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Full text of "The University of Kansas science bulletin"

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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 







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BULLETIN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 



Vol. XXI 



MAY 15, 1920 



No. 10 



I 



Science Bulletin 



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Vol. XIII, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 



(Continuation of Kansas University Quarterly.) 




LAWRENCE, KANSAS 

Published Semimonthly from January to June and Monthly from July to 
December, inclusive, by the University of Kansas. 



Entered as second-class matter December 29, 1910, at the post office at Lawrence, Kansas 

under the act of July 16, 1894. 

9-8fiO 



NOTICE TO EXCHANGES. 

The attention of learned societies and other institutions 
which exchange scientific publications with the University of 
Kansas is called to the list of publications of this University on 
the third and fourth pages of the cover of this issue. 

Those marked "Supply exhausted'* cannot be furnished at 
all ; as far as the supply permits the remaining numbers will 
gladly be furnished to any of our exchanges who may need 
them to complete their files. 

Back numbers of the Kansas University Quarterly, as far as 
possible, will be sent to those of our newer correspondents who 
are able and willing to reciprocate. 



ANNOUNCEMENT. 

The Kansas University Science Bulletin (continuation of 
the Kansas University Quarterly) is issued in parts at irregu- 
lar intervals. Each volume contains from 300 to 400 pages of 
reading-matter, with necessary illustrations. Exchanges with 
other institutions and learned societies everywhere are so- 
licited. All exchanges should be addressed to the Library of 
THE University of Kansas. 

All communications should be addressed to 

The Kansas University Science Bulletin, 
Library of the University of Kansas, 

Lawrence, Kan. 



EDITORIAL BOARD. 

W. J. BAUMGARTNER, Managing Editor. 
H. E. JORDAN, Exclmnge Editor. 

S. J. HUNTER, Chairman of Committee. 
W. C. STEVENS. 

W. S. HUNTER. 

O. O. STOLAND. 



^1 M fWV-' IV*-» 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 1— May, 1920. 



CONTENTS : 

Miocene Land Shells from Oregon, 

G. Dallas Hanna. 



LlHliAliV 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post-office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

9-860 



S- A//? 'L 



' ■ ol\ l,'i f> I 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIIL] MAY, 1920. [No. 1. 



Miocene Land Shells from Oregon.* 

BY G. DALLAS HANNA, 

Curator of Invertebrate Paleontology, California Academy of Sciences. 

(Plate I.) 

THE exposures of fossiliferous rocks in the valley of the 
John Day river in Oregon have been known as a collecting 
ground for mammalian remains since 1861. Many expeditions 
have worked there and an extensive literature exists in which 
numerous types have been described. Fossil mollusks were 
obtained by the earliest collectors and subsequently and sev- 
eral papers have been written about them since 1870. 

In 1907 an expedition was led into the region by Mr. H. T. 
Martin, curator of paleontology of the University of Kansas. 
Numerous specimens of vertebrate animals were secured and 
Mr. Martin also collected the land shells which form the basis 
of this report. Sixteen specimens belonging to eight species 
were found at Cove Inlet of John Day river. Four species 
appear to be new and are named and described herein. 

Altogether thirteen species of mollusks have been collected 
in the John Day deposits, eleven being land pulmonates, one a 
fresh-water pulmonate and a fresh-water mussel. All are spe- 
cies not now known to exist but no genus has been considered to 
be new. The preponderance of the land forms has an inter- 
esting bearing upon the question of the lacustrine, fluviatile 
or seolian method of deposition of the strata.f 

* Received for publication on February 2, 1920. 

t For a full account of the geological, stratigraphical, and paleontological features of 
the region see. Merriani, "A Contribution to the Geology of the John Day Basin," Uni- 
versity of California publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geologv, vol. 2, No. 9, 
pp. 269-314, April, 1901. Also, same author and series, vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1-64; De- 
cember. 1906. Also, vol. 5, No. 11; Merriam and Sinclair for fairly complete bibliography, 
etc.; October, 1907. 

(3) 



4 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

The age of the beds is believed to be Miocene, a conclusion 
reached from a study of the fossil mammals and plants, and 
other geological features. A sufficient number of land and 
fresh-w^ater shells has not been collected to have an important 
bearing on the subject. However, the long geological life of 
the molluscan genera found in these strata as compared with 
the disappearance of families and perhaps orders of mammals 
is a valuable commentary on the correlation of deposits else- 
w^here by the two classes of fossils when they are found singly. 
Not only have the mollusks passed through epochs of intense 
climatic change but they have withstood one of the most violent 
outflows of lava visible on the surface of the earth. Yet the 
genera found in the John Day and Mascall beds are repre- 
sented in and near the same region to-day with closely allied 
species. 

Ammoyiitella lunata Conrad. 

Planorhis (Spirorbis?) lunatiis Conrad, Am. Journ. Conch., vol. VI; p. 315, pi. XIII, 
fig. 8, 1870. Condon collection. Bridge Cr., Ore. 

Planorbis (Spirorbis?) lunatiis White, 3d. Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 448, pi. 
XXXII, figs. 24, 25, 1880-'81. Published, 1883. 

Gonostoina yatesi Cooper. Stearns (in White), Bui. 18, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 16, pi. 
Ill, figs. 8-12, 1885. Cope and Condon Coll. 

Arnmonitella yatesi prcecursor Stearns, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. II, p. 656, pi. 
XXXV, figs. 8-12, 1900. Same figures reproduced as in Bui. 18, U. S. Geol. Surv., cited 
above. 

Aminonitelltt yatesi prcecursor Stearns, Science, New Series, vol. XV, p. 153, 1902. 
Universit.v of California Collection. 

Ammonitella yatesi prceeursor Stearns, Univ. of Calif. Pub. Geol., vol. V, No. 3, p. 67, 
1906. 

Although Conrad's description is very meager, taking it to- 
gether with his figures leaves no doubt that he first described 
the shell which seems to have been collected by many exploring 
parties into the John Day region. His specimens were col- 
lected by Thomas Condon, the pioneer in the field and it is 
stated that they came from "Bridge Creek, Oregon." The 
error in considering it to be a species of the fresh-water genus 
Planorhis is not strange since Cooper says of Ammonitella 
yatesi {Am. Jou7\ Conch., IV, 210, 1868) : "It would have been 
supposed to be a Planorhis if found near water, and if the 
streams of that country (Calaveras county, California) had 
not been thoroughly searched by many collectors." 

Stearns first identified the fossils as A. yatesi Cooper but 
later reconsidered the matter and made them a new subspecies 
based chiefly on size. He says : "Though the fossil specimens 
are considerably larger than any of the recent ones, I am un- 



HANNA: MIOCENE LAND SHELLS. 5 

able to detect any other difference." (Proc. Wash. Acad. ScL, 
vol II, p. 657, 1900.) 

The University of Kansas expedition secured two specimens 
of this interesting form and although they are not perfect I 
am able to point out specific differences which are of sufficient 
importance to continue the separation of the fossil from the 
living form. Comparison has been made with, several fossil 
specimens in the collection of the University of California; 
also with 16 excellent specimens of Ammonitella yatesi Cooper 
from the Hemphill collection which now forms a part of the 
museum of the California Academy of Sciences. The recent 
shells came from "near Murphys, California," and were col- 
lected by Henry Hemphill. 

One important difference is in size. The largest yatesi is but 9 mm. 
in greatest diameter, whereas the largest Innata (and it is imperfect) 
is 15 mm. The former also has eight whorls while the latter has nine. 
The umbilicus of binata is proportionately wider and the apex is a hol- 
low cone. The apex of yatesi is truncated inside and therefoi'e shallower. 
On the ventral side of yatesi the last whorl swings out over the one pre- 
ceding, but this is not true in the best specimen of Innata, although figure 
1 of Stearns (White) indicates that there may be some variation in this 
respect in the fossil species. 

MEASUREMENTS. 
(All measuremeuts are in millimeters.) 

A. yatesi. , A. Iiinata. ^ 

Greatest diameter 9 . 00 15 . 00 12 . 50 

Least diameter 8.00 13.50 11.00 

Greatest altitude 4 . 50 7 . 50 6 . 50 

No measurements of the fossils studied by Conrad, Stearns 
and White have been published. Their figures show that the 
shell substance of the body whorl has been lost, a condition 
which is almost always the case. The University of Kansas 
specimens are in that condition, but through the kindness of 
Prof. Bruce L. Clark, I was permitted to examine well-pre- 
served material in the University of California. It was learned 
that the shells are smooth and shining as in the recent species, 
with growth wrinkles barely showing on the latter part of 
the body whorl. 

GasU'odonta imperforata Hanna. New species. 

(Plate I; figures 1, 2, 3.) 

Whorls six; spire high and dome-shaped; sutures moderately im- 
pressed; apex marked with fine regular growth lines; growth lines on 
the body whorl slightly uneven but without an approach to a ribbed con- 



6 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

dition; last whorl slightly descending at the aperture; peristome thin 
and acute, slightly expanded on the basal portion ; umbilical region deeply 
impressed, the perforation being minute. Greatest diameter, 17.50. Least 
diameter, 16. Altitude, 13. 

Type in the University of Kansas from Cove Inlet, John Day river, 
Oregon, collected by H. T. Martin in 1907. 

A single specimen was obtained. The dome-shaped shell and 
thin, acute peristome prevents its being classed as Polygyra 
dalli, the species with which it is most apt to be confused. Its 
correct generic position cannot be stated because of minor 
shell differences which separate many of the groups of recent 
pulmonates. It resembles in general shape some of the Gas- 
trodo7iias as intertexta, for instance. The fact that the lip is 
slightly expanded below is the chief character which casts 
some doubt upon its being a Gastrodoyita. This condition is 
met with in Oreohelix and our shell resembles in form and size 
sonie of the dome-shaped varieties of 0. cooperi, as, for in- 
stance, apiarium Berry. It might be placed directly in this 
genus were it not for the differentiating characters of the 
umbilicus. 

The specimen is slightly defective as shovni by the photo- 
graphs but it is sufficiently intact it seems to make the species 
easily recognizable in the future. * 

There is a second specimen in the collection of the Univer- 
sity of California which is similar in all respects to the type, 
except perhaps it is a little better preserved. 

Pyramidula mascallensis Hanna, New species. 

(Plate I; figures 4, 5, 6.) 

Whorls six and three-fourths, rounded below^ and flat above; spire not 
greatly elevated; suture apparently channeled; last w^horl carinated 
through the first two-thirds, the carina gradually disappearing; latter 
part of last whorl depressed below the carina of the one preceding; the 
shell substance of the apical whorls is preserved but sculpture is absent; 
the body whorl is an internal cast but shows on the upper side some 
coarse uneven growth ridges; umbilicus widely open. Greatest diameter, 
33.50. Least diameter, 30.25. Altitude, 28. 

Type in the University of Kansas from Cove Inlet, John Day river, 
Oregon, collected by H. T. Martin in 1907. 

Only the type specimen was secured so that a statement of 
variation cannot be given. The flattened upper whorls and 
the apparently deeply channeled suture distinguish this shell 
from other species. It may represent a new generic type, but 
the genera of land shells were so often based upon anatomical 



HANNA: MIOCENE LAND SHELLS. 7 

and minor shell characters that it seems best for the present 
to include this under Pyramidula, the genus which it most re- 
sembles. Perhaps better material will eventually be secured 
and enable the correct genus to be determined. The specimen 
is not perfect. The aperture has been lost, together with the 
shell substance of the last two whorls. It has also been 
crushed but not in such a manner as to distort the shape. The 
original shell had over seven whorls and was considerably 
more elevated than the measurements given show. But the 
diameter was but little if any greater on account of the last 
whorl growing in beneath the one preceding. Also when the 
shell was complete the last whorl was but little angulated on the 
periphery, this seeming to be a character which applies only to 
the whorls up to and including the sixth. 

It is named for the Mascall, one of the subdivisions of the 
John Day series. 

At first it was believed that this specimen was Conrad's 
Helix (Zonites) marginicola because it was the only form 
found with the "spire scarcely raised above the margin of the 
last volution." However, he states that his shell had six whorls 
and was narrowly umbilicate. He gave no measurements, but 
his figure shows that he had a young specimen. He states fur- 
ther that his shell was narrowly umbilicate, a condition which 
would not be true in the young of mascallensis. There is, in 
my opinion, little doubt that one of the species subsequently 
described under another name is ynargiyiicola, but this cannot 
be recognized because of the inadequate original description. 
It is to be hoped that if the type specimen is in existence it will 
some day be fully described. 

Polygyra dalli Stearns. 

Helix (Monodon) [error for Mesodon] dalli Stearns. In White, Bui. 18, U. S. Geol. 
Surv., p. 14, pi. Ill, figs. 4-6, 1885. 

Polyrjiir'i dnUi Stearns, Proc. Wash. Ac. Sci., vol. II, p. 655, pi. XXXV, figs. 4-6, 
1900. Same figures as above reproduced. 

Polygyra dalli Stearns, Science, new series, vol. XV, p. 153, 1902. 

Polygyra dalli Stearns, Univ. of Calif. Pub. Geol., vol. V, No. 3, p. 67, 1906. 

One almost perfect specimen and four young and broken 
ones were obtained at Cove Inlet, John Day river, by Mr. 
Martin. A large number of specimens in the University of 
California indicates that this is probably the most abundant 
species in the region. As Stearns has shown, it is very closely 
related to Polygyra columbiana Gould, which is common in the 



8 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Pacific coast states to-day. The latter, however, is smaller; 
some specimens of dalli are almost as large as thyroides of 
Kansas and Missouri. The umbilicus of the fossil species is 
covered by the narrowly reflected peristome and its junction 
with the body whorl is deeply seated. There appears to be 
no tendency for the peristome to descend more or less abruptly 
near its outer termination with the body whorl. 

Polygyra expansa Hanna. New species. 

(Plate I; figures 7, 8, 9.) 

Whorls about seven, somewhat flattened above and below; sutures not 
deeply impressed; lines of growth apparently uneven on the last whorl 
and broken into ridges parallel thereto; the last whorl of the type is sub- 
carinate at its beginning due to pressure, but is flattened naturally on the 
lower side; axis imperforate and covered with heavy shell substance; the 
junction of the peristome with the body whorl in the umbilical region is 
marked with a distinct angular depression; it is not a gently concave 
depression as found in such recent Polygyras as albolabris. Greatest 
diameter, 32. Least diameter, 28.50. Altitude, 17. 

Type in the University of Kansas from Cove Inlet, John Day river, 
Oregon, collected by Mr. H. T. Martin. 

A single specimen was secured and it is not in as good con- 
dition as would be desired. Its characters are so distinct, 
however, that it cannot be referred to any known form. The 
imperforate axis covered with heavy callus places it in Poly- 
gyra rather than in Epiphragmophora. However, it is flat- 
tened on the base and has a tendency to be slightly carinated 
as some forms of fidelis Gray of the latter genus. 

A single, and better preserved specimen in the University of 
California shows, in addition to the above characters, that the 
outer lip abruptly descends at its junction with the body whorl 
for a distance of 4 mm. 

Polygyra martini Hanna. New species. 

(Plate I: figures 10, 11, 12.) 

Whorls five, well rounded, the last being conspicuously enlarged 
vertically; sutures moderately impressed; lines of growth very fine for 
a shell of this size and very regular, crossed by less impressed revolving 
striae which are most noticeable on the body whorl; umbilical region 
deeply impressed; lip thickened by callus and reflected over almost the 
entire umbilicus; no indication of a noticeable deflection of the peristome 
at its junction with the body whorl. Greatest diameter, 34.50. Least 
diameter, 25. Height of body whorl, 19. Altitude without body whorl, 
18. Altitude (total), 28. 



HANNA: MIOCENE LAND SHELLS. 9 

Type in the University of Kansas from Cove Inlet, John Day river, 
Oregon, collected by Mr. H. T. Martin in 1907. 

A single well-preserved specimen was secured. While it 
resembles in general shape some of the old world species, as 
Pomatia aspera- for instance, it is believed to be more closely 
related to the albolabris group of Polijgyra. It must be 
stated, however, that important differences exist. The shell is 
more globose than other species of this genus and the umbilical 
region is more deeply impressed. While most of the margin 
is broken away, enough remains to show that it was folded 
back upon itself in the basal region and the body whorl was 
obtusely keeled in this region. 

The shell resembles in some respects the Helix leidyi of 
Hall and Meek {White, 3d. Anyi. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv., p. Jf55, 
pi. XXXII, figs. 32, 33, 1881-82), but it is proportionately 
more elevated and the body whorl is deeper in a vertical direc- 
tion. The two species belong to the same section of the genus 
which may be defined by the form of the lower apertural mar- 
gin and the angular body whorl in the umbilical region. 

The species is named in honor of Mr. Martin, an indefatiga- 
ble collector of fossils. 

Epiphragmophora dubiosa Stearns. 

Epiphragmophora dubiosa Stearns, Science, new series, vol. XV, p. 153, 1902. 
(Original description.) 

E piphragmophora dubiosa Stearns, Univ. of Calif. Pub. Geol., vol. V, p. 69, figs. 3, 4, 
1906. Original description repeated and figures provided. 

Only one specimen of this interesting species was found. The shell 
is imperfect, as was the type, but enough remains to show that it is 
narrowly umbilicated; very flat below and spire but little elevated; 
whorls flattened above and sutures but little impressed; the pitting on 
the apex mentioned by Stearns cannot be seen, but this may be due to the 
worn condition of the shell substance; for the same reason the growth 
striae are not well preserved. Greatest diameter, 23. Altitude, 12. 
Whorls, five and three-fourths. 

It is not certain that the form is placed in the correct genus, 
but without better preserved material for study it would be 
useless to attempt any other disposition. Doctor Stearns 
states and shows in his figure that the sutures are deeply im- 
pressed. It is believed, however, that this is not natural, as 
the Kansas University specimen and four others seen in the 
University of California did not show them noticeably deep- 
ened. Snails of this group are known to be subject to con- 



10 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

siderable variation in this respect so that it would not seem to 
be justifiable to consider them distinct on this character when 
otherwise all which have been seen agree with the description 
and figures. Unfortunately the formation of the aperture in 
the species cannot be determined. 

Epiphragmophora antecedens Stearns. 

Helix (Aglaia) fidelis Gray. Stearns (in White) Bui. 18, U. S. G. S., p. 14, pi. 
Ill, figs. 1-3, 1885. 

Epiphrugmofihora fidelis antecedens Stearns, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. II, p. 653, 
pi. XXXV, figs. 1-3, 1900. 

Epiphrafjnwphora fidelis antecedens Stearns, Science, new series, vol. XV, p. 153, 
1902. 

E piphrar/mophora fidelis antecedens Stearns, Univ. of Calif. Pub. Geol., vol. V, p. 67, 
1906. 

Four specimens which clearly belong to this species were found. One 
is fully grown. It shows that the umbilicus was normally completely 
closed and thickened with callus, a condition which does not obtain in 
E. fidelis. The umbilicus, however, is of the general form found in Epi- 
phragmophora and not that which is common in Polygyra. The best 
specimen Stearns had was imperforate, but it seemed to have been caused 
by crushing. This is now known to be normal. 

In order to complete the record the other species of mollusks 
known from the John Day Miocene will be mentioned. The 
original generic terms ascribed to them are retained. No ob- 
ject would seem to be gained by attempting a rearrangement 
at this time. The full synonomy of Unio condoni White has 
not been searched for. 

1. Unio condoni White, Bui. 18, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 13, pi. II, figs. 1-3, 1885. 

2. Limnoea maxima Stearns, Science, new series, vol. XV, p. 154, 1902. 
Liinncea maxima Stearns, Univ. of Calif. Pub. Geol., vol. V, p. 70, fig. 1, 1906. 
Limncea stearnsi Hannibal (in Baker) Limnwida; of N. and Mid. Am., p. 102, pi. 

XVII, fig. 11, 1911. New name for L. maxima above, preoccupied by Collin, 
Ann. Soc. Mai. Belg., VII, p. 94, 1872. 

3. Helix (Zonites) marginicola Conrad, Am. Jour. Conch., vol. VI, p. 315, pi. XIII, 

fig. 9, 1870. Bridge creek, Oregon. Condon, Coll. 
Helix (Zonites) marginicola White, 3d Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 453, j)l. 
32, fig. 34, 1880-'81. 

4. Helix {Patula) perspectiva Say. Stearns, Bui. 18, U. S. Geol. Surv., p. 14, pi. 

Ill, fig. 7, 1885. 
Pyramidula perspectiva simillima Stearns, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. II, p. 657, 

pi. XXXV, fig. 7, 1900. 
Pyramidula perspectiva simillima Stearns, Science, new series, vol. XV, p. 153, 

1902. 
Pyramidula perspectiva simillima Stearns, Univ. of Calif. Pub. Geol., vol. V, p. 67, 

1906. 

5. Pyramidula leeontei Stearns, Science, new series, vol. XV, p. 154, 1902. 
Pyramidula leeontei Stearns, Univ. of Calif. Pub. Geol., vol. V, p. 68, fig. 2, 1906. 

The reader is referred to a paper by Harold Hannibal (A 
Synopsis of the Recent and Tertiary Mollusca of the Cali- 



HANNA: MIOCENE LAND SHELLS. 11 

fornian Province; Proc. Mai, Soc. London, vol. X, pp. 112-211, 
1912) which may perhaps have references to the John Day 
fauna. The paper has not heen favorably reviewed. (Pilsbry, 
Nautihis, XXVI, 71, 1912.) I have not seen it and cannot 
comment on what it contains, but apparently Hannibal, in 
working over the John Day material in the University of 
California, combined at least four species under the name 
Helix niarginicola Conrad. Some of them bore Stearns' labels 
and probably some of them were his types. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE L 

The figures are from photographs which have been retouched. The 
photographs were taken with millimeter cross-section paper for a back- 
ground and the scale can be obtained from this. Figure 1 is less en- 
larged than figures 2 and 3, 

Figures 1, 2 and 3. Gastrodonta imperforata new species. 

Figures 4, 5 and 6. Pyramidula viascallensis new species. 

Figures 7, 8 and 9. Polygyra expansa new species. 

Figures 10, 11 and 12. Polygyra inartini new species. 

(12) 



Miocene Land Shells. 
G. Dallas Hanna. 



PLATE I. 





10 





12 



(13) 



MiocENK Land Shells. 
G. Dallas Hanna. 



IMATE I. 




(13) 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 2— May, 1920. 



CONTENTS: 

Pleistocene Mollusks from Wallace County Kansas, 

G. Dallas Hanna 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post-office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

9-860 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIIL] MAY, 1920. [No. 2. 



Pleistocene Mollusks from Wallace County, Kansas.* 

BY G. DALLAS HANNA. 

Curator of Invertebrate Paleontology, California Academy of Sciences. 

ONE of Mr. H. T. Martin's numerous fossil hunting expedi- 
tions for the Universitj^ of Kansas took him to the Mio- 
cene mammal beds of Wallace county of that state. Here, in 
one locality he found some ant hills about which were numerous 
shells the indefatigable insects had collected. A small quan- 
tity of the general debris about the nests was preserved and 
the mollusks have come to me for study. 

The collection, although small, is valuable because it throws 
more definite light upon the size and duration of the Pleistocene 
Kansas lake which Prof. J. E. Todd has aptly named "Kaw 
Lake." Some of the species of mollusks found inhabit lakes 
solely and since there are none of these bodies of water within 
a long distance of the locality at the present time, practically 
conclusive proof is offered of the existence of Kaw Lake before 
the present epoch. And since many of the species now live in 
northern cold waters it seems justifiable to conclude that this 
body of water was coexistent with the great glaciers. Probably 
its inhabitants lived during the deposition of the Aftonian 
giavels; that is, prior to the descent of the Kansan ice sheet. 
It seems likely that the lake was formed by the pre-Kansan ice 
sheets, continued through the Aftonian period and that its dam 
was broken by the Kansan sheet. 

Kaw Lake probably existed for several hundred years. This 
is indicated by the presence in it of a large molluscan popula- 
tion which would require a very considerable number of years 

* Received for publication on February 2, 1920. 

(17) 

2 — Sci. Bui. — 860 



18 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

for dispersal. A cool, moist climate similar to that of northern 
United Slates or southern Canada must have accompanied it. 
This is shown by the land-shell species found associated w^ith 
the fresh water. This was also shown by the shells found in 
the Phillips county Pleistocene which has been reported upon. 
(Hanna and Johyison, Kan. Univ. Sci. Bui., vol. VII, No. 3, 
1913.) 

That radical change took place in the climate, fauna and flora 
of western Kansas after the disappearance of Kaw Lake is evi- 
dent from the almost complete disappearance of the land and 
fresh-water mollu^ks, A considerable number of species and 
at least two genera are not known from Kansas as yet except 
from Pleistocene fossils. Neither streams nor uplands are 
fitted for their existence and search must be made for them far 
to the north before they are located. 

The ants were not particular in choosing material for their 
"hills." Besides the fossil shells dug from the light buff ma- 
terial forming the lake deposit they collected a few recent 
species, probably found living near at hand. There were also 
sand grains of large size and plant stems, seeds and roots. 

LIST OF SPECIES. 

Sphasrium. What appear to be two species were secured. 
Any attempt at specific determination in this group of shells 
at this time would merely add to the already almost inextricable 
confusion. 

Valvata tricarinata Say. Four specimens. I know of no pub- 
lished records of this species from Kansas, either living or 
fossil. Mr. E. C. Johnston collected a dead shell, but not a 
fossil, at Cameron's Bluff, above Lawrence, Kan., in 1916. No 
other records are available for the state. 

Lymnxa humilis rustica Lea. One specimen. This form is 
recorded from Douglas county, Kansas, by Baker {Lymnseidse 
of N. Am., p. 269, 1911), and is probably the same as was re- 
corded from the Phillips county Pleistocene as L. humilis. 

Lymnsea pai'va Lea. Thirteen specimens. Previously known 
from the marl beds of Long Island, Phillips county, and from 
Douglas county river debris. 

Planorhis antrosus Conrad. Seven specimens. 

Planorbis deflectus Say. Two specimens. Both are small 
and apparently not full grown. The species lives in Lake View, 



hanna: pleistocene shells. 19 

Douglas county and has been found in the Pleistocene of 
Phillips county. Baker (Naut., XXIII, p. 93, 1909) records it 
from Anthony, Kan. 

Succinea avara Say. Abundant. 

Succmea stretchiana Bland. Two specimens. This "species 
lives on the plains at the present time and the two shells se- 
cured are plainly not fossils. 

Valloiiia pulchella Miiller. Fifteen specimens. This is an 
addition to the list of Kansas Mollusca and since it inhabits 
cool, moist timbered areas it emphasizes that this was the con- 
dition in western Kansas in Pleistocene time. 

Zonitoides singleyanus Pilsbry. Two specimens, not fossils. 

Pupilla muscorum Linnaeus. Abundant. In Pleistocene time 
this was a very common snail in western Kansas. 

Pupoides marginatus Say. Six living shells. 
Gastrocopta armifera Say. One living shell. Both this and 
the preceding species live in the region at the present time. 



1H£ 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 3— May, 1920. 



CONTENTS: 

Moisture Requirements of Germinating Seeds, 

Rupert Peters. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post office in L<awrence as second-class matter. 

9-860 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIIL] MAY, 1920. [No. 3. 



Moisture Requirements of Germinating Seeds.* 

BY RUPERT PETERS. 
INTRODUCTION. 

IT HAS long been recognized that a close relation exists 
between plant life and soil moisture. Common observation 
showed our ancestors that wilting occurred when the moisture 
content of the soil was markedly lowered and that death fol- 
lowed when it was long continued, but it remained for the 
twentieth century investigators to attempt the discovery of 
the moisture conditions under which plants could best flourish 
and those under which they wilted and died, as well as to point 
out definitely the boundaries between these. But, even yet, 
very little is to be found in the literature concerning the lower 
limits of soil moisture in connection with plant growth. 

This paper is the record of an attempt to aid in the location 
of the lowest boundary at which plants may be active, and is 
concerned particularly with the relation of the wilting co- 
efficient of the soil to the germination of seeds. An attempt 
has been made to answer the question whether seeds can ger- 
minate when the amount of soil moisture is so low that plants 
growing in it wilt and die. 

The work w^as suggested by Dr. Charles A. Shull, then of 
the plant physiology' laboratory of the University of Kansas, 
now of the University of Kentucky. Most of the actual work 
was done in the botany laboratory of the Northeast High 
School, Kansas City, Mo,, near enough to be in frequent consul- 
tation with Doctor Shull. It is but fitting that an appreciation 
of his deep interest and kind suggestions be made here. Thanks 

* Received for publication March 4, 1920. 

(23) 



24 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

are also due Prof. W. C. Stevens for suggestions and criticisms 
in the preparation of this paper. 

HISTORICAL. 

Although Sachs (7) recognized a v^ide range, from 1.5 per 
cent in coarse sand to 12.3 per cent in a mixture of sand and 
humus, in the moisture content of various soils when plants 
v^ilted, he made his tests with a single plant species (the 
tobacco), drew his conclusions, and then dropped this line of 
investigation. Few have taken it up since. Hedgecock (4) 
found that entire turgid plants of the same species had, at any 
given age, approximately the same water content, regardless 
of the differences in the soil or in the conditions under which 
they were grown. On the contrary, the water content of plants 
beginning to wilt varies with the soil, being always greater in 
clay, loess, and saline soils than in loam, humus, or sand. He 
also found that xerophytes could remove more water from the 
soil than could mesophytes or hydrophytes; the former re- 
moving all but 3 per cent, while the second named left in the 
same soil under the same serial conditions at least 5 per cent. 
Clements (3), independently, arrived at similar conclusions. 
These were the chief contributions until Briggs and Shantz 
(1) brought out their work on the "wilting coefficient." They 
proposed the term and defined it as the percentage of water 
(based upon the dry weight of the soil) remaining in this 
when wilting had progressed to such an extent that recovery 
by the plant was impossible even in an approximately satur- 
ated atmosphere, without the previous addition of water to 
the soil. In working out their results they maintained prac- 
tically uniform conditions; their greenhouse had an average 
temperature of about 70° F. and the relative humidity was 
maintained at 85 per cent. Such changes as did occur in these 
factors were slight and gradual. A constant temperature for 
the soils being examined was maintained by a specially-devised 
water bath in which the containers were set. About twenty 
different soils were examined, differing widely in all charac- 
ters, and giving results ranging from 1 per cent in coarse dune 
sand to over 30 per cent in the heaviest types of clay. For 
plants, over a hundred species and varieties were tried out, so 
selected as to give a range from extreme xerophytes to hydro- 
phytes. In general, the amount of water remaining in any one 
of these soils when the plants growing in it had fully wilted, 



peters: moisture requirements of seeds. 25 

was practically constant. It made no difference as to the 
plants used, being a fixed quantity for that soil. Furthermore, 
they worked out formulae by which this wilting coefficient for 
any soil could be calculated from either of four factors: its 
moisture equivalent, its hygroscopic coefficient, its moisture- 
holding capacity, or its texture as determined by mechanical 
analysis. Their wilting coefficient was the standard when this 
work was begun. Since then, the work of Caldwell (2) has 
come to hand. He carried on his experiments at the desert 
laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Tucson, Arizona. 
Here, transpiration was excessive as the result of the heat, 
low humidity, and the hot, dry winds. When he produced con- 
ditions similar to those of Briggs and Shantz, his results tallied 
with theirs. When conditions were natural for his location, he 
found the wilting coefficient always higher (even 30 to 40 per 
cent) than theirs or than that calculated from their formulae. 
Further, "under any set of aerial conditions the observed 
soil moisture content at permanent wilting is approximately a 
constant for each of the soils used, and its value increases with 
the increase in the rate of transpiration, being greater under 
conditions of high evaporation intensity and declining with 
the decrease of the evaporating power of the air. For a series 
of plants grown in any soil, and wilted under different aerial 
conditions, all with relatively high evaporation rates, as many 
different soil moisture contents at permanent wilting are ob- 
tained as there are sets of conditions." 

Russell (6) has shown that the rate of supply of soil water 
is simply the speed at which water can move in the soil, and 
this depends upon the amount of clay and colloidal matter 
present. Livingstone (5) calls attention to another factor 
which complicates the problem still more. In a set of experi- 
ments carried on in the Johns Hopkins' greenhouses where he 
had plants grown with their roots in vessels of water and sub- 
jected to varying aerial conditions, he found that with the 
"back pull" of the soil thus cut out, temporary and even perma- 
nent wilting occurred. His conclusion is that the trouble is 
internal, the absorbing power of the roots is inadequate to 
supply moisture as fast as it is lost by evaporation. Hence, he 
thinks permanent wilting need not depend upon soil moisture 
conditions necessarily, although it frequently does. Caldwell's 
higher results are thus evidently due to the rapid transpira- 
tion of water from the leaves, associated with the slowness of 



26 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

the water movement in the soil, especially when the amount 
present was quite low; in other words, the water was evapo- 
rated from the leaves more rapidly than it could be absorbed 
from the soil, and wilting followed as the result of this back 
pull before the amount of water in the soil was lowered to the 
point reached in the corresponding tests of Briggs and Shantz. 

METHODS. 

Since the purpose of this investigation is to determine if 
germination can occur with far less moisture than is com- 
monly thought necessary, since transpiration is not a factor 
in the tests (thus making them somewhat similar to those of 
Briggs and Shantz in that they had always a high humidity 
present in theirs), and since the Briggs and Shantz' figures 
are lower than Caldwell's, they are retained as the standard for 
this test. Nevertheless, it is recognized that this may not be a 
fixed standard for all conditions but may vary with differing 
atmospheric conditions whenever transpiration is a factor. 

Because quartz sand and its data were available, it was 
used. It is designated as No. 2/o by its manufacturers, the 
Wausau Quartz Company, and passes over a 147-mesh screen 
but through a 124-mesh one, thus making the average diameter 
of the particles about .10 mm. It contains by analysis : 

Per cent. 

Silicon dioxide 99.07 

Iron oxide . 17 

Aluminum oxide . 52 

Hygroscopic moisture 0.06 

Undetermined 0.18 

100.00 

Its wilting coefficient, as determined at the biophysical lab- 
oratory of the bureau of plant industry, Washington, D. C, of 
which Mr. Briggs is director, is 1.31 per cent (8). 

Two hundred grams of this sand, roughly weighed, was 
chosen as the unit, merely because it lacked about three centi- 
meters of filling the common heavy glass tumblers used. The 
unit of sand was spread upon a glass plate and water to pro- 
duce the desired percentage of moisture was added from a 
burette, and thoroughly mixed in with a spatula. Owing to 
varying humidity conditions in the air during mixing at differ- 
ent times, accuracy was approximate only, but as a rule about 
twenty per cent more water had to be added than was desired 



PETERS: MOISTURE REQUIREMENTS OF SEEDS. 27 

when mixing was complete. The wet sand was placed in the 
tumbler, the seeds were spaced more or less evenly about four 
centimeters below the surface, and the sand was settled by 
jarring the tumbler against the table. Enough of the melted 
paraffin-vaseline mixture (20 per cent vaseline in paraffin 
having a melting point of 45' C.) was poured over the surface 
to seal it effectively, and the labelled tumbler was set aside at 
room temperature for two weeks. As sufficient growth did not 
occur for photosynthesis to become a factor, light was disre- 
garded. 

In this connection, it should be stated that the first series of 
tests, some thirty, failed because the seeds were planted about 
a centimeter only below the surface of the sand. The clue was 
found when a sample was taken from the top and another 
from the bottom of the sand at the close of one of these tests, 
run for moisture content, and compared. That from the bot- 
tom showed a higher moisture content than the upper one, 
where the seeds were. A series was then run upon a tumbler 
machine (the one described by Shull, Bot. Gaz., 62:10-11). 
The bottles were half filled with the wet sand, the seeds were 
added, heavily shellacked corks were sealed in place, and the 
bottles fixed upon the wheel of the machine so that they had 
fifteen complete rotations a minute. This so mixed the con- 
tents of the bottles that there could be no question as to the 
moisture content in the various parts of the soil mass. The 
results were checked with another series in which the seeds 
were placed near the center of the sand mass, the tumblers 
sealed as usual, and set aside for the regular time. As results 
corresponded closely, the more troublesome machine method 
was not further used. 

While filling the tumblers a carefully chosen sample of the 
sand was placed in a tared weighing bottle and this was imme- 
diately covered. Although this sample was taken when the 
tumbler was half filled, and although all speed commensurate 
with careful work was used, yet on dry days considerable loss 
of water must have occurred from the sand not yet in the 
tumbler and from the surface of that already in it. This 
sample was carefully weighed upon a standard balance sensi- 
tive to .0001 gram and was then placed with cover removed in a 
drying oven at 100 to 104' C. until a constant weight was ob- 
tained. Another source of error is to be noted here. The par- 



28 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

tides of dry sand were so light that unless extreme care was 
used in covering and uncovering the bottles, some of these par- 
ticles would be carried out on air currents and so give false 
results upon subsequent weighings. From the two figures 
obtained by these weighings, the per cent of moisture in the 
corresponding sand was secured. 

At the end of the two-week period the seal was broken and 
the contents of the tumbler were dumped upon a glass plate. 
A sample was taken quickly for determining the moisture con- 
tent. Germination was noted and the seeds were separated 
from adhering sand grains by being gently brushed with a 
camel's hair brush, were at once dropped into a weighing 
bottle, and their loss of moisture then determined by weigh- 
ing and drying to a constant weight. 

Seeds were considered to have germinated when .5 cm. of the 
rootlet extended through the seedcoat, and to be "incipient" 
when a shorter length was to be seen. This is another arbi- 
trary standard, but some such point had to be chosen. 

It is realized that with no means available for controlling 
the soil temperatures during the tests, considerable error may 
have crept in, but with all allowance for such in the results 
following, it is felt that it would not alter the conclusions 
drawn. 

PRELIMINARY TESTS. 

An early step taken as a guide to the amount of absorption 
to be expected was to determine the approximate curve of 
water absorption of various seeds when conditions were favor- 
able for germination. It was thought this might be used in 
comparison with results obtained in the tests as an indicator, 
suggesting nearness of approach to necessary amounts of 
water to be furnished. Although of little assistance in the 
way planned, the results later obtained tallied fairly closely. 
To get these, ten weighed seeds were placed upon wet sand, or 
on or between pads of wet cotton, in Petri dishes at room tem- 
perature (averaging 19.5° C.) and weighed at intervals until 
germination had taken place. 

The results are shown in the following tables : 



peters: moisture requirements of seeds. 



29 



TABLE 1. Water Absorption of Corn. 



Test No. 




I 




J 




3 


4 


Dry wt. 


3.6270 


3.7286 


3.6565 


3.5170 


Time 


Gain. 


Gain. 


Gain. 


Gain. 


hours. 


Grams. 


Per cent. 


Grams. 


Per cent. 


Grams. 


Per cent. 


Grams. 


Per cent. 


1 


.2731 


7.52 














2 






.2690 


7.3 






3 


.3991 


11.00 










4 


.7215 


19.3 






.2496 


7 


5 


.4926 
.5903 


13.58 
16.27 








7 






.5757 


15.7 






8 


.9848 


26.4 


.4140 


11 ■> 


9 


.6585 
1.0119 

1.9495 
1 . 1 109 
1.2587 
1 3111 


18.15 
27.89 
28.93 
30.62 
34.70 
36 14 








24 ... 


1.4465 
1.5142 
1.5652 
1 8168 


38.8 
40.0 
41.1 

48.7 


1.0834 
1.1766 
1 . 2342 
1.4037 
1 4264 
1.4548 
1.5937 
1-7588 


29.9 
32 1 
33.7 
38.3 
39.0 
39 7 
43.5 
48.1 


.7241 


20 5 


28 




32 

48 


.8809 
1.0030 


. 25.0 
28 5 


52 




56 


1.3137 , 36.22 










72 


1.4735 
2 0045 


40.7 
55.2 






1.1198 
1 . 2073 
1.4661 


31 8 


96 






34 3 


120 






41 1 



(lermination. — No. 1, all ten, rootlets averaged 2 cm.; No. 2, the same; No. 3, nine 
with 1.8 cm. rootlets, secondary rootlets and shoots appearing, one rot; No. 4, eight with 
rootlets from 1 to 3.5 cm., shoots appearing, one incipient, one rot. No. 4 was clieeked 
by setting up another test under the same conditions and taking but the initial and the 
tinal readings. Germination was complete and the per cent of gain was 41.5. 



TABLE 2. Water Absorption of Legumes. 





Peas. 


Navy 


jeans. 


Soy beans. 


Dry weight. 


3.3909 


2.7181 


4.0166 


Time in hours. 


Gain. 


Gain. 


Gain. 


Grams. 


Per cent. 


Grams. 


Per cent. 


Grams. 


Per cent. 


1 






1 0070 
1,6225 


40.49 
59.69 


.4811 
.8870 


11 97 


3 






22.08 


4 


2.S367 


83.6 


5 


1.9493 
2.1184 


71.71 

77.93 


1.2667 
1.6510 


31 53 


7 






41.10 


8 


3.9282 


115 8 


9 






1.9613 
3.8499 


48 80 


24 


5.1386 


151.5 


2 5P03 
2.6135 


95.29 
96.15 


95.84 


27 


28 


5.2918 


153.1 


4.2329 
4.4170 
4.5323 
4.7940 
4.8430 


105 38 


30 


2.6394 


97.10 


109.96 
112 83 


32 


5.3788 


158 6 


48 


2.8475 


104.76 


119.35 
PO 57 


52 






54 






2.9528 


108.62 




56 






4.8823 


121 55 



Germinnlion. — All peas and the navy beans had rootlets averaging 0.9 cm. 
bean rotted, the others had 0.5 to 1.0 cm. rootlets. 



One soy 



The results shown in these tables are shown graphically in 
figure 1. They were checked by running a series of five sets 
each. The above are characteristic and the data for the others 



30 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



is omitted. The averages, however, were: Corn, 46.4 per 
cent; peas, 149 per cent; navy beans, 108.3 per cent; and a 
series of tests with wheat, 69.1 per cent. 

Widtsoe (10) gives the following as the percentages of 
moisture contained by seeds at saturation. Wheat, 52 to 57; 
corn, 44 to 57 ; peas, 93 ; beans, 88 to 95. The differences be- 
tween those given above and those of Widtsoe are probably 
due to differing end-points, or the different varieties of seeds 
may differ in their saturation percentages. The original pa- 
pers to which he refers are not available. The results reached 
here will be used as the same end-point and as seeds from 
the same lots were used as in the tests following. 




Com k 



120 Houre 



Fic;. 1. Water absorption of various germinating seeds. 
Corn 1, navv beans and soy beans on wet cotton ; peas and 
corn 2, between pads of wet cotton; corn 3, on sand wet 
with 10 per cent water; corn 4, on sand wet with 5 per cent 
water. 



RESULTS. 

At the same time this preliminary test was run, careful 
germination tests were made of different lots of seeds and only 
those were chosen for use which gave a high percentage of 
vitality. Corn was the first used, Boone County White, as to 
variety. With no arrangement to keep temperatures down. 



peters: moisture requirements of seeds. 31 

and working at first in July in a room where it at times be- 
came exceedingly warm, a number of the early tests failed 
because the vapor caused the seal to buckle and loss of mois- 
ture resulted. The unnoticed loss of sand particles in remov- 
ing covers when placing bottles in the oven, caused on one 
series alone some seventy useless weighings in the endeavor 
to secure constant weights. But when the difficulties had been 
overcome, results were secured as shown in table 3, the first 
ones naturally being too high. 

Only those tests are quoted which may be of assistance in 
reaching conclusions. By "weight of bottle" is meant the tare 
of the weighing bottle in which the particular sand sample 
was placed for drying. "Weight with wet sample" is the 
weight of this bottle and the wet sand sample before going 
into the oven. "Weight with dry sample" means the weight 
of this bottle and the sand when a constant weight had been 
secured by drying. "Loss of water" is the difference be- 
tween the two just given. "Weight of dry sample" is the 
net weight of the sand sample after drying. "Per cent of 

Loss of water 

water" = ■. The upper line of figures in 

Weight of dry sample 

each test is the record of the sample taken at the beginning of 
the test ; the lower one, that at the close of it. 



32 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 3. Results of tests with corn. 



No. 


Weight 

of 
bottle. 


Weight 
with wet 
sample. 


Weight 
with dry 
sample. 


Loss 

of 
water. 


Weight 

of dry 

sample. 


Per cent 

of 
water. 


Germinati( n. 


22 
23 
24 


15.1972 
14.9436 

14.9436 
13 1033 

13 4485 
11.2461 


27.2665 
24 4012 

26.2905 
22,4946 

22 8234 
21 7644 


27.0445 
24 3547 

26 1013 
22.4467 

22 6711 
21.6932 


0. 2220 
0465 

1892 
0.0479 

0.1523 
0712 


11.8473 
9.4111 

11 1577 
9,3434 

9 2226 
10.4471 


1.87 

48 

1 69 
0.51 

1 65 
0.68 


1 
All sprouted; tumbler filled with 

tangle of roots; two shoots 

through seal. 
Four growing vigorously, 25 cm.; 

roots freely liranched, no 

shoots; one rotted. 
Four germinated, one incipient. 


25 


11 2461 
13.4485 


19.7670 
22.9802 


19.5860 
22. 9 ICO 


1810 
0612 


8 , 3399 
9.4705 


2 17 
0.64 


All growing freely; shoots ap- 
pe.tring. 


28 


14.9436 
11 2461 


27.1611 
20 6403 


26,9926 
20.5776 


0.1685 
0.0627 


12.0490 
9.3315 


1.39 
67 


All germinated, roots 0.5 to 3cm., 
shoots forming. ^sl S^ 


29 


15.7069 
13 1033 


28 S811 
21.4845 


27.7170 
21,4264 


1641 
0.0581 


12,0101 
8,3231 


1,36 
0,69 


All with brdncLed roots, 5-12 cm., 
and with i-3 cm. shoots. 


30 


15.1972 
13.4485 


26.4334 
23,1298 


26.2708 
23,0806 


0,1626 
0.0492 


11,0736 
9,6321 


1 46 
51 


Four with 1 cm. rootlets, 1 in- 
cipient, t^ 


33 


14.9436 
12.7311 


27.2533 
21,9564 


27,0783 
21.8662 


0.1750 
0.0902 


12.1347 
9.1352 


1 44 
0.98 


All with 1 cm. rootlets. 


34 


15 7069 
11 2461 


27,4449 
21.7802 


27,26.34 
21.6694 


0.1815 
1108 


11 5565 
10,4233 


1.59 
1,06 


All with 4-7 cm. rcots, shoot 
just showing. 


36 
38 


15.1972 
13 1033 

15.7069 
15.7069 


26 6290 
22,6704 

27.0591 
27.1975 


26.5158 
22,6056 

26.9420 
27.1318 


1182 
0.0648 

0.1171 
0.0657 


11 3186 
9.5023 

11 2351 

11,4249 


1 00 
0,68 

1.04 
0.57 


One with 2 cm. rootlet and with 
shoot showing, 4 with 1 cm. 
rootlets. 

One fully germinated, 4 incipient. 


39 


12 7311 
12.7311 


23,0582 
22.4594 


22 , 9908 
22 4195 


0647 
0,0399 


10.2597 
9.6884 


65 
41 


All swollen. 


41 


14.9436 
13.4485 


28.0634 
23,8692 


27.9723 
23 , 8295 


0.0911 
0397 


13.0287 
10 3810 


0.69 
0.38 


One with 2 cm. rootlet; 1 incip- 
ient; 3 swollen. 


42 


15.1972 
13 1033 


26.2107 
21,9365 


26 1267 
21 88'j5 


0.0900 
0-0470 


10.9295 
8.7862 


0,82 
0.53 


Two with 1 cm. rootlets; 1 incip- 
ient, 2 swollen. 


43 


15.1972 
13.4485 


27,2890 
22,8073 


27,2100 
22.7(95 


0790 
0,0278 


12.0128 
9.3310 


0,05 
0,29 


All swollen. 


40 


11 2461 

12 7311 


21.7230 
22,8293 


21 6416 

22 8028 


0.0814 
0265 


10 3955 
10 0717 


78 
26 ' 


One with 1 cm. rootlet, the others 
swollen. 



Navy beans were next tested. Because of their larger size 
and because they absorb at least their own weight of water 
in germinating (table 1 and fig. 1), but two seeds were used 
for each test lest the necessary moisture demands for germina- 
tion should so exceed the amount furnished in the sand that 
germination would be impossible. 



peters: moisture requirements of seeds. 

T.\BLE i. Results of tests with navy beans. 



33 



No. 


Weight 

of 
bottle. 


Weight 
with wet 
sample. 


Weight 
with dry 
sample. 


Loss 

of 
water. 


Weight 
of dry 
sample. 


Per cent 

of 
water. 


Germination. 


58 


12.7311 

15.1972 


21.7195 
27.7559 


21.6582 
27.7136 


0.0613 
0.0423 


8.9271 
12.5160 


0.68 
0.33 


One somewhat swollen, 
2 em. rootlet. 


one with 


59 


14 9436 
13.1033 


26.5169 
22.03*2 


26.4262 
22.0058 


0.0907 
0.0314 


11.4826 
8.9025 


0.79 
0.35 


One with 1 cm. rootlet, 
0.4 cm. rootlet. 


one with 


60 


15.1972 
12.7311 


27.1102 
22,0474 


- 26.9874 
21.9928 


0.1228 
0.0546 


11.7902 
9.2617 


1.04 
0.58 


One with 2.4 cm. rootlet 
0.2 cm. rootlet. 


one with 


61 


15.7069 
13 4485 


27.1330 
24.1932 


26.9881 
24.1025 


0.1449 
0.0907 


11.2812 
10 6540 


1.28 
85 


One with 3 cm. rootlet 
and unswollen. 


one dry 



Numbers 59 and 60 are particularly interesting as they 
show germination of both seeds with amounts of water sup- 
plied well below the wilting coefficient of the sand. Number 
61 unfortunately had a dead seed. As a further check in this 
series, the beans were weighed when selected, again when 
the test was complete, and were then dried and the loss of 
water determined. In the following table "calculated absorp- 
tion" is based upon the results shown in table 1 above. The 
actual loss of weight is in every case below the calculated ab- 
sorption, even though it includes the water originally pres- 
ent in the seeds. This either indicates that germination can 
take place with less water than the amounts indicated there, 
or illustrates the difficulty of making transfers without the 
loss of water, probably the latter, although corn 4 compared 
with corn 8 in table 1, given originally 5 per cent and 10 per 
cent of water in the sand, seem to bear out the former idea, 
since the absorption was 4 per cent and 48 per cent, respec- 
tively. 



T.\BLE 5. 


Loss of wat^r in drying germinated beans. 






No. 


Original 
weight. 


Sprouted 
seeds. 


Dried 

seeds. 


Loss of 
weight. 


Calculated 
absorption. 


58 


0.5082 
0.5618 
0.5440 
5257 


0.8624 
9484 
1.0178 


0.4200 
0.4622 
4356 


0.4424 
0.4862 
0.5822 

.345.S 


5448 


59 


0.6067 
5875 


60 


61 


0.8092 


0.4634 


0.5677 



The final series upon which a report can be made was run 
with wheat, ten grains to the test. Results follow : 



3 — Sci. Bui. — 860 



34 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



T.'^BLE 6. Result of tests with wheat. 



No. 


Weight 

of 
bottle. 


Weight 
with wet 
sample. 


Weight 
with dry 
sample. 


Loss 

of 
water. 


Weight 
of dry 
sample. 


Per cent 

of 
water. 


Germination. 


101 


14.9436 
14.9436 


28.5618 
25.8592 


28.4282 
25.7821 


0.1336 
0.0771 


13.4846 
10,8385 


S9 
0.71 


5 with 0.5-1.2 cm. rootlets 
cipient, 1 dead. 


4in- 


102 


11.2461 

15.7069 


21.2021 

27.1988 


21 , 0792 
27.1070 


0.1229 
OOSIS 


9.8331 
11.4001 


1,25 
0.80 


6 incipient, 4 unchanged. 




103 


12.7311 
12.7311 


24.2885 
22.9414 


24.1628 
22.8613 


0.1257 
0.0801 


11 4317 
10.1302 


1,09 
0.79 


7 with 5-7 em. rootlets, 3 
lent. 


incip- 


104 


15.5137 
15.1972 


24.7871 
25.9985 


24 . 6767 
25.8904 


1104 
0,1081 


9.1630 
10,6932 


1,20 
1.01 


2 with 0.5-1.2 cm. rootlets, 
cipient, 1 dead. 


7 in- 



Of these, No. 103 gives illiTmiiiatius results with Nos. 101 and 104 close seconds. 



. DISCUSSION. 

Some interesting things are shown in these tables. Num- 
' bars 22-35 started with moisture contents above that of the 
wilting coefficient of this sand, 1.31 per cent; the remaining 
ones quoted were below it. Numbers 36, 38, 59, 60 and 103 
showed satisfactory germination in a soil given less than the 
wilting coefficient of moisture. Others are very close, not 
listed simply because fewer of the seeds germinated. Some 
are very suggestive : Numbers 28 and 29, for example, fully 
germinated and with original moisture content but 0.08 and 
0.05 per cent, respectively, above the limit. There seems abun- 
dant evidence in the results shown here to indicate that seeds 
can germinate at or below the wilting coefficient of the soil. 

Why germination did not take place in some instances is 
still a problem. For example, in number 4, with 1.55 per cent 
of moisture on the start, the seeds became slightly swollen with 
one rotted, and 1.30 per cent of moisture remained in the sand 
at the close of the test. In the light of the other tests, it hardly 
seems that five infertile seeds were selected for this particular 
one. 

Further, germinating seeds pull the moisture content down 
to surprisingly low figures, the average, as already given, being 
0.584 per cent for corn, 0.42 per cent for beans, and 0.83 per 
cent for wheat. This evidently depends considerably upon the 
rapidity with which water moves through the soil, as referred 
to above. In this connection, while Briggs and Shantz found 
the same amount of moisture remaining in the soil at perma- 
nent wilting regardless of the kind of plants grown in it, re- 
sults here show quite the contrary, as just pointed out. Of 
course their plants had root systems distributed through the 



peters: moisture requirements of seeds. 



35 



soil and with very short distances, comparatively, to pull the 
water ; transpiration was going on ; and wilting gave a more 
or less definite end-point ; while here, there were practically no 
roots, just as many absorbing centers as there were seeds. 
There was no transpiration to be a factor, and the end-point 
was not even approximately fixed, making this problem really 
in no way comparable to theirs. Yet, in a series from the corn 
tests where the moisture supplied was above the wilting co- 
efllicient, there remained at the close of the tests, 0.48, 0.51, 
0.68, 0.67, 0.69, and 0.51 per cent, respectively, and with the 
crude apparatus used, with the lack of soil temperature control, 
and with the variations in the end-points reached, these do not 
reallv diff"er a great deal. 



taf. 



6o 



40 




Flfi. 2. Curves showing increase in the surface forces of soils as drying proceeds; 
to the left, for subsoil of the Oswego silt loam: to the right, for Xo. 2/0 sand. 

But, in contrast, in those tests which started with just about 
this amount of water, the corn grains showed absorptive power 
sufficient to pull the water down to 0.29, 0.38, and 0.41 per cent, 
respectively. Dead plants, as shown by Briggs and Shantz (1) , 
would have done this, or more, if extending through the seal, 
but here it went into the seeds. This is especially interesting 
in view of the fact shown by Shull (8) in his graph reproduced 
here, that the soil forces tending to retain moisture increase 
enormously as the soil becomes drier and drier, especially when 
approaching air-dry conditions. In these three instances there 
is shown a tremendous absorptive power which is evidently 
not present in the six cases given above, or thej^ would have 
pulled more moisture from the sand. 



36 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

But Shull (9) also found that air-dry seeds of the cocklebur 
(hygroscopic moisture, 7 per cent) had an internal attractive 
force for water of 965 atmospheres, or over 14,000 pounds per 
square inch, and that when these seeds had absorbed an addi- 
tional 7 per cent of water this force had dropped to less than 
400 atmospheres. The absorptive power shown by the three 
instances referred to in the paragraph above seems to bear out 
his findings. In the case of the other six, there was evidently 
sufhcient water in the sand to allow an equilibrium to be 
reached between the opposing external and internal forces be- 
fore the percentage of water present was pulled to the low 
figure reached by the other set. 

Another way of looking at the results mentioned above, num- 
bers 39, 41, and 43 were given about the same amount of 
water each, practically half that required for the wilting coeffi- 
cient of this sand, and the results are practically the same. 
By calculation, disregarding that removed in sampling, each 
tumbler contained a total water content of about 1.3 grams. 
Of this, the seeds absorbed about half, 0.48, 0.62, and 0.72 
grams, respectively. According to table 1, 41 per cent of the 
weight of the corn seed is the minimum for fair germination 
when conditions are favorable. Forty-one per cent here is 0.73 
gram. The maximum used as shown in the table is 55 per cent, 
or, that would be here, 1 gram. With 0.48 to 0.72 gram of 
water used here, with 0.73 to 1 gram used when conditions 
are favorable for absorption, with the weight of the seeds 
practically the same, and with the moisture content of the soil 
pulled down to 0.29-0.41 per cent, it would seem that when the 
lower limit of possible water absorption from the surrounding 
soil was reached by these seeds in the cases quoted, they had 
been unable to secure water enough for germination. The 
lower limit is probably somewhere about 0.75 to 0.85 per cent. 

In comparison, number 36 used but about 0.64 gram of water 
for complete germination, and when this was complete, as 
much water remained in the sand as each of the three men- 
tioned had to start with. But why should number 36 germin- 
ate when it had absorbed 0.64 gram of water and number 43 
fail to do so when it absorbed 0.72 gram? Has the rate of 
absorption or the amount remaining in the soil anything to do 
with it? 



peters: moisture requirements of seeds. ' 37 

conclusions. 

1. Seeds can germinate when supplied with amounts of 
water which are below the wilting coefficient for the particu- 
lar soil used. 

2. A uniform water content remaining in the soil when per- 
manent wilting occurs in the plants growing in it, regardless 
of species, does not hold true for seeds germinating in such a 
soil even when the amount supplied could have been used in 
germination. 

3. While the amount of water used by seeds for germina- 
tion may be more or less constant when moisture is abundant, 
they may germinate with far smaller quantities when the sup- 
ply is scanty. 

4. When the supply of moisture is scanty, the time re- 
quired for germination is correspondingly lengthened. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

1. Briggs, L. J., AND Shantz, H. L.,The wilting coefficient and its in- 

direct determination. Bot. Gaz., 53:20-37, 1912. 

2. Caldwell, J. S., The relation of environmental conditions to the 

phenomenon of permanent wilting in plants. Physiological Re- 
searches, 1:1-56, 1915. 

3. Clements, F. E., Research Methods in Ecology, p. 30, 1905. 

4. Hedgcock, G. G., The relation of the water content of the soil to 

certain plants, principally mesophytes. Studies in the vegetation 
of the state, part 2, 1902, pp. 5-79. In Bot. Surv. of Nebraska, 
vol. 6. 

5. Livingstone, B. E., Incipient drying and temporary and permanent 

wilting of plants, as related to external and internal conditions. 
In Contributions to Plant Physiology, p. 176. Reprints from The 
Johns Hopkins University Circular, March, 1917. 

6. Russell, E. J., Soil Conditions and Plant Growth, 1912, p. 104. 

7. Sachs, J., Bericht uber die physiologicale Thatigkeit an der Versu- 

chsstation in Tharandt. Landwirtschaftlichen Versuchs Stationen, 
1859, vol. 1, p. 235. 

8. Shull, C. a.. Measurement of the surface forces in soils. Bot. Gaz., 

62:7, 1916. 

9. , Measurement of the internal forces of seeds. Trans. 

Kans. Acad. Sci., 27:65-70, 1915. 

10. Widtsoe, , Dry Farming, p. 209. 

Army service interrupted this work and it is not now convenient to 
resume it. Its imperfections are realized, but it is hoped that it adds 
something to our knowledge in this field and that it may suggest further 
investigation. 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 4— May, 1920. 



CONTENTS: 

A Special Riemann Surface, 

H. H. Conwell. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post-office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

9-860 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIII.] MAY, 1920. [No. 4. 



A Special Riemann Surface.* 

BY H. H. CONWELL. 

(Plates II to V.) 

THE purpose of this paper is to consider in detail, for 
elliptic functions and briefly for hyper-elliptic functions, 
a special Riemann surface in three space obtained as the pro- 
jection of the intersection of two hyper-surfaces in four space. 
It will be seen that the surface investigated here is of ad- 
vantage in the fact that it can be easily identified, from the 
point of view of analysis situs, with a double-faced disk hav- 
ing p holes; where p =[-=-^]t, n being the degree of the 

function. In Riemann's real representation this is obtained 
only after an artificial and somewhat complicated dissection 
of the surface, in which the determination of the branch points 
is a very important factor. In a sense this difficulty may be 
said in our case to have been merely shifted from such a dis- 
section to the construction of a certain real surface from its 
equation in three space. This construction can, however, be 
made very simple. In the ordinary Riemann surface the 
actual location of the branch points is difficult at best, and is 
useless so far as the investigations bearing on the surface are 
concerned. The actual construction of the surface under con- 
sideration will be avoided except in the simplest case, and 
then only as much of its outline as is necessary will be ob- 
tained. This construction will be found to be comparatively 
simple. 

* Received for publication on April 29, 1920. 

tr ^-n . , n- 1 

L 2 J ^ understood to mean the greatest integer in 



2 
(41) 



42 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Let f{w, z) ^0 he an irreducible polynomial in the two 
complex variables w and z, w^ith either real or imaginary con- 
stant coefficients. Substituting w =^u -\- iv and z^ x -\- iy in 
the above relation we obtain the equation, 

P (x,y,u,v) -{-iQ (x,y,u,v) =0 (1) 

Whence, 

P (x,y,u,v) =0 (2) 

Q (x,y,u,v) =0 (3) 

The last two equations represent real three dimensional mani- 
folds in the real four space (x, y, u, v) . Their intersection in 
four space will be the surface $. Assume that w ^w^ when 
z = Zq. It is then possible, in the neighborhood z^^, w^, to ex- 
pand {w — w^) in powers of {z — z^) and by analytical con- 
tinuation to go from the neighborhood of z^ to the neighbor- 
hood of z^. As z changes from z^, to z^, w will change from Wq 
into one of the values w^ corresponding to z^. If this process 
be continued until z by a continuous succession of values re- 
turns to z„, w may or may not return to w,,. In the first case 
the representative point on $ corresponding to a pair of values 
{w, z) will describe a closed path, while in the second case the 
path will be open. The obvious one to one correspondence 
between points of the surface $ and sets of values {w, z) shows 
that this surface can play the same role as the ordinary Rie- 
mann surface. 

If between equations (2) and (3) v is eliminated there 
arises the relation, 

F {x,y,u)=Q (4) 

which represents in the three space {x, y,u), a surface F, viz., 
the projection of <J> in that space. This surface F, as well as 4>, 
can be used as a Riemann image, this being the configuration 
to be investigated in this paper. We shall limit ourselves, as 
before stated, to the hyper-elliptic case. It is evident that the 
X, y or u projection of $ would serve the same purpose as F. 

Before proceeding with the general cubic a special cubic will 
be considered in detail, and enough of the resulting surface 
constructed to show its properties as a Riemann image. (This 
special cubic is chosen on account of its adaptability to cross- 
section representation.) 



conwell: a special reimann surface. 43 

Consider the equation 

iv^ = z^ — Slz — SO (5) 

from which 

p = u^ — v^ _ (x^ _ sxy- — 31a; _ 30) = . . (6) 
and 

Q = 2uv— (Sx-jj — r — 31?/) =0 (7) 

The intersection of P = and Q = in four space is the sur- 
face *. The V projection of <I> in three space has for its equa- 
tion 

F (x, 7j, u) = 4u' — Au- {x^ — 3x?/2 — 

31a; — 30) — (3a;27/ — ?/ — 3l7y)2 = (8) 

This surface is symmetric to both the XU and XY planes. 
The trace on the XU plane is the XX axis and the real curve 
u- = x'' — Zlx — SO (9) 

representing all the real pairs {ii\z) satisfying the original 
equation. The curve represented by (9) consists of an in- 
finite branch and an oval (see fig. I). The XY trace consists 
of the XX axis and the hyperbola (see fig. II). 

3a:2 — 7/ = 31 (10) 

This hyperbola and the XX axis are the only double curves of 
the surface. 

From equation (4) v^^e obtain, 

u= ^V\[s + {S''-\-T~)y^''' (11) 

where 

S = xy" — Sxy- — 31a; — 30 (12) 

and 

T = Sxhj — qf — Sly (13) 

In this expression for u only positive values of the inner radical 
are considered as only real points on the surface F are to be in- 

vestigated. Investigations of ( 11 ) show that when y = 0,^ =0 
for all values of x except 6,-1 and — 5, where it is infinite. 
For values of x :^ V'^and y > 0, V- is positive or negative ac- 

cording to whether u is positive or negative, while for negative 
values of y it is positive or negative according to whether u is 
negative or positive. Hence for all sections of the surface parallel 



44 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

to the y U plane, where x — \H there will be either both a 

maximum and minimum point, or a double point, for y equal 

zero and for no other finite value of y. For x > \H , there are 

other maximum and minimum points and double points, and the 
curves all pierce the X Y plane along the curve represented by 
equation ( 10) . From the preceding discussion and an inspecti6n 
of equation (9) and figure I it is evident that the orthogonal 
projection of F upon the X U plane will be nowhere within the 
oval, and hence that there is a hole in F for which the oval is the 
central section. 

It is obvious that the surface F is composed of two sheets 
(see figs. I-VII) which hang together along the XX axis from 
— 00 to — 5, from — 1 to +6 and pass through each other 
along the branch of the double curve 7" = which lies to the 
right of the YY axis. 

Sections parallel to the XU plane give curves composed of 
two branches which cut each other in points on one branch of 
the double curve T ^ and nowhere else. Each branch con- 
tinues to infinity and there unites parabolically with the other. 
The YU sections also unite parabolically at infinity, and hence 
the two sheets of the surface F merge into each other every- 
where at infinity. 

The surface F may be reduced to a double-faced disk with 

one hole as follows: For all values of a: > \-^ deform the 

o 

surface by pulling the sheets through each other in such a 
way that instead of cutting in two distinct points on T" ^ 
for each value of x they will cut each other in two coincident 
points. This deformation will be continuous and approach 

zero in magnitude as x approaches \-^ and will nowhere 

O 

produce a tear in the surface. Having made this deformation, 
project the surface upon the XU plane and the result will be 
a double-faced disk with one hole. 

Starting at a point P in sheet I and continuing in any direc- 
tion on the surface F we can always return to P. This closed 
path may be all in sheet / or in both sheets / and II. It may or 
may not pass through or around the oval. In the latter case 
the circuit can always be reduced to zero while in the former 
it cannot be so reduced, unless there be an even number of 



conwell: a special reimann surface. 45 

such passages and they be in opposite directions. Hence any 
closed circuit on F can be reduced to zero or to sums of mul- 
tiples of two irreducible circuits. These facts show the elliptic 
function to be doubly periodic over F. 

THE general elliptic CASE FOR WHICH f {z) HAS REAL ROOTS. 

We shall now extend the preceding discussion to a general 
elliptic function of the type 

IV- = z^ — pz -\r q (14) 

where p is positive and q either positive or negative, and where 
the roots of 

z^ — VZ + q = (16) 

are all real. It will be shown that the resulting surface 
F {x, y,u) =0 has properties identical with those of the 
special case already investigated, if judged from the point of 
view of the investigations of this paper. 
We obtain at once, as in the preceding case, 

F {x, y, u) = Au^ — 4m-S — T- = (16) 

where 

S = x^ — 2>xy- — vx + q (17) 

and 

T = Sx^y — y- — py (18) 

The similarity of the XU and XY traces to those in the pre- 
ceding case is obvious. From (16) we obtain, 

du ]/2y[-6x(S^-r)y^-\-Sx'-\- 6x''y' -6qx -\-'Sy' + 4p y'' - p' 

'^y~ A. (S-- T^)y^ [S + (5^ + T^)y^ y/^ . 

it 11 

For ^ = 0, — = for all values of x except the roots of x^— px + 
q = 0, where it is infinite. For all negative values of x =^~ , 

J- is positive or negative for values oiy > 0, according to whether 

u is positive or negative, and negative or positive for ?/ < ac- 
cording as u is positive or negative. Hence for all sections parallel 

to the y U plane, where x = \-J^ there will be a maximum and 

minimum point for y equal zero and for no other finite value of y . 
Since the sum of the roots of (15) are zero, at least one root must 
be negative and at l6ast one positive. It is also evident that the 



m 



46 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

ovalfpasses|[through the two smaller roots of (15). Let ri,r2,n, 
be the roots of ( 15) , where n> r2> ri; then ri + ro + rs = and 

— nnrs = q. From the last relation and the fact that ^ P s 
> g it is evident that g p ^^ > 2 rh and therefore \| > r2 ; 
other words, x = V? does not lie within the oval. 

For X > ^^ there are other maximum and minimum points or 

double points than for y equal zero. As in the simpler case these 
sections are parabolic in nature. 

