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Full text of "University of Iowa studies in child welfare"

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Series No. 356 



June 1, 1938 



"Scri: 



UNIVERSITY'-OFJOWA 
STU0IESC/ 




-^^^ ., 



'•vr./- 



sTUDiES-iN. Child 

WELFARE 



Vol. XV 




No. 2 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS: 
METHODS AND NORMS 



by 



C. H. McCloy 



1938 



u>*' 



W 



PUBLIBHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, IOWA CITY 



Issued stmi-monthly from January 1 to June 30, and monthly from July 1 t<i December 31. 

£nt«re<i at the i)08t otTice at Iowa City, Iowa, as second claisB matter 

under the Act of October 3, 1917. 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS: 
METHODS AND NORMS 

by 

C. H. McCloy 



George D. Stoddard, Ph.D., Editor 

University of Iowa Studies 

Studies in Child Welfare 

Volume XV, No. 2 



Published by the University 

Iowa City, Iowa 

1938 



FOREWORD 

This volume, as the name implies, is a sequel to Appraising Phys- 
ical Status : Hie Selection of Measurements which appeared in the 
Station studies in 1936. Emphasis is placed upon the standards 
and norms which are presented in detail. An attempt is made also 
to indicate the practical applications of the material, especially in 
school situations. It is fair to say that the two volumes, taken to- 
gether, offer the most complete guide available for a program de- 
voted to the measurement of American boys and girls over wide age 
ranges. 

In addition to the anthropometric materials there are presented 
brief accounts of related phenomena in sex differences, internal 
secretions and physiological growth. 

George D. Stoddard 

Office of the Director 

Iowa Cliild Welfare Research Station 

University of Iowa 

April 26, 1938 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This monograph represents a compilation of studies which have 
been carried on by a large number of the staff of the Iowa Child 
Welfare Research Station. Owing to the interlocking nature of 
many of these studies, and to the fact that frequently several staff 
members have co-operated in carrying out a study, it is, in general, 
impossible to assign credit to any individual for work done. Where 
this has been possible, acknowledgment is made in the text or in a 
footnote. Individuals whose studies have contributed to this vol- 
ume are : Bernice Boynton, June Constantine, Abraham Kantrow, 
Harriet Kelly, Helen Garside Kelly, Virginia B. Knott, Everett L. 
Marshall, C. H. McCloy, Howard V. Meredith, Eleanor Metheny, 
Rosemary Royce, and Arthur J. Wendler. The results have been 
assembled and the discussion written by C. H. McCloy. 



CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

I General Considerations 9 

Statistical Techniques 10 

II Standards of Body Type 13 

Other Tables for Determining Build Indices 14 

III The Anthropometric Measurement of Nutritional Status 30 

IV The Prediction of Normal Weight — 34 

Corrections for Fat 34 

The Computation of Normal Weight 37 

Abnormalities of Build and Their Effect on the Prediction of 

Normal Weight 39 

Short Cuts in the Administration of Normal Weight Prediction 47 

V The Measurement of Skin and Subcutaneous Fat 48 

Standards 50 

VI The Measurement of Limb Girths: Standards and Norms 54 

Interpretation of Measurements 55 

Regression Formulae for Predicting Limb Girths 56 

VII Tests of Strength as Measurements of Physical Status 60 

Test and Norms - 63 

Physical Capacity Test 63 

VIII Physiological Variants of Type 70 

General Considerations 72 

Anterior Lobe 73 

Posterior Lobe 74 

The Thyroid Gland 75 

The Adrenal Glands 76 

The Gonads 77 

The Thymus Gland 79 

Mixed Relationsliips 80 

IX Breathing Capacity 81 

Standards of Breathing Capacity 82 

X The Problem of Age 89 

Estimation of Maturation by the Means of the State of the 

Pubic Hair 90 

Anatomical Age or Skeletal Maturity 96 

XI Anthropometry in the Service of the Individual 99 

XII A School Program of Anthropometry 105 

The Follow-Up 109 

Training of Measurers Ill 

Administration of the Measurement Program Ill 

References 113 

Appendix 120 



2 TABLES 

Table Page 

■^Wt. (kff.)' 

1 T-Scores for Ponderal Index ^^ ^^ ; ^ \ : Males 15 

St. Ht. (cms.) 

^Wt. (kg-.) 

2 T-Scores for Ponderal Index s^— „^ ) \ ■ Females 16 

St. Ht. (cms.) 

„ „ „., , ^ , Chest Girth ,, , 

3 T-Scores for Vital Index ^^ „ . . ^ : Males 17 

St. Height 

4 T-Scores for Vital Index ^.^ tt ■ i,^ '• Females 18 

St. Height 

5 T-Scores for Stature Index _,/ " ^^—^ ^^^ .^ : Males 19 

Standing Height 

6 T-Scores for Stature Index ^^^ ^^ t^^ *■ — : Females 20 

Standing Height 

,T m o. J. £N7 n -r n Sliouldcrs (Acromial) ,, , 

7 T-Scores for Shoulder Index — — — ,. \, . , : Males 21 

. Standing Height 

c mo J? oi i;] T ;i Shoulders (Acromial) _ , „„ 

8 T-Scores for Shoulder Index — — — ^. — V,.^ . , : Females — 22 

Standing Height 

r. rr, ^ „ „.„.,, ^ , HId Width (Bi-lHac) ,, , 

9 T-Scores for Hip Height Index — §- — ^. ;^ . ^^ ^ : Males 23 

Standing Height 

10 T-Scores for Hip Height Index Hip Width (Bi-iliac) ^ j^^^^^^^ 34 

Standing Height 

-.-. rr.c>, - -TT- -r n Hlp Width (Trochauter) ,, , 

11 T-Scores for Hip Index i-— — -,. -,r ■ -, . — : Males -- 25 

Standing Height 

10 rpQ 4^ Ti- T ^ Hip Width (Trochanter) 

12 T-Scores for Hip Index £— -- — ,. .^^ . , ^ — : Females 26 

Standing Height 

13 Prediction Equations of Weight (Kilograms) from Height, Hips, 

Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) .._ 38 

14 T-Scores for Chest Index -= — ^ „^.^,, : Males 41 

Cliest Width 

Chest Depth 

15 T-Scores for Chest Index -^ — ^-vf^ttt '• Females 42 

Chest Width 

16 Average Heights and the Normal Range of Heights for Each Year 

of Age - - - 45 

17 Equations for the Prediction of Total Normal Trunk Fat From 

Body Build Measurements — 52 

-„rr,r^ „ir. ,,- o, wT-i "^Breathing Capacity 

18 T-Scores for Breathing Capacity Index j— — .^ — ^^^^— r-r— : 

^ '^ •' Standing Height 

Males - 83 

,^,^^ n T^ ,,• ^ .^TT "^Breathing Capacity 

19 T-Scores for Breathing Capacity Index ^— — ^ . ° ^ f , , : 

Standing Height 

Females -- - - 84 

20 Norms for Correction of Cliest Girths 128 

21 Norms for Correction of Hip Widths 129 

22 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Four Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 130 

23 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Four Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 131 

24 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Five Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 132 



TABLES 3 

Table Page 

25 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Five Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 133 

26 Predicting Weight (Ivilograms) of Boys, Age Six Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 134 

27 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Six Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 135 

28 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Seven Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 13G 

29 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Seven Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 137 

30 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Eight Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 138 

31 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Eight Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 139 

32 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Nine Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 140 

33 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Nine Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 141 

34 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Ten Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 142 

35 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Ten Years, From 

Heiglit, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 143 

36 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Eleven Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 144 

37 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Eleven Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 145 

38 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Twelve Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 146 

39 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Twelve Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 147 

40 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Thirteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 148 

41 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Thirteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 149 

42 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Fourteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 150 

43 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Fourteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 151 

44 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Fifteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 152 

45 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Fifteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 153 

46 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Sixteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Cliest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .2808 height + .6960 hips + .7840 chest circumference 
+ 5.0191 knee - 119.5505) 154 

47 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Sixteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 155 

48 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Seventeen Years, 

From Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 156 

49 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Boys, Age Seventeen Years. 

From Height, Hips, Ciiest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 157 

50 Predicting Weight of College Men fiom Hciglit and Ciiest Circum- 

ference (.2359 height + .9641 chest - 100.00) . 158 

51 Predicting Weiglit of College Men from Width of Hips and Knee 

(2.4796 knee'+ 1.1402 hips - 12.7968) ]59 

52 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Four Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Kneo (Centimeters) 



4 TABLES 

Table Page 

(Weight = .1298 height + .3304 hips + .4819 chest circumfer- 
ence + .7320 knee - 32.0832; R = .9636) 160 

53 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Four Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) — 161 

54 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Five Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .1502 height + .3327 hips + .4730 chest circumfer- 
ence + 1.1673 knee - 36.9006; R = .9442 - 162 

55 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Five Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 163 

56 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Six Years, From 

Pleight, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 164 

57 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Six Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .1053 height + .2633 hips + .5137 chest circumfer- 
ence + 1.6253 knee - 35.3942; R = .8972) 165 

58 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Seven Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and KJnee (Centimeters) - 166 

59 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Seven Years, From 

Heighf, Plips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight =: .1945 height 4- .3750 hips + .6070 chest circumfer- 
ence + 1.2585 knee - 50.9433; R = .9340) .- - 167 

60 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Eight Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 168 

61 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Eight Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .1798 height + .1687 hips + .5505 chest circumfer- 
ence + 2.1443 knee - 48.2626; R = .9077) .'.. 169 

62 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Nine Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 170 

63 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Nine Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .1391 height -f .3127 hips + .7506 chest circumfer- 
ence + 1.9510 knee - 56.6639; R = .9481) - 171 

64 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Ten Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .0966 height + .7730 hips + .7034 chest circumfer- 
ence + 2.4933 knee - 61.8757; R = .9315) -- 172 

65 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Ten Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) -. 173 

66 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Eleven Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .1593 height + .8849 hips -f .5217 chest circumfer- 
ence + 2.3366 knee - 60.2732; R = .9385) ..-- - 174 

67 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Eleven Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 175 

68 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Twelve Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .1234 height 4- 1.0364 hips + .6959 chest circumfer- 
ence + 3.3690 knee - 78.2565; R = .9289) - 176 

69 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Twelve Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 177 

70 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Thirteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .1337 height + 1.4422 hips + .4933 chest circumfer- 
ence + 4.3232 knee - 83.9531; R = .9279) -- - 178 

71 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Thirteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 179 



TABLES 5 

Table Page 

72 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Fourteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 180 

73 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Fourteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .2170 height + .8422 hips + .6187 chest circumfer- 
ence + 3.7842 knee - 84.4909; R = .9041) 181 

74 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Fifteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .1546 height + .7290 hips + .5870 chest circumfer- 
ence + 4.7586 knee - 77.6805; R = .8480) 181 

75 Predicting W^eight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Fifteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 182 

76 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Sixteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 183 

77 Predicting Weight (Kilograms of Girls, Age Sixteen Years, From 

Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .1347 height + 1.0977 hips + .5353 chest circumfer- 
ence + 4.8507 knee - 82.2578; R = .8749) 184 

78 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Seventeen Years, 

From Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 
(Weight = .1233 height -f 1.0291 hips + .4985 chest circumfer- 
ence + 3.7574 knee - 64.6120; R = .8729) 185 

79 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, Age Seventeen Years, 

From Height, Hips, Chest Circumference and Knee (Centimeters) 186 

80 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of College Women From Height, 

Hips, Chest Circumference, and Knee (Centimeters) (.3165 height 
+ .6508 hips + .8041 chest circumference + 3.6080 knee — 
105.23) - - - 187 

81 Predicting Weight (Kilograms) of College Women From Height, 

Hips, Chest Circumference, and Knee (Centimeters) (.3165 height 
+ .6508 hips + .8041 chest circumference + 3.6080 knee — 
105.23) --.- - 188 

82 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Four- Year-Old Boys (Upper 

arm = .0913 chest circumference + 1.8782 elbow + 2.7475; fore- 
arm = .0988 chest circumference + 1.8745 elbow + 2.5760) .... 189 

83 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Four-Year-Old Boys (Thigh = .3423 

chest circumference + 2.1437 knee — 1.6094; calf = .1486 chest 
circumference + 1.8036 knee + .9738) 190 

84 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Five-Year-Old Boys (Upper 

arm = .2056 chest circumference + 2.2433 elbow — 5.3476 ; fore- 
arm = .1444 cliost circumference + 1.9487 ell)OW — .2357) 191 

85 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Five-Year-Old Boys (Tliigh = .3715 

chest circumference + 3.3645 knee - 12.1928; calf = .2611 chest 
circumference + 1.4904 knee - 2.5966) 192 

86 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm for Six-Year-Old Boys (Upper 

arm = .3890 chest circumference + 1.3297 elbow — 11.2247; fore- 
arm = .2582 chest circumference + 1.4657 elbow — 4.3205) 193 

87 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Six-Year-Old Boys (Thigii = .7062 

chest circumference + 1.8968 knee - 19.8172; calf - .4023 chest 
circumference + 1.3576 knee - 9.3413) 194 

88 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Seven-Year-Old Boys (Upper 

arm = .2959 chest circumference + 1.7270 cUhjw — 8.3651 ; fore- 
arm = .2018 chest circumference + 1.4395 elbow - 1.0581) .... 195 

89 Norms for Tliigli and Calf of Seven-Year-Old Boys (Thigli = .5804 

chest circumference + 2.1808 knee - 14.9098; calf = .2625 chest 
circumference + 1.6951 knee - 3.7227) lf^<) 

90 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Eig!it-Yoar-01d Boys (Upper 

arm = .3500 diest circumference + 1.5283 elbow - 10.9097; 
forearm = .2335 chest circumference + 1.4945 «'ll)()w - 3.2988) 197 



6 TABLES 

Table Page 

91 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Eight-Year-Old Boys (Thigh = .7926 

chest circumference + 1.7416 knee — 24.1735 /calf = .4163 chest 
circumference + 1.0000 knee — 7.8652) .._ igg 

92 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Nine-Year-Old Boys (Upper 

arm = .2907 chest circumference + 1.6802 elbow — 8.0957; fore- 
arm = .1671 chest circumference + 1.5035 elbow -f .7096) 199 

93 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Nine-Year-Old Boys (Thigh = .6520 

chest circumference + 1.9696 knee — 17.1724; calf = .2525 chest 
circumference + 1.3821 knee — .1330) 200 

94 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Ten-Year-Old Boys (Upper 

. arm = .3315 chest circumference + 1.6123 elbow — 10.3718; fore- 
arm = .2274 chest circumference + 1.4654 elbow — 2.7847) 201 

95 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Ten-Year-Old Boys (Thigh = .7564 

chest circumference + 1.4088 knee — 19.0756;" calf = .3438 chest 
circumference + 1.5640 knee — 7.4602) 202 

96 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Eleven- Year-Old Boys (Up- 

per arm = .2598 chest circumference + 1.5865 elbow — 5.7326; 
forearm = .1865 chest circumference + 1.7483 elbow — 1.7880) 203 

97 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Eleven-Year-Old Boys (Thigh = .5415 

chest circumference + 2.3734 knee — 13.7501; calf = .2757 chest 
circumference + 1.8741 knee — 5.9369) 204 

98 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Twelve-Year-Old Boys (Up- 

per arm = .2572 chest circumference + 1.4467 elbow — 5.3196; 
forearm = .1971 chest circumference + 1.2559 elbow + .2231) 205 

99 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Twelve-Year-Old Boys (Thigh =: .4613 

chest circumference + 2.1099 knee — 6.5970; calf = .2351 chest 
circumference + 2.0266 knee — 4.6654) 206 

100 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Thirteen-Year-Old Boys (Up- 

per arm = .2872 chest circumference + 1.1496 elbow — 5.7353; 
forearm =: .2381 chest circumference + .7327 elbow -f .5610) .... 207 

101 Norms for Tliigh and Calf of Thirteen-Year-Old Bovs (Thigh) = 

.4891 chest circumference + 2.4994 knee - 12.2925; calf = .2830 
chest circumference -f 1.5980 knee — 3.8426) 208 

102 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Fourteen-Year-Old Boys (Up- 

per arm = .3168 chest circumference + .6584 elbow — 5.0304; 
forearm =: .2077 chest circumference + 1.4847 elbow - 1.8219) 209 

103 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Fourteen-Year-Old Boys (Thigh = 

.4838 chest circumference + 2.0442 knee - 7.6907; calf = .2836 
chest circumference -f- 1.7544 knee — 5.2291) 210 

104 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Fifteen-Year-Old Boys (Up- 

per arm = .2962 chest circumference + 1.0698 elbow — 6.1911; 
forearm = .1761 chest circumference + 1.7587 elbow — 1.0759) 211 

105 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Fifteen- Year-Old Boys (Thigh = 

.4659 chest circumference + 2.5999 knee - 11.9225; calf = .1657 
chest circumference + 2.3674 knee - 1.9811) 212 

106 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Sixteen-Year-Old Boys (Up- 

per arm = .2660 chest circumference + 1.1152 elbow — 4.2448; 
forearm = .1843 chest circumference -f- 1.8716 elbow — 2.3435) 213 

107 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Sixteen-Year-Old Boys (Tliigh = 

.4774 chest circumference + 2.1905 knee - 9.2362; calf = .1951 
chest circumference + 1.7872 knee + 1.3643) 214 

108 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Seventeen-Year-Old Boys 

(Upper arm = .2424 chest circumference + 1.7731 elbow — 
6. 2395; forearm = ,1631 chest circumference + 1.8009 elbow — 
.1394) - - 215 

109 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Seventeen-Year-Old Boys (Thigh = 

.4062 chest circumference -+- 2.7402 knee - 8.0852 ; calf = .1379 
chest circumference + 2.3222 knee + 1.3970) 216 



TABLES 7 

Table Page 

110 Norms for Upper Arm, Forearm, Thigh, and Calf for College Men 

(Upper Arm = .299-i chest circumference + .4212 knee — 2.6902; 
forearm = .1933 chest circumference + .4001 knee + 5.5325; 
thigh = .5641 chest circumference + 1. 1272 knee — 5.5759; calf 
= .2356 chest circumference + .7602 knee + 8.1367) 217 

111 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Four-Year-Old Girls (Upper 

arm = .2664 chest circumference + .7509 elbow — .7385 ; fore- 
arm = .2594 chest circumference + 1.0700 elbow — 1.7962) 218 

112 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Four-Year-Old Girls (Thigh = .6525 

chest circumference + 1.2937 knee — 9.8552 ; calf = .4164 chest 
circumference + .6980 knee — 4.2990) 219 

113 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Five- Year-Old Girls (Upper 

arm = .2747 chest circumference + 1.5644 elbow — 4.9360; fore- 
arm = .1786 chest circumference + 1.3974 elbow + .8216) 220 

114 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Five-Year-Old Girls (Thigh = .6042 

chest circumference + 1.5007 knee — 8.7333 ; calf = .3320 chest 
circumference + 1.2526 knee - 3.5361) 221 

115 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Six- Year-Old Girls (Upper 

arm = .2498 chest circumference + 1.5115 elbow — 3.6387; fore- 
arm = .1739 chest circumference + 1.3956 elbow + .9136) 222 

116 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Six-Year-Old Girls (Thigh - .6064 

chest circumference + .8933 knee — 4.3130; calf = .3176 chest 
circumference + 1.1673 knee - 2.0208) 223 

117 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Seven-Year-Old Girls (Upper 

arm = .3768 chest circumference + 1.0637 elbow — 8.6458; fore- 
arm = .1906 chest circumference -f- 1.5256 elbow — .6665) 224 

118 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Seven-Year-Old Girls (Thigh = .6360 

chest circumference + 1.9387 knee - 13.3581; calf = .3912 chest 
circumference + 1.2591 knee - 6.8741) 225 

119 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Eight-Year-Old Girls (Upper 

arm = .2604 chest circumference + 1.8338 elbow — 5.8281 ; fore- 
arm = .1397 chest circumference + 2.0212 elbow — .2774) 226 

120 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Eight-Year-Old Girls (Thigh = .6425 

chest circumference + 2.1831 knee - 15.4796; calf = .3220 chest 
circumference + 1.2772 knee — 2.8631) 227 

121 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Nine-Year-Old Girls (Upper 

arm = .4517 chest circumference + .7654 elbow — 11.9656; fore- 
arm — .2314 chest circumference + 1.1510 elbow — 1.4205) 228 

122 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Nine-Year-Old Girls (Thigh = .7113 

chest circumference + 1.8910 knee - 17.8412; calf = .4087 chest 
circumference + 1.1133 knee - 6.7800) 229 

123 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Ten-Year-Old Girls (Upper 

arm = .4207 chest circumference + .4133 elbow — 8.1092 ; fore- 
arm = .2421 chest circumference + 1.1107 elbow — 1.8226) 230 

124 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Ten- Year-Old Girls (Thigh = .6078 

chest circumference + 2.0237 knee - 11.9752; calf - .3149 chest 
circumference + 1.5442 knee - 4.4910) ^^- 231 

125 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Eleven-Year-Old Girls (Up- 

per arm = .2656 chest circumference + .8814 elbow — 1.2025; 
forearm = .1319 chest circumference + 1.7325 elbow' + 2_.7212) 232 

126 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Eleven-Year-Old Girls (Thigh - .ol9S 

chest circumference + 2.1606 knee - 7.6431; calf = .2240 chest 
circumference + 1.7214 knee — .0867) -3d 

127 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Twelve-Year-Old Girls (Up- 

per arm = .2884 chest circumference + 1.2214 elbow - 4.5638; 
forearm = .1673 chest circumference + 1.4017 elbow + 1.4407) 234 

128 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Twelve-Year-Old Girls (Thigh = .5254 

chest circumference + 2.4632 knee - 9.8748; calf - .23o4 chest 
circumference + 1.8946 knee - 2.01717) ^-io 



8 TABLES 

Table Page 

129 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Thirteen-Year-Old Girls (Up- 

per arm = .2317 chest circumference + 2.2451 elbow — 6.7041; 
forearm = .0997 chest circumference + 2.0501 elbow + 2.3354).... 236 

130 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Thirteen- Year-Old Girls (Thigh =r 

.3357 chest circumference + 3.7625 knee — 7.9668; calf = .1687 
chest circumference + 2.2830 knee — .7315) 287 

131 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Fourteen- Year-Old Girls 

(Upper arm = .2396 chest circumference + 2.3388 elbow — 
7.5937; forearm = .0997 chest circumference -f 2.1718 elbow + 
1.9171) 238 

132 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Fourteen-Year-Old Girls (Thigh = 

.4007 chest circumference + 3.2402 knee — 6.8393; calf = .1887 
chest circumference + 1.3757 knee + 6.3055) 239 

133 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Fifteen-Year-Old Girls (Up- 

per arm = .2241 chest circumference + 1.6513 elbow — 1.9860; 
forearm := .1010 chest circumference + 1.9357 elbow + 3.4996) 240 

134 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Fifteen-Year-Old Girls (Thigh = 

.3167 chest circumference + 3.7123 knee — 4.6443; calf = .1315 
chest circumference + 2.1371 knee + 3.8509) 241 

135 Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Sixteen-Year-Old Girls (Up- 

per arm = .2112 chest circumference + 1.4861 elbow — .2030; 
forearm = .0895 chest circumference + 1.9128 elbow + 4.2923) 242 

136 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Sixteen-Year-Old Girls (Thigh = .4012 

chest circumference + 3.6608 knee — 10.2730; calf = .1520 chest 
circumference + 1.8660 knee + 4.8965) 243 

137 Norms for Upjier Arm and Forearm of Seventeen-Year-Old Girls 

(Upper arm = .1794 chest circumference + .7021 elbow + 7.1497; 
forearm = .0676 chest circumference + 1.6334 elbow + 7.8972) 244 

138 Norms for Thigh and Calf of Seventeen-Year-Old Girls (Thigh = 

.3538 chest circumference + 3.0251 knee + .1742; calf = .1337 
chest circumference + 1.4852 knee + 9.6894) ._ 245 

139 Norms for Upper Arm, Forearm, Thigh, and Calf of College Women 

(Upper arm = .2229 chest circumference + 1.2375 knee — 
4.5009; forearm = .1268 chest circumference + .8790 knee + 
4.8555; thigh = .3904 chest circumference + 2.9363 knee — 
2.1415; calf = .1506 chest circumference + 1.8849 knee + 
4.7606) - 246 

140 Average and Minimum Fat and Subcutaneous Tissue Measurements 247 

141 Chinning and Dipping Strength: Boys (Chinning (or Dipping) 

Strength = 1.77 Weight + 3.42 Chins (or Dips) - 46) 248 

142 Norms for Total Strength Index: Boys 248 

143 Norms for Strength Index (With Breathing Capacity) : Boys 250 

144 Norms for the "Athletic Strength Index" (Short Form, Boys Only) 252 

145 Norms for Cliinning Strength (Boys Only) 254 

146 Chinning Strength: Girls (Chinning Strength = .67 Weight + 1.2 

Chins + 52) ..-- .-- - 256 

147 Dipping Strength: Girls (Dipping Strength = .78 Weight + 1.1 

Dips + 74) -. 256 

148 Total Strength Index on Weight: Girls 257 

149 Norms for Strength Index (With Breathing Capacity) : Girls 259 



Chapter I 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

Adequate appraisals of physical status by means of anthro- 
pometric measurements are dependent upon at least three factors : 

1. The selection of the best batteries of measurements 

for the purpose 

2. The devising of standards and norms from these 

measurements 

3. The application of these measurements and norms, 

togetlier with experienced observation and common 
sense 

The selection of measurements has been the subject of very ex- 
tensive studies in this Station, the results of which have been re- 
ported in a previous publication (40). This study will concern 
itself primarily with the second phase, the problem of standards and 
norms computed from these selected measurements. The third prob- 
lem is very difficult to attack effectively through the printed page, 
for experience in observing the individuals and adjusting to their 
physical peculiarities is not greatly enhanced by reading. An at- 
tempt will be made, however, to contribute as much as possible to 
this problem. 

In this study, an acquaintance with the researches in the study 
referred to above will be assumed, though the essential conclusions 
reported there will be recapitulated. The emphasis in this study is 
upon practical standards. Some basic researches are reported here, 
however, when the problem of what measurements to use has not 
already been reported elsewhere in the literature. In some cases, 
report is given of technique and standards of useful methods de- 
veloped elsewhere which are of great value and which should be 
included here to round out the picture. 

Statistical Ti-xhniques 

The development of standards has, in general, utilized the linear 
multiple regression equation as the essential tool. Tlie validity of 
this procedure will depend ui)on whether or not the assumptions 
underlying the use of the method arc met in the case of these 
studies. The only important assumptions which must be satisfied 
are : 

1. The accuracy of measurements: This probh-m is not an otisy one in any 



10 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

institution where measurements from year to year are taken by different 
measures. Only measurements taken after the author assumed charge of the 
division of physical growth of this Station have been included, and all measure- 
ments have been taken by measurers trained by him. The care with which 
the measurements have been taken by individual measurers has not been easy 
to determine. Measurements have been taken on each person by only one meas- 
urer. The size of the staff and the school situations have not permittted repeated 
measurements by different measurers. The reliabilities of the same measurer 
will vary from measurement to measurement. The objectivities of different 
measures will vary more. These difficulties are frankly recognized here. If 
there are relatively large unreliabilities of certain individual measurers, the 
statistical effect will be primarily that of lowering the intercorrelations and 
altering somewhat the multiple regressions. 

2. Linearity of regression of the zero order correlations: Extensive ex- 
periments were carried on with this problem. Numerous scattergrams were 
made of intercorrelations with various numbers of cases. Within one age 
group it is believed that the criteria of linearity are met sufficiently well to 
justify the use of the ordinary linear multiple regression equations in these 
studies. 

The criterion used was the usual one — Blakeman's criterion (7). 
In this criterion a probable error of the difference between the 
square of the correlation ratio (rj) and the correlation coefficient 
(r) have been computed. If this difference is not more than 2.5 
times the probable error, the regression is considered to be reason- 
ably linear. To simplify the computation, this has been reduced to 
the equation 

N (i]2 — r2) < 11.37 (N = number of cases) 

This criterion offers some difficulties due to differences in numbers 
of cases. To illustrate, if i] = .8650 and r=.8211, the product of 
N(r)2_r2) will equal 7.40 for 100 cases, 14.80 for 200 cases, 22.20 
for 500 cases, and 74.00 for 1,000 cases. This would probably not 
be sufficiently linear. For values of 13 = .8650 and r = .8420, how- 
ever, the products would be 3.92 for 100 cases, 7.84 for 200 cases, 
19.60 for 500 cases, and 39.2 for 1,000 cases. Here it would be, ac- 
cording to this criterion, linear for 100 cases and 200 cases (and 
up to 290 cases), but curvilinear beyond that. Furthermore, for 
10,000 cases, 13 = .8650 and r = .8643 would be curvilinear, though 
the most meticulous inspection of a line through the means of the 
arrays would fail to show where the curvilinearity might be. 

Because of this difficulty, we have determined the fact of recti- 
linearity of regression between such scattergrams as were studied 
(all for six ages of boys, and for two ages of girls) from the fact 



METHODS AND NORMS 11 

that they both satisfied Blakeman 's criterion for the numbers used, 
and, in addition, seemed sufficiently linear to an expert statistician 
upon inspection of lines drawn through the means of the arrays. 
While this is a subjective method, and not objectively defensible, it 
should be noted that this is in addition to satisfying- Blakeman 's 
criterion for the numbers employed. 

When large numbers were plotted, as in the case of the boy's data 
from the high school ages, significant departures were noted only 
at the extremes of the distribution where the numbers were so few 
as to be negligible. This possible departure in the case of very tall 
or very short individuals must, however, be kept in mind by measur- 
ers, and this phase of the subject will be treated in Chapter XI. It 
is frequently caused by marked discrepancies between chronological 
age and anatomical age. 

To investigate the problems more carefully, a study of results ob- 
tained from the usual linear regression equation as compared with 
attempts to apply more refined curvilinear techniques was conducted 
by Miss June Constantine. The subjects consisted of 617 private 
school boys with an age range of from 15 to 20.5 years, heights of 
from (jl to 75.5 inches, weights of from 100 to 235.5 pounds, and 
chest girths of from 29.8 to 44.5 inches. The group was selected so as 
to embrace only postpubescents, and to insure a range long enough 
to give curvilinear regressions. The problem was to predict weight 
from height and chest girth. The intercorrelations, both curvilinear 
and rectilinear, togetlier witli Blakeman 's criterion, Avcre as follows: 



Measurement 
Weight ;ui(l licight 


1] 
,5422 


r 
.5262 


Bhikc'inan 's 
Criterion 
10,55 


Weight and cliest 


.8409 


.8293 


11.97 


Chest and height 


.3589 


.:ni8 


19.50 



The ij's computed were in each ease the larger of tlie two coiTclnlioii 
ratios as shown by the configuration of the line of means of tiie ar- 
rays. Hence it is known that all relationshii)s were, according to 
the Blakeman criterion, verv near or over tiie border of liiieai'itv. 
The regular rectilinear regression equation was computed, and the 
R = .8759. 

Partial correlation scattergi-aiiis were then made nccordiiig lo the 
method proposed by McCloy (36) in which the residuals of height 
and chest from the incjiiis of Ihc ;iii';iys were jjloltcd .-iikI Ihe 
]);ii'1i;il 1' ;iii(l i] both coiiiiiiitccl. 'I'hc weighted ine;iii stiiiidnrd (h'via- 
lioii I'foin each ;irr;i\- ol' height ;iiid chest (from the weight regres- 



12 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

sion line) was then computed and used for the standard deviations. 
Using the partial 13 values and these standard deviations, a kind of 
combination multiple regression was computed. The regular linear 
regression equation was as follows : 

Predicted Weight = 2.336 Height + 6.828 Chest Girth — 256.2 

The "weighted curvilinear regression equation" was as follows: 
Predicted Weight = 3.280 Height + 5.3284 Chest Girth — 268.5 

The multiple correlation (computed) was .8436, which w^as smaller 
than that found with the regular linear multiple regression equa- 
tion. 

Another attempt was made to predict weight by curvilinear meth- 
ods. The weight was predicted from the curvilinear regression 
line of the best fit from both height and chest girth. These weights 
were then multiplied by constants derived from the proportional 
weights of height and chest girth in the curvilinear regression equa- 
tions. (These constants were .381 and .619 respectively.) This 
gave a correlation of .8564 witli actual weight as compared with 
.8759 for the linear regression equation. 

The conclusion was that within limits of not-too-great curvilinear- 
ity of regression of zero order correlations, the regular linear multi- 
ple regression equation gives results superior to those obtained from 
such other devices as those tried. 

In these studies the curvilinearity did not exceed the limits of 
Blakeman's criterion in any of the cases tried, nor would this have 
been the case when the numbers were not greater than 400.^ It is 
felt, therefore, that the use of this multiple regression equation is 
justified throughout this work. 

As was stated in the preceding study, the standards given were 
determined as much from the standpoint of practical use as from 
that of meticulous scientific accuracy. Where a multiple correla- 
tion for predicting normal weight is raised from .921 for four meas- 
urements to .943 for seven measurements, it has not been thought 
that the additional accuracy justified the extra work of computa- 
tion, for it is probable that the additional work would cause many 
to feel that the methods were impracticable in the situations usually 
found in the schools or the physician 's office. 



1 Neither Sheppard 's correction nor the correction for rj was applied. Were 
these applied, the probable error of the difference between i] and r would be 
negligible. 



Chapter II 

STANDARDS OF BODY TYPE 

Studies conducted in this Station and reported elsewhere (40) 
have found that for the purpose of classifying body type for 
anthropometric standards (in contrast to the use of body type for 
the purpose of predicting susceptibility to specific diseases, as in 
the work of Draper (19)), two methods seem to give satisfactory 
results. The better of these — because of the fact that a larger 
number of measurements of the body contribute to it — is what we 
have called the Normal Ponderal Index, or 100 times the cube root 
of the normal body weight in kilograms, divided by the stature in 
centimeters. The normal weight is computed from measurements 
of height, chest girth, hip width, and width of knee, with allowances 
made for differences in relative fatness. (Sec Chapter IV) This 
index is based upon the fact that weight is a measure of volume, 
and to compare it directly to a linear measure such as height, one 
must first extract the cube root. Evidence of this was presented 
in the reference cited (42). Where normal weight is to be com- 
puted, this is the method of choice. 

If normal weight is not to be computed, a shorter but quite satis- 
factory method is to use the Vital Index (37) . This is taken as the 
normal chest girth (corrected for fat) divided ])y the height. In 
both of these indices the corrections for fat insure that the index is 
a true index of build, not just of relative fatness or thinness. The 
Vital Index is not as accurate as the Normal Ponderal Index for 
the reason that anomalies of chest shape and size arc not always 
compensated for l)y the sizes of hips and knee (representing the 
long bone sizes). Tlie correspondence is very close, however, in the 
vast majority of cases, especially in males. 

To obtain standards for body type, these indices were C(>in|)utc(l 
for ages from two (hiys to twenty years. l>(ith Ihc inc.ins t'oi- each 
year and the standard deviations were smoothed, and best lilting 
lines passed thi'ough these smool lied mcins .iikI slnnd.iiil drx i.ii inns. 
The standards for each age are Ihcn expressed in tei-ins of sl;iii(l,ii<l 
deviations from the means. To simi)liry Ihe use of the standards, 
we have stated tliem in tei-nis of zo?ies Imscd on "T-score" units 



14 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

(40) computed from the smoothed means and the standard devia- 
tions rather than from the percentiles. This statistical device has 
come into relatively common use among educators and is widely 
understood. Briefly, the basis of the T-score is that the mean is 
given a score of 50, and an additional point is added or subtracted 
for each one-tenth of a standard deviation above or below the mean. 
Thus one standard deviation above the mean would have a score of 
60, while three standard deviations below the mean would be scored 
20. It is felt that this will enable us to express deviations of build 
in terms that will be comparable from age to age. Standards for 
the Normal Ponderal Index and the Vital Index will be found in 
Tables 1 to 4. 

A convenient, useful, and readily understood index of build may 
be obtained from the computed normal weight and the average 
weight from the standard age-height-weight tables (p. 121). This 
index is expressed simply as the per cent that the normal weight is 
of the average for that age, sex, and height. For example, assume 
a girl, aged 8, height 124 cms. From these and measurements of 
her chest girth (corrected for fat), hip width (corrected for fat), 
and knee width, we compute her normal weight and find it to be 
24.7 kilograms (nude weight). The age-height-weight table (p. 122) 
states that the normal weight of an eight-year-old girl of 124 cms. 
in height is 23.8 kilograms (clothed weight). Subtracting 1 kilo- 
gram for clothing (weighed without shoes), this is 22.8 kilograms. 
The normal weight by our formulae (See Chapter III) of this 

24.7 
average weight for age, sex, and height is 100 x ' or 104 per 

Zo.o 

cent. Since the "build" of all children will be computed from 
their own norms, these per cent figures need no other tables for 
their interpretation. This was not feasible for the other standards 
discussed above. This will be called the "Percentage Index of 
Build." 

Other Tables for Determining Build Indices 

In other publications (41, 42, 47) certain other indices of build 
have been suggested. Among these are the following : 

The Stature Index 100 x fitting Height 

Standing Height 
Shoulder Width 



The Shoulder Index 100 x 



Standing Heioht 



The Hip-Height Index 100 x Hi p Width 

Standing Height 



METHODS AND NORMS 



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17 



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CTiO<-ii-HcsjtotO'*ir)iotDt^c^coo>a>o«-i^cgto 




0^-^r^COlOC^JaJ<OcOOe^'*•<-lCO^OC401^DeOQ 


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tO^^ift(0t0OC0CDa>OOi-HCMt0t0'*'irt*0*0t^ 




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-1 


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CO 




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0»OOlOOkOOii50iOOfcOO»OOiOOiOOU3C» 



METHODS AND NORMS 



21 



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m 

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t>0 


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CO 


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w 








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o 

o 

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(0 
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to 



COcOCOtOO>^0>^Ou;)OLf3.HC£lrH«3c\J^ctit«.(0 
tOt-t-COCOa>0>0.-tiH(MC\JtOtO'^vtiLOJ:iCDCDt- 
i-»i-li— lr-*i-4i-lfHC\JCVJCVJC\J<MCViC\}CVJCM(MCaCMOJCVJ 



t:0<OCX>fHtO«:>COrHtO«3a:>rHCOCOCO,H««)CO.-(eO 
t~C\lC~t000COC!0'<4*O>Kt<0>u:»OL0OC0»HCOrHt-C\J 

r-»rHf-l»Hi— li— tjHCJCViCvJCVJCViCMCVJCMOacviCVJCVJCvjCM 

■*Otf}OlOr-<«OrHCD{>vJt>-C\lt-COCOlOCO«^a)'^a> 
COt^£>-XiCOC7ia)OOfHrHC\JOJcOCO^'*UiU3tO<0 
rHiHrHcHi— (r-<p-(C\iOJC\iC\JCVJCVJCVJC\iCJCMC\iC\iCVjC>>J 



C0cMC0O'^C0c\j<0O';**a30vJOO«^00cvjC0O';i<C0 

OCDf-Ht>CVJt^t0C0'^*'0>>;J<OL0<-Ht£)rHC>-0J00t000 

cDCDt~-e^ooooo>cr)OOrHc\jc\jcoeO'<i4<^ii3LCi«Jco 

rHr-trHr-lrHi-Hi— li— ICMCJCvJCMCVJCVJCMCVJCMCVJCViCVjCVJ 



LOiHtDC\It*COCO'<^0>400COrHt«.c\JCOtOCJ}'«4<OU3 
'^OlOrHCDCNJC^tOCO'^OlOrHCOCVit-lOCO'^OlO 
U5t0tDC^t-00C0CJ>O>O,HfHCJCVIt0c0^';t'U)C0CD 
rHiHi— liHiHr-lrHi— lr^CslCMC\JC^JC^^C^JC^JC^^C^il^JC^^JC^J 



C--tOC75moyDCMC0'^OCDCVJCX)»i<O«>CVi00';^OtD 
'^IrtLOCOtVt-COCOOJOOrHrHCMtOtO^-^LOyDtO 
rHrHiH»HfHi-HrHr-lrHCMC0CsJCMCMCVJCV3CM(MC\iC\JCVJ 



•^COOOOC\J<<«OCOOCMvJ<CDOOOCJ^U3COOC\J'<* 
Cvja3'*rHt~tOCr>iOC\aCO'<:JtOCDCOO>LOrHr^-«^OCO 
^<?J<Uit0C0t^t*-C00ia>O<-Hi-(C\iC0CO'^-;J<lOC0CO 
rHfH»Hf-li-(»H(HrHi-HrHC\JCViCV3CViCVJCV}C\JC0CVJCVi(M 



OCVJv}<COC0OC0'<^C0C0OCM":*<C000OCVJ-<^C£)00O 
CViOO^OtOtOC?>iOr-(C^-^OCO(MCOa3iHt^tOCJ)tD 

■^-^Loy3cot-t-coo>o^o»--*rH:\j<McoTi<'^LnLn>co 

rHiHiHiHrHfHrHi— tfHrHCvJCVJCNJC\JC>JCVlCNJCvJC\iC\)CVl 



rHiH0005a>COCOt-C~-C£)<£>mi/3'^'*tOCO(MCMr-« 
LOfHt^tOCX3Tj<OCDC\JCOTj<OtDC>JOO'^OCOc\JCO^ 
^lOU3COtDt^COCOOJCX)OrH.-«CvlC\JCO^'*^UOCD 
iH.H»HrHr-l.(H«HrHfHrHCVJCJCVJCNiC\JC\JCMeviC\iCVJCvJ 



Cv2t~C\iC^CV)t-Cvit-(Mt-OJt^CMC'-CvJt-CNJC^CSjC^C\l 
r-(C£5(MC^tOOO^ailOOCD«Ht--CViOOtOa>'i<OlCirH 
lOLOCDCOC^t^oOCOO>OOr-<r<CJC\JtOtO^U5a5CO 
iHrHiHi— lrHrHiHrHr-<CJCJC\JC\iCViOjCNJC\J(MCMC\JCvJ 



U'3OU0O«5>-<CO(Mt-C000C<'5COiy3O>'>^O>lOOlOi-» 

LOCDcot-c-oocoojaioOf-ii-Hcvjojtioto^mmto 

rHi-l^rHrHrHrHrHrHC\JCVJC\JCJCJC\iC>JO>JCJCViCMC\J 



OrH(Mty:)'^i<ir)tDC^OOO>OrHC\iCO'<tLOy3t^030>0 

a>^j<cn5j<ai'«ct<o>^o>'rj(ou:)OujOLr50ioou5rH 
^OcD^O^-^-cocOO>a5C)•Hr-4C^JC^:eo^O•^tilU5lOco 

(HrHrHrHiHrHrHr-H.HC\lCMC\JCVJC\JC\J(\(CNJCMCVJCJC\J 



OiOOiOOiOOiOOlOOi^OiOOCOOiOQinO 
rHrHCMC\JtOCO'!l<^U3U5«£)COC-t~-OOOOa>CnO 



22 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 









ao 



Eh 



•H 
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s 

■p 



X 

n 
a 



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« 

«-» 
d 
o 

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ta 

u 

o 

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51 


^ 


t- 


CO 


cn 


in 


r-t 


C-- 


to 


cn 


in 


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^- 


to 


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in r^ 


t- 


CO <n lO rH 




05 


n« 


o 


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t^ 


CM 


CO 


CO 


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in 


o 


to 


«H 


t~ (O 


co 


•<i> 0> 'Si r-l 


lO 


to 


t- 


t- 


CO 


oo 


<T> 


0> 


O 


o 


r-t 


CM 


CM 


CO 


to «*< 


'^ 


in in CD t^ 


• 


r-l 

• 


r-l 

• 


r-t 
• 


I-t 

• 


rH 

• 


r-t 

• 


• 


CM 

9 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM CM 
• « 


CM 

• 


CM CM CM CM 

• • • • 


(0 


in 


rH 


t- 


CO 


o> 


in 


rH 


t~ 


to 


a 


in 


r-l 


C^ 


CO 


o> in 


r-t 


t- to o> in 


2 fe 


CO 


^ 


o> 


in 


o 


to 


CM 


C^ 


CO 


CO 


■* 


o 


in 


r-l 


to CM 


00 


to <J> •»*< o 


\t> 


CD 


to 


i>- 


00 


CO 


cn 


tn 


o 


o 


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CM 


CM 


CO 


CO ■* 


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in in to t- 


>-4 

• 


r-l 

• 


• 


• 


r-l 

• 


I-t 
• 


r-t 

• 


I-t 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM CM 

• • 


CM 

• 


CM CO CM CM 
• • • • 


<a 


t- 


W 


CO 


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o> 


in 


o 


CO 


r-l 


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00 


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t>- 


to 


CO 


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CO 


CO 


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in r-l 


to 


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lO 


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t- 


CO 


cn 


cn 


O 


o 


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I-H 


CM 


CM 


to «^ 


■* 


m in to to 


i-H 

• 


l-« 

• 


r-t 
• 


t-t 

• 


rH 

• 


i-i 

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I-t 

• 


rH 

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CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM CM 

• • 


CM 

• 


CM CM CM CM 
e • • • 


to 


c- 


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rH 


CO 


in 


CM 


CJ5 


to 


CO 


o 


t- 


^ 


r-t 


00 


in CM 


cn 


to to o t- 




'J' 


o 


to 


r-l 


c^ 


CO 


CO 


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to 


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in 


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to 


CD 


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CO 


CO 


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o 


O 


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r-t 


CM 


CM 


CO •* 


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in in to to 


• 


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r-rcv) 

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CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM CM 

• • 


• 


CM CM CM CM 
• • • • 


CO 


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o> 


o> 


o 


o 


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r-t 


CM 


CM 


CO 


CO 


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m 


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to 


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CO 


to 


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t- 


00 


cn 


(T. 


o 


o 


r-l 


CM 


CM 


to -co 


^ 


in in to to 

CM CM C\l CM 
• • • • 


i-t 

• 


i-t 
• 


rH 

• 


r-t 

• 


l-t 

• 


• 


rH 

• 


t-t 

• 


r-t 

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CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

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CM CM 

• • 


CM 

• 


CO 


1-1 


CO 


in 


t~ 


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CO 


in 


t- 


cn 


rH 


to 


in 


t- 


cn r-l 


CO 


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<o 


Cvl 


00 


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cn 


m 


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to 


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^ 


in 


m 


CO 


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CO 


00 


cn 


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to CO 


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m m to f- 


r-> 
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• 


r-l 

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9 


• 


r-t 

• 


r-l 
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r-t 

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CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM CM 

• • 


CM 

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CM CM CM CM 
• • • • 


CO 


^ 


■* 


•* 


■* 


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■* 


<* 


'J' 


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Tf 


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C- 


CO 


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cn 


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CO 


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to 


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^ 


l- 


in 


to 


t~ 


t- 


CO 


00 


o> 


O 


o 


r-l 


I-H 


CM 


to to 


•* 


rj< in to to 


r-l 

• 


r-< 

• 


r-t 

• 


r-t 

• 


r-t 

• 


i-t 
• 


rJ 
• 


r-t 

• 


r-t 
• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM CM 

• • 


CM 

• 


CM CM CM CO 
• • • • 


ra 


in 


o 


in 


o 


in 


O 


in 


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in 


o 


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o 


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LO 


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2 S 

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M 


CO 


CO 


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lO 


Mi 


to 


to 


c~ 


CO 


CO 


cn 


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r-t 

• 


r-t 
• 


r-t 

• 


I-t 
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rH 

• 


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rH 
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I-t 

• 


r-t 

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CM 

• 


CM 

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CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM CM 

• • 


CM 

• 


CM CM CM CM 

• • • • 


m 


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CO 


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o 


CO 


t- 


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t- 


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00 


CO 


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in 


in 


to 


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cn 


cn 


o 


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r^ 


r-t 


CM 


CM to 


to 


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• 


• 


r-t 

• 


r-t 
• 


r-t 
• 


r-l 
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rH 


rH 

• 


r-l 
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CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

t 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


C\J CM 
• • 


CM 

• 


CM CO CM CM 

• • • • 


n 


■^ 


CO 


oo 


o 


PJ 


•* 


to 


CO 


o 


CM 


rf 


CO 


00 


o 


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to 


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CO OT ^ 0> 




in 


C) 


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CO 


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to 


rH 


r- 


CM 


t^ 


CM 


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to 


CO to 


00 


in 


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to 


f^ 


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rr> 


oo 


(J> 


o> 


O 


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r-t 


CM 


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to 


■"ji Tf LO m 


• 


• 


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• 


rH 

• 


I-t 
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rH 

• 


r-t 
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r^ 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

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CM 

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CM 

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CM 

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CM CM 

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CM 

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CM CM CM CM 
• • • • 


a 


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tj* 


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^ 


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^ ■* 


^ 


^ ^ ^ ^ 




h- 


CO 


t- 


CM 


t- 


CM 


t- 


CM 


c- 


CM 


b- 


CM 


t- 


CM 


t-- CM 


t- 


CM t- CM t^ 


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to 


CO 


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t~- 


OO 


00 


C» 


c» 


o 


O 


r-t 


rH 


eg 


CM CO 


to 


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• 


r-l 

• 


r-t 

• 


i-t 

• 


I-t 

• 


rH 

• 


r^ 
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r-l 

• 


r-l 
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CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM CM 

• • 


CM 

• 


CM CM CO CO 

• • • • 


ta 


oo 


to 


CO 


r-t 


m 


to 


to 


rH 


CO 


to 


CO 


rH 


* 

CO 


to 


CO I-t 


CO 


CO CO rH 00 


U 


o 


in 


o 


m 


CT> 


'1' 


cn 


■"Jl 


00 


lO 


oo 


CO 


t~ 


CM 


t~ CM 


to 


r-t <0 r-t ^a 


o> Hi 


<r> 


to 


t^ 


C-- 


t~ 


00 


oo 


cn 


cn 


o 


o 


r-t 


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CM 


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to 


^ Ti< in to 


^2 


i-H 

• 


r-t 

• 


I-t 

• 


i-t 

• 


I-t 
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f-l 

• 


r-l 
• 


r-l 

• 


rH 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM CM 

• • 


CM 

• 


CM CM CO CO 
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CO 


t^ 


to 


en 


in 


I-t 


t~ 


to 


CJ> 


in 


r-l 


t~- 


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in 


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to 


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ro 


CO 


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to 


r-l 


in 


O 


in 


cn 


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CO 


CO 


00 CM 


t^ 


rH to rH in 


to 


CD 


t^ 


t- 


00 


CO 


cn 


cn 


o 


o 


o 


r-l 


rH 


CM 


CM to 


to 


'*' >* Lrt LO 




• 


r-l 

• 


r-t 

• 


r-t 

• 


1-4 

• 


r-l 

• 


rH 
• 


r-l 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

* 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


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• • 


CM 

o 


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a 


o 


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to 


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to o 


't 


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CO 


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to 


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to 


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lO 


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00 


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t>- a! 


tc 


r- 


r- 


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CO 


en 


cn 


cn 


o 


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CM 


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to 


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• 


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• 


r-t 

• 


r-t 

• 


I-t 
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r-t 

• 


r-t 

• 


r-l 

• 


CM 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM 

• 


CM CM 

• • 


CM 

• 


C>> CM CM CM 
• • • • 


CO 


m 


o 


CM 


rti 


to 


CO 


o 


CM 


■* 


to 


CO 


o 


CM 


'l* 


to CO 


o 


CM r|l to CO 


CO 3 


r-t 


to 


o 


<f 


oo 


CM 


t- 


I-H 


lO 


tn 


CO 


CO 


CM 


CO 


o •* 


tn 


to t~ rH m 


f~ 


r- 


00 


(B 


OO 


cn 


cn 


O 


o 


o 


r-t 


r-l 


CM 


CM 


CO CO 


CO 


rf Tf LQ LO 




<-\ 


r-l 
• 


rH 

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rH 

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CM CM 


CM 

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CM CM CM CM 
• • • • 


n 


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t- 


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METHODS AND NOR.AIS 



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rHi— li-trHr-lrHrHrHi-H.HiHi— liHrHiHrHfHiHiHCVJCVJ 



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.— ti-HrHr-)rHi— li-lrHr— liH«-ir-4rH(-lrH/~trHr-«rH«-«rH 



oococo^ocx)tocotoaotoco^JOOtoootooo^oco^'JCO 
(MtDCr>tOCOOtOt^Ov}<C^i~l'^COr-<U5COC\)i/jCJ>CM 
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.-li-«i-Hi-lr-«f-(rHr-lrHiHl-(i-<l-trHrHrHr-(r-t.-<r-tr-* 



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rHrHCMCMCOtO^'l^lrtlOtOtOt^t-OOOO 



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24 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



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rHr-lfHi-<i-l>-(>-)>-<rHfHiHiHr-l>-lrHi-Hr-4CMCM CVO-XJ 



to rH <D .-I «5 i-l 
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cHrHj-li-li-lfHi-liHi-liHfHeMCMCMCM 



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cnTj^cotoa3^oco^ooo^oco^o^-cMt~CM^-cM^-CM^- 

rHCMCM«tO'*^U5U5tO<Dt^t~a3COO><J>OOi-lr-( 
<-lr-(r-l(-li-li-4rHr-liHi-l»-lr^r-liHrMr-lr-ieMCMCMCM 



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CMt^i-«C0OU5O'l<O>'i"00e000CMt-CMt0i-<«DOU3 
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•Hr^l-^r-lr^^^^-^r^r-l(^lH.-lr-lr^r^^-^l-leMCMCMeM 



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CMCMlOtO'*''<*<'^lOU5tD«De~e^C^OOOOtJ>0>000 
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MP]THODS AND NORMS 



25 



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26 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



These indices have all been used in the prediction of types of build. 
While, in our opinion, they are not as useful as the Normal Ponderal 
Index and the Vital Index (as was implied in the data presented in 
Chapter II of A2)p7'aising Physical Status : The Selection of Meas- 
urements), they may be useful for special investigations, and norms 
are given for these in Tables 5 to 12. To use the Hip-Height Index, 
the widths should be corrected for fat (See Chapter V). 

These miscellaneous tables may well be used when observation 
shows an individual who is an atypical or mixed type. Comparisons 
of the Shoulder Index, the Vital Index, and the Hip-Heiglit Index 
throw light upon the difficulties of predictions by other norms. 

It will be seen that no attempt has been made to divide build into 
discrete types, such as asthenic, athletic, or pyknic. As was ex- 
plained in detail in Chapter II of Appraising Physical Status : The 
Selection of Measurements (40), it is felt that the evidence from 
our studies shows that these ''types" correspond to imaginary en- 
tities only, and are simply small sections of a continuous distribu- 
tion removed from the rest of the population and viewed ''out of 
their context," as it were. Since the evidence seems to favor the 
idea of one continuous distribution of build, in so far as standards 

Table 12 

^ a r u- T ^ Hip Width (Trochantqr) p«n,ft-l*a 

T-Score3 for Hip Index ' ^ standing Height ' '^'"°*^*" 



T- 


2 


6 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Soore 


Days 


Months 


Year 


Year? 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 





.1450 


.1450 


.1440 


.1440 


.1440 


.1400 


.1345 


.1270 


.1230 


.1220 


6 


.1507 


.1504 


.1492 


.1486 


.1480 


.1441 


.1390 


.1322 


.1285 


.1277 


10 


.1564 


.1558 


.1543 


.1532 


.1520 


.1482 


.1434 


.1373 


.1340 


.n33 


15 


.1621 


.1612 


.1595 


.1573 


.1560 


.1523 


.1479 


.1425 


.1395 


.1390 


20 


.1678 


.1666 


.1646 


.1624 


.1600 


.1564 


.1523 


.1476 


.1450 


.1446 


25 


.1735 


.1720 


.1698 


.1670 


.1640 


.1505 


.1568 


.1528 


.1505 


.1503 


30 


.1792 


.1774 


.1749 


.1716 


.1680 


.1646 


.1612 


.1679 


.1560 


.1559 


35 


.1349 


.1328 


.1301 


.1762 


.1720 


.1687 


.1657 


.1531 


.1615 


.1616 


40 


.1906 


.1382 


.1852 


.1808 


.1760 


.1728 


.1701 


.1682 


.1670 


.1672 


45 


.1963 


.1936 


.1904 


.1854 


.1800 


.1769 


.1746 


.1734 


.1725 


.1729 


50 


.2020 


.1990 


.1955 


.1900 


.1840 


.1810 


.1790 


.1785 


.1780 


.1785 


56 


.2077 


.2044 


.2007 


.1946 


.1880 


.1851 


.1835 


.1837 


.1835 


.1842 


60 


.2134 


.2098 


.2058 


.1992 


.1920 


.1892 


.1879 


.1888 


.1890 


.1898 


65 


.2191 


.2152 


.2110 


.2038 


.1960 


.1933 


.1924 


.1940 


.1945 


.1955 


70 


.2248 


.2206 


.2151 


.2084 


.2000 


.1974 


.1968 


.1991 


.2000 


.2011 


75 


.2305 


.2260 


.2213 


.2130 


.2040 


.2015 


.2013 


.2043 


.2066 


.2068 


80 


.2362 


.2314 


.2264 


.2176 


.2030 


.2056 


.2057 


.2094 


.2110 


.2124 


85 


.2413 


.2368 


.2316 


.2222 


.2120 


.2097 


.2102 


.2146 


.2165 


.2181 


90 


.2476 


.2422 


.2367 


.2268 


.2140 


.2138 


.2146 


.2197 


.2220 


.2237 


95 


.2533 


.2476 


.2419 


.2314 


.2200 


.2179 


.2191 


.2249 


.2276 


.2294 


100 


.2590 


.2530 


.2470 


.2360 


.2240 


.2220 


,2235 


.2300 


.2330 


,2350 



^lETHODS AND NORMS 



27 















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60 es -\o IS ao es 





Figure 1. Index D : 

(Shoulder Breadth x H and Circumference x Arm Lengtli x Leg Length) 

(Chest Circumference x Abdominal Girth) x 10 

of nutritional status are concerned, it is felt tluit the statement of 
build in terms of standard deviations from the mean will be as 
satisfactory as any other method. This does not in any way deny 
the possibility of there being separate types which are relatively 



104 ■ 




































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I'i 1^ ,5 It, IT lO 19 20 21 2 


2 2 


^ 2A 2S 2* 27 26 29 90 





Figure 2. Index B : 



Height x 100 



■ Shoulder Breadth x Trunk Length x Cliest Depth x Chest Breadtli 



28 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



52 


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36 

32 

28 

24 

20 

16 

12 

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\ 




























/ 






\ 


























/ 






\ 
























/ 








VJ 


^ — 


^ 




















/ 












\ 


V 


















/ 














V 










- 






/ 
















\ 














/ 




















\ 








^^^ 


^.-^ 
























\ 






/ 




























\\ 














1 \ 


















20 22 24 26 2» 30 S2 34 Sfe S8 40 42 AA Ab 4S SO 


Figure 3. Index A: 

Head Height x Hand Circumference x Shoulder Breadth x Chest Breadth 



10,000 



specific to disease groups, such as those proposed by Draper (19). 

Evidence for the statements made above concerning the nature 
of the essential continuousness of the distributions of body build 
indices proposed for the division into discrete types is seen in 



sa 
eo 

12 
f>A 
56 

48 
40 
32 
24 

16 

S 

o 


^— 1 
























































































- 






























































































- 








































1 




















^ 


K 


























- 














/ 








\ 


















1 
















/ 










\ 
































y 


r 










\ 
































1 
















V 


'v 














































\ 
























/ 


1 




















\, 
























/ 






















s 


s. 
















^ 


^^ 


























-H 























, 'J — 












( 1 




r- 1- 


, 1 ,-1 






IS 19 1 


O 1 


1 1 


2 2 


3 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 J>\ 32 33 34 35 3e 3T 38 





Figure 4. Index C: 

(Cliest Depth x Chest Breadth x Shoulder Breadth) 

(Bi-iliac x Bi-trochanteric hip widths) x lU 



METHODS AND NORMS 29 

Figures 1 to 4, in which a whole random sample has been plotted. 
It will be seen that while somewhat skewed in some cases, the dis- 
tributions are continuous, and give no evidence of falling into two 
or three clear-cut divisions. For a further discussion of these in- 
dices, see Appraising Physical Status: The Selection of Measure- 
ments (p. 20-24) and Kiihnel (32). 



Chapter III 

THE ANTHROPOMETKIC MEASUREMENT OF 
NUTRITIONAL STATUS 

The term nutritional status lias been used with many different 
shades of meaning. It is used most frequently to denote the general 
conditions of the body with reference to the relative normality of 
its growth, development, and repair of the excess breaking down of 
tissues associated with work or disease. Others would add the 
much more qualitative conditions — the status of phosphorous and 
nitrogen metabolism, the vitamin content of diet, and perhaps the 
influence of some of the glands of internal secretion. Consequently, 
there are at least two quite distinct ai)proaches to this i^roblem of 
the measurement of nutritional status. 

One approach would be that made in the chemical laboratory. 
Here the nitrogen balance, the phosphorous and calcium retentions, 
the purin content of the excretions, and chemical analyses of fecal 
materials might be accurately determined and checked against the 
metabolic rate. Yet it might be true that while chemically the in- 
dividual seemed quite normal, he might not be nutritionally normal 
in other ways. This kind of determination of nutritional status must, 
of necessity, be largely limited to laboratory studies for purposes 
of research, and even here would not present a complete picture. 

A second method, more in accord with the popular conceptions 
of nutrition, is to measure the more quantitative aspects of growth 
and development. In this approach it is assumed that if the in- 
dividual is growing well ; is "up to normal" in weight, bulk of fatty 
tissue and development or bulk of muscular tissues ; and if he func- 
tions well and has no definite diseased conditions (either general or 
diseases associated with malnutrition, such as rickets, anaemia, 
chlorosis, etc.), that his nutritional status is satisfactory. In this 
method of judgment the qualitative chemical standards are disre- 
garded, as are subjectively judged qualitative differences in the 
consistency of fat or muscular tissue. AVhile this method does not 
o-ive a complete analysis of all factors determining nutritional 
status, it is convenient, inexpensive of time and money, and reason- 
ably satisfactory, particularly for rapid work with large groups, 
such as is demanded in public school situations. 



METHODS AND NORMS 31 

In the usual medical appraisal of general condition, tlie physician 
first seeks to find all positive diseased conditions. These are record- 
ed and evaluated. He then ''sizes up" the individual and makes 
an educated guess as to his general qualitative condition and his 
nutritional status. This guess is based almost solely upon common 
sense and experience (much of it with the phj'sically sub-normals 
who patronize the physicians in larger numbers than do those in 
superb condition), and very little on objective findings, except 
where there are some possible pathological conditions, which, of 
course, influence the physician's judgment. Hence, even in the 
examination by a medical scientist, much of the determination of 
nutritional status is subjective and based on appearance. However, 
the methods of subjective estimation should not be discarded en- 
tirely, as items such as the condition of the hair, the 1)rightness of 
the eyes, the pinkness of the nails and mucuous membranes, good 
posture, soundness of teeth, and general condition of tlic skin all 
aid in the judgment of the individual. It has been found, however, 
that even trained pediatricians fail to agree upon nutritional con- 
dition when using these subjective criteria alone (23). It has been 
further found in unpublished researches made at this Station that 
physicians' subjective estimates of the amount of subcutaneous fat 
and muscle correlate very poorly with the amounts actually found 
by objective measurement. This would seem to indicate the need 
for more objective standards. Since the appraisal of nutrition 
from the chemical laboratory is not usually feasible in most social 
situations, we propose that this second method, the objective meas- 
urement of the growth and developmental results of the nutritional 
process, be adopted for more widespread use both l)y ])hysicians to 
supplement their medical findings and by lay social agencies. AVliiJe 
this kind of measurement and its application still presents ])r()blems 
of interpretation, it is a great advance on the usual substitute for 
such measurement, mere subjective estimation. 

For the purpose of thus measuring milrilioual slaliis, five ap- 
proaches are suggested. These will be briefiy discussed in turn. II 
is not necessaiy to use all of these methods, and certain short-cuts 
will be suggested. 

1. AVcight Relative to Normal AVeight : For centuries medical 
experience has shown that, with the excei)tion of a small i)ercentage 
of individuals exhibiting certain foi-ms of glandular unbalance, i)er- 
sons whose l)ody weight is noi-nuil or sligiilly above normal for llieir 



32 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

skeletal framework are relatively more healthy and certainly better 
nourished; while the underweight are usually not as healthy and 
are frequently undernourished. For this reason, relative over- or 
underweight is suggested as one criterion of normality of nutritional 
status. This is, perhaps, the most easily understood criterion, and 
one simple to administer. (See Chapter IV) 

2. The Relative Amount of Subcutaneous Fat : Subcutaneous 
fat, while not a measure of all of the fat in the body, correlates 
very highly with it. The physiologically normal amount of fat for 
each individual is hard to determine (See Appraising Physical 
Stains: The Selection of Measurements (40), Chapter V), and the 
amount found should be interpreted in the light of other findings. 
On the other liand, a relatively normal amount of fat should be 
found in all persons who are reasonably well-nourished. AVhere 
this is not found, there is usually some physiological abnormality 
(as an overly high basal metabolic rate) or some pathological con- 
dition. Hence, the relative amount of fat is an important item in 
the estimation of nutritional status. 

3. The Relative Development of the Musculature : This is meas- 
ured in two ways: 

a. The Relative Size of Limb Girths. These are judged in rela- 
tionship to the size of the trunk and the elbow or knee. (See Vol. I, 
Chap. VI). These measurements of girth of upper arm, forearm, 
thigh, and calf are, of course, determined by: (1) the size of bone, 
which is highly correlated with the size of chest and the width of 
elbow (upper limb measurements) or width of knee (lower limb 
measurements) ; (2) the size and development of the muscles; and 
(3) the fat overlying the muscles. Hence, the girths, relative to the 
girth normal for a person of that age, sex, size, and build, are not 
strictly measurements of the development of muscles alone, but it 
has been found that such limb girths are excellent measurements of 
nutritional status (23). It has been further found that the girth 
of upper arm alone, relative to the norm, is an excellent substitute 
for the average of the four girths, and may be used when it is ad- 
ministratively impossible to find the time to use the larger number 
of measurements, or when for any other reason only the arm may 
be measured. In each case, the measurement taken is the actual 
o-irth divided by or in other ways compared with the normal girth 
for that individual. For the samples studied, these limb girths cor- 



METHODS AND NORMS 33 

relate liigher with over- and underweight than does the relative 
amount of subcutaneous fat, 

b. The Relative Amount of Strength. The second method of 
judging the relative development of the musculature is actually to 
test the strength of the muscles. This is very much superior to the 
method described above, but the expense of the necessary equip- 
ment and of time combine to render it impracticable in many situa- 
tions. The strength tests apparatus costs about $100, and the tests 
take considerable time to administer. The results are, however, 
much more useful. The evidence seems to indicate that this method 
is definitely superior to any other one method for the purpose of 
indicating general development and nutritional status. Norms are 
at present limited to ages from nine to twenty-five. 

4. The Breathing Capacity of the Lungs : This final device used 
is an indirect one, but is useful for judging nutritional status when 
used to supplement information gained from other methods. This 
measurement is that of the breathing capacity of the lungs. 

For those of the same general socio-economic level and luiving 
the same general habits of activity (that is, not contrasting outdoor 
laborers with sedentary workers), there seems to l)c no significant 
relationship bctw'een over- and underweight and over and under 
breathing capacity. For two samples, the following correlations 
were obtained : 

Conelatiou 

-.096 ± .0(J7 
-.121 ± .069 

There is a slightly better correlation between brcatliing cai)acity 
and muscular strength. Van Dalen (65) in a study of 238 twelve- 
year-old and 227 seventeen-year-old boys found correlations of .202 
and .221 resjjectively between breathing capacity over and umler 
the noim and the physical fitness index, which gives i)ro[)()rti()nate 
over and under strength for age and weight. c()mi)uted only frdin 
strength items. This is not a paiiiculai'Iy striking I'datidiisliip. 

Each of these devices mentioned above will l)e disciis.sed in the 
chapters immediately following. The general iiitogi.it inn of lliis 
infofiiiation and the methods of administering if in a scliixil situa- 
tion will be discussed in Chaptcfs XI and XII. 



Age, 
Years 


Sex 


11 


Boys 


16 


Boys 



Chapter IV 

THE PREDICTION OF NORMAL WEIGHT 

As was discussed in Chapters II and IV of Appraising Physical 
Status: The Selection of Measurements normal weight must of 
necessity be an individual matter correlated with the body build of 
the person concerned. The person of any given age who has in- 
herited a slender, linear skeletal build will have a normal weight 
less than that of an individual of the same age and height who lias 
inherited a larger boned, stockier build. In the study referred to 
above it was found that normal weight was best predicted at all ages 
from four measurements, height, chest circumference (corrected 
for fat), hip width, (corrected for fat), and knee width. After the 
chest circumference and hij) width have been corrected for fat, the 
tables for computing the normal weight are made from multiple 
regression formulae, wliich are presented on page 38 of this stud3^ 

Corrections for Fat 

1. Corrections of chest girth for variations in fat : To make the 
method used clear, let us imagine a chest with the normal or average 
amount of fat, between the thoracic walls and the skin, for one 
standard sample of people. Suppose the chest had a circumference 
of 80 cms. Now let us assume that the individual accumulates a 
layer of fat that averages 2 cms. in thickness all around. This 
would increase the average diameters in all directions 4 cms. (2 cms. 
at the end of each radius). Hence the circumference would be in- 
creased Jt X 4 cms. or 12.6 cms. 

It is this principle which is used in "correcting" the chest girth 
for variations in fatness. Two measurements are taken, one on the 
front of the chest and one on the back of the chest at the level 
crossed by the tape in taking the girth measurement. Each of these 
is a double thickness. Hence the sum of this pair of double measure- 
ments represents twice the average variation in diameter. There- 
fore, the correction is made by multiplying one-half the difference 
between the sum of these two chest fat measurements and the aver- 
age sum for each given age by Jt. This formula would be : 



METHODS AND NORMS 35 

Correction = 

(Sum of fat measurements — average sum of fat measurements\ 
1 ) 

This correction is subtracted from the actual chest girth if it is 
positive, or added if it is negative. Tables for "correcting" chest 
circumference will be found in the Appendix (Table 20). For ex- 
ample : In a twenty-year-old female, the measurements were as 
follows : 

Measurement Cms. 

Chest girth 72 

Front chest fat 2.4 

Back chest fat 3.2 

Sum of chest fat 5.6 

Average sum of 

chest fat for 4.4 

twenty-year-olds 
Difference 1.2 

1/2 X 1.2 X jt = 1.885 
72 — 1.9 — 70.1 cms. corrected chest girth 

This is approximately the girth as it would be if the individual luul 
possessed only the average amount of fat around her chest. ^ 

In a rather small number of individuals, it is difficult to pick up 
the fold of skin on the front of the chest. In such cases, the read- 
ing of the "abdomen" measurement (halfway between the left nip- 
ple and the umbilicus) is substituted. Since this measurement 
usually runs larger than the chest front measurement, it must be 
corrected before substitution. Such corrections are found in the 
following tabulation : 



*o 



Values for "Ciiest Front" as Computed 

from "Abdomen" (Fat Measuiements) 

Fat Measurement Fat Measurement 



Abdomen 


uiiest 
Males 


JL< rone 
Females 


Abdomen 


\_.iiesi 
Males 


Females 


11 


11 


11 


26 


22 


20 


12 


12 


11 


27 


23 


21 


13 


12 


12 


28 


23 


21 


14 


13 


12 


25) 


24 


oo 


15 


14 


111 


30 


25 


23 


16 


35 


11 


31 


26 


23 


17 


15 


14 


32 


26 


24 



iFat calipers now in use start at 6 mms. This is of no importance when 
only deviations from the average are to bo considered. Tins is boctuise tlie 
cali'per frame was originallv us(;d for mea,suring the inside diameter of a pipo 
and lias been adapted to u.se as fat calipers, retaining the (dd calibrations. 



36 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



Values for ''Cliest Front" as Computed 



Fat 
Abdomen 


from ' ' Abdomen ' ' 
Measureineut 
Chest Front 
Males Females 


(Fat Measurements) 

Fat Measurement 

Abdomen ^f^^^^^ ^''o^ 
Males Fern 


18 


16 


15 


33 


27 24 


19 


17 


16 


34 


28 25 


20 


18 


16 


35 


29 26 


21 


IS 


17 


36 


29 26 


22 


19 


17 


37 


30 27 


23 


20 


18 


38 


31 28 


24 


21 


19 


39 


31 28 


25 


21 


19 


40 


32 29 



2. Corrections of liip width for variations in fat : Standards for 
correcting the bi-cristal hip width for variations in fatness were 
devised from X-ray studies. The subjects studied were X-rayed 
lying supine, with the metal calipers applied to the crests of the ilia 
with the ordinary amount of pressure, and with the blade of the 
caliper in line with the central rays. The distance between the 
blade and the bone was easily measurable, and these measurements 
were corrected for distortion. The supra-iliac fat measurement was 
also taken. 

