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UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLICATIONS 

IN 

ANTHROPOLOGY 



\T. 



8 -9 



Vol. 8, No. i, pp. 1-126 



April, 1939 



COOS NARRATIVE AND 
ETHNOLOGIC TEXTS 

By 

MELVILLE JACOBS 




PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON 

SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 

1939 



E 
77 

W2>5 

v. 8-9 




9650 



4 / 



PREFACE 

In 1933 and 1934 I collected myth, narrative and ethnologic texts in the two 
Coos dialects, Hanis and Miluk, 1 without preliminary study of the grammar. The 
informant, one of the last if not the very last of the bilingual speakers of these 
dialects, was Mrs. Annie Miner Peterson, now of Charleston, Oregon. Aged about 
73, she is the oldest Coos survivor since the death of Jim Buchanan in June, 1933. 
Perhaps only two or three other persons have been able to speak in the Miluk 
dialect with comparable fluency during the last ten or fifteen years. Possibly eight 
to ten women and two or three men still speak Hanis village provincialisms. Mrs. 
Peterson herself translated into English when I read back her dictations. 

In July, 1933, I was engaged in a second field session of Coos ethnologic re- 
search, under the auspices of Professor Franz Boas and the Graduate Research 
Funds of Columbia University. The informant was Mrs. Peterson, who had just 
been introduced to me by Frank Drew, my Coos informant of 1932. After the first 
days of ethnologic work with Mrs. Peterson a considerable portion of the work with 
her became Miluk myth, narrative and ethnologic text recording because unexpect- 
edly and happily I discovered that she remembered and spoke the Miluk dialect 
which I had mistakenly supposed extinct. 2 A majority of the texts were taken in 
Miluk since the danger of early extinction of Hanis is less, and a body of texts ob- 
tained by the late Dr. L. J. Frachtenberg in Hanis is available. 3 I obtained some 
Hanis texts in order to contrast my method of recording with Dr. Frachtenberg's; 
his phonetic work appeared uncertain. I am indebted to Professor Boas and Co- 
lumbia University for the opportunity to pursue the 1933 ethnologic research, 
which in 1934 I continued in a third session under the auspices of the Department 
of Anthropology of the University of Washington. I feel grateful that these two 
trips also permitted the obtaining of text and linguistic materials. 

I am working up a sketch of Coos ethnology for another publication ; I have 
completed a companion monograph of myth texts, also dictated by Mrs. Peterson, 
which will follow this monograph. I restrict myself here to the texts dictated by 
Mrs. Peterson on ethnologic matters (which may be called in Coos H. ta-ma"lis, 
M. ta-ma-'Hs, 'custom') and to the semi-mythic 'narratives' or 'tales' she told me 
about events that the natives place in a category of relatively 'recent history' 
(called in Coos H. M. laga'uya't'as, laga'wiya'tas). 

The collection of texts of this monograph should have two uses. One, it should 
provide a base cf ethnologic items expressed in the native language; portions of 
the ethnology are built from it, larger portions of it help to document and corrob- 
orate material in the ethnology. Two, linguistic ends should be served both by 
the ordinary texts and even more by the texts given in double versions, one Miluk, 
the other Hanis. 



1 Referred to herein as H. and M. respectively. 

2 Dr. L. J. Frachtenberg noted a few Miluk items in an appendix entitled "Notes on the Kusan 
dialects," pp. 141-9, in his Lower L npqua Texts, CU-CA, 1914. 
3 L. J. Frachtenberg, Coos Texts, CU-CA, 1913. 

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If it be thought strange, if not inappropriate, that the 'narrative-tales' are pre- 
sented here rather than in the publication of myths to follow, it should be consid- 
ered that the allotment of materials indeed involves less violence to native attitude; 
I am quite sure that the native would feel that the narratives go more fittingly 
with ethnologic descriptions than with myths. However, for the sake of compara- 
tive study of all myth motifs abstracts of the narratives are relegated to the sec- 
tion of abstracts found at the end of the monograph of myths. 

The circumstances attending the recording of the texts, the knowledge avail- 
able to Mrs. Peterson, who like other living Coos barely participated in the ancient 
culture, are matters that may be treated in detail in the ethnologic sketch. It is 
sufficient to point out here that Mrs. Peterson's command of Miluk linguistics, 
while not quite as rich in vocabulary and idioms as her Hanis, was such as to pro- 
vide fluent dictation and I think a satisfactory sampling of the Miluk dialect pro- 
vincialisms. Indeed, after working with Drew and Buchanan, informants of Dr. 
Frachtenberg, I am of the opinion that for linguistic research Mrs. Peterson is a 
better person to employ in either Coos dialect, and that she is largely responsible 
for the sharper delineation of Hanis phonetics which I believe I have secured. She 
spoke both Hanis and Miluk as a child, Miluk until about fifteen years of age, 
Hanis until twenty and frequently later. Her translations were rapid though ham- 
pered by broken and infelicitous crudity of English vocabulary and idiom; she 
learned most of her English when past twenty years of age. A very great deal is 
owing her for her delightful cooperativeness, humor, intelligence, and her consider- 
able sensitivity for language; no little of whatever good qualities of workmanship 
this recording may exhibit is due not only to her adroitness and clarity but to the 
pleasantness of working with her. She also performed unusual service in the spon- 
taneity and fluency of her ethnologic dictations. 

The petty differences (isoglosses) in vocabulary and idiom that show in a com- 
parison of the Frachtenberg Hanis Texts dictated by Buchanan and those dictated 
in Hanis to me by Mrs. Peterson suggest provincialisms (numbers of isogloss or 
minor trait differences) employed by Hanis speakers resident in villages at some 
distance from one another. Analogous slight provincialism or village variants are 
to be seen even more certainly in the occasionally inconsistent forms given by Mrs. 
Peterson when using Miluk. She herself suggested that the Lower Coquille River 
Miluk-speaking villages (called M. gwsi'ya people) and the Miluk-speaking people 
resident twenty miles to the north of the Coquille in villages around the South 
Slough of Coos Bay (called baldi'ya'sa or 'beach shore' people) differed iii a few 
words and forms, some of which she gave during grammatical work. But she never 
was able to place most alternative Miluk forms as definitely Coquille or definitely 
South Slough; she used them interchangeably, as others of her generation must 
have done in the decadent Ya'hatc Reservation 4 and later days. Hanis and Miluk 
proper were mutually almost unintelligible, though a speaker of one could learn to 

■'This is the regional Indian pronunciation of the modern village of Yachats, Oregon. In the 
1860's and 1870's the place was a reservation occupied by Alsea, Siuslau, Lower Umpqua, Coos 
and southern coastal Oregon Nad^ne" speaking tribespeople. 

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understand and employ the other with great rapidity. They were perhaps as close 
as, or, to use a rough analogy, closer than Dutch and High German. 

Excepting Mrs. Peterson and a few long-deceased individuals, I have substi- 
tuted fictitious initials to represent English personal names mentioned in some of 
the original texts whenever such persons or near relatives are still living. There is 
no need for embarrassing survivors and so making further studies in western Ore- 
gon unnecessarily difficult. I have assumed, however, that the phonetic transcrip- 
tion of native Coos personal names was likely to be so unintelligible to all but trained 
students that such names could be reproduced as dictated. 

The translations have been kept as close as possible to the Indian feeling and 
meanings. The rendering is only so free as to escape becoming insufferable and un- 
readable. Translations in the ethnologic texts veer from present to past tense; 
such inconsistency reflects native grammatical indifference to that particular tem- 
poral categorization necessary in English usage. Words and phrases in parentheses 
are added to clarify meaning. Numbers serve only to permit easier correlation of 
Indian and English. Titles are my own, not Mrs. Peterson's except for titles given 
in both Indian and English. Paragraphing and punctuation are my own, of course; 
though they may capture something of the Indian rhetoric and sentence form, 
their essential duty is to assist in making the English form acceptable to English 
readers. Words in italics in the Indian text are dictated English words, pronounced 
about as in the regional rural American English. Dashes set apart words or par- 
ticles linked in sentence-phrases. I hear Coos entirely differently from Dr. Frach- 
tenberg in this one respect. The phrase clusters seem so insistent and so clear, so 
unlike anything in other languages in which I have recorded excepting Kalapuya 
and Alsea, that I feel that I dare not omit indicating them. 

I am confident that the sentence-phrases and other features of the text record- 
ing may be verified in phonograph records of connected speech which I fortunately 
obtained from Mrs. Peterson. I am indebted to the National Research Council for 
financial support with a Grant-in-aid and to Mr. Philip A. Jacobsen (of the depart- 
ment of General Engineering of the University of Washington) and his assistant 
Mr. Orin Johnston for their initiative and skill in constructing the portable elec- 
tric phonograph recorder which they brought to me in July, 1934, and which I first 
put to use with Mrs. Peterson on Coos Bay. It remains to be seen if the phono- 
graph records verify my phonetic recording. Ediphone (1933) and electrically 
made (1934) recordings (using RCA Victor pregrooved home recording blanks) of 
narratives and of songs are deposited in the Washington State Museum, Seattle. 

My thanks are also due those friends and assistants at the University of Wash- 
ington who aided in various ways. 

Melville Jacobs 
Seattle, Washington, October, 1934 



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CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface 3 

Phonetics 11 

Narrative text obtained in Hanis and Miluk both 19 

1. A deserted poor woman was given food by shags 19 

Ethnologic texts obtained in Hanis and Miluk both 22 

1. How a child was frightened, and later was taught to be fearless 22 

2. Grandmother afterbirth 24 

3. Hadji'yasa, th'iyal, and others 26 

4. A man obtained fir power 28 

5. A woman obtained fir power and learned two medicines 29 

6. Getting rid of a thunder dream-power 30 

7. A girl found a husband who was a Timber Man and a wealth-encounter-power 32 

Narrative texts in Hanis 34 

1 . Stone hammer baby 34 

2. Lazy eyes 35 

3. The people who were killed up the bay 35 

Narrative texts in Miluk 39 

1 . The person who died from cold 39 

2. The woman who dreamt, but who did not want to do what her dream told her 39 

3. Lazy young man 41 

4. About encounter-power 41 

5. The Father's helpers, the storks 42 

6. A girl became a dangerous being of the woods 43 

7 . Swordfish narrative 45 

8. Sea otter narrative 48 

9. The person that halloos 51 

10. Salmon did ill to boys 52 

11. A young man grew up alone, and then he split himself 53 

12. The young man stepped on snail's back 54 

13. He eats human children 56 

14. The water got high 58 

15. The sa'ganda- 's people 59 

16. He starved his mother's sister 61 

Ethnologic texts in Hanis 63 

1 . Types of dances at Ya'hatc 63 

2. When a wealthy head man traveled, and exchanges of garments upon departing. ... 64 

3 . Two groups of men discuss, and smoke upon agreeing 66 

4. When a boy killed his first game 66 

5. When children picked their first berries 67 

6. Conferring a name on a child 67 

7. tla'icta — lifting the proscription on eating fresh things 68 

8. Nasal discharge wealth encounter-power 68 

9. Birds fight the moon, eclipsing it 68 

10. When stars change position; meteors 69 

11. The dangerous fish which poisoned people and things and turned them to stone 69 

Ethnologic texts in Miluk 71 

1. Adultery before marriage 71 

2. The kind of wife to select 72 

3. Marriage negotiations 72 



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PAGE 

4. Imparting sexual knowledge after the marriage payment 74 

5. Excessive sexuality caused loss of strength and beauty 74 

6. Character and health predictable by the time of the month when born 75 

7. Baby's cradle was hung from a limb of a tree 75 

8. The care of nursing babies 76 

9. People called to baby's "cry" to come along 77 

10. An undesired wife 78 

1 1. A rejected wife and her child 79 

12. A wife and children belonged to the husband's family and place 80 

13. A husband must not see his wife nude 81 

14. Children had to be inside at dusk 82 

15. Head wives 82 

16. Poor people did not want their daughters seen by wealthy people 84 

17. A poor girl married any well-to-do man who wanted her 85 

18. People of the poorer class 86 

19. Poor people who became wealthy and married well-to-do people 89 

20. Handouts to the poor 89 

21. The chiefs kept the poor from going hungry 90 

22. Doctoring power appeared like a person 90 

23. A shaman's increase of power dance 91 

24. A male shaman watcher took away a bad power from a new shaman 91 

25. A new shaman offered to doctor without pay 91 

26. A mit'e- 'din shaman's prayer when giving fresh fish and meat to a 

mourner after a burial 91 

27. Mite- 'din shamans 92 

28. An i'l • a'xqa'in shaman cured a woman made ill by a mit'e- 'din shaman 92 

29. Shamans cured tuberculosis 93 

30. What shamans could see 93 

31. A shaman found a pain-power hidden in a dance house 94 

32. An Alsea shaman was forced to take back a pain-power 94 

33. A shaman who lost control of his pain-power 95 

34. At death the heart went above and the belongings of the deceased were burned 95 

35. Seeing a person's spirit double 96 

36. Seeing a person's spirit double 97 

37. Thunder 97 

38. Encounter-power 98 

39. 'Angel-bird's' eye 99 

40. A dream 99 

41. A dream 100 

42. Snow is the ashes from the hearth of the giant spider 100 

43. Anger at seeing a rainbow 101 

44. DjixwaWe 101 

45. Qe'icec, 'Batter,' told about her own life in these words 103 

46. Annie Miner Peterson 104 

47. Melsin 114 

48. Cissy US 

49. Kitty Hayes 117 

50. Story of a slave, ma ■ 'lu ■ 'c 118 

51. Talking too much 120 

52. Gossips and liars 120 

53. Sport of riding breakers in narrow play canoes 121 

Index of ethnologic references 123 

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COOS NARRATIVE AND 
ETHNOLOGIC TEXTS 



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PHONETICS 

The transcription adheres closely to the contemporary Americanist transcrip- 
tion 6 and differs in many respects from the one employed some twenty years ago 
by Dr. Frachtenberg. Where he employed the symbols of the left hand column, I 
substituted those of the right hand column. 



E 


9 


y\ ( ' , «. i 


e, si, s 


1, I 


i, i- 


u, u, o 


u, u-, u- 


a 


a- 


p!, m 


p\ m- 


t!, ts!, h 


t, t's, n- 


tc! 


t'c 


g-, k-, k-!, x- 


g, k, %, ? 


k! 


k 


q!, x 


q\ x 


L, L, I !, I 


dl, tl, t'i, 1 


< X 

> 


» « 



In 1934 a group of Yale University linguists and Americanists (including Pro- 
fessor Edward Sapir) 6 recommended orthographic changes that favored, among 
other things, the replacement with simpler and unitary symbols of our present com- 
plicated symbols for phonemes, changes advisable in theory since they offered a 
more closely logical and sharply phonemic symbolization of speech. The particular 
symbols hit upon by the Yale scholars have not been adopted generally at this 
writing : there is uncertainty concerning the extent to which Americanists may ac- 
cept all the symbols recommended. Therefore I have assumed that until a standard 
revision is available the fitting tactic for publications like the present one is to con- 
tinue the employment of the conventional or standard orthography. It is under- 
stood, of course, that each of the clumsy and complicated characters such as t'l, 
tl, dl, t'c, tc, dj, t's, ts, dz, and so on, represents a phoneme. 

The following is a preliminary sketch of the phonetics, supplemented by ten- 
tative discussions — regretfully but necessarily lengthy — which attempt to explain 
procedures adopted for recording phonetic traits which were difficult to handle. 

b, d, g, g, dl, dj, dz, d5 seem to vary in sonancy about a mode roughly inter- 
mediate between the sonants of English and the type of intermediate (found in 
Sahaptin, Kalapuya, Molale, Alsea and other languages of the northwest United 
States) which we write as b, d, g, etc. The Coos sonants are on the average neither 
sonant nor intermediate but vary between those type articulations; they provide 



6 SI-MC, V. 66, no. 6, 1916. 
6 AA, n.s., 36, 629-631, 1934. 



(ID 



12 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

marked contrast with English sonants, I think leaning slightly more in the direction 
of intennediacy than of sonancy as in English. 

p, t, k, q, tl, tc, ts are aspirate surds; I judge that they are slightly less aspirate 
on the average if at all less aspirate than English p\ t\ k\ etc. 

p, t', k, q, tl, t'c, t's are glottalized in the typical Oregon-Washington-British 
Columbia manner. The stress and loudness of oral release is only slightly less if 
at all less than that of Coast Salish, Sahaptin, or Chinook. Coos glottal releases 
differ sharply from the occasionally nearly inaudible glottal releases of some speak- 
ers of the neighboring Kalapuya, Alsea and Athabaskan dialects. 

m, n, 1 are usually as in English. However, if after a vowel and final they may 
suffer shortened duration of sonancy. This occurs almost invariably in a Miluk 
word and somewhat infrequently in Hanis. In such final position they may give a 
sort of intermediate or very briefly voiced m, n, l (M. a'N, mi'N, li'M, halk w di-'m- 
tciL). Sometimes but more rarely in Miluk they may be slightly shortened in son- 
ancy when final in a syllable that precedes a glottalized consonant (M. mi'nt'ci, 
mi'Nt'ci). The tendency towards curtailment of sonancy in final sonant continu- 
ants is probably the cognate of a tendency, also especially pronounced and frequent 
in Miluk, to lessen duration of sonancy in diphthongs in final position (M. kxa' 1 , 
he'', ts'ixs"). On the other hand, an l, m, or n in Hanis is probably something 
quite different. I believe that in Hanis it may be often an assimilation involving 
aspiration-breathing plus the continuant (H. ge'Lt, tga'Ndlts) ; the assimilation in 
effect abbreviates the duration of sonancy in the continuant. Or, it may sometimes 
be due in Hanis to a rule — on which I have meagre data — involving the effect of 
the presence of a surd which cuts into the voicing of an m, n, or 1 adjoining it. 

The sounds of the bilabial series, b, p, p, w, w, m, m-, are as in the Americanist 
transcription, excepting m which is a non-phonemic variant of m and b which is not 
very sonant. 

In Miluk the possessive da- (H. -u) is infrequently pronounced as affricative 
sonant interdental d5a- (5 represents a sonant interdental continuant: "th" of Eng- 
lish these). M. d5 is obviously a non-phonemic variant; it seems to amount to a 
feeble drift from Miluk d to d<5 and is found only in a very small minority of cases 
of the possessive, m. da-. I have recently heard the same variant (d<>d5) in the 
Atka dialect of Aleut. 

Excepting d and dz, which are not very sonant, the sounds of the alveolar 
series, d, t, t, dz, ts, t's, s, s-, n, n-, are also as in the Americanist transcription. 
n is a non-phonemic variant and partial shortening of voicing of n. n is syllabic, a 
possessive pronoun (n-, na-) of frequent appearance. It represents another of the 
variant forms of the phoneme n. Most if not all cases of recorded sonant contin- 
uants having syllabic value (n, rp, ]) in Oregon and Washington languages repre- 
sent one form of a phoneme (C) 7 appearing in two or more variant forms, such as 
C, Q and Ca, where C is a sonant continuant, and a is inorganic, non-phonemic. 

7 C symbolizes consonant, V vowel. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 13 

The one or the other type of articulation is equally correct and perhaps equally fre- 
quent in those languages where the C variant is allowed at all. 

The c series, dj, tc, t'c, c, c-, is as in the transcription, excepting dj which is 
not very sonant. 

There are three palatal series as in some other coastal-strip languages to the 
north (Alsea, Tillamook, Lower Chinook, etc.). 

The anterior palatals, g, k, k\ x, x-, carry a distinct y infection, precisely as in 
Alsea. g is not as sonant as an English speaker would tend to make it. The con- 
sonant continuant y, y-, belongs properly in this series. 

Apart from g and gw which need to be noted as not very sonant, the medial 
palatals g, gw, k, kw (in certain settings in a variant form k u , k w ), k, kw (and its 
variants k u , k w ), y, y, 7W, x, xw (with its variants x u , x w ), x- are articulated about 
a mid palatal point or a point just slightly posterior on the average to the point 
touched by g in standard English go or k in English cap. A mid palatal nasal, 77 
as in English rang, was heard only once or twice where phonemic n preceded a 
palatal; I think this a case of phonemic n retracted very irregularly — for Coos — 
because of a following palatal. x u or x w (as in H. yux w u'm-e) also indicate a weak 
or partial non-phonemic lip stricture or rounding of x due to a phonemic x being 
preceded by u vowel; this is a familiar regional trait. Hanis x and xw (x u , x w ) are 
so lightly rubbed that I fear I have several times written h and hw when x and x w 
were actually present. 

The velars g, gw, q, qw (with variants q u , q w ), q\ 4 W ( an d variants q" u , 4 W )> 
x, xw (and variants x u , x w ), x- are made about at the velar point touched by sounds 
of this series in Alsea, Coast Salish, Chinook, Sahaptin, etc. g and gw, like other so- 
called sonant stops of Coos, are shorter in duration of sonancy than sonant stops 
of English. 

h, hw (and variants h u , h w ) seem about as in standard English house, where. 

The laterals dl, tl, t'l, 1, 1-, 1, 1- are as in the transcription, dl is given the short- 
ened duration of voicing characteristic of the so-called sonant stops of Coos. An 
intermediate or partially shortened duration of voicing, l, occurs as a variant, and 
as described for m and n above (M. t'swa-'lal, t'swa-'laL). 

I am not certain that there is an aspiration that is phonemic. There appears to 
be a very light aspiration or exhalation which is insisted upon and essential to in- 
dicate. Morphologic study would reveal just what is happening. Acoustically any 
breathing-aspiration is barely audible. I suspect that most if not all cases of ' 
noted are neither a phonemic h nor ' but mark an essentially durational factor that 
has a syllable weight function. Where Miluk has V- Hanis often has V\ where ' is 
extremely faint and serves primarily, I think, to carry the duration or weight of a 
vowel, leaving the Hanis syllable equal in quantity to the cognate Miluk syllable. 
A final c is also always so light as to appear to be no more than an exhalation that 
merely lengthens the duration or adds to the weight of the vowel (or syllable) that 
immediately precedes it. Thus I have recorded H. ta-'or ta", me-' or me", la-' or 
la" ; the mode or average articulation lies between the two extremes indicated by 
the symbols employed. 



14 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

The glottal stop (') possibly functions as a phoneme; but most often it is a 
non-phonemic pause-break that is morphologically determined, as well as a pause 
between words and particles joined in phrase clusters. Release varies from near 
inaudibility to a fairly light break, as elsewhere in the region. 

The primary vowels are five: a, a, s, i, u. Rules of vocalic harmony and the 
accident of adjacent consonants change the quality of vowels; treatment of the 
rules awaits a grammatical sketch; it is sufficient to suggest that the working of 
the rules is such as occasionally to leave individual qualities confusingly interme- 
diate and lacking in narrow precision even to the native; the native, caught between 
the basic phoneme and the umlaut form, sometimes hits a truly intermediate qual- 
ity. I was not prepared by my earlier phonetic experience to expect confusion in 
the articulation of vowels such that truly intermediate qualities could be said to 
be present; but Coos assuredly has them in rapid speech. For example, a phonemic 
a tends to veer to a lax i when followed by n; thus, what I write as M. mi'n or mi'N 
is often something really between M. ma'N and miN, where the vowel quality is 
sometimes close to a and sometimes close to t. This is the most frequent type of 
quality intermediacy. When the informant speaks very painstakingly phonemic a 
is given; the non-phonemic variant i (i) is used in rapid speech; and sometimes a 
cloudy intermediate form is given in a more hesitant setting. Clearer exemplifica- 
tion is found in cases where a phonemic a develops an e form in rapid utterance 
and a form somewhere between 3 and e in more hesitant utterance (I write M. 
tla-he-'niye, or tle-he-'niye). Examples of partial umlaut to other vowel qualities 
could be multiplied. 