These investigations show that this surface has no impor- 
tant characteristics, from our point of view, not common to 
the more special case and is therefore always reducible to a 
double-faced disk with one hole. 

THE GENERAL ELLIPTIC CASE. 

Up to this point the investigations have been confined to 
the type, w- = z^' — pz -^ q, where p and q were both real, p 
positive and the roots all real. It will now be shown that no 
generality is lost by this restriction. 

Consider the general elliptic case, 

w- = f (z) (20) 

where 

f(z) =a,{z~ J\) (z — r,) (z — r,) (z — 7',) ... (21) 

and a„» ^'i. *"2> ^'s^ ^'4» ^^e real or imaginary constants. The 
elliptic integral resulting from this form may by a well known 
transformation of /(z) be made to depend upon an integral of 
the type, 

g(z) =bAz' — a,z — a,)^ (22) 

No generality is therefore lost by replacing / (2;) by g (z) . The 
constants of (22) may be positive or negative, real or imag- 
inary. If tto and ttg are arbitrarily changed the surface F will 
undergo a deformation. The only matter of interest in the 
present paper is vv^hether such a deformation increases or de- 
creases the number of holes in F. It is of course evident that 
if the number of holes is diminished as a, and a^ assume the 



* Boehm, Elliptische Functionen, Zweitci- Teil, page 128. 



conwell: a special reimann surface. 47 

values a^2 and a^^, that as a., and a,^ approach a^^ and a^^ in 
value, one or more holes in the surface must be continually- 
decreasing in size in such a way that when a", and a"., are 
reached the surface has a node at the point (x\„ t/,^, u^) on F 
and vice versa. If (.i\„ y,„ u^, %\) is the corresponjiing point 
on $, the latter will also have a node at this point. Therefore 
corresponding to nodes on F are nodes on <l>. At such nodes 
the tangent hyper-planes to 

P {x, y, u, v) = 
and 

Q {x, y, u,v)=0 

are coincident. In order to investigate the nature of F at such 
places write the equations of the tangent hyper-planes to P 
and Q at the point (x^„ y^, u^, v^), and the conditions for their 
coincidence. The equations in question are, 

{x-x^)P'x, + {y-y^) P'y,, + {v-v^)P'e,, + { u - m, ) P'u,, = 0, ( 23 ) 
and 

(a:-a:o)Q'xo + (?/-?/o)QVo + (w-Wo)Q'uo + (i'-r„)Q'v„ = 0..(24) 
The conditions for these two hyper-planes to be coincident is 
that 

PX _ Z^ _ Z^ _ Zx? 

Q'xo - QVo ~ Q'uo - Q'vo" • 
It is evident, however, from the relation 

P {x,y,u,v.) -\-iQ(x,y,u,v) = 
that 

P'xo = Q'yo, PVo= -Q'xo, P'u„ = QVo, and P'v„= -Q'u.,. 
Hence 

P'^'xo+Q'^'x„ = 0, P^Vo+Q^VnO, = P- V.+Q-'uo = and P'^'vo+Q'''e„ = 
and therefore 

Px'o = PV„ = P'u„ = Pv„ = Q'x.. = Q'yo = Q'u,. = Q'v„ = . 
In the above relations 

P ^u- — V- — s {x, y) 

and 

Q = 2uv — t (x, y) , 

therefore it follows that u = and i' = and therefore that 
g (z) = 0. Moreover, since 

P'xo+?Q'xo = Oand P'yo+i'QVo = 



48 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

it follows that 

s'xo + it'xo = and sVo + ii'vo = 0. 
Therefore g' (z^) = 0, showing that z is a. double root of 
g (z) = 0. It is evident therefore that the surfaces P and Q, 
and hence F, may be deformed in any way we please without 
affecting its analysis situs properties provided that during 
this deformation g (z) = never acquires any double roots. 
These conditions allow a deformation that will change com- 
plex roots into real and unequal roots without any two roots 
becoming equal in the process. Hence we may in this manner 
transform g (z) into j (z), where the roots of j (z) are real 
and unequal. 

The above conclusions show that no generality is lost in con- 
sidering the simpler case and thereby avoiding the difficult 
task of dealing with imaginary coefficients. The difficulty 
introduced by imaginary coefficients is that due to the lack of 
symmetry with respect to the XU plane. 

It is evident now that the surface constructed from the 
simplest possible relation is sufficient for a complete exposi- 
tion of the Riemann surface properties of the most general 
elliptic function. 

A NUMERICAL EXAMPLE OF THE HYPER-ELLIPTIC CASE. 

As an introduction to the general hyper-elliptic function we 
will consider briefly a simple numerical example of the same. 
The details of the surface F will be considered sufficiently to 
show that the preceding discussion can be applied in all its 
essential details to the higher form. For this purpose con- 
sider the equation 

^2 _ (^ _ 5) (^ _ 1) (. _^ 1) (^ •+ 2) (^ + 3) . 

The surface F(x, y, u)^ will be represented by 

42^4 _ 4^2^- _ 2^2 ^ 0, 

where 

and 

T = bxHj — lOit'V + y^ — 60:r-7/ + 20?/ — 60xy + 19?/. 

The surface F is symmetric to the XU and XY planes. The 
trace on the XU plane is the XX axis and the real curve 
v^= (x — 5)(x — l)(x ^1) (x + 2) (a; + 3) 



conwell: a special riemann surface. 49 

representing all the real pairs (w,z) satisfying the original 
equation. The latter consists of two ovals and an infinite 
branch. The trace on the XY plane is the double curve repre- 
sented by the equation T- = 0. This curve is composed of the 
XX axis and four infinite branches which are hyperbolic in 
form and coaxial (see fig. VIII). 

Sections parallel to the XU plane give rise to curves which 
have double points on the branches I and III of the double 
curve, as shown in the figure, and nowhere else. This is 
shown by an investigation of the value of S in the neighbor- 
hood of these branches. For the two branches to hang to- 
gether or intersect each other, it is necessary that T be equal 
to zero and S be negative or zero. Every pair of values {x, y) 
on one of these infinite branches reduces T to zero, but none of 
these pairs on branch II or IV will cause S to be negative or 
zero. Therefore the two sheets of the surface F do not cut 
through each other along either of these branches. The two 
sheets hang together along the XX axis from — oo to — 3, — 2 
to — 1, from + 1 to +5 and cut each other along the two 
branches I and III of 7" ^ 0. To prove, as in the elliptic case, 
that the two sheets never hang together for any finite value of 
y except zero would be very complicated, and so another method 
is employed. It is easily seen that any section parallel to the 
YU plane will give rise to a curve which has a number, say d, 
double points. But this curve is composed of two branches 
which intersect in d points in the XY plane. If d is odd the 
two branches are odd and hence each branch stretches off to 
infinity in both directions. If d is even, each branch is even 
and hence cuts the line at infinity in an even number of places 
and is accordingly a closed curve. In the first case (d odd) the 
XX axis must be composed of intersection points, while in the 
latter it is not. This leads to the conclusion that all sections 
which cut the curve u = f (x) , y :^ give rise to even branches 
and all others to odd. Hence the former are always reducible 
to traces of the form, fig. V or fig. VI, while the latter are 
always reducible to branches of the form fig. VII. From this 
will follow, as in the elliptic case, that F is two-sheeted and 
contains two holes. By a deformation similar to the one de- 
scribed in the example of the elliptic case, it may be brought 
into the form of a double-faced disk with two holes. Hence all 

4 — Sci. Bui.— 860 



50 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

closed circuits on F may be reduced to zero or to sums of mul- 
tiples of four irreducible circuits. 

Having considered the elliptic case in detail and investigated 
briefly a special hyper-elliptic function, we now proceed to 
the most general hyper-elliptic function, w = R{z), where 
R{z) is of degree n. 

Forming the equation of the surface F in the usual manner, 
there arises the equation F{x, y, u)= 0, where F is of degree 
2n in {x, y,u). F(x,y,u)^Q may always be put in the form, 

4u' _ 4u^s — r-=o, 

where S and T are polynomials in x and y of degree n. As has 
been shown in the preceding considerations, R{z) may be 
assumed to have only real roots. Hence the surface F is 
symmetric to the XU and XY planes. The XU trace will con- 
sist of the XX axis and a curve representing all real pairs 
(w, z) satisfying the original equation. The latter curve will 
consist of one or two infinite branches, according to whether 
n is odd or even, and p ovals. The XY trace will be a double 
curve represented by T" = and consisting of the XX axis 
and a curve represented by an equation of degree {n — 1). 
This double curve represents all the real double points of the 
surface F. 

The surface F is composed of two sheets which hang to- 
gether everywhere along the XX axis except for values of x 
which satisfy the equation u^ R{x) ,y ^0, and cut each 
other along certain branches of the double curve T = 0. Cor- 
responding to the v ovals there will be p holes in F. All closed 
circuits on F may be reduced to sums of multiples of 2.p irre- 
ducible circuits. 

DOUBLE CURVES. 

The double curves of the surface F arise as the result of 
projecting the surface $ from four space into three space, 
the center of projection being at infinity. Whenever a pro- 
jecting line cuts $ in two places a double point occurs on F. If 
the two points on <s> be real the double point on F will be a real 
double point connected with the surface F, but if the two points 
on <I> be imaginary the resulting double point on F will be 
isolated. This gives rise to two classes of double curves, one 
being on the surface F and the other being related to the sur- 
face but isolated from it. 



conwell: a special riemann surface. 51 

In the elliptic case the double curves consisted of the XX 
axis and an hyperbola. That part of the XX axis included by 
the real part of the curve u = f(x), 2/ = is isolated. Of the 
hyperbola, that branch lying to the left of the YU plane is 
isolated. 

In the hyper-elliptic example the double curve consists of 
the XX axis and four infinite branches. What v^as said of the 
XX axis for the elliptic case holds here also. Of the four 
infinite branches two are isolated (see fig. VIII), and two are 
curves of intersection of the two sheets of the surface. 

The same conditions will exist in the general hyper-elliptic 
case, the XX axis always being a double curve with the same 
law as to isolated points as in the simpler cases. The other 
double curves will be partly isolated and partly curves of in- 
tersection of the two sheets of the surface. The isolated curves 
separate themselves from the other class in that they always 
pass through one or more of the ovals, while the curves of in- 
tersection of sheets never do. 



52 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



U 




-J — -X 



a 6 



2 9 <S 



FIG.l 

r(x,y,u)=o,y=o 
y 



_I I I L. 



8 C 9 \ 2 



£ \y 6 a 



FIG. II 

r(x.y,u)=o,u^o , (b) /so/a fed 



conwell: a special riemann surface. 



53 




F/0. /// 

u 




r/a/y 



54 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 





FIG. V 




riGVI 
F(x,y,u)=o, ^-7 



conwell: a special riemann surface. 



55 




^y 



F/G.vn 

nx,y.u)=o, x=6 

y 




r/G. VI 11 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 5— May, 1920. 



CONTENTS : 

A Calculation of the Invariants and Covariants for Ruled 

Surfaces, 

E. B. Stouffer. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post-office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

9-860 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIII.] MAY, 1920. [No. 5. 



A Calculation of the Invariants and Covariants for 

Ruled Surfaces.* 

BY E. B. STOUFFER. 

IN Wilczynski's Projective Differential Geometry of Curves 
and Ruled Surfaces f it is shown that the projective differ- 
ential properties of a non-developable ruled surface may be 
studied by means of a system of differential equations of the 
form t 

(A) ^ ?/" + 2pii?/' + 2pi2 2;' + gn?/ + gi2 2;=0, 

^ ^2" + 2pn y' + 2p'22 z' + q-n y + q22Z = 0, 

where pik and ^iu are functions of the independent variable x. 

The most general transformations leaving (A) unchanged in form 

are given by the equations 

(1) •< _ _ A = «ll'^22 — «12«21 5^ 0, 

( 2 = "21 ?/+ '^22 Z, 

(2) ^' = Hx), 

where ai^ and c are arbitrary functions of x . 

A function of the coefficients of (A) and their derivatives and 
of the dependent variables and their derivatives which remains 
unchanged in value by the transformation ( 1 ) is called a semi-cova- 
riani and if it remains unchanged in value also by the transforma- 
tion (2) it is called a covanaw^. Semi-co variants or covariants 
which do not involve the dependent variables or their derivatives 
are called seminvariants or invariants, respectively. The invari- 
ants and covariants of system (A) are used in the study of the 

* Received for publica'tion May 10. 

t Teubner, Leipzig, 1906. 

t Wilczynski writes his system without the factor 2 in the coefficients of y' and z'. Its 
introduction makes some of the results appear in simpler form. 

(59) 



60 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

properties of ruled surfaces. Their calculation as given by Wil- 
czynski involves the solution of several rather complicated sys- 
tems of partial differential equations. It is the purpose of this 
paper to obtain the same results by much shorter methods. 

In 1915 Green published a paper* in which he obtains the in- 
variants and covariants of the general form of the system of 
partial differential equations associated with curved surfaces 
from the invariants and covariants of a canonical form of these 
equations. Green points out that his general method is of wide 
application. This scheme of making the calculations first for a 
simplified system and then transforming to the coefficients of the 
original system is used in the present paper. 

The results in this paper carry the same label as do the corre- 
sponding results in Wilczynski's book but there are differences in 
numerical coefficients and in signs because of the introduction of 
the binomial coefficients in equations (A) and because of a 
change of sign in the defining expression for wik. 

1. The Semi-Canonical Form. 

Let us make the transformation (1) upon the system (A). 
There immediately results the system 

'«ll2/"+ «12 2"+ 2 ("'u + Pll«ll + Pl2«2l)?/' + 

2 («'l2+ Pll«12 + Pl2«22) Z' 

+ ( «"n + 2 pii « 'ii + 2 pi2 « '21 + qw'w + gi2 «2i ) y 

+ {""n + 2 pu « '12 + 2 P12 « '22 + q\\ «i2 + 912 o-ii ) 2 = , 

«2i y" + «22 2:"+ 2 ( « '21 + P21 «ii + P22 «2i) y ' + 

2 ( «'22 + P21 «i2 4- P22 "22) z ' 
-t- ( »-"i\ + 2 P21 « '11 + 2 P22 « '21 + Q21 «ii + Q22 «2i ) y 

^ + ( «"22 + 2 P2I « '12 + 2 P22 « '22 + Q2I «12 + 922 «22)2; = 0. 

If ajt are so chosen that 

2 

(4) «'ik= - - Pij «jk, (^^ = 1,2), 
i=i _ _ 

the coefficients of y' and z' in (3) vanish. Such a solution for 

ajk is always possible since it is equivalent merely to choosing 

(«ii, «2i) and («i2, «22) as two distinct pairs of solutions of the 

system of differential equations 

(>' = — ( Pll /' + Pl2 <^ ) 
'^ ' = — ( P2I /' + 2522 <^ ) . 



r 



(3) J 



*G. M. Green, On the Theory of Curved Surfaces, and Canonical Systems in Projective Differen- 
tial Geometry. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 16 (1915), pp. 1-12. 



STOUFFER: INVARIANTS AND COVARIANTS. 61 

The substitution from ( 4 ) into ( 3 ) now gives 

\ «n y" + '^12 z" + (wn 'in + W12 '-'21 ) ?/ + (wii '-'12 + W12 "22) z = 0, 

(5) < _ _ _ _ 

( «21 ?/" + '-'22 2" + ( W21 'ni + U22 "-IX ) y -\- { W21 ai2 + U22 «22 )2 = 0, 

where* 

2 

(6) Wik = gik -p'ik- SpijPjk, (/, fc = l, 2). 

j = i 

The system (5) may be put into the form 

,^\u"+'Qn~y-\-qi2Z= 0, 

{^)i - _ _ - _ 

( Z" + 921 2/ + 922 2=0, 

if we write 

_ 2 2 

(7) A g.k = - - -hi ''Ik Mil, (/, A; = 1, 2) , 

i=ii=i 

where -^ji is the algebraic minor '>(ji in the determinant of the trans- 
formation (1). Wilczynski calls (B) the semi-canonical form of 
the system ( A ) . 

The differentiation of equations ( 7 ) gives 

_ 22 

(8) Ag'ik= 2 - [•''ji "11.^^1+ .^ji'^'ikWji + --I 'ji'^ikMjil- 

1=1 j=i _ 

A'9ik, {i,k = 1, 2). 
By the use of (4) we find 

22 2 

- -^'jiWji = - --Iji [- iVn + P22) Wji + - PjmWu,i], 

j=l j=l m=l 

A' = - (Pll + P22)A, 

whence it follows at once that 

(9) A9'ik= "- ^'•-'ji"iki'ji, (z, A: = l,2), 

1=1 j=i 

where 

2 

(10) ?^ik = w'ik+ 2 (pijWjk- PjkWij), (2,A; = 1,2). 

j = i 

It follows without calculation that 

( 11) A g"ik = ^' 2 Ay, '^ikWji, (i, k = l,2), 

i=ii=i 

where 

2 

(12) Wik = w'ik+ - (Pij^jk-Pjk^'ij), (i, A: = l,2). 

j=i 

*The expression here used for Ujk differs in sign as well as in numerical coefficients from that 
used by Wilczynski. 



62 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Let us rewrite transformations ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) in the form 

(13) r fin ^22 - (3i2 fin ,^0. 
\z^ (B21Y+ P22Z,. 

(14) c=|(x), 

and find the most general nature which these transformations 
may have and still leave {B) in the semi-canonical form. By 
these transformations ( S ) is converted into 

d- Y d^ Z d Y 

(/3i2r' + 2/3'i2l')-— +(y8"ii + gu/?ii + gi2i82i)y + 

d c 



(15)^ 



(/8"l2+ 911/812 + 912 /?22)Z= 0, 

/321 (^r^ + /?22 (r)^ ^ + (/32ir + 2 /?'2ir) ^ + 

(/?22c" + 2/?'22l')TT- +(/?"21+g21/8ll + 922^321)7 + 

(/8"22 + ^21 ^12 + 922 /?22 ) Z = . 

This system is in the form of system ( J5 ) if and only if 

^iir + 2Ai^^' = 0, {i,j = 1,2), 

that is, if 

h 

(16) A, = :^, (i,i = i,2), 

where 6ij are constants. If these values for /3ij are substituted into 
(15) that system may be written in the form 

rd'Y 
-7Zr + QnY + Qi2Z = 0, 



1 d^' 

(C) -<! . 



'^''^-+Q2iy + Q22Z = 0, 



V d ?' 



if we put 

( 17) D Qik + 7^ '- By. [ ( Hr - y2r/)k^+ i feik^ii ], (I, k = 1,2), 

where f/ = -j and where By. is the minor of by^ in the determinant 

D = 611 &22 — &12&21. 



STOUFFER: INVARIANTS AND COVARIANTS. 63 



The transformations 
'^ 611 bi2 



(18)^ 



621 622 



which leave B unchanged in form may be considered as consisting 
of the transformation 

(19) M ,, , ' Z) = &11622- 612&21 ?^ 0, 

I z = 021Y -i- O22Z, 

in which i = x, and of the transformations 
^ ^ 1 

(20) -<i _ 1 

V ^ = Hx), 

in which hn = 622 = 1 and 612 = 621 = 0. 

2. The Seminvariants. 

Let us first find those functions of the coefficients of ( B ) and 
their derivatives which remain unchanged in value by the trans- 
formation ( 19) . Equations ( 17) show that ( 19) converts q,^ into 
Qik where 

(21) DQ,k= ^' '^^ By,b^q,„ {i,k= 1,2). 

1=1 i=i 

If the transformation (19) is made infinitesimal by putting 
6ii = 1 + fn ''^>t and b\i = fij <U,{i 9^j), where v'lj are arbitrary con- 
stants and H an infinitesimal, the infinitesimal transformations of 

gu, are found from (21) to be 
_ 2 _ _ 

(22 ) gu, = - ( f]k Qvi - U 9jk) '^^, (i , A; = 1, 2) . 

i = i 

In accordance with the Lie theory the desired functions must 
satisfy the system of partial differential equations. 

(23) Ursf^ H~qir-^-qsi~^) = 0, (r,s = l,2). 

Between these four equations there are the two relations 
^24) [7n+f/22 = 0, 



64 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

(25) qi2 Ui2 + 921 f/21 + qn Un + 922 U22 = 0. 

Since the system contains four variables there are just two so- 
lutions. These are easily seen to be 

/ ^ qn-\- q22, J = qnq22 — 912921. 
Since the coefficients in (19) are constants the transformations 
of the various derivatives of q,\, will be of exactly the same form 
as the transformations of q,]^. The differential equations for the 
functions involving 9 'it as well as ^ik are simply (23) with terms 
of the same form in q'\^ added. The relations ( 25) ceases to hold 
so that there are just three more solutions. These are evidently 

r,J',K=~q'nq'22-~q'i2q'2i. 
In the system of equations for the functions involving also 
^''ik there are just three independent equations and four more va- 
riables so that there are four more solutions. These are evi- 
dently _ _ 

I , J , K , Li = q nq 22 — q V2q 21. 

A continuation of this process shows that all the desired func- 
tions involving higher derivatives of q^^, can be obtained by form- 
ing the successive derivatives of 7 , J , K, L. 

Let us now substitute in I , J , K, L and their derivatives the 
expressions for q,],, g'ik, q"± given in (7), (9) and (11). A com- 
parison of these equations with (21) and its derivatives shows 
that 9ik is expressed in terms of Wik, q'± in terms of v^^, and ^''ik in 
terms of w^], in exactly the same way that Qik is expressed in terms 

of 9ik, Q'ik in terms g'ik, and Q"ik in terms of ^''ik, respectively, ex- 
cept of course that '-(ik replaces 6ik. If now in 7, J, K, L or in 
their derivatives we replace ^ik, g-'ik, 9".k by Qik, Q'^k, Q"± respec- 
tively, we obtain the original functions of g-ik, (/'ik, q'\k- It follows 
therefore that if in I , J, K, L and their derivatives we replace 

q±, 9'ik, 9"ik by Wik, %, w^ik, respectively, we obtain the result of 
substituting (7), (9), (11) into these functions. In other words 

^ I =un+ U22, J = Un U22 — Uu U21 , 

r = Vn-{-V22, J' = Wll 2'22 + W22 «^ll — Wl2 «^21 — U2I V\2, 

(26)-<J 7" =w;ii + w;22, J" = 2K-\-u\\W22 + U22Wn— u\2W2\ — U2\Wn, 
K — i'iif22 — vi2?^2i, L = i<;iim;22 — W12W21, 

K' = VnW22-\-V22Wu — ^^12^t;21 — ?^2lWl2. 

The expressions (26) and their derivatives are all semin vari- 
ants of the system (A) and moreover they form a complete 



*^ 



STOUFFER: INVARIANTS AND COVARIANTS. 65 

system of seminvariants for the system ( A ) , To show these 
facts let us suppose that we have two systems of form ( A ) which 
are equivalent under a transformation of form ( 1 ) . Each of 
these systems may be reduced to a semi -canonical form and these 
must be equivalent under a transformation of form (19). A 

seminvariant expression, qn + g'22, say, formed for these two 
semi-canonical forms must be equal and each is equal to the ex- 
pression Mil + U22 = / formed for its corresponding original sys- 
tem. Therefore the two expressions for I are equal and / must 
be a seminvariant. The same reasoning applies to the other 
expressions (26). That we have a complete system of sem- 
invariants is obvious from the fact that every seminvariant of 
(A) must have a semi-canonical form which remains unchanged 
by transformations which leave the semi-canonical form invariant. 

3. The Semi-Covariants. 

We shall now find the semi-co variants of (A) by finding first 
the semi-canonical form of these semi-covariants. The trans- 
formation ( 1 ) when solved for y and z has the form 

(27) S A^ = '^22^ - '/-iL's;, 
I Az = — a2iy -^ o.nZ. 

When the coefficients of this transformation are subjected to the 
conditions (4) we find 

(28)1 A^' = -2/'-'/i2'^. 
I Az' = — '«i,"+ «ii'7. 

where 

(29) ," = y' -\- pny -\- p\2Z, 't = z' -\- pny -\- p 22 z. 

Evidently semi-covariants need contain no higher derivatives of 
y and z than the first. 

The semi-canonical form of the semi-covariants will be found 
by subjecting (B) to the transformation (19). Since the coeffi- 
cients in (19) are constants 

.3Q. j y' = bnY'-hbi2Z\ 
I z' = h2xY' -\-h22Z' , 

and it follows at once that 
(31) P = yz'-'y'~z 
is a semi-covariant. 

5 — Sci. Bui. — 860 



66 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

The system of differential equations for the semi-canonical 
form of the semi-covariants is the same as the system for the 
semi-canonical form of the seminvariants except that each equa- 
tion contains more terms and there are four more variables. The 
relations (24) and (25) both cease to hold so that there are three 
semi-covariants or four relative semi-covariants. 

Equations (19) and (21) show that the expressions qny-{- 
qn z and q2\ y + Q'22 z are transformed cogrediently with y and z , 
respectively. The same is of course true of q'ny -\- q'nz 3,nd 
q'21 y + q'22Z, respectively. It follows at once that the three ex- 
pressions 

f C = (qny -\-q12z) z - {q2iij-\-q22Z)y, 

(32)^ E= (q'ny +~q'i2z)z- (q'2iy -hq'22z)y, 

\^0 = {qny + qv2z)z'- {q2\ y + q22 z) y' , 

are independent relative semi-covariants. A comparison of (19) 
and (30) with (27) and (28) shows that the semi-covariants ( 31 ) 
and (32) can be expressed in terms of the original variables and 

coefficients if y is replaced hy y, z hy z, y' hy :> and z' hy rr at 

the same time that q,\, and 9'ik are replaced by ?/ik and V\^, re- 
spectively. Thus we have 
f P = y<7 - zr, 

C = (uny + ui2z) z — {U'2\y + U22Z) y, 

E = {vny + V12Z) z - {V2\y + V22z)y, 

= {uny + Ui2z)t — {U2\y + U22Z) i> . 

By the same argument as in the case of seminvariants these 
four semi-covariants are known to form a complete system 
for (A). 

4. The Canonical Form and the Invariants. 

We shall now proceed to find those functions of the seminvari- 
ants in their semi-canonical form which remain unchanged except 

for a factor Tfyn by the transformation (20). We shall thus 

obtain the functions of the coefficients of (B) and their deriva- 
tives which remain unchanged by (18), except for the factor 

1 



(33: 



"^ 



STOUFFER: INVARIANTS AND COVARIANTS. 67 

Equation ( 17 ) shows that ( 20 ) converts ( B ) into a new system 
whose coefficients Qik are given by the equations 

fQn= 7w i^r-l^'^q.^, {i= 1,2), 
Qik = TTTy^ 9ik, (t,k = 1,2; I 9^ k). 



V 



We notice that 

Qu + Q22 = j^Ty ( 2 '/"'^ - 'z ' + gil + qi2), 

so that Qii + Q12 = 0, provided that 

(35) //. = r/ - }, t/-' = g-n + g22. • 

From equations (34) we have at once, if (35) is satisfied, 



(36) 



^^ 



Qii= Y^iq-u-lD, {i = l, 2), 
U ) 

Qik=7|W9ik, {i,k = 1,2; 19^ k). 



whence 



(37)-<^ 



V 



"" Q'u = T^ [q'u -\r -2r, {q^ -hi)], 

Vt ) 
Q"n= JJTy [?,i-U"+/— 27g,-5^(g'„-U') + 

^vCqu-^D], 
Q'ik = -|^(g'.k-2-/;9.k), {i,k = 1,2; i 9^ k) , 

Q\ = -^ (?ik - 2 7 gik - 5 rg',k + 5 V^ 9:k) • 
Let us now assume that (B) has been converted into 

j ? + Q2li + Q22^- 0, 

where Q,k have the values (36) so that Qn + Q22 = 0. The sys- 
tem ( D ) is called the canonical form of ( A ) . 

If the seminvariants for (D) corresponding to I , J , K, L for 
(B) are denoted by /i, Ji, Ki, L\, respectively, equations (37) 
show that 



68 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



fir = o,j^ = j^[j-U'], 






W) 



K-\{I'y-2r,-^{J -IP) + 

ax 



Ari^(J-]P) 



K'i = 



i^'y 






(38) 



^ 



'^1^-^^^'^n-^^^^ 



AJ-\P)- 



Ix - 



(I'/ 



47(J-iP)i +15V^/-(J-17'0 - 
' dx 

20v^(J- ID j, 

-21 -^{J- \P)+^P{J -\P) 
ox' 

-hrA±[K- \{ry] - 2i4-{J-\P)i 

( ax ax ) 

+ bry\^(J-\P)-AI{J-\P)l 

' dx^ ) 

+ 15r,2 \K-\_{i'y 



+ 25r/(J- IP) 



25r,^-i (J-i P) 

dx 



V 



The system (D) is left in the canonical form by the trans- 
formation (20) provided that ."- = 0. We shall now seek those 
functions of the seminvariants in their semi-canonical form which 
are left unchanged in value by the transformation (20) subject 
to the condition ," = 0. 

From (34) or by direct substitution we find that (20) with 
p- = converts Qik into 

(39) Qik = jjyQ.^, {i, k = l, 2), 



STOUFFER: INVARIANTS AND COVARIANTS. 69 

whence it follows that 



(40) 



Q'ik = />/xa (Q'ik — 2 5/ Qik), 



These results show by direct substitution and by differentiation 
that J\, K\, L\, and their derivatives for the transformed equa- 
tions have the values 

r - 1 — 1 

J\ = (^')4 Ji, J'l = ( fcM-^ ( J'l — 4r/ Ji), 

(41)<; (t ) 

I-l = T^(Ll-5r,K'i + 5r;V"l + 15r,2Ki-25r/Vl 

+ 25r/Jl). 

If the transformation (20) is made infinitesimal by putting 

where <f{x) is an arbitrary function of x and i^t is an infinitesi- 
mal, the infinitesimal transformations of J\, Ki, L\, and their de- 
rivatives are found by direct substitution in ( 41 ) to be 

f oJi = -A0'Ji>Jt, 
<Wi = (-Sc'J'i - 4f"Ji)'5^, 

,7j"l = (_ 6cr'J"l- 9f"J'l)ot, 

oKi = {-6<f'Ki-2f"J'i)'U, 
'5K'i = i-lf'K'i - 6cf"Ki - 2v'" J"i) H, 
L'^Li = (- 8v''Ii - 5<f"K'i)'>t. 
The resulting system of partial differential equations whose 
solutions are invariants of {D) under the transformation (20) 
with /' = contains two independent equations. There are 
therefore four such absolute .nvariants involving the variables Ji , 
J'\, J" I, Ki, K'l, L\. The five relative invariants may be taken 
to be 

^ ^4 = Jl, «4.1 = 9(J'l)2 -8JlJ"l, 

^10- (J'l)'' - iJlKl, W,5= SWioJ'i - 2W'ioJl, 

"wiH= 1 (J'i)'^-4JiKi iL + Ki(J"i - 2Ki)2 + Ji(K'i)''' 

-J'xK\{J'\-2 Kx). 



(42)^ 



(43) 



70 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



The system of equations for the invariants involving also the 
next higher derivatives of J\, K\, L\, contains no more equations 
but three more variables. The three solutions may be taken 
to be 

(44)^ 4 J, 7/'i, - 15J'iT^ir„ 
4 Jx e'ls - 18J'iW,8. 

The invariants involving the next higher derivatives of J\, K\, 
L\, may obviously be obtained by combining J\ and J'l with the 
invariants (44). A continuation of this process evidently gives 
all the independent relative invariants. 

The invariants (43) may be expressed in terms of I , J , K, L, 
and their derivatives by means of (38). However, a compari- 
son of (38) and (41) shows that this substitution can be made, 
except for a factor tttyth > t)y replacing in (43) Ji by J — 17', J'l 

by ^(J-]P), J"iby ^^(J-i7-^)-47 {J-\P),Kx by 



d 



d 



K - 1 (7')--', TC'i by ^ ] 7C - i (7')^ ( - 2/^ ( J - 1 7'^) and U 

by L - 1 (7")2+ 47 \K-l- {I'r f - 27 ^ ( J - ] P) + 

4 7''' ( J - ] 7- ) . The results of these substitutions are as follows: 

re,=j-\r\ 

dux = 9(0',)- - 80,6% + 3210,', 

e,, = {0',y-4.f>,\K-\ii'r\, 

H,, = 5t),u O'i - 2 0\oO,, 

0,, = 0,, [L - 1 (7")--' + 47 { K - 1 (7')' \-2I0",+ 

APoq + \K-\{rf\ \o",-uo,-2K+\{Py-\' 
+ o,(K'-^pr-2P->',y- 

y, {K'-\ir-2U)',) j 0", -^I0,-2K+ \ {Pf\ 

= Ou.\L-Hi'y\ + \K-}{Py\{j"-^ir-2Kr 

+ 0,{K' - \I ry- - 0',{K' - i,U") {J" - \I P -2K). 

The same reasoning as in the case of the seminvariants shows 
that the expressions (45) are invariants of (A) and that all inde- 
pendent invariants of (A) are obtained in this way. 



(45)-^ 



STOUFFER: INVARIANTS AND COVARIANTS. 



71 



There is another expression for an invariant which is easily 

obtained and which is of geometrical interest. From equation 

(21) we easily deduce the equations 

D (Qn - Q22) = {bu h22-\-hv2b2i) {qn — 922) +2621622912- 2612611921, 
DQ12 = 612622(911 — 922) + 622^912 — 612'^ 921, 

D Q21 = - 621 611 (911 - 922) - 62i''^ 912 + 611'^ 921 , 

and exactly similar equations involving derivatives of any order. 

Thus we know at once that the determinant 



(46) 



911 — 922 912 921 
9' 11 — 9 '22 9 '12 9 '21 
q"n-q"22 ^'vi ^2\ 



is the semi-canonical form of a semin variant. Furthermore 
equations (39) and (40) show that it is the semi-canonical form 
of an invariant. The expression in terms of the original coeffi- 
cients for this invariant is 



(47) 



6. 



un — U22 

I'W — ?'22 

WW — W22 



1(12 

ri2 

IC\2 



M2I 

1-21 

W2I 



5. The Covariants. 

Let us now return to the semi-canonical form of the semi-co- 
variants and assume that they have been written down for 
equations (D). If they are denoted by Pi, Ci, fii, Oi, equations 
(39) and (40) show that their values for the equations obtained 
by transforming (D) by (20) with /^ = are as follows: 



Pi = Pi, 



(r) 



Ci = 



{El 



r 



Ci, 



2-/;Ci),Oi = 7^(Oi + ir;Ci) 

(? )" 



Therefore four relative covariants in their canonical form are 

Pi, Ci,£;i + 40i, 2JiEi-CiJ'i. 
By converting these expressions into the original coefficients and 
variables we find the complete system of covariants for (A) to be 
P, C,C3 = E + 4(0-i/P) =E-{-2N,Ci = 20iE-e'iC. 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 6— May, 1920. 



CONTENTS: 

Possible Methods of Classifying White, Yellow and 
Orange Staphylococci, 

Martha Bays. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post-ofBce in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

9-860 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIII.] MAY, 1920. [No. 6. 



Possible Methods of Classifying White, Yellow and 

Orange Staphylococci.* 

BY MARTHA BAYS. 

From Department of Bacteriology, University of Kansas, La\vre7ice, Kan. 

INTRODUCTION. 

STAPHYLOCOCCI were first found in pus by Pasteur ^ 
(1880). Ogston - confirmed Pasteur's work a year later 
(1881), and in 1883 Becker •' was able to isolate staphylococci 
in pure culture. Rosenback ^ (1884) described staphylococcus 
pyogenes, dividing it into two varieties corresponding to the 
orange and white pigmentation, calling them var. aureus and 
var. albus. In 1908 the Winslows ■' based their classification 
upon growth, pigment production and liquefaction of gelatin. 

Dudgeon'^ (1908) found staphylococcus albus commonly in 
normal tissue while staphylococcus aureus was usually ob- 
tained from pathogenic sources. He was interested in the 
interchangeability of these two varieties and worked upon a 
classification of these organisms, using glucose, lactose, malt- 
ose, glycerin, cane sugar, raffinose, erythrite, salacin, litmus 
milk and neutral red. He finally concluded that they all be- 
longed to the same species. 

Winslow, Rothberg and Parsons' (1920) studied 180 cul- 
tures of white and orange staphylococci to determine their ac- 
tion upon the sugars, glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, raffin- 
ose, mannitol, dulcitol, salacin and inulin. They used two dif- 
ferent media, the dehydrated bacto nutrient broth prepared by 



* Thesis offered as partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Arts, University of 
Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. Received for publication August 28, 1920. 

(75.) 



76 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

the Digestive Ferments Company, and the peptone media of 
Clark and Lubs. They found that : "The action of the staphy- 
lococci upon glucose, maltose, sucrose and lactose would seem 
to offer a possible basis of classification, although the marked 
differences due to the effect of the medium would suggest the 
use of this property as a differential test might prove of 
doubtful value." 

They were able to divide the organisms into three main 
groups. Group I, organisms fermenting all four sugars; 
group II, organisms fermenting glucose, maltose and sucrose, 
but not lactose. In group III they classified all the rest of the 
strains and stated that it was a "highly heterogeneous agglom- 
eration." 

They found that "gelatin liquefaction was slightly but dis- 
tinctly more common among the active fermenters," and that 
"white and orange pigments were fairly evenly divided among 
the various fermentative groups with a slightly greater pre- 
ponderance of vigorous fermenters in the orange than in the 
white group." Their tests for indol were all negative and 
nitrate broth gave almost uniformly positive results showing 
reduction. 

Winslow, Rothberg and Parsons, after this extensive work 
upon various sugars, nitrates, indol chromogenesis and gelatin 
liquefaction, state that : "Fundamentally we are inclined to 
agree with Dudgeon in considering the whole group a reason- 
ably homogeneous one, and it seems clear the central type of 
the whole genus is the orange-pigment forming, vigorously 
fermenting, gelatin liquefying, somewhat actively pathogenic 
St. aureus. As we depart from this type there is a progres- 
sive weakening of the various biochemical activities of this 
more vigorous form. The loss of one characteristic of the St. 
aureus type tends in some degree to be associated with the loss 
of others. Thus the white chromogens are less actively patho- 
genic than the orange forms, less actively gelatinolytic and 
slightly less vigorous in fermentation action. The forms 
which fail to liquefy gelatin also tend to be less active ferment- 
ers than the liquefiers." 

The object of the present paper was to obtain white, yellow 
and orange staphylococci from as many different sources as 
possible and to see whether the group would lend itself to 
rational or satisfactory subdivision making use of fermenta- 



bays: classifying staphylococci. 77 

tion, pigmentation, hemolysis, proteolysis on milk agar plates, 
liquefaction of gelatin, blackening of lead acetate agar, and 
the determining of limiting hydrogen ion concentrations of 
each strain in dextrose broth. I hoped to see if there was a 
correlation of any of these with source and pathogenicity. 

In order to do this, I have subdivided this work under six 
headings, as follows : 

1. Assuming as Dudgeon that staphylococci seemed to be one species 
and disregai'ding the characteristic of pigment production and liquefac- 
tion of gelatin, is it possible to subdivide staphylococci in general upon 
a basis of fermentation of carbohydrates. In determining data for this 
question, I have asked myself to note the following questions: Does the 
classification by fermentation reaction offer any correlation w^ith pig- 
ment production, liquefaction of gelatin, with pathogenicity, with source? 
and, Is there a correlation between rapidity of fermentation and of pig- 
ment production and pathogenicity as suggested by Winslow? 

2. After studying staphylococci as a whole from the standpoint of 
fermentation reactions, it was next decided to assume pigmentation as 
the primary differentiation into subgroups of white, yellow and orange 
staphylococci and attempt the subdivision of each of these by means of 
fermentation reaction. The borderline yellows and orange pigment pro- 
ducers were placed in their respective groups of yellow or orange. 

3. The next step was to assume, as before, pigmentation as a pri- 
mary differentiation into white, yellow and orange staphylococci then to 
attempt a subdivision of each of these by means of blood agar plates, 
placing the hemolizers and nonhemolizers in separate groups as has been 
done for streptococci, these were again subdivided upon the basis of fer- 
mentation reactions. In the work on hemolysis, a comparative study was 
made using different kinds of blood, such as rabbit, sheep and human. 

4. A similar study of staphylococci in which pigmentation was made 
use of for primary subdivision of each group, subdivided again in ac- 
cordance with the ability of various strains in that group to produce 
proteolysis upon milk agar plates. This gave proteolytic and nonproteoly- 
tic subdivision. These were further divided upon the basis of fermenta- 
tion. It was necessary to study the reationship between reaction of 
media and degree of proteolysis in obtaining data for this work. 

5. To study the ability of the various staphylococci to produce hy- 
drogen sulphide, all staphylococci were first inoculated into both one per 
cent peptone broth agar containing lead acetate, and three per cent pep- 
tone broth agar containing lead acetate to see whether there was any 
correlation between the blackening of lead acetate and any other char- 
acteristics. I might say there was noted apparently a correlation be- 
tween pathogenicity and blackening of three per cent peptone lead acetate 
agar. 

6. Lastly, it was thought worth while to determine the limiting 
hydrogen ion concentrations of all these various staphylococci in dextrose 
dipotassium phosphate broth to see whether there exist high and low 



78 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

ratio groups and whether these correlate with any other characteristics 
and data. 

In all, 75 strains of staphylococci were studied. These were 
obtained from pathological conditions, in various foods and 
three strains from the American Museum of Natural History. 
My tentative definition for staphylococci was cocci in which 
the division was in two planes giving rise to flat sheets of 
cells and irregular masses. 

TECHNIQUE. 

All organisms used in this work were freshly isolated and 
were first grown upon agar, + 1 to phenolphthalein, then 
inoculated into plain broth to determine morphology. 

In studying fermentation, the organisms were inoculated 
into one per cent sugar broth solutions of dextrose, lactose, 
saccharose, mannite, maltose, salacin, dulcite, inulin, raffinose, 
glycerin, galactose and xylose, and tested in 48 to 72 hours 
with litmus. 

For confirmation, the organisms were inoculated into Hess's 
semisolid medium containing Andrede as an indicator plus 
the following carbohydrates — dextrose, lactose, saccharose and 
mannite. 

One per cent peptone lead acetate agar and three per cent 
peptone lead acetate agar were made according to directions 
given by Jordan. 

Litmus milk, one per cent peptone gelatin, Dunham's pep- 
tone, nitrate broth were made according to directions in Stand- 
ard Methods of Water Analysis. 

Gram stains were made from cultures after 24 hours' growth 
upon an agar slant, using carbol gentian violet as the primary 
stain and counterstaining with an aqueous solution Bismarck 
brown. 

The chromogenic power was determined by spreading a por- 
tion of a culture two weeks old upon white paper, as suggested 
by Winslow. 

Blood agar plates were made by adding 3 cc. of whole de- 
fibrinated blood to 100 cc. of agar neutral to phenolphthalein. 
Sheep, rabbit and human blood were used. The sheep blood 
was all obtained from the same animal, three different rabbits 
were bled, and human blood was obtained from several indi- 
viduals. 



BAYS: CLASSIFYING STAPHYLOCOCCI. 79 

Milk plates were made by adding 10 cc. of milk to 100 cc. of 
agar. The agar was adjusted to + 2, + 1, 1, and — 1 to 
phenolphthalein. 

The chlorimetric or indicator method was used in determin- 
ing the hydrogen ion concentration. Buffers were made up 
according to Cole."^ Methyl red, Phenol red and brom cresol 
purple were used as indicators as suggested by Clark and 
Lubs.9 

The synthetic media used contained .5 per cent Bacto pep- 
tone (Digestive Ferments Company), .5 per cent dextrose and 
.5 per cent Ki.'HP04 titrated neutral to methyl orange. The 
media was sterilized at 10 pounds for 15 minutes, in order not 
to destroj^ the vitamines. After sterilization the hydrogen ion 
concentration of the broth was 7.3. 

As previously mentioned, the first division of this work was 
a study of the fermentation reaction of all strains of staphy- 
lococci, especially with regard to dextrose, lactose, saccharose 
and mannite. As a matter of supplying additional informa- 
tion maltose, galactose, xylose, salacin are included in the 
report. 

The summary of this data is included in table I. 

Nomenclature was taken from Winslow's Systematic Rela- 
tionship of Coccacese. 



80 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



o 



« 



33333?;333ai3fJj;j::3aJca^-=<ucDS«S333S§ 

^■S.^£,:£,~.*^££S. 3£ 3-^^£ - 3-= i S 3 - 3 -:2 — :2 - 3 



I ... 0= 

□0 tn w 3 M ^ r: 
! 3 3 3 a; 3 J; £S 



cr. tn m 

3 3 3 

0^ oj a; 

U< tfl ^ 

3 3 3 



CC333333 
33333333 

< <j; <; <; <r; < <c; <; 



^< 



I +++ 



I ++ I 1 +++ + I ++ I +++ I I ++ I ++ I +++++ 



i ++++I I 



I++ 






+ + + + + + + I + I I ++ I 



I I I + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 



- + + 



+++++ I +++++++ 1++ I ++ I + 



^ 

2 



a I I I a Q. a c. I ti: m 



+ 






++++++++ I 



++ 



5 



+ MIM + IIIM1+ llliMIIH-lllllllllll 



+ 1 I I+++ ;iii + iiiMiil+ lllllllllllll + lllllll 



S 



o 
I 






o 



a 



p 
o 

CO 



I+++ 1 + I ++++ 1 + I l + l I I 1+ ++I++I+++I I I I I I I I I I I I 



++ I I I 



I I I + +++++++ 



^ OJ^ QJ j3 



.£= r: .a ; j= 



iSc'dp^ocSoi^K-'is^^oisoK-'isisdo^ o do d d ^ is ^ do odd do odd odd 



s « s » -pi, 
»;= 3 t ■ 

i— ^.3 5,?- 

3 O O C3 >j ■ 

enMrnoioxl 












o 



S^- . . ._ - . 



M I I M I l^im^i^'ad: 



3 — . 






o 






BAYS: CLASSIFYING STAPHYLOCOCCI. 



81 




? 






I M I i I i I I I I I I I l + l I I 



I M M M l + l + l M 






i I I+++I++ 



5 



H B 






+ + + + - 



+ + 



I I 



I I 



I I 



< 




B 



c o o o 0; V 



• o 



,: ° ci £ o — g:r S 
ttt, 2 a i' 






0) 

J2 ■ 

.^x a o lu 

^^ H m W, 

, ;- OT o o 



o 






6 — Sci. Bui. — 860 



O 




o -— 



Oj -— 



I I I 




o == 



I I 



I I 



MM 




++++ 



I I 



++++ 



+ 



i^o^ 



<. H t/i w^ 



82 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



z 

o 



pa 





d 
'J 

CO 

S 
2 
o 


11 

CE 
++ 



4 
3 

l-H 

+ 


4- 


1 


03 

2 

a 
t 

< 

-+ 




J 


1++I 1+ 


1 




+ 1 1 1 1 1 






1+1 1 1 1 




"3 


++I 1 1 1 




is 


1 1 1 l&l 


i mill 








CI] 






O 

1 

Q 

bu 

.2 






C3 








S 


a1 




a 






03 

o 
1 






■* 

g 

2 

o 


a 

til 


fe &^ & 


i 
^ 

^ 


§ 

O 




Ed 
O 
K 
& 

O 


E 
t 






c 
c 

-I 

O 
Q 

C 




1 




6 


c- 








O 


iC 



w 




>-i 




m 


lO 


< 


rfi 


H 


ai 



o 



d 
'3 

a 

2 

O 


+ Aureus. 
+ Epidermidis. 
+ Luteus. 
+ Flavus. 


■d 


+ +I + 


-^ 
S 


+ +I 1 


-d 


+ +1 1 




++1 + 


1 d 
is 


a c 1 o. 


^ 
S 


1 1 1 1 


1 


1 + 1 1 




1 1 1 1 


g i 1 1 1 


i +111 


d 

CO 


++1 1 




++1 1 




1 1 1 1 


p 


++++ 
1 


a 


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c.t: 
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33 


Source. 


^ 

2 


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in 


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bays: classifying staphylococci. 83 

It will be observed that results in table I have divided all of 
the staphylococci into five classes. Class I, those staphylococci 
which ferment all four of the sugars, dextrose, lactose, saccha- 
rose and mannite ; class II, those that ferment dextrose, lac- 
tose, saccharose, but are negative upon mannite ; class III, 
those fermenting dextrose and saccharose but negative upon 
lactose and mannite ; class IV, includes all staphylococci which 
failed to produce acid in any of the four sugars; and class V, 
includes four strains that are irregular. 

It can readily be seen that there is no correlation between 
these classes in source, pathogenicity or pigmentation. For 
this reason, classifying staphylococci purely on fermentation 
reactions, disregarding pigment production and liquefaction of 
gelatin, does not seem to give a satisfactory classification. 

The second phase was to assume pigmentation as a primary 
classification, using white, yellow and orange, and subdividing 
each of these, making use of the fermentation reaction of the 
sugars. In doing this, I have assumed that dextrose, lactose 
and mannite are of importance in the order named and have 
developed the classifications which are shown in table II. 

Again it can be seen that there is no apparent correlation 
between these fermentation reactions and pigmentation or 
source or pathogenicity. 

Subdivision 3 of this problem comprises an application of 
the phenomena of hemolysis to subdivision of various pig- 
mented types of staphylococci. There are various and con- 
flicting statements in literature as to most suitable kind of 
blood for determining hemolysis by staphylococci. It is quite 
generally recommended that a washed suspension of red blood 
cells be used, but for routine laboratory work this process is 
not ordinarily followed, largely because of the lack of facilities 
and the desire for speed. In order to duplicate ordinary lab- 
oratory methods, I have made use of blood agar prepared by 
adding defibrinated blood to melted agar cooled to 45° C. 

Before attempting this work I tried the hemolytic properties 
of these organisms for rabbit, sheep and human bloods to de- 
termine which gave the most positive and fairly consistent re- 
sults. These are embodied in table III. 



84 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



+ 



TABLE II. 
White 



Dextrose 



+ Lactose 



+ Lactose 



+ Mannite — 



I 
+ Mannite — + Mannite — + Mannite — 



16 



13 



+ 



1 

Yellow 



Dextrose 







+ Lactose 



I 
+ Lactose 



+ Mannite — + Mannite — + Mannite — + Mannite — 



I 



+ 



4 

Orange 



Dextrose 







+ Lactose 



+ Lactose 



+ Mannite — + Mannite — + Mannite — + Mannite 



24 







bays: classifying staphylococci. 



85 



T.\BLE III. 



Source. 



Air 

Milk 

Milk 

Urine F... 
Rab. Absc. 
Throat . 
Rab. Sore 
Urine F . 
Inf. Tooth. 
Pus — ear.. 
Oyster. . . . 
^ster. . . . 



G. P. Autopsy 



Acne 

Milk 

Arm. Inf. . . 

Milk 

Acne 

Skin — nose. 
Butter ... 
Inf. Tooth. 

Throat 

Sneeze 



None. 
None. 



Oyster. 



Milk 

Milk 

Oleomargai ine 

Butter 

Milk 

Hamburger. . . 

Feces 

Milk 

Feces 

Rab. Pus 

Air 

Scalp 

Milk 

Boil 

Boil 

T.B. Inf 

Sore Throat.. 

Eye 

Boil 



Lab. St 

Boil 

Aureus 

Aurientiacus, 
Aurientiac\is, 

Boil 

Boil 

Boil 

Boil 

Boil 

Boil 

Milk 

Tonsil 



Sore Throat 

Milk 

Tonsil 



Strain 
and 

Group 
No. 



12' 
17' 
20' 
27' 
38' 
16' 
40' 

5' 
48" 
49' 
65' 
58'* 
66' 
67' 
29 ■' 
34' 
37= 
35' 
28' 

2' 
41' 
47' 
26' 
33 2 
6£' 
81' 
82' 
54^ 
50= 

i* 
23 ir 

6' 

7' 
43' 
46' 
77' 
80" 
21^ 
25^ 
22= 
14= 
45= 
15* 

9' 
30' 
31' 
39' 
57' 
55' 
59' 
61' 
62' 
63' 
64' 
68" 
72' 
78' 
83' 
84 » 
85' 
86' 
87' 
88' 

89' 

90' 

91' 

76' 

52= 

70' 

51 = 

11 ir 

53* 



Pigm. 



WTiite 
VVTiite 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
(Mear 
Clear 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
Wnite 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
Lost 
Lost 
Lost 
Lost 

Y. White 
Y. White 
Y. White 
Y. White 
Yellow 
Yellow 
Yellow 
Yellow 
Yellow 
Yellow 
Yellow 
Yellow 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Or,' nge 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 



Orange 
Orange 
Orange 
Orange 



Rabbit Blood 

+ Hemolysis — 

+ ■ — 



+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 

+ 



+ 



+ 



Sheep Blood 
+ Hemolysis — 

+ - 



+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



Human Buod 
+ Heme lysis ■*- 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



Milk Plates 
+ Proteolysis - 

+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



86 THE UNR^RSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

It is quite evident that human blood gave the most positive 
results. 

I decided, as mentioned above, to use pigmentation as the 
primary method of division and blood agar plates secondarily, 
subdividing each of these into hemolytic and nonhemolytic 
staphylococci, and the fermentation reactions as described in 
table II were made use of for further subdivision. The results 
of this are summarized in table IV. 

It will be observed that the white staphylococci were evenly 
divided between hemolytic and nonhemolytic strains, 16 
strains were hemolytic and 14 strains were nonhemolytic. 
This condition shows a gradual change as you go through the 
yellow and orange staphylococci. For example, out of 13 
yellow staphylococci, one was lost before hemolytic properties 
were determined and of the remaining 12, 9 were hemolytic 
and 3 were nonhemolytic. Among the orange staphylococci, 
26 strains were hemolytic and 3 nonhemolytic. Of these 26 
hemolytic orange staphylococci, 19 were from the animal 
body as compared with one among the three of the nonhemo- 
lyzers. Of the 19 from the animal body, 16 were positive in 
all sugars. Among the yellow, only one was from the animal 
body and that one was nonhemolytic and fermented dextrose 
but not lactose or mannite. Among the white hemolytic staph- 
ylococci, 7 were from the animal body and of these 7, 6 fer- 
mented all sugars. Among the 14 nonhemolyzers, 2 were from 
the animal body. This suggests that in general staphylococci 
associated with the animal body seem to be hemolyzers. The 
history of organisms obtained from the air and various foods 
is not known further than the source mentioned. 

As the fourth phase of this problem, we have attempted to 
study a possible classification of staphylococci, making use of 
pigment as a primary division and next the ability of the 
staphylococci to produce proteolysis or conversely failure to 
produce proteolysis. This is followed by making use of car- 
bohydrates as in previous tables. It will be observed that the 
only difference between this and the third phase is that pro- 
teolysis is substituted for hemolysis. 

Very little work has been published showing the use of milk 
agar plates in the attempt to classify any kinds of bacteria 
at all. As a preliminary it was found necessary to determine 
the optimum reaction of media for proteolysis. Accordingly, 
studies were made on milk plates +2, +1, 1, and — 1 to 
phenolphthalein. The results are summarized in table V. 



bays: classifying staphylococci. 



87 






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88 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



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bays: classifying staphylococci. 89 

It is quite evident that the best reaction was neutral to 
phenolphthalein, the end point was a pronounced end point 
and corresponded to a Ph of about 8.8. 

Applying this in the same manner as blood agar plates in 
table IV, I have summarized the data in table VI, 

Of the white staphylococci, it will be observed that 17 were 
proteolytic and 12 nonproteolytic. Of the 17 proteolytic, it 
was rather interesting to note that only 3 were body organ- 
isms. In comparing results with hemolysis in table IV, it was 
noted that on milk agar plates there were 17 proteolytic staph- 
ylococci and 12 nonproteolytic, whereas there were 16 hemo- 
lyzers to 13 nonhemolyzers. While the total number found 
proteolytic compares very closely with the total found hemo- 
lytic, it is an interesting observation that organisms that are 
proteolytic are not necessarily the same ones that are hemo- 
lytic. For example, of the 11 hemolyzers that fermented all 
sugars, only 8 are proteolytic. Of the 9 proteolytic organisms 
that ferment dextrose and lactose but do not ferment mannite, 
5 are hemolytic, 4 failing to show hemolysis. Thus it is quite 
evident that proteolysis and hemolysis are not consistent in 
their actions although about the same number of staphylococci 
were proteolytic as were hemolytic. 

Among the yellow staphylococci it is observed that 8 were 
proteolytic and 4 nonproteolytic and that 9 were hemolytic 
and 3 nonhemolytic. The one hemolj'zer which fermented all 
sugars was not proteolytic and one of the two proteolytic or- 
ganismiS that fermented dextrose, lactose and mannite was not 
hemolytic, which was very similar to the observations made on 
white staphylococci. 

Among the orange staphylococci, it was previously observed 
that 26 were hemolytic and three nonhemolytic. Using milk 
agar plates, we observed that there were 21 proteolytic and 8 
nonproteolytic. In other words, 4 of 22 of the hemolytic 
orange staphylococci that fermented all of the sugars were not 
proteolytic and one of the 2 proteolytic orange staphylococci 
that fermented dextrose but failed to ferment lactose or man- 
nite was not hemolytic. 

Now as to source, it will be observed that 14 of the 21 pro- 
teolytic staphylococci were obtained from the animal body. 
The percentage of organisms associated with the animal body 
was greater with the nonproteolytic than with the nonhemo- 
lytic orange staphylococci. 



90 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



+ 



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bays: classifying staphylococci. 91 

The fifth subdivision of this paper has to do with the action 
of all staphylococci upon lead acetate agar. A summary of 
this data is embodied in table I. It will be observed that, with 
two exceptions, all staphylococci isolated from pus or boils 
blackened lead acetate agar. I doubt, however, that this could 
be depended upon to denote pathogenicity. 

In regard to the sixth subdivision of the paper applying to 
the various hydrogen ion concentrations, I hope to do more 
extensive work in the future. I selected 6 from class 1, table 
I, 6 from class 2, 2 from class 3, and 4 from class 4, and grew 
them in dextrose dipotassium phosphate broth, as described in 
the paragraph on technique, and determined the hydrogen ion 
from day to day for a period of five days. 

These results suggest the possibility of dividing staphylo- 
cocci into subdivisions depending upon the limiting Pj^. This 
is analogous to the attempt to subdivide the coliserogenes 
group. It might be of some value if used with pigment pro- 
duction as a basis of classification and the high ratio deter- 
mined for white, yellow and orange separately. 

I have also considered the value of the group number sys- 
tem as suggested in the descriptive chart of the American As- 
sociation of Bacteriology, but have decided not to include the 
various group numbers of the various staphylococci in question. 

summary and conclusions. 

That disregarding pigmentation and liquefaction of gelatin 
staphylococci may be arranged into five types according to 
their ability to ferment dextrose, lactose, saccharose and man- 
nite. These types do not correlate with any other observed 
characteristics such as source, pathogenicity, pigmentation or 
liquefaction of gelatin. It would seem that this method of 
classifying staphylococci would only lead to confusion and 
offers nothing of basic value. 

That while routine laboratory work might warrant only the 
data on morphology, gram stain, type of growth and pigment 
production on plain agar slants, yet it would seem advisable, at 
least from the standpoint of comparison when reporting upon 
staphylococci in the literature, to follow some such plan as 
follows : Gram stain, pigment production, liquefaction of gela- 
tin, action on blood agar plates where kind of blood, amount 
and Pjj of medium are given, and the fermentation reaction in 
dextrose, lactose and mannite. Instead of blood agar plates it 



92 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

would seem that for comparison milk agar plates might equally 
well be substituted and perhaps prove equally reliable. In 
either proteolysis or milk agar plates or hemolysis, it is ap- 
parently important to have an optimum and known hydrogen- 
ion concentration in the medium. This is very easily a source 
of discrepancies. The blackening of lead acetate agar might 
also be worth including. 

There does not seem to be any uniform correlation between 
the property of proteolysis of milk agar plates and hemolysis 
on blood agar plates. . 

Apparently most staphylococci from the animal body are 
hemolytic. 

Contrary to frequent statements in the literature, human 
blood seemed to be superior to either rabbit or sheep blood. 

As might well be expected, hydrogen-ion determinations 
show that staphylococci can rightly be grouped into at least 
two groups with respect to some one indicator such as methyl 
red, and into more groups if desired. I do not know that this 
is consistent or will prove of value. 

Acknowledgment is hereby made to two members of the department of 
bacteriology of the University of Kansas, Prof. N. P. Sherwood and 
Miss Cornelia M. Downs, for many valuable suggestions and criticisms of 
my work. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



Jordan. General Bacteriology, 1908, p. 161'. 

1. Pasteur. Bull, de 1 Acad. de. Med., 1880, 9, p. 447. 

2. Ogston. Brit. Med. Jour., 1881, 1, p. 369. 

3. Becker. Deut. Med. Wehnschr, 1883, 9, p. 665. 

4. RoSENBACH. Mikroorganismen bei d. Wundinfekhonskronkheiten, 

Weisbaden, 1884. 

5. WiNSLow, C. E. A., knd Winslow, A. R. The Systematic Relation- 

ship of the Coccacese, 1908. 

6. Dudgeon, L. S. The Differentiation of the Staphylococci. Journal 

of Pathology and Bacteriology, 1908, 12, 242. 

7. Winslow, C. E. A., Rothberg, W., and Parsons, E. Q. Notes on the 

Classification of the White and Orange Staphylococci. Journal of 
Bacteriology, 1920, vol. V, p. 145. 

8. Cole. Practical Physiological Chemistry, p. 14. 

9. Clark, W. M., and Lubs, H. A. Journal of Bacteriology, 197, li, I; 

The Colorimetric Determination of Hydrogen Ion Concentration 
and its Application in Bacteriology. 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 7— May, 1920. 



CONTENTS: 

ANGUILLAVUS HACKBERRYENSIS. 

H. T. Martin. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post-office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 



9-860 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIIL] may, 1920. [No. 7. 



Anguilla vus hackberryensis. * 

A new species and a new ^eniis of fish from the Niobrara Cretaceous of Kansas. 

BY H. T. MARTIN. 

(Plate VI.) 

ALTHOUGH not a new genus of fish in the proper sense of 
of the word (the generic name having been given by Hayf 
to similar forms from the Upper Cretaceous of Mount 
Lebanon, Syria), this is the first time so far as the writer is 
aware that this genus has been reported from the Niobrara 
Cretaceous of Kansas, hence the term. 

The species I have named for the locality in which the speci- 
men was found, a locality made famous by the early discov- 
eries of Williston and Mudge. 

It is rather strange that, after fifty years of collecting by as 
many parties, not a single fragment has been found referable 
to this genus. Yet one would naturally expect that among the 
thousands of fossil fishes that have been collected from the 
deposits of this once great inland sea some member of this 
group would have been recognized. 

The specimen here figured and described was found by the 
writer during the University Expedition of 1919, on Hackberry 
creek, Gove county, Kansas, six miles east of Gove City. 

When found the specimen was weathered out and fully ex- 
posed as shown in the plate. The process of weathering had 
unfortunately carried away the greater part of the front por- 
tion of the skeleton, leaving only one or two bones of the skull, 

* Received for publication on May 18, 1921. 

t On a collection of Upper Cretaceous fishes from Mount Lebanon, Syria, with descrip- 
tions of four new genera and nineteen new species, p. 439, by O. P. Hay. 

(95) 



96 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

with impressions where other parts had been washed away. 
The only part of the head remaining was a fragment of one 
dentary and one quadrate. 

From all indications the skull was disarticulated and scat- 
tered over quite an area, while the hinder part of the skeleton 
was missing from the level of the sixty-fifth vertebra back- 
ward. The vertebrae remaining are connected in series which 
has made possible the retaining of the dorsal and anal fin in 
position. In size the Kansas specimen greatly exceeds those 
described by Hay from Mount Lebanon. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Ventral Fin. 

The ventral fin is represented by two separate and distinct 
groups of four or five small irregular oblong plates, which are 
evidently the baseost bones of the fins. These plates and por- 
tions of the girdle appear at the level of the thirtieth vertebra 
in line with the well-defined outline of the body. The plates 
are 3 mm. wide and 4 mm. long. As the basal plates may have 
moved from their original position it is not certain that the 
ventral fins commenced at the thirtieth vertebra, although 
they appear to have done so. 

Anal Fin. 
The anal fin commences at the thirty-fifth vertebra or just 
behind the baseost bones of the ventral fin and continues with- 
out break to the last vertebra remaining in the preserved 
series. 

Dorsal Fin. 

Owing to the weathering away of the matrix towards the 
front part of the specimen, the dorsal fin does not show dis- 
tinctly its whole length, the rays being disassociated and scat- 
tered, but in such a way that the fin appears to have com- 
menced at or very near the occipital. From the thirty-fifth 
vertebra backward they are in position to the last vertebra 
remaining. 

Vertebrse. 

From the position made clear by impressions in the ma- 
trix, where the first vertebra occurred, to the eighteenth, the 
vertebrae are missing. The nineteenth, twentieth, twenty-first 
and twenty-second are represented by a half of each vertebra, 



MARTIN: NEW SPECIES OF FISH. 97 

the twenty-second to the thirty-seventh are missing entirely, 
but from here on to the sixty-fifth the vertebrae connected with 
the dorsal and anal fins are perfect. Twenty-five vertebrae 
here measure 100 mm. All vertebrae are very constricted in 
their center and are a little wider than long. 

The entire specimen is crushed laterally, leaving the dorsal 
and anal fins in their natural position. The average distance 
across from the upper edge of the dorsal fin to the lower edge 
of the anal fin is 22 mm. At one point where the matrix has 
flaked away there appear six or seven delicate ribs attached 
to the underside of the vertebrae. 

The following measurements have been made : Length of 
specimen from impression of first vertebra to the sixty-fifth 
and last remaining vertebra, 255 mm. ; length of quadrate, 
6 mm. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VI. 
Fig. 1. Photograph of entire specimen as preserved in the matrix. 

df. =^ Dorsal fin. 

af. =: Anal fin. 

Bp. of Tf. = Basal plates of ventral fins. 

X. ^ Impressions of first vertebrse. 

Qd. = One quadrate 6 mm. long. 

Dent. = Portion of dentary. 

Fig. 2. Section of the hinder portion of the specimen, about natural 
size. 

df. r: Dorsal fin. 

af. =: Anal fin. 

Br. of Vf. ^= Basal plates of ventral fins. 



V- .Sci. Hul.-8(i0 



98 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Anguillavus hackberryensis. 
H. T. Martin. 



PLATE VI. 




Fig. 1. 




't, .-. ■* 





Fig. 2. 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 8— May, 1920. 



CONTENTS: 

Continuation of Investigation of a Possible Rainfall Period Equal 
TO One-ninth the Sun-spot Period, 

Dinsmore Alter. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post-oiHce in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

9-860 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIII.] MAY, 1920. [No. 8. 



Continuation of Investigation of a Possible Rainfall 
Period Equal to One-ninth the Sun-spot Period.* 

BY DINSMORE ALTER. 

IN THE Monthly Weather Revieiu for February, 1921, is 
published a preliminary report of the investigation of all 
the state averages of rainfall for the whole United States. 
Certain conclusions are reached tentatively, subject to further 
investigation. These are that there is evidence tending to 
shovv^ the existence of a correlation between rainfall and sun 
spots and that the rainfall follows a period of one-ninth the 
sun-spot period, varying its length always to keep in step with 
the sun-spot cycle. In this paper it is assumed that the reader 
is familiar with the previous discussion and only very brief 
reference will be made to any point discussed there. As stated 
in the conclusion of the other paper, the work has been con- 
tinued in an attempt to fix more definitely the probability of 
the phenomenon. 

The first continuation of the work was to answer definitely 
the question whether it might be that excessive rainfall or 
severe droughths in a very few of the months under discus- 
sion had produced the variations noted in the means of the 
two halves of the time as recorded in the previous paper. To 
do this, it was necessary to obtain the percentages of rainfall 
through each of the cycles for which data are available. For 
the eastern group state averages from two states are avail- 
able beginning January, 1883, and for all states from the latter 
nineties. These averages give us twenty-four consecutive 

* Received for publication August 5, 1921 

(101) 



102 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

cycles. In investigating individual cycles it is necessary to 
eliminate the seasonal effect from each individual month. This 
has, therefore, been done for each month and each state by 
dividing the actual rainfall of each state for each month by 
the normal of that state and month. As stated in the first 
paper, this method is as reliable as the former one, except on 
the extreme western coast of the country where normals are 
practically zero for certain months, and where these zero 
months are thus given an equal weight with months of heavy 
normal rainfall. The results for these twenty-four consecutive 
cycles are tabulated as table 1. The attention of the reader is 
called to the fact that in twenty-two cycles there are only two 
in which the percentage of rainfall, for months when the 
cycle calls for a minimum, has actually been above normal. 
Each of these cycles is strictly independent of any other and 
their lengths are dependent only upon extra-terrestial causes. 
For the maximum phase it is to be noted that sixteen are 
above normal, seven below and one exactly normal. The 
author believes that this table establishes the probability 
much more strongly than the previous treatment, so strongly 
in fact that only very strong definite negative evidence can 
combat it. 