The distance between bone and calipers was plotted against the 
supra-iliac fat measurement, and a line of best fit computed. This 
was at first done separately for males and females. Since, however, 
the difference between the regression lines for the two sexes was 




Figuie 5. The Relationship of Supra-iliac Fat to Distances From Calipers to 
Ilium 



METHODS AND NORMS 37 

well within the sampling error, and since there was no reason to 
expect that there should be a sex diiference in the reaction of fat to 
caliper pressure, the two groups were combined. Only adult sub- 
jects were studied. The plottings are shown in Figure 5. It is 
realized that the number of subjects used is small, but the slight 
gain in accuracy that would have been achieved from more subjects 
did not seem to justify the expense. In computing the norms, the 
average supra-iliac fat measurement for each age of each sex was 
considered as standard. Variations above and below this average 
were given the correction values that correspond to the values in 
our two experimental groups. Tables for "correcting" hip width 
for the different ages of each sex are found in the Appendix (Table 
21). _ 

It is very probable that errors of some magnitude may occur in 
attempting to correct the chest and hip measurements of the corpu- 
lent. It is equally probable, however, that the errors in correcting 
hip width in the undernourished will be negligible, and it is this 
group that it is most important to predict with the greatest ac- 
curacy. One is not apt to err in correcting the hip width of the 
obese sufficiently to make an error of prediction greater than one 
kilogram in adults, or half a kilogram in the younger children. In 
determining the amount of overweight, that is of small importance. 
The errors would be as much or more due to the difficulties of pick- 
ing up a double fold of skin and fat, particularly in those who are 
at the time growing fatter, and hence would have tenser skins, than 
it would be due to inaccuracies in the standards. For further com- 
ment on this subject, sec also page 49 where methods of meeting this 
difficulty are proposed. 

The Computation of Normal AVeigiit 
The normal weight in tlie vast majority of individuals can l)e 
computed accurately, as was stated above, by a multij)le regression 
equation from measurements of total standing lieight, circumference 
of chest (corrected for fat), bi-cristal width of the liii)s (corrected 
for fat), and the width of the knee at tlie epicondyles. A multiple 
regression equation is simply an algebraic ecpiation of the form: 
(b = axi -f- bxo + CX3 -|- dx.j -f K, in which w = normal wciglil as 
predicted by equation, x, = height, x. = chest girth, X;, =; hip 
width, Xj •=: knee width, and K •— a constant. K. a, h. c, aiul d, arc 
mathematically determined constants of such magnituiles thai, w hrn 
tlie anthropometric variables arc nniltiplicil by liicin, llie correla- 



38 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

tion between the resultant normal weight and the criterion (in this 
case the actual weight) would be a maximum. 

In the case of w^eight prediction, these equations were comi)uted 
for each age of each sex, first using the actual chest girth and the 
actual hip width (uncorrected for fat variations). This procedure 
assumed that we were attempting to predict actual weight from 
actual measurements. Thus a person who is somewhat fat would 
simply represent a somewhat more stockily built person of normal 
weight (for his build). These equations, when used with corrected 
chest girth and hip width, M'ill then predict the normal weight for 
the person to within the limitations of the equation. These equa- 
tions were given in Table 13, and as will be seen from the multiple 
correlations given, the correlations are high. 

Table 13 

Prediction Equations of Weight (KilogramB) frcm Height, Bipe, 
Chest Circumference and Knee (CentijiieterB) 



Age. 
Tears 


Equation 


Beys 


4 


Weight - .1315 


Height ♦ 


.3082 


Hips ♦.2359 


Chest 


Cir.* 


♦1.7623 


Knee 


- 26.7253 


R - .9124 N 


- 69 
















5 


Weight - .1128 
R - .9100 N 


Height ♦ 
" 146 


.1961 


Hips +.3 961 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦1.6586 


Knee 


- 30.2065 


6 


Weight - .1912 


Height ♦ 


.3786 


Hips +.5907 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦ .7246 


Knee 


- 46.4558 


R - .9224 N 


- 149 
















7 


Weight - .1293 
R - .9042 N 


Height ♦ 
- 135 


.6199 


Hips +.4890 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦1.373S 


Knee 


- 42.9970 


8 


Weight - .1607 
R •= .9247 N 


Height ♦ 
- 115 


.4028 


Hips +.6789 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦2.1453 


Knee 


- 60.2709 


9 


Weight - .1906 
R - .9237 N 


Height + 
- 137 


.5866 


Hips +.5477 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦l.f372 


Knee 


- 58.4834 


10 


Weight - .2163 
R - .9180 N 


Height ♦ 
- 138 


.2743 


Hips +.7577 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦2.1438 


Knee 


- 70.6147 


11 


Weight - .2297 
R - .9011 N 


Height ♦ 
- 1S2 


.1934 


Hips +.5615 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦3.1072 


Knee 


- 66.1454 


12 


Weight • .2230 


Height ♦ 


.2457 


Hips +.6204 


Chest 


Cir, 


♦5.7727 


Knee 


- 69.766S 


R - .8960 N 


» 129 
















15 


Weight - .2476 
R - .9682 N 


Height + 
- 131 


.0812 


Hips ♦.8161 


Cheet 


Cir. 


♦4.2135 


Knee 


- 93.479C 


14 


Weight - .2712 


Height ♦ 


.7361 


Hips ♦.7936 


Cheet 


Cir. 


♦3.1487 


Knee 


-101.9942 


R - .9573 N 


= 141 
















16 


Weight - .3008 
R - .9500 N 


Height + 
- 126 


.9060 


Hips ♦.6489 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦4.5726 


Knee 


-111.8544 


16 


Weight - .2808 
R - .9196 N 


Height ♦ 
- 107 


.6960 


Hips +.7840 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦6.0191 


Knee 


-119.3505 


17 


Weight - .2897 
R - .9253 N 


Height + 
- 78 


.7082 


Hips +.7270 


Chest 


Cir. 


+6.014S 


Knee 


-115.2652 


18 


Weight - .2369 
R - .8946 N 


Height +1 
- 266 


.1402 


Hips +.9641 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦2.4796 


Knee 


-112.7968 










Girls 












4 


Weight - .1298 


Height ♦ 


.3304 


Hips +.4819 


Chest 


Cir.» 


♦ .7320 


Knee 


- 32.0832 


R - .9636 N 


- 70 
















5 


Weight • .1602 


Height * 


.3327 


Hips +.4730 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦1.1673 


Knee 


- 36.9006 


R - .9442 N 


" 151 
















6 


Weight - .1053 
R - .6972 N 


Height ♦ 
- 110 


.2633 


Hips +.6137 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦1.6263 


Knee 


- 35.3942 



METHODS AND NORMS 39 

TaMe 13 (Continued) 

IVcdiction Equations of Weight (Kilogrnms) from Height, Hijis, 
Cheet CircumftTcnoe ai>d Knee (Centimeter b) 



Age. 
Tears 


Equation 








Girls 












7 


Weight - .1945 


Height * .9750 


Hips 


♦.6070 


Cheat 


Cir.* 


♦1.2685 


Knee 


- 60.9453 


R - .9540 N 


- 100 
















8 


Weieht = .1-798 


Height + .1687 


Hips 


♦.6605 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦2.1443 


Knee 


- 48.2626 


R - .9077 N 


• 102 
















9 


Weight - .1391 


Height + .3127 


Hipa 


♦,7506 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦1.9510 


Knee 


- 56.6639 


R - .9481 N 


- 114 
















10 


Weight ■ .0966 


Height ♦ .7730 


Hips 


♦.7034 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦2.4933 


Knee 


- 61.8767 


R - .9S16 N 


- 124 
















XI 


Weight - .1593 


Height ♦ .8849 


Hips 


+.5217 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦2.3366 


Knee 


- 60.2732 


R - .9386 N 


■= 132 
















12 


Weight • .1234 


Height +1.0364 


Hips 


+.6959 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦3.3690 


Knee 


- 78.0477 


R - .9289 N 


- 151 
















13 


Weight - .1337 


Height ♦1.4422 


Hips 


♦.4933 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦4.3232 


Knee 


- 83.9651 


R - .9279 N 


•= 164 
















14 


Weight - .2170 


Height ♦ .84i;2 


Hips 


+.6187 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦3.7842 


Knee 


- 84.4909 


R = .9041 N 


- 146 
















15 


Weight - .1546 


Height ♦ .7290 


Hips 


+.6870 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦4.7586 


Knee 


- 77,6806 


E - .8480 N 


- 136 
















16 


Weight - .1347 


Height +1.0977 


Hips 


♦.6355 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦4.8507 


Knee 


- 82.2678 


R - ,8749 N 


" 113 
















17 


Weight - .1258 


Height +1.0291 


Hips 


♦.4985 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦3.7674 


Knee 


- 64.6120 


R - .8729 H 


- 97 
















18 


Weight - .3166 
R - .9276 N 


Height ♦ .6608 
- 214 


Hips 


+.8041 


Cheat 


Cir. 


♦3.6080 


Knee 


-105.25 



•Chest oircumferenoe oorrected for fat. 

In predicting normal weight, it woiild be time-consuming to com- 
pute each weight from the equations themselves. Tables have there- 
fore been computed for this purpose, and arc found in Appendix 
(Tables 22 to 81). In these tables, the four variables are combined, 
together w^ith the constant, into two tables, and when the two num- 
bers ol)tained from the two tables are added, tlic normal weight is 
the result obtained. Directions for using the tables will be found 
on page 124-127. 

Abnormalities of Build and Their Efltcctt on the 
Prediction of Normal AVeight 

If all individuals were consistent in build, the nuiltiph^ correla- 
tions with these formulae would be almost plus 1.00. Such is not 
the case, and in a number of cases certain allowances for deviations 
from what we may call "biological consistency" must be mack\ 

Perhaps the term "biological consistency" should ])e defined and 
illustrated. It lins been stated a])ovc that tliere are wide variations 
in build running from the extreme of the very sii'nder linear type 
to the very stocky lateral type. In tiie average person of each "dc- 



40 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

gree of build," we have an individual whose various body parts are 
relatively harmonious to that build. This we have chosen to call 
"biological consistency." In other persons, one or more parts of 
the body may be out of harmony with the rest. A person may have 
a long stocky trunk, but instead of having the relatively short thick 
limbs that usually go with that kind of trunk, he may have thin 
limbs, both in external dimensions and in size and coarseness of 
bones. The predicted weight of such a person will differ somewhat 
from the average for his dimensions, even though the width of knee 
is included in the equation. This does not in all such cases com- 
pensate for the whole slender limb development. The build of such 
an individual is "biologically inconsistent," and some allowance 
must be made for it. 

Such inconsistencies of build are of several types: 
1. Abnormal shapes of chest: The weight may be affected by 
differences in the shape of the thorax. The normal chest shape is 

usually measured by the chest index 100 x —-p:-, ^^^. ., , — , T-scores 

Chest \\idth 

for each age and sex are given in Tables 14 to 15. In cases where 
the chest indices differ markedly from these average proportions, 
some effect on the weight will be found. The rationale of this will 
be seen in the following analogy. 

Suppose we consider the areas of three figures as follows : 

a. A circle with a diameter of 25 cms. 

b. Two semicircles with a diameter of 20 cms. separated by a 

rectangle 20 cms. x 7.854 cms. 

c. Two semicircles with a diameter of 15 cms. separated by a 

rectangle 15 cms. x 15.708 cms. 
The perimeters or "chest girths" will all be the same, namely, 
78.54 cms. The areas, however, will be approximately 481, 471, 
and 412 square cms. respectively. This would correspond to "chest 
indices" of 100, 71.8, and 48.9. In other words, chests of the same 
perimeter may vary in cross section if the shape varies. Correc- 
tions for this were devised by correlating the chest index against 
the amount of under- and overweight and deriving a correcting 
equation from the regression equation. This equation is : Y = .2 
(chest index) -{- .867, where Y is a value by which the over- or 
underweight percentage is to be divided to give the corrected normal 
weight. In actual practice, differences in chest shape have very 
little influence on the weight predicted, but in extreme cases this 
correction may be used. 



METHODS AND NORMS 



41 






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METHODS AND NORMS 



43 



2. Builds that resemble those of the opposite sex: Anthropo- 
metrically speaking, "masculine" and "feminine" are relative 
terms. In general, the major physical sex differences of averages 
for the sexes are given below. All statements of size of dimensions 
are relative to height. Thus ' ' narrower shoulders ' ' means narrower 
relative to height. 



Measurement 


Male 


Female 


Trunk 


Shorter 


Longer 


Limbs 


Longer 


Shorter 


Shoulders 


Wider 


Narrower 


Chest 


Larger 


Smaller 


Hips (at trochanters) 


Nai-rower 


Wider 


Elbow 


Wider 


Narrower 


Ui^per limbs 


Larger 


Smaller 


Thigh 


Smaller 


Larger 


Breathing capacity 


Larger 


Smaller 


General subcutaneous 
fat 


Less 


More 


Fat over hips 


Little 


More 


Greatest curve of calf 


Inside 


Outside 


Muscular development 


Greater 


Less 


Body hair 


More 


Less 


Pubic hair 


Line up towards 


Line straight across 




umbilicus 


lower abdomen 


Excess facial hair 


Present in abundance 


Absent 



In general, the male is larger in bone, muscle, and skeleton size 
above the hips, has longer limbs, less fat, and more hair on the face 
and body, and has the major calf-curve on the inside. The female 
is smaller above the waist but larger below, has shorter limbs, less 
body hair, and has the largest curve of the calf on the outside. 
Actually, the distribution of traits in each sex runs from the aver- 
age for the sex out in both directions, with a wide overlapping. 
For example, if a distribution of indices found by dividing 100 x 
liic chest circumference 1)y height is made for each sex, the values 
of the means are 47.3 for eighteen-year-old males and 44.1 for 
eighteen-year-old females. The standard deviations are 2.8 and 2.5 
respectively. The indices are the same at — .6 standard deviations 
for the males as they are at -|-.G standard deviations for females. 
This sliows a wide ()verlapi)iiig. There are many males who liave a 
relatively feminine buikl, and many females with a somewhat mas- 
culine build, al least beyond tlie averages for the oi)i)osite .sex. This 
complicates the ani hidptinicl lic pidhh'iii. 'i'hc fniinulac for females, 



44 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

especially in the post-pubescent ages, predict a normal weight that 
is about 8 per cent heavier than that predicted by the male formulae 
for the same skeletal dimensions. Since the cause for this has not as 
yet been investigated experimentally in the laboratory, statements 
are made here upon the evidence of subjective observation and 
logical analysis of such observations. Such observations have been 
made principally on a number of female subjects whose predicted 
weight is much less than is accounted for by deficiencies in fat and 
limb girths, and on males who show the opposite phenomenon of 
being heavier than fat and limb girth w^ould explain. In the case 
of these females, two outstanding differences from the average have 
been noted: (1) The chest is larger. Since the average regression 
weighting for chest is smaller in females than in males, this gives a 
somewhat smaller predicted weight. (2) The fat over the hips and 
thighs is markedly less, approaching the fat distribution of males. 
This would cause the woman to weigh less for the same skeletal 
measurements than would a woman of average fat distribution. 

In the males the opposite is true. Males that are heavier than 
the measurements Avould seem to warrant tend to have smaller 
chests and a feminine fat distribution. 

At present we offer no ol)jective method of allowing for these 
differences, and this problem must be attacked in the future. It is 
suggested, however, on the basis of some empirical evidence, that in 
cases where the predicted weight and the subcutaneous fat and 
limb girths do not agree within a reasonable limit, the examiner 
again observe the subject closely to see if he appears to be a deviate 
from the normal build for sex, and if so, to compute the norms from 
the tables for both sexes, and interpolate to the degree that seems to 
be probably correct for the individual. 

3. Children abnormally small or large for their age range : Oc- 
casionally one finds a child who is either exceedingly tall or very 
short, and whose normal weight is obviously badly missed by the 
normal weight formula for his age. These further fall into two 
categories : 

(1) Individuals whose appearance does not indicate obvious 
glandular abnormalities and departures from the normal range of 
proportions: Without further study of the individual, the cause 
cannot be ascertained. In many situations such study cannot read- 
ily be made, as it would involve examination with the X-ray. For 
such cases no prediction formulae at present are available. The 



METHODS AND NORMS 



45 



most practical approximation will be obtained by using the formula 
for an age in which the height of the child falls within two standard 
deviations of the average height for the age. 

To illustrate, suppose we have a twelve-year-old boy wliose height 
is 108 cms. (an actual case). If his normal weight is })redicted 
from the twelve-year-old formulae, the results are unreliable, as this 
formula was not computed from data comprising such a range. 
Hence we examine the averages and standard deviations for each 
age below twelve until we find an age in which the mean minus two 
standard deviations is approximately 108. (For mean heights and 
± 2 standard deviations of height for each age, see Table 16.) At 
age 6 we find an average height of 118.7 cms. and a standard devia- 
tion of 4.67. The mean minus two standard deviations would be 
109.4 cms. Hence we may use the six-year-old formula. INIay it l)e 
emphasized, however, that this is simply an approximation, and 
that the only scientifically valid method of procedure would be to 

Table 16 

Average Heights and the Normal Range of Heights 
for Each Year of Age 



Age, 
Years 


Males 


Females 


-2 S.D. 


Mean 


♦2 S.D. 


-2 S.D. 


Mean 


♦2 S.D. 


2 


85.9 


92.3 


98.8 


86.5 


91.5 


97.5 


3 


89.5 


96.8 


104.1 


91.4 


98.9 


106.5 


4 


99.9 


106.8 


114.5 


98.1 


105.7 


113.2 


5 


104.6 


113.0 


121.3 


104.3 


112.4 


120.5 


6 


108.9 


118.9 


128.9 


108.3 


118.0 


127.6 


7 


114.3 


125.0 


135.2 


113.3 


123.3 


134.4 


8 


120.0 


130.9 


141.9 


118.5 


129.6 


140.8 


9 


125.2 


136.3 


147.5 


123.5 


135.1 


146.7 


10 


129.0 


141.1 


153.2 


128.4 


140.6 


152.9 


11 


132.9 


145.5 


158.1 


133.2 


147.0 


160.8 


12 


135.8 


150.6 


165.3 


139.4 


153.1 


166.8 


13 


139.3 


156.4 


173.4 


145.6 


157.7 


169.8 


14 


145.0 


162.3 


179.5 


149.5 


160.1 


170.7 


15 


152.3 


167.4 


182.6 


150.9 


161.2 


171.2 


16 


158.8 


171.6 


184.4 


150.0 


161.4 


172.7 


17 


161.3 


173.8 


186.3 


149.2 


161.4 


173.6 


18 


162.5 


175.0 


187.5 


149.3 


161.4 


173.6 



46 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

assess his anatomical or matiirational age through studies of his 
bone development with the X-ray/ and tlien to use the age formula 
that corresponded to this maturational age. This procedure is valid, 
for many such children represent individuals whose physiological 
and anatomical age is markedly retarded or accelerated, and a child 
whose chronological age is twelve, for example, may have matured 
only to a degree corresponding to an age of seven. Physically, then, 
he is seven. An X-ray of the hand and wrist will enable this to be 
determined with relative accuracy. If in grave doubt, predictions 
should be made with reservations. 

(2) Children presenting obvious glandular abnormalities: In 
such cases, the value of normal weight prediction is extremely 
dubious, and it is probable that the cases should be judged either 
by inspection alone, or simply referred to a physician if a statement 
of probable physical status is necessary. These cases are usually 
those of gigantism, anomalies of thyroid and the posterior lobe of 
the pituitary, and dystrophia adiposo genitalis. For such cases, no 
adequate standards are at present available. 

4. The fourth cause of sucli iiiconsistencies is not a matter of 
build, but of pubescence. The average age for the onset of pubes- 
cence is roughly fourteen and one-half years in boys and thirteen 
and one-half years in girls. Hence the norms for fourteen-year- 
old boys and for thirteen-year-old girls are created from samplings 
that are approximately half prepubescent and half pubescent or 
postpubescent. The norms for a year earlier are computed from 
predominantly prepubescent children, and those of a year later from 
j)redominantly postpubescent children. If, however, a twelve-year- 
old boy is postpubescent, or a sixteen-year-old boy is prepubescent, 
as sometimes happens, there is apt to be a deviation from the normal. 
This can be compensated for by using a different age formula. If 
the child is of an age where it would be expected that he would be 
prepubescent (e.g. a boy of twelve) but he is postpubescent, it may 
be assumed that j)hy.<iiologicallij he is fourteen, and the fourteen year 
formula may be used. If the cliild is prepubescent when he is of a 
postpubescent age (e.g. a girl of fifteen), formulae for the last of 
the prepubescent years may be used. The really accurate method 
would be to use the formula for the age determined by an X-ray of 
the hands. 



1 Standards for the X-ray appraisal may be fouud in references listed in 
Chapter X. 



METHODS AND NORMS 47 

As soon as is joracticable, different formulae and tables should be 
computed for prepubescent and pubescent boys of from twelve to 
sixteen and girls from eleven to fifteen. ITntil this is done, the pro- 
cedure suggested above may be used. 

Short Cuts in the Administration op 
Normal Weight Prediction 

In many instances it will be found difficult to find the time for a 
busy staff to do the measuring and computing necessary to such 
normal weight prediction, especially to check on the changing 
status from month to month. An administrative short cut is sug- 
gested. 

A preliminary and as yet unpublished study has shown that while 
build changes somewhat in some individuals from time to time, the 
changes are relatively slow, and the build may ordinarily be taken 
as relatively stable for about two years for all but 'the ages of 
pubescence. Relying upon this relative stability of build, let com- 
plete measurements bo taken at the ages of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 
16, and 18. (Changes in build may occur with greater frequency 
from twelve to sixteen than before the age of twelve or after six- 
teen.) At the time of the complete measurements, compute from 
the tables the normal weight and also the per cent this normal 
weight is of the average weight for sex, age, and height. (See 
Cliapter II.) Following this, for the interval until the next com- 
l)]ete measuring, use the age-hcight-weight table value for weight 
multiplied l)y tliis per cent. To illustrate : let us use the case of an 
eight-year-old girl whose height was 124 cms. and whose percentage 
index of build was 104. Let us follow her further. AVhen we meas- 
ure her height and weigh her three months later, she is now 127 cms. 
tall. The agc-height-weight ta])le average for lliis height at eight 
years of age would be 25.3 kilograms, and 104 per cent of this would 
be 2G.3 kilograms, which may ])e taken as her norm at that lime 
(clothed). The next year lici' height is l:]l cms. From the age- 
height-wcight tables at nine her average would be 27.3; 104 ])er 
cent of this would be 28.4, which should be ap])roximately her 
normal weight. 1 1' the intervals bclwccn coinplrtc Tiu'asurcmenls are 
not allowed to become too long, this short cut method will be found 
fairly satisfactory. 

The (|ues1i()ii ol" Ihe coniparal i\(' iiiii)()rt;in('e df weiLihl norms in 
tlie i)rediction of i)hysical and nul litional status will he discussed 
below in Chapter IX. 



Chapter V 

THE MEASUREMENT OF SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS FAT 

In Appraising Physical Status: The Selection of Measurements 
(40) it was reported that in the studies conducted on the problem 
of how best to measure the amount of fat on the body it was found 
that the total amount of subcutaneous fat (as disting'uished from 
the internal fat) could be measured with a very high degree of 
accuracy by taking five measurements. Two others were recom- 
mended for situations in which it is not feasible to remove the 
clothing above the waist. These measurements arc taken with an 
especially designed fat caliper.^ The technique of measurement is 
given in detail in Chapter IX of the previously mentioned study. 

The measurements to be taken are as follows : 

1. Chest Front : On the front of the chest on the left side at the 
level of the xiphoid cartilage and halfway between the mid-line and 
the sagittal plane tangent to the side of the chest. 

2. Chest Back : On the back on the left side at the level of the 
xiphoid cartilage and over the greatest bulge of the erector spinae 
muscles. 

These two measurements are also used in the correction of the 
chest girth. In taking them the blades of the caliper are vertical. 

3. Abdomen : On the abdomen approximately halfway between 
the left nipple (or the corresponding place in the female) and the 
umbilicus, just over the edge of the costal cartilage. The caliper 
blades are parallel to the line between the two landmarks.^ 



1 These may be i^ui'diased from Mr. A. V,. O 'Brien, 904 Bowery St., Iowa 
Citj', Iowa. 

2 In some cases it has been found that the measurement we liave called ' ' chest 
front" is exceedingly difficult to measure because of the adherence of the skin 
to the underlying- fascia. This happens in only 2 or 3 per cent of the cases, but 
since the chest front measurement is necessary for the correction of the chest 
girth, ways of adapting to this difficulty are necessary. It has been found 
that the correlation between the abdomen measurement and the chest front 
measurement averages about .90. Hence, in cases where it is difficult to meas- 
ure the chest front, the abdomen measurement may be converted into the chest 
front measurement by the following formula: 

Males Cliest Front = .73 Abdomen + 3.0 
Females Chest Front = .63 Abdomen + 3.G 

A table for computing this is found on page 35. 



METHODS AND NORMS 49 

4. Supra-iliac : On the left side just above the ilium and in the 
axillary line. The blades of the caliper are vertical. This measure- 
ment is also used to correct the bi-iliac hip width. 

5. Hip Difference: This is the maximum width of the hips 
measured at the level of tlie trochanters without pressure miiuis the 
bi-cristal width of the hips (corrected for fat). 

6. Arm Front : Taken over the bicei)s midway between the 
acromion and the elbow. The arm is straight and the blades of the 
caliper are parallel to the long axis of the arm. 

7. Arm Back: Taken over the triceps midway between the 
acromion and the elbow, slightly to the axillary side of the mid-line 
of the triceps muscle. The caliper blades are parallel to the long 
axis of the arm. 

Arm front and arm back are supplementary measurements whicli 
need not be taken if the body fat measurements are available as 
they add nothing of importance to the ])rediction made from the 
body measurements. 

The measurement of the skin and subcutaneous fat offers few 
difficulties in the case of children. Occasionally a corpulent child 
has a skin so tight and hard to ''pick up" as to make it difficult to 
measure the chest front fold of skin accurately. In such ca.ses, the 
best one can do is to pick it up as well as possible, and in some cases, 
as stated above, to substitute the regression value from the abdomen 
measurement instead. In the case of adults, two difficulties are 
sometimes found. The tirst is the same as that just mentioned — a 
too-tight skin. This is usually in the case of those who are rajjidly 
becoming fatter. Here one does the best he can, with tlie realiza- 
tion that in case he makes somewhat of an error, it is still apparent 
that, at least insofar as fat is concerned, the individual is not mal- 
nourished. The second difficulty is harder to meet. In the case of 
middle-aged i)ersons who have been fatter than they are at tlie time 
of measuring, one frequently finds a loose, baggy «kin that covers a 
ma.ss of very soft, movable fat. If one takes the sanu' iiu asurnncnt 
several times in succession, it is smaller at each succeeding trial — ■ 
the fat is simply s(|ueezed out from uiidci- the place measured. In 
such cases, ])erhaps the ])esl thing one can do is to pick up the skin 
and fold of fat carefully, avoid too much linger pressure, adjust 
the calipers without allowing too much pressure from the spring, 
and make as cai'eful an estimate of the thickness of the fat layer as 
po.ssible. This will not he objectively accurate, hut will be more 



50 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

accurate than it would be with an unchecked spring pressure on 
such loose skins. Fortunately, as we have stated, such conditions 
are practically never met in children of school ages. 

Using young adult subjects, the multiple correlation of the first 
five measurements with the total fat (sum of fourteen measurements 
taken on all parts of the body (40, p. 74) ) was .9312 for males and 
.9623 for females. It was .9253 and .9586 for males and females 
respectively when only the first four measurements were used. It 
would seem, therefore, that the hip difference in most cases is not 
worth the added work of computation. In postpubescent females 
it will be found useful in many individual cases and may well be 
added to the battery, but should be interpreted separately. It prob- 
ably is of very limited usefulness for males of all ages. 

The multiple correlation of the two arm fat measurements with 
total fat was .88 for both male and female adults. Adding the two 
arm measurements to the body measurements adds nothing of sig- 
nificance to the multiple correlation, and they are not worth the 
time taken to measure tliem if the others are available. 

The next step in the study was to compare the multiple correla- 
tion with the criterion of the "best" weights for the four fat meas- 
urements and of the unweighted sum of the fat measurements. 
Since the relative weightings found in most cases did not differ 
greatly from unity, it was expected that the correlations would not 
be far apart. This was found to be true. In almost all combina- 
tions tried, the difference between the two correlations was only in 
the third decimal. Hence it did not seem necessary to weiglit the 
fat measurements. 

It is recommended, therefore, that the four fat measurements of 
chest front, chest back, abdomen, and supra-iliac be summed with- 
out weighting. In the case of post-pubescent females who seem, 
upon subjective inspection, to be fat over the hips, it will be well 
also to measure the hip difference, but to consider the measurement 
separately from the others. The arm measurements need be taken 
only when it is impossible to measure the fat of the torso. 

STANDARDS 

As was stated in Chapter V of Appraisincj Physical Status: The 
Selection of Mea»urements, two criteria for norms of fat are pro- 
posed. The first of these is simply the average of all of that sex 
and age regardless of build. It is believed by the author that this 



METHODS AND NORMS 51 

is tlie best criterion to adopt, as well as tlie simplest, and it is pro- 
loosed here for use. 

Since the measurements as recorded on the fat calipers arc from 
an arbitrary origin (6 mm.), and since the measurement also in- 
cludes the skin, percentage standards mean little. We have, there- 
fore, found the minimum measurement recorded for the sum of the 
fat measurements at each age. These minima have been smoothed 
by ages, and will be found in Table 140 of the Appendix. The per- 
centage is then given in terms of the departure from the mean in 
units of mean — minimum. For instance, let us use as examples two 
girls eighteen years old : 



Measurement 


iictuai 
Measurement 


Norm M 
First Girl 


inimum 


Range 


Per Cent 


Chest Front 


17 


20 


11 


9 


— 33 


Chest Back 


IS) 


25 


12 


13 


— 46 


Abdomen 


18 


25 


13 


12 


— 58 


Supra-iliac 


22 


28 


15 


13 


— 46 


Total 


76 


98 




47 




Average 




Second Girl 






— 46 


Cliest Front 


22 


20 


11 


9 


_j_ 22 


Chest Back 


28 


25 


12 


13 


-f 23 


Abdomen 


30 


25 


13 


12 


-1-42 


Supra-iliac 


31 


28 


15 


13 


-1- 2;; 


Total 


111 


98 




47 




Average 










-f-27.5 



Approximately the same information can be secured in less time 
by dealing in sums only. For example, it will be seen that the sum 
of the four measurements is TG for the first girl, a.nd 111 for the 
second. The sum of the four normal measurements is 98, and the 
sum of the differences from normal to mininnun is 47. Tlie i)ci-- 
centage of over or under fat may be detennined by the following 
formula : 

Percentage over _ 100 (Actual niea.su reiiKMits)-— (Normal) 
or under fat ~ ~(DiiTerenco9 between normal and minimum) 

In the case of the girls discu.ssed above, this would be 

100 (76-98) ^ _46 , ^.^„, 
^^ 47 

100(111-98) ^ 07.P, .., ,,„t 
^ ^ 47 

This is the percentage of fat alone, not of total bo<ly bulk. 



52 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



If the deviation from the mean divided by the difference between 
the mean and the minimum is used as the standard, the zone of 
normality recommended is from — 33 per cent to -\-G6 per cent. 
There is considerable difference in the various age groups, but these 
values seem to be reasonably consistent. They will represent about 
the first and third quartiles respectively. 

If it is desired to divide the actual total fat by the mean total 
fat, the zone of normality may be taken as from 90 per cent to 120 
per cent. These values, also, represent an average approximation of 
the first and third quartiles. 

Since some experimenters may prefer to take body build into con- 
sideration in the prediction of fat, the regression values for fat 
from the measurements of height, chest circumference (corrected 



Table 17 



Equatloas for the IVediction of Total Normal Trunk Fat* 
from Body Build Measurements 



Age. 
Yeara 


Equation 


Males 


4 


Trunlf Fat • 


-.0347 


Height 


-.0265 


Chest 


Cir.* 


-.0608 


Hips 


♦.5554 


Knee 


♦7.62 


6 


Trunk: Fat - 


-.0637 


Height 


-.0806 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.1840 


Hips 


+.9205 


Knee 


♦6.77 


6 


Trimlc Fat • 


-.0333 


Height 


♦.0524 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦.1740 


Hips 


♦.0426 


Knee 


♦2.61 


7 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0697 


Height 


♦.0449 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦.0616 


Hips 


♦.6872 


Knee 


♦4.76 


8 


Trunk; Fat - 


-.0453 


Height 


♦.0456 


Chesx 


Cir. 


♦.1725 


Hips 


+.5171 


Knee 


♦1.17 


9 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0450 


Height 


♦.1066 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.1141 


Hips 


+.2236 


Knee 


♦ .66 


10 


Trunk Fat « 


.0008 


Height 


♦.0552 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦.0171 


Hips 


+.4713 


Knee 


-2.34 


11 


Trunk Fat • 


-.0289 


Height 


♦.0048 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦.0503 


Hips 


+.5787 


Knee 


♦5.60 


12 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0194 


Height 


-.0163 


Chest 


Cir. 


-.0088 


Hips 


+.8054 


Knee 


♦2.88 


13 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0177 


Height 


♦.0536 


Chest 


Cir. 


-.1099 


Hips 


+.9111 


Knee 


- .73 


14 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0479 


Height 


♦.0193 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.1279 


Hips 


+.6452 


Knee 


+3.01 


15 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0588 


Height 


♦.0820 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦.0868 


Hips 


+.4167 


Knee 


♦3.26 


16 


Trunk Fat « 


-.0272 


Height 


-.0025 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦.0510 


Hips 


+.6436 


Riee 


♦3.43 


17 


Trunk Fat • 


-.0002 


Height 


♦.0110 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦.0502 


Hips 


+.4076 


Knee 


♦ .09 


College 
Men 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0469 


Height 


♦.0463 


Chest Cir. 


♦.0276 


Hips 


♦.3932 


Knee 


♦6.64 


FeDiales 


4 


Triink Fat • 


-.0399 


Height 


♦.0177 


Chest 


Cir.* 


♦.1019 


Hips 


+.6402 


Knee 


♦2.99 


S 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0242 


Height 


-.0420 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.1764 


Hips 


+.6042 


Knee 


♦3.50 


6 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0225 


Height 


♦ .002', 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.1297 


Hips 


+.7187 


Knee 


♦ .68 


7 


Trunk Fat - 


.0401 


Height 


+.0168 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦.1669 


Hips 


-.2374 


Knoe 


-1.64 


8 


Trunk Fat * 


-.0238 


Height 


♦.0742 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.1783 


Hips 


+.4201 


Knee 


-1.88 


9 


Trunk Fat • 


-.0564 


Height 


♦.1215 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.2159 


Hips 


+.5163 


Knee 


-1.86 


10 


Trunk Fat « 


-.0701 


Height 


♦.0816 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.3067 


Hips 


+.2375 


Knee 


+2.76 


11 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0834 


Height 


♦.0489 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.2254 


Hips 


+.6537 


Knee 


+5.94 


12 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0568 


Height 


+.0100 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.2689 


Hips 


+.7568 


Knee 


+2.02 


13 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0505 


Height 


+.0403 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.2139 


Hips 


+.6299 


Knee 


+1.68 


14 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0542 


Height 


♦.0681 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.0959 


Hips 


+ .6592 


Knee 


♦3.13 


15 


Tr>mk Fat - 


.0055 


Height 


♦.0654 


Chest 


Cir. 


-.0322 


Hips 


♦.9080 


Knee 


-4.88 


16 


Trunk Fat » 


-.0315 


Height 


+.0686 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.0860 


Hips 


+.4891 


Knee 


+1.59 


17 


Trunk Fat - 


-.0429 


Height 


♦.0243 


Chest 


Cir. 


♦.0680 


Hips 


+.4880 


Kneo 


+7. 23 


College 
Women 


Trunk Fat • 


-.0160 


Height 


-.0172 


Chest 


Cir. 


+.1217 


Hips 


+.3490 


Knee 


♦6,71 



#Trunk fat • chest front ♦ chest back ♦ abdor.en ♦ supra-iliac 
•Cheat circumference corrected for fat. 



METHODS AND NORMS 53 

for fat), liip width (coiTccted for fat), and knee width were com- 
puted. These will be found in Table 17, p. 52. Since these are 
not recommended for general use, tables for easy computation have 
not been worked out. 

On page 49 was mentioned the measurement called "hip differ- 
ence," which was the width of the hips over the trochanters, taken 
without pressure (just touching the skin with the calipers), minus 
the width of the hijjs at the crests of the ilia (with pressure), cor- 
rected for fat. This measurement is not recommended for general 
use, and is suggested for use only with some i)ost pubescent females, 
never with prepubescent females or with males of any age. In 
some few cases, however, the fat pads on the two sides of the hips 
and thighs (See Appraising Physical Statiis: The Selection of 
Measuremenis (40), p. 70) grow to a very lai'ge size in these post- 
pubescent females, causing the individual to become much more 
overweight than general inspection or the amount of the total torso 
fat would seem to justify. In such cases, this measurement ma.y be 
used. The norms for the significant ages, together with the minima 
are found in Table 1-10 (Appendix). 



Chapter VI 

THE MEASUREMENT OF LIMB GIRTHS: STANDARDS 

AND NORMS 

In Chapter V of Appraising Physical Status : The Selection of 
Measurements (40) it was sliowii that while the measurements of the 
circumference of the limbs are not apparently highly correlated 
with muscular strength, such measurements are highly correlated 
with the physical and nutritional status. Studies by Faust (20) 
and Cox (14), however, w^ould indicate that the relatively low re- 
lationships between limb girth and total strength found in other 
studies are probably due more to defective techniques and low re- 
liabilities in testing strength than to lack of relationship of strength 
with the size of the limb. Further evidence bearing on this problem 
is given by a study of grip strength as related to forearm circum- 
ference. This study was made on two groups, fifteen-year-old boys 
and eleven-year-old girls, and the correlation between grip strength 
of left hand and circumference of left arm was found to be .634 for 
the boys but only .289 for the girls. (Before considering these re- 
sults, attention should be called to the fact that the muscles involved 
in grip strength constitute less than half of the muscular cross sec- 
tion of the forearm. The other muscles are concerned with the exten- 
sion of the hand and fingers and with the movements of the wrist 
and forearm. It is probable that these other muscles correlate quite 
highly with the muscles used in gripping, but this correlation may 
be far from perfect.) This study, as far as the boys are concerned, 
partially confirms the studies by Faust and Cox. The girls, how- 
ever, show either an inability to exert a maximum effort in a 
strength test, or a wide difference in the proportion of muscular 
tissue to other tissue in the forearm as was found in the studies cited 
in Chapter VI of Appraisiyig Physical Status: The Selection of 
Measurements. 

It was further shown in the previous publication that the best 
and most practical variables for the prediction of normal upper 
arm and forearm girths were chest girth, uncorrected for fat, and 
elbow width, and for thigh and calf circumference, chest girth and 
knee width. Because of occasionally overdeveloped fat pads in the 



METHODS AND NORMS 55 

postpubescent female, overdevelopment of the tliigh at those ages 
is of little significance in tliis sex. Underdevelopment, however, is 
of just as much significance as in other ages and in males. Those 
individuals whose thigh girths are greatly affected by the thigh and 
hip fat comprise but a few in a hundred and those few can be read- 
ily recognized. The same is true, though to a lesser extent, of upper 
arm girths in the obese. 

INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENTS 

In interpreting the significance of developments in limb girths 
from the norms, the standard deviations of the per cents of over or 
under the normal will be of assistance. Several samples have been 
computed for both males and females. The standard deviations of 
the different groups vary little from group to group. The average 
standard deviations of the percentage deviations for each sex are 
as follows: 



Measurment Males 


Females 


Upper arm 


5.2 


4.8 


Forearm 


3.7 


3.4 


Thigh 


4.1 


4.1 


Calf 


4.6 


4.4 


Average of all 






four per ceuts 


3.0 


3.1 



If we adopt the quartile below the mean as Die normal limit of 
variability, this would be approximately two-thirds of a standard 
deviation, and would equal about 2 per cent for the average of all 
limb girths and about 3 per cent for the individual limb girths. 

It may be thought that this is much less than the normal weight 
variation, 1)ut since tlie circumference deviation of the limb cor- 
responds to the square root of the cross-section deviation of the 
muscles, a deviation of 2 per cent in girth corresponds to a eliange 
of about 4 per cent in cross section— approximately the same as the 
quartile deviation of under- and overweight. 

We have suggested only a lower limit for the limb girth standards, 
as it is felt that there is little danger of overdevelopment of liiuh 
muscles. Hence, an upper limit is not needed, as would be the ease 
with weight and fat. It is therefore suggested Ihat —2 per (rnt be 
considered as the normal lower limit of average limb girth vanabd- 
ity, and —3 ])ei- c'lil (one stand;ii<l dcviatidii) as tlu' limit lu-low 
which attention should sinvly be given. This l)oconu>s :{ i^m- .•.nt 
and 4 1/2 per cent for the individual girths. 



56 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



REGRESSION FORMULAE FOR PREDICTING LIMB GIRTHS 

Formulae have been computed for predicting limb girtlis for ages 
from four to eighteen, using in each case chest girth and width of 
elbow for predicting normal girths of upper arm and of forearm, 
and chest girth and width of knee for predicting normal girths of 
thigh and calf. 

As was shown in Chapter VI of Apirraising Physical St((lus: 
The Selection of Measurements these variables were usually the 
''best" for such prediction. Where there were others wliosc cor- 
relations were higher, the differences were very slight, and shicc the 
differences in the multiple correlations were negligible (usually not 
more than .01), it seems advisable to use the same measurements 
throughout rather than to change from age to age, and thus avoid 
the administrative confusion that w'ould accompany changing vari- 
ables from age to age. These formulae are given in the following 
tabulation, together with the multiple correlation with the actual 
girths. (Chest cir. = chest circumference). Tables for the rapid 
computation of these standards are given in Appendix (Tables 82 
to 139). 



Age, 
Years 










Equation 
Males 






Multiple 
Correla- 
tion 




Upper arm 


= 


.2907 


Chest 


Cir.* 


+ 1.8782 


Elbow 


+ 2.75 


.6122 




Forearm 


z= 


.0988 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.8745 


Elbow 


+ 2.58 


.7783 


4 


Thigh 


= 


.3423 


Chest 


Cir. 


+2.1437 


Knee 


- 1.61 


.7009 




Calf 


= 


.1480 


Chest Cir. 


+ 1.8036 


Knee 


+ .97 


.6346 




Upper arm 


== 


.2056 


Chest Cir. 


+ 2.2433 


Elbow 


- 5.35 


.6959 




Forearm 


= 


.1444 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.9487 


Elbow 


- .24 


.7702 


5 


Thigh 


= 


.3715 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 3.3645 


Knee 


-12.19 


.7706 




Calf 


= 


.2611 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.4904 


Knee 


- 2.60 


.7572 




Upper arm 


:zr 


.3890 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.3297 


Elbow 


-11.22 


.7612 




Forearm 


= 


.2582 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.4657 


Elbow 


- 4.32 


.8338 


6 


Thigh 


z= 


.7062 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.8968 


Knee 


-19.82 


.7754 




Calf 


= 


.4023 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.3576 


Knee 


- 9.34 


.8129 




Upper arm 


= 


.2959 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.7270 


Elbow 


- 8.37 


.7408 




Forearm 


:=^ 


.2018 


Cliest 


Cir. 


+ 1.4395 


Elbow 


- 1.06 


.8263 


7 


Thigh 


^12 


.5804 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.1808 


Knee 


-14.91 


.7627 




Calf 


= 


.2625 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.6951 


Knee 


- 3.72 


.7382 




Upper arm 


3= 


.3500 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.5283 


Elbow 


-10.91 


.7802 




Forearm 


z= 


.2335 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.4945 


Elbow 


- 3.30 


.8619 


8 


Thigh 


= 


.7926 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.7416 


Knee 


-24,17 


.7569 




Calf 


= 


.4163 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.0000 


Knee 


- 7.37 


.7689 



METHODS AND NORMS 



57 



Age, 


















Multiple 


O 7 

Years 


) 








Equation 






Correla- 




















tion 












Males 










Upper arm 


— 


.2907 


Che.st 


Cir.* 


+ 1.6802 


Elbow 


- 8.10 


.7965 


9 


Forearm 


— 


.1671 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.5035 


Elbow- 


+ .71 


.7881 


Thigh 


r= 


.6520 


Cliest 


Cir. 


+ 1.9696 


Knee 


-17.17 


.8019 




Calf 


z= 


.2525 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.3821 


Knee 


- .13 


.7169 




Upper arm 


= 


.3315 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.6123 


Elbow 


-10.37 


.8111 


10 


Forearm 


— 


.2274 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.4654 


P^lbow 


- 2.78 


.8329 


Thigh 


= 


.7564 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.4088 


Knee 


-19.08 


.8497 




Calf 


— 


.3438 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.5640 


Ivnee 


- 7.46 


.8418 




Upper arm 


= 


.2598 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.5865 


Elbow 


- 5.73 


.7237 


11 


Forearm 


= 


.1865 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.7485 


Elbow 


- 1.79 


.7985 


Thigh 


rz: 


.5415 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.3734 


Knee 


-13.75 


.7849 




Calf 


— 


.2757 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.8741 


Knee 


- 5.94 


.7686 




Upper arm 


— 


.2572 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.4467 


Elbow 


- 5.32 


.8218 


12 


Forearm 


= 


.1971 


Cliest 


Cir. 


+ 1.2559 


Elbow 


+ .22 


.8357 


Thigh 


r= 


.4613 


Chest Cir. 


+ 2.1099 


Knee 


- 6.60 


.8269 




Calf 


= 


.2351 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.0260 


Knee 


- 4.67 


.8353 




Upper arm 


= 


.2872 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.1496 


El 1)0 w 


- 5.74 


.8584 




Forearm 


=: 


.2382 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ .7317 


Elbow 


+ .56 


.9001 


13 


Thigh 


zir 


.4891 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.4994 


Knee 


-12.29 


.8916 




Calf 


= 


.2830 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.5980 


Knee 


- 3.84 


.8776 




Upper arm 


=. 


.3168 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ .6584 


Elbow 


- 5.03 


.8.346 




Forearm 


= 


.2077 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.4847 


Elbow 


- 1.82 


.8821 


14 


Thigh 


= 


.4838 


Cliest 


Cir. 


+ 2.0442 


Knee 


- 7.69 


.8471 




Calf 


= 


.2836 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.7544 


Knee 


- 5.23 


.8598 




Upper arm 


= 


.2962 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.0698 


EIl)ow 


- 6.19 


.8476 




Foieaiin 


= 


.1761 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.75S7 


l^bow 


- 1.08 


.8853 


15 


Thigh 


= 


.4659 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.5999 


Knee 


-11.92 


.8534 




Calf 


= 


.1657 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.3674 


Knee 


- 1.98 


.8349 




Upper arm 


= 


.2660 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.11.52 


Elbow 


- 4.24 


.7637 




Forearm 


= 


.1843 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.8716 


Elbow 


- 2.34 


.8226 


16 


Thigh 


= 


.4774 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.1905 


Knee 


- 9.24 


.S0(i3 




Calf 


= 


.1951 


Ciiest 


Cir. 


+ 1.7872 


Knee 


+ i.;t6 


.7169 




Upper arm 


r= 


.2424 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.7731 


Elbow 


- 6.24 


.8305 




Forearm 


= 


.1631 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.800i» 


llibow 


- .14 


.8430 


17 


Thigh 


=z 


.4062 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.7402 


Knee 


" S.()9 


.S6.S6 




Calf 


= 


.1379 


Che.st 


Cir. 


+ 2.3222 


Knee 


-1 1.10 


.72(55 




Upper arm 


zz 


.2987 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ .4090 


KIbow 


1.71 


.7527 


Colk'KC 


! Forearm 


= 


.1723 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ .7433 


Elbow 


+ 5.39 


.7290 


Men 


Thigh 


=z 


.5646 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.1231 


ICne(i 


- 5.59 


.7518 




Calf 


= 


.2355 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ .7563 


Kuco 


+ 8.1 s 


.0113 



58 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



Age, 
Years 










Equation 
Females 








Multiple 
Correla- 
tion 




Upper arm 


— 


.2664 


Chest 


Cir.* 


+ .7509 


Elbow 


— 


.74 


.7557 


4 


Forearm 


= 


.2594 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.0700 


Elbow 


— 


1.80 


.8559 


Thigh 


= 


.6525 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.2937 


Knee 


— 


9.86 


.8374 




Calf 


= 


.4164 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ .6980 


Knee 


— 


4.30 


.7282 




Upper arm 


= 


.2747 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.5644 


Elbow 


— 


4.94 


.8122 


5 


Forearm 


= 


.1786 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.3974 


Elbow 


+ 


.82 


.8204 


Thigh 


= 


.6042 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.5007 


Knee 


— 


8.73 


.8154 




Calf 


— 


.3320 


Cliest 


Cir, 


+ 1.2526 


Knee 


— 


8.54 


.8330 




Upper arm 


z= 


.2498 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.5115 


Elbow 


— 


3.64 


.7782 


6 


Forearm 


= 


.1739 


Chest Cir. 


+ 1.3956 


Elbow 


+ 


.91 


.8313 


Thigh 


3= 


.6064 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ .8933 


Knee 


— 


4.31 


.7762 




Calf 


— 


.3176 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.1673 


Knee 


— 


2.02 


.8608 




Upper arm 


= 


.3768 


Cliest 


Cir. 


+ 1.0637 


Elbow 


— 


8.65 


.8412 


7 


Forearm 


= 


.1906 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.5256 


Elbow 


— 


.67 


.8435 


Thigh 


z= 


.6360 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.9387 


Knee 


— : 


13.36 


.8081 




Calf 


= 


.3912 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.2591 


Knee 


— 


6.87 


.8558 




Upper arm 




.2604 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.8338 


Elbow 


— 


5.83 


.8045 


8 


Forearm 


r= 


.1397 


Chest 


Cir. 


+2.0212 


Elbow 


— 


.28 


.8558 


Thigh 


= 


.6425 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.1831 


Knee 


— 


15.48 


.8610 




Calf 


— 


.3220 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.2772 


Knee 


— 


2.86 


.8264 




Upper arm 


= 


.4517 


aiest 


Cir. 


+ .7654 


Elbow 


— 


11.97 


.8452 


9 


Forearm 


=: 


.2314 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.1510 


Elbow 


— 


1.42 


.8341 


Thigh 


= 


.7113 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.8910 


Knee 


— 


17.84 


.8274 




Calf 


= 


.4087 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.1133 


Knee 


— 


6.78 


.7199 




Upper arm 


' 


.4207 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ .4133 


Elbow 


— 


8.11 


.7735 


10 


Forearm 


=: 


.2421 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.1107 


Elbow 


— 


1.82 


.8219 


Thigh 


= 


.6078 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.0237 


Knee 


— 


11.98 


.7958 




Calf 


— 


.3149 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.5442 


Knee 


— 


4.49 


.7834 




Upper arm 


= 


.2656 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ .8814 


Elbow 


— 


1.20 


.7145 


11 


Forearm 


r= 


.1319 


Cliest 


Cir. 


+ 1.7325 


Elbow 


+ 


1.72 


.8190 


Thigh 


= 


.5198 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.1606 


Knee 


— 


7.64 


.8303 




Calf 


z= 


.2240 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.7214 


Knee 


— 


.09 


.8147 




Upper arm 


= 


.2884 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.2214 


Elbow 


— 


4.56 


.7698 


12 


Forearm 


= 


.1673 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 1.4017 


Elbow 


+ 


1.44 


.8453 


Thigh 


zzz 


.5254 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.4632 


Knee 


— 


9.87 


.8304 




Calf 


— 


.2354 


Cliest 


Cir. 


+ 1.8946 


Knee 


— 


2.07 


.8228 




Upper arm 




.2317 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.2451 


Elbow 


— 


6.70 


.7924 


13 


Forearm 


= 


.0997 


Chest 


Cir. 


+2.0501 


Elbow 


+ 


2.34 


.8294 


Thigh 


::= 


.3357 


Cliest 


Cir. 


+3.7625 


Knee 


— 


7.97 


.7801 




Calf 


= 


.1687 


Chest 


Cir. 


+ 2.2830 


Knee 


— 


.73 


.7986 



METHODS AND NORMS 



59 



Age, 
Years 



U 



15 



16 



17 



Upper arm 
Forearm 
Thigli 
Calf 

Upper arm 
Forearm 
Thigh 
Calf 

Upper arm 
Forearm 
Thigh 
Calf 

Upper arm 
Foi'earm 
Thigh 
Calf 



Equation 

Females 

.2396 Chest Cir.* +2.3388 Elbow - 7.59 

.0997 Chest Cir. +2.1718 Elbow + 1.92 

.4007 Chest Cir. +3.2402 Knee - 6.84 

.1887 Chest Cir. +1.3757 Knee + 6.31 



.2241 Chest Cir. 

.1010 Chest Cir. 

.3167 Cliest Cir. 

.1315 Chest Cir. 

.2112 Chest Cir. 

.0895 Chest Cir. 

.4012 Chest Cir. 

.1520 Cliest Cir. 

.1794 Chest Cir. 

.0676 Chest Cir. 

.3538 Chest Cir. 

.1337 Chest Cir. 



Upper arm = .2582 Cliest Cir. 

College Forearm =.1400 Chest Cir. 

Women Tliigh = .4847 Cliest Cir. 

Calf = .1523 Chest Cir. 



+ 1.6513 Elbow - 1.99 

+ 1.9357 Elbow + 3.50 

+ 3.7123 Knee - 4.64 

+ 2.1371 Knee + 3.85 

+ 1.4861 Elbow - .20 

+ 1.9128 Elbow + 4.29 

+3.6608 Knee -10.27 

+ 1.8660 Knee + 4.90 

+ .7021 Elbow + 7.15 

+ 1.6334 Elbow + 7.90 

+ 3.0251 Knee + .17 

+ 1.4852 Knee + 9.69 

+ 1.1653 Elbow - 2.68 

+ 1.2671 Elbow + 4.45 

+2.6672 Knee - 6.15 

+ 1.7080 Knee + 6.25 



Multiple 
Correla- 
tion 

.8331 

.8008 
.8186 
.7347 

.7137 
.6915 
.7664 
.7296 

.6534 
.6869 
.7839 
.7429 

.5447 
.4661 
.7302 
.6317 

.7686 
.7834 
.7892 
.6961 



* Not corrected for fat. 



Chapter VII 

TESTS OF STEENGTH AS MEASUREMENTS OF 
PHYSICAL STATUS 

Anthropometric measurements alone cannot distinguish clearly 
between structure and function. Two individuals may be of approx- 
imately the same external size and proportions, one being somewhat 
fatter than the other but less well developed muscularly, while the 
other has a much better muscular development but less overlying 
fat. This latter individual will in general function better, will be 
less fatigued by the day's work, and will have, other things being 
equal, a better development of heart and other internal organs (39). 
The anthropometric methods of measuring structure are not apt 
at distinguishing between such individuals, and other methods must 
be used. Among the measures suggested, tests of strength seem to 
meet the need better than any other type of tests. 

Since muscle tissues constitute approximately 40 per cent of the 
body weight of the normally developed person, the functioning of 
this muscular tissue is of major importance for the health and ef- 
fective use of the total organism. The evidence for such a state- 
ment is partly philosophical and partly experimental. 

The philosophical evidence is well summed by Tyler (G4). In 
the first place, the organic evolution of the body was an accompani- 
ment of the increasing demands of an improving muscular system. 
When, for example, the form of animal life advanced from that of 
the worm (who had what corresponds to our trunk and neck muscles 
only) to that of the fishes, the increased demand for fuel and oxygen 
and for a means of eliminating wastes resulted in the organism de- 
veloping much improved systems of organs of digestion and assimi- 
lation, of respiration, of elimination, and of circulation. The same 
thing is seen in the further advances of the muscular system through 
the higher stages. When this situation was further complicated with 
the development of the special senses, the increased motor possibil- 
ities resulted in the further development of the brain and other 
parts of the central nervous system. With the development of the 
hand in the ape-like prehuman antecedents, the higher powers of 
the brain progressed much further. 



METHODS AND NORMS 61 

It is held by numerous biological students of the evolution of 
man that the various visceral sj^stems retain their phylogenetic 
relation to the demands of the muscular system, and, as a result, 
the normal maturation of those systems in the growing child is large- 
ly dependent upon the stimulus to growth and development of the 
muscular system tlirough appropriate exercise and activity. 

This relationship is easiest seen in the case of the heart. This 
organ, which is in itself a muscular organ, is dependent for its de- 
velopment upon the stimulus to further activity that is received 
from the active exercise of the other parts of the skeletal muscular 
system. Those leading sedentary lives have relativelj^ flabby hearts, 
while those that lead museularly active lives have hearts that are 
developed proportionately, hearts that are attuned to emergency 
demands as well as to normal day-by-day activities. The argument 
with regard to the other viscera is elaborated bv Tvler and will not 
be pursued further here. 

The experimental evidence is as yet scanty, but consistent in so 
far as it is available. In 1931, Chamberlain and Smiley (12) at 
Cornell Universitj" co-operated in the study of a group of male col- 
lege students. Medically they divided these students into three 
groups as "superior," "average," and "handicapped," and then 
tested them for strength. The strength was interpreted in terms of 
a physical fitness index, which is 100 times the actual strength 
divided by the normal strength for the individual, in wliich devia- 
tions from 100 represent percentage deviations from the norm for 
the age, sex, and weight of the individual. The triserial correlation 
with the medical findings (present author's computations) was .64. 

In 1935, Hernlund (26) published a study in which a number of 
Young Men's Christian Association secretaries were examined med- 
ically and also tested for strength. In this case, tlie medical ex- 
amination was scored in semiobjective units whicli to a certain de- 
gree lessened the subjectivity of the usual medical examination. 
The correlations with the strength tests, again given in the form of 
a physical fitness index, differed somewhat with the ages of the sul)- 
jects. Th(> results are given below. 

Age, 

Years 

18 to 29 

30 to nn 

40 to 53 
It is obvious upon examination of the scaHii-iiiiiis (.f thes(^ cnrrela- 



(Subjects 


CorrelatJon 


44 


.529 


43 


.372 


22 


.Sll 



62 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

tions that the chance variations of small samples played quite a part 
in the size of the correlations. The combination of sedentary secre- 
taries with muscularly active physical directors also lowered the 
correlations. To reduce the effects of the small number of cases, the 
correlation of the whole group was computed, with the medical 
scores and indices as of deviations from the means of their respective 
age groups rather than from the means of all groups combined. 
The correlation coefficient obtained was .592. 

It is suggestive that the oldest group shows the highest correla- 
tion between strength and medical ratings. The "true" correla- 
tions between health scores and the physical fitness index are prob- 
ably slightly higher than those given, for, while the reliabilities of 
strength tests for men run about .96 on the average (52, 13, 23), the 
reliability of medical appraisements is much lower. Franzen (23) 
found the correlations between two physicians ran from as low as 
.18 to as high as .82, with an average of .60. If we assume a relia- 
bility of as high as .70 for the medical score and .96 for the strength 
tests, and a correlation of .6 between the medical score and the 
physical fitness index, that correlation, corrected for attenuation, 
would be raised to .74. 

Similar data are lacking for girls and women. Hence, precise 
infoiTnation is not available as to the correlation between the phys- 
ical fitness index and physical condition. In one study the correla- 
tion between the physical fitness index and a subjective rating of 
the girl 's feelings^ was computed. It must be realized that glandu- 
lar diatheses, environmental stimuli, and many other elements would 
affect such ratings. This correlation was .31. Since the reliability 
of the strength measurements was only .77, it is improbable that 
the "true" correlation was much higher than .40. If these ratings 
were supplemented by medical examinations, as in the case of the 
Hernlund (26) and the Chamberlain and Smiley (12) studies, it is 
probable that the correlations would not differ markedly from those 
of the men. Similar studies have not as yet been done on children. 

From the standpoint of efficient functioning of the organism, 
muscle strength is of greater importance than these correlations 
cited would indicate. Each individual is required to carry or sup- 
port his bodily weight from morning to night. He must do this 



1 In Anderson's study (2) the girls rated themselves as to how they felt 
most of the time, using for the purpose a prepared semiobjective rating scale. 
Only the records of girls whose own judgments agreed closely with those of the 
instructor were used in the study. 



METHODS AND NORMS 63 

with the musculature he has. It is known that a muscle that is too 
weak for its task works at a lower efficiencj^ than does one that is 
adequately developed (28). Hence, an individual wlio is marked- 
ly underdeveloped is working inefficiently, so far as liis muscles are 
concerned, and is suffering greater fatigue, both locally and general- 
ly. He has less energy with which to approach his tasks, suffers 
more from fatigue toxemia, and works under a greater nervous 
strain. Hence, in addition to its indications as to general "med- 
ical" condition, the strength tests in the form of the physical fit- 
ness index tell much about the individual's general fitness for liv- 
ing and working. 

TESTS AND NORMS 

The most used test of strength is the simple one of strength of 
the grip of the right and left hands. This correlates about .70 with 
the strength of the whole body. AVhile this correlation is not high, 
grip strength is frequently used because it is convenient to admin- 
ister. The only apparatus needed is a grip dynamometer. 

When more time, equipment, and ambition are available, the 
more extensive test is advised. The Rogers test or the author's 
modification of it is suggested for this purpose. These two tests 
are very similar. In the Rogers test, records of the breathing capac- 
ity, strength of the right and left grips, back strength, and leg 
strength are added to a derived arm strength measure obtained 
from "chinning" or the pull-u}) on a bar or rings, and from "dip- 
ping," or the push-up on the parallel bars for boys, or on a bench 
for girls. The directions for this test and the standards are given 
in Frederick Rand Rogers (51), 

PHYSICAL CAPACITY TEST 

In the author's test, norms for which are given in tlie Appendix 
(Tables 142 and 148), certain modifications have l)ccn made, but 
the tests are essentially the same as tho.se used in tiie Rogers test. 
Breathing capacity has been omitted as not belonging in a balli-ry 
of strength tests, and the pull-ups and push-ups are scored in a dif- 
ferent manner (Tables 141, 140, 147). 

Equipment 

1. A grii) dynamometer: Two types of grip dynamometer are 
available. The one usually used is the si)iral si)ring tyi)e.^ This is 



1 This may Ix; purcliiuscd from tlio Narraguiisctt Machine Co., Providenco, 
Rhode Islaud, 



64 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

accurate, but not adjustable to size of hand. For ages of ten or over 
(the only ages for which there are adequate norms at present), this 
is not- of great importance, and may be an advantage because of the 
fact that the adjustable hand dynamometers are frequently not ad- 
justed properly. The other type is the Smedley grip dynamo- 
meter.^ This is more expensive, but can be adjusted to the size of 
hand of the individual. No norms are as yet available as to how 
best to adjust it. The metliod used at the Iowa Child Welfare Re- 
search Station is an arbitrary one, based upon a brief experiment 
with a very small number of cases. This dynamometer has within 
its handle a bar which can be screwed up or down to fit the grip. 
At this Station the practice is to rest the lower bar horizontally 
across the palm of the hand with the thumb held perpendicular to 
the palm itself. The bar is placed against the thumb. The top bar 
is then adjusted so that the top of it is opposite the opening between 
the index and middle fingers. 

2. Back and leg dynamometer: This instrument may be pur- 
chased from the Narragansett INIachine Company, Providence, 
Rhode Island, from the Medart Company, St. Louis, Missouri, or 
the George Tiemann Company, 107 East 28th Street, New York 
City. The instrument is expensive, costing from $80 to $100. It 
is important that these instruments be checked for accuracy when 
purchased. This may be done by hanging the instrument from its 
base and suspending known weights from the handle end. 

3. A bar for measuring chinning or pull-up : If the tests are 
to be given to both boys and girls, an adjustable bar is much to be 
preferred to the bar having only one height. Rogers proposes that 
a small pair of rings be hung on the bar for chinning. The author 
has experimented and finds that there is practically no difference 
in the number of times an individual can pull him or herself up 
whether using rings or grasping the bar directly with the under- 
grip (palms toward the face). The rings are convenient, but are 
an unnecessary luxury. 

4. Parallel bars : Either parallel bars or ''dipping bars" which 
are hung on the wall are necessary for the dip or push-up for boys. 
Adjustable parallel bars are much to be preferred, since the width 
may be adjusted to the size of the subject. 

5. A stall bar bench or stool : A standard stall bar bench or a 

1 This may be purchased from the C. H. Stoelting Co., 424 N. Homan Ave., 
Chicago, 111. 



METHODS AND NORMS 65 

stool 15 inelies high by 20 niches long and 12 inches wide is needed 
for dipping for girls. 

Methods of Testing Strength 

1. Grips: For grip strength a towel should be provided upon 
which to dry the hands. In warm weather a cake of magnesium 
carbonate should also be provided for the purpose of making the 
hands less slipper3^ 

One edge of the grip dynamometer is curved upward at the ends. 
This edge should be placed against the fingers and tlie more rounded 
edge against the base of the hand. The indicator should be towards 
the palm, as the fingers are apt to interfere w'ith the movement of 
the indicator if it is placed away from the palm. 

The outer edge of the dynamometer is i)laced between the fii-st 
and second joints of the fingers. The subject may assume any posi- 
tion he wishes with ann or body, so long as the hand or fingers arc 
not permitted to rest against the body or <mj other object. The 
record should be read at the nearest pound as shown on the dial. 

2. Back lift : For convenience in reading, it is well to have the 
back and leg dynamometer placed on a small elevated platform. 
The dynamometer should in no case be attached to the platform or 
to the floor. In preparing the back lift the subject should stand 
with the center of the foot opposite the chain. If the individual 
stands forward too far he will tip backward, and if he stands too 
far backward he will be enabled to exert a leverage by swayhig 
backward which will produce a spuriously large lift. Ho sliouhl 
stand at attention with the hands on thc^ front of the thighs. The 
tester should then hook the handle into the chain so that the top of 
the bar is just below the tips of the fingers. The individual then 
bends forward at the hips and grasps the bar at the ends with one 
palm forward and one |)ahn ])ackward. The hands should hv dried 
and dusted with chalk and partially wrai)ped around the bar, so a.s 
to gain as much aid from the friction of the skin of tlic hands as 
possible. After having exerted a maximum lil'l, the siihject releases 
the back tension rather slowly. The tester tiieii reads and records 
the record of tlie lift. It is sehlom necessary to give more than one 
trial, a,s tlic fii'st trial is usually l)ctt<'i- than sul>s('(|n<'nt trials. 

3. TiCg lilt : The position ol' tiu' reel is the same as in the hack 
lift. The chain is adju.sted so that the bar is placed across the 
thighs in the angle formed by the thigh and the lianik. The angle 
between leg and tlii-li-' at the beginning of the lift should he some- 



66 APPEAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

what greater than a right angle, usually about 120 degrees. The 
hands should be close together and wrapped securely around the 
bar with palms backward. Elbows must be straight. The subject 
then raises head and chest and pulls as hard as possible with legs 
and arms. 

Kogers has suggested that the tester aid the subject in holding the 
crossbar against the thighs by grasping the ends of the bar with his 
thumbs and the subject's thighs with the forefingers of each hand. 
With inexperienced subjects this aids materially in promoting the 
accuracy of the test. 

It has been found best usually to rest the bar on the bare skin or 
upon a pad of relatively soft cloth. When it is realized that an 
adult male will frequently lift as much as eight hundred pounds 
with his legs, so that a pressure of four hundred pounds rests on 
each thigh, it can be seen that a slight slipping of the bar which 
draws coarse cloth, such as khaki trousers, over the skin may 
tear the surface of the skin away. This is not usually experienced 
with children but is worth keeping in mind. 

No back or leg lift should be administered to any subject known 
to have hernia or to have been operated upon recently. The same 
is true of subjects who have serious heart defects. 

4. Dipping or push-ups (Boys) : The subject stands at the 
ends of the parallel bars, grasping the bars one in each hand. He 
jumps to the cross rest with arms straight (this counts one). He 
then lowers his body until the angle of upper arm and forearm is 
less than ninety degrees, and then pushes up to the straight arm 
position. He repeats this movement as many times as possible. In 
the executing of this movement, the body and legs of the subject 
should be approximately in a straight line, and under no circimi- 
stances should a jerk or kick be permitted. The subject is, however, 
permitted to do the exercise as rapidly as he wishes. 

If the subject does not go down far enough or does not go all the 
way up to a straight arm position, a half credit is given. After 
four successive half counts, the exercise is stopped and the subject 
retested later. 

5. Churning or pull-up (Boys) : At least five minutes should 
elapse between the dipping and the chinning. Use either a hori- 
zontal bar or a pair of small rings attached to a horizontal bar. 
The subject hangs by the bar or the rings and chins himself or 
pulls up until the chin is even with the hands or over the bar. He 



METHODS AND NORMS 67 

then lov/ers himself until his arms are completely straight. Under 
no circumstances should he be permitted to kick, jerk, or to have a 
kip motion. Any such maneuver or failure to go clear down or 
clear up should count as a half movement. After four consecutive 
half movements the exercise is stopped and the subject retested 
later. The subject is peimitted to chin himself as rapidly as he 
desires. The stronger boys usually prefer to chin and dip rather 
rapidly. 

In both chinning and dipping, counting should be out loud, and 
the subject should be encouraged both before beginning the exercise 
and during the exercise to continue as long as possible. 

6. Dipping or push-up (Girls) : The girl places her hands upon 
the near edge of the stall bar bench in such a position that when she 
is in the front leaning rest position her shoulders will be directly 
above her hands. It is usually wise to have someone place a foot 
crosswise behind the balls of the subject's feet so that she will not 
slide backward on the mat. The subject then bends her elbows and 
with straight body lowers herself until the upper part of her chest 
touches the edge of the stall bar bench. She then pushes herself 
back to the straight arm position. In no case should she be per- 
mitted to raise and lower the hips out of line with the shoulders 
and feet. If the body sways or arches, or if she does not go clear 
down or does not push clear up, count only as one-half exercise. 

7. Chinning or pull-up (Girls) : The bar (or rings attached to 
the bar if these are used) should be at the height of the bottom of 
the sternum. To facilitate the administration and avoid undue ad- 
justment of the bar, it is wise to line the class up according to 
height, beginning with the tallest. Particularly in the middle range 
of heights, the adjustment of the bar will then not be too frccpuMit. 

The subject should grasp the bar with palms upward or grasp 
the rings in such a ])ositi()n that, as she slides her feet under the 
bar with straight body, arms and body form approximately a right 
angle ; and when she pushes uj), the bar should come about an inch 
below the upper end of tlie sternum. Tlie weight sliould rest ui)on 
her heels, and it is well to have some one place a foot sidewise un- 
der the insteps so that the feet will not slide on the mat. The girl 
should then pull up with straight body as many times as possible. 
If she sags or raises the hips during the performance, the "chin" 
should count as only half a niovcmcnl. The same statements as to 
counting and motivation as given under the (Icsciipt ion of Ihc boys' 
chinnint!: will a|lhl^■ 1o Ihe girls as well. 



68 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

Norms for Strength 

A number of variables have been suggested for determining the 
normal strength of the individual. The consensus of these studies 
has indicated that height is not important, but that sex, age, and 
weight are. For individuals of approximately normal weight, these 
measurements seem to be sufficient for all practical purposes. For 
the overweight and the underweight, however, some adjustments 
are in order. 

The underweight individual will record a greater strength on 
the dynamometer, because of having to lift less body weight (in- 
creasing the numerator of the index) and will have a spuriously low 
norm (decreasing the denominator). Hence his index will be 
spuriously high. To correct for this, if the individual's normal 
weight and his actual weight are both available, svMract the dif(^er- 
ence from his actual strength total, and use his normal weight for 
obtaining the norm. This is highly accurate. 

For the overweight person, however, the problem is not quite as 
simple. Overweight cuts down the amount lifted in the leg lift far 
more than just the amount of extra body weight to be lifted. At 
present, however, the amount that the actual strength index is re- 
duced by overweight due to fat is not accurately known. The re- 
duction is all in the back and leg lifts, and mostly in the latter. 
The overweight is automatically cared for in the chinning and dip- 
ping and does not affect the grips. At present, the most i)ractieal 
rule is: if the normal weight is known, add one and one-fourth 
times the diifercnce between the actual and normal weights to the 
Strength Index and use the normal weight as the standard for de- 
termining the strength norm. This is an accurate index of his 
musculature. Overweight, however, reduces his phj^sical efficiency, 
and is a problem in itself. 

