration. 

(If) Coagulation by electrolytes, (d) the electric charge of the colloid 
particles, (b) absorption, (c) hydration of colloid particles. 



Elementary treatment of Kinetics of coagulation. Electro-chemistry of 
colloids. Protective action. Gold number, Peptisation. Sensitisation. 
Proteins and their colloidal behaviour. Membrane Potential. Donan Equili- 
brium. Gel and Gel structure. Liesegaug Phenomenon Emulsions and their 
technical treatment. Elementary account of the above. Importance of colloids 
in Biology; Medicine and Industry. 



Practical wtrk : 

Preparation of solutions of gold, silver and sulphur, sols, of ferric 
hydroxide, aluminium hydroxide. Vanadium pentoxide and chromium 
hydroxide, sols of sulphides of arsenic and antimony. 

Coagulation of colloids. 
Cataphoresis 



328 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLV 

g. CHEMISTRY OP FOODS AND DRUGS 
Lecture Course : Chemistry of the following : 

I* Carbohydrates Occurrence, preparation and constitute of mono and 
dissaccharoses, starch, glycogen pectins, glycosides. 

2. Proteins Their composition and hydrolysis, classification, struc- 

ture and reactions. Amino-acids and polypeptidos. 

3. Oils and Fat Characterisation of fats and oils. Their main com- 

ponents, sterols, lecithin. 

4. Vitamins Nature and properties of Vitamins, A.B.C.D. and E. 

5. Enzymes and Occurrence and Chemical nature of enzymes. The 
their action main characteristics of enzyme action. 

6. Alkaloids Medicinally important alkaloids, their characteristic 

properties, uses and chemical constitution. 

7. Synthetic Drugs Including organometallic compounds and the relation 

between chemical constitution and physiological 
properties. 

8. Hormones Adrenaline, thyroxin, insulin. 

Laboratory Course: 

Proximate analysis of Food stuffs. 

Analysis of sugar products, 

Examination of fats and oils for their physical and 
chemical properties. Typical prepartions of drugs 
from natural sources and by synthetic methods. 

A few examples of assay of drugs. 

5u Lectures and about 180 hours of practical work. 

Chemistry (Subsidiary) 

Same as that prescribed for Chemistry Subsidiary for B.Sc. (Pass) Degree 
Examination. 

Mathematics (Subsidiary to Physics Main) 

Same as that prescribed for Mathematics Subsidiary for B. Sc. (Pass) 
Degree Examinations. 

Mathematics (Subsidiary to Chemistry Main.) 

For text- books, vide Annual Register. 

B CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AS THE MAIN SUBJECT 

PART I 

(a) Mathematics , ; 

Same as that prescribed for Mathematics Subsidiary to Chemistry Main for 
. Rons. Degree Examination. 



S. CHEML. TECH. (MAIN)] B. Sc. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAM. 329 



(b) Physics. 

The examination, the syllabus and the papers shall be the same as those for 
the B.Sc. (Hons.) Chemistry Main student 5 ?. 

(c) Chemistry. 

[The syllabus shall be taught with emphasis on the industrial aspects so that 
it will form a good introduction to the Chemical Technology/ course.] 

Lectures. 

Inorganic Chemistry : The periodic Law a< the basis for the classification 
of tho elements and its interpretation in the light of modern advance^, Chemistry 
of thr non-metals. The manufacture of industrially important non-metallic 
elements and compounds. More detailed treatment of the Chemistry of Boron, 
Nitrogen, Pho phorus, Arsenic, Antimony, Bismuth, Sulphur, the halogen*; and 
their compound-.. 

Systematic study of the metals and their compounds including the more 
important rare earths and inert gases. The industrial preparations of the more 
important of these Alloys and industrial gases. 

Organic Chemistry: The scope of Organic Chemistry. Analysis of organic 
compounds. Molecular and constitutional formulae 

A study of the important compounds of the aliphatic and aromatic series 
with emphasis on commercial preparation and u< PS, the important condensation 
and reaction 1 - involved, the different kinds of isomerism, the methods of esta- 
blishing constitution and the principles governing substitution a*d reaction. 

Elementary treatment of the following : Pyridme, quinoline and 
isoqmnohne, pyrrol, indol and indigo , simple alkaloids, terpenes and synthetic 
dvestufTs. 

Physical Chemistry: General properties of solids, liquid-, gases and 
solution*.. Determination of molecular weight Refractivity, Spectroscopy 
and Optical activity Ionic thedry and its application, hydrolysis of salts. 
Electromotive force, theory of indicators and hydrogen ion concentration. 
Thermo-Chemistry Chemical equilibrium, velocity of reactions, catalysis. 
Liquefaction of gases. The phase rule and its application 1 ?. Some applica- 
tions of thermo-dynamics in Chemistry. Colloidal state, absorption and surface 
chemistry. 

Practical Courte. 

Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative analyst of inorganic mixtures contain- 
ing not more than 4 radicals. 

Preparation of about a dozen substances involving typical methods. 

42 



330 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, II [CHAP. XLV 

Volumetric analysis including acidimetry, alkalimetry, oxidation and 
reduction methods involving the use of permanganate, dichromate and iodine and 
precipitation methods. N 

Gravimetric analysis of calcium, copper, lead, aluminium chloride, sulphate, 
phosphate and carbonate. 

Organic Chemistry. About 15 preparations involving important reactions. 

Qualitative analysis : Identification of compounds by means of reactions 
for functional groups and preparation of derivatives 

Physical Chemistry: Simple exercises on the following: Molecular 
Weight determination, velocity of reaction, solubility, partition co-efficient, 
Colloids and absorption- Simple exercises in electrochemistry 

Density, viscosity, surface tension, refractivity, spectroscopy and polari- 
metry will be done under Physics. 

(d) General Engineering 

Lecture Course 

1. Principles of General Engineering (Descriptive} 

Mechanical properties and uset of Engineering materials, Stress and 
strain. Moduli^ of elasticity, elastic limit, Ultimate strength, Factor of safety 
and Working stress. 

2. Elementary Building Construction 

Building materials, foundations, etc., Elementary study of beams, bend- 
ing moments and shearing forces. Sections of wrought iron, steel and wood. 

3. () Elementary Surveying* 
(3) Dynamics of Fluids, 

(1) Heat Engines 

Raising of steam, various types of boilers, steam engines, 
Internal combustion engines Transmission of power. 

(2) Electrical Engineering 

Direct current. Alternating current. Machines and apparatus 
of different types. Changing of batteries. Power transmission. 

Practical 
1. Drawing Office 

(a) Geometrical Drawing Use of scales and instruments. Plane figures. 
Solid geometry Principles of projection Projection of solids placed in simple 
positions. Plans and elevations of solids. Simple cases of intersection and 
Development of surfaces. 



SYLS. CHEML. TECHL. (MAIN)] B. Sc. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAM. 331 

() Freehand sketching of Machine details from Models and from Machine 

part*. 

At least three exercises of Machine-parts-drawing to scale. 

II. Workshop 

Use of hand and machine tools Fitting, chipping, filing, scraping, 
screwing and tapping. Use of scribing block, gauges and squares. 

Soldering, brazing, machinery, drilling, boring, turning and milling. 
Smithy work. 

Carpentry, planing, joining, turning and making simple models in wood. 

III. Testing Laboratory 

1. Teiuion, compression, bending, hear, etc. 

2. Steam engine trials. 

3. Electrical Laboratory. 

4. Surveying. 

(c) Pharmaceutical Botany 

A. Living and non-living things and their main feature 
The differences between Plants and animals. 

Protoplasm, Cell, Cell structure, Cell division and gametogenesis. 
Cojugation and fertilization. 

B. 1. A general survey of the leading sub-divisions of plant kingdom as 

indicated below 

Thallophytes, Bryophytes, Ptondophytes, Gymno , perms and Anglo- 
sperms their general characteristics with the help of an elementary 
study of the types suggested below : 

Kuglema, Ghlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Sargassum, (external features 
and gross structure), Bacteria, Yeast, Mucor, Agaricus, Lichen, 
Machantia, Moss, Form, Pinus, (external features and broad 
outline of life-history), Argomone Mexicana, Sesbania Grandiflora, 
Heliantbus annus and Crinum Latifolium. 

2. Cell Cell structure, cell contents (such as Sugar, Starches, Tannins* 
Inorganic crystals, mucilages, gums, resins, oils, glucosides, alkaloids, Latex, 
pigments) and their behaviour to microchemical reagents. 

Cell Walls : Their formation and composition, variou< kinds of cell walls 
And the behaviour of each with microchemical reagents. 

Tissues : Different kinds of tissues, their occurrences and indentiftcation in 
situ and when isolated. 



332 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLV 

The elements of Plant morphology of Angiosperms embracing (a) the struc- 
ture Macroscopic and microscopic) of root, stem and leaf, (b) the structure of a 
typical flower and principal modification^ of the type, (c) the Inflorescence and 
the principal types, (d) the principal type', of fruits (e) the structure and 
development of the sted. The function 1 of the various plant organs. 

Practical 

Microscopic examination and identification of cell contents and of different 
tissues of the different parts of a type plant. 

Making temporary mounts of sections of Root, Stom and leaf of Angio- 
spermic plants. 

Description in technical terms of Anglospermic plants. 

Books recommended 
Pharmaceutical Botany by Yengken, H. W. 

Biology for Pharmaceutical students and others by Maugham, S. & Hooley, 
A.R. 

Part LI 

(A) General Chemical Technology 
{Lecture course . about 100 lectuifs.} 

Inorganic* Metallurgy of iron, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, tin, aluminium, 
silver, gold and platinum. 

Manufacture of acids. Nitric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric and sulphuric 
acids. 

Manufacture *f alkali and salts. Sodium hydroxide, soda ash and allied 
industries, sodium and potassium sulphate, hypochlorities, perchlorates, 
persulphates, permanganates, phosphates and superphosphates, nitrates and 
nitrites. 

Manufacture of silica glass, bricks, potteries, cement , plasters, bricks, lime, 
carbides, alundum graphite, magnesium and rare earths. 

Manufacture of industrial gases. Fixation of nitrogen. 

Organic. Distillation of coal and wood. Petroleum and coal tar products. 
Dyestuflfs, Textile fibres, cellulose and paper. Sugars, starch, dextrin, acetic 
acid, alcohol, glycerol, explosives, resins and plastics. Tannins and leather 
tanning, fats, waxes, esiential oils and drying oils. Paints and varnishes. 
Drugs and some synthetic products. 

Text-books 

1. Industrial Chemistry by Riegel. 

3. Industrial Chemistry, two volumes, by Allen Rogers. 



SYLS. OHBML. BNGG.] B. Sc. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 333 

Reference books 

1. Industrial Electro-Chemistry by C. J. Mantell. 

2. Applied Electro-Chemistry by A. J. Alhnand. 

(Laboratory course about 250 hours.} 

Analysis of water, fuel, lubricants, alloys, fertilizers, fats and oils, paints, 
pigments and varnishes. Estimation of cellulose and tanning materials. 

Preparations. Nitration, sulphonation, halogonation, acetylation, esten- 
fication and diazoti-ation. Reduction and hydroxylatmn (cau- tic fusion). 

DISTILLATION OF COAL T\R 

Electrolysis and electrodeposition. Preparation and punficatiuii of ^omc 
simple inorganic salts. 

(6) Chemical Engineering 

(Lecture course about 100 lectures.) 

1. Transportation of solids, liquid's and gases Transportation of solids ; 
Conveyors, elevators, cranes. Railway transportation Transportation by road 
and water. Flow of fluids : Streamline and turbulent flow, fluid films, flow of 
viscous fluids, friction factors, friction loss in pipe , different typ* 1 of pumps 
and compressors, long distance transportation. Transportation oi corrosive 
liquids. 

2. Heat transmission. Transference of heat by radiation, convection and 
conduction, coefficient of heat transmission of various solids Difierent types 
of heaters and heat exchangers. 

Evaporators. Different types of evaporators ; their working, principles 
and designs ; evaporation of different liquids from various types of surfaces. 

Distillation. Distillation under different pressures various types of stills 
and rectification columns. 

Drying. Different typts of dryers, their principles of working and design. 
Humidification, dehumidification, air conditioning, water cooling, use of humi- 
dity chart. 

Temperature measurement Thermometers, thermocouples, optical pyro* 
meters. 

Refrigeration. 

3. Furnaces and kilns. Combustion of fuels in furnaces. Different types 
df furnaces. Flow of the products of combustion, heat efficiency, stacks and 
chimneys. 

4. Processes Crushing and grinding. Various types of crushers, their 
principle of working and design, Power consumption, efficiency, etc. 



34 THB ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL II [CHAP. XLV 

Mechanical separations. Screening, shifting, floatation, sedimentation, 
Itration, different types of filter 1 -, centrifuges, < upercentrifuges, 

Mixing. Different types of mixers and stirrers, colloid mills, paint 
ills, etc. 

Extraction, etc. Extraction, leaching, absorption, adsorption, crystalhza- 
on. 

5. Materials of construction. Special reference to chemical and electro- 
lermcal industries. 

Metals. Iron, ferrous alloys, nickel, copper, lead, Zinc, aluminium, silver, 
n, platinum, brass, bronze. 

Non-metals. Porcelain, silica, earthenware, bricks, cement, Wood, ebonite, 
bber, etc. 

Text-book 

Elements of Chemical Engineering by Badger and Mccabe. 

Reference books 

1. Handbook of Chemical Engineering, Volumes I and II by D. M Liddell. 
2 Handbook of Chemical Engineering by Harold Tongue. 

3. Principles of Chemical Engineering by W. H. Walker, W. K. Lewis and 
W. H. McAdams. 

{Laboratory course about 2oo hours.) 

Crushing and grinding, screening. Temperature measurement, calorific 
lue of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels flow of the fluid*. Friction loss in 
pes, flow of heat, determination oi coefficient of heat transfer. Evaporation, 
filiation and rectification, plate efficiency, leaching and crystallization. 

(C) Special Subjects 

(i) SUGAR TECHNOLOGY 
(Lecture course' about 50 hours.} 

General outline of the modern plant and machinery for the manufacture, 
intation, white sugar manufacture, manufacture of jaggery and raw sugar 
inery. 

Extraction of juice from cane, milling and diffusion, composition of the 
ce, juice clarification, by sulphitipn, carbonitation and def eaction processes ; 
ling of )uice to syrup and the syrup to massecuit, curing oi massecult 
sugar. 

Manufacture of jaggery, manufacture of white sugar from raw sugar and 
:gery. 



SYLS. SPECIAL SUBJECTS] B. SC. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 33") 

Chemistry of glucose as sucrose Laboratory routine work and chemical 
control of a cane sugar factory. 

(Laboratory course: about io hours ) 

Graduation of sugar apparatus, polariscope, refraotometer, tonometer, 
estimation of sugars, volumetric and gravimetric analysis of raw materials, 
chemicals, products and by-products of a L.ine sugar factory. 

Text-books 

1. The Handbook for Cane Sugar Manufacture and their Chemistry by 

Spencer and Meads. 

2. Cane Sugar and its Manufacture by H. C. P. Geerligs. 

* (n) PHAKMACBUTICS 
(Ltcture course : about ^o lectures.) 

Crude drugs, their important constituents and uses. Isolation of the active 
principles of natural drugs. Chemistry of inorganic and organic substances in 
common use in pharmacy. Synthetic drugs. 

Pharmaceutical operations The preparation of the official galenicals. 
Physical and chemical examination of pharmaceutical substances and their 
standardization. 

Tex:t books 

1 Rentley and Driver's Text-book of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 

2. Science and Practice of Pharamacy by Bennet and Cocking (Volumes I 
and II). 

Reference books 

1. The British Pharmacopoeia, Text-book of Pharmaceutics by Bentley. 

2 A Treatise on Pharmacy by C. Caspari. 

(Laboratory course : about l<$o konrt.) 

Small-scale preparations of tinctures, fluid extracts of, and other pharma- 
copoeial substances. 

Examination and standardization of drugs according to the Pharmacopoeia. 

Preparation of some active principle!. 

Botanical and chemical identification of crude drugs and fine chemicals. 



*For the revised course to come into effect as from 1944 examinations vide 
next page. 



336 THE ANDHRA. UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XT.V 

Reference books 

1. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Coper and Appleyard. 

2. The Buitish Pharmacopoeia. 

3. Drugs and Galenicals by D. G Garret. 

4. British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934. 

The following will come into effect as from the examinations of 1944 : 
(ii) PHARMACEUTICS AND FINE CHEMICALS 
(Lecture Course : about too lectures). 

Chemistry, commercial preparation, standardization and uses of inorganic 
and organic substances listed in the British Pharmacopoeia. 

Official definition, source and distribution, important constituents, omcial 
methods of standardization and uses of vegetable and anunal drugs listed in the 
British Pharmacopoeia. 

Pharmaceutical operations. The preparation of the official galenicals and 
their standardization. 

(Laboratory Course about 250 hours). 

Preparation of galenicals and other pharmacopoeial substances. 
Examination and standardization of drugs according to the Pharmacopoeia. 
Identification of crude drugs and fine chemicals. 

(iii) TECHNOLOGY OF OILS AND FATS 
(Lfctnie course about 50 lectures,) 

Fats. Chemical nature of the fats and fatty oils, statistics, recovery, 
refining and hardening of oiK, hydrolysi>, manufacture of soaps, randies, 
polymerisation of oils for paints and varnishes. 

Different types of waxe ; their occurrences and chemical nature. Uses. 

Essential oils. Statistics, recovery of essential oils, chemical nature and 
utilization. 

(Laboratory course about 150 hours.) 

Recovery of fats by expression and solvent extraction. Physical and 
Chemical test for oils, fats and waxes. Hydrolysis of fats, analysis of fatty 
foods. Assaying of essential oils and the raw materials. Boiling of hard and 
soft soaps. Analysis of soap. Analysis of paints, pigmentt and varnish. 

Text-books 

(1) Oils, Fats and Fatty Foods by E. R. Bolton. 

(2) The Industrial Chemistry of the Fats and Waxes by T. P. Pilditch. 

(3) The Utilization of Fats by Dean. 



SYLS. SPECIAL SUBJECTS] B. Sc. (HON8.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 33'* 

C-BOTANY OR ZOOLOGY OR GEOLOGY AS MAIN SUBJECT 

PART I. 
French and German [same as for B.A. (Honours), Part I], 

PART II. 
Botany (Main) 
No detailed syllabuses have been prescribed. 

Botany (Subsidiary) 

Same as that prescribed for Botany (Subsidiary) for the B.Sc, (Pass) Degree 
examination. 

Zoology (Main) 

Subjects as set out for the B.Sc. (Pas?) will have a more detailed treatment. 
In addition candidates will be expected to have a knowledge of the following : 

1. Minor groups , Myoetozoa, aberrant ctinophores (e.g., ctenoplaria, 

coeloplana) , Dieyemidae and Orthonectidae , worms of uncertain 
position , and Myzostomidae , Tardigrada , Pentastomida 

2. Paleontology, Nature and mode of preservation of fossils, Evolu- 

tionary Palaeontology dealing: with the fossil representatives of 
the more important groups of animal life, both Vertebrate and 
Invertebrate. 

3. Vertebrate Embryology and comparative study of 

(a) tjie development of the embryo a^ far as^^he formation of the 

mam ojcja.n-systems , > 

(6) the hiU r development with special reference to nutrition, metamor- 
plio c is and protection. 

(c) Elements of Experimental embryology. 

4. Genetics Mendeh^m , the mechanism of heredity. The Chromo- 

some theory of heredity , linkage , sex-linked inheritance , crossing 
over , non-disjunction , mapping of the chromosomes , seX- 
<Je termination. 

5. Cytology Constituents of a cell ; origin, structure and function 

of Golgi bodies and mitochondria , cell-division , germ-cells their 
origin, structure and maturation. 

Any one o/ the following special subjects : - 

(a) General and Comparative Physiology. Elementary Physics and 
Chemistry as applied to biological systems. General physiology 
of the cell. Action of physical and chemical influences on the cell. 

43 



338 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLV 

Comparative physiology of digestion, respiration, excretion, 
circulation of body fluidi. Animal behaviour-^ense organs, effectors, 
nervous and endocrine co-ordination. 

() General Entomology. A general study of the external and internal 
anatomy, post-embryonic development and biology of insects ; 
Natural orders ; origin and phylogeny of insects ; origin and 
development of the wings in insects , aquatic life in insects , social 
life in insects insect nutrition , physiology of respiration in 
insects. 

{c) Parasitology. Symbiosis and Parasitism. Effect of parasitism 
on structure and life-hi tory of the parasite and host. A detailed 
study of parasitism as oxihibited by (a) Protozoa, () Platyhel- 
minthes and Nematholmiathas. 

(d) Marine Ecology \ The life of the seas. The work of the great 

oceanographical expeditions. The Physical and chemical environ- 
ment and its seasonal change. Littoral commumtie--, and the 
Benthon, Necton and Plankton. Methods of Plankton research. 
The basis of the food supplie^ of the sea. Puttor's theory. The 
place of the plankton in the economy of marine life ; the principal 
types of plankton ; their distribution, seasonal change, vertical 
migrations and patchiness. The relation of animal and plant plank- 
tons. Adaptations of animals to pelagic and deep-sea life, including 
bio-luminescence. Studies of the natural history of important food 
fishes such as the sardine, and the flat fish. Practical work on the 
ecology of the marine plankton, involving a consideration of the 
phvsical and chemical factors and accompanied by a grounding in 
taxonomy. 

(e) Agricultural Zoology. The course covers ; the Structure, biology, 

and classification of insects and related arthropods, with particular 
reference to families of agrioultur.il importance , the life-histories 
arid control of some of the principal pests of field and garden crops, 
stock, and stored produce , insecticides and fumigation methods, 
biological control ; ecological relation of pests to their environ- 
ment ; other invertebrates, biids, and mammals in relation to 
agriculture ; methods of collecting and preserving specimens. 

(/) Forest Zoology. The course covers ; the Structure, biology, and 
classification of insects and related arthropods, with particular 
reference to families of importance in Forestry , the life-histories 
and control of some of the principle forest pests of the world ; 
insecticides , biological control , ecological relation of pests to 
environment ; other invertebrates, birds, and mammals in relation 
to Forestry ; methods of collecting and preserving specimens. 



SPECIAL SUBJECTS] B. sc. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 339 

(g) Genetics in j elation to Animal Breeding. The following subjects 
are dh cussed , The chromosome theory of heredity , linkage ; sex- 
linked inheritance , crossing over , non-disjunction ; mapping of 
the chromosomes ; the inheritance of anatomical and physiological 
characters in the domestic animals ; sex determination ; sex- 
differentiation , hermaphroditism ; heredity and disease ; in 
breeding and out-breeding ; telegony and other disputed beliefs ; 
methods of breeding and of conducting breeding investigations. 

Practical ivork. The practical work will not be confined to the types 
enumerated. The candidates may be required to dis ect any of the more 
common type-, ot animals included m the classes thoy study, to identify 
specimens with the aid of manuals, to report upon Zoological collections, to 
make micro- copical preparation , t<> cut section, with the microtome and to 
show their practical acquamtanr. with the methods employed in studying 
the embryology of the chick 

Candidates may also be examined by viva voce question- . 

Zoology {Subsidiary) 

Same as that prescribed for Zoology (Subsidiary) for the B.Sc (Pass) 
Degree examination. 

Geology (Main) 

The syllabus of the Pass course treated more fully and with the addition 
of the following : 

General Geology. History and development of the Science of Geology 
and its different branches. Theories of the origin and evolution of the earth. 
Earth's interior. Radioactivity and Geology. Age of the earth. Igneou^ 
action and its manife' tations. Seismology-principles, instruments and records* 
Earthquake and volcanic belts. Mountains, their origin and ^tructure. Isostasy. 
Glacier-, river, and lakes. Evolution of Continent and Oceanic basins. 

Crystallography and Mineralogy. Thirty-two types of crystal symmetry. 
Structure of crystals as exemplified in groups of mineral . Mathematical 
relations of crystals. Twinned crystals and crystal aggregates. Projection and 
crystal drawing. 

The reflecting goniometer Measurement of crystal angles and calculation 
of crystallographic elements. 

Optical characters of crystals. Interference, phenomena uniaxial and biaxial 
character ; determination of positive and negative character of minerals. 
Determination of refractive indices, birefringence, optic axial angle. The 
petrographic microscope and accessories used in optical mineralogy. 



TfiB ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CflAP. XLV 

Detailed study of rock-forming and economic minerals, their physical, 
optical and chemical characters, occurrence, origin, association, alteration, 
products and uses. A knowledge of vicero-chemical tests 

Petrology 

Igneous rocks* Classification ; theories of igneous action ; origin and 
evolution of rock types , structures and textures of rocks and their interpreta- 
tion ; petrographic provinces. 

Sedimentary racks Classification and character . methods of study of 
sedimentary rocks, sands and heavy residues. 

Metamorphic rocks. Types of metamorphism ; metamorpbic grades and 
mineral association ; character^ and cla ification. 

Meteorites. Nature and origin , character > and classification. 

Structural and Field Geology 

Structural Geology. Relationship of structure to topography and land- 
scape evolution, Advanced geological maps. Sections and structural problems. 

Field Geology. Field methods and geological mapping. Field notes , 
geological illustration and preparation of technical reports ; collection and 
preparation of minerals, rocks and fossils fur study 

Topographical Surveying. Methods and scale. Contours in relation to 
topography. Working knowledge of methods of survey and the use of com- 
pass. Clinometer, Aneroid, plane-table, level, tacheoineter and theodolite. 

Palaeontology and Stratigraphy 

Palaeontology Study of important genera of the fossil invertebrata and 
the most important vertebra and fossil plants of India. Stratigraplucal 
palaeontology. 

Stratigraphy. A fairly detailed study of geological formations as- deve* 
loped in India and Burma their structural, lithological and palseontological 
characters. General knowledge of the foreign equivalents of Indian formations. 

Practical work. A course of laboratory work in accordance with the 
above syllabus. U&e of the petrological microscope for advanced studies in 
mineralogy and petrology. Essays of ore-, minerals, Quantitative analyses 
of rocks, their interpretation and graphical representation ; Microscopic prepa- 
rations and photomicrography. The candidates are expected to maintain 
records of laboratory work, field notes of excursions and to prepare geological 
maps of limited areas and reports thereon under the guidance of the staff. 
Their theoretical and practical knowledge will be tested by the examiners in the 
viva vote examination. 



SVLS. SPECIAL SUBJECTS] B. So. (HONS.) DEQRE2B EXAMINATION 341 

Special Subject 
Economic Geology with special reference to India : 

A. General principles of Ore deposition, mineral paragenesis and 

structural relations. A study of the following in regard to their 
origin, occurrence, distribution and uses : 

(i) Metallic ores Gold, silver, platinum group, copper, lead, zinc, 
aluminium, magnesium, iron, manganese, chromium, titanium, 
lithium, tungsten, tin. 

(11) Fuels* Coal, petroleum, natural gas and oil shale. 

(iii) Won* Metallic or Industrial Minerals including Refractories, 
Insulating Media, abrasives, ceramic and glass-making 
materials, fertilisers, paints and pigments Mica, asbestos, 
graphite, kyanite, sillimanite, corundum, emery, magnesite, 
garnet, quartz, phosphates, gla^ sands, kaolin and other 
clays, felspar, fluor'par, barytcs, ochre, gypsum, ^odium, 
potassium and magnesium salt^. 

(iv) Rare Minerals Monazite, zircon, columhite, tantelit?, beryl, 
chrysoberyl, radioactive minerals. 

(v) Building and ornamental stores and road material* including 
lime, cement and plasters. 

(vi) Pjecious and semi-precious stones Diamond, ruby, sapphire, 
emerald, topax, garnet, pinel, quartz, etc., and th'-tr varieties 

B. Geology of water supply underground water, dams, reset voirs, wells 

and springs. 

C. General principles of study of mineral deposit including prospecting, 

sampling, estimation and valuation of deposits ; economics of 
mine and quarry management aided by visits to mines and quarries. 

t>. Knowledge of the elements of ore microscopy ; preparation and 
examination of thin sections of local and polished sections of ores. 

E. Elementary principles of geophysical prospecting, the chief methods, 
their limitation* and applicability to particular problems. 

Geology (Sufaidiary) 

Samfe as that prescribed for Geology (Subsidiary) for the fe.Sc. (Pass) 
Degree Examination. 



342 THE AttDHRA UNIVERSITY fcODE VOL. II [CHAP, XLVI 

CHAPTER XL VI 
POST GRADUATE AND RESEARCH DEGREE 

( Regulations) 
I. MASTER OF ARTS (M. A ) 

1. A candidate who has qualified for the B.A. (Honours) 
Degree of the University by passing the prescribed Examination 
under the Regulations may, without further examination but upon 
payment of the prescribed feo, proceed to take tho M A. Degree of 
the University at any Convocation subsequent to his taking the 
B.A. (Honours) Degree. 

II. DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Ph.D.) 

2. The Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) it* con (erred on 
persons who have passed the B.A. (Honours) Degree examination 
or B. Corn. (Honours) Degree examination with Advanced Banking 
and Currency as special subject under tho Old Regulations and 
with Currency and Exchange as special subject under the New 
Regulations of the University or an examination of any other 
University recognized as equivalent * to the above, and who have 
satisfied the conditions laid down in the following paragraphs. 

3. All candidates for the Degree of (Ph.D.) are required to 
pursue in the University for at least three academic years the 
period shall be four academic years in the case of a third class 
Honours Graduate an approved full-time course of research under 
the direction of the Head of the Department concerned or of a 
member of the University staff appointed by the Vice-Chan cellor 
on his recommendation ; 

Provided however that in the cae of B.Coin. Honours graduates 
with Advanced Banking and Currency as special subject under the 
Old Regulations and with Currency and Exchange as special subject 
under the New Regulations, the subject of research shall be chosen 
from one of the branches of Economics and that the Head of the 



*The following examination have been recognised as equivalent . 
B.A. Hons. of the^fFravancore University. 



SBC. 1 7] POST GKADUATB AND RESEARCH DEGREES 343 

Department of Economics or a member of the staff of the Depart- 
ment appointed by the Vice-Chancellor, shall direct their research ; 

Provided that, after completion of the first year of the 
course, a candidate may be permitted to devote such periods as may 
be deemed advisable by lh^ Vice-Chancellor to full-time research in 
other approved Universities or in s^i tuitions, or at a place and under 
conditions approved by the Univtinity, while remaining under the 
direction of the University or ol persons nominated by the Univer- 
sity. 

It shall be competent for the Vice-Cluiucellor to reduce the 
period by one year on the recommendation of the Director of 
Studies n\ the case of those who have some research work to their 
credit and who are teachers of the University or are members of 
the teaching stuff in any of the colleges affiliated to the Andhra 
University or a recognised University for the preceding 5 years. 

4. Before entering on the course of research, candidates are 
required 

(a) to submit to the V ice-Chancellor for his approval 
through the Head of the Department, the general line of research 
proposed to be undertaken by them ; 

(/>; to register as students of the University and to pay the 
prescribed tuition fees. 

~> Kach candidate shall submit, through the Director oL his 
Studies and the Head of the Department concerned, not less th.m 
X terms in advance 01 the date of the examination, the subject of 
hi iv sea rch. 

(>. On completing the course of research candidates tire 
required to present a thesis on thp subject of their research and to 
satisfy the examiners that it contains original work worthy of 
publication. 

7. Every candidate shall state in his application the special 
subject within the purview of the Regulations for the B.A. (Honours) 
or B. (Join. (Hons.) (subject to the condition specified in sections 2 



344 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLVI 

and 3 snpia in respect of the latter Degree) Degree of the University 
upon a knowledge of which he rests his qualification for the 
Doctorate, and shall, with the application, transmit three copies, 
printed or typewritten, of a thesis on some special portion of the 
subject so stated, embodying the result of research or showing 
evidence of his own work, whether based on the discovery 
of new facts observed by himself, or of new relation of facts 
observed by others, whether constituting an exhaustive study 
and criticism of the published work of others or otherwise 
forming a valuable contribution to the literature of the subject 
dealt with or tending generally to the advancement of knowledge. 
The applicant, in submitting a thesis, shall state generally in a 
preface and specifically in notes, the sources from which his 
information is derived, the extent to which he has availed himself 
of the work of others and the portions of his thesis which 
he claims as his original. He shall also be required to declare that 
the thesis submitted is not substantially the same as the one which 
has already been submitted to any other University, 

A candidate who has passed the B. A . (Honours) or B. Com. 
(Hons.)- or an examination recognized as equivalent thereto in the 
third clasH shall be required to pass a written examination consist- 
ing of three papers of the Honours Degree Examination at the end 
of the first year of hin research in tuch subjects as the Director of 
Studies may prescribe. No one who does not obtain at least GO 
per cent of the marks prescribed for these shall be permitted to 
continue for the Ph.D. course. 

8. The candidate may also forward, with his application, three 
printed copies of any original contribution or contributions to the 
advancement of the special subject professed by him or of any 
cognate subject, which may have been published by him indepen- 
dently or conjointly and upon which he relies in support of his 
candidature. 

9. The thesis and the original contributions shall be referred 
by the Syndicate to a Board of three examiners ordinarily drawn 
from outside India. 



SEC. 814] POST GRADUATE AND RESEARCH DEGREES 345 

10. The Board shall report to the Syndicate the result of the 
examination of the thesis and if the Syndicate, upon the report, 
considers the candidate worthy of the Doctorate Degree, it shall 
declare that the candidate shall be awarded the Degree and cause 
his name to be published with the subject of his thesis and the 
titles of his published contribution if any, to the advancement of 
knowledge. 

11. If the Examiners do not approve of the thesis once sub- 
mitted, the candidate may with the previous approval of the Syndi- 
cate submit after an interval of not less then six months from the 
date of intimation of the non-approval of the thesis to the candidate 
a revised thesis. 

III. DEGREE OP MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.Sc.) 

12. The Degree of Master of Science (M.Sc.) is conferred on 
persons who have passed the B.Sc. (Honours) Degree Examination 
or B. A. (Hons.) Degree Examination with Mathematics of the Uni- 
versity * or an examination of any other University, recognized as 
equivalent to the above, and who have satisfied the conditions laid 
down in the following paragraphs. 

13. All candidates for the Degree of M.Sc. are required to 
pursue in the University for at least one academic year, the period 
being two academic years in the case of a third class Honours or 
first and second class B.Sc. Pass Graduates, an approved full-time 
course of advanced study and research under the direction of the 
Head of the Department concerned or of a member of the University 
staff appointed by the Vice-Chancellor on his recommendation. 

14. Before entering on the course of research, candidates are 
required 

(a) to submit to the Vice-Chancellor for his approval, through 
the Head of the Department, the general line of research proposed 
to be undertaken by them, and 

(6) to register as students of the University and t$ pay the 
prescribed tuition fee. 

*The following examination has been recognised as equivalent: 
B.Sc (Hons,) in Mathematics of the Mysore University. 



346 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLVI 

They shall submit to the University through the Director of 
their Studies and the Head of the Department and the Principal the 
subject of their research not later than 1st October preceding 
the date of the Examination. 

15. On completing the course of research, every candidate for 
the Degree of Master of Science shall 

(a) submit three copies of a thesis, punted or type- written 
embodying the results of the research carried out by him together 
with the report of the person who supervised his work. He shall 
state in a preface to the thesis, the sources from which he has 
derived information or guidance for his work, the extent to which 
he has availed himself of the work of others and the portions of 
the thesis which he claims as original. The thesis should give clear 
indication of the candidate's ability to couduct research under 
direction and some knowledge of the technique involved ; 

() appear for a written examination of three hours' duration, 
in the special branch to which the subject of research belongs ; 

(c) submit a record of the practical work done as a prelimi- 
nary to the Research work : 

Provided that candidates whose subject of research relates to 
Mathematical Physics shall take a second paper of 3 hours' 
duration in lieu of the practical record. 

Note. (i) This paper shall be on New Quantum Theory 
and Wave Mechanics the scope of the subject 
being as defined in Wave Mechanics, Vol. II 
by Prof. A. Sommerfield. 

(ii) For purposes of sections 16 and 17 infra this paper 
shall be taken as a substitute for the practical 
record, and 

(d) undergo a viva voce test at the discretion of the 
Examiners. , 

A candidate who has passed the B.Sc. Honours examination or 
an examination recognized as equivalent thereto in the third 



SBC. 15-17] POSt GRADUATE AND RESteAHCfr DEGREES 347 

or the B.Sc. Pass examination in the first and second class shall be 
required in addition, at the end of the first year of research, to 
appear for the following examination. 

A candidate who has passed the B. Sc. (Pass) Degree 
Examination in the first or the second class shall be required to 
undergo the prescribed course in theory and practice along with the 
B. Sc. (Hons.) students before he is allowed to sit for the examina- 
tion at the end of the first year. 

(In the oase of Physics candidates, two papers on Modern 
Physics and in the case of Chemistry candidates, one paper in the 
appropriate subject of the Honours examination.) 

Practical Examination (all those prescribed for Honours in 
the case of Physics and the general subjects in the case of 
Chemistry), 

and secure at least 50 per cent of the marks prescribed in the 
theory and practical examinations respectively. 

16* The Syndicate shall refer the thesis, practical record and 
the written paper to a Board of two examiners for report and 
valuation. The practical record and the written puper shall 
carry 100 marks each and no candidate shall be qualified to receive 
the M.Sc. Degree unless he obtains at least 50 per cent of the total 
marks in the practical record and the written paper put together. 
On receipt of the marks in respect of the practical record and the 
written paper and the report on the thesis, the Syndicate shall 
decide whether the candidate may be awarded the Degree. 

17. (1) If the examiners do not approve of the thesis once 
submitted, and if the candidate secures at least 50 per cent of the 
prescribed marks in the practical record and written paper put 
together, the candidate may re-submit the thesis after revision, 
taking into account the criticisms of the examiners, after an 
interval of not less than six months and not more than one year 
from the date of intimation of the non-approval &t the thesis to 
the candidate. 



348 THB ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLVI 

(2) If the candidate fails to secure 50 per cent of the 
prescribed marks at the first appearance and if the thesis has been 
approved, he may appear for the examination a second time after 
an interval of not less than six months from the date of the first 
appearance and submit a fresh record. 

(3) If the candidate fails to secure 50 per cent of the 
marks in practical and theory and if the thesis is rejected, he may 
appear for the whole examination a second time after an interval of 
not less than twelve months from the date of the first appearance. 

(4) If the candidate is disqualified at the second appear- 
ance, he shall not be permitted to present himself again for the 
examination. 

The Board of Examiners who will also set the paper for the 
written examination, shall consist of one external and one internal 
examiner. The internal examiner shall ordinarily be the Director 
of Studies. The valuation of the practical record and the written 
paper shall be independent whereas the report on the thesis shall 
be a joint one. The Registrar shall, in consultation with the 
Principal of the University Colleges, indicate the scope of the 
examination to the Board of Examiners and the paper shall 
ordinarily be set so as to give a wide choice to the candidate. 