Ignoring umlaut due to rules of vocalic harmony, the phoneme a itself exhibits 
variation from lax: and obscure a as in the transcription to a sound almost a as in 
English nut. 

a is, I think, about as in standard English father. In a final unaccented CVCi 
or VC syllable and occasionally in unaccented syllables it is dulled so much as to 
be confused with a. Thus H. ma'a'nyas, ma'a'nyas. The a form is insisted upon 
when speech is slow. Phonemic a umlauts to e according to rules that await treat- 
ment in a grammar, and without the appearance of such intermediate qualities as 
were noted above. 

e varies narrowly, to my ear, about a point roughly midway between a of Eng- 
lish bat and e of English met. Previous writers (Boas, Frachtenberg) on dialects in 
the northwestern United States employed a; in order to attain a faster field nota- 
tion and at least with equal justice I use e. I have noted a vowel of very similar 
quality in many Coast Salish dialects and also in Alsea, Kalapuya, Molale, Chinook, 
Upper Cowlitz Sahaptin ; it is never as in English met, never as in English bat , but 
more or less intermediate in these languages ; in Coos it may lean more to e {met) 
than to a (bat) ; in many dialects north of Coos it may lean a little more in the op- 
posite direction, towards a. 

i, i- appear to me to vary widely about a mode between i (i) of English pit and 
i- or iy of English peat. The average point seems to lean far towards laxness (t) in 
the short form, towards tenseness (i-) in the long form. To phrase it in quite another 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 15 

if not more fitting manner, the phoneme appears to have two primary modes, near 
laxness (i) when short, near tenseness (i-) when long. In final unaccented CVCi 
syllables, when short, it appears so dulled as to waver about a third mode, a point 
between i and the obscure vowel a. Thus M. hu-'mis (hu-'mis) is often heard 
almost as hu-'mas, M. de-'mil as ds'mal. However, it may be that in the case of 
this third assumed point of reference I confuse an i phoneme with phonemic a. But 
no damage is done if i be employed because in rapid speech the lax i (t) form or 
something extremely close to it would appear automatically. To express pointedly 
that i (i) and i- and iy are variants of what is one basic phoneme I use the one 
symbol i for both short lax and long tense or diphthongal forms. 

u, u- similarly appear to be short and long forms of a single basic u phoneme 
that varies about two modes: when short, it is lax like v of English foot; when long 
it is tense like u- (or uw) of English loot. The average articulation leans far towards 
laxness (u) in the short form, far towards tenseness (u-, uw) in the long form. As 
in i above, I employ one symbol (u) for both forms because they are variants of 
a basic phoneme. A common regional trait shared by Coos is that in certain posi- 
tions u is made with such lip tension as to approach consonant continuant w; the 
au, eu, iu diphthongs often, then, display variants possessing such u-w stricture, 
especially if they are final in a word (aw, ew, iw) . 

The bimodal character of the i and u phonemes of Coos (i <> i, u <> v) is not 
a peculiarly Coos trait; a large number if not all of the languages of Oregon and 
Washington will very likely be seen to display this vowel phenomenon upon more 
precise phonetic study ; and the total area of such a phenomenon may be found to 
extend to a very considerable distance beyond the confines of Oregon and Wash- 
ington. 

Diphthongs are treated alike in both dialects except when in final word posi- 
tion. When final, Miluk diphthongs shorten in length-quantity; the normal (ap- 
proximately double) length observed in the final diphthong of the cognate Hanis 
word is reduced in the Miluk word by a curtailment and unvoicing of the second 
element of the diphthong. Thus H. kxa'i becomes M. kxa' 1 , where ! is audible but 
brief and a 1 is much shorter than ai of Hanis. The significant shift seems to be in 
syllable quantity loss in Miluk: the quantity values of M. a 1 , a u are perhaps no 
more than the quantity values of single vowels; M. a 1 may weigh the same as a. 
This Miluk tendency is probably related to Miluk shortening of voicing in final 
sonant continuants 1, m, n (to l, m, n) noted above. Otherwise, the diphthongs 
ai, a-i, au, a-u, su, iu, ui, are articulated with the qualities of their phonemic com- 
ponents. 

The dash marks a psychological division of a phrase or sentence-phrase into 
component words, particles, proclitics and enclitics. The dash not only represents 
a psychologic break: it symbolizes a physiological and acoustic fissure or pause 
which varies from one extreme of no glottal closure or at least no audible glottal 
tightening to the opposite extreme of complete and audible glottal closure. The 
essential function of the pause seems to be to permit proper syllable weights to the 
entities separated, as much as to set sharply apart elements that are semantically 



16 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

clear. Prosodic emphasis in Coos is upon a proper weighting of syllables. Thus, 
H. x-we'ntc, M. x-we'n are so indicated because mechanically x- appears to receive 
the weight of a light syllable, and the weighting seems to carry with it a durational 
rounding that effects an automatic pause during which the glottis may tighten or 
even almost shut, between x- and wen. Perhaps the ultimate reason why x- as well 
as other particles, proclitics and so on are treated so clearly is semantic: x- is felt 
to be a clear semi-demonstrative though bound or partially bound element. 8 All 
elements excepting closely bound suffixes and a half dozen odd closely bound prefixes 
are semantically clear and translatable by a native. 

Proper reading of the text recording as well as accurate semantic delineation 
of running speech demand memorization of the cluster patterns ; this amounts acous- 
tically to learning the rules for making complete pause-closures (glottal stops) be- 
tween elements linked in phrase-sentence clusters. These rules are involved and 
I am far from satisfied with my preliminary analysis of them ; I attempt a summary 
rather than a detailed treatment ; this may help to avoid confusion ; I cannot pro- 
vide a thorough analysis until more material is studied. For purposes of grammar 
or semantics, errors or inadequacies in this aspect of the presentation are immate- 
rial. They would be unfortunate from the point of view of what would be desirable 
for a precise stylistic-prosodic study. 

In a series of particle or word elements linked in a phrase- or sentence-cluster, 
where the final sound of one word or particle is a vowel, continuant (except h or '), 
or affricative, and the initial sound of the succeeding word or particle is a vowel or 
sonant continuant, the elements are held apart by complete and audible glottal 
closure. Specifically, the glottal pause-stop (') appears between a final tl, t'l, ts, 
t's, dj, tc, t'c, s, c, 1, 1, m, n, 9, a, e, i, u and an initial w, y, 1, m, n, a, a, e, i, u of 
an immediately succeeding word in a cluster. There are exceptions or variant cir- 
cumstances : a number of particles in peculiarly welded compounds omit the glottal 
stop. Such compounded particles are M. an-antl, anya, H. inye, henwe, yuwa, yuwe, 
leule, leule-, leuleu, leleu, le-ye'nu, i'laVi and others. A few particles or proclitic- 
prefix forms never permit a glottal closure to separate them from a preceding par- 
ticle; such elements are H. la, Is, lau, leu, M. n, na, 'you,' and perhaps some others. 

The line between affixation or closely-bound morphemes and particle-word 
freedom is in only a few cases difficult to draw. One criterion I have employed for 
determining the relative freedom of an element is to ask, does it act like other ele- 
ments set apart in clusters by the rule for glottal-pause-closure ? if so the element is 
set aside by dashes when it appears in clusters. Awkward problems of this sort 
arose in treating M. possessive da- and the dependent personal pronouns. The 
post-verb or suffixed pronoun morphemes are patently bound and are recorded as 
suffixes, though some are relatively clear and set apart by glottal catches (these 
are -w, -il, -itc and perhaps a few more) ; these post-verb pronouns also appear as 
pre-verb forms with other pre-verb (prefixed) morphemes. All bound-pronoun pre- 
verb elements seem peculiarly free and clear in meaning when preceding the verb 
to which they belong. Some, especially those just cited, appear loosely in phrase 



8 Frachtenberg, Coos Grammar, BAE-B. 40, pt. 2, p. 323 ff. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 17 

clusters at a distance from the verb, separated from it by two or three other par- 
ticles. Indeed, a weighty stylistic-grammatical problem resides in the range of cir- 
cumstances or sentence positions in which the pre-verb bound personal pronouns 
occur. When immediately preceding a verb I do not set a bound pronoun apart 
by a dash, in order to express the (possibly) relatively greater degree of binding 
between a subject or object pronoun and its verb than is felt for other particles that 
tie up within clusters. Nevertheless prosody certainly invades morphologic ties 
so as to cause a treatment of M. da- and of bound-pronouns that is no different 
from that meted out to other cluster particles: both M. da- and pre-verb bound- 
pronouns usually adhere to the rules of glottal-pause between cluster particles. In 
reading the texts, then, it is understood that all or almost all word or morpheme 
elements set apart by dashes in clusters possess initial glottal catch in certain cir- 
cumstances. Thus, H. na'yim-i-il-i'n-x-wentc is really pronounced na'yim-'i-'il- 
'i'n-x-wentc, where the ' is a light glottal stop and is non-phonemic. I have omitted 
the catch indicator for such pauses in printing the texts except for one case involv- 
ing possible confusion between first and second person singular pronouns n, na, 
where the first person form is written with the catch that invariably precedes it in 
cluster settings ('n, 'na) and the second person form is exceptional because never 
preceded by a catch in any setting (n, na). I am not clear concerning the role of 
the catch preceding the first person pronoun: it seems to be phonemic. 

Elements such as M. hsi-, are set apart, from words immediately following, by 
the regular cluster rhythms with their punctuation of glottal halts, in spite of being 
bound forms in the sense of never appearing without attachment in very dependent 
fashion to some succeeding element or word. 

In short, all elements in the language excepting only closely bound affixes are 
treated as one sort of thing from the point of view of sentence-phrase prosody. I 
feel that M. da- and those bound personal pronouns that upon occasion may turn 
up loosely and freely within a cluster are indeed so close to affixation that when 
they directly precede a word to which they are bound I write them without a dash. 
All other pre-positional particles in clusters are framed within dashes to indicate 
their relative freedom. The treatment is frankly not completely consistent, but at 
the moment I cannot satisfy myself that any other way of handling this aspect 
of the language would provide a fairer portrayal 

If the glottal catches that serve as pause-separate rs of elements within clusters 
were each indicated as such, the phonemic simplicity of the recording would be in- 
truded upon by a great confusion of additional indicators. The motive, then, for 
omitting the catch indicators and letting them be taken care of by dashes and com- 
plicated rules is to permit the presentation of a text record which will be a relatively 
purer reproduction of phonemes. Only the treatment of certain compounds and of 
the near-bound da- and personal pronoun morphemes constitute admittedly trou- 
blesome and perhaps not entirely justifiable exceptions to consistency of descrip- 
tion. 

An accented CVCi or VCi syllable, where Ci is n, m, 1, often appears to be a 
heavy syllable with increased duration applied to n, m, 1, such as to provide an 



18 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

inconsistent noting of n-, m-, 1-. I suspect no one case to be phonemic n-, m-, 1-; 
I think the recorded lengthenings a matter of a process whose function is to give a 
somewhat heavier syllable; in these cases there seems to be no indication of con- 
sonants gemination. Example: M. kTle-'x kwi-ya tb-'na-we-'n-i'l-dai, 'It is good 
that you tell me that'. M. i'ldai also would be correct from the native point of view. 
Other examples: M. H'n-wi, li'nwi, 'strong'; H. kwa'n-yau, kwa'nyau, 'food'. 

More than one raised period after a vowel symbolizes unusually increased 
lengthening for purposes of emphasis or augmentation, as in he-'--niye, 'long long 
ago'. 

Higher tone, varying from a third to an octave and subject to rhetorical fac- 
tors, is integral with stress-accent. In Miluk the stressed long vowel usually takes 
a high-to-level or high-falling tone. In Hanis the stressed element of double length 
does not always fall in tone but may remain high until completion of the syllable. 
Short stressed elements take high tone in both dialects. Special tonal indications 
to distinguish Hanis from Miluk were not made because tonal behavior is regularly 
as described and contingent upon the primary factor of stress. 

Discussion of a number of additional though minor phonetic phenomena would 
be usable and fitting in this presentation of texts. However, a thorough compara- 
tive grammatical and phonetic treatment of the two Coos dialects awaits under- 
taking by some linguist at a later date; various phonetic problems that might be 
considered, which indeed would add to understanding of incidental problems ap- 
pearing in study of the texts, can be postponed for a later and general treatment of 
the language as a whole. The basis for such a treatment lies available, perhaps, in 
the sampling of purely grammatical data in both dialects which I obtained in sev- 
eral weeks with Mrs. Peterson in 1934, after completion of the text recordings. 
Lack of funds at that time prevented continuation of the grammatical aspect of 
my Coos field work. 

The quality of text recording improved continually; the last texts of 1934 
were greatly superior to those obtained in 1933. The problem of quantity in Hanis, 
which is bound up with syllable weights and breathing-aspiration (H. me-' or 
me", la-' or la"), the problem of syllable stress in both dialects, the extremely slip- 
pery word-clusters, the relative dependence of elements like i-, da-, x- and the bound 
personal pronouns, and vocalic umlaut, provided a harrassing network of matters 
that made the earlier recordings difficult and the results sometimes variable. Nev- 
ertheless, the bare phonemic aspect of the recording remains fairly trustworthy even 
in the first dictations ; the most difficult aspects of the phonetics lie in the realm of 
prosody and non -phonemic vocalic ablaut. I believe that the material is fair 
throughout for grammatical study to the extent to which texts can be put to use 
for that. The material may be of unequal utility for phonetic, stylistic and semantic 
interests. 



NARRATIVE TEXT OBTAINED IN HANIS 
AND MILUK BOTH 9 

1 . A deserted poor woman was given food by shags 

1. A certain woman long ago was soliciting handouts all the time. The peo- 
ple's hearts got tired of it, because she was coming everywhere all the time. When 
winter was approaching (i.e. in autumn) the people were going to move away. (2) 
The people spoke thus, "We will leave her. She is always bothering the people too 
much." And then this is what they said. (3) "We will leave her when we move 
away." That is what the people said. Indeed the people moved away, they left 
her, they left her alone there. The people moved across to the other side (of the 
water). (4) But every day they watched to see if there would be smoke from her 
house. And indeed there was smoke from it, when they looked for it each morning. 
They continued to watch her smoke. (5) Every morning she was always seated 



1. 

(Hants) 1. le'-hs-niye ls'uleu-le'-hu-'mis gu-s-mi"le'tc he-'-leu dlaga'unai. 
le'uleule'-ilgi'nwut'sa-'ya ihWdjas, na'yim le'lau gu-s-mi"le < tc dlaga'unai. le'u- 
gelwi-'ye tsu-'-t'clitxa'm-en. (2) tsu-'-wentc 7a-"la'ni'u-me'n. "Hnha'k w du-'wa' ( t- 
hantl. helt'-'yu' gu-s-mi"ls'tc me-'-t'cilin-i'Wt." le'u-x-wentc 7a-'la"ni. (3) "lin- 
ha-'k w du'wa't-hantl ya'ntl-iint'cri'txam." we'ntc 7a-"la'ni le'-ms'\ a"yu' tclitu'- 
msn, a'yu' ha-ha' 'gu-'ya, i'ni-'x-le'u hi'ni' ha"k w da't. gebu'gwli-tc tclitu-'-men 
le'-me-. (4) denk-ga-'is yaga'-ilu"da-'ya i'-tte-gwa'n'na' le-"yixe"w3x. hei-ha' 
a'yu' gwa'n'na'itc, dank tsxa"ya't l£'u-il-u"da-'ya. yaga'-ilu"da'ya le-'gwa'n- 
'na-'wa's. (5) denk-gs'li'mye gu-s-mi"ls'tc yaga'-qa'n-u-tc dta'ws'gets, yege-' 



1. 

(Miluk) 1. tle-he-'niye wi'-kwi--tl3-hu-'mis gus-mi'N-du--kwi' dlaga'unai 
wi'-kwi-gi'nwut'su'wa lu'we tk-x-ka", na-'im gu-s-mi'N kwi-hi'tchidji'na 1 . wi-- 
ge-'lu'wiye tsu'-tsli'ntsim-dg'ka 5 . (2) tsu'-wen-7a-la'nu da'ka*, "ha-'gwiya-l- 
hantl. he'lt'-ha gu-'s-mi'N kwi-'-ka-t'ci-HH'na 1 ." wi-'-we-n-7a-la-'nu. (3) "ha-'- 
gwiya-1-hantl il-hantl-tsli'ntsiivi." we-'n-irya-la-'nu tle'-ka". a-'yu tsli'ntsim- 
dfo'ka', a-'yu-ha-'gwiyu, mit'ci'-kwi-da"-ha-'gu. gedji'min-tsli'ntsim tta'-ka'. 
(4) ds'ngs-gaha'is ma-i'Hu-'dadaya ya-hanti-gwa'H tla-di'ye-'ts. he'-du'-a-'yu- 
itc gwaTr-du, i-il-du--hi-'d3daya de'nge-6 1 sli-"mis. ma-i'llu-'dada-ya tta-dagwa'- 
l-e"es. (5) gu-s-mi'N-du--qa'nu--dlu-'gwa de^ge-gs'^im, ma--du'-qanu-dlu'gwa 



9 The Miluk version was dictated and translated first, then the Hanis version was dictated 
when I read back the Miluk again. 



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20 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

outside, the woman still sat outside. "Leave me something!" 10 (Dump something 
out of the boat for me !) That is what she said to a shag when going (by) in the air. 
"Dump out something for me ! (6) Fill up your dip nets for me. Give me that much !" 
One morning, and then people (shags) were coming up the river, five canoes of 
those people were coming up. Then they all landed, they each took one dip net 
there, they poured it out there on the beach. (7) Then they went on. She went 
down to the water, she labored over all sorts of food there, all day long she worked 
on those foods. It was like that every day. Her house there was filling up (with 
foods). That was the way she obtained quantities of foods, nearly filling up her 
house. (8) That is how shag gave her foods. She saw them as if (they were) persons, 
but the last time she saw them, (they were) not persons at all, (they were) just 
shags. Then this is what (the people) said. "I'll go over to see how she is. We left 
her quite without foods, but she seems apparently alive yet, there is still smoke 
coming from her house. ' ' (9) So one fellow crossed over to there. He was astounded 



qa'n-utc db'we'gets le'-hu"mis. "cinha'lk w d9m!'' 10 x-we'ntc-he-' i"J'di-t'ax le'- 
tle'stles yu'-we-le'u I'a'xam. "cinha'lk w dam ! (6) le-'cin di-'bu ba'a'hit. le'u- 
cinha'lk w d9m !" yixe'n geli'mye, hei-ha'ts me-' dji"yaha'm-a'itc, get'a'mhis i'x 
le'-me-' dji'n-i't. hei-ha'ts gu-s-le'u hi'yaqada'm-a'itc, a'yu' yixe'hitc di-'bu- 
'wi-tc, tci'-ildta'gits le'-dzahwa't'sa-tc. (7) tsu'-Msi"yet'l. tsu-'-tci-'-tl'an, he- 
kw9'nyau na-'nt tci-'-c'a'Lcit, yixe'i-ga-'is leu-c'a'ixit le-'kwa'nyau. denk-ga-'is 
yaga'-x-wentc. tci-'-leu ba-'ts Ie-"y9xe"w9x. x-we'ntc na-'nt'u-'-kwa'nyau, ga-s- 
i'ya ba-'ts Ie-"y9xe"w9x. (8) x-we'ntc a-'yu' x-tle'stles le'u-kwa'nyau-a'tsa. 
x-mehe'ndi-tc la'u khi"wut, yixe'n khi'wu'dgm-e, hei-ha'ts i'n-me-"itc, hei-ha'ts 
tlestle's'itc. tsu-'-wentc 7a-"la"ni. "mi-'tl-hantl tci-'-'nasa'dze-'we. ma'-kY- 
kwa'nyau le'u-linha-'kMu-'ya't, ma-'-a'iwa-le'u hi'ni' dle-'we, a'iwa he- gwg'n'na 
Ie-"y9xe"w9x. (9) a'yu' yixe'i me-' tci-' ga"lts. ha'ts-gwa-t'cu-'la'ya i'-de"dits. 



tb-hu-'mis. "ha'lk w di-mtciL!" 10 x-we'n-du-i'ld u wa tb-tle'stles i-du-kwi-'-l'a"- 
yim. "halkMi-'mtciL! (6) kwa-tcilnedi-'bu-t'lu. kwi-tci'lhalk w di-m!" mi'Nt'ci 
ge'4im, he'-ma-'tsi ka" dji'yan'a'ma'itc, gent'ci'nsi tlgu-'s tli'tc-ka" dzi'n-wi. 
gu-'s-kwi' he"-ma-'tsi ilhi-'dat, we'n-ge-il-a-'yu hi't'ci-di-'bu'wi, ge"-dla'gi tb- 
ba'ldisidja. (7) tsu-ilgisgi'nt'hi. tsu'-ge'-te'ixe u , qVg'nyau-dSgga-'l ge"-dzi-'dze, 
hi't'ci'-gaha'is kwi--dzi-'ya tb-dgdwg'nyau. de'nge-gaha-'ya me'-x-we-n. ge"- 
kwi-t'hi-'-du-tb-da'ye-'ts. x-we-'n gab'lya-daqwa'nya 11 , ga-si'ya t'hi-'du tla-da'- 
ye-'ts. (8) x-we'n a'yu x-tle'stles kwi'-qwa'nyau-niya. x-ka"a'i kwi-'-kla-'wi, 
mi'n-t'ci ha'ma-qVma, he"-ma-'tsi a'N-ka"itc, he' i -ma-'tsi tle'stle's'itc. 
tsu'-wen-7ala-'ni-da. "ha'ma-wa'ntl ge"-S9dze-'we. ma-'-l-ami qwa'nyau 
kwi-ha-'gwiya, ma"-kwi-a'iwa da'-x-dle-'we, a'iwa-du gwg'H tb-dg'ye-'ts." 
(9) a'yu'-hit'ci'-ka< ge'< ga'l-ats. ma-'tsi-gwa-t'cu-'la"ya i-de-'dje. t'ru"-tb-d9'- 

10 Later Mrs. Peterson sang this on an RCA Victor disk. She then sang, "halk w di'mdia'va. 
halk w di'mdjaya." y 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 21 

when he went inside. Her house was filled with foods. The person who came there 
was somewhat abashed, because they had left her without food. 

2. That is why the (wealthier) people never made fun of poor people, because 
it was possible that something would take pity on them. That is what the people 
said. (2) That is why they did not ridicule poor people, that is why they did not 
make fun of poor people. They looked after them even better (than others), even 
poor children they looked after better too, because the day (a power) would take 
pity on them. 



ba'a-'hit le-"y3xe"wax x-kwa'nyau. hi'ni' gwa-tci'ltsaxam le'-me-'-tcr-heTeq, 
na'yim le'lau ke'-kwa'nyau ilha-'k w du-'wa't. 

2. we'ntc le-x-me-' le'leu il-i'n-huwidi-'wa't le'-kwi-'newe't'l-me', na'yim 
he-' yuwu't's-x-di-'l le'u-kwina-'ya. we'ntc-he--7a-"la'ni le'-me\ (2) we'ntc 
le-il-i'n kwi-'newet'l-me" hu'widi-'wa't, we-'ntc-dH le'leu il-i'n-huwidi'wa't le'- 
kwi-'newet'l-me". hei-he'-leu yu-'-nu'we ilu"da-'ya, ma'i kwi-'newet'l-hi-'me 
yaga'-hei-le"wi nu'we'-il-u"da-'ya, na'yim he-x-ga-'is leu-kwi-'na-'ya. 



ye-'ts x-qwa'nya". da"-gwa-djilt'sa'i tfo-ka"-ge"-dji, na'im-il-kwi-ha-'gwiya 
a'mi-^wa'n-ya". 

2. we-'n-ditc tle'-x-ka" tH-il-kwi-'-a'N hu-'dat tfo-kwi"ne'wet'l-ka", na'yi'm- 
du yuwu't's-kwi x-di'tc-du-kwi-'-kwi-'na"ya. we'n-du-7a-la"nu tla'-ka". (2) 
we'n-ditc tli-il-a'N-kwi"ne'wet'l-ka* a'n-hu-'da-t, we-'ntc tli-il-kwi'-an-hu-'dat 
tfo-kwi'meVet'l-ka'. he'^il-du-kwi ha-ki'le-hr'dada-'ya, ma'i-kwi-"ne'wet'l-hi-'- 
m e hi's-il-kwi • '-i'l-ki'l e-hi • 'dada -ya, na'im-du-x-gaha'is-kwi --k wi ■ 'na"ya. 



ETHNOLOGIC TEXTS OBTAINED IN HANIS 

AND MILUK BOTH 

1 . How a child was frightened, and later was taught to be fearless 

1. Long ago when a child was not good ("mean"), it cried continually, they 
would speak thus to it, "Be silent ! I will throw you outside if you do not stop crying. 
Then a dangerous thing will take you." (2) And if nevertheless it continued to 
cry, "Throw him outside!" That is what they would say. "Dead people will take 
him." That is the way they frightened them when they were still little. 