As was stated above, the individual's index or physical fitness 
index is given as the per cent his actual strength is of normal 
strengtli, based on sex, age, and weight. Since the norms given in 
this volume are based upon the records from a school system that 
may be looked upon as superior for this country, at least so far as 
adequacy of muscular development is concerned, it is suggested 
that the following divisions be made arbitrarily. (The standard 
deviation of the Physical Fitness Index for all groups studied 
(boys) was slightly over 12.) 

PFI under 85; definitely subnormal; should be considered as 



METHODS AND NORMS 69 

handicapped for motor performance and physically apt to be in 
poor health. Should have a careful medical examination, even if 
the routine examination by the school phj-sician has been negative. 

PFI from 85 to 94: Low: Should be given a medical ex- 
amination, but may be assigned to normal groups for physical 
activities. Will be however, somewhat handicapped for motor 
performance. 

PFI from 95 to 104: Normal. 

PFI from 105 to 114: Good — better than average. 

PFI from 115 and over: Superior. Should be able to under- 
take any motor tasks pertinent to that age group. 

From the standpoint of "probable health efficiency," anyone 
with a PFI below 90 should be suspected, and every effort should 
be made in the schools to bring all children up to at least the 
normal zone. 

While it is advisable to use the whole battery of tests (grips, back 
lift, leg lift, pull-ups, and push-ups) to determine the Strength In- 
dex and, subsequently, the Physical Fitness Index, this will not be 
possible in some communities because of the cost of the apparatus. 
The next best thing is to use the so-called ' ' short-f oiTn, " which is 
composed of the sum of the strength of the two grips, the pull-up 
and the push-up strength. This is not as valid as the total Strength 
Index, but it is better than any one part of it alone. Norms for the 
"short fonn" are also included in the Appendix (Table 144). 

Wherever this is not possible, the next best thing is to use the 
pull-up strength alone (for boys). A sort of "pull-up PFI" may 
be computed from this. Norms for this for boys are given in the 
Appendix (Table 145). The correlation of pull-up strength witli 
total strength is high for boys, averaging about .92. For girls, 
however, this is not true; hence the substitution of piill-iip sti'cnglh 
(for girls) for the total strength index is not justified. For girls, 
the grip strength may be used, tliough this is I'ar fi'om satisfactory. 



Chapter VIII 

PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIANTS OF TYPE 

In Chapter II the problem of body types was discussed and 
methods suggested for measuring and "typing" them. The treat- 
ment of the subject in that chapter, however, was general, and based 
solely upon statistical findings. The standards there suggested are 
primarily for the purpose of classification and for the statistical 
treatment of data. 

There is another aspect of variation from the normal or average 
person for each sex which is not subject as yet to accurate and ob- 
jective anthropometric measurement, but which complicates the 
problem of measuring and estimating physical status. This kind of 
variation may be called, for want of a better term, "physiological 
variants of type." We have chosen to discuss this subject after 
the treatment of measures of physical status rather than with gen- 
eral body types both because of a desire to gain perspective and 
because of the fact that the relationships to the measures of physical 
status are greater than the relationship to the general measurement 
of type. 

Everyone who has measured several hundred different individuals 
has been struck with the fact that there are many deviations from 
the average in other than relative stockiness or general body build. 
Some males seem distinctly masculine. They have wide shoulders, 
large thorax, slender waist and hips, and slender legs. They have 
much face and body hair, deep voices, and possess other distinct 
marks of masculinity. Other males seem to be at the other extreme. 
They have relatively narrow shoulders, a slender thorax, wide hips, 
and calves whose major curve is on the outside. They have the 
female distribution of body hair, and may have high tenor voices. 
Females likewise exhibit body characteristics that range from the 
extremely feminine on the one hand to the extremely masculine on 
the other. 

Nor are these the only variants. The configurations of bones of 
the face and mandible vary greatly from the smooth delicate bones 
with nonprominent jaws to the heavy glabella, heavy face, and 
rugged mandible of the acromegalic. The bony skeleton shows 



METHODS AND NORMS 71 

similar changes. It may vary from the delicate, slender boned 
skeleton to that in which one sees a coarsening of many of the 
bones and a particularly noticeable heaviness of the hands and 
feet. The thorax changes in the acromegalics, usually becoming 
deeper with an accompanying increase in the forward curve of the 
upper back. This shape of the thorax has been compared to that 
of the gorilla. 

The relative proportions of the body also reveal vast differences, 
from the short-legged, long-trunked lateral to the relatively long- 
legged hyperlinear, frequently found among the high thyroid grou]). 
These phenomena present problems to the anthropometrist which 
complicate the matter of findings, and yet they frequently suggest 
opportunities for sendee. 

These differences of body build and variants of type seem, so far 
as the studies of today throw light on the problem, to be com- 
pounded of at least two elements. Davenport (16) seems to have 
proven that at least one important element is that of straight gene 
heredity. He believes that he has evidence that stature and body 
build in general are the results of at least tw^o or three, and in a 
few instances as many as four, determiners of heredity. There may 
be many more that influence physiological variation even more 
through indirect means by influencing the factovs discussed below, 
but little is as yet kno\m of these. In any case, the gene heredity 
cannot be changed after birth. 

The second element, according to the studies summarized and 
presented by Stockard (60), is that of variability in the glands of 
internal secretion. Whatever may be the causes, many of these 
glands are subject to a wide range of function, relative to the size 
and needs of the individual. Many of these differences of gland- 
ular function produce marked differences in the anatomical struc- 
ture, and result hi distinct ''type" differences in the individual. 
Careful ob.servation of these phenomena may lead to a suflicient 
understanding of the needs of the subject that he may be refei-rcd 
to his i)hysician for adequate treatment. 'IMic ;in1hr()ponielrist 
should be familiar with the effects that result tVi»m such ainKirmal 
deviates. 

The text below will discuss in lui-n each of the glands that is 
important from the standpoint of diflVrences in body l)uild, point- 
ing out the results of ghmduhii- over or under function only as 
they affect the body development. This oversiini)lined treatment of 



72 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

the subject has the advantage of clarifying the basic facts and pre- 
venting undue confusion. It has the disadvantage, however, of 
making it seem that the problem is much simpler than it really is. 

From the point of view of the anthropomctrist, enough is known 
of four of the glands of internal secretion, so far as their effect on 
growth and development is concerned, to justify this presentation 
here. These are the pituitary, the thyroid, the adrenal, and the 
sex glands or gonads. Some alleged facts will also be presented 
concerning the functioning of the thymus gland. These are very 
much interrelated so that marked changes in one frequently pro- 
duce marked changes in the function of others. These interrela- 
tionships, however, are not ahvays apparent. 

Other glands, such as the pineal, the parathyroids, and tlie islands 
of Langerhans, while of great importance physiologically, are not 
known to produce marked changes of body type. AVe shall discuss 
only those that do. 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

As in most structures and functions of the human body, there is 
a wide range of variation in these functions. AVhile such functions 
are hard to measure, where some of them can be measured indirect- 
ly, as through the basal metabolic rate, the variability is rougiily 
according to the binomial curve of chance. In general, the part 
of the range near the average of this distribution represents that 
which is probably biologically best for the individual. Quantitative 
deviations can be in the direction of hyperfunction of a gland or of 
hypofunction. How far an individual can depart from the neigh- 
borhood of the average and still be considered as "normal" may 
depend as much upon the compensation provided by other and re- 
lated glandular mechanisms as upon the abnormalities of one gland 
itself. In the description that follows immediately, the effect of 
hyper- and of hypofunction will be discussed for each gland alone, 
but primarily only as it affects the growth and structural develop- 
ment of the body. 

The Pituitary Gland 

The pituitary gland is located under tlie front part of the brain 
and is enclosed in a recess in the front of the cranial cavity, which 
is called the sella turcica. For purposes of this discussion the 
pituitary gland may be considered as being divided into two 
glands, the anterior or glandular lobe, and the posterior or nervous 



METHODS AND NORMS 73 

lobe, for the pars intermedia functions primarily with the posterior 
part. These two lobes function quite differently and constitute, in 
effect, two glands. 

ANTERIOR LOBE 

Hyperfunction of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland usually 
results in (1) accelerated growth of the long bones, producing an 
individual of taller than average stature, and with the greatest 
length in the legs and aiTns. Hyperfunction of the thyroid has 
much the same result. Hyperfunction of the anterior lobe of the 
pituitary, however, usually results in a more rugged development 
of the frontal bone, particularly of the glabella (the part of the 
frontal bone underlying the eyebrows), and of the mandible, and a 
greater development of the whole bony face as well. In borderline 
eases this is especiallj' noticeable in high cheekbones. The bones of 
the hands and feet in the high anterior pituitary are usually larger 
and more massive than in the average person, and this development 
of bones of the face, hands, and feet serves to differentiate to a 
large degree the long Ijone growth due to the anterior pituitary and 
that due to the thyroid and to the relatively late development of 
the gonads. The rest of the bony skeleton is also massively de- 
veloped, but is not as apparent to inspection without the aid of the 
X-ray. Such acceleration of growth due to the anterior pituitary 
is usually also accompanied by an early pubescence and a well- 
marked development of the genital system. This, of coui-se, also 
differentiates this condition of excessive long bone development 
from that caused by late pubescence. (See below.) 

Tumors of the anterior pituitary result in a vi'ry unusual de- 
velopment of the body in the ways suggested above, and the results 
differ at different age levels. If this occurs in youth before the 
fusion of the epipliyses, the long bones grow with great speed and 
the child grows to heights far beyond the normal, but witli the 
other marks of this condition einimerated above. This condition is 
usually termed (jigantism. Most of tlie sideshow "giants" ;nv from 

this group. 

If the condition develops in adult life after the fusion of the 
epiphyses, the growth in height is negligible, but there is a vigorous 
growth of diameters of the bones, especially well sc.'U in the bones 
of the hands and feet, and a further devclopmtiit of the ghibella, 
zygomatic bones, and maiidibk', and secondarily of othci- parts of 
the face, resulting in the condition ternu'd acromegaly. 



74 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

Moderate hypofunetion of this gland does not result in such read- 
ily discernible and identifiable results. The skeleton is much more 
delicate and grows less than is normal, especially in the long bones. 
In extreme cases there is definite dwarfism. In even moderate cases 
the bones of the face are underdeveloped, the chin is recessive, and 
the upper jaw has an over jet. The chest is usually fiat and narrow, 
the abdomen i)rotruding, and the umbilicus remains low, as in 
childhood. The skeletal proportions remain juvenile. 

In the adult, the build of the male is apt to be decidedly feminine 
and the beard imperfect and rudimentary. In the female, the 
breasts are usually undeveloped. In both sexes, sex maturation is 
late and the development of the sex equipment is deficient. 

POSTERIOR LOBE 

From the point of view of body configuration, the only significant 
changes produced by this gland are in the deposits of fat. If there 
is hyperf unction, there is a reduced metabolic tolerance for carbo- 
hydrates, and a resulting lack of fat deposits on the body. If there 
is a hypofunetion, there is an increased tolerance for carbohydrates, 
with a tendency to accumulate fat. Fat accumulated because of this 
condition tends to be deposited principally on the trunk, and the 
individual usually has arms and legs that are much freer from 
adipose tissue than would be expected from the amount deposited 
on the trunk. This is often termed "girdle fat." This under- 
functioning is usually accompanied by a typical "peaches and 
cream" complexion. One type of disorder which is associated with 
dysfunction of the pituitary and secondarily of the sex glands is a 
condition known as dystrophia adiposo genitalis. Those suffering 
from this disorder exhibit extreme fatness as is the case with a 
hyposecretion of the posterior lobe of the pituitary, and a rudi- 
mentary development of the genitals. Males suffering from this dis- 
order resemble fat females in build, having not only the fat pads of 
the female but the feminine configuration of the legs, and, not infre- 
quently, an accumulation of fat on the breasts which may become 
so large as to resemble the female breast. 

The functions of the anterior and of the posterior lobes of the 
pituitary gland are not necessarily highly related. There may be, 
for example, a hypersecretion of the anterior lobe and a hyposecre- 
tion of the posterior lobe. 



:\IETnODS AND NORMS 75 

rilK THYROID GLAND 

The thyroid gland is just above and beliiiul the top of the chest 
bone, extendinji' a little way up into the neck. The structural 
changes produced by the hyperf unction of this gland are seen in 
the acceleration of the linear type of growth and a relative diminu- 
tion in the lateral or cross-sectional type of growth. This is seen 
somewhat more in the growth of long bones than in the vertical 
growth of the spine. It produces a person who is relatively tall 
and slender (a linear type), who has slender hands and feet, and a 
facial bony develoi)ment that is not rugged, as is the case when ex- 
cessive growth in height is due to the stimulus of the anterior 
pituitarj'. The thyroid secretion may stimulate the function of the 
gonads and accelerate the onset of puberty, which checks the linear 
growth ill its later stages. If, because of an abnormal deficiency in 
the gonad develoi)ment, this early pubescence does not appear, the 
individual grows much more tall, slender, and long-limbed than 
would otherwise be the case. 

With the acceleration in the functioning of the thyroid, there is 
a general speeding up of the whole metabolic rate and an increase 
in the body temperature, and the teeth usually are more resistant to 
decay because of an accomj^anjung increase in the calcium metabol- 
ism. 

Successful experimentation has been done with llie feeding of 
thyroid to increase the height of very much undersized children 
(Zuck (09)). This must be done well before the development of 
l)ubescencc and will tend to change the build of the child from that 
of a lateral to that of a linear. Such treatment must, of course, be 
coiiducted by a competciit medical endocrinologist. 

lender- <ir hypdfunction of the thyroid must be coiisitlered ac- 
cording to the age at whit-li it occurs. In youth the result is the 
condition known as cretinism. The chiUl has a greatly (Icdciciit 
develo|)iii(ii1 of long boiics. and lonks, usually, like a little old ni.iii. 
The skill is diy, iiufly, and wrinkled; the face looks dull, and the 
basal iiictalx.lic rate is very low. The sex glands usually develop 
late and inadecpiately. The hair is diy, .stiff, and brittle, ami the 
nails are thin and brittle. The child is usually ixtt-bellied. has a 
thick t(jngue ami lips. ;!iid liislerless e>-es. The di-velopment of the 
bones oi" the face is iine\-eii, and tlie root t)f the nose is usually de- 
])ressed in what is generally termed a "saddle nose." The mental 
development is greatly retanled, and while if treated in time (by 



76 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

the proper feeding of glandular substances) the physical changes 
can be overcome, the damage to the mentality is usuallj^ permanent. 
This condition should, in every case, be looked for in infancy by the 
family physician, as the damages come relatively early. 

If the condition does not occur before adulthood, it is known as 
myxoedema. There are no marked changes in the proportions of 
the body due to this disorder; but the skin of the face becomes 
thick and puffy, the skin of the body generally becames slightly 
swollen and somewhat dry, and in the exposed parts is covered with 
fine wrinkles. The teeth of the hypothyroid tend, either in youth or 
adulthood, to increased decay, due to a reduced calcium metabolism. 
The person usually becomes fat, and this fat is generally evenly dis- 
tributed over limbs and trunk, contrasting with the girdle obesity 
of the hypoposterior pituitary. 

THE ADRENAL GLANDS 

The adrenal glands are found, sitting like cocked hats, on top of 
and to the front of the kidneys. They are divided into two parts, 
the cortex and the medulla. From the standpoint of influencing 
body type and development, only the cortex is of importance. Over- 
function of the adrenal cortex results in a thoroughly adequate sup- 
ply of physical energy, and a feeling of well-being. If the func- 
tioning is decidedly plus, the male tends to be extremely masculine 
in appearance. Unfortunately, the same is true in the female — she 
also appears decidedly masculine. She is very energetic, somewhat 
coarsely built, and usually has a masculine voice, much body hair, 
and frequently an excess of facial hair. In the extreme this is called 
virilism. In both sexes there is an accentuated development of the 
sex function. 

When there is a hypofunction of the cortex of these glands, the 
opposite is true. The individual lacks in development of the chest, 
the breathing capacity is relatively low, and the person is usually 
underdeveloped and thin, partly due to a decreased sugar tolerance. 
The basal metabolic rate may be as low as 65 per cent of normal. 
Functionally, there is a great susceptibility to fatigue. 

The adrenals are closely related to the pituitary, the thyroid, and 
the gonads, and the hypofunction of one may be, in some cases, com- 
pensated for by an increased functioning of one or more of the 
others. 



METHODS AND NORMS 77 

THE GONADS 

The gonads or sex glands are really made up of two organs in 
each sex. It is simply an evolutionaiy accident that they are in 
juxtaposition in one gland. In addition to the part of the gland 
that produces the sex cells (ova or spermatazoa) there is a set of 
cells known as the "interstitial cells of Leydig" which have no re- 
lationship to the reproductive function, but which are glands of 
internal secretion. 

Let us define sex, so far as this chapter is concerned, as "the sum 
of the peculiarities of structure and function that distinguish a 
male from a female organism." (Hoskins (27, p. 170)) We are, 
therefore, concerned here primarily with the bodily changes that 
occur in the body, brought about by the functioning or lack of 
functioning of those glands. 

The major differences of body structure between the sexes are 
common knowledge. The male has wider shoulders, a larger chest, 
larger breathing capacity, stronger arms, somewhat smaller hips, 
and less fat over the body, but especially over the hips and thighs. 
He has a deeper voice, and more hair on the face and body. Tlie 
opposite is, of course, true for the female. The configuration of 
pubic hair is different for the two sexes, running in a point up the 
abdomen to the umbilicus in the male, while it grows straight across 
the lower abdomen in the female. In the male the major curve of 
the calf is on the inside of the leg, while the major cun-e of 
calf in the female is on the outside. In tlie female the mammary 
gland develops at and after pubescence. 

Excess or hypcrfunction of the gland in either sex accentuates 
the development of the secondary sex characteristics in the individ- 
ual. A hyposecretion results in a lesser development of tiiese (iiial- 
ities, and in some cases results in an ahnost neuter type of indi- 
vidual. 

The gonadal secretion stimulates this increased long bone growtli, 
but balances this by the fact th.at it also causes the epiphyses of 
these bones to unite earlier, and this stops the spurt of growth. 
Excessive development of the secretion will, however, result in a 
rapid spurt of gi-owtli at adolescence, followed by ;i f;iii-Iy .sudden 
stoppage of the spurt. This iiilluence of the iiilfnial secretion of 
the gonads is extremely im])()i'laiit in |)liysic;il iirowtli aiul should 
constantl.y be kepi in inind in tlie int( i piclnt ion of "growth il,i1;i. 
paiticularly in the case of individual growth curves. The indivKl- 



78 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

uals with a hyposeeretion usually grow more slowly, but because of 
a late puberty grow for a longer i:)eriod of time. 

The effects of a deficiency of secretion are seen in castrates. In 
animals, these frequently grow larger (as in capons), but they are 
usually more flabbily muscled ("have more tender meat") and are 
much less energetic than the normal animals. In humans who have 
been deprived of their sex glands before pubert}^, as in the case of 
eunuchs, the long bones grow much longer, and very tall individ- 
uals result. These males tend to have wider hips and narrow shoul- 
ders, with the fatter hips and legs of the female. The voice re- 
mains soprano or alto, and facial hair is very scanty or absent. 

In the case of males deprived of these glands in adult life, the 
facial and bodily hair becomes scantier, the voice changes some- 
what, and the energy usually sharply diminishes. Females de- 
.prived of their ovaries in early life are prone to add body and 
facial hair, and to fail to develop the breasts and other bodily con- 
tours of the typical woman. 

Where the secretion is deficient (hy})osecretion), tlierc is a tend- 
ency, seen especially in the female, for the individual to become ir- 
ritable, hyperemotional, and possessed of much self-pity. In either 
sex, the person is apt to be a weak, whining personality, economical- 
ly a failure, and depressed and sluggish. 

In the male, at least, hyperfunction is usually associated with a 
larger number of red blood corpuscles, and also Avith a somewhat 
higher normal systolic blood pressure and a higher basal metabolic 
rate. 

It has been found that in a number of cases the interstitial cells 
of both sexes are present in one individual. It is then possible for 
the person to exhibit some of the body characteristics of both sexes, 
and yet to have an ample supply of internal secretion of his or her 
own sex. This is possible because of the fact that the embryological 
beginnings or Anlagcn of the glands of both sexes are present in the 
embryo, and sometimes the interstitial cells of the opposite sex fail 
to disappear entirely. 

These glands are closely associated with the function of the an- 
terior pituitary, the thyroid, and the adrenal cortex, and are stim- 
ulated by oversecretion of any of them. The gonad secretion, stim- 
ulated by the anterior pituitary secretion, acts to check the excess 
growth produced by the anterior pituitary. The mechanism of this 
is based on the fact that (1) the anterior pituitary secretion ac- 



METHODS AND NORMS 79 

eelerates the time of the onset of maturation of the gonads, and 
(2) the activity of the interstitial secretion of the gonads causes 
the epiphyses of the bones to unite in a relatively short time after 
that, thus stopping linear growth. 

THE THYMUS GLAND 

The literature on the relationship of the thymus ghmd to physical 
development is very scanty. About the most suggestive study that 
has been done on the subject is that by Shellshear (55). Dr. Shell- 
shear had available the abinidant human autopsy material of the 
island of Ilong Kong, and he found that the thymus gland, which 
had been thought to atrophy and luidergo a complete fatty degen- 
eration after puberty, did not undergo such a change in all ca.ses. 
Grading the thymus glands from completely degenerated to al- 
most totally functional, he found that where there was a persistent- 
ly functional thymus in the adult, there was a persistence of adoles- 
cent build with a lack of development of the secondary sex char- 
acteristics. Where the degeneration was complete, there tended to 
be a more complete development of those postadolescent or adult 
characteristics. Thus there seems to be a reciprocal relationshii) 
between the functional development of the gonads and these secre- 
tions, in so far as these alTcct the development of secondary sexual 
characteristics. AVhether this is due to the effect of gonads on the 
thymus, or of the thymus on the gonads is not entirely clear. Us- 
ually the underdevelopment of the adrenals is accompanied by nu 
overdevelopment of the thymus, and the same is fre(iueittl.\- I'ouiid 
true in overfunction of the thyroid. Pending further work, this is 
only suggestive. 

MIXED RELATIONSHH'S 

The treatment of the subject of intei-nal seci'etions givt-n a])ove is 
decidedly oversimi)liHed. In most cases the glands work in groups, 
not one at a time, and most people who are deviates from the a\-er- 
agc (thougli by fai' the liifucsl nuiiibei' (trr average) are the I'esnll 
of a. numbei' ol' ghindiilar (and otliiTj inlluences. it is only liy 
studying them one at a time, however, that the noi-ms and devia- 
tions from the norms ai'e undei'sto(i(l. I']\en experts in this lield ai-e 
cautious in theii' diaunoses oi" the endocrinal causes of IhkIv lypes. 

()ii the olhcr haml. Hie mdoi-iims do pKuluee dceideil de\iations 
from the normal, and to iindfrsl;ind those indi\iduals one nnisl 
understantl the causes. I'rohaltly the best advice one can gi\-e is 



80 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

to study the endocrines and their effect on growth ;^ to observe care- 
fully for a number of years; and to draw conclusions cautiously. 
Only in this way will one be able to understand and explain numer- 
ous ''physiological variants of type." 

In the use of the standards given in this volume it will occasion- 
ally be found that individuals w^ho to the eye appear normal and 
healthy nevertheless deviate markedly from the standard. In al- 
most every case, these will be found to be those who are such physio- 
logical variants of type. AVomen who are decidedly masculine in 
build and who have wide shoulders, large chests, and narrow hips 
will be found to have overly large breathing capacities, but they 
will be, according to the standards, underweight. The latter is be- 
cause they do not possess the hip and thigh fat pads of the typical 
female. On the other hand, males with a feminine build are usually 
low in breathing capacity and high in weight. Hence, in cases 
where there is a marked deviation from the normal, the measurer 
should carefully appraise the subject subjectively to seek a possible 
natural explanation of the facts found. 



1 An excellent presentation of this subject ■which avoids the too abstruse 
language of the pure physiologist will be found in Hoskins (27). 



Chapter IX 

BREATHING CAPACITY 

By breathing capacity is meant the measured amount of air that 
an individual can breathe out by forced exhalation following as 
full an inhalation as it is possible for liim to take. This has also 
been called in the literature "lung capacity" and "vital capacity." 
The first term, lung capacity, seems to us a misnomer, for this 
measurement does not determine the capacity of the lungs, since 
after the complete exhalation there is still left the residual air 
which cannot be exhaled. The teiTn vital capacity is quite mean- 
ingless and misleading and is based upon questional)le assumptions. 
What is really meant is the amount of air that can be breathed out ; 
hence we have selected for use the term adopted by Dr. Bird T. 
Baldwin, first director of the Iowa Child AVclfare Research Station, 
"breathing capacity of the lungs. "^ 

Breathing capacity has long been used as one measure of physical 
status, usually in the form of an index expressed as a percentage of 
the norm for the individual. As was stated in Appraising Physical 
status : The Selection of Measurements, the best measurements to 
use as norms for breathing capacity are probal)ly yet to be deter- 
mined. At present, sex, age, height, and normal weight seem to be 
as satisfactory as any other combination. 

It is common to find that the correlations with different variables 
and breathing capacity are reduced between the ages of fourteen 
and seventeen, the period of adolescence. Recent fiii(lins>-s on motor 
performance, height, and weight show that willi otlui- variahlcs licKl 
constant, these three have a rehitively iiigh corri'hition with pliysio- 
logical age or state of i)ubescence.' This renders it desirabh' that 
eventually separate tables l)e prepared for tiie diflVrmt stages of 
pubescence during the period covered by these ages. 

There seems to be some relationship betwi-en hiiil.i .ind l»rt alhiiig 
capacity, although as yet this has not hww statistically (k'tenniniHh 
The more slender, not too iieavil\- iniiscK'd, indiv i(hi.il of the linear 



1 Tiie history of tlio studies in breiitliing capacity ;ui.l of the uses of tli.' 
measurement df liicutiiing capacity can bo I'ouikI in Myers (t:'.). 
2UnpiiMislHM! sdnlics at the Towa ChiM W.'lfurc lli'searcli Station. 



82 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

type seems to have a greater breathing capaeity for his height and 
weight than docs the more stocky, heavily muscled, lateral type. 
The cause of this phenomenon and the reasons for exceptions to it 
are not as yet known. 

To make the measurement of breathing capacity as accurate as 
possible, a wet spirometer with standard calibrations should l)e 
used, and the water in the spirometer should be kept as nearly as 
possible at a constant room temperature of 24° to 26° Centigrade 
or 75° to 79° Fahrenheit. Otherwise the resultant changes in the 
volume of expired air plus the precipitation of excess water vapor 
will cause the volume to vary greatly, which will give decidedly 
erroneous results (37). 

The subject should thoroughly understand the technique of blow- 
ing into the spirometer. No standardized instructions as to tech- 
nique have seemed desirable, since the standardized techniques are 
apt to act as much as intelligence tests as standardizers of the 
breathing capaeity. The examiner should see that the subject real- 
ly does know what he is expected to do, and that he does it to the 
limit of his capacities. A little competition with himself and other 
subjects will frequently work wonders. 

STANDARDS OF BREATHING CAPACITY 

Mrs. Helen Garside Kelly (31) of this Station hasi presented 
studies of breathing capacity for ages twelve to eighteen. These 
are computed from height and weight in English units and give 
breathing capacity in cubic inches.^ Since most of the spirometers 



1 Those measuring in metric units can readily adapt tliese tables to their 
use by simply writing the metric equivalents in beside the English units on 
the two scales. This will still give the breathing capacity in cubic inches, but 
since most American spirometers are so calibrated, this is not undesirable. 

The eighteen-year-old standards are also applicable to ages beyond this up 
to about thirty-iive years of age. After thirty-five there is a progressive fall- 
ing off in breathing capacity until at seventy-five years of age it is only 62 
per cent of normal. According to Bowen and Piatt (Arch. Internal. Med., 
1923, 31, 579) this decrease in breathing capacity with age is as follows: 



Age 


J. Cl 

Cent 


35 


100 


40 


98 


45 


95 


50 


93 


55 


86 


60 


80 


65 


74 


70 


69 


75 


62 



METHODS AND NOKiAIS 



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METHODS AND NORMS 85 

now in use in the United States give readings only in cubic inches, 
it seemed desirable to compute these norms in this form. The vol- 
umes given are for room temperature of the water. 

Breathing capacity of the individual should be interpreted in the 
form of an index number (Table 18 and 19) or percentage devia- 
tion above or below the norm. In comparing such percentage devia- 
tions with deviations of linear measurements from grou]) averages, 
it should be remembered that a variation of 16 per cent in a volume 
such as breathing capacity or weight is of approximately the same 
significance as a variation of 5 per cent in a linear dimension. This 
may be explained crudely by the fact that a volume varies in three 
dimensions, and hence the total will vary as the cube of a linear 
dimension. To reduce this volumetric variation to a linear equiva- 
lent, use the cube roots of the deviations. For example, a falling 
off from 300 to 270 cubic inches is a drop of 10 per cent in vol- 

(270 \ 

— -— ^ .90 I If the cube roots are compared, 
oOO / 



V 



270 

,965, a falling off in linear equivalents of only 3.5 per 



300 
cent. 

The influence of disease on the breathing capacity has been elab- 
orately discussed by Myers (43), and his findings may be sum- 
marized here. There are two types of pathological factors influenc- 
ing breathing capacity. The first consists of conditions that cause 
a reduction in the breathing capacity but which have no marked 
significance. So far as children are concerned, these may be il- 
lustrated by such things as old pleural adhesions, certain deform- 
ities of the thorax, premature ossification of the costal cartilages, 
lack of will power, and malingering. The second type consists of 
pathological entities which have definite clinical significance, such 
as cardiac disease, hyperthyroidism, asthma, emphysema, bron- 
chitis, pleurisy, pneumo-thorax, pulmonary abscess, bronchiectasis, 
pneumonia, and pulmonary tuberculosis. 

Not all of the diseases falling under these classilicatioiis produce 
a decided reduction in breathing capacity. The mo.st of them, how- 
ever, do produce such a reduction, and not infre(iuently this re- 
duced breathing capacity may be the first significant symptom 
found, particularly in the more chronic conditions. 

If there is an excess or su|.cnionn;il bic .iniin^- c;ii)aeity at the be- 
ginning of the pathological process, the reduction may not be no- 



86 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

ticeable at the time of the examination. This makes it advisable to 
have comparable records kept in schools from year to year in order 
that any reduction from the individual's normal may be seen. The 
change in the breathing caj^acity varies with the clinical course of 
the disease, improving with an amelioration of the disease process 
and dropping off when the disease is aggravated. Since allowance 
must be made for normal growth of the child in comparing present 
readings of breathing capacity with past readings, it is advisable 
that the indices be compared rather than the original readings. 

It has usually been suggested that a variation of 15 i)er cent 
under the normal for a given height and weight is almost certain to 
be medically suspicious and calls for a careful medical examination. 
With the development of l^etter norms Mhich take into account indi- 
vidual variations in build, it should be possible to reduce this to 10 
per cent. At the present time it is the feeling on the part of many 
clinicians of experience that any child whose breathing capacity is 
10 per cent below normal should be watched. 

Several studies are available in the field of the relationship of 
breathing capacity to general capacity. Myers (43) has found that 
for carefully selected freshmen college students the norms are dis- 
tinctly higher than for the unselected group. Turner's (63) care- 
ful study of college women gives the results of a thorough clinical 
and analytical examination of two groups of students, one a group 
of thirty-one with low breathing capacity, and the other a group 
of twenty-six with high breathing capacity. Of the group with low 
breathing capacity, eighteen were selected because of the fact that 
they did not improve their records upon subsequent examinations. 
Of those eighteen, eleven reported shortness of breath. The largest 
per cent elected relatively inactive sports. Few of them had a 
record of precollege participation, though seven reported some 
swimming. Some of the comments of their home physicians were 
as follows: "A little down." ''Not robust, ptosis." "Advise 
restricted exercise." Six of the group were conspicuously under- 
weight, and only three were up to the weights given in the usual 
tables. 

Of the twenty-six who were 15 per cent or more above the aver- 
age, only one reported shortness of breath. A large majority elect- 
ed the strenuous sports, fifteen reported much swimming all the 
year round, only two reported little exercise, only five were con- 
spicuously underweight. No comments except good ones were made 
by their home physicians. 



METHODS AND NORMS 87 

Turner comments as follows: "In ocneral appearance there is a 
difference between the two groups. One can usually tell to which 
group an unknown student belongs before she gives her name. The 
students of high vital capacity are much more 'fit' than those of 
low capacity. When tlie individual records were gone over, there 
were only two students in the low groups whoso low record seemed 
to be associated with no other unfavorable finding and of the stu- 
dents in the high group, none had a poor record in other ways." 

Campbell's (9) study showed that breathing capacity that was 
10 per cent below the standard is evidence of unfitness, but that 10 
per cent above the standard does not mean necessarily that the in- 
dividual is fit. He found that out of fourte<'n who were classified as 
being more than 10 per cent below nonnal, ten were classified as 
below average in fitness while only one was classified as above aver- 
age. There was little significant difference, however, in the distri- 
bution between plus 10 per cent and minus 10 i)er cent. He also 
found that competition and effort on the part of the individual re- 
sulted in raising the record by as much as 5 per cent. 

It would scarcely seem necessary to state the fact that the two 
sexes should be judged from separate standards. One does need, 
however, to call attention to the fact that the different races cannot 
necessarily be judged from the same standards. It has been found 
that the colored race almost invariably runs from 7 to 25 per cent 
lower in breathing capacity than does the white race (58). This 
difference seems to be correlated, however, wdth the relative sitting 
height. The colored race liave longer legs and shorter ti'unks. hence 
it would seem that if standards for the white race are used for the 
colored race, the standaixls ])ased on weight are more accurate than 
those based on height. Studies based on .surface area show a differ- 
ence of from 15 to 20 per cent in chikhvu, witli the wliite race hav- 
ing the larger capacity (50). 

In conclusion, in tlic liglit of our present knowledge it would 
seem that breathing capacity should ])e measured as a routine under 
conditions that will insure accuracy of measurement, and that norms 
for the individual should be determined as accurately as possible 
from a number of significant variables. All ehildicn whose breath- 
ing cai)acity is as much as 10 per cent below this standard should 
be cju'efully examined by a physician and put upon a I'eginien cal- 
culated to bi-iuLi (he individual uj) to noiinal. These records should 
be available in terms of percentages of the n<.iiii of the time, and 



88 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

should thus be made available to the family physician and others 
who desire to compare present status with past performance. 

There is need for much intensive research in this field, directed 
primarily towards reducing the error of prediction of norms by 
some variation of the multiple regression technique. Such norms 
would render the relative breathing capacity much more sensitive 
as a partial indicator of current phj'sical status. 



Chapter X 

THE PROBLEM OF AGE 

The growth and development of the body is very intimately cor- 
related with the process of maturation, and this, in turn, is closely 
related to time. For this reason, chronological age has, from the 
beginning of studies of physical growth, been used as the measure 
of the extent of maturation. While this in general is relatively 
satisfactory, it possesses certain shortcomings and inadequacies as 
a measuring standard. 

In the first place chronological age is computed as from birth. 
But birth is, from the standpoint of time, an instable starting point. 
Living children frequently range from less than seven months to 
as much as ten months of intrauterine age. A ten-months baby is 
three months ''older" at birth than a seven-months ])aby. This is 
a large percentage at six months of postnatal age. 

In the second place, the postnatal speed of maturation differs 
with different children. If we consider the average amount of 
maturation at each year of chronological age as the "normal physio- 
logical age," it is found that at each year of life the physiological 
age varies greatly. At the age of fourteen, it normally varies at 
least from eleven to seventeen, with the vast majority, as is usual 
with such physical changes, clustered around the average. Hence, 
when we utilize physiological age or maturational age units instead 
of chronological age years to measure maturity, we may say that a 
fourteen-year-old boy or girl (chronological age) may be anywhere 
from eleven to seventeen or eighteen years of age (in maturation 

units). 

It is not accurately known at this time how closely physiological, 
maturational age is related to menial developmoiil. It is known, 
however, that the spurt of growlli in Ihe luunan is related to the 
time of the maturation of the gonads, and that the wliole growth 
speed pattern is related 1o whatever mechanism it is lliat deter- 
mines this physiological maturatidn. 

At the present time, tlicrc nrc (wo ihcIIkkIs in (•(niinidn use that 
measure pliysiologicai or ni;it mat ional age: (1) the stage of 
pubescence, and (2) X-ray lindings. 



no APPKALSING PHYSICAL STATUS 

ESTIMATION OF MATURATION BY THE MEANS 
OF THE STATE OF THE PUBIC HAIR 

One of the means of estimating- maturational age is to note the 
time of the appearance of sexual maturity. This method has the 
shortcoming that it cannot be used before sexual maturity, and must 
be noted at the time, or it cannot be accurately utilized afterwards. 
It is, therefore, a landmark rather than an accurate measurement. 
Furthermore, there is no certainty that the speed of maturity both 
before and after sexual maturity will be constant. The metliod has 
uses, however, and suggestions for its utilization will be given here. 

In the female, the date of mcnarchc is the most satisfactory land- 
mark. AVhen possible, this should be recorded at the time and not 
left to memory. The girl will usually remember it vividly enough 
for a number of months, so that if it has not been recorded at that 
time, the date may be elicited by questioning later in the same year. 

In the male, there is no similar dramatic event to record. The 
usual procedure is to l)ase the change upon the state of development 
of the pubic hair. Three stages are recorded : 

1. Prepubescence : This stage begins at conception and contin- 
ues until the onset of the transition stage which is called pubescence, 
and which usually comes from eleven to seventeen years of age. 
(The average is at about thirteen with girls and fourteen with boys. 
See below.) During this time, there is no pubic hair except the 
fine hair present all over the body. At this time the external 
genitalia are usually quite childlike and undeveloped. 

2. Pubescence : This is the stage at which the change from pre- 
pubescence to postpubescence becomes evident. Its beginning is in- 
dicated by the onset of a relatively rapid growth of the fine pubic 
hair, mentioned above, and the time of the beginning of pubescence 
is usually taken as that time when the growing pubic hair first 
shows pigmentation. At this time there is seen a beginning accelera- 
tion in the development of the genitalia. 

3. Postpubescence: Pubescence is generally held to end and 
postpubescence to begin with the first appearance of a kink or twist 
in the pubic hair. 

These standards are not entirely satisfactory. In a very small 
number of individuals, the pubic hair never kinks appreciably, and 
the onset of postpubescence must be determined from the general 
amount of pubic hair and the development of the external genitalia. 



METHODS AND NOimS HI 

While the method has its shortcomings, its general availability is in 
its favor. 

A number of studies of pubescent ago have been made. The most 
significant are those of Crampton (15) and of Burdick and Brown 
(3), the data of which were analyzed by Bakhvin (4), Dimock 
(18), Boas (8), Van Dyke (66), Shuttleworth (57), and Flory 
(22). From these studies a number of findings stand out. 

1. The range of age at which one finds the onset of growth of pubic hair 
is from 9 1/2 to 18, and the mean age is about 13 years, 8 months for girls 
(Bahlwin) and 14 years for boys (Burdick). Country children mature about 
half a year- earlier than city children. At no given chronological age do as 
many as 40 per cent reach maturity. 

2. Individuals who have reached pubescence at any given chronological age 
are, on the average, much taller and heavier than those who at that age have 
not reached i^ubescence. For example, at 14 years of age, the average post- 
pubescent boy "excells the average prepubescent boy by 4 1/2 inches in height 
and almost 23 pounds in weight." (Dimock (18)) 

3. The most rapid growth is in tiie year when the individual passes from 
pubescence to postpubeseence (Uiniock (18), Boas (8)). This is the year 
preceding the onset of menarche in girls. (Boas (8)) 

4. Dimock (18) reports that the amount of growth that accompanies the 
change from pubescence to postpubeseence is about the same in boys of 12, 
13, and 14. 

5. Individuals who are tall for their age usually mature earlier than those 
who are short for the same age. This is probably just another way of saying 
that individuals who are physiologically older arc taller. After maturing, 
growth falls off sharply, especially in height, and less quickly in the horizontal 
dimensions and in weight. 

The author studied the distribution by ages of pubescence in 1,075 
junior high school boys and 705 junior high school girls from the 
Detroit public schools. These data were obtained through the 
courtesy of Miss Mary Delaney and Mrs. Paul Vollmer of the Detroit 
Public Schools. The distributions of ages for boys (taken to the 
last birthday) were as follows (See also Figure 6.) : 



Pre 
Age 


'pubescent 
Num- Per 


Pubescent 
Num- Per 


Postjiul 
Num- 


te.scent 
Per 


Years 


ber Cent 


ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 


17 








6 


loo.ii 


16 


1 2.4 


<) 


14.3 


35 


83.3 


15 


18 10.4 


62 


.35.6 


94 


54.0 


14 


i)8 28.3 


141 


40.6 


108 


31.1 


13 


162 56.1 


its 


33.9 


29 


1(1.(1 


12 


151 S5.8 


24 


13.6 


1 


.1) 


11 


33 100.0 










10 


4 100.(1 











92 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



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Figure 6. Stage of Pubescence in Junior High School Boys and Girls 



Percentages are of that 



age. 



The average of pubescence is at 



14 1/2, while the average age of the onset of postpubescence is about 

15 1/4. 

The average age of pubescence of girls is approximately 12 1/2. 



Pre 

Age 
Years 
17 
16 


ipubescent 
Num- Per 
ber Cent 


Pubescent 
Num- Per 
ber Cent 


Postpubescent 

Num- Per 

ber Cent 

1 100.0 

21 100.0 


15 


2 1.5 


4 


3.1 


122 


95.4 


14 


8 4.0 


40 


20.2 


150 


75.8 


13 


25 12.3 


76 


37.4 


102 


50.3 


12 


33 25.8 


68 


53.1 


27 


21.1 


11 


14 58.3 


9 


37.5 


1 


4.2 


10 


1 50.0 


1 


50.0 







It is possible that this difference between the boys and the girls is 
partially at least a function of the method of grading. The boys 
were graded by the pubic hair criterion. In the case of girls, post- 
pubescents were those in whom the menarche had taken place. Pubes- 
cents were those who had not menstruated, but in whom there were 
signs of changes in the secondary sexual characteristics, such as the 
beginning development of the breasts, and fat pads on the back of 
the arms or on the hips. The prepubescents were those in whom 
there were no such observable signs of maturity, and in whom the 
menarche had not occurred. It was not possible to observe the 



METHODS AND NORMS 93 

pubic hair in this group. If the onset of menarche be taken as the 
criterion, the average age would be recorded as 13 1/2, the age at 
which 50 per cent of the girls were postpubescent. 

Perusal of Crampton's extensive and well analyzed data on boys 
(15) showed that postpubescent boys of 13 to 13 1/2 years are de- 
cidedly heavier than prepubescent boys of 15 1/2 to 16, and the 
same proportions hold elsewhere. The same was true of height. 

Crampton (15) also presented data bearing on the relationships 
of grip strength and pubescence. This was converted by the pres- 
ent author to correspond with the weight of the individual. AVhen 
weight was plotted against strength, the prepubescents averaged 
about 1 1/2 to 2 kilograms w^eaker than pubescents of the same 
weight, and from 5 to 6 kilograms weaker than postpubescents of 
the same weight (but younger). 

Another study was made in which age, height, and weight were 
all included by means of an empirical formula (8A yrs. + .511 cms. + 
2Wkgms.)- Here the prepubescent and pubescent groups did not 
differ greatly, but the postpubescents of the same age, height, weight 
index (but usually younger, since they were taller and heavier than 
prepubescents and pubescents of the same age) were, on the average, 
from 3 to 7 kilograms stronger in grip, over the small range where 
they overlapped, and the lines of best fit were diverging. Five kilo- 
grams, on the average, would be 12 per cent of the total grip 
strength. 

It is apparent, from this cursory survey of the literature, that 
successive stages of pubescence are accompanied by greater incre- 
ments in growth, and also in motor devcloi)ment. It is not clear 
from the literature whether this is primarily due to a real difference 
in maturational age, or whether it is something superimposed upon 
it. 

A study was made in this laboratory of the relationship of ])hysio- 
logical age (as determined by the pubie hair criterion) and height, 
weight, strength, and general athletic ability. Tlie group selected 
consisted of 220 junior high school boys from the Neinas Inter- 
mediate School in Detroit, Michigan. This school had a small play- 
ground and was limited in its general sports program, and so had 
specialized heavily in individual athletics of the track and fiekl 
variety. All children nunkedly underweight (20 ])er cent) or over- 
weight (30 per cent) were eliminated from tlic sludy, as were those 



94: APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

recently ill, or those who had recently undergone surgical treat- 
ment. All others were included. 

The data collected were : chronological age, height, weight 
(nude), stage of pubescence, strength (computed from pull-up 
strength), and athletic ability (from a combination of four athletic 
events: the 100 yard dash, the standing broad jump, the running 
high jump, and the 8 pound shot put). All anthropometric meas- 
urements and observations of physiological ago were made by the 
author, and the athletic and strength tests were administered by 
the teacher of phj'sical education of the school. 

To correlate pubescence with each of the other variables, a method 
of triserial correlation was devised (See Appendix to this chapter p. 
123-124. To reduce the range, the group was divided into five groups 
of one year each, but overlapped each six montlis. These groups were 
ages 13 years to 13 years, 11 months; 13 years, 6 months to 14 
years, 5 months; 14 years to 14 years, 11 months; 14 years, 6 months 
to 15 years, 5 months; and 15 years to 15 years, 11 months. It was 
hoped by using this arrangement to reduce the range to the point 
that it might validly be assumed that the distribution of ' ' the state 
of pubescence" within each group might be considered to be normal 
• — a postulate necessary to this method of correlation. The items 
of pubescence, chronological age in months, height, weight, athletic 
performance, and arm strength, were then intercorrelated. All cor- 
relations with pubescence w^re done by the above mentioned triserial 
r method, while all others w^ere computed by tlie product-moment 
method. Athletic performance w^as measured by summing the 
records of the four athletic events by means of scoring tables. Arm 
strength was computed from the weight and the ability to pull up 
on the horizontal bar, using the author's formula (35). 

The number of cases in each group, the percentage in each pubes- 
cence category, and the intercorrelations are given in the following 
tabulation. Referring to data in this tabulation, it will be seen that 
pubescence correlates very slightly with chronological age, as would 
be expected from the small age range. The correlations with the 
other variables, however, are large. In view of the small age range, 
this is the more notable. The effect is most noticeable in the age 
groups from 14 years to 15 years, 5 months, when tlie maturation 
process is most active in boys. 

To facilitate interpretation of the data, a munbei- of ])artial cor- 
relations were computed. These also will be found in this tabula- 



METHODS AND NORMS 



95 



tion. In these partial correlations, it is found that when height and 
weight are constant, the correlation of i)ubescence and chronological 



Relationship 


of Pubescence to Motor 


Performance 




Age 


13 Years, 13 Years, 
Months 6 Months 

to to 
13 Years, 14 Years, 
11 Months 5 Montlis 


14 Years, 
Months 

to 
14 Years, 
11 Months 


14 
6 

15 
5 


Years, 
Months 

to 
Years, 
Months 


15 


15 
11 


Years, 
Months 
to 

Years, 
Months 


Number 


74 


86 


95 




79 




60 


101 


.2088 


.1203 


.2327 




.2756 




.1424 


i'02 


.6895 


.5158 


.5385 




.7531 




.7853 


1-03 


.6728 


.5499 


.5783 




.7996 




.8170 


i'04 


.2610 


.2915 


.4884 




.6326 




.5474 


105 


.6286 


.5361 


.7028 




.8435 




.7917 


1-12 


.2499 


.0434 


.1573 




.3936 




.1253 


113 


.2003 


.0215 


.2618 




.2473 




.1720 


1-14 


.0148 


.2324 


.3656 




.2180 




.1053 


115 


.2351 


.0689 


.3602 




.2384 




.1815 


i'23 


.7724 


.8147 


.7446 




.8199 




.7967 


i'24 


.4382 


.4399 


.4068 




.5724 




.6439 


1-25 


.6147 


.6207 


.6343 . 




.7190 




.7558 


1-34 


.3904 


.5097 


.6308 




.0558 




.6027 


1-35 


.8810 


.8925 


.9034 




.9016 




.8988 


101.3 


.1021 


.1299 


.1033 




.1339 




.0033 


1-01.23 


.0508 


.0681 


.1174 




.0403 




.0118 


r02.1 


.0730 


.5148 


.5226 




.7294 




.7816 


i'02.3 


.3614 


.1400 


.1982 




.2836 




.3857 


102.13 


.3516 


.1356 


.2222 




.2371 




.3860 


103.1 


.6586 


.5514 


.5406 




.7853 




.8127 


r03.12 

104.3 

r04.23 

i'04.123 

r05.3 

1-05.23 

105.123 


.3049 

-.0025 

-.0960 

-.0911 

.1026 

.1997 

.1942 


.2655 
.0156 
.0087 
-.0121 
.1203 
.1960 
.1887 

KEY TO 


.2729 
.1953 
.2255 
.2031 
.5157 
.5583 
.5519 
SYMBOLS 




.4765 
.2385 
.2255 
.2239 
.4719 
.5179 
.5168 


- 


.5074 
.1195 
-.0131 
-.0132 
.2271 
.1856 
.1852 






X = pubescence 














x^ = age 
x^ = height 
















x^ = weight 

x" = athletic performance 

x^ = pull-up strength 









age is indeed negligible 
and witli weight aio lii 



rclnlion oi 
strengtli is 



The correlations of |»n])osccnce 
1. It is ])articiilaily significant 1 
pubescence with athletic i)err()rnian('i^ .-uu 
ii«'-li even witli clironological age, lieight. 



with lieight 
liat tlie cor- 
1 with ai-m 
and WH'ii'lit 



96 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

held constant. This is more significant with arm strength tlian it is 
with athletic ability. Both show their greatest significance between 
14 and 15 1/2 years of age. The correlations of pubescence with 
height, when age and weight are held constant, and with weight, 
when age and height are held constant, are significant at all ages 
studied. 

From these facts, it would seem clear that the state of pubescence, 
or physiological age after the beginning of pubescence, has a very 
real effect upon both gro^vth and motor performance. The measures 
of this which we have used here are too crude to determine the exact 
relationships, and these remain a subject for further study. The 
findings, however, substantiate the statement of Baldwin (p. 198), 
at least in so far as they apply to grading children for motor activ- 
ities. In view of the limited time during which this criterion is 
available, it is of minor usefuhiess in studies of anthropometry and 
physical growth; but at least during the junior and senior high 
school period, these stages of development should be noted and the 
facts utilized, especially for classification for physical education 
activities. These phenomena will have to be combined with others, 
such as chronological age, height, and weight, if the best use is to be 
made of them. 

ANATOMICAL AGE OR SKELETAL MATURITY 

The second method used to ascertain physiological age is to X-ray 
appropriate parts of the body and compare the state of maturation 
of the bones with standards compiled from a large number at each 
chronological age. The methods used vary, as do the parts of the 
body recommended for study by the X-rays. 

The parts of the body X-rayed have been, for most of the studies, 
the hands and the wTists. Some studies have been made on the 
feet. In the extensive study conducted by the Brush Inquiry at 
Western Reserv^e University at Cleveland under the direction of 
Dr. T. Wingate Todd, X-rays are taken of hands, wrists, elbow, 
foot, and knee, taken both antero-posteriorly and laterally, and of 
shoulder and hip, postero-anteriorly. For almost any practical 
purpose, however, the postero-anterior X-rays of the hands and 
wrists will give all essential information. 

The reading of maturational age from the X-ray is simple or 
complex according to the standards used. The most important of 
these methods are : 



METHODS AND NORMS 97 

1. The appearance of centers: Tliis method is based upon the time of ap- 
pearance of centers of ossification of the carpal bones and of the epiphyses of 
hands and wrists. The standards are based upon the average time of such 
appearance. These are sometimes read in terms of age (10, 11, 12), and some- 
times in arbitrary stages (13, 14). This is the method most applicable to 
newborn infants. The appearance of centers method is limited in usefulness, 
however, because of gaps that appear between some of the stages. 

2. The stages of fusion of epiphyses witli their diaphyses (15, 16, 17, 18) : 
This method adds to the information obtained from the time of the appear- 
ance of the centers, but also has its limitations. Todd and Francis (19) com- 
bined thesp two methods and have prepared standards based upon: (1) date 
of appearance of centers for the first five years; (2) stage of fusion of the 
epiphyses and diaphyses, from ages six to fourteen; and (3) the date of com- 
plete fusion, from ages fourteen to eighteen. Tliese standards are very good, 
but somewhat complicated for the layman to use. 

3. Carpal area: The size of the carpal bone ossification areas has been 
used as one method of assessing the relative maturation of the child (20, 21, 
22, 23, 24). Tlie sum of areas of all of the carpal bones has been compared to 
certain areas in the wrist (25, 26). The areas are measured with a planimeter. 
This instrument is quite expensive, and the method is very time-consuming, 
but it is a fairly accurate method of prediction for the younger age groups. 
It falls down badly at the older age levels. 

4. Diameters of the carpal bones (29) : These methods have not proved 
particularly successful. 

5. Diameters of carpal bones and widths of certain epipliyses (27, 28) : 
This method is a promising one. The liest objective standards as yet de- 
veloped apply only to boys from age six to age eighteen (30). This is, how- 
ever, the school age. In this method, the index is determined as follows: 

The sum of the greatest diameter of eight carpal bones and the broadest 
width of the epiphyses of the radius, ulna, and four first metacarpals is di- 
vided by the average diameter of the wrist. This is taken to be the average 
distance at the proximal end of the metacarpals between the most exterior 
point of the first metacarpal bone and the most exterior point of the fourth 
metacarpal bone, and tlie distance at the distal end of the radius and ulna 
between the most exterior points of the radius and ulna (diaphyses). This 
index can be measured with very little equipment other than a pair of small 
calipers — or even a millimeter rule — and requires a minimum of time. Stand- 
ards for the six- to eighteen-year-old boys have been published by Kelly (30). 
Standards for the planimeter method were pulilislied by Baldwin, Busby and 
Garside (5), and by Carter (10). 

6. Qualitative scales: Probably tlie most usable and practical devices are 
found in the recent publications of Flory (21) and of Todd (61). Flory's 
study, in addition to an excellent review of the literature, presents a qualita- 
tive scale for evaluating and "aging" X-rays of the hands and wrists. Aver- 
age samples for each year of chronological age for eadi sex are given, cover- 
ing the ages from birth to nineteen for males, and from birth to seventeen 
for females. With these standards it is .simple, with a litth- prnctico, to esti- 
mate the maturational age or anatomical age to witliiu six m<.nths, and films 



98 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

can easily be "aged" at the rate of one a minute — which is a speed far 
greater than can be attained by any of the objective methods. Flory's sam- 
pling was entirely of private school children, but without a rigid medical 
selection. It represents a random sample of children from homes of a con- 
siderably advanced socio-economic group. Flory's criteria for judging the 
plates are not worked out in great detail. It is, however, an excellent and a 
useful study. 

Todd and his co workers (61) in 1937 published a similar type of qualita- 
tive standards on X-rays of the hands and wrists. This study represents the 
most extensive and far-reaching study as yet made in this field. The plates 
are in thiee-montli intervals at the lower end, and in six-month intervals at the 
upper end. Todd has also made a clear presentation of tlie method of weight- 
ing conflicting evidence. The sampling was a highly selective one and will 
probably give standards that are somewhat too high. Since they are con- 
sistent, however, this will prove to be but a minor difficulty. 

The use of either of these qualitative scales will give relatively accurate re- 
sults in a minimum of time. 



Chapter XI 

ANTHROPOMETRY IN THE SERVICE OF THE 

INDIVIDUAL 

In the preceding eliapters we have treated the subjects of measure- 
ments of body build (Chapter II), of noiTnal weig'lit (Chapter IV), 
of fat (Chapter V), of muscuhir development (Chapter VI), of 
skeletal age (Chapter X), and of breathing capacity (Chapter IX). 
In addition we have discussed some of the problems that are raised 
by deviates from tlie i)hysiologically normal (Chapter VIII). In 
this chapter we shall consider the relative importance of the various 
methods proposed, and discuss the relative contributions and their 
interpretation in the service of the individual. 

Here it may be in order to again point out that the anthropometric 
measurements cannot be substituted for the medical examination. 
Single, or even multiple, pathologies may have a relatively slight 
influence on general nutrition. In the ease of an individual of 
relatively low thyroid output, and perhaps with a low secretion of 
posterior pituitary as well, the tendency to put on fat may overcome 
quite unfavorable pathological conditions. 

On the other hand, pathologies do tend to "pull the individual 
down," to leave their mark in poorer nutrition and poorer general 
condition, such as muscular condition, and to reflect them.selves often 
in a lowered breathing capacity. Hence it seemed wise to attempt 
an evaluation of these methods against a careful medical appraisal. 

A careful medical examination was conducted by a i)hysician em- 
ployed by the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station. He had studied 
the problem for some time and had made a number of practice rat- 
ings of condition. The final rating for this study was made upon 
ninety-five senior high school boys of the University High School. 
The rating of the i)hysician was based upon nutritional status, and 
upon the pathological findings. The scale used gave a positive score 
for the nutritional status and the patiiological findings weiv sub- 
tracted from this. 

In the evaluation of this study it siiould l)c slated 1h;i1 it was 
subjective and made witiiout knowledge of the i)iiysic;il nuasurc- 
ments. Evaluations of this type have Incn found Ci:!) to be of itla- 



100 APPRALSING PHYSICAL STATUS 

lively low reliability, and the validity seldom exceeds the reliability. 
The average for fifty-seven intercorrelations between the ratings of 
physicians on the same children in the Franzen study (23) was 
found to be .60, while the range of correlations ran from .18 to .82. 
There is no means of knowing the reliability or the validity of the 
ratings used in this study, except that in cases in which the rating 
differed seriously in individual items, objective evidence favored 
the measurements. The correlations between the medical findings 
and the objective measurements were universally low, and the use- 
fulness of the study is more for the pui*pose of determining the 
relative contribution of each type of measurement than for evaluat- 
ing them as measurements of condition. The results are seeai below 



Variable, in 










Per Cent From 


Medical 


Total Fats 


Breathing 


Normal 


Eating 


Unweighted 


Weighted 


Capacity 


Weight 


.371 


.524 


.428 


.043 


Arm Girth 


.350 


.516 


.327 


-.192 


Forearm Girth 


.279 


.242 


.137 


-.112 


Thigh Girth 


.270 


.506 


.553 


-.053 


Calf Girth 


.153 


.169 


.259 


-.033 


Average Limb Girth 


.330 


.463 


.415 


-.128 


Unweighted 


.378 








Total Fats 


(.433)* 








Weighted Total Fats 


.163 








Breathing Capacity 


.291 


-.066 






* See text 











and the intercorrelations between over- and underweight and the 
limb girths are seen in the following tabulation. 



Variable 


Weight 


Arm 


Forearm 


Thigh 


Calf 


Arm 


.461 




.522 


.522 


.299 


Forearm 




.522 




.399 


.268 


Thigh 




.522 


.399 




.486 


Calf 




.299 


.268 


.486 




Average 


.687 











From the above tabulation it will be seen that the measurement of 
over- and underweight is the best of the group of appraisement 
methods so far as agreeing with medical appraisements is concerned. 
If we assume that the relial)ility for the medical examination is 
about .60 (and this is probably true), and that of the measurements 
is about .90 (it is at least that), then the true correlation corrected 
for attenuation is about .51. 

The next "best" variable is the girth of the upper arm, which is. 



METHODS AND NORMS 101 

in this sample, better than the average of all of the girth measure- 
ments. The corrected correlation would be about .48. This would 
indicate that the upper arm girth may be used alone, witliout the 
other limb girths, without loss of predictive value. The unweighted 
sum of the total fats gave a correlation of .332. AYhen, however, one 
very corpulent boy was removed from the data, this rose to .433. 
The "true correlation" would be approximately .59. 

Using the uncorrected correlations, and using all of the su])jects, 
a number of partial and multiple correlations were computed. In 
the first column : 

= physician's rating 

1 = per cent over- and underweight 

2 = per cent over and under average limb girth 

3 = per cent over and under unweighted total fat 

4 = per cent over and under breathing capacity 

In tlie second column the same correlations have been computed but 
per cent over and under average limb girth has been replaced by per 
cent over and under upper arm girth. (Correlations in parentheses 
indicate that there was no limb girth included.) 





Corre- 


Corre- 




lation 


lation 


r 


.211 


.252 


01.2 






r 

01.3 




(.250) 


r 


.111 


.217 


02.1 






r 


.211 


.221 


02.3 






r 

03.1 




(.173) 


r 


.214 


.188 


03.2 






r 


.319 


.376 


13.2 






r 


.1G7 


.362 


23.1 






r 


.154 


.200 


01.23 






r 


.084 


.168 


02.13 






r 


.158 


.104 


03.12 






r 




.368 


04.12 






r 




.321 


04.13 






r 




.390 


04.23 






r 

04.123 




.372 



It will be seen that, in general, tiie girth of the ui)i)er arm is superior 
to the avoi-age girths of all four measurements as an intliealor of 
condition, at least .so far as this group is concerned; that, on the 
whole, weight is a better indicator of uuti'itioual status than either 
of the otlier two items studied, and that tlie arm girth is a close 
second. 



102 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

Multiple correlations were also computed for a number of com- 
binations. 





Corre- 


Corre- 




lation 


lation 


E 


.412 


.433 


0.123 






R 


.385 


.422 


0.12 






R 

0.13 




(.405) 


R 


.387 


.392 


0.23 






R 




.547 


0.1234 






R 




.538 


0.124 






R 




(.500) 


0.134 




\ / 


R 




.531 


0.234 






^0.24 




.506 



Here again the inclusion of weight norms favorably influences the 
results, and the inclusion of breathing capacity very decidedly in- 
creases the correlation with physician's ratings. r^^ 1,3 i® -372, 
which is quite a bit higher than the zero order correlation with the 



rating. 



If it is decided to weight these variables to produce the best pre- 
diction of physician's ratings, the following sets of proportionate 
weightings, rounded otf from the regression equations, are sug- 



gested : 










Variable 






Possible Weighti: 


Per Cent Over- or Underweight 


5 


1 




4 


Per Cent Over or Under Upper 










Arm Girth 


10 


2 


8 


2.5 


Per Cent Over or Under Total 










Fat (Unweighted) 


1 




1 


1 


Per Cent Over or Under Breath- 










ing Capacity 


6 


1 


4 


1 3 


Multiple Correlation 


.547 


.538 


.531 


.506 .500 



.433 .422 

To obtain the significance of each of these, it would be necessary 
first to score the group, then to make a distribution of the results, 
and to assign categorical weightings to the results. Perhaps a T- 
score technique would be as useful as any other way of grading 
these results. This has not been done in this study. 

If we assume a reliability of .60 for the physician's ratings and .95 
for the other variables, the approximate "corrected" multiple cor- 
relation for the best combination would be .75. This is not higli, but 
it is probable that the best combination is highly accurate as a pre- 
dictor of the medical condition of the individual, even though this 



METHODS AND NORMS 103 

is not its chief function. There are no data avaihible at the present 
time to determine how much tests of strength would affect these re- 
sults. 

If we think not of medical ratings, but of relative weight for 
build as a criterion of nutritional status, then as was shown in the 
first study (p. 86) of this series, limb girths contribute approximate- 
ly twice as much to weight as do the fats. In the University High 
School data analyzed above, the P12.3 (muscle) = .566, and the (^i..,., 
(fat) = .263. This is also approximately two to one. There are no 
comparable figures as yet for the relative contribution of strength 
to mdritional status, though it is probably highly correlated. The 
probabilities are that it is more highly correlated with general 
health and functional efficiency than it is with pure nutritional 
status in the narrower sense of being properly fed. One may be 
well fed and have assimilated the food properly and yet be function- 
ally undeveloped and inefficient. It is the efficiency for function — 
which must include adequate nutrition — that is measured })y tlie 
tests of strength. 

In formulating a program for the measurement of general p'hysical 
and nutritional status, there is a constant conflict betAveen time 
available for such measurements, computations, and interpretations, 
and the completeness of the desired information. To take all of the 
needed measurements, compute the norms and indices, and interpret 
them for each individual, is time-consuming. Shorl-cut methods 
save much in time, but lose in accuracy of prediction. 

Whatever methods arc utilized, they cannot ])e utilized blindly. 
The measurer must look at the child as well as at the tape. Excep- 
tions to the standards will then become understaiidal)le. Norms for 
prcpubescent children judged from fifteen- or sixteen-year-old 
standards will probably be in eri'or (('haptci' X). Children who 
are past the extremes at either end of tiie lieiglil range must bo 
judged according to their anatomical age — and soiiiftiiiu's sulijec- 
tively, according to their ])e('iiliai' giandulni- iiiakc-iips. Such, liow- 
ever, are in the vast minority, and need not lake a great amount of 
time. 

If, because of exigencies of lime, it is lu'cessary to conduct only a 
I)artial program, the successive dropi)ing off' of measurcnicnts ?nay, 
in the oi)inion of the writer, be as follows: 



104 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



I 
Strength 
Normal Weight 
Breathing Capacity- 
Fat 

IV 
Weight 

Breathing Capacity 
Fat 



II 

Normal Weight 
Breathing Capacity 
Limb Girths 
Fat 

V 
Upper Arm Girth 
Breathing Capacity 
Fat 



III 

Normal Weight 
Breathing Capacity 
Upper Arm Girth 
Fat 

VI 
Upper Arm Girth 
Breathing Capacity 



In any of the above combinations, strength may be substituted for 
arm or limb girths with profit. 

It has been suggested hy hygienists that consistent gain in growth 
is a satisfactoiy sign of health. In cases where it is impossible to do 
more than measure height and weight, gairis in these may be noted. 
The average gains per year are shown in the following tabulation : 



Age, 

Years 


Height* 
Boys Girls 


Wei 
Boys 


ght* 
Girls 


2 


10 


9 


15 


18 


3 


7 


7 


12 


14 


4 


6 


6 


11 


9 


5 


5.5 


5.5 


10 


13 


6 


5 


5 


12 


11 


7 


5 


5 


12 


12 


8 


4 


4 


10 


11 


9 


4 


4 


12 


11 


10 


3 


4 


9 


13 


11 


3 


5 


10 


14 


12 


4 


4 


13 


12 


13 


4 


2 


11 


11 


14 


4 


0.8 


13 


6 


15 


3 


0.4 


6 


1.5 


16 


2 


0.1 


7 


0.5 


17 


0.5 





4 


0.5 


18 


0.5 





3 


0.5 



* In terms of per cent per year 

Figures for boys rounded off from: Meredith, Howard V.: The Rhythm of 
Physical Growth : A Study of Eighteen Anthropometric Measurements on Iowa 
City White Males. Univ. Iowa Stud., Stud, in Child Welfare, 1935, 11, No. 3, 
Pp. 128. 

Figures for girls rounded off from : Boynton, Bernice : The Physical Growth 
of Girls: A Study of the Rhythm of Physical Growth From Anthropometric 
Measurements on Girls Between Birth and Eighteen Years. Univ. Iowa Stud., 
Stud, in Child Welfare, 1936, 12, No. 4, Pp. 105. 

Monthly gains may be computed accordingly. This is not a satis- 
factory method of ascertaining physical status, but is much better 
than doing nothing about it. 



Chapter XII 

A SCHOOL PROGRAM OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

In this discussion of a school program of anthropometry, no ac- 
count is taken of research programs in this field. We shall discuss 
only an applied anthropometric service for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing the general health, nutritional condition, and physical status. 

As has been noted, time is frequently an important element in an 
anthropometric program in any institution. In many smaller 
schools, however, and there are more small schools in the United 
States than there are large ones, the pupil load is not great, and 
there is no reason why a relatively complete service might not be 
introduced. In the state of Iowa, for example, more than half of 
the high schools have less than seventy pupils. It would not place 
a heavy burden upon any teacher to undertake a complete program 
of anthropometry in such a school. In schools where there are not 
more than 250 pupils to be cared for by one teacher, this can also 
be done without too much sacrifice of time. It is a question whether 
schools that cannot find the time to render adequate sei*\'icc to the 
pupils because of heavy pupil loads should not think in terms of a 
larger staff rather than in terms of a more inefficient service. Hence, 
we shall propose the relatively complete program and indicate the 
order in which, in our opinion, certain items should be sacrificed if 
such sacrifices are necessitated by the situation. 

The taking of the measurements, once the techniques have been 
overlearned, is not a time-consuming task. Hence, even more than 
the minimum of measurements may easily be taken. We suggest 
the following mea.surements, therefore, those in i)arcnthoses ])oing 
optional for use in checking abnormal cases oidy : 

Weight (in kilograms, if feasible) 

Standing height 

(Hitting height) 

Chest girth at xiphoid level 

(Cliest depth) 

(Chest width) 

Hip width — bi-cristal 

(Hip width — bitrochantcric, without pressure^) 



1 Of use only on po.stpubesceut renuilcs, and tlion only in exceptional cases. 



106 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

Eibow width 

Knee widtli 

( Shoulder width — bi-acromial) 

Upper arm girth — left 

Forearm girth — left 

Thigh girth— left 

Calf girth— left 

Fat — Chest front 

Fat — idlest back 

Fat — Abdominal 

Fat — Supra-iliac 

Breathing capacity (cubic inches) 

Strength Index 

Stage of Pubescence 

From this list should be computed, in order : 

1. "Corrected" chest girth 

2. "Corrected" Iiip width 

3. Normal weight 

. Actual weight iir • i j. t i 

4. ^ z= Weight Index 



o 



Normal weight 

5. Total fat 

6. Actual fat _ j,,^^ j^^^^^^ ^^^. ^^^^ ^^.^,j. ^^^. ^^^^^^^^, j,.^^^, 
Normal fat 

7. Normal limb girths (may be limited to upper arm girth) i 

g_ Actual limb girths _ y.^,,,, gh-th Tndovi 

Normal limb girths 

100 X Strength Index -p., . , ,^., y , 

9. 5 = Physical Filiicss hidox 

Strength Norm 

10. Normal breathing capacity 

-.^ Actual breathing capacity t^ ^^i • n -4. t n 

11. 5 t •! = Breathing Capacity Index 

Normal breathing capacity 

12. It is also useful to get the weight for age and height from the Baldwin- 
Wood tables and divide this into the normal weight obtained above, 
giving the Index of Build. (See p. 121-122.) 

If part of the program must be sacrificed first eliminate limb 
girths if the strength index and the physical fitness index are taken. 
If strength tests are not given, retain the upper arm girth, and elim- 
inate girths of forearm, thigh, and calf, and all measurements in 
parentheses. The elimination of anything else from the measure- 
ments would involve too great a sacrifice. Take the minimum of 
measurements, and eliminate the computations where they are ob- 
viously not needed, as in individuals obviously possessing an ade- 
quate physical development. 

Two record blanks are given as samples. The first is the complete 



Do not compute if measuring actual strengths. 



METHODS AND NORMS 107 

blank. If strength tests are not given, eliminate that part of the 
blank. The second is a shortened form, and represents a minimnm 
of measurements for anything that resemljlcs an adequate program. 
It is advisable to have the cards for the two sexes printed on cards 
of diiferent colors. White for males and yellow for females are 
colors frequently selected. This facilitates filing, and avoids errors 
and extra recording. 

If the cards are to be filed for future use, and if further follow-up 
measurements are to bo made, it is advisable to provide a number of 
columns for recording the measurements at different times. This 
will also provide for the accumulation of records on the same indi- 
viduals for future study. It may bo advisable to have comparison 
records of the child's diseases and general health record kept and 
filed with the anthropometric records. This might be done by the 
school nurse. 

On the forms shown in this volume it will be noticed that measure- 
ments are listed in the order to be taken (using one instrument until 
all measurements to be taken with it are completed), rather than in 
the order of use. To make the most commonly used measurements 
stand out, these are listed in large type. Indices to be com- 
puted from the measurements are listed in italics for the guidance 
of the recorder. 