California, western Washington and western Oregon are, 
as shown in the preceding paragraph, not available for treat- 
ment by individual cycles unless the summer months are en- 
tirely disregarded. It has been felt best, therefore, to treat, 
instead of the whole Pacific group of the first paper, the states 
of eastern Washington and Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Utah and 
Nevada as a unit. For these states there are available eighteen 
consecutives cycles. The results are shown as table 2. For 
the minimum phase fifteen of the eighteen are found to be 
below normal and for the maximum phase thirteen out of the 
eighteen are above normal. 

As shown in the first paper, it is impossible to continue the 
varying period beyond the last date which is followed by both 
a sun-spot maximum and sun-spot minimum. This is 1913. 
The tables previously referred to are based on Wolfer's esti- 
mate of May, 1913, as epoch of minimum. This has been re- 
vised by him, placing the minimum nearly three months later.^ 

1. Prof. A. Wolfer. Monthhj Weather Review. July, 1915, p. 314; August, 1920, 
pp. 459-461. 



alter: investigation of rainfall. 103 

However, since the effect of changing this one date would 
affect only the latter part of tables 1 and 2, and since they 
were computed before the new estimate became available, I 
have merely inspected them to see approximately what the 
result of the shift in the latter cycles will be. The reader can 
see by such an inspection that this will make the results 
slightly more striking than they are at present. 

It is desirable to make some use of the rainfall data since 
1913 if possible. Since it is impossible to use the period which 
actually applies, it is only possible to use a constant periodicity 
and thus get some approximation to the truth, although some 
of the amplitude is certain to be damped. Every indication 
from the sun spots and rainfall was that the period averaged 
approximately fourteen months since the last sun-spot mini- 
mum. I have, therefore, plotted all the data of these two sec- 
tions on the basis of such a constant periodicity. The results 
are given as table 3. These show once more the regularity 
with which the phases hold for each cycle, although, since the 
constant period is, of course, only an approximation to the true 
variable one, the same accuracy cannot be expected as has 
been found before. It should be noted that should the in- 
vestigator be engaged in the entirely different problem of 
hunting for a possible date of a future minimum instead of, as 
in this paper, justifying the assumption of existence of the 
period, he would no longer be bound by this constancy, but 
could adjust the lengths as seemed best to fit the data in hand. 

The mathematical reason for the greater reliability of 
minima in comparison with maxima is shown at once by table 
10 of the first paper. The 15-month primary period has its 
minimum at phase 13.4 and its maximum at 5.9 in the Eastern 
group. The second harmonic has minima at 13.3 and at 5.8, 
with maxima at 2.0 and 9.5. The third harmonic has minima 
at 13.4, 8.4 and 3.4, with maxima at 10.9, 5.9 and 0.9. It is, 
therefore, evident that amplitude variation between these 
harmonics will have very little effect on the principal mini- 
mum, but that changes in relative intensity will shift the 
principal maximum from phase 6, its normal value, whenever 
the second harmonic gains in relative strength sufficiently, to a 
principal maximum between phases 1 and 2. 



104 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE I. — Eastern- Grovp. Rainfall data for twenty-four consecutive cycles ending 1913. 
Sun-spot minimum occurs in phase 4. 



1 


2 


3 


4 

1 


3 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


n 


13 


14 


15 


74 


258 


64 


129 


127 


122 


110 


71 


66 


224 


149 


116 


94 


184 


117 




89 


99 


110 


118 


00 


109 


109 


103 


60 


110 


127 


68 


28 


92 


92 




89 


102 


84 


148 


96 


144 


144 


108 


80 


115 


87 


102 


90 


SO 


120 




114 


73 


98 


102 


102 


55 


146 


86 


85 


85 


158 


69 


91 


78 


77 




SI 


93 


93 


73 


73 


113 


76 


131 


106 


106 


89 


132 


64 


124 


124 




89 


78 


134 


137 


137 


133 


130 


85 


114 


71 


71 


69 


72 


101 


124 




138 


68 


68 


117 


75 


163 


64 


119 


138 


130 


97 


132 


91 


83 


124 




146 


159 


63 


86 


121 


149 


137 


71 


59 


98 


106 


119 


59 


66 


136 




96 


121 


79 


94 


111 


124 


132 


105 


98 


89 


36 


125 


79 


70 


138 




102 


136 


101 


70 


99 


102 


120 


100 


88 


83 


117 


72 


98 


91 


80 




76 


123 


108 


71 


65 


134 


48 


82 


98 


84 


96 


90 


54 


64 


116 




113 


65 


122 


82 


77 


109 


132 


76 


121 


77 


138 


49 


94 


131 


122 




87 


88 


117 


82 


46 


68 


129 


112 


98 


92 


96 


93 


88 


108 


142 




101 


169 


105 


88 


120 


132 


66 


81 


80 


95 


83 


83 


96 


82 


88 




144 


101 


110 


82 


141 


99 


75 


82 


120 


139 


80 


69 


106 


132 


122 




f4 


88 


150 


104 


59 


62 


156 


70 


104 


99 


76 


118 


91 


78 


144 




121 


118 


140 


96 


162 


131 


97 


78 


126 


97 


90 


83 


68 


76 


96 




1 1 


110 


83 


83 


88 


101 


101 


88 


104 


63 


97 


90 


94 


87 


100 




120 


107 


116 


118 


97 


130 


74 


129 


105 


60 


127 


62 


92 


114 


126 




121 


123 


126 


95 


111 


100 


66 


80 


113 


134 


107 


99 


88 


147 


85 




146 


130 


89 


136 


100 


116 


134 


80 


96 


103 


■ 65 


63 


64 


65 


81 




138 


102 


134 


lis 


104 


87 


91 


72 


66 


100 


106 


105 


26 


104 


105 




120 


105 


80 


92 


126 


78 


77 


87 


67 


70 


130 


53 


94 


79 


137 




108 


143 


136 


133 


92 


87 


147 


148 


116 


85 


107 


103 


122 


79 


80 




14 


16 


14 


11 


11 


16 


14 


8 


11 


8 


11 


9 


2 


9 


15 Above 
normal 




10 


8 


10 


13 


12 


7 


10 


15 


13 


15 


13 


15 


22 


15 


8 Br low 
normal 




108 


115 


105 


103 


101 


110 


107 


94 


96 


100 


101 


fO 


84 


97 


112 Mean. 



TABLE 2.— Rainfall data of six western states September, 1889, to April, IS 13. 
Phase numbers same as for Eastern group. 



1 


3 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


13 


13 


14 


15 








•36 


*255 


*164 


*409 


200 


120 


146 


66 


106 


67 


38 


318 


114 


50 


14 


70 


45 


187 


105 


94 


147 


250 


215 


86 


128 


28 


46 


169 


62 


54 


106 


119 


127 


106 


85 


28 


30 


71 


122 


128 


69 


125 


156 


127 


47 


86 


44 


174 


113 


124 


94 


138 


116 


156 


91 


101 


82 


67 


109 


82 


30 


141 


150 


S4 


85 


76 


69 


68 


43 


118 


26 


82 


116 


115 


62 


120 


149 


61 


126 


137 


88 


74 


198 


85 


80 


160 


118 


67 


119 


100 


55 


108 


146 


167 


138 


64 


87 


72 


161 


100 


76 


80 


63 


82 


86 


104 


116 


126 


91 


89 


86 


56 


211 


62 


151 


100 


79 


81 


70 


188 


86 


54 


45 


108 


115 


164 


113 


86 


123 


72 


86 


97 


78 


62 


74 


133 


78 


65 


120 


51 


141 


100 


104 


44 


173 


68 


54 


40 


154 


130 


117 


47 


100 


86 


84 


92 


112 


107 


82 


126 


63 


76 


190 


206 


93 


67 


69 


109 


67 


64 


103 


26 


96 


71 


69 


118 


97 


119 


109 


57 


53 


131 


98 


102 


65 


114 


98 


130 


109 


169 


134 


75 


162 


86 


57 


152 


171 


155 


132 


156 


98 


95 


181 


108 


180 


90 


83 


51 


139 


65 


91 


102 


66 


145 


132 


121 


110 


121 


190 


43 


68 


180 


127 


72 


69 


77 


109 


160 


157 


80 


188 


136 


110 


125 


73 


82 


70 


82 


84 


47 


140 


133 


148 


95 


148 


93 


62 


79 


111 


149 


61 


74 


161 


99 


92 


83 


108 


82 


104 


158 


111 


109 


174 


172 


94 


148 


85 


101 


88 


91 




















































10 


8 


2 


7 


12 


11 


13 


9 


9 


8 


11 


11 


9 


5 


4 Above 
normal. 


8 


10 


15 


11 


6 


6 


5 


9 


S 


9 


7 


7 


8 


12 


14 Below 
norma 1. 


108 


102 


74 


92 


101 


118 


113 


112 


107 


100 


122 


108 


112 


84 


102 Mean. 



* These months not used in mean since only one state's data available. 



alter: investigation of rainfall. 



105 



T.\BLE 3.— Rainfall since August. 1913, plotted as constant 14-month approximate periodicity. 

Eastern Group. 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


» 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


93 


71 


8S 


78 


121 


134 


87 


76 


79 


97 


83 


107 


56 


73 


86 


118 


73 


105 


91 


130 


144 


102 


44 


44 


130 


95 


114 


144 


100 


124 


97 


123 


111 


81 


77 


78 


112 


125 


138 


83 


87 


87 


74 


102 


108 


72 


127 


95 


86 


110 


102 


95 


S5 


121 


31 


53 


60 


60 


58 


145 


95 


87 


75 


87 


113 


153 


99 


126 


92 


98 


116 


91 


146 


101 


112 


109 


65 


188 


138 


86 


98 


88 


107 


161 


86 


107 


102 


129 


107 


53 


124 


124 


75 


82 


















1 


4 


3 


5 


5 


3 


2 


4 


4 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 Above 
normal. 


5 


3 


4 


2 


2 


4 


5 


3 


3 


5 


4 


3 


4 


4 Below 
normal. 


88 


96 


96 


108 


109 


98 


94 


109 


95 


97 


107 


103 


81 


101 Mean. 



Six Western St.^tes. 



ro 


192 


150 


142 


94 


124 


134 


90 


163 


97 


47 


145 


70 


213 


128 


38 


130 


149 


39 


50 


66 


116 


72 


137 


161 


92 


185 


41 


lis 


50 


120 


136 


172 


142 


146 


78 


80 


116 


184 


108 


72 


150 


69 


132 


74 


116 


96 


170 


147 


49 


64 


41 


113 


22 


70 


211 


110 


105 


97 


64 


64 


89 


164 


141 


156 


156 


75 


96 


61 


162 


90 


87 


60 


12 


54 


54 


12S 


126 


101 


115 


64 


98 


130 


177 


69 


98 




















































3 


3 


3 


4 


1 


3 


5 


3 


3 


4 


3 


2 


2 


5 .\bcve 
normal. 


4 


4 


3 


2 


5 


3 


1 


3 


3 


2 


3 


4 


4 


1 Below 
normal. 


96 


100 


105 


103 


86 


105 


131 


100 


106 


110 


107 


94 


98 


159 Mean*. 



* Since these years averaged much wetter than normal the average of the phase meais is 107 instead of 100. 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 9— May, 1920. 



CONTENTS: 

Application of Marvin's Periodocrite to Rainfall Periodicity, 

Dinsmore Alter. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post-office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 



9-860 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIIL] MAY, 1920. [No. 9. 



Application of Marvin's Periodocrite to Rainfall 

Periodicity.* 

BY DINSMORE ALTER. 

(Plates YII and VIII.) 

PROFESSOR MARVIN has recently ^ published a criterion 
for discrimination between real periodicities and fortui- 
tous ones. This criterion, called by him the periodocrite, 
seems to me to fill a real need, and I hope that it, or a slight 
modification of it, may be adopted generally for such purposes. 
If the data covers q of the suspe3ted cycles they are arranged 
in q rows and p columns. The total number oi^ observations is 

N. ^o= =^ V - ^n" = ^ "^n is then formed. Let n be any 

A^ .T979 N 

number of the rows or cycles. The mean is taken of the n ob- 
servations, in each column, and 't,, = ± \j - "^' = ^ is 

n .1919 n 

formed. The ratios — are plotted as ordinates and i . — as 

To 1/ n 

abscissae. "When y is substantially and consistently greater 
than X a real periodicity is indicated of greater or less amplitude." 
In the first of these two papers published here I have given 
two tables continuing the work of the previous paper on a 
rainfall period equalling one-ninth the principal sun-spot 
period. The first of these tables shows the percentages of 
normal for each phase of each of twenty-four consecutive 

* Received for publication August 5, 1921. 

1. Monthly Weather Review, March, 1921, pp. 115-124. 

(109) 



110 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

cycles in the eastern third of the United States. The second 
table shows the same for each of seventeen consecutive cycles 
of a large western group. These tables are peculiarly well 
adapted for application of Professor Marvin's Periodocrite. 

In table 1 of this paper I have formed the means of the first 
n cycles for each column of the Eastern group table described 
above, allowing n to assume each integral value from one to 
twenty-four. These means are the tabular values printed 
under each phase number. From these I have computed x and 
y, beginning with n = S. In table 2 I have done the same 
thing for the Western group. 

The last columns show the ratios y/x. Each of these thirty- 
five ratios is greater than one, the mean for the first table be- 
ing about 1.4 and for the second about 1.2. 

In plate VII I have shown these results graphically, and for 
purposes of comparison have copied the curves representing 
the annual cycles of Washington, D. C, and of Boston from 
' the figure given by Professor Marvin in his paper. 

The following has no connection with the application I have 
just made of the periodocrite to rainfall, but I believe that a 
slight modification of its graphical representation, not in any 
way changing its principle nor the method of analysis, will 
make it even more useful to discriminate between accidental 
and real periodicities of small amplitude. 

When X is plotted as the abscissae corresponding to suc- 

cessive va]ues of n become very closely crowded together, so much 
so that in the case ot of 24 cycles the last half of them are rep- 
resented by a very short portion of the curve, one easily over- 
looked in comparison with the much longer part representing the 
first half of the data. For a larger number of cycles the case be- 
comes even worse.' Yet these are the cycles in which accidental 
errors have been damped, to a large extent, and in which any 
true periodicity of small amplitude will show itself most clearly. 

Furthermore -^ has become small, if the amplitude of a real 

periodicity is small, and the distance that is plotted above the 
line of perfect fortuity seems to the eye to be negligible, despite 
the fact that y/x, the real criterion, may rapidly be increasing 
to a large value. 



alter: MARVIN'S PERIODOCRITE. Ill 

I would therefore suggest that the graphical representation 
be changed to X = n and Y = y /x. If this be done Y will, in 
general, decrease when X is small, even though there be a real 
periodicity of small amplitude superimposed on observations 
with large accidental errors; then, when 7i has become large 
enough to damp out the major portion of these errors, increase 
rapidly, no matter how small the real periodicity, to an infinite 
limit. If, however, there are no real periodicity Y will ap- 
proach one as a limit. Such cases as the annual cycle at Bos- 
ton, where the amplitude is small but where 7i has become very 
large, and which look doubtful as plotted by Professor Marvin, 
despite our knowledge of their truth, will show clearly the 
differences between themselves and accidental combinations. 
In plate VIII I have replotted in this way the four curves of 
plate VII. 

In conclusion, I wish to warn against a possible misunder- 
standing on the part of the reader concerning Professor Mar- 
vin's statement on page 118 of his article mentioned above, 
that "other sequences 15 months, 16 months, one-ninth the 
variable sun-spot period, like the circles, all fall in the class 
of perfect fortuity." In a letter to me of later date he says: 
"I would like to know what the testimony of the periodocrite 
principle would be in reference to the alleged cycles you have 
examined. I am sure it is easily possible for you to make the 
application, as you have all the tabulations and data most 
fully worked up, whereas for me to do the thing myself would 
mean practically the entire duplication of the work you have 
already done." It is evident from this statement that he 
means to refer only to the five towns in Iowa and not, as some 
might erroneously infer, to the great mass of data I have used. 



112 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



&}! H 



O QOii^OS ■^COu^ OOOTt« (Mt^Ui 
C5 lOCOM C^'^'^ COtJ^CO COfOCO 



t^iO-^ 40'-^M (MCOiM 



^ ) ^_-H (^jvjj^ co-^-^ r-u5«o t--.ooo 



t^ 



CO cc Oi cci Oi 1^5 fc 00 o OS O cc cc c^ Tj< lo o r-- ocoooo 

ciOCOCO l-^t^OO wiOOOi OOOIOS CiOlOl 0;iOlOi dOiC". 



w 
hJ 
« 

< 
H 



ir? lO m CO -M o 



o o t— en as »o CO r- -^o -^ rr -rf -^ ■^ »o -^ rf to 



00 ■^ CO CO O ^ O O CO CO ■^ C^ CO ■* CO 00 OD oo 

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1— « C^l CO "* »o CO 



t^OOOi O — C-1 CO"*u^ ccr-00 cr. O ~^ C^Jro*** 



ALTER : MARVIN'S PERIODOCRITE. 



113 



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^ 



m 1:0 »ci^ r^ooc<i (Mor^ r^tr"^ SS 



QO oic— coioec woes 2R5^S 1551 
ic lO"^-^ cceocc cccoc^ <noic^ MC*! 



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COCO"Tf -^^^Ci t^CiiO -^iC-^ ■^C*aO 05QC 
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oooo;D cor^r* o^-^Oi oO'—'co iOifi *fi cot^ 
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CD-^^H C^COCr: CQiTDOO eD'"*'0 cDCOTt' »rt05 
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»-i "^ CC <— ' CC (M 



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c33o;0 


t^ .o o 


1 = 2 


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0:1 ■— • o 
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oooci 

cr. 00 Ci 


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c: Ci oo 


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()— Sci. Bui.— 800 



114 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 




Plate VII. — Application of Professor Marvin's periodocrites to various 

periodocrites. 

1. Annual cycle, Washington, D. C, rainfall, fifty-year record. 

3. Annual cycle, Boston rainfall, 103-year record. 

3. Twenty-four cycles ninth harmonic of sun-spot period in Eastern group rainfall. 

4. Seventeen cycles of same in Western group rainfall. 



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THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 10— July, 1922. 



CONTENTS: 

On the Prepar.\tion of the Aryl Isothiocyanates, 

F. B. Dains, R. Q. Brewster, C. P. Olander. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

8-3728 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIII.] July, 1922. [No. 10. 



On the Preparation of the Aryl Isothiocyanates. 

BY F. B. DAINS, R. Q. BREWSTER, C. P. OLANDER. 

THE aromatic mustard oils, RNCS, which have been the sub- 
ject of many investigations on account of their reactivity, have 
been prepared by a number of different methods. The most com- 
mon one involves the synthesis of the disubstituted thioureas from 
the amines and the subsequent splitting of the thioureas into aryl 
isothiocyanates and the amine or some derivative. Thus thiocar- 
banilide, when boiled with concentrated hydrochloric acid, 20 per 
cent sulphuric acid or concentrated phosphoric acid gave phenyl 
mustard oil and varying amounts of aniline and triphenyl guanidine. 

The yield of mustard oil, based on the aniline used, in general is 
far from satisfactory on account of losses incurred in the prepara- 
tion of the thiourea and the subsequent splitting with acid.^ 

An interesting modification in the preparation of these compounds 
depends upon the action of acetic anhydride or an acid chloride such 
as acetyl chloride upon the thiourea.- The acetyl derivative of the 
thiourea, wiiich is first formed, readily breaks down into the mustard 
oil and an acyl-aryl amide, 

RNHCSNCOCH3R = RNCS + RNHCOCH3. 

While the above methods are of general applicability, it is evi- 
dent that only one-half of the original amine can be converted into 
the isothiocyanate, and that it necessitates the synthesis of the sub- 
stituted thiourea. 

Fortunately, however, H. S. Fry's-" interesting method for the 
preparation of the diaryl thiocarbamides has made readily acces- 
sible various thioureas that were difficult to obtain by the older 
methods. 

1. J. 1858, 394. Z. 1869, 359. Ber. 15, 986 (1882). 

2. J. Chem. Soc, 59, 400 (1891). J. Am. Chem. Soc, 22, 188 (1900). 

3. J. A. Chem. Soc, 35, 1539 (1903). 

(3) 



4 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

A second general method for the synthesis of the mustard oils is 
based upon the intermediate formation of the salt of a substituted 
dithiocarbamic acid, RNHCSSMe. This is illustrated by the Hof- 
mann^ syntheses of alkyl isothiocyanates, which involve the desul- 
phurization of the salt RNHCSSNH3R with mercuric chloride, silver 
nitrate, etc. 

In the aromatic series compounds of the type RNHCSSNH3R 
cannot, as a rule, be isolated, but instead lose hydrogen sulphide and 
go over to the ordinary thiourea, RNHCSNHR. On the other 
hand, the aryl amines react with carbon bisulphide and ammonia 
and give almost quantitatively the corresponding ammonium salts, 
RNHCSSNH4. This should afford a convenient source of mustard 
oils, provided some simple means could be devised for removing a 
mole of NH.SH. 

METHODS FOR SUCH ELIMINATION. 

Andreasch^ and others have shown that the ammonium dithio- 
carbamates react with ethyl chloroformate with the formation of 
aryl isothiocyanates, RNCS. The yields, however, are varying and 
the products are apt to be contaminated with the corresponding 
oxygen ureas. The method involves, too, the use of the expensive 
ethyl chloroformate. 

In a paper published in 1891, LosanitscM described a number of 
salts of phenyl dithiocarbamic acid and obtained from the am- 
monium dithiocarbamate, in water solution, the corresponding col- 
ored salts of copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, mercury and manganese. 
The statement was made "that the best method for the prepara- 
tion of phenyl mustard oil is to treat a solution of ammonium 
phenyl dithiocarbamate with copper sulphate and distill with steam. 
The yield of mustard oil is theoretical." No confirmatory data, 
however, were given for this statement. Later Heller and Bauer'^ 
found that lead carbonate reacted with the ammonium aryl dithio- 
carbamates, yielding mixtures of the aryl isothiocyanates and mono- 
aryl thioureas. 

Since considerable amounts of the aryl isothiocyanates were 
needed in another investigation in this laboratory, it seemed ad- 
visable to follow up this observation of Losanitsch and ascertain 



4. Ber. 1, 170 (1868). Ber. 8, 108 (1875). Ann. 371, 201 (1909). 

5. Monat. 27, 1211 (1906). Monat. 30, 701 (1909). Monat. 33, 363 (1912). Am. Ch. 
J. 24, 432 (1902). Ber. 35, 3368 (1902). Ber. 36, 3520 (1903). Ber. 40, 2198 (1912). 

6. Ber. 24, 3021 (1891). 

7. J. Prak. Ch. (2) 65, 365 (1902). 



DAIXS ET AL.: ARYL ISOTHIOCYANATES. 5 

whether the method was really a practical one and to determine if 
possible the optimum conditions. 

The investigation has shown that the general method suggested 
by Losanitsch is capable of giving very satisfactory results in the 
synthesis of aryl isothiocyanates. Yields of mustard oil up to 77 
per cent based upon the weiglit of the amine have been obtained — a 
result which is impossible by the usual method. 

REACTIONS INVOLVED IN THE DESULPHURIZATION OF THE 
ARYL DITHIOCARBAMATES. 

Using aniline as a typical aryl amine the synthesis is best illus- 
trated by the following reactions: 

I. C6H5NH2 + CSo + NH4OH = C0H5NHCSSNH4 + H2O. 
II. C6H5NHCSSNH4 + Pb(N03)2 = CeHsNCS + NH4NO3 
+ HNO3+ PbS. 

Equation II does not occur directly, since the addition of the lead 
nitrate causes the precipitation of the lead salt — 

III. 2C6H3NHCSSNH4 + Pb(NO:j)o = (CcH5NHCSS)2Pb + 2NH4NO3. 

The lead phenyl dithiocarbamate on heating breaks down as 
follows : 

IV. (CGH5NHCSS)2Pb = C6H5NCS + CeHgNHCSSH + PbS. 

The free phenyl dithiocarbamic acid tends to decompose with the 
formation of thiocarbanilide, aniline, etc. To prevent this a second 
mole of lead nitrate is used: 

V. (CoH5NHCSS)2Pb + Pb(N03)2 = 2C6H5NCS + 2PbS + 2HNO3. 

Since the nitric acid diminishes the yield by freeing phenyl dithio- 
carbamic acid from its NH^ salt, an excess of aimnonium hydroxide 
is added. The ideal proportions would be: 

VI. 2C6H5NHCSSNH4 + 2Pb(N03)2 + 2NH4OH = 2C6H5NCS 
+ 2PbS + 4NH4NO3. 

For the best results, the solution after the addition of the lead 
nitrate should be neutral or only slightly acid. An excess of 
ammonia converts the mustard oil into monophenyl thiourea. 

EXPERIMENTAL. 

PREPARATION AND ISOLATION OF THE AMMONIUM PHENYL 

DITHIOCARBAMATE. 

The following procedure, which is a modification of the method 
described by Heller and Bauer,* was found to give the best results. 
Carbon bisulphide (54 gms.) and 28 per cent ammonium hydroxide 

8. J. Prak. Chem. (2) 65, 369 (1902). 



6 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN, 

(80 gms.) were mixed in a wide-mouthed flask or tall beaker set in 
ice. To this was added through a dropping funnel, in the course of 
15 minutes, aniline (54 gms.), the whole being kept in agitation 
with an automatic stirrer. 

The milky heterogeneous mixture, which first resulted, became 
clear and homogeneous after the addition of the aniline. The am- 
monium salt soon began to separate, and the mixture may become 
so thick as to stop the stirrer. After standing an hour in the ice 
bath the white ammonium salt was filtered, the mass washed with 
a little alcohol and dried quickly on a porous plate or between 
filter paper. The best yield of this salt was 86 per cent of the 
theory, although this may vary decidedly, not only in the case of 
aniline but also with the other aryl amines. This is due to the in- 
complete separation of the ammonium salt rather than to its non- 
formation. 

PROPERTIES OF THE AMMONIUM PHENYL DITHIOCARBAMATE. 

On standing, the salt slowly decomposed with the formation of 

hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, carbon bisulphide, aniline and thio- 

carbanilide. Tlie decomposition was hastened when the salt was 

boiled with water. The results here indicated that the two main 

reactions were as follows, the first predominating: 

I. C6H5NHCSSNH4 = C0H5NH0 + CS2 +NH.3. 
II. CoH,5NHCSSNH4 = C6H.5NCS + HoS + NH3. 

The mustard oil and aniline reacted to give thiocarbanilide, but 
the yield is low, only about 20 per cent of the theoretical. 

With the ammonium salts of the p-chloro and p-bromophenyl 
dithiocarbamates, where the amines and isothiocyanates are less 
volatile, 55 to 60 per cent yields of the substituted thiocarbanilides 
have been obtained by this method. 

DECOMPOSITION WITH ACIDS. 

When an aqueous solution of the salt is treated with hydrochloric 
acid the quantitative decomposition can be expressed as follows: 
CGH5NHCSSNH4 + 2HC1 = C6H5NH2HCI + CS2 + NH4CI. 

Only traces of hydrogen sulphide and phenyl isothiocyanate are 
formed. 

PREPARATION OF THE ARYL ISOTHIOCYANATES FROM THE 

AMMONIUM SALTS. 

It is evident, then, that in order to produce the mustard oil, 
RNCS, from the dithiocarbamate, RNHCSSNH^, some metallic salt 
must be used which will form a stable sulphide and an ammonium 



DAIXS ET AL.: ARYL ISOTHIOCYANATES. 7 

salt. To determine the best conditions for such a decomposition 
the following experiments were undertaken, using the dry am- 
monium salt of the aryl dithiocarbamates. 

FERROUS SULPHATE. 

A solution of 60 gms. of the iron salt in the minimum volume 
of water was added to 40 gms. of the ammonium phenyl dithio- 
carbamate in 200 cc. of water. A yellowish-brown precipitate 
formed immediately. The mixture, which had a noticeable odor 
of the phenyl isothiocyanatc, was allowed to stand for an hour 
and then distilled with steam, but with the result that only 3 cc. of 
an impure mustard oil was obtained. 

ZINC SULPHATE. 

On mixing 30 gms. of the ammonium salt in 300 cc. of water 
with 47 gms. of zinc sulphate in 150 cc. of water a thick, white pre- 
cipitate of the zinc phenyl dithiocarbamate was formed. This 
changed on steam distillation to zinc sulphide and gave a 23 per 
cent yield of the phenyl isothiocyanatc. 

COPPER SULPHATE. 

To a solution of 25 gms. of the ammonium salt in 150 cc. of water 
was added 34 gms. of copper sulphate in the same volume of water. 
The odor of mustard oil was very pronounced, and the yellowish- 
brown copper salt changed readily, on distilling the mixture with 
steam, to the black copper sulphide. The yield of oil in this case 
was 71.7 per cent — a very decided increase. 

LEAD NITRATE. 

Using the same concentrations as above, 25 gms. of the ammonium 
salt and 40 gms. of lead nitrate gave the brown lead salt with a 
subsequent yield of 77.2 per cent phenyl isothiocyanate — a maxi- 
mum which has not been exceeded. 

In general it has been found that while both the copper and lead 
salts are suitable desulphurizing agents, the use of lead nitrate gave 
the better result in about the above ratio. 

PREP.\RATION OF PHENYL ISOTHIOCYANATE WITHOUT SEPA- 
RATION OF THE AMMONIUM SALT. 

The data obtained from the preparation of the ammonium salts 
of the ar^d dithiocarbamates showed that the isolation of this com- 
pound might be far from quantitative, with the result that the yield 
of mustard oil based on the amine used would be proportionately 
lowered. This was proved directly by many experiments, two of 
which will be described in detail. 



8 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

In each case the following amounts of reagents were used and the 
same procedure followed as exactly as possible: 

Aniline 26 gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 27 gms. 

Ammonium hydroxide (28%) 44 gms. 

Alcohol 20 cc. 

Lead nitrate 100 gms. 

The addition of the aniline required one-half hour. The stirring 
was then continued for another one-half hour, and the mixture 
filtered after standing for an additional hour. The separated salt 
was dissolved in 200 cc. of water, treated with the lead nitrate (in 
200 cc. water), and distilled wuth steam. The yield of pure mus- 
tard oil was 20 gms. (53 per cent). 

In the second case the unfiltered solution and salt was made up 
to 200 cc. with water and desulphurized as before. The product 
weighed 28 gms. — a yield of 74.2 per cent, based on the aniline used. 
The best yield obtained under these conditions was 76.8 per cent 
pure phenyl isothiocyanate. The difference in yield in the above 
experiments between 53 per cent and 74 per cent is due without 
question to the solubility of the ammonium salt in the aqueous 
ammonia. 

LABORATORY PREPARATION. 

The following directions are given as suitable for a laboratory 
experiment in the preparation of the phenyl isothiocyanate: 

Place 54 grams of carbon bisulphide and 80 grams of cone. 
NH^OH (28 per cent) in a tall beaker, surrounded by ice, and 
stir the mixture with a turbine. Drop 56 gms. of aniline into this 
mixture from a separatory funnel during the course of 20 minutes. 
The separation of ammonium phenyl dithiocarbamate soon begins. 
Continue the stirring for 30 minutes after all of the aniline has been 
added. Then allow the mixture to stand for another period of 30 
minutes without stirring. 

Dissolve the salt by the addition of 800 cc. of water, and add to 
the solution (with constant stirring) 200 gms. of lead nitrate 
dissolved in 400 cc. of water. Steam-distill the product from a 5- 
liter flask. 

Put in the receiver a little dilute sulphuric acid ; this will combine 
with traces of ammonia or aniline that might be driven over, and 
thus prevent the formation of any mono- or diphenyl thiourea. 



DAINS ET AL.: ARYL ISOTHIOCYANATES. 9 

LARGER-SCALE PRODUCTION. 

Tlic preparation of the mustard oil was carried out in a number 
of experiments, using from five to ten times the amount of the 
reagents listed above, with corresponding dilution. The percentage 
yields, however, were not so great as with smaller amounts. For 
instance, 280 gms. of aniline gave 232 gms. of product, and 560 gms. 
of aniline yielded 435 gms. of pure redistilled phenyl isothiocyanate. 
The low results were due in part to difficulties in properly mixing 
the reagents. If much free nitric acid was formed it decomposed 
the ammonium phenyl dithiocarbamate, thus preventing the for- 
mation of the lead phenyl dithiocarbamate. Other by-products 
that occurred were ammonium thiocyanate, diphenyl thiourea, 
triphenyl guanidine, which appeared as the nitrate, and monophenyl 
thiourea, where any excess of ammonia was present. In addition 
a strong current of steam is needed to separate the oil from the 
mass of lead sulphide formed. 

ACTION OF LEAD NITRATE ON OTHER SALTS OF THE PHENYL 

DITHIOCARBAMIC ACID. 

It seemed worth while to try the desulphurization of other than 
the ammonimn salts, since in the absence of that reagent certain 
side reactions might be prevented. 

Sodium Salt. C,H,NHCSSNa. 

Aniline 28 . gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 27.0 gms. 

Sodium hydroxide 13. 1 in 50 cc. water. 

Lead nitrate 100.0 in 300 cc. water. 

The sodium salt which formed on mixing the reagents was so 
thick that the stirrer was stopped. Alcohol, 22 cc, was therefore 
added, and the stirring continued for one-half hour. After standing 
for an hour the orange-colored mixture was dissolved in 300 cc. of 
water and treated with the lead nitrate solution. Only a 30.2 per 
cent yield of the mustard oil was obtained, the greater portion of the 
aniline having been converted into thiocarbanilide. 

Barium Salt. (C6H3NHCSS)3a. 

Aniline 28 gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 30 gms. 

Crys. barium hydroxide 47.5 gms. in 110 cc. of water. 

Zinc chloride 42. 1 gms. in 42 cc. of water. 

Sodium hydroxide 9.6 gms. in 18 cc. of water. 

The aniline was slowly added to the mixture of barium hydroxide 



10 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

and carbon bisulphide and then stirred for an additional hour. The 
odor of hydrogen sulphide became noticeable, showing decomposi- 
tion. The zinc hydroxide formed by the addition of the sodium 
hydroxide to the zinc chloride was now added and the mixture 
allowed to stand overnight. On distillation with steam, 15.2 gms. of 
mustard oil, or 37.4 per cent, was isolated. 

Calcium Salt. (C,H5NHCSS),Ca. 

Parallel experiments were now made, substituting calcium for 
barium hydroxide, the other conditions remaining the same. Very 
little phenyl isothiocyanate was obtained, the main product being 
thiocarbanilide. 

In the report on "The Manufacture of War Gases in Germany,"^ 
it is stated that Kalle & Co. made the phenyl mustard oil used in 
the preparation of phenyl iminophosgene from the calcium phenyl 
dithiocarbamate, w^iich was then desulphurized with a mixture of 
zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide. 

That calcium phenyl dithiocarbamate was formed from the carbon 
bisulphide and calcium hydroxide was shown in the following ex- 
periment : 

Aniline 28 . gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 27.2 gms. 

Calcium hydroxide 12.0 gms. in 26 cc. of water. 

Lead nitrate 100.0 gms. in 300 cc. of water. 

On the addition of the aniline there was a tendency for the mass 
to collect in a gummy paste. This was prevented by the addition 
of a little alcohol and stirring the mixture for 24 hours. After 
desulphurization wdth lead nitrate 15.6 gms. of oil were isolated, 
which corresponded to a yield of 38.4 per cent. The increase in 
mustard oil is doubtless due to longer stirring and the more efficient 
desulphurizing agent, lead nitrate. 

PREPARATION OF OTHER ARYL ISOTHIOCYANATES. 

The following experiments were carried out in order to ascertain 
wiiether the method was suitable for the preparation of other aryl 
isothiocyanates: 

o-ToLYL Isothiocyanate. o-C-H^NCS. 

o-Toluidine 32.2 gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 27.0 gms. 

Ammonia water 47.0 gms. 

Alcohol 20.0 cc. 

Lead nitrate 100.0 gms. in 200 cc. water. 

9. J. F. Norris, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 11, 827 (1919). 



DAINS ET AL.: ARYL ISOTHIOCYANATES. 11 

The ammonium salt crystallized out readily after addition of 
the amine. The mixture was then brought into solution by the 
addition of 400 cc. of water and treated as before. The weight of 
pure o-tolyl mustard oil was 32.8 gms., or 73.27 per cent. 

m-ToLYL ISOTHIOCYANATE. m-C-H^NCS. 

Using the same proportions as before, the solid ammonium salt, 
which is easily soluble in water, soon formed. From the reaction 
mixture was isolated 33.5 gms. of oil, or 74.7 per cent yield. 

p-TOLYL ISOTHIOCYANATE. p-C-H-NCS. 

Under the above conditions 32.3 gms. (72.1 per cent) of the 
p-tolyl mustard oil (b. p. 270) were obtained. 

1, 3, 4,-XyLYL ISOTHIOCYANATE. (CHg) oCeHgNCS. 

1. 3. 4-Xylidine 36.4 gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 27.0 gms. 

Ammonium hydroxide 47.0 gms. 

Lead nitrate 100.0 gms. in 200 cc. of water. 

After three hours' stirring the ammonium salt separated in coarse 
crystals, which were dissolved in 400 cc. of water before the addi- 
tion of the lead nitrate. The mustard oil was very slowly volatile 
with steam, and was obtained partly by this method and partly by 
extraction of the oily lead sulphide with carbon bisulphide. The 
separation was not complete, and only 25.5 gms. (52 per cent) of the 
xylyl isothiocyanate (m. p. 31°) were obtained. 

PsEUDOCrMYL IsOTHIOCY.\NATE. 1, 2, 4, 5, (CHg) aCgH^NCS. 

Pseudocumidine 20.0 gms. 

Carbon bisulphide lo-O gms. 

Ammonium hydroxide 23.0 gms. 

Alcohol 22.0 cc. 

Lead nitrate 49.0 gms. 

The ammonium salt separated after two hours' stirring. It was 
dissolved in 1,000 cc. of water and treated with the lead nitrate in 
the same dilution. The isothiocyanate is difficultly volatile with 
steam, and the yield, 50.2 per cent, could probably have been in- 
creased by extracting the sulphide residue with some solvent. 

Alpha-Naphthyl Isothiocyanate. A-CioH.NCS. 

Alpha-naphthylamine 20.0 gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 15.0 gms. 

Ammonium hydroxide 22.0 gms. 

Alcohol 20 cc. 

Lead nitrate 46.2 gms. in 200 cc. of water. 



12 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN, 

The reaction mixture was dark colored and required long stirring 
before the ammonium salt separated. It was then dissolved in 
400 cc. of water and desulphurized. 

The isothiocyanate, which melted at 35°, was isolated by extract- 
ing the sulphide precipitate with repeated portions of alcohol. The 
product weighed 17.6 gms. (68.2 per cent). 

Beta-Naphthyl Isothiocyanate. 

The procedure was the same as with the alpha-naphthylamine, 
and while the ammonium salt, which was readily formed, reacted 
with the lead nitrate, no isothiocyanate could be isolated from the 
residue using alcohol as a solvent. It is probable that some other 
solvent would have proved more suitable. 

o-Anisyl Isothiocyanate. o-CHgOCgH^NCS. 

o-Anisidin 37 . 1 gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 27 . gms. 

Ammonium hydroxide 47 . gms. 

Alcohol 20 cc. 

Lead nitrate 100.0 gms. in 200 cc. of water. 

The ammonium salt separated quickly as a mass of coarse crys- 
tals. The mixture was allowed to stand for one hour and then dis- 
solved in 800 cc. of water and desulphurized. The mustard oil, 
which distilled slowly with steam, weighed 35.2 gms. (70.7 per cent). 

P-Anisyl Isothiocyanate. p-CHgOC^H^NCS. 

p-Anisidine 10.0 gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 10.0 gms. 

Ammonium hydroxide 13.0 gms. 

Alcohol 15.0 cc. 

Lead nitrate 27.0 gms. in 500 cc. of water. 

The salt formed readily in large white crystals. After standing 
two hours the mixture was dissolved in 500 cc. of water and treated 
as usual. The mustard oil was easily volatile with steam and gave 
a yield of 9.2 gms. (68.6 per cent). 

P-Phenetidyl Isothiocyanate. p-CoHjOCeH^NCS. 

In this case the weight of p-phenetidine was 41.3 gms.; otherwise 
the amounts of reagents corresponded to those used in the prepara- 
tion of the o-anisyl isothiocyanate. The mustard oil distilled 
slowly with steam and gave a yield of 72.7 per cent. 



DAINS ET AL.: ARYL ISOTHIOCYANATES. 13 

HALOGEN SUBSTITUTED PHENYL MUSTARD OILS. 
m-BROMOPHENYL ISOTHIOCYANATE. m-BrCyH^NCS. 

m-Bromoaniline 15 gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 10 gms. 

Ammonium h3'droxide 13.6 gms. 

Lead nitrate 29.0 -gms. in 500 cc. of water. 

The dithiocarbamatc formed very slowly and coarse crystals of 
the ammonium salt began to appear only after an hour's stirring. 
These were dissolved in 500 cc. of water. 

The oil which came over with the steam solidified on cooling. The 
yield, however, was only 7 gms. (37.4 per cent). 

P-Bromophenyl Isothiocyanate. p-BrCeH^NCS. 

The same quantity of reagents were used as in the preceding prep- 
aration except that 15 cc. of alcohol was added in order to decrease 
the solubility of the ammonium salt, which separated in the form 
of fine, needle-shaped crj^stals. After standing overnight the mix- 
ture was dissolved in 500 cc. of water and filtered from a little un- 
changed p-bromoaniline. The yield of mustard oil was 39.6 per cent. 

P-Chlorophenyl Isothiocyanate. p-ClCoH^NCS. 

p-Chloroaniline 20.0 gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 15.0 gms. 

Ammonium hydroxide 24.5 gms. 

Alcohol 20 cc. 

Lead nitrate 52.0 gms. 

The mixture containing the ammonium dithiocarbamate was dis- 
solved in 500 cc. of water and treated as usual. The yield was 15.8 
gms. of the solid isothiocyanate (59.6%). 

p-IODOPHENYL ISOTHIOCYANATE. p-ICeH^XCS. 

p-Iodoanihne 20 gms. 

Carbon bisulphide 12 gms. 

Ammonium hydroxide 14.2 gms. 

Alcohol 20 cc. 

Lead nitrate 30.2 gms. 

The crystals separated after 30 minutes' stirring. The mixture 
after standing for four hours was added to 500 cc. of water, and 
later filtered from a dark-colored insoluble residue. The mustard 
oil, which was obtained in a 53.4 per cent yield, was volatile with 
steam and melted at 79°. 

p-XlTROANILINE. 

All efforts to prepare the ammonium p-nitrophenyl dithiocar- 
bamate failed, the nitroaniline being recovered unchanged. 



14 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



/ 



RESUME OF RESULTS. 

Aryl Per cent yields based 

isothiocyanates. « on amines used. 

■ Phenyl 76.8 

o-Tolyl 73.2 

m-Tolyl 74.7 

p-Tolyl 72. 1 

1, 3, 4,-Xylyl 52.0 

Pseudocumyl 50. 7 

Alpha-naphthyl 68.0 

Beta-naphthyl 00.0 

o-Anisyl 70.7 

p-Anisyl 68 . 6 

p-Phenetidyl 72.7 

m-Bromophenyl , 37 . 4 

p-Bromophenyl 39 . 6 

p-Chlorophenyl 59 . 3 

p-Iodophenyl 53 . 3 

p-Nitrophenyl 00.0 

From the consideration of the foregoing results, it is evident that 
the success of the method is dependent upon at least three factors: 
First, the completeness of the formation of the ammonium aryl 
dithiocarbamate, RNHCSSNH^. Second, the ease and completeness 
of separation from the sulphide precipitate. Third, the avoidance 
of side reactions leading to the formation of free aryl dithiocarbamic 
acid, aniline, etc. The low yield in the case of the xylyl, cumyl and 
alpha-naphthyl derivatives would seem to be due to their slight 
volatility with steam and the difficulty of extracting the oils from 
the mass of lead sulphide. 

The cause of the failure with beta-naphthylamine must be de- 
termined by further investigation. 

With the halogen substituted anilines which are less basic than 
the aniline, toluidine, etc., there is probably incomplete salt forma- 
tion, which would thus account for the lower yields. 

SUMMARY. 

The paper describes a method for the preparation of aryl isothio- 
cyanates which is relatively simple and inexpensive and which gives 
yields greater than any which require the intermediate formation of 
the diaryl thioureas. 



D 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 11— July, 1922. 



CONTENTS: 

A Rainfall Period Equal to One-ninth the Sun-spot Period, 

Dinsmore Alter. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

9-3728 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIII.] July, 1922. [No. 11. 



A Rainfall Period Equal to One-ninth the 
Sun-spot Period. 

DINSMORE ALTER. 
SYNOPSIS. 

PRELIMINARY discussions based on the rainfall of the United 
States have been published in the Monthly Weather Review and 
the University of Kansas Science Bulletin. The present paper com- 
pletes the investigation of this period, using much longer records 
and the data from the United States, Northern Europe, Central Si- 
beria, the Punjab in India, Chile, South Australia, Jamaica and 
Madagascar. Numerous tables and curves are given. The con- 
clusion reached is that the period does exist, and that the relation- 
ship to sun spots is not a direct one, but due to an unknown common 
cause. In purelj' continental areas, minimum rainfall is connected 
with a maximum of sun spots; in purely marine, with a minimum of 
sun spots. For areas with rainfall between these types the period 
is nc>t plainly found. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

In August, 1915, Dr. A. E. Douglass read a very interesting paper 
before the Berkeley meeting of the American Astronomical Society 
regarding an investigation of the growth of trees in many parts of 
the world, indicating an eleven-year period in rainfall (1). 

It seemed to me that the data collected by the Weather Bureau 
should definitely settle such a question of periods. Some prelimi- 
nary reading showed, however, that a tremendous amount of time 
had been spent on the problem (2), and that if solvable it must be 
very complicated. Other work prevented starting any actual in- 
vestigation ; then the war intervened and the problem was untouched 
till the spring of 1919. The first data examined were those from 

(17) 

2 — Science Bui. — 3728 



18 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Lawrence, Kan., where records since 1868 are available. Several hun- 
dred hours of work showed nothing. Once a stretch of five years was 
found which resembled another five quite closely after eliminating 
the seasonal curve. Another time resemblances were found after 
about twenty -two years. All such were easily explainable as acci- 
dental. It seemed useless to carry the work further with the data at 
hand. 

A paper by Professor Turner (3), however, gave me a new sug- 
gestion, although there was little if any logical reason for any con- 
nection. In this paper Professor Turner shows plainly the existence 
of a period in earthquakes with a length between 14.8421 and 14.- 
8448 months. It occurred to me that this period might be com- 
mensurable with the sun-spot period. Upon multiplying it by 9, I 
obtained 11.13 years, which is the mean sun-spot period to the exact 
hundredth of a year. Such an exact coincidence is very probably 
not accidental (4a). 

The next move was to examine all sun-spot data in order to find 
whether such a period also exists in sun spots. The results have 
been inconclusive, some evidence favoring the existence of the 
period, but not being definite enough to settle the question either 
way. The general conclusion seems to be that any relationship of 
sun spots to weather is not a direct one, and that periodicities which 
are commensurable may exist in each separately, as might happen if 
the variations were due to a common cause. This will be more fully 
developed in the general discussion of results. 

In three preliminary papers (4b) I have investigated the rainfall 
of the United States, and in them arrived at the conclusion that they 
afford evidence toward the existence of the rainfall periodicity. 
When these papers were published it was recognized that they did 
not constitute proof, that data were needed from all parts of the 
world and, as Marvin (5) stated in a critical discussion, long rec- 
ords were needed. Since the publication of the first papers I have 
been gathering all available data, much of it in unpublished manu- 
scripts sent me by meteorologists from many countries of the world. 
The reduction of these data has been a long job, even requiring hun- 
dreds of hours to prepare a single table. For example, the rainfall 
of many separate stations were given for Sweden; these had to be 
combined as one table. The same was true of the Punjab in India, 
where data from twenty-five stations were copied out of Eliot's 
book and averaged to give a district record to 1900. After that it 
was necessary to borrow seventeen large volumes and copy a little 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 19 

from each to complete the tables. To complicate the task, these 
data were given for fifty-five districts during the early years and for 
thirty-three during the later. From some countries averages made 
correctly were sent in form to use, but in the main the data, as se- 
cured, required much work to put it in a form to begin the investiga- 
tion. Such tables are added to this paper in order that other in- 
vestigators may be saved the preliminary computations. All lono- 
records have been studied, with the exception of Canada, which is so 
close to the United States that it was felt the results secured would 
not be worth the work of averaging many stations together to get 
district values in usable form. In the proper places comments will 
be made on the methods of securing district averages in the United 
States and other countries. It is believed that many of these should 
be remade. 

MATERIAL SUITABLE FOR HARMONIC ANALYSIS. 
A mass of observational material, when plotted with time as ab- 
scissa and observed values as ordinates, may show no repetition of 
the same curve, even though such a curve might exist There may 
be nothing definite about it to indicate a period. In such cases or- 
dinary methods of harmonic analysis become useless. This failure 
to repeat values, when a period exists, may be due to any one or 
more of the four following causes: 

(a) Incommensurable periods may coexist. In this case the curve 
will never repeat itself, although for short periods of time there may 
be a fairly close approximation to such repetition. If there are three 
or more incommensurable periods the curve obtained for the data is 
very complex. For example, the seasonal variation of the rainfall 
would be incommensurable with a possible one equaling the sun-spot 
period. Of course, if one of such periods is known, as in the case of 
the seasonal variation in the example above, it may be eliminated 

(6) There may be large accidental errors. Such errors mask a 
periodicity almost completely in any one cycle and disappear only 
when the data values m each of a number of well-distributed phases 
are added through many cycles. From the theory of errors their 
influence wiir be inversely proportional to the square root ^f the 
number of cycles added. 

(c) Long-period variations may exist. If there are periods longer 
than the interval of the data they will produce much the same effect 
as accidental errors or incommensurable periods 

id) There may be periods which vary in length. An example of 
such a period is the sun-spot period, which, although averaging 



20 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

11.13 years, has varied from 7.3 to 17.1 years during the last 115 
years. 

When any of these four difficulties exists it is almost impossible 
successfully to treat the problem unless the investigator stumbles 
upon the true period, either by a fortunate suggestion or by some 
reason extraneous to the problem, or by the patient trial-and-error 
method by which Kepler found his three laws of planetary motion. 
Schuster (6) has developed a method designated as the periodogram, 
which will avail in some cases. 

METHOD USED BY TURNER IN EXAMINING THE EARTHQUAKE 

DATA. 

The exact form of this method seems to be due to Schuster (6), 
and is a slight modification of the one astronomers have used for 
generations. Suppose that we have a mass of material — for ex- 
ample, the number of earthquakes recorded per month, or the rain- 
fall per month — through many years. Plotting shows no perio- 
dicity, or at the most only a faint hint of such. Chance or Schuster's 
periodogram leads us to suspect a period of, for example, 15 months. 
We can write the first 15 months' data in a row as the heads of as 
many columns. The sixteenth month, the thirty-first, etc., will fol- 
low successively in the first column, the seventeenth, thirty-second, 
etc., in the second column, and so on, the thirtieth, forty-fifth, etc., 
in the fifteenth column. Each column will then contain only months 
which are in the same phase of the suspected period, if it actually 
exists. 

We will refer to one such row as a cycle, and to the columns as 
phases. Suppose the period to exist. It may not show in a single 
cycle, probably will not, because of large accidental errors or incom- 
mensurable periods, either or both of which may be present. But 
the months of any phase of an incommensurable period will, in the 
long run, be almost evenly distributed through all the phases of our 
assumed period, and will, therefore, be subject to the same laws as 
accidental errors, namely, their influence will be inversely propor- 
tional to the square root of the number of cycles. In the course of 
four cycles (five years in our present example) their importance 
will be only half as great as for any one cycle; after sixteen cycles 
one-quarter as great, etc. However, the effect of our assumed 
fifteen-month period will be equal in each, and therefore as prom- 
inent in the average as in any one cycle. Thus, no matter how 
large the accidental errors, or the variation due to incommensurable 
periods, the true variation from phase to phase will begin to appear. 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 21 

If the assumed period does not exist, the mean values of the phases 
Avill approach each other as we increase the number of cycles. 

This last point gives us two very powerful criteria for the verity 
of our assumed period: 

(a) Having given a large numher of cycles, we may compare the 
phase values of the first half of the cycles with those of the latter 
half. If the variation be real the curves from the two halves of the 
data should agree fairly well. If the variation be accidental there 
can be only chance resemblance. Unless the assumed period exists, 
the two halves of the data are entirely independent, when there are 
enough cycles to eliminate residuals of other periods that might 
exist. A very simple test for a real relationship between the two 
curves may be made as follows : There is an even chance that if the 
results are purely accidental, any pair of values from the same 
phase in the two curves will lie on the same side of the normal. If 
there are three curves, one-fourth of them should show all three 
curves on the same side. Much departure from this accidental 
grouping indicates strongly a correlation. 

(6) Having obtained the phase values, as above, for each half of 
the data, we may consider half the difference of identical phases in 
the first and last halves of our data as a measure of the deviation of 
the two curves from each other and of the amount of chance error 
left in each phase. Call this half difference d. We will have in this 
example r/^, d.,, . . . d^j. The probable error of any point on the 
curve which is formed from the whole of the data will be given by 
the formula, 

e = 0. 6745 ^f-(^') . 

If this probable error is as large as half the variation from maxi- 
mum to minimum phase there is approximately an even chance that 
the variation is accidental. If the ratio of e to the variation is 
smaller than about one-eighth, the chances are less than one in a 
thousand that it is accidental. These ratios are tabulated in the 
general discussion of results for each set of data. Both these criteria 
must be applied in any case under discussion. 

Let us suppose that the assumed period is not an exact number of 
months; for example, 14% months. In this case 7 cycles will equal 
104 instead of 105 months. We must spread our 104 months over 7 
cycles of 15 phases each; that is, over 105 phases. To do this we 
will fill each of the first 6 cycles and the first 14 phases of the 
seventh cycle just as formerly, using all the data that we have for 7 



22 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

cycles. We will then use the month's data which we used for the 
fourteenth phase of the seventh cycle again in the fifteenth phase. 
Doing this, no month will fall more than a half phase from the 
proper one as determined by the mean of all positions. If we assume 
a period of IdVi months we will merely skip one of the month's data, 
or better still, average it with the next following one. In this man- 
ner any period may be plotted with any number of phases desired, 
and no month's data more than a half phase from its proper place. 

FIRST APPLICATION OF THIS METHOD TO RAINFALL. 

One-ninth of the mean sun-spot period is very nearly 14% months. 
I tabulated all the rainfall data from Lawrence, Kan., beginning 
with 1868, according to the method outlined above. The result 
showed a variation of about 12 per cent each side of the normal. 
Next I divided the data into halves and found the two to agree 
fairly well. Following this I examined data from all of Kansas, 
from Nebraska, New England and Ohio. The data from Ohio 
checked fairly well; those from New England and Nebraska gave 
results which were discordant with themselves. The variation of 
the sun-spot period now came to mind. If there were any real 
variations due to sun-spots or to a common cause they would cer- 
tainly have to keep a constant relationship with the phases of the 
sun-spot period. 

Table 1 shows the dates of maxima and minima of sun-spots as 
determined by Wolf and Wolfer (7). It also shows the number of 
years intervening between successive maxima or minima; in other 
words, the actual sun-spot periods during those years. As a first 
approximation to keeping the phases in step with the sun spots, I 
plotted the rainfall between the dates of each pair of consecutive 
minima on a period one-ninth that interval. Minima occurred in 
1889, August, and in 1901, September. The interval is 145 months. 
I therefore used a period of 16^/^' months between those dates. The 
next minimum occurred in 1913, May. This interval is 141 months, 
and I used a period of 15% between these dates. When this was 
done I secured very much better results than before, so much better 
that I could not believe them due to accident. I obtained similar 
curves for each state the whole length of the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts as far as Texas. When the data of New England and 
Pennsylvania were divided in halves, curves of similar shape were 
obtained for each, differing only in phase. This improvement over 
the results from a constant period indicated that a more rigid 
method of keeping constant relationship with the sun-spot phases 
should be devised before definite conclusions were drawn. 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 23 

RIGID FOLLOWING OF THE SUN-SPOT PHASES. 

It is evident that the sun-spot period between the minima named 
above had values of 145 and 141 months, respectively. Let us 
examine the two maxima occurring between these dates. One oc- 
curred in 1894, February, and the other in 1906, May, with an in- 
terval of 147 months. This must have been the average value of 
the sun-spot period between these dates. It is longer than the 
period obtained from either pair of minima named above, yet it 
occurs as part of each of them and contains no part that is not in 
one or the other of them. We are forced, therefore, to the con- 
clusion that if continuous (8a) — 

The length of the sun-spot period is continuously varying and a 
value of the period obtained between successive maxima or suc- 
cessive viinima is merely an average of all values passed through in 
this interval. 

If we had a curve with time plotted along the axis of abscissse 
and the corresponding values of the sun-spot period as ordinates, 
the average value of the sun-spot period between two maxima or 
two minima occurring at t.^ and ^2 would be given by — 

^1 — ^2 = average value = ' 



J'-' curve 



If we plotted abscissa? and ordinates on the same scale, these 
average values would form squares bounded by ordinates through 
the dates which limit them. The area between the axis of abscissae 
and the unknown curve, described above, representing the actual 
value of the period at all times, would in the interval between two 
maxima or two minima have to equal the corresponding known 
square. Since these squares overlap, we know the value of a series 
of overlapping definite integrals of the unknown curve. From these 
data it is possible, assuming the simplest curve to be the true one, 
by the aid of a planimeter, to construct the curve without knowl- 
edge of its mathematical form. In doing this it is easier to choose 
some convenient period as the axis of abscissae and to measure de- 
partures from this period. Changing the axis in this way merely 
changes all the integrals by a known constant amount and changes 
the known squares into known rectangles. It is also practical to 
magnify the scale of ordinates very much over the scale of abscissae. 
Locating the curve consists first in measuring the area of each of 
the rectangles; then penciling in what appears to be the curve, 
measuring the definite integrals of the approximate curve with the 
planimeter; erasing for a new approximation, and repeating many 



24 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

times. In the curve of the sun-spot values reproduced as Figure 1, 
I have erased each part of the curve probably a hundred times. 
Although very laborious, the process, with enough patience, yields 
very good results. The accuracy of the period curve depends upon 
the accuracy with which the epochs of maxima and minima are 
obtained. A steep but narrow peak, such as that of 1861, may be 
unreal for this reason. However, due to the short duration of such 
a peak and the fact that it must almost immediately be counter- 
balanced, there will usually be little effect in data extending over 
a long range. 

In the preceding paragraph I have spoken of the sun-spot period 
at any date as a varying quantity, not even approximately constant 
through a single cycle. This may necessitate a definition of "period" 
somewhat different from what is ordinarily understood. I there- 
fore give the following definition, which will be adhered to whether 
referring to sun spots or rainfall. 

The length of the period at any date is the reciprocal of the rate 
of change of phase at that date and need not continue even approxi- 
mately through a complete cycle. 

From this curve I have taken the mean value of the sun-spot 
period for each year. These values are given as column 2 of table 2. 
Column 3 gives the departures from 15 months of one-ninth these 
values. Obviously, 15 months was chosen because it is the nearest 
integral number of months to one-ninth of a period. If, for example, 
the number given for any year in column 3 were + 9, it would mean 
that during that year one-ninth of the sun-spot period was 16 
months. If it were —9 it would mean that the period was 14 
months. In the first case it would be necessary, working on a 15- 
phase basis, to skip a month every 16 months as long as that 
length of period persisted; in the second case to repeat one every 
14 months. We can thus construct a table of months to be re- 
peated in the analysis of our rainfall data when the ninth of the 
sun-spot period is less than 15 months, or to be skipped (or better 
still, averaged with the next adjacent one) when the ninth is more 
than 15, in order that Wolfer's sun-spot maxima may all fall in 
one phase and his sun-spot minima in one. 

In this work I have in each case averaged the month to be skipped 
with the next following one instead of actually skipping. Thus 
three months' data give two phases, the result desired through skip- 
ping, and all data are used. There is, however, such a slight gain in 
accuracy that I scarcely believe it worth the slight extra work in- 
volved. If this averaging and repeating is done correctly the epoch 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUxY-SPOT PERIODS. 25 

of maximum of each of the cycles of the sun spots will always fall 
in one phase of the suspected rainfall variation and also each 
minimum in one. Wolfer's values of maxima and minima are un- 
certain by a month or so, and therefore in the first paper the 
placing of them within one phase from the mean was considered as 
a perfect check in determining the months to be averaged or re- 
peated. When there was a greater error than this in determining 
the position of a maximum or a minimum it meant that there was 
a slight error in the curve and that it was necessary to apply a 
slight adjustment factor to the values of the period taken from it. 
In no case did I have a large factor to apply, thereby showing that 
the curve as constructed was approximately correct. Indications 
from the work explained above were that the period taken from it 
could be relied upon to within three or four months, and that such 
errors as did occur were canceled in most cases by ones of opposite 
sign before adjustment had become serious. 

I did not realize at the time that readers might think this discrep- 
ancy purposely made by me in order to better my results. To avoid 
this objection I have, in this paper, made the Wolf-Wolfer epochs 
fall exactly in the same phase each cycle. The phase in which the 
sun-spot maximum falls has been numbered 1 and that in which 
minimum falls 8. For 1913 Wolfer has published two dates of sun- 
spot minimum, first May, and later August. I used the former in 
the first paper before seeing his later work. The sun-spot curve 
seems to me to indicate May, or even an earlier epoch, correct. 
Wolfer's later epoch may, therefore, be a typographical error, and I 
have continued to use May. Since a short period locates its epochs 
of maxima and minima more exactly than a long one, it will be pos- 
sible later, if the existence of the short rainfall period be admitted, 
to revise the Wolf-Wolfer epochs from the rainfall data. Such a 
gain in accuracy would mean much in an investigation of the sun- 
spot periodicity. 

Table 3 shows which months I have averaged and repeated in the 
analysis of the rainfall data of each country investigated. It is 
probably useless to emphasize that there was no change in this table 
for any of the countries under consideration. At first thought the 
results of table 3 and of figure 1 are startling. However, an inspec- 
tion of the much greater changes in the period which have persisted 
through entire cycles during the last 115 years, namely, from 88 to 
205 months, shows that these variations through short periods of 
time are to be expected. Moreover, there is no way to draw a curve 



26 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

satisfying the necessary conditions and having smaller variations, 
unless possibly by introducing more points of maxima and minima 
upon it. Such a complication would be much less probable than the 
variations shown by the present one, all of which are less than the 
variations from the mean value of complete cycles of approximately 
11 years have been in the rather recent past, as shown by table 1. 

THE RAINFALL DATA EXAMINED. 

I have examined the rainfall averages of each of the forty-two 
sections in which the United States has been divided by the Weather 
Bureau, of a number of stations in Central Siberia, of the Punjab in 
India, of a few towns in Chile, of complete records of Denmark and 
Sweden and stations in Holland and England, of South Australia, 
of Jamaica, and of Tananarive, Madagascar. I had a small amount 
of data from the Soudan and Abyssinia and scattered small amounts 
from other countries, but none of these enough to examine with any 
weight. There were also data such as received from Canada, where 
the proximity of countries for which I had data made it seem un- 
wise to take the great amount of time necessary to average the in- 
dividual stations, and where, unlike Madagascar, thousands of miles 
from the nearest data used, it seemed useless to obtain results with 
the little weight that would be attached to one station. 

The results from each of the sections named above are discussed 
here, the tables are given from which these results are deduced, the 
values are given for each individual cycle, and the means of the 
halves or thirds are given and plotted, as also the curves from the 
whole data. The sections are grouped in three main divisions: 

(A) Interiors and eastern coasts of large continents. There are 
three such sections: Eastern United States, Central Siberia, and the 
Punjab. 

(B) Western coasts of continents. This group includes the Pa- 
cific coast of the United States, the group of countries from the 
northwest European coast, and a very small amount of data from 
Chile. 

(C) Other sections. This includes South Australia, Jamaica and 
Tananarive, Madagascar. 

The last sun-spot maximum occurred in 1917, and all data since 
then are thus unavailable for use in examining the existence of the 
period. This would not be a serious handicap for predicting, if the 
period should be proved to exist, since the course of the maxima and 
minima could be followed from cycle to cycle by using means from 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 27 

a large number of sections and an- extrapolation made for a cycle in 
advance without serious error. Indeed, in such a case it might be 
possible to predict the time of the next sun-spot maximum or mini- 
mum quite accurately from the rainfall data. 

Effect of Annual Cycle. In many cases the residual left from 
the seasonal variation is large enough to distort the curves ma- 
terially. I have, therefore, always carefully eliminated it, no matter 
how large or how small. To do this I have, wherever it is very pro- 
nounced, prepared two tables for each section according to the plan 
previously outlined, repeating and averaging in each one the months 
determined by table 3. In the first of these tables I have used the 
actual values of the rainfall. In the second I have used instead of 
each January the mean of all the Januaries, and so on for each 
month of the year. In this second table the mean monthly values 
were repeated or averaged exactly as in the first one, to give a table 
entirely similar to the first table. The variation from phase to phase 
in this second table is, therefore, entirely the seasonal residual and 
contains all of it. For the average state in the United States it is 
approximately four per cent each side of the normal, the rest of the 
seasonal variation having been damped out by the process of tabu- 
lating the incommensurable period which is being investigated. The 
quotients of the sums of each phase of the first table by the second 
give us the percentage of normal rainfall of that phase for the section 
concerned throughout all the years of the data. Each month is in 
this way weighted in accordance with its normal rainfall. In no 
case has there been any smoothing of results other than that marked 
in the tables where the 77iean has sometimes been smoothed by aver- 
aging each phase with the ones immediately adjoining for better ex- 
amination. 

In the eastern United States and northern Europe the yearly 
variation of rainfall is small enough that each month may be 
weighted the same without serious error. I have, therefore, in these 
two cases divided the actual rainfall of each month by its normal 
and thus obtained the percentage of normal to plot. This has the 
advantage for the reader that he need look at but one table instead 
of two to see how the period has been followed from cycle to cycle. 

It may occur to some that possibly there is in some manner a 
residual of the seasonal effect left in this period, despite the elimina- 
tion explained above. There are three answers that may be givn to 
this objection, all of which are merely the same one in different 
forms. 



28 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

(a) In Professor Schuster's discussion of the periodogram (6) 
method of searching for periods we find the following: "There is a 
limit beyond which it is useless to go. This limit is reached when the 
values of A and B for two closely adjoining values n^ and n, are 
no longer independent of each other. The theory of vibration shows 
that independence begins when there is an ultimate disagreement of 
phase amounting to about one-quarter of a period." 

(5) Professor Turner has worked out the effects of any period on 
adjoining periods (86). He divides the data into integral parts and 
calls any one of these submultiples q; p is a period near q, such that 
q-\-x^p.x<l. From the Fourier sequence the periods q and q-^-l 
are independent. Let us consider the seasonal period as q and the 
ninth harmonic of the sun-spot period as p. In order that x may be 
as small as 1, we must have q=3. That x be less, requires q^=2. But, 
quoting Professor Turner, ''q is a fairly large integer for any peri- 
odicity worth serious consideration." 

(c) The work involved in computing the periods near 12 months 
for each state is much greater than the value of the results. , I have, 
however, taken Pennsylvania as typical of the United States and 
computed periods of 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 months. 

For 12 months, which is the seasonal period, the amplitude of the 
variation is 34 per cent; for 13 months it is 11 per cent; for 14 
months it is 12 per cent; for 15 months it is 10 per cent; and for 
16 months it is 17 per cent; the amplitude of the ninth harmonic of 
the sun-spot period is 26 per cent. The mean value of the ninth 
harmonic during this interval of years was 15.8 months, showing 
the increase in amplitude at the nearest of the other periods as de- 
manded by the theory or the periodogram (6) or by the Fourier 
sequence (8c). 