2. When I myself was a (child), that is what they did to me. I used to cry. 
Then some thing with a basket took me, and she put me into her basket. Indeed 
I thought, "I guess it really is a dead person who has taken me." (2) Now one old 
woman, when the dead person with me as its pack got to the door, that old woman 



(Hanis 11 ) 1. le'-he-'niye yu-we-i'n-ta- la'-a'Ua, gu-s-mi"le<tc-ge'Lt, le'u- 
we'ntc-he-'-il'i"lt, "k'a-'yax-he-! qanu-'tca'u' etlxa'nda-'mi yanti-en-e'wi-gs'Lt. 
le'u-xu-'t'lu-c hantl-e'sgs'dzu." (2) le'u-i-ya'ga-gu-s-mi"l£<tc-gs'Lt, "qanwa'tca- 
tlxa'nda!" x-we'ntc-he-'-il'i"lt. "x-eqs-'-hantl e'sge'dzu." we'ntc-he-il'a'q'alqsi- 
t'i-'wa't yu'-we-a'iwa-t'ce'il. 

2. le'ule-a'n-e, le'u-wentc il'ntsi-'xti"itu. nege'Lt-he-. hei-ha'ts-ngka'wa'la 
di-l-de"dits ls'u-x-le'u-'nsge'dzu, le'u-le-'-nka-'wal n'la"adzu. le'u a'yu'-wentc 
ni'i'lwe'<djas, "a'yu'-gws<-x-e'qe le'-'nsge'dzu." (2) le / u-yixe'i-le'-hu / 'mik, i-'-t'ci'- 
le'he-tc-he'1-eq le-e'qe n'neu-yu"wet'i, k'nleu-xne^dits le'l-hu"mik. "k'-he-'niye 



1. 

(Miluk 11 ) 1. tle-he-'niye i-du-ki'lga a'N-ws-n, gu-s-mi'n-a'xats, wi'-wen-il- 
du-i'ldwa, "qa"wi'-du! qanu'dja'-na'ntl-titsa-'mi inantl-a'N-e-'wi a'xats. wi'- 
xu-'t'luc nantl-ga'lmi'dzun." (2) wi'-yu-ma''-gu-s-mi'n-a'xats, "ti-'ts-qa'nu-dja!" 
we'n-il-du-i'ldwa. "x-s'q-ha'nti-kwi--ga'lam." we'n-il-du-aq'a'lqsit'u'wa i-du- 
a'iwe-e'k\ 

2. wi'-tluwa-e'n-e, wi'-we-'n-il'u we-'tsin-du. axa'tswu-du. he' i -ma-'tsi- 
nska'wu'la ditc-de-'dje wi'-x-kwi-u'ga'lmi'dzun, wi / -tl3-dakha / 'adja"u gi'la-dzun. 
wi'-a-'yu x-we-'n-ni'lu'we, "a-'yu'-dax x-e'q tta-uga'lmidzun." (2) wi'-hi't'ci'- 
hu"mik, yi-bi'n-i'cdjs'-dji tls'-e'q e'nV-da't'iM, wi'-kwi-hwo'ldi-tbtc-hu^miK. "hs'- 



n The Miluk version was dictated and translated first, the Hanis version was dictated as a 
translation of the Miluk. 



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1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 23 

jumped up. "Oh you died long ago!" That is what she said. (3) "Go away! Let 
her alone! She will stop crying." Then she took me away from that. This is what 
I thought. "That must have been a dead person, because such (similar) fastened 
things (baskets) are in graveyards. (4) And so it surely must have been a dead 
person, because a (similar) pack basket was fastened there in the graveyard." 
That was what I believed. But indeed she was merely one who lived in our own 
house. She was no dead person at all. It was only a person who had terrified me. 

3. Long ago when children grew up to about the age of ten years, they did 
not frighten them any more. They no longer stayed inside. They were outside 
doing things. That is the way they raised them. (2) Then indeed there was nothing 
they would be afraid of, they would travel far back in the woods, they would see 
everything (tracks, signs) quickly (readily), because they were always watching 
the wild things (beasts). That is why they watched everything (tracks, signs) all 
the time, because they wanted to (find and) see such things. (3) That is why they 
knew (recognized) everything (every indication), they watched everything care- 
fully, for "tracks of things. Even though it did not show strongly (markedly), they 



£"k'geuwe!" x-we'ntc-i"lt. (3) "ye-'gex! i'n-t'swa'la! in-ha'ntl-as-u-'-geLt." 
tsu-'-xls"ti'k' na'we-'ti'Ntsu. le'u-x-we'ntc ni'iTwe"dJ9S. "a'yu'-gwa-e'qe, na'yim- 
he-' tgwa'n'wa'se-tc ru--he'-hi'ni'-sik4'nyim. (4) a'yu'-cgwa-e'qe, na'yim-he- 
ka'wal tci-'-sikVnyim le-'n-tgwa'n'was." x-we'ntc le'leu-'ntlq'a-'ya. he'i-ci'l 
he-l3"n3'yi / xe'w3X db'we'gets-di-'l-ya. in-ci'l eqe-'-ya. hei-ci'l me-'-ya le-hi"ni 
aq'a'lqsit'a"ai. 

3. le'-he-'niye-hi-'me yu'-wa-ha-"wa gwa-dl3'pga"nihi-'ye-hel'idzi-'m3S, il- 
i'n-he--a'su'-aq'a'lqsiti'wa't. ini'ye-he--i'lgei'ts. qa'n-u-'tc-he-'-le'u-i'n-wutsu. 
x-we / ntc-hs- / -ilha-"wi-t'ax. (2) a'yu'-he- il-i'nl-alqsa-'ya, t'ce'e'tc-he-'-le'u yuwi'- 
di't, gu-s-di-'l-he- tle-i'lkiu'Vut, na-'yim gu-s-mi"le'tc le'u-ilu"da-'ya le'-nege'u- 
we"me\ ws'ntcl le'ku gu-s-mi"le'tc il-u-'wa"di, na'yim-he -'-ildu'waya ilklu"wut 
le'-yaga'-di-'l. (3) we'ntc-dH le'leu gu-s-i'lmit'ssi-'ya, gu-s-di-'l nu'we-'-ilu"da-'ya, 
le-'-yaga'-dHa-ha'gadi. ma'i-in-H'nwi'-mit'c'yu't, yaga'-ilkhi'Vut, na'yim-he-x- 



he-'niye-tb-naqa'yau !" x-we'n-i'ld u wa. (3) "i'gsM a'N-t'swa"a! de-'wu'n-hantl 
a'xats." tsu'-we'-xgst-we-ti'ndzu-n. wi'-we-n-'n'lu'we. "a-'yu-da-e'q, na-'yi'm-du 
tgw3'nw3's3dj£ ge"-du-lu siki'nyim. (4) a-'yu-da-x e'q, na'yim-du ka-'wsl gs"- 
sikVnyim tfo-tgwa'nwa'sadje." x-ws'n-u kwi-'-tlqVya. he^-x-kwa-tli-'l e'n-el- 
na'ye^'dzitc dlu-'gwa-ditc. a'n-x-kw9-e'q ya'. ka-'-x tsi-aq'a'lqsi't'a*. 

3. tle-he-'niye-hi-'me i-du-ha-"wi'yam gwa-t'i-'cdji'iye ildi'idzi-'mis, an-i'l- 
du-da-'s aq'a'lqsituwa. anya'-du-idze-'wadjg'ms. qa'nu-du-kwi'-a'n-hu-'dzida. 
x-ws-'n-il-du ha-"wi-'t'a. (2) wi'-a-'yu'-du a'N-ditc a'lqsa, t'ce"-du-kwi-yu-'det, 
gu-'s-di'tc wi'-tle'-il-kwi-kla-'wi, na'im-il-gu-'s-mi'N lu-'dada-'ya tli-nabe'lexe-ditc. 
x-we-'n-ditc tli-il-gu-'s-mi'N gu-s-di'tc-lu-'dadaya, na'im-ildu-'ha'ya kla-'wi-tb- 
ma"-ditc. (3) x-we'n-ditc tli-il-gu-s-di'tc-mit'ssi'yada, gu-s-di'tc-il ki'ls-lu-'dgda'ya, 
tfo-di'tc-da'-haga'di. ma'i-an-li'n-wi mi't'c'yu, ma-i'l-kwi-kla-'wi, na'im-x-ma-'- 



24 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

would see it anyway, because it was their parents who had taught them thus about 
the woods. (4) They noticed everything, and indeed if something had been about 
there, they would know if whatever had been there was no good (was "mean"). It 
might have been a cougar, it might have been a bobcat, it might have been a per- 
son-who-calls-out. (5) That was how they taught their children. Then indeed they 
learned what was to be done. Even though it did not show up strongly, they knew 
nevertheless what thing had been about there. That is the way they taught their 
children. (6) Then when they were grown up, they would not just run along, but 
they would observe everything. That is the way they raised their children. (7) 
When they had grown up they feared nothing, because they knew all that bad been 
taught them about the tracks of various things. That is why they did not stay at 
home, because there was nothing they feared. 

2. Grandmother afterbirth 

1 . When the grandmother (afterbirth) was born, that is what scared the baby. 
That is why the very young infant drew (puckered, grimaced) its face. That is 



ma'a'nyas we'ntc-mitsmi't'sta le'-nukwi-'n. (4) le'u-gu-s-le'u-ii'mi'ta-haiwa't, 
a'yu'-i-hi'ni / -he-di-'H-yux w u / mta, la'u-ilkwa''anya-di-'l le'-di-l le'-hi'ni'-yuxwu'm-e 
i'-i'n-ta--dil. yuwu't's-li-'tcit, yuwu't's ba'tgi, yuwu't's nik'e"lehe'-me. (5) 
x-we'ntc-he-il'mi'tsmit'sta le-'lhi-'me. a'yu'-he-'-le'u iTmi't'ssaNS. ma'i-i'n-H'n- 
wi'-mi't'c'yu't, yege-'-ilkwa'a'nya di-'l-le'-hi'ni' yux w u'm-e. we'ntc-he--iimi'ts- 
mit'sta le-'lhi-'me. (6) a'yu'-he-' yu'-we-he-'wi, la'u-in-ha'-hats la-'u-xna"a't, 
gu-s-di-'l-he- mita-'haiwa't. x-we'ntc4ie-' le'-ilha-"wi-'wa't le-'lhi-'me. (7) le'u- 
ya-he-'wi le'u-i'n-di-1-a'lqsa'ya, nayi'm-kwa'a'nya gu-s-le'u-mit'ssi-'ya le'-he-ya'- 
ga-dil la-ha'ga'di. we'ntc-1-he-' le'leu-iN-gei'ts ne-'dzi, na'yim-il-i'nl-a'lqsa'ya. 

2. 

(Hanis 12 ) 1. le'ule-eTe'xe u'ma-ca'tc, x-le'u he'nwe le'leu aq'a'lqsit'u'wa 
la'-a"la. x-we'ntc he'nwe le'leu su'wi-'ni'wa te"e- le-x-qa-'na-a"la. x-we'ntc he-' 



ni'yaVcta x-we-'n-mit'smi't'stiya tb-nukwi-'n. (4) wi-'-gu-s-i'l-kwi--mita-'i, a'yu- 
i-da' t -ditc-di-yuxwu'mta\ wi'4cwa-"niyada"il i'-di'tc tfo-da"-yuxwu'me tla-a'N- 
we-n-ditc. yu'wu't's-H-'tcit, yuwu't's-ba'tgi, yuwu't's nek'e'lehe'-ka\ (5) x- 
we'n-il-du-mi't'smit'sti'ya tli-il-dihi-'me. a-'yu-i'l-du kwi-'-mit'ssa-'ts. ma' ! -aN- 
li'n-wi-mi't'c'yu, ma-i'l-du-kwa-"niya-'da di'tc-tb-da" yuxwu'me. we-'n-il-du- 
mit'smi't'stiya tli'-ildihi-'me. (6) a-'yu'-du i-he-'wi, wi'-aN-ma-'tsi-la-dahwi'ye-t, 
gu-s-di'tc-du--ge' mita'i. x-we'n-tli-ilha-'wi-'t'a tli-ildihi-'me. (7) wi'-i-he-'wi 
wi'-aN-ditc-a'lqsa, na'im4cwa-"niya'da gu-'s4cwi-mit'ssi'yada tia-ma'^ditc dgha'- 
gadi. we-'n-il-du tla-kwi'-aN-idze'wtc-idzi-'m, na'im-il-a'N-ditc-a'lqsa. 

2. 

(Miluk 12 ) 1. wi'-tlhwi'ye-da-u'mna't'btc, x-kwi'-tsa-'-du aq'a'lqsit'u'wa tb- 
ki'lga. we'n-ditc-du tla-du-kwi-su'wa'ini dehe'L tle-x-d.a-'na'-ki'lga. we'n-il-du- 

12 The Miluk version was dictated and translated first, the Hanis version was dictated as a 
translation of the Miluk. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 25 

what the people said. "It is the old woman who scared her, and that is why it 
grimaced." (2) That is why the people danced there, the children danced there. 
They danced five days for the sake ot the old woman laid up above there, because 
they believed that. Sometimes it cried when the old woman scared the baby. (3) 
The people believed that. That is why they fed the old woman for five days (throw- 
ing food into the tree fire), because if they did not do that, the old woman would 
scare it, if they did not treat her thus. That is why they danced five days. Then 
the old woman left the child. 

2. If when the baby was born there was a black bruise on it (the so-called 
Mongolian spot), the people said as follows, "It is grandmother who bruised it. 
(2) 'Go on! get outside quickly!' That is what she said to it. That is why it was 
bruised black. She punched it when it did not go outside quickly." That is what 
the people explained about babies that were bruised black. 



il'i"lt le'-x-me". "le'-x-hu"mik" le'leu aq'a'lqsit'i-Wt, x-we'ntc dil le'leu su'wi-'- 
ni'wa't." (2) x-we-'ntcl-he le'-x-me- le'-we-leu ilma'ganya'xda, hi-'me me'-he-'-tci 
magani-'du'waq. getVmhis ga-'is le'-hu'mik-xi'ni''yehe-'tc tci'-ilme'ge'nt, na'yim 
i'ltlda-'ya. yuwu't's-he-'-geLt ye'nwe le'u aq'a'lqsit'i-'wa't le-'-x-hi-meu-hu-''mik\ 
(3) le'u-iltlqa-'ya le'-x-me we'ntcl-he- le'leu-ilda'cdja le'-hu-'mik" getVmhis ga-'is, 
na'yim-i-il-i'n-x-wentc, la'u-aq'a'lqsit'i-'wa't le-x-hu"mik. i-il-i'n-wentc ha'uwi'- 
'wa't. we'ntcl-he- le'leu-il maganya'xda getVmhis ga-'is. lVm-a-he'nwa-ha-k w - 
du-Wt la'-a"la le-'-x-hu"mik\ 

2. yu'-we-e'e'lxeu la-a"la intqantltsi-t'a-he', le'u-wentc-he-'-i"lt le'-x-me', 
"x-u'ma-catc he'nwe le'lau-tga'Ndlts. (2) la"ax! tle-e't'H'tc ! we'ntc-henwe-i"lt. 
we'ntcl-he-' le'leu ntqa'ntltsi-'t'a. daga"natl-he'nwe i-i'n-tle-'-t'li'tc." x-we'ntc- 
he- il'la'gawiyat'a'na-ya le-x-me-' le'lau ntqantltsi-'t'a la'-a"la. 



i'ld u wa tle-x-ka". "tle-x-hu'mi'kca tta-kwi'-aq'a'lqsit'u'wa, we-'n-ditc-tb-kwi-su- 
'wi-'naV (2) x-we-'n-ditc-tle'-x-ka" tli-il-du-kwi-'-ge'-mege'nt, hi-'me-'-du ge" 
maga'ni-'da. gent'ci'nsi gaha'is tb-hu'mi'k-xina"adja ilmege'nt, na'im-il-kwi-- 
tlqVya. yu'wu't's-du-a'xats i-du-kwi-'-aq'a'lqsit'u'wa tle-x-hi-'me dihu"mik\ (3) 
kwi'-iltlda'ya tle-x-ka". we-'n-ditc-du tli-il-kwi-'-cJatska-'n tl9-hu-''mik" gent'ci'n- 
si gaha'is, na'im-i-il-a'N-x-we-n, wi'-aq'alqsit'u'wa tle-x-hu-''mik\ i-il-a'N-x-we-n- 
wa-'tsa. we'n-ditc-du tli-il-kwi'-maga'nidiya gent'ci'nsi gaha'is. tVma-tsa-'-du 
ha-'gwiya tli-ki'lga tb-de-x-hu"mik. 

2. i-du-hwutlhwi'yu tli-ki'lga intqa'ntltsi-'t'a-'-du, wi'-we-n-du-i'ld u wa tle- 
x-ka'\ "x-u'mna-'t'fotc tb-kwi-'-tga'ntlts. (2) la'ya'dai! tie' silt'i-'yix! we-'n-tsa'- 
du-i'ld u wa. we'n-ditc-du tb-kwi -'-ntqantltsi-'t'a. daga'na-tl-tsa-'-du i-a'N-tle'- 
si'lt." we-'n-du-illa'gawiyat'ana'ya tle'-x-ka" tla-kwi -'-ntqantltsi-'t'a tli-ki'lga. 



26 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

3. Hadji'yasa, tle'1731, and others 

1 . After they had moved the people to Ya'hatc, they no longer practised their 
own customs. Their ways became the ways of the moving people (the whites), they 
also began to practise such customs. 

2. Tls'i7al (Old Man Jackson) purchased hadji'yasa (Fanny) in marriage 
then, with his (other) wife's money, (Fanny was then) a girl just menstruating for 
the first time. (M. tle^al bought hadji'yasa who was just a girl who had recently 
menstruated for the first time.) Then tle'i7al purchased hadji'yasa. She ran away 
continually, and he pursued her, and indeed he took her back. (2) Once he went 
after her with horses. When returning, the horse threw her off. She hung there 
from the saddle horn, she hung head down. tle'i79l caught the horse, and then he 
released her from the saddle horn. (3) After that she did not run away again. She 
stayed there nicely. Then his first wife became jealous, she did not like her husband's 
(younger) wife (Fanny) any more, she became jealous of her. 



3. 

(Hants 13 ) 1. le-ya-'xadjimitc he'Lge"ye-'u-me'n, la'u-ii-i'nye--x-we'ntc dji-'tc- 
le'ita'ma"Hs. ha'tsiya-we'ntc he-ta-'ma"lis dji-'tc-le-' int'cli'ya me'u-ta-ma"iis, 
his-i'1-x a x-we'nd j iy e-h elta • 'ma' * lis . 

2. le'ule'u ls-hadji'yasa x-ls'u le'u-thrts le'-x-tk'i7al, he-x-ne'hu"mis he-x- 
n'ta-'Taha-tc, tit'se-'was. le'le'u-tlu-ts le'-x-tle'i7al le-hadji'yasa. tlwa-ha'sa-'ni-'-he 
gus-mi"le'tc, le-'leu gwutgwi"yatl-he', a'yu'-he-hu-tldu'wa't. (2) ls'u yi'xen tse- 
x-ku-'tana-tc 1'adza'ya. a'yu'-yu-u'xpi"yeu, la'u tlxa'nt-le'-x-ku-'tan. la'u-hi- 
'ni-'-tsckt he-xi'nxin-naku-'max, <idu'we"et qe'litc9-hwu"luh w . la'u sga'ts-le-x- 
th'i79l ls'-ku-'tan, tsu-'-t'a'm-adza'nrt'its le'-xinxin nsku-'max. (3) t'i'm-iduwe'tc 
i'n-asu-tlwa-'has. nu'we-'-dluh w tsxem. la'u-hatsi-'ya ma'qalt le-'-i'la'hai-x-hu-'- 
'mis, ini'ya-as-u--du'wa-ya le-'-djiTwe'dje'itc, maqVlyaha-'ya. 



{Miluk 13 ) 1. tH-ya-'xadja djinya'-daka, anya'-il-x-we-n ildata-'ma-'Hs. 
tii-ilde'x-ta-ma-'lidjis ma-'tsiya i'i-x-wen data-'ma-'lis dji" tla-ntsk-'ne'-ka-da- 
ta-'ma'lis, his-ilhi'dji x-ws"niye il-data-'ma-'lis. 

2. wi-'-kwi-tla-'wi tle-x-tle'i7al tla-hadji'yasa, tla-de-x-hu-'mis da-x-hada'i- 
'misitc, tit'se-'was. (kwi-tla-'wi tls-x-tls^al tla-a'iwa tit'se-'was tla-hadji'yasa.) 
wi-'-kwi--tla-'wi tle-x-tle'i7al tla-hadji'yasa. wi-'-gu-s-mi'n-dutlwa-'hasa-'nu, wi-'- 
kwi-wutwu'mya-t-du gu-s-mi'N, a-'yu-du-bi'ya. (2) mi'n-t'ci tse-x-ku-'tanu 
la'dza. wi'-i-itc-wusi'tc-la, wi'kwi ta" tle-x-ku-'tan. wi'-da"-dza'ge-'q xi'nxin- 
daku-'ma'xidja, da'-qde-'nsn gedle-'n-diseL. wi-'-gala'm tle-x-tle^al tla-ku-'tan, 
tsu'-t'a'ma dzamti'ya tle-x-xi'nxinu daku-'ma'xitc. (3) t'i'm-iduws a'N-da-s-ne'q- 
he. l£i'le-'-dlu'q w siM. ma-'tsiya maqa'lt tla-dahe'le'yu-hu-'mis, a'n-da-s-du'ha-'ya 
tia-dadji'lwe-tc, maqVlya'aya. 

u The Hanis version was dictated first. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 27 

3. Now tle^al's daughter (Kitty Hayes, by his first wife) got married. Then 
she desired that her daughter (do this), the first wife of tle'i79l said to her daughter, 
"You should flirt with him (with djaqu-'ni, Frank). You may merely pretend that 
he was flirting with ('bothering,' which implies desiring intercourse with) you." 
(2) So she did what her mother told her. Indeed that was how it was. Indeed she 
flirted with him. She watched when he passed there, she went outside. "Come! 
help me." (3) So he went inside. "Help me in the bed room." He thought nothing 
of it. Then that woman (Kitty) began to flirt with him. Now just then someone 
(her own husband Rogers) entered. (4) Kitty Hayes went out. She took him (her 
husband) to the kitchen, she took him there, while the man djaqu'ni went out. 
Then she told her husband, "Frank has been bothering me." That is how she in- 
formed her husband. (5) He said nothing, Rogers merely went out. He went to 
see his father-in-law (tle'i79i). He spoke to him thus, "What are you going to do 
about it? He was bothering your daughter. You kill him. (6) It will be better if 
you kill him. Then she (Fanny) will not think herself so big." That is the way it 



3. tsu-'-de'mi'ltsqem le-'gwa'ya'citc le'-tle'i79l. tsu'-lau-duwa-'ya le-'x-gwa- 
'ya'citc, we'ntc-i"lt le-'gwa'ya'citc le'-x-tle'i79lu-yila'haix hu"mis, "le'u-hantl 
e'n-haVts. gwa'yu-'t'c-hantl s'n-heu'dzi'l xe'ge." (2) a"yu dji-'tc le-i"lt le-'x- 
e"netc. a'yu' yege'-x-wentc. a'yu' la'u-ini'ya-hau'ts. hi'da-'ya la'u-i-hi'ni'-la, 
la'u-t'ldja-'ya. "e'dji! tsa-ki'nta-"is." (3) a'yu'-de^dits. "ye-t'H'sde-tc tci'- 
hantl-etsa-'kinta"is." i'n-dji-tci'-ilwe"tc9S. hei-ha'ts-ini'ya-hau'ts le-x-hu"mis. 
hei-ge'n-hats me-'-de'dits'itc. (4) tsu'-t'lf'tc \e-Kitty Hayes. tsu-miya'q"mit'a-'- 
wi-tc didji"ya't, tci-'-la'a'iwa't, tsu'-t'9m-a-t'H"tc le'-de-'mil-djadu-'ni. we'ntc- 
gw9Sgwi-'yu"wa't le-'de-'mil, "ni-'-hs'u'dzu-le-x-Fraw&." we'ntc-sgwi'yu'wa't 
le-'de-'mil. (5) i'n-tl'sts, ha'ts-t'H'tc le-la-'djis. wu'lwut le-'mitcli'dzi'na'tc. tsu'- 
wentc-i"lt, "tci-'tcu-hantl-axa'lal? le'u-xe'ge i'n-hau'ts li'ya'a"la. he-'-tsxe"we. 
(6) i'la'hadjim-hantl-b'7-i ye'-etsxa'u-'wa't. in-ha'ntl-tci hem-i'sdi-tc dji'ndji- 
'na'iwa'tit'e't." a'yu'-yaga'-x-wentc. i'ltsxa'u-'wa't. he-'-niye hi'ni' yaga'ndjim 



3. tsu-'-de'mltS9m tta-dggwa-'ya tlg-tle'i79l. tsu'-kwi--du'ha'ya tfo-dex- 
gwa-'ya, we'n-i'ld u wa tlg-dggwa-'ya tle-x-tle'i7al-dghe'lu-hu-'mis, "kwi--na'ntl 
a'n-hu-t'suwa. gwa'yu-'t'c-nantl a'n-hu-t'su-'dun tle-x-hi'dji." (2) ayu' ma'- 
x-wen dji' tl9-i'ld u wa tlg-dex-e'ne. ayu'-ma'-x-we-n. a'yu' a'nya hu-t'su'wa. lu'- 
dgda'ya'aya ya-ha'ntl da'Ma, ge"-silt'dza-'ya. "e'dji! tsa-ki'ntai-nantl." (3) 
a'yu'-de-'dje. "dluk w dli-'gwdjg na'ntl-tsa-ki'ndaV a'N-dji dg'lu'we. he'-ma-'tsi 
a'nya-hut'su'wa'itc tle-x-hu-'mis. hei-ge'n-ma-'tsi ka' c -de-'dje'itc. (4) tsu-si'lt' 
tte-Kitty Hayes, tsu'-q'mi'yat'as dg'ye-'dzidje didza-'ya, ge"-kwi--la-'i, tsu'-t'a- 
ma-si'lt' tlg-de-'mil-djaqu-'ni. x-we'n gwg'sgwai tlg-dgde-'mil, "t'ci-'lilini'n'u 
th-x-Frank." x-we'n gwg'sgwa'i tlg-dgde-'mil. (5) a'N-tli, ma-'tsi-silt' tlg-la-'djgs. 
wa'lwi tlg-dgya-'kda. tsu'-x-we'n-i'ld u wa, "dji-'-nantl xa'ltgm? ku-kwi-'-x-hidji 
a'n-hu-t'suwa kwa-niki'lga. tse-'u. (6) ke-'le-hantl x-we-'n i-natsa-'u. an-ha'ntl- 
ge< H'n-wi dji'ndjina--d9't'e." a'yu'-ma'-x-we-n. a'yu'-iltsa-'u. he-'niya de'-qli'm- 



28 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

was indeed. They killed him. Long long after when they came here (to Coos Bay), 
Rogers learned that his wife had lied to him, that she had informed him of lies. 
(7) For that he nearly killed his wife. Had it not been for her daughter he would 
have killed his wife, tle'iyal had no money, he could pay nothing for her. Even 
though the chief, tWiydl had nothing. That is the way they finished. 