For further research uses, the record of nationality of parents 
may be added if desired. This is best obtained by recording the 
birth place and nationality of the four grandparents. Avoid the 
generic answer to this question of "American" unless all records 
of grandparents give birthplace as America and no further national 
origins are obtainable upon questioning. Owing to the anthropo- 
logical differences found in this group, in addition to national 
origins, record Jewish where sucli is the case. Tims, if the chikl's 
grandfather is Jewish and of German national origin, record him as 
German- Jewish. These records will probably not be extensively 
used in the usual school routine, and need not be taken for the pure- 
ly routine service ])rogram. Once taken, however, they do not need 
to be repeated. Hence, sucli a record may well be obtained when 
the child first enters school and kept with his other records. If 
future interests in research in this inateiial develop, the data will 
then be availa])le. 

ill case of the colored i)()i)ulation, recent and as yet unpublislud 
evidence would seem to iiidicali' that there is a real, though not vny 



108 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

great difference, not only between the anthropometric proportions 
of colored and wliite, but between those of abnost pure colored 
stock and those who are predominantly white with very little colored 
blood. Hence in recording the race as Negro, it is well, if possible, 
to indicate as nearly as possible the degree. This is almost impos- 
sible to obtain accurately; hence the common practice may very 
well be to record as ' ' light, medium, or black. ' ' While this classi- 
fication cannot be easily defended anthropologically as an accurate 
one, it is just as difficult to suggest a better one. Color charts for 
classifying the skin color are available^ but such an accurate clas- 
sification is not of sufficient importance to justify the added time. 

The relatively complete examination should, if at all possible, be 
made yearly. In situations where this is not possible, however, 
measurements may be made at two-j^ear intervals. At that time the 
' ' Percentage Index of Build, ' ' according to the formula of normal 
weight (computed from sex, age, height, chest girth corrected, hip 
width corrected, and knee width) divided l)y the weight for sex, 
age, and height from the Baldwin-Wood tables (metric, for nude 
weight) should be computed. In the interim between complete 
measurements the norm from the Baldwin-Wood tables multiplied 
by the "Percentage Index of Build" may be used as a substitute 
for normal weight. This procedure is only a make-shift one at best, 
and while it may be used during the years in which there are no 
changes in the status of pubescence without too much error, from 
the onset of puberty until the completion of the pubescent changes, 
the complete measurements should be made each year. It should also 
be borne in mind that where slight errors are made in taking the 
measurements, these Avill be carried over for the next year if the 
"Percentage Index of Build" substitute is used. Therefore, it is 
strongly recommended that the measurements be taken each year. 

Breathing capacity should be checked at least twice a year, and 
the norm computed. For children who are obviously normal in fat 
and muscular development, no other routine measurements need be 
made. For all who appear even slightly doubtful, the check on 
weight and on fat and upper arm girth should also be made semi- 
annually. 

A summary of results should be filed for follow-up purposes, and 
should follow the child from school to school. When the child 
leaves school, these cards should be filed in a permanent file and 



1 For such an instrument see Martin (41). 



METHODS AND NORMS 109 

kept for reference for a number of years. These records should be 
made avaihible to the family physician and other authorized agents. 

A suggested fonn for such a record bhink is given on page 110. 
]Much care should be taken to eliminate the possibility of errors of 
record, which may be such that children in whom important defects 
have been found are recorded as normal. In anthropometric exam- 
inations, this may be due to errors of recording or to errors of com- 
putation. To prevent errors of recording, it is the common i)ractice to 
have the recorder call back the measurement as a check. In cases of 
doubt, the child can always be remeavsured. 

To avoid errors of computation, the work should be checked by 
doing it twice, or by making a careful checking of the figures when 
the computations are made from the tables. All suspicious indices 
should be rechecked. If these are reviewed by teachers who know 
the children, before being sent out to the parents, many errors may 
be avoided. 

THE FOLLOW-UP 

A common fault of many school investigations and measurement 
programs of this kind, including the medical examinations, is a 
lack of follow-up. 

A study by the American Child Health Association (1) has in- 
dicated that only about 2 per cent of all defects found in school 
medical examinations in New York City were ever treated. This is 
an appalling wastage of human material. It should, therefore, be 
the task of administrators of the health program of the schools to 
see that defects and deficiencies discovered should not only be called 
to the attention of the child's parents, but if the parents do nothing 
about it, that further efforts at motivation should be made. 

On the following page appears a copy of the blank used by the 
Iowa Child Welfare Research Station for notifying parents of the 
results of the anthropometric measurements on their chiklren. This 
form is mimeographed with a wide left margin, and any extra- 
ordinary findings are noted there. 

For administrative purposes, the school officer to whom responsi- 
bility for the follow-up is assigned should keep a file of cases need- 
ing such attention. Children with obviously i)(K)r nutriti(m should 
be checked up as to home conditions, economic conditions, and gen- 
eral diet. This will nccessilati' a conference with the parents, and in 
some cases, perhaps, aid from outside .sources. Underdeveloped 
children should be called to the alttiilion of teachers of i)]iysi('ai 
education. It is essential, however, thai this ^'calling attention" is 



110 APPEAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

not considered to fulfill the school's obligation. Attention must be 
given until suitable results are attained. 

EEPORT TO PARENTS ON PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS 

Date of measurement 
Child Age wheu measured 

Years Months 

Height : inches 

- -- - — inches is the average height of American- 
bom children of this age and sex. Your child is therefore short, medium, tall. 
This fact in itself, while of interest, is of no vital sig-nificance, as height is 
largely due to inheritance. If your child is excessively tall or short, it will be 
so noted on the margin. A study of repeated measurements of many thousand 
children shows that as a rule tall children remain tall, and short children re- 
main short as they grow older, although there are exceptions. Tall children 
also tend to mature earlier than short children, and tend to reach their final 
stature earlier. 

Weight: pounds, not including clothing. 

pounds is the average weight, 

and to - pounds is considered the normal range of 

weight for children of this age, sex, height, and general build. This build 
varies from very slender to very stocky, and is determined in this Station from 
measurements of height, chest, hips, and knee. 

Weight Index: The weight index is the per cent overweight or underweight 
outside the zone of normality according to the average weight for build. An 
underweight deviation from the average of less than 4 per cent or an over- 
weight deviation of more than 8 per cent is not considered to be significant, as 
minor functional variations and slight differences in build will frequently ac- 
count for this much variation. Children more than 6 per cent under the aver- 
age or more than 15 per cent over the average may be in need of medical at- 
tention. 

Your child is - per cent overweight, underweight according to that 

standard. 

Underweight may be directly due to a relative lack of normal fat, or to a 
relative underdevelopment of the muscles. If your child has been noted as 
being underweight, the condition of his, her fat and muscle is noted below. 

The thickness of the skin and subcutaneous fat is per cent below 

average for a child of this age (if overweight, this is not stated). 

The muscular development is - per cent below average for this age and 

build (if above the normal, this is not stated). 

Breathing capacity: cubic inches. 

cubic inches is the average breathing 

capacity for this age, height, and weight. If your child has a breathing 

capacity of less than cubic inches, he, she may be in need of 

special attention. 

The information listed above gives a general indication of the i^hysical status 
of your child at the time the measurements were taken. It should be remem- 
bered that actual size is of much less importance than normal growth and de- 



METHODS AND NORMS 111 

velopment. This normal development for age, size, and tj-pe is indicated aljove 
in the measurements given and their relationship to the average. By following 
tliese measurements in this and subsequent reports, the progress of your child 
can readily be determined. 

If you wish to discuss the significance of the findings in tliis report, please 
telephone for an appointment. 

It is, perliaps, not necessaiy to state that the measurements dis- 
cussed in this book do not constitute the entire testing or mea.suring 
program in the schools. The measurements discussed in this volume 
are limited to anthropometric measurements. IMedical assessments, 
tests of posture, and of general motor function are just as im- 
portant, and should be included in the follow-up program. 

In many school systems, the medical examinations go on through- 
out the year. Often a child may not be reached by the phj^sician 
before the last month or two of school. The anthropometric pro- 
gram can be completed rather rapidly, and on the basis of its find- 
ings children exhibiting major deficiencies can be referred at once 
to the physicians for careful examination. These children, also, are 
the ones needing the greatest amount of emphasis in the follow-up. 

TRAINING OF MEASURERS 

The body landmarks and techniques of measurement used in the 
above outlined program will be found in Chapter IX of Appraising 
Physical Statiis: The Selection of Mcnsurcmcnts (40). The meas- 
urements, to be of value, must be accurately taken. It is of greatest 
importance that the directions be followed to the letter, and that 
great care be taken to avoid deviating from the standard techniques 
suggested. If at all possible, the measurers should be trained by 
those who are themselves skilled in the measuring. AVliere tliis is 
not possible, no mea.surer should assume responsibility for a meas- 
urement program until he has practiced for at least ten clock hours 
on techniques, and has, in addition, moasurod at least twenty sub- 
jects twice each to check his accuracy. The two sets of measuiv- 
ments on the same subject siiould agree very closely.^ 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE MEASUREMENT PIMXIKAM 

If lime is not a vital element, it is advi.sable to schedule each sub- 
ject sej)arately, and for about fifteen minutes. He can then Ix' 
measured carefully (with the exception of the strength tests), his 
norms and indices computed, and lln^ results explained to him if he 



1 Sec M<>redith, Howard V.: The rolialiility of antliropomctrif iii(>asuroinent3 
taken on eight- and nine-yea rnld white males. Child Develop., I'JoG, 7, :iJ(3 1^72. 



112 APPKAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

is old enough to understand what they mean. The strength tests 
should be given in the gymnasium, usually by the physical educa- 
tion teacher, and can be administered in groups of twenty or twenty- 
five. 

Where time is important, as it is in many understaffed large 
schools, the anthropometric measurements may be divided into two 
groups. Height, sitting height, weight, and breathing capacity may 
be taken by a trained assistant. This may be any intelligent, care- 
ful pupil, but he must be trained until his accuracy of measurement 
is beyond question. Since these are easy measurements to take, 
however, this training will not take very long. 

The examiner himself should do all other measurements. After 
skill in measuring has been attained, subjects may be measured at 
the rate of about eighteen an hour by this team, provided each 
measurer has a recorder. The measuring will be facilitated if two 
other student assistants are detailed to contact the rooms from which 
the pupils come and to supervise the dressing and undressing. 

Boys may usually be measured nude. Girls may be measured 
nude, or they may wear shorts and a brassiere. Any subjects object- 
ing strenuously to such disrobing may be measured at another time, 
and covered with a poncho-like sheet. 

Perhaps a final statement is in ordor. It should be remembered 
that the anthropometric measurement program and the medical ex- 
amination program only partially serve the same purpose. Neither 
can entirely take the place of the other. Certain pathological con- 
ditions will be found by the medical examination that have not as 
yet effected changes in the anthropometric status of the individual. 
On the other hand, the anthropometric findings will often point to 
incipient pathological changes that are not as yet so readily dis- 
cernible as to be found in the usual routine school medical examina- 
tion, or even in a more thorough examination. Hence, both types 
of examinations should be used. Students whose physical or nutri- 
tional status is the poorest should be given the preference over 
other more normal children in referring them to the school or fam- 
ily physician. All cases found to need medical attention should be 
followed up until adequate attention to the condition has been given. 
Only then will either anthropometric or medical examinations at- 
tain their goals of service to the individual. 



METHODS AND NORMS 



113 



ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS 

Name Address 

School Grade School 

Birth Date Sex Race 



Date of measurement 

Age: Years, months, dajs 

HEIGHT STANDING " 

Height sitting 

Width of shoulders 

Depth of Chest 

Width of chest 

WIDTH OF HIPS: BICRISTAL" 

Width of hijw: bitrochanteric, no 

pressure 
WIDTH OF ELBOW 
WIDTH OF KNEE 
GIRTH OF CHEST 
GIRTH OF UPPER ARM 
GIRTH OF FOREARM 
GIRTH OF THIGH 
GIRTH OF CALF 
FAT: CHEST FRONT 
FAT: CHEST BACK 
FAT : ABDOMEN 
FAT : SUPRA-ILIAC 
Total fat 
Hip difference 
WEIGHT 

BREATHING CAPACITY 
Pubescence 

STRENGTH TESTS* 
RIGHT GRIP 
LEFT GRIP 
BACK LIFT 
LEG LIFT 
PULL-UPS 
PUSH-UPS 

TOTAL STRENGTH 
Weight Index 
Limh-girih Index^ 
Fat Index 

lirealhinfi C(ipacit)l Index 
Physical Fitness Index 
Index of Build 





fat 



1 Indicates correct k.ii oI' inciisurciiiciit iiuidf 

2 Indicates NORMAL nii'iisun'iiuMit 

3ln.S^^ .•o.u,.nt..d from number of pull ups or push-ups aud 

weight 

4 Indicates strength norm , . , , •,, i 

* If strenuth tests are used, the limb g.rtlis mi.y b.' •;";'"'''•. 

# Percentage of npi^'r arm girth mny be subst.tiitrd tor tins. 



114 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS 

Name Address 

School Grade School 

Birth Date Sex Race 



Date of measurement 1 1 1 1 1 


Age: Years, months, days III 1 1 1 


HEIGHT STANDING 1 1 1 1 1 


WIDTH OE HIPS: BICRISTAL j | j | | 


WIDTH OF ELBOW 1 1 1 1 1 


WIDTH OF KNEE 1 1 1 1 1 


GIRTH OF CHEST | |i | |i | i | [i 


GIRTH OF UPPER ARM | |2 | |2 | |2 | |2 | 


FAT— ^CHEST FRONT 1 1 1 1 1 


I'AT— ABDOMEN 1 1 1 1 


J^'AT— SUPRA-ILIAC 1 1 1 1 


J?' AT— CHEST BACK 1 1 1 1 1 


Total Fat | 2 | p | |2 | |2 


WEIGHT 1 2 1 |2 1 |2 1 |2 


BREATHING CAPACITY | |2 | |2 | |2 | |2 | 


Pubescence 1 1 1 1 i 


Weight Index 1 1 1 1 1 


Upper Arm Girth Index 1 1 1 1 1 


Fat Index 1 1 1 1 1 


Breathing Capacity Index 1 1 1 1 1 


Physical Fitness Index 1 1 1 1 1 


Index of Build 1 1 1 1 



1 Indicates correction of measurement made for fat 

2 Indicates NORMAL measurement 

ANTHROPOMETRIC RECORD SUMMARY CARD 
Name Address 

Sex Race 

School Grade 
Age 

Index of Build 
Weight Index 
.Fat Index 
Limb Girth Index 
Physical Fitness Index 
Breathing Capacity Index 



Note : If any measurements have been omitted because the child was obviously 
fit, check with the symbol X. If omitted for any other reasons, indicate with 
the symbol — . 

If the Weight Index was computed from the Baldwin-Wood charts and the 
Index of Build, underscore to so indicate. 

If the Limb Girth Index was computed from arm girth alone, underscore to 
so indicate. 



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116 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

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\/' 



J 



METHODS AND NORMS 117 

34. McCall, William A.: How to measure iu education. New York: Mac- 

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118 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 

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No. 2, 424. (September) 



APPENDIX 



WEIGHT - HEIGHT ■ AGE STA^DARDS (Nude) IN METRIC UMTS 



for 













Amer 


can-Bom Boys of School Age 












Height 


Age. Years 


Height 


6 1 


^ 1 


8 1 


9 1 


10 1 


11 1 


12 1 


13 1 


14 1 


15 1 


16 1 


17 1 


IS 1 


19 


Cm. 














Weight 














Cm, 
















Kb 


















97 


15.0* 




























97 


98 


15.1* 




























98 


99 


15.3* 




























99^ 

100 


100 


■15.5* 




























10! 


1S.7« 




























101 


102 


15.9' 




























102 


103 


16.1* 




























103 


104 


16.6 




























104 


105 


16.8 


16.8' 


























105 


106 


17.0 


17.0* 


























106 


107 


17.2 


17.2« 


17.2* 
























107 


103 


17.5 


17.6* 


17.4* 
























108 


109 


17.8 


17.9* 


17.7* 
























109 


110 


18.3 


18.4* 


18.2* 
























110 


111 


18.9 


18.9* 


18.8* 
























111 


112 


19.4 


19.4 


19.4* 
























112 


113 


19.7 


19.7 


19.7* 
























113 


114 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0* 
























114 

lis 


115 


20.4 


20.4 


20.4* 


20.3* 






















116 


20.7 


20.8 


20.7 


20.6* 






















116 


117 


21.1 


21.2 


21.1 


21.2* 






















117 


118 


21.5 


21.5 


21.4 


21.4* 






















118 


119 


21.9 


21.9 


21.8 


21.7* 






















119 


120 


22.3 


22.4 


22.2 


22.2* 


22.2* 




















120 


121 


22.5 


22.8 


22.7 


22.7* 


22.7* 




















121 


122 


22.9 


23.2 


23.1 


23.2 


23.2* 




















.122 


123 


23.4 


23.5 


23.6 


23.6 


23.5* 




















123 


124 


23.9 


23.8 


24.1 


24.0 


23.8* 




















124 
12r~ 


125 


24.3 


24.3 


24.5 


24.4 


24.2 


24.4* 


















126 


24.6* 


24.9 


24.9 


24.9 


24.8 


24.9* 


















126 


127 


25.0* 


25.3 


25,3 


25.3 


25.4 


25.4* 


25.4* 
















127 


128 




25.9 


25.9 


25.7 


25.9 


25.9* 


25.9* 
















128 


129 




26.4 


26.5 


26.2 


26.4 


26.4* 


26.4* 
















129 


130 




26.9 


27.0 


26.7 


268 


27.0 


269* 
















130 


131 




27.2 


27.4 


27.3 


27.3 


27.5 


27.3* 
















131 


132 




27.5 


27.9 


27.8 


27.8 


28.0 


27.7 
















132 


133 




28.0* 


28.4 


28.4 . 


28.3 


28.5 


28.3 


28.5* 














133 


134 




28.5* 


28.9 


28.9 


28.8 


28.9 


29.0 


29.3* 














134 


135 






2974 


29.4 


2973 


29.4 


29.6 


29.9* 














\i\ 


136 






30.0 


29.9 


29.7 


29.8 


30.3 


30.3* 














136 


137 






30.6 


30.4 


30.2 


30.2 


30.9 


30.7* 














137 


138 






30.9* 


30.8 


30.9 


30.8 


31.3 


31.2 


31.7* 












138 


139 






31.2* 


31.1 


31.5 


31.5 


31.9 


31.8 


32.0* 












139 


140 






31.6* 


31.6 


32.2 


32.2 


32.4 


32.4 


32.5* 












140- 


141 






32.1* 


32.3 


32.9 


32.8 


32.9 


33.2 


33.1* 












141 


142 






32.6* 


33.1 


33.7 


33.5 


33.4 


34.0 


33.7* 












142 


143 








33.6* 


34.1 


34.2 


34.1 


34.7 


34.5 


35.3* 










143 


144 








34.1* 


34.4 


35.0 


34.7 


35.2 


35.5 


35.8* 










1+4 


145 








34.6* 


34.9 


35.7 


35.4 


35.8 


36.3 


36.3* 










• 145 


146 








35.3* 


35.7 


36.2 


36.2 


36.5 


36.9 


37.0* 










146 


147 








36.0* 


36.5 


36.7 


36.9 


37.1 


37.4 


37.7* 










147 


148 










37.0 


37.2 


37.6 


37.8 


38.0 


38.2 










148 


149 










37.5 


37.8 


38.2 


38.4 


38.6 


38.7 










149 


150 










38.1 


38.5 


39.0 


39.1 


39.3 


39.3 


39.2 








ISO 


151 










38.7* 


39.2 


39.5 


397 


40.0 


40.3 


40.3 








151 


152 










■39.4* 


399 


40.0 


40.3 


40.7 


41.3 


41.5 








1.52 


153 












40.5 


40.6 


41.1 


41.6 


42.1 


42.6 








153 


154 












41.0 


41.4 


41.9 


42.5 


42.8 


43.7 








154 


155 












41.5 


42.1 


42.7 


43.4 


43.5 


44.8 


46.3* 






ISS 


156 












42.3* 


42.9 


43.4 


44.0 


44.2 


45.5 


47.2* 






156 


157 












43.2* 


43.8 


44.1 


44.7 


44.9 


46.3 


48.1 






157 


158 












44.0* 


44.6 


44.9 


45.5 


45.8 


47.3 


492 


51.3* 




158 


159 












44.9* 


45.4 


45.8 


46.4 


46.9 


48,6 


50.3 


52.6* 




159 


160 












45.8* 


46.2 


46.7 


47.4 


48.0 


498 


51.5 


53.9 


55.4* 


160 


161 














47.4 


47.3 


48.1 


48.8 


.50.2 


52.0 


S4.4 


55.9* 


161 


162 














48.7 


48.0 


48.8 


49.6 


50.6 


52.5 


54.9 


56.4* 


162 


163 














49.4 


48.8 


496 


50.5 


51.2 


53.2 


SS.5 


57.0' 


163 


164 














49.6* 


49.9 


50.5 


51.4 


52.1 


54.1 


56.3 


57.7* 


164 


165 














49.7* 


S0.9 


51.4 


52.3 


53.1 


55. 1 


57.1 


58.3 


165 


166 
















51.4 


52.1 


53.2 


54.1 


561 


57.9 


59.3 


166 


167 
















51.8 


52.9 


S4.0 


55.1 


57.0 


58.7 


60.3 


167 


168 
















52.3 


53.7 


54.8 


56.1 


57.8 


59.4 


61.0 


168 


169 
















53.1* 


54.7 


55.7 


57.1 


58.5 


60.0 


61.4 


169 


170 
















53.9- 


Sl6 


56.5 


58.1 


59.1 


60.5 


61.7 


170 


171 


















56.7 


57.3 


58.8 


59.9 


61.2 


62.5 


171 


172 


















57.8 


58.0 


58.5 


60.9 


62.0 


63.4 


172 


173 


















58.7 


58.7 


60.2 


61.8 


62.8 


64.2 


173 


174 


















59.2 


59.6 


61.1 


62.7 


63.8 


65.1 


174 


175 


















59.7 


60.4 


61.9 


63.5 


64.7 


6S.9 


175 


176 


















60.5 


61.2 


62.5 


640 


65.3 


66.5 


176 


177 


















61.4 


62.0 


62.9 


64.3 


65.7 


67.2 


177 


178 


















62.4 


62^ 


63.4 


64.7 


66.1 


67.8 


178 


179 


















53.3* 


63.9 


64.5 
.657 


65.4 
661 


66.6 


68.4 


179 


180 


















642* 


65.1 


67.1 


68.8 


180 


181 




















65.8 


</i4 


6f>.7 


67.7 


69.6 


181 


182 




















66.3 


670 


67.3 


68.3 


70.4 


182 


183 




















66.9 


67.6 


68.0 


690 


71.2 


183 


184 




















67.5* 


68.6 
M5 


Wl 
-70:3— 


70.1 
-71.3 


718 


184 


185 




















687* 


->2.r" 


185— 


186 




















fi88* 


71)3 


71.3 


ni 


732 


186 


187 




















69.3* 


7in 


72.3 


73 1 


738 


187 


188 




















f/)S* 


"17 


73 3 


73 


74 4 


188 



•The •.(arrcil fiKurcs rcprr^onl v.iliic3 bawd uiK>n ihcnrclical ciimpulalions, rather than on exact average!. 

Age i^ t.iken at the nr.iresl hiilhilay : tc.r example, a h"V i» cmiMilereil (> year* iM lietween 5 year^. 6 mimths anil 6 
year^. S months, and 29 day*. Height t» taken at the nearest centimeter, weight at the nearest tenth of a kilogram. 

These t.ihlei have been translated and extended from the Daldwin-WcKxl tables in the Englijh jy»tem olmeasurc- 
menl by II. T. Baldwin. Ph P. 

I»ucd by the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station, Stale University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. September, 1924. 



WEIGHT . HEIGHT - AGE STANDARDS (Nude) IN METRIC UNITS 



for 











American-Bom Girls 


of School Age 










Height 
Cm. 


. Age. Years | 


Height 
Cm. 


6 1 


7 1 


8, 1 


9 1 


10 1 


11 1 


12 1 


13 1 


14 1 


15 1 


16 1 


17 1 


18 














Weight 




























Kg. 
















97 




























97 


98 




























98 


99 




























99 


100 


15.3 


























100 


101 


15.7 


























101 


102 


16.0 


16.0* 
























102 


103 


16.1 


16.1* 
























103 


104 


16.3 


16.3* 
























104 
105 


105 


16.6 


16.6» 
























106 


16.8 


16.8« 
























106 


107 


17.1 


17.1 
























107 


108 


17.6 


17.5 
























108 


109 


18.0 


17.8 
























109 


110 


18.2 


18.1 


18.2* 






















110 


111 


18.4 


18.5 


18.4* 






















HI 


112 


18.6 


18.8 


18.6* 






















112 


113 


19.2 


19.3 


19:1* 






















113 


114 
115 


19.7 
20.2 


19.8 


19.7* 






















114 

lis 


201 


20.2 






















116 


20.6 


20.3 


20.8 






















116 


117 


21.0 


20.5 


21.3 


21.2* 


21.2* 


















117 


118 


21.4 


21.1 


21.5 


21.5* 


21.5* 


















118 


119 
■ 120 


21.8 


21.8 


21.8 


21.9* 


21.9* 


















119 
120 


22.3 


22.3" 


22.2 


22.3* 


22.3* 


















121 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7 


22.7* 


22.9* 


















121 


122 


23.1 


23.1 


23.1 


23.2 


23.4 


23.4* 
















122 


123 


23.3 


23.4 


23.5 


23.6 


23.8 


23.7* 
















123 


124 


23.4 


23.7 


23.8 


24.2 


24.1 


24.0* 
















124 


125 


23.7 


24.1 


24.3 


24.7 


24.6 


24.7* 
















125 


126 


24.2' 


24.4 


24.8 


25.2 


25.3 


25.8* 
















126 


127 


24.7» 


24.8 


25.4 


25.8 


26.0 


26.9 


27.3* 














127 


128 




25.2 


25.S 


26.2 


26.4 


27.2 


27.1' 














128 


129 

130 




25.7 


26.2 


26.6 


26.7 


27.5 


26,9 














129 




26.3» 


26.7 


27.0 


27.1 


27.9 


27.3 














130 


131 




27.1' 


27.4 


27.5 


27.7 


282 


28.4 














131 


132 




27.8* 


28.1 


28.0 


28.2 


28.6 


29.S 














132 


133 




28.4* 


28.5 


28.6 


28.8 


291 


,29.9 














133 


134 




28.9* 


29.1 


29.2 


29.5 


29.6 


30.3 














134 
135 


135 






29.6 


29.8 


30.1 


30.1 


30.7 


~3TT»"' 












136 






30.0 


30.4 


30.5 


30.7 


31.0 


31.9' 












l.V. 


137 






30.4 


31.0 


31.0 


31.3 


31.4 


32.2* 












137 


138 






30.9* 


31.6 


31.6 


31.9 


32.0 


32.8* 












138 


139 






31.4* 


32.3 


32.3 


32.5 


32.6 


33.4* 












139 


140 








32.9 


32.9 


33.1 


33.2 


34 1 


34.8* 










140 


141 








33.3 


33.6 


33.7 


34.0 


34.9 


35.6<-- 










141 


142 








33.6 


34.4 


34.3 


34.8 


35-8 


36.5« 










142 


143 








34.2* 


35.1 


35.0 


35.5 


36.3 


37.4* 










143 


144 
145 








34.9* 


35.9 


35.6 


36.0 


36.7 


38.4* 










144 










36.6 


36.4 


366 


37.2 


39,3 


41.1* 








145 


146 










368 


37.3 


37.3 


38.0 


40.3 


42.0' 








W. 


147 










37.1 


38.2 


37.9 


388 


41.4 


42.8' 








147 


148 










37.6 


38.9 


38.6 


39.5 


42.0 


43.5* 


45.1* 






148 


149 
150 










38.2 


39.5 


39.2 


40,3 


42.5 


44.0* 


45.5* 






149 
150 










38.8 


40.2 


39.9 


41.1 


43.0 


44.6 


45.9* 


46.4* 




151 










39.5* 


41.0 


40.8 


41.9 


43.8 


45.5 


46.8* 


47.3* 




151 


152 










40.2* 


41.8 


41.7 


42,7 


44,6 


46.4 


47.7* 


48.1 




152 


153 












42.6 


42.7 


435 


45,4 


47.1 


48.6 


48.9 


49.9* 


153 


154 
155 












43.4 


43.8 


44.2 


46.2 


47.6 


49.4 


49.7 


50.7* 


154 












44:2 


44.8 


45.0 


47.0 


48.1 


50.2 


504 


51.4 


155 


156 












44.1* 


45.5 


45.7 


47.5 


48.9 


507 


51.1 


51.7 


156 


157 












44.0* 


46,2 


4f.,5 


48.1 


40.8 


51,1 


51.8 


52.0 


1.S7 


158 














47.0 


47,4 


48.7 


50,5 


51.4 


52.2 


52.4 


158 


159 














47.9 


48,3 


49.2 


51.0 


51.7 


52.5 


52.7 
53:1 


159 
160 


160 














48.9 


49.2 


498 


51.5 


51.9 


52".8 


161 














49.6* 


49.9 


50.7 


52.1 


52.6 


53.3 


53.6 


161 


162 














50.3* 


50.6 


51.5 


52.7 


5.V2 


53.7 


54.0 


162 


163 














51.0* 


51.4 


52.3 


53.3 


53.8 


54,2 


54.6 


163 


164 














51.7* 


52.2 


53.2 


53.7 


54.3 


54.8 


55.3 


164 


165 














52.4* 


53.1 


54.0 


54.2 


54.8 


55.4 


55.9 


165 


166 
















54.0 


54.5 


54.6 


55.7 


56.1 


56.6 


166 


167 
















54.9 


54.9 


55.0 


56.6 


56.9 


57.4 


167 


168 
















55.6* 


55.5 


5.5.7 


57.4 


57.6 


58.2 


\(» 


160 
















.56.2' 


56.6 


56.9 


58,2 


.58.2 


50.2 


160 


170 
















56.8* 


57.6 


58.0 


58.0 


.SS.O 


(0.1 


170 


171 
















.■;7,3' 


58.2 


58,8 


59.5 


507 


607 


171 


172 
















57.8' 


58.7 


59.5 


60.0 


60.7 


61.1 


172 


173 


















59.1 


60.1 


60.5 


61.4 


61.6 


173 


174 
175 


















596* 


60.5* 


60.9* 


61.8' 


62.3* 


174 


















60.0* 


60.8* 


61.2' 


62.1* 


62.9* 


175 


176 


















60,2* 


61.0* 


61.6' 


62.5* 


63.4* 


176 


177 


















60.4* 


61.2* 


62.0* 


62.8* 


63.7* 


77 


178 


















ia.(<* 


61.5' 


62.4* 


63.2' 


64.0* 


78 


179 


















60.0* 


61.8' 


62.7* 


63.5* 


64.2' 


170 


180 


\ 
















(,1,3' 


(<12' 


63.0* 


63.0- 


(AA' 


1 180 



•The starred figures represent values based upon theoretical computations, rather than on exact a\'erages. 

Age is taken at the nearest birthday ; for example, a girl is considered 6 years old between 5 years. 6 months and 6 
years. 5 months, and 29 days. Height is taken at the neaiest centimeter, weight at the nearest tenth of a kilogram. 

These tables have been translated and extended from the Baldwin-Wood tables in the English system of measure- 
ment by B. T. Baldwin, Ph. D, 

Issued by the luwaJChild Welfare Research Jjtalion, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, Seylember, 1924-. 



122 



Appendix to Chapter X 

THE COMPUTATION OF THE TRISERIAL 
CORRELATION COEFFICIENT 

Where there is some reasonable degree of assurance that a quali- 
tative trait (such as pubescence) is distributed normally within a 
given age range, correlations between this trait and a variable may 
be computed. This has been done with a two category qualitative 
trait by the method of biserial correlation, and this method has been 
extended to three categories in this study. The method of computa- 
tion is as follows : 

Tabulate the figures for each stage of pubescence (prepubescence, 
pubescence, and postpubescence) in three columns using the same 
class intervals in each column, much as a product-moment scatter- 
gram is plotted. Sum these columns, and sum all rows. Let us call 
these three columns 1, 2, and 3 respectively, and the frequencies 
given by the sum of the rows the ' ' frequencies of Y. ' ' 

Compute the mean (Mo) and the standard deviation (Oq) of the 
Y frequencies, and the means of columns 1, 2, and 3 (Mj, Mo, and 
M3). Substract the mean of the Y distri])ution from the mean of 
each column, and divide these results by Oq 



/ Ml — Mq M, — Mq M3 — Mo \ 



The results will be the means of the columns in, terms of devia- 
tions from the mean of the whole distribution. Let us call these 
yi, 72, and y.. 

Compute the centroid of each category of pubescence. This is 
done as follows: Assume tliat this trait has a unit normal distribu- 
tion. Compute the proportion of all the scores in each segment. 

f f f 

These will be^j^, -p^ , -W^ = Pn P2, an^^ !'■. respectively. Then 

find the height of the oi'dinate between each of the categories, from 
the Kelly-Wood lahlcs (2!)) or ffoin Tabic 1 of IVarson's tables 
(45). The Z's in ihcse tables are rouii<l from the P's of each cate- 
gory, cumulating thciii as you go. The cciiti-oid will be: 



124 APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



For column 1 : 



For column 2 : ^~ — - 

P2 

For column 3 : ^ 

Call these values x^, x^, and x^ respectively. 

Since bjo = r^g— ^, and since in this ease a^, and a, each equals 

1, rjo will equal h,,, or the slope of the best fitting- straight line 
through these points, X^Y^, X,Y„ and X,Y^. This b,^ (which equals 
i\.) may be obtained by fitting this line by least squares. The equa- 
tions for this are : 

Spy = bSpx 
2pxy = bSpx^ 

Summing, 2p7 + 2p^ .=: b ( ^px + SpF) . 

But Spy and 2px each equal 0, hence 

b = — ^^^= ^triserial 
2px^ 

DIRECTIONS FOR USING TABLES 

T-SCORE TABLES 
The use of the T-score tables may be illustrated from Table 1. First com- 
pute the value of the index by dividing the cube root of the (normal) weight 
by the standing height. This may be done very rapidly using the "K" scale 
on any polyphase ^ide rule. If the age is 10 and the resulting index is .0191, 
this would give a T-score of 15, or 3.5 standard deviations below the average. 
If the age is 14 and the index is .0242, the T-score would be 70, or two 
standard deviations above the mean for that age. 

''correcting" the chest girth for fat 
deviations from normal 
In column one of Table 20 the male norms are given and in column two, 
the female norms. Find the difference between the actual measurements and 
the norm. Column four gives the correction to be made according to the 
deviations found in column three. If the actual sum of the fat measurements 
is under the norm, add the correction; if over the norm, subtract the correc- 
tion. 

Illustration: A fourteen-year-old boy has a chest front measurement of 10 



METHODS AND NORMS 125 

and a chest back of 12, or a total of 22. The uorn< shown for fourteen-year- 
old males is 29. The deviation is, therefore, 7, and opposite the 7 in the third 
column will be found the correction of 1.1 cms. in the fourth column. Since 
his actual measurements were less than the norm, this correction should be 
added to the chest circumference. 

''correcting" the hip width for fat deviations 

from normal 

In column one of Table 21 the female norms are given and in column two, 
the male norms. Find the difference between the actual measurement and the 
norm. Column four gives the correction to be made according to the deviations 
found in column three. If the actual fat measurement is greater than the 
norm, subtract the correction from the hip width; if the actual fat measure- 
ment is less than the norm, add the correction. 

Illustration: An eleven-year-old girl has a supra-iliac fat measurement of 27. 
The norm for this age is 22. The difference is 5, and in column four is found 
the correction of .4 cm. Since the actual measurement was greater than the 
norm, this correction is subtracted from the liip width. 

WEIGHT PREDICTION TABLES 

In computing normal weight from the following tables, always use the "cor- 
rected" chest circumference and hip width (See Tables 20 and 21). Since the 
regression equation for the prediction of normal weight involves four variables, 
it is necessary to use two tables to compute the normal weight for any one age 
group. The first table in each pair uses the height and "corrected" hip width 
and the second table uses "corrected" chest girtli and knee width. The in- 
tervals used differ from table to table, and interpolation tables are provided 
to facilitate computation when the values do not coincide with those given in the 
table. 

Illustration: Using the tables for four-year-old boys and the following 
measurements: 

Height 110.2 

Hip width 18.9 

Chest girth 54.2 

Knee width 7.2 

In Table 22 in tlic column at the left we find a height of 110, and in tlu> hip 
widths listed across the top we find a hip width of 18.8. Where tins row and 
this column intersect, we find the value 1.'?.5:-?. Turning to tiie interpolation 
table, we find the value of height for .2 and hips for .1 to be .00, wliit-h is 
added to 13.5.3, giving a value of 13.59 for the first table. 

In Table 2.'. in tlic cohimu at the left we find a chest girth of 54, and across 
the top we find a knct! width of 7.2. Where this row and this colunni inter.sect 
we find the value 5..''>2. Turning to the interpolation tal)h', we lind tlie value 
of chest girth for .2 and knee width to 1x5 .05. Adding this to 5.32 we have 

0.>i / . 

Adding the values from tiie two tables we have: i;!.59 -f 5.37 = 18. '.Mi kilo- 
grams, the normal weiglit of tlu; diild. 



126 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



TABLES FOR THE PREDICTION OF NORMAL LIMB GIRTHS 
In computing normal limb girths from the following tables, always use the 
measured chest circumference, not ''corrected" for fat. Two tables are pre- 
sented for each age and sex, the first predicting upper arm and forearm girth 
from uncorrected chest circumference and elbow width, and the second pre- 
dicting thigh and calf girth from uncorrected chest circumference and knee 
width. 

Illustration: Using Table 82 and the following measurements: 

Chest circumference 54.7 
Elbow width 4.7 

In Table 82 in the column at the left w^e find a chest girth of 54.5, and across 
the top we find an elbow width of 4.7. Where this row and this column inter- 
sect we find a value of 16.55 for upper arm and 1G.77 for forearm. Turning 
to the interpolation tables we find the value for .2 chest girth and elbow 
width to be .017 for upper arm and .020 for forearm. Adding these to the 
values found in the niain table we have 16.55 + .017 = 16.57 for upper arm 
and 16.77 + .020 = 16.79 for forearm. In the same way we may use Table 83 
to predict thigh and calf girth. 



TABLE OF NORMAL FAT ME^VSUREMENTS 
The norms for fat measurements are found in Table 140. To use this table 
first sum the actual fat measurements for chest-front, chest-back, abdomen, and 
supra-iliac. Find the difference between this sum and the norm given for total 
fat. With due regard for sign, divide this difference by the difference given 
between the mean and the minimum. This quotient multiplied by 100 gives the 
percentage above or below the norm. 

If for any reason it is desirable to analyze these measurements for different 
parts of the torso, the same process may be repeated with each measurement, 
and with hip difference as well for girls. 
Illustration: For a fifteen-year-old girl: 









III 




V 


Measurement 


I 
Actual 


II 

Norm 


Differ- 
ence 
III 


IV 

Norm- 
Minimum 


Percentage 
lOOxIII 




IV 


Chest front 


15 


17 


- 2 


6 


-33 


Chest back 


16 


19 


- 3 


6 


-50 


Abdominal 


18 


21 


- 3 


8 


-38 


Supra-iliac 


23 


25 


- 2 


11 


-18 


SUM 


72 


82 


-10 


31 


-32 


Hip difference 


72 


50 


+22 


24 


+92 



In most cases only the row headed SUM would be computed, but for purposes 
of illustration all measurements are shown. In tliis case the girl is somewhat 
atypical, as she is 32 per cent under the norm of fat for total measurements, 
but the fat over the trochanter as measured by "hip difference" is 92 per 
cent more than the average. 



METHODS AND NOEMS 127 

STRENGTH TEST TABLES 

In computing the Strength Index or actual strengtli tlic following tests are 
given: Right grip, left grip, back lift, log lift, chinning, and dipping. Before 
these are summed, the number of chins and dips must be converted into chin- 
ning and dipping strength. For boys this is done from Table 141, for girls 
from Tables 146 and 147. 

Illustration: For an eleven-year-old boy weighing 122 pounds who chinned 
12 times and dipped 8 times. 

• In the top half of the table we find the value for 122 pounds. In the left 
hand column we find 120, and across the top we find 2. Where this row and 
this column intersect we fmd the value for weigiit of 16'.). 9. In tiic lower part 
of the table we find the value for 12 chins. In the left liand column we fmd 10 
and across the top we find 2. Where this row and this column intersect we 
find the value for chins to be 41.0. Adding, 169.9 + 41.0 = 210.9 or 211, the 
chinning strength. In the same manner dipping strengtli is computed from the 
same table for boys. For girls Table 146 is used to compute chinning strength, 
and 147 to compute dipping strength. 

The chinning and dipping strengths are then summed with the right grip, 
left grip, back lift, and leg lift to give the Strength Index. 

The strength test norms are found in Table 142 for boys and Table 14S for 
girls. The Strength Index x 100 divided by the norm gives the Physical Fit- 
ness Index in terms of per cent of the norm. 

Illustration: For an eleven-year-old boy: 



Age 


11 


Weight 


122 


Right grip 


92 


Left grip 


90 


Back lift 


305 


Leg lift 


590 


Chins 


12 


Dins 


8 



Converting the number of chins and dips into chinning and dipping strength 
we have chinning strength = 211 and dipping strength = 201. Adding these 
to the right and left grips and the back lift and leg lift, we have: 92 + 90 + 
305 + 590 -4- 211 + 201 = 1489, the Strength Index. 

In Table 142 we find the norm for an eleven-year-old boy weighing 122 
pounds to be 1307. Multiplying the actual strength by 100 and dividing by 

the norm we have 122^^ A'*^ = 109 per cent, the Physical Fitness Index. 

1367 
In Tables 143 to 145 and 148 norms are siiown for certain variations of the 
strength test. These are used in the same manner as shown in tiif illustration. 



128 



APPRAISING PHYSICAL STATUS 



Table 20 

Norms for Correction of 
Chest Girths 



A^e 


Norm 


Devi- 
ation 


Cor- 
rection 


Male 


Female 


29 




49 


1 


.1 


28 




48 


2 


.3 


27 




48 


3 


.5 


26 


41 


48 


4 


.6 


26 


40 


47 


5 


.8 


24 


39 


46 


6 


.9 


23 


39 


44 


7 


1.1 


22 


38 


44 


8 


1.3 


21 


36 


44 


9 


1.4 


20 


35 


44 


10 


1.6 


19 


34 


44 


11 


1.7 


18 


34 


43 


12 


1.9 


17 


33 


41 


13 


2.0 


16 


31 


39 


14 


2.2 


15 


29 


37 


15 


2.4 


14 


29 


35 


16 


2.5 


15 


28 


34 


17 


2.7 


12 


27 


33 


18 


2.8 


11 


27 


32 


19 


3.0 


10 


27 


31 


20 


3.1 


9 


27 


30 


21 


3.3 


8 


26 


30 


22 


3.5 


7 


26 


28 


23 


3.6 


6 


26 


27 


24 


3.8 


5 


26 


27 


25 


3.9 


4 


25 


27 


26 


4.1 


3 


28 


28 


27 

28 
29 
30 


4.2 
4.4 
4.6 
4.7 



The norm is for the simi of "Chest 
Front" and "Chest Back" fat 
measurements . 



IMETHODS AND NORMS 



129 



Table 21 

Norms for Correction of 
Hip Widths 



Age 


Norm 


Devi- 
ation 


Cor- 
rection 


Girls 


Boys 


4 


17 


15 


1 


.1 


5 


17 


15 


2 


.2 


6 


17 


15 


3 


• 2 


7 


18 


15 


4 


.3 


8 


20 


16 


5 


• 4 


9 


21 


16 


6 


.5 


10 


21 


17 


7 


.6 


11 


22 


17 


8 


.7 


12 


22 


17 


9 


.8 


13 


23 


17 


10 


.9 


14 


23 


17 


11 


1.0 


15 


25 


17 


12 


1.1 


16 


25 


17 


13 


1.1 


17 


26 


17 


14 


1.2 


18 


26 


18 


15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 


1.3 
1.4 
1.5 
1.6 
1.7 
1.8 
1.9 
1.9 
2.0 
2.1 
2.2 
2.3 






G 
u n 



m o 

S5 



ss 



N 






o 




m3 




■a 


i- 


nS 




►^ 




o o 




CQ O 




fl 




«H O 




O h 




o 




?l 




<g o 




f3.i 




o o 




rt 




*H *i 




U o 




»_^ o 




j3 




•PO 




ft 




^ 




o 




& 




CO 




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Table 73 

prediotlng Weight (Kilograms) of Girls, A^e Fourteen Years, Prom Height, Hips, 

Cheat Circumference and Eaee (Centimeters) (Weight = .2170 height 

+ .3422 hipa *■ .6167 chest circumference + 5.7&42 

knaa - 84.4909; R » .9041) 



Chest 
Circum- 
ference, 
Centi- 
meters 


Knee /lidta, Centiaaters 1 


6.3 


6.6 


6.9 


7.2 


7.5 


7.8 


8.1 


8.4 


8.7 


9.0 


9.-5 


9.<; 


9.9 


10.2 


10.5 


10.8 


U.l 


90.0 
88.5 
87.0 
85.5 
84.0 
82.5 
81.0 
79.5 
78.0 
76.5 
75.0 
73.5 
72.0 
70.5 
69.0 
67.5 
66.0 
64.5 
63.0 
61.5 
60.0 
58.5 
57.0 
55.5 
54.0 
52.5 


44.03 45.17 46.30 47.44 48.57 49.71 50.84 51.98 53.11 54.25 55.39 56.52 57.66 58.79 59.93 61.06 62.20 

43.10 44.24 45.38 46.51 47.65 4fi.78 49.92 51.05 52.19 53.32 54.46 55.59 56.73 57.36 59.00 60.13 61.27 
42.18 43.31 44.45 45.58 46.72 47.85 48.99 50.12 51.26 52.39 53.53 64.66 55.80 56.93 58.07 59.21 60.34 

41.25 42.38 43.52 44.65 45.79 46.92 48.06 49.20 50.33 51.47 52.60 53.74 54.87 56.01 57.14 58.23 59.41 
40.32 41.46 42.39 43.73 44.86 46.00 47.13 43.27 49.40 50.54 51.67 52.31 53.94 55.03 56.21 57.35 68.48 

39.39 40.53 41.66 42.80 43.93 45.07 46.20 47.34 43.47 49.61 50.74 51.33 53.02 54.15 55.29 56.42 67.56 

38.46 39.60 40.73 41.97 43.01 44.14 45.28 46.41 47.55 48.63 49.32 50.95 52.09 53.22 54.36 55.49 56.63 
37.54 38.67 39.31 40.94 42.03 43.21 44.35 45.48 46.62 47.75 48.89 50.02 51.16 52.29 53.43 54.57 55.70 

36.61 37.74 38.38 40.01 41.15 42.23 43.42 44.55 45.69 46.33 47.96 49.10 50.23 51.37 52.50 53.64 54.77 

35.68 36.32 37.95 39.09 40.22 41.36 42.49 43. :3 44.76 45.90 47.03 43.17 49.30 50.44 51.57 52.71 53.34 

34.75 35.39 37.02 38.16 39.29 40.43 41.56 42.70 43.33 44.97 46.10 47.24 43.38 49.51 50.65 51.78 52.92 

33.32 34.96 36.09 37.23 38.37 39.50 40.64 41.77 42.91 44.04 45.18 46.31 47.45 <3-^ "-'Z SO-SS 51.99 
32.90 34.03 35.17 36.30 37.44 38.57 39.71 40.34 41.39 43.11 44.25 45.33 46.62 4''-o5 48.79 49.92 51.06 
31.97 33.10 34.24 35.37 36.51 37.64 38.73 39.91 41.05 42.19 43.32 44.45 45.59 46.73 47.36 49.00 50.13 

31.04 32.13 33.31 34.45 35.53 36.72 37.35 38.93 40.12 41.26 42.39 43.53 44.66 45.80 46.93 48.07 49.20 

30.11 31.25 32.33 33.52 34.65 35.79 36.92 38.05 39.19 40.33 41.46 42.60 43.73 44.97 46.01 47.14 48.28 
29.18 30.32 31.45 32.59 33.72 34.86 36.00 37.13 38.27 39.40 40.54 41.67 42.81 43.94 45.08 46.21 47.35 

23.26 29.39 30.53 31.66 32.30 33.93 35.07 36.20 37.34 38.47 39.61 40.74 41.33 ^'-Ol ".15 45.23 46.42 

27.33 28.46 29.60 30.73 31.87 33.00 34.14 35.27 36.41 37.55 38.68 39.32 40.95 *2-09 <3-22 44.36 45.49 

26.40 27.53 23.67 29.81 30.94 32.08 33.21 34.35 35.43 36.62 37.75 38.99 40.02 41.16 42.29 43.43 44.56 

25.47 26.61 27.74 28.39 30.01 31.15 32.23 33.42 34.55 35.69 36.82 37.96 39.09 40.23 41.37 42.50 43.64 
24.54 25.63 26.81 27.95 29.08 30.22 31.36 32.49 33.63 34.76 35.90 37.03 38.17 39.30 40.44 41.57 42.71 

23.62 24.75 26.39 27.02 28.16 29.29 30.43 31.56 32.70 33.83 34.97 36.10 37.26 ^a-" ^9-51 40.64 41.73 

22.69 23.32 24.96 26.09 27.23 23.56 £9.50 30.63 31.77 32.90 34.04 35.18 36.31 S'-^S 33.68 39.72 40.35 

21.76 22.39 24.03 25.17 26.30 27.44 28.57 29.71 30.34 31.93 33.11 34.25 35.38 36.52 37.65 38.79 39.92 
20.83 21.97 23.10 24.24 25.37 26.51 27.64 28.78 29.91 31.05 32.18 33.32 34.45 15.69 36.72 37.36 39.00 



Interpolation Table 



Cheat 




Knee 




Clrcun- 








ference 





.1 


.2 








.378 


.757 


.1 


.062 


.440 


.819 


.2 


.124 


.502 


.881 


.3 


.136 


.564 


.942 


.4 


.247 


.626 


1.004 


^ J 


.309 


.638 


1.C66 


.6 


.371 


.750 


1.128 


.7 


.433 


.812 


1.190 


.8 


.405 


.673 


1.252 


.S 


.557 


.£35 


1.314 


l.C 


.619 


.997 


1.376 


1.1 


.681 


1.059 


1.437 


1.2 


.742 


1.121 


1.499 


1.3 


.804 


1.183 


1.561 


1.4 


.866 


1.245 


1.623 



Table 74 

rredlctlng Weight (Ellograiu) of Clrla, Age Fifteen Years, Pron Hoight. Hlpa, 

Cheat Circumference and Kneo (Centimeters) (Weight c .1646 height 

♦ .7290 hlpe ♦ . &fa70 cheat circumference ♦ 4.7566 

kr.oe - 77.6a06; R = .6460) 



HeliBt, 
Centl- 
Betera 




















aip iiath. 


:er>tlDetere 




















22.61 


£3.0 


.3.6 


.4.0 


24.6 


25.0 


.6.6 


.6.0 


26.6 


.7.0 


.7.6 


120.0 


[28.5 


|29.0 


29.5 


30.0 1 


30.6 


31.0 


31.5 


32.0 


32.5 




177.0 


6.09 


5.46 


5.8^ 


6. IS 


6.64 


6.91 


7.27 


7.64 


8.00 


8.37 


8.73 


9.10 


9.46 


9.82 


10.19 


10.65 


10.92 


11.28 


11.65 


1..01 


12.38 




175.5 


4.86 


5.22 


5.68 


6.95 


6.31 


6.68 


7.04 


7.40 


7.77 


8.13 


8.60 


8.86 


9.23 


9.69 


9.»« 


10.32 


10.69 


11.05 


11.41 


11.78 


12.14 




174.0 


4.62 


4.99 


5.36 


5.71 


6.08 


6.44 


6.81 


7.17 


7.54 


7.90 


8.27 


8.63 


9.00 


9.36 


9.72 


10.09 


10.46 


10.32 


11.18 


11.55 


11 91 




172.5 


4.39 


4.75 


6.12 


5.48 


6.85 


6.21 


6.58 


6.94 


7.31 


7.67 


8.03 


8.40 


8.76 


9.13 


9.49 


9.86 


10.22 


10.69 


10.95 


11.12 


11.68 




171.0 


4.16 


4.52 


4.39 


5.25 


5.62 


5.98 


6.34 


6.71 


7.07 


7.44 


7.80 


8.17 


8.63 


8.90 


9.26 


9.63 


9.99 


10.35 


10.72 


11.06 


11.46 




169.5 


3.93 


4.29 


4.66 


5.02 


5.33 


5.75 


6.11 


6.49 


6.84 


7.21 


7.57 


7.94 


9.30 


8.66 


9.03 


9.39 


9.76 


10.12 


10.49 


10.95 


11.22 




168.0 


3.69 


4.06 


4.42 


4.79 


5.15 


5.62 


5.98 


6.26 


6.61 


6.97 


7.34 


7.70 


8.97 


6.43 


8.80 


9.16 


9.53 


9.89 


10.25 


10.62 


10.96 




166.5 


3.46 


3.33 


4.19 


4.56 


4.92 


5.23 


5.65 


6.01 


6.38 


6.74 


7.11 


7.47 


7.34 


8.20 


8.66 


S.9S 


9.29 


9.66 


10.02 


10.39 


10.76 




166.0 


3.23 


3.69 


3.96 


4.32 


4.69 


5.05 


5.42 


6.78 


6.15 


6.51 


6.38 


7.24 


7.60 


7.97 


8.33 


8.70 


9.06 


9.43 


9.79 


10.16 


10.62 




163.5 


3.00 


3.36 


3.73 


4.09 


4.46 


4.82 


5.19 


5.55 


6.91 


6.28 


6.64 


7.01 


7.37 


7.74 


8.10 


8.47 


8.83 


9.19 


9.66 


8.92 


10.29 




162.0 


2.77 


5.13 


3.60 


3.36 


4.22 


4.59 


4.95 


S.J2 


5.69 


6.05 


6.41 


6.79 


7.14 


7.60 


7.97 


8.23 


8.60 


B.98 


9.33 


9.69 


10.06 




160.5 


2.63 


2.90 


3.26 


3.63 


3.99 


4.36 


4.72 


5.09 


5.45 


5.81 


6.18 


6.64 


6.91 


7.27 


7.54 


8.00 


8.37 


8.73 


9.10 


9.46 


9.82 




159.0 


2.30 


2.67 


3.03 


3.40 


3.76 


4.12 


4.49 


4.05 


5.22 


5.59 


6.95 


6.31 


6.68 


7.04 


7.41 


7.77 


8.13 


8.50 


8.86 


9.23 


9.59 




157.5 


2.07 


2.44 


2.30 


3.16 


3.53 


3.39 


4.26 


4.62 


4.99 


5.35 


5.72 


6.06 


6.44 


6.81 


7.17 


7.54 


7.90 


8.27 


8.63 


9.00 


9.36 




156.0 


1.34 


2.20 


2.57 


2.93 


3.30 


3.56 


4.03 


4.39 


4.75 


S.12 


5.48 


5.35 


6.21 


6.58 


6.94 


7.31 


7.67 


8.04 


8.40 


8.76 


9.13 




154.6 


1.61 


1.97 


2.34 


2.70 


3.0« 


3.43 


3.79 


4.16 


4.52 


4.89 


6.26 


6. 02 


6.98 


6.35 


6.71 


7.07 


7.44 


7.80 


8.17 


8.53 


8.90 




153.0 


1.37 


1.74 


2.10 


2.47 


2.33 


3.20 


3.66 


3.93 


4.29 


4.66 


5.02 


6.38 


5.75 


6.11 


6.48 


6.84 


7.21 


7.57 


7.94 


8.30 


8. 66 




161.5 


1.14 


1.61 


1.87 


2.24 


2.60 


2.97 


3.33 


3.69 


4.C« 


4.42 


4.79 


6.15 


6.62 


5.39 


6.26 


6.61 


6.97 


7.34 


7.70 


8.07 


8.43 




160.0 


.91 


1.28 


1.64 


2.(j0 


2.37 


2.73 


3.10 


3.46 


3.83 


4.19 


4.66 


4.92 


6.29 


6.65 


6.01 


6.38 


6.74 


7.11 


7.47 


7.84 


8.«) 




na.5 


.68 


1.04 


1.41 


1.77 


2.14 


2.50 


2.87 


3.23 


3. CO 


3.96 


4.32 


4.6« 


5.05 


6.42 


5.78 


6.16 


6.61 


6.38 


7.24 


7.60 


7.97 




147.0 


.45 


.81 


1.18 


1.54 


1.91 


2.27 


2.CS 


3.00 


3.36 


3.73 


4.09 


4.46 


4.82 


5.19 


5.56 


6.111 


6.28 


6.64 


7.01 


7.37 


7.74 




145.5 


.22 


.56 


.M 


1.31 


1.67 


2.04 


2.40 


2.77 


3.13 


3.60 


3.S6 


4.22 


4.59 


4.95 


5.32 


5.S8 


6.06 


6.41 


. 6.78 


7.14 


7.61 





Interpolation Teble 









Hlpe 











.1 


.2 


.3 


.4 








.07 


.16 


.22 


.!» 


.1 


.02 


.09 


.16 


.23 


.31 


.2 


.03 


.10 


.18 


.26 


.32 


.3 


.05 


.12 


•.19 


.84 


.34 


.4 


.04 


.13 


.21 


.28 


.35 


.6 


.06 


.16 


.22 


.30 


.37 


.« 


.09 


.17 


.24 


.31 


.68 


.7 


.11 


.18 


.26 


.33 


.40 


.8 


.12 


.20 


.27 


.34 


.42 


.9 


.14 


.21 


.29 


.66 


.43 


1.0 


.16 


.23 


.30 


.57 


.46 


1.1 


.17 


.a 


.32 


.39 


.46 


1.2 


.19 


.26 


.33 


.40 


.48 


1.3 


.20 


.27 


.36 


.42 


.49 


1.4 


.22 


.29 


.36 


.44 


.61 



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27 19 
36 19 
46 13 
56 17 


66 16 
76 15 
85 14 
95 13 


05 12 
15 11, 
25 10 
34 9. 


01 03 

* * 
*in 




8i 




.54 29 
.63 28 
.73 27 


.83 26 
93 25 
03 24 
12 23 


22 22 
32 21 
42 21 
52 20 


61 19 
71 13 
31 17 
91 16 


01 15 
10 14 
20 13 
30 12 


40 12 
50 11 
59 10 
69 9 


CO c- 

Ol 01 

e-eo 




H 
CO 




.89 28 
.98 27 
.08 26 


.13 25 

,23 24 

33 24 

47 23 


57 22 
67 21 
77 20 
87 19 


96 18 
06 17 
60 16 
26 15 


36 15 
45 14 
55 13 
65 12 


75 11 
85 10, 
94 9 
04 8, 


r- to 
** 

rHCM 




o 

CM 




.24 27 
.33 26 

.43 26 


.53 25 
63 24 
73 23 
32 22 


92 21 
02 20 
12 19 
22 13 


31 17 
41 17 
51 16 
61 15 


71 14 
80 13 
90 12 
00 11 


O Ol CD CD 

rH 

O O Ol CJl 

rH CJ CM to 


e- to 

(31 01 

* in 




0) 

rH 




.58 27 
.63 26 
.73 25 


38 24 

.98 23 

07 22 

17 21 


27 20 
37 20 
47 19 
66 18 


66 17 
76 16 
86 15 
96 14 


05 13 
15 12 
25 11 
35 11 


o O) CO c- 

rH 

in * * * 
* in to t- 


ID in 
** 

03 01 




00 
rH 




to m* 

CM CM CO 


to CM CM rH 
CM « CM ->] 


o CJl CO e- 

CM rH rH rH 


to in * 10 

•-<rHrHrH 


tOCM rH O 

~^ rH rHrH 


O) 03 C- to 


in * 




« 


Oino 
incM o 


in o in o 
e- in CM o 


in o in o 
e- in CM o 


in o ino 
c- in CM o 


in o in o 
c incM o 


m o in o 
c~ in CM o 


in o 
e- in 




CM CM CM 
i-tr-trH 


rHrH rHrH 
rH rHrHrH 


o o o o 

r~i rH rH i-i 


(31 (31 Ol CJl 


00 CO CO CO 


c- e- e- e- 


to to 



toe- 1- 03 Ol 

0> CD * O to CM 

. in O) to lo o 



rHrH CM to * 

CO CM 03 * O to 

• lO (O CM to (31 







rHrHrH 






to tor- 03 01 




e- 


.45 

1 .81 

2 1.17 

3 1.53 

4 1.89 




to 


CJl in rHe- to 

to C- rH * CD 
rHrHrH 


» 






rH 




in to e- CO CJl 


.o 


in 


CM CO * O to 


Hi 


. 


to to o * e- 


EH 


o 






ft 


rH rH rH 


a 


«H 




n 


M 


O rHCM to * 


«-i 


* 


<OCM CO * O 


*i 




CM tool to t- 


a 




• • . • « 


rH 




rH rH 


O 






D, 




in to e- CO CO 


U 


K3 


Ol in rH e- to 


C 


. 


rH in CO CM to 


■!-> 











rHrH 


M 




O rHCM to to 




W 


too) in rH c- 

rH * 03 01 in 
. • . • • 

rH rH 

in loe- e- CD 




rH 


to CM CO* o 

o * c~ rH in 



rHCM CM to 
to CM 00 * 

o toe- o * 



188 



Table 32 

Honu for Upper Arm and Forearm of Pour-Year-Old Boys (Dpper arm = .0915 ebefet 
circumference + 1.6762 elbow + 2.7475; forearm = .0988 
chest circumference + 1.8745 elbow ♦ 2.6760) 



Chest 
Circum- 
ference, 














Elbow Width, C 


sntlmsters 
















4.0 


4.1 


1 

4.2 


4.3 


4.4 


4.5 


4.6 


4.7 


4.8 


4.9 


5.0 


5.1 


5.2 


5.3 


5.4 


5.5 


Centi- 




































meters 




































59.0 


OA 


15.65 


15.83 


16.02 


16.21 


16.40 


16,59 


16.77 


16.96 


17.15 


17.54 


17.53 


17.71 


17.90 


18.09 


18.26 


18.46 




FA 


15.90 


16.09 


16.28 


16.47 


16.65 


16.34 


17.03 


17.22 


17.40 


17.59 


17.73 


17.97 


18.16 


18.34 


18.53 


18.71 


58,5 


UA 


15.60 


15.79 


16.98 


16.16 


16.36 


16.54 


16.73 


16.92 


17.10 


17.29 


17.48 


17.67 


17.86 


18.04 


16.23 


16.42 




FA 


15.86 


16.04 


16. ■23 


16.42 


16.60 


16.79 


16.98 


17.17 


17.36 


17.54 


17.73 


17.92 


18.10 


16.29 


18.48 


18.67 


S8.0 


UA 


15.56 


15.74 


16.93 


16.12 


16.31 


16.49 


16. 6S 


16.87 


17.06 


17.26 


17.43 


17.62 


17.81 


18.00 


16.19 


18. .17 




FA 


15.80 


15.99 


16.18 


16.37 


16.55 


16.74 


16.93 


17.12 


17.30 


17.49 


17.68 


17.37 


18.05 


15.24 


16.43 


18.62 


57.5 


UA 


15.51 


16.70 


16.89 


16.07 


16.26 


16.45 


16.64 


16.82 


17.01 


17.20 


17.39 


17.58 


17.76 


17.95 


18.14 


18.33 




FA 


15.76 


15.94 


16.13 


16.32 


16.50 


16.69 


16.88 


17.07 


17.25 


17.44 


17,63 


17.82 


16.00 


18.19 


18.38 


18.67 


57.0 


UA 


16.46 


16.65 


15.84 


16.03 


16.22 


16.40 


16.59 


16.73 


16.97 


17.16 


17.34 


17.63 


17.72 


17.91 


16.09 


18.28 




PA 


15.71 


15.89 


16.08 


16.27 


16.46 


16.64 


16.83 


17.02 


17.21 


17.39 


17.68 


17.77 


17.96 


18.14 


16.33 


18.52 


56.5 


UA 


15.42 


16.61 


15.79 


15.98 


16.17 


16.36 


16.55 


16,73 


16.92 


17.11 


17.30 


17.48 


17.67 


17,86 


16.05 


16.24 




FA 


15.66 


16.84 


16.03 


16.22 


16.41 


16.69 


16.79 


16.97 


17.16 


17.34 


17.63 


17.72 


17.91 


18.09 


18.26 


18.47 


56.0 


UA 


16.37 


15.66 


16.75 


15.94 


16.12 


16.31 


16.50 


16.69 


16.88 


17.06 


17.25 


17.44 


17.63 


17.81 


18.00 


18.39 




FA 


15.61 


15.79 


15.08 


16.17 


16.36 


16.54 


16.73 


16.92 


17.11 


17.29 


17.48 


17.67 


17.86 


18,04 


16.23 


16.42 


SS.5 


UA 


16.33 


15.52 


15.70 


15.39 


16.08 


16.27 


16.45 


16.64 


16,83 


17.02 


17.21 


17.39 


17.58 


17.77 


17.96 


18.14 




FA 


16.65 


15.74 


15.93 


16.12 


16.31 


16.49 


16.68 


16.87 


17.06 


17.24 


17.43 


17.62 


17.81 


17,99 


16.38 


16.37 


55.0 


UA 


15.28 


16.47 


15.66 


15.36 


16.03 


16.22 


16.41 


16.60 


16.78 


16.97 


17.16 


17.36 


17.54 


17.72 


17.91 


18.10 




FA 


15.51 


15.70 


15.38 


16.07 


16.26 


16.46 


16.63 


16.82 


17.01 


17.20 


17.38 


17.57 


17.76 


17,94 


18.33 


18.32 


54.5 


UA 


16.24 


15.42 


15.61 


15.80 


15.99 


16.18 


16.36 


16.55 


16.74 


16.93 


17.11 


17.30 


17.49 


17.68 


17.87 


18.05 




FA 


16.46 


15.65 


15.33 


16.02 


16.21 


16.40 


16.58 


16.77 


16.96 


17.15 


17.33 


17.52 


17.71 


17,90 


18.08 


18.27 


54.0 


UA 


15.19 


15.38 


15.57 


15.76 


15.94 


16.13 


16.32 


16.51 


16.69 


16.88 


17.07 


17.26 


17.44 


17.63 


17.82 


18.01 




PA 


15.41 


16.60 


16,78 


15.97 


16.16 


16.36 


16.53 


16.72 


16.91 


17.10 


17.28 


17.47 


17.66 


17.65 


18.03 


18.22 


53.5 


UA 


15.14 


15.33 


15.52 


16.71 


15.90 


16.08 


16.27 


16.46 


16,65 


16.34 


17.02 


17.21 


17.40 


17.69 


17.77 


17.96 




FA 


15.36 


16.56 


15.73 


15.92 


16.11 


16.30 


16.48 


16.67 


16.86 


17.05 


17.23 


17.42 


17.61 


17.80 


17,98 


18.17 


53.0 


UA 


16,10 


15.29 


16.47 


15.66 


15.85 


16.04 


16.23 


16.41 


16,60 


16.79 


16.98 


17.17 


17.35 


17,64 


17.73 


17.92 




FA 


16.31 


16.60 


15.69 


15.87 


16.06 


16.25 


16.44 


16.62 


16.81 


17.00 


17.18 


17.37 


17.66 


17,75 


17.93 


18.12 


52.5 


UA 


15.05 


15.24 


15.43 


15.62 


15.80 


16.99 


16.18 


16.37 


16,66 


16.74 


16.93 


17. li 


17.31 


17.50 


17.68 


17.87 




FA 


15.26 


15.46 


15,64 


15. R£ 


16.01 


16.20 


16, .-^9 


16.67 


16, "6 


16.95 


17.14 


17.32 


17.61 


17.70 


17.89 


16.07 


S2.0 


UA 


15.01 


15. 2C 


15.38 


15.57 


15.76 


15.96 


16,13 


16.32 


l:.bl 


16.70 


16.89 


17.07 


17.26 


17. .JS 


17.t-4 


17.63 




FA 


15.21 


15.40 


15.69 


15.77 


16.96 


16.16 


16.34 


16.52 


16.71 


16.90 


17,09 


17.27 


17.46 


17,66 


17,84 


18.02 


51.5 


UA 


14.96 


16.15 


15.34 


16.63 


15.71 


16.90 


16.09 


16.26 


16,46 


16.65 


16.84 


17.03 


17.22 


17.40 


17.69 


17.78 




FA 


15.16 


15.35 


16.64 


15.72 


16.91 


16.10 


16,29 


16.47 


16.66 


16.85 


17.04 


17.22 


17.41 


17.60 


17,79 


17.97 


51.0 


UA 


14.92 


15.10 


15.29 


15.48 


16.67 


15,86 


16,04 


16.23 


16.42 


16.61 


16.79 


16,96 


17.17 


17.36 


17.65 


17.73 




FA 


15,11 


15.30 


15.49 


16.68 


15.86 


16.05 


16,24 


16.42 


16.61 


16.80 


16.9° 


17, )7 


17.36 


17.55 


17.74 


17.92 


60. S 


UA 


14.87 


15.06 


16.26 


15.43 


15.62 


16.81 


16,00 


16.19 


16,37 


16.66 


16.76 


16,94 


17.32 


17.31 


17.60 


17.69 




FA 


15.06 


15.26 


16.44 


16.63 


15.81 


16.00 


16.19 


16.38 


16., S6 


16.75 


16.94 


17,13 


17.31 


17.50 


17.69 


17.86 


50.0 


UA 


14.83 


15.01 


15.20 


15.39 


15.58 


15.76 


15,95 


16.14 


16.33 


16.52 


16.70 


16.89 


17.08 


17.27 


17.45 


17.64 




FA 


15.01 


15.20 


15.39 


15.. se 


16.76 


15.95 


16.14 


16.33 


16.61 


16.70 


16.89 


17.08 


17.26 


17.45 


17.64 


17.83 


49.5 


UA 


14.73 


14.97 


15.16 


15.34 


lS..'i3 


15.72 


15.91 


16.09 


16.28 


16.47 


16.66 


16.85 


17.03 


17.22 


17.41 


17.60 




FA 


14.96 


15.16 


16.34 


15.53 


15.7] 


15.90 


16.09 


16.28 


16. "6 


16.65 


16.84 


17.03 


17.21 


IV. 40 


17.69 


17.78 


49.0 


UA 


14.73 


14.92 


15. ]1 


16.30 


15.49 


16.67 


15. P6 


16.05 


16.24 


16.42 


16.61 


16.80 


16.99 


17.16 


17.36 


17.55 




FA 


14.92 


16.10 


15.29 


15.48 


15.67 


15.85 


16.04 


16.23 


16.41 


16.60 


16.79 


16.96 


17.16 


17.35 


17,64 


17.73 


48.5 


UA 


14.69 


14.88 


15.06 


15.26 


16.44 


16.63 


15.82 


16.00 


16.19 


16.38 


16.57 


16.75 


16.94 


17.13 


17,32 


17.51 




FA 


14.87 


15.05 


15.24 


16.43 


15.62 


15.60 


16.99 


16.18 


16.37 


16.55 


16.74 


16.93 


17.12 


17.30 


17.49 


17.68 


48.0 


UA 


14.64 


14,83 


15.02 


16.21 


15.39 


15.56 


15.77 


15.96 


16.1.S 


16. .^3 


16.52 


16.71 


16.90 


17.08 


17,27 


17.46 




FA 


14.82 


15.00 


15.19 


16.38 


15.57 


35.76 


15.94 


16.13 


16.32 


16.50 


16.69 


16.88 


17.07 


17.25 


17.44 


17.63 


47.5 


UA 


14.60 


14.78 


14.97 


15.16 


15.36 


16.54 


15.72 


15.91 


16,10 


16.29 


16.48 


16.66 


16.85 


17.04 


17.23 


17.41 




FA 


14.77 


14.95 


15.14 


15.33 


16.52 


15.70 


15.89 


16.06 


16.27 


16.45 


16.64 


16.63 


17.02 


17.20 


17.39 


17.58 


47.0 


UA 


14.56 


14.74 


14.93 


15.11 


16.30 


15.49 


16.68 


16.87 


16.05 


16.24 


16.43 


16.62 


16.81 


16.99 


17.18 


17.37 




PA 


14.72 


14.91 


15.09 


15.28 


16.47 


15.65 


15.84 


16.03 


16.22 


16.40 


16.59 


16.78 


16.97 


17.16 


17.34 


17.53 



Interpolation Table 

Elbow 
Chest Upper Fore- 
Clrcum- Arm arm 
fexence q q 



.1 


.009 


.CIO 


.2 


■.018 


.020 


.3 


.027 


.030 


.4 


.037 


.040 



IS!) 