A serious source of weakness in the state averages published by 
the United States Weather Bureau and by almost every other 
meteorological service developed during this investigation. This 
may well be illustrated by the state of Washington as a fair sample. 
Within one year the number of stations used in the state average 
varied between 105 and 130. Over a number of years the range is 
larger. The eastern part of the state is very much drier than the 
western. If one is comparing two months' rainfall it becomes im- 
perative that he know what stations were omitted each month. The 
month showing the greater fall may be below normal and that show- 
ing less may be above because of omission of eastern stations in the 
first and western in the latter. I realize that it is impossible to ob- 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 29 

tain a perfectly homogeneous record, since volunteer observers must 
sometimes fail, often through no fault of their own, but I would ven- 
ture to suggest a method by which the records may be reduced to a 
near homogeneity. The sum of the actual rainfall for all the stations 
used may be divided by the sum of the normals of the several sta- 
tions and the quotient published as the percentage of normal which 
fell that month. The means of the normals of stations chosen for 
accuracy of records and geographical distribution may then well be 
taken as the normal of the strate, and when multiplied by this quo- 
tient will give a weighted mean of the state that will be practically 
homogeneous from year to year. This lack of homogeneity in state 
records is much more serious in investigation of long periodicities 
such as the Bruckner and eleven-year cycles, and might easily show 
entirely negative results where the period actually exists. An ex- 
ample of the reduction of scattered material to homogeneity is given 
in this paper in the treatment of Chile, where long records are 
available from five towns with widely differing normals. These 
records begin in different years and omit certain years irregularly. 
The sums of the actual rainfall given were tabulated for the fifteen- 
month periodicity, as were also the sums of the normals for each 
month that a station was used. These sums were then added 
through each half of the data for each phase, and the quotient of 
actual by normal was taken. These tables are Nos. 19 and 20. In 
the eastern part of the United States the normals from one part of 
a state to another vary by small enough amounts that the records 
are not seriously impaired. For the western part I felt it best to 
take instead the stations on the coast having perfect records ex- 
tending as far back as 1880. All such were used except where sta- 
tions in California happened to be very close together, in which 
cases one was always omitted in order not to give that small section 
of the coast undue weight. Nineteen such stations in California and 
western Oregon were available. No station in Washington had such 
a long record without break. This procedure also has the advantage 
of almost doubling the length of record over the published state 
averages. The results from these stations are shown as tables 10 to 
12. The names of the stations will be found at the heads of these 
tables. The Adelaide Observatory in South Australia seems to have 
kept the most ideal record from 1861 to 1907. They averaged the 
same fifty towns, apparently, from the beginning to the end of that 
period. Unfortunately, this method was discontinued and the 
present one of averaging all available stations, as, in the United 



30 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

States, instituted. The great shift in normal made it impossible to 
compare the early and the later records. This investigation of 
Australian rainfall ends, therefore, with 1907, although the later 
results kindly sent by the meteorological director of the common- 
wealth are published here for information: 

Group A. 

The Punjab, 
Eastern India 

United States. Siberia. (smoothed). 

£ 2.7 2.4 3.6 

Range of curve from whole data 23 17 29 

Ratio 0.117 0.141 0.138 

Number phases on one side of normal.... 12 10 f*9 



The ratios in each of these cases are approximately one-eighth, 
showing, as previously develope'd, a very small chance of such acci- 
dental agreement. In the case of India the same e was derived from 
the relationship of both the first and last of its three curves to the 
middle one. Since the ratio given measures the possibility of chance 
agreement of either of these curves with the middle one, the chance 
that both agree in this manner by. accident is only the square of the 
chance that one does. 

Group B. 

Pacific coast Northern 

(smoothed). Europe. Chile. 

c 3.8 2.5 3.9 

Range 43 22 25 

Ratio 0.088 0.114 0.156 

Number of phases on one side of normal. . [*11 12 10 

\ 12 

As would be expected from an examination of the curves, the 
chance of mere accidental agreement between the two halves of the 
Pacific coast and northern European curves is negligible. In the 
case of Chile, just as one would judge from the appearance of the 
curves, it is much larger than for the other two, but is still small. 

Group C. 

South Madagascar 

Australia. Jamaica. (smoothed). 

e 4.6 3.5 5.1 

Range 24 19 28 

Ratio 0.193 0.184 0.182 

Number of phases on one side of normal . . 8 10 8 

The results of group C, while favoring the true existence of the 
periodicity to some extent, do not show the certainty of groups A 
and B. This is to be expected in the case of Jamaica, which is a 

* Unsmoothed. 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 31 

small, mountainous island, where, as Professor Pickering says, "The 
rainfall is very unequal in different portions of the island." It 
varies from 33 inches west of the mountains to 248 on the eastern 
end of the island. For Madagascar there is but one station, with 
a record over only 21 cycles, so that the correlation is all that one 
could expect. In the case of South Australia, however, we have a 
long, homogeneous record from fifty stations. The effect of the 
period is evidently much less certain there than in the region of 
groups A and B. In this it reminds one of the results obtained from 
the central third of the United States, a region located between the 
two types represented by groups A and B. Data are not at hand to 
show whether such a reversal, as in the United States, would be found 
between the northern and southern parts of South Australia. An 
investigation of this character v.'ould, I venture to predict, show the 
reversal. I hope to secure data to examine this region more 
thoroughly. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION. 

In group A, which consists of interiors or eastern coasts of large 
continents, we find the minimum of our curves coming exactly at 
phase 1 in each case. This is the phase, as told above, which every 
ninth cycle contains the sun-spot maximum. Each of these curves 
shows also the effect of a second harmonic of this period with one 
minimum at this same phase, the other neutralizing the maximum, 
which would normally fall at phase 8. This much can safely be ac- 
cepted as true features of purely continental curves. 

In group B we find more variation in curves from one section to 
another. For the Pacific coast we find the minimum at phase 7 and 
the maximum at phase 13; for northern Europe the minimum at 7, 
if we smooth our curve, and the maximum at 14. The small amount 
of data from Chile does not give any very definite results, almost 
equal minima at 2 and 12, with maxima at 10 and 14. The marine 
type seems, then, with considerable uncertainty, to give a minimum 
of rainfall at time of sun-spot minimum and a maximum shortly 
before the sun-spot maximum. 

The halves or thirds of the curves at any one place will differ 
from each other for one or more, probably all, of the following 
reasons: 

(a) Accidental errors and other periodicities are not entirely 
damped out. 

{b) The epochs of sun-spot maxima and minima are uncertain, 
and consequently some data are incorrectly placed by one or more 



32 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

phases. If this periodicity is generally accepted, the recent sun- 
spot epochs can be revised to give the best rainfall results, since the 
short period and the great amount of data will locate them more 
accurately than the sun-spot counts themselves. 

(c) The curve probably actually undergoes changes, similar in 
shape and magnitude to those of the sun spots, one maximum of 
which will be several times higher than another. This is indicated 
directly by the persistency with which a phase for quite a number 
of consecutive cycles will often differ from its mean by fairly large 
amounts. 

(d) If the rainfall is not a pure continental or pure marine type, 
we will have one type often prevailing, although in the long run the 
other dominates. 

Although I have examined this period as though it varied in 
length, I do not desire to stand in the least committed to an actual 
variation. This period, the eleven-year period and the Bruckner 
are all harmonics. When examined by itself each is found to be 
variable. However, it is quite possible that their variations and 
that of the sun-spot period are only apparent, being caused by the 
superposition of a number of constant periodicities. Regardless of 
this constancy, I believe these three periods not to be separate, but 
merely terms in an irregular, long-period rainfall variation. It is 
very important that a search be made very carefully to determine 
what other terms there may be of such large magnitude as these. 

If the relationship between sun spots and rainfall were a direct 
one, the eleven-year period would certainly far overshadow both 
this and the Bruckner. Instead, its magnitude seems usually to be 
less than either. The search for a thirty-three-year period in sun 
spots has been inconclusive, although analysis shows a very strong 
sun-spot variation of twice this length. The relationship of the 
Bruckner cycle to the sun-spot period stands out vividly, however, 
if we look for its epochs in long, homogeneous records from which 
the eleven-year period has been eliminated by averaging between 
consecutive sun-spot maxima or minima. In concluding, I desire to 
quote from Pickering's statement, at the close of his article men- 
tioned above, as most nearly expressing my own opinion on this 
relationship: 

"I do not believe that the sun spots themselves, or their absence, cause the 
droughts. The spots are merely a surface indication of an overturn of ma- 
terial and temperature occurring beneath the solar surface in connection with 
magnetic storms. ... I have only to derive statistics from observed rain- 
fall data to show the coincidence." 

I wish to acknowledge the assistance of the research committee. 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 33 

of tlie Graduate School, whose grants for computers have been a 
very important factor in the prosecution of the work. Mr. Anthony 
Gates was engaged as computer for the earlier stages of the work 
and Miss Nellie Lynn for the later. Prof. F. E. Kester has devoted 
a great deal of time to discussing each phase of the problem, and to 
his suggestions is due much of the success. Prof. C. F. Talman has 
loaned me many books from the library of the United States 
AVcather Bureau. Mr. S. D. Flora has thrown open to me all the 
records in the state meteorological office at Topeka. Prof. Carl 
Ryder has sent me a great deal of manuscript matter, which has 
been extremely valuable. The Governor General of Madagascar 
sent manuscript tables of rainfall and temperature at Tananarive. 
The Egyptian government sent valuable manuscript records of Sou- 
dan and Abyssinia, which unfortunately do not extend back far 
enough for present uses. Supplemented by the next ten years' rec- 
ords, they will be very valuable. Meteorologists of several other 
countries have sent all available printed records. To all these I owe 
my most sincere thanks. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

la. Douglass, A. E.: The Correlation of Sun Spots, Weather, and Tree 
Growth. Pub. American Astronomical Soc, 1918, vol. Ill, p. 121. 

lb. Douglass, A. E.: Climatic Cycles and Tree Growth. Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Wash., 1919. The author seems to have proved definitely a 
correlation between climate and sun spots. Tsothing on this subject 
that has 3'et come to my attention begins to compare in importance 
with this work. 

2. Hann, J.: Sun Spots and Rainfall. Handbook of Climatology (trans, by 

R. DeC. Ward), vol. I, p. 406. Bruckner: Klimaschwankungenseit, 
1700 (Vienna, 1890). Has shown a varying period of about thirty-five 
3'ears in rainfall and temperature. Lockyer: The Solar Activit.v, 1833- 
1900. Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. 68, p. 285. Showed a possible correlation of 
this period with sun spots, dough, H. W.: Synchronous Variations in 
Solar and Terrestrial Phenomena. Astrophys. Jour., vol. 22, p. 42. Has 
greatly strengthened the evidence of such a relationship. They have 
also considered the variation in length of the sun-spot period. Clough 
says: "The solar-spot activity is periodically accelerated and retarded, 
and this action is primarily manifest in the varying length of the 
eleven-year spot cycle, since it operates continuously throughout the 
entire interval to accelerate or retard the occurrence of the two phases." 
(Loc. cit., p. 59.) 

3. Turner, H. H.: A Fifteen-month Period in Earthquakes. Monthly No- 

tices, Roy. Astronomical Soc, April, 1919, p. 461. 

4a. Alter, Dinsmore: Possible Connection Between Sun Spots and Earth- 
quakes. Science, May 14, 1922, p. 486. 

4b. Alter, Dinsmore: A Possible Rainfall Period Equal to One-ninth the 
Sun-spot Period. Monthly Weather Review, Feb., 1921. Continua- 
tion of Investigation of a Possible Rainfall Period Equal to One-ninth 
the Sun-spot Period, and Application of Marvin's Periodocrite to Rain- 
fall Periodicity. Kansas University Science Bulletin, vol. XIII Nos 
8 and 9. 

3 — Science Bui.— 3728 



34 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

5. Marvin, C. F.: Discussion of Rainfall Periodicity. Monthly Weather Re- 

view, Feb., 192L 

6. Schuster, Arthur: On the Periodicities of Sun Spots. Phil. Trans. 206a 

(1906), p. 7L 

7. WoLFER, A.: Revision of Wolf's Sun-spot Relative Numbers. Monthly 

Weather Review, April, 1902, pp. 171-176. Tables of Sun-spot Fre- 
quencies, ibid, Julv, 1915. Tables of Sun-spot Frequency for the Years 
1902-1919, ibid, Aug., 1920, p. 459. 

8a. Turner, H. H.: On a Simple Method of Detecting Discontinuities in a 
Series of Recorded Observations, With an Application to Sun Spots. 
Suggesting that they are caused by a meteor swarm due to successive 
encounters of the Leonids with Saturn, which has been more than once 
perturbed by the Leonid swarm. Monthly Notices Royal Astronomical 
Society, 19M, pp. 82-109. 

8b. Turner, H. H.: Sun-spot Periodicity as a Fourier Series. Ibid, 1913, 
pp. 714-732, especially p. 717. 

8c. Turner, H. H.: Further Remarks on the Expression of Sun-spot Perio- 
dicity as a Fourier Sequence. Ibid, 1914, pp. 16-26. 

9. Sources of Material: 

(a) Climatological Data of the United States. 

(b) Fundamental Data of Siberian Climate. Title and name of author 

in Russian. 

(c) Eliot: The Rainfall of India, 1901. India Monthly Weather 

Review. 

(d) British Rainfall, 1919. Observations Meteorologiques Suedoises, 

published by L'Academie Royale des Sciences de Suede, 1910. 

Hartman: Het klimaat van Nederland, 1913. 

Rainfall tables of Denmark, sent by Professor Carl Ryder in manu- 
script form. 

(e) Recopilacion de sumas de aqua caida en Chile, 1849-1915, and an- 

nual volumes following. 

(f) Meteorological Observations of the Adelaide Observatory, 1907. 

(g) Pickering: The Relation of Prolonged Tropical Droughts to Sun 

Spots. Monthly Weather Review, Oct., 1920. 
(h) Manuscripts sent by the Governor General of Madagascar. 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



35 



TABLE 1— Wolfs A Wolfer's table of sunapot maxima and minima. 
(Copied from Monthly Weather Review, .August, 1920.) 



Epocha. 



1610 8 
1619 
1B34 
1645 
1655 
1666 
1679.5 
1689.5 
1698 
1712 
1723 5 
1734 
1745 
1755 2 
1766 5 
1775 5 
1784.7 
1798 3 
1810.6 
1823 3 
1833 9 
1843 5 
1856.0 
1867.2 
1878.9 
1889.6 
1901.7 
1913.4' 



Minima. 



Weights. 



1 
3 
2 

2 

2 

9 

5 

7 

4 

9 

8 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 



Periods. 



8.2 
15 
11 

10 

11 
13.5 
10.0 

8.5 
14 
11.5 
10.5 
11.0 

10 2 

11 3 
9.0 
9.2 

13 6 
12.3 
12.7 
10.6 
9.6 
12.5 
11.2 
11.7 

10 7 

12 1 

11 7 



Epochs. 



1615 5 

1626 

1639 5 

1649 

1660 

1675 

1685.0 

1693.0 

1705.5 

1718.2 

1727.5 

1738 7 

1750.3 

1761.5 

1769. 

1778 

1788. 

1805. 

1816. 

1829.9 

1837.2 

1848 1 

1860 1 

1870.6 

1883.9 

1894.1 

1906.4 

1917 6 



Maxima. 



Weights. 



2 
5 
2 
1 

1 

2 

2 
1 
4 
6 
4 
2 
7 



5 

4 

5 

8 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 



Periods. 



10.5 


13 5 


9.5 


11 


15 


10 


8 


12.5 


12.7 


9 3 


11.2 


11.6 


11.2 


8.2 


8.7 


9.7 


17 1 


11.2 


13.5 


7.3 


10.9 


12 


10 5 


13.3 


10.2 


12.3 


11.2 



' See text. 



TABLE 2. 



Year. 



Period. 





Months. 




1850 


180 


+45 


51 


176 


+41 


52 


165 


+30 


53 


146 


+ 11 


54 


125 


—10 


55 


100 


—35 


56 


90 


—45 


57 


93 


—42 


58 


125 


— 10 


59 


174 


+ 39 


1860 


196 


+ 61 


61 


196 


+ 61 


62 


173 


+38 


63 


143 


+ 8 


64 


104 


—31 


65 


97 


—38 


66 


94 


—41 


67 


93 


—42 


68 


93 


—42 


69 


94 


—41 


1870 


96 


-39 



Depar- 
ture. 



Year. I Period. 



1871 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 



1880 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 



1890 
91 



Months. 
106 
135 
156 
170 
180 
184 
184 
184 
181 
173 
161 
144 
113 
102 
100 
100 
101 
108 
128 
138 
142 



Depar- 
ture. 



—29 

+ 21 
+ 35 
+ 45 
+49 
+ 49 
+ 49 
+46 
+ 38 
+ 26 
+ 9 
— 22 
—33 
—35 
—35 
—34 
—27 
— 7 
+ 3 
+ 7 



Year. 



Period. 



Months. 



1892 


144 


+ 9 


93 


145 


+ 10 


94 


146 


+ 11 


95 


147 


+ 12 


96 


148 


+ 13 


97 


149 


+ 14 


98 


149 


+ 14 


99 


149 


+ 14 


1900 


149 


+ 14 


01 


149 


+ 14 


02 


148 


+ 13 


03 


147 


+ 12 


04 


146 


+ 11 


05 


144 


+ 9 


06 


142 


+ 7 


07 


140 


+ 5 


08 


138 


+ 3 


09 


137 


+ 2 


1910 


136 


+ 1 


11 


136 


+ 1 


12 


135 






Depar- 
ture. 



36 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

TABLE 3.— Data repeated or averaged in keeping rainfall periodicity in step with sun spots. 



Skipped or averaged. 




Repeated. 






Skipped or averaged. 


1861. 
1862. 
1863. 


....Mar., Sept. 
. . . .June. 
June. 


1865. 
1866.. 
1867. 
1868. 


. . . July. 

....July. 

.... Mar.. June. Sept., Dec. 

Jan., Apr., Jun., Aug., Nov. 


1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 


. . . April. 
....Sept. 

April, Sept. 

Mar., June, Nov. 






1869 


Feb.. June, Oct. 




1876, 


.... Feb., May, Aug., Nov. 






1870 


..April, Oct. 




1877. 


Jan., Apr., Jul., Sept., Dec. 






1871. 


.... April. 




1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1883. 


. . . -Mar., June. Aug., Nov. 
. . . .Mar., July, Nov. 
.. April, Oct. 
....July. 
. . . .Mar. 


Repeated. 


Skipped or averaged. 


Repeated. 


1884. 
1885. 


Jan.. Sept. 

...April, Oct. 


1891. 
1894. 


. . . .Jan. 
May. 




1915. 
1917. 


Jan. 

July. 


1886 


Jan., May, Sept. 


1895. 


. . . .Jan. Sept. 








1887 


Jan.. May, Sept. 


1896. 


. . . April. 








1888 


Jan., May, Sept. 


1897. 


.... Mar. 








1889. 


Feb. 


1898. 

1899. 

1901 

1902. 

1903. 

1909. 

1913. 


. . . Jan., Dec. 
... Dec. 
. . . .Jan., Nov. 
. . . June. 
....Sept. 

Juy. 

.... Jan. 









TABLE 4.— Eastern United States. Table of observed per cent of normal of 26 states, comprising 

20 meteorological districts. 



Years. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



Apr. 



May. 



June. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



1878.. 

79.. 
1880. . 

81.. 
.82.. 

83.. 

84.. 

85.. 

86.. 

87.. 

88.. 

89., 
1890. . 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
1900. 

01. 

02. 

03. 

04. 

05. 

06. 

07. 

08. 

09. 
1910. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19 



57 

63 

131 

58 

94 

74 

94 

127 

115 

91 

110 

114 

121 

129 

127 

99 

83 

135 

66 

90 

128 

112 

86 

79 

71 

95 

95 

90 

106 

102 

90 

78 

105 

89 

93 

145 

79 

145 

113 

108 

118 

93 



103 

73 

120 

208 

214 

258 

184 

68 

87 

158 

89 

71 

138 

149 

78 

137 

116 

50 

121 

125 

69 

125 

114 

74 

103 

162 

73 

94 

60 

66 

136 

141 

105 

68 

88 

83 

97 

102 

81 

72 

60 

89 



75 

92 

129 

148 

64 

117 

28 

102 

69 

131 

61 

130 

71 

90 

76 

71 

81 

101 

135 

110 

131 

100 

105 

117 

130 

109 

86 

126 

79 

99 

97 

45 

69 

146 

159 

82 

53 

76 

126 

72 



128 

62 

117 

77 

115 

129 

89 

93 

90 

91 

64 

73 

97 

129 

113 

131 

80 

112 

62 

110 

96 

63 

107 

131 

77 

97 

83 

101 

63 

113 

116 

137 

104 

130 

148 

95 

108 

43 

78 

100 

146 

91 



132 

59 

131 

58 

165 

127 

99 

89 

120 

79 

124 

103 

132 

59 

124 

134 

113 

87 

88 

87 

92 

80 

84 

120 

75 

86 

82 

115 

92 

134 

134 

117 

102 

56 

116 

94 

56 

130 

112 

86 

95 

145 



102 

98 

172 

200 

122 

121 

102 

89 

82 

87 

123 

99 

98 

132 

98 

69 

83 

114 

86 

87 

80 

104 

93 

120 

126 

88 

107 

114 

107 

79 

125 

121 

94 

93 

70 

73 

94 

125 

110 

87 

100 



82 

100 

85 

73 

98 

110 

117 

84 

73 

93 

77 

138 

84 

106 

104 

69 

78 

95 

134 

122 

108 

96 

99 

88 

92 

97 

101 

116 

126 

98 

97 

90 

99 

79 

105 

89 

85 

114 

138 

102 

77 

II I 



125 

123 

113 

31 

115 

71 

60 

138 

96 

93 

134 

68 

124 

119 

97 

99 

85 

90 

76 

82 

142 

83 

77 

149 

74 

111 

111 

117 

121 

88 

105 

84 

80 

138 

103 

78 

67 

145 

80 

100 

88 

109 



64 

45 

100 

118 

57 

36 

109 

96 

102 

73 

135 

117 

144 

56 

90 

104 

126 

54 

123 

63 

102 

94 

83 

106 

137 

65 

89 

98 

126 

145 

65 

93 

83 

111 

125 

123 

74 

101 

90 

96 

115 

fifi 



162 

83 

98 

277 

162 

218 

103 

145 

56 

113 

132 

76 

152 

66 

36 

119 

101 

65 

75 

68 

168 

74 

116 

59 

120 

103 

54 

116 

124 

85 

70 

71 

125 

142 

79 

140 

104 

122 

87 

120 

150 

186 



67 

171 

93 

180 

105 

149 

60 

108 

146 

80 

130 

163 

62 

136 

117 

101 

71 

116 

139 

129 

136 

70 

139 

59 

112 

69 

62 

73 

92 

145 

61 

67 

72 

133 

79 

87 

91 

96 

74 

31 

99 

128 



117 

133 

73 

147 

108 

116 

170 

80 

86 

131 

85 

64 

86 

96 

77 

88 

95 

113 

49 

112 

81 

93 

82 

156 

140 

77 

97 

129 

110 

127 

90 

100 

77 

136 

106 

76 

130 

112 

100 

55 

125 

86 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



37 



TABLE 5. — Eastern United States, beginning January, 1887. Observed percentages of normal. 



Cycles. 












Phase numbers. 
















































(15) 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) 


(13) 


(14) 


1 


91 
110 
114 
130 
106 
36 
83 
83 
139 
96 
83 
80 


91 

no 

71 

97 

119 

117 

(116) 

95 

49 

92 

94 

74 


158 
89 
71 

132 
56 
77 
71 
72 
90 
87 
74 

105 


69 

131 

61 

99 

66 

99 

96 

65 

130 

108 

82 

131 


91 

64 

73 

84 

136 

137 

69 

116 

110 

142 

86 

120 


79 

124 

103 

124 

96 

76 

78 

113 

87 

102 

114 

93 


79 

124 

123 

144 

127 

131 

85 

66 

86 

168 

100 

88 


82 
87 
138 
152 
78 
134 
126 
121 
122 
108 
107 
149 


93 

77 

(68) 

62 

90 

98 

101 
82 
82 

112 

84 

(106) 


93 

134 

117 

108 

113 

69 

71 

88 

63 

125 

104 

59 


73 
135 

76 
149 
124 

99 
115 
114 

68 
131 

99 
156 


73 

135 

163 

71 

132 

104 

50 

134 

129 

63 

77 

71 


113 

132 

64 

129 

104 

119 

81 

76 

120 

80 

83 

103 


80 

130 

121 

59 

97 

101 

112 

123 

69 

80 

116 

117 


131 


2 


85 


3 . .. 


138 


4 


98 


5 


90 


6 


88 


7 


87 


8 


75 


9 


110 


10 


96 


11 


1.39 


12 


75 


13 


98 


92 


74 


137 


120 


112 


140 


95 


162 


130 


97 


86 


126 


97 


88 


14 


103 


69 


77 


95 


73 


lOJ 


83 


82 


88 


101 


101 


89 


54 


62 


97 


15 


90 


94 


86 


101 


115 


107 


116 


117 


98 


116 


73 


129 


106 


60 


126 


16 


63 


(92) 


114 


126 


121 


126 


124 


92 


110 


102 


66 


79 


113 


134 


107 


17 


98 


88 


145 


85 


145 


127 


90 


136 


99 


116 


134 


79 


97 


105 


65 


18 


70 


61 


90 


78 


141 


97 


137 


117 


125 


90 


84 


93 


71 


67 


100 


19 


105 


105 


45 


104 


102 


121 


99 


80 


83 


125 


72 


77 


89 


68 


69 


20 


130 


56 


94 


79 


138 


111 


142 


133 


114 


88 


146 


148 


116 


93 


105 


21 


103 


125 


79 


79 


126 


83 


159 


95 


(94) 


70 


89 


7S 


123 


140 


87 


22 


76 


79 


97 


82 


108 


56 


73 


85 


67 


74 


104 


91 


130 


145 


145 


23 


102 


53 


43 


130 


94 


114 


145 


101 


122 


96 


112 


113 


81 


76 


78 


24 


112 


125 


138 


80 


90 


87 


74 


100 


108 


72 


126 


100 


86 


110 


102 


Mean, 1-12, 


96 


94 


90 


95 


102 


99 


110 


117 


88 


95 


112 


100 


100 


100 


101 


Mean. 13-24, 


96 


87 


90 


98 


114 


104 


115 


103 


106 


98 


100 


97 


99 


96 


97 


Mean of all 


96 


90 


90 


96 


108 


102 


113 


110 


97 


97 


106 


98 


100 


98 


99 



38 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 6. — Central Siberia. Table of observed percentages of normal. 



Ye.4rs. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1838 

39 


13 

. 8 

3 

41 
21 
36 
19 
68 

33 
133 
72 
43 
106 
33 
21 
162 
16 
38 
5 
60 
15 
27 
29 
20 
48 
48 
56 
44 
121 
88 
39 
55 
52 
24 
43 
125 
112 
70 
86 
48 
77 
47 
111 
129 
90 
98 
86 
125 
69 
63 
71 
95 
116 
97 
66 
133 
129 
100 
113 
123 
153 
70 
91 
222 
144 
110 
116 
154 
143 
105 
109 


50 
41 
42 
4 
31 
16 
83 
2 

63 

43 

6 

15 

31 

58 

151 

27 

18 

60 

51 

72 

115 

134 

29 

36 

39 

12 

38 

36 

43 

45 

23 

40 

34 

56 

85 

70 

65 

85 

116 

112 

57 

126 

88 

83 

63 

205 

91 

121 

99 

108 

90 

56 

157 

69 

107 

113 

123 

125 

86 

84 

71 

92 

148 

81 

94 

104 

286 

71 

73 

89 

103 

130 


21 
57 
127 
47 
4 
26 
123 
65 
84 
106 
66 
43 
52 
91 
162 
95 
84 
132 
69 
61 
11 
55 
54 
41 
18 
79 
61 
20 
94 
165 
55 
51 
61 
29 
67 
86 
122 
141 
101 
90 
16 
24 
138 
33 
104 
46 
83 
54 
105 
119 
128 
123 
105 
105 
86 
115 
96 
116 
47 
87 
36 
107 
84 
140 
252 
100 
87 
89 
134 
77 
155 
134 


82 

128 

126 
76 
31 
35 
74 
81 

220 
43 
39 
44 
85 

138 
32 

145 
37 
49 

111 
97 
96 
60 
72 
34 
74 
2 

46 

66 

12 

42 

43 

42 

63 

76 

68 

74 

171 

93 

145 

124 

58 

89 

41 

42 

66 

21 

43 

76 

78 

89 

117 

88 

145 

99 

92 

86 

136 

167 

117 

117 

117 

98 

82 

153 

90 

138 

103 

93 

80 

86 

72 

125 


54 

150 

160 

185 
80 
73 
60 

103 

108 
35 
62 
73 
24 

104 

145 
61 

118 
99 

195 

58 

69 

72 

27 

86 

64 

18 

59 

43 

87 

10 

31 

25 

98 

68 

102 

118 

43 

99 

87 

49 

106 

127 

70 

128 

117 

103 

46 

107 

105 

125 

69 

103 

121 

132 

93 

77 

145 

81 

89 

128 

115 

116 

87 

75 

117 

99 

100 

124 

134 

110 

105 

87 


87 
118 
103 
150 
92 
234 
114 
89 
146 
230 
76 
73 
108 
22 
98 
74 
75 
37 
148 
70 
68 
120 
51 
89 
98 
91 
57 
22 
26 
54 
127 
112 
25 
93 
69 
38 
57 
86 
119 
66 
148 
92 
128 
115 
132 
116 
112 
95 
64 
70 
69 
93 
105 
134 
128 
134 
89 
129 
98 
118 
51 
109 
45 
58 
123 
89 
108 
84 
160 
110 
137 
51 


95 
55 

146 

106 

155 
99 

110 

147 

118 

183 
96 

108 
57 
81 
64 
59 
58 
43 

115 
96 
40 
95 
39 
49 
56 

111 

52 

95 

31 

35 

114 

140 

120 

86 

142 

52 

45 

63 

105 

120 

72 

92 

79 

127 

139 

124 

68 

114 

107 

61 

74 

123 

102 

78 

82 

125 

115 

77 

109 

94 

61 

131 

92 

88 

93 

109 

96 

83 

153 

120 

115 

112 


118 
129 
63 
43 
129 
129 
201 
79 
151 
119 
106 
164 
90 
117 
56 
72 
197 
36 
71 
33 
79 
43 
52 
94 
31 
40 
121 
50 
170 
106 
102 
70 
162 
106 
123 
81 
110 
101 
119 
66 
68 
163 
147 
80 
61 
72 
118 
85 
93 
112 
72 
109 
91 
68 
93 
91 
136 
81 
113 
116 
73 
60 
99 
123 
80 
110 
131 
122 
104 
130 
108 
64 


101 
117 
120 
134 
188 
46 
130 
97 
5 
156 
168 
165 
48 
111 
91 
58 
121 
5 
177 
71 
52 
137 
50 
101 
70 
121 
91 
53 
182 
90 
113 
53 
61 
70 
91 
121 
75 
90 
63 
86 
122 
129 
110 
1.35 
109 
72 
81 
125 
85 
125 
58 
61 
109 
117 
58 
74 
116 
67 
106 
98 
85 
60 
108 
81 
74 
145 
104 
130 
101 
99 
172 
147 


62 

203 

79 

201 

50 

90 

40 

17 

104 

19 

144 

82 

56 

132 

95 

111 

42 

36 

94 

98 

53 

26 

45 

65 

26 

40 

29 

58 

57 

65 

19 

25 

43 

38 

85 

96 

115 

91 

96 

58 

120 

86 

148 

84 

83 

74 

34 

183 

64 

94 

84 

105 

101 

150 

77 

135 

46 

132 

107 

125 

104 

65 

98 

135 

140 

83 

101 

154 

107 

144 

54 

80 


79 

162 

46 

40 

50 

89 

118 

10 

140 

49 

23 

34 

16 

139 

112 

91 

47 

91 

75 

122 

79 

82 

38 

126 

11 

30 

50 

87 

12 

13 

61 

53 

99 

72 

100 

10 

108 

63 

78 

57 

153 

96 

54 

101 

61 

47 

31 

64 

78 

121 

109 

92 

124 

120 

80 

127 

117 

101 

129 

83 

145 

82 

92 

138 

115 

100 

95 

127 

114 

111 

124 

172 


18 
119 


40 


17 


41 

42 


28 
27 


43 


22 


44 

45 


73 

45 


46 


222 


47 


36 


48 


39 


49 


7 


1850 


97 


51 


28 


52 


35 


53 


62 


54 


64 


55 


77 


56 


134 


57 


71 


58 


54 


59 


32 


1860 


33 


61 

62 

63 


24 
18 
11 


64 


36 


65 


72 


66 


28 


67 


69 


68 


86 


69 


38 


1870 


91 


71 


89 


72.. .-. 


95 


73 


133 


74 


81 


75 

76 


132 
140 


77 

78 

79 

mo 


41 

79 

113 

35 


81 


39 


82 


69 


83 


98 


84 


91 


85 


123 


86 


99 


87 


125 


88 . . 


96 


89 


77 


1890 


109 


91 


118 


92 


105 


93 


116 


94 


90 


95 


80 


96 


86 


97 


97 


98 


99 


99 


67 


1900 . . . 


78 


01 


93 


02 


133 


03 


139 


04 


125 


05 


112 


06 


144 


07 


155 


08 


119 


09 


98 



Three or more stations available beginning April, 1873. 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



39 



TABLE 7. — Central Siberia. Observed percentages of normal is tabulated beginning April, 1873. 



Cycles 


Phase numbers. 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) 


(13) 


(14) 


(15) 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 


74 

115 

119 

127 

88 

80 

61 

91 

76 

78 

89 

117 

88 

102 

120 

113 

89 

101 

117 

73 

70 

75 

140 

286 

124 

104 

111 

130 

102 
108 


118 

108 

112 

70 

90 

135 

69 

83 

76 

105 

125 

69 

103 

91 

118 

115 

115 

80 

128 

85 

148 

58 

115 

87 

84 

101 

155 

134 

106 
99 


38 

81 

63 

122 

70 

84 

90 

43 

107 

105 

125 

69 

93 

109 

97 

86 

136 

100 

118 

104 

84 

88 

133 

103 

83 

107 

105 

125 

93 
97 


52 

112 

87 

136 

128 

101 

126 

46 

95 

64 

70 

69 

123 

101 

107 

77 

116 

86 

94 

122 

82 

123 

144 

100 

122 

114 

103 

87 

102 
96 


101 
113 
113 

(79) 

79 

39 

21 

112 

114 

107 

61 

74 

(109) 

124 

86 

134 

46 

82 

116 

153 

87 

(81) 

104 

108 

130 

144 

155 

82 


96 

93 

112 

77 

147 

129 

103 

68 

85 

93 

112 

72 

61 

112 

92 

125 

117 

89 

98 

92 

45 

136 

100 

96 

154 

143 

72 

64 


110 

92 
107 

75 
129 

63 
116 
118 
125 

85 
125 

58 
105 

69 

93 

91 
110 

98 
125 
107 

92 

93 
138 
131 
127 

89 
105 
147 

105 
103 


133 

63 

49 

89 

54 

104 

124 

81 

183 

85 

125 

58 

92 

105 

128 

74 

125 

109 

83 

98 

99 

222 

99 

104 

112 

77 

137 

80 

106 
100 


125 

101 

93 

127 

35 

66 

72 

81 

183 

64 

94 

84 

77 

99 

82 

135 

116 

113 

110 

116 

108 

94 

89 

101 

154 

86 

115 

172 


65 

90 

76 

92 

111 

117 

72 

34 

64 

78 

121 

109 

95 

132 

93 

127 

167 

106 

71 

109 

98 

252 

109 

95 

73 

110 

108 

98 


146 

77 

58 

163 

83 

132 

74 

31 

123 

99 

125 

96 

157 

134 

58 

116 

81 

107 

36 

131 

97 

90 

128 

125 

134 

116 

172 


43 

132 

49 

129 

33 

139 

47 

91 

125 

69 

63 

71 

105 

78 

77 

133 

129 

129 

117 

60 

84 

120 

83 

116 

80 

120 

54 


57 
93 
48 
91 
42 
61 

(98) 
86 

125 
69 
63 
56 

145 
68 
80 
(123) 
77 
86 

115 
60 
81 
93 

100 

71 

(134) 

130 

124 


45 
101 

62 
113 
128 
109 

98 
121 

99 
108 

90 

56 
121 
117 
105 

96 

74 
113 

51 

65 
140 

80 
139 

89 
160 

99 
119 


92 

116 

58 

47 

121 

83 

98 

54 

105 

119 

128 

123 

105 

150 

66 

140 

132 

86 

61 

74 

153 

74 

110 

93 

153 

144 

109 














1=U 
15=28 


'96 
100 


104 
100 


99 
106 


97 
107 


112 
102 


85 
94 


85 
91 


106 

94 


105 
102 


1=28 


105 


103 


95 


99 


98 


102 


104 


103 


102 


102 


107 


90 


88 


100 


104 



The means above are adjusted to make their mean values 100. 



40 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 8. — The Punjab, India. Means of 25 towns, 1863 to 1900, and of Punjab meteorological districts, 
1901 to 1918. Data in inches and hundredths. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1863 

64 

65 


209 

64 

128 

178 

34 

89 

139 

6 

20 

140 

44 

127 

6 

38 

263 

75 

4 

21 

7 

190 

236 

30 
292 
224 

99 
113 
228 
396 
291 

49 
303 
372 
228 

44 
100 

29 

1 

131 


13 
108 
322 
83 
34 
188 
31 
18 
206 
70 
13 
86 
151 
44 
312 
220 
16 
133 
92 
107 
14 
68 
33 
21 

102 
305 
21 
98 
44 
261 
96 
89 
115 
47 
340 
61 
37 


116 

48 

263 

32 
87 

130 

447 

154 
5 

113 
48 

129 
9 

149 

104 
17 

140 


204 

8 

71 

91 

28 

243 
11 
52 
22 
79 

146 
10 
72 

149 
93 
46 
67 
4 
15 
38 


36 

175 

83 

72 

122 

143 

13 

39 

16 

59 

2 

30 

1 

103 

189 

202 

3 

7 

78 
66 
18 
24 
108 
14 
7 

21 

36 

60 

41 

2 

72 

39 

63 

40 

76 

1 

29 

113 


26 

152 
49 
26 

170 
48 
1 
11 
87 
93 

174 
26 
90 
85 

112 

213 
69 
32 
53 
19 

108 
22 

268 
89 

4^ 
83 
40 
71 
71 
203 
34 
10 
31 
36 
89 
33 
61 


415 

97 
74 
233 
79 
149 
135 
303 
499 
226 

29 
342 

59 
114 
182 

73 
432 
330 
256 
106 
119 
296 
215 
444 
138 

99 
113 
294 

35 
102 
387 
606 
484 
197 
128 
174 
281 

56 


1413 
653 
344 

765 
536 
503 
766 
322 
548 
893 
855 
700 
626 

1050 
226 
624 
344 
828 
860 
868 
447 
633 
394 
924 
568 
620 
679 
905 
357 
775 
972 
986 
286 
374 
506 
728 
282 
526 


658 
658 
782 
695 
854 
253 
188 
639 
208 
671 
548 
353 
943 
354 

67 
1011 
653 
153 
670 
374 
162 
507 
701 
394 
1062 
710 
693 
777 
601 
1091 
222 
574 
760 
494 
677 
258 

148 
790 


70 
190 
518 

55 
162 

65 
541 
178 
115 
296 
380 
240 
1080 
201 
342 
122 
116 
176 

73 
503 
544 
573 

95 

77 
274 
260 

49 

68 
221 
373 
728 
341 

17 

48 
176 
271 

27 
746 


179 
2 



20 

3 

44 

56 

16 



6 

69 

1 

65 

140 

113 

13 

60 



9 



4 

63 

2 

102 

15 

31 



30 

74 

5 

2 



2 

14 

6 



11 

10 


13 

7 







2 



14 

22 

138 





14 



99 
2 


11 


39 


43 
3 

3 

33 
2 

15 

4 
1 
1 


59 

57 

203 


66 





67 


52 


68 


30 


69 


8 


1870 


38 


71 


93 


72 


56 


73 


64 


74 


3 


75 


46 


76 


1 


77 


407 


78 


24 


79 


73 


1880 

81 


75 
3 


82 


2 


83 


12 


84 


1 


85 


158 


86 


44 


87 


18 


88 


6 


89 





1890 


176 


91 





92 


95 


93 . . 


34 


94 


193 


95 


6 


96 


29 


97 


53 


98 


83 


99 





1900 


127 






Mean 


1 20 


1.03 


0.92 


0.58 


73 


2 24 


6.60 


5.63 


2 60 


0.35 


0.14 


0.57 






1901 


151 



64 

135 

194 

15 

63 

126 

46 

88 

264 

188 

4 

62 

50 

6 

21 

15 


100 
4 

2 

4 

98 

340 

219 

38 

82 

18 

26 

20 

168 

136 

142 

56 

6 

6 


72 
38 

128 

331 
90 

141 

130 
2 

12 
10 

374 
30 

104 
61 

170 
22 
42 

201 


19 

34 

16 

4 

11 

11 

182 

137 

185 

55 

26 

101 

10 

166 

66 

24 

16 

142 


133 
77 
68 
60 
22 
11 
30 
48 
6 
10 
10 
28 

134 
69 
20 
57 

125 
3 


56 
224 

28 

72 

64 
152 
127 

48 
242 
254 
193 

50 
256 
162 

98 
156 
237 

79 


500 
430 
626 
252 
390 
334 
218 
645 
676 
385 
80 
448 
406 
994 
158 
601 
476 
139 


398 
348 
451 
429 
100 
506 
570 
1116 
362 
666 
215 
479 
558 
302 
220 
743 
938 
302 


74 
212 
314 
196 
450 
532 

12 
338 
409 
174 
222 
160 

68 
374 
192 
207 
934 

66 


6 

30 

18 

14 

6 

2 

1 

2 

6 

96 

48 

2 

6 

120 

44 

89 

202 

6 



4 


44 
2 


4 



84 

23 
8 

40 





8 


02 

03 

04 




24 
46 


05 


60 


06 

07 

08 

09 


40 



12 

138 


1910 

11 


12 




12 


8 


13 

14 


42 
42 


15 


10 


16 

17 

18 


1 

30 








Mean' 


91 


91 


1.07 


65 


49 


1.36 


4.46 


4.66 


2.46 


0.31 


13 


0.28 



' 1917 not included in these means because received after manuscript was sent to printer. 



42 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



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CO^'— 'lOCO't'O-^Tt'C^'— ' 

— ' (Mcor^co'-''— ' 00 



OOCitOcDCi'— •'— 'Cr-tOcDO-^OOr^'Ol-^COO-— 'OOiCD'— >— 'COCCOOO^^O 
O ■^ <C CO -^ 1-H Oi 0000000 1— < -Tf to '-« CO CO t- O CO -^ -rt* 00 >— ' 
t-it^»0'-' "^ O^JCO u^ O CO CI 



■^COCOClOOCOC^r^COt^COrfOlu^cOCSCOCMC^iO'— 'O— '»0(MCO'^'— 'CO<^ 

^00eOl>'"rt<'— iCOOOdC^-tfOtOt^-cOCOt^ O— 'CO -rfl^ CiOlrfCO-^ 

CM C^ i-f 05 (M T-i »C f-i t^ -^ t- 



CTscO^OiCOI>-a:«0'— i-rt<^C^C0"rt'00I^C0C^t~-'^OO<:0'M00Crs->*<^C5O 



COC^ICMOCO"— '■^^CO^M-rH'^OOOOt^Csr^iOt^'^'OOOO^^'MOt^cOiO^O 
<— t'Mt^I>-rfCO*0'— 'Oi t^ft^OOO-— 'OOir^t^cO Clt^C^l"— '05 >— i(M 



OlOOTldO'— 'OOiCOTfi'-'C^'^COCOOCO^^'^O-JOCi'^OC^lCO— 'to— «CC 
t-'.'MCO'MCOCO'— ' 'MT'I ■— ' UOC;OCOOC1--0 — rfCO t^COCOt'-tOir; 
,_,— « T-H,-« C^IC^ CO »-''-Hi— iOI>.COOI>. C^ Ol ■— I 



Or^COt^OOd'^OtOCOOOO'M'^OOCOOOlOM'Tj-OOOCOCOOt^OCOr— •—"*—' 
r-*CC»O000CO OCr-TfOOCOTJ'M .— 'CSCiC^ltO'MdTt"— lOO ■^t- ^ 

^^_H— . (M »o •— '■— 'OO iTJCOCSiO^^O CO CO 



iDOOGor^oioooO':o»o<^'--''X>oo':M'MiOTpooo5cno-^fO'— '»0!0-^co 

He 1>-OOOOCO C^IOOUO 00 CO TjifMr-.-^jHCOOSt^CO-^O-rf'— "O'^— ' 
CO-— I 00 CO (^ITP^^O C-JCO'—iO'— ' 



3 


COC-lCO-^OiOOOOOClCO'— •'MC'10S«OTt*00C5C<JC0C000CT5C^'^"^00O00 

^ ocooo cot--c^ oc-ico co'My:5oo •^■^or'Tj^ir'-t^-^c-j co 


io 


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(MOi COtn *0 'rj-l-- O'^ !>■ OiOOO TTOOt^ t^QO COt--CO 



cooooO'MTf'-ooco*MO'^cocooooooO'*fr-— 'toioco'— ''£>'rjcooo— ' 

COiO tC'^iC'— 'OS (Ml— '"rf<cor^ OO*— ' i?^COO '^OO t>.iOCO 



^OcoOOOOiC-— 'COOOOCO-^C^ '-'OOOOOOCO'-<<MO'^Tt<COCi'Mt-00-H 

i— iiO"— ' COM''— ' -^lOOiOir^io comtjhi— (irsc^aat^oco »o(M 



cor-c^iococoooooocooo^oocococooco— 'OfMuoo— I'j^inooO"^'— ' 
T-HOiooc-i looor'- r-iOTf'— tt-^ioocococ-i oO'^'MOi-^ooor*^- 

l>. (Ml— I— « !>.,—.,—( lO 1— 'CO'M'— 'CO*— ''— • 



<3i'r^'<J<tOC^COCOOlW3'«»<iCl'— 'iCOOO'^C^C^-^OSCOmO'— 'O^OtOOiOSt^ 

Oio-^ic^"5cocO'— iTtH'xj'Tt^r-cor-t^"— '131'^Oi'— -ocoio oioo(mooc^ 

CMi-HCO — KNt-.'^O'— t CO CO"— 'CM»?^ 1— ICC CO ^—CM 



»— iMCO^iOOt»OOCiO'— tC^C0^W5CDt>-00'3iO'— ''^^CO^lCCD^*OOOiO 



000 ■<*< •-'00 

»0 ^H 01 •— I 1— ' 

<— I ^ CM 



CO t-H t-H 



CO 00 CM CO CO 
CM lO CO 
1-1 CM 



pa 



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ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



43 



M oo o ci o c^ r-» 
.— « — r^ .^ Tf 40 



--ecr^»o lo c*^ 



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U^McDcOCO'?^COcO»Or*iCCO^C7SCO«--'iOC'l^JC^(MCS'^COC^J(M'— •lOCOiOOSCOOSCO'^COOS 
(MiOC^COC^cOiO C^cO ,_,,^,— ..— lO—C^ lO ■* 



C<l"*t*OC0'«rTt''*O'*iO'*»CC0C0'*»O^r--t>-t^I~*C0'*Ot-^C0*CC^O'Tf*»OCO00I^CDCO>— < 

0iCviC0t0C-lC-l(MC0--t^tMC0COOC^lC0'— '^0»O^C»00*MCOtOt>-0005'-O^HCD»0(MOCO'*Ci 

C^COiQC^C^OlCO lO"— 'CS *— "(MC^i CO CO*— '"— "M 



C0r0OO'**'C0r0-*»OC0OC^MOC0O»O^**'*-*-*OC000'*Q0OC0"*»OI^cOC0'-«CT>cO00 

Ot^cOOC'lt^t^C^ICOO^^^'TfC^It^^OCO'— '*— «i— 1.— •C^t^cO'— 'UOCOOC^COO'^'— 'OS-^COCS 



O00"*Tf«C00000C0OOC0'MC0t--00C0OUt'iO»0iCt— OOOiOfMCOOOCOO-— 'CD»-«>— 'lOcOCO 

e^l»ftr>J^^Ir--.^JT,lfT^^>.::Of^J:0■Tt^^^l0^r^tnt^^^rtf>oc*3COlftlftcOc*!lClcOQO^»COCiCOC005CO■*•-^ 



^-<MCOrfOO'MOOOOCOt^OCOGOTt<C^OOu^OOO'**^C^'*rOCOC>^OOCO'— "OiCOOOt^CDf-H 

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C^ »OCO COC^IC^C^C^ C^C^'-'tO »0 M'— '1-t 



■^COOOCOOOCOC^OOO'^'^iCOOCXjeO^COOOOOiOCOCOCOOO'^U^'MOOOiOCOCO'— 'OSCO 

T-iCtOt>»iOOCiiO'^C^C^t^OS'*OC^cD:OcOCDcOCOOl>-cDOO'MCOOiOC<)i;pcO'— ics-*-^ 

— « .—I CO'—' 1— I-— "C^ir5(Mc^c^q<M'— iioc-i to ■* c-i 



iCO(MOOC^COCOfMTtOOOCOOCOOrOOCOCOCOCOOOOOOO-*COOCOTt*C^)t--CO'— '—"lOCO 

COC<)CiiOCSOOOiC^lcOinO'^cOC^t--^cOCOCOCOcOOOiO'^^^t^^OOO-lC^l^"*<COw>cDCO 

,^ »-..-. dC^ ._,™ti(^,— I cOiQiOiCt^OC^ CO C^— -C^I* ^—(Tj- ■* 



OI>-COC^COOOCOCOCOOOOOt— Or^OO'*OOOOCO'^C^'*»OtOCOOCOO'— 'tOcOCOr;;'^ 
cD»OOCSOC^lC^JOr---X'0100iOCOiO*OC<lcO:0:OcOcO'— 'CiC^COI>-cOC^l>-'*OlCO-Tt''MOai 
C^ ,-H^^^H.-«i— i^H lO •— ^ C^cOcOCOcDiO 04 lO"— ' <M i— 'C^l •— iG^I 



C0-*OC^1Oh-t-»Oi0OO'*"«*<-*'er00C0-*'n''*-*Oi0C0C0OC0Oc000C0-—ClC0C0-^CS 
CO — rMCr^OJiOiC'MI^^OC^lC^iCSC^ C5l-*C^lC^C^C^<0'C0OI>-tpOC0C0»0^d-*C0'-'O-^ 



40 « '-" 



— < :0 — ' CM 



(M CM CM CM CO 



^ (M ^ CO 



iinor^coO'*"*r^cO'*r>-OOco«oOoococococO'^oooocoO'*u^cMcooou^co^^io 

CDCO»OOC^^^'— "OOMiCtCOOt-^COC'lirsr— t^t~-l>-C^j:OC'1iOCOCMC-aCOCl'rf*CMCO'*COOcD 
CO —.—I f— 'CMCMCM "— ' CMCM»-'»0'— »CM ■^ tT 



ooo■*o^^■*l'^•^oco■^'^^c■^lOO^-CMoocococococol>•c^^o^-coOco^oco^-cocOGO^; 

■^CO*— 'C^liO^^CO*— 'CMt^CM*— '•— 'r^cOiC05iCt^l>-t~^t^CD*CCiCOiOt^=OCiCO^-'OCO"^C^10 
1— iCM-— ' '— « CO'-OCI lO CD CM,— I,— 11— (-—■CM'— I 



ooco»or--r^ioio»cr-ooo-Tfcccoco-*cooooooooocoO'*cooO'«roocooc5'— 'i— 'oicoco^ 

iCCOCOiC*OCOCOCOW54QCDC-jTrOO>— 'OiO^OiOtCiCCO— 'O-*'— 'lO^OC^l-^COCi-^CD— 'Oi 
lO CMCMt-H— luTi'— I CO'—'"—" ir^"— ' ■* 



CMOOTf-^OOu^'^C^COCDOOOCMiOOC^lC-JCMiMCMTt'iOOOOiCOOO-^^CCO'— "lOcD— '^ 
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CO C^ CM CM iO »-« ■* .-« CM "— < CO CM rr 



CO-^COiCiOCOCOOiOCOOClCOr^COOOCOCOCOCOCOCOOr^CMC-lO-^u^t^COOOt^COCOQO 
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<— 'CMtC *C»OCM —"CO c-j^-^^,— I,— (^H,— . CM ■*'— -C^J .— .^f '— i-— iC^l 



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^N,-..-H»-(--i,-i,-«»-i,-H.-«C^CS|CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCMCOeoeOCOCOeOCOCD 



44 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



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1 

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ALTER : RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



45 



TABLE 10.— Mean raiDfall in inches of Ashland, Albany, Cascade Locka, Portland, Roseburg and The Dalles, 

in Oregon. 



Years. 



1879. 
1880. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 
1890. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
1900. 

01. 

02. 

03. 

04. 

05. 

06. 

07. 

08. 

09. 
1910. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19.. 
1920. 

21., 



Mean. 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dee. 



960 
1080 
419 
878 
387 
346 
787 
1207 
732 
294 
917 
387 
450 
186 
1040 
770 
714 
270 
412 
622 
472 
689 
324 
801 
492 
344 
538 
674 
402 
850 
552 
680 
873 
663 
994 
461 
504 
340 
606 
760 
375 
652 



6.12 



421 

1152 
754 
157 
540 
698 
275 
354 
189 
98 

1038 
701 
202 
592 

(536) 
140 
393 
654 
537 
562 
432 
652 
784 
145 

1013 
160 
538 
492 
290 
632 
590 
275 
492 
136 
376 
390 
588 
383 
559 
762 
21 
645 



845 
355 

278 
247 
340 
261 

50 
400 
588 
284 
212 
496 
320 
263 
353 
826 
336 
357 
578 
21G 
445 
372 
367 
481 
289 
813 
440 
250 
424 
419 
204 
248 

98 
253 
409 
262 
230 
775 
444 
289 
520 
415 
433 



4.88 3.83 



281 
291 

281 
399 
519 
337 
105 
305 
423 
123 
266 
133 
259 
410 
541 
266 
217 
446 
170 
157 
379 
158 
249 
600 
164 
236 

83 
160 
371 
192 

92 
245 
206 
272 
250 
305 
186 
277 
904 
116 
334 
358 
262 



2.87 



501 
256 
108 
111 
175 
105 
345 
149 
289 
102 
280 

88 
211 
159 
255 
171 
343 
396 

88 
164 
248 
273 
193 
242 
116 

58 
236 
279 
135 
276 
184 
215 
300 
243 
190 
143 
326 
254 
200 
164 
164 

90 
149 



2.09 



83 
116 
272 

91 

2 

164 

170 

38 
104 
486 

62 
209 
265 

75 
110 
236 

35 

94 
188 
145 

80 
195 

99 

69 
194 

64 
128 
238 
130 

97 

44 
116 

71 
254 
321 
172 

72 
135 

70 

17 

71 
166 
115 



1 36 



131 
36 
92 
85 


92 

9 
96 

7 
104 
22 
32 
58 
61 
19 
32 
44 

6 
45 
54 
10 
16 

8 

124 

48 

72 

7 



53 

14 

106 

1 
16 
44 
86 

6 
103 
239 
10 
74 
14 
62 

3 



0.50 



107 

88 

102 

23 

12 

15 



2 

23 
8 

60 

29 

76 

8 

4 

2 

13 

71 

41 

76 

237 

81 

30 

50 

43 

13 

17 

8 

141 

80 

18 

4 

10 

231 

40 



6 

38 

6 

60 

4 

106 

22 



0.46 



198 

79 
170 

71 

65 
342 
242 
246 
171 

67 
145 

36 
174 
124 
337 
188 
204 

76 
193 
260 
118 
176 
(326) 
123 
132 

56 
201 
198 
148 

32 
112 

79 
378 
172 
204 
296 

50 

70 
114 
134 
256 
409 
223 



302 
145 
609 
716 
344 
352 
180 
278 
135 
376 
399 
233 
396 
233 
529 
434 
5 
208 
201 
155 
366 
545 
115 
134 
220 
544 
408 
262 
100 
451 
289 
322 
98 
302 
319 
414 
198 
98 
6 
379 
217 
344 
279 



1.72 I 2.94 



538 
246 
446 
342 
556 
198 
784 
168 
370 
427 
381 
49 
539 
551 
799 
257 
360 

1244 
927 
715 
746 
427 
482 
944 
993 
451 
256 
777 
569 
295 

1185 
961 
406 
550 
541 
370 
981 
558 
506 
440 
656 
592 

1011 



5.84 



779 
944 
540 

1087 

(560) 
883 
656 
996 

1024 
427 
549 
383 

1127 
650 
522 
473 
984 
679 
833 
368 
626 
498 
546 
927 
278 
763 
619 
607 

1064 
378 
376 
401 
457 
629 
287 
217 
728 
432 

1123 
354 
514* 
810 
296 



6.37 



46 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 11.— Mean rainfall in inches of Folsom, Hollister, Los Angeles, Marysville, Merced, Sacramento, 
San Francisco, San Jose, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, San Bernardino, San Diego and Stockton, 

in California. 



Years. 



1878. 

79. 
1880. 

81. 

82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 

1890. 
91. 
92, 
93. 
94. 
95. 
96. 
97. 
98. 
99, 

1900, 
01, 
02, 
03, 
04, 
05, 
06, 
07. 
08, 
09, 

1910, 
11 
12, 
13, 
14. 
15, 

' \l 

18, 
19, 
1920, 
21,, 



Mean, 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


635 


769 


272 


174 


30 


3 


1 





16 


47 


44 


(174) 


289 


246 


278 


184 


86 


7 


1 


1 





79 


233 


383 


139 


271 


138 


668 


64 





1 


2 





9 


37 


832 


370 


239 


122 


107 


4 


20 








22 


80 


79 


175 


166 


229 


354 


161 


20 


14 








31 


132 


184 


56 


165 


123 


306 


90 


169 


4 


1 





42 


104 


42 


(148) 


343 


697 


778 


194 


74 


154 





1 


15 


131 


20 


572 


154 


17 


45 


174 


20 


9 


3 


1 


3 


17 


774 


168 


573 


82 


227 


370 


11 


2 


4 


2 





19 


63 


118 


68 


664 


91 


191 


15 


6 


2 





39 


14 


97 


272 


484 


109 


300 


21 


39 


11 


1 


1 


33 


7 


365 


405 


59 


95 


559 


64 


136 


10 


1 


7 


3 


512 


260 


970 


574 


318 


247 


76 


86 


9 


1 


17 


74 


5 


24 


306 


59 


594 


157 


160 


58 


10 


2 


7 


23 


5 


30 


363 


147 


251 


309 


87 


209 


6 








6 


69 


375 


434 


314 


287 


560 


86 


33 





9 





10 


34 


152 


208 


284 


(256) 


69 


35 


131 


35 


1 


2 


88 


113 


39 


672 


681 


160 


208 


93 


61 





1 





49 


44 


118 


101 


619 


12 


2.50 


280 


58 





5 


31 


18 


117 


280 


210 


304 


435 


187 


41 


19 


4 





1 


7 


149 


40 


97 


113 


60 


189 


25 


116 


6 


1 





60 


43 


44 


109 


333 


16 


421 


51 


38 


53 





5 





294 


269 


222 


271 


28 


143 


156 


146 


2 


3 





10 


108 


479 


81 


407 


485 


59 


178 


72 


1 





6 


46 


140 


177 


60 


120 


506 


275 


121 


48 


2 


7 








100 


226 


209 


290 


164 


570 


134 


6 








1 


7 


8 


197 


68 


68 


416 


468 


145 


17 








11 


252 


160 


97 


173 


308 


422 


404 


87 


184 


4 


3 


1 


7 


5 


181 


76 


457 


341 


729 


128 


205 


38 


1 





18 


1 


107 


691 


579 


264 


648 


40 


10 


48 








■? 


180 


5 


296 


398 


312 


77 


28 


67 


1 


1 


6 


43 


47 


117 


164 


957 


510 


274 


2 





5 





10 


23 


72 


186 


578 


280 


99 


274 


26 


2 





1 


1 


41 


65 


39 


98 


1109 


298 


530 


76 


15 


3 


1 





27 


27 


28 


176 


189 


17 


415 


211 


98 


24 


1 


2 


49 


56 


88 


38 


263 


220 


115 


54 


56 


20 


15 


10 


3 


4 


382 


357 


884 


395 


73 


110 


24 


31 


1 





4 


75 


46 


413 


514 


623 


131 


115 


225 








4 


1 





6/ 


414 


1173 


253 


159 


18 


12 





3 


8 


72 


135 


69 


410 


217 


431 


82 


66 


26 





2 


1 


14 


2 


46 


32 


75 


482 


531 


51 


6 


9 


3 


6 


*230 


34 


265 


182 


136 


470 


230 


27 


20 








2 


74 


31 


32 


226 


44 


213 


420 


115 


12 


8 





1 


4 


139 


218 


353 


447 


113 


209 


39 


171 


1 








36 


44 


92 


654 


3,65 


2 95 


2,93 


1.20 


66 


13 


02 


0.03 


34 


0.79 


1.48 


2,90 



48 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



o 



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s 
I 



PQ 



I^ ,_,,-.-—. Ci — CO -M COCO "^C^ CO:CC^ CO^O COOiCO 



COOOCO^H<:D(M(MO-^cDiM'^'M»0'^COC<IOOtOQ0005Tt^Or>-asC-l(MiO 
COCO'^iO'— "CO-^O— 'OOOiCO-^CO-^OOOSiO-^COCit-^-iOCOOOt^OOC^Jti^CS 



'M'— "OOOOOiC^^C^tOOCO'-Ot'-iOiOOCO-^OQOCiCOOOO^-a:'^ oox> 



1— iOt*<M'— 'OOOiiOOiC^d^Tf— ^iO(MI>-'^OOeOCOOO'-<CDO. 

»o^Hif5icr-co»ot^or^Tt<r>.iioooto^H»oQOOcocooi'*0'-' 
di^O'— •■^rpcsl^^^o<^^'^^cfs'^^lOlC•— 'Oi>-^^oo— ' coos 



O !>• O Tt< O ' 

OOOOQO-*»f3^HioM3r-fX3»or^or^Tt<r>->ioootO" 
t>-r>-'Mtra^Hor>-0'— •■^rpcsl^^^o<^^'^^cfs'^^lOlC• 
f•^ ^* r^ ^4 r■■^^ v^ •*! v^ /^i ^vi •« i*vi rv^ 



'— ' TP f-l C^ (M 



O t^ ^ O O — 
O tO t— < f— < lO C^ 



eOCnfTi^C^^Cy^C-l O OO ^tOcO T"lC001COlOOO -^»— '■'^"^•— ^^'"^■'^-*"'-^'v^ 

^HCO<Z)Oi'— i»o-^^co co-^*^o Ol 



CD CO O 

CO ^ ^ ' — I i-'j 



cor*'— 'r^r-a3CM05^-u^'rt*'>JC3"— 'CO 

oicoiooo o:i>-oooot--coo»OTraico 

CO ^H t- (M CO >—« -^ 



^c^iiocot^--^t^-— ■rrc^i'^Oico-r-^'rjcoast-^»ococ-irqco':ooo-ro'-OoO'rr' 

000'<*'OOOi^CO'^3iOdOOC?J^HC-)t^eO^OO<:0'— 'C^ICOOSC^COQOI^^HCO 

>— ^co'^^eooooas--l•;t*co•*co'^l'^^^^coo5<o^D3ioo■^^s^- cs«o>— "coco 



000'<*'OOOi^CO'^3iOCiOOCT>^HC-)t^eO^OO<:0— 'C^ICOOS^ 

>— ^co'^^eooooas--l•;t*co•*co'^l'^^^^coo5<o^D3ioo■^^s^- 
t^ .H r— ^^ (M '-" ^^ ^H CO '—'OS t^ C^ C^l OO O ■— ' O TP 



CO <-« w 



f— •00'*rCi-^Oi'"^t^C10'-OCOOCOOCO'*'OOsO"'*'0-r»OOCOiCC^lCO'M 

b-^^ — (■^QO-^OOTroo-*"Oic:'5:rjdcoo^-cococo^-cot^'— 'cDooc^ooco 
loc-ior^oocot^toioc^-^— 'couococococor*cO'-o ojoco co^oooco 






CO— ' c^r^-- Tt*GS-^ 



ioocoi^c^i^^iO'S''M-jicO'*f-^r-^r^TfH'Mr^O'^oi— !■— toioo-rooor^ 
or^oot>-"rtir^r--tocooco»ooo:?i<oci00ic0'0ooci05coo0'— 'toco^o-^ 



OOCOCOO'MO"^'^iOOO'^OitCOO'T<i;OiCTf'iOtO^^Tf'"OO^OJ'T^CO 

■:rooooot-~^iooMoo-^i"*-^iOoai'— '•— '^?■^J■^co'OOl■^^o^^loai — 
1— "<MO^^— '-x^oot^io— »0'Moo-t^r^'>ico»OfroooMO-^*Xi-rOoo 



lO "^ OO 

""J^ t--. -- 

■^CO lO-^ClOOO-^-— t 00:0 




■rt-'^ic^j'— 'rrC'i--ao'>iiO'— '■--'roior^-^u3GOt--r^c^t^o-^io'r^r^i— icioi 
cooi>-rri-r-^iotr5QOcoi:^oococor^r^ r-Ci»oooo:-^r^dC^c*j(r-icoco 

CD CO'— "f-t~-Clt~-CJ^^ lOT-lC^CO OOCO OO^H COC^ 00C5.— I 






cO'Mooco.-oiOL':)OiocotC'i>.'*«cii'^t^'^r^'^005io»oot^'— 'C^cooot^ 

O00'Mco-^:O'M00O--0<M»0r^Or-Ol>-t-^X>0iOa5'^iC';t"t^— -X)C:j — 

:Dc^iciCioot^oo-*'coo=o r^»o:oo-^tO'^'7'ici:0'05»or--food'r>t^ 

.— > CO-r^HCOt^OlC^l qOC^ "^»-<Tt<CD cor- c-il^— .— ..-^-r^ 



r^ »o — ' o •— -w -J- . 