IV. DEGREE OF MASTER OP SCIENCE IN APPLIED PHYSICS 

18. A candidate for the Degree of Master of Science in 
Applied Physics shall be required 



(a) to have passed the B.Sc. Pass or B.Sc. (Hons.) Degree 
Examination of this University with Physics as the Main subject or 
an examination of any other University accepted by the Syndicate 
as equivalent thereto ; 

(ft) to have undergone subsequently a further course of study 
in the University College, extending over a period of one academic 
year consisting of three consecutive terms in the case of 



SBC. 1821] POST GRADUATE AND RESEARCH DEGREES 349 

Graduates and two academic years each consisting of three conse- 
cutive terms in the case of Pass Graduates ; and 

(0) to have passed the prescribed examinations. 

19. The course and scope of instructions shall be as defined 
in the syllabus prescribed. 

20. The examination for the B.Sc. Pass Graduates at the end 
of first year shall consist of three papers in theory each of three 
hours' duration except in the case of Properties of Matter which 
shall be of two hours' duration. Besides, there shall be two papers 
in practical each of three hours' duration. 

The theory papers shall be as follows and be commom with the 
Physics Hons. Part II Main : 

1. Properties of Matter ... 2 hours 60 marks. 

2. Light ... 3 hours 100 marks. 

3. Electricity and Magneitsm ... 3 hours 100 marks. 

The practical examinations will be conducted along with tho.se 
for the "Physics Hons. Part II Main candidates and the practical 
examination carries 200 marks. 

The candidates have to submit record of practical work done 
and the record shall carry 40 marks. 

A candidate shall be declared to have passed the Degree 
examination at the, end of the first year if he obtains on the 
aggregate not less than 40 per 'cent of the total marks and not lees 
than 30 per cent in each of the parts (a) written and (6) practical 
including records. 

21. The examinations at the end of the firet year for Honours 
Graduates and at the end of the second year for Pass Graduates 
shall consist of three papers in theory, and three practicals each of 
three hours' duration one on each of the subjects, viz. (1) Applied 
Mechanics, (2) Optical Instruments, and (3) Applied Electricity. 



350 THE ANDHBA UNlVBttSITY CODE tOL. II [CHAP. 

In addition there shall be an examination in drawing. The marks 
shall be allotted as below : 

Written ... Three papers each carrying 100 marks 300 

Practical ... Three practicals each carrying 100 300 

Drawing ... 100 

Practical records ... 100 

22. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the M.Sc, 
Degree examination if he obtains on the aggregate not less than 
40 per cent of the total marks and not less than 35 per cent in each 
of the parts (a) written and (6) practical including drawing and 
records. 

23. Candidates declared to have passed the M.Sc. Degree 
examination shall be ranked in the order of proficiency as deter- 
mined by the total number of marks obtained by each and shall be 
arranged in two class : 

Class I Those obtaining 60 per cent and above. 
Class II The rest. 



V. DEGREE OF MASTER OP SCIENCE III CHEMICAL 
TECHNOLOGY (M.Sc. CHEM. TECH.) 

24. A candidate for the Degree of Master of Science in 
Chemical Technology shall be required . 

(a) to have passed the B.Sc. (Honours) Examination in the 
University with Chemical Technology as the Main subject ; 

(6) to have undergone subsequently the prescribed course of 
study in the University for a period of one academic year ; and 

(0) to have passed the prescribed examination. 

25. Each student for the Degree of Master of Science in 
Chemical Technology shall be required to undergo practical train- 
ing for at least two months in an approved chemical factory and 
under the directoin of a competent person and shall submit through 
hifl Director at the factory report of the work done to the head of 
the department. 



SBC. 22-29] POST GRADUATE AND BB3BAHCH DBGRBES 351 

26. Select students who have taken the B.Sc. Pass Degree in 
Chemistry of this University or any other Degree accepted by the 
Syndicate as equivalent thereto may be admitted for the M.So, 
Course in Chemical Technology. They shall undergo a prescribed 
course of training in Chemical Technology for two years before 
appearing for the examination and in addition undergo factory 
training in an approved chemical works or factory for at least 
four months, 

27. The examination shall be written, practical and oral. 

28. The examination for the M.Sc. Degree in Chemical 

Technology shall be as below : 

Marks. 

1. Scientific German Trans- 
lation. ... 1 hours' paper 50 

2. General economics and 

factory management.,. 2 hours' paper 50 

3. (a) Sugar Technology 
(6) Pharmaceutics 

(c) Oils and Fats 

(d) Ceramics 

(i) Written exami- 
nations. 3 papers of 3 hours' each 300 

(ii) Practical exami- 
nations. 3 practicais of 6^ hours' each 300 

4. Home Paper (work corresponding to the requirement 

of the Home Paper of the I Chem. E. Examinations) 100 

5. Oral 100 

6. Records 100 
The examination shall be held in June. 

29. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the examina- 
tion if he obtains not leas than 40 per cent of the total marks and 
not less than 35 per cent in each (a) written (b) practical, including 
oral and records examinations. 



352 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLVT 

30. Candidates declared to have passed the examination shall 
be ranked in the order of proficiency as determined by the total 
marks obtained by each and shall be arranged in two classes : 

Class I Those obtaining 60 per cent and above. 
Class II The rest. 

VI. DEGREE OP MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CHEMISTRY 

WITH THE SPECIAL SUBJECT CHEMISTRY (INCLUDING 

MICROSCOPY) OP POODS, DRUGS, AND WATER. 

31. A candidate for the M.Sc. Degree in Chemistry with the 
special subject Chemistry (including Microscopy of Foods, Drugs 
and Water' [M.Sc Chemistry (special subject) Foods, Drugs and 
Water] shall be required : 

(a) to have passed the B.Sc. (Hons.) or the B.Sc. Pass Degree 
examination (with Chemistry as the Main subject) of 
this University or any other examination accepted by 
the Syndicate as equivalent thereto ; and two other 
science subjects as subsidiary subjects ; 

(ft) to have undergone subsequently a further course of study 
in the University College, extending over a period of one 
academic year consisting of three consecutive terms, 
provided however that the period shall be two academic 
years in the case of Pass graduates ; and 

(c) to have passed the prescribed examination. 

32. The course and scope of instruction shall be as defined in 
the syllabus prescribed. 

33. The examination shall be written, practical and oral. 

34. The Examination for the B.Sc. (Pass) Graduates at the 
end of first year shall consist of two papers in theory each of three 
hours' duration. Besides, there shall be two papers in practical. 
The theory and the practical papers shall be common with those 
for the B.Sc. (Hons.) Degree examination in -Chemistry Main. 

The theory papers shall be as follows : 

(i) Organic Chemistry 3 hours 100 marks, 

(ii) Chemistry of Foods and Drugs 3 hours 100 marks. 



SEC. .'50-37 J POST GRADUATE AND RESEARCH DEGREES 353 

The practical examination shall be as follows and be con- 
ducted along with those for the Chemistry (Hons.) Part II. Main 
candidates : 

1st paper- Organic Chemistry 12 hours 

(6 hours per day; 100 marks. 

2nd paper Chemistry of Foods and Drugs 

(G^ hours per day) 100 marks. 

The candidates have to submit record of practical work done 
and tl-e record shall carry 40 marks. 

A candidate shall be declared to have passed the examination 
at the end of the first year if he obtains on the aggregate not less 
than 10 per cent of llu j total marks and not less than 30 per cent in 
oach of the parts (a) written and (b) practical including records. 

3/5. The Examinations at the end of the first year for Honours 
graduates arid at the end of the second year for Pass graduates shall 
consist of two papers in theory each of three hours' duration and 
three practicals of six and a hall hours' duration each. Besides thebe, 
there shall be an oral examination. The marks shall be allotted as 
below : 

Written Examination : 2 papers each carrying 

JOO marks 200 

Practical 3 papers each carrying 

100 marks 300 

Oral and Records 100 

:Hi. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the M.Sc. 
Degree examination if: he obtains not less than 40 per cent of the 
total marks and not less than 35 per cent in each : (a) written, 
(b) practical (including oral and records) examinations. 

37 . Candidates declared to have passed the examination shall 
be claused as below : 

Class I Those obtaining GO per cent and above, 
Class II The rest, 
45 



354 THBJ ANDHRA .UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLVI 

Where the names of successful candidates are published in the 
Gazette they shall be arranged in the order of merit according to 
the total number of marks obtained. 

VII. DEGREE OP DOCTOR OP SCIENCE (D.Sc ) 

38. The Degree of Doctor of Science (D.Hc.) is conferred on 
persons who have passed the Master of Science Degree examination 
or the M.B.B.S. Degree Examination of the University or un 
examination of any other University, recognized* as equivalent to 
the above and who have satisfied the conditions laid down in the 
following paragraphs. 

39. All candidates for the Degree of D.Sc. are required to 
pursue in the University for at least three academic years an 
ajjproved full-time course of research under the direction of the 
head of the department concerned or of a member of the University 
staff appointed by the Vice-Chancellor on his recommendation; 

Provided that, after completion of the first year of the course 
a candidate, may be permitted to devote such periods as may be 
deemed advisable by the Vice-Chancellor to full-time research in 
other approved Universities or institutions, or at a place and under 
conditions approved by the University, while remaining under the 
direction of the University or of persons nominated by the 
University. 

40. Before entering on the cour-p of research, ca'ididates are 
required 

(a) to submit to the Vioe-Chancellor for his approval, 
through the head of the department and the principal, the general 
line of research proposed to be undertaken by them ; 

(b) to register as students of the University and to pay the 
prescribed tuition fees ; 

*The following examinations have been recognised as equivalent to the 
correiponding examinations of this University : 

University. Examinations. Condition ij any. 

Subject to the condition that the 
g such recognition 



SBC. 3843] POST GRADUATE AND RESEARCH DEGREES 355 

Provided however that (1 s ) candidates who submit their 
theses for the award of M.Sc. Degree of tho Audhra University in 
June of any year may be provisionally registered in July of that 
year and in case they are awarded in due course the M.Sc. Degree 
on the first submission of their theses their registration shall be 
confirmed arid that the prescribed period of research shall be calcu- 
lated from the date of their provisional registration ; and (ii) if the 
candidates thus provisionally registered fail to qualify for the 
M.Sc. Degree on the first submission of their theses, their registra- 
tion shall be cancelled automatically and in case they are permitted 
to reaubin.it their theses after ivviaion, the prescribed period of 
research for the D.vSc. Degree shall be calculated only from the 
date of communication of having obtained the qua) ideation for the 
M.Bc. Degree. 

41. Each candidate shall submit, through the Director of his 
Studies and the head of the department concerned, not lefte than 
three terms in advance of thv date of the examination, the subject 
of his research. 

42. On completing the course of research, candidates are 
required to present a thesis on the subject of their research and to 
satisfy the examiners that it contains original work worthy of 
publication. 

43. Every candidate shall state in hia application thu special 
subject within the purview of the Regulations for the Master of 
Science Degree or the M.B.B.8. Degree ot the University upon a 
knowledge of which lie rests his qualification for the doctorate, and 
shall, with the application, transmit three copies printed or type- 
written, of a thesis on some special portion of the subject HO stated 
embodying the result of research or showing evidence of his owu 
work, whether based on the discovery of new facts observed by 
himself, or of new relation of facts observed by others, whether 
constituting an exhaustive study and criticism of the published 
work of others or otherwise forming a valuable contribution to the 
literature of the subject dealt with, or tending generally to the 
advancement of knowledge, The applicant, in submitting a thesis, 
shall state generally in a preface and specifically in notes, the 



356 THE ANDHRA UNIVEBSITST CODE VOL. II [CHAt*. XuVI 

sources from which his information is derived, the extent to which 
he has availed himself of the work of others and the portions of his 
thesiy which he claims as his original. He shall also be required to 
declare that the thesis submitted is not substantially the same as one 
which has already been submitted to any other University. 

44. The candidate may iilso forward, with his application, 
three printed copies of any original contribution or contributions to 
the advancement of the special subject professed by him or of any 
cognate subject, which may have been published by him indepen- 
dently or conjointly and upon which he relies in support of hiB 
candidature. 

45. The thesis mentioned and the original contributions, if 
any, shall be referred by the Syndicate to a Board of three 
examiners ordinarily drawn from outside India. 

41! . The Board shall report to the Syndicate the result of the 
examination of the thesis and if the Syndicate, upon the report, 
considers the candidate worthy of the Doctorate Degree, it shall 
declare that the candidate shall be awarded the Degree and cause 
his name to be published with the subject of his thesis and the 
titles of his published contributions, if any, to the advancement of 
knowledge. 

47. If the Examiners do not approve of the thesis once 
submitted the candidate may with the previous approval of the 
Syndicate submit after an interval of not less than six months from 
the date of intimation of the non-approval of the thesis to the 
candidate a revised thesis. 

GENERAL 

48. Particulars regarding dates for submitting applications etc*, 
in respect of M.Sc. Degree examination by research will be found 
in Chapter LVII. Each candidate shall submit through the Director 
of Research and the Head of the Department, to the Principal, 
University Colleges, three copies of his theaia and oae copy of the 
practical record certified as bona fide by the Director of Research 
between the 15th and 30th of June or between the 15th and 30th 
of December. 



. 44 51] POST GRAfcUATJEl AND RESEARCH DEGREES tibl 

Candidates for the Ph.D. arid D.Sc. DegreeH shall submit their 
theses, after the prescribed period of research, to the Registrar so 
as to reach him between the IGth and 30th June or between 1st 
and 15th December each year. 

A candidate for a research degree whoso thesis is rejected on 
tho first occasion may bo permitted by the Syndicate to submit 
the same a second time after revision taking into account the 
criticisms made by the Examiners appointed in the iirst instance 
along with the prescribed fe^, but he shrill not be eligible to ro- 
submit it on a subsequent occasion should it be rejected a second 
time. 

Transitory Regulations 

49. Notwithstanding anything contained above, candidates 
registered prior to 1st December 1937 for submitting theses in 
respect of M.A. (Hons.), M.Sc. (lions.) and M.A. and M.Sc. Degrees 
examinations in accordance with the Old Regulations shall be per- 
mitted to continue their work, submit their theses and undergo the 
examination prescribed not later than the end of 1939. 

50. Notwithstanding anything contained above, candidates 
registered prior to 1st December 1937 for submitting theses for the 
Ph. D. Degree Examination in accordance with the Old Regulations 
shall be permitted to continue their work, submit thoir theses and 
undergo the prescribed examination not later than the end of 19453. 

51. Candidates registered by the Syndicate prior to 1st 
December 1937 for subinittiug theses for the M.A. (Hons.) Degree 
examination may be permitted to appear for the Ph. D. Degree 
Examination under the New Regulations subject to tho following 
conditions : 

That they shall satisfy all the conditions prescribed in 
Sections 2 11 above, provided, however, that the 
Syndicate may permit the period spent in research 
under a recognised Director since July 1937 to be 
counted in reckoning the period of research prescribed 
in Section 3 above. 



358 THR ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II TrHAP. XLVI 

Candidates desirous of availing themselves of this exemption 
shall apply through the Director of Studies to the Registrar so as to 
reach him not later than let July 1938. 

52. Candidates registered by the Syndicate prior to 1st 
December 1937 aa persons doing research with a view to appearing 
for the Ph. D. Degree examination (in the Faculties of Science and 
Medicine) under the Old Regulations may be permitted to appear 
for the D. Sc. Degree Examination subject to the condition that 
they shall satisfy nil the conditions prescribed inf Sections 38 to 47, 
provided, however, that the Syndicate may permit the period 
already spent under approved directed research in the Jeypore 
Vikrama Deo College of Science ami Technology or the Andhra 
Medical College, Vizagapatam, to be eoutUed in reckoning the 
period of research prescribed in Section 3D. 

Candidates desirous of availing themselves of this exemption 
shall apply through the Director of Studies to the Registrar so as to 
reach him not later than 1st July 11)38. 

N.B. Students who have taken up their course for M.Sc. 
Tech. iri July 1938 or earlier shall take the M.Sc. (Horn*.) in Tech. 
by research under the Old Regulations. 



SYLLABUSES 
Degree of Master of Science in Applied Physics. 

A. Applied Mechanics-, (a) Course of lectures: Strength of materials 
as in Chapters 1 to IV, X and XV of A. Morley's book on 'Strength of Materials' 
omittint? ellipse of stress circular diagram of stress Principal plane*; and 
stresses Principal strains 111 Chapter 1 and retaining theory of bending and 
simple and other bending only in Chapter IV. Function of the Scientific instru- 
ment. Instrument design. Tolerance. Degrees of freedom and constraint. 
Back lash and its prevention. Friction and lubrication Turning, sliding and 
difficulties of precise construction. Commercial instruments including the 
design of jigs and gauges. Different methods of aiding, checking and testing 
manufacture. 

() Practical training . (i) Drawing and (ii) Workshop practice. Use 
of machines tools. Grinding and lapping. Polishing and finishing. Pattern 
making and casting. Fitting and testing. 



SYLLABUSES] POST GRADUATE AND RESEARCH DEGRESS 359 

B. Optical Instruments : (a) Course of lectures : The telescope. The 
microscope. Binocular instruments. Photographic lens. Photometry. Micro - 
photometers. Interfere me trie methods of testing. Refractometers. Polari- 
meters. 

(fr) Practical training Using, testing and fitting the above instruments. 

C. Applied Electricity' () Course of lectures. Theory of alternating 
currents. Measuring instruments. Illumination and heating. Theory and 
construction of both D. C. and A. C. generators and motors, transformers, 
converters and rectifiers. Theory of starting, controlling and protecting 
appliances. Power House and Power distribution. Theory and design of 
D. C. and A. C transmis^ ion and distribution systems including Switch gear of 
low-tension power. 

Different kinds of thermionic valves and their characteristics, Detection, 
amplification and modulation. Wireless circuits and aerial systems for trans- 
mission and reception. Propagation of wireless waves. Directional wireless 

NOTE. ' Electrical Technology ' by Cotton and ' Fundamentals of Radio ' 
by Terman with the last two chapters omitted indicate respectively the 
standards that the candidates are expected to attain under Electrical Engineering 
and Wireless. 

(b) Practical training- Working of the different machines, their test, 
anM defects, in addition to laboratory work for an understanding of the lecture 
course. 

Decree of Master of Science in Chemistry (including Microscopy) 
of Foods, Drugs and Water 

Lecture Course. 
Part I 

1. Chemistry, origin, composition, commercial preparation and preserva- 

tion of foods. 

2. Nutrihve requirements of the human body. The Chemistry of digestion 

and growth 

3 Water-supplies and effluents. 

4. Elements of bacteriology and bacteriology of water-, upplie*. and milk. 
5- Alcohol, alcoholic beverages, enzapnes and enzymeactions. 
6. Condiments and spices flavouring substances and essences. 

Part II 

1. Chemistry, origin, composition, commercial preparation, Pharmacologi- 

cal action and therapeutic value of drugs. 

2. Poisons, their effects and examination. 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL. 11 [CHAP. XLVI 

3. Antiseptics and disinfectants. 

4. The Chemistry of urine and blood. 

5. Indian and Foreign Governments' regulations regarding foods, adultera- 

tion and preservatives in food-stuffs and the adulteration of drugs 
Legal and pharmacopocial standards of purity. 

6. Vegetable morphology and microscopy of drugs. 

A 7 *. #. This sylUbus i, a continuation of the preliminary treatment of the 
subject for the B Sc (Honour^) students in Chemistry under the special subject 
" Chemistry of Foods and Drugs." 

Practical Court e. 
Chemical analysis of 
Water and effluents. 
Carbohydrates and their products. 
Milk and its derivatives. 
Oils, fats, waxes and waps 
Spices, condiments and flavouring substances. 
Cereals and their products. 
Coffeo, ta and cocoa. 

Chemical examination of drugs and chemicals used in Pharmacopocial 
preparations and presumptions. 

Antiseptics and disinfectants. 

Preservatives. 

Alcohohmetry 

Recognition of commercial drugs. 

Microscopy of drugs starches and fibres. 

Chemical examination of urine and blood. 

Detection of poisons and quantative determination of Arsenic and lead. 

Bacteriology (a brief course covering the genaral technique of bacterio- 
logy and bacteriology of foods and water). 



Degree of Master of Science in Chemical Technology. 

Scientific Get man Translation. The examination in German will be a tett 
of the capacity of the student to carry out free translation into English of 
German literature relating to Industrial Chemistry. Consultation of dictiona- 
ries will be allowed during the examination. 



SYLLABUSES] POST GRADUATE AND RESEARCH DEGREES 361 

General Economic* and Factory Management. (25 lecture*.) 
JSlementr of Economics. Elementary notions regarding economic concepts. 
Production value and price capital and income. Exchange. Distribution. 
Money and credit currency Exchange rates. An outline of the economic 
organization of India with special reference to Industries. 

Business Organization and Finance. Business units, Partnerships and 
joint stock companies Balance sheets. Loans. Managing agency system. 

Industrial Organization. Planning of -work and control of production. 
Combines and trusts. Works organization and management. Departmental 
and functional organization. Standardization Selection of employees. 
Training. Planning. Graphical and statistical control. Purchasing. Market- 
ing. Policy of discriminating protection for industrial progress in India. 

Outlines of Industrial Legislation. Factory legislation. Inspection of 
factories. Housing and Welfare work. Accident prevention. Dust hazard. 
Industrial diseases. " Safety First " movement. Trade Unions and Employers' 
Association. Schemes of joint consultation. Strikes and lock-outs. Settlement 
of disputes. Basic features of wages Primary pay systems Incentives. Time- 
keeping and wage payment. Pay-roll compilation. 

Principles of cost accounting. Analysis of problem of investment. Capital 
charges Depreciation. Interest. Amortisation. Costing of land and builcf- 
ings. Cost of raw materials and labour of various kinds. Services gas, water, 
power and steam. Repairs and maintenance. Rates, taxes and insurance. 
Value of by-products. General overhead charges. Practical analysis of first 
cost. Packing, transport and selling charges. Margin of profit on the capital 
outlay. Preparation of flow sheets (material, energy and timeX 

Principles of Plant Location. Plant layout and design. 

Home Paper. This refers to home work done by the M, Sc. students on any 
problem in the special subject set by the teacher concerned. An essay or paper 
will be submitted by the candidate to the examiners who will value it and 
award marks. 

SPECIAL SUBJECTS. 
1. SUGAR TECHNOLOGY. 

Lecture Course. 

General. Chemistry of sugar, starch, dextrose, cellulose and their products. 
Agriculture of sugarcane, harvesting and transport of cane. History of 
the development of sugar industry, special reference to India. Economics of 
sugarcane agriculture and sugar factory economics. Accounts and tariff duty 
with reference to sugar, utilization and disposal of the by-products and waste 
materials of sugar factory. 

46 



362 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. H [CHAP. XLVI 

Manufacture. Extraction of juice from cane, diffusion of beet. Recovery 
of sugar from other materials containing sugar, clarification of juice, by diffe- 
rent processes, physical and chemical properties of juice. Different constituents 
of juice. Boiling of sugar. Curing, storage and transport of sugar, manufacture 
of glucose, dextrose and other sugars. 

Control. Chemical control of milling house, boiling house. Control of 
panboiling, scientific control of sugar factory and raw sugar refinery, calculation 
of sugar factory data and preparation of working report, specification and 
installation of a sugar factory. 

Sugar machinery. Cane mills, rollers, mill housing, machinery for pre- 
paration of cane, knives, shredders, etc. Drive for cane mills, diffusion batteries. 
Bagasse fired boilers, evaporation, pans, sugar dryers, defecation plant. Vacuum 
pump, condensers, etc. Power station. Machinery used for the utilization 
of the by-products of sugar factories, paper, alcohol, etc. 

Laboratory Court e. 

Clarification of cane juice, concentration, boiling of syrup in vacuum pans. 
Assaying of cane and raw sugar. Complete analysis of sugar house products. 
Evaporator and pan scale, boiler scale, molasses, press cake, bagasse. Boiler 
ash. Heat balance of cane sugar factory, problem allotted to the students 
separately. 

II. PHARMACEUTICS AND FINE CHEMICALS 

(1) Pharmacy: Chemical and Mechanical control in a manufacturing 
Pharmacy. Prescription reading and a study of incompatibilities. Manufacture 
of pharmaceuticals including toilet preparations, medicinal foods and dressings. 
History of pharmacy. 

Foreign and Indian state regulations for the control and test of drugs. 

(2) Pharmacognesy. An advanced study of the important vegetable and 
animal drugs lifted in the pharmacuetical codex and their substitutes available 
in India. 

(3) Chemistry and analysis of foods and general principles of dietetics : 

Chemistry and analysis of Carbohydrates, liquids, proteins, vitamins and 
harm ones, condiments and flavouring substances ; general principle , of dietetics. 

Foreign and Indian state regulations for the control and tests of foods. 

(4) Physiology t Pharmacology and Bioafsay : A general knowledge of 
physiology of alimentary, respiratory, circulatory nervous and genito-urinary 
systems. The pharmacology of drugs affecting the above systems and of other 
drugs of importance. Methods of biological assay. 



SYLLABUSES] POST GRADUATE AND RESEARCH DEGREES 363 

(5) General principles of bacteriology and preparation of biological 
products. The structure, composition and development of bacteria, methods of 
their study, effects of physical and chemical agents on them and the effects of 
bacterial growth. Bacteria and disease in animal organism, immunity and 
body resistance to disease. 

The Bacteriology of water and Milk. The classification of biologicals and 
the preparation of biological products used for passive immunization, active 
immunization and for diagnostic purposes. 

Practical. 

Preparations of galenicals, toilet preparations and fine chemicals, 
medicinal foods and biological products. Prescnption, filling and incom- 
patibilities. 

Analysis of -water, milk, butter, condiments. Cereals and flavouring sub- 
stances. Simple exercises in Bacteriology. 

Macroscopic and microscopic'study of starches, Fibres and the following 
important crude drugs of vegetable and animal origin : 

Aconitum. Foeniculum. 

Amylum. GlycyrrhiZa. 

Auran tii Cojtex. Hyostyamus. 

Belladonnas Folium. Ipecacuanna. 

Buchu. Jalap a. 

Calumba. Linum. 

Cantharidis. Nux Vomica. 

Cardamomum. Podophyllum Indicum. 

Caryophylum. Quassia. 

Cascara Sagrada. Quillaia. 

Cinchona. Rheum. 

Cinnanomum. Scilla* 

Coriandrum. Sennae Fohum. 

Digitalis Folium. Stramonium. 

Ephedra. Zingiber. 
Ergota. 

III. OILS AND FATS. 
Lecture Course. 

Pat* and Waxes Properties of the higher saturated and unsaturated 
fatty acids. Fats metabolism in vegetable and animal tissues. Refining of fats 
and waxes. 

Fat hardening. Continuous and batch process. 



364 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, II [CHAP. XLVII 

Composition and constitution of the fatty acids of fats, fats of various 
industries. Study of the other constituent of fats and waxes. 

Polymerisation and boiling of oils for paints and varnish industry ; resins ; 
natural and synthetic conversion of fats to hydro-carbons and vice versa. 

2. Essential oils. Composition of essential oils. Properties and constitu- 
tion of terpenes and camphors. Synthetic perfumes. Use of essential oil in 
industry. Study of some typical essential oil. Blending. 

3. Soap and detergents. Various types of soaps, mechanism of saponin- 
cation and its physio-chemical principles. Manufacture of different types of 
soaps. Disinfectants, etc. 

Chemical nature of other detergents, sapoiuns, s-apogenins, sulphonates of 
higher aliphatic alcohols Conversion of fatty acids to alcohols. 

4. Paints, pigments and varnish. Raw materials for the manufacture of 
paints and pigments Manufacture of paints. Pigments and varnish, catalytic 
oxidation of fatty oils, metallic soaps of fatty acids and resin. Chemical and 
physical properties of various fibres, paints and varnish. Prevention of 
corrosion in industry by coating of fibres. 

5. Statistics and economics of fats and waxes. Industry. Historical 
development of fats, soap and varnish industry. 

6. Machinery used for the recovery, refining and hardening of oils, 
manufacture of essential oils, toaps, paints and varnish. Resins and plastics. 
Specification and installation of plants. 

7. Recovery of petroleum, utilization of paraffin, gas and petroleum and 
products ; refining and distillation of petroleum. 

Laboratory Courte. 

Extraction of fats and waxes, refining and hardening. Complete study of 
typical sample one each of vegetable oils, animal oils, essential oils and wax. 
Non-saponifiable materials or oils. Analysis of technical and edible oils and 
detection of adulteration. Polymerisation of oils with different catalysts. 
'Testing of soaps, boiling of different types of soaps. Preparation of paints 
and varnish. Tests and analysis of paints, varnish and resins. Physical and 
.chemical properties of paints and varnishes. Manufacture of higher aliphatic 
alcohols. Preparation of sulphonates-. Some special problem allotted to the 
student. Three months training in a factory. 



SEC. 1 4 ] B, &>. DEGREE EXAMINATION 365 

CHAPTER XLVII 
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF EDUCATION 

(Regulations) 

1. No candidate shall be eligible for the Degree of Bachelor Qualification 
of Education unless he has taken a Degree in this University or a for de S rett 
Degree in some, other University accepted by the Syndicate and has 

also passed the prescribed examination. 

2. Candidates for the B.Ed. Degree Examination shall have Qualification 



taken, or have qualified for, a Degree in this University or have 
taken a Degree in some other University accepted by the Syndicate Examination 
as equivalent thereto* and shall have thereafter undergone the 
prescribed course in an affiliated college for three terms. 

3. The examination shall consist of (a) a practical exami- 
nation in teaching conducted by a Board of two examine^ for each 
lesson, who shall as a rule be members of the staff of the college 
presenting the candidates for examination and (6) a written 
examination conducted by means of printed papers. 

4. Candidates shall undergo a course and be examined in : 
(i) The Theory and Practice of Education. 

(ii) History of Education and Comparative Study of Edu- 
cational systems. 

(iii) Methods appropriate to the teaching of English. 

(iv) Methods appropriate to the teaching of one of the follow- 
ing groups of subjects : 

(a) All subjects to young children. 

(b) Mathematics. 

(c) Physical Science. 

(d) Natural Science. 

The following examinations have been recognised by the Academic Council 
in accordance with section 33 (1) of the Act as equivalent to the B.A. Degree 
Examination of this University : 

The B.A. and B.Sc. Degree Examinations of all other Statutory Indian 
Universities and Mysore University. 

The 8. Com.' Degree Examination of all other Statutory Indian Universities. 



366 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. 

(e) History. 

(f) Geography. 

(g) One language other than English. 

Candidates shall also undergo a course in practical training, 
including instruction in school management and practice in 
teaching. 

Subjects for $ Candidates for the written part of B.Ed. Degree Exami- 

Examination nat i on sna u answer the following papers : 

(i) The Theory and Practice of Education, Part I. 
(ii) The Theory and Practice of Education, Part II. 

(iii) History of Education and the Comparative Study of 
Educational Systems. 

(iv) Methods appropriate to the teaching of English. 
(v) Methods appropriate to the teaching of one of the 
subjects mentioned in section 4 (iv) above. 

At the practical examination each candidate shall be tested 
by means of two lessons of his choice, one in English and the 
other in special subject. The duration of each lesson shall 
ordinarily be half an hour or half a school period. Candidates 
shall submit full teaching notes of their lessons to the examiners 
before commencing their lessons. The practical test in teaching 
shall carry 200 marks, 100 marks for English and 100 marks 
for the special subject, 40 per cent of the marks in each case 
being allotted to practical work done by the candidates during 
the course of their training. In addition to actual teaching work, 
this practical work shall include the writing of notes of lessons, 
reports of lessons observed, and records of other practical work, 
if any, done during the course (1) English and (2) the special 
subject. A statement of the marks awarded shall be forwarded 
by the Principal of the College to the Registrar of the University 
along with the progress certificates of the candidates, about the 
middle of March each year. 

Candidates applying for the examination for the first time shall 
apply for both parts of the examination $ but a candidate failing in 



BBC. 56] B. ED. DBGRBH EXAMINATION 367 

one part of the examination shall be permitted to reappear at a sub- 
sequent examination for that part, and shall, if he passes in it, be 
declared to have passed the B.Ed. Degree Examination. 

For the benefit of candidates who fail in the practical examina- 
tion a further practical examination shall be held during the first 
term of the academic year following the previous examination held 
in March- April. 

6. Candidates who secure 40 per cent of the aggregate marks Marks 
in English and in the special subject in the practical work done at 
college and in the practical examination in teaching, taken together 
shall be declared to have passed in the practical test. 

Candidates who obtain not less than 35 per cent of the aggre- 
gate marks in papers (i), (ii) and (iii) of the written examination, 
taken together, and not less than 35 per cent of the marks in each 
of the papers (iv) and (v), but not less than 40 per cent of the 
aggregate marks in papers (iv) and (v) taken together, shall be 
declared to have passed the written examination. 

Of the candidates who pass both the practical and written 
examinations in the same year, those who obtain not leas than 
60 per cent of the total number of marks in both parts of the exami- 
nation taken together shall be placed in the first class, those who 
obtain not less than 50 per cent of the marks in the second, and the 
rest in the third class. 

Successful candidates obtaining not less than 60 per cent of the 
total marks (in theory and in practical test) in English or the 
special subject shall be declared to have obtained distinction in that 
subject. 

In the pass lists the names of candidates passing in the first and 
second classes shall be given in the order of merit ; the names of 
those passing in the third class shall be given in the order of the 
register numbers. 

Candidates successfully completing the written and practical 
examinations in parts in different years shall be declared to have 
passed the examination in the third class. 



368 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP, XLVU 

SYLLABUSES 
(1) Theory and Practice of Education 

PARTI 

A. GENERAL. 

The need of a theory of education relation of theory to practice. 

The meaning of education education as the process of adjustment between 
the individual and the environment other concepts (preparation, unfoldment 
and formal discipline). 

The aim of education the nature of an aim general and specific aims. 

The agencies of education the family, the social community, the church, 
the state and the school the evolution and function of the school the nature 
of the school environment. 

Other agencies operating at the present day libraries, museums, cinemas 
and broadcasting. 

The function of the teacher bi- polar and tri-polar relation. The modern 
views regarding the influence of the personality of the teacher the scientific 
and cultural presuppositions of the teacher's work. 

B. PSYCHOLOGY IN RELATION TO THE CHILD'S DEVELOPMENT. 

1. Heredity and Environment and the Significance of Infancy 

Heredity as a condition of development the inheritance of physical ami 
mental traits. 

Environment (social heredity) as the other condition as an originating 
and selecting agent the possibilities of estimating the relative influences of 
heredity and environment. 

The theory of the inheritance of acquired characters and its bearing on 
education. 

The prolongation of human infancy and its sociological and educational 
significance. 

2. The Physiological basis of Mental Processes 

The constitution of the nervous system the localisation of brain functions 
the action of the nervous system. 

3. The Mental Processes 

(a) The Affective and Conative Processes 

Pleasantness unpleasantness aspects of consciousness, Definition of 
Instinct and Emotion. 



SYLLABUSES] B. ED. DEGREE EXAMINATION 369 

Instincts of pugnacity, flight, curiosity, disgust, sex, self-assertion, submis- 
sion and appeal and constructive, acquisitive and parental instincts. 

Imitation and suggestion. 

Play ; differences between play and work, make-believe, the play spirit in 
education. 

Distinction between instinct and habit natuie and importance of habit 
principles of habit-formation. 

Volition inhibition and direction. 

Primary and Secondary emotions. 

Sentiment temperament mood. 

The Unconscious libido, repression, sublimation, complexes, etc. 

The growth of group and moral consciousness. 

Attention factors involved, classification, difference between adults and 
children, podagogif.il application 

Relation of attention to interest nature and kinds of interests develop- 
ment of mtere&ts classification of interests. 

Fatigue its causes, symptoms, effect and remedial measure,. 

(&) 77ie Cognitive Processes 

Sense perception and its development Perception of quality, space and 
time training in sense perception preperception and apperception the 
doctrine of apperception. 

Memory classification and favourable conditions reminiscence and oblivi- 
scence difference between adults uii'l childten economical methods of 
memorise tion. ^ 

Learning methods learning curves plateau stages. 

Transfer of training the traditional view experimental result interfer- 
ence the limits of transfer. 

Imagination factors involved individual differences in imagery growth 
of imagination differences between adults ami children training in imagi- 
nation. 

Thinking and reasoning types of thinking steps in thinking concrete 
and abstract thinkingtraining to think 

General intelligence its measurement The u^es of intelligence tests 
Principles of test construction. 

47 



370 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL. II [CHAP. XLVJI 

PART il 

A. SCHOOL HYGIENE 

General conditions of healthy life and growth characteristics of successive 
stages of physical development. 

School hygiene school site and buildings lighting and ventilation play- 
groundfurniture. 

Common ailments of children and how to detect them infectious diseases. 
Detection and avoidance of fatigue and overpressure. 
Physical training, gymnastics, drill, games and free-play, 

B. SCHOOL ORGANISATION 

The school and its divisions school departments size of departments 
co-education vs. separation special classes one teacher schools the class 
as a working unit size of classes the staff qualifications and 
adequacy, etc. classification of pupils time-tables for different grades of 
schools examinations, external and internal promotion and its different 
bases school records and their proper maintenance. 

C. INSTRUCTION 
(a) Material. 

Criteria for selecting material of instruction. 

The elements of the environment and the needs of the various stages of 
development as determining the curricula for infant, primary arid secondary 
grades of education. 

Theories of recapitulation the psycho-physiological theory and the culture 
epoch theory. 

The scope and sequence of school studies. 
Co-ordination, Correlation and Concentration. 

(6) General Principles of Method. 

The nature and general principles of method teaching and learning 
processes logical and psychological methods the maxims of methodological 
procedure the formal steps types of lessons- inductive, deductive, drill, 
review, appreciation and how to study lessons. 

Forms of instruction suited to different ages of pupils and in different 
subjectsdevices of teaching exposition, illustration, questioning, etc. the 
use of black-board and of other class room apparatus. Lesson plans Modern 
individualistic tendencies as exemplified in supervised study, the Gary system, 
th Protect method and the Dalton plan. 



SYLLABUSES.] B. ED. DEGREE EXAMINATION 371 

D. DisciPLINB 

Moral instruction and training. The aim of moral training. The chief 
factors in moral training (i) corporate life of the school, (it) personal influence 
and (Hi) non- personal influence. 

The corporate life of the school School community mutual rights and 
obligations schools, societies and other organized groups school govrnment- 
school laws, their character and enforcement juvenile delinquency reward* 
and punishments, their nature and kind pupil self-government and its fojrms. 