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195 



Table 89 

noma for Thigh ond Calf of Sevan-Year-old Boys (Thigh » .5504 chest clrcuniTererce 

+ 2. 1608 knee - 14.9098; calf = .2626 chest circumference 

+ 1.6961 knee - 3.7227) 



Chest 
Circum- 














Knee width. Cent 


meters 














































ference, 




6.4 


6.6 


6.8 


7,0 


7.2 


7.4 


7.6 


7.8 


8.0 


8.2 


8.4 


8.6 


8.8 


9.0 


9.2 


Centi- 


































meters 


































68 


Th 


30.. =.1 


38.95 


39.39 


39.82 


40.26 


40.70 


41.33 


41.67 


42.00 


42.44 


42.88 


43.31 


43.76 


44.18 


44.62 




Ca 


24.98 


25.31 


25.66 


25.99 


26.33 


26.67 


27.01 


27.36 


27.69 


28.03 


28.37 


28.71 


29.04 


29..-'8 


29.72 


67 


Th 


37,93 


38.37 


38.81 


39.24 


39.68 


40.11 


40.55 


40.99 


41.43 


41.86 


42.30 


42.73 


43.17 


43.60 


44.04 




Ca 


24.71 


25.05 


25.59 


25.73 


26.07 


£6.4] 


26.76 


27.09 


27.43 


27.76 


28. )0 


2B.44 


28.78 


29.12 


29.46 


66 


Th 


37. ?J. 


37.79 


38.23 


38.66 


39.10 


39.53 


39.97 


40,4] 


40. C4 


41. ?e 


41.72 


42.35 


42.59 


43.02 


43.46 




Ca 


24.45 


24.79 


26.33 


25.47 


25.81 


26.15 


26.49 


26,82 


27.36 


27.50 


27.84 


28.18 


28.62 


28.86 


29.20 


65 


Th 


36,77 


37.21 


37.66 


38.06 


38.62 


38.95 


39.39 


39.8? 


40.26 


40.70 


41.13 


41.67 


42.00 


42.44 


42.88 




Ca 


24.19 


24. ."^J 


24.87 


25.21 


25.54 


25.ee 


26.22 


26.56 


26.90 


27.24 


27.58 


27.92 


28.26 


28.60 


29.93 


64 


Th 


36.] 9 


36.63 


37.07 


37.60 


37.94 


38.. ^^7 


38.80 


39.25 


39.68 


40. ]1 


40.66 


40.99 


41.43 


41.86 


42.30 




Ca 


23.93 


24.26 


24.60 


24.94 


26.28 


25.62 


25.96 


26.30 


26.64 


26.98 


27.32 


27.66 


27.99 


28.33 


28.67 


63 


Th 


35.61 


36.05 


36.48 


36.92 


37.36 


37.79 


38.23 


38.67 


39.10 


39.54 


39.97 


40.41 


40.85 


41.28 


41.72 




Ca 


23.66 


24.00 


24.34 


24.68 


26.02 


25.36 


25.70 


26.04 


26.38 


26.71 


27.05 


27.39 


27.73 


23.07 


28.41 


62 


Th 


36.03 


36.47 


35.90 


36.34 


36.76 


37.21 


37.65 


38.09 


38.. -^S 


38.96 


39.39 


39.83 


40.27 


40.70 


41.14 




Ca 


23.40 


23.74 


24.08 


24.42 


24.76 


25.09 


25.44 


26.77 


26.]] 


26.46 


26.79 


27.13 


27.47 


27.80 


28.15 


61 


Th 


34. "5 


34.89 


36.32 


35.76 


36.20 


36.63 


37.07 


37.60 


37.94 


38.. ■»8 


38.81 


39.26 


39.69 


40.12 


40.66 




Co 


23.14 


23.48 


23.82 


24.16 


24.19 


24. C3 


26.17 


25.51 


25.85 


26.19 


26.63 


26.82 


27.21 


27.56 


27.88 


60 


Th 


33.87 


34.31 


34.74 


35.18 


35.62 


36.05 


36.49 


36.92 


37.36 


37.80 


38.23 


38.67 


39.11 


39.64 


39.98 




Ca 


22. ne 


23.21 


23.f.6 


23.89 


24.23 


24.57 


24.91 


25.25 


25.69 


25.93 


26.27 


26.61 


26.94 


27.28 


27.62 


59 


Th 


33.29 


33.73 


34.16 


34.60 


35.04 


36.47 


36.91 


36.34 


36.78 


37.22 


37.65 


38.09 


38.. 52 


38.96 


39.40 




Co 


22.61 


22. PE 


23.29 


23.63 


23.97 


24.30 


24.65 


24.99 


25.33 


26.66 


26.00 


26.34 


26.68 


27.02 


27.36 


58 


Th 


32.7] 


33.15 


33.68 


34.02 


34.46 


34.89 


36.33 


36.76 


36.20 


36.64 


37.07 


37.51 


37.94 


38.. -^8 


38.82 




Ca 


22.35 


22.69 


23.03 


23.37 


23.71 


24.05 


24.39 


24.72 


25.06 


25.40 


25.74 


26.06 


26.42 


26.76 


27.10 


57 


Th 


32.13 


32.57 


33.00 


33.44 


33.87 


34.31 


34.76 


36.18 


35.62 


36.06 


36.^9 


36.93 


37.36 


37.80 


38.24 




Ca 


22,09 


22.43 


22.77 


23.11 


23.44 


23.78 


24.12 


24.46 


24.80 


25.14 


26.48 


25.02 


26.16 


26.50 


26.83 


56 


Th 


31.55 


31.99 


32.42 


32.86 


33.29 


33.73 


34.17 


34.60 


36.04 


35.48 


35.91 


36.35 


36.73 


37.22 


37.66 




Ca 


21.83 


22. ]6 


22.50 


22.84 


23.18 


23.62 


23.86 


24.20 


24.54 


24.88 


25.22 


25.66 


25.89 


26.23 


26.57 


55 


Th 


30.97 


31.41 


31.84 


32.28 


32.71 


33.15 


33.59 


34.02 


34.46 


34.89 


36.33 


35.77 


56.20 


36.64 


37.08 




Ca 


21.. se 


21.90 


2.2.24 


22.58 


27.92 


23.26 


23.60 


23.94 


24.28 


24,6] 


24.95 


v;5.29 


25.63 


26.97 


26.31 


54 


Th 


30.39 


30.83 


31.26 


31.70 


32.13 


32.57 


33.00 


33.44 


33.88 


34.31 


34.76 


35.19 


35.62 


36.06 


36.50 




Ca 


21.30 


21.63 


21.78 


22.32 


22.66 


23.00 


23.34 


23.67 


24.01 


24.35 


24.69 


25.03 


25.37 


25.71 


26.05 


S3 


Th 


29.81 


30.24 


30.68 


31.12 


31.56 


31.99 


32.43 


32.86 


33.30 


33.73 


34.17 


34.61 


36.04 


35.48 


36.91 




Ca 


21.04 


21.38 


21.71 


22.06 


22.39 


22.73 


23.07 


23.41 


23.76 


24.09 


24.43 


24.77 


25.11 


26.45 


26.78 


52 


Th 


29.23 


29.66 


30.10 


30.54 


30.97 


31.41 


31.85 


32.28 


32.72 


33.16 


33.69 


34.03 


34.46 


34.90 


35.33 




Ca 


20.78 


21.11 


21.45 


21.79 


22.13 


22.47 


22.81 


23.15 


23.49 


23.83 


24.17 


24.51 


24.84 


25.18 


25.62 


51 


Th 


28.65 


29.08 


29.52 


29.96 


30., •sg 


30,83 


31.26 


31.70 


32.14 


32.57 


33.01 


33.45 


33.88 


34.32 


34.75 




Ca 


20.51 


20.84 


21.19 


21.63 


21.86 


22.20 


22.64 


22.88 


23.22 


23.66 


23.90 


24.24 


24.58 


24.92 


25.26 


SO 


Th 


28.07 


28.50 


28.94 


29.38 


29.81 


30.25 


30.68 


31.12 


31.66 


31.99 


32.43 


32.87 


33.30 


33.74 


34.3 7 




Co 


20.26 


20.59 


20.93 


21.27 


21.61 


21.96 


22.28 


22.62 


22,96 


23.30 


23.64 


23.98 


24.32 


24.66 


26.00 



Interpolation Table 



Chest 










Circum- 


Thigh 




Calf 




ference 















.1 





.1 








.218 





.170 


.1 


.058 


.276 


.026 


.196 


.2 


.116 


.334 


.053 


.222 


.3 


.174 


.392 


.079 


.248 


.4 


.232 


.450 


.105 


.275 


-.6 


.290 


.508 


.131 


.301 


.6 


.348 


.566 


.158 


.327 


.7, 


.406 


.624 


.184 


.353 


.8 


.464 


.682 


.210 


.380 


.6 


.522 


.740 


.236 


.406 



19G 



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norma for Thigh and Calf of Nine-Year-old Boys (Thigh = .6520 cheot clrcumfcronos 
+ l.£)69e knee - 17.1724; calf = .2525 chest circumference 
+ 1.J821 toi&e - .1310) 



CUeat 
Clrcxun- 
ference. 














Knc 


3 Width 


, Centimeters 
















6.8 


7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


7,6 


7.8 


8.0 


8.2 


8.4 


8.6 


8.9 


9,0 


9.2 


9.4 


9.6 


Centi- 


































meters 


































73 


Th 


43.82 


44.21 


44.60 


45.00 


45.39 


45.79 


46,18 


46.57 


45.97 


47.36 


47.75 


48. IS 


48.54 


48.94 


49.33 




Ca 


27.82 


23.09 


28.37 


28.65 


28.92 


29.20 


29,48 


29.75 


30.03 


30.31 


30.58 


30.86 


31.13 


31.41 


31.69 


72 


Th 


43.16 


43.56 


43.95 


44.35 


44,74 


45.13 


45,53 


45.92 


46.32 


46,71 


47.10 


47.50 


47.89 


48.30 


48,68 




Ca 


27.56 


27.84 


28.12 


28.39 


28.57 


28.95 


29.22 


29.50 


29.73 


30,05 


30.33 


30.61 


30.38 


31.16 


31,43 


71 


Th 


42.51 


42.91 


43.30 


43.69 


44.09 


44.48 


44.88 


45.27 


45.66 


',5.06 


46.45 


46.35 


47.24 


47.63 


48.03 




Cn 


27.31 


27.59 


27.37 


28.14 


29.42 


23.69 


28.97 


29.25 


29.52 


29.80 


30.08 


30.35 


30.63 


30.91 


31.18 


70 


Th 


41.86 


42.25 


42.65 


43.04 


43,44 


43.83 


44.22 


44.62 


45.01 


45.41 


45.80 


46.19 


46.59 


46.98 


47,38 




Ca 


27.06 


27.34 


27.61 


27.89 


28.17 


23.44 


28.72 


28.99 


£9.27 


29.55 


29.82 


30.10 


30,38 


30.65 


30.93 


69 


Th 


41.21 


41.60 


42.00 


42.39 


42.78 


43.18 


43.57 


43,97 


44.36 


44.75 


45.15 


45,54 


45.94 


46,33 


46.72 




Ca 


26.81 


27.08 


27.36 


27.64 


27.91 


28.19 


28.47 


23.74 


29.02 


£9.30 


29.57 


£9.95 


30.12 


30,40 


30.68 


68 


Th 


40.56 


40.95 


41.34 


41.74 


42.13 


42.53 


42.92 


43.31 


43,71 


44.10 


44.50 


44,39 


45.29 


45,68 


46.07 




Ca 


26.55 


26.83 


27.11 


27.38 


27.56 


27.94 


28.21 


28.49 


28.77 


29.04 


29.32 


29.60 


29.37 


50.15 


30,42 


67 


Th 


39.90 


40.3C 


40.59 


41.09 


41.43 


41.87 


42.27 


42.66 


43.06 


43.45 


43.94 


44.24 


44.63 


45.03 


45,42 




Ca 


26.30 


26.58 


£6.96 


27.13 


27.41 


27.53 


27.96 


28.24 


28.51 


28.79 


29.07 


29.34 


29.62 


29.90 


30.17 


66 


Th 


39.25 


39.55 


40.04 


40.43 


40.33 


41.22 


41.62 


42.01 


42.40 


42.80 


43.19 


43,59 


43.98 


44.37 


44.77 




Ca 


26.05 


26.33 


26.60 


26.88 


£7.16 


27.43 


27,71 


27.98 


28.26 


28.54 


28.81 


29.09 


29.37 


29.64 


29.92 


65 


Th 


38.60 


33.99 


39.39 


39.73 


40.18 


40.57 


40,96 


41.36 


41.75 


42.15 


42.54 


42.93 


43.33 


43.72 


44.12 




Ca 


25.80 


2P.07 


26.35 


26.63 


26.90 


27.13 


27,43 


27.73 


23.01 


28.29 


28.56 


28.94 


29.11 


29.39 


29.67 


64 


Th 


37.95 


30.34 


38.74 


39.13 


39.52 


39.92 


40,31 


40.71 


41.10 


41.49 


41.39 


42.98 


42.68 


43.07 


43.46 




Ca 


25.54 


25.32 


26.10 


25.37 


26.65 


26.93 


27,20 


27.48 


27.76 


23.03 


28.31 


28.59 


28.86 


29.14 


29.41 


63 


Th 


37.30 


37.69 


38.08 


38.48 


38.37 


39.27 


39.66 


40.05 


40.45 


40.84 


41.24 


41.63 


42.02 


42.42 


42.31 




Ca 


25.29 


25.57 


25.85 


26.12 


26.40 


26.67 


26.95 


27.23 


27.50 


27.78 


28.06 


£8.33 


28.61 


28.39 


29,16 


62 


Th 


36.54 


37.04 


37.43 


57.93 


38,22 


38.61 


39.01 


39.40 


39.30 


40.19 


40.58 


40.98 


41.37 


41.77 


42,16 




Ca 


25.04 


25.32 


25.59 


25.97 


26,15 


25,42 


26.70 


26.97 


27.25 


27.53 


£7.80 


£8.08 


23.36 


28.53 


28,91 


61 


Th 


35.99 


36.39 


36.78 


37.17 


37.57 


37.96 


38.36 


38.75 


39.14 


39.54 


39.93 


40.33 


40.72 


41.11 


41.51 




Co 


24.79 


25.06 


25.34 


25.62 


25.39 


26.17 


26,45 


26.72 


27.00 


27.28 


27.55 


£7.83 


£8.10 


28,38 


28.66 


60 


Th 


35.34 


35.73 


36.13 


36.52 


36.92 


37.31 


37.70 


38.10 


38.49 


38.99 


39.28 


39.67 


40.07 


40.46 


40.96 




Ca 


24.53 


24.91 


25.09 


25.36 


25.54 


25.92 


26.19 


26.47 


26.75 


27,02 


27.30 


27.58 


27.85 


£8.13 


28. 40 


59 


Th 


34.69 


35.08 


35.48 


35.57 


36.26 


36.66 


37.05 


37,45 


37.84 


38,23 


38.63 


39.02 


39.42 


39.91 


40.20 




Ca 


24.28 


24.56 


24.84 


25.11 


25,39 


25.66 


25.94 


26,22 


26.49 


26.77 


£7.05 


£7,3£ 


27.50 


27.88 


23.15 


58 


Th 


34.04 


34.43 


34.82 


35.22 


35,61 


36.01 


36.40 


36,79 


37.19 


37.58 


37.98 


33.37 


38.76 


39.16 


39.55 




Ca 


24.02 


24.31 


24.58 


24.86 


25,14 


25,41 


25.59 


25.96 


26.24 


26.52 


26.79 


27.07 


27.35 


27.62 


27.90 


57 


Th 


33.38 


33.78 


34.17 


34.57 


34,96 


35.35 


35.75 


36.14 


36.54 


36.93 


37.32 


37.72 


38.11 


38.51 


33.90 




Ca 


23.78 


24.05 


24.33 


24. «1 


24.98 


25.16 


25.44 


25.71 


25.99 


26.27 


26.54 


26.92 


27.09 


27.37 


27.55 


56 


Th 


32.73 


33.13 


33.52 


33.91 


34,31 


34.70 


35.10 


35.49 


35.98 


36.28 


36.67 


37.07 


37.46 


37.85 


38,25 




Ca 


23.52 


23.50 


24.03 


24.35 


24,63 


24.91 


25.18 


25.46 


25.74 


26.01 


26.29 


26.57 


£6.84 


£7.12 


27.39 


55 


Th 


32.08 


32.47 


32.87 


33.26 


33.66 


34.05 


34.14 


34.94 


35.23 


35,63 


36.02 


36.41 


36.81 


37.20 


37.50 




Ca 


23.27 


23.55 


23.93 


24.10 


24,38 


24.65 


24.93 


26.21 


25.48 


25,75 


26.04 


26.31 


£6.59 


26,87 


27.14 


54 


Th 


31.43 


31.92 


32.22 


32.61 


33,00 


33.40 


33.79 


34.19 


34.58 


34.97 


35.37 


35.76 


36.16 


36.55 


36.94 




Ca 


23.02 


25.30 


23.57 


23.35 


24.13 


24.40 


24.68 


24.95 


25.23 


25.51 


25.78 


£6.06 


26.34 


26.61 


26.39 


53 


Th 


30.73 


31.17 


31.56 


31.96 


32.35 


32.75 


33.14 


33.53 


33.93 


34.32 


34.72 


35.11 


35.50 


35.90 


36.29 




Ca 


22.77 


23.04 


23.52 


23.60 


23.87 


24.15 


24.42 


24.70 


24.98 


25.26 


25.53 


£5.91 


26.08 


26.36 


26.64 


52 


Th 


30.12 


30.52 


30.91 


31,31 


31.70 


32.09 


32.49 


32.98 


33.28 


33.67 


34.06 


34.46 


34.35 


36.24 


35.64 




Ca 


22.51 


22.79 


23.07 


23.34 


23.62 


23.90 


24.17 


24.45 


24.73 


25,00 


25.28 


£5.56 


25.93 


26.11 


26.36 



Interpolation Table 



Knee 



Chest 




■ 






Circua- 


Thigh 




Calf 




ferencd 















.1 





.1 








.197 





.138 


.1 


.065 


.262 


.025 


.163 


,2 


.130 


.327 


.051 


.189 


.3 


.196 


.393 


.076 


.£14 


,4 


.261 


.458 


.101 


.239 


.5 


.326 


.522 


.126 


.264 


.6 


.391 


.588 


.152 


.290 


.7 


.456 


.653 


.177 


.315 


.3 


.522 


.719 


,£02 


.340 


.9 


.587 


.784 


.227 


.366 



200 






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L'Ol 



Horma for Thigh and Calf of Ten-Year-Old Boys {Thigh = .7564 chest olrcmnferenoe 
* 1.4088 knee - 19.0756; calf b .3458 chest clroumferenoe 
+ 1.5640 knee - 7.4602} 



chest 


Knee Wldfh, Centljnetore | 


Clrciun- 








































ference. 




6.8 


7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


7.6 


7.8 


8,0 


8.2 


8.4 


6.6 


8.8 


9.0 


9.2 


9,4 


9.6 


9.8 


10.0 


10.2 


Centi- 








































meters 








































76 


Th 


47.99 


48.27 


48.55 


48.84 


49.12 


49.40 


49,68 


49.96 


50.24 


50,63 


50,81 


51.09 


51.37 


61,65 


51.94 


52.22 


62,50 


52.78 




Ca 


29.30 


29.61 


29.93 


30.24 


30,56 


30.87 


31.18 


31,49 


31.81 


32.12 


32,43 


32.74 


33.06 


33.37 


33.68 


34.00 


34.31 


34.62 


75 


Th 


47.23 


47.52 


47.80 


48.08 


48,36 


48.64 


48.92 


49.21 


49.49 


49.77 


50.06 


50.53 


50.62 


50.90 


51.18 


61.46 


51.74 


52.02 




Ca 


28.96 


29.27 


29.59 


29.90 


30,21 


30,52 


30.84 


31.15 


31.46 


31.78 


32.09 


32.40 


52.71 


33.03 


33.34 


33.65 


33.96 


34.26 


74 


Th 


46.48 


46.76 


47.04 


47.32 


47.60 


47.88 


48.17 


43.45 


48.73 


49,01 


49,30 


49.58 


49.86 


50.14 


50.42 


50.70 


60.99 


51.27 




Ca 


28.62 


28.93 


29.24 


29.55 


29.87 


30.18 


30.49 


30.81 


31.12 


31.43 


31,74 


32.06 


32.37 


32.68 


33.00 


33.31 


33.62 


33.93 


73 


Th 


45.72 


46.00 


46,28 


46.67 


46.85 


47.13 


47.41 


47,69 


47.98 


48.26 


48.64 


48.82 


49.10 


49.38 


49.67 


49.95 


50.23 


50.51 




Ca 


28.27 


28.59 


28,90 


29,21 


29.52 


29.84 


30.16 


30,46 


30.77 


31.09 


31.40 


31.71 


32.03 


32.34 


32.65 


32.96 


33.23 


33.59 


72 


Th 


44.97 


45.25 


45,53 


45.81 


46.09 


46.37 


46.66 


46.94 


47.22 


47,50 


47.78 


48.06 


48.35 


48.63 


48.91 


49.19 


49.47 


49.76 




Ca 


27.93 


28.24 


28.55 


28.87 


29.18 


29.49 


29.81 


30.12 


30.43 


30.74 


31.06 


31.37 


31.68 


32. OO 


32.31 


32.62 


32.93 


33.25 


71 


Th 


44.21 


44,49 


44.77 


45.05 


45.34 


46.62 


45.90 


46.18 


46.46 


46.74 


47.03 


47.31 


47.69 


47.87 


48.15 


46.44 


48.72 


49,00 




Ca 


27,58 


27,90 


28.21 


28.52 


28.84 


29.15 


29.46 


29.77 


30,09 


30.40 


30.71 


31.03 


31.34 


31.65 


31.96 


32.28 


32.69 


32,90 


70 


Th 


43.45 


43,73 


44.02 


44.30 


44.53 


44.86 


45.14 


46.42 


45.71 


46.99 


46.27 


46.55 


46.83 


47.12 


47,40 


47.68 


47.96 


48.24 




C. 


27.24 


27.56 


27.87 


28,18 


28,49 


28.81 


29.12 


29.43 


29.74 


30.06 


30.37 


30.68 


30.99 


31.31 


31.62 


31.93 


32.25 


32.56 


69 


Th 


42.70 


42.98 


43.26 


43.54 


43.82 


44.10 


44.39 


44.67 


44.95 


46,23 


45,51 


45.80 


46,08 


46.36 


46.64 


46.92 


47.20 


47.49 




Ca 


26.90 


27.21 


27.52 


27,84 


28.15 


28.46 


28.77 


29.09 


29.40 


29,71 


30.03 


30.34 


30.66 


30.96 


31.28 


31.59 


31.90 


32.21 


68 


Th 


41.94 


42.22 


42.50 


42.78 


43.07 


43.35 


43.63 


43.91 


44.19 


44.43 


44.76 


45,04 


45.52 


45.60 


45.68 


45.17 


46.45 


46.73 




Ca 


26.56 


26.87 


27.18 


27,49 


27.80 


28.12 


28.43 


28.74 


29.06 


29.37 


29.68 


29.99 


30.31 


30.62 


30.93 


31.25 


31.56 


31.87 


67 


Th 


41.18 


41.46 


41.75 


42.03 


42.31 


42.59 


42.87 


43.16 


43.44 


43.72 


44.00 


44.28 


44.56 


44.85 


45.13 


46.41 


46.69 


45.97 




Ca 


26.21 


26.52 


26.84 


27.15 


27.46 


27.77 


28.09 


23.40 


28.71 


29.02 


29.34 


29.65 


29.96 


30.28 


30.69 


30.90 


31.21 


31.53 


66 


Th 


40.43 


40.70 


40.99 


41.27 


41.65 


41.84 


42.12 


42.40 


42.68 


42.96 


43.24 


43.53 


43.81 


44.09 


44.37 


44.65 


44.93 


45.22 




Ca 


25.87 


26.16 


26.49 


26.80 


27.12 


27.43 


27.74 


28.06 


28.37 


28.68 


28.99 


29.31 


29.62 


29.93 


30.26 


30.66 


30.97 


31.18 


65 


Th 


39.67 


39.95 


40.23 


40.51 


40.80 


41.08 


41.36 


41.64 


41.92 


42.21 


42.49 


42.77 


43.06 


43.33 


43.61 


43.90 


44.19 


44.46 




Ca 


25.52 


25.83 


26.15 


26.46 


26.77 


27.09 


27,40 


27.71 


28.02 


28.34 


28.65 


28.96 


29.27 


29.59 


29.90 


30.21 


30.53 


30.34 


64 


Th 


38.91 


39.19 


39.48 


39.76 


40.04 


40.32 


40.60 


40.89 


41.17 


41.46 


41.73 


42.01 


42.29 


42.58 


42.86 


43.14 


43.42 


43.70 




Ca 


25.18 


25.49 


26.80 


26.12 


26.43 


26.74 


27.06 


27.37 


27.68 


27.99 


28.31 


28.62 


28.93 


29.24 


29.56 


29.87 


30.18 


30.50 


63 


Th 


38.16 


38.44 


38.72 


39,00 


39.28 


39.67 


39.85 


40.12 


40,41 


40.69 


40.97 


41.26 


41.64 


41.82 


42.10 


42.36 


42.66 


42.95 




Ca 


24.83 


25.14 


25.46 


35,77 


26.09 


26.40 


26.71 


27,02. 


27.34 


27.65 


27.96 


28.28 


28.59 


28.90 


29.21 


29.63 


29.84 


30.15 


62 


Th 


37.40 


37.68 


37.96 


38.25 


38,53 


38.81 


39.09 


39.37 


39.65 


39.94 


40.22 


40.60 


40.78 


41.06 


41.34 


41.63 


41.91 


42.19 




Ca 


24.49 


24.80 


25.12 


25.42 


25,74 


26.06 


26.37 


26.68 


26.99 


27.31 


27.62 


27.93 


28.24 


28.56 


28.67 


29.18 


29.50 


29.61 


61 


Th 


36.64 


36.93 


37.21 


37.49 


37.77 


38.05 


38.33 


38,62 


38,90 


39.18 


39.46 


39.74 


40.02 


40.31 


40.59 


40.87 


41.15 


41.43 




Ca 


24.15 


24.46 


24.77 


26.09 


25.40 


25.71 


26.02 


26.34 


26,65 


26.96 


27.27 


27,69 


27.90 


28.21 


28.63 


28.84 


29.15 


29.46 


60 


Th 


35.89 


36.17 


36.45 


36.73 


37.01 


37., TO 


37.53 


37.86 


36.14 


38.42 


33.70 


38.99 


39.27 


39.55 


39.83 


40.11 


40.40 


40.68 




Ca 


23.80 


24.12 


24.43 


24.74 


26.06 


25.37 


25.68 


25.99 


26.31 


26.62 


26.93 


27,24 


27.56 


27.67 


28.16 


28.50 


26.61 


29.12 


59 


Th 


35.13 


35.41 


35.70 


35.98 


36.26 


36.64 


36.82 


37.10 


37.39 


37.67 


37.95 


38.23 


36.51 


38.79 


39.08 


39.36 


39.64 


39.92 




Ca 


23.46 


23.77 


24,08 


24.40 


24.71 


25.02 


25.34 


25.64 


25.96 


26.27 


26.59 


26.90 


27.21 


27.63 


27.84 


28.15 


28.46 


28.78 


58 


Th 


34.38 


34.66 


34.94 


36.22 


35.50 


35.78 


36.07 


36.36 


36.63 


36.91 


37.19 


37.47 


37.76 


38.04 


38.32 


38.60 


38.83 


39.17 




Ca 


23.12 


23.43 


23.74 


24. C6 


24.37 


24.68 


24.99 


25.31 


25.62 


25.93 


26.24 


26.66 


26.87 


27.18 


27,49 


27.61 


28.12 


28.43 


57 


Th 


33.62 


33.90 


34.18 


34.46 


34.75 


35.03 


35.31 


35.69 


35.87 


36.15 


36.44 


36.72 


37.00 


37.23 


37.56 


37.85 


38.13 


38.41 




Ca 


22,77 


23.08 


23.40 


23.71 


24.02 


24.34 


24.65 


24.96 


25.27 


25.59 


25.90 


26.21 


26.53 


26.64 


27.15 


27.46 


27.78 


28.09 


66 


Th 


32.86 


33.14 


33.43 


33.71 


33.99 


34.27 


34.55 


34.63 


35.12 


35.40 


35.68 


35.96 


36,24 


36.63 


36.81 


37.09 


37.37 


37.65 




Ca 


22.43 


22.74 


23.05 


23.37 


23.68 


23,99 


24,30 


24.62 


24.93 


25.24 


25.56 


25.87 


26,18 


26.49 


26.81 


27.12 


27.43 


27.75 


55 


Th 


32,11 


32.39 


32.67 


32.96 


33.23 


33.52 


33.80 


34.08 


34.36 


34.64 


34.92 


35.21 


36.49 


36.77 


36.05 


36.33 


36.61 


36.90 




Ca 


22.08 


22.40 


22.71 


23.02 


23.34 


23.65 


23.96 


24.27 


24.59 


24.90 


25.21 


25.52 


25.64 


26.15 


26.46 


26.78 


27.09 


27.40 


54 


Th 


31.35 


31.63 


31.91 


32,20 


32.48 


32.76 


33.04 


33.32 


33.60 


33.89 


34.17 


34.46 


34.73 


35.01 


35.29 


35.58 


35.86 


36.14 




Ca 


21.74 


22.05 


22.37 


22.68 


22.99 


23,30 


23.62 


23.93 


24.24 


24.56 


24.67 


26.18 


25,49 


25.81 


26.12 


26.43 


26.75 


27.06 



Interpolation Table 



Clrcum- 


Thigh 




Calf 




Terence 















.1 





.1 








.141 





.i.'ie 


.1 


.076 


.217 


.034 


.191 


.2 


.151 


.292 


.069 


.225 


.3 


.226 


.368 


.103 


.260 


.4 


.303 


.443 


.138 


.294 


.6 


.378 


.519 


.172 


.328 


.6 


.464 


.595 


.206 


.363 


.7 


.629 


.670 


.241 


.397 


.8 


.606 


.746 


.276 


.431 


.9 


.681 


.822 


.309 


.466 



202 



— •CO 

■) I. • 

ft 0(-4 



"-IW o 
OfOC 






C 1-4 O 






w fl « I 
« u c «< » 

<-' -^ t • * 



oa^o<5rH«rtio^o*fi^c-(ri(Dcjoor-(Ow^ 



CM '^ >o <o c 
lO in o ») a 



JCMOJ«W«WNClW«OJP 



- Q ■* •- 

?5 O r 



OSrtW'J'lDiOOt-'rCDCDC 



JOJCJCMWCJOJC 



j-j-oio^c^cra 



JCMNWNCJWC 



30oso>OJOi7»oic»<7>cD<7>(D(r. (Da;(Dat*cDt'a) 



3 « rH to PI Q 'J 

c o e- t- lo Ji c 



4CMC>JCMN»MC 



3OO>0l0l0l0>Oaoi0>tDi3C00)fflC0CDC0t~(Dt'(Dr» OJ 



-<t-cri/>tcioiOr 



ttia>ioc-wio«H'»a)«i'>oncDO«>(Ovtf 






gfHn>')«alaro^-^-ffi<-•Oto■-lOtc4lOv^-mrHlptn(na>(^|>)Q^•M'-•lOt/}tf>olO•ot-^-9•-•o 
Bi0^ocyt^oi/vajwi60mc-io^rHwa>o)e'p-««i"ri<H<-'o5*^(0^tow^ODW«oOrt(C>-'t- 



< ■< ^ < ■< « 



<S2':3S'S2«Stf2'SS2«r*S'5555:S:?SS»5?!5-tS:^S? 



^ ? 



oi t^ to in lo f 
(-1 (O « r- o» r 
o o o oo .- 



^ U tOCMCDTOiOC 

§M«B Minr-oioina 

at O O OOi-l-Hr^r- 

■r* a3 _ 



o o o 
si u u 



-iw»o^io*flr-fOO 



203 



T«bl« 97 

Soru for Thlih «nd C«lf of Kl«Tan-Y««-01d BoTe (Thigh - .5416 oh«»t o IroiMf «•«• . 

♦ £.3734 knoo - IS. 7601; o»lf - .2767 ehoBt olro\™f»r»no« 

+ 1.8741 linoo - 6. 9669) 



Chest 


Enas »ldth, C«ntlB«t»r« 














feronce. 




7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


7.6 


7.8 


8.0 


8.2 


8.4 


8.6 


8.8 


9.0 


9.2 


9.4 


9.6 


8.8 


10.0 


10.2 


Centl- 






































motera 






































77 


Th 


44.56 


45.05 


45.51 


45.98 


46.46 


46.95 


47.41 


47.88 


48.36 


48.95 


49,51 


49.78 


50.26 


60.73 


51.20 


61,68 


52.15 




Ca 


28.41 


28.79 


29.16 


29.54 


29.91 


50.28 


50.66 


31.03 


31.41 


51.78 


52.16 


52.53 


32,91 


55.28 


35,66 


34,05 


54.41 


76 


Th 


44.02 


44.49 


44.97 


45.44 


45.92 


46.59 


46.87 


47.54 


47,82 


48.29 


48.76 


49.24 


49.72 


50.19 


50,66 


51.14 


51.61 




Ca 


28.14 


28.51 


23.88 


29.26 


29.53 


50.01 


50.38 


50.76 


31.15 


51.51 


51.88 


52.26 


32.65 


35.01 


33,38 


53.76 


54.15 


76 


Th 


43.48 


43.95 


44.43 


44.90 


45.37 


45.35 


46.32 


46.80 


47.27 


47.75 


48.22 


48.70 


49,17 


49.66 


50,12 


50,60 


51.07 




Ca 


27.36 


28.23 


28.61 


28.98 


29.36 


29.75 


50.11 


50,48 


50.36 


51.25 


31.61 


31.98 


52,56 


32.73 


33,11 


55.48 


33.86 


74 


Th 


42.93 


43.41 


45.88 


44.36 


44.85 


45.31 


45.78 


46,26 


46.73 


47.21 


47.68 


48,16 


48,65 


49.11 


49.53 


50.05 


50.63 




Ca 


27.58 


27.96 


28.33 


28.71 


29.08 


29.46 


29.95 


30,21 


50.53 


30.96 


31.33 


31.71 


52,98 


32.46 


32,93 


55,21 


35.53 


73 


Th 


42.39 


42.87 


43.34 


43.92 


44.29 


44.77 


45.24 


45.72 


46.19 


46.67 


47,14 


47.61 


48.09 


48.56 


49,04 


49.51 


49.99 




Ca 


27.31 


27.63 


28.06 


28.43 


28.81 


29.13 


29.56 


29.95 


50.31 


50.68 


31.06 


31.43 


51.31 


32,18 


32,66 


32,93 


33.31 


72 


Th 


41.35 


42.33 


42.30 


43.28 


45.75 


44.25 


44,70 


45,17 


45.65 


46.12 


46.60 


47.07 


47.55 


43,02 


48,50 


48,97 


49.46 




Ca 


27.03 


27.41 


27.78 


28.16 


28.65 


23.91 


29.28 


29.56 


50.03 


50.41 


30.73 


31.16 


51.63 


31.90 


32,28 


32,65 


30.05 


71 


Th 


41.31 


41.78 


42.26 


42.75 


45.21 


45.68 


44.16 


44.65 


45.11 


45.58 


46.06 


46.53 


47,01 


47,48 


47.96 


41^.45 


48.91 




Ca 


26.76 


27.13 


27.51 


27.88 


28.26 


28.55 


29.01 


29.38 


29.76 


30,13 


50.50 


30.83 


31,25 


31,55 


32.00 


32.33 


52.75 


70 


Th 


40.77 


41.24 


41.72 


42.19 


42.67 


45.14 


43.62 


44.09 


44.57 


45.04 


46.52 


45.'^9 


46,46 


46,94 


47,41. 


47,89 


43.36 




Ca 


2d. 48 


26.86 


27.23 


27.61 


27.98 


23.35 


28.73 


29,10 


29.48 


29.95 


30.23 


50.60 


30.98 


31,36 


31,73 


32,10 


52.48 


69 


Th 


40.23 


40.70 


41.18 


41.65 


42.15 


42.60 


43.08 


43,55 


44.02 


44.50 


44.97 


45.45 


45,92 


46.40 


46,87 


47,35 


47,82 




Ca 


26.21 


26.58 


26.95 


27.35 


27.70 


28.08 


28.45 


28.33 


29.20 


29,53 


29.95 


50,35 


30,70 


31.08 


31.45 


31,93 


52,20 


68 


Th 


39.69 


40.1-6 


40.64 


41.11 


41.58 


42.06 


42.53 


45.01 


43.48 


45.96 


44.45 


44.91 


45,38 


46.86 


46,35 


46,81 


47,28 




Ca 


25.93 


26.3a 


2«.68 


27.05 


27.43 


27.80 


28.18 


28.55 


23.95 


29.30 


29.63 


30.05 


30,45 


30.90 


31,18 


31,55 


51.95 


67 


Th 


39.14 


39.62 


40.09 


40.57 


41.04 


41.52 


41.99 


42.47 


42.94 


43,42 


45.39 


44.37 


44.84 


45.32 


45,79 


46.26 


46.74 




Ca 


25.65 


26.03 


26.40 


26.78 


27.15 


27.53 


27.90 


28.28 


23.65 


29.05 


29.40 


29,78 


30.15 


30.55 


30,90 


51.28 


51.65 


66 


Th 


38.60 


39.03 


39.55 


40.03 


40.50 


40.93 


41.45 


41.95 


42.40 


42.87 


45.55 


43,92 


44,30 


44.77 


45.25 


45.72 


46.20 




Ca 


25.38 


25.75 


26.13 


26.50 


26.33 


27.25 


27.63 


28.00 


28.33 


23.75 


29.15 


29,50 


20,38 


50,25 


30.65 


31.00 


51.58 


65 


Th 


38.06 


38.54 


39.01 


59.49 


39.96 


40.43 


40,91 


41.38 


41.86 


42.53 


42.91 


43,23 


45.76 


44,25 


44.71 


45.18 


45.66 




Ca 


25.10 


25.48 


25.85 


26.23 


26.60 


26.98 


27.35 


27.73 


23.10 


23.48 


28.85 


29.25 


29.60 


29.97 


50.55 


30.72 


31.10 


64 


Th 


37.52 


37.99 


38.47 


38.94 


39.42 


39.89 


40.37 


40.34 


41.32 


41,79 


42.27 


12.74 


45.22 


43.69 


44.17 


44.64 


45.11 




Ca 


24.83 


25.20 


25.53 


25.95 


26.33 


26.70 


27.08 


27,45 


27.85 


23,20 


28.57 


2fi,95 


29.32 


29.70 


50.07 


30.45 


30.82 


6S 


Th 


36.98 


57.45 


37.93 


38.40 


38.88 


39.35 


39.95 


40,30 


40.78 


41.25 


41.75 


42.20 


42,67 


43.15 


45.62 


44.10 


44.57 




Ca 


24.55 


24.93 


26.30 


25.68 


26.05 


26.43 


26.90 


27,17 


27.55 


27.92 


28.30 


23.57 


29.05 


29.42 


29.80 


30.17 


50. 55 


62 


Th 


36.44 


36.91 


37.39 


57.96 


58.54 


33.31 


59.28 


39.76 


40.23 


40.71 


41.18 


41.66 


42.13 


42.61 


43.08 


45.66 


44.03 




Ca 


24.23 


24.65 


25.02 


25.40 


25.77 
3^.79 


26.15 


26.52 


26.90 


27.27 


27.65 


28.02 


28.40 


23.77 


29.15 


29.52 


29.90 


30.27 


61 


Th 


35.90 


36.37 


56.34 


57.32 


38.27 


53.74 


59.22 


39.69 


40.17 


40.64 


41.12 


U.59 


42.07 


42,54 


45.02 


43.49 




Ca 


24.00 


24.37 


24.75 


25.12 


25.50 


25.37 


26.25 


26.62 


27,00 


27,37 


27.75 


23.12 


38.50 


28.97 


29.25 


29.62 


30.00 


60 


Th 


35.35 


35.93 


56.30 


36.78 


37.25 


57.75 


58.20 


38.63 


39,15 


59.65 


40.10 


40.53 


41.05 


41.52 


42.00 


42.47 


42.95 




Ca 


23.72 


24. lO 


24.47 


24,85 


25.22 


25.60 


25.97 


26.35 


26.72 


27.10 


27,47 


27.95 


28,22 


28.60 


28.97 


29.55 


29.72 


69 


Th 


34.81 


35.29 


55.76 


36.24 


36.71 


57.19 


57.66 


38.15 


53.61 


59.08 


59.56 


40.05 


40.51 


40,98 


41.46 


41.95 


42.41 




Ca 


23.45 


23.92 


24.20 


24.57 


24.95 


25.52 


25.70 


26,07 


26,45 


26.92 


27.20 


27.57 


27,95 


23.32 


28.70 


29.07 


29.45 


58 


Th 


34.27 


34.75 


55.32 


35.69 


56.17 


56.64 


57.12 


57,59 


33.07 


58.54 


59.02 


59.49 


39.97 


40,44 


40.92 


41.59 


41.37 




Ca 


23.17 


23.55 


23.92 


24.30 


24.67 


25.05 


25.42 


25,90 


26.17 


26,55 


26.92 


27,30 


27,67 


28.05 


28.42 


23.79 


29.17 


57 


Th 


33.73 


34.20 


34.68 


35.15 


55.53 


56.10 


36.58 


57,05 


57.53 


58.00 


58.48 


38.95 


59.45 


39,90 


40,37 


40.85 


41.32 




Ca 


22.90 


23.27 


23.65 


24.02 


24.40 


24.77 


25.15 


25.52 


25.90 


26.27 


26,64 


27.02 


27.39 


27,77 


28,14 


28.52 


28.99 


56 


Th 


33.19 


33.66 


54.14 


34.61 


35.09 


35.56 


36.04 


56.51 


56.99 


57.46 


57,95 


38.41 


38.88 


39,36 


39.83 


40.51 


40.78 




Ca 


22.62 


23.00 


23.57 


23.76 


24.12 


24.50 


24.87 


25,24 


25.62 


25.99 


26.57 


26,74 


i7.12 


27,49 


27,97 


23.24 


28.62 



Int«rpol.atlon Table 



Chaat 










Clroum- 


Thigh 




Calf 




farenca 















.1 





.1 








.257 





.187 


.1 


.064 


.291 


.023 


.215 


.2 


.108 


.346 


.055 


.245 


.3 


.162 


.400 


.083 


.270 


.4 


.217 


.454 


.110 


.298 


.5 


.271 


.508 


.138 


.326 


.6 


.526 


.562 


.166 


.363 


.7 


.379 


.616 


.193 


.330 


.8 


.435 


.671 


.221 


.408 


.9 


.487 


.725 


.243 


.436 



204 






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■^(OtOtOlOOJOJOJWOJrHMrHrHO-HOOCnOOJOQOajajO^t-CO 
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c^iOTj-rHOiE^totocoap". l^yaDr-tto^■cDtO(0'7>^-^J';c^.r^^■aj(^J<*' 


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toto^OtOOJOJ(MC^J^r-^l-^r^Or^ooo>ooO)CO;J>cDa»^-CD^-fO 
OJOJOJW(^JWCvJC\lw«OJ(M^JW(^Jl^JnoJlHHr^r^Hr^Hr^r^^^ 

LO<DtOCOOlO>00^0>OCPOtOrHtOCJtOwWIOOlOC>^C^'5<tDU-j 

tooj.-tcotO'^i-ioioc^otoi/>a. oiT^iCr-jot^ic-ocia- iioa. is 


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to»otooiwoJOJW<HrHrHrHOOOO<7>ooia>c:c;>ccr^-i:t£?co 
«(^JWWtM(MOJWWCvJ(^JWOlC>JW0Jr^wH^^r^r^r^r^r^r^r^^^ 

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toocototowcr)cot0^c^owtoc^Csic\:a)c^-<4-o:ot-iijr-i04toj> 


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■^o;o>cr'^'*"(>c^'ico*to^oia)ir.K>r-<cDC-iotowotOioa/" 


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CNOlOJOJC^J(^J<^J(M(M0Jr^0Jr-^MfH(-^^^r^r^r^Hr^^Hr^r^l-^r^«H 

oc>jaito>tOto'j''^}<'j-K^inr-(ino*£'o^c*^-r-tocO'^cDtoc<r-tc> 

(MOtOtOr-*OJtOa?rH'^'<00<-(tOtOCyOCDiO'»'COmtOOCJiOit, 


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ojwi-*'--tr-(f-^ooooo>coaiG]a»cccD>coc^xtoe^toc^inio 

*Ht^oc^aDa)c*-aii/jo^^OwO^HOfHaDcyt^tOL'jr')^^cvj'j' 
atc^5j-iocno>ioinaD»-.tocDcOx<(Ooa)towc\it-cDoi'«*c-ocM(0 


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OJl^iWC^JWWWWr^Nr^^^r^r^r^r^r^^^r^r^r^p^Hr-lfHr^r^l-^ 

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oooio'*"oiOCDto-<^e'joo<0'^ 
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'«:*'^WC*OOC^»0lOy5t0a>rHCVJCPl/>«>Q0^r-<W^0)C^C^OlO»0 

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ar-40<OOCVJ^C*OjOJ«t-»OtOTt<cCii'JtOOOitC''*t>0>CDU'^OiO 

uoc^iocy*oD-t-»ocDaja)toojO>0'<i*r-(CirHir>ojOtoiO'«j*oi/5(o 



206 



Table 100 

Norma for Upper Arm and Forearn of Thlrtecn-Year-Old Boys (Upper am = .2872 
chest clroumferonoe + 1.1496 elbow - 6.7363; forearm = .2381 
eheet olrouraference + .7327 elbow + .6610; 



Ghent 














Elbow Width. Oentimetera 














C iroum- 
ference^ 




































4.6 


4.8 


6.0 


5.3 


5.4 


B.6 


6.8 


6.0 


6.3 


6.4 


6.6 


6.8 


7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


Centi- 


































meters 


































90 


DA 


26.40 


26.63 


25.86 


26.09 


26.32 


26.55 


26.78 


27.01 


27.24 


27.47 


27.70 


87.93 


28,18 


28.38 


28. 6E 




PA 


26. .-56 


25.51 


25.65 


25.80 


25.95 


26.09 


26.24 


26.39 


26.53 


26.68 


26.83 


26.97 


27,12 


27,27 


27.41 


88 


UA 


24. «3 


25.06 


25.89 


25.62 


25.76 


26.93 


26.21 


26.44 


26.67 


26.90 


27.13 


27.36 


27.69 


27,82 


28.06 




FA 


24.33 


25.03 


25.18 


26. .32 


25.47 


25.52 


26.76 


25.91 


26,06 


26.20 


26.36 


26.50 


26.64 


26.79 


26,94 


86 


UA 


24.25 


24.48 


24.71 


24.94 


25.17 


25.40 


25.63 


26.36 


26.09 


26.32 


26.55 


26.78 


27.01 


27,24 


27,47 




PA 


24.41 


24.55 


24.70 


24.86 


24.99 


25.14 


25.29 


26.43 


25.58 


26.73 


25.87 


26.02 


26.17 


26.31 


26.46 


84 


UA 


23.68 


23.91 


24.14 


24.37 


24.60 


24.83 


25.06 


25.29 


26.52 


26.75 


26.98 


26,21 


26.44 


26.67 


26.90 




PA 


23.93 


24.08 


24.22 


24.37 


24.52 


24.66 


24,81 


24.96 


25.10 


26.25 


26.40 


25,54 


28.69 


26.84 


25.98 


82 


UA 


23.10 


23.33 


23.56 


23.79 


24.02 


24.26 


24,43 


24.71 


24.94 


26.17 


25.40 


25.63 


26.86 


26.09 


26.52 




FA 


23.46 


23.60 


23.75 


23.90 


24.04 


24.19 


24.33 


24,49 


24,63 


24.77 


24.92 


26.07 


26.21 


28.36 


25,51 


80 


UA 


22.53 


22.76 


22.99 


23.22 


23.45 


23.69 


23,91 


24.14 


24.37 


24.30 


24.83 


25,06 


26.29 


26.52 


25.75 




PA 


22.93 


23.13 


23.27 


23.42 


23.57 


23.71 


23,86 


24,01 


24.15 


24.30 


24.44 


24,59 


24,74 


24.33 


25.03 


78 


UA 


21.95 


22.19 


22.41 


22.64 


22.87 


23.10 


23.33 


23,-56 


23.79 


24.02 


24.25 


24,43 


24.71 


24.94 


26.17 




PA 


22.50 


22.66 


22.30 


22.94 


23.09 


23.24 


23. .33 


23,53 


23.63 


23,82 


23.97 


24,12 


24.28 


24.41 


24.56 


76 


UA 


21.. 38 


21.61 


21.34 


22.07 


22.. 30 


22.53 


22,76 


22,99 


23.22 


23,45 


23.68 


23.91 


24.14 


24,37 


24.60 




FA 


22.03 


22.17 


22.32 


22.47 


22.61 


22.76 


22,91 


23.05 


23.20 


23.35 


23.49 


23.64 


23.79 


23.93 


24.03 


74 


UA 


20.81 


21.04 


21.27 


21.50 


21.73 


21.96 


22.19 


22,42 


22.65 


22.87 


23.10 


23.33 


23.66 


23.79 


24.02 




FA 


21,65 


21.70 


21.34 


21.99 


22.14 


22.28 


22.43 


22.58 


22.72 


22.37 


23.02 


23.15 


23.51 


23,46 


23.60 


72 


UA 


20.23 


20.46 


20.69 


20.92 


21.15 


21,33 


21.61 


21,34 


22.07 


22.30 


22.53 


22.78 


22,99 


25,28 


23,45 




FA 


21.07 


21.22 


21.37 


21.51 


21.56 


21,81 


21.95 


22,10 


22.25 


22,59 


22.54 


22.69 


22,85 


22.98 


83,13 


70 


UA 


19.66 


19.89 


20.12 


20.. 35 


20.63 


20.81 


21.04 


21.27 


21.50 


21.73 


21.96 


22.19 


22.42 


22.66 


82,38 




FA 


20.60 


20.74 


20.89 


21.04 


21.13 


21.33 


21.48 


21.62 


21,77 


21.92 


22.06 


22,21 


22,56 


22.50 


22.65 


68 


UA 


19.03 


19.31 


19.64 


19.77 


20.00 


20.23 


20.46 


20.69 


20.92 


21.15 


21.33 


21.51 


21,34 


22.07 


22.30 




FA 


20.12 


20.27 


20.42 


20.56 


20.71 


20.35 


21.00 


21.16 


21.29 


21.44 


21.59 


21.73 


21.33 


22.03 


22.17 


66 


UA 


18.51 


18.74 


18.97 


19.20 


19.43 


19.66 


19.39 


20.12 


20,36 


20.53 


20.31 


21.04 


21.27 


21.60 


21.73 




FA 


19.66 


19.79 


19.94 


20.09 


20.23 


20.33 


20.53 


20.67 


20,82 


20.96 


21.11 


21.26 


21.40 


21.56 


21.70 


64 


DA 


17.93 


18.16 


18.39 


18.62 


18.86 


19.08 


19,31 


19.54 


19.77 


20.00 


20.23 


20.46 


20. S9 


20.98 


21.15 




FA 


19.17 


19.32 


19.46 


19.81 


19.76 


19.90 


20,05 


20.20 


20.34 


20,49 


20.64 


20.73 


20,93 


21,07 


21.22 


62 


UA 


17.36 


17.59 


17.82 


18.05 


18.28 


18.51 


18,74 


18.97 


19.20 


19.43 


19.66 


19.89 


20.13 


20,35 


20.58 




PA 


18.69 


18.34 


13.99 


19.13 


19.28 


19.43 


19.67 


19.72 


19.87 


20.01 


20.16 


20.31 


20,45 


20.60 


20.76 


60 


DA 


16.73 


17.01 


17.24 


17.47 


17.70 


17.93 


18,16 


18.39 


13.62 


18.86 


19.08 


19.31 


19,54 


19,77 


20.00 




FA 


18.22 


18.36 


18.51 


18.66 


18.80 


18.96 


19.10 


19,24 


19.39 


19,54 


19.68 


19.83 


19.98 


80.12 


20.27 


58 


UA 


16.21 


16.44 


16.57 


16.90 


17.13 


17.36 


17.59 


17.82 


18.05 


18,28 


18.51 


18.74 


18.97 


19.20 


19.43 




FA 


17.74 


17.38 


18,03 


18.18 


18.33 


13.47 


18.62 


13,77 


18,91 


19,06 


19.21 


19.35 


19.30 


19.66 


19.79 


56 


DA 


16.64 


15.87 


16.10 


16.33 


16.56 


16.79 


17,02 


17.25 


17.48 


17.71 


17.94 


18,17 


18.40 


18.63 


18.95 




FA 


17.27 


17.41 


17.56 


17.70 


17.35 


18.00 


18.14 


13.29 


18.44 


18.58 


18.73 


18,88 


19.02 


19.17 


19.32 


64 


UA 


16.06 


16.29 


15.52 


16.78 


15.98 


16.21 


16.44 


16.67 


16.90 


17.13 


17.36 


17.59 


17,82 


18.05 


18.28 




PA 


16.79 


16.94 


17, oa 


17.23 


17.S7 


17,52 


17.67 


17.81 


17.96 


18.11 


18.26 


18.40 


18.55 


18.69 


18.84 



Interpolation Table 







Elbow 




Cheat 










Clrcun- 


Upper 


Arm 


Forearm 


ference 















.1 





.1 








.115 





.073 


.1 


.029 


.144 


.024 


.097 


.2 


.057 


.172 


.048 


.121 


.3 


.086 


.201 


.071 


.145 


.4 


.115 


.230 


.095 


.169 


.5 


.144 


.259 


.119 


.198 


.6 


.172 


.287 


.143 


.216 


7 


.201 


.316 


.167 


.240 


.8 


.230 


.345 


.190 


.264 


.9 


.258 


.373 


.214 


.288 


1.0 


.887 


.402 


.838 


.511 


1.1 


.316 


.431 


.262 


.535 


1.8 


.345 


.460 


.236 


.359 


1.3 


.374 


.483 


.310 


.385 


1.4 


.402 


.517 


.335 


.407 


1.6 


.431 


.546 


.357 


.450 


1.6 


.460 


.574 


.381 


.454 


1.7 


.488 


.603 


.405 


.478 


1.8 


.617 


.632 


.489 


.602 


1.9 


.546 


.661 


.452 


.686 



207 



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210 



Table 104 

NoriBB for Upper Ana and Forearm of Flf teen-Year-Old Boys (Upper arm *»2962 
cheat circumference + 1.0698 elbow -6-1911; forearm = ,1761 
chest circumference + 1.7587 elbow - 1. 0759) 



Chest 
Circum- 
ference, 
Centi- 
meters 


Elbow Width, Centimeters | 




5.2 


5.4 


5.6 


5.8 


6.0 


6.2 


6.4 


6.6 


5.8 


7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


7.6 


7.8 


8.0 


94 
92 
90 
83 
36 
84 
62 
80 
78 
76 
74 
72 
70 
68 
66 
64 
62 


UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
PA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 
UA 
FA 


27.21 27.43 27.64 27.86 28.07 28.28 28.50 28.71 28.93 29.14 29.36 29.57 29.73 30.00 30.21 
24.62 24.97 25.33 25.68 26.03 26.38 26.73 27.08 27.44 27.79 23.14 28.49 28.84 29.20 29.55 
26.62 26.34 27.05 27.26 27.48 27.69 27.91 28.12 23.33 28.56 28.76 28.93 29.19 29.40 29.62 
24.27 24.62 24.97 25.33 26.68 26.03 26.38 26.73 27.08 27.44 27.79 28.14 28.49 28.34 29.19 

26.03 26.24 26.46 26.67 26.89 27.10 27.31 27.53 27.74 27.96 23.17 28.38 28.60 23.81 29.03 
23. 9£ 24.27 24.62 24.97 25.33 26.68 26.03 26.38 26.73 27. C3 27.44 27.79 28.14 28.49 23.84 

25.44 25.66 2*. 87 26.03 26.29 26.51 26.72 26.94 27.16 27.36 27.58 27.79 28.00 23.22 28.43 
23.57 23.92 24.27 24.62 24.97 25.32 25.68 26.03 26.38 26.73 27.08 27.44 27.79 28.14 28.49 

24.85 25.06 25.27 25.49 25.70 25.91 26.13 26.34 26.66 26.77 26.98 27.20 27.41 27.63 27.84 
23.21 23.57 23.92 24.27 24.62 24.97 25.32 26.68 26.03 26.38 26.73 27.03 27.43 27.79 28.14 
24.25 24.47 24.63 24.89 25.11 25.32 25.54 25.76 24.96 26.13 28.39 26.61 26.32 27.03 27.26 

22.86 23.21 23.57 23.92 24.27 24.62 24.97 25.32 25.68 26.03 26.38 26.73 27.06 27.43 27.79 
23.66 23.87 24.09 24.30 24.52 24.73 24.94 26.16 26.37 25.59 25.80 26.01 26.23 28.44 28.56 
22.51 22.36 23.21 23.56 23.92 24.27 24.62 24.97 26.32 26.68 26.03 26.38 26.73 27.06 27.43 
23.07 23.28 23.60 23.71 23.92 24.14 24.35 24.57 24.78 24.99 25.21 25.42 25.64 25.85 26.06 
22.16 22.51 22.86 23.21 23.66 23.92 24.27 24.62 24.97 25.32 25.67 26.03 26.38 26.73 27.09 
22.48 22.69 22.90 23.12 23.33 23.65 23.76 23.97 24.19 24.40 24.62 24.83 25.04 26.28 25.47 
21.81 22.16 22.51 22.36 23.21 23. .66 23.92 24.27 24.62 24.97 26.32 26.67 26.03 29.38 26.73 
21.88 22.10 22.31 22.52 22.74 22.96 23.17 23.38 23.69 23.81 24.02 24.24 24.46 24.66 24.88 

21.45 21.80 22.16 22.51 22.86 23.21 23.56 23.92 24.27 24.62 24.97 26.32 25.67 26.03 26,38 
21.29 21.50 21.72 21.93 22.15 22.36 22.57 22.79 23.00 23.22 23.43 23.84 23.88 24.07 24.29 

21.10 21.45 21.30 22.16 22.51 22.86 23.21 23.56 23.91 24.27 24.62 24.97 26.32 26.87 26.03 
20.70 20.91 21.13 21.34 21.55 21.77 21.93 22.20 22.41 22.62 22.34 23.06 23.27 23.43 23.69 
20.75 21.10 21.45 21.80 22.16 22.51 22.36 23.21 23.56 23.91 24,27 24,82 24,97 26,32 25.67 

20.11 20.32 20.54 20.75 20.95 21.13 21.39 21.61 21.32 22.03 22.26 22.46 22.69 22.89 23.10 
20.40 20.75 21.10 21.45 21.80 22.16 22.51 22.86 23.21 23.56 23.91 24.27 24.62 24.97 26.32 
19.51 19.73 19.94 20.16 20.37 20.59 20.30 21.01 21.23 21.44 21.66 21.87 22.08 22.30 22.51 

20.04 20.40 20.75 21.10 21.45 21.90 22.15 22.61 22.86 23.21 23.66 23.91 24.27 24.82 24.97 
18.92 19.14 19.35 19.57 19.73 19.99 20.21 20.42 20.63 20.35 21.06 21.28 21.49 21.70 21.92 
19.69 20.04 20.40 20.75 21.10 21.45 21.30 22.15 22.51 22.36 23.21 23.66 23.91 24.26 24.62 

18.33 18.54 13.76 13.97 19.19 19.40 19.61 19.83 20.04 20.26 20.47 20.63 20.90 21.11 21.33 

19.34 19.69 20.04 20.39 20.75 21.10 21.45 21.80 22.15 22.51 22.85 23.21 23.56 23.91 24.26 
17.74 17.95 18.15 18.38 18.59 18.81 19.02 19.23 19.45 19.85 19.83 20.09 20.30 20.62 20.73 
18.99 19.34 19.69 20.04 20.39 20.76 21.10 21.45 21,30 22.15 22.50 22.35 23.21 23.56 23.91 



Interpolation Table 



Chest 










Circum- 


Upper 


Arm 


Forearm 


ference 





.1 





.1 








.107 





.176 


.1 


.030 


.136 


.018 


.195 


.2 


.059 


.186 


.036 


.211 


.3 


.089 


.196 


.063 


.229 


.4 


.118 


.226 


.070 


.246 


.5 


.143 


.255 


.083 


.284 


.6 


.178 


.286 


.106 


.282 


.7 


.207 


.314 


.123 


.299 


.8 


.237 


.344 


.141 


.517 


.9 


.267 


.374 


.153 


.334 


1.0 


.296 


.403 


.176 


.362 


1.1 


.325 


.433 


.194 


.570 


1.2 


.365 


.462 


.211 


.387 


1.3 


.385 


.492 


.229 


.406 


1.4 


.415 


.522 


.247 


.422 


1.5 


.444 


.551 


.284 


.440 


1.6 


.474 


.681 


.282 


.458 


1.7 


.504 


.611 


.299 


.475 


1.8 


.633 


.640 


.317 


.495 


1.9 


.662 


.670 


.335 


.510 



211 



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213 



Table 107 



Horms for Thigh and Calf of Sixteen-Year-old Boys (Thigh = .4774 chest 
+ 2.1905 knee - 9.2362; calf = .1951 cheat olroumference 
+ 1.7B72 kneo + 1.3643) 



ilrcufflfareno* 



Chest 
Circum- 


Knee Width, Centimeters | 


































ference, 




8.2 


8.4 


8.6 


8.8 


9.0 


9.2 


9.4 


9.6 


9.8 


10.0 


10.2 


10.4 


10.6 


10.8 


11.0 


Centi- 


































meters 


































96 


Th 


64.66 


64.99 


55.43 


65,87 


56.31 


66.75 


57.18 


57.62 


68.06 


58.50 


68.94 


69.58 


69.31 


60.26 


60.69 




Ca 


e4.75 


35.11 


35.46 


35.82 


36.18 


36.64 


36.89 


37.26 


37.61 


37.97 


38.32 


38.68 


59.04 


39.40 


39.76 


94 


Th 


63.60 


54.04 


64.48 


54.92 


55.35 


55.79 


66.23 


66.67 


67.11 


67.64 


67.98 


68.42 


58.86 


69.30 


69.73 




Ca 


34.36 


34.72 


35.07 


36.43 


35.78 


36.16 


36.60 


36.86 


57.22 


37.68 


37.93 


38.29 


38.64 


39.01 


39.36 


92 


Th 


52.66 


63.08 


53.62 


63.96 


54.40 


54.84 


55.28 


65.71 


66.15 


56.59 


67.03 


87.47 


57.90 


68.34 


68.78 




Ca 


33.97 


34.33 


34.68 


36.04 


36.40 


36.76 


56.11 


36.47 


36.85 


37.19 


37.64 


37.90 


38.26 


38.62 


38.97 


90 


Th 


61.69 


52.13 


62.67 


53.01 


63.44 


53.88 


54.32 


64.76 


55.20 


55.63 


66.07 


66.51 


56.95 


67.59 


87.83 




Ca 


33.68 


33.94 


54.29 


34.66 


36.01 


35.37 


35.72 


36.08 


36.44 


36.80 


37.15 


57.51 


37.87 


58.22 


58.58 


88 


Th 


50.74 


61.18 


51.61 


52.06 


62.49 


52.93 


63.37 


53.80 


64.24 


64.68 


66.12 


56.66 


56.99 


66.45 


66.87 




Ca 


33.19 


33.66 


33.90 


34.26 


34.62 


34.98 


36.33 


36.69 


36.05 


36.40 


36.76 


57.12 


57.48 


37.83 


38.19 


86 


Th 


49.78 


60.22 


50.66 


61.10 


51.53 


61.97 


62.41 


62.86 


63.29 


63.73 


64.16 


64.60 


55.04 


56.48 


65.98 




Ca 


32.80 


33.16 


33.51 


33.87 


34.23 


34.69 


34.94 


35.30 


36.66 


56.01 


36.57 


56.75 


57.09 


57,44 


57.80 


84 


Th 


48.93 


49.27 


49.70 


50.14 


60.58 


61.02 


51.46 


61.89 


52.33 


62.77 


53.21 


53.65 


64.08 


54.52 


64.96 




Ca 


32.41 


32.76 


33.12 


33.48 


33.84 


34.20 


34.56 


34.91 


35.27 


56.62 


35.96 


36.34 


36.70 


37.06 


37.41 


82 


Th 


47.87 


48.31 


48.76 


49.19 


49.63 


60.06 


50.60 


50.94 


51.36 


61.82 


62.26 


62.69 


55.13 


63.67 


84.01 




Ca 


32.02 


32.38 


32.73 


33.09 


33.46 


33.80 


34.16 


34.62 


34.88 


36.23 


35.59 


36.95 


56.31 


36.66 


37.02 


80 


Th 


46.92 


47.36 


47.79 


48.23 


48.67 


49.11 


49.65 


49.98 


50.42 


60.86 


61.30 


61.74 


52.18 


52,61 


53.08 




Ca 


31.63 


31.98 


32.34 


32.70 


33.06 


33.41 


33.77 


34.13 


54.49 


34.84 


35.20 


35.66 


35.92 


36.27 


56.63 


78 


Th 


46.96 


46.40 


46.84 


47.28 


47.72 


48.16 


48.59 


49.03 


46.47 


49.91 


50.34 


50.78 


61.22 


61.66 


82.10 




Ca 


31.24 


31.69 


31.96 


32.31 


32.67 


33.02 


33.38 


33.74 


34.10 


34.46 


34.81 


56.17 


56.55 


36.88 


36.24 


76 


Th 


46.01 


45.46 


46.88 


46.32 


46.76 


47.20 


47.64 


48.08 


48.61 


48.95 


49.39 


49.85 


60.27 


60.70 


61.14 




Ca 


30.86 


31.20 


31.66 


31.92 


32.28 


32.63 


32.99 


33.36 


33.71 


34.06 


34.42 


34.78 


36.14 


36.49 


36.88 


74 


Th 


44.05 


44.49 


44.93 


45.37 


46. SI 


46.24 


46.68 


47.12 


47.66 


48.00 


48.43 


48.87 


49.31 


49.76 


80.19 




Ca 


30.46 


30.81 


31. ]7 


31.63 


31.89 


32.24 


32.60 


32.96 


33.32 


33.67 


34.05 


34.59 


34.76 


35.10 


56.46 


72 


Th 


43.10 


43.54 


43.97 


44.41 


44. E6 


46.29 


45.73 


46.17 


46.60 


47.04 


47.48 


47.92 


48.36 


48.79 


49.25 




Ca 


30.07 


30.42 


30.78 


31. H 


31.50 


31.86 


32.21 


32.67 


32.93 


3S.28 


53.64 


54.00 


34.36 


34.71 


56.07 


70 


Th 


42.14 


42.68 


43.02 


43.46 


43.90 


44.33 


44.77 


45.21 


45.65 


46.09 


46.52 


46.96 


47.40 


47.84 


48.28 




Ca 


29.68 


30.03 


30.39 


30.75 


31.11 


31.it6 


31.82 


32.18 


32.64 


32.89 


33.25 


33.61 


33.97 


54.32 


34.68 


68 


Th 


41.19 


41.63 


42.07 


42.60 


42.94 


43.38 


43.82 


44.26 


44.69 


45.13 


45.67 


46.01 


46.44 


46.88 


47.52 




Ca 


29.29 


29.64 


30.00 


30.36 


30.72 


31.07 


31.43 


31.79 


32.16 


32.50 


32.86 


35.22 


33.68 


55.95 


54.29 


66 


Th 


40.23 


40.67 


41.11 


41.55 


41.99 


42.42 


42.86 


43.30 


43.74 


44.18 


44.62 


45.05 


46.49 


46.92 


46.57 




ca 


28.90 


29.26 


29.61 


29.97 


30.33 


30,68 


31.04 


31.40 


31.76 


32.11 


52.47 


32.82 


33.19 


53.54 


33.90 



Interpolaclon Table 



Knee 



Chest 












Circum- 


Thigh 


Ca 


If 


ference 



















.1 





.1 










.216 





.179 


.1 


.048 




.267 


,020 


.198 


.2 


.095 




.316 


,039 


.218 


,3 


,143 




.362 


.069 


.237 


.4 


,191 




.410 


.078 


.257 


.5 


,239 




.468 


.098 


.276 


.6 


.286 




,606 


.117 


.296 


.7 


,334 




.553 


,137 


.515 


.8 


,382 




.601 


,166 


,355 


.9 


.430 




.649 


.176 


,564 


1,0 


,477 




.696 


.195 


,374 


1,1 


.625 




.744 


.215 


.393 


1,2 


.573 




,792 


.234 


.413 


1,3 


,621 




.84C 


.254 


,432 


1,4 


,668 




,887 


,273 


,462 


1,5 


.716 




,935 


,293 


,471 


1.6 


.764 




,983 


.312 


,491 


1.7 


.812 


1 


.031 


.532 


,610 


1.8 


.859 


1 


,078 


,361 


,530 


1,9 


.907 


1 


,126 


.371 


.549 



214 









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NoriM for Thigh and Calf of Seventeen-Year-old Boys (Thigh = .4062 cheat circumference 
+ 2.7402 knee - 8.0862; oalf = .1379 cheet circumference 
+ 2.3222 knee + 1.3970) 



Cheet 


Knee Width, Centlmelero | 


ClrcuDi- 




































ference. 