O I^ — • ^ C^ :C 



t^oc^'^cor-.''*^'— '■— ''rviooaot>-c^iiOTt<oiM<iOOco»or-^co^t^-t'io« 
cMoooir-iooioocooc'j-o — r-.'Mor-.QOoor-'^t>--Tttc5<M-Hcouot 

■^' - C^lfMCOOCOCi-^CO'O'-DOO^-Oi'— 'Ml— 'O'— ih- tOiOI^C^C 

^O v^ r^l ^-M rvl 1^ ^^ ^^ v44 h^ ^^ ««^ ^.^ ^.^ A^\ .-^rv /^1 h'— V .«i^ ^^1 < - 



MiOOcO»Or-^CO^t^-fiO'!f'M 

Door^'^t>--Tttc5C-i-Hcouor-c-i 

•^- -J- ■•■*■-■. L'j N— »■ .-^ wj .*-. i.'j *»^ ..-' \*j ■ — • ^rf ■--' t") ^H »f^ T-H i>. tO "O I^» C^ to OO 
CD-*^ C^>— iCSi— 'C^iOCO CO-^ »0'—''— '•—''— 'COOifM OHOC^^HcOO 



lOiO'^OCOr^OOiO'-J'OiOOOOCl'^'M'^iOOiCOOS'^tOCOOOOOO 

oo^Dooc-iicoioo-^cor—ioco-^'MOooTfoooir-^HOw^or-Oiooco-Ht- 

OOSO C*]CM^'i000cD0l»O^-O'— 'O0:Tf^J"t^':0^HOcD<;D'^C0C000C^) 
Tt*^«D C^»i-<^^ iOCO C^)<N eOC^ CO CO-^O OlOO^ C^IOO 



^ 



o 



cc 



U5 05 '— < ^H U3 
-tj< I-- 05 CC -^ 



321 

8516 

2161 

325 

321 


lO CD ^ ^*0 

c^i Tt< ^ os'^^ 

COUti t^ OSCO 


^ O Oi'^'^ 
OiOO CO<^ 05 

osco r^^ oi 


'(J^ t^ CO OO ■-H 
CO -rt* — ' O '-0 

r>. r^ lO CO -^ 

•M C^ OO CO M 


■^ u^ CO-^OO 
— * UO '*}' ^ C5 
^- '^ UO — " fO 

CO w t>- i:oeo 


05 CO O 05 OO 
CO 'M 00 CO O 
t^ CO CO f* CO 

CO lo coco 


CO ^ 1^ O -^ 
i-> Ci-^ — ^ — * 
lO OS t^ LO ^ 
OO (M CO as 



CO •-' IlO O OS 
CO <0 to ^^ CO 

^ — « -TtH lO t>- 

CD C^ '-' 00 ;D 



r^ CO ^^ CO :o 

"^ O -M Tf ^^ 

t^ CO CO UO lO 
C4 CO t^ 00 



»f^ -^ "O O '-0 
»0 '-' 01 OO '!*' 

■^ ^- CO ro 'O 

■—•JO lO t^ 



CO 05^I>- CD 

(M CO Oi -f OO 

CO t^ OS r- CO 

CO C<1 to 



»— ' CO ^- lO t^ 

OS .— I CO 40 Tf 

OS *o ■— ' -^ l>- 
OO C^ •-' c^ 



— ' CD 00 I— ' »0 

CO -^t^ o c^ »o 

■— ' "O CO CO ^ 
CS t-CO 1-t 



'— ' -^ ■^ lO lO 
<— I to — r C^ »0 

r-o ^ CO"* 
■* -<j< CO --I 



«-H(Mco-<»'iotor*ooosO'— "^^co^^oco^-.ooosO'-"C^co^uoco^^ooaso 



-H(M CO -^ift 



ALTER : RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



49 






- - ^^ ^vj ^ ,:f. ,—, 

po r* ic — 
c^ t-* ^ 



OQO 

CO so 
lO CO 



o -^ 



— -t^CC ^<M^H50 01?0 MOOeO •050 f-nvs^O 






<M O 
C^l — ■ 

eooo 
CO -^ 



o ■^ 

cDiO 



Oi O 

ooco 

OO C3 



eoccccfccc— c;r— — ceo — ■^t--cs-^»o— ' ^r-u^— cot— lo 



oooo 

— CO 

coco 



CO 05 

coo 
io<o 



!OCO 
OOOi 



03c:~r^'»fco^»occ'MooocM— 't^iMooco — lCTt•o■^»»OT^ 
oacj^cot— r— — -^t-^cocococcu^ — cocot— -^•^i.Teoco'^»o 

iM ;0 C^ •— ' :0 iC CO 00 C^ 1/5 ^ C^ 1— ■ t— CO ^^ t-» 



I »0 CO 
I CO CI 

OO Ci 
C^ CO 



— c^ 

C<I o 

cOiO 






CO!C:OC:»C^-0^^— '•-*• — C^)'»fO^)"* — 0'MOO — n 

^-^-^-Ci'^w^cocoi-'^dt— — fO»^cocoi^»f^rococo — C5 
c^cs■^^ ^-ooco oo c^:o t-^co c^ooco ^n zo 



— — o 
ri 00 

coco 



CO ■**< 

(N O 
(M O 



CD CO 

OS CO 

co*o 



r*<o 

(M OS 

oc* 

— CO 
OaO 



C*J C^ C^ ?^ t— :0 O- CS ^- :0 



— o-* — »o:o-^u^r-oo — »ot-- 

C5O0 — mo-*' — 'TJ-rfC-lCO-M'^ |i»OOi 

cr)ro-^o;"^ic — cor— CD"— 'CO - ico-- 
too •— 't— o csr-cs c^it— (-- 

O xO 



-^oo 

o — 



to — 

oo OS 

OO OS 

— o 



ooooooooiiOOdOO^H^H^-^-r— oi.— .— iooi'-'»ocooo— ^lO to<M 

OOOOC^IOOCOt— oo — C^COCO-^COOCJOOCOCliOTj-OOiiO I "^CO 

cocococococot— ■iOcoi--coo — r—i^'— cocor— oi'^tocooi'^ I ooo 
eocococo xoco^HiO"* ooc^c^oc^ 40 '^ — t—co >— 'icsos 

UO 10 



M* 00 

CO t— 

CO — 



^■^.^■^^-t— 000^-CiuOOOOiOOOOlOt»CO'— 'i-hOtJ^'— '.-H 

— — — — C: — — OOCOC^OOOiO^-OC^-*— <OMOO<— iCOC^ 

— — .— ^- Oil— ioro^-i>-cococoTj"tococor--*o-^coco— ' — CO 

COOOO C^IQOCOC^CC lOCO — OOCO C^OOC^ »OCC(N 



OS CO 

cico 
— o 

lO lO 



coo I -* o 

00 (. 40 »0 

— — il ^o 

II 00 ;o 

I OCM 




00 to 

CO o 
•'f to 



t— CO II -* o 

00 O ij »^00 
^ II Oi05 

n 00 00 

O "M 



cOO'-OOlOO^-OOltOO — UOOOOCOOi— '■— ";^Tj" — trDO-*— ' .-■■^ 

•— I — --COO'MOOCOC-1-^COtOC^JiOOOCOO'MOO — OliO^^— "CS II ^TiTli 

to»otrai— cococot— cotc^-"^'— '.oror^ — coco— O5'^io^-os oco 

OOOOOOOCO too t-CQ^-r— tCO'M tc*— ^HQOCO ii'^OO 



to t- I —to 

OS Ci I, CO to 

II c^o 

11 CO CO 
II OtO 



eoooorritor— CO — O00--O — — coooior— o:-^^-ooi'— ' tot— 000 t— o 

^H— . — ^- — t^l'Tj"- CSOOOC^'n'OO- OC^-^COOT^Tj-cOCO (iCOtO O^H it— (3 

iototo»o — cor-tr^cicococoio — — t(^cocot-i— — cotot— -H ■— 'Os .-.^h .— <<= 

000000000 rioo toco t— -Mc^QOco iraoM t-oc^),,tcoo ^o 

I 00 t- II to to 



— c; II <M t— 

05 O II ■**■ to 
— II CO OS 

II CO CO 



COOOCOO:- lOO- t— "^t0O00-^O--f — tOCOOOtOOCOCXi OICO 
M'-^'^'^COOltOrJ-COTf^-r-lOOO'M-*!- Olio— 'O'MOO— 'O ||t— O 

totOiOtor— o;-Tto — t— -— 'corococoto- os"*iocococoioco I 000 

t— r-t— t-O — t— CSC^O toco t— O -— 'jCCO tOOOCOn'OOO 

I 00 o 



o 01 I O t— 
C^l — I II 00 o 

-^ — II 00s 
II o o 
II coco 



OS to II to o 

— O II o — 

— — Oios 



00000 — — OOCtOOG — t— -^lOOOi— I— -O-rf- t— -^-^ ] OO — 

ooocococ — 0'^^oo0l0c'^o:"^ — c^ioocoo^]-*" — o;-^- — ,1 coco 
corococoto — coroco"^oo:t— — focot— — coto^-osr— lt-^h o>to 
toiototooori loco^-t- c^io tooc^ t-o c^iooonO't- 

I t-to 



r— t— t— r— oootot— '»*' — o — too 

^^r-iTj..^-^ — C^4.rr — t^lTj-COtOCO 

t— t— t— r— tococot— — roto — --^t— 
C^DC^C^I—CO c^o t— c^^-o 



— I— tOoOtOOOS — tOOO! tl ^^o 
O"*- O^^OCCOO lO-^CO il t— -^ 
Oit— to COCOCOt- — -rfiO I— II CO — 

c^ooro toO'M- r- -o.icoo 

II CO'^** 



t— -^ 

00 CO 
00 rf 

00 ■* 

CO CO 



Tp (M II to to 

O) CO II c^ o 
— — II OS CS 

Il coc^ 



t- C^ I 00 00 

CO "— ' Il 00 
— — II 0000 

II 00 OS 

II coco 



I CO -^ 
t— CO 



tOtOO^"— 'tOOOtOOOO^-CO — tOO-*"^^!— 000 — 00 Oi" 

to to cc — o. to Tl n 00 o n — CO to "* — o -^ — o c^j 00 ^H ci t 
"-•-rro— o--rococococoto— I'^tO'— 'Ot— locococoto loo-. 

— — too — r— toco QOIM'— t'-co C^IC^)nr^ »jr>nnii»*i 



CS — — — to 



J o 

r to 



cot- i! — o 
t- — II o 00 

— II Oto 

Ij O M- 

00 CO 



-^O II O-S" 

iM CO ,1 O to 

— — II oc^ 

II -* o 



lOt^oocao — c^ico 



^■tOCOt— OOOO'^C^JCO'^toOt— OOOiO 



a c 
B E 

3 3 
02 Oj 



•S o 

= 2 

3 a 

O-cc 






E E 



c o 

= s 

Cm 



2 S 



E B 



o o 



° 2 
3 E 
Ceo" 



4 — Science Bui. — 3728 



50 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 13.— Per cent of normal rainfall at Chilgrove, West Sussex, England, 
actual rainfall in "British Rainfall, 1919." 



Compiled from table of 



Years. 



1834 

35 

36 

37. 

38, 

39. 
1840. 

41 

42. 

43. 

44. 

45. 

46. 

47. 

48. 

49. 
1850'. 

51. 

52. 

53. 

54. 

55. 

56. 

57. 

58. 

59. 
1860. 

61. 

62. 

63. 

64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 

69. 
1870. 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 
1880. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 
1890. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 



Jan. 



107 

38 

96 

144 

17 

38 

114 

128 

62 

81 

122 

105 

168 

47 

75 

94 

67 

153 

159 

156 

99 

22 

126 

93 

52 

76 

136 

24 

100 

123 

64 

136 

150 

114 

136 

110 

75 

110 

242 

153 

80 

149 

36 

259 

66 

78 

10 

48 

58 

94 

96 

62 

136 

93 

47 

30 

121 

106 

39 

61 

214 

98 

61 

103 

30 

110 



Feb. 



135 
169 

90 
160 

71 
143 
TOO 
121 
126 

97 
125 

76 



232 

86 

82 

38 

106 

45 

33 

61 

55 

18 

42 

90 

61 

85 

31 

38 

60 

106 

183 

109 

62 

119 

138 

79 

116 

131 

95 

98 

151 

84 

120 

175 

128 

136 

82 

202 

106 

175 

42 

33 

34 

60 

47 

2 

35 

146 

108 

6 

24 

173 

71 

110 



Mar. 



73 

121 

226 
24 

122 
83 

96 
65 
66 

138 
48 
93 
46 

209 
57 
19 

190 
23 
89 
18 

127 
54 
95 
72 
81 
94 

128 

172 
52 

146 
54 
77 



78 

90 

63 

119 

105 

26 

65 

132 

121 

72 

29 

46 

91 

40 

35 

124 

99 

96 

49 

183 

92 

73 

180 

42 

10 

82 

121 

202 

260 

38 

35 



Apr. 



55 

39 

262 

73 

51 

92 

21 

77 

44 

149 

26 

95 

80 

71 

185 

174 

218 

93 

26 

177 

8 

23 

198 

108 

137 

168 

90 

39 

58 

29 

76 

22 

81 

106 

134 

56 

11 

246 

49 

38 

144 

71 

110 

155 

156 

191 

100 

27 

197 

66 

80 

61 

91 

78 

86 

109 

145 

52 

47 

2 

132 

162 

34 

146 

67 

152 



May. 



57 

76 

19 

34 

84 

34 

85 

143 

75 

298 

21 

113 

117 

82 

22 

145 

132 

73 

106 

109 

189 

143 

185 

65 

116 

59 

186 

75 

172 

114 

77 

140 

69 

68 

58 

212 

70 

29 

136 

71 

19 

59 

27 

162 

109 

133 

101 

74 

68 

101 

44 

234 

225 

50 

91 

232 

87 

114 

46 

42 

64 

12 

27 

67 

207 

43 



June. 



129 

91 

62 

45 

167 

54 

78 

108 

22 

113 

57 

90 

45 

87 

191 

39 

108 

92 

286 

108 

82 

56 

96 

100 

43 

56 

291 

101 

113 

195 

58 

98 

127 

80 

26 

84 

19 

166 

88 

109 

134 

140 

69 

26 

86 

201 

101 

101 

153 

105 

61 

110 

28 

47 

158 

33 

151 

87 

95 

72 

96 

32 

184 

116 

123 



July. 



322 

11 

99 

47 

49 

226 

128 

79 

46 

87 

78 

92 

89 

40 

161 

90 

157 

90 

62 

244 

32 

170 

30 

57 

111 

106 

109 

182 

103 

34 

14 

92 

75 

100 

35 

^3 

61 

200 

114 

98 

54 

166 

34 

133 

43 

174 

210 

133 

131 

130 

97 

22 

156 

38 

292 

92 

155 

117 

100 

155 

212 

201 

42 

28 

143 

69 



Aug. 



78 

26 

91 

77 

64 

89 

71 

146 

73 

128 

99 

86 

173 

57 

182 

32 

100 

50 

172 

115 

45 

44 

142 

80 

85 

58 

167 

24 

79 

66 

34 

182 

107 

113 

159 

51 

121 

58 

53 

67 

83 

55 

103 

160 

184 

211 

34 

184 

76 

384 

44 

374 

75 

83 

95 

81 

119 

251 

109 

27 

61 

135 

45 

200 

65 

25 



Sept. 



24 

195 

127 

78 

91 

218 

151 

157 

192 

22 

31 

94 

56 

58 

94 

168 

94 



192 

117 

39 

88 

136 

153 

83 

141 

125 

128 

73 

136 

138 

10 

262 

73 

111 

195 

65 

165 

83 

103 

89 

85 

167 

63 

66 

152 

163 

100 

78 

133 

108 

171 

57 

136 

37 

27 

55 

43 

109 

65 

92 

214 

308 

105 

71 

112 



Oct. 



41 

135 

139 

84 

53 

83 

45 

167 

37 

118 

120 

64 

156 

68 

96 

110 

56 

106 

154 

141 

95 

171 

76 

196 

52 

98 

68 

43 

122 

103 

45 

236 

36 

67 

95 

55 

114 

42 

142 

107 

117 

133 

54 



31 

208 

53 

222 

67 

33 

99 

133 

33 

48 

185 

27 

170 

108 

123 

128 

99 

92 

12 

98 

68 



Nov. 



107 

146 

186 

58 

191 

111 

173 

156 

201 

104 

117 

113 

66 

77 

73 

63 

96 

27 

244 

45 

52 

48 

29 

59 

50 

143 

102 

142 

41 

63 

123 

99 

59 

29 

46 

70 

56 

24 

153 

82 

80 

150 

122 

226 

142 

20 

109 

135 

51 

153 

38 

101 

110 

148 

157 

43 

95 

134 

112 

80 

190 

196 

32 

47 

139 

165 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



51 



TABLE 13— CoNTiN-UED. 



Years. 



1900 
01 
02 
03 
04 
05 
06 
07 
08 
09 

1910 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 



Normal in inches. 3 20 



Jan. 



153 
44 

46 

108 

213 

45 

305 

45 

51 

35 

107 

50 

126 

185 

31 

138 

50 

53 

138 

237 



Feb. 



302 
76 

111 
81 

199 
34 

185 
78 
77 
19 

187 
96 

130 
64 

203 

222 

155 
53 
74 

133 



2.45 



Mar. 



44 

121 
101 
183 

64 
254 

65 

51 
150 
222 

71 

93 
213 
150 
222 

40 
148 
100 

69 
286 



2 32 



Apr. 



97 
158 

57 
141 
104 
100 

51 
267 
123 

80 
136 

80 



183 

91 

75- 

60 
107 
108 
129 



1.95 



May. 



55 

60 
112 
174 
218 

24 
175 
143 
123 

86 

56 
143 

57 
158 

75 
186 

93 
104 

85 

11 



2.07 



June. 



165 

157 

165 

119 

55 

190 

57 

140 

32 

145 

84 

103 

161 

23 

60 

84 

100 

170 

41 

25 



2.31 



July. 



47 

108 

51 

134 

59 

13 

17 

68 

140 

131 

85 

30 

80 

75 

126 

166 

39 

98 

168 

72 



2.65 



Aug. 



126 

62 
233 
197 

85 
124 

37 

75 
148 

77 
117 

18 
266 

66 

61 

52 
123 
200 

67 
133 



3 02 



Sept. 



44 

82 
38 

154 
99 
79 
54 
21 
64 

130 

4 

42 

108 
56 
58 
83 
89 
59 

224 
50 



3.08 



Oct. 



Nov. 



66 

73 

73 

250 

67 

58 

137 

174 

77 

221 

123 

147 

84 

140 

75 

96 

136 

108 

34 



128 

17 

137 

75 

41 

157 

163 

97 

42 

21 

126 

159 

58 

104 

108 

105 

140 

51 

98 

198 



4.22 



3.53 



Dec. 



144 

165 

72 

96 

125 

40 

79 

134 

124 

158 

147 

256 

136 

55 

275 

297 

113 

52 

99 

199 

3.51 



52 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 14. — Per cent of normal rainfall at Utrecht, Holland. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Annual. 


1849 


73 


164 


64 


153 


91 


60 


136 


56 


47 


157 


85 


145 


103 


50 


115 


230 


84 


228 


117 


39 


64 


149 


43 


108 


118 


124 


118 


51 


57 


73 


138 


141 


102 


40 


146 


82 


42 


45 


187 


27 


90 


52 


162 


187 


94 


22 


160 


155 


45 


178 


135 


296 


147 


110 


141 


53 


145 


103 


52 


239 


80 


149 


105 


87 


132 


120 


7 


36 


105 


54 


122 


164 


26 


54 


132 


120 


63 


81 


87 


160 


123 


221 


113 


55 


80 


51 


64 


50 


76 


90 


182 


68 


34 


165 


44 


84 


82 


56 


113 


143 


33 


155 


218 


110 


66 


105 


112 


20 


192 


77 


112 


57 


120 


14 


77 


125 


13 


35 


96 


48 


104 


46 


51 


20 


62 


58 


85 


40 


41 


48 


71 


109 


142 


177 


39 


85 


32 


105 


144 


59 


47 


75 


209 


160 


34 


64 


79 


84 


130 


93 


88 


68 


94 


1860 


127 


93 


167 


103 


143 


82 


73 


88 


113 


71 


93 


42 


100 


61 


19 


48 


127 


98 


114 


183 


121 


84 


152 


4 


126 


34 


92 


62 


107 


44 


43 


63 


60 


102 


125 


75 


61 


128 


42 


85 


78 


63 


75 


72 


63 


50 


61 


97 


36 


79 


128 


40 


65 


99 


72 


64 


38 


65 


93 


23 


62 


107 


26 


101 


123 


43 


59 


14 


63 


65 


99 


117 


93 


19 


86 


18 


256 


218 


14 


105 


39 


13 


90 


66 


120 


129 


111 


87 


73 


70 


141 


102 


190 


14 


194 


122 


113 


67 


137 


104 


58 


119 


53 


112 


142 


41 


120 


90 


57 


108 


95 


68 


95 


87 


133 


94 


61 


20 


25 


116 


34 


83 


47 


138 


78 


69 


74 


157 


79 


50 


267 


79 


53 


102 


118 


133 


142 


96 


112 


1870 


83 


20 


110 


39 


57 


40 


82 


210 


71 


149 


84 


161 


92 


71 


59 


50 


34 


161 


33 


133 


172 


28 


13(3 


101 


61 


75 


87 


72 


114 


92 


81 


65 


101 


90 


117 


86 


172 


176 


159 


158 


118 


73 


65 


72 


42 


89 


141 


95 


52 


84 


162 


95 


41 


22 


80 


74 


94 


55 


133 


39 


163 


71 


53 


61 


181 


76 


156 


83 


97 


75 


110 


77 


68 


37 


71 


85 


182 


185 


121 


56 


182 


42 


101 


76 


33 


156 


172 


109 


108 


79 


42 


66 


213 


61 


95 


85 


102 


77 


187 


208 


136 


68 


87 


43 


108 


152 


59 


92 


142 


92 


114 


78 


118 


54 


177 


80 


196 


49 


38 


120 


93 


91 


163 


72 


104 


79 


89 


120 


27 


194 


63 


118 


162 


118 


66 


83 


68 


28 


95 


1880 


59 


80 


75 


67 


24 


178 


94 


62 


137 


172 


141 


173 


105 


81 


56 


182 


147 


53 


175 


124 


48 


155 


103 


66 


48 


150 


109 


82 


76 


74 


163 


121 


106 


248 


129 


130 


131 


104 


155 


127 


130 


83 


71 


67 


84 


7 


75 


52 


140 


65 


' 93 


104 


142 


83 


82 


84 


150 


63 


59 


43 


70 


28 


138 


64 


88 


94 


79 


141 


85 


85 


94 


127 


57 


45 


151 


56 


9 


55 


124 


212 


83 


54 


89 


86 


18? 


64 


103 


43 


158 


130 


106 


54 


29 


82 


79 


139 


98 


87 


33 


20 


59 


96 


109 


18 


22 


39 


74 


133 


83 


101 


66 


88 


46 


64 


179 


81 


61 


170 


168 


75 


46 


99 


66 


53 


92 


89 


33 


138 


103 


89 


152 


130 


167 


160 


163 


87 


82 


115 


118 


1890 


160 


9 


100 


157 


68 


69 


172 


120 


41 


163 


200 


7 


106 


91 


141 


21 


113 


68 


154 


207 


120 


81 


67 


57 


77 


176 


107 


92 


142 


77 


64 


38 


47 


142 


51 


66 


187 


202 


87 


108 


101 


93 


81 


285 


51 


1 


42 


24 


122 


75 


147 


113 


131 


110 


98 


94 


98 


249 


106 


132 


67 


122 


188 


153 


112 


95 


115 


131 


131 


95 


108 


35 


162 


96 


72 


92 


104 


103 


34 


110 


138 


155 


101 


96 


91 


13 


116 


74 


14 


61 


75 


99 


219 


123 


96 


97 


90 


97 


35 


90 


144 


174 


86 


119 


42 


129 


144 


70 


68 


132 


103 


98 


80 


212 


97 


109 


162 


128 


109 


62 


174 


70 


118 


101 


119 


99 


146 


102 


49 


201 


174 


11 


73 


182 


207 


94 


55 


83 


115 


1900 


120 


127 


46 


101 


100 


140 


78 


150 


23 


134 


48 


117 


99 


01 


86 


64 


141 


197 


66 


81 


117 


83 


169 


108 


102 


145 


113 


02 


80 


79 


93 


84 


154 


40 


105 


132 


66 


59 


54 


92 


86 


03 


77 


79 


135 


292 


115 


152 


105 


112 


161 


165 


143 


40 


131 


04 


108 


136 


74 


48 


135 


120 


31 


74 


63 


59 


100 


79 


86 


05 


59 


87 


155 


120 


73 


110 


102 


140 


75 


200 


99 


42 


105 


06 


206 


118 


105 


62 


185 


81 


79 


73 


52 


77 


101 


105 


104 


07 


69 


111 


107 


93 


132 


162 


43 


60 


56 


101 


71 


124 


94 


08 


97 


129 


83 


75 


118 


113 


97 


126 


56 


36 


98 


54 


90 


09 


40 


85 


126 


215 


77 


66 


116 


163 


93 


136 


70 


166 


113 


1910 


110 


173 


67 


162 


91 


132 


133 


82 


107 


27 


187 


126 


115 


11 


53 


101 


108 


67 


49 


183 


28 


196 


52 


157 


156 


110 


105 


12 


114 


126 


162 


90 


125 


208 


56 


265 


152 


89 


140 


140 


136 


13 


135 


73 


132 


45 


176 


189 


129 


21 


28 


65 


117 


115 


102 


14 


114 


72 


278 


93 


88 


90 


113 


45 


124 


52 


100 


166 


111 


15 


196 


201 


116 


99 


158 


91 


126 


115 


70 


28 


163 


160 


127 


16 


138 


182 


170 


186 


135 


190 


42 


119 


59 


129 


86 


119 


130 


17 


89 


15 


54 


120 


36 


161 


84 


230 


57 


215 


83 


54 


100 


18 


193 


111 


51 


74 


37 


87 


i78 


62 


291 


103 


79 


154 


118 


19 


92 


92 


132 


150 


44 


77 


170 


58 


62 


87 


97 


167 


102 


1920 


155 


92 


38 


203 


124 


45 


130 


137 


39 


14 


24 


88 


91 


21 


156 


25 


62 


67 


41 


75 


150 


35 


32 


34 


56 












Normals, 


5 44 


4 30 


4 98 


4 33 • 


4 93 


5 89 


7 58 


8 36 


6 51 


7.27 1 


5 96 


6 89 





ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



53 



TABLE 15. — Number of rainfall stations in the different counties in Denmark. 



Counties. 












Year. 












1865. 


1870. 


1875. 


1880. 


1885. 


1890. 


1895. 


1900. 


1905. 


1910. 


1915. 


1920. 


Hjorring 

Thisted 


1 

2 

3 



1 

2 
1 
3 
1 
1 
3 
1 


4 
6 
7 
4 
6 
5 
9 
7 
7 


5 

6 
9 
6 
5 
5 
7 
7 
7 


7 
7 
9 
8 
5 
6 
8 
8 
8 


8 
7 
9 

10 
9 
7 
9 

15 
9 


9 

6 

33 

18 

11 

8 

9 

17 

11 


9 

6 

30 

18 

10 

7 

7 

17 

10 


9 
7 

29 

18 

10 

8 

7 

20 
11 


11 
6 

28 

17 
8 
9 
8 

22 
9 


7 

7 

25 
15 

7 
10 

9 
21 

9 


8 
6 


Rin^kjobing 

Ribe 


26 
12 




8 


-•Valborg 


13 

11 


-Aarhus 


20 




10 


Sonderjylland 


25 


Odense 

Svendborg 




1 
1 

2 

1 
4 


2 


11 
9 
7 
4 
5 
12 
13 
9 


12 
11 
10 
5 
8 
12 
14 
15 


12 
10 
11 

6 

5 

14 

14 

18 


17 
17 
11 

9 

5 

14 

17 

14 


17 
16 
12 
8 
4 
15 
14 
14 


18 
17 
10 
11 
5 
13 
14 
14 


20 
17 
10 
10 
8 
13 
13 
14 


20 
18 
11 
9 
6 
13 
17 
15 


20 
16 
11 
13 
10 
15 
22 
16 


20 
16 


HolbSBk 

Soro 

Frederiksborg 

Kjobenhavns ........ 

Prsesto 


11 

14 
11 
14 
21 


Maribo 


16 


Total number ... 


19 


24 


125 


144 


156 


187 


222 


216 


224 


227 


233 


262 



54 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 15a. — Denmark. Observed per cent of normal rainfall of stations shown above made from 
manuscript copy of actual rainfall sent by Prof. Carl Ryder. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1860 
























58 


61 


40 
87 

113 
54 
80 

150 

157 

115 
82 
96 
33 

115 

127 

120 

185 
26 

183 

136 
35 
23 
42 
89 
75 

172 
92 

124 
21 
54 
28 

127 
96 

129 
82 
96 
66 
49 
49 
99 

157 

148 

{136) 

103 

96 

80 

167 

92 

99 

82 

153 

75 

54 

70 

54 

131 

190 

101 

94 

108 

162 

218 


113 

45 

83 

86 

86 

240 

166 

143 

139 

30 

131 

68 

45 

39 

18 

157 

157 

45 

154 

166 

71 

74 

68 

134 

116 

50 

27 

135 

92 

15 

36 

77 

.175 

143 

74 

27 

50 

151 

116 

181 

53 

30 

160 

160 

68 

(113) 

80 

151 

45 

211 

181 

107 

83 

101 

80 

101 

21 

140 

104 

143 

65 


150 

79 

103 

126 

39 

55 

82 

158 

45 

61 

45 

182 

42 

110 

71 

218 

87 

137 

47 

63 

87 

124 

34 

92 

39 

79 

66 

163 

79 

108 

134 

39" 

63 

121 

121 

168 

229 

132 

82 

50 

116 

132 

84 

79 

150 

108 

76 

121 

100 

45 

137 

124 

158 

192 

105 

66 

134 

16 

103 

66 

82 


77 

80 

114 

54 

17 

125 

193 

111 

37 

54 

97 

131 

82 

88 

63 

128 

85 

71 

82 

114 

20 

131 

5ti 

45 

99 

94 

102 

122 

82 

139 

94 

74 

9 

114 

65 

102 

105 

94 

142 

134 

162 

63 

148 

160 

151 

74 

57 

125 

139 

139 

80 

108 

74 

125 

63 

122 

97 

136 

134 

256 

65 


77 

97 

77 

82 

72 

118 

113 

31 

153 

64 

46 

166 

189 

64 

84 

49 

87 

161 

148 

49 

87 

110 

46 

105 

130 

94 

133 

84 

46 

135 

153 

115 

66 

89 

84 

64 

187 

217 

82 

79 

89 

199 

84 

120 

87 

115 

118 

146 

110 

84 

67 

113 

69 

84 

95 

148 

28 

38 

28 

156 

77 


163 

178 

151 

190 

43 

116 

99 

33 

81 

78 

161 

99 

58 

66 

110 

93 

87 

83 

169 

116 

60 

178 

66 

52 

83 

75 

31 

153 

52 

103 

62 

194 

60 

95 

93 

66 

50 

202 

25 

109 

190 

66 

76 

78 

91 

83 

194 

91 

107 

132 

161 

132 

87 

70 

29 

153 

87 

81 

91 

58 

56 


133 

117 

68 

57 

99 

101 

170 

49 

46 

63 

131 

73 

104 

95 

80 

52 

140 

82 

148 

164 

121 

151 

145 

117 

41 

90 

82 

180 

117 

150 

137 

43 

120 

117 

156 

66 

128 

71 

69 

115 

54 

84 

128 

28 

85 

57 

79 

85 

107 

115 

58 

110 

58 

139 

155 

91 

71 

110 

112 

129 

49 


92 

63 

76 

125 

126 

126 

31 

79 

75 

98 

46 

87 

111 

106 

71 

51 

170 

123 

173 

43 

157 

114 

110 

44 

107 

44 

46 

84 

149 

129 

210 

92 

78 

118 

114 

109 

141 

102 

36 

95 

58 

146 

139 

75 

147 

112 

103 

107 

79 

143 

47 

155 

71 

54 

74 

129 

135 

.99 

87 

88 

108 


1.55 

108 

160 

149 

31 

144 

147 

123 

110 

93 

157 

196 

155 

139 

51 

159 

108 

98 

88 

139 

118 

72 

113 

79 

149 

77 

129 

52 

96 

34 

92 

110 

146 

61 

34 

177 

124 

72 

138 

78 

39 

59 

92 

38 

125 

51 

28 

88 

116 

61 

46 

70 

80 

90 

65 

62 

98 

208 

77 

97 

64 


12 

132 

62 

61 

112 

30 

110 

114 

114 

145 

39 

101 

176 

82 

145 

51 

123 

91 

80 

171 

139 

121 

124 

130 

145 

88 

119 

82 

170 

129 

95 

135 

150 

97 

127 

145 

39 

38 

91 

160 

53 

83 

233 

82 

132 

76 

82 

17 

110 

35 

141 

124 

77 

70 

33 

129 

148 

70 

70 

21 

91 


189 

71 

71 

88 

101 

150 

65 

80 

123 

123 

47 

150 

97 

67 

155 

71 

121 

144 

62 

176 

105 

168 

170 

64 

54 

86 

101 

101 

54 

82 

75 

41 

95 

75 

140 

47 

54 

97 

82 

69 

121 

17 

93 

129 

75 

146 

82 

84 

107 

136 

193 

123 

133 

120 

107 

120 

144 

41 

92 

34 


37 


62 


130 


63 


104 


64 


23 


65 


29 
114 


66 


67 


70 


68 


236 


69 

1870 

71 


116 
66 
70 


72 


118 


73 

74 


77 
103 


75 


411 


76 


147 


77 


79 


78 


97 


79 


37 


1880 


116 


81 


77 


82.... 


79 


83 


103 


84.... 


137 


85 


60 


86 


139 


87 


97 


88 


87 


89 


43 


1890 


15 


91 


132 


92 

93 

94 


58 
85 

77 


95 

96 

97 

98 


112 
87 
120 
170 


99 

1900. . 

01 

02.. .... 


83 
128 
130 

77 


03 


41 


04 


110 


05 


29 


06 


74 


07 


132 


08 


48 


09 


163 


1910 . 


. 116 


11 


120 


12 

13 


196 
141 


14 


137 


15 


215 


16 


164 


17 


58 


18 


141 


19 


153 


1920 .... 


104 


21 










Normals in mm . 


42.6 


33 7 


38.0 


35.2 


39 1 


48 4 


63.4 


74.7 


61.2 


66.2 


53.6 


51.7 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



55 



TABLE 16. — Sweden. Observed per cent of normal. Prepared from material from "Observations 
Meteorologiques Suedoises L'.^cademie Royale des Sciences de Suede," for 1910. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


I860 


180 

72 

65 

107 

44 

113 
119 

186 

101 
45 

140 
46 

108 

191 
84 

146 
72 

144 
84 
58 

281 
49 
83 
73 

126 
42 
53 
83 
61 
69 

13S 

103 
80 
88 

119 
70 
79 
92 
78 

151 

116 
64 

108 

113 
96 
68 

122 

106 
78 
88 

125 


90 

104 

58 

77 

112 

84 

238 

115 

155 

132 

60 

52 

99 

72 

33 

34 

133 

149 

27 

131 

133 

257 

91 

54 

83 

50 

13 

39 

92 

133 

256 

50 

84 

102 

108 

92 

48 

90 

160 

100 

178 

63 

50 

99 

152 

53 

116 

104 

126 

40 

155 


Ill 

119 

72 

89 

136 

47 

91 

64 

144 

46 

48 

263 

120 

52 

93 

89 

134 

154 

122 

48 

34 

86 

117 

59 

90 

36 

39 

50 

108 

72 

117 

100 

67 

83 

117 

152 

200 

173 

177 

87 

67 

101 

118 

102 

84 

98 

121 

77 

115 

205 

52 


138 

50 

129 

137 

61 

24 

91 

173 

122 

58 

83 

58 

140 

49 

96 

65 

123 

78 

49 

132 

76 

53 

162 

50 

44 

30 

58 

120 

81 

81 

242 

58 

108 

43 

102 

83 

115 

123 

88 

186 

107 

106 

37 

195 

149 

122 

109 

127 

102 

130 

164 


113 

116 

81 

64 

58 

110 

139 

56 

58 

173 

102 

169 

162 

136 

48 

76 

55 

91 

156 

121 

65 

103 

114 

80 

125 

51 

27 

92 

101 

71 

136 

125 

72 

90 

148 

70 

76 

119 

167 

78 

78 

50 

111 

78 

131 

63 

155 

105 

104 

102 

130 


167 

57 

175 

88 

134 

59 

118 

145 

42 

124 

90 

58 

142 

107 

43 

97 

110 

82 

127 

121 

72 

98 

118 

101 

146 

32 

29 

53 

67 

59 

122 

53 

172 

80 

96 

109 

124 

75 

158 

72 

71 

160 

82 

92 

101 

87 

88 

158 

120 

102 

87 


72 

128 

132 

69 

65 

94 

122 

136 

53 

46 

92 

59 

70 

79 

76 

78 

70 

52 

63 

124 

126 

117 

148 

172 

133 

25 

21 

115 

158 

146 

149 

113 

78 

103 

133 

178 

88 

106 

155 

84 

99 

32 

132 

114 

30 

112 

78 

144 

84 

116 

131 


165 

118 

68 

100 

102 

114 

15 

53 

85 

110 

68 

24 

94 

105 

95 

78 

71 

123 

110 

94 

39 

131 

130 

123 

38 

57 

13 

87 

83 

124 

137 

149 

127 

107 

125 

135 

126 

125 

115 

46 

116 

70 

153 

188 

127 

139 

91 

113 

95 

109 

93 


109 

107 

59 

157 

127 

36 

155 

99 

132 

102 

108 

168 

181 

155 

106 

35 

216 

78 

100 

124 

77 

120 

65 

148 

75 

45 

22 

132 

90 

115 

41 

99 

107 

153 

77 

66 

108 

135 

75 

185 

72 

37 

79 

81 

70 

109 

35 

40 

97 

92 

95 


134 

27 

137 

76 

73 

101 

23 

109 

126 

121 

111 

41 

163 

152 

97 

57 

105 

93 

97 

98 

93 

98 

94 

97 

122 

73 

22 

83 

121 

106 

152 

115 

110 

182 

91 

132 

164 

53 

50 

104 

161 

116 

114 

145 

95 

86 

70 

90 

20 

156 

53 


86 

190 

105 

73 

95 

98 

152 

90 

74 

112 

189 

34 

157 

133 

77 

102 

82 

158 

151 

63 

131 

105 

147 

178 

51 

21 

41 

11 

77 

69 

153 

110 

24 

78 

71 

117 

68 

83 

122 

90 

131 

79 

30 

60 

104 

101 

161 

63 

86 

64 

252 


97 


61 


42 


62 


104 


63 


94 


64 


46 


65 


34 


66 


127 


67 


128 


68 


127 


69 


97 


1870 


91 


71 


45 


72 


131 


73 


76 


74 


121 


75 


77 


76 


101 




93 


78 


133 




44 


1880 


135 


81 


90 


82 


120 




91 


84 


170 




25 


86 


64 




140 


88 


124 


89 


52 


1890 


81 




126 


92 


80 




ni 


94 


119 




80 


96 


99 




142 


98 


188 


1900 

01 

02 


97 
147 
135 

77 


03 

04 


79 
120 


05 

06 


29 
86 




123 


08 


86 




179 


1910 


98 


Normals 


3 54 


3.03 


3.12 


2.74 


3.92 


4.58 


6.12 


6.91 


5.43 


5.13 


4.06 


3 71 



56 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 17. — Per cent of normal rainfall of Chilgrove, England; Denmark; Sweden, and Utrecht, Holland — 
weighted equally because of geographical distribution. The record of Sweden is not included after December, 
1910. 



Years. 



Jan. 



1861. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 

1870. 
71 
72, 
73 
74, 
75 
76 
77, 
78 
79 

1880 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 

1890 
91 
92 
•93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 

1900 
01 
02 
03 
04 
05 
06 
07 
08 
09 

1910 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 



39 

90 

104 

50 

107 

135 

148 

112 

78 

98 

62 

145 

134 

94 

148 

42 

193 

101 

65 

93 

49 

76 

78 

136 

72 

170 

230 

52 

40 

136 

112 

98 

78 

132 

86 

70 

70 

72 

141 

134 

68 

92 

100 

128 

63 

200 

78 

81 

61 

124 

59 

98 

130 

66 

155 

123 

81 

142 

148 



Feb. 



44 

68 

81 

98 

198 

124 

112 

137 

62 

78 

94 

80 

56 

57 

149 

150 

62 

145 

127 

162 

80 

98 

96 

117 

42 

30 

81 

106 

82 

27 

68 

177 

152 

52 

28 

101 

148 

107 

197 

64 

68 

105 

162 

60 

133 

93 

121 

47 

182 

126 

121 

73 

125 

167 

147 

30 

108 

110 



Mar. 



131 

92 

77 

125 

58 

84 

73 

131 

62 

77 

101 

126 

60 

90 

73 

164 

125 

127 

38 

54 

103 

111 

53 

91 

58 

79 

56 

158 

86 

127 

132 

53 

52 

106 

139 

172 

202 

111 

63 

52 

120 

111 

126 

75 

164 

100 

78 

117 

163 

59 

113 

166 

147 

231 

87 

128 

96 

45 

174 



Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


66 


96 


126 


141 


80 


136 


22 


162 


82 


102 


142 


119 


71 


75 


130 


65 


82 


79 


133 


53 


80 


145 


70 


68 


54 


70 


122 


40 


90 


134 


56 


91 


20 


102 


54 


135 


160 


23 


138 


84 


90 


100 


108 


110 


88 


188 


26 


139 


148 


72 


109 


157 


59 


110 


94 


60 


115 


52 


32 


40 


110 


100 


104 


02 


50 


201 


92 


47 


84 


131 


106 


112 


47 


73 


57 


74 


124 


84 


130 


113 


140 


69 


130 


140 


39 


156 


56 


42 


96 


141 


105 


94 


80 


1.58 


146 


155 


64 


134 


92 


83 


92 


144 


132 


88 


92 


165 


78 


70 


156 


129 


93 


95 


59 


72 


108 


126 


97 


73 


98 


147 


118 


60 


88 


50 


73 


189 


68 


92 


96 


107 


60 


108 


151 


77 


99 


162 


89 


156 


86 


56 


134 


89 


92 


150 


150 


116 


152 


152 


149 


108 


73 


53 


89 


60 


117 


148 


44 


130 


161 


139 


38 


110 


96 


105 


157 


110 


89 


98 


153 


100 


174 


140 


112 


86 


135 


130 


45 


76 


81 


147 


170 


122 


98 


161 


53 


86 


72 


121 


48 


88 


95 


58 


59 


142 


70 


24 


148 


122 


132 


65 


72 


126 


66 


91 


46 


46 


81 


79 


99 


96 


37 


64 


64 


118 


92 


86 


92 


82 


137 


200 


84 


56 


88 


100 


90 


125 


68 


130 


128 


100 


137 


62 


171 


106 


111 


156 


126 


43 


118 


132 


68 


136 


102 


122 


173 


75 


109 


99 


67 


70 


151 


68 


98 


128 


139 


66 


14 


60 


59 


125 


72 


128 


142 


96 


120 


92 


102 


162 


114 


86 


103 


113 


102 


60 


82 


160 


122 


87 


117 


148 


81 


45 


109 


68 


95 


203 


131 


61 


137 


115 


90 


76 


149 


127 


44 


63 


90 


188 


153 


120 


80 


98 


64 


119 


170 


94 


48 


74 


72 


160 


89 


98 


110 


78 


121 


85 


122 


54 


130 


94 


156 


66 


147 


78 


68 


82 


88 


80 


60 


144 


88 


93 


166 


00 


82 


60 


194 


113 


110 


120 


159 


123 


198 


93 


116 


151 


88 


37 


93 


68 


70 


93 


123 


62 


120 


78 


138 


97 


119 


108 


74 


158 


77 


58 


78 


48 


90 


143 


136 


124 


164 


84 


88 


36 


112 


78 


106 


123 


89 


102 


119 


76 


38 


78 


141 


94 


105 


118 


107 


108 


156 


66 


150 


90 


109 


118 


109 


67 


60 


176 


76 


86 


149 


39 


87 


47 


148 


169 


66 


98 


167 


82 


229 


77 


99 


107 


101 


134 


100 


87 


53 


55 


94 


118 


103 


83 


73 


126 


52 


91 


66 


109 


79 


146 


68 


149 


80 


73 


52 


125 


123 


125 


148 


57 


124 


70 


131 


115 


108 


56 


139 


81 


188 


71 


157 


93 


106 


53 


70 


152 


76 


241 


69 


73 


1.38 


28 


64 


118 


93 


63 


55 


129 



Dec. 



42 

102 

98 

31 

40 

110 

88 

189 

107 

106 

64 

144 

49 

97 

50 

136 

88 

89 

33 

136 

104 

102 

79 

141 

45 

172 

102 

82 

70 

30 

142 

80 

102 

105 

114 

116 

133 

137 

83 

134 

144 

80 

64 

108 

35 

86 

123 

78 

166 

122 

162 

157 

104 

193 

224 

132 

55 

131 

173 



58 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



eg 

9 

a 



eg 



W 






a 

a 
o 






.a 
o 



(a 
pa 





S 






00 


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ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



59 



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60 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 19. — Chile. Sums of rainfall in th% following towns for years indicated: Concepeion, 1876-1887 and 

1892-1915. Puerto Montt, 1862- April, 1873; 1888- July. 1895, and .January, 1896-1915. Santiago, 

1873-1915. Serena, 1869-1915. Valdivia, 1852-1879 and 1900-1915. 

Sums of Actual R.\inf.\ll. 



Years. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



Apr. 



May. 



June. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



1852. 



53 


110 


54 ... . 


250 


55 


970 


56 


1100 


57 


2320 


58 


370 


59 


120 


1860 


170 


61 


120 


62 


2120 


63 


1490 


64 


1500 


65 


1150 


66 


960 


67 


650 


68 


4220 


69 


2580 


1S70 


2920 


71 


3280 


72 


2060 


73 


1440 


74 


250 


75 


1656 


76 


408 


77 


148 


78 


228 


79 


446 


1880 


496 


81 


186 


82 


222 


83 


176 


84 


42 


85 


844 


86 


60 


87 


50 


88 


170 


89 


655 


1890 


2162 


91 


2200 


92 


1233 


93 


403 J 


94 


1534 


95 


987 


96 


1373 


97 


313 


98 


1175 


99 


2321 


1900 


2220 


01 


1166 


02 


1383 


03 


510 


04.... 


679 


05 


369 


06 


1421 


07 


916 


08 


102 


09 


484 


1910 


2756 


11 


1092 


12 


903 


13 


129 


14 


3242 


15 


192 



1420 

540 

90 

500 

1270 

2260 

360 

1080 

190 

340 

1050 

800 

190 

980 

1680 

5170 

1.550 

2130 

600 

1510 

566 

210 

1186 

1466 

1279 

424 

582 

182 

304 

332 

38 

24 

428 

190 

185 

1240 

510 

730 

1290 

2641 

590 

1230 

989 

410 

990 

4251 

1296 

3532 

3439 

3495 

501 

285 

71 

1137 

1271 

609 

854 

1951 

851 

3579 

1379 

390 

1772 



1300 

1410 

2080 

3050 

1650 

560 

1630 

890 

1560 

2770 

3010 

2060 

1560 

7900 

2820 

2750 

3210 

6130 

6860 

2920 

3610 

1094 

2710 

3712 

2472 

2716 

1020 

235 

50 

733 

1392 

797 

302 

852 

80 

750 

1520 

805 

1930 

1535 

2270 

2326 

3222 

1471 

2847 

2108 

2981 

8567 

1657 

4529 

738 

1094 

3581 

1578 

558 

3202 

265 

564 

644 

1443 

2177 

1740 

1250 



1970 
2500 
3550 
1930 
2570 
3830 
2900 
1130 
5310 
4490 
6080 
2770 
2940 
4500 
5420 
3910 
1620 
4130 
3960 
3290 
4228 

570 
1204 
2264 
6640 
5502 
2138 

548 
2195 

536 

407 
2920 

734 

470 

2.53 
2392 
1590 

486 
1520 
1047 
1555 
1098 
1605 

781 
4587 
5081 
4380 
3451 
3639 
6093 
2154 
4784 
4011 
4438 

364 
6184 
2737 
3678 
7038 
7136 
8693 
2024 
9038 



5550 
5490 
1780 
1410 
4730 
3990 
4750 
3830 
3600 
8450 
3960 
8670 
9050 
8970 
10820 



4780 
8400 
4985 
3680 
3726 
2744 
7176 
5432 
3601 
8897 
5275 
1436 
3773 
2248 
3349 
614 
3955 
1512 
910 
3694 
3210 
1783 
2910 
3360 
5414 
4668 
2412 
1942 
6666 
5616 
8812 
10757 
10459 
15927 
2864 
9731 
6925 
9484 
5215 
8909 
2948 
5324 
10577 
9364 
12355 
9691 
17518 



7500 
7650 
4600 
8340 
6350 
2910 
6480 
2840 
42,50 
13030 
8890 
7630 
6480 
2320 
6020 
10070 
4400 
4380 
4075 
5140 
5890 
6827 
1893 
4155 
4109 
10.554 
9160 
8676 
2554 
1796 
6316 
2247 
757 
2808 
6643 
4130 
1733 
2841 
6227 
2822 
3405 
3182 
4219 
3484 
4819 
10006 
7430 
10533 
16351 
15389 
13472 
10565 
12188 
8481 
9114 
6913 
5655 
13591 
5191 
8967 
5986 
17961 
10368 



2770 
5270 
4610 
2640 
4220 
2240 
4220 
8030 
4340 
7170 
4470 
6280 
7320 
7610 
5390 
8430 
8720 
8650 
5470 
4875 
5340 
3598 
3658 
8848 
12422 
6432 
11084 
9018 
3380 
4385 
1382 
1722 
4295 
1731 
1855 
4111 
3870 
4592 
4654 
4080 
6648 
5181 
6826 
8203 
3713 
6377 
13519 
22182 
13035 
13753 
3779 
17881 
9646 
6869 
6817 
2958 
2865 
9993 
6221 
5405 
15961 
13405 
11040 



5150 
1760 
2690 
4650 
2640 
1320 
5110 
1730 
0330 
2570 
5790 
4670 
6740 
7740 

10000 
4,590 
4560 

11280 
3000 
8140 
8125 
3187 
4288 
1250 
5881 
4894 
2431 
9804 
4423 
2142 
3698 
836 
3673 
2425 
1368 
6958 
7073 
2870 
1703 
2859 
4087 
3792 
4161 
5739 
4561 
3491 
2783 

13047 
9368 

11198 
5536 
3697 
5736 
8120 
5618 
6337 
6908 
6751 

12160 
6948 
7820 
6161 
6552 
8119 



2580 
2490 
1310 
1390 
1320 
1760 
1950 
1650 
3150 
1270 
2460 
2210 
3880 
4580 
3820 
3200 
6640 
3370 
1520 
2610 
4850 
3312 
2897 

590 
3380 
5872 
5051 

718 

582 
2969 
1031 
1354 
1591 
1491 

813 
2280 
3368 
1496 
1796 
2310 
2549 

978 
2715 
1510 
7270 
1511 
3051 
1293 
6177 
4860 
5657 
3019 
7179 
4234 
3916 
5171 
3144 
1723 
1934 
3814 
1904 
5289 
10493 
3291 



620 

1260 

1920 

990 

430 

1510 

580 

740 

910 

1480 

4820 

1460 

3040 

6170 

2210 

1670 

4120 

3170 

1600 

4170 

4480 

900 

2000 

900 

4726 

38S8 

3418 

938 

1002 

1317 

376 

884 

1012 

897 

371 

933 

3289 

740 

1133 

3405 

2069 

963 

3462 

1204 

2919 

2338 

1733 

1240 

6108 

2200 

2392 

1355 

3029 

3906 

1346 

2866 

1968 

2055 

1248 

917 

3716 

2048 

3150 

2923 



2330 

1520 

750 

400 

1550 

3220 

2170 

660 

940 

640 

5520 

2490 

2590 

2170 

3500 

2470 

2100 

3260 

1520 

1190 

4060 

130 

2068 

934 

1054 

1698 

2695 

1058 

126 

688 

877 

758 

237 

166 

381 

738 

1522 

1163 

520 

987 

733 

1419 

3574 

533 

2153 

2235 

2441 

2450 

4155 

5324 

3450 

909 

1557 

450 

223 

449 

1864 

1967 

3094 

4497 

3192 

349 

5615 

2553 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



61 



TABLE 19— CoNTiNiED. 
Sums op Normal Rainfall for Each Month Where Actual Rainfall Has Been Used. 



Years. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



Apr. 



May. 



June. 



July. 



Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


3365 


2101 


1417 


1233 


3365 


2101 


1417 


1233 


3365 


2101 


1417 


1233 


3365 


2101 


1417 


1233 


3365 


2101 


1417 


1233 


3365 


2101 


1417 


1233 


3365 


2101 


1417 


1233 


3365 


2101 


1417 


1233 


3365 


2101 


1417 


1233 


3365 


2101 


1417 


1233 


5747 


3748 


2840 


2686 


5747 


3748 


2840 


2686 


5747 


3748 


2840 


2086 


5747 


3748 


2840 


2686 


5747 


3748 


2840 


2686 


5747 


3748 


2840 


2686 


5747 


3748 


2840 


2686 


6000 


3815 


2877 


2693 


6000 


3815 


2877 


2693 


6000 


3815 


2877 


2693 


6000 


3815 


2877 


2693 


4239 


2435 


1608 


1312 


4239 


2435 


1608 


1312 


4239 


2435 


1608 


1312 


6131 


3423 


2220 


1734 


6131 


3423 


2220 


1734 


6131 


3423 


2220 


1731 


6131 


3423 


2220 


1734 


2766 


1322 


803 


501 


2766 


1322 


803 


501 


2766 


1322 


803 


501 


2766 


1322 


803 


501 


2766 


1322 


803 


501 


2766 


1322 


803 


501 


2766 


1322 


803 


501 


2766 


1322 


803 


501 


3256 


1981 


1614 


1532 


3256 


1981 


1614 


1532 


3256 


1981 


1614 


1532 


3256 


1981 


1614 


1532 


5149 


2969 


2226 


1954 


5149 


2969 


2226 


1954 


5149 


2969 


2226 


1954 


5149 


2969 


2226 


1954 


5149 


2969 


2226 


1954 


5149 


2969 


2226 


1954 


5149 


2969 


2226 


1954 


5149 


2969 


2226 


1954 


8514 


5070 


3643 


3187 


8514 


5070 


3643 


3187 


8514 


5070 


3643 


3187 


6132 


34-3 


2220 


1734 


6132 


3423 


2220 


1734 


6132 


3423 


2220 


1734 


6132 


3423 


2220 


1734 


6132 


3423 


2220 


1734 


6132 


3423 


2220 


1734 


6132 


3423 


2220 


1734 


8514 


5070 


3643 


3187 


8514 


5070 


3643 


3187 


8514 


5070 


3643 


3187 


8514 


5070 


3643 


3187 


8514 


5070 


3643 


3187 


8514 


5070 


3643 


3187 



Dec. 



1852. 

53. 

54. 

55. 

56. 

57. 

58. 

59. 
1860. 

61. 

62. 

63. 

64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 

69. 
1870. 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 
1880. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 
1890. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 



99. 
1900. 

01. 

02. 

03. 

04. 

05. 

06. 

07. 

08. 

09. 
1910. 

11. 

12. 

13 

14 

15 



634 

634 

634 

634 

634 

634 

634 

634 

634 

1846 

1846 

1846 

1846 

1846 

1846 

1846 

1847 

1847 

1847 

1847 

1854 

642 

642 

819 

819 

819 

819 

185 

185 

185 

185 

185 

185 

185 

185 

1220 

1220 

1220 

1220 

1397 

1397 

1397 

1397 

1397 

1397 

1397 

1397 

2031 

2031 

2031 

819 

819 

819 

819 

819 

819 

819 

2031 

2031 

2031 

2031 

2031 

819 



738 

738 

738 

738 

738 

738 

738 

738 

738 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1815 

1831 

754 

754 

981 

981 

981 

981 

243 

243 

243 

243 

243 

243 

243 

243 

1093 

1093 

1093 

1093 

1320 

1320 

1320 

1320 

1320 

1320 

1320 

1320 

2058 

2058 

2058 

981 

981 

981 

981 

981 

981 

981 

2058 

2058 

2058 

2058 

2058 

2058 



1418 
1418 
1418 
1418 
1418 
1418 
1418 
1418 
1418 
3005 
3005 
3005 
3005 
3005 
3005 
3005 
3013 
3013 
3013 
3013 
3058 
1471 
1471 
2060 
2060 
2060 
2060 
642 
642 
642 
642 
642 
642 
642 
642 
1640 
1640 
1640 
1640 
2229 
2229 
2229 
2229 
2229 
2229 
2229 
2229 
3647 
3647 
3647 
2060 
2060 
2060 
2060 
2060 
2060 
2060 
3647 
3647 
3647 
3647 
3617 
3647 



2376 
2376 
2276 
2376 
2376 
2376 
2376 
2376 
2376 
4286 
4286 
4286 
4286 
4286 
4286 
4286 
4311 
4311 
4311 
4311 
4466 
2556 
2556 
3436 
3430 
3436 
3436 
1060 
1060 
1060 
1060 
1060 
1060 
1060 
1060 
2090 
2090 
2090 
2090 
2970 
2970 
2970 
2970 
2970 
2970 
2970 
2970 
5346 
5346 
5346 
3436 
3436 
3436 
3436 
3436 
3436 
3436 
5346 
5346 
5346 
5346 
5346 
5346 



3910 
3910 
3910 
3910 
3910 
3910 
3910 
3910 
3910 
■6788 
6788 
6788 
6788 
6788 
6788 
6788 
7001 
7001 
7001 
7001 
4745 
4745 
4745 
6751 
6751 
6751 
6751 
2841 
2841 
2841 
2841 
2841 
2841 
2841 
2841 
3713 
3713 
3713 
3713 
5719 
5719 
5719 
5719 
5719 
5719 
5719 
5719 
9629 
9629 
9629 
6751 
6751 
6751 
6751 
6751 
6751 
6751 
9629 
9629 
9629 
9629 
9629 
9629 



4457 

4457 
4457 
4457 
4457 
4457 
4457 
4457 
4457 
6925 
6925 
6925 
6925 
6925 
6925 
6925 
7403 
7403 
7403 
7403 
5770 
5770 
5770 
8318 
8318 
8318 
8318 
3861 
3861 
3861 
3861 
3861 
3861 
3861 
3861 
3781 
3781 
3781 
3781 
6329 
6329 
6329 
6329 
6329 
6329 
6329 
6329 
10786 
10786 
10786 
8318 
8318 
8318 
8318 
8318 
8318 
8318 
10786 
10786 
10786 
10786 
10786 
10786 



4310 
4310 
4310 
4310 
4310 
4310 
4310 
4310 
4310 
7213 
7213 
7213 
7213 
7213 
7213 
7213 
7554 
7554 
7554 
7554 
5555 
5555 
5555 
8185 
8185 
8185 
8185 
3875 
3875 
3875 
3875 
3875 
3875 
3875 
3875 
4148 
4148 
4148 
4148 
6778 
6778 
6778 
6778 
6778 
6778 
6778 
6778 
11088 
11088 
11088 
8185 
8185 
8185 
8185 
8185 
8185 
8185 
11088 
11088 
11088 
11088 
11088 
11088 



1047 
1047 
1047 
1047 
1047 
1047 
1047 
1047 
1047 
1047 
2479 
2479 
2479 
2479 
2479 
2479 
2479 
2479 
2479 
2479 
2479 
1105 
1105 
1105 
1368 
1368 
1368 
1368 
321 
321 
321 
321 
321 
321 
321 
321 
1490 
1490 
1490 
1490 
1753 
1753 
1753 
1753 
1753 
1753 
1753 
1753 
2800 
2800 
2800 
1368 
1368 
1368 
1368 
1368 
1368 
1368 
2800 
2800 
2800 
2800 
2800 
2800 



62 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 






^ooaooI^'*^-C5as^QOOOGr)e:lt--'^e^^ooo«^c<l'rt'oco^»«c7st^^ocolO^-•-|o;Dc^ 

OC^J»0»d'^OC0C0'-'c0CNC^»-t^»CC0 COOO I--iO00'^OOC0asC0-^(»O;OO0000Tt<M 



C77I G^J ITS »r3 Tp t,;^ C^ '4-.' '—' "-i-^ ''"i '^ •"^ ^^ *0 CO 

CO'^-^CO^J^OCO'— ''-'CO-^C^'* 




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o^^^r^^<^^co<£sc^o■--"^c^ot»coo50i'— '-^';oioi>-^-oo»ococo'?^0'--'OiOt^ot^ooc050<» 




r^SS^oir-OCKit^ocri^oo^oaiGoco-Hascri — coc^Tt^^'-'^O^^^Cftcor-— -rjo 

»nO>-rt'OiOO"^«'^OOa5CCrJ'COt^OOC^10»Or-lOr-C^l400-1'a5'— lO-— '0^--"»o»-;--^t^ 




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C'00000000*00 0:r2"^CO'M' 
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■:OCO-- ' C^CO 1— 'COCO'-'CO^l'MC'lCOC^liO '—'GO'—" 



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tpi■^.-Ha^^I-^lO•-•c»-H^c:Jlr^rJ^"^cacot^-:t^coa:-0'^C'^ocooco»0'^^'Oc^^^GoaiGD'^ 

^^— «lC»oC^l'~-''M'-OiO'M'-' -^ cO—i n-— "Ot^-— <ir)'-<tOCO^^'-<'--'0':M t--CO OTt< 



c=jOOOOOOOOiCt^^t^^OOOOt-iO'-'iO-HOOuO>J^'M^-'-H'Mt--0^tO'^»0^»0 

SXr^oo'^r^oofMOoococoooo— '•^o-rfoscoio — r-CMcootot--ai'^i>j^':ooocoioo»o 

^C^C^lOiOO'— 'lOCSO-T-^— '»0^--0 Ci(MC'i^-00^-00iCi-OTj«-^"*-^COr-00»O»OC^ICS*MtO 

^M'^<M»OC'1C^l COCO^ — 3i C^l'<t^-^Tr'>) ^COCO^COC-JO'^J' O'Tt^ COiO 



<=jC5OOOC)OOOOO=0X)00-X:C0q6-^I— COCOOOCO*-" 
tit^OTCOC^lC-lCO'M00(M-Tr»O'M — t'-OOCO— 'lOOTpCOt^CO-tt^ 



..^w— '— '>— — — .r*I— COCOOOCO'-'TPU^OCO^-^^OOO'— 'OcOOiOO 

^-.^-.O^CDC^lC-^C0C^00C^l■Tr»OC1^-t'-00C0•-'^OO'<J^C0^-•C0"tt^'-^'— ■'-''-'■^lOC^'-tCOC^IMOTt* 
r^cDi(5S3300'MOOC^lC<105CO^l>''^«OX5 01>.00 0'— 'CO— '0'-^I>.'^r-'^-'^'— 'iOt-'-'C^'COa 
C^-*^Cq?aTtH:OiOCOC^*C^-^COOO C^O-^CO^C^iOCsl l-OC^CO^ OiOO c^ 



(— i(-^t^c-5C!CDOOOOOOO'— 'C^^-"^Ou^C^O■^fO^COO'— •COCDCOI^-iOOS'^'C'COC^t^ 

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^ cocoes ^ -^ c^ CO '^ ^lO -*CO "-I C^ CO t-* CO ^ T^ — < ^ ^ ^ TtH ^ 00 CO w ^ Ol ^ CI 



CiOOOOOOOOO"^OOOOCOiCdOI>---^'MOTt"OCOOO — OOtO-— ' 
C^^OOt^iOiOOt^'^l'-O'M-^'^aiCO^O OiCO-^-— '35-hOC-II-^OO — -^10 

— iciQo^-Hcoco — -^icoi--ooo-*c^ai t^t^ioci--otMt^coei— (ai<:oo 

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t-^r-iOCitOtMt^COCJ'— "OlcOOti^CO-rfO'— ■Oi'— 'C^ 
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^ro^?0■T♦^»OCO^^OOoio•— 'C^CO-^^cOt^t»asO'-'C^CO^»OcOI>.<»OSO'— 'ClCO'^iOcDt^OO 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



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■^C^C^r^t^C^'^iOO'^^C^t^'^^OOOCO'— •'-'CSC^^— '^POCOOiCTi'-«00:00000'^— 'C^OCO 

CM^r^iocor^-t^t^'-oc^cO'— '^Hco co .-I'-'—t-^^'C^'— "cO'-'e^oc^JOic^ coooc-»c^oi 



o»coococo»0'-'— 'oor^Tfioooooio— •rico'— <^-'— 'T^iocoairpooioooicor^io-^— '^HfMoor- 

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OOtOcDiOiOQO'— '•—— "^C^OlOO— i-HOXiC^COCOCO"^OOOO^OaiCTiCOai00000005^^uO"^00 
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CO*— '■^^^^^■^'*t>-CO -^000 *— ' 1— ' '-'1— •TaOC^fMiO— 'kOiOC^OOC^ COOO— 'C^l 



t^OiuOOOiOtOCO*-'— 'OuOOO-rj-OOC^lC-liOTlCOfM^l'— 'C^OOiCSOOOO'^O'^— '•-iCOOOOOOO'— ' 
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IOCN)C050!0'^CO' 



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r-'^ot^os'MOcocoO'— 'OOt^iDcooocooococo35ioocoa5cot^asaiioot~^-rfcoocotMC) 

IOCN)C050!0-*CO'^'^^^^*O^OC^ CO"—! >— •^-•— I-— 'r-.cOCM'— ■CO—'C^OOC^^OCO'— 'C^OOCSC-J 



Oi-CiOtOOOCOi/3CO'-''^^">^00'— •'Mro-^^C^'^^C^)'— •Tf-^OiCiCOai:OC100Tj*-CCSTj<^-.-«COO 
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0;coo■:^^^-•^^oooOTl*oooI--Oc>coc^^oolr--^ococo■c;^0'— 'r--— 't'-coc'ic^iocn-t'.— ih-cnr-Tj-oo 

I>.(M.— i^O-^-— iOO'^t>-'— '■^'^ ■— ' COC^-— '•— I-— <•— '•— I'— 'tOiO'— '^dCIC^— »fMCO':D»— < COCO<N 



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64 



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5 — Science Bui.'— 37^8 r 



66 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



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oa ^-M »— I rvi •—< ■■ — ' bm vm »+h vm f**.i r^t i-v-. i-»-i /vi *v^ ^w^ i-i-i ^.i ^-^-i —. r-.^ ^-i-i 



,JJ T7- ct;j 1_) ^j (j(j '_j I--- iji CT3 ^£^ r^;; -rr 31 ^T r— ^J "— ' CQ t^ C3 C 

,— , ^HT^i— .C^lC^JCCCOiM coco CO C^(Mi— ICOC^ 



^r^lcoc-5■r+-^?OTt^-HOO»C'^co<^^^£^o03^co^CJ»-<Tr(•^co^^oo»o■^Oioo^o^^'— 'oo-^ 

'-"'-' <M 1— if-(C^ coco ^CO-— i(M *C»— C^ <M»-" CS-— iC^ 






lOiOOiO'— i-^COCTJ^^OO'— 't-*— 'lOOOcOtMI^ 



^HOos^^'-ocOQOl>•^-•c^1'^c^^cooo■T^*':o■■--'C^l'--CT=':ocl:oooloc»oocoGDt^cocoC)(^3co 

0'^050CO'^OOt^CO'^CT)iO'*OTt'C^'lC^J-^t--OCOiri!0(OOil>--Hl-^C35iCO'^00'^OO^D 



COCO-Tt<CNICSTj*OOOOOOI>'-^iO-^-^'t<-rt<iOCOOC>ttC)COdCOCOOCS^-«-— ^-^lO-^-^^C^lOO 
IC'-I --H (MCI C^COC^J'-H 1— '1— 11— iCvJC^COCO^H CO CJ^H -rji coco 



»0 O Oi -^ *-<-:}- 00 'M 



^1— 'b-'^OOOiCOT-l^-COCOOOOC^t^O'— «C^cOOtO"rI<C^.— lOOfcOOOCvi 
05<:0Q0'-'r^Ot^00CM'~-'C0C.lcO'^00iOO 0'^CDCCO(MOOO;o;000 



t— <-*ioo':^j:i?'— T-'^aocncoc^i^-cocooocj 
•— i-Tt^'M':D05<:0Q0'-'r^Ot^00CM'~-'C0C.lcO 

»-( i-H CO »-H cs cq ^ --• ^^ ^^^ 



0'^cDccoc^ooo;w->^.*j 

-" — T-t 1— f CC 93 <— ■ 



CO CO o o o o -^ 

CO CO ^ ■— ' ^1 "O ^O t'j :_j •— ■ 
T-" C-) C^ >--« C^J .— I CO CO 



00OtOt^G0"-OO'— 'OCOOOSi— •■^GOOOOOcOGOCOT-iaiOCX)t^ail>.f— (U5 

coCi'-'Ocooc-jrj'iooouoO'— ."^-t*»ocO'^ci3;ooo^»oc;>OwOi--'* 

.— ICOCO COC^C^ ■^,— i-H -^CM .— ii— « TJH— i-H— ic^coca'-' 



o-^cxtcooo"— --'^oo^coou^ooor'.-^c^cococowtii— »ot^»o-^t^r^ri'C^-io:ic«oc^c>ico'— • 



^-c^r^t^oocoo^eo■^t^'-DcoocO'^t''*c'lalcoc^^o-^^-!^oooaioocociOOi"*M•^~co 

OOC-lOOI^C'i— ti— I CT-OOOC'ICvi'— '■^— 'G0G0»OdiOiOiOC100C^'^--'G0CO'^) CTi-^-^OCOt^cO 



1— «cou:5c:;oo:C'— 'touoci--o--ic^i-rf'c^icocicocco"^o«oc;-oi>-"^«ticccoiC'ricDoooo---i>-o 

^ *— i-r^C-l-^COCsifMCM Cgcr^ (M c^,— I,— I T-( C^CO 04 C^)>— * 1— I.— ( CO 



-" OO "Tf^ QO o o 



■^ CO 



i—iCO'—'^C^l-^COC-l •—<--« C-IC^ '—•'—' '-« •-' -—«,-. 



r^iOuOGOCO'^OOiOCM'^'— 'COCO 



coc^J'^oor-t-^oc^irMasC'iioi--oo^^i:^'— ''Mcocoo-ri^oo-rt^-rticocraoo'^C'i-rfc^o 
cocvi'^'rt'inrt'iccvtoc]:^-'— ''— ■co^oc^i'--'-rf'C-iocO"^c:i;oO'^-^CT:uO'*ooco;r> 

"^T-i COCO-rf'^C^iMCO'— ■ 1-H.— 1— .C^lC-irM—i T-iCV) —< CO^^CO CO i— iC-) 



-^ C^ O CO 00 lO 
O ^3 C^J t-- 



C0OO--C'^00CMOOOO'-"'-HC0-r}H'ra»Ot^C^lcO»000'O':MOG0<— 'O-^rt^O-^COOi'ft-C 
OOOOOO— '<M— •a^dC:COiO;0'T'l>."^^-000'— t— '-HCOCO-^COm-^CO c-ioot-^c-jo c 
.— iC'ti— I CMG^l'— ' 1— ■C^— '■— 'CO'— 'CO •— iC-JCO-— 'CMC-l ,— .o) ,_,,—,,— , C^l-— i COCi C 



COt-O^O^OOO--''— I OC'lClCOCWGC CO CTitOCO CI O-^tO-^OOOO^OCOt^^Ot^C^lOiC^COt^rt* 

i>.c^i'— (OOcic-ic;-:}'c::)t^c^i-^-^05'--"C^icooO'— t^«o-^OiOc-i"^iOO'«#co — co^i.-^ -^ 

CO-— ' -^C-l-— -r- !,-« rM COCI-— I-— COCOt-ii— iri'—'— I C]CO C^ i— irj* r-t 



QI^,_H^,OlO-^I>•l>■c^cooi"^'^<^J■^ooc>lOicOTJ^ic■^ococ^^c^^Ol^-.TJ^ol'X>"^cooo»oc^l 
i^-rf"OcMooooso t^oosr-oc^jio ■^oot^t-->o-^i-^coi^r-tocor-oO'^coi>-ci'r-ic^j 

CO-— I Csjr-«»-H lO CO-* CQ PO—t'— '1— IC^'-HC^ i-HIMC^fM .— i C-J'-' 



^C^CO-^UOCOt^OOOSO-— 'C^CO'*iOtO^-.OOOsO'-iC-lCOrt'»OcOb--OOOlCi'— tC^CO-^iCOt-^ 

i-i^^^^^,-H^^i-H»^(Mcsc<icsc^j(MC^cq<M<Ncoeoeocoeocococo 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



67 






o;oooooO"^'^ooor^ooooo^j<ooi'^'^'»t"'^'^r--ooo»f3ioot^r^r>-':oO"-*':oo 



05iooooc3ooc5050ooiQOOor-.r-oo:D^ooooooor^o»oO;Doooootoooiot«o 

C^ ^H C^l ,— . ^^ CO -^ C^ CC CO CO CO C^ — ' CS "M <N — ' •-• C^ <M C^ — < 



O'*0SOO'^<£)^OO'*OMiMC0C5M'Ot^t^r-r--^t0-*Ot^'^'*0i00rt"OO--i<0i 

cDosr^ascooooocs^ocftcoco — t-oooom»o»oiOOoooootoooot^o:oocioooor^ 

C^_ ,-,.—. CO fTJC^'M'-" -— "C^r^C^C^COC^ »-«CM CO^H C^ ^HC<I'— I 



^ ^ ^ M --H(r4 (M 



r-H C^ C^ Csl (M C^ 



OOt-*OlOOCiCiOiOOC^IOl~^OOsOOOOOOO-^cOOO^o:r^|-*t>-CsOt— t^^o 



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cDOO-^cDcOcOCOCOOiCOOOt— 005-^'^05'rfOOOOOOGOaO"^CS'^OC^O'-*'CDOcO'rt*0-^Ol 
OCl00OOOOOt^O0S»000C000Ot^00O;0sC50iOiOI>-00000iC000O00O000000t^ 
•-« C^C^)*— >'— 'CMC^*— '^^ C^-— «'— < CO^^ CO'—' !—«•—< (Ml— It— IC^ .— <C^^H 



OS oo 
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coc^i 



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C^O"<t"r^0SO5l>-t^:0CSO'^asO00t^:0"rt*OOOOOI>*^O00t--'*--t*0S00t^O00-^c0 

oscooior-r-iCicot^coQOt~(OOi»oooocDcococox>icoasa5»CGOOr-ci*ooscsoo 

'-HCOr^— '—'CSC^C^— «<M C^(M <M(M OJCO'-«(M COC^ 



CM 00 

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CO ^ 
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r^■^:J"^-Trco;o^-TJ't^co■T^■'^Tt'^>.as0^^o-*"^"rt^■^oo^-too-^ot~-^^'^^"rt';ooI>.^- 

»OOOiCOOOOiCOOtOOOOOOOOOt^OOtOOSOOOOOOOOCOOOOO:0000;»OOt^05 0COti^>0 
<N C^ Cv» Cm CJ (M CM CM CS CO i— ( — I CM ^-' r-i ^1 —^ — - C] -M -M C^l ■— • "M C^l 



CM CO 
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coco 



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t^ oo 

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■*fOOTrr^cO'r**"'#"^t--ooooococooO'^coo-^"*-:f-fQO''*os-^-*"'-oot-^or^cMTfo-+ 

OOOJOCOOiOOOCOOOOOS— iCSOO0SQ0OO5000000000l00l>-CCOO00iO0SiOC:s000000 
CM '-'CM'MCMCMCOCMCM CM '—"CM CM'-' CM"-* CO— »'— 'Ca CM'—' i— (Cvl 



OS CO 
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"^'O00-S"-^t^-^-^'^'^c0G0O:C^OO'^Oic0OOOOO'*'C0Ot~^0S00''*C0Ot^O00"^ 
OO0SwCCiOOOO00O0St--0st^:0Ot^O0S0S0S0;:OOO0SifiI>.CS00O00i00S0S'O 
CO"— ' COC<JC^JCOrOCOCM'-i i— «■— 'CM CO'-"'-' COC^l CM'—' CMi— '•-'CM CO 



oo CO 

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t-o;or^'^-^''^r^t^T?'Osocor-.-'^ 

i.'7I>.:O»O0000OiCiOO*^'^i~^"^^~' 
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OsOcOr-.-'^-^r—cOOscO'-0-0-Ort-t^t--cOO-.OClTj<csoO-rJ-cOOt-- 

r-".ooiooootoot^ooooooi-':>*o OGOOt-'Or--c^ooocoiC! 