4. A man obtains fir power 

A man went out to hunt. All day long he walked, he got nothing at all. It be- 
came evening. Then he made camp. (1) The next day he hunted there again. It 
became half sun (noon) , he had gotten nothing at all. Then he sat down (for a rest) . 
Indeed he heard singing. (2) He looked towards there where he had been hearing 
it. Indeed people were having a dance (there). But when he observed them again, 
indeed they had become just fir trees (H. dancing there). No more did they dance. 
(3) He went back home then. As he went along he killed an elk. He took along just 



tsi-tsi'xdi'-ildji, la'u-kwa'a'nyaha-'ya le'-x-la'djis le'leu-hewe-'se'ni le-'hu"mis, 
hs'ws'su-tc gw9Sgwi-"wa*t. (7) le'ule-'-ye'nu la'u-ga-'s tsxa'u-'wa't le-'hu"mis. 
yu-'tl-i'n-hex-a'la le'u-tsxa'u-'wa't-u-tl le-'hu"mis. ke'-hada-'yims le'-tle'iyal, i'n- 
dji-tc tsltsu'wit'ax. ma'i'il-e'hethe-'de, la'u-kY-di-1 le'-tle'iygl. x-we'ntc ilhe'uye. 

4. 

(Hanis u ) tsu'-lNda-'-la ls'-de-'mil. yixe'i-ga-'is tca'Vt, i'n-di-'l-i'dzadu-'- 
wa't. qVuwaha-'ya. tsu'-k w li"ya't. (1) hel'mi'his as-u'-gs-lni-'wa. t'H-na't- 
tka'lisi'ya, i'nl-idzadu-'wa't. tsu'-dlu"tsxem. hatsi-'ya megs" en k'a-'yaha'iwa't. 
(2) tsu-tci-'xitc'iLx le'-k'a-'yaha'iwa't da-'wi-tc. hei-ha'ts megs'n dgme'n'itc. 
yaga'-tci- kwna'iwa't, hei-ha'ts nalcwi-'n'itc le'-maga'ni-du'waq. ini'ya as-u' 
maga'nidu'waq. (3) tsu' bi"bi. bi'ys"etc-la tsu'-yixe'i tsxa'u'wa't le'-djiTye. 



ni'yu wi'-gs'sde-il'we-'st, tsi-tsu'-lcwa-"niyada'a'ya tle-x-la'djis tl9-kwi--he'we-- 
se-nu tta-dghu-'mis, tia-kwi-'-he'wesu-tc gwasgwa''. (7) kwi-yi'ml-qdla 1 kwi--ga-'s- 
tsa'u tb-dahu-'mis. ya-'xtta-a'n tla-dsx-ki'lga wi-'-tsa'u-axtll tla-dahu-'mis. a'mi- 
hada'i'mis tle-tls'iyal, a'N-dji tsltsu'wit'a. ma'i'yuk w tle-hethe-'de, wi'-a'mi--ditc 
tle-tk'iyal. x-ws'n ilhu"wa. 

4. 

(Miluk u ) tsu'-fomda-'wa-la' tla-da-'mil. hit'ci'-gaha'is tca-'tca'i, a'N-ditc- 
aya'dja. gatqVidiya. tsu'-q w li-'ya't'. (1) a"ma'is da-'s-ge-la'mdi-'wa. t'H-'na't- 
qwaTe'esi'ye, a'N-ditc-aya-'dja. tsu'-dlu'q w S9m. he^ma-'tsi me'ge"niya qa'wa'- 
ya. (2) tsu'-xi-'la-ge-'wi tla-qa"wa-'ya'adju-'wi. he'-ma-'tsi mege'n-da'ka'. i-da-'s- 
ma"-ge-ha'maq, he' i -ma-'tsi nultwi-"ni'ye. a'nya-da-'s-maga'ni-da. (3) tsu'- 
wa'si. wasa'ts-la tsu'-hit'ci'-tsa-'u tta-ki'ts. wi'-e-'l£-wusa-'ya. ma-'tsi-gu-'s- 

14 The Miluk version was obtained first. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 29 

a very little of it. He dreamed of them (of the firs) continually. (4) That is the way 
it became his day (power). From that time on he became a shaman. 

5. A woman obtained fir power and learned two medicines 

1 . A woman dreamt in the following manner. She was going along, she stepped 
over a log, and then the log rolled over. (Said the log,) "Oh' they're always strad- 
dling over me. My heart is (I am) getting tired of it! they're always having to 
straddle over me!" (2) Now his (fir log's) eyes were bad, his eyes were red. (He 
appeared as a person in her dream.) "Come! (fir tree said to her.) Let us play a 
game. This is the way we'll play." This is the way they played poke-punch game. 
(3) He merely poked (with a finger) at her breast (nipples). She awakened. Her 
breasts were indeed sore, her eyelids too, just as red (as fir's eyes). 

2. Then she dreamed again. "You are to pick and gather (M.) b'n ik" weeds, 
you will doctor your breasts with them. And as for your eyes, you are to doctor 



la'u-ka'ic bi'i-'ya't. hatsi-'ya gu-s-mi'ls'tc le'u gwat'.si-'wa't. (4) x-we'ntc le'leu- 
wi-yew ga-'is. xle'ti'^yuwstc ilxqa'ini-'ya. 

5. 

(Hanis 15 ) 1. tsu-' x-we'ntca gwa'a-'t'is le'-hu"mis. tsu-'-la-, niki'nitc- 
wa't'li, hei-ha'ts gW9l'ye"etqem'itc le'-ni'kin. "'a 11 '! gus-mi'ls'tc heha'n-e naga'xan 
dze-'xe^t! ki'nau-'ns'i'lwe^djas! gu-s-mi"ls'tc hehe'n-e naga'xan dze-'xe' f t!" (2) 
hei-ha'ts i'n-tau-hwa'lhwal'itc, Ikwa'Lt-le-'hwa'lhwal. "'e'dji! gwa's'a'a'lica"ni. 
x-ws'ntc-hantl is'a'lica"ni." mi'yu'han a'yu' yaga'-ux w -x-we'ntc. (3) ha'ts-yu-'- 
leu dza'gwats le-'ga-. tsu-'-tga-'. hei-ha'ts a'yu' xe-"nis'itc le-'ga-, ta-'-le-hwa'l- 
hwalu dje-'ne"nis, le'uleu-lkwa'Lt. 

2. hei-ha'ts a's-u' le'u gwa'a't'is'i'tc. "le'u-hantl e'ya-'k w tit bl-leu-b"nik\ 
x-le-'itc ha'ntl eli'lxats li'yega". ta-'-liyehwa'lhwal, b'l-de- b-mi"ye x-le-'itc 



mi'n'ni'ye kwr-gwasgwa'n-as. (4) x-we-'n tb-kwi-ye-'-dagaha'is. wi'-ma-'tsi 
ft'm-idu'we i'la'xqai'ni'ya. 

5. 

(Miluk 15 ) 1. tsu'-we-n-dagwa'ns tb-hu-'mis. tsu'-la', niki'mr-wu't'li, he ! - 
ma-'tsi gwu'ldgsgm tb-ni'kin. '"9 n ! gu-s-mi'n e'n-e-'nagwa-'niyu dze-'xexe 1 ! ^i- 
na'u-'na'lu'we! gu-s-mi'n e'n-e-'nagwa-'niyu dze-'xexe 1 !" (2) he^ma-'tsi a'n-wen- 
daxwa'lxwal, Iqwa'l-tb-daxwa'lxwal. '"e'dji! alica-'nu-'s-hantl. we'n-snantl 
alica-'ni'wa-s." miyu'ha'n a-'yu-itc-ma'-we-'n. (3) wi-'-ma-'tsi-ha-ku'wi dza'gwi 
tb-daga-'t's. tsu'-dla'nkts. he'-ma-'tsi-a-'yu-xe'nwas tb-daga-'t's, we'n-tb-da- 
xwa'lxwal dadje'ne"nis, wi-'-lqwl. 

2. he'-ma-'tsi-da-'s kwi-da'gwans. "kwi-'-na'ntl-yu'q w da kwi'tc-kwi-b'n-ik\ 
kwi'yu'-nantl-la-'H kwa-naga-'t's. we'n-kwa-naxwa'lxwal, wi-'-kwtc-e-"b"ma 



15 The Miluk version was given first. 



/ 



30 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

your eyes with that other one (another green) yonder. ' ' (2) Then again he became a 
log. She awakened. Indeed now her breasts were also sore, and her eyes too. So 
she went and tried those medicines indeed. (3) Sure enough they healed her breasts, 
and also her eyes. She cured them with what he told her were their medicines. 

6. Getting rid of a thunder dream-power 

1. The people of long ago spoke thus to the later (younger) people. "A thun- 
der dream (power) is no good." When they dreamed it they could not have their 
children grow up. That is why those people did not want it, because it was no good. 
(2) But when it had been a long time (that he had been dreaming it) and it was his 
day (power), then it (thunder) wanted to take (that person) in marriage. That is 
why the people did not want it. (3) They claimed it took her for his wife. If a man 
had it for his power, then thunder woman would take him back home to be her 
own husband. 



ha'ntl sli'lxats li'yehwaTnwal." (2) hsi-ha'ts a'su' nikT'ni-'ye. tsu-'-tga-. 
hsi-ha'ts a-'yu' his-he'ga- xe-"nis, ta-'-his-he'hwalhwal. tsu-' a-'yu' le'u-ki'nt- 
ls-'le"iex. (3) he'-a^'yu le'u-lhe'i le-'ga-, la'u his le-'hwalhwal. H'lxats le'1-wentc 
i"lt k-'ie"kx. 



(Hanis 16 ) 1. ls'-hs-'niye'-me< we'ntc-he-'-ii'i"rt le'-t'b/ni-'x-me'. "in-he'n- 
we'-ta- ls-t'sa'n-a-gwa'a-'t'is." i'-ru--me y -gwa'a'€is in-he'nws-hi-'ms hs u he-'we"yu. 
x-ws'ntcl le-x-ms-' lsu i'n-duwa-ya, na'yim-i'n-ta-. (2) hs'lt' yu' he-'niyshe-ys 
ls'u-naga-'is, le'u-his-e"ns e'bi"yidu. x-we'ntc ls-x-ms-' ls'leu-i'n-duwa-ya. (3) 
gwa'-cgwcn-ws ls'uwiyeu-hu"mis. lsu-i-ds-'mii hr'-ga-'is, le'u-x-t'sa'n-a hu"mis 
le'u bi'i-'ya't he-de-'miie"it. 



kwi'yu'-nantl-la-'H kwa-naxwa'lxwal." (2) he' i -ma-'tsi-da-'s-nil£i"ni'ys. tsu'- 
dla'nkts. hs' i -ma-'tsi-a'yu-his xs'nwas-tb-daga-'t's, ws'n-his-tb-daxwa'lxwal. 
tsu'-a-yu-kwi-ka'n-i tb-dals-'i. (3) hs^a-'yu-kwi-lhe'u tb-daga-'t's, we'n-his-tb- 
daxwa'lxwal. kwi'yu-la-'H tbtc-we-'n-i'ldwa tb-dale-'l. 

6. 

(Miluk 16 ) 1. tb-he-'niye'-ka< we'n-il-du-i'ld u wa tb-tra'<-ka'. "an-tsa-'- 
du--we'n tb-t'sa'n-a-'-gwans." i-lu-'-da'-ka--gw9'ns an-tsa-'-du--hi-'me he'uhe-'- 
wiyu. we-'n-ditc-du tle-x-ka' kwr-a'N-du-'ha'ya, na'im-a'N-we-n. (2) his-ha'- 
he-'niye'eye kwi--na'gaha'is, wi- hi's-na'ne'uwisadu-n. x-we-'n-ditc tb-x-ka' kwr- 
a'N-du-'ha'ya. (3) gwa-'-x-tsa-'-du kwr-da'hu-misi'ye. wi'-i-de-'mil hr'-da'ga- 
hais, wi-'-x-t'sa'n-a-hu-'mis x-kwi-'-was-i'ya de-'mili-de-'de. 



16 The Miluk version was given first. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 31 

2. They did not want a thunder dream (power) because it was jealous. They 
could not even raise children, because it took away the children from a person who 
had thunder for his dream (power). (2) Then if another shaman took away their 
thunder dream (power), then indeed they would be able to raise their children. 
That is why the people believed it was bad, it was so extremely jealous that it did 
not even want them to have children. It was bad for the person who had that dream 
(power) because it took along home his children. 

3. If still others of his children were also dying (after a power removal), he 
would go to there to the person (shaman) to whom he had given it (his thunder 
power). If he did not speak (admit taking it) they would kill him. (2) If he spoke, 
"Indeed I took it. If you do not believe me, let us get another shaman." Then that 
is what they would do indeed. A shaman's dance would be arranged. Then still 
another shaman would take it again (from the second shaman), there where they 
were having the song and dance. (3) Sometimes they would put it into the fire, 
they would try to put it there and roast it in hot ashes. If they could not (kill it) 



2. i'n-huwe le'leu il-i'n-duwa-ya le'-t'sa'na-gwa'a-'t'is na'yim-i'lma'qVHs. 
his-gu'ma hi-'me e'n-dji-tc ha-'wuts, na'yim-he' ilsga'iwa't tahi-'me le'-me- t'sa'- 
n-au-gwa'a-'t'is. (2) ls'u yi-x-ya'a'i ilxqa'in la'u la-"it le'-t'sa'n-a gwa'a-'t'is, la'u 
a'yu'-he- ilhe' u he-wnis helhi-'me. we'ntc le'leu iltlda/ya le'-x-me le'lau i'n-ta-, 
li'nwi'-maqa'l-is his-gu'ma ls'u i'n-duwa-ya nahi-'me'-he. le'-me- le'u gwa'a-'tis 
le'u-his-he'-hi-me bi'bi'yu'wa't. 

3. la'u i-yaga-a'i'wau-hi-'me, la'u-tci-'-hs- la'a-'da-'ya Is' -me-' lsu 
a'tsa'ha-tc. ls'u-i-in-tsi'xtsix le'u-iltsxa'u-'wa't-he. (2) le'u-i-tsi'xtsix, "a-'yu"il 
na'sgats. ya'ntl e'n-tlqa-'ya, le'u ya'a'i ilxqa'in-hantl la'nsgats." la'u a'yu'-he- 
yaga'-x-wentc. le'u ye'1-e's-he- ilc'a'lctit. a'yu'-he- as-u-' ya'a'i ilxqa'in la'u- 
sga'ts, la'u tci-'-he- mege'nti'-men. (3) la'u yuwu't's tcwle-'tc'il, tci-'-he 



2. a'N-huwe tli-il-kwi-'-a'N-du-'ha'ya tfo-t'sa'n-a-'-gwans na'im-ilma4a'l-is. 
his-nagu'ma hi-'me a'N-dji-ha-'wiya, na'im-il-du-ga'lam-dSahi-'me tb'-lca t'sa'n-a 
dagwa'ns. (2) wi'-ya-x-ma' i'1-a'xqain kwi--la-'ya tb-t'sa'n-a'-gwans, wi'-a-'yu- 
il-du ha-'wiya-ildihi-'me. we-'n-ditc tle'-x-ka kwi--iltlqa-'ya tb-kwi-a'N-we-n, 
ri'n-wi-mac^a'l-is hi's-gu'ma-aN du-'ha"ya kwi-'-ni'hi-mede. tfo-ka'-kwr-da'gwans 
a'N-wen-na'im-his-hi-'me-dgbi-'ba 1 . 

3. wi'-i-du-ma" ku'mi'yam-dihi-'me, wi-'-ge'-du--la'yu"wa tl3-ka"-k^d--ni'- 
ya'adja. wi-ya-a'N-wa-"nu wi--tsa'u'il-du. (2) wi'-yu-wa"nu, "a-'yu-wi-galam. 
inantl-a'N-tlqa-'ya, wi-ma'-i'l-axqain-tlha'ntl-galam. " wi'-a-'yu-du-ma'-x-we-'n. 
wi-'-ye'l-e-s-du--dzi-'dzu. wi'-a'yu-du da-'s x-ma-' i'1-a'xqain kwi-'-ga'lam, wi'- 
ge"-du-mege'nt-d9'ka'. (3) wi'-yu'wu't's-il he'mildidje i'l-du, du'ha"ya il-du 



32 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

that way, they would tell it to go away. (4) "Don't stay here! you are no good! 
we do not want you!" Then indeed they would have it for their dream (power) 
no longer, if it went back (to its own) home. 

7. A girl found a husband who was a Timber Man and a 
wealth-encounter-power 

A girl traveled about at night all the time. Her parents always told her thus. 
"Do not become tired. Travel here and there. Then a day (a dream -power) will 
take pity on you." (1) Indeed the girl did so. She came to water, and there she 
swam in it. She feared nothing then. That is why people did that to their children. 
(2) Sure enough maybe some one girl sometimes would find something in that man- 
ner. She would be swimming. Now there was a person seated right on her garment. 
"Give me my dress!" (3) The man did not budge. He kept seated there on her 
dress. "Give me my dress!" Then to be sure he did give her the garment, so she 



ilduwa'ya ihM-'xits. la'u-i-i'n-x-we'ntc, le'w-x-wentc-he il'i'Tt ye'gex. (4) "i'n- 
e'tsix! e'n--ta! H'i'n-edu'wayaxda-mi!" a'yu'-he i'n-as-u-' le'u-heigwa'a-'t'is, 
yu'-we-bi"bi. 

7. 

(Hanis 17 ) le'-gweis gus-mi"le'tc he-'leu yux w u'm-e kwa'haLtc. gu's-mi'- 
'le'tc he-' le'u-wentc i"lt le-'x-ma'a'nya's. "enha'ntl ki'n-a u . e'yu'xum-a'-hantl. 
le'w-x-ga-'is hantl ekwi-'ni'xdu." (1) a-'yu' yaga'-x-wentc le'-gweis. xa-rja-'tc- 
he'l-eq, le'u hi'ni-'-he- dzasdla-'qVai. ine"it-dH aLqsa-'ya. x-we'ntc di-l-he' le'- 
leu-wentc tsixtsi'xit le-"a"la le'-x-me-. (2) hei-ha-' a-'yu'-itc di-'l ktru"ts le'u- 
yixe'n le-x-gwe'is dzasdla-'da'ai. hei-ha'ts le-'n3dne"s me-'-db'we'gets'itc. "a'tsam 
n-'qne's!" (3) i'n li-'xde't le'-de-'mil. tci-' db'we'gets le-'na'qne's. "a'tsam m'- 



ge-k w ya'nli. wi'-ya-a'N x-we'n, wi'-we-'n-ii-du-i'ld u wa i-'ge\ (4) "a'N-diu'i'yex! 
an-u"-we-n! a'n-lduhida-mi!" wi'-a-'yu-du-a'Nya kwr-i'ldagwa'ns, i-du-wa's-i. 



(Miluk 17 ) tb-gwe'is gu-s-mi'n-du-yuxwu'me qli'm. gu-s-mi'n-du-we'n-i'ldwa 
tb-dax-ma-'ni'ya-'s. "an-a'ntl-ki'nau. yux w ume'-nantl. wi-'-kwi--x-gaha'is- 
nantl kwi-'ni-dun." (1) a'yu'-du-me'-x-we'n tb-gwe'is. ha-'£adja"-dji, wi-'-da"- 
du-dzasdla-'qa 1 . a'n-i-da-ditc-a'lqsa. tb-du-kwi-'x-we'n-wa-'tsa tb-dilti'lga tle- 
x-ka'. (2) he'-du'-a-'yu-i'tc yuwu't's-ditc-ki'ldwa we'n-hi't'ci tb-gwe'is. dzas- 
dla'qa\ he'-ma'tsi tb-dawe-'t'bdja ka' dlu-'gwa. "ni-'m-kwa-'nawe-'t'l!" (3) 
a'N-la'ixt tb-de-'mil. ge'-dlu-'gwa tb-dawe-'t'b'dje. "ni-'m-kwa-'nawe't'l!" 



17 The Miluk version was given first. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 33 

spoke to him thus, "Come on! I am going back home." (4) So indeed they went 
home. The man stood outside, and the girl went in. "Mother! I have found a man, 
and I have brought him home. (5) The woman then informed her husband. "Go 
get him. Bring him inside." Then indeed (she did). The man did not know their 
language. (6) "Ah! my daughter! Now he is your good-luck-power. That is why 
I told you so." That is what he said to his daughter. He was her good-luck-power. 



dne's!" tsu-' a-'yu' a'tsa le-'qne"s, tsu-' wsntc i"lt, "s'<dji! nobi"bi-hantl." (4) a'- 
yu' ux w bi"bi. qa'nu-'tc sdu"q le'-de'mii, ta-'-de"dits le'-gweis. "ni-'ka'! de'mil 
ni'ktlu'ts, ls'ulsu na'wu'txa'i-'ya't." (5) tsu-'-sgwi-'wa't ls-'ds'mil ls'-x-hu"mis. 
"i'a'dzit. de'di'ts-hantl." tsu-' a-'yu'. i'n-mit'ssi'yaw-7a'l-a le'-x-de-'mii. (6) 
"ha-'-! nax-a"la! tsu-'-et'lxi'Nxa't. x-we'ntcl-hs' ls'we-ws'ntc e'i"lda-'mi." x- 
we'ntc i"lt ls-'gwaVa'^itc leu-le-'t'lxi"ne 5 x. 



tsu'-a-'yu ni'ya-tla-dawe-'t'l, tsu'-wsn-i'ldwa, "V'dji! was-i'-wantl." (4) a-'yu- 
itc wusasi'yam. qa'nu--sdu'q tb-de-'mil, wi'-de'djs tb-gwe'is. "ni-'ka! 
de-'mil-uki'ldwa, wi'-kwi'-u'wa-'sda." (5) tsu'-sgu-'ya tla-da-de-'mil tle-x- 
hu-'mis. "la-'dza. de-'dja-ha'ntl." tsu'-a-'yu. a'n-mit'ssiya da-' d97a'la 
tls-x-de-'mil. (6) "ha-'-! nax-ki'lga! tsu'-nat'lxa'nxt. x-ws-'n-du tla-'na- 

ws'n-i-'lda'mi." x-ws'n-i'ldwa tte-dagwa-'ya. kwi-'-tla-dat'lxi'nx. 