8.2 


8.4 


8.6 


e.e 


9.0 


9.2 


9.4 


9.6 


9.8 


10.0 


10.2 


10.4 


10.6 


10.8 


11.0 


11.2 


Centi- 




































meters 




































100 


Th 


55.00 


55.66 


56.10 


66.66 


57.20 


57.74 


58.29 


68.84 


59.39 


59.94 


60.48 


61.03 


61.58 


62.13 


62.63 


63.23 




Ca 


34.23 


34.69 


35.16 


36.62 


36.09 


36.55 


37.02 


37.48 


37.94 


33.41 


38.67 


39.34 


39.80 


40.27 


40.73 


41.20 


S8 


Th 


54.19 


54.74 


55.29 


55.84 


56.38 


56.93 


57.48 


58.03 


68.58 


59.12 


59.67 


60.22 


60.77 


61.32 


61.36 


62.41 




Ca 


33.95 


34.42 


34.88 


35.35 


35.81 


36.78 


36.74 


37.20 


37.67 


38.13 


38.60 


39.06 


39.53 


39.99 


40.46 


40.92 


96 


Th 


53.38 


53.93 


54.48 


65.02 


55.67 


54.12 


56.67 


57.22 


57.76 


58.31 


58.86 


69.41 


59.93 


60.50 


61.06 


61.60 




Ca 


33.68 


34.14 


34.61 


36.07 


35.54 


36.00 


36.46 


36.93 


37.39 


37.86 


38.32 


38.79 


39.26 


39.72 


40.13 


40.64 


94 


Th 


52.57 


53.12 


53.66 


64.21 


54.76 


56.31 


65.85 


56.40 


56.96 


67.50 


58.05 


58.60 


59.14 


59.59 


60.24 


60.79 




Ca 


33.40 


33.87 


34.33 


34.79 


35.26 


36.72 


36.19 


36.65 


37.12 


37.58 


38.05 


38.61 


38.97 


39.44 


39.90 


40.37 


S2 


Th 


51.75 


62.30 


62.85 


53.40 


53.95 


54.50 


66. C4 


55.59 


66.14 


66. c9 


57.24 


57.78 


58.33 


58.83 


69.43 


63.98 




Ca 


33.13 


33.59 


34.05 


34.62 


34.98 


35.45 


36.91 


36.38 


36.84 


37.31 


37.77 


38.23 


38.70 


39.16 


39.63 


40.09 


90 


Th 


50.94 


61.49 


52.04 


52.59 


53.13 


63.68 


54.23 


54.78 


65.33 


55.87 


66.42 


56.97 


57.52 


58.07 


68.62 


59.16 




Ca 


32.85 


33.31 


33. 7B 


34.24 


34.71 


36.17 


35.64 


36.10 


36.67 


37.03 


37.49 


37.96 


38.42 


38.89 


39.35 


39.82 


88 


Th 


50.13 


60.68 


51.23 


61.77 


52.32 


62.87 


53.42 


63.97 


64.61 


55.06 


55.61 


66.16 


56.71 


57.25 


57.80 


53.35 




Ca 


32.67 


33.04 


33.60 


33.97 


34.43 


34.90 


36.36 


35.83 


36.29 


36.75 


37.22 


37.68 


38.15 


3b. 61 


39.03 


39.54 


86 


Tb 


49.32 


49.87 


50.41 


50.96 


61.51 


62.06 


62.61 


53.16 


63.70 


64.26 


54.80 


65.36 


66.89 


56.44 


66.99 


57.54 




Ca 


32.30 


32.76 


33.23 


33.69 


34.16 


34.62 


35.09 


35.56 


36.01 


36.48 


36.94 


37.41 


37.87 


38.34 


38.30 


39.27 


84 


Th 


46.61 


49.05 


49.60 


50.15 


50.70 


51.25 


61.79 


52.34 


52.89 


63.44 


63.99 


64.63 


55.08 


55.63 


56.18 


56.73 




Ca 


32.02 


32.49 


32.96 


33.42 


33.88 


34.34 


34.81 


35.27 


35.74 


36.20 


36.67 


37.13 


37.60 


38.06 


38.52 


33.99 


82 


Th 


47.69 


48.24 


48.79 


49.34 


49.89 


60.43 


50.98 


51.63 


52.08 


52.63 


63.17 


53.72 


64.27 


54.32 


65.37 


65.91 




Ca 


31.75 


32.21 


32.68 


33.14 


33.60 


34.07 


34.63 


35.00 


36.46 


36.93 


36.39 


36.86 


37.32 


37.78 


38.26 


33.71 


80 


Th 


46.88 


47.43 


47.98 


48.52 


49.07 


49.62 


50.17 


50.72 


51.26 


51.81 


52.36 


62.91 


63.46 


64.00 


54.55 


55.10 




Ca 


31.47 


31.94 


32.40 


32.86 


33.33 


33.79 


34.26 


34.72 


36.19 


35.66 


36.12 


36 . 68 


37.04 


37.51 


37.97 


38.44 


78 


Th 


46.07 


46.62 


47.16 


47.71 


48.26 


48.81 


49.36 


49.90 


50.45 


51.00 


51.66 


52.10 


52.64 


53.19 


53.74 


54.29 




Ca 


31.20 


31.66 


32.12 


32.59 


33.05 


33.52 


33.98 


34.45 


34.91 


35.38 


35.84 


36.30 


36.77 


37.23 


37.70 


38.16 


76 


Th 


45.26 


46.80 


46.35 


46.90 


47.45 


40.00 


48.55 


49.09 


49.64 


60.19 


60.74 


61.28 


51.83 


52.38 


52.93 


63.43 




Ca 


30.92 


31.38 


31.86 


32.31 


32.78 


33.24 


33.71 


34.17 


34.62 


36.10 


36.56 


36.03 


36.49 


36.96 


37.12 


37.99 


74 


Th 


44.44 


44.99 


45.54 


46.09 


46.64 


47.18 


47.73 


48.28 


48.83 


49.38 


49.92 


50.47 


51.02 


61.57 


52.12 


62.66 




Ca 


30.64 


31.11 


31.57 


32.04 


32.60 


32.97 


53.43 


33.89 


34.36 


34.62 


35.29 


36.76 


36.22 


36.68 


37.15 


37.51 


72 


Th 


43.63 


44.18 


44.73 


46.27 


45.82 


46.37 


46.92 


47.47 


48.02 


48.56 


49.11 


49.66 


50.21 


50.76 


51.30 


61.36 




Ca 


30.37 


30. P3 


31.30 


31.76 


32.23 


32.69 


33.16 


33.62 


34.08 


34.65 


35.02 


35.48 


35.94 


36.41 


36.87 


37.33 


70 


Tb 


42.82 


43.37 


43.91 


44.46 


46.01 


45.56 


46.11 


46.66 


47.20 


47.75 


48.30 


48.86 


49.39 


49.94 


50.49 


61.04 




Ca 


30.00 


50.66 


31.02 


31.49 


31.95 


32.41 


32.88 


33.34 


33.81 


34.27 


34.74 


36.20 


35.67 


36.13 


36.59 


37.05 


68 


Th 


42.01 


42.66 


43.10 


43.65 


44.20 


44.75 


46.29 


46.84 


46.39 


46.94 


47.49 


48.03 


48.58 


49.13 


49.68 


50.23 




Ca 


29.82 


30.28 


30.75 


31.21 


31.67 


32.14 


32.60 


33.07 


33.53 


34.00 


34.46 


34.93 


35.39 


35.85 


36.32 


36.73 


66 


Th 


41.19 


41.74 


42.29 


42.84 


43.39 


43.93 


44.48 


46.03 


45.68 


46.13 


46.67 


47.22 


47.77 


43.32 


43.37 


49.41 




Ca 


29.64 


30.00 


30.47 


30.93 


31 . 40 


31.86 


32.33 


32.79 


33.26 


33.72 


34.18 


34.65 


36.11 


35.53 


36.04 


36.61 



Interpolation Table 



Chest 










Circum- 


Thigh 




Calf 




ference 















.1 





.1 








.274 





.232 


.1 


.041 


.315 


.014 


.246 


.2 


.081 


.366 


.028 


.260 


.3 


.122 


.356 


.041 


.274 


,i 


.162 


.437 


.066 


.287 


.6 


.203 


.477 


.069 


.301 


.6 


.244 


.518 


.083 


.315 


.7 


.2e4 


.558 


.097 


.329 


.6 


.326 


.699 


.110 


.343 


.9 


.366 


.640 


.124 


.366 


1.0 


.406 


.680 


.138 


.370 


1.1 


.447 


.721 


.152 


.384 


1.2 


.487 


.761 


.166 


.398 


1.3 


.628 


.802 


.179 


.411 


1.4 


.569 


.643 


.193 


.425 


1.6 


.609 


.833 


.207 


.439 


1.6 


.650 


.924 


.221 


.463 


1.7 


.691 


.965 


.234 


.467 


1.8 


.731 1 


.006 


.248 


.430 


l.S 


.772 1 


.046 


.262 


.494 



216 



Ttble 116 

torufl ror Drper krm. For^irr.. Thigh. »nd Ctlf for CoUoge Ken (Upper •ra > .2994 ehaat 

elrcumfcrencB * .«ir lme« - 2.6902! forMrm . -1413 <"'»»J„Si''5T^''""*=!-?o. 

kn»^o * S.Mr&; itlgh - .5641 chB«t clrcuBferBnee ♦ 1.U72 krieo - &.S7&9. 

C1IX - .23« chBBt clrcumfBrencfl • .760C lin«« *■ 8.13671 



10.0 10.2 



10.4 10.6 lO.e ll.O 11.8 11.4 11.6 11.6 12.0 



appBr ara 

For««t« 

Thl«h 

CmU 

UppBf «« 

Foromrtd 

Thigh 

C«lf 

Upper ana 

For««rB 

Thl«h 

Upper ara 

PorBBfv 

TMeh 

Calf 

Opp*r ara 

Poraam 

Thtgb 

calf 

DppBr are 
PoraafB 
Thigh 
Calf 

uppar an 

ror«ar« 

Thigh 

Calf 

Uppar am 

Poraara 

Thigh 

CaU 

Dppar ara 
Poraarn 
Thigh 
Calf 

Oppar »rm 
Poraarm 
Thigh 
Calf 

Dppar at« 
Foraani 
Thigh 
Calf 

tippar ar« 
Poraam 
Thigh 
Calf 

Uppar ars 
Peraam 

Thigh 

Calf 

Oppar aT« 
Poraarv 

Dpper ana 
Porearv 
Thigh 
Calf 

Uppar ara 

Poraana 

Thigh 
Calf 

Uppar ara 
Poraar> 

Thigh 
Calf 
Oppar ai« 

Thigh 
Calf 

appar arv 
Poraara 
Thigh 
Calf 

Dppar ar« 
Poraara 
Thigh 
Calf 

dppar ara 

Thigh 
Calf 

Oppar an 
Poraai« 

SJf 

Oppar an 
Poraar* 

Thigh 
Calf 

Dppar ar« 
Peraara 
Thlgb 
Calf 



32.20 
29.11 

62.90 
39.11 
31.90 
2B.92 
62.33 
38. B7 
51.60 
28.72 
61.77 
38. M 
31.30 
29. U 
61.21 
38.40 
31.00 
28.94 
60.64 
38.17 
SO. 70 
28.14 
60.08 
37.93 

30.40 
27.96 
59.61 
37.69 
9O.10 
27,78 
68.95 
37.46 
20.81 
27.66 
58.38 
37.22 



JJf 



J!f 



;}f 



uppar af« 
Poraara 
Thigh 
Calf 



Thigh 
Calf 



lif 



Dppar ai« 

Peraam 



32.28 

29.19 
63.12 
39.26 



29.21 

27.18 
67.26 
36.75 

28.91 

26.98 
56.69 
36.52 
28.61 
24.79 
56.13 
36.28 
28.31 
26.40 
65.56 
36.05 
28.01 
24.40 
55.00 
35.81 

27.71 
26.21 
64.44 

35.57 

27.41 

26. oe 

53.87 
36.34 



26.81 
25.63 
52.74 
34.87 

26.61 
25.44 
52.19 
34.63 

26.21 
26.34 

81.62 
34.40 

25.91 
26.06 
51.05 
34.19 

26.61 
24.36 
60.49 
33.93 
26.31 
24.66 
49.92 
33.69 

26. OS 
24.47 
49.34 
33.45 



31.69 
28. 80 
61.99 
30.79 

31.39 
28.61 
61.43 
38.55 
31.09 
28.42 
60.87 
38.32 
30.79 
28.22 
60.30 
38.08 

30.49 
28.03 
69.74 
37.85 
30.19 
27. S4 
69.17 
37.61 
29.89 
27.64 
58.61 
37.38 
29.69 
27.45 
56.05 
37.14 

29.29 
27.26 
57.48 
36.90 

28.99 
27.06 
56.92 
36.67 
28.69 
26.67 
66.35 
36.43 
28.39 
26.68 
55.79 
36.20 
28.09 
26.48 
66.23 
35.96 

27.79 
26.29 
54.66 

35.73 
27.43 
26.10 
54.10 
35.49 

87.20 
25.90 
69.63 
36.26 

26.90 
26.71 
52.97 
35.02 
26.60 
25.52 
52.41 
34.78 

26.30 
25.32 
61.04 
34.56 
26.00 
26.13 
51.26 
34.31 

25.70 
24.04 
80.71 
34.08 
25.40 
24.74 
60.16 
93.84 
26.10 
24.66 
49.68 
33.41 
24.80 
24.34 
49.08 
33.97 



24.12 
03.09 

47.47 
90.76 

u.aa 

09. fO 

47.10 

at. 61 
09. aa 

83 M 
4«.M 
90.20 

09.00 
03.31 

46.07 
90.04 
88. M 

23.12 
46.41 
31. 60 

20.42 

22.02 
44.06 
31.67 
-22.. %2 
20.73 
44.28 
31.33 

08.00 
22.64 
49.78 
91.10 



33.13 
24.20 
89.97 
47.00 
38.00 
83.00 
08.70 
47.93 
38. »« 



32.37 
29.27 
63.35 
39.41 
32.07 
29.08 
62.76 
39.18 
31. T7 
28.68 
62.22 
36.94 
31.47 
28.69 
61.66 
36.71 
31.17 
28.50 
61.09 
38.47 
30.87 
28.30 
60.53 
38.23 

30.57 
28.11 
59.96 
36.00 
30.27 
27.98 
59.40 
37.76 
29.97 
27.72 
6n 84 
87.63 
29.67 
27.53 
58.27 
37.29 

29.38 
27.34 
67.71 
37.06 

29.08 
27.14 
67.14 
36.62 
28.78 
26.95 
56.68 
36.60 
28.48 
26.76 
66.02 
36.35 
28.18 
26.56 
66.45 
36.11 

27.66 
26.37 
54.69 
35. B8 
27.58 
26.16 
54.32 
35.64 

27.28 
25.99 
53.76 
35.41 

26.96 
25.79 

33.10 
36.17 

86.66 
25.60 
52.63 
34.94 

26.36 
25. 40 
58.07 
54.70 

26.08 
25.21 
51.50 
34.46 

26.78 
26.02 
60.04 
34.23 
25.48 
24.62 
50.37 
33.99 
26.18 
24.63 
49.81 
33.76 

24.se 

84.44 

49.26 
83.62 

04.66 
84.84 
46.49 

93.89 

34.89 
84.06 
46. U 
33.06 



32.45 
29.35 

63.57 
39.56 
32.15 
29.16 
63.01 
39.33 



32.64 
29.43 
63.80 
30.72 

32.24 
29.24 
63.24 
39.43 



31. e:. 31.94 

28.96 29.04 

62.46 62.67 

39.09 39.25 



31.56 
28.77 
61.88 
38.66 

31.26 
28.56 
61.32 



31.64 
26.65 
62.11 
39.01 
31.34 
28.66 
61.54 
36.77 



32.62 

29.81 
64.02 

39. err 

32.32 
29.32 
63.46 
39.63 
32.02 
29.12 
62.90 
39.40 
31. T2 
28.03 
62.33 
89.16 



38.71 
29.59 

64.25 
40.02 
32.41 
20.40 
63.69 
30.76 

32.11 
29.20 
63.12 
39.66 
31.61 
29.01 
62.56 
39.31 



30.66 30.74 

28.19 26.27 

60.19 60.41 

38.15 88.30 

30.36 30.44 

26.00 28.06 

60.63 69.86 

37.92 38.07 



30.14 
87.88 
59.29 
37.89 



30.06 
27.60 
69.04 
37.66 

29.76 20.64 

27.61 27.69 

66.60 68.72 

37.44 37.60 

29.46 20.34 

27.42 27.60 

67.95 58.16 

87. ei 37.36 

89.16 29.24 

27. 2<! 27,30 

57.37 57.59 

36.97 37,12 



28.66 
87. OS 
66.60 
34.74 
28.56 
26.34 
66.24 
36.50 



26.94 
27.11 
67.03 
36.80 
28.65 
26.92 
56.47 
36.66 



28.26 26.35 
24.64 86.73 
55.68 56. 90 

36.27 36.48 



27,96 
26.45 
56.11 
36.03 
27.96 
26.26 
64.66 
36.79 
27.34 
26.06 
53.98 
36.66 

87.06 
28.37 
53.42 
35.32 
26.76 
25.69 
62.87 
35.09 
26.47 
S5.4B 
62.20 
34.86 

86.19 
25.20 
51.73 
34.63 



26.06 
26.83 
66,34 
34.18 
27.75 
26.34 
54.77 
35.95 
27. 4S 
26.14 
64.21 
35.71 

27.15 
25.06 
53.45 

35.48 

26.85 
25.76 
63.06 
36.24 

26.56 
25.56 
52,62 
33.00 

36. 2S 
25.37 
61,06 
34.77 



25.67 26.06 

26.10 26.18 

61.16 51.39 

94.38 34.63 

26.67 86.66 

24.90 84.98 

60.60 60.83 



94.16 
88.27 
84.71 
50.04 
33.91 
24.97 
84.62 
49.47 
93.67 
24.47 
84.82 
46.91 
33.44 
34.37 
24.18 
48.34 
83.30 
84.07 
03.94 
47.70 
38.07 



25.36 
84.70 
60.26 
34.06 
26.06 
84.40 
49.70 
33.63 
84.76 
84. 40 
49.13 
33.59 
04,46 
84,81 
46.67 
83. 8« 



31.12 
28.54 
61.20 
36,69 

90.83 
88.36 
60.64 
38.46 
80.63 
28.16 
60.06 
38.82 

80.23 
27.96 
69.61 
87.98 
89.93 
27.77 
56.95 
37.76 

29.63 
27.68 
86.88 
37.61 

29.83 

27.38 
67.62 
37.28 
20.03 
27.19 
67.26 
37.04 
26.73 
27.00 
66.69 
36.61 

28.43 

36.80 
66.13 
36.87 

26.13 
24.61 
55.56 
36.39 

27.83 
86.42 
55.00 
36.10 

87.53 
26.82 
54.44 

35.36 

27.83 

28.03 
53.97 
36.63 

26.93 
25.34 
63.31 
35.59 

86.63 
25.63 
52.74 
35.16 

26.33 
26.45 
62.18 
34.92 

86.04 
05.86 
81.61 
34.60 
35.74 
26.06 
61.05 
34.48 
20.44 
24.87 
50.49 
34.21 
25.14 
84.68 
49.92 
93.98 



89.50 

03.89 
46.00 
98.10 
89.00 
89. 80 
46.44 
81. •« 
22,70 
83.00 
46.07 
31.78 
28,40 
02.61 
44.61 
81.49 

02.10 
82,40 
49.04 
81,06 



80.64 

08.80 
83.47 
46.49 
98.34 
89. 00 
89.88 
46.04 
93.11 

22.79 

83. oe 

46. 80 
81.07 

22. 4C 
83.00 
44.73 



88.77 83.64 

88.74 83. «8 

47.13 47.44 

38.73 88. 0« 



83.47 
83.56 
44.45 
38.60 
83.17 
83.34 
44.00 
98.04 

28.07 
08.16 
48. U 

30.03 



31.44 81.70 



83.64 

88.43 
44.84 
98.46 
83.04 
83.44 
44.91 
98.41 

80. 04 
03.04 

49.78 

93.16 
83. C4 
38.06 
46.18 
31.04 



31.81 
26,62 
61.43 
36.64 

30.91 

28.43 
60.87 
36.61 
30.61 
88.24 
60. 80 
96.37 

30.31 
26.04 
69.74 
36.14 
30.01 
27.86 
69.17 
37.90 

89.71 
27.66 
66.61 
37.66 

29.41 
27.46 
56.05 
37.45 

29.11 
27.27 
57.46 
37.19 
28.81 
27.06 
56.02 
36.96 
28.51 
26.96 
56.35 
36.72 

26.22 
26.69 
55.79 
36.49 
27.92 
26. 50 
65.22 
36.25 
27.82 
26.30 
54.66 
36.02 

37.32 
26.11 
64.10 
35.76 
27.02 
25.92 
63.63 
35.54 
26.72 
25.72 
52.07 
35.31 

26.42 

26.63 
62.40 
35.07 



33.70 
20.67 
64.46 
40.17 
32.49 
29.46 
63.91 
39.94 
32.10 
29.28 
63.35 
39.70 
31.89 
29. 09 
62.78 
99.47 



39.83 
81.29 



82.87 
20.76 
64.70 
40.32 
32.58 
29.66 
64.14 
40.09 

32.28 
29.36 

63.57 
39.65 

31.98 
29.17 
63.01 
30.62 



26.62 
36.14 
51.86 
34.40 
36.68 
84,96 
60,71 
34.37 

25.22 
24.76 
60.16 
34.13 



84.94 24.92 

24.48 84.64 

49.34 49.56 

93.74 33.89 

34.64 34.>8 

34.89 34.37 

46.80 49.0s 

83.81 33.44 
34.24 
84.10 
48.83 
38.87 



09.10 
80.70 
44. IT 
91.40 



00.07 83.34 

03.70 oa.oo 

44.90 44.40 

81.66 91. Tt 



89.04 

83.00 
47.67 
38.04 



38.00 
03.84 
83.68 



89. 04 
09.80 
48,07 
90.38 
30.74 
08.18 
48.41 
38. 00 

00.44 

08.04 
44.09 
91. •• 



84.00 
83.98 
47.09 
93.10 

83.73 
03.78 
47.33 
38.06 
09. U 
83.00 
44.70 
38.70 

29.13 
88.40 
44.00 
90. iS 

03.09 
08.01 
46.63 
90.06 

03.08 

03. 00 
48.0V 



30.99 

26.61 
61.09 
38.76 
90.69 
28.52 
60.59 
86.62 

30.40 
86.12 
69.96 
38.89 
30.10 
27.93 
69.40 
36.05 

80.80 
27.74 
68.63 
57.62 

29.50 
27.84 
56.27 
37.68 
29.20 
27.35 
67.71 
37.35 
28.90 
27.16 
67,14 
37.11 

28.60 
36.96 
56.58 
36.67 

28. 30 
24.77 
56.01 
34.94 

28,00 
26.39 
55.45 
36.40 
27.70 
86.33 
54.99 
36.17 

27.40 
26.19 
64.32 
35.93 
27.10 
26.00 
53.76 
35.70 

26.30 
26.30 
53.19 
35.46 

26.50 
26.61 
52.43 
35.83 

86.20 
86.43 
62.07 
34.93 
86.90 
85.88 
51.80 
34.75 
26.60 
88.03 
60.94 
84.62 

06.31 
84.64 
80.37 
94.36 
85.01 
84.44 
49.81 
34.05 
84.71 
84.45 
49.86 
33.01 
34.41 
84.86 
46, 48 
33.68 
84.11 
34.04 
40.18 
99.34 

83.81 
33.07 
47.88 
99.10 
83.61 
83.46 
44.00 
98.07 

29.81 
89.40 
44.48 
90.43 
00.01 
09. 80 
46.04 
98.40 

18.41 

08.10 ' 
49.90 



31.38 
26.76 
61.66 
89.15 

91.06 
28.89 
61.32 
38.91 
90.78 
28.40 
60.76 
98.68 

30.46 
88.20 
60.19 
36.44 

30.16 
26.01 
69.62 
36.20 

29.88 
27.62 
69.06 
37.97 

29.66 
27.62 
68.60 
37.73 
29.28 
27.43 
67.93 
37.60 
29.99 
27.24 
67.37 
37.26 
28.66 
27.04 
66. BO 
37.03 

88.36 
26.35 
86.34 
36.70 
36.06 
26.66 
56.68 
36.56 
27.73 
26.46 
66.11 
56.32 

27.49 
26.27 
54.65 

36.08 
27.10 
26.06 
63.98 
35.86 

86.89 
26.88 
63.42 
35.61 

26.59 
35.69 
82.86 
36.36 

86.39 
36.50 
83.39 
38.14 
26.99 
26.80 
61.73 
94.91 
26.49 
86.11 
51.16 
34.47 

86.39 
24.02 
80.60 
34.43 
85.00 
84.73 
60.03 
84.80 
84.70 
84,63 
49.47 
83.06 
84.49 
84.94 
49.91 
83.79 
04.10 
84.14 
48.34 
93.49 

03.00 
83,96 
47.70 
98.14 

83.60 
88.74 
47.01 

98. a> 

89.00 

23.60 
44.48 
90.79 
00.00 

83.37 
44.09 

30. »e 



82.06 
20.68 
44.03 
40.46 
32.66 
80.64 
64.36 
40.24 
32.36 
20.44 
63.60 
40.01 
32.06 
29,25 
63.23 
39.77 
31.76 
30.06 
62.67 
99.53 
31.46 
88.86 
68.11 
39.30 



30.86 
28.46 
60.96 
56.63 

90.56 
28.23 
60.41 
86.59 
30.26 
88.09 
89.86 
38.56 

29.96 
27. 90 
69.29 
38.12 

20.66 
27.70 
68.72 
57.89 
29.37 
27.81 
68.16 
37.66 
29.07 
27.32 
67.59 
87.41 
36.77 
27.12 
87.03 
37,16 

28.47 
26.93 
56.47 
36,94 
28.17 
26,74 
66.90 
36.71 
27,67 
26.54 
66.34 
36.47 

27.67 
26.35 
84.77 
36.34 
27.37 
26.16 
64.21 
36,00 

26.97 
86.06 
63.64 

38.76 

86.67 
26.77 
63.06 
36.53 
26.37 
86.66 
68.58 
36.20 
84.07 
£6.86 
61.96 
38.04 
28.77 
26.10 
61.39 
84.02 
86.47 
85 00 
80.08 
34.60 
36.17 
34. 00 
60.86 
84.55 
04.68 
04.61 
40.70 
34.13 
84.66 
84.48 
49.18 
93.66 
34.80 
84.08 
46.67 
83.44 

33.96 
84,03 
46.00 
83.41 
88.40 
83.64 
47.44 
99.17 



33.04 

29.91 

65.15, 

40.68' 

32.74 

29.72 

64.69 

40.59 

32.44 

20.68 

64-02 

40.16 

32.14 

29.33 

43.46 

99.92 

91.86 

89.14 

68.90 

99.69 

81.66 , 

28.94 

62.33 

30.46 



83.13 
39.99 
65.38 
40.79 
38.83 
20.60 
64.81 
40.66 

52.83 

29.60 
64.26 
40.31 

32.23 
29.41 

63.69 
40.07 

31.03 
29.22 
43.18 
39.64 

51.63 
20.02 
62,56 
39.60 
31.25 31.33 
28.75 28.63 

61.77 61.99 
39.82 39.37 
30. 96 51.03 
28.86 26.64 
91.20 61,43 
36.98 39.13 
30.66 30.73 

88.86 28.44 
60.64 60.86 
M.74 133.90 
30.38 30.43 
23.17 28.36 
60.06 60.80 
38.51 33.66 

90.06 I 30.15 
27.96 86.06 
69.61 , 50.74 
38.27 ' 38.42 

89.78 20.63 
27.78 27.86 
68.05 59,17 
36.04 I 38.19 
29.45 20.83 
27.59 t 27.67 
69.38 '86.61 
37.80 37.96 
29.16 20.84 
27.40 I 27.46 
67.82 68.04 

37.87 37.72 

28.85 88.94 
27.20 I 27.26 
57.25 57.48 
37.33 37.48 



93.31 
30.07 
66.60 
40.93 

32.91 
29.68 
65.04 
40.70 

93.61 
29.68 
64.47 

40.46 

92.81 
29.49 
69.91 
40.23 

32.01 
29.30 
63.36 
99.99 

81.71 
39.10 
62.78 
80,76 
31.42 
29.91 
62.22 
39.52 
31,12 
26.72 
61.68 
39.23 
30.82 
26.52 
41.09 
39.06 

30.58 
88.33 
60.63 
38.81 
30.82 
88.14 
59.96 
38.56 
29.93 
87.94 
69.40 
36.34 

29.62 
27.75 
66.63 
33. U 

89.52 
27.56 
58.27 
37.87 
29.02 
27.36 
67.71 
37.63 



83.80 
30.16 
68.63 
41. OH 

33.00 
89.96 
66.86 
40.85 

32.70 
29.76 
64.70 
40.61 

32.40 
29.87 
64.14 
40.38 
32.10 
29.58 
63.67 
40.14 
51.80 
29.18 
63.01 
89.91 
31.80 
28.99 
42.44 
39.67 
31.20 
83.80 
61.36 
39.44 
30.00 
06.40 
61.92 
39.80 

30.60 
26.41 
60.75 
36.94 

30. 30 
28.22 
40.19 
38.73 
30.00 
26.02 
69.62 
36.49 

29.70 
27.33 
59.06 
33.26 
29.40 
27.64 
58.60 
38.02 
29.10 
27.44 
57.93 
37.79 



33.58 
30.25 
66.06 
41.24 

33.06 
30.04 
66.49 
41.00 

32.78 
29.64 
64.93 
40.77 

32.46 
89.65 
64.36 
40.53 
32.18 
29.46 
63.80 
40.29 

31.66 
20.86 
63.23 
40.06 
31.56 
20.07 
62,67 
39.62 



30.69 
36.49 
60.93 
30.13 

30.59 
26.30 
60.41 
38.38 
30.09 
28.10 
59.66 
36.95 
20.79 
27.91 
60,88 
36.41 

29.49 
P7.T2 
68.72 
36.17 
89.19 
27.62 
56.16 
37.94 



93.46 

80.31 
66.86 
41.39 
33.16 
30.12 
66.72 
41.15 
32.87 
29.92 
65.15 
40.02 
32.67 
39,73 
64.69 
40.68 
32.27 
29.64 
64.02 
40.46 
31.07 
29,34 
68,46 
40.21 
31.67 
29.15 
62.39 
59.98 
31.37 
86.96 
62.33 
.30.74 
51.07 
28.76 
61.77 
39.60 

30,78 
88,67 
61.20 
39,87 

30.47 
36.38 
60.44 
39.03 
30.17 
26.18 
60.07 
38.80 
29.87 
27.09 
59.61 
38.89 
29.57 
27.60 
63.95 
36.33 
29.27 
27.60 
63.33 
38.09 



39.65 
9O.90 
46.80 
41.54 

53.25 
50.20 
45.94 
41.31 

82.06 
80.00 
65.58 
41.07 

82.65 

20.81 
64.61 
40.33 
32.36 
29.62 
64.25 
40.60 
32.05 
29.43 
63.63 
40.86 

31.75 
20.23 
63.12 
40. 13 
31.45 
20.04 
62.56 
39.89 
31.15 
88.34 
61.90 
39.66 

30.66 
28.66 
61.43 
39.42 



33.65 

30.47 
66.73 
41.60 

33.35 

30.28 
66.17 
41.46 



83.72 

90.56 
66.04 
41.65 

93.42 

90.36 
66.30 
41.61 



33.03 33.12 

30.08 30.16 

66.60 66.63 

41.22 41.57 



32.73 
29.69 
66.04 
40.00 
32.44 
29.70 
64.47 
40.76 
32.14 
29.50 
65.91 
40.52 
31.64 
29.31 
63.35 
40.26 
31.64 
29.12 
62.76 
40.04 
31.24 
23.92 
62.22 
39.91 



28.66 26.64 26.72 

27,01 27.09 27.17 

66.60 66.92 67.14 

37.09 37.25 37.40 



28.80 26.89 

27.25 27.55 

57.37 67.69 

37.66 37.70 



29.26 28.34 
26.62 2a. 90 
66.13 1 56.35 

36.86 37.01 



27.96 
26.62 
56.56 
36.62 

27.66 
26.43 

66.00 
36.89 

37.86 
86.24 
64.49 



28.04 
26.70 
68.79 
36.76 

27.74 
26.81 
66.22 
96.64 

27.44 
26.82 
54.66 



Ma8 I salao 



27,06 
26,04 I 
53.87 ' 
36.92 



27,14 
26.12 

54.10 
36.07 



30.04 
88.00 

33,46 
44.91 

01.70 

00.76 
08.16 

48.78 



86.74 *«W 

26.66 ^*-*5 

63.91 WW 

36.68 S6.63 

28. M 26.64 

"•" lilt 
68.74 , "•" 

36.46 I S6.60 

15. 10 26.34 
08.44 26.64 
68.16 82.40 
56,81 36.86 

88.66 26.04 
26.27 I 36.85 
61.41 I 61.04 
54.97 36.13 
85.66 { 25.64 
86.08 86.14 

81.08 I 61.87 
34.74 I 34.09 
86.84 26.84 
24.68 1 84. oe 
80.40 60.71 
34.80 S4.46 
34.00 88.04 
34.40 ' 34.77 

49.03 50.18 
94.87 94.48 
84.64 34.74 
84.60 24.66 
40.94 49.68 

34.09 I 34.16 

04. M 84.44 

04.80 84.36 

48.79 49.0* 

83,40 99.05 

94.04 84.16 

04.11 84.19 

44.09 40.44 
53.64 53.71 

03.74 S3. 08 

88.00 84.00 

47.44 47.09 

93.99 39.40 

33.44 29.68 

33.70 ■ 89.00 

47.10 47.99 
33.00 39,04 



27.82 
26.40 
54.69 

36.46 

37,22 
86.80 
64.32 
56.02 
26.92 
36.01 
58.74 
36.09 



27.61 
26.46 
56,11 
36.61 
87.31 
26.38 
54.55 
36.37 
27.01 
86.09 
63.96 
36.14 



26.63 


36.71 


36,62 


28,00 


68.19 


53.43 


85.75 


35.00 



27.30 
26.86 
54.77 
34.52 
27. 09 
26.17 
54.21 
56.29 

86.79 
28.08 
53.64 

34.06 



36.34 
86.42 
63.63 
36.61 

86.03 
38.43 
52.06 
56.28 

26.75 
06.24 
81.60 
58.04 

26.43 
86.04 
60.04 
34.61 
88.19 
04.66 
80.37 
84.87 
84.63 
84.64 
40.81 
54.34 

84.69 
34.44 
40.84 

34.10 



03.03 
34.00 
40.13 
99.49 



36.41 

26.70 
63,66 

36,67 

84.11 

86.61 
AS. 80 
86.43 
36.61 
86.32 
51.78 
36.10 

38.61 
36.13 
51.16 
34.06 
88.81 
34.93 
80.60 
34.78 

34.91 
84.74 
6O.03 
94.49 

84.61 
04.64 
40.47 
84.15 

04.81 
04.85 
46.01 
94.00 
34.01 
04.14 
40.94 
39.70 



36.19 
28.69 
62.63 
36.68 

88.90 
86.40 
61.98 
36.58 
88.60 
86.80 
61.80 
88.11 
96.80 
88.01 



87.48 
36.44 
55.00 
36.68 
87.16 
26.26 
54.43 
36.44 

86.66 
86,06 
83.67 
36.21 
36.66 
36.66 
53.30 
35.97 

34.88 

35.67 
62.74 
35.75 

88.98 
36.48 
88.18 
56.60 
88.68 
26.96 
61.61 
86.36 
88.36 



60. ( 

34.66 56.05 



88. 89 89.71 



M.Ol aa.iO II.9I W.4T 80. «t 



08.00 

' 89.41 
44.74 
99.01 



1 40. 00 

•9t,Tr 



88.99 

09.49 
44.00 
99.16 



99.48 
88.77 
47.81 
99.91 



M.oa M.OT 



36.00 
84.63 
60.04 
94.04 

04. TO 
84.43 

40.40 

54.40 
84.40 
84.43 
40.13 
94.17 

84.10 
84. S« 

40.67 
99.09 
88. «0 
04.04 
411.00 
99.70. 

09. 80 
89.66 
47.44 
99.49 
08.80 
83.44 
44.07 
19.19 



88.06 
04.00 
60.46 

34.79 

84.70 
04.70 
40.08 
54.84 
04.49 
84.61 
40.34 
54.98 



27.66 
36.53 
66.22 
56.63 
37.86 
86.33 
54.66 
36,69 

86.06 
26.14 
84.09 
56.56 
26.66 
26.94 
85.68 
96.18 

86.84 
08.76 
83.97 

56.69 

84.04 
86.64 
68.40 

36.68 

88.76 
36.84 
61.04 
36.48 
86.46 



56.18 
88.17 
84.90 
60.71 
54.94 
04.07 
84.70 
80.16 
34.71 



52.63 
29.97 
65.26 
41.14 
32.62 
29.78 
64.70 
40.90 

32.22 

29.63 
64.14 
40.67 

31.92 
20.39 
63.57 
40.43 
31.62 
29.20 
63.01 
40.20 
51.32 
29.00 
62.44 
39,96 



30.94 31.02 

28.73 28.91 

61.66 61.88 

39.67 39.70 



30.26 
28.36 
60,30 
58.96 

29.96 
28.07 
69.74 
33.71 

39.66 
27.38 
50,17 
33.48 
29.36 
27.66 
68.61 
56.84 

28.97 29.06 

27.41 87.49 

67.82 68.04 

37.66 36.01 



50. T2 
28.62 
61.81 
59.49 
90.42 
28.48 
60.76 
80.26 



30.64 
28.54 
61.09 
59.84 

30.34 
28.54 
60.55 
39.10 

50.04 80.18 

26.15 26.23 

59.96 60.19 

50.87 90.02 



30.74 
27.96 
69. 40 
38.65 
29.44 
27.76 
63.65 
33.39 



29.82 

28.04 
69.03 
58.79 
39.63 
27.64 
69.06 
38.56 



35.80 
30.69 
67.16 
42.00 
33.60 
50.44 
66.62 
41.76 

55.20 
30.24 
66.05 
41.53 

32.90 
30.06 
66.49 
41.29 
32.60 
29.66 
64.92 
41.05 
32.50 
29.66 
64.56 
40. ft? 

32.00 
29.47 
63.60 
40. 58 
31.71 
29.28 
63.25 
40.55 
31.41 
29.08 
62,67 
40.11 



50.81 
28.70 
61.64 
89.64 
90.61 
S8.50 
60.98 
90.41 

90.21 
23.91 
60.41 
99.17 

89.91 
23.18 
69.85 
36.93 
29.61 
27.92 
59.26 
58.70 



29.14 20.25 89.31 

27.67 87.66 87.73 

68.27 58.49 58,72 

36.16 36.31 36.46 



28.43 28.81 88.69 88.67 88.76 

26.93 87.06 27.14 27.22 27.30 

56.69 56.60 57.03 67.25 67.43 

37.16 37.32 87.47 37.43 37.77 

88.12 28,21 23.29 28.37 26.44 

26,76 36.66 86.94 27.02 27.10 

56.01 56.24 56.49 56.69 56.91 

36.93 37.08 37.23 37.33 37.54 

37.62 27.91 27.99 28.08 88.16 

36.69 26.97 29.76 26.83 29.91 

58.45 55,48 58.90 66.13 54.35 

36.60 36.84 37. OO 37.15 37.30 



27.69 27.79 27.86 

26.56 26.94 26.72 

56.34 55.56 65.79 

39.76 36.91 37.06 



84.18 
40.85 
33.06 

09.80 
09.09 . 

47. •« 
99.41 

GS.pn 

08.74 
47.10 

S3. 8a 



03.07 
84.00 
4A.48 
34.00 

08.47 

04.01 
47.1*0 
93.77 
03.37 

88. oa 

47,89 
99.69 



28.34 
27.39 
67.70 
37.92 

26.54 
27.16 
67.14 
37.69 

23.24 
86.99 
66.88 
37.45 

27.94 
26.30 
66.01 
37.22 

27.64 
86.60 
55.45 
36.08 
87.36 
84.41 
64.68 
56.76 
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to 
to 



220 



Table 114 

Dorms ior Thigh and Calf of Flve-Yoar-Old Olrla (Thigh = .6042 cheat eircumferenee 

+ 1.S007 knea - 8.7S3S; oalf = .3J20 cheat clroumferenoa 

+ 1.2526 knee - 5.6361) 



■ chest 
Clrcum- 














Knea 


Width, 


Centime tera 














































fereoce. 




5.8 


6.0 


6.2 


6.4 


6.6 


6.8 


7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


7.6 


7.8 


8.0 


8.2 


8.4 


8,6 


Centl- 


































metera 


































63 


Th 


1 

38,04 


38.34 


38.64 


38.94 


39.24 


39.54 


39.84 


40.14 


40,44 


40,74 


41,04 


41.34 


41,64 


41.94 


42.24 




Ca 


24.64 


24.90 


25.15 


25.40 


26.66 


25.90 


26.15 


26.40 


26.65 


26,90 


27,15 


27.40 


27.65 


27.90 


28.15 


62 


Th 


37.43 


37.73 


38.03 


38.33 


38.63 


38.93 


39.23 


39.53 


39.83 


40.13 


40.43 


40.73 


41.03 


41.35 


41.63 




Ca 


24.31 


24.56 


24.81 


25.06 


25.32 


25.57 


25.82 


26.07 


26.32 


26.67 


26,82 


27.07 


27.32 


27.57 


27.82 


61 


Th 


36.83 


37.13 


37.43 


37.73 


38.03 


38.33 


38.63 


38,93 


39.23 


39.53 


39,83 


40.13 


40.43 


40.75 


41.03 




Ca 


23.98 


24.23 


24.48 


24.73 


24.98 


25.23 


26.43 


25,73 


25.99 


26.24 


26.49 


26.74 


26.99 


27.24 


27.49 


60 


Th 


36.22 


36.52 


36.82 


37.12 


37.42 


37.72 


38.02 


38.32 


38.62 


38.92 


39.22 


39,62 


39.82 


40.12 


40.42 




Ca 


23.65 


23.90 


24.15 


24.40 


24.65 


24.90 


26.15 


26.40 


25.65 


26.90 


26.15 


26,40 


26.66 


26.91 


27.16 


69 


Th 


35.62 


35.92 


36.22 


36.52 


36.82 


37.12 


37.42 


37.72 


38.02 


38.32 


38.62 


38.92 


S9.22 


59.52 


39.82 




Ca 


23.32 


23.57 


23.82 


24.07 


24.32 


24.57 


24.82 


25.07 


26.32 


25,57 


26,82 


26.07 


26.32 


26.57 


26.82 


58 


Th 


35.01 


35.31 


35.61 


36,91 


36.21 


36.52 


36.82 


37.12 


37.42 


37.72 


38,02 


33.32 


38.62 


38.92 


39.22 




Ca 


22.98 


23.24 


23.49 


23.74 


23.99 


24.24 


24.49 


24,74 


24.99 


26,24 


25,49 


26.74 


26.99 


26.24 


26.49 


57 


Th 


34.41 


34.71 


35.01 


35.31 


35.61 


35.91 


36.21 


36.51 


36.81 


37.11 


37.41 


37.71 


38.01 


58.31 


38.61 




Ca 


22.65 


22.90 


23.16 


23.40 


23.66 


23.91 


24.16 


24.41 


24.66 


24,91 


26.16 


26.41 


25.66 


25.91 


26.16 


56 


Th 


33.81 


34.11 


34,41 


34.71 


35.01 


36.31 


36.61 


35.91 


36.21 


36.61 


36.81 


37.11 


'37.41 


57.71 


58.01 




Ca 


22.32 


22.57 


22.82 


23.07 


23.32 


23.57 


23.32 


24.07 


24.«3 


24.58 


24.83 


26.08 


26.35 


25.63 


26.85 


55 


Th 


33.20 


33.50 


33.80 


34.10 


34.40 


34.70 


35.00 


35.30 


35.60 


35.90 


36.20 


36.50 


36.80 


57.10 


57,40 




Ca 


21.99 


22.24 


22.49 


22.74 


22.99 


23.24 


23.49 


23.74 


23.99 


24.24 


24.49 


24.74 


25.00 


26.25 


26.50 


54 


Th 


32.60 


32.90 


33.20 


33.50 


33.80 


34.10 


34.40 


34.70 


36.00 


35.30 


35.60 


36.90 


36.20 


36.60 


56.90 




Ca 


21.66 


21.91 


22.16 


22.41 


22.66 


22.91 


23.16 


23.41 


23.66 


23.91 


24.16 


24.41 


24.66 


24.91 


25.16 


53 


Th 


31.99 


32.29 


32.69 


32.89 


33.19 


33.49 


33.79 


34.09 


34.39 


34.69 


34.99 


35.29 


35.60 


35.90 


56.20 




Ca 


21.32 


21.58 


21.83 


22.08 


22.33 


22.68 


22.83 


23.09 


23.33 


23,69 


23.83 


24.08 


24.33 


24.63 


24.93 


52 


Th 


31.39 


31.69 


31.99 


32.29 


32.59 


32.89 


33.19 


33.49 


33.79 


34.09 


34.39 


34.69 


34.99 


36.29 


36.59 




Ca 


20.99 


21.24 


21.49 


21.74 


22.00 


22.25 


22.50 


22.75 


23.00 


23.25 


23.50 


23.75 


24.00 


24.26 


24.60 


51 


Th 


30.78 


31.09 


31.39 


31.69 


31.99 


32.29 


32.59 


32.89 


33.19 


33.49 


33.79 


34,09 


34.39 


54.60 


54.99 




Ca 


20.66 


20.91 


81.16 


21.41 


21.66 


21.91 


22.16 


22.41 


22.67 


22.92 


23.17 


23.42 


23.67 


25.92 


24.17 


50 


Th 


30.18 


30.48 


30.78 


31.08 


31.39 


31.63 


31.99 


32.28 


32.56 


32.83 


33.18 


33.48 


33.73 


34.08 


34.38 




Ca 


20.33 


20.58 


20,83 


21,08 


21.33 


21.58 


21.83 


22,08 


22.-33 


22,59 


22.83 


23,08 


23.34 


23.58 


25.84 


49 


Th 


29.58 


29.89 


30.18 


30,48 


30.78 


31.08 


31.39 


31.63 


31.98 


.•"2.28 


32,59 


32.33 


33.18 


33.48 


55.79 




Ca 


20.00 


20.25 


20.50 


20.75 


21.00 


21.25 


21.60 


21.75 


22.00 


22.26 


22.50 


22.76 


23.00 


23.25 


25.50 


48 


Th 


28.97 


29.27 


29.67 


29.87 


SO. 17 


.30.47 


30.77 


31,07 


31.37 


31.67 


31.97 


32.27 


32.67 


32.37 


55.17 




Ca 


19.66 


19.92 


20.17 


20.42 


20.67 


20.92 


21.17 


21,42 


21.67 


21.92 


22.17 


22.42 


22.67 


22.92 


23.17 


47 


Th 


28.37 


28.67 


28.97 


29,27 


29.57 


29.87 


30.17 


30.47 


30.77 


31.07 


31.57 


31.67 


31.97 


52.27 


32.57 




Ca 


19.33 


19.58 


19.83 


20. OT 


20.34 


20.59 


20.84 


21.09 


21.34 


21.59 


21.84 


22.09 


22.34 


22,59 


22.84 


46 


Th 


27.76 


28,06 


28.36 


28.66 


28.96 


29.26 


29.56 


29.86 


30.17 


30.47 


30,77 


31.07 


31.37 


31.67 


31.97 




Ca 


19.00 


19.26 


19.60 


19.75 


20.00 


20.26 


20.50 


20.75 


21.01 


21.26 


21.51 


21.76 


22.00 


22,26 


22.51 


45 


Th 


27.16 


27.46 


27.76 


28.06 


28.36 


23.66 


28.96 


29.26 


29.56 


29.86 


30.16 


50.46 


30.76 


31,06 


31,36 




Ca 


18.67 


18.92 


19.17 


19.42 


19.67 


19.92 


20.17 


20.42 


20.67 


20.92 


21.17 


21.42 


21.68 


21,93 


22.18 



Interpolation Table 



BlM 



Cheat 










Clroum- 


Thigh 




Calf 




ference 















.1 





.1 








.160 





.126 


.1 


.060 


.210 


.035 


.168 


.2 


.121 


.271 


.066 


.192 


,3 


.181 


.331 


.100 


,226 


.4 


.242 


.592 


.153 


.2ba 


.6 


.502 


.462 


.166 


.2W1 


.6 


.365 


.513 


.199 


.524 


.7 


.425 


.675 


.252 


.568 


.8 


.485 


.655 


.266 


.591 


..9 


.544 


.69* 


.299 


.424 



221 



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Table 118 

Norma for Thigh ^d Calf of Sevon-Year-old Girls (Thigh = .6360 cheot circumference 
+ 1.9387 knee - 13.3581; call = .3912 chest circumference 
+ 1.2591 knee - 6.8741) 



Cheat 














Knee Width. Ce 


ntlmeters 












Circum- 
ference, 


































6.2 


6.4 


6.6 


5.8 


7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


7.6 


7.8 


8.0 


8.2 


8.4 


8.6 


8.3 


Centi- 
































meters 
































67 


Th 


41.27 


41.66 


42.05 


42.44 


42.82 


43.21 


43.60 


43.99 


44,33 


44.76 


45.15 


45.54 


45.93 


46.31 




Ca 


27.14 


27.39 


27.65 


27.90 


28.15 


28.40 


28.55 


28.91 


29.16 


29.41 


29.56 


29.91 


30.16 


30.42 


66 


Th 


40. S4 


41.03 


41.41 


41.30 


42.19 


42.58 


42.96 


43.35 


43.74 


44.13 


44.52 


44.90 


45.29 


45.68 




Ca 


26.75 


27.00 


27.36 


27.51 


27.76 


28.01 


28.26 


28.51 


28.77 


29.02 


29.27 


29.52 


29.77 


30.03 


65 


Th 


40.00 


40.39 


40.73 


41.17 


41.55 


41.94 


42.33 


42.72 


43.10 


43.49 


43.33 


44.27 


44.55 


45,04 




Ca 


26.36 


26.51 


26.36 


27.12 


27.37 


27.62 


27.37 


28,12 


28.37 


28.63 


28.38 


29.13 


29.38 


29,63 


64 


Th 


39.37 


39.75 


40.14 


40.53 


40.92 


41.30 


41.69 


42.03 


42.47 


42.86 


43.24 


43.63 


44.02 


44,41 




Ca 


25.97 


26.22 


26.47 


26.72 


26.93 


27.23 


27.43 


27.73 


27.98 


23.24 


23.49 


28.74 


28.99 


29,24 


63 


Th 


38.73 


39.12 


39.51 


39.39 


40.28 


40.57 


41.06 


41.44 


41.33 


42.22 


42. SI 


42.39 


43.38 


43,77 




Ca 


25.58 


25.83 


26.08 


26.33 


26.59 


26.34 


27.09 


27,34 


27.59 


27.34 


28.10 


28.35 


23.50 


28.35 


62 


Th 


38.09 


38.48 


38.87 


39.26 


39.54 


40.03 


40.42 


40.31 


41,20 


41.58 


41.97 


42.36 


42.75 


43.13 




Ca 


25.19 


25.44 


25.69 


25.94 


26.19 


26.45 


26.70 


26,95 


27.20 


27.45 


27.70 


27.96 


28.21 


28.46 


61 


Th 


37.46 


37.85 


38.23 


38.62 


39.01 


39.40 


39.78 


40,17 


40.56 


40.95 


41.34 


41.72 


42.11 


42.50 




Ca 


24.30 


25.05 


25.30 


25.55 


25.30 


26.05 


26.31 


26.56 


26.81 


27.06 


27.31 


27.57 


27.32 


23.07 


60 


Th 


36.32 


37.21 


37.30 


37.99 


38.37 


38.76 


39.15 


39.54 


39.92 


40.31 


40.70 


41.09 


41.47 


41.86 




Ca 


24.40 


24.66 


24.91 


25.16 


25.41 


25.56 


25.92 


26.17 


26.42 


26.67 


26.92 


27,17 


27.43 


27.68 


59 


Th 


36.19 


36.57 


36.96 


37.35 


37.74 


38.12 


38.51 


38,90 


39.29 


39.58 


40.06 


40.45 


40.34 


41.23 




Ca 


24.01 


24.26 


24.52 


24.77 


25.02 


25.27 


25.52 


25.78 


26.03 


26.28 


26.53 


26.78 


27.03 


27.29 


58 


Th 


35.55 


35.94 


35.33 


36.71 


37.10 


37.49 


37.88 


38.26 


38.55 


39.04 


39.43 


39.31 


40.20 


40.59 




Ca 


23.62 


23.87 


24.13 


24.38 


24.63 


24.88 


25.13 


25.38 


25.64 


25.39 


26.14 


26.39 


26.54 


26.90 


57 


Th 


34.91 


35.30 


35.59 


36.08 


36.46 


36.35 


37.24 


37,63 


38.02 


38.40 


38.79 


39.18 


39.57 


39,95 




ca 


23.23 


23.48 


23.73 


23.99 


24.24 


24.49 


24.74 


24.99 


25.25 


25.50 


25.75 


26.00 


26.25 


26,51 


56 


Th 


34.28 


34.67 


35.05 


35.44 


35.33 


36.22 


36.60 


36.99 


37.38 


37.77 


38.16 


38.54 


38.93 


39,32 




Ca 


22.84 


23.09 


23.34 


23.59 


23.35 


24.10 


24.35 


24.50 


24.35 


25,11 


25.36 


25.61 


25.36 


26,11 


55 


Th 


33.64 


34.03 


34.42 


34.31 


35.19 


35.53 


35.97 


36,36 


36.74 


37.13 


37.52 


37,91 


38.29 


38,63 




Ca 


22.45 


22.70 


22.95 


23.20 


23.46 


23.71 


23.96 


24.21 


24.46 


24.71 


24.97 


25.22 


25,47 


25.72 


54 


Th 


33.01 


33.39 


33.78 


34.17 


34.56 


34.94 


35.33 


35.72 


36.11 


36.50 


36.38 


37,27 


37,56 


33.05 




Ca 


22.06 


22.31 


22.56 


22.81 


23.06 


23.32 


23,57 


23.82 


24.07 


24.32 


24.53 


24,83 


25.08 


25.33 


53 


Th 


32.37 


32.76 


33.15 


33.53 


33.92 


34.31 


34.70 


35.08 


35.47 


35.86 


36.25 


36,63 


37.02 


37.41 




Ca 


21.67 


21.92 


22.17 


22.42 


22.57 


22.93 


23.18 


23.43 


23.58 


23.93 


24.18 


24.44 


24,69 


24.94 


52 


Th 


31.73 


32.12 


32.51 


32.90 


33.28 


33.57 


34.05 


34.15 


34.34 


35.22 


35,61 


36.00 


36,39 


36.77 




Ca 


21.27 


21.53 


21.78 


22.03 


22.28 


22.53 


22.79 


23.04 


23.29 


23.54 


23,79 


24.04 


24.30 


24.55 


51 


Th 


31.10 


31.49 


31.87 


32.26 


32.65 


33.04 


33.42 


33.81 


34.20 


34.59 


34.93 


35.36 


35.75 


36.14 




Ca 


20.88 


21.14 


21.39 


21.64 


21.39 


22.14 


22.39 


22.65 


22.90 


23.15 


23.40 


23.65 


23.91 


24.16 


50 


Th 


30.46 


30.85 


31.24 


31.63 


32.01 


32.40 


32.79 


33.18 


33.56 


33.95 


34.34 


34.73 


35.11 


35.50 




Ca 


20.49 


20.74 


21.00 


21,25 


21.50 


21.75 


22.00 


22.26 


22.51 


22.76 


23.01 


23.26 


23.51 


23.77 


49 


Th 


29.33 


30.21 


30.50 


30.99 


31.38 


31.76 


32.15 


32.54 


32.93 


33.32 


33.70 


34.09 


34.48 


34.37 




Ca 


20.10 


20.35 


20.60 


20.36 


21.11 


21.36 


21.51 


21,36 


22.12 


22.37 


22.62 


22.87 


23.12 


23.37 


48 


Th 


29.19 


29.58 


29.97 


30.35 


30.74 


31.13 


31.52 


31,90 


32.29 


32.68 


33.07 


33.45 


33.84 


34.23 




Ca 


19.71 


19.96 


20.21 


20.47 


20.72 


20.97 


21.22 


21,47 


21.72 


21.38 


22,23 


22.48 


22.73 


22.98 



Interpolation Table 



Knee 



Chest 










Circum- 


Thigh 


Calf 


ference 















.1 





.1 








.194 





.lee 


.1 


.064 


.257 


.039 


.166 


.2 


.127 


.321 


.076 


.204 


.3 


.191 


.385 


.117 


.243 


.4 


.254 


.448 


.156 


.282 


.5 


.318 


.512 


.196 


.322 


■ 6 


.382 


.575 


.236 


.361 


.7 


.445 


.639 


.274 


.400 


.8 


.509 


.703 


.313 


.439 


.9 


.572 


.766 


.352 


.478 



09 



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Table 122 

Horms for Thigh and Calf of Nlne-Year-Old Girls (Thigh = .7113 cheat clrcumferenee 

+ 1.8910 knee - 17.8412; calf • .4087 cheat circumference 

+ 1.H3J knee - 6.7800) 



Cheat 

Clrcxjm- 














Knee Width 


Centisetei-s 














































f erenoe. 




6.6 


6.8 


7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


7.6 


7.3 


8.0 


8.2 


8.4 


8.5 


8.8 


9.0 


9.2 


9.4 


Centi- 


































me tera 


































71 


Th 


45.14 


45.52 


45.90 


46.28 


46.65 


47,03 


47.41 


47.79 


48.17 


48.55 


48.92 


49.30 


49.68 


50.06 


50,44 




Ca 


29.59 


29.90 


30.03 


30.25 


30.48 


30.70 


30.92 


31.14 


31.37 


31.69 


31.81 


32.03 


32.26 


32.48 


32.70 


70 


Th 


44.43 


44.81 


45.19 


45.57 


45.94 


46.32 


46.70 


47.08 


47.46 


47.33. 


48.31 


48.69 


43.97 


49.35 


49.73 




Ca 


29.18 


29.40 


29.62 


29.84 


30.07 


30.29 


30.51 


30.74 


30.96 


31.18 


31.40 


31,63 


31.86 


32.07 


33.29 


69 


Th 


43.72 


44.10 


44.48 


44.95 


45.23 


45.61 


45.99 


46.37 


46.74 


47.12 


47.50 


■../,83 


43.26 


43.64 


49.01 




Ca 


28.77 


28.99 


29.21 


29.44 


29.66 


29.88 


30.10 


30.33 


30.55 


30.77 


30.99 


31,32 


31.44 


31.66 


31.99 


68 


Th 


43.01 


43.39 


43.76 


44.14 


44.52 


44.90 


45.23 


45.66 


46.03 


46.41 


46.79 


47,17 


47.55 


47.92 


48.30 




Ca 


28.36 


28.58 


28.80 


29.03 


29,25 


29.47 


29.70 


29.92 


30.14 


30.36 


30.59 


30,81 


31.03 


31.25 


31.43 


67 


Th 


43.30 


42.57 


43.05 


43.43 


43.81 


44.19 


44.66 


44.94 


45.32 


45.70 


46.08 


46,46 


4C.83 


47,21 


47,69 




Ca 


27.95 


28.17 


28.40 


28.62 


23.84 


29.06 


29.39 


29.51 


29.73 


29.95 


30.18 


30.40 


30.62 


30,95 


31,07 


66 


Th 


41.59 


41.96 


42.34 


42.72 


43.10 


43.48 


43.85 


44.23 


44.61 


44.99 


45.37 


45.75 


46.12 


46.50 


46,83 




Ca 


27.54 


27.76 


27.99 


28.21 


28.43 


28.66 


28.38 


29.10 


29,32 


29.55 


29.77 


29.99 


30.31 


30.44 


30.66 


65 


Th 


40.87 


41.25 


41.63 


42.01 


42.39 


42.76 


43.14 


43.52 


43,90 


44.28 


44,66 


45.03 


45,41 


46.79 


46.17 




Ca 


27.13 


27.36 


27.53 


27.90 


28.02 


28.25 


28.47 


28.69 


28,91 


29.14 


29.36 


29.68 


29,61 


30.03 


30.25 


64 


Th 


40.16 


40.54 


40.92 


41.30 


.41.68 


42.05 


42.43 


42.91 


43,19 


43.67 


43.94 


44.32 


44,70 


46.07 


45.46 




Ca 


26.72 


26.95 


27.17 


27.39 


27.62 


27.84 


28.06 


28.23 


23,51 


28.73 


28.95 


29.17 


29,40 


29.62 


29.94 


63 


Th 


39.45 


39. B3 


40.21 


40.59 


40.96 


41.34 


41.72 


42.10 


42,48 


42.36 


43.23 


43.61 


43,99 


44.36 


44.76 




Ca 


26.32 


26.54 


26.76 


26.98 


27.21 


27.43 


27.65 


27.97 


28,10 


28.32 


28.54 


28.77 


23,99 


29.31 


29.43 


62 


Th 


38.74 


39.11 


39.50 


39.97 


40.25 


40.63 


41.01 


41,39 


41,77 


42.14 


42.S.T 


42.90 


43,28 


43.66 


44.03 




Ca 


26.91 


26.13 


26.35 


26.58 


26.80 


27.02 


27.24 


27.47 


27,69 


27.91 


28.15 


28.36 


23,58 


28.30 


29.03 


61 


Th 


38.03 


38.41 


38.79 


39.16 


39.54 


39.92 


40.30 


40.58 


41.05 


41.43 


41.81 


42.19 


42.57 


42.96 


43.32 




Ca 


25.60 


25.72 


25.94 


26.17 


26.39 


26.61 


26.93 


27.05 


27.23 


27.50 


27.73 


27,95 


23.17 


28.39 


28.62 


60 


Th 


37.32 


37.70 


38.07 


38.45 


38.83 


39.21 


39.59 


39.96 


40.34 


40.72 


41.10 


41.48 


41.36 


42.23 


42.61 




Ca 


25.09 


25.31 


25.53 


25.76 


25.98 


26.30 


26.43 


26.65 


26.87 


27.09 


27.32 


27.54 


27,76 


27.98 


23.21 


59 


Th 


36.61 


36.98 


37.36 


37.74 


38.12 


38.50 


38.88 


39.35 


39.63 


40.01 


40.39 


40.77 


41,14 


41.62 


41.90 




Ca 


24.68 


24.90 


25.13 


25.35 


25.57 


25.79 


26.02 


26.24 


26.46 


26.59 


26.91 


27,13 


27,35 


27.68 


27.30 


58 


Th 


35.89 


35.27 


36.65 


37.03 


37,41 


37.79 


33.16 


38.54 


38.92 


39.30 


39.63 


40,06 


40,43 


40.31 


41.19 




Ca 


24.27 


24.50 


24.72 


24.94 


25.16 


25.39 


25.61 


25,83 


26.05 


26.28 


26.50 


26.72 


26,94 


27,17 


27.39 


57 


Th 


35.13 


35.56 


35.94 


36.32 


36.70 


37.07 


37,45 


37,83 


38.21 


38.59 


38.97 


39.34 


39,72 


40.10 


40.48 




Ca 


23.86 


24.09 


24.31 


24.53 


24.75 


24.98 


25,30 


25,42 


25,65 


25.87 


26.09 


26,31 


26,54 


26,75 


26.98 


56 


Th 


34.47 


34.85 


35.23 


35.61 


35.99 


36.36 


36,74 


37,12 


37.60 


37.98 


38.26 


38.63 


39,01 


39,39 


39.77 




Ca 


23.46 


23.68 


23.90 


24.12 


24.35 


24.57 


24.79 


25,01 


25,24 


25.46 


25.68 


25.90 


26,13 


26,35 


26.57 


55 


Tb 


33.76 


34.14 


34.52 


34.90 


35.27 


35.65 


36.03 


36.41 


36,79 


37.16 


37.54 


37.92 


39,30 


38,63 


39.06 




Ca 


23.05 


23.27 


23.49 


23.71 


23.94 


24.16 


24.38 


24.61 


24,83 


25.05 


25.27 


25.50 


25,72 


25,94 


26.16 


54 


Th 


33.05 


33.43 


33.81 


34.18 


34.66 


34.94 


35.32 


35.70 


36.03 


36.45 


36.83 


37.21 


37,59 


37.97 


33.34 




Ca 


22.64 


22.86 


23.08 


23.31 


23.53 


23.75 


23.97 


24.20 


24.42 


24.64 


24.36 


26.09 


25,31 


25,53 


25.76 


S3 


Th 


32.34 


32.72 


33.09 


33.47 


33.95 


34.23 


34.61 


34.99 


35.35 


36.74 


36,12 


36.50 


36.98 


37,25 


37.63 




Ca 


22.93 


22.45 


22.67 


22.90 


23.12 


23.34 


23.57 


23.79 


24.01 


24.23 


24,46 


24.68 


24.90 


25,12 


25.35 


52 


Th 


31.63 


32.01 


32.38 


32.76 


33.14 


33.52 


33.90 


34.27 


34.65 


35.03 


35,41 


35.79 


36.17 


36.64 


36.92 




Ca 


21.32 


22.04 


22.27 


22.49 


22.71 


22.93 


23.16 


23,38 


23.60 


23.82 


24.05 


24.27 


24.49 


24,72 


24.94 


51 


Th 


30.92 


31.29 


31.67 


32.05 


32.43 


32.81 


33.18 


33.56 


33.94 


34.32 


34.70 


35.08 


35.45 


35,93 


36.21 




Ca 


81.41 


21.63 


21.96 


22.08 


22.30 


22.53 


22.75 


22.97 


23.19 


23.42 


23.63 


23.36 


24.08 


24,30 


24.63 


60 


Th 


30.20 


30.58 


30.96 


31.34 


31.72 


32.10 


32.47 


32.96 


33.23 


33.51 


33.99 


34.36 


54,74 


35.12 


35.50 




Ca 


21.00 


21.23 


21.45 


21.67 


21.99 


22.12 


22.34 


22.56 


22.78 


23.01 


23.23 


23.45 


23.68 


23.90 


24,12 


49 


Th 


29.49 


29.87 


30.25 


30.63 


31.01 


31.38 


31.76 


32.14 


32.52 


32.90 


33.28 


33.65 


34.03 


34,41 


34,79 




Ca 


20.59 


20.82 


21.04 


21.26 


21.48 


21.72 


21.93 


22.15 


22.38 


22,60 


22.82 


23.04 


23.27 


23,49 


33,71 



Interpolation Table 



Knee 



Cheat 










Circum- 


Thigh 




Calf 




ference 















.1 





.1 








.189 





.111 


.1 


.071 


.260 


.041 


.152 


,2 


.142 


.331 


.082 


.193 


,3 


.213 


.402 


.123 


.234 




.385 


.474 


.163 


.276 




.356 


.546 


.204 


.316 




.427 


.616 


.245 


.357 




.498 


.687 


.286 


.397 




.569 


.758 


.327 


.438 




.640 


.829 


.368 


.479 



229 



^CM 



as o 

& (0 CM 



o « o 

r^ C 



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&. o o 

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MwocoaJ*(oO-*^owwo^•cDPJOCT>-<ru^cyoo^o^-cylOmt?;J;<HO>ro^o^-^lO^-rtrt 
u^M'fl'W•<rw^o4rt^^(Of-^w^^wOHOr^ooOOOftOO>0)0>OlO»m(Dcomc-(DP'm 

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wc^J'f0J'*r^K3Hrtr^M^^wo«o»^o-^OOC&O*^c»0^o<^552222^2^52t;^ 

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jC>jrtajfH«J'00(DiO'»fHNt>OtOO)0>«>* 

• *•••••■■•••■••••••• 

r>0DO>CDCDC0CDaj>t~E^t*tDI>«>t-(D'OiO<i) 



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^w^ortOrtOwONc^w<»HVr^*oJoco055mamwt{5^mr^c^£c-222!2S22S 

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230 



Tabls 124 

norm, fc Vhlgh »nd Calf or Tc-n-i»ar-01d Girl. (Thigh = .6078 ch«t Mrciurforenc. 

♦ Z.0Z37 knoB - 11.9752; calf = .Ji4a cheet circumferenco 

+ 1.5442 knee - 4.4910) 



chest 
Clrcuir- 
ferenco. 
