Influence government discipline personal influence of the teacher and 
"the leaders of the groups". Non-personal influence of the curriculum and 
other school activities. 

Day and Boarding schools and leisure time of pupils. 

The relation of the school to other communities with kindred interests. 



(2) History of Education and Comparative Study 
of Educational Systems 

A INDIAN EDUCATION 

Education during the Company period early activities in Madras and 
Calcutta. The part played by the Missionaries and Government. Th< decision 
of 1835 and its results. The despatch of Sir Charles Wood in 1854 and the 
foundation of the modern system. The rise of the Universities. 

Education under the Crown thr Education Commission of 1882 and the 
development of education till 1900. The Indian Universities Commission of 
1902. The Calcutta University Commission The creation of new Universities. 
Montford reforms and education. Compulsory Education Acts and Educational 
Control A general review of the present system of education. 

B. EUROPEAN EDUCATION. 

The educational aims and ideals of Rousseau, Pestalozsi, Frocbel and 
Herbart their influence on modern educational theory and practice. 

C. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM*. 

The 19th Century and the movement for national education. 

A national system, an expression ol tne national genius. Influence of 
historical, geographical, ethnological, political and economic factor-. The 
aim of H national system of education. 



72 THE ANDttHA UJtlVBRRITt COfcE VOL. II [CHAP. 

Thf national systems of education in England, United States of America, 
Germany and Japan, with reference to the administrative arrangements Local 
and central control orgam-ation of education and types of Schools, ele- 
mentary, secondary, continuation, vocational and special *chool , for boys and 
girls. Provision for the training i.l teachers for elementary and secondary 
schools. Child Welfare moveiru uts, such a* medical inspection, feeding of 
necessitous children, movement for playgrounds, open-air schools, sanitona etc. 

Tendencies of post-war education. 

(a) Text- Books 

(1) Comparative Education by Kandel. 

(2) History of Indian Education by B Somasundararao, 

(b) Book for reference 

The Principles of Educational Policy by Nicholas A. Hans. 

(3) Methods Appropriate to the Teaching of English. 

I. LANGUAGE. Thought and language; Language an analyis of experience ' 
and the product of speech ; not strictly logical , evocative and symbolic. 
Language and speech- The Word, the unit of language; the sentence, the unit of 
speech. The active and passive aspects of language study. First and second 
languages ; the extent to ( which the first hinders and helps acquisition of 
the latter. 

II. ENGLISH. The position of English in India. The bilingual problem , 
English a medium (1) of instruction and (2) of expression. Thf 4 practical and 
cultural value of English. Colloquial and literary English. 

III. METHODS OF TEACHING, (1) The translation or grammatical methods , 
aiming at a comparative study of grammatical structure, through reading 
without providing occasions for the natural use of language , repetition rather 
than translation the most elective means for the learning of idiom, the 
translation method, with its appeal to reason, the adult's rather than schoolboy's 
approach to the study of language. 

(2) The "reform" or realistic methods: the natural, the oral, the 
active, and the direct method , the direct method and its many modifications, 
its aims and main principles, and its psychological basis the inhibition of the 
mother-tongue as a check to cross-association , the direct method, right in 
principle, wrong in emphasis. 

(3) The "compromise " method, aiming at the development of all 
aspects of language learning, with a view to achieving practical results , the 
rational use of the mother-tongue as a mean, of explanation, adequate 
provision for progress in reading to the extent possible at each stage ; 



SYLLABUSES] B. ED. DEGREE EXAMINATION 373 

progressive practice in speech, though not always in advance of reading , 
the suitable grading of written work, and the practical teaching of grammar 
therewith 

IV ORAL WORK. Its prominence in the initial stages , the vitalizing 
force of reading throughout the course, though gradually outstripped by it. 

The place and value of phonetic -. in all oral work to teacher and pupil. 
Ear training and phonetic drill. The speech sounds of English , a detailed 
study of their production, and comparison with Indian speech sounds. 

The use of phonetic symbols and apparatus The value of phonetic te^U 
for teacher and pupil An elementary ^tudy of intonation Rhyme, rhythm, 
quantity and metre. 

Conversation: conventional and natural; to precede reading. The 
importanpe of repetition Subjects for conversation objects, persons, actions, 
pictures, stories, dialogues Picture or object talks a-, a device for preventing 
the undue intervention of the mother- tongue, for promoting fluency, and for 
covering much ground in a shorter space of time The place and value of 

substitution tables 
, % 

V. THE TEXT. (a) Oral Reading. The initial -uges the alphabetic, the 
phonic, the look-and-say, the sentence and electric rn< thnd Device, for 
directing attention to the content of reading, Reading in its elocutionary 
aspect: pronunciation, phrasing, intonation, stress, speed. 

(b) Silent Ktading. Us place and importance , an aid to language 
acquisition. How to develop skill in rapid reading. 

(c) The Content of Reading Methods of explanation; use of objects, 
actions, gestures and pictures , the apperceptive principle and the mother- 
tongue in explanation. jRea/ten (customs, ^ociety, institution*, etc); how 
gradually to introduce. 

(d) Prose (1) The text for intensive Study-. The centre of instruction in 
intelligent reading and the study and the, use of language , the extension of 
vocabulary ; drill in word and phrase , the extent to which digression is 
desirable. Sentence and paragraph study. Purpose and tone in writing. Diction 
and the choice and use of words : style ; common literary form-*. Types of 
exercises for oral and written work at all stages of school Work. 

(2) The text for Extensive Study : Mainly for comprehension ; 
the chief aim, the creation of interest in books by rapid silent reading 
developed from oral reading, interest and vocabulary control , complexity of 
sentence structure no great hindrance to comprehension. Exercises in oral and 
written to test comprehension primarily. The formation and Uoc of class 
libraries. 



374 THE ANDHUA fttflVEfcSITt CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLVII 

(e) Poetry. Virtually another language ; new word order and diction 
(including figurative usage) rhyme and rhythm, and more often than not a 
foreign background. Types of verse. Mood more important than meaning. 
Visualization an aid to appreciation. Annotation and paraphrase. Types of 
oral and written work. 

(f) Recitation. Oi pro^e and verse ; dramatic work. 

VT. GRAMMAR. Views regarding the function of grammar. How far 
grammar aids the learning of a language. The linguistic and the critical sense. 
Formal and functional grammar. The place of grammar in " reform " methods 
of language teaching. 

The bias of English grammar in the pa<t ; the present tendency. The need 
for uniformity in grammatical terminology. The real need for the teaching of 
grammar evident when written work is attempted. 

The teaching of grammar largely the teaching of terminology. The most 
realistic method, the inductive, Grammatical summaries and the framing of 
rules. Drill exercises. The teaching of grammar in the early and later stages 
The structure of the sentence as an aid to punctuation, balancp> concord, order, 
ellipses and emph.isis The function and form of words , word ordor. The 
framing of ^yllabuses. 

VII. COMPOSITION. Oral and written. Progress from reproduction to 
free composition. The text the centre of instruction. Fluency exercises. 
Picture and object composition: story reproduction; the descriptive essay oral 
and written, preparation essential. The more formal types of written work , 
epitome, expansion and paraphrase. The preparation of syllabuses. Correction 
and valuation of written exercise. 

VIII. HANDWRITING. Cursive and print writing. The importance of 
blackboard demonstration. The Use of copy books. Capitalization, syllabifica- 
tion, indentation, the punctuation of abbreviations, underlining ; purpose and 
grading of transcription and dictation Attention to handwriting and arrange- 
ment of all kinds of written work ; spelling. 

IX. TRANSLATION Mainly for purposes of explanation as a remedial 
exercise to impress differences in grammatical structure. Translation as an art 
possible only in the highest clas* to a limited extent. Systematic exercises in 
translation correlated with the teaching of grammar. 

X LANGUAGE TESTS. Purpose of tests. Tests for measurement of achieve- 
ment and for diagnosis of individual defects. The applicability of the new 
examining technique (covering the mechanical aspects of language instruction). 
Tests of reading speed, pronunciation, comprehension. Tests of vocabulary 
an<l grammar. Handwriting scales. Composition scales. 



SYLLABUSES] B, ED. DEGBEE EXAMINATION :i75 

XI. THE ORGANIZATION OF ENGLISH TIUCHINC IN SCHOOLS. Time-tables 
and schemes of work. Syllabuses. Notes of lessons. Pictures and class 
libraries. Literary and debating societies. Library reading ami the use of 
works of reference. The running of school magazines and other forms of 
team work. 

(4) Methods appropriate to the Teaching of 
Optional Subjects.* 

(a) ALL SUBJECTS TO YOUNC, CHILDREN. 
I. Principles and methods of Child Study. 

History of Child Education with special reference to Rousseau, Pestalozzi, 
Froebel and Montessori. 

Experimental observation^ ; Physiological consideration , the child's 

instincts. 

Stages of child development study of exceptional children and methods 
of dealing with them. 

Pre-School Tests of Intelligence. 

II. A survey of recent experiments in methods of child education. 

Theories of play and play methods ; importance of play in the develop- 
ment of the child; free and organised play. Consideration of the choice of 
child's play-thing^, and occupation materials. 

III. Self-activity, continuity, i*onnectechiess and creativeness as guiding 
principles in early education. 

IV Sen c e training , its importance in the teaching of 

(a) Language, number and <pace. 

(b) Plant and Animal Life. 

(c) Class singing with special emphasis on rhythm , simple eurhythmies. 

(d) Drawing and handwork, 
(e/ Story and dramatisation. 

V. Correlation in the teaching of the various subjects, in the framing of 
syllabuses and time-tables and in the application of the project method. 

Books for Consultation 

Foster and Matteson : Nursery School Procedure. 
Gessel : Pre-school Tests of Intelligence. 
Ballard Practical Infant Teacher. 



e : The question papers on the special subjects- shall contain one 
compulsory question of Notes of lessons with enough choice of subject-matter. 



376 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL. II [CHAP. XLVl 

(b) MATHEMATICS. 
I. NATURE OF MATHEMATICS 
Subject-matter and methods, 

The relation of Mathematics to the applied sciences, logic and economics. 

Stages in the development of Mathematics , the experimental, the intui- 
tional, the systematic and the philosophical. 

The fundamental concepts of Elementary Mathematics. 

II. THE AIMS OK MATHBM*TICAL EDUCATION 
Practical, disciplinary, and cultural. 

III. HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS 

The value of the history of Mathematics. The history of the decimal 
sy-tem, negative, complex and irrational numbers, the function concept and tin* 
parallel po tulate. 

Contribution to the pedagogy of Mathematics by eminent educationists 
Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbert and Montessori. 

Modern tendencies in methods of teaching. 

IV. PSYCHOLOGY OK SCHOOL MATHEMATICS 

The psychology of drill, the equation and problem solving. 

V. METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS 

The heuristic, laboratory, analytic and synthetic, inductive and deductive 
and genetic methods. 

Logic.il and psychological methods of development. 

Mean > of -.ecunng speed and accuracy. 

Oral and written work. 

Graphical methods and illustrations 

VI. THK MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM AND THE ORGANIZVTION OF SCHOOL 
MATHEMATICS 

Principles governing the construction of syllabuses and assignments. 

The logical and the psychological sequence. 
The Concentric and Continuous Systems. 
The primary, lower and upper secondary stages. 
Specialization and the specialized course. 

The teaching of Arithmetic, Algebra and Geometry dealt with separately 
and in detail with regard to aim, matter and method. 



SYLLABUSES] B. HID, DEGREE EXAMINATION H77 

Correlation of Mathematical subjects and of those with the other school 
subjects. 

The Dalton Plan and the Project Method. 
Tests and Examination 4 . 

VII. EQUIPMENT FOR THB TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS 
Collection of data for problems 
Notes of lessons 

Vocational Mathematics With reference to local condition--. 
Text-books, their place and value. 
Mathematical libraries and laboratories. 

The elements of statistical methods. General acquaintance with frequency 
distributions, histogram and frequency polygon, measures of central tendency, 
measures of dispersion, standard score and co-efficient to correlation. 

Books fo { r Consultation :- 

1. The Technique of Teaching Secondary School Mathematics Earnst 

R. Breslich (The University of Chicago Press). 

2. The Teaching of Elementary Methematics J. W. A. Young (Longman's 

Green & Co). 

3 The Teaching of Arithmetic : Lennes (Macmillan & Co). 

4. The Teaching of Algebra T. P. Nunn (Longman's Green & Co). 

5. The Teaching of Geometry D. E. Smith (Macmillan & Co). 

6. The Ilibtory ol Mathematics, Vols. I and II D E. Smith (Giuu & Co). 

7. The Psychology of Arithmetic Thoindike (Mannillan & Co). 

8. The Psychology of Algebra Thorndike (Marmillan & Co) 

9. Fundamental Concept of Algebta and Geometiy J. W. A. Young 

(Macmillan & Co) 

(c) PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

A. Introductory 

Meaning and genesis of Science , utilitarian and cultural values of the 
Sciences , aims of teaching Science in the school three stages in the growth of 
a Science observational, heuristic and systematic and their characteristics. 

B. Elementary Science 

Place of elementary Science in the high school curriculum ; different stages 
of teaching Elementary Science with subject-matter, aims, and methods 
appropriate to each stage in relation to the mental equipment and development 
of the pupils in the various stages of school life. 

Object or observation lessons of the primary classes. Nature study lessons 
of Forms I to III, experimental science course of Form IV, information -lessons 
of Forms V and VI , object and mode of conduct of alternative courses. 

48 



378 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLVII 

Qualifications of the Elementary Science teacher ; principles of organisation 
of Elementary Science teaching with a view to secure co-ordination and correla- 
tion ; importance of maintaining Nature. Calendar, school gardens and 
museums ; planning and conducting excursions. 

C. Optional Phytict and Chemistry. 

Specialisation in Forms V and VI a sequence to Elementary Science 
teaching; principles of selection of subject-matter and organisation of teaching. 

Methods of instruction in the class-room : lectures with demonstrations, 
verification method, heuristic methocl and its limitations, logical and psycho- 
logical orders of development, historical method, projects and team work, 
individual work and supervised study, class-room teaching as class conferences ; 
judging quality of Work in the class-room, equipment of the class-room, home- 
work for pupils, provision for individual difference ; methods of securing co- 
ordination and correlating with laboratory practice, means of creating and 
sustaining interest. Importance of laboratory course in high school science, 
size of laboratory classes and their supervision, systems of laboratory Work, 
nature and number of exercise in a course, quantitative work and treatment of 
the results. 

Laboratory manual, laboratory note books and their correction, provision 
for backward pupils. 

Planning and equipment of a physical and chemical laboratory, design and 
size of the demonstration table and work benches, light and ventilation, fume 
cupboards, and utilisation of wall space. 

Laboratory arts work-shop practice, including wood and metal work, glass 
blowing, photography, making of lantern slides. 

Laboratory management, selection of laboratory and demonstration 
appliances, preparation of indents, care of apparatus, chemical and store-room 
laboratory registers. 

D. General. 

Scientific method, inference, analogy, deduction and induction, synthesis, 
and analysis their application in the teaching of Science, imagination, hypo- 
thesis, requisites of a good hypothesis, theory and law as applied to natural 
sciences, didacticism and scientific method, testimony and appreciation of 
authority. 

Framing of tyllabuses and time-tables, place of text-books, and reference 
books in high school science, class libraries. 

Medium of instruction, oral questioning, written and practical examinations 
as tests of proficiency, nature of questions and valuation, award of school 
marks. 



feYLLABUSBS] B. BD. DEGREE EXAMINATION 379 

(d) NATURAL SCIENCE. 

1. General. 

(a) Scope of Natural Science, its relation to other Sciences, aims of teaching 
Natural Science, acquisition of knowledge by discovery methods not merely 
verification of known facts but finding out by means of experiments-, the scienti- 
fic habit of thinking, the place of deductive reasoning in Science Values of 
teaching Natural Science, mental, ethical, emotional and practical. 

(b) Nature Study of Elementary Natural Science, aims of teaching plant 
and animal life in the lower forms, training powers of observation, comparison 
and reasoning, discovery of characteristics of life. In higher forms training of 
the mind by discovery of laws governing the activities of life, the organism and 
its environment, recognition of order in nature and understanding of the princi- 
ples of evolution, acquisition of useful knowledge. 

2. Methods. 

Observation and heuristic methods of teaching, the value of comparison, 
conducting experiments, individual work and demonstration, record of work, 
observations and inferences, hypotheses and verification. The Project and 
Dalton methods. Value of drawing and description. Choice of material, value 
of living specimens. 

3. Aids to teaching. 

(a) The school garden : how to maintain ; value in teaching, study of life- 
histories and other advantages. 

(b) School museum and herbarium ; their value in teaching, fitting and 
maintenance, selection of specimens, collection by teacher and by the pupils. 

(c) Charts, .diagrams and lantern shdes : preparation and value in teaching. 

(d) Excursions, their educational value, how to conduct excursions. 

(e) Text-books : their use and abuse. 

4. Preparation of ctursef of ttudy. 

The concentric system, general principles underlying schemes of lessons, 
choice of topics and material, more for training the mind than for information, 
importance of using objects in the immediate surrounding of the school, 
imparting of useful information in Human Physiology and Hygiene. 

5. Botany in the S.S.JL.C. Coune. 

Aims ; preparatory to the study of plants as a Science, acquisition of 
knowledge of the external features and functions of the parts of flowering 
plants, adaptation to external conditions, the principles of classification. 



380 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY OODB VOL. II [CHAP. XLVII 

(a) Study of external features ; importance of the study of actual speci- 
mens, personal observation of the pupils necessary, use of diagrams and descrip- 
tion and observation to be guided by the needs for classification. 

(b) Study of principles of classification ; individuals and species, recogni- 
tion of species and general to preceds study of families, grouping of species into 
genera and genera into families, relationship determined more by floral structure. 

(c) Study of functions : by observations and experiments, experiments to 
be carried by pupils, demonstration experiments, how to make pupils carry out 
experiments, scope of instructions to pupils successful and unsuccessful experi- 
ments, observations and inferences, record of experiments. 

(d) Adaptations : to be studied in relation to environment, importance of 
field study, correlation of structure and function, similarity in form as a result 
of similar conditions. 

<e) HISTORY. 
I. THE MEANING OF HISTORY 

What History is. What is meant by the philosophy of History. 

II. THE SCOPE OF HISTORY ' 

Economic, social, political and coi^titutional history The economic 
background of history. A plea for a unified social science course. The relation 
of history to other subjects. 

III. THE EDUCATIONAL VALUE OF HISTORY 

(*) Content : Comprehension of ethical and cultural idea . 

(it) Mental Discipline : Cultivation of memory, imagination, reason, 
and judgment. 

IV. THI AIMS OF TEACHING HISTORY 

(i) General : to make tlie pupils realize the progressive growth and 
development of,civilization, to create in them the historic and civic sense, and to 
inculcate a proper use of books and other sources of information. 

(it) Special : (1) In the Lower Classes to awaken interest, kindle 
imagination and foster memory. (2) In the Higher Classes to stimulate the 
critical faculty and train the pupils in individual and community work. 

V. THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF HISTORY 

(i) lit Selection : Local, Indian, European, and Worlcl History ; Ancient, 
Mediaeval, Modern, and Recent History. 

(it) Organiiatitn : Outlines and periods. 



SYLLABUSES] B. ED. DEGREE EXAMINATION 38l 

VI. THE METHODS OF TEACHING HISTORY 

(*') The Earlv Stage The oral lesson-- the Culture Epoch theory- 
chronological treatment the biographical approach the Great man theory 
the Narrative method vitalising the past by means of verbal illustrations and 
pictures dramatization drill. 

() The Latter Stage. (1) The Text-book lesson the Continuous vt. 
the Concentric system topical treatment concrete illustrations correlation 
With Civics, Geography and Literature (epic, ballad, poetrv, romance and novel) 
the Inductive method the operation of cause and effect the Spiral plan 
special lectures teaching History backward >. (2) Individual W'ork Learning 
by doing home lessons historical exercises library work collateral reading 
the study of documents and other sources the Dalton Plan thf solution of 
problems the Townsend Warner method the ct Research " method note 
making essay writing the preparation of maps, plans and sketches the con- 
struction of graphs, time-lines and charts. (3) Community Work' Civics taught 
through school organizations undertaking excursions the execution of project', 
the conduct of debates. 

VII. THE EQUIPMENT OF THL HISTOR\ LABORATORY 

Furniture, library and nureum maps, pictures and charts the camera, 
magic lantern, stereophcon, <-teieoveope, epidiascope, cinema, gramophone 
and radio. 

VIII. THE ORGANIZATION OF TEACHING WORK IN HISTORY 

The basis and construction of a syllabus teaching notes and notes of 
Je^sons supervision by the senior assistant New Type and Standardised Tests 
the examination system -Teacher's Conferences for the consideration of sylla- 
buses and methods. 

The vernacular as the medium of instruction. 

Books for Consultation : 

1. The Teaching of History (issued by the English Board of Education.) 

2. The Teaching of History and Civics by Bourne (Longmans). 

3. The Teaching of History (issued by the Cambridge University Press). 

4. Memorandum on the Teaching of History (issued by the Cambridge 

University Press). 

5. History and its Place in Education by Fmdlay (University of London 

Press). 



382 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [C^AP. XLVlt 

6. Tho Learning of History by Fifth (Kegau Paul). 

7. The Teaching of History by Hasluck (Cambridge University Press). 

8. How to Study and Teach History by Hinsdale (Appleton). 

9. The Teaching of History by Jarvis (Clarendon Press) 

10. Studies in the Teaching of History by Keatinge (Black). 

11. The Teaching of History by Klapper (Appleton). 

12. The Teaching of History (New Educator's Library). 

(f) GEOGRAPHY. 

1. The Nature of Modern Geography. 

A brief historical sketch of its growth and of its pedagogy. 

2. The subject-matter of Geography. 

Its scope regarded as a school subject. The value and place in the course 
of mathematical, physical, economic, historical and regional (including home) 
geography. The necessity for selection and the principles on which this should 
be based with special reference to the type of school (elementary or secondary) 
and the area in which it is situated (rural or urban). 

The possibilities of correlation with other subjects. 

3. The Value of Geographical Study. 

(a) Practical^ preparation for"everyday life individual and civic.* 

(b) Educational (i.e. in the school) ."As an ' approach ' subject in the 
early stages, and as a ' correlating ' and * outlook ' subject in the later stages. 

(c) Disciplinary : Mental training processes involved in the scientific 
method of study : observation, classification, generalization, comparison. 

(d) Culture : Breadth of outlook, depth of insight, and sympathy with 
lives of distant peoples, the world's workers. 

4. The aims of Teaching. 

(a) To develop a geographic outlook, and create an intelligent interest 
in the modern world. ,, 

(b) To secure a dexterity in the use of geographical material maps, 
blue-books, etc. 

5. Metkodt of Teaching. 

(a) The value of oral work, pictures, handwork and dramatization in the 
early stages. 



SYLLABUSES] B, ED. DEGREE EXAMINATION 383 

(b) The value and methods of teaching the following subjects : Maps 
and map-reading with special reference to methods of showing relief, drainage, 
climate, communications, human occupations, and distribution of population. 

Map-making: The use of chain, prismatic compass and plane-table in 
school surveying. 

The use of a simple form of level in practical contouring. 

The methods of recording temperature, pressure and rainfall data obtainable 
in school. 

The possibilities of collecting local data with regard to climate and crop 
statistics. 

The sources of information regarding industries, trade, crops population, 
etc. 

The method and value of teaching graphical representation of such infor- 
mation in maps, curves and diagrams. 

(c) The value and possibilities of out-door work in the different stages of 
school. Excursions, Laboratory methods. 

(d) Class Work : Oral teaching : its importance and limitation types 
of lessons causal relation, and place and value of geographical explanation 
questioning to test memory and provoke thought illustrations, maps, graphs, 
charts, pictures and models. 

(e) Individual work : 

(i) Use of text-books characteristics of good text-books. 

(ii) Collateral reading its purpose assignments and guidance 
sources of geographical information. 

(iii) Maintenance of note-books etc. 

(iv) Problems and exercise The project method. 

(f) Team work : Its value and possibilities. 

6. Organisation of Courser of Study. 

Construction of syllabuses, schemes of lessons, formal notes of lessons, 
teaching notes and lesson plans. Preparation of assignment. 

7. The Medium of In ft ruction in Indian Schools. 

Initial difficulties in the use of the mother-tongue, and how to surmount 
them ; technical words, text- books, maps, and atlases. 

8. Examination. 

Oral and written. Their aims and values, criticism of present methods ; 
recent methods of testing. 



384 THE ANDBRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLVII 

9. Geogrdphy Koom. 

Necessity for a separate room, its plan, geographical equipment and its 
use ; minimum essentials. 

10. Bibliography. 

Standard and recent hooks, maps, atlases etc. 

N.B. Candidates will be expected to give satisfactory evidence that they 
have had experience in leaching the subject, and to this end compulsory ques- 
tions on lesson notes, syllabuses and practical work will be s*et. 

(g) ONE LANGUAGE OTHER THAN ENGLISH 
(0 SANSKRIT : 

(a) General : Preliminary. 

Objects of teaching Sanskrit. The standard to be aimed at in Secondary 
Schools and Pre-collegiate Sanskrit Schools The position of Sanskrit iu India; 
its cultural and practical value. The inter-relations of Sanskrit and Indian 
Vernaculars. Comparison of Sanskrit and English, with particular reference t* 
their grammar and structure. Practical and theoretical study of Sanskrit. 

(b) Methods of Teaching. 

The translation method and the direct method as applied to Sanskrit 
study; traditional methods of Sanskrit study, the merits and defects, the 
external and internal difficulties of the Sanskrit Language and howbe^tto 
overcome them. 

(c) The Early Stages of Sanskrit Teaching. 

The sound of Sanskrit, detailed study of their production, the orgaoic 
and acoustic methods of study. Sanskrit sounds. The means of teaching them 
to pupils. The teaching of Sanskrit hand-writing; place of dictation and 
transcription ; translation. Reading and recitation. The Sanskrit text as the 
centre of instruction ; manner of exposition, means of extending the Sanskrit 
vocabulary. Inductive methods of Sanskrit teaching, Sanskrit grammar. The 
use of Sanskrit Kosas. 

(d) The Later Stages. 

The choice of Sanskrit texts. Lines of development in teaching the 
various aspects of Indian life. Correlation with the geography of Indian civili- 
zation and culture. Study of diction in Sanskrit texts ; types of Sanskrit 
composition. Sentence structure in Sanskrit. Paraphrase and translation with 
reference to Sanskrit. The Historical and Comparative Method of studying the 



SYLLABUSES] B. ED. DEGREE EXAMINATION 385 

Sanskrit language and literature. Study of Organization of Sanskrit teaching in 
English Schools ; consideration of time-tables ; formation of class libraries and 
general libraries. 

(ii) TELUGU: 

I. General. 

(1) The importance of the mother-tongue ; position of the vernacular 
in a scheme of general education ; vernacular as the medium of instruction ; 
relative importance of the mother-tongue and English as media of instruction , 
use of the mother-tongue in the various stages of education. 

(2) History of vernacular education in India; the village- school of the 
<>ld type intensive as opposed to the extensive study of the mother-tongue ; 
-.tudy of the mother-tongue in schools under the control of the Educational 
Department , present position of the vernaculars in the various tages of 
education. 

(3) Methods of teaching the mother-tongue ; the effect of teaching English 
side by side with the vernacular , influence of English on the pronunciation, 
dictation and expression of the morther-tongue. 

(4) Grammar Us place in the reformed methods of teaching modern 
languages ; the inductive method of teaching grammar ; correlation With text- 
books ; formal and practical grammar , function and form of words , word- 
order , sentence structure , analysis of sentences ; framing of grammatical 
rules by the inductive method , grammar drill , syllabuses of grammar for 
general guidance , place of formal grammar in the early stages , relative 
l mportance of instru* tion in grammar and drill in expression in the use of the 
mother-tongue. 

II. Telugu in the Primary stage. 

(1) Rural and urban schools , boys' and girls' schools , question of differ- 
entiation of courses of study. 

(3) Story-telling and reproduction , nursery fable, fairy tales, puranic 
stories and their importance in the successive years of the primary course. 

(2) Songs, verses, , nursery rhymes ; comiral ballads ; memorization of 
easy verses. 

(4) Writing Circles as the basis of the Telugu alphabet ; methods of 
teaching the Telugu alphabet , the traditional method : modern methods of 
teaching the alphabet; the ' gudinthamu ' and the method of teaching it: 
phonetics of the Telugu language ; defects of the Telugu alphabet and the 
' gudinthamu ' and methods of reform. 

4? 



386 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLVIII 

(5) Reading Knowledge of phonetics essential for correct pronuncia- 
tion ; defects of children acoustic and organic methods of rectifying them ; 
ordinary inability of children to pronounce the aspirates , distinction between 
s, sh : and s 1 ; k pronounced as t ; r as 1 ; distinction between c and ts , r and r' 
and so on. ' 

(6) Individual and group recitations, 

(7) Text books At what stage to be introduced ; text-books as the books 
of instruction in general knowledge and as a means of enriching the pupils' 
vocabulary ; literary standard of the text-book ; nature of text-books for rural 
and urban areas and for boys' and girls' schools. 

(8) Picture-reading and composition ; word and phrase books , composi- 
tion exercises and team work in composition. 

III. Telugu in the Secondary stage. 

(*') PRE-HIGH SCHOOL. 

(1) Storytelling and reproduction, puranic and historical wonder talcs 
of adventure and heroism ; stories of invention and discovery , lives of great 
men, 

(2) Songs and verses memorisation of easy portions of Telugu literature , 
individual and group recitation. 

(3) Reading and writing reading aloud ; copy-writing ; transcription. 

(4) Text-book' Prose and poetry; their varieties; correlation of text- 
books with the other subject'; ol school instruction. 

(5) Methods appropriate to the teaching of prose and poetry, detailed 
and non-detailed. 

(6) Picture-reading; composition- oral and written , nature of subjects 
for composition ; method* of correcting composition exercises. 

() HIGH SCHOOL. 

(1) Text-books: nature of material ; methods of teaching; memorisation 
and recitations ; dramatization. 

(2) Precis- writing and expansion of ideas; composition oral and 
written ; appreciation of literature ; training to speak on prescribed subjects. 



. 1 3] M.ED. DEGREE EXAMINATION &&1 

CHAPTER XLVIII. 

DEGREE; OF MASTER OF EDUCATION 

(/Regulations) 

1* The Degree of Master of Education may be conferred On who 
Upon : confarr< 

(1) persons who have passed the B, Ed, Degree Examination 
of this University and who are of not less than two years' standing ; 

(2) persons who are residents of or domiciled in the University 
urea and who have passed an examination accepted by the Syndi- 
cate as equivalent* to the B. Kd. Degree Examination of this 
University and who are of not less than two years' standing. 

If any question arises as to whftlnn- a person coming under 
clause (2) above, is a resident of or domiciled in the University area 
or not, the question shall be decided by the Syndicate and its deci- 
sion shall be final, provided that a candidate will not be considered 
as domiciled unless he has lived continuously within the University 
area for a period o not less than 2 years immediately preceding the 
date of submission of the thesis. 

2. The M. Ed. Degree shall only be awarded to candidates 
Who have submitted as a thesis work forming a distinct contribu- 
tion to the advancement of learning. Each candidate shall state in 
his application the subject or subjects within the purview of the 
Regulations for the Degree of Bachelor of Education, upon a special 
knowledge of which he rests his application for M. Ed. Degree, and 
shall with the application transmit three copies, printed or type- 
written, of the thesis. 

The application and thesis should be forwarded so as to reach 
the Registrar between 1st June ami 1st July of any year. 

3. The thesis must comply with the following conditions : 
(1) it must be satisfactory in respect of literary representation 

as well as in other respects and should be in a form suitable for 
publication ; 



* The following examination has been recognisd : 

L. T. Degree Examination of the Travancore University. 



388 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XL1X 

(2) the candidate shall indicate generally in his preface to his 
thesis and specialy in notes, the sources from which his information 
is taken, the extent to which he has availed himself of the work of 
others and the portions of the thesis which he claims as his original 
work ; 

(3) he shall further state whether his research has been con- 
ducted independently, under advice or in co-operation and in what 
respects his investigations or researches appear to him to tend to the 
advancement of learning. 

ination ^ The thesis shall be referred to three independent judges 

Siis appointed by the Syndicate who shall examine the thesis, who may 

examine the candidate orally if they so cleaire and who shall report 

individually whether the candidate's work is of sufficient merit to 
deserve the Degree. 

t of If the Syndicate, upon the independent reports of the judges, 

consider the candidate worthy of the Degree of Master of Education, 
it shall cause his name to be published with the subject of his 
thesis* 

5* Every candidate shall be at liberty to publish his thesis, 
The thesis of any successful candidate may be published by the 
University with the inscription " Thesis approved for the Degree 
of Master of Education in the Andhra University ". 



3. 1] M.B. & B.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 3$9 

CHAPTER XLIX 
DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY 

(Regulations.} 

1. Candidates for the Degree of Bachelor of Medicine and 
Surgery shall be required : 

(i) to have completed the age of seventeen years on or Age-limit 

before the date of admission to a College of Medicine for registra- sion*?^ 1 "" 

aion as medical students, unless specially exempted by the Syndicate collc : e 
from the operation of tbis rule ; 

(ii) to have passed the Intermediate Examination in Arts Preliminary 
and Science of this University, taking Physics and Chemistry, as churns 
two of the three optional subjects under Part III of the Intermedi- 
ate examination or an examination accepted by the Syndicate as 
equivalent thereto* ; provided however that students who com- 
menced their Intel mediate courses of study prior to July 1930 may 
be permitted to undergo the M.B.B.S. Degree course subject to the 
condition that they have passed the Intermediate examination in 
any three of the following subjects under Part III Physics, 

Chemistry, Mathematics, Botany and Zoology ; 



(iii) to have subsequently studied for a period of six months Pre-Regis- 
in a college affiliated to or recognized by the University, the sub min^if**" 
jects of Inorganic Chemistry, Physics and Biology and passed the 
Pre-Registration examination of this University or an examination 
recognized by the General Medical Council of Great Britain and 
Ireland and accepted by the Syndicate as equivalent thereto ; 

(iv) to have, subsequent to passing the Pre-Registration Five years' 
examination, been engaged for not less than five years in profes- X y ** 
sional study in a College of Medicine affiliated to or recognized by 
the University, provided that not less than two academic years or 
six terms of medical study, immediately preceding the Final M.B. 
& B,S. examination, be spent in attendance at the Andhra Univer- 
sity on courses of instruction in the subjects of the curriculum. 

*Vidc foot-note on the first page of Chapter XL. 



390 THE ANDrtRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, II [CHAP. 

Terms (v) The academic year shall consist of three terms, spring, 

autumn and winter. The spring term will extend from 1st 
January to 31st March, the autumn term from Jst July to 30th Sep* 
tember, and the winter term from 1st October to 31st December. 



Certifibatc of 

further 

study 



(Vi) In the case of the examinations, other than the Final, 
candidates who fail at the examination or having applied for 
admission do not appear for the examination or having obtained the 
prescribed certificate do not apply for admission to the examination 
although qualified to do so, shall be required to produce a certificate 
of further study for at least one term before appearing for the next 
succeeding examination. No candidate who failed in any one of 
(he clinical subjects of the Final M.B.I3.S. shall be permitted to 
appear again for the examination unless he puts in a further course 
of hospital practice in the subject, for at lest one term. 



Examina- 
tions twice 
a year. 



(vii) The examination shall be held twice a year in the 
months of April and December. 



Prc-Registration Examination, 

Courses of 2. A candidate for the examination shall undergo a course of 

examination B ^ U( ^y extending over a period of six months, and shall be examined 
in 

(a) Inorganic Chemistry (according to a syllabus), 

(b) Physics (according to u syllabus), and 
(c 1 ) Biology (according to a syllabus). 



oral. 



The examination in each subject shalll be written, practical and 



Preliminary 3. No candidate shall be admitted to the examination unless 

cations" ^e ^ as produced satisfactory evidence of having complied with the 

provisions contained in clause (ii) of Regulation 1 of this Chapter, 

and has produced the prescribed certificate. 



SBC. 2 8] M.B. & B.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 391 

4. Candidates who have passed the Physical or Natural Candidates 
Science group of the B.A., B.Sc., B.Sc. (Honours) Degree examina- 



turn of this University or of any other Indian University (where passing in 
practical courses and examinations are Lu-ld), accepted by the group 
Syndicate as equivalent thereto, shall not, however, be required to e Mg&teft>r 
produce the prescribed certificates for, or to pass in any of the 
subjects in which they have passed at the Degree examination. 
Such candidates shall, however, be required to pay the prescribtd 
fee for the whole examination. Candidates who have passed the 
examination with either Botany or Zoology as one of the optional 
subjects shall not be exempted from examination in Biology. 

5. A candidate for the examination shall be declared to have Marks 
passed the examination if he obtains not leas than 35 per cent of the fo^a pa B 
marks in the practical and not less than 35 per cent of the marks 

in the written and oral taken together in each of the subjects, 
Inorganic Chemistry, Physics and Biology. All other candidates 
shall be deemed to have failed in the examination. 

6. Candidates for the examination who fail but obtain 40 per Exemption 
cent in each of the (i) practical and (ii) written and oral in any examination 
subject shall be exempted from re-examination in that subject. * n subjects 

7. A candidate who after qualifying for admission to the Failure 
examination applies therefor and fails four times shall not be 
permitted to take the- Pre-Registration examination again. If a 
candidate, whose name has been registered for the examination, 
absents himself therefrom, he shall be deemed to have failed in the 
examination. 

8. Candidates who pass the whole examination on the first Classiftca- 
occasion of appearing therefor shall be ranked in the order of profi- succe^ful 
ciency as determined by the total number of marks obtained by candidates 
each and shall be arranged in two classes ; the first consisting of 

those who have obtained not less than fifty per cent of the aggregate 
number of marks, the second consisting of all the others. 

Candidates who pass in the first class and who obtain not less 
than sixty per cent of the marks in any subject shall be declared to 
have passed with distinction in that subject. 



392 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIX 

Candidates who pass the whole examination at a subsequent 
appearance shall be ranked only in the second class. 

All candidates who pass the examination subject by subject 
shall be ranked in the second class separately. 

First M. B. B. S. Examination. 

Courses of 9- A candidate for the examination shall undergo a course of 

examin" d study extending over a period of two academic years after passing 
utions the Pre-Registration examination and consisting of 

(1) Anatomy including the elements of human embryology 
and dissection of the entire body. 

(2) Physiology including Histology, Bio-Chemistry and 
Bio- Physics and experimental Physiology. 

(3) Organic Chemistry, extending over a period of one 
academic year. 

(4) Elements of normal psychology. 