-— " C^JCacO CMC^I'-H'— '^-'— I'— " C^C^l-— I*— 'CM CO-—" CJ'— " CM 



CO CO 
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c<i a; 

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— . :0-*O-t-'^t^OOr^'-0-S"I>-Tt"t-^OO[-*cD0S0sCS0:OO-rf0s00l>-Ot^c0OTfas'^O | OscO 
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— C4 -— iCOCOC^I '—'■—' C^l CM CMCMC^I ,— (CMCM-— '^^^^— ' ■— 'C^J-— ' CM C^lC^l CO—^ '— 'llcot— 

II CO CO 



wt--OOOt^Tt<0000<Z)t~-.0'^OOOSC^100'^cOOSCO:OcOCOOO'^OC^l-'*cOOl^'^t^:DOOO I 

coiooios>ooooosoooo»cosos^^co'^osooor^ooooosoot^ooooo»oooioocsas i 

CM CMCO*-< •-H'-tCM C^C^^'-'.— " CslCM— -C^ICMC^I^^ COC-4 CJ-— «'— "CM CMCM || 



oo CO 
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OOCSOcOOO»OOOcOOaOOOOO^^C3cOOCOOiOC>OC;Ot^l^>C»0 0'-Ot^a5000SOOiOOcO 1 

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— •cMco'**«ir;cot^oocsO'-<CMcO'*"iocot~-ooo50'— 'C^sco-^io:ot~-oooiO'— 'C^co-^«ocor^ 

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68 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 22. — Jamaica. Observed per cent of normal rainfall, 
in "The Relation of Prolonged Tropical Droughts to Sun Spots,' 



Prepared from table given by W. H. Pickering 
in the Monthly Weather Reinetf for October, 1920. 



Ye.4RS. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1870 


102 
59 


158 
58 


96 
71 


61 

76 


190 
71 


55 
30 


92 
80 


84 
51 


109 

77 


165 

88 


163 

77 


136 


71 


83 


72 


77 


103 


95 


45 


57 


37 


61 


77 


62 


60 


41 


93 


73 


207 


71 


170 


25 


55 


40 


54 


111 


145 


85 


46 


115 


74 


88 


80 


19 


96 


116 


61 


54 


141 


93 


115 


136 


49 


75 


66 


24 


80 


67 


94 


57 


82 


75 


103 


55 


30 


133 


76 


154 


29 


51 


102 


88 


83 


172 


74 


70 


112 


117 


113 


77 


152 


43 


167 


64 


165 


99 


99 


26 


68 


44 


100 


155 


78 


162 


102 


87 


15 


53 


101 


123 


158 


101 


111 


96 


190 


79 


72 


193 


202 


159 


100 


162 


94 


180 


100 


158 


69 


35 


1880 


111 


29 


34 


61 


127 


47 


81 


140 


54 


39 


29 


157 


81 


31 


146 


40 


101 


112 


85 


100 


91 


104 


120 


99 


66 


82 


74 


70 


110 


73 


90 


36 


79 


70 


119 


89 


70 


78 


83 


140 

121 

44 

136 

154 

35 

122 

133 

88 

102 

88 

52 

34 

134 

23 

45 

101 

133 

100 

145 

49 

87 

200 

86 

66 

111 

111 

135 

111 

112 

93 

68 

162 

91 


127 

125 

54 

166 

84 

69 

33 

106 

82 

50 

118 

92 

182 

177 

28 

143 

103 

151 

43 

111 

51 

169 

108 

187 

136 

184 

59 

80 

52 

85 

41 

75 

105 

191 


127 

80 

46 

83 

74 

53 

130 

182 

26 

70 

60 

103 

68 

133 

57 

139 

117 

76 

103 

132 

99 

213 

232 

172 

10 

106 

89 

138 

63 

152 

118 

127 

100 

83 


73 

40 

103 

139 

98 

79 

147 

74 

186 

62 

119 

128 

134 

80 

155 

89 

105 

124 

56 

118 

107 

130 

113 

176 

27 

76 

80 

78 

88 

48 

174 

104 

192 

178 


58 

74 

54 

58 

102 

232 

86 

61 

135 

94 

119 

183 

108 

109 

119 

183 

46 

85 

67 

98 

116 

83 

90 

145 

56 

54 

75 

57 

113 

50 

88 

73 

70 

170 


76 

105 

51 

355 

129 

103 

191 

63 

151 

112 

110 

59 

56 

74 

75 

116 

71 

94 

214 

157 

91 

232 

154 

175 

91 

178 

98 

88 

57 

37 

58 

80 

182 

97 


66 

53 

64 

131 

151 

56 

128 

105 

117 

93 

192 

125 

105 

106 

125 

137 

82 

151 

159 

72 

91 

90 

58 

88 

90 

88 

116 

117 

68 

90 

94 

. 62 

122 

159 


79 

74 

91 

198 

101 

80 

75 

101 

109 

112 

99 

61 

119 

69 

96 

101 

62 

79 

95 

79 

186 

80 

90 

102 

68 

102 

119 

110 

64 

93 

80 

62 

206 

202 


106 

84 

84 

80 

78 

110 

111 

89 

86 

121 

108 

95 

93 

112 

137 

96 

101 

110 

144 

80 

73 

88 

112 

145 

73 

82 

216 

118 

78 

85 

94 

51 

225 

104 


80 

94 

63 

79 

84 

43 

104 

70 

152 

120 

102 

123 

118 

75 

190 

102 

235 

64 

96 

71 

72 

163 

122 

83 

104 

109 

117 

145 

82 

81 

69 

63 

100 

160 


67 

65 

62 

48 

106 

60 

57 

85 

100 

130 

132 

66 

101 

60 

75 

62 

196 

68 

131 

73 

75 

102 

88 

99 

56 

86 

276 

100 

64 

350 

113 

127 

144 

233 


58 


84 . 


48 


85 


307 


86 


111 


87 


15 


88 


203 


89 


59 


1890 


106 


91 


101 


92 


71 


93 . . 


212 


94 


129 


95 


75 


96 


111 


97 


72 


98 


54 


99 


145 


1900 


116 


01 


106 


02 


163 


03 


95 


04 


78 


05 


141 


06 


41 


07 


90 


08 


138 


09 


34 


1910 


238 


11 


167 


12 


69 


13 


68 


14 


98 


15 


119 


16 


32 


17 


81 


119 


78 


155 


80 


127 


110 


110 


209 


68 


123 


97 


18 


23 


123 


182 


139 


137 


77 


76 


106 


74 


89 


66 


91 


19 


160 


91 


60 


163 


159 


53 


91 


52 


84 


76 


67 


127 


1920 


72 
3 92 


87 


106 


6 


90 
































Normals in inches. 


2.75 


3 21 


4.56 


9.13 


6.53 


4.75 


6 82 


7 38 


10.16 


7.64 


5 or 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 69 






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t^ I^ I 

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1— I.— ic^)C)Ou^:riot^coJ5'^co^-*t'ccc^toco^»ooc5'ri'-oo--'--'cci^t^ooO'rJO'^oo^- II ■—* c<t \ 



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cot-^r-— -t^— ooco — ^ooooocs^^oc^)--'OOOr-ot-"rj«— oo-^'-'t^'— '-— '-^oocNCTs 



50co^-0'^h^cO'*otOTf''»t'OooO'Tj<»0'*ciai-t'ot^'--'oot^oootD'rj"-^oo'ri'^cc3> 



OO"— 't^iC'^OOClO'^QOrO^^OO'— 'O"— '^'^^C^^'^t^CCf'-OCTSOC-ltD-^OOOiCCJO'-H'^ 

tot-^cc — f- a: t--"*i>-ioioaic:iOoo—«otr)ci^oicoo3iCiria3C^;o !■>-'— '000*0*0-^ 






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70 



THE UNWERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 24. — Tananarive, Madagascar. Rainfall in mm. 



lEARS. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Total. 


1890 


18880 


15270 


12380 


13100 





1302 


240 


58 


58 


15403 


23901 


29955 


129747 


91 


11700 


23843 


35133 


4528 


469 


224 


557 


534 


1982 


28173 


3635 


18389 


129167 


92 


36374 


33996 


3007 


5064 


574 


665 


442 


1175 


424 


5611 


7517 


28113 


122962 


93 


25853 


24182 


18607 


10001 


4131 


1412 


1460 


887 


237 


8219 


1616 


50343 


146948 


94 

95 


47306 


21811 


22957 


1844 


3496 


597 


849 


3307 


6244 


1902 


10327 


40132 


160772 


96 


16820 


41155 


6490 


12505 


630 


1040 


100 


933 


393 


7320 


15605 


15455 


118446 


97 


46065 


15095 


27500 


4480 


1108 


100 


170 


55 


690 


7770 


7960 


44647 


155640 


98 


41699 


11800 


13820 


2785 


472 


1009 


535 


1650 


380 


3263 


7385 


36816 


121614 


99 


23470 


30281 


37733 


12616 


2783 


232 


802 


1056 


91 


14746 


14009 


10116 


147936 


1900 


41449 


33277 


14280 


2060 


310 


82 


439 


1112 


4128 


2709 


3249 


15104 


118199 


01 


41200 


23627 


22918 


894 


294 


1213 


162 


799 


386 


991 


4068 


37217 


133769 


02 


12200 


30358 


21516 


9423 


1431 


420 


364 


113 


2096 


5506 


11549 


18439 


113415 


03 


44565 


23810 


25840 


1852 


700 


631 


756 


836 


1190 


7226 


19729 


24218 


151383 


04 


31777 


24842 


17356 


697 


905 


2548 


943 


1717 


1271 


2680 


3262 


36547 


124545 


05 


40502 


53237 


11665 


8039 


1140 


215 


756 


1901 


2381 


6829 


31347 


35541 


193553 


06 


4945 


66995 


24004 


13270 


320 


225 


670 


70 


3220 


13825 


10090 


24760 


166494 


07 


19105 


16710 


34655 


3765 





1685 


1790 


105 


5155 


7055 


16425 


54770 


161220 


08 


20940 


47040 


18115 


3740 


3245 


114 


859 





720 


5310 


8172 


45237 


153492 


09 


13099 


20183 


1675 


6120 


600 


480 


25 


3135 


4565 


4663 


6102 


8565 


69212 


1910 


21162 


2279 S 


26092 


ISO 


11 


23 


57 


70 


2 


1950 


14981 


31284 


120576 


11 


32681 


27787 


25301 


3828 


1322 


1426 


703 


667 


481 


1617 


16374 


13227 


125474 


12 


23301 


15071 


12141 


7299 


189 


485 


934 


110 


2325 


2443 


943 


25459 


90700 


13 


49075 


44162 


6064 


1928 


3770 


273 


463 


419 


4953 


5238 


16571 


24286 


157202 


14 


61814 


46426 


7412 


5354 


833 


130 


1579 


328 


80 


5648 


11917 


7549 


149070 


15 


27781 


27075 


22142 


8352 


3200 


309 


113 


212 


214 


2464 


15922 


15098 


122882 


16 


29355 


24652 


21576 


5774 


3132 


593 


613 


571 


661 


5185 


39063 


44902 


176077 


17 


20533 


23850 


8596 


6541 


263 


154 


1077 


2391 


864 


. 1662 


17139 


52281 


135351 


18 


19572 


15787 


11486 


2159 


2007 


928 


600 


315 


. 359 


1963 


13011 


26605 


94792 


19 


27480 


28110 


24442 


1018 


1261 


2057 


402 


313 


2538 


3590 


11537 


33782 


136530 


1920 


38211 


51037 


8087 


4344 


692 


720 


1069 


312 


247 


605 


14821 


10635 


130810 


21 


58273 


24303 


11229 


513 


4077 


179 


462 


508 


104 


2624 


20389 


37662 


160323 


Mean. 


305 28 


293 10 


178 80 


53 45 


14 02 


6 99 


6 45 


8 27 


15 34 


61 03 


128 58 


289.40 


1360.74 



72 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



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'-'ClCO-^tO^t^OOOSO — CMCO^tOcD 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



73 



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— 


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CM CM 




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t^OO OSO — 
»-• — — C^CM 




74 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES. 

Data collected during the investigation, but not used, published to make 
available for other problems. All this information was obtained in manuscript 
form with the exception of that from India, which was collected from the 
large annual volumes of "India Rainfall," 1901-1918. 

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE No. L— Showing total monthly and annual rainfall recorded at 
Alexandria and the normal for 1891-1920 in mm. 



Years. 



1891 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

1900 

01 

02 

03 

04 

05 

06..... 

07 

08 

09 

1910 

11....^ 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

1920 

Normal 



Jan. 



9 
51 
89 
52 
1 
69 

126 
57 
73 
14 
83 

104 
90 
63 
46 
32 
25 
80 
43 
86 
28 
21 
12 
28 
19 

109 
66 
39 
36 
35 



53 



Feb. 



9 
11 
27 
17 


45 
12 

4 
23 
33 



8 
34 
12 
16 
43 
13 
47 
41 

8 
42 
24 
36 
31 
19 
14 
39 
.31 

4 
42 



24 



Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


7 

















6 


4 


2 


76 


13 


2 


9 














11 


85 


23 


53 


2 


3 


drops 








drops 


6 


11 


107 


40 


drops 


6 

















102 


30 


4 


16 




















46 


100 


19 


2 














1 


1 


41 


27 


14 




















14 


1 


107 


1 























60 


144 


2 




















58 


25 


64 


16 





2 

















10 


125 


4 

















14 





30 


57 


4 


6 


1 











drops 


5 


36 


92 


14 


1 


drops 


drops 





drops 





drops 


10 


24 


drops 


2 


drops 








1 


drops 


3 


65 


50 


14 


drops 

















28 


7 


159 


6 


3 


9 


drops 





drops 





19 


64 


31 


38 


7 











2 


drops 





50 


25 


14 


3 





1 








drops 





39 


76 





51 


drops 














21 


22 


31 


19 


2 


3 








drops 


4 





30 


28 


12 


2 


drops 











drops 


8 


17 


79 


9 





2 














drops 


10 


27 


21 


drops 


drops 





drops 





drops 


14 


79 


98 


7 


8 





drops 





drops 


drops 


drops 


29 


103 


19 


1 


drops 











drops 





14 


10 


8 


2 


drops 








drops 


drops 





21 


45 


13 


1 


drops 











drops 


8 


8 


65 


6 


drops 

















drops 


53 


50 


1 


drops 


drops 














3 


54 


126 


11 


drops 


drops 


drops 


drops 











6 


39 


13 


4 


1 











1 


7 


34 


67 



Year. 



113 
198 
298 
247 
167 
205 
274 
266 
245 
200 
188 
256 
173 
196 
270 
207 
160 
260 
209 
180 
188 

93 
260 
206 

82 
199 
200 
179 
224 
133 



204 



Note. — "Drops" indicate that rain was too small to measure. 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



75 



SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE No. 2.— Showing total monthly and annual rainfall recorded at 
Khartoum (Gordon College) and the normal for 1899-1920 in mm. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1899 
















drops 







drops 

































drops 

drops 



drops 

drops 



drops 


drops 






drops 



drops 








drops 



drops 



drops 



drops 

drops 







24 

drops 

6 







1 



7 

drop 

drops 

drops 

9 

14 

drops 

drops 

7 

4 


1 

23 

16 







U> 

4 

drops 

1 

drops 

35 

drops 

drops 



1 

8 

22 

34 

14 

drops 




13 
80 
24 
116 
18 
34 

8 

90 
14 
64 
71 
38 
55 
drops 

7 
30 
19 
33 



30 

38 

103 


12 

47 
16 
5 
12 
76 
75 
96 

163 
44 
26 
15 
12 
98 
70 
54 
63 
57 
24 
60 
23 

185 


■■■23' 

d ops 

2 

14 

20 

4 

24 
12 
31 

11 

22 

2 

18 
22 
11 

77 
20 
18 
drops 
7 
49 


6 

8 

8 

drops 

drops 

drops 

50 

13 



12 

3 

drops 

1 



2 

5 







drops 

drops 

drops 



drops 















































[32] 


1900 


181 


01 


64 


02 


123 


03 


68 


04 


130 


05 


159 


06 . . 


227 


07 


189 


08 

09 


152 
112 


1910 


110 


11 

12 


77 
116 


13 . . . 


101 


14 


101 


15 


176 


16 

17 

18 

19 

1920 


146 
76 
94 
75 

341 


Normal 














3 


8 


40 


56 


18 


5 








130 



NoTE.^" Drops" indicate that rain was too small to measure, 
observations are incomplete. 



Brackets [ ] are used to denote that the 



SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE No. 3.— Showing total monthly and annual rainfall recorded at 
Adis Ababa and the normal for 1898-1920 in mm. 



Y'ears. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1898 


8 
2 


15 
11 


105 


73 


41 


121 


352 


290 


151 


18 


10 





1184 


99 




1900 








(1081 
222 
172 
191 
124 

94 
132 

61 

91 
208 
147 
140 
182 
104 

68 
121 
294 
279 
106 

90 
151 


283 
277 
236 
269 
350 
294 
380 
176 
284 
210 
268 
306 
286 
192 
288 
345 
248 
281 
208 
316 
280 


328 
250 
291 
267 
196 
352 
358 
284 
365 
364 
334 
230 
319 
311 
323 
378 
418 
287 
264 
253 
300 


194 
128 
184 
224 
176 
113 
119 
108 
220 
174 
226 
155 
111 
134 
308 
570 
321 
270 
51 
133 
165 



21 


20 
40 

1 
16 
14 
28 


20 
46 





100 

59 

5 

53 

drops 



5 


13 


11 



45 

28 

83 
8 

10 


64 




27 

drops 



drops 



3 


5 

13 

1 

8 







drops 



drops 

14 







32 

11 

7 

34 








1931) 


01 . . 


16 
1 

29 

5 
9 


38 

48 

7 

53 


10 
2 

64 

28 


11 
2 


54 

76 

25 

37 

7 

156 

20 

7 



1 

4 

139 

65 

94 

23 

57 

39 

84 

47 

10 


124 
49 
83 

136 
48 

189 
11 
10 
18 
25 
67 
51 
66 
77 

105 
91 
10 
70 
66 
61 


100 

89 

88 

57 

88 

103 

140 

70 

133 

48 

38 

43 

102 

125 

126 

74 

115 

104 

32 

74 


36 

42 

268 

58 

41 

60 

36 

5 

130 

66 

31 

20 

108 

18 

133 

148 

194 

74 

43 

26 


1241 


02 


1152 


03 


1472 


04 


1170 


05 


1000 


06 

07 

08 


1550 

933 

1126 


09 . 


1295 


1910 


1149 


11 


1088 


12 

13 


1204 
1082 


14 

15 


1443 
1900 


16 


1727 


17 

18 

19 


1590 
961 
991 


1920 


1077 


Normal 


15 


48 


70 


87 


75 


146 


279 


307 


192 


20 


14 


6 


1259 



Note. — "Drops" indicate that rain was too small to measure, 
observations are incomplete. 



Brackets ( ] are used to denote that the 



76 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE No. 4.— Copenhagen. Rainfall in mm. 
From Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen. Sent by Prof. Carl Ryder. 



Years. 



1820. 

21. 

22. 

23. 

24. 

25. 

26. 

27. 

28. 

29. 
1830. 

31. 

32. 

33. 

34. 

35. 

36. 

37. 

38. 

39. 
1840. 

41. 

42. 

43. 

44. 

45. 

46. 

47. 

48. 

49. 
1850. 

51. 

52. 

53. 

54. 

55. 

56. 

57. 

58. 

59. 
1860. 

61. 

62, 

63. 

64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 

69. 
1870. 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 
1880. 

81. 

82.. 

83.. 

84.. 

85.. 

86.. 

87.. 

88.. 

89.. 



Jan. 



64 
44 
39 
26 
40 
10 
97 
28 
22 
35 
45 
18 
19 
79 
23 
103 
15 
38 
48 
74 
71 
17 
125 
121 
35 
58 
32 

9 
50 
17 
32 
55 
56 
45 
30 
44 
40 
29 
29 
34 
20 
34 
42 
23 
28 
44 
68 
27 
25 
32 
84 
35 
36 
40 
66 
12 
79 
48 
17 

8 

6 
24 
22 
78 

3 
40 

5 
29 
15 



Feb. 



5 
17 
85 
26 
45 
71 
5 
32 
90 
70 
61 
1 
58 
29 
56 
53 
50 
12 
22 
29 
11 

61 
61 
21 
55 
37 
55 
44 
53 
30 
62 
42 
30 
8 
41 
18 
9 
57 
36 
48 
24 
35 
23 
•12 
93 
68 
53 
30 
6 
21 
18 
11 
7 
2 
51 
54 
15 
42 
41 
20 
16 
10 
49 
36 
7 
10 
26 
31 



Mar. 



22 
63 
33 
43 
23 
41 
93 
64 
21 
38 
49 
36 
67 
40 
24 
67 
33 
59 
13 
5 
25 
66 
18 
44 
34 
83 
39 
38 
34 
12 
63 
11 
22 
20 
35 
3 
32 
19 
38 
33 
62 
24 
49 
47 
13 
32 
16 
58 
14 
9 
19 
57 
9 
45 
31 
69 
24 
36 
8 
14 
26 
45 
5 
49 
22 
16 
23 
71 
26 



Apr. 



25 
15 
44 
27 
100 
44 
45 
54 
27 
103 
19 
2 
29 
14 
55 
31 
36 
93 
43 
5 

29 

50 
15 
17 
37 
43 
63 
19 
54 
86 
22 
51 
21 
41 
66 
57 
17 
52 
51 
13 
20 
47 
15 
7 
72 
74 
52 
10 
16 
21 
45 
28 
31 
10 
29 
19 
21 
49 
31 
3 
40 
17 
19 
17 
28 
41 
19 
34 



May. June. July 



74 

3 
36 
40 
41 

7 
55 
24 
34 
60 
40 
40 
19 
39 
82 
15 
38 
20 
43 
60 
30 
24 
14 
21 
122 
22 
62 
10 

9 
38 
48 
52 
36 
47 
60 
49 
10 
93 
13 
40 
28 
28 
25 
28 
16 
91 
48 

7 
74 
19 
16 
86 
73 
15 
24 
40 
44 
57 
39 
13 
47 
18 
22 
30 
49 
37 
69 
44 
43 



4 
2 

76 
38 
70 
22 
39 
54 
43 

107 

130 
47 
61 
29 
15 
27 
28 
30 
56 
31 
99 
94 

104 
34 
16 
28 
51 
97 

104 
37 
68 
80 
37 
46 
55 
57 
15 
27 
51 
93 
76 
86 
60 

119 
29 
44 
55 
3 
32 
33 
75 
51 
56 
25 
68 
54 
39 
58 
57 
41 
20 
81 
37 
27 
78 
42 
24 
54 
25 



21 
138 
66 
34 
27 
41 
56 
145 
126 
56 
18 
71 
30 
3 
2 
91 
20 
44 
55 
63 
96 
36 
69 
54 
75 
74 
39 
38 

121 

117 

46 

5 

75 
27 
74 
63 
32 
51 
34 
23 

106 
80 
65 
43 
55 
53 

125 
8 
23 
12 
80 
61 

114 
87 
50 
45 

100 
35 

108 
92 
93 
46 
87 
75 
15 
50 
44 
96 
60 



Aug. 



31 

116 
45 
76 
99 
25 
48 
88 
81 

100 
52 
73 
87 
43 
40 
30 
57 

133 
36 
66 
48 
3 
47 

123 

105 
22 
26 

110 
45 
61 
28 
68 
64 

134 
76 
40 
43 
55 
52 

132 
51 
34 
64 

152 
57 
77 
18 
60 
63 
60 
26 
30 
84 
68 
46 
34 

123 
46 

HI 
8 

66 
88 
55 
44 
83 
29 
43 
48 

107 



Sept. 



55 
63 
41 
50 
53 
83 
34 
40 
70 
61 
72 
27 
50 
43 
68 
56 
70 
54 
33 
73 
59 
76 
58 
26 
27 
63 
12 
66 
36 
48 
57 
27 
69 
46 
67 
30 
57 
28 
14 
107 
51 
73 
89 
75 
86 
31 
65 
76 
64 
42 
65 
84 
89 
69 
67 
38 
76 
43 
49 
29 
69 
72 
46 
54 
35 
92 
46 
52 
22 
88 



Oct. Nov. 



50 
42 

28 
32 
56 
51 
87 
53 
38 
107 
28 
34 
28 
73 
49 
45 
32 
38 
53 
10 
58 
171 
26 
100 
90 
104 
34 
34 
104 
95 
54 
45 
74 
34 
39 
80 
23 
38 
31 
45 
55 

6 
79 
27 
41 
56 
26 
65 
61 
59 
99 
16 
90 
99 
33 
62 
34 
70 
41 
40 
123 
61 
53 
67 
102 
99 
73 
49 
43 
72 



60 
81 
33 
45 
150 
131 
54 
40 
38 
83 
9 
61 
35 
50 
78 
43 
62 
51 
25 
43 
54 
62 
48 
54 
57 
49 
26 
24 
56 
27 
79 
85 

101 

17 

36 

6 

67 
27 
23 
61 
24 
84 
31 
23 
61 
48 
77 
54 
25 
37 
47 
25 
56 
55 
60 
72 
21 
40 
93 
17 

105 
52 
67 
84 
36 
18 
24 
45 
45 
15 



Dec. 



23 
67 

12 
69 
119 
40 
51 
70 
58 

7 
27 
21 
34 
204 
32 
29 
70 
31 
16 
27 
13 
51 
27 
17 
17 
83 
36 
16 
19 
35 
21 
14 
81 

7 
70 
35 
64 
19 
35 
65 
25 
29 
68 
78 

6 

4 
55 
34 
100 
32 
33 
20 
64 
33 
43 
18 
50 
38 
29 

5 
53 
35 
29 
46 
55 
20 
59 
54 
56 
14 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



77 



TABLE 4— Concluded. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1890 

91 

92...: 

93 

94 


42 
36 
56 
22 
34 
17 
22 
9 

46 
68 
54 
29 
48 
47 
37 
32 
62 
32 
23 
33 
54 
22 
28 
26 
31 
66 
87 
45 
29 
38 
60 
77 


3 
13 
12 
72 
50 
11 

8 
12 
42 
38 
45 
13 
11 
48 
44 
40 
41 
25 
50 
19 
93 
64 
34 
21 
34 
35 
38 

9 
41 
32 
28 
15 


31 

51 
25 
30 
40 
40 
78 
93 
46 
37 
27 
49 
56 
18 
38 
47 
34 
25 
34 
31 
12 
31 
41 
44 
80 
23 
25 
34 
3 
29 
19 
20 


47 
21 
37 
6 
62 
16 
42 
52 
51 
54 
29 
56 
18 
74 
53 
64 
21 
35 
52 
39 
54 
35 
39 
20 
60 
32 
38 
41 
28 
53 
102 
22 


23 
73 
36 
32 
46 
38 
30 
47 
101 
23 
27 
44 
86 
10 
66 
14 
30 
45 
80 
32 
61 
58 
27 
13 
30 
42 
37 
10 
18 
7 
100 
34 


45 

69 
89 
19 
34 
48 
42 
33 
96 
15 
34 
150 
36 
60 
42 
47 
52 
90 
56 
64 
40 
70 
49 
28 
15 
10 
86 
19 
47 
40 
38 
48 


91 
97 
26 
51 
136 
86 
32 
43 
59 
32 
93 
27 
51 
54 
23 
56 
43 
65 
50 
46 
89 
57 
46 
50 
77 
72 
43 
40 
88 
60 
81 
36 


93 
170 
94 
57 
65 
87 
81 
68 
51 
16 
69 
52 
69 
90 
36 
170 
85 
63 
72 
40 
64 
38 
135 
56 
39 
43 
128 
88 
76 
57 
95 
101 


15 

42 
50 
68 
35 
14 
100 
94 
67 
97 
63 
36 
39 
61 
12 
64 
44 
10 
61 
45 
46 
21 
28 
51 
57 
36 
45 
50 
67 
48 
34 
35 


74 
61 
90 

141 
93 
63 
84 
9 
11 
43 

132 
23 
43 

133 
51 
78 
32 
20 
9 
46 
14 
85 
67 
62 
35 
16 
77 

111 

32 

31 

2 

53 


33 
38 

7 

63 
42 
78 
.31 
32 
39 
55 
36 
74 

5 
61 
78 
30 
80 
40 
34 
62 
76 
78 
73 
76 
57 
38 
61 
95 
25 
40 

10 
51 


2 
60 
37 
38 
34 
66 
40 
41 
76 
39 
71 
62 
52 
20 
50 

7 

26 
86 
20 
87 
57 
58 
93 
76 
67 
109 
92 
22 
77 
90 
54 


499 
731 
559 
599 
671 


95 


564 


96 


590 


97 


533 


98 


685 


99 


517 


1900 

01 


680 
615 


02 


514 


03 


676 


04 


530 


05 


649 


06 


550 


07 


536 


08 


541 


09 


544 


1910 


660 


11 


617 


12 


660 


13 


523 


14 


582 


15 


522 


16 .... 


737 


17 


564 


18 


531 


19 


525 


1920 


623 


21 










Means 


40.6 


34.2 


35.8 


37.4 


39.7 


51.1 


60.0 


67.7 


54 3 


58 4 


51 1 


46.2 


.^76.5 



SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE No. 5.— Rainfall of agricultural districts of the state of South Australia. 

All stations used. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


.Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


1908 

09 


50 
47 
43 
29 
03 
13 
31 
42 
50 
123 
34 
30 
32 


47 
34 

18 
192 

68 
129 

28 

19 

12 
149 

22 
237 

04 


123 

51 

276 

56 

122 

173 

98 

20 

25 

105 

53 

22 

44 


64 

168 

18 

27 

46 

42 

132 

119 

75 

47 

90 

56 

76 


246 
247 
330 
208 
41 
(90) 
106 
188 
115 
301 
• 200 
153 
158 


269 
266 
231 
208 
268 
33 
61 
268 
414 
245 
186 
106 
375 


99 
258 
328 
174 
206 

94 
105 
186 
343 
314 
160 
109 
197 


198 
379 
154 
135 
172 
182 
26 
290 
277 
249 
240 
129 
281 


263 
108 
268 
171 
210 
215 

49 
239 
202 
282 

40 
169 
231 


215 
145 
158 

69 
105 
182 

51 

80 
176 
187 
157 

95 
158 


32 
100 
119 

21 
163 

83 
147 

21 
195 
101 

19 

39 
218 


42 
27 
73 

159 
79 
98 
98 
34 
88 
89 
38 

148 
94 


1648 
1830 


1910 


2016 


11 


1449 


12 

13 


1483 
1334 


14 


932 


1915 


1506 


16 


1972 


17 

18 


2192 
1239 


19 

1920 


1293 
1868 


Means 


41 


.74 


.90 


.74 


1 83 


2 25 


1 98 


2.09 


1 88 


1 37 


.97 


82 





78 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



CORRELATION OF OLD AND NEW METEOROLOGICAL DISTRICTS 

OF INDIA. 



Old 
No. 


Old Name. 


New 
No.* 


Old 

No. 


. Old Name. 


New 

Na.* 


1 


Tenasserim 


2 

2 

2 

3 

3 

5 

4 

4 

4 

5, 

5 

5 

5 

6 

7 

8 

8 

9 

9 

9 

10 
10 

9 

10 
10 
11 
11 
12 
11 
13 
14 


31 

32 

33 

33a 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

49a 

50 

51 

52 

52a 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 




14 


2 


Lower Burma, Deltaic 


West Punjab 


12 


3 


Central Burma, Deltaic 


Malabar 


30 


4 


Upper Burma, Deltaic 




30 


5 


Arakan 


Madras, South Central 


31 


6 


East Bengal 


Coorg 


29 


7 


Assam Surma 


Mysore 


29 


8 


Assam Hills 




25 


9 


Assam Brahmaputra 


Bombay, Deccan . . ; 

Hyi'erabad, North 

Kkandesh 


26 


10 


Deltaic Bengal 


28 


11 


Central Bengal 


26 


12 


North Bengal 


Berar 


22 


13 


Bengal Hills 


Central Province W^est 


23 


14 
15 


< Irissa 

Chota Nagpur 


Central Province, Central 

Central Province, East 

Gujarat 

Kathiawar and Cutch 


23 

24 


16 


South Bihar 


19 


17 


North Bihar 


19 


18 


United Provinces, East 


Sind .... 


16 


19 


South Oudh 


Baluchistan Hills 


15 


20 


North Oudh 


Central India, East 

Central India. East 

Rajputana, E. Central India W 

West Rajpatana 


20 


21 


United Provinces Central 


21 


22 


United Provinces West 


18 


23 


United Provinces, East Sub 

United Provinces. West Sub 


17 


24 


Madras, East Coast North 


33 


25 


United Provinces, Hills 

Southeast Punjab 


Madras. East Coast North 


33 


26 


Hyderabad, South 

Madr.as. Central 


28 


27 


South Punjab 


32 


28 


Central Punjab 

Punjab. S.ibmontane 

Punjab Hills . . . ■ . 


Madras, East Coast Central 


33 


29 
30 


Madras, East Coast South 

Madras, South 


31 
31 


31 


North Punjab 





*New number, "as used in these tables and 
of its part of table. 



'India Rainfall." Names of each district will be found at head 



SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE No. 6.— The rainfall of the thirty-three districts of India, in inches, 1901-1918. 

No. 1. — Bay Isles. 



Years. 



1907 
08 
09 

1910 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



Jan. 



322 

41 

5 

53 

14 

1925 

171 



89 



24 

125 



Feb. 





168 

211 

45 

17 

1 

1 



111 



7 

9 



Mar. 



345 


137 

453 


3 

65 


273 
17 



Apr. 



43 

70 

395 

356 

348 

43 

5 

85 

81 

2 

9 
33 



May. June. 



1329 

1504 

1324 

612 

859 

629 

559 

895 

917 

1919 

976 

1715 



970 
2327 
1794 
1267 
1679 
2206 
1724 
1576 

999 
1772 

938 
1549 



July. 



1397 
1525 
1901 
1025 
1125 
1726 
1375 
2182 
1077 
1249 
1208 
592 



Aug. 



1457 
2246 
1027 
1007 

713 
1167 

731 
1619 

917 
1673 
1.352 
1462 



Sept. 



546 
1260 
1469 
2197 
2216 
1221 
1489 
1119 
1311 
1629 
1373 

839 



Oct. 



1001 

625 

1453 

1064 

1023 

981 

1123 

353 

1266 

1187 

665 

585 



Nov. 



1885 
475 
852 
677 
193 
457 
847 
667 
826 
649 
671 



Dec. 



1198 
5 
733 
361 
513 
55 
572 
793 

1083 
401 
792 



ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



79 



TABLE 6— Continued. 
No. 2. — Lower Burma. 



1901. 

02. 

03. 

04. 

05. 

06. 

07. 

08. 

09. 
1910. 

11. 

12, 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 



Years. 



Jan. 











2 

22 

35 

3 

4 

12 

5 

122 

8 

2 

21 



10 

12 



Feb. 



196 
29 



16 

15 



3 

2 

42 

35 

6 

6 

14 



3 
11 





Mar. 



22 
39 
6 
50 
20 
3 

204 
14 
44 

338 
20 
10 
47 
6 
42 
15 

100 
48 



Apr. 



46 

80 

41 

349 

10 

38 

28 

101 

100 

299 

392 

45 

2 

153 
146 
114 
92 
127 



May. 



859 
1809 

931 
1083 
1234 
1148 
1785 
1013 
1324 
1627 

950 
1439 

952 
1001 
1771 
1114 

771 
2700 



June. 



2059 
1987 
2264 
3055 
2933 
2063 
2649 
2769 
2512 
1719 
2765 
2326 
2270 
3237 
2306 
3635 
2988 
2524 



July. 



2400 
2938 
2691 
3244 
3148 
2571 
2541 
2795 
3452 
1830 
2950 
281)6 
3271 
4027 
3066 
1768 
3110 
2766 



Aug. 



3951 
2130 
2408 
2612 
2134 
1494 
3600 
3113 
2364 
2701 
3258 
2656 
2817 
3186 
2687 
2435 
2462 
3343 



Sept. 



1438 
1925 
1884 
3039 
2049 
2047 
1677 
1399 
1960 
2215 
1561 
1437 
1657 
1278 
1400 
2135 
1953 
2349 



Oct. 



1240 
419 
998 
396 
710 
667 

1017 
840 
926 
697 
908 
749 
654 
724 

1201 
795 

1223 
620 



Nov. 



165 

47 
196 
552 

73 
220 

73 
705 
514 
299 

13 
322 
778 
282 
216 
500 
197 



Dec. 



7 

67 

28 

21 

66 

3 

151 

1 

16 

9 

3 

5 

6 

187 

319 

47 

66 



No. 3. — Upper Burma. 



1901 


6 


02 




03 


' 4 


04 





05 


9 


06 


6 


07 


38 


08 


17 


09 


5 


1910 


6 


11 


14 


12 


12 


13 


g 


14 : 


1 


15 


1 


16 


5 


17 


2 


18 


3 



80 
4 



10 

30 

54 

4 

3 

3 

15 

3 

9 

19 

15 

11 

8 

57 

9 



4 

4 
36 

9 
256 

8 
83 

6 

1 
114 
41 
19 
39 
17 
63 

4 



50 

170 

16 

358 

76 

32 

64 

88 

167 

290 

347 

74 

31 

92 

139 

126 

126 

110 



718 
685 
608 
706 

1004 
852 
498 
467 
763 
716 
579 
553 
413 
656 

1037 
442 
399 

1033 



2316 

2178 

2116 

3056 

2267 

2674 

558 

644 

653 

682 

877 

751 

770 

1200 

890 

811 

787 

624 



2504 

3750 

18.50 

3358 

3352 

2802 

434 

529 

697 

624 

555 

648 

722 

691 

661 

719 

450 

583 



2610 

1615 

2815 

2211 

2656 

1524 

534 

857 

888 

659 

646 

914 

813 

698 

661 

926 

1023 

827 



1724 


978 


1606 


434 


1594 


933 


1392 


338 


1760 


658 


1713 


568 


581 


460 


635 


328 


592* 


601 


857 


710 


680 


564 


598 


652 


649 


655 


656 


593 


641 


533 


963 


624 


1008 


723 


680 


528 



248 

20 

334 

514 

34 

102 

9 

834 

284 

176 

23 

127 

206 

135 

125 

307 

226 



20 

8 

2 

26 

146 

4 

126 



67 



1 

10 

21 

200 

100 

03 

4 



No. 4. — Assam. 



1901 
02 
03 
04 
05 
06 
07 
08 
09 

1910 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



68 


52 


32 


36 


47 


100 


41 


251 


51 


82 


36 


254 


236 


128 


70 


144 


87 


33 


47 


110 


304 


81 


40 


241 


53 


338 


26 


322 


34 


204 


77 


118 


47 


381 


16 


65 



115 
377 
426 
235 
760 
339 
364 
106 
16 
541 
3.58 
481 
476 
309 
293 
437 
128 
563 



1039 

1475 

574 

2020 

812 

1235 

1028 

776 

803 

789 

917 

1104 

1321 

854 

792 

921 

723 

622 



726 


2125 


1779 


2005 


1335 


149 


2397 


2181 


2130 


1652 


817 


2564 


1855 


2525 


1398 


1467 


1785 


2292 


1916 


1138 


1070 


3308 


2090 


2839 


1279 


1301 


1743 


2416 


2710 


1295 


799 


1928 


2155 


1221 


1585 


1217 


1472 


1880 


1396 


1459 


1196 


2154 


1331 


1742 


915 


985 


2147 


2374 


1530 


993 


1714 


18)8 


2293 


1600 


1530 


943 


1685 


2065 


1664 


952 


1443 


1724 


1767 


1403 


1019 


1087 


1175 


1520 


1826 


1215 


2309 


1852 


2468 


1815 


997 


1117 


1.337 


1816 


1614 


1197 


715 


2103 


1838 


138 ^ 


1313 


1109 


2200 


2649 


2108 


1386 



819 
363 
683 
475 
1251 
643 
170 
401 
499 
933 
913 
643 
822 
279 
411 
899 
715 
283 



413 
35 

294 

268 
25 

185 
17 
30 

H^ 
49 

103 

188 

48 

39 

40 

120 

138 



3 

8 

17 
100 

4 
50 


39 
22 
13 
32 
175 
51 
16 
23 

6 



80 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 6— Continued. 
No. 5. — Bengal. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1901 


91 

4 

44 

18 

78 

88 

6 

80 

22 

60 

37 

6 

4 

1 

17 

5 

2 

3 


94 

4 

82 

97 

140 

320 

83 

58 

21 

44 

10 

64 

283 

212 

81 

44 

122 

1 


48 
242 
162 

76 
380 
180 
322 

32 
3 
112 
186 
306 
113 
101 
325 

18 

71 
160 


260 
642 

97 
433 
422 

68 
348 
160 
558 
241 
338 
624 
160 
534 
247 
587 
312 
411 


646 

913 

512 

1154 

938 

657 

612 

662 

596 

687 

1052 

784 

1017 

1031 

1115 

388 

701 

1062 


1547 
1442 
1667 
781 
967 
1190 
1358 
1408 
1904 
1544 
1686 
1384 
2477 
885 
1007 
1798 
1572 
2045 


1646 
2060 
1076 
1882 
2137 
1866 
1549 
1546 
1052 
1908 
1410 
1688 
1473 
1655 
1427 
1478 
1651 
1475 


1392 
1524 
1836 
1346 
2186 
2149 
927 
882 
2380 
1388 
1286 
1365 
1451 
1388 
1.537 
1708 
1192 
1970 


1169 

1914 

1226 

820 

1540 

1000 

979 

938 

972 

961 

1138 

771 

1147 

885 

1023 

1441 

1020 

963 


285 
275 
656 
374 
546 
538 
124 
152 
532 
734 
608 
619 
618 
147 
527 
1165 
1357 
108 


252 
24 
54 
65 
2 
67 
4 

36 
72 
13 
45 

365 
80 
12 

100 

191 
52 


10 


02 


10 


03. 





04 


5 


05 


51 


06 





07 


58 


08 





09 


78 


1910 





11 





12 





13 


73 


14 


88 


15 





16 


1 


17 





IS 











No. 6. — Orissa. 



1901 

02 


180 

23 

34 

1 

123 

113 

1 

144 

24 

67 



4 

7 



54 



1 

19 


254 

1 

106 

49 

61 

389 

95 

4 

64 

4 

38 

229 

249 

134 

95 

19 

385 

1 


44 

92 

69 

86 

300 

132 

224 

63 

16 

9 

135 

109 

65 

49 

173 

2 

123 

85 


173 

313 

83 

19 

195 

12 

456 

23 

520 

148 

128 

198 

28 

213 

98 

77 

83 

126 


298 
322 
254 
361 
429 
241 
208 
193 
247 
257 
234 
150 
427 
772 
289 
180 
457 
514 


309 

515 

641 

1192 

375 

804 

941 

1139 

1181 

932 

1350 

480 

1056 

860 

624 

1458 

1292 

1336 


1258 
1952 
1410 
1010 
1057 
1152 

689 
1212 
1570 
1318 

621 
1368 
2010 
1569 

934 

883 
1226 

694 


1002 
1264 
1116 
1216 
787 
825 
2354 
1974 
962 
1211 
1110 
1384 
1126 
1072 
1060 
1193 
1263 
1102 


837 

679 

1124 

917 

1087 

1041 

648 

799 

980 

1042 

988 

812 

581 

1418 

1066 

718 

958 

722 


346 
119 

1117 
434 
292 
501 
103 
191 
173 
940 
356 
319 
458 
66 
645 
975 

1517 
20 


549 

22 

122 

2 
2 

40 

13 



2 



24 

354 

110 



843 

261 

67 



170 


03 


6 


04 


16 


05 


3 


06 


25 


07 


96 


08 





09 ' 

1910 


228 



11 


1 


12 





13 


6 


14 


27 


15 





16 

17 






18 











No. 7.— Chota Nagi-ur. 



1901 


359 

19 

87 

5 

171 

188 

9 

' 65 

114 

85 

5 

11 

11 



39 



6 

16 


282 

40 

66 

71 

217 

533 

227 

160 

47 

29 



97 

527 

85 

155 

64 

170 

4 


45 

51 

38 

168 

200 

141 

313 

17 

5 

15 

123 

82 

187 

97 

106 

1 

64 

16 


62 
95 

129 
37 

147 
5 

95 
1 

332 

136 

29 

95 

4 

80 
35 
67 
28 
47 


145 
231 
229 
454 
230 
107 

74 
186 
1Q9 
177 
141 
135 
286 
514 
184 

86 
375 
251 


293 
308 
533 

1263 
158 
644 

1289 
813 

1067 
954 

1482 
466 

1425 
408 
433 

1006 

1155 

1253 


1018 
1721 

874 
1963 
1781 
1461 

742 
1316 
1055 

977 

602 
1430 
1289 
1129 

973 

841 
1272 

500 


1623 

833 

1112 

1.502 

962 

937 

1917 

1451 

1415 

1101 

1544 

1396 

1498 

1258 

820 

1173 

1645 

1526 


1050 

1185 
831 
405 

1360 
749 
875 
610 

1218 
969 

1028 
450 
650 
631 
800 
785 
900 
680 


129 

54 
886 
106 

83 

307 

2 

108 

84 
320 
336 

92 
316 

80 

207 

923 

1016 




39 

31 
3 
6 


30 




25 
163 
227 

80 



178 

67 
4 





02 


14 


03 





04 


1 


05 


11 


06 


6 


07 


108 


08 


W 


09 


1910 





11 





12 





13 


51 


14 


29 


15 





16 

17 

18 



4 







ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



81 



TABLE 6— CoNTI^fUED. 
No. 8.— Bihar. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1901 


220 
12 
18 
34 
58 
59 

5 

60 
24 
10 
31 
19 




31 

1 
11 
25 


79 

9 

21 

8 

112 

224 

236 

161 

26 

18 



19 

148 

84 

195 

63 

75 




46 

96 

8 

12 

132 

34 

152 

23 



21 

86 

98 

78 

33 

106 



37 

8 


5 
64 
15 
14 

88 

4 

83 

7 

270 

41 

52 

101 

5 

127 

23 

90 

27 

106 


243 
224 

78 
. 446 
303 
165 
134 
1.33 

91 
190 
167 
250 
407 
396 
378 

71 
432 
356 


264 
433 
678 
697 
178 
730 
894 
337 

1666 
971 

1313 
559 

1542 
375 
575 

1112 
928 
957 


864 
1375 

364 
1599 
1566 
1388 

966 

737 

1049 

'1273 

719 
1382 

992 
1163 
1194 
1554 
1338 

885 


1230 

842 

1240 

1416 

1928 

1602 

929 

644 

1361 

1368 

1683 

1203 

1414 

1812 

1492 

1284 

878 

1990 


562 

1331 

664 

313 

1398 

462 

871 

591 

699 

982 

1240 

379 

1028 

398 

737 

1088 

1078 

937 


32 
106 
567 
394 

42 
132 

12 

85 
132 
317 
532 

42 
274 

38 
276 
602 
561 

29 


28 
4 


37 

1 




100 
71 

289 

15 



154 

10 




a 


02 


9 


03 





04 


10 


05 


2 


06 





07 


7 


08 


1 


09 


19 


1910 


0' 


11 





12 





13 


140 


14 


4 


' 15 


3 


16 

17. 

18 


0' 
1 



No. 9. — United Provinces, East. 



1901 

02 

03 

04 


245 
16 
30 
32 
57 
22 

7 

75 
33 
16 
168 
57 

1 

5 
46 


28 

1 


125 

6 

1 

6 

90 

226 

292 

1 

23 

1 



20 

138 

54 

167 

72 

105 

1 


36 

10 

4 

24 

82 

23 

60 

22 



1 

117 

23 

122 

76 

90 



26 

19 


4 
10 

2 

1 
19 


72 

6 
259 

5- 

8 
17 

2 
38 
23 
24 
13 
13 


61 
94 
55 

104 
70 
58 
35 
18 
20 
92 
12 
57 

242 

179 
56 
26 

163 
60 


186 
133 

202 
587 
63 
534 
162 
206 
930 
605 
380 
188 
627 
140 
418 
1043 
628 
493 


862 
1676 

628 
1350 
1294 
1366 

707 
1022 
1588 

774 

321 
1279 

783 
1642 
1091 
1129 
1324 

380 


1064 

626 
1690 
1236 
1342 
1171 
1164 
1254 

719 
1295 
1149 
1046 

703 
1262 
1628 
1467 

918 
1006 


2434 

1011 

1065 

343 

687 

437 

73 

295 

524 

860 

1555 

540 

328 

389 

1439 

711 

1190 

355 


19 

54 

1323 

248 

18 

23 



38 

23 

377 

334 

4 

47 

13 

383 

216 

221 






3 



67 











123 

148 

110 



3 

4 

29 



6. 
0- 

lOL 


05 


6' 


06 

07 


O' 
Oi 


08 


2 


09 


85 


1910 





11 


I 


12 


3 


13 


46 


14 


1 


15 


7 


16 





17 


19 


18 











No. 10. — United Provinces, West. 



1901 


278 
11 

104 
63 

206 
37 
83 

102 
80 
62 

329 

144 
2 


103 

2 

37 

36 


162 

24 

8 

6 

168 

367 

287 

87 

35 

18 

6 

35 

188 

63 

274 

77 

117 

2 


67 

31 

63 

160 

125 

92 

103 

5 





182 

48 

124 

101 

222 



62 

64 


4 
64 
10 
12 
30 

8 

114 

11 

275 

8 

7 
21 

7 
88 
33 
13 
96 
46 


81 

105 

62 

144 

85 

55 

56 

60 

14 

58 

3 

28 

229 

135 

58 

49 

204 

34 


102 
254 
194 
410 
178 
794 
68 
223 
702 
379 
315 
132 
572 
241 
239 
621 
466 
470 


783 
1473 

658 
1515 

778 
1130 

774 
1414 
1534 

755 

263 

991 

611 
1369 

954 
1362 
1428 

409 


1800 

917 
1349 
1439 

703 
1020 
1083 
1685 

957 
1379 

643 
1067 

457 

860 
1184 
1414 
1017 

723 


414 

1364 
740 
501 
414 
732 
9 
138 
452 
893 

1306 

981 

84 

1051 
589 
981 

1281 
115 


42 

56 

594 

18 

1 

14 



1 

5 

690 

62 



11 

56 

49 

240 

357 

2 



3 


87 
2 



4 


16 
193 

31 
6 

25 


14 



49 


02 





03 


17 


04 


70 


05 


28 


06 


31 


07 





08 


8 


09 


14& 


1910 


I 


11 


2 


12 


7 


13 


39t 


14 





15 


u 


16 





17 


25 


18 









6— JScience Bui.— 3728 



S2 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 6— Continued. 
No. 11. — Punjab, East and North. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1901 


194 



91 

92 

205 

25 

109 

162 

84 

125 

396 

209 

8 

57 

93 

7 

31 

26 


142 

3 

3 

6 

99 

320 

330 

54 

98 

32 

29 

35 

213 

140 

238 

86 

13 

4 


76 

37 
120 
296 

97 

170 

191 

2 

9 

9 

425 

43 
142 

65 
228 

21 

40 
224 


2 

39 

6 

6 

8 

9 

200 

130 

232 

28 

19 

80 

7 

179 

62 

20 

213 

157 


66 
91 
52 
93 
29 
12 
27 
52 
11 
12 
7 
30 

226 
95 
24 
54 

134 
5 


52 

245 

29 

94 

81 

207 

120 

60 

359 

363 

237 

61 

386 

205 

116 

219 

345 

131 


628 
593 
744 
395 
443 
478 
319 
869 
902 
567 
124 
671 
511 
1240 
260 
914 
714 
151 


612 
415 

548 
624 
163 
607 
819 
1622 
658 
944 
351 
790 
624 
368 
373 
907 
992 
518 


77 
254 
426 
351 
429 
755 

21 
257 
638 
346 
403 
250 

80 

608 

369 

332 

1259 

55 


10 
34 

27 

21 

3 

2 



5 

12 

189 

44 

1 

146 

72 

127 

402 

3 




9 



47 





7 



127 
46 
8 
36 





15 


02 





03 


2g 


:04 


53 


(05 


38 


j06 


27 


;07 





i08 


21 


09 


17& 


agio 


16 


11 


2 


12 


9 


13 


59 


a4 ' 


50 


15 


12 


16 


2 


17 


44 


18 











No. 12. — Punjab, Southwest. 



■1901 


108 



36 

188 

182 

5 

17 

90 

9 

70 

131 

168 



66 

8 

6 

13 

4 


58 

4 

2 

2 

98 

360 

108 

21 

66 

5 

23 

6 

124 

133 

45 

27 



8 


68 

39 

135 

366 

82 

112 

69 

2 

14 

10 

324 

16 

66 

57 

112 

22 

44 

178 


36 

30 

26 

2 

14 

13 

163 

144 

138 

82 

34 

122 

13 

154 

71 

28 

96 

126 


200 

63 

85 

26 

16 

10 

32 

45 

1 

9 

14 

26 

43 

43 

15 

60 

116 

1 


59 

202 

27 

49 

48 

98 

134 

35 

126 

144 

149 

38 

125 

118 

79 

92 

129 

27 


372 

268 
509 
108 
338 
190 
117 
421 
449 
203 

37 
226 
300 
748 

57 
288 
237 
127 


184 
262 
354 
234" 

37 
404 
320 
609 

67 
389 

79 
168 
493 
236 

68 
579 
883 

97 


72 
171 
202 

42 

471 

309 

2 

418 

180 

2 

40 
69 
57 

141 
16 
82 

609 
77 


2 

27 

10 

6 

8 

1 





1 

4 

53 

4 

6 

93 

17 

51 

1 

10 





1 

40 
3 






42 

8 

45 








02 

i03 

(04 

(85 



18 
38 

82 


(06 


52 


107 





08 


3 


09 


100 


igiO 


8 


11 


2 


12 


8 


33 


24 


14 


33 


15 


7 


16 





17 


16 


18 





No. 13. — Kashmir. 



1901 


589 
23 
344 
333 
438 
209 
294 
236 
274 
348 
839 
413 
210 
139 
151 
145 
171 
81 


725 
72 
85 

97 
448 
747 
441 
156 
407 
272 
172 
127 
342 
654 
592 
402 
72 
89 


315 
382 
656 
557 
607 
468 
339 
61 
155 
200 
702 
272 
223 
393 
371 
200 
256 
854 


61 
291 

73 
111 

95 

31 
372 
B17 
102 
309 
174 
244 
340 
487 
546 
148 
391 
661 


335 
232 
227 
250 
208 

67 
213 
167 
100 
113 

59 
230 
145 
262 

54 
169 
204 

16 


152 
354 
171 
191 
206 
778 
308 

56 
127 
257 
124 

47 
251 
327 
185 
349 
632 
244 


1335 

1138 

959 

1712 

1.308 

1261 

213 

328 

543 

366 

190 

343 

291 

1474 

365 

1043 

768 

370 


2363 

917 

1851 

1297 

1034 

3172 

435 

652 

441 

528 

252 

302 

445 

615 

718 

1030 

1086 

517 


277 
563 
694 
302 
229 
1069 

54 
255 
481 

68 
148 

12 

65 
347 
253 
214 
906 

75 


19 

92 

34 

142 

2 

6 

52 

58 

105 

2 

39 
14 

29 
512 

67 
109 
417 

53 




17 



79 
2 



8 

4 

5 



168 

40 

82 

165 

1 

13 

1 


65 


02 

03 




263 


04 


171 


05 


139 


06 


103 


07 


2 


08 


291 


09 


225 


H910 


173 


11 


76 


12 


119 


13 


138 


14 


287 


15 


45 


16 


24 


17 


257 


18 





ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



83 



TABLE 6— Continued. 
No. 14. — Northwest Frontier Province. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1901 


316 

15 

110 

313 

271 

32 

159 

320 

29 

380 

383 

253 

16 

61 

2 

47 

70 

10 


179 

8 

6 

6 

197 

543 

299 

111 

211 

90 

38 

103 

229 

334 

232 

171 

4 

26 


268 

169 

364 

621 

397 

223 

262 

33 

65 

50 

707 

26 

135 

171 

202 

92 

218 

454 


128 

189 

117 

43 

56 

82 

381 

584 

112 

219 

95 

222 

62 

328 

438 

151 

89 

285 


633 

112 

186 

48 

88 

57 

49 

28 

23 

50 

28 

44 

56 

139 

39 

160 

102 

5 


92 

230 

32 

18 

20 

113 

123 

32 

99 

207 

114 

38 

164 

204 

88 

66 

152 

117 


209 
411 

215 
290 
246 
286 
159 
434 
541 
584 
47 
418 
205 
675 
122 
301 
2i2 
146 


356 
383 
338 
437 
194 
459 
358 
638 
493 
644 
227 
381 
392 
358 
196 
794 
714 
198 


286 

257 

224 

117 

198 

221 

49 

447 

93 

32 

124 

59 

96 

170 

147 

179 

279 

74 


67 

139 

15 

93 

15 

22 

12 

40 

12 



92 

23 

14 

368 

70 

57 

20 

7 



25 
6 
48 
3 




1 



95 

2 

37 

69 



1 







02 


2 


03 


74 


04 


46 


05 


250 


06 


172 


07 





08 


94 


09 


186 


1910 


39 


11 


50 


12 


9 


13 


60 


14 


153 


15 


8 


16 


9 


17 


131 


18 











No. 15. — Baluchistan. 



1901 


174 
2 

70 
269 
388 

39 

1 

123 

71 
191 
385 
350 

46 
114 

42 
168 
118 

12 


15 

2 

72 

49 

191 

391 

330 

11 

172 

24 

56 

19 

234 

347 

18 

91 

5 

107 


89 

26 
282 
335 
172 
294 
108 
104 

83 

62 
381 

15 
178 

78 
131 

29 
161 
380 


16 
20 

160 

7 

20 

16 

113 
93 
72 
48 
62 
90 
8 
71 

257 
91 
15 
71 


162 

10 

73 



10 

3 

2 

3 

4 

9 

1 

13 
2 
4 
1 
26 
47 
2 



47 
11 

2 

4 

26 

118 

3 
21 
42 

2 

17 

71 

. 85 

5 
22 

1 

2 


106 
28 
81 
6 
43 
30 
42 

177 
98 

200 
7 

166 
80 

281 
31 
48 
35 
32 


22 

63 

36 

9 



99 

191 

108 

12 

78 

42 

52 

145 

29 

19 

391 

341 

16 


6 

60 

11 

9 

9 

30 



1 

41 



9 

15 

4 

50 

10 

7 

' 141 

19 




17 


2 






47 


36 
153 

12 
1 

1 




22 

11 

20 

3 

10 









99 

2 

61 

189 





24 





02 


28 


03 


13 


04 


7 


05 


263 


06 


12 


07 


6 


08 '. 


67 


09 


142 


1910 


109 


11 


26 


12 


100 


13 


106 


14 


GO 


15 


1 


16 


6 


17 


53 


18 











No. 16. — SiND. 



1901 
02 
03 
04 
05 
06 
07 
08 
09 

1910 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 







11 

47 

27 

6 

1 

77 

18 

47 

6 

35 







8 

3 





11 

5 

29 

71 

201 

131 



7 







65 

80 

7 



2 





14 
1 

17 

112 

3 

51 

21 
1 



59 


17 
3 

40 


17 

33 



2 


35 


1 


98 


i 


7 





1 


15 











16 


1 


20 


1 


15 





9 


3 








6 


5 








4 


23 


35 








9 


12 


124 


5 








231 

1 

2 



96 

228 

7 

9 

118 

10 

27 

36 

154 



49 

31 





112 


21 


24 


244 


301 


11 


49 


4 


138 





48 


170 


16 


374 


834 


278 


441 


65 


566 


156 





15 


238 


189 


939 


517 


274 


3 


31 


1 


191 


698 


88 


442 





92 





319 

27 

7 

10 
65 

2 



53 

1 

7 

12 

228 

45 

42 

139 

569 

7 








4 





1 



3 

16 

38 

5 

124 





4 



10 
9 




20 




73 
2 






84 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 6— CONTINTTED. 

No. 17. — Rajputan.^, West. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1901 


34 

5 
9 

12 

4 

38 

13 
8 
5 

35 

8 

30 
5 
6 
2 




7 

12 

20 
128 
130 
1 
8 




24 
8 

91 
1 
5 



3 



29 

50 

4 

27 

26 







119 



8 



64 

1 

7 

14 




I 

3 
6 


12 

6 

104 

17 
1 
7 


29 
1 
7 

51 
3 


15 

16 

20 

61 

1 

1 

26 

22 

11 

1 



21 

60 

16 

2 

65 

229 

4 


12 

177 

4 

58 

19 

67 

34 

124 

106 

302 

113 

102 

217 

204 

71 

86 

305 

25 


333 
152 
689 
200 
145 
253 
212 
940 
727 
231 

11 
519 
232 
503 

95 
271 
441 

23 


237 

312 

379 

215 

3 

280 

1089 

1190 

344 

632 

62 

457 

309 

238 

93 

808 

971 

189 


6 
196 
205 

60 
273 
351 
1 
306 
449 

41 
240 

73 
126 
210 

51 
403 
860 

22 


14 
6 

6 

3 

1 
2 
3 

25 

27 
1 

24 
122 

76 

308 

1 






11 



4 


8 

12 


14 







02 





03 





04 


24 


05 


2 


06 


7 


07 





08 


n 


09 


65 


1910 





11 

12 

13 






33 


14 

15 

16 

17 

18 





3 









No. 18. — Rajputana, East. 



1901 
02 
03 
04 
05 
06 
07 
08 
09 

1910 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



103 


51 


11 


2 


16 


3 





5 


11 


2 


6 





14 


18 


92 


1 


27 


45 


14 


7 


1 


98 


40 





37 


176 


42 


61 


69 


4 


6 


2 


29 


6 





203 


42 


11 





7 


74 


3 


69 


3 


45 


17 


11 


14 





62 


/ 


2 





3 


4 


15 


68 


123 


190 


14 


1 


28 


d 


2 


16 


37 


21 


46 


25 





14 


5 



16 

27 

45 

104 

6 

9 

45 

31 

24 

9 

1 

13 

195 

39 

16 

37 

290 

5 



65 
154 

83 
168 

53 
259 

68 
174 
424 
384 
273 

98 
347 
334 
129 
311 
461 
103 



693 

1102 
738 

1167 
398 
853 
451 

1679 

1133 
412 
168 

1202 
465 

1247 
312 
669 

1218 
189 



755 


30 


34 





428 


496 


46 





917 


537 


114 





1079 


223 


3 


30 


114 


300 








291 


763 


5 





1252 


11 








1435 


269 


1 


5 


665 


319 


4 





908 


754 


341 


4 


337 


781 


23 


96 


996 


317 


5 


14 


307 


97 


6 


2 


478 


454 


59 


17 


498 


131 


156 





1701 


497 


99 


11 


1556 


1206 


354 





623 


97 





1 



3 

7 



76 

»4 

13 

iO 



105 

t; 

7 
75 

4 

1 



No. 19. — Gujarat. 



1901 
02 
03 
04 
05 
06 
07 
08 
09 

1910 
11 
12 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 





10 

2 
2 

1 

17 

3 

10 




21 

3 
o 






2 











1 


48 


78 


3 


2 


46 





38 


1 








6 














84 














15 





6 


52 








20 








1 



1 



2 


1 
7 

20 




21 
4 

34 

10 


3 

9 
1 
3 
3 

32 

27 
fi 

30 
387 

43 



214 
106 
94 
157 
70 
688 
284 
246 
638 

1041 
554 
406 

1493 
927 
445 
400 
526 
139 



886 


652 


76 


830 


1130 


1048 


1740 


692 


605 


685 


194 


382 


2100 


116 


257 


1200 


874 


400 


1276 


1721 


43 


1880 


1268 


85 


1473 


712 


588 


1088 


1177 


170 


223 


297 


193 


2401 


1067 


150 


1463 


632 


505 


1493 


414 


1035 


476 


306 


184 


687 


1318 


617 


1129 


1207 


1158 


393 


561 


50 



48 
12 
20 
16 

6 
40 



4 

8 
78 

1 
33 

4 

38 

380 

146 

954 

2 




4 

1 






23 

7 

127 



23 
2 
6 





42 

3 

1 


26 

1 

1 







ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



85 



TABLE 6— Continued. 
No. 20.— Central Indu, West. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dee. 