Knse Width, Centljnet 


era 
















6.6 


7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


7.6 


7,8 


8;C 


8,2 


8.4 


3.6 


8.8 


9.0 


9.2 


9.4 


9.6 


9.8 


Centi- 




































meters 




































73 


Th 


46.lt 


46.55 


46.96 


47.37 


47.77 


48,18 


4t'.6e 


40,99 


49.39 


49.80 


50.20 


50.61 


51.01 


51.42 


51.82 


52,23 




Ca 


29.00 


29.31 


29.61 


29.92 


30.23 


30,54 


30.85 


31.16 


31.47 


31.78 


32.09 


32.39 


32.70 


33.01 


33.32 


33,63 


72 


Th 


45,55 


45.95 


40.36 


46.76 


47.17 


47,57 


47.98 


43.30 


48.79 


49.19 


49.69 


50.00 


50.40 


50.01 


51,21 


51.62 




Co 


28.08 


28.99 


29.30 


29.61 


29,92 


30,23 


30.64 


30.84 


31.15 


31,46 


31.77 


32.08 


32.39 


32.70 


33.01 


33.31 


71 


Th 


44.94 


45.34 


45.75 


46.16 


46,56 


46,96 


47.57 


47.77 


48.18 


48,68 


48,99 


49.39 


49.80 


50.20 


50.61 


51.01 




Ca 


2a. J7 


28.60 


28.99 


29.29 


29,60 


29,91 


30.22 


30.63 


30,84 


31,15 


31,46 


31.76 


32.07 


32,78 


32.69 


33.00 


70 


Th 


44.33 


44.74 


46.14 


45.55 


45,95 


46,36 


46.76 


47.17 


47.67 


47.97 


43,38 


40.78 


49.19 


49,59 


50.00 


50.40 




Ca 


28.05 


28.36 


28.67 


28.98 


29,29 


29.60 


29.91 


30.21 


30.52 


30,83 


31,14 


31.45 


31.76 


32.07 


32.38 


32.69 


69 


Th 


43.72 


44.13 


44.53 


44.94 


45.34 


45.75 


46.15 


46.66 


46,96 


47.37 


47.77 


48.18 


48.58 


48,99 


49,39 


49.80 




Ca 


27.74 


28.05 


28.36 


28.66 


28.97 


29.28 


29.59 


29.90 


30,21 


30.62 


30.83 


31,13 


31.44 


31,75 


32.06 


3-:. 37 


68 


Th 


43.12 


43.62 


43.93 


44.33 


44.74 


45.14 


45.64 


45.95 


46.36 


46.76 


47.16 


47,57 


47,97 


48,33 


48.78 


4'1.19 




Ca 


£7.42 


27,73 


28.04 


28,35 


28.66 


23.97 


29.28 


29.58 


29.89 


30.20 


30.61 


30,82 


31,13 


31,44 


31.75 


32.06 


67 


Th 


42.51 


4-2.91 


43.32 


43,72 


44.13 


44,64 


44.94 


46,34 


46.75 


46.16 


45.66 


46,96 


47,37 


47.77 


48.17 


48.58 




Ca 


27.11 


27.42 


27.73 


23.03 


28.34 


28,65 


28.96 


29.27 


29.63 


29.89 


30.20 


30.51 


30.81 


31.12 


31.43 


31.74 


66 


Th 


41.90 


42.31 


42.71 


43.11 


43.52 


43,92 


44.33 


44.73 


45.14 


45.64 


45.95 


46.35 


46.76 


47.10 


47,57 


47.97 




Ca 


26.79 


27.10 


27.41 


£7,72 


28.03 


28,34 


28.66 


28.95 


29,26 


29.67 


29,88 


30.19 


30.50 


30.81 


31.12 


31.43 


65 


Th 


41.29 


41.70 


42.10 


42,61 


42.91 


43,32 


43.72 


44.13 


44,53 


44.94 


45,34 


45.75 


46.15 


46.65 


46,96 


47.36 




Ca 


26.48 


26.79 


27.10 


27.40 


27.71 


28,02 


26.33 


28.64 


28,95 


29.26 


29.67 


29.88 


30.18 


30.49 


30,80 


31.11 


64 


Th 


40.69 


41.09 


41.49 


41.90 


42.30 


42,71 


43.11 


43.52 


43.92 


44.33 


44.73 


45.14 


45.64 


46.95 


40,35 


46.76 




Ca 


20.16 


26.47 


26.78 


27.09 


27,40 


27,71 


28.02 


23.33 


28.63 


2S.94 


29.25 


29.56 


29.87 


30,18 


30,49 


30.80 


63 


Th 


40.08 


40.48 


40,89 


41.29 


41.70 


42,10 


42.51 


42.91 


43.32 


43.72 


44.12 


44.53 


44.93 


45.34 


45.74 


46.16 




Ca 


25.85 


26.16 


26.47 


26.77 


27.08 


27.39 


27.70 


28.01 


28.32 


28.63 


28.94 


29.25 


29,65 


29.86 


30,17 


30.48 


62 


Th 


39.47 


39.87 


40,28 


40.68 


41.09 


41.^9 


41.90 


42.30 


42.71 


43.11 


43.52 


43.92 


41.33 


44.73 


45,14 


45.54 




Ca 


25.53 


25.84 


26,15 


26.46 


26.77 


27.08 


27.39 


27,70 


28.00 


28,31 


20. C2 


23.93 


2a. 24 


29.55 


29,86 


30.17 


61 


Th 


38.86 


39.27 


39,67 


40.08 


40.48 


40.89 


41.29 


41.69 


42.10 


42.50 


42.91 


43.31 


43.72 


44,12 


44,53 


44.93 




Ca 


25.22 


25.63 


26.84 


26,14 


26,45 


26,76 


27.07 


27,38 


27.69 


28,00 


28.31 


23.62 


28.92 


29.23 


29.54 


29.95 


60 


Th 


38.25 


38.66 


39.06 


39,47 


39,87 


40,23 


40.68 


41.09 


41.49 


41,90 


42.30 


42.71 


43.11 


43.52 


43.92 


44.33 




Ca 


24.90 


26.21 


25.52 


25,83 


26,14 


26,46 


26.76 


27,07 


27.37 


27.66 


27.99 


28.30 


28.61 


28.92 


29.23 


29.54 


59 


Th 


37.65 


38.05 


38.46 


38.86 


39,27 


39.67 


40.07 


40,48 


40.88 


41,29 


41.69 


42.10 


42.50 


42.91 


43.31 


43.72 




Ca 


24.59 


24.90 


25.21 


25.52 


26,82 


26.13 


26,44 


26.76 


27.06 


27,37 


27.68 


27.99 


28.29 


28.60 


23.91 


29.22 


68 


Th 


37. C4 


37.44 


37.85 


38.25 


38,66 


39.06 


39,47 


39,87 


40.28 


40,68 


41.09 


41.49 


41.89 


42.30 


42.70 


43.11 




Ca 


24.27 


24.68 


24.89 


25.20 


25.51 


26.82 


26.13 


26,44 


26.74 


27,05 


27.36 


27.67 


27.98 


28.29 


£8,60 


28.91 


57 


Th 


36.43 


36.84 


37.24 


37.64 


38.05 


38.46 


38.86 


39.26 


39.67 


40,07 


40.48 


40.83 


41.29 


41.69 


42,10 


42.60 




Ca 


23.96 


24.27 


24.58 


24.89 


25.19 


25.50 


25.81 


26,12 


26.43 


26,74 


27.05 


27.36 


27,66 


27.97 


28.28 


28,59 


56 


Th 


35.82 


36.23 


36.63 


37.04 


37.44 


37.85 


38.25 


38,66 


39.06 


39,47 


39.87 


40.27 


40,68 


41.08 


41.49 


41.89 




Ca 


23.64 


23.95 


24.26 


24.67 


24.88 


26.19 


25.60 


25.81 


26.11 


26,42 


26.73 


27.04 


27,35 


27.66 


27.97 


28,28 


55 


Th 


36.21 


35.62 


36.02 


36,43 


36.83 


37.24 


37.64 


38.05 


38.45 


39,86 


39.26 


39,67 


40,07 


40,48 


40.69 


41.29 




Ca 


23.33 


23.64 


23.95 


24.26 


24.66 


24.87 


26.19 


25.49 


25.80 


26,11 


26.42 


26,73 


27.04 


27,54 


27.65 


27.96 


54 


Th 


34.61 


35.02 


35.42 


35.82 


36.23 


35.63 


37.04 


37.44 


37.85 


38,25 


38.65 


39.06 


39.46 


39.87 


40.27 


40.68 




Ca 


23.01 


23.32 


23.63 


23.94 


24.25 


24.56 


24.87 


26.18 


25.48 


25,79 


26.10 


26.41 


26.72 


27.03 


27,34 


27.66 


53 


Th 


34.00 


34.40 


34.81 


36.21 


35.62 


36.02 


36.43 


36.83 


37.24 


37.64 


38,05 


38.45 


J8.86 


39,26 


39,67 


40.07 




Ca 


22.70 


23.01 


23.32 


23.63 


23,93 


24.24 


24.55 


24.86 


25.17 


25.48 


25.79 


26.10 


26.41 


26,71 


27,02 


27, 3J 


52 


Th 


33.39 


33.80 


34.20 


34.61 


36.01 


36.42 


35.82 


36.22 


36.63 


37,03 


37.44 


37.84 


38.25 


38,65 


39.06 


39,46 




Ca 


22.38 


22.69 


23.00 


23.31 


23,62 


23.93 


24,24 


24.55 


24.36 


25,16 


26.48 


25.78 


26.09 


26,40 


26.71 


27.02 


51 


Th 


32.78 


.13.19 


33.59 


34.00 


34,40 


34.81 


35,21 


35.62 


36.02 


S6.43 


36.83 


37.24 


37.64 


33,05 


33.45 


38.es 




Ca 


22.07 


22.38 


22.69 


23.00 


23.30 


23.61 


23,92 


24.23 


24.64 


24.85 


25.16 


25.47 


25.78 


26.08 


26.39 


26.70 



Interpolation Table 



Cheet 










Circum- 


Thigh 




Calf 




ference 















.1 





.1 








.202 





.154 


.1 


.061 


.263 


,C3l 


.186 


.2 


.122 


.324 


.063 


.217 


.3 


.182 


.335 


.094 


.249 


.4 


.243 


.445 


.126 


.280 


.5 


.304 


.506 


.157 


.112 


.6 


.365 


.567 


.189 


.343 


.7 


.425 


.628 


.220 


.376 


.8 


.486 


.689 


.262 


.406 


.« 


.547 


.74fc 


.283 


.430 



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r-)CDOC^0*C^Cp<OC^(0(Dl0i0iO'**KJ'>?^^fOt00)iQC0CJ£-W*0r^tni-tVOtOO 

(0«u)(QiOiowrtu>rtinio»nioio»OkOtoioiotOto^iO'<rio^to^'0'«'rt^iO'9'(0 

tOQJco<-<tO(0^-v)CM(3»^-^JC4l^^-coc>J'H^•vcJ^-^-oc^J(0^•(o^^*^'~*'~<*>'■ot^ 
o,cocC'*aia't-"i«c*a.<o*n*&oiiv»oOr-i'^iO'fi-«tot-tocJCyr-ww<HUJt-«rtoa) 

ot^oit*cotot-tptoinu5tnvinio^w*fHrtOrtO)Cj(DWt»-H'D'-<«'^0'»'0(Oo> 

t0l0iOl0iOl0»n(OiOtO«tOK5(O*Oi0*ni0i/>tQinrt^K)*«V»0*'0'*rt'»'t0VN 

t'jOCD(Ort<Dcoo»rt»HCD^rtt-a;o«M(D'0(Oo«a)«c\iior-a;Wi-«t-'j"oj*or-o 

■*ir.KtOK(LOPjOW(0<-(.-ii-it0O0JOt-0. CJOC~(2jrO<C(IiC-K*^-0''^'^<0 0'U** 

of-ait*a>tot-tD«)«</)i/3^'^io*i'cjtQO(oo)wa)wc*r-tiorH*nQ'«'OrtCJNCi 
«)(Oiiiniotoinrtio*ototointo»oioin(OkOrt'*tO'<»'co«i'«0'*»o'*rt'*rt«i'N^w 

o>rHajt&cO'HC'C^t-c«<to><£>c\itoa)tA(0<4'aj^vnO'(^-<'OJOOtu'jr-iOi-Ht/>o>H 

01C^(D<OC-'0(DmiOiO'<»'^(O^WfO<HOOWOlW<D«-Hr-fHtOH*^0^0(OCT>W03 

a>iotn(0>n(OiototOK}ii}io^ioiot040(Ou)(0«K)^cO'«n^io'^>0'«to^CM'a'OJ 

miou3iOioiou3iototo>oniO(oiaioinn'vio^io^io^to-4>to^n^c<ivN-<i'C4 

to<oHOiio«o»oin<Do<-Hu>'*ot>-ifto>oojuimocoinHOi'«oC"C>ovrtC7><o 

a)'£ic-io<ou3tn*'*'*(0'VCjiOr^OOwoo)CD.-4t*rHiooioo'«'<XrtO>NCOrHa) 
iOfO*orttortiototnioiort«tou>»oiOtO'*'»o*W'«'iO'«'Kj'wio^w^CJ»Nvcj 

(DCD*-^H^DN''-l^-tOO'H^0^0^0l-^0lt0(^J^H^^0C^OOln^0O^0'*'>0>OW«/llOO(0 
CDtOt-U5U>tOiO^V^riO(OCH»Or-IWOWC>rHr-t-l(OOi/10^0»<OOlCja)r-ICDOt- 

ioiOiO(OU3(OkO(OkniQiO(Otnto>aiotoio^io^n«io^to-4'ci'^cM<4'ci<ifOJ<«'C4 

c^OMKjt-towa»t-Mcy'Oc-a:wiHto'^iHr-tDOi-4ej(omfH£D*o»H«H'«'i£it*(-io 

r-fcOtomto^^^iotocywrH«ocjo>iHaj«-it-otootf50i«j'd«ooiCJ<E^(DOt^ 
irtrtiniou3ioioioiniowroiOrtifi(0'*rt*Ki^iQ^rt*W'*oj'*N^w*«^N 

mcy(0»rtCDCO«OHCO^we^r-OW(OC*(D«Ot-WNuOt-t-WOt*'OW«SC^O>^(M 
t^U3tO'VU>W*(OiOnwWHWOw{»iHCOO«)OiOO^O»tOa'C*J(DrHCDOt-CT>t^ 

0>>niOC^O>OniO(D(0[OC>CDWrtincOCDrtiH03*(Ot-iDOrOC\jt'iOWCDt->-ICJV 

a.ccaioa;a.ai'*c^cit^'«'yjO*oi/'j\ccifitO'*'i~iv(D*ocyi'jc^wcjNt'<-tKvf-«cD 
(Ovin^*ni'3iocjcj>-HwocJcirHCD»-tr-otDOmo>'*o>i'^cDWCD>-«t^oc*o*o 

■*'««■< otou3tocwm{MrH.H(Dr-irtCc-&«oc-aw3<»a>rtr-ajc^*<Do>«>'* 
»D'ViO'**(OrtrtojojiHeviOr-io>*HCQOC^o«ooi'»'C)rtcoN(Di-<t-oc-a>tom*o 

iO«0iOt0i0t0iO(0iO(0tO(0t0t0^«0^i0'<'rt*W*W*W*01'»'W^«»0Wt0« 

oo>iowoioioc*ooiO(oo«>'*o>o>W'ViO(»ai-r<-ic>'**t^o>ov(Oo>in'*ro 

tO'J"*(0'^(0«oa«HO)OHO><HCOOr-0<DO>iOO>^(DlOeDCJt^i-t>Ot^O><DCD(0 
»H»H(0^(-*C"tOOO'^i^-''^JOCDiOj-«0'«"U^C»00»n»00<pWO>OC»Ji/HOOQO'*0 

w»o^iOrtcjwojr-ir-tOi-Ho>QCDot^Cfttooiooincocja>rtC-Ot^aitO(0*oc-in 
iOrtioious(Oiortio»giOiovrt'»'rt*Q)*cvi^«"VW*w^ca'*NiowiOW(0« 

or-o-ff.a.tO{i.a.cc^t>o*Su5<DC<omiooirKO'*r-i'»'^iONKit-Nw«a;i.-iK. 
tnrtK)WNW<-i»HOiHo>ocDOt-Q«oo>ioo>^a)iocD«c*<-ie^O(D»taootnr-io 

U)nin(0i0t0*0(QOrt^r0Vl0V«^CM*C*l^«^01*N'*W'*WI00Jl0Nl0« 

cju'JE*cDCJ«-it-'*wc*t-owioc-iocya5c-iHr-i'*(Dt-»-io<Drti-i(otoai»-»cj«)in 

^WiO«CMCJi-'*HOiHO)OCDOt-OSU>OlUlCD'^CDWt^<Hr-OOCT)<DCD»ftr->n(0'«' 

iO(OiortiOrttntoui(0^oviOi»'w^w^«^cj*cvi*«vcvjrtNnw»o«rtca 

vwcMW»-i<-io^C'Oa30C^o>«>otn{r"*'cotoc-ojc*'-«too<Do>i/;tD*oc^iO(o^ 
iO(omroioiom«''j^iO'*io^CJ'*W'*w*ey*«^cM'*«»»'wiO(M«oc*j«ocirtN 

*OJOiCJ'»'u'JCOtIiKlr-*CD^rOt-COOiOfja)tOn<DOOr-ttO'#CDC-(Op(DlONtor-» 
iOWNHfH.-»OOOiOODC)r-(7)iOCDiOCD'<'C'iOt-<-<r-0«)0»«)ODU>r-t/>«0^tO* 

ocDaiK;o;ooX'«a.cnt-^r-D.(Cu'/(DOtniOir. i-t^tcofrHtoiotocjMc^oicjrHCj 

Mi-lr-irHOOO>Oa>Ovt-0)»OCO"fta)^aDrt{^CJt*f-t>00*00>ii5COirtt**<D^tOiO 

«io*Ortio»0'*io*w^w*ca*N*«'*«'*'«'*'w*oj(Owiocgiowr5wiO« 
tfj^fcoo. ■♦^■♦ok; if>Kic«*£'C\i»H.-i(COwoc'0'«o»r-a;toaja>t-«oc-o.«)'* 

OtO<-tC*U)rH.HV«OC-r-<OiO»00<DiOOiOWiOirtQ<DtO<-tO'«*(0«>QO>»rtCyO*'5 

ejrHrHoo>o<DO>r-oi'o<Ein(D*p-«occj»D<H«)o»oonn<D*r-*toiotOrt5io 

tf>lOiO»0*iO'#OJ*N1'W^W'*W^W*W^N'«'OJ»OWWNiOC>jn«OCMlOW 

»HOOOo»<»oDo>f- tDioffiioc* ^r' iotowtOi-'>no>o<D«^r^ •*■ tO'^'Ort-^Kjrtw 

CrtCcto. r>aojeD»c&(7.r-^f-0«>ir*(COtf*tr, a-*^'#u/^^rtt-«r, e»*Nt>oj6i 
«HOO^mc»t^a»<ocGinc^^e^ioe-N<D.i'00*oo>miu*i^*i©iooi05W5cj 



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235 



Table 129 

Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Thlrtoen-T(ear-01d Olrls (Upper arm = .2517 
cheat clrcumferenoo + 2.2451 elbow - 6.7041; forearm = .0997 
chest circumference + 2.0501 elbow + 2.3354) 



Chest 
Circum- 
ference, 


Elbow Width, Centimeters | 




4.6 


4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.4 


5.6 


5.8 


6.C 


6.2 


6.4 


6.6 


6.8 


7.0 


7.2 


Centi- 
































meters 
































88 


UA 


24.01 


24.46 


24,91 


25.76 


25.81 


26.26 


26.71 


27.16 


27.61 


28.05 


28.50 


28.95 


29.40 


29.86 




FA 


20.54 


20.95 


21.36 


21.77 


22,18 


22.59 


23.00 


23.41 


23.82 


24.23 


24.64 


25.05 


25.46 


25.87 


86 


UA 


23.53 


24.00 


24.45 


24.90 


25.35 


25.79 


26.24 


26.69 


27. J4 


27.59 


28.04 


28.49 


28.94 


29.39 




FA 


20.34 


20.75 


21.16 


21.57 


21.98 


22.39 


22.80 


23.21 


23.62 


24.05 


24.44 


24.86 


25.26 


25.68 


84 


UA 


23.09 


23.54 


23.98 


24.43 


24.88 


25.53 


25.78 


26.23 


26.68 


27.13 


27.68 


28.05 


28.47 


28.92 




FA 


20.34 


20.55 


20.96 


21.37 


21.78 


22.19 


22.60 


23.01 


25.42 


23.85 


24.24 


24.65 


25.06 


25.47 


82 


UA 


22.62 


23.07 


23.62 


23.97 


24.42 


24.87 


25.32 


25.77 


26.21 


26.66 


27.11 


27.66 


28.01 


28.46 




FA 


19.94 


20.35 


20,76 


21.17 


21.68 


21.99 


22.40 


22.81 


23.22 


23.63 


24.04 


24.45 


24.86 


25.27 


80 


UA 


22.16 


22.61 


23.06 


23.61 


23.96 


24.40 


24.85 


25.30 


25.75 


26.20 


26.65 


27.10 


27.55 


28.00 




FA 


19.74 


20.15 


20.56 


20.97 


21.58 


21.79 


22.20 


22.61 


23. C2 


25.43 


23.84 


24.25 


24.66 


25.07 


78 


UA 


21.70 


22.15 


22.59 


23.04 


23.49 


23.94 


24.39 


24.84 


25.29 


25.74 


26.19 


26.64 


27.08 


27.53 




FA 


19.54 


19,95 


20.36 


20.77 


21.18 


21.59 


22.00 


22.41 


22.82 


23.23 


23.64 


24,05 


24.46 


24.87 


76 


UA 


21.23 


21.68 


22.13 


22.58 


23.03 


23.48 


23.93 


24.38 


24.82 


25.27 


25.72 


26.17 


26.62 


27.07 




PA 


19.34 


19.75 


20.16 


20.67 


20.98 


21.39 


21.80 


22.21 


22.62 


23.03 


23.44 


25.85 


24.26 


24.67 


74 


UA 


20.77 


21.21 


21.67 


22.12 


22.57 


23.02 


23.46 


23.91 


24.36 


24.81 


25.26 


25.71 


26.16 


26.61 




FA 


19.14 


19.55 


19.96 


20.37 


20.78 


21.19 


21.60 


22,01 


22.42 


22.83 


25.24 


23.65 


24.06 


24.47 


72 


UA 


20.31 


20.76 


21.20 


21.65 


22.10 


22.55 


23.00 


23.45 


23.90 


24.35 


24.80 


25.25 


25.70 


26.14 




FA 


18,94 


19,35 


19.76 


20.17 


20.58 


20.99 


21.40 


21.81 


22.22 


22.65 


23.04 


25.45 


23.86 


24.27 


70 


UA 


19.84 


20.29 


20.74 


21.19 


21.64 


22.09 


22.54 


22.99 


23.44 


25.88 


24.35 


24.78 


25.23 


25.68 




FA 


18.75 


19.16 


19.57 


19.98 


20.39 


20.80 


21.21 


21.62 


22.03 


22.44 


22.85 


25.26 


23.67 


24.08 


68 


UA 


19.38 


19.83 


20.28 


20.73 


21.18 


21,63 


22.07 


22.62 


22,97 


23.42 


25.87 


24.32 


24.77 


25.22 




FA 


18.55 


18.96 


19.37 


19.78 


20.19 


20.60 


21.01 


21.42 


21.83 


22.24 


22.65 


23.06 


25.47 


23.88 


66 


UA 


18.92 


19.37 


19,81 


20.26 


20.71 


21.16 


21.61 


22.06 


22.51 


22.96 


25.41 


25.86 


24.30 


24.75 




PA 


18.35 


18.76 


19.17 


19.58 


19.99 


20.40 


20.81 


21.22 


21.63 


22.04 


22.45 


22.86 


23.27 


25.68 


64 


UA 


18.45 


18.90 


19.35 


19.80 


20.25 


20.70 


21.15 


21.60 


22,05 


22.49 


22.94 


25.39 


25.84 


24.29 




FA 


18.15 


18.65 


18.97 


19.38 


19.79 


20.20 


20.61 


21.02 


21.43 


21,84 


22.25 


22.66 


25.07 


25.48 


62 


UA 


17,99 


18.44 


18,89 


19,34 


19.79 


20.23 


20.68 


21.15 


21.68 


22.03 


22.48 


22.93 


25.58 


23.83 




FA 


17.95 


16.36 


18.77 


19.18 


19.59 


20.00 


20.41 


20.82 


21.23 


21.64 


22.05 


22.46 


22.87 


23.28 


60 


UA 


17.53 


17.98 


18.42 


18.87 


19.32 


19.77 


20.22 


20.67 


21.12 


21.57 


22.02 


22.47 


22.91 


23.56 




FA 


17.75 


18.16 


18.57 


18.98 


19,39 


19.80 


20.21 


20.62 


21.03 


21.44 


21.85 


22.26 


22.67 


25.08 


58 


UA 


17.06 


17.51 


17.96 


18.41 


18.86 


19.31 


19.76 


20.21 


20.66 


21.10 


21.55 


22.00 


22.45 


22.90 




FA 


17.55 


17.96 


18.37 


18.78 


19.19 


19.60 


20.01 


20.42 


20.83 


21.24 


21.65 


22.06 


22.47 


22.88 


56 


UA 


16.60 


17.05 


17.50 


17.95 


18.40 


18.84 


19.29 


19.74 


20.19 


20.64 


21.09 


21.54 


21,99 


22.44 




PA 


17.35 


17.76 


18.17 


18.58 


18.99 


19.40 


19.81 


20.22 


20.63 


21.04 


21.45 


21.86 


22.27 


22,68 


54 


UA 


16.14 


16.59 


17.03 


17.48 


17.93 


18.38 


18.83 


19.28 


19.73 


20.18 


20.65 


21.07 


21.62 


21.97 




FA 


17.15 


17.56 


17.97 


18.38 


18.79 


19.20 


19.61 


20.02 


20.45 


20.84 


21.25 


21.66 


22.07 


22.48 


52 


UA 


15.67 


16.12 


16.57 


17.02 


17.47 


17.92 


18.37 


18.81 


19.26 


19.71 


20.16 


20.61 


21.06 


21.51 




FA 


16.95 


17.36 


17.77 


18.18 


18.59 


19.00 


19.41 


19.82 


20.23 


20.64 


21.05 


21.46 


21.87 


22.28 



interpolation Table 



Elbow 



Cheat 






h/VH 




Clrcum- 


Upper 


Arm 


Forearm 







.1 





.1 








.226 





.205 


.1 


.025 


.248 


.010 


.215 


.2 


.046 


.271 


.020 


.225 


.3 


.070 


.294 


.050 


.235 


.4 


.093 


.317 


.040 


.245 


.5 


.116 


.340 


.050 


.255 


.6 


.159 


.363. 


.060 


.265 


.7 


.162 


.387 


.070 


.275 


.8 


.185 


.410 


.080 


.285 


.9 


.209 


.433 


.090 


.295 


1.0 


.252 


.456 


.100 


.305 


1.1 


.255 


.479 


.110 


.315 


1.2 


.278 


.505 


.120 


.325 


1.5 


.501 


.526 


.150 


.335 


1.4 


.524 


.549 


.140 


.345 


1.5 


.348 


.572 


.150 


.355 


1.6 


.371 


.595 


.160 


.565 


1.7 


.394 


.618 


.170 


.575 


1.8 


.417 


.642 


.180 


.384 


1.9 


.440 


.665 


.190 


.394 



236 



u3 Vl 



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iHr-tl/>>CO'«l'r-(MiOt-CO^rHO*C^CD*iHO'*'r-af*iHO*C^t^»0'-*C'*C-t^KJr-<0 

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Table 131 



Korme for Upper Arm and Forearm of Fourteen-Year-Cld Girls (Upper arm = .2396 

chest olrcumference + 2.3388 elbow - 7.5937; forearm = .0997 

chest circumference + 2.1718 elbow + 1.9171) 



Chest 
Clrciim.* 












Elbow nidth. Centimeters | 






























ference. 




4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.4 


5.6 


5.8 


6.0 


6.2 


6.4 


6.6 


6.8 


7.0 


7.2 


Centi- 






























meters 






























90 


UA 


25.20 


25.66 


26.13 


26.60 


27.07 


27.54 


28.00 


28.47 


28.94 


29.41 


29.87 


30.34 


30.31 




FA 


21.31 


21.75 


22.18 


22.62 


23.05 


23.49 


23.92 


24.36 


24.79 


25.22 


25.66 


26.09 


26.53 


88 


UA 


24.72 


25.19 


25.65 


26.12 


26.59 


27.06 


27.25 


27.99 


28.46 


28.93 


29.39 


29.86 


30.33 




FA 


21.12 


21.55 


21.98 


22.42 


22.85 


23.29 


23.72 


24.16 


24.59 


25.02 


25.46 


25.89 


26.33 


86 


UA 


24.24 


24.71 


25.17 


25.64 


26.11 


26.58 


27.04 


27.51 


27.98 


28.45 


28.92 


29.38 


29.35 




FA 


20.92 


21.35 


21.78 


22.22 


22.65 


23.09 


23.52 


23.96 


24.39 


24.33 


25.26 


25.69 


26.13 


84 


UA 


23.76 


24.23 


24.69 


25.16 


25.63 


26.10 


26.57 


27.03 


27.50 


27.97 


28.44 


28.90 


29.37 




FA 


30.72 


21.15 


21.59 


22.02 


22.45 


22.89 


23.32 


23.76 


24.19 


24.63 


25.06 


25.59 


25.93 


82 


UA 


23.28 


23.75 


24.22 


24.68 


25.15 


25.62 


26.09 


26.53 


27.02 


27.49 


27.96 


28.43 


28.39 




FA 


20.52 


20.95 


21.39 


21.32 


22.25 


22.69 


23.12 


23.56 


23.99 


24.43 


24.36 


25.30 


25.73 


80 


UA 


22.80 


23.27 


23.74 


24.20 


24.67 


25.14 


25.61 


26.07 


26.54 


27.01 


27.43 


27.95 


28.41 




FA 


20.32 


20.75 


21.19 


21.62 


22.06 


22.49 


22.92 


23.36 


23.79 


24.23 


24.66 


25.10 


25.53 


78 


UA 


22.32 


22.79 


23.26 


23.72 


24.19 


24.66 


25.13 


25.60 


26.06 


26.53 


27.00 


27.47 


27.93 




FA 


20.12 


20.55 


20.99 


21.42 


21.86 


22.29 


22.72 


23.16 


23.59 


24.03 


24.46 


24.90 


25.33 


76 


UA 


21.34 


22.31 


22.78 


23.25 


23.71 


24.18 


24.65 


25.12 


25.58 


26.05 


26.52 


26.99 


27.46 




FA 


19.92 


20.35 


20.79 


21.22 


21.66 


22.09 


22.53 


22.96 


23.39 


23.83 


24.26 


24.70 


25.13 


74 


UA 


21.36 


21.83 


22.30 


22.77 


23.23 


23.70 


24.17 


24.64 


25.11 


25.67 


26.04 


26.61 


26.98 




FA 


19.72 


20.15 


20.59 


21.02 


21.46 


21.89 


22.33 


22.76 


23.19 


23.63 


24.06 


24.50 


24.93 


72 


UA 


20.88 


21.35 


21.82 


22.29 


22.75 


23.22 


23.69 


24.16 


24.63 


25.09 


25.56 


26.03 


26.60 




FA 


19.52 


19.95 


20.39 


20.82 


21.26 


21.69 


22.13 


22.66 


23.00 


23.43 


23.86 


24.30 


24.73 


70 


UA 


20.40 


20.87 


21.34 


21.31 


22.28 


22.74 


23.21 


23.68 


24.15 


24.61 


25.08 


25.65 


26.02 




FA 


19.32 


19.76 


20.19 


20.63 


21.06 


21.49 


21.93 


22.36 


22.80 


23.2? 


23.66 


24.10 


24.63 


68 


UA 


19.93 


20.39 


20.86 


21.33 


21.80 


22.26 


22.73 


23.20 


23.67 


24.14 


24.60 


25.07 


25.64 




FA 


19.12 


19.56 


19.99 


20.42 


20.86 


21.29 


21.73 


22.16 


22.60 


23.03 


23.46 


23.90 


24.33 


66 


UA 


19.45 


19.91 


20.38 


20.86 


21.32 


21.78 


22.25 


22.72 


23.19 


23.66 


24.12 


24.59 


25.06 




FA 


18.92 


19.36 


19.79 


20.23 


20.66 


21.09 


21.53 


21.96 


22.40 


22.83 


23.27 


23,70 


24.13 


64 


UA 


18.97 


19.43 


19.90 


20.37 


20.84 


21.31 


21.77 


22.24 


22.71 


23.17 


23.64 


24.11 


24.58 




FA 


18.72 


19.16 


19.69 


20.03 


20.46 


20.89 


21.33 


21.76 


22.20 


22.63 


23.07 


23.50 


23.93 


62 


UA 


18.49 


18.96 


19.42 


19.89 


20.36 


20.83 


21.29 


21.76 


22.23 


22.70 


23.17 


23.63 


24.10 




FA 


18.52 


18.96 


19.39 


19.83 


20.26 


20.69 


21.13 


21.56 


22.00 


22.43 


22.87 


23.30 


23.74 


60 


UA 


18.01 


18.48 


18.94 


19.41 


19.88 


20.35 


20.82 


21.28 


21.76 


22.22 


22.69 


23.15 


23.62 




FA 


18.32 


18.76 


19.19 


19.63 


20.06 


20.50 


20.93 


21.36 


21.80 


22.23 


22.67 


23.10 


23.64 


58 


UA 


17.63 


18.00 


18.46 


18.93 


19.40 


19.87 


20.34 


20.80 


21.27 


21.74 


22.21 


22.67 


23.14 




FA 


18.12 


18.56 


18.99 


19.43 


19.86 


20.30 


20.73 


21.16 


21.60 


22.03 


22.47 


22.90 


23.34 


56 


UA 


17.05 


17.52 


17.99 


18.45 


18.92 


19.39 


19.86 


20.32 


20.79 


21.26 


21.73 


22.20 


22.66 




FA 


17.92 


18.36 


18.79 


19.23 


19.66 


20.10 


20.53 


20.97 


21.40 


21.82 


22.27 


22.70 


23.14 


54 


UA 


16.57 


17.04 


17.51 


17.97 


18.44 


18.91 


19.38 


19.85 


20.31 


20.73 


21.25 


21.72 


22.18 




FA 


17.73 


18,16 


18.59 


19.03 


19.46 


19.90 


20.33 


20.77 


21.20 


21.63 


22.07 


22.50 


22.94 


52 


UA 


16.09 


16.56 


17.03 


17.50 


17.96 


18.43 


18.90 


19.37 


19.93 


20.30 


20.77 


21.24 


21.70 




FA 


17.53 


17.96 


18.39 


18.83 


19.26 


19.70 


20.13 


20.67 


21.00 


21.44 


21.97 


22.30 


22.74 



Interpolation Table 

Chest Elbow 

Clrcum- Upper Arm Forearm 
ferenoe o .1 .1 









.234 





.217 


.1 


.024 


.258 


.010 


.227 


.2 


.048 


.282 


.020 


.237 


.3 


.072 


.306 


.030 


.247 


.4 


.096 


.330 


.040 


.257 


.5 


.120 


.354 


.050 


.267 


.6 


.144 


.378 


.960 


.277 


.7 


.168 


.402 


.070 


.287 


.8 


.192 


.426 


.080 


.297 


.9 


.216 


.450 


.090 


.307 


1.0 


.240 


.473 


.100 


.317 


1.1 


.264 


.497 


.110 


.327 


1.2 


.283 


.521 


.120 


.337 


1.3 


.311 


.545 


.130 


.347 


1.4 


.335 


.569 


.140 


.357 


1.5 


.359 


.593 


.150 


.367 


1.6 


.383 


.617 


.160 


.377 


1.7 


.407 


.641 


.169 


.337 


1.8 


.431 


.665 


.179 


.397 


1.9 


.455 


.689 


.189 


.407 



238 



II 



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239 



Table 133 



Norms for Upper Arm and Forearm of Flfteen-Yoar-Old Olrla (Upper arm = .2241 chest 
clroumferenoe + 1.6513 elbow - 1.9860; forearm = .1010 ohnat 
clroumforenoa + 1.9357 elbow + 3.4996) 



Chest 












Elbow Wlath, Centimeters 












Circum- 
ference, 


































4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.4 


5.6 


5.8 


6.0 


6.2 


6.4 


6.6 


6,8 


7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


Centi- 
































meters 
































88 


UA 


25.66 


25.99 


26.32 


26.65 


26.98 


27. .-1 


27.64 


27.97 


28.30 


28.63 


28.96 


29.29 


29.62 


29.95 




FA 


21.68 


22.07 


22.45 


22.84 


23.23 


23.61 


24.00 


24.39 


24.78 


25.16 


25.55 


25.94 


26.32 


26.71 


86 


UA 


25.21 


25.54 


25.87 


26.20 


26.53 


26.86 


27.19 


27.52 


27.85 


28.19 


28.62 


28.95 


29.18 


29.51 




FA 


21.48 


21.86 


22.25 


22.64 


23.03 


23.41 


23. CC 


24.19 


24.57 


24.96 


25.35 


25.74 


26.12 


26.51 


84 


UA 


24.76 


25.09 


25.43 


25.76 


26.09 


26.42 


26.75 


27.08 


27.41 


27.74 


28.07 


28.40 


28.73 


29.06 




FA 


21.27 


21.66 


22.05 


22.44 


22.82 


23.21 


215.60 


23.98 


24.37 


24.76 


25.15 


25.53 


25.92 


26.31 


82 


UA 


24.32 


24.65 


24.98 


25.31 


25.64 


25.97 


26.30 


26.63 


26.96 


27.29 


27.62 


27.95 


28.28 


28.61 




FA 


21.07 


21.46 


21.85 


22.23 


22.62 


23.01 


23.40 


23.78 


24.17 


24.56 


24.94 


25.33 


25.72 


26.11 


80 


UA 


23.87 


24.20 


24.53 


24.86 


25.19 


25.52 


25.85 


26.18 


26.51 


26.84 


27.17 


27.50 


27.83 


28.16 




FA 


20.87 


21.26 


21.65 


22.03 


22.42 


22.81 


23.19 


23.58 


23.97 


24,36 


24.74 


25.13 


25.51 


25.90 


78 


UA 


23.42 


23.75 


24.08 


24.41 


24.74 


25.07 


25.40 


25.73 


26.06 


26,39 


26.72 


27.05 


27,38 


27.71 




FA 


20.67 


21.06 


21.44 


21.83 


22.22 


22.60 


22.99 


23.38 


23.77 


24.15 


24.54 


24.93 


25.31 


25.70 


76 


UA 


22.97 


23. iO 


23.63 


23.96 


24.29 


24.62 


24.95 


25.28 


25.61 


25.94 


26.27 


26.60 


26.93 


27.27 




FA 


20.47 


20.85 


21.24 


21.63 


22.02 


22.40 


22.79 


23.18 


23.56 


23.95 


24.34 


24.73 


25.11 


25.50 


74 


UA 


22.52 


22.85 


23.38 


23.51 


23.84 


24.17 


24.51 


24.84 


25.17 


25., 50 


25.83 


26.16 


26,49 


26.82 




FA 


20,26 


20.65 


21.04 


21.43 


21. ei 


22.20 


22.59 


22.97 


23.36 


23.75 


24.14 


24.52 


24,91 


25.30 


72 


UA 


22.08 


22.41 


22.74 


23.07 


23.40 


23.73 


24.06 


24.39 


24.72 


25.06 


25.38 


25.71 


26.04 


26.37 




FA 


20.06 


20.45 


20.84 


21.22 


21.61 


22.00 


22.. ^9 


22.77 


23.16 


23.55 


23.93 


24.32 


24.71 


25.10 


70 


UA 


21.63 


21.96 


22.29 


22.62 


22.95 


23.28 


23.61 


23.94 


24.27 


24.60 


24.93 


25.26 


25.59 


25.92 




FA 


19.86 


20.25 


20.64 


21.02 


21.41 


21.80 


22.18 


22.57 


22.96 


23.35 


23.73 


24.12 


24.51 


24.89 


68 


UA 


21.18 


21.51 


21.84 


22.17 


22.50 


22.83 


23.16 


23.49 


23.82 


24.15 


24.48 


24. CI 


25.14 


25.47 




PA 


19.66 


20.05 


20.43 


20.82 


21.21 


21.69 


21.98 


22.37 


22.76 


23.14 


23.53 


23.92 


24.30 


24.69 


66 


UA 


20.73 


21.06 


21.39 


21.72 


22.05 


22.38 


22.71 


23.04 


23.37 


23.70 


24.03 


24.36 


24.69 


25.02 




FA 


19.46 


19.84 


20.23 


20.62 


21.01 


21.39 


21.78 


22.17 


22.55 


22,94 


23.33 


23.72 


24.10 


24.49 


64 


UA 


20.28 


20.61 


20.94 


21.27 


21.60 


21.93 


22.26 


22.59 


22.92 


23.25 


23.59 


23.92 


24.25 


24.68 




FA 


19.25 


19.64 


20.03 


20.42 


20.80 


21.19 


21.58 


21.96 


22.35 


22.74 


23.13 


23.51 


23.90 


24.29 


62 


UA 


19.83 


20.16 


20.49 


20.83 


21.16 


21.49 


21.82 


22.15 


22.48 


22.81 


23.14 


23.47 


23.80 


24.13 




FA 


19.05 


19.-14 


19.83 


20.21 


20.60 


20.99 


21.38 


21.76 


22.15 


22.54 


22,92 


23.31 


23.70 


24.09 


60 


UA 


19.39 


19.72 


20.05 


20.38 


20.71 


21.04 


21.37 


21.70 


22.03 


22.36 


22.69 


23,02 


23.35 


23.68 




FA 


18.85 


19.24 


19.63 


20.01 


20.40 


20.79 


21.17 


21.56 


21.95 


22.34 


22.72 


23.11 


23.50 


23.88 


58 


UA 


18.94 


19.27 


19.60 


19.93 


20.26 


20.59 


20.92 


21.25 


21.58 


21.91 


22.24 


22.67 


22.90 


23.23 




FA 


18.65 


19.04 


19.42 


19.81 


20.20 


20.58 


20.97 


21.36 


21.75 


22.13 


22.52 


22.91 


23.29 


23.68 


56 


UA 


18.49 


18.82 


19.15 


19.48 


19.81 


20.14 


20.47 


20.80 


21.13 


21.46 


21.79 


22.12 


22,45 


22.78 




FA 


18.45 


18.83 


19.22 


19.61 


20.00 


20.38 


20.77 


21.16 


21.54 


21.93 


22.32 


22.71 


23.09 


23.48 


54 


UA 


18.04 


18.37 


16.70 


19.03 


19.36 


19.69 


20.02 


20.35 


20.68 


21.01 


21.34 


21.67 


22,00 


22.34 




FA 


18.24 


18.63 


19.02 


19.41 


19.79 


20.18 


20.57 


20.95 


21.34 


21,73 


22.12 


22.50 


22,89 


23.28 



Interpolation Table 



Cheat 




Elbow 






Circum- 


Upper 


Arm 


Forearm 


ference 















.1 





.1 








.165 


.194 


.1 


.022 


.188 


.010 


.204 


.2 


.045 


.210 


.020 


.214 


.3 


.067 


.232 


.030 


.224 


.4 


.090 


.255 


.040 


.234 


.5 


.112 


.277 


.051 


.244 


.6 


.134 


.300 


.061 


.254 


.7 


.157 


.322 


.071 


.264 


.3 


.179 


.344 


.081 


.274 


.9 


.202 


.367 


.091 


.284 


1.0 


.224 


.389 


.101 


.295 


1.1 


.247 


.412 


.111 


.305 


1.2 


.269 


.434 


.121 


.315 


1.3 


.291 


.456 


.131 


.325 


1.4 


.314 


.479 


.141 


.335 


1.5 


.336 


.501 


.152 


.345 


1.6 


.359 


.524 


.162 


.355 


1.7 


.381 


.546 


.172 


.365 


1.8 


.403 


.569 


.182 


.375 


1.9 


.426 


.591 


.1J2 


.385 



240 



a « 
• o 



as- 

•^ oo 

• to CO 
(-4 H ■ 

C3 • •!• 

« H O 
•H » 






ft. I 




*0Ol0 0^l0l7l'J'0l^Q0>10CDWC0^^C0r^a)OC^0)ClOt-■(D^•a^^D^■^0^O^D^0l0l^lO 

«>'*<0(0(DiO(oto«)iO(Ort<DKiiD[0«j(OU)iOtnioio»Oioioi/)iO'nioirartiniotfjro 



OCJ^O((I>C^i-tViO(-lO>0>iNtOtDfJC 



Sl/Jt-l0«0'*l0*l'»0'i»«V*3'^rt(0fiOt0Wt0<HpJrHCJOCJ0>0J0lr-tCDr-lC*>Hr-'-l 
[Qoni/irtt/)io>n(Ou3rtin«ou3iou3rt»n(omtoiortin»o^iO'*iov«'«'iO'»'K3 

SCO lOCJ r 
O > CD r 



i«»oaiOwc^inu'if{j>c\j«oc>'£'t^< 



rio^fO^rt-^to 



r-Of-otoOioo 



<o^iovmf'*»0'*iOrt[Ow«owc)r-iojO(yowo>i-<oirH(DrHr-of-o«)0 

(»lOtOE^tOOO>^'i)CDtO»H(J)ifiiOO>tO«QCTllD(OOrt*Oir-tDi-llOinC7iCO<£'W[00 

in*inio^(OiO'0«iO(MWNMHOjoojOrHo>rH(e^cDrHr-ot-oiDOinoiocft 
uD»QiftiOiort'Oioinrttortioioin(om«o>0[0^j'(0'*to^io*(0'^tO'*io^«0'«'ej 



.. f anooiOi act CO 

a)o»ioiOHc-(i)Otn"*''HajcD.Hi/jiO(-40iocjio«)<HO(D"*tnt^fHrHa)inin5(-ie« 



?(DOC^OC-C7t<OCi«OCT»iOOV(OlO<ri iO<D<yeDNP-rHe* 



fN-fCJ^N^W ^W 



CJCDC 
^ W 1 






rHiHOrHOHo>Q<pocDQr'Qc-o'<oonno»«oo»^a>iototocDcat~-Hr'»HC-or* 

t^cuoa>^r>co^rHr-tu^o>o<«ocj^tO'HOCb«o*oi>tOHC«coa)i')c40jtno9>t- 
• •••••••••••••••••••••••••■• ••"*•"-?« 

o^ooaoa)OtDot'0>«i)0><oo»tfionoco*con<oncocjt*i-ir-HC'Oc*gj'» 

iOrt»Ort*0*S5*rt*«^<M^CJ*C>J*W*N*<M*W*N*C**Cg'«'WtOCI 



ao(»oa>ocoot~o»<o(ft«o<J»kOCD'^«)*<Dio<Dcjt*cjc->Ht-»Hr-0'oo>'i>g»* 



eafisssgsfisssfiagseassesfisesesfisesesea 



s a s 



«> f pj o 9 "9 T 

«0 <w W 4 to tO >f> 



*" -" "■ *« W I'j p- — - 



CJ CJ CM CJ OJ CVJ c 



J lO rO W to « r 



rHCJioiOiDc~-o)Or-4pj'Trioc^mo'i-ieMroto 

O OOOOOOOr-trHi-li-Hr-l'-Hr-t'HCMt'JCJCM 

o " 

iH c~orttoa)<o«)o>wococjO(0^*t-f-i^t* 

CJrttnt^a)OwtotOf-(DOwio»nt--coooj 
•ou>oiNtootcvt(Oa)r-(*ficOf-«vr-o^r>o 
o ooo<Hr-(r-iC'acjcjtoiO(0^^vtOtnu](o 
o 

O 1-i.r-* i-ti^ i-tri t-t r^i-t r^ 



IH\ 



Table 135 

Hormfl for Upper Arm and Forearm of Sixteen -Year-Cld Olrls (Upper ana = .2112 
oheet circumference + 1.4861 elbow - .2030; forearm = .0895 
cheat circumference ♦ 1.9128 elbow + 4.2923) 



Chest 


Elbow Width, Centimeters 




1 


Clrctun- 
































ferenoe. 




4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.4 


5.6 


5.8 


6.0 


6.2 


6.4 


6.6 


6.3 


7.0 


7.2 


7.4 


Centi- 
































meters 
































90 


UA 


25.94 


26.24 


26.53 


26.83 


27.13 


27.42 


27.72 


28.02 


28.32 


28.61 


28.91 


29.21 


29.50 


29.80 




FA 


21.53 


21.91 


22.29 


22.68 


23.06 


23.44 


23.32 


24.21 


24.59 


24.97 


25.35 


25.74 


26.12 


26.50 


38 


UA 


25.52 


25.81 


26.11 


26.41 


26.70 


27.00 


27.30 


27.60 


27.89 


23.19 


28.49 


23.79 


29.03 


29.38 




FA 


21.35 


21.73 


22.11 


22.50 


22.88 


23.26 


23.65 


24.03 


24.41 


24.79 


25.18 


25.56 


25.94 


26.32 


86 


UA 


25.09 


25.39 


25.69 


25.99 


26.28 


26.58 


26.38 


27.17 


27.47 


27.77 


23.07 


28.36 


23.66 


28.96 




FA 


21.17 


21.55 


21.94 


22.32 


22.70 


23.08 


23.47 


23.85 


24.23 


24. SI 


25.00 


25.33 


25.76 


26.14 


84 


UA 


24.67 


24.97 


25.27 


25.56 


25,86 


26.16 


26.45 


26.75 


27.05 


27.35 


27.64 


27.94 


28.24 


28.53 




FA 


20.99 


21,37 


21.76 


22.14 


22.52 


22.90 


23.29 


23.67 


24.05 


24.43 


24.82 


25.20 


25.58 


25.97 


82 


UA 


24.25 


24.55 


24.84 


25.14 


25.44 


25.73 


26.03 


26.33 


26.63 


26.92 


27.22 


27.52 


27.82 


28.11 




FA 


20.31 


21.20 


21.53 


21.96 


22.34 


22.73 


23.11 


23.49 


23.37 


24.26 


24.64 


25.02 


25.40 


25.79 


80 


UA 


23.83 


24.12 


24.42 


24.72 


26.02 


25.31 


25.61 


25.91 


26.20 


26.50 


26.80 


27.10 


27.39 


27.69 




PA 


20.63 


21.02 


21.40 


21.78 


22.16 


22.55 


22.93 


23.31 


23.69 


24.03 


24.46 


24.34 


25.22 


25.61 


78 


UA 


23.40 


23.70 


24.00 


24.30 


24.59 


24.89 


25.19 


25.48 


25.78 


26.08 


26.38 


26.67 


26.97 


27.27 




FA 


20.45 


20.84 


21.22 


21.60 


21.98 


22.37 


22.75 


23.13 


23.52 


23.90 


24.28 


24.66 


25.05 


25.43 


76 


UA 


22.98 


23.28 


23.58 


23.87 


24.17 


24.47 


24.76 


25.06 


25.36 


25.66 


25.95 


26.25 


26.55 


26.85 




FA 


20.28 


20.66 


21.04 


21.42 


21.81 


22,19 


22.57 


22.95 


23.34 


23.72 


24.10 


24.43 


24.87 


25.25 


74 


UA 


22.56 


22.36 


23.15 


23.45 


23.75 


24.05 


24.34 


24.54 


24.94 


25.23 


25.53 


25.33 


26.13 


26.42 




FA 


20.10 


20.48 


20.86 


21.24 


21.63 


22.01 


22,39 


22.77 


23.16 


23.54 


23,92 


24.30 


24.69 


25.07 


72 


UA 


22.14 


22.43 


22.73 


23.03 


23.33 


23.62 


23.92 


24.22 


24.51 


24.81 


25.11 


25.41 


25.70 


26.00 




FA 


19.92 


20.30 


20.68 


21.07 


21.45 


21.33 


22.21 


22.60 


22.98 


23.36 


23.74 


24.13 


24.51 


24.89 


70 


UA 


21.71 


22.01 


22.31 


22.61 


22.90 


23.20 


23.50 


23.79 


24.09 


24.39 


24.69 


24.98 


25.28 


25.58 




FA 


19.74 


20.12 


20.50 


20.89 


21.27 


21.65 


22.03 


22.42 


22.80 


23.18 


23.56 


23.95 


24.33 


24.71 


68 


UA 


21.29 


21.59 


21.89 


22.13 


22.48 


22.78 


23.08 


23.37 


23.67 


23,97 


24.26 


24.56 


24.86 


25.16 




FA 


19.56 


19.94 


20.32 


20.71 


21.09 


21.47 


21.36 


22.24 


22.62 


23.00 


23.39 


23.77 


24.15 


24.53 


66 


UA 


20.87 


21.17 


21.46 


21.76 


22.06 


22.36 


22.65 


22.95 


23.25 


23.54 


23.34 


24.14 


24.44 


24.73 




FA 


19.38 


19.76 


20.15 


20.53 


20.91 


21.29 


21.68 


22.06 


22.44 


22.32 


23.21 


23.59 


23.97 


24.35 


64 


UA 


20.45 


20.74 


21.04 


21.34 


21.64 


21.93 


22.23 


22.53 


22.82 


23.12 


23.42 


23.72 


24.01 


24.31 




FA 


19.20 


19.58 


19.97 


20.35 


20.73 


21.11 


21.50 


21.38 


22.26 


22.64 


23.03 


23.41 


23.79 


24.18 


62 


UA 


20.02 


20.32 


20.62 


20.92 


21.21 


21.51 


21.31 


22.11 


22.40 


22.70 


23.00 


23.29 


23.59 


23.89 




FA 


19.02 


19.41 


19.79 


20.17 


20.55 


20.94 


21.32 


21.70 


22.08 


22.47 


22.85 


23.23 


23.61 


24.00 


60 


UA 


19.60 


19.90 


20.20 


20.49 


20.79 


21.09 


21.39 


21,68 


21.93 


22.28 


22.57 


22.37 


23.17 


23.47 




FA 


18.84 


19.23 


19.61 


19.99 


20.37 


20.76 


21,14 


21.52 


21.90 


22.29 


22.67 


23.05 


23.43 


23.82 


58 


UA 


19.13 


19.48 


19.77 


20.07 


20.37 


20.67 


20.96 


21.26 


21.56 


21.85 


22.15 


22.45 


22.75 


23.04 




FA 


18.66 


19.05 


19.43 


19.81 


20.19 


20.53 


20.96 


21.34 


21.73 


22.11 


22.49 


22.87 


23.26 


23.64 


56 


UA 


18.75 


19.05 


19.35 


19.65 


19.95 


20.24 


20.54 


20.84 


21,14 


21.43 


21.73 


22.03 


22.32 


22.62 




FA 


13.49 


18.87 


19.25 


19.63 


20,02 


20.40 


20.78 


21.16 


21,55 


21.93 


22.31 


22.69 


23,08 


23.46 


54 


UA 


18.34 


18.63 


18.93 


19.23 


19,52 


19.32 


20.12 


20.42 


20,71 


21.01 


21.31 


21.60 


21.90 


22.20 




FA 


18.31 


18.69 


19.07 


19.45 


19.84 


20.22 


20.60 


20.98 


21.37 


21.75 


22.13 


22.51 


122.90 


23.28 



Interpolation Table 



Elbow 
Chest 
Clrcum- Upper Arm Forearm 
ference _^ ^ .^ 









.149 





.191 


.1 


.021 


.170 


.009 


.200 


.2 


.042 


.191 


.018 


.209 


.3 


.063 


.212 


.027 


.213 


.4 


.034 


.253 


.036 


.227 


.5 


.106 


.254 


.045 


.236 


.6 


.127 


.275 


.054 


.245 


.7 


.143 


.296 


.063 


.254 


.8 


.169 


.318 


.072 


.263 


.9 


.190 


.339 


.081 


.272 


1.0 


.211 


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245 



T*blA 139 

Voms for Upper Arm, Foreora. Thigh, and Calf of Coll«ge »oaen <Opp«r am ■ .2229 «h««t. 

clrcutnference ♦ 1.23''5 lm«o - 4.S009; forearm = .1268 cheat olrcuBLf«rnnc« 

♦ .6790 knee * 4.esSS; thigh = .;9CM chost clrcmaroreno* 

• 2.9365 lcne« - 2.1415; calf e .1506 -ihest rlrcuB- 

fererce -i- 1.6649 knee * 4.7606) 



CbMt 

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10.2 


10.4 


10.6 


10.6 


11. 


11.2 


90 


Tipper arm 
Forearm 


24.72 
22.93 
&4.72 
32.26 


hsTTvr 

23. U 
55.31 
32.64 


25.21 
23.29 
S5.00 
33.02 


25.46 
23.46 
S6.48 
33.39 


25.71 
23.64 
57.07 
33.77 


26.96 
23.81 
-57.66 
34.15 


26.20 
23.66 
58.25 
34.52 


26.45 
24.16 
58.83 
34.90 


26.70 
24.54 
59.42 
55.28 


26.95 
24.62 

60.01 
55.66 


27.19 
24.69 
60.60 
36.03 


27.44 
24.67 
61. 16 
56.41 


27.69 
25.04 
61.77 
56.79 


27.94 
25.22 
62.56 
57.16 


28.18 
£5.40 
62.94 
37.54 


28.43 
25.57 
65. S5 
57.62 


2d. 68 
25.75 
64.12 
38.29 


26.63 
25.62 
64.71 
38.67 


20.17 
26.10 
65.29 
39.05 


29.42 
26.27 
65. 88 
59.43 


fl9 


Dpper am 
Forearm 
Thigh 
Calf 


24.49 
22.81 
54.33 

32.11 


24.74 
22.96 
64.92 
32.49 


24.99 
23.16 
55.51 
52.67 


25.24 
23.33 

56.09 
33.24 


25.46 
23.51 

66.68 
33.62 


25.73 
23.68 
57.27 
34.00 


25.98 
23.66 
57.66 
54.37 


26.23 
24. 04 
68.44 
54.75 


26.47 
24.21 
59.03 
35.13 


26.72 
£4.36 
59.62 
35.61 


26.67 
24.66 
60.21 
35.88 


27.22 
24.74 

60.79 
36.26 


27.46 
24.62 
61.56 
36.64 


27.71 
£5.09 
61.97 
.•17.01 


27.96 
25.27 
62.55 
57.39 


28.21 
£5.44 
63.14 
i7.77 


26.45 
£5.62 
63.75 
39.14 


28.70 
25.79 
64.32 
38.52 


28.95 
£5.97 
64.90 
58.90 


29.20 
26.15 
6S.49 
39.27 


88 


Dppor arm 
Forearm 
Thigh 
Calf 


24.27 
22.58 
63.94 
31.96 


24.52 
22.95 
64.53 
32.34 


24.77 
23.03 
55.12 
32.72 


25.01 
23.20 
65.70 
33. 09 


25.26 
23.38 
56.29 
33.47 


25.51 
23.56 
66.66 
33.65 


25.76 
23.73 
67.47 
34.22 


26. OO 
23.91 
68.05 
34.60 


26.25 

£4.08 
58.64 
34.96 


26-50 
24.26 
59.23 
35.55 


26.75 
24.43 

56.81 
35.73 


26.99 
24.61 
60.40 
56.11 


27.24 
24.79 

60.66 
36.49 


27.49 
24.96 
61.58 
36.66 


27.74 
26.14 
62.16 
37.24 


£7.68 
26.31 
6£.7S 
37.62 


26.23 
25.49 
63.54 

37.99 


28.48 
25.67 
63.95 
38.37 


28.73 
25.64 
64.81 
3a. 75 


28.67 
26.02 
66.10 
59.12 


67 


Upper arm 
Forearm 

Si? 


24.05 
22.55 
53. S6 
31.81 


24.30 
22.72 
64.14 
32.19 


24.54 
22.90 
54.73 
32.67 


24.76 
23.08 
55.31 
52.94 


25.04 
23.25 
56.90 
33.32 


25.29 
23.43 
56.49 
33.70 


25.53 
23.60 
67.08 
34.07 


25.79 
23.76 
57.66 
34.45 


26.03 
23.95 
69.25 
34.83 


26.28 

24.13 

68.84 
35.20 


26.62 
24.31 
59.42 
56.68 


26.77 
24.46 
60.01 
35.96 


27.02 
£4.66 
60.60 
56.33 


27.27 
24.85 
61.19 
36-71 


27.61 
25.01 
61.77 
57.06 


£7.76 
25.19 

62.36 
37.47 


28.01 
25.36 
62.95 

37.84 


28.26 
25.54 
63.54 
38.22 


28.60 

25.71 
64.12 
36.60 


26.75 
25.69 
64.71 
38.97 


se 


Uppar arm 
Forearm 

SI? 


23.83 
22.42 
53.16 
31.66 


24.07 
22.60 
53.76 
32.04 


24.32 
22.77 
54.54 

32.41 


24.67 
22.95 
54.92 
52.79 


24.82 
23.12 
55.51 
33.17 


25.06 
23.30 
56.10 
33.65 


26.31 
23.47 
56.69 
33.62 


2S.S6 
23.66 
57.27 
54.30 


26.81 
23.83 
57.86 
34.68 


26.06 
24.00 
68.45 
35.05 


26.50 
24.18 
59.03 
35.43 


26.55 
24.35 
59.62 
35.81 


26.80 
24.53 
60.21 
56.18 


27.04 
24.71 
60. 80 
56. S6 


27.29 
24.63 
61.38 
36.94 


27.54 
25.06 
61.97 
37.32 


27.79 
25.23 
62.56 
37.69 


28.03 
25.41 
65.14 
38.07 


28.28 
25.56 
63.73 
56.45 


26.53 
25.76 
64.32 
38.82 


fl5 


Upper an 
Forearm 
Thigh 
Clf 


23.60 
22.29 
62.77 
31.51 


23.85 
22.47 
53.36 
31.69 


24.10 
22.64 
63.95 
52.26 


24.55 
22.82 
54.53 
32.64 


24.59 
22.99 
55.12 
33. M 


24.84 
23.17 
55.71 
33. 3B 


25.09 
23.35 
56.29 
33 -^ 


25.34 

23.62 
66.88 
^J.15 


25.68 
23.70 
57.47 
34.55 


25.93 
23.87 
68.06 
54.90 


26.06 
24.06 
58.64 
5S.28 


26.35 
24.22 
59.23 
35.6fi 


26.57 
24.40 
59.82 
36.03 


24.62 
24.58 

60.41 
56 41 


27.07 
24.75 

60.99 
36.79 


27.32 
24.93 
61.58 
.^7.16 


27.56 
25.10 
62.17 
37.54 


27.61 
25.28 
62.75 
37.92 


£8.06 
25.46 
63.54 

38.50 


29.31 
25.65 
65.95 
36.67 


8* 


Upper arm 
Poreans 
Thigh 
Calf 


23.38 
22.16 
52.38 
31.36 


23.63 
22.34 
52.97 
31.74 


23.66 
22.51 
83.56 
32.11 


24.12 
22.69 
54.14 
32.49 


24.37 
22.87 
54.73 
32.67 


24.62 
23.04 
55.52 
33-24 


24.87 
23.22 
55.90 
33.62 


26.11 

23.39 
66.49 
34.00 


25.56 
25.57 
67. 08 

.■u.se 


25.61 
23.74 
S7.67 
34.75 


26. S6 
23.92 
58. 2S 
35.13 


26.10 
24.10 
56.94 
35. SI 


26.35 
24.27 
69.43 
35.68 


26.6A 
24.45 

60.02 
36.26 


26.85 
24.62 

60.60 
36.64 


27.06 
24.80 
61.19 
37.01 


27.54 

24.98 
01.78 
37.39 


27.59 
25.15 
62.36 
37.77 


27.84 
25.33 

62.95 
3^ 14 


28.06 
25.60 
65.64 
38.52 


83 


Upper arm 
Forearm 

SI? 


23.16 
22.03 
51.99 
31.21 


23.40 
22.21 
62.68 
31.59 


23.65 
22.39 
53.17 
31.96 


23.60 
22.56 
53.75 
32.34 


24.15 
82.74 
54.34 
32.72 


24.3') 
22.91 
64.93 
53.09 


24.64 

23,00 
65. SI 
33.47 


24.39 
25.26 
66.10 
33.85 


26.14 
25.44 
56. C9 
34.22 


25.38 
23.62 

57.28 
34.60 


25.63 
23.76 
57.86 
34.98 


25.88 
23.67 
58.46 
35.36 


26-13 
24.14 
S9.04 
35.73 


26.37 
24.32 
59.62 
36.11 


26.62 
24. 50 
60. 21 
3*^.49 


26.87 
24.67 
60.80 
36.86 


27.12 
24.66 
61.59 
:%7.24 


27.36 
25.02 
61.97 
37.62 


27.61 

62.'.. 
37.99 


27.86 
26.57 
63.16 
58.37 


82 


Upper arm 
Forearm 

Si? 


22.93 
21.91 
61.60 
31.06 


23.16 
22.08 
52.19 
31.44 


23.43 
22.26 
52.77 
31.61 


23.69 
22.43 

53.56 
32.19 


23.92 
22.61 
53.95 
32.67 


24.17 
22.78 
64.54 

32.94 


24.42 
22.96 
55.12 
.■13.52 


24.67 
23.14 

55.71 
33.70 


24.91 
23.31 
56.30 
54.07 


25.16 
23.49 
66.99 
M.45 


25.41 
23.66 
67.47 
34.63 


25.66 
25.84 
68.06 
55.20 


25.90 
24.01 
58.85 
5S.S8 


26.15 
24.19 
59.25 
55.96 


26.40 
24.37 
56.82 
36.54 


26.65 
24.54 
60.41 
36.71 


26.66 
24.72 
61.00 
57.06 


27.14 
24.66 
61.58 
57.47 


27.36 
25.07 
62.17 
37.64 


27.64 
26.25 
62.76 
36.22 


tn 


Upper atv 
Forearm 
Thigh 
CaU 


22.71 
21.7a 
51.21 
30.93 


22.96 
21.95 
SI. 80 
31.28 


23.21 
22.13 
62.58 
31.66 


23.45 
22.50 

S2.97 
32.04 


23.70 
22. 48 
63.66 
32.42 


23.95 
22.66 
54. IS 
32.76 


24.20 
22.60 
64.73 
33.17 


24.44 

£3.01 
66.32 
33.66 


24.69 
23.16 
65.61 
33.92 


24.94 

23.36 
66.49 
34.30 


25.19 
23.63 
67.08 
34.68 


25.43 
23.71 
67.67 

35.06 


25.68 
23.89 
58.25 
-■is. 43 


25.95 
24.06 
58.94 
55.01 


26. le 

24.24 

.■i9.45 
56.16 


26.42 
24.41 

60.02 
56.56 


26.67 
24.59 
CO. 61 
56.94 


26.62 
24.77 
61.19 
57.32 


27.17 
24.64 
61.78 
37.66 


27.41 
25.12 
62.37 
38.07 


BO 


Upper arm 
Forearm 

Si? 


22.49 
21.65 
50.32 
30.76 


22.74 
21.62 
61.41 
31.13 


22.98 
22.00 
61.99 
31.51 


23.23 
22.18 
52.56 
31.99 


23.48 
22.35 
53.17 
32.2'' 


23.73 
22.53 
53.76 
32.64 


25.97 
22.70 
64.34 

33.02 


24.22 

22.66 
54.93 
33.40 


24.47 
2i.05 
66.62 
33.77 


24.72 
23.25 
66.10 
34.15 


24.96 
23.41 
56.69 
54.53 


26.21 
23.68 
57.26 
V*.90 


26.46 

23.76 

57.67 
35.26 


25.71 
25.95 

58.45 
55. 66 


25.95 
24.11 
69.04 
36.03 


26.20 
24.29 
59.63 
56.41 


26.45 
!>4.46 
60.22 
56.79 


26.70 
24.64 
60.80 
37.17 


26.64 

24.81 
61.56 
37.. M 


27.19 
24.69 

61.08 
37.62 


79 


Upper arm 
Foream 
Thigh 
CaU 


22.27 
21.52 
50.43 
30. CI 


22.51 
21.70 
51.02 
30.96 


22. 7C 
21.67 
51.60 
31.36 


23.01 
22.05 
52.19 
31.74 


23.26 
22.22 

S2.7e 

32.12 


23.60 
22.40 
53.37 
32.49 


23.75 
22.57 
63.96 
32.67 


24.00 
22.75 
54.64 
33.25 


24.26 

22.03 
65.13 
33.62 


24.49 
23.10 
S5.71 
3^.00 


24.74 
23.26 
86.30 
34.36 


24.69 
23.45 
56.69 
34.75 


25.24 
23.63 
57.48 
56.13 


2S.46 
23.60 
68.06 
35.51 


25.73 
25.68 
56 65 
36.86 


25.98 
24.16 
59.24 
36.26 


26.23 
24.53 

69.62 
36.64 


26.47 
24.51 
60.41 
37.02 


26.72 
24.69 
61.00 
37.39 


26.07 
24.86 

61, 59 
37.78 


79 


Upp^r arm 
Forearm 
Thigh 
Calf 


22.04 
21.39 
60. 04 

30-4G 


22.29 
21.57 

60.63 
30.83 


22.54 
21.74 
51.21 
31.21 


22.76 
21.62 
51.60 
31.59 


23.03 
22.06 
62.39 
31.96 


23.26 
22.27 
62.97 
32.34 


23.53 
22.45 
53.56 
32.72 


23.76 
22.62 
54.15 
33.09 


24. oe 

22.80 
54.74 
33.47 


24.27 
22.97 
66.32 
33.86 


24.52 
25.15 
56.91 
34.2? 


24.77 
23.32 
66.50 
34.60 


25.01 
23.50 
57.06 
34.98 


25.26 
23.66 
57.67 
35.56 


25.51 
23.85 
58.26 
35.73 


25.76 
24.03 
58.85 
36 11 


26.00 
24.20 
S9.43 

30.49 


26.25 
24.58 
60.02 
36.86 


26.50 
24.56 
60.61 
37.24 


26. 7& 
24.73 
61.20 
37.62 


77 


Upper am 
Forearm 
Thigh 
Calf 


21.82 
21.26 
49. C5 
30.31 


22.07 
21.44 
60.24 
30.68 


22.31 
21.61 
50.62 
3l.0fi 


22.56 
21.76 
61.41 
31.44 


22.81 

21.97 
52.00 
31.61 


23.06 
22.14 
52.58 
32.16 


23.30 
22.32 
53.17 
32.57 


23. SS 
22.49 
55.76 
52.64 


23.80 
22.67 
54.35 
33.32 


24.05 
22.84 
54.05 
33.70 


24.29 

23.02 
55.52 
34.07 


24.54 
23.20 
66.11 
34.45 


24.76 
25.57 
56.70 
54.83 


25.04 
23.65 
67.26 
35.21 


25.26 
23.72 
57.87 
35.56 


25.^3 
23.90 
56.46 
35.66 


25.78 
24.06 
56.04 
36.34 


26.05 
24.25 
59.63 
36-71 


26.27 
24.43 

60.22 
37.09 


26.52 
£4.60 
60.61 
37.47 


76 


Upper arm 
Forearm 

Si? 


21.60 
21.15 
49 26 
30.16 


21.84 
21.31 
49.84 
30.53 


22.09 
21.49 
50.43 
?C'.91 


22.34 
21.66 
51. 02 

31.29 


22.59 
21.04 
51.61 
31.66 


22.63 
22.01 
S2.19 
32.04 


23.08 
22.16 
52.76 
32.42 


25.33 

22.56 
53.57 
32.76 


23.56 
22.54 
63.96 
33.17 


23.82 
22.72 
54.54 
33.55 


24.07 
22.89 
66.13 
33.92 


24.32 
23.07 
55.72 
34 30 


24.57 
23.24 

56.30 

M.6n 


24.81 
23.42 
56.99 
36.0^ 


25.06 
2.'5.56 
57.46 
3?^. 43 


25.31 
23.77 
68.07 
35.81 


28.86 
23.95 
58.65 

30.19 


£5.80 
24.12 

69.24 
3C.5A 


26.05 
24. 30 
59.83 
36.94 


26.30 
24.47 
60.42 

.^7.52 


75 


Upper arm 
Forearm 
Thleh 
Calf 


21.57 
21.01 
48.87 
50.00 


21.62 
21.19 
49. 4J 
30.38 


21.87 
21.36 
60.01 
30.76 


22.12 

21.53 
50.63 
51.15 


22.56 
21.71 
61.22 
31.51 


22.61 
21.88 
51.80 
31.89 


22.86 
22.06 
52.36 
32.27 


25.11 
22.24 

32.64 


£3.35 
22.41 
53.57 
53.02 


£3.60 
22.59 
54. IS 
53.40 


23.85 
22.7'; 
54.74 
33.77 


£4.10 

22.94 
55.33 
34.16 


24.34 
23.11 
65.61 
34.55 


24.59 
23.29 

56.50 
54.90 


24.84 
23.47 
57.06 
35.26 


25.06 
25.64 
57.63 
36.66 


25.35 

15.82 
51.26 
36.04 


25.56 
23.96 
A6.S5 
36.41 


25.83 
24.17 
59.44 

36.79 


26.06 
24.35 
60.03 
57.17 


74 


Upper era 
Forearm 
Thlfih 
Calf 


21.15 
20.86 

48. 4a 
29.65 


21.40 
21.05 
49.06 
30.23 


21.65 
£1.23 
46.65 
30.61 


21.69 
21.40 
50.24 

30.60 


22.14 

21.58 
60.83 
31.36 


22.39 
21.76 
51.41 
31.74 


22.64 

21.63 
52.00 
32.12 


22.88 
22. U 

62.56 
32.4^ 


£5.15 
22.26 

63.17 
32.67 


23.58 
22.46 
53.76 
33.25 


23.63 
22.63 
54.35 
33.62 


25.87 
22.81 
64.9') 

.^4.00 


24.12 
22.96 
55.. S2 
.M.3e 


24.37 
23.16 
56.11 
34.75 


24.62 
25.54 

56.70 
56.15 


24.86 

23.51 
57.29 

55.51 


25.11 
£3.69 
57.87 
36.88 


25.36 
23.87 
58.46 
56.26 


25.61 
24.04 
59.05 
36.64 


£5.85 
24. 2£ 
59.63 
57.02 


73 


Upper arm 
Forearm 

Si? 


20.0.T 
20.76 
46.09 
29.70 


21.16 
20.92 
48.67 

30, oe 


21.42 
21.10 
49.26 
30. 4F 


21.67 
21.26 
49.85 

30.83 


21.02 
21.45 
50.44 
31.21 


22.17 
21.63 
51.02 
31.69 


22.41 
21.60 
SI. 61 
31.96 


22.66 
21. C8 
S2.20 
32.34 


22.91 
22.15 
52.76 
32.72 


23.16 
22.53 
63.37 
33.10 


£3.40 
22.61 
53.66 
33.47 


23.65 
22.66 

54.66 
35.65 


25.00 
22.66 
66.13 
34.23 


24.15 
23. 03 

55.72 
34.60 


24.3a 
25.21 
56.51 
54.98 


24.64 
23.38 
56 . 90 
35.36 


24.89 
23.56 
57.48 
35.73 


25.14 

23.74 
58.07 
36.11 


25.38 
23.91 
56.66 
56.49 


25.63 
24.06 

66.24 
36.87 


72 


Upper arm 
Forearm 


20.71 
20.62 
47.70 
29.65 


20.95 
20.80 
48.28 
29.93 


21.20 
20.97 
49.87 
30.31 


21.45 
21.15 
49.46 
30.68 


21.70 
21.32 
50.04 
.M.Ofi 


21.94 
21.60 
SO. 63 
31.44 


22.19 
21.67 
61.22 
31.61 


22.44 

21, es 

51.81 
32.19 


22.69 
22.03 
52.39 
32.57 


22.63 
22.20 
52.68 
52.04 


23.18 
22.38 
63.67 
33.32 


23.43 

22.55 
54.16 
35-70 


25.68 
22.73 
54.74 
34.08 


25.92 
22.90 
55.35 
54.45 


24 . 17 
23. 0« 
55.62 
34.63 


24.42 

23.26 
56.50 
35.21 


24.67 
23.45 

57.09 
35.56 


24.91 
25.61 
57.60 
35.66 


25.16 
25.78 
68.27 
36.34 


25.41 

23.60 
66.86 
36.71 


71 


Upper era 
Forearm 
Thigh 
Calf 


20.48 
20.49 

47.31 
29.40 


20.73 
20. 67 
47. B9 
2'9.78 


20.98 
20.64 
48.48 
30.16 


21.22 
21.02 
49.07 
30.53 


21.47 
21,19 
49.65 
30.91 


21.72 
21.37 
50.24 
31.29 


21.97 
21.65 
50.63 
31.66 


22.21 
21.72 
51.42 
32.04 


22.46 
£1.90 
52.00 
32.42 


22.71 
22.07 
62. S9 
52.79 


22.66 
22.25 
63.16 
33.17 


£5.20 
22.42 

53.77 
33.66 


23.40 

22.60 
54.35 
55.65 


25.70 
22.78 
54.94 

54.50 


23.95 
22.95 

34. E8 


24.16 
23.13 

56.11 

36.06 


24.44 

25.50 
56.70 
35.43 


24.69 
25.46 
57.29 
35.61 


24.94 
23.66 
57.68 
36.19 


25.18 
£5.65 
68.46 
36.56 


70 


Upper arm 
Forearm 
Thigh 
calf 


20.26 
20.36 
46.92 
29.25 


20.61 
£0.54 
47.50 
29.63 


20.76 
20.71 

48.09 
30.00 


21.00 
20.89 
48.66 

30.38 


21.25 
21.07 
49.26 
30.76 


21.50 
21.24 

49.85 
51.14 


21.74 
21.42 

50.44 
31.51 


21.99 
21.59 

51.03 
31.86 


22.24 
21.77 
SI. 61 
32.27 


22.49 
21.94 
52.20 
32.64 


22.73 
82.12 

52.79 
35.02 


22.96 
22.30 
55.37 
33.40 


25.23 
22.47 
53.96 

53.77 


23.4fl 
22.65 
64.66 
34.16 


23.72 
22.82 
55.14 
34.65 


23.97 
23.00 
55.72 
34.61 


24.22 
23.17 
66.31 

35.28 


24.47 
23.35 

56.90 
35.66 


24.71 
25. e5 

57.49 
56.04 


24.66 
25.70 
58.07 
36.41 


A9 


Upper arm 
Forearm 

Si? 