NARRATIVE TEXTS IN HANIS 

1. Stone hammer baby 18 

1 . The young chief had a baby girl. When she was about a year old, the child 
crept around. She found a stone hammer. When the hammer lay there the child 
rolled it along, every day she rolled it around. (2) Doing like that the child grew 
up. And when the child had grown she lifted the hammer. When five years old she 
began to give baths to the hammer. She bathed the hammer every year (all the 
time). (3) When the child grew up she still bathed the hammer. And when she 
had her first menses, she still had it for her doll. Once when she bathed it, the ham- 
mer just cried. Now the girl went back home. (4) "Mother ! My stone hammer has 
become a baby. It cried." Then she fetched home her baby. "Oh ! throw it away !" 
(said her mother). "If you throw it away you may throw me away too." 

2. Indeed they brought up the boy. Now he became her own child. The child 
grew rapidly. It did not take long to grow up. When it was (full) grown it just 
wanted to go around here and there. (2) At ten years of age he had already com- 
menced fishing with (hook, line and) fishing pole. He got a larger fishing pole every 
year. Now small firs became his fishing poles. He began to catch all sorts of things. 
(3) This is what he said when he caught it (and) when he swung it out of the water. 
"You will drop on the lake (there). You will no longer bother people." That is 
what he said when he swung out of the water all sorts of bad things which he had 



1. dji'lt'c a"la 

1. gwe'i'k" a"la le'uwiye hetr'a'la le-hi-'me hethe-'de. la'u i'-lau yexe'yu 
we'-idzi-'mis, le'u le u -heki"yat la-a"la. le'u ktlu'ts le'-djilt'c. i'-lau-tshu' le'-djilt'c 
le' u wiye gwa'l-a'na-'ya le-x-a"la, denk-ga-'is yaga'-leu gwa'l-a'na-'ya. (2) ta'- 
wentc-le'u-la-'u he'uwe la-a"la. his-la-'u-he'uwe his-ga'tlqal-u-'nis le'-djilt'c le'- 
x-a"la. la'u i-'-getVmhisu-'-idzi-'mis la'u dzasdle-'qeunis le'-djilt'c. de'nk-idzi-'- 
mis le'u dz9sdla"aq le'-djilt'c. (3) tci'-he-'-wi la'-a"la a'iwa-le'u dzasdla"aq le'- 
djilt'c. ta'-tci tit'se-'wasi'ye, a'iwa le'uw-a"lak\ hei-ha'ts yixe'n'itc dzasdla'- 
'aq, hei-ha'ts qe'tu'wi-'ye le'-djilt'c. tsu'-bi^bi-le'-gweis. (4) "ni-'ka! a"la'ha-'ya 
ne'ndjilt'c. ge'lt." tsu'-a'yu' wu'txa'i-'yat la"a"la. "u-' tlxa'nda!" "i'n-yantl- 
cintlxantl la'u-hi's-hantl n'ne cintlxa'nda'is." 

2. a'yu' ilha-'wuts di-"lut'L tsu' le'Vi'hiyeu a'*la. tle-la-'u-he'uwe la-a'^la. 
i'n-he-'niye ma-'ntc-lau he-'wi. la'u ha'ts-he'-yu duwa-'ya yuxu'm-e i-he-'wi. 
(2) dlipga'ni-yu- idzi-'mis ma-'ntc gestsu-'wat'i-'ya le'tsu'wu'stsu-t. denk-i'dzi- 
mis yaga'-he'm-is le'tsu'wu'stsu-t. tci'-lau t'ce'ye-'ne nikini-'ye le'tsu'wu'stsu-t. 
tci'-hiye'-lau gu-s-di'l qadu"wuts. (3) we'ntc he-'-tl'ets yu-wa'-qdu ( ts yu-we'- 
c'la'7t'its. "tst'lixse'tc-hantl etu-'yat'. en-ha'ntl asu' me-' t'ci'l-in-i'Va't." we'ntc 

18 Citing this narrative as proof of the justice of their admonitions, the elders told children 
not to play with rocks or other things found lying about. They would say, "Don't you know about 
the girl who played with a hammer that became human?" Hammer boy became a rock that 
used to be visible in the former narrows of Coos Bay northwest of Empire (Hanis). Old Man 
Jackson and other Coos were heard recounting this tale and perhaps all the Coos knew it. 

(34) 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 35 

hooked. (4) That is what that child was doing. He traveled all over fishing out 
all sorts ot bad things like that. He became a young man. Now he got back home. 
"I am going to leave." (5) He dived in everywhere but he stuck up out of the 
water. And that is how he tried it here and there but never got underneath. He 
tried all over the ocean but he never got underneath. (6) Again he came back to 
Coos Bay channel, (there) he just stuck out a very little bit. Now there he remained. 
The people see him (there) now. 

3. That is the way that narrative is finished. 

2. Lazy eyes 19 

A man was going along the beach. He looked off to a distance. Then his eyes 
said, "Oh ! That's too far away ! We don't want to go there." (1) Now his feet said, 
"Lazy ! Why do you never want to do things ? You are just lazy. You do not work, 
we do the work." That is how his limbs spoke. 



3. The people who were killed up the bay 20 

1. The people went up the river. They remained at their upriver place. The 
girl (who was) the daughter of the headman, no matter how much was offered for 
her, she did not wish marriage. She was always going around outside, even though 
in the nighttime. (2) She was always going around outside. Once when she came 



he--tfo'tsa yu'-we-c'la^t'its gus-di'l i'n-ta la'u tsistsu"wat'. (4) x-we'ntc tsi'xtsix 
le-a"la. gu-s-ge'ndj yuxu'm-e le'u tsistsu"wat' le-gu's-di'l i'n--ta--di'l. di'lul- 
i'ye. tsu'-we-wu'txe. "kwi'-ya-l-hantl ni'ye-'q." (5) ge'ndj-he- dilmi'tsqem in- 
he-"wi-'yet. ta'-wentc kinki'ni'wa't yege-'-in-wi-'yet. baldi-'misa-tc gus-tci' 
kinki'n-i'wa't la'u yige-' in-wi-'yet. (6) asu' hu'tlde't cit'edi'yetc, ha'ts-gi e'n-- 
i-gixem. tsi-tsu-' hi'ni-'-yu-'yu. la'u kwina'iwat le-x-me'. 
3. x-we'ntc he'wi"ye le-le"wi laga'wiyat'as. 

2. hwa'lhwal kinu'was 

de-'mil Idje'i'sitc-la. he'ndje-ilx. he'i-hats-tl'e'ts-k-'hwa'lhwal, "u-'l hslt'-yu-' 
ehe'ndje! tli-i'n-hantl tci-'-la." (1) hei-ha'ts tl'e'ts-b-qla, "kmu-'was! tci-'tcu-he' 
du'we'yu-1 sha'djinya? ha-'-tsi kinu-'was. ma'-hs e'n-e"ne dic's'ledet, xwa'n'ne'-he 
du'wehwantc e'ledet." we-'ntc tl's'ts-b-maxe't'lmax. 

3. ls-me' hi'ni-' ai'a'iwa-yu- da'gaitc 

1. daga'idja halha-'liyu-me'. ta-'-tci- i'miit'lda"yas daga'idja. he-hs'the- 
deu a"la ls'-gwe'is, la'u-ma'i-thi-thi-'ye'dihem, la'u-i'n-duwa-ya h-da'm-al. la'u- 
gu-'s-mi"letc-he' qa'nu-tc-la'u yuxu'm-e, ma'i-kwa'haltc. (2) yaga'-qa'n-u-tc 

19 Both Hanis and Miluk tell this. In Mrs. Peterson's judgment it probably but not certainly 
resides in the category of historical narrations rather than that of myths. 

20 Many Hanis told this tale which was presumed to be a true story of a girl who lived before 
Mrs. Peterson was born. 



36 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

back she spoke thus, "I believe in my heart that they are going to wage war on us. 
I saw a person (spy). I was frightened, and I pretended as if not to have seen him. 
That is why my heart is that way. (3) We should go away from here. If we do not, 
we ought to keep careful watch." But it was as if they paid no attention whatever 
to the way the girl spoke. 

2. When evening came the people had their hiding place. The older brother 
of the girl had one child, the child was about two months old. She took it, she took 
the baby to the hiding place, to that hideout. Sure enough the (enemy) people came, 
they killed (almost) all of them. (2) The girl had collected all the money, she had 
hid all the money in their hideout. She got a little stick, she put grease on the stick, 
she put it in the baby's mouth. The baby sucked it indeed. (3) She went back to 
look, her parents and relatives were killed, all her relatives were killed. All the peo- 
ple had been killed. 

3. Now they (the enemy) caught the girl, now the chief obtained her. 21 All 
the houses were burned, not a person was left, excepting only the girl. The people 
took her and started for home. When evening came the people danced the war 
dance. (2) "Dance! Why do you cry? If you cry, I will kill you too, if you cry." 
But she did not want to die, because she was thinking of the baby (in the hideout) . 
That is why she did nothing (but obey). They did not arise early. When it became 
dark they stopped dancing the war dance. (3) He (the chief) seized her. "Come! 
let us lie down (together) !" He took her far from the fire, and they went to bed. 



yuxu'm-e. yi'xen tsu-wu'txs la'u-we'ntc kwe-'ns'ni, "we'ntc-'ni'i'lwe"djis Hnm'- 
widsxe'mgws. me'-'nikru''wut. neV'lges, gwa-yu't'c-ni-'kwna'iwa't. we'ntc da- 
le'u-we'ntc ni'i'lwe"djis. (3) hn'ye-'q-utl. la'u in-la'u, Knru"daya-u-tl." gwa'-in 
wut-le'u ilwe"djis ma'-il-we'ntc kws-'ne'ni le'-gwe'is. 

2. le'u-i-qa-'wha-'ya le'u-imi'tsinst'la'ns le'-ms. la'u-yixe'u a"la le'he-'t'letc 
le'-gweis, gwa'-gwu-yuxwe'u dluxwa"is la-a' ( la. tsu'-leu t'ldji"ya't, ta-'-la tci*' 
sdla'niya't la-a"la, le-'n tsa'nst'lan. he'-a"yu-itc me'me-'yu le-me, ta-'-lau gu-s 
a'i'a-'iwa-yu. (2) la'-hada-'yims la-gu-s-hi't'cu'waNS le'-x-gwe'is, his-la'u tci-- 
sdla'ni'ya't la'-hada-'yims le-'n tsi'nst'lan. tsu' tVm-a ki'ya-sbi't, dzu"we'tl 
tci-'-skTli-'ya*t le'n-ki'yas, tsu'-tVnva la'u la"ats le-'n a'lau ye"es. a'yu'-lau gi'- 
t'sat le'-x-a"la. (3) tci-' a'su- hu M tldst, ma-'ntc ai'a'iwa-yu le-"ma'a'nyas, ha'ts- 
yu-gu-'s la'u-ai'a'iwa-yu le"m3'a'nyas. gu-s-la'u ai'a'iwa-yu-'-ls'-me'. 

3. tsu' gesgs'yu ls'xe le'-gweis, tsu' hethe-'de sga'ts. gu-s ci'cyu-t'lu le-'l- 
yaxe'Vax, his-i'n yixe'i-me-gwi-'yet, xe-'tla le'-gwe'is. tsu-' la"at ibi"nihi'ye le'- 
me-. tsu' da/waha-ya tsu' gesa-'di-'ya le-me'. (2) "ta"ldza-n! di'lu-de-aqa'ltu-- 
wa't'ax? ya'ntl-e'gsLt, his-ha'ntl e'ne' etsxa"wa-'mi, ya'ntl-e'geLt." la'u i'n-du- 
wa-ya tsu-'tsu, na'im la'u dji'ndji'na'iwat la'^^la. le' u -we'ntc-di-l le-i'n dji-tc- 
xa'lal. he-'-niye in-he-'-tilqtsu. tsu' kwa'haldji-'ye e-'wi-helsa-'a't. (3) tsu-'-xi'n- 
di"ya. "e'dji! istsxu'-hantl." ehe'ndjye-'witc la'a'iwa't, tsu'-tci- u'x w t'c y u. ti'n- 

21 He had slaughtered her village in order to possess her. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 37 

His knife was under his head, when they went to bed. And his bow, and his quiver, 
he lay them all beneath his head, they were his pillow. He went to sleep directly. 
(4) "I guess he is tired." He did not stir. So she thought, "I will try it. It will be 
nothing if he does kill me." 22 So indeed. She pulled out the knife (under him). He 
never awakened. She cut at his neck, indeed she cut off his neck. (5) Now she lay 
down a chunk of rotten wood, she lay another one alongside it. 23 She took every- 
thing of his. She covered him over well. 

4. The girl did not go far away. She merely climbed onto the thicker limbs 
of a tree, there she sat. From above she watched the people. Now they arose, 
they were going to look. (2) She kept watching them there. "I guess the cooking 
is ready." They went to where the two were lying. "I guess they are trying to 
make him arise." (Failing,) they returned, the girl counted the people. Then she 
knew how many of those persons there were. (3) They went again to where the 
two of them lay, but still their headman did not arise. About midday they took 
off his covers, then they learned he was dead. They pursued the girl, four of them 
followed her. (4) They went out of sight. It had become dark before they returned. 
The next morning the same way again, they followed her again. Midday they re- 
turned. Then they ate. (5) They finished eating. They took the corpse, put it in 
a (ka'wal) basket, they packed it, they started on their way. When near dark, she 
had seen no one come back. So the girl descended, she ran. 



wuts-le-'qe-li-'mil, i-ux w t'c y u. his-le-'ba'uba u , his-le-'t'cu'xu'ni, gu-s-he'-nuhwu'- 
'luh w neqe'tan tsxa'wi-'yat, lewu'ti'ns'u. i-qa'x ge' u lg£ u . (4) "kinu-'ts-yugwi'l." 
i'n lixli'xa'ai. tsu'-wentc ilwe"djis, "niki'nt-hantl. ina'ntl-dil i'-'ntsxe"wii." 
tsu'-a"yu. t'cdji'ts-le-qe-'li-mil. yaga' i'n-tga. tsu' tlgwa'a'tu'-kwaNS, a'yu' 
tlgwa--le-'kw9NS. (5) tsu' pa'a'l-tci'-tsxa'wi-'ya't, ya'a'i t'lha"wa ! s tsxa'wi'ya't. 
tsu'-hs--gu-'s-dH-a"it. tsu'-t'lgwa't-nu'Ve. 

4. tsu' i'n ehe'ndje-'-la le'-gweis. ha'ts nukwi-'ne-'tc-hs'leq tsu' mi'ne-'niu 
k w si', tci-'-dlu-'tsxem. yu-'-ga'xantc tsu' xls"ti'k lu'da-'ya le'-me'. a"yii' geti'l- 
qa'aqa'iwa, tsu'-ilga'qmi"yama"is. (2) yaga'-tci-'-il-u'da'yaha'm-a. "tsu'-cgwe- 
he'wiye le-'lqmi"yams." tsu-'-tci--me-'-la le'-ux w tsxu-'we-tc. "dhqdlu' ge'ye'dhe'm- 
gwa." tsu'-he--bi-'nat's, tlt'ci"ts ls-x-le'-me- le'-x-gweis. a"yu' kwa'a'nya ni'ct'c- 
le'^-me'. (3) asu-'-hs--tci--ms-'-la le'-ux w tsxu-'wetc, yigs-'-in-dlutsxem le-'lhethe-'de. 
tsu' gwa-t'li-'na't ka"lis tsu'-iltla'ut'its le-'t'lgwi, tsu'-ilkwa'a'nyaha'ya le'leu-e'qe. 
tsu' tgwi-'yet le'-gwsis, hscdb't'ls-tgwi'^dbs. (4) tsu-'-le'u ehe'ut'tsam. da-'uwa- 
ha'ya tsu'-wutxa'xa. tsxa"yat asu-'-x-ws'ntc, tci-'-tgwi-'yetl a'su. t'li-'nat ka'- 
'lis wutxa'xa. tsu-'-t'a'm-a il-ge'dlu-'wi'we. (5) tsu'-e-'-wi heldlu-'wa'was. tsu'- 
laxa'lxa'yu ls-s'qs, ka-'wa'latc, tsu'-ilyu'^tldza, tsu'-ilsi"yet'l. tsu'-gasi'ya cja'u- 
ha'ya, i'n-wut-kwna'wat hu-'tlds't. tsu-'-li'nq-ls'-gwe'is, tsu'-tluwu'ta't. 



22 I.e., I have been away too long for the baby still to be alive at the hideout. 
23 The first chunk to simulate her head, the second chunk her body. 



38 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

5. Oh, near morning she got back to there. There was nothing left, every- 
thing was burned. She rushed to (the hideout) there, and indeed the baby still 
lived. She bathed it, she tied him in again on the cradle, she gave the baby grease 
again. He sucked it indeed. 

6. Now the girl (canoed) downriver. She halted nowhere, she just went right 
on. She took along only two women, they packed the valuables. She reached the 
biggest (richest) chief among the people. (2) She spoke thus to this man, "If you 
will avenge me, I will marry you." The chief spoke thus to her, "I will take ven- 
geance for you." 24 So he did, because the girl had quantities of money. He took 
vengeance for her indeed. 

7. About two years later they completed a (mammoth) canoe, on its upper 
side it was like a whale. That is how they covered the canoe. 25 And then they put 
little canoes inside it. (2) So many men were inside, two persons went inside for 
each small canoe. They went off. Many people went likewise by land. That is 
how it was. (3) In the morning they (the enemy) saw a whale, then all those people 
paddled out to it. But when they got close to it, they saw it was not a whale. (4) 
All of them put their canoes into the water, they pursued them, they killed them 
indeed. Similarly on land that is how it was, they killed them all too. That is how 
the girl obtained revenge. 

8. When her brother's son grew to youth, they (her husband's people) gave 
him four wives, 26 and also five young men with their wives. Then he returned to 
his own place. His father's sister gave him money then. 

5. u-'-, tsu-' gasi'ya geli'mye tsu-'-tci--he'l-eq. his-i'n-lgwi-'de'xem, gu-s- 
di'l c y u"wet'l. tsu-'-tci-'-mi'ye' mi'tcla, hs^'yu a'iwa dle-'we la-a"la. tsu'- 
sdlaqViwat, tsu'-as-u' si'mxat, tsu' as-u' dzu"wetl a'tsa la-a"la. a'yu' leu gi't'sit. 

6. tsu' ga"its le'-gweis. i'n-gentc yu-'yu, hats-yu-'-la. yuxwe-' hum-e-'ke 
tla-me-'-sgats, le'u-x-le'u yu-'t'lits le-'hada'yims. tsu'-yu-' he-he'm-is hethe-'de 
le'-me-' tci-'-he'l-eq. (2) tsu'-wentc-i"lt le'-de-'mil, "ya'ntl edla-'lahai, le'u eda'ml- 
dzu-wida-'mi-hanti." a'yu'-wentc tl'e'ts le-hethe-'de, "nadlalaha'iwat-hantl. a'yu' 
yaga'-x-wentc, na'im na-'nt hada'yims le'-gwe'is. a'yu' dla-'la'hai. 

7. gwa'-yuxwe-' idzi-'mis yaga'ndjim fe'm-a-ix-i'lhau'ts, la'u hi'ni' ga'x-an 
tci'-tcu-cda li'-bint'lu"wai. we'ntc ilt'lgwa't le'-ix. tsu'-ta'm-a t'ce'ys-'ne i'x 
tci-'-ilt'hi't. (2) tsu'-tVm-a ti'mli-his-na-'-nt, yuxwe'heitc hanthi-'-me le'-t'cs- 
'ye-'ne-ix. a'yu' i'ha'. hi's-t'ce-' la-u'-men na-'nt. a'yu'-wentc. (3) tsxa"yat 
tS9'-bint'hi"wai ilklu'wit, tsu'-tci-' gu-s-i'l tci'm'lt le'-me-'. i'-ilya'halqt'ca"ai, 
la'u-ilkhi'wit le'leu-i'n-bint'hi"wai. (4) tsu'-gu-'s-ilha'ma'tlda le-'i'ix, tsu'-iltgwi-'- 
tldzu'wada'm-a, a'yu'-il'a'iwut. ta'-his-le'-t'ce yaga'-x-we'ntc, helt'-gu-'s il'a'i'ai- 
wa'-yu. we'ntc-dla-'laha'iwat le'-x-gwe'is. 

8. le'u i-di-'luli'ye le-'duwu'de'tc, la'u hecdb't'l hu'm-e'^e atsa'^si-m, ta-' 
gefo'mhis tca'n-ya nahu'm-e'kehe hi's-le'u. tsu-'-fo'm-a hu'^tlde't he'ni'-ini-xa-'- 
ma-t'lda'. tsu'-ta'ma hada'yims a'tsa le-'x-a't'a'tc. 

24 The girl traveled a long distance, perhaps to a Lower Coquille River village, thinks Mrs. 
Peterson. The girl was pretty and wealthy, which is why this chief avenged her people. 

26 0ver a frame of semicircular bent saplings they stretched elk hides and painted them black 
with a paint of charcoal, tallow and pitch applied hot. The painted frame shined like the back 
of a whale. 

26 To replenish his decimated native village with offspring. 



NARRATIVE TEXTS IN MILUK 

1. The person who died from cold 27 

The people were going somewhere, a number of children were going (too). 
(Said one child,) "Grandma! I want to go also, to where the people are going to the 
place of the inland people" (to Camas Prairie, an Athabaskan-speaking locality on 
the Upper Coquille). "Go then! But wear this." (1) "Oh! I don't want it. I will 
not get cold." "So you will not get cold? Now you put on your gloves anyway, 
and also your moccasins." "Oh grandma! I don't want them. I will not get cold." 
(2) "So you will not get cold? you wear this blanket!" "Oh I don't want to." The 
people went, he went along too, he played as he went along. That is the way the 
people went on. He got behind. (3) He was no longer with them. The people 
reached the place of the inland people. He did not arrive. One of the people went 
back then, and sure enough he found him dead, stiff from the cold. (4) He returned 
with the news to his grandmother. (Resentfully, angrily, bitterly:) "Humph. I 
guess he was not so great (powerful and a person of consequence), and that is why 
he died. I tried to give him things to wear, and he did not want them. He said he 
would not get cold. He could not have been so great, and so he died." 



28 



2. The woman who dreamt, but who did not do what her dream told her 

1. A woman had an ocean dream (power), and also dentalium (dream power). 
She had already become a great shaman. Now this is what her (new) dream told 

1. tfe-ka" x-ge'ineis-tsa'u 

tsu'-kwi-hu'we'e'tsam-daka", hi-'me-daga-'l kwi'-huhu'we'e'tsam. "u'ma-t'ii'! 
hi's-wantl-e'n-e'-la', di'n-e'yuwu'dje tsa'ntl la'-da'kaV "la'ya'qai'i' ! di-tfe'- 
t'la'ha." (1) "u-M an-wu'du-'ha"ya. an-wa'ntl-ge'ine." "ana'ntl-ge-ge'ine? 
his-na'ntl-kwa-namilt.si'ya-t'is, wi-'-his-kwa-naqe'ilusni." "e /- u'ma-t'tli! an-wu'- 
duha'ya. an-wa'ntl exe-'x." (2) "kwi-ha'ntl-ge-a'n-exe-'x! di--na'ntl t'la'ha- 
et'lha'i!" "u-' an-wu'duha-'ya." tsu'-la--d9'ka\ his-hi'dji-ay-u-'-la, alica-'nida' 
i'-la'a'yam. we-'n-l'a'yim-da'ka'. qli'mniyu'wiye. (3) a'nya ige-'k. tsu'-dji-- 
da'kV da'n-e'yuwu'dje. a'N-dji. tsu'-hit'ci-ka" bi-'na't's, he'-ma-'tsi-e'q kwi-'- 
gikiTi-du, ske-'nen x-geine'is. (4) tsu'-kwe-'n wusu-'su tb-da'u'mna-t'bdja. "hu"- 
an-da-x-sudet, na'u-qa'yau. te- / tc-u / ni"ni / ya, wi'-an-du-'ha'ya. an-tsa'ntl ex- 
e-'x. an-da'-x-su-det, na'u-da'yau." 

2. tta-hu-'mis gwa'atVsda, a'N-ma-x-we-'n dji'-i'ldwa tb-dex-gw9'ns 

1. hu-'mis kwi-'-ba'ldi-mis dagwa'ns, we'n-his-tda'yau. wi-'-kwr-wa-'-iT- 
a'xqain. wi--we'n-i'l-dwa tb-dex-gwa'ns. (2) "in-antl-ge /r -la, wi-'-dluk^'da-'t- 

27 A Miluk tale recited to show how children will disobey and what fate may be theirs in con- 
sequence; it is supposed that this is a true story of a child who lived at the time of the first coming 
of the whites or just before. 