(5) The normal reaction of the body to injury and infection 
as an introduction to general Pathology and Bacteriology. 

(t)) An introduction to Pharmacology, the last three not to 
occupy more than a third of the available time during the second 
year of study, and 

(7) Elements of the methods of clinical examination in- 
cluding the use of common instruments and examination of body 
fluids, with demonstrations on both normal and abnormal living 
subject. 

A candidate for the examination shall be examined in 

(a) Organic Chemistry (according to a syllabus). 

(b) Anatomy including elements of human embryology, am 

(c) Physiology including Bio-Chemistry and Bio-Physics 

(according to a syllabus). 

The examination in each subject shall be written, practical 
and oral. 



SBO. 9-13] M.B. & B.S. DBGBBB EXAMINATION 393 

10. No candidate shall be admitted to the examination unless Conditions 
he has passed the Pre- Registration examination of this University 

or an examination accepted by the Syndicate as ejuivalent thereto* tion 
and has produced the prescribed certificates. 

Candidates who have passed the B.A. (Honours) or B.Sc. 
(Honours) or M.A., or M.Sc. Decree examination witli Chemistry 
as the main subject or Org.mic Chemistry as the special subject in 
the case of degrees obtained by research, shall not, however, be 
required to produce the prescribed certificates of attendance for or 
to pass in Organic Chemistry. A similar concession shall be shown 
in the case of those who have passed the B.A., or B.So. Degree 
examination with Chemistry as the mam subject provided they 
have obtained not less than 50 per cent of the marks prescribed for 
Organic Chemistry. Applications for exemptions shall be made in 
each case. 

11. A candidate for the examination shall be declared to have Mark 
passed if he obtains not less than one-half of the marks in the 
practical and not less than one-half of the marks in the written 

and oral taken together in each subject. All othfr candidates shall 
be deemed to have failed in the examination. 

12. Candidates for the examination who fail but obtain passing Exemption 
marks in any subject shall be exempted from re-examination in p^ 8 ^a ect8 
that subject. 

13. Candidates who pass in all the subjects on the first Classifica- 
occasion of appearing therefor shall be ranked in the order of ^uccefsful 
proficiency as determined by the total number of marks obtained candidates 
by each and shall be arranged in two classes ; the first consisting 

of those who have obtained not less than seventy per cent of the 
aggregate number of marks ; the second consisting of all the others. 

Candidates who pass in the first class and who obtain not less 
than seventy-five per cent of the marks in any subject shall be 
declared to have passed with distinction in that subject. 

* The following examination has been recognised by the Academic Council 
in accordance with See. 33 (1) of the Act, as equivalent to the Pre-Registratioa 
Examination of the Andhra University : 

Pre-Reghtration Examination of the Sheffield University. 

50 



394 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIX 

Candidates who pass the whole examination at a subsequent 
appearance shall be ranked only in the second class. 

All candidates who pass the examination subject by subject 
shall be ranked in the second class separately. 

Second M. B. B. S. Examination. 

Courses of ^. A candidate for the examination shall undergo a course of 

study and study extending over a period of one academic year in Pharrna- 
ation cology, Hygiene and Public Health and Forensic Medicine, taken 

concurrently and subsequent to passing the First M. B. B. S. 

examination. 

The course in Pharmacology and Materia Medica shall include 
elementary Pharmacological Chemistry and Practical Pharmacy. 
The course including practical work should be taken concur- 
rently with courses of clinical instructions. 

The course of instruction in Forensic Medicine, Hygiene and 
Public Health shall include instruction in the duties which devolve 
upon practitioners in their relation to the State and on the gener- 
ally recognized rules of medical ethics. 

Admistion 15. No candidate shall be admitted to the Second M.B.B.S. 

examination unless he has passed the First M.B.B.S. examination of 
this University or an examination recognized as equivalent thereto* 
and has been engaged in medical studies at a Medical College recog- 
nized by the University for a period of two yean* after passing that 
examination. 

Before admission to the Second M.B.B.S. 'examination candi- 
dates shall present certificates of having completely attended the 
following courses to the satisfaction of the Head of the College. 

In Pharmacology including Elementary Pharmacological 
Chemistry and Materia Medica a course of lectures and demons- 
tration extending over three terms or one academic year. 

In Practical Pharmacy a course of demonstrations and practi- 
cal work extending over one term. 

The First M.B.B.S. Examination of the Punjab University. 



SEC. 1418] M,B. & B.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 395 

In Hygiene a course of lectures and demonstrations and prac- 
tical work extending over three terms or one academic year. 

In Forensic Medicine a course of lectures and demonstrations 
extending over three terms or one academic year. 

Candidates shall be examined in the following subjects : 

(1) Pharmacology Materia Medica and Practical Pharmacy 

and Pharmacological Therapeutics. 

The examination shall consist of 

One written paper of three hours' duration. 
Practical examination in Pharmacy as well as practical 
and oral test in Pharmacology. 

(2) Hygiene 

The examination shall consist 6f 

Cue written paper of three hours' duration. 
Practical and Oral examination, 

(3) Forensic Medicine 

The examination shall consist of 

One written paper of three hours 1 duration. 
Oral examination. 

16. A candidate for the examination shall be declared to have Marks 
passed the examination if he obtains not less than one-half of the 
marks in the practical and not less than one-half of the marks in 

the written and oral taken together in each subject. All the other 
candidates shall be deemed to have failed in the examination. 

17. Candidates for the examination who fail but obtain Exemption 
passing marks in a subject shall be exempted from re- examination 

in that subject. 



18. Candidates who pass the whole examination on the first 
occasion of appearing therefor shall be ranked in the order of 
proficiency aB determined by the total number of marks obtained by candidates 
each and shall be arranged in two classes ; the first consisting of 



396 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLU 

those who have obtained not less than seventy per cent of the 
aggregate number of marks, the second consisting of all others. 

Candidates who pass in the first class and who obtain not less 
than seventy-five per cent of the marks in any subject shall be 
declared to have passed with distinction in that subject. 

Candidates who pass the whole examination at a subsequent 
appearance shall be ranked only in the second class. 

All candidates who pass subject by subject shall be ranked in 
the second class separately. 

Final M.B.B.S. Examination 

19. A candidate for the examination shall undergo a course 
of study extending over nine terms or three academic years in 
Medicine, Surgery and Pathology and a course of study extending 
over a period of three terms or one academic year in Ophthalmo- 
logy and Obstetrics and Gynaecology taken concurrently and 
subsequent to passing the First M.B.B.S. Examination, and shall be 
examined in 

(a) Medicine. 
(6) Surgery. 

(c) Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 

(d) Ophthalmology. 

(e) Pathology and Bacteriology. 

Medicine : 20. The course in Medicine shall include 

Court e of 

i tll<Jy * n j* (a) A course of systematic instruction in the principles and 

practice of Medicine. 

i 

(b) Appointment for nine months as clinical clerk {n thd 
medical wards of a recognized hospital, of which at least two 
months shall be in the final year. 

(c) Appointment for three months as clinical clerk in the 
medical out-patient department of a recognized hospital. 



StiC. 1921] M.B. & B.S. DBGRBB EXAMINATION 397 

(d) Clinical clerkship for not less than one month in a 
children's out-patient department. 

Note. Each student during his period of clinical clerkship in 
the wards shall have continuously in his sole charge as clerk not less 
than five beds and during the period of medical ward clerking a 
continuous period of one month as an intern clerk during which 
period each student is in residence in hospital or close by. 

(e) Lectures or demonstrations in clinical medicine and 
attendance at general in-patient or out-patient practice during at 
least two years which may run concurrently with the surgical 
practice. 

(/) Instruction in Therapeutics and prescribing including 

(1) Pharmacological Therapeutics. 

(2) Methods of treatment by vaccine and sera. 

(3) Phyaio- therapy. 

(4) Dietetics. 

(5) Principles of nursing. 

(g) Instruction in Applied Anatomy and Physiology 
throughout the period of clinical study. 

(h) Instruction throughout the period of medical clerkship 
in Clinical Pathology. 

21. Every candidate for the M.U.B.S. Degree shall also attend 
recognized courses of instruction in the following subjects : 

(1) Infectious diseases with attendance as clinical clerk of 
a recognized hospital on two days in the week for a period of three 
months. 

(2) Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. 

(3) Tuberculosis with attendance as clinical clerk in a 
tuberculosis hospital or ward on one day in the week for a period 
of three months. 



398 



THE ANDHRA ttNlVBRSITt CODE VOL. II 



Surgery : 
Coarse of 
study and 
examination 



(4) Psycho- pathology and mental diseases with attendance 
as clinical clerk at a recognized hospital for mental diseases on one 
day in the week for a period of three months. 

(5) Diseases of the skin including leprosy with attendance 
at the special department on two days in the week for a period of 
three months. 

(6) Theory and practice of vaccination by a qualified Health 
Officer. 

(7) Radiology and Electro- therapeutics in their application 
to Medicine. 

Throughout the wholo period of study the attention of the 
student should be directed by the teachers of this subject to the 
importance of its preventive aspects. 

22. The examination in Medicine may include questions on 
the above-mentioned subjects but separate examinations in these 
subjects will not be held. 

23. The course in Surgery shall include 

(1) appointment for nine months as surgical dresser in the 

surgical wards of a recognized hospital of which at 
least two months shall be in the final year ; 

(2) appointment i'or three months as surgical dresser in the 

out-patient department of a recognized hospital. 

Note : Each student during his period of surgical dreseership 
in the wards should have continuously in his sole charge as dresser 
not less than five beds, and during the period of surgical ward 
dressing a continuous period of one month as intern clerk during 
which the student is in residence in hospital or close by. 

24. Every candidate for the Final M.B.B.S. Degree shall also 
attend recognized courses of instruction in the following subjects : 

(1) A course of systematic instruction in the principles and 
practice of Surgery. 



SEC. 2225] M.B. & B.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 399 

(2) Lectures and demonstrations in clinical surgery and 
attendance at general in-patient and out-patient practice during at 
least two years which may run concurrently with the medical 
practice. 

(3) Practical instruction in surgical methods including Phy- 
siotherapy. 

(4) Practical instruction in minor surgery on the living. 

(5) Instruction in the administration of Anaesthetics. 

(6) A course of instruction in Operative Surgery. 

(7) Instructions in Applied Anatomy and Physiology through- 
out the period of clinical studies. 

(8) Instruction throughout the period of surgical dressership 
in Clinical Pathology. 

(9) Instruction in diseases of the Ear, Nose and Throat in- 
cluding the use of otoscope, laryngoscope and rhinoscope with atten- 
dance as clinical clerk at a recognized clinic on three days in the 
week for a period of three months. 

(10) Radiology and Electro- therapeutics in their application to 
Surgery, 

(11) Venereal diseases with attendance at a venereal clinic for 
two days in the week for a period of two months. 

(12) Orthopedics with attendance at a recognized clinic on 
two days in the week for a period of three months. 

(13) Dental diseases. 

(14) Surgical diseases of infancy and childhood. 

25. The examination in Surgery may include questions on 
the above-mentioned subjects but separate examinations in these 
subjects will not be held. 

Throughout the whole period of study the attention of the 
student should be directed by the teachers of this subject to the 
importance of its preventive aspect. 



400 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIX 



Obstetrics 
and Gynae- 
cology : 
Course of 
study and 
examination 



26. The course of study in Obstetrics and Gynaecology shall 
include 

(1) A course of systematic instruction in the principles and 
practice of Midwifery and Gynaecology and Infant Hygiene includ- 
ing Applied Anatomy and Physiology of pregnancy and labour. 

(2) Lectures and demonstrations in Clinical Midwifery, 
Gynascology and Infant Hygiene and attendance on the practice of 
maternity hospital or the maternity wards of a general hospital 
including (i) antenatal care, (ii) management of the puerperium 
and on in-patient and out-patient gynaecological practice for a 
period of at least three months. 

N,B, This period shall be devoted exclusively to instruction 
in these subjects and should be subsequent to the medical clinical 
clerkship and the surgical dressership. Not less than two-thirds 
hours of the clinical instruction should be given to Midwifery 
including antenatal care and Infant Hygiene. 

(3) Of this period of clinical instruction not less than one 
month should be spent as a resident pupil either in a maternity 
hospital or in a hospital attached to a maternity hospital or to the 
maternity ward of a general hospital. The candidate should during 
this month attend at least 20 cases of labour under adequate super- 
vision. Should the number of cases attended during this month be 
less than 20, the remainder should be attended as soon as possible 
thereafter. 

27. A certificate showing the number of cases attended by the 
candidate in the maternity hospital or in the patients' homes 
respectively should be signed by a responsible medical officer on 
the staff of the hospital and should state (1) that the candidate has 
personally attended each case during the course of labour making 
the necessary abdominal and other examinations under the super- 
vision of the certifying officer and (2) that satisfactorily written 
histories of the cases attended by th candidates were presented to 
the supervising officer and countersigned by him, 

28. The course of study in Ophthalmology shall include 
Systematic lectures in Ophthalmology with attendance at an 



SEC, 2632] M.B. & B.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 401 

Ophthalmic hospital or Ophthalmic wards of a general hospital on 
three days in the week for a period of three months and shall 
include refraction and the use of Ophthalmoscope. 

29. The course o instruction in Pathology and Bacteriology 
shall be given throughout the period of clinical study and shall 
include 

(1) General and Special Pathology and Morbid Anatomy. 

(2) Clinical and Chemical Pathology. 

(3) Elementary General Bacteriology and Parasitology. 

(4) Clinical Bacteriology and Parasitology. 

(5) Immunology and Immunization. 

30. No candidate shall be admitted to Final M.B.B.S. Exami- Admission to 
nation unless- examination 

(1) he has passed the First M.B.B.S. Examination or an 
examination accepted by the Syndicate as equivalent thereto, not 
less than three academic years previously ; 

(2) he has passed the Second M.B.B.S. Examination or an 
examination accepted by the Syndicate as equivalent thereto, not 
less than one academic term previously ; 

(3) he has been engaged in Medical Studies at the Andhra 
University for not less than two academic years immediately 
preceding the examination ; and 

(4) he has produced the prescribed certificates. 

31. Before admission to the Final M.B.B.S. Examination, 
candidates shall present certificates of having satisfactorily attended 
the courses to the satisfaction of the head of the college. 

32. The subjects in which the candidates will be examined 
are as follows : 

(1) Medicine 
The examination shall consist of 

Two written papers, each pf two hour3* duration. 



402 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. n [OHAP. XLIX 

Clinical examination consisting of the following : 

(i) Examination of a patient and a report (written) thereon 
extending to at least one hoar. 

(ii) Short examination of two patients extending to at least 
half-an-hour. 

Practical and Oral examinations. 

(2) Surgery 
The examination shall consist of 

Two written papers, each of two hours 1 duration. 
Clinical examination consisting of 

(i) Examination of a patient and a report (written) thereon 
extending to at least one hour. 

(ii) Short examination of not less than two cases. 
Practical and Oral examinations bearing on Surgical 
Anatomy and Pathology. 

Use of surgical appliances. 
Operations on the cadavar. 

(3) Obstetrics and Gynaecology 
The examination shall consist of 

One written paper of three hours' duration. 
Clinical, Practical and Oral examinations. 

(4) Ophthalmology 
The examination shall consist of 
One written paper of three hours' duration. 
Clinical, Practical and Oral examinations. 

(5) Pathology and Bacteriology 
The examination shall consist of 
One written paper of three hours 1 duration. 
Practical examination and Oral examination. 



SBC. 33 #4] M.B. & B.S, DEGREE EXAMINATION 403 

33, A candidate shall be declared to have passed the Pathology Marks 
and Bacteriology Examination if he obtains not less than f or a pas f 
40 per cent of the marks in the written part, not less than 

50 per cent in practical and oral taken together, and not less than 
50 per cent marks in the written, practical and oral examinations 
taken together. 

In Medicine, Surgery, Ophthalmology and Midwifery no 
candidate shall be allowed to pass in any subject who fails to 
obtain 50 per cent of the marks assigned to the Clinical examination 
or who fails to obtain 40 per cent of the marks assigned to the 
written examination or who fails to obtain 50 per cent of the 
aggregate assigned to the written, practical and oral examinations. 

They shall not be declared to have passed the whole exami- 
nation until they have passed in all the subjects of the examination. 

34. Candidates who have appeared for the Final M.B.B.S. Exemption 

from re- 
examiuation either in part or whole shall be exempted from appear- examination 

ing in the subject or subjects in which they have passed and they 
may complete the said examination at a subsequent session or 
sessions by appearing in the subject or subjects in which they have 
failed, provided however that they pass in all the subjects within 
a period of two calendar years or in four consecutive examinations 
including the first appearance. 

Candidates who do not avail themselves of any exemption must 
also complete the examination within a period of two years from 
the date of first appearance. 

Candidates who fail to complete the whole examination within 
the above limit of two years or four consecutive examinations shall 
be required to appear again for all the subjects of the Final 
M.B.B.S. Examination. 

At the expiry of each period of two years or four successive 
examinations another period of the same duration will be applicable 
as regards the exemption in passing the examinations. 

Non-appearance at the examination during the period of two 
years shall be deemed as a failure to pass the examination for 
purpose of this regulation. 



404 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. 11 [CHAP. 



Classifica- 
tion of 
successful 
candidatei 



35. Candidates who pass the whole examination on the first 
occasion of appearing therefor shall be ranked in the order of 
proficiency, as determined by the total number of marks obtained 
by each in all subjects and shall be arranged in two classes : the 
first consisting of those who have obtained not less than seventy 
per cent of the aggregate number of marks, the second consisting 
of all the others. 

Candidates who pass in the first class and who obtain not less 
than seventy-five per cent of the marks in any subject shall be 
deemed to have passed with distinction in that subject. 

Candidates who pass the examination at a subsequent appear- 
ance shall be ranked only in the second class. 

All candidates who pass the examination subject by subject 
shall be i anked in the second class separately. 

Transitory Regulations 

36. Candidates who commenced their third year of medical 
studies in January 1939 shall appear for Pharmacology in 
December 1939 under Old Regulations and they shall proceed with 
their further studies under New Regulations and shall take the rest 
of the examinations under New Regulations. 

Candidates who commenced their third year of medical studies 
in July 1939 shall proceed with their further studies under New 
Regulations and shall take the Second and Final M.B. & 6.8. 
Examinations under New Regulations. 

Candidates who commenced their fourth or fifth year of 
medical studies in January or July 1939 shall proceed with their 
further studies under Old Regulations and shall take the rest of the 
examinations under Old Regulations. 

The following are the examinations to be held during the 
Transitory period between December 1939 to December 1941 to 
implement the new curriculum of studies : 

December ... All the examinations under Old 

Regulations. 



. 3536] M.B. & B.S. bBGRBB EX \MltfATIOtf 



405 



March-May 1940 



December 1940 : 
First M.B. & B.S. 



Second M.B. & B.S. 



All the examinations under Old 
Regulations. 

Examination in Organic Chemistry 
and Pharmacology to be held only 
for the benefit of referred candi- 
dates. 

(a) Anatomy and Physiology under 
Old Regulations. 

(6) Organic Chemistry under old 
Regulations to be held for the 
benefit of referred candidates. 

(a) Hygiene and Forensic Medicine 

under New Regulations. 

(b) Pharmacology under Old Regu- 

lations to be held for the 
benefit of referred candidates. 

(c) Pathology and Ophthalmology 

to be held under Old Regu- 
lations for the benefit of 
referred candidates. 

Final M.B. & B.S. ... Medicine, Surgery and Midwifery 

under Old Regulations. 

e. Candidates who appear for Final M.B. & B.S., Part I, as 
regular or referred candidates under Old Regulations will take the 
examination in that subject held under Second M.B. & B.S. (New 
Regulations). 

March-May 1941 : 

First M.B. & B.S. ,., Under New Regulations. 
Second M.B. & B.S. Under New Regulations. 
Final M.B. & B.S. ... Under Old Regulations. 
Note. Candidates who appear for Forensic Medicine under 
Final M.B. & B.S. (Old Regulations) shall take the examination in 
that subject held under Second M.B. & B,S. (New Regulations). 



466 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [C#AP. XLll 

December 1941 ... All the examinations under New 

Regulations. 

37. (1) Candidates who have been referred to their studies in 
one or more subjects of the First M.8. & B.S. Examination under 
Old Regulations prior to April 1941 shall take the examination 
under New Regulations in April 1941 in the subjects in which they 
have been referred and they shall thereafter continue the course of 
study under New Regulations. 

(2) Candidates who do not complete a pass in the Second 
M.B. & B.S. Examination under Old Regulations in December 1940 
or earlier will take the Second M.B. & B.S. Examination under New 
Regulations in April 1941 in the subjects of the Second M.B. & B.S. 
under New Regulations in which they have been referred to their 
studies along with Forensic Medicine ; successful candidates at that 
examination will take the Final M.B. & B.S. Examination under 
New Regulations in December 1941. Such of these candidates who 
have passed in Pathology or Ophthalmology or both in the Second 
M.B. & B.S. Examination held under Old Regulations shall be 
exempted from appearing in the subject or subjects in which they 
have passed while they take the Final M.B. & B.S. Examination 
under the New Regulations. 

(3) Candidates who are referred to their studies in the 
Final M.B. & B.S. Examination held in April 1941 for the last time 
under Old Regulations shall appear only in those subjects in which 
they have been referred in the examinations held under New 
Regulations. Such of these candidates who fail to complete the 
whole examination within a period of two years from the date of 
first appearance shall appear again for all the subjects of the Final 
M.B. %B.S. Examination under Old Regulations, viz., Forensic 
Medicine, Medicine, Surgery and Midwifery only in the correspond* 
ing examinations held under New Regulations. 

(4) Candidates who having been referred to their studies in 
any of the subjects under Old Regulations take the examination in 
the corresponding subjects under New Regulations shall undergo 
the additions to the courses of study in these subjects under New 



SYLLABUSES] M.B. & B.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 407 

Regulations, if any, while they are rp-engaged in the studies of the 
subjects as referred candidates. 

(5) Candidates for the M.B. & B.S. Degree who hail qualified 
for the L.M.S. Degree after a five years course, shall be exempted 
from re-examination in the subject in which they had obtained 
50 per cent of the marks and from the production of the additional 
attendance certificates in other subjects. 

SYLLABUSES. 

PRE-REGISTRATION EXAMINATION. 
INORGANIC CHBMISTHY. 

The whole 'ubject is to be treated in an elementary manner and with regard 
to the subsequent work of the student. 

The syllabus includes the subjects of the Intermediate examination with the 
addition of the following. 

Lectures . 

Atomic theory. Avogadro's law Equivalent atomic and molecular weights 
and their determination. 

Classification of the elements. 

Solution and such properties of liquids as diffusion, osmotic pressure, 
/ freezing and boiling points, electrical conductivity. 

Electrolysis. lonisation. Hydrogen-ion concentration. Relative strengths 
of acids and bases. 

Speed and reaction and the law of mass action. Hydrolysis in aqueous 
solution. Thermal dissociation. 

Catalysis. The colloidal state. Combustion. Heat of combustion and of 
formation. Heat of solution. Elements of Radioactivity. 

Simple calculations based on the foregoing. 

Practical Work. 

The determination of : Vapour density by Meyer's method ; Molecular 
weight by the freecing point and boiling point methods \ the solubility of a 
solid and of a gas ; partition co-efficient ; P.H of a solution by indicators. 

Quantitative analyses 

Gravimetric estimation of a sulphate and a phosphate. 
Pirect and indirect estimations by means of a standard acid or alkali. 



408 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIX 

Estimation of iron, oxalates, and hydrogen peroxide by potassium 
permanganate. 

Estimation of a chloride by silver nitrate and potassium chr ornate and by 
Volhard's thiocyanate method. 

Estimations by means of iodine and sodium thiosulphate, namely free 
halogens, sulphur dioxide, hypochlorites, and permanganates. 

Qualitative analyses- 

Identification of an element, a free acid or a base, or a salt containing not 
more than one basic and one acidic radical selected from the following : 

" Silver, Lead, Mercury, Bismuth, Copper, Arsenic, Antimony, Tin, 
Aluminium, Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Barium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potas- 
sium, Ammonium, Carbonate, Chloride, Iodide, Nitrite, Nitrate, Phos- 
phate, Borate, Sulphide, Sulphite, Sulphate, Thiosulphate, Arsenate, 
Chromate.' 1 

One book on qualitative analysis may be brought into the examination 
room by the candidates. 

Candidates will be required to write out a clear account of their practical 
work, accurately describing the nature of the process employed and where 
possible representing by equations the chemical changes involved. They will 
be further required to bring to the practical examination note books containing 
a record of their previous practical work. These note books must be certified 
by the teachers of the candidates as being the actual working notes made by 
them in the laboratory. 

PHYSICS 

The whole syllabus is to be treated in an elementary manner and with 
reference to the subsequent work of the student. The treatment will be mostly 
experimental and in no case will Mathematics be required beyond Elementary 
Algebra and Geometry. 

General Physics. Units and measurements of length, mass and time, and 
the derived units and measurements of velocity, acceleration, force, work and 
energy, power and efficiency. The laws of motion and conditions of equilibrium 
of bodies under the action of forces. Simple machine. Uniform circular motion 
and the centrifuge. 

The elements of hydrostatics including methods for the determination of 
densities. Elementary principles governing the flow of liquids in rigid and 
elastic tubes. Viscosity and surface tension and their measurements. 

Oas laws including the diffusion of gas and elementary ideas of the kinetic 
theory of matter. 



SYLLABUSES] M.B. & B,S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 409 

Heat. The effect of heat on bodies including thermometry, dilatation, 
change of state and calorimetry. Convection, conduction and radiation of heat. 
The relation between heat and work. 

Sound. The production, propagation and reception of sound waves. The 
measurement of velocity, frequency and wave length of sound. 

Light. Outlines of the wave theory of light including interference, 
diffraction, double refraction and polarization of light. Simple geometrical 
optics, including reflection and refraction at plane and curved surfaces. The 
range of electro-magnetic waves and various kinds of spectra. Optical 
instruments including the spectrometer, and photographic camera, the eye as an 
opitical instrument, the microscope and the polarimeter. 

Electricity and Magnetism. The elementary farts and phenomena of 
magnetism and static electricity. 

The production of electric currents and the chemical, magnetic and heating 
effects of them. Units and measurements of current strength, potential difference 
and resistance. Thermo-electric couples 

Electric-magnetic induction and RuhmkorfTb coil, Electric discharge in 
rareneld gases. Cathode and X-Ray. 

Practical Physic* Students are expected to have a practical knowledge of 
the following subjects : 

General. The use of graphs and diagrams. 

Elementary mensuration and mechanics. 

The use of a delicate balance, thermometers and the barometer. 
The use of the vernier, the screw-gauge and the spherometer. 
The determination of densities of solids, liqui<ls and gases. 

The use of the falling plate, Fletcher's trolley or Atwood's machine 
to determine g and n 

The simple pendulum. 

The determination of surface ttnsion by (a) the ri<e in .\ capillary tube, 
(b) the surface tension balance. 

The comparison of viscosities of liquids. 
that. The determination of melting and boiling points. 

The determination of the co-efficients of expansion of solids, liquids and 
gases. 

The determination of specific and latent heats by the method of mixtures 
and of specie heats by the method of cooling. 

52 



410 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIX 

The determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat. 

The use of hygrometers. 

Stund The use of the sonometer and resonating columns of gases. 
Light. The use of Photometers. 

The determination of focal lengths of spherical mirrors, thin lenses and 
combination of thin lenses. 

The determination of the wave length of light by a diffraction grating. 
The use of the polarimeter, the spectro-meter and the microscope 
Elictricity. The use of electric batteries. 
Mapping magnetic fields. 

The experimental proof of the Laws of Electrolysis. 
The measurement of resistance by the meter and the microscope. 

The comparison of E.M.Fs. by (1) Tangent Galvanometer. (2) the Potentio- 
meter. 

The use of the electrical calorimeter. 

The measurement of the conductivity of an electrolyte, 

The use of a Thermo-couple. 

BIOLOGY. 

The examination in Biology shall comprise the subject included in 
the following syllabuses which are intended only to indicate its general 
scope and character. 

A. General Biology 

The distinctive properties of living and non-living matter. 

The difference between animals and plants. 

The nature and properties of protoplasm. 

The structure of the cell ; Cell divisions and gametogenesis. 

Conjugation and fertilisation. 

Segmentation and formation of germ layers. 

Structure and function of animal tissues. 

B* Botany 

The structure, life-history, and physiology of Yeast, Bacteria, 
or other mould, Spirogyra, Chara, Fern. 



8TLLABU8ES] M.fc'. & B.S. DEGBEB EXAMINATION 411 

The elements of the morphology and physiology of the Angiosperms 
embracing (a) the structure (macroscopic and microscopic) of the root, stem and 
leaf ; (b) the structure of a typical flower and modifications of the type ; (c) the 
inflorescence, and the principal types of branching; (d) the structure and 
development of the seeds and embryo ; (e) the principal types of fruits; (f) the 
dispersal of seeds and embryo; (g) the main facts in relation to nutrition, 
growth and reaction to environments. 

The reproduction and life-history of Angiosperms. 

C. Zoology. 

The trticture, life-history and physiology of amoeba, paramaecium, 
Euglena, Hydra, Earthworm, Leech, Cockroach and the anatomy of Frog and 
Rabbit. (Only an elementary knowledge of the muscular system of the frog, 
and the muscular and nervou? system ol the rabbit will bn required.) 

An elementary knowledge of the more important types of animal parasites, 
Protozoan, and Metazoan, such as Eutamoeba, Trypanosomes, Plasmodiumi 
Liver fluke, Tape-worm, Roundworm, etc. 

The leading types of reproduction ni animals. The main features of the 
larval history and metamorphosis of the frog, the embryonic membranes and 
placenta of the foetus of the rabbit. 

The chief external characters and poison apparatus of the poisonous snakes 
of South India 

Variation, Heredity, Natural Selection, Evolution treated in an elementary 
manner. 

Practical Examination. 

Each candidate must be prepared to examine microscopically, to dissect 
and to describe the pecimen of parts of the animals and plants enumerated in 
the foregoing svllabus with the exception that for the <=kull of tke rabbit will 
be substituted that of the dog. 

FIRST M.B.B.S. EXAMINATION 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 

Methods of purifying organic compounds. Detection and the estimation of 
the constituent elements of organic compounds. Deduction of empirical formal. 
Determination of molecular formulae. Structural formula and isomomm. The 
constitution, and the characteristic reaction of aliphatic compounds as illustrated 
by the simple paraffin, olefine, and acetylene hydro-carbon, halogen derivatives 
alcohols, aldehydes, ketone*, acids, ethers, ester*. Glycol and its oxidation 
products. Discarboxylic acids, oxalic and malonic acids. Glycerol, fats and oils, 
soaps, hydroxy acids including the stereoisomori^m of lactic and tartaric acids. 



412 THB ANDtfRA UNIVERSITY CODB VOL. It [CHAP. XLIX 

Nitrogen derivatives including amides, amines, nitriles, iso-nitriles, and the 
esters of nitrons and nitric acids. Nitro-paraftms Urea Barbituric acid. The 
simpler amine acids including botaine. Xetonic acid and syntheses involving the 
use of aceto-acetic ester. 

The Benfcenoid hydrocarbons as illustrated by benzene and tolune, Halogen 
derivatives. Nitro compounds. Ami no compounds including an elementary 
study of the diazo reaction. Sulphonic acid';, Phenol, Benzyl alcohol. Benzal- 
dehyde, aromatic ketones, BenZoio, salicylic and cmnamic acids, and their 
important derivatives. Aromatic, arsenic and antimon) compounds. 

Elementary study of Naphthalene, anthracene and Phenanthrene and their 
important derivatives. Simple dyes, alkaloids, their classification, extraction, 
and general properties. An elementary study of important members of the 
pyridine, tropane, quinoline anil the Iso-quinolino groups. Simple terpene ,, 
and glucosides, Purine and Pyrimidino. 



List of Practical Exercises. 

1. Detection of elements in an organic compound : Carbon, hydrogen and 

nitrogen. 

2. Detection of halogens, sulphur and phosphorus. 

3. Reactions of hydro-carbons-Ligroin, amylene, benzene, naphthalene and 

anthracene. 

4. Fractional distillation and the study of the properties of alcohols : methyl 

alcohol'and benzyl alcohol. 

5. Reactions of aldehydes, chloral hydrate and ketones Formaldehyde, 

acetaldehyde, benZaldehyde, chloral hydrate, acetone and acetophenone. 

6. Reactions of acids Monocarboxylic Formic acid, acetic acid, benZoic 

acid, lactic acid and salicylic acid. 

7. Reactions of dicarbotylic acids. Oxalic acid, citnc acid, Phthalic acid. 

8. Reactions of esters and ethers Ethyl acetate, Ethyl aceto-acetate, ethyl 

benzoato, methyl salicylate, ether. 

9. Reactions of amines and amides ; Aniline, Methyl aniline dimethyl 

aniline, ace tarn ide. 

10. Reactions of glyctrol. 
It Urea. 

12. Amino acidi Glycine. 

13. Reactions of phenols ; Phenol, cressol, resorcenol, catechol, quinol, 

pyrogollol. 



SYLLABUSES] M.B. & B,S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 413 

14. Preparation of ether. 

15. Do. chloroform. 

16. Do. ethyl acetate. 

17. Do. acetamide. 

18. Do. a fatty acid from a fat ; oleio acid from olive oil 

19. Do. benZoic acid from toluene (Demonstration) 

20. Do. aniline from nitrobenzene (Demonstration). 

21 Do. Chloro-benzene by Sandmeyer's reaction (Demonstration). 

22. Do. acetanilide. 

23. Reactions of the more common alkaloids, quinine, strychnine, brucine, 

morphine and atropine. 

24. Identification of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, 

ox/gen and nitrogen. 

25. Saponification value, acid value, and Iodine value of a fat. 

ANATOMY 
First Year 

July to September ... ... Osteology of extremities and trunk dissec- 

tion of the extremity, upper or lower. 

October to December Osteology of vkull and face. General 

embryology. Dissection of one extre- 
mity, upper or lower. 

January to March Extremities and thorax. Developmental 

anatomy of the limbs and thoracic 
viscera. Dissection of the thorax. 

Second Year. 

fuly to September . ... Anatomy of the abdomen, developmental 

topographical and applied anatomy of the 
abdominal viscera, dissections. 

October to December .** 4.. Anatomy of the head and neck. Embryo- 
logy and applied and topographical 
anatomy. Dissections. 

January to Martk Anatomy and embryology of the nervous 

system nnd special sense organs. Dis- 
section of the human brain and Spinal 
cord and of bovine eye. 



414 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL. II [CHAP. XLIX 

A sufficient number of classes will be devoted to applied Anatomy. 

NoTB. The drmonstration of structure and function in the teaching of 
Anatomy and Physiology should be done as far as possible on the living human 
subject and should include the information to be obtained from Radiology. 



PHYSIOLOGY 
(Including Bio- Chemistry and Bio-Physics.) 

First Year 

Voluntary stiiated muscle. Structure, excitation of mu cle and other 
tissues. Chronaxie Mechanical rhane^e during contraction Thermal and 
chemical chonges Klt-clt ic.il Chang' 1 Plan mu cl< and other contractile 
ti snes 

Nerve fibies. Stiucture Excitation Conditions afff<_ting the pa, ^-nge of 
the nervous impulse Condition 1 ? affecting thfi excitability of nerve The 
nature of the ner\e impul e Transmission of excitatory state from nerve to 
effector tissue. 

Blood. Physical properties Coagulation Volume and its regulation. 
Emythrocytes, origin, life-history and functions Leucsocytes, varietie >, 
origin, life-shistory and functions Thromcbocytes, blood substitutes 
Blood groups. 

Defence against Infection Cellular mechanisms Chemical mechanism 
Anaphylaxis. 

The Circulatory System. General features , Heart Structure Contraction 
of the cold-blooded heart Properties of cardiac muscle Contraction of the 
mammalian heart Cardiac cycle Enclocardiac pre i sure, Cardiac impulse; 
heart Bounds Electro Cardiagram Output, Factors which modify heart's 
action Rate : Regulation of the heart Action of adrenaline. Heart reflexes. 
Coronary circulation Metabolism of cardiac muscle. 

Blood vessels. Blood pressure, arterial and venous Elementary hydro- 
dynamics of circulation Arterial pul^e Circulation through the capillaries 
Flow of blood in the veins, nervou- control of the blood vessels. Va^omotor 
refiexes, Chemical regulation of the Arterioles. Regulation of blood flow 
through the capillaries, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral circulation. 

Circulatory adaptation. Change during muscular exercise. Influence of 
variations in the total quantity of bloock 

Spleen Lymph. Tissue fluids and cerebro-spmal fluid. 

The Respiratory system. Histology Mechanics of the Respiratory move- 
ments Pulmonary ventilation Expired a^r, Aleveolar air. The exchange of 



SYLLABUSES] M.B. & B,S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 413 

gases in the lungs Exchange of gases in the tissues. Regulation of the respira- 
tory movement Effect on respiration of changes in the air breathed. Anoxia, 
Pressure conditions in the lungs, and thorax and their influence upon circulation. 

The Digestive system. Histology Saliva Mastication Deglutition 
Gastric Juice Movements of stomach: vomitting Pancreatic juice Bile 
Sucous entoricus Movements of intestine-, Gall bladder Absorption of food 

Second Year 

Urinary system. Hi'tology Function nf the glomeruli Function of the 
Rinal Tubules the adaption of the Renal functions Micturition. 

Skin. Structure and functions. 

Temperature cfthe body and its regulation Endoetines. T\\?, supra-renal 
bodie ,. The thyroid. Tho parathyroids. The pituitary body. Thymus. Mutual 
interaction. The internal secretion of the Testes and the Ovary. 

Central Nervous system Anatomy. Structure of spinal cord and tracts 
Structure ol the Medulla Oblongata -Structure of pon .varolii Structure of 
niidbrain connexions of the cranial nerves Diencephalon Structure and 
connexion'- of the cerebellum Structure and connexions of the Basal Ganglia 
Structure of the cerebrum Renex action Postural reflexes Tone of skeletal 
muscle Spinal reflexes Results following section of spinal cord Functions of 
cerebellum Functions of cerebrum motor and motor paths Premotor area and 
extra-pyramidal system. Sensations. Sensory areas. Sensory paths. Visual 
path Visual area light reflex Auditory path Auditory area Path for tasfp 
and smell. Centres for taste and smell Speech and aphasia Conditioned 
reflexes Sleep and consciou-. states Autonomic Nervous <ystem 

Special senses Vision. Structure of the eye-ball nourishment and protec- 
tion ol tli eve the optical system ot the eye. The infraction of the eye The 
retina The relationship) between stimulus and sensation The subjective 
phenomena <l vision Colour vision Binocular vi-ion. 