20.04 
20.25 
46.52 

29.10 


20.28 
20.41 
4-J.ll 
29.4fl 


20.53 
20.69 
47.70 
29.65 


20.78 
20.76 
48.29 
30.23 


21.03 
20.04 
46.87 

50.61 


21.27 
21.11 
49.46 
..VD.M 


21.62 
21.26 
60.06 
31.36 


21.77 

21. 4e 
50.64 
31.74 


22.02 
21.64 
61.22 
32.12 


22.26 
21.62 
61.61 
32.49 


22.51 
21.00 
52.40 
52.87 


22.76 
22.17 
62.68 
33.25 


23.01 
22.34 
53.67 
33.62 


25.25 
22.82 
64.16 
54.00 


25.50 
22.66 
64.75 
34.56 


23.75 
22.87 
55.33 
34.76 


24.00 
23.05 
55.92 
55.15 


24.24 
25.22 
56.51 
35.51 


24.46 
25.40 
67.10 
55.69 


24.74 
23.57 
57.68 
36.26 


68 


upper arm 

Forearm 

Thl^ 

Calf 


19. 61 
20.10 
♦fi.lS 
28.95 


20.06 
20.28 
46.72 
26.33 


20.31 
20.46 
47.31 
29.70 


20.56 
20.63 
47.90 

30.06 


20.80 
20.81 
46.46 
30.46 


21.05 
20.98 
49.07 
30.83 


21.50 
£1.16 
46.66 

31.21 


21.55 
21.34 
50.26 
31.69 


21.79 
21.51 
50.83 

31.97 


22. 04 
21.69 
51.42 
32.34 


22.20 
21. 6f 
62.01 
.'i2.72 


22.64 
22.04 
52.69 
35.10 


22.78 
22.21 
53.18 
53.47 


£5.03 
22.59 
53.77 

55.85 


23.26 
22.57 
64.36 
34.23 


23.53 
22.74 
54.94 
34.60 


23.77 
22.92 
55.55 
34.09 


24.02 
23.09 
66.12 
55.36 


24.27 
25.27 
56.71 
55.74 


24. S2 

25.45 
57.29 
36.11 


fl7 


Upper ant 
Forearm 

Si? 


lfl.59 
19. 06 
45.74 
28.80 


19.64 
20.15 
46.33 

29. la 


20. 09 
20.33 
46.92 
29.55 


20.33 
20.50 
47. SI 
29.6.1 


20.56 
20.68 

4J.09 
30.31 


20.63 
20.86 
46.68 
30.68 


21.08 
21.03 
49.27 

31. oe 


21.52 
21.21 
49.65 
31.44 


21.57 
21.36 
50.44 
31.61 


£1.82 
21.66 
51.03 
32.19 


22.07 
21.73 
51.62 
32.67 


22.31 
81.91 
82.20 
52.95 


22.66 
22.09 
52.79 
35.52 


22.81 
22.26 
53.58 
53.70 


23.06 
£2.44 
53.97 
34.06 


23.30 
22.61 
54.85 

34.45 


23.55 
22.79 
55.14 
34.65 


23.80 
22.96 
."^5.73 
35.21 


24.05 
25.14 
56.31 
35.58 


24.26 
23.32 
56. 90 
35.96 


ee 


Oppor arm 
Foraom 

Si? 


19.37 
19.85 
45.36 
28.65 


19.62 
20.02 
45.94 
29.03 


19.66 
20.20 
46.53 
29.40 


21.11 
20.38 
4V.12 
29.76 


20.36 
20.55 
47.70 
50.16 


.^0.61 

20.73 
48.29 
30.53 


20.85 
20.60 
46.88 
30.91 


21.10 
21.06 
46.46 
31.29 


£1.55 
21.2S 
SO. 05 
31.66 


21.60 
21.43 
50.64 
32.04 


21.64 
21.51 
61.23 
32.42 


22.09 
21.78 
51.81 
32.80 


22.34 

21.96 
52.40 
35.17 


22.59 
22.15 
52.69 

35.55 


22.03 
22.31 
53.56 
53.65 


23.06 
22.48 
54.16 
34.30 


23.33 
22.66 
54.75 
34.66 


23.68 
22.84 
65.34 
55.06 


25.62 
23.01 
55.62 
35.45 


24.07 
23.19 
56.51 
55.81 


e& 


Upper arm 
Forearm 

Si? 


19.15 
19.72 
44.06 
26.80 


10.39 
19.66 
45.55 
29.67 


16.64 
20.07 
46.14 
26.25 


19.89 
20.25 
46.72 
26.63 


20.14 
20.42 
47.31 

30.01 


20.38 
20.60 
4''. 90 
30.58 


20.63 
20.77 

48.49 
30.76 


20.88 
20.65 
49.07 
31.14 


21.13 

J1.15 
49. G6 

51. SI 


21.37 
21.50 
50.25 
31.69 


21.62 
21.48 
50.84 
32.27 


21.67 
£1.65 
51.42 
32.64 


22.12 
21.85 
52.01 
55.02 


22.36 
22.00 

52.60 
33.40 


22.61 
22.16 
53.18 
55.73 


22.86 
22.36 
53,77 
54.15 


23.11 
22.55 
54.35 
34.53 


23.55 
22.71 
S4.9S 
34.91 


25.60 
22.98 
55.53 
55.26 


23.65 
25.06 
66.12 
35.66 


64 


upper arm 
ForoaiB 

Si? 


18.92 
19.59 
44.57 
28.35 


19.17 
19.77 
45.16 
28.72 


19.42 
19.94 
45.75 
29.10 


19.66 
20.12 
46.33 

29.48 


19.91 
20.29 
46.92 
29.66 


20.16 
20.47 
47. SI 
30.23 


20.41 
20.65 

46.10 
30.61 


20.65 
20.82 

46. 6£ 
30.60 


20.90 
21.00 
49.27 
31.56 


21.15 
21.17 
49.86 
31.74 


21.40 
21.35 
50.45 
32.12 


21.64 
21.52 
51.05 

52.49 


21.66 
21. 7C 
51.62 
52.67 


22.14 
21.86 
52.21 
33.25 


22.39 
22.06 
52.79 
33.02 


22.63 
22.23 
53.56 
34.00 


22.98 
22.40 
53.67 
34.33 


23.13 
22.^ 
54.66 
34.76 


25.56 
22.75 
55.14 
55.13 


23.62 
22.65 
55.73 
35.51 


6A 


Upper arm 
Forearm 

Si? 


18.70 
19.46 
44. IB 
28.20 


18.95 
19.64 
44.77 
28.57 


19.19 
16.81 
45.36 
29.65 


19.44 
19.99 
45.94 
29.33 


19.69 
20.17 
♦6.63 
29.70 


19.94 
20.34 
47.12 
30.06 


20.18 
20.62 
47.71 
30.46 


20.45 
20.69 
48.26 
30.84 


20.68 
20.87 
46.68 
51.21 


20.95 
21.04 
49.47 
31.59 


21.17 
21.22 

50.05 
31.07 


21.42 
21.40 
50.64 
32.54 


21.67 
21.57 
51. S5 
32.72 


21.62 
21.75 
51.82 
35.10 


22.16 
21.92 
52.40 
33.47 


22.41 
22.10 
52.69 
33.35 


22.66 
22.27 
53.56 
34.25 


22.91 
22.45 
54.17 
54.61 


25.15 
22. C5 
M.75 
34.99 


23.40 
22.30 
55.34 

35,36 


£2 


Upper arm 
Forearm 
Thigh 
CaU 


18.48 
19.33 
43.79 
26.05 


18.72 
19.51 
44.36 

26.42 


18.97 
16.66 
44.67 
26.80 


16.22 
16.86 
45.55 
26.18 


19.47 
20.04 
46.14 

29.55 


16.71 
20.21 
46.73 
29.93 


16.96 
20.39 
47.52 
30.31 


20.21 
20.56 
47.90 
30.68 


£0.46 
20.74 

48.49 
31.06 


20.70 
20.92 
49.06 
31.44 


20.96 
£1.00 
40.66 

31.62 


21.20 
21.27 

50.25 
32.19 


21.45 
£1.44 

50.84 
32.57 


21.69 
21. « 

51.45 
52.95 


21.94 

21.79 
52.01 
53.32 


22.19 

21.97 
52.60 
33.70 


22.44 

22.15 
55.19 

54.08 


22.68 
22.32 
55.73 
34.45 


22.95 
22.50 
54.36 
54.83 


£3,18 
22.67 
54.95 
55.21 


61 


Upper arm 
Forearm 
Thigh 
Calf 


16.25 
19.20 
43.40 
27.90 


18.50 
19.38 
43.99 
28.27 


16.76 
16.56 
44.58 
28.65 


19.00 
19.73 
45.16 
29.03 


16.24 
19.91 
45.75 
29.40 


10.49 
20.08 
46.34 

29.76 


19.74 
20.26 
46.93 
30.16 


19.99 
20.44 
47.61 
30.63 


20.23 
20.61 
46.10 
30.91 


20.48 
20.79 
46.69 
31.29 


20.73 
20.96 
49.27 
51.67 


20.96 
21.14 
49.66 

52.04 


21.22 
21.51 
50.45 
32.42 


21.47 
21.49 
51.04 
32.80 


21.72 
21.67 
51.62 
33.17 


21.97 
21.64 
52.21 
33.55 


22.21 
22.02 

52.80 
53.93 


22.46 
22.16 
55.38 
54.50 


22.71 
22.37 
53.97 
3-«,68 


22.96 
22.54 
84.56 
35. 06 



Interpolation Table 



Cheit 








Cna 










Circum- 


Upper 


Ara 


Forearm 


Thigh 


Ca 


If 


ference 





-l 





.1 





.1 





.1 








.124 





.086 





.294 





.188 


.1 


.022 


.146 


.015 


.101 


.059 


.555 


.015 


.203 


.2 


.045 


.168 


.026 


.114 


.078 


.372 


.050 


.218 


.3 


.067 


.190 


.059 


.127 


.117 


.411 


.045 


.235 


.4 


.069 


.213 


.052 


.140 


.166 


.450 


.060 


.248 


.5 


.112 


.235 


.065 


.152 


.195 


.486 


.076 


.264 


.6 


.134 


.257 


.077 


.165 


.254 


.528 


.061 


.279 


.7 


.156 


.260 


.090 


.178 


.273 


.567 


.106 


.264 


.6 


.178 


.502 


.103 


.191 


.512 


.606 


.121 


.509 


.9 


.201 


.524 


.116 


.204 


.351 


■ 645 


.136 


.324 



246 



q» 
o 
C 
© 
U 
<D 
U 
Vi 

»^ 
Q 

a. 


Mini- 
mum 


n 

H 
•H 

o 


iHrHHrHHOKMOJCviWOJOl 
intOCDH •^(HtOCOOHHCM 

iniOlOC-HCJl0t0C0C^OiH0>O>C>- 
HHfHrHOJOJCMCVJCvJCVlMlOOlCMtO 

cococoomc>-o>o^toa>(Mtom'5j< 

iOiOlO«OtOtOcO>l>-C~l>C00000O> 
HHHHHHHrHrHi-lrHHHrHH 

c>-c«-^-oooHH cvjojtoioinmtoto 

HHiHHCviCvJCvJOICMCMOlOlWOJOl 

ooOHH^^Hr^<^Jtoco^o■<4«lO«o 

HHrHr-!HpHiHHrHHHiHHHiH 

^^■^■?j<m<oc-oooio>OrHcvjcoio 

rHrHpHrHHrHHrHHHCVJCVlCVJCVlCM 
t-iHHr-{r-li-ir-ii-{r-irHr-{r-ii-{i-{i-t 

rHi-HrHHHHiHrHHrHrHrHiHOlCVl 

OOOOOOOOOHrHrHrHrHH 
HrHHrHiHrHr-lrHHrHHrHr-IHH 

^^Hr^r^H^^I-^^^Hr^HH^^r-^(M 


>> 


rHHHrHrHHHH HiHHi-lHHCM 

OOOOOOHH '-•HHrH'-J'-jCvJ 
rHHHHHMHrH HrHHrHHr-<<H 

HrHHi-lfHHrHHrH rHHHH'-t'-l 

OOOOOOrHrH r-IHHrHHWW 
HHHHHrHHrH HHHHHHrH 

pHHHHH«-lHi-tH iHHHrHHrH 

OOHrHHHOO OOOrHWWW 
HrHHrHrHrHrHH rH,HHHrHr-<rH 

rHHMfHHHrHrHiH HrHHrH'-t'-l 
(»0>C»0>0>a>0>0 OOOrHr-lrjr-j 

rHrHrHrHiHrH.HrHiHrHHrHrH'-''-' 




H 
Ctf 

O 
E-t 


1 


1 

c 3 




o 

01 
*H 
rH 
«H 

1 
0) 

CO 


1 

•H g 

s 


G 
at 

V 


H 

0] 

C 

6 
o 


1 

■H a 

C! 3 




o 

01 
(D 


1 

c 3 
-a 




-P 

C 
o 

-p 
n 
a> 

S 


1 


4) 




•^iO«)C-CDO>OHWeO'*iO«)C-00 
fHHHrHrHrHiHrHf-l 


rHHHrHHrH>-lrHH 



247 



Table 141 

Chinning and Dipping Strength: Boys (Chinning (or Dipping) 
Strength « 1.77 Weight ♦3.42 Chine (or Dipe) -46) 



Weight 








WeiEht. 


Pounds 














Values for 1.77 


Weight -46 











1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


50 


42.5 


44.5 


46.0 


47.8 


49.6 


51.4 


53.1 


54.9 


56.7 


58.4 


60 


60.2 


62.0 


63.7 


65.5 


67.3 


69.1 


70.8 


72.6 


74.4 


76.1 


70 


77.9 


79.7 


81.4 


83.2 


85.0 


86.8 


88.5 


90.3 


92.1 


93.8 


80 


95.6 


97.4 


99.1 


100.9 


102.7 


104.5 


106.2 


108.0 


109.8 


111.5 


90 


113.3 


115.1 


116.8 


118.6 


120.4 


122.2 


123.9 


125.7 


127.5 


129.2 


100 


131.0 


132.8 


134.5 


136.3 


138.1 


139.9 


141.6 


143.4 


145.2 


146.9 


110 


148.7 


150.5 


152.2 


154.0 


155.8 


157.6 


159.3 


161.1 


162.9 


164.6 


120 


166.4 


168.2 


169.9 


171.7 


173.5 


175.3 


177.0 


178.8 


180.6 


182.3 


130 


184.1 


185.9 


187.6 


189.4 


191.2 


193.0 


194.7 


196.5 


198,3 


200.0 


140 


201.8 


203.6 


205.3 


207.1 


208.9 


210.7 


212.4 


214.2 


216.0 


217.7 


150 


219.5 


221.3 


223.0 


224.8 


226.6 


228.4 


230.1 


231.9 


233.7 


235.4 


160 


237.2 


239.0 


240.7 


242.5 


244.3 


246.1 


247.8 


249.6 


251.4 


253.1 


170 


254.9 


256.7 


258.4 


260.2 


262.0 


263.8 


265.5 


267.3 


269.1 


270.8 


180 


272.6 


274.4 


276.1 


277.9 


279.7 


281.5 


283.2 


285.0 


286.8 


288.5 


190 


290.3 


292.1 


293.8 


295.6 


297.4 


299.2 


300.9 


302.7 


304.6 


306.2 


200 


308.0 


309.8 


311.5 


313.3 


315.1 


316.9 


318.6 


320.4 


322.2 


323.9 



Chine 


Chins 


Values for 3.42 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 



10 
20 
30 


0.0 

34.2 

68.4 

102.6 


3.4 

37.6 

71.8 

106.0 


6.6 

41.0 

75.2 

109.4 


10.3 13.7 17.1 

44.5 47.9 51.3 

78.7 82.1 85.5 

112.0 116.3 119.7 


20.5 

54.7 

88.9 

123.1 


23.9 

58.1 

92.3 

126.5 


27.4 

61.6 

96.8 

130.0 


50.8 

65.0 

99.2 

133.4 



Table 142 
Honas for Total Strength Index: Boys* 



Weight 












*€ 


e. Tears 














11 


lli 


12 


1*1 


IS 


15^ 


14 


14| 


16 


1^- 


16 


lel 


17 


174 


18 


218 
















2127 


2126 


2125 


2148 


2171 


2207 


2243 


216 
















2110 


2110 


2110 


2133 


2156 


2191 


2227 


214 














2097 


2093 


2093 


2094 


2117 


2140 


2175 


2210 


212 














2079 


2075 


2077 


2078 


2101 


2124 


2159 


2195 


210 














2061 


2053 


2060 


2062 


2086 


2109 


2143 


2178 


208 














2043 


2041 


2044 


2046 


2070 


2093 


2126 


2159 


206 












2023 


2025 


2024 


2027 


2031 


2054 


2078 


2110 


2143 


204 












2009 


2007 


2007 


2011 


2015 


2038 


2062 


2094 


2126 


202 












1990 


1989 


1989 


1994 


1999 


2023 


2046 


2078 


2109 


200 












1971 


1971 


1972 


1978 


1983 


2007 


2031 


2062 


2092 


198 










1923 


1952 


1953 


1955 


1961 


1967 


1991 


2015 


2045 


2075 


196 










1904 


1933 


1935 


1938 


1945 


1952 


1976 


2000 


2029 


2059 


194 










1885 


1914 


1917 


1921 


1928 


1936 


1960 


1984 


2013 


2042 


192 










1866 


1895 


1899 


1903 


1912 


1920 


1944 


1968 


1997 


2025 


190 








1818 


1847 


1876 


1881 


1886 


1895 


1904 


1929 


1953 


1981 


2008 


188 








1800 


1829 


1857 


1863 


1869 


1879 


1888 


1913 


1937 


1964 


1991 


186 








1781 


1810 


1838 


1845 


1852 


1862 


1873 


1897 


1922 


1948 


1975 


184 








1763 


1791 


1819 


1827 


1835 


1846 


1857 


1881 


1906 


1932 


1968 


182 






1697 


1744 


1772 


1801 


1809 


1817 


1829 


1841 


1866 


1390 


1916 


1941 


180 






1679 


1725 


1753 


1782 


1791 


1800 


1813 


1825 


1850 


1375 


1900 


1924 


178 






1661 


1707 


1735 


1763 


1772 


1783 


1796 


1809 


1834 


1359 


1883 


1907 


176 






1643 


1688 


1716 


1744 


1756 


1766 


1780 


1794 


1819 


1844 


1867 


1891 


174 




1580 


1625 


1669 


1697 


1725 


1737 


1749 


1763 


1778 


1803 


1828 


1851 


1874 


172 




1563 


1607 


1660 


1679 


1706 


1719 


1731 


1747 


1762 


1797 


1312 


1835 


1857 


170 




1545 


1588 


1632 


1659 


1687 


1700 


1714 


1730 


1746 


1772 


1797 


1819 


1840 


168 




1528 


1570 


1613 


1641 


1668 


1682 


1697 


1714 


1730 


1756 


1781 


1802 


1823 


166 


1493 


1510 


1552 


1594 


1622 


1649 


1664 


1680 


1697 


1715 


1740 


1766 


1786 


1307 


164 


1477 


1493 


1534 


1576 


1603 


1630 


1646 


1663 


1681 


1699 


1724 


1750 


1770 


1790 


162 


1461 


1475 


1516 


1557 


1584 


1612 


1628 


1645 


1664 


1683 


1709 


1734 


1764 


1773 


160 


1399 


1458 


1498 


1538 


1565 


1593 


1310 


1S28 


1648 


1667 


1693 


1719 


1738 


1756 


1S8 


1328 1383 


1440 


1430 


1520 


1547 


1674 


1592 


1611 


1631 


1651 


1677 


1703 


1721 


1739 


166 


1313 1367 


1423 


1462 


1601 


1628 


1556 


1574 


1594 


1615 


1636 


1662 


1688 


1705 


1723 


1S4 1298 1S51 


1405 


1444 


1482 


1609 


1636 


1555 


1577 


1598 


1620 


1S45 


1672 


1689 


1706 


162 1283 1334 


1388 


1426 


1463 


1490 


1517 


1537 


1559 


1582 


1604 


1630 


1656 


1673 


1689 


150 


1268 


1313 


1370 


1407 


1445 


1471 


1498 


1519 


1542 


1565 


1588 


1515 


1641 


1657 


1672 



248 



Table 142 (Coatlaued) 
Norma for Total Strength Index i Boys* 



Weieht 














Age, Years 














11 


11* 


12 


12* 


19 


Hi 


14 


14i 


16 


IB* 


16 


I9i 


17 


17* 


18 


14S 


1255 


1302 


1363 


1389 


1426 


1463 


1479 


1502 


1526 


1549 


1672 


1699 


1625 


1640 


1656 


146 


1238 


1286 


1335 


1371 


1407 


1454 


1460 


1484 


1608 


1652 


1667 


1583 


1610 


1624 


1659 


144 


1223 


1269 


1518 


1353 


1389 


1416 


1441 


1466 


1491 


1516 


1541 


1567 


1694 


1608 


1622 


142 


1208 


1253 


1300 


1535 


1370 


1396 


1423 


1448 


1473 


1499 


1625 


1662 


1678 


1692 


1606 


140 


1193 


1257 


1283 


1317 


1561 


1377 


1404 


1430 


1456 


1483 


1509 


1536 


1663 


1576 


1588 


1S8 


1178 


1221 


1265 


1299 


1333 


1359 


1386 


1412 


1439 


1466 


1493 


1620 


1547 


1569 


1571 


136 


1163 


1204 


1248 


1281 


1314 


1540 


1366 


1394 


1422 


1450 


1478 


1505 


1632 


1543 


165S 


1S4 


1148 


1188 


1230 


1263 


1295 


1321 


1347 


1376 


1405 


1433 


1482 


1489 


1516 


1527 


1658 


132 


1133 


1172 


1213 


1245 


1276 


1302 


1328 


1368 


1387 


1417 


1446 


1473 


1500 


1511 


1521 


130 


1118 


1156 


1195 


1226 


1258 


1283 


1309 


1340 


1370 


1400 


1430 


1458 


1483 


1495 


1604 


128 


1103 


1140 


1178 


1208 


1239 


1266 


1290 


1321 


1363 


1384 


1414 


1442 


1469 


1473 


1487 


126 


1088 


1123 


1160 


1190 


1220 


1246 


1271 


1303 


1336 


1357 


1399 


1426 


1454 


1462 


1471 


124 


1073 


1107 


1143 


1172 


1202 


1227 


1252 


1286 


1319 


1351 


1383 


1410 


1438 


1446 


1454 


122 


1058 


1091 


1125 


1154 


1183 


1208 


1234 


1267 


1501 


1354 


1367 


1396 


1422 


1430 


1437 


120 


1043 


1076 


1108 


1136 


1164 


1189 


1215 


1249 


1284 


1318 


1361 


1379 


1407 


1414 


1420 


113 


1028 


1068 


1090 


1118 


1146 


1171 


1190 


1251 


1267 


1301 


1336 


1363 


1391 


1397 


1404 


118 


1013 


1042 


1073 


1100 


1127 


1152 


1177 


1213 


1260 


1285 


1520 


1348 


1376 


1381 


1387 


114 


998 


1026 


1055 


1082 


1108 


1133 


1158 


1196 


1253 


1268 


1504 


1332 


1360 


1365 


1570 


112 


983 


1010 


1038 


1064 


1089 


1114 


1139 


1177 


1216 


1252 


1288 


1316 


1344 


1348 


1565 


110 


968 


993 


1020 


1045 


1071 


1095 


1120 


1159 


1198 


1235 


1272 


1501 


1328 


1332 


1336 


108 


953 


977 


1003 


1027 


1062 


1077 


1101 


1141 


1181 


1219 


1256 


1285 


1313 


1316 




106 


938 


961 


986 


1009 


1033 


1058 


1082 


1123 


1164 


1202 


1241 


1269 


1297 


1300 




104 


923 


945 


968 


991 


1015 


1039 


1063 


1106 


1147 


1186 


1225 


1263 


1282 






102 


908 


928 


960 


973 


996 


1020 


1046 


1087 


1129 


1169 


1209 


1238 


1266 






100 


893 


912 


933 


955 


977 


1001 


1026 


1069 


1112 


1153 


1193 


1222 








98 


878 


896 


915 


937 


959 


983 


1007 


1061 


1096 


1136 


1177 


1206 






• 


96 


863 


880 


898 


919 


940 


964 


988 


1033 


1078 


1120 


1161 










94 


848 


863 


880 


901 


921 


945 


969 


1015 


1061 


1103 


1146 










92 


833 


847 


863 


883 


902 


926 


960 


996 


1045 


1087 












90 


818 


831 


845 


864 


884 


907 


931 


979 


1026 


1070 












88 


803 


B15 


828 


846 


865 


889 


912 


961 


1009 














86 


788 


798 


810 


828 


846 


870 


895 


»43 


992 














84 


773 


783 


793 


810 


828 


851 


874 


926 
















82 


768 


767 


776 


792 


809 


832 


866 


916 
















80 


743 


761 


768 


774 


791 


815 


836 



















Table 142 (Continued) 
Norms for Total Stroncth Index » Boys* 



Weight 


Age. Tears 












11 


U* 


12 


12* 


IS 


13| 


14 


14* 


16 


16* 


16 


w* 


IT 


17* 


18 


78 


728 


754 


741 


756 


772 


795 


817 














76 


713 


718 


723 


738 


753 


776 
















74 


698 


702 


706 


720 


735 


767 
















72 


633 


686 


688 


701 


716 


















70 


668 


669 


671 


683 


697 


















68 


653 


653 


653 


665 




















66 


638 


637 


636 


647 




















64 


623 


621 


618 






















62 


608 


604 


601 






















60 


693 


588 
























Multi- 


7.60 


8.12 


8.76 


9.06 


9.36 


9.40 


9.45 9.02 8.60 


8.26 


7.90 


7.86 


7.80 


8.10 


8.40 


plier 





























•The Total Strength Index In Tables and is the sua of the unweighted strength of the 
right grip, the left grip, the beok lift, the leg lift, and dipping and ohinnlng strengths. 
The first four are administered according to the directions giren by Rogers ( ); the dipping 
(parallel bars) and chinning strengths for boys are scored according to the fonsulo shown in 
Tables and . To interpret this index in terms of ijdlTldual muscular condition dlTlde 
the actual Total Strength Index x 100 by the norm for age and weight. The result is a fona 
of the "Physical Fitness Index." 

2-19 



Table 145 
Noms for Straogth Index . (Vlith Breathing Capacity)) Boys* 



Weight 


Age, Years ] 


11 


Hi 


12 


12| 


IS 


isi 


14 


li-l 


16 


15% 


16 


16J- 


17 


1-ri 


18 


218 
















2489 


2497 


2512 


2526 


2642 


2640 


2640 


216 
















2469 


2477 


2493 


2508 


2524 


2522 


2622 


214 














2447 


2448 


2458 


2474 


2488 


2605 


2604 


2604 


212 














2426 


2428 


2458 


2464 


2469 


2487 


2486 


2487 


210 














2406 


2407 


2418 


2435 


2460 


2468 


2468 


2469 


208 














2383 


2387 


2398 


2416 


2431 


2460 


2460 


2452 


206 












2361 


2562 


2367 


2378 


2397 


2412 


2432 


2432 


2434 


204 












2339 


2340 


2346 


2369 


2378 


2394 


2413 


2414 


2416 


202 












2317 


2319 


2326 


2339 


2368 


2376 


2396 


2396 


2399 


200 












2294 


2298 


2306 


2519 


2539 


2366 


2376 


2578 


2581 


198 










2232 


2272 


2276 


2285 


2299 


2320 


2337 


2368 


2360 


2364 


1§6 










2210 


2260 


2266 


2266 


2279 


2301 


2318 


2340 


2342 


2346 


194 










2188 


2228 


2233 


2244 


2260 


2282 


2300 


2321 


2324 


2326 


192 










2166 


2206 


2212 


2224 


2240 


2262 


2281 


2303 


2306 


2311 


190 








2108 


2144 


2184 


2191 


2203 


2220 


2243 


2262 


2284 


2288 


2293 


188 








2086 


2122 


2162 


2169 


2183 


2200 


2224 


2243 


2266 


2270 


2276 


186 








2064 


2100 


2139 


2147 


2163 


2180 


2206 


2224 


2248 


2262 


2268 


184 








2042 


2078 


2117 


2126 


2142 


2161 


2186 


2206 


2229 


2234 


2240 


182 






1962 


2020 


2056 


2095 


2105 


2122 


2141 


2166 


2187 


2211 


2216 


2223 


IPO 






1941 


1999 


2034 


2073 


2084 


2102 


2121 


2147 


2168 


2192 


2198 


2206 


178 






1920 


1977 


2012 


2061 


2082 


2081 


2101 


2128 


2149 


2174 


2180 


2188 


176 






1899 


1955 


1990 


2028 


2041 


2061 


2081 


2109 


2130 


2166 


2162 


2170 


174 




1820 


1878 


1933 


1968 


2006 


2019 


2040 


2062 


2090 


2112 


2137 


2144 


2162 


172 




1800 


1857 


1911 


1946 


1984 


1998 


2020 


2042 


2070 


2093 


2119 


2126 


2135 


170 




1780 


1836 


1890 


1924 


1961 


1976 


1999 


2022 


2051 


2074 


2100 


2108 


2117 


168 




1760 


1816 


1868 


1902 


1940 


1955 


1979 


2002 


2032 


2066 


2082 


2090 


2100 


166 


1535 


1740 


1794 


1846 


1880 


1917 


1934 


1969 


1982 


2013 


2036 


2064 


2072 


2082 


164 


1617 


1720 


1773 


1824 


1868 


1895 


1912 


1938 


1963 


1994 


2018 


2045 


2064 


2064 


162 


1599 


1700 


1752 


1802 


1836 


1873 


1891 


1918 


1943 


1974 


1999 


2027 


2036 


2047 


160 


1682 


1680 


1731 


1781 


1814 


1861 


1869 


1898 


1923 


1965 


1980 


2008 


2018 


2029 


168 


1472 1564 


1660 


1710 


1769 


1792 


1829 


1848 


1877 


1903 


1936 


1961 


1990 


2000 


2012 


If 6 


1467 1646 


1640 


1689 


1737 


1770 


1806 


1827 


1857 


1883 


1917 


1942 


1972 


1982 


1994 


164 


1441 1628 


1620 


1668 


1716 


1748 


1784 


1806 


1836 


1864 


1897 


1924 


1953 


1964 


1976 


152 


1426 1610 


1600 


1647 


1693 


1726 


1762 


1784 


1616 


1844 


1878 


1906 


1936 


1946 


1969 


ISO 


141C 


14 93 


1580 


1626 


1672 


1704 


1740 


1762 


1796 


1824 


1859 


1886 


1916 


1928 


1941 



250 



Table 143 (Contlnuad) 
Norms for Strength Index (Hith Breathing Capacity) 1 Boys* 



Weight 
















e. Years 1 


11 


Hi 


12 


124 


IS 


15i 


14 


l*i 


15 


1^ 


16 


1^ 


17 


"1 


18 


148 


1395 


1476 


1560 


1606 


1660 


1682 


1718 


1741 


1776 


1804 


1840 


1867 


1898 


1910 


1924 


146 


1380 


1457 


1640 


1584 


1628 


1660 


1695 


1720 


1755 


1784 


1821 


1848 


1880 


1892 


1906 


144 


1364 


1439 


1520 


1663 


1606 


1658 


1673 


1698 


1734 


1765 


1801 


1830 


1861 


1874 


1888 


142 


1349 


1421 


1500 


1642 


1684 


1616 


1661 


1677 


1714 


1745 


1782 


1811 


1843 


1856 


1871 


140 


1333 


1404 


1480 


1521 


1563 


1594 


1629 


1656 


1694 


1725 


1763 


1792 


1824 


1838 


1853 


138 


1318 


1386 


1460 


1600 


1641 


1572 


1607 


1634 


1673 


1705 


1744 


1773 


1806 


1820 


1836 


136 


1303 


1368 


1440 


1479 


1519 


1550 


1584 


1513 


1653 


1686 


1726 


1764 


1788 


1802 


1818 


134 


1287 


1350 


1420 


1458 


1497 


1528 


1562 


1691 


1632 


1666 


1705 


1736 


1769 


1784 


1800 


132 


1272 


1332 


1400 


1437 


1475 


1606 


1640 


1570 


1612 


1646 


1686 


1717 


1751 


1766 


1785 


130 


1256 


1315 


1380 


141S 


1464 


1484 


1518 


1548 


15 92 


1626 


1667 


1698 


1732 


1748 


1766 


128 


1241 


1297 


1360 


1395 


1432 


1462 


1496 


1527 


1571 


1606 


1648 


1679 


1714 


1730 


1748 


126 


1226 


1279 


1340 


1374 


1410 


1440 


1473 


1506 


1551 


1586 


1629 


1660 


1696 


1712 


1730 


124 


1210 


1261 


1320 


1353 


13S8 


1418 


1451 


1484 


1530 


1667 


1610 


1642 


1677 


1694 


1712 


122 


1196 


1243 


1300 


1332 


1366 


1396 


1429 


1463 


1510 


1647 


1590 


1623 


1659 


1676 


1695 


120 


1179 


1226 


1280 


1311 


1345 


1374 


1407 


1441 


1489 


1627 


1671 


1604 


1640 


1668 


1677 


118 


1164 


1208 


1260 


1290 


1323 


1352 


1385 


1420 


1469 


1507 


1552 


1585 


1622 


1640 


1660 


116 


1149 


1190 


1240 


1269 


1301 


1330 


1362 


1398 


1449 


1488 


1533 


1566 


1604 


1622 


1642 


114 


1133 


1172 


1220 


1248 


1279 


1308 


1340 


1377 


1428 


1468 


1614 


1648 


1585 


1604 


1624 


112 


1118 


1164 


1200 


1227 


1257 


1286 


1318 


1366 


1408 


1448 


1494 


1529 


1567 


1586 


1607 


110 


1102 


1137 


1180 


1206 


1236 


1264 


1296 


1336 


1388 


1428 


1475 


1610 


1648 


1568 


1689 


108 


1087 


1119 


1160 


1185 


1214 


1242 


1274 


1313 


1367 


1408 


1456 


1491 


1530 


1650 




106 


1072 


1101 


1140 


1164 


1192 


1220 


1261 


1292 


1347 


1388 


1437 


1472 


1512 


1532 




104 


1056 


1083 


1120 


1143 


1170 


1198 


1229 


1270 


1326 


1369 


1418 


1454 


1493 






102 


1040 


1065 


1100 


1122 


1148 


1176 


1207 


1249 


1306 


1349 


1396 


1435 


1476 






100 


1025 


1048 


1080 


1101 


1127 


1154 


1185 


1228 


1286 


1329 


1379 


1416 








98 


1010 


1030 


1060 


1080 


1105 


1132 


1163 


1206 


1265 


1309 


1360 


1397 








96 


995 


1012 


1040 


1059 


1083 


1110 


1141 


1164 


1245 


126y 


1341 










94 


979 


994 


1020 


10S8 


1061 


1088 


1118 


1163 


1224 


1269 


1322 










92 


964 


977 


1000 


1017 


1040 


1066 


1096 


1142 


1204 


1250 












90 


948 


969 


980 


996 


1018 


1044 


1074 


1120 


1183 


1230 












88 


933 


941 


960 


976 


996 


1022 


1052 


1099 


1153 














86 


917 


923 


940 


954 


974 


1000 


1030 


1078 


1143 














84 


902 


905 


920 


933 


952 


978 


1008 


1057 
















82 


886 


887 


900 


912 


930 


956 


986 


1035 
















80 


871 


870 


880 


891 


909 


934 


963 



















Table 143'(Cantinued) 
Norms for Strength Index (With Breathing Capacity)! Boys* 



Weight 


Age, Years | 


11 


lli 


12 


12i 


13 


15i 


14 


14| 


15 


15| 


16 


1^ 


17 


ITj 


18 


78 


865 


852 


860 


870 


887 


912 


941 






76 


840 


834 


840 


849 


865 


890 








74 


826 


816 


820 


828 


843 


868 








72 


809 


798 


800 


807 


821 










70 


794 


781 


780 


786 


800 










68 


778 


763 


760 


765 












66 


763 


745 


740 


744, 












64 


748 


727 


720 














62 


732 


709 


700 














SO 


717 


692 
















Multi- 
plier 


7.7 


8.9 


10.0 


10.5 


10.9 


11.0 


11.1 10.7 10.2 


9.9 9.6 9.4 9.2 9.0 


8.8 



•This index is the eajne as the Total Strength Index (Tables and ) but with breathing 
oapaolty of the lungs in oubio inohes added as one of the test elements. The addition of 
breathing oapacity adds little or nothing to the value of the tost as a strength test, but 
it is probably of same value in the prediction of general physical condition. 

251 



Table 144 

Norms for the "Athletic Strength Index"* 
(Short ForB, Boy» Only) 



Weight 










Age 


, Years 














11 


11^ 


12 


12| 


IS 


134 


14 


14* 


15 


164 


16 


164 


17 


174 


18 


218 














703 


706 


710 


714 


719 


722 


725 


216 














696 


700 


704 


709 


714 


716 


720 


214 












692 


690 


694 


698 


703 


708 


711 


716 


212 












685 


683 


688 


692 


697 


703 


706 


709 


210 












678 


677 


681 


687 


692 


697 


700 


704 


208 












671 


671 


675 


681 


686 


692 


695 


699 


206 










666 


665 


664 


669 


675 


680 


686 


689 


693 


204 










659 


668 


658 


663 


669 


674 


631 


684 


688 


202 










652 


651 


651 


657 


663 


669 


675 


678 


688 


200 










645 


645 


645 


651 


657 


663 


670 


673 


677 


198 








625 


638 


638 


639 


645 


651 


657 


664 


668 


672 


196 








613 


631 


631 


632 


638 


645 


652 


659 


662 


667 


194 








611 


624 


626 


626 


632 


639 


646 


653 


657 


662 


192 








604 


617 


618 


620 


626 


633 


640 


648 


651 


656 


190 






584 


597 


610 


611 


613 


620 


628 


635 


642 


646 


651 


188 






577 


590 


602 


604 


607 


614 


622 


629 


637 


641 


646 


186 






670 


583 


695 


598 


600 


608 


616 


623 


631 


635 


640 


184 






563 


576 


588 


591 


694 


601 


610 


617 


626 


630 


636 


182 




529 


556 


569 


581 


584 


588 


595 


604 


612 


620 


624 


630 


180 




522 


549 


562 


574 


573 


581 


589 


593 


606 


615 


619 


624 


178 




516 


542 


556 


567 


571 


575 


583 


592 


600 


609 


614 


619 


176 




510 


535 


548 


560 


564 


568 


577 


586 


595 


604 


608 


614 


174 


478 


503 


528 


541 


553 


557 


562 


571 


580 


589 


693 


603 


609 


172 


472 


497 


521 


534 


646 


551 


556 


565 


574 


583 


593 


597 


603 


170 


466 


490 


614 


527 


539 


544 


549 


553 


569 


578 


587 


592 


598 


168 


460 


484 


507 


520 


532 


537 


543 


552 


563 


572 


582 


587 


593 


166 


409 454 


477 


500 


513 


525 


530 


536 


546 


557 


566 


576 


581 


587 


164 


404 443 


471 


494 


506 


518 


524 


530 


540 


551 


560 


571 


676 


582 


162 


399 442 


464 


487 


499 


511 


517 


524 


534 


545 


555 


565 


570 


577 


160 


393 436 


458 


480 


492 


504 


510 


517 


523 


539 


549 


560 


565 


571 


158 


347 388 430 


451 


473 


485 


497 


504 


511 


522 


533 


543 


554 


560 


666 


156 


343 333 424 


455 


466 


478 


490 


497 


504 


515 


527 


538 


549 


554 


561 


154 


339 378 413 


438 


459 


471 


483 


490 


498 


509 


521 


532 


543 


549 


556 


152 


335 373 412 


432 


452 


464 


476 


483 


492 


503 


515 


526 


538 


543 


550 


150 


331 


363 


406 


425 


446 


467 


469 


477 


485 


497 


510 


621 


532 


538 


545 



152 



Table 144 (Continued) 

Nonne for the "Athletic Strength Index"* 
(Short Form, Boys (bly) 



Weight 














Age 


, Years 














11 


Hi 


12 


12| 


IS 


13| 


14 


14 


15 


15^ 


16 


1^^ 


17 


17-1 


18 


148 


327 


363 


400 


419 


433 


450 


462 


470 


479 


491 


504 


515 


527 


633 


540 


146 


322 


358 


393 


413 


431 


443 


456 


463 


472 


485 


498 


509 


521 


527 


534 


144 


318 


353 


387 


406 


425 


436 


448 


457 


466 


478 


492 


503 


51 o 


522 


529 


142 


314 


343 


381 


400 


418 


429 


441 


450 


460 


472 


486 


498 


510 


516 


524 


140 


310 


343 


375 


393 


411 


422 


434 


443 


453 


466 


480 


432 


505 


511 


618 


158 


306 


338 


369 


587 


404 


415 


426 


436 


447 


460 


474 


466 


499 


506 


513 


136 


302 


333 


363 


330 


397 


408 


419 


430 


440 


454 


468 


431 


494 


500 


508 


134 


298 


327 


357 


374 


390 


401 


412 


423 


434 


448 


462 


475 


488 


495 


503 


132 


294 


322 


351 


367 


383 


394 


405 


416 


428 


44-2 


456 


4fiG 


433 


439 


497 


130 


290 


317 


345 


361 


376 


388 


398 


410 


421 


435 


451 


464 


477 


484 


492 


126 


286 


312 


339 


354 


369 


381 


391 


403 


415 


429 


445 


458 


472 


479 


487 


126 


281 


307 


333 


348 


362 


374 


384 


396 


408 


423 


439 


452 


466 


473 


481 


124 


277 


302 


327 


341 


356 


367 


377 


389 


402 


417 


433 


446 


461 


463 


476 


122 


273 


297 


321 


335 


349 


360 


370 


383 


396 


411 


427 


4<1 


455 


462 


471 


120 


269 


292 


315 


328 


342 


353 


363 


376 


389 


405 


421 


435 


450 


457 


465 


118 


265 


287 


309 


322 


335 


346 


356 


369 


383 


399 


415 


429 


444 


452 


460 


116 


261 


282 


303 


315 


328 


339 


349 


362 


376 


392 


409 


424 


439 


446 


455 


114 


257 


277 


296 


309 


321 


332 


342 


356 


370 


386 


403 


418 


433 


441 


450 


112 


253 


272 


290 


302 


314 


325 


335 


349 


364 


380 


397 


412 


428 


435 


444 


110 


249 


266 


284 


i;96 


307 


316 


328 


342 


357 


374 


392 


407 


422 


430 


439 


108 


245 


261 


278 


289 


300 


311 


321 


336 


351 


368 


386 


401 


417 


425 




106 


240 


256 


272 


283 


293 


304 


314 


329 


344 


362 


380 


395 


411 


419 




104 


236 


251 


266 


276 


287 


297 


307 


322 


338 


355 


374 


389 


406 






102 


232 


246 


260 


270 


200 


290 


300 


315 


332 


349 


368 


384 


400 






100 


228 


241 


254 


263 


273 


283 


293 


309 


325 


343 


362 


378 








98 


224 


236 


248 


257 


266 


276 


286 


302 


319 


337 


356 


372 








96 


220 


231 


242 


251 


259 


269 


279 


295 


313 


331 


350 










94 


216 


226 


236 


244 


252 


262 


272 


289 


306 


325 


344 










92 


212 


221 


230 


238 


245 


255 


265 


282 


300 


319 












90 


208 


216 


224 


231 


238 


248 


258 


275 


293 


312 












88 


204 


211 


21b 


225 


232 


241 


251 


268 


287 














86 


199 


206 


212 


218 


225 


234 


244 


262 


281 














84 


195 


201 


206 


212 


216 


227 


237 


255 
















82 


191 


196 


200 


205 


211 


220 


230 


249 
















80 


186 


191 


194 


199 


204 


213 


223 



















Table 144 (Continued) 

Norms for the "Athletic Strength Index"* 
(Short Form, Boys Only) 



Weight 


Age, Years 


11 


111 


12 


124 


13 


13i 


14 


14 


15 


15|- 


16 


lej 


17 


17| 


IS 


78 


183 


186 


188 


192 197 206 216 






76 


179 


181 


182 


186 191 199 






74 


174 


176 


176 


179 184 192 






72 


170 


170 


170 


173 177 






70 


166 


165 


164 


166 170 






68 


162 


160 


167 


160 






66 


158 


165 


151 


153 






64 


154 


150 


145 








62 


160 


145 


139 








60 


146 


140 










Multi- 
plier 


2.05 


2.54 


5.03 


3.24 3.45 5.49 5.52 3.36 5.20 5.07 


3.95 2.85 


2.76 2.70 2.66 



•This short form is composed ofi (the sum of grip strength) ♦ 2 (chinning 
strength) ♦ 1 (dipping strength) - 3 (weight). To interpret the short form of 
the Athletic Strength Index in terms of relative individual athletic ability, 
divide the actual Athletic Strength Index x 100 by the norm for age and weight. 
The result is a form of the "Athletic Fitness Index." It indicates relative 
athletic fitness, iia5 far *s this is dependent on muscular strength. This 
short form is nearly as aocurato a test as the longer Strength Index. 



253 



Table 14 5 

Norms for Chizming Strength 
(Boys Only) 



Weight 












Ae« 


>, Years 














11 


11* 


12 


12-1 


13 


13i 


14 


14* 


15 


l&J 


16 


16i 


17 


ITj 


18 


218 
















367 


567 


566 


366 


355 


566 


364 


216 
















353 


363 


362 


362 


552 


552 


361 


214 














361 


360 


350 


549 


349 


349 


349 


348 


212 














348 


347 


346 


345 


345 


346 


546 


346 


210 














344 


343 


343 


342 


542 


345 


545 


342 


208 














341 


340 


340 


339 


339 


340 


540 


559 


206 












339 


337 


336 


336 


336 


336 


537 


337 


536 


204 












335 


334 


333 


333 


333 


333 


333 


333 


333 


202 












332 


330 


330 


330 


329 


329 


330 


330 


330 


200 












328 


327 


326 


326 


326 


326 


327 


327 


527 


198 










522 


325 


324 


323 


323 


323 


323 


324 


324 


524 


196 










319 


321 


321 


320 


320 


320 


320 


321 


521 


521 


194 










315 


318 


317 


316 


316 


317 


317 


318 


318 


318 


192 










312 


314 


314 


313 


313 


313 


314 


315 


315 


315 


190 








306 


308 


310 


310 


310 


310 


310 


311 


312 


312 


312 


188 








302 


304 


507 


307 


306 


306 


307 


308 


309 


309 


509 


186 








299 


301 


303 


303 


303 


303 


304 


506 


306 


506 


506 


184 








296 


297 


300 


300 


300 


300 


301 


302 


305 


303 


505 


182 






288 


292 


294 


296 


296 


296 


296 


297 


298 


300 


500 


500 


180 






284 


288 


290 


292 


292 


293 


293 


294 


295 


297 


297 


297 


178 






281 


285 


287 


289 


289 


289 


290 


291 


292 


293 


295 


294 


176 






277 


281 


283 


285 


285 


286 


287 


288 


289 


290 


290 


291 


174 




270 


274 


278 


280 


282 


282 


283 


284 


286 


286 


287 


287 


288 


172 




267 


270 


274 


276 


278 


278 


279 


280 


281 


282 


284 


284 


285 


170 




263 


267 


271 


273 


276 


275 


276 


277 


278 


279 


281 


281 


282 


168 




260 


263 


267 


269 


271 


272 


273 


274 


275 


277 


278 


278 


279 


166 


251 


267 


260 


264 


266 


268 


268 


269 


270 


272 


273 


275 


275 


276 


164 


248 


253 


256 


260 


262 


264 


265 


266 


267 


269 


270 


272 


272 


275 


162 


245 


260 


253 


267 


269 


261 


262 


263 


264 


265 


267 


269 


269 


270 


160 


241 


246 


249 


253 


255 


257 


258 


259 


260 


262 


264 


266 


266 


267 


168 


233 238 


243 


246 


250 


252 


254 


255 


256 


257 


269 


261 


263 


265 


264 


166 


230 236 


240 


243 


246 


248 


260 


251 


252 


264 


256 


258 


260 


260 


261 


164 


227 251 


236 


239 


243 


245 


247 


248 


249 


251 


263 


254 


256 


267 


268 


162 


224 228 


233 


236 


239 


241 


243 


244 


246 


247 


249 


251 


253 


254 


255 


160 


221 


226 


230 


233 


236 


238 


240 


241 


242 


244 


246 


248 


250 


251 


262 



254 



Table 146 (Continued) 

Norma for Chinning Strength* 
(Boys only) 



Weight 














Age 


, Tfears 














11 


ll4 


12 


12^ 


13 


13| 


14 


14i 


15 


16i 


16 


isi 


17 


17| 


18 


148 


218 


222 


226 


229 


232 


234 


236 


237 


239 


241 


243 


245 


247 


248 


249 


146 


214 


219 


223 


226 


229 


231 


233 


234 


236 


238 


240 


242 


244 


245 


246 


144 


211 


215 


219 


222 


225 


227 


229 


230 


232 


234 


237 


239 


241 


242 


243 


142 


208 


212 


216 


219 


222 


224 


226 


227 


229 


231 


233 


235 


238 


239 


240 


140 


205 


209 


213 


215 


213 


220 


222 


224 


226 


223 


230 


232 


235 


236 


237 


138 


202 


205 


209 


212 


215 


217 


219 


220 


222 


224 


227 


229 


232 


233 


234 


136 


199 


202 


206 


208 


211 


213 


215 


217 


219 


221 


224 


226 


229 


230 


231 


134 


195 


199 


203 


205 


208 


210 


212 


214 


216 


218 


221 


223 


226 


227 


228 


132 


192 


196 


199 


201 


204 


206 


208 


210 


212 


214 


217 


220 


223 


224 


225 


130 


189 


192 


196 


198 


201 


202 


204 


206 


209 


211 


214 


217 


220 


221 


222 


128 


186 


139 


192 


194 


197 


199 


201 


203 


205 


208 


211 


213 


216 


217 


219 


126 


183 


186 


189 


191 


194 


195 


197 


199 


202 


205 


208 


210 


213 


214 


216 


124 


180 


183 


186 


188 


190 


192 


194 


196 


199 


202 


205 


207 


210 


211 


213 


122 


176 


179 


182 


184 


187 


188 


190 


192 


195 


198 


201 


204 


207 


208 


210 


120 


173 


176 


179 


181 


183 


185 


187 


189 


192 


195 


198 


201 


204 


205 


207 


113 


170 


172 


175 


177 


180 


181 


183 


186 


189 


192 


195 


198 


201 


202 


204 


116 


167 


169 


172 


174 


176 


178 


180 


182 


185 


183 


192 


195 


198 


199 


201 


114 


164 


166 


169 


171 


173 


174 


176 


179 


182 


135 


189 


192 


195 


196 


198 


112 


161 


163 


165 


167 


169 


171 


173 


176 


179 


182 


185 


188 


192 


193 


196 


110 


158 


160 


162 


164 


166 


167 


169 


172 


175 


178 


182 


185 


139 


190 


192 


108 


154 


156 


159 


160 


162 


164 


165 


169 


172 


175 


179 


182 


186 


187 




106 


151 


153 


155 


157 


159 


160 


162 


165 


168 


172 


176 


179 


183 


184 




104 


148 


150 


152 


153 


155 


157 


169 


162 


165 


169 


173 


175 


179 






102 


145 


146 


148 


150 


162 


153 


155 


158 


162 


165 


169 


172 


176 






100 


142 


143 


145 


146 


148 


149 


152 


155 


158 


162 


166 


169 








93 


139 


140 


142 


143 


145 


146 


148 


151 


155 


159 


163 


166 








96 


136 


137 


139 


140 


142 


142 


144 


148 


152 


156 


160 










94 


133 


133 


135 


136 


138 


139 


141 


144 


143 


152 


157 










92 


130 


130 


132 


133 


135 


135 


137 


141 


145 


149 












90 


126 


127 


128 


129 


131 


132 


134 


137 


142 


146 












88 


123 


124 


125 


126 


128 


128 


130 


134 


138 














86 


120 


120 


122 


122 


124 


125 


127 


130 


135 














84 


117 


117 


119 


119 


121 


121 


123 


127 
















82 


114 


113 


116 


115 


117 


113 


120 


123 
















80 


111 


110 


112 


112 


114 


114 


116 



















Table 145 (Continued) 

NoriM for Chinning Strength* 
(Boys Cfaly) 





Ape. Years 


Weight 


11 


Hi 


12 


12i 


IS 13% 


14 


ui- 


15 


15-1 


16 


lei 


17 


ITl 


18 


78 


107 


107 


108 


108 110 111 113 


76 


104 


104 


105 


105 107 107 


74 


101 


100 


102 


101 103 104 


72 


98 


97 


98 


98 99 


70 


95 


94 


95 


94 96 , 


68 


92 


90 


92 


91 


66 


88 


87 


88 


88 / 


64 


85 


84 


85 


• 


62 


82 


81 


81 




60 


79 


77 






Multi- 


l.Bfl 


1.64 


1.69 


1.72 1.75 1.76 1.76 1.72 1.68 1.64 1.60 1.67 1.54 1.52 1.50 


plier 











•Chinning strength Is computed by the formula i 1.77 (weight in pounds) ♦ 
3.42 (number of ohlna) - 46. To interpret this index in terms of individual 
muscular condition, divide the actual chinning strength x 100 by the norm for 
ago and weight. The result is an index for relative ohlnning strength. 

255 



Table 146 

Chinning Strength: Girls (Chinning Strength 
' .67 Weight ♦1.2 Chins +52) 



Weight 










Weight . 


Founds 
















Value 


B for -. 


67 Weight ♦52 











1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 


9 


50 


85.50 


86.17 


86.84 


87.51 


88.18 


88.35 


89.62 


90.19 


90.86 


91.55 


60 


92.20 


92.87 


93.54 


94.21 


94.88 


95.55 


96.22 


96.89 


97.56 


98.25 


70 


98.90 


99.67 


100.24 


100.91 


101.58 


102.25 


102.92 


103.59 


104.26 


104.95 


80 


105.60 


106.27 


106.94 


107.61 


108.28 


108.95 


109.62 


110.29 


110.96 


111.65 


90 


112.30 


112.97 


113.64 


114.31 


114.98 


115.65 


116.32 


116.99 


117.66 


118.35 


100 


119.00 


119.67 


120.34 


121.01 


121.68 


122.35 


123.02 


123.69 


124.36 


125.05 


110 


125.70 


126.37 


127.04 


127,71 


128.38 


129.05 


129.72 


130.39 


121.06 


151.73 


120 


132.40 


133.07 


133.74 


134.41 


135.08 


135.75 


136.42 


137.09 


137.76 


138.43 


130 


139.10 


139.77 


140.44 


141.11 


141.78 


142.45 


143.12 


143.79 


144.46 


145.15 


140 


145.80 


146.47 


147.14 


147.81 


148.48 


149.15 


149.82 


150.49 


151.16 


161.83 


150 


152.50 


155.17 


153.84 


154.51 


155.18 


155.85 


156.52 


157.19 


157.86 


158.55 


160 


159.20 


159.87 


160.54 


161.21 


161.88 


162.56 


163.22 


163.89 


164.56 


165.25 


170 


165.90 


166.57 


167.24 


167.91 


168.58 


169.25 


169.92 


170.59 


171.26 


171.95 



Chins 


Chins 










Values 


for -1.2 













1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 





0.0 


1.2 


2.4 


3.6 


4.8 


6.0 


7.2 


8.4 


9.6 


10.8 


10 


12.0 


13.2 


14.4 


15.6 


16.8 


18.0 


19.2 


20.4 


21.6 


22.8 


20 


24.0 


25.2 


26.4 


27.6 


28.8 


30.0 


31.2 


32.4 


33.6 


34.8 


30 


36.0 


37.2 


38.4 


39.6 


40.8 


42.0 


43.2 


44.4 


45.6 


46.8 


40 


48.0 


49.2 


50.4 


51.6 


52.8 


54.0 


55.2 


56.4 


57.6 


58.8 


50 


60.0 


61.2 


62.4 


63.6 


64.8 


66.0 


67.2 


68.4 


69.6 


70.8 


60 


72.0 


73.2 


74.4 


75.6 


76.8 


78.0 


79.2 


80.4 


81.6 


82.8 


70 


84.0 


85.2 


86.4 


87.6 


88.8 


90.0 


91.2 


92.4 


93.6 


94.8 



Table 147 

Dipping Strength: Girls (Dipping Strength 
= .78 Weight n.l Dips ♦74) 



Weight 










Weight. 


Pounds 
















Valuee 


for -. 


78 Weight ••■74 











1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


e 


9 


50 


113.00 


113.78 


114.56 


115.34 


116.12 


116.90 


117.68 


118.46 


119.24 


120.02 


60 


120.80 


121.68 


122.36 


123.14 


123.92 


124.70 


125.48 


126.26 


127.04 


127.82 


70 


128.60 


129.38 


130.16 


130.94 


131.72 


132.50 


133.28 


134.06 


134.34 


136.62 


80 


136.40 


137.18 


137.96 


138.74 


139.62 


140.30 


141.08 


141.86 


142.64 


143.42 


90 


144.20 


144.98 


145.76 


145.54 


147.32 


148.10 


148.88 


149.66 


150.44 


151.22 


100 


152.00 


162.78 


153.56 


154.34 


155.12 


155.90 


166.68 


157.46 


158.24 


159.02 


110 


159.80 


160.58 


161.36 


162.14 


162.92 


163.70 


164.48 


165.26 


166.04 


166.32 


120 


167.60 


168.38 


169.16 


169.94 


170.72 


171.50 


172,28 


173.06 


173.84 


174.62 


130 


175.40 


176.18 


176.96 


177.74 


178.52 


179.30 


100.08 


180.86 


181.64 


182,42 


140 


183.20 


183.98 


184.76 


185.54 


186.52 


187.10 


187,88 


188.66 


189.44 


ISO. 22 


150 


191.00 


191.78 


192.56 


193.34 


194.12 


194.90 


195.68 


196.46 


197.24 


198.02 


160 


198.80 


199.58 


200.36 


201.14 


201 . 92 


202.70 


203.48 


204.26 


206.04 


205.82 


170 


206.60 


207.38 


208.16 


208.94 


209.72 


210.60 


211.28 


212.06 


212.84 


213. S2 


Dip 










D 


Ip 








, 










Values 1 


for -1.1 













1 


2 


5 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 







0.0 


1.1 


2.2 


3.3 


4.4 


5.5 


6.6 


7.7 


r 


.- - ■ 


10 


11.0 


12.1 


13.2 


14.3 


15.4 


15.5 


17.6 


1^.7 


1 


1 


20 


22.0 


23.1 


24.2 


25.3 


26.4 


27.5 


28.6 


29.7 


:u 




30 


33.0 


34.1 


35.2 


36.3 


37.4 


38.5 


39.6 


40.7 


4 ! , j 




40 


44.0 


45.1 


46.2 


47.3 


48.4 


49.5 


50.6 


5?.. 7 


c- ' 




50 


55.0 


56.1 


57.2 


58.3 


59.4 


60.5 


ei.6 


c:;.7 


r 





25G 



Table 148 
Total Strength Index on Weight: Girls* 



Weight 










Ag 


B, Years 












11 


ll4 


12 


12| 


13 


13i 


14 


l4 


16 


lik 


16 


16i- 


17 


180 














1259 


1262 


1269 


1276 


1289 


1262 


178 














1261 


1266 


1262 


1269 


1262 


1265 


176 














1243 


1248 


1266 


1262 


1255 


1240 


174 












1229 


1236 


1240 


1248 


1266 


1248 


1242 


172 












1221 


1227 


1233 


1241 


1248 


1241 


1236 


170 












1212 


1219 


1226 


1234 


1241 


1235 


1228 


168 












1204 


1212 


1219 


1226 


1234 


1228 


1222 


166 










1171 


1195 


1204 


1212 


1219 


1227 


1221 


1216 


164 










1162 


1187 


1196 


1204 


1212 


1220 


1214 


1208 


163 










1163 


1178 


1188 


1197 


1206 


1213 


1207 


1202 


160 










1146 


1170 


1180 


1190 


1198 


1206 


1201 


1196 


168 








1109 


1136 


1161 


1172 


1183 


1191 


1199 


1194 


1188 


166 








1100 


1127 


1152 


1164 


1176 


1184 


1192 


1167 


1182 


164 








1091 


1118 


1144 


1156 


1163 


1177 


1185 


1180 


1175 


162 








1082 


1110 


11 S6 


1149 


1161 


1170 


1178 


1173 


1168 


160 






1050 


1073 


1101 


1127 


1141 


1164 


1163 


1171 


1166 


1162 


148 






1041 


1064 


1092 


1118 


1133 


1147 


1166 


1164 


1160 


1166 


146 






1032 


1065 


1083 


1110 


1125 


1140 


1148 


1167 


1163 


1143 


144 






1023 


1046 


1074 


1101 


1117 


1132 


1141 


1160 


1146 


1142 


142 




990 


1014 


1037 


1066 


1093 


1109 


1125 


1134 


1143 


1139 


1136 


140 




981 


1006 


1028 


1057 


1084 


1101 


1128 


1127 


1136 


1132 


1129 


1S8 




972 


996 


1019 


1048 


1076 


1093 


1111 


1120 


1129 


1125 


1122 


156 




963 


987 


1010 


1039 


1067 


1035 


1104 


1113 


1122 


1119 


1116 


134 


936 


964 


978 


1001 


1030 


1059 


1078 


1096 


i;o6 


1115 


1112 


1109 


132 


927 


945 


969 


992 


1021 


1050 


1070 


1089 


1099 


1108 


1105 


1102 


130 


918 


937 


960 


983 


1012 


1041 


1062 


1082 


1092 


1101 


1098 


1096 


128 


910 


928 


951 


974 


1004 


1033 


1054 


1076 


1084 


1094 


1091 


1086 


126 


884 902 


919 


942 


965 


996 


1024 


1046 


1068 


1077 


1087 


1084 


1082 


124 


877 893 


910 


933 


956 


986 


1016 


1038 


1060 


1070 


1080 


1076 


1076 


122 


869 886 


901 


924 


947 


977 


1007 


1030 


1063 


1063 


1073 


1071 


1069 


120 


861 876 


892 


915 


958 


969 


999 


1022 


1046 


105S 


1066 


1064 


1062 


118 


853 868 


883 


906 


929 


960 


990 


1015 


1039 


1049 


1069 


1057 


1065 


116 


845 860 


874 


897 


920 


951 


982 


1007 


1032 


1042 


1052 


1050 


1049 


114 


837 851 


86? 


888 


911 


942 


973 


999 


1024 


1036 


1045 


1043 


1042 


112 


829 843 


856 


879 


902 


933 


966 


991 


1017 


1028 


1038 


1037 


1035 


110 


821 


834 


848 


870 


893 


926 


966 


983 


1010 


1021 


1031 


1030 


1029 



2r. 



m 



Table 148 (Continued) 
Total Strength Index on Weight i Glrl8» 





Age, Years | 


Weight 


11 


ii4 


12 


12j 


13 


13| 


14 


14| 


16 


16|- 


16 


16| 


17 


108 


813 


826 


839 


862 


884 


916 


947 


976 


1005 


1015 


1024 


1023 


1022 


106 


80S 


818 


830 


853 


875 


907 


949 


967 


996 


1006 


1017 


1016 


1015 


104 


798 


809 


821 


844 


866 


898 


950 


959 


988 


999 


1010 


1009 


1009 


102 


790 


601 


812 


835 


857 


890 


922 


952 


981 


992 


1005 


1002 


1002 


100 


782 


792 


803 


826 


848 


881 


915 


944 


974 


985 


996 


996 


995 


98 


774 


784 


794 


817 


859 


872 


905 


956 


967 


978 


989 


989 


988 


96 


766 


776 


785 


808 


850 


865 


896 


928 


960 


971 


982 


982 


982 


94 


758 


767 


776 


799 


821 


856 


888 


920 


952 


964 


975 


976 


975 


92 


760 


769 


767 


790 


812 


846 


879 


912 


945 


967 


968 


968 


968 


90 


742 


760 


759 


781 


805 


857 


871 


904 


958 


950 


961 


961 


962 


88 


754 


742 


750 


772 


794 


828 


862 


896 


951 


942 


954 


964 




86 


726 


734 


741 


763 


785 


819 


854 


888 


924 


936 


947 


947 




84 


719 


726 


732 


754 


776 


811 


845 


881 


916 


928 


940 






82 


711 


717 


725 


745 


767 


802 


856 


875 


909 


921 


955 






80 


703 


708 


714 


737 


758 


795 


828 


865 


902 


914 








78 


696 


700 


705 


728 


749 


784 


819 


857 


895 


907 








76 


687 


692 


696 


719 


740 


775 


811 


849 


888 










74 


679 


683 


687 


710 


751 


767 


802 


841 


880 










72 


671 


675 


678 


701 


722 


758 


794 


853 












70 


663 


666 


670 


692 


713 


749 


785 


826 












68 


666 


668 


661 


685 


704 


740 


777 














66 


647 


660 


652 


674 


695 


751 


768 














64 


639 


64a 


643 


666 


686 


722 
















62 


631 


635 


634 


656 


677 


714 
















60 


623 


624 


626 


647 


668 


















68 


616 


616 


617 


638 


659 


















66 


608 


608 


608 


629 




















Multi- 


3.95 


4.20 


4.46 


4.48 


4.50 


4.39 


4.27 


5.94 


5.60 


3.55 


5.60 


5.42 


5.53 


plier 





























♦To interpret this index in terms of individual muscular condition divide the 
actual Total Strength Index x 100 by the norm for age end weight. The result is 
a form of the "Physical Fitness Index." 



258 



Table 149 
Norms for Strength Index (With Breathing Capftoity)i Girl** 



im^ I .u* 


Age, Years 


Weight 


11 


lll 


12 


12j 


13 


13| 


14 


14| 


16 


16l 


16 


16-1 


17 


180 
















1629 


1559 


1516 


1493 


1432 


14T1 


178 
















1519 


1529 


1507 


1485 


1474 


1464 


176 
















1509 


1520 


1498 


1476 


1466 


1456 


174 














1488 


1500 


1511 


1490 


1468 


1468 


1448 


172 














1478 


1490 


1502 


1481 


1460 


1450 


1440 


170 














1468 


1480 


1493 


1472 


1452 


1442 


1433 


168 














1457 


1470 


1483 


1464 


1444 


1454 


1425 


166 












1418 


1447 


1460 


1474 


1456 


1455 


1426 


1417 


164 












1407 


1436 


1451 


1465 


1446 


1427 


1418 


1409 


162 












1596 


1426 


1441 


1466 


1437 


1419 


1410 


1402 


160 












1386 


1416 


1451 


1447 


1429 


1411 


1402 


1394 


158 










1345 


1375 


1405 


1421 


1437 


1420 


1405 


1594 


1386 


166 










1334 


1364 


1395 


1411 


1428 


1411 


1594 


1386 


1578 


154 










1323 


1*54 


1384 


1402 


1419 


1403 


1586 


1378 


1371 


152 










1312 


1543 


1374 


1392 


1410 


1394 


1378 


1370 


1365 


160 








1252 


1301 


1532 


1564 


1382 


1401 


1585 


1570 


1562 


1565 


148 








1241 


12 90 


1522 


1353 


1372 


1391 


1377 


1362 


1355 


1347 


146 








1230 


1280 


1311 


1343 


1362 


1582 


1368 


1353 


1347 


1340 


144 








1220 


1269 


1300 


1332 


1553 


1373 


1359 


1345 


1339 


1332 


142 






1161 


1209 


1258 


1290 


1322 


1343 


1364 


1350 


1337 


1331 


1524 


140 






1150 


1198 


1247 


1279 


1312 


1333 


1355 


1342 


1329 


1323 


1516 


138 






1140 


1188 


1236 


1269 


1301 


1323 


1345 


1333 


1321 


1315 


1309 


136 






1129 


1177 


1225 


1258 


1291 


1313 


1336 


1324 


1512 


1307 


1301 


134 




1094 


1119 


1167 


1214 


1247 


1280 


1304 


1327 


1316 


1304 


1299 


1293 


132 




1084 


1109 


1186 


1203 


1237 


1270 


1294 


1318 


1307 


1296 


1291 


1285 


130 




1075 


1098 


1145 


1192 


1226 


1260 


1284 


1309 


12 98 


1288 


1283 


1278 


128 




1065 


1088 


1135 


1181 


1215 


1249 


1274 


12 99 


1290 


1280 


1275 


1270 


126 


1034 


1055 


1077 


1124 


1171 


1205 


1239 


1264 


1290 


1281 


1271 


1267 


1262 


124 


1025 


1046 


1067 


1113 


1160 


1194 


1228 


1265 


1281 


1272 


1263 


1259 


1255 


122 


1016 


1036 


1057 


1103 


1149 


1183 


1218 


1245 


1272 


1263 


1255 


1251 


1247 


120 


1007 


1026 


1046 


1092 


1138 


1173 


1208 


1235 


1263 


1255 


1247 


1243 


1239 


118 


998 


1017 


1036 


1081 


1127 


1162 


1197 


1225 


1253 


1246 


1239 


1235 


1231 


116 


989 


1007 


1025 


1071 


1116 


1151 


1187 


1215 


1244 


1237 


1230 


1227 


1224 


114 


980 


997 


1015 


1060 


1105 


1141 


1176 


1206 


1236 


1229 


1222 


1219 


1216 


112 


971 


988 


1005 


1049 


1094 


1130 


1166 


1196 


1226 


1220 


1214 


1211 


1208 


110 


962 


978 


994 


1039 


1083 


1119 


1156 


1186 


1217 


1211 


1206 


1203 


1200 



259 



Table 149 (Continued) 
Noms for Strength Index (With Breathing Capacity )i Sirle* 



»if-,j — v*- 












H 


e. Years 












weight 


11 


lli 


12 


i2i 


13 


15-i: 


14 


Mi 


16 


16-1 


16 


16| 


17 


108 


955 


968 


984 


1028 


1072 


1109 


1145 


1176 


1207 


1205 


1198 


1195 


1193 


lOS 


944 


959 


974 


1016 


1062 


1098 


1135 


1166 


1198 


1194 


1189 


1187 


1185 


104 


955 


949 


965 


1007 


1051 


1037 


1124 


1167 


1189 


1136 


1181 


1179 


1177 


102 


926 


939 


955 


996 


1040 


1077 


1114 


1147 


1160 


1176 


1173 


1171 


1169 


100 


917 


930 


942 


986 


1029 


1066 


1104 


1137 


1171 


1168 


1165 


1165 


1162 


98 


908 


920 


932 


975 


1018 


1056 


1093 


1127 


1161 


115S 


1157 


1155 


1164 


96 


899 


910 


922 


964 


1007 


1045 


1085 


1117 


1162 


1160 


1148 


1147 


1147 


94 


890 


901 


911 


954 


996 


1034 


1072 


1108 


1145 


1142 


1140 


1159 


1139 


92 


881 


891 


901 


943 


985 


1024 


1062 


1098 


1134 


1133 


1132 


1151 


1131 


90 


872 


881 


891 


952 


974 


1015 


1052 


1088 


1125 


1124 


1124 


1125 


1125 


88 


865 


872 


880 


922 


963 


1002 


1041 


1078 


1115 


1116 


1116 


1115 




86 


^54 


862 


870 


911 


955 


992 


1031 


1068 


1106 


1107 


1107 


1107 




84 


845 


852 


659 


901 


942 


981 


1020 


1059 


1097 


1098 


1099 






82 


856 


845 


849 


890 


931 


970 


1010 


1049 


1088 


1089 


1091 






80 


827 


833 


858 


879 


920 


960 


1000 


1039 


1079 


1081 








78 


819 


823 


828 


869 


909 


949 


939 


1029 


1069 


1072 








76 


810 


814 


818 


858 


898 


938 


979 


1019 


1060 










74 


801 


804 


807 


847 


887 


928 


968 


1010 


1051 










72 


792 


794 


797 


837 


876 


917 


958 


1000 












70 


785 


785 


787 


826 


865 


906 


948 


990 












68 


774 


775 


776 


815 


854 


896 


937 














66 


765 


765 


766 


804 


843 


885 


927 














64 


756 


756 


755 


794 


852 


875 
















62 


747 


746 


746 


783 


821 


864 
















60 


738 


736 


734 


772 


810 


















58 


729 


727 


724 


762 


800 


















58 


720 


717 


714 


751 




















Multi- 
plier 


4.48 


4.64 


5.19 


6.52 


5.46 


5.35 


5.20 


4. SO 


4.60 


4.50 


4.10 


5.99 


3.87 



♦This Index Is the same os the Total Strength Index (Tables and ) but with 
breathing capacity of the lungs in cubic inolies added as one of the test elements. 
The addition of breathing capacity adds little or nothing to the value of the test 
as a test of atrength, but it is probably of sone v&lue in the prediction of general 
physical condition, 

2(50 



R.W.B. JACKSON L|BRARV 






3 0005 030MM7Q0 



vi -is" ^^-^ • ^ 



rem 

1938 

Iowa. University. 

University of lovra studies ir 

child welfare 




1^5.14 

16) r ^ ^ 

t OWc « Ur i v.- r E -i ty. 

University of Iowa studies in child] 
welfare 



Obtainable from the Department 
of Publications 

Paper bound $1.50 
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