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Full text of "University of Toronto monthly"

HANDBOUND 

AT THE 



.UNIVERSITY OF 

TORONTO PRF 




University of Toronto Monthly 



VOL. I. 



JULY, 1900. 



SALUTATORY. 



No. i. 



A UNIVERSITY cannot do its highest work without the co-operation 
of its graduates. A body of graduates cannot maintain its esprit de 
corps without some constant bond of union. To strengthen the co-oper- 
ation between the alumni and the university, and to supply a bond which 
shall unite more closely the scattered alumni, is the work that calls into 
being the "UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY." 

The idea of such a publication is not new. Almost every large United 
States university has its alumni publication ; some of these are published 
weekly, some monthly and some quarterly. At one time Varsity was taken 
by many of the graduates. That cannot be said of the present undergraduate 
journals. The growth of the graduate and undergraduate bodies has made 
the ground too wide to be covered by one publication. The Alumni 
Association felt that a new publication was necessary, and they have issued 
it, trusting that it might find favour with those who are interested in the 
university life of which the Provincial University is the centre. 

The " UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY" is established to promote no 
other interests than those of our university. It has no doctrines to pro- 
pound, no praises to sound, no reforms to advocate. Its pages are open to 
receive articles which may propound wholesome doctrines, which may sound 
deserved praises, or which may advocate reasonable reforms. It will publish 
no anonymous editorials or articles. Every contribution which appears in 
its pages must be signed, and must rest entirely on its inherent merit. 

The Board of Management would respectfully suggest to all graduates 
that a prompt response to its appeal for support is the only response that 
will be really valuable. 

And just a word to prevent misunderstanding. The men who have 
suggested this publication, assisted in starting it and offered to serve on 
the Board of Management, have done so for no other reason than that 
they desire to be of service to their Alma Mater. Their only reward can 
be the appreciation of their fellow alumni. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

THE Registrar's printed list of graduates and undergraduates of the 
University of Toronto contains almost 10,000 names, and this num- 
ber does not include the additions of the last two years. These figures, 
large as they are, give but an inadequate idea of the enormous influence 
exerted by this throng of educated men and women upon the intellectual 
and moral life of Canada. 

Up to the present year, strange as it may seem in an age of organization, 
no society had been formed uniting all these vast forces in a common 
object. This anomaly has now been removed, the Alumni Association is 
an accomplished fact, and already gives promise of valuable service in the 
interests of Alma Mater. Although the desirability of organization had 
long been felt, the first practical movement in that direction came from the 
Graduates' Club of the city of Ottawa, which in the month of March last 
issued a circular urging that some practical step should be taken to this 
end. The appeal found a ready response, and a provisional committee was 
named by President Loudon to make arrangements for a public meeting 
in Toronto. 

The meeting for organization which was held on the I7th April last, was 
a memorable occasion in the history of the university. In spite of a wet 
evening, the lecture-room of the Chemical Building was filled with an 
audience overflowing with enthusiasm for the new project. President 
Loudon, who was voted to the chair, welcomed an audience representing 
the alumni of all faculties, and gathered together not only from Toronto 
but from the Province at large. Continuing his remarks, the President 
referred to the necessity for organization, and urged the alumni, hitherto 
acting as units, to unite in a society to promote the general interests of the 
umiversity. The new Vice-Chancellor, the Honourable Charles Moss, next 
addressed the meeting ; his assurance that he intended to be a working 
officer was particularly well received. From his reminiscences of occasions 
in the past when circumstances such as the fire of 1890 had united the 
graduates in a common effort, he inferred the possibilities for good of the 
contemplated organization. Chancellor Burwash followed with a rousing 
appeal to the alumni of all faculties and schools to unite in the building up 
of a great national university. The Rev. Dr. Teefy, Superior of St. 
Michael's College, in an eloquent address, enlarged upon the same theme 
with particular reference to University College. Mr. Otto Klotz", of Ottawa, 
concluded this part of the programme with some practical remarks, in 
which he described in detail the working of the University Club of Ottawa, 
and the objects and methods of the very successful alumni association of 
the State University of Michigan. 

The meeting next proceeded to the consideration of the draft constitution 
prepared by the provisional committee, which was unanimously adopted in 
the following form : 

I. NAME. This association shall be known as "The University of Toronto Alumni 
Association." 

II. OBJECT. The object of the Association shall be to unite the Alumni in promoting 
the interests of the University of Toronto. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 3 

III. MEMBERSHIP. The membership shall consist of all graduates and undergrad- 
uates in any faculty or department of the University of Toronto, and of all persons who 
have attended the regular exercises of any department of the University for a whole 
session, and of all members of the governing and teaching bodies of the University and 
of federated and affiliated institutions. 

IV. OFFICERS. The officers of the Association shall consist of an honorary president, 
a president, three vice-presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, and twenty elected council- 
lors ; and these officers, together with such ex-officio councillors as are provided for in 
Art. VI. below, shall constitute the Executive Committee, to which shall be entrusted all 
the ordinary business of the Association. The officers shall be elected at the annual 
meeting of the Association. 

V. MEETINGS. The annual meeting shall be held in Toronto in June in Convocation 
week. Special meetings of the Association shall be called by the president on the 
requisition of any ten members, and the president shall have power to summon the 
Executive from time to time. Twenty-five shall form a quorum of the Association, and 
five a quorum of the Executive. 

VI. BRANCH ASSOCIATIONS. Members residing outside of Toronto shall be empow- 
ered to organize themselves into associations for the promotion of the general objects 
of this Association, and, when formed, shall be considered as being in affiliation with 
this Association. The president and secretary of such associations shall be ex-officio 
councillors of this Association. 

VII. PUBLICATIONS. It shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to provide as 
soon as possible for the publication of a journal in the interests of the Association. 

VIII. FEES. There shall be imposed upon each member of the Association an annual 
assessment of one dollar, provided, however, that the non-payment of said assessment 
shall not be construed as vitiating the membership of any individual ; and provided, 
further, that said annual assessment shall not be cumulative. 

IX. AMENDMENTS. The constitution shall not be amended, except at an annual 
meeting. Notice of all proposed amendments to the constitution shall be communi- 
cated to the Executive Committee at least ten days before the date of the annual 
meeting. 

The following officers were elected unanimously : 

Honorary President James Loudon, M.A., LL.D. 

President R. A. Reeve, B.A., M.D. 

Vice- Presidents Mr. Otto J. Klotz, L. E. Embree, M.A., J. H. Coyne, B.A. 

Secretary J. C. McLennan, Ph.D. 

Treasurer S. J. Robertson, B.A. 

Councillors Miss G. Lawler, M.A.; Mrs. J. R. L. Starr, B.A.; Alfred Baker, M.A. ; 
C. H. C. Wright, B.A.Sc.; J. Fletcher, M.A., LL.D.; I. H. Cameron, M.B.; F. F. Mac- 
pherson, B.A.; T. A. Russell, B.A.; George Wilkie, B.A.; G. H. Watson, B.A., LL.B.; 
Graham Chambers, B.A., M.B.;W. E. Willmott, D.D.S.; J. A. Cooper, B.A., LL.B.; J. M. 
Clarke, M.A., LL.B.; Thomas Mulvey, B.A.; Hon. S. C. Biggs B.A.; James Mills, M.A., 
LL.D.; A. R. Bain, M.A., LL.D.; Mr. E. J. Kylie ; F. E. Brown, B.A. 

Councillors (ex-officio) W. D. Le Sueur, B.A., LL.D., F. B. Proctor, B.A., repre- 
senting the Toronto University Club, of Ottawa, Ont.; Rev. Robt. Whittington, M.A., 
B.Sc., Alfred Hall, M.A., LL.B., B.C.L., representing the University of Toronto 
Alumni Association of British Columbia. 

It will be observed that the Association is organized on the broadest 
possible basis, and includes in its membership not only graduates and 
undergraduates of all faculties and departments, but even non-matriculated 
students who have attended lectures in the University for a whole session. 
The aim of the organization is to unite the efforts and the influence of this 
large and varied constituency for the promotion of the interests of the 
university in its relation to higher education in the Dominion. Its possi- 
bilities of usefulness are practically unlimited. 

The university has in the past suffered more perhaps from want of 
information as to its objects, its work and its needs, than from any other 
cause. This ignorance unfortunately has not been confined Jo the genera 



4 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

public, but has extended in large measure to the graduates as well. This 
state of affairs, though regrettable, is but natural, owing to the fact that 
graduates are widely scattered, and have had hitherto no regular source of 
information beyond the chance items of the public press. The most 
practical mode of communication for a body of such extent is obviously 
some form of journal or magazine, and the Executive has lost no time in 
giving effect to the clause in the constitution relating to this matter. At 
the annual meeting held on the i2th of June, the recommendation that a 
monthly magazine be published was unanimously adopted. Such journals 
have had abundant success in the alumni associations of the larger univer- 
sities of the United States, and the present publication should prove in- 
valuable in the dissemination of information regarding the university and 
its alumni, not to mention its function as an organ for the promulgation or 
discussion of university policy. 

The organization of local alumni associations in connection with the 
central association is a feature capable of much useful development. 
There is not a county of Ontario which is without its quota of university 
graduates, while in many of the larger towns and cities they may be 
numbered by scores or even by hundreds. The beneficial effects which 
would result from the organization of these scattered bands are apparent. 
Each local society would be a centre of university influence, while no in- 
considerable profit would result to the alumni themselves through being 
brought into social relations with each other. 

A large part of the interest in the Association is likely to centre round 
the proceedings of Convocation week. What better opportunity for re- 
unions of graduates of various years, for the renewal of old friendships, and 
for taking counsel as to university policy, than is afforded by the social 
events which may be held in connection with the Convocation exercises? 
Already a beginning has been made in this direction, and those who have 
been privileged to take part in the functions described in other pages of 
this issue will cherish the remembrance of the most interesting Convoca- 
tion which has been held in the history of the institution. 

It is not the object of this article to enlarge upon the scope of the 
Association or upon its various spheres of usefulness in detail. Much has 
been omitted which will readily occur to the reader. One point, however, 
should be emphasized. There is a large amount of preliminary work to be 
done, demanding patience and self-sacrifice on the part of the Executive. 
Money too will be needed, particularly for the publication of this journal 
and for clerical work. The Executive have a right to count on the 
sympathy and co-operation of the alumni, and on their financial support. 
The ultimate success of the undertaking will depend on the alumni them- 
selves, and the present writer begs to urge upon his fellow alumni to rally 
in support of a project which makes for the upbuilding of the institution to 
which we owe so much and upon the efficiency of which the intellectual 
progress of this country so largely depends. 

W. H. Fraser, 'So. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



TORONTO UNIVERSITY CLUB OF OTTAWA. 

THAT a large number of graduates claiming- the same Alma Mater and 
living in the same place, should remain disunited, seems and is un- 
natural. Ottawa has, especially in the Civil Service, a goodly number of 
graduates of the University of Toronto, but at one time these were in a 
large degree unknown to each other, as their association with the univer- 
sity extended over a wide range of years. It is now some seven years 
since a score or so of the more ardent alumni in Ottawa met for the pur- 
pose of forming a club, the objects of which, as stated in the constitution 
then adopted gth February, 1894 are: 

To foster good fellowship among' its members ; 

To have at heart and assist in every possible way the development of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto, and 

To maintain and encourage an active interest in the Arts and in Science. 

The name chosen by the club is "The Toronto University Club of 
Ottawa." In passing, it may be stated that the designation "Toronto 
University Club " was selected after discussion, on account of brevity, in 
preference to the more accurate, but clumsier one, of " University of To- 
ronto Club." Immediate steps were taken to canvass the city and a list 
of the graduates and undergraduates was prepared, when it was found 
that there were over a hundred alumni in Ottawa and half as many under- 
graduates. 

It is but natural that the first step in attaining one of the objects of the 
club goodfellowship was to hold a dinner, and this event has been suc- 
cessfully carried out annually ever since. During the winter season con- 
versaziones, at-homes and smoking concerts have been held, so that now 
we are a band of about one hundred and fifty, known to one another, 
taking interest in one another and bound together by the ties of a common 
Alma Mater. 

During recent years we have added to our alumni a number of the fair 
sex, who take an active interest in the club, and at our last annual meet- 
ing two were elected office-bearers. As a further mark of the university 
spirit pervading our women graduates it may be mentioned that they have 
formed an Alumnae Club in affiliation with the parent body. Active and 
tangible interest has also been shown by them in the movement for the 
founding of a Women's Residence in Toronto. 

Two years ago Ottawa instituted the annual presentation of two gold 
medals one in mathematics and one in physics in connection with the 
annual University of Toronto examinations, and it is to be hoped that 
others will not only follow the example, but will offer scholarships and 
travelling fellowships. It is a field that will bear cultivation. 

At the annual meeting it is customary for the president to give an ad- 
dress. Three years ago the president, in speaking of the functions of a 
university in general, reviewed the history of the University of Toronto, 
dwelling upon its endowment, resources, expenditures and wants; upon 
the duties and obligations of the alumni toward their Alma Mater; and 
upon the relation of the university to the state. On this latter subject he 



6 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

expressed his very decided opinion that it must remain a state institution, 
but not political, if it is to continue to expand, to be the people's univer- 
sity and to be a potent factor in the progress of our province and country. 

To attain this end it was evident that a local club could accomplish but 
little. A larger organization was necessary, for missionary work had to 
be done. The public had to be educated to the requirements of the uni- 
versity, not so much for the students attending, but for the general benefit 
of the whole Dominion, since no graduate leaves the university without add- 
ing to the progress of the community and the development of our country. 
Nevertheless the inauguration of the movement for the formation of a 
general alumni association lay dormant with us in Ottawa till our last 
annual meeting, when a resolution was unanimously adopted for taking 
active steps looking towards its consummation. Communication was 
opened with Toronto and a hearty support was received. The Ottawa 
Club then issued a circular urging graduates to attend a meeting of the 
alumni in the Chemical Building, Toronto, on April zyth last. 

The future of the university is in the hands of the alumni, and if they 
are true to themselves, true to the university and true to the interest and 
welfare of the public, there can be no question of the high position the 
university will attain and maintain. We take some pride in the little we 
have done in Ottawa, and hope that many other centres will follow the 
example and excel our endeavours in behalf of the University of Toronto. 

Otto J. Klotz. 



CHANGES AND PROGRESS. 

BY PRESIDENT LOUDON. 

/ 'T V HE object of this paper is to cast a retrospective glance over the last 
-^ ten or twelve years and to note such changes and lines of progress as 
may enable the alumni of 1890, or earlier years, to realize what the 
university of the year 1900 is like and what it is doing. The Arts Faculty, 
which is the central and vital portion of the whole organization, will be 
first passed under review. 

Ten years ago the university main building, which, in the minds of most 
graduates, figures forth the outward form of their Alma Mater, was a 
crumbling mass of ruins in process of rebuilding and reconstruction. To 
many of those who remember the comfortless interior of the old building, 
the fire of 1890 appears as a blessing in disguise, even though it entailed 
an expenditure of $250,000. The class rooms are more numerous, the light- 
ing is good, the heating and ventilation are up to modern requirements. 
True, Convocation Hall has disappeared in the process, and that is to be 
regretted, although the university had already outgrown it. Besides, the 
space previously occupied by Library and Museum has been converted into 
two large and beautiful halls chiefly used for examination purposes. The 
exterior of the grand old building has remained unchanged. 

Not the least of the blessings in disguise which the fire brought with it 
was the new Library building. It is a beautiful structure of grey stone, at 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 7 

the east of the lawn, with stack-room space for over 100,000 volumes, and 
accommodation for 200 readers. Older graduates are filled with admira- 
tion when they see the almost perfect arrangements of the new library and 
contrast them with the antique, though picturesque, book-shelves of the 
old, and the stuffy reading-rooms, which now, by the way, have been trans- 
formed into comfortable quarters for the women students. The main cost 
of the Library building was contributed by private benefactors, and the 
university owes to them a debt of gratitude as well as to the graduates 
and friends who in large part replaced the books lost in the fire. 

Progress in science has been most characteristic of the newer university, 
and with this progress are connected the new Biological and Chemical 
buildings. The Biological building occupies the site of the ramshackle 
structure which was known to the students of twenty years ago as Moss 
Hall. It is built of grey stone, in a simple though substantial style of 
architecture, was completed in 1890, and cost $130,000. Its numerous 
and splendidly equipped laboratories have replaced the temporary quarters 
which biology formerly occupied in the attic of the School of Practical 
Science. 

The Chemical building, situated near the Observatory, and completed in 
1895 at a cost of $82,000, is the ideal of a modern practical laboratory, 
built for use and not display. Its walls of plain unadorned brick within 
and without show that not a dollar has been spent for adornment, while 
every arrangement is up to the most advanced modern standard of labora- 
tory effectiveness. In it are to be found working places for 200 students, 
and a lecture-room with accommodation for 500. 

In this connection should also be mentioned the gradually expanding 
Physical Laboratory, and the newer Psychological Laboratory, both situ- 
ated in the main building. 

Athletics is a department of increasing importance in university organi- 
zation. Here, nothing short of a revolution has taken place. Out-door 
sports have been provided with a new campus in the rear of the main 
building, and also an additional field near McMaster University. In-door 
exercises have been provided for by the erection of a $30,000 building in 
red brick, near the main building, and the students of all faculties and 
colleges are now enjoying the facilities afforded, which form a marked con- 
trast to the rudimentary gymnasium of 20 years ago which occupied a part 
of Moss Hall. A fine students' union hall, reading-rooms and committee 
rooms occupy the front part of the Gymnasium building. 

As a practical result of Federation and the removal of Victoria University 
to Toronto should be mentioned also in this enumeration the beautiful 
building of that institution, constructed of grey stone, and situated to the 
north-east of Queen's Park. It affords accommodation for the Theological 
and Arts faculties of Victoria, and was completed in 1892. 

In nothing perhaps is the inevitable course of change more noticeable 
than in the personnel of the teaching staff. During the past session the 
teaching staff in Arts of the University and University College consisted of 
48 members. In 1880 it consisted of but 14 members, and of the staff of 
1880 only five members remain in active service, viz.: President Loudon 
and Professors Wright, Hutton, Baker and VanderSmissen. Of that 



8 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

older staff the alumni will note with regret the absence of the names of 
President Sir Daniel Wilson, and of Professors Croft, Buckland, Chap- 
man, Kingston, Young and Mr. Hirschfelder. Two of these, Professor Chap- 
man and Mr. Hirschfelder, are still living in the enjoyment of good health 
though retired from active service. The figures show an increase of more 
than threefold in the teaching force in two decades, and to this should be 
added the Arts staff of Victoria of 13 members, which teaches the subjects 
common to that institution and University College. 

Another record of expansion is found in the statistics of students in 
attendance at the university. The numbers for 1880 and 1890 are not 
readily available, but in the session 1898-99, 1226 students were instructed 
in the Arts faculty. The contrast between these figures with 347 for 1881 
will prove sufficiently striking. If we look at the number of degrees con- 
ferred we find that in the last decade the total "output" of the university 
has practically doubled. The figures are : Arts Graduates, 96 for 1889-90 
and 184 for 1898-99 ; total number of degrees conferred, 207 for 1889-90 
and 400 for 1898-99. 

Concurrent with these various changes in the buildings, staff, and num- 
bers of students, there has been going on, especially during the last four or 
five years, a remarkable transformation in the scope and object of the work 
of the university. The old ideal of a university as merely an institution 
for the transmission of knowledge, is passing away. This ideal is that of 
the college as contrasted with the university proper which has the ad- 
ditional function of adding to the sum total of knowledge by original re- 
search. The larger colleges of the United States have passed through 
this stage of evolution, and a like change is inevitable here. Some pro- 
gress has already been made. In 1897 the Senate established the degree 
of Ph.D. conditional on original research, and arrangements have been 
made in several departments for complying with the conditions. Two 
candidates have already received the degree, while eight students are pro- 
ceeding to the degree. Besides these, eight graduate students are in 
attendance, some of whom will ultimately take the Ph.D. course. 

As part of the same general movement should be noted the establish- 
ment in 1897 of a journal under the title of " University Studies," the 
object of which is to publish original research papers by members of the 
staff, and by graduate students. Some 12 papers of this nature have been 
already issued, nor does this at all represent the total activity of the 
university along this new line, since, even within the last three years,, 
research papers by members of the faculty have appeared in many of the 
scientific journals of England, Germany and the United States. 

Among minor changes on the Arts side affecting the intellectual life of 
the university might be noted the local lectures and the Saturday lectures. 
The local lectures are delivered throughout the Province at the request of 
literary or scientific societies. A programme of lectures was published at 
the beginning of last session by the faculty of the University and University 
College, and lectures were delivered at 35 local centres. A similar work 
is carried on by the faculty of Victoria. These lectures have done much 
to bring the university and its work before the thinking people of Ontario. 
The Saturday lectures are delivered weekly during part of the second 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 9 

term at the university by gentlemen distinguished in the fields of literature, 
science and art, who have for some years back given their services for this 
purpose. 

The university, as older alumni knew it, taught arts alone and gave 
degrees in arts, law, medicine and engineering. The university of to-day 
has added to these subjects, degrees in agriculture, dentistry, pharmacy, 
music and pedagogy. It is in affiliation with eight institutions teaching 
these various subjects, in which the curriculum but not the teaching is 
controlled by the Senate. In medicine an important departure was intro- 
duced under the Federation Act of 1887. The medical teaching faculty, 
abolished in 1853, was restored in 1887, and has since then become 
thoroughly established. Its students number at present 313. They 
enjoy the exceptional advantages afforded by the Arts faculty in the scien- 
tific subjects. The reorganization of the Medical faculty has done good 
service in elevating the standard of medical education. Moreover, as in 
the case of the Arts faculty, progress has been made in the direction of 
research work, for the promotion of which two scholarships have already 
been established. The work of the Medical faculty, it may be added, is 
not only carried on free of cost to the funds but is actually a considerable 
source of income. 

From these few jottings, which do not make any claim to be exhaustive, 
and which might be expanded indefinitely in detail, the older alumni may 
gain a fuller idea of the wonderful expansion which the university has 
undergone, especially during the last ten or twelve years. They should 
know at the same time that the total expenditure of the institution (includ- 
ing medicine) during the past financial year was but $149,266.00, and that 
such a sum is quite inadequate. How to provide an increased income for 
this great work is one of the problems in the solution of which the influence 
of the alumni should prove most valuable. Ways and means will doubt- 
less be found as time goes on, but the very existence of such an association 
is a cause of strength to the university and an evidence of the latent 
powers on which our Alma Mater may rely for her future advancement. 



THE ALUMNI BANQUET. 

AT rHO of the four hundred graduates present at the first banquet of the 
* Alumni of the University of Toronto will ever forget it ! And doubt- 
less the night of June the i2th will long remain as one of the most mem- 
orable in the history of Canada's greatest university. The alumni had at last* 
been aroused from their lethargy, and by representatives from almost every 
class since 1853, they gave proof conclusive that the sons and daughters 
of the university had come to realize the duty and service they owe to their 
Alma Mater. This might seem little enough to some, but when one stops 
to consider the probable consequences of this new awakening, one must 
admit the exceeding importance of the event. 

Some one has remarked, and doubtless with no little reason, that there 
has been one circumstance more than any other which most impeded the 



io UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

progress that the university has so persistently been striving" to make. 
This has been the fact that the great mass of the people of the Province of 
Ontario have not been educated to a proper appreciation of what higher 
education can do for a growing country and the consequent advantages of 
a university, at which its sons and daughters might get the best training 
and most advanced thought obtainable anywhere. Doubtless there is 
great force in this, especially when one remembers that the university is 
dependent on the state. It has been remarked that a successful govern- 
ment either follows quickly or presages closely the wishes of the majority 
of the people on any subject, and hence could the people of the province 
but be persuaded that the university both needs and merits immediate 
help doubtless the government in power would be very ready to offer it. 

But who are going to carry on the extensive missionary work necessary 
to obtain a favourable feeling towards the university throughout the coun- 
try ? Why, surely the graduates of the university ! And it is not too 
much to say that the evening of June 1 2th heralded a new era of prosperity 
to the provincial university, because of the- fact that her graduates had 
awakened to an appreciation of their Alma Mater that doubtless many of 
them never before realized. One could plainly see this in the general tone 
of the gathering, and in the enthusiastic expressions of loyalty that greeted 
every reference to the university. 

There are many directions in which graduates may work, and doubtless 
will work. They may appeal to the people either directly or reach them 
indirectly through the press ; they can convert the people's representative 
to Parliament if he needs it, and who will doubt but that excellent results 
will follow such a course? A persistent pursuit of such a policy would 
ultimately cause such a condition of affairs that any government would be 
very willing to open its coffers and provide adequately for the university. 

All this may seem a digression, but the daily papers gave the affair such 
great prominence that it seems better to treat it didactively rather than 
descriptively. In one regard, however, the dinner was unique a fair 
proportion of women graduates and wives of the professors sat down at 
the tables allotted to their respective years. Before the banquet many men 
demurred at the prospect of having a mixed banquet, but it is safe to say 
that the novelty of Wednesday evening's banquet will become the rule of 
future alumni banquets that is as far as the men are concerned. The 
ladies thoughtfully adjourned, to the gallery after the courses had been 
served and allowed the men to enjoy their after-dinner smoke. 

President Loudon presided and was enthusiastically greeted by the large 
number of graduates present, many of whom had been students of his. 
He proposed the toast to " The Queen " in a few well-chosen words, and 
also that of " Alma Mater." The latter toast was accompanied by the new 
Latin hymn, written by Professor Hutton. This was a great success and 
was rendered with that earnest enthusiasm which could only come from 
the hearts of loyal sons of the university. 

The Honourable Richard Harcourt, himself an old graduate, proposed 
the toast of "The Empire and its Defenders," in a well-phrased speech. 
His references to the Canadian representatives in South Africa and the 
Varsity men with them, were greeted with storms of applause. This toast 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY n 

was replied to by Sir Charles Tupper, whose venerable appearance and 
strong personality at once captured his hearers. In spite of his age, he 
gave abundant evidence of a remarkably youthful and vigorous character 
both in voice and manner. His utterances were British in every regard, 
and were laden with encomiums of the British and Colonial troops. Dur- 
ing the course of his speech he drew attention to one thing in particular 
worthy of notice. He said that after a prolonged period of study he had 
concluded that the greatness of the British nation was due to the following 
circumstance more than to any other : That the best men in England, in 
whatever field of endeavour their energies and abilities might be directed, 
were always eager to serve their country in the Parliament of the people. 
He therefore urged university graduates to follow political life and do their 
best to uplift it by seeing to it that good men were chosen to represent the 
people in the Canadian House of Commons. Mr. E. H. Smythe, Q.C., of 
Kingston, also responded to this toast. 

When the new Chancellor, Sir William Meredith, arose to respond to the 
toast " Alma Mater " he was enthusatistically applauded for some minutes, 
proving clearly the esteem in which he is held by the graduates. As his 
speech is given in another part of this magazine, it will be unnecessary to 
refer to it at length here. Suffice it to say that the earnest determination 
to fight the university's battle which was so characteristic of his whole speech, 
profoundly impressed his hearers and firmly established him in the hearts 
of all graduates. He not only did this, but he inspired all, and showed 
that he was ready and eager to do anything that might advance the 
interests of his Alma Mater. 

Dr. McLellan, of Hamilton Normal College, proposed the toast of the 
Alumni Association, the healthy child that it is, and showed clearly what 
a great power it might become in the land. Mr. J. H. Coyne, of St. 
Thomas, responded to this and credited Professor Baker and Dr. J. C. 
McLennan for their excellent work in connection with the organization of 
the Association. 

Lieut. -Col. Ponton, of Belleville, and Prof. Mills also spoke. Vice- 
Chancellor Moss proposed the health of the graduating class in a happy 
speech. Mr. F. E. Brown, B.A., and Mr. P. L. Scott, M.B., replied. 
Then came "God save the Queen," and the first banquet of the Alumni 
Association of the University of Toronto was at an end. A great deal of 
the success was due to the hard work and thoughtfulness of Prof. Baker 
aud Mr. V. E. Henderson, B.A. 

Geo. W. Ross, '09. 



12 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



THE CHANCELLOR'S ADDRESS. 

/ T V HE following is a partial report of the address made by Sir William 
1 Meredith, Chancellor of the University of Toronto, at the alumni 
dinner on Tuesday, the i2th June: 

MR. PRESIDENT, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, Permit me to thank you most 
cordially for the way in which my name has been received to-night, and 
upon this the first occasion upon which I have had the honour of meeting 
the graduates of the university assembled together, to thank them for the 
great honour which they have done me by electing me to the proud position 
which I occupy as Chancellor of the University of Toronto. 

I but repeat what the Honourable the Minister of Education has said for 
me. I have had some public experience ; some things undeserved perhaps 
have fallen in my way during my lifetime. No distinction which has 
fallen to my lot have I felt prouder of than that I should be named by the 
great body of the graduates of the University of Toronto their unanimous 
choice for Chancellor of this great institution of learning. 

It is a singular irony of fate that I, who, unlike my friend upon my 
right and my right honorable friend upon my left, was not a supporter of 
woman suffrage, should find myself with a constituency composed largely, 
or to a considerable extent, of women graduates of the University of 
Toronto. I do not know that I should, if I were ever to return to public 
life, change my views upon the question of woman suffrage ; however, I 
mention that circumstance in passing as a singular thing that I should 
have them as part of my constituency. 

I had intended to-night, Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, to make 
a brief review of the history of the university during the past ten 
years, but the lateness, of the hour forbids me doing that at the length 
which otherwise I had intended. You will, therefore, have to take my 
word for the conclusions which I announce and which I would have 
supported by figures and statements from the records. 

The progress of the university since 1890 has been most marked. In 
1890 the number of graduates in Arts was but 96, while in the year 1898-9 
the number had increased to 184. The number of graduates in all branches 
has increased from 207 to 400. The number of students I was unable 
to obtain for the year 1890, but there has been a most remarkable increase 
from the year 1881, the figures of which I was able to obtain, from 347 in 
that year to 1,226 in the present year. 

The number of the members of the faculty has increased from 14 twenty 
years ago to 48 now. So that there has been in this direction a very large 
increase in the work which the university has been doing. 

In 1890 the magnificent building which was the pride of the people of 
this Province was destroyed by fire. That building was replaced, its 
beautiful exterior being preserved, while its interior was made more suitable 
to modern requirements and the efficiency of work within its limits. The 
magnificent Library building was added by the munificence of the people 
of this Province. 

Since then the university has provided the Biological building, erected at 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 13 

an expense of $130,000, and the Chemical building, erected at an expense 
of $82,000 ; and while these great steps for promoting the scientific educa- 
tion of the people of this country have been taken, the authorities have not 
been unmindful of the needs of physical culture, for they have provided the 
magnificent campus and, at an expense of $30,000, the Gymnasium, 
within whose walls we are assembled to-night. 

In conformity with what has been going on in other universities there 
has been expansion in the direction of research work. For the past five 
years progress has been made in that direction, and in the year 1897, act- 
ing with a view to promoting that species of work, the Senate established 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The beginnings of such things are 
necessarily small. Already one gentleman has achieved that degree ; another 
has earned it and will have it conferred upon him to-morrow, and there 
are yet eight more on the way to obtaining the degree, in addition to eight 
who are pursuing a post-graduate course in the university. 

It will be seen, I think, therefore, that in these respects the university 
is keeping pace with its duty to the community in the ever-increasing 
demands upon an institution of that kind for expansion, growth and 
increase. 

In addition to all that, in 1887 there was re-established the Medical 
faculty. The result of that re-establishment was that some of the most 
eminent professional men of this city gave their services to the establish- 
ment of the faculty, and to-day we have in connection with the university 
a faculty which is a credit to the university and to the Province. 

I would not desire to-night, sir, to enter upon any controversial ground ; 
it would be highly improper to do so at a time when negotiations are tak- 
ing place between Trinity School and the Senate of the University ot 
Toronto with regard to certain complaints that have been made by Trinity 
as to the position of the Medical faculty of the University of Toronto. It 
would, I say, be highly improper of me to-night, when the matter is so to 
say subjudice, to enter upon a discussion of it. 

Complaints have been made upon the part of Trinity School of Medicine 
that they have not been, and are not being, fairly treated by reason of the 
too favourable position which the Medical faculty now occupies in connec- 
tion with medical education. Efforts are being made to examine the com- 
plaints that have been put forward on the part of Trinity, and while the 
ultimate solution of them rests with the Legislature and Government of 
the Province, so far as 1 am able to speak for the University of Toronto, 
every well-grounded complaint will be carefully considered. But on this 
point I think I may say, without departing from the rule which I have laid 
down for myself, that the university will never of itself, whatever it may be 
compelled by legislative action to do, surrender a medical faculty in con- 
nection with it as a means of education in that branch of scientific learning 
(applause) and speaking for myself, I hope, sir, it will never say to the 
gentlemen who, under difficulties, and grave difficulties, undertook the 
work of establishing the faculty, "now that you have brought it to a 
position of perfection, now that you have made it something of which the 
university as well as you may be proud, we are going to take from you the 
work which you have created and give it to others." (Applause.) 



14 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Speaking for myself, that is the stand, I think, which ought to be taken. 
But every complaint on the part of Trinity which indicates that in any 
way there is unfair treatment or even the suspicion of unfair treatment 
in connection with her students, that it seems to me ought to be considered 
and removed. 

I think that the records of the university show that with the means at 
their command, those charged with the administration of its affairs have 
done their duty by the Province, and that they have not wrapped their tal- 
ent in a napkin, but with the means at their command have done great 
service in the interests of education, and, therefore, in the interests of the 
people of this Province. But, sir, the university is now confronted with a 
serious financial difficulty. In the last year there was a deficit upon its 
operations, notwithstanding a very considerable increase in fees from the 
students, of some $14,200, which really should be a sum of $25,000, if an 
amount placed to the credit of the Upper Canada College Fund were elim- 
inated, as it ought upon good business principles to be eliminated, and 
another sum which was saved by dispensing with examinations in Arts. If 
these matters are provided for, if the necessary increases that according to 
the statute are to be provided for the salaries of the professors in the near 
future are to be met, and if the university is to keep pace, as it ought to 
do with other universities, by reorganizing its department of Mineralogy 
and Geology, a sum of not less than $50,000 a year will be required 
from the people of this Province for the present needs of the university. 
(Applause.) 

There has been some discussion recently as to the true position of the 
university in its relation to the Province. I am one of those who believe 
that it is essential that the university of this Province should be a State 
institution. (Applause.) I do not believe that the people of this country 
will ever consent, nor do I believe it would be expedient or in the 
interests of education that the Province should release its control of and 
hand over to private persons this magnificent heritage and the guardian- 
ship of the University of Toronto. But what I think the people of this Pro- 
vince have a right to expect I am making no suggestion of an accusation 
against anybody and to demand is, that the hands of partizanship shall 
be kept off the university (applause) that as far as is consistent with the 
governmental responsibility and control of the institution, its immediate 
control shall be delegated to those who are best able to administer the 
internal affairs of the university, and that no party, be it Conservative or 
be it Reform, shall exploit the university for the purpose of party advan- 
tage, or shall make use of it for the purpose of creating political fireworks 
to carry it through a general election or put out of power a government 
that is holding the reins of power. (Applause.) The interests of the 
university, and the interests that are bound up in it, are of so high and 
so paramount a character that mere partizan politics and when I was in 
public life I was not one of those who believed we could get on without 
party government dwarf into insignificance and are not to be thought of 
beside them. 

Sir, in 1887 th people of this Province through their Legislature and 
Government entered into a federation passed an Act which resulted in 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 15 

Victoria University surrendering its power to confer Arts degrees, and 
entering into the university. I hope and I believe that if there be a spirit 
of conciliation a spirit of fair play, a spirit of give and take, the rela- 
tions between Victoria and the University of Toronto will be of the most 
cordial character, indeed that the lines that separate the students of the 
one from those of the other will be broken down, and we shall soon cease to 
remember the differences, and difficulties, and bitternesses, if there have 
been such in the past. (Applause. ) 

Seventy years ago the men who came to this country determined to win 
this then forest to civilization, and those who laid the foundations of this 
great Province of Ontario were men who had breadth of view, in some 
respects at all events, and forethought, and it entered into those men's 
minds so long ago as that, that there was a then pressing need for laying 
aside for the higher education of the people of this country a portion of 
the waste lands of the Province, which ultimately resulted in the setting 
apart of 500,000 acres of land for the purpose of higher education. It may 
be, in fact it no doubt is true, that they had not the higher and broader 
view that prevails in these days with regard to the way in which that fund 
should be used ; but still they builded better than they knew, and sometimes 
I think that we may say in the face of what those men did, of what they 
saw of the needs of the day, that the people of to-day are not doing their 
duty as their forefathers did. 

Sir, we live in a country where democratic institutions are established. 
We have the freest and most democratic country under the sun. I say 
this, taking into consideration the United States upon the south of 
the line, which nominally may be more democratic, but are really less so 
than Canada. (Hear, hear, and applause.) There is no country in which 
the people directly have more the control and management of their own 
affairs than in this Province and in this Dominion. The day is fast dis- 
appearing, indeed, is now gone, when the Government of the day is 
believed to be a great almoner which is, from some unknown source, 
handing out its bounty to the people. The people now recognize that 
the Government is but the trustee of the people, to carry out the will of 
the people, and that so soon as it ceases to do so it is no longer fitted 
to act as agent and trustee for the people. 

I have pointed out to you what the present needs of ttie university are. 
I ask what is the duty of the Government and Legislature of this Pro- 
vince to-day in the face of this condition of things ? If they are to be 
worthy of this great Province, of its present and its future, to my mind 
there is but one answer, that they are bound to rise to the situation and 
come forward and give every dollar that is required for the purpose of 
putting the university upon a proper and safe footing, providing not only 
for the present but for her future wants. (Loud applause.) I have great 
confidence in the people of this Province. In times past, so long ago that 
I have almost ceased to remember them I did not always agree with them 
in the choice they made of their rulers, but I have confidence that the 
people when they know what is right will insist upon right being done. 
(Applause.) 

My friend (if he will permit me to call him so), the honourable gentleman 



16 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

at the left of the President, -has spoken of the influence of the alumni of the 
university in sending to Parliament men of high reputation and fit to take 
part in the councils of a great nation such as Canada is. I think he might 
have gone further and have said, "Send up of your graduates men to 
govern the people of this country." 

Sir, there is at times I hope I am not transgressing the line which 
should separate the judge from politics in saying it a feeling, and there 
are too many who express it, that politics is a dirty stream into which no de- 
cent man ought to enter. I have no sympathy with cries like that. Politics 
rightly understood is the government of the country, and if it is a dirty 
stream it is because the men that ought to keep it pure permit it to be so. 
(Applause.) And I would add my voice to that of the distinguished 
gentleman who has appealed to you, to use your influence to purify this 
stream. Insist upon wiping out throughout the length and breadth of 
this land the filth of bribery and every other crime connected with impurity 
of elections. Insist upon having a free and unbiassed expression of the 
will of the people of the country and this university and its graduates 
can accomplish great results if they will but assist in bringing about that 
condition of things. Let every man who is honoured by being a graduate 
of the university say, " I do not care which party the man belongs to 
whether he belongs to my party or to the other party, I cannot support 
him unless he is a clean and a decent man." (Applause.) The heeler and 
the man that is in politics only for what can be made out of it would then 
soon be driven out, and there would be no longer the cry that political life 
is not the place for a decent man. There can be, as has already been 
indicated, no higher and no more important duty than to sit in the councils 
of a great nation guiding her course, making laws for the present and 
laws which may shape her destiny for generations to come. The person who 
would deter any young man from looking in that direction and seeking by 
every means in his power to purify political life is, I think, an enemy to 
his country. 

In placing the franchise upon the broad democratic basis upon which 
it now rests there devolved upon the Government and Legislature the duty 
of providing for the education of the people, so that the democracy which 
rules should be an educated democracy. It is, as I have said, an impera- 
tive duty to maintain in an efficient condition the Provincial University, 
because an efficient and up-to-date university is essential to the complete- 
ness of a proper system of state education. 

I add, Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, my congratulations to those 
that have been uttered by the speakers who have preceded me upon the mag- 
nificent success of this gathering. It will do good because it brings to- 
gether the graduates of this university to meet and talk over old times, 
and that in itself is an extremely good thing. 

If I am correctly informed, I am sorry to say that there is not to-day 
among the undergraduates of the university the same cohesion and the 
same support of sports and that kind of thing that goes on, as there 
was in the days gone by. I hope it is not true, or if it is, that it will be dis- 
continued and that the young men will feel a pride in their Alma Mater, 
and such gatherings as this tend to help on that feeling. But I am looking 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 17 

upon it from a graver and more important side. It does seem to me that 
this meeting is a great factor, because if the men who are here to-night 
and the men who are graduates of the university will but exercise their 
power, no Government can live in this Province that will not do justice to 
the university and to the higher education of the people of the Province. 

My friend who sits upon my right I know to be an ardent supporter and 
friend of the university (applause) and meetings such as this is and the 
consequences of meetings such as this strengthen his hands and the hands 
of those who think like him, and so enable him and those who may con- 
stitute the Government of the day to go to the Legislature with a proposi- 
tion that will meet with the approval of the people of this country. I 
believe the people of this Province have only to have pointed out to them 
what the needs of the university are and they will then demand that the 
university be put upon a proper footing. 

I recognize my inability to fill the position of Chancellor as the distin- 
guished Canadian who preceded me filled it. I cannot hope to bring to the 
discharge of my duties the ability or experience which he brought, but I 
believe I do bring an honest desire to serve the interests of the university 
and of higher education and at the same time to do justice to all other 
bodies who are engaged in the same common work. 

I should have hesitated to accept the high honour of Chancellor of 
the university were it not that I was assured that I should have as 
the chief executive officer with me the distinguished gentleman who now 
occupies the position of Vice-Chancellor. I felt when the choice fell upon 
him that a right choice had been made. (Applause.) He bears a name 
distinguished in the annals of the university distinguished for scholastic 
attainments, and for administrative capacity, and my friend, I knew, 
would bring, as experience shows he has brought, to the discharge of the 
duties of his office, high ability and great industry. If there is one thing in 
which he excels above all others it is his persistent devotion to the duties of 
any position which he is called upon for the time being to fill. I congratulate 
the university in having secured his services, and I feel assured that how- 
ever defective my part of the work, which is to a large extent, I tell my 
friend, ornamental, to whatever extent it may not be properly discharged 
it will be more than made up by the able way in which my distinguished 
friend the Vice-Chancellor discharges the duties of his office. 

I bring my observations to a close and thank you for the kindly way in 
which you have listened to me at this late hour of the night. I feel a deep 
interest in the questions which I have been discussing. I would like to 
talk to you at greater length, but the hour forbids, and I close by repeat- 
ing my congratulations to those into whose heads it entered to organize 
this meeting of the alumni, and I have a very strong suspicion and with- 
out making invidious distinctions it may be proper to lay to some extent 
the charge of having had to do with it at the door of Professor Baker. 
(Applause.) I congratulate him and all those connected with this meeting 
upon the success, which has attended it, and I hope that the graduates 
of the university will not let this be the last meeting, but let every suc- 
ceeding meeting, as I believe those in charge of the management desire 
shall be the case, be greater and more enthusiastic than its predecessor. 
(Loud applause.) 



i8 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



CONVOCATION DAY. 

1DERHAPS no Convocation in the history of the University of Toronto 
*- has ever aroused so much enthusiasm, or left behind so many 
pleasant memories as that which has just been held. Under the stimulus 
of the hope of meeting old classmates, graduates assembled from far and 
near, one and all glad to return even for a short time to the academic halls, 
the scene of their early aspirations and achievements. 

The time announced for the commencement of Convocation proceedings 
was half-past two, but long before that hour the Gymnasium building was 
filled to overflowing with an enthusiastic audience, the large attendance 
being in a measure due to the presence of many graduates who had come 
to Toronto to attend the alumni dinner, and had remained over for 
Convocation. A cricket match and a tennis tournament were in pro- 
gress on the campus during the afternoon, and many who were unable to 
gain admittance to the Hall spent a pleasant hour watching the games, 
conversing with their friends, and admiring the beauty of the surroundings 
which in the leafy month of June are hard to surpass. 

The proceedings were opened in the old-time fashion, by the procession 
of the authorities and invited guests, headed by the bedel carrying the 
mace. A noticeable feature was the number of new faces among those 
occupying the seats of honour on the platform. The new Chancellor, Sir 
William R. Meredith, presided. To his right sat the new Vice-Chancel- 
lor, the Honourable Charles Moss. In addition to the usual attendance of the 
faculties and prominent citizens were to be noticed several distinguished 
graduates from a distance, among others, Rev. Dr. Beattie, of Louisville, 
Kentucky; C. J. Field, Ph.D., Berlin, Germany; Frederick Seymour, M.A., 
Madoc ; J. H. Coyne, B.A., St. Thomas ; W. H. Ballard, M.A., Hamil- 
ton, and Dr. Glashan, of Ottawa. The women students were presented 
this year for their degrees by Miss Gertrude Lawler, M.A., and Mrs. 
J. R. L. Starr, B.A., which innovation constituted a pleasing feature in 
the proceedings. 

The degree of LL. D. , (honoris causdj, was conferred on the Vice-Chan- 
cellor the Honourable Charles Moss. He was introduced by President Loudon, 
who paid a high tribute to his attainments and to his special qualifications 
for the office to which he had been unanimously elected. The Senate at its 
last meeting decided also to confer the degree of LL.D. on Mr. Louis 
Frechette, C.M.G., the distinguished French-Canadian author, and on 
Professor Simon Newcomb, of the United States Naval Observatory 
Service, but, owing to the enforced absence of these gentlemen, the cere- 
mony of conferring the degree was postponed. 

The degree of Ph.D. was conferred on Mr. J. C. McLennan, B.A. , in 
the Department of Physics. This degree was established by the Uni- 
versity of Toronto in 1897, and up to the present time it has been but 
twice conferred, the former recipient being Dr. Scott, of the Department of 
Biology. The following are the numbers of degrees conferred in other 
departments, the names of the recipients being given in the Convocation 
List published elsewhere in this number : 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 19 

M.A., 17; LL.B., 2; M.B., 45; B.A., 134; C.E., 2; Mg.E., i; 
Mech.E, i ; B.A.Sc., 10 ; D.D.S., 68; Phm.B., 34; Mus. Bac., 3. 

The speeches which usually form a prominent feature of the graduating 
exercises were dispensed with on this occasion, the Chancellor's address 
having been delivered at the alumni dinner on the previous evening. It 
was found necessary to. curtail the proceedings, which were of consider- 
able length, owing to the number of degrees to be conferred, in order to 
afford an opportunity to the audience of attending the garden party which 
was held at the close. 

The garden party, itself a new feature, given by the Chancellor, 
Vice-Chancellor and Senate and the President and Council of the 
University of Toronto, was a great success. The quadrangle of the 
university main building, in which the function was held, formed an 
appropriate and delightful place of meeting. The arrangements as to 
refreshments, music, etc., were perfect, and the guests, numbering up- 
wards of a thousand, spent a most agreeable hour. It is to be hoped 
that this pleasing function will be continued from year to year, as it 
affords from its informal nature an excellent opportunity for social inter- 
course among the alumni and friends of the university. 

In past years the graduating classes in arts and in medicine have 
usually held an informal at-home or banquet on the evening of Convoca- 
tion day. This year, however, a departure was made by the Arts students, 
who decided to hold a moonlight excursion on Lake Ontario. The 
steamer Garden City was chartered, and about one hundred students, ac- 
companied by President and Mrs. Loudon and a number of the members 
of the faculty, with their wives, spent a very enjoyable evening. The 
graduating class in medicine, as usual, held their annual dinner in 
Webb's Parlors. Dr. Paul L. Scott presided, and about forty mem- 
bers of the class were present. 

C. 



THE YEAR IN ATHLETICS. 

academic year of 1899 and 1900 was not a year phenomenal in any 
-1 respect for athletic achievements at the university, yet it was a year 
in which substantial progress was made in some of the most important 
branches of athletic work. 

Athletic progress is made, not only by particular achievements of 
athletes, but also by improvement in the facilities for athletic training at 
the university, and it is this sphere of the work with which this article 
deals particularly, for it receives less attention through the daily press and 
so requires to be specially brought to the attention of those interested in 
university affairs. The work of the Athletic Association and Athletic 
Board during the past year has been very much extended by the fact that 
all the university athletic grounds now come the jurisdiction of this Board. 

One improvement in the facilities has resulted from the securing of better 
grounds for the holding of public athletic events. The old Lome field has 
been taken over again by the University and carefully sodded, a grand- 



20 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

stand erected, and a high, close board fence constructed. This field, admir- 
ably situated in the heart of the city, furnishes ideal accommodation for 
the holding 1 of university athletic events on university grounds. The 
revenue derived from this source is not very great, yet it is sufficient to 
meet running expenses. It is collected on a percentage of the gate receipts 
at the various public events of the university clubs. 

The gymnasium work has been carried on with rather more than usual 
success during the past year. The attendance of members at the gym- 
nasium was larger than at any time since the first year after the gymnasium 
was built. This year's management feels that it has left a better equip- 
ment for athletic exercises in the gymnasium because of a receipt of a 
stand of fifty rifles, kindly granted to the gymnasium by the Minister of 
Militia and Defence. These rifles are all in first-class state, and should be 
of great value. 

In connection with field sports the year was most important ; not for 
records made or broken, but for the fact that it marks the inauguration of 
the Inter-College Athletic Meet between the great Canadian universities. 
The event was held in Montreal, under the auspices of the Athletic Asso- 
ciation of McGill University, and the results were gratifying to those who 
had put the project into operation. This fall the meet will be held in Tor- 
onto, under the auspices of the University of Toronto Athletic Association, 
and will, it is hoped, be a most successful athletic event. The members of 
the Athletic Directorate look forward to the time when all our Canadian 
championships will not be carried off by American athletes, but will be 
ably contested by our college men. 

The Annual At-home of the Association was a most pronounced suc- 
cess, and has come to be recognized in the city as one of the most popular 
dances of the season. 

Another feature of the year's work was the successful management of 
the university rink. Two rinks were provided on the University Athletic 
Field, and were run throughout the whole season with the greatest suc- 
cess. Ten bands were provided during the season for the benefit of the 
skaters) and an intercollege series in hockey was run off, in which the 
School of Science finally won the trophy. The rink was a most successful 
financial undertaking, a clear balance of nearly $100.00 resulting. It is 
hoped that skating will now be a permanent part of university athletics. 

Another feature of progress during this year was the reorganization of 
the Athletic Association to provide for somewhat better administration of 
the affairs of the different athletic clubs. Heretofore, each club has been 
almost entirely independent of any central control, and, consequently, on 
different occasions the line of policy which has been followed by some 
clubs has brought nothing of credit to the university. Under the new 
constitution the Athletic Association will have control of the finances 
of every club using the university's name. No debt can be con- 
tracted by any club which has not been sanctioned by the Athletic Asso- 
ciation, and all accounts will therefore be met by the Association. 
This improvement should have the best effect in promoting the interests 
of college athletics. 

As a result of the work in connection with the Association during the 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 21 

past year certain suggestions would appear to be a propos. In the first 
place, although the work in the gymnasium has been fairly satisfactory 
during the past few years, there does not seem to have been sufficient in- 
centive to the members to undertake steady and persistent work through- 
out their undergraduate course. In order to improve this condition of 
affairs, it would seem to" be most advisable that some system should be 
devised by which regular diplomas could be given to members of the gym- 
nasium who, during their undergraduate course, come up to a certain 
standard in gymnasium work. These diplomas would be of great value 
to those entering the teaching profession, and would afford certain ends 
to be attained during the student-life of the members of the gymnasium. 
This matter is, I believe, engaging the attention of the new management 
of the Association. 

Another feature which deserves consideration is the growing tendency of 
the different organizations connected with the university, to have their public 
events held in the University Gymnasium. There is no suitable place for 
the holding of public events connected with the university, such as com- 
mencements, dinners and at-homes, and, consequently, organization after 
organization has been seeking the use of the gymnasium for purposes far 
different from those for which it was originally intended. The university 
authorities are no better than the students in this particular, because under 
the pretext of holding their convocations and commencements upon univer- 
sity grounds they are continually using the gymnasium for large meetings, 
for which it was not intended, and for which it is not suited. Not only does 
this practice interfere most seriously with the work of the gymnasium, but, 
owing to the removal of the apparatus from time to time, it has caused 
permanent damage to the equipment. During the past year many 
accidents have happened to various parts of the apparatus through no 
other cause than that the taking up and down of the same had so loosened 
the props as to make them unsteady and unsafe. 

The reason given, that university events should be held on university 
grounds, is not sufficient. The gymnasium is not suited for these events ; 
its acoustic properties are very poor, and if the university students and 
university authorities would follow the policy of holding their events out- 
side, and thus show how badly the university is in need of a large convo- 
cation hall, instead of endeavouring to crowd themselves into a building 
entirely unsuitable for such purposes, it seems to me they would be doing 
much to bring about the accomplishment of what they desire, namely, the 
securing of adequate accommodation in the shape of a large convocation 
hall. This question is one of the greatest importance, and is one which I 
cannot but recommend very strongly to the new Association, for during my 
two years' experience as secretary-treasurer of the Athletic Association, 
I have seen very permanent damage inflicted on the gymnasium during the 
holding in it of public events for which it was not intended. 

T. A. Russell, '99. 



22 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

AFTER THE ALUMNI DINNER. 

Non Quo, Sed Quomodo. 

THE study of human nature is a source of continual amusement and 
surprise. Education, culture and intelligence go far in forming- a 
finished and well-balanced mind ; but the funniest inconsistencies, and want 
of unbiased judgment shew themselves in even those who possess consid- 
erable intellectual capacity. 

In connection with our recent pleasant and successful dinner, one was 
agreeably entertained from time to time, by observing the little starts of 
alarm and nervous shocks, the little fears and apprehensions exhibited by 
some of those who felt responsible for its welfare and management. And 
some of the incidents at the dinner itself gave rise to a feeling of quiet 
amusement, tinged, perhaps, with sorrow for the weakness of human 
nature. 

Everything would be calm and peaceful if women would only be con- 
tent to pay taxes and obey ready-made laws, and not ask for representation. 
And if our alumnae would only pay their fees and be utterly indifferent to 
university affairs, and never want to go anywhere, or do anything, how 
much nervous anxiety would be avoided. 

Why should they not take an active part in university work ? Twenty 
years ago it was not customary, that is all. It was too bad. Why did 
they want to go to the dinner ? 

Well, because as alumnae they ought to support and take part in every 
business and social function connected with the Association. And the im- 
portance of an official dinner is considerable, as it embraces the social and 
political side of the body holding it. Socially, all members meet together 
without prejudice of class, profession or sex, thus showing a united feeling 
for the advancement of one object. The policy and welfare of the body is 
usually elucidated in the speeches, and hence the latter part is of more 
consequence than the social intercourse, and both are of more importance 
than the enjoyment of the fare, though that may be regarded as the 
lubricant which enables the machine to work smoothly and pleasantly. 

Hence it is most desirable that all members of the Association should 
attend the alumni dinner. 

But that aspect was not evident to all. The terror of the unknown, 
the awful uncertainty of what might happen, and the invasion of a domain 
that was supposed to be sacred, were the bug-a-boos that rendered calm 
judgment difficult. 

For human minds judge by a precedent, and the alarmed ones would 
have been quieted had they but known that here, and in proper, conserva- 
tive Old England, public, that is, official dinners are held where both sexes 
are present. 

And who will say that the speeches were not better appreciated, and the 
next day less irksome because brains were clear and unexcited, a condition 
immediately ensured when the presence of ladies became inevitable. 

But more amusing than the quakings and alarms at the undefined 
dangers, were the precautions taken to guard against the results of the 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 23 

bold and supposedly unprecedented intrusion. Chaperons were appointed, 
that the classmates who had attended lectures together during- four years, 
had met in all sorts of social functions, talked, danced, read papers, formed 
committees, transacted business, that these men and women, graduates of 
five, ten, fifteen years ago, some of them married and sitting side by side 
as husband and wife, should be carefully guided in the proper course of 
behaviour, and protected from each other's dangerous wiles and charms. 
The guest the chaperon of the hostess ! Truly, misapplied custom backed 
against common sense will win the day. But such is human nature. 

"Gabble gobble git" is the definition applied to a fashionable 
method of entertaining, where the weightiest matter to be discussed is the 
ice cream. But at a university dinner, which should be the most intellec- 
tual proceeding of its kind and the highest type of good breeding, it was 

"Gabble gobble now we're smoking, you'd better git; never mind 
finishing your coffee, hurry up to the gallery. We will politely stand 
while you pass out, to remain seated would be an unpardonable breach of 
good manners. But bear in mind, it is quite proper and well-bred to light 
our cigarettes and puff them in your face, we cannot deny ourselves our 
tobacco. 'And a woman is only a woman, but a good cigar is a Smoke.' " 

And after that who will deny that human nature is weak and inconsis- 
tent beyond words. The child is father of the man, and as the little boy 
with the bag of candies cannot rest satisfied until he has eaten them, so 
the little man with his cigarette is restless and unhappy until he smokes it. 

It is very tiresome to sit three hours doing nothing. It is done at poli- 
tical meetings, at lectures and theatres. Why not at a dinner? And why 
should not the alumnae sit at the table during the whole proceedings? Was 
it much less smoky in the gallery? 

One of the cleverest and most accomplished of the alumnae was appoint- 
ed to respond to a toast, but was whisked off and away in spite of the 
protests of the most distinguished speakers of the evening. What indig- 
nation would have been expressed by an alumni so treated? And all these 
curious inconsistencies appear to be the result of a wild and thoughtless 
endeavour to apply the social customs appropriate to one set of conditions, 
to conditions which, though similar, are on quite a different plane. 

Sir Charles Tupper who has probably been present at more public 
dinners throughout the Empire than any one who was with us that even- 
ing, expressed to some of the gentlemen his great pleasure and satisfaction 
that ladies should have been present. He said that at the Manor House, 
London, England, at official dinners, ladies are almost always present and 
remain at the table throughout the evening ; and the same custom is ob- 
served in many other places at the public dinners. So our little affair was 
only a local innovation. Abroad it would be a matter of course. Only 
the atmosphere would have been clearer. 

So we observe, reflect, and quietly smile as the little human foibles and 
peculiarities become evident whenever there is a change in the established 
customs, rites, or practices. For we know that the dust and commotion 
that is raised soon settles, and the new order becomes common-place and 
customary, until conditions require another change, when the same alarms 
for the welfare of law and order are aroused. And at our next dinner we 
will drink together Success to our university through the efforts of the 
Alumni Association. Edith M. Curson, '89. 



24 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



ANNUAL MEETING OF ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

AT the organization meeting, held in April, it was decided to hold the 
annual meeting" of the Alumni Association in Convocation week of 
each year, and in accordance with this decision the first annual meeting 
was held in the Chemical Building on the afternoon of Tuesday, June i2th. 

The President, Dr. R. A. Reeve, in a few remarks at the opening re- 
ferred to the wide field of usefulness open to the Association, and sug-- 
g-ested, among- other things, that the question of having a representative 
in Parliament might very properly come up for discussion. 

The report of the Treasurer, Mr. S. J. Robertson, showed $66 collected 
in fees, with a balance on hand, after deducting all liabilities, of $48.32. 

The report of the Executive Committee, submitted by the Secretary, 
Mr. J. C. McLennan, described the matters dealt with by the committee 
since taking office. It was decided to proceed at once with the publica- 
tion of a journal in the interests of the Association, under the name of 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY. 

This step brought with it the necessity of having an accurate list of the 
graduates in the various faculties, together with their present addresses. 
To meet this want the compilation of a card catalogue has been under- 
taken, which will make it possible to select at once the graduates in any 
particular faculty, those residing in any stated locality, or those following 
any selected profession. 

The question of establishing- a University Club in Toronto for the use 
of the graduates in the city, and for the convenience of outsiders when 
they come to Toronto, was brought up by Mr. J. H. Coyne, of Si:. Thomas. 
On his motion, seconded by Professor Ellis, the President was asked to 
appoint a committee of seven to consider the expediency of the sugges- 
tion, and to report at a special meeting of the Association. 

Major F. F. Manley urged the members to unite in an effort to replace 
the memorial window erected in the university main building in honour of 
the graduates who fell in 1866. The matter was referred to the Executive 
Committee. 

Mr. Alfred Hall, Secretary of the newly-formed Alumni Association in 
British Columbia, on being called upon, gave a glowing account of the 
interest taken in the University of Toronto by the graduates in the far 
west. Already between two and three hundred graduates are residing in 
that Province, and these are uniting in an effort to bring before the people 
generally the high character of the work being done by their Alma Mater, 
as well as the excellent facilities which she affords for education and 
research. 

The officers elected at the first meeting on April ryth were all re-elected 
by acclamation for the ensuing year, and the meeting adjourned. Nearly 
one hundred new members were enrolled during the meeting and the ban- 
quet which followed. 

C. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 25 



A NEW SCHOLARSHIP. 

THE generous presentation by Mr. J. W. Flavelle, of Toronto, of a 
travelling fellowship to the classical and historical departments of the 
University of Toronto constitutes, we hope, a sign of the times. There was 
recently introduced before the University Senate a statute for the estab- 
lishment in University College of three classical scholarships at matricula- 
tion. One of these is the McCaul Scholarship in honour of the first President 
and firstClassical Professor of University College. Another is the Dale Scho- 
larship established by Mr. William Dale, the first Professor of Latin in Uni- 
versity College. The third is the Goldwin Smith Scholarship, presented 
by the classical scholar and historian, whose residence among us has made 
Toronto an academic Mecca, the enchanted ground where lies the last re- 
maining well of English undefiled ; where springs the last remaining stream 
of that old-world scholarship which mingled classical grace and English 
eloquence in so nice proportions that no man knows which is the ornament 
and which the substance, nor whether of the two contributes most to the 
beauty and to the strength of the united flood from these twin sources^ 
And now in addition to these directly classical scholarships, Mr. Flavelle 
offers an alternating fellowship to the graduates in turn of the departments 
of classics and history, the winner to proceed to Oxford for a couple of 
years and study there in the department of modern history; the department 
which at the present time is receiving a larger number of students than any 
other course in Oxford. It is not easy to overestimate the beneficence of 
gifts like these. The encouragement <5f accurate scholarship in an accurate 
age is one of the many advantages to be derived. Another is the new en- 
couragement of the study of the classics from the historian's standpoint, 
just when their literary and stylistic study has ceased for the time to charm 
as once it could, and when some new spell is wanted to take the place ot 
the old, lest the temple of ancient scholarship be bereft of its haunting pre- 
sences and of its votaries. The encouragement of generosity to the Pro- 
vincial University, in spite of the fact that it is the Provincial University, 
and therefore is supposed to have no claim on anyone in particular, be- 
cause it has a claim on all, this, again, is no small thing. Last, and not 
least, is the riveting of a new tie, to bind our university to its natural 
Alma Mater, the universities of the motherland. Practical considerations 
have demanded, and may continue to demand, that a large number of our 
students who take post-graduate courses take them in the universities of 
our cousins ; the deeper, then, the gratitude due to him who enables our 
students so to remember our cousins as not to forget our nearer and dearer 
kin ; such a man lends a helping hand in that great work which is the one 
memorable work of this last year of the nineteenth century. 

Maurice Hutton. 



26 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



THE VALUE OF S.P.S. GRADUATES TO THE MINING 

INDUSTRY. 

WE have heard from time to time both from the public platform, at 
Convocation and through the press, that those most interested in 
the welfare of the university deplore the condition of the Department of 
Mineralogy and Geology. To such an extent do they feel their want that 
they have almost given the public the impression that our university is 
practically without such a faculty. These remarks have been misunder- 
stood by many to include the Department of Mining Engineering of the 
School of Practical Science. It is to correct this impression that I wish to 
call attention to the fact that these remarks were intended to apply to the 
Faculty of Arts only, and not that of applied science nor to the School. 

From the following list of graduates of the School of Practical Science, 
it will be seen that the school is doing valuable work in mining thoughout 
Canada : 

Andrews, E., B.Sc., "97, Mining Engineer, Rossland, B.C. 

Ardagh, J. A., '93, Peat Fuel Co., Toronto. 

Bain, J. W., B.A.Sc., '96, Geologist, Bureau of Mines, Toronto. 

Blackwood, A. E., '95, Mining Machinery, New York. 

Bow, J. A., '97, Inspector of Mines, Rat Portage. 

Boyd, W. G., '94, Inspector of Mines, Michipicoten. 

Boyd, W. H., B.A.Sc., '98, Geological Survey, Ottawa. 

Burwash, L. T., '96, Mining Recorder, Stewart River, Yukon. 

Carter, W. E. H., B.A.Sc., '98, Assayer, Yellow Stone Mine, Saluro. 

Charlesworth, L. C., O.L.S., '93, Mining Lands Agent, Rat Portage. 

Chewett, H. J., B.A.Sc., '88, Mining Engineer, Toronto. 

Clothier, G. A., '99, Mining Records Office, Rossland. 

Deacon, T. R., O.L.S., '91, Managing Director Mikado Mine. 

Dobie, J. S., B.A.Sc., '95, Mining Engineer, Port Arthur. 

Elliott, J. C., '99, Mother Lode Mine. 

Fairbairn, J. M., O.L.S., '93, Mining Engineer, Greenwood, B.C. 

Guernsey, F. W., "95, Engineer for Neepawa Gold Mining Co. 

Haight, H. V., '96, Mining Machinery, Sherbrooke, Que. 

Haultatn, H. E. T., '89, Manager Yellow Stone Mine. 

Johnston, S. M., B.A.Sc., '94, Mining Engineer, Greenwood, B.C. 

Keele, J., B.A.Sc., Geologist, Geological Survey Department, Ottawa. 

Laidlaw, J. T., B.A.Sc., '93, Consulting Mining Engineer, Fort Steele. 

Laird, R., O.L.S., '86, Reduction Works, Rat Portage. 

Laschinger, E. J., B.A.Sc., '92, Engineer, Consolidated Gold Fields, South Africa. 

McAllister, J. E., B.A.Sc., C.E., '91, Mining Engineer, Rossland. 

McAree, J., B.A.Sc., '92, Mining Engineer, Rat Portage. 

Martin, T., B.A.Sc., '96, Amalgamater, Regina Mines. 

Mickle, G. R., B.A., '88, Mining Engineer, Rossland, B.C. 

Revell, G. E., B.A.Sc., '99, Summer Mining School, Northern Ontario. 

Robinson, A. H A., B.A.Sc., '97, Geologist, Bureau of Mines. 

Silvester, G. E., O.L.S., '91, Mining Engineer, Sudbury. 

Speller, F. U., B.A.Sc., '93, Geologist, Can. Bank of Commerce, Dawson, Yukon. 

Watt, G. H., '99, Geological Survey Department, Ottawa. 

Coulthard, R. C., B.A.Sc., '99, Geologist, Party No. i, Ontario Government. 

Neelands, E. V., 'oo, 



Smith, A. H., occl., 'oo, 
Davison, J. G., 'oo, 
Johnston, J. A., 'oo, 
McArthur, R. E., 'oo, 



9 

" 10, 
Columbia, B.C. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 27 



UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGE. 

AWELL-intended invitation to write something for the first number of 
the Alumni Monthly, is my only excuse for appearing amongst the 
distinguished company of Its contributors. To have refused the invitation 
would have shown a lack of interest ; to accept it was a duty of affec- 
tion to 

"Those halls 
In which of old I wore the gown." 

But the accptance is a heavy draft upon my ingenuity. This magazine 
might well indulge in the reminiscences of the pleasant past rather than 
discuss the present or speculate about the future. To an old student the 
past is too personal for general interest ; and the future, outlined 
dimly in the light and shade of the present, offers difficulties which can be 
met better in their own time than now. With the generous permission of 
the editors I propose to jot down a few ideas upon University and College, 
suggested by the existing state of university affairs. 

No more important aid in understanding a question of this kind can be pre- 
sented than the distinction between a university and a college, and also the 
relation uniting them. When 'allied together in the great work of educa- 
tion they afford a mutual complement and salutary balance to each other. 
A college is the ballast, a university is the sail. The latter contains the 
elements of advance, the former is more conservative in its tendencies. 
To the college the young student goes fresh from home ; and finds that 
order, discipline and obedience which adorned the walls of his father's 
house, and which were an excellent preparation for the life upon which he 
now enters. A naked university without a college presents no such pro- 
tection. It is the broad ocean of the world, upon which the young man 
who has passed his matriculation examination finds himself thrown, and he 
must sink or swim according to the weakness or strength of his character. 
Whether the principles he is receiving are true or false ; whether his time 
and conduct are making for the best, there is no friend hard-by to tell. 
Besides these moral reasons for establishing colleges, there has been the 
reason of maintenance and encouragement of poor scholars. This last is 
the history of many of the colleges, founded, as they were, for the support 
of students from special districts or even countries. In Bologna there was 
the greater College of St. Clement for the Spaniards, and the Collegio 
Sondi for the Hungarians. Such, too, in Oxford are Queen's College, 
founded in favour of north countrymen, and Jesus College, for the Welsh. 
This naturally gave colleges a local character, which eventually assumed a 
national and aristocratic character. When war ceased to be the only pro- 
fession for men of rank ; when nobles did not disdain learning, and when 
it became customary for gentlemen to send their sons to the universities, 
then colleges were provided not for the poor, but for the higher classes. 
Thus the whole country poured its streams of wealth and talent into the 
university through the colleges. And although the collegiate principle was 
at first antagonistic to the university, still, when the colleges obtained pro- 
per growth they brought to the university a vigour which it would other- 



28 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

wise never have attained, and a stability which it could otherwise never 
possess. 

Both colleges and universities have passed through various phases 
with regard to the teaching of the students. Colleges were not originally 
establishments for instruction. The Fellows had no other duties than 
those of religion prescribed by the College Statutes, and those of study 
prescribed by the university. As these were Statutes, so was there a legal 
status. And as there were prescriptions by the university, there was a 
subordination of one to the other. Community life, or residence, was 
also one of the essential qualities of a college. In fact, a college without 
any residence, with no more union than that which the lecture-room or 
campus affords a college with only the supervision over its students 
provided by attendance at class and success at examinations, is 
hardly a college. Any artificial division between the departments or 
subjects, ranking professors of some departments as university pro- 
fessors, and professors of other departments as college professors, 
cannot advantageously constitute the difference between a univer- 
sity and a college. If both members of the division are to prosper the dif- 
ference should be better marked. An intellectual institution, to be lasting, 
must be based upon principle as its foundation, and be guided by principle 
in the building up of its efficiency, progress and honour. Artificial expedi- 
ents will not serve an institution of this kind ; they dwarf its energy and 
cramp its freedom. This freedom in the work of training and examinations 
is necessary to its life and efficiency. 

A time came in the history of universities and colleges, when an impor- 
tant part of the teaching, and especially of the literary part, was delegated 
to the colleges. Science had not assumed its present proportions, the 
study of the classics had advanced, so that on the one hand the university 
subjects declined whilst the college subjects improved. The next stage 
gives us a university with no teaching faculty, merely an examining and 
degree-conferring body, while parallel with it we find a number of colleges 
with powers to confer degrees. How different was the former from the 
historical university the Studium Generale, or " School of Universal 
Learning." Such universities acknowledged their incompleteness in the 
establishment of a college so closely connected with them that the college 
was " the better half" of the university. Had the teaching of the univer- 
sity been left only to the litera scripta which we find everywhere, to the 
sermons looked for in stones, or the books which the philosopher found in 
the running brooks, it would have put into the hands of its students the 
wherewith to pass their examinations, but it would have failed in its work. 
" The litera scripta is a record of truth, an authority of appeal, an instru- 
ment, but if we wish to become exact and fully furnished in any branch of 
knowledge we must consult the living man and listen to the living voice." 
Art is learned best by association with the great masters ; statesmanship 
and courtly manners are learned not by books, but in the great centres of 
education, and in the intercourse with the leaders of a nation. Even 
science with its patient, solitary work of slow research is stimulated by the 
sympathy and encouragement which it receives in such meetings as those 
of the British Association. Such schools are universities only in a partial 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 29 

sense. The fair city in which we live, and from which our Alma Mater 
takes its name, is virtually a university. Thither come young and old for 
law, politics, business. But such education is not systematized, nor is it 
based upon principle. As we are throughout this paper pointing out dif- 
ferences between a university and a college, the city of Toronto presents 
to us a strange anomaly the difference between University Street and 
College Street. The former is an insignificant, one-sided, narrow thorough- 
fare, almost unknown, leading up to College Street. The latter is one of 
the great arteries of the city. Aldermen do not name streets on scientific 
principles. To us old students the university was the college, and the 
college was everything. Things could not always go on thus. A univer- 
sity is a place to which countless thousands may go ; a place where inquiry 
is pushed forward and error exposed by the collision of mind with mind, 
and knowledge with knowledge. It was not likely, therefore, that the reli- 
gious guardians would consent to their young men going up to a univer- 
sity, without scrip of religion and without staff of discipline. The old 
order changeth. The university takes up a function which belonged to it 
from the beginning, but which it did not exercise the function of teach- 
ing. Colleges cluster around, bringing strength to it and gathering lustre 
from it. Welcome and more than welcome ! The old students of Univer- 
sity know it with but one college and look at it through the efficiency of 
that college and the learning of its professors and the influence they exer- 
cised in their training. 

My paper a contribution is that of an alumnus of the university. 
Neither the sacred character which shapes my life and orders all my thought, 
nor the relation I hold to the university as Superior of St. Michael's College, 
has entered directly into my subject. To me under such relations as 
priest and educator of priests, I may say in the words of the late eminent 
Cardinal Newman, whose line of thought I have closely followed : "A 
university is a seat of wisdom, a light of the world, a minister of faith, 
an Alma Mater of the rising generation. It is this and a great deal more, 
and demands a somewhat better head and hand than mine to describe it 
well." Aught else? " Quce desursum est saptentia, primum quidem pudica 
est, deinde pacifica" 

/. R. Teefy. 

LOCAL LECTURES. 

THE system of Local Lectures of the University of Toronto and Uni- 
versity College has been for several years in operation. A complete 
record exists from 1896, when a joint committee of the two councils, with 
the writer as secretary, was appointed to take charge of the matter, but 
the beginning of the system is two or three years earlier. The lecturers 
have all been members of the joint faculties, and the subjects of the lec- 
tures offered have been as varied as the departments represented. The 
tastes of the public have been sufficiently catholic to demand lectures on 
all subjects. The preference has been, apparently however, for those on 
literary and historical topics, although the requests for lectures on scien- 
tific subjects have been quite numerous. Up to the present academic year 



30 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

the lectures were offered free, on condition merely of the payment of travel- 
ling" and other expenses. At the beginning of the year a new departure was 
made by the imposition of a small fee, to be applied to university purposes, 
in addition to the expenses incurred by the lecturers. 

As disclosed by correspondence with those having charge of the lectures 
in various localities, they seem to have given general satisfaction, and the 
lecturers have almost uniformly spoken in the highest praise of the recep- 
tion accorded to them by their audiences, and by the people who have en- 
tertained them. The lectures have been the occasions for making new friends, 
and for reviving old acquaintanceships, as well as for the dissemination of 
ideas. 

But there are difficulties in the way of carrying on the scheme success- 
fully. The members of the staff are busy with college lectures, and so 
are generally forced to decline requests for lectures that do not fall on 
Friday evening. Again, many small places, to which our lecturers would 
rather go than to large ones, are so situated that a lecturer would have to 
leave Toronto in the morning in order to arrive in time to lecture in the 
evening, and so the offers from such places must generally be declined. 
Another cause of difficulty is the frequency with which well-known members 
of the staff are invited to lecture. If a man goes out six or eight times in 
a season he finds it a considerable tax on his time and strength. And 
several members of the staff have been forced to decline offers because the 
limits of their strength were exceeded. Localities desiring lectures would 
often do well to choose amongst the less well-known names of the facul- 
ties. Another difficulty is the financial one. Very often there is some 
counter attraction in the town to which the lecturer has gone, there is 
a small audience at the lecture, and the deficit has to be made up by 
some well-disposed person, who is very likely to be a not-too-well-paid 
teacher or clergyman. But in spite of the difficulties, heartiness and good- 
will on the part of the staff and the graduates in the country can make 
the system successful. The Alumni Association might take the matter up, 
and give the staff its valuable aid, by making suggestions as to improve- 
ments in the system, and by encouraging alumni in the various local- 
ities to work up a greater interest in the matter. The proper function of 
a national university is to encourage the spread of knowledge by all pos- 
sible means. 

John Sguair, '83. 

A GREEK PLAY. 

FOR THE WOMEN'S UNIVERSITY COLLEGE RESIDENCE FUND. 

ART is the gift which Greece has left to the world ; and it is freshly 
received by each new person whose sense of the beautiful wakens in 
response to the beauty revealed. It has been said that when a boy first 
reads Homer the gates of a new life are swung open before him. What a 
vista of beautiful suggestion lies in the thought of a dramatic presentation 
of the Homeric tales ! That is what the Women's Residence Association 
holds in anticipation for next December, when, under its auspices, a Greek 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 31 

play will be given by the university students in the Grand Opera House. 

The play has been arranged from the Odyssey, by a graduate of Rad- 
cliffe College, under whose management it has been given with great 
acceptance at Radcliffe College, Brown University, Rochester, Andover, 
N.H., Colorado Springs, .and twice at Chicago where the parts were taken 
by native Greeks. There are many beautiful tableaux ; and the scenes are 
enlivened by dances, wrestling, boxing and games. Reports from many 
sources give assurance of the artistic worth and charm of the play, and 
since graduates and friends of the university have shown so much enthusiasm 
as to guarantee* the necessary expenses of the enterprise, the Residence 
Committee is encouraged to expect a widespread interest, and a good 
financial return from the undertaking. 

It may be of interest to add here that the proceeds of the university 
Saturday lectures, which the University and College Councils granted to the 




Residence Association, amounted this year to nearly three hundred and 
fifty dollars. The fund was also augmented by a gift from the Ladies' Glee 
Club, the profits of their annual concert. It has been estimated that a 
suitable residence building to accommodate from fifty to sixty students 
would cost fifty thousand dollars. This year there were more than that 
number of women students in boarding houses ; and as the average amount 
they are able to pay is very small, the accommodation obtainable is cor- 
respondingly poor. Such a condition is very prejudicial to the best develop- 
ment of the college woman, and it is the aim of the Association to establish 
a residence, where every student will have her growing thought stimulated 
by pleasant association with others whose aims are like her own, and where 
a university spirit will be established which takes a deeper root than any 
that can be fostered by other means. 

c L. M. Hamilton, '94. 



32 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO STUDIES. 

ANEW branch of the library administration, instituted three years ago, 
has been the publication of University of Toronto Studies, which are 
select papers embodying the results of scientific research by members of 
the university. The studies are published by the aid of a Government 
grant, and are used by the library for the purpose of obtaining in exchange 
similar publications of other universities or the transactions of learned 
societies. The reputation of the university has been enhanced by these 
valuable publications, issued with its imprimatur, and applications for 
them are continually being received from scientific institutions in all parts 
of the world. Separate series have already been begun in History, Eco- 
nomics, Psychology, Biology, Physiology, Anatomy and Geology. A full 
list of the studies is given herewith : 

History, ist Series : Review of Historical Publications relating to 
Canada, edited by Professor GEORGE M. WRONG and H. H. 
LANGTON. 

Vol. I. Publication of the year 1896. 
Vol. II. Publication of the year 1897. 
Vol. III. Publication of the year 1898. 
Vol. IV. Publication of the year 1899. 

History, 2nd Series, No. i : Louisbourg in 1745, the anonymous " Lettre 
d'un Habitant de Louisbourg," edited and translated by Professor 
GEORGE M. WRONG. 
History, 2nd Series, No. 2 : Preliminary Stages of the Peace of Amiens, 

by H. M. BOWMAN. 

Economic Series, No. i : Public Debts in Canada, by J. ROY PERRY. 
Psychological Series, No. i : Spatial Threshold of Colour and its Depend- 
ence on Contrast Phenomena, by W. B. LANE, with Appendices. 
Psychological Series, No. 2 : A Contribution to the Psychology of Time, 

by M. A. SHAW and F. S. WRINCH. 
Psychological Series, No. 3 : Experiments on Time Relations of Poetical 

Metres, by A. S. HURST and JOHN McKAY. 
Biological Series, No. i : The Gametophyte of Botrychium Virginianum, 

by E. C. JEFFREY. 

Physiological Series, No. i : The Structure, Micro-Chemistry and Develop- 
ment of Nerve-Cells, with Special Reference to their Nuclein Com- 
pounds, by F. H. SCOTT. 

Physiological Series, No. 2 : On the Cytology of Non-nucleated Organ- 
isms, by Professor A. B. MACALLUM. 

Anatomical Series, No. i : The Anatomy of the Orang Outang, by Pro- 
fessor A. PRIMROSE. 

Geological Series, No. i : The Huronian of the Moose River Basin, by 
W. A. PARKS. 

H. H. Langton^ 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 33 



THE FUTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

Views of Chancellor Burwash, Principal Caven, Prof. Gold-win Smith 
jind Provost Macklem. 

THE future of the university has been the subject ot some recent com- 
ment. The following- extracts from recent speeches and interviews 
will be valuable to those interested in the question : 

CHANCELLOR BURWASH. 

In a recent newspaper interview Chancellor Burwash is reported as 
follows : " The colleges founded by the churches were originally establish- 
ed with a view to the promotion of higher education, combined with the 
best moral, religious and social culture. They were the only colleges of 
the Province from 1840 to 1850, and during that time repeated efforts were 
made to bring them into a provincial system. With these efforts Victoria 
has always co-operated. The same idea was the motive of the Act of 1853, 
as is fully expressed in its preamble. The Act of 1849 first created a State 
college, separate from the church colleges, and this was continued under 
the Act of 1853. The defect of that Act lay in the fact that it afforded no 
assistance to the church colleges ; it simply offered to absorb them, and 
this they resolutely and successfully resisted. It is evident that the spirit 
of that day still survives in some minds, though we judge that it will soon 
take its place with extinct specimens of the unfit, which have perished in 
the struggle for existence. If it is asked why the churches should burden 
themselves with the maintenance of colleges when the State is willing to 
do the work, the answer is that we believe that religion and moral and 
social culture should enter most thoroughly into our highest education ; 
that learning, or even intellectual power, is but a part, and not the most 
important part, of the man. Even in the State colleges, where perhaps of 
necessity in a mixed community this is ignored so far as their legal consti- 
tution goes, it forces itself into an imperfect practical recognition in the 
formation of Christian associations and chapters of various social societies. 
Young men and women will not, cannot pass four years of their lives with- 
out any satisfaction of these elements of their nature, and if they could do 
so it would be a most fatal mistake. The church college supported on the 
voluntary principle, perfectly free in its inteVnal polity, can provide for 
these things most fully, and even a State college, if it has a wise and 
Christian man at its head, need not be godless. The affiliation with it of 
theological schools is certainly a help to this end, though at best it must be 
imperfect from this side. Certainly the presence of church colleges in the 
same university will stimulate the moral, social and religious forces of the 
State college, just as the State college will stimulate the intellectual work 
of the church colleges. 

" It is sometimes supposed that the church colleges regard University 
College, or rather a State college, as unnecessary. This is a decided mis- 
take. A State college is needed to provide for a large part of the popula- 



34 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

tion who cannot support church colleges, as well as to set a common stan- 
dard of excellence below which no other college can afford to fall. Even 
though individual colleges should surpass it in quality of work, it is 
always a guarantee that the university as a whole will not fall below 
the standard fixed by the State itself. It becomes, therefore, the duty 
of the State not only to support the common university, but also to 
see that the college is fully equipped, not as a rival, but as the model 
of her sister colleges. " 

PRINCIPAL CAVEN. 

Principal Caven, in a recent interview, said: "One point is clear to 
me. As long as the University and University College are in connection 
with the State, the State should exercise control over them. Whether 
State connection and State control act as a hindrance to their receiving 
bequests and endowments is a disputed matter. I would hardly care, 
without more experience, to speak on that point. University College is, 
however, the child of the State, and as long as the connection between 
them exists, University College alone of the affiliated institutions should 
receive State aid. I am opposed to the State extending aid to any denomi- 
national college. My opposition is based on two grounds. In the first 
place, State support and State control must go together. Where denomi- 
national control exists, the State should not be responsible for the support 
of an institution. In the second place, if the State were once to extend 
aid to denominational colleges, interminable strife would result. All the 
denominational colleges that enter the confederation must look for support 
to their own people. I see no possibility unless this is done of preserving 
good relations between the different churches and of keeping the lines 
clear between Church and State. Under the present arrangement the ad- 
vantage which the denominational colleges receive from affiliation with the 
State institution is that they are able to dispense with a number of Chairs. 
The University relieves them from a portion of their burden by providing 
these Chairs, which are open to the confederating colleges. That appears 
to me to be a proper arrangement, and there should be no deviation from 
it in the impending readjustment of university relations. If good feelings 
prevail and if the two principles which I have mentioned above are not 
violated, there should be no trouble about the proposed readjustment. I 
do not myself expect that there will be any friction. Victoria College, 
which has an Arts Faculty, as well as a Theological Faculty, has of course 
a standpoint of its own ; but Dr. Burwash, who represents the views of 
the college, is eminently fair. Moreover, the two principles I have men- 
tioned are now so generally accepted throughout the province that any open 
violation of them would not be permitted. I therefore look hopefully for- 
ward to a satisfactory settlement of the whole question." 

PROFESSOR GOLDWIN SMITH. 

In an interview which appeared in the Toronto World of May lyth, 
Professor Goldwin Smith gave his views on Trinity's proposal to federate 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 35 

with the University of Toronto. He stated that this was first mooted 
about 1874, and that he had then spoken on the subject. He continued : 
" I had been led to take great interest in such questions, having been 
for a series of years actively engaged in the re-organization of the 
University of Oxford as Assistant Secretary of a Royal and Secretary of a 
Parliamentary Commission. I submitted then (i) That the resources of 
the province were not more than sufficient to maintain one university on 
the best footing ; (2) that the denominational difficulty would be best met 
by having religious colleges in a secular university. For the teaching of 
classics and mathematics a small staff and a moderate income had sufficed. 
The teaching of science required far ampler means. Those means the re- 
sources of Ontario, scattered among a number of denominational univer- 
sities one or two of which were extremely feeble, could not supply. The 
need of consolidation was more pressing if Ontario was to hold her own, 
as the great American University at Cornell was growing up within an easy 
day's journey of Toronto. 

"Trinity College at that time appeared to be favourable to the plan. 
Not so much money having been laid out in buildings, removal to Queen's 
Park would have been a comparatively easy operation. 

" I continued from time to time to advocate the plan, of the necessity of 
which I felt convinced, but without effect. One day Sir Casimir Gzowski, 
with whom I had been sitting in, the University Senate, deplored to me the 
chances which young Canadians were missing for want of training in 
practical science. I submitted to him that such training was impossible 
without a larger fund which could be formed apparently only by consolid- 
ation. The result was a meeting of some of the heads of the universities 
in his chambers, at which the proposal of confederation was well re- 
ceived ; but which was followed by no practical step towards its realiz- 
ation. It appeared pretty plainly that though educational interests might 
point to union, local interests would be likely to stand in the way. Still, 
I continued to advocate the plan. At length Mr. Gooderham's bequest to 
the Methodist University of Cobourg, conditional on its migration to 
Toronto, brought the question to a practical head. A convention of 
Presidents of Universities was called by the Minister of Education. The 
plan adopted of uniting the single University of Cobourg with the Uni- 
versity of Toronto was not my plan, which contemplated the union of all 
these institutions, nor is my plan chargeable with any difficulties which 
may have ensued. By what reasons Trinity and Queen's were led ultimately 
to reject a policy to which Trinity, at all events, had at one time appeared 
decidedly favourable, not having been invited to the convention, I am un- 
able to say. 

" I cannot pretend now to see my way to any solution. The difficulties 
of the case are increased by the growth of McGill which has reaped in rich 
private benefactions the benefit of its independence of the State. Had 
the resources of British Montreal been united as they well might have 
been to the combined resources of the British Province, a first-rate uni- 
versity might have been the result. But the policy of dispersion has now 
so completely prevailed, and has become so rooted in separate foundations 
and endowments, that consolidation seems to be out of our power. 



36 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

"The only thing I can suggest for consideration is that the University 
of Toronto should be separated from the political Government of the Pro- 
vince. Experience seems to show that private munificence generally shuns 
Government institutions. If the Government decides to keep the Univer- 
sity of Toronto in its hands it must extend its support to no rival. By 
extending its support to universities unconnected with the State, it will be 
cutting the throat of its own policy and exposing the State University to 
the disadvantages of both systems." 



PROVOST MACKLEM. 

In an interview in the Toronto Globe of April 7th, the Rev. T. C. Street 
Macklem, the newly-appointed Provost of Trinity College, gave his views 
on the question of federation : 

" Personally I am in favor of federation, not, however, under the pres- 
ent act, but under terms which will permit Trinity to enter into federation 
without compromising her principles. As a patriotic Canadian and de- 
voted Churchman, I should like to see the whole weight of the Church of 
England in Ontario set on the side of the State for the unification and con- 
solidation of the educational system of this Province and for the strength- 
ening of the State University. 

rf |" Trinity would offer her whole-hearted support to the State for the 
building up of a university which shall be thoroughly comprehensive and 
truly representative of the whole community. I hope for great things for 
Trinity as an integral and honoured part of the one State University. 

" Federation of the Church colleges in the one State University ought 
to become an accomplished fact in the near future, for, while from the 
State point of view it may be well enough that the different religious 
bodies should be represented by their own colleges, it cannot possibly be 
considered satisfactory that they should be maintaining rival universities. 
The time has come when neither the University of Toronto nor Trinity 
University can afford to stand aloof from one another without sacrificing a 
great national ideal. The State University needs the support of every 
important section of the community. Our Church University needs to 
come into closer touch with the whole educational system of the Province, 
or else it cannot adequately fulfil the great purpose of its foundation. 

"The Provincial Government and the University of Toronto owe it to 
the greatness of their national aims to offer to Trinity such liberal terms 
that she 'can enter into federation without disloyalty to the principles of 
her royal charter." 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 37 

inni\>ereit\> of {Toronto* 



AlNJNUAL, CONVOCATION, 

Wednesday, June 13th, I9OO. 



I. ADMISSION TO DEGREES. 

LL.D. (Honoris Causa) Hon. Mr. Justice Moss. 

PH.D. McLennan, J. C. 

M.A. Dawson, Miss A. J. C., Hunt, Miss B. M., Mason, Miss R. E. C., Allison, W. 
T., Chant, C. A., Clark, G. M., Cohen, M. L., Davidson, R., Dawson, H. J., Ford, H. 
E., Jackman, W., Johnston, F. J., McAlpine, R. J., McNairn, W. H., Perkins, R. J.M., 
Robb, E. G., Sinclair, D. A., Sinclair, N. R. D. 

LL.B. McClemont, W. M., Tasker, L. H. 

M.B. - Hanington, Miss M. L., MacMurchy, Miss H., Oliver, Miss C. B., Anderson, H. 
J., Bell, C. C., Blanchard, N. N., Burns, W. T., Cameron, H. C., Campbell, A. C., Camp- 
bell, C. A., Carder, E. D., Charlton, S. E., Collins, H. L., Cook, W. R., Coutts, E. N., 
Dittrick, H., Donald, W. B. L., Downing, H. G., Flath, E., Gilbert, H. S., Hendrick, 
A. C., Hodgson, D. E., Howland, G. W., Hutchison, H. S., Jordan, J,, Kelly, W. A., 
Macdonald, F. C., Macdougall, A. J. G., MacKay, W. F., MacKenzie, A. J., Mac- 
Loghlin, F. E., Morgan, A. E., Morrison, H., Parry, R. Y., Revell, D. G., Robertson, 
W. E., Scott, P. L., Snider, G. B., Stubbs, E. J., Tatham, C. C., Trout, J. H., Webb, 
J., White, W. R., Williams, J. P. F. 

B.A.- -Ballard, Miss A. W., Bollert, Miss M. L., Butterworth, Miss I. S., Chown, Miss 
M. L., Cockburn, Miss C. C., Cole, Miss A. St. O., Creighton, Miss E., Dickson, Miss 
A. L, Flagg, Mrs. E. H., Fleming, Miss E. M., Fleming, Miss M. I., Gall, Miss A. M., 
Graham, Miss E. M., Hall, Miss F. G., Harrison, Miss C.M., Jones, Miss F. M., Lang, 
Miss M. M., McDonald, Miss G., McKee, Miss K. E., Mason, Miss L. M., Straith, Miss 
R. I., Weaver, Miss E. C., Wegg, Miss C. S., Williams, Miss M. B., Woolryche, Miss 
H. G. B., Wright, Miss M. L., Yarwood, Miss M. C. St. G., Yemen, Miss J. F. Allen, 
W. K., Anderson, W. G., Armstrong, R. A., Beal, N. R., Brown, F. E., Campbell, A. 
C., Clare, A. N. W., Coleman, N. F., Connor, R. N. E., Cooper, E. H., Cornish, G. 
A., Cotton, T. H., Cragg, W. J. M., Cunningham, J. D., Davidson, J. G., Dickenson, 
E. U., Dobson, P. C., Donovan, W. J., Doyle, M., Dyment, C. V., Elmslie, W., Fair- 
child, A. H. R., Farewell, F. L., Ferguson, G. A., Fisher, J. W., Fitzgerald, C. R., 
Fitzgerald, W. G., Flint, C. \V., Flintoft, E. P., Fox, J. W., Freleigh, A. J., Garvey, 
C., Gibson, J. J., Gillespie, J. H. R., Glass, W. A., Good, W. C., Graham, H. D., 
Gray, E. A., Greig, P. A., Harrison, W. G., Hedley, R. W., Hill, A. C., Hume, R. D., 
Johnston, J. H., Johnston, R. H., Kay, G. F., Keith, A. W., Kilgour, D. E., Laidlaw, 
R. S., McBean, J. W., MacNeil, J. A., Martin, S. T., Meredith, W. R., Michell, K. B., 
Miller, S.C., Miller, T.O.,Millman, R. M., Misener.A.P., Mitchell, A. N., Mitchell, J.W., 
Morrison, F., Morrison, W., Nasmith, G. G., Noble, F., Osterhout, J. H., Patterson, J., 
Patterson, R. B., Potter, W. A., Ritchie, J. W. P., Rivers, G. W. W., Robinson, S R., 
Rushbrook, W. F., St. John, A. N., Savery, T. W., Scott, J. R. S., Shaw, R., Simpson, 
B.A., Simpson, J. J., Sinclair, H. M., Smith, A , Smith, H. H., Smith, W. B., Spark, G., 
Spence, W. J. Sprott, R. J., Stevens, J. M., Stewart, G. M., Stewart, J. F. M., Telford, 
R., Thorn, D. J., Thompson, W. H., Thomson, A. E. M., Tobey, W. M., Trimble, D. H., 
Trumpour, H. R., Wainwright, P. H., Walker, E. M., Watson, E. H. A., Whillans, J. 
A., Whitely, L. R., Wilson, A. S., Wilson, G. H., Wilson, N. L., Wilson, R. J., Wilson, 
W. G. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



HEDALS AND SCHOLARSHIPS. 



FACULTY OF ARTS. 



Governor-General's Gold Medal .......................... Coleman, N.F. 

Governor-General's Silver Medal ......................... Coffin, E. A. 

Scbolarsbips. 

FIRST YEAR. 

The Bankers' Scholarship ................................ McMahen, Miss M. M. 

The Alexander T. Fulton Scholarship in Mathematics and 

Physics ....................... Hughes, E. F. 

The Alexander T. Fulton Scholarship in Natural Science. . . Gaby, R. E. 
The Alexander T. Fulton Scholarship in Physics and 

Chemistry .................... File, L. K. 

The Alexander T. Fulton Scholarship in Chemistry and 

Mineralogy ................... Chadsey, S. B. 

SECOND YEAR. 

The John Macdonald Scholarship in Philosophy ........... Younge, R. J. 

The John Mulock Scholarship in Mathematics and Physics. . Stewart, R. M. 

The Edward Blake Scholars-hip in Natural Science ........ Smith, G. E. 

The Edward Blake Scholarship in Physics and Chemistry. .. Bray, W. C. 

The Edward Blake Scholarship in Chemistry and Mineralogy Mackintosh, J. C. 
The Alexander Mackenzie Scholarships in Political Science, i. Moore, D. R. 

2. Soule, J. A. 
THIRD YEAR. 

The A. A. A. S. Scholarship in Mathematics and Physics . . . Burton, E. F. 

The Daniel Wilson Scholarship in Natural Science ......... Embree, M. H. 

The Daniel Wilson Scholarship in Chemistry and Mineralogy Wilson, W. J. 
The A.A.A.S. Scholarship in Physics and Chemistry ....... 

The Alexander Mackenzie Scholarships in Political Science, i. Aylesworth, A. F. 

2. McLaren, W. W. 
FOURTH YEAR. 

1851 Exhibition Scholarship .............................. Patterson, J. 

POST-GRADUATE. 

The Ramsay Scholarship in Political Science .............. Russell, T. A. 

FACULTY OF MEDICINE. 

/Ifceoals, 

Faculty Gold Medal ......... .................. Scott, P. L. \ 

Bell, C. C. / aeq - 
First Faculty Silver Medal ..................... Revell, D. G. 

Second Faculty Silver Medal ..................... Rowland, G. W. 

Third Faculty Silver Medal ...................... Carder, E. D. 

Scbolarsbips. 

First Year .................................. ____ Gallic, W. E. 

Knister, C. E. 

Wilson, G. E. ) X 
Second Year .................................. i. Fletcher, G. W. 

2. Klotz, O. 

POST-GRADUATE SCHOLARSHIP. 

THE GEORGE BROWN MEMORIAL SCHOLARSHIP IN MEDICAL SCIENCE. 
For this Scholarship, Coutts, E. N., Scott, P. L., Stubbs, E. J., Snyder, G. B., 
ranked in the order named. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



39 



TORONTONENSIA. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

MONTHLY. 

/ 
ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS FOR PUBLICATION 

TO THE SECRETARY, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 

EDITORIAL BOARD. 

I. H. CAMERON, M.B., Chairman. 
J. C. MCLENNAN, Ph.D., Secretary. 

J. FLETCHER, M.A., LL.D.; A. R. BAIN, 
M.A., LL.D.; J. A. COOPER, B.A., LL.B.; 
L. E. EMBREE, M.A. ; THOMAS MULVEY, 
B. A. ; S. J. ROBERTSON, B. A. ; T. A. 
RUSSEL, B.A. 

Every graduate of Toronto is loyal to 
his Alma Mater. This theory has been 
sufficient up to the present time. The day 
for the theory has passed. Every gradu- 
ate is now given the opportunity of show- 
ing his loyalty in a practical way. The 
joining of the Alumni Association and pay- 
ing the dollar fee is not the test although it 
is a necessary preliminary. The securing of 
several additional members and the sending 
in of their names so that they may be en- 
rolled as new members and receive a copy 
of this journal is one method of showing 
practical sympathy. The sending of notes 
for this and other departments, the making 
of suggestions, and the upholding of the 
hands of thos5 who are endeavouring to 
strengthen the university by calling to her 
aid a united alumni - these in rising order 
are the proofs of active fidelity. 

Among the institutions and departments 
that make up the University of Toronto, 
there is none in which the alumni of the 
university may claim a greater share than 
the library, since it was reestablished after 
the fire of 1890 to a great extent by the sub- 
scriptions of the graduates. As a result 
of thi normal growth of ten years since 
the fire, added to the extraordinary outlay 
in restoring the collection of books, the 
library now contains, 66,000 volumes and 
more than 7,000 pamphlets. 

The use of the library is by no means 
intended to be limited to professors and 
undergraduate students. While the claims 
of the latter must receive first considera- 
tion during the eight months of lectures, 
there are four months of vacation when 
none of the books need be withheld from 
circulation among the graduates. Even 
during term the number of books that 
must be retained for daily use by the 



students in attendance on lectures is com* 
paratively small, and all others are then 
freely available for graduates as during 
the vacation. 

The primary object of a university 
library being to assist university teachers 
and students in their work, the collec- 
tion of books has been mainly built up on 
the lines of collegiate studies. Graduates 
who wish to continue their reading in any 
department of philology, history, philo- 
sophy or science will find ample literature 
at their disposal. In periodicals devoted 
to research the library is particularly rich. 
The number of such periodicals currently 
received is now more than 300. By 
special arrangement also the periodicals 
in the collection of the Canadian Institute, 
which supplements the University Library 
at many points, may be consulted by 
readers in the University Library. 

A great disadvantage to members of the 
university not living in Toronto who wish 
to make use of the library, has been the 
absence of a portable catalogue. The 
great expense that a printed catalogue of 
so large a library would involve has pre- 
vented any attempt at supplementing the 
reference card catalogue that is kept in 
the library building, by one that could be 
distributed to readers. 

As a partial remedy it is hoped to pub- 
lish in the succeeding monthly numbers of 
this journal a selection of the new books 
added to the library from time to time. In 
this way the alumni will learn the value of 
the collection that is being formed, and 
many may be led to increase their acquaint- 
ance with it. 

Last fall the Departmental Societies of the 
university and of university college, six in 
all, combined for the first time in the publi- 
cation of a joint programme of their several 
meetings. The programmes were printed 
together in one neat pamphlet. But equally, 
if not more important, was the arrange- 
ment between the executives to form their 
public meetings into a special series of 
" Monday Afternoon Lectures " during De- 
cember and January. The lectures were 
held atfour o'clockand wereall particularly 
well attended. Each society was repre- 
sented once in the series. The idea is to 
make these meetings especially prominent 
for addresses on contemporary problems. 
The subjects treated were : Russia, by 
Professor Mavor ; the Nerve Cell and the 
Race, by Professor Macallum ; the Ameri- 



4 o 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



can and Roman Republics a Parallel and 
a Contrast by Mr. W. S. Milner ; How to 
Think, by Professor Hume ; Astrology, by 
Professor Baker; Zola, by Mr. J. Home 
Cameron. 

The Honourable the Commissioner, of 
Crown Lands has completed his scheme 
for a careful and systematic exploration of 
Northern Ontario, for which the Legisla- 
ture at its lastsession made a grant of 
$40,000. He has organized and equipped 
ten parties, many of which are now in the 
field. Among those entrusted with im- 
portant positions are to be found the fol- 
lowing graduates and undergraduates of 
the School of Practical Science : Coul- 
thard, R. C., B.A.Sc., '99, Geologist in 
Party No. i ; Silvester, G. E., O.L.S, '91, 
Surveyor in Party No. 3 ; Parsons, J. R. 
L., B.A., '01, Geologist in Party No. 5; 
Tiernan, J M., occl. class of '87 Surveyor in 
charge Party No. 6 ; Robinson, A. H. A., 
B.A.Sc., '97, Geologist Party No. 6 ; 
Smith, A. H., occl. class of 'GO, Geologist 
Party No. 8; Davison, I. G., 'oo, Geolo- 
gist Party No. 9; McAree, J., B.A. Sc., 
'92, Surveyor in charge Party No. 10; 
Johnston, J. A., 'oo, Geologist Party No. 
10. 

The graduating year of the School of 
Practical Science have been very quickly 
placed in positions of importance. 

J. L. Allan is in the City Engineer's 
office, Sidney, N.S. ; M. C. Boswell with 
the Dominion Bridge Co., Montreal, Que. ; 
J. A. Henry with the General Electric 
Co., Schenectady, N.Y. ; J. C. Johnston 
in the City Engineer's office, Toronto ; 
R. E. McArthur with a mining company 
in Idaho ; J. G. McMillan on harbour 
works, Sault Ste. Marie ; L. H. Miller 
with Westinghouse Electric Co., Pitts- 
burg, Pa. ; E. H. Phillips with the Corn- 
wall Canal Works, Cornwall, Out. ; J. R. 
Roaf, assayer, Ophir Gold Mining Co., 
Bruce Mines, Onl. ; C. H. E. Rounthwaite 
with the United Electric Co., Toronto ; 
S. M. Thorne with the Hamilton Blast 
Furnace, Hamilton, Ont. ; F. W. Thorold 
with Willis Chipman, C.E., Smith's Falls, 
Ont., and H. Mel. Weir with J. G. Sing, 
O.L.S., Alexander Bay, Ont. 

It is gratifying to note that at the annual 
meeting of the Royal Society of Canada, 
held in May last, a leading part was taken 
in the proceedings by the graduates of 
the University of Toronto. Mr. Louis 
Frechette, C.M.G., recently nominated 
for the honorary degree of LL.D. by 
the University of Toronto, was elected 



President, and Dr. Loudon Vice-President 
of the Society for the year 1900-1901. Dr. 
London was also elected to the presidency 
of Section III (Mathematical, Physical and 
Chemical Sciences) for the ensuing year. 
Among others who presented papers at 
this meeting of the Society were the fol- 
lowing Toronto graduates : W. Lash Mil- 
ler, Ph.D.; F. B. Kenrick, Ph.D.; J. H. 
McDonald, Ph.D.; J.C. McLennan, Ph.D., 
and Frank T. Shutt, M.A. 

Two classical graduates held fellow- 
ships in other universities last year. These 
were, Mr. R. J. Bonner, "90, who was in 
the university of Chicago and Miss J. 
Brown, '97, who was in the university of 
Colorado. Miss Brown was fortunate in 
having her fellowship in Colorado renewed 
but preferred to take a Latin fellowship in 
the university of Pennsylvania. Mr. D. 
Thompson, '92, who has been taking post- 
graduate work in Chicago, has been 
elected to a fellowship in Latin. 

Miss Helena K. Burns, '95, having 
taken a two years' course at Victoria Hos- 
pital, Montreal, was, last March, appoint- 
ed Assistant Superintendent of the Gen- 
eral Hospital, Ottawa. 

Miss Rachael Chase, '95, has recently re- 
turned from Indore, India, where she was 
teacher of English Literature in a school 
connected with the Canadian Presby- 
terian Mission. 

Miss Julia S. Cowan, '95, has gone to 
England for a year. She has been devot- 
ing considerable amount of her time to 
journalism, and will continue her work' in 
London. 

Mrs. Margaret Robertson Watt, '89, 
of British Columbia, came^from Colling- 
wood to attend the Alumni dinner and the 
Annual Commencement. 

Miss Emma Fraser, '95, Ph.D., Penn., 
'98, has, since last fall, held the position 
of Head of the Romance Department, 
Elmira College. 

W. B. Howell, '95, and F. W. French, 
'89, will next year be in attendance at 
Chicago for post-graduate work. 

Miss Claribel Platt, '91, is teaching in a 
school in Smyrna, under the direction of 
an American Mission Board. 

Miss Ethelyn Gillespie, '96, has been ap- 
pointed Assistant Librarian, Legislative 
Assembly, Toronto. 

Miss Northway, '98, has been granted 
a fellowship in Physics at Bryn Mawr. 



THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

VOL. I. OCTOBER, 1900. No. 2. 



PRESIDENT LOUDON'S CONVOCATION ADDRESS ON 
SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY REFORM. 

IN my Convocation address last year I dealt with the question of 
technical education, and judging from the number of inquiries and 
references which the address elicited, both at home and abroad, I am led 
to the conclusion that the discussion was timely, and that it contributed 
in some measure to the removal of misconceptions. This year again I 
propose to discuss an academic topic, and one of a severely technical 
character. 

I am sometimes asked why I do not choose more popular subjects for 
my Convocation addresses. My answer is that, though there are many 
inviting themes in the broad fields of literature and science, not to 
mention politics, still I feel that my position as head of the teaching side 
of the University demands that first and foremost I should contribute 
my quota to the solution of those difficult academic problems, connected 
with the University or the general system of education in Ontario, which 
from time to time are bound to present themselves. I feel, indeed, that 
academics is my business, and that it should receive my first attention. 

I am sure that the title of this address must have excited curiosity in 
some minds, mingled with a species of incredulity. I am liable to be 
asked, "Are you not aware that our educational system is the best in the 
world, that it has received medals and diplomas at the World's Fair, and 
that it excites the envy and emulation of the nations?" These are 
things which we are too prone to repeat, and which are believed by too 
many. They are pleasant but unprofitable doctrines. There is really no 
system so dead as a perfect system. Some systems are worse than ours, 
some are better, and even the best existing is capable of improvement. 

Apropos of this I am tempted to relate an incident which occurred in 
the experience of a friend of mine, a distinguished Parisian savant. Some 
thirty years ago my friend was conversing with a gentleman (whom we 
shall call Mr. B.) regarding the education of boys, and outlined to him, 
with considerable enthusiasm, what he thought to be an ideal course of 
training. Mr. B. replied half in jest, " Well, if I ever have boys to edu- 
CP e, I shall follow your advice." Many years passed by, and Mr. B. 
be - ame a prominent official in the French service in Egypt. One day 



42 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

my friend received a letter from him saying that he had not forgotten 
the pedagogical theories heard so many years ago, and asking at the 
same time for the address of an institution which carried out the princi- 
ples then laid down. My friend was forced to reply that, although he 
held to his theories more firmly than ever, yet as a matter of fact no 
such institution existed anywhere in Europe. Fortunately for the boy,, 
the m itter was ended by his being sent to a German gymnasium at 
Frankfort. Like my friend, I too have in mind an ideal system which 
doubtless I shall never see fully realized, but towards the attainment of 
which I should like to contribute in some measure by my advocacy. 

It is not my purpose to propound new theories as to the objects of 
education in general. It is not my intention to discuss the educational 
value of this or that branch of learning, either in the abstract or in regard 
to the future career of the student, and still less am I inclined to discuss 
pedagogical methods My remarks will centre round what I consider 
to be the most important question confronting High School and University 
teachers here and now, viz., " How shall the youth of our land obtain a 
liberal education without unnecessary waste of time and effort?" The 
term " liberal education " requires a word of definition. Under the vary- 
ing systems of different civilized countries there is a remarkable unani- 
mity as to its meaning. . Speaking generally, to be liberally educated 
implies a knowledge of one's own language and literature and of two or 
three foreign languages and literatures, a knowledge of mathematics, 
history, and at least some acquaintance with physical or natural science. 
Such a scheme may be too broad or too narrow. Some radical persons 
will maintain that it is nearly all wrong, but at any rate it is the scheme 
on which the civilized world has settled, and how best to obtain or impart 
this education is the practical question before us. Under our system the 
work is done by the High School and the University. The High School 
imparts the rudiments and the Arts course of the University continues 
and completes the instruction begun in the High School. The Bachelor's 
degree represents the sum total. 