1901 


112 
80 
15 
13 

48 

1 

15 

57 

12 

8 

70 

16 





47 



51 

3 


62 
37 

1 

48 

15 

67 

67 

2 

5 



5 

22 

35 

5 

106 

28 

84 

3 


19 
1 

1 

99 

34 

31 

4 

28 





12 

2 

5 

17 

106 



5 

10 


10 
6 



12 


33 
4 
106 
2 

1 

7 

23 
1 
9 



10 

19 

43 

49 

13 

5 

8 

4 

29 

2 

2 

10 
124 
62 
22 
68 
278 
34 


102 
109 
174 
348 
97 
592 
164 
343 
599 
763 
487 
199 
665 
514 
359 
742 
690 
354 


965 
1659 

947 
1573 
1081 
1494 

836 
1485 
1109 

735 

475 
1376 
1127 
1483 

595 

911 
1192 

461 


1724 

685 

1178 

1041 

594 

672 

1343 

1159 

1083 

980 

569 

1064 

779 

557 

850 

2177 

1319 

876 


349 
792 

1008 
449 
574 

1525 
122 
178 
388 

1019 
798 
329 
237 
578 
288 
482 

1063 
261 


17 

79 

458 

55 



14 





8 

173 

46 

11 



26 

273 

204 

345 

1 



25 


14 




26 

3 


103 
118 
234 

2 
45 
12 
78 




9 


02 


22 


03 





04 


53 


05 


4 


06 





07 





08 


1 


09 


69 


1910 





11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 



7 

48 


16 









No. 21. — CENTR.AL InDLA, EaST. 



1907 

08 

09 


19 
78 
87 
24 
125 
10 

2 

1 
60 


15 

1 


469 

58 

46 

1 

9 

33 

312 
23 

117 
40 
78 
11 


20 
15 

8 

1 
79 

5 

77 

114 

96 


78 

5 


79 

1 

250 

12 


11 


58 

29 

9 

4 
2 


23 
28 
10 
58 
22 
17 

166 
68 
28 
12 

249 
35 


158 
141 
951 
692 
500 
107 
818 
271 
499 
1012 
660 
275 


763 
2068 
1518 

560 

396 
1790 

792 
2095 

800 

927 
1571 

332 


1875 
2328 

544 
1421 
1365 
1074 

635 

972 
1547 
1819 
1624 

978 


27 
314 
478 
970 
1552 
540 
273 
310 
457 
569 
920 
301 




55 



188 

283 



3 

9 

222 

359 

234 




14 

1 



214 

153 

142 



1 

1 

95 

5 



21 
82 


1910 





11 





12 


4 


13 


38 


14 





15 


4 


16 





17 


10 


18 







No. 22.— Berar. 



1901 


211 

13 

31 

22 

13 

52 

5 

2 

7 



98 







120 



4 

4 


16 



4 

7 

32 

4 

317 

9 

37 





91 

49 

55 

22. 

29 

212 

11 


65 





39 

10 

10 

4 

94 

14 



4 

1 

5 

42 

283 

2 

76 

7 


48 

31 

6 



9 



129 

33 

38 





10 

6 

45 

83 

7 

16 



21 

5 

183 

29 

23 

10 

2 

4 

84 

29 

1 

84 

73 

32 

119 

170 

304 


578 
154 
374 
486 
256 

1019 
646 
780 
535 
931 
545 
309 
710 

1137 
729 
922 
789 
527 


942 

1087 

1469 

553 

879 

1163 

884 

990 

889 

725 

548 

938 

1208 

804 

901 

1246 

884 

462 


1235 
681 
859 
387 
499 

1130 
878 
991 
517 
937 
645 
895 
622 
700 
413 
821 
639 
361 


280 

401 

532 

849 

899 

305 

98 

660 

684 

971 

287 

258 

537 

1100 

657 

1081 

1008 

104 


206 

197 

303 

213 

27 

24 

2 

1 

26 

249 

25 

30 

44 

19 

411 

345 

358 

26 




92 





1 

37 

63 





217 

218 

48 

1 

37 

29 

145 

8 





02 


155 


03 





04.........^ 

05 


7 



06 


86 


07 


1 


08 


8 


09 

1910 


292 



11 





12 


4 


13 


127 


14 


63 


15 


124 


16 





17 

18 










86 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 6— CoNniTOED. 
No. 23. — Central Provinces, West. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1901 

02 

03 

04 

05 


170 
30 
24 

6 
36 
32 
30 
47 
34 
21 
70 
21 

4 


45 


18 

4 


122 
8 
14 
72 
37 
60 

330 

36 

59 





194 

155 
33 

100 
85 

213 
28 


104 





130 

40 

108 

7 

77 

17 



40 



59 

192 

234 



76 

11 


64 

16 

6 



50 



135 

21 

182 

2 



11 

1 

78 
47 

6 
17 

2 


28 
12 
185 
37 
37 
26 
21 
3 

67 

23 

5 

7 

90 

53 

45 

74 

242 

162 


368 
138 
413 
584 
255 

1208 
497 
634 
640 
916 
777 
165 
790 
537 
746 

1058 
914 
941 


1395 
1238 
1508 

984 
1389 
1619 

889 
1541 
1233 

940 

643 
1489 
1289 
1607 
1449 
1080 
1284 

809 


2052 

867 
1458 

784 
1010 
1146 
1738 
1599 

965 
1319 
1092 
1412 
1192 
1047 
1.339 
1523 
1518 

984 


523 

827 

976 

650 

1384 

874 

139 

572 

553 

1103 

1056 

550 

315 

783 

634 

1057 

1411 

295 


32 

106 

400 

157 

14 

19 



35 

4 

208 

149 

7 

14 

37 

432 

720 

313 

5 




116 

2 





18 

76 

4 



227 

238 

227 

3 

17 

26 

137 





66 


32 

2 


06 


44 


07 


5 


08 


28 


09 . . 


237 


1910 





11 





12 


7 


13 


86 


14 


31 


15 


19 


16 





17 

18 


6 









No. 24. — Central Provinces, East. 



1901. 
02. 
03 
04 
05 
06 
07 
08 
09 

1910 
11 
12. 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



167 


418 


112 


42 


50 


269 


1397 


1755 


762 


110 


8 


2 


3 


3 


113 


48 


143 


1679 


1183 


691 


39 


10 


20 


53 


3 


25 


156 


382 


1453 


1519 


924 


524 


1 





57 


119 


9 


260 


1455 


1121 


1618 


419 


268 


4 


210 


107 


84 


104 


104 


1.35 


1513 


1062 


1329 


53 





96 


357 


270 





18 


587 


1803 


985 


971 


148 


23 


20 


146 


83 


238 


12 


8.)3 


1069 


1797 


427 





36 


36 


185 


9 


2 


18 


910 


1812 


2202 


714 


51 





20 


38 


26 


376 


25 


823 


2048 


860 


517 


25 





11 


1 


4 


26 


42 


1048 


1340 


1539 


1132 


248 


255 


21 





49 





12 


1191 


1037 


1873 


907 


341 


65 


16 


346 





73 


29 


201 


1910 


2067 


754 


99 


55 


4 


248 


78 


5 


76 


952 


1365 


1338 


554 


67 


14 





40 


58 


219 


134 


634 


2046 


1360 


928 


17 


2 


118 


100 


127 


58 


65 


535 


1485 


1525 


940 


525 


61 





101 


5 


12 


61 


1114 


1155 


1442 


783 


637 


107 


4 


330 


103 


44 


164 


1132 


1542 


1461 


1120 


560 


3 


43 


16 


11 


15 


225 


2015 


948 


1481 


498 


2 







26 







41 

60 

10 

281 







71 

17 

2 



3 



No. 25. — Konkan. 



1901. 
02. 
03. 
04. 
05 
06 
07 
08 
09. 

1910 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15. 
16 
17 
18. 



1 



35 
6 
3 
1 

1 



1 


3 



1 


10 





3 





1 




25 









6 




2 




1 





10 





6 





8 








1 


1 


3 





18 


25 





1 


76 


10 





15 



103 

9 

5 

25 

10 

1 

118 

44 

8 

1 

4 

38 

10 

12 

71 

30 

8 

12 



97 
50 

767 
65 
4 
10 
12 
25 

111 
35 
62 

116 
65 
31 
74 

146 

93 

1269 



2687 
1606 
1696 
3537 
1156 
2072 
2336 
1746 
2911 
3119 
2032 
2321 
3467 
2610 
3092 
3067 
3113 
1284 



4111 


2820 


426 


3789 


2023 


2422 


5135 


2565 


1125 


2955 


1407 


837 


3120 


1341 


770 


4171 


1936 


876 


4626 


3301 


678 


5560 


2594 


819 


5062 


1418 


1461 


1729 


2964 


1418 


2289 


2825 


631 


5083 


2253 


559 


4207 


1345 


730 


5753 


3064 


2024 


2788 


1414 


1465 


2768 


3270 


2251 


2711 


3463 


2380 


1588 


2207 


424 



211 
378 
514 
359 
366 
173 

93 
109 
108 
562 
192 
330 
569 
107 
573 
837 
1628 

59 



37 

128 

64 

1 

70 

37 

38 

8 

49 

148 

89 

390 

4 

94 

78 

485 

123 



9 
250 
9 



61 
5 

1 


17 



22 
5 





ALTER : RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



87 



TABLE 6— Continued. 
No. 26. — Bombay Deccan. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1901 




15 



20 
6 
3 

11 




3 
1 
2 

19 
1 

70 
1 


28 





12 

1 

16 

8 

16 

15 

11 

14 





2 

64 

2 

28 

12 


140 
32 
14 
22 
18 
3 

233 
47 
10 
4 
6 
80 
52 
32 

105 
44 
32 
27 


154 

72 

303 

104 

118 

54 

15 

49 

168 

83 

97 

109 

199 

95 

93 

248 

64 

372 


426 
399 
342 
456 
266 
668 
423 
321 
620 
660 
511 
326 
878 
593 
719 
485 
609 
211 


782 
806 

1036 
522 
953 
765 
919 
938 
886 
663 
503 

1185 
761 

1333 
869 
911 
402 
226 


701 
420 
596 
258 
338 
758 
914 
576 
430 
901 
521 
559 
310 
853 
310 
616 
651 
394 


356 
592 
548 
706 
223 
375 
503 
642 
517 
691 
132 
255 
349 
733 
819 
748 
904 
269 


296 
288 
316 
343 
199 
126 

37 

74 
165 
351 
165 
400 
230 

96 
284 
576 
634 

73 


20 

148 

44 



32 

55 

32 

14 

30 

123 

145 

219 

5 

156 

122 

465 

191 


2 


02 


26 

26 
1 


40 
3 
1 
5 

6 




40 



23 


268 


03 


18 


04 


1 


05 





06 


84 


07 


g 


08 





09 


19 


1910 





11 


27 


12 


1 


13 


17 


14 


43 


15 


57 


16 





17 

18 












No. 27. — Hyderabad, North. 



1901 


38 


















281 


2 




02 














650 
1054 
268 
929 
637 
861 
658 
590 
663 
765 
640 
329 
771 
574 
544 
927 
423 






03.; 













376 
452 
352 

1002 
558 
355 
669 
851 
415 
201 
550 

1117 
775 
637 
692 
324 


568 
28 
927 
695 
681 
872 
727 
789 
902 
1105 
1003 
509 
1261 
937 
457 


735 

1166 

795 

406 

299 

1523 

586 

1593 

383 

262 

320 

1132 

1055 

1106 

.1313 

465 






37 


04 



2 

130 
4 
6 
16 

15 




103 



1 

34 






46 

''l4 



13 

65 

69 

9 

36 

106 

42 

35 

135 

123 

405 


327 








05 


28 
1 

19 
5 

10 



93 

38 

20 
6 

31 

284 

1 


23 

\¥ 

35 

18 

2 

10 





3 
259 

6 
88 
14 


72 

* 287 

9 

81 



1 

47 

64 

14 

62 

14 

69 

17 





06 


92 
1 
1 

46 
270 

23 

78 
154 

54 
392 
486 
356 

11 


64 

11 



1 

149 

90 

80 



43 

59 

228 

134 


86 


07 


36 


08 


1 


09 


48 


1910 





11 


3 


12 


a 


13 


44 


14 


71 


15 


32 


16 





17 





18 





No. 28. — Hyderabad, South. 



1901. 

02. 

03. 

04. 

05. 

06. 

07. 

08. 

09. 
1910. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 



26 



1 



156 

4 

57 
3 






59 



56 



167 



24 

6 

15 







140 

12 


33 

10 

130 





14 



29 

8 

69 

14 

4 

5 

1 





9 

250 



160 

re 



168 



75 
12 

504 
15 

151 
37 
18 

103 
19 
48 
56 

115 
88 
71 



291 



106 



27 

13 

10 

58 

65 

106 

35 

192 

121 

101 

111 

191 

367 



430 



234 
460 
438 
706 
522 
369 
553 
582 
336 
121 
205 
717 
575 
682 
529 
163 



625 


347 




576 
1037 




524 


167 


219 


843 


570 


808 


509 


687 


495 


573 


702 


624 


412 


754 


655 


448 


837 


690 


836 


236 


1068 


850 


600 


749 


1107 


433 


595 


769 


319 


269 



289 



851 
(80 
330 
490 
347 

1849 
676 
766 
385 
347 
235 
945 
886 

1105 
946 
693 



248 



279 



238 

4 

18 

31 

339 
83 
92 

240 
54 

746 
1097 

510 
18 



71 







47 

2« 





175 

61 

140 

1 

35 

94 

406 

75 



43 





214 

48 




18 



24 
1 

14 




88 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE 6— Continued. 
No. 29. — Mysore. 



Years. 



1901 
02 
03 
04 
05 
06 
07 
08 
09 

1910 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


29 


116 


30 


212 


392 


1236 


2136 


839 


634 


840 


456 





24 


77 


308 


458 


758 


2386 


604 


940 


848 


234 


2 





11 


68 


602 


832 


2839 


1062 


798 


777 


856 


6 


10 


40 


268 


601 


1650 


1888 


632 


604 


550 


12 


4 


41 


58 


95 


560 


1078 


1476 


818 


358 


726 


127 


90 


9 


9 


50 


300 


832 


2165 


1610 


505 


818 


103 


19 





45 


349 


192 


459 


785 


699 


586 


225 


210 


54 


13 


34 


172 


367 


320 


8i0 


384 


290 


266 


6 


86 


4 


22 


174 


638 


464 


862 


788 


403 


487 


146 





3 


30 


95 


359 


433 


972 


848 


416 


901 


328 


2 


1 


22 


109 


519 


574 


821 


298 


213 


668 


142 


3 


18 


12 


160 


276 


476 


1065 


673 


716 


762 


241 








5 


77 


365 


442 


893 


350 


604 


484 


5 





3 


8 


70 


247 


226 


1092 


539 


391 


456 


261 


40 


9 


134 


169 


264 


829 


655 


263 


687 


409 


348 











87 


572 


623 


747 


783 


544 


660 


613 


1 


144 


60 


73 


227 


603 


369 


660 


1040 


588 


367 


48 


4 


63 


187 


402 


239 


184 


378 


378 


161 





Dec. 



No. 30. — Malabar. 



1901 


113 

58 

12 

96 

6 

96 

28 

4 

165 

3 

4 

7 





26 





18 


121 

10 

54 

12 

72 

28 

1 

50 

13 

17 

8 

5 

9 



21 

8 

194 

10 


198 

180 
20 

104 
26 

■48 
83 
57 
35 
36 
22 
6 
11 
7 

110 
12 

119 
61 


538 
285 
312 
258 
388 

48 
509 
317 
188 
250 

98 
513 
121 

10 
262 
191 

84 

75 


526 
459 
858 
758 
910 
540 
256 
394 

2026 
487 
562 
654 
613 
356 
428 
702 
401 

3109 


3146 
1.574 
2084 
3941 
3111 
1614 
3634 
2931 
3775 
3753 
4281 
4141 
2800 
2696 
3128 
4493 
3885 
2327 


2692 
4242 
3703 
2733 
2031 
3380 
3940 
5925 
4412 
2229 
3284 
4272 
3652 
4876 
3382 
2403 
2089 
986 


1346 
1147 
1458 
1130 
1178 
1588 
4873 
2296 
1142 
2305 
1361 
3055 
1206 
2476 
1487 
1996 
1636 
1674 


660 

1914 

1168 

806 

702 

526 

643 

452 

899 

1248 

252 

561 

814 

979 

1329 

1629 

1914 

481 


880 

1296 

1207 

1068 

1388 

966 

803 

621 

590 

1103 

992 

1513 

1705 

1296 

770 

1135 

1301 

622 


1354 
620 
552 

83 
316 
640 
680 

57 
467 
747 
395 
373 
147 
364 
983 
516 
636 


162 


02.. 


483 


03 


• 262 


04 


37 


05 


2 


06 


316 


07 


150 


08 


20 


09 


88 


1910 





11 


183 


12 


14 


13 


83 


14 


344 


15 


26 


16 


29 


17 ... 


60 


18 





No. 31. — Madras, Southeast. 



1901 


89 


152 


84 


136 


272 


117 


146 


242 


861 


449 


540 


329 


02 


289 


39 


71 


82 


505 


137 


143 


472 


300 


1139 


740 


429 


03 


82 


32 


6 


69 


473 


205 


212 


408 


792 


547 


783 


768 


04 


135 

24 

202 



26 
50 


2 
69 

59 


68 

253 

31 


457 
310 
139 


95 
158 
154 


29 1 
123 
247 


133 
367 
714 


281 
234 
234 


613 
941 
657 


102 
587 
753 


16 


05 


16 


06 


505 


07 


31 


5 


80 


297 


188 


1463 


237 


189 


455 


633 


892 


268 


08 


57 
457 


143 

38 


86 
19 


73 
243 


241 
447 


121 
93 


130 
118 


181 
853 


659 
469 


1091 
511 


174 
281 


108 


09 


86 


1910 


35 


81 


5 


91 


202 


171 


582 


578 


203 


1072 


615 


2 


11 


16 


3 


17 


111 


251 


204 


160 


128 


496 


490 


777 


569 


12 


29 


10 


10 


42 


215 


139 


107 


280 


435 


987 


1117 


110 


13 ,. ... 


14 

26 


13 
8 


19 
16 


75 
142 


218 
191 


94 
138 


177 
99 


237 
395 


500 
492 


865 
1200 


832 
529 


545 


14 


557 


15 


152 


90 


173 


133 


193 


206 


447 


311 


515 


334 


997 


269 


16 





13 


13 


70 


204 


89 


634 


450 


368 


786 


633 


143 


17 


70 


135 


117 


35 


278 


245 


172 


622 


584 


499 


707 


209 


18 


405 


28 


86 


31 


286 


138 


145 


198 


189 


257 







ALTER: RAINFALL AND SUN-SPOT PERIODS. 



89 



TABLE 6— Continued. 
No. 32. — Madras, Deccan. 



Years. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


J901..- 


25 

15 

36 

26 

5 

113 

2 

21 

159 











109 



5 

61 


193 



19 
2 

66 
1 



20 


14 
2 
227 
1 


1 

3 



11 

50 

4 

16 

36 

3 

5 

3 

2 


2 

212 



35 

17 


58 
79 
30 
49 
53 
3 

258 
25 

145 
36 
53 
56 
30 
59 
52 
34 
24 
40 


254 
154 
225 
248 
147 
50 
10 
147 
250 
153 
202 
72 
249 
175 
185 
218 
172 
294 


242 
321 
266 
184 
300 
351 
213 
146 
162 
173 
234 
139 
191 
190 
227 
228 
360 
86 


262 
161 
461 
248 
161 
456 
477 
287 
242 
600 
309 
299 
404 
338 
502 
828 
185 
85 


208 
354 
479 

98 
867 
532 
153 
163 
883 
668 
239 
453 

94 
517 
213 
623 
605 
238 


403 
653 
803 
318 
483 
551 
379 
886 
731 
865 
382 
659 
474 
621 
774 
716 
851 
607 


271 
626 
408 
472 
486 
376 

89 
249 

82 
516 
285. 
419 
531 
132 
277 
1027 
635 

19 


275 
126 
790 

219 

59 

281 

8 

25 
339 
124 
468 
1 
133 
529 
340 
313 


61 


02 


78 


03 


96 


04 


12 


05 


1 


06 


395 


07 


73 


08 


2 


09 


1 


1910 





11 . ... 


35 


12 





13 


78 


14 

15 

16 

17 

18 


25 
6 
1 

10 



No. 33. — MvDRvs, CovsT North. 



1901 


47 

8 

48 

216 
16 

335 
5 

197 

113 
4 

5 

4 

169 
1 
7 

151 


304 



23 

4 

50 

61 

9 

168 

13 

6 

1 

62 

47 

21 

66 

10 

116 

17 


15 
10 

3 
15 
45 
55 

3 
11 

6 

2 
35 
16 

4 

22 

228 

2 
41 
40 


1 

102 

20 

11 

104 

10 

284 

34 

438 

119 

55 

79 

31 

273 

119 

81 

97 

53 


189 

84 

368 

416 

180 

45 

86 

156 

156 

95 

109 

127 

251 

367 

197 

152 

353 

331 


210 
247 
410 
308 
308 
583 
788 
280 
460 
707 
579 
219 
448 
688 
615 
576 
825 
475 


453 
463 
762 
402 
302 
574 
515 
528 
828 
909 
571 
872 
787 
728 
574 
1027 
609 
462 


468 
770 
731 
386 
624 
692 
615 
795 
739 
848 
480 
993 
529 
778 
903 
886 
816 
599 


450 
680 
722 
420 
596 
413 
362 

1073 
690 
788 
719 
774 
507 

1129 
685 
641 
944 
595 


460 

1208 

558 

685 

368 

428 

209 

465 

96 

1149 

522 

473 

904 

143 

793 

1358 

1080 

88 


970 

610 

1389 

18 
568 
157 
331 

85 

26 
336 
427 
388 

79 
131 
972 
532 
491 


224 


02 


400 


03 

04 

05 .■ 


274 

114 




06 


869 


07 


206 


08 


8 


09 


263 


1910 





11 


127 


12 

13 


3 

104 


14 


18 


15 


6 


16 

17 : 

18 


8 
51 









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KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Vol. XIII, No. 12— July, 1922. 



CONTENTS: 
Indications of a Gigantic Amphibian in the Coal Measures op Kansas, 

H. T. Martin. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

9-3728 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Vol. XIII.] July, 1922. [No. 12. 



Indications of a Gigantic Amphibian in the Coal 
Measures of Kansas. 

By H. T. AL\RT1N, 
Associate Curator, Paleontological Museum, University of Kansas. 

INTRODUCTION. 

IN the summer ol 1919, Robert and James Coghill, students of the 
University of Kansas, discovered in the sandstone cliffs border- 
ing the Wakarusa creek, five miles east of Lawrence, what to them 
appeared to be the footprints of some large animal impressed in the 
hard, sandy bottom of a small, narrow ravine that empties into 
Wakarusa creek from the east near Dightman bridge. The writer's 
attention was called to the find, and a visit to the locality revealed 
three or four tracks exposed to view. Unfavorable weather condi- 
tions prevented the removal of the tracks at the time, and the sub- 
sequent rains covered them with silty mud. It was not until the 
spring rains of 1921 had again washed them clear that work on 
their removal could be carried on. By this time additional tracks 
were exposed, and in a distance of thirty-nine feet, where the animal 
had traveled in a nearly direct line, nine very fine impressions of 
his huge feet were recorded. 

The impressions, although in a nearly straight line, were not in 
consecutive order. As shown in the diagram (plate I, figs. 1 to 9), 
one space of twelve 'feet from the first track to the second was 
eroded and no impressions remained. Midway between the third 
and the fourth, a distance of eight feet, there is an indication of a 
track, but with no character. From track four to track five the 
bottom of the ravine is still covered with mud, and it is possible that 
more tracks will be found here. Eight of the tracks have been 
safely removed and placed in the museum. The first in the series 

(103) 



104 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

yet remains in situ, but will be removed in the spring. The first im- 
pression in the series occurs at the mouth of the small ravine, where 
it empties over the edge of the deeply undercut, rocky, shelving 
bank into the Wakarusa. At this point the smooth, level bed of the 
creek is composed of the same sandy formation (plate II) as that in 
which the tracks appear. From the bed of the creek to the level of 
the first track there is an elevation of fourteen feet. This track, like 
several others in the set, shows the imprint of more than one foot. 
It also shows plainly that the animal must have been of great size 
and weight, for from the marks made by the claws (plate I, fig. 10) 
of the front foot, at the extreme upper edge of the basinlike cavity 
each impression has made, to the level of the superimposed im- 
pression of the hind foot there is a depth of over fifteen inches. It 
may be doubted if an animal of less than from 400 to 500 pounds 
weight could possibly have left as deep an imprint as is here shown. 
From the first track to the second, a distance of twelve feet, there is 
an elevation of three feet. 

There is no doubt that the animal was well adapted for traveling 
on land, as well as for life in the wet and swampy marshes, and that 
its body was carried clear of the ground, requiring relatively long 
limbs. The imprints also indicate that an upright position was 
maintained, the toes of the feet being planted in a straight line 
parallel to the body and to the line of travel. The footprints sug- 
gest that the animal was of very robust build, possibly not unlike 
that of Eryops from the Permian of Texas, but probably of longer 
limb. It may well be that the form described herewith as 
Onychopus gigas is a Carboniferous representative of this well- 
known fossil amphibian, or some similar animal with a longer 
length of limb. 

Onychopus gigas gen. et sp. nov. 

An entirely new form of amphibian is indicated by the present 
series of footprints, for which the term Onychopus gigas is proposed. 
The generic term refers to the presence of claws, apparently for both 
fore and hind feet. Claws are known among previously described 
Paleozoic vertebrates, particularly among the Permian reptiles, but 
are here regarded as a generic character. Their presence is indi- 
cated in the long, sharply marked grooves on the edges of the foot- 
prints, where the sluggish animal lazily dragged his feet from the 
soft sand. Another new character is an apparent presence of heel 
pads (plate I, figs. 2-10), which are represented in the footprints as 
depressions at the base of the footprint. Further discoveries may 



MARTIN: A GIGANTIC AMPHIBIAN. 105 

locate the form in a genus of reptile? or amphibians already known, 
but for the present the footprints indicate an unknown animal. 

Additional characters are indicated in the apparent presence of 
webs between the toes, extending; a short distance on the phalanges. 
The body and the tail were carried clear of the ground, as there is 
no evidence of dragging. This is all the more unusual in view of the 
great depth of the impressions. The length of his sluggish stride 
was 450 mm.; th.e manus was 90 nun. in length and the pes 104 mm. 
Other detailed measurements are given in the description of the 
plate. 

The most nearly related form is Baropus lentus, described by 
Marsh, from the Coal IMeasures of Osage county, Kansas (1). The 
present form differs from Baropus in being somewhat larger, and 
especially in the indications of the heel pads and claws. None of 
the other Coal Measures footprints from Kansas approach the 
present footprints in size save Dromopus agilis Marsh (2), from 
which it is clearly separated by a number of characters. 

The present series of footprints have been compared with the 
descriptions of Coal Measures footprints given by King, Leidy, Lea, 
Butts, Marsh, Mudge, Dawson, Moore, Cox, Moodie and Woods- 
worth, a list of whose writings relating to this subject is to be found 
in Moodie's memoir (2) on "The Coal Measures Amphibia of North 
America." The present form is widely separated from the foot- 
prints recently described by Lull (3) as Dromopus (?) woodworthi, 
from the Coal Measures of Massachusetts. 

It has been assumed, on account of the indications of four toes on 
the manus and five on the pes, that Onychopus gigas was an amphib- 
ian, though the discovery of skeleton material may make this as- 
sumption unwarranted. In view of the possibility of its being rep- 
tilian, the present footprints have been carefully compared with 
those described by Hitchcock (4), but none similar in form are 
found. 

FORMATION. 

The massive reddish-brown sandstone in which the tracks were 
found contains abundant flaky scales of mica. There are no per- 
ceptible lines of stratification and no lines of cleavage. The rocks 
are split up by horizontal, perpendicular and oblique cracks and 
fissures into sections of erratic shapes and sizes (plate II). A care- 
ful examination failed to reveal any invertebrates or other fossil 
forms in the sandstone bluffs, although remains of Coal Measures 
plants have been found elsewhere in this horizon. 



106 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

The bottom of the ravine containing the tracks scales off more 
readily than the surrounding bluffs and is consequently rapidly 
eroding away. The banks of the ravine are very steep, the average 
width at the bottom being about 3 feet, with a width at the top of 
25 feet, while the depth from the level of the banks above to the 
level of the tracks is 25 feet. 

CORRELATION OF FORMATION. 

The heavy sandstone rocks in which the impressions appear are 
exposed in a sharp escarpment on the south side of the Wakarusa 
creek for a distance of 1% to 2 miles, in varying heights ranging 
from a thin feathering edge to 40 feet. The highest point is attained 
in close proximity to and just above the small ravine in which the 
tracks were discovered. 

A short distance southw^est, at the extreme eastern end of Blue 
Mound, and just above these exposures, an outcrop of the latan 
limestone occurs, thus definitely placing the sandy exposures in the 
division which composes the lowest member of the Douglas forma- 
tion, and as it occurs immediately below the latan limestone con- 
stitutes a part of the uppermost strata of the Weston shales. 

The inclusion of this heavy sandstone in the Weston shales will 
be better understood by referring to the description of the Douglas 
formation by Moore (5) : 

"The shale members of the Douglas are variable in composition and texture, 
changing markedly from point to point. In the north there is a predominance 
of clay shales, which is sufficiently pure for use in brick manufacture, but 
towards the south the proportion of sand is notably increased. In places here 
the shale is replaced by thick, massive sandstones. Coal occurs at one or two 
horizons in the formation, but is not of great thickness and has been worked 
only locally." 

DESCRIPTION OF TRACKS. 

Tkack No. 1, the first in the series, shows clearly where the front 
foot had pressed down in the soft, plastic mud to a depth of eight 
inches, leaving at this level a well-defined ledge. Immediately be- 
hind this narrow ledge the superimposed hind foot had pressed 
down to a depth of another seven inches, plainly indicating that the 
animal was of large size and great weight. This impression repre- 
sents the tracks of the front and the hind foot of the left side. 

Track No. 2. (Plate I, fig. 2.) This track was located 12 feet 
from No. 1 and is one of the finest in the set, showing distinctly the 
impressions of five bluntly pointed toes. Between the toes the 
weight of the animal has caused the mud to ooze up, not in sharp 



MARTIN: A GIGANTIC AMPHIBIAN. 107 

ridges as one would expert if the animal had separate unwcbbed 
phalanges, but in a smooth, rounding ridge, indicating that either a 
fleshy pad, or more likely a thick web, extended to the base of the 
short, blunt claws. The hinder part of the impression has un- 
fortunately eroded away, so that no imprint of the heel is retained. 
Both the manus and the pes are represented here, and naturally that 
of the pes shows most distinctly. Towards the hinder part of the 
impression there is a small, round indentation, as if caused by a 
conical protuberance beneath the pad of the foot, as indicated in 
other tracks of the series. The elevation from the first track to the 
second is three feet. 

Track No. 3. (Plate I, fig. 3.) This track was exactly two feet 
from its predecessor, measurements in each instance being made 
from the centers of the impressions. There are four distinct toe 
marks in this track, evidently a left manus. This track, like No. 2, 
was' in a shelving, badly eroded place, leaving no imprint of the 
palm. From this track to No. 9, the last in the series, there is 
an elevation of 3 feet. 

Track No. 4. (Plate I, fig. 4.) This impression was separated 
by eight feet of clear space from No. 3, and it has the least charac- 
ter of any in the set. There are four light toe marks, and two of 
the small, round depressions at the base of the palm. These were 
made, no doubt, by round, warty tubercles beneath the foot. The 
relative position of the toe imprints to each other indicates a right 
manus, but so indistinct are the surface toe marks that it is doubtful 
if the}' do not belong to the left instead of the right. 

Track No. 5. (Plate I, fig. 5.) From the fourth to the fifth track 
there is a space of ten feet, covered to a depth of several inches with 
soft mud and yet unexplored. Future rains will doubtless disclose 
more impressions. Track No. 5 shows deep scoring on the edges 
of the depressions by the slipping of the claws. The four grooves 
thus made end with the same number of round pits, pressed a half 
inch or more below the level of the palm, while at the base of the 
palm one of the small circular pits occurs. These small pits appear 
at the base of each palm and sole wherever the conditions are fav- 
orable enough to retain the imprint of the hinder part of the foot. 
There is no doubt but that this track represents the impression of 
the left manus. 

Track No. 6. (Plate 1, fig. 6.) Impression No. 6, two feet six 
inches from No. 5, is similar in all respects to others already de- 
scribed, and is the left pes. 



108 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Tracks Nos. 7 and 8. (Plate 1, figs. 7 and 8.) These two tracks 
were remov^ed in one block. The distance of stride from No. 6 to 
No. 7 was two feet six inches. Here the animal changed its course 
and turned sharply to the left, making a short step of only twelve 
inches from track seven to track eight. Each of these tracks were 
pressed firmly into the sandy matrix, making a bowd-shaped de- 
pression, with sloping sides, twelve inches in diameter and six inches 
deep. Grooves in the sides of the depressions show distinctly where 
the toes and the pad of the front foot have pressed down to a depth 
of four inches. At this level there is a slight ledge left where the 
overlapping hind foot pressed still deeper down for another three 
inches, leaving a well-defined imprint of the short claws and the 
circular pits similar to those found at the base of the palm and sole 
of the other tracks collected. 

Track No. 9. (Plate 1, fig. 9.) This, the last track of the series, 
was situated two feet three inches from the preceding track, and 
six inches higher in elevation. This probably is of the left side, but 
whether of the manus or pes is rather doubtful. The imprint, being 
on higher and drier ground, was less distinct and showed less char- 
acter than those made in more plastic material. The bank rises 
rapidly from the last track found, and although the overlying soil 
was cleared away for quite a space around, no other indications of 
tracks could be found. 

The finding of these scarce footprints in the Coal Measures of 
Kansas will be welcomed because they may shed some light on the 
ancestors of the later Permo-Carboniferous amphibians, or possibly 
reptilian fauna of that age. 

Thanks are here expressed to the finders of these rare tracks for 
their generosity in presenting them to the paleontological depart- 
ment of the University of Kansas. 

I wish to express my thanks to Dr. Roy L. Moodie, College of 
Medicine of the University of Illinois, to whom I am under obliga- 
tions for assistance in the preparation of this paper. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

The present series of footprints referred to under the new term of 
Onychopus gigas indicates one of the largest, if not actually the 
largest, pre-Triassic vertebrate thus far known from the geological 
horizons of the world. A short-bodied, long-limbed vertebrate with 
well-developed feet left these impressions, of whose bodily structure 
nothing whatever is known. So deeply marked are the footprints 



MARTIN: A GIGANTIC AMPHIBIAN. 109 

in the sandstone that it looks as if an elephant had recently waded 
through. A curious consistency of the sandy shale is indicated in 
the well-preserved indications of foot structure of Onychopus gigas 
as he trailed through the sandy mud many millions of years ago. 
It is extremely interesting to note the change in elevation between 
track one and track nine. While this may be due to the dip of the 
'strata, it may also indicate the shelving bank of a Coal Measures 
stream which has again been exposed by the gradual erosion of the 
present Wakarusa creek. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



1. Marsh, O. C. 1894. Footprints of Vertebrates in the Coal Measures of 

Kansas. Amer. J. Sci. XLVIII, p. 83. (Plate 2, fig. 5.) 

2. MooDiE, Roy L. 1916. The Coal Measures Amphibia of North America, 

Carnegie Institute of Washington. Publ. 238, p. 201. 

3. Lull, R. S. 1920. An Upper Carboniferous Footprint from Attleboro, 

Mass. Amer. J. Sci. L, p. 234. 

4. Hitchcock, Edward. 1858. Ichnology of New England, Boston. 

5. MooRE, R. C. 1920. Oil and Gas Resources of Kansas. Kans. Geol. Surv. 

Bull. No. 6, ixirt II, page 40. (Geology of Kansas.) 



110 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Footprints of a Gigantic Amphibian. 
H.T. Martin. 



PLATE I. 




I2in. 





I2iii. 




m 12: 



lift Gill. 





'2ft Gin. 




Eroded iiit<'rval 10ft. 




Eroded iiit«M-val 8ft. 





2ft. 




Eroded interval 12ft. 



xr^n 



I II 







MARTIN: A GIGANTIC AMPHIBIAN. Ill 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

The small figures on the left, from 1 to 9, indicate the series of amphibian 
footprints in the sandstone ledge of the Upper Coal Measures. After makmg 
the sixth impression the animal turned sharply to the left, so that the drawing 
does not represent exactly the manner of occurrence. It shows, however, the 
distance between impressions. No. 1 is possibly a fore-foot impression, with 
portions of another; No. 2, the left pes; No. 3, the left manus; No. 4, indefi- 
nite; No. 5, left pes; No. 6, left pes, part manus; No. 7, left pes, part left 
manus; No. 8, left pes, part manus; No. 9, undecided. 

The figures 2 to 10 on the right of the plate are detailed studies of the 
best-preserved tracks. 

No. 2, left pes with a distance of 130 mm. across the heel impressions at 
the level of digit I. The distance between the tips of digits I and II, II and 
III, III and IV is in each case 40 mm.; between IV and V is 80 mm. Small 
pits in the heel impression indicate heel pads. 

No. 3, left manus. The small pits to the left indicate toe marks of another 
foot. The greatest width of this foot is 105 mm. The distance between the 
tips of digits I and II, II and III is in each case 50 mm.; between III and IV 
is 40 mm. 

No. 4, right manus. The distance from the tip of digit III to the posterior 
edge of the heel pad is 95 mm.; between II and III, 45 mm.; between I and 
II. 4S mm. 

No. 5, right pes. The greatest length is 110 mm.; the greatest width 
120 mm. 

No. 6, undoubtedly a pes, with well-marked heel pads. The greatest length 
is 140 mm., the greatest width 144 mm. 

No. 7, a pes. The impressions below the pes represent a second impression, 
which was probably obliterated by the hind foot. The circle surrounding the 
footprints represents the edge of a three-inch depression in which the foot- 
prints occurred. This indicates both the great weight of the animal and the 
softness of the ground. 

No. 8, a part of pes and manus, also occur in a depression three inches 
deep. 

No. 9 shows two superimposed impressions of a fore and a hind foot. The 
greatest width of the hind foot is 135 mm. 

No. 10 is a sketch of the appearance of the depression, showing the shape 
of the depression and the long furrows made by dragging blunt claws along a 
moist surface. Claws have been previoush^ indicated in the remains of the 
larger Permian and Triassic amphibians, in the presence of blunt terminal 
rugose phalanges, but so far as I am* aware no impressions of them have been 
so clearly recorded in the rocks of the Coal Measures. 



112 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 




MARTIN: A GIGANTIC AMPHIBIAN. 113 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IL 

Photograph of the east bank of the Wakarusa creek at Dightman's crossing, 
five miles southeast of Lawrence, Kan., showing the relation of the heavily 
bedded sandstone, in which the amphibian footprints were found, to the 
Weston shales which outcrop immediately at the edge of the water. The 
ravine in the center of the picture has a depth from the surface of twenty 
feet, and in this depression, on the ledge indicated at the point of the arrow, 
was found the series of footprints shown in the plate. This ledge at the 
position of the first track lies fourteen feet above the creek, but the stratum 
rises three feet between the first and the second impressions, between which 
there is an eroded interval of twelve feet. A further inclination of the 
stratum is indicated in the fact that there is a rise of four feet between the 
second and the last impressions, a distance of twenty-seven feet. The ledge 
on which the impressions were found is continued into the sandstone chff 
immediately above the star (*). 



8 — Science Bui. — 3728 



114 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Footprints of a Gigantic Amphibian. 
H. T. Martin. 




PLATE III. 

Photographs of tracks Nos. 8 and 9, showing the imprint of both the front 
and the supraimposed hind foot on each impression. 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN 



Vol. XIII, No. 13— July,, 1922. 



CONTENTS: 
On Some Isothiourea Ethers, 

F. B. Dains and W. C. Thompson. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

9-3728 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN 

Vol. XIII. ] JULY, 1922. [No. 13. 



On Some Isothiourea Ethers.^ 

(Contribution from the Chemical Laboratory, University of Kansas.) 
BY F. B. DAINS AND W. C. THOMPSON. 

ONE of the characteristic reactions of the substituted thioureas 
is their ability to add directly alkyl halides, with the formation 
of halogen halide salts of bases, in which the alkyl group is joined 
to sulfur.- 

RNHCSNHR + R'X = RNHC(SR')NR,HX. 

From these salts, the free thiourea ethers can be obtained by the 
action of alkalies. As part of an investigation now in progress, it 
was deemed advisable to synthesize the n-propyl and n-butyl ethers 
of certain thioureas and, owing to the departure of one of the 
authors from this laboratory, to record these preliminary results at 
this time. 

EXPERIMENTAL. 

r-PROPYL-a, )8-DlPHENYL THIOUREA. C6H.5NHC(SC3H7)NC6H5. 

(n-Propyl ester of phenylimino-phenyl thiocarbamic acid.) 

A mixture of thiocarbanilide (15 gms.) and normal propyl iodide 
(10 gms.) was heated on the water bath for an hour. The light- 
brown viscous liquid solidified on cooling. After crystallization 
from alcohol the hydrogen iodide salt was obtained in the form of 
colorless rhombic crystals, which melted at 103°. The salt was 
slightly soluble in ether, cold water and cold alcohol, but readily 
soluble in hot water, hot alcohol and acetone. The yield was 80 
per cent. 

Calc. for CioHi8N,S,HI: N, 6.93. Found: 7.09, 6.79. 

The free base, which was insoluble in water, was obtained by 

1. The authors wish to express their thanks to the research committee of the University 
for a grant which was of assistance in the prosecution of this work. 

2. Her. 14, 1490 (1881); 15, 1314 (1882); 21, 962, 1857 (1888). 

(117) 



118 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

neutralizing an aqueous solution of the salt with sodium hydroxide. 
The white needles, which separated from alcohol, melted at 61.5°. 
Calc. for Ci^HigN.S: N, 10.39. Found: 10.10, 10.16. . 

y-n-BuTYL-a, /?-DlPHENYL THIOUREA. C6H.5NHC(SC4H9)NC6H5. 

The mixture of normal butyl iodide and diphenyl thiourea was 
heated on the steam bath for an hour. The salt, which solidified on 
cooling, could not be purified by crystallization. It was therefore 
ground up and thoroughly washed with ether, in which it was in- 
soluble. The yield of the hydroiodide, which melted at 122°, was 
83 per cent. 

Calc. for Ci,HooN.,S,HI: N, 6.78. Found: 6.66, 6.68. 

An aqueous solution of the salt was treated with sodium carbon- 
ate. The free base was obtained a heavy, colorless, noncrystalliz- 
able oil, which was readily soluble in the ordinary organic solvents. 

Calc. for Ci-H,oNoS: N, 9.85. Found: 9.92, 9.95. 

y-n-PROPYL-'/, /8-Di-p-ToLYL Thioubea. C7H7NHC(SC.H7)NC7H7. 

Di-p-tolyl thiourea and normal propyl iodide reacted readily on 
warming and the resulting hydrogen iodide salt was purified by 
washing with cold alcohol. It then melted at 165°. The yield was 
88 per cent. 

Calc. for C,,H2.N,S,HI: N, 6.57. Found: 6.29, 6.51. 

The salt was freely soluble in water and the thio ether, precipi- 
tated by the addition of alkali, crystallized from alcohol in fine, 
white needles which had a melting point of 99°. 

Calc. for CisH,.,N,S; N, 9.36. Found: 9.18, 9.35. 

r-n-BuTYL-'>(, /S-Di-p-ToLYL Thiourea. C7H7NHC(SC4H9)NC7H7. 

The hydrogen iodide salt, which was obtained in a 95 per cent 
yield from the normal butyl iodide and the thiourea, melted at 145°. 

Calc. for Ci9H24N.S,HI; N, 6.36. Found: 6.35, 6.35. 

The free base formed by neutralizing an alcoholic solution of the 
salt was a thick, colorless liquid, insoluble in water but soluble in 
organic solvents. 

Calc. for Ci,H,,X,S:N, 8.97. Found: 9.12,9.33. 

y-n-PROPYL-«, l3-Di-2, 4-Dimethyl-Phenyl Thiourea. 
(CH3)2C6H3NHC(SC.sH7)NC6H3(CH3)2. 

Di-m-xylyl thiourea and normal propyl iodide reacted easily on 
warming, but the product, which was obtained in 87 per cent yield, 
proved to be the free base and not its salt. This when purified from 
alcohol melted at 113.5°. 

Calc. for Co^HogN.SiN, 8.58. Found: 8.46,8.46. 



DAINS AND THOMPSON: ISOTHIOUREA ETHERS. 119 

THIOETHERS FROM UREAS CONTAINING TWO DIFFERENT 

GROUPS. 

r-METHYL-«-p-BROMOPHENYL-/8-PHENYL THIOUREA. 

aH5NHC(SCri.)NC6ll4Br or C«H.5NC(SCH3)NHC«H4Br. 

The iinsymmetrical nature of tlie mol did not prevent the addi- 
tion of the alkyl iodide, since when methyl iodide and phenyl-p-bro- 
mophenyl thiourea were heated under the usual conditions a yield 
of 69 per cent of the hydrogen iodide salt was obtained. It melted 
at 152°. 

Calc. for Ci,Hi3N,SBr,HI : N, 6.24. Found: 6.04, 6.27. 

The thioether was preciptated when an alcoholic solution of the 
salt was made alkaline with sodium carbonate and then diluted with 
water. When purified, the white needles melted at 79°. 

Calc. for Ci,Hi3N2SBr; N, 8.72. Found: 8.54,8.77. 

r-n-PROPYL-'>t-p-BROMOPHENYL-/3-PHENYL THIOUREA. 

CeH.NHC (SC3H7) NC6H4Br. 

Normal propyl iodide and the thiourea united to form a salt, 
which, however, failed to crystallize, but remained as a heavy, 
red oil. 

Calc. for Ci,Hi-N,SBr,HI: N, 5.88. Found: 5.46. 

The thioether, which was isolated in a 70 per cent yield, melted at 
84°, after purification from alcohol. 

Calc. for CisHi-N.SBr; N, 8.02. Found: 8.09, 8.07. 

y-n-BuTYL-'Z-p-BROMOPHENYL-yS-PHENYL THIOUREA. 

C6HoNHC(SC4H9) NC6H4Br. 

The hydrogen iodide salt from the thiourea, and the normal butyl 
iodide separated in this case also as a thick noncrystallizable oil. 

Calc. for Ci,H,9N.SBr,HI; N, 5.70. Found: 5.37, 5.62. 

The free base obtained in the usual manner was a viscid oil, sol- 
uble in alcohol and ether. 

Calc. for Ci-H.^N^SBr; N, 7.71. Found: 7.72, 7.52. 

r-n-BuTYL-MoNOPHENYL THIOUREA. C6H5NHC(SC4H9)NH. 

When monophenjd thiourea and normal butyl iodide were warmed 
on the water bath, a gummy mass was obtained. This was dissolved 
in hot alcohol and neutralized with sodium carbonate. On dilution 
with water the thiourea was precipitated as a heavy oil, which failed 
to crystallize. 

Calc. for C11H16N2S; N, 12.72. Found: 13.03, 13.05. 



120 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

SUMMARY. 

A number of new alkyl ethers of substituted thioureas have been 
prepared. While usually these ethers are solid crystalline com- 
pounds, the normal butyl derivatives thus far isolated are basic oils. 
The di-m-xylyl thiourea gave the free base and not the hydrogen 
iodide salt with normal propyl iodide. 

Lawrence, Kan., July, 1922. 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN 



Vol. XIII, No. 14— July, 1922. 



CONTENTS: 

The Size of the Thymus Gland in Relation to the Size and Development 
OP THE Fcetal Pig as Studied in a Varied Range of Stages, 

Donald N. Medearis and Alexander Marble. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

9-3728 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN 

Vol. XIII.] JULY, 1922. [No. 14. 



The Size of the Thymus Gland in Relation to the Size 

and Development of the Foetal Pig as Studied in a 

Varied Range of Stages. 

BY DONALD N. MEDEARIS AND ALEXANDER MARBLE. 
From the Laboratory of Comparative Anatomy, University of Kansas. 

INTRODUCTION. 

THE thymus gland has long been a favorite subject for study 
and for speculation as to its function and possible effect upon 
growth. Much work has been done in extirpation of the gland in 
postnatal animals in order to note the effect upon metabolism. Dif- 
ferent results have been obtained as different species of animals 
were examined, depending largely upon the time of involution of 
the gland in that particular animal. H. Matti (1) found that ex- 
tirpation of the thymus in pups (eighteen days to eight weeks 
in age) caused slowness of movement, muscular weakness, softness 
of bones, bone changes resembling those in rickets, and subsequent 
death. Almost similar results were reported by Basch (2). Such 
findings would seem to indicate a direct effect upon bone formation, 
and accordingly upon the size of the animal. That the size of 
thymus is correlated with size of animal (i. e., in individuals be- 
low age of involution stage) is evidently accepted as probable 
by Badertscher (3), who states in a description of a sketch that 
"[above is an] outline drawing of the exposed left thymus of a 
'runty' pig, one day old and only 240 mm. in length; the thymus 
in this specimen was a few millimeters shorter than that in the full- 
term embryo; this is perhaps due to the fact that the specimen was 
a 'runt.' " On the contrary, Hatai (4), in a study of postnatal rat 
thymi, states that "the weight of the thymus is correlated with the 
age of the rat rather than the body weight," thus showing a counter 
finding. 

(123) 



124 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

This problem, then, was deemed worthy of investigation, and for 
study the foetal pig was chosen, largely because it shows the typical 
mammalian characteristics and because little work of any sort has 
been attempted with the foetal pig ; then, too, the material was fairly 
easily obtained and was found to be highly satisfactory. Since the 
pig had been selected, a further phase of the subject arose, and its 
importance became evident: as yet (as we believed after a search 
through literature) no one had studied the thymus in any great 
number of fatal pigs and had tabulated measurements and thus 
secured normal averages and percentages. Such tables of averages, 
etc., we recognized to be of great value as a basis for further work 
in this direction or in any phase of thymus work in pigs. Ex- 
tensive work of this sort has been done by Hatai (5) and by 
Jackson (6) in albino rats, and by others. 

Therefore, it is with this twofold purpose that this paper is pre- 
sented: (1) to give our findings as to the relation of the size of the 
thymus gland to the size of the foetal pig, and (2) to furnish, as a 
possible basis for further research, tables of measurements and 
weights of many individual pig fceti of various sizes, with the meas- 
urements and weights of their thymi and individual and group aver- 
ages. We hope to further continue the study to include postnatal 
pigs; in this study a further object of interest will be the determi- 
nation of the time of the involution stage, since such time would be 
expected to lie in the postnatal period. 

METHODS OF OBTAINING SPECIMENS AND LABORATORY 

TECHNIQUE USED. 

Specimens were obtained from the plant of the Armour Packing 
Company in Kansas City, Kan. The collectors went on the killing 
floor of the plant, secured suitable uteri, removed the foeti, tied the 
umbilical cords, and put the pigs into a preservative solution (for- 
maldehyde) ready for shipping. Litters were kept separate by 
means of cheesecloth bags for individual litters. Care was taken 
to get foeti of as wide a range of lengths as possible, varying from 
9.5 to 28.5 centimeters. 

In the laboratory each pig was weighed, its length recorded (head 
to rump measurement taken), and its sex determined; then each 
pig was given a litter letter and a serial number, and tagged so that 
future identification was possible. The remaining procedure in the 
actual bulk of the work was simple, and the dissection progressed 
rather, rapidly once the technique was mastered, and an exact idea 
of the extent of the thymus was secured. The neck and upper 



MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 125 

thoracic region of the body were stripped of skin, and the thymus 
beneath (easily seen) dissected away from the surrounding tissue. 
The ghand was then washed, dried superficially on filter paper, and 
weighed. This process was carried out on almost 150 pigs, and 
tables and curves were made and studied to determine tendencies. 

RELIABILITY OF RESULTS. 

Before going into the body of the report it may be well to con- 
sider just how reliable were the results obtained, and wherein lay 
sources of error. (1) In the weighing of the pigs, some of them may 
have absorbed more of the formaldehyde preservative than others ; 
some may have lost more of their body fluids than others. This 
error seems to us, however, as negligible. (2) The chemical bal- 
ances used were not of the best, and, too, the thymi may not have 
received exactly the same treatment after removal from the pig, 
although every effort was put forth to secure uniformity. To this 
end, all weighings (practically) were made by one operator. (3) 
Lengths of the pigs may not be entirely accurate, although here, too, 
the greatest care possible was taken to secure exactness. (4) Lastly, 
incomplete removal of the thymus, or removal of other tissue as 
thymus, may have occurred in some cases. The greatness of this 
error depends, of course, upon the skill of the workers, and it is 
their hope that this has been a negligible factor of error. Taking 
all in all, then, it is extremely probable that the material and data 
to be set forth are accurate to this degree, that they may be taken 
as the basis for conclusions of a definite nature. Such conclusions 
are, in our minds, accurate and reliable enough to merit considera- 
tion. 

THE THYMUS: ITS GENERAL SHAPE AND EXTENT. 

It was not our purpose to study the structure of the thymus in 
any detail, and this part of the report is merely made in passing, 
without any attempt at thoroughness. Our , findings seem to be 
similar in many respects to those of Badertscher (3) as to the 
anatomy of the gland.'^ In the foetal pig it is comparatively very 
long, ex-tending usually from a point over the upper half or third 
of the heart, underneath the sternum (as viewed from the ventral 
side), and up to the base of the mandible. The portion covering 
the heart is strongly attached to the pericardium ; it is roughly tri- 
angular in shape, with the apex pointing posteriorly, and lies mainly 
to the left of the median line. The anterior end of this, the thoracic 



1. In a further paper (7) Badertscher discusses the development of the thymus in the pig 
from the standpoint of histogenesis. 



126 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



portion of the gland, narrows down, and the thymus appears be- 
neath the sternum as two slender, paralkl ribbons of glandular 
tissue. Once into the neck region, however, these two ribbons be- 
come very much larger and diverge, passing anteriorly to the base 
of the mandible, one on each side. In the thyroid region they 
parallel each other closely, lying on opposite sides of the thyroid, 
and thus fairly close to the median line. Then each passes from 
here into deeper tissue and obliquely away from the median line, 
ending behind the mandible. The thymus seems to be made up of 
many small lobules, combined into larger lobes. The accompany- 
ing sketch will give, perhaps, a clearer idea of the form of the 
gland. 



RioK-b Lobe 
of Thiimu,s 




Left Lobe 
of Thumas. 

— Trachea 



Luncj 



— -Thoracic 

"Portion of I hvjmus 



- - Heart 



Sketch 

of the 

Thymus "v 5 itu 



MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 127 

TABLE NO. 1. 

Table No. 1 shows the original data as taken in the laboratory 
concerning each pig, together with individual averages, sex aver- 
ages, and litter averages. From the table all the derivations and 
calculations of the report will be taken. Its value lies largely in 
reference, and will not be used much to point out conclusions. How- 
ever, it is well to note from it the number of pigs dissected, namely, 
147 from 18 different litters. 

Relation of Sex to Thymus. 
An examination of the averages listed beneath each litter in table 
No. 1 will readily show, in regard to sex, that males and females 
have practically tlie same percentage of thymus in the same stage 
of development. Consider particularly the percentage thymus by 
weight as balanced against the length of the pig, and this state- 
ment becomes evident. It is true that in several of the litters the 
females have the greater percentage of gland, but this tendency is 
practically balanced by the fact that many of the litters show ap- 
proximately equal averages for males and females, and others show 
the balance in favor of the males. If our results be taken to show 
any positive tendency at all, it is that the females have the larger 
thymi (proportionally) , but the writers believe that this is due to 
the small number of pigs dissected, and that such a positive tendency 
is too weak to merit much consideration. As such, special curves 
and tables have not been made for this part of the report. Not- 
withstanding, Hatai (4) in relevant material states that ''so far 
as our present data are concerned, the thymus gland of the female 
of the albino rat appears to be .slightly heavier than that of the 
male; nevertheless, the difference found is too slight to justify 
treating the sexes separately." 



128 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

TABLE No. 1. 



Pig. 


Sex. 


Pig 
length 
in cms. 


Thymus 
length 
in cms. 


Per cent 
by length. 


weight 
in grams. 

235 
192 
233 
202 
212 
265 
237 
228 
243 
228 
174 
234 
102 
265 
212 
251 
218 
100 
102 
76 
89 
90 
100 
89 
92 
107 
145 
136 
123 
122 
164 
143 
102 
164 
139 
127 
134 
752 
771 
815 
843 
669 
752 
843 
770 
184 
196 
211 
208 
195 
126 
185 
190 
187 
122 
130 
115 
115 
120 
102 
95 


Thymus 
weight 
in grams. 


Per cent " 
by weight. 


1 Al 




15.5 
15.0 
15.5 
15.5 
16.0 
17.5 
16 
16.0 
16 5 
15.5 
14.0 
16 
11 5 
17.0 
15.3 
16.8 
15.5 
11.0 
11.0 
10.0 
10.5 
11.0 
11 
10.7 
10 9 
11.5 
13.0 
13.5 
13.0 
13.0 
14,0 
li.O 
11.5 
13.5 
13.0 
13.0 
13.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
23.5 
24.6 
25.0 
24.7 
14.5 
15.0 
15.0 
15.0 
16.0 
12.5 
14.6 
14.8 
14.7 
13.5 
13.5 
13.0 
13.0 
13.0 
13.0 
12.0 
13.5 
13.5 
12.5 
11.0 
13.0 
12.0 
12.9 
12.6 
12.8 


4.0 

3.75 

3.8 

3.8 

4.0 

4,5 

3.5 

3 7 

3.7 

3 8 

3.5 

3.8 

2 3 

4.5 

3.72 

4.0 

3.8 

2.5 

2.75 

2.5 


25.8 
25.0 
24.5 
24.5 
25.0 
25.7 
21.9 
23.1 
22.4 
24.5 
25.0 
23.8 
20.0 
26.5 
24.2 
23.8 
24.1 
22.7 
25.0 
25.0 


.310 
.454 
.255 
.260 
.295 
.503 
.636 
.325 
.402 
.295 
.205 
.350 
.140 
.661 
.329 
.569 
.364 
.070 
.095 
.031 


.132 
.236 
.109 
.129 
.134 
189 


2 A2 


Male 


3 A3 


Male 


4 A4 


Male 


5 A5 




6 A6 




7 A7 




.268 
143 


8 A8 


Male 


9 A9 


Male 


165 


10 A 10 


Male 


129 


11 All 


Male 


118 


12 A 12 




150 


13 A13 


Male 


137 


14 A 14 


Male 


287 


Averages . . . A 


Male. 86 per cent 

Female, 14 per cent 

Litter 


.156 

.229 

166 


15 Bl 


Male 


070 


16 B2 


Female 


093 


17 B3 

18 B4 

19 B5 

Averages . . . . | 




041 








2.75 

2.5 

2.7 

2.6 

2.5 

2.5 

2.7 

2.5 

2.5 

3.5 

4.0 

2.5 

3.25 

2.85 

2.9 

2,9 

6.5 

7.0 

7.5 

7,0 

7.0 

7.0 

7.0 

7.0 

3.4 

3.5 

3.5 

3.5 

3.5 

3.0 

3.4 

3.4 

3.4 

3.0 

3.0 

3.0 

3.2 

3.2 

2.5 

2.75 


25.0 
22.7 
25.0 
24.4 
21.7 
19.2 
20.0 
19.2 
19.2 
25.0 
28.6 
21.7 
24.1 
21.8 
22.3 
22.1 
26.0 
28,0 
30 
28.0 
29.8 
28,5 
28,0 
28,4 
23.5 
23 3 
23,3 
23.3 
21.9 
24.0 
23.1 
23.4 
23.2 
22.2 
22.2 
23.1 
24.6 
24.6 
19.2 
22,9 


.070 
.070 
.065 
.067 
.120 
.121 
.130 
.150 
.130 
.150 
.134 
.110 
.1,58 
.134 
.134 
.134 
2.986 
2.580 
2.860 
3 550 
2.788 
2,804 
3.550 
2.953 
.276 
.268 
.238 
.410 
.250 
.180 
.269 
.272 
.270 
.125 
.214 
.184 
.085 
.115 
.080 
.068 


078 


Male, 40 per cent 

Female. 60 per cent 

Litter 


.070 
.071 
071 


20 CI 

21 C2 

22 C3 

23 C4 




112 


Male 


083 




096 




122 


24 C5 


Male 


107 


25 C6 


Male 


091 


26 C7 

27 C8 

28 C9 

f 
Averages . . . A 

29 Dl 


Female 


094 


Male 


108 


Male 


096 


Male. 56 percent 

Female. 44 per cent — 
Litter 


.097 

.106 

101 




397 


30 D'> 


Male 


334 


31 D3 

32 D4 

33 D5 

( 
Averages ....•{ 

( 




351 


Female 


421 




417 


Male, 80 percent 

Female, 20 per cent. .. . 


.375 
.421 
384 


34 El 

35 E2 

36 E3 

37 E4 


Female 


150 




137 


Male 


113 


Male 


197 


38 E5 

39 E6 

Averages . . . . • 


Jvlale 


128 


Male 


143 


Male, 67 percent 

Female. 33 per cent — 
Litter 


.145 
.144 
.145 


40 Fl 


Female 


102 


41 F2 




.165 


42 F3 

43 F4 

44 F5 

45 F6 

46 F7 

47 F8 

48 F9 

49 FIO 

50 FU 

51 F12 

52 F13 

Averages . . . A 


Male 


160 


Male 


.074 


Female 


096 


Male 


.078 


Male 


072 






Male 


3.0 
3.2 
2.5 
3.3 

2.6 
2.96 
2.9 
3.0 


22.2 
25.6 
22.7 
25.4 
21.7 
22.9 
23.2 
23.0 


140 
120 

83 
126 

96 
116 
112 
114 


.082 
.108 
.072 
.117 
.085 
.103 
.120 
.111 


059 


Female 


.090 




.087 


Male 


.093 




089 


Male, 50 per cent 

Females, 50 per cent.. . 
Litter 


.089 
.105 
.097 



MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 



129 



TABLE No. 1— CoNTimiED. 



Pig. 



53 


Gl 


54 


G2 


55 


03 


56 


(J4 


57 


05 


58 


06 


59 


07 


60 


08 


Averages 


61 


HI 


62 


H2 


63 


H3 


64 


H4 


65 


H5 


66 


H6 


67 


H7 


68 


H8 


69 


H9 


70 
Averag 


HIO 
es ■ 



71 II 

72 12 

73 13 

74 14 

75 15 

76 16 

77 17 

78 18 

Averages . . . 

79 Jl 

80 J2 

81 J3 

82 J4 

83 J5 

84 J6 

85 J7 

86 J8 

Averages. . . 

87 Kl 

88 K2 

89 K3 

90 K4 

91 K5 

Averages. . . 

92 LI 

93 L2 

94 L3 

95 L4 

96 L5 

97 L6 

98 L7 

99 L8 

Averages . . . 

100 Ml 

101 M2 

102 M3 

103 M4 

104 M5 

105 M6 

106 M7 

107 M8 

108 M9 

Averages . . . 



Sex. 



Males, 5 

Females, 3 

Male, 63 per cent . 
Female, 37 per cent 

Male 

Male • 

Female 

Male 

Male 

Female 

Male 

Male 

Male 

Male 

Male, 80 per cent . . 
Female, 20 per cent 

Litter 

Male 

Female 

Female 

Male 

Male 

Female 

Female 

Male 

Male, 50 per cent. . , 
Female, 50 per cent 

Litter 

Male 

Male 

Male 

Male 

Female 

Female 

Male 

Male 

Male, 75 per cent. . . 
Female, 25 per cent. 

Litter 

Male 

Male 

Female 

Female 

Male 

Male, 60 per cent . . 
Female, 40 per cent. 

Litter 

Male 

Male 

Female 

Male 

Male 

Female 

Male 

Male 

Male, 75 per cent. .. 
Female, 25 per cent. 

Litter 

Male 

Female 

Female 

Female 

Male 

Male 

Male 

Male 

Male 

Male, 67 per cent. .. 
Female, 33 per cent. 
Litter 



Pig 
length 



22.0 
22.0 
22.0 
22.0 
21.5 
21.5 
22.0 
19.0 

21.5 

17.0 
16.0 
16.5 
12.5 
13.5 
16.0 
17.5 
14.0 
18 
16.5 
15.6 

16 25 
15.8 
14.0 
13.5 
14.0 
14.0 
13.5 
13.5 
13.5 
13.5 
13.8 
13.6 
13 7 

17 
18.5 
17.0 
17.5 
17.5 
17.0 
17.0 
16.0 
17.17 
17.25 
17.2 
19.5 
20.0 
20 
20 
19.5 
19.7 
20 
19.8 
16.5 
16.5 
17.0 
16 5 
16.5 
16.5 
16.5 
15.5 
16.3 
16.8 
16.4 
21.5 
21.0 
20.5 
21.0 
21.0 
19.0 
22.5 
22.0 
22.0 
21.3 
20.8 
21.2 



Thymus 
length 
in cms. 



6.0 
5.5 
6,2 
6.0 
5.8 
5.5 
6.0 
5.2 

5.8 

4.5 
4.3 
4.0 

3 3 

4.0 

4 
4.5 



3.2 
4.5 
3 8 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
3.7 
2.9 
3 5 
3.5 
3.2 
3.1 
3.2 
3.3 
3.4 
3 2 

3 3 
4.3 

4 3 
4.5 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.2 
4.0 
4 1 
5.5 
4.5 
5.0 
4.5 
4.3 
4.7 
4.8 
4.76 
4.4 
4.4 
4.2 
3.5 
4.3 
4.2 
4 5 
3.6 



Per cent 
by length. 



5.5 

5.5 

5.55 

5.3 

5.48 



27.3 
25.0 
28.2 
27.3 
27.0 
25.6 
27.3 
27.4 

26.9 

26,5 
26.9 
24.2 
26.4 
29.6 
25.0 
25.7 
22.9 
25.0 
23.0 
25.8 
24.6 
25.5 
26.4 
21.5 
25.0 
25.0 
23.7 
23.0 
23.7 
24.4 
24.9 
23.3 
24.1 
25.3 
23.2 
26.5 
22.9 
22.9 
23.5 
23.5 
25.0 
24.4 
23.2 
24 1 
28.2 
22.5 
25.0 
22.5 
22.5 
24.4 
23.8 
24.1 
26.7 
26.7 
24.7 
21.2 
26.0 



25. 

27. 

23. 

25. 

25. 

25. 

27.9 

25.2 

26.3 

25.2 

26.2 

27.9 

24.9 

25.0 

25.0 

26.2 

25.6 

26.0 



Pig 
weight 
in grams. 



635 
549 
665 
658 
640 
581 
635 
346 

589 

251 
257 
271 
118 
154 
235 
318 
159 
316 
245 
227 
253 
232 
137 
135 
125 
150 
145 
137 
145 
143 
144 
136 
140 
267 
295 
285 
255 
245 
250 
228 
205 
256 
248 
254 
440 
460 
430 
420 
405 
435 
425 
431 
270 
245 
270 
250 
250 
240 
250 
125 
232 
255 
238 
515 
515 
445 
475 
445 
342 
550 
500 
420 
462 
478 
467 



Thymus 
weight 
in grams. 



3.241 
1.280 
1.900 
2.914 
1 999 
2.379 
2.205 
.755 

2.084 

,305 
.420 
.751 
,133 
.323 
.519 
.705 
.205 
.847 
.410 
.419 
.635 
,462 
,137 
.170 
.114 
.160 
.120 
.155 
.160 
.142 
.140 
.150 
.145 
.332 
.385 
.320 
.340 
.228 
.232 
.260 
.280 
.319 
.230 
.297 
.750 
813 
1.055 
.820 
1.115 
.893 
.938 
.911 
.432 
.392 
.335 
.407 
.370 
.365 
.365 
.200 
.361 
.350 
.358 
1.220 
.920 
1 032 
1,183 
.887 
.685 
1.315 
1 255 
.772 
1.014 
1.045 
1.030 



Per cent 
by weight. 



.510 
,233 
,286 
,443 
,312 
,409 
.347 
.218 

,345 

,122 
.163 
,277 
.112 
.209 
.221 
.222 
,129 
.268 
.168 
.174 
.249 
,189 
,100 
,126 
.091 
.107 
.083 
.113 
.110 
.099 
,097 
.110 
.104 
.124 
.131 
.112 
.113 
.094 
.093 
.114 
.137 
.122 
.093 
.115 
.170 
.177 
.245 
.195 
.275 
.207 
.220 
.212 
.160 
,160 
.124 
,163 
,148 
,152 
,146 
,160 
.156 
.138 
.152 
.237 
.179 
.232 
.250 
.200 
.200 
.239 
.251 
.184 
.218 
.220 
.219 



9— Science Bui.— 3728 



130 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE No. 1— Concluded. 



Pig. 


Sex. 


Pig 

length 
in cms. 


Thymus 

length 
in cms. 


Per cent 
by length. 


Pig 
weight 
in grams. 