Hearing. Structure of the auditory apparatus. Theories, of hearing 
Phenomena of hearing. 

Cutaneous sensations. Smell and taste. 

Reproductory system. Male reproductive organs Structure and functions 
Female reproductive organs Structure and functions Cestrous cycle Mens- 
truation Pregnancy Parturition 

Secretion of milk. Sufficient importance is to be attached to applied 
Physiology during the course of the teaching. 

Junior Course in Experimental Physiology 

1. Simple experiment*? illustrating the use of electrical apparatus used in 
physiology. 



41G THE ANDHKA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIX 

2. Nerve muscle preparation Various methods of excitation of tissue. 

3. Simple muscle twitch 
(a) Time relations. 

(6) Influence of temperature. 

4. Effect of varatriiance on simple muscle twitch. 

5. Summation of stimuli and contractions. 

6. Genesis of tetanus 

7. Condition in nerve and transmission of nerve impulse in both directions. 

8. Velocity of nerve impulse. 

9. Frog's heart Observation of the sequence of events during the heart 
beat and recording the heart beat. 

10. Demonstration oi the effect of 

A. Heat and cold on 

(a) Sinus veno^us and 
() Ventricle. 

B The stannius ligatures. 

11, The physiological anatomy of mammalian heart. 

Senior Couise in Experimental Physiology 
Blood Human. 

1. A. Enumeration of Mood carpuscles 

(a) Red blood carpuscles 

(b) Leucocytes. 

B. Calorimetric estimation of percentage of Hb. Determination of colour 
index from the data obtained. 

2. Determination of coagulation time 
Bleeding time. 

Sedimentation time. 

3. Determination of specific gravity of blood- 
Fragility of R. B. C. 

Blood grouping. 

Cardio- Vascular System. 

4. Human 

A. Determination of blood pressure. 

(a) Arterial. 

(b) Venous. 



SYLLABUSES] M.B. & B.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 417 

B. Recording of pulse tracings. 
(a) Radical artery. 
(d) Carotic artery. 
(f) Jugular Vein. 

5. Amphibian Perfusion of the blood vessels of the frog and demonstration 
of tlie action of drugs. 

Heart. 

6. Human 

A. Physical examination of the chest. 

B. Cardiac efficiency tests. 

7. Amphibian Demonstration of the properties of cardiac muscle 

1st Stannius ligature. 

The all or nothing phenomenon. 

The summation of stimuli. 

8. (Contd.) Refractoiy period in beating heart, and in quiescent heart. 

9. Perfusion of the frog's heart and demonstrating the action of salts. 

10. Perfusion of the frog's heart and demonstrating the action of drugs. 

11. Action of vegus on the frog's heart and demonstrating the eflfect of 
atropine and nicotine. 

Respiratory System. 

12. ffuman Respiratory efficiency tests 

(a) Vital Capacity. 

(6) Manometer tests. 

(r) Endurance of fatigue tests 

(d) Artificial respiration. 

13. A. Analysis of respired air and 

B. Determination of R. Q. at rest and in exercise. 

14. Estimation of carbondioxide in alveolar air. 

15. Mammalian. Determination of alkali reserve by tstimating the 
carbondioxide combining power of plasma. 

16. Obtaining the dissociation curve of axy-hsemoglobim. 

Muscle. 

17. Amphibian The effect of after-loading and loading of musclt and 
calculation of mechanical work. 

18. Fatigue including neuromuscular fatigue in man. 

19. Demonstration of reciprocal innervation of antagonistic muscles. 

53 



418 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIX 

Human 

Electric stimulation of nerves in a man. 
Reflex action. 

Frog 

A. Decerebrate frog. 

B. Spinal frog. 

20. Human Demonstration of reflexes in man 
A.' Superficial. 

B. Deep. 

21. Special tense Human 

A. Dinection of eyeball (Bull's eye). 

B. Demonstration of changes in the lens during accommodation 
(Phakoscope). 

C. Use of ophthalmoscope. 

22. A. Determination of field of vision, for ordinary light and colours 

B. Test for colour vision. 

C. Tests for hearing. Webbels Rinne's. 

23. Skin sensations 

A. Light touch. 

B. Heavy touch. 

C. Tactile localization and discrimination. 

D. Heat and cold. 

List of Experiments for demonstration. 
1 Demonstration of the action of valves. Gad's experiment. 

2. Electrical variations in heart. Capillary electromotor. 

3. Perfusion of mammalian heart, and demonstrating the influence of 
temperature and the action of drag*. 

4. Demonstration of the cardiac output in mammalian heart. 

5. Innervation of mammalian heart. 

6. Destruction of A. V. bundle. 

7. Perfusion of rabbit's ear, and demonstrating the action of drugs. 

8. Recording the arterial pressure in mammals and demonstrating the 
effect of 

(a) Vagal and sympathetic stimulation, 
(6) Drugs. 
(c) Asphyxia. 
9- Velocity of arterial blood'flow in maminah. 



8f LLABtfgES] M.B. & B.8. DEGREE EXAMINATION 419 

10. Demonstration of electro-cardisgraph (in the hospital). 

11. Movements of stomach and intestine in mammals. 

12. Electrotonus and Pfluger's Law. 

13. Stimulation of anterior and posterior nerve roots in mammals. 

14. Cerebral localization. 

BIO-CHEMISTRY 

A. Applied Organic Chemistry : Chemistry of proteins, fats and Carbo- 
hydrates and related compounds % 

(i) Proteins - Elementary composition, general properties and reactions, 
Structure, Ammo acids, analysis and characterization, classification. Nucleo- 
proteins. Components of nucleic acid, chemistry of punnes and pyrimidines. 

(ii) Fats (Lipides) Classification Simple hpides and compound lipides, 
theii structure, reactions and physiological importance. Cholesterol. Its struc- 
ture, reactions and metabolism. Physiological and clinical importance: Relation 
to other sterols, bile acids, sex hormone^, etc. 

(ni) Carbohydrates, Monosaccharide^ di-saccharides and polysaccharides. 

B. Chemistry of digestion of food. 

Digestion in the mouth, stomach and intestines. Gastric analysis and its 
clinical application. Pancreatic juice. Bile. Van den Bergh reaction, Succus 
entencus. 

C. Bacterial decomposition and food in the intestines. Formation of basic and 
phenolic substances Indian and etherial sulphates. Intestinal stasis. Faeces. 

Metabolism of proteins Fats of absorbed anuno-acids. Synthetic reac- 
tions. Combustive metabolism. Leamination and Urea formation. Urea clearance 
test. Urinary ammonia, its origin and significance. Creatine and creatinine. 
Their chemistry and metabolism. Importance in Physiology and Medicine. 
Metabolism of nucleo-proteins. Uric acid. Metabolism of fat. Role of the 
Liver. Fatty acid oxidation in the body. Ketogenesis and antiketogeaesis. 

Metabolism of carbohydrate : Storage and utilization of sugar. Endocrine 
factors. Carbohydrate utilization during muscular contraction. Blood sugar 
and its regulation Glucose tolerance test and its ue in clinical medicine. 
Glycosuria beniga, experimental and pathological. Diabetes mellitus. 

Energy exchanges. Basal metabolism. Effect of food and work on meta- 
bolism. Metabolism during starvation. 

Nutrition Nitrogen equilibrium and protein requirement. Biological 
value of protein^ Energy requirement, requirement of fats and carbohydrates 



iSO THE ANDftftA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. XLIX 

Mineral requirement, metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, 
chemistry, source and daily requirement. 

Chemistry of blood : Haemoglobin and its derivative'-. Plasma proteins. 
Other constituents of plasma and corpuscles. Acid-base equilibrium. 
Chemistry of respiration. Transport of oxygen and carbondioxide. 

Oxidation and reduction in the tissues. Tissue respiration. Chemistry of 
muscles. Cerebrospinal fluid. Urine. Detoxication and chemical protection of 
the body against injurious substances. 

Practical Bio-Chemist i y 

Experiments on the properties and reactions of proteins, laU and carbo- 
hydrates. 

Composition of some common foodstuffs, experiments on salivary and 
gastric digestion. Analysis of gastric contents following a test meal. Pancreatic 
juice. Blood : Haemolysis . fragility of red blood corpuscles. Haemoglobin and 
its derivatives. Spectroscopic examination of blood. Chemical test , for blood. 
H semi a and hainiochromogen crystals. Haemoglobin crystals. 

Urine. Constituents of normal urine. Examination of urine for common 
abnormal constituents. 

Identification of unknown substances of physiological importance. 
Quantitative analysis : Estimation of common sugars by any simple method 
Quantitative determination of some of the important constituents of blood. 
Sugar, Urea chloride, ndn-protein, nitrogen, uric acid and creatinme. 

Estimation of urea, chloride and phosphate in urine, titrable acidity and 
ammonia. 

Elementary normal psychology. Introduction to Pathology and Bacteriology 
and introduction to Pharmacology. The Professor of Medicine, Professor of 
Pathology and the Lecturer in Pharmacology respectively will deal with the 
above subjects in a very elementary manner in not more than six meetings 
(Lectures and Demonstrations) for each subject. These can conveniently be 
spread over the second year of study. 

Elements of the methods of clinical examination, including the use of 
common instruments (stethoscope, ophthalmoscope, etc.) and examination of the 
body fluids, with demonstration on the normal and abnormal living subject, 
taught by the Professor of Physiology, Biochemistry and Medicine. 



SYLLABUSES] M.B. & B.8. DEGREE EX\MINATION 421 

Second M. B. B. S. Examination 

The course in Pharmacology consists of lectures, demonstrations in experi- 
mental Pharmacology and Practical Pharmacy, the aim being to impart a 
general knowledge ol the mode of action of drugs treated from an experimental 
point of view. 

The lectures are devoted chiefly to the discussion of tho effect of drugs and 
poisons on the ti^bues of man and animals and how the o effects may be 
utilised to relieve or cure disease. The total number of lectures shall not be 
less than 35. The general scheme of the lectures shall be as follows 

The mode of action of drugs treated from an experimental stand -point. 
Phat macology of the Central Nervous System. 

Alcohol: General anaesthetics, Hypnotic^ of the methane series; 
Bromides ; Opium and Cannabis indica. 

The Cafieine group Camphor , strychnine. 

Peripheral Nervous action Curage group ; nicotine group ; Belladonna 
group , pilocarpine group, Aconite and Veralme. 

Local Aneesthetic: Cocane and its substitutes ; Hydrocyanic acid. 

Pharmacology of the Genito- Urinary system. 

Diuretics and urinary antiseptics. 

Ergot : Hydrastics. 
Gland Secretions. 

Adrenalin , Pituitary extract , Thyroid extract , Parathyroids and Insulin. 

Pharmacology of the Circulation. 
Digitalis group. 

Pharmacology of the Vessels. 

Vaso-constnctors and Vaso-dilators. 

Pharmacology of respiration* 

o Stimulants , Depressants, Anti-spasmodics ; Expectorants; Saponins. 
Ipecacuanha; Respiratory disinfectants. 

Pharmacology oj the Alimentary Canal 

Bitters: Volatile oils; Purgatives; Astringents; Emetics; Enthelmimtics. 

Pharmacology of Temperature regulation** 
Antipyretics , Salicylates. 



422 TftE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP* XLlX 

Drugs acting on the excretion of Uric Acid.-~ 
Colchicum ; Atophan. 

Skin ir fit ants and Counter -irritation. 
Antiseptics and disinfectants. 

Drugs acting on metabolism, 
Phosphorus. 

Specific Theraphy. 

Cinchona alkaloids ; Mercury; Arsenic, Bismuth and Antimony. 

Ion action and Salt action. 
Certain Positive ions. 

Hydrates and Carbonates of the Alkalies Soap. 

Certain Negative ions. 
Acids. 

General action of heavy metals. 

Iron ; Silver ; Zinc , Copper , Lead , Aluminium , Manganese ; Chromium, 
Gold, Radio-active metals. 

Ferments. Sweetening agents , Demulcents and Emollients. 

Vitamins. 

Prescription writing , Incompatibility ; Synergism ; Antagonism. 

The physical and chemical properties of the drugs considered only in so far 
as -they concern their action and the methods of administration. A selection 
of the more important pharmaceutical preparations. 

Demonstration in Experimental Pharmacology shall be used to illustrate 
the lectures as far as practicable, and for this purpose the class shall be divided 
into sections so that each student may see some of the effects of drugs actually 
occurring. The total number of demonstrations to each batch shall not b less 
than 25. 

Instruction in Practical Pharmacy shall be given in batches ; the total 
number of meetings for etch batch shall be not less than 20. In the practical 
class the student shall be instructed to prescribe some of the more important 
drugs dealt with in the lectures, and to dispense his prescriptions. 

Filial M. B. & B. S. Examination 

MENTAL DISI.AS&S 

The course of mental diseases shall comprise instruction in the following 
typs of disorder : 

<i) Failure of Mental Development. 

Idiocy ; Imbecility ; Weak-mindedness. 



SYLLABUSES] M.B. & B.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 423 

(ii) ManiaDepressive Insanity. 

Mania; Melancholia; Stupor; Alternating and Circular conditions. 

(iii) Delusional Insanity and Paranoia. 

(iv) Dementia 

Primary or Adolescent (D. pracox) ; Consecutive or Termin ; 
Organic ; Para-Syphilitic (G. P. I.) ; Senile. 

(v) Insanity due to drugs- 
Alcohol ; Indian Hemp ; Opium and its derives ; Cocaine ; Lead* 

(vi) Epileptic Insanity. 

(vii) Hysteria and Psychasthenia. 

(viii) Exhausion Psychoses- 
Port Febrile Insanity : Acute Delirium ; Neurasthenia. 

(ix) Epochal Insanities 

Insanity of Puberty and Adolescence ; Insanity of the child-bearing 
period ; Insanity of Climacteric ; Insanity of old age. 

(x) Mental disorder, associated with physical diseases Diseases of the 
Thyroid Gland; Polioencephalitis Syphilis, Tubercle, Nephritis, 
Diabetes and Gout. 

(xi) The Medico-Legal and Social relationships of Insanity, 
(xii) General Treatment. 



424 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. L 

CHAPTER L. 

DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MEDICINE AND MASTER OF 

SURGERY 

(Regulations') 
(1) Degree of Doctor of Medicine 

Admission 1. (a) No candidate shall be admitted to the examination for 

the Degree of Doctor of Medicine unless he produces a certificate 
showing that : 

(1) having passed the M.B. & B.S. Degree examination 

of this University, he has been engaged for 
three years continuously in the practice of the 
medical profession ; or 

(2) after qualifying for the M.B. & B.S. Degree, ho 

has passed two years in hospital practice ; or 

(3) having passed the M.B. <fe B.S. Degree examination 

in the first class, he has passed one year in 
hospital practice. 

(&)' Each candidate must also produce a testimonial, signed 
by at least two Doctors of Medicine, two members 
of any of the Royal College of Physicians, or two 
Masters of Surgery, or two Fellows of any of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, or two members of the 
Senate of the Andhra University, certifying that 
he is in habits and character a fit and proper person 
to receive the Degree of Doctor of Medicine. 

(c) Candidates who have qualified for the M.B. B.S. 
Degree of a University recognized by the Medical 
Council of India and which Degree has been accepted 
by the Syndicate as equivalent to the M.B.B.S. 
Degree of this University, shall be permitted to 
appear for the M.D. Degree Examination of this 
University provided 

(i) they have qualified for the M.B.B.S. Degree 
three years prior to their admission to the 
M.D. Degree examination ; 



SBO. 1] M.D. A M.S. DEGREE EXAMINATIONS 425 

(ii) they put in a course of one academic year at 
least in an institution or institutions affiliated 
to this University ; and 

(iii) that reciprocal recognition is given by the 
University concerned. 

Provided however that as a temporary measure fnd for a period 
of five years from the date of passing this regulation an L.M.S. 
Degree holder of the Andhra University may be permitted to appear 
for the M.D. Degree Examination of the University on the following 
conditions : 

(i) That the candidate produces satisfactory evidence of 
having been regularly engaged iii the practice of 
medicine for a period of not less than five years 
subsequent to obtaining the L.M.S. Degree ; 

(ii) That the candidate produces satisfactory evidence of 
having taken an approved course or courses or of 
having held a medical appointment at one or more 
of the hospitals attached to a college of Medicine 
recognized by or affiliated to this University for a 
period of not less than one year immediately 
preceding the date on which he has applied to be 
admitted to the Examination of the M. D. Degree ; 

(iii) That the candidate produces a certificate signed by the 
President of the Faculty of Medicine or Chairman of 
the Board of Studies in Medicine and by the Medical 
Officer in. charge of the hospital in which he has 
taken the course at which he has held an appointment 
as approved in clause (ii) above, that the work in 
which he has been specially engaged in the said 
hospital is a suitable preparation for the particular 
branch of the M. D. Degree Examination for which 
he selects to appear. 



426 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. I* 

Branches 2. Candidates shall be examined in one of the following 



Branch I Medicine including Tropical Medicine 
(a) Medicine one paper ; Tropical Medicine one paper. 
(ft) Pathology and Bacteriology one paper. 

(c) An essay in one or two subjects in Medicine. 

(d) Axlinical and oral examination, including an examina- 
tion in Pathological specimens. 

Branch II Pathology including Bacteriology 
(a) Pathology two papers. 
(&) Medicine including Tropical diseases one paper. 

(c) An essay in one or two subjects in Pathology. 

(d) A practical and oral examination including the 
examination of Pathological specimens. 

Candidates 3. A candidate who has passed the examination in one branch 

may qualify ma y a pp eari on a subsequent occasion, in another branch, but no 
branches candidate may appear Cor the examination in two branches in the 
same year. 

4. Candidates shall be approved by the examiners and shall 
be declared to have passed, if they have shown a competent 
knowledge in all the subjects of the examination. All other 
candidates shall be deemed to have failed in the examination. 

(it) Degree of Master of Surgery 

Admission 5. (a) No candidate shall be admitted to the examination for 

the Degree of Master of Surgery unless he produces a certificate 
showing that : 

(1) having passed the M.B. & B.S. Degree examination 
of this University, he has been engaged for three 
years continuously in the practice of medical 
profession ; or 

(2) after qualifying for the M.B. & B.S. Degree examina- 
tion he has passed two years in hospital practice ; o? 



2 5] M.D. & M.S. DEGREE EXAMINATIONS 427 

(3) having passed the M.B. & B.S. Degree examination 
in the first class, he has passed one year in hospital 
practice. 

(6) Each candidate must also produce a testimonial, signed 
by at least two Doctors of Medicine, or two members 
of any of the Royal College of Physicians, or two 
Masters of Surgery, or two Fellows of any of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, or two members of the 
Senate of the Andhra University, certifying that he 
is in habits and character a fit and proper person to 
receive the Degree of Master of Surgery. 

(c) Candidates who have qualified for the M. B, B. S. Degree 
of a University recognized by the Medical Council of 
India and which Degree has been accepted by the 
Syndicate as equivalent to the M. B. B. 8. Degree of 
this University shall be permitted to appear for the 
M. S. Degree examination of this University provided 

(i) they have qualified for the M. B. B. S. Degree three 
years prior to their admission to the M. S. Degree 
examination ; 

(ii) they put in a course of one academic year at least in 
an institution or institutions affiliated to the 
University ; and 

(iii) that reciprocal recognition is given by the University 
concerned. 

Provided however that as a temporary measure and for a 
period of five years from the date of passing this regulation 
an L. M. S. Degree holder of the Andhra University may be 
permitted to appear for the M. S. Degree examination of the Univer- 
sity on the following conditions : 

(i) That the candidate produces satisfactory evidence of 
having been regularly engaged in the practice of 
medicine for a period of not less than five years 
subsequent to obtaining the L. M. S. Degree ; 



428 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LI 

(ii) That the candidate produces satisfactory evidence of 
having taken an approved course or courses or of 
having held a surgical appointment at one or more 
of the hospitals attached to a College of Medicine 
recognised by or affiliated to this University for a 
period not less than one year immediately preced- 
ing the date on which he has applied to be admitted 
to the Examination of the M. S. Degree ; 

(iii) That the candidate produces a certificate signed by 
the President of the Faculty of Medicine or 
Chairman of the Board of Studies in Medicine and 
by the Medical Officer in-charge of the hospital in 
which he has taken the course at which he has 
held an appointment as approved in clause (ii) 
above, that the work in which he had been specially 
engaged in the said hospital is a suitable prepara- 
tion for the particular subject of the M. S. Degree 
Examination for which he selects to appear. 

Subjects for 6- Candidates shall be examined in 

CxM&inft tion 

(1) Surgery one paper. 

(2) Surgical Anatomy and Pathology one paper. 

(3) One of the following special subjects one paper 
(i) Ophthalmology. 

(ii) Venereal and Genito-Urinary Surgery, 
(iii) Aural and Laryngeal Surgery. 

(4) An essay in General Surgery. 

(5) Operative Surgery and the use of Instruments. 

(6) A clinical and oral examination including the 

examination of Pathological specimens. 

Approved 7. Candidates shall be approved by the examiners and shall 

c * ei be declared to have passed, if they have shown a competent 
knowledge in all the subjects of the examination. All other 
candidates shall be deemed to have failed in the examination. 



SBC. 1 #] O. T. EXAMINATIONS 429 

CHAPTER LI. 

ORIENTAL TITLES AND CERTIFICATES OF 
PROFICIENCY 

(Regulations) 

1. The following examinations other than the Degree of Examination 
Master of Oriental Learning shall be conducted in the Faculty of 

Oriental Learning : 

(i) Titles : (a) Vidya Praveena, (b) Bhasha Praveena, 
(c) Aliin-i-Fazil and (d) Munshi-i-Kamil. 

(ii) Certificates of Proficiency in the Modern Methods of 
study. 

2. The titles shall be as follows : 

Vidya Praveena, added to Mimamsa, Vedanta, Nyaya, Vya- Names of 
karana or Sahitya according to the special branch of study selected * es 
by the candidate who has offered for his examination Sanskrit 
alone. 

Bhasha Praveena in the case of a candidate who has offered 
for his examination (a) any one of the following modern Indian 
languages : Telugu, Kannada, Oriya and Hindi and (&) Sanskrit. 

Alim-i'Fazil in the case of a candidate who has offered for his 
examination Arabic alone *. 

Munshi-i-Kamil in the case of a candidate who has offered for 
his examination Persian as the principal language, and Urdu as the 
subsidiary language, and also possesses an elementary knowledge 
of Arabic Grammar *. 

3. Candidates for the Vidya Praveena title shall offer for Subjects 
their examination Sanskrit alone ; and those for the Bhasha 
Praveena title (a) any one of the following modern Indian 
languages : Telugu, Kannada, Oriya and Hindi and (d) Sanskrit. 

* No examination for Alim-i-Fazil and Munshi-i-Kamil titles are held after 
April 1933, as there is no recognised institution presenting candidates for the 
examinations from 1934. 



430 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, II [tlHAP. 



Examina- 
tion 
Preliminary 
and Final 



Coarse of 
studies 



Candidates for the Alim-i-Fazil title shall offer for their 
examination Arabic alone ; and those for the Munshi-i-Kamil title, 
Persian as the principal language and Urdu as the subsidiary 
Language. 

Course of 4. The course of studies for the examination for Titles shall 

extend over four years and shall be taken in an institution or 
institutions approved by the Syndicate. 

5. The examination for Titles shall be divided into two parts 
viz. preliminary and final the preliminary examination in a 
specified portion of the course at the end of the second year and 
the final in the remaining portion of the course at the end of the 
fourth year. No candidate shall be admitted to the final course 
until he has passed the preliminary examination. 

(a) Vidya Praveena 

6. (i) The course of studies shall be as follows : 
A. GENERAL. 

(a) The History of Sanskrit Language and Literature. 

(b) Prescribed text- books. 

A. ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING SPECIAL BRANCHES OF STUDY , 

(a) Branch I Mimamsa Group. 

(b) Branch II Vedanta Group. 

(c) Branch III Nyaya Group. 

(d) Branch IV Vyakarana Group. 

(e) Branch V Sahitya Group. 

General part (") For the preliminary examination, the course in the 

general parts shall comprise 

(a) Prescribed text-books relating to the elements of 

Vyakarana for candidates taking up Branches I, II 
and III only, of Tarka for candidates taking up 
Branches IV and V only and of Mimamsa for all. 

(b) Prescribed text-books chosen from among the Mantras, 

the Brahmanae, the Upanishads, the Grihya and 
Dharma Sutras and Smritis. 



SBC. 46] O. T. EXAMINATIONS 431 

For the final examination, the course in the general part shall Special part 
comprise the History of Sanskrit Language and Literature. 

(iii) The course in the special part shall consist of one of the 
following branches of study taken by the candidate : 

Branch I. Mimamsa Group. 

Preliminary Examination : Prescribed Text-books relating to 
Purvamimamsa, Veda, Srauta and Dharmasastra. 

Final Examination : (a) Prescribed text-books relating to 
Purvamimamsa. (6) The application of Mimamsa to Vedic exegesis 
and to the proper comprehension of the social and the legal aspects 
of the Dharmasastras. 



Branch II. Vedanta Group. 

Preliminary Examination : (a) Prescribed text-books relating 
to the Bhashya Prasthana of one of the three South Indian 
Schools of Vedanta, viz., Advaita, Visistadvaita and Dvaita ; and 
(b) prescribed text-books relating to Yoga, Sankhya and the 
elements of the three South Indian Schools of Vedanta. 

There shall be two papers, one on (a) and the other on (b). 

Final Examination : (a) Prescribed text-books relating to the 
Bhashya Prasthana of one of the three South Indian Schools of 
Vedanta, viz., Advaita, Visistadvaita and Dvaita ; and (b) prescribed 
textbooks relating to the Vada Prasthana of one of the three 
South Indian Schools of Vedanta. 

There shall be two papers on the books prescribed under 
(a) and one paper on the books prescribed under (b). 

Branch III. Nyaya Group. 

Preliminary Examination : Prescribed text-books relating to 
the Nyaya and Vaisesika Darsan^s including select portions of 
furvavada., 



432 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LI 

Final Examination : Prescribed text-books relating to Nyaya 
and Vaisesika Darsanas including select portions of Uttaravada and 

of the Sabdabodha works in Nyaya and Mimamsa. 



Branch IV. Vyakarana Group. 

Preliminary Examination : Prescribed text-books relating to 
advanced Vyakarana, including select portions of standard commen- 
taries on the Sidhantakaumudi. 

Final Examination -.Prescribed text-books relating to advanc- 
ed Vyakarana, including Sabdabodha works in Vyakarana and 
select portion of the M'lhubhusya and standard commentaries on 
the Sidhantakaumudi. 

Branch V. Sahitya Group. 

Preliminary Examination : Prescribed Kavyas and Natakas 
and a simple work in Poetics and a prescribed portion in Grammar. 

Final Examination : (ci) Prescribed text-books relating to 
Grammar including Prakrit Grammar, Prosody and Poetics ; and 
(b) prescribed text-books of an advanced character, relating to 
Alankara Sastra. 

There shall be one paper on the books prescribed under (a) and 
two papers on the books prescribed under (&). 

(iv) Vidya Praveena Examination 

Ouest-* on ( a ) * n ^ e P re ^ m ^ nar y examination there shall be in the 

papers general part two papers on the prescribed text-books ; the first paper 

being on those mentioned in Section 6 ii-(a) and the second on 

those mentioned in Section 6 ii-(b) supra and, in the special part, 

two papers on the prescribed text- books. 

(ft) In the final examination, there shall be in the general 
part one paper on the History of Sanskrit Language and Literature 
and in the special part, there shall be three papers on the pra- 
gcribed text-books, 



SBC. 7] O. T. EXAMINATIONS 433 

(b) Bhasha Praveena 

7. (t) The course of studies shall be as follows : 
A. Modern Indian Language* 

For the preliminary Examination (a) prescribed text-books Course of 
in Sravya Kavyas, Drsya Kavyas, Grammar and Prosody and 
(ft) Composition in Modern Indian Language. 

For the final Examination, (a) prescribed text-books relating to 
Sravya Kavyaa, Grammar, Prosody and Poetics, (6) the History of 
Modern Indian Language and Literature and (c) An intensive 
study of a special period of Modern Indian Language literature to 
be prescribed from time to time. 

B. Sanskrit. 

For the Preliminary examination, prescribed Sravya Kavyas, 
Drsya Kavyas, applied Prosody and Poetics and elements of 
Sanskrit Grammar. The text-books prescribed under this head 
shall, as far as possible, be included in those that are prescribed 
for the Preliminary examination under Branch V Sahitya Group 
Vidya Praveena Course. 

Provided that in the case of Bhasha Praveena examination 
-courses with Hindi, some books of prose and poetry in Sanskrit shall 
be prescribed in the place of Sanskrit Grammar. 

For the Final examination, elements of Sanskrit Grammar. 
The text-books prescribed under this head shall as far as possible 
be included in those prescribed for the Final Examination under 
Branch V Sahitya Group Vidya Praveeua Course. 

Provided that in the case of Bhasha Praveena examination 
courses with Hindi, some books of prose and poetry in Sanskrit shall 
be prescribed in the place of Sanskrit Gram mar. 

*The following change Will come into effect as from the examinations of 
1944: 

For the Preliminary Examination, (a) Textbooks prescribed for detailed 
study in Sravya Kavyas, Drsya Kavyas Grammar and Prosody; and 
() Composition on text-books prescribed for non-detailed study, m Modern 
Indian Language. 

55 



434 



THE ANDHBA. UNIVERSITY CODB- VOL. II [CHAP. LI" 



Question 
papers 



Course of 
studies 



(n) The Examination shall be aa follows : 

* In the Preliminary examination, there shall be three papers 
on the prescribed Text-books and Composition in the Modern Indian 
Language and two papers on the prescribed text-books in Sanskrit. 

In the Final examination there shall be four papers in the 
Modern Indian Language and one paper in Sanskrit, 

(c) Alim-i-Fazil 

8. The following shall bo the course of studies for the title 
Alim-i-Fazil : 
Preliminary 

The couryes of study shall consist of 
I. Tafsir and Hadith. 
II. Fiqh, Aqaid and Mantiq. 

III. Prose Text- books. 

I V . Poetry Text-books. 
V. History. 

VI Translation from Arabic into Urdu and from Urdu 
into Arabic. 

Text-books will bo proscribed from time to time. 

Final 

The course of study shall content of 

I. Tafeir and Hudilh and llmul Hadith. 

II. Fiqh, Usulul-Fiqh. 

III. Prose Text-books. 

IV. Poetry Text- books. 
V. History. 



*This sentence will read as follows as from the examinations of 194-4: 

" In the Preliminary Examination, there shall be three papers in Modern 
Indian Language the first and second set on the text-books prescribed for 
detailed study and shall include questions on Grammar and Prosody, and the 
third set in Composition on text-books prescribed for non-detailed study an4 
two papers on the prescribed text-books in Sanskrit. 



8BC. 89] O. T. EXAMINATIONS 435 

VI. Translation from Arabic into Urdu and from Urdu 
into Arabic, 

VII. Mantiq and Balaghat. 
VIII. Composition. 
Text-books will be prescribed from time to time. 

(d) Munshi-i-Kamil 

9. The following shall be the course of studies for the title Course of 
MitnsM-i-Kamil : stadie<: 

Prel imin ary 

The courses of study shall consist of Persian as the Main 
language and Urdu as the Subsidiary language, together with a 
text-book in Arabic. 

Persian as the Main subject will include 
I. Persian Prose. 
H. Persian Poetry. 

III. Translation from Persian into Urdu and vice versa. 

IV. Composition in Persian. 

Urdu as the Subsidiary subject will include 
I. Urdu Prose. 
II. Urdu Poetry. 
Text-books will be prescribed from time to time. 

Questions on Grammar may be put in the examination paper 
on the text-books. 

final 

The courses of study shall consist of Persian aa the Main 
language and Urdu as the Subsidiary language, together with a 
text-book in Arabic. 

Persian as the Main subject will consist of 
I. Persian Prose, 
II. Persian Poetry. 



Setting and 
answering 
of papers. 



Admission 
test : Vidya 
Praveena 
and Bhasha 
Praveena 



436 THE ANDtiRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [crtAP. Ll 

III. Translation from Persian into Urdu and vice verm. 

IV. History of Persian Language and Literature. 
V. Composition in Persian. 

Urdu as the Subsidiary subject will consist of 

I. Urdu Prose. 
II. Urdu Poetry. 

'Text- books will be prescribed from time to time. 

Questions on Grammar may be put in the examination papers 
on the text-books. 

10. All the papers in the examination for titles shall be set 
and answered in the respective languages to which they relate. 
Devanagari script shall be used for Sanskrit. 

11. No person shall be permitted to enter upon any of fore- 
going Vidya Praveena and Bhasha Praveena courses df study unless 
he has passed the prescribed Admission Test. 

Candidates seeking admission to the Vidya Praveena courses 
of study shall be required to have passed the Admission Test con- 
ducted by the Education Department and obtained from the Depart- 
ment a certificate of fitness for admission to the said courses. 

Candidates seeking admission to the Bhasha Praveena courses 
of study shall be required to have passed either the Admission Test 
conducted by the University or the one conducted by the Education 
Department. 

The Admission Test conducted by the University shall consist 
of three papers, each of three hours' duration, two papers in the 
selected Modern Indian Language and one in Sanskrit, each carry- 
ing 100 marks. The paper in Sanskrit shall be set in Sanskrit 
and answered in the selected Modern Indian Language. 

Of the two papers in the Modern Indian Language, the first 
paper shall be set on prescribed text-books and the other on Com- 
position and Precis in the selected Modern Indian Language and 
translation from Sanskrit into that language. The paper in Sanskrit 



&EC. lO 13] 0. T. EXAMINATIONS 437 

shall be set on the prescribed text-books including (in the caan of 
those intending to take Languages other than Hindi for the Bhasha 
Praveena courses of study) some questions of elementary nature on 
Applied Grammar. x 

Candidates obtaining .not less than 35 per cent of the total marks 
in each language and 40 per cent in the aggregate shall be certified 
eligible for admission. 

12. No person shall be permitted to enter upon Munnhi-i- Admi 
Karnil and Alim-i-Fazil courses of study unless he has passed the 



prescribed admission test. Kamil and 

^ Abm-i-FaZi) 

In the case of candidates selecting courses of study for Munshi- 
i-Kamil the text-books shall be tho name as those prescribed for 
Persian and Urdu as an advanced second language under Part III of 
the Intermediate Examination. There will be two papers, each of 
three hours' duration. The first paper shall be on prescribed text- 
books in Urdu including translation from Urdu into Persian. The 
second paper shall be on text-books in Persian including translation 
from Persian into Urdu. 

In the case of candidates selecting courses of study for Alim-i- 
Fazil, the text-books shall be the same as those prescribed for Arabic 
as an advanced second language under Part III of the Intermediate 
Examination. There will be two papers, each of three hours* 
duration. The first paper shall be in the prescribed text-books in 
Arabic and Grammar. The second paper shall consist of questions 
on translation from Arabic into Urdu and vice versa with a question 
on Composition in Arabic. 

The answers in respect of these admission tests should be Answering 

TT j f papers 

written m Urdu. 

Candidates obtaining not less thaa 35 per cent of the marks in 
each of two papers and 40 per cent of the marks in the aggregate 
shall be certified eligible for admission. 

13. No person shall be permitted to enter upon the courses of Certificate of 
study prescribed for the titles, Alim-i-Fazil and Munshi-i-Kamil, fttness 



THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, It [C&AP. LI 



Condition^ 



tjpital 

Branches or 
.anguagg 



unless he has obtained a certificate of fitness from the head of the 
approved institution which he proposes to enter. 

14. Candidates who have qualified under the regulations of 
tn * B Chapter for Titfes in Oriental Learning may continue their 
studies under the same regulations in order to qualify further (i) for 
the same title in an additional branch or in an additional language, 
^ ^ ^ other titles without passing the entrance test prescribed 
therefor under the following conditions : 

GENERAL 

(i) No candidate who has qualified for a title will be admitted 
to any further examination for a title, except after the expiry of 
two years from the date of passing the last preceding qualifying 
examination provided that candidates who have qualified for (1) the 
Vidya Praveena Title in any one of three South Indian Schools of 
Vedanta included in Branch If or (2) one of the title in Arabic or 
Persian shall be admitted to a further examination (a) in any 
other South Indian School of Vedanta, or (b) in the other title 
in Arabic or Persian after the expiry of one year from the date 
of pas&ing the last preceding qualifying examination. 

(ii) Applications for exemption from the production of the 
prescribed certificates shall be forwarded so as to reach the 
Registrar before the 1st October preceding the examination. 

(iii) No candidate who has already proceeded to a title and 
has been awarded his diploma shall be admitted at Convocation a 
second time to the same title, notwithstanding that he rnay have 
qualified in an additional branch or in an additional language ; an 
endorsement will be made upon his diploma setting forth the 
further examinations passed by him, the dates of such examinations 
and the class in which he was placed. 

(iv) A candidate shall be declared to have passed any of the 
examinations held under this regulation which are not specifically 
referred to as Preliminary, if he obtains not less than 40 per cent 
of the total marks in that examination. Of the successful candidates, 
those %who obtain not less than 60 per cent of the total number of 



SEC. 14] O. T. EXAMINATIONS 439 

marks shall be placed in the first class ranked in the order of 
proficiency as determined by the total number of marks obtained 
by each, those who obtain not less than 50 per cent of the total 
number of marks in the second class, and the vest in the third class, 

SPECIAL 
(i) Vidya Praveena. 

A candidate who has qualified for the Title of Vidya Praveena 
in any one of the special branches of study may further qualify in 
any other branch by passing in one and the same year an exami- 
nation in such branch consisting of question papers Bet that year in 
the special part only for both the Preliminary and Final Exami- 
nations in that Branch provided that, in the case of candidates who 
have already qualified in one of the three South Indian Schools of 
Vedanta and seek to qualify in any other South Indian School of 
Vedanta such further examination in the special part alone shall 
consist only of all papers except that relating to (b) in the 
Preliminary Examination. 

(ii) Vidya Praveena and Bhasha Praveena. 

\ candidate who has qualified for the Title of Vidya Praveena 
may further qualify for the Title of Bhasha Praveena by passing the 
examination for that title in accordance with the regulations, 
provided that he shall be exempted from examination in Sunskrit 
and r4iall be required to take the whole examination in the Modern 
Inihiin language in one and the same year. 

(iii) Bhasha Praveena. 

A candidate who has qualified for the Title of Bhasha Pra- 
veena may qualify in an additional language by passing the 
examination in such language according to the regulations ; 
provided that he shall take the whole examination in one and the 
same year. 

(iv) Ubhayabhasha Praveena- A and Vidya Praveena. 