Now, is this work being done in Ontario with due regard to economy 
of time and effort ? The average age of our Arts graduates is between 
23 and 24 years. If we pass in review the acquirements of the average 
graduate, and consider that it has required in all 17 or 18 years of school 
and university training to reach what is often a very mediocre degree 
of attainment, we have at once ground for suspicion. But if we examine 
what is accomplished in some other countries, notably in Germany, in 
the same time, we become at once convinced that there is something 
radically wrong. The Canadian youth of 19 (I am speaking of average 
age) is barely beginning his college course : the German youth of like 
age has completed his liberal education His attainments, even put at 
the very lowest, are equal to those of our pass graduate, while his know- 
ledge of some subjects would put him into the honour lists under our 
system. He is a good "all round" scholar. He has passed the 
Abiturienten-Examen, which closes his career at the gymnasium or real- 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 43 

schule. He is then in fact qualified and permitted to undertake what 
we should call post graduate study. As far as a liberal education is 
concerned, he has had the same course of training as the professor with 
whom he undertakes professional study or research work. In this con- 
nection, it is worth remarking, by the way, how different is the force of 
the term " leaving-examination " (modelled on Abiturienten-Exameti) as 
sometimes used here, and as used in Germany. With us it marks the 
entrance to undergraduate work : in Germany it marks the entrance to 
research or post-graduate work. 

Why is it then that our young men lag years behind the young men 
of Germany in attainment ? Are they not industrious, and are their 
teachers not painstaking ? I have no hesitation in answering both these 
questions in the affirmative. Both our children and our teachers are 
burdened to the limits of physical endurance. The German boy prob- 
ably plays less, and his school hours are slightly longer, but taking 
school work and home work together, there is little or no difference in 
the amount of effort expended by the student. After careful comparison 
of our system with that of Germany and other countries as well, I have 
come to the conclusion that the loss of time with us results largely, I 
might say mainly, from a clumsy and unnatural arrangement of the 
whole course of study. The course of study as a whole is chargeable 
both with sins of omission and commission ; it has left undone those 
things which it ought to have done, and it has done those things which 
it ought not to have done, and I might almost add that, so far as facility 
for the acquisition of a liberal education is concerned, there is no health 
in it. . 

Let us examine for a little the course of training of one of our 
graduates. He enters the Public School at say 6 years of age. He is 
taught to read, write and cipher, and just here enters a sin of commis- 
sion. He is overtaxed with work in departments of study for which his 
immature mind is totally unfitted. I refer especially to grammar and 
arithmetic. The sum total of effort lost through untimely pushing in 
these subjects alone is enormous. After the lapse of some years the boy 
is ready for the High School, and passes into it after a stiff examination. 
His education is pretty well out of joint. The chances are that he is an 
indifferent reader, not very sure of his orthography, fair in writing, able 
to analyse and parse in a mechanical way, but not understandingly, very 
strong in arithmetic, if he be tested on the type of problem on which he 
has been drilled, and with a certain amount of useless baggage in his- 
tory, geography, physiology and temperance, etc., but without having 
been taught the first word of a foreign language. If he remains in the 
Public School for two years more before entering the High School, as 
he may do, he continues his English studies, is pushed furt'her on in 
mathematics, and adds botany and bookkeeping to his acquirements. 
He is still, except in very rare cases, without the rudiments ot a foreign 
language. 

In the High School he begins a struggle to overtake what has been 



44 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

omitted from his previous training. In view of his intended course at 
the University, he must at once begin either two or three foreign lan- 
guages. Now, language-study is a matter in which time is a very 
essential element. But the boy's time is limited. He is getting up in 
years, and must be rapidly crammed for matriculation. Moreover, the 
best period for acquiring the elements of foreign languages has already 
passed by, while the boy was striving in the Public School to learn the 
impossible. If the High School pupil were free to devote his whole time 
to languages, he would still be at a disadvantage, owing to the shortness 
of the High School course, but the languages form only a portion of his 
work. He must prepare his Part I. of the Junior Leaving, and hence, 
geography, arithmetic, grammar and history, monopolize his attention, to 
the further detriment of his languages. He arrives at the University at 
the average age of between 19 and 20 years, with his education relatively 
as much out of joint as it was on his entrance to the High School. At 
the University his main effort is spent in striving to remedy the defects 
of his early language training, and he finally graduates some three or 
four years later than is the case in Germany, with a much less thorough 
and permanent knowledge of his foreign languages. 

Now let us see how our German friends plan the education of a boy 
who is intended to be liberally educated. He enters the gymnasium or 
realschule at about 10 or n years of age, and he completes the course at 
1 8 or 19.' The work is divided into six forms or classes, numbered 
inversely as compared with ours, and running from VI. (the lowest) to I. 
(the highest). In the gymnasium, classics is given prominence, in the 
realschule, modern languages and mathematics occupy the first place : 
the other subjects of study are in general as with us. In order to con- 
trast the division of the boy's whole school time with what prevails here, 

1 shall have to give you a few figures. His school week is on the aver- 
age divided into about 30 periods. In the Leipzig Gymnasium, for 
example, Latin has in the lowest form 9 periods, and 7 and 8 in the two 
highest, and in other classes proportionately ; Greek has 7 periods in the 
three highest forms ; French runs through four forms out of the six, with 

2 hours weekly in each form ; English 2 hours weekly in the two highest 
forms. This is in marked contrast to our system, and we obtain a con- 
trast of another character when we observe the time given to German 
(the boy's mother tongue) and mathematics. The periods in German in 
this institution run 4, 3, 3, 2, 2, 3 ; arithmetic runs through the three 
lowest forms only, with an average time of 3.3 periods each week ; it is 
then dropped, and mathematics continues through the higher forms, with 
an average time of about 4 periods weekly, and yet the German mathe- 
matician is inferior to none. In the Realgymnasium at Chemnitz the 
average number of periods per week devoted to Latin throughout the 
course is 6.3 ; to French 4.4 in five forms ; and to English 3 in three forms. 
In the Leipzig Realschule the average number of periods per week 
devoted to French throughout five out of the six classes is 5.4 ; to English 
4 periods in the three upper forms ; to German 5.5 throughout. Here 
also arithmetic drops to 2 periods weekly at the middle of the course. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 45 

Under such a grouping of his work, we cannot wonder that the German 
becomes a thorough scholar in three or four foreign languages at an age 
when a Canadian youth is still struggling with the elements. Nor does 
it appear that the German youth is deficient in the branches on which 
we lay so much stress, for the simple reason that his training in them is 
judiciously timed and proportioned. 

It will thus appear that our system differs from that of Germany (and 
the same is true of other countries) in two fundamental respects, (i) 
language study is unduly deferred with us, and (2) various other branches 
are unduly fostered. How have these conditions arisen ? The post- 
ponement of language study in our system is evidently due to the fact 
that the High School course begins where the Public School ends, and 
liberal education becomes the victim of what looks like a very symmetrical 
and plausfble course upon paper. There is practically no means in our 
system by which the boy may begin his languages at an advantageous 
age, and moreover, as the standard of the Public School rises, the evil 
becomes intensified through still further postponement. 

Let me give you an example of the questions which a boy must 
answer before he is permitted to study languages in a High School. 
They are selected from the High School entrance examination papers of 
1899. 

Define and illustrate in sentences the following : 

(a) compound, complex, assertive, interrogative and imperative 
sentences, 

(0) principal and dependent clauses, 

(c) adverbial, adjectival and noun-phrases. 

Show, by writing shall or will with the first, second and third persons 
singular and plural of the verb go, how you would indicate : 
(a) simple futurity, 
(&) promise or determination. 

Draw an outline map of South America, indicating with names the 
chief islands, rivers, mountain ranges, and the political subdivisions. 

The cost of a quantity of silk at $3.25 per yard, and tweed at $2.50 
per yard was $409.75,. the whole cost of the tweed being 25 cents more 
than that of the silk. Find the number of yards of each kind of cloth. 

A merchant engages a lawyer to collect his accounts, agreeing to pay 
him 2\ per cent, of the sum collected. If | of the accounts prove worth- 
less and the lawyer receives $75.60 for collecting the balance, find the 
total amount of the merchant's accounts. 

What led to the passing of the Constitutional Act of 1791. State its 
chief clauses, and point out its defects. 

Write explanatory notes on the following : 
(a) Secularization of the Clergy Reserves, 
(*) The British North America Act, 

^ (c) The North- West Rebellion, 1885. 

State the duties of each of the following, and explain how each is 
appointed : County Treasurer, Sheriff, Registrar, Warden of the 



46 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

County, Mayor, Assessor, Premier of the Dominion, Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor, Governor-General. 

What is a tragedy ? Why did Burns not write one ? What was the 
deep tragedy that he enacted ? 

Why may Burns be regarded as an " intrinsically nobler, gentler, and 
perhaps greater soul " than Napoleon ? 

(a] Give the general classes under which you would arrange the 
bones of the human frame. 

(b) Of what substances are bones formed ? Which of these sub- 
stances predominates in the different stages of life? 

(a) Trace the food through all the changes wrought upon it in the 
mouth, the stomach, the duodenum and the small intestines. 

(b) Name the juices mixed with it in each stage of these changes 
and the organs which produce them. 

(c) What organs take up the food and send it into the circulation ? 
I do not offer an explanation as to why we have been saddled with 

conditions so inflexible, but I characterize them as an evil, and I empha- 
size the point. So long as it is impossible for the boy to begin his lan- 
guages until he has reached the standard now required for High School 
entrance, just so long will he be terribly hampered and delayed in the 
attainment of a liberal education. So strong was the Senate of the 
University impressed with this disability that two years ago it considered 
a project for instituting an elementary examination in languages, a grade 
lower than matriculation, for the purpose of stimulating language study. 
The project was eventually abandoned, as it was felt that any further 
increase of the examination evil would prove to be a remedy worse than 
the disease. 

Let us look at the second of the hindrances, the undue fostering of 
certain other branches of study. We shall find the causes in the scope and 
object of the High School course. Ostensibly the High School curriculum 
is framed to afford a liberal course of secondary education, but the High 
School, as now constituted, is chiefly an institution for the preparation 
of Public School teachers in their non-professional work. This is the 
determining principle. We are sometimes reminded that intending 
matriculants form but a fraction of the aggregate attendance, and that 
they consequently have no rights. But is the manufacture of such 
enormous numbers of Public School teachers wise or right from any point 
of view; or, if so, is the course of study such as to produce the best 
quality of Public School teachers ? To both of these questions I give a 
decided negative. The evils attendant on the over-production of teachers 
have become patent to everybody, and need not be dwelt on. The 
quality of the teachers in the Province at large leaves much to be desired. 
I shall refer to this point again under another head, but I should like to 
say just here that the standard of efficiency might be considerably 
improved by liberalizing the course of non-professional studies. 

I have referred at considerable length to the postponement of languages 
and the want of proportion in the course of study, because I regard these 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 47 

as the chief impediments in the way of obtaining a liberal education, and 
also because these hindrances have not hitherto received the attention 
which they demand at the hands of those who are interested in seeing 
our educational system, as a whole, brought up to the level of that of 
other countries. 

I now pass on to discuss briefly a third impediment, which has of late 
received much attention, and regarding which wiser counsels are begin- 
ning to prevail. I refer to the examination incubus. Even with the 
lightening which has taken place, we may still, I think, challenge the 
world in respect of examinations. At the Departmental Examinations 
in 1899, 32,160 candidates were examined, exclusive of those in the Art 
Schools, etc. The total number of examination papers issued was 
706,500. Of these candidates 11,483 took the examinations leading to 
the teachers' certificate in 1899, and the number was about the same in 
1900, while the whole number of Public School teachers in the Province 
was at the latest estimate 8465. These figures are astounding, but they 
refer only to a part of the written examinations which meet the student 
at every turn from the kindergarten to the university. There are written 
weekly examinations, monthly examinations, promotion examinations, 
and what not. I hold that examinations are a necessity to be reduced 
to a minimum, and that they should not be multiplied and magnified as has 
been the case under our system. There is no doubt in my mind that 
teaching done with the examination immediately in view is inferior teach- 
ing, and when we add to this the incentives to cram arising from frequent 
tests which bring the High Schools into competition with one another, 
we find that we are face to face with a serious hindrance to effective 
teaching. 

Looking more particularly at the examinations affecting the High 
School course, I am glad to note that the examination for Form I. has been 
discontinued. This is a step in the right direction, but it is not enough. 
Hosts of candidates every year pass the non-professional tests for teachers 
who never become teachers, and who have no intention of entering the 
teaching profession. This is unnecessary, and it is hurtful on the general 
grounds already given. But it appears almost absurd when we remember 
that the examinations are held years before the candidate begins his 
career as a teacher. One general result of this practice is still further to 
distort the High School course, notably in the subjects of grammar, arith- 
metic and history, in which a high standard is exacted at an age much 
too early for the proper comprehension of these subjects. 

The teachers' examinations are in the wrong place. The non-profes- 
sional and professional tests should go together, and should be applied 
at the same time. In short it is my belief that the Provincial Normal 
Schools should not only teach pedagogy, but should also review and 
examine on a large part at least, if not all, of the subjects which the in- 
tending teacher is to teach. I need hardly refer to the County Model 
Schools, which have demonstrated their uselessness, and cannot disappear 
too soon from our system. In other words, then, let the teaching 



48 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

function which the Normal School originally possessed in Ontario, be 
revived. This would be in line with the practice in Germany. The 
German system does not send out its certified teacher with mere reminis- 
cences of what he has acquired years ago, as is done here. In the 
Lehrer- Seminar (Normal School) even though the candidate has com- 
pleted the greater part of his course in the gymnasium or realschule, he 
is instructed not only in the strictly pedagogical work, and sciences there- 
to relating, as here, but also in mathematics, the German language and 
literature, history, geography, physics and chemistry, natural science,, 
drawing and caligraphy, vocal and instrumental music, gymnastics and 
drill, religion, and sometimes Latin and modern languages. 

Such a method, if adopted here, would have more than one advantage. 
It would raise immensely the standard of the profession as a profession, 
it would give us an efficient body of Public School teachers, of which the 
country is sorely in need, and it would reduce the examination evil to a 
minimum, since the only remaining examination would be that required 
for matriculation into the universities and professional schools. The 
promotion examinations from form to form, in the High School, I would 
propose to leave entirely in the hands of the teachers, and pupils should 
be admitted to the High School on the recommendation of its teaching; 
staff. 

Let us now proceed to consider in detail the direct bearing of what 
has been said on the universities and professions. Students who are 
seeking a liberal education may be roughly divided into three classes, (i) 
those who have no professional career in view ; (2) those who are looking 
forward to one of the so-called learned professions, or to a higher tech- 
nical career, and (3) those who are intending to engage in research 
work leading to a higher degree than the B.A. 

The effect of the present system upon the first of these classes, though 
serious enough in itself, is less harmful than upon the other two classes. 
To the student who has in view solely the attainment of a liberal educa- 
tion, time is a less important element In his case, the attainment 
of his object is simply delayed by so many years, and made propor- 
tionately expensive, but without other result, except that the process is 
needlessly tedious, and the standard of scholarship lower than could be 
reached by the same effort under improved conditions. 

With the second class, the matter is quite different. The intending 
professional man feels that he cannot afford the loss of two or three 
years cut out of the most vigorous part of his life. He cannot fairly be 
expected to spend 13 or 14 years in preparation for entrance on an Arts 
course, 4 years in obtaining his Arts degree, and 3 or 4 years more in the 
study of his profession, which he finally reaches at the age of 26 or 27, or 
even 28. True, a certain number of young men make the sacrifice of 
time entailed by taking the Arts course, and in my opinion they decide 
wisely. But the vast majority decide otherwise. They begin the study 
of their profession with the minimum preparation exacted in the various 
professional schools. The professional schools are hampered by the 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 49 

slender attainments of their students, and would gladly raise the stand- 
ard of entrance to that of the B.A. degree, but this is practically impos- 
sible, and it will remain impossible just so long as the present conditions 
prevail. If, on the other hand, the preparatory course were reformed by 
the removal of the defects which I have indicated, it would be easy 
enough to insist on the higher standard, and indeed I have little doubt 
that, could intending professional students shorten their preparatory 
course by even two years, many of them would of their own accord elect 
to enter their profession through the gateway of the B.A. degree. The 
intending technical student requires also a liberal education of a some- 
what more limited character, and, under improved conditions, he also- 
would at an early age be enabled to acquire that knowledge of foreign 
modern languages which is absolutely essential to his success, and which 
he now must obtain later under great disadvantages. With regard to 
the importance of French and German to the technical student, Principal 
Galbraith of the School of Practical Science tells me that, had he to 
choose between a knowledge of French and German on the one hand 
and Chemistry and Physics on the other, as a preparation for entering 
a higher technical course, he would unhesitatingly decide in favour of 
the languages. 

Coming next to the third class, the research student, let us see how 
the reform would affect him. With this class of student rests the hope 
of future advancement in knowledge and the eventual raising of our 
whole standard of learning as a nation. And yet research work is with 
us in its very infancy. The vast majority of our young men never 
undertake it ; they hardly realize what it means. They never get 
beyond the stage of mere learners, they do not become students. Here 
again a vast improvement might be made under reformed conditions. 
The average German youth is in a position to begin research work at 19 
or 20. If that were possible here, I make no doubt that research would 
receive an immense impetus, and that through it a new and stronger life 
would begin for higher learning in our midst. 

There is still another question coming under the general head of 
economy of time. How would High School reforms affect the University 
Arts course ? Could it be shortened ? It has sometimes been proposed, 
even under present conditions, to make it a three years' course. This 
proposition has been made just because of the needlessly advanced age 
at which our B.A. degree is obtained. Such a reduction, with its attend- 
ant evils (the increased pressure on the student and the lowering of the 
standard), would be a doubtful experiment unless reform were effected 
lower down. If the advocates of a three years' course can secure the 
necessary modifications in what precedes, a proper proportion in the 
preparatory subjects, and the introduction of language study say two- 
years earlier than at present, I see no reason why the Arts course might 
not be rearranged and shortened by a year, without impairing the 
standard. 

The remedy of defects is to some extent implied in the mention of 



50 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

them, but, lest I should be misunderstood as indulging in criticism of a 
purely destructive character, let me summarize here, at the risk of repeat- 
ing myself in part, the chief reforms in our system which seem to me 
urgent and feasible. 

1. The courses of study. 

Let the work of the Public School be better adapted to the end in view, 
and to the stage of mental development of the child. This implies a 
good deal less grammar and arithmetic, especially in the early part of 
the course, a great deal more attention to reading and spelling, and in 
general, less prominence to subjects which are of little educational value. 
Let us by all means ensure that the pupil, on leaving the Public School, 
shall read with intelligence and ease, spell correctly, write well, and per- 
form simple arithmetical operations with accuracy. 

For the High School, I propose, first of all, some arrangement by which 
the pupil may begin his languages at a reasonably early age. There is no 
reason why the pupil should not enter the High School as soon as he is 
well grounded in the essentials I have mentioned above. It seems in 
some quarters to have become accepted as axiomatic that the only path to 
the High School lies through the completion of the present Public School 
course, with all its encumbrance of non-essentials. 

This is one of the fundamental mistakes of our system. I do not pro- 
pose to limit the sphere of the Public School, or to abridge its curriculum, 
but I maintain that the work of the High School will be in great measure 
ineffective so long as it of necessity begins where the present Public 
School curriculum leaves off. Nor will matters be improved by the in- 
troduction of language teaching into the Public Schools. At best, the 
languages would be optional, and the efficient teaching of them could not 
be secured. Further, I propose for the High Schools a change in the 
allotment of time and attention to the various subjects so as to provide 
for a really liberal education. This change could easily be secured, if the 
non-professional training of teachers were transferred in large part to the 
Normal School, where it properly belongs. 

For the University I propose a remodelling of the present course and 
the shortening of it by one year, conditional, however, upon the changes 
which I have outlined above. 

2. Examinations. 

In general let the examination evil be reduced throughout the whole 
system. Let us have more teaching and less examining, and this applies 
perhaps nowhere with more force than to the work being done in the 
Public Schools. Let the non-professional examinations for teachers be 
applied when they have completed their whole course of training, thus 
removing from the High Schools one of the greatest impediments to 
effective teaching. 

3. The training of teachers. 

This is a most essential matter. The most obvious reform under this 
head is the abolition of the County Model School. It has been and is a 
mere makeshift. Let the Normal Schools be developed along new 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 51 

lines, or rather let their old teaching function be restored. Make these 
schools thoroughly efficient by increasing and strengthening their teach- 
ing staffs, and if necessary let new Normal Schools be established. Our 
Public Schools are below the proper standard of efficiency. There is one 
way and only one way of improving them, and that is by improving the 
teacher. How to eliminate the transient or "stepping-stone" teacher, 
and how to secure a body of mature, scholarly and earnest Public School 
teachers is one of the most serious problems of our educational future. 
I feel sure that what I propose would be a long step towards the solu- 
tion of this problem, and would result in an immense improvement in our 
Public Schools, an improvement which nobody desires more earnestly 
than myself. 

At the risk of unduly prolonging my remarks, I shall refer to one 
question more of university reform of quite special urgency, viz., financial 
reform. In my programme of reform under this head there are three 
items. The first is money, the second is money, and the third is more 
money. I do not need to refer to ways and means of economizing and 
administering what we have. Our cramped resources have left us little 
to learn in this respect : the great problem is how to increase our 
revenues. 

The beginning of our necessities dates approximately from the passing 
of the Federation Act in 1887. Our total expenditure in 1887 was 
$70,149 ; our expenditure last year was $135,720.87. This sum includes 
scholarships, etc. (the proceeds of special gifts to the University), but 
does not include expenditure on the Medical Faculty. The increase has 
resulted in part from the additional requirements arising out of federa- 
tion and in part from general expansion. 

The passing of the Federation Act marked an epoch of hope in uni- 
versity finances : subsequent years have been years of disappointment. 
The financial problem was thought then to have been solved : it still 
awaits its solution. The increased necessities of the University were 
not unforeseen at the time of federation. I myself was requested in 1885 
to prepare an estimate of the increased annual revenue requisite to 
properly finance the federation scheme. I reckoned the sum total at 
$40,000 annually, to be immediately available. It was the intention of 
the government then in power to provide liberally for the University, and 
while absent in Germany in 1887. I was informed on high authority that 
at least $30.000 would be forthcoming. This sum was to be the outcome 
of the transaction respecting the old Upper Canada College block. As 
you know, these expectations were never realized, and the scheme in 
question has resulted most disastrously to the University from a financial 
point of view. Meanwhile, we have been in financial straits, the string- 
ency increasing year by year. Almost our only resource has been the 
increase of fees, undesirable in itself, and which has now reached its 
limit. The Government has been applied to more than once, and although 
a sum of $7,000 annually has been granted in extinction of outstanding 



52 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

-claims, no other assistance has been afforded. Last year we renewed 
our application without success. 

Meantime a new factor in the case has arisen. A demand is put for- 
ward on behalf of Queen's University for Government aid, and even 
priority of claim is asserted. Now let me say, that should the Govern- 
ment resolve to ignore the claims of its own child, the provincial Uni- 
versity, and to provide for an adoptive child, it can be done on one of 
two grounds. Either the adoption must be complete, and the new mem- 
ber of the family must be subject to full parental control, or else money 
must be given into the hands of others, without such control, to be 
expended for its nurture and upbringing. In other words, Queen's 
University must either be provincialized, so that we shall have two pro- 
vincial universities instead of one, or else the money of the people must 
be handed over to an independent corporation to be administered as it 
sees fit. 

I can hardly think that the latter of these contingencies is possible, so 
repugnant is it to our political institutions, but if possible, and if carried 
into effect, the Government may well ask itself how it proposes to adjust 
the corresponding claims from various quarters which will inevitably be 
made. If on the other hand, it is proposed to provincialize Queen's 
University and the others whose claims will follow, we shall have two or 
three or more provincial universities instead of one. It is devoutly to 
"be hoped that the Government and Legislature will not embark upon a 
'policy so extravagant and so surely fatal to higher education. The 
resources of the province do not warrant it. A first-class university 
under modern conditions is an expensive affair, and Ontario is barely 
able to maintain one such institution, with due regard to efficiency, not 
to speak of several. 

I am hopeful as regards the situation. The Government is fully seized 
of the question, and I think we may confidently look to the friends of 
the provincial University and to our 10,000 alumni not only to accelerate 
the day of our financial liberation by their influence and the dissemination 
of information regarding the great work we are doing, but also, if neces- 
sary, to guard the integrity of our provincial non-sectarian system of 
higher education from aggression from any quarter. 

There is a point on which I wish, in conclusion, to make myself 
perfectly clear. The nature of my topic has led me to show you the 
dark side of the picture. I have been pointing out defects, and suggesting 
improvements. It has not been the purpose of my address to call atten- 
tion to all that is good in our school and university system. And so 1 
should like to say just here that I am not unmindful of the self-denying 
labours of our teachers in school and university. I do not belittle the 
results obtained. We have, in spite of the defects pointed out, been 
enabled to set up a standard of learning that is on the whole gratifying, 
and, in a country so new as Canada, even surprising. What I have said 
of university standards applies rather in general to the attainments of 
the ordinary Bachelor of Arts than to those of our best honour students, 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 53 

in the case of whom we have obtained results of which any country may 
be proud. But to be perfectly candid I must say that these good results 
have been obtained under adverse conditions, and I am hopeful that in 
process of time, with a better understanding of educational problems, and 
with improved finances, we may approach much more nearly to the ideal 
which we have set before us, and towards which we are striving. 



RECENT CHANGES IN THE FACULTY. 

DURING the past year the following professors have retired from the 
University : 

William H. Pike, M.A., Ph.D., appointed Professor of Chemistry in 1880 ; the Honourable 
William Proudfoot, at one time Justice of the Supreme Court of Judicature for Ontario, 
-appointed Professor of Roman Law in 1888 ; the Honourable David Mills, LL.B., Q.C. , M.P., 
now Minister of Justice of the Dominion of Canada, appointed Professor of Constitutional 
and International Law in 1888; and John Caven, B.A., M.D., L.R.C.P., Lon., appointed 
Lecturer in Pathology in 1887 and Professor of the same subject in 1891. 

The following new men have been appointed to positions in the 
University : 

N. H. Beemer, M.B., Extra -Mural-Professor of Mental Diseases. 

W. P. Caven, M.B., Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine. 

Graham Chambers, B.A. , M.B. , Demonstrator in Clinical Medicine. 

R. J. Dwyer, M.B., Lecturer in Medicine and Clinical Medicine. 

W. R. Ling, D. Sc. , Professor of Chemistry. 

A. H. Lefroy, M.A., Professor of Roman Law, Jurisprudence and History of English 



H. T. M achell, M. D. , Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Pediatrics. 

J. J. MacKenzie, B.A., Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology. 

W. MacKeown, B.A., M.B., Demonstrator of Clinical Surgery. 

J. McGregor Young, B.A., Professor of Constitutional and International Law. 

The following have changed their position in the University : 

G. R. McDonagh, M.D. , formerly Associate Professor, is now Professor of Laryngology 
and Rhinology. 

A. McPhedran, M.B., formerly Associate Professor, is now Professor of Medicine and 
Clinical Medicine. 

R. D. Rudolf, M.D., C.M., M.R.C.P., formerly Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy, is 
now Lecturer in Medicine and Clinical Medicine. 

B. Spencer, M. D., formerly Associate Professor, is now Professor of Medical Jurispru- 
dence. 

Clarence L. Starr, M.B., formerly Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy, is now "Demon- 
strator of Clinical Surgery. 

F. N. G. Starr, M.B., formerly Lecturer in Anatomy, is now Associate Professor of 
Clinical Surgery. 

Dr. W. R. Lang, who has been appointed to the chair of Chemistry, is a 
Glasgow man and a Scotsman, born and bred. He received his educa- 
tion at Kelvinside Academy, where he captained his school "Fifteen" for 
two years ; thence he passed to Glasgow University, where he took his 
degree in 1890. A vacancy in the official teaching staff of the Chemistry 
department then occurring, he was appointed to the post, and for some 
years past has been chief assistant to Professor Ferguson, and also Lecturer 



54 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

in Organic Chemistry, his labours in these departments being highly 
appreciated. His sphere of work has not, however, been confined to his 
native city, for he has prosecuted research in continental laboratories as 
well as in London, where his investigations on low temperatures and the 
liquefaction of gases resulted in several interesting lectures, delivered in 
Glasgow and Dundee last spring. The first liquid air seen in Scotland 
was produced by Dr. Lang by means of his liquefaction apparatus, in- 
stalled in Glasgow's ancient university. About two years ago the 
Senatus Academicus conferred, upon him the degree of D.Sc. As a 
captain in the Lanarkshire Royal Engineers, Dr. Lang has shown untir- 
ing devotion to and enthusiasm in the cause of volunteering. In that 
corps he commands the University Company, mainly composed of under- 
graduates proceeding to the science degree in the department of Engineer- 
ing He also served in the English militia for two seasons, has been 
twice through the mill on Salisbury Plain, the great manoeuvring centre 
in the south of England, and holds a captain's commission in the 
Imperial Reserve of Officers. The new professor is a devotee of yachting, 
his other chief amusements being music and golf. 

A. H. F. Lefroy, M.A., Professor of Roman Law, Jurisprudence and 
History of English Law, is a son of General Sir John Henry Lefroy, 
K.C.M.G., who, from 1844 to 1853, was in charge of the magnetic observa- 
tory in Toronto, and later, Governor of the Bermudas. General Lefroy 
was one of the founders of the Canadian Institute and was a distinguished 
geographer. During 1843 and 1844 he made a series of magnetic 
observations extending as far as Fort Good Hope on the Mackenzie 
river. Mount Lefroy, one of the loftiest peaks of the Canadian Rockies, 
wa$ named after him. Professor Lefroy was born in 1852. He was 
educated at Rugby under Dr. Temple, the present Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and at New College, Oxford. He graduated B.A. at Oxford, with 
honours in, the Final School of Literae Humaniores in 1875, and was 
made M.A. in 1880. He was called to the English bar in 1877 and to 
the Canadian bar in 1878. Since that time Professor Lefroy has 
attracted attention by his able discussion of legal and constitutional 
questions. His book, "The Law of Legislative Power in Canada," is a 
standard work, and has been favourably criticised in England, the United 
States, Australia and Canada. He has also contributed articles to the 
Law Journals of England and Canada. 

J. McGregor Young, B.A., Professor of Constitutional and Interna- 
tional Law, is a native of Prince Edward county, Ontario, and a graduate 
of the University of Toronto. He was born in 1864, and graduated in 
1884 after an active and brilliant undergraduate career. He was an 
Honour man in the department of Mental and Moral Science and won 
the gold medal at graduation. As an undergraduate Professor Young 
enjoyed the confidence of his fellows, who elected him editor of the 
'Varsity for the year 1883-84. Since graduation he has been in close 
touch with the University, having been Examiner in Law for four years, 
and President of the Literary Society in 1897-98. Upon receiving his 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



55 




\V. R. LANG, D.Sc., 
Professor of Chemistry. 




J. MCGREGOR YOUNG, B.A., 

Professor of Constitutional and International 

Law. 





A. H. F. LEFROY, M.A., 

Professor of Roman Law, Jurisprudence 

and Histoiy of English Law. 



J. J. MACKENZIE, B.A., 
Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology. 



56 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

degree, Professor Young entered the law office of the Hon. Edward 
Blake, late Chancellor of the University, and was called to the bar in 
1887. He then became a partner in the firm of Messrs. Blake, Lash & 
Cassels, and remained there till 1895, when he entered the firm of Messrs. 
Moss, Aylesworth & Armour, and remained there two years. At present 
he is associated with Mr. H. H. Dewart. Q. C, of the B.A. class of 1883. 
Professor Young has also had a long experience in teaching the subjects 
of his department, having been lecturer in the Law School at Osgoode 
Hall on Constitutional Law, Personal Property, Common Law and Juris- 
prudence, since 1893. 

Dr. J. J. Mackenzie, the new Professor of Pathology in the University 
Medical Faculty, is a Canadian by birth, and a graduate of this Univer- 
sity in Arts and Medicine. He spent some time in the study of 
Physiology in Leipzig and Berlin, and from 1887 to 1890 was Fellow in 
Biology in the University. For some years he has been Lecturer in 
Bacteriology in the Medical Faculty, and since 1890 he has held the 
position of Bacteriologist to the Provincial Board of Health, which posi- 
tion he relinquished to accept the Chair in Pathology. He is a past 
President of the Toronto Pathological Society, and has been an active 
member of that society for a number of years. 



THE LATE HON. ARTHUR RUPERT DICKEY, B.A., Q.C. 

BY the untimely and accidental death by drowning of the Hon. A. R. 
Dickey, on July 3rd, at Amherst, N.S., the University of Toronto 
lost a worthy, faithful son, an ardent admirer and a strong supporter. He 
was one who had always taken a keen and active interest in the welfare 
and progress of his Alma Mater, striving ever, as far as his opportunities 
allowed, to advance the good work she was doing toward the higher edu- 
cation and culture of the youth of the Dominion. His great wish and 
ambition was that the University of Toronto should become more and 
more a consolidated national institution, a centre of culture, exercising a 
wide influence on the thought and aims and work of the present gene- 
ration. These aspirations he frequently expressed when he was the 
Honorary President of the Toronto University Club of Ottawa an 
office he gladly accepted while resident in the Capital and holding the 
portfolio of Minister of Justice under the late Conservative Government. 
In the autumn of 1895, Mr. Dickey was chosen by the graduates in the 
eastern part of Ontario as their candidate for the University Senate, and 
was duly elected. This was an office that he had always aspired to ; it 
was, as he once stated to the writer, the aim and goal of his ambition, and 
the office which above all others he desired. Unfortunately, however, his 
ministerial duties at Ottawa were so pressing that he found it absolutely 
necessary though with great reluctance to resign his seat in the 
Senate. This was a matter of much regret to him, but, as he stated at 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 57 

the time, he would not continue to nominally occupy a seat on the gov- 
erning board at such an important and critical period in the University's 
history when another might be found who had the requisite leisure to 
give to the work. 

If his lot in life had so been cast, Mr. Dickey would have made a 
typical professor. Scholarly, cultured, modest, a good administrator, 
winning the respect of all by his gentle disposition and by his ideals of 
right and justice ; a thoroughly academic man, he would undoubtedly 
have proved a great strength to any university. The early demise of a 
public man of such an estimable and noble character is a loss to the 
country at large, but by university men must be greatly regretted, for 
there are few now-a-days of those who, having the ability, are willing to 
give of it and add thereto enthusiasm, in the services of their Alma 
Mater. Frank T. Shutt, '^5. 



PERIODICALS IN THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 

ONE of the chief features of modern scholarship, whether scientific, 
historical or philological, is its dependence on periodical literature. 
The writing of papers is the aim now-a-days of most students engaged 
in original research, and the immediate publicity that every new dis- 
covery thus obtains is of immense value to other workers in the same 
field. Access to these repositories of the latest information is therefore 
of the first necessity to advanced students in any department of learning. 
A library must contain at least the weightier journals in every branch of 
study to be of real service to the cause of research. 

The University Library has been built up on these lines. Out of a 
total of 65,000 volumes, more than 21,000, or one-third of the whole 
Library, are the bound volumes of its sets of periodicals. This formidable 
number is made up of no fewer than 945 different publications. The 
various national academies of science, whose annual volumes of Trans- 
actions or Proceedings were pioneers of the modern army of scientific 
journals, naturally present the " longest " sets. Thus the Royal Society 
of London is responsible for an array of 200 ponderous tomes, an incom- 
plete set notwithstanding, as it only goes back unbroken to 1821. The 
Royal Society, it will be remembered, was founded by Charles II. in 
1662, so that 160 years of its activity are unrepresented on the Library's 
shelves. There are also extensive sets of the publications of the Royal 
Academies of Berlin (72 vols.), Brussels (229 vols.), Munich (148 vols.), 
Paris (209 vols.), Stockholm (207 vols.), Turin (83 vols.), Vienna (321 
vols.). Some of the longest continuous sets are chemical periodicals, one 
of them, Gilbert-Poggendorff-Wiedemann's Annalen, extending unbroken 
from 1799 to the present day. The French Annales de Chimie, also in 
the Library, has had even a longer life, from 1789. The largest literary 
peiiodical in the Library is the Revue des Deux Mondes, which numbers 
369 volumes, from its first appearance in 1831 to the present. 



5 8 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Many of the periodicals on the Library's shelves are dead and gone, 
but an even more abundant generation flourishes in their place. Of 
these the University Library currently receives 459, of which 286 are 
subscribed to. The remaining 173 represent in part the generosity of 
learned societies which put the University of Toronto on their free list 
after the fire of 1890, and more largely the library exchanges procured 
by distribution of University of Toronto Studies. It may be interesting 
to see how the several departments of study are represented in this total. 
Philology and literature are accommodated with 92 periodicals, the 
historical and economic sciences with 97, philosophy and psychology with 
30, while the natural and physical sciences have 197 to their credit. 

Whether the above figures seem large or small is entirely a matter of 
the standard by which they are estimated. That the University Library 
is not extravagantly or even liberally equipped with periodicals is mani- 
fest, when it is compared in this particular with other reference libraries 
of a similar type. Dr. Billings, chief of the New York Public Library, 
estimated the other day that 3,500 current periodicals were taken in his 
library. The John Crcrar Library of Chicago, established by private 
endowment half a dozen years ago as a purely reference library, began 
with a periodical list of 1,500. Columbia University Library admitted 
to about 1,200, two years ago. These, however, are recognized leaders 
in the library world, and their revenue is suitable to their position. The 
annual sum at the disposal of the University of Toronto Library is not 
one-tenth the income of any of the three. 

H. H. Langton, '83. 



ON RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE UNIVERSITY 
BIOLOGICAL MUSEUM. 

BY PROFESSOR RAMSAY WRIGHT. 
I. 

DURING the two months which have elapsed since my return from 
Europe, and which have been devoted to arranging some newly- 
acquired treasures in the Biological Museum, it has come to my know- 
ledge that many former graduates of the University are not well-informed 
as to what has been accomplished in the course of the last ten years in 
the way of replacing the old Natural History Museum of the time " before 
the fire." Then, the Library and Museum constituted the show-places of 
the Main Building ; now that each is separately established and better 
equipped than ever, one can only look back with some sentimental regret 
to the two handsome rooms around which so many pleasant memories 
centred. 

It has been suggested to me that through the pages of the UNIVER- 
SITY MONTHLY I might gratify those Alumni who only remember the 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 59 

Old Museum by giving a short account of its successor, and at the same 
time interest a wider circle by describing the recent acquisitions which 
the generosity of some private individuals at home and of some public 
institutions abroad has enabled me to add to our collections during the 
leisure of my year's absence from teaching duties. 

These additions have done much to repair the losses occasioned by 
the fire, which fortunately did not involve the models and preparations 
most useful for educational purposes, but chiefly concerned the mounted 
specimens of more interest to the general public. Much, however, still 
remains to be done in improving the aesthetic aspect of the Museum by 
replacing those which have deteriorated, and it is to be hoped that the 
gentlemen whose donations I have to record in the following pages will 
find many imitators. 

The New Museum forms the central portion of the Biological Build- 
ings. Although primarily intended as an educational Museum for the 
students taking Biology as a part of their University work, it also attracts 
a large number of visitors, and is likely, with the additions to be described 
in these pages, to excite still greater interest in the general public than 
it has hitherto done. 

The public entrance is situated in the west facade of the Biological 
Buildings, while the students gain access to the rooms through the eastern 
wing, in which the laboratories are located. The interior of the Museum, 
which occupies two floors, is sub-divided into four rooms, seventy-five by 
twenty-five feet in size, amply lighted by handsome windows on the north 
and south sides. Three of these rooms are devoted to Animal Biology, 
while the fourth, which is to be arranged for the illustration of Vegetable 
Biology, is temporarily fitted up for the accommodation of the Ferrier 
collection of minerals. 

The public entrance opens into the north ground-floor room, the wall- 
cases in which contain stuffed specimens of the various orders of Mam- 
mals, while the free-standing cases between the windows illustrate the 
comparative anatomy and development of that class. All the show-cases 
are constructed of iron and plate -glass, after a model designed by Dr. 
A. B. Meyer, of Dresden, those destined for the exhibition of smaller 
specimens standing on wooden storage-cases, built of cherry and cedar, 
and containing skins and other specimens for private study. The south 
ground-floor room is devoted to the remaining vertebrate classes, the 
wall-cases containing stuffed specimens of birds, reptiles, batrachians and 
fishes, and the smaller cases between the windows containing specimens 
illustrating the comparative anatomy and development of these classes. 

A handsome staircase decorated with busts of distinguished biologists 
(the gift of our former Vice-Chancellor, the Hon. Mr. Mulock) connects 
the ground-floor and the first-floor : its walls bear a number of cases in 
ascending series containing a small collection of fossils from all parts of 
the world, as a graphic illustration of the relative position of the fossili- 
ferous strata, and of their characteristic remains. 

The south first-floor room contains illustrative specimens of all the 



60 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

remaining branches of the animal kingdom, the arthropods and molluscs 
being exhibited in the wall-cases and the table-cases standing in the 
alcoves of these, while the protozoa, sponges, ccelenterates, echinoderms 
and worms are accommodated in the cases between the windows. 

Some idea of the arrangement of the cases and of their appearance may 
be gained from the accompanying illustration, which, however, having 
been made some time ago, does not adequately represent the progress 
made in arranging the collections. It will be seen that the large sheets 
of plate-glass offer no obstruction to the observer, while the height of 
the cases is such that each specimen is within easy reach of the eye. Not 
the least of the advantages afforded by them is that the contents are 
effectually protected from dust and the attacks of insects. It is intended 
that each specimen exhibited shall be furnished with a printed label 
indicating the more salient points which it is designed to illustrate, and 
considerable progress has been made in this direction, especially with 
the large series of models employed to elucidate difficult aspects of the 
more advanced studies. 



Of our new acquisitions, the first to be put in place is a series of 
Birds of Paradise, purchased out of a donation by Hiram Walker & Sons. 
This group had hitherto been almost entirely unrepresented in the 
Museum, for, until comparatively recently, good specimens were rare and 
almost unattainable. As, however, New Guinea, the home of the family, 
has been opened up and competent collectors have been able to visit the 
mountainous interior without incurring too great risks, it has now become 
possible to secure suitable Museum specimens, although they are still 
rare and costly. 

Almost forty years ago, Alfred Russell Wallace made his celebrated 
expedition to the Malay Archipelago, in the course of which he made 
five voyages, each of almost a year's duration, to obtain specimens of 
these birds. Of the fourteen kinds then known, he only succeeded in 
getting five. Since then five times as many species have been described, 
of which the present collection contains seventeen, represented by thirty 
specimens. 

The Paradise-birds have been an article of commerce in the far east 
for centuries, Macassar, the capital of Celebes, being the chief centre to 
which they are brought. The skins, having been prepared in the moun- 
tainous interior of New Guinea, are bartered to the coast tribes and 
eventually brought to Celebes, where the more beautiful species are sold 
at from fifteen to sixty dollars the score. The native skins referred to 
had and often still have the peculiarity that the wings and legs are not 
preserved, owing to their inconspicuous colouring, and thus arose the 
legend that these birds hail from some other sphere, or float in the thin 
atmosphere of the upper air and only fall to the earth when dead. It is 
this legend which is commemorated in the name "footless" given by 
Linnaeus to the Great Bird of Paradise Paradisea apoda. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



61 




62 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Although related to the Crows by their structure and resembling them 
in their harsh voice, and in their partly frugivorous and partly insectivorous 
habits, the Paradise-birds differ from them in the extraordinary richness 
and variety of the plumage of the males. The females are comparatively 
humbly clad in sober brown with barred grayish under-parts, those of the 
various species resembling each other very closely, but nowhere else in 
the animal kingdom, except perhaps among the Humming-birds, do we 
see among the males such an extraordinary amount of varied ornament 
attributable to sexual selection with so little anatomical difference. The 
differences indeed may be said to be only skin deep. 

Most frequently it is a series of flank feathers, below the wings, " sub- 
alar plumes," which are beautiful in their form and colour and can be 
erected at will, but peculiar feathers on the head or breast, or tail, or 
lively colours of bare parts of the body are also employed by the males 
to heighten their attractions. These are displayed at the courting 
time with much assiduity, certain stately dancing movements being 
carried out in the presence of the females, all of the peculiar 
feathers being erected and fluffed out to the greatest advantage. The 
pairing time is in July, and then in the morning and evening four or five 
males may be seen in the lower branches of the trees dancing and calling 
to the females, while the rest of the day they spend in the thick tops of 
the high trees preening their feathers. Their plumage is in the finest 
condition at this time ; with the advent of the dry season in October 
they begin to moult, and have only acquired their full plumage by the 
end of March, when the rainy season begins. While the foregoing des- 
cription applies to the best known species, it is thought that some of the 
family may share with the Bower-birds of Australia the peculiar habit 
of building a special structure in which to show themselves off. 

So great have been the demands of the millinery market that -one 
would not be surprised to hear of the approaching extinction of these 
birds ; so far, however, the inaccessibility of New Guinea has saved 
them, and now the^ German authorities have imposed restrictions in 
Kaiser Wilhelm's land which may be of some value. 

Ornithologists subdivide the family of the Paradise-birds into two 
groups, those with long, slender and more or less curved bills, and those 
with shorter and stouter bills. Nos. 1-3 in the accompanying photograph 
belong to the former, and Nos. 4-16 to the latter. 

Although the family is confined chiefly to New Guinea and the adjacent 
islands, yet certain outlying forms are found in Australia and the Moluc- 
cas. The Rifle-birds of the former, called so on account of their dark 
green plumage, include several species which seem to increase in beauty 
as they approach the equator. They are represented in the Museum by 
a few mounted specimens and skins, but do not form part of the present 
collection. 

One of the most beautiful of the new arrivals is the twelve-wired Para- 
dise-bird No. i. The general character of the adult male plumage on 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 




1 23 456 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

GROUP OF BIRDS OF PARADISE PRESENTED BY MESSRS. HIRAM WALKER & SONS. 

the back, head and breast, reminds one of soft sealskin, but the outer- 
most breast-feathers are upwardly curved and marked near their margins 
with metallic green crescents. The wings and tail are also brown with 
an added purple sheen, but the gorgeousness of the species depends on 
the loose filmy sub-alar plumes of yellowish-white, six of which on each 
side are webbed only at the base, while the shaft is continued into the 
stiff " wire " from which the popular name is derived. Not satisfied with 
this display of beautiful plumage the male has the inside of its mouth and 
its tongue of a beautiful grass green, while the muscular legs of pale 
reddish hue, combined with the grey claws, complete the colour effect. 

Another large form allied to the above is the genus Epimachus No. 3, 
which depends partly for its attractiveness on a breastplate of brown 
feathers, near the margins of which are stripes of metallic blue and cop- 
pery pink, but also on the two central tail-feathers, which are upwards of 
two feet in length, and have a special metallic lustre of their own. The 
particular species we have is dedicated to Dr. A. B. Meyer of the Zoolo- 
gical Museum at Dresden, one of the most successful explorers of New 
Guinea. Naturally, his museum is particularly rich in Birds of Paradise, 
and nowhere are they seen to greater advantage. This is the more 
true as Dr. Meyer is an expert in the exposition of specimens, and 
has effected more than any other museum director in the improvement 
of exhibition cases. The Dresden Museum, therefore, as well as the 



64 

neighbouring picture-gallery, is well worthy of a visit. Dr. Meyer's cases, 
are constructed entirely of iron and plate-glass, and served as a model for 
those in the University Museum here, but have been still further improved 
by the concealment of hinges and locks, so that there are no projections- 
on the outside to catch dust. 

The continuous breastplate of the foregoing species is broken up in 
D'Albertis' Paradise-bird (No. 2) into two pairs of feather-fan s, which 
have beautiful violet borders, while the much curved beak is also a. 
peculiarity. 

Passing to those forms with short stout bills, we shall find that the 
species dedicated to the Crown-Princess Stephanie (No. 4), owes its 
beauty partly to a gorget of many hues, but chiefly to its magnificent 
tail-feathers, which like the rest of the plumage are black with violet 
reflections. 

But much more characteristic as well as better known is the Great 
Bird of Paradise of the Aru Islands (No. 6). Although the general tone 
of the back, wings and tail is a sober enough dark chestnut brown, yet 
the additional purplish lustre which this acquires on the under parts, 
the yellow and emerald of the head and neck, and the odd wire-like 
character of the two central tail-feathers would themselves be enough in 
the way of decoration. In addition to all these, however, the sub-alar 
plumes here reach a beauty of form and colour nowhere else attained in 
the group. They are exceedingly long and loose in their texture and of 
a beautiful yellow, shading at the tips into brownish red, while the shafts 
are pure white. 

A similar smaller species from the mainland, as well as another from 
the Island of Waigiou (No. 5), which differs from it in having red tints 
where the Great Paradise-bird is golden, are also much sought after for 
millinery purposes. 

The blue Bird of Paradise (No. 8), named after the ill-fated Crown- 
Prince Rudolph, who was a keen ornithologist, is certainly one of the 
most lovely, as it is still one of the rarest and most costly, of the group. 
The back and head are brown, the wings turquoise blue, but the filmy 
sub-alar plumes when erected and seen from behind exhibit the most 
astonishing range of blues from turquoise to violet. A band of Indian 
red, then only visible, separates the blue plumes from the more sombre 
under parts. 

One of the best known of the birds of this group is the King of 
the Paradise-birds (No. 13), the prevailing colour of which is a deep 
nasturtium-red, separated from the snow-white of the under parts by a 
deep green band, at the sides of which there project two ash-gray 
feather-fans tipped with a brighter green. Perhaps most noticeable are 
the two central tail-feathers, which are wire-like for the greater part of 
their length, but end in a bright green disc formed by the curling up of 
a one-sided web. That these ornaments are not attained all at once may 
be seen from the young male, which is much humbler in his colouring 
and the shape of his tail-feathers. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 65 

Another species of small size is the "Magnificent" (No. 17), which 
almost exhausts the spectrum in its varied hues. A beautiful shield of 
dark green covers the breast, and is traversed by a vertical band of scale- 
like feathers of a brighter green. The crown is chestnut, a collarette of 
yellow springs from the nape, while the rest of the mantle is deep 
nasturtium-red, and the wings are brown and orange. The two central 
tail-feathers cross each other, are elegantly curved, and of a metallic blue 
colour. 

A near cousin is Wilson's Magnificent (No. n), which comes from 
Waigiou, and chiefly differs from the foregoing in being almost bald. 
The skin of the head, however, in life is of a beautiful cobalt blue, which 
disappears at death and must be imitated by the taxidermist. 

The Superb Paradise-bird (No. 15) is distinguished by a fine collar of 
feathers, four or five inches long, the outer surface of which has the 
texture and colour of sealskin. It can be elevated from the nape, but 
the lining apparently is not intended to be seen, because the under 
surface of the feathers presents nothing remarkable. The rest of the 
dress is quiet, except for some metallic green feathers on the crown, and a 
fine gorget of metallic green with certain coppery hues and violet streaks. 

Also in the six-shafted Paradise-bird (No. 10) the prevailing hues are 
sombre, but the plumage is so velvety in its texture that it can be fluffed 
out into a silky ball. Here also there are iridescent feathers on the 
crown and chest, but the bird is chiefly marked by the three feathers 
which project back from the ear on each side and consist of a shaft with 
a terminal racket-shaped web. 

Like the six-shafted Paradise-bird, the Pteridophora Alberti (No. 9), 
dedicated by its discoverer, Dr. Meyer, to King Albert of Saxony, is- 
chiefly remarkable for its peculiar head-gear. In general tone dark 
brown above and pale orange below the bird would escape attention 
were it not for its pair of truly remarkable head-feathers. These, if laid 
together, look like a frond of fern (to which circumstance the genus owes 
its name) and present little resemblance to ordinary feathers. The shaft 
is there, but it only bears barbs on one side, and these are modified into- 
flat horny plates, some thirty-seven in number, with a pearly lustre on 
their exposed faces and brown on the under surface. The ordinary 
barblets which make the barbs of a feather adhere into the web are 
hardly represented. Perhaps the nearest analogy to the plates here 
described are the horny structures like scales of red sealing-wax on the 
wings of the Bohemian Waxwing. 

Outside of the ordinary range of the Birds of Paradise is the Island of 
Gilolo or Halmahera, one of the Moluccas. Wallace, in the course of 
his journeyings, found here a bird which he called the Standard-wing 
(No. 12), on account of two creamy-white feathers springing from the 
bend of the wing and capable of being erected independently of the rest 
of the plumage, which is ashy-olive, except for a little purplish lustre on. 
the head, and a metallic green breastplate which projects out on each side 
in two glittering tufts capable of being stowed away beneath the wings, 



66 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Perhaps the least striking members of the family are the so-called 
Manucodias (No. 14), the plumage of which is in general black but 
with purple or green metallic iridescence, which would be more notice- 
able among less gaily-dressed relatives. 

On another occasion I shall have to refer to some near relatives of these 
birds ; at present I have only to record two other contributions which 
are almost ready for exhibition : a collection of Birds' Eggs, the pur- 
chase of which was made possible by A. T. Wood, Esq., M.P., of Hamilton, 
one of the University Trustees, and the head of a Beisa Antelope, presented 
by Joseph Kilgour, Esq. The eggs have been arranged from a biological 
standpoint, and the collection illustrates their absolute and relative size, 
their form and texture, their colour and markings, the variation of form 
and colour and the numbers characteristic of a set or clutch in different 
species. Some explanation is offered of the various phenomena illustrated, 
and a short series arranged systematically shows how far " Oology" bears 
out the results arrived at by ornithologists. 

The head of the Beisa Antelope is particularly welcome on account of 
the fact that none of the South African Antelopes are represented in the 
Museum, while the circumstance that many of these beautiful creatures 
which once thronged the veldt have become exceedingly rare and indeed 
are fast being exterminated renders it desirable to secure specimens 
before it is too late. The Museum is too small to accommodate com- 
plete mounted examples of the larger Antelopes, but it is hoped that, 
while they are still attainable, many heads and horns of the numerous 
species of this interesting family may be secured to grace its walls. 



ALUMNI RESEARCH SCHOLARSHIP OR TRAVELLING 

FELLOWSHIP. 

OUR Alumni Association embraces so large a body of graduates that 
one may fairly expect various projects to be set agoing for the 
benefit of our Alma Mater. 

The proposed University Club, designed to increase the interest of the 
graduates in the institution, will, possibly, be matter of concern mainly 
to residents of Toronto and vicinity. The MONTHLY, launched under 
such favourable auspices should, however, command the cordial support 
of the Alumni at large ; and so, also, in regard to the claims of a Research 
or Travelling Scholarship Fund. It would, of course, be bad policy to 
attempt too much in the early days of the Association, but the writer 
feels strongly that what is legitimate will be healthful. Moreover, a 
small sum from each of our graduates would, without entailing any sac- 
rifice, at once provide the requisite amount ; and in lieu of what is too 
often mere sentiment or a memory, there would result enhanced personal 
and perennial interest in the doings of Alma Mater. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 67 

The order of the day is, do something, find out something ; and acting 
on this behest progressive, higher institutions are wisely promoting original 
research. The undoubted direct and reflex benefit of such work needs no 
argument. One insensibly thinks of the laboratory in this connection, but, 
invaluable as it is, there is, fortunately, a much wider field open for explo- 
ration than even Biology, Physics, and Chemistry afford. And there is 
this advantage in the wider domain, that the co-operation and sympathy 
of the greater number are enlisted. This larger scope for the search after 
new truth and buried lore is well shown in the case of the University of 
Pennsylvania, whose exploration staff in the East has recently made a 
notable discovery of invaluable documents, an enterprise which will bring 
both eclat and substantial benefit to that institution. Every department 
of a University and its votaries and friends have some stake in this matter. 
Philology is not exempt ; and even the so-called dead languages surely 
have living roots, careful digging amongst which, now and then, would, 
bring to light some obscure or hidden point worth unearthing. 

In a recent hurried visit to the Pacific Coast, the writer, with the kind 
aid of his classmate, James Fisher, Q.C., of Winnipeg, and Alfred Hall, 
LL.B., of Vancouver, Secretary of the British Columbia branch of our 
Alumni Association, interviewed a number of leading graduates ; and, 
on broaching the subject of a Research Fund, was gratified to find so- 
many lend a sympathetic ear. Those whose life-interests are now 
centred in other Provinces than Ontario, cannot be expected to take the 
initiative or give largely ; especially in view of connections formed in 
many instances with other institutions by virtue of their leading positions- 
in the community. They naturally look to the men in Ontario to lead 
the way. 

The writer is pleased to report a nucleus already in hand, and he trusts 
it may play the part of suggestion, and prove an incentive to a speedy- 
general effort. 

A brighter chapter would certainly open in the history of the Univer- 
sity if an academic code of ethics, binding though unwritten, held sway 
with something of the force of ordinary filial obligations. Then, not only 
would winners of scholarships but graduates generally regard themselves. 
as beneficiaries, and feel morally bound to requite their Alma Mater. 
So mote it be. 

R. A. Reeve,' 62. 



GIFTS: A FLAG; TWO GUNS. 

CONVOCATION c/eremonies took place on the 2nd inst., and were 
***** of an unusual and interesting character. The meeting was held in. 
the open air, on the University grounds. The occasion of this unusual 
procedure was the presentation to the University of a flag and two pieces 
of ordnance. 

The flag, a fi r 2 British ensign, was presented by Mr. H. F. Gooderhanv 
.e 



68 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

B.A., on behalf of the Zeta Psi Fraternity, and was accompanied also 
with the gift of a set of signalling flags. The ceremony of hoisting the 
flag, oii the fine flag-staff which had been erected for the occasion, was 
gracefully performed by Miss Mowat. 

The guns were the gift respectively of the graduating class in Arts, 
represented by Mr. E. F. Burton, and of the Engineering Society of the 
School of Practical Science, for which Mr. E. Guy acted as spokesman. 

The presentation of both flags and guns was made in felicitous 
language, which gave proof of the feeling of affection and gratitude on 
the part of the donors towards their Alma Mater. President Loudon, in 
accepting the gifts for the University, referred in well chosen terms to 
the increasing evidences of University spirit among graduates and under- 
graduates, and to the unswerving loyalty which had always characterized 
the institution, a loyalty which had actuated the alumni on more than 
one occasion to lay down their lives in defence of the British flag. The 
proceedings were brought to a close with appropriate addresses, delivered 
by Chancellor Burwash, Rev. Dr. Teefy, Provost Macklem, Rev. Dr. 
Armstrong Black, and Chancellor Wallace. 

The history of the acquisition of relics of such surpassing interest to 
Canadians as the cannon presented on this occasion is briefly as 
follows : Captain A. Brown, of the wrecking steamer Fabiola, from 
Montreal, while engaged during the summer of 1899 in removing the 
wreck of a steamship sunk at the mouth of Louisbourg harbour, noticed 
one day what seemed to be a cannon lying in a few feet of water. An 
examination by a diver resulted in the discovery of several cannon and 
the remains of an old ship. On his return to wrecking operations this 
summer, Captain Brown continued his exploration of the bottom of 
the harbour. At the place of the first discovery three more cannon 
were found, the smaller of the two presented being of this number. 
Crossing over to that portion of the harbour in front of the old fortress, 
Captain Brown came upon several more guns lying, deeply embedded 
in the mud. The largest and best preserved of these is the larger 
of the pair. Hearing of these discoveries, Mr. A. E. Shipfey, a 
graduate of the School of Practical Science engaged in professional 
work in that neighbourhood, communicated with Dr. J. C. McLennan, 
Secretary of the University of Toronto Alumni Association, and sug- 
gested the purchase of some of the cannon for the University. The 
suggestion was taken up with enthusiasm by the students of the present 
Fourth Year in Arts and of the School of Practical Science, who set a 
pleasing example of esprit de corps and loyal devotion to their Alma 
Mater by purchasing two of the cannon and presenting them to the 
University. The identity of the smaller one may be affirmed with 
tolerable certainty. When the English fleet approached the Cape 
Breton coast on the second of June, 1758, there lay at anchor within Louis- 
bourg harbour " five French ships of the line and seven frigates, carrying 
in all five hundred and forty-four guns and about three thousand men." 
(Parkman ) By the twenty-fifth of July only two ships remained ; the 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 69 

others, with the exception of one that escaped, had been destroyed 
The two survivors were the Prudent and the Bienfaisant. At one 
o'clock in the morning of the twenty-fifth these ships were seized 
by six hundred English sailors who had rowed into the harbour under 
cover of darkness. The Bienfaisant was towed to a safe anchorage, 
while the Prudent, being aground at low tide, was set on fire. The 
smaller of the 'two guns was found near the spot where the burning 
Prudent went down, and in all likelihood belonged to her armament. 
Four days previous to this, namely, on the twenty-first, had taken 
place one of the most memorable and dramatic incidents of the 
siege. A bomb struck the Celebre and set her on fire. Drifting from 
her moorings, she spread the flames to her neighbours, the Entreprenant 
and the Capricieux, and when night came down the three ships, flaming 
targets for the English batteries, drifted aground not far from the base 
of the fort, and at the place where, among others, the larger of our two 
guns was roused from its sleep of one hundred and forty-two years. We 
may say with almost equal certainty that it belonged to one of the three 
burned ships the Ctflebre, the Entreprenant, or the Capricieux. May 
their presence on our University campus only help future generations of 
students the better to realize the happy contrast between then and now 
in the condition of our native land. To Wolfe, one of the English 
besiegers who watched these guns go down, and Montcalm, his gallant 
French foe of the following year at Quebec, a common monument has 
been erected. Let that be the enduring pledge of our national unity and 
devotion to the arts of peace. 

In connection with the transference of the guns to Toronto especial 
thanks are due to Mr. A. E. Shipley who first suggested their purchase 
and who made arrangements for their shipment ; to Mr. J. S. McLennan, 
treasurer of the Dominion Coal Co. of Louisbourg, and Mr. A. N. 
McLennan, superintendent of the Sydney and Louisbourg Railroad, 
through whose great kindness they were carried to Montreal ; and to 
the Grand Trunk Railway, through whose courtesy they were brought to 
Toronto at reduced expense. 

G. H. Needier, '86. 

LOCAL ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS. 

THE aims of the Alumni Association are to be best achieved, it is 
thought, in two ways ; by the support and extended circulation of 
the MONTHLY, and the organization of branch associations. Both are 
being actively carried on at present, the one aiding the other, and from 
all sides most encouraging reports are coming in. 

Ottawa, the oldest daughter of the family, is prospering and will 
undoubtedly prove a great source of strength to the University in Eastern 
Ontario, where so many influences are at work which run counter to the 
growth of the great national university, the University of Toronto. 



70 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

A meeting of the Stratford graduates of the University of Toronto was 
held in Stratford, Ont., Sept. I3th, to consider the question of forming a 
local Alumni Association. It was suggested that, if possible, the Associ- 
ation should be a county one, and all Perth graduates are being com- 
municated with in order to find out their views on the subject. The 
provisional committee appointed was composed of the following graduates : 
C. J. McGregor, M. A. ; Jno. Idington, LL.B.; M. C. Moderwell, B.A. ; 
C. A. Mayberry, B.A., LL.B. 

The first regular meeting of the University of Toronto Alumni Associa- 
tion of British Columbia was held in Vancouver, July 3ist. The regular 
officers for the year were elected as follows : 

Honorary President Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere, Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia. 
President Rev. Robert Whittington, M.A., B.Sc., Vancouver, B.C. 
1st Vice- President Mrs. Alfred T. Watt, M.A., Victoria, B.C. 
2nd Vice- President Stuart Livingston, LL.B., Vancouver, B.C. 
3rd Vice- President P. McL. Forin, B.A., Rossland, B.C. 
Secretary- Treasurer Alfred Hall. B.A., LL.B., B.C.L., Vancouver, B.C. 
Councillors J. H. Kerr, B.A., Vancouver, B.C. ; Alex. Henderson, B.A., Ex. Attorney- 
General, New Westminster, B.C. ; J. L. Milne, M.D., Victoria, B.C. 

For the present year the head office of the Association will be in 
Vancouver by courtesy extended to the President of the Association. 
Various matters were discussed and certain resolutions passed by the 
Association which will be forwarded in due time to the Registrar for 
presentation to the Senate, particularly those dealing with the question 
of examinations of the University of Toronto in British Columbia, and 
lectures when possible. 

5. y. Robertson, 'pj. 

PROFESSOR WRIGHT'S JUBILEE YEAR. 

DROFESSOR RAMSAY WRIGHT has resumed his duties as head 
of the Biological Department after a year's leave of absence, which 
was granted to him in the spring of 1899, on the occasion of the comple- 
tion of his twenty-fifth year of service in the University. His holiday 
was spent chiefly in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. As 
one might expect from a gentleman of his energy and enthusiasm for his 
subject, a large portion of his time was spent in observing the methods 
and appliances of the scientific departments of foreign universities. As 
a tangible result of his efforts in this direction, he brings back with him 
many valuable and interesting additions to the University Biological 
Museum, in part purchased by donations from friends of the University 
in Toronto, and in part presented by various scientific institutions abroad. 
An account of some of these acquisitions will be found elsewhere in this 
issue, and Professor Wright has promised to furnish additional information 
on the same subject from time to time in the columns of the MONTHLY. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



TORONTONENSIA. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
MONTHLY. 



Kss ALL COMMUNICATIONS FOR PUBLICATION TO 
THE SECRETARY, UNIVERSITY OK TORONTO. 



EDITORIAL BOARD. 

I. H. CAMERON, M.B., Chairman. 
J. C. MCLENNAN, Ph.D., Secretar}'. 

J. FLETCHER, M.A., LL.D.; A. R. BAIN, 
M.A.,LL.D.; J. A. COOPER, B.A., LL.B.; 
L. E. EMBREE, M.A. ; THOMAS MULVEY, 
B A. ; T. A. RUSSELL, B.A.; S. J. ROBERT- 
SON, B.A. , Managing Editor. 



Geo. Black, B.A., '98, has charge of the 
Science Department, State Normal School, 
Cheney, Washington. 

Miss H. S. Woolverton, B.A., '99, has gone 
to Baltimore where she will take the medical 
course at Johns Hopkins University. 

W. H. Dinning, B. A. , '99, is Science 
Master at Anderson's Academy, Irvington, 
Cal., a well-known secondary school in the 
central portion of the state. 

Rev. J. Wilkie, B. A., '75, has just left 
Toronto to return to his missionary duties in 
India, where he has been for many years 
Principal of the Presbyterian College. 

W. H. Alexander, B.A., '99, has been re- 
appointed Latin Reader in the University 
of Clifornia for the year 1900-1901. Mr. 
Alexander took his M.A. degree from that 
University last spring. 

Colin (.!. Stewart, Ph.D. (Clark), who has 
been tutor in Physiology, Columbia Univer- 
sity, for the past two years, has been ap- 
pointed Demonstrator in Physiology, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

J. A. M. Aikens, B.A., '75, was in Toronto 
recently and attended the autumn convoca- 
tion. He expressed very strong regret that 
he was not able to attend the University 
dinner in June, which was the 25th anniver- 
sary of his class. 

A. C. Lawson, B. A., '83; M.A., '85, is now 
Profess r < if Geokmy and Mineralogy in the 
University of California. While Professor 
Leconte is the nominal head of the depart- 
ment, Professor Lawson is its directing 
head. 

Wm. Lawson, B.A.Sc. , '93, formerly fel- 
low in chemistry at the University of 



Toronto, is now chemist to the Alvarado 
Sugar Company of California, one of the 
largest companies for the manufacture of 
beet-sugar on the Pacific coast. 

T. McCrae, B.A., '91 ; M.B., '95, who has 
held more than one travelling fellowship from 
Johns Hopkins University visited Toronto 
recently. During the absence of Dr. Osier 
in Europe this summer, Dr. McCrae was left 
in charge of his private practice in Balti- 
more. 

H. Rushton Fairclough, '83, is Professor of 
Greek at the Leland Stanford Jr. University. 
Professor Fairclough's name will be familiar 
to all University men of the eighties and early 
nineties, during which latter he was a most 
popular member of the teaching staff of the 
University. 

J. Ferguson Snell, B.A, '94; Ph. D. 
(Cornell) '99, is at present in the chemical 
department of the Wesleyan University of 
Middletown, Conn., where he is chief assis- 
tant to Professor Atwater. In this capacity 
he has been of great service to his chief in the 
now famous work on the nutritive and fuel 
values of foods, and his work there is giving 
him a reputation as a careful and pains- 
taking observer. During last winter he 
went into the large respiration calorimeter, 
living there for periods of from four to ten 
days a scientific pleasure which perhaps 
very few of his friends envy him ; it is 
hoped, however, that the experiments then 
conducted on him will settle the much dis- 
cussed question, whether or not alcohol 
serves any useful purpose in the human 
body. 

G. J. Blewett, of the class of '97, Victoria, 
and a graduate student in Philosophy during 
the years 1897-99, spent last year in advanced 
study at Harvard, where his ability gained for 
him the reputation of beingthemostpromising 
student in Philosophy that has come to that 
University in recent years. In recognition of 
the scholarly characterof his work, the faculty 
conferred on him a travelling scholarship at 
the end of only one year's study. He will 
spend the coming winter at Oxford. His class- 
mates at Victoria, and 'Varsity men generally, 
will be pleased to hear of his success. Other 
graduatesof Toronto at Harvard lastyear were 
C. D. Allin, '97 ; E. F. Langley, '94 ; A. W. 
G. Wilson, '93 ; and W. S. W. McLay, '91 ; 
all of whom except the first mentioned held 
scholarships in their respective departments 
of Romance Languages, Geology and English. 



72 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

R. B. Michell, a graduate of 1900, in in the same subject for the following year. 
Modern Languages, intends to devote him- At the conclusion of his second year of post- 
self for some years to post-graduate study. graduate study, he not only received the 
He is now at Harvard University, where he degree of Ph.D., but was also elected to the 
intends to take an advanced course in position of Lecturer on European History in 
Romance Languages. Columbia. 

Miss E. C. Fleming, B.A., '93, has accep- Miss Julia S. Hillock, B.A.,'92, was recent- 

ted the position of Modern Language teacher \ y appointed Modern Language teacher in 

in Niagara Falls High School, made vacant Jameson Avenue Collegiate Institute, Tor- 

by the resignation of Miss Esther de Beaure- ont0) to SUCC eed Miss L. L. Ryckman. On 

gard, B.A., '94, who has taken a position in leaving Lindsay, where she had taught for 

a ladies' school in Philadelphia. several years, she received a very flattering 

Ernest F. Langley, B.A., '94 ; M.A. (Har- address from her colleagues and numerous 

vard), 1900, Instructor of French at Dart- friends, accompanied by a valuable present 

mouth College, New Hampshire, since 1896, * books. 

has recently been appointed Instructor of TTT^T>JT?A >-ATA > 

Italian in that college, and is to have per- . H " \ Fo ^' , RA ;< 95 ; M.A oo was 

t T , ,v Assistant in Modern Languages at Wesleyan 

manent charge of the department of Italian. Universi(/y) Connecticut, from 1898 to 1900, 

J. T. Shotwell, a Modern Language grad- when he was promoted to the rank of In- 

uate of 1898, has been working in the depart- structor. He was appointed during vacation 

ment of History with very great success. to the professorship of Romance Languages 

Immediately after graduation he obtained a in Washington and Jefferson College, Penn- 

Scholarship in European History in Columbia sylvania, French and Spanish forming the 

University, and was awarded a Fellowship main part of his work. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

An article on the University Question, by Chancellor Burwash of 
Victoria University, will be a feature of the November issue of the UNI- 
VERSITY MONTHLY. 

Some pages of interesting personal paragraphs have been held over 
until next month in order to make room for advertisements. 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY. 

You have read Vol. I, Nos. 1 and 2 of the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
MONTHLY. Will you aid in its publication and success ? To do this we 
ask your support both by contributions to its pages and by the pay- 
ment of the subscription $1.00 per annum. 

Fill in and return this coupon to the Secretary. 

j. c. MCLENNAN, 

Sec'y University of Toronto Alumni Ass'n, 
TORONTO, ONT. 

Kindly find enclosed ONE DOLLAR in payment of the 

annual fee of the UNIVERSITY OP TORONTO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, for the 
Academic Year '01. 

Name in full 

Address 

Date 



THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

VOL. I. NOVEMBER, 1900. No. 3. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE PAGE 

Editorial Announcements - - 73 Recent additions to the University Bio- 

\ The Art Element in Education. By logical Museum. By Prof. Ramsay 

M. F. Libby, B.A. - - - 73 Wright 91 

The University Club. By James H. Progress of the Ontario School of Prac- 

Coyne B.A. 79 tical Science. By Principal J. Gal- 

- The Needs of the University. By Chan- A/r^i^ '-A ~ 

cdlorBurwash . ... 88 Model Presidents, ^y Prq/mor GoW^m ^ 

smith, ------ 97 

Experimental Psychology in the Labora- Local Lectures 99 

tory in Toronto. By Albert H. Abbott 85 Local Alumni Associations. By If. L. 

The Representation of Scenes from the McKinnon, B.A., LL.B. - 102 

Odyssey. By Prof. Hutton - - 90 Torontonensia - 103 



EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY has arranged for the publica- 
tion of a series of articles discussing the relation of a University training 
to the various occupations and professions. Mr. I. H. Cameron will 
write on the relationship of University training to the study of medicine, 
and the Rev. Wm. Clark, LL.D., of Trinity University, will discuss 
University training as a preparation for the ministry. 

A series of articles on the history and origin of the various Greek 
Letter Societies in the University of Toronto has been arranged for. 
The first article will be by Mr. A. B. Aylesworth, Q.C., upon "Sigma Psi," 
which existed in the University prior to 1876. 

The authors of the other articles in both series will be announced from 
time to time. 



THE ART ELEMENT IN EDUCATION. 

. 

BY M. F. LIBBY, B A. 

IT is impossible to put down a work like Professor Santayana's Inter- 
pretations of Poetry and Religion (New York, Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1900), without reflecting upon the complex problem of the art 
element in education. Ten years ago Professor Charles Gayley of the 



74 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

University of California, and Professor Scott of the University of 
Michigan, published a Guide to the Literature of ^Esthetics. This very 
valuable book dealt with the bibliography of aesthetic doctrines, ancient, 
mediaeval and modern, and also with the subject-matter of aesthetic 
theory, besides giving a tolerably full list of works, both critical and 
historical, upon architecture, painting, sculpture, ceramics, engraving, 
music, poetry, and prose. The German writings on art and on the philo- 
sophy of art are given pretty fully, and sometimes with descriptive notes. 
This useful guide has long been out of print, and, so far as I know, no 
work has superseded it in spite of the more recent activity shown in 
theoretic aesthetics by Professor Santayana, Mr. Marshall, Mr. Trent, 
and many other Americans ; and in the history of art by the Blashfields 
and othtrs. Another, and if possible, a fuller and more descriptive cata- 
logue of what has been written on this subject by Plato, Aristotle, and 
Horace ; by Augustin and Thomas ; and by men of the calibre of Burke, 
Hegel, Schopenhauer, Lotze, Matthew Arnold, Taine, and Emerson, in 
modern days, might do something to cure Philistia of a contempt for 
aesthetics, and to remind scholars of the central place of this subject in 
the history of human thought. 

One reflection on this complex problem of the art element in education 
is this, that whether the universities do or do not take prompt means of 
controlling the art impulse of America, that impulse is lusty and vigorous, 
and is already announcing its awakening to consciousness. Many reasons 
may account for the slow recognition which art has received on this 
continent ; but on the other hand there are reasons why its recognition 
should soon become more widespread than among the European demo- 
cracies. And now what do we find is the form which the new born love 
of art is taking in the western world. Are the children and grandchildren 
of English, Scotch, Irish, German, and French peasants turning to the 
great masters of art on the one hand, or to the natural beauty of America 
on the other, for the satisfaction of this new craving? No thinking man 
would expect it. Such art, and even such natural beauty, leaves them 
comparatively cold, and they spend the desire for play upon cheap maga- 
zines, newspaper humour, frivolous, structureless fiction, trashy music, 
and poor meaningless plays. Yet it is really remarkable, if one will only 
observe, how much time and money the people spend in the vain search 
for satisfactory art pleasure. 

It is futile to think of comparing the Canadian or American student 
with the European student in the matter of art opportunities. The 
German student has lectures on classical and modern literature, painting, 
sculpture, and architecture, and on the theory of art and of criticism ; he 
hears at a low price the best music, and the classic plays, whenever he 
feels inclined, and he visits ruined or restored castles, palaces and cathe- 
drals, as well as really great works of sculpture and painting, in the 
company of learned and enthusiastic professors who think no pains too 
great in their splendid endeavours to kindle on all sides their own passion 
for the nobler kinds of human enjoyment. 1 do not say for a moment 



ART ELEMENT IN EDUCATION 75 

that the German student is by nature equal to the Anglo-Saxon in his 
capacity for art education. It is exceedingly difficult to judge foreigners 
in any respect, and most of all in matters of taste and culture ; there is a 
good deal of bad taste and boorishness, or spurious and affected culture, 
in most communities of students. But what seems clear is this, that the 
Germans do more to cultivate taste than we do. Everybody knows how 
it was the fashion in England before thirty years ago to boast that the 
chosen people of our empire had no need of education in the German 
sense, and how since 1870 the English governments have seen themselves 
forced to educate their masters : also how the British workman and busi- 
ness man has still more recently found himself threatened by the discip- 
lined German rival, and again forced very unwillingly to study German 
methods in technical training. There is much searching of hearts to-day 
as to whether polo and golf and waltzing are the chief study of an effi- 
cient military man. One is almost forced to the generalization that 
science is getting the upper hand of natural aptitude in every department 
of life, although it remains true that genius may still in cases transcend 
our science. And so, though the Anglo-Saxon may have a greater apti- 
tude for poetry, and possibly better taste than the German of his own 
class, it by no means follows that we do well in scorning a systematic 
effort to cultivate the art impulse in the best way. 

When Professor Freeman objected to the establishment of a chair of 
literature at Oxford, he said that it was impossible to examine on tastes 
or sympathies. Some ardent advocates of art have found fault with this 
argument, but on the whole it is a strong position, and those who hope 
to oppose it convincingly must undermine it, and not merely rail at it. 
The feeling with which one puts down even the better books on aesthetics 
is a feeling akin to despair. The writers who have mastered the main 
authorities on the subject are few, and more learned than original, as one 
can observe in such erudite and laborious volumes as Bosanquet's History 
of Aesthetic, Those who write with swing and positiveness often miss 
most absurdly many points which the Germans have long rightly con- 
sidered as axiomatic. Some again are both well-equipped by study and 
yet aggressive and suggestive, but are not endowed by nature with the 
broad, strong grip necessary to make even the simplest consistent scheme 
of life from an aesthetic point of view. Clear headed men like Professor 
Freeman do well to take an unsympathetic and even stolidly conservative 
stand before handing over to any teacher the boundless influence con- 
ferred by a dogmatic control of the tastes and sympathies of students in 
their most plastic and impressionable years. Many a professor will ask 
in the next fifty years by what right a teacher of art exerts so profound 
an influence upon youth without ever once being called upon to prove 
the truth of his teachings before the bar of scientific thought. Is not 
this artistic culture a new form of superstition, a last lurking place of 
dogma, and subjectivism and egotistic authority, in a more subtle and 
less pompous guise ? This I think is what logical men will say, and 
they will ask whether that which is outside the realm of law and of 
ascertainable truth is fit matter for university teaching and study. 



76 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

For there is one thing certain, Art, like religion, goes nearer to the 
deepest fountains of our being, to the seat of life and conduct, than any 
amount of cold logic and memorizing of facts. This truth cannot be too 
often repeated. Here is the secret of the importance of this greatest 
pedagogic problem, this problem of the art element in education. We 
have for various reasons put religion out of our educational system, and 
art is endeavouring to do its work. Art is at present in this country the 
sole means of communication between teacher and student on those sub- 
jects that are deepest and most intimate in their relation to life, and this 
is even more true here than in Europe, because while art in Europe 
means painting, music, architecture, sculpture and literature, here it 
means and must for some time mean chiefly literature alone ; and litera- 
ture, because of the simple fact that it is the art form essentially of ideas, 
and if I may use the word moral in its widest and not in its narrow sense, 
I will say, of moral ideas, that is of the relations of humanity, of character, 
society, and of nature as man's home in this earthly state, literature is by 
far the most influential of the arts as a link between teacher and student. 
Only stupid persons will long fancy that the moral element in art can be 
practically separated from its more purely aesthetic or structural quality 
and function. Take any passage of really moving poetry and try to tell 
where the influence of the form ends and where the influence of the con- 
tained idea begins, and then judge whether this moonshiny distinction is 
likely to lessen the moral influence of the poet, or his interpreter, the 
teacher of poetry. Imagine a professor of sympathetic insight, and 
emotional and imaginative power, reading a description of an ideal 
society to his class of undergraduates. 

" A brighter Hellas rears its mountains 
From waves serener far ; 
A new Peneus rolls his fountains 
Against the morning star. 
Where fairer Tempes bloom, there sleep 
Young Cyclads on a sunnier deep." 

Suppose him to have saturated himself with this stanza, its deep feeling, 
its quiet splendid hope and teleological attraction, its winged joy and 
freedom, its background of patience, and struggle, and abnegation of the 
present, and suppose him to have flexibility of voice and a dignified 
manner of reading, then ask what the effect must be ? What is the 
difference what he says about the passage he may injure the effect, or 
deepen it, but in reality this torch of poetical light is handed directly 
from the poet to the student by the feeling of the teacher, and all the 
Socratic and inductive and other pedagogical methods so vital in Physics 
and Grammar have absolutely no place here. The feeling is the life of 
the art work. Put the work on the dissecting table and its spirit flies 
out of the window for the time. By this I do not mean that a truly 
aesthetic analysis is not essential to progress in art. The student must 
have his eyes opened, he must be taught what to look for, but the feeling is 
the life of the art work after all, and feeling is unanalysable, or as Pro- 
fessor Freeman said, we cannot examine on tastes and sympathies. 



ART ELEMENT IN EDUCATION 77 

The merely practical objection about examining has perhaps not 
proved so very serious. The examiner has after all only endeavoured 
to ascertain whether or not the student has been in circumstances 
favourable to the cultivation of taste and sympathy, not whether his own 
taste and sympathies have been educated in the best direction. But in 
reality the opposition to this emotional art teaching goes deeper. It is 
felt that a University should pursue and teach truth, and that the truth 
of art is not truth in the academic sense, but only in some other sense, a 
sense in which religious faith is also truth, however unproveable, or 
indeed opposed to scientific probability. The ardent art-student says, 
" If I teach a boy or a girl to feel as Milton felt, or as Wordsworth felt, or 
as Dante, or Calderon. or Lionardo felt, I am teaching him to feel truly 
and nobly ; he has a vast lot of feeling which will surely go to evil or to 
lethargy if I do not make this use of it, why then should I not be allowed 
to teach art in the University ? " But the cold scientist replies, " There 
are many poets whose feelings are not certainly the truest and best, 
just as there are false religions, and false theories of science ; why should 
the art teacher be alone privileged to teach what he does not attempt 
to base upon reason ? " And if one argue that there is a truth above 
" mere logic," and that the universal acceptance of Michelangelo, and 
Shakespeare, and Homer, and Goethe by the best minds is a warrant 
for their essential reason and truth, the answer is clearly that the 
dynamic teachings of Christianity have similar human acceptance, yet 
are not strictly, as such, deemed the sort of truth for whose teaching 
universities are maintained. 

In a word, this objection to art cannot, as has been said, be met by 
railing. The Germans have perceived this. The German professor 
meets an objector like Professor Freeman on his own ground. He says, 
" Do you believe that there are any phenomena outside the reign of law ? 
If not, how can you deny my right to study the phenomena of the beau- 
tiful, the ugly, the sublime, the tragic, to define humour, to classify 
poems ; how can you deny the right to discuss the feelings, and genius, 
simply because we do not fully comprehend them ; where is the study in 
which you have a solid metaphysical foundation, and no assumptions, or 
in which you achieve the whole truth before teaching at all ? " And 
this disarms the German scientist ; and this will probably be the course 
of art teaching on this continent. The professor of art must be in some 
degree responsible and scientific, an Academic, not wholly irresponsible and 
subjective, an impressionist, otherwise he should be like a university 
theologian who would preach instead of lecturing academically on 
theology. The science of the authority of criticism is the logical apology 
for the existence of art courses in a university, and if the day comes 
when this is understood we shall gradually have an end of the irresponsi- 
ble dogmatism of art instruction. 

We shall never need to fear an excess of academic authority in literary 
criticism in this country ; there will always be only too much crude 
originality and free expression of opinion, as long as the democracy 






78 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

remains true to its rights, and, therefore, one may confidently advocate a 
slight increase of authority in the tone of leaders of criticism, a heartier 
denunciation of outrageous plays and novels, and miserable music hall 
songs, and silly modes of dressing and manners, and everything that is 
not lovely and of good report, from the aesthetic point of view. The 
substance of this paper is accordingly that our leaders, and especially our 
leaders in learning, should do something to control the rising art impulse, 
to recognize its deep vital relation to religious and moral activities, to 
prevent its indirection or its freezing up, to strengthen the hands of those 
who teach literature, and to encourage in every way a taste for what 
seems to the wisest men to be the best and healthiest kind of enjoyment 
of the play instinct, and within reasonable limits the discouragement 
(but almost wholly by the encouragement of better things, and not by 
mere suppression and inhibition) of whatever tends to a poor, low, starved 
conception of human life. 

It will be many a long year before our schools, and streets and manners, 
are favourable to the great life of a really great commonwealth, and 
there are unimpeachable reasons why not much should be expended on 
beauty while even the virtuous and industrious are over burdened with 
taxes and the struggle for a living. But who can deny that much could 
be done to make life better worth living, and to soften manners, and 
glorify citizenhood without the waste of a single cent ? The money that 
is spent on poor books, plays, pictures, music, magazines, and ugly 
clothing and houses, would be a means of health and power if spent in 
accordance with good taste and artistic judgment. We do not want 
Blue laws, or the lex Heinze, or Comstockism ; what we want is a strong, 
positive and sympathetic leading from our educational system in this 
matter of amusements, art. manners, feelings, sensibilities, tastes ; these 
matters which in a scientific and democratic age come daily nearer to 
being the religious impulses and moral forms of the great, restless, half- 
conscious democracy. When feeling is trained always to accompany 
our knowledge duly we shall perhaps agree once more with Socrates 
that knowledge is virtue. I fancy that that great and actively aesthetic 
mind living in those early days could scarcely conceive of a knowledge 
divorced from its appropriate feeling ; his life shows that his beliefs were 
vital, and that with him, at any rate, to think was also to feel, and to act 
accordingly. It is the peculiar office of a true aesthetic education to 
restore this union and harmony of mind and will, and thus to restore the 
golden age of instinct and naivetd, but on a higher and freer level. But 
if a great and emotional art in the coming century is to mediate between 
the rival interests of feeling and thought, it must be partly by an earnest 
effort to meet, and not to shirk, the scrutiny of scientific examination, 
and this can only be done thoroughly by an effort at rational self- 
knowledge such as Plato, and Kant, and Wundt, have made in their 
analyses of the art problem. And hence one may conclude, in spite of 
prejudices to the contrary, that method and study must come to the aid 
of impressionism in criticism, and that not even the most brilliant subjec- 



UNIVERSITY CLUB 79 

tive criticism will eventually withstand the scepticism of the logician, 
nor absolve the art-critic from a conscientious study of what has been 
done in ./Esthetics since Kant wrote his Kntik of Judgment. A more 
active and authoritative control of public taste in all directions, based upon 
a deeper and broader grasp of (esthetic principles studied in the light of 
modern psychology and ethics, and a greater care in avoiding the reproach 
of frivolity and superficiality in relation to the vital matters of moral and 
social life, these are surely some of the prerequisites to an active, influen- 
tial period in the aesthetic education of man. 



THE UNIVERSITY CLUB. 

BY JAMES H. COYNE, B.A. 

AT the June meeting of the Alumni Association, a non-resident mem- 
ber suggested the expediency of a University Club. The idea was 
favourably received, and the President was authorized to appoint a Com- 
mittee to consider the question. Part of the result of the Committee's 
deliberations appeared in the last number of this magazine. Its complete 
report will, no doubt, be presented to the Association in the course cf a 
few days. Meanwhile it may be profitable to consider whether a club is 
necessary to the University's proper development, and if so, what its 
financial basis should be. The latter question includes those of member- 
ship and location. 

In the earlier days the need was not felt. When the membership of 
the University numbered only a few hundreds, it was possible for each 
to have some sort of acquaintance with all the rest, whether graduates or 
undergraduates. Every student knew all the men of his year, and had a 
nodding acquaintance at least with those of the other years. The visible 
bond of union was the Literary and Scientific Society. The West End 
Reading Room was capable of holding the entire body of students. All 
were expected to belong. Graduates attended the meetings, and mingled 
more or less freely with undergraduates. There was but one Arts build- 
ing. Library, museum, laboratories, lecture rooms, examination and 
convocation hall, senate chamber, residence, were under one roof. Here 
all the professors and dons met the undergraduates nearly every day in 
lecture hall or corridor, students prepared for examination, arranged 
their games, matches, and annual celebrations, formed acquaintances and 
friendships, and discussed University and College politics. The Medical 
School was close by in the Park. Arts men and medicals met frequently 
in class room and at football. The social needs of the University were 
provided for. The University population was homogeneous. It was 
easy to ascertain the sentiment of the graduates and undergraduates 
upon matters of academic or corporate interest. 

But this is no longer possible. The undergraduates and registered 
students of the various faculties and affiliated institutions are numbered, 



8o UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

one might say, by thousands, distributed among numerous and in some 
cases widely separated colleges. Opportunities of general social inter- 
course have been continuously reduced by various causes that have arisen 
since the days when Plancus was consul. Then all the forces combined 
to bring men together. There was more esprit de corps. Now the cen- 
trifugal forces are more in evidence. The danger is that the general 
welfare may be overlooked in the anxiety to guard more circumscribed 
interests. 

It is true that attempts have been made to unite the scattered mem- 
bership. The Students' Union is such an attempt on the part of under- 
graduates. Greek Letter societies have also been called into existence 
to meet their social needs, and the Young Men's and Young Women's 
Christian Associations are excellent and useful institutions. Convocation 
has a legal existence, but practically manifests itself only at the triennial 
elections. The Alumni Association is the latest attempt to enable the 
entire membership of the University and the colleges to act as one body. 
Its meetings have been successful in enlisting the sympathy of University 
men, and considerable vigour has been already shown in its operations. 

But the Association can meet but rarely. When it does the time is 
short for discussion or consideration. Decisions will be necessarily 
hasty, and, on account of the difficulty of holding meetings, mistakes 
cannot be promptly rectified. It would be a great advantage if matters 
of University interest could be discussed at leisure and informally, in 
the freedom of social intercourse, where all phases of sentiment might be 
presented. If non-resident members were able to report the views of 
county associations, and act as mediums of interchange of University 
public opinion between town and country, it would be possible to have 
every question pretty thoroughly threshed out in private discussion, and 
the body of University sentiment pretty well defined, before the Associ- 
ation met to consider the action to be taken. Discussion would be at 
once more intelligent and more intelligible, and the decision would carry 
more weight from the knowledge that a real public opinion was behind it. 

Matters of great moment to the University may come before the public 
for discussion in the near future. The long delayed federation of Trinity, 
and a recent proposal to re-open the University question might be men- 
tioned in this connection. The constituency of the University of 
Toronto should have an opinion on subjects affecting the University, 
and a means of expressing it. At present, there is no satisfactory way 
of ascertaining what that opinion is, and there is no practical method of 
giving effect to it. 

The institution of a University Club would perhaps supply the want. 
Open to all members of the University, trustees and senators, graduates 
and undergraduates, professors and students, it would promote friendly 
intercourse and establish a solidarity of opinion. Graduates would keep in 
touch with the newer life and the modern learning, renewing their acquaint- 
ance with the reverend halls wherein of old they wore the gown. They 
would willingly lose the feeling of strangeness that comes over the man 



UNIVERSITY CLUB 81 

of the 6o's or /o's who revisits the once familiar corridors and lecture 
rooms. The old associations and friendships would be revived. New 
ones would be formed. Old and young would find themselves in a dis- 
tinctively literary atmosphere. New books would be discussed with 
literary experts. New systems, theories, and platforms would form inter- 
esting subjects of conversation, as well as the fluctuation of shares and 
the latest sporting news. The usual arguments in favour of the existence 
of clubs need not be repeated here at length. The distinctive features of 
the University Club would be, of course, the literary atmosphere, the 
academic spirit, and all that is included in the word "culture." 

So much for the Club's raison d'etre. The practical question now 
comes in. Is it possible ? What shall it include ? How shall it be 
governed ? Where shall it be ? What shall be the financial basis? On 
what scale shall it be begun ? 

It is a fair subject for consideration, whether the Club should be for 
University of Toronto men only, or whether all University graduates 
should not be welcomed. The argument in favour of the latter course is 
a pretty strong one. The benefit would be mutual. The membership 
might consist of the following : 

(1) Trustees, members of the Senate, Professors, Lecturers, Officers 
and Graduates of the University of Toronto, and of Federated and 
Affiliated Institutions. 

(2) Graduates of any other Canadian, British, or Colonial University. 
There should be special provision for enrolment of charter members. 

Afterward, members could be admitted by election. The Club should 
be permitted in special cases to enrol as members persons not coming 
under the above designations. 

As a financial basis, the Committee proposes an annual fee of $10.00 
for resident and $5.00 for non-resident members. For the first year or 
two a guarantee fund might be necessary. If undergraduates are admitted 
a reduction might be made in their case. The feeling of the Committee 
appears to be in favour of making it a Graduates' Club. If they are correct 
in this, the Students' Union and Greek Letter societies will perhaps have 
freer scope for development. 

There will doubtless be a difference of opinion as to the best location. 
For non-resident members spending but a few hours in town at a time, a 
down-town club would probably be preferable. This would also be more 
convenient, as far as meals are concerned, for resident members, whose 
daily avocations are in the southern part of the city. It is possible that 
the Club's financial condition would be less precarious with a down-town 
location. On the other hand, the teaching staff and up-town residents 
would be inclined to favour a site nearer the University, if not in the 
precincts of the Park itself. This would also tend to promote a greater 
interest in the local associations connected with the splendid group of 
academic buildings of which our city and Province are so proud, and 
which elicit the admiration of visitors from other countries. The 
academic atmosphere is here rather than down town. For these reasons 



82 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

and on grounds of sentiment it might be better to have the Club in or 
near the Park ; business reasons rather lean toward a southern location. 

There is one financial consideration that favours the up-town site. It 
is the question of rent. The success of the University common dining- 
room seems already assured. In the words of the Committee, referring 
to the use of Residence for club purposes, " a steward will not be required 
here, because the steward of the adjoining University Dining Hall can 
act as caterer." Temporarily at least the former Residence can furnish 
a home for the Club. Chambers could easily be fitted up for out 
of town members and perhaps also for city members, who would like to 
live in Residence. As is frequently the case, there is a great deal to be 
said on both sides of the question. It should be carefully considered 
by members before the Association decides. The financial success of 
the scheme is largely bound up with this question. 

A middle course has been suggested. Some have proposed a location 
somewhere near the Avenue, between the University buildings and 
Queen street. Whether the Association will be wise in adopting the 
middle course, or whether on the contrary, the end might not be that 
neither side would be pleased, it is not the province of this paper to 
argue. The writer's object is rather to present both sides of the ques- 
tion than to express his own view. Perhaps it would be better for mem- 
bers not to take too pronounced a stand upon it, until they have 
discussed it privately, and then considered it from every side at the next 
meeting of the Association. Whatever the decision, we should all loyally 
acquiesce in it, and endeavour to make the Club a success in every sense. 
A successful Club would be undoubtedly a useful adjunct to the Associa- 
tion and to the University, whose interests it is our duty to guard. 



THE NEEDS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

BY CHANCELLOR BURWASH. 

AT the organization meeting of the Alumni Association, Chancellor 
Burwash said that the present crisis in university affairs was not 
due to any recent or local circumstances, nor even the federation which 
took place ten years ago. That .crisis was upon us then quite as sensibly 
as it is now, and the federation movement, which began in 1884, was itself 
the outcome of the crisis. This crisis v/e were feeling in common with 
many other universities all over the continent, and it arose from a conti- 
nental, we might almost say, a world-wide advance in higher education. 
Twenty-five years ago we w.ere still in the age of colleges. A university, 
in the modern sense, did not exist in Canada, and perhaps scarcely on 
this continent. We had many large colleges, with a number of profes- 
sional schools clustered around them ; but a true university, in which all 
the important branches of modern learning were taught, and provision 
made not merely for the elementary work required for the B.A. degree, 



NEEDS OF THE UNIVERSITY 83 

but also for the most advanced post-graduate study and research did not 
exist. To-day nearly every important State in the American Union is 
striving after this ideal, and several of the older and some richly endowed 
younger institutions are making fair progress towards its realization. 
Surely if Canada is to hold her place in the forefront of the Greater 
Britain, and to be the worthy eldest daughter of an Imperial household, 
she must have at least one such university. 

It was the conviction of this national need which led Victoria ten years 
ago to join hands with Toronto in struggling for such a desirable con- 
summation. What should such a university be ? Not merely a huge 
college an overgrown college is neither a good college nor a university. 
Before the beginning of the modern university movement it was quite 
clearly recognized that many smaller colleges were doing more effective 
work for the all-round course then required for the B.A.., than the large 
institutions whose age, wealth and reputation had gathered around them 
a thousand or more undergraduate students ; and Dr. McCosh is quoted 
as saying that no college president could effectively handle more than 
five hundred students. Nor is the true university such a huge college 
divided into departments, with provision for extreme specialization for 
the B.A. degree. Dr. Whewell, an eminent mathematician and scientist, 
and the greatest master of England's largest college, Trinity College, 
Cambridge, has said that the man who knows only mathematics is not 
an educated man. The true university must turn out educated men at 
the same time that she furnishes the most perfect and varied learning. 
For this purpose she requires facilities for the most perfect college train- 
ing, and, side by side with these, facilities thoroughly organized and 
equipped for the pursuit of each important branch of learning to its 
utmost limit. Some of the new universities of the United States are 
devoting their energies almost entirely to this latter work, leaving to the 
smaller and existing colleges the work of furnishing educated graduate 
students fitted to enter upon such special work. Even the oldest and 
wealthiest are seeking not so much to develop or extend their old-time 
college work already too large for the best results as to extend post- 
graduate fields of study. The provision for the country of all-needed 
higher learning is thus the new sphere which the modern university is 
called to fill. This learning must include the wide, liberal culture and 
intelligence required of all men who aspire to the highest work in human 
life, the old work of the college ; but it must add to this the ekpert 
scientific knowledge needed in our varied industries, the mastery of his- 
tory and political science required in political life and journalism, and 
the varied branches of advanced knowledge required in the several learned 
professions. These are all imperative needs of modern life in all civilized 
countries. Without them we shall fail to make the most of our resources, 
or to hold our place in the ranks of the nations. 

Toward the supply of this want for Canada we have been feeling our 
way, perhaps not in the most intelligent manner, perhaps quite as much in 
the spirit of emulation as in that of high patriotic endeavour, but still with 



84 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

sufficient effort to make us thoroughly conscious that our present resour- 
ces are entirely inadequate for the work. In the United States a com- 
mon estimate of the minimum expenditure for a modern university is a 
quarter of a million dollars per annum, with at least a million dollars in 
buildings and equipment. We have scarcely passed one-half that amount. 
Our first want in our forward university movement is adequate financial 
provision. Can this be left to private enterprise and benefaction ? We 
think not consistently with the best interests of the country. This higher 
learning must always be costly, and yet it is necessary and cannot be 
bought with money. It is possible only to those to whom God has 
given the highest gifts, and most frequently these are not the rich. If the 
country would be adequately supplied with this learning and with educa- 
ted men, if she would make the most of her talented children, she must 
see to it that the road to the university is open to the poorest lad in the 
country. The university supported by the State is pre-eminently the 
poor man's friend, and the bulwark of political equality and liberty. 

But to accomplish this desirable end, there is no little work to be done 
by the men who appreciate the need of this higher education. In so far 
as it is to be accomplished by private beneficence its claims must be 
placed before our men of wealth. If the appeal is to be to our parliaments, 
then the entire electorate must be educated ; and our legislators and 
government must be enabled to feel that they have behind them in this 
work the consensus of the great body of the people. This demands mis- 
sionary work on the part of every university graduate, and the organiza- 
tion of this is our first duty. But this is by no means our only duty. 
The very success of this effort depends upon the fact that we are able to 
place the university before the country as the university of the great 
body of the peeple. It is so in principle and in name; its doors are 
open on equal terms to all. But practically, at least one-third of the 
students of the province are educated elsewhere, and not a few of these 
here in Toronto. In such a movement as this a divided constituency 
will fail. 

With this fact before them the government have very wisely said to 
your representatives, " Bring us a comprehensive scheme, for a university 
that will gather in the great body of the students of the province, get the 
people practically with you in this movement and we are ready to do our 
part." This is the language not of party politics but of both sides of the 
house.- A comprehensive measure of university reconstruction becomes 
thus a necessary part of the work before us. Such a measure as will 
place the university in touch with all the colleges which have been 
created by the living convictions of the people, and make it the common 
helper and friend of the whole province not merely without distinction 
of class or creed, but rather upon the more practical and effective plat- 
form of including every class and creed. If this is to be accomplished 
we must address ourselves to it in the spirit of patriotic self-denial. We 
must forget many of our old narrower ideas. Some of us must lay aside 
our old ideas of superiority whether in rights or in advantages. We 



EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 85 

must look at each other no longer from the standpoint of the jealousies 
and rivalries of days gone by. If there have been wrongs, the wrongs 
must be forgotten. All our resources, all our influence is now demanded 
for this common interest and this united effort. Surely men of the higher 
learning can rise above our little ideas of " my college" and " my Alma 
Mater" to the higher vision of "my country" and "my people." Our 
colleges will not be lost, but rise to a higher renown, and a wider sphere 
of influence, and to grander and more perfect work, as forgetting them- 
selves they unite their history, their wealth, their power, in building for 
Ontario a university worthy of the banner province of this Canadian 
Dominion. 



EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE LABORATORY 

IN TORONTO. 

ALBERT H. ABBOTT, B.A. 
Instructor in Philosophy and Assistant in the Psychological Laboratory. 

THE justification of the existence of any Science is complete when it 
has been shown that it investigates facts which are not investigated 
by any other Science. There may still be a difference of opinion with 
regard to the name which should be applied to the Science in question, 
but there can be no doubt that it has a field of inquiry essentially its 
own, and, this having been ascertained, the name is of very secondary 
importance. 

I am led to make these preliminary remarks by two phases of criti- 
cism which are at times offered when one speaks of Experimental 
Psychology : the first phase is completely destructive of the so-called 
Science, because it contends that Experimental Psychology has no 
subject-matter for investigation, since it is impossible to experimentally 
'examine mental states ; the second phase arises only when one has been 
assured that Experimental Psychology investigates something, and the 
criticism is, briefly stated, " You shouldn't call it ' Psychology! " 

I am not sure whether or not I should regard my task as covering the 
justification for the name of the Science as well as for the existence of 
it. If it does include it, I am disposed to waive the right of discussing 
this question at present (for, after all, it is a broader question than the 
one I am called upon to discuss), and to confine my attention rather to 
an attempt to show that what is at present called Experimental 
Psychology has a legitimate subject-matter which it endeavours to 
investigate : that it may at some future day be called by another 
name need not trouble us in the least. (It may be worth while noticing 
that Thomas Hobbes wrote his Psychology under the title of Physics, 
but that neither detracts nor adds to its value.) All that I ask is that 
my readers accept the name which is given to this investigation to-day, 
even if it be a misnomer, and leave the future to pass the verdict on the 
question of nomenclature. 



86 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

In a short article such as the present one must be, it is impossible to 
discuss every phase of the subject which suggests itself as appropriate 
and significant. I am, therefore, led to select for more exhaustive dis- 
cussion some particular points and to merely refer to others. One of 
this latter class I shall touch upon at this point in the discussion as 
introductory to my special subject, and I hope my statements regard- 
ing it will not be taken as dogmatic and unsound merely because I do 
not discuss them. I premise as a fact which ought not to need discus- 
sion, that we know but one Nature, and that every Science which inves- 
tigates natural phenomena deals with the same objects which all other 
Sciences investigate. Manifestly I do not mean that in any one object 
there must be found a field for every Science, but I do mean that any 
object may be investigated by all the Sciences, each from its own stand- 
point. From this I believe that the following statement ought to be 
evident : It is the peculiar standpoint of each which distinguishes the 
Sciences and not the specific objects they investigate. I deem this fact of 
much importance, because a consideration of it ought to make clear to 
any one that it is utterly illogical to demand of a Psychologist that he 
produce a world of reality which is not touched at all by other Sciences. 
On that same ground, probably no Physical Science but Physics could 
justify its existence ; at all events, if that be the test applied to Psychol- 
ogy, it may very well deny its ability to produce another Nature in 
which it may find some work to do. But it does not need to accept such 
a task as a justifiable one. It may very well claim that it has equal right 
with the Physical Sciences to exist, provided it can show that it investi- 
gates Nature from a standpoint peculiar to itself, and to the justification 
of the Science on this ground I now turn my attention. 

Before, however, I take up the immediate discussion of this problem, 
I may refer briefly to Feeling and Volition, which, probably, would not be 
considered as falling under the term " Nature " which I have used. Per- 
sonally, I should not exclude them from Nature, but any justification of 
that standpoint might take us too far afield, and, therefore, I shall merely 
mention, in passing, that the investigation of Feeling and Volition by 
means of experimental methods is a very necessary task before the Psy- 
chologist, and, further, it is one from which he does not shrink. As one 
problem in Volition which has received a good deal of attention in Ex- 
perimental Psychology, I may mention the investigation of the so-called 
Reaction Time, a problem ceded to Psychology by the astronomers, under 
the head of " The Personal Equation." Then, under the head of Feeling. 
I may call attention to the problems of Aesthetics, which have been left 
until the present almost wholly without experimental research, but which 
are gradually being investigated by Experimental Psychology with, I 
think I may say, gratifying results. The need for such work as this justi- 
fies the existence of any Science which will undertake it, and hence, if we 
go no farther we have shown the need of, and hence justification for, the 
Science which is called to-day " Experimental Psychology." 

The question to which I devote myself in the greater part of this 



EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 87 

essay is the following : In the investigation of Nature is there room and 
work for such a Science as Experimental Psychology ? 

The reader will not fail to notice, after reading the preceding para- 
graph, that in thus stating the question, I recognize that I am unneces- 
sarily restricting myself, but I do this because it is evident that if Experi- 
mental Psychology can be justified on this ground it will need no word of 
justification on any other ; and, because, I may frankly state, I am 
desirous of showing that Psychology has a right to be regarded not only 
as a Science, and as a " Mental " Science, but also, in the strictest sense, 
as a "Natural" Science. 

All the facts which Physical Science investigates in Nature are expres- 
sed, or can be expressed, in terms of motion ; light, heat, sound, elec- 
tricity, chemical action, the processes in living organisms, etc., are all 
alike phenomena of motion as they are considered and studied by a Phy- 
sical Scientist. He has his facts, he takes a certain point of view from 
which to regard them and in the light of which he investigates them, and 
as a result we have the magnificent achievements of Physical Science 
ever since the days of Galileo. Let us not fail to observe that this 
advance began with the adoption of motion as the pass-word through 
which entrance was to be had to the Physical Scientists' world. Indeed, 
some would say that this latter statement should not be limited at all, 
for they contend that all facts whatsoever are to be regarded as nothing 
but motion. This contention, however, cannot be allowed, as we shall 
see later. 

In order to limit the subject somewhat, I shall refer now to certain par- 
ticular phenomena in Nature in which there seems room, and, indeed, 
need, for an investigation other than those undertaken by the Physical 
Sciences, and which, as a matter of fact, is being carried on to-day by 
the Science which is called " Experimental Psychology." 

It cannot be denied that if there had never been Sensations of Sight 
and of Sound, there would never have been the Sciences of Optics and 
Acoustics. The movements of ether and of air might have been as 
active as possible, and, yet, unless colour had been seen, and sound heard, 
no one could have thought of them except as heat, or as more or less 
gentle pressures. And yet, let us not forget that the Scientist who 
investigates these motions of ether and of air could write a complete 
text-book on Optics or Acoustics and never use the name of a colour or 
of a tone ; all he needs for colour is a certain designation of the position 
in the spectrum and the frequency of the vibration of the ether particles, 
and for tone similarly, the frequency of the vibration of the air particles. 
That all comes to this a physicist investigates the motions which occur 
where vve experience, for example, a colour, but he does not investigate 
the seeing of colour, or the colour sensations which we experience, and 
which, after all, contain the fundamental possibility of this Science 
(Optics). 

But I am reminded that this is the task of the Physiologist ; he it is 
who investigates the seeing of colour and the colour sensations. Let us 



88 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

glance for a moment, then, at the work of the Physiologist to see if this 
be true. A Physiologist deals with those processes which take place in 
the human body, but he finds there nothing but chemical processes, 
physical processes of pressure, of heat, etc. With the possible exception 
of nervous transmission he finds no process not common to bodies in 
general ; and even nervous transmission he conceives as a movement of 
the particles of a nerve, and as akin to the transmission of electrical 
force. He, too, could express all the facts of his Science in terms of 
motion and position, and, so far as the seeing of colour is concerned, he 
can only tell us what processes take place in the retina, the optic nerve, 
and the visual centre in the brain, when we see such and such a colour, 
but he makes no attempt to discuss the sensations of light and colour as 
they are actually experienced, as red, orange, yellow, green, etc. Let us, 
then, at this point attempt a brief summary of the relations of Physics 
and Physiology to the facts of Light and Colour : Physics attempts to 
tell us what vibrations of ether take place where we see a certain colour ; 
Physiology attempts to tell us what processes take place in retina, nerve 
and brain when we see a certain colour, but neither of these sciences 
investigates the colour as seen, which is of a certain quality or tone (red, 
orange, yellow, etc.), and is not in any sense motion, no matter how 
much it may depend upon motion. Now, this colour certainly belongs 
to Nature, and therefore in the facts of light and colour in Nature there is 
room for an investigation not carried on by any Physical Science. This 
investigation may include several definite questions : 

(1) What are the facts of light and colour as they are seen or experi- 
enced ? 

(2) Upon what do these facts depend ? 

(3) Under what conditions do they combine witfr one another? 

In connection with the second question it must be noticed that it is 
purely gratuitous to assume, even when we have discovered that definite 
sensations of light and colour depend upon so and so many vibrations of 
ether, and such and such a chemical process in the retina, etc., that they 
depend upon these alone, for it can easily be shown that we have these 
sensations when that definite vibration of ether, and that specific process 
in the retina, are not present. 

There is room, then, in the investigation of the facts of colour, for a 
science which will carry on research on the lines of the questions above 
suggested, and, as a matter of fact, that Science is called to-day " Experi- 
mental Psychology ; " as I have said before, it is entirely irrelevant for 
my purpose whether or not the name be appropriate ; it at least has a 
standpoint peculiar to itself from which it investigates Nature, and as 
such its right to a place among the sciences cannot be seriously questioned. 

What I have here said regarding light and colour is equally applicable 
to other sensations also, such as sound, heat, cold, pressure, taste, smell, 
etc. No Physical Science investigates these, as we actually experience 
them, for the very basis of all such sciences to-day is motion, and this 
standpoint does not include colour, or any sense quality, as experienced. 



EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 89 

It is manifest that red, yellow, violet, hot, cold, hard, soft, sweet, bitter, 
etc., etc., are not motion, and it is absolutely meaningless to say that, 
e.g.. the sensation red is 330,000,000,000 vibrations per second or any 
such the sensation red is red, and not movement. 

What I have already said ought to convince, at least, the careful reader 
that there is work for Experimental Psychology to do in the investiga- 
tion of the sense qualities and their relations. There are, however, even 
wider fields of work for the Psychologist to attempt by the aid of experi- 
mental methods. 

The Science of Geology, as we know it to-day, has much to do with 
time ; in fact, were it not for our sense of time, Geology could not 
exist in its present state. It uses time with perfect assurance, and yet it 
does not in any way investigate man's sense of time, as some call it. 
The same is equally true of all the Physical Sciences. All Nature is 
studied as motion or change, and yet the basal fact which alone renders 
such a conception as change possible, in fact which is, in one sense, 
simply another word for change, is not studied at all. Were time not 
a necessary form of human experience there could not be the Physical 
Science which we know to-day. Any research, then, which adds to our 
knowledge of time as a form of experience is valuable, since it thereby 
adds directly to our knowledge of Nature. Experimental Psychology 
carries on this investigation, and, indeed, the Psychological Laboratory 
of the University of Toronto has contributed somewhat largely to this 
problem in recent years. 

Then there are the various investigations with regard to localization 
in space which are not touched by any Science but Psychology. As all 
Nature is in space, any information we may gain with regard to our 
localization in space is directly applicable to our knowledge of Nature, 
and is an addition to it. 

It would seem to me that these considerations amply justify the exist- 
ence of the Science which investigates these facts, and, as it is evident 
that these investigations cannot be carried on except by the application 
of experimental methods, I presume I need not say a single word by 
way of justification for the use of experiment in such research. One 
might still be in doubt as to whether such a Science ought to be called 
Psychology, but, as I have already intimated, I do not intend to discuss 
that question further than I have done, that is, further than showing that 
it cannot be called Physics or Physiology, as we understand these 
Sciences to-day. 

[The second part of this article dealing with the Psychological Laboratory in the University 
of Toronto ( illustrated), is held over till next issue.} 



90 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

THE REPRESENTATION OF SCENES FROM THE 

ODYSSEY. 

BY PROFESSOR HUTTON. 

A GREEK play is in the lives of most Universities OVK dy(ai>ta-fjia e<? TO 
Trdpov aXXo /CTfyu,a e<? ael in every sense of the word : it is an effort 
made once and once only in a generation, and once made is regarded as 
a possession, if not for ever, at least for that generation and needing no 
repetition. It is the peculiarity of our ambitious University that it is 
not content to measure such efforts by generations, or else that it counts 
its generations by the four years of the Arts course, and not the three 
and thirty of the course of life. 

. Only one such generation has elapsed since the last Antigone and 
already its successor is in sight : so that the closing twenty years of the 
century will have contained three representations either from the Greek 
dramatists or from their spiritual father, Homer. 

It is too soon to attempt to compare these representations : it is the 
hour for curiosity not criticism. This much is clear that the scenes from 
the Odyssey constitute a somewhat less elaborate and difficult task than 
the Antigone : and it is well that it should be so. In the portentous 
growth around the University of latter years of Dinners and Dances, of 
Societies, Functions and Receptions of every sort and kind, no time is left 
for so serious a task as the Greek of Sophocles combined with the music 
of Mendelssohn : and any Greek play to have any chance of getting a share 
of the student's time and attention, must limit its demands strictly; 
it may venture, perhaps, to compete with the insignificant claims of the 
time-table of lectures, but it will do well not to overlap the exacting 
demands of Class Societies, Athletics or Departmental Associations. It 
is a consolation therefore to know that the stage manager of the Odyssey 
does not want the earth only in fact the East Hall. Another feature 
of the approaching representation is not less consolatory. As the time 
at the disposal of the stage manager is limited, so by compensation is 
the stage manager's experience unlimited : there will be no part of the few 
precious weeks lost in learning how to manage a Greek play : for the 
first time we have in Miss Barrows a manager who has studied Greek 
and Greek life, Greek music and Greek dances, in Greece itself: who has 
made Greek plays the business of her life, and the management of them 
a fine art : the dancing, the acting, the music, all has been equally 
thought out and Hellenised from the beginning, and there will be 
nothing to unlearn unless it be on the part of the actors their Greek 
pronunciation. If they can contrive to speak with the accent of modern 
Greece they will certainly be nearer to Homer, whatever difficulties of 
scansion remain unsolved, than our Greeks have been hitherto ; and 
they will have the satisfaction of knowing that if a live Greek enters the 
theatre to see the simulacra of his ancestors, he will be cheered to find 
that these phantasms of the dead are still, though canonised, Setvoi 6eol 
i, angels with intelligible speech ; and speech not only intelligible 



UNIVERSITY BIOLOGICAL MUSEUM 91 

but very musical also. And there is yet a third feature on the pro- 
gramme admitting of confident prophesy. In the first and the second 
Antigone alike, to the general public probably the most impressive effect 
of the representation was the spectacular effect, and of the spectacular 
effect the most impressive item was the Bacchic dance : it was only a 
walk in reality in the first Antigone : it was a dance in the second. But 
in the Odyssey the dancing is likely to be more Greek and the spectacular 
effect of the whole should be so far, for the general public at least, more 
impressive : already, it is safe to say, to see the dancers practising is to 
see perhaps for the first time a chapter out of the Old Testament : 
King David dancing before the Ark. Peradventure there will be Michals 
among us come to scoff with the cynic's scoffing at the naturalism of 
early humanity, and the incarnate poetry of motion. They will remain 
to dance. 

An element absent in the former plays and present in this is the 
representation of Greek Athletics, copied from the Diskobolos and other 
statues of classical athletes : these are introduced as well as the dancing 
in connection with the scene in Alcinous' palace, when Laodamas and 
Euryalus challenge Odyssey to compete in the games. " There is no 
greater glory for a man in all his life than what he wins with his own 
feet and hands " : the most up-to-date of all Homeric couplets. 

Another element absent in a Greek form from the former plays and to 
be present in this in a form nearer, undoubtedly, to the ancient Greek, is 
the music : the music of Mendelssohn's Antigone, signally beautiful 
though it is, is not classical. The music on the present occasion is to 
include the Hymn of Apollo (discovered at Delphi in 1893) by way of 
Introduction, and is to be based on the principles so far as they are 
ascertained of Greek classical music. 



RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE UNIVERSITY 
BIOLOGICAL MUSEUM. 

BY PROFESSOR RAMSAY WRIGHT. 
II. 

IN my former article under this heading I referred to the Bower-birds 
as near relations of the Birds of Paradise. It has been possible 
through the generosity of a graduate and gold-medallist in the Depart- 
ment of Natural Science Mr. Charles Millar, '78 to add several of 
these to the collection as well as a number of other desiderata among 
the higher Orders of Birds. These have now been grouped in a case 
adjacent to that occupied by the Birds of Paradise, and will remain on 
exhibition for some time as the " Millar Collection " until they are 
eventually distributed into their proper systematic positions. 

Several examples of the Bower-birds had already been contributed to 



92 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

the Museum with some other Australian birds by Professor Richardson 
and by Mr. J. D. Riddell, of Earlston, Scotland, through Mr. J. Stalker 
of this city. Among these were the beautiful Satin Bower-bird and the 
brilliant black and orange Regent-bird, but the new accessions are New 
Guinea relatives, whose habits are not yet so well-known. They include 
the gorgeous Golden-bird from Dutch New Guinea, and the humbler 
Gardener-bird from British territory, as well as a new species from the 
mountains dedicated to the British Administrator, Sir W. Macgregor. 

All of these birds seem to have the habit of constructing a more or less 
complicated edifice, in which the males display themselves at breeding 
time. Just as the Paradise-birds endeavour to attract the females by their 
beautiful plumage, the Bower-birds offer the inducement of an elegantly 
decorated summer cottage. One of these belonging to the Pink-necked 
Bower-bird (of which, unfortunately, we have no specimen) came to us 
some years ago with the collection of Dr. Gamier, of Lucknow, Ont. It 
has now been placed in a suitable case, and serves to illustrate the 
common style of architecture adopted. The bower is formed of twigs 
arranged in a thick platform some three feet in length, from which there 
arch upward two curved walls of similar construction nearly meeting 
above, and thus forming an arcade about eight inches in width, which 
occupies the greater part of the length of the platform. 

In our specimen the " run " is decorated with shells of various kinds, 
but in other species gay parrot feathers are employed, and pipes and 
trinkets are stolen from the natives' camps, so that we are reminded of 
the thievish propensities which crop out in the Magpies and Jackdaws, 
members of a nearly-related family. 

The aesthetic sense thereby gratified is remarkably developed in the 
Gardener-birds, which not only build a thatched hut, but arrange in 
front of it a mossy lawn which they bedeck with brilliant blossoms, 
replacing these carefully as their freshness is lost. They have also the 
gift of song, and are said to be masterly mimics, so that the name of 
" Master-bird " has been conferred on them by the natives. 

The other Passerine birds which have been added to the collection 
through the Millar Donation have been selected, as a rule, for their " fine 
feathers," although the Jackdaw and the Alpine Chough are exceptions. 
There is the Widow-bird from West Africa, whose weeds are in reality a 
wedding garment, in which comfort is sacrificed to fashion, for the male 
bird, in full plumage, can barely rise from the ground on account of the 
weight of his clothes. Again, there are the Indian Paradise fly-catcher 
and racket-tailed D ranges, whose beauty is chiefly concentrated in their 
central tail-feathers, and some of which had been previously represented 
in a collection of Indian bird-skins presented to the Museum by William 
Boultbee, Esq., C.E , to which further reference will be made in these 
pages. Finally, there are two Chatterers from Guiana, the Umbrella- 
bird, with the feathery parasol over his head, whose radiating spokes are 
represented by the feather-shafts, and the snow-white Bell-bird, with the 



UNIVERSITY BIOLOGICAL MUSEUM 93 

singular inflatable tube over his nose, which might well be believed to be 
a resonance-chamber for the characteristic tolling-sounds, to which he 
owes his name, but is regarded as purely ornamental. 

Another order which has been enriched is that of the Parrots. While 
we already had a number of interesting representatives from various 
sources, like the Owl-faced Parrot of New Zealand, and its compatriot, 
the flesh-eating Kea, we have now, in addition, chiefly from the 
Australian region, ten species new to our collection, among which the 
giant and the dwarf of the group, the Great Black Cockatoo from New 
Guinea, with a bill which can negotiate the stone-hard Kanary-nuts on 
which it feeds, and the tiny Nasiterna, hardly bigger than a wren, are 
likely to arrest attention. So also should the Red-sided Eclectus, a 
species so dimorphic in colour that the males and females were long 
regarded as different species. 

The Australian region is one rich in surprises in its bird-life. King- 
fishers which never saw the water, but feed on insects and land-snails ; 
Fruit-pigeons, which exhibit all the hues of the rainbow, and vary in size 
from that of a turkey down to that of a robin, are to be found in the 
Millar Collection. Perhaps the most beautiful of the new pigeons are 
the Crowned Pigeon from New Guinea (I saw last year some Parisian 
hats adorned with the heads, absit omen of impending extirpation), and 
the Nicobar Pigeon, with its iridescent mane. Along with these I have 
taken the opportunity to add a specimen of the European Rock-Pigeon, 
the parent stock of all the numerous races of the domestic Pigeon, and, as 
an illustration of what artificial selection will do in the hands of the 
breeder, six examples of well-known varieties of these. 

After all it is nothing to what natural selection effects in the hands of 
Nature, as one will become convinced by a glance at the extravagant 
helmet and crest of the new West African Hornbills, at the bristly head- 
gear of the Crowned Crane, at the grotesque bill of the Hill-Toucan, at 
the crimson wings of the Cape Plantain- eater, and the splendid sheen of 
the Emerald Cuckoo, all of which are welcome novelties in the Museum. 



The position of Trustee to the University is not a sinecure : he is 
expected to expend a considerable amount of his time and his brains in 
the interest of the Institution, and to be satisfied in the way of remunera- 
tion with requests for subscriptions. 

In my former article I was pleased to notice how kindly Mr. A. T. 
Wood had responded to one of these, and now I have to record a similar 
act of generosity on the part of Dr. John Hoskin, Q.C. 

Dr. Hoskin has for many years taken great interest in the rearing of 
various kinds of pheasants : it was natural, therefore, that I should ask 
him to take the family of the Phasianidae under his wing in my projected 
improvement of the aesthetic aspect of the Museum. And this is no sine- 
cure, for the family, excluding the subdivisions of the Old World and New 
World Partridges, is distributed over all S.-W. Asia (the Guinea-fowl and 



94 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Turkeys being African and American outliers respectively), and includes 
some twenty-seven genera and a hundred species. These rival each other 
in the beauty of their plumage, but perhaps none reaches the marvellous 
display of decoration attained by the Argus Pheasant, a fine example of 
which, with specimens of two other kinds of Pheasants, constitutes the 
first instalment of Dr. Hoskin's gift to the Museum. This bird, which is 
an inhabitant of Siam, the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, is distinguished 
by the length of its middle tail-feathers the bird may measure six feet 
and the beautiful markings on its flight-feathers ; especially the 
secondaries have those wonderful eyes which suggested to Linnaeus the 
specific name. Such magnificence necessitates space for its adequate 
display, and accordingly we learn without surprise that the male is a 
solitary bird, having a special clearing in the forest in which to show off 
his attractions ; this measures some six or eight yards square and is 
scrupulously freed from all vegetation, dead or alive, nothing being left 
but the bare earth. He roosts on a tree near by, leaves it to search the 
forest for the fallen fruit, on which he lives, and having breakfasted and 
visited a neighbouring water-source, retires to his reception-room to be 
on exhibition for the rest of the day. The birds are exceedingly shy, 
and are only secured by placing traps on the margins of the clearing, or 
some poisonous material on its floor. 

A more familiar picture is that of Lady Amherst's Pheasant, a species 
from Western China, not infrequently seen in confinement. It is a near 
relative of the Golden Pheasant, but has a cape of white feathers barred 
with blue, instead of the orange cape of the commoner and less hand- 
some species. Fortunately, there are some modestly dressed pheasants 
to serve as foils to their more brilliant congeners, and the Copper Phea- 
sant from Japan the third of Dr. Hoskin's series helps to play this 
role, but it will be hard to find room for the plainer species, when we 
acquire the Peacock-pheasant, Bulwer's Wattled, the Eared-pheasants, 
and others, which are still necessary to show the range of decoration in 
the family. 



It is, of course, only possible to exhibit in cases a comparatively small 
proportion of the very numerous species of birds, and, indeed, it is only 
possible for a small Museum, which aspires to illustrate the various 
groups symmetrically, to possess a representative collection of the Class, 
a considerable portion of which will be in the form of skins a form 
better adapted for study than that which is suitable for exhibition. 

In a subsequent article, I shall have occasion to refer to our collection 
of bird-skins; the foregoing paragraph suggests that I should acknow- 
ledge here certain Japanese pheasant skins, presented by the Rev. Heber 
Hamilton, '85, one of the few of our missionary-graduates who have 
rememb3red the Museum in the course of their travels. 

In the next numbe r of the MONTHLY I propose to deal with recent 
accessions to the Mammals. 



ONTARIO SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL SCIENCE 95 



PROGRESS OF THE ONTARIO SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL 

SCIENCE. 

BY J. GALBRAITH, 
Principal Ontario School of Practical Science. 

THE following statement with regard to the progress and present 
position of the Ontario School of Practical Science, Toronto, was 
prepared in reply to Dr. Parkin, of Upper Canada College, who is 
reported to have spoken as follows at the annual distribution of 
prizes recently : " While our arts students go almost exclusively to 
Toronto University, an increasing number of pupils now leave us to 
matriculate in the science department of McGill. No influence of 
teachers here encourages this movement, which is a perfectly natural one. 
In many cases students come to us from eastern Canada, and then fol- 
low on to an eastern university. But in addition to this the large sums 
of money spent in developing the science side of McGill have evidently 
struck the popular imagination far and near, and students naturally 
gravitate towards the points where energy is being centralized. There 
is only one way to change this tendency, and I wish to bespeak for our 
-own university the same vigorous backing up from the people of Ontario 
and the citizens of Toronto which McGill has received from the public- 
spirited citizens of Montreal. Without such support it cannot reason- 
ably be expected to hold its own on special lines of work." 

While agreeing with Dr. Parkin on the necessity for immediate action 
being taken to strengthen the science side of the university, yet I think 
that the main reason for his warning, viz., the increasing tendency of 
students to go to McGill rather than to Toronto, has little or no justifi- 
cation in fact, and would, if accepted by the public, tend to produce the 
very evil which he deplores. His argument seems to be as follows : An 
increasing number of his pupils are yearly entering the faculty of applied 
science at McGill in preference to the School of Practical Science, (your 
report states that six pupils entered at McGill this year, and two at the 
.School of Science) ; ergo the tendency of students from all parts of the 
Dominion, and (what more particularly concerns the University of 
Toronto) from Ontario, to flock to McGill in preference to Toronto, is 
increasing. Feeling apparently the insufficiency of his facts for this 
sweeping conclusion, he supports them by the assumption, (a perfectly 
natural one) that the enormous sums received within the last few years 
by McGill must necessarily have the effect referred to. This method of 
reasoning is not without its faults^ and in the present case has led the 
Principal to conclusions utterly at variance with the records in the 
calendars of McGill and the School of Practical Science. 

I have examined the calendars of both institutions for the years 1896, 
1897, 1898, 1899 and 1900, with the following results: In these years 
the numbers enrolled in the faculty of applied science at McGill were 



96 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

202, 220, 228, 231, 231 respectively, while the corresponding numbers in 
the School of Practical Science were 100, 135, 146, 160, 193. Do these 
figures, I would ask, indicate an increasing tendency on the part of 
students to go to McGill rather than Toronto ? Take another look at 
the calendars. The numbers enrolled in the first year in each institution 
ought to give a very good indication of the direction in which the ten- 
dency to increase is running. The numbers in the first year at McGill 
in the above five years were 80, 72, 71, 75, 72 respectively. At the 
School of Practical Science the corresponding numbers were 39, 60, 72, 
73, 91. Again, I may ask which institution gives evidence of a growing 
time ? It may be possible, however, that students resident in Ontario 
are deserting Toronto for Montreal. Let us see what the calendars say. 
The numbers from Ontario enrolled in the first year at McGill during 
the five years in question were 21, 17, 25, 17, 12, while for the School of 
Science the corresponding numbers were 39, 58, 71,69, 87. It seems 
hardly worth while to continue this examination of the calendars. The 
above comparisons are, however, in a very important sense, not fair to 
the School of Practical Science. The school prepares its students to 
enter the active work of their professions by general courses extending 
over three years, at the end of which period the diploma of the school is 
conferred, while at McGill the corresponding courses extend over four 
years and lead to the degree of Bachelor of Science. The fourth year in 
the School of Science is spent in special work, and each student is con- 
fined to two subjects of study. This work bears to the general work 
leading to the diploma the relation of post-graduate to undergraduate 
work, and yet the degree conferred upon the candidates who complete 
the fourth year (viz., Bachelor of Applied Science) is practically of the 
same standing as the degree conferred by McGill. The result is that 
only the more ambitious students return for the fourth year ; the larger 
number are content to enter active life with the diploma of the school. 
With these explanations let us compare the totals in attendance at each 
institution in the first three years of the courses. At McGill the num- 
bers were 165, 165, 170, 166, 166 ; that is to say, they have been practi- 
cally stationary for the last five years. At the School of Science the 
corresponding numbers were 75, 104, 128, 144, 174. It is difficult to 
imagine any process of reasoning whereby the above facts may be made 
to sustain the contention that in Canada there has been during the past 
five years an increasing tendency of students to flock to McGill in pre- 
ference to Toronto. What they do show is that the tendency of students 
to go to Toronto is increasing, while the tendency to go to McGill can 
at best be described as stationary. 

The advertising effect, as such, of the great benefactions made to 
McGill has largely died out within the last few years, and McGill, like 
Toronto, will have to depend henceforth on its merits alone. The gradu- 
ates of the School of Practical Science work side by side with those of 
McGill, Cornell, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and other 
great schools of engineering and applied science, and have intimate 



MODEL PRESIDENTS 97 

opportunities of judging the work of these institutions. From a corres- 
pondence with our graduates extending over twenty years and from their 
almost uniform success in their chosen professions, the only inference 
which I can draw is that the training given in the School of Science fits 
young men for their life work as well as that given in any other institution 
whatever. * 

But revenons d nos moutons : the Principal of Upper Canada College 
is quite right in warning Toronto and Ontario that the time has come 
when they must bestir themselves in the interest of their own institutions; 
not, however, on account of the rush of students to Montreal, but for a 
very much better reason, viz., the rush of students to Toronto. At present 
the accommodation in the School of Science is taken up from basement 
to attic ; the energies of the staff are taxed to the utmost limit ; experi- 
mental and research work formerly done are being abandoned on account 
of the increasing burden of teaching due to want of space in the labora- 
tories. In some laboratories the work of instruction is repeated three or 
four times owing to the large size of the classes. 

It is evident that this state of affairs cannot be allowed to continue if 
the school is to maintain its reputation. In our endeavours to make suit- 
able provision for expansion we shall need all the help and influence 
which the friends of our Provincial institution, including the Principal of 
Upper Canada College, may be able to afford. 



MODEL PRESIDENTS. 

BY PROFESSOR GOLDWIN SMITH. 

WE have all been reading with interest Mr. S. Blake's eloquent descrip- 
tion of the model head of a University. 

" We want a strong personality ; one full of life and vigour, a man of deep 
sympathy, one who knows and recognizes the difficulties of student life and can 
give advice and help ; one who does not believe in drifting or letting drift, but 
one who sees ahead and warns not one who simply patronizes the clever stu- 
dent, but one who yearns to teach the stupidest dunce in the precincts, and by 
his character and informing power to show him what even he can do if he makes 
the most of what he has. We want a man of reserve power, one who gains the 
confidence of the student, and can give him fatherly and kindly advice on the 
subject of his studies and his future ; a man of tact, conciliatory and gracious, 
and able to tempt talent to our University from all quarters and retain it when 
found." 

An academical archangel might be competent to fill the part, but it is to 
be feared that in the present state of University finances his terms would 
be too high for us. We should be out-bid by Harvard or Yale. 

The archangel is no doubt desirable if you can get him, but in acad- 
emical institutions, indeed in institutions generally, it is to the system 
and not to the man that we most chiefly trust. Such a head of a college 



98 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

or school as Thomas Arnold comes once in half a century. Nor even when 
he does come is the blessing wholly unalloyed. If Arnold's personality 
was deeply impressed upon his pupils, it was not entirely to the advantage 
of them all. 

In the University of Oxford the offices of the Vice-Chancellor, who is 
the temporary head, the Chancellor being a non-resident grandee, and of 
the two Proctors who administer discipline, go round the Colleges in a 
cycle, and are sometimes held by inferior men. The inferiority, of course, 
is felt, but the system works on and no great disaster ensues. 

The only head of a College at Oxford within my recollection who in 
any measure corresponded to Mr. Blake's ideal was Jowett, whose acad- 
emical importance has, however, been somewhat over-rated, owing to the 
interest attaching to his character and opinions. It was not by him, but 
by his predecessors, that Balliol College was originally raised to its 
eminence, though he, no doubt, improved upon their work. The founda- 
tion was laid by Jenkyns, a man of the most ordinary ability and totally 
devoid of personal influence, whose service to the College consisted in 
resolving that the Fellows and Scholars should be elected by merit. 

Eton in my time, it must be owned, was more a school of manners 
than a place of education. But perhaps it was not on that account the 
easier to manage. The Head Master when I was there was an accom- 
plished man of the world, who played his regular part with ordinary tact. 
He would no more have thought of exercising the sort of personal influ- 
ence desired by Mr. Blake on his pupils than he would of undertaking a 
mission to the Hindoos. Nevertheless, the system being strong and 
everybody being loyal to it, we got on well enough after our fashion, and 
our numbers were always on the increase. 

Hardly, even when you have the means of paying for the highest 
article in the market, can you expect as a regular thing personal elec- 
tricity of Presidents or inspiration of Professors. You must be satisfied 
if the President carries on the government smoothly and the teaching of 
the Professor is sound. In some departments the place of the Professor 
is now largely taken by the book. In all departments the diligence of 
the student and his active interest in his work are essential to his progress. 
He is not a mere vessel into which knowledge is to be poured. 

It is a mistake, I trust, to suppose that in the incident of the other 
day there was anything like a regurgitation of the bitterness of the past. 
Few greater blunders have been committed than the appointment of a 
judicial Commission to deal with a question of academical discipline, to 
wash all the dirty linen in public, and expose the officers of the Uni- 
versity to rough cross-examination, touching even religious belief, before 
a scandal-loving world. Cabal must be utterly fatal to any institution. 
Let us hope that we shall hear of it no more. 



LOCAL LECTURES 99 

LOCAL LECTURES. 

'"THE accompanying lists of local lectures offered by the Faculties ofthe 
1 University of Toronto and University College and Victoria Univer- 
sity will be of interest to the Alumni. The range of subject-matter 
covered by these lectures is extremely wide and ought to be interesting 
to ,a very large body of the people. It is hoped that the graduates 
residing in localities not too distant from Toronto will lend their aid in 
bringing to the attention of the public this important means of culture so 
generously offered by the Faculties of both Universities. 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO AND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. 

PROGRAMME OF LECTURES, 1900 1901. 
Mr. A. H. Abbott, B.A. 

(i) The Psychological Aspect of Light and Colour;* (2) The Place of Experimental 

Psychology in Scientific Research ;* (3) The Problem of Suggestion. 
Professor W. J. Alexander 

(i) Aims in Life and Education ; (2) The Function of Poetry ; (3) The Poetry of Robert 
Browning ; (4) Tennyson's " In Memoriam " ; (5) The Novel, its Origin and Use ; 
(6) The Novels of Jane Austen. 
Mr. G. R. Anderson, M.A. 

The Development of Photography. * 
Professor Alfred Baker 

(i) "The Hard-grained Muses of the} Cube and Square"; (2) Genius in Science Sir 
William Rowan Hamiltou ; (3) Astrology ; (4) Hero of Alexandria A Study in 
Greek Mechanical Science ; (5) The Science of the Ancient Greeks, and the Debt we 
Owe Them ; (6) The Nebular Hypothesis ; (7) The Beginnings of Astronomy. 
Mr. St. Elme de Champ 

(i) Le Paysan dans le Roman Francais ; (2) Le Midi de la France et ses Roman.ciers. 

(Both in Fnnch.) 
Professor A. P. Coleman 

(i) The Ice Ag. ; (2) Mountain Building; (3) The Rockies of Canada; (4) Canadian 

River Systems. 
Mr. A. T. DeLury, B.A. 

The Sun in Its Relation to Terrestrial Life and Energy. 
Professor W. H. Fraser 

(i) Dante and the Divina Commedia ; (2) Machiavelli ; (3) Manzoni, Hugo and the 
Romantics ; (4) Mediaeval Italy and Florence of the Renaissance ; (5) A Glimpse of 
Italy ;* (6) Michael Angelo.* 
Professor J. G. Hume 

(i) The Preparation for Christianity ; (2) Faith and Doubt in Modern Controversy ; (3) 
Problems of Social Reform; (4) How to Think ; (5) Philosophical Views of the late 
George Paxton Young. 

Professor Hume is also prepared to deliver series of Lectures on the History of Philos- 
ophy and Theory of Ethics. 
Professor Maurice Hutton 

(i) The Statesmen of Athens ; (2) Greek Virtues and Theories of Life ; (3) The Women 
of Greece ; (4) Some Oxford Types (ist series) ; (5) Some Oxford Types (2nd series) ; 
(6) The Mind of Herodotus ; (7) Some Aspects of Classical Education ; (8) The Roman, 
the Greek, the Englishman, and the Frenchman (one or two lectures as desired) ; 
(9) Plato ou University Education ; (10) The Antigone of Sophocles ; (11) Athenian 
Literature (ist period) ; (12) Athenian Liienuure (2nd period) ; (13) Roman Life, 
Literature and Later Analogies (two lectures); (14) Plutarch; (15) The Tyrants of 
Greece. 

* With lantern illutstrations. 



ioo UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Professor Hutton is also prepared to deliver series of Lectures on the Antigone of 
Sophocles, on the History of the Gracchi, and on the History of the Tyrants of Greece. 
Mr. E. C. Jeffrey, B.A., Ph.D. 

(i) Some Trees of a Former World;* (2) The Life and Character of Plants;* (3) 

Truffles and Truffle-hunting.* (After Christmas only.) 
Mr. D. R. Keys, M.A. 

(i) The American Humorists; (2) The Life and Times of Shakespeare; (3) Macaulay ; 
(4) Thackeray ; (5) Scott ; (6) Gladstone as a Writer ; (7) Matthew Arnold, the 
Apostle of Culture ; (8) Oliver Wendell Holmes ; (9) The Italy of the Ring and the 
Book. 
Professor \V. R. Lang 

The Gases of the Atmosphere.* (In Chemical Lecture Theatre only, after Christmas.) 
Professor James Mavor 

(i) Russia;* (2) The Paris Exposition.* (No. 2 after January. ) 
Professor J. F. McCurdy 

(i) The Bible and Altruism ; (2) The Message of Israel ; (3) Our Debt to the East ; (4) 
Bible Lands and Peoples ; (5) The Beginning of the World ; (6) Our Eastern Words 
and their Story ; (7) The Bible in the Schools : Needs and Obligations ; (8) The 
Bible in the Schools: Difficulties and Methods; (9) The Poetry of the Bible; (10) 
Jeanne d'Arc ; (n) Greece, Rome and Israel ; (12) The Prophets of Israel ; (13) The 
Ruling Races of the World. 
Mr. W. S. Milner, M.A. 

(i) The Expansion of the Roman and American Republics ; (2) Greek and Roman 
Education (three lectures) ; (3) The Fall of Paganism ; (4) Cicero and the Roman 
Financial World ; (5) Tolstoi. 

Mr. Milner is also prepared to deliver a course of lectures on the Causes of the Fall of 
the Roman Republic. 
Mr. R. G. Murison, M.A , B.D. 

(i) A Buried Civilization ; (2) Recent Discoveries in Egypt ; (3) Animal Worship. 
Mr. G. H. Needier, B.A., Ph.D. 

(i) The German Empire and Its People ; (2) Heinrich Heine and Foung Germany ; (3) 
Martin Luther from the Literary Standpoint ; (4) The Nibelungenlied the Iliad of 
Germany. 
Professor J. Squair 

(i) Church Architecture in Northern France;* (2) Rousseau the Sentimentalist 
Professor W. H. vanderSmissen 

Goethe's Life in His Lyrics.* 
Mr. S. M. Wickett, B.A., Ph.D. 

(i) The Study of Political Economy ; (2) Money ; (3) City Government in Canada. 

* With lantern ttlv^trations. 

Professor R. Ramsay Wright is prepared to offer a lecture on a biological subject after 
Christmas. 

HT Literary or scientific organizations desiring the services of lecturers will communicate 
with the Secretary. The terms will be $5 for each lecture (to be devoted to University 
purposes), and the payment of the personal expenses of the lecturer. 

J. SQUAIR, 

Secretary of Committee. 

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY. 

PROGRAMME OF LECTURES, 1900-1901. 
Professor E. J. Badgley. 

(i) John Stuart Mill ; (2) Herbert Spencer; (3) The Ring of Gyges ; (4) Woman; (5) 
The Religious Views of Immanuel Kant ; (6) The Resurrection of Christ ; (7) Mor- 
ality and Religion ; (8) The Theistic Concept. 
Professor A. R. Bain. 

The Problem of the Planets. 



LOCAL LECTURES 101 

Professor A. J. Bell. 

(i) Lucretius; (2) Student Life in Germany. 
Chancellor Burwash. 

(i) Three English Peoples; (2) Books: Their Use and Abuse; (3) Protection as a 
National Policy ; (4) The Recovery of a Lost Language ; (5) From the Myth to the 
Microbe a Comparative Study of Ancient and Modern Science ; (6) Old and New 
in Theology. 
Professor J. Burwash. 

(i) Water; (2) Light, and the Cause of Colour; (3) Wonders of Science; (4) The 

Worlds of Genesis. 
Professor A. P. Coleman. 

(i) Canadian Gold Fields ; (2) The Lakes of Canada ; (3) The Rocky Mountains. 
Professor Pelham Edgar. 

(i) Shelley, the Man and the Poet; (2) Nature Poetry of Shelley and his Contem- 
poraries. 
Mr. W. Sanford Evans, M.A. 

(1) Patriotism ; (2) Brave Men and Women ; (3) Sport. 
Professor L. E. Horning. 

(i) The Evolution of an Author a Study of Young Goethe; (2) Faust; (3) Martin 
Luther; (4) Life in England in the Days of Alfred; (5) Browning: His Life and 
Works ; (6) Canadian Literature ; (7) Social Life and Ideals in the Middle Ages. 
Mr. C. C. James, M.A. 

(i) The Romance of Agriculture ; (2) The Making of Ontario. 
Mr. A. E. Lang, B.A. 

(i) Modern German Realism ; (2) Two Recent German Dramas. 
Professor A. L. Langford. 

(i) A Greek Play ; (2) Some Greek Sculptors and Their Work. 
Professor E. Masson 

( i ) L'Etude des Languea Modernes, Conside>6e comme un Facteur de la Civilisation ; 

(2) Alexandre Dumas, Pere ; (3) Alexandre Dumas, Fils. 
Mr. B. E. McKenzie, M.D. 

(i) The Human Foot: Its Architecture and Clothing (two lectures); (2) Education of 

the Central Nervous System (three lectures). 
Professor J. F. McLaughlin. 

(i) The Story of the Hebrew Bible ; (2) The Story of the English Bible ; (3) Mohammed 

and the Koran ; (4) The Prophets of Israel. 
Professor A. H. Reynar. 

(i) Alfred the Great; (2) Chaucer; (3) Browning; (4) Mrs. Browning; (5) Humour; 
(6) Classics, Ancient and Modern, in our Schools ; (7) Literature : Its Nature and 
Uses ; (8) Alliance of Learning and Religion ; *(g) Course of Lectures on Tennyson's 
"In Memoriam " ; *do) Course on "The Idylls of the King"; *(n) Course on 
Poems of Robert Browning. 
Professor J. C. Robertson. 

(i) Glimpses of Greek Life; (2) The Social Ideals of Plato and William Morris; (3) 

Saint Socrates ; (4) The Story of our Mother Tongue. 
Professor F. H. Wallace. 

(i) How to Study the Bible ; (2) The Influence of Uncanonical Jewish Literature in the 
New Testament. 

* These lectures are especially intended for Reading Clubs. They cannot be given 
except at places within easy reach of Toronto. 

fr 3 In addition to the expenses of the lecturers a fee of five dollars will be charged for each 
lecture (the proceeds to be devoted to University purposes). 

A. H. REYNAR, 

Secretary. 



io2 UNIVERSTIY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

LOCAL ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS. 
BY R. L. M'KINNON, B.A., LL.B. 

A MEETING of the Alumni of the University of Toronto for the 
county of Wellington and surrounding district was held in the city 
of Guelph, on October the nth, and it was determined to form a local 
organization. For this purpose a committee was appointed to draft a 
constitution and to report at a subsequent meeting. On the evening of 
November the I5th the adjourned meeting of the Alumni was held and 
a constitution for the most part similar to that of the central organization 
was adopted. The association will be known as " The Guelph Alumni 
Association of the University of Tornnto," and all graduates, and under- 
graduates of one year's standing, residing in the county of Wellington 
and surrounding district will be eligible for membership. The following 
were elected as officers for the current year : 

Honorary President H. W. Peterson, M.A., Q.C. 
President Wm. Tytler, B.A. 
Vice- President J. B. Reynolds, B.A. 
Secretary -Treasurer R. L. McKinnon, B.A., LL B. 

Councillors Miss K. Skinner, B.A. ; Miss Jessie Hill, Mus.B. ; H. E. Wilson, B.A. ; 
A. Mackinnon, M.D. ; and R. W. Ross, M.A. 

A committee was also appointed for the purpose of arranging for holding 
a dinner before Christmas. It is expected that a membership of sixty 
or seventy-five can be obtained in the vicinity of Guelph. At present 
the indications point towards the existence of a very vigorous organiza- 
tion. All the members present at the meeting expressed themselves 
strongly upon the necessity of the Provincial Government giving the 
University more liberal support. Notice was given that at the next 
meeting of the Association a motion would be made that a memorial 
setting forth the needs of the University, and urging the duty of the 
Government to place the finances of the University upon a basis becoming 
to this Province be engrossed, and that the members for this county in 
the local House be asked to present the memorial at the next session of 
the Legislative Assembly. 

On motion the Secretary was directed to forward a report of the 
organization to the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY. 



TORONTONENSIA 



103 



TORONTONENSIA. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
MONTHLY. 



ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS FOR PUBLICATION TO 
THE SBCBBTARY, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 

EDITORIAL BOARD. 
I. H. CAMERON, M.B., Chairman. 
J. C. McLENNAX, Ph.D., Secretary. 
J. FLETCHER, M.A., LL.D.; A. R. BAIN, 
M.A., LL.D.; J. A. COOPER, B.A., LL.B.; 
L. E. EMBREE, M.A. ; THOMAS MULVEY, 
B A. ; T. A. RUSSELL, B.A.; S. J. ROBERT- 
SON, B.A., Managing Editor. 



Miss M. E. C. Cameron, B.A., '97, spent 
last summer in Madrid, where she was 
engaged in working on a manuscript in the 
Biblioteca Nacional in connection with her 
Ph.D. thesis. She has at present a position 
as Reader in Romance Languages in the 
University of Chicago, where she is proceed- 
ing to her degree. 

Geo. W. Orton, B. A. , '93, who has achieved 
such distinction in athletics, has lately 
taken a position as editor of the sporting 
department of the Philadelphia Inquirer. 
He still lectures on Italian and Spanish in 
the Eastbourne Academy, Philadelphia, Pa., 
where he has tor some years had charge of 
the Romance Language department. 

The late A. R. Dickey, B.A., Q.C., whose 
relations with his Alma Mater and the world 
at large, were feelingly referred to by Frank 
T. Shutt in our October issue, was born at 
Amherst, N.S., in 1854, and was educated 
at the College School, Windsor, N.S., and at 



D. Love, B.A., '98, whose delicate 
nealth caused his friends much anxiety in 
his final year, has lived since in the more 
kindly climate of Mexico. During a visit to 
Toronto this autumn his splendid work in 
the tennis tournament showed that he was 
himself again, and though he has returned to 
Mexico, where he is now chief accountant 
for a large smelting works at Aguas Calientes, 
he has not done so for his health alone. 

Thos. R. Deacon, a graduate of the School 
of Practical Science of the class of 1891 in 
Mining Engineering has been very successful 
since leaving the School and is now Managing 
Director of the Mikado Gold Mining Com- 
pany, Rat Portage, Ont., which is one of the 
largest and most successful gold mining com- 
panies in Ontario. 

W. T. F. Tamblyn, B A., '95, Ph. D. 
(Columbia, '98), has secured an appointment 
on the staff of Colorado University, where 
he is the colleague in the Latin Department 
of Professor Hellems, who graduated from 
the University of Toronto in 1893. Dr. 
Tamblyn undertakes his new work with 
special qualifications. After graduation he 
spent a year in Italy and Greece studying 
Latin and Grecian archaeology, and aiter- 
wards going to Columbia University for two 
years, where he graduated in 1898. After 
studying in the Ontario Normal College 
for a year he was appointed as Classical 
Master in the Whitby Collegiate Institute, 
from which he has gone to his present posi- 
tion. 

F. J. A. Davidson, honour graduate in 
Modern Languages of the class of '90, who 
took his M.A. degree in '93, and was for three 



the University of Toronto, where he graduated r% 

in 1875 with the degree of B. A. He was called M years Fellow and Instructor in Italian and 
e Nova Scotia bar in 1878, and practised Spanish in the' University of Toronto, and 

who for the past five years has been Assistant 
Professor of Romance Languages at Stanford 
Univeisity, was appointed last August Pro- 
fessor of Romance Languages at the Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati. This institution, whose 
beginning dates from 1819, has just been re- 
organized under thepresidency of Dr. Howard 
Ayers, the well known biologist, and pro- 
mises to become one of the leading universi- 
ties of the United Stales. Professor David- 
son spent the past summer in France and 
Germany, where he received the degree of 
Ph.D. from the University of Leipzig, thus 
completing work begun three years ago, when 
his dissertation, Ueber den Ursprung und 
die Gexchichte der Franzdirischen Ballade, 
was accepted by the Leipzig faculty. 



to the Nova Scotia bar in 1878, and practised 
law at Amherst in partnership with the 
present Judge Townsend. On the resigna- 
tion of Sir Charles Tupper for the riding of 
Cumberland, in July, 1888, Mr. Dickey con- 
tested the seat and was returned to the 
House of Commons. He held three successive 
portfolios in the late Conservative Govern- 
ment, being appointed Secretary of State in 
1894, Minister of Militia in 1895, and Minister 
of Justice iii January of 1896, a position 
which he retained until the general elections 
of that year, when he was defeated by a 
small majority. He was created a Q.C. in 
1890, and was called to the Ontario bar in the 
same year as he retired from office. He was 
at one time a member of the Senate of 
the University of Toronto. 



104 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



Miss Norah Cleary, B.A., '99, has been 
appointed a teacher in the High School at 
Windsor, Ont. 

Thomas Stephen Cullen, M.B., '90, is now 
Associate Professor of Gynaecology in Johns 
Hopkins University. 

A. S. Hurst, B.A., '99, is now engaged as 
Instructor in English in the Peekskill Mili- 
tary Academy, Peekskill, N.Y. 

Miss Louise L. Ryckman, B.A., '90, was 
married on August 22nd, at Brock ville, Ont., 
to F. H. Sykes, M.A., Ph.D., Philadelphia, 
Penn. 

R. W. Angus, Lecturer in the School of 
Practical Science, Toronto, was married to 
Miss Louise Menhennick, B. A., '98, in 
August last. 

D. J. Armour, B.A., M.B., M.R.C.-P., 
Lond.,"F.R.C.S., Eng., .has been appointed 
Instructor in Anatomy in Rush Medical 
College, Chicago. 

John McCrae, B.A., M.B. , who holds the 
Fellowship in Pathology in McGill Univer- 
sity, Montreal, is at present serving with 
the troops in South Africa. 

Lewellys F. Barker, M. B., '90', formerly 
Associate Professor of Anatomy in Johns 
Hopkins University, is now Professor of 
Anatomy in University of Chicago. 

W. D. Ferris, M.B., '98, who is practising 
medicine at Shallow Lake, Ont., is forward- 
ing the organization of a local branch of the 
Alumni Association for the county of Grey. 

Gilbert B. Wilson, Ph.D., a recent gradu- 
ate of Knox College, has received a ca 1 from 
Augustine Church, Winnipeg, to succeed 
Rev. R. G. MacBeth, M.A., who is now in 
Vancouver. 

R. J. Bonner, B.A., '90, Ph.D., who held 
a Fellowship in Latin in Chicago Univer- 
sity last year, has been appointed Professor 
of Latin in the John B. Stetson University, 
Acland,. Florida. 

Miss F. H. M. Neelands, B.A., '96, has 
returned from a year of study in Germany. 
She spent most of the time in Berlin engaged 
in special courses of study in German langu- 
age and literature. 

A. W. Wilder, B.A., '88, Ph.D., who 
held a Fellowship in Latin in Johns Hop- 
kins University last ytar, has accepted the 
Professorship of Latin and Greek in Emory 
and Henry College, Emory, Virginia. 

The Rev. Edward W icher, B. A., '95, B.D. 
(Knox, 'oo), has accepted a call to the con- 
gregations of 1 Claude and Mayfield in the 
county of Peel, Ontario. He has just re- 
turned from a year of theological study in 
Germany. 



Ross G. Murison, B.A., '93; M.A., '94, 
Lecturer on Oriental Languages in Univer- 
sity College, delivered a vahiable series of 
historical lectures on Assyria, Babylonia and 
Egypt to the students of Manitoba College 
during the summer session of the present 
year. 

W. C. White, M.B., '98, who has spent 
nearly the whole time since graduation at 
Johns Hopkins University, was in Toronto 
rec. ntly after completing five months' study 
in Germany. He was on his way to Indiana- 
polis, where he now has charge of the Path- 
ological Department in the State Asylums. 
The laboratory has been very well fitted up, 
and Dr. White anticipates good results from 
his work. 

VN m. P. McKenzie, B. A., '84, is now living 
near Harvard College. He ia First Reader 
of the Christian Scientist ( hurch in Cam- 
bridge, Mass , and also a Trustee of The 
Christian Science Publishing Society in Bos- 
ton, Mass. Last June he completed a year's 
term as Piesident of the Mother Church of 
this denomination, known as The First 
Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass. 
This Church has a membership of 19,000, 
with 440 organized branch churches, and a 
number of societies, making a total of nearly 
600 congregations. 

The University public and the many 
friends of J. A. McLean, B.A. , '92, will be 
glad to learn of his appointment to the 
presidency of the University of Idaho. His 
course was a brilliant one. He obtained the 
highest honours in the departments of Politi- 
cal Science and Classics, and in his second 
and third years was awarded the Governoi - 
General's silver medal and gold medal. On 
graduation, on the recommendation of Pro- 
lessor Ashley, he was appointed to a fellow- 
ship in the University of Columbia, where he 
studied Political Science, History, Constitu- 
tional Law, and Roman Law, under Profes- 
s rs Burgess, Seligman, Munroe, Smith, 
Osgood and Giddings. After proceeding to 
the degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of 
Philosophy at Columbia College, he was 
appointed to the chair of Economics and 
History in the State University of Colorado. 

MARRIAGES. 

Miss Jessie Darling, B. A., '95, M.A., '96, 
was married on Sept. 2;th, at Schenectady, 
N.Y., to A. W. Henshaw. 

Miss F. M. Lye, B.A., '94, was married on 
Oct. 22nd, in Toronto, to A. Blackmore, 
London, Eng. 

A. W. Mackenzie, '02, was married to 
Miss M. J. Kirkland, in Toronto, Nov. I4th. 



THE PUBLISHERS' SYNDICATE, LIMITED, PRINTERS. 



THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

VOL. I. DECEMBER, 1900. No. 4. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE PAGE 

Editorial Announcements - - - 105 The University of Toronto Alumni Asso- 

Experimental Psychology and the Labo- ciations =- Local Organizations : 

ratory in Toronto. By Albert H. General Alumni Association, Spe- 

Abbott, B.A. - 106 cial Meeting of the - - - 122 

Of Games. By Arnold Haultain - -112 Elgin County - - -124 

William Wedd, M. A. By A. H. Youny, Ottawa, University of Toronto Club 125 

M.A. - -114 Perth County- - - 126 

Recent Additions to the University Bio- The Memorial Hall. By R. A. Reeve, 

logical Museum. By Professor Ram- B.A. M.D. 127 

say Wright 116 

,. D ,. D r, -. Medical Faculty Class of '95. By T. 

An Interesting Relic. By Professor w r M , K I y ^A 

Fraser - - - . - 119 

Undergraduate Societies - - - 121 Torontonensia - - - 132 



EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

The article by Professor Clark of Trinity University on University 
Training as a Preparation for the Ministry, will appear in January. 

An article upon the introduction of Greek Letter societies into the 
University of Toronto, by Mr. A. B. Aylesworth, Q.C., is held over till 
January. 

A great deal of interest attaches to the biographical sketch of Mr. 
William Wedd, B.A., '45, M.A., '48, by Professor Young of Trinity 
University, which appears in this issue, not only because Mr. Wedd 
is the senior M.A. of the University and almost the only surviving 
member of his class, but also because of his connection with Upper 
Canada College for forty-two years and the kindly influence he has 
brought to bear upon so many of those who passed through his classes 
and now occupy leading positions in Canada and the Empire. 



106 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE LABORATORY 

IN TORONTO. 

( Concluded. ) 

ALBERT H. ABBOTT, B.A. 
Instructor in Philosophy and Assistant in the Psychological Laboratory. 

EVEN at the risk of making this discussion somewhat tedious I shall 
mention what seems to me the fundamental justification of the 
Science of Experimental Psychology, as it was the first investigation 
which was actually carried on by it. I refer to the problem of Quantity, 
as it is considered in Physics, or of Intensity, as it is considered in 
Psychology. 

It is a well-known fact that increments can be added to any quantity 
without any change being noticed. That is, a stimulus may be increased 
by certain definitely known quantities and yet no change occur in our 
experience or consciousness of that quantity. For example, in a room 
lighted by IOO gas flames, the addition or subtraction of one or two 
flames would not be noticed from any change in the amount of light ; or, 
the full electric illuminating power in a city may be turned on at noon- 
day, and yet the streets be not noticeably one bit better lighted ; and so 
on, examples might easily be multiplied, but each one may do that for 
himself. Now, if I ask the question : "Just how much would I have to 
add in any particular case in order that I may just notice a difference ?" 
I have clearly a problem which demands experimental research for its 
solution, and yet I have a question which cannot be answered by either 
Physics or Physiology, the two Sciences most immediately concerned with 
it. When the question is investigated, a remarkable fact is discovered, 
viz., it is found that that amount which must be added before a difference 
can be noticed bears a constant relation to the stimulus to which it is 
added ; that is, the same quantity is not always noticed as a change, as it 
ought to be if the question were solely one of the sensitiveness of the sense 
organs, for, physically, if the sense organs can just discriminate the differ- 
ence between 10 and 1 1, surely they ought to do likewise between 20 and 
21, but they cannot it must in that case be between 20 and 22 that is, 
/'/ will be the same relation as formerly, whicJi must be added or taken 
away, but not the same quantity. 

There is another phase of the problem of Intensity, which is, I think I 
may say, startlingly instructive. We not only estimate quantities to be 
greater, equal or less than others, but we also estimate the difference 
between two quantities to be greater, equal or less than the difference 
between two other quantities ; that is, if we are shown three lights of 
somewhat widely different intensities we can judge when one is midway 
in brightness between the other two, or, differently stated, we can tell 
when the difference between the lights "a" and "6" is equal to the 
difference between " b" and " c" Now, when this is carefully done an 
astonishing result is found, viz., when we make the judgment b a = c b, 



EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 107 

it is found that according to physical measurement the lights stand in 
the following relation : 



or = ac 
i.e. b = v' 'ac 

Supposing now that "a" and " c" be respectively 10 and 1,000, " b" will 
be 100 when we estimate the lights as being separated by equal differ- 
ences. Throwing the conclusion in one sentence we may say : We 
estimate differences as equal when physically the ratios are the same. 
The relation of this to the foregoing statement is evident. 

This principle has had such ample verification that a " Law " has been 
formulated which embodies and expresses it. The so-called " Law of 
Weber" is the fundamental fact which was at once the origin and the 
inspiration in Psychology of the Science of Psycho-Physics, which is a 
strong sub-department of Experimental Psychology. This Law of 
Weber holds practically true (so far as the matter has been investigated) 
in the case of all the ordinary Senses, and for the extensive range of 
medium intensities, and its expression brings out the characteristic 
of experience which it represents, viz., the relativity of our estimation of 
quantity or intensity. (All physical quantities are experienced as inten- 
sities.) There are several statements of this Psycho-Physical Law, but 
the following will answer our purpose here : " In order to increase sen- 
sations by just noticeable quantities, the quantity of the stimulus must 
be increased by relatively the same quantity " ; or, " In order to estimate 
differences as equal, the relation of the stimuli must be the same " ; or, 
again, Fechner's concise expression of the Law "The intensity of 
sensation is proportionate to the logarithm of the quantity of the 
stimulus." Now, it is through that research known as Experimental 
Psychology that this principle has been discovered, and since there can 
never be a quality which has not some quantity, we are compelled to 
admit that Psychology, in this case, has discovered a problem which bears 
on all our experience of Nature, and, therefore, which ought to be known 
by all who investigate Nature. Here, again, Experimental Psychology 
justifies its existence as a Natural Science, or as a Science of Nature. 

I consider that I have already said quite enough by way of showing 
the nature of the problems which an Experimental Psychologist has to 
investigate, and I now proceed, therefore, to the second part of my essay, 
which is more closely occupied with the Laboratory in Toronto. Before, 
however, I say a few words with regard to the Psychological Laboratory 
in the University of Toronto and the work being carried on there, I wish 
to make one or two pointed statements with regard to the attitude of 
the Department of Psychology, under the direction of Professor Kirsch- 
mann, to some much discussed topics. 

The first of these topics is the relation of Psychology to Hypnotism, 



io8 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Telepathy, and such phenomena. In one word, we do not devote much 
attention to these phenomena, because they do not yet seem ripe for 
experimental investigation, at least, as yet, no exact experimental methods 
have been found generally practicable for such a research. (We leave out 
of account here the fundamental question : Is it justifiable for any man 
to hypnotise another, especially for amusement or experiment ?) 

The second of these topics is the relation of Psychology to Physiology. 
In the first place we do not regard it as justifiable to attempt to do what 
a Physiologist can do far better ; i.e., investigate the processes taking 
place in the human body, and especially in sense organ, nerve and brain. 
That work belongs distinctly to Physiology, and we are quite content to 
keep it out of our Laboratory and to accept the Physiologist's results as 
we do the verified conclusions of any other Scientist. (It must ever be 
the aim of Experimental Psychology to work hand in hand with all other 
sciences, and especially with its nearest sister sciences, Physics and 
Physiology, in solving the problems of Nature. There are problems 
which they, in accordance with the character of their subject, cannot 
solve, and we should like to aid in the solution of these, and thus return, so 
far as possible, the help which Psychology has always received from them.) 
In the second place, if the reader has caught the spirit of my justifica- 
tion for Experimental Psychology, he will not have failed to observe 
that I do not regard it as more necessary for a Psychologist to be an 
expert Physiologist than it is for a Physicist or Chemist to be such. This 
is the unhesitating stand of our Department on the subject, and this alone 
ought to be sufficient to clear from people's minds the still too often 
heard, but nevertheless nonsensical opinion, that an Experimental Psy- 
chologist must be a Materialist in Philosophy. On the contrary, we 
hold that psychical facts cannot be " explained " by bodily processes. 
Physiological Psychology is really two distinct Sciences, viz., Physiology 
and Psychology, and all that is done in it is to correlate bodily processes 
with conscious facts ; that is, to attempt to discover what bodily pro- 
cesses are occurring when we experience or are conscious of certain facts. 
Even this work, important as it may be, has not the prominence in 
Toronto which it has in many laboratories. Experimental Psychology and 
Physiological Psychology are by no means synonymous terms, even if we 
are indebted to books bearing the title " Physiological Psychology " for 
some of the most important work in the literature of the subject. 

Several other interesting points which might be discussed are omitted 
as unessential, and because the limits set for this article have already 
been exceeded. 

My concluding subject is an interesting one to all lovers of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, and I trust it will not be found uninteresting even to 
those who do not call her " Alma Mater " it is " The Psychological 
Laboratory of the University of Toronto." 

The Psychological Laboratory in Toronto was established, through the 
liberality of the Ontario Government, by Professor J. Mark Baldwin, in 



EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 109 

1891,* and three rooms and a private room, were at that time set apart 
and fitted up for the work. These rooms, I, 2, 3, 4, in the following plan, 
were used at first chiefly for demonstrations. Actual research work by 
students, however, really began with the installation of Dr. A. 
Kirschmann as head of the Department of Psychology in 1894. Dr. 
Kirschmann had been trained in Germany and had been Professor 
Wundt's assistant in Leipzig for some time ; he, therefore, came to 
Toronto with a thorough knowledge of what the then best Psychological 
Laboratory in the world was. From the very first year actual research 
work has been done by the men in the Senior year in the Department of 
Honour Philosophy, and by numerous graduates, and the comparatively 
large number of published reports of our work bear witness to the fact 
that this research has always been along lines calculated to advance our 
knowledge of the facts of consciousness. If the people of Toronto or of 
Canada do not know of our work it is to be regretted, but whether the 
reports of the work done are read here or not, we have the satisfaction of 
knowing that they are well known, and, in practically every case, very 
favourably reviewed in Germany, France, Switzerland, England and 
elsewhere. 

The first publication from the Laboratory was made in 1895, and 
it appeared, as did also several subsequent articles, in The American 
Journal of Psychology. 

With the expansion of the University, and the growing spirit of research 
on the part of Faculty and Senior students, it was felt that we ought to 
have a publication for such work in connection with the University, 
and, as a result of this feeling, The University of Toronto Studies, was 
begun. The first publications were along historical lines, but soon a 
"Psychological Series," among others, was started, and in the present 
month there will appear the last number of Volume I. of this series. 
This volume is composed of three numbers : the first, which appeared 
in the spring of 1898, reports research carried on regarding the Space- 
Threshold of Colours and its dependence upon contrast, a very inter- 
esting case of colour-blindness is also reported in this number ; the 
second number reports work done on certain Time relations of experi- 
ence, and on the Time relations of English poetical metres ; and number 
three, contains reports of an admirable piece of research work on Colour- 
yEsthetics, and of an investigation of the colour-sense of school children. 
Perhaps I cannot bring the idea of the Department, in the publication 
of this Psychological Series, before the reader, better than by quoting a 
few words from Professor Kirschmann's introduction to Volume I., the 
last number of which is, as I have already intimated, at present in process 
of publication. He says: "With the present volume we do not so 

* It may not be generally known that the late Professor George Paxtoii Young had desired 
to have a Psychological Laboratory opened in Toronto, and that he had, some time before 
Professor Baldwin was appointed, urged one of his students. J. G. Hume (now Professor 
Hume), to study under some of the prominent Psychologists in preparation for such work. 
Professor Young's death am Professor Baldwin's appointment simply hastened matters, 
therefore ; they did not fundamentally change the plans of the Department in this regard. 



no UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

much desire to augment the number of psychological periodicals as to 
inaugurate an exponent of psychological research in Canada, which has 
hitherto been without a representative publication. The Psychological 
Series of The University of Toronto Studies will appear at irregular 
intervals, and will represent, for the most part, the results of research in 
the Psychological Laboratory of the University of Toronto, although 
contributions from elsewhere may be accepted." 

In referring to the publications from the Laboratory, I have not 
referred to the articles, etc., of Professor Kirschmann, because I wished to 
emphasize especially the fact that our students, undergraduate as well 
as post-graduate, are carrying on the research work to which I have 
referred. That the undergraduates in their advanced work participate in 
actual research is only the carrying out of the Director's opinion that no 
experimental work of advanced students should be done for the mere 
sake of practice, but that it should contribute to the solution of some 
problem. Of Professor Kirschmann's own writings since he has been at 
the head of the Toronto Laboratory, I need only say that they are some- 
what numerous, and that they have commanded the most respectful 
attention. 

It will thus be seen that during recent years our Laboratory has been 
doing work of worth, and I am not speaking whereof I do not know, 
when I say that the Psychological Laboratory of the University of 
Toronto is recognized abroad as, at least in point of research work, of no 
second-rate importance. 

At present there are approximately one hundred students taking lectures 
and doing work in Honour Psychology. If we deduct from this number 
probably forty, who are taking the Honour work of the Second year but 
who are not registered in the department of Honour Philosophy, we have 
still sixty students regularly engaged in the study of Scientific Psychol- 
ogy. When this is taken into account it will not be surprising that, 
recognizing the needs of the department, more space has been provided 
for its use. In this connection we are deeply indebted, as is every 
department in. the University, to the foresight and interest of President 
Loudon, who has done so much during the years of his Presidency to 
foster and advance the highest academic work possible. Some years ago 
the use of the Ethnological Museum and adjoining rooms was secured, 
and these have been constantly used since 1896-97. Last year it was 
decided to utilize the First House of the Old University Residence for 
scientific purposes, and it was accordingly divided between the Depart- 
ments of Physics (Electricity) and Psychology. All the rooms at our 
disposal are being used this session, and they are being fitted up as 
rapidly as possible for the research which is to be carried on in them. 
Most of these rooms are, indeed, fully occupied at present. 

The accompanying ground-plan shows the rooms which are at the dis- 
posal of the Laboratory, and the following Index will tell to what 
purpose they are at present being put : 



EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 



in 





10 



13 . 

L--4f 



H 



II 



OVER- 




FIRST FLOOR 



SECOND FLOOR 



Plan of the Psychological Laboratory of the University of Toronto. 

Scale 1 : 300. 



No. i. Old Lecture Eoom, at present used for Research in Psychological Optics. 

No. 2. Old Laboratory Room, at present used for Class Demonstrations and for Research 
in Time and Space Relations of Mental Phenomena. 

No. 3. Director's Private Room. 

No. 4. Dark Room, used for Photographical purposes, etc. 

No. 5. New Lecture Room. 

No. 6. Store Room for Demonstration Apparatus. 

No. 7. Library and Reading Room. 

No. 8. Assistant's Private Room. 

No. 9. Research Room, at present used for the investigation of Colour-Saturation. 

Nos. 10-11. Research Rooms, at present used for experiments on Photometry, etc. 

No. 12. Temporarily loaned as a Private Room for a Lecturer in another Department. 

No. 13. Research Room, at present used for the investigation of the Influence of the 
Sense of Sight on the estimation of Lifted Weights. 

No. 14. Ethnological Museum, used at present for Research in Colour ^Esthetics. 

No. 15. Acoustical Research Room. 

No. 16. Used for Research in Psychological Optics (with annexes). 



ii2 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

It should not be inferred from the comparatively large number of rooms 
in use that the Laboratory has great space at its disposal, for six of these 
rooms (Nos. 8 to 13) are but small attics, and Nos. 15 and 16 are very 
small and out of the way. Our equipment is still very modest, and 
leaves much to be desired. 

[It may not be quite superfluous to refer very briefly to the relation of the work in 
Experimental Psychology to the Honour course (for B.A.) in Philosophy. 

The Honour Course in Philosophy includes Psychology, Logic, Theory of Knowledge, 
Ethics, History of Philosophy and Metaphysics. This work is arranged to cover three 
years of the Undergraduate course. Psychology, Experimental and General, covers about 
one-third of the work in Philosophy ; and in Psychology the Experimental part of the 
work is about one-third in the first year (Sophomore students), and two-thirds in the second 
year, while in the final year all the Psychology takes the form of research work.] 



OF GAMES. 

BY ARNOLD HAULTAIN. 

IT is, I suppose, matter of common-place remark that one of the 
distinctive features in the changes in educational methods and 
systems wrought during the .last two decades of the present century 
is the prominence given to games. A few of us are perhaps old enough 
to remember the time when the Vlth Form of this or that particular year 
was renowned for producing so many Wranglers or Double Firsts. To- 
day, probably, such Vlth Form would be better remembered by its 
number of breakers of records. Under-masters, too, once (how strange 
it sounds !) were chosen largely by qualifications of learning and character. 
To-day the under-master who to learning and character cannot add 
efficiency in football or cricket would run poor chance of appointment. 
Nor has the change been confined to the school. A story is told a true 
one of a stolid but enthusiastic German who travelled to Oxford to 
meet a famous Professor of Science. He did meet the Professor, but the 
expression on the Teuton's spectacled face was said to have been indes- 
cribable when, being led to the tennis-court, he found himself being 
introduced to a hot and perspiring young gentleman in flannels. 

The change is notable. Is it beneficial ? Surely it is. 

We are beginning to recognize the important part played in evolution 
by games. It would be interesting indeed, to discuss the primeval 
origin of out-door games and to determine whether the first distinct 
differentiation of the man from the ape did not consist in the ability to 
throw a stone or to wield a bough, to attack with a sphere and defend 
with a stick the pithecanthropoid prototypes of bowling and batting. 
The first ape that tried to possess himself of a fruit he could not reach, 
or to repel a foe with whom he could not grapple, by throwing a stone or 
using a bough was in all probability the true progenitor of the human 
race. It may, indeed, be that man's erect position was gradually evolved 
by this attempt to fling and wield (which could not be done on all fours), 



GAMES. 113 

and the simian became the avdpwiros, the true face-up-turning animal 
(avd-TpeTTw-w-^r) when he succeeded in hurling and hitting. 

For all human games seem to be in their origin utilitarian. Certainly 
all manly sports seem to be contests, amicable reproductions of the 
struggle for life or food or a mate. Whether it be a sedate rubber of 
whist, or the keen tactics for a jack pot, or a desperate maul in goal, 
" play " among men seems to be a sort of imitative warfare, of that war- 
fare which was the vocation of primitive man. 

And feminine games support the theory. When girls play, they 
represent the vocations of primitive women : they play at " dolls' house," 
at " cat's cradle," at keeping house, at keeping school ; they play at 
mistress and maid ; they pay visits to one another ; they dress up in 
their elders' clothes ; they make mud pies ; they erect diminutive domi- 
ciles ; they nurse unheeding dolls. Of these the derivation is obvious. 

When boys and girls play together, we have still stronger corroboration 
of the theory ; for surely dancing, singing, " kissing in the ring," forfeits, 
and what-not, are excellent practice for that game of games courtship. 

Whether, therefore, there is any such thing as " play," mere play, qua 
play, with all due deference to Mr. Herbert Spencer (who was, unknown 
to himself Mr. Bernard Bosanquet and others tell us anticipated 
by Schiller) with his " play instinct," is open to doubt. Play, qua play, 
is as non-existent in human nature as is beauty, qua beauty, non- 
existent in external nature. There is nothing in external nature put 
there for ornament only : the gayest colours of bird or flower have a very 
serious significance and use ; are wholly utilitarian. So there is nothing 
in human nature put there for amusement only : the amusement is an 
accompaniment, not the raison d'etre, of human actions in themselves 
entirely useful. Art and sport thus are near akin. Therein said Spencer 
truly. If we like to call the pleasurable representation of. useful voca- 
tion " play," well and good ; to Pithecanthropus Erectus play was 
pleasant but serious practice for the obtaining of his next meal or 
for the felling of his next foe. And what was highly useful to Javan 
Quadrumana cannot be wholly useless to European and American 
Bimana. Accordingly, games, we may conclude, not only \vere, but are, 
utilitarian. By all means, therefore, let us applaud the breakers of 
records and the dons who grow hot over tennis. 

P.S. I must plead guilty to the fact that before penning this jocoserious little jeu 
d'esprit I had not read Karl Groos' "Die Spiele der Thiere," nor the same author's " Die 
Spiele der Menschen " (the former has been translated by Mrs. J. Mark Baldwin, a name 
well known to members of our University). Herr Groos, also, I see, combats Herbert 
Spencer's theory of play, and recognizes in games a highly utilitarian exercise of hereditary 
instinct. " The play of young animals," he says, " has its origin in the fact that certain 
very important instincts appear at a time when the animal does not seriously need them. 
The utility of play is incalculable. This utility consists in the practice and 
exercise it affords for some of the more important duties of life. * Selection will 

favour those animals which play. * * * The very existence of youth is largely for the 
sake of play." The whole subject is now admitted to have a most important bearing upon 
the doctrine of evolution, and I can strongly recommend Groos' works to the biological 
and to the psychological specialist. The anthropological specialist will find the subject 
touched upon, though under a very different aspect, in chapters VIII. to XV. of Mr. A. C. 
Haddon's " The Study of Man." " 



ii4 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

WILLIAM WEDD, M.A. 

BY A. H. YOUNG, M.A., 
Professor of Modern Languages, Trinity University. 

THOUGH to all intents and purposes a Canadian, Mr. Wedd was born 
in England, at East Farleigh near Maidstone in Kent. At the age 
of seven years he came to Upper Canada with his parents, who settled in 
the township of Dumfries. He already had two uncles in this country, 
the one Lieutenant Winder, who took an active part in the war of 1812, 
and the other Mr. John Wedd, who is mentioned in early University 
documents as superintendent of grounds and who in that capacity laid 
out the two avenues leading respectively from Queen street and Yonge 
street to the Queen's Park, in which the University was intended to stand. 

In 1842 the corner stone of the only wing of King's College which 
was ever built was laid on the site of the present legislative buildings. 
Pending the completion of the structure, academic work was begun in 
the old parliament buildings in Front street, they not being needed for 
their proper purpose at the time because the seat of government was 
moved about from town to town, as every one knows, between 1840 and 
1867. , 

Bishop Strachan was president of the University and Dr. McCaul, 
having resigned the principalship of Upper Canada College, was vice- 
president and professor of classics. Terms had to be kept on the 
English principle of dining in hall and attending chapels as well as 
lectures, the legislative council's chamber, which later generations knew 
as the library of parliament, being used as the chapel. 

In a copy of the order of proceedings for convocation day, 1844, 
which is contained in the Trinity University library, I find under an 
item of business No. III. The Recitation of Prize Compositions. 
" 3. Translation into Greek Prose, after the model of Thucydides, by Wm. 
Wedd, Sen. Soph. Subject Galgaci Oratio Tacit. Agricol. XXX. et 
seq." The class list accompanying this programme shows that " In 
Literis Humanioribus " Wedd (Guls.) stood alone under the heading 
" Classis Prima." In the Bishop's handwriting a marginal note explains 
that Literce Humaniores " comprehended classics, logic, Hebrew, 
metaphysies, Biblical literature, and evidences." In the prize list Wedd 
(W.) appears as prize man in classics; and this was only the first of 
many prizes which he was to win down to the time of taking his 
Master's degree, in 1848, for prizes in composition were open to 
Bachelors of Arts, an inducement thus being held out to them to 
continue their studies. 

Mr. Wedd had come up from Upper Canada College which he had 
entered in November, 1837, just before the outbreak of the rebellion, 
which, among other effects, had that of causing the school to -be closed 
for a time. In the six years following he went through all the forms, 
from the preparatory to the seventh, in the latter of which it had been 
customary to do work which has since their establishment been left to 



WILLIAM WEDD. 115 

the universities. Coming out as " Head Boy," he was well prepared for 
his undergraduate course and, notwithstanding the fact that he had as 
competitors " Head Boys " of former years who were now glad to avail 
themselves of the chance of attending university classes, he gained the 
distinguished standing already described. 

After graduating, he devoted himself at first to the study of law, but 
the Third Classical Mastership in his old school being offered to him in 
1849, he accepted it. Becoming successively Second and First Classical 
Master, he remained here for forty-two years a period of service which 
has not been surpassed, I think, by any other schoolmaster in this 
province. Not only so, but in 1891, when he retired, he was able to say 
that, as boy and man, he had been under every principal of Upper 
Canada College from the first to the last. 

Among the men more or less closely identified with the University 
at present, or in fairly recent days who were pupils of Mr. Wedd, 
are the late Chief Justice Moss, Vice-Chancellor from 1875 to 1881, the 
Ex-Chancellor and his brother, the Honourable S. H. Blake, Sir John 
Boyd, the President, Professors Fletcher and VanderSmissen, Messrs. 
Keys, W. J. Loudon, Milner, Cameron, and Langton, not forgetting Pro- 
fessor Cameron (also his nephew) of the Medical Faculty, Professor Dale, 
of the Senate, Professor Wallace, of Victoria University, Mr. Paterson, 
the University's solicitor, and Mr. Nicol Kingsmill, the donor of the 
McCaul Medal in classics. Like most other Upper Canada College 
" Old Boys," they all, I am sure, remember with gratitude what was done 
for them by the bright, cheery little gentleman who has often been called 
the best classical scholar in Canada. His goodness was as noteworthy 
.as his scholarship and had its due effect upon the various generations of 
boys with whom he had to do. 

Devoted, as he was, to study and to the discharge of his duties, both 
public and private, Mr. Wedd did not seek honours or advancement 
outside of his chosen path, but it is on record, as any one may see for 
himself, that for three years in succession the graduates and under- 
graduates elected him to the presidency of the University College 
Literary and Scientific Society. The habits of years are asserting 
their authority and Mr. Wedd is retiring more and more from the noise 
of the world and is enjoying the quiet which he likes so well and 
deserves so much. One may express the wish that the government had 
made his pension larger after so many years of faithful service, but 
Mr. Wedd, being one of the contented men untinged with censorious- 
ness, never complains on that score. Happy beyond most men in his 
family relations, the hope of his old pupils will be that he and Mrs. Wedd 
may both live to celebrate their golden wedding which is only a few years 
away, for as child, maid, and wife, Mrs. Wedd was as much a part of 
Upper Canada College as her husband was, seeing that, till five or six 
years ago, she had had no other home but one or other of the old red 
brick houses in Russell square, which has now passed out of the hands 
of Upper Canada College into those of the University of Toronto, the 
successor of King's College, which gave Mr. Wedd his B. A. in 1845. 



n6 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE UNIVERSITY 
BIOLOGICAL MUSEUM. 

BY PROFESSOR RAMSAY WRIGHT. 
III. 

T EST the readers of the MONTHLY should think that I have been 
J ' specializing too exclusively in the direction of ornithology, I propose 
in this number to give some account of recent additions to the mammals. 
These we owe to the generosity of Messrs. J. W. Flavelle, George 
Gooderham, and T. G. Blackstock, B.A.; they have already been placed 
in their proper cases and furnished with labels indicating the donors' 
names with which they are to be associated. In this number I shall 
refer to the specimens which I have set aside as representing a gift by 
Mr. J. W. Flavelle, who has in other ways proved himself such a good 
friend to the University. 

At first sight the problem of the Geographical Distribution of Animals 
does not appear to be an attractive one. To those who have read 
Wallace's books on the subject, however, it will be apparent how it is 
related to others of the greatest interest the shape and connections of 
ancient land surfaces, and the genealogy of the fauna of the present day. 
Among the lower mammals, with which I shall begin my account of our 
accessions, there are some which recall the hypothesis of Dr. Forbes and 
others of the existence of a former Antarctic continent stretching up 
arms to Australia, Africa and South America, and furnishing an explana- 
tion of certain similarities to be observed in the faunas of these countries. 
No doubt Australia has been longest isolated, otherwise the Marsupial 
types which have prospered there would undoubtedly have become extinct 
in competition with the higher types which have conquered in the rest of 
the world. The Neotropical region South America is the only other 
one in which Marsupials have survived, and these only in the little varied 
group of the Opossums. One of the latter the Woolly Opossum has 
been added to the collection. It belongs to that group in which the 
young, instead of being sheltered in the mother's pouch which is merely 
a vestige curl their prehensile tails round their mother's and thus secure 
an anchorage for resting on her back. 

I should not have said that the Opossums are the only Neotropical 
Marsupials, because there are the exceedingly interesting and rare Selvas, 
recently described, from Ecuador and Colombia, which come much closer 
to the Australian Dasyures. Taken in connection with the fact that some 
fossil (Eocene) Dasyures have been found in South Patagonia, the exist- 
ence of these Selvas is suggestive. They are likely to be exceedingly 
rare in museums, because they are difficult to capture, and may be on our 
list of " desiderata " for some time. 



UNIVERSITY BIOLOGICAL MUSEUM 117 

The only Australian Marsupial added is the Common Wombat in the 
form of an admirable mounted specimen and an equally good skeleton. 
The epithet Common is not to be construed as indicating that the 
Wombat is very easy to obtain. For some time the family to which it 
belongs has, with one exception, been the only family of Australian 
Marsupials unrepresented in the Museum. The Wombat is one of the 
larger of the Marsupials although a degenerate descendant of its 
Pliocene ancestor, which attained the size of an ox and may be described 
as a clumsy, bear-like creature, with the habits of a Woodchuck. The 
exception referred to above is that of the Marsupial Mole, a very peculiar 
burrowing creature from the interior Australian desert, which is described 
as swimming in the sand in which it lives, and which is still exceedingly 
rare and expensive to buy, but not unobtainable. I hope at some future 
time to be able to record its acquisition. 

Another order which has been supposed to furnish evidence of former 
connection between South America and the Old World is that of the 
Edentata. It is predominantly Neotropical, including the Sloths and 
Hairy Ant-Eaters and Armadillos of South America, but the Old World 
Ant-Eaters, although not so numerous, have a wide range in Africa and 
Asia. 

One of the- most valuable of our recent additions is the Aard-Vaark 
of South Africa (we have all learned a little Dutch this last year) which 
is represented by a beautifully-mounted specimen of the Cape species, 
and an accompanying skeleton. The rapidity with which a -creature 
as large as a pig is capable of concealing itself by burrowing is said to 
be little short of miraculous, but an inspection of its hands and feet dis- 
close that its organization is well adapted for undermining the termite- 
houses where it gets its food, and that the Arab name of the Soudan 
species, " Father of Claws," is amply justified. A glance at the Tamandua 
Ant-Eater from Brazil shows at once that although the claws and teeth 
point to similar food-habits, the brilliant colouration of its pelage, a 
welcome relief among the monotones of the Edentate case, is not 
intended to be concealed in sandy burrows, while the prehensile tail 
testifies to the arboreal habits of a forest inhabitant. 

There are many reasons, however, for the belief that the similarities 
to be detected between the Old and the New World Ant-Eaters are not 
due to common descent, but to similar environment and habits, and are, 
therefore, illustrative of the phenomenon of convergence or parallelism 
rather than of divergence from a common geographical centre. The 
order, in fact, is considered by many to be diphyletic instead of 
monophyletic. 

I must not omit to mention that we are also indebted to one of our 
graduates Mr. Gordon Waldron, '88 for some interesting material 
belonging to this order. Returning from a visit to Nicaragua devoted 
to other objects, he has brought with him some specimens, new to the 
Museum, of the indigenous Armadillo Tatusia novem-cinctus, which 



n8 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

are at present in the hands of Mr. Pride^ but will soon furnish a good 
mounted specimen and an excellent skeleton of the species. In his future 
visits to Central America, Mr. Waldron promises to secure for us some 
other examples of its interesting Fauna. 

I have adverted in a previous article to the restrictions imposed by the 
limited space of a small educational Museum. This is felt nowhere more 
than in an effort to represent satisfactorily those mammalian orders 
which contain the giants of the present day, the Marine Mammalia and 
the Ungulates. Fortunately pigmy representatives, or young specimens 
or models or figures may sometimes be employed to do duty instead. 

With the Cetacea, e.g., one can hardly hope to accommodate much 
more than a porpoise or a dolphin, and some preparations illustrative of 
the peculiarities of Cetacean Anatomy. Within recent years the British 
Museum has made adequate provision for exhibiting the Cetacean skele- 
tons in its possession and the external form of the various species has been 
happily illustrated by partially encasing these in papier-mache shel 
modelled after life. But the whale-room at South Kensington would 
swallow our Museum as easily as the whale did Jonah, and consequently 
we must turn to other devices better adapted to our space. Perhaps we 
may look forward eventually to models of the chief genera accurately 
made on the scale of an inch to a foot. In the meantime I have been 
able to place adjacent to a stuffed porpoise, acquired two or three years 
ago, an excellent skeleton of the same species, which was much required 
as an illustration in miniature of Cetacean osteology. 

The considerations referred to above made me glad of the opportunity 
to secure the foal of a Burchell's zebra, just as some years ago I was 
glad to be able to place a baby tapir in the collection instead of an 
adult. The characters of the species are equally well illustrated by the 
foal, and although it of course lacks the graceful outlines of the mature 
animal, yet the taxidermist has succeeded in fixing something of the 
timorous alertness which is so pleasing a characteristic of the group. 

The little zebra is the more welcome because I see an ominous 
extinctus ! opposite its name in Trouessart's catalogue which shows 
that like the quagga and common or mountain zebra it is believed to be 
sharing the fate of many of those beautiful antelopes of the South 
African plains. This, however, is, I believe premature, for although there 
is little doubt but that the quagga is quite extinct and that the mountain 
zebra is only artificially preserved, yet the wide range of Burchell's zebra, 
which is found in some seven or more well marked geographical varieties 
throughout the plains and table lands of E. and S. Africa, no doubt 
includes some inaccessible districts which will afford protection till legal 
methods are adopted to prevent extermination. 

Two other hoofed animals have been incorporated to fill gaps in the 
series the South American collared peccary differing from the Old World 
swine in its hairy coat, in the loss of one of the hind toes and in the 



AN INTERESTING RELIC 119 

greater specialization of the teeth and feet, and the Syrian Hyrax. It 
is of the latter that we read, " There be four little things upon the 
earth that are exceeding wise. * * The conies are but a feeble folk, yet 
make they their houses in the rocks." Although we have had for some 
time an example of an East African species of Hyrax (Bruce's), yet the 
real coney of Scripture is now added for the first time to the Museum. 
It is not confined to Palestine but extends from Syria to the Peninsula 
of Sinai and northern Arabia. Beneath a somewhat uninteresting 
exterior which, taking the habits and the gnawing teeth into account, 
justifies the application of the old English word for rabbit to them, 
the Hyraces conceal many of the features of the primitive hoofed 
animals and are thus, although specialized in certain directions, an 
exceedingly instructive group. Strange that the elephants should be 
their nearest living relatives. 

Although any resemblance to the Rodents is to be regarded as 
indicative of convergence rather than of blood relationship, I may avail 
myself of it to pass to some interesting members of that order which has 
hitherto been but poorly represented in our cases. Of the new additions 
we have the gaily coloured Prevost's Squirrel to act as a pendant to 
our more sombre grey and black squirrels ; the Alpine Marmot, whose 
stamp and whistle one hears in the high Swiss mountains, to place 
beside our Woodchuck ; the Old World Porcupine a magnificent speci- 
men to eclipse our Canadian species ; and lastly, some South American 
forms, viz., the Viscacha, the Patagonian Cavy and the Coypu, to show 
to what respectable dimensions the Neotropical rodents may attain. 
Much might be said about these creatures, but the curious are referred to 
Mr. Hudson's "Naturalist in La Plata" for an exceedingly interesting 
account of these and other Neotropical animals. 



AN INTERESTING RELIC. 

BY PROFESSOR FRASER. 

IN the October number of the MONTHLY an account was given of the 
presentation to the University on Convocation Day of two fine speci- 
mens of heavy ordnance which were employed in the naval operations at 
Louisbourg in 1758. These pieces have been mounted and stationed 
flanking the flag-staff on the lawn. A short time ago, President Loudon 
received from Mr. Alexander F. Sabine, of Philadelphia, Secretary of 
the Guarantee Company of North America, the following letter relating 
to the gift of the cannon : 

" I saw in the paper a day or two ago that two cannon had been recov- 
ered from the sea near Louisbourg and sent to you. Now, some few 
years ago, I was travelling in Canada, and stopped for a day at 
the house of Mrs. King, who is the widow of an officer in the 42nd High- 



120 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



landers The Black Watch. Learning that I had been a captain in the 
Canadian Militia during 1837-8, she gave me a cannon-ball, which had 
been fired from Louisbourg, and was picked up outside the town. Per- 
haps it may interest you to receive this ball, and if so, and you will let 
me know, I shall be pleased to send it to you." 

''The offer was of course thankfully accepted, and the interesting relic 
is now in the possession of the President. It is to be placed in the 




The Cannon Looking East towards the Queen's Park. 
(From a photograph by J. S. Plaskett, B.A.) 



Museum of the University, with an inscription acknowledging the gener- 
osity of the donor. It is especially pleasant to record this incident, as an 
evidence of public spirit on the part of a gentleman who has no direct 
interest in the institution. Many persons in our midst are doubtless in a 
position to enrich the Museum by the gift of objects of curiosity, which, 
though of little intrinsic value, may be of considerable historic or scien- 
tific interest. The example of Mr. Sabine is worthy of extensive 
imitation. 



UNDERGRADUATE SOCIETIES 121 

UNDERGRADUATE SOCIETIES. 

AT no period in the history of the University has there been evident 
a greater amount of activity in the intellectual life of both Faculty 
and students than at present. One of the most interesting manifesta- 
tions of this is the activity of the various societies of students, organized 
in connection with the departments of study in the University. There 
are at present seven of these in the University of Toronto and University 
College; the Modern Language Club, the Oriental Association, the Clas- 
sical Association, the Natural Science Association, the Political Science 
Club, the Mathematical and Physical Society, and the Philosophical 
Society. Each of these has its weekly programme of papers and discus- 
sions, contributed chiefly by the students, but with the help, occasionally, 
of members of the Faculty and of gentlemen outside the University. The 
papers cover a wide range, as might naturally be expected. Glancing 
hurriedly at the programmes published for this year's work are found 
such interesting topics as "Animal Worship among the Semites"; " A 
Glance at the Pre-Raphaelites " ; " Nemesis in Herodotus and the Tragic 
Poets " ; " The Life and Works of Lavoisier " ; " The Ice Age in Canada" ; 
" The Problem of Railway Rates in Canada " ; " Mathematical Symbol- 
ism from the Earliest Times " ; " Some Functions of the Retina," etc. 
Such distinguished gentlemen outside the Faculty as the Hon. S. H. 
Blake, Q.C., Mr. A. B. Aylesworth, Q.C., and Mr. E. B. Osier, M.P., will 
give addresses to some of the societies. It is easily seen from the pro- 
grammes that a judicious mingling of papers from students and older 
people has been secured. The students are required to do the most of 
the work, but they are not left altogether to their own resources ; they 
have a healthful amount of help and encouragement from more experi- 
enced persons. 

In addition to the programmes of the seven individual societies a pro- 
gramme of joint lectures has been prepared by a committee representing 
all the societies. This is a most excellent thing, and cannot fail to prove 
attractive and profitable to all. These lectures are delivered in the 
Chemical Amphitheatre, on seven Monday afternoons, at 4.10 o'clock, 
and a hearty invitation is extended to all friends of the University to 
attend them. The following is the list of lectures : 

December 3 rd- AuTUMN TERM ' 

The Geological History of Toronto : Professor A. P. Coleman, M.A., Ph.D. 
December loth 

The Cradle of the Race : Professor J. F. McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D. 
December I7th 

The Psychical Aspect of Light and Colour (with experiments) : Mr. A. H. Abbott, B.A. 

T EASTER TERM. 

January i^th 

What the Historian should and should not attempt : Professor G. M. Wrong, M.A. 
January aist 

Newton : Mr. A. T. DeLury, B.A. 
January 28th 

Greek Sculpture (Illustrated with lantern projections) : Mr. A. Carruthers, M.A. 
February 4th- - 

Young Germany : Mr. G. H. Needier, B.A., Ph.D. 



122 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION: 
LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

SPECIAL MEETING OF THE GENERAL ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

In accordance with a resolution passed at the annual meeting in June 
last a special meeting of the General Alumni Association was held in 
the Chemical Laboratory of the University on Friday, December I4th, 
at five o'clock. 

The President, Dr. Reeve, in a few remarks at the opening of the 
meeting, spoke of the very pleasant trip he had recently made to the 
Pacific Coast, and referred with pride to the large number of influential 
graduates of the University of Toronto he found occupying the leading 
positions in the various professions, the judiciary and the legislatures of 
the western provinces. 

During his visit he had been the recipient of many kindnesses at the 
hands of the graduates, and had been afforded many opportunities of 
discussing with them the plans and aims of the Alumni Association. 

Among other matters discussed was the founding of Alumni Research 
Scholarships ; and he was pleased to be able to report that, while the 
graduates in the West could not, owing to local ties and associations, be 
expected to take the same interest in the matter as graduates residing 
in Ontario, still he was assured of their hearty co-operation should the 
Alumni Association decide to go on with the movement. 

The President referred with satisfaction to the kindly manner in which 
the Alumni generally were assisting the Editorial Committee in the 
publication of the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY, and also spoke 
of the excellent work done by the Committee appointed to consider the 
expediency of establishing a University of Toronto Club in the city of 
Toronto. 

This committee reported that it had been organized, and had dis- 
cussed the subject referred to it. The decision had been reached that 
a down-town club would be too costly to be undertaken at present. 
Enquiries regarding up-town properties revealed the fact that the most 
suitable place at a price within the means of a University Club would 
be the Dean's House in the University Residence. 

This house could be had from the University at an annual rental of 
about $500. Service would cost about $500 per annum, and the fitting 
up of the house and the furniture needed would cost about $I,OOO. 

A club could accordingly be organized and conducted at the initial 
cost of about $ 1,000, and at a subseqnent annual cost of about 
$ 1,000. Having arrived at this result, the committee issued circulars 
in order to discover how many persons would be willing to join a 
club situated in the Dean's House at the following scale of fees : 
Life membership, $50; five years' membership, $25 ; annur.l fee for resi- 
dent members, $10; annual fee for non-resident membe's, $5. Replies 



LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 123 

were received from fourteen willing to become life members, from sixteen 
willing to pay $25 for membership for five years, from forty-two resident 
graduates, who would become members at the annual fee of $10, and 
from four non-resident graduates, who would become members at the 
annual fee of $5. 

After considerable discussion, it seemed to be the opinion of the 
Alumni present that the club, if instituted, should be situated down in 
the city, in closer proximity to the Union Station, and on motion of 
Professor Baker, seconded by Dr. Smale, the report was referred back to 
the committee; power was granted to it to add to its numbers, and it 
was instructed to investigate the cost of conducting a University Club 
nearer the business part of the city, and report at the next meeting of 
the General Association. 

Colonel Delamere on behalf of the Memorial Window Committee 
reported that the committee considered the most suitable place for the 
location of the window to be in the Main Building at the eastern end of 
the East Examination Hall. A number of the city firms were at present 
preparing designs for the window and estimates of the probable cost, and 
when these were received the committee would be in a position to report 
more definitely on the scheme to the Association. 

The President, Dr. Reeve, then spoke of the need of a large hall on 
University grounds, which could be used for meetings of Convocation, 
mass meetings of students and graduates, Alumni and Faculty banquets, 
and Glee Club and other concerts. 

The cost of a structure simple in design but suitable for such purposes 
would be not less than $25,000. 

The President thought that such a hall, if erected, would be a splendid 
memorial to the Canadians who fell in 1 866 at Ridgeway, and also to those 
who suffered fighting in the recent campaign in South Africa, and very 
generously offered to be one of one hundred persons, who would agree to 
construct such a building. 

The meeting was asked to consider the proposition. After many 
kindly references to the generosity of the President, the meeting, on 
motion of Hon. S. C. Biggs, seconded by Mr. J. H. Coyne, B.A., expressed 
its hearty approval of the scheme, and asked the President to appoint a 
committee to carry the project into effect. 

The question of founding an Alumni Research Scholarship fund then 
came up for consideration, and on motion of Dr. Burwash, seconded by 
Professor Dale, the Association expressed its approval of the project, and 
the following gentlemen, together with the mover and seconder of the 
resolution, were named a committee to work out the details of the scheme : 
Dr. Loudon, Dr. Reeve, Principal Galbraith, Dr. Glashan, W. Fitzgerald, 
Esq., Professor I. Martin, W. Tytler, Esq., J. H. Coyne, Esq., Professor 
Ramsay Wright, Professor Baker, Professor Ellis, Professor A. B. 
Macallum, Professor I. H. Cameron, Professor Kirschmann, W. R. Riddell, 
B.Sc., Q.C., C. C. James, Esq., G. H. Watson, Esq., Professor Laird, Pro- 
fessor Bryce, Rev. R. Whittington, D.Sc., Dr. McCurdy, and Dr. Smale. 



i2 4 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

The question of having the Copyright Law amended so as to require 
publishers to present the libraries of the Provincial Universities with a 
copy of each work copyrighted in Canada was brought before the meet- 
ing, and after some discussion the matter, on motion of Hon. S. C. Biggs, 
seconded by Professor Squair, was passed on to be dealt with by the 
Executive Committee. 

J. C. McLENNAN, Secretary. 

ELGIN COUNTY. 

A meeting of the Alumni of the University of Toronto for the 
county of Elgin and city of St. Thomas was held in St. Thomas on 
December 8th, when thirty of the Alumni gathered at the city hall. 
As a result, the Elgin Alumni Association of the University of Toronto 
was organized and officers elected. Its members will include in addition 
to those mentioned in clause 3 of the parent association, all under- 
graduates of affiliated institutions who are proceeding to a diploma. 

The officers elected for the current year are : 

President D. McLarty, M.D. 

Vice- Presidents T. W. Crothers, B.A., J. H. Coyne, B.A., Rev. Canon Hill, M.A., W. W. 
Rutherford, B.A., Nellie Langford, B.A. 

Secretary S. Silcox, B.A., B.Paed. 

Treasurer J. M. Glenn, LL.B. 

Councillors E. W. Gustin, M.D., R. I. Warner, B.A., N. Quance, B.A., J. D. Shaw, 
B.A., Rev. J. J. Baker, M.A., Dr. Kingston, A. B. Kiddell, M.D., J. Teskey, 
D.D.S., J. P. Cunningham, D.D.S., W. B. Doherty, LL.B., W. L. Wickett, B.A., 
LL.B., J. H. Kennedy, C E., J. H. Wilson, M.D., Miss N. Rowell, B.A., Miss 
C. S. Wegg, B.A., G. L. Fisher. 

Dr. R. A. Reeve telegraphed his regrets at not being able to attend, 
but was represented by Dr. J. C. McLennan, Secretary of the Alumn 
Association, who was present as the representative of the Alumn 
Association. Dr. McLennan set before the meeting the origin and 
aims of the Association and its branches. He showed that there is 
urgent need of financial support to the University in order to give the 
young men and women of this country advantages equal to those of 
other countries. Although the University is handicapped financially, 
her graduates hold their own wherever they go. If they are given 
greater opportunities he thought they would take as prominent a place 
in the world in letters and science as they have recently done in war. 

On motion of Dr. Teskey and T. W. Crothers the meeting expressed 
hearty appreciation of Dr. McLennan's inspiring address and his 
devotion to the University in coming to St. Thomas in the interests of 
the Alumni Association. 

A motion was carried to the effect that the Legislature be memorialized 
to take such steps as may be needed from time to time for the due 
development of the University. 

The Executive Committee was instructed to arrange for a banquet in 
the near future to which the Chancellor and other University officials 
should be invited. 

The meeting adjourned to assemble at the call of the President. 

S. SlLCOX, Secretary. 



LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 125 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO CLUB, OTTAWA. 

The first meeting of the University of Toronto Club, Ottawa, of this 
season was held on the evening of November 2Oth, in the Convoca- 
tion Hall of the Normal School. A general invitation had been extended, 
and despite the unfavourable weather the Hall was well filled with 
members of the Club and their friends. The endeavour of the committee 
in preparing the programme had been to accentuate the literary side of 
the Club's activity. With this object in view the evening was for the 
most part devoted to a series of essays written for the occasion by some 
of the younger graduates. Addresses on University matters by the 
Hon. Mr. Mulock and the Rev. W. T. Herridge had been promised, but 
the former, much to the regret of the meeting, was unable to be present. 
The Club was indebted to the exertions of Mr. C. F. Whitley and to the 
kindness of those members of the musical profession who so generously 
lent their assistance for the vocal numbers which gave variety and 
additional interest to the programme. 

The President of the Club, Mr. W. D. LeSueur, B.A., LL.D., opened 
the meeting shortly after eight o'clock. The first paper was read by 
Mr. W. W. Edgar, B.A., on " Social Life in Greece and Rome." The 
social and family life of the people of Athens during the period of 
Pericles' ascendency was discussed and compared with that of the 
Romans under the early Caesars. Miss G. Kenny, B.A., contributed a 
paper, " An Ideal English Hero." Her subject was the old Saxon hero 
Beowulf. 

The Rev. Mr. Herridge spoke on certain phases of educational matters 
generally, and University affairs in particular. He believed the Public 
School system was not incapable of improvement, and thought a more 
complete mastering of a few subjects was to be preferred to a superficial 
glossing over many. The University was the cope-stone of the educa- 
tional system. Its work did not receive that recognition from the Province 
which it merited. There should be no question about supplying it with 
an income commensurate with the work in which it is engaged, and 
generous enough to permit its proper development. All legitimate 
efforts should be employed in effecting improvement in this direction. 
The speaker saw no reason, however, why state aid should dry up the 
channels of private munificence. There was no worthier cause to which 
wealthy men might devote a part of their wealth, and, as it were, secure 
immortality by proxy. 

The paper of Mr. H. A. Harper, B.A., " Man and Nature," concluded 
the essays. 

Mr. Otto J. Klotz presented the objects of the recently formed Alumni 
Association, and gave a short history of what had been accomplished up 
to the present. The speaker dwelt at some length on the MONTHLY as 
a means of attaining the aims of the Association, and especially urged 
every graduate to send in his fee to the Central Association at once to 
aid in maintaining the MONTHLY which is from its size and the large 



126 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

number of copies (5,000) issued each month a very expensive publication. 
Mr. Klotz made an eloquent appeal for the united support of the graduates 
on behalf of the University, and contrasted its limited endowment with the 
generous and constantly increasing incomes of the many State Universities 
in the United States. One suggestion which Mr. Klotz then made is of 
such importance and interest that we quote his closing remarks on this 
subject: " In some of the Universities where similar associations have 
been formed, it has been found expedient to create a permanent fund, 
besides the money received from the annual subscriptions. This is done 
by contributions in larger sums, as life membership say of $50.00. This 
scheme has already found some advocates here, and it is to be hoped 
that such of the alumni who are in a position to do so will carry out the 
good suggestion. There is no reason why 100 or even 200 graduates 
could not be found to assure an endowment fund of $5,000 or $10,000. 
The future of the University is in the hands of the alumni ; it is in their 
power to shape her course, and secure for her adequate support from the 
State." 

FRANK B. PROCTOR, Secretary. 

The annual meeting of the University of Toronto Club, Ottawa, was 
held December I5th, and the following members were elected : 

Honorary President Hon. Clifford Sifton. 
President E. A. Cameron, B.A., '80. 
Vice- President Dr. Courtney, M.B., '85. 
Secretary -Treasurer H. A. Harper, B.A., '95, M.A. , '96. 
Librarian Dr. Greene, D.D.S. 

Executive Committee Dr. Coulter, M.B., '82. M.D., '82, Otto J. Klotz, M. Lesueur, B.A., 
'63, F. B. Proctor, B.A., '96, and A. M. McDougall, B.A., '82. 

PERTH COUNTY. 

In response to the circular sent out by Stratford University men to 
the Toronto graduates and undergraduates, resident in Perth County, 
between twenty and thirty local Alumni met in the city hall at Strat- 
ford on the evening of November 24th. The object of the gathering 
was to organize a branch Alumni Association. All parts of the county 
were represented, and a number of letters were read from graduates 
regretting their inability to attend, but expressing their sympathy, and 
pledging their support to the movement. Mr. C. J. Macgregor, M.A., a 
distinguished graduate, and one of the oldest University men in the 
county, occupied the chair. Prof. Dale, of St. Mary's, and Dr. J. C. 
McLennan, of the University of Toronto, were present. A spirit of 
intense loyalty to the interests of their Alma Mater animated all. It 
was decided to form a local association in affiliation with the central 
organization at Toronto, to be known as " The Perth County Alumni 
Association of the University of Toronto." The following officers were 
elected : 

Honorary President Prof. Dale, M.A., St. Mary's. 
President C. J. Macgregor, M.A., Stratford. 

\ r ice- Presidents Rev. A. Grant, M.A., St. Mary's; Wm. Elliot, B.A., Mitchell; Wm. 
Climie, B.A., Listowel. 



MEMORIAL HALL 127 

Secretary-Treasurer C. A. Mayberry, B.A., LL.B., Stratford. 

Councillors Dr. I). B. Fraser, John Idington, LL.B., Stratford; Miss J. Geant, B.A., 

S. Martin, B.A., St. Mary's ; Miss A. Hurlburt, B.A., Dr. Armstrong, Mitchell; C. J. 

Hamilton, B.A., Dr. A. H. Nichol, Listowel. 

The desire was unanimous that the Perth County Alumni Association 
should meet at least once a year to renew old acquaintances, to keep 
green the memory of past associations, and to band themselves together 
in the interests of the University. With this idea in view, the Stratford 
members of the Executive were directed to make arrangements for a 
dinner, to be held in February next. Some of the most eminent gradu- 
ates in the province will be invited. 

The financial needs of the University were discussed at length. Prof. 
Dale, J. A. Davidson, Dr. D. B. Fraser and the Secretary, were appointed 
a committee to draft a memorial to the Provincial Government, setting 
forth the urgent needs of the University, and the duty of the Govern- 
ment in putting its finances on a more substantial basis. The same 
committee is also to request the local members of the Legislature to 
present the memorial at the next meeting of the House. 

The Secretary was instructed to prepare a report of the organization 
meeting, and to send it to the graduates and undergraduates of the 
county with the view of securing the active co-operation and sympathy 
of as many of the alumni as possible. 

C. A. MAYBERRY, Secretary. 



THE MEMORIAL HALL. 

BY R. A. REEVE, B.A., M.D., 
President of the University of Toronto Alumni Association. 

THE Memorial Window, which graced the old Convocation Hall and 
was destroyed by the fire, is to be replaced. This may be held to 
be a sort of sacred duty. A window is a beautiful and appropriate 
memento : There are reasons which impel us to urge that a Memorial 
Hall would now more fully commemorate the heroism of the men who 
fought and fell at Ridgeway ; and, in addition, be a most timely memo- 
rial to the patriotism of those who have suffered in South Africa, fighting 
in defence of the Empire. 

Such a hall, which the Alumni Association now aims at securing, and 
which is greatly needed for various purposes, would happily illustrate 
fine sentiment and a wise utility. The building itself, apart from the 
inscription over its portals and the tablets, etc., within, would ever be a 
splendid object-lesson, pointing a moral of high order to the flower of 
the youth of our country, who flock to its greatest seat of learning. 
Every great University should have a great Hall, to hold the many hun- 
dreds of her students, a place where they can rally and mix, and see 
and hear one another. Not to have this, is to neglect an important 



128 UNIVERSTIY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

means of promoting that esprit de corps which should prevail in every 
great institution, and which is at once a fine feature of the best college 
life and a distinct factor in the higher education of youth. 

Those at the helm have long realized this need, and have doubtless felt 
keenly a certain loss of dignity, if not prestige, in having to seek quite 
unacademic quarters for Convocation. There is a natural feeling that it 
enhances, in a sense, the honour, if not the value, attached to a degree, if 
it be given in the presence of great numbers ; and there can be no doubt 
that one who is hooded where, for example, as in Trinity College, Dublin, 
a Burke and a Grattan and other worthies have their eyes upon him, 
will get the stronger motive power to attempt great things in life. 

The old Convocation Hall was a splendid room, but it was not nearly 
large enough in later years. Ten years after its destruction, the Uni- 
versity is without an Assembly Hall which will hold more than 500. It 
should have one to seat at least 1,500; and this, if but for one 
reason : Patrons and friends, whom no institution can afford to ignore, 
stay away on public occasions because it is useless to try to gain 
admittance. 

But what bearing has this upon the project of a Memorial Hall ? This^ 
that while for strictly academic ends a small hall might suffice, the Uni- 
versity owes it to the public to try, as far as possible, to meet their 
wishes. 

Now, there are no funds at their disposal for such a purpose. Several 
departments of the University need equipment and endowment, and a 
large hall would doubtless be the last requirement to be met, even should 
the Government and Legislature respond to the urgent request of the 
University authorities for legitimate financial aid. 

The public, therefore, on their part should feel it their duty to help in 
this event, especially as the present disability is not the fault of the 
University authorities. Hence, the proposed scheme is peculiarly one 
to be carried into effect by the voluntary efforts of the friends of the 
institution. Of course, it would seem right that the burden should 
fall largely but not wholly upon Toronto. Its public-spirited citizens 
naturally take great pride in the University, and they will, it is hoped, 
respond liberally. The University is a Provincial one, and, therefore, 
the public elsewhere should feel the force of the appeal. 

Fortunately the Alumni of our institution, which is nearly fifty years 
old, now form an important part of the body politic, and hence they 
have a double duty, to give on their own part and to urge others to 
give. 

In this regard alone is shewn at once the value to the University of 
the Branch Alumni Associations now being formed in Ontario and 
other Provinces. 

It is not a visionary scheme to expect that a hall in memory of men 
of whom the country is proud, and which will itself in due time be the 
pride of the country, will be opened ere the celebration of the semi-cen- 
tenary of the University. Indeed, this feature might well form good 
ground for a special plea and the more strenuous effort. 



MEMORIAL HALL 129 

A preliminary meeting of the Memorial Hall Committee, appointed by 
the President in virtue of a resolution passed at the special meeting of 
the Alumni Association on December I4th, was held in the library of the 
Canadian Institute on Thursday afternoon the 2Oth inst. President 
Reeve was called to the chair, and on motion of '>r. Oldright, seconded 
by Dr. Needier, Dr. Smale was appointed permanent Secretary to the 
committee. 

After several of the gentlemen present had expressed themselves 
enthusiastically in support of the proposal, the following resolution 
moved by Colonel Mason and seconded by Colonel Delamere, was 
carried : 

" Resolved that the Memorial Hall Committee called on the authority 
of the University of Toronto Alumni Association here assembled 
approves of the project of erecting on the grounds of the University of 
Toronto a Memorial Hall in memory of those Canadians who fell at 
Ridgeway, and of those who suffered fighting in the recent campaign 
in South Africa." 

On motion of H. B. Spotton, M.A., seconded by C. Gzowski, Esq., the 
following persons were appointed a committee with power to add to 
their numbers from the general committee, to act in conjunction with 
the authorities of the University of Toronto in selecting a site and 
in preparing plans for the proposed Memorial Hall : 

Hon. George A. Cox, J. W. Flavelle, Esq., E. O'Keefe, Esq., Walter Barwick, M.A., 
Q.C., W. E. H. Massey, Esq., Z. Lash, Q.C., J. S. Willison, Esq., Lieut. -Col. J. I. 
Davidson, Lieut. -Col. Mason, Elias Rogers, Esq., L. E. Embree, M.A., J. K. Macdonald, 
Esq., O. A. Howland, M.A., Hon. S. C. Biggs. 

For the purpose of inviting subscriptions for the erection of the pro- 
posed Memorial Hall, the following were appointed a sub-committee, 
with power to add to their numbers from the general committee, on 
motion of the Hon. S. C. Biggs, seconded by Mr. O. A. Howland : 

A. E. Kemp, M.P., A. E. Ames, Esq., Thomas Long-, Esq., Edward Gurney, Esq., W. D. 
Matthews, Esq., Lieut. -Col. Mason, J. Kerr Osborne, Esq., E. B. Osier, M.P., Miss Lawler, 
M.A., A. W. Fleck, Esq., T. G. Blackstock, Q.C., J. M. Clark, M.A., LL.B., Q.C., S. C. 
Wood, Esq.. E. Bristol, Q.C., A. T. Wood, Esq., John Carroll, M.D. 

In seconding the motion, Mr. O. A. Howland expressed an earnest 
hope that the building when erected would be possessed of such architec- 
tural beauty as would make it an attractive and instructive monument as 
long as it should last. 

The Chancellor, Sir William Meredith, though unable to be present, 
sent a hearty message of encouragement and support, and the Vice- 
Chancellor, the Hon. Charles Moss, in conveying this, took occasion to 
express his own sympathy with and good will towards the project. 

Chancellor Burwash, of Victoria University, in a strong speech pointed 
out the absolute need of such a building as the proposed hall, and dwelt 
on the difficulty of developing a fellow-feeling among the students and 
staffs of the various Faculties and Colleges when there was no common 
roof on University grounds under which they could be gathered. 

The committee then adjourned to reassemble at the call of the Chair. 

J. C. MCLENNAN, Secretary pro tern. 



130 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

MEDICAL FACULTY, CLASS OF '95. 
BY T. W. G. M'KAY, Secretary-Treasurer. 

THE class of '95 of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of 
Toronto owed its formation into a society to the good feeling engen- 
dered in a gathering held on June 5th, 1895, the evening after graduation 
and the conferring of degrees. It was then decided to hold a meeting 
once every five years, and a committee was appointed to arrange for the 
next meeting, which was eventually called for December 6th, 1900, to 
take place in connection with the annual dinner of the Medical Faculty. 

In concordance with the Secretary's call, class '95 met December 6th, 
1900, at three p. m., in the Dean's House, University College, fifteen 
members being present and Morley Currie, the President, in the chair. 

The roll call being read, Drs. Addison, Chapin, Currie, Fleming, 
Gibson, Hunter, McKay, McPhail, McPherson, Sheahan, Small, Sloane, 
Simpson, Webb, White, answered to their names, Chapman, Lancaster 
and Pratt, turning up later in the day. 

Letters and telegrams of regret at inability to be present were read 
from several other members of the class. 

This being the first regular meeting of the class the By-laws, as 
printed, were read and approved. The Secretary-Treasurer's report was 
received and adopted. The members then paid their class dues in full 
up to date. Dr. John Sheahan was elected to respond to the toast to the 
class '95. In future the retiring President is to respond to this toast. 

Nominations and elections of officers were then proceeded with. 

Dr. Morley Currie of Picton, was re-elected President. 

Dr. Max Klotz of Ottawa, was re-e.lected Vice-President. 

Dr. T. W. G. McKay of Oshawa, re-elected Secretary-Treasurer ; and for the com- 
mittee of three : 

Dr. E. T. Kellam of Niagara Falls, re-elected. 

Dr. W. J. Chapman of Rat Portage, re-elected. 

Dr. Arthur Small of Toronto, elected to fill the place of Dr. McArthur, who is at present 
in England, as it was found necessary to have one of the officers resident in Toronto. 

Two subjects of importance were then taken into consideration. 

1. How best to secure regular inter-correspondence between, the 
members of the class. 

2. The possibility of carrying out the hope of a class memorial 
scholarship. 

1st. It was determined to start a circular letter in operation, the 
member receiving such a letter assuming the responsibility of preserving 
it and adding to it while in his possession and then forwarding it to 
another member of the class. The letter is to contain all items of per- 
sonal, local or professional interest to the class and from time to time is 
to be returned to the class Secretary to enable him to extract from it for 
his historical book all items of general interest. These shall be collected 



MEDICAL FACULTY 131 

together in printed form from time to time and distributed to the 
members of the class. 

2nd. It was determined to carry out the idea of a class memorial 
scholarship by putting by for an endowment fund all surplus from class 
fees over the cost of transacting class business together with whatever 
donations may be sent in from time to time by the members of the class. 

The President then called on each member individually for a few 
remarks, and after a much enjoyed afternoon the class separated to meet 
at 7.30 p.m. in the University Gymnasium building, to share in the annual 
banquet. On arriving at the Gymnasium we found the Dinner Com- 
mittee had very kindly given us a table along with the Hospital House 
Staffs, where we could be all together and enjoy ourselves as in olden 
times. Care had also been taken to see a toast had been reserved for us, 
and mention given us on the menu card. During the evening the 
committee took especial pains to see after our welfare and make us feel 
at home, and we all thoroughly enjoyed ourselves. We were pleased to 
notice the attendance at the dinner had not diminished, but had in fact 
increased. We were, moreover, especially struck with the temperance 
character of the beverages indulged in, and the most remarkable order 
and thorough gentlemanliness with which the whole affair was conducted. 
Ninety-five congratulates the Medical Faculty on her 1900 record dinner, 
and wishes she may continue so to have them for her own honour and her 
students' credit ; and our sole desire is to be spared to celebrate future 
dinners with her for our own felicitation. 