28 Mrs. Peterson heard this told by t'cicgi'yu, a part Upper Coquille Den6; the tale may be 
considered to be one known to Miluks. It is supposedly a true story of a woman shaman who 
lived some generations ago. She had a new power dream which told her to proceed face covered 
to Mussel Reef village, north of the lighthouse, where Miluk speaking people lived. She was not 
to uncover outside of a house lest she see the ocean. 

(39) 



40 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

her. (2) "When you go to there (to Mussel Reef village on the coast), you must 
cover your face. You must not look (at the sea), even if you hear the jingling (of 
dentalia) as they come ashore. You must not look. If you do look, none of them 
will drift ashore. (3) But if you do not look, quantities of dentalia will come ashore. 
The people will pick them up (then, and every year thereafter). But you yourself 
must not bother with them. If you pick up just one, they (all) will return to the 
water (vanish). Only periwinkles will come in there (then, and in future), even if 
you look quickly." 

2. Now they went (to Mussel Reef village) to the shaman's dance there, now 
the people arrived there. At length the shaman (woman) began to sing and dance 
there. 

' ' Money will come in from the water ! 
The ocean will bring it ashore!" 29 

(2) It was (a sound) like jingling when the money (dentalia) came in then, indeed. 
Everybody wanted to watch, when the money would come ashore. The people 
went outside (in great excitement), they wanted so very much to see it. (3) Now 
the shaman looked (at the water) too, when the money jingled. But this is how it 
was indeed. Only periwinkles came on the beach, when the shaman looked. After 
that they sometimes found just a very few valuables (dentalia) there. (4) That is 
how her dream (power) left her. Indeed that is the way her dream was as nothing, 
because she looked. 

3. Now that is all. 



nantl kwa-nehe'l. a-na'ntl-xi-'la, ma'i-nantl-kwi--qa'wa-'ya sa'ih u hwi'yam kwatc- 
dza'ne. an-a'ntl-xi-'la. i-nantl-xi-'la, wi'-an-hantl-hi hithi-'t'. (3) wi'-i-na-a'N- 
xi-'la, wi--ga-'l-hantl kwa-hada'i'mis ga'-hantl-du kwi-da'n-dana 1 . wi'-x-ka" 
hantl-du kwi--gitsl£i'm-ats. wi'-x-ne'u wi'-an-a'ntl-du t'swa-'lal. i-nantl hit'ci' 
ga'la'm, wi'-w9sitS9'm-hantl. ma-'tsi-hantl-pxa-'wgl ge'-da'n-dana 5 , i-nantl-tle"- 
xi-'la." 

2. a'yu-gs-la-'ya* tfo-yeTe-'s, a'yu-ge"-dji"-d9'-ka\ a-'yu-gs"m9ga'niya 
tte-i'l-a'xq'ain. 

"hada'i'mis-ha'ntl-he'gwgn ! 
ba'ldi -mis ha'ntl-kwi-hagwg'ny a ! " 29 

(2) a-'yu gwa-t'si-'xixiyam yu-kwi-dza'ne tla-hada'i'mis. gu-'s-ka'-kwi-' ha-du-'- 
ha'ya ha'maq\ ya-ha'ntl-kwi'-he'gwan tla-hada'i'mis. tsu'-sa'lt'-da'-kaS ha-i'ldu-'- 
ha'ya kwi-i'lkla-'wi. (3) tsu'-his-tb-iTa'x^ain xi-'la, yu-kwi-'-gwa-tcca'ixuxwiyam 
tb-hada'i'mis. a-'yu-me-x-we-'n. ma-'tsi pxa-'w^-hi-'qe", yu-kwi- '-xi-'la tte- 
i'l-a'xc^ain. wi'-yu-kwi-da'-qla'mniyu wi'-yuwu't's nict'c giki'1-idu tla-hada'i'mis 
da". (4) x-we'n wasi'tsim tl9-d9gwa'ns. x-we'n tb-dggwS'ns a-'yu kwi-a'N-ditc, 
na'im-xi-'la. 

3. tsu'-tsi-we's. 



"Mrs. Peterson was unable to sing this and was also not sure of the words. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 41 

3. Lazy young man 

1. (There was) a young man, a lazy young man. The people moved up river. 
They were going to dry salmon. At that place the people lived. (2) When they 
quit fishing, the people were going to return home. "Oh, we'll leave that lazy fel- 
low!" So they left him. When evening came (he thought) people were hallooing 
from all over. (3) The lazy fellow was terrified. He got into his (tule) mat (sleeping 
bag) , he laced himself into the bag. It became dark. Now people entered. (4) "Oh, 
my half! (i.e., my friend!) Get up! so that you may dance with us." The lazy fellow 
was indeed frightened. They took hold of him mat and all, and then those persons 
danced. This is what they told him. (5) "He is going to be a poor person. There 
is no hole in the mat." That is how those people sang as they danced. They left 
him in the early morning. 

2. That is why the people (Indians) believe that bones do not go to nothing. 
They (bones) are not gone. Their skins (i.e., the essences or souls of the bones) 
live on there. That is what the lazy fellow told when he returned next day. 

3. Now that is all. 

4. About encounter-power 30 

1 . A man went hunting, he went early in the morning. He hunted all day long, 
he caught nothing. The next morning he went hunting again. He walked for a 
whole day once more, he found nothing. (2) At straight up sun (noon) he rested. 

3. kinu-\v3S di-'lul 

1. di-lu'l, kinu's di-'lu'l. wi'-daga'dja"-tsli'ntsim-d9-ka". wi'-a'yu-ge'l- 
yeq diteb't'e. wi'-ge' t -mit'lda'ya-'s-d9-ka'\ (2) e-'wi ildapga'lisa-was, tsu'-ha'ntl- 
was-i-' da-ka'\ "u-'-, ha-'gwiyal-ha'ntl kwi-kinu-'was!" tsu'-a'yu-da-ha'gwiyu. 
wi'-i-qb'mdjiye ma-'tsi-gu-s-xgs'n ka /( -ke'li. (3) tsu'-qa'ya'uts tlitc-kinu-'s di-'- 
lul. tsu'-t'cci'ldje da-gi'la-'tsam, ws'n-gs'Mgwa" tb-dat'eci'l. tsu'-hetlhe'ndlu. 
hei-ma-'tsi de-'dje da-ka". (4) "hu y , nax-hi't'ci! dlu-'gwi! igs- k-nantl msge'nt- 
il-ha'ntl." wi'-qVya'uts tli-kinu-'was. tsu'-gaga'lmu nit'ccili"yii, tsu'-ge'maga'n- 
ya'-da-ka". tsu'-we-n-i-'ltsm. (5) "idje'-ka'a'ida. a'mi-hu-'hu-dit'eci'l." we-'n- 
hat'i- d9-ka A i'lmaga'ni-da. tsu / -4sli-"misi'ye tsu'-ha-'gwiyu. 

2. x-ws-'n-ditc tle-x-ka' 5 kwi-tlqa'ya tb-la-'mak tta-kwi-an-a-'yu-a'N-ditc. 
an-du'-a'N-ditc. dls-'geq-du tli-ildadze-'t'bs. we'n-kwene-'nu tli-lfinu-'was ya- 
a'ma'is-we-'st. 

3. tsu"-tsi' t -ku-'wi. 

4. t'lxi'nxda 

1. de-'mal-kwi-'-temda-'wa'-la, qsli-"mis kwi-'-la'. wi'-hit'ci'-gaha-'ya-la'm- 
dai, a'n-ditc-aya-'dja. da-'s-ge'bm da-'s-fomda-'wa'-la. da-'s-hit'ei-gaha'is-tea-'- 
tcai, a'n-ditc-ki'ldwa. (2) t'K-'nat-qwal-s'es tsu'-lhe-'tam. a'n-he-'niye-da-dlu-'- 

30 This is one of a number of tales generally known among the Coos and given the same title. 
It is told of a semi- mythical hunter with whom Mrs. Peterson later on in the narration identified 
herself, perhaps with no intent to do so. The hunter "sees" deer, then black bear who lacks tail 
and antlers; he is the uncle of deer. The hunter secures "encounter power" in the chip of dentalium. 
Mrs. Peterson recalled hearing malu'c, a Miluk from the Lower Coquille, and t'cs'xet, a Hanis 
from nti'ss'itc village, tell it. 



42 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

He was seated there no long time, when people gathered around from various di- 
rections. They all had something (like antlers) standing up on their heads. (3) 
They began to sing and dance, they kept singing and dancing. Then a person in 
black garments came there. He looked on. (4) Now those people who were singing 
and dancing ceased their singing and dancing. "Oh! mother's brother! Now you 
dance!" "Ah nephews! I will sing and dance. But I have no antlers." Then he 
sang and danced there. 

"I have no antlers, nephews, 

I have no antlers, nephews. 

(I am) short tailed, short tailed. 

(I) run in hops, run in hops." 31 

That is how his song was worded. Then they all went away. They were gone now. 
I went to the place there, I looked around where they had been dancing, and I 
found a dentalium end. 

2. That is all I have to tell of it. 

5. The Father's helpers, the storks 

1 . Long ago the storks worked for the people's father. When he did not like 
something he would send the storks to fix it. Indeed they attended to it. (2) The 
people's father had them live at the end of his prairie. Once when the people were 
bad, the people's father told the storks, "Take them far away below. I do not want 



gwa, he'i-ma'tsi-hit'cu-'nu'wiye-'-da-Ka'*. gu-'s-kwi'-ge'^-ditc-kwi-tami-'m tla-da- 
seTdjs. (3) ge"-ilmege'nt, ge"m9ga'niya. hei-ma-'tsi he'ndlis-date-'tc-ka" ge"- 
dji. daka-'yim. (4) tsu'-anya-maga'ni-da tl9-ka"-ma- / -rci9ga / ni- / da. "ha'! axa'- 
xi! helt'-na'ntl ne'u-mage'nt !" "a-'- de'u! mgge'nt-wantli'. tsi'-u-gs-a'mi-wuhi-'- 
yau." tsu'-a-'yu-ge'mg'gani-'ya. 

"a'm-i-wuhi-'yau, du-'dei, 
a'm-i-wuhi-'yau, du-'dei. 
du'k w de'lk w , du'k w ds'lk w . 
db'tcdle'itc, db'tcdle'itc." 31 

x-we'n-dg'i'n-eq" tb-damege-'n. tsu'-ma-'tsi-gu-s-i'l'i-'gei. tsu'-il'i-'gei. tsu'-wu- 
ge'Ma, da'-wuxi'l-e"nu tH-ihnege'n-ditc, he'i-wu-tladze-'q-^i'l-dwa. 
2. tsu'-tsi--we-'s-kw3-'n9kw£-'n. 



1. du-'lak tb-he-'niye lca"-d9ma-'ni'ya-'s kwi-'-didzi-'ya't'si. ya-a'N-ditc 
du-'ha'ya wi'-du-'lak ge" wa'lxt. a-'yu du-x-hi'dji kwi-'-hr'dada-'ya. (2) di'm-s- 
didja-'na'ni-cdja kwi- taqlu-'t'tsam-wa-'wa tle-x-ka'' dama-'ni'ya-s. mi-'nt'ci tsa- 
a'N-we-'n ka", wi'-we-'n-i'ld u wa tle-x-ka"-d9ma-'ni'yas du'la'k, "kwi--na'ntl ge- 



31 Washington State Museum, Ediphone record 14:14578:1, and also electrically recorded 
(RCA Victor) record 14:14609:A:4. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 43 

them here because they are not good people. You will take them far away down be- 
low." (3) The storks indeed packed them, indeed they took them far away below. 
This is how they cried when the storks took them down, when they got far below 
to where they were all taken, this is how they cried, 

"The storks took us down from above." 32 

So they cried. Now they are far below. 

2. Now that's all. That is what they recount. 

6. A girl became a dangerous being of the woods 33 

1 . A girl (a daughter of a well-to-do person) who had passed her first menses 
had just now arisen (from the first menses seclusion). Women were going off for 
salmonberries then, they were going to pick salmonberries. This is what the virgin 
girl said now. "I'll go along. Indeed I'll go along." 

2. Now they finished their packing (of the berry baskets). They called to the 
virgin girl. She only whistled (in reply). Now they got tired of waiting for her. 
(2) They went down to the water towards their canoe. Then they kept on calling 
out to her. She merely whistled. Then they saw her. There was nothing in her 



dls-'n-ha'mildja-t'a. aN-wu'du-'ha'ya'ama di'u kwi-'-di'u na'im a'N-wen-ka'a'ma. 
hs-'n gedls-'n ge"-nantl ha'mildja-t'a." (3) a-'yu-il t'a-'mi'yama tle-x-du'lak, 
a-'yu-gs-ha'mildja-t'a hs-'n-gedls'n. wi'-we-n-ki'm-i i-dzanwi-'t'a tls-x-du-'lak, wi'- 
ye-hs-'n gedle-'n ge'-la'ait'a, wi'-ws-n-ki'm-i. 

' ' du'lak-iltu' witany el x-xu'gu. ' ' 32 

x-we-'n-ki'mi. tsu'-a'yu-gsYme'eya. 

2. tsu'-tsi--we-'s. x-we'n-il laga'widadi't'a. 

6. e-'cani-'ye gwe'is 

1. tit'se-'was tsu'-ha-dlu'q w sam wi-'-kwi-'-hu-'me-'ke qe'mq i / lhu"wiya / m, 
qe'mq didi'me-de i'lhu"wiya'm. wi-'-ws'n-tli'-tla-tit'se-'was. "wale-'l-wantl. a-'- 
yu-wals-l." 

2. wi-'-e-'wi-ild3ya- / q w . wi-'-k'aTil tb-tit'ss-'was. wi- / -ma-'tsi-du--hwi-'wa't'. 
tsu'-ilki'n-au il-kwi'-la-'qaq. (2) tsu'-ilte'ixsu tli-ilditlgu'wicdja. tsu'-il-du-ak- 



32 H. "du'lak-bn tu'witanya xaga"wax." 

Mrs. Peterson sang the Hanis version of the song on records because she had heard both narra- 
tive and song originally in Hanis. Washington State Museum, Ediphone record 14:14579:f, and 
also RCA Victor record 14:14610:A:3. 

33 A supposedly true story known to almost every Hanis-speaking girl and employed to evi- 
dence the possible consequence of eating out in the woods immediately after arising from the first 
mensis seclusion. Mrs. Peterson heard several Hanis women from nti'se'itc village tell the story, 
in particular, t's3'7-is and t'cs'xet. 



44 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

small berry basket. (3) They began to pursue her. At length they just went back 
home, they cried as they went back. The virgin girl just followed along (on the 
shore). Now she too reached home (but having become an e-'can, 'a wild being of 
the woods,' she merely wandered about the vicinity). (4) They explained (to the 
people) . Everybody went outside but they could not catch her. Now they did not 
bother about her any more because they could not catch her. (5) They just all 
cried because they could not catch her. For a long time they could see her, and then 
they could not see her any more. 

3. Now a young man was living far out in the woods, having left in anger 
('pouting' as consequence of a domestic quarrel or insult) the young man was living 
there. One evening he heard something. The moon was sitting there (i.e., it was 
full moon), it was just like sun (light). (2) So the young man went outside. It 
sounded just like a person calling out. The young man listened. "So that is how 
it is calling" (he said, reflectively). (3) "I'm still (almost) a person! (But) I am a 
wild being." Then indeed he saw a person. Again it called out, in the same manner, 
"I am still a person." (4) Then when it got very close to him, the young man leaped 
at it, he seized it. It was just a woman, a fine looking (nude) woman. One of her 
hands she had placed over her vulva, her other hand over her mouth. (5) There she 
held her nose pendant. For a long time she lay dead (fainted) . He rubbed elk grease 
on her mouth, he went to fetch water, and he warmed it. Now he bathed the woman, 
and then indeed she came to. (6) He began to talk to the girl, and he kept on rub- 
bing it on her mouth. Then she came to. He had her for his wife now. The woman 
was all right (again). 



'a'l. ma-'tsi-du-hwi-'wa't'. tsu'-ilkla-'wi. a / mi-ka /t -tfo / -d3qs"le"en. (3) ws'n- 
kwi-'ye'-il'ut'umya't. tsu'-il-ma-'tsi-ws's-i, ki'm-i'il-wa's-i. wi-'-ma-'tsi-t'ci'djiu- 
la tia-tit'se-'was. wi'-hi's-hidji-we-'st. (4) tsu'-ilkwa-na-'na"ya. wi / ~gu-'s-ka /( -sa'lt' 
wi'-i'n-a'n-i'l-dji-kwi-'-gala'm. wi'-a'nya-ilt'swa-'l na-'yam-il-a'n-dji'-gala'm. (5) 
tsu'-ma'tsi-gu-s-ki'm-i na'y9m-il-a'n-dji--gala'm. he-'niye-hemqe'qhem, tsu-a'nya- 
he'mqe'qhem. 

3. wi'-di-'lul-t'ce'-he-'n-kwi'-t'ce-'-bqle'm, dzu'wi-s-tb-da^-kwi-dlu-'gwa-tfo- 
di'lul. mi'nt'ci-gatqa'idya tta-tS9-ditc-kwa-na"ya. mit'i'ya-dss-dlu'gwa, ma-'- 
tsi-gwa-t^a-'ls. (2) wi'-sa'lt'-da-di-'lul. hei-ma-'tsi-gwa-ka'-ak'a'lai. wi-'-kwi'- 
qa'wa-"ya tb-di-'lul. "hei-ma-'tsi we'n-itc-tb-ak'a'lai." (3) "a'iwa-u'-ka! e-'- 
can-u." hei-a'yu-ka^-kla-'wi. da's-du-k'aTa, ma--du'-x-wen, "a'iwa-u-'-ka." 
(4) tsu'-ha-l-3'nwi-ne'lt'cu'wys, tsu-'-hwaTdadza-tle-x-di-'lul, tsu y -galam. hsi- 
ma-'tsi-hu-'mas'itc, nshe'wadzan-hu-'mas. hi't'ci'-gelut'la-'i-tte-dikTlan, we'n-hi'- 
t'ci-ye'isitc tfo-dilji'lan. (5) hs'i-x-kwa-tla-dabi-'x-tia-da-'-naqt. hs-'niys-e'q-tsi-m. 
tsu'-dzu-'tl-ye'isadja-ya'hwi, tsu'-da-ma-ha-'fj-la-'dza, wi-'-kwi-ldb'miya. wi'-kwi- 
yustlu'sdla-'ci-tfo-hu-'mas, hei-a'yu-ma-'na't's. (6) tsu'-ljxi'ya'ye'is tb-gwe'is, 
tsu'-ma'-ge'-ya'hwi tl9-d9ye'is9dja. a-'yu-kwr-ma-'na't's. wi-'-ma-'tsi kwi-'ye- 
dghu-'mgs. ki'lst-tb-hu-'mas. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 45 

4. Now the young man returned home to his mother's brother. They were 
just so glad when they saw him, because it was a long time since they had seen him. 
He had left in a huff. (2) Now his mother's brother said to him, "Do you want a 
wife?" "I don't want a woman. I have a wife. I caught a woman. She said she 
had become a wild being, but I caught her, and so I have a wife." (3) Then his 
mother's brother spoke thus. "Oh ! She is a child of a very well-to-do person. Bring 
her back here. We must inform her parents, (this rich) person's child!" Indeed the 
young man brought her back home. (4) He had all sorts of things when he came 
back home. He spoke thus to his wife. "Go see your parents." Indeed she went 
downriver. When she reached her parents (and relatives), all her parents (and rela- 
tives wept (for joy), when she returned home. (5) They gave him two women 
in addition. (They said to his first wife,) "You will not have to work. They will 
work for you." The young man became their wealthy head man. 

7. Swordfish narrative 34 

1 . Every autumn the people moved upriver. A young man was always fear- 
ful when he went outside, and so he had a torch for a light all the time. He was con- 
stantly afraid. (2) One evening it was as if something was following him, and he 
hurled his torch at it there, and leaped in terror into the house. "Why are you so 
afraid all the time?" "It's just as if something were almost about to catch me." 



4. wi'-wa's-i-tla-di-'lul tla-da'axi'yaxidja. wi-'-hei-i'l-gwa-a'n-du- / ha"ya i'- 
iikla-'wi, na-'yim-he-'niys-il-a'n-kia-'wi. dzu'wi-s tla-e'he. (2) wi-'-tla-da'axi'ya- 
xitc we-'n-i'ld u wa, "hu-'mas in-du-'ha'ya'i'?" "a'n-u-hu-'mas-du-'ha'ya. nahu'- 
mass-'-u. hu-'mas--u-ga / la'm. e-'caniy£--tsa, wi-'-kwr-u'galam, na'u-wa-nahu-'- 
ma's-e." (3) wi-'-we-'n-tli'-tla-da'axi'yaxitc. "u-'--! hethe-'ds daklTga. we-'st- 
nantl. sgu- /w yai-ha'nti-tla-dama-'ni'yas, ka"-dikiTga!" a-'yu-wa-'sda-tk-x-di'- 
lul. (4) gu-'s-didje-'nen-date-'tc-kwi-we-'st. tsu'-we'n-i'ld u wa-tla-dahu-'mas. 
"kla-'wi-nantl-kwa-nama-'ni'ya-s." a-'yu-ga'igayu. wi'-i-kwi-dji-tla-dama-'ni'yas- 
adja, wi-'-gu-'s-ki'nrat' tla-dama-'ni'yas, wi-'-i-bi-'nat's. (5) wi'-adzu'-hu-me'ke 
ni'ni-'yu a'su. "an-a'ntl-du--dzi-'dze\ kwi--ha'ntl-du--dzi-'di-da\" kwi'ya-ilda- 
hethe-'de tla-di-'lul. 

7. 

1. ds'nge-ge-'lu'wiys ma--du' daga'dja sla'ntsam-da'-ka'. wi-'-di-'lul gu-s- 
mi / n-du--kwi'-s / lqs i-du--sa'lt', wi--hs'malt' nakwak'ise gu-s-mi'n nakwle'ise. qa- 
ya'uts-du-gu-'s-ma'n. (2) hi't'ci-ga'tdai tsu'-gwa'-x-di'tc-u'mida-t, wi-'-ge'-tV- 
tla-dex-t'sa'm, wi-'-idzu-'djs-hwaTdi daya'uts. "dji'-ge sne-ha'-gu-'s-ma'n da~ 
ya'uts?" "gwa'-u-du-'-x-di'tc ga-'sdi'ya-galmidzu-'n." 



34 01d Man Jackson (dilu's) told this to Mrs. Peterson, though she believes it was common 
property among all the Coos. She supposes its origin was Hanis because the scene was laid at 
Hanis (Empire). She is uncertain about its conventional title but suspects it might have been 
the word for swordfish which she has forgotten. 



46 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

2. Not long after they were coming back downriver. "Younger sister! Let 
us go below together." "All right. We will go downstream." v So he and his sister 
went down. (2) They reached the place across from Hanis (Empire) "I'll hunt 
along the ocean beach, younger sister!" "Ah. I'll wait for you." The girl waited 
for him there. (3) It became evening, she was still waiting there. It became night 
now. Then the girl went home. "He went towards the ocean beach, and he did not 
ever return." That is what the girl reported. (4) Now the people went across to 
there, now they searched for him, but they could not find him anywhere. So the 
people just went back home. His relatives hunted for him constantly. He was gone 
one year. (5) Now one day he returned home. "Oh! I used to be so scared. It was 
some person I feared. When I got to the ocean beach only two young women were 
there. (They said to me,) (6) 'Oh my husband ! We are looking for medicine. That 
is why we are around here. It is medicine we are seeking. Come ! go home with us !' " 
(7) Indeed they took the young man down to the water, and then he got into the 
canoe. They covered over his face. "Don't you look. But when we tell you so, 
then you may look." (8) Indeed he did so, and then he looked. Now they took him 
in to their house. He saw a sick person (the girls' father), and he just saw his torch 
(inside the sick man). "Hm. So that is what made that person ill !" (he said to him- 
self). 

3. Now it became evening. (Various) doctors came there, and they doctored 
on him there. Crab entered, and he started to doctor. He started in to sing, and 
this is the way his song was. 