A candidate who has qualified for the title of Ubhayabhasha 
Praveena Part A, under the Old Regulations, may further qualify 
himself for the title of Vidya Praveena Sahitya Branch after the 



440 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODB VOL. II [CHAP. LI 

expiry of one year by passing the examination for that title in 
accordance with the regulations subject to the following condi- 
tions ; - 

(i) that he shall not be required to pass the Entrance Test 
prescribed for the Vidya Praveena Sahitya Branch ; 
and 

(ii) that he shall answer all the papers of both the 
Preliminary and Final examinations in the same 
year provided that a candidate who secured in 
Sanskrit at the Ubhayabhasha Praveena Examina- 
tion Part A, 30% of the total marks prescribed 
therefor, shall be exempted from answering 1 the 
corresponding papers when he appears for Vidya 
Praveena examination. 

(v) Ubhayalhasha Praveena A and Bhashu Praveena. 

A candidate who has qualified for the title of Ubhayabhasha 
Praveena Part A, under the Old regulations may further qualify 
himself for the title of Bhasha Praveona in accordance with the 
regulations, provided that he shall be exempted from examination 
in the Sanskrit Part it he had secured 30 per cent of the total 
marks in Sanskrit at the Ubhayabhasha Praveena examination in 
the year in which he passed in that examination and he sball be 
required to take the whole examination in one and the same year. 

(vi) Ubhayabhasha Praveena B and Bhasha Praveena. 

A candidate who has qualified for the title of Ubhayabhasha 
Praveena Part B, under the Old Regulations may further qualify 
himself for the title of Bhasha Praveena in a selected Modern Indian 
Language by passing the examination both in Sanskrit and the 
selected language ; provided, however, that he shall be exempted 
from examination in the selected language if he had obtained 
35 per < ent of the marks in it at the Ubhayabhasha Praveena 
examination in the year in which he passed in that examination 
and he shall be required to tajse the whole examination in one and 
the same year, 



SEC. 15] O. T EXAMINATIONS 441 

15. The Syndicate shall have tho power to grant exemption Exemption 

from the production of either or both of the annual certificates of fro 

r certificates 

attendance required by candidates for the Oriental Title Examina* 

tions, provided that the candidate 

(1) is at the time of the examination at least twenty-five 

years of aofe, subject to the provision that this age 
rule shall not apply in the case of (i) women candi- 
dates or (ii) candidates who, after setting themselves 
qualified for one Oriental Title, wish to appear for 
another examination in Oriental Titles or a Certifi- 
cate of Proficiency in Oriental Learning, or 
(iii) candidates who have passed the B.A. Degree 
Kxamination of this University or an examination 
recognised as equivalent thereto; 

(2) is certified by the head of an approved institution, or 

by a member of the Board of Studies dealing with 
the subject or language offered for the examination, 
or by a Mahamahopadhyayu or a Shamsul-ul-ulama 
or by any other competent scholar recognised by the 
Syndicate to be qualified by his attainments to appear 
for the examination in the following form : 



te for exemption. 
\ hereby certify that to the best of my knowledge and 
belief will have completed his twenty-fifth 

year before the date of the next Oriental Title Kxamination, and 
that he is qualified by his attainments to appear for the examina- 
tion. 

Station. 

Date. r Sign<tturc and Designation. 

Applications for exemption under this regulation must be 
forwarded so as to reach the Registrar before the 1st October 
preceding the examination. 

56 



442 



THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LI 



Marks 
qualifying 
for a pass 
in V. P. 
Munshi-i- 
Kamil and 
Alinvi- 
Fazil Exa- 
minations 



16. A candidate shall he declared to have passed the prelimi- 
nary examination if he obtains not less than forty per cent of the 
total marks in that examination, provided that in the case of Vidya 
Praveena examination, he shall also obtain not loss than thirty per 
cent of the marks in the paper on the prescribed text-books 
mentioned in section f> ii-(n) xupra, and a candidate shall bo 
declared to have passed the final examination if he obtains not less 
than forty per cent of the total marks in that examination. t All 
other candidates shall be deemed to have failed, 



Classification 

of successful , 

candidates three classes: 



Successful candidates in that examination shall be arranged in 



Marks 
qualifying 
for a pass 
111 B P. 
examination 



Classifica- 
tion of 
successful 
candidates 



The first, consisting of those who obtain not less than sixty 
per cent ranked in the order of proficiency as deter- 
mined by the total number of marks obtained 
by each ; the second, of those who obtain not less than 
fifty per cent ranked in the order of proficiency as 
determined by the total number of marks obtained 
by each ; and the third, of those who obtain not less 
than forty per cent of the total marks. 

A candidate shall bo declared to have passed the Preliminary 
examination if he obtains nut lean than thirty- five per cent of the 
total marks in Sanskrit and not less than forty per rent of the total 
marks in the Modern Indian language in one or separate examina- 
tions. 

\ 

A candidate shall be declared to have passed the Final 

Examination if he obtains not less than thirty- five per cent of the 
total marks in Sanskrit and not less than forty per cent of the total 
marks in the Modern Indian language in one or separate examina- 
tion. All other candidates shall be deemed to have failed. 

Out of candidates who pass in both the languages Sanskrit 
and Modern Indian language of the Final course, in one and the 
same examination, those who obtain not less than sixty per cent 
of the total number of marks in both the languages shall be placed 
in the first class and ranked in the order of proficiency as deter- 
mined by the total number of marks obtained by each, those who 



SBC. 16] O. T. EXAMINATIONS 44$ 

obtain not less than fifty per cent of the total number of marks 
in both the languages in the second class and ranked in the order 
of proficiency as determined by the total number of marks obtained 
by each, and the rest in the third class. Those who obtain not 
less than sixty per cent of the total marks in Sanskrit or the 
selected Modern Indian language shall be declared to have gained 
distinction in that language. 

Candidates for the Final, who obtain the prescribed number of 
marks in each language in separate examinations and are declared 
to have passed tho whole examination, shall be placed in a separate 
list ia the third class. 



Transitory 

It shall be competent for the Syndicate to grant exemption 
to candidates who have passed the Ubhayabhasha Praveena A or B 
Preliminary Examination in 1937 or earlier to appear tor tho 
Ubhayabhasha Praveona Final Examination under the Old Regula- 
tions in 1938 or 1939. In no case, however, shall the Ubhaya- 
bhasha Praveena Final Examination under the Old Regulations b 
conducted after tho year 1939. 

For the benefit of candidates who fail in Ubhayabhasha 
Praveona Preliminary examination (Groups A, B and 0) in 1935 or 
oarlior, tho Ubhayabhaeha Praveena Preliminary examination under 
the Old Regulations (i.o , in force up to the examinations of 1935) 
will be held in March April of 1936 and 1937 under the old time- 
tables. Similarly for the benefit of candidates who fail in Ubhaya- 
bhasha Praveena Final examination (Groups A, B and 0) in 1937 
or earlier, tho Ubhayabhaaha Praveena Final examination under 
the Old Regulations (i.o., in force up to the examinations of 1937) 
will be hold in March-April of 1938 and 1939 under the old time- 
tables. The text-books and syllabuses for the Preliminary 
examinations of 1930 and 1937 and for the final examinations ot 
1938 and 1939 shall be the same as those prescribed for the Preli- 
minary and Final examinations of 1935 and 1937 respectively. 



444 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CfAP. LI 

No examination for the Ubhayabhaeha Praveena examination 
(Preliminary and Final) under the Old Regulations shall be held 
as from the examinations of 1938 and 1940 (Preliminary and Final) 
respectively. 

Candidates who failed in Ubhayabhasha Praveena Part A or 
fe examination under the Old Regulations shall be permitted to 
appear for Bhasha Praveena examination under the Now Regula- 
tions provided thoy offer for the Bhasha Praveena examination 
the same languages in which they appeared for the Ubhayabhasha 
Praveena examination. 

2. Certificate of Proficiency in Oriental Learning. 

Subjects fot 17. Candidates for CertihVates shall offer for their examina- 

examination sub j ects : __ 



(1) Literary Criticism as applied to Sanskrit Literature, 

according to a syllabus. 

(2) Indian Philosophy in its relation to Western Philosophy, 

according to a syllabus. 

(3) Indo-European Philology with special roterenco to 

Sanskrit according to a syllabus. 

(4) South Indian Languages and Literatures in their bearing 

on Ancient Indian History and Culture. 

(5) Hindu Law and Jurisprudence. 

(6) Muhammadari Law and Jurisprudence. 

(7) Literary Criticism as applied to Arabic or Persian 

Literature, according to a syllabus. 

(8) Arabian Philosophy in its relation to Western Philoso- 

phy, according to a syllabus. 

(9) Semitic Philosophy for Arabic ; and Indo-Persiaii 

Philology with special reference to Persian for 
Persian according to a syllabus. 



SJKU. U ZOJ U. T. JSJLAMIHATUJIMB 

18. The course of studies for the examination shall extend Courses of 
over a period of two years and shall be taken in an institution or two years 
institutions approved for the purpose by the Syndicate. 

19. The question papers in the examination* for certificates Papers set 

shall be set and answered in English. answered m 

English 

20. The Examination for certificates shall follow immedi- Day of 
ately after the Final Examination for Titles in Oriental Learning. examination 

21. No candidate shall be admitted to the examination for Admission 
certificates until the expiry of two years from the date of his appear- 
ing and passing the preliminary examination for Titles. He shall 

also satisfy the conditions laid down in section 15 supra. 

22. Applications for exemption from the production of the Exemption 
prescribed certificate shall be forwarded so as to reach the Registrar 

before the 1st October preceding the examination. 

23. Candidates for certificates, who have passed the examina Candidates 
tion for Titles and have satisfied the examiners in one optional fo^another 
subject, may present themselves for examination in another P tiona l 
optional subject after an interval of two years without furthir 
attendance in an approved institution, 

24. In each subject for examination for certificates there shall Duration of 
be one paper of three hours' duration, which candidates shall be paper 
required to answer on the morning of the day following the 

Final examination for Titles. 

25. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the exami- Classifica- 
nation, if he obtains not less than forty per cent of the marks. All successful 
others shall be deemed to have failed in the examination, candidates 
Successful candidates shall be arranged in three classes ;- 

(a) Those who obtain not less than sixty per cent of the 
marks shall be placed in the first class, (b) Those who obtain 
not less than fifty per cent of the marks shall be placed in the 
second class, (c) The rest shall be placed in the third class. 



446 THE ANDriRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL. II [C&AP. LI 

SYLLABUSES 

Bhasha Praveena Final Examination. 

(1) Outlines of the History of Telugu Language and 
(2) Outlines of the History of Telugu Literature 

tf.B The syllabus is the san e as that prescribed for the B. A. (Pass) 
Group VI. 

History of Oriya Language 

Central. The origin of the Oriya language. The area in which it is 
spoken. It- place in the Aryan family of languages. The period of its 
beginning as known from the inscriptions etc. Its use as a literary language. 

The periods of the Otiya language. Classical and modern characteristics 
of the language. Illustrative literature of each period. Difference in point of 
grammar and vocabulary. 

Language and Dialect. The standard of literary language and the spoken 
language. Their relation and mutual influence. Dialects and their formation. 
Their difference in different localities and among the different classes of people 
of the same locality. 

Elemental y Phonetics. The organs of speech Production and classifica- 
tion of speech sounds. 

The Alphabet. Growth and history of alphabets in general. Different 
Opinions about the origin of the Indian alphabet* Bramhi and Kharostri. 
Origin of the Oriya alphabet. Its phonetic value. 

Phonology. -(a) Vowels and their relation to the RLE, vowel system. 
Their classification according to the place of production. Primary and secondary 
vowels. Diphthongs. Vowel-gradation and its bearing on Morphology. Vowel 
sandhi and glides. 

(b) Consonants and their relation to the P.I.E, consonantal system. Their 
classification according to the place of articulation, etc. Mutation of consonants. 
Assimilation of consonants and consonantal sandhi^. 

Accidence. Word-formation. Base. Stem. Suffixes and prefixes. Their 
origin. 

Compounds. Their classification. Co-ordinating. Sub-ordinating. 

Nouns. Inflection of nouns for gender, number and case. Classification of 
nouns. Origin of the individual inflections. 

Pronouns. Personal, demonstrative, relative and interrogative Origin of 
the pronouns. Comparison of Gaudian pronouns. 



SYLLABUSES] O. T. EXAMINATIONS 447 

Adjectives Their classification. Formation of adjectives. Comparison of 
adjectives. 

Numerals. Cardinals and ordinals. 
Avyayat. Their origin and classification. 

Vctbs. Origin of the root-. Structure of the verbs. Tense suffixes. Classifi- 
cation of verbs. Voice. Moo J. 

Ve^bs (continued). Cau^atives ; desideratives ; frequentatives ; denomina- 
tives. 

Vocabulary. Classification into tadbhavas, tatsamas, desyas. Borrowing 
periods and causes of borrowing loss of old words : nature and extent. 

Word-building. Formative suffixes. Primary (krt), Secondary (taddhitas) 
Purely Oriya suffixes. Their origin 

Scmtiotics Tendency to change meaning: Laws of change not yet dis- 
covered. Changes of meaning classified. Changes produced by specialising and 
narrowing by generalizing and widening by shifting and transference classifi- 
cation of motives for change. 



Oriya Poetics. 

1. Kavyaprakarana, Various definitions of kavya. Their criticism. 
Various classifications of kavya drsya, sravya, gadya ; padya, champu ; dhvani; 
gunibhutavyangya ; chitra; vnttis ; abhidha-lakshana , vyanjaua, their sub- 
classes ; pada ; vakya ; akanksha, yogyata , asatti. 

2. Nayakaprakarana. Nayakas and Nayis defined and classified. 
Sattvika gunas. Alankaras of Nayikas their classification . Manavrttis. 
Associates of Nayakas and Nayikas. 

3. The doctrine of Rasa. Definitions of Rasa. The theories of Rasa. 
The elements of Rasa vibhava, anubhava, sattvika and vyabhichari. The 
different classes of Rasa and their nature. Sub-divisions of individual Rasas ; 
Mutual incongruities of Rasas. Bhavodaya. Bhavasabalata. Rasasraya 
(Loukika and Aloukika). General criticism. 

4 : Dotaprakarana. Dosa defined. Oosas classified pada, padamsa, 
vakya, artha, rasa, alankara ; places where thev are treated as gunas not 
counted as dosas. 



448 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODB-^VOL. II [CHAP. LII 

5. Gunaprakarana. Gunas defined and classified. Old and new school . 
Difference between guna and alankara. 

6. Ravyatmavimartha. Riti vakrokti oucbitya rasa, etc, 

7. Alankaraprakarana. Alankara defined and classified Sabdalankara 
Arthalankara Ubhayalankara classification on the basis of (1) Sadrsya, 
(2) Vyanjana, (3) Svabhavokti. (4) Vakrokti. Individual Alankaras their 
mutual difference. 

8. Dhvaniprakarna. Dhvani defined. Its classifications Gunibhuta 
Vyangya and its classifications. 



BBC. 14] B. O. L. DEGREE EXAMINATION 449 

CHAPTER LIL 

DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ORIENTAL LEARNING 
(B. 0. L.) (PAREENA) 

(Regulations) 

1. Candidates for the Degree of the Bachelor of Oriental Conditions 
Learning (Pareena) shall be required (i) to have passed the Vidya si *. m S " 
Praveena examination of the University or an examination of any 

other Indian University accepted as equivalent thereto ; (ii) to have 
attained the Fourth Form standard of English ; and subsequently 
(iii) to have undergone in the University College a course of study 
extending over two years each consisting of three consecutive terms; 
and (iv) to have passed the examination for the degree hereinafter 
prescribed. 

2. The course for the B. O. L. degree (Pareena) examination Courses of 
shall consist of two parts, of which Part I shall be devoted to the stu y " 
study of English, and Part II to the study of one of the following 

special subjects : 

(1) Nyaya 

(2) Vyakarana 

(3) Alamkara 

(4) Dharma Sastra 

3. The courses of study shall be as indicated in the syllabus, 
in addition to the text-books which will be prescribed from time to 
time. 

The text-books prescribed for the Matriculation examination 
shall be studied by the candidates for Part I. Text-books for 
advanced study of the Sastra (optional selected) shall be prescribed 
year after year. The candidates shall also be introduced to the 
comparative study of the subject from the standpoint of the Western 
culture. 

4. Candidates shall be examined in: 



Part I English : There shall be one paper of three hours' Ex ami n a- 
r ing 

57 



duration carrying 100 marks in English Composition, Precis Writing tion ' 



450 THE A.NDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LIU 

based on the text-books studied m the course and Translation from 
Sanskrit to English, 

Part II .-There shall be four papers, each of three hours' 
duration carrying 100 marks. Two papers will be set on the text- 
books prescribed for study, and the questions set shall be such as to 
test the detailed knowledge oC these books. The third paper shall 
be devoted to the writing of an essay or essays on some aspect or 
aspects of the optional subject? of the candidate. These papers shall 
be set and answered in Sanskrit. The fourth paper shall contain 
questions requiring discussion, from the point of Western thought 
and in accordance with the modern historical and critical method 
of Western scholars, of the History of the special subject and of the 
value of its main concepts and theories, as indicated in the syllabus. 
This paper will be set and answered in English. 

5. A candidate may appear for both the Parts or Part I or 
Part II separately. 

Marks 6. A candidate shall be declared to have passed Part I if he 

qualifying ^^ ^ p er cen ^ O j ^e mar ]j B prescribed for that part. 

A candidate shall be declared to have passed Part II if he 
gets 35 per cent of the marks prescribed for papers I and II taken 
together and 35 per cent of the marks prescribed for papers III and 
IV taken together and 40 per cent of the total marks prescribed for 
this part. 

All other candidates shall be deemed to have failed in the 
examination. 

Classifica- 7. Candidates who pass in Part I and obtain not less than 

tion of gQ cent t he mar ]j g prescribed in Part II shall be declared to 

SUCCOSSiUl * 

candidate^, have passed the whole examination in the first class and they shall 
be ranked in the order of proficiency as determined by the total 
number of marks obtained by each in Part II. The rest shall be 
placed in the second class. 



sac. 12] M. 0. u DEGREE &XAMINATIOS 451 

CHAPTER L1II. 
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ORIENTAL LEARNING. 

1. Every candidate for the Degree of Masker of Oriental Admission to 
Learning shall have passed the Examination for Certificates of tion 
Proficiency in Oriental Learning and shall have thereafter pursued 

for two years an advanced course of study bearing upon the subject 
selected by him for the examination for that certificate. 

2. Every candidate for the Degree shall be required to submit Application 
with his application 

(a) a certificate in the following form from the head of (a) Certift- 

an institution approved under Regulation 15 of cate 
Chapter LI for imparting instruction in, or from a 
member of the Board of Studies dealing with, the 
subject of the candidate's Certificate of Proficiency, 
or from some competent scholar recognized by the 
Syndicate : 

Form of Certificate. 
I hereby certify that, to the best of my knowledge and 

belief has pursued, for not less than two years after 

qualifying for the Certificate of Proficiency in Oriental Learning, an 
advanced course of study bearing upon the subject of his Certificate 
of Proficiency. 

Date 

Station. Signature with Designation. 

and 

(b) an original thesis in English showing evidence of original (b) Thesis 

work connected with the special subject in which 
he qualified himself for his certificate, the candidate 
indicating in a preface to his thesis, and specially in 
notes, the sources from which his information is taken 
and the extent to which he has availed himself of the 
work of others. 



$52 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LIV 

The application with the certificate mentioned above together 
with three copies printed or type- written, of the thesis should be 
forwarded so as to reach the Registrar between 1st June and 
1st July of any year. 

Examination 3. The thesis shall be referred by the Syndicate to a Board 
o lies s. consisting of not more than three persons who at their discretion 
may require the candidate to appear before them to be tested 
orally with reference to the thesis (and to his facility in the use 
of the English Language). The Board shall report to the Syndicate 
the result of the examination of the thesis, and of the oral examina- 
tion, if any, stating whether, in their opinion the candidate is, by 
reason of his attainments, a fit person to receive the Degree of 
Master of Oriental Learning. The Syndicate shall publish the 
name of each successful candidate for the Degree with the title of 
his thesis. 

Publication 4. Every candidate shall be at liberty to publish his thesis. 

of Thesis ipj^ ^ e8 i g O f an y candidate may be published by the University 

with the inscription Thesis approved for the Degree of Master of 

Oriental Learning '. 



BBC. 17] DIPLOMA IN MUSIC 453 

CHAPTER L1V 
DIPLOMA IN MUSIC 

(Regulations.) 

1. No candidate shall be eligible for the Diploma in Music Conditions 

of admis* 
unless he has undergone the prescribed course in an affiliated or sionto 

recognized institution or institutions and passed the Diploma examination 
Examination hereinafter prescribed. 

Provided, however, that a candidate who is certified by a 
member of the Board of Studies in Music, or the Head of the 
department of Music in any of the aforesaid institutions, or any 
other competent person recognized by the Syndicate, to be qualified 
by his attainments to appear for the Diploma examination, may be 
permitted by the Syndicate to appear for the said examination 
exempting him from taking the course as aforesaid. 

2. The course shall be a full-time one primarily intended for Course of 
such persons as are desirous to attain high proficiency in Music. y 

3. The course shall extend over a period of two academic 
years each consisting of three consecutive terms. 

4. The course of instruction shall consist of (1) Theory, 
(2) Practice of Music Vocal, Vina, Violin, Flute or Nagasvara. 

5. The course of study shall be prescribed from time to time. 
Candidates shall take either vooal music or instrumental music 
(Vina, Violin, Flute or Nagasvara,) 

6. No candidate, who does not produce the certificate as 
prescribed in proviso to Regulation 1 above, shall be admitted to 
the examination unless he or she has kept at least three-fourths 
of the attendance and produced the required certificates of attend* 
ance and progress. 

7. The examination shall be both written and practical. Scope of 
There shall be two papers on theory, each of three hours* duration tion "*" 
carrying 75 marks, and two practical tests each carrying 125 marks, 
making up a total of 400 marks. la the practical teats candidates 



454 THE ANDHRA UNlVKftSlTtt CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LlV 

will be expected to render any of the ragas, compositions and 
Kalpana svaras in any of the ragas and tala's prescribed. 

Marks 8. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the examina- 

?o*apasf ^ on ^ ne obtains not less than 35 per cent of the marks in 

Theory 40 per cent of the marks in Practical and 45 per cent 

of the marks in the aggregate. 

Successful candidates obtaining not less than 60 per cent 
of the marks in the practical tests and 60 per cent of the marks in 
the aggregate shall be declared to have passed with distinction. 

9. The question papers for the examination shall be set in 
English and answered either in English or in Telugu. 

SYLLABUSES 

(i) Theory 

1. Acoustics Production and transmission of sounds ; vibration of 
strings and air columns ; sympathetic vibration ; upper partiaK ; pitch, intensity 
and timbre ; reasonanc* ; echoes ; and acoustics of music halls. 

i Nada ; sruti, svarasthanas and svaras ; sthayi ; 22 srutis and views 
thereon. 

2. Larynx and ear. 

3. Grama, mure ban a and jati ; history and development of scales ; melody 
and harmony. 

4. Gamakas and alankaras. 

5. Tala system ; seven talas ; thirty-five talas ; matra ; Aksharakala and 
Anga ; study of ten pranas ; Chapu, Desadi and Madhyadi talas. 

6. Musical forms and compositional types and their lakshanas ; Gita, 
varna, kirtana, pada, ragamahka, prabandha, thaya, suladi, sabda, jatiswara, 
varajati, tillana and folk songs. Musical diction and rules of composition, 

7. Raga and ragalakshana in general ; definition and classification of 
ragas ; the study of thirteen lakshanas ; raga alapana paddhati. 

8. South-Indian Notation. 

9. Musical instruments and their classification ; special study of the 
Tambura, Vina, Violin, Flute, Nagasvara and Mridanga. 



SBC. 89 & SYLS.] DIPLOMA IX MOSTC 455 

Matanga, Narada, Ahobila, Ramamatya, Soraanatha Govinda Dikshitar, 
Venkatamakhi, Tolajaji and Govlndacharya. 

11. Study of the styles and characteristics of the compositions of 
Jayadeva, Purandaradas, Tirtha Narayana, Bhadrachelam Raradas, Kshetragna, 
Sarangapani, Pallavi DoraisWami Ayyar, Tyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshita, 
Syama Sastri, Paidala Gurumurti Sastri, Adiappa Ayyar, Pallavi Gopala Ayyar, 
Anayya, Subrahmanya Kavi, Gopalaknshna Bbarati, Sadasiva Brahmendra, 
Karur Dakshinam urti Sastri, Subbaraya Sastri, Sadasivarao, Svati Tirunal, 
Pallavi Sesha Ayyar, Putnam Suhrahmanya Ayyar, Vina Kuppier, Tiruvottiyur 
Tyaga Ayyar, Dharmapuri Subbarao and Ramnad Srinivasa Ayyangar. 

Short biographical sketches of the writers and composers mentioned in 
paragraphs 10 and 11. 

12. Contemporary Music. 

(ii) Practical. 

1. In addition to preliminary exercises and chitta tanas, the following : 
12 Gitas including two lakshna gitas. 
8 Varnas including three in Ata and one in Jhampa tala. 
32 Kirtanas. 
2 Astapadis. 
2 Tarangas. 

2 Adhyatma Ramayana kirtanas. 
4 Padas. 

1 Padavarna. 

2 Ragamalikas. 
1 Tillana. 

The compositions shall be representative of at least one each of the 
composers mentioned in paragraph 11 (Theory) and of the ragas enumerated in 
paragraph 2 below. 

The candidates will be expected to comprehend fully the tone, bhava and 
import of the compositions learnt. 

2. (a) Todi, Mayamalavagaula, Bhairavi, Kambhoji, Sankarabharana 
and Kalyani. 

() Dhanyasi, Nadanamakriya, Saveri, Vasanta, Saurastra, Kharahara- 
priya, Anandabhairavi, Mukhari, Kannada, Yadukulakambhoji, Khamas, 
Mohana, Surati, Sahana, Madhyamavati, Kedaragaula, Bilahari, Begada, 
Athana, Purva Kalyani and Saranga. 

(e) Asaveri, Punnagavarali, Gaula, Gaulipantu, Chakravaka, Riti- 
gaula, Sri, Darbar, Sriranjini, Huseni, Harikambhoji, Natakuranji, Suddhasaveri, 
Arabhi, Kedara, Nilambari, Devagandhari, Hamsadhvani, Nata and 



456 THE ANDHBA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LV 

Lakshinas and Sancharas of ragas in groups (a), (b) and (c) aboYe; 
Alapana of ragas mentioned in groups (0) and (b) above. 

3. Svara improvisation in Adi, Rupaka, Triputa, Jhampa and Chapu tala 
in the compositions of the ragas in group (a) and any ten of the ragas in 
group (6) in paragraph 2. 

Candidates may offer for the practical examination Vocal music, Vina, 
Violin, Flute or Nagasvara. 

Candidates shall sing or play to the sruti of Tambura. Candidates snail 
tune the Tambura. 



SBC. 14] DIPLOMA IN LIBRARIANSHIP 457 

CHAPTER LV. 
DIPLOMA IN LIBRARIANSHIP. 

1. No candidate shall be eligible for the Diploma in Librarian- 
ship unless he has undergone the prescribed course and satisfied the 
examiners in the qualifying examinaiion. 

2. No candidate shall be admitted to the Diploma Course 
unless he has passed the Matriculation examination of this Univer- 
sity or any other examination accepted as equivalent thereto* by 
the Syndicate. 

3. Applications for admission to the course must reach the 
Registrar in the prescribed form not later than lf>lh June of each 
year. 

4. The course for the Diploma Examination shall extend over 
one academic year consisting of throe terms (from -July to March) 
and shall be as follows : 

i. Library Organization, 

ii. Library Administration ami Routine, 

in. Classification Theory. 

iv. Classification Practical. 

v Citalogumi> and Indexing, 

vi. Practical Cataloguing, 

vii. Bibliography, bool-H^U'-ilion an ! Uoforence work 

viii. Special Library probKuiib. 

a. Public Libraries and their branch- 'S. 

b. University and College Libraries and Libraries of 

Learned Societies 

c. School Libraries. 

d. Juvenile Libraries. 

e. Rural Library Service. 

f. Archives and Government Records. 

g. Other types of Libraries. 



*Vide foot-note to Chapter XX.XVI1. 
58 



458 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL. II [ CHAP. LV 

5. No student shall be admitted for the examination unless he 
has attended not less than three-fourths of the lectures and other 
classes proyided and has obtained from the Director of the School 
the prescribed progress and attendance certificate. 

6. The fees for the courses and examinations shall be as 
follows : 

*(a) (i) Admission fee ... Rs. 5 

(ii) Tuition foe ... Hs. 20 per term. 

t(&) Examination 

Whole examination (1st appearance). Rs. 20 
One or more papers ... Rs. 5 each 

7. Each paper shall be of three hours' duration and shall 
carry 100 marks. The Examination will be in the following 
subjects divided into three groups A (Nos. 1 and 2), B (No?. 3 and 4) 
and C (Nos. 5 and 6) 

Paper No. 1. Library Organization. 

2. Library Administration. 

3. Classification, theory and practical, 
i. Cataloguing, theory and practical. 

5. Bibliography, Book selection and Reference 

work. 
(I. Special Library problems. 

8. A candidate presenting himself for the examination for 
the first time must appeal' for the whole examination and thereafter 
may appear in one or more groups in which he has failed. 

9. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the examina- 
tion if he obtains not less than 45 per cent of the marks in each 
group. 

Successful candidates who obtain not less than (50 per cent of 
the aggregate marks in the whole examination in any one year shall 
be declared to have passed the examination with distinction. 



Ordinance. 
tStatute, 



SBC. 511 SYLS. ] DIPLOMA IN L1BKARIANSHIP 459 

TRANSITORY REGULATIONS. 

(i) A candidate shall be declared to have passed the examin- 
ation if he obtains not less than 35 per cent of the 
marks in each paper. 

(11) Candidates who fail in any subject or subjects may, 
without putting in any additional attendance, appear 
for and complete the examination in any subsequent 

* year. 

10. Candidates who fail in any ^roup may, without putting 
in any additional attendance; at the course, appear for the examina- 
tion in any subsequent year. 

11. The- Syndicate will be empowered to organize vacation 
courses in such a way that in tho course of two consecutive 
vacations a candidate can complete tho whole of the above course. 
An examination shall be held at the end of each vacation and 
certificates of pa^s shall be given to those who obtain in the 
aggregate 35 per cent of the marks prescribed. A candidate who 
obtains two such certificates covering the whole course shall be 
eligible for the Diploma in Librarianship. 

It shall be competent for the Syndicate to suspend the vacation 
courses whenever it so decides. ^ 

SYLLABUSES 

1. Library Organisation. A course of lectures on the history of 
Libraries modern Library movement, Library legislation in various countries 
and the Organisation of different types of Libraries. 

2. Library Administration and Routine. Both lectures and prac- 
tical work in admini trative details such as preparing budget, distribution of 
funds, keeping accounts, ordering, collecting and accessioning stock, charging, 
discharing, etc. 

This will include a special course of lectures and practical demonstration 
in the art of book-binding and book-repairing. 

3. Classification. Lectures on the history and science of classification 
as well as a detailed examination of the principles and method of important 
schemes of classification such as Brown, Cutter, Congress, Dewey Decimal 
and Expanded Decimal Schemes. 



460 THM ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LV 

4. Practical Classification. Students will be required to classify not 
less than 500 books on various ^ubjects during the course. Their work will be 
examined in class. Cla siftcation will be based on the Dewey Decimal scheme 
(expanded decimal included) and the Congress scheme 

5. Cataloguing and Indexing. The courM- i> designed to give in- 
struction in different forms of cataloguing as well a m various codes of 
cataloguing such as the Bodleian, British Museum, Cutter's dictionary and the 
Anglo-Saxon codes. 

6. Practical Cataloguing Cataloguing and indexing of not less than 
250 books of various ty[n's will bo done m class. Care form will be followed. 

Instruction in practical clas-ihcati jn and pra-ticai cataloguing will b > com- 
bined during the third term so a to iv> --tudents a clear idea of the s^ope and 
purpose ol cros -reierenrcs cross-rcfereucc index, analytic entries etc. 

7. Bibliography, Book-selection and Reference work. 

(a) Lectures ki historical and analytical bibliography a^ well as practical 
Work in compiling bibliographies of various r ubjects. 

(b) Principle and practice of Book-selection for various types of libraries. 
Students will be expected to do book-selection work throughout the year with 
the aid of bibliographies, current sale catalogues, reviews of books in papers, 
periodicals etc. 

(c) Lectures and practical work in the art of helping readers in their 
selection of literature and reading. 

* 

8. Special Library problems. - 

(a) Public Libraries and their branches. A study of special problems 
Connected with the organisation and administration of public libraries such as 
rating, --ite, plan, construction, publicity, book-selection, control, supervision, 
charging, etc. 

(b) 1. University and College Libraries. 
2. Libraries of Learned Societies. 

A seminar course for the discussion of peculiar problems connected with 
libraries of Universities, colleges and learned societies such as departmental 
libraries, control of issues to teachers, patrons and subscribers, aid to research 
workers, etc. 

(c) School Libraries. Lectures on the formation and adminMration 
6f Libraries in schools of every type ; aid to pupils in their book- selection and 
reading ; instruction in the use of books and other problems. 



SYLLABUSES] DIPLOMA IN LIBRARTANSHIP 4rjl 

(d) Juvenile Libraries. Lectures on child psychology, Juvenile 
literature, art of story telling, organization and administration of Juvenile 
libraries as a part of the public library programme, etc. 

(e) Rural Library Service. A. survey of rural Library systems in 
other countries ; a study of Indian rural problems, with special reference to 
rural libraries ; plans to establish rural library centres, travelling libraries, 
lecture centres, cinema house etc in rural districts. 

(f) Archives and Government Records. Study of the methods of 
preservation and u c e of ancient records and government documents as well as 
peculiar problems connected with the administration of Government Libraries. 

(g) Other types of Libraries. -Commercial and technical libraries, 
hospital hbrane , libraries for the blind etc. which are common in Western 
countries will oe studied with a view to their introduction and establishment 
in this country. 



462 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LVI 

CHAPTER LVI 
COURSES IN FRENCH AND GERMAN 

1. There shall be a Diploma course and a vacation course in 
French and German. 

Diploma Course. 

2. No candidate shall be eligible for Diploma in French or 
German who his not undergone a prescribed course and satisfied 
the examiners in a qualifying examination. 

3. No candidate shall be admitted to the course of instruction 
in French and German who hurf not passed tho Matriculation 
examination of the University or an examination recognised by 
the Syndicate as equivalent thereto.* 

4. The course shall consist of three terms extending over one 
academic year. Applications for admission must reach the Registrar 
not later than 15th May. 

5. For the purpose of entrance to the course no previous 
acquaintance with the language is required and the candidates will 
be taught on a syllabus and text-books to be prescribed from year 
to year. f 

6. There shall be au examination held annually in the first 
week of July or dn such dates as may be fixed by the Syndicate. 
Stress shall be laid on the aptitude of candidates for translation 
both out of and into the selected language rather than for grammar. 

7. The examination shall consist of two papers, the first of 
three hours 1 and the second of two hours' duration. The first 
paper shall contain questions on text-books and grammar and the 
second paper shall contain questions on translation from the select- 
ed language into English and vice-versa. 

8. No candidate shall be admitted to the examination unless 
he has attended not less than 75 per cent of total number of 
lectures and has produced a certificate from the lecturer certifying 
that his progress and conduct have been satisfactory. But persons 

Vide foot-note under Chapter XXXVII. 



SEC. 112] COURSES IN FRENCH AND GERMAN 40,') 

who have attended two vacation courses one junior and the other 
senior may sit for the examination. 

9. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the examina- 
tion if he obtains not less than 40 per cent of the total marks in 
all the papers taken together. All other candidates shall be deemed 
to have failed in the examination. Successful candidates obtaining 
not less than 60 per Ci-nt of the marks shall be declared to have 
passed with distinction. 

10. The fee for the course in either French or German shall 
bo Rs. 45 for the whole course, payable at the beginning of the 
academic year. 

11. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter, it 
shall be competent for the Syndicate, by previous notice in the 
Fort St. George Gazette, to suspend for any year or any number 
of years the course and examination for the Diploma in French 
or German. 

Vacation Course 

12. For the benefit of mofusiil teachers and others desirous of 
gaining some knowledge of either French or German, vacation 
courses may be arranged by the Syndicate should there be a suffi- 
cient number of applicants joining the course. The lectures will 
last for about three months (April June). The fee Cor the course 
shall be Rs. 40. There will bo no University Examination at the 
end of the course, but a certificate of having undor^uiio the course 
satisfactorily shall be given to each candidate if he satisfies a test. 

Notwithstanding anything contrary to the first paragraph of 
the section, it shall be competent for the Syndicate 10 arrange for 
two vacation courses one junior and the other senior and those 
who attend these courses and put in the prescribed attendance will 
be permitted to sit for the Diploma examination. The fee for the 
whole course will be Rs. 40 payable at the rate of Rs. 20 at the 
beginning of each course. 

It shall be competent for the Syndicate, by previous notice, to 
suspend the vacation course for any year or number of years. 



464 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL, II [CHAP, LVII 



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466 



THB ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODB VOL. II [CHAP. LVIII 




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MATRIC.J TIME-TABLES 467 

CHAPTER LVIIL 
TIME-TABLES FOR EXAMINATIONS 

The order of time and subjects in which the several examina- 
tions shall be as set forth in the following tables and the number 
of marks assignable to each subject shall be as therein specified : 

Provided always 

(1) that in the case, of Part III of the B.A. examination held 

in April the first day of the examination in each of 
Ihe optional groups shall be determined annually by 
the Syndicate and shall be notified in the Gazette in 
the month of February ; 

(2) that unless otherwise determined by the Syndicate, the 

Practical, Clinical and Oral Examinations shall follow 
the written Examinations ; 

(3) that the time-table for the Bhasha Praveena Examina- 

tion as may be annually determined by the Syndicate 
shall be duly notified in the Gazette in the preceding 
February. 



MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 


Days 


ffovrs 


Subjects 


Mark* 


First day 


10- 12-30 
2 4-30 


English 1st paper 
Do. 2nd paper 


75 
75 


Second day 


10-. 1 
2 4-30 


Arithmetic and Algebra 
Geometry 


80 
70 


Third day 


10 1 
2 4 


Second Language 
History 


75 
50 


J< ourth day 


10 1 
2 4 


Elementary Science 
Geography 


n 

50 



468 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LVIII 



INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION IN ARTS AND SCIENCE 

PART I ENGLISH. 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


First day 


101 


Poetry 


70 




2-5 


Prose 


60 



Second day 



Third day 



101 



pomposition 



PART II A SECOND LANGUAGE. 
101 Prescribed Text-books 

2 5 Translation for Classic.il Languages 

or Composition and Translation 
for Modern Languages. 