It was a common remark among our class after we met together again, 
before separating for another five years, that the pleasure of seeing old 
faces among our classmates and the members of the faculty, and the 
intellectual enjoyment of listening to the " pure wells of English unde- 
filed," which overflowed for our mental good, was alone worth all the 
trouble and inconvenience we had been to in coming to Toronto, and 
several silent prayers were uttered that the teaching faculty might never 
look upon the annual dinner as anything else than a necessity, which it 
was their duty to propagate, whatever be the cost, to indicate that faculty 
and students were man and man, friend and friend, to the glory of Alma 
Mater. The members of the class were very much pleased on meeting 
Dr. Lang to find the new Professor of Chemistry so manly and full of 
enthusiasm. 

A class memorial scholarship is to be founded, and already a nucleus 
has been set aside for the purpose, which will soon grow, it is hoped, 
into a substantial sum. 



132 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



TORONTONENSIA. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
MONTHLY. 



ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS FOR PUBLICATION TO 
THE SECRETARY, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



EDITORIAL BOARD. 
I. H. CAMERON, M.B. , Chairman. 
J. C. MCLENNAN, Ph.D., Secretary. 
J. FLETCHER, M.A., LL.D.; A. R. BAIN, 
M.A.,LL.D.; J. A. COOPER, B.A., LL.B.; 
L. E. EMBREE, M.A. ; THOMAS MULVEY, 
B A. ; T. A. RUSSELL, B.A.; S. J. ROBERT- 
SON, B.A., Managing Editor. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI AS- 
SOCIATION : LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 
DIRECTORY. 

GENERAL ASSOCIATION. President, DR. R. 
A. REEVE, 22 Shuter street, Toronto. Sec- 
retary, J. C. MCLENNAN, Ph.D., Dean's 
House, University of Toronto. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. President, REV. R. 
WHITTINGTON, M.A., B.Sc., Vancouver, B.C. 
Secretary-Treasurer, ALFRED HALL, B.A., 
LL.B., B.C.L., Vancouver. 

OTTAWA. President, E. A. Cameron, 
B.A., Secretary- Treasurer, H. A. Harper, 
M.A. 

PERTH COUNTY, ONT. President, C. J. 
MCGREGOR, M. A., Stratford, Ont. Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, C. A. MAYBERRY, B.A., 
LL.B., Stratford, Ont. 

WELLINGTON COUNTY, ONT. President, 
WM. TYTLER, B.A., Guelph, Ont. Secretary- 
Treasurer, R. L. McKiNNON, B.A., LL.B., 
Guelph, Ont. 

WENTWORTH COUNTY GRADUATES 'ASSOCI- 
ATION. President, J. Chisholm, B.A., Vice- 
President, A. A. Carpenter, B.A., Treasurer, 
I. G. Crawford, B.A. 

NEWS FROM THE CLASSES. 
The personal news is compiled from information 
furnished by the Secretary of the University of Toronto 
Alumni Association, and by the Secretaries of local 
organizations, and from other reliable sources. The 
value of this department might be greatly enhanced 
if University of Toronto men everywhere would con- 
tribute to it. The correction of any errors will be 
gratefully received by the Secretary of the Alumni 
Association. 

The class of 1845 w ^l be taken up in the 
January issue of the MONTHLY, for which 
Mr. William Wedd, B.A., '45, M.A., '48, is 
preparing a class history. We present in 
this issue a few facts about some members of 
the classes representing the decades since 
'45, the names being taken in all cases in 



the order of their occurrence in the Univer- 
sity of Toronto Catalogue in the office of the 
Secretary of the Alumni Association. The 
remaining names in each year and the 
remaining years of the Arts and other Facul- 
ties of the University will be taken up as 
the information is compiled and occasion 
offers. 

1855- 

C. J. MacGregor is Custom House Officer 

at Stratford, Ont. J. E. Sanderson is a 

Methodist clergyman in Toronto. 
1865. 

J. E. Bowers is a Physician at the Lunatic 
Asylum in Duluth, Minn., U. S. A. 
John Campbell is a Professor at the Presby- 
terian College in Montreal, Quebec. 

W. G. P. Cassels is practising law in 

Toronto. R. D. Douglass is in the firm of 

R. G. Dun & Co., New York. Jeffrey 

Hill is an Anglican clergyman at Dundalk, 

Ont. R. G. Scott is a School Inspector 

in Renfrew County, Ont. W. W. Tarn- 

blyn is a teacher in Bowmanville High 

School. James Thorn is a Methodist 

clergyman at Bloomfield, Ont. Algernon 

Woolverton is practising medicine at Ham- 
ilton, Ont. 

1875- 

J. A. M. Aikins is practising law in 
Winnipeg, Manitoba. T. C. L. Arm- 
strong is practising law in Toronto. 
F. R. Beattie is a Professor at the Louis- 
ville Theological Seminary, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, U. S. A. H. T. Beck is a bar- 
rister in Toronto. B. E. Bull is practising 

law in Toronto. Thomas Carscadden is 

Principal of Gait Collegiate Institute. 

L. E. Embree is Principal of the Jameson 

Avenue Collegiate Institute, Toronto. 

David Forsyth is a teacher in Berlin, 

Ont. Leonard Harston is a barrister 

at St. Mary's, Ont. J. F. Jeffers is in 

insurance business at Belleville, Ont. 
W. F. King is in the Department of the 

Interior at Ottawa, Ont. Alexander 

Leslie is a Presbyterian clergyman at 

Goble's Corners, Ont. Joseph McCoy is 

a Presbyterian clergyman at Vernon, 

B. C. A. P. McDiarmid is a Baptist 

clergyman in Toronto. R. P. McKay is 

head of the Foreign Mission Committee of 
the Presbyterian Church in Canada. 
James McMurchie is teaching in Har- 

riston. D. Y. Moss is a Presbyterian 

clergyman in St. George, Ont. G. E. 

Shaw is a teacher iu the Jarvis Street 
Collegiate Institute, Toronto. T. H. 



TORONTONENSIA 



Smyth is a teacher in the Harbord Street 

Collegiate Institute, Toronto. John 

\Vilkie is a Presbyterian missionary in 
Indore, India. J. A. Wright is a bar- 
rister in Toronto. 



A. A. Adams is practising law in To- 
ronto. A. Kain is practising law in 

Toronto. A. R. Barren is a Presbyterian 

clergyman in Toronto. J. J. Bell is 

teaching in Petrolea, Ont. J. H. Cam- 
eron is Lecturer in French in University 

College. W. C. Chisholm is the assistant 

solicitor of the city of Toronto. A. 

Collins is a barrister in Walkerton. 

J. A. Collins is a barrister in Duluth, Minn., 

U. S. A. J. A. Creasor is practising 

medicine in Toronto. J. J. Elliott is a 

Presbyterian clergyman in Midland, 

Ont. A. J. Forward is a barrister in 

Ottawa. H. R. Fraser is a Presbyterian 

clergyman at Cornwall-on-the-Hudson, N. 

Y. J. L. Gilmour is a Baptist clergyman 

at Hamilton, Ont. H. J. Hamilton is a 

missionary in Japan. H. J. Haviland is 

a clergyman in Kemptville, Ont. S. A. 

Henderson is a barrister in Ashcroft, 

B. C. G. H. Hogarth is teaching in 

Whitby. Gordon Hunter is practising 

law at Victoria, B. C. W. H. Irving is 

a barrister in Toronto.- H. E. Irwin is a 

barrister in Toronto. E. H. Johnston is 

a barrister in London, Ont. J. B. 

Kennedy is a Baptist clergyman in Toron- 
to. E. B. Kenrick is a Lecturer in 

Natural Science at St. John's College, 

Winnipeg. J. Kyles is a barrister in 

Toronto. D. C. Little is teaching in 

Toronto. W. M. Logan is teaching in 

Toronto. R. 0. McCulloch is in the firm 

of Goldie & McCulloch, Gait, Ont. 

Stephen Martin is teaching in Toronto. 

M. S. Mercer is a barrister in Toronto. 

George Mickle is a Lecturer in Mining, 
School of Practical Science, Toronto. 
M. F. Muir is a barrister in Brantford, 
Out. D. McColl is a Presbyterian clergy- 
man at St. Sylvester, Quebec. 

1895- 
J. McNiece is teaching in Welland, 

Ont J. L. Paterson is a Presbyterian 

clergyman at Arthur, Ont. Alexander 

Pearson is teaching at Mount Forest, 

Ont. W. H. Piersol is practising 

medicine in Toronto. W. G. Richardson 

is a Presbyterian clergyman at Wyoming, 

Ont. S. H. B. Robinson is practising law 

at Orillia, Ont. T. R. Rutherford is a 

Presbyterian clergyman at St. David's, 
Ont. W. J. Rusk is a Lecturer in Mathe- 
matics at the University of Bishop's College, 
Lennox ville, Que. F. A. Saunders is a 



Lecturer in Haverford College, Haverford, 

Pa., U. S. A. W. A. Scott is practising 

medicine at Courtwright, Ont. H. R. 

Scovell is teaching at Norwood, Ont. 

S. S. Sharpe is a barrister at Uxbridge, Ont. 

ADDRESSES UNKNOWN. 

Part of the work which the Alumni Asso- 
ciation has undertaken is the compilation of 
a catalogue of the graduates of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto and its maintenance in as 
correct a form as possible. It was found 
that a very great number of our graduates 
had dropped out of sight no response came 
from their addresses as found in the Regis- 
trar's books, and, as far as their Alma Mater 
was concerned, they were unknown. A very 
large number of these addresses have been 
already corrected by correspondence through 
the kindness of graduates who have sent us 
information. Many names are still lacking 
addresses, however, and we request our 
readers to aid in completing the catalogue 
by sending in at once addresses for any of 
the following names : 

Class of '45, Arts H. J. Boulton, S. 
Lightburne, S. S. Macdonell, W. Ramsay, 
J. Stanton. 

Class of '48, Arts R. G. Westropp. 

Class of '49, Arts G. F. Lor ing, W. 
Winer. 

Class of '50, Arts J. L. Gage, A. J. Grant, 
H. Hurlburt, R. N. Light. 

Class of '51, Arts T. T. Robarts. 

Class of '92, Arts D. C. Brown, J. S. 
Brown, J. C. Clark, R. K. Duncan, J. W. 
Garvin, G. Gerrie, E. Hamilton, G. R. N. 
Head, H. A. Howell, R. M. Huston, T. E. 
Reid, W. J. Shaw, H. I. Wales. 

Class of '95, Arts C. Chaisgreen, J. W. 
Hewson, E. E. Law, W. A. Merkley, W. C. 
Simmons, J. J. Smith, L. F. Stephens, W. 
E. Stephenson. 

PERSONALS. 

At the recent examinations John McKay, 
B.A., '99, stood head of the class, winning a 
scholarship, in Free Church College,Glasgow. 

G. M. Murray, B. A. , '98, has entered the 
employ of the Sault Ste. Marie Paper and 
Pulp Co. at Michipicoteu Harbor, Ont. 

M. W. Wallace, B.A., '96, Ph.D., '99 
(Chicago), has been appointed Root Profes- 
sor of English in Beloit College, Wisconsin. 

Win. McQueen, B.A. , '92, is City Clerk 
and Treasurer and also Justice of the Peace 
in Rossland, B.C. He writes congratulating 
the Association on the MONTHLY. 

B. S. Cohoe, B.A., '98, has been appointed 
Demonstrator in Biology in the University 
of Toronto, and W T . H. McNairn, B.A., '99, 
has been appointed assistant in Mineralogy 
and Geology. 



134 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



E. Andrewes, B.A.Sc. , '97, who was two 
years Assistant Aesayer at the War E^gle 
gold mines in Rossland, B.C., is now Demon- 
strator in Metallurgy in McGill University, 
Montreal. 

Miss M. A. Mackenzie, B.A., '92, has 
returned to the Massachusetts Training 
School for Nurses, Boston, after spending a 
few weeks with her friends at no Yorkville 
avenue, Toronto. 

G. V. McLean, B.A., '93, M.A., '96, 
Mathematical Master in the High School at 
Markham, Ont., has been offered an increase 
in salary of $200 a year to remain there 
instead of going to Paris, Ont. , to fill a similar 
position. 

J. A. MacVannel, B.A., '93, M.A., '94, is 
at present delivering a free course of lectures 
on pedagogical subjects in New York. Dr. 
MacVannel formerly held a fellowship in 
Cornell University, then in Columbia Univer- 
sity, and at present is assistant in Philosophy 
in Columbia. 

A. H. Young, B.A., '87, M.A. (Trin.), has 
been appointed Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages in Trinity University. This is the 
first time that a professorship in Trinity has 
been given to one not in clerical orders in 
the Anglican Church. Mr. Young is a 
Presbyterian. 

The following graduates of the University 
of Toronto at present hold fellowships in 
the University of Chicago : S. B. Leacock, 
'91, in Political Science ; R. S. Lillie, '96, in 
Zoology ; G. Clark Sellery, '97, in History ; S. 
Bower Sinclair (M.A., '93), in Pedagogy ; 
D. Thomson, '92, in Latin. 

Dr. Richard Thorburn, whose death is an- 
nounced this month, had practised medicine 
for the past fifteen years at Colborne, Ont. 
He was the youngest son of the late David 
Thorburn, formerly M.P. for Lincoln, in the 
old Provincial Assembly, and was born in 
Queenston, Ont., about 1848, and educated, 
first at Queenston, afterwards at the Univer- 
sity of Toronto and at Oxford. Entering the 
medical profession, he practised for several 
years in Queenston, and fifteen years ago 
removed to Colborne, where he has since 
lived. 

D. G. Revell, B.A., '94, M.B., 'oo, has 
been appointed Fellow in Anatomy in the 
University of Chicago, under Prof. L. F. 
Barker, M.B., '90. Dr. Revell, after receiv- 
ing his Arts degree, devoted several years to 
teaching, and then took up the study of 
medicine in the Medical Faculty of the 
University of Toronto. After a distinguished 
couise, he took his degree in Medicine in 
1900, graduating with honours and securing 



the Silver Medal. In this contest the com- 
petition was very keen, there being a differ- 
ence of but six marks in the total number 
secured, between the three medallists. 

A. T. Thompson, B.A., '90, LL.B., '91, 
M.P. for Haldimand and Monck, who de- 
feated Dr. Montague in the recent general 
elections, was born in the Township of 
Seneca, in the County of Haldimand, in the 
year 1870, and was educated in the public 
and high schools of the county, and at Upper 
Canada College. Hetookthe Political Science 
course at the University of Toronto, where he 
was awarded two scholarships graduating 
at the head of the class, equal with W. E. 
Woodruff, St. David's, Ont. While at the 
University, Mr. Thompson took a prominent 
part in the Glee Club, of which he was presi- 
dent in his final year, and was an enthusiastic 
member of "K" Company, Q.O R., from 
'88 until '92, when he received a captaincy 
in the Haldimand Rifles, of which battalion 
he now holds the majority. Major Thomp- 
son actively took part in every phase of col- 
lege life. He was called to the bar in 1893, 
and has since practised law at his old home 
in Cayuga with marked success, and has 
also carried on a very considerable timber 
business. Politics come naturally to Major 
Thompson, as his father represented Haldi- 
mand from 1863 till his death in 1886, and 
his grandfather from 1841 till 1851. 

MARRIAGES. 

Miss Beatrice Cross, B.A., '94, was mar- 
ried a short time ago in Madoc, Ont. , to Mr. 
John Hutchison, of Toronto. 

Miss Ida M. Kerr, B.A., '98, was married 
on June 2Oth last in Toronto to W. R. P. 
Parker, B.A., '93, barrister, Toronto. 

W. Ivan Senkler, M.B., '91, was married 
December igth in Toronto to Miss Leila 
Mackay. 

T. Murray, B.A., '92, was married Decem- 
ber igth to Miss E. L. Redfern, B.A., '98. 

DEATHS. 

Rev. A. J. McLeod, B.A., '85, B.D., '88 
(Knox), who has been for some time Prin- 
cipal of the Indian School at Regina, 
N. W.T., died very suddenly November 2Oth. 
The interment took place at Kincardine, 
Ont. 

Evelyn Durand, B.A., '96, died at Boulder, 
Cal. , where she had gone in the hope of 
restoring her failing strength. 

The death of J. G. Inkster, B.A., '99, is 
reported from Aberdeen, Scotland, early this 
month. 

R. Thorburn, M.B., Colborne, Ont., died 
in Toronto, December I4th. 



THE PUBLISHERS' SYNDICATE, LIMITED, PRINTERS. 



THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

VOL. I. JANUARY, 1901. No. 5. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE PAGE 

The University and State Aid. By The Function of the School of Applied 

President London - - - -135 Science in the Education of the Engi- 
Canadian Copyright. By Professor James neer> By Principal Galbraith - -150 

Mavor - 139 The Bond Phi Sigma. By A. B. Ayles- 

University Starvation. By H. R. Fair- worth, Q.G. -157 

dough, M. A. -146 The University of Toronto Alumni Asso- 

ciations : 'Local Organizations : 
Banquet to Principal Galbraith : 

Wentworth County - - 159 

The Origin of Technical Education in Victoria County - - - - 160 

Ontario. By President London 148 m 

Torontonensia 161 



THE UNIVERSITY AND STATE AID. 

BY PRESIDENT LOUDON. 

IS it true that the University of Toronto, the only academic child of the 
state, is being subjected to starvation ? Is it true that she has been 
growing, and that her growth will be checked, if substantial aid is not 
forthcoming ? Can such things be, in a state institution under govern- 
ment cont.rol and in the shadow of the legislative buildings ? Such are 
the questions which reach me almost daily from alumni throughout the 
length and breadth of the Province. 

The object of this paper is to answer these queries, to explain the 
financial situation, and very briefly to set forth the urgent needs of the 
University. As to the questions themselves, they may all be answered 
by one affirmative word. An institution, which for the last four years 
has had annual deficits, and which has no better prospect for the present 
year, is already undergoing the starving process. Such is the financial 
situation of the University of Toronto at the present time. As to the 
growth and increased efficiency of the institution, within its limitations, 
so many proofs have been given of late, that it is unnecessary to enlarge 
on this topic here. But growth and starvation are incompatible. The 



136 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

terms are self-contradictory, and if the present situation continues, inani- 
tion with its inevitable result is bound to follow. 

Deficits in a university arise, just as they do in any business concern, 
from stationary or falling income combined with rising expenditure. 
Such a combination the University has been obliged to face. An alumnus 
of twenty-five years ago, or even later, may be at a loss to understand 
why the income, which was ample in his day, no longer suffices. This 
matter cannot be set forth in full here. I might say, however, that the 
University of a quarter of a century ago, with its ideals and methods, 
would to-day be an anachronism. Changed ideals, newer and more 
rational methods, the progress of science, the obligations of federation, 
the maintenance of a higher standard- of learning, if our country is to 
hold even a decent place as a nation all these things have made the 
expansion of the University a necessity. It has been in an attempt to 
keep pace with the age, to fulfil obligations deliberately undertaken by 
the Government, to make the University something like what it ought 
to be, that deficits have arisen. We have been trying to make one dollar 
do the work of two, and the experiment has reached its natural con- 
clusion. 

Let me now give a .few figures. I do not propose to enter into 
complex and technical questions of finance, but simply to cull a few 
items from the reports to show the financial situation of the last few 
years. What have we been attempting ? We have been attempting to 
maintain a large university, with its literary and scientific departments, 
its library, laboratories and museums, its teaching staff of fifty members, 
its twelve or thirteen hundred students, for the sum of $121,500* a year. 
Such is the average income for all these purposes, from all sources, for 
the last four years, if we except a windfall of $8,200 in 1898. Diminish 
this gross income by $43,500, the average from fees, and $78,000 is left. 
But this includes a rising sum, amounting now to $7,700 a year, which 
can no longer be charged against the old Upper Canada College block ; 
so that the actual income from state endowment is $70,300, and this 
without taking account of certain items (the interest on scholarship and 
other trust funds) which would really reduce it to $63,300. This income, 
such as it is, is stationary, and may, with falling interest, become even less. 

So then the University has been taking in, on the average, $121,500 
annually for these four years. What has it been expending ? 

For 1896-7 $129,200 

" 1897-8 J23.200 

" 1898-9 128,700 

" 1899-00 136,500 

The largest item, and the one showing largest increase, is that of sala- 
ries, rising from $90,800 in 1896-7 to $99,000 in 1899-00. This difference 
represents almost wholly the increases according to a scale adopted by 
the Government some ton years ago. It is practically an uncontrollable 

* In these statistics amounts are given to the nearest hundred. 



UNIVERSITY AND STATE AID 137 

expenditure. Maintenance of the buildings and grounds has been 
reduced by rigid economy by about $2.000 annually in this period. The 
running expenses of departments, including laboratories, were, in 1896-7, 
$7,100 ; next year, $4,600 ; the next, $4,800 ; and last year, $8,700. Here 
the starving process was tried for two years, but could not be maintained 
in all its rigour. For three years back, about $3,000 has been saved 
annually by the staff, including that of Victoria, acting gratis as University 
examiners. Such, then, is the condition of affairs as regards present 
needs and resources. The total deficit for the four years is $31,600. I 
have not yet referred to the larger question of necessary expansion. We 
have advanced up to a creditable point of efficiency ; are we to beat a 
retreat at this juncture ? 

The first thing to be done is to wipe out the deficit ; but this is only a 
small part of what is needed to make the University thoroughly efficient 
according to modern standards, and adequate to the real requirements of 
the Province. The more expensive side of a modern university consists 
of its scientific departments, and for these most money will be needed. 
Under this head, the most pressing necessity is for Mineralogy and 
Geology, the claims of which have been almost entirely ignored. This 
department requires, and must have, a new building, new equipment and' 
a reorganized staff. The work of the Physical Laboratory is carried on 
now in an entirely unsuitable and inadequate set of rooms, which were 
originally designed for quite a different purpose, This department must 
have a new building in the near future. The Biological Building has no 
longer sufficient accommodation for Physiology, and new quarters must 
be found elsewhere for this department. Besides, all six of the scientific 
departments require a much more liberal annual allowance for main- 
tenance. 

Nor is this all. For want of money, the University is being checked 
half way in its post-graduate courses. The research degree is 
granted now in the Sciences and in Oriental Languages. It is not 
granted in Classics and in the Modern Languages. This discrepancy in 
organization should disappear, and provision should be made in all 
departments for the prosecution of such work. For all research work the 
Library is an essential factor. Its annual allowance must be largely 
increased, if it is to continue to meet the wants of a growing University. 

To provide for all these urgent needs at least $50,000 additional annual 
income will be required in the near future, and this without taking account 
of new burdens which new federations may lay upon the institution. It 
must be remembered in this connection that free instruction is given by the 
University to students of federating universities in many of the subjects 
of the course, including the most expensive ones. 

To those who have not followed closely the University question, this 
demand may seem extravagant. Twenty-five years ago the University 
was comfortably off for what it then attempted and was required to do. It 
would be extraordinary, indeed, if an income, which since that time has 
increased only as regards the amount extracted from the student, should 



138 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

to-day be adequate. A glance at the rapidly rising expenditure of 
our elementary and secondary schools confirms this view. But let us 
see what sum is considered elsewhere as an adequate income for a 
university which provides for the wants of a territory and population 
equal, or similar, to that of Ontario. I shall leave out of account the 
universities made enormously wealthy by private benefaction, like Har- 
vard or Cornell, and shall mention only two, which afford a fair basis of 
comparison. The University of Michigan, supported by the State, 
spends upwards of $500,000 annually, more than four times our income. 
The State University of California has an annual income of $330,000. 
Now, our neighbours of the United States are not given to the spending 
of money except for value received. They do not consider a university, 
as many here do, a luxury for the rich, but a necessity of national life, 
and they tax themselves accordingly to support it in efficiency. And 
while speaking of the universities of the United States, I feel that I ought 
not to pass over a fact which, to me at least, causes a feeling of humilia- 
tion and regret. For want of facilities at home, our young men are going 
year by year in increasing numbers to obtain in these universities an 
education which their native country denies them. Last year 23 
Canadians studied at Cornell, 20 in Michigan University, 19 at Harvard, 
not to speak of Chicago, Johns Hopkins and others, which I doubt not 
would bring the total to upwards of 100. 

To what source must the University look for this large increase of 
income, so urgently needed ? Undoubtedly to the Province. Private 
benefaction is acceptable, and the University has received, and will 
receive, considerable sums from the generosity of individuals. But such 
a source is uncertain, and this is especially the case when a state insti- 
tution is concerned. And let me put it plainly : the University as part 
of the state system of public instruction has the same right to look to 
the Province for support as the public and high schools. But, it may be 
asked, " What has been done to bring the claims of the University before 
the Government, and with what result?" Now, I may say that even 
as far back as 1885, application was made for increased aid. Then again 
in 1894, when the deficits were imminent, a strong representation was 
made. The answer on that occasion was not encouraging. The depu- 
tation was told : " You are asking for a grant of public money, and we 
may as well say at once that you would never get the Legislature to 
assent to such a grant. It would be useless to ask for it, and we would 
not take the responsibility of doing so." Now I do not think that these 
words represented the feeling of the Legislature then or since. At the 
time of the fire of 1890 the Legislature was most generous, and in 1898 
a grant of six townships and of $7,000 annually, in extinction of old 
claims, was passed with practical unanimity. Since 1894, three appli- 
cations, including that of 1898, have been made to the Government by 
the Senate and Trustees, and although nothing was given, the attitude 
of the Government was more encouraging. Recent utterances of the 
Premier and the Minister of Education practically invite an agitation of 



CANADIAN COPYRIGHT 139 

the graduates and friends of the University, in order to strengthen the 
hands of the Government in carrying out the good intentions to which 
the gentlemen named stand personally committed. 

We cannot, of course, admit that the whole burden of responsibility 
in this matter rests on the alumni and friends of the University. If a 
deficit had occurred in connection with other educational institutions 
controlled and administered by the Government, say the Agricultural 
College or the School of Practical Science, it would hardly be fair to say 
that the deficit could only be wiped out if the Government were forced 
to take action by a popular agitation organized by the friends of technical 
education. And yet, having regard not only to the present deficits, but 
also to future expansion, there is no doubt that the influence of the 
alumni will count for much. I have implied already that I do not believe 
that hostility towards the University exists among the people and in the 
Legislature. I grant freely that a considerable amount of ignorance and 
apathy does prevail as to the real bearing of university education on the 
well-being of the community. The clear duty of the alumni at this 
juncture is to help in putting the case before the people, and in bringing 
influence to bear individually and collectively on public opinion, so 
that a positive and practical movement in favour of their Alma Mater 
may be developed. There are abundant evidences that the alumni will 
soon be a mighty factor in this question. A strong and active central 
organization exists, branch associations have been formed in many local- 
ities in the past few months, and I hope before the year is out to see a 
vigorous association of graduates in every county of Ontario. 

In conclusion, let me urge graduates in such localities as have no 
association to organize at once, and let me urge existing organizations 
to bring this matter before the people and before the members of the 
Legislature. If this is done, I for one have no fear of the ultimate 
result. With organization and effort the alumni constitute a force, the 
just demands of which cannot, and will not, be ignored. 



CANADIAN COPYRIGHT. 

BY PROFESSOR JAMES MAYOR. 

I HAVE much pleasure in responding to the wish of the Editors of 
the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY, that I should give a short 
account of the recent history of the Law of Copyright in Canada. The 
complexity of the subject, however, renders it very hard to make a brief 
statement which would in any sense be also a clear and adequate one.* 
The British Copyright Act of 1842, following the example of the Act 

* In these notes, I have drawn largely upon a private memorandum of Lord Thring, who 
drafted the recent English Copyright Bills ; and upon a letter of my own to Sir John 
Bourinot, which is published in the "Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada," Vol. 
VI., Appendix A., page II. 



MO UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

of Ann of 1709 (8 Ann, ch. 21) extended copyright to the whole of Her 
Majesty's dominions, but did not grant to the colonies the right to give 
copyright throughout the Empire for books first published in the 
colonies. The International Copyright Act of 1886 (49 and 50 Viet. ch. 
33) extended copyright in the United Kingdom to books first published 
in the colonies exactly as if they had been published in the United 
Kingdom. A book published anywhere in the Empire, thus enjoyed 
copyright throughout the Empire. During the period in which the 
Copyright Act of 1842 was alone the law on the subject, that is, from 
1842 until 1847, the conditions of the book trade in the United Kingdom 
rendered the publication of comparatively expensive editions the rule. 
Circulating libraries were the principal customers, and it was to the inter- 
est of these to keep the prices of books high. Meanwhile the demand for 
English books in the United States led to the reprinting of books there 
in a cheap form, without, as a rule, any compensation being paid to the 
authors or owners of the copyrights in Great Britain. The facility with 
which these cheap reprints could be introduced into Canada, in infringe- 
ment of copyright, led to demands on the part of the British North 
American Provinces that some arrangement should be made for the 
reprinting in Canada of books in regard to which copyright subsisted in 
Great Britain. As understood at the time, the law of copyright did not 
permit the owner of a copyright to assign any part of his right without 
assigning the whole of it ; and thus, even if Canadian publishers had 
been willing to buy the right to reprint in Canada, no effective transfer 
of this right could have been made.* 

In order, at least partially, to remedy this grievance, the Colonial 1 
Copyright Act (10 and II Viet., ch. 96) was passed in 1847. This Act 
was devised specially to meet the case of Canada, and under it the 
Queen was authorized to allow by Order-in-Council the introduction of 
foreign reprints into any colony which undertook to provide for the 
payment of a certain royalty to the author. Nineteen British colonies 
availed themselves of the Act which came to be known as the Foreign 
Reprints Act. During the ten. years which followed the passing of the 
Act, Canada paid about $5,000 under its provisions, while the remaining 
colonies paid only $350, seven of them paying nothing at all. 

In 1865, there was passed the Colonial Laws Validity Act (28 and 29 
Viet, ch. 63), which declared to be void any Act of a colonial Legis- 
lature which was repugnant to any Act of the Imperial Parliament. 

In 1867, the B.N.A. Act, in section 91, specifies copyright among the 
subjects which are to be within the exclusive legislative authority of the 
Parliament of Canada. This provision has been the occasion of pro- 
longed controversy between the Dominion Parliament and the Colonial 
Office. The law officers of the Crown in. Canada have held that by this 
provision it was intended that Canada should have complete autonomy 

*See opinion of Lord St. Leonards, "Jeffreys v. Boosey" IV., H.of L. Repts., p. 815. 
This opinion has, however, since been overruled. 



in copyright legislation ; while the law officers of the Crown in England 
have held that the provision referred only to the authority of the 
Dominion Parliament as distinguished from the authority of the Pro- 
vincial Legislatures, and that autonomy in relation to Imperial Acts 
upon the copyright was not implied.* 

Meanwhile the working of the Foreign Reprints Act of 1847 had 
resulted in widespread dissatisfaction in England and in Canada alike.-}* 

In consequence of this dissatisfaction it was proposed, in 1869, that 
the Governor-General-in-Council should grant licenses to Canadian 
publishers to publish English books on payment of a royalty or excise 
duty of i2]/2 per cent, to the author, the publication being made with 
or without his consent. Objections were made to this proposal, and it 
was dropped. 

In 1873 an d 1874, a correspondence took place between the Colonial 
Office and Mr. Mackenzie, then Premier of Canada, and the result was 
an Act which was passed in 1875, giving power to any person domiciled 
in any part of the Empire to obtain copyright in Canada for twenty- 
eight years, with a second term of fourteen years, the condition being 
that the book should be printed and published or reprinted and repub- 
lished in Canada. Under section 15^ "Nothing in the Act shall be 
held to prohibit the importation from the United Kingdom of copies of 
such works legally printed there." 

"The practical effect of the Canadian Act of 1875, was to exclude, 
during the term of Canadian copyright, foreign reprints of such books 
if they obtained the benefit of the special Canadian copyright by being 
published and printed in Canada." 

Doubts having arisen regarding the validity of this Act owing to 
its alleged repugnance to the Order-in-Council passed in accordance 
with the Foreign Reprints Act, an enabling Act was passed by 
Imperial Parliament (The Canada Copyight Act, 1875, 38 and 39 Viet., 
ch. 53). A clause was, morever, inserted into this Act at the instance of 
the British publishing interests prohibiting the introduction into Great 
Britain of Canadian reprints. The Canadian Act of 1875, thus rendered 
valid, appears now with immaterial formal alterations as 49 Viet. ch. 
62, and R. S. C. ch. 62, and this Act, with the Statute passed in 1900, 
constitutes the Canadian law on the subject. 

The discussions upon colonial copyright continued in England ; and 
in 1876 a commission was appointed which sat for three years and 

* For the correspondence on this subject, see Correspondence * * * upon ' 
of Dominion and Provincial Legislation, 1867-1895 ; Ottawa, 1896, p. 1281 et seq. 

t The causes of this dissatisfaction are set forth in detail in the report of the Copyright 
Commission, 1897. In 1895, Sir John Thompson gave notice that he intended to cease col- 
lecting the royalty. This notice was carried into effect practically without protest. 

jThe original Act is to be found in Statutes of Canada, 39 Viet., Vol. I., p. xxi., out of 
its proper order in the Statutes, as it was a Reserved Act. It is properly described as 38 
Viet., ch. 88. 

Report of Departmental Representatives, Correspondence, etc., Ottawa, 1896, p. 1285. 



142 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

reported finally in 1879. The commission recommended that should 
the owner of a copyright in England refrain from availing himself of 
the provisions of the colonial copyright law, that the colonial authorities 
might be permitted to grant a license to republish the work in the 
colony upon payment of a royalty to the author. This proposal did not, 
however, meet with favour in England and it was not adopted. 

A Bill, consolidating the law of copyright, was introduced into 
Imperial Parliament in 1881, but it did not become law, and since then 
there has been no government measure on the subject. 

In 1885 the Berne Convention was held, and an international under- 
standing arrived at regarding copyright. This understanding was 
homologated by the International Copyright Act of 1886 (49 and 50 
Viet, ch. 33), which, with the relative Order-in-Council of 22nd 
November, 1887, constitutes the present law on the subject. Canada 
assented to the agreement arrived at by the Berne Convention, but Sir 
John Thompson explained in his report on Copyright to the Governor- 
General-in-Council of 7th February, 1894, that the reasons why the 
Canadian Government gave its assent were, 1st, that Canada could 
withdraw from the convention on giving a year's notice, and 2nd, that 
confidence was felt that some amelioration of the situation was likely to 
be obtained. 

In 1889, the Parliament of Canada passed an Act substantially 
following the recommendation of the English Copyright Commission 
of 1876-79 as regards compulsory licensing. This Act bore that it 
should come into force by proclamation of the Governor-General-in- 
Council. It came to be well understood that the royal assent would 
be withheld and thus the Act, though never formally disallowed, did not 
become operative. 

In 1891, and again in 1894, the Canadian Government gave formal 
notice to the Imperial Government that Canada desired to withdraw 
from the Berne Convention. This action was discountenanced by the 
Imperial Government and Canada did not persist in the demand for 
withdrawal. In 1891, the United States passed a new copyright law 
which in effect was the result of an agreement between Great Britain and 
the United States. The view then came to be held in England that to 
grant freedom of copyright legislation to Canada would prejudice the new 
understanding with the United States and would also be likely to result 
in the withdrawal of Canada from the Berne Convention. This view 
undoubtedly contributed to the impasse into which the subject fell in 
1891 and in which it continued until the recent Canadian legislation. 

The view of the English authorities was briefly that to grant Canada 
what she asked would involve the abandonment of international and 
imperial copyright to which Canada had been understood to give her 
assent only a few years before. This position was fortified by the 
opinion of the Law Officers of the Crown in England of two successive 
and opposed administrations to the effect that without an enabling Act 
of Imperial Parliament, Canada had no power to legislate upon copy- 



CANADIAN COPYRIGHT 143 

right, excepting as regards books first published in Canada. Matters 
were in this position when Sir John Thompson died. Had he lived, it 
is highly probable that he would have found in 1894 some way out of 
the difficulty. His death, and the almost equally sudden death of 
Lord Herschell, who had introduced a new Copyright Bill into the House 
of Lords in 1898, postponed any settlement. 

Meanwhile, in 1895, the Authors' Society of Great Britain represented 
by Mr. Hall Caine, the Copyright Association of Great Britain repre- 
sented by Mr. F. R. IJaldy, and the Canadian Copyright Association 
represented by Mr. J. Ross Robertson and Mr. D. Rose, made a joint 
attempt to settle the question by means of a measure known as the 
Hall Caine Bill, which was drawn on the lines of the Bill of 1889. The 
principal point of the Bill was a system of licensing and payment of 
royalty to the owners of a copyright involving the republication in 
Canada with or without the consent of the authors or owners of the 
copyright under certain conditions of works first published in Great 
Britain. 

The complicated character of this measure prevented its immediate 
acceptance or rejection ; and the change of Government in Canada again 
led to the postponement of a settlement. 

While these events were occurring, the situation in the book trade was 
undergoing extensive alteration. The policy of publishing small 
editions of books at high prices instead of larger editions at compar- 
atively low prices came to be doubted by some of the leading pub- 
lishers. Several attempts to carry out the opposite policy resulted so 
successfully that by about 1896, the three volume novel published at 
thirty-one shillings and sixpence, had been wholly replaced by the one 
volume novel at six shillings. The enlargement of the editions rendered 
the use of stereotype plates at once economical and convenient. And 
the use of stereotype plates which might be readily reproduced, 
rendered printing at different centres, economical and convenient also. 
English books came to be printed in Holland, in the United States and 
elsewhere from plates manufactured in England. 

In Canada, the practice grew up with regard to books first printed in 
the United States from plates manufactured there. The benefits of 
Canadian copyright extending to the printing of books in Canada from 
plates as well as from types led to editions being printed in Canada 
which could not otherwise have been printed there. The advantage to 
the Canadian printing, binding and paper trades, soon became very 
obvious. 

The practice of printing from plates was, however, only rarely resorted 
to in the case of books first published in Great Britain, for the reason 
that, owing to the operation of the Canadian Copyright Act, there was 
no power on the part of a Canadian publisher to buy the right to the 
exclusive control of the Canadian market as regards any book copy- 
righted in Great Britain which he might wish to print in Canada. 
Without this exclusive control of the Canadian market, it was not worth 



144 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

his while, in many cases, to print at all ; in cases where he did print a 
Canadian edition, he incurred the r'sk of the English edition being sent 
in to compete against it, even although as effectually as he could do so 
he had contracted with the English publisher for the Canadian market. 

It was, of course, not to the interest of the British publisher to com- 
pete directly with his own customers in this way; but a large part of 
the colonial book trade is in the hands of firms known as "jobbers," who 
purchase large quantities 'of books from the publishers, and ship these to 
the colonial markets. They are entitled to do this, irrespective of any 
conditional contract between the British and the Canadian publisher. 

It appeared, then, that what was wanted was power on the part of the 
British publisher to grant a license to print in Canada, which license 
should carry with it the right to exclude copies of the book to which it 
applied, other than those printed under its provisions, from being imported 
into Canada without the consent of the licensee. If such a provision 
were made, the licensee could then securely print his Canadian edition, 
and put it upon the market by means of advertisement and otherwise at 
such prices as competition with other books might determine, without 
the risk of his being deprived of this market by the wholesale importa- 
tion of copies of the English edition. It came to be thought by some 
that if legislation could be obtained to give effect to this idea, that the 
ghost of copyright would be laid, at all events, for a time. 

In 1899, owing to the considerable growth in numbers of persons in 
Canada who were actively engaged in the profession of literature it 
was proposed to form an Authors' Society for the purpose of promoting 
the interests of authors, and of concerting action to safeguard these 
interests. In February, 1899, such a society was formed Mr. Gold win 
Smith being elected Honorary President, and the Hon. G. W. Ross, 
President. One of the first topics which engaged the attention of the 
society was the question of copyright. Several members devoted 
themselves to a study of its complexities, and arrived at the conclusion 
that the state of the law as it then stood was decidedly inimical to 
the interests of British and of Canadian authors alike. So long as no 
separate market existed in Canada it was clear that Canada as a 
book market had no independent value, and that therefore not 
only the publishing business in Canada must be conducted insecurely,, 
but authors everywhere must suffer disadvantage from this insecurity. 
For Canadian authors to receive adequate recognition in their own 
country, it became obvious that the publishing business should be given 
a reasonable opportunity. The condition of authorship in the United 
States prior to the propaganda carried on there in favour of copyright 
legislation by the authors as contrasted with the co'ndition of authorship 
now, encouraged the belief that vigorous efforts in obtaining reform of 
the copyright law in Canada would result beneficially for authors, 
publishers and public alike. 

An excellent memorandum upon the subject was prepared and read 
by the Hon. G. W. Ross, to whose influence and energy the successful 



CANADIAN COPYRIGHT 145 

issue of the legislation is very largely due. The attitude of the Authors' 
Society towards the question is clearly laid down in this memorandum 
and in other statements made by various members. The society sought 
to leave the constitutional question undisturbed, and to endeavour to 
find at a modus vivendi by means of which specific remedies might be 
found for specific evils. The various interests in Canada were consulted 
and conciliated, and it remained to negotiate with the British publishers, 
authors and legislative authorities. 

As I happened to be going to England early in the summer of 1899, 
the society asked me to undertake these negotiations. After discussions 
with the authorities at the colonial office, with some members of the 
Authors' Society in London, and with the leading publishers, I was 
invited to attend the International Congress of Publishers which met 
in London in June. 1 found a perfectly unanimous opinion among the 
members that the Berne Convention should be maintained, and that 
any withdrawal from it would be greatly to be deplored. A resolution 
moved by Mr. Longman of Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co., endorsing 
the proposal of the Canadian Authors' Society was unanimously adopted. 

A few days afterwards I was invited by the House of Lords' Com- 
mittee on Copyright, to give evidence before it. The result of these 
various negotiations was the insertion of a clause in Lord Monkswell's 
Bill explicitly giving powers to Canada to pass a measure upon the 
principle suggested. 

In October, 1899, Mr. G. H. Thring and Mr. Gilbert Parker, represent- 
ing the Authors' Society of Great Britain, came out to Canada and had 
some interviews with the ministers on the subject. They are understood 
to have endorsed the suggested legislation. 

Towards the close of the Parliamentary session of 1900, the Bill, as 
suggested by the Canadian Authors' Society, was brought in by Mr. 
Fisher and was found to be generally acceptable, several public bodies 
sending resolutions in its favour. 

While successful efforts had been made as described to secure 
approval of the measure in England and thus to avoid any possibility 
of disallowance, the amour propre of Canada was not injured on account 
of the circumstance that the constitutional aspects of the case did not 
require to be discussed. 

There can be no doubt that the passing of the Canadian measure has 
put an end to the deadlock which has existed for twenty years, and it is 
to be hoped that the effect of its provisions upon literature and upon 
publishing in Canada will justify the efforts which were made to pass it. 



146 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

UNIVERSITY STARVATION. 

BY H. R. FAIRCLOUGH, M.A., 
Professor of Greek, Stanford University. CaL 

IN the November number of the MONTHLY, Chancellor Burwash has 
given us an excellent summary of the needs of the University. With 
his article on that subject I am in complete accord, and perhaps the best 
way in which I can respond to the editor's invitation to send a short 
contribution to these pages will be to follow the Chancellor's lead and 
say a few words upon a subject which should be of paramount import- 
ance to Toronto alumni. 

Unless the people and Legislature of Ontario speedily realize how 
urgent are the needs of their provincial University, they must be content 
to see this apex of their fine educational system take rank with institu- 
tions of a comparatively low grade. There is a story current that when 
a certain millionaire American conceived the idea of establishing a 
university he visited wealthy Harvard, and after examining the buildings 
and the equipment in the various departments bluntly asked President 
Eliot, " What has this plant cost?" The question, far from being irrele- 
vant, was perfectly apropos. A university plant does cost money, and 
without an ample endowment no university has a right to exist. 

The University of Toronto is lamentably weak in financial resources. 
Compared with the majority of State universities in this country, her 
income is a mere bagatelle. For instance, the University of California's 
revenue for the past year amounted to nearly $330,0x30, nearly three 
times that of Toronto ; and yet this sum is found to be inadequate, and 
application for an increase (sure to be granted) will be made at the next 
session of the California Legislature. 

Why is the University of the wealthy Province of Ontario thus starved 
and pinched ? The fundamental reason lies, I believe, in the public 
attitude toward higher education in general. My fellow-countrymen in 
Canada have not yet fully learned the truth that higher education is for 
all people, not merely for the rich or well-born. In this country the 
people firmly believe in their colleges and universities. These they 
regard not merely as professional schools, where embryo doctors, lawyers 
and clergymen are trained, but as institutions for developing manhood, 
and womanhood ; and they would have the doors of such institutions 
thrown open to all who are eager for mental enlightenment. Hence we 
find the graduates of California and Stanford Universities returning in 
large numbers to their fathers' ranches, stores and offices, and carrying 
with them the leaven of culture and broadmindedness, which in time 
will leaven the whole lump, and possibly make this fair land of California 
the intellectual, as it already is the natural, Greece of America. 

I have frequently heard fellow-alumni and other warm friends of 
Toronto University seriously advocate high fees for tuition. This, again, 
I believe, is due to a wrong conception of the functions of a university. 



147 

Such fe eSj while peru Sessional schools, have 

no plaf^ e j n a provincial e as free to all as public 

librari es or museums or fe .ise provided for the well- 

bfcing of the people in gene* , ith high fees can ever appeal 

t r o the public for popular su^ . a class institution. The young 

man or woman of limited means v>.._ is brave enough to devote four of 
the most precious years of life to intellectual cultivation has enough diffi- 
culties to encounter without being harassed by the tax-gatherer. The 
best feature of a democratic country is a democratic system of education, 
which aims at uplifting the common man by putting into his hands the 
means of uplifting himself. Chancellor Burwash well says: "The uni- 
versity supported by the State is pre-eminently the poor man's friend, 
and the bulwark of political equality and liberty." 

" But," we are told, "now-a-days there is too much education. This 
is what unfits men and women for their duties in life." Such an errone- 
ous idea as this should find no encouragement in the free air of Canada, 
where a generous education ought to be the birthright of everybody. It 
all depends upon the meaning of the term education. To my mind, to 
be too highly educated is a contradiction in terms, an impossibility. The 
more highly educated a man is, the more closely is he brought into har- 
mony with his environment, and the more able, therefore, is he to play 
his part in life. The great trouble is that there is too little education 
abroad. People are prejudiced, bigoted, selfish, contemptuous of this or 
that kind of honest work, of this or that kind of people, incapable of 
adaptation to circumstances in a word, narrow-minded because they 
are not educated. And, so far from unfitting men and women for life, it 
is the object of a true University " to qualify students for personal suc- 
cess and direct usefulness in life," as well as " to promote the public 
welfare by exercising an influence in behalf of humanity and civilization." 
Let the Ontario Government do its duty to the children of Ontario. 
Let it endow the Provincial University with ample means and then 
throw open its doors, free of charge, to all who honestly desire a 
liberal education. One class only should be excluded, and that is, not 
the poor, but the idle, vicious, and incapable. All earnest and industrious 
students should be welcomed ; the indolent and incompetent should 
be rejected. So long as there are fees, the University must accept all 
who will pay the price of admission, and thus it suffers in two ways, first, 
from the presence of an undesirable class who simply waste time and 
injure others, and secondly, from the absence of many who are talented 
but poor, and who, if the road to learning were cleared of unnecessary 
obstacles, would win credit for themselves, their Alma Mater and their 
country. 



148 

BANQUE. .BRAITH. 

The following is the to udon's speech in response 

to the toast of " Technical ._ t ne dinner to Principal Gal- 

braith : 

THE ORIGIN OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN ONTARIO. 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen: 

SINCE you have done me the honour to couple my name with the 
toast of " Technical Education," it will, I think, be appropriate to 
this festive occasion if I indulge in one or two reminiscences of the insti- 
tution, the attainment of whose majority we are in a certain sense cele- 
brating this evening. The story of the School of Practical Science, I 
should say at the outset, includes in itself almost all the as yet unwritten 
history of technical education in Ontario. I was a witness of its begin- 
nings and early struggles. I had also a certain part therein, and it will 
perhaps be interesting' to you to hear from me a brief account of what 
happened away back in the seventies. 

The School of Practical Science, like many other great institutions, 
was of humble and unpretentious origin. It drew its first breath in the 
building at the corner of Church and Adelaide streets, now occupied 
by the Public Library, a building which had previously been utilized for 
the purposes of a mechanics' institute. This was a little more than 
twenty-eight years ago, and the institution, as then organized, was neither 
in scope nor equipment a school of practical' science, as we now under- 
stand the term. It was, in fact, a night school for artisans, .although 
enjoying the high-sounding but inappropriate title of " The College of 
Technology." The instruction given was similar to that of the present 
Technical night school, and the staff consisted of Dr. Ellis, Mr. William 
Armstrong, the veteran artist, and myself. 

In the very next year (1873) the institution was re-christened and 
re-modelled, in theory at least, though the work was carried on along 
the original lines for some years. The change of name and of status 
was effected by the Crooks Act, which constitutes, in fact, the charter of 
the present School, and which changed the name, " College of Tech- 
nology," into " School of Practical Science." The choosing of this name 
is a curious instance of the influence of chance and circumstance. Just 
at the time when Mr. Crooks was considering his bill, I happened to 
receive from Professor R. S. Ball, now Sir Robert Ball, the syllabus of a 
so-called school of practical science in Dublin. This pamphlet I trans- 
mitted to Mr. Crooks for his information, and the name was forthwith 
incorporated into the Act. The new name was not only inappropriate 
in itself, but peculiarly unfortunate at that particular time, since the 
question of practical or laboratory instruction for University Arts 
students was then under consideration, and the two things soon became 
hopelessly confused in the prolonged discussions which ensued in Uni- 
versity circles and in the press. Much ignorance then prevailed regarding 



TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN ONTARIO 149 

the distinction between Pure Science and Applied Science, and amid the 
contending views the Government felt that in the School they had a 
white elephant on their hands, and its fate hung in the balance for some 
years. 

In 1875, on my retirement from the staff of the School, owing to my 
appointment to a professorship in University College, I was asked by 
Mr. Crooks if I could not help him to settle the question of the young 
white elephant. My answer, which was given in a report drawn up and 
presented in December, 1875, proved in every way satisfactory to him. 
The report besides, as he afterwards informed me, had received unquali- 
fied commendation from a gentleman, an eminent engineer of that time, 
whose grandson, I am pleased to know, is present here this evening as 
an undergraduate of the School. I allude to the late Sir Casimir 
Gzowski, whose approval, I may add, was endorsed by the late Chief 
Justice Moss, then Vice-Chancellor of the University. I find on referring 
to this report, which I had not seen for twenty-five years, until I con- 
sulted it a day or two ago, that I proposed in it the solution of the two 
problems then pressing, viz., (i) the teaching of Applied Science, and (2) 
the practical teaching of Pure Science. For the former I proposed the 
appointment of a professor of Engineering, an assistant professor of 
Chemistry, and the utilization of the services of the University College 
professors of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Geology, Mathematics and 
Physics, and, as an essential to the latter, the establishment of the 
Physical and other laboratories. I may be allowed to state with par- 
donable pride, in view of the subsequent success of the School along these 
lines, that my plan was adopted. I took occasion in the report also to 
remark, (i) that technical night schools were not a necessary adjunct of 
a school of engineering, that, indeed, the two schools should be separate; 
and, (2) that, where the demand is sufficiently large for trained engineers, 
the school of engineering should be independent of the control of an 
Arts faculty. 

In pursuance of the recommendations of this report, steps were taken 
to sell the old building down town and to transfer the School to the 
University grounds. In 1877, the late Professor Croft and myself 
selected the present site, Mr. Crooks requesting that the new building 
should be located convenient to College street, in view of his intention 
to continue evening classes for artisans. These classes, I may say by 
the way, were continued for some time, but were subsequently aban- 
doned, when their incongruity with the purpose of a school of engineer- 
ing in the proper sense of the term had become obvious to everybody. 

One more reminiscence, not hitherto recorded, a reminiscence of a fact 
unknown even to the gentleman whom we have met together especially 
to honour, and I have done. You must bear in mind that in the mean- 
time the new building, which forms part of the present structure, had 
been completed, and the School was about to enter on a new and very 
definite stage of its existence under the plan I have already referred to. 
It was, I have always thought, a most vital moment in the history of the 



150 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

institution. Well, just at this juncture, on my return from Europe in 
1878-, whither I had gone to purchase apparatus for the Physical Labora- 
tory, I was asked by Mr. Crooks to report on the applications for the 
chair of Engineering. I am at liberty to say now, I presume; after the 
lapse of so many years, that my report was in favour of Professor 
Galbraith, and that he was forthwith appointed. 

You will agree with me, I know, in thinking that this was the best 
piece of work I ever did, either for technical education or the University. 
Professor Galbraith from the first won on his merits. He is an accom- 
plished engineer, a good mathematician, and an all round scholar. He is 
something more important still, in view of the position he occupies as 
head of the School. He is not an archangel, of course ; he is, however, 
all that is implied in that noble English word, a gentleman, worthy to 
be ranked with the Shanlys and the Keefers, with Gzowski and Fleming, 
and many others who, like them, have adorned and advanced the engi- 
neering profession in Canada. It is to the high standard of professional 
honour set up by these pioneers in a noble profession that the students 
of the School of Practical Science must aspire, and no one can they take 
as a better exemplar than the honoured guest of this evening. 



The following is the text of Principal Galbraith's address at the banquet 
given in his honour December 2ist, by the students and graduates of the 

School of Practical Science : 

. 

THE FUNCTION OF THE SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE IN THE 
EDUCATION OF THE ENGINEER. 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen 

NO words of mine can do justice to the magnificent reception tendered 
me this evening by the graduates and students of the School of 
Practical Science. It falls to the lot of few to receive such an ovation 
and I know that you will forgive me if I fail to express in measured 
phrase, the feelings whic"h overpower me. 

In casting about for a theme on which to address you this evening it 
seemed to me that it would be appropriate to the occasion to give you 
my views on the subject of engineering education formed as they have 
been largely on my experience of the last twenty-one years in the School 
of Practical Science, and on my knowledge of the success of our graduates. 

The fact that our course is in a measure unique, differing as it does in 
some important respects from the usual four years' course in the great 
universities of the continent, may add some interest to the subject. 

When the school was remodelled and removed to its present site in 
1878, by the late Hon. Adam Crooks, Minister of Education, the 
faculty consisted of the late Professor Croft Chairman, Professors Chap- 
man, Loudon, Ramsay Wright', Dr. Ellis and myself. On Professor 



FUNCTION OF SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE 151 

Croft's resignation he was succeeded in the Chair of Chemistry by Dr. 
Pike, and the late Sir Daniel Wilson President of University College, 
became the Chairman of the Board. Professor Baker was shortly after- 
wards added to the staff. In its early days the school could be considered 
only in the light of an experiment. It became evident that it ought to 
serve the necessities of the Province rather than those of the municipality 
like its predecessor the College of Technology. Each member of the 
board of 1878 gave the question of the function of the new school close 
study and earnest thought, and I hope that I am not making an invidious 
distinction in mentioning more particularly in this connection the services 
of President Loudon, who from the early seventies to the present time, 
has been a thoughtful and clear-sighted student of the various develop- 
ments of technical education. About the year 1888, the present Premier, 
the Hon. G. W. Ross, then Minister of Education, recognized that the 
time had come for putting the School on a broader basis and for intro- 
ducing the practical or laboratory method of teaching into all depart- 
ments. To provide against the possibility of serious mistakes he decided 
to make a personal inspection of the more important institutions in the 
Eastern States engaged in the same class of work as the School of 
Practical Science, and arranged that I should accompany him. We 
v'sited Cornell, Lehigh, Columbia, the Stevens Institute and the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. As a result of that visit the present 
building was erected and equipped. The Department of Engineering 
was divided into Civil Engineering and Mechanical and Electrical 
Engineering and a Department of Architecture was added. Later on 
the Department of Mining Engineering was established and the Depart- 
ment of Analytical and Applied Chemistry remodelled. With the 
progress of time many additions and alterations have been made both in 
the equipment and in the methods and subject matter of the teaching. 

When one considers the wonderful variety of work covered by the 
engineering and allied professions, it seems almost incredible that any 
useful field should be found for an institution professing to prepare 
candidates for them all. The construction of railways, canals and har- 
bours, water and sewerage works ; exploring, surveying and mapping, 
heating, plumbing and ventilation, architecture, the manufacture of 
engines and boilers, machine tools, dynamos, transformers, the erection 
of machine shops, factories and power houses, the transmission of power 
in all its forms, the sinking and operation of mines, the reduction and 
preparation of ores for the market, the manufacture of iron and steel, of 
colours, acids and alkalies, of sugar, paper and leather, etc. such are 
the industries which absorb the graduates of the technical schools. It is 
plainly impossible within the short space of three or four years, and 
under academic conditions, to turn out an engineer, architect or chemist, 
fit for the full responsibilities of his profession. 

On the other hand, experience shows that a school can furnish its 
students with such advantages in the race for success that it well becomes 
worth their while to spend time and money in acquiring them. The 



152 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

sciences underlying the professional work outlined above are few in 
number, and may be roughly classified under the heads of mathematics, 
physics, chemistry, geology and biology. Each of these sciences at the 
present day covers such an immense field that no one man can become 
familiar with all its parts. Their main principles, however, fortunately for 
the student, are few in number, and faithful study for three or four years 
will give him a sufficient grasp of them and of their applications to enable 
him to make practical use of them in his profession. 

It may be said that the chief object of a school of applied science is 
to train its graduates in such a way that they are able to read. Man 
acquires his knowledge from two sources : his own experience and the 
experience of others. If he cannot absorb knowledge from books he is 
cut off in great measure from the experience of others, and is like a one- 
armed workman. At the present day a large amount of engineering 
literature consists of examples of the applications of science to practice, 
and as the years go on this kind of literature is ever augmenting in 
volume. It is only by the generalizing of experience into the principles 
of science that it is reduced to manageable compass ; otherwise man 
would struggle helplessly with the ever-increasing mass of accumulated 
facts, and an end come to human advancement. 

While obtaining his knowledge of science in the school the student 
acquires skill of hand, eye and ear by work in the laboratory, drafting- 
room and field, and it is upon this skill that his chances of employment 
immediately after graduation largely depend. As he advances in his 
profession the mental training received in the school tells more and more 
upon his work, and the necessity for skill of hand gradually disappears. 

The practical knowledge and training of the engineer can be acquired 
only when engaged on professional work, as they are dependent far more 
largely on his own experience than on the experience of others. Until 
this practical knowledge has been in some measure obtained the young 
engineer should be placed in subordinate positions, not entailing more 
responsibility than he is fit to bear. 

By the practical knowledge of the engineer I do not mean the prac- 
tical knowledge of the mechanic and tradesman, and yet they overlap to 
some extent. The civil engineer requires some knowledge of the trades 
of the excavator, the carpenter, the blacksmith, the mason, the concrete 
mixer, the stonecutter, the pipe-layer; the architect, of some of these, 
and also of the trades of the painter, the plumber, the glazier, the plas- 
terer, the roofer, etc.; the mechanical engineer, of the trades of the 
pattern-maker, the moulder, the machinist, the boiler-maker, the pipe- 
fitter, the blacksmith, the tinsmith, etc., and so might be recited the 
trades under the eye of the electrical engineer, the mining engineer, the 
chemical engineer and the metallurgist. 

The commonest weakness of the young engineer is insufficient know- 
ledge of the trades, and this ignorance brings upon him, and prop'erly so, 
the distrust and scorn of the practical man. No one not even the 
practical man will find fault with the engineer because he may not have 



FUNCTION OF SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE 153 

the manual skill of the tradesman, but if he is deficient in the practical 
knowledge of the engineer, if he does not know when work is good and 
when it is bad, if he does not understand how it should be conducted, if 
he does not recognize the material he has specified when he sees it, 
if he is ignorant of the properties which affect its usefulness, the chances 
are that he will soon meet with disaster. This knowledge comes only 
from personal experience. Practical knowledge of the trades can be 
gained only on the works. 

If the young graduate neglects to keep his eyes and ears open, and to 
make plentiful use of his note-book, if he does not absorb practical 
knowledge as a dry sponge absorbs water, he ought to go into some 
other profession ; he will never become an engineer, even though he be 
a graduate of the School of Practical Science. The old saying is true : 

' ' Books, gowns, degrees will leave a fool, a fool, 
But wit is best when wit has been to school. " 

The case is to some extent different when we consider practical 
knowledge of materials as distinguished from that of work. It seems to 
me that a very large amount of useful knowledge, and what is of even 
more importance, of useful training, can be given to the student during 
his course in the school in the experimental determination of the pro- 
perties of materials. This is done, of course, to some extent already in 
the testing laboratories. The usefulness of these laboratories might be 
greatly increased by adding to them part of the equipment of the 
ordinary school shop, viz., vise-benches and forges, an emery wheel and 
a small crucible furnace, for the purpose of training the students in 
making easy tests of the various grades of iron, steel and alloys. The 
difference between such work and shop work is that the attention of the 
student is fixed upon the properties of the metal he is testing and not 
upon methods of using tools. He would thus gain in a short time the 
knowledge indispensable to the engineer of a great variety of metals, 
whereas in shop work, with the other object in view, his experience must 
be confined to but few. 

I have little faith in the value of so-called commercial work in a school 
of applied science. It lacks the main element which, in real commercial 
work, burns lessons into the brain, viz., the feeling of responsibility. 
The practical work of the school should for the most part be of a kind 
for which there is little or no opportunity in ordinary professional life. 
It should consist in experimenting with machines and materials, and in 
discovering the application to them of the principles of science rather 
than in using them for their ordinary industrial purposes. The capitalist 
who employs the engineer does not care to see his money spent in this 
way. The life work of the engineer is construction and production. 
His practical work in the school should be analysis and experiment. 
The child breaks open his toy to see the wheels go round, long before 
he carves out a boat or constructs a windmill. The time of the school 
should not be unduly taken up in teaching the tyro what he is bound to 
learn in any case if he sticks to the profession. Although these prin- 



154 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

ciples seem sound, there are many prominent men who would in great 
measure disagree with them. Only a few days ago a letter by a well- 
known engineer appeared, who seemed to think that a graduate of an 
engineering school should be worth at the start a salary of $100 to $125 
per month. I should consider the school which succeeded in such an 
undertaking to be little less than a failure. I once saw another letter in 
an engineering journal complaining of the technical schools because their 
graduates could not immediately make the quick and accurate analyses 
necessary in commercial metallurgical work. I prefer to see the student 
taught chemistry rather than spend his most receptive years in some 
narrow lines of analysis. There is time enough for that after he gets 
into the steel works. Readiness will come with practice. So with all 
specializing in the schools. It may be true that one cannot make a 
success in life unless he specializes. It by no means follows that the 
specializing must be done in the school. On the contrary, the best 
basis for successful specializing is a sound general training. 

I do not care to see the graduate specialize immediately after leaving 
the school. Let him first get a little experience and a knowledge of the 
world and its ways. In many cases the graduate finds employment in a 
different branch of engineering from that in which he graduated. The 
lesson to the school is that the training in each department should be 
sufficiently general to enable the graduate to train himself without diffi- 
culty for his new work. His time for school is past. 

One of the great advantages of a course of study in a school of 
science is that the mind of the student is almost unconsciously trained 
in the classification of facts. He cannot attend the various classes for 
three or four years without knowing to what departments or sub-depart- 
ments of science the facts of observation are to be referred ; and even if 
he has forgotten how to apply the sciences, he knows at least where and 
how to get the information he requires without loss of time. His course 
in the school has supplied him with a great catalogue of knowledge. 
This is true in a measure even in the case of students who fail to com- 
plete their course. 

Another function of the engineering school besides the training of 
students for the professions is the training of men for research work 
connected with engineering. There cannot, from the nature of the case, 
be employment in the country for many such men. In general they, 
like the majority of scientific workers, must earn their living as teachers. 

There seems to be more doubt and difference of opinion with regard 
to the proper training of the mechanical and the electrical engineer than 
in the case of the civil engineer and the architect. To spend time work- 
ing as a tradesman is not the custom of the latter professions, and in the 
former we find men with all degrees of workmen's experience from zero 
to the maximum amount. 

The architect and the civil engineer are the lineal descendants of the 
craftsmen of the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece and Rome, while 
their mechanical brother is the product of this modern age of steam. 



FUNCTION OF SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE 155 

It may be that the differentiation between the tradesman and the engi- 
neer has not occurred to the same extent in the latter case as in the 
former, simply on account of insufficient lapse of time. It may, however, 
proceed at a far quicker pace. Division of function or division of 
labour, as it is commonly termed, is the first necessity of this age of 
combinations of capital and labour. Roughly speaking, mechanical 
engineering, like all Gaul, is divided into three parts, of which one is 
occupied by the designing and consulting engineer, who in his functions 
most resembles the civil engineer and the architect, and who generally 
enters the profession by the drafting room door. Another part is occu- 
pied by the works manager in manufacturing establishments who corre- 
sponds in a measure to the contractor of the civil engineer and the 
architect, and who enters by th^ shop door. To the third part belongs 
the engineer in charge of engines and boilers, pumps and dynamos. He 
enters by the engine room door. Manual experience, as it may be called, 
is a necessity in the case of the last two classes, while it is not in the 
case of the first. On the other hand, the practical knowledge which 
can be gained only by familiarity with manufacturing operations and 
with the operation of power plants, is an absolute necessity for the three 
classes. This practical knowledge cannot be obtained in the engineering 
school. 

In most engineering schools shops are established for the purpose of 
familiarizing the students with the use of tools and with practical pro- 
cesses. The expediency of taking up the time of the student with this 
work has always appeared to me to be questionable. The time spent in 
the shops is not long enough to make the student a finished workman, 
and consequently a judge of good work. As far as materials are con- 
cerned, a useful knowledge of them may be obtained as I have already 
indicated by methods much more economical of time. All that the engi- 
neer can get from the school shop that will be of use to him he is bound 
to get from his practical work, whether he enters his profession through 
the drafting room or through the shop door. For these reasons I advised 
the Government in 1888 not to establish shop instruction in the School 
of Practical Science, and have as yet seen no reason to change my mind, 
although I have since that time examined the working of many school 
shops. 

Our regulation that the students in mechanical and electrical engineer- 
ing must put in their shop work outside has at least the advantage of 
saving the time of the session for what we consider more appropriate 
work. It also gives them a valuable opportunity for using their eyes and 
their note-books, and studying the methods of actual life. 

The practical training of the mechanic, the foreman and the engineer 
in charge of small power plants must, it seems to me, continue to be 
obtained in the ordinary shops. For scientific instruction they must 
depend largely on the evening technical schools and on the correspon- 
dence schools. Young men who have the ambition to become managers 
of works and large power plants ought to make up their minds to attend 



156 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

the higher technical schools and also to go through the hard manual 
work necessary to enable them to become fairly competent mechanics. 
They will be fortunate if they have been brought up in the shops from 
boyhood and have at the same time acquired habits of study. 

In this description of the aims and methods of a school of applied 
science for engineers I have had in view the practicable rather than the 
ideal. If it were possible within the limited time at the disposal of the 
student to give him a competent knowledge of the engineering trades, 
of engineering law, of engineering business methods and of engineering 
economics in addition to that of science no doubt it should be done, as 
then he would be so much further on when he begins his life work. It 
must not be forgotten, however, that the capacity of the student is limited 
as well as his time. The difference between one engineering school and 
another consists not in the total quantity of information carried away by 
the graduate, but rather in the distribution of his knowledge over the 
various subjects, theoretical and practical, and above all in the methods 
used for stimulating and strengthening the imagination and the powers 
of reasoning and observation. 

Turning once more to our own institution I feel that its success is 
largely due to the harmony which has always existed between the mem- 
bers of the staff, and their loyalty to its ideals. The same spirit prevails 
among the students and graduates and it would be hard to find, the world 
over, a body of men more united and faithful to their Alma Mater. 
Above all, the School has been fortunate in commending itself to the 
public and to the Government. I do not know that there has ever been 
serious opposition in Parliament to its modest estimates for maintenance. 
The Premier, to whose foresight as Minister of Education the enlargement 
and improvement of the School is due, has no reason to be ashamed of 
his work. There is now a similar task to that which he undertook in 
1888, awaiting his successor, the present Minister of Education. New 
building accommodation, equipment, and additions to the staff are 
required, as the School has reached and passed the bounds laid down for 
it twelve years ago. 

It must not be forgotten that the success of our technical schools 
depends almost altogether upon the prosperity of the country and that 
the prosperity of the country depends only partially on the success of 
the technical schools. There is too great a tendency at the present time 
to consider technical education a panacea for the troubles in the world 
of production. This is not only unfair to the schools but is a dangerous 
doctrine for the country. 

I shall now close by making an announcement which will be a source 
of congratulation to all friends of the School and of the University of 
Toronto. A week ago the Senate of the University passed a statute 
which provides that the School of Practical Science, its teaching staff, 
examiners and students, together with the examiners for the degrees in 
Applied Science and Engineering, shall ex officio constitute the Faculty 
of Applied Science of the University of Toronto. By this statute the 



BOND PHI SIGMA 15? 

powers of the Senate with reference to the degrees and those of the 
School with reference tp the curriculum and work of instruction as also 
the statute respecting affiliation, remain unaltered. 

The result is that the University gains without expense a fully 
equipped Faculty of Applied Science and in this respect puts itself on 
an equality with the other great universities of the continent : while on 
the other hand the School gains public recognition of the fact that its 
work is of equal rank and dignity with that of the ancient faculties of 
Arts, Medicine and Law. 

This action of the Senate forms a fitting close to the history of the 
School in the nineteenth century. And now, gentlemen, let me in 
taking my seat thank you one and all for the great honour you have 
done me, and more especially the members of the committee who have 
this evening brought their arduous labours to such a successful close. 

Professor Chapman was a better prophet than he knew when in 
designing the crest of the School he selected as its motto 

" Scite et Strenue." 



THE BOND PHI SIGMA. 

BY A. B. AYLESWORTH, Q.C. 

IN the later years of the American Civil War the Confederate States 
probably presented very impaired facilities for higher education. 
At all events, during those troubled times many men of the Southern 
States sent their sons to Toronto to complete their education at our 
national University. To the presence of these young men among the 
undergraduates of their day is due the introduction or transplanting 
into University life in Toronto of the earliest of its Greek Letter Secret 
Societies, the Bond Phi Sigma. 

The exact origin of this Society is, of course, shrouded in mystery : 
secrecy was of its essence ; and even were I the traditional charter 
member himself, it would never be permitted to me by word or sign to 
-disclose whence it came, by whom, when or where it was founded, what 
were its objects and aims, or to what extent they were attained. Suffice 
it to say that during the decade of the seventies at all events this secret 
society was a most powerful factor in University undergraduate life. 

I owe to this Society and its members all my affection, all my loyalty 
and all my gratitude for the friendships that have been the warmest and 
most lasting of my life, for the memories that are the most valued of my 
college days, and during now nearly thirty years for very present help in 
every time of need. 

In the days when the Bond Phi Sigma flourished it was the only 
'Greek Letter Society among the undergraduates, and its very existence 
was, so far as possible, kept a profound secret, known only to its mem- 



158 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

bers. Rightly or wrongly, it was supposed that the College authorities 
of that time would have been hostile to its influence, or would possibly 
have endeavoured to suppress it had they been aware of the hold it had 
obtained upon the students of that time. But unfortunately it contained 
within itself, in the exactions of its own constitution, the elements of 
decay. 

No one could become a member by any application or effort of his 
own. Any such attempt would almost certainly have defeated its own 
object. A single dissentient voice a single word of opposition nay, 
even doubtful hesitation on the part of any member when the name of a 
possible candidate was being discussed, prevented that man from being 
then admitted, or admitted at all, unless further observation, or the sub- 
sequent testimony of those who favoured the name under consideration, 
removed even the semblance of uncertainty from the mind of every 
member in the Bond. And the necessity for affirmative wish to receive 
into the circle the proposed candidate was in no way confined to active 
present members. Every living member had to be consulted, no matter 
how far distant, no matter how venerable a graduate or how long departed 
from University College. 

The closeness of the tie that bound members to each other made this 
essential, for, apart from the solemnity in that respect of the vows taken 
upon initiation, every tenet of the Order inculcated a friendship and a 
union closer than that of brotherhood or kin a support that should be 
absolute and unswerving and upon which every member could upon all 
occasions unquestioningly rely. But this difficulty of admission, while 
an element of greatest strength in securing absolute unity within the 
Bond itself, in the end necessarily proved its undoing. As years passed it 
became impracticable to secure the necessary answers from absent mem- 
bers. In course of time one or two new members in a year became all 
it was possible to add, for but one name at a time could be considered, 
lest the new man if admitted might have possible objection to the next 
suggested. 

And so after now many years it has come to pass that I must write of 
this most valued and best beloved feature in my university life as some- 
thing no longer a living, active force among undergraduates, but now 
only a lasting bond of union among those who once assembled gladly 
whenever its mysterious summons met the eye upon the notice board of 
'Varsity. 

I need scarcely say that, in common I am sure with every member of 
our Order, I very greatly regret that we do not see annually added to 
our roll many names from among the undergraduates of to-day. It is the 
fault of us who have allowed our ancient chapter to drift into premature 
decay. It was in truth a violation of our duty to have done it, for our 
ritual told us that " devotion and loyalty to our University and to our 
College has always been and will ever be a distinguishing characteristic of 
our Bond and of every brother in it." And I hold it true that no better 
or more certain way has ever been discovered to foster and encourage 



LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 159 

real esprit de corps among undergraduates, or firm and lasting affection 
for one's Alma Mater, than the Greek Letter Secret Society of the pre- 
sent day. 

But I am glad to think that the work begun by Phi Sigma so many 
years ago is being well carried on by the different societies of the present 
day. Among these, we elders look with especial pride upon the Zeta 
Psi Fraternity or the Chapter of that Order established here. It seems 
to us almost our own child : it is at all events our lineal successor, for its 
earliest members were first members of our Bond. Recognizing the 
impossibility of ourselves continuing much longer in active work, some 
of our juniors, with the fullest approval of us all, joined in applying for 
the charter under which the Toronto Chapter of that Fraternity was 
organized, now over twenty years ago. 

Twenty-five or thirty years ago it would have been a grievous offence 
in me to have made public even what I have here written of the exist- 
ence and the benefits of the Bond Phi Sigma. Much more would it at 
that time have been highly improper in me ever to have given to any of 
the outside world so much as a hint whereby to know a member. But 
time works many changes, and I pray the forgiveness of fathers and 
brethren now if I say that among our most cherished in the long ago 
were men the University and the country since have known. I mention 
only the late Hon. Arthur R. Dickey, sometime Minister of Justice for 
the Dominion, the Hon. Hugh John Macdonald, the Hon. Fred. W. 
Haultain, and W. B. Northrup, M.P., but there was many another prince 
of good fellowship in his time, now alas ! very many gone to join the 
great majority. 

How often, how very often, in the Bond, have we had to form the 
mystic circle about an open grave and chant the solemn dirge, " Vale 
atque ave, f rater. Reqmescat" 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION: 
LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

WENTWORTH COUNTY. 

The Wentworth Association of University of Toronto graduates held 
its annual meeting January I5th, when the following officers were 
elected: James Chisholm, B.A., President; H. Carpenter, B.A., Vice- 
President, and J. T. Crawford, B.A., Secretary-Treasurer. Executive 
Committee, R. A. Thompson, B.A., Dr. F. Rosebrugh, J. L. Counsell, B. A. 
It was agreed that the annual dinner should be held in February, but 
the date was not fixed. It was decided to nominate two candidates for 
the University of Toronto Senate this year, Inspector W. H. Ballard, 
the present representative, and another. 






160 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

VICTORIA COUNTY. 

A meeting of the Alumni of the University of Toronto for the County 
of Victoria was held in Lindsay, Ont., January i8th. Dr. J. C. Mc- 
Lennan, Secretary of the General Alumni Association was present, and 
addressed the meeting on the needs of the University and the aims of 
the Alumni Association. A local branch was organized for Victoria 
County, and the following officers elected : Hon. President, Judge 
Dean, B.A., '54, M.A., '83, LL.D., '92 ; President, J. C. Harstone, B.A., 
'77 ; Vice-Presidents, J. A. White, M.B., '94, Rev.J. M. Duncan, B.A., '86, 
L. V. O'Connor, B.A., '93 ; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss E. G. Flavelle, 
B.A., '98. Councillors V. C. Cornwall, M.D., '67, J. Grant, M.D., '88, 
Miss M. Addison, B.A., '89, E. Gregory, J. A. DeCew, Rev. L S. Hughson, 
B.A., '87, J. Neelands, D.D.S. 



TORONTONENSIA 



161 



TORONTONENSIA. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
MONTHLY. 



ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS FOB PUBLICATION TO 
THE SECRETARY, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



EDITORIAL BOARD. 

I. H. CAMERON, M.B., Chairman. 
J. C. MCLENNAN, Ph.D., Secretary. 

J. FLETCHER, M.A., LL.D.; A. R. BAIN, 
M.A.,LL.D.; J. A. COOPER, B.A., LL.B.; 
L. E. EMBREE, M.A.; THOMAS MULVEY, 
B.A. ; T. A. RUSSELL, B.A.; S. J. ROBERT- 
SON, B.A. , Managing Editor. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI AS- 
SOCIATION : LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 
DIRECTORY. 

GENERAL ASSOCIATION. President, DR. R. 
A. REEVE, 22 Shuter street, Toronto. Sec- 
retary, J. C. MCLENNAN, Ph.D., Dean's 
House, University of Toronto. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. President, REV. R. 
WHITTINGTON, M.A., B.Sc., Vancouver, B.C. 
Secretary -Treasurer, ALFRED HALL, B.A., 
LL.B., B.C.L., Vancouver. 

ELGIN COUNTY, ONT. President, D. Mc- 
LARTY, St. Thomas. Secretary, S. SILCOX, 
B.A., B.Psed., St. Thomas. Treasurer, J. 
M. GLENN, LL.B. 

OTTAWA. President, E. A. CAMERON, 
B.A. Secretary -Treasurer, H. A. HARPER, 
M.A. 

PERTH COUNTY, ONT. President, C. J. 
MCGREGOR, M. A., Stratford, Ont. Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, C. A. MAYBERRY, B.A., 
LL.B., Stratford, Ont. 

. VICTORIA COUNTY. President, J. C. Harts- 
horn, B.A. , Lindsay, Ont. Secretary- Treas- 
urer, Miss E. G. Flavelle, Lindsay, Ont. 

WELLINGTON COUNTY, ONT. President, 
WM. TYTLER, B.A., Guelph, Ont. Secretary- 
Treasurer, R. L. McKiNNON, B.A. LL.B., 
Guelph, Ont. 

WENTWORTH COUNTY GRADUATES ASSOCI- 
ATION. President, J. CHISHOLM, B.A., Ham- 
ilton, Ont. Vice- President, H. CARPENTER, 
B.A., Hamilton, Ont. Treasurer, J. T. 
CRAWFORD, B.A., Hamilton, Ont. 



NEWS FHOM THE CLASSES. 

The personal news is compiled from information 
furnished by the Secretary of the University of Toronto 
Alumni Association, and by the Secretaiies of local 
organizations, and from other reliable sources. The 
value of this department might be greatly enhanced 
if University of Toronto men everywhere would con- 
tribute to it. The correction of any errors will be 
gratefully received by the Secretary of the Alumni 
Association. 

The class history of '45 has been held over 
till next issue. We present in this issue 
a few facts about some members of the 
classes representing the decades since '46, 
the names being taken in all cases in the 
order of their occurrence in the University 
of Toronto Catalogue in the office of the 
Secretary of the Alumni Association. The 
remaining names in each year and the 
remaining years of the Arts and other Facul- 
ties of the University will be taken up as the 
information is compiled and occasion offers. 

1856. 
W. H. Bowlby, B.A., LL.B., Q.C., is a 

barrister in Berlin, Ont. Thos. Hodgins, 

M.A., LL.B., Q.C., is Master-in-Ordinary 

of the Supreme Court of Ontario. Robert 

.Hume, M.A. , is a clergyman at Spanish 

River, Ont. Nicol Kingsmill, M.A., Q.C., 

is a barrister in Toronto. Robert Mathe- 

son, B. A. , is editor of the Canadian A merican, 
Chicago. T. G. Matheson, B.A., is a bar- 
rister in Milton, Ont. Alex. McNabb, 

M.A., is in Ozona, Crockett Countv, Texas. 

Sir Thomas W. Taylor, B.A., late Chief 

Justice of Manitoba, resides in Toronto. 

Richard Unsworth, B.A., is at Fergus, Ont. 

1866. ' 

R. R. Baldwin, B.A., is in Toronto. 
E. P. Crawford, M.A., is a clergyman in 

Halifax, N.S. W. Davidson, B.A., is a 

barrister in Toronto. T. D. Delamere, 

M.A. , is a barrister in Toronto. W. S. 

Dorsey, B.A., is in Charlton, Iowa, U.S.A. 

W. G. Falconbridge, M.A., is Chief 

Justice of Ontario. W. Fitzgerald M.A.,is 

Superintendent of the Insurance Department 

at Ottawa. Andrew Greenlees, B.A., is 

a barrister in London, Ont. C. B. Jakes, 

M.A., LL.B., is a barrister in Toronto. 

J. H. Johnston, M.A., is in Streetsville, 

Ont. M. C. Moderwell, B.A., is Deputy 

Sheriff at Stratford, Ont. J. C. Morgan, 

B.A., is School Inspector at Barrie, Ont. 

J. A. Paterson, M.A., is a barrister 

practising in Toronto, and is solicitor to the 
University. A. J. Robertson, B.A., is a 









162 



UNIVERSTIY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



manufacturers' agent in Toronto. W. 

Watt, B.A., LL.B., is Sheriff at Brantford, 

Ont. A. H. Wright, B.A., M.I)., is a 

physician in Toronto. A. Williams, B.A., 

is in Vancouver, B.C. 

1876. 

K. H. Abraham, M. A., is a Presbyterian 

clergyman in Burlington, Ont. A. K. 

Blakadar, M.A., is Assistant Superintendent 

of Insurance at Ottawa. P. H. Bryce, 

M. A.,M.D. , Secretary of the Provincial Board 
of Health for Ontario, lives in Bracondale, 

Ont. M. S. Clark, M.A., is professor in 

Modern Languages at McMaster University, 

Toronto. Charles Clarkson, B.A. , is a 

teacher in Seaforth, Ont. W. G. Eakins, 

M.A. , is librarian at Osgoode Hall, Toronto. 

E. N. English, M.A., is an Anglican 
clergyman in London, Ont. IX Findlay, 

B. A. , is a Presbyterian clergyman at Merrick- 

ville, Ont. H. Montgomery, M.A., is 

professor of Natural Science at Trinity Uni- 
versity, Toronto. H. E. Morphy, B.A., 

is a barrister at Oshawa, Ont. 1). S. 

Paterson, B.A., is a teacher in Chatham, 

Ont. John Ross, B.A., is a Presbyterian 

clergyman at Brussels, Ont. W. Scott, 

B.A., is principal of the Normal School, 

Toronto. Alex. Steele, B.A., is a teacher 

at Orangeville, Ont. 

1886. 
J. M. Baldwin, B.A., is an Anglican 

clergyman in Toronto. R. Baldwin, B.A., 

is a barrister in Toronto. W. W. Bald- 
win, B.A., M.B. , is a physician in Gregory, 

Ont. Miss E. M. Balmer, B.A. , is a 

teacher in the Harbord Street Collegiate 

Institute, Toronto. S. G. T. Barton, 

B.A., M.D., is a physician in Toronto. 

Gordon Bell, B.A., is a physician in Winni- 
peg. L. H. Bowerman, B.A., is a bar- 
rister in Toronto. S. H. Bradford, B.A., 

is a barrister in Toronto. C. Brent, M.A., 

is a mining engineer at Rat Portage, Ont. 

C. E. Burkholder, B.A., is a barrister 

in Hamilton, Ont. A. F. Chamberlain, 

M.A., is a Professor at Clark University, 

Worcester, Mass. Graham Chambers, 

B.A., M.B., is a physician in Toronto. 

C. P. Clark, B.A., M.B. , is a physician in 

Buffalo, N.Y. D. H. Coates, B.A., is a 

teacher in Brantford, Ont. H. B. Cronyn, 

B A., is a barrister in London, Ont A. 

D. Crooks, B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. 

W. Dewar, B. A., is a Presbyterian 

clergyman at Breadalbane, Man. J. M. 

Duncan, B.A., B.D., is a Presbyterian 

clergyman at Woodville, Ont. Andrew 

Elliot, B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. 

C. Elliott, B.A., LL.B., is a barrister in 
Toronto. J. A. Fife, B.A., is a teacher in 



Peterborough, Ont. R. Garside, B.A., is 

a Baptist clergyman at St. Catharines, Ont. 
Richard Gourlay, B.A., is a teacher at 

Toronto Junction, Ont. r-A. Hamilton, 

B.A., is a Methodist clergyman at Freelton, 
Ont. H. Harvey, B.A., LL.B., is a bar- 
rister in Calgary, N. W. T. W. Hird, 

B.A. , M.B., is a physician in Uxbridge, 

Ont. G. W. Johnston, B.A. , is Lecturer 

in Latin at University College, Toronto. 
Thomas Marshall, B.A., is a merchant at 

Dunnville, Ont. 1. E. Martin, B.A., is 

professor of Mathematics at the Hoyal Mili- 
tary College, Kingston, Ont. R. G. Mac- 

donald, B.A., is a barrister at Brandon, 

Man. O. McCullough, B.A., M.D., is a 

physician at Mohawk, Ont. A. M. Mac- 

donell, B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. 
R. R. McKay, B.A., is a Baptist clergyman 

in Woodstock, Ont. J. J. MacKenzie, 

B.A., is Professor of Pathology in the Uni- 
versity of Toronto.- D. R. McLean, B. A., 

is a barrister in Toronto. J. McMaster, 

B.A., M.D. , is a physician in Toronto. 
F. F. MacPherson, B.A. , is a teacher in 

Hamilton, Ont. G. H. Needier, B.A., 

Ph.D., is Lecturer in German at Univer- 
sity College, Toronto. C. C. Owen, B.A., 

is a clergyman in London, Ont. G. 

Paterson, B.A., LL.B., is a barrister in 

Deloraine, Man. R. A. Paterson, B.A., is 

a teacher in Strathroy, Ont. F. J. Roche, 

M.A., is a barrister in Toronto.- J. A. 

Ross, B.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman in 
Churchill, Ont. T. A. Rowan, M.A., is a 

barrister in Toronto. Neil Shaw, B.A., is 

a Presbyterian clergyman at Egmondville, 
Ont. T. R. Shearer, B.A., is a Presby- 
terian clergyman at Itounthwaite, Man. 
Richard Shiell, B.A., M.B., is a physician 

in Toronto. Nelson Simpson, B.A., is a 

barrister at Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. Wm. 

Stephen, B.A., M.B., is a physician in New 

Zealand. J. H. G. Youell, B.A., M.B., is 

a physician at Aylmer, Ont. 

ADDRESSES UNKNOWN. 

Part of the work which the Alumni Asso- 
ciation has undertaken is the compilation of 
a catalogue of the graduates of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto and its maintenance in as 
correct a form as possible. It was found 
that a very great number of our graduates 
had dropped out of sight no response came 
from their addresses as found in the Regis- 
trar's books, and, as far as their Alma Mater 
was concerned, they were unknown. A very 
large number of these addresses have been 
already corrected by correspondence through 
the kindness of graduates who have sent us 
information. Many names are still lacking 
addresses, however, and we request our 



TORONTONENSIA 



163 



readers to aid in completing the catalogue 
by sending in at once addresses for any of 
the following names : 

Class of '53, Arts Wm. Bettridge, B.A. 

Class of '54, Arts C. E. English, M.A., 
LL.B., G. Adams, B.A. 

Class of '56, Arts B. P. Lister, B.A. 

Class of '57, Arts John Turpin, M.A., 
J. F. Smith, B.A., Wm. Oliver, B.A. 

Class of '58, Arts W. A. Watts, M.A., 
E. D. Montgomery, B.A., W. Milroy, B.A. 

Class of '59. Arts David Waters, M.A., 
LL.B., H. Tassie, B.A., N. Monsarrat, 
B.A., J. L. Litton, M.A., J. W. Holcombe, 
M.A., LL.B. 

Class of '61, Arts R. McGee, B.A., A. S. 
Gillespie, B.A. 

Class of '63, Arts T. W. Wright, M.A., 
T. H. Scott, M.A., A. Hector, B.A., E. 
Frisby, M.A. 

Class of '64, Arts W. Sharpe, B.A., J. 
Harley, B. A., J. Ferguson, B.A. 

Class of '65, Arts G. H. Squire, B.A., 
W. Malloy, B.A., J. M. Hagar, M.A., J. M. 
Goodwillie, M.A. 

PERSONAL. 

W. H. Bunting, B.A., '92, is editor of The 
Mail and Empire, Toronto. 

T. E. A. Stanley, B.A., '92, is principal of 
the Iroquois, Ont., High School. 

R. K. Duncan, B.A., '92, is a teacher in 
the High School at Pottstown, Pa. 

A. A. Smith, L.D.S., '84, is a member of 
the council of the town of Cornwall. 

Wm. Smeaton, B.A., '99, is, science mas- 
ter in the Iroquois, Ont., High School. 

F. J. Smale, B.A., '92, Ph.D., is chemist 
to the Wm. Davies Co., Limited, Toronto. 

J. W. Forbes, B. A., '95, has been appointed 
head master of the Weston, Ont., High 
School. 

J. Frith Jeffries, B.A., 75, is principal and 
proprietor of the Belleville, Ont., Business 
College. 

J. A. Fleming, L.D.S., '95, D.D.S. (Tor.), 
'95, has been elected to the town council of 
Prescott. 

J. W. Garvin, B.A., '92, who entered 
with the class of '87, is in the insurance 
business in Peterborough, Ont. 



The Rev. A. Carrick, B.A., '89, has been 
Presbyterian minister at Holdredge, Neb., 
U.S.A., for the past iiine years. 

T. A. Russell, B.A., '99, is secretary to 
the Canadian Manufacturers' Association, 
Board of Trade Building, Toronto. 

W. W. Jones, B.A., '92, M.B., '95, is now 
studying in the Birmingham and Midland 
Eye Hospital, Birmingham, England. 

S. B Leacock, B.A., '91, is at present de- 
livering a course of lectures on Political 
Economy in McGill University, Montreal. 

S. Moyer, L.D.S., '90, D.D.S., '90, (Tor.), 
has been elected to the council of the town 
of Gait, receiving the greatest number of 
votes. 

J. D. Hamill, L.D.S., '82, is entering on 
his fifth consecutive term as mayor of the 
town of Meaford, Ont., being elected by 
acclamation. 

F. J. Alway, B.A., '94, has been profes- 
sor of Chemistry in the Wesleyan University, 
University Place, Neb., U.S.A., for the past 
three years. 

Norman Duncan, B. A., '95, has recently 
had published by the McClures' a book, 
" The Soul of the Street," which is meeting 
with success. 

J. H. Lamont, B.A. , '92, LL.B., '93, is 
practising law in Prince Albert, Sask., in 
partnership with W. Hannon the firm being 
Hannon & Lamont. 

The report of the death of J. Inkster, 
B.A., '99, referred to in our December issue, 
has been contradicted. Mr. Inkster's friends 
are glad to hear of his welfare. 

E. C. Abbott, L.D.S. '99, D.D.S, (Tor.), 
'99, and G. G. Hume, L.D.S., '97, D.D.S. 
(Tor.), '97, have been appointed to the staff 
of the Royal College of Dental Surgeons as 
Demonstrators of Practical Dentistry. 

Theo. Coleman, B.A., M.B., '93, who has 
been practising medicine in Toronto, has 
accepted the appointment of surgeon to the 
Canadian Copper Co., and will move from 
Toronto to Copper Cliff, near Sudbury, Ont. 

C. C. Riordon, B.A., '96, is assistant 
manager of the Riordon Paper Mills, Merrit- 
ton and Hawkesbury, Ont. These mills are 
among the largest producers of wood pulp in 
Canada. 

W. K. Stewart, B.A., '97, M.A. (Har- 
vard), is instructor in German in Dartmouth 
College, N. H. He has completed a large 
part of the course for the degree of Ph.D., 
in Harvard University. 






164 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



R. K. Barker, B.A., '92, whose courage 
and high spirits made him such a successful 
officer in the recent campaign in South 
Africa, has been appointed inspector for the 
Imperial Life Assurance Co., Toronto. 

The first year draughting room in tha 
School of Practical Science contains 118 
drawing tables. To provide this large in- 
crease in floor space, the examination hall 
has been turned into a draughting room. 

J. R. L. Starr, B.A., '87, was elected an 
alderman in Toronto ; A. R. Goldie, '93 
(S.P.S,), a town councillor in Gait, Ont., and 
H. B. C onyn, B.A., '86, and A. Greenlees, 
B.A., '66, aldermen in London, Out., on 
Jan. 8th. 

Capt. H. Z. C. Cockburn, B.A., '91, who 
went to South Africa with the Royal Cana- 
dian Dragoons, has, it is stated in the press 
dispatches, been recommended for the Vic- 
toria Cross. He has also been given a com- 
mission in the Imperial Service. 

We find that an error was made in the 
item in last issue about recent professorial 
appointments at Trinity University. The 
earliest appointment of one not in clerical 
orders in the Anglican Church was in 1852, 
when H. Youle Hind, M.A. , was appointed 
to the Chair of Chemistry. 

A. H. Hippie, L.D.S., '89, D.D.S. (Tor.), 
'89, now resident in Omaha, Neb., has estab- 
lished there a fine practice, and has entered 
as enthusiastically into American politics as 
he formerly did into those of Ontario. He 
has been honoured with a position on the 
professorial staff of Creighton Medical Col- 
lege of that city. 

H. Montgomery, B.A., '76, M.A., B Sc., 
who is now Professor of Natural Science at 
Trinity University, was at one time Science 
master at the Jarvis Street Collegiate Insti- 
tute and a lecturer in the old Toronto 
School of Medicine, going later to the Uni- 
versities of North Dakota and Utah, from 
which he moved to Trinity. 

At the recent municipal elections a num- 
ber of graduates of the University of Toronto 
were chosen to the highest offices in the gift 
of their fellow townsmen. G. A. Raden- 
hurst, B. A. , '66, was elected mayor of 
Barrie, Ont.; J. A. C. Grant, B.A., '69, 
mayor of Gravenhurst, Ont.; and V. A. B. 
Sinclair, B.A., '92, mayor of Tilsonburg, Ont. 

Geo. Black, B.A. , '98, who is in charge 
of the Science Department, State Normal 
School, Cheney, Washington, U.S.A., writes 
that he is there associated with graduates 
of Chicago and Wisconsin Universities and 
Oberlin College. He has joined the B. C. 
Alumni Association, and congratulates the 
central association heartily upon the success 
of the MONTHLY. 



Dr. C. N. Johnston, L.D.S., '81, now resi- 
dent in Chicago, and professor of Operative 
Dentistry in the Chicago College of Dental 
Surgery, a short time ago, received from 
the University of Lake Forest the honorary 
degree of A.M. in recognition of his literary 
work. He has recently published a work 
on Operative Dentistry which has been very 
favourably received by the Dental Profession 
in the United States, Canada and Great 
Britain. 

The town council of Rat Portage, Ont., 
has laid a memorial before the Lieutenant - 
Governor in Council, asking that suitable 
grants of money or lands be made to the 
University of Toronto to assist in equipping 
in a proper manner a Department of Miner- 
alogy and Geology, to co-operate with the 
work now being carried on in the School of 
Practical Science in these branches. In the 
opinion of the council the knowledge of 
Geology and Mineralogy should be widely 
diffused in order to lead to the development 
of our mineral wealth. 

At the recent Annual Meeting of the 
Federation of Graduate Clubs, which was 
held in Philadelphia, Miss Elizabeth Laird, 
B.A., '96, was the delegate representing 
Bryn Mawr College, and read a paper en- 
titled, " When Should Graduate Work 
Begin ? " which was suggestive and compre- 
hensive, viewing the question from the 
standpoint of Canadian, United States and 
European Colleges. The Federation was 
invited to hold a session at Bryn Mawr 
College, and there the delegates were given 
a reception, at which Miss Laird and a few 
members of the Faculty received. 

MARRIAOKS. 

Rev. W. A. Hunter, B.A., '77, late pastor 
of Erskine Presbyterian Church, Toronto, 
and now of First Presbyterian Church, 
Denver, Colorado, was married on the 3rd of 
January to Miss S. B. Holden. daughter of 
J. C. Holden, Esq., of Montreal, in the First 
Avenue Church, Denver. 

W. B. Taylor, B.A., '89, was married on 
January 12th, to Miss Winnie May Croft, 
daughter of the late William Croft, in St. 
Simon's Church, Howard street, Toronto. 

J. R. Bone, B. A., '99, was married on 
January loth to Miss Evans of Spadina 
road, Toronto. 



John Edward Rose, B.A. '64, LL.D. '85, 
Justice of the Common Pleas Division of the 
High Court of Justice of Ontario, died at his 
home in Toronto, January igth, after a 
brief illness. 



THE PUBLISHERS' SYNDICATE, LIMITED, PRINTERS. 



THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

VOL. I. FEBRUARY, 1901. No. 6. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE PAOB 

The Needs of the University. By S. F. Geographical Distribution - - 182 

MacLennan, B.A. -165 The University of Toronto Alumni Asso- 

A Century of Chemical Progress. By . { ^ j 5zations . 
Professor W. R. Lang - - - 169 

The Copyright Question. By Goldwln Grey and Bruce - - 182 

Smith, D.C.L. - 173 Huron 183 

Zete j>si at Toronto. By C. A. Moss, ^ Victoria CouQty . 1M 

Average Ages of Matriculants. By Waterloo - - 185 

John Idington, LL.B. - - 179 Wentworth County Graduates Asso- 

The late Reverend A. J. McLeod, B.A. ciation, The - 185 

By A. H. Young, M. A. - - -180 Torontonensia - - - - -'188 



THE NEEDS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

BY S. F. MACLENNAN, B.A. 
Professor of Psychology and Pedagogy in Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. 

IT is certain that everyone interested in University of Toronto will thank 
President Loudon for his frank statement in the January issue of 
the MONTHLY. For several years I have wondered why Toronto has 
lagged behind so woefully in the race of modern educational develop- 
ment. In what way she has done this I shall show later. Since 
reading the statement referred to, I have continued to wonder, but for a 
different reason. At present I do not ask myself why Toronto has no 
organized Graduate Department. The marvel is that the institution 
has succeeded in maintaining itself in its present efficiency. Canadian 
institutions are not so well known on this side of the line as they should 
be. This much is true, however : Toronto graduates have left an excel- 
lent impression wherever they have worked. Now, on what financial 
basis has this been accomplished ? 

Suppose, for the time being, that we gratify our fancies with the 
thought that Toronto is a full-grown University. Let us next compare 
her income with that of other Universities. I select a few, with which a 
variety of comparisons may be made. 



1 66 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Toronto, $121,500 ; Michigan, $500,000 ; Columbia, $750,000 ; Chicago, 
$723,000; Harvard, $1,264,000.* The figures may well startle us. If 
you please, you may consider Harvard, with its income more than ten 
times that of Toronto, as the ideal of an independent University. Its 
income is far beyond anything that our Alma Mater can hope for in 
many generations. Yet, we have still to hear that Harvard is satisfied 
with her resources. Columbia and Chicago we may consider as more 
closely allied to our aspirations. They require, however, six times 
Toronto's revenue to do the work of Universities. More than this, both 
institutions have large annual deficits and are continually calling for more 
funds. But although we may admit all this, some may maintain that 
we should not aim quite so high. If we are prepared to admit that 
Toronto's future is to be spent among the minor institutions, instead of 
among the major, perhaps we can agree that the University of 
Michigan, a State institution, furnishes the basis of a fair comparison. 
Michigan may stand as the type of a thorough State University well on 
its way to growth and expansion. Now, I doubt whether any good son 
of Toronto would care to lower his colours to Michigan. But how do 
the resources of the two institutions compare ? Michigan can avail her- 
self of four dollars to every one set apart for Toronto. One of two 
things follows : Either Toronto ranks below Michigan or an impossible 
task has been set her. In either case Toronto is in a difficult position. A 
stranger, comparing the two Universities, would probably maintain that 
Toronto must rank below Michigan, if for no other reason than that its 
equipment must be inadequate. In this scientific age equipment counts, 
and equipment demands money. Shall we then rank Toronto below 
the larger State Universities and with the so-called Colleges? Our 
pride rebels. And, as a matter of fact, the average Toronto graduate 
can more than hold his own with the average A.B. graduate of any 
American institution. That I am not speaking at random may be seen 
from an investigation of the positions held by Toronto men. Her 
graduates are welcomed wherever they go. They are scattered across 
the continent from ocean to ocean. The large Universities know them 
well. The number of fellowships held by Toronto men is unusual. In 
the University of Chicago a few years ago one-seventh of the total 
number of fellowships was held by graduates of 'Varsity. And, in this 
connection, it may be well to note that our College is fairly well 
represented in the faculties of American institutions of learning to-day. 
Dr. Barker is now at the head of the Anatomy Department of Rush 
Medical School in the University of Chicago ; J. A. MacLean is Presi- 
dent of Idaho ; Shipley, Hellems, Beattie, Hull, MacVannel, Wallace, 
Orton, Bonner, Tamblyn, Shotwell, Armour, Davidson, Wightman and 
many others hold important positions throughout the United States. A 

*I give the figures in round numbers. In the cases of Columbia, Chicago and Harvard, the 
amounts stated do not include gifts and other irregular sources of income. The total receipts 
of these institutions are therefore even greater than I have set down. 



THE NEEDS OF THE UNIVERSITY 167 

proof of Toronto's real worth is found in her graduates. But if this be 
true, what follows ? Surely, that the Province has compelled the 
University to do not twice but four times the amount of work required 
of other institutions belonging to her class. When one faces the situa- 
tion fairly, the utter absurdity of Toronto's financial position becomes 
apparent. All honour to those who have done so well with so little. No 
Toronto graduate need feel ashamed of his institution or of the men 
who taught him. But herculean efforts cannot continue to overcome the 
tremendous handicap unfairly imposed. 

Another point which we must bear in mind is, that the needs of a 
modern University are constantly increasing. No person, who has had 
anything to do with the inner life of a present-day school, will deny the 
statement that, despite rigid economy, needs will increase and must be 
adequately met if the health and vital power of the institution are to be 
maintained. Evolution should have taught us that the provision which 
sufficed twenty years ago will not suffice to-day. Professor Huxley has 
drawn a good picture of the great transformation which society has 
undergone in the past half-century. This change in social conditions has 
necessitated corresponding changes in our educational system. Education 
and society are organically related and vary concomitantly. The tools 
and methods of one decade must be cast aside for the newer and better 
ones of the succeeding. This point is being recognized in almost every 
College and University in the United States. An unprecedented interest 
in equipment and endowment is apparent everywhere. And it is to be 
placed to the credit of the American people that, as organizations and as 
individuals, they have responded nobly to the call for aid. 

Some thirty years ago the people of the United States discovered that 
the graduates of their Colleges and Universities were forced to go to 
Europe to complete their training. - The stream of intellectual emigrants 
to Germany is decreasing, because as good as German training may now 
be obtained in the United States. The same thing cannot be said of 
Ontario. Every year sees increasing numbers of Toronto graduates who 
are forced to cross the lines. You will find them in the great University 
centres, whither the desire for knowledge has driven them. Nor are these 
men inferior students. The majority of them were leaders ; I could 
easily name a score of such. These men have been lost to Ontario 
because she had nothing with which to satisfy their needs. She trained 
them well as far as she went. In short, as matters now stand, the unwel- 
come truth forces itself upon us, that in the full sense of the term Toronto 
is not a University. 

This statement may be warmly disputed by many, and I do not deny 
that Toronto is a University in embryo. But whether we enjoy the truth 
or not, the University idea, in its completeness, is far from being realized 
in Toronto. I say this not as a caviller, but as one intensely interested 
in the welfare of my Alma Mater. Toronto possesses a very high-grade 
college, good professional schools, a technical school of high order, 
affiliated schools of varying grade. If you choose you may call these 



1 68 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

a University, because diverse studies are carried on under one head. 
But where is the high specialization and the organized graduate school, which 
are now considered essential elements in a University? Part of the Honour 
work may, with right, be regarded as equivalent to graduate work. 
More or less graduate work has always been carried on. At the present 
time the graduate degree is granted in certain departments. Valuable 
contributions to knowledge have been made. I grant this, and I am 
proud of the work accomplished. But there is no organized graduate 
school, and for this reason Toronto must fall back into the class of minor 
institutions. And thus the Province of Ontario is defeating its own aims. 
Canadians are justly proud of the Ontario Educational System. Faults 
many and grievous could be enumerated. The same, however, could be 
said of every known system. Taken as a whole, the Ontario system 
fulfils the claim of Premier Ross. It is a national system. Public and 
High Schools, College and Professional Schools, do work of the highest 
order so far as they go : but they do not go far enough. For this reason 
Ontario is weakened by her own neglect. 

In the past a good excuse for neglect could be given. The country 
was new, and large sums of money had to be expended for general 
public improvements. But this excuse can be made no longer. The 
Province is on a good footing ; its outlook was never better, and surely 
it is time that the University had its turn. I am inclined to think that 
one reason why the University has been neglected is that its claims have 
not been insisted upon sufficiently. It is now time that a systematic 
crusade should be begun. To those who watch the movements of 
modern education, the position of Toronto is more than critical. It is 
not fitting that the highest educational institution of such a Province as 
Ontario, peopled by those among whom education is a pride, should be 
forced to lag so far behind in the race of educational development. And 
that is just what Toronto has been forced to do. There are men in 
Toronto, men whom it has been a pride to know, men worthy of high 
places in any University in America or beyond the seas. They have 
made the bearers of the Toronto B.A. degree to be honoured wherever they 
have gone. They have given proof, where they have had any chance, 
that the best things are in them. But, I say again, a fair fighting chance 
should be given them. If conditions do not change for the better, I 
cannot see how, with the rapid improvements being made on every hand, 
Toronto can long maintain her present rank. As to graduate instruction, 
our Alma Mater is inferior to Michigan. The statement seems hard, 
but I think that it is true too true. 

Out of loyalty to those to whom I owe much, and to the educational 
system under which I was trained, I have written the foregoing. I have 
tried to obtain and to state the facts. If I have done so, then it is the 
duty of every Toronto graduate, and of every friend of education, to use 
all legitimate means to impress the needs of the University upon the 
people of the Province and the Legislature. If the people demand that the 
State institution shall be given adequate support, the Legislature will not 



A CENTURY OF CHEMICAL PROGRESS 169 

refuse. The daily press, the magazine, the lecture hall, the floor of the 
Legislature, and every other legitimate means, should be used until the 
people have had their eyes opened fully and their steady common sense 
affected so that they will be ready to bring the University into her own. 
The South African War has shown that when the Canadian people have 
been convinced of a need, they can find the means to satisfy it. Con- 
vince them, therefore, working in season and out of season. She for 
whom you should do this is worthy. 

The Premier Province should awaken to the fact that the dominating 
centre of Canadian University life may be in Toronto. Should not its 
citizens arouse from their slumbers, and realize that, if they will, they 
may place their University among the great institutions of the world ? 
This should be accomplished, and speedily. Opportunities must be 
seized if advancement is to be made. Money, and much money, is 
required. On the Province falls the burden of the duty. A definite 
policy of continuous support should be inaugurated without delay. 
Spasmodic aid is useless. One wonders, too, that private individuals 
have not done more for the University. In the face of the princely gifts to 
education made by scores of private individuals in the United States, the 
lack of support to Toronto is certainly surprising. Perhaps Ontario does 
not boast many well-to-do men ; perhaps there is less real interest in 
higher education than is sometimes professed. Whatever the case may 
be, the condition remains, and I hope that every graduate of Toronto 
will answer to the call " To arms." and will fight until the cause of the 
University and of higher education is victorious. 



A CENTURY OF CHEMICAL PROGRESS. 

BY PROFESSOR W. R. LANG. 

THERE are few branches of science which have progressed so rapidly 
in the last hundred years as the one I have the honour to profess 
in this University. Looking back over this period one sees in existence 
a very different state of affairs, socially, commercially and otherwise, than 
that which now prevails, and it is no exaggeration to say that much of the 
present comfort enjoyed by all classes is due to the advance of physical 
and chemical science. Biology, even, and electricity certainly were in their 
infancy in 1800. Chemistry, as we know it now, almost equally so. The 
old alchemistical idea of " phlogiston " had received a decent burial, 
though its memory was kept green by Priestley till his death in 1804, 
and till the medical chemists, whose search for the " elixir vitae " had occu- 
pied their attention since the middle ages, had given up the quest for 
more profitable inquiry. The search for the " philosopher's stone," which 
was to convert all baser metals into gold, had been the main object of 
the experiments of a certain class of chemists, but such men as Black, 
Cavendish, Scheele, Priestley and Lavoisier who fell a victim to politics 




1 7 o UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

during the French Revolution were studying the composition of matter 
for the sake of knowledge itself. That science was on the verge of 
entering on a new era is evidenced by the fact that in 1800 the Royal 
Society (founded 1663) commenced its "Catalogue of Scientific Papers." 
Chemical knowledge at that period was limited to a few isolated facts. 
Oxygen and hydrogen had been prepared, and the composition of air 
and water and of a few minerals was known, and a right understanding 
of the general characters of acids, bases and salts had been but recently 
arrived at. 

At the present day, when the electric current is used so extensively 
in many chemical operations and manufactures, it is of interest to note 
that the first experiments towards the decomposition of water into its 
constituent elements, oxygen and hydrogen, by this means were made in 
1800 by Nicholson and Carlisle. Following on this Humphrey Davy, 
who in 1 80 1 was appointed Professor of Chemistry at the now famous 
Royal Institution of London, applied the current from his galvanic 
battery to the decomposition of damp caustic potash and soda. In this 
way he obtained at the negative pole metallic globules, which by subse- 
quent experiments he found could be reconverted into the alkali from 
which they had originally been prepared. By similar means he isolated 
the elements barium, strontium and calcium from the common " earths," 
and found that these in combination with the gas chlorine discovered 
by Scheele gave soluble saline bodies, of which common salt may be 
taken as the type. 

Davy was at that time instrumental in proving that oxygen, which 
had been considered the acid-forming element, was not necessarily a 
constituent of all acids. Chlorine was supposed to be an oxide of hydro- 
chloric acid, but all experiments which he performed to find oxygen in 
chlorine proved decisively that it was an elementary body. About this 
time also Curtois, a Parisian soap-boiler, when preparing soap with alkali 
obtained from sea-weed, found indications of a substance hitherto 
unnoticed. This he sent to Davy, who discovered its elementary char- 
acter and its resemblance to chlorine, and thus iodine came to be added 
to the rapidly growing list of simple substances. In 1826 Balard added 
one more to the number by his discovery of bromine in the mother liquor 
or " bittern " left after the removal of sea-salt from sea-water by evapora- 
tion. 