"I am crab. I have long pincers!" 36 



2. wi'-an-he-'-niye tsi-ilga'iga-yu. "xwa'l! ne'usantl-ga'ya'i." "kY'le. ga- 
'ya'is-hantl." a-'yu-itc ga'ya'i tb-dgkws-ne't'l. (2) wi-'-itc ha-'nisitc dsge'dji- 
min-dji. "ha'ma-wantl litsxi't'e, xwg'l!" "a'\ la-'qaqa-'mi'-nantl." a'yu-da- 
la-'qaqa'yam-tb-gwe'is. (3) gatda-'idya, a'iwa da-la -'qaqa'yam. tsu'-gatqa'idya. 
tsu'-wa'si-tb-gwe'is. "ba'ldidja-kwi-'-la, wi-'-ma-'tsi-a'n-bi-na't's." ws'n-kwe-ne-'- 
nu-tb-gwe'is. (4) tsu'-gs-gal-a'ts-d9-ka'\ tsu'-wulwu'lwiyu, a'n-gsndji-kwi-'-gi- 
kMTdu. wi'-ma-'tsi-wgsi-'-dg-ka". gu-'s-mi'n-tb-wg'lwi-da tb-dgma-'ni'ya-s. 
hit'cu-'ye idzi-'mgs-kwi-a'n-ditc. (5) tsi-hit'ci' gaha-'ya tsu-kwi'-we-st. "hu-! 
s'lqs9du-"u. ma-'-x-ka"-tb-w9'a'lqsa. yu-u-ba'lditca'-dji hei-ma-'tsi-ge'netcka 
da"-itc. (6) u-' nax-de-'mal! na-' le'I-di-1 wulwa"ya. ws'n-ditc dini-di'yu--yu-- 
de-t. Ie-l-d9-n9wu'lwa / 'ya. s'dji! wasi-'s-hantl!" (7) a'yu-te'ixeyu tla-di-'lul, 
tsu' gi'la-tsam-tlgwa'ltsidja. tsu'-ilt'lgwa"i'l-dehel. "an-a'ntl-xi-'la. tsu'-na'ntl- 
we'n-i'ltYm, tsu'-nantl-xi-'la." (8) a'yu-me'-x-ws'n, tsu'-xi-'la. tsu'-ye-'dz9dje- 
da-tdji'yu. tsu'-kla-'wi tl9-ka"-xe'nw9s, hei'-ma-'tsi-kwr-kla-'wi tl9-d9x-t's9'm. 
"hu'. he / i-x-kw9-kwi'ya-tl9-ka"-xe / nw9S-wa-'wa !" 

3. tsu'-ga'tqa'idiya. tsu'-kwi-ge'-xb'm-a'-tb-i'l-a'xqain, tsu'-ilgemaga'ni'ya. 
he'i-ma-'tsi a-'dbq de-'dje, wi'-kwi-gs'dzi'yadziya. tsu' gahat'u-'ya, hsi-ma-'tsi- 
we'n-tb-dgm ege • 'n . 

"a'dlagaga'ya'wa. t'ci'di'm-daha'li'wa!" 35 

35 Repeat indefinitely. Washington State Museum, Ediphone record 14:14578:a, and also 
RCA Victor record 14:14607 :A:1. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 47 

(2) Then another commenced to sing. This is the way he sang. 

"I am sculpin!" 36 

(3) Now there was another shaman. (He sang thus :) 

"I am bullhead!" 37 

(Then another shaman sang:) 

"I, sea crab, am coming. 
I myself will cure this sick person." 38 

(4) The young man smiled (to himself), when they sang and danced. Then he (the 
patient) said to the young man, "If you heal me I will give my two daughters to 
you." Indeed then the young man (doctored). "I will cure you." (5) The young 
man went to the sick person, he sprinkled water on him there, and then he seized 
it (the torch pain). Now the young man said (sang), 

"Hu! my very own torch. 
I'll pull it out. 
It's my very own torch. 
That is what they say. 
Now I'll pull it from him." 39 



(2) tsu'-ma-'-das nemaga'n-ya'. tsu'-kwi'-we-'n-ha-'t'i. 

"s3 / 'Yaini-'l3H / ya'wa!" 3 « 

(3) tsu'-gwam-da-'s-ma" tla-i'la'xqain. 

"me"exuxwya'wa!" 37 

(Then another shaman sang:) 

"ka-'la'wa wudza'ne. 
x-e'n-e-wa'ntl kwi-'-lha kwa-ka'-xe'nwas." 38 

(4) ma-'tsi-xwi-'se-s-tte-di-'lul, r-il-kwi-' maga'ni-da. tsu'-we'n-tlatsi'ya-tla-di-'lur, 
"i'n-antl lhada'i wi'-adzu'-nantl ni'ya'mi kwa'-'nahi-'me." tsu'-a-'yu-tla-di-'lul. 
"ha-Mhada'minantl." (5) tsu'-gs'Ma' tla-di-'lul tb-ka'^-xenwa'sadja, tsu'-ha-'p" 
gs'-ctcu'o^da, tsu'-ta'ma-gala'm. tsu-we'n-tli'-tla-di-'lul, 

"hu'! e'n-e-'nax-t'sa'm- x-kwi"ya. 
tle-wa'ntl xga-wa'ntl. 
mi-'disama nax-t'sa'm x-kwi"ya. 
kwi-il-we ■ 'n-i'ld u wa . 
kwi'-y a-wantl-xga' . " 39 



36 Repeat indefinitely. Ediphone record 14:14578:b; RCA Victor record 14:14607:A:2. 
"Repeat indefinitely. Ediphone record 14:14578 :c; RCA Victor record 14:14607 :A:3. 
38 Repeat indefinitely. RCA Victor record 14:14607 :A:4. 
"Ediphone record 14:14578:d; RCA Victor record 14:14607:A:5. 



48 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

4. This is what the young man told them when he returned home. "I am 
going to go back. I have two wives (and) I have children." Then indeed he went 
back (to his swordfish wives). "You will see me again. Goodby you folks!" 

8. Sea otter narrative 40 

1. The girl was the child of a very rich man (head man), and they all wanted 
her (in marriage). "Indeed there is no one I want." The girl had a shed of her own, 
and she made baskets there all the time. (2) Every year she would watch the sea 
otters go by, and every time she would sing (saying), "I will not have a husband. 
But if you are a wealthy leader (of the sea otters), then I will marry you," (3) The 
girl went swimming all the time, she went swimming in the ocean surf. Now she 
became large, now the girl was pregnant. Then she gave birth to a boy baby. (4) 
When she had borne it she kept her baby in the house. It just cried all the time. 
They (her relatives) did not want her (fatherless, bastard) baby. "Throw that in- 
fant outside! It is not the child of a person !" (5) Then they ridiculed. "Humph! 
she has just a bastard (child), she who does not want a husband!" That is the way 
they slandered her. Now her mother spoke thus to her. (6) "How did you ever 
become with child? Who is the father of your child? Go take that child of yours to 
its father's place." "I do not know who is the father of my child." (7) Then she 
took her baby to the shed there, and when she took her child to there it cried no 
more. And there she kept her baby, because her parents (and relatives) did not 
want it. 



4. we'n-kwene-'nu-tfe-di-'lul ya-we'st. "bi-'nat's-wa'ntl. adzu' nahume'- 
ks nihi-'me-'ds-"u." tsu'-ayu-bi-na't's. "da-'s-tc-nantl khr'dai. kwiya-'lda'utcil!" 

8. gi'ye'we lagawya-'t'as 

1. hethe'de--diki'lga tta-gws'is, wi-'-gu-s-wi'-kwi--du-'ha-'ya. "a'n-gs'-an-u'- 
wi"-du-'ha'ya." wi'-namaqmi'ya-tla-gwe'is, wi'-gus-mi'n-kwi--ge /t -kwi--mi'lqet. (2) 
wi-'-de'nge-idzi-'mas gu- / s-mi / n-kwi--hama'q-l'a / yim tfe-gi'ye-'we, wi-'-gu-s-mi'n- 
du--kwi-'-ha-'ti, "an-ha'ntt-wi'-'nde-'mal. i'nantl-nhethe-'de'e, wi'-ne'u-nantl-da'- 
mldzu-da-'mi." (3) wi'-gu-s-mi'n-dzast'la-'dai tb-gwe'is, ba'ldi-micdja kwi-'- 
dzast'la'qai. hei-ma-'tsi-kwi-'-wagadi'ya, hei-ma-'tsi mu'weldiya tla-gwe'is. tsu'- 
kwi-tlhwi'ya, di'lu't'1-di-kiTga. (4) wi-'-ya-kwr-tlhwa'it wi'-idze'watc wa-'wa- 
tte-dakiTga. wi'-ma-'tsi-gu-s-mi'n-a'x-ats. tsu'-ildu-'ya-tfe-dil^i'l-ga. "qa'nu-'dja- 
ti-'ts-kwi-l£i'l-ga! a'n-ka^-dilii'l-ga!" (5) tsu'-ilhu'det-we-'we. "hu'! ma'tsi- 
naha'itsa-masa, tla-ga-a'n-demal-du-'ha'ya!" ws'n-il-du-hu-'det. tsu'-we'n-i'ld"- 
wa-tb-dax-e'ne. (6) "dji'-ge-e'ne-nikVlgide? wi-'-da'e-'k-enikTl-ga? ge'^-nantl- 
a-'i-kwo-da'ek-'djant kwi-k^Tga." "a'n-u-'kwa-ni'yada ele'di-diniki'l-ga." (7) 
tsu'-gs-la-'i tb-dil^i'lga msqmi-'dja, ye-ge'Ma'i tfo-dikiTga a'nya'-a'x-ats. wi-'- 
da'-aya-wa-'wa tb-dikHTga, na'im-an-du'ha'ya tb-dex-ma-'ni'yas. 



40 Told by Mrs. Peterson's Miluk relatives and Miluk in locale, this must be identified as a 
Miluk tale. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 49 

2. Now one time she went back to her shed, and then a nice looking man was 
holding the baby (there). (Abashed, she halted at the door.) He said, "Ha! is it 
the child of a person? Because if not you should have thrown it away. (2) If you 
want your baby, you must get ready (to go with me). And if you do not want (to 
go with me), then I will take your baby along with me. Leave all your clothes, and 
also your decorations-and-jewelry. (3) Put them in your basket-hat. Put on these 
(clothes which I give you) instead." Indeed the girl got ready. Then they (his 
helpers) put her into a canoe. Two other young men (they were sea gulls and his 
assistants) talked to her (saying), "Mother's sister! We both like you. (4) But 
whatever I tell you you do it that way. A great many women have gone to there, 
but have not ever remained there, because they never knew all their things (they 
could not solve the tests to which new daughters-in-law were subjected there). 
Should you be told thus (to cook) , then right at where my feet (are) , you will cast 
them (my feet) aside, and down in there you will thrust your roasting stick. (5) 
And when you are wanted to fetch water, then you must thrust my head to one 
side, and there you will find the water. And then when you are told thus (to go 
here or there for wood) , and I point (by pretending to yawn and stretch) in yonder 
direction, to there you are to go. (6) Then indeed you will find steps, and you will 
climb up to there. And indeed when you are on top, then there you will find the 
wood. Then they will cease troubling (testing) you." Indeed that is just how the 
girl did. (7) Now they set her down (accepted her). "Oh my daughter-in-law! 
Now indeed you may have my child for your husband." Indeed that is just how it 
was. The girl had still another child. 

3. Now her children were always wanting arrows. Then her children spoke 
to her thus. "The old people are crying all the time." The girl's two children went 



2. hei-mi'nt'ci-bi-'nat's tb-damaqmi-'dja, hei-ma-'tsi-nehs'wudzan-de-'nwl 
kwi-'-naqt-tb-kTl-ga. "ha! ka"-ti-ki'l-ga-'i'? na'u-na-kwr-a'n-titsa-'fo. (2) i'n- 
antl-du'ha'ya dinilpTga, hu'ws'etsam-nantl. wi'-i-nantl a'n-du-'haya'ya, wi'- 
la'a'it'a-wa'ntl kw9-niki'lga. gu- / s-ha-'gwiya-kw9-nts- / tc, hi's-kwa-na'a'sda. (3) 
xt'h-'wi kwa-natlpVla'adja. we'n-he'lt' na'ntl-di-'-tlhadza-'t'a." a'yu-hu'we'e- 
tsam-tb-gwe'is. tlu'-tsu / -tlgw9 / licdja-la-'liyu. a'dzu-ma-tca'n97a x-kwi-'-ljxi'- 
ya'ye'is, "gwe-'gwi! x-masa-'-nisu'la-'mi. (4) dji-'-nantl bsha'na'ni-da'mi ma'- 
na'ntl-du-x-we'n. ga-'-l-hume-'kk gs"-la, wi'-an-du-ma'-da", na-'ym-du-a'n-mi- 
t'ssi'yada tli'-ildagu-'s-ditc. i'-nantl-ws'n i'ltem, wi-' idja'u kwa-'naqla', kwi'- 
na'ntl tatsa-'t'a, wi-'-da'^-nantl tam-i"ya-kw9-niski'n. (5) wi-'-inantl ha-'p du'- 
ha'ya, wi'-kw9-'n9ss'l-na'ntl-ta"ts ga'djg'ni-'cdja, wi'-da'^-nantl kiTd u wa-kwa- 
ha-'p. wi'-i-nantl-we'n-iltem, wi'-ge'ndjuwi wuda-'tsan, ge-'-n-antl-la'. (6) wi'- 
a'yu-nantl-hsqhe'lq ki'ld u wa, wi'-da /f -nantl-heTeq. wi'-a'yu i'-nantl xi'n-xinu, 
wi-ge"-nantl ki'ld u wa-kw9-ni'kin. wi'-de-'w9n i'1-na'ntl t'swu'li-'n." a'yu-me- 
x-we-'n tb-gwe'is. (7) tsu'-ildtagwi'yau. 'V- ngx-midu-'n! tsu-'-nantl ns'u a-'yu 
kwi--nede-'m9l kwa-'nikiTga." a-'yu-ms'-x-we-'n. da-'s-ma /t -dikiTga tb-gwe'is. 

3. wi'-gu-'s-mi'n-wusba'ya-du-'ha'ya tfe-dgx-hi-'me. tsu'-we-'n-i'ld u wa tfe- 
dgx-hi-'me. "gu-'s-mi'n-ki'm-i-tfo-ta'me-'t'k." hi's-hidji'-itc-du-wuls-'l tfo-dghi-'- 



50 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

along with him (and saw those old people, their grandparents). (2) "Mother! 
Those old people look just like you. And they are always walking around on the 
ocean beach, and those old people are weeping. My father kills things for them, 
sometimes a sealion, sometimes it is a whale he kills, and it drifts ashore. (3) It 
is my father who does it and gives it to the old people. My father feels sorry for 
the old people. Mother! What are you crying about?" (4) "My very own parents! 
They did not know when I left home. That is why my parents weep all the time." 
Now her husband came in. And the children said to their father, "Father! (5) 
Mother is crying. She told us that it was her own parents who wept all the time." 
"Oh. Your mother may return home to see her parents." 

4. Indeed they made the girl ready to go, (to her parents' home, with) money, 
sea otter hide blankets, sea otter clothes, two canoes went (full of such valuables, 
which were to pay for her and make her marriage right) . Now he had paid for his 
wife. (2) Now indeed the girl went back home to the very place where she used to 
sit, there she sat (now). Piled up there was her pack (of valuables, her marriage 
payment). She did not remain there long. Indeed she heard her parents crying as 
they came. (3) Both their heads were quite shaven. Now they got close (to where 
she was). Then she said, "Mother! father! Do not weep. I am alive." (4) Then 
indeed they got to their child there. "Get my brothers." Indeed the old people 
(did so). Her brothers arrived there, and then they packed the clothes. Now the 
girl got back home. (5) Then she told her parents and relatives about it. "I did 
not know how it was that I had become pregnant, because I had never seen the 
man. But when I was swimming I had just felt something or other between my 



me tfe-gwe'is. (2) "ni-'ka! x-we-'n-du-dex-he-'mqetc kwg-nghe'mqetc kwa'-ta- 
me-'t'le. wi'-gu-s-mi'n-tldji-'ya-kwi-yu-'det, wi'-ki'm-i-du-tte-tg'me-t'l. wi-'-ma-- 
du'-ditc tsa-'u tta-'nex-e-'le, yuwu't's tu'x-si, yuwu't's-du-t'sehe'm tsa-'u, wi'- 
kwi-du-da'ndan-u. (3) hi't'c-du-tta-'nex-e'le tfe-kwr-ni'ya tfo-tgme-'t'le. kwi-'- 
na'ya tfo-'nex-e'le tfotc-ta'me-t'le. ni-'ka! dji'-ge-ene'a'xats?" (4) "e'n-e-'na- 
ma-'ni'ya-s! a'n-i'lkwa-ni'yada yu'-we'i-'gei. x-we'n-ditc kwi-'-gu-'s-mi'n-ki'm-i 
e'n-e-'nama-'ni'ya-s." tsu'-de'dje tla-dade-'mal. wi'-tla-hi-'me wi'-feci'ya'ye'is 
tfo-itcdaV'le, "eli-'! (5) a'x-ats-tfe-ni-'ka. x-we'n-na'i'l-du-n hidji'm-il ma-'ni'yas- 
tsa tta-gu-'s-mi'n-ki'm-i." "'o-'\ wasi'-hantl-kwa-ng's'ne kla'wi-ha'ntl-kw9-d3- 
'ma-'ni'yas." 

4. a-'yu-hu-'huwe'yu tla-gwe'is, hada-'i'mas, gi'ye'we-t'lxa'i, gi'ye'we-te-'tc, 
adzu'-tlgu-'s-la. tsu'-gwa'lq^s-tb-dahu-'mis. (2) tsu'-a-'yu-wa's-i-tla-gwe'ia 
idja'u-tl9-du--dlu-'gwa, da"-dlu-'gwa. gs"-wa / nga-q-tl9-d9t'3 / m. a'n-he-'niye-da- 
dlu-'gwa. a'yu-kwa-'na'ya tb-dama-'ni'yas ki'm-i-kw9-kwi-'-dz9n'wi'yam. (3) 
ma- / tsi-gW9 / x-ehi- / -d9se"l9 / me-. tsu'-itcne'lt'cuya. tsu'-da"nu, "ni-'ka! eli'! 
a'n-axadzi-'yax dle-'we'u." (4) tsu'-a'yu-ge"-dji , ni'yam tfe-dilciTga'adja. "la-'- 
dza-kw9-'n9hat'li'ya-das." tsu'-a-'yu-tta-dgtg'me-t'le. a'yu-dji'ni'yam tlg-dgha- 
t'li'ya-das, tsu-ilt'a-'mi-tb-dgte-'tc. tsu'-we-'st-tb-gwe'is. (5) tsu'-we-'n-gwgsgwa'i 
tb-dgma-'ni'yas. "a'n-wu'-dji' t -kwi'-kwa-ni'yada-tlu--mu / werii'ya, na'im-u-a'n-wi- 
mi'n-kwi-ha'maq tlg-de-'mgl. yu-wu'-du--dz9st'la-'qai we'n-tla-'-du-ditc-ng'xai 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 51 

legs. That is the only thing I knew. (6) That is why I could not tell you, because 
I did not know. I have two children, both males, boy children. They were always 
wanting arrows. They always went with him, when they went hunting with their 
father. And they always cried for arrows. (7) You may shoot arrows to there, 
and they will pick them up and get them." "Ah. We will do that." "You will give 
them to them as long as the people live. That long a time the people will see my 
children." (8) She remained five days. "Now I am going to go back like that 
(again) . My husband will come and get me. They (he and his people) are not sea 
otters. They are persons. (9) Just their clothes are sea otter (hides). As long as 
you live, that long a time then he (sea otter) will always give you whale. As long 
as I have my own skin, that long a time you will see me, even if only one person 
be alive. (10) And that is how they will see my children. When all the people have 
died, then they will not be seen any more." 

9. The person that halloos 41 

The people could never travel about in the woods because they feared the per- 
son that halloos. When you heard a person calling out, you did not answer, (be- 
cause) maybe it was that thing. That is why they did not answer. (1) One person 
was making a canoe. Now he heard a person calling out. But then the thing that 
was calling out was not quite a person when he got close to it. And then he saw 



geTu"n. kwi-wu'-tla-lcwa-'ni'yada. (6) x-we-'n-ditc tlu-wa-a'n-dji-'nasgwi-'- 
da-'mi, na'im-u-a'n-kwa-'ni'yada. a'dzu'-'nihi-'me, masa'-ta'm-H, tca-'na7a-hi-'- 
me. gu-'s-mi'n-du-wusba'ya du-'ha'ya'ama. gu-'s-mi'n-du-igi-'m, i-du-li'mdawa 
kwi-itcda'e'1-e. wi'-gu-'s-mi'n-itc-wusba'ya gaTa'da. (7) ge'-tcilantl du-qda'l- 
ku-wusba'ya, wi-'-gaqa'lam'itc-ha'ntl-du." "a-'-. x-we-'n-l-hantl-du." "lu y - 
nantl-du-ni'ya'ama idje-'dantl-dahe-'niye'we lb/'-dle-'we. we-'n-dahs-'niye'eis il- 
ha'ntl-du-gila'u-tla-ka" tla-'nax-hi-'ms." (8) gsnt'ci'nsi gaha'is-dlu-'gwa. "x- 
we-'n wantl-bi-'nat's-wantl. ia-'dzadu-'n-wantl tla-'nex-de-'mal. an-i'1-gi'ye'we. 
fta"-ft. (9) tsi'-te-'tc i'1-kwa-dagi'ye'ws. idje-'-tcil-hantl dle-'we, we-'n-dahe'- 
niye'eis tsi'-tci'l-hantl t'sshe'm qatski-'nu-gu-'s-mi'n. idje-'-wantl a'mi-dze-'t'las, 
we-'n-dahe-'niye sstci'l-ha'ntl-gi'hi'wai, we'n-hit'ci-'-kV-dle-'we. (10) we-'n- 
hantl-gihi-'qhem kwa-'nihi-'ms. wi'-ya-ha'ntl-gu-'s-ku'm kw3-ka'\ wi-'-de-'wan- 
il-hantl gi-'khi-'yu-" 

9. nakVlehe'-ka" 

wi'-an-du-'-dji-nukwi-'ndjye lca'*-yu-'didi na'im-il-du-hi'-alqsa tb'-k'elehe'- 
ka'\ i'na-ka'^-kwa-'na'ya ak'a'lai, wi'-an-a'qta-'mi, yuwu't's-ku'wi kwa'-hi'. 
na'u-il-du-a'n-qta-'mi. (1) hit'ci'-kV'-tlgu-'s-dzi-'ya. hei-ma-'tsi ka^-ak'a'lai 
wi-'-kwi'-qta-'mi. hsi-ma-'tsi-gwa-a'n-kVai i-ne'lt'eu-'ys tb'tc-ak'a'lai. hei- 

41 Coos of both dialects told this narrative excitedly. Mrs. Peterson heard it recounted by 
Taylor, Gabriel, Old Man Jackson and others. The Coos believed that in the ancient period, 
some generations ago when the episode transpired, the country was far hotter than it is now: 
food could be cooked by the heat of the sun; alligators (!) and other hot country animals such as 
the "person that halloos" lived in the Coos territory. Incidentally, both Mrs. Peterson and Frank 
Drew, an ethnologic informant with whom I worked in 1932, believed that the "person that 
halloos" must have been a rhinoceros! 



52 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

that person that was calling out. Now he fled. (2) He saw it could not get over a 
log. And that is how he could get quite a distance ahead of it because it could not 
jump over (logs). It went around them instead. That is why that person got far 
ahead of it. Indeed that is why he got away from it. (3) Now he arrived at the 
beach, his canoe was not far away, and so he leaped into his canoe there. But the 
person that hallooed was also already there himself. He scrambled in haste over 
to there (to the far end of the canoe). (4) Now he speared (horned) the canoe 
(through its center), he lifted it up on his head, and then the canoe was stuck over 
his head. That was how he ran (blindly) with the canoe covering his face. Then 
he (the man) ran to waiqdi' (village), people were there, and he said thus, "The per- 
son who halloos is pursuing me !" (5) Now they asked some old woman. (She said,) 
"You can not kill it. You can not kill that even with a person's (largest) bow (for 
deer and elk hunting). Go get a crawfish digger (a sharp pole), (and) thrust it into 
his anus. That is the only way to kill it." (6) They did that indeed, indeed they 
killed it. And they never saw one of them again, because that must have been 
the only one. They never saw another one of them again when they killed that one. 