70 



50 



50 



Fourth day 



PART III OPTIONAL SUBJECTS. 

1012-30 Mathematics I paper (Algebra and 

Trigonometry) 50 
2 4-30 Do. II Do (Geometry Pure 

and Analytical) 90 



Fifth day . 1012 


Physics* 


I paper 


50 


2 4 


Do. 


11 paper 


50 


Three hours practical 


Practical test 




TV \ fin 


Examination. 


Note books 




10 j 50 


Sixth day 1012 


Chemistry 


I paper 


50 


2 4 


Do. 


II paper 


50 


Three hours practical 


Practical test 




40] , n 


Examination. 


Note books 




10 j 50 


Seventh day 1012 


Botany 


I paper 


50 


2 4 


Do. 


II paper 


50 


Three hours practical 


Practical test 




40) r() 


Examination. 


Note books 




10) 


Eighth Day 1012 


Zoology 


I paper 


50 


2 4 


Do. 


II paper 


50 


Three hours practical 


Practical test 




40") - n 


Examination. 


Note books 




10 j 


Ninth day 1012 


Biology 


I paper 


150 


2-4 


Biology 


II paper 


50 


Three hours practical 


Practical test 




40") - 


Examination. 


Note books 




10) 



INTBB.J 



TIME-TABLES 



468 



INTER, EXAM. 
PART 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 




Marks 


Tenth day 


1012-30 
2 4-30 


Geography 
Do. 


I paper 
II paper 


50 
50 


Eleventh day 


1012-30 
2 4-30 


Logic 
Do. 


I paper 
II paper 


50 
50 


Twelfth day 


1012-30 
2 4-30 


Indian History 
Do. 


I paper 
11 paper 


50 
50 


Thirteenth day 


10-12-30 


World History (up to 1450) 


I paper 


5fr 




2 4-30 


World History (from 1450 


II paper 


50 






to the present day) 






Fourteenth day 


1012-30 


Civics and Indian Ad- 










ministration Civics 


I paper 


50 




2 4-30 


Civics and Indian Ad- 










ministration I n d I a n 










Administration 


II paper 


50 


Fifteenth day 


1012-30 
2 4-30 


British History 
Do. 


I paper 
II paper 


50 
50 


Sixteenth day 


10 12-30 


Text-books for classical 
(Advanced Language) 


languages 


50 




2 4-30 


Translation for classical 
(Advanced Language) 


languages 


50 


Seventeenth day 


1012 


Advanced Languages Modern Indian 
and English First Paper (Text- 
books) 


50 




2 4-30 


Advanced Languages Modern Indian 
and English Second Paper (Text- 
books) 


50 


Eighteenth day 


10-12-30 


Economic Geography and 
Economic History. 


I paper 


60 




2 4-30 


Do. 


It paper 


50 


Nineteenth c\ay 


1012-30 
2 4-30 


Economics add Banking 
Do. 


I paper 
II paper 


50 
50 



470 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL II [C&AP. 



INTER. EXAM.-(CWrf.) 
PART III (Cotttd.) 



Daft Hours 


Subjects 


Mark, 


Twentieth day 10-12-30 
2- 4-30 


Accountancy and General 
Commercial Knowledge 
Do. 


I paper 50 
II paper 50 


Twenty first day 1012 
2 4 


Agriculture I 
Agriculture II 


50 
50 


Three hours practical 
examination 


Practical test 
Note books 


8} 


Twenty second day 1012-30 
2- 4-30 


Electrical Engineering 
Do, 


I paper 50 
II paper 50 


Twenty third day 1012-30 
2 4-30 


Mechanical Engineering 
Do. 


I paper 50 
II paper 50 


Twenty fourth day 1012-30 
2- 4-30 


Surveying (written) 
Do. (practical) 


50 
50 


Twenty fifth day 1012-30 
2 4-30 


Drawing (written) 
Do. (practical) 


50 
50 


Twenty sixth day 10 1 


Music (written) 


50 


Twenty seventh day 


Music (practical) 


50 



Note : Every year the exact dates of Part III of the Intermediate 
Examination will be notified on receipt of information from the 
affiliated colleges as to the different groupings of subjects offered 
by their candidates. 



B A. DEGREE EXAMINATION. 

PART I ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 


First day 


101 
3-5 


Composition 
Modern Postry 


90 
80 


Second day 


101 
2-5 


Shakespeare 
Modern Prose 


90 
90 








Total IsoT 




PART 


II A SECOND LANGUAGE. 




Third day 


101 
25 


First Paper 
Second Paper 


100 
100 








Total 200 



B.A.] 



TIMB-TABLB8 



471 



B.A. DEGRBE 

PART. Ill OPTIONAL GROUPS. 
(i) MATHEMATICS. 



Day* 


Hour* Subject* Mark* 


First day 


101 Algebra and Trigonometry 
25 Astronomy or Statistics 


90 
90 


Second day 


10 1 Pure and Analytical Geometry 
2 4 Dynamics 


90 
70 


Third day 


101 Calculus 
24 Hydrostatics and Properties of Matter 

Total 


90 
70 


500 




GROUP (n-A) PHYSICS (MAIN). 




First day 


10 12 Dynamics and Hydrostatics 
2 4 Properties of Matter and Heat 


75 
75 


Second day 


1012 Light and Sound 
2 4 Magnetism and Electricity 
*3 hours Practical Examination 
Laboratory Record 

Total 
GROUP (ii-B) CHEMIST Y (MAIN) 


75 
75 
80 
20 


400 


First day 


10 1 Inorganic Chemistry 
2 5 Physical Chemistry 


100 
100 


Second day 


10 1 Organic Chemistry 
*3 hours Practical Examination 
Laboratory Record 


100 
80 
20 




Total 
MATHEMATICS (SUBSIDIARY). 


400 


Fourth day 


10 1 Algebra, Trigonometry and Analytical 
Geometry. 
2 5 Calculus and Differential Equations 

Total 

PHYSICS (SUBSIDIARY). 


100 
100 


200 


Fifth day 


101 Physics (written) 
*3 hours Physics (practical) 


100 
100 



Total 200 



date and hour of (he Practical Examination will Ije noticed la^er, 



472 



THE ANDHRA UNIVBRSTIY CODE VOL TI [CHAP. LVIII 



B A DEGREE 

CHEMISTRY (SUBSIDIARY). 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


Sixth day 


101 
*3 hour* 


Chemistry (written) 
Chemistry (practical) 


100 
100 


Total 200 




GROUP 


(iii-A) PHILOSOPHY. 




First day 


10- 1 
2 5 


Logic and Theory of Knowledge 
Ethics 


100 
100 


Second day 


10 13-30 
2- 4-30 


European Philosophy 
Indian Philosophy 


80 
80 


Third day 


1012 
2 4 


Psychology -1st paper 
Psychology 2nd paper 


70 
70 


Total 500 




GROUP 


(iii-B) PHILOSOPHY. 




First day 


10 1 
2- 5 


Economics General 
Ethics 


100 
100 


Second day 


1012-30 
2 4-30 


European Philosophy 
Optional subject other than 
Philosophy 


80 

European 
80 


Third day 


10-12 
2 4 


Psychology 1st paper 
Psychology 2nd paper 


70 
70 


Fourth day 


1012-30 
2- 4-30 


Politics 
Sociology 


80 
80 


(iv) HISTORY AND ECONOMICS (HISTORY MAIN) 


First day 


101 

25 


Economics General 
Modern History 


100 
100 


Second day 


101 
2-5 


Indian History Special Period 100 
Constitutional History of India British 
Period 100 


third day 


10-1 


Politics 


100 


Total 500 



The date and hour of the Practical Examination will be notified later. 



B.A.] 



TIME-TABLES 



473 



B.A DEGREE EXAMINATION-(ftm/W.) 

<v) HISTORY AND ECONOMICS (ECONOMICS MAIN). 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects Marks 


First day 


101 


Economics General 


100 




25 


Modern History 


100 


Second day 


101 


Economics Special I 


100 




2-5 


Economics Special II 


100 


Third day 


101 


Politics 


100 




25 


Sociology 


100 






Total for five subjects 


500 


(vi) LANGUAGES INCLUDING ENGLISH. 


(1) SANSKRIT AND EARLY INDIAN HISTORY. 


First day 


/ 101 


Books of the Early Period 


80 




25 


Books of the Later Period I 


80 


Second day 


101 


Books of the Later Period II 


80 




25 


Grammar 


80 


Third day 


101 


History of Sanskrit Literature 


80 




25 


Early Indian History 


100 






Total 


500 




(2) PALI AND 


EARLY INDIAN HISTORY OR SANSKRIT. 




First day 


101 


Prose Books 


80 




25 


Poetry 


80 


Second day 


101 


Translation 


80 




25 


Gfammar 


80 


Third day 


101 


History of the Language and Literature 


80 




2-5 


Early Indian History or Sanskrit 


100 






Total 


500 




(3) ARABIC OR 


PERSIAN AND EARLY MUSLIM HISTORY. 




First day 


101 


Prose 


80 




25 


Poetry 


80 


Second day 


101 


Translation 


80 




25 


Grammar including Rhetoric and Prosody 


80 


Third day 


10-1 


History of Arabic or Persian Language 
and Literature 


80 




25 


Early Muslim History 


100 






Total 


500 



60 



474 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL II [CHAP. LVJH 

B A DEGREE EXAMINATION -(Contd.} 

(4) URDU \ND INDIAN HISTORY MUSLIM PERIOD QB 

ARABIC OR PERSIAN. 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects Marks 


First day 


101 


Prose 


80 




2-5 


Poetry 


' 80 


Second day 


10-1 


Translation 


80 




25 


Grammar including Rhetoric and Prosody 


80 


Third day 


101 


History of Language and Literature 


80 




25 


Indian History Muslim period or Arabic 








or Persian 


100 






Total 


500 


(5) DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE OR ORIYA AND A RELATED SUBJECT 






OR SANSKRIT. 




First day 


101 


Related subject or Sanskrit 


100 




2-5 


Set books and Prosody and Poetics 


80 


Secojid day 


10-1 


Set books and Grammar 


80 




25 


History of Language and Grammar 


80 


Third day 


101 


Comparative Grammar Dravidian or 








Gaudian 


80 




25 


Composition 


80 






Total 


500 


(6) HINDI AND 


MEDIAEVAL 


HISTORY OF NORTHERN INDIA OR SANSKRIT. 


First day 


101 


Prose books 


80 




25 


Poetry 


80 


Second day 


101 


Comparative Grammar Gaudian 


80 




25 


History of Literature 


80 


Third day 


IS 1 


Composition 


80 




2-5 


Mediaeval History of Northern India or 








Sanskrit 


100 






Total 


500 



B.A.} 



TIME-TABLES 



B, A. DEGREE EXAMINATION (Contd.) 
(7) ENGLISH. 



Days 


If ours 


Subjects Marks 


First day 


10-1 


Drama 


80 




25 


Poetry 


80 


Secpnd day 


101 


Prose 


80 




25 


Outlines of History of English Literature 








and Analysis of Lit'erary forms 


80 


Third day 


101 


Outlines of History of English Language 








and cither (a) Primer of Anglo-Saxon 








or (b) Set book from Chaucer 


80 




2-5 


General Essay 


100 






Total 


500 


GROUP (vii) Music. 


First day 


101 


Written-Theory and History of Music I 


100 


Second day 


101 


Writton-Theory and History of Music II 


100 






Practical-Compositions 


100 






Ragas 


100 






Svaras 


100 






Total 


500 




B. A. (HONS 


) DEGREE EXAMINATION 








Part I 




First day 


101 


English 


90 




24} 


Translation > 






or 25} 


or Related subject) 


60 






Total 


150 






Part II 




BRANCH I. MATHEMATICS. 


First day 


101 


1st paper 


150 


Second day 


10-1 


2nd paper 


150 


Third day 


101 


3rd paper 


150 


Fourth'day 


101 


4th paper 


150 


Fifth day 


101 


5th paper 


150 



* Da,te and hour of the practical examination will be notified later. 



476 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LVIH 

B A (HONS ) DEGREE EXAMINATION-- (C?ntd.) 

Part ll~-(Contet.) 
BRANCH I MATHEMATICS (Contd.) 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


Sixth day 


101 


6th paper 


150 


Seventh day 


10-1 


*7th paper 


150 


Eighth day 


101 


*8th paper 


150 








Total 1,200 






BRANCH II PHILOSOPHY. 




First day 


10-1 


General I 


100 


Second day 


101 


General II 


100 


Third day 


101 


General III 


100 


Fourth day 


101 


General IV 


^ 100 


Fifth day 


101 


General V 


100 


Sixth day 


10-1 


General VI 


100 


Seventh day 


101 


Special I 


100 


Eighth day 


101 


Special II 


100 








Total 800 


BRANCH III HISTORY, ECONOMICS AND 


POLITICS 


Fir&t day 


101 


General I 


100 


Second day 


101 


General II 


100 


Third day 


10-1 


General 111 


100 


Fourth day 


101 


General IV 


100 


Fifth d*y 


10-1 


Special I 


100 


Sixtfc day 


101 


Special II 


100 


Seventh day 


101 


Special III 


, 100 


Eighth day 


101 


Essay 


100 








Total 800 



* NoU. The paper on * Theory of Numbers' shall be of four hours' d'tiratton 



fc.A. (HONB.)] 



TIME-TABLES 



477 



B.A (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION. (Contd.) 

BRANCH IV TELUGU LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 



Days 


/fours 


Subjects \ 


Marks 


First day 


101 


Poetry and Drama 


100 


Second day 


101 


Prose and History of Language or 
Literature 100 


Third day 


101 


Telugu Grammar, Prosody and Poetics 


100 


Four tli day 


10-1 


Elementary Sanskrit and Elementary 
Prakrit Grammar 


100 


Fifth day 




Essay 


100 


Sixth day 


101 


Special I 


100 


Seventh day 


101 


Special II 


100 


Eighth day 


101 


Special III 
Total 


100 


SCO 


B. 


COM. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION. 






(Old Regulations.) 








PART I 




First day 


10 1 


Commercial Correspondence and Precis 
Writing including General Essay 


100 


Second day 


10-12-30 


Translation 


100 






PART II A. 




First day 


10 - 1 
2 5 


Commercial Knowledge and Commercial 
Arithmetic. 
Commercial Geography 


100 
100 


Second day 


10 1 
2 5 


Book-keeping and Accounts 
Law and Practice of Banking in India 


100 
100 






Total 


400 






PART II B. 




Third day . 


10 1 

2 5 


Business Organization 
Economics v 


100 
100 



478 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II 



. LVIll 



B. COM. (PASS) DEGREE 

PART II- B (Contd.) 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


Fourth day 


10 "1 

25 


Mercantile .ind Industrial Law 
Special SubjectPaper I 


100 
100 


Fifth day 


10-1 


"Special Subject Paper II 


100 


Total 500 






(Current Regulations). 








PART 1 ENGLISH. 




First day 


10-1 

25 


English Composition 
English Modern Prose and Poetry 


90 
90 



Second day 
Third day 

Fourth day 

Fifth day 

Sixth day 
Seventh day 



101 



10-1 



101 

25 

10 1 
2 -5 



10-1 
2 -5 



Commercial Correspondence and Precis 
Writing 90 

PART II HINDI. 

Prescribed text books on Prose, 

Composition and Translation. 100 

PART III SUBJECTS. 

Economics including Money Exchange 

and Banking 100 

Accountancy 100 



Business Organisation 
Mercantile Law 

Commercial Geography 

fSpecial Subject Paper I 
Do. Paper II 



100 
100 

100 

100 
100 



*The papers on the Special subjects ' Advanced Accountancy and Auditing' 
and ' Advanced Banking and Currency* shall be as follows : 

Advanced Accounting and Auditing 
Paper I Advanced Accounting. 
Paper II Auditing. 

Advanced Banking and Currency 
Paper I Advanced Banking. 
Paper II Advanced Currency. 

Common to B.A., B. Com. (Pass) and (Hons.) Degree Examinations. 
e : The papers on the Special Subjects shall be as follows : 
(ij Advanced Accounting and Auditing \ 

Paper I Advanced Accounting. 
' II Auditing. 



B. COM. (PASS)] 



TIME-TABLES 



479 



B. COM. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION. 

PAET I 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


First day 


10 1 


Commercial Correspondence and Precis 
Writing including General Essay 


100 


Second day 


1012-30 


Translation 


100 






PART II 




First day 


10 1 


Economics 


100 


Second day 


10 1 


Law and Practice of Banking in India 


100 


Third day 


10 1 


Business Organisation 


100 


Fourth day 


10 1 


Book-keeping and Accountancy 


100 


Fifth day 


10 1 


Mercantile and Industrial Law 


100 


Sixth day 


10 1 


Commercial Geography 


100 


Seventh day 


10 1 


Statistical Method and Applied Statistic ^ 


100 


Eighth day 


10 1 


Commercial Knowledge and Commercial 
Arithmetic 100 


Ninth day 


10 1 


Special subject I Paper I 


100 


Tenth day 


10 1 


Special subject I Paper II 


100 


Eleventh day 


10 1 


Special Object I Paper III 


100 


Twelfth day 


10 1 


Special subject II Paper I 


100 


Thirteenth day 


10 1 


Special subject 11 Paper II 


100 


Fourteenth day 


10-- 1 


Special subject II - Paper III 
Total 


100 


1,400 



(a) Advanced Banking and Currency, including Law and Practice 
of Banking 
Paper I Advanced Banking, including Law and Practice 

of Banking. 
,, II Currency and Exchange. 

fy) Transport : 

Paper I Road and Railway Transport. 
,, II Ocean and Air Transport, 

(4) Statistics and their Application to Commerce : 
Paper I Statistical Methods. 
II Applied Statistics. 

($) Recent Economic History : 

Paper I Economic History of England, France, Germany, 

Italy and U. S. A. 
II Economic History of India and Japan. 



480 THE ANDHTIA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LVIII 

B. COM. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION-^/,/ ) 

PART II -A. 



Dayt 


Ifatrs 


Subjects 


Mark 


First day 


10-1 


Commercial Knowledge and Com- 
mercial Arithmetic 


100 


Second day 


10-1 


Commercial Geography 


100 


Third day 


101 


Business Organization 


100 


Fourth day 


10-1 


Law and Practice of Banking in India 
Total 


100 


400 






PART 11 B. 




Fifth day 


101 


Economics 


100 


Sixth day 


101 


Book-keeping and Acrountancv 


100 


Seventh day 


101 


Mercantile and Industrial Law 


100 


Eighth day 


101 


Statistical Method and Applied 
Statistics 


100 


Ninth day 


10-1 


Special subject I Paper I 


100 


Tenth day 


101 


Special subject 1 Paper II 


100 


Eleventh day 


10-1 


Special subject I Paper III 


100 


Twelfth day 


10-1 


Special subject II Paper I 


100 


Thirteenth day 


10-1 


Special subject II Paper II 


100 


Fourteenth day 


10-1 


Special subject II Paper III 
Total 


100 


1,000 



B. COM. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION 

(New Regulations) 
. PART I 



First day 


10-1 

2-5 


English Composition 
English Modern Prose 


90 
90 


Second day 


101 


Translation 


100 



Common to BA., B. Com. (Pass) and (Hons.) Degree Examinations. 



B. COM. (HONB.)] 



TIME-TABLES 



481 



B. COM. (HONS) DEGREE EXAMINATION (.Contd ) 

PART II. 
GROUP A. {General subjects.) 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


First day 


101 


General Economics 


100 


Second day 


101 


Banking 


100 


Third day 


101 


Accountancy 


100 


Fourth day 


101 


Business Organisation 


100 


Fifth day 


101 


Secretarial Practice 


100 


Sixth day 


101 


Commercial Geography 


100 


Seventh day 


10-1 


Mercantile Law 


100 


Eighth day 


101 


Statistics and their application 
to Commerce 


100 




GROUP 


to. (Optional subjects.) 




Ninth day 


101 


Special subject Paper I 


100 


Tenth day 


101 


'Special subject Paper II 


100 



*Note :- The papers on the Special Subjects shall be as follows 

(/) Advanced Accounting and Auditing 
Paper I Advanced Accounting. 
II Auditing. 

(*) Transport : 

Paper I General Principles. 

,, II Special Problem'., including Rates-fixing, Stale 
Control etc. 

(j) International Trade: 

Paper I General Principles. 

II Special Problems, including Fire Trade vs. Pro- 
tection, Controversial points and Counter-theories. 

Of) Currency and Exchange : 
Paper I Currency. 
II Exchange. 

(0) Recent Economic History : 

Paper I Economic Hi c tory of England, Germany and U.S A. 
, f 11 Economic History of India and Japan. 

6i 



482 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY C00E VOL. II [CHAP. LVIII 

B.Sc. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION. 

PART I. 



Day* 


ffturt 


Subjects 


Marks 


First day 


101 


English 


90 






PART II 




MATHEMATICS (MAIN). 


Second day 


101 
25 


Algebra and Trigonometry 
Pure Geometry 


100 
100 


Third day . 


10-1 
25 


Analytical Geometry 
Calculus 


100 
100 


Fourth day 


101 
25 


Statics and Dynamics 
Hydrostatics and Astronomy 


100 
100 






PHYSICS (MAIN). 




Second day 


101 
25 


Dynamics and Hydrostatic- 
Properties of Matter and Heat 


100 
100 


Third day 


101 

25 
*3 hours 
*3 hours 


Light and Sound 
Electricity and Magnetism 
Practical Ezanvination 
Practical Examination 
Laboratory Record Note books 


100 
100 
80 
80 
40 






CHEMISTRY (^MAIN). 




Second day 


101 

25 


General Chemistry, including 
of Chemistry 
Inorganic Chemistry 


History 
100 
100 


Third day 


101 
25 

*6 hours 
*6 hours 


Physical Chemistry 
Organic Chemistry 
Practical Examination 
Practical Examination 
Laboratory Record Note books 


100 
100 
85 
85 
30 




BOTANY, 


ZOOLOGY OR GEOLOGY ^MAIN). 




Second day 


101 
25 


First paper 
Second paper 


100 
100 


Third day 


101 


Third paper 


100 



Pates and hours of th* Practical Examinations will be notified later. 



TIME-TABLES 



483 



Fourth day 



Fifth day 



Sixth day 



(PASS) DEQREE EXAM1N ATION- (Contft 
BOTANY. 



Days Hours 


Subjects 


Markt 


*3 hours 


Practical Examination 


80 


*3 hours 


Do. 


80 


*3 hours 


Do. 


80 




Laboratory Record 


30 




Field notes and collection of plants 


30 




ZOOLOGY. 




*3 hours 


Practical Examination 


90 


*3 hours 


Do. 


90 


*3 hours 


Do. 


90 




Laboratory record 


30 




GEOLOGY. 




*3 hours 


Practical Examination 


100 


*3 hours 


Do. 


100 


*3 hours 


Do. 


100 




Laboratory and field records 


100 




PHYSIOLOGY (MAIN.) 




Second day 10 1 


First paper 


150 


25 


Second paper 


150 


*3 hours 


Practical Examination 


100 


3 hours 


Do. 


100 


*3 hours 


Do. 


100 



MATHEMATICS (SUBSIDIARY). 

10 1 Algebra, Trigonometry and Analytical 

Geometry 100 

2 5 Calculus and Differential Equations 100 



PHYSICS (SUBSIDIARY;. 

10 1 Physics (written) 

*3 hours Practical Examination 

CHEMISTRY (SUBSIDIARY). 
10 1 Chemistry (written) 



*3 hours 



Practical Examination 



100 
100 



100 
100 



*Date& and hours of the Practical Examinations will be notified later. 



484 



TEtEJ ANEX^RA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [0&At. LVllt 



B.Sc. (PASS) DEGREE EXAMINATION (Contd.) 

BOTANY (SUBSIDIARY). 



Days 


ffours 


Subjects 


Mark* 


Seventh day 


1012-30 


Botany I Paper 


50 




2 4-30 


Botany 11 Paper 


50 




*3 hours 


Practical Examination 


100 


ZOOLOGY (SUBSIDIARY). 


Eighth day 


1012-30 


Invertebrata 


50 




2 4-30 


Vertebrata 


50 




*3 hours 


Practical Examination 


100 



Ninth day 



Tenth day 



GEOLOGY (SUBSIDIARY). 

1012-30 General, Structural, Stratigraphical 

Geology, Palaeontology 50 

2 4-30 Crystallography, Mineralogy and 

Petrology 50 

*3 hour-) Practical Examination 100 



PHYSIOLOGY (SUBSIDIARY) 

1 

3 hours 
*3 hours 



Physiology 

Practical Examination I 

Practical Examination II 



100 

150 

50 



Note : Every year the exact dates of Part II of the B.Sc. Examination will 
be notified on receipt of information from the affiliated colleges at> to the 
different Main and Subsidiary Subjects offered by candidates. 



B.Sc. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION IN PHYSICS AND 
CHEMISTRY. 

PART L 



First day 


10 1 
2 4 


English 
Translation 


90 
60 



farst day 



10- i 



Total 160 

PART II. 
PHYSICS (MAW). 

Properties of Matter and Dynamic Theory 
of Sound 100 



*Day and hour will be notified later. 



6.SC. (PASS) & B.8C. (HONS.)1 

B 3c (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION IN PHYSICS AND 



PART II (Contd.) 
PHYSICS (MAIN) (Contd.) 



ba$s Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


Second day 101 


Sound and Heat 


100 


Third day 101 


Light 


100 


Fourth day 101 


Electricity and Magnetism 


100 


Fifth day 10 1 


Modern Physics I 


100 


Sixth day 101 


Do. II 


100 




Practical examination I 


100 


Dates and hours will 


Do. 11 


100 


be notified later. 


Do. Ill 


100 




Do. IV 


100 




Practical Record 


100 




ToUl 


1,100 




CHEMISTRY (MAIN). 




First day 101 


General and Historical Chemistry 


100 


Second day 101 


Physical Chemistry 


100 


Third day 101 


Inorganic Chemistry 


100 


Fourth day 101 


Organic Chemistry 


100 


Fifth day 101 


Special subject 


100 




Practical examination I 


100 


Dates and hours will 


Do. II 


100 


be notified later. 


Do. Ill 


100 




Do. IV 


100 




Practical Record 


100 




Total 


1,000 




PHYSICS (SUBSIDIARY). 




Sixth day 101 


Physics (Theory) 


100 


Date and hour will 


Physics (Practical) 


100 



be notified later. 



Total 200 



THE ANDHRA PjaVBftSITt CODE VOL. II [CHAP. 

<HON). PBPR8E EXAMINATION IN PHYSICS 
CHEAUSTRY-fan^) 

CHEMISTRY (SUBSIDIARY). 



D.y> ff^> 


Subjects 


Marks 


Seventh day 101 
Date and hour will 
be notified later. 


Chemistry (Theory) 
Chemhtfry (Practical) 


100 

106 



Total 200 



MATHEMATICS (SUBSIDIARY TO PHYSICS MAIN). 



Eighth day 



10 1 Algebra, Trigonometry and Analytical 

Geometry 100 

2^~ 5 Calculus and Differential Equations 100 



MATHEMATICS (SUBSIDIARY TO CHIMISTRY MAIN) 
101 Mathematics 



100 



B*c (HONS.) DEGREE EXAM1NANION IN CHEMICAL 
TECHNOLOGY. 

PART I. 



First day 
Second day 



Third day 
Fourth day 
Fifth day 



10 1 
10- 1 



10- 1 
10 1 
10 1 



Mathematics 

Physics (Written) 
Do. (Practical) 



100 

100 
100 



Total 200 

Chemistry (Britten) I (Inorganic) 100 

Do. (Written) II (Physical) 100 

Do. Written III (Organic) 100 



*> 

50 
50 



Total 700 



D.. 



Oral 



fCommon with Chemical Technology Main. 

Dates and hours of practical examinations will be notified each year. 



B.SC, 



487 



B Sc. (HOWS.) DEGREE 



lit fettttMIC^L 



PART 



Days 



Hours 



Subject* 



Mark* 



Sixth day 


10 1 General 
Engineering (Written) 
Do (Practical) 
Drawing Records 


100 

50 
50 



Seventh day 



First day 
Second day 



Third day 



Fourth day 



1012 



10- 1 
10-1 



10 1 



10 1 



Pharmaceutical Botany (Written) 
*Do. (Practical) 



Total 200 

50 
50 



Total 100 

PART II. 

Cherriica! Technology Written, I Paper 100 

Do. Written, II Paper 100 

*Do. Practical I 100 

Practical H 100 

Records 60 



Chemical Engineering (Written) 
*Do. Practical 

Records 



Total 450 

100 
100 
50 



Special subject (Written) 
*Do. Practical 
Records 



T6tal 250 

100 

100 

50 

Total k&b 
Grand total 950 



B Sc. (HONS ) DEGREE EXAMINATION IN BOTANY, 
ZOOLOGY AND GEOLOGY. 

PART I 



First day 



101 
24 



English 
Translation 



90 
60 

Total 150 



*Dates and hours of Practical examinations will be notified each year. 



488 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP, LVIII 

B.Sc, (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION IN BOTANY. 
ZOOLOGY AND 

PART II. 
BOTANY (MAIN). 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


First day 


10-1 


Alage, Fungi 


and Bryophytes 


150 


Second day 


10-1 


Pteridophytes 


, Cynosperms and 


Mor- 



Third day 10 1 Histology, Physiology, Ecology and 

Distribution 150 

Fourth day 101 Systematic Botany, Economic Botany 

and General Principles 150 

Fifth day 101 Special subject % 150 

Practical Examination I 100 

Do, II 100 

Do. Ill 100 

Do. IV 100 

Practical record and collections 100 

Total 1,250 
ZOOLOGY (MAIN). 



First day 


10-1 


Invertebrata, including Invertebrate 








Embryology 


150 


Second day 


101 


Chordata including Vertebrate Em- 








bryology 


150 


Third day 


10-1 


Minor groups and Palaeontology and 








South Indian Fauna 


150 






V 




Fourth day 


10-1 


Genetics, Cytology and General Princi- 








ples 


150 


Fifth day 


10-1 


Special subject 


150 




3 hours 


Practical Examination I 


100 




each. 


Do, II 


100 






Do. Ill 


100 






Do. IV 


100 






Practical record and microscopic slides 


100 


Total 1,250 



Pays and hours will be notified later. 



B.SO. (HONS.)] 



TIME-TABLES 



489 



B.Sc. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION IN BOTANY, 
ZOOLOGY AND GEOLOGY (CVn^) 

GEOLOGY (MAIN). 



Days 


ffours 


Subjects 


Markf 


First day 


101 


General Geology Physical, Dynamical 
and Structural Geology 150 


Second day 


101 


Crystollography and Mineralogy 


160 


Third day 


101 


Petrology 


150 


Fourth day 


101 


Indian Geology, Stratigraphy 
Palaeontology 


and 
150 


Fifth day 


101 
3 hours. 


Special subject 
Practical Examination I 


150 
100 




each. 


Do. II 


100 






Do. Ill 


100 






Do. IV 


100 






Field and Laboratory Records and 
Voce 


Viva 
100 








1,250 






PHYSICS (SUBSIDIARY). 




Sixth day 


101 
3 hours 


Physics (Theory) 
Physics (Practical) 


100 
100 


Total 200 


CHEMISTRY (SUBSIDIARY). 


Seventh day 


101 
3 hours. 


Chemistry (Theory) 
Chemistry (Practical) 


100 
100 








Total 200 


% 




BOTANY (SUBSIDIARY). 




Eighth day 


10-12-30 Botany I Paper 
24-30 Botany II Paper 
3 hours. 'Practical Examination 


50 
50 
100 








Total 200 



Dates and hours will be notified later. 



490 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LVIII 

B.Sc. (HONS.) DEGREE EXAMINATION IN BOTANY, 
ZOOLOGY AND GEOLOGY-(c^M) 

ZOOLOGY (SuBSiDiAiiv). 



Dayj 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


Ninth day 


10-12-30 
24-30 
3 hours. 


Invertebrate 
Vertebrata 
Practical Examination 


50 
50 
100 


Total 200 



Tenth day 



GEOLOGY (SUBSIDIARY). 

10-12-30 General, Structural and Strati graphical 

Geology and Palaeontology 50 

24-30 Crystallography, Mineralogy and 

Petrology 50 

3 hours. *Practical Examination 100 



Total 200 



I. M.Sc. DEGREE EXAMINATION IN APPLIED PHYSICS. 



First day 


10 1 Applied Mechanics 


100 


Second day 


10 1 Optical Instruments 


100 


Third day 


1C 1 Applied Electricity 


100 




3 hours. Applied Mechanics 
*Practical Examination 


100 




Records 


30 




3 hours. Optical Instruments 
*Practical Examination 


100 




Records 


30 




3 hours. Applied Electricity 
Practical Examination 


100 




Records 


,40 




3 hours. Drawing 
Practical Examination 


60 




Records 


40 


Total 800 



Pates and hours will be notified later. 



M.SC.j TIME-TABLES 49l 

II. M.Sc. IN APPLIED PHYSICS EXAMINATION FOR PASS 
GRADUATES AT THE END OF FIRST YEAR. 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


First day 


10-12 


Properties of Matter 


60 


Third day 


101 


Light 


100 


Fourth day 


101 


Electricity and Magnetism 


100 






* Practical Examination I 


100 






Do. II 


100 






Practical Records 


40 








Total 500 




(Table common 


with B.Sc. Hons. Physics Main Part 11), 





III. M.Sc. DEGREE EXAMINATION IN CHEMISTRY 

(INCLUDING MICROSCOPY) OF FOODS, DRUGS 

AND WATER AS SPECIAL SUBJECT. 



Fir^t day 101 


Written Paper I 


100 


Second day 101 


Do. Paper II 
Practical I 


100 
100 




Do. II 


100 




Do. Ill 


100 




Oral and records 


100 


Total 600 



IV. M.Sc IN CHEMISTRY (INCLUDING MICROSCOPY) OF 

FOODS, DRUGS AND WATER AS SPECIAL SUBJECT FOR 

PASS GRADUATES AT THE END OF FIRST YEAR. 

1 10 1 Organic Chemistry 100 

10 1 Chemistry of Foods and Drugs 100 

"Practical I 100 

Do. II 100 

Practical Record 40 

Total 440 

* Dates and hours of practical examinations will be notified each year, 
t Common papers with B.Sc. Hons. Chemistry Main, Part II. 



492 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LVIII 

V. M.Sc. DEGREE EXAMINATION IN CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY. 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects Marks 


First day 


1011-30 


Scientific German Translation 50 


Second day 


1012 


General Economics and Factory 
Management 50 


Third day 


10- 1 


Special subjects m Chemical 
Technology Written 1 100 


Fourth day 


10 1 


Do. Written II 100 


Fifth day 


10 1 


Do. Written III 100 






Do. Practical I 100 






Do. Practical II 100 






Do. Practical III 100 






Home Paper 100 






Oral 100 






Records 100 






Total 1,000 


B. Ed. DEGREE EXAMINATION. 


(a) Practical Examination. f 






Lesson I 100 






Lesson 11 100 


Note. Date 


and hour of the Practical examination will be notified each year. 


(b) Written 


Examination. 




First day 


10 1 


Theory and Practice of Education 
Part I 100 




2 5 


Theory and Practice of Education 
Part II 100 


Second day 


10-1 


History of Education 100 




2- 5 


Methods appropriate to teaching 






English 100 


Third day 


10- 1 


Methods appropriate to teaching 


v 




Special subject 100 



Dates and hours will be notified later. 



MEDICAL] 



TIME-TABLES 



493 



MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS. 

PRE-REGISTRATION EXAMINATION. 



Days 


Hours Subjects 


Afaxt" 
mum 


Mini" 
muttt 


First day 


* Inorganic Chemistry Practical 


50 


18 




10 1 Inorganic Chemistry Written 
* Inorganic Chemistry Oral 


100) 
50j 


53 




* Physics Practical 


50 


18 




25 Physics Written 
PhysicsOral 


106) 
50 j 


53 


Second day 


General Biology Practical 


50 


18 




101 General BiologyWritten 
* General Biology Oral 

Total 


100) 
50 j 

600 


53 


213 




FIRST M.B B S. EXAMINATION. 








ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 






First day 


101 Practical 


50 


25 




* Written 
* Oral 


on 

50) 


50 




Total 


150 


75 




ANATOMY, ETC. 






First day 


* Practical (I) issection) 


50 


25 




25 Written 
* Oral 


100) 
50) 


75 




Total 


200 


100 




PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. 






Second day 


* Practical 


50 


25 




101 Written 
Oral 


100) 
50J 


75 




Total 


200 


100 




Grand Total 


550 


275 



* Days and hours will be decided before the commencement of each 
examination. 



494 



THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. 



MEDICAL EXAMINTIONS (Confd.) 

SECOND M.B.B.S. EXAMINATION. 

PHARMACOLOGY. 



Days 


Hour* Subjects 


Maxi- 
mum 


Mini- 
mum 


First day 


* Practical 


50 


25 




10- 1 Written 
* Oral 

Total 


100) 
50] 

200 


75 


100 




HYGIENE. 






First day 


* Practical 


25 


13 




2 5 Written 
* Oral 

Total 


100) 
25j 

150 


63 


76 




FORENSIC MEDICINE, 






Second day 


10 1 Written 
* Oral 


100) 
50] 


75 




Total 


150 


75 




Grand Total 


500 


251 




FINAL M.B.B.S. EXAMINATION. 








MEDICINE. 






First day 


1012 Written 
2- 4 
* Practical ) . 
* Oral j J 


50 Uo" 

50 j 40 

LOO j 


J- 100 




* Clinical 








1 hour Examination of a patient and 
report (written) thereon 
$ hour Short examination of two 
patients 


1 

75J 


75 


Total 350 


175 



* Days and hours will be decided before the commencement of each exami- 
nation. 



MEDICAL] 



TIME-TABLES 



495 



MEDICAL 

FINAL M.B. & B.S. EXAMINATION (Contd.) 
SURGERY. 



Days 


ffours 


Subjects 


Maxi- 
mum 


Mini- 
mum 


Second day 


1012 

2 4 








Written 

Oral 
Operative 
Clinical- 


SM 

50 C 
50 ) 


100 




1 hour, 
i hour 


Examination of a patient and 
a report (written) thereon 
Short examination of not less 
than two cases 


"1 

75) 


75 






Total 


350 


175 


OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY. 


Third day 


10- 1 

* 

* 


Written 
Practical ") 
Oral j 


100 40 1 
100 j 


100 




* 


Clinical 


100 


50f 






Total 


300 


150 






OPHTHALMOLOGY. 