Contemporaneously with Davy's earlier researches, John Dalton, a 
Manchester schoolmaster, enunciated his famous theory, which has 
remained the fundamental hypothesis of chemistry to this day. Accord- 
ing to this doctrine, matter is composed of minute particles or " atoms," 
each with a definite relative weight, and compounds are formed by these 
atoms of different elements becoming closely united to form a homo- 
geneous whole. Other chemists had noticed that the same compounds 
always contained the same elements in the same proportions by weight, 
and that when more than one compound could be got containing the 
same elements, but in different proportions, the proportion in which the 



A CENTURY OF CHEMICAL PROGRESS 171 

one element combined with the other in the second case was a multiple 
by a whole number of the proportion in which it combined in the first 
case. All this Dalton's hypothesis accounted for. Thomas Thomson, 
the professor of chemistry in the University of Glasgow, was the first to 
teach Dalton's views, and he incorporated these ideas into his " System 
of Chemistry," published in 1805. In his "Chemical Philosophy," pub- 
lished a few years afterwards, Dalton expresses his ideas thus : " Chemical 
analysis and synthesis go no farther than to the separation of particles 
one from another, and to their reunion. No new creation or destruction 
of matter is within the reach of chemical agency. We might as well 
attempt to introduce a new planet into the solar system, or to annihilate 
one already in existence as to create or destroy a particle of hydrogen. 
All the changes we can produce consist in separating particles that are 
in a state of cohesion or combination, and joining those that were 
previously at a distance." Thomson, Berzelius, Prout, Stas and Dumas 
all proceeded to determine what these constant weights were in which 
the elements combined together, and a series of numbers was obtained 
and termed atomic weights, or more properly, equivalent weights. 

Hitherto little notice had been taken of the volume relation in which 
elements combined. Gay-Lussac and Avogadro noticed the definite 
proportions in which gases combined together, which later became 
extended to elements in the gaseous state that were at ordinary tempera- 
ture liquids or solids. To enter into further particulars, however, 
regarding the facts relating to atomic weights, made evident by careful 
study of those volume relations, would be beyond the scope of this 
lecture. Equally so would be any detailed explanation of the facts 
established by the researches of Dulong and Petit regarding the relation 
between the atomic weights of the elements and their capacity for heat 
Suffice it to say that this relation has proved instrumental in ascertaining 
those relative numbers, a true knowledge of which is' indispensable alike 
to the physicist and the chemist. The theory enunciated by Avogadro, 
previously referred to, that equal volumes of gases contained an equal 
number of particles or molecules, received confirmation from the researches 
of Thomas Graham, of University College, London, into the subject of 
gaseous diffusion. Experiment showed that the rate of the diffusion of 
different gases through some porous material varied inversely as the 
square roots of their respective densities. Graham also contributed 
greatly to our knowledge of liquid diffusion, and his researches and 
riews on the constitution of the phosphoric acids are now classic. 

At the beginning of the century Germany had produced few chemists ; 
at any rate none of the first rank. Liebig may, perhaps, be considered 
its first great man, and he in his youth received his instruction in the 
laboratory of a French chemist, Gay-Lussac. In 1837, when her late 
Majesty Queen Victoria of sacred memory ascended the throne, he was 
in the height of his fame. To him we owe much of the impetus which 
was given to the study of scientific chemistry in England, and to him 
the physiologist, the manufacturer and the agriculturist are indebted for 



172 

a great portion of their present knowledge of the practical application 
of it to their varied needs. He it was who devised the method still in 
use for the determination of the composition of " organic " compounds. 
Wohler showed at this time by his synthesis of urea a substance 
hitherto considered as purely the result of vital action that "organic" 
chemistry must be regarded as the chemistry of compound radicles. 
Liebig and Dumas were at one with Wohler in this, and formally 
announced their adhesion to his doctrines at a seance of the Academic 
des Sciences de Paris in 1837. The enormous strides made in the 
development of this branch of chemistry cannot but strike the most 
callous observer as one of the marvels of the century. From the syn- 
thesis of urea in 1828 by Wohler, and of acetic acid by Kolbe in 1845, 
down to the present day, when dyes of every shade and tint, explosives 
of all kinds, drugs, sugar, and even indigo can be built up in the labo- 
ratory by artificial processes, the development of this department has 
been phenomenal. And how has this come about ? The conception of 
radicles led to an incalculable amount of research into the constitution 
of organic compounds, and the ways in which radicles were linked 
together and to elementary atoms. Compounds were broken down and 
again reconstructed, and the methods of causing these combinations to 
take place gradually became perfected. It may safely be said that the 
manufacturers of to-day owe much, if not all, of their success to the 
investigation following on these theoretical conceptions of the distin- 
guished chemists I have named. 

The old system of formulae, based on Dalton's atomic hypothesis, came 
in for reconstruction about the middle of the century. Gerhardt (1843) 
was the first to seriously discuss the question, closely followed by Wil- 
liamson (1850). It was some time, however, before the system deduced 
from their views was generally accepted. Hofmann was the first to adopt 
it in his lectures, and in 1864 Dr. Odling, the President of the Chemical 
Section of the British Association, congratulated the section on the 
agreement that had been arrived at amongst chemists as to the com- 
bining proportion of the elements and the molecular weights of their 
compounds. Observation of the natural families into which the elements 
grouped themselves led to the enunciation of what is now known as the 
" Periodic Arrangement of the Elements." In 1864, Newlands, of Lon- 
don, showed that when the elements were arranged in the order of the 
numerical value of their atomic weights, their properties, physical and 
chemical, varied in a recurrent or periodic manner. Thus it was seen 
that the element eighth in succession from another usually resembles it 
closely. Newlands termed this arrangement the " Law of Octaves." In 
1869, Mendeleeff, of St. Petersburg, contributed further facts concerning 
this periodic arrangement of the elements, and their study at this day is 
based on that now fully recognized system of classification. Both New- 
lands and Mendeleeff predicted the existence and physical and chemical 
properties of many undiscovered elements which would go to fill the 
blanks in the table. When gallium, scandium and germanium were 



THE COPYRIGHT QUESTION 173 

isolated they were found to correspond to the elements predicted by 
Mendeleeff, and to which he had assigned the names, "eka-boron," " eka- 
aluminim" and " eka-silicon." 

The phenomena exhibited by many substances in their action on 
polarized light have led to ideas regarding the arrangement of atoms in 
space. To Pasteur, and more notably Le Bel and van't Hoff, is due the 
credit of bringing before chemists a hypothesis which has had an enor- 
mous influence in the progress of organic chemistry. 

The study of substances in solution has provided a means of deter- 
mining molecular weights. Pfeffer, the botanist, in 1878, performed an 
important series of experiments with membranes deposited by chemical 
means in the pores of unglazed earthenware, and found that if weak 
solutions of salts were placed outside such a vessel, water would diffuse 
through while the dissolved substance would not. This was due to the 
"semi-permeability" of the membrane employed. Van't Hoff, in 1887, 
in studying the theory of dilute solutious, found that the semi-permeable 
membranes served to measure the pressure due to the dissolved sub- 
stance. From an accurate study of substances in dilute solution and of 
their behaviour with regard to their passage through extremely thin 
porous membranes it is now evident that there exists the closest possible 
analogy between the state of substances in solution and the same in the 
gaseous condition. As the result of experiments on the conductivity of 
substances in solution for electricity, Arrhenius (1888) has shown that 
when an electrolyte, such as common salt, is dissolved in water it disso- 
ciates partly into the separate ions, a name devised by Faraday, and 
signifying the " things that go," namely sodium and chlorine. These 
views have been strongly upheld by Ostwald and others, and are sup- 
ported by the facts rendered apparent by the behaviour of substances in 
solution as regards diffusion, the lowering of the vapour-pressure and 
the depression of the freezing point of the solvent. 

( To be continued. ) 



THE COPYRIGHT QUESTION. 

BY GOLDWIN SMITH, D.C.L. 

THE copyright question, on which Professor Mavor, who has mastered 
it, has given you an article, is, of course, greatly, almost fatally, 
complicated by the prevalence of an illiberal protectionism in the United 
States. Mr. Funk, the eminent New York publisher, some time ago, in 
a letter to The Times on "The United States and Copyright," adverted 
to the refusal of the United States to allow the British applicant for their 
copyright to print in his own country, while Great Britain allows the 
American applicant for her copyright to print in his. He ascribed this 
to the influence exercised by the American Printers' Union and its allied 
trades over the Government of the United States. He was, no doubt, 
right as to the fact. It is true that the universal interests of literature, 
science and art are sacrificed to those of a local handicraft. But it would 
surely be paying a poor compliment to the American Government to 



174 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

plead on its behalf, as an excuse for its failure to do justice, its subjection 
to a sinister interest. 

The. American printer, under the existing arrangement, not only 
secures his own share of the printing, but robs the English printer of 
that which properly belongs to him. 

It is a pity, as it seems to me, that matters should ever have been 
allowed to rest on such a footing. This is not free trade; it is conniv- 
ance on the part of Great Britain at the most manifestly unjust protec- 
tion. Great Britain should surely have said to the Americans that she 
was going into the Berne Convention, and they could go into it or not 
as they thought best, but that they could not expect to share its benefits 
without fulfilling its conditions. Had this been done, there would have 
been an effort on the part of the literary interest in the United States to 
bring about a better arrangement, such as Mr. Funk's house, to its 
honour, desires. At present there is none. 

That an Imperial Copyright law as well as an Imperial Marriage law 
and an Imperial Patent law are the natural accessories of a united 
Empire, seems to me a position which is very difficult to assail. 



ZETA PSI AT TORONTO. 

BY C. A. MOSS, B.A.* 

*"7ETA PSI fraternity was first mooted in 1845 or 1846 at New York 
^ University. Its formal establishment dates from the 1st June, 
1847. While, in the main, its objects are those of other college societies, 
the great end at which it aims is the development of the man. In its 
eyes the man is far more important than the athlete, the musician or the 
scholar. Thus the fraternity is distinctly social in theory and in practice, 
seeking to cultivate each member by intimate acquaintanceship with a 
few congenial friends. Literary attainments, class successes, athletic 
feats and undergraduate prominence are but means to the end. The 
original founders of the Society were Masons, and some of the ritual of 
that body was adapted to the ceremonies of Zeta Psi. 

The energy of the members, added to the principles outlined above, 
resulted in the rapid spread of the Society throughout the north-eastern 
States during the ten years succeeding its birth, and chapters were also 
established in colleges in the southern States. The clouds which 
heralded the civil war seemed to portend evil to the body, and a seces- 
sion of the southern chapters was threatened. At this crisis, in 1858, 
when the feeling throughout the United States was most bitter, and 
neighbour was preparing to rise against neighbour, and brother against 

* The credit for the materials and scope of this article belongs to a committee of the 
society, composed of O. M. Bijrgar, B.A., Eric N. Armour, B.A., and M. C. Cameron, B.A. 
The imperfections of presentation are those of the writer. 



ZETA PSI AT TORONTO 175 

brother, the governing body of the Society passed a resolution, the terms 
of which indicate the extent to which the ties of such a fraternity may 
overcome passion and hatred. This resolution was in the following 
words : 

"That while we may differ in political sentiment from some of our 
" brethren who are courageously battling for principles which they deem 
" right, no disaster shall separate them from our communion." 

The spirit which breathed in the foregoing words held the northern 
and southern chapters together, but the far-reaching effects of the war 
in the south resulted disastrously to some of the chapters there. The 
members of the Society took prominent parts in the conflict, the chapter 
at Brown University being temporarily dissolved by the enlistment of 
its entire membership in the Rhode Island Light Artillery. 

After the war the fraternity spread to the west, establishing itself in 
Cornell, Ann Arbor, Chicago and California. In 1879, on the 2/th 
March, the Toronto chapter was established by members from Ann 
Arbor University, several of whom attended Toronto to initiate the 
Society here. Our first members were E. N. Clements, F. T. Congdon, 
Henry Brock, J. A. Patullo, A. B. Shaw, Douglas Armour, H. K. Wood- 
ruff, H. H. Hull and W. K. McDougald. 

Claiming to be more secret than the majority of undergraduate 
fraternities, the policy of Zeta Psi with regard to new chapters has for 
many years been conservative, and its object has been to build solidly 
upon the foundations already laid rather than to spread widely. In 
accordance with this principle but two new chapters have been established 
in the past eleven years, the number of chapters now in active life being 
twenty-two. 

In 1879 the fraternity idea as a recognized force in college life was 
new to Canada. The movement had been called into being in the States 
as a phase of the great activity, expansion and organization of the years 
1830-1850. No such incentive existed at Toronto. The members of 
the new chapter were timid in declaring themselves. The first meetings 
were held in the rooms in Residence of the various brothers, and the 
existence of the organization was unknown to those outside of its circle. 
In the fall of the year, however, rooms were secured in the old opera 
house on King Street, but fire destroyed the chapter's first home in 
November, and again meetings were held secretly in Residence. 

The college paper at this time was called "The Blue and White." 
Early in 1880, hoping to better it, the Zetes determined to acquire its 
control. By the end of April the paper, henceforth to be known as 
" The 'Varsity," was owned by chapter members. 

In March rooms were again rented down-town. The fraternity had 
now become known. Its objects were misunderstood, its motives 
attacked. In such an organization there undoubtedly existed elements 
of possible danger, both to the University and to the members them- 
selves. Undergraduates saw this danger clearly, and their whole body 
declared war against Zeta Psi. If the then members of the chapter were 




1 76 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

unknown now, we should nevertheless decline to refuse them the credit 
of love for their Alma Mater. We do know them as men who have 
proved their integrity and worth. They were convinced that the feeling 
of the undergraduates was wrong, and they resolved to maintain the 
chapter, and to make it an instrument for good to their college and 
themselves. But, unable to cope in the open with the storm, they 
abandoned their rooms, and again met in unknown places. 

In 1 88 1 the chapter ventured forth to look for sunshine. Rooms were 
secured on the north side of King Street, and, their corporate life being 
for the moment secure, the members were able to look for new material. 
In 1 88 1 and 1882 many invaluable men joined the fraternity's ranks. 
The merits of " 'Varsity " were recognized, its editors were influential, 
its policy was respected and often adopted. 

This period saw a woman first attempt to attain undergraduate rights 
at Toronto. The Zeta Psi chapter as a body supported her efforts, 
endangering its existence at Toronto for what it thought to be in the 
interests of the University and of womanhood. 

In 1882 the chapter seemed to leap forward. Individual Zetes con- 
ceived the idea of a union of students. Its formation was accomplished, 
the purpose being the promoting and conserving of the students' rights. 
At the College, several members of the chapter were recognized by being 
elected to the most important and onerous positions in the undergraduate 
bodies. In the conception and execution of the presentment of "An- 
tigone " the brothers took a generous part. 

The fraternity at large also profited by the chapter's activity and 
strength. To Henry Brock was entrusted the management and editor- 
ship of the " Z i/r Monthly." McGill was looked upon as a fit field for 
exploitation, and a chapter, since most successful, was founded there as 
a result of the efforts of Toronto brothers in January, 1883. 

In the spring of this year the chapter was weakened by the gradua- 
tion of many of the enthusiastic and successful leaders and fighters of 
the past two years. These men had instituted the chapter, overcome the 
first attacks upon it ; by their generalship, by their policy and by their 
unceasing care they had maintained it with honour ; when they left the 
University they left the fraternity strongly entrenched and creditably 
known. But the interest of these graduates in the chapter, whose future 
they had thus made possible, did not wane. A post-graduate associa- 
tion was formed, to retain old friendships and to advise the under- 
graduate members. In different shapes this organization has lived ever 
since ; it meets now, on the most elaborate scale it has yet achieved, 
once a month, and listens to and discusses papers on topics of the hour 
from the different associates. 

The few undergraduates left in 1883 had to struggle against inevitable 
reaction. They could not fill at once the places of those who had gone. 
Financially and numerically they were weak. The internal policy of the 
next two years was recuperation, the making surer yet the bulwarks. 
It was well this had been done, for in 1887 once again undergraduate 



ZETA PSI AT TORONTO 177 

protests demanded the abolition of secret societies. A circular was pub- 
lished purporting to give the names of the members. The fraternity's aims 
were characterized as selfish, disloyal and dishonourable. Its secrecy 
was condemned as a sign of would-be exclusiveness and self-supposed 
superiority, and as in furtherance of a design to obtain the control of 
undergraduate affairs. This last effort to kill the Society spent itself and 
died away. 

From 1879 to 1890 the expansion of the University had been slow. 
The number of students increased, indeed, but the genius of their organi- 
zation remained the same. Those who would might make the acquaint- 
ance of the whole undergraduate body. As a matter of course each one 
knew all of his year. Residence was a potent factor in college affairs, 
and its inmates and their intimates were of sufficient number to wield a 
large influence. From its situation it was the natural centre ; those 
living there were easily gathered for meetings or elections. It was always 
organized. Zeta Psi from the first was identified closely with the Resi- 
dence. As during these ten years Residence for the most part led the 
College, so the fraternity led Residence. The records of the Rugby 
football club bear the most eloquent testimony to this fact. Zetes were 
captains of the team during many of these years, and many Zetes played 
upon the team. The annals of the Association football, cricket and 
baseball clubs contain further evidence. The names of some captains 
of that period, Hume Blake, McLean, the Senkler brothers, Duggan, 
Thompson, Brock, Lindsey and A. G. Smith, will recall to their asso- 
ciates the work done by the chapter in each branch of sport, and to these 
names could be added others of equal merit. The 'Varsity Company 
in the Queen's Own Rifles was always to a great extent officered and 
manned by brothers of the Zeta Psi. In 1885 the chapter numbered 
thirty-three, of whom thirteen went through the rebellion in the North- 
West with this company. The Literary Society records are too replete 
with names of Zetes for choice to be made. For years there the contest 
was between Residence and Town, Inside and Outside, and in those 
struggles by reason of its situation Zeta Psi had to bear, and did bear, 
a prominent part. The Glee Club also owes much of its successes to 
this chapter, W. H. Blake, Langton, Burton, and, somewhat later, R. K. 
Barker, all taking prominent parts in its history. In the fall of 1890 
Cross aided in establishing and captained the lacrosse club, whose annual 
tours in the eastern States have spread favourably the name of the 
University of Toronto. In every phase of undergraduate life the Zetes 
were prominent, encouraging, suggesting, aiding, leading. 

One cannot fix the end of an old order of things with an exact date. 
The extraordinary expansion of undergraduate members at Toronto 
must have begun before 1890. About that time the student institutions 
adapted to days of smaller things began to be plainly inadequate. 
Residence became a small factor, Zeta Psi a smaller factor, in affairs. 
The expanded student body rightly demanded that it should control the 
undergraduate paper, which the Zetes could no longer handle in the best 



178 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

interests of the College. To fulfil its purpose it must now be controlled 
and financed by the whole student body. In the hands of Zeta Psi it 
had long and well represented the undergraduates it had upheld abroad 
the honour of the University. In these hands it could do so no longer, 
and so, before 1890, the fraternity had handed it over. The years were 
organizing into class societies ; course societies followed ; a call for an 
Alma Mater undergraduate society, the need of an athletic association 
each voiced the effort to find some new and fitt'ng method for the 
expression of the undergraduate wish. Realizing the power the chapter 
had held under the old order, and fearing it might seek to retain that 
power, a large portion of the students looked upon its members with 
suspicion. Nevertheless, in the various schemes of reorganization the 
Zetes took a large part. The year 1891 was with them most successful, 
and many offices of trust and distinction were awarded them. The 
benefits of secret societies for those who desired them were widely 
acknowledged. The ground had now been prepared for others. Kappa 
Alpha and Alpha Delta Phi established prosperous chapters, and events 
have proved that there is room for these, and for others which have 
followed them. Since 1890 Zetes have been prominent again and again 
in every branch of student activity, called to the work by their under- 
graduate fellows. But with the changed conditions the chapter cannot 
have, nor does it ask, its former sphere of influence. It devotes itself 
the more gladly to its primary object, the development of the social life. 
In a large university this must be to a great extent the aim of the 
fraternities. An undergraduate is apt to meet and consort with those 
of his own course and class only. Bringing him into contact with men 
of other years, of other aims, and of different views, the societies do the 
undergraduate lasting, incalculable benefit. 

In 1893 the changed opinion concerning fraternities and the changed 
conditions were shown by the fact that Zeta Psi leased the old Reform 
Club House on Wellington Street. Hitherto the location of the rooms 
had always been secret. In the beginning of 1895 the annual convention 
of the various chapters of Zeta Psi was held, for the second time in 
Toronto, at this house. None of the members lived there, however, nor 
were strangers allowed to enter. An agitation soon arose for a house 
owned by the chapter, where brothers who might wish it could reside. 
The authorities of the University have now recognized the fraternities, 
and have offered to lease upon most favourable terms a portion of the 
University property, upon which chapter houses may be built. 

In 1899 the fraternity leased a large house, this time up-town, and 
there they are at present comfortably lodged. Many members reside 
there ; for those who do not it is a place where they gladly spend their 
spare moments. Strangers are permitted to visit, and graduate members 
also find it a convenient spot in which to spend many a cosy evening. 

A detailed account of the history of the chapter for the past few years 
would here, it is feared, be out of place. Let us mention only that five 
members, A. J. Boyd, R. K. Barker, J. McCrae, F. W. G. Thomas and 



AVERAGE AGES OF MATRICULANTS 179 

W. C. Laidlavv have served with various Canadian contingents in the 
Transvaal. Ten years from now some one writing of the decade just 
past will find among its annals names as mighty in undergraduate 
history as those mentioned above. But it is hard at this time to 
estimate, in a paper such as this is, written primarily for those 
outside fraternities, the place of Zeta Psi in the history of the 
University within these past few years. It draws its members from 
every affiliated school and college. There for social ends the arts man, 
the medico, the science man, the theolog all meet. The noble objects 
of the founders of the fraternity are ever before its members. They 
choose by fraternal intercourse to assist in their own development, and 
believe they are the better therefor, and because of their honoured 
chapter they are the more loyal to their beloved Alma Mater. 



AVERAGE AGES OF MATRICULANTS. 

The Editor of University of Toronto Monthly : 

DEAR SIR, In a recent letter to the Globe Professor Dale quotes and 
seems, though his language is not so sweeping, to endorse the following 
statement in relation to the students at a Prussian University : " He 
comes to the University with a knowledge of classics, mathematics and 
modern languages equal to that of the average arts graduate of an 
American or English University." Is this correct?. Or approxi- 
mately correct ? If so, at what age do the German students matri- 
culate? Making allowances for the phrase, "average arts graduate" 
and for the embellishments of a polemical discussion, there must either 
be, say, two years' difference in the average age of the respective matricu- 
lants, or an equivalent in something else, if the facts be as stated. 

Any difference in the average natural ability is likely slight. Is it in 
the previous (say, primary or secondary education), or what? If the 
school methods or ambition for omniscience nowadays, so general in five- 
year-old tots, is blameworthy let us know it. 

Yours truly, 

JOHN IDINGTON. 

The answers to the questions asked by Mr. Idington will be found in 
President Loudon's Convocation address of last October. It is there 
explained that the German youth of nineteen closes his career at the 
gymnasium or real-schule with attainments equal at least to those of our 
pass graduate, and enters the University for the purpose of undertaking 
professional study or research work. The reason why the German student 
is so far in advance of the Canadian student of the same age is to be found, 
according to President Loudon, in the superiority of the German system 
of secondary education over the Ontario system. The remedies for the 
defects in our system are stated in the same address. THE EDITOR. 



i8o UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

THE LATE REVEREND A. J. McLEOD, B.A. 

BY A. H. YOUNG, '87. 

THE first time I remember Angus McLeod clearly was in connection 
with a caucus of the old inside party which was held in Residence 
dining-room. He was one of those who insisted strongly, and success- 
fully, upon bars being abolished as a party institution, and no one 
thought the less of him for the outspoken way in which he expressed his 
views. At the end of the contest, which, though very hot, was conducted 
on much straighter lines than had, perhaps, been customary, he found 
himself Second Vice-President of the Literary Society. 

A Knox man, I remember, had pledged his vote to his class-mate, a 
candidate for the insiders in this same contest, but he requested (and was 
granted) the privilege of changing his mind, because it was the custom 
for Knox to vote the outside ticket. McLeod did not' live in Knox till 
later on, if I remember aright, but, after taking up his residence there, he 
accomplished a task which would have been impossible for most men 
he gained large numbers of recruits for his party in that stronghold of 
the outsiders, which had been held so long by the Mackays and their 
friends. 

I will not say that his opponents loved him the more for this feat 
which he had performed, but they certainly respected the man who, by 
his place in the class lists, his knowledge of football, his powers of 
speaking, his ability to manage men, and, above all, by his manliness and 
gentlemanliness, was able to draw men to him. We have had good men 
in great numbers at University College, but none, so far as I know, has 
surpassed McLeod, and none has left so enduring a mark behind as he 
has left. His was that goodness which attracts men but does not repel 
them. In a word he was sincere. 

He was one of those men who on Thursdays frequented the Y. M. 
C. A. meetings in the dull, dark room upstairs in Moss Hall, where all 
undergraduate societies used to meet in other days, when there was 
neither Union nor Y. M. C. A. Hall. The Association had grown since 
1873 in spite of the drawbacks incidental to the place of meeting, but 
to McLeod, with his earnestness and his social instincts, there came 
visions of something far better for it. Gradually the idea of a building 
for the Association itself grew in his mind not that it should be 
separate from the life of the undergraduate body, but that it might 
become a centre of student life. 

The time was opportune, for the cry of " a godless college " was 
heard in the land ; hence good subscriptions were given by prominent 
officials, as well as by graduates arid other friends of University College, 
when the subscription list was opened in the spring of 1885. Of the 
six thousand dollars or more subscribed, not more than a hundred 
dollars was left unpaid a thing almost unheard of in the matter of 



LATE REV. A. J. McLEOD 181 

subscription lists and a tribute, among other things, to the wise manage- 
ment of McLeod. 

He spent the whole summer in town, supplying, if I mistake not, at 
the West Presbyterian Church, and was thus able to see that the build- 
ing operations were properly carried on. A proud man he was when 
the building was opened on March 6th, 1886, practically free from 
debt. 

With the building came new requirements, and the winter of 1886-7 
saw McLeod in the new position of General Secretary, directing the 
work of the Association. His foundation principle was that, taken for 
granted his being what he professed to be, a man, to be prominent in 
the Y.M.C.A., ought first to be of some account elsewhere, in one or 
other of the Football Clubs, in the Literary Society, the Glee Club, or 
something of the sort. With other-worldliness he had no sympathy at 
all. He and his immediate successors took care, -on the other hand, to 
guide the Association through the period when the "Y.M.C.A. party" 
was talked of in undergraduate politics. 

It was during his tenure of the secretaryship that Messrs. Forman and 
Wilder visited the College and interested the men in the Student 
Volunteer Movement, about which so much is still heard. Out of this 
grew, besides a new interest in missions on the part of most of the men 
in College, the plan, proposed by McLeod, for sending a Y.M.C.A. mis- 
sionary to Korea. The Reverend James Gale, '88, the distinguished author 
of " Korean Sketches," etc., went out in due time, as all the world knows, 
and the mission, by degrees, grew into the scheme which is now being 
worked out. It was an individualistic experiment in missionary effort, 
which, though it broke down in its original form, has been, so far as can 
be judged, of very great benefit to most of those concerned. 

I have done with the outstanding points of McLeod's connection 
with the Y. M. C. A. and with University College, though I could say 
much more about him if space allowed, but I must set it down that out 
of this Student Volunteer Movement grew, in part at least, his own 
resolve to devote himself to that work with which he was occupied at 
the time of his death on November 2Oth. After a short pastorate at 
Medicine Hat he became principal of the Regina Industrial School for 
Indians, which is supported by the Dominion Government and managed 
by the Presbyterian Church. What his earlier work had been this was; 
also, solid, thorough, and genuine, done in the spirit of the Master whom 
he served. It seems a pity that a memorial called by his name 
should not stand among us, and, in default of something better, it seems 
to me that the place he planned and watched over might well be called 
McLeod Hall, seeing that other names which have been given to it from 
time to time have failed to maintain their hold. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

HP HE geographical distribution of the graduates of the University of 
* Toronto in the faculties of Arts and Medicine is shown in the 
following table by counties in Ontario and by Provinces in Canada. 
To these figures will be added later the graduates now on the list of 
"Addresses Unknown," which is being rapidly reduced through the kind- 
ness of readers of the MONTHLY who have sent in information. 



ONTARIO : 
NAME OF COUNTY. 


No. of 
Graduates 
in 
Arts. 


No. of 
Graduates 
in 
Medicine., 


ONTARIO : 
NAME OF COUNTY. 


No. of 
Graduates 
in 
Arts. 


No. of 
Graduates 
in 
Medicine. 


Algoma . . . 


14 


6 


Peterborough 


18 


15 


Brant 


37 


22 


Prescott and Russell. 


4 


2 


Bruce . 


30 


28 


Prince Edward 


11 


9 


Carlr ton 


75 


6 


Rainy River District. 


3 


3 




13 


7 


Renfrew . .... 


10 


4 


EU'hi 


36 


22 


Sinicoe 


44 


57 


Essex 


33 


26 


Stormont, Dundas 






Frontenac 


12 


8 


and Glengarry. . . . 


14 


5 


Grey 


39 


43 


Thunder Bay 


6 


2 


Haldimand . 


12 


16 


Victoria 


18 


25 


H alt mi . .... 


23 


13 


Waterloo 


32 


29 




30 


13 


Welland .... 


18 


20 




36 


33 


Wellington 


54 


41 




29 


28 


Wentwbrth 


72 


56 


Lambton . 


29 


19 


York 


50 


57 


Lanark 


16 


8 










21 


6 


Toronto 


550 


207 


Lennox and Adding- 






Quebec 


32 


4 


ton ... 


19 


9 


New Brunswick .... 


6 


2 


Lincoln 


32 


23 


Nova Scotia 


9 


1 


Middlesex 


82 


43 


Prince Edward Island 


1 


2 


Manitoulin 


1 


1 


Newfoundland 


1 


1 


M u.skoka. ,. 


9 


13 


Manitoba 


58 


23 


Nipissing 


7 


3 


North -West Terri- 






Norfolk 


14 


17 


tories 


27 


26 


Northumberland and 
' Durham .... 


32 


29 


British Columbia . . . 
United States 


41 
176 


23 
74 


Ontario 


40 


30 


West Indies 


1 


1 


Oxford . . . 


35 


35 


Europe 


21 


8 


Parry Sound 


1 


6 


Asia 


19 


7 


Peel 


21 


14 


Africa . . , 


1 


2 


Perth 


37 


24 


Australia 


3 


8 















UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION: 
LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

GREY AND BRUCE. 

The graduates and undergraduates of the University of Toronto resi- 
dent in the districts of North Grey and North Bruce met in the council 
chamber in Owen Sound on January 25th. The addresses delivered by 
Drs. J. C. McLennan and F. N. G. Starr, of Toronto, upon not only 
University questions in general, but the progress and immediately specific 



LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 183 

needs of the University of Toronto, were heartily endorsed. The " Owen 
Sound branch of the Alumni Association of the University cf Toronto " 
was organized with the following officers elected for the current year : 

Honorary President Rev. J. Somerville, M. A., '70, D.D. 

President A. G. McKay, B.A. , '83, County Crown Attorney. 

Vice- Presidents Vf. \\. Jeiikius, B.A., '90; T. H. Middlebro', M.B., '92, F.R.C.S. ; H. J. F. 

Bannerman, D.U.S. 

Secretary VV. D. Ferris, M.B., '98, Shallow Lake. 
Treasurer H. E. Sampson, B.A., '93, Ph.D. 
Councillors John Armstrong, B.A.. '76; C. J. Mickle, B.A., '81 ; A. W. Baines, J. G. M. 

Sloane, M.B., '95 ; Malcolm N. Clark, B.A., '97 ; J. B. Fraser, M.D., '69. 

A committee was appointed, composed of the Honorary President, 
first Vice- President and Secretary, to draft and engross a memorial to 
the Local Legislature asking for assistance to the State University of 
the Province of Ontario befitting the resources of the Province, and also 
to prepare a request to the local members for North Grey and North 
Bruce to assist in carrying out the terms of the memorial ; and that all 
members of this local branch of the Alumni Association be asked to 
sign their names to the request to the local members. . 

There is a strong and general opinion amongst the Alumni of this 
district that the graduates of the state University should be represented 
upon the Senate of that institution by graduates from various parts of 
the state, i.e., resident outside the city of Toronto ; also, that members 
of the Senate should not be expected to bear their own expenses, 
travelling and otherwise, when attending meetings of the Senate. 

The parent Alumni Association may expect hearty support from this 
local branch, which will number above fifty members. 

W. D. FERRIS, Secretary. 
HURON. 

A number of graduates of the University of Toronto residing in the 
County of Huron met at Clinton, February i6th, 1901, to organize a 
local branch of the Alumni Association of the University of Toronto. 
Among others present were : Mr. H. I. Strang, Principal of the Goderich 
Collegiate Institute; Dr. Taylor, Goderich; Rev. Mr. Hamilton; Mr. 
Cooper and Mr. Field, of the Goderich Collegiate Institute ; Messrs. 
Trelevan, Houston and Dr. J. C. McLennan, Toronto. Mr. Strang took 
the chair and stated briefly the object of the meeting. Dr. McLennan, the 
General Secretary of the Alumni Association, then addressed the meet- 
ing, pointing out what was being done for the promotion of the interests 
of the University generally, and what it was hoped could be accomplished 
by the formation of a local Alumni Association such as it was proposed 
to organize in this county. Ur. McLennan was of the greatest assistance 
to the meeting, as the local graduates and undergraduates, although 
perfectly willing and anxious to do all that lies in their power to aid the 
University, are somewhat at a loss to know exactly how to proceed, or 
what is bt-ing done by the central association. A constitution was 
adopted corresponding very closely to the constitution of the Alumni 
Association of the University of Toronto, the only changes being made 
were those necessitated by the fact that this Association is only a branch. 
The following officers were elected : 



184 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Honorary President H I. Strang, B. A., '62. 

Prexident Win. Gunn, M. D., '81, Clinton. 

Vice-Presidents A. Mowat, B.A., '91, Seaforth ; A. Taylor, M.B., '71, M.D., '88, Goderich ; 

Rev. A. Stewart B. A., '73, Clinton ; Rev. Colin Fletcher, B.A., '73, Exeter ; Thos. 

Agnew, M.B , '94, Wingham. 

Secretary- Treasurer Charles Garrow, B.A., '96, Goderich. 
Councillors Rev. Mr. Hamilton, B. A., '82, London ; J. M. Field, B.A., '95, Goderich; 

Isaac R. Carling, B A., '91, Exeter; Principal Houston, B.A., '77, M.A., '78; 

W. Brydone, B.A., '90, LL.B., '93, Clinton ; Miss Kirkwood, B.A., '98. Seaforth ; 

Geo. Buchanan, M.B., '71, Zurich ; J. C. Lindsay, M.B., '98, Blyth, and Dr. Holliday, 

Wingham. 

A motion was made and carried that a committee be appointed to 
prepare a resolution memorializing the Government for financial assist- 
ance for the University, and also to prepare a memorial to be signed by 
all the Alumni in the county, to be sent to the various members of the 
Legislature. 

Huron is a large county, with a great number of graduates and under- 
graduates of the University within its boundaries, and it is fully 
expected that the local organization will be very successful in its work 
of assisting the general association in obtaining aid for the University. 

CHARLES GARROW, Sec.-Treas. 

VICTORIA COUNTY. 

A meeting of the Alumni of the University of Toronto for the County 
of Victoria was held in Lindsay, January i8th. It was determined to 
form a local organization to be known as " The County of Victoria 
Alumni Association of the University of Toronto," and all graduates and 
undergraduates in all the faculties of the University of Toronto, and all 
graduates of affiliated institutions resident in the district, will be eligible 
for membership. The following were elected as officers for the current 
year : 

Honorary President His Honour Judge W. W. Dean, M.A., LL.D. 

President J. C. Harstone, B.A. 

Vice- Presidents -J. A. White, M.B. ; The Rev. J. McD. Duncan, B.A., B.D. ; L. V. 

O'Connor, B.A. 

.Secretary- Treasurer Miss E. G. Flavelle, B.A. 
(Councillors V. C. Cornwall, M.D.; Rev. L. S. Hughson, B.A., B. D.; Jas. Grant, M.D.; 

J. Neelands, D.D.S.; J. A. DeCew, E. Gregory, Miss M. Addison, B.A. 

Dr. R. A. Reeve telegraphed his regrets at not being able to attend, 
but was ably represented by Dr. J. C. McLennan, Secretary of the 
Alumni Association. Dr. McLennan set before the meeting the aims 
and plans of the central organization, and after discussing the financial 
stringency of the University and the great need of new equipment, 
especially in the scientific departments, he showed what the graduate 
body could do if united in the common aim of awakening public interest 
and advancing in every way possible their Alma Mattr. The President 
and Secretary were appointed a committee to draft a memorial to the 
Provincial Government setting forth the urgent needs of the University 
and the duty of the Government in putting its finances on a more sub- 
stantial basis. 



LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 185 

On motion of Mr. E. A. Hardy and Dr. Clarke, the meeting expressed 
hearty appreciation of Dr. McLennan's address and his kindness in 
coming to Lindsay in the interests of the Alumni Association. 

(Miss) E. G. FLAVELLE, Secretary. 

WATERLOO. 

A meeting of graduates of the University of Toronto was held in 
Berlin, Ont, February 22nd, for the purpose of organizing a local 
branch of the University of Toronto Alumni Association for the County 
of Waterloo. Leading graduates from all parts of the county were 
present. His Honour Judge Chisholm presided, and addresses were 
delivered by President London, Dr. J. C. McLennan, Secretary of the 
General Association; Rev. W. A. Bradley, Rev. J. R. Gilchrist, Messrs. 
T. Carscadden, Bitzer, Scellen and Connor. 

President Loudon was the principal speaker, and dealt at some length 
with the present and past financial situation of the University. He 
referred to the expansion of the institution within the last twenty-five 
years, and explained how the deficits had arisen, owing to natural 
development and the obligations entered upon at the time of Federation. 
In the course of his remarks the President referred to the many occasions 
on which the wants of the University had been brought to the attention 
of the Government, and to the small measure of success which had, as 
yet, resulted from the efforts made. In conclusion he alluded briefly to 
the difference between the treatment accorded to the Provincial Univer- 
sity and that of Queen's in the matter of financial aid. A lively discus- 
sion followed, and much information as to the actual situation was elicited. 

The meeting then organized itself into a Local Branch of the Alumni 
Association for the County of Waterloo. The following officers were 
elected : 

President His Honour Judge D. Chisholm, LL.B. 

Vice- Presidents Dr. J. E. Lundy, Preston; T. Carscadden, M.A., Gait; Dr. Robert 

Mclntyre, Hespeler ; Rev. J. R. Gilchrist, B.A., Waterloo; Dr. H. G. Lackner, 

ex- M. P. P., Berlin. 

Secretary-Treasurer Hev. W. A. Bradley, B.A. 
Councillor* D. Forsyth, B.A.; Dr. Noecker, Waterloo; C. Bitzer, B.A., Berlin; S. 

Moyer, D.D.S., Gait ; L. J. Clark, Phm.B., Berlin; Mr. A. R. Goldie, Gait. 

A memorial was drawn up for presentation to the Provincial Govern- 
ment, and the President and Secretary were requested to have the same 
transmitted through the local members of the Legislature. It was also 
decided to unite the graduates in the county in one effort to bring 
influence to bea.- on the local members to have them defend and pro- 
mote the interests of the Provincial University on every occasion. 

W. A. BRADLEY, Sec.-Treas. 

\ 
WENTWOifl'H COUNTY GRADUATES ASSOCIATION. 

The following sketch of the local Alumni Association at Hamilton 
will no doubt be of interest, and show that it and not Ottawa, as stated 
in the October numbe., is the oldest daughter of the family. 



1 86 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Away back in 1883 Convocation of Toronto University endeavoured 
by the formation of County Associations to arouse the interest of gradu- 
ates in University affairs and to strengthen the ties that bound them to 
their Alma Mater. 

On 26th November, 1883, a meeting of the graduates of Toronto 
University resident in the county of Wentworth was held at Hamilton, 
and an Association known as "The Wentworth Association of Toronto 
University Convocation " was formed, with the late Edward Furlong as 
chairman and Jas. Chisholm as secretary-treasurer. Resolutions in 
support of an attempt then being made to procure additional endow- 
ment for the University from the Province of Ontario were unanimously 
passed. These resolutions are as pertinent to-day as they were seventeen 
years ago, and it may not be out of place to reproduce them here. They 
were as follows : " That we desire to put on record in the strongest 
possible way our conviction that the existence and prosperity of the 
Provincial University are absolutely essential to the educational system 
of this country, and that any condition of things which would interfere 
with its usefulness would be nothing short of a national calamity;" and 
"That the income of the University of Toronto and University College 
is insufficient for their proper maintenance. That so long as they 
remain Government Institutions the Government is responsible for their 
efficient maintenance, and this Association pledges itself to the support 
of any scheme urging upon the Government the necessity of further 
endowment." 

In 1886 the following notice of motion gives an idea of the lack of 
success which attended the attempt to secure a larger endowment from 
the Government, and indicates the feeling which even then prevailed in 
favour of independence from Government control: "Whereas there 
seems to be no probability that the University will ever obtain from the 
Government any financial assistance, and the means at present at the 
disposal of the University are totally inadequate to its needs ; And 
Whereas it is believed that if the University were not under Government 
control its friends would contribute liberally to a fund to place it in a 
good financial position ; Resolved, that this Association recommends the 
'Executive Committee to take steps toward freeing the University from 
Government control and to bring the question before a meeting of Con- 
vocation at an early day." 

In 1889 a committee was appointed to solicit subscriptions for the 
George Paxton Young Memorial Fund, and a very creditable amount 
was subscribed. 

In 1890, when the ever-memorable fire occurred, the Association 
promptly met and passed resolutions expressing regret for the loss, sus- 
tained, appreciation of the prompt action of the Government of Ontario 
in restoring the buildings, and assuring the President and Senate of the 
University of its co-operation in raising funds to replace the destroyed 
library. Over $700 was raised by the committee appointed to solicit 
subscriptions for this purpose. 



LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 187 

In 1892, through the efforts of the Association, Hon. A. T. Wood, of 
Hamilton, was nominated by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council to the 
University Senate as an appointed member. 

In 1894 a resolution was passed favouring payment of mileage or 
travelling expenses to representatives of graduates on the University 
Senate residing outside of Toronto. 

In addition to taking an active interest in many other subjects of 
interest to graduates, the Association has always taken a firm stand 
with regard to securing a reasonable representation of outside graduates 
on the University Senate, and the Association has always been repre- 
sented by one or more of its members on that body. 

Not the least pleasant, though last mentioned, of the acts of the 
Association were the dinners or reunions of the graduates, of which 
seven have been held during the existence of the Association, and the 
eighth will take place next month. The last was held in February, 
1899, when Prof. Alfred Baker was the guest of honour and a number 
of graduates from outside counties were present. The pleasant mem- 
ories of these reunions, when College traditions 'and songs hold sway, 
and the interval, be it long or short since graduation, is effaced by the 
inrush of reminiscences of the old College life, will ever abide with those 
who were present. 

The officers of the Association consist of a President, Vice-President 
and Secretary-Treasurer and Executive Committee. The late W. F. 
Walker, Q.C., succeeded Mr. Furlong as President in 1890, and Dr. A. 
Woolverton Mr. Walker in 1894, retiring in 1898, when the present 
President was elected. Messrs. R. A. Thompson, Harry Carpenter and 
J. T. Crawford have successively filled the Secretary's chair. Officers 
were elected on January 15, 1901, as follows : 

President James Chisholm, B.A. 
Vice.- President Harry Carpenter, B.A. 
Secretary -Treasurer J. T. Crawford, B.A. 

Executive Committee Officers and K. A. Thompson, B.A., Dr. F. Rosebrugh and J. L. 
Counsell, B.A. 

The present membership is over seventy- five. While it cannot be 
claimed that the Association has fulfilled even a small part of the work 
it was expected to perform, or aid in performing, still it cannot be said 
in view of the above that its existence has been in vain. It has always 
responded to the call of Alma Mater in times of difficulty and peril, and 
has done something to strengthen her hands, as loyal graduates should. 
It has preserved in the County of Wentworth to some extent that esprit 
de corps and pride in our Alma Mater which have unfortunately been 
too generally allowed to languish and burn low. It has afforded to not 
a few of its members many pleasant hours, the memory of which will 
not soon fade away. Now that renewed interest is being taken in 
University affairs by graduates all over the Province it may reasonably 
be hoped that a career of even greater usefulness is opening for our 
Association. 

J. T. CRAWFORD, Sec- Treas, 



i88 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



TORONTONENSIA. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
MONTHLY. 

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS FOR PUBLICATION TO 
THE SECRETARY, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 

EDITORIAL BOARD. 

I. H. CAMERON, M.B., Chairman. 
J. C. MCLENNAN, Ph.D., Secretary. 

J. FLETCHER, M.A., LL.D. ; A. R. BAIN, 
M. A., LL.D.; J. A. COOPER, B.A., LL.B.; 
L. E. EMBREE, M.A. ; THOMAS MULVEY, 
B.A.; T. A. RUSSELL, B.A.; S. J. ROBERT- 
SON, B.A., Managing Editor. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI AS- 
SOCIATION : LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 

DIRECTORY. 

GENERAL ASSOCIATION. President, DR. R. 
A. REEVE, Toronto. Secretary, J. C. MC- 
LENNAN, Ph.D., Dean's House, University 
of Toronto. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. President, REV. R. 
WHITTINGTON, M.A., B.Sc., Vancouver, B.C. 
Secretary -Treasurer, ALFRED HALL, B.A., 
LL.B., B.C.L., Vancouver. 

ELGIN COUNTY, ONT. President, D. |Mc- 
LARTY, St. Thomas. Secretary, S. SILCOX, 
B.A., B.Psed., St. Thomas. Treasurer, J. 
M. GLENN, LL.B. 

GREY AND BRUCK. President, A. G. MC- 
KAY, B. A. , Owen Sound, Ont. Secretary, 
W. D. FERRIS, M.D., Shallow Lake, Out. 

HURON COUNTY. President, WM. GUNN, 
M D. , Clinton, Ont. Secretary-Treasurer, 
CHAS. GARROW, B.A., Goderich, Out. 

OTTAWA. President, E. R. CAMERON.M.A. 
Secretary -Treasurer, H. A. HARPER, M.A. 

PERTH COUNTY, ONT. Prescient, C. J. 
MCGREGOR, M. A., Stratford, Ont. Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, C. 'A. MAYBERRY, B.A., 
LL.B., Stratford, Ont. 

VICTORIA COUNTY. President, J. C. Har- 
stone, b.A. , Lindsay, Ont. Secretary -Treas- 
urer, Miss E. G. Flavelle, Lindsay, Ont. 

WATERLOO COUNTY. President, JUDGE 
CHISHOLM, Berlin, Ont. Secretary-Treasurer, 
REV. W. A. BRADLEY, B.A., Berlin, Ont. 

VV ELLINGTON COUNT?, ONT. President, 
WM. TYTLER, B.A , Guelph, Ont. Secrttary- 
Trtasurrr, R. L. McKiNNON, B.A. LL.B., 
Guelph, Ont. 

WENTWORTH COUNTY GRADUATES ASSOCI- 
ATION. President, J. CHISHOLM, B.A., Ham- 
ilton, Out. Secretary - Treasurer, J. T. 
CRAWFORD, B.A., Hamilton, Ont. 



NEWS FROM THE CLASSES. 

The personal news is compiled from informatio* 
furnished by the Secretary of the University of Toronto 
Alumni Association, and by the Stcretaiies of local 
organizations, and from other reliable sources. The 
value of this department might be greatly enhanced 
if University of Toronto men everywhere would con- 
tribute to it. The correction of any errors will be 
gratefully received by the Secretary of the Alumni 
Association. 

1896. 

Miss E. M. Ackerman, B.A.., is a teacher 

at Picton, Ont. A. P. C. Addison, B.A., 

is a Methodist clergyman in Coilingwood. 

R. W. Allin, B.A., is a teacher at 

Rothesay, N.B. G. H. Armstrong, M.A., 

is a teacher in Borden Street School, To- 
ronto. (Jeorge Arnold, B.A., is a Presby- 
terian clergyman at VVaubausheue, Ont. 
A. F. Barr, B.A., is a theological student at 

Wycliffe College, Toronto. C. C. Bell, 

M.A., M.B., is a physician at Vienna, Ont. 

B. A. Bensley, B.A., is at Columbia 

University, New York. Miss Sara Bonis, 

B.A., is at St. Mary's, Ont. C. G. Bryan, 

B.A., is secretary to Mr. Gilbe t Parker. 

R. Boyd, B.A., is in Kingston, Ont. 

T. G. Bragg, B.A., is a teacher at Bow- 

manville, Ont. E. D. Carder, B.A., M.B., 

is a physician at Toronto General Hospital. 
W. R. Carr, B.A., is taking a post- 
graduate course at the University ot Toronto. 

H. R. Carveth, B. A., Ph.D., is instructor 

in Chemistry at Cornell University, Ithaca, 

U.S.A. Mrs. G. U. Smith (Miss M. M. 

Cawthorpej, B.A., is iu St. Catharines, Ont. 

A. R. Chapman, B.A., is a Methodist 

clergyman at Bond Head, Ont. J. A. 

Clark, B.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman 

in Toronto. William Clark, B.A., is a 

teacher at Hatherton, Ont. A. R. Clute, 

B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. R. H. 

Coates, B.A., is on the staff of the Globe, 

Toronto. Miss J. A. Combe, B.A., is in 

Clinton, Out. A. Cosens, B.A., is a teach- 
er at Brampton, Ont. Isaac Couch, B.A., 

is a Methodist clergyman in Mono Mills, 

Ont. Miss G. I. Cowan, B.A., is doing 

journalistic work in Toronto. W. P. 

Dandy, B.A., is a teacher in Forest, Ont. 

A. M. Dewar, B.A., is on the staff of 

the Herald, Montreal. A. C. Dobell, 

B.A., is a law student at McGill University, 

Montreal. Miss J. E. Douglas, B.A., is 

in Chatham, Ont. Miss M. G. Duncan, 

B.A., is in Seaforth, Ont. T. Eakm, 

M.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman in Guelph, 

Out. Miss M. C. Edgar, B A., is a teacher 

in Havergal College, Toronto. J. D. Fal- 



TORONTONENSIA 



189 



conbridge, B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. 

J. A. Ferguson, B.A., is at Princeton 

( university, N.J., U.S.A. Mrs. H. M. 

Piper, B.A. (Miss Fortune), is at Fort Wil- 
liam, Unt. J. M. Foster, B.A., is in To- 
ronto. C. W. Freeman, B.A., is at the 

Toronto School of Medicine. Charles Gar- 
row, B.A., is a barrister in Goderich, Ont. 

Miss E. L. Gillespie, B.A., is assistant 
in the Ontario Legislative Library, Toronto. 

M. G. V. Gould, B. A., is a barrister in 

Oshawa, Ont. Miss E. M. Graham, B. A., 

is a teacher in Quebec. H. A. Graham, 

B.A., is a Methodist clergyman in Lebanon, 
Ont. W. H. Graham, B.A., is a Metho- 
dist clergyman at Sparta, Ont. A. R. 

Gregory, B.A , is a Presbyterian clevgymau 

at Mansewood, Out. G. S. Henry, B. A. , 

LL. B. , is a farmer at Don, Ont. G. B. 

Henwood, B. A., is a barrister at Colborne, 
Ont. W. R. Hobbs, B.A., is a manufac- 
turer at London, Ont. J. E. Hodgson, 

B.A., is a teacher at Paisley, Ont. E. R. 

C. Hosking, B. A., is in Toronto. 0. W. 

Howard, B.A., B.D., is an Anglican clergy- 
man in Montreal. D. S. Jackrnan, B. A., 

is a teacher at Kilsyth, Ont. William 

Jack man, M.A. , is a teacher at Kilsyth, 

Ont. F. W. H. Jacombe, M.A., is in 

Guelph, Ont. John Jennings, B.A., is a 

barrister in Toronto Junction, Ont. F. K. 

Johnston, M.A. , is a barrister in Toronto. 

Miss M. G. Kingsmill, B.A., is in To- 
ronto. A. G. Kingstone, B.A., is a bar- 
rister in St. Catharines, Ont.- J. W. 

Kitching, B.A., is a Methodist clergyman at 

Oxenden, Ont. Miss I. S. E. Lafferty, 

B.A., is a teacher at Chatham, Ont. 
W. C Laidlaw,'B.A. , is a merchant in To- 
ronto. Miss L. R. Laird, B.A., is at Bryii 
Mawr University, Peiin., U.S.A. Miss N. 
Langford, B.A., is a teacher at Alma Col- 
lege, St. Thomas, Ont. Miss A. E. Le 

Rossignol, B.A., is in Toronto. R. S. 

Lillie, B. A., is at the University of Chicago 

J. W. Little, B.A., is a Presbyterian 

clergyman at Dryden, Man. Miss E. P. 

Machliii, B. A., is a teacher in Toronto. 

J. M. Martin, B.A., is a teacher at Niagara 

Falls, Ont. -A. Meighan, B.A. , is a law 

student in Winnipeg, Man. J. G. B. 

Merrick, B.A. , is in Toronto. Miss R. 



E. Millar, B.A 
N.J., U.S.A. - 



is a teacher at Burlington, 
-S. C. Moore, B.A., B.D 



is a Methodist, clergyman at Cavan South, 
Ont. D. D. Moshier, B.A., is school in- 
spector, Sarnia, Ont. J. B. MacCallum, 

B.A. , is at Johns Hopkins University, Bal- 
timore. VV. A. McClean, M. A., is a 

teacher in New York. R. C. McConnell, 

B.A., is a Methodist clergyman at Comber- 
mere, Ont. F. \V. C. McCutcheon, B.A., 

is a teacher in London, Ont. -Donald Mc- 



Fayden, B.A., is at Harvard University, 

Cambridge, Mass A. H. McUillivray, 

M.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman at Corunn- 

na, Ont. G. A. McKee, JtJ. A., is a teacher 

in London, Ont. A. J. MacKenzie, B.A., 

M.B., is a physician at the General Hos- 
pital, Toronto. A. McKibbin, B.A., is a 

Methodist clergyman at Strathroy, Out. 

J. S. McLean, B.A., is an insurance agent 

at Rossland, B.C. John McLeish, B.A., 

is in the Geological Survey, Ottawa, Ont. 

Miss E. McNeely, B. A., is a teacher at 

Carleton Place, Ont.- D. G. MacRobbie, 

B.A., M.D., C.M., is a physician at Shel- 

burne. Ont. A. McVicar, B.A., is a 

teacher at Windsor, Ont. R. F. Mc- 

Williams, B.A., is a barrister at Peter- 
borough, Out. Miss F. H. M. Neelands, 

B.A., is a teacher at St. Margaret's College, 

Toronto. W. W. Nicol, B.A., is at acher 

in i.istowel, Ont. D. Norman, B.A., is 

a Methodist Missionary in Japan. F. 

Nurse, B.A. , B. D. , is a Methodist clergy- 
man in Lambton, Ont. J. R. Osborne, 

B. A. , is a barrister in Ottawa, Ont. K. Y. 

Parry, B.A., M.B., is a physician in Dunn- 
ville, Ont. C. G. Paterson, B.A., is a 
Presbyterian clergyman in San Francisco, 

Cal. MissE. M. Perrin, B. A., is a teacher 

in Lindsay, Ont. J. Roy Perry, B.A., is a 

broker in Toronto. F. B. Proctor, B.A., is 

a barrister in Ottawa, Ont. \V. A. Rae, 

B.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman at Fort 

Francis, Oi.t. R. J. Reuison, B.A. , is an 

Anglican clergyman at Moosefoot, .N.W.T. 

Miss A. R. Riddell, M.A., is a teacher in 

Oshawa, Ont. C. C. Riordon, B.A. , is as- 
sistant-manager Riordon Paper Mills, Limit- 
ed, Merritton, Ont. W. B. Ronald, B.A., 

is a Presbyterian clergyman at Abbotsford, 

B.C. R. J. Ross, B.A., is a Presbyterian 

clergyman at Glenlyon, Man. J. A. Row- 
land, B. A., is a barrister 'at Mt. Albert, 

Ont. Miss E. L. Rutherford, B A., is at 

Aurora, Ont. Miss E. E, Ryekman, B. A., 

is a teacher at Smith's Fall, Ont. E. J. 

Saunders, B.A., is a teacher in the State 
Normal School, Ellensburg, Wash., U.S.A. 

A. M. Scott, B. A., Ph.D., is a professor 

in Fredericton University, N. B. R. G. 

Scott, B.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman at 

Dauphin, Man. Miss E. M. Seegmiller, 

B.A., isateacher at \Valkerton, One. M. 

A. Shaw, B A. , is a Presbyterian clergyman 

at Sudbury , Ont. G. F. J. Sherwood, B. A. , 

is an Anglican clergyman at Thamesville, 
Ont. A. G. Sinclair, M.A., is a Presbyte- 
rian clergyman at Port Hope, Ont. Neil 

Sinclair, B. A., is a barrister in Toronto 
W. E. N. Sinclair, B.A., is a barrister in 

Oshawa, Ont. A. Spotton, B.A., is a 

barrister at Harriston, Ont. J. G. S. 

Stanbury, B. A. , is a barrister in Exeter, Ont. 



190 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



J. G. Taylor, B.A., is a teacher in 

Glencoe, Ont. P. J. Thompson, B.A., is 

school inspector, Glencoe, Out. R. I. 

Towers, B.A., is a barrister in Sarnia, Ont. 

Miss A. B. Tucker, B.A., is a teacher 

in the Normal Tra ning School, Edinburgh, 

Penn., U.S.A. J. F. Van Every, B A., 

is a teacher in Napanee, <>nt. M. W. 

Wallace, B A., Ph.D., is professor of English 

at Beloit College, 111., U.S A. Mrs. A. 

C. Me Master, B.A., (Miss Wanless) is in 

Toronto. Miss Louise Watt, B.A., is in 

Edinbu.gh, Scotland. J. P. Weeks, B.A., 

is a law stmlent in Toronto. F. J. Weid- 

enhammer, B A., is a teacher in Leamington, 

Ont. W. B. Weideuhammer, B.A., is a 

teacher in Wardsville, Out Miss J. O. 

White, B A., is in Woodstock, Out. Miss 

E. Wickham, B.A., is a teacher in Nelson, 

B.C. T. M Uilson, B.A., is a teacher in 

Paris, Ont. Miss F. E. W. Withrow, B.A., 

is in Toronto. W. A. P. Wood is in the 

Canada Life office, Toronto. W. J. 

Wright, M.A., is a theological student at 

MoMaster University, Toionto. F. S. 

Wr-nch, M.A., is studying in Germany. 
Miss A. H. Young, B.A., is in Toronto. 

1896. 

Deceased. Miss E. A. Durand, B.A., 

and A. S. McKay, B.A. 

ADDRESSES UNKNOWN. 

Part of the work which the Alumni Asso- 
ciation has undertaken is the compilation of 
a catalogue of the graduates of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto and its maintenance in as 
correct a form as possible. It was found 
that a very great number of our graduates 
had dropped out of sight no response came 
from their addresses as found in the Regis- 
trar's books, and, as far as their Alma Mater 
was concerned, they were unknown. A very 
large number of these addresses have been 
already corrected by correspondence through 
the kindness of yraduates who have sent us 
information. Many names are still lacking 
addresses, however, and we request our 
realers to aid in completing the catalogue 
by sending in at once addresses for any of 
the following names : 

Class of '96 John Bnrchill, M.A., E. E. 
Craig, B.A., H. M. Death, B.A., G. O. 
Duprau, B.A., A. F. Ewing, B. A., A. C. 
Grav, B A., Miss C. Heal, B. A., E. A. 
Healv, B.A.. K. VV. Husband, B.A., J. F. 
Hu chison. B.A , J. C. Milligan, B.A , J. A. 
Montjoy, B A., A. A. McRae, B.A., J. W. 
Preston, B.A., A. J. Raddon, B.A., W. J. 
Roach, B A , M. L. Rush, B.A., G. 
Scott, B.A., G. Young, B.A. 



Class of '66-P. M. Barker, B.A., H. E. 
Clarke, J. H. Miller, M.A., D. Junor, M.A. 

Class of '67 J. Preston, B.A., J. W. P. 
Mulhulland, t B.A. 

Class of '68 W. J. Reid, B.A., Lewis 
Pyper, B.A., A. Malcolm, B.A., E. M. 
Bigg, M.A., C. T. Atkinson, B.A. 

Class of '69 -F. H. Young, M.A., J. A. 
Jewell, B. A., 

""Class"of '71 W. C. Middleton, B.A., J. 
S. Ledyard, B.A., M. Kew, B.A., H. M. 
Hicks, M.A., E. H. Dick son, B.A., James 
Crozier, B.A., T. B. Browning, B.A. 



PERSONALS. 

Every alumnus of the University of Toronto is in- 
vited to send to the KJitor items of interest for 
insertion in this department. News of a peigonal 
nature about any alumnus will be gladly received. 

T. W. Wright, B.A., '63, M.A , '91, is a 
professor in Union College, Scheuectady, 

The Rev. A. P. McDiarmid, B.A., '75, ie 
principal of the Brandon College, Brandon, 
Man. 

J. S. Brown, B.A., '91, is assistant master 
in the Dufferin School, Berkeley street, 
Toronto. 

The Kev. J. M. Goodwillie, B A., '65, a 
retired Presbyterian minister, lives at Ken- 
more, Out. 

Richard Carney, M.D. , Windsor, Ont., 
writes that he enjoys reading the MONTHLT 
and wishes it every success. 

The Women's Residence Association has 
realized $540 25 as the result of the Greek 
play last December. 

Dr. Allan Shore, B.A., '95, M.D. (McGill), 
has received the degrees of L.R.C.P. (Lon- 
don) and M.R.C.S. (England). 

J. H. Kennedy, C.E., '82, has been ap~ 
pointed chief engineer of the Victoria, Van- 
couver and Eastern Railway. 

S. J. Rothwell, B.A., '91, is practising law 
in Winnipeg. The firm is Perdue & Roth- 
well. 



A. 



J. Patterson, B.A., 'oo, winner of the Ex- 
hibition Scholarship last year, is now engaged 
in original research in University of Cam- 
bridge. 



TORONTONENSIA 



191 



C. E. Race, B.A., '97, has removed from 
Arthur, Out., to Cobourg, Out., where he is 
now commercial master in the Collegiate 
Institute. 

Don. A. Ross, B.A., '98, manager of the 
Sailor Mine, Camp McKinuey, B.C., for the 
past ten years, spent a short time in Toronto 
lately. 

E. Frisby, M.A., '63, has been for many 
years a icsiilent of Washington, D.C., where 
he was, until he retired, on the staff of the 
Naval Observatory. 

J. McE. Murray, B.A., '92, is acting as 
secretary to Mr. B. E. Walker, general 
manager of the Canadian Bank of Com- 
merce, Toronto, Out. 

W. T. White, B.A., '95, is manager of the 
National Trust Co., Toronto, and J. C. 
Breckenbridge, B.A., '93, is secretary-treas- 



W. E. H. Carter, B.A.Sc., '98, has been 
appointed Inspector of Mines for Rainy 
River and Thunder Bay, with headquarters 
at Rat Portage, Ont. 

A. D. Mclntyre, B.A., '97, is acting as 
cashier to the Canada Cycle and Motor Co., 
which firm recently absorbed the National 
Cycle and Automobile Co. as well. 

G. M. Murray. B.A., '98, has secured 
an important position with E. V. Clergue, 
Manager of the Algoma Central Railway, 
and of the extensive iron mines at Michipi- 
coten, Cnt. 

W. L. Mackenzie King, B.A., '95, LL.B., 
'96, is Deputy Minister of Labour. Asso- 
ciated with him is H. A. Harper, B.A., '95, 
who is assistant editor of the new Labour 
Gazette. 

James E. Eakins, M.B., '75, whose death 
is referred to in another column, was physi- 
cian to the L)eaf and Dumb Institute, Belle- 
ville, Ont., and surgeon-major of the i5th 
regiment. 

F. W. French, B.A., '89, has resigned the 
Classical mastership of the Napanee, Ont., 
Collegiate Institute, and will resume his post- 
graduate work in Classics at the University 
of Chicago after Easter. 

G. J. Blewett, B.A., '97, who we stated 
in our October issue had had conferred on him 
a travelling fellowship by the University of 
Pennsylvania, is now at Oxford. His address 
is 10 Walton Well Road. 



G. C. Matheson, L.D.S., '97, D.D.S. (Tor.), 
'97, commenced practice in Winnipeg, and 
has recently been elected a meuiber ot the 
Dental Examining Boaid of Manitoba,' and 
has been appointed Secretary of that body. 

""charleiTlC Mitchell, RA.Sc/, CJBC"'92, 
Niagara Falls, Ont , who is rapidly assum- 
ing a position among the leading hydraulic 
engineers of the Province, had the misfor- 
tune to lose his office and field notes, records 
and plans by tire recently. 



W 7 . C. Laidlaw, M.B., '95, formerly assist- 
ant physician at the Asylum for Idiots, 
Orillia, Ont., who has just returned from 
active service in South Africa, has been 
appointed to the Medical staff of the Asylum 
for the.lnsane, Brockville, Ont. 

Edward Fitzpatrick, L.D.S., '95, D.D.S. 
(Tor.), '95, and C. A. Fitzpatrick, L.D.S., 
'oo, L>. U.S. (Tor.), 'oo, both of Vaukleek Hill, 
Ont., have passed the examinations before 
the dental examiners of Manitoba, and have 
settled in that Province. 

W. K. George, B.A., is now manager of 
the Standard Silver Co., Toronto, which is a 
branch of the large silver-plating establish- 
ment in the United States. He is makiug a 
success of this business, and was recently 
elected chairman of the Toronto company. 

We notice that our distinguished alumnus, 
the Rev. John Monroe Gibson, B.A., '62, has 
in the last three j ears published three books 
which have added to his reputation : " From 
Fact to Faith " ('97), " A Strong City " ('99), 
" The Glory of Life " ('oo). 

H. E. T. Haultain, M.E., '89, received 
very high praise in the Rossland, B.C., 
Miner a short time ago at the hands of E. G. 
Woodford, a distinguished mining engineer, 
who speaks of his pleasure in meeting " a 
young mining engineer who knows his work 
from A to Z." 

Wm. Lount, K.C. , has been appointed a 
Justice of the Common Pleas Division of the 
High Court of J ustice to succeed J . E. Rose, 
B.A., '64, LL.D., '85, deceased. The other 
justices of the Common Pleas Division are 
Chief Justice Sir Wm. Meredith, LL.B., '72, 
Chancellor of the University, and Justice 
MacMahon. 

B. A. C. Craig, B.A., '94, is now general 
manager of the Canadian Corundum Co. 
This company has control of large corundum 
deposits in theneighbourhoodof t'ombermere, 
Ont., and it is believed that the corundum 
there found will practically govern the 



192 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



world's market for many years to come. 
He is making a success of the business. 

H. J. Dawson, B.A., '98, fellow in the 
department of Mathematics of the University 
of Toronto for the past three years, has been 
appointed lecturer in Mathematics in the 
Royal Military College, Kingston. Mr. Daw- 
son stood first in the first class in Mathe- 
matics at three out of his four May exami- 
nations in the University. He was the win- 
ner of the "Fulton" Scholarship and of the 
American Association for the t Advancement 
of Science Scholarship. 

L. H. Tasker, B.A., '97, M.A., '98, LL.B., 
has been appointed principal of the Almonte, 
Ont. , High >chool. At graduation Mr. Tas- 
ker took honours in Classics, Political Science 
and English. He also took the gold medal 
at the Ontario School of Pedagogy. After 
graduating, Mr. Tasker was on the staff of 
the Tilsonburg, Ont , High School, and has 
since been Classical master in the Niagara 
Falls, Ont., Collegiate Institute. Last year 
Mr. Tasker published, through the Ontario 
Historical Society, a history of the U. E. 
Loyalist settlement at Long Point, Ont. 

Cornell University has shown its appre- 
ciation of the exceptional ability of Rector 
R. Carveth, B.A.'. '96, Ph.D. (Cornell), '98, 
both as an investigator and an instructor, by 
appointing him successively Bellow in Chem- 
istry, '96-'97 and '97-*98 ; Honorary Fellow 
in Chemistry, '98-99; Instructor in Intro- 
ductory Chemistry, '99-'oo, and Instructor 
in Physical Chemistry, 'oo-'oi. In his pres- 
ent position, Dr. Carveth is entrusted with 
the immediate supervision of a large portion 
of the research of what is perhaps the largest 
and most productive laboratory of Physical 
Chemistry in America. 

Professor vanderSmissen a short time ago 
received a letter from Wilhelm A. Braun, now 
fellow in German at Columbia University, 
which ia an evidence of the esteem in which 
University of Toronto graduates are held in 
the United States. He sen ds news of special 
interest to the students in Moderns. ' ' A 
new fellowship in German is being offered," 
says Mr. Braun, in part, " the Carl Schurz 
fellowship, which, a though awarded only in 
alternate years, insures the very generous 
stipend of eight hundred dollars. I am 
sure this matter will interest some of your 
advanced students. Another circumstance 
prompted me to write to you the fact that no 
one has been appointed to succeed me in the 
German fellowship. This was in some 
measure due to the fact that since the 
salaries were this year increased from five 
hundred to six hundred and fifty dollars, 



the number of fellowships was reduced from 
twenty-four to eighteen. But the chief 
reason, as Professor Carpenter told me, was 
that none of the candidates was able to 
present a claim sufficiently strong. Now I 
am in a position to know how highly the 
work of Toronto University, and especially 
of the German department, is esteemed by 
my professors here, and the thought came to 
me at once, ' Such a state of things should 
not be allowed to exist while Toronto 
University is in the business.' A Toronto 
man is given every possible chance here, 
both before and after he enters the Univer- 
sity, the facilities are excellent, and I 
venture to suggest that if advanced students 
of special ability in German were interested 
in these fellowships a year or even two 
before their graduation, they would make 
an excellent snowing." 

MARRIAGES. 

Rev. E. A. Wicher, B.A., '95, M.A., '96, 
B.D., 'oo (Knox), of Claude, Ont., was 
married on February nth to Miss L. E. 
Langlois, Toronto. The Rev. J. L. Murray, 
B.A., '95, M.A., '97, St. Catharines, and 
R. Davidson, B.A., '99, M.A., 'oo, Knox 
College, attended the groom. 

DEATHS. 

B. B. Osier, K.C., LL.D., died very sud- 
denly, Feb. gth. 

J. L. Clubine, B.A., '95, who was a Metho- 
dist minister, is dead. 

James E. Eakins, M.B., '75, died at his 
home in Belleville, Ont., Feb. i8th, at the 
age of fifty-one years. 

John Young, L.D.S., '95. D.D.S. (Tor.), 
'96, practising in Smith's Falls, Ont., died, 
January i8th, 1901. 

W. G. Beers, L.D S. (Ont.), '70, L.D.S. 
(Que.), '68, D. D. S., a prominent practitioner 
and citizen of Montreal, for many years editor- 
in-chief of the Dominion DentalJournal, died 
in Montreal, December 26th, 1900. 

W. J. Shotwell, B.A., '97, who was prin- 
cipal of the Hawkesbury, Ont., High School, 
died recently. His widow, formerly Miss 
F. S. Glashan, B.A., '97, and one son survive. 
He was a brother of J. T. Shotwell, '98". 

J. H. McGeary, B.A., ,85, M.A., '97, died 
very suddenly this month at his home in St. 
Thomas, Ont., where he was Mathematical 
master in the Collegiate Institute. He had 
been Fellow in Mathematics from '85 till '88 
in the University of Toronto. 



THE PUBLISHERS' SYNDICATE, LIMITED. PRINTERS. 



THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

VOL. I. MARCH, 1901. No. 7. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE PAGE 

Editorial - - - - - 193 Lennox and Addington - - - 221 

A Century of Chemical Progress. By Lincoln County .... 221 

Professor W. R. Lang - 194 Middlesex County - - - - 221 

Physical Training at the University. ' Ottawa, University of Toronto Club 222 

By H J. Crawford, B.A. Peterborough County - - - 223 

The University of Toronto Alumni Asso- Prince Edward County - - -224 

ciations : Local Organizations : 

mi_ A i T^ n r n Simcoe County .... 225 

The Alumni Deputation. By J. C. 3 

McLennan, Ph.D. 203 Torontonensia 226 

Hastings County .... 220 



EDITORIAL. 

'"THE aims of the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY were thus 
1 stated in the first issue : " A university cannot do its highest work 
without the co-operation of its graduates. A body of graduates cannot 
maintain its esprit de corps without some constant bond of union. To 
strengthen the co-operation between the alumni and the University, and 
to supply a bond which shall unite more closely the scattered alumni, is 
the work that calls into being the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY." 

We have now published seven numbers of the MONTHLY. Our 
numerous readers have, no doubt, found in them information concerning 
the University and about their fellow graduates which has interested 
them and convinced them of the necessity for such a publication. 

No large university that we know of is without an alumni magazine 
and many small colleges support one. 

The success of the publication depends upon the support it receives 
from the graduates. 

As matters stand to-day, the carrying on of the magazine for the year 
will leave the members of the Editorial Committee personally liable for 
the sumjDf one thousand dollars there being an estimated deficit to 
that amount. Each subscription received in the meantime reduces that 
amount. 

If the MONTHLY is doing anything for the University, it should be 
encouraged. There is only one way to do it. Send one dollar to the 
Secretary. 

A full discussion of the new University Act will appear in the April 
issue. 

Owing to the space taken up by the report of the deputation it has 
been necessary to hold over articles by the Rev. Wm. Clark, D.C.L., 
W. D. LeSueur, M.A., T. Arnold Haultain, M.A., and others. 



194 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

A CENTURY OF CHEMICAL PROGRESS. 

BY PROFESSOR W. R. LANG. 
(Concluded.) 

DAVY, it has been pointed out, obtained the alkali metals by electro- 
lytic decomposition of their compounds. Electrolytic methods of 
analysis and the application of electricity to commercial processes and to 
more purely scientific research have gradually become of more and more 
importance and interest If electricity is passed through a conductor, 
such as a metal bar, the current passes along or through the metal, which 
itself does not move or suffer any apparent alteration. But when a 
current is passed through an electrolyte it is transported by the moving 
ions. The theory before referred to, that a portion of the substance in 
solution is in a dissociated state, goes far to explain the phenomena 
attendant on electrolysis. Though it seems difficult to imagine that in 
the case of a solution of sodium chloride there can exist sodium and 
chlorine in the free state, especially as the metal sodium has such a 
violent chemical action on water, yet, according to the electrolytic disso- 
ciation theory, we must consider that the different constituents of the 
sodium chloride do exist as separate atoms but having enormously high 
charges of electricity. When, keeping to sodium chloride as our example, 
a current is passed, the sodium atoms charged with positive electricity 
travel to the negative pole and there give up their charges, appearing 
then as molecules of sodium possessing the properties usually associated 
with that element. Similarly the chlorine ions charged with negative 
electricity travel to the anode, or positive pole, give up their charges and 
appear as ordinary chlorine. 

While these principles were gradually being unfolded and the newer 
ideas concerning matter were becoming more familiar, fresh discoveries 
of new elements were being made. It must be remembered that the 
compounds of many elements were known while as yet the elements 
themselves had not been isolated. Alumina and silica were known long 
before the elements aluminium and silicon were isolated ; so also with 
fluorine, one of the chlorine group. Fluorine was known to exist widely 
diffused in nature in many minerals and in small quantities in plants 
and animals, but on account of its great chemical activity it had not bi en 
isolated, as had been its neighbours, chlorine, bromine and iodine. Davy 
and Scheele had both recognized its resemblance to these elements, 
but it was not till 1886 that Henri Moissan, professor of chemistry at 
1'fecole de Pharmacie in Paris, succeeded in electrolyzing a mixture of 
hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen potassium fluoride in a platinum vessel. 
In 1897, when the British Association met in this city, Professor Mdslans, 
for many years assistant to Moissan. gave a demonstration of the prop- 
erties of fluorine here in this lecture-room. 



A CENTURY OF CHEMICAL PROGRESS 195 

The last decade has been fruitful in the discovery of other elements 
hitherto unsuspected, notably the new atmospheric gases, argon, neon, 
krypton and xenon. In 1775 Cavendish, in his " Experiments on Air," 
published in the PJiilosophical Transactions, pointed out that in the air 
there was a small quantity of a gas, " not more than 1/120 of the whole " 
of what we now call the nitrogen of the atmosphere, which could not be 
made to combine with oxyge n. The question as to what this was lay 
unanswered for more than a century, when, in 1894, Lord Rayleigh and 
Professor Ramsay solved the problem by isolating argon from atmos- 
pheric nitrogen. They were led to this discovery by noticing that 
atmospheric nitrogen was denser than nitrogen prepared from chemical 
sources, such as ammonium nitrite. By passing a stream of atmospheric 
nitrogen over heated magnesium the nitrogen was absorbed and a residue 
remained, which could not be induced to enter into combination with 
anything. The amount of this new element in the air, whose discovery 
caused so much excitement in the scientific world, was found to corre- 
spond very nearly to the small portion of gaseous matter that remained 
uncombined after sparking atmospheric nitrogen with oxygen, and which 
Cavendish had spoken of more than one hundred years previously. This 
discovery of argon led to a further research into certain minerals, which, 
when treated with dilute acid, evolved a gas which was supposed to be 
nitrogen. It proved, however, to be another new element, previously 
indicated as being present in the sun's atmosphere by Lockyer, and 
named by him helium. These discoveries did not, however, end here, as 
Ramsay and Travers, in experimenting with liquid air as a convenient 
source of argon, discovered three new gases, uhich they named krypton 
(hidden), neon (new), and metargon. 

Turning now to the interesting subject of the liquefaction of gases, 
we find that since the beginning of this century numerous experimenters 
have been trying to reduce the more commonly met with gaseous sub- 
stances to the liquid condition. The so-called permanent gases, which, 
up to a decade or so ago, resisted all attempts at liquefaction, have now 
succumbed to the advance of experimental science. In 1805 North- 
more is stated to have liquefied chlorine by compressing it in a brass 
condensing syringe with a glass receiver. Then in 1822 Cagniard- 
de-la-Tour observed that certain liquids, such as alcohol and water, when 
heated and kept under pressure, became apparently reduced to a vapour, 
occupying from two to four times the original volume of the liquid. 
This led to the classical researches of Andrews, of Belfast, on "The 
Continuity of the Gaseous and Liquid States of Matter," set forth in the 
Bakerian Lecture (Phil. Trans., 1869, Part II.). In the following year 
Faraday succeeded in liquefying chlorine, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen 
sulphide, carbonic acid, ammonia and many other substances previously 
known only in the gaseous condition. There only remained hydrogen, 
oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, marsh gas and nitric oxide ; these 
were called the "permanent gases." In connection with the liquefaction 
of carbonic acid the name of Thiloiier stands out prominently. By 



196 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

means of pressure alone he obtained this in the liquid form, and by 
causing it to evaporate rapidly through a narrow orifice obtained it in 
the solid state. This was the first instance of a substance, gaseous at 
the ordinary temperature, being seen as a solid. Faraday, in 1845, con- 
tinued his attempts to liquefy the remaining gases, and in his experi- 
ments came very near to anticipating Andrews in his famous researches 
and the principles deduced therefrom. Briefly stated, Andrews found 
that there was a certain temperature peculiar to each gas, above which 
no amount of pressure could cause liquefaction. This he termed " the 
critical temperature." From this it will be seen why so much difficulty 
was experienced in attempting the liquefaction of the six permanent 
gases, as, up to that time, the lowest temperature obtainable had been 
above the critical points of all of them. Towards the close of 1877 
Cailletet, of Chatillon-sur-Seine, and Pictet, of Geneva, communicated 
simultaneously to the Academic des Sciences de Paris that .they had 
succeeded in liquefying oxygen, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. 
Cailletet subjected the gases to considerable pressure, thereby reducing 
greatly their volume ; on suddenly relieving the pressure expansion and 
consequent cooling took place, and a portion of the gas appeared in the 
form of minute drops. Nitrogen and hydrogen now alone remained ; 
the former yielded in 1883 to Professors Wroblewski and Olszewski, and 
hydrogen succumbed in 1895 to Professor Dewar, of the Royal Institu- 
tion in London. The principle involved in liquefying these gases is as 
follows: we .have seen how liquid carbonic acid, if allowed to expand, 
is cooled down sufficiently to enable it to become actually solid. Sup- 
posing, then, that air or hydrogen is compressed under 180 atmospheres 
or so (2,500 Ibs. to the square inch), and the pressure gradually released, 
the temperature of the issuing gas will be lowered considerably. By 
allowing this cooled gas as it issues to pass over a large surface of copper 
coils conveying the compressed gas from the cylinder containing it to 
the expansion valve the gas becomes still more cooled down, a cumu- 
lative effect is produced, and finally the issuing gas arrives at the point 
of exit at so low a temperature that it becomes liquid. Different forms 
of apparatus have been devised by Hampson, of London, Linde, of 
Munich, and by Dewar, and are now used for producing liquid air in 
fairly large quantities, but the principle involved in each is the same. 
By the rapid evaporation of liquid hydrogen Dewar succeeded in 
obtaining it as a snow-white solid. 

Thus far I have only discussed the development of what might be 
called scientific chemistry. The field of industrial chemistry is so wide 
that only a short reference can be made to the advances that have been 
made during the past hundred years. It must be pointed out, however, 
that the growth of chemical industry owes much of its progress to the 
reasonings and researches of the theoretical chemist. 

Among the branches of industry which have advanced greatly might 
be mentioned the soda industry, with which the production of chlorine, 
and consequently bleaching-powder, is closely associated. The Leblanc 



A CENTURY OF CHEMICAL PROGRESS 197 

process, invented during the Napoleonic wars, at the end of the eighteenth 
century, for the production of alkali essential in soap-making and other 
industries from common salt has found a strong rival in the ammonia- 
soda process, first introduced by Solvay in Belgium, and brought to a 
high state of perfection by Brunner and Mpnd in England. An electro- 
lytic process is also employed, common salt being converted directly 
into caustic soda and chlorine. Electricity is also made use of for the 
production of aluminium, which metal is now extracted in large quan- 
tities from alumina, both on the continent of Europe and in Scotland. 
Its uses are many, and the peculiarly light metal, which twenty years 
ago was looked upon as a curiosity, is now as familiar to us as copper or 
iron. The electric current is also employed for making calcium carbide 
from lime and coke. Though known since 1839, this substance had only 
been produced in the laboratory, and it is merely within the last ten 
years that it has become of commercial importance as the source of 
acetylene gas for illuminating purposes. To electricity we are also 
indebted for the production of chemically pure copper for electro-plating 
and gilding, and for the production of the highest of all temperatures, 
that of the electric arc. This temperature has been made use of in the 
electric furnace, more particularly by its inventor, Henri Moissan, for 
studying the effect of high temperatures on various substances, and with 
its aid he succeeded in manufacturing diamonds. Unfortunately, or 
perhaps fortunately, for if diamonds could be readily and cheaply made, 
then their value as ornaments would vanish they can only be obtained 
very small, but diamonds they are despite their minuteness. The electric 
furnace is also used in many other departments of chemical industry. 

The mineral oil industry, too, is one of great importance. Huge 
quantities of crude petroleum are found in the earth's crust. The first 
discovery of it was made by Playfair, of Edinburgh, in Derbyshire, but 
that source was soon exhausted. The source of supply is now from this 
continent and from eastern Europe. The production of oils from the 
distillation of shales is carried on in Scotland at Broxburn and elsewhere. 
Shale is a carbonaceous mineral which appears to have been formed 
from the remains of marine animals mixed with argillaceous mud and 
consolidated into a slaty mass. The Scottish shales, typical of their 
class, are below the coal measure along with strata of marl, limestone 
and sandstone. 

To the advance in chemistry the agriculturalist is indebted for the 
increased crops he is enabled to take off his land. Liebig was the first 
to introduce the employment of artificial or chemical manures. Nitrate 
of soda, potash salts, and sulphate of ammonia obtained from gas-works 
are all employed as fertilizers, and the effect of these manures on crops 
has been carefully studied on experimental farms by Gilbert and Lawes. 

Metallurgical processes, too, have made great progress. The extrac- 
tion of gold from its ores is no longer carried out solely by the rou^h and 
ready mechanical methods by which our forefathers washed the sand 
of gold-bearing streams or subjected crushed auriferous quartz to the 



198 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

process of amalgamation. Plant for chemically separating gold by 
means of chlorine or of potassium cyanide is now found all over the 
world and the so-called "tailings" leit irom amalgamation processes in 
large quantities in the vicinity of gold-workings have proved a fruitful 
source of the precious metal when subjected to present day chemical treat- 
ment. The iron and steel industries have kept pace with modern chemical 
progress, the Bessemer process and the Siemen's-Martin process may be 
mentioned as examples of improvements in methods. Not only have 
producers perfected to the best of their ability the processes employed 
for making iron and steel, but the furnace gases formerly allowed to 
escape into the air are now treated in such a way as to extract from 
them many useful substances which are of themselves of great market 
value. 

As that of the chief actor in the development of the modern high 
explosive the namte of Alfred Nobel must be a familiar word in all 
civilized countries. Ordinary black gunpowder is now seldom used 
except for producing the slow rending action required in blasting the 
faces of quarries, where a shattering effect would be undesirable. 
Schoenbein discovered gun-cotton in 1865 and nitro-glycerine was first 
made by Sobrero in 1847. Nobel made these nitro-compounds his 
special study, and in 1866, by absorbing nitro-glycerine in a porous 
siliceous earth known as kieselguhr, produced a brown pasty substance, 
and named it "dynamite." The chief constituents of the modern explo- 
sives, blasting-gelatine, cordite, gelignite and ballistite are gun-cotton 
and nitro-glycerine. The discovery of blasting-gelatine was accidrntal 
and deserves recording. Nobel, when in his laboratory experimenting 
with nitro-glycerine, cut his finger slightly, and to cover the wound 
applied collodion, which is a solution of nitro-cellulose in ether, to the 
part affected. Having done so he emptied the contents of the phial into 
the vessel which held the nitro-glycerine he was experimenting vrith. 
The mixture became gelatinous, and thus accidentally came about the 
discovery of one of the most used ingredients of modern explosives. 
Lately we have heard much about lyddite and its effects. This is also a 
product of the last decade in so far as its use as an explosive is concerned, 
though it has been employed for dyeing silk for many years. 

I have endeavoured to show in this short address to what an extent 
scientific and industrial chemistry has progressed during the century now 
gone. It would be interesting to speculate as to future developments. 
The atomic theory which has so long been our chemical creed may be 
overthrown as was the theory of philogiston. Elements may no longer 
be regarded as simple substances and may even be looked upon as 
different forms of one ultimate kind of matter, or again as varying modes 
of motion. Speculation and theories regarding this have even now been 
advanced by men eminent in the world of science. Chemistry and 
physics are drawing closer together and the investigation of physico- 
chemical phenomena is occupying the attention of many workers. Great 
have been the advances made in pure chemistry, and to no less a degree 



A CENTURY OF CHEMICAL PROGRESS 199 

has the application of these principles to industrial chemistry progressed. 
I feel I cannot close without some reference to the part that may be 
taken by chemists in the developmc-nt of the natural resources of Canada, 
and more particularly of this province. I see from that useful volume a 
" Handbook of Canada," published by the local executive of the British 
Association meeting of 1897, that our province is possessed of almost 
untold mineral wealth. The metals gold, silver, copper, nickel, lead and 
iron are in abundance. Of sulphur in combination there is plenty, while 
coal, mineral oil, phosphates and common salt also are found. The search 
after the precious metals, mining, the production of copper, iron and 
nickel are all departments of industry in which many graduates of the 
University have found and will, I venture to think, continue to find 
employment. It is to the men we send forth from this institution that 
we must look for the proper exploitation of our natural resources. While 
in past years most of our graduates entered the professions of medicine, 
law or of teaching now a large proportion are going, not only into mining 
and the other branches of engineering, but also into manufactures and 
commerce. The future of this country is in the hands of these men. 
Now that the School of Science has become an integral part of the 
University and constitutes our faculty of applied science, a stronger tie 
has been created between this department and that presided over by my 
colleague Professor Ellis than was possible heretofore. It should be the 
aim of the departments, then, to give our students a thorough all-/ound 
training in the principles of chemistry, not omitting reference to the 
practical application of these principles to the arts and manufactures. A 
chemist thoroughly trained in his subject by a course of study such as 
can be obtained in any of our universities is the man who is most fitted 
to apply his knowledge to whatever branch of industry he may find 
himself engaged in after he leaves his Alma Mater. I have heard it 
advocated that the universities and technical colleges should employ 
special lecturers, expert in their several spheres of chemical industry, to 
instruct students in the particular branch which it is their ultimate 
intention to take up as their life-business. Where, I ask, are such men 
to be found? Is it likely that a manufacturer will enter into all the 
details of improvements in his own business that he has, after much 
experience, introduced for the benefit of his own or his employer's profit? 
In these days of keen competition, and of earnest striving to gain even a 
modest competency, any particular detail or device which will ensure 
a better yield of material or the production of a superior article than 
one's rivals in trade can produce is zealously guarded, as well it might be. 
A general knowledge of the principles of the subject is the first great 
essential and whether it be metallurgy, brewing, calico-printing or dyeing 
that the young graduate proceeds to, he will always be able to adapt 
himself to his new surroundings and be of more use in improving the 
processes in which he is interested than if his whole time had been spent 
learning the details of his special work to the exclusion of the great 
general principles involved in the science. The man with energy and 



200 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

application, but whose academic and scientific training has been nil, has 
hitherto in many cases succeeded in coming to the front in whatever 
industry or business he may have taken up, how much more, then, may 
we expect to see the scientifically trained graduate (ceteris paribus) 
become a successful worker in any of the many great fields open to him. 



PHYSICAL TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY. 

BY H. J. CRAWFORD, B.A. 

IN the year of '87 undergraduates of the University of Toronto did not 
appear to relish the idea of having Literary Society elections go by 
default ; indeed, breaking through old party affiliations they even fought 
a keen contest over a scheme to saddle upon the executive of that Society 
the responsibility of looking after the erection of a gymnasium Toler- 
ably absurd as the proposal may look from this distance, it served its 
purpose as an election cry and stirred up considerable discussion on the 
gymnasium question. 

The party favouring the plan modestly announced in its manifesto 
motto that it was engaged in planting pear-trees for the benefit of com- 
ing generations ; not much pear-tree planting was effected just then, 
however, but the credit for establishing the present gymnasium is largely 
due to more practical men of later years like Dr. Webster and his 
associates. 

Another respect in which the lot of the student of to-day is by com- 
parison thrice blessed, is in the ample provision made for playing-grounds 
in Lawn, Campus and Athletic Field ; and many a preparatory school 
club, too, has had reason to be grateful to the authorities for their gener- 
ous policy in freely loaning these for games, since, with a truly depressing 
uniformity, school boards have failed to provide adequate grounds as 
adjuncts to their buildings. The wise play-ground policy of the present 
administration is worthy of all praise ; and it is to be hoped these areas 
may remain a possession and a joy forever to the seekers after out-door 
recreation. The next desideratum is a proper running-track on the 
Athletic Field, where improved accommodation for spectators is also 
urgently needed. 

One would not judge from the track and field sports of some recent 
years, that skilled trainers and coaches were too numerous around the 
college ; but the admirable zeal of individual competitors has somewhat 
counter-vailed against that lack ; and though the exceptional few who 
can attain distinction should pr:>bably have supplied to them opportun- 
ities for cultivating their powers, because the brilliance of their achieve- 
ments is reflected upon their college, yet after all athletic facilities exist 
not so much to make students athletes as to make athletic students. 
Recent years have witnessed the commendable development of various 
inter-year and inter-college competitions, such as those for the Mulock, 



PHYSICAL TRAINING AT THE UNIVERSITY 201 

Faculty and Jennings Cups, and these have the merit of inducing large 
numbers to participate in athletic exercises. 

Those students a relatively small number who strive to maintain 
the honour of their- University in inter-collegiate contests find they have 
to contend with lack of interest, lack of system and lack of funds these 
three, and the greatest of these is lack of funds. 

In order to distribute the burthen of expense more equably in a matter 
in which every under-graduate ought to feel he has a stake, the sugges- 
tion has been mooted of following the precedent set by at least one other 
Canadian University, and imposing a small compulsory fee on every 
student. Were the general tuition fee smaller, as it ought to be smaller, 
this suggestion would meet with less opposition. 

In the matter of the general management of University athletics, a long 
step forward was taken, on the initiative of Mr. T. A. Russell, about a 
year ago, when financial control was vested in an inner council of nine. 
Of these, five are chosen by an electoral college representing the various 
Athletic Clubs of the University, the different year classes in University 
College, and the affiliated colleges in a word, the whole undergraduate 
body ; three others are appointed by the College Council, and there is one 
graduate advisory member. This Committee selects a Secretary to 
whom a small salary is paid ; and ultimately, with such modifications of 
detail as experience may suggest, it will doubtless be found invaluable in 
directing the athletic policy of the University and securing that contin- 
uity which is so essential. Already, I am told, it has planned useful 
measures, such as the creation of a new incentive toward striving for 
glory, by awarding the distinction of wearing the T to members of first 
teams. 

The formation of such a controlling body is quite in line, too, with the 
practice of the best Universities in the United States ; but it seems 
characteristic with them to give a larger representation to their graduates. 
For example, at Harvard, where a correspondent calls the plan "the 
most satisfactory of any we have tried," the Athletic Committee consists 
of three members from the faculties, three graduate and three under- 
graduate members. At Cornell, too, the Alumni Associations are given 
representation on their Athletic Council, and our own Alumni Associa- 
tion might extend its influence in the same direction. 

But it is on the side of scientific and systematic physical training that 
our University is most conspicuously deficient when compared, in this 
department, with the pr'ncipal American institutions ; and to remark on 
this deficiency is the chief object of this paper. 

We may take for illustration the University of Wisconsin, a state 
institution like our own, in a State less populous than our Province. In 
that University there flourishes a regularly equipped " Department of 
Physical Education," with Dr. Elsom as director, one instructor in Ath- 
letics, three instructors in Gymnastics, and two instructors in Gymnastics 
for women. Gymnastic exercise on two days of each week is required 
of all freshmen and sophomores, together with two days a week of mili- 



202 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

tary drill under the supervision of an army officer. " We look after the 
physical welfare of the men," writes Dr. Elsom, "give them all physical 
examinations, prescribe exercises for special cases and do an extensive 
anthropometric work generally. The gymnastic classes are a part of the 
College course and credit is given toward graduation for the physical 
work done. The results are satisfactory. The weak ones are those who 
are benefited most, and interesting results of the growth and physical 
development are noted of all the classes." Many other cases might be 
cited. 

In Cornell, where Dr. Hitchcock is gymnasium director, a similar pre- 
scription of two years' compulsory physical training is made ; and this is 
true of several others, while some require even four years, as is the case, 
I believe, at Chicago. At Yale, Dr. Anderson has charge of the gym- 
nasium and there is a certain amount of compulsory gymnasium work 
for freshmen. At Harvard .everything is optional ; but the facilities 
offered by Hemenway gymnasium are very great, and its director, Dr. 
Sargent, the well-known expert in physical education, says that as a 
matter of fact, large numbers avail themselves of its privileges, while 
each student is entitled to an examination, with a course of exercises pre- 
scribed to meet his special needs. Gymnasium work is also voluntary at 
Leland Stanford Junior University, but its director informs me that 
" physical examination, medical examination where needed, and close 
observation of the work of the individual from day to day, furnish the 
information upon which is based the prescription of work for each 
individual." 

It might be added that, though at Harvard credit is not given for 
physical attainments, it is Dr. Sargent's opinion, after thirty years of 
observation in that field, "that identically the same motives for physical 
efforts as for mental efforts should be recognized and all placed to the 
credit of the man striving for a degree." 

Now, whatever view may be taken by the authorities as to the ex- 
pedience of establishing a physical training department like that of 
Wisconsin, it is quite certain that students will never gain from the 
gymnasium the benefits it should give, until it is put under the direction 
of a medical expert. Possibly we may look to the Athletic Council for 
advance in that direction. Nor will every student obtain the physical 
education he ought to have, until a course is made compulsory ; and 
when this is done, credit for proficiency ought to be granted. 

School masters interested in athletics know that, however admirable 
games may be (and they have their faults too) there are always some 
pupils whom these do not reach, and these often the very ones most needing 
development of physical vigour ; while the compulsory gymnastic training, 
under present conditions, is of little benefit. But, to use an argument of 
which Ministers of Education have been fond, we hope that a practical 
system, once it has become the vogue at the University, may " filter 
down." 

The need for scientific training for the body no less than for the mind 



THE ALUMNI DEPUTATION 203 

has been strangely disregarded ; and yet it is now no longer a matter of 
opinion, but of absolute demonstration, that " the pupils as a class who 
have the best physiqres are able to do the best mental work." 

Handicapped as the University has been by the lack of funds, some- 
thing has been accomplished toward attaining the aim of college athletics, 
defined by Mr. Walter Camp of Yale as " the development of strong, 
courageous and sound gentlemen." 

If the State, heeding the memorial of the Alumni, deals justly and 
therefore generously by its child, the University of Toronto, are we too 
sanguine in expecting that not merely shall the scientific department 
of mineralogy and geology be amply endowed, but also the scientific 
department of physical education not neglected ? 



THE ALUMNI DEPUTATION. 

BY J. C. M'LENNAN, PH.D. 

FOR many years it was felt that the graduates of the University of 
Toronto, when they had become scattered in pursuit of their various 
vocations, were inclined to abate the liveliness of their interest in the 
welfare of the institution^ because there was no general organization round 
which they could rally, and through which information could be dissemi- 
nated concerning its growing usefulness and requirements. 

The increase in the number of its graduates was out of all proportion 
to the growth of public sentiment in its favour. In order to concentrate 
these scattered forces there was organized the University of Toronto 
Alumni Association. During the first year of its existence, now just 
drawing to a close, it has developed from a plan to a reality and from a 
purpose to a power. At first there were apparently so many obstacles 
in the way that success seemed hardly to be hoped for. These diffi- 
culties, however, have been gradually overcome. The indifferent have 
been found to be largely those whose occupations or location have placed 
them out of reach of University news and feeling. Ignorance of the 
present condition of the University and of the work that is being done, 
and well done, in spite of the greatest difficulty, has been the chief cause 
of the lack of sympathy from the graduates in the past. 

College needs and news have been laid before the Alumni through 
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY, a publication started by 
the Association for this purpose. By its means the graduates all over 
Canada have been brought more closely into touch with the University, 
and, through the personal news columns, with each other. 

They appreciate the struggle necessary to carry on this great institu- 
tion on its meagre income and to maintain the high level attained by the 
various departments, as evidenced by the success of our graduates at 
home and abroad. They also recognize the difficulty of providing for 
the necessary growth of the University. The knowledge rekindled the 
old enthusiasm for Aima Mater. To know was to act, and that with a 
promptness surprising to the most sanguine. In order to take concerted 



204 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

actipn the graduates in the various counties have formed themselves into- 
local branches of the Alumni Association, each of which has entered 
heartily into the work of relieving the University from its cramped and 
straitened circumstances, and elevating it into the position which the 
wealth of the Province and its industrial development demand. Already 
eighteen local organizations have been completed and several are in 
process of formation. 

About the middle of February it was felt that the time had come for 
action, and at a meeting of the Executive Committee, held February Qth, 
which was largely attended by the out-of-town representatives of the 
local branches, it was decided to assemble a deputation to wait upon the 
Government and urge the claims of the University. 

The President of the Association, Dr. Reeve, made an appointment 
with the Premier for the I3th of March, and preparations were begun, 
reduced rates being secured on all railways. The date was happily 
chosen, as it enabled the Alumni and their friends to attend the Conver- 
sazione in the Biological Building the same evening. 

In spite of the inclement weather, when the deputation assembled it 
was found that all departments and faculties were well represented. 
Members of all the learned professions were numerous, and there was a 
large number of business men present whose standing in the community 
and earnest words in behalf of the University showed that it was not 
only to her own graduates she could appeal, but also to those whose 
large interests enabled them to take a wide view of the country's material 
growth and to see its intimate relation to intellectual and especially to 
scientific progress. 

The following gentlemen were among those present : 

COUNTY OF CARLETON. Otto J. Klotz, Department of the Interior, Ottawa ; J. Lome 
McDougall, Jr., B.A. , barrister, Ottawa ; D. A. J. McDougal, Esq., barrister, Ottawa. 

COUNTY OF DURHAM. G. B. Henwood, Esq., B.A., barrister, Port Hope. 

COUNTY OF ELGIN. J. H. "Coyne, B.A., Vice-President Elgin A. A., barrister, County 
Registrar, President Ontario Historical Society; S. Silcox, B.A. , B.Paed., Secretary 
Elgin A. A., Principal and Inspector Public Schools; W. L. Wickett, B.A., barrister; 
J. M. Glenn, K.C., LL.B., barrister, Treasurer Elgin A. A. ; W. B. Doherty, LL.B., 
barrister, City Clerk and Soliciior; Rev. K. I. Warner, M.A., Principal Alma Ladies' 
College ; G. K. Crocker, merchant, President Free Library Board ; John Campbell, 
President Campbell Milling Co., ex-President Disciples Association of Canada; C. 0. 
Ermatinger, Junior County Judge, President Elgin Historical Society ; Sperrin Chant, 
Mayor of St. Thomas, merchant ; P. Meehan, merchant, ex-Mayor ; 'I homas Meek, 
merchant, Alderman ; R. M. Anderson, merchant (Northway & Anderson) ; W. H. 
Murch, merchant, President Atlas Loan Co., Chairman Industiial Committee ; K. W. 
McKay, County Clerk, Editor Municipal World; A. McCrimmon, barrister (Liberal 
Candidate for West Elgin in former years); A. E. Wallace, Manager Atlas Loan 
Co. ; J. W. Stewart, Manager Southern Loan and Savings Co. ; W. R. Jackson, 
jeweller ; E. B. Beuson, merchant, ex-member Hoard of Education ; H. Dingman, 
Business Manager St. Thomas Journal ; J. McAdam, insurance agent, etc. ; E. Horton, 
Manager Oriental Flour Co., all of St. Thomas; J. Cascadden, M.D., ex-M.P.P., Dutton j 
J. Youell, B A., M. B., Aylin-r; W. E. Stevens, barrister, Aylmer ; J. D. Shaw, B.A., 
barrister, Rodney ; M. E. Lyon, County Councillor, Malahide ; D. Lang, County Coun- 
cillor, Aldborough. 

COUNTY OF HALTON. D. 0. Cameron, Esq., B.A., barrister, Oakville ; C. B. Patterson, 
Esq., Division Court Clerk, Oakville ; N. J. Wellwood, Esq., B.A. , Principal High School,. 
Oakville. 



THE ALUMNI DEPUTATION 205 

COUNTY OF HASTINGS. F. E. O'Flynn, Esq., B.A., barrister, Belleville ; S. J. Young, 
Esq., B.A., barrister, Trenton; VV. H. Biggar, ex-M.L.A., barrister, Belleville; J. T. 
Luton, Esq., M.A. , teacher, Belleville. 

COUNTY OF KENT. J. B. Rankin, Esq., B.A., K.C., barrister, Chatham. 

COUNTY OF LINCOLN. H. H. Collier, B.A., barrister, St. Catharines; Rev. J. 0. Miller, 
M.A., Principal Bishop Kidley College ; R. H. Smith, Esq., M.D., St. Catharines ; S. H. 
McCoy, Esq., M.D., St. Catharines ; J. Sheahan, Esq., M.D., St. Catharines; E. Jessop, 
M.D. , M.L.A. , St. Catharines; Louis Bisonette, Esq., merchant, St. Catharines; 
Rev. G. H. Smith, B.A., St. Catharines; Rev. J. L. Murray, M.A., St. Catharines; 
C E. Klotz, Esq., St. Catharines; A. M. Smith, Esq., St. Catharines ; W. A. McKinnon, 
B.A., Grimsby. 

COUNTY OF MIDDLESEX. Talbot Macbeth, B.A., K.C., barrister, London; Hume 
Cronyn, B. A., barrister, London; J. M. McEvoy, B.A., LL.B., barrister, London; S. J. 
Radcliffe, B.A., Principal Ixmdon Collegiate Institute; C. W. McLeay, B.A., (M.U., 
physician, London ; F. W. Daly, B.A., merchant, London ; Philip McKenzie, B. A., LL.B., 
barrister, London ; W. J. Harvey, Esq., barrister, London ; Arthur Little, B.A. , London ; 
F. W. Merchant, M.A., Principal London Normal School, London. 

COUNTIES OF NORTH BRUCE AND NORTH GREY. Rev. J. Somerville, M.A., D.D., pastor 
of Division Street Presbyterian Church, Owen Sound ; A. G. McKay, Esq., M.A., Crown 
Attorney for the County of Grey ; T. H. Middleboro, Esq., M.B., physician at Owen Sound ; 
\V. J. Ferguson, Ksq., B.A., barrister and solicitor, Wiarton ; C. J. Mickle, Esq., B.A., 
barrister and solicitor, Chesley ; J. A. Hershey, Esq., M.B., physician, Owen Sound ;^W. 
D. Ferris, Esq., M.B., physician, Shallow Lake. 

COUNTY OF PERTH. Hon. Thomas Ballantyne, Stratford ; J. Davis Barnett, Esq., 
Stratford; Duncan Ferguson, Esq., merchant, Stratford; Dr. Devlin, Stratford, 
W. M. O'Beirne, editor, Stratford; G. G. McPher^on, Esq., Stratford; A. H. Nicholl; 
Esq., Listoxvel ; Thomas Conant, Esq., Oshawa ; W. E. Tilley, Esq., Bowman ville. 

COUNTY OF PETERBOROUGH. E. B. Edwards, Esq., B.A., LL.B., K.C., barrister, Peter- 
borough ; J. W. Gray, Esq., M.D. , physician, Peterborough ; G. E. Revd, Esq., School of 
Practical Science graduate, Peterborough ; D. Walker, Esq., B.A. , Public School Inspector, 
Peterborough ; E. A. Peck, Esq., barrister and member of the County Council, Peterborough; 
J. Davidson, Esq., M.A., LL.B., Principal of High School, Norwood ; S. P. Ford, Esq., 
M.D,, physician, Norwood. 

COUNTY OF PRINCE EDWARD. Dr. Morley Currie, B.A. , Picton ; James A. Clapp, Esq., 
Picton; Wellington Boulter, Esq., Picton ; H. B. Bristol, Esq., Picton; E. B. Merrill, 
Esq., Picton. 

COUNTY o^ SIMCOE. Donald Ross, Esq., B.A., LL.B., barrister, Barrie. 

COUNTY OF VICTORIA. His Honour Judge Dean, M.A., LL.D., Lindsay ; Hugh O'Leary, 
Esq., K.C., barrister, Lindsay; J. C. Harstone, Esq., M.A., Principal of the Collegiate 
Institute, Lindsay ; F. C. Taylor, Esq. , broker and ex-Mayor, Lindsay. 

COUNTY OF WATERLOO. His Honour Judge Duncan Chisholm, Esq., LL.B., County Judge, 
Berlin; Rev. W. A. Bradley, B.A., pastor St. Andrew's Church, Berlin; Rev. P. E. McEwen, 
B. A., pastor King Street Baptist Church, Berlin ; C. Bitzer, Esq., B. A., barrister, Berlin ; 
J. A. Scellen, Esq., B.A., LL.B., barrister, Berlin ; C. K. Hagedorn, Esq., Manager Berlin 
Suspender Co., Berlin ; D. Standelbauer, Esq., traveller, Berlin ; D. Forsyth, Et-q., B.A., 
Science Master High School, Berlin; A. R. Goldie, Esq., C.E., of Goldie & McCulloch, 
manufacturers, Gait ; J. N. McKendrick, Esq., B.A., Insurance Inspector, Gait. 

COUNTY OF WELLINGTON. John Mutrie, Esq., M.L.A., Guelph ; H. W. Peterson, M.A. , 
K.C., County Crown Attorney; Wm Tytler, B.A. , Inspector of Schools, Guelph ; James 
Davison, B.A., Principal Collegiate Institute, Guelph ; H. E. Wilson, B.A., Classical 
Master, Collegiate Institute, Guelph ; Dr. James Mills, President Ontario Agricultural 
College, Guelph ; J. B. Reynolds, B. A., Professor Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph ; 
Rev. R. W. Ross, Pastor Knox Church, Guelph ; Rev. T. Eakiu, M.A. , Pastor St. Andrew's 
Church, Guelph ; Dr. Robinson, Guelph ; Dr. W. O. Stewart, Guelph ; Dr. Dryden, 
Guelph ; Dr. McKinnon, Guelph ; Charles W. Kelly, merchant, Guelph ; Lindsay Torrence, 
Public School Board, Guelph; E. R. Bollert, Esq., Public School Board, Guelph; Rev. J. 
Fred Kaye, Pastor Paisley Street Methodist Church, Guelyh ; Rev. Cassidy, Norfolk Street 
Methodi-t Church, Guelph ; J. M. Duff, Manager Bank of Commerce, Guelph ; G. E. 
Chapman, Esq., Agent Mutual Life of Canada, Guelph ; J. F. Kilgour, B.A., LL.B., 
barrister, Guelph ; Rev. W. H. Harvey, Pastor Methodist Church, Fergus ; N. McMurchy, 
Esq., B.A., Elora High School ; H. L. Hutt, B.S.A. Lecturer, Ontario Agricultural College, 



ao6 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Guelph; Wm. Lockhead, B A., M.S., Professor of Geology, Ontario Agricultural College, 
Guelph ; R. L. McKinnon, B.A., LL.B , barrister, Guelph ; A. R Hamilton, Esq., B.A., 
LL. B., barrister, Palmerston ; F. (ialbraith, editor Mercury, Guelph; Dr. J. Hugo Reed, 
veterinary surgeon, Guelph ; Professor Harrison, Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph ; 
Dr. Stii ton, dentist, Guelph ; Dr. Nunan, dentist, Guelph ; Alex. Stewart, druggist, 
Guelph. 

COUNTY OF WENTWORTH. James Chisholm, Esq., B.A., barrister, Hamilton ; His Honour 
Colin <T. Sn'der, Esq., B.A., Judge of Wentworth county; W. H. Balla d, Esq., MA., 
Inspector of Schools, Hamilton ; Hugh S. Brennan, Esq., M.A., lumber merchant, Hamilton. 

On arriving at the University the members of the deputation were 
met by a reception committee of ten undergraduates in caps and gowns, 
who directed them to the rotunda, where the Treasurer, Mr. S. J. Robert- 
son, assisted by Mr. Donald Ross, B.A., '98, registered them and gave 
them invitations to luncheon in the University Dining Hall and to the 
Scientific Evening in the Biological Building. The delegates were then 
conducted to the Undergraduate Union, where they were received by 
President Loudon and other members of the staff. The reception room 
of the Undergraduate Union was used for the first time on this occasion, 
and all were impressed with the comfortable quarters which the students 
have been enabled to secure largely through the generous subscriptions 
of the business men in Toronto. 