400 

360 

420 

430 

360 

380 

395 

407 

393 

398 

394 

170 

275 

280 

230 

263 

262 

313 

290 

238 

274 

260 

735 

700 

590 

665 

675 

495 

435 

740 

620 

678 

614 

628 

55 

68 

66 

63 

63 

63 

61 

61 

63 

62 

63 

1,098 

693 

932 

999 

925 

1,035 

951 

925 

947 


Thymus 
weight 
in grams. 


Per cent 
By weight. 


109 Nl 


Female 


19.0 

19.5 

19.0 

19.5 

18.5 ' 

18.5 

19.0 

19.5 

19.1 

19.0 

19 1 

14 

17.0 

16.5 

16.0 

16 

17 
18,0 
16.5 
16.0 
16.6 
16.4 
24.5 
24.0 
23.5 
23.5 
24.5 
21.5 
20.5 
23.5 
22.0 
23 3 
23.0 
23.1 

9.5 
10.5 
10.0 
10.0 
10 5 
10 
10.0 
10.5 
10.0 
10.3 
10.1 
27.0 
25.5 
27.5 
27.5 
26.5 
28.5 
27.2 
26.5 
27.1 


4.5 
4.6 

4.8 

5.0 

4.5 

4.5 

4.3 

5.0 

4.7 

4.4 

4.65 

3.5 

4 7 

4.2 

4.6 

4.2 

4,1 

4,5 

4,1 

4.2 

4 3 
4,2 
6.4 
6.0 
6.0 
6,0 
6,0 

5 
5,5 
6,3 

6 1 
6.3 
5,8 
5,9 
2 3 
2,5 
2,3 
2 2 
2^3 
2,4 
2,5 
2,5 
2.4 
2,4 
2 4 
9,0 
7,0 
8 
7.5 
8.6 
9.0 
8.1 
8,6 
8,2 


23,7 
23.6 
25 3 
25.6 
24.3 
24.3 

22 6 
25,6 
24.8 
23.1 
24.4 
25 
27,6 
25.5 
28.7 
26.3 
24.1 
25.0 
24,8 
26.2 
25.7 
25.9 
26.1 
25.0 
25.5 
25.5 
24.5 
23,3 
26,8 
26,8 
27.7 
26.9 
25.3 
25.7 
24.2 
23,8 

23 
22.0 
21 9 
24,0 
25,0 
23,8 
23-8 
23,2 
23.5 
33,3 
27.5 
29,1 
27,3 
32,5 
31 6 
29.8 
32.5 
30.2 


.710 

.517 

.580 

.550 

.466 

.635 

.805 

.672 

.570 

.757 

.617 

.180 

.602 

.405 

.255 

.426 

,425 

.370 

.351 

.268 

,442 

.377 

2,285 

2,135 

1,610 

1,940 

1,975 

1,540 

1,375 

2,002 

1 930 

2.108 

1.797 

1 866 

,019 

.040 

.032 

.029 

.022 

.025 

.035 

.032 

.029 

.030 

.029 

2,480 

1.549 

3,365 

3 010 

2.500 

2,972 

2,675 

2,500 

2,646 


178 


110 N2 


Male 


.144 


111 N3 




.138 


112 N4 


Male 


.128 


113 N5 


Male 


.130 


114 N6 


Male 


.167 


115 N7 


Feinale 


.204 


116 N8 


Male 


.165 


Averages . . . . | 


Male, 75 per cent 

Female, 25 per cent. . . 
Litter 


.145 
.172 
.157 


117 01 


Male 


.106 


118 02 




.219 


119 03 


Female 


.145 


120 04 

121 05 

122 06 

123 07 

124 08 

Averages .... -1 

125 PI 


Male 

F'emale 

Female 

Male 

Female 

Male, 38 per cent 

Female, 62 per cent. .. . 
Litter 


.111 
.162 
.162 
.118 
.121 
.112 
.162 
.143 


Male 


.311 


126 P2 




.305 


127 P3 

128 P4 


Female 


.273 
.292 


129 P5 




.293 


130 P6 


Female 


,311 


131 P7 




.316 


132 P8 


Female 


.271 


133 P9 




.311 


Averages \ 

134 Ql 

135 Q2 


Male, 22 per cent 

Female, 78 per cent 

Litter 

Male 


.311 

.294 
.298 
.035 


Male 


.0.59 


136 Q3 


Male 


.048 


137 Q4 




.046 


138 Q5 

139 Q6 

140 Q7 

141 Q8 

Averages . . . .{ 


Female 


.035 


Male ■ 


.040 


Female 

Female 

Male.'SO per cent 

Female, 50 per cent 

Litter 


.057 
.052 
.046 
.048 
.047 


142 Rl 


Male 


.226 


143 R2 


Male 


224 


144 R3 

145 R4 

146 R5 


Male 

Male 


.361 
.301 
.270 


147 R6 

Averages . . . . ] 


Male 

Male, 83 per cent 

Female. 17 per cent. . . . 
Litter 


.287 
.280 
.270 
.278 



MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 



131 







—<' 






Sii 



at 



132 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Relation Between the Length of Pigs and the Percentage 
Thymus by Weight, Using Litter Averages Throughout. 

Table No. 2 and curve No. 1 are to be considered in this connec- 
tion. Curve No. 1 shows that as litters made up of larger and 
larger foeti, as regards length, are examined, the percentage thymus 
by weight increases steadily. There is a marked drop near the 
center of the curve which cannot be explained, but it does not ob- 
scure the general tendency of an increase in percentage thymus by 
weight. It will be noted that the value for the litter of pigs of aver- 
age length, 27.1 centimeters, has dropped quite appreciably. 
Whether or not this means that at 24 cm. or 25 cm. the gland 
reaches its greatest stage of development we do not know; not 
enough pigs longer than 25 cm. were examined. It would be an 
interesting problem to work out to see at just what stage the thymus 
development ceases, and when it commences to atrophy. 



TABLE No. 2. 



Litter. , 


Pig 
length 
in cms. 


Thymus 
length 
Id cms. 


Per cent 
by length. 


Pig 
weight 
in gms. 


Thymus 
weight 
in gms. 


Per cent 
by weight. 


Q 


10.1 
10.9 
12.8 
13 
13 7 
14.7 
15.5 
15.8 
16.4 
16.4 
17.2 
19 1 
19.8 
21.2 
21.5 
22 
24.7 
27.1 


2.4 
2.6 
3.0 
2.9 
3.3 
3.4 
3.8 
4.0 
4.1 
4.2 
4.1 
4.7 
4.8 
5.5 
5.8 
6.1 
7.0 
8.2 


23.5 
24.4 
23 
22.1 
24.1 
23.2 
24.1 
25.5 
25.1 
25.9 
24.1 
24.4 
24.1 
26.0 
26.9 
27.7 
28.4 
30 2 


63 
92 
114 
134 
140 
187 
218 
232 
238 
260 
254 
419 
431 
467 
589 
628 
770 
947 


.029 
.067 
.111 
.134 
.145 
,270 
.364 
.462 
.358 
.377 
.297 
.617 
.911 

1 030 
2.084 
1.930 
2.953 

2 646 


.047 


B 


.071 


F 


.097 


C 


.101 


I 


.104 


E :...;. 


.145 


A 


.166 


H 


.189 


L 


.152 





.143 


J....; 


.115 


». . . : 


.157 


K 


.212 


M 


.219 


g 


.345 


P 

D 

R 


.311 
.384 
278 



MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 



133 




jot- 







K 

i 


\ 








\ 



-u , z . > 



_- !?■ 



^HtriTr*^" 



■-U-: 



t,o&\ 






\ 



iliffiirifefm lwtiiffiTH teim 




134 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



Relation Between the Weight of Pigs and the Percentage 
Thymus by Weight, Using Litter Averages Throughout. 

Table No. 3 and curve No. 2 show practically the same tendency 
as to table No. 2 and curve No. 1, i. e., as heavier and heavier pigs 
are examined, the percentage of thymus by weight increases steadily. 
There is practically the same inexplicable deviation or drop near 
the center of the curve, and the possible maximum point centering 
about pigs of a weight of 770 grams. 

table No. 3. 



Litter. 


Pig 
weight 
in gms. 


Thymus 
weight 
in gms. 


Per cent 
by weight. 


Pig 
length 
in cms. 


Thymus 
length, 
in cms. 


Per cent 
by length. 


Q 

B 


63 

92 
114 
134 
140 
187 
218 
232 
238 
254 
260 
419 
431 
467 
589 
628 
770 
947 


.029 

.067 

.111 

.134 

.145 

.270 

.304 

.462 

.358 

.297 

.377 

.617 

.911 

1.030 

2 084 

1.930 

2.953 

2,646 


.047 
.071 
.097 
.101 
.104 
.145 
.166 
.189 
.152 
.115 
.143 
.157 
.212 
.219 
.345 
.311 
.384 
.278 


10.1 
10.9 
12.8 
13.0 
13.7 
14.7 
15.5 
15.8 
16.4 
17 2 
16,4 
19.1 
19,8 
21.2 
21.5 
22.0 
' 24.7 
27.1 


2.4 
2.6 
3,0 
2,9 
3.3 
34 
3.8 
4,0 
4.1 
4.1 
4.2 
4,7 
4,8 
5,5 
5,8 
6,1 
7,0 
8.2 


23,5 
24.4 


F 


23.0 


C: ;.... 


22 1 


I 


24.1 


E 


23.2 


A 


24 1 


H 


25.5 


L 


25.1 


J 


24 1 





25,9 


N 


24,4 


K 


24.1 


M 


26,0 


g 


26.9 


P 


27.7 


D 

R 


28.4 
30.2 



Relation Between the Length of Pigs and the Percentage by 
Weight of the Thymus, Using Length Group Averages 
Throughout, Disregarding Litters. 

Table No. 4 and curve No. 3 show that as larger and larger foeti 
(as regards length) are examined and classified regardless of litter, 
there is a steady increase in the percentage thymus by weight. The 
increase is not as uniform, however, as when the pigs are classified 
according to litter, as will be shown by a comparison of curve No. 1 
with curve No. 3. The former is the smoother. Hence from these 
calculations on lengths, we may conclude that pigs tend to have the 
same size thymus, relatively, as that of other pigs of the same litter, 
regardless of individual pig lengths. 



MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 



135 




o 
o 



^ ^ « 8 



01 



8 \5 






:SU:oi 






I 






''■ ■ 


.;. 






. *v 












T .;;, 







?''5 I- 


:[ 










1 


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n : 











136 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE No. 4. 







Per cent 


Pig 


Per cent 






Per cent 


Pig 


Per cent 


Class. 


Pig. 


thymus 


weight 


thymus 


Class. 


Pig. 


thymus 


weight 


thymus 






by weight. 


in grog. 


by length. 






by weight. 


in gms. 


by length. 


9.5 cm.. . . 


Ql 


.035 


55 


24.2 


15.0 cm... 


A2 


.236 


192 


25.0 




Avg. 


.035 


55 


24.2 




El 
E4 


.137 

.197 


196 
208 


23.3 
23.3 


lO.O.'cm.... 


Q7 


.057 


61 


25.0 




E3 


.113 


211 


23.3 




Q6 


.040 


63 


24.0 




Avg. 


.171 


202 


23.7 




Q4 


.046 


63 


22.0 














Q3 


.048 


66 


23.0 


15.5 cm... . 


L8 


.160 


175 


23.2 




B3 


.041 


76 


25.0 




A4 


.129 


202 


24.5 




Avg. 


.046 


66 


24.0 




AlO 
A3 


.129 
.109 


228 
233 


24.5 

24.5 


10.5 cm.... 


Q8 


.052 


61 


33 8 




Al 


.132 


235 


25.8 




Q5 


.035 


63 


21.9 




Avg. 


.132 


215 


24.5 




Q2 


.059 


68 


23.8 














Avg. 


.049 


64 


26.5 


16.0cm.... 


E5 
J8 


.128 
.137 


195 
205 


21.9 
25.0 


U.Ocm.... 


Fll 


.087 


83 


22.7 




A5 


.134 


212 


25.0 




B5 


.078 


90 


25.0 




A8 


.143 


228 


23.1 




Bl 


.070 


100 


22.7 




04 


.111 


230 


28.7 




B2 


.093 


102 


25 




A12 


.150 


234 


23.8 




Avg. 


.082 


94 


23.9 




H6 

A7 


.221 
.268 


235 
237 


25.4 
21.9 


11.5 cm 


C8 


.108 


102 


21.7 




H2 


.163 


257 


26.9 




A13 


.137 


102 


20.0 




05 


.162 


263 


26.3 




CI 


.112 


107 


21.7 




Avg. 


.162 


230 


24.8 




Avg. 


.119 


104 


21.1 






















16 5cm.... 


L6 


.152 


240 


25.5 


12.0 cm. .. 


F7 


.072 


95 


22.9 




A9 


.165 


243 


22.4 




F13 


.089 


96 


21.7 




L2 


.160 


245 


26.7 




Avg. 


.081 


95.5 


22.3 




HIO 
L7 


.168 
.146 


245 
250 


23.0 
27.3 


12.5 cm.... 


H4 


.112 


118 


26.4 




L5 


.148 


250 


26.0 




FIO 


.090 


120 


25.6 




L4 


.163 


250 


21.2 




E6 


.143 


126 


24.0 




LI 


.160 


270 


26.7 




Avg. 


.115 


121 


25.3 




H3 
03 


.277 
.145 


271 
280 


24.2 
25.5 


13.0>m.,.. 


F6 


.078 


102 


19.2 




08 


.121 


290 


24.8 ' 




F4 


.074 


115 


24.6 


" 


Avg. 


.164 


258 


24.8 




F3 


.160 


115 


23.1 














F5 


.096 


120 


24.6 


17.0 cm 


J7 


.114 


228 


23.5 




C5 


.107 


122 


19.2 




J6 


.093 


250 


23.5 




C4 


.122 


123 


19.2 




HI 


.123 


251 


26.5 




F12 


.093 


126 


25.4 




06 


.162 


262 


24.1 




C2 


.083 


145 


19.2 




A 14 


.287 


265 


26.5 




Avg. 


.102 


121 


21.8 




Jl 
L3 


.124 
.124 


267 
270 


25.3 
24.7 


13 5 cm.. . . 


Fl 


.102 


122 


22.2 




02 


.219 


275 


27.6 




F2 


.165 


130 


22.2 




J3 


.112 


285 


26 5 




12 


.126 


135 


21.5 




Avg. 


.151 


261 


25.4 




C3 


.096 


136 


20.0 














16 


.113 


137 


23.0 


17.5 cm.. . . 


J5 


.094 


245 


22.9 




E9 


.059 


140 


22.2 




J4 


.113 


255 


22.9 




18 


.099 


143 


24.4 




A6 


.189 


265 


25.7 




15 


.083 


145 


23.7 




H7 


222 


318 


25.0 




17 


.110 


145 


23.7 




Avg. 


!l55 


271 


24.1 




H5 


.209 


159 


29.6 














C9 


.096 


164 


24.1 


18.0 cm.... 


07 


.118 


313 


25.0 




Avg. 


.114 


141 


23.3 




H9 

Avg. 


.269 
.194 


316 
314.5 


25.0 
25.0 


14.0 cm.... 


13 


.091 


125 


25.0 














11 


.100 


137 


26.4 


18 5cm.... 


J2 


.131 


295 


23.2 




C7 


.094 


143 


28.6 




N5 


.130 


360 


24.3 




J4 


.107 


150 


25.0 




N6 


.167 


380 


25.4 




H8 


.129 


159 


22.9 




Avg. 


.143 


345 


24.3 




C6 


.091 


164 


25.0 














01 


.106 


170 


25.0 


19.0 cm.... 


M6 


.200 


342 ' 


27.9 




All 


.118 


174 


25.0 




G8 


.218 


346 


27.4 




Avg. 


.105 


153 


25.4 




N7 
Nl 


.204 
.178 


395 
400 


22,6 
23.7 


4.5^cm.. . . 


El 


.150 


184 


23 5 




N3 


.138 


420 


25.3 




Avg. 


.150 1 


184 


23 5 




Avg. 


.188 


381 


25.4' 



MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 



137 



TABLE No. 4— Concluded. 







Per cent 


Pig 


Per cent 






Per cent 


Pig 


Per cent 


Cl.\ss. 


Pig. 


thymus 


weight 


thymus 


Cwss. 


Pig. 


thymus 


weight 


thymus 






by weight. 


in gms. 


by length. 






by weight. 


in gms. 


by length. 


19.5 cm.... 


N2 


.144 


360 


23.6 


22.5 cm.... 


M7 


.239 


550 


24.9 




K5 


.275 


405 


22.5 




Avg. 


.239 


550 


24.9 




N8 


.165 


407 


25.6 














N4 


.128 


430 


25 6 


23 5cm.... 


P3 


.273 


590 


25.5 




Kl 


.170 


440 


28 2 




P4 


.292 


665 


25.5 




Avg. 


.176 


408 


25.1 




D5 
P8 


.417 
.271 


669 
740 


29.8 
26.8 


20.0:cin.... 


K4 


.195 


• 420 


22 5 




Avg. 


.313 


666 


26.9 




K3 


.245 


430 


25 














K2 


.177 


460 


22 5 


24.0 cm.... 


P2 


.305 


700 


25.0 




Avg. 


.206 


437 


23 3 




Avg. 


.305 


700 


25.0 


20.5 cm... 


P7 


.316 


435 


26 8 


24.5 cm.... 


PI 


.311 


735 


26.1 




M3 


.232 


445 


26 3 




P5 


.293 


675 


24.5 




Avg. 


.274 


440 


26.6 




Avg. 


.302 


705 


25.8 


21.0 cm.... 


M5 


.200 


445 


26 2 


25.0 cm.... 


Dl 


.397 


752 


26.0 




M4 


.250 


475 


25.2 




D2 


.334 


771 


28.0 




M2 


.179 


515 


25.2 




D3 


.351 


815 


30.0 




Avg. 


.210 


478 


25.5 




D4 

Avg. 


.421 
.376 


843 
795 


28.0 
28.0 


21.5 cm... 


P6 


.311 


495 


23.3 














Ml 


.237 


515 


27.9 


25.5 cm.... 


P2 


224 


693 


27.5 




G6 


.409 


581 


25 6 




Avg. 


^224 


693 


27.5 




G5 


.312 


640 


27 














Avg. 


.317 


558 


26.0 


26.5 cm 


R5 
Avg. 


.270 
.270 


925 
925 


32.5 
32.5 


22.0 cm.... 


M9 


.184 


420 


25 














M8 


.251 


500 


25.0 


27 . cm. . . . 


Rl 


.226 


1,098 


33.3 




G2 


.233 


549 


25.0 




Avg. 


.226 


1.098 


33.3 




P9 


.311 


620 


27.7 














07 


.347 


635 


27.3 


27.5 cm.... 


R3 


.361 


932 


29.1 




01 


.510 


635 


27.3 




R4 


.301 


999 


27.3 




04 


.443 


658 


27.3 




Avg. 


.331 


965.5 


28.7 




03 


.286 


666 


28.2 














Avg. 


.321 


585 


26.6 


28.5 cm.... 


R6 

Avg. 


.287 
.287 


1,035 
1,035 


31 6 
31.6 



Relation Between the Weight of Pigs and the Percent.age 
BY Weight of the Thymus, Using Weight Group Averages 
Throughout, Disregarding Litters. 

Table No. 5 and curve No. 4 show that as larger and larger foeti 
(as regards weight) are examined and classified regardless of litter, 
there is a steady increase in the percentage of thymus by weight. 
As has already been noted in curve No. 3, the increase is not uni- 
form. When we compare this curve No. 4 with curve No. 2' (where 
the pigs are classified according to litters), it is evident that the 
latter is smoother by far. Hence from these calculations on weights 
in addition to the calculations already noted on lengths, we may 
conclude that pigs tend to have the same size thymus as that of 
other pigs in the same litter, regardless of individual sizes. 



138 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 




__^_^__^ 



8 S 

— o. 



MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 



139 



TABLE No. 5. 



Class. 


Pig 


Pigl 
weight 
in gms. 


Per cent 
weight. 


Pig 
length 
in cms. 


Per cent 
length. 


Class. 


Pig. 


Pig 
weight 
in gms. 


Percent 
weight. 


Pig 

length 
in cms. 


Percent 

length. 


50-74 


Ql 


55 


.035 


9.5 


24.2 


225-249 


J7 


228 


.114 


17.0 


23.5 




Q8 


61 


.052 


10.5 


23.8 




A 10 


228 


.129 


15.5 


24.5 




Q7 


61 


.057 


10.0 


25.0 




A8 


228 


.143 


16.0 


23.1 




Q5 


63 


.035 


10.5 


21.9 




04 


230 


.111 


16.0 


28.7 




Q6 


63 


.040 


10.0 


24.0 




A3 


233 


.109 


15.5 


24.5 




Q4 


63 


.046 


10.0 


22.0 




A12 


234 


.150 


16.0 


23.8 




Q3 


66 


.048 


10.0 


23.0 




Al 


235 


.132 


15.5 


25.8 




Q2 


68 


.059 


10.5 


23.8 




H6 


235 


.221 


16.0 


25.4 




Avg. 




.0465 




23.47 




A7 
L6 


237 
240 


.268 
.152 


16.0 
16.5 


21.9 
25.5 


75-99 


B3 • 


76 


.041 


10.0 


25.0 




A9 


243 


.243 


16.5 


22.4 




Fll 


83 


.087 


11.0 


22.7 




.15 


245 


.094 


17.5 


22.9 




B5 


90 


.078 


11.0 


25.0 




L2 


245 


. 160 


16.5 


26.7 




F7 


95 


.072 


12.0 


23.9 




HIO 


245 


.168 


10 5 


23.0 




F13 


96 


.089 


12.0 


21.7 




Avg. 




.1567 




24.41 




Avg. 




.0734 




23.66 


























250-274 


J6 


250 


.093 


17.0 


23.5 


100-124 


Bl 


100 


.070 


11.0 


22.7 




L7 


250 


.146 


16.5 


27.3 




F6 


102 


.078 


13.0 


19.2 




L5 


250 


.148 


16.5 


26.0 




B2 


102 


.093 


11.0 


25.0 




L4 


250 


.163 


16.5 


21.2 




C8 


102 


.108 


11.5 


21.7 




HI 


251 


.122 


17.0 


26.5 




A13 


102 


.137 


11.5 


20.0 




J4 


255 


.113 


17.5 


22.9 




CI 


107 


.112 


11.5 


21.7 




H2 


257 


.163 


16,0 


26,9 




F4 


115 


.074 


13.0 


24.6 




06 


262 


.162 


17.0 


24.1 




F3 


115 


.160 


13.0 


23.1 




05 


263 


-,. 162 


16,0 


26.3 




H4 


118 


.112 


12.5 


26.4 




A6 


265 


.189 


17.5 


25.7 




FIO 


120 


.090 


12.5 


25.6 




A 14 


265 


.287 


17.0 


20.5 




F5 


120 


.096 


13.0 


24.6 




Jl 


267 


.124 


17.0 


25.3 




Fl 


122 


.102 


13.0 


22.2 




L3 


270 


.124 


17 


24.7 




Co 


122 


.107 


13 0- 


19.2 




LI 


270 


.160 


16.5 


26.7 




C4 


123 


.122 


13.0 


19.2 




H3 


271 


.277 


16.5 


24.2 




Avg. 




.1115 




22.51 




Avg. 




.162 




25.5 


125-149 


13 


125 


.091 


14.0 


25.0 


275-299 


02 


275 


.219 


17.0 


27.6 




L8 


125 


.160 


15.5 


23.2 




03 


280 


.145 


16.5 


25.5 




F12 


126 


.093 


13 


25.4 




J3 


285 


.112 


17,0 


26.5 




E6 


126 


.143 


12.5 


24.0 




08 


290 


.121 


16 5 


24.8 




F2 


130 


.165 


13.0 


22.2 




J2 


295 


.131 


18.5 


23.2 




12 


135 


.126 


13.5 


21.5 




Avg. 




.146 




25.5 




C3 


136 


.096 


13.0 


20.0 
















11 


137 


.100 


14.0 


26.4 


300-324 


07 


313 


.118 


18 


25.0 




16 


137 


.113 


13.5 


23.0 




H9 


316 


.268 


18 


25.0 




F9 


140 


.059 


13.5 


22.2 




H7 


318 


.222 


17.5 


25.0 




C7 


143 


.094 


14.0 


28.6 




Avg. 




.203 




25.0 




18 


143 


.099 


13,5 


24.4 
















C2 


145 


.085 


13.0 


19.0 


325-349 


M6 


342 


.200 


19.0 


27.9 




15 


145 


.083 


13.5 


23.7 




G8 


346 


.218 


19.0 


27.4 




17 


145 


.110 


13.5 


23.7 




Avg. 




.209 




27.3 




Avg. 




.1078 




23.49 


























350-374 


N5 


360 


.130 


18.5 


24.3 


150-174 


14 


150 


.107 


14.0 


25.0 




N2 


360 


.144 


19.5 


23.6 




H5 


154 


.209 


13.5 


29.6 




Avg. 




.137 




24.0 




H8 


159 


.129 


14.0 


22.9 
















C6 


164 


.091 


14.0 


25.0 


375-399 


N6 


380 


.167 


18 5 


24.3 




C9 


164 


.096 


13.5 


24.1 




N7 


395 


.204 


19.0 


22.6 




01 


170 


.106 


14.0 


25.0 




Avg. 




.186 




23.5 




All 


174 


.118 


14.0 


25.0 
















Avg. 




.1223 




25.23 


400-424 


HI 
K5 


400 
405 


.178 
.275 


19,0 
19,5 


23.7 

22.5 


175-199 


El 


184 


.150 


14.5 


23.5 




N8 


407 


.165 


19.5 


25.6 




A2 


192 


.236 


15.0 


25.0 




N3 


420 


.138 


19.0 


25.3 




E5 


195 


.128 


16.0 


21.9 




M9 


420 


.184 


22.0 


25.0 




E2 


196 


.137 


15.7 


23.3 




K4 


420 


.195 


20.0 


22.5 




Avg. 




.1628 




23.43 




Avg. 




.189 




24.1 


200-224 


A4 


202 


.129 


15.5 


24.5 


425-449 


N4 


430 


.128 


19.5 


25.6 




J8 


205 


.137 


16.0 


25.0 




K3 


430 


.245 


20 


25.0 




E4 


208 


.197 


15.0 


23.5 




P7 


435 


.316 


20.5 


26.8 




E3 


211 


.113 


15.0 


23.3 




Kl 


440 


.170 


19.5 


28.2 




A5 


212 


.134 


16.0 


25.0 




M5 


445 


.200 


21.0 


26 2 




Avg. 




.1420 




24.26 




M3, 
Avg. 


445 


.232 
.215 


20.5 


26.3 
26.4 



140 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE No. 5— Concluded. 



Class. 



450-474 
475-499 

500-524 

525-544 
550-574 
575-599 

600-624 
625-649 

650-674 



Pig. 



K2 

Avg. 

M4 
P6 

Avg. 

M8 
M2 
Ml 
Avg. 

G2 

Avg. 

M7 
Avg. 

06 
P3 

Avg. 

P9 

Avg. 

G7 
Gl 
G5 

Avg. 

G4 
G3 
P4 
D5 

Avg. 



Pig 
weight 
in gms. 



460 



475 
495 



500 
515 
515 



549 
550 



581 
590 



620 



635 
635 
640 



658 
665 
665 
669 



Percent 
weight. 



.177 
.177 

.250 
.311 
.281 

.251 
.179 
.237 
.222 

.233 
.233 

.239 
.239 

.409 
.273 
.341 

.311 
.311 

.347 
.510 
.312 
.390 

.443 
.286 
.292 
.417 
.360 



Pig 
length, 
in cms. 



Per cent 
length. 



20.0 


22.5 
22.5 


21.0 
21.5 


25.2 
23.3 
24.3 


22.0 
21.0 
21.5 


25.0 
25.2 
27.9 
26.0 


22.0 


25.0 
25.0 


22.5 


24.9 
24.9 


21.5 
23 5 


25.6 
25.5 
25.6 


22 


27.7 

27.7 


22.0 
22.0 
21.5 


27.3 
27.3 
27.0 
27.3 


22.0 
22.0 
23.5 
23.5 


27.3 
28.2 
25.5 
29.8 
27.7 



Class. 



675-699 



700-724 



725-749 



750-774 



800-824 



825-849 



925-949 



974-999 



1025-1049 



1075-1099 



Pig. 



P5 
.R2 

Avg. 

P2 

.-^vg. 

PI 
P8 

Avg. 

Dl 
D2 

Avg. 

D3 

Avg. 

D4 

Avg. 

R5 
R3 

Avg. 

R4 

Avg. 

R6 
Avg. 

Rl 

Avg. 



Pig 
weight 
in gms. 



675 
693 



700 



735 
740 



752 
771 



815 

843 



925 
932 



999 
1,035 
1,098 



Per cent 
weight. 



.293 
.224 
.259 

.305 
.305 

.311 
.271 
.291 

.397 
.334 
.366 

.351 
.351 

.421 
.421 

.270 
.361 
.316 

.301 
.301 

.287 
.287 

.226 
.226 



Pig 
length 



Per cent 
length. 



24.5 
25.5 


24.5 

27.5 
26.0 


24.0 


25.0 
25.0 


24.5 
23.5 


26.1 
26.8 
26.5 


26.0 
25.0 


26.0 
28.0 
27.0 


25.0 


30.0 
30.0 


25.0 


28.0 
28.0 


26.5 
27.5 


32.5 
29.1 
31.3 


27.5 


27.3 
27.3 


28.5 


31.6 
31.6 


27.0 


33.3 
33.3 



Comparisons Made to Correlate the Size of Underdeveloped 
AND Overdeveloped Pigs with the Size of the Thymus, Tak- 
ing Percentage Thymus by Weight as a Standard, and Grad- 
ing Pigs in the Litters by Length. 

As the title above indicates, table No. 6 is the result of an at- 
tempt made to correlate the size of underdeveloped and overde- 
veloped pigs with the size of the thymus, taking percentage thymus 
by weight as a standard, and grading pigs in the litters by length. 
In each litter the two smallest foeti (by length) and the two largest 
were studied as to percentage thymus by weight as seen in column 
F in the table. The percentages of the two smallest and the two 
largest were individually averaged (column G), and the two aver- 
ages compared; the correlation noted was recorded in column H. 
Positive or + correlation is taken to mean that the overdeveloped 
pigs in the litter had a greater percentage of thymus than the under- 
developed pigs. As seen from the table, there were nine positives 
and nine negatives, hence we must conclude, from the data at hand 
now, th^t no parallelism exists between the large and small size, re- 
spectively, of underdeveloped and overdeveloped foeti, and the per- 
centage of thymus by weight. 



MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 



141 



TABLE No. 6. 



Column A. 
Serial No. 


Column B. 
Litter No. 


Column C. 

Pig 

length in 

centimeters. 


Column D. 
Per cent 
thymus 

by length. 


Column E. 

weight in 
grams. 


Column F. 
Per cent 
thymus 

by weight. 


Column 0. 
Averages 

of 
column F. 


Column H. 
Correlation. 


13 
11 


A13 

All 


11.5 
14.0 


20.0 
25.0 


102 
174 


.137 
.118 


.128 


+ 


6 


A6 


17.5 
17.0 


25.7 
26.5 


265 
265 


.189 
.287 


\ .238 


14 


A14 




17 
19 


B3 

B5 


10 
11.0 


25.0 
25.0 


76 
90 


.041 
.078 


} .065 








+ 


16 


B2 


11 
11.0 


25.0 
22.7 


102 
100 


.093 
.070 


1 ■ .082 


15 


Bl 










27 


C8 


11.5 
11.5 


21.7 
21.7 


102 
107 


.108 
.112 


1 .110 




20 


CI 










26 


C7 • 


14.0 
14 


28.6 
25.0 


143 
164 


.094 
.091 


} .093 




25 


C6 . .-. 










33 

29 


D5 

Dl 


23.5 
25.0 


29.8 
26.0 


669 
752 


.417 
.397 


.407 




32 
31 


D4 

D3 


25.0 
25.0 


28.0 
30 


843 
815 


.421 
.351 


} .386 




39 


E6 


12.5 
14.5 


24.0 
23.5 


126 
184 


.143 
.150 


1 .147 




34 


El 










38 


E5.... 


16.0 
15.0 


21.9 
23.3 


195 
211 


.128 
.113 


.121 




36 


E3 




50 
46 


FU 

F7 


11.0 
12.0 


22.7 
22.9 


83 
95 


.087 
.072 


1 .079 


+ 


48 


F9 


13.5 
13.5 


22.2 
22.2 


140 
130 


.059 
.165 


1 .112 


41 


F2 










60 
58 


G8 

06 


19.0 
21.5 


27.4 
25.6 


346 
581 


.218 
.409 


1 .314 


+ 


53 
59 


01 

07 


22.0 
22.0 


27.3 
27.3 


635 
635 


.510 
.347 


1 .429 


64 
65 


H4 

H5 


12.5 
13.5 


26.4 
29.6 


118 
154 


.112 
.209 


1 .162 


+ 


69 
67 


H9 

H7 


18.0 
17.5 


25.0 
25.7 


316 
318 


.268 
.222 


1 .245 


72 


12 


13.5 
13.5 


21.5 
23.0 


135 
137 


.126 
.113 


1 .120 




76 


16 










74 


14 


14.0 
14.0 


25.0 
26 4 


160 
137 


.107 
.100 


\ .104 




71 


11 










86 


J8 


16 
17.0 


25 
23.5 


205 

228 


.137 
.114 


1 .126 




85 


J7 










80 


J2 


18.5 
17.5 


23.2 
22.9 


295 
255 


.131 
.113 


1 .122 




82 


J4 










91 
87 


K5 

Kl 


19.5 
19.5 


22.5 
28.2 


405 
440 


.275 
.170 


] .223 




88 
89 


K7 

K3 


20.0 
20.0 


22.5 
25.0 


460 
430 


.177 
.245 


1 .211 




99 
97 


L8 

L6. 


15.5 
16.5 


23 2 
25.5 


125 
240 


.160 
.152 


\ .156 




94 


L3 


17.0 
16.5 


24.7 
26.7 


270 
270 


.124 
.160 




} .142 




92 


LI 





142 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE No. 6— Concluded. 



Column A. 
Serial No. 


Column B. 
Litter No. 


Column C. 

Pig 

length in 

centimeters. 


Column D. 
Per cent 
thymus 

by length. 


Column E. 

weight m 
grams. 


Column F. 
Per cent 
thymus 

by weight. 


Column G. 
Averages 

of 
column F. 


Column H. 
Correlation. 


105 
102 


M6 

M3 


19.0 
20.5 


27.9 
26.3 


342 
445 


.200 
.232 


} .216 


+ 


106 
107 


M7 

M8 


22.5 
22.0 


24.9 
25.0 


550 
500 


.239 
.251 


} .245 


113 
114 


N5 

N6 


18.5 
18.5 


24.3 
24.3 


360 
380 


.130 
.167 


[ .149 




112 
116 


N4 

N8 


19.5 
19.5 


25.6 
25.6 


430 

407 


.128 
.165 


} .147 




117 
120 


01 

04 


14.0 
16.0 


25.0 

28.7 


170 
230 


.106 
.111 


} .109 


+ 


123 
118 


07 

02 


18.0 
17,0 


25.0 

27.6 


313 

275 


.118 
.219 


} .169 


131 
130 


P7 

P6 


20.5 
21.5 


26.8 
23.3 


435 
495 


.316 
.311 


} .314 




125 

129 


PI 

P5 


24.5 
24.5 


26.1 
24.5 


735 

675 


.311 

.293 


1 .302 




134 

140 


Ql 

Q7 


9 5 
10.0 


24 2 
25.0 


55 
61 


.035 
.057 


} .046 


+ 


135 
138 


Q2 

Q5 


10.5 
10.5 


23.8 
21.9 


68 
63 


.059 
.035 


1 . .047 


143 
146 


R2 

R5 


25.5 
26.5 


27.5 
32.5 


093 
925 


.224 
.270 


1 .247 


+ 


147 
145 , 


R6 

R4 


28 5 

27.5 


31 6 
27.3 


1,035 
999 


.287 
.301 


} .294 



Total result, 9+, 9 • 



MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 143 

Comparisons Made to Correlate the Size of Underdeveloped 
AND Overdeveloped Pigs with the Size of the Thymus, Tak- 
ing Percentage of Thymus by Weight as a Standard, and 
Grading Pigs in the Litters by Weight. 

As the title above indicates, table No. 7 is the result of an attempt 
made to correlate the size of underdeveloped and overdeveloped 
foeti with the size of the thymus, taking percentage thymus by 
weight as a standard, and grading pigs in the litters by wcigiit. In 
each litter the two smallest fa?ti (by weight) and the two largest 
were studied as to percentage thymus by weight as seen in column 
F in the table. The percentages of the two smallest and the two 
largest were individually averaged (column G), and the two aver- 
ages compared; the correlation noted was recorded in column H. 
Positive or + correlation is taken to mean that the overdeveloped 
pigs in the litter had a greater percentage of thymus than the under- 
developed pigs. As seen from the table, there were ten positives and 
eight negatives. This is indeed a very weak positive correlation; so 
slight, in fact, that we feel that it must be disregarded until more 
positive data can be secured. Hence, once more we must decide, on 
the basis of the data at hand now. that no parallelism exists between 
the large and small size, respectively, of underdeveloped and over- 
developed fa?ti and the percentage of thymus by weight. 



144 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 
TABLE No. 7. 



Column A. 
Serial No. 


Column B. 
Litter No. 


Column C. 

• ^[^ ■ 
weight m 

grams. 


Column D. 

Pig. 

length in 

centimeters. 


Column E. 
Per cent 
thymus 

by length. 


Column F. 
Per cent 
thymus 

by weight. 


Column G. 
Averages 

of 
column F. 


Column H. 
Correlation. 


13 
11 


A13 

All 


102 
174 


11.5 
14.0 


20.0 
25.0 


.137 
.118 


1 ' .128 


+ 


14 
6 


A14 

A6 


265 
265 


17.0 
17.5 


26.5 
25.7 


.287 
.189 


\ .238 


17 
19 


B3 

B5 


76 
90 


10.0 
11.0 


25.0 
25.0 


.041 
.078 


} .060 


+ 


15 
16 


Bl 

B7 


100 
102 


11 
11 


22.7 
25.0 


.070 
.073 


1 ,082 


27 
24 


C8 

C5 


102 
122 


11 5 
13.0 


21.7 
19.2 


.108 
.107 


] .108 




25 
28 


C6 

C9 


164 
164 


14.0 
13.5 


25.0 
24.1 


.091 
.096 


} .094 




33 
29 


D5 

Dl 


669 
752 


23.5 
25 


29,8 
26 


.417 
.397 


1 .407 


1 


32 
31 


D4 

D3 


843 
815 


25.0 
25.0 


28 
30.0 


.421 
.351 


\ .386 




39 
34 


E6 

El 


126 
184 


12.5 
14.5 


24.0 
23.5 


.143 
.150 


1 .147 


+ 


37 
36 


E4 '■ 208 

E3 1 211 


15.0 
15.0 


23.3 
23.3 


.197 
.113 


} .155 


50 
. 46 


Fll 

F7 


83 

95 


11.0 
12.0 


22 7 
22'9 


.087 
.072 


1 .080 


+ 


41 

48 


F2 

F9 


130 
140 


13 5 
13.5 


22.2 
22.2 


.165 
.059 


) .112 


60 
54 


G8 

02 


346 
549 


19 
22.0 


27.4 
25.0 


.218 
.233 


} .226 


+ 


55 
56 


G3 

G4 


665 
658 


22 
22.0 


28.2 
27 3 


.286 
.443 


1 .365 


64 
65 


H4 

H5 


118 
' 154 


12.5 
13.5 


26,4 
29.6 


.112 
.209 


} .162 


+ 


67 
69 


H7 

H9 


318 
316 


17 5 

18 


25,7 
25,0 


222 
'268 


} .245 


73 

72 


13 

12 


125 
135 


14 
13.5 


25 
21.5 


.091 
.126 


} .109 




67 
69 


14 

15 


150 
145 


14.0 
13.5 


25.0 
23 7 


.107 
.083 


} .095 




86 
85 


J8 

J7 


205 

228 


16 
17.0 


25.0 
23.5 


.137 
.114 


\ ' .126 




80 
81 


J2 

J3 


295 
285 


18 5 
17.0 


23 2 
26.5 


.131 
.112 


\ .122 




91 
90 


K5 

K4 


405 
420 


19.5 
20.0 


22.5 
22.5 


.275 
.195 


} .235 




88 
87 


K2 

Kl 


460 
440 


20.0 
19.5 


22.5 
28.2 


.177 
.170 


1 .174 




99 
97 


L8 

L6 


125 
240 


15 5 

16 5 


23.2 
25.5 


.160 
.152 


\ .156 




94 
92 


L3 

LI 


270 
270 


17.0 
16.5 


24.7 
26,7 


.124 
.160 


} . 142 





MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 



145 



TABLE No. 7— CONCLTJDED. 



Column A. 
Serial No. 


Column B. 
Litter No. 


Column C. 

Pig 

weight in 

grams. 


Column D. 

Pig. 

length in 

centimeters. 


Column E. 
Per cent 
thymus 

by length. 


Column F. 
Per cent 
th>Tnus 

by weight. 


Column G. 
Averages 

of 
column F. 


Column H. 
Correlation. 


105 
108 


M6 

M9 


342 
420 


19.0 
22.0 


27.9 
25.0 


.200 
.184 


} .192 


+ 


106 
100 


M7 

Ml... 


550 
515 


22.5 
21.5 


24.9 
27.9 


.239 
.237 


} .238 


110 
113 


N2 

N5 


360 
360 


19.5 
18.5 


23.6 
24.3 


.144 
.130 


1 .137 




111 
112 


N3....\... 
N4 


420 
430 


19 
19.5 


25.3 
25.6 


.138 
.128 


} . 133 




117 


01 


170 
230 


14.0 
16.0 


25.0 
28.7 


.106 
.111 


1 .108 




120 


04 








+ 


124 
123 


08 

07 


290 
313 


16 5 
18.0 


24.8 
25.0 


.121 
.118 


1 .120 


131 


P7 


435 
495 


20.5 
21.5 


26.8 
23.3 


.316 
.311 


} .314 




130 


P6 




132 
125 


P8 

PI 


740 
735 


23.5 
•24.5 


26.8 
26.1 


.271 
.311 


} .291 




134 


Ql 


55 
61 


9.5 
10.0 


24.2 
25 


.035 

.057 


} .046 




140 


Q7 


+ 


135 


Q2 


68 
66 


10.5 
10.0 


23 8 
23 


.059 
.048 


} .054 


136 


Q3 










143 
146 


R2 

R5 


693 
925 


25 5 
26.5 


27.5 
32.5 


.224 
.270 


] .251 


+ 


142 
147 


Rl 

R6 


1,098 
1,035 


27.0 33 3 
28.5 31.6 


.226 
.287 


[ .257 



Total result, 10+, 8 — 

Note No. 1. — It will have been noticed that in the foregoing report nothing 
has been said concerning the percentage of thymi by length. An examination 
of the tables will show that there is indeed an increase in this percentage as 
larger and larger pigs are examined, but that this increase is neither marked 
nor uniform, and we must consider that part of the increase in weight must 
come by this increase in length. We feel that the method by which we secured 
the thymus lengths was not accurate and uniform enough to allow much value 
to be attached to the figures recorded. They may be taken as rather approxi- 
mate. In general, the length of the thymus will average about 25 per cent of 
the total length of the pig. Suffice it to say, however, that we believe that as 
the foeti grow older and older there is an increase in the percentage of thymus 
by length; just how regular and consistent this increase is, we cannot say. 

Note No. 2. — It is interesting to note that the pigs used for dissection 
showed a preponderance of males. This was probably purely accidental, how- 
ever, and if larger numbers of animals had been used a more balanced ratio 
would have been secured. 



10— Science Bui.— 3728 



146 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

1. The thymus gland in the fcetal pig is comparatively very 
large, extending from a point above the upper half or third of the 
heart to the base of the mandible. In the thorax it consists of a 
single triangular body, but in the neck region is made up of paired 
branches which approximately parallel each other. 

2. Sex appears to have no connection with the percentage of 
thymus found, except that possibly the values for the females may 
average a trifle higher than those for the males. 

3. As larger and larger foeti, as regards both weight and length, 
are examined, the percentage of thymus by weight increases fairly 
steadily and rather uniformly. 

4. Foeti tend to have the same size thymus as the average of pigs 
in their litter, regardless of individual size. No parallelism appar- 
ently exists between the small and large size, respectively, of under- 
developed and overdeveloped pigs, and the percentage of thymus by 
weight. Perhaps further work on this one question might bring a 
reversal of opinion, but the data obtained so far point to the state- 
ment made above. 

5. Figures of percentage of thymus by length, while not very 
reliable, show that this percentage increases as larger and larger 
foeti are examined. Such increase, however, does not seem to be as 
uniform as that of the percentage by weight. 

It is a pleasure to express here our appreciation of the help kindly 
given by Prof. W. J. Baumgartner in the preparation of this bit of 
work. It was at his suggestion that it was undertaken and by his 
guidance that it was carried out. Whatever of merit it has is due 
in large measure to him. 

LITERATURE CITED. 

1. Matti, H. 1913. Ergebnisse der Innere Med. ii. Kinderheil., Bd. 10. (Quoted 

by Paton, D. Noel, in "The Nervous and Chemical Regulators of Meta- 
bolism": Macmillan & Co., Ltd., London: 1913; pp. 116-117.) 

2. Basch, K. 1906-190S. Jahrbuch f. Kinderheil. (Quoted by Paton, D. Noel, 

in "The Ner\ous and Chemical Regulators of Metabolism": Mac- 
millan & Co., Ltd., London: 1913; p. 114. Also by Biedl, Dr. Artur, in 
"The Internal Secretary Organs: Their Physiology and Pathology": 
Trans, by Linda Forster; London: John Bale Sons & Danielsson, Ltd., 
1913; pp. 117-120.) 

3. Badertscher, J. A. 1915. Development of the Thymus in the Pig. I : Mor- 

pliogenesis. Am. Jour. Anat., vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 317-3.J9. 

4. H.\TAi, S. 1914. On the Weight of the Thymus Gland of the Albino Rat 

(Mus iiorveqiciif^ albinus) According to Age. Am. Jour. Anat., vol. 16, 
No. 2, pp. 251-257. 



MEDEARIS AND MARBLE: THYMUS GLAND. 147 

5. Hatai, S. 1913. On the Weights of the Abdominal and Thoracic Viscera, 

the Sex Glands, Ductless Glands and the Eyeballs of the Albino Rat 
(Mus norvegicus albinus) According to Body Weight. Am. Jour. Anat., 
vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 69-87. 

6. J.\CKSON, C. M. 1913. Postnatal Growth and Variability of the Body and 

of the Various Organs in the Albino Rat. Am. Jour. Anat., vol. 15, 
No. 1, pp. 1-69. 

7. B.\DERTSCHER, J. A. 1915. Development of the Thymus in the Pig. II: 

Histogenesis. Am. Jour. Anat., vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 437-495. 



THE 



KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN 



Vol. XIII, No. 15— July, 1920. 



CONTENTS : 

A Comparison of the Antigenic and Cultural Characteristics of a 
Number of Strains of Bacillus Typhosus. 

Cora M. Dovms. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, 
LAWRENCE, KAN. 



Entered at the post-office in Lawrence as second-class matter. 

9-3728 



THE KANSAS UNIVERSITY 
SCIENCE BULLETIN 

Vol. XIIL] JULY, 1920. [No. 15. 



A Comparison of the Antigenic and Cultural Character- 
istics of a Number of Strains of Bacillus Typhosus* 

BY CORA M. DOWNS. 
Department of Bacteriology. 

ALTHOUGH it has seemed to be the general concensus of opinion 
that Bacillus typhosus is a very homogeneous organism, yet in 
view of the fact that some observers have reported cultural and 
serological variations, it was thought advisable to investigate the 
cultural and serological reactions of the strains of typhosus used in 
this laboratory. 

The work done may be divided into three phases, namely: cul- 
tural reactions, agglutination and absorption tests, and the Widal 
reaction. The source, place of isolation, name and date of the or- 
ganisms used are tabulated in table I. 

CULTURAL REACTIONS. 

Technique: The carbohydrate medium used was semisolid, to 
which was added 1 per cent of the carbohydrate desired, and 
Andrade indicator to make a pale, flesh color when cold. As a check 
a second set of determinations was run, using meat infusion broth 
adjusted to Ph, 7.0, to which 1 per cent of the carbohydrate was 
added, litmus being used as an indicator. For the lead acetate agar 
1 per cent lead acetate solution was added to semisolid medium. 
Two per cent peptone gelatine, made according to a formula devised 
by Treece (1), was used for liquefaction and to test for gas produc- 
tion in noncarbohydrate media. 

• Received for publication October 18, 1921. Abstract published in Abstracts of Bac- 
teriology, Feb. 1920, vol. IV, No. 1, p. 19. 

(151) 



152 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



TABLE I. — Organisms used for cultural and antigenic reactions. 



No. 



Source. 



Name. 



Date. 



1 

21 

223 

25 

33 

4 
6 
8 
16 
20 
24 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
34 
35 

7 

12 

15 

2 
3 
10 
11 
13 
14 
17 
19 
26 



Blood culture — Lawrence, Kan 

Blood culture — Kansas City. Mo 

Blood culture — University of California. 
Blood culture — Johns Hopkins Hospital. 
Blood culture — Youngstown Hospital . . . 



Feces- 
Feces- 
Feces- 
Feces- 
Feces- 
Feces- 
Feces- 
Fecea- 
Feces- 
Feces- 
Feces- 
Feces- 
Feces- 
Feces- 



- Lawrence, Kan 

-Lawrence, Kan 

-Lawrence, Kan 

-Carrier, Beau Desert, France. 

-Topeka, Kan 

-Fatal case. John Hopkins. . . . 

-Kansas City, Mo 

-Carrier 

-Carrier 

-Carrier 

-Carrier 

-Carrier 

-Carrier 

-Case 



Spinal fluid — Halstead, Kan . 



Spleen — Autopsy . 
Spleen — Autopsy . 



Gall bladder — Autopsy, France. 



No history — New York board of health 

No history — New York city board of health . 



No history — New York city board of health . 

No history — .American Museum 

No history — American Museu n 

No history — Institute of Berlin 

No history — University of Chicago 

No history — Johns Hopkins Hospital 



57. 



1913 
1919 
191.4 



McCreary . 



Smith 

Schopinsky . 



Light. ... 
Blythe... 
Dardrich . 
Cattler. . . 
Doud . . . . 

Stitt 

Levi 



1921 

1919 
1918 
1919 
1918 
1919 
1919 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 

.1919 



Rawlings . 

Rawlings. 

Wable... 



1918 



Bender. . . 
Mt. Sinai. 
Pfeiffer ... 
Hopkins. . 
Miller... 
Ebert.... 
Jordan . . . 



1888 
1889 



DOWNS: BACILLUS TYPHOSUS. 



153 



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154 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

The litmus milk was kept for six weeks before being discarded. 
The cultural reactions are tabulated in table II. It will be observed 
from the table that none of the strains exhibited any variation in 
the media commonly used in routine laboratory procedure. All 
strains gave acid in dextrose, mannitc, maltose, negative in lactose 
and saccharose, no liquefaction of gelatine, no indol, and an initial 
acidity in litmus milk. Three strains gave slight acidity in salacin, 
one strain gave no acid in xylose, Rawlings' strain, and one gave 
acid only after ten days. Two strains were negative in dextrin. 
All strains except No. 7 gave a distinct greenish-black cloud around 
the stab in 2 per cent peptone gelatine, but no gas. In litmus milk 
all but six organisms remained a permanent lilac color, six turned 
back to neutral in three weeks and one became a deep blue after one 
week. 

In addition to the above strains an organism isolated from the 
feces of a clinical case of mild typhoid was studied. This organism 
is designated as No. 5. The patient at no time gave a positive 
Widal. The organisms were abundant in the feces and culturally 
differed from Bacillus typhosus only in giving very slow blackening 
of lead acetate agar, negative in xylose, negative in dextrin, positive 
in rhamnose, and distinct alkaline reaction in litmus milk after 72 
hours, but with no saponification. 

DISCUSSION. 

Weiss (2) has reported the cultural characteristics of thirty-one 
strains of typhosus and groups them according to xylose fermenta- 
tion. Three of his strains produced acid slowly and four remained 
negative. One of the negative strains was the Rawlings' strain 
which we also found to be negative. 

Teague (3) objects to such a classification on the basis of xylose 
fermentation on the ground that the so-called negative strains are 
not really incapable of fermenting xylose, but ferment it slowly. 
Four of his strains failed to give acid on the thirty-second day, but 
these strains could be trained to give acid by plating on xylose agar. 
No attempt was made by the author to discover mutants from nega- 
tive strains on any of the carbohydrates used. 

Our strains were uniformly negative on dulcite and arabinose. 
Teague (3) reports eleven out of forty-one strains fermenting these 
sugars slowly. Krumwiede (4) also reports the fermentation in 
dextrin as varying with the sample used. The two cultures giving 
negative in dextrin might, therefore, have shown typical acid pro- 
duction with another sample. 



DOWNS: BACILLUS TYPHOSUS. 



155 



The salacin fermentation seemed variable and did not correlate 
with any other characteristics. 

The danger of confusing nongas-producing paratyphoid strains 
with typhosus has been recently emphasized. Ten Broek (5) re- 
ports a nongas-producing hog-cholera bacillus which resembles in 
some respects B. typhosus. Krumwiede (4) also reports a similarity 
both culturally and serologically between B. pullorum and B. san- 
guinorum and B. typhosus. Myers (6) reports the isolation of a 
rhamnose positive typhosus from a clinical case of typhoid which 
was also atypical in its serological reaction. It was difficult to de- 
cide, therefore, whether No. 5 was a true but irregular typhoid or 
a nongas-producing paratyphoid. Krumwiede (7), using the fer- 
mentation of rhamnose as the deciding factor between typhoid and 
paratyphoid, would place it in the para group. 

AGGLUTINATION AND ABSORPTION TESTS. 

Antigenic irregularities had been observed in this laboratory in 
the course of routine agglutination tests on organisms isolated from 
clinical cases of typhoid and a number of Widals. Parke-Davis 
antityphoid serum, serum from the city laboratory of Wichita, 
Kan., and serum sent us from the University of Chicago were used 
in checking up the antigenic properties of the following organisms: 
Nos. 1,2, 4, 5, 20, 50, 51 and 52. 

Culturally they were all typhoid. Nos. 50, 51 and 52 were strains 
isolated from feces in cases resembling influenza. They are not in- 
cluded in the other tables because of accidental loss. 



TABLE III. — Quantitative variations in agglutinations with commercial sera. 





Sera used. 


No. 


Parke-Davis. 


Wichita. 


University of Chicago. 




Titre. 


Reaction. 


Titre. 


Reaction. 


Titre. 


Reaction. 


1 


1-50 

1-10000 

1-1000 

1-2000 

1-50 

1-50 

1-50 

1-4000 


3 + 

4+ 
4+ 


1-50 

1-50 

1-400 

1-400 

1-50 

1-50 

1-50 




1-8000 

1-10000 

1-2000 

1-1000 

1-50 

1-50 

1-50 

1-8000 


i+ 
4-h 
4-t- • 
4+ 


2 


1+ 


4 


6 


50 




51 






52 






20 


4-h 




4-1- 



156 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

Numerous observers have remarked on the antigenic differences 
in typhoid. Durham (8) observed such differences, but did not 
attempt to group his strains. Weiss (1) and Hooker (9), however, 
offered a tentative grouping on the basis of their agglutination and 
absorption tests. 

The agglutination tests in this series were all done with suspen- 
sions in sterile saline made from twenty-four-hour cultures. The 
serum used came principally from raHabits immunized in this labo- 
ratory. 

A high-titred bivalent horse serum from the New York city board 
of health* prepared from the Mt. Sinai strain, and a freshly isolated 
strain as well as a high-titred serum for which the Rawlings strain 
had been used for immunization from the Lederle laboratories, were 
also used. Table IV gives a summary of the results. In addition 
to the results given here, eight other immune sera were used for 
agglutination against all the organisms with similar results. 

The following technique was used for the absorption tests: The 
serum to be tested was diluted to one-tenth of the titre. This di- 
lution was then saturated with organisms, washed from a twenty- 
four-hour agar slant to make a heavy emulsion. This was incu- 
bated at 37° C. for four hours and for four days at ice-box tempera- 
ture, more organisms being added as the supernatant fluid became 
clear. The control of diluted serum in every case gave a good ag- 
glutination in spite of the prolonged incubation. If the control gave 
agglutination after absorption .with the homologous organism the 
test was repeated. 

Since considerable prominence has been given to the mirror re- 
action in the recent literature, it might be well to establish some 
standard method for absorption tests in order to get comparable 
results. We found the following points must be carefully considered 
in any test: 

1. Weight of suspension. 4. Repeated saturation. 

2. Dilution of serum. 5. Temperature. 

3. Time of absorption. 6. Controls. 

• Krufnwiede (4) recommends a proportion of 1-4 or 3, or at most 
1-2 of packed cells to supernatant fluid. Our proportion after the 
final centrifugation was about 1-3. It was found that a dilution 
of one-tenth the titre of the serum was perfectly satisfactory. Al- 
though higher dilutions could be used, a lower dilution did not give 
complete absorption. Three or four hours was not long enough 

* I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. Charles Kruniwiede for the use of this serum. 



DOWNS: BACILLUS TYPHOSUS. 157 

to give complete absorption and frequently absorption was not 
complete in twenty-four or forty-eight hours. After a standard of 
four days was chosen .no more trouble was experienced. It was 
always necessary to add more organisms as the supernatant fluid 
became clear; the greater the tendency to agglutinate, the larger 
the number of organisms necessary for complete absorption. It 
was necessary to keep the serum at ice-box temperature because of 
the well-known tendency of diluted serum to deteriorate at room 
or incubator temperatures. A control of diluted serum which had 
been incubated under the same conditions as the test sera was neces- 
sary to show that no drop in titre had occurred, and a control of 
the serum to be tested saturated with the homologous organisms 
indicated the completeness of the absorption. Table V gives a 
summary of the absorption tests. 

From table IV it will be seen that the strains of typhoid differ 
perceptibly in their agglutinating properties. On this basis we have 
placed the organisms tentatively into three groups. Group I is 
made up of eleven organisms; group II of twelve organisms; group 
III of two organisms. Group I serum agglutinates all other or- 
ganisms in this group in dilutions practically as high as that given 
for the homologous organisms. Group I serum also agglutinates 
group II organisms, but in lower dilutions; conversely, the group I 
organisms are agglutinated by group II serum, but in lower dilu- 
tions than are the group II organisms. These two groups are closely 
related and interagglutinate to the degree indicated in the table. 
Groups I and II serum give slight or no agglutination with group 
III organisms. Group III, consisting of two strains, Nos. 2 and 3, 
interagglutinate perfectly at 1-15000, but this high-titred serum 
agglutinates members of groups I and II in low dilutions or not 
at all. 

The results of agglutination tests using horse serum indicated 
that the same antigenic differences were present, but that they ap- 
peared in higher dilutions because of the higher titre of the serum. 

To illustrate: No. 12, the Rawlings strain, was completely ag- 
glutinated at 1-80000, and No. 1 at 1-5000. 

Many of these agglutination tests were checked by using the 
microscopic method, care being used to rule out the personal equa- 
tion. Where partial agglutination occurred, the macroscopic meth- 
od seemed to give more definite results. 

It will be seen that the absorption tests show an even closer 
relationship between groups I and II than do the agglutijiation tests. 
No. 1 being somewhat more irregular than the others. The ab- 



158 



THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 



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DOWNS: BACILLUS TYPHOSUS. 



159 



TABLE V. — Absorption testa with Immune sera. 



Absorbing 
antigen. 



Sera used. 



12 



27 



13 


20 


+ 


± 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ . 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


=±= 


+ 


+ 


— 


+ 


+ 


+ 


± 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


— 


+ 


+ 







20. 
21. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 



10 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
19. 
2 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
=fc 

+ 



+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 



+ 


± 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


± 


+ 


+ 


+ 


± 


+ 


— 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


=t 


+ 


+ 


± 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


=b 


± 


— 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


± 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 



+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ Absorption complete. 

± Absorption incomplete but reduction of titre. 

— No absorption. 

sorption tests show a more striking difference between the two or- 
ganisms in group III and the other groups. The antigenic differ- 
ences shown by these organisms could not be correlated with their 
age as with Hooker's (9) organisms, nor with cultural differences 
as with Weiss' (2). 

No. 5 was found to be entirely inagglutinable by any of the sera 
used. . Serum prepared from this organism agglutinated only the 
homologous organism. It did not absorb any of the 'agglutinins 
from the sera prepared from other organisms, nor were its agglutin- 
ins absorbed by other organisms. These facts, in connection with 
the somewhat irregular carbohydrate reactions and the atypical 



160 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

growth on agar slants, made it seem advisable to consider this 
organism one of those unclassified, irregular organisms which are 
not infrequently isolated from stools, although in many respects this 
does not differ any more radically than irregular strains reported 
by other observers. 

In running Widals in this laboratory it was customary to set up 
each serum with B. typhosus, para A and para B. A member of the 
department suggested that it might be advisable to use ' several 
strains of B. typhosus in setting up routine Widals. Accordingly, a 
Widal giving negative with the strain used. No. 2, was again set 
up, using three other strains of typhoid. It again gave a negative 
with No. 2, but was strongly positive with the other two strains. 
It was recognized that apparent antigenic differences of this sort 
might constitute an important source of error in making routine 
laboratory tests. 

The sera for the Widals were obtained from various sources. 
Sera A, C, D, F, G, J and I were from clinical cases of typhoid 
from which the organism was subsequently isolated. The others 
came as positive Widals from reputable laboratories, the majority 
of which use the Rawlings strain. Most of the specimens were 
drops of blood dried on a metal slide or on filter paper. A dilution 
of 1-25 and 1-50 was made and an equal amount of a living sus- 
pension of the organism was added, making an ultimate dilution 
of 1-50 and 1-100. All Widals were set up using Nos. 1, 2, 3, 10 
and 12. No. 12 was selected because it is the Rawlings strain and 
is used for the army vaccine. Numbers 2 and 3 were used because 
of the irregularities exhibited in the absorption tests and No. 10 
because it was an organism giving a clear adherent agglutination 
with most sera used. The results of these tests may be seen in 
table VI. 

It was noticed that fresh serum drawn from the clot and used 
within twenty-four or forty-eight hours gave positive agglutination 
with a larger number of organisms than those made from dried 
blood. In those Widals run with dried blood precipitation was 
usually marked in the tubes giving a positive Widal. This might 
be due to the presence of hemoglobin, foreign substances on the 
metal slides or paper, some change in reaction, or some biochemical 
change. This phenomenon is being investigated. No JDrecipitation 
was noted in the Widals using clear serum, nor in the agglutination 
tests with rabbit serum. Stober (14) mentions the occurrence of 
both precipitation and agglutination with his immune sera. 



DOWNS: BACILLUS TYPHOSUS. 



161 



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1 1 —Science BuL— 3728. 



162 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

From table VI it is readily seen that different organisms with the 
same sera set up at the time showed marked differences in agglutin- 
ability. This may b'e due to the different agglutinabilities inherent 
in the organisms themselves and such marked differences probably 
would not be noted had absorption tests been possible. It is 
recognized that these twenty positive Widals are too few to provide 
a basis for accurate conclusions. It seems highly probable that the 
dried-blood method exaggerates the antigenic differences between 
the organisms, changing what is probably a quantitative into an 
apparently qualitative difference between the organisms. The low 
percentage of positives given with Nos. 2 and 3 might be expected 
from the results given in the absorption tests using immune sera. 
No. 10, on the other hand, gave a very low percentage Gf negatives. 
Those read as partial agglutination in clinical work would be called 
positive. The tubes read as positive gave complete clearing of the 
supernatant fluid ; those read as partial agglutination showed unmis- 
takable agglutination, but with some cloudiness of the supernatant 
fluid. No. 10, therefore, gave 93 per cent positive. No. 12, while giv- 
ing the highest percentage of complete agglutinations, gave only 90 
per cent positive when partial agglutinations are included. It seems 
probable in view of the results obtained that it might be worth while 
to use more than one strain of typhoid in running Widals and to 
select easily agglutinable strains, such as No. 10 Mt. Sinai strain, 
and No. 12 the Rawlings strain. 

The serological reactions here recorded might have an important 
bearing on the following points: 

1. The occurrence of typhoid fever in vaccinated persons. 

2. The advisability of using a polyvalent vaccine. 

3. The occurrence of negative Widals in clinical cases of typhoid 
fever. 

4. Sources of error due to the dried-blood method. 

A number of cases of typhoid fever occurring in vaccinated in- 
dividuals may be found in the literature. Vaughn (10) says that 
"It is possible that in so far as vaccination has failed it is due to 
the disease being caused by other members of the typhoid group, 
. . . which in all probability is much larger than we now ap- 
preciate." Mock (11) reports the occurrence of forty-five cases of 
typhoid and paratyphoid in individuals who had been vaccinated 
about one year previous to the attack. Some of the strains isolated 
were atypical in regard to their cultural and serological reactions, 
but were identified positively as typhoid or paratyphoid organisms. 



DOWNS: BACILLUS TYPHOSUS. 163 

Trowbridge (12) reports the occurrence of a typhoid epidemic 
among vaccinated persons in an institution. Here • the original 
source of infection came from the milk supply, which was infected 
by a vaccinated worker with a mild case of typhoid. It is realized 
that in such an epidemic the dosage may have been sufficient to 
overcome the innnunity acquired from vaccination. Wade and Mc- 
Daniel (13) report the occurrence of an epidemic in an institution 
among vaccinated individuals. Here there seemed to be an in- 
teresting correlation between the negative Widals given after vac- 
cination and the susceptibility of these persons to typhoid. Myers 
and Nielson (6) report the isolation of an atypical strain of typhoid 
from the blood stream and stool, respectively, of two vaccinated 
persons. 

Hooker (9) and Weiss (2) conclude from their experiments that 
a vaccine made from several strains of typhoid would be more effi- 
cient than one made from a single strain. The results of these ob- 
servers and the others reported, together with our findings, would 
suggest that at least it might be well to consider the use of a vaccine 
made from several strains. 

Stober (14) reports three negative Widals and seven positive 
Widals, using an organism isolated from urine. Mock (11) also re- 
ports negative agglutination with typical typhoid organisms iso- 
lated from clinical cases. Robinson (15), on the other hand, re- 
ports no variability in 100 Widals using the Worcester and Raw- 
lings strains. 

In summing up the work done the following conclusions may be 
drawn : 

1. Culturally, the typhoid organisms studied differ very slightly 
from each other, the reaction being most variable in dextrine, 
xylose, salacin and litmus milk. These variations cannot be cor- 
related with the age of the culture nor source. 

2. Cross-agglutination and absorption tests establish the exist- 
ence of at least quantitative antigenic differences between the 
strains used. It occurs to the author that the conflict as to whether 
there are antigenic differences in the typhoid group, may be due to 
the fact that qualitative rather than quantitative differences have 
been emphasized. 

3. There is a marked difference in the agglutination of organisms 
with the sera used in Widals, and it would be advisable to set up 
each Widal with more than one strain, selecting strains which were 
known to give a high percentage of positives. 



164 THE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE BULLETIN. 

4. The use of fresh serum drawn from the clot is much more 
satisfactory than the use of dried blood, changing what is probably 
a quantitative difference into an apparently qualitative difference. 

This work was offered as part of the requirement for a master's 
thesis. 

The author is greatly indebted to Dr. N. P. Sherwood, chairman 
of the department of bacteriology of the University of Kansas, for 
the initiation of this problem and constant aid and encouragement. 

BIBI^IOGRAPHY. 

L Treece. Abstr. of Bact., Feb. 1920, 4, 1, p. 9. 

2. Weiss. Jour. Med. Res., 1917, 36, p. 135. 

3. Teague and Morishima. Jour. Infect. Dis., 1920, 26, p. 52. 

4. Krumwiede, Kohn, and Valentine. Jour. Med. Res., 1918, 38, p. 89. 

5. Ten Broek. Jour, of Exp. Med., 1916, 24, p. 213. 

6. Myers and Nielson. Jour. Infect. Dis., 1920, 27, p. 46. 

7. Krumwiede, Charles. Local citation. 

8. Durham. Jour, of Exp. Med., 5, 1901. 

9. Hooker. Jour. Immunol., 1916, 2, p. 1. 

10. Vaughn. Jour. Lab. & Clin. Med., 1919, 4, p. 640. 

11. Mock. Ibid. 1919, 5, p. 54. 

12. Trowbridge, Finkle, and Barnard. Jour. Am. Med. Assn., 1915, 64, p. 728. 

13. Wade and McDaniel. Am. Jour, of Pub. Health, 1915, 5. p. 136. 

14. Stober. Jour. Infect. Dis., 1904, 1, p. 445. 

15. Robinson. Jour. Med. Res., 1915, 32, p. 399. 



n 

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