Third day 


2- 5 

ft 

* 


Written 
Practical ) 
Oral } 


50 20 1 
50 J 


50 




<t 


Clinical 
Total 


50 
150 


25f 


75 






PATHOLOGY, ETC. 






Fourth day 


10 1 


Written 


100 


40 




* 



Written ) 
Practical > 
Oral ) 


100 


50 






Total 


200 


90 


Grand Total 1,350 


665 



Days and hours will be decided before the commencement of each exami- 
nation. 

f* Minimum for a pass (1) 50 per cent of the total marks in the whole subject. 

(2) 50 per cent of the marks in the clinical examination. 

(3) 40 per cent of the aggregate marks in written, 

practical and oral examination. 



490 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LVI1I 

M. D. DEGREE EXAMINATION. 

Branch I Medicine including Tropical Medicine 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


First day 


10-1 
25 


Medicine 
Tropical Medicine 


Second day 


101 
25 


Pathology and Bacteriology 
Essay 


Third day 


10-1 
25 


Clinical 
Practical and Oral 


Branch // Pathology including Bacteriology 


First day 


101 
2-5 


Pathology I 
Pathology II 


Second day 


10-1 
25 


Medicine including Tropical Diseases 
Essay 


Third day 


104 


Practical and Oral 




M. S. 


DEGREE EXAMINATION. 


First day 


101 
25 


Surgery 
Surgical Anatomy and Pathology 


Second day 


101 

2-5 


Special subject 
Essay in General Surgery 


Third day 


10-1 
2-5 


Operative Surgery and the use of instruments 
Clinical and Oral 



ORIENTAL TITLE EXAMINATIONS. 

VIPYA PRA.VEENA. 
Preliminary- 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


First day 


101 


Prescribed Text- 


books Genl. 


(i) 


200 


Second day 


101 


Prescribed Text- 


books Genl. 


(ii) 


200 


Third day 


101 


Prescribed Text- 


books Spl. 


(i) 


200 


Fourth day 


101 


Prescribed Text- 


books Spl. 


(ii) 


200 












Total 800 



O.T.] 



TIME-TABLES 



497 



ORIENTAL TITLE EXAMINATIONS (ffr*/</.) 

VIDYA PRAVEENA (Contd) 
Final. 



Day* 


Hours 


Subjects 


Mark* 


First day 


101 


History of Sanskrit Language and 
Literature 


200 


Second day 


101 


Prescribed Text-books Spl. (i) 


200 


Third day 


101 


Prescribed Text-books Spl. (ii) 


200 


Fourth day 


10-1 


Prescribed Text-books Spl. (iii) 


200 






Total 


800 


UBHAYABHASHA PRAVEENA. 
Final. 


FOR 


PARTS A 


AND C IN REGULATION 7 OF CHAPTER LI, 




First day 


101 


History of Sanskrit Language 
and Literature 


200 


Second day 


101 


Prescribed Sanskrit Text-books 


200 


Third day 


101 


Prescribed Text-books in Modern 
Indian Language 1 


200 


Fourth day 


101 


Prescribed Text-books in Modern 
Indian Language II 


200 






Total 


800 




FOR PART 


B IN REGULATION 7 OF CHAPTER LI. 




First day 


101 
2-5 


Prescribed Text-books I 
Prescribed Text-books II 


150 
150 


Second day 


101 


History of Language and Literature 


150 


Third day 


10-1 


Sanskrit Text-books 
Total 


150 


600 






'BHASHA PRAVEENA. 








Admission Test 




First day 
Second day 


101 

101 
25 


Prescribed Sanskrit Jest-books and 
Grammar 100 
Modern Indian Language I Paper 100 
Do, II Paper 100 






Total 


300 



63 



498 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [OHAP. LVIII 

ORIENTAL TITLE 



BHASHA PRAVEENA (Contd,) 
Prelim ina ry. 


Day* 


ffourt 


Subjects 


Marks 


First day 


101 
2-5 


Prescribed Text-book in 
Modern Indian Language I 
Do. II 


150 
150 


Second day 


101 


Vernacular Composition 


150 


Third day 


101 
2-5 


Sanskrit Text-Books I 
Do. II 


150 
150 






Total 


750 






Final. 




First day 


101 
25 


Prescribed Text-Books 
in Modern Indian Language I 
Do. II 


150 
150 


Second day 


101 
2-5 


History of Language and Literature 
Special period of Literature 


150 
150 


Third day 


101 


Sanskrit Text-Books 


150 






Total 


750 



CERTIFICATE OF PROFICIENCY. 

A paper of three hours' duration to be answered on the morning of the day 
following Final Examination for Titles and shall carry 100 Marks. 



First day 

Second day 
Third day 



B.O.L. DEGREE EXAMINATION. 
PART I 

10 1 English Composition and Translation 

(including Precis Writing) 



PART n 

101 Prescribed Text-books I Paper 

25 Do. II Paper 

101 Essay 

25 History of the special subject 



100 



100 

100 

100 
100 

Total 500 



TIME-TABLES 

ORIENTAL TITLE EXAMINATION (contd.) 

ALIMI-I-FAZIL. 
Preliminary. 



499 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


First day 


101 
25 


Tafsir and Hadith 
Fiqh Aqualid 


100 
100 


Second day 


10-1 

2-5 


Prose Text-books 
Poetry Text-books 


100 
100 


Third day 


101 
2-5 


History 100 
Translation from Arabic into Urdu 
and vice versa 100 






Total 


600 






Final. 




First day 


10-1 
2-5 


Tafsir, Hadith and Ilmul-Hadith 
Fiqh and Usulul-Fiqh 


100 
100 


Second day 


101 
2-5 


Prose Text-books 
Poetry Text-books 


100 
100 


Third day 


10-1 
3-5 


History 
Translation from Arabic into 
Urdu and vice versa 


100 
100 


Fourth day 


10-1 

2 g 


Mantiq and Balaghat 
Composition in Arabic 

Total 


100 
100 


800 






MUNSHI-I-KAMIL. 








Preliminary. 




First day 


101 

a 5 


Persian Text-books 
Urdu Text-books 


100 
100 


Second day 


101 
2-5 


Translation from Persian into Urdu 
Translation from Urdu into Persian 


100 
100 


Third day 


101 

25 


Composition in Persian 
Arabic Text-books 


100 
100 






Total 


600 



500 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE- VOL. II [CHAP. LIX 

ORIENTAL TITLE 

MUNSHM-KAMIL (contd.) 
Final. 



Days 


Hours 


Subjects 


Marks 


First day 


101 
25 


Persian Text-books 
Urdu Text-books 


100 
100 


Second day 


10-1 
2-5 


Translation from Persian into Urdu 
Translation from Urdu into Persian 


100 
100 


Third day 


10-1 
2-5 


History of Persian Language and 
Literature 
Arabic Text-books 


100 
100 


Fourth day 


101 


Composition in Persian 
Total 


100 


700 




DIPLOMA 


EXAMINATION IN MUSIC. 




First day 


101 
25 


Music Written Paper I 
Do. Paper II 


75 

75 


Second day* 


101 
25 


Music Practical I 
Do. Practical II 


125 
125 






Total 


400 



*The exact dates and hours of the practical examination will be notified 
every year. 



SBC. 12] CERTIFICATES 66l 

CHAPTER LTX 
TRANSFER AND TERM OR ANNUAL CERTIFICATES. 

1. No student who lias previously studied in any recognized Transfer 
school or college shall be admitted to a college unless he presents a 
transfer certificate showing : 

(a) the namtf of the student in full; 

(b) the date of birth as entered in the admission register; 

(c) the dates on which he was admitted to and on which he 

left tho institution; 

(d) the class in which he studied at time of leaving it, 

(e) the subjects or portions thereof studied by him while 

enrolled; 

(f) if it be the time when annual promotions take place 

whether he is qualified for promotion to a higher 
class; 

(g) that he has paid all fees or other moneys due to that 

institution in respect of the last term in which he was 
enrolled. 

No student shall be enrolled pending the production of such 
certificate. Every such certificate shall be endorsed with the 
admission number under which the student is enrolled and shall 
be filed for reference and inspection. 

2. A student applying for a transfer certificate during a college Issue of 
term on any day on which he has been enrolled, or applying not Certificate, 
later than the fifth working day of the college term immediately 
following shall forthwith be given such certificate upon payment 
of all fees or other moneys doe, or of such portion thereof as the 
Principal may see fit to demand, for the college term in which he 
was enrolled. 

A student applying for such certificate after the fifth working 
day of the college term immediately following that during which 
he has been last enrolled shall forthwith be given it on payment 



5f)2 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODS VOL. II [C&AP. Lll 

of (I) all fees or other moneys due or of such portion thereof as 
the Principal may see fit to demand in respect of the college term 
in which he was last enrolled and (2) an additional fee of Rs. 3 at 
the option of the Principal. 

Provided that, when a student has been enrolled at favourable 
fee rates, he shall be liable for such rates only. m 

No student shall be considered to have been enrolled in any 
college term unless he has attended the college and received instruc- 
tion for at least one day of that college terra or has paid the fees of 
portions thereof prescribed. 

In the case of a student who has been a candidate for a 
University Examination, the results of which have not been pub- 
lished before the beginning of the college term the eleventh day 
after the results of that examination have been announced at the 
Senate House shall be counted for him the first working day of the 
college term so far as the grant of a transfer certificate ie 
concerned. 

In the event of a Principal refusing or delaying to give a trans- 
fer certificate to which a student may be entitled the student shall 
have right of appeal to the Syndicate. 

Expulsion of 3. If any student is expelled from an affiliated college, inti- 

College * r m mat i n ^ tne ^ act ^ expulsion, with a statement of the reasons 
therefor, shall be given forthwith by the Principal (a) to the parent 
or guardian of the student and (b) to the Syndicate ; intimation to 
the Syndicate ehall be accompained by the transfer certificate of the 
student. The Syndicate, on the application of the student or his 
parent or guardian, may after making such enquiry as it deems 
proper deliver the certificate to the student with any necessary 
endorsement or withhold temporarily or permanently. 

Academic 4. The academic year for colleges affiliated in Arts, Science 

year and Teaching shall consist of three terms, which shall ordinarily 

begin and end as follows : 

First term June to September, closing with the Michaelmas 
holidays. 



SEC. 37] CERTIFICATES 503 

Second term October to December, closing with the Christ- 
mas holidays. 

Third term January to April closing with the Summer 
holidays, 

5. A student shall ordinarily qualify for the annual certificate Combina- 
in one and the same college but in special cases the Syndicate may Attendances 
allow attendance in different colleges to be combined for the pur- 
poses of the annual certificate. 

6. In colleges affiliated in Arts and Teaching the grant of the Annual 
annual certificate shall be in respect of three terms ordinarily 
consecutive comprising one year ; but it shall be competent for the 
authorities of an affiliated college to grant such certificate in respect 

of three terms which are not consecutive provided that the student 
has during those terms completed the necessary courses of study 
for the year. 

7. The grant of the annual certificate shall be subject, in Conditions 

of grant of 
addition, to the following conditions : annual 

Certificate 

(1) In colleges affiliated in Arts and Teaching, the certifi- 

cate shall not be granted unless a student has kept 
three-fourths of the attendances prescribed by the 
college in the course of instruction followed by him 
during the year, and in institutions approved by the 
Syndicate under the regulations for Oriental Titles 
and Certificatei of Proficiency in Oriental Learning 
unless he has kept three-fourths of the attendance 
prescribed by the institution in the particular course 
of study for which the certificate is issued. 

(2) In colleges of Science the certificate shall not be 

granted unless a student has kept three-fourths of 
the attendances prescribed by the college in the 
course of instruction followed by him during the 
year ; in colleges in Medicine unless he has 
attended four-fifths of the lectures in each course. 



504 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. MX 

(3) The certificate shall not he granted unless the student 
has completed the course of instruction to the 
latiefaction of the authorities of his colleges and his 
progress and conduct have been satisfactory. 

8. The annual attendance certificates once issued by the 
Principals of Colleges shall not be cancelled by them, but the 
Syndicate may direct the heads of colleges not to admit to further 
courses of studies for a certain period, students who are found 
guilty of any serious offence or misconduct after the issue of 
attendance certificates. 

Form of 9. The certificates shall be drawn up in the following 

certificates * 

forms : 

1. MATRICULATION EXAMINATION 

[hereby certify that has kept attendance for not less than 

I3O days of the previous school year before loth March in School 

that he has completed the course of study prescribed for the 

several classes of a high school and that his progress and conduct have been 
satisfactory. 



.19 . 

Headmaster 



2. INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION IN ARTS AND SCIENCE 

FIRST YEAR 

/ certify that ........................... has kept three-fouiths of the attendances 

prescribed by the .................. College .................. in the course of instruction 

followed by him during the year consisting of the following terms 



2 ............................... . ......... 

3 .......................................... 

and that his progress and conduct have been satisfactory. 



(Signature) , 

.79 . Principal. 



I certify that has attended the course of practical 

instruction in 



(Signature) 

,./ . Professor or Lecturer. 



SEC. 8 -9, MATRIC. & INTER.] CERTIFICATES 505 

I certify that ...., has attended the tonrse of practical 

instruction in 



(Signature) 

../9 Professor or Lecturer. 



/ certify that has attended the course, of practical 

instruction in 



(Signature) 

(/) 

Professor or Lecturer. 

(2) 

Professor or Lecturer. 



SECOND YEAR 
/certify that ........................... has kept three-foutths of t he attendances 

prescribed by the .................... College .................. in the course oj instruction 

folio-wed by him during the year consisting of the following teims\ 



that his conduct^ and progress have been satisfactory and that he has 
completed the course of study prescribed for the Intcimedi it t> Examination in 
Arts and Science 



(Signature) 

. /9 Principal. 



I certify that has saisfactorily completed th< cowse of 

practical instruction in 



(Signature) , 

Ptofessor or Leciut er. 



I certify that has satisfactorily completed the course of 

practical instruction in 



(Signature) , 

Professor or Lecturer. 



I certify that has satisfactorily completed the course of 

practical instruction in 



(Signature)....*. , 

29 Professor or Lecturer. 

64 



506 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL. II [CHAP. MX 

3. B A DEGREE EXAMINATION 

FIRST YEAR 

/ certify that ........................... has kept three-fourths of the attendants 

prescribed by the ..................... College .................. in the couise of instruction 

in ................................. during the year consisting of 'the following terms : 



2 ........................................ 

3 .......................................... 

and that hit conduct and progress have been satisfactory. 

(Signature) ................................... 

.............................. 79 . Principal. 

SECOND YEAR 

/ certify that ........................... has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the ..................... College .................. in the course of instruction 

in ........................... during the year consisting of the following terms: 



that his conduct and progress have been satisfactory and that he has completed 
the course of study prescribed for the B.A. Degree Examination. 



(Signature) .- 

,.79 . Principal. 



*/ certify \ihat ........................ *.has attended the course of practical 

instruction in ..................... for the B.A. Degree Examination at the ............... 

during the year consisting of the following terms \ 



and that he has satisfactorily completed the course. 



(Signature) 

.79 . Professor or Lecturer. 



*/ certify that ........................... has attended the course of practical 

instruction in .................. for the B.A. Degree Examination at the .................. 

during the year consisting of the following terms i 



and that he has satisfactorily completed the course, 

(Signature) .................................... 

.............................. ig . Professor or Lecturer. 

9 These certificates have to be produced only by candidates in Groups (i), 
(ii-a) and (ii-b). 



b.A. & B.A. (HONS.)} CERTIFICATES 50? 

4. EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OP BACHELOR OF 
ARTS (HONOURS) 

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 

/ certify that ......... , ................. has kept three- fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the University College of Arts, ........... . ..... .for the year consist- 

ing of the following terms \ 



2 ......................................... 

3 .......................................... 

in the course of instruction in English and French or German or Early South 
Indian History^ that hit progress and conduct have been satisfactory and that 
he hat completed the course of study prescribed for the Preliminary Exami- 
nation for the B.A. (Honours) Degree. 



{Signature) ~ .... 

Principal. 



FINAL EXAMINATION 



/ certify that., has kept three- fourths of the attendances 

pi escribed by the University College of Arts t >*. for the year consist' 

ing of the following terms : 



in the course of instruction in > and that his progress and conduct 

have been satisfactory. 

(Signature) 

79 . ' Principal. 



I certify that ........................... has kept three-fourths of the attendance* 

prescribed by the University College of Arts, ................. .for the year consist" 

ing of the following terms \ 



2 .......................................... 

3 ......................................... 

in the course of instruction in .................. and that his progress and conduct 

have been satisfactory. 

(Signature) .............................. . ..... 

.. ....... . .................. 79 . Principal. 



508 THE ANDHRA UKlVERSITY CODE VOL. tl [CHAt. Ll 

/ cettifv that ....................... has kept three-foutths of the attendances 

prescribed by the University College flf Atls, ............... for the year consist- 

ing of the following terms : 



2 ....................................... 

3 ....................................... 

in the course of instruction in ....... .......... that his progress and conduct have. 

been satisfactory \ and that he has completed the course of study pt escribed for 
the B A {Honours} Degree Examination. 



(Signature) 

,.79 . Principal. 



I certify that has attended and has satisfactorily 

completed the course of practical instruction in Experimental Psychology 
required o/ candidates selecting Experimental Psychology in the B A (Honours] 
Degtee Examination^ at the during the year 



(Signature) 

Professor or Reader or Lecturer, 



5. B COM. DEGREE EXAMINATION 

Part I 

* FIRST YEAR 

I certify that .......................... has kept three'foiitths of t he attendances 

prescribed by the. ............... College .............. in the course of instruction 

in Part I (a) English and Ti anslation (ffindi) during the year consisting of 
the following terms 



2 ......................................... 

3 ....................................... 

that his conduct and progress have been satisfactory and that he has completed 
the couise of study prescribed for part I of the B. Com. Degree Examination. 

(Signature) .................................... 

.......... .. .................. 19 . Principal. 



Part II 

FIRST YEAR 

t certify that has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the ,... .College in the course of instruction in 

Part H during the year consisting oj the folio-wing terms \ 

2 

3 

and that his progress and conduct have been satisfactory. 



(Signature) 

, , i() . Principal. 



* To be filled in onlv on behalf ofvcandidate c > appearing for Part I of the 
examination at the end of the first year'b course. To be struck off in other cases. 



B. COM.] CERTIFICATES 50$ 

SECOND YEAR 
/ certify thdt ......................... has kept three- fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the ................. College ................. in the course of instruction in 

Part II during the year consisting of the following terms- - 



2 .......................................... 

3 .......................................... 

and that his progress and conduct have been satisfactory and that he has 
completed the course of study prescribed for the ti. Com. Degree Examination. 



(Signature) 

,./9 Principal. 



5 A. B. COM. DEGREE EXAMINATION 

(.Under New Regulations) 

FIRST \EAR 

I CLitifv that .......................... has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the ................ College .............. in the couise of instruction 

in .................. during the year consisting of the following tctms 



a 



and that his conduct and progress have been satisfactory. 

(Signature) 



Principal. 



SECOND YEAR 



/ certify that ........................ has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the .................. College ................. in the course of instruction 

in .................. during the yeai consisting of the following term* \ 



3 .......................................... 

that hi* conduct and progress have been satisfactory and that he has completed 
the course of study prescribed for the B. Com. Degtee Examinatian. 



(Signature) te . 

Principal. 



510 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. It [CHAP. LIX 

6. B. COM. (HONS ) DEGREE EXAMINATION 

/ certify that has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the University College of Arts and Commerce^ .for 

the year consisting of the following terms :-^ 



2.. 
3" 



in the course of instruction in and that his prog-rets and 

conduct have been satisfactory. 



(Signature) 

Principal. 



I certify that has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the University College of Atts and Commerce^ .for 

the year consisting of the following terms : 



2.. 



in the course of instruction in and that his progress and 

conduct have been satisfactory. 

(Signatiire) 

ig . Principal. 



I certify that has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the University College of Arts and Commerce, .for 

the year consisting of the following terms \ 



2.. 



in the course of instruction in that his progress and conduct 

have been satisfactory, and that he has completed the course of study pre- 
scribed for the B. Com. (Honours) Degree Examination. 



(Signature) 

,./9 . Principal* 



B. COM. (HONS.)] CERTIFICATES 511 

6 A B. COM. (HONS). DEGREE EXAMINATION 

(Under New Regulations) 

FIRST YEAR 

Park I Preliminary Examination 
I certify that ........................... has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the University College of Arts and Commerce^ ................. .for 

the year consisting of the folio-wing terms: 



2 .......................................... 

3 .......................................... 

in the course of instruction in Part I (a) English and (6) Translation (Hindi), 
that his progress and condttct have been satisfactory and that he has completed 
the course of study prescribed for Part I Examination of the B.Com (Honours) 
Degree. 



(Signature) 

,./? . Principal. 



Part II 

FIRST YEAR 

I certify that .............. , ...... ...... has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the University College of Arts and Commerce^ ................. for 

the year consisting of the following terms : 



2 .......................................... 

3 .......................................... 

in the course of instruction in ........................... and that his progress and 

conduct have been satisfactory. 



(Signatuie) ........ , ......................... 

iq . Principal, 



SECOND YEAR 



7 certify that ........................... has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the University College of Arts and Commerce^ ................. .for 

the year consisting of the following terms-. 



a 



in the course of instruction in ........................... and that his progress and 

conduct have been satisfactory. 



(Signature) 

../9 Principal. 



.512 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LIX 

THIRD VEAR 

I certify that .......................... has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the University College of Aits and Commerce^ ................ .for 

the year consisting of the following terms \ 



2 ............................... . .......... 

3 .......................................... 

in the course of instruction in ........................... that his piogiess and conduct 

have been satisfactory, and that he has completed the course of study prescribed 
for the B. Com. {Honours) Degree Examination. 



(Signature) 

,.79 . Principal. 



7. B.Sc. DEGREE EXAMINATION 

I certify that .................. , ....... ha? kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the .................. College .................. in the course of instruction in 

English during the year consisting of the following terms : 



2 .......................................... 

3 .......................................... 

and that his conduct and progress have been satisfactory. 

(Signature)... ................................. 

.............................. 79 . Principal. 

I certify that ......................... has kept thiee-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the ................. College .............. in the course tf instruction 

in ........................... during the year consisting of the fallowing terms-. 



2 .......................................... 

3 .......................................... 

that his conduct and progress have been satisfactory and that he has completed 
the course of study prescribed for the B.Sc. Degree Examination. 



(Signature) 
79 . Principal. 



*/ certify that .......................... has attended the course of practical 

instruction in ......................... .for the B.Sc. Degree Examination of the 

.................. during the year consisting of the following terms : 



2 

3 



(Signature) 



(2) 
(J) 

79 . Professor or Lectuter. 



* This will not be required in the case of Mathematics. 



B.SO. & B.SC. (HONH.)] CRRTIPICATBS 513 

* / certify that has attended the course of practical 

instruction in .for the B.Sc Degree Examination at the 

during the year conn st nig of the following terms 



2 

J 

anal that he has satisfactorily completed the course 

(Signature). 



,.79 . Professor or Lecturer. 



8. B.Sc. (HONS ) DEGREE EXAMINATION 

Part I 

I certify that has kept thi ee-foui ths of the attendance* 

pte\crib?d by the Jeypoit Vikrama Deo College of Science and Technology^ 

in the course of insti uction in English and Get man during the year 

that hh progies* and conduct have been sattffacto) y and that ht 

has completed the course of itudy preset ibedfoi Pai t f of the />'. Sc. (ffonoiir <) 
Degiee Examination 



(Signature) 

. /? Pi ofe* sof or Lectm e? . 



Part II 

/ certify that has kept t hret-fouiths of the attendances 

pi cso ibed by the Jeypote Vikiama Deo College of Science and Technology, 

/;/ the course of instruction in dui ing the year 

and that his pi ogi ess and conduct have bten satisfactory. 



(Signature) 

79 . Pi uicipal. 



I ctittfy that has kept three-fourths of t he attendances 

prescribed by the Jeypcie Vikrami Deo College of Sconce and Technology > 

in. the course of instiuctwn in during the year 

and that his conduct and progress have b'en satisfactor y f and that 

he has completed the course of study in (Subsidiary) pt eso ibed for the 

S.Sc. (Honours) Degree Examination. 

(Signature) 

IQ . Principal. 

* This will not be required in the case of Mathematics. 

t To be filled is on behalf of candidates appearing for the Subsidiary sub- 
jects at the end of the second year. 

65 



514 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODEVOL. II [CHAP. LIX 

/ certify that has kept t hree- fourths of the attendances 

ptesciibed bv the Jeypore Vikrama Deo College of Science and Technolog v, 

in the course of instruction in that his progress 

and conduct have been satitfiUtoi y >ind that he has completed the com se of stitdy 
prescribed for the J3. Sc. (Honours) Degree Examination, 



(Signature) , 

.79 . Principal. 



*7 certify that has attended the. coutse of practical 

instruction in .for the B Sc. (Honours) Degree Examination 

of the Jeypore Viktama Deo College of Science and Technology 

during the year 



( Si gnat ure) 

.79 Professor or Reader or Lecturer. 



*/ certify that has attended the course of practical 

instruction in for the ft Sc (Honours) Degree Examination 

at the University College of Science and Technology during the 

year 

(Signature) 

79 . Professor or Render or Lecturer. 

*I certify that ha^ attended the course of practical 

instuiction in fot the H. Sc (ffonou? s) Degree Examination of 

the JfVpotf Viki<un<i Deo College of Science and Technology 

dining the yeai and that he hns satisfactorily completed the coiuse. 



(Signature) 

J't f>fes toi or Reader 01 Lecturer. 



9. M.Sc. DEGREE EXAMINATION 

I certify that has kept three-fourths of the attendances 

prescribed by the Jeypote Vtk"anw Deo College of Science, and Technology, 

in the course of instuiction in during the yem 

that his progress and conduct hive been satisfactory "f and that he 

has completed the course of study prescribed for the M.Sc. Dfgjce Examination 

in 

(Signature) 

79 . Principal. 

* These will not be required in the case of Mathematics. 

fTo be struck off in the case of students appearing at the end of fii\st year for 
subjects in M.Sc. Applied Physics and M.Sc. Chemistry (including Microscopy) 
of Foods, Drugt and "Water. 



M.sc., B,BD. & PRE-&EON.] CEKtiFtCATKg 515 

/ certify that has attended the course of practical instruc- 
tion in.*.. .Jot the M Sc Degice examination in at 

the Jeypore Vikranta Deo College oj Science </;/// Technology 

dunng the year and that he has sai isfactorily completed the course* 

in ~- 



Professor or Reader or Lectuter. 



10 BEd DEGREE EXAMINATION 

/ certify that ........................ has kept (hi ee-fotir ths of the attendances 

prescribed by the .................... College ...................... in the course of 

instruction and practical training in teaching during the ycai consisting of the 
following tttms' 



2 



that he has completed the cout se prescribed J or the B Ed. Degree^ and that hn 
conduct and progress have been satisfactory 



IQ . Principal. 



11. PRE-REGISTRATION EXAMINATION 

/ ccftijy that ...... . ................. has undergone the prescribed course of study 

extending over a period of fix months, subsequent to his passing the Inter mtdi* 
ate Examination and that his progress and conduct have been satisfactory. 

(Signature) .................................... 



f certify that ..................... .. . has attended a course of lectures on In* 

organic Chemist iy and a cotitse of instruction in Practical Chemistry. 

(5 ig nature) ............. . .................... .. 

.............................. 79 . Professor of Chemistry. 

I certify that ..... . .......... . ........ .has attended a course of Experimental 

Physics ) including Practical Physics. 



(Signature) 

Professor of Physics. 



*To be filled in on behalf of candidates appearing at the end of first year fo- 
examinations in M Sc. Applied Physics and M Sc. Chemistry (including 
Microscopy) of Foods, Drugs and Water. 



010 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LIX 

/ certify that hm attended a course of General Riology, 

Theoretical and Practical. 

(Signature) , 

79 . Professor of Biology. 

ADDITIONAL CERTIFICATE 

I certify that has been re-engaged m the prescribed course 

of studies for the Pre-Kegistration hxwnnation for a period of one term subse- 
quent to his appearance at that examination in * when he was 

tefened to his studies by the Examiners and that his prog /ess and conduct have 

been satisfactory 

(Signature)..., 

70 . Principal 

12. FIRST M.B.B.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 

/ certify that to the best of my knowledge and belief. com- 
pleted the age oj seventeen yeais on ot befo/c the date of admission to the 
Andhta Medical College, Vizagapatam, that he has been engaged in medical 
studies of the Andhra Medical College t Vizagapatam> for not less than one 
academic year subsequent to his passing the Pre-Registration % and that his 
progress and conduct have been satisfa ctoi y. 

(Signatute) 

l<? . Ptincipal. 

/ ceitify that , has ail ended a cuittse of It'ctuies on Oiganic 

Chemist) y and a course- of institution oj l'i actical Oigunic Chemistry 



(Signature) 

,.ig . Professor of Chemistry. 



I certify that has been engaged in medical studies for two 

academic years subsequent to his passing the Prc-Kegtstfttion hxammation^ 
and that his prog t ess and conduct have been satisfactory. 

(Signature) 

79 . Principal. 

I certify that has attended a course of instruction in 

Anatomy including Elements of Human Embryology, rheoieiical and Piaclical. 



(Signatute) 

19 . Professor of Anatomy. 

I certify that has dissected for 300 penod* each period 

being a dutation of three hours during the regular Cessions and has completed 

the dissection of the human body. 

(Signature) 

79 . Ft of essor of Anatomy . 

* Date of Examination should bp noted here. 



MEDICAL] CERTIFICATES 517 

/ certify that has attended a count of lectures on 

Physiology and <i coiuse of instruction in Practical Pkysiology including 
Histology. 

(Signature) 

ig . Prjfessor of Physiology. 



I certify that has attended a course of lectities in Bio- 
Chemistry aud Bio-Phystcs and a course of instruction -in ft actical Chemical 
Physiology and Jho-Chemtstry and Bio-Physics. 



(Signature) 

./9 . Professor of Physiology. 



/ certify that has attended a course of lectures on Phar- 
macology and a course of instruction in Practical Pharmacy. 



{Signature) 

ig . Pi of essor of Pharmacology. 

ADDITIONAL CERTIFICATE 

/ certify that has been ) c-cngngcd in medical studies for 

the First J/. B />'. .S" Examination foi a period of out term subsequent to hts 

appeal ance at that examination in when he was ttjeired lo his 

studies by the Examiner* and that his piogteis and conduct have been 
salts faff ot y. 



(Signature) 

,.iq . Principal* 



13. SECOND M.B.B.S. DEGREE EXAMINATION 

/ certify that has been engaged in medical studits at the 

Andhia Wedical College, Vi~ gapatain,for not less than one academic year for 
Phajmacolo&y, Ifvgiene and Forensic Afedictne after pacing the First 
M />. B. S. Examination^ and that his pisgiess and conduct have been 
satisfactory. 



(Signatuie) 

Principal of the College. 



I certify tint .has attended a course of lectures on Phar- 
macology and n course of instruction m Practical Pharmacy 



(Stgnalute) 

,,/y . Ptojessor of Pharmacology. 



518 THE ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. IT [CHAP. LI* 

/ ce? tify thai has attended a COM se vf lectures on Hygiene 

and a course of instruction in Practical Hygiene. 



(Signatuic) 

. / 9 Professor of Hygiene. 



I certify that has attended a course of instruction in 

Forensic Medicine including demonstrations. 



(Signatuie) 

79 . Professor of Medicine. 



ADDITIONAL CERTIFICATE . 

/ ccitify that has been ic-ettgaged in medical studies for 

the Second M./>.B.S Examination fot a penod of one term subsequent to his 

appearance at that examination in * when ht was teferred 

to his studies by the Examine) s and that his pi ogress and conduct have been 
satisfactory. 



(Signatiue) 

.79 . Principal, Andht a Medical College. 



14. FINAL M.B.BS. DEGREE EXAMINATION 

/ ctrtify that has been engaged in medical sltidies at the 

Andhi a Medical College, Vtzitgapatam } for not Its? than one year ajtct passing 
the Fust M.B B.5. Examination and that his progress and conduct have been 
satisfactory. 



(Signature) 

.79 . Principal, Andhra Medical College. 



I certify that has been engaged in medical studies at the 

And fit a Medical College, Vizagapatam, for not less than t hree academic years 
after passing the First M.tt 13. S. Examination and that his progress and 
conduct have been satisfactory. 



(Signature) 

.79 . Principal, Andhra Medical College. 



I certify that has attended a course of instruction in 

Medicine including Therapeutics* 



(Signature) 

.79 . Professor of Medicine. 



} The date of the Examination should be noted here. 



MEDICAL] CERTIFICATES 511) 

1 certify that has been engaged as clinical clerk in the 

Medical wards of a recognized hospital for a pet iod of nine months, 



(Signature) 

.79 . Physician^ Hospital. 



/ certify that has been engaged as clinical clerk in the 

Medical Out- Patients Department of a recognized hospital for a period of three 
months. 

(Signature) 

79 . Medical Ojficer, Hospital. 

I certify that has been engaged as clinical clcik for 

not less than one month in a Children's Out-patient department 

( Signature) 

79 . Medical 0/icer. 

I certify that has attended a recognized course of 

instruction in Infectious Diseases 

(Signature) 

'. n) . Professor of Medicine. 

I certify that has attended as clinical cleik in a recog- 
nized hospital for Infectious Diseases on two days in the week for a period of 
three months. 

(Signature') 

19 . Medical Officer^ Hospital for Injections Diseases. 

f certify that has attended a recognized course of instruc- 
tion in Psycho- Pathology and Mental Diseases. 



(Signature) 

Pi ofessor of Mental Diseases. 



I certify that has attended as clinical clerk in a recog- 
nized Mental Hospital on one day in the week/or a period of three months. 



(Signature) 

,.79 . Superintendent^ Hospital for Mental Diseases. 



/ certify that has attended a recognized course of instruc- 
tion in Tuberculosis. 

{Signature) 

,....,........,.., 19 , Pro fes tor of Medicine. 



520 THIS ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LIX 

/ certify that has attended as clinical cleik in a Tuber' 

culetis Hospital on one day in the week for a period of f hire months 



(Signature) , 

,.79 . Medical Ojficer t Tuberculosis Hospital. 



I certify that has attended a recognized course ofinstiuc- 

tion in Dermatology. 

(Signature) 

, ,.,../9 , Professor. 

I certify that has attended the special departments 

relating to skin diseases on two days in the week for a period of three months. 

(Signature) 

79 Medical Officer Hospital. 



I certify that has attended a recognizsed course ofinsttuc* 

tion in vaccination (>v a qualified Health OJ)icer 



(Signatute) 

. 79 , Health Officer. 



I ceilify that has attended a recognized courseof instruc- 
tion on Radiology and Electro-therapeutics in their application to Medicine. 



(Signature) 

,.79 . Radiologist.. 



T certify that has attended a recognized course oj 

instruction in Child? en's Diseases \ 



(Signature) , 

, 79 . Professor. 



/ certify that has attended a course of instruction in 

Surgery. 

(Signature) 

79 . Professor of Surgery. 



I certify that ......................... has been engaged as a surgical dresser it 

the surgical wards of a lecognizcd hospital for a period of nine months. 



(Signature) 
/9 , Surgeon, 



MBDICAL] CERTIFICATES 521 

/ certify that has been engaged as a surgical dresser 

in the Out-patient Department of a recognized hospital for a period of three 
months* 



(Signature) 

Surgeon, Hospital. 



I certify that has attended (/) a recognised course of 

instruction including demonstrations in clinical Surgery, and (2) General 
in-patient and out-patient practice during at least two years. 

(Signature) 

, /^ . Professor 

/ certify that has attended a course of practical instruc- 
tion in Surgical Methods including Physiotherapy. 



(Signature) , 

Professor., 



I certify (bat................*. has attended a cou)se of practical instiuc- 

tion in minor Surgery on the living. 



(Signature) 

Professor., 



I ceitijy thai has attended a course of practical instiuc- 

tion in applied Anatomy and Physiology thi oughout the peiiod of clinical 
studies. 



(Signature) 

Piojevnn of Sin get y. 



I certify that has attended a course of instruction 

throughout the period of surgical dressership in clinical Pathology. 



(Signature) , 

Profess 01 . 



I certify that has attended (/) a recognized coui se of 

instruction in diseases of the Ear, N"ose and Throat including the us?, of oto- 
scope t lai yngoscope and rkinoscope and (2) a recognized clinic as clinical clei k 
on three days in the week for a period ofthiee months. 



(Signature) 
........./<? . 

fifi 



522 THIS ANDHRA UNIVERSITY CODE VOL. II [CHAP. LTX 

/ ceitify that has at fended (/) a recognized course of 

instruction in Orthopaedics and (2) a recognized clinic on two days in the week 
for a peiiod of three months. 

(Signature) , 

79 . Professor. 

I certify that has attended a course of practical instjuc~ 

tion in the administration of anaesthetics and has personally administered a 
general anaesthetic in at least six cases. 



(Signature) 

,.79 . Surgeon-in- Charge. 



I certify that has attended a recognized course of instruc- 
tion in Operative Surgery. 

(Signature) 

79 . Professor of Operative Surgery. 



I certify that, > has attended (/) a recognized course of 

instruction in Radiology and (2) on electro-therapeutics in their application 
to Surgery. 



(Signature) 

,.79 . Radiologist. 



I ceitify that ha? attended (/) a recognized course of 

instruction in Vena eal Diseases and (2) a Venereal clinic f 01 two days in the 
week for a period of two months. 



,,79 Ptofcsso? 



I certify that has attended a recognized course of 

instruction in Dental Surgery (three lectuies and six practical demonstrations) 
at the Dental clinic. 



(Signature) 

.70 . Professor* 



/ certify that has attended a recognized course of 

instruction in Surgical diseases of infancy and childhood. 



(Signature).* - 

Professor, 



MEDICAL] CERTIFICATES 523 

I certify that has attended a course of systematic instruc- 
tion in the principles and practice of Midwifery and Gynaecology and infant 
Hygiene including applied Anatomy and Physiology of pregnancy and labour. 



(Signature) 

./9 . Projersor. 



I certify that hat attended (/) a course of lectures and 

demonstrations in clinical Midwifery and Gynaecology and infant Hygiene 
and (2) maternity hospital or the maternity wards of a general hospital 
including (*) antenatal care and (ii) management of the puerperium and on 
in-patient and out-patient Gynaecological practice for a period of at least three 
months. 



(Signature) 

.it) . Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 



I certify that during the period of clinical instruct ton, 

not less than one month has been spent as a resident pupil in a maternity 
hospital in a hostel attached to a maternity hospital or to the maternity ward of 
a general hospital^ and that he has during this period conducted at least twenty 
cases of labour under my supervision. 

(Signature} 

Member of the staff of a Maternity Hospital or 
/9 Maternity Ward of a Gene