At a quarter past twelve luncheon was served in the Dining Hall to 
about one hundred out-of-town delegates, whose early trains enabled 
them to be present at that time. 

The deputation assembled in the rotunda at 1.45 and then proceeded 
to the Legislative Buildings, where the Premier and his colleagues re- 
ceived them. 

President Reeve introduced the deputation and presented the following 
Memorandum : 

MEMORANDUM TO THE HONOURABLE THE PREMIER OF ONTARIO, 
THE MKMBERS OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, AND OF THE LEG- 
ISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, FROM THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

The vital connection existing between education and national pros- 
perity is now generally recognized. The intellectual and material pro- 
gress of Ontario depends upon the efficiency of its educational system, 
which in turn is determined by the efficiency of the Provincial University. 
The excellence of the work hitherto done by the University is recognized 
both at home and abroad. A time has come when, owing to new and 
increased obligations, the financial resources of the institution are no 
longer adequate. The attempt to discharge these obligations has given 
rise to a financial situation which the Alumni view with alarm. 

The financial statement of the University shows the following deficits 
for the last four years : 

For 1896-7 $ 9,517 

For 1897 8 6,088 

For 1898-9 1,278 

For 1899-1900 , 14,683 

$31,566 



THE ALUMNI DEPUTATION zoy 

The average income for the four years mentioned is about $121,500, 
made up as follows : 

Income from endowment (average) $ 63,300 

Feed from students (average) 43,5(10 

Interest on trust funds, etc. (average) 14,700 

$121,500 

The item of $63,000 constitutes the whole income from the original 
endowment of 1798 and includes the statutory grant of $7,000 in ex- 
tinction of old claims. This income from endowment has been prac- 
tically stationary for many years, while the fees have risen from $13.431 
in 1887 to $44441 in 1899. In this period the fee paid annually by each 
student has increased from $22 to $52. This regrettable tax. bearing 
with especial weight upon. the poor, has been rendered unavoidable by 
the failure of the Legislature to supplement the income in proportion to 
increased obligations. The third item above, that of $14,700, is made 
up of interest on trust funds, and on advances in respect of the Upper 
Canada College block. 

Under present conditions the University is hampered for want of funds 
even in the work it is now attempting. This is notably the case with 
regard to the scientific departments, the due maintenance of which is so 
intimately connected with the material -prosperity of the country. All 
of these departments are demanding increased annual appropriations, 
aside altogether from the question of future expansion, which will very 
shortly require the most serious consideration. 

The department which has suffered most from lack of funds is that of 
Mineralogy and Geology, a department whose connection with the 
development of the vast mineral resources of the Province is obvious. 
The average annual amount expended on this department for the last 
four years for salaries and maintenance was $1,665, an amount which is 
absurdly inadequate. To put this department upon a proper footing 
requires a large immediate expenditure for buildings, equipment and 
additions to the staff It is possible that the failure to put this depart- 
ment upon a proper footing has resulted from the fact that its necessities 
have not been clearly and adequately brought to the attention of the 
Government. 

In view of the abwe considerations, the Alumni beg to press upon the 
Government and Legislature the necessity of adopting such measures as 
will increase the resources of the University to such an extent that, (i) 
the recurrence of deficits shall be avoided, (2) the department of Min- 
eralogy and Geology adequately provided for, and (3) the various depart- 
ments of the University more liberally maintained. 

DR. REEVE'S SPEECH. 

After reading the Memorandum, Dr. Reeve said : 

MR. PREMIER We represent on this occasion an organization num- 
bering thousands of Alumni, very many of whom fill the most important 
positions in the country, which fact, indeed, accounts for the absence 



208 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

to-day of many who would gladly be with us. The Alumni have com- 
bined to promote the welfare of their Alma Mater, and they feel that in 
their union is a strength, a power to influence public opinion, of which 
they may be justly proud, and which it is their duty to wield wisely in 
her interests. That we have been slow of speech and effort in her behalf, 
we may not deny, but we hope to atone for our dereliction, not by play- 
ing the r61e of a third party in the arena of politics, but as a Coalition 
whose policy is Alma Mater first, and therefore in this case, in the high- 
est sense, Country before Party. We come, Liberals and Conservatives, 
sinking for the nonce any party distinctions, as we trust ever to do when 
there is need. In so doing, we try to show what we feel, that when the 
normal life and growth of such a great institution are at stake or a crisis 
arises, as now, partyism should be left out of .count. 

We would fain hope that the present appeal of the University author- 
ities will be met in that lofty spirit which actuated the House at the 
time of the fire, when the leader of the Opposition, now the Chancel- 
lor of the University, vied with the Executive in the prompt and generous 
effort to retrieve the disaster. The public utterances of yourself, Mr. 
Premier, the expressed sympathy and deep interest of your confrere and 
successor in office, the Hon. Minister of Education, coupled with the 
earnest and sympathetic speech of the present leader of the Opposition 
last night, give good ground to hqpe that once again a golden opportunity 
has been seized and our Provincial University as the cope-stone of the 
educational system of the country has been thought worthy of a place 
beyond the pale of party politics. This is specially gratifying to the 
thousands of her graduates to whom her welfare and progress are becom- 
ing a burning question, and the more because they feel that of all the 
great possessions of the State none is really so fruitful and of such high 
quality. 

We trust the present attitude of the public men and leaders of opinion 
augurs a more constant and practical recognition of the fact that in a 
sense the University belongs to the State as much as does the Post 
Office, the Agricultural College or the Experimental Farm. 

We believe it would be a wise economy to mortgage the estates of the 
Crown if need be in order to at once properly equip the State University. 

What our Alma Mater has given back to the State during her life of 
fifty years is vastly more than many dream of; and in the future, history 
will doubtless repeat itself. 

One of the leading features of this Session's legislation, we note, is the 
million dollar scheme for providing good roads throughout the country ; 
primarily, of course, for the benefit of that important part of the people, 
the farmers. Largely in the interests of their sons, who come in goodly 
numbers to the University, win its prizes and share its benefits, we now 
urge, not that the Government and House shall provide the impossible 
royal road to learning, but that what are now, in respect of more than 
one important department of the institution, merely byways be made 



THE ALUMNI DEPUTATION 209 

highways for the many who wish to reach the goal. There can be no 
doubt the outlay in this regard will yield a rich reward. 

A special plea is made for aid in the Department of Mineralogy and 
Geology, but there are other departments that sadly need help, as is 
clearly set forth in the report of the University Council. 

We find, Mr. Premier, progressive higher institutions everywhere 
promoting original research. The undoubted direct gain to a student 
and reflex benefit to a University of such work need no argument, and 
are beyond cavil. 

Research scholars (Professors or post-graduates) and travelling Fel- 
lows are so many ambassadors of the Republic of Letters and Science, 
whose status at foreign academic courts tends at once to make known 
and to elevate that of their Alma Mahr. 

To learn how to woo or wrest from Nature her inmost secrets and to 
transmute her hidden stores of treasure and of pelf, is a most important 
training. And thus to develop the latent wealth and manifold resources 
of the country and bring in time the greatest good to the greatest 
number is, indeed, a grand result and one which justifies our appeal for 
ample funds to make our Alma Mater more potent for good than ever. 
The dictum of the Rector of Glasgow University, Lord Rosebery, that 
" Practical Universities are the Universities of the future," we cannot 
afford to ignore. 

At the great Birmingham meeting in iSgc, under the chairmanship 
of the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, now Chancellor, setting on foot 
the University movement there, which it was the speaker's privilege 
to attend, the same sentiment was strongly in evidence. 

The lament, not a new one, then uttered and since often repeated, of 
England's neglect of Science, with its patent results, should prove both 
a warning and an incentive to our legislators and educationists. 

We can aver most truthfully that for the great results gained at low 
cost the University of Toronto stands preeminent ; its record in this 
respect surprises educationalists from abroad and challenges their 
admiration. 

For the University to provide for present urgent need of laboratories, 
equipment, etc., out of its endowment fund is clearly to drain its own 
life-blood, a course as unsafe as unwise. Others will speak to-day of 
what is being done in other countries willingly and steadily to foster and 
expand State Universities. Permit the speaker in a word to voice, in a 
general way, the feeling of the Alumni and friends, and urge on the part 
of the Government and House at this time a repetition, after the lapse 
of a century, of that prescient policy which gave our Alma Mater her 
original endowment. Affection for their Alma Mater and a true patriot- 
ism alike impel the Alumni to urge upon the Government and the House 
the passing of a-measure during this Session which will tend to stop the 
exodus from our Province and country of our more ambitious and 
brilliant youths, one that will fully accord with the progressive spirit of 
the age and meet the growing needs of the country and the century. 



210 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

REVEREND JAMES ALLEN, OF TORONTO, 

who followed, said they had heard the Premier declare that this was the 
richest country in the world in its natural resources, that Ontario was the 
banner Province of the Dominion, and that the strength of the country 
was not in its broad acres or material wealth, not even in the sound 
political opinions of its electorate, but in the character of its people, in 
their moral principles and trained intelligence, and the speaker believed 
that their University opportunities should be commensurate with the 
material prospects of the country. 

MR. P. W. ELLIS, PRESIDENT OF THE CANADIAN MANUFACTURERS' 

ASSOCIATION, 

read a resolution passed by the Executive Committee of that body, 
which, he thought, represented industrial public opinion in the Province. 
The resolution stated that after careful consideration they were strongly 
in favour of means being provided for an adequate equipment of the 
Provincial University. For some time the manufacturers had thought 
the University was not closely enough in touch with the needs of the 
manufacturing and business world, and they felt that the time had come 
when a distinct advance should be made, not only along the lines on 
which they were now working, but more particularly in those branches 
which looked to the development of our natural resources. 

MR. E. V. CLERGUE, OF SAULT STE. MARIE,- 

who said he had been asked to speak as a representative of the industrial 
development of Ontario, said he had come in contact with many gradu- 
ates of Toronto University, who went north seeking employment. There 
were many opportunities up there, but he regretted to say that owing to 
the lack of facilities here the heads of departments in the large Sault 
establishments were largely Americans, Englishmen, Germans and 
Swedes. 

Mr. James Chisholm, barrister, of Hamilton, representing the Alumni 
Association of the County of Wentworth, assured the Government that 
they would have the support of the Opposition in generous treatment of 
the University. What the people of the Province asked was that the 
University of Toronto be again placed in the relative place it held to 
surrounding universities twenty-five years ago. 

Mr. Otto Klotz presented on behalf of the Toronto University Club of 
Ottawa the following memorial to the Premier, passed at the recent 
meeting of the club : 

"The Toronto University Club of the City of Ottawa, a club having 
a membership of over one hundred and fifty, and one of whose chief 
objects is to advance the interest of the University of Toronto in every 
way, learn with regret that the University is at present in the most 
extreme financial distress. We feel that the commanding position of 
Ontario, the leading Province of the Dominion, has been attained 



THE ALUMNI DEPUTATION 211 

largely through the educational advantages offered our people by our 
public education. The State University is the cope-stone of that system, 
and hence merits the hearty support of the whole people, who are, directly 
or indirectly, the beneficiaries. Ontario is making great strides towards 
the development of her vast resources, and the University will be an 
important factor in the consummation thereof. In view of these facts 
and the great stress now being especially laid on scientific education 
by progressive foreign countries, it seems to the club that a grant of 
at least $50,000 a year should be made to the University of Toronto to 
place it on a proper financial footing. The most desirable form of 
revenue would be one that automatically adjusts itself approximately to 
the ever-increasing needs of the University. This would then bear a 
constant ratio to the progress of the Province. It may not be out of 
place to mention that our neighbouring State (Michigan) has a State 
university, which the State supports by a tax of a quarter of a mill on 
all the taxable property of the State. The annual revenue from this 
State tax is now about $300,000, a sum many times in excess of the 
State aid to the University of Toronto our State institution yet the 
resources and population of Michigan are not greater than those of 
Ontario, in fact the reverse. It appears to the club that the name 
University of Toronto has been somewhat unfortunate from the fact that 
it has militated against the proper and full recognition by the people of 
the provincial character of the University that it is essentially the 
University of the people, of the State. The question may, therefore, 
arise whether the interests of the University would not be advanced by 
changing the name to University of Ontario. In conclusion, the club 
hopes that at the present session of the Legislature the necessary steps 
will be taken to give adequate financial support to the University of 
Toronto, and in a manner to obviate for years to come the annual appeal 
for necessary assistance, thereby placing our Provincial University abreast 
of the times, and making it a credit to Ontario." 

Rev. W. A. Bradley, of Berlin, in describing the inadequate provision 
for the teaching of Science in the University of Toronto, spoke of three 
young men of the town who, in order to pursue a course in Engineering, 
had passed by Toronto and gone to Cornell. This was an emigration 
which should be stopped. 

Mr. John Campbell, President of the Campbell Milling Company, St. 
Thomas, spoke, urging the duty of the Government to develop the 
University in accordance with the industrial demands of the country. 

Hon. S. C. Biggs made a most vigorous speech, saying that all that 
was claimed by the Association was admitted by the Province, Mr. 
Whitney, the Alumni and all others cognizant of the facts. Therefore 
the issues are arrived at. There is a deficit, a present lack of funds, and 
students have to go elsewhere to be properly equipped. The Govern- 
ment can find money for material development, such as railways, pulp 
mills, etc., and he was glad of it, but why not develop the men who are 
to manage these things ? If there is a surplus, as the Government claims, 



212 . UNIVERSTIY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

of $ i ,000,000, why not use some of it ? A surplus while the University 
the child of the Province, is starving ! It is preposterous, and this 
injustice is allowing the intellectual interests of the country to suffer. 

A telegram was read from Col. W. N. Ponton, Belleville, as follows : 
" Hon. the Minister of Education : Alumni Toronto University, Hast- 
ings County, seventy strong, with public opinion represented and influenced 
by them, urge immediate generous action to make Provincial University 
our national pride and remove reproach of deficiency and want of prog- 
ress. Our first duty to our Provincial educational centre, afterwards 
the others." 

HON. G. W. ROSS, PREMIER OF ONTARIO, IN REPLY SAID: 



" I am very much pleased indeed that the Alumni and their friends 
have come out to meet us in such large numbers. For many years I have 
been urging the Alumni to educate the public as to the needs of the 
University, and I am therefore glad of this gathering ; and that, while the 
movement was late in coming, it has now come with such force and 
vigour. I have always been impressed with the need of having a well- 
equipped University, both in regard to professoriate and equipment, and 
to buildings. I will not say what we have done and perhaps we have 
done a great deal but what the University has done has been done at 
the expense of its own endowment. We helped you after the fire, we set 
aside certain lands, and a few years ago there was a grant of $7,000. 
But, as has been pointed out, the increased cost of education has fallen 
upon students in the shape of fees. The students, therefore, of later years 
have borne the greater part of the increased cost, and more than the 
Government. The University has suffered like other large institutions in 
the depreciation of the rate of interest. I well remember when, some 
years ago, the average rate from its investments was six per cent. ; to- 
day the average is only a little above four per cent. 

" I admit," Mr. Ross continued, " and have always admitted, the respon- 
sibility of the Government to the University of Toronto. I do not think 
you should hold us responsible to do in the Province of Ontario for the 
University of Toronto what is done in Germany. Their universities are 
national universities, and there is a population of 55,000,000 for the 
treasury to draw upon. Nor is it here, as in Russia, with its 130,000,000 ; 
nor as in Great Britain, with its 41,000,000. You must have regard to 
our resources and the many demands upon us. In this Province we 
are giving $775,000 a year for education. That is a large drain upon 
the treasury, and if it does not go into the University it goes into the 
Public and High Schools, which are the feeders of the University. If 
these were not so well equipped the number of students would be much 
less. For charitable purposes (and I don't, like my honourable friend last 
evening, consider the University a charity) we give one million dollars. 
What is our position ? We have a regular revenue of about $4,000,000, 
divided up as I have said. Year after year we have had a small surplus, 
which now amounts to about a million in cash. Our revenue will 



THE ALUMNI DEPUTATION 213 

probably fall off next year about $300,000 or $400,000 on account of 
the falling off in timber dues. We have to consider how much we 
will give to this or that. While I am most anxious that the Uni- 
versity should be upon a strong and substantial basis, I have never 
subscribed to the position that it is a national calamity that graduates 
should go abroad to round off their education. I would not want you 
to suppose that we would establish here a post-graduate course equal to 
other universities where the endowment is very much larger. 

" I just say this to show that we did not expect to make our University 
a post-graduate school, like those great institutions which have endow- 
ments of millions to maintain them. Our educational progress is like 
the progress of the country. First we were a purely agricultural com- 
munity. Then, in the past twenty years, everyone will remember the 
great development of manufactures. Now we are at the beginning of a 
new era industrial and development of the great wealth in our mines 
and forests and natural resources. In my youth the goal of every 
student was a learned profession. He wanted to be a lawyer, or a 
physician, or a preacher, who could tell the people unpleasant things 
from a position where they could not answer him back. Now we 
are in another age, when the cry comes up from the manufacturer 
and the business man for trained men for their work. This cry is heard, 
and responded to, in Germany and England. Cambridge and Oxford go 
on teaching the classics, and piling mathematics on top of that, but eight 
other universities have risen to meet the new demand, such as Victoria 
College and Birmingham University the latter the newest of these, but 
one which has prospered amazingly under the care of Mr. Chamberlain. 
In the United States this need is met by such institutions as Cornell, 
the Pratt Institute, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and, 
under the vigorous directorship of Mr. Seth Low, Columbia University 
is developing in the same direction. We must move on the same lines. 
We mv c t see that our scientific courses are broadened. I tell you 
what we have to do to broaden, not the classical side of the teaching at 
the University, but the practical and scientific side, and I hope before 
the House rises to be able to do that which will assist us in developing 
our Province, especially New Ontario. 

"I am glad," said the Premier, "that you have given us this great 
representation. If you had aroused public opinion a year or two ago, 
perhaps you would have been better off now. You have been, perhaps, 
as one of your number said, somewhat slow. We have felt that the 
graduates were inclined to hide their light under a bushel. You must 
be active in educating public opinion, for whatever may be our desire we 
can never get beyond public opinion. If we did, someone would knock 
us on the head. 

"We cannot assist the University in the way that some want, that is, to 
spend a large amount of money there and take it away from the Public 
Schools, for the enemy would immediately say: 'A few people attend 
the University, and you make a large grant, 23,000 pupils attend the 



2i 4 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

High Schools, and you make them a small grant, 500.000 children attend 
the Public Schools, and you make them no grant at all.' 

" We must help the University," concluded the Premier, " by helping 
the whole system. I cannot admit that the whole source of strength 
is at the top. In such matters it is a good thing to have a surplus, 
but it is better to have that surplus distributed, and that is our 
opinion. You are helping us, and, perhaps, preparing public opinion so 
that some years from now we shall be able to do more than we can do 
now. If the graduates do their part, we will do what we can on ours to 
keep this University at the head of the procession of universities of this 
continent." 

THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION 

delivered a speech in the Legislature, February 27th, in which, after 
making an allusion to the importance of the question, Mr. Harcourt 
remarked that the fact that the University was in need was not disputed. 
He alluded to the annually recurring deficits during the last four years, 
and stated that in that time they aggregated $31,600. 

The work the University had been doing was only part of the work it 
was designed to do, and which its friends are anxious that it should, at 
an early date, undertake. Even the work that it tried to do was imper- 
fectly done because of the want of money. The Departments of Miner- 
alogy and Geology were instanced, and it was shown that in these 
important Departments building accommodation was needed, as well as 
additional equipment, and a considerably larger staff of instructors. The 
mere fact that the expenditure on these subjects during a whole year 
was less than $2,000 was proof that they were neglected. It was true, 
also, that a new building was required for the uses of a Physical Labora- 
tory. The Biological building, too, was needed solely for the purposes of 
Biology, and the study of Physiology, hitherto undertaken in the 
Biological building, should find accommodation elsewhere. Even the 
library was lacking, inasmuch as a sufficient sum of money was not 
forthcoming which would permit of the necessary additions. In fact, six 
of the scientific departments urgently required more money for their 
maintenance. Again, there was very inadequate provision for post- 
graduate courses Research work, it. was true, was undertaken in Science 
and Oriental Literature, but through need of funds similar work was not 
undertaken in the Classics or the Modern Languages. 

The Minister read an extract from a letter he had received from a 
recent graduate of the University who has been taking a post-graduate 
course at Chicago. The graduate in que>tion, amongst other things, in 
writing to the Minister, said : 

" I am Fellow in Biology, and Assistant Instructor in Petrology and 
Mineralogy. It has seemed to me very unfortunate that Ontario 
students are obliged to leave their own Province and country to pursue 
graduate studies of the highest order. The fact that there are now in 
colleges on this side upwards of 100 students of'colleges in Canada, 



THE ALUMNI DEPUTATION 215 

chiefly Ontario, seems to show that there is a great need for advance- 
ment of University education in Canada. Toronto University should be 
made equal to any University in the United States." 

The Minister commented on this letter, and pointed out that the 
Province owed it as a debt to the ambitious young men of the Province 
that they should not be compelled to go abroad in order to take post- 
graduate courses. 

The Minister stated that, speaking for himself, he believed it to be the 
duty of the Legislature to assist the University to the extent of the full 
measure of its needs. He believed that if that were done every Public 
School in the land (and we had five or six thousand of them) would be 
strengthened, and new life and vigour as well would be imparted to 
every one of the 130 High Schools in the Province. He reminded the 
House that nearly 300 of the graduates of the University were engaged 
as teachers in the High Schools of the Province, and that some 
of them were teaching in the Public Schools of Ontario. Indeed, 
the University of Toronto and Queen's University between them 
did all the teaching in the secondary schools of the Province. If 
the University had no other claim upon our ratepayers than this, that it 
educated 300 of those who were teaching in our High Schools, and that 
these in their turn educated young men and women who would soon take 
charge of the Public Schools of the Province, its claim for generous support 
was amply justified. Unless a high standard were maintained in the High 
Schools the Public Schools would certainly suffer. If the University were 
so crippled financially as to be unable to undertake research work, and 
thus hold up a high ideal for the schools below, then of a certainty the 
High Schools would soon show signs of weakness and atrophy. 

He gave four historical illustrations in support of his argument. He 
reminded the House that when Prussia suffered defeat at Jena at the 
hands of the first Napoleon, its statesmen deliberated as to the best 
means 01 retrieving their lost fortunes and regaining prestige, and the con- 
clusion arrived at was that, to bring about the desired results, the first 
step to be taken was to found a great University. Acting on this 
resolve Humboldt laid the foundations of the University of Berlin. 
Similarly, when France met disaster thirty years ago at Sedan, her states- 
men, in order to regain the ground she had lost, set to work to 
reorganize the national school system, and ere many years had gone by, 
France established an excellent system of Normal Schools for the 
express purpose of training superior grade teachers. 

When Jefferson on this continent wished to build up a suitable system 
of education, now a century ago, he founded the University of Virginia. 
When Johns Hopkins of Baltimore began its'work, those who watched 
the results gave it as their opinion that the most noticeable result was 
that in establishing postgraduate courses and undertaking valuable 
research work, all the colleges in the country were stimulated and 
improved. Thus it is that commencing with the Universities the work of 
providing for the intellectual equipment of a people by degrees extends 



1- 



216 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

to all the schools below. In other words was it not true that educational 
Forces operate from the top and are not pushed from the bottom ? The 
process of evolution is at work as relentlessly in educational matters as 
in all other things. During the last generation, and especially during 
the last decade, more attention was being given everywhere to scientific 
studies, and the Universities in every country have been improving and 
strengthening their Science Departments. It is equally true that because 
of this fact new strength and power and vigour and influence have come to 
the Universities. They have been brought into closer contact with the com- 
mercial life of the people, and have won sympathy in many new directions. 
For a thousand years or more Universities the world over simply pre- 
served learning. They were storehouses of the learning, culture and 
erudition of the past. In thus preserving learning they made the world 
their debtor. Another field has opened to them in recent years, and the 
attention, I repeat, which they are paying scientific studies had brought 
new strength and usefulness and vigour to them. Even Oxford, the 
proud home of " belles lettres" for centuries, now grants a degree in 
science. At Oxford there are six different avenues for a degree besides 
Greek and Latin. At Glasgow the degree of M.A. is obtained without 
taking Greek. Harvard, fifteen years ago, allowed Greek and Latin to 
drop out of the undergraduate course. Cornell and Columbia afterwards 
abandoned these studies, and next June, he was informed, that the last 
named University would accept for entrance students who had never 
studied either Latin or Greek. It does not follow that Latin and Greek 
should be displaced. These studies are as important now as they were 
centuries ago. At the same time it is true that for a great many of our 
students the newer studies, the scientific studies, may well demand their 
first attention. This is true if the college is to have any relation to the 
after life of the student. No thoughtful man would seek to minimize 
the importance of the old studies such as Greek and Latin. Our regret 
is that so few of our students are so circumstanced as to be able to 
pursue them thoroughly and usefully. We need a knowledge of the 
culture of the ancients, of their history, their art, their philosophy. We 
cannot afford to discard such studies and thus to make applicable to our 
curriculum the words " wisdom by one entrance quite shut out." At the 
same time the great majority of our students, having regard to what is 
to be their life work, can more profitably give their time to other studies. 
We must strengthen the scientific side of the University, and in doing so 
we will certainly render good service to its every other Department. 

Scientific studies require expensive equipment, and for laboratories alone 
a large income is needed. Our institutions will lag behind if we do not 
provide laboratories. Carjyle said that a good library was in itself a 
University, but the philosopher of to-day would say that a well-equipped 
laboratory takes the place of the library of Carlyle's time. Germany 
is noted for her well-equipped scientific schools. The Minister with some 
detail alluded to the Royal Technical College at Berlin, which has ample 
and generous provision for 3,400 students, 140 Professors and 260 assistant 



THE ALUMNI DEPUTATION 217 

Professors. This institution reserves one hundred places for poor scholars 
of intellectual promise. At this college engineering, chemistry and metal- 
lurgy receive special attention. It has a library of 75.000 books, not to 
speak of art galleries and museums. This college and similar colleges 
in Germany have done much towards the upbuilding of German indus- 
tries. At Mannheim, for example, in one industrial establishment there 
are employed more than a hundred graduates of German universities. 
This manufactory exported more than $1,000,000 of its product to the 
United States in a single year. 

It has been well said that the University is the foundation of the 
German Empire. Twenty-five years ago her engineers were imported 
from England, and her ships were English built. To-day the fastest 
steamers which plough the Atlantic were built, not on the Clyde, but in 
German waters by German artisans. Not many years ago Germany 
imported all instruments of precision. Last year her exhibit in this line 
at the Paris Exposition attracted universal attention. Germany has 
now 790 establishments devoted to this one industry, giving employment 
to 13,600 men, and having an output in a single year to the value of 
nearly four millions of dollars. In the matter of aniline dyes Germany 
now commands a vast trade. England at one time almost monopolized 
this trade. 

It could similarly be shown that in other lines of manufactures great 
results have been accomplished, attributable always to the thorough, 
systematic, scientific teaching in her schools. We find technical and 
commercial schools in almost every village in Germany. All North 
Germany is likened to one vast workshop. The graduates of German 
universities leave the college halls to undertake work in manufactories 
and shops. She has twenty universities, and no expense is spared in 
maintaining them in the highest efficiency. Prussia alone has nine 
universities. Could this rich Province not adequately maintain one? 

The Minister quoted from a report of delegates sent two years ago 
from the city of Manchester to Germany. These delegates reported in 
these words : 

" It is not less clear that the schools are the root and base of this 
surprising industrial development and are the main contributors to this 
great result. It is not less certain that if we are to maintain our position 
as a great industrial community, it must be by following out and adopt- 
ing the same methods." 

In his recent speeches Lord Rosebery had emphasized the same 
conclusions. Mr. Chamberlain also, addressing an audience in Birming- 
ham, made it clear that he appreciated the close connection between 
widely diffused scientific training and industrial progress. One sentence 
may be quoted from the speech in question. Referring to the benefits 
to be derived from the scientific training he used these words : 

" It is not too much to say that the existence of the country as a great 
commercial nation depends upon scientific training." 



2i8 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

The Duke of Devonshire earnestly holds the same opinions. In a 
recent address he used these words : 

" Foreign nations have anticipated us to a very great extent in 
realizing the very close connection between commercial and industrial 
success." 

England spent last year in technical education upwards of five millions 
of dollars, and Congress, during its last session, voted for the same 
purpose nearly twice that sum. In the face of these facts are we not 
warranted in desiring to strengthen the teaching of science in our 
Provincial University ? Our researches are as great as those of Germany. 
We are not weighed down with militarism. We have vaster tracts of 
arable land and brighter skies. Our forest wealth is illimitable and our 
wealth in minerals is beyond comprehension. We need captains of 
industry, chemists, assayists, metallurgists, in order that we may make 
the most of our natural resources. We need a strong University to 
equip these captains of industry. England began the century with only 
two Universities. Now she has eight or ten, not to speak of a score or 
more of University Colleges doing important work. A technical school 
recently opened in Liverpool, generously equipped, has 4,000 students. 
Owing to the growing demand for scientific teaching the older Univer- 
sities even have felt the need of increasing revenues. In recent years 
Oxford has been asking aid, and the friends of Cambridge have been 
looking about for new sources of income. 

The Minister closed by expressing the hope that the Legislature 
would unanimously resolve to maintain and strengthen the efficiency of 
the University. 

MR. WHITNEY, LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION, 

on the evening before the deputation waited on the Government, made a 
stirring speech in the House, in the course of which he spoke fully and 
most encouragingly on the University question. After a reference to 
the High and Public School systems of the Province, he said : 

" With a true foundation thus laid, and the interests of those who 
cannot hope to go further than the Public School in the acquirement of 
education, and whose interests should be our first care, duly safeguarded, 
we then come to the question of university education. Those who are 
/watching the signs of the times must believe that we are approaching a 
period of great changes in educational methods. Just what form or 
shape these changes will take we cannot yet see, but the true lover of 
the educational interests of the Province will not be afraid to take steps 
to be ready for changes that may come, nor be astute in discovering 
obstacles in the way of preparation. We must take a forward position 
on the University question or else consent to be left hopelessly in the 
rear with disastrous results, one of which will inevitably be that our 
young men will go elsewhere for higher education. 

" It is too late now to discuss academically the question of the advisa- 



THE ALUMNI DEPUTATION 219 

bility of a State or Provincial University. It is a condition, not a theory, 
with which we have to deal. The Provincial University, which is at 
once a provincial asset, so to speak, and a public trust, has been dragging 
along for many years, doing noble work, considering the means at its 
disposal. Several other colleges have come in under the federation 
scheme, and the University has struggled on manfully under great diffi- 
culties. Year after year those connected with it, and best able to judge 
of its requirements, have pressed upon the Provincial Government its 
urgent needs, but practically a deaf ear has been turned to all their 
.appeals. 

" The situation has at last become acute, and, indeed, intolerable. We 
must either support or abandon the University. We have arrived at the 
parting of the ways, and we must decide whether we will go forward or 
drop back. 

" Being convinced that the people of the Province are unwilling that 
the present condition of blight and mildew shall become chronic and 
permanent, we, on this side of the House, are determined that, so far as 
lies in our power, a remedy, immediate, permanent and lasting, must be 
applied. 

"We take the responsibility, Sir, of insisting that the finances of the 
University be put on a sound, stable and permanent footing, by providing 
such an annual payment as will fairly and fully meet the desires and 
propositions of those best able to judge of its necessities to-day, and that 
this be done forthwith. 

" Further, that as soon as reasonably may be, with a due regard to the 
financial ability of the Province, and to careful outlay, appropriations for 
necessary buildings should be made, and, in order to the due carrying 
out of this latter suggestion, it may well be considered wise and prudent 
to submit the question of buildings to a commission of gentlemen who, 
from their standing and experience, may be trusted to arrive at a con- 
clusion which will be satisfactory to the Legislature and to the people. 
Such a commission need not be costly. 

"We further urge that in thus dealing with the Provincial University 
the direct control of the Government over it be relaxed to a certain 
extent, so that the experience and judgment of the governing body of 
the University shall have more influence and power in the appointment 
of Professors and in the internal management of the institution than at 
present. 

" The fees should be so regulated that the sons and daughters of the 
relatively poor may find practically an ' open door ' at the University. 

" We believe that the funds provided by the succession duties should 
be drawn upon for, at any rate, the annual payment to the University, or 
a percentage of the amount realized from such duties should be devoted 
to that purpose. If it be objected that the charity moneys arising from 
the succession duties were to be devoted to keeping up the asylums and 
charitable institutions, the answer is that educational institutions are 
'charities' in the eye of the law. This is well-settled doctrine. 



220 



" It is not possible to ignore, in the consideration of this very important 
question, the subject of Queen's University. Its standing as a great 
educational institution is well known. From a small beginning, its 
foundation, caused and justified by the then condition of our educational 
system, it has gone on growing deservedly in importance and influence, 
until to-day it is not too much to say that it is no small part of the 
educational life of the Province. It cannot be lightly passed over. 
However, sir, as I have said, we are dealing with conditions, not theories. 
We believe that the steps I have indicated should be taken without 
delay with reference to the Provincial University, and then any cteirh 
that may be advanced by the sister institution should be considered 
fairly and equitably on its merits, and not lightly dismissed. 

" I am convinced that if the policy on this question which I have pro- 
posed be adopted, it will meet with the cordial approval of the people. 
It is a policy which should not be tossed back and forth between political 
parties, and if it be grappled with earnestly, I believe the result will be 
that we will hold our own, in an educational sense, among the other 
communities on this continent, and the way of life will be made easier 
for those who will come after us." 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION : 
LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

HASTINGS COUNTY. 

A meeting of the alumni of the University of Toronto for the county 
of Hastings was held at Belleville, February 28th. There was a good 
attendance and a hearty interest shown by those present in the welfare 
of their Alma Mater. 

Dr. J. C. McLennan, of Toronto, was present and ably reviewed the 
position of the Provincial University. He pointed out its relationship to 
the public and the need of practical development in order to keep 
abreast of the times. 

Speeches were made by other gentlemen present, and a local associa- 
tion was organized, and a constitution adopted. The following officers 
were elected : 

Honorary President F. E. Seymour, B A., '64, Madoc. 

President Lt.-i ol. W. N. Ponton, M.A., '78. 

Vice- Presidents W. K. T. Smellie, B.-A., '80, Deseronto ; J. S. Sprague, M.D., '69, Stirling;: 

S. J. Young, B.A., '81, Trenton. 
Secretary S. T. Luton, B.A., '97, M.A., '99. 
Treasurer Mrs. J. T. Luton, B.A., '92. 
Councillors -J. Frith Jeffers, B.A., '75, M.A., '77; VV. P. Dyer, B.A., '77, D.D. ; W. B. 

Northrup, M.A., '78, M P.; H. A. Yeomans, M.D., '89; J. A. Marshall, L.D S. 

A memorial for presentation to the Provincial Government was drawn 
up, asking for financial assistance toward the Provincial University. A 
small membership fee, including subscription to the UNIVERSITY 
MONTHLY, was fixed. The meeting tendered Dr. McLennan a hearty 
vote of thanks for coming to Belleville and delivering an address so 
.well appreciated. 

J. T. LUTON, Secretary. 



LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 221 

LENNOX AND ADDINGTON. 

A meeting of the graduates of the University of Toronto residing in 
the Counties of Lennox and Addington was held in Napanee on March 
ist, for the purpose of organizing a local branch of the Alumni Associ- 
ation of the University of Toronto. Dr. McLennan, General Secretary 
of the Alumni Association, explained the object of the meeting and the 
necessity for forming branches in all centres where it is convenient for 
the local graduates of the University to band themselves together and 
make some united effort for the welfare of the University. The address 
was listened to with much interest It was moved by Dr. Simpson, and 
seconded by Mr. Van Every, that a local organization be formed to be 
known as "The University of Toronto Alumni Association of the 
County of Lennox and Addington." 

The following officers were then elected : 

Honorary President Prof. A. E. Lang. 

Pres>d<-nt15.. M. Deroche, B.A., '68, K.C. 

Secretary-Treasurer \3. J. Flack, M.A., '89. 

Vice- Presidents W. S. Herrington, B.A., '83, K.C., Napanee; M. I. Beeman, M.B., '73, 

Newburg; W. W. Meacham, M.D., '69, Odessa; J. H. Davidson, B.A., '98, Bath. 
Councillors Law, J. H. Madden, B.A., '73 ; Medicine, F. W. Simpson, B.A., '82, M. D., '84; 

Arts, J. F. Van Every, B.A., '96, Mies E. Deroche, B. A., '98; Dentistry, Dr. N. 

Wagar ; Pharmacy, T". B. Wallace. 

A resolution memorializing the Government to grant more aid to the 
University was carried. 

U. J. FLACK, Sec.-Treas. 

LINCOLN COUNTY. 

A meeting of the graduates of the University of Toronto resident in 
Lincoln County was held in the Collegiate Hall, St. Catharines, on the 
evening of March nth. Prof. A. B. McCallum and Dr. J. C. McLennan 
delivered interesting and instructive addresses on University affairs. A 
local branch of the Alumni Association was formed and delegates 
appointed to wait upon the Government with the representatives from 
other parts of the Province. The following officers were etected : 

President John Henderson, B.A., '71, M.A., '72. 

Vice- President* Mrs. G. H. Smith, B.A., '96; J. S. Campbell, B.A., '83; N. H. McCoy, 

B.A., '89, M.B., '92. 

Secretary-Treasurer G. B. Burson, B. A., '91. 
Councillors J. Sheahan, M.B., '95 ; P. W. Hodgetts, B.S.A. ; Rev. J. O. Miller, B.A., '88 ; 

W. J. Robertson, B.A., '73; J. F. O'Flynn, D.D.S. ; F. Killiner, D.D.8. 

G. B. BURSON, Sec.-Treas. 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 

A meeting of graduates and undergraduates of the University of 
Toronto resident in the county of Middlesex was held in Sherwood Hall, 
London, Ont, March 2nd, to organize a local branch of the University of 
Toronto Alumni Association for the county of Middlesex. The meeting 



222 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

was well attended, there being upwards of forty present and a great deal 
of interest was taken in the addresses which were delivered by President 
Loudon, James H. Coyne, B.A., Vice-President of the General Alumni 
Association, and Dr. J. C. McLennan, Secretary of the General Associa- 
tion at Toronto. 

President Loudon dealt with the financial side of the question, tracing 
up the history of the past endeavours of the University to obtain aid from 
the Government, and illustrating the economical way in which the 
finances of the University had been managed. He alluded to the way 
in which the original endowment of the University had been encumbered 
by burdens which they had not sought, but were thrust upon them by 
the Government itself. As things now stood, the University was not 
sufficiently equipped in its various departments to do the work which 
was intended. In conclusion, he drew attention to the different way 
" Queen's " was treated, when she sought financial aid. 

Mr. Coyne, of St. Thomas, made a short address, dealing with the 
question in a general way, pointing out that the University at Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, was considered so much of a state institution that an 
annual tax was imposed for its maintenance. A vigorous address was 
then given by Dr. McLennan, who asked those present to stand together 
on the 1 3th of March, when they hoped to memorialize the Government. 

The meeting then organized itself into a Local Branch of the Alumni 
Association for the County of Middlesex. The following officers were 
elected : 

Honorary President F. W. Merchant, B.A., '73. 

President Talbot Macbeth, B.A., '74. 

Vice- Presidents -S. J. Radcliffe, B.A., '88, London ; J. E. Wetherall, B.A., '77, Ftrathroy ; 

F. A. Stuart, B.A., '93, Lucan ; Neil Macdougall, B.A., '93, Parkhill. 
Secretary -Treasurer F E. Perrin, B.A., '92. 
Councillors Rev. C. C. Owen, B.A., '86; H. Meek, M.B., '78: S. Wolverton, D.D.S.; Miss 

M. A. Smith, B.A., '99 ; W. M. English, M 1)., '86 ; F. W. Daly, B.A., '88 ; W. R. 

Hobbs, B.A., '96; Miss Hills, B.A., '97; P. E. Mackenzie, B.A., '93, LL.B., '95; 

W. Spencer. 

A resolution to present to the Government on March I3th was drawn 
up. The President and Secretary were asked to have it presented 
through the local members who will go on the general delegation to 
attend on that day. 

F. E. PERRIN, Sec.-Treas. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO CLUB, OTTAWA. 

On Friday evening, February 1 5th, the Toronto University Club, of 
Ottawa, held a quiet but successful dinner at Aylmer, Que., the arrange- 
ments for a more formal function, which had been in contemplation, 
having been cancelled because of the general mourning consequent upon 
the death of the late Queen. 

: During the evening the affairs of the University were freely discussed 
by the President, K. R. Cameron, M.A. ; J. Lome McDougall, Sr., M.A. ; 
W. D. LeSueur, B.A. ; W. L. Mackenzie King, B.A., LL.B. ; J. D. 



LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 223 

Courtenay, M.B. ; William Wilfred Campbell, F. R. McNamara and 
others, particular attention being directed to the present financial situa- 
tion and the expediency of carrying on a postgraduate course under 
existing conditions. Among the suggestions thrown out were the 
proposals that the grant to the University should be made proportional 
to the increase in the general wealth or the public revenue of the 
Province, and that the graduates, especially in the rural districts, should 
be organized, with a view to forming a public opinion favourable to 
increasing the efficiency of the University. 

The Hon. Charles Fitzpatrick, Solicitor-General, who was present as a 
representative of Laval University, emphasized the common purpose 
which underlies all institutions which aim at the discovery of truth and 
the promotion of culture, and referred to the possibility of ultimately 
having in Canada a great national seat of learning open to all classes, 
races and creeds. Mr. P. D. Ross, speaking as a representative of the 
Ottawa Valley Graduates' Society of McGill University, following a 
similar line, suggested the holding next year of a joint University dinner 
open to the graduates of all of the Universities represented in Ottawa, a 
proposal which was received with applause. 

A musical programme was supplemented by the reading of an original 
poem by H. F. Gadsby, B.A., '89. 

HENRY A. HARPER, Sec.-Treas. 

PETERBOROUGH COUNTY. 

A meeting of graduates of the University of Toronto was held in Peter- 
borough on March /th, when it was decided to reorganize the Alumni 
Association for the County of Peterborough, which was originally estab- 
lished in 1883. A constitution was adopted and the following officers 
were elected for the ensuing year : 

President E. B. Edwards, B.A., '70, M.A., '71, LL.B., '81, K.C. 

Vice- Presidents J. Davidson, B.A., '80, M.A., '83, LL.B., '91; D. Fraser, M.B., '74; J. 

E. Shaw, M.B., '80. 

Secretary-Treasurer D. Walker, B.A., '91. 
Councillors D. W. Durable, B.A., '60; W. D. Scott, M.D. ; H. R. H. Kenner, B.A., '93; 

W. W. VanEvery, S.P.S., '99; Rev. W. H. McKnight, B.A. ; H. H. Edmison, 

Phor. B., '97; M. A. Morrison, D.D.S., M.D.S.; W. Taylor. 

J. C. McLennan, M.A., Ph.D., was present, and in a very forcible 
address dealt with the financial condition of the University and the 
strong claims it had upon the Provincial Government for support. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted : " Moved by Mr. 
Dumble, seconded by Dr. Greer : 

i. "That the Provincial University is part of the general educational 
system of Ontario, providing an education for all alike, whether rich or 
poor, and that its maintenance in a state of efficiency is bound up with 
the welfare and prosperity of the country. 2. That the responsibility 
and the duty of maintaining the University in a state of efficiency rest 
upon the Ontario Government and the Legislature of the Province. 



224 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

3. That the University must be kept abreast of the times, and should 
not be allowed to fall behind other Universities in necessary equipment 
and provision for instruction in all branches, and particularly in those 
which tend to the development of the great resources of Canada. 

4. That we view with alarm the existing annual deficits, which show 
that the income of the University is wholly inadequate for present needs, 
and is wholly inadequate for the future and growing needs of a pro- 
gressive national university. We, therefore, press upon the Government 
the necessity for making such an annual grant to the University as will 
reasonably provide for its requirements, and pledge ourselves to support 
in every possible way the action of the Government to this end." 

At the close of the meeting delegates were appointed to attend at 
Toronto on the I3th inst to join the deputation which was to press upon 
the Government the claims of the University. 

DUNCAN WALKER, Sec.-Treas. 

PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY. 

A meeting of the graduates of the University of Toronto resident in 
Prince Edward county was held in Picton on February 28th. It was 
decided to organize a local Alumni Association. The following officers 
were elected : 

Honorary President R. Dobson, B. A. , '80. 
President Morley Carrie, B.A., '91, M.B., '95. 
First Vice- President John A. Wright, B.A., '70. 
Second Vice- President Miss E. M. Ackerraan, B.A., '96. 
Secretary -Treasurer A. W. Hendrick, B.A., '97. 

Councillors Dr. John W. Wright, B.A., '75 ; Harvard C. McMullen, B.A., '66 ; George M. 
Hermiston, D.D.S. ; A. C. Bowerman, M.B., '76; T. G. Raynor, B.S.A. 

Dr. J. C. McLennan, of the University of Toronto, was present and 
addressed the graduates upon the outlook for Toronto University. From 
his remarks we learned something which will stir every graduate and 
undergraduate in this county to greater activity to bring about a change 
in the prospects of the University. The graduates of this county feel 
strongly that the time has come when the University should be placed on 
its proper basis as a State University, and that the Government should 
afford financial assistance sufficient to render the University thoroughly 
efficient in all its departments, wipe out the recent deficits and materially 
reduce the present high fees, which are placing the advantages of 
University training beyond the reach of the people. These ideas were 
embodied in a memorial, which will be signed by all graduates and 
undergraduates and transmitted to the local member in the Legislature 
and the Minister of Education. 

A cordial vote of thanks was tendered Dr. McLennan for his kindness 
in coming and for the valuable and interesting information he gave us 
of our Alma Mater. 

A. W. HENDRICK, Sec.-Treas. 



LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 225 

SIMCOE COUNTY. 

The graduates of the University of Toronto residing in Simcoe county 
held a meeting in Barrie, March iQth, in the Public Library Hall, Judge 
Boys presiding. Among those present from a distance were President 
Loudon and Dr. J. C. McLennan, who renewed old acquaintances, and 
in response to a request gave addresses on University matters. 

President Loudon laid stress upon the needs of the six scientific 
departments. In order to keep pace with the vast strides of science, and 
to compete with the efficient equipment of many universities on this 
continent, the financial support received by the provincial institution is 
too small. He also deprecated the formation in this province of two or 
three weak scientific institutions of each kind, such as mining schools, 
instead of one strong, well-equipped and efficient institution. The 
province cannot support more than one good institution in each branch 
of scientific work. He appealed to everyone to deal with the University 
question in a non-partisan way, and also from a non-denominational 
point of view. 

Dr. McLennan said that a great change was taking place in public 
sentiment regarding the University. He showed how scientific know- 
ledge had made Germans great in industrial affairs. The advantage of 
this is shown by their progress in the synthetic production, at a low cost, 
of indigo, perfumes, sugar, etc. University education, especially in. 
science, is the means of developing the natural resources of our province. 
Mr. Clergue has been compelled to employ Germans, French and 
Swedes as experts, in preference to Canadians, who have the natural 
ability, but not the educational advantages, and have had to take minor 
positions. 

The outcome of the meeting was the formation of an Alumni Associa- 
tion for Simcoe county with the following officers : 

Honorary President His Honour Judge W. F. A. Boys, LL.B. , '61. 

President Donald Ross, B.A., '91, LL.B., '95. 

Secretary-Treasurer A. F. Hunter, B.A., '89, M.A., '92, Barrie. 

Vice- Presidents A. B. Thompson, B.A., '85, M.P.P., Penetanguishene ; G. M. Aylesworth, 

M.D., '69, Collingwood ; J. E. Dickson, B.A., '79, Orillia; W. K. Foucar, B.A., '94, 

Bradford ; J. M. Duncan, B.A., '80, Alliston. 
Councillors Rev. J. J. Elliott, B.A., '85, Midland; S. M. Wells, M.B., '71; W. H. 

Clutton, M.B., '88, Edgar; G. A. Radenhurst, B.A., '69, M.A., '74; Geo. Hunt, 

M.B., '86, New Lowell; T. H. Redditt, B.A., '80; J. C. Evans, M.B., '92, Stroud ; 

W. D. MacLaren, D.D.S. ; William Williams, B.A., '72, Collingwood ; J. A. Ross, 

M.D., '88. 

The Legislature was memorialized to grant the needed aid for the 
support of the University in an efficient condition. 

A. F. HUNTER, Sec.-Treas. 



226 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



TORONTONENSIA. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO . 
MONTHLY. 

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS FOR PUBLICATION TO 
THK SECRETARY, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 

Published monthly, October June. 
Subscription $1.00 a year. 

EDITORIAL BOARD. 

I. H. CAMERON, M.B., Chairman. 
J. C. McLENNAN, Ph.D., Secretary. 

J. FLETCHER, M.A., LL.D.; A. R. BAIN, 
M.A.,LL.D.; J. A. COOPER, B.A., LL.B.; 
L. E. EMBREE, M.A. ; THOMAS MULVEY, 
B.A.; J. M. CLARK, B.A., LL.B.; S. J. 
ROBERTSON, B.A., Managing Editor. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI AS- 
SOCIATION: LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 
DIRECTORY. 

GENERAL ASSOCIATION. President, DR. R. 
A. REEVE, Tpronto. Secretary, J. C. MC- 
LENNAN, Ph.D., Dean's House, University 
of Toronto. 

BARRIE. President, DONALD Ross, B.A. 
Secretary- Treasurer, A. F. HUNTER, B.A. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. President, REV. R. 
WHITTINGTON, M.A., B.Sc., Vancouver, B.C. 
Secretary- Treasurer, ALFRED HALL, B.A., 
LL.B., B.C.L., Vancouver. 

ELGIN COUNTY, ONT. President, D. Mc- 
LARTY, St. Thomas. Secretary, S. SILCOX, 
B.A., B.Psed., St. Thomas. 

GREY AND BRUCE. President, A. G. MC- 
KAY, B.A., Owen Sound, Ont. Secretary, 
W. D. FERRIS, M.D.j Shallow Lake, Ont. 

HASTINGS COUNTY. President, LT.-COL. 
W. N. PONTON, M.A. Secretary, J. T. 
LUTON, B.A. 

HURON COUNTY. President, WM. GUNN, 
M.D., Clinton, Ont. Secretary- Treasurer, 
CHAS. G ARROW, B.A., Goderich, Ont. 

LENNOX AND ADDINGTON COUNTIES. 
President, H. M. DEROCHE, B.A. Secretary- 
Treasurer, U. J. FLACK, M.A. 

LINCOLN COUNTY. President, JOHN HEN- 
DERSON, B.A. Secretary- Treasurer, G. B. 
BURSON, B.A. 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY. President, TALBOT 
MACBETH, B.A. Secretary -Treasurer, F. E. 
PERRIN, B.A. 



OTTAWA. President, E. R. CAMERON.M. A. 
Secretary -Treasurer, H. A. HARPER, M.A. 

PERTH COUNTY, ONT. President, C. J. 
MCGREGOR, M. A., Stratford, Ont. Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, C. A. MAYBERRY, B.A., 
LL.B., Stratford, Ont. 

PETERBO ROUGH COUNTY. President, E. B. 
EDWARDS, B.A. Secretary- Treasurer, D. 
WALKER, B.A. 

PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY. President, M. 
CURRIE, B.A. Secretary-Treasurer, A. W. 
HENDRICK, B.A. 

VICTORIA COUNTY. President, J. C. Har- 
stone, B.A. , Lindsay, Ont. Secretary- Treas- 
urer, Miss E. G. Flavelle, Lindsay, Ont. 

WATERLOO COUNTY. President, His 
HONOUR JUDGE CHISHOLM, Berlin, Ont. 
Secretary- Treasurer, REV. W. A. BRADLEY, 
B.A., Berlin, Ont. 

WELLINGTON COUNTY, ONT. President, 
WM. TYTLER, B.A., Guelph, Ont. Secretary- 
Treasurer, R. L. McKiNNON, B.A. LL.B., 
Guelph, Ont. 

WENTWORTH COUNTY GRADUATES ASSOCI- 
ATION. President, J. CHISHOLM, B. A., Ham- 
ilton, Ont. Secretary - Treasurer, J. T. 
CRAWFORD, B.A., Hamilton, Ont. 

NEWS FROM THE CLASSES. 

The personal news is compiled from information 
furnished by the Secretary of the University of Toronto 
Alumni Association, and by the Secretaries of local 
organizations, and from other reliable sources. The 
value of this department might be greatly enhanced 
if University of Toronto men everywhere would con- 
tribute to it. The correction of any errors will be 
gratefully received by the Secretary of the Alumni 
Association. 

1857. 

T. H. Bull, B.A., is clerk of the peace in 
Toronto. Nelson Burns, B.A., is a clergy- 
man in Toronto. W. T. Francis, M.A. , 

M.B., is a physician in Gore Bay, Ont. 
Geo. Kennedy, M.A., LL.D., is in the 

Crown Lands Department, Toronto. W. 

Oliver, B. A., is a retired high school teacher, 

living in Toronto. J. F. Smith, B. A., 

barrister, is editor of the Ontario Law Re- 
ports in Toronto. 

Deceased. Adam Anderson, B.A. 

Marcellus M. A. Crombie, M.A., LL.B. 

George Dormer, B.A. Robert Hope, B.A. 

Peter McDermid, B.A. James Ross, 

M.A. James Windeat, M.A. 

Address Unknown. John Turpin, M.A. 



TORONTONENSIA 



227 



1867. 

John Adams, B.A., is assistant inspector 

of the Bank of Toronto, Toronto. Rev. 

George Bryce, M.A., LL. D;, is a professor 

in Manitoba College, Winnipeg, Man. C. 

IX Curry, B.A., is living at Minden, Ont. 

W. H. Ellis, M.A., M.B., is professor 

of applied chemistry in the School of Prac- 
tical Science, Toronto. W. E. Ledyard, 

B. A., M.B. , is a physician in San Francisco, 

Cal. Rev. G. A. Mitchell, B.A., is a 

Methodist clergyman at Waterloo, Ont. 
W. Macdiarmid is a barrister at Lucan, Ont. 

E. G. Patterson, M.A., is in Winnipeg, 

Man. 0. Sills, B. A., is in Pembroke, 

Ont. - E. H. Smythe, M.A., LL.D., 

K.C., is a barrister in Kingston, Ont. J. 

W. A. Stewart, B. A., is a Baptist clergy- 
man in Rochester, N. Y. McLeocl Stewart, 

M.A., is a barrister in Ottawa, Ont. J. 

D. D. Sully, B.A., is in Rochester, N.Y. 

Donald Tait, B.A., is a Presbyterian 

clergyman at Quebec, Que. Henry Yale, 

B. A. , is at St. Catharines, Out. 



-James Barren, B. A. 
B.A. Charles H. 



David- 



Connon, 
David 



Deceased. 
son Black, 

M.A. William McBride, M.A. 

J. Pruyn, M.A. John Taylor, M.A. 

William F. Walker, M.A., LL.B. John 

White, M.A. 

PERSONALS. 

Every alumnus of the University of Toronto is in- 
vited to send to the Editor items of interest for 
insertion in this department. News of a personal 
nature about any alumnus will be gladly received. 

M. L. Rush, B.A., '96, is a teacher in 
Chesley, Ont, 

J. F. Hutchinson, B.A., '96, is a teacher 
in Oxbow, Assa. 

J. B. Dixon, B. A , '68, is practising law 
in Boston, Mass. 

W. J. Wright, B.A. , '96, is a teacher at 
Warkworth, Ont. 

M. G. V. Gould, B.A., '96, is a barrister 
in Brockville, Ont. 

J. A. Mountjoy, B.A., '96, is living at his 
home at Enniskillen, Ont. 

R. A. Brunt, B.A., '97, is science master 
in the High School at Oakville, Ont. 

Miss Janie S. Hillock, B.A., '95, is spend- 
ing a pleasant winter at Ashville, N.C. 

J. J. Smith, B.A., 95, is teaching at 
Lebret, N.W.T. 

W. Clark, B.A., '96, is principal of the 
Qu'Appelle, N.W.T., public school. 

A. J. Raddon, B.A., '96, is inspector for 
the Trent Valley Canal at Peterborough, 
Ont. 



Miss A. J. C. Dawson, M.A., 'oo, is now 
living in London, Eng., at 53 Hillcrest Rd., 
Acton Hill, W. 

C. E. Shaw, B A., '95, is taking steps to 
organize a branch Alumni Association in the 
North- West Territories. 

G. L.Brown.O.L S.,'93, has been appointed 
county engineer for the counties of Dundas, 
Stormont and Glengarry. 

R. S. Lillie, B. A., '92, has recently n ceived 
the degree of Ph. I), from the University of 
Chicago magna cum laude. 

J. W. Preston, B.A., '96, is connected 
with the legal department of the Missouri 
Pacific Railway at Denver, Colorado. 

Miss M. J. North way, B.A. , '98, at pre- 
sent in Bryn Mawr, Pa., has been granted a 
Fellowship in Physics in the University of 
Chicago. 

Professor Ramsay Wright has been ap- 
pointed by the Dominion Government to the 
position of assistant Director of the Marine 
Biological Station. 

Miss M. C. Cooper, B. A. , '98, formerly of 
Melbourne, who married the Rev. R. M. 
Bennett, is living at Grenfell, Assa., where 
Mr. Bennett's pastoral work lies. 

E. I. Sifton, who obtained a certificate in 
Electricty from the School of Practical Science 
in '96, is now manager of the Electrical Con- 
struction Company of London, Ont. 

Richard Unsworth, B.A., '56, who taught 
school in Fergus, Ont., until ill health com- 
pelled him to retire in 1880, has since been 
librarian of the Public Library there. 

F. J. Robinson, D. & O. L. S., '95, has 
been appointed assistant engineer on the 
Trent Canal at Kirkfield, Ont. J. M. Fair- 
bairn, O.L.S., '93, holds a similiar position 
at Beaverton. 

Henry W. Miller, M.B., '95, has lately 

' been appointed pathologist and clinical 

director in the lauton Insane Hospital, 

Tauton, Mass., after three years' special 

study in other hospitals in Massachusetts. 

W. J. Roach, B. A., '96, has joined the 
Basilian Community, and is at present 
studying Theology at the Basilian College at 
Sandwich, Ont. He will, in all probability, 
be ordained to the priesthood in the coming 
summer. 

A special course of six lectures on "The 
Quadrature of the Circle " will be delivered 
in the Mathematical Department of the Uni- 
versity by J. C. Fields, B.A., '84, PhD. 
(Johns Hopkins), the first lecture being on 
April 4th. 



228 



The following graduates of the School of 
Practical Science have passed the final exami- 
nations of the Dominion Land Surveyors 
Association: C. Fairchild, O.L.S., '92; A. 
J. McPherson, B. A.Sc., '93 ; F. J. Robinson, 
O.L.S.,'95. 

I. K. Moore, E.A. , '93, principal of the 
Rothesay College, Rothesay, N.B., and H. 
l. Trumpour, B.A., 'oo, are corresponding 
with fellow-graduates in New Brunswick 
with the view of establishing a branch of the 
Alumni Association. 

Norman Duncan, '95, has been for some 
years on the staff of the New York Evening 
Post. His work, " The Soul of the Street," 
was referred to in our January issue. We 
understand that he is collecting material for 
another book among the French fishermen 
of Newfoundland. 

Judge J. W. Holcomb, B.A., '59, M.A., 
'60, LL.B., '62, of Grand Rapids, Mich., is 
the writer of an article on King Edward's 
visit to Canada in a recent issue of the Gramd 
Rapids Herald, in the course of which he 
describes the convocation at which the King 
received the honorary degree of M. A. 

A memorial to the Government on the 
state of the University was drawn up by the 
Waterloo Alumni Association, and had been 
signed by all the graduates in Berlin, Water- 
loo, Gait, Ayr and Preston, and was for- 
warded on the 9th inst. to Hespeler for 
signatures. The next day the post office at 
Hespeler was struck by lightning and 
burned. Among the mail matter destroyed 
was the memorial. 

R. K. Duncan, B.A., '92, has been emi- 
nently successful as a teacher of elementary 
chemistry. The positions he has held in the 
Auburn High School, Auburn, N. Y., and 
in Dr. Julius Sack's Collegiate Institute, 
New York City, and his present position in 
the Hill School, Pottstown, Pa., are among 
the best secondary schools of the United 
States. Mr. Duncan has also spent some * 
time in research work in Clark and Columbia 
Universities and in Nikola Tesla's laboratory. 
He was married in December, 1899, to Miss 
Charlotte Foster, of Brantford. 

Geo. Cooper, B.A., '62, M.A., '64, M.A. 
(Colgate), '66, D.D. (Bucknell), '84, who was 
for a time Classical Tutor under Dr. McCaul 
in University College, after the retirement 
of Dr. Arthur Wickson, has been pastor of 
the First Baptist Church, Richmond, Va., 
for the past sixteen years. For the past 
twenty years Dr. Cooper has been connected 
with the governing boards of many institu- 
tions : Bucknell University ; Crozer Theo- 
logical Seminary, Philadelphia ; Richmond 



College ; Woman's College ; Virginia Union 
University, Richmond, Va., and others. 

A. W. Ross, B.A., '74, who died from para- 
lysis in Toronto, March 23rd, was the father 
of Donald A. Ross, B.A., '98. He was born 
at Nairn, Out., in 1846. In 1868 he became 
headmaster of Cornwall High School, and 
in 1871 was made public school inspector 
of Glengarry. In 1874 he graduated from 
the University. After practising law in 
Winnipeg he went into business. In 1872 
he was elected to the Manitoba Assembly 
for Springfield, and in 1882 was elected to 
the Dominion Parliament for Lisgar, which 
constituency he represented until 1896, 
when he retired. 

G. A. H. Fraser, B.A., '86, M.A., '90, 
late Professor of Latin in Colorado College, 
has entered on the practice of Law in Denver, 
Colorado- Mr. Fraser, after graduation, held 
the position of Classical Fellow in University 
College, and is remembered as a man of 
exceptional ability both as a scholar and 
teacher. At his final examinations in Law 
he maintained in a striking manner his own 
reputation and that of his Alma Mater. 
The following item referring to his success is 
quoted from a Denver paper : "Of the new 
attorneys we understand that Mr. George A. 
H. Fraser stood first, with an average of 
over ninety-five per cent., the highest reached 
by any candidate in recent years. Mr. Fraser 
is a University of Toronto man. Mr. Warral 
Wilson, of Colorado Springs, a graduate of 
Yale University and of the Harvard Law 
School, was second on the list." 

The annual clinic of the Toronto Dental 
Society, held in the rooms of the Royal 
College of Dental Surgeons on February 25th 
and 26th, was very successful, over 600 
practitioners' being present Much addi- 
tional interest was given by the presence 
of T. W. Brophy, D.D.S., LL.D., Dean 
of the Dental Department of Lake Forest 
University, Chicago, a noted deutal surgeon ; 
A. Price, D.D.S., a member of the staff 
of the Dental Department of Western Re- 
serve University, Cleveland, an expert in 
X ray photography ; and Dr. Ames, Chi- 
cago. The Canadian Dentists have the 
greater interest in these distinguished visit- 
ors from the fact that Dr. Price is a native 
of Ontario and Dr. Brophy 's parents are 
both Canadians. 

MARRIAGES. 

On February the 25th at the residence of 
the bride's parents, Toronto, by Rev. Dr. 
Thomas, 0. G. A. Plaxton, L.D.S., D.D.S., 
(Tor.) '99, to Florence, daughter of Henry 
G. Love, Esq. 



THE PUBLISHERS' SYNDICATE, LIMITED. PRINTKU.S. 



THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

VOL. I. APRIL, 1901. No. 8. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE PAGE 

Editorial, 229 University Education for the Clergy. 

Popular Government. By W. D. B V the Rev - William Clark, LL.D. 244 

Lesueur, LL.D. .... 229 University Young Men's Christian Asso- 

Of Mirth. By Arnold ffaultain, M.A. 241 ciation. By Mrs. A. McPhedran, - 248 

Q, Commercial Education. By President Torontonensia - - 250 

Loudvn, 242 



EDITORIAL. 

THE Editorial Committee in the last issue asked for one thousand 
paid subscriptions to meet the deficit in the publication of the 
MONTHLY for the year. So far thirty-eight dollars have been received. 

One thousand dollars has been subscribed towards the funds of the 
University by Mr. F. H. Clergue, of Sault Ste. Marie, conditional upon 
a sum of fifty thousand dollars being subscribed. Another friend of the 
University in Western Ontario has written promising a similar sum. 

A discussion of the University Act, which came into force on the I5th 
inst., is being written for the MONTHLY by Mr. J. A. Paterson, M.A., 
solicitor for the University. It will appear in the May number. 

The following gentlemen have been appointed to the new Board of 
Trustees : John Hoskin, K.C., LL.D., Chairman ; James Loudon, M.A., 
LL.D., Vice-Chairman ; Hon. Sir William Meredith, LL.D., Hon. Charles 
Moss, LL.D., Maurice Hutton, M.A., B. E. Walker, Esq., J. Herbert 
Mason, Esq., Hon. A. T. Wood, C. S. Gzowski, Esq. We note with 
pleasure that Dr. Hoskin, who has so long and ably acted as chairman 
of the old Board of Trustees, has been re-elected as chairman of the 
new Board. 



T 



THE PROBLEM OF POPULAR GOVERNMENT. 

BY W. D. LESUEUR, LL.D. 

HERE are many distinct problems of popular government, but the 
one great and comprehensive problem which it presents is : how 
the best results may be obtained from it how it may be made to work 
for the highest good of the community in which it is established. 
Popular Government, or Democracy, is now an almost universal datum 
throughout the western world, in which, of course, we include western 
Europe. Early in the last century, as we must now designate the nine- 
teenth, the philosophical De Tocqueville somewhat sadly proclaimed its 



2 3 o UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

coming, bidding the world prepare for a regime under which privilege, 
precedent, personal authority, the sagacity of the statesman, the wisdom 
of the philosopher, and the erudition of the scholar would alike be swept 
out of sight by one vast wave of popular domination. He mentions in 
his correspondence that, in America, he had found manners and ideas 
uniformly commonplace ; and what he feared was that Democracy every- 
where would simply mean the reign of commonplace. To a refined and 
sensitive spirit the prospect was not encouraging ; but a robuster phil- 
osophy might, perhaps, have enabled him to feel that there was still 
hope for the world that, however mediocrity might assert itself for a 
time, the finer fruits of the human spirit would flourish again in due 
season. Some, however, of De Tocqueville's contemporaries were not 
disposed to acquiesce in the opinion that the universal triumph of 
democracy was inevitable. They saw the foe advancing, and armed 
themselves to give him battle. Our own annals afford a conspicuous 
example of this political temper in the person of Sir Francis Bond Head, 
who, sixty-three years ago, was administering in this city the govern- 
ment of the Province of Upper Canada. " The British Constitution," he 
says in one of his despatches to the Colonial Office, "has nothing to 
dread from its low-bred antagonist (democracy) in America if His 
Majesty's Government will not avert from us its support." He was 
greatly scandalized to hear that instructions had been given to the 
Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick -to endeavour to place in his 
Council "gentlemen representing the various interests which xist in 
the Province, and possessing at the same time the confidence of the 
people at large." It seemed to him, and he said as much to the Colonial 
Secretary (Lord Glenelg), that this was neither more nor less than giving 
the highest official countenance to anarchy. He speaks in onother 
despatch of "the repeated repulses which the American people have met 
with whenever they have attempted to invade Canada for the purpose 
of forcing upon us their loathsome institutions." That Sir Francis was 
a high-minded man a much more high-minded man than some of the 
Reformers with whom he had to contend no impartial reader of his 
" Marrative" can doubt ; but he was on the losing side. He was a man 
of great force of character, and he had in fact rallied a large portion of 
the Province to his views ; but the Colonial Office clearly saw that a 
cause which depended on personal force of character could not be per- 
manently sustained. He was informed that " His Majesty's Government 
looks to no transient results or temporary triumphs." Finally, as you 
are aware, he sacrificed his office rather than obey the instructions he 
had received to restore a certain person to office whom he had thought 
it proper to remove. 

I do not know whether the conflict between the two irreconcilable 
ideas of personal government and popular government can be better 
studied than in the volume to which I have been referring. It is almost 
impossible not to sympathize with the champion of the dying cause ; 
and yet the very heroism which he throws into the fight gives foreboding 



THE PROBLEM OF POPULAR GOVERNMENT 231 

of failure. His opponents did not require to be heroic, nor yet uncom- 
monly straightforward. They only needed to unite on a policy, and 
pursue it with persistence. What they wanted above all things was 
control of the patronage ; and that they got through the establishment 
of what was called " responsible government." 

At the time that Sir Francis was waging his hopeless contest in this 
Province the Reform Bill (1832) had already been passed in England. 
That bill, as it proved, contained in germ the whole democratic system 
of government ; but this was not perceived at the time by its authors, 
nor even, for the most part, by its opponents. It contained the principle 
of Democracy in this respect, that it gave substantial representation to 
the masses of the people ; the play of party politics did the rest. So 
long as there is an untouched reservoir of political power anywhere, so 
long will it attract the covetous glances of the party most likely 
to profit by tapping it. It is difficult for the practical politician to pass 
by a mass of possible votes irretortis oculis. At the same time many were 
the declarations made that there was no intention, or even thought, of 
democratizing the Constitution of England. Lord John Russell declared 
in 1837 that, so far as he was concerned, the settlement of 1832 was 
final. " Having," he said, " only five years ago reformed the represen- 
tation, having placed it on a new basis, it would be a most unwise and 
unsound experiment now to begin the process again. ... I say, at least 
for myself, that I can take no share in such an experiment." As we all 
know, however, that indefatigable statesman did in later years take part 
in several such experiments. In 1854, and again in 1859, he made 
unsuccessful attempts to carry further measures of reform. On the latter 
occasion he is recorded to have said : " I wish to disclaim entirely any 
intention to frame a new Constitution. I disclaim such a project for 
two reasons. One is that I have no wish to alter the Constitution of this 
House ; the other is that, if any such alteration were sought, I should 
feel totally unable to propose anything that would stand in the place of 
the ancient and glorious Constitution of the country." This sentiment 
was echoed and reinforced by Mr. Disraeli on the other side of the 
House. " We think," he said, " that the English Constitution is not a 
mere phrase. We believe that we live under a monarchy, modified in 
its action by the authority of estates of the realm. . . . Under a 
democracy we do not live, and I trust it will never be the fate of the 
country to live." In 1859 Lord Palmerston was at the head of the 
Government ; and it was an open secret that he was far from enthusiastic 
for the cause of Reform. In reply to some one who was maintaining 
that, even though the suffrage were extended, the same class of men 
would continue to be elected to Parliament, he is reported to have said : 
" Yes ; I dare say the actors will be the same, but they will play to the 
galleries instead of to the boxes." We all know the course which Par- 
liamentary Reform followed in England : how Lord Russell was again 
unfortunate with his bill of 1866, and how Lord Derby and Mr. Disraeli 
put their heads together to "dish the Whigs" with their more radical 



232 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

measure of the following year, which became law. It was at the latter 
date that Deleme, the celebrated editor of the Times, said, as quoted in 
a letter of Lord Houghton's, that "the extreme party for reform are now 
the grandees ; and the dukes are quite ready to follow Beale into Hyde 
Park." Disraeli had educated his party with a vengeance all except 
the three recalcitrants, the Earl of Carnarvon, General Peel and Viscount 
Cranbourne, now Lord Salisbury. The Whigs, however, were not so 
completely " dished " as had been hoped, for they came back into power 
with a rush in the first election held under the new Act. Still, the name 
"democracy" remained in disfavour. Even in 1884, when Mr. Glad- 
stone brought in and carried his last Reform Bill, he disclaimed any 
intention " to call into existence a majority of working class electors." 
With the dexterity that characterized him, and made him so 
extraordinary a "Parliamentary hand," he added the significant words : 
" I cannot s.ay I think it would be attended with any great danger, but I 
am sure it is not according to the present view or expectations of Parlia- 
ment." In spite of all disclaimers, however, the Constitution of England 
was by these successive measures being steadily democratized ; and at 
this moment, in the opinion of no less an authority than Sir H. S. Maine, 
it rests on a more dangerously democratic basis than that of the United 
States. 

If I might be allowed to give my own definition of Democracy, I should 
say it was a system of government under which the sovereign power of the 
State the great " Leviathan" of Hobbes was distributed, as the lawyers 
say, " per capita." Let x be the sovereign power of the State in its 

* 

totality and n the varying number of citizens, then -- represents each 

fv 

man's share of power. This formula takes no account of moral or 
intellectual force, which cannot be severed from the individual possessing 
it. This, alas ! is the fly in the precious ointment of pure and unadul- 
terated Democracy, or Democracy conceived as absolute equality between 
man and man. If a man has money we can take it from him. If he has 
physical force, he can be overpowered by numbers ; but if he has intelli- 
gence and force of character we cannot seize upon these. Democracy, 
let me hasten to say, has its foundations deep in human nature. The 
whole philosophy of it is summed up in a single line of yEschylus, on 
which my eye casually fell the other day, and which, in this place, I may 
venture to repeat : 



<yap 

the English of which is simply, " No one willingly bears a servile yoke." 
In a State, the power of which is made up of the aggregate strength of 
all its members, no man likes to think that, while contributing strength 
and helping to make the arm of the law effective, he has no voice what- 
ever in public affairs. Political Economy and the Bible, it has been said, 
have been the two great preachers of Democracy Political Economy by 
concentrating attention upon what is to the common advantage, and 



THE PROBLEM OF POPULAR GOVERNMENT 233 

taking no account of political privilege ; the Bible, by proclaiming the 
essential equality of all men, and basing all social relations on the 
Golden Rule. However this may be, Democracy has come, it is with us 
now, and there is every appearance that it is going to stay. Even were 
we opposed to it, we might well exclaim in the words of a great poet : 

" Far other bark than ours were needed now 
To stem the torrent of descending time." 

But no reasonable man will oppose himself to that which he sees to 
be inevitable. Rather, perceiving it to be inevitable, he will seek out 
the causes and conditions which, in making it so, make it also best suited 
on the whole to the age in which it has appeared. 

How much obloquy has been heaped upon popular government it 
would weary you to tell. Those of you who have read Sir Henry 
Maine's work entitled " Popular Government" know with what dignified 
irony he treats the hopes which Democracy has inspired in its champions 
and advocates. Those of you again who have read Mr. Lecky's volumes 
have not failed to recognize his evident desire to place popular govern- 
ment in the worst possible light. No doubt both these eminent writers 
say many things that are true ; they point out real flaws and weaknesses 
in popular government ; but they do not attempt to show how the ten- 
dency of the times in the direction of Democracy is to be reversed. I 
cannot help agreeing with the verdict of Mr. John Morley, on the 
first of these writers. " Sir Henry Maine," he says, " is a bureaucrat who 
cannot bear to think that Democracy will win. . . . His tone is ' at 
of a political valetudinarian, watching with uneasy eye the ,vo.ys of 
rude health." Mr. Leckey, too, is a writer who, as his later writings have 
particularly shown, and, I may add, as he is exhibited to us by no mean 
judge of character, " Punch," is more or less disgusted with life, and con- 
sequently with Democracy. No despondent man, however, can be a safe 
guide. The men to trust are those who, if they have to recognize evil, 
think at once of the remedies that can be applied, or look beyond the 
evil to the good that may eventually be evolved from it. Say what we 
will of Democracy it means political life of a certain kind for everybody 
except those who turn aside from the boon because they are obliged to 
share it with so many quite plain people. 

Let us admit that Democracy is open to much criticism, that its ways 
are not the ways of the philosopher or the saint, that there is a terrible 
flavour of average humanity, and sometimes of inferior humanity, about 
its doings ; all that does not prove that it is not in theory, or 
that it is not destined to become in practice, the best form of human 
government. When a child is learning to walk we do not feel like 
deriding its hesitation and timidity, or exulting over its falls. Popular 
government, to my mind, is very much in the position of a child learning 
to walk. The child is born unable to walk, but it must learn to walk ; 
its whole future development depends on the acquisition of that accom- 
plishment. Human societies, in like manner, are born unfit for self- 



234 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

government ; but their complete development depends on their becoming 
fit for it. That seems to me to be the case in a nutshell. The stage of 
imperfect attempts, marked by many lapses and many more or less 
ungainly movements, has to be passed through. We are yet in that 
stage, and clever writers, if they are so minded, can find much to satirize 
in our performances. But, looking at the main question, who can deny 
that a community in which each individual contributed some grain of 
wisdom or moral force to the general direction of affairs, would constitute 
a higher political type than one in which a few ruled and the rest 
submitted to their dictation, however benevolent that dictation might be. 
The problem of popular government is precisely the problem how to 
make each individual a helpful, not a retarding or an opposing, influence in 
the work of good government. The historian Grote has well said that 
" No system of government, even supposing it to be very much better 
and more faultless than the Athenian democracy, can ever pretend to 
accomplish its legitimate end apart from the personal character of the 
people, or to supersede the necessity of individual virtue and vigour." 
Democracy comes to the individual citizen without respect to social rank 
and says, " The time has come for you to assume a share in influencing 
and directing the government of your country. You may not at present 
have all the qualifications required for that duty, but you cannot begin 
earlier ; and it is necessary that you, a citizen, should acquire the educa- 
tion of a citizen. Therefore begin now, follow your best judgment, try 
to rise superior to purely selfish interests, and in due time you will find 
yourself doing fairly well." 

Unfortunately this is not the prevalent conception of the meaning of 
Democracy or of the nature of its appeal. The idea that the power once 
possessed by one, or by a limited class, is now divided amongst the 
whole people is familiar enough ; but the idea that each man should try 
himself by the rule which he applies to the monarchs and oligarchs of 
the past is not a familiar one. We condemn the rulers of the past 
because they did not consider themselves the mere trustees of power, and 
study at all times the good of the whole people. And yet, I fear the 
common idea to-day is that each man's vote is his own private property, 
to be used as may best suit his private ends. It was for a precisely 
similar misuse of power that some monarchs have lost their heads in 
times past. That a man's vote is not absolutely his own to do what he 
likes with is proved by the laws against bribery. Unfortunately, the 
laws against bribery cannot reach all forms of bribery, cannot touch, for 
example, the shameless offers often made of vote and influence in return 
for some favour or other from the government of the day. There is 
something very discouraging, it must be admitted, in the willingness of 
the people, as the phrase is, to be bribed with their own money in such 
a phenomenon, for example, as the monotonous regularity with which 
bye-elections go in favour of a government with a strong majority. 

In this respect it can hardly be claimed that the wealthier classes show 
an example of singular virtue to their humbler fellow-citizens. Look at 



THE PROBLEM OF POPULAR GOVERNMENT 235 

this portly gentleman, dressed in irreproachable English tweed, with a 
decided dash of social culture, who comes forward to address an audience 
of electors in a mining town. Being the person of the most weight in 
the community, he has been elected chairman of the meeting ; neverthe- 
less he ventures an opinion of his own. " Gentlemen," he says, " as 
chairman 1 have not much to say to you on this occasion. I shall just 
say this, however, that the question you have to consider is, in my 
opinion, a very simple one; namely, whether the party in power or the 
party out of power is likely to do most for the business interests of this 
locality. We need not wander beyond that." Here was the keynote 
struck by a man possessing all the advantages of education, social 
position and pecuniary independence, which go to make up a typical 
specimen of what used to be called the " ruling classes." A discussion 
follows, and some very plain citizens seem to think that certain other 
questions, more remote from their own local interests, might properly be 
taken into consideration. The great man, however, speaks again, and 
makes it clear that he looks with great disfavour on all such divagations. 
I dare say many of you have witnessed scenes very similar to this. My 
own sketch is drawn from life, and it seems to me to cast a somewhat 
doubtful light on the influence exerted by those so-called higher classes 
who, fifty years ago or so, were thought to be the only safe depositaries 
of political power. Is Democracy, it may be asked, having a fair trial 
when men of wealth and influence are doing their utmost to hold it down 
to the most inferior conceptions and practices ? There is worse than 
this, however ; there is the fierce contempt which men conducting large 
enterprises sometimes show for political issues of all kinds, and their 
avowed willingness to throw all their influence on the side of any govern- 
ment whatever with which they can make an advantageous deal. 

Everyone remembers Montesquieu's dictum about the different forms 
of government and their respective fundamental principles. Absolute 
governments must repose on fear, monarchies on honour, aristocracies on 
moderation, and republics on virtue. To someone who cited the remark 
as to republics to Alexander Hamilton, the latter replied that, in his 
opinion, what republics most depended on was corruption. Montesquieu, 
however, was perfectly right in postulating public virtue as a condition 
of the permanence of republics. If the electorate as a whole is corrupt, 
republican institutions will be of short duration. On the other hand, 
Hamilton was not altogether wrong in his fling as to the necessity of 
corruption. There is no absolute contradiction between the two views : 
the one refers to the conditions for the existence of a republic, the other 
to the conditions necessary as things are to the carrying on of the work 
of government. The more public virtue there is, the less need will there 
ba for resorting to Hamilton's prescription for keeping the machinery of 
government going. Raise the level of public virtue and certain things 
which are now only done from interested and selfish motives will be 
done from disinterested and unselfish ones. Raise the level of public 
virtue and better laws will be passed, and once passed will be observed, 



236 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

not evaded. Raise the level of public virtue and the whole political 
system will work with greater power towards better ends. But mean- 
time many compromises that would not look well in broad daylight have 
to be made. 

Sir Henry Maine speaks with great severity of the abject flattery 
administered to the multitude by those who would win its favour. To 
whom, however, is this mainly a reproach ? It is indeed to be regretted 
that the populace should not have a more delicate taste in this matter 
than the monarchs and other great ones of the past before whom men of 
intellect used to debase themselves ; but what are we to think of the 
more or less educated gentlemen who purvey the stuff ? If the people 
would take a true measure of themselves they would be aided by 
referring to a book that never flatters, and that knows nothing of party 
views. They would there find such utterances as these : 

"Why do . . . the people imagine a vain thing?" 

* * * 

" Where no counsel is, the people fail." 

* * * 

" Where there is no vision, the people perish." 

* * * 

"The people that know their good shall be strong." 

* # . # 

" The people that do not understand shall fall." 

* * # 

I do not imagine that in relation to the problems of to-day "the people " 
of to-day enjoy any advantage over " the people " of the times of Daniet 
or Hosea. In simpler times there were simpler problems; the problems 
of our time tax the wisdom of the wisest ; so that now, as ever, the people 
need to take heed against imagining vain things and against acting 
without counsel or vision. To believe in their own infallibility is a sure 
way of falling into hurtful errors. Yet something like this state of mind 
does exist, there is reason to fear, in democratic communities. " No 
observer of American politics," says a very able writer, Mr. E. L. 
Godkin, "can deny that, with regard to matters that can become the 
subject of legislation, the American voter listens with extreme impatience 
to anything which has the air of instruction ; but the explanation is to 
be found not so much in his dislike of instruction as in his dislike, in the 
political field, of anything which savours of superiority. The truth seems 
to be," he continues, " that, with regard to all matters within the field of 
politics, the new democracy is exceedingly sensitive about any doubts of 
its competency. It will not suffer any question, or sign of question, of 
its full capacity to deal with any matter which calls for legislation." 

Other testimonies can be cited to the same effect. The late James 
Russell Lowell, in his essay on Abraham Lincoln, written in 1864, 
expresses surprise that, "in a country which boasts of its intelli- 
gence, the theory should be so generally held that the most com- 
plicated of human contrivances, and one which every day becomes 



THE PROBLEM OF POPULAR GOVERNMENT 237 

more complicated, can be worked at sight by any man able to talk 
for an hour or two without stopping to think." Again, Senator 
Hoar, of Massachusetts, in an article written only a few months ago, 
says : " Some people never seem to learn that the task of governing a 
great people is a serious and difficult task, and that the task of governing 
itself, by a great people, is more serious and difficult still." 

The psychology of the case is not, I think, hard to understand. We 
are all familiar with the adage, " Every man to his trade." Negatively, 
it means that nobody should dabble in a trade that is not his and that he 
does not understand ; and, positively, it means that every man is assumed 
to understand his own trade. The expansion of free institutions has 
thrown the work of government into the hands of the people, therefore 
government has become their trade ; therefore they must know all about 
it; or, if they do not, they must refuse to acknowledge the fact. They 
must not let any college-bred man, or other superior person, affect to 
teach them their trade. The average voter does not like to think that 
there are any technicalities in the art of government or of administration 
which any plain man is not capable of dealing with. As to the govern- 
ment service, it is rilled with our clerks, and of course, like other 
employers, we are all quite capable of telling our clerks what to do. A 
well-disposed village blacksmith in the neighborhood of Ottawa once 
offered me a "lift" in his buggy. As we drove along we passed the 
house of a prominent civil servant, when my friend enquired what salary 
the gentleman in question had. I said I was not sure, but thought about 
two thousand dollars ; whereupon, turning to me, the man of muscle said 
very earnestly : ' : No man can earn two thousand dollars a year at a 
desk." He was himself earning at least that amount in his forge and 
carriage shop ; but he did not think the feat could be honestly performed 
at a desk. My friend was a man of more than average intelligence and 
business ability, and his blunt declaration gave me a measure of the 
importance attached by the people to the work of the public departments. 
It must all be very simple, because, theoretically, it is all such work as 
the humblest voter could, if necessary, either perform or direct. In the 
United States the theory is now freely advanced that the President does 
not need to be a man of any special ability ; if he only does what the 
people tell him he will be clever enough. In this country I imagine that 
the only ability that is distinctly recognized as necessary is the ability to 
outwit opponents in the political field. 

We seem here to be face to face with a paradox. On the one hand 
government is committed to the people ; and it is so far assumed that 
they are capable of performing the political duties thus devolved on 
them. On the other hand it is a matter of certainty that the majority of 
the voters are not very good judges either of the larger questions of 
politics, or of the details of administration. They are very mediocre 
judges of what constitutes their own interest in many matters. A nation 
may want to hold silver in unlimited quantities at par with gold in some 
arbitrarily chosen ratio ; but it does not follow from their wanting it 



238 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

that the thing is feasible, or that the bare attempt to carry it into effect 
would not be fraught with disaster. A nation may want a high tariff, or 
government ownership of railways and telegraphs, or a system of old 
age pensions, or compulsory arbitration, or an elective judiciary, or a 
strict prohibitory liquor law ; or it may hanker after a foreign war, or 
experience a sudden yearning for a vigorous policy of colonial expansion ; 
but it would be fatuous to imagine that any one of these measures would 
be secure from failure because it had been demanded by a popular 
majority. Mr. Frederic Harrison says that " Very plain men know 
who wish them well, and the sort of thing that will bring them good." 
To the first half of this statement I am ready to give a general assent ; 
but in regard to the latter half I am far from certain. All depends upon 
the complexity of the question under consideration, and many of the 
questions of politics are most complex. 

What, then, is the solution of the paradox ? The solution seems to me 
to lie here: the suffrage is not a privilege, , but a trust, and universal 
suffrage does not signify that all men are equally and fully capable of 
grappling with political questions of whatever order, but that all have an 
interest in the wise decision of such questions. The art of government 
is not any men's trade or mystery ; it presents an inexhaustible 
problem in the solution of which we may all co-operate. The fact that 
a certain section of society may cast a majority of votes does not confer 
upon them any special competence in dealing with political issues. It 
may give them power, but as Horace says : 

" Vis consili expers mole ruit sua." 

It is too" narrow a view to take of the suffrage to regard it merely as a 
means of protection for each member of the community. Without 
questioning the maxim that taxation without representation is tyranny, 
we cannot consider it as summing up the whole philosophy of the 
suffrage. The late Mr. Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke) talked most mischiev- 
ously when he insisted, as he did, upon the necessity of "educating our 
masters." In a free state no man is master of any other, nor is there 
any need that he should be. What Mr. Lowe was really afraid of was that 
the mastery previously possessed by a limited class should pass out of 
their hands. 

In the present day we are accustomed to make a broad distinction 
between legislation and government ; but, in point of fact, legislation is 
one of the two great divisions of government, the other being administra- 
tion. Parliament makes laws ; the duty of the executive is to administer 
those laws faithfully and honestly, without respect to persons and with a 
sole view to the public good. 

As regards legislation an important point to notice is the altered 
position of the legislator as compared with that which he occupied under 
a more limited suffrage. If'we go back a little over one hundred years, 
we find Edmund Burke addressing the electors of Bristol as follows : 
" If we do not allow our members to act upon a very enlarged view of 
things, we shall at length infallibly degrade our national representation 



THE PROBLEM OF POPULAR GOVERNMENT 239 

into a conjused and scuffling bustle of local agency'' Burke wanted a 
strong and enlightened Parliament to stand up against an encroaching 
court ; and he did not think Parliament could be strong if its members 
were reduced to the rank of mere delegates echoes, not voices. It is 
impossible not to be struck with his foresight when he speaks of the 
danger that Parliament may degenerate into " a confused and scuffling 
bustle of local agency." I think the words describe something with 
which we are not wholly unacquainted in this country, and which exists 
in great perfection across our border. I must, however, quote a few words 
more to show the distance we have travelled since Burke's time. Refer- 
ring to the course he had held in regard to the troubles in Ireland, he 
says : " I conformed to the instructions of truth and nature, and main- 
tained your interest against your opinions with a constancy that became 
me. A representative worthy of you ought to be a person of stability. 
I am to look indeed to your opinions, but to such opinions as you and 
I must have five years hence. I was not to look to the flash of the 
day. I knew that you chose me with others to be a pillar of the state, 
and not a weathercock, on the top of the edifice, exalted for my levity 
and versatility." In a former speech he had said : " Your representative 
owes you not his industry only but his judgment, and he betrays instead 
of serving you if he sacrifices it to your opinion. . . . Parliament is 
not a congress of ambassadors from different and hostile interests. . . . 
It is a deliberative assembly of one nation, with one interest, that of the 
whole, where not local purposes and local prejudices ought to guide, but 
the general good. . . . You choose a member indeed, but when 
you have chosen him, he is not a member of Bristol, but a member of 
Parliament." 

A generation or more later, when the Reform Bill of 1832 was being 
introduced, Sir Robert Inglis, the member for Oxford, took a very 
similar stand. " This House," he said, " is not a collection of deputies as 
the States General of Holland, and as the assemblies in some other 
countries. We are not sent here day by day to represent the ideas of our 
constituents. Their local rights, their municipal privileges we are bound 
to protect ; their general interests we cfre bound to consult at all times, 
but not their will, unless it shall coincide with our own deliberate sense 
of right." More explicit still, if possible, is the following declaration of 
the same speaker : " We are not sent here for the particular spot we 
represent, but to consider the affairs of the country and the good of the 
church. When a member is returned to this House he ceases to be 
responsible to his constituency. It is at the end of the period for which 
he has to serve them in Parliament that he again comes before them 
and it is then only that he is accountable to them." We may come 
forward another generation still, to the date of the publication of Mr. 
Mill's " Representative Government," and find the same principle not yet 
extinct. " A man of conscience and known ability," says that philosopher, 
"should insist on full freedom to act as he, in his own judgment, deems 
best, and should not consent to act on any other terms." Since that 



2 4 o UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

time the doctrine in question has been less and less heard of; and to-day 
the "delegate" theory of parliamentary representation may be said to 
be thoroughly established. Where could we find a constituency in 
Canada that would elect either Burke or John Stuart Mill on the condi- 
tions they lay down ? If one is to be found, I should be disposed to look 
for it in the Province of Quebec, where the voters have not yet been edu- 
cated into jealousy of superior talents, or into distrust of wider views. 

The effect of the change has undoubtedly been to impair the character 
of modern parliaments considered as deliberative bodies, as well as their 
ability to deal with great measures. There can be no true deliberation 
without a certain amount of openness to conviction. As things are 
to-day each member feels bound to carry out the understanding he had 
with his electors and support the party he undertook to support. An 
atrophy of the deliberative function of representative bodies has thus 
set in. How far it will proceed, and what modern parliaments will be 
reduced to, remains to be seen. How a political structure intended to 
have a distinct use of its own may undergo complete atrophy we may 
observe in the case of the college of so-called Presidential Electors in 
the United States. According to the Constitution these electors were to 
exercise a real choice of their own ; but to-day, and indeed for long 
since, the college has dwindled into a purely formal device for registering 
the popular vote. Much is heard nowadays of the machine in politics. 
It is not much praised in public, though I believe it is sometimes '' hugged " 
in private. Delicacy would of course prescribe privacy for so affectionate 
an operation. An enterprising newspaper was proposing some time ago 
to "smash the machine," and, if there were two of which there was 
more than a suspicion to " smash them both." How it was going to be 
done was not explained, nor who was to be the smasher ; and, so far as 
I can learn, the feat has not yet been accomplished. The fact is that 
the machine is an absolutely necessary accompaniment of universal 
suffrage in the present condition of society. It is a kind of primary 
school of politics, an institution in which raw, untutored minds get their 
first introduction to political ideas and methods. If there were any 
possibility of getting into a blul book a representative selection of the 
correspondence of the local machines throughout the country, with a few 
samples of the higher epistolary style of the Provincial and Dominion 
staff officers, I think the country would start back at the revelation. It 
would not want to hug either the machine or itself. It is wonderful how 
ugly a little daylight makes some things look. At the same time good 
comes out even of this seething mass of evil. The primary school does 
not give a finished education, but it educates up to a certain point those 
who have any capacity to learn. The member of the local committee is 
trained to a certain sense of responsibility. He learns what can be done 
and what cannot be done. He finds out that men are not always gov- 
erned by their lowest motives. He finds his more disreputable proceed- 
ings encountering the reprobation of the decent part of the community. 
He gets disgusted with the unmitigated self-seeking of some of those 



OF MIRTH 241 

with whom he has to deal, and possibly has some useful fits of reflection 
on his own doings. If his party is in opposition he may learn some 
lessons of disinterestedness. We may further say this for the machine, 
that it is a contrivance for getting work done that would not otherwise 
be done. After its own fashion it keeps alive an interest in politics ; it 
greatly helps to "bring out the vote" in a general election. 

(To be continued.) 



W 



OF MIRTH. 

BY ARNOLD HAULTAIN, M.A. 

E have recently been treated to some very elaborate psychological 
analyses of Art and Sport : the German Professor, Karl Groos, 
has published two volumes, one on the " Play of Animals," the other on 
the " Play of Men ; " the Swedish Professor, Yrjo Hirn, has written a vol- 
uminous treatise on " The Origins of Art ;" and Tolstoi, too, has lately 
asked the question, " Qu 'est-ce que 1'Art ?" But, so far as I know, 
Mirth has been as yet only tentatively and partially treated. And yet 
Mirth deserves a careful psychological analysis quite as much as does 
Art or Sport. Whether or not its rudiments may not be found (closely 
associated, probably, with Play) amongst animals, certainly it is universal 
amongst men. That it exists is proof that it subserves some evolution- 
ary purpose ; that it is necessary in the struggle for existence. Herr 
Groos has shown us how important a factor in evolution is Play. Accord- 
ing to him, Play is the hereditary and instinctive youthful preparation 
for that strife for life, for food, and for a mate, which is the inevitable lot 
of maturity. Well, Mirth, I take it, is very analogous to Play. It is the 
hereditary and instinctive though not necessarily youthful preparation 
or exercise for the intellectual strife of life. Play, amongst animalsf is 
usually an amicable muscular contest ; amongst men it is also largely 
mental. When Play develops and becomes purely intellectual, it is 
called "wit" or "humour" or "jocularity" in a word "Mirth." Mirth, 
virtually, is the pleasure evoked by the amicable outwitting of another. 
Hobbes, therefore, was right in calling laughter the " glorying over " 
one's fellow. It is important to remember that it is an amicable contest. 
Only when you put your fellow into an awkward predicament do you 
laugh. To put him in jeopardy is to raise the action from the plane of 
the ludicrous to the plane of the serious. Make-believe, pretence, re- 
presentation, are of the essence of Play, Mirth, and Art. 

It would be interesting to discuss whether Sport and Mirth and Art 
were not, despite Professor Hirn's caveat, the three evolutionary stages of 
the same instinct. Sport is, in its primitive aspects, an amicable muscular 
contest. As it develops, the mental faculties are brought into requisition, 
and we have the higher species of games^vAs it develops still further, 
and becomes purely an intellectual contest, we call it Mirth. In the 
next stage the imaginative and emotional faculties are brought into 



242 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

requisition, and we call the effort to prove our superiority to our fellows 
in the struggle for existence by poetic expression or pictorial representa- 
tion Art. Art can only arise when life has ceased to be an internecine 
strife, and men have combined into tribes or clans ; when the feeling for 
the beautiful is a valuable and useful commodity, and life and food and a 
mate are to be won by poetry as well as by prowess. But the psychology 
of Art is beyond my present purpose. 

Mirth, it has been rightly said, is evoked by either or both of two 
factors, Wit and Humour. The difference between Wit and Humour 
it is hard to define ; but we shall not be far wrong in saying that 
in Wit we glory over the predicament of our fellow-man because that 
predicament is due to his want of gumption in his intellectual rivalry 
with his fellow-men ; in Humour we glory over him because his pre- 
dicament is due to his want of gumption in his rivalry with fate. This 
is why Humour is always deeper than Wit, and why there is often, 
if not always, an element of pathos in Humour. The lowest form of 
wit is probably either the practical joke or the pun. In the first, the 
cause of the Mirth is obvious: you out-wit your rival. In the second 
there is the same outwitting, but it is not so obvious. We propound a 
seemingly serious problem ; we ask, for example, why an angler's scales 
are like an enemy in ambush ; and we laugh because our interlocutor 
does not see that it is because they so often lie in weight. In fact the 
pun is a sort of lying in wait, an intellectual ambush, and we laugh 
when our rival falls into it. A pun is but the juxtaposition of incon- 
gruous ideas, the juxtaposition 'being devised by some absurd trick of 
sound or sense. Humour is far deeper. Humour is evoked by the futile 
fight with fate when there is in the futility an element of pretence. 
It is the jocular laughing at fate, the make-believe to be superior to fate, 
the pretence that we succumb voluntarily, not obligatorily, to fate. 
Mercutio is humorous when he says his wound is not as wide as a church-' 
door nor as deep as a well, but 'twould do. Charles II. was humorous 
when he apologized to his courtiers for being so unconscionably long 
time a-dying. That clever undergraduate was both witty and humorous 
when he described that dejected equine quadruped dragging at a barge as 
TO iraQo? (tow-path 'oss). But, indeed, Mirth is a recondite topic, and its 
ramifications would lead us far. Suffice it to see that, like Sport, it is 
instinctive, hereditary, and auxiliary ; that it subserves an evolutionary 
purpose ; that it is an integral and necessary element of life. Soon, let 
us hope, some pyschologist will give us its full analytical exposition. 



COMMERCIAL EDUCATION. 

BY PRESIDENT LOUDON. 



(~)N the invitation of the University of Fredericton, New Brunswick, 

President Loudon delivered an address on " Technical Education," 

on the occasion of the inauguration of the new Science Building in con- 



COMMERCIAL EDUCATION 243 

nection with that institution. The ceremony took place in the presence 
of the Lieutenant-Governor and the Legislature on the 26th M^rrh 
on the conclusion of the address the University authorities v.ere assured 
by the Attorney-General of the Province that the Government and 
Legislature would vote the financial aid which has been applied for. 
The following remarks regarding commercial education, a topic of 
interest in Ontario, are reprinted from the President's address : 

Let me refer, in a word or two, to the most recent development in 
technical education. This consists in the establishment of commercial 
departments in the universities. This new departure has been rendered 
necessary by the great development, in recent years, of trade and com- 
merce domestic and foreign and the demand for men trained to 
grapple with the higher problems of the new condition of things. Such 
a department was established some two years ago at the University of 
Leipzig, and similar courses are being established at Hamburg, Frank- 
fort and Magdeburg. Some of the special subjects treated are Com- 
mercial Law, Economic Theory, Economic History, Economic Geog- 
raphy, Public Finance, Insurance, Banking, Foreign Exchanges and 
Transportation. 

A beginning in the same direction has also been made on this conti- 
nent, viz., at the Universities of New York, Pennsylvania, California, 
Chicago and Wisconsin. At the University of Toronto many of the 
subjects just mentioned are taken up in the Political Science course, but 
we have taken steps now to establish a new and distinct course leading 
to a diploma in Commercial Science. This course will serve a double 
purpose. It will suit the needs of the young man who with a good 
elementary education comes to the university to fit himself solely for a 
business career, and on the other hand the ordinary undergraduate may 
take the commercial course as part of the work for his Arts degree, and 
so fit himself for a possible business career. This technical, commercial 
side of university education is one of the new problems in academic 
administration. Hitherto we have been accustomed to think of a 
university course as leading almost invariably to theology, law, medicine 
or pedagogy. Some persons, very foolishly I think, have regarded any 
other career as derogatory to the dignity of a university man. But the 
professions are now full to overflowing, and large numbers of future 
graduates will be obliged to make their way in the paths of commerce. 
I can recall the names of a considerable number of our recent graduates 
who have gone into business, and I am proud to say that they are 
rapidly rising to the top. I have in mind particularly one able young 
man who within a year has risen to an excellent position in one of the 
leading firms in Toronto. 

Looking at the tendencies of the times, I feel like advising the young 
men before me not to consider it as decreed by the fates that they shall 
inevitably become ministers, or doctors, or lawyers, or schoolmasters, but 
to keep their eyes open to the possibilities of a business career, and to 
the possibility of equal usefulness and perhaps much greater remunera- 



244 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

tion in such a career. There is, in fact, every reason why the university 
gt ,.'-"^<=> with his broader knowledge, and his mind trained to quick and 
accurate'tnihking, should succeed in business. The facts seem to bear 
out this view. A well-known publisher recently gave me a striking 
illustration from his experience. Some years ago, when the typewriter 
was more of a novelty than it now is, this gentleman had business with a 
leading publishing house in New York, and observed there a young man 
employed in typewriting. They fell into conversation apropos of the 
new invention, and it transpired that the young man was a graduate of 
Harvard who had come into the business at the bottom with the inten- 
tion of working his way up. In four years that young graduate had 
risen to be a member of the firm. My friend, who is not a university 
man, added : " It would have taken me ten years at least to rise to such 
a position, and perhaps I never should have got there." 

There is another moral in this little story which my young friends will 
pardon me, perhaps, for pointing out in conclusion. I would say to 
them : If you do enter a business career do not expect a position of 
responsibility at the outset. If you have the knowledge and capacity, 
your promotion is bound to follow as a matter of course. Be less 
anxious for promotion than to increase your knowledge of detail and 
your breadth of outlook. Strive to make yourselves more efficient. And 
indeed, whatever be your future career, remember that here and now you 
are laying the foundation for future success or future failure, according 
to the measure of your building from day to day in the class-rooms and 
laboratories of the university. 



UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FOR THE CLERGY. 

BY THE REVEREND WILLIAM CLARK, LL.D. 

WHAT is the value of university education, and for what classes is 
it specially valuable? These are questions which are now fre- 
quently and reasonably asked, and to which different answers are given. 
If the present writer shall be thought to contribute little to the solution 
of these problems, he must plead partly that the subject was not entirely 
his own choice, and partly that many occupations have left him little 
time to deal with it. 

One thing would appear to be tolerably clear, namely, that the public 
at large are coming to a larger appreciation of the benefits of a university 
education, if we may judge, as surely we may, by the numbers who are 
now entering the different universities of our own country, and, indeed 
of all other countries, as far as we know, and by the increase in the 
numbers attending university lectures. Indeed, it is gravely doubted by 
not a few whether all of those so entering are making the best use of 
their time. As, however, we are here thinking of a particular class, this 
general question need not here detain us. 



UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FOR THE CLERGY 245 

The question before us is the utility, or the contrary, of a university 
education for those who are entering the Christian ministry ; and prob- 
ably there are a good many persons ready to defend either side of the 
question. But we must not forget that there are some at present very 
few, and not, in our judgment, likely to become more numerous, who 
would dismiss the question as unnecessary on the ground that Christian 
ministers will not be much longer required. This is no imaginary 
position. One writer, at least, and that one of great learning and ability, 
has solemnly raised the question, What is to be done with the clergy 
when their occupation is gone, when Christianity has had its day, and 
churches and ecclesiastics are no longer needed? On this point the 
present writer has no misgivings. It is not the first time that the 
opinion has prevailed that " the good Lord Jesus has had His day." 
Yet, when we look back upon the history of the world, and see that 
nearly everything has changed except the power of His thoughts, how 
His prophecy has been fulfilled, " Heaven and earth shall pass away, 
but My words shall not pass away," we shall hesitate to believe that this 
influence has come, or will soon come, to an end, or even that the means 
which He ordained for the diffusion of His words and thoughts are 
likely to be discontinued. It may be true enough that Christians have 
not made their light to shine as followers of Him who is the Light of 
the world should have done. It may also be true that the Christian 
Church has not always been on the side of Christ ; yet the removal of 
the Church and her ministries and agencies would cause a terrible blank 
in the world. But we do not anticipate any such event in the near or 
in the distant future. 

There will still, then, be a ministry of men or at least we may, for 
our purpose, assume that this state of things will not suddenly come to 
an end. And this being postulated, it is of no small importance to 
determine what shall be the education of our teachers. For they are our 
teachers, and will continue to be so for some time to come. Granting 
that men are not, in the present day, dependent upon the pulpit for their 
religious knowledge and their theological opinions to the same extent 
as they were in past times, it may still be said that the vast majority of 
men and women, who take any real interest in religion, grow up with 
the religious opinions of the men by whom they have been taught from 
the pulpit. It is, then, unnecessary to waste any words to prove that 
those who teach should themselves be taught, and that any defectiveness 
in their education will tend to narrow and cramp their teaching, and so, 
consequently, the views of those who are taught by them. 

A glance at the state of things in Great Britain may help us to appre- 
ciate the different ways in which men have been prepared for the 
ministry. Until recently it may be said, in a general way, that the 
clergy of the Established Church were educated at the universities and 
those of the nonconforming denominations and of the Roman Catholics 
at theological colleges and seminaries. Perhaps this rule did not apply 



246 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

to some of the nonconforming Presbyterian bodies in Scotland. Now, 
the general impression, in the public mind, with reference to these 
ecclesiastics was very much to the effect that the university men were 
the more cultivated, and the seminary men were the more religious. 
Not only so, but the one class would naturally be more liberal and the 
other more earnest. We are here coming to the very point which we 
are required to consider : not so much whether the university education 
at Oxford and Cambridge, for example, would suffice without further 
theological instruction, but whether a university education is not a 
necessary foundation, or a very useful foundation, for the study of 
theology. 

And here it is necessary to make some reservations. Most certainly 
the education of the English clergy, up to about the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, was by no means a sufficient preparation for the work of 
the ministry. Practically, the English clergyman had no more theo- 
logical teaching than the English layman. When he took his B.A. 
degree and left the university he was usually ordained deacon at once. 
If he were an earnestly religious man he had his personal religion, his 
Bible, " Bishop Pearson on the Creed," " Burnet on the Articles," and 
little more for his stock-in-trade. If he had not been deeply touched by 
religion he probably borrowed his sermons, looked after the poor and 
needy, was kind and attentive to his neighbours, and behaved himself 
like a gentleman in his parish. The Nonconformist ministers, on the 
other hand, presented greater differences among themselves. Those in 
towns were, many of them, highly educated men, and, as a rule, much 
better preachers than the Anglican clergy. Probably the majority of 
them were not university men, although a good many, like Robert Hall, 
had studied at one of the Scotch universities. It was different with most 
of those in country places. 

Now, we think that anyone who carefully considers the past history 
of Christianity in England will have two things deeply impressed upon 
him : on the one hand, the importance of a university education. It 
gave something which, as a rule, could not be got elsewhere. But, on 
the other hand, we are equally impressed with the insufficiency of a 
university education by itself, and as it used to be in Oxford and Cam- 
bridge. 

Moreover, it may not be unnecessary at this point to say something 
in the way of protest against what may be called the "priggishness" of 
university men, a kind of assumption that no real knowledge or culti- 
vation can be possessed by any but themselves. Readers of " Bishop 
Magee's Life" will remember how this great speaker and thinker of 
the Anglican communion was irritated (the word is not "too strong) by 
the assumption of some of the Anglican bishops that a graduate of 
Dublin was necessarily inferior to Oxford or Cambridge men ; and in 
reality most of them were poor creatures in comparison with Magee. 
Are there not tendencies of this kind among other university men besides 



UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FOR THE CLERGY 247 

those of Oxford and Cambridge? Now, we may as well make it clear 
to ourselves that such " priggishness," wherever it exists, among graduates 
or non-graduates, among university men or those who have "never worn 
the gown," is the work of an uneducated mind. And, besides, no 
moderately informed person will deny that there are many men in every 
country who have never darkened the doors of university or college 
who are, in the best sense of the words, scholarly, educated, cultivated 
men. Some such remarks as these are not altogether unnecessary in 
connection with the subject before us. But what, after all, do such 
cautions amount to ? They simply remind us that every privilege has 
its dangers, that any good thing may be misused. 

On the whole, however, there seems to be no doubt in the public mind 
and in the mind of the Churches that a university education is of advan- 
tage to those who are preparing for the Christian ministry. Almost 
every denomination has its university or its theological college affiliated 
to one of the universities ; and probably the majority of those who are 
ministering in the Churches are graduates of British or Canadian or, in 
some cases, American universities. And there is no great difficulty in 
seeing the reasonableness and wisdom of such a course. Surely, if the 
ministers of the Church are to be the teachers of the people, they should 
themselves be taught, otherwise we should have but blind leaders of the 
blind. And not only taught, but taught in a broad and liberal spirit, so 
as to nave sympathy with all the movements of thought around them. 

A mere theologian is not fit to deal with the difficulties by which in 
these days he is confronted. We said a mere theologian, but the phrase 
is unsuitable. Such an one would not be even a theologian. Theology 
is the science of sciences : it is the science of Him who is the Source, 
the Unity, the End of the universe, of whom and through whom and to 
whom are all things. There is no study that will not contribute to the 
education of the minister, for there is no knowledge which is not, directly 
or indirectly, the knowledge of God. 

Now, such width and variety of learning can, as a rule, be got only at 
the university. The seminary has its uses : it will concentrate the intel- 
lectual and moral energies upon those special studies which concern the 
work of the minister ; and it is hardly denied that in the Anglican 
Church this part of the preparation of the clergy was too much 
neglected. But such instruction and training as are gained at the 
seminary will be chiefly valuable when there is beneath them and before 
them a good general, liberal education. As a rule, this is got at the 
university; and, as a rule, the university man has a breadth of view, a 
completeness of knowledge and discipline which can hardly be expected 
or found in those who have not enjoyed similar privileges. So much for 
the mere equipment of the teacher. 

But this is not all. As a public speaker the university man will have 
a great advantage from his wider knowledge of literature, from his greater 
familiarity with languages, ancient and modern, from the discipline which 



248 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

he has received in the use of his own language. It is said that in this 
'last respect there is still much to be done by our universities; and, 
indeed, there is not much done in the way of teaching English directly 
and formally in the English universities ; yet who can doubt the influ- 
ence of an English university education on the speech of its members? 
If the universities here and elsewhere do less than they might do, the 
seminaries certainly do less than the universities. 

And in one other respect we must hold that the university education 
is of advantage to the Christian minister, as one who has to mix in the 
world and have intercourse with his fellowmen. For, indeed, this must 
always make no small portion of the minister's work. He is not merely 
a student and a teacher. He must be seen elsewhere than in the pulpit, 
the study, or even the sick room. He has to be, in an important sense 
of the word, a man of the world, able to understand his fellowmen as one 
of themselves, able to hold converse with them on equal terms, unless he 
would forfeit much of his lawful influence. And for all such work an.d 
life his university training will be invaluable. 

Much more might be said than has been conveyed by these hurried 
lines ; but at least a beginning has here been made in the discussion of 
a subject of high and increasing importance ; and the writer will 
rejoice if it should be taken up by other and abler hands. 



UNIVERSITY YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

THE committee of ladies appointed to provide means for the re-fur- 
nishing of the Young Men's Christian Association Building, report 
that considerable success has attended their efforts. Total receipts from 
subscriptions and the concert given by the student members of the 
Association and others amount, in all, to two hundred and forty-three 
dollars and fifty cents ($243 50). 

The committee, on behalf of the Association, are much indebted to 
those who kindly gave their assistance in making the concert a success, 
and also to those who have so generously contributed, once more, to the 
support of the Association. 

The following is the list of subscribers with amounts contributed : 
Robert Parker, Esq., $5.00 ; W. H. Howitt, Esq., M.D., $5.00; Mrs. T. 
M. Harris, $10.00; The Hon. S. H. Blake, $10.00; A. H. Campbell, Esq., 
$5.00; C. S. Czowski, Esq., $15.00; Stapleton Caldecott, Esq., $1.00 ; 
Mrs. Sheraton, $1.00 ; Dr. T. Millman, $2.00; E. H. Eakins, $1.00; The 
Hon. Mr. Justice Moss, $5.00 ; Herbert Mason, Esq., $5.00 ; John 
Hoskin, Esq., LL.D., $10.00; Robert Kilgour, Esq., $5.00; The Rev. 
Elmore Harris, $10.00 ; Mrs. Loudon, $1.00 ; Mrs. Edward Blake, $2.00; 
Mrs. Wrong, $1.00 ; Mrs. Knox, $1.00 ; Wm. Wilson, .Esq., $5.00 ; Mrs. 
Caven, $2.00 ; Hamilton Cassels, Esq., $1.00; Dr. Milligan, $1.00; Mrs. 



UNIVERSITY Y. M. C.A. 249 

Strathy, $5.00; Mrs. McCurdy, $1.00 ; Dr. Bruce, $5.00; Miss Snively, 
$1.00; Miss Cruikshank, $1.00 ; Joseph Henderson, Esq., $5.00; Dr. 
McDonagh, $5.00 ; John Gowans, Esq., $5.00 ; Dr. W. H. B. Aikins, 
$5.00; Thomas Kinnear, Esq., $5.00; Dr. F. N. G. Starr, $5.00; Dr. 
McPhedran, $5.00 ; Dr. Reeve, $5.00 ; Mrs. and Miss Beaty, $2.00; Mrs. 
William Christie, $2.00; Mrs. J. Neil, $1.00 ; William Mortimer Clark, 
Esq., $10.00; Mrs. Ramsay Wright, $1.00; B. E. Walker, Esq., $10.00; 
Proceeds of concert, $60.50 ; Total, $243.50. 

JEAN MCPHEDRAN, 

Secretary of Committee. 



250 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



TORONTONENSIA. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
MONTHLY. 

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS FOR PUBLICATION TO 
THK SECRETARY, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 

Published monthly, October June. 
Subscription $1.00 a year. 

EDITORIAL BOARD. 

I. H. CAMERON, M.B., Chairman. 
J. C. MCLENNAN, Ph.D., Secretary. 

J. FLETCHER, M.A., LL.D.; A. R. BAIN, 
M.A.,LL.D.; J. A. COOPER, B.A., LL.B.; 
L. E. EMBREE, M.A.; THOMAS MULVEY, 
BA.; J. M. CLARK, M.A., LL.B., K.C.; 
S. J. ROBERTSON, B.A., Managing Editor. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI AS- 
SOCIATION: LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 
DIRECTORY. 

GENERAL ASSOCIATION. President, DR. R. 
A. REEVE, Toronto. Secretary, J. C. MC- 
LENNAN, Ph.D., Dean's House, University 
of Toronto. 

BARRIE. President, DONALD Ross, B.A. 
Secretary- Treasurer, A. F. HUNTER, M.A. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. President, REV. R. 
WHITTINGTON, M.A., B.Sc., Vancouver, B.C. 
Secretary. Treasurer, ALFRED HALL, B.A., 
LL.B., B.C.L., Vancouver. 

ELGIN COUNTY, Ovi-t.President, D. Mc- 
LARTY, St. Thomas. Secretary, S. SILCOX, 
B.A., B.Psed., St. Thomas. 

GREY AND BRUCE. President, A. G. MC- 
KAY, B. A., Owen Sound, Ont. Secretary 
W. D. FERRIS, M.D., Shallow Lake, Ont. 

HASTINGS COUNTY. President, LT.-COL. 
W. N. PONTON, M.A. Secretary, J. T 
LUTON, B.A. 

i JHURON COUNTY. President, WM. GUNN, 
M.D., Clinton, Ont. Secretary. Treasurer 
CHAS. G ARROW, B.A., Goderich, Ont. 

LENNOX AND ADDINGTON COUNTIES. 

President, H. M. DEROCHE, B.A. Secretary. 
Treasurer, U. J. FLACK, M.A. 

LINCOLN COUNTY. President, JOHN HEN- 
DERSON, B.A. Secretary- Treasurer, G. B. 
BURSON, B.A. 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY. President, TALBOT 
MACBETH, B.A..K.C. Secretary-Treasurer, 
F. E. PERRIN, B.A. 



OTTAWA. President, E. R. CAMERON, M.A. 
Secretary-Treasurer, H. A. HARPER, M.A. 

PERTH COUNTY, ONT. President, C. J. 
MCGREGOR, M. A., Stratford, Ont. Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, C. A. MAYBERRY, B.A., 
LL.B., Stratford, Ont. 

PETERBOROUGH COUNTY. President, E. B. 
EDWARDS, B.A. Secretary -Treasurer, D. 
WALKER, B.A. 

PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY. President, M. 
CURRIE, B.A. , M.B. Secretary-Treasurer, 
A. W. HENDRICK, B.A. 

VICTORIA COUNTY. President, J. C. Har- 
stone, B.A. , Lindsay, Ont. Secretary-Treas- 
urer, Miss E. G. Flavelle, B. A. , Lindsay, Ont. 

WATERLOO COUNTY. President, His 
HONOUR JUDGE CHISHOLM, Berlin, Ont. 
Secretary -Treasurer, REV. W. A. BRADLEY, 
B.A., Berlin, Ont. 

WELLINGTON COUNTY, ONT. President, 
WM. TYTLER, B.A., Guelph, Ont. Secretary- 
Treasurer, R. L. McKiNNON, B.A. LL.B., 
Guelph, Ont. 

WENTWORTH COUNTY GRADUATES ASSOCI- 
ATION. President, J. CHISHOLM, B.A., Ham- 
ilton, Ont. Secretary - Treasurer, J. T. 
CRAWFORD, B.A., Hamilton, Ont. 



NEWS FROM THE CLASSES. 

The personal news is compiled from information 
furnished by the Secretary of the University of Toronto 
Alumni Association, and by the Secretaries of local 
organizations, and from other reliable sources. The 
value of this department might be greatly enhanced 
if University of Toronto men everywhere would con- 
tribute to it. The correction of any errors will be 
gratefully received by the Secretary of the Alumni 
Association. 

1845. 

We are indebted to Mr. Wm. Wedd, 
M.A., for much of the following informa- 
tion : 

D. W. Beadle (B.A., Yale, '44), B.A., ad 
. eundem, '45, attended Professor W. H. 
Blake's Law Lectures, '45, '46 ; LL.B., Har- 
vard, '47 ; called to New York Bar, 1848 ; 
returned to Canada, 1854, taking up the 
nursery business of his father, whose health 
had failed. He never resumed law. Resi- 
dence, 307 Givens Street, Toronto. N. 

Bethune, B.A., '45, '46, having passed his 
examinations, went to the Mother Country to 
supplement his studies, where he took the 
following degrees : M.D., Edin.; F.R.S.A., 
Edin.; F.R.C.S.E., Lond. He held a di- 



TORONTONENSIA 



25 1 



ploma for four years' study at Guy's Hos- 
pital, London. After serving some time as 
surgeon in the French army, he returned 
to Toronto and practised his profession 

here for several years (Ob.) C. K. 

Boulton accidentally killed while an under- 
graduate. H. J. Boulton, B.A., '45, 

B.C.L., '47, practised law in Toronto ; 
possessed a farm in which he took great in- 
terest, introducing sub-soil drainage and 
other modern improvements ; had also erected 
the stone mill (Boulton's mill) at the foot of 

Bay St. (Ob.) -J. A. Cathcart (Ob. ) 

G. Crookshank, B.A., '45, B.C.L., '47, M.A., 
'48, D. C.L., '52, practised law in Toronto 

{Ob.) W. G. Draper, B.A., '45, M.A., 

'50, practised law, Judge at Kingston ( Ob. ) 

E. Grasett, B.A., '45, M.A., '48, Rev. 

Elliott Grasett, M.A., Rector of Simcoef Ob .) 

J. T. Hagerman, B.A., '45, studied 

medicine, travelled (Ob.) J. Helliwell, 

B.A., '45, M.A., '50, practised law in To- 
ronto, and was solicitor to the Bank of 

Toronto (Ob.) W. D. P. Jarvis, lawyer, 

practised at Guelph (Ob. ) E. C. Jones, 

B. A. , '45, practised law in Toronto (Ob.) 
I. Lewis (B.A., Yale, '44), B.A., ad 
vundfm, '45. B.C.L., '47, M.A. , '48, is a 
barrister at Goderich, where he is also 
Crown Attorney and Clerk of the Peace, 

County of Huron. S. Lightburne (B.A., 

Dublin.), B. A., ad eundem, '45, M.A., '45. 

W. M. Lyons became a medical man in 

England (Ob.) J. J. Macaulay was a 

barrister and solicitor in Toronto ( Ob. ) 

S. S. Macdonell, B.A., '45, B.C.L., '47, 
M. A., '49, LL.D., '58, practised law at 
Windsor, being also Master-in-Chancery 

there. T. A. McLean, B.A., '45, M.A, 

'50, was a lawyer, and Registrar of Deeds at 

Calgary, N.VV.T. (Ob.) A. Maule, while 

yet an undergraduate, receiv 4 a commis- 
sion in the British Army ; Captain Arthur 

Maule killed at the battle of the Alma. 

R. O'Hara, lawyer and Master-in-Chancery, 

Chatham (Ob.) J. Patton, B.C.L., '47, 

LL.D., '58, lawyer ; Hon. James Patton, 
Solicitor-General and also a member of the 

Senate of Canada (Ob.) J. Koaf, B.A., 

'45, B.C.L., '47, M.A., '48, practised law in 

Toronto and became a Q.C. (Ob.) A. 

Sharpe branched off into Medicine ; Dr. 
Alfred Sharpe, Medical Staff, Woolwich, 
Eng. J. T. Small, after spending the re- 
quisite time in Arts, branched off into the 
Faculty of Medicine, and having completed 
his studies and passed his examinations - in 
'45, went to the Mother Country, took the 
degree of M.B. at St. Andrew's University 
and M. R.C.S. in London ; was for several 
years at Guy's Hospital ; also studied in 
Pans ; was (with the exception of his return 
for a short time) absent in the United King- 



dom and on the Continent altogether for 
about seven years. Having finally come 
back to Toronto he practised here for many 

years ( Ob. ) L. W. Smith, at the end of 

the second year in Arts, passed over to the 
Faculty of Law and took the degrees B.C.L. , 
'47, D.C.L., '52 ; is a practising barrister in 
Toronto, also a K.C. ; is president of the Con- 
sumers' Gas Company. J. Stan ton, B.A. , 

'45, practised law and was County Attorney 

at St. Thomas, County of Elgin (Ob.) 

W. Stennett, B.A., '45, M.A., '48, Third 
Classical Master, 1846, Second Classical 
Master, 1849, and Principal of Upper Canada 
College, 1857-1861 ; Rev. Canon Stennett, 

M.A., Rector of Cobourg (Ob.) J. E. 

Thomson, B. A., '45, at first studied and 
practised law, afterwards appointed Univer- 
sity Librarian (Ob.) VV. Wedd, B A., '45, 

M.A., '48, Third, Second, First Classical 
Master of Upper Canada College, 1849-1891. 

1862. 

Deceased. I. M. Buchan, B.A. H. F. 

H. Gibbon, B.A., LL B. C. C. Hagar, 

B.A. R. T. Livingston, B.A. C. Mc- 

Fayden, B.A. S Woods, M.A. 

G. Cooper, B. A., is a Baptist clergyman 

in Richmond, Virginia. W. G. Crawford, 

B.A., is a teacher in Toronto. James 

Fisher is a barrister in Winnipeg, Man. 
J. M. Gibson, M. A., is a Presbyterian clergy- 
man in London, England. James Loudon, 

M. A . , LL. D. , is president of the University of 

Toronto, Toronto. 1. A. McLellan, M.A., 

LL.D., is principal of the Ontario Normal 

College, Hamilton. W. Me Williams, 

M.A., LL.B. , is principal of the Bible Train- 
ing School, Toronto. R. A. Reeve, B.A., 

M.D., is Dean of the University of Toronto 

Medical Faculty W. M. Roger, M.A., is 

a Presbyterian clergyman in Peterborough, 

Ont. H. I. Strang, B.A., is principal of 

the Collegiate Institute at Goderich, Ont. 

W. Tytler, B.A., is school inspector in 

Guelph, Ont. R. Wardrope, B.A., is a 

barrister in Toronto. A. L. Willson, 

M.A., is living in Toronto. 



1872. 

Deceased. John Gibson, B.A. J. 

Magee, B.A. D. A. O'Sullivan, B.A.- 

J. L. Stuart, B.A. 



J. 



Hon. S. C. Biggs, B.A. , is a barrister in 

Toronto. J. D. Christie B.A , is a teacher 

in Simcoe, Ont. J. Crerar, B.A. , is a bar- 
rister in Melita, Man. W. J. Ferguson, 

B.A., is a barrister in Wiarton. J. 

Fletcher, B.A., is a Professor in University 
College. W. Forrest, B.A., is a physician 



252 



UNIVERSTIY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



in Toronto. Canon A. C. Hill, B.A., is aii 

Anglican clergyman in St. Thomas, Ont. 

William Houston, B.A., is a teacher in 

Toronto. Albert Clements Killam, B.A., 

is Chief Justice of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

John Millar, B. A., is Deputy Minister of 

Education for Ontario. S. J. McKee, 

B.A. , is in Brandon, Man. 1). A. Mc- 

Michael, B.A., is in Toronto. W. W. 

Rutherford, B. A., is a teacher in Aylmer. 

Ont. H. J. Scott, B. A. , is a barrister in 

Toronto. Dugald Stewart, B.A. , is in 

Teeswater, Ont. W. M. Sutherland, B.A. , 

is a proofreader, living in Toronto. E. 

Traver, B.A. , is a barrister in Strathroy, 

Ont. J. White, B.A. , is a physician in 

Hamilton, Ont. W. Williams, B.A., is a 

teacher in Collingwood, Ont. 

1877. 

H. W. Aikins, B.A., is a physician at 264 

Church St., Toronto. A. B. Baird, B.A., 

is a professor in Manitoba College, Winni- 
peg. W. R. Black, B.A., is a barrister at 

Carman, Man. E. B. Brown, B.A., is a 

barrister living at 99 Wellesley St., To- 
ronto. J. E. Bryant, B.A., is in Phila- 
delphia. P. S. Campbell, B.A., is a pro- 
fessor in McMaster University, Toronto. 

D. P. Clapp, B. A., is a school inspector 

living in Harriston, Ont. J. R. Craigie, 

B.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman, Han- 
over, Ont. 0. G. Dobbs, B.A. , is an 

Anglican clergyman, Brock ville, Oat. 

S. H. Eastman, B.A., is a Presbyterian 

clergyman, Meaford. R. Fairbairn, B.A., 

is a Presbyterian clergyman, Dungannon. 

W. A. Graham, B.A., is an Anglican 

clergyman, St. Thomas, Ont. Elmore 

Harris, B.A., is a Baptist clergyman, living 

at 17 Walmer Road, Toronto. J. C. 

Har stone, B.A., is principal of the Collegi- 
ate Institute, Lindsay. J. Houston, B.A. , 

is principal of the Collegiate Institute, 
Clinton. W. A. Hunter, B.A., is a Pres- 
byterian clergyman, Denver, Col. Adam 

Johnston, B.A. , is a barrister in Morrisburg, 
Ont. J. R. Johnston, B.A., is a Presby- 
terian clergyman, Preston, Ont. W. DeG. 

Johnston, B.A., lives at Cornwall, Ont. 

R. W. Kennedy, B.A., lives at Kings ville, 

Ont. J. R. Kerby, B.A., is an inmate of 

the Asylum for Insane, Toronto. J. 0. 

McGregor, B. A., is a teacher in Vienna, Ont. 

G. McLaurin, B.A., is a barrister iu 

Ottawa, Ont. W. B. Northrup, B.A., 

is a barrister in Belleville, Ont. T. O. 

Page, B.A., is in Guelph, Ont. W. N. 

Ponton, B.A., is a barrister in Belleville, 

Ont. J. Ryerson, B.A., is in Orillia, Ont. 

G. H. Smith, B.A., is a barrister at 9 

Toronto St., Toronto. S. J. Taylor, B.A., 



is Secretary French Evangelization Society, 

Montreal, Que. J. C. Tibb, B.A., is a, 

Presbyterian cle'gyman at Eglinton. J. 

E. Wetherell, B.A., is principal of the Col- 
legiate Institute in Strathroy, Ont. N. 

Wolverton, B.A., is in Brandon, Man. 

1882. 

Deceased. Wm. F. W. Creelman, B.A. 

O. L. Schmidt, B.A. F. A. Vines, 

B.A. 

A. F. Ames, B.A. , is a teacher in River- 
side, 111. J. Baird, B.A., is a barrister, 

living at 109 Gloucester street, Toronto. 

A. Blair, B.A , is a Presbyterian clergyman 

at Nassagaweya, Ont. W. H. Blake, B. A. ,. 

is a barrister in Toronto. C. R. Boulton, 

B. A. , is a barrister in Toronto. C. G. 

Campbell, B.A., is an editor living at 122 

Yorkville Avenue, Toronto. J. Caven 

B.A., is a physician in Toronto. J. M. 

Clark, B.A. , is a barrister in Toronto. 
L. C. Corbett, B.A., is a teacher in Sarnia, 

Ont. G. R. Cruickshank, B.A., is a 

physician in Windsor. K. P. Davis, B. A., 

is a barrister in Vancouver, B.C. W. A. 

Duncan. B.A., is a clergyman in Sault Ste. 
Marie, Ont. H. L. Dunn, B.A., is a bar- 
rister in Toronto. W. Elliot, B.A., is a 

teacher in Mitchell, Ont. W. T. Evans, 

B.A., is a barrister in Hamilton. D. 

Faskin, B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. 

Wm. 0. Galloway, B.A., is statistician to 
the Department of Agriculture, Toronto. 
E. G. Graham, B.A., is a barrister in Bramp- 

ton, Ont. J. Gray, B.A., is a teacher in 

Kincardine, Ont. W. J. Greig, B.A., is a 

physician in Toronto. J. F. Grierson, 

B.A., is a barrister in Oshawa, Ont. E. F. 

Gnnther, B. A., is a barrister in Toronto. 

R. Haddow, B. A., is a Presbyterian clergyman 

and journalist in Toronto. J. Hamilton, 

B.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman in 

Goderich. J. A. Jaffray, B.A., is a 

Presbyterian clergyman in MacLeod, Alta. 

D. B. Kerr, B.A., is a journalist in 

Toronto. G. G. S. Lindsey, B.A., is 

a barrister in Toronto. W. J. Logic, 

B.A., is a physicifon in Paris, Ont. 

S. Love, B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. 

C. A. May berry, B.A., is a teacher 

in Stratford, Ont. H. W. Mickle, B.A., 

is a barrister in Toronto. J. W. Mus- 
tard, B.A., is a physician in Cleveland, 

0. C. J. McCabe, B.A., is a barrister in 

Toronto. A. R. McDonald, 13. A., is a 

Baptist clergyman in Hespeler, Ont. G. 

S. Macdonald, B.A.,isabarrister in Montreal. 

A H. McDougall, B.A., is a teacher in 

Ottawa, Ont. D. McGillivray, B.A., is a 

Presbyterian missionary in Honan, China. 



TORONTONENSIA 



253 



J. McGillivray, B.A., is a professor in 

Queen's University, Kingston, Ont. A. 

MacMiirchy, B.A , is a barrister in Toronto. 

W. L. H. Rowand, B. A. , is a Presbyterian 

clergyman in Fort William, Ont. A. Y. 

Scott, B.A., is a physician in Toronto. 

W. T. Simpson, B.A., is a physician in Nap- 

anee, Ont. G. A. Smith, B.A., is a teacher 

in Toronto. J. C. Smith, B.A. , is a clergy- 
man in Indianapolis, Ind., U. S. A. F. 

Teefy, B.A. , is a barrister in Chicago. 

T. Trotter, B.A., is a clergyman in Wolfville, 

N.S. F. C. Wade, B.A., is commissioner 

in the Yukon Territory. A. H. Watson, 

B A. , is a teacher in Madoc, Ont. D. J. 

G. Wishart, B.A., is a physician in Toronto. 

H. Wissler, B. A., is a barrister in Elora, 

Ont. H. J. Wright, B. A., is a barrister 

in Toronto. L. J. Clarke, B.A., is in 

Calgary, N.W.T. J. C. Elliot, B.A. S is 

in Port Eobinson. C. T. Glass, B.A., is 

inMelita, Man. A. H. Gross, B.A. T. 

P. Hall, B.A., 605 E. 8th street, Kansas 
City, Mis. T. Hepburn, B.A., is in Pres- 
ton, Ont. R. Moir,B.A. R.McKnight, 

B A., is in Dunville, Ont. S. E. Robert- 
son, B.A. J. Smith, B.A.,is in Chicago. 

1887. 

A. Abbott, B.A. , is a lawyer in Trenton, 

Ont. H. A. Aikins, B.A. , is a professor 

in Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 
Ohio. A. J. Armstrong, B. A., is a bar- 
rister in Cobourg. E. Bayly, B.A., is a 

barrister, 103 Bay St., Toronto. - H. 
Bonis, B.A., is a teacher in Leamit) & ^on, 

Ont. J. C. Burrows, B.A., is in Katrine, 

Ont. A. Burwash, B. A., is at 184 Aque- 
duct St., Montreal. A. Campbell, B.A., 

is a teacher in Sarnia, Ont. H. Carpenter, 

B. A., is a barrister, 36 James St. south, Ham- 
ilton. R. J. Chrystal, B.A., is a physician 

in Avonton, Ont. J. Crawford, B. A., is a 

Presbyterian clergyman in Niagara Falls, Ont. 
J. T. Crawford, B.A., is a teacher in 
Hamilton. A. Crozier, B.A., is a bar- 
rister in Sutton, Ont. J. D. Dickson, 

B.A., is principal of the Collegiate Institute 

in Niagara Falls. J. Drummond, B.A., 

is a Presbyterian clergyman in Bridgton, 

Pa. J. A. Duff, B.A., is an instructor, 

School of Practical Science, Toronto. 

L. P. Duff, B.A., is a barrister in Victoria, 

B.C. J. Elliott, B.A., is a Presbyterian 

clergyman in Nairn, Ont. T. E. Elliott, 

B.A., is living in Weston, Ont. J. A. 

Ferguson, K. A., is a barrister, Temple Build- 
ing, Toronto. U. J. Flack, B.A., is a 

teacher in Napanee, Ont. C. Fraser, 

B.A. , is a barrister in Winnipeg, Ont. 

J. A. Freeman, B.A., is a teacher in 

Waterdown. J. A. Garvin, B.A., is a 

reporter, 16 Wilton Crescent, Toronto. 



A. H. Gibbard, B.A., is a journalist in 

Whitby, Ont. J. R. Hamilton, B.A., is 

a teacher in Brantford, Ont. H. Mel. 

Hamilton, B.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman 

in Brantford, Ont. E. J. Harris, B A., is 

in Salford, Ont. L. S. Hughson, B. A., is 

a Baptist clergyman in Lindsay, Ont. J. 

G. Hume, B. A., is a professor in the Univer- 
sity of Toronto. W. H. Hunter, B.A., 

is a barrister, Temple Building, Toronto. 

J. I. Jackson, B.A., is town treasurer, To- 
ronto Junction, Ont. R. L. Johnston, 

B A. , is a barrister, living at 423 Ontario St. , 
Toronto. A. J. Keeler, B.A., is a bar- 
rister, 9^ Adelaide St. East, Toronto. M. 

V. Kelly, B.A., is a Roman Catholic clergy- 
man, 50 -St. Joseph St., Toronto. T. 

Logie, B. A., is a professor, Williamstown, 

Mass. F. Matheson, B. A., is at Armow, 

Ont. W. L. Miller, B. A., is a professor 

in the University of Toronto. A. E. 

Mitchell, B. A. , is a Presbyterian clergyman at 
Ottawa, Ont. J. Munro, B.A., is at Port- 
age La Prairie. R. A. MacArthur, B.A., 

is a physician in Chicago, 111. W. Mc- 

Brady, B.A,, is a barrister in Port Arthur, 

Ont. E. B. McGhee, B.A., is at Bellona, 

N. Y. R. B. MacKay, B.A. , is in Toronto. 

J. N. McKendrick, B. A., is in Gait, Ont. 

P. W. H. McKeown,B. A., is a physician, 

80 McCaul St., Toronto. J. N. McLaren, 

B. A., is a Baptist clergyman at Blenheim. 

P. J. McLaren, B A. , is a Baptist clergyman 

at Strabane. J. S. MacLean, B. A., is a 

journalist in Montreal. J. A. McMillan, 

B.A. , is a physician, 446 Cass Ave., Detroit. 

T. Nattress, B.A., is a Presbyterian 

clergyman in Amherstburg, Ont. W. B. 

Nesbitt, B.A., is a physician, 71 Grosvenor 

St., Toronto. W. H. Nesbitt, B.A., is 

living in Brighton, Ont. J. H. Philp, 

B.A., is living in Forest, Ont. T. H. 

Rogers, B.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman 

in Toronto. W. F. Robinson, B.A. , is in 

Denver, Col. T. R. Rosebrugh, B.A., is 

a professor, School of Practical Science, 

Toronto R. Ross, B.A., is a teacher in 

Pembroke, Ont. N. H. Russell, B.A., is a 

Presbyterian clergyman in Mhow, India. 

F. Sanderson, B. A., is an actuary in 

Hamilton, Ont. J. McP. Scott, B. A., is a 

Presbyterian clergyman, 8 Simpson Avenue, 

Toronto. E. 0. Sliter, B.A., is a teacher 

in Kingston, Ont. A. G. Smith, B.A., ia 

in Victoria, B.C. Miss N. Spence, B. A., 

is a teacher in Jameson Avenue Collegiate 

Institute, Toronto. J. Stafford. B.A., is 

in Chicago, 111.. A. W. Stratton, B.A., 

is in India. J. C. Stuart, B.A., is in 

Windsor, Ont. T. M. Talbot, B.A., is a 

Methodist clergyman in Carberry, Man. 

J. A. Taylor, J>.A., is a barrister in Souris, 

Man. A. H. Young, B A., is a professor 

in Trinity University, Toronto. 



254 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



ADDRESSES UNKNOWN : GRADUATES 
IN MEDICINE. 

Part of the work which the Alumni Asso- 
ciation has undertaken is the compilation of 
a catalogue of the graduates of the Univers- 
ity of Toronto and its maintenance in as 
correct a form. as possible. It was found 
that a very great number of our graduates 
had dropped ont of sight no response came 
from their addresses as found in the Regis- 
trar's books, and, as far as their A Ima Mater 
was concerned, they were tinknown. A very 
large number of these addresses have been 
already corrected by correspondence through 
the kindness of graduates who have sent us 
information. Many names are still lacking 
addresses, however, and we request our 
readers to aid in completing the catalogue 
by sending in at once addresses for any of 
the following names : 

1880. 



Frank Bentley, M. B. - 
M. D. Judson Ellis, 



J. I. Clendenning, 

, M.B. J. Gal- 

braith, M.D. O. J. Gordon, M.D. J. 

E. Graham, M.D. 

1881. 

A. Campbell, M.D. A. Chapman, M.D. 

Thomas Chisholm, M.D. John Mai- 
ton Collon, M.D. G. H. Hahen.M.D. 

Edward Ambrose Nealon, M.D. Malcolm 

Alex. Nicholson, M. D. Edward Robillard, 

M.D. William H. Street, M.D. James 

Benson White, M.D. George Wilcock, 

M.D. 

1882. 

Ralph Burton, M.D. James Campbell, 

M.D. J. T. Carroll, M.D. Thomas 

McKetchie Milroy, M.B. William G. 

Stuart McDonald, M.D. Charles James 

Wilson, M. D. 

1883. 

J. S. Draper, M.D. Wm. Kennedy, 

M.D. Elgin Laws, M.D. 

1884. 

Alexander Broadfoot, M.D. James W. 

Campbell, M.D. George A. Cherry, M.D. 

A. C. Smith, M.D. George S. Wat- 
tarn, M.D. 

1885. 

L. L. Hooper, M.D. C. E. Lawrence, 

M.D. John Morty, M.D. Hector Mc- 

Gillivray, M.D. Mark Richard Saunders, 

M.B. 

1886. 

G. McDiarmid, M.I). T. J. McDonald, 

M.D. 



Jerrold Campbell, M.D Charles Fred- 
erick Durand, M.B. Angus Kennedy, 

M.D. Peter J. Rice, M.D. George 

Stewart, M.D. G. S. Stockton, M.D. 

Henry Westlake, M.D. 

1888. 

W. R. S. George, M.D. P. W. Thom- 
son, M.D. J. Tyrell, M.D. 



Stuart Bates, M.D. Fred. Cunningham, 

M.D. John B. Guthrie, M.D. Charles 

D. Lockyer, M.D. Robert McDonald, 

M.D. Wm. A. McPherson, M.D. 

Frederick Preiss, M.D. Thomas N. Rog- 
ers, M.D. Jos. S. Tweddle, M.D. 

1890. 

A. C. Aylesworth, M.B. H. H. Gray, 

M.D. J. Lockridge, M.D. Charles 

Emeric Vidal, M.B. A. J. Watt, M.D. 

1891. 

D. B. Alexander, M.D. Dewitt C. 

Jones, M.D. A. J. L. McKenzie, M.D. 

Michael Sweeney, M.D. 



W. C.Beit, M.D.,C.M. E.G. Bingham, 

M.D., C.M. A. M. Cleghorn, M.D., C.M. 

Arthur Flath, M.D., C.M. F. N. 

Henry, M.D., C.M. John McFadgen, 

M.D., C.M. J. J. Roach, M.D., C.M. 

F. C. Trompour, M.D., C.M. 

1893- 
Joseph Murray, M.D., C.M. 

1895. 
Henry Paine, M.B. 

PERSONALS. 

Every alumnus of the University of Toronto is in- 
vited to send to the Editor items of interest for 
insertion in this department. News of a personal 
nature about any alumnus will be gladly received. 

H. J. O'Higgins, of the class of '98, is a 
journalist in .New York. 

Miss May Sinclair, B.A., '97, is teaching 
at Erin, Ont. 

J. C. Milligan, B.A., '96, is a barrister in 
Cornwall, Ont. 

Miss E. M. Henry, B.A., '98, is teaching 
at Lanark, Ont. 



TORONTONENSIA 



255 



F. K. Johnston, B.A., '96, is practising 
law in New York. 

J. Nelson Hutchison, M.B., '95, is a 
physician in Winnipeg. 

W. C. Middleton, B. A. , '71, is ranching at 
Crescent Lake, N.W.T. 

C. P. Megan, B.A., '95, is teaching in the 
public schools in Chicago. 

Miss E. Nora Dennis, B.A., '99, is teach- 
ing in Samokin, Pa., U.S.A. 

J. G. Little, B.A., '84, has given up teach- 
ing on account of his health. 

A. E. MacFarlane, B.A., '98, is engaged 
in journalistic work in New York. 

Miss R. E. C. Mason, B. A., '95, is principal 
of the Wellsville High School, Ohio. 

Miss Nellie Lamont, B.A., '98, is teaching 
in the public schools of Flushing, N.Y. 

Miss Mary Johnston, B.A., '93, M.A., '97, 
is teaching in the Harlem High School, New 
York. 

Arthur J. Stringer is now living in New 
York, and is writing for some of the leading 
journals. 

G. A. Scott, B.A., '96, is a teacher in 
Ward-Whates' Private School for Boys in 
Montreal. 

W. S. Milner, M.A., Lecturer in Latin in 
University College, will spend the summer 
in Europe. 

G. 0. Duprau, B.A., '96, is attending lec- 
tures at the Royal College of Dental Sur- 
geons, Toronto. 

Miss Alice K. Healy, B.A., '98, has been 
appointed teacher in the public school, 
Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Miss K. L. Mullins, B.A., '98, is teaching 
Italian and French in the Harlem High 
School, New York. 

Miss Helen Johnston, B.A., '98, is at pres- 
ent teacher of French in the Peekskill Ladies' 
College, Peekskill, N.Y. 

Miss E. E. Scott, B.A., '97, who has been 
visiting for some time in Toronto, has 
returned to Brampton, Ont. 

Miss Bertha Rosenstadt, B.A., '98, M.A., 
'99, who spent last year in Havana, Cuba, is 
now teaching in New York. 



Miss J. M. Pearce, B.A., '98, has been 
vice-principal of the Caldwell High School, 
Caldwell, N.J., for the past year. 

J. E. Bryant, B.A., '77, M.A., '78, is 
librarian in the Book Lovers' Library, 1323 
Walnut street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Miss Dottie Cowan, of the class of '98, is 
at present taking a course in the Christian 
Mission Training School, New York. 

R. W. Husband, B.A., '95 (Leland Stan- 
ford), ad eundem, Toronto, '96, is instructor 
in Greek at Dartmouth College, N. H. 

J. W. Preston, B.A., '96, was called to 
the Colorado bar last year, and is an 
attorney-at-law in Denver, Col., U.S. 

ProfessorvanderSmissen has sailed for Eu- 
rope with his family, and will spend the 
next eighteen months in study and travel. 

Miss J. M. Johnston, B.A., '99, recently 
severed her connection with a Pennsylvania 
ladies' school, and is now teaching in New 
York. 

F. T. Congdon, B.A., '79, formerly of Hali- 
fax, N.S., has been appointed to succeed F. 
C. Wade, B.A., '82, as Commissioner to the 
Yukon Territory. 

F. D. McEntee, B.A., 'oo, formerly editor 
of " College Topics," has been for some time 
manager of the Walter Whitesides Theatrical 
Company, New York. 

George B. Wiltsie, B.A., '82, who has 
lived in the State of Ohio since graduation, 
is now pastor of the Monroe Street Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, Toledo, Ohio. 

J. C. McLennan, B. A., '92, Ph.D., Demon- 
strator in Physics, University of Toronto, 
has gone to Cambridge, England, to resume 
his investigations with Professor J. J. 
Thomson. 

J. A. Robinson, M.B., '90, died about 
four years ago from tuberculosis contracted 
in Vienna, where he was pursuing post 
graduate studies in Pathology and Derma- 
tology. 

Miss F. M. Webb, B.A., '98, recently 
resigned her position in Miss Bennett's 
Ladies' Boarding School, Irvington-on-the- 
Hudson, to take a more lucrative post in 
New York. 

R. J. Bonner, B.A., '90, Professor of Latin 
in the John B. Stetson University, DeLand, 
Fla., U.S., writes of the MONTHLY: "It 
deserves the support of every Toronto man 
wherever he may be." 



256 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



Rev. F. E. Malott, B.A., '99, -pastor of 
the Guilds, Onfc., Methodist Church, has 
been awarded the Sanford gold medal in the 
examination for the degree of B.D. just 
held by Victoria College. 

E. Andrewes, S.P.S., '97, has been ap- 
pointed resident engineer in charge of the 
Moen Ofleren Slate Quarry Co., of 63 Queen 
Victoria street, London, Eng., whose quar- 
ries are at Blanau Festiniog, Merionethshire, 
North Wales. 

The engagement is announced of Miss G. 
B. Wright, Pinckney street, Beacon Hill, 
Boston, to H. W. Miller, M.B., '95, path- 
ologist at the T.auton, Mass., State Hospital, 
and formerly of the McLean Hospital, 
Waverley, Mass. 

H. G. Tyrrell, C.E., '86, Mem. Can. Soc. 
C.E., who is practising as a consulting 
engineer at 178 Devonshire St., Boston, 
Mass., has designed many well-known bridges 
in the United States. 

From the list of those who waited upon 
the Government to press the claims of the 
University last month the names of T. Otway 
Page, ornithologist, and Professor Zavitz, of 
the Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, 
were accidentally omitted. 

Jno. McKay, B.A., '99, who went to 
Glasgow on graduation and entered United 
Free Church College to study theology, has 
just graduated at the head of his class and 
has gone on the invitation of Professor Geo. 
Adam Smith for a two months' tour in 
Palestine. 

A. R. Robinson, M.B., '69, L.R.C.P. and 
S. (Edin.), is the author of a Manual of 
Dermatology, published by the Appletons. 
Dr. Robinson is professor of Dermatology at 
the New York Poly clinic, and of Histology 
and Pathological Anatomy and Dermatology 
at the Woman's Medical College of the New 
York Infirmary, and is a corresponding mem- 
ber of the Socie^ Fran9aise de Dermatologie 
et de Syphiligraphie. 



On April i3th Dr. J. C. Fields brought to 
a close his course of lectures in the Univer- 
sity of Toronto on ' ' The Quadrature of the 
Circle," a phrase which, however, very 
imperfectly describes the purpose and scope 
of the lectures. The learned doctor's object 
was to show the transcendency of those 
constants that occur so frequently in analysis 
and geometry e, the base of the Napierian 
system of logarithms, and v, the ratio of 
the circumference to the diameter of a circle. 
In the opening lectures he dealt with the 
subject historically. Then followed a demon- 
stration that these quantities were irrational 
i. e. , that they consisted of endless decimals. 
The closing lectures were occupied with 
proving that the quantities in question could 
not be the roots of any ordinary algebraic 
equation. Altogether the lectures were a 
brilliant performance in the higher mathe- 
matical analysis, and such as could have 
come only from a mathematician of the 
highest attainments. It is confidently ex- 
pected that Dr. Fields' researches and 
discoveries in the theory of algebraic func- 
tions will, from their profound orginality 
and great value, be epoch-making in a cer- 
tain field of mathematics, and shed lustre on 
his Alma Mater. . 

MARRIAGES. 

At the residence of the Rev. E. B. Ryck- 
man, D.D., Brockville, April loth, by the 
bride's father, Professor Win. Dale, B.A., 
'71, of McMaster University, to Florence 
Frederika Ryckman, B.A. (Queen's). 

John McEwen Murray, B.A., '92, has 
been married to Miss Jean Adair, of the 
class of 'oo. 



Henry Langford, B.A., '88, Crown Attor- 
ney, Rat Portage, Ont., died there April 
1 5th, and was buried in Toronto. He was 
a brother of Professor A. L. Langford, of 
Victoria College, and of Rev. E. Langford, 
B.D., Gravenhurst, Ont. 



THE PUBLISHERS' SYNDICATE, LIMITED, PRINTERS 



THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

VOL. I. MAY, 1901. No. 9. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE PAGE 

Editorial, - 257 Year Scholarships. By Fred. F. 

Popular Government. By W. D. Manley, M.A. 

Lesueur, LL. D. .... 257 The June Convocation. By S. J. 

A Univers'ity Training as a Preparation Robertson, B.A. 

for the Legal Profession. By Profes- " The Alumna? Association of University 

sor Lefroy 263 College. By Miss E. M. Lawson, B.A. 278 

The University Act, 1901. By John A. Torontonensia - - - 279 

Paterson, M.A. - - - - 268 



EDITORIAL. 

FIVE thousand members of the Alumni Association receive THE 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY each month. Only a small 
proportion of these have paid their fees to the Association. On March 
ist a deficit of one thousand dollars was estimated on the year's publica- 
tion of the monthly. Since that date 161 fees have been received. If 
you have not already done so, kindly send one dollar to the Secretary at 
once. 

THE PROBLEM OF POPULAR GOVERNMENT.* 

BY W. D. LESUEUR, LL.D. 
( Concluded. ) 

T is a somewhat singular thing that the framers of the Constitution of 
the United States do not seem to have any prevision of the difficulty 
there would be in getting the people as a whole to act in political 
matters. The explanation may, perhaps, be found in the fact that they 
had been accustomed chiefly to town meetings, in which, the subjects 
discussed being of local interest, decisions were easily arrived at. The 
Constitution, however, had not been long in operation before there was 
found to be a missing link a device for getting the people interested 
and bringing them to the polls. It was to meet this need that the 
machine may be said to have been invented. As an impelling and con- 
trolling force it has since been brought to great pe ction ; and yet it 
cannot be said that the machine itself has either a cle^r insight into large 

* A lecture delivered in the Chemical Building, University of Toronto, February 23rd, 
1901. 



I 



258 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

political questions or any great interest in them. It does not, in fact, 
look upon great questions with favour. Its saws are not adapted to cut 
such lumber. It does not argue the question of the tariff, or of grants 
to higher education, or of Imperial federation, nor yet of prohibition ; it 
approaches the elector with personal solicitation, and with arguments 
addressed more or less directly to his self-interest. The highest note it 
ever strikes is local interest : it sometimes reaches that. It does not make 
the issues that are presented to the country. These are hammered out 
in the press and, to a much less extent, in Parliament ; but it gives many 
a shrewd hint to the party leaders as to what questions should not be 
allowed to grow into issues. The instinct of the party politician is to 
fight shy of all large questions ; he always sees in them more of danger 
than of safety, more chances of loss than of gain. 

We strike here an ugly feature of the party system. Why do practical 
politicians shrink so much from dealing with large questions ? Simply 
because they know that unfair means will be tried to embarrass them in 
carrying such measures through. To bring forward some large measure 
of legislation is to deploy in the open before an entrenched enemy. The 
theoretical justification of a parliamentary Opposition is that the acts 
and measures of every Government require criticism. True, but criticism 
does not imply deliberate misconstruction and misrepresentation. What 
should we think of a literary critic who, sitting down to the examination 
of a book, professedly allowed himself to be dominated by a desire to 
create as much odium as possible in the mind of the public against the 
writer ? And yet we all know that this is precisely the line an Oppo- 
sition in Parliament and in the press usually takes in regard to the 
measures of the Government of the day. The thing is done by each side 
in turn, so that it is difficult for either side to feel any very genuine 
indignation when their own methods are retorted on them. What a 
common thing it is to see this or that casual and really harmless remark 
of some public man converted by party malice into a studied insult to 
some sect or class in the community ! What a ready recourse there is 
to charges of want of patriotism ! What sad use has been made in more 
than one emergency of the appeal to national and religious prejudice! 

It is impossible to associate much with politicians without being struck 
by their extraordinary and, as it seems to me, morbid sensitiveness to 
what they call public opinion. What they are really afraid of is less 
public opinion than public silliness. If the public only knew how little 
common sense they are credited with by the very men who, on the 
hustings, load them with every kind of flattery, they would feel far from 
complimented. The common idea among politicians is that the people 
can be stampeded by a word, a phrase, some unguarded expression or 
trifling act which in any way touches, or might be so misinterpreted and 
twisted as to appear to touch, a popular prejudice. It is, of course, taken 
for granted, and rightly as things go, that opponents will do their utmost 
to make mischief out of the word, phrase or act ; but where is that con- 
fidence in the superior judgment and sterling common sense of the 



THE PROBLEM OF POPULAR GOVERNMENT 259 

masses of the people of which we hear so much on certain occasions? 
Can the voters be at once so wise as we are told, and also so strongly 
resemble a herd of buffaloes with their snouts in the air ready for a whirl- 
wind dash at the faintest scent of danger? I do not readily reconcile 
the two conceptions. 

There was a politician once, a true man of the people, who did not 
believe in the buffalo herd theory. That man was Abraham Lincoln. 
Of him James Russell Lowell, in his celebrated essay, has said : " This 
was a true Democrat, who grounded himself on the assumption that a 
democracy can think. ' Come, let us reason together about this matter,' 
has been the tone of all his addresses to the people. . . . He put 
himself on a level with those he addressed, not by going down to them, 
but only by taking for granted that they had brains, and would come up 
to a common ground of reason. And accordingly," adds Mr. Lowell, 
speaking for the people of the United States, " we have never had a chief 
magistrate who so won to himself the love, and at the same time the 
judgment, of his countrymen. To us that .simple confidence of his in the 
right-mindedness of his fellowmen is very touching, and its success is as 
strong an argument as we have ever seen in favour of the theory that 
men can govern themselves." 

Time flies ; it is thirty-six or thirty-seven years since that essay was 
written, and a change may have passed over the spirit of democracy ; it 
may be that there is a "facilis descensus" for self-governing as well as 
for autocratically-governed communities ; but, for my own part, I should 
be inclined still to have faith in Lincoln's method. One, however, who 
would walk in Lincoln's footsteps needs to have Lincoln's simplicity, 
sincerity and strong human sympathy. Of him it may be said that he 
was a true shepherd of his people, and that the people knew his voice. 

What are the voices that people ordinarily hear in the political con- 
troversies and discussions of our time ? Broadly speaking, are not all 
the voices merely repetitions of one voice the voice of Codlin strenu- 
ously warning us that he is the friend, not Short ? In Codlin we must 
put our trust if all our interests are not to be wrecked. It is at our own 
risk if we have any dealings with Short. The great trouble with Codlin 
is that he is not disinterested. If he is in power he wants to stay there ; 
if he is out of power he wants to get there. I do not say, and I am far 
from thinking, that there is no disinterestedness amongst public men ; 
but I do say that parties as parties are not disinterested. Their primary 
object is power, not the good of the country. To get power they will 
do many things that are not for the good of the people ; to retain power 
likewise. In saying this one merely repeats the unceasing criticisms of 
the parties on one another. But is it really possible, one may ask, for a 
party either to gain or retain power by acts that are not for the good of 
the people ? It is not necessary for my present purpose to maintain that 
it is possible ; it is enough to say that political parties think it possible 
sometimes, and act accordingly. But as I am not here to flatter any 
one, but simply to offer my humble contribution to the discussion of a 



260 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

great subject, I will venture to go farther, and say that parties may climb 
into power on false issues, and may retain it for a time by specious but 
really hurtful legislation. This is but another way of saying that the 
people may at times be imposed upon. But, as Abraham Lincoln 
remarked, they cannot be imposed upon " all the time." 

It would really be a great thing if some one from a position of advan- 
tage could talk plainly to people about the actual facts of current 
politics. It is not ornate phrases that are wanted, but honest grappling 
with realities. The question should be put fairly and squarely to the 
people : How far they think it is right for any man to have pecuniary 
motives of a personal kind for supporting this or that candidate or party. 
Bribery by means of five dollar notes is punishable by law ; but what 
moral difference is there between bribery of this kind and bribery by the 
promise of petty offices and the thousand and one advantages which a 
party in power can deal out, and does deal out, to its supporters? It is 
an accepted principle of politics that constituencies returning Govern- 
ment supporters shall be more favoured than those returning membeis 
of the Opposition. " If I had a son," I once heard a member of Parlia- 
ment say, " that cheeked me, do you think I should feel like doing any- 
thing for him ? I rather think not. Well, neither should a Government 
do anything for constituencies that go against it." This was several 
years ago ; but much more recently a bright young man, a political 
worker in one of the newer parts of the country, remarked to me that a 
new constituency should always side with the Government of the day, as 
otherwise its growing interests would be in danger of being overlooked. 
Is it not time that some one should say to the people of Canada : "Come, 
let us reason about this matter. Is the suffrage in this country free or is 
it not ? What do you understand by a free suffrage ? You mean, do 
you not, that every citizen is at perfect liberty to vote according to his 
views and convictions of public duty ? But can a man be said to be at 
perfect liberty to vote in that way if certain very material disadvantages 
attach to his exercising the suffrage in opposition to the Government of 
the day 1 You know, of course," such a speaker would add, " that no 
man who has voted against a Government candidate has the remotest 
chance of any public employment unless he recants his political opinions, 
and promises to reverse his vote on the next occasion. Is this freedom ? 
If so, what would you understand by restraint ? You have heard of 
" pulls," have you not ? The way to get a " pull " is to " swing " votes 
that is the up-to-date expression. The more votes you can swing, the 
stronger your pull. By means of a pull a man can exert a deflecting 
influence on Government action. A Government left to itself will gen- 
erally want to do the right thing. The head of a public department 
gets interested in his work, and devises many things for the public good. 
But what does the man with the pull care about the public good ? What 
are laws and regulations, or the rights of individuals, or the efficiency of 
the public service to him ? Such ideas are foreign to all his ways of 
thinking. All he knows is that he did his work, and that he wants his 



26l 

reward. You complain sometimes that the public service is not what it 
ought to be ; but under such a system how can it be what it ought to 
be ? Yet it is your service ; it is your money that goes to maintain it ; 
and in whose interest should it be run but in yours ? Why should any man 
have it in his power to cause that to be done which is not in your 
interest ? 

An earnest appeal to the public on these lines could hardly fail of 
producing some good effect. There are other points of view which might 
be taken. Surely it is somewhat undemocratic that in each locality there 
should be a boss who more or less commands the avenues of approach 
to a Government that is supposed to exist for all. Why should one man 
be more readily listened to than another upon a matter of public business? 
Do we not all pay taxes alike ? Why should one man have to go and 
put himself under obligation to another, whom the business in hand does 
not in the least concern, and with whom he may, perhaps, strongly object 
to come into contact ? It is for the people to remedy this evil. It is for 
the people to seize the idea that the present system deprives them of a 
free suffrage, and that it tends to corrupt the suffrage by giving men 
all kinds of mercenary motives for supporting one party rather than 
another. In the jargon of party politics those who vote against the 
party to which we belong are spoken of as " our enemies." Why " our 
enemies ? " Is it not a hateful thought that we must make an enemy of a 
man who differs from us on some question of public policy, or in his appre- 
ciation of certain public men ? Under the present system a Government 
is supposed to be greatly beholden to its supporters. The understanding 
is, " Put us in office, or keep us in office, and we will show you special 
favour. We want office and you want favours ; let us do business on 
that basis." Well, the basis is not a good one, and it says something 
for human nature and inspires a certain amount of confidence in the 
larger currents of influence that make for good in the general economy 
of things, that, upon such a basis, government should be as well carried 
on as it is. 

The fact is that there is a higher public opinion abroad in the country 
with which politicians have to reckon ; and it is this higher opinion 
which forms the strongest support of the public man who desires to do 
his duty to the whole country. The machine even feels its force at 
times, as we see by some of the men it brings forward. A " strong " 
man is wanted to contest a certain constituency, and the strength of the 
strong man sometimes not unfrequently lies in the fact that he is a 
good man a man with a reputation for honesty and fair dealing, for 
kindliness of nature and public spirit. The sense of public duty grows 
rapidly upon such men ; and, when they come into contact with the 
administrative system of the country, they perceive the iniquity of trying 
to twist it out of shape in order to serve their own private purposes. 
They recognize that "business is business" in a sense far different from 
that in which the phrase has sometimes been used. If patronage is 
forced upon them and in a certain position a man cannot escape it 



262 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

they exercise it with moderation, and, as far as possible, with an eye to 
the public good. But as to patronage in general, they sympathize with 
the feeling Sir Robert Peel had on the subject when, in a letter to 
Cobden, he spoke about " the odious power of patronage." Men of this 
character are not those whom the machine likes best to deal with. 
There are meannesses to which they will not stoop; there are vengeances 
they will not perpetrate ; there are enmities they will not recognize. 
When men of superior character are forced, as they sometimes are, out 
of public life, it is this that breaks their spirit, the everlasting cropping 
up in their correspondence of paltry suggestions and impossible, if not 
iniquitous, demands. 

The lesson I draw from these facts is that more trust should be reposed 
in the people, and that the people should put more trust in themselves. 
A recent writer has spoken of a certain course of education as tending 
to " substitute for those warm, wholesome sympathies which are the 
safest guides in understanding our fellows and regulating our conduct 
towards them, a cold, critical demeanour of superiority." I trust that 
such an education is not imparted by any institution of learning in this 
country. There is something, however, even worse than the '' cold, 
critical demeanour of superiority," and that is a cold, calculating inten- 
tion to exploit our fellow-men for our own personal advantage. This is 
a feeling which, I fear, is not unknown among the rising generation of 
to-day. It is a very serious question at every epoch : What are the 
young men thinking of ? Or to put it more precisely: What are their 
plans for the future and with what eyes do they look on the world in 
which they are shortly to play their part ? Is each resolving to play 
solely for his own hand, or are some of them wondering how they can 
best serve their fellow-men ? Surely in a civilization the religion of 
which is founded on the idea of self-sacrifice, there should not be wanting 
some volunteers for the cause of public righteousness. If any word of 
mine could influence those who are entering on life and who may look 
forward to a public career, I would say : Let disinterested and high- 
minded regard for the progress and honour of the country which has 
nourished you be the basis of all your action. Refuse to believe those 
who tell you that guile and finesse are the chief resources of the states- 
man, for nothing can be less true ; they are the resources of the man 
who is too weak, too deficient in courage and in large views of public 
policy, to be a statesman in the best sense. Over three hundred years 
ago the greatest of English poets summed up the political wisdom which 
he imagined to have come to the mighty Wolsey from his long conver- 
sance with affairs, and also from his later misfortunes, in these memorable 
lines : 

" Love thyself last, cherish those hearts that hate thee ; 
Corruption wins not more than honesty. 
Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace 
To silence envious tongues. Be just and fear not. 
Let all the ends thou aim'st at be thy country's, 
Thy God's and truth's." 



UNIVERSITY TRAINING FOR LEGAL PROFESSION 263 

It requires courage, it requires faith, it requires enthusiasm, to lay out 
one's life on this plan ; but are these qualities dead in this Canada of ours ? 
The times call loudly for men who will apply themselves to politics with 
the high purpose, not of leading a party to victory, and sharing in the 
spoils of party triumph, but of raising the public life of the country to a 
higher plane, and quickening throughout the land the sense of public 
duty. An excellent writer, the late Sir Henry Taylor, has said that 
a statesman should have such a disposition that " he may sun out all the 
good in men's natures." Here is a much better clue to the true nature of 
statesmanship than any that a cynical philosophy can afford. There 
is also a saying of Burke's that I greatly admire : " We have no other 
materials to work with than those out of which God has been pleased to 
form the inhabitants of this island." This means that we should not 
wait for millennium to take our stand on the side of justice and truth in 
national affairs, but, accepting the world as it is, we should do it now. If 
we wait for the millennium, we shall wait till our valuable assistance is no 
longer required. But if we fear that circumstances may now and again 
be too strong for us, let us consider this saying of a great writer whom I 
have already quoted, James Russell Lowell : " It is loyalty to great ends, 
even though forced to combine the small and opposing motives of selfish 
men in order to accomplish them, that we demand in public men." It 
seems to me that in these three sayings we have the outlines of a whole 
scheme of statesmanship. There is no nobler ambition than political 
ambition if, high above every personal aim, is kept the thought of public 
service. All cannot hope to occupy a central place in the political arena, 
but there is useful work to be done by every one who believes in his 
heart that the public life of the nation should be based on equity and 
truth, and upon whom the conviction has been forced that every taint of 
interested motive in the support of a candidate or a party contains 
the promise and potency of full-blown political corruption. To act 
steadily upon these views in the humblest private sphere is to render the 
state most honourable service. 



A UNIVERSITY TRAINING AS A PREPARATION FOR 
THE LEGAL PROFESSION. 

BY PROFESSOR LEFROY. 

TO ask whether a university training is desirable as a preparation for 
the legal profession would, in the broadest aspect of the question, 
be tantamount to asking whether it is desirable for a lawyer to be a 
well-educated man. The answer may seem too obvious to need expres- 
sion ; and yet, if a high education, even in the very theory of the law 
itself, is to advance a lawyer in his profession, his mental acquirements 
will need to be balanced by certain other qualities. If his education 



264 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

leads him to exclaim over his law reports and his briefs with Thackeray 
in " Pendennis," " What a loss of labour and of love ! " or if it makes 
him feel as Bentham did, who writes, " On my being called to the bar 
I found a case or two at nurse for me. My first thought was to put 
them to death, and the endeavours were not, I believe, altogether without 
success," then a university training will not advance a lawyer's prospects 
of practical success. It may be said no doubt with some degree of truth 
that the law is the most intellectual of professions, but it must not be for- 
gotten that it is also one which calls for a great sacrifice of the intellect. 
It is largely true that a man who aspires to become a really great lawyer 
must scorn the delights of literature, philosophy, history and science, as 
well as those of a more material kind, and live laborious days cultivating 
that kind of mental taste which impelled Baron Parke to take a "beau- 
tiful demurrer" to the sick bed of a legal friend, because it was so 
exquisitely drawn that he felt sure it must cheer the patient to read it, 
and which induced Chief Justice Dallas, as Mr. Justice Patteson used to 
relate, to propose to him that they should employ a rainy day in a 
country house reading a little law together, and to suggest for choice 
Sergeant Williams' " Note on Executory Devises." 

Moreover, we may never hope to see the day when a man's mental 
equipment is likely to prove the first and most essential element of his 
success in the profession. Some, indeed, might go so far as to say that 
among conditions precedent to great success business interest is first in 
importance, and the rest nowhere. At all events, in law as in many 
other things, the half is greater than the whole, and the question whether 
a man has friends in high business places, who can and will send business 
his way when he enters upon the profession, is and must be of para- 
mount importance. Success, moreover, like ambition, grows by what it 
feeds on, and the experience that one favoured in this respect may 
acquire, is worth as much, if not more, than any book learning can be 
to the practitioner. As has been well said, the best way to learn how 
to do a thing in law is to go and do it. But it is clients alone who give 
the opportunity of learning one's profession in this effective way. 

Then, again, what university training can give a man that broad 
humanity and genial humour, that mental balance and common sense 
which go to make a great counsel. " Clear-headed common sense," 
wrote Lord Russell, of Killowen, in a paper contributed by him to a 
London magazine on the " Bar as a Profession," is the quality which 
most commands success at the bar. I place this far above grace of 
imagination, humour, subtlety, even commanding power of expression, 
although these have their due value." Where can we find a professor for 
a faculty of common sense? 

The above are rather gifts which lie on the knees of the gods than in 
the bestowal of any university ; but, putting them all out of considera- 
tion, the question I wish to consider here is the value, from the point 
of view of the practical lawyer, of that treatment of law on its theoretical 
side which in these days forms a part of the curriculum of most 
universities. 



UNIVERSITY TRAINING FOR LEGAL PROFESSION 265 

Greville records Lord Melbourne's reply to the observations that "the 
Austins were not fools." "Austin? Oh! a damned fool. Did you ever 
read his book on Jurisprudence ? " " Jurisprudence is a word which stinks 
in the nostrils of the practical lawyer," is the way Professor Dicey pre- 
faces an able defence of the study in the " Law Magazine," words (thanks 
largely to Professor Holland) perhaps a shade, but only a shade, less true 
in 1901 than they were in 1880, when they were written. The practical 
man is now, and I imagine always will be, at variance with the theoretical 
and academical man. 

Perhaps the explanation is not far to seek. The qualities which 
go to make the practical man differ for the most part from those which 
go to make the contemplative man and the student, and are not often 
found combined in an equally high degree in one and the same indi- 
vidual ; and your practical man is apt to have scant respect for qualities 
which he not only does not possess himself, but which he often sees 
militate against, and but rarely sees directly conduce to, that material 
success in life which to him is the one goal for a sensible man to strive 
for. Now, a lawyer, to be successful, must be pre-eminently a practical 
man, and the only question is whether those studies of law on its more 
theoretical and scientific side to which a university training may have 
introduced him are likely to conduce to his attaining a yet higher degree 
of success in his profession than he otherwise would have done. In my 
opinion it is as clear as the sun at noonday that they must and will do 
do so. From the moment he commences his career those studies will 
heighten the interest of his work, and so lessen its burden. From the 
first day they will give him a better grasp on every text-book and on 
every case he reads. But it is in my view chiefly after he has already 
attained the higher walks of the profession that they may be relied upon 
to contribute materially to the degree of practical success which he can 
accomplish. They may not suffice to make a man a successful lawyer, 
but they will make a great lawyer greater. 

I am not, of course, here referring to the general educational value of 
what I may call academical law in its various branches. Yet, at the risk 
of incurring the accusation of proclaiming that " there's nothing like 
leather," I cannot refrain from expressing my belief that this is in fact 
far greater than is even now generally realized. This is not the place, as 
I understand my subject, to enlarge upon Edmund Burke's words, that 
the science of law " does more to quicken and invigorate the under- 
standing than all the other kinds of learning put together " ; or to advance 
the educational claims of that law of Rome, of which it has been truly said 
that, with the exception of the Bible, there is no book which has so 
profoundly affected western civilization as the "Corpus Juris." The day 
will yet come, in my belief, when we shall have the elements of law 
taught not only in universities, but in schools, and not only in boys' 
schools but in girls' schools ; and, indeed, in one or two of the great 
public schools of England elementary law is already one of the subjects 
on the regular curriculum. The Romans knew what they were about 



266 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

when, as Cicero tells us, they made their schoolboys learn by heart the 
Twelve Tables of the Law. The educational value also of international 
and constitutional law, generally taught at universities, from their close 
connection with history and the higher politics, and the breadth of view 
which they necessarily encourage, is quite obvious. I must not, how- 
ever, enlarge on these considerations, nor yet on the tendency of such 
studies to give a lawyer a high view of his profession. My subject, as I 
understand it, is a narrower one, namely, what is the value of the study 
under consideration as part of the equipment of a lawyer from an entirely 
practical and professional point of view, although it may not be possible 
always to entirely separate the two aspects of the matter. 

Now, ceteris paribus, that man will be the best lawyer who has the 
most accurate logical faculty and the greatest power of drawing subtle 
mental distinctions, and I do not think it can be denied that no better 
training for accurate and precise thinking can be found than analytical 
jurisprudence, which, moreover, is the more interesting to the student in 
that it is not so abstract as to be altogether divorced from the practical 
affairs of life. J. S. Mill is assuredly no bad witness on such a point as 
this, and he wrote in the Edinburgh Review, of the writings of Austin, 
that " as a training school for the higher class of intellect there is not 
extant any other book which can do for the thinker exactly what this 
does"; and that "as a mere organon for certain faculties of the intellect, 
a practical logic for some of the higher departments of thought, these 
volumes have a claim to a place in the education of the statesmen, 
publicists and students of the human mind." 

Again, it is surprising for how many years a practising lawyer may 
read up his cases and argue his briefs, and yet never have a really clear 
understanding of fundamental legal conceptions, such as the precise 
distinction between ownership and legal possession, the constituents of 
legal possession and of a legal contract, or the exact import of the 
English doctrine of consideration ; yet we shall surely grasp and retain 
any subject of study much better if we clearly understand the funda- 
mental rules and conceptions involved in it than if we do not. There is, 
too, I fear, even now much truth in Austin's assertion that " the know- 
ledge of an ordinary practising lawyer is nothing but a beggarly account 
of scraps and fragments. His memory may be stored with numerous 
principles, but of the law as a whole and of the mutual relation of its 
parts he has not a conception." Now, it is the special function of 
analytical and general jurisprudence to analyze and explain fundamental 
legal conceptions, while it also impresses upon the mind of the student 
the ground plan, as it were, of the whole body of the law, and arranges 
its various parts according to their logical connections ; and a lawyer 
who is possessed of what it has to teach him must necessarily have the 
same sort of advantage in respect to understanding and retaining what- 
ever he may learn in the course of his professional research, and in 
ability readily to reproduce it at need, as the head of a department or 
business, who has his papers docketed and arranged in proper receptacles 



UNIVERSITY TRAINING FOR LEGAL PROFESSION 267 

according to a well-conceived plan, will have over one who is unmethodi- 
cal and haphazard in these, respects. 

Again, as to Comparative Jurisprudence. Just as it is scarcely 
possible for a man to have an exact comprehension of the structure and 
grammar of his own language if he knows no other language but his 
own, so also a knowledge of the primary conceptions, principles and 
terminology of other systems of law cannot fail to give a lawyer, by 
force of contrast, a clearer understanding and a more perfect grasp of 
his own system. 

As to the study of legal history, as an eminent English lawyer points 
out in an article in the Law Quarterly Review for October, 1896, the 
future lawyer will by its pursuit lay a broad foundation, which will aid 
him in grappling with the details of his profession, because the historical 
clue will be in his hands ; and the same writer also shows how much of 
the old learning is still indispensable to all who wish to be sound, 
common lawyers, and cites more than one recent case in England in 
which the correct knowledge of the history of ancient doctrines relied 
upon was essential. 

As to the law of Rome, it would be strange, indeed, if its study was 
otherwise than invaluable to lawyers of all time. As Sir Henry Maine 
points out in a famous essay, unlike the law in these days, it had few, if 
any, rivals to contest its claim on the highest intellects. What wonder, 
then, that it reached the perfection which, though the empire fell, caused 
it still to live on, non ratione imperil sed tmperio rationis. Space will not 
permit me here to dwell upon the regularity and symmetry of its forms 
and the matchless consistency of its parts its wealth of leading principles, 
and their logical application to daily life its terminology, so concise 
and telling that it has been called the shorthand of jurisprudence, or the 
style of the classical jurists, simple and clear, brief and nervous, which 
Austin declares bears the same relation to that of Blackstone which a 
Grecian statue bears to a milliner's doll in the finery of the season. 
" Read the Pandects," said Lord Westbury to a young friend of his ; " not 
only read the Pandects absorb them." I might call to witness also 
such mighty men of the law as Sir Matthew Hale and Lord Mansfield. 
I shall be content, however, by again citing Lord Russell, of Killowen, 
a practical success at the bar if ever there was one the B. B. Osier of 
London. He writes in the paper I have already referred to : " One 
special subject in reading for the bar I would name, because in my 
experience I have found it invaluable, and that is a study of the ' Corpus 
Juris,' or the body of the civil law." I had the signal advantage of being 
a student in the days when the late Sir Henry Maine was professor of 
civil law to the Inns of Court ; and under him. as in university class- 
rooms, we read no inconsiderable part of the civil law. After all, a great 
body of our law finds its source in the Roman law ; and in the Corpus 
Juris law is systematized in a way for which our English law has no 
parallel. Its reading gives to the attentive student a knowledge and a 
grasp of principle hardly otherwise attainable, which he will always find 
" useful throughout his life." 



268 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

When a lawyer has a strong case he naturally feels disposed to make 
the most of it. I feel I have had a strong case in the subject of this 
article, however inadequately I may have handled it ; and I also feel 
that I have trespassed already too much upon the pages of the MONTHLY, 
though I have done little more than touch the outer fringe of the matter. 



THE UNIVERSITY ACT, 1901. 

BY JOHN A. PATERSON, M.A. 
Solicitor for the University. 

"Let us consider the reasons of the case. For nothing is law that is not reason."- 
Coggs v. Bernard, 2 Ld. Baym. 911. 

THE University Act of 1901, which came into force upon the I5th day 
of April, presents new and interesting features, some of them 
destructive of certain sacred statutory traditions and many of them 
pointing to a more liberal autonomy to be possessed by this University 
of the people. And yet among the changes the preservation of the use- 
ful and practical stands pre-eminent vested rights that have become 
sacred and imbedded in the very heart's core of the University are con- 
served. As illustrative of this there stands in limine the principle " that 
the University and University College shall have, hold, possess and enjoy 
all the rights, powers and privileges which they respectively now have, 
hold, possess or enjoy." That is a most auspicious opening, and all that 
follows shows that Lord Bacon's maxim has been observed " Well to 
beware that it be the reformation that draweth on the change, and not 
the desire of change that pretendeth the reformation." 

From the very beginning of the existence of the University and Uni- 
versity College, their property and income have been vested in the Crown 
and managed by a Crown officer called the " Bursar," and under the 
aegis of royalty these institutions have enjoyed many valuable privileges, 
and amongst them not the least practical and profitable has been a 
large, useful and reasonable exemption from taxation. Now, however, 
for the first time a change has come over the technical title of the Uni- 
versity and College property, and it is now vested in a Board of Trustees 
" consisting of the Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, the President of the 
" University, the Principal of University College and five persons appointed 
" by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council," the Board being duly incorpor- 
ated and doing business under the name and style of the " Trustees of 
the University of Toronto." This change of title would in itself have 
deprived the University of its pristine immunity from taxation, and so to 
cure this difficulty the Statute, in careful terms, declares that this privi- 
lege, freedom from expropriation, and other immunities, shall apply to 
the Trustee-held property as fully and effectually as in the past it applied 
to the property when held by our Sovereign Lord, the King. 

Some difficulty was met under the old University Act as to the exemp- 
tion from taxation of any part of this property when occupied by a 



THE UNIVERSITY ACT, 1901. 269 

tenant who was a professor and who enjoyed the oqcupation of the prop- 
erty as part of his emolument. In fact, the question under these cir- 
cumstances had been decided against the University in a concrete case 
arising out of the Assessment Act, and now transferred to the Court of 
Appeal at the instance of the University. By the present Act, however, 
that difficulty will in the future be swept away. Property so occupied is 
now saved from the vandalic hand of the assessor, and Legislature has 
with kindly touch smoothed out that wrinkle in the Assessment Act. 
No doubt the reason of the amendment was that under these circum- 
stances Crown lands should be exempt, as the taxes in that case come 
out of the University income, so that what has been done has been done 
according to the spirit of the exemptive principle, and, in the opinion 
of many, according to its letter, as laid down in the present Assess- 
ment Act. 

These Trustees have very extensive powers of administration, such as 
the appointment and removal of the Bursar and his assistants, and of all 
officers and servants of the University and College employed about the 
grounds, the control, management and government of the property, 
endowment, income and revenues, fixing salaries of the President of the 
University, the Principal of the College and the professors and teachers, 
the Librarian, Registrar, Bursar, officers and servants. They are also 
given special and particular powers of investment of endowment and 
permanent funds, of selling and leasing, fixing fees for post-graduate 
instruction and under-graduate instruction, authorizing improvements or 
additions to the buildings, leasing any part of the property to any duly 
incorporated society of under-graduates and investing any portion of the 
endowment or permanent funds in a loan to any such incorporated society 
for the purpose of the erection of any buildings. 

The trustees are also empowered to require from the proper officers 
annual estimates for all University and College purposes. They are also 
empowered to make regulations for the superannuation of the President 
of the University, the Principal of University College, and of any pro- 
fessor or teacher, librarian, registrar, bursar and officer and servant of 
the University or College. The trustees are therefore an " imperium," 
but yet are also an " imperium in imperio," because the Crown keeps its 
august hand over all in many vital particulars. The Crown appoints 
seven out of the nine trustees ; the Lieutenant-Governor of the Province 
is a visitor ; he may declare certain lands to be necessary for the 
accommodation of the University or College, and so free them from the 
trustees' powers ; the Legislative Assembly must ratify any authorization 
by the trustees for improvements or additions to the buildings ; the 
Crown must approve of any superannuation regulations made by the 
trustees, and, indeed, of all by-laws, rules or regulations of the trustees, 
so that they may have force and effect ; if any person endows a chair or 
scholarship, then the Crown must approve of the conditions of such 
endowment. The Crown also appoints the President, Principal and 
Deans of the faculties of Arts, Law, Medicine and Applied Science and 
Engineering, the Librarian, the Registrar, and all Professors and other 



270 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

instructors in the several faculties of the University and University 
College. The Crown also controls any proposed transference of subjects, 
assigned by the Act to the University or University College, from one 
to the other. That is effected by obtaining not only the unanimous 
consent of the Senate, but also such consent must be concurred in by 
the Crown. These are examples of the control exercised by the sov- 
ereign people, embodied in the Crown, over this University and College 
of the people. 

As a fitting climax to all these powers given to the Crown comes the 
section of the Act headed, " Instruction in Science," and there it is set 
forth that " for the purpose of encouraging the study of the mineral and 
" other natural resources of the Province, and for supplying the demand 
" for expert knowledge in engineering and manufactures, the Lieutenant- 
" Governor may from year to year pay out of the consolidated revenue of 
" the Province the salaries of all professors, lecturers and other instructors 
" in the departments of Chemistry, Physics, Mineralogy and Geology, and 
" the cost of maintenance of said departments ; such payments to be based 
" on the annual estimates of the trustees as approved by the Lieutenant- 
" Governor-in-Council, the first payment thereof to apply to the financial 
" year of the University, which closes on the 3Oth of June, 1901." 

The Lieutenant-Governor is also empowered to set apart that portion of 
land on the north side of College street, immediately south of Wycliffe 
College, for the purposes of the University and College, to be used as a 
" site of buildings for the departments of Mineralogy and Geology in 
" connection with the University, and for the extension of the School of 
" Practical Science." So that we notice that while the Government are 
encouraging the study of " mineral and other natural resources " of the 
Province, the graduates and friends of the University have touched those 
auriferous governmental strata which have so long been an interesting 
and curious study from a graduate and undergraduate point of view. 
Someone wrote, " the learned pate ducks to the golden fool." That, 
however, does not apply to this Act, although the heads are learned and 
the Crown golden, yet the wisdom of the Crown has been already shown 
by giving what we may all hope is a first instalment of even better and 
brighter things yet to come. These " natural resources " of the Govern- 
ment will bear closer study by the friends of the University, with a result 
which I am sure will strengthen other departments of the University 
besides those named in the Act. These generous gifts are additional to 
former gifts. The gift to the University of six townships of wild lands 
by the Act of 1897 is preserved, and the gross sale moneys still go to 
the Income Fund, and the annual payment of $7,000 by the Province to 
the University is also continued without any blemish or abatement. 
Before leaving this part of the subject, I must not forget to point out 
that a legislative quietus has been put upon that ancient controversy as 
to the claim of the City of Toronto to the old Upper Canada College 
block, or Russell Square. That dispute dates back to a period whereto 
the memory of some men at least " runneth not to the contrary," it 
may indeed be as old as " Doe on the demise of Roe," of revered memory. 



THE UNIVERSITY ACT, 1901. 271 

But by this Act the title is solemnly vested in the Trustees for Univer- 
sity purposes, and so the pen of legislation is mightier than the sword of 
litigation. Let us therefore with uncovered heads reverently say of that 
restless theory of the Russell Square title that used to go to and fro 
through the columns of the city Press, seeking rest and finding none, 
" requiescat in pace ! " 

The Act contains three main divisions : I. Property and Income. 
II. Federation. III. Academic Management. 

Let us now turn to division II., and for the first time we get a Statu- 
tory Declaration of the names of institutions in federation or affiliation, 
which are as follows : 

FEDERATED. Victoria University, Knox College, Wycliffe College, 
St. Michael's College. 

AFFILIATED. Trinity Medical School, Toronto School of Medicine, 
Albert College, Ontario Agricultural College, Royal College of Dental 
Surgeons, School of Practical Science, Toronto College of Music, 
Women's Medical College, Ontario College of Pharmacy, Toronto Con- 
servatory of Music, Ontario Veterinary College. 

The rest of division II. is made up of sections relating to conditions 
of federation, status of graduates, affiliated Universities and affiliated 
Colleges generally, the powers of Senate to remove from federation or 
affiliation, all of which are re-enactments of the former University Act 
in R. S. O. 1897, ch. 298. 

III. ACADEMIC MANAGEMENT. 

The academic government is continued in principle as formerly, and 
remains with the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, Professors, Senators and 
members of Convocation, with the new addition of the President of the 
University and the Principal of University College, although these latter 
may in most instances be practically included in denomination " profes- 
sors," although not necessarily so. The Crown makes the academic 
appointments as I have before mentioned. There seem to be five new 
officers created by the new Act, namely, the Principal of University 
College and the deans of the faculties of Arts, Law, Medicine and 
Applied Science and Engineering, or, at least, they may be said for the 
first time to have received statutory recognition. 

The non-sectarian character of the University and College is carefully 
preserved, it being provided, as formerly, that no religious test shall be 
required of any professor, lecturer, teacher or student, officer or servant 
of the University or College, nor shall religious observances according to 
the forms of any particular religious denomination bs imposed on them 
or any of them, but, at the same time, it is provided that regulations 
touching the moral conduct of the students and the attendance at public 
worship in their respective churches shall be subject to regulation by the 
Council of the College. 

There is in the present Act a further provision that nothing therein 
contained shall be considered as interfering with the rights of any 
federated University or College to make such provision in regard to 



272 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



religious instruction and worship for its own students as it may deem 
proper, and to require the same as a part of its own College discipline. 

The subjects of instruction in the University are practically unchanged, 
although they appear under changed nomenclature, e.g., Zoology and 
Botany of old are now :< Biology." Psychology is added to our old 
friends, Logic and Metaphysics, and Constitutional History is added to 
Constitutional Law, although it is difficult to understand how one can be 
instructed in Constitutional Law and be void of instruction in Consti- 
tutional History. The only decided change is that Engineering is 
dropped this being now and having been for some time past a separate 
faculty. The faculties of Law and Medicine are continued. University 
College retains its former subjects of instruction and the Theological 
options in the subjects of Biblical Greek, Biblical Literature, Christian 
Ethics, Apologetics, the Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion and 
Church History are left intact. The necessity for enrolment of students 
in University College or affiliated College or federated University is 
continued, and the provisions for attendance for instruction are not 
departed from. 

The constitution of the Senate is carefully provided for. The 
ex-officio members are as follows : The Minister of Education, the 
Chancellor, the President of the University, the Principal of University 
College, the President or other head of each federated University or 
federated College, the Deans of the faculties of Arts, Law, Medicine, 
and Applied Science and Engineering, and all ex-Chancellors or Vice- 
Chancellors of the University. There are important differences in the 
number and distribution of the elected members. So that we may 
understand the new Constitution of the Senate as compared with the old, 
the following schedule is presented : 



APPOINTOR OR ELECTORATE. 


Number of Mem- 
bers appointed or 
elected under 
R.S.0. 1897, ch. 298 


Number of Mem- 
bers appointed or 
elected under the 
Act of 1901. 


University College Council 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

3 

9 

'if 

4 
2 

"2 


1 
1 
1 
2 
1 

3 
o 

4 
2 

12 

5 
1 
2 

/One per cent. 
\of Graduates. 


Law Society of Upper Canada 


Each Federated University . . 


Each Federated College 


Each Affiliated College 




Lieut. -Governor-in-Council 


University Professors and Associates in Arts and Law 
University Professors and Associates in Medicine 


Arts Graduates of University and Federated University. . . . 
Medical Graduates of University and Federated University . 
Law Graduates 


Arts Graduates of University from University College 


Graduates of Victoria in Arts and Science and Art Gradu- 
ates of University from Victoria College 


Graduates in Applied Science and Engineering 


High School Principals and Assistants 


Graduates of future Federating University 





THE UNIVERSITY ACT, 1901. 273 

An examination of the schedule will show thiit there are some changes 
from the old order of things. The University Medical Professors now 
appoint two Senators. They had formerly no such privilege. The 
Crown formerly appointed nine, but now it has lowered its sceptre and 
makes no appointments. So the autonomy of this child of the Province 
is more distinctly recognized. There is less paternalism. The child 
governs itself more fully, and why should it not? 

By a careful computation I find that under the former Act there were 
sixty-one members of the Senate, and by this Act there are sixty-three 
(if all the affiliated Colleges are represented) in addition to ex-Chan- 
cellors and ex-Vice-Chancellors in each case. And, of course, as long 
as the number of federated Universities or Colleges and affiliated Col- 
leges increases, the Senate enlarges automatically. 

It will be remembered that by the former University Act it was pro- 
vided that graduates of any federating University should for six years 
vote separately from the graduates of Toronto University and that at 
the end of the six years they should all then vote in one Convocation. 
This principle was receded from by the University Statute of 1898 in 
the case of Victoria, the only federated University, whereby the period 
of separate voting was extended for six years from the year 1898, and 
it was provided that at the expiry of that further period her graduates 
wete to vote with the graduates of Toronto University as one Con- 
vocation. 

By the Act of 1901, it is provided that the graduates of the University 
of Toronto, enrolled in University College, and the graduates in Arts 
of any federated University, should always vote as separate bodies, 
which effectually bars the theory of that complete fusion that the 
Federation Act in its inception proposed to accomplish. It is a remark- 
able thing that by the Statute graduates in Medicine of the University 
and of any federated University vote as one body, and so there is fusion, 
and a similar rule applies to graduates in Law, but the graduates in 
Arts must keep on either side of the statutory fence. 

The old quorum of five at a meeting of the Senate is now raised to nine. 
The method of election of the Chancellor and Senators is not essentially 
different from the former method. I pause simply to note that for the 
first time it is specially provided that " no voting paper shall be counted 
which has not been furnished by the Registrar." I do not know whether 
this has in the past presented any practical difficulty. 

The powers of the Senate are put in this Act much more concisely, 
but I think just as effectually. In section 36 of the former University 
Act, being Chap. 298, R. S. O. 1897, the powers of examination and 
conferring degrees are put in extenso. They are not so in the present 
Act. It must, however, be remembered that the Act makes its advent 
upon the stage of legislation by declaring that the University and College 
shall have, hold, possess and enjoy all their former rights, powers and 
privileges, and thus is compacted a dynamic power that saves a great 
deal of verbiage in the new Act. It may be noted in passing that in the 



274 UNIVERSTIY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

present Act the power of the Senate to establish and award exhibitions, 
scholarships and prizes is unlimited. By the former Act (Sec. 52) it 
was specially provided that " no such scholarships, prizes or rewards 
shall be paid out of the University funds." There is a peculiar wording 
in section 33 (2) of the present Act. The Senate has there power to 
make Statutes for the affiliation of any institution established in the 
Province " for the promotion of science or art, or for instruction in law, 
medicine, engineering, agriculture, or other useful branch of learning." 
By the former Act, section 53 (i) the Senate had power to affiliate an 
institution " established in the Province for the promotion of literature, 
science or art, or other instruction, etc." Is there any reason why the 
word " literature " was dropped ? 

Convocation is enlarged, and now comprehends not only the graduates 
of the University, but of " all federated Universities." Its powers are 
much the same as formerly. 

The University Council is in its constitution entirely changed. 
Formerly, it consisted of a President and of the Professors of the Uni- 
versity. Now it is composed of the President of the University, the 
Senior Professor in each department of the several faculties of the 
University, the Principal of University College, the Principal of each 
federated University or federated College, and the Librarian of the 
University. Its powers are to deal with discipline, including the imposi- 
tion of reasonable fines, the control of the Associations of Students in 
the University, to decide finally what are University Associations, to 
determine the time tables, lectures and laboratory work of the University 
to grant dispensations, to authorize lecturing and teaching by others 
than the Professors (as they may deem expedient), and to prevent all 
lecturing and teaching not so authorized. The Registrar of the Univer- 
sity shall be Registrar of the Council. Some of its former powers are 
now possessed by the trustees. The President has extensive powers. 
It is his duty to arrange with respect to University examinations where 
no provision has been made by the Senate ; to call, of his own motion, or 
at the request of at least five Professors, meetings of the Professors ; to 
arrange the duties of assistant instructors ; to exercise supervision over 
the buildings, grounds and apparatus ; to exercise general executive 
powers not otherwise provided, and to report annually to the Lieutenant- 
Govern or. 

The constitution of the University College Council is much the same 
as before. Their powers are associated directly with University College, 
and they have full authority over, and entire responsibility for, the 
discipline of the undergraduates in regard to lectures and other instruc- 
tion. The powers of the Principal of University College (who is a 
new officer) are to call meetings of the Professors, from time to time, with 
a view to increasing efficiency of the College work, and to arrange the 
appropriate duties of all assistant instructors, and exercise general 
supervision over the College instruction, and also to exercise proper 
discipline over students, officers and servants. 



THE UNIVERSITY ACT, 1901. 275 

By the closing sections of the Act an opportunity is afforded for the 
federation of Trinity University if the Senate of that University decide 
so to do on or before the 1st of January, 1904, and in such event all the 
sections of the Act relating to the federation of Universities with the 
University shall apply to Trinity University with some special provisions 
therein set forth. It is provided that the Trinity graduates in Law and 
Medicine shall vote with the University graduates in Law and Medicine 
for Senators as one convocation. Also that undergraduates and graduates 
of Trinity shall be allowed to proceed to their degrees within six years 
after federation under Trinity regulations in force when they matricu- 
lated. Also that until new buildings are provided University instructors 
may lecture in Trinity University. It is also provided that a site in or 
near Queen's Park shall be reserved for new buildings for Trinity, to be 
occupied free of ground rent so long as federation remains. The trus- 
tees of the University are empowered to enter into any other special 
provisions with Trinity for effecting federation under the Act, such 
agreement to be assented to by the Senate and approved of by the 
Crown. 

And this is to be effected in a dignified way by a conference between 
the contracting parties, who, it may be fully assumed, may be trusted 
to make a bargain. It is true that, although the Board of Trustees only 
received the breath of life upon the I5th April, 1901, as a corporation 
they are yet sui juris, and, like Minerva, they spring into life fully 
provided with all necessary mental equipment. This latter observation 
is generated by the fact that I notice that by an earlier reading of the 
bill it was provided that any federation contract was to be worked out 
by a sort of Triumvirate, or Board of Arbitrators, but after further 
consideration the Triumvirate was quietly inurned. The French say, 
" Polissez et repolissez," and the Act bears traces of the application of 
that maxim. This federation arrangement is one of the proofs of it, 
and, I may be permitted to say, the same principle could have been 
applied to other parts of the machinery. 

I must not forget to call attention to the clause that the Lieutenant- 
Governor has power by proclamation to change the name from the 
" University of Toronto " to the " University of Ontario," after a Statute 
of the Senate has been passed by three-fourths majority at a meeting 
specially called for the purpose of considering the proposed change. 

The Statute of 1901 has a much better arrangement of headings and 
sections than that of 1897 ; and, although it bears the trace of emenad- 
tion by many hands, and is therefore to some extent of mosaic texture 
and pattern, it yet bears the impress of the methodical and perspicuous 
arrangement of its first draft. It is a very remarkable circumstance that 
the Statute of 1897 contained a most extraordinary error in section II 
(3), which provided for the appointment of Senators by the graduates. 
By it the united representation was increased, and perhaps even doubled, 
as it provided for the election of one per cent, of the graduates " and in 
addition thereto seventeen further members." This was not careful 



276 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

codification, but simply an adding up of the provisions of two different 
Statutes. 

I have thus, at the request of the Editorial Committee of this publica- 
tion, attempted to present but imperfectly to the graduates, under- 
graduates and friends of the University the features of the new University 
Act. As these lines are not intended to be read only by lawyers and 
law students I trust I may be pardoned for having deflected somewhat 
from the highway of dry and technical detail and strayed afield, for the 
alumni are not made up of mere statute-readers and dealers in " afore- 
saids " and " whereases." I shrink from marching, like Sir Galahad the 
blameless Knight when on his Quest, always in a " land of sand and thorn." 
Almost at the lifting of the latch of the gate-way of this twentieth 
century another page in University history has been opened and a fresh 
impetus has been given to its efforts and better things are yet in store 
for us. 

" This mournful truth is everywhere confessed, 
Slow rises Worth by poverty depressed." 

The first point is assured and has always been assured we have the 
worth and if we get our poverty cured, and it is not an incurable 
disease, a great place is open for us in the Pantheon of great Universi- 
ties. I do not mean a Pantheon for worship, but a Pantheon for work 
and for life and for truth. 

" God doth anoint thee with his odorous oil 
To wrestle, not to reign." 

It is the oil of the palaestra we want, not the chrism of a king. It is 
true that large endowments may bring in large opportunities, but as there 
is no royal road to learning neither is there a royal road to an emporium 
of learning. We must have brains first for money to help. We have 
trained brains, enough and to spare, for tribute has been paid to the 
scholarship of our University by the fact that o.ur graduates are sought 
often to fill fellowships, lectureships and professorships in wealthier, but 
no" necessarily richer, Academies. With men as with universities there 
is some virtue in having the bayonet of necessity at the back when in 
front we see a public opinion becoming more and more enlightened, and 
which will be reflected by increased measures of relief in the time not so 
far hence. Let the pen of every alumnus, alumna and under-graduate 
become a clarion to call the nation more truly to our help. Our help is 
the nation's own help, and when the nation is aroused, then the cause of 
knowledge and of that wisdom that is far better than knowledge is 
advanced, and our University will take a prouder place in the " far flung 
battle-line" of great nationalizing and epoch-making forces. 



YEAR SCHOLARSHIPS THE JUNE CONVOCATION 277 

YEAR SCHOLARSHIPS. 

To the Editor University of Toronto Monthly : 

DEAR SIR, A good deal is heard nowadays about financial aid to 
our Alma Mater. Under this heading allow me to make a suggestion. 
Every " year " should organize, choosing the best person available as its 
permanent secretary, who should, if possible, reside in Toronto. The 
members should then proceed to raise funds with which to endow a 
Scholarship in the University. There are many " years " whose members 
could easily raise $1,000. which would provide an annual scholarship of 
$50. These would be known as the " 1875 Scholarship" for instance. 
If more than $1,000 could be raised, the scholarship could be made more 
valuable. These ideas were suggested to me by the lamented death of 
the late A. W. Ross, M.A., upon whose coffin I was deputed to place a 
wreath on behalf of his classmates of 1874. This is another feature that 
would follow from the organization of the " years," and who will say it is 
not a good one ? 

Truly yours, 

FRED. F. MANLEY, '74. 

The Collegiate Institute, Jarvis St., Toronto, 
March 30, 1901. 

THE JUNE CONVOCATION. 

/CONVOCATION DAY has been fixed for Friday, June 7th, and at 
S-* a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Alumni Association 
held on May 4th it was decided to group the various events occurring at 
the time of Convocation on the same day, so as to enable members outside 
of Toronto to attend with the least possible sacrifice of time. It is hoped 
that a large number of the Alumni and Alumnae of the University will 
feel it to be both a duty and a pleasure to attend. Reduced railway 
rates have been secured, and members wishing to avail themselves of this 
reduction, which is good coming to Toronto from the 4th and returning 
till the loth, will buy the regular first-class tickets to Toronto, securing 
at the same time standard railway certificates, upon presentation of which 
return tickets will be issued at one-third regular rates, and if sufficient 
certificates are presented, the return tickets will be issued free. 

The following is the programme : 

Annual meeting of the Alumni Association at 10.30 a.m. in the 
Chemical Building. 

Luncheon in the University Dining Hall, 12.30 to 1.30. 

Convocation at 2 o'clock in the Gymnasium. 

Garden Party given by the Senate to the Alumni and their friends 
at 4 o'clock in the Quadrangle. 

Annual Dinner at 8 o'clock in the Gymnasium. 

The Chancellor, Sir William Meredith, will make an important speech 
on the University question. The Honourable Richard Harcourt and 
Doctor Louis Frechette, C.M.G., will also speak. 

S. J. ROBERTSON, Acting Secretary. 



278 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



THE ALUMNAE ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. 

ON the afternoon and evening of the I2th of April, the Alumnae Asso- 
ciation of University College held its third annual meeting in the 
Students' Union Building. The afternoon session was devoted entirely 
to business. When the minutes of the last annual meeting had been 
read and confirmed, Miss Lavvson, the Historian, read an account of the 
progress of the Association, and of the work accomplished through its 
various committees. The increase of members over last year was 
gratifying ; while the death of one, Miss E. A. Durand, was recorded. 

The report of the Committee on Occupations caused a great deal 
of discussion. Miss Street, convener of this Committee, pointed 
out several difficulties with which she and her colleagues had to contend, 
and asked for advice as to the best means of making the results of their 
research of practical value to the members. She also suggested that 
some sort of bureau might be established, where information could 
readily be given and received. 

Miss Alice Willson, Treasurer, reported a balance after the payment of 
current expenses and of the English Prose Prize, offered by the Associ- 
ation to the second year. 

Miss L. Hamilton reported for the Women's Residence Committee 
that during the last twelve months the general fund had been increased 
by $842.25. Some discussion arose as to the best means of raising 
money next year. 

The annual elections resulted as follows : President. Miss E. Curzon, '89; 
Vice- President, Miss Julia Hillock, '92 ; 2nd Vice- President, Miss Laura 
Jones, '91 ; Treasurer, Miss Grace Hunter, '98 ; Recording Secretary, 
Miss H. Charles,'88; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Grant-MacDonald, '98 ; 
Historian, Miss E. M. Lawson, '94. 

The evening session took the form of a social gathering. A couple 
of papers were- read. The first, by Miss Fleming, dealing with " Domestic 
Science," interested all. 

After refreshments had been served, Miss E. Curzon gave a sketch of 
the " Origin and Growth of College Settlements." The meeting then 
adjourned till next Easter. 

Miss E. M. LAWSON, 

Historian A. A. U. C. 



TORONTONENSIA 



279 



TORONTONENSIA. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
MONTHLY. 



ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS FOR PUBLICATION TO 
THE SECRETARY, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 

Published monthly, October June. 
Subscription 91.00 a year. 

EDITORIAL BOARD. 

I. H. CAMERON, M.B., Chairman. 
J. C. McLENNAN, Ph.D., Secretary. 

.T. FLETCHER, M.A., LL.D.; A. R. BAIN, 
M.A., LL.D.; J. A. COOPER, B.A., LL.B.; 
L. E. EMBREE, M.A. ; THOMAS MULVEY, 
BA.; J. M. CLARK, M.A., LL.B., K.C.; 
S. J. ROBERTSON, B.A., Managing Editor. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI AS- 
SOCIATION : LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 

DIRECTORY. 

GENERAL ASSOCIATION. President, DR. R. 
A. REEVE, Toronto. Secretary, J. C. MC- 
LENNAN, Ph.D., Dean's House, University 
of Toronto. 

BARRIE. President, DONALD Ross, B.A. 
Secretary- Treasurer, A. F. HUNTER, M.A. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. President, REV. R. 
WHITTINGTON, M.A., B.Sc., Vancouver, B.C. 
Secretary- Treasurer, ALFRED HALL, B.A., 
LL.B., B.C.L., Vancouver. 

ELGIN COUNTY, ONT. President, D. Mc- 
LARTY, M.D., St. Thomas. Secretary, S. SIL- 
cox, B.A., B.Psed., St. Thomas. 

GREY AND BRUCE. President, A. G. MC- 
KAY, B. A., Owen Sound, Ont. Secretary, 
W. D. FERRIS, M.B., Shallow Lake, Ont. 

HASTINGS COUNTY. President, LT. -CoL. 
W. N. PONTON, M. A., Belleville. Secretary, 
J. T. LUTON, B.A., Belleville. 

HURON COUNTY. President, WM. GUNN, 
M D. , Clinton, Ont. Secretary- Treasurer, 
CHAS. G ARROW, B.A., Goderich, Ont. 

LENNOX AND ADDINGTON COUNTIES. 
President, H. M. DEROCHE, B.A., K.C., 
Napanee. Secretary -Treasurer, U. J. FLACK, 
M.A. , Napanee. 

LINCOLN COUNTY. President, JOHN HEN- 
DERSON, B.A., St. Catherines. Secretary- 
Treasurer, G. B. BURSON, B.A., St. Cather- 
ines. 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY. President, TALBOT 
MACBETH, B.A., K.C., London. Secretary- 
Treasurer, F. E. PERRIN, B.A., London. 



OTTAWA. President, E. R. CAMERON, 
M.A., Ottawa. Secretary-Treasurer, H. A. 
HARPER, M.A.. Ottawa. 

PERTH COUNTY, ONT. President, C. J. 
MCGREGOR, M. A., Stratford, Ont. Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, C. A. MAYBERRY, B.A., 
LL.B., Stratford, Ont. 

PETERBOROUGH COUNTY. President, E. B. 
EDWARDS, B.A. , LL.B., K.C., Peterborough. 
Secretary-Treasurer, D. WALKER, B.A., 
Peterborough. 

PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY. President, M. 
CURRIE, B.A., M.B., Picton. Secretary- 
Treasurer, A. W. HKNDRICK, B.A., Picton. 

VICTORIA COUNTY. President, J. C. Har- 
stone, B.A. . Lindsay, Ont. Secretary- Treas- 
urer, MissE. G. Flavelle, B.A., Lindsay, Ont. 

WATERLOO COUNTY. President, His 
HONOUR JUDGE CHISHOLM, Berlin, Ont. 
Secretary-Treasurer, REV. W. A. BRADLEY, 
B.A., Berlin, Ont. 

WELLINGTON COUNTY, ONT. President, 
WM. TYTLER, B.A., Guelph, Ont. Secretary- 
Treasurer, R. L. McKiNNON, B.A. LL.B., 
Guelph, Ont. 

WENTWORTH COUNTY GRADUATES ASSOCI- 
ATION. President, J. CHISHOLM, B. A., Ham- 
ilton, Ont. Secretary - Treasurer, J. T. 
CRAWFORD, B. A., Hamilton, Ont. 



NEWS FROM THE CLASSES. 

The personal news is compiled from information 
furnished by the Secretary of the University of Toronto 
Alumni Association, and by the Secretaries of local 
organizations, and from other reliable sources. The 
value of this department might be greatly enhanced 
if University of Toronto men everywhere would con- 
tribute to it. The correction of any errors will be 
gratefully received by the Secretary of the Alumni 
Association. 

1848. 

Deceased. John Boulton. John 

Boyd. William Craigie. J. G. Geddes. 

T. A. Hudspeth. J. B. Hurl- 

burt. T. W. Marsh. D. McMichael. 

E. F. Ryerson. John Shaw. 

Alexander Dixon is an Anglican clergyman 
in Guelph, Ont. J. W. Marsh is a bar- 
rister in London, Ont. A. Wickson is an 

Anglican clergyman in London, Eng. 

Address Unknown. R. G. Westropp. 

1858. 

Deceased. R. B. Bernard. S. H. Gray- 
don. G. S. J. Hill. William Milroy. 



280 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



Thomas Moss. Thomas McNaughton. 

W. J. Rattray. F. B. Tisdell. 

Hon. S. H. Blake is a barrister in 

Toronto. G. W. Des Voeux is in London, 

Eng. H. C. Jones is a barrister in To- 
ronto. C. D. Paul is Secretary of the 

Orange Heights Land Co., New York, N.Y., 
U.S.A. 

Addresses Unknown. E. D. Montgomery. 
W. A. Watts. 

1868. 

Deceased John Edgar Croly, James Mor- 
rison Dunn, William MaeDonald, William 
Hector Rennelson, Edward Samuel Steven- 
son. 

E. M. Bigg is a teacher at Vienna, Ont. 
George Bruce is a Presbyterian clergy- 
man in Toronto, Robert Cameron is in 

Denver, Col., U.S.A. Allan Cassels is a 

barrister in Toronto. R. H. De La Matter 

is a physician in Attercliffe, Out H. M. 

Deroche is a barrister in Napanee. J. Gal- 
braith is Principal of the School of Practical 

Science, Toronto. G. S. Goodwillie is a 

barrister in Georgetown, Ont. T. M. 

Grover is in Norwood, Ont. Alexander 

Hamilton is a physician in Toronto. 

Charles Millar is a barrister in Toronto. 

Andrew Murdock is a Baptist clergyman in 

Waterford, Out. E.T. Paul is in Chicago, 

111., U.S.A. J. Pepper is a Methodist 

clergyman at Palgrave, Ont. F. A. Ree- 

sor is manager of the Standard Bank, Mark- 
ham, Ont. 

Addresses Unknown. Alexander Malcolm. 
Lewis Pyper. -William John Reid. 



1889. 

Deceased. C. B. Carveth, B. A. John 

R. Sinclair, B.A. L. B. Stephenson, B. A. 

A. Stevenson, B.A. 

Thomas Beath, B.A., is a physician in 

Winnipeg, Man. R. R. Bensley, B.A., is 

Demonstrator of Chemistry in the University 
of Toronto. G. C. Biggar, B.A., is a bar- 
rister, 46 King St. W., Toronto. J. R. 

Blake, B.A., is a barrister in Gait, Ont. 

J. G. Brown, B.A., is a clergyman in 

Orangeville, Ont. D. M. Buchanan, B.A., 

is a clergyman in Lanark, Ont. A. Car- 
rick, B.A., is a clergyman in Holdredge, 
Neb.. U.S.A. K. B. Castle, B.A., is liv- 
ing in Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. H. V. 

Cawthra, B. A., is a barrister in Toronto. 

Adelaide H. R. Clayton, B.A., is a 
teacher in St. Mary's, Ont. C. S. Coats- 
worth, B.A., is at 49 Bryan Block, Chicago, 
111. H. J. Cody, B. A., is an Anglican 



clergyman in Toronto and a professor in 

Wycliffe College. F. C. Cooke, B.A., is 

a barrister in Toronto. J. S. Copland, 

B.A., is in Brock ville, Ont. T. Corbett, 

B. A., is in Brantford, Ont. W. W. Craw, 

B.A., is a clergyman in Thorndale, Ont. 
W. Cross, B.A., is a barrister in Madoc, 

Ont. Edith M. Curzon, B. A., is an 

analyst in School of Practical Science, To- 
ronto. T. C. Des Barres, B.A., is an 

Anglican clergyman, 117 Bloor St. East, 

Toronto. J. A. Donald, B.A., is in St. 

Mary's, Ont. E. W. Drew, B.A., is in 

Oshawa, Ont. J. N. Elliott, B.A., is a 

clergyman in Chicago. W. J. Fenton, 

B.A. , is a teacher in Brampton, Ont. 

W. C. Ferguson, B.A., is a teacher in Lon- 
don, Ont. C. Forfar, B.A.. is a teacher 

in Harbord Street Collegiate Institute, To- 
ronto. G. A. H. Fraser, B.A., is a bar- 
rister in Denver, Col., U.S.A. F. W. 

French, B. A., is a teacher in the University 

of Chicago. J. W. Henderson, B.A., is 

in New York. H. F. Gadsby, B. A , is a 

journalist on the staff of the Star, Toronto, 

5 Peter St., Toronto. W. Gauld, B.A., 

is a missionary in Tamsui, Formosa. R. 

J. Gibson, B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. 

J. Gill, B. A. , is a teacher in Hamilton, 

Ont. J. A. C. Grant, B.A. , is a physician 

in Gravenhurst, Ont. W.H. Grant, B.A., 

is a missionary in Honan, China. W. H. 

Harvey, B.A., is a clergyman in Fergus, 

Ont. D. Hull, B. A., is a teacher in a 

High School, Milwaukee, U.S.A. A. F. 

Hunter, B.A. , is in Barrie, Ont. J. 

Hutchison, B.A., is in Fordwich, Ont. 
J. S. Johnston, B.A., 571 Jarvis St., To- 
ronto. R. H. Johnston, B.A., is in Wash- 
ington, D.C. C. S. Kerr, B.A., is a 

teacher in Woodstock, Ont. B. Kil- 

bourne, B.A., is a physician in S. Mil- 
waukee, Wis. J. F. Messmore, B.A., is 

a teacher in Windsor, Ont. J. H. Moss, 

B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. Nellie 

Mott, B.A. (Mrs. R. W. Shaw), is in London. 
Ont. J. A. Mustard, B.A., is a clergy- 
man in Kent Bridge, Ont. John McCal- 

lum, B.A., is a farmer in Annibree, Ont. 

W. McCann, B. A., is in Omemee, Ont. 

S. H. McCoy, B.A., is a physician in St. 

Catharines, Ont. D. McKay, B.A., is a 

teacher in Alexandria, Ont. =N. S. Mc- 

Kechnie, B.A., is a teacher in Woodstock, 

Ont. John McNair, B.A., is a clergyman 

in Oak ville, Ont. F. R. McNamara, B.A., 

is in Toronto. J. McNichol, B.A., is a 

teacher in Hagersville, Ont. M. J. O'Con- 
nor, B.A., is in Ottawa. H. S. Robertson, 

B.A, is a teacher in Stratford, Ont 
Madge R. Robertson, B.A. (Mrs. Watt), is 
living in Victoria, B.C. Jessie H. Rob- 
son, B.A. (Mrs. F. W. Galbraith), is living in 



TORONTONENSIA 



281 



Guelph, Out. J. H. Rodd, B.A., isa bar- 
rister in Windsor, Ont. K. W. Ross, 

B.A., is a clergyman in Guelph, Ont. K. 

G. Rykert, B.A. , is a barrister in Montreal. 

J. H. Senkler, B.A., is a barrister in 

Vancouver, B.C. John G. Shearer, B.A., 

is a clergyman in Victoria, B.C. H. VV. 

C. Shore, B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. 

Alex. Smith, B.A., is secretary of the Liberal 
Association of, Ontario, 242 Simcoe Street, 
Toronto. J. F. Snetsinger, B. A. , is a re- 
porter in Toronto. F. C. Snider, B.A. , is 

a barrister in Toronto. J. D. M. Spence, 

B. A., is a barrister in Grand Forks, B.C. 

W. H. B. Spotton, B A., is a barrister in 

Wiartou, Ont, Etta M. Stewart, B.A., is 

living in Aylmer, Ont. J. K. Stone, B.A. , 

is a physician in Parry Sound, Ont J. D. 

B. Swanson, H.A., is in Kamloops, B.C. 

W. B. Taylor, B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. 

F. 'Iracy, B.A. , is a Lecturer in the 
University of i oronto. 

Addresses Unknmcn. \V. McC. Allen, 

B.A. J. K. Arnott, B.A. F. W. Mc- 

Connell, B.A. T. R. E. Mclnnes, B.A. 

U. W. B. Mclnnes, B.A. 

1892. 

Deceased. J. A. McMurchy. G. L. 

Tucker. 

W. L. T. Addison is a physician at Byng 

Inlet, Ont. Miss M. Annis is a teacher at 

Markham, Out. R. K. Barker is inspector 

in the Imperial Life Insurance Co., Toronto. 

F. H. Bell is a teachei iu Windsor, Ont. 

C. J. R Bethune is a barrister in Otta- 
wa, Ont. J. H. M. Borland is a clergy- 
man in Banks, Ont. F. C. Brown is a 

journalist in Toronto. \A~. H. Bunting is 

editor of the Mail and Empire, Toronto. 

J. Burnett is a Presbyterian clergyman at 

Rosseau, Ont. A. W. Cameron is a 

teacher in Streetsville, Ont. J. C. Cam- 
eron is a Presbyterian clergyman at Moose- 
jaw, N. W.T. J. 8. Carstairs is a teauuer in 

the Harbord Street Collegiate Institute, To- 
ronto. A. D. Chambers is a professor at 

Ash burn, Mo., U.S.A. MissJ. Climie is a 

teacher in Los Angeles, Cal., U.S.A. W. 

Glutton is a professor at Ann Arbor, Mich., 
U.S.A. T. Coleuian is a physician at Cop- 
per Cliff, Ont. A. E. Coombs is a teacher 

at Newmarket, Ont. J. A. Cooper is 

editor of the Cunadian Magazine, Toronto. 

\V. Cowie is a physician in Montreal, 

<Jue. F. D. Davis is a barrister in Wind- 
sor, Ont. R. K. Duncan is a teacher in 

Pottstown, Pa., U.S.A. 0. P. Edgar is a 

professor in Victoria University, Toronto. 

G. Elliott is in Mofewood, Ont. J. L. 

Garvin is a teacher in West Lome, Ont. 

J. W. Garvin is an insurance agent in Peter- 



borough, Ont. W. M. Govenlock is a 

teacher in London, Ont. J. W. Graham 

is a Methodist clergyman in East Toronto. 
Mrs. W. Pakenham (Miss L. L. Green) is 

in Toronto. Mrs. W. R. Sills (Miss Z. U. 

B. Hare) is in Kingston, Ont. E. J. 

Haughton is an Anglican clergyman in Potts- 

ville, Pa., U.S.A. Miss J. S. Hillock is a 

teacher in the Jameson Avenue Collegiate 

Institute, Toronto. R. E. Hooper is a 

physician in Toronto. G. F Hull is a 

professor at Dartmouth College, N.H., U.S. 

A. W. C. Hume is a commercial traveller 

in Muskegon, Mich., U.S.A. E. E. Ingall 

is a teacher in Trenton, Ont. F. A. Kerns 

is a barrister in Burlington, Ont. R. H. 

Knox is a barrister in Toronto. A.L. Laf- 

ferty is a barrister in Windsor, Out. J. 

H. Lamont is a barrister in Prince Albert, 

X.W.T. A. Lea is a clergyman in Japan. 

G. C. Little is a Presbyterian clergyman 

in Corbetton, Ont. F. A. Magee is a bar- 
rister in Ottawa, Ont. Mrs. J. T. Luton 

(Miss H. L. Martin) is a teacher in Belle- 
ville, Ont. B. W. Merrill is a Baptist 

clergyman in Guelph, Ont. E. B. Merrill 

is taking post-graduate work at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. Miss J. J. Mitchell is 

in Toronto. A. Mullin is a Presbyterian 

clergyman in Toronto. J. M. Murray is 

in the Bank of Commerce, Toronto. T. 

Murray is a teacher in Owen Sound. H. 

W. McClive is a barrister in St. Catharines, 
Ont. D. P. McColl is a commercial travel- 
ler in Calgary, K W.T. G. E. McCraney 

is.a barrister in Milton, Ont. G. L. Mc- 
Donald is a teacher in Ingersoll, Ont. W. 

McDonald is a physician iu Annan, Ont. 

L. J. A. Macdoneil is a barrister in Aguas 

Calientes, Mexico. J. F. MacGillivray is 

a barrister at Rat Portage, Ont. J. W. 

Mclntosh is a physician in Manitowaning, 

Ont. E. W. MacKay is a Presbyterian 

clergyman in Madoc, Ont. J. G. Mackay 

is in Por^nto. Miss M. A. MicKeuzie is 

at llie General Hospital Training School, 

Boston, Mass , U.S.A. A. K. McLaugh- 

lin is a barrister in Bowmauville, Ont. 

J. A. McLean is President of the University 

of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, U.S.A. J. C. 

McLennan is Demonstrator of Physics iu the 

University of Toronto. W. McQueen is a 

barrister in Rossland, B.C. W. O. Me- 

Taggart is a teachers' agent in Toronto. 

R. F. Nie is an Anglican clergyman in Rapid 

City, Man. J. W. Odell is a teacher in 

Cobourg, Ont. W. Pakenham is in the 

Education Department, Toronto. W. A. 

Parks is Instructor in Mineralogy and Ge- 
ology iu the University of Toronto. J. C. 

Payne is a teacher in Dutton, Out. F. E. 

Perrin is a barrister in London, Ont. T. 

Preston is a teacher in Forest, Out. J. 



282 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



H. Ratz is a physician in New Dundee, Ont. 
Mrs. \V. P. Firth (Miss E. Rogers) is in 
Pickering, Ont. A. S. Ross is a Presby- 
terian clergyman in Bearbrook, Ont. 

Miss C. Ross is a teacher in Toronto. 

Mrs. C. F. Hamilton (Miss C. A. Ross) is in 

Toronto. D. C. Ross is a barrister in 

Strathroy, Ont. A. H. Royce is a bar- 
rister in Toronto. A. F. Rykert is a phy- 
sician in Greensville, Ont. W. J. Shaw is 

in Toronto. A. Shiel is an electrician in 

Pittsburg, Pa., U.S.A. F. W. Shipley is 

a professor in the Lewis Institute, Chicago, 

111., U.S.A. V. A. Sinclair is a barrister 

in Tilsonburg, Ont. J. E. Skeele is a 

teacher in Cayuga, Ont. F. J. Smale is 

analyst in the Win. Davies Packing Co., To- 
ronto. T. E. A. Stanley is a teacher in 

Iroquois, Ont. W. Taylor is a teacher in 

Chatham, Ont. J. H. Tennant is a bar- 
rister in Toronto. D. Thomson is fellow 

in the University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., 
U.S.A. J. Vining is a barrister in Lon- 
don, Ont. H. I. Wales is in Aylmer, Ont. 

T. A. Watson is a Presbyterian clergy- 
man in Thamesford, Ont. J. W. Wheaton 

is a journalist in Toronto. H. E. Wilson 

is a teacher in Guelph, Ont. S. C. Wood 

is a barrister in Toronto. 

Addressex Unknown. D. C. Brown. J. 

C. Clarke. G. Gerrie. E. Hamilton. 

G. R. N. Head. H. A. Howell. 

R. M. Huston. T. E. Reid. 

1897. 

Deceased. Chapman Brown William 

Shotwell Robert R. W T ilson. 

W J. Abbott is a medical student in 
Toronto. J. W. Baird is at the Univer- 
sity of Cornell, Ithaca, U.S.A. G. S. 

Bale is in Hamilton. Miss M. Bapty is a 

teacher at Havergal Hall, Toronto. F. H. 

Barron is a Presbyterian clergyman in Balti- 
more, Md., U.S.A. G. J. Blewett is in 

Oxford, England. H. Boultbee is a jour- 
nalist in Toronto. A. E. Boyle is a jour- 
nalist on the Globe, Toronto. R. R. 

Bradley is a law student in Toronto. G. 

Bray is a barrister in Listowel, Ont. Miss 

Jessie P. Brown is at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. A. R. A. 

Brunt is a teacher in Oakville. G. E. 

Buchanan ia a law student in Toronto. 

T. A. Burgess is in Ottawa, Ont. W. T. 

Burns is a physician in Toronto. H. D. 

Cameron is a Presbyterian clergyman in 

Allandale, Ont. Miss M. C. E. Cameron 

is teacher of Spanish in the Lewis Institute, 

Chicago, 111., U.S.A. C. A. Campbell is a 

physician in Toronto. J. J. Carrick is at 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. M. N. Clark is at 

Meaford, Ont. C. H. Clegg is a barrister 



in Nome, Alaska. G. F. Colling is a 

teacher in Caledonia, Ont. C. G. Cor- 

neille is a Methodist clergyman in Toronto. 
J. L. Counsell is a barrister in Ham- 
ilton, Ont. Miss M. E. Craig is a teacher in 

Hamilton, Ont. W. D. Craig is in Midland, 

Ont. C. D. Creighton is in Toronto. 

C. J. Currie is a teacher in Toronto 

J. W. Davidson is at Union, Ont. 
W. M. Dicksou is in St. Mary's, Ont. 
E. C. Dingman is in the Civil Service at 

Ottawa. W. J. Dobbie is a teacher in 

Guelph, Ont. Miss M. O. Eastwood is in 

Whitby, Ont. .W. W. Edgar is in the 

parliamentary library, Ottawa, Ont. H. 

M. E. Evans is a journalist in Winnipeg, 
Man. H. W. Foley is a Methodist clergy- 
man in Malone, Ont. Miss F. E. Forbes 

is in France. J. W. Fraser is in Embro, 

Ont. B. French is a teacher in Cayuga, 

Ont. A. M. Fulton is in Chester ville, 

Ont. J. E. Gardner is a Methodist 

clergyman at Honey wood, Ont. T. Gib- 
son is in Ingersoll, Ont. H. S. Gilbert is 

a physician in Picton, Ont. W. E. Gilroy 

is a clergyman in Toronto. -Mrs. W. 

Shotwell (Miss F. S. Glashan) is in Ottawa. 

F. W. Goodeve is at Hon ing's Mills, 

Ont. G. W. Goodwin is at Sault Ste. 

Marie, Ont. G. W. Graham is in Toron- 
to. W. H Greenwood is a journalist on 

the World, Toronto. J. H Hancock 

is in Arthur, Ont. Miss M. Harvey is in 

Wyoming, Ont. A. W. Hendrick is a 

teacher in Picton, Ont. A. C. Hendrick 

is a physician in Frankfort, Ont. Miss M. 

Hills is in London, Ont. C. W. Holds- 
worth is in Lucille, Ont. A. H. Hore is a 

Methodist clergyman in Valentia, Ont. 
G. W. Howland is a physician in Toronto. 

Mrs. A. M. Scott (Miss E. B. Howson) 

is in Fredericton, N.B. Miss B. M. Hunt 

is a teacher in Vancouver, B.*'. J. S. 

Hunt is in Detroit, Mich., U.S.A. A. J. 

Husband is a teacher in Brock ville, Ont. 
J. A. Jackson is in Toronto. F. J. John- 
ston is a teacher in Richmond Hill, Ont. 

R. 0. Jolliffe is a teacher in Picton, Ont. 

H. L. Jordan is a law student in Toronto. 

G. W. Keith is a teacher in Mount 

Forest, Ont. C. M. Keys is a teacher in 

Bishop Ridley Collego, St. Catharines, Ont. 

R. N. Kyles is in Camilla, Ont. Miss 

A. J. Langrill is a teacher in Orillia, Ont. 

H. M. Little is at McGill University, 

Montreal, Quc. Mrs. E. A. Sanford (Miss 

N. E. Livingstone) is in Toronto. J. T. 

Luton is a teacher in Belleville, Ont. J. 

S. Martin is a teacher in Port Dover, Out. 
F. G. Millar is a teacher in Williams- 
town, Ont. Miss H. B. Mills is a 

teacher in Toronto. V. G. Mollins is in 

Burgessville, Ont. C. P. Muckle is a. 



TORONTONENSIA 



283 



teacher in Lindsay, Out. 
is 



W. N. Munro 

law student in Toronto. J. A. Mc- 

Collum is in Grand Forks, B.C. James 

McCrea is a Presbyterian clergyman in 

Minto, Man. S. B. McCready is a teacher 

in London, Ont. F. C. Macdonald is at 

Bendale, Ont. A. D. Mclntyre is a teach- 
er in Tilsonburg, Ont. W. A. McKinnon 

is a law student in Toronto. W. A Mc- 
Laren is in Toronto. F. O. McMahon is 

in Toronto. Miss E. R. McMichael is in 

Toronto. A. E. McNab is a barrister in 

Walkerton, Ont. Miss E. J. McPhail is 

in Campbellville, Out. Mrs. J. R. L. 

Starr (Miss L. F. C. Nelles) is in Toronto. 
Miss B. H. Nichols is a teacher in 
Harriston, Ont. J. M. Nicol is a clergy- 
man in Wallaceburg, Ont. L. Norman is 

a teacher in Ingersoll, Ont. J. L. O'Flynn 

is a barrister at Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

P. W. O'Flynn is A barrister in Madoc, Ont. 
R. B. Page is a teacher in Toronto 

Junction, Ont. J. L. R. Parsons is in 

Toronto. G. F. Pool is in Dundas, Ont. 

T. W. Pool is a clergyman in Dundas, 
Ont C. M Race is a teacher in Cobourg, 

Ont. Miss A. T. Reed is in Toronto. 

J. C. Reid is a Methodist clergyman in 

Merlin, Ont. R. J. Richardson is at 

Varna, Ont. P. J. Robinson is a teacher 

in St. Andrew's College, Toronto. T. W. 

Ruddell is a Methodist clergyman in Duf- 

ferin, Ont. B. K. Sandwellis a journalist 

on the Morning Post Hamilton, Ont. 

Miss E. E. Scott is in Brampton, Oat. 

F. H. Scott is in Toronto. W. B. Scott is 

in Toronto. G. C. Sellery is at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, 111., U.S.A. F. S. 

Selwood is a teacher in Napanee, Ont. 

Mrs. Gray (Miss F. L. Sheridan) is in To- 
ronto. Miss L. Sherwood is in Napanee, Ont. 

W. C. Shier is a teacher in Midland,Ont. 

Miss M. Sinclair is a teacher at Erin, Ont. 

R. E. Spence is a Methodist clergyman 

at VVascana, N. W.T. J. S. Stevenson is 

a Methodist clergyman at Severn Bridge, 

Ont. W. K. Stewart is a teacher in 

Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H., U.S.A. 

L. H. Tasker is principal of the high 

school at Almonte, Ont. J. T. Taylor is 

a Presbyterian missionary at Nee Much, 

India. Miss A. E. Tennant is a teacher 

at Forest, Ont. J. H. Trout is in Toronto. 

A. B. Watt is a journalist in Woodstock, 

Oat. F. W. 0. Werry is in the Interior 

Department, Ottawa, Ont. R. Wightman 

is a teacher in St. Mary's, Ont. J. S. Will 

is a teacher in the Manitoba College, Winni- 
peg, Man. A. C. Wishart is a Presby- 
terian clergyman at Beaverton, Ont. W. 

S. Wright is a Presbyterian clergyman at 
Merritton, Ont. F. A. Young is a physi- 
cian at Michipicoten Harbor, Ont. 



Addresses Unknown. H. B. Bruce J. 

H. Bruce R. A. Cranston T. Elliott 

L. H. Graham T. C. Hood A. M. 

Maxwell D. McKerchar L. J. O'Brien 



-H. J; Pritchard- 
-J. J. W. Taylor- 
-S. C. Webster 



J. N. Robertson 
J. E. Wallbridge 
E. Wilson R. C. 



Wilson W. D. Young G. F. Zimmer- 
man. 

PERSONALS. 

Every alumnus of the University of Toronto is in- 
vited to send to the Editor items of interest for 
insertion in this department. News of a personal 
nature about any alumnus will be gladly received. 

A. D. Passmore, B.A. '84, is now living in 
Winnipeg. 

F. G. Millar, B.A. '97, is teaching in 
Williamstown, Ont. 

Robt. King, B.A. '86, M.D. (Trin.) '93, is 
a physician in Newboro, Ont. 

E. W. Grange, B.A. '99, is a journalist in 
Toronto and is on the staff of the News. 

J. W. Baird, B.A. '97, has received an 
appointment at the University of Cornell. 
Ithaca. 

W. McBride, B.A. '79, is manager of the 
North American Life Insurance Company, 
Winnipeg, Man. 

Professor J. J. Mackenzie, University of 
Toronto Medical Faculty, has gone to 
Europe for the vacation. 

Rev. T. F. Fotheringham, B.A. '71, M. A. 
'72, has received the degree of D.D. from the 
Presbyterian College, Halifax, N.S. 

M. A. Shaw, B.A. '96, M.A., has gone 
to the University of Wisconsin, Madison, 
Wis., to accept a fellowship in Psychology. 

Albert W. Ryan, M.A. (Vic.) '91, LL.B. 
'85, has been rector of St. Paul's Church, 
Duluth, Minn., for the past seven and one- 
half years. 

Professor Lang, Director of the Chemical 
Department, University of Toronto, sailed for 
Europe on May nth, where he will spend 
the summer. 

E. M. Bigg, B.A. 68, M.A. '70, who has 
been principal of a high school in Minnesota 
for some, years, has returned to Canada and 
is teaching in Vienna, Ont. 

We learn that J. Lockridge, M.B. '90, who 
was practising in the Western States after 
graduation, died there suddenly some time 
ago and was buried at Tamworth, Ont. 

M. F. Libby, B.A. '90 (Vic.), formerly 
English Master in the Jameson Avenue Col- 
legiate Institute, Toronto, has been appoint- 



284 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



ed Professor of Philosophy in the University 
of Colorado, Boulder, Col. 

J. O. Smillie and G. E. McCartney, mem- 
bers of the graduating class in the University 
of Toronto Medical Faculty, have by com- 
petitive examination received appointments 
in the (Jity Hospital, New York. 

W. J. Moran, B.A. '91, LL.B. '92, who 
has been practising law in Rat Portage, Ont. , 
since 1896, has been appointed Sheriff, Dis- 
trict Crown Attorney and Clerk of the Peace 
for the District of Rainy River, Ontario. 

Miss Susie Little, B.A. '99, has just re- 
turned from a six months' tour among the 
colleges in the Eastern Provinces of Canada 
in connection with Y. W. 0. A. work. 
She visited in all thirty colleges. She has 
been appointed travelling secretary for next 
year. 

The following members of the corps of en- 
gineers recently formed in connection with 
the University of Toronto are at present 
taking the course at Stanley Barracks, To- 
ronto : Sappers, Evans, Burwash, Gzowski, 
Gumming, Robertson, Elwell, Steel and 
Post. 

J. G. Little, B.A. '84, Ridgetown, Ont., 
writes that he has not given up teaching 
owing to ill health, as we stated in last 
issue, but is on leave of absence, and will 
resume his work in the Collegiate Institute 
in September. 

W. H. P. Clement, B.A. '78, LL.B. '81, 
barrister, who left Toronto in 1898 to act as 
law officer of the Crown in the Yukon and 
who lately returned from the Territory, 
has begun the practice of his profession in 
Grand Forks, B.C., in partnership with J. 
D. Spence, B.A. '89. 

G. W. Umphrey, B.A. '99, has been in 
attendance at Harvard University since 
November last. Shortly after entering he 
was successful in his examination for the 
A.B. degree, having secured class "A" in 
all the subjects of his course. He intends 
writing for the A.M. degree this spring, and 
is making a specialty of the Romance lan- 
guages. 

H. R. Fairclough, B.A. '83, M.A. '85, 
Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins), Prof essor of Classical 
Literature in the Laland Stanford Junior 
University, has published from the press of 
Allyn & Bacon, Boston, "P. Terenti AM 
Andria." It consists of Introduction, Latin 
text, with stage directions, Notes, and Criti- 



cal Appendix. The Introduction gives a his- 
tory of Roman Comedy with its Greek ante- 
cedents, and treats of dramatic criticism, 
the Roman theatre and Terentian prosody. 
Of this part of the work Prof. Charles E. 
Bennett, of Cornell University, writes, "ad- 
mirably conceived, and finely put. Clearly 
the best -thin 4 of the sort I know." 

During the month of June six graduates of 
the University of Toronto who have com- 
pleted their theological course at Wycliffe 
College will be ordained to the ministry of 
the Church of England in Canada, viz. , A. F. 
Barr, B.A. '96, by the Lord Bishop of To- 
ronto, to be curate at All Saints' Church, 
Toronto ; R. A. Armstrong, B.A., by the 
Lord Bishop of Huron, to be in charge of 
the Church in Waterloo, Ont. ; T. H. Cot- 
ton, B.A., and W. F. Rushbrook, B.A., 
by the Lord Bishop of Niagara, to the 
churches in Nanticoke and Erin, Ont., re- 
spectively ; R. B. Patterson, B.A. , by the 
Lord Bishop of Toronto, to be curate in St. 
Paul's Church, Toronto ; and T. W. Savary, 
B. A., by the Lord Bishop of Kingston, to be 
curate in St. James' Church, Kingston. The 
last five are all members of the class of 'oo. 

We have received a letter from Professor 
Lefroy explaining the steps which are being 
taken by the Australian universities to se- 
cure local Australian examinations for the 
British Civil Service, and urging that the 
University of Toronto should also move in 
the matter. There is now a single examina- 
tion of a very high standard, by the results 
of which the members of the Indian (Jivil 
Service and the holders of the eastern cadet- 
ships are appointed by competition. Certain 
higher posts in the Foreign Office and the 
Colonial Office are filled by the same examin- 
ation. This examination is held in London 
iu August of each year. The fact that the 
candidates are obliged to write in London 
of course shuts out almost all colonial com- 
petition. A petition from all the universities 
in Australia and the University of New 
Zealand has been sent in to the Hon. Joseph 
Chamberlain, Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, asking for the establishment of 
local examinations. 

DECEASED. 

John Wanless, M.B. '61, M.D. '62, 594 
Huron Street, Toronto, died last month. 

Thomas Henry Little, M.B. '88, M.D. 
(Vic.) '88, 113 Spadina Avenue, Toronto, 
died April 25th in Toronto. 



THE PUBLISHERS' SYNDICATE, LIMITED. PRINTERS 



THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

VOL. I. JUNE, 1901. No. 10. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE PAGE 

The University and State Aid. By Sir The Second Annual Dinner of the Uni- 

William Ralph Meredith - -285 versity of Toronto Alumni Association 302 

An Oriental University. By William University of Toronto Annual Convoca- 

Mortimer Clark, K.C. - - - 291 tion. - ... 304 

General Meeting of the Alumni Associa- The Halls of Alma Mater. By. J. 

tion 294 Cleland Hamilton, M.A., LL.D. - 305 

The Garden Party. By Edith M. Cur- Torontonensia 307 

zon, B.A. 301 



THE UNIVERSITY AND STATE AID.* 

BY SIR WILLIAM RALPH MEREDITH. 
Chancellor of the University. 

SIR WILLIAM MEREDITH, who replied to the toast of Alma 
Mater, was received with loud applause when he rose to reply. 
After a graceful reference to Dr. Frechette's speech and a remark that 
he would avail himself of the opportunity to lay before the public the 
affairs of the University during the past year. He hoped ere long that 
by private munificence, if the State failed in its duty, they would have a 
hall which would be a proper place to make such statements. 

" Perhaps it may not be unfitting, sir, that I should first deal with the 
medical faculty, of which you are the distinguished Dean. The course 
of that faculty during the past year has been one of continued prog- 
ress. Three years ago the number of those who entered was 61, now 
it has reached 124. The number of students enrolled three years ago 
was 230, the number to-day is 340, besides 55 occasional students. So 
far as the attendance upon the instruction given in that faculty is 
concerned, there is the most gratifying evidence of the confidence that 
is felt in it. The department of pathology has during the past year had 
put at its head a gentleman who, I am sure, will bring to the discharge 
of his duties the highest efficiency, and will reflect credit upon the 
department and upon the faculty. I refer to Professor J. J. McKenzie. 

* Speech at the second annual dinner of the University of Toronto Alumni Association. 



286 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

One of the faculty (Professor Irving Cameron) had received the high 
tribute of an honorary fellowship in the Royal College of Surgeons ; two 
graduates have received fellowships in the anatomical section of Cornell 
University, and another graduate had won the colonial scholarship at the 
University of Liverpool. It was not generally known to the public that 
this branch of University education was self-sustaining, but such was the 
case. The progress which the faculty has made renders it necessary 
that there shall be a much larger building provided for its accommo- 
dation, and I hope that arrangements will soon be entered into by means 
of which, when the School of Practical Science addition is built upon 
College Street, we shall have a handsome new building, well equipped 
for our medical faculty. 

" The next to which I would devote a word or two is the youngest of 
our faculties the School of Practical Science, or, as it is now called, the 
Faculty of Applied Science. It was felt that the University suffered, 
and the School of Practical Science suffered, by there being no connec- 
tion between the two bodies, and therefore during the past year a statute 
was passed, the effect of which was to constitute the School of Practical 
Science, while autonomous, yet a faculty of the University. The number 
of students for the session just closed was 230, and I have the testimony 
of the distinguished Principal for the statement that no one who has 
gone out of that institution has failed to obtain remunerative employ- 
ment in the particular department in which he graduated, and some of 
the gentlemen who have gone out are in possession of lucrative and 
important appointments. So great has been the pressure upon the pres- 
ent building that the students are crowded in the passages and else- 
where. The Principal has been calling the attention of the Government 
to this from time to time, and at last it was determined during the last 
session that there should be provided an addition to the present School 
of Practical Science, which will also provide for two departments of the 
University, at an expenditure of $200,000. 

" I do hope, now that the Government has determined to deal with 
this branch of scientific instruction, that it will rise to the occasion 
and not be penny-wise and pound-foolish. In these days instruction in 
science is essential to the growth of the nation, and if we intend to keep 
our place and not to fall back in the race we are bound to expend what- 
ever is necessary for the purpose of equipping in the best up-to-date 
manner this faculty of Applied Science in connection with the University. 
I do hope, therefore, that everyone who has influence with the Govern- 
ment and v/ith the members of the Legislature will press upon them 
the great importance of the step they are taking, and the need for dealing 
liberally, and in a broad, statesmanlike manner, with this question. 

" I trust that our friends of Victoria University will not feel that I am 
passing out of my proper sphere in referring to the progress which is 
going on there. They have, during the past few months, availing them- 
selves of the munificent gift of a deceased citizen, acquired a large 
portion of the University property lying immediately north of the 



THE UNIVERSITY AND STATE AID 287 

premises which they now occupy, upon which is shortly to be erected a 
residence for the women students of that University. I hope that it 
may be a great success, and that it may stimulate those who are con- 
nected with the University of Toronto and University College to see 
that the women students of University College are provided with 
similar means of being housed and boarded while they are in Toronto. 
The Government and Legislature of this Province deliberately adopted 
the policy of co-education, and I think it is a cruel thing, when they 
are inviting these young women who come here, who divide, if they do 
not succeed in doing more, the honours with the young men, if they do 
not provide means that they may be properly housed and cared for while 
in attendance here. I do not mean at the expense of the University and 
College, but for a reasonable charge for the service done. 

" The residence for men, I am afraid, is a thing of the past. I am sorry 
to say it, but I fear, from my experience in the Legislature, that there 
is no hope that that body will ever consent to the expenditure of 
public moneys in the erection of a residence for men. There are not 
the same reasons for a residence for men as there are for a residence for 
women, and there is springing up here a number of societies these 
Greek letter societies, which, I think, in a measure, at least, take the 
place of the residence feature of the University. I know that in some 
quarters there is a prejudice against these societies. I venture to think 
that that prejudice is unfounded, and, as far as my experience has gone, 
and I have had some knowledge, although I have not been able to enter 
within the arcana of these bodies, I venture to think that the influence 
of them is distinctly good. The Legislature during the last session 
made provision by which a portion of the University lands can be set 
apart for these bodies, and money can be loaned them for the purpose of 
erecting buildings upon the land, and I trust that when the trustees have 
to deal with the matter they will deal with it in a broad, liberal spirit. 

" In the Act of last session provision was made for federation with 
Trinity University. Efforts have been made in the direction of that 
federation, and I may say to the gentlemen who are connected with 
Trinity that there is the best of feeling on the part of those con- 
nected with the University of Toronto to. meet them in a broad and 
liberal spirit, and I trust that possibly before we meet again next year 
as I hope we may have the pleasure of meeting arrangements may 
have been perfected by which Trinity shall have been admitted into 
confederation in the same position as Victoria University." 

The Chancellor then referred to the financial condition of the Univer- 
sity and of University College, saying : 

" I am one of those who agree with Mr. Willison that the Legislature 
missed a great opportunity in not making fuller and more ample 
provision for the University and University College than was done 
at the last session. A deputation, which, I am bound to say, 
aided very considerably in obtaining the measure of relief that was 
granted, went up from the Alumni Association. To that deputation 



288 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

certain statements were made by the Prime Minister of this Province. 
He told them that the people were not informed upon the question, 
and asked them to assist in educating the people up to consent to 
comply with the legitimate demands which he admitted the Alumni 
were making upon the Province. I think the necessity for education 
was a little higher up, if I may be permitted to say so. I feel that 
the great body of the people of this Province would have been prepared 
to endorse, as they have endorsed the partial measure, a full and com- 
plete measure, which would put our University and College upon a 
sound, stable and permanent footing, and provide not only for the 
present, but for expansion and for the future. The people of this 
country, especially if you are not going to take it out of their pockets 
directly, are liberal, and they would, as I say, I am quite satisfied, have 
assented to the broader proposition." 

Referring to an observation by the Premier on the subject of research 
work and the necessity of providing for post-graduate work, which 
seemed to indicate that he would be very glad to see Canadian graduates 
going to the University of Harvard and others, Sir William said : " I beg 
most respectfully, but firmly, to dissent from that position. A man owes 
to a community in which he lives some duties ; just as a man owes to 
the community a duty, so the Province or nation in the community of 
nations owes its duty to the other nations, and one of the duties which 
it owes, in my judgment, is that it shall assist in promoting the intel- 
lectual, the moral, the scientific and the material advancement of the 
human race ; and I should be ashamed of the Province of Ontario 
if it is to lag behind in doing its part in this great work. We boast, 
sir, and rightly boast, of the magnificent heritage that the people 
of Ontario possess, the millions of acres of land, the millions of acres 
under which there are the yet undeveloped mines ; and I again repeat that 
it would be a crying shame if the people of this Province were content 
to say, ' We will do nothing to discharge our duty towards the promotion 
of the advancement of the human race, but we will take advantage 
merely of what our neighbours are doing.' 

Proceeding, Sir William said : 

" There is another fundamental point involved in this question, to 
which I think I ought to refer. I took occasion at the last banquet of 
this Association to speak of this country as being one of the most 
democratic countries in the world. I believe it has the freest, the 
broadest democracy under the sun. We have now given the vote to 
every man, and I think it follows that it is our bounden duty, if we 
desire to preserve the country, that our democracy shall be an edu- 
cated democracy. For there is no greater peril to the civilization of 
these days than the placing of power in the hands of an uneducated 
democracy." The Chancellor spoke upon this point for a moment, and 
went on : 

"In some quarters claims have been made for assistance from the 
State, sometimes pari passu with the University of Toronto, and some- 



THE UNIVERSITY AND STATE AID 289 

times even in priority to the claims of the University. I think we ought 
in this Province to be prepared to take a determined stand upon that 
question. It seems to me the rankest folly to tell men who are pointing out 
the condition of the State University and its needs if it is to keep pace 
with the advance of other universities. ' We have not money enough ; ' 
and then in the next breath say, ' We will assist a neighbouring institu- 
tion, however deserving it may be, but which is not a State institution.' 
I have the friendliest feelings with every university. I have the friend- 
liest feelings with the university that puts forward that view most 
strongly. I wish it God-speed in the good work which it is accom- 
plishing, but I say that it has no right when the State has undertaken 
the establishment of a university and opened its doors to all the people 
in the country I hope some day, as Mr. Willison has said, free of cost 
entirely. Surely it cannot be said that the State, until it is able to pro- 
vide fully and completely for that State institution, is to take its moneys 
and divide them with other institutions that are not under State control, 
however deserving they may be. 

" I know the difficulties of locality. I know the difficulties of a politi- 
cal leader. I know the difficulties when parties are close : but I venture 
to think that the politician who says I take my stand upon the position 
that we have a State system of education here we have as its foundation 
a University, we will maintain that University and make it efficient and 
equip it for its duty as it ought to be, and until that is done we will have 
nothing to do with any other institution. That would be recognized as a 
sufficient answer from the banks of the Ottawa to the banks of the 
Detroit River, and no defection from its following could destroy any 
Government that has the courage to take that position. I would not 
have spoken as strongly upon this subject as I have spoken did I not 
feel the gravity of the situation. 

" The Province has done liberally in a sense, has done nobly in a sense, 
but it was able to do and it would have done, if it had been asked, all 
that was necessary, a great deal more than has been done. The Province 
has, as the result of the legislation, relieved the University of an expen- 
diture upon the departments which it has taken over, of practically some 
$25,000 per annum, and to that extent it has left free so much of the 
money for other departments and expansion in other directions ; but the 
difficulty is that there have been from year to year deficits, we have gone 
behind from year to year, and had it not been for the existence of con- 
tingent funds which under previous managements had been created, there 
would have been a serious condition ere now. But after all has been 
done, after relieving the University as it has been relieved, there will be 
upon the transactions of this year a deficit of $9,000 and upwards between 
the expenditure and the income of the University. Now, how can any 
Government expect that the work of this great University can be carried 
on efficiently with not even present needs being provided for, much 
less any provision for expansion ? That is a grave condition of things. 
I do not know why it is that the public cannot be awakened to its 



2 9 o UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

gravity. What are we to do ? We cannot go on in this way. Are we to 
close the doors of the University and shut it up ? Are we to limit the 
number of students, or are we to hand over the University as it is to 
somebody to manage it independent of State control ? I hope none 
of these things will be done. I do not think that the State, having taken 
this responsibility upon itself, can afford to trust to any body away from 
Government control the enormous heritage that belongs to this University. 

" What I would say with regard to that, if I may be permitted to express 
an opinion, is that in the Act which has been passed there are a great 
many improvements in the machinery of government in connection with 
the University. It is now placed on a more scientific basis. The aca- 
demic government is left to the Senate and to the Councils of the Univer- 
sity and College respectively. The management of the funds and dealing 
with the property are left to the Board of Trustees ; every act of the 
Trustees in connection with the University before it can be given effect 
to must have the sanction of the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council. I 
think that is right. My idea is, give the Government control over every- 
thing connected with the University ; but it should be the duty and 
policy of the Government, so long as everything is going right, not to 
interfere, and to be content to have the means of interfering, and meantime 
to leave things to those who have been delegated to attend to them." 

Sir William referred to an impression which has got abroad that the 
staff of the University is inefficient and that the work is not well 
done. He said : " I may say that I am perfectly certain that the gentle- 
man who made the deliverance which gave rise to the discussion had no 
idea of suggesting anything of the kind ; but it did harm, as it went 
abroad in the newspapers that there was inefficiency in connection with 
the University. I desire to say here, with a knowledge whereof I speak, 
that the staff of the University is an able, efficient, zealous and underpaid 
body of gentlemen. 

" What is to be done for the future ? It is difficult to answer that ques- 
tion. We are on the eve of a general election, and I suppose nothing can 
be done until that election is over. But I do trust that this Association, 
which has already done so much good, will continue to press upon the 
attention of the Government the needs of the University, and insist upon 
a proper measure of relief to the University being provided. There is 
power in the men who are graduates of this University to drive out of 
power any Government which will not discharge its duty to this Uni- 
versity, and I hope what will be done when another Parliament is 
chosen that they will come down to the Legislature, point out the needs 
by it. These deficiencies ought not to be allowed to continue to exist." 
of the University and insist upon compliance with what is really needed 

Sir William concluded by urging his hearers to do their part as indi- 
vidual graduates to help their Alma Mater, referring to the work done 
by the graduates of other universities. He resumed his seat amid loud 
applause. 



AN ORIENTAL UNIVERSITY. 291 

AN ORIENTAL UNIVERSITY. 

BY WM. MORTIMER CLARK, K.C., 

" JVAEN," says a Mohammedan sage, "are either learners or learned, 
* * * and he who belongs to neither of these classes is a reptile, and 
good for naught." Learning, although not always of a kind regarded 
by the Western with much admiration, is highly esteemed by the Oriental. 
It is closely allied with faith, and the mosque and school are consequently 
associated. Bequests for the establishment of mosques are common, and 
the founding of a school in conjunction with the mosque is not infre- 
quently included in the devise. Although such trust funds are by the 
law of Egypt inviolable, yet the rapacity of the irresponsible rulers of the 
Land of the Pharaohs has led in many instances to the diversion of ihe 
money and the closing of many of the mosque-schools of Cairo. One of 
these institutions has, however, survived the assaults made on its endow- 
ments, and the University-mosque of El-Azhar, the " blooming " or 
" splendid," still continues to flourish. It has completely eclipsed the 
anciently famous schools of Damascus, and is now recognized as the most 
important educational institution in the Mohammedan world. The old 
mosque was converted into a university by the Kaliph Agiz Billah in 
A.D. 975. During the many centuries since its foundation, it has 
received many large endowments, and has continued to be the hotbed of 
Mohammedan fanaticism. It is attended by students numbering from 
7,000 to 12,000, and drawn from all countries where the faith of Islam is 
professed. It is undoubtedly the most unique university in the world. 

Leaving the modern-looking region of the Esbekeyeh gardens, the 
visitor passes along the main thoroughfare of the Muski, midst its motley 
crowd of Orientals and Europeans. The scene is one of great animation, 
and the danger of being crushed against a wall by a camel laden with 
building material, or run down by a carriage, keeps one busily engaged in 
looking after his personal safety. Greasy-looking pashas loll in open 
phaetons, and broughams, containing the lightly-veiled ladies of some 
harem, accompanied by Soudanese eunuchs, pass on their shopping expe- 
ditions. These are usually preceded by runners (sais) clad in white, 
wearing gold-embroidered crimson jackets and carrying long staves. 
They shout as they run, " Out of the way, my brother ! " " Take care of 
your legs, my sister ! " or, " Look out for your back, O follower of the 
Prophet ! " The Muski is resonant with harsh and discordant noises of 
all kinds Water-sellers clink their brazen cups, and street venders of all 
imaginable things press their wares, at the top of their voices, on the 
passers-by. One is glad to escape from the din and into a short side 
street leading to the great university. This street is lined with booths and 
little shops on either side. Books and slippers are here dealt in. These 



292 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

wares are somewhat incongruous, but the rare logic of the Arab Effendii 
explains the reason of their strange propinquity. " Books," says he, " are 
usually bound in red leather, and slippers are made of the same red 
leather ; therefore, books and slippers are to be found in the same shop, 
and the bookseller and slipper dealer are one." Most of the books are- 
very cheap to suit the student purse, but many beautiful MSS. are ex- 
posed for sale which are decorated with exquisite ornament, and in col- 
ours of perfect harmony. Copies of the Koran, it may be explained, are 
never printed. They ought to be in MS., but lithography so often 
deceived the faithful that its use is now winked at. 

Armed with anorder from theMinisterof Worship admission to the sacred 
precincts may be grudgingly obtained. Having donned a pair of slippers, 
over his boots, the visitor may take a rather hasty walk through the 
mosque, but must be careful, neither by deed, look nor word, to awaken 
the slumbering fires of Mohammedan fanaticism, in this the very sanctu- 
ary of Islam. The mosque itself is in the form of a great quadrangle,, 
surrounded by rather mean-looking buildings, of one or two storeys in 
height. The greater part of this quadrangle is open to the heavens, but 
a space of about 3,600 square yards on the east or Mecca side of it is 
covered with a low ceiling supported by 380 pillars, among which 1,200- 
lanterns are suspended. A number of chambers, known as riwaks, are 
ranged along the other sides of the court. These riwaks are for the 
accommodation of students, but do not by any means give lodging to the 
multitude of scholars in attendance, who must seek for shelter outside 
the precincts. The whole premises are entirely destitute of furniture,, 
and present a sombre and cheerless appearance. Squatting on grass 
mats on the alabaster pavement, in groups of from ten to fifty all over the 
great hall, in sunshine and in shadow, are seen the various classes. The 
Sheykh or professor leans against a pillar when he can get one, using the 
same attitude as his scholars. To " take a seat by a pillar " is equivalent 
to " filling a professor's chair " with us. Not a few fine-looking heads 
and faces are found among teachers and taught. All are alike clad in 
turbans and robes, the latter being black, and the former usually white, 
except when descent from the Prophet, or the accomplishment of 
the pilgrimage to Mecca, entitles the wearer to use green in his head 
dress. Some of the classes are composed of boys from eight to twelve 
years of age, while in others may be seen young and even elderly men. 
The instructors number from 230 to 250. Some of the professors receive 
no salaries, and make a meagre living by copying Korans, or by private 
tuition. The pupils pay no fees, but sometimes recognize the services of 
their teachers by gratuities. Others of the staff are paid about $20 per 
month, and in some cases receive further moneys from discharging the 
duties of subsidiary offices about the mosques. The Sheykh of the 
university receives a salary of some $9,000 and resides in a fine old palace. 
The revenues of the mosque from endowments do not amount to more 
than $12,500, and the annual deficit is about $5,000. The Khedival 



AN ORIENTAL UNIVERSITY 293. 

government makes up the shortage, and thus secures some right to inter- 
fere in the administration of an institution which is an obstacle to all 
reform, and might prove dangerous. 

On entering, the hum of thousands of voices is heard, as the students, 
rocking themselves to and fro, recite, in a sing-song way, passages of the 
Koran, which they commit to memory. Correction is not infrequently 
administered in Solomonic fashion, and students of somewhat mature 
years may be seen receiving the benefit of the tuition of the rod. Others 
may be found languishing in penitentiary cells. The dietary of students 
in residence seems to consist of coffee, boiled beans saturated with oil, 
and a little hard bread. The latter does duty as a spoon. The pupils 
share in a daily distribution of bread from the administration. The 
riwaks, of which there are seventeen, are appropriated to various nation- 
alities, and are known by the names of the various countries represented, 
such as Riwak el-Yemen (for natives of Yemen), Riwak el-Hinud (for 
natives of India). 

The university is under the control of the Sunnite faction of Moham- 
medanism. This body is divided into four sects, numbers of which are to 
be found among both pupils and professors. They are quite tolerant of 
each other, although their opinions are very different. The Hanbalees hold 
the interpretation of the Koran, which represents God, as in human form. 
This is the most fanatic of all, and is represented by the Wahabees of 
Arabia and India. The Malikees hold to all the traditions of Islam, and 
the Hannafees include the official classes and the liberal party. The 
chief Sheykh is always appointed from this party. The Shafe'ees form 
the moderate section of believers. 

It need hardly be said that the instruction given, and the manner of 
conveying it, are very different from that in Western universities. Many 
of the Sheykhs are erudite, but their learning is limited to familiarity 
with commentaries on the Koran. They spend their time chiefly in com- 
menting on commentators, and have no creative faculty. Students remain 
in the mosque from four to six years. They begin their course by study- 
ing the Arabic grammar. They then proceed to the twelve attributes of 
God existence, eternity, independence, unity, omnipotence, will, omnis- 
cience, life, vision, hearing, speech, and source of being. Then follows 
the study of law, religious and secular, both branches being taught from 
the Koran alone. Logic, rhetoric, the art of poetry, the proper manner 
of reciting the Koran, and the correct manner of pronouncing its letters, 
are also taught. Everything, however, is deduced from the Koran, which 
is the beginning and end of all wisdom. Nothing is known of natural 
science, and arithmetic, geometry and algebra, formerly so assiduously 
cultivated, have fallen into oblivion. On finishing his course, the student 
receives a diploma, and in cases of special merit is presented with a robe 
by the Khedive. All attempts made by the Khedival government to 
introduce some better order of things have been strenuously resisted. 
The lectures last from an hour and a half to two hours, and close with 
the words, " So far, and may Allah give us understanding." The stu- 



294 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

dents then rise and, in leaving, kiss the hand of their teacher. With the 
exception of a short noonday interval, the whole day is spent in attend- 
ance at classes, and after the work of the day is over, the wearied student 
lies down on his rug in his cheerless riwak without any change of rai- 
ment, and composes himself to sleep, until in the early morn the sonorous 
voice of the muezzin from one of the minarets of the Gami-el-Azhar, 
testifying that there is no god but God, and that Mohammed is the 
prophet of God, invites him to " come to prayer and to security/' and 
assures him that " prayer is better than sleep." 



GENERAL MEETING OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, 

JUNE ;TH. 

President Dr. R. A. Reeve in the chair. 

The President, in opening the meeting, said that, in view of the full 
report of the Executive Committee to be presented, he would only 
briefly refer to one or two matters not mentioned in it. The Committee 
re University Club, enlarged by direction of the special meeting of the 
Association held in December, had not been idle. A report of their 
efforts will be given later. The committee appointed to take charge of 
the Alumni Research Fund had made but a partial canvass. The Presi- 
dent, as chairman, in reporting progress on its behalf, was gratified to 
be able to state that the response had already been such as to warrant 
the sub-committee in asking the present meeting to arrange for the 
awarding of the first of the series of scholarships. The sum received 
was, however, but a fraction of the amount required to establish the 
fund on a solid basis. 

The Committee re Memorial Convocation Hall would ask permission 
to report at a later date. Various causes had conspired to retard the 
action of the committee. 

The MONTHLY, valuable as it had proved, and necessary as it would 
be to the successful working of the Association, occupied such a peculiar, 
if not anomalous, financial position that a deficit during its first year was 
not a matter of great surprise. This must, however, be treated as a debt 
of honour. 

The Endowment Fund for the Association, advocated by Vice- 
President Klotz, deserved careful consideration. The change of name 
of our Alma Mater, provision for which, if it be decided upon, had 
been made by the University Act is one of those important questions of 
vested rights, so to speak, and of sentiment versus prospective advantages 
of indefinite quantity, which will naturally excite great interest and much 
controversy. Should time permit the " ball " might be opened to-day. 
The President added a tribute to the important work done by the 
Secretary of the Association, Dr. McLennan, whose whole-souled energy 
had proved so valuable in many ways during the first year of its 
existence. 



GENERAL MEETING OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 295 

The Minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Professor Squair moved, seconded by Mr. Carl Lehmann, that the 
following be appointed a Nominating Committee to recommend persons 
for the various offices of the Alumni Association for the next year: 
F. F. Manly, B.A., W. H. Ballard, M.A., Miss Curzon, Professor Squair, Dr. 
Oldright, Professor Macailum, Hon. S.C. Biggs, Mr.'Kylie and Dr.Wickett. 
This was carried and the committee withdrew. 

The Acting Secretary read a letter of regret from Mr. Harstone, of 
Lindsay, and letters from Mr. Klotz, in which he urged the establish- 
ment of an Endowment Fund for the Alumni Association. Mr. Rob- 
ertson moved, seconded by Professor Fletcher, that the correspondence 
be received, and the matter arising out of it be taken up under the order 
of Miscellaneous Business. Carried. 

The Treasurer, Mr. Robertson, then presented his report. 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMEITS, JUNE 30TH, 1901. 
Receipts. Disbursements. 

Subscriptions $725 50 Salaries $136 50 

University Graut 200 oo Travelling 57 24 

Interest I 46 Office Stationery and Supplies .... 105 73 

Postage and Mailing 137 48 

Typewriter 25 oo 

Loan to MONTHLY 415 85 

Cash on hand 21 60 

" in Bank 27 56 

$926 96 $926 96 

REVENUE ACCOUNT. 

Printing $ 74 63 Subscriptions $725 50 

Salaries 136 50 University Grant 200 oo 

Travelling 57 24 Interest i 46 

Office Stationery and Supplies .... 144 58 

Postage and Mailing 137 48 

Surplus 376 53 

$926 96 $926 96 

ASSETS AND LIABILITIES. 
Assets. Liabilities. 

Cash on hand $21 60 Accounts Payable $206 33 

" in Bank 27 56 Surplus 376 53 

UNIVERSITY OF IOKONTO MONTHLY 415 85 

Office Equipment 1 17 85 

$582 86 $582 86 

Mr. Robertson moved, seconded by Professor Baker, that the report 
be received and adopted. Carried. 

Mr. Wilkie then read the report of the Executive Committee for the 
Acting Secretary. 

The report first dealt with the MONTHLY, and said that probably the 
most important work undertaken by the Executive Committee during its 



296 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

term of office was the publication of THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
MONTHLY, which was undertaken as a result of the instruction of a gen- 
eral meeting of the Alumni Association. The Executive Committee 
placed the management of the publication in the hands of a small Board, 
which divided itself into an Editorial Committee and a Business Com- 
mittee. Mr. I. H. Cameron was appointed Chairman and Dr. McLennan, 
Secretary of the joint committee. 

The first issue of the publication was in July, 1900, the second in 
October of the same year, and one publication monthly since that time, 
making in all ten issues. The preparation of the first number was under- 
taken entirely by the members of the Committee and the advertisements 
secured by them personally. Largely through the work of the Secretary, 
Dr. McLennan, a sufficient number of advertisements were secured to 
practically defray the expense of the publication of that issue. Realiz- 
ing, however, that members could not devote the necessary time to work 
of this kind, the Editorial Committee recommended to your Executive 
Committee the appointment of Mr. S. J. Robertson as business manager 
of THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY with a salary of six hun- 
dred dollars per annum, to supervise the general management of the 
paper, but to refer all important matters to the Committee for approval. 
Rooms were then granted in the old residence for offices for the Business 
Manager. Under this arrangement THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
MONTHLY has been issued throughout the present academic year. The 
total issue for each number has been five thousand copies, and it has been 
sent to all graduates of the University whose addresses were available 
whether they were paying members of the Association or not. Thus it 
will be seen that the beginning has been made in the establishment of a 
University publication, which has been brought to the attention of all 
graduates of the University through having been sent to them for the 
period of one year. 

As might have been anticipated, the financing of the publication has 
been difficult. The instructions of the Association were that the journal 
should be sent to all graduates whether they paid their fees to the Asso- 
ciation or not, and it has been sent accordingly. It will be observed that 
there is no separate subscription list for the journal and the membership 
fees have been less than $750 and have been devoted to other purposes 
of the Association. 

The revenue, therefore, has been derived from the advertisements, 
and the securing of these for a new magazine, that has not yet obtained 
a permanent standing, was a matter of considerable difficulty. This diffi- 
culty will not exist to anything like as great a degree in the coming 
year. The total expenses of managing the publication to the close of 
the June issue, including the cost of printing, mailing and wrapping of 
the journal, advertising commissions, printing and office expenses and 
salary of Manager, etc., amount to $2,906.06. 

The total receipts from advertising and a few other minor sources 
amount to $1,078.57, leaving a deficit, thus far, of $1,827.49 against the 



GENERAL MEETING OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 297 

publication. To meet this, however, there is due on the publication of 
the June number $763.20 on advertising contracts, making the net deficit 
41,064.29. 

The committee realize that this is not as satisfactory a showing as 
might have been desired, still in view of the difficulties attending the 
launching of a venture of this kind without any initial capital and in 
view of the standing that is being won for the publication, and finally in 
view of the fact that none of the dollar subscriptions have been credited 
to the journal, the committee feel that the prospects, for wiping off this 
deficit in another year are good. In the meantime the members of the 
Editorial Committee and of the Executive Committee are responsible for 
the settlement of obligations incurred. 

As was repeated at the last annual meeting, a sub-committee was 
appointed to wait on the University authorities to effect an arrangement 
with the Registrar's Office by which the services of the Association were 
to be utilized in connection with the University graduates' lists. This 
was duly accomplished and the Trustees of the University voted the 
sum of $200 to pay the Association for the work thus undertaken. It 
was found that owing to the frequent removals very many addresses 
were unknown. This has now been largely corrected, and a card 
catalogue has been completed in which the names of the graduates are 
entered (a) alphabetically, (&) according to places of residence and (c) 
according to degrees held. This has entailed a great deal of labour 
and a large amount of correspondence. A very considerable proportion 
of the expenses of the Association in stationery and postage is chargeable 
to the catalogue, and the grant of the University is hardly adequate in 
view of this fact, irrespective of the labour involved in preparing and 
maintaining the catalogue. 

The work of the Secretary, Dr. McLennan, in the matter of forming 
the local organizations in connection with the Alumni Association was 
reported as being very successful. It was hoped that very shortly every 
county in Ontario will have a local association. There are under way 
some provincial organizations, as in Manitoba and New Brunswick, while 
the formation of the British Columbia branch was announced in the 
October number of the MONTHLY. In all, fifteen local Associations have 
been formed since the organization of the Alumni Association a little 
over a year ago, and active support and assistance have been received 
from two older organizations, the Toronto University Club of Ottawa and 
the Wentworth County Graduates' Association. The Secretary was 
present at twelve of these organization meetings, and was accompanied on 
three occasions by President Loudon and once by Prof. A. B. Macallum. 

Upon resolution of the Executive Committee, at a meeting held 
February 9th, a sub-committee was appointed to draw up a memorial to 
the Government, urging the claims of the University of Toronto for 
.financial assistance and to take steps to have a deputation of leading 



298 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

graduates and friends of the University from all over the Province wait 
upon the Government and present the memorial. The memorial, which 
is now well known to all, was drawn up and copies of it, together with 
other printed matter giving information about the University and its 
needs, were sent^out to a large number of graduates. The very successful 
deputation which assembled and its reception by the Government you 
are already familiar with through the MONTHLY. The results of the 
University Act subsequently brought down by the Government are 
hardly yet apparent,butmany benefits are evident, among them increased 
revenues, and the prospect of the new buildings. The report also referred 
to the grouping of the various events of Convocation week upon one day 
in order to make attendance easier for members living at a distance. 

On motion of Mr. Wilkie, seconded by Hon. S. C. Biggs, the report 
was received and adopted. 

Mr. Wilkie pointed out that the showing was much better than per- 
haps appeared at first sight. Many of the expenses incurred by the 
Association this year were in the nature of an investment, and would 
not be made another year. The receipts from the MONTHLY would 
probably be larger as it became more firmly established in the public 
estimation. 

Mr. Chisholm, Hamilton, was confident that not only would the Alumni 
pay their membership fees but would subscribe generously if necessary 
to sustain the publication. 

Mr. H. A. Harper, M.A., Secretary-Treasurer of the Toronto Univer- 
sity Club of Ottawa, strongly opposed the suggested cutting down of 
the mailing list of the MONTHLY to those who had paid the fee. The 
cutting down of the circulation would, he argued, cause a propor- 
tional reduction in the revenue from advertisements, and would strike at 
the very raison d'etre of the Association, which had been called into 
existence to keep graduates informed with regard to what was going for- 
ward at the University, in order that they might intelligently strive to 
create in their several districts a public opinion favourable to the Univer- 
sity's requirements. While he did not wish to apologize for those who 
had received the magazine month after month without paying the fee, he 
thought a membership of upwards of 700 in a constituency of 5,000 in 
less than a year's time was a creditable showing. As a matter of fact the 
branch associations, many of which had been carried on more or less as 
social clubs, were only gradually getting to understand the nature of the 
General Alumni Association and its objects, and he thought that if the 
actual condition of affairs were brought to the attention of the delin- 
quents in a pointed manner, as for example, by means of a carefully 
worded personal letter, there would be very few who would not be glad 
to respond. In the meantime the Association would best serve the pur- 
pose for which it was called into existence by energetically appealing to 
the graduates, rather than by stifling itself by cutting off its main avenue 
for expansion and usefulness. 

After considerable discussion it was moved by Professor Baker and 



GENERAL MEETING OF ;THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 299 

seconded by Professor Fletcher, that, with a view to providing funds for 
all purposes for which the Alumni Association exists, there be 
formed a Guarantee Fund, and that ordinary subscribers thereto be 
liable for a sum not to exceed , and that life subscribers be allowed 

to subscribe for such further sum as their generosity might prompt. 
Carried. 

Mr. Edwards, Peterborough, said that the proposition to obtain 
a guarantee fund to meet the obligations of the Association 
simply meant that the burden assumed by the Executive Com- 
mittee of financing the Association and the MONTHLY should be 
spread over a larger number of shoulders ; that the Executive Com- 
mittee should in effect be increased in numbers, so far as the question of 
money responsibility goes at all events. So far no one need object to 
the proposal. But the burden will still be there, even if there be more 
men to carry it. The committee a year ago, in obedience to the direc- 
tions of the Association, undertook to publish a magazine, and through 
it to reach the scattered graduates of the University, and rouse them to 
activity in aid of their Alma Mater. The graduates were not only 
scattered they were asleep, so far as the interests of the University 
were concerned. They had been aroused to some degree of activity 
about the time of confederation ; they were aroused again at the time of 
the fire, but they had again fallen asleep, and now it was not strange 
that it was harder than ever to stir them up. The magazine came to the 
graduates, all alike, without any request for subscription on their part, 
and with the understanding that it would be sent to every graduate for 
a year whether the receiver paid for it or not. Under these circum- 
stances it is not at all surprising that the large majority did not seriously 
consider the question of paying for it. 

In the face of the actual position of the University and its needs, it 
was a wise thing and a generous thing for those who took the responsi- 
bility upon them to publish the MONTHLY free for a time. If, however, 
the magazine is to be published for the future it must be put upon a pay- 
ing basis. And the paying basis must be reached not simply by widen- 
ing the number of guarantors, but by increasing the number of actual pay- 
ing subscribers. You cannot go on indefinitely issuing a magazine at 
the expense of a few for the benefit of the many. To make it pay you 
must get a large number of individual subscribers who take sufficient 
interest in the University and its affairs to support its magazine. The 
dollar of the many is better than five dollars or ten dollars of the few. 

It was moved by Mr. Hagarty, and seconded by Miss Curzon, that 
the sum left blank in Mr. Baker's motion be a sum not to exceed five 
dollars. 

An amendment to this, moved by Mr. Houston and seconded by Dr. 
Ellis, that each person be permitted to subscribe whatever sum his 
generosity might prompt, was carried. 

On behalf of the Nominating Committee Major Manley presented the 
report recommending the following persons for the various offices for 
the year 1901-1902 : 



300 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

Honorary President President Loudon. 

President Dr. R. A. Reeve. 

Vice- Presidents L. E. Embree, M.A., Toronto; Otto J. Klotz, Esqr., Ottawa; J. H. Coyne, 
B.A., St. Thomas. 

Secretary J. C. McLennan, Ph.D. 

Treasurer S. J. Robertson, B.A. 

Councillors Professor Baker, M.A. ; C. H. C. Wright, B.A.Sc. ; Professor I. H. Cameron, 
M.B.; F. P. McPherson, B.A ; T. A.Russell, B.A.; G. Wilkie, B.A.; Dr. Willmott, 
J. A. Cooper, B.A.; T. Mulvey, B.A.; Hon. S. C. Biggs, B.A. ; Dr. Mills, A. R. Bain, 
LL.D.; F. E. Brown, B.A.; Professor A. B. Macallum, F. F. Manley, M.A.; T. D. 
Delamere, B.A. ; F. Phipps, Miss Lawler, M.A., and Mrs. J. R. L. Starr, B.A. 



On motion of Major Manley, seconded by Dr. Ellis, the report was 
adopted, and the officers were declared to be unanimously elected. 

Professor Squair reported on behalf of the original Club Committee, 
the results of whose work were presented to the Alumni Association in 
the December meeting, and whose report was contained in the Minutes. 

On behalf of the enlarged Club Committee Mr. Wilkie reported that 
the difficulties in the way of establishing a club seemed almost insuper- 
able. There were already in the city a large number of clubs, for whose 
support an annual fee of $25 is found hardly adequate, and a University 
club could hardly charge so high a fee, nor would it have as large a body 
eligible for membership. A sub-committee had been appointed, which 
turned its attention to the provision of club chambers without the more 
expensive features of a club proper, and it was found that suitable 
quarters could be secured and maintained at an annual cost of $1,000, 
which, it was thought, could be secured from two hundred members at 
$5 per annum. The Club Committee, in dealing with the report of the 
sub-committee, reluctantly came to the conclusion that, having regard 
to all the circumstances, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to estab- 
lish the chambers in the premises in question and to carry them on 
satisfactorily. The committee thought that it might be possible to make 
the venture succeed, but it would entail an undue amount of labour and 
attention upon those in charge, and that the matter had best not be 
pressed to an issue at the present time, but that we wait for a more 
favourable opportunity for carrying out the scheme. 

It was moved by Mr. Houston, seconded by Professor Squair, that the 
report be adopted, and that the committee be continued, and instructed 
to keep the matter in view and to report from time to time. Carried. 

The Alumni Research Scholarship Sub-Committee report was pre- 
sented by Professor A. B. Macallum. The committee, after careful 
consideration of the question of the method of awarding the Alumni 
Research Scholarship, report that, in their opinion, the method of 
awarding the scholarship should be determined by a joint committee 
of the Senate and Executive of the Alumni Association. The report 
was received and adopted. 

On motion of Mr. Coyne, seconded by Professor Fletcher, the report 
of the Memorial Hall Committee was deferred till the fall meeting. 
Carried. 



THE GARDEN PARTY 301 

It was also decided, on motion of Mr. Robertson, seconded by Professor 
Fletcher, that the Endowment Fund be referred to the Executive Com- 
mittee, to be reported on at the first meeting in the Fall. 

It was moved by Hon. S. C. Biggs, and seconded by Dr. Willmott, 
that the President of the Alumni Association, one month before the 
next annual meeting, appoint a Nominating Committee of ten, who 
shall strike a list of officers, to be presented at the annual meeting. 
Carried. The meeting then adjourned. 

S. J. ROBERTSON, Acting Secretary. 



A 



THE GARDEN PARTY. 

BY EDITH M. CURZON, B.A. 
" There's room enough, and each may bring his friend." Creech. 

MOST happy condition of affairs after the crowding and heat ex- 
perienced by those assembled in the Gymnasium to witness the 
conferring of degrees and listen to the speeches that are, or should be, 
made on that occasion to bring before the public the important interests 
of our Provincial University. 

The garden party is a pleasing feature of the day's proceedings, for it 
admits of a social intercourse which is informal, and, if it may be so 
expressed, unsustained ; it gives an opportunity of greeting many friends 
and acquaintances, with the liberty of prolonging or abbreviating the 
conversation, an opportunity not afforded by a luncheon or dinner. 

In the days of old Convocation Hall the audience streamed from it to 
the campus, attracted by the strains of a military band, and there saluted 
friends and congratulated those who had received their degrees. Then 
followed a period when we had to seek a roof far removed from our beau- 
tiful grounds, and there was nowhere to congregate and talk over the 
events of the afternoon. Once more we have a house of entertainment, 
small and inconvenient, the Gymnasium ; but it is home, and our friends 
may be invited into the garden, not only to strains of agreeable music 
but to refreshments. 

The garden party is an agreeable feature, which may well become 
an established custom, as a graceful relaxation to the more serious 
business of the day. The status of a university is judged by its social as 
well as by its academic events, and the dignity of its position in the 
public estimation depends upon the degree of excellence and good taste 
evidenced in the discharge of all its affairs. 

The Quadrangle on Friday afternoon was more than usually beautiful 
with the freshness and verdancy of early June. The marquee for refresh- 
ments was not unpicturesque ; while the brilliant robes and hoods of the 
dignitaries and pretty summer dresses of the ladies gave an air of bright- 
ness and animation to the usually quiet enclosure. 

The philosophers of the present day and in this climate would be 
likely to impart but little wisdom and knowledge to their students should 



3 o2 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

they stroll about the paths or rest beneath the shade of the trees as they 
discourse. But they have the opportunity once a year, under the blue 
sky, of congratulating their disciples on the successful termination of four 
years' study and of wishing them God- speed as they leave the fostering 
care of Alma Mater to follow their life's career, depending on their own 
judgment and mettle. 

This gathering makes possible also the informal introduction of those 
connected directly or indirectly with the University to such distinguished 
guests as were present on this occasion ; and the absence of the strain 
and routine of a formal reception brings out the personality of each and 
cements more strongly the feeling of goodwill to the University. 

Let us hope, then, for a pleasant and successful garden party for many 
Junes to come. 

THE SECOND ANNUAL DINNER OF THE UNIVERSITY 
OF TORONTO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

BY GEO. WILKIE, B.A. 

THE proceedings of Convocation Day came to a fitting conclusion 
with the Alumni dinner. The Gymnasium, which had served as a 
convocation hall in the afternoon, was quickly rearranged, and in the 
evening became a dining hall. 

Shortly after eight o'clock, for they were punctual, the dining-room 
was filled with the diners. Filled, but not quite as full as it might have 
been. A few more might have found room a very few might even have 
found chairs. The evening was most enjoyable. The weather was ideal, 
and robbed a dinner in June of all terror of heat. The edibles did credit 
to the skill of the caterer. The drinkables, while not all that some 
could wish, were all that could be supplied by a caterer without a license, 
The diners were not arranged by years, but each sat where his will or 
his luck led him. And so the story-teller had a new audience, and the 
story and the joke of last year served again. It was most considerate 
of the committee, but next year we may sit in classes ; wherefore, you 
story-tellers, let neither memory nor invention sleep lest your wit be 
found wanting. 

The reunion of fellow-students and class-mates revived the character- 
istics of their student days. The student story-teller told stories again 
sometimes the same stories. The cheeky freshman still retained his 
assurance. Wit and song still bubbled and poured from the old foun- 
tains. There was much singing of old college songs, but not enough. 
" Old Grimes" received full justice, and the ladies left the dining hall to 
the strains of " Good-night, Ladies." A musical critic might find fault 
with the attack, but the audience was not critical, but appreciative. The 
tonsts were reached early, which was fortunate, for the list was long. 
But the speeches were excellent, and so abundant was the wit about the 
tables that some even found its way into the set speeches, which is 



SECOND ANNUAL DINNER ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 303 

unusual. The ladies occupied a table in the centre of the room. Their 
bright costumes and brighter faces lent a touch of colour to the sombre 
black and white of a male gathering. 

Professor Hutton was merry with the Legislature, and flavoured his 
address with much Attic salt at its expense, as, " The Legislature was 
moribund, if not dead, and ' de mortuis nil nisi bonum! " And so it 
was. The speaker's wit was such as " loves to play, not wound." 

The Hon. G. W. Ross was not able to be present. The Hon. Richard 
Harcourt, Minister of Education, had been present earlier in the evening, 
but had been compelled to leave in order to keep an appointment. Mr. 
J. S. Willison replied for "The Legislature." He said many good things, 
among them : " I should have responded more readily if the Legislature 
had responded more liberally to the demands of the University. The 
Legislature will never have done its duty until every child shall be 
entitled to attend every public educational institution without the pay- 
ment of any fee." 

Louis Frechette received a particularly warm welcome. The degree 
of LL.D. had been conferred upon him at the convocation in the 
morning, and he suggested that he had been selected to propose " Alma 
Mater " as not the youngest graduate but the most recent of the older 
graduates. His remark that it would be well if we knew more of 
Quebec, and Quebec more of us, was received with loud and prolonged 
applause. 

The Chancellor of the University replied, and the reply appears 
elsewhere in this issue. But the reader loses much that the hearer had. 
The force, the elocution, the impressive presence, the rare but appropri- 
ate gestures of the finished orator are lost and nothing but bare words, 
without colour and without tone, are left. The written words were but 
a part of the address which was worthy of the occasion and the speaker. 

James Chisholm, of Hamilton, proposed the Alumni Association and 
THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. Mr. Chisholm represented the Went- 
worth County Graduates' Association. His speech was able and elo- 
quent and well received. 

John Idington, K.C., Stratford, replied with a strong plea for a 
greater interest of the graduates in the affairs of the University. 

Professor I. H. Cameron was as bright and witty in replying for 
THE MONTHLY as his friends expected, which is saying much. 

J. R. L. Starr proposed the " Branch Associations " in a bright and 
brief speech. E. B. Edwards, K.C., Peterborough, replied in a glowing 
speech upon the work being done and still to be done by the graduates 
for their Alma Mater. 

Professor F. Ramsay Wright, proposing the Graduating Class, made 
a punning allusion to the conferring of a degree upon a " Frechette." 
The pun required annotation for some of the elders, who did not know 
that " freshette " is the feminine of freshman. 

B. A. Cohoe responded for the graduating class in Medicine and E. J. 
Kylie for the graduating class in Arts. 



3 o 4 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 

The following gentlemen, whose names were also on the toast list, wrote 
regretting that they were unable to be present: W. B. Northrup, B A., 
M.P., Belleville ; T. Macbeth, B.A., K.C., London ; John Henderson, 
M.A., St. Catharines ; Judge D. Chisholm, LL.B., Berlin. 

Among others present at the dinner were : 

F. J. Smale, B.A. '92 ; Jas. Mavor ; Wm. Davidson, B.A. '66 ; Lieut. -Col. Mason ; R. R. 
Wright, M.A. '78; R. A. Reeve, B.A. '62, M.D. '89; Louis Frechette, LL.D. '01 ; John 
Idington, LL.B. '64 ; I. H. Cameron, M.B. '74 ; A. R. Bain, B.A. '58 ; P. H. Bryce, B.A. 
'76, M.D. '88 ; A. P. Addison, B.A. '96 ; P. W. H. McKeown, B.A. '87 ; W. J. 0. Malloch, 
B.A. '91 ; R. A. Thompson, B.A. '85 ; Henry A. Harper, B.A. "95 ; W. L. T. Addison, 
B.A. '92, M.B. '95 ; J. R. L. Starr, B.A. '87 ; E. B. Edwards, KA. '70 ; Geo. Kennedy, 
B.A. '57; J. W. Flavelle; Julius Rossin, B.A., '64; Sir W. R. Meredith, LL.B. '72; 
Charles Moss, 'oo ; J. S. Willison ; John Miller, B.A. '72; S. C. Biggs, JB.A. '72; J. F. 
McCurdy ; John A. Amyot, M.B. '91 ; F. N. G. Starr, M.B. '89 ; A. C. McKay, B.A. '85 ; 
R. F. McWilliams, B.A. '96 ; S. M. Wickett, B.A. '94 ; Fred F. Manley, B.A. '74 ; Alfred 
Baker, B.A. '69 ; W. Lash Miller, B.A. '87 ; R. J. Gibson, B.A. '89 ; 0. Mowat Biggar, 
B.A. '98; M. C. Cameron, B.A. '99; J. Fletcher, B.A. '72; J. Galbraith, B.A. '68; 
John A. Paterson, B.A. '66; S. B. Woods, B.A. '94; F. B. Kenrick, B.A. '94; Pelham 
Edgar, B.A. '92; J. Price-Brown, M.B. '68; F. A. Reesor, B.A. '67; W. H. Ellis, 
B.A. '67 ; Wm. Houston, B.A. '72 ; Mrs. Squair ; Miss Jessie, Forrest, B.A. '01 ; 
Miss Guest, B.A. '99; Miss Curzon, B.A. '89; Miss M. Hunter, B.A. '98; Miss 
Creighton, B.A. 'oo ; Miss McBain, B.A. '99; Miss A. W. Patterson, B.A. '99; Miss 
Gertrude Lawler, B.A. '90 ; Miss Luxi Hamilton, B.A. '94 ; S. Casey Wood, Jr., B.A. '92 ; 
Alex. Smith, B.A. '89 ; H. J. Crawford, B.A. '88 ; R. H. Coats, B.A. '96 ; A. R. Clute, B.A. 
'96 ; W. W. Edgar, B.A. '97 ; Geo. Wilkie, B.A. '88 ; W. A. Parks, B.A. '92 ; J. H. Ten- 
nant, B.A. '92 ; G. S. Henry, B.A. '96 , J. S. McLean, B.A. '96 ; F. H. Scott, B.A. '97 ; 
W. A. McKinnon, B.A. '97; G. G. Nasmith, B.A. 'oo ; J. R. S. Scott, B.A. 'oo ; C. R. 
Fitzgerald, B.A. 'oo; E. J. Kylie, B.A. '01; F. J. Buller, B.A. '01; W. D. Ferris, M.B. '98; 
S. E. Bolton, B.A. '98; A. E McFarlane, B.A. '98; Harold Fisher, B.A. '99; G. F. 
McFarland, '02; B. K. Sandwell, B.A. '97; W. J. Greig, M.D. '82; Prof. J. G. Hume, 
B.A. '87; J. T. Jackson, B.A. '87; J. S. Plaskett, B.A. '99; A. Primrose, B.A. '89; F. 
Erickson Brown, B.A. 'oo; L. E. Jones, B.A. 'oo ; Geo. R. Pirie, B.A. '01; E. F. Burton, 
B.A. '01; W. T. Comber, B.A. '01; J. Hunter, '75; B. A. Cohoe, B.A. '98; R. H. Row- 
land, B.A. '98; W. Harvey McNairn, '99; Albert H. Abbot, B.A. '95; C. D. Creighton, 
B.A. '97; H. L. Jordan, B.A. '97: Geo. B. Wiltsie, B.A. 82; R. L. Johnston, B.A. '87: 
John A. Ferguson, B.A. '87 ; W. S. Ormiston, B.A. '83; G. R. Anderson, B.A. '93; W. G. 
Anglin, '83 ; A. B. Macallum, B.A. '80 ; James Ballantyne, B.A. '80 ; D. R. Keys, B.A. '78; 
James Chisholm, B.A. '79; W. Lehmann, M.B. '79; Maurice Hutton, M.A. '8l; J. Squair, 
B.A. '83 ; William Cook, B.A. '80; Thomas H. Smyth, B.A. '75 ; A. G. F. Lawrence, B.A. 
'81 ; W. Geo. Eakins, B.A. '76; L. E. Embree, B.A. '75 ; H. W. Mickle, B.A. '82. 



x UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ANNUAL CONVOCATION. 
FRIDAY, JUNE 7, 1901. 

I. ADMISSION TO DEGREES. 

LL.D. (Honoris Causa.). The Right Honourable Gilbert John Elliot, Earl of Minto, 
Governor-General of Canada. Louis Honore Frechette. 

Ph.D. Francis Barclay Allan. 

M.A. (Honoris Causa,.) Julius Rossin. 

M.A. Guest, Miss E. J. ; Hunter, Miss M. E. ; Tucker, Miss A. 3. ; Allan, F. B. ; Cur- 
relly, C. T.; Dakin, W. S.; Eraser, W. H.; Glanfield, W. J.; Jackman, D. S.; Kenrick, F. B.; 
Kerr, W. A. R.; Martin, S. T.; Misener, A. P.; Osborne, W. F.; Page, R. B.; Ross, G. W,; 
Tait, M. C.; Wilson, R. J. 

M. D. - MacMurchy, Miss H. ; Harison, B. D. ; White, W. C. ; Robertson, W. E. 

LL.B. Burgess, T. A. ; Clark, G. M. ; Clute, A. R. ; Gould, M. G. V.; MacGregor, A ; 
Matheson, H. 



ANNUAL CONVOCATION 



35 



M.B. Doyle, Miss M. ; Abbott, W. J. ; Campbell, C. C. ; Campbell, J. A. ; Cerswell 
W. A ; Chisholm, J. D. ; Clarkson, F. A. ; Cleland, F. A. ; Coates, F. P. . Cohoe. B. A. 
Colbeck, 0. W. ; Colling, F. J. ; Crouyn, W. H. ; Currie, C. J. ; Davis, G. ; Dixon, I. 
Dixon, J. T. ; Ferguson, C. D. ; Hamilton, W. T. ; Hodgson, D. E. ; Kee, R. J. ; Lighthall 
D. S. ; Moak, J. W. ; Montgomery, A. H. ; Morton, C. S. ; McCartney, G. E. R. ; Me 
Collum, J. A. ; Mcllwraith, G. 0. ; Mclntyre, W. ; McKichan, M. D. ; McKinnon, K. 
O'Brien, P. W. ; Parent, H. R. ; Pirie, G. R. ; Riches, J. F. S. ; Rutherford, A. B. 
Smillie. J. ; Smith, G. W. ; Smith, J. A. Sproat, R. D. ; Stanley, G. D. ; Steele, A. T. 
Storey, W. E. ; Treble, C. E. ; Wainwright, C. S. ; Wealey, D. G. ; Whitley, L. N. 

B.A. Baird, Miss M. M. J. ; Cole, Miss F. ; Conlin, Miss E. E. ; Crane, Miss A. E. 
Darling, Miss L. ; Francis, Miss A. B. ; Forrest, Miss J. W. ; Grant, Miss C. C. ; Grundry 
Miss H. M. ; Hutchison, Miss W. A. ; Macdonald, Miss A. C. ; Macdonald, Miss J. E. O. 
Powell, Miss M. E. ; Robertson, Miss J. T. A. ; Scott, Miss L. E. ; Staples, Miss L. L. 
Ward, Miss C. A. ; Watson, Miss M. M. ; Watt, Miss M. ; Wicher, Miss F. M. ; Wigg 
Miss H. E. ; Woodsworth, Miss C. M. ; Young, Miss A. M. ; Adams, A. H. ; Armstrong 
F. ; Atkinson, G. F. N. ; Aylesworth, A. F. ; Baker, A. ; Barnes, C. L. ; Beatty, M. J. 
Birchard, F. J. ; Bridgland, M. P. ; Brown, E. P. ; Buchanan, M. A. ; Buller, F. J. 
Burton, E. F. ; Carscallen, C. R. ; Carson, P. A. ; Cassidy, R. A. ; Chapman, F. M. 
Clark, G. M. ; Coleman, H. L. ; Colwell, A. S. ; Comber, W. T. ; Cook, H. M. ; Cormie, J.A. 
Cunningham, J. D. ; Daniels, W. S. ; Davidson, D. J. ; Deroche, H. M. P.; Donaldson, W. 
Eadie, G. ; Embree, M. H. ; Engler, C. ; Farrell, A. C. ; Fisher, A. I. ; Furse, J. A. 
Gowland, M. E. ; Grainger, H. A. ; Greene, A. W. ; Hackney, G. A. ; Hanley, W. J. 
Hedley, W. P. ; Henderson, A. ; Hogg, F. D. ; Howard, A. L. ; Irwin, H. W. ; Johnston 
J. H. ; Jones, L. E. ; Keefe, R. D. ; Wellington, H. E. ; Kerr, A. S. ; Kylie, E. J. ; Little 
J. ; Lucas, F. G. T. ; Martyn, H. G. ; Masters, C. ; Miller, J. A. ; Mooney, W. T. 
Mulcahy, J. T. ; McCormick, R. J. ; McCredie, A. L. ; McCulloch, E. A. ; McGibbon, C. P. 
McLaren. W. W. ; McMartin, J. J. ; McPhedran, A. G. ; McPherson, J. L. ; Porter, G. E. 
Potvin, F. P. ; Price, T. W. ; Robertson, J. E. ; Rowland, C. E. ; Ryan, F.; Rymal, J. W. 
Shenstone, N. S. ; Simpson, W. ; Sissons, C. B. ; Smith, A. C. ; Spark, G. ; Sproule, G. 
A. ; Stewart, J. L. ; Taylor, C. C. ; Taylor, W. E. ; Wickens, A. E. ; Wilcox, E. M. ; 
Willson, H. G. ; Wilson, W. J. ; Wood, F. H. ; Wood, W. H. 

C.E. Francis, W. J. ; McDowall, R. 

M.E. Johnston, A. C. 



THE HALLS OF ALMA MATER.* 

BY J. CLELAND HAMILTON, M.A,-, LL.D. 



This fair June day, from far and near, 
All greet the halls we hold most dear ; 
Where erst we climbed Parnassus' hill, 
And slaked our thirst at Isthmian rill, 
Penelope in every tower, 
Satyr and faun in every bower, 

When young was Alma Mater. 



Full many a Grecian sang his lay, 
Achilles sulks his tent within, 
Brave Hector leads the Trojan din, 
Horace we scan, the wars in Gaul 
And Carthage, read with good McCault 
In halls of Alma Mater. 

By parasang and stadion 
We journey on with Xenophon, 
Through Asia's plain in proud array ; 
Then comes the fratricidal fray ; 
The leaders fall, the stricken bands 
Now seek, through floods, o'er Median sands, 
The sea their Alma Mater. 



Here Croft displayed alchemic arts, 
Cherry his logarithms and charts, 
Wilson his rich historic lore, 
And Young, with master spirit, bore 
Our minds the world within to scan, 
And learn the Godlike part of man, 
In halls of Alma Mater. t 

Genial and loved yet wise were these, 
As " tyrants of the Chersonese " ; 
Their will our law, their cherished aim 
To show the path that leads to fame, 
To broadly think as Plato thought, 
To bravely fight as Cato fought, 
O dulcis Alma Mater ! 

And when arose the clarion call, 
How quickly from each college hall, 
With gun and sword begirt, were seen 
Her sous arrayed to serve the Queen ! 
At Limeridge and on Erie's shore 
The foul invader back they bore, 
Brave sons of A Ima Mater. 



306 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



tempora ! mores all ! 

No longer, under beeches tall, 

Do fauns and satyrs grim converse, 

But nymphs, sweet lisping Browning's verse, 

X-rays, microbes, conchology 

Each modern ism and ology, 

Now grace our Alma Mater. 

Aeon and primal molecule 
Are weighed with scientific rule : 
Fair Canadensfe Eozoon, 
With blue-green algae decked, is shown, 
And oft the Soph completes his term 
A wise Kiplingii blastoderm 
In halls of Alma Mater. 



" How out of time the song you sing !" 
Says Portia, gown'd with jewel'd ring, 

' ' Nymphs, satyrs, fauns and epic lays 
Are themes for wet vacation days ; 
E'en from your old blind poet learn, || 
And cease our modern arts to spurn 
In halls of A Ima Mater. 

" On Vulcan's shield, which Thetis bore 
To her sad son by Ilion's shore, 
Were graved, beside Mars' bloody strife, 
The lowing herd, the ways of life ; 
Jove's mystic works, the starry vault ; 
Of these to know were scarce a fault 
In halls of Alma Mater. 



" The unseen powers of air are caught ; 
Titian and Nereid now are taught, 
At Mary's flood, Niagara's gorge, 
To turn the wheel and fan the forge. 
Culture and science, hand in hand, 
Hail victory won o'er sea and land 
From halls of Alma Mater. 



* Republished from the Anglo-American Magazine, June, 1901. 

tRev. John McCaul, LL.D., President and Professor of Classics. 

Dr. Henry Croft, Professor of Chemistry; Dr. J. B. Cherriman, Professor of Mathe- 
matics ; Sir Daniel Wilson, LL.D., Professor of History and English Literature, and Presi- 
dent after Dr. McCaul ; Dr. George Paxton Young, Professor of Philosophy. 

Vide " Plain Tales from the Hills." 

I! Vide Iliad, Lib. XVIII. 



TORONTONENSIA 



307 



TORONTONENSIA. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
MONTHLY. 

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS FOR PUBLICATION TO 
THE SECRETARY, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 

Published monthly, October June. 
Subscription $1.00 a year. 

EDITORIAL BOARD. 

I. H. CAMEROV, M.B., Chairman. 

J. C. MCLENNAN, Ph. IX, Secretary. 
J. FLETCHER, M.A., LL.D.; A. R. BAIN, 
M.A.,LL.D.; J. A. COOPER, B.A.. LL.B.; 
L. E. EMBREE, M.A. ; THOMAS MULVF.Y, 
B.A.; J. M. CLARK, M.A., LL.B., K.C.; 
S. J. ROBERTSON, B.A., Managing Editor. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI AS- 
SOCIATION: LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS 

DIRECTORY. 

GENERAL ASSOCIATION. President, DR. R. 
A. REEVE, Toronto. Secretary, J. C. MC- 
LENNAN, Ph.D., Dean's House, University 
of Toronto. 

BARRIE. President, DONALD Ross, B.A. 
LL.B. , Secretary- Treasurer, A. F. HUNTER, 
M.A. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. President, REV. R. 
WHITTINGTON, M.A., B.Sc., Vancouver, B.C. 
Secretary- Treasurer, ALFRED HALL, B.A., 
LL.B., B.C.L., Vancouver. 

ELGIN COUNTY, ONT. President, D. Mc- 
LARTY, M.D., St. Thomas. Secretary, S. SIL- 
cox, B.A., B.Paed., St. Thomas. 

GREY AND BRUCE. President, A. G. MC- 
KAY, B.A., Owen Sound, Ont. Secretary, 
W. D. FERRIS, M.B., Shallow Lake, Ont. 

HASTINGS COUNTY. President, LT.-COL. 
W. N. PONTON, M. A., Belleville. Secretary, 
J. T. LUTON, B.A., Belleville. 

HURON COUNTY. President, WM. GUNN, 
M D., Clinton, Ont. Secretary-Treasurer, 
CHAS. G ARROW, B.A., LL.B., Goderich, Ont. 

LENNOX AND ADDINGTON COUNTIES. 
President, H. M. DEROCHE, B.A., K.C., 
Napanee. Secretary- Treasurer, U. J. FLACK, 
M.A. , Napanee. 

LINCOLN COUNTY. President, JOHN HEN- 
DERSON, M.A.. St. Catharines. Secretary- 
Treasurer, G. B. BCRSON, B.A., St Cathar- 
ines. 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY. President, TALBOT 
MACBETH, B.A., K.C., London. Secretary - 
Treasurer, F. E. PERRIN B.A., London. 



OTTAWA. President, E. R. CAMERON, 
M.A., Ottawa. Secretary- Treasurer, H. A. 
HARPER, M.A.. Ottawa. 

PERTH COUNTY, ONT. President, C. J. 
McGREGOR, M. A., Stratford, Ont. Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, C. A. MAYBERRY, B.A., 
LL.B., Stratford, Ont. 

PETERBOROUGH COUNTY. President, E. B. 
EDWARDS, B.A., LL.B., K.C., Peterborough. 
Secretary -Treasurer, D. WALKER, B.A., 
Peterborough. 

PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY. President, M. 
CURRIE, B.A. , M.B., Picton. Secretary- 
Treasurer, A. W. HKNDRICK, B.A., Picton. 

VICTORIA COUNTY. President, J. C. Har- 
stone, B.A. , Lindsay, Ont. Secretary- Treas- 
urer, Miss E. G. Flavelle, B. A., Lindsay, Ont. 

WATERLOO COUNTY. President, His 
HONOUR JUDGE CHISHOLM, Berlin, Ont. 
Secretary-Treasurer, REV. W. A. BRADLEY, 
B.A., Berlin, Ont. 

WELLINGTON COUNTY, ONT. President, 
WM. TYTLER, B.A., Guelph, Ont. Secretary- 
Treasurer, R. L. McKiNNON, B.A. LL.B., 
Guelph, Ont. 

WENTWORTH COUNTY (GRADUATES ASSOCI- 
ATION. President, J. CHISHOLM, B. A., Ham- 
ilton, Ont. Secretary - Treasurer, J. T. 
CRAWFORD, B.A., Hamilton, Ont. 



NEWS FROM THE CLASSES. 

The personal news is compiled from information 
furnished by the Secretary of the University of Toronto 
Alumni Association, and by the Secretaries of local 
organizations, and from other reliable sources. The 
value of this department might be greatly enhanced 
if University of Toronto men everywhere would con- 
tribute to it. The correction of "any errors will be 
gratefully received by the Secretary of the Alumni 
Association. 

1878. 

S. S. Bates, B.A., is a Baptist clergyman 
in Toronto. A. J. Bell, B.A., is a pro- 
fessor in Victoria University, Toronto. 

G. W. Beynon, B.A., is in Portage la 

Prairie, Man. Conrad Bitzer. B.A., is a 

barrister in Berlin, Ont. J. H. M. Camp- 
bell, B.A., is a lumber merchant in Toronto. 

W. H. P. Clement, B.A., is a barrister 

in Grand Forks, B.C. J. L. Cox, B.A., is 

a master in Harbord Collegiate Institute, 

Toronto. R. B. Cummings. B.A., is in 

New York. J. H. Farmer, B.A., is a 

professor in McMaster University, Toronto. 

J. Farquharson, B. A. , is a Presbyterian 

clergyman in Pilot Mound, Man. F. E. 



3 o8 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



Hayter, B.A., is in the Auditor-General's 

Department, Ottawa. D. R. Keys, B.A., 

is lecturer in English at the University of 

Toronto. J. Morgan, B.A., is a master in 

the High School at Walkertou, Ont. 

P. A. McEwen, B. A., is a Baptist clergy- 
man in Berlin, Ont. M. McGregor, B. A., 

is a Presbyterian clergyman and journalist 
in Toronto. H. Nason, B.A., is a bar- 
rister in Winnipeg, Man. T. A. O'Rourke, 

B.A., is a barrister in Trenton, Ont. J. 

Russell, B.A., is manager of the Winnipeg 
General Trusts Company, Winnipeg, Man. 
S. C. Smoke, B.A., is a barrister in To- 
ronto. D. Stalker, B. A., is a Presbyterian 

clergyman in Calumet, Mich., U.S. -J. A. 

Turnbull, B.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman 

in Toronto. R. Ramsay Wright, B. A., ad 

eundem, is Professor of Biology in the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. 

Deceased. S. J. Duff, B.A. W. Fitz- 

simmons, B.A. D. McColl, B.A. E. 

R. C. Proctor, B.A. 

Addresses Unknown. J. E. Pollock, B.A. 

J. W. Russell, B.A. J. S. Smith, 

B.A. J. 2. Wilson, B.A. 

1888. 

Deceased. Newton Kent, B.A. R. B. 

Potts, B.A. 1. A. Sparling, B.A. T. 

B. P. Stewart, B.A. 

B. M. Aikins, B.A., is a barrister in Indi- 
anapolis, Ind., U.S. E. F. Blake, B.A., 

is a barrister in Toronto. H. C. Bonltbee, 

B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. G. Boyd, 

B.A., is a physician in Toronto. J. R. S. 

Boyd, B.A., is a clergyman, Wycliffe Col- 
lege. Wm. A. Bradley, B.A., is a clergy- 
man in Berlin, Ont. N. P. Buckingham, 

B.A., is a barrister in Boissevain, Man. 

W. E. Burritt, B A., is a barrister in Daw- 
son City. Henrietta Charles, B.A., is a 

teacher in Toronto Junction, Ont. Wm. 

Cliinie, B.A., is an editor in Listowel, Ont. 

--L. J. Corn well, B.A., is a teacher in 

Meaford, Ont. H. J. Crawford, B. A., is a 

teacher in Jameson Avenue Collegiate Insti- 
tute, Toronto. G. Cross, B. A. , is a clergy- 
man in Aylmer, Ont. J. N. Dales, B.A., 

is a teacher in Kingston, Ont. G. F. 

Downes, B.A., is a barrister in Palmerston, 

Ont. Ida G. Eastwood, B.A., is a teacher 

in Toronto .Junction, Ont. J. W. Edgar, 

B.A., is a physician in HTamilton, Ont. S. 

J. Farmer, B.A., is a clergyman in Perth, 

Ont. J. S. Gale, B. A., is a missionary in 

Seoul, Korea. Ella Gardiner, B.A., is 

a teacher in Albert College, Belleville, Ont. 
T. A. Gibson, B.A., is a barrister, 43 Ade- 
laide St., Toronto. J. A. Giffin, B.A., is 



a teacher in St. Catharines, Ont. C. H. 

Glassford, B.A., is a barrister, 63 Yonge St., 

Toronto. E. A. Hardy, B.A., is a teacher 

in Lindsay, Ont. J. G. Harkness, B.A., 

is a barrister iu Cornwall, Ont. T. M. 

Higgins, B.A., is a barrister, 140 Yonge St., 
Toronto. J. D. Graham, B.A., is in Pas- 
adena, Cal. R. Harkness, B. A., is in 

Tweed, Ont. T. M. Harrison, B.A., is in 

St. Mary's, Ont. E. L.Hill, B. A. , is a teacher 

in Guelph, Ont. W. H. Hodges, B.A., is 

a barrister, 2 Toronto St., Toronto. F. B. 

Hodgins,B. A. ,is a clergyman in Detroie. 

E. S. Hogarth, B A. , is a teacher in Hamilton, 

Ont. F. A. Hough, B.A., is a barrister at 

Amherstburg, Ont. J. P. Huhbard, B.A., 

is a physician in Forest, Ont. E. L. Hunt, 
B.A., is a clergyman in Washington, D.C. 

J. H. Hunter, B.A., is a clergyman in 

Coaticooke, Que. W. F. Hull, B.A., is in 

Winnipeg, Man. E. C. Jeffrey, B.A., is a 

lecturer in the University of Toronto. J. 

Jeffries, B.A., is a teacher in Peterborough, 
Ont. Alice Jones, B.A., is living in To- 
ronto. J. E. Jones, B.A., is a barrister in 

Toronto. S. King, B.A., is a barrister in 

Toronto. A. A. Knox, B.A., is a teacher 

in Chatham, Ont. W. A. Lamport. B.A., 

is a barrister in Toronto. Mary Lennox, 

B.A. , ia a teacher in Vancouver, B.C. 
W. A. Leys, B. A., is a barrister in Port 

Arthur, Ont. E. Lyon, B.A., is editor of 

the Buffalo Express, Buffalo, N.Y. W. 

H. Metzler, B.A., is a professor in Syracuse 

University. A. W. Milden, B.A., is a 

teacher in Cornwall, Ont. J. O. Miller, 

B, A., is a clergyman in St. Catharines. 
W. Montgomery, B.A., is a teacher in Pe- 
trolea, Ont. S. A. Morgan, B. A., isa teach- 
er in Hamilton, Ont. ^V. Morrin, B A. , is 

a clergyman in Port Colborne, Ont. 
E. Mortimer, B.A. , is a barrister in Toronto. 

H. A. McOullough, B.A., is a physician 

in Brampton, Ont. W. J. McDonald, 

B.A., is a barrister, 63 Yonge St., Toronto. 
J. McGowan, B. A., is a teacher in Tor- 
onto. R. McKay. B.A., is a barrister in 

Toronto. W. M. McKay, B.A., is a bar- 
rister in Dawson City, Yukon. A. J. L. 

Mackenzie, B.A., is a physician in London, 

Ont. H. McLaren, B.A., is a physician in 

Ottawa. J. W. Macmillan, B.A., is a 

Presbyterian clergyman in Lindsay, Ont. 

W. B. Nicol, B.A., is a barrister in Sydney, 
Australia. A. H. O'Brien, B.A., is a bar- 
rister in Ottawa. R. D. Overholt, B.A., 

is in Auburn, Neb. E. A. Pearson, B.A., 



is a Methodist clergyman in Aurora, Ont.- 
W. Prendergast, B.A., is a school inspector 

in Toronto, Ont. S. J. Radcliffe, B.A., is 

a teacher in London, Ont. G. H Reed, 

B.A., is a teacher in Markham, Ont. C. 

E. Saunders, B.A., is a teacher of music in 



TORONTONENSIA 



39 



Ottawa. S. J. Saunders, B.A., is a pro- 
fessor in Syracuse University, Utica, N.Y. 
T. C. Somerville, B.A. , is in Ottawa. 
S. D. Schulyz, B.A. , is a barrister in 

Vancouver, B.C. E. C. Senkler, B.A., is 

gold commissioner at Dawson City. L. E. 

Skey, B.A., is an Anglican clergy man in Mer- 
ritton, Ont. F. J. Steen, B.A. , is an Angli- 
can clergyman in Montreal. F. H. Suftel, 

B.A., is in West Superior, Wis. M. P. 

Tailing, B.A., is a Presbyterian clergyman, 

148 Berkeley St., Toronto. G. Waldron, 

B.A., is a barrister in Toronto. R. Watt, 

B.A. , is in Corwhin, Ont. J. Waugh, 

B. A. , is a school inspector in Whitby, Ont. 
W. L. Wickett, B.A., is a barrister in 

St. Thomas, Ont. G. Wilkie, B.A., is a 

barrister in Toronto. J. G. Wi,tton, B.A., 

is a teacher in Walkerton, Ont. 

Address Unknown. J. W. Kerr, B.A. 



J. H. Alexander, B.A., is in Brampton, 

Ont. C. D. Allin, B.A., is in Sandhurst, 

Ont. Miss E. Allin, B.A., is a teacher 

in Glencoe, Ont. A. W. Anderson, B.A., 

is in Toronto. E. F. Armstrong, B.A., is 

a Methodist clergyman in Windsor, Ont. 

Miss A. E. Ashwell, B.A. , is a teacher 

in Kincardine, Ont. C. Auld, B.A., is a 

teacher in Tilsonburg, Ont. G. H. Balls, 

B. A., is a teacher in Wardsville, Ont. T. 

F. Battle, B.A., is in Toronto. H. R. 

Bean, B. A., is in Galveston, Ind., U.S.A. 

E. W. Beatty, B.A., is in Toronto. 

Miss M. H. Beatty, B.A., is in Toronto. 

George Black, B. A., is a teacher in the State 

Normal School, Cheney, W.T., U.S.A. 

O. M. Biggar, B.A., is a law student in 

Toronto. S. E. Bolton, B. A. , is a law 

student in Toronto. Miss E. Bowes, B. A., 

is a teacher in Wiarton, Ont. W. G. 

Browne, B.A., is in the Canadian Bank of 

Commerce, New York, U.S.A. T. L. 

Buck ton, B.A., is a teacher in Phoenix, B.C. 

Miss A. Burbank, B.A., is in Hamilton, 

Ont A. M. Burnham, B.A. , is a teacher 

in Lucan, Ont. F. C. Carman, B.A., is a 

journalist in Toronto. C. M.Caraon, B.A., 

is in the Chemical Department, University 

of Toronto. J. O. Carss, B.A., is a law 

student in Smith's Falls, Ont. W. B. C. 

Caswell, B.A., is in Grimsby, Ont. R. M. 

Chase, B. A., is a teacher in Prescott, Ont. 

G. M. Clark, B. A. , is a law student in 

Toronto. R. J. Clark, B. A., is in Toronto. 

F. A. Cleland, B.A., is in Meaford, Ont. 

B. A. Cohoe, B.A, is in Toronto. T. 

A. Colcough, B.A., is a law student in To- 
ronto. G. Cooper, B. A., is a teacher in the 

Collegiate Institute, Goderich, Ont. Mrs. 

R. M. Bennett, B.A. ;(Miss M. C. Cooper), 



is in Grenfell, N.W.T. Miss C. C. Crane, 

B.A., is in Toronto. R. W. Craw, B.A., 

is a Presbyterian clergy man in Columbia, B.C. 

C. T. Currelley, B.A., is a Methodist 

clergyman in Toronto. J. H. Davidson, 

B.A., is a teacher in Bath, Ont. Miss A. 

J. C. Dawson, B.A., is in London, Bug. 

H. J. Dawson, B.A., is a lecturer in the 

Royal Military College, Kingston, Ont. 

Mrs. J. J. Carrick, B.A. (Miss M. J. Day), 

is in Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. Miss F. E. 

Deacon, B.A., is in Milton, Ont. Miss E. 

E. Deroche, B.A., is teaching in Napanee, 

Ont. W. J. Elder, B.A., is a teacher in 

Arthur, Ont. J. H. Faull, B.A., is taking 

post graduate-work at the University of To- 
ronto. Miss M. H. A. Fife, B. A., is teach- 
ing in Peterborough, Ont. Miss E. G. 

Flavelle, B.A., is in Lindsay, Ont. C. M. 

Fraser, B.A., is teaching in Collingwood, 

Out. B. Gahan, B.A., is in London, Ont. 

Miss E. M. Gibbs, B.A., is in Port Arthur, 

Ont. Miss V. Giltillan, B A., is General 

Secretary of the Y.W.C.A., Hamilton, Ont. 

Miss M. M. Graham, B. A., is in Toronto. 

R. H. Greer, B. A., is in Toronto. 

H. W. Gundy, B.A., is teaching in the 
Jarvis Street Collegiate Institute, Toronto. 

J. M. Gunn, B.A. , is in London, Ont. 

F. C. Harper, B.A., is at Knox College, 

Toronto. Miss M. A. Harvey, B.A., is 

teaching in Alma Ladies' College, St. Thom- 
as, Ont. Miss A. K. Healy, B.A., is 

teaching in Brooklyn, N.Y. Miss E. M. 

Henry, B.A., is teaching in Lanark, Ont 

H. P. Hill, B.A., is in Ottawa. Ont. - 
Miss E. M. tlinch, B.A., is in Carman, Man. 

N. E. Hinch, B. A., is teaching in 

Kingston, Out. J. W. Hobbs, B.A. , is in 

London, Ont. J. R. Howitt, B.A., is a 

law student in Toronto. A. W. Hunter, 

B.A., is a law student in Toronto. Miss 

G. H. Hunter, B.A., is in Toronto. Miss 

M. E. Hunter, B.A., is in Toronto. Miss 

A. Hurlburt, B.A., is in Mitchell, Ont. 

Miss M. Hutton, B.A., is in Forest, Ont. 

A. M. Irwin, B.A., is io Tyrone, Ont. 

E. E. Irwin, B. A., is in Markdale, Ont. 

A. E. I. Jackson, B.A. , is in the 4th Street 

Bank, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. J. A. 

Jackson, B.A., is in Perth, Ont. Miss R. 

A. Jackson, 'B. A., is in Toronto. Miss H. 

Johnston, B.A., is teaching in Ptekskill, 

N.Y. C. G. Jones, B.A., is in Paris, Ont. 

Mrs. W. R. P. Parker, B.A. (Miss I. 
M. Kerr), is in Toronto. Miss F. E. Kirk- 
wood, B. A., is teaching in Seaforth, Ont. 

V. Kitto, B. A., is in Brampton, Ont. 

T. Laidlaw, B.A., is in Mayfield, Ont. 

Miss N. J. Lamont, B. A., is in Chesley, 

Ont. J. H. Lemon, B.A.. is in Toronto. 

Miss M. Lick, B.A., is in Oshawa, nt. 
W. D. Love, B.A, is in Aguascalientes, 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



Mexico. Miss E. Lynde, B.A., is in Ma- 
doc, Ont. W. M. Martin, B.A.,is teaching 

in Exeter, Ont. Mrs. R. W. Angus, B.A. 

(Miss M. L. Menhennick),is in Toronto. 

R. N. Merritt, B.A., is teaching in Nor- 
wood, Ont. R. H. Mode, B.A., is at 

McMaster Hall, Toronto. A. H. Mont- 
gomery, B.A., is in Brantford, Unt. Miss 

I. Montgomery, B. A., is in Toronto. 

J. G. Muir, B.A., is in Swansea, Ont. 

Miss E. W. Muirhead, B.A., is in Toronto. 
Miss K. L. Mullins, B.A. , is teaching in 

New York. H. Munroe, b.A., is in 

Woodstock, Ont. G. M. Murray, B.A. , 

is at Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. D. E. Me- 

Cracken, B.A., is in St. Mary's, Ont. 

C. S. Macdonald, B.A., is in Toronto. 

Miss H. S. Grant Macdonald, B.A., is teach- 
ing at Bishop Strachan's School, Toronto. 
Mrs. S. J. McLean, B.A. (Miss H. B. 

McDougall), is in Fayetteville, Ark. 

A. E. McFarlane, B.A., is a journalist in 

New York. A. McGregor, B.A., is a law 

student in Toronto. J. M. McKinley, 

B.A., is teaching in Parkhill, Ont. J C. 

MacMurchy, B.A., is in Toronto. H. H. 

Narraway, B.A., is in Vancouver, B.C. 

G. W. K. Noble, B.A., is in Toronto. 

Miss M. I. Northway, B.A., is at Bryn 

Mawr, Pa H. L. Partridge, B.A., is in 

Crown Hill, Ont. Miss J. M. Pearce, 

B.A., is teaching in Caldwell, N.J., U.S. 

R. J. M. Perkins, B.A., is at Ridley 

Hall, Cambridge University, England. 

.1. D. Richardson, B.A., is a Methodist 
clergyman at Drumbo, Ont. L. F. Rob- 
ertson, B.A., is in Stratford, Ont. D. A. 

Ross, B.A., is superintendent of Sailor Mine, 

Camp McKinney, B.C. Miss B. Rosen- 

stadt, B.A., is in Hamilton, Ont. Miss 

M. C. Rowell, B.A., is teaching in St. 

Thomas, Ont. Miss H. Rumball, B.A., is 

in Toronto. P. W. Saunders, B.A., is a 

medical student in Toronto. J. T. Shot- 
well, B.A., is a lecturer in Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York. N. R. D. Sinclair, 

B.A., is in Whitby, Ont. Miss M. H. 

Skinner, B.A., is in Toronto. W. E. A. 

Slaght, B.A., is in Toronto. Miss M. M. 

Slater, B.A. , is at Niagara Falls, Ont. 

A. W. Smith, B. A., is teaching at Kempt- 

ville, Ont. A. B. Steer, B.A., is teaching 

in Markham, Ont. R. Stoddart, B.A., is 

teaching in Listowel, Ont. Miss M. M. 

Stovel, B.A., is a journalist in Detroit, 

Mich. Miss E. G. Swanzey, B.A. , is in 

Regina, N.W.T. S. T. Tucker, B.A., is 

a Methodist clergyman in Toronto. G. L. 

Wager, B.A., is teaching in Uxbridge, Ont. 

Miss F. M. Webb, B.A., is teaching in 

New York. D. B. White, B.A., is teach- 
ing in Iroquois, Ont. Miss G. A. Wilson, 

B.A., is in Whitevale, Ont. J. A. Wil- 



son, B. A., is in Mildmay, Ont. Miss W. 

Wilson, B.A., is in Toronto. F. D. Wood- 
worth, B.A., is on the Mail and Empire, 
Toronto. 

Deceased. Miss E. M. D. Moore, B.A. 

Addressea Unknown. W. F. Carpenter,. 

B.A. W. D. Caskey, B.A. A. T. 

Cushing, B.A. F. A. Danard, B.A. 

A. E. Fisher, B.A. V. J. Gilpin, B.A. 

A. J. Goodall, B.A. W. F. Hans- 

ford, B.A. M. M. Hawkins, B.A. 

J. V. Henderson, B.A. W. H. U. Leech, 

B.A. E. G. Moore, B.A. M. D. Mc- 

Kichan, B.A. A. M. Nicholson, B.A. 

G. C. F. Pringle, B.A. D. N. Reid. B.A, 

R. H. Rowland, B.A. M. W. Shep- 
herd, B.A. J. W. Sifton, B.A. W. G. 

Smeaton, B.A. J. T. A. Smitbson, B.A. 

J. J. Sparling, B.A. J. M. Stevens, 

B.A. G. F. Swinnerton, B.A. F. W. 

Thompson, B.A. M. J. Wilson, B.A. 

PERSONALS. 

Every alumnus of the University of Toronto is in- 
vited to send to the Editor items of interest for 
insertion in this department. News of a personal 
nature about any alumnus will be gladly received. 

Wm. Sanderson, B.A., '85, is editor of the 
Economist, Toronto. 

Prof. H. J. Cody, B.A., 89' of Wycliffe 
College, is spending the summer in Europe. 

R. J. MacAlpine, B.A. '99, is assistant to- 
the Rev. Dr. McMullen, of Knox Church, 
Woodstock. 

F. Sanderson, Esq., B.A. '87, M.A. '88, is 
an actuary in the Canada Life Assurance 
Company, Toronto. 

Rev. R. M. Hamilton, B.A. '87, has re- 
moved to Weston and was inducted into his 
new charge on May 30th. 

Professor A. B. Macallum has been ap- 
pointed associate-editor of the English Jour- 
nal of Physiology (Cambridge). 

Miss E. R. Laird, B.A., '96, has recently 
received the degree of Ph.D. from the Uni- 
versity of Bryn Mawr, Penn. 

Rev. R. W. Craw, B.A. '98, one 'of this 
year's graduates from Knox College, has 
been stationed at Columbia, B.C. 

C. J. McCabe, B. A., '82, barrister, Toronto, 
has been appointed clerk -of the Surrogate at 
Osgoode Hall in the place of the late Hon. 
A. S. Hardy, LL.D. 

B. A. Cohoe, M.B., '01, and A. H. Mont- 
gomery, M.B., '01, have been appointed 
assistants in the Department of Anatomy of 
Cornell University. 



TORONTONENSIA 



D. D. Moshier, B.A. '96, B.Paed. '01, has 
just been appointed Public School Inspector 
for West Lambton. 

Miss J. W. Carter, B.A. '91, M.A. '94, of 
the Elora High School, has been appointed 
teacher of French and German in the Gait 
Collegiate Institute. 

Re%'. D. C. Hossack, B.A. '83 (Vic.), 
LL. B. '88, has resumed the practice of law, 
and has joined the firm which will be known 
as Hossack, Dods & Grant. 

F. VV. Shipley, B.A. , '92, lately Professor 
-of Latin in the Lewis Institute, Chicago, has 
been appointed to a similar position in the 
Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. 

President Loudon received the degree of 
LL. D. from the University of Glasgow while 
atteudiug the celebration of the ninth jubilee 
of that famous seat of learning early this 
month. 

L. F. Robertson, B.A., '98, has completed 
his medical course at McGill, taking the 
Clemesha prize for clinical therapeutics, 
standing third in his final year, and first in 
medicine. 

G. H. Locke, B.A., '93, who has been 
instructor in pedagogy at the University of 
Chicago, has been appointed Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Pedagogy. Mr. Locke is also editor 
of the School Review, Chicago. 

S. J. McLean, B.A. '94, Ph.D., Professor 
of Economics in the University of Arkansas, 
is spending the summer in Ontario, and will, 
during his visit, continue his study of the 
transportation problem by examining into 
transportation conditions in Canada. 

Miss H. E. Wigg, B.A. , who at the recent 
-examinations in the University ranked first 
(equal) in first-class honours in mathematics 
of the fourth year, has been offered a scholar- 
ship in mathematics of the value of $300 at 
Bryn Mawr. 

W. L. M. King, B.A. '95, LL.B. '96, 
Deputy Minister of Labour, attended the 
nineteenth annual convention of the Associ- 
ation of Officials of Labour Bureaus held at 
St. Louis and was elected Vice-President of 
the Association. 

At the recent session of the Royal Society 
of Canada held in Ottawa President Loudon 
was elected President of the Society for 
1901-2, and Professor A. B. Macallum was 
elected a member. The next session of the 
Society will be held in Toronto. 

E. N. Coutts, M.B. , 'oo, who has held the 
" George Brown Memorial Scholarship " in 
the University of Toronto Medical Faculty 



since graduation, has obtained the Colonial 
Fellowship in Pathology in connection with 
University College, Liverpool, England. 

Kev. W. A. Bradley, B.A. '88, of Berlin, 
Secretary of the Waterloo County Alumni 
Association, has gone to Europe. Previous 
to his departure the congregation of St. 
Andrew's, Berlin, presented Mr. Bradley with 
an address accompanied by a well-filled 
purse. 

M. A. Buchanan, who stood at the head of 
the graduating class at the University of 
Toronto in modern languages this year, has 
been offered a fellowship in Romance lan- 
guages in Chicago University. He is spend- 
ing the summer vacation in France and Italy, 
but will return in the autumn to continue 
his studies in Chicago. 

Julius Rossin, B.A. '64, who is this year 
visiting his native place, having been absent 
from Toronto since graduation, during which 
time he has been a resident of Hamburg, 
Germany, was a much welcomed visitor at 
Convocation and at the Alumni dinner.' 
Mr. Rossin is the founder of the Julius 
Rossin Scholarship in Modern Languages. 

As an incentive for our Alumni in behalf 
of our A Ima Mater, we quote from Science, 
May 17 : "The Alumni of Columbia Uni- 
versity are making efforts to collect $400,000 
for a hall for the college. It is hoped that 
the building may be erected by the time of 
the celebration of the 150th anniversary of 
the founding of the university in 1904." 

A reunion of the graduates in medicine 
of the University of Toronto of the class of 
'92 was held at the Albany Club, Toronto, 
June 19th. The following members of the 
class sat down to dinner : Drs. G. H. Bowles, 
Woodhill, Ont. ; J. H. G. Youell, Aylmer, 
Ont. ; T. H. Middlebro, Owen Sound ; Wm. 
Crawford, Hamilton, J. J. Harper, Alliston, 
Ont. ; F. A. Rosebrugh, Hamilton ; H. Gear, 
Erin, Ont. ; Archie Montgomery, Chicago ; 
S. H. McCoy, St. Catharines ; Wm. Cham- 
bers, Oakwood ; J. H. C. Evans, Stroud ; 
Frank' Forrest, Uxbridge ; L. H. Campbell, 
Bradford ; P. McG. Brown, Camlachie ; \V. 
P. Thomson, Toronto ; C. C. Richardson, 
Aurora ; Herbert A. Bruce, Toronto. The 
following officers were elected : Dr. Herbert 
A. Bruce, President, and Dr. S. H. McCoy, 
Secretary. The gathering was so successful 
that it was arranged to hold another three 
years hence. 

MARRIAGES. 

At Alliston, on June 4th, 1901, Miss Helen 
Burnett was married to W. J. Hill, D.D.S., 
of Alliston, Ont. 



312 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MONTHLY 



At Picton, June 5th, 1901, William G. 
Jaffray, son of Robert Jaffray, Esq ., Toronto, 
was married to Miss Ethelwyn L. Gillespie, 
B.A. '96. 

At Toronto, June 22nd, by Rev. Wm. H. 
Hincks, LL.B. '89, Walter Leisenring, of 
Irwin, P. A., to Miss Winnifred Wilson, 
B.A. '98. 

In the Metropolitan Church, Toronto, June 
5th, Frank Delmar Wood worth, B.A. '98, 
of the Mail and Empire staff, was married to 
Miss Mercy Corinth Morrison, of Toronto. 

At Toronto, Tuesday, June 25th, by Rev. 
R. Douglas Fraser, M.A. '71, Edward Charles 
Jeffrey, B. A. '88, Lecturer in the University 
of Toronto, to Miss Jennette Atwater Street, 
B.A. '95. , 

On June I2th, by the Rev. Alex MacMillan, 
of St. Enoch's Church, Toronto, Rev. Thos. 
H. Rogers, B.A. '87, East Toronto, was 
married to Miss Sarah A. , only daughter of 
the late Rev. James Adams. 

H. Wm. Miller, M.B. '95, pathologist at 
the State hospital in Taunton, Mass., and 
son of C. J. Miller, of Orillia, was married 
in Park street Congregational Church, Boston, 
on June 18th, to Miss Gertrude Beatrice 
Wright. 

On June ist, by Rev. George Ferguson, 
Henry F. Cook, B.A. '99, Assistant Inspec- 
tor of Public Schools of Norfolk County, 



was married to Miss Ida R. Hadcock, of 
Mount Elgin, Oxford County, graduate of 
Grace Hospital, Detroit. 

On June I2th, by the Rev. Dr. McMullen, 
assisted by R. J. McAlpine, M.A., Bertha, 
eldest daughter of R. R. Fulton, Esq., 
Woodstock, Ont., was married to Alfred 
Hall, B.A. '95, M.A. '96, LL.B. '96, B.C.L., 
of Osgoode Hall and the British Columbia bar. 

On 1 2th June, 1901, by the Rev. Prof. 
E. R. Doxsee, B.A., B.D., brother of the 
bridegroom, Miss Carolyne Lenore Irwin, 
only daughter of Jared Irwin, Esq., New- 
market, was married to William Morley 
Doxsee, B.A. 92, mathematical master 
of Perth Collegiate Institute, son of Rev. 
A. Doxsee, Belleville. 



Spence At Manchester, Ontario, on May 
3oth, Frances Spence, B.A., '95, youngest 
daughter of Wm. Spence. 

Mackay At Tamsui, Formosa, on June 
ist, 1901, the Rev. George Leslie Mackay, 
missionary of the Presbyterian Church in 
Canada, in the 58th year of his age. 

Hardy At the Toronto General Hospital, 
on Thursday, June I3th, 1901, at 10 p.m., 
the Honourable Arthur Sturgis Hardy, K.C., 
LL.D., 97, late Attorney-General and Pre- 
mier of the Province of Ontario, in his 64th 
year. 



The word " Paid " on the wrapper of this magazine shows that the receiver's membership 
fee to the Alumni Association for the year ending June, 1901, has been paid. Unpaid fees 
may be sent to S. J. Robertson, Acting Secretary, Dean's House, University of Toronto. 



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