10. Salmon did ill to boys 42 

1. The young fellows went away, the young fellows were going to spear fish. 
They went up a creek, there they were going to catch things. It became evening. 
The young fellows had quantities of salmon. (2) Now they sang and danced, and 



ma-'tsi-lu'-kla-'wi'itc tfo-k'ekhe'-ka'. tsu'-yaga'da. (2) ha'ma'q a'n-dji-wu't'iu 
niki'nu. wi-'-x-we'n-he-'ys na'im-du-a'n-dji-wu't'H. cyu-'tc'itc-du-'-la. wi-'-x- 
we'n-du-tkV-ka" tla-dii-kwr-he-'n-heluwiye. wi'-a'yu'-x-we'n-e'q's. (3) tsu'- 
idje'is9djs'*-dji, a'nye-he-'-tte-dgx-tlgwaTsitc, tsu'-ma-'tsi-ge"-hw9Tdi tta-datlgwa'- 
licdjg. ma'n-his-hi'dji ge"-dji tfo-k'e'lehe'-ka". yaga'da-e-'ge xki-'tc. (4) ma'n- 
tsgwa" tto-tlgwg'ls, da-'tsan-dshel-gwa-'n, tsu'-he'ldjs-dakwi-'-bitlbi'l-u tli-tlgu-'s. 
we- / n9kwi / 'yu-hwuthwi-'d hs'ldjadg-kwr-tibe-'lel tto-tlgu-'s. tsu'-yaga'da-waiq- 
di'dja, g£ M -dle-'geq, tsu'-we'n-i'l-at, "kyiehe'-ka"-u'u'mid9du-'n!" (5) tsu'-hu-'- 
'mik-ditc-mint'ci'yu. "a'n-du'-dji-tsu-'tsu. x-ka /5 -d9gugwi-'lu an-du'-lu-n-utsu-'- 
tsu. wuq.wa'iq-tcilla-'dza, mu'yu-S9dje-nanti-kwi-'-t.ca. x-we-'n-tlantl-tsa-'u." 
(6) a-'yu-ilwa-'tsant, a'yu-iltsa-'u. wi'-da-'s-an-lu'-hemqe'qhem, na'im-da-x-tsi- 
ku'wi. a'n-das-lu-hemqe'qhem i'-il-kwi-'-tsa-'u. 

10. tca'n-Ya ge'lyeq a'n-hu-'t'su'wa 

1. tsu'-tca'n-Ta-Ti-'t'ltim, tsu'-ifcuVm-le'-la'a'yam tta-tca'mg'ya. fo'm-i'i- 
dje'-iHa', ge^-il-ha/ntl pga'lisi'yam. tsu'-gatqa'idiya. ga-'--l-ildegeTyeq tte-tca'- 
n-97a. (2) wi-'--maga'nida'il, wi'-hi't'ci-tb-tca'n-gVa, "s'dji-alica-'nu!" "a'n- 



42 This narrative was drawn upon to discourage children from destroying things and playing 
tricks with food and things that the Coos thought should be left alone or at least treated with 
care and respect; the tale might be brought up especially when handling salmon. All Coos speak- 
ers knew this tale though Mrs. Peterson cited Old Bill, an Upper Hanis, as one person whom she 
remembered having told it. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 53 

one of the young fellows (said), "Come play!" "Don't annoy me! I'm so sleepy" 
(retorted one fellow.) "Come! come! don't be so lazy!" (3) "Oh don't bother me! 
I'm awfully sleepy." "Don't annoy him. Let him sleep then. Ha! Lay a salmon 
there, and let that be his wife!" They thought no more of it again. Then they re- 
turned home. 

2. Another year, and then the salmon came up river (again). Now they heard 
something (jingling), everybody went outside and watched it. (2) "Ho! quantities 
of salmon are coming. " But out in front a baby was being held aloft (on the salmon) , 
and its decorations were what was jingling. "You should not watch a thing like 
that!" (3) So some of them indeed did not go outside (to look). Now water (a 
tidal wave) rushed in, and thus all of those people (who had gone outside to look 
at the salmon baby) drifted away (with the flood). Pretty nearly all the people 
were gone. 

3. That is how it is not a good thing when the children do all sorts of tricky 
things. You are not to do such things. You should not belittle food, because the 
people die (from that). You should not perpetrate all sorts of tricks! 

11. A young man grew up alone, and then he split himself 

1. A young fellow grew up, it was his grandmother who raised him. He was 
all alone, he played by himself all the time. "Oh I'm just always alone. Why is 
it that I am always just by myself? Grandma! are there no people at all?" (2) 
"We can not help it that we are alone. They made war on us, and killed all the peo- 
ple. That is why we are alone here." Now in this manner the young man reflected. 



t'swuVi! qwi'ye-di-"u." "e'dji! e'dji! a'n-ha-kinu-'wasi-yix!" (3) "ha-'-- a'n- 
t'swu'le'i! qwi'ye-di-'u." "a'n-t'swa'al-a'n. tsi-'-ma'-ge-'ql. ha'-! ge'-ge'lyeq tsu-'- 
wi'ye, kwi--da'ntl-hu-'mis!" a'nya-il-da-'s-kwi--dji'ndjina. tsu'-ilwa's-i. 

2. ma-'-idzi-'m9S, tsu'-ge'lyeq-haThalu. tsu'-ditc-kwe-'niye, tsu'-gu-s-wi"- 
sa'lt' kwi'-il-he-lu-'dada-'ya. (2) "ho-'-! ge'lyeq-daga-'l-dz9ne." wi-'-gi'lga-he'- 
le'yu yux w u'm-ya, kwi-'-x-kw9-sa''liyam-d9'a'sda. "a'n-tci'1-du-ditc lu'dgda-'ya!" 
(3) tsu'-a'yu-a'n-salt'-da'e'stis. hei-ma-'tsi-ha-'p-he'gwgn, we'n-gu-'s-kwi--ge"-tlxi- 
tk>ka' f . ga • 's-gu -s-an-gwi • 'du-tfo-ka' ' . 

3. we-'n-du-an-l£ile' t -ditc i-'-gu-'s-dji-'-dg'ne-'djis kw9-hi-'me. an-du'-djitc- 
xa'H. an-du'-qVgnyau-hu-'da-t, na'im-du-ku'm-dg-ka". gu-s-dji'tc-an-hu-'t'su'- 



wa 



11. di-'lu'l mi-'t'ci he-'wi, wi'-kwi- tsxa-'-da't's 



1. di-'lul he-'wi, x-u'mna't'btcda-kwi-ha-'wi'ya. wi'-mi-'t'ci, gu-s-mi'n-du-- 
kwi--mi-'t'ci alica-'nu. "u-'- ma-'tsi-wu-ha-gu-'s-mi'n-mi-'t'ci. dji'-ge' a-u-gu-'s- 
mi'n-mi-'t'ci? u'ma-'t'li! a'mi-ka' t -d9gaha'is-i'?" (2) "a'n-huwe e-'l-mi-'t'ci. me'- 
'me-'yu-'l, wi-'-gu-'s-kwi-tsu-tsu--tb'-ka t . x-ws'n-ditc di-'s-mi-'t'ci." wi'-wen- 



54 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

(3) "I wish a person would come from some place. (Then) I would take vengeance." 
And then some person spoke thus to him, "You are not alone indeed! you are two! 
Shoot with your arrow straight up (into the air), and stand just right there, and 
your arrow will come back upon you, and then you will be two. (4) That is how 
you will become many, and you will be able to kill those people who killed your 
parents." Sure enough his arrow returned, it came back right onto his head, and 
it split him in two. Sure enough he became two young men. Indeed the young 
man became two. (5) They both went back home. "Grandma! we are two. We 
desire wives." "Oh grandson! Go get yourself wives ! We have a quantity of money 
(dentalia). When they killed my folks, I hid the valuables. We have a quantity 
of valuables." (6) So indeed they took wives, indeed they became many. Now 
they did go to there, and indeed they killed the people who had killed their parents. 

2. Now that's so much of that. 

12. The young man stepped on snail's back 43 

1. A young fellow was always going about here and there. His parents were 
dead. It was his older brother who raised him. One day he was running about, 
and then he stepped on a snail, and it broke the snail (shell). (2) That was the way 
a tiny piece of it got stuck in his foot, and he was unable to get it out. Then he 
just gnawed at his foot, and while gnawing at it the blood got in his mouth. "Oh 



dji'nhehe-'nu tta-di-'lu'l. (3) "xge'nga-ka'-aya'tsam. dta'Hyu'wa-wa'xtfo. " hei- 
ma- / tsi-w£ / n-ka /( -tli-i'tc, "ma'-na-an-mi-'t'ci'! adzu-'-ne! t'H-'n-gwa-'n q'da-'li 
kwa-nawu'tam, wi-ma"-da-stu-'gwi, wi-ns-'wi-anti-bi-'na't's kwa-nawu'tam, wi'- 
adzu-'ya-nantl. (4) wi'-x-we'n-antl-ga'la'lya, wi'-hdt'-nantl-ki-'ya kwe-x-lca" ki-'- 
ya-na'ma-'ni'yas." hei-a'yu-bi-'na't's tia-da'wu'tam, ma'tsi'ya-se'Ldjeda-bi-'na't's, 
wi-'-x-kwi-'-tsxa'. hei-a'yu adzu-'ya-tte-di-'lu'L wi-'-a-'yu-adzu-'ya tfo-di-'lu'l. 
(5) wi'-masa'-itcwe-'st. "u'ma-'t'H! adzu-'ya^na. hu'me-'kY-ndu-'ha-'ya." "u-'-- 
da'm-si! ga'lam-nahu'me-'lje! ga-l-amahada'i'mas. tli-il-kwi-'-ki-'ya tte-'ne'e'stis, 
wi-'-la'yat'a'u-tla-hada'i'mas. ga-'l-atenhada'i'mas." (6) ayu'-itc-hume-'kVaga- 
la'm, a-yu'-ilgalaTya. wi'-hs'lt'-il-ge'Ma, wi'-ayu'-ilkVya tfo-x-ka''-kwi--lci-'y a - 
da'ma-'ni'yas. 

2. tsu'-tsr-we-'s. 

12. tb-di-'lu-'l bu-'la'k-dats'a'i tsxa-'ts 44 

1. di-'lu'l gu-'s-mi'n-du-kwi'-yuxu'm-s'. ku / mts-d9 / 'ma- / ni'yas-ditc. x-he'- 
t'le-'da-kwr-ha-'wau. mi'nt'ci-hwuthwi-'d, hei-ma-'tsi-bu-'lak-tsxa', wi-'-ku-idli-'- 
t'ru tb-bu-'la'k. (2) we'n-kwi-e-'k' qldidja-'di-la-'lu, wi-a'n-dji-kwi-ha'lk w t. we'n- 
ma-'tsi-xa'ki'i'ya-tla-daqla', wi'-i-kwi--xa / ki wi'-wuda'n-ya'icdjada-la-'lu. "u-'-- 

43 Mrs. Peterson did not know if the Miluks were acquainted with this story, but the Hanis 
were: Old Man Jackson, for example, told it. Citing it as evidence from history, people avoided 
stepping on snail shells lest "they go that way" again, becoming a dangerous being like the person 
in the narrative. Note the difference in emphasis from the Kwakiutl motif, where tasting blood 
causes cannibalism and that, rather than mashing a snail shell, is of primary interest. 

44 An alternative and equally acceptable title: bu'lak-dsba'L tsxa, 'He stepped on a snail 
shell'. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 55 

how sweet tasting that blood is!" (3) (Unable to extract the piece of shell,) he 
just went back home. Now then he began to eat up his people. He ate up all the 
people in his village. 

2. He had one younger sister. Now his younger sister arrived, and she saw 
no one (there). Only her younger brother was living there. The girl had a small 
baby. "Give the baby to me!" (2) "Not just yet younger brother!" She delib- 
erately pinched her baby, and indeed it cried. "I will give it to you after a while. 
I will nurse it first, then I will give it to you." She pinched her baby again, and in- 
deed it cried. (3) "He is so afraid of you, I will bathe him first. Then I will give 
him to you." She bathed it in the evening. Then she packed her baby, and now 
the girl fled. She went back to her husband. 

3. Then she hallooed, "Come over quickly and get me! there is something 
pursuing me!" Indeed three persons went across by canoe so that they could get 
quickly to her there. Just as the canoe neared the beach the girl leaped immediately 
into the boat. (2) "Go quickly. A dangerous being is pursuing me." Then indeed 
(they made haste) so. When they beached she told her husband. "My younger 
brother is a dangerous being. You will (have to) kill him. He ate up all the people." 
Then (they did) indeed (as she ordered). 

4. He was already hallooing too (from the other side). Now they piled rocks 
onto the fire. And they dug a hole, and they got planks. Now the rocks were get- 
ting hot, so they put them down into the hole there, and they lay the boards over 
it. (2) Now they went across to fetch that (dangerous) person. "Ho brother-in- 
law! You will eat well." Indeed they brought him back home, indeed they gave 
him food. Then in the middle of his eating they pulled off the lumber, and so in- 



hei-gwa-a'n-t'ccaTas ku-wu'dan!" (3) we'n-ma-'tsi-wa's-i. we'n-ma-'tsi-dta'u-'nis- 
de'e'stis. gu-'s-kwi-'-ldja'-tb-lca' t -mit'lda-''ya-'s. 

2. wi'-hit'ci'-dagwa'la. he'i tsu'-kwi--dji'-tk>d9gw9'l-a, ma-'tsi-a'n-wi-l£iT- 
dwa. hei-ma-'tsi-kwr-dlu-'gwa-tfo-da'mitlgwa'la. e-'l£-dil£iTga-tfe-gwe'is. "dza'n- 
'u-kwa-kTlga!" (2) "a'n-gs-'-me'M" t'sa'lban-du tb-dikTl-ga, a-'yu-du-a'x-ats. 
"a-'iwa-tsa-nantl ni'ya'mi. ha'ma-wantl-gi't'sda, tsu'-nantl-t'a'ma-ni'ya'mi." 
da-'s-du-t'saTban-tla-dikYl-ga, a-'yu-du-a'x-ats. (3) 'Ylqsadu-'n-s. ha'ma-wantl- 
sdla-'qt. tsu'-nantl-t'a'ma-ni'ya-'mi." ga'tc^ai tte-gwi-sdla-'q't. tsu'-ma-tsi-t'a-'- 
mi-tta-dilfiTga, tsu'-ne'qs-tfo-gwe'is. wa's-i-tla-dada'mi'ldja. 

3. tsu'-k'a'l-a, "tle-tci'lla-'dzadai! x-di'tc-u'u'midadu-'n!" a-'yu psa'nl-ka'* 
gala'ts tle^'i-da-il-ge^-dji. a-'yu-ma-'tsi da'ndanu-tta-tlgwa'ls isga /c -hw9 r ldi 
tlgu-'sidja tla-gwe'is. (2) "tls-'-tcilla-xu-'t'luc u'u'midadu-'n." tsu'-a-'yu. i-hi-- 
qa'd9ma- tsu'-sgu-'ya-tb-dade-'mal. "xu-'t'luc tla-'na'mi'tlgw^'la. tsa-'utcil- 
hantl. gu-'s-ka'Mdja'." tsu'-a-'yu. 

4. ma'n-his-hi'dji k'a'l-a. tsu'-ilq w la'i he'malt'dje il'wa'nqt. tsu'-il-tVma 
qa'L-hu-t'su'wa, tsu'-il-q'wa"as. tsu' gatlqa'lxau tb-q w la'i, tsu'-il-gs" It'la'ut 
tla-qa-'li'idje, tsu'-il-q'wa"as gs"-hidi'ya. (2) tsu'-gaTats-tl3-ka'*-kwi--la-'dza. 
"hu-'-hs'l! ki'le-'-nantl-dlu"wiyam." a-'yu-hi-t'i'u, a-'yu'-qa'tski-'nu. tsu-'-gwa'a's- 



56 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

deed he tumbled into the hole. (3) Now they piled up there on top of the lumber, 
now the people were on top of it there. Indeed he burned up (down in) there. 
That is how they killed him. 

5. That is why the people fear snail shells. 

13. He eats human children 48 

1. Children were being lost all the time, when the children were at play. It 
was always the child of a very well-to-do person (a chief) who vanished. They 
could never be found anywhere. All of them who were anywhere up the bay were 
losing children. They never found them anywhere. Children were being lost every 
year. 

2. Once two children vanished, at'si-'xis (Marshfield village) children. One 
of the (remaining) children came into the house, she ran in. "Mother! I saw old 
people, and it was they who packed away my older brother and my younger sister." 
Now the people who had lost their children wept. (2) That man (the father of 
the last two children to be lost) cried a whole night. Very early in the morning he 
must have fallen asleep, and this was his dream. "You will go down the bay to 
la'xai (a Miluk site between Empire and Charleston.) A rock is standing out 
from the land with bushes all over the top of it. That is their house. (3) That is 
where they took the children they stole. There you will find your children." That 
was the man's dream. Now he woke up. And this is how he told it to his wife. 



dlu"wi'yam tsu-'-djit'cdji'u tb-q'wa"as, a-'yu-gs"tu-'ya tb-qa'ldja. (3) tsu'- 
tVm-a gwa-'niyu q'wa'a's gs"wa'ngayu, tsu'-iige'xini-'m tb-ka'\ a-'yu'-ge'Vcil. 
we-'n-iltsa'u. 

5. we'n-ditc tie-x-ka' ( kwr-a'1-qsa tb-bu-'lak-daba'L tle-x-ka'\ 

13. tb-ka'<-hi-'me dla-'u 46 

1. gu-'s-mi'n-du-hi-'me kuxu'xwi, i-du-alica-'nida tb-hi-'me. gu-s-mi'n-du- 
hsthe-'de dikiTga a'N-ditc. an-du'-ge'n-dji kwi'-giki'Hdu. gu-s-ge'n-dji daga'dja 
gu-s-kwi-'-kuxu'xwi tb-hi-'me. an-du'-ge'n-dji kwi--gil£i'Hdu. de'ngi idzi-'mas 
hi-'me-kuxu'xwi. 

2. mi'n-t'ci tsa-a'dzu' khwa't-tb-hi-'me, at'si-'xis-a'miya-hi-'me. wi-'-hi'- 
t'ci-tb-hi-'me kwi--idzu-'dje kwi-'-de-'dje-de hwi'ye't. "ni-'ka! ta'm-et'le wukla-'- 
wiya'ma, wi-'-x-kwr-ta-'miyama tb-'nehe-'t'le we-'n-tb-'nagwa'l-a." tsu'-kwi- 
ki'm-i tb-ka" kxu-'nam-dahi-'me. (2) hi't'ci-qb'm-kwi--a'x-ats tb-de-'mal. bn- 
wi'-q'eH-"m9S gwatdwi-'du-'da-x, hei-ma-'tsi-x-we'n dagwa'ns-itc. "la-'xaidja'- 
nantl-la'. ga'k kwi-'-le-'mem tb-q^a' 1 nbn-i'ke dugwa'ni'yu biTgwatc. da"- 
di'ye-'dzame. (3) ge"-kwi--l'a'i kwa-hi-'me wuxada-'n. ge"-nantl gi'ldi-t'a kwa- 
nahi-'me." we-'n-dagwa'ns tb-de-'mal. tsu'-dla'nkts. tsu'-we-'n-i'ldwa tb-da- 



45 A11 the Coos knew this. Among those who told it Mrs. Peterson cited Old Tar Heels, a 
Miluk. 

"Alternative title: hime-dla-'u, 'He eats children'. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 57 

"I had a queer dream. (4) 'You better go there to la'xai. A rock is standing there. 
Climb it there. Ferns stand there, and that is their door.' (5) I am to lift them up. 
Then I will see my children." "Oh sometimes a dream is indeed (true). You had 
better go to there!" Thus his wife spoke to him. (6) Indeed others accompanied 
him, and they went to there then. Sure enough that rock was there, and indeed 
it was just like his dream had told him. Then he climbed up it there, and to be 
sure he saw the ferns. Then he lifted them indeed, and then he did see his children 
there. (7) It was a house sure enough. Now they saw their father. He talked with 
his children then. "They travel around the entire night, and all day long they 
sleep." (8) That was what they told their father. "Oh we will come again tomor- 
row." "All right." 

3. That evening the old man did it (to the stolen boy). The old man seized 
the boy, and he just touched his ear, (saying) "Here is your (little) ear ornament." 
That is what the dangerous being said. Indeed there it (the ornament) hung (im- 
mediately, by magic) from the boy's ear. 

4. The next day the people arrived there indeed, many people came. Boards, 
pitchwood, all the people were packing pitchwood. Then they spoke to the children. 
Numbers of containers for valuables were hanging from the walls, and the children 
handed out all that money (which came from the previously stolen well-to-do chil- 
dren). (2) Now they gave them quantities of pitchwood, they stuck it in here and 
there all around inside the house, and then they did set fire to it all. Now they took 
them (the two children) out, when all the fire (wood) and pitchwood was burning. 
(3) Quite a while (it was) before the dangerous being awakened, and then they 



hu-'mas. "gwa-ma'a'i-'nagwa'ns. (4) da-' la-'xaidja ge"-nantl-la'. q w la'i-tsa M - 
da'-le'm. ge'-wutsantl heTe'q. wi--t'ce-'c-la"ma, kwi-i'tsdatsa'ba'ntc. (5) kwi- 
wu'tshantl tlga'ldasa-t'a. wi-'-kla-'wi wutsa'ntl tla-'nahi-'me." "'u'- yuwu't's- 
du-gwa'ns-a'yu- ge"-nantl-la' !" we'n-i'l-d u wa tla-dax-hu-'mas. (6) a-'yu-man-- 
t'i-'yu, tsu'-il-a-'yu-gs'Ma'. hei-ma-'tsi-a-'yu-itc da'q'la' 1 da", tsu'-a-'yu-ma*- 
we-'n dji"-tla-dex-gwa'ns-i'l-d u wa. a-'yu-ge'-hel-e'q, wi'-a-'yu-kwi-kla-'wi-tla-t'ce-'c. 
tsu / -a-'yu-kwi-tlqVH"ya, hei-a-'yu ge"-kla-'wi tla-dihi-'me. (7) a-'yu-x-kwi'-ye-- 
tsi"ya. tsu'-kla-'wi'itc tla'-i'tc-tla-da'eTe. tsu'-kxi'ya'yeis-tla-dahi-'ms. "hi't'ei- 
qla'm'i'tc du-yu-'didi, wi-' ge-'ql'i'tc du--hi't'ci-gaha'is." (8) we-'n-itcgwasgwa'i 
tla-i'tcda'e'le. "u-' a'ma-1-ha'ntl-dji." "ke-'le." 

3. wi'-da'-gatdai wi-'-we-'n-tsam tla'tc-tu-"mat'l. ha'l-mi tlatc-tu-"mat'l 
tlatc-di-'lu't'l, wi-'-kwi-naxdi-'-dgq^ha'n-a-'s, "di-na'7a'la't'l." we'n-tli-tlatc-xu-'- 
t'hic. a-'yu'-da"-kwi-tsqVu tla-daq^ha'na'satc tla-di'lu't'l. 

4. tsu'-a- / yu'-ma-"-gaha'is a-'yu-dji'-da'-ka, ga'l-ka"-dji. q'wa"as, ge'leu, 
gu-'s-ka"-gele'u da't'im. tsu'-itckxu-'nam'yeis tla-hi-'ms. tciTal daga-'l kwi-'- 
tsqV, wi'-kwi'-itc-gu-'s-ni-'das tla-x-hi-'me tla-hada'i'mas. (2) tsu'-ta'ma itc- 
ga-'l-ni'ni-'yu tle-ge'leu, biTgwatc la'm-dasa-'t'a ye-'ts-da-ga'l-a'yu, tsu'-itc-ta'ma 
gu-'s-kwi--t'ca-'l. tsu'-itcgwu'xdla-'t'si'u, i'-gu-si'ye t'cs-'lel tle-he'melt' tle-ge'le u . 
(3) he-'-niye tsi-itc tsu"-dlankts tla-xu-'t'hic, tsu'-itc bi'n-djidjs hwa'l-di, an- 



58 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

leaped upward to the door, but they could not open it, because a lot of people were 
sitting upon the boards there. A dangerous being said thus, "(You) child of a very- 
rich person! 47 The stored food (i. e., the two children) was (kept here) much too 
long!" Then they killed the two (ogres). 

5. And this is what the children said. "They were away all night long. 
Sometimes they would be gone a very long time. And when you found us, that was 
when he touched my younger brother, and then that thing hung from his ear." 
(2) When they had brought the children back home, they talked and talked about 
what to do about it (about his heavy ear pendant). Then they cut off what was 
hanging from his ear, and thereupon the child died. 48 

6. Now that is how my tale goes. 



14. The water got high 49 

Long long ago there was (once) a continuous rain, not large raindrops, fine 
small raindrops. It rained a long long time. Then the ocean became higher, and 
the waters rose. (2) The people who had canoes got into them there, all the people 
dashed towards their canoes, and those people who were still running afoot were 
all caught by the water (and drowned). When the water went back it returned 
slowly. Then many people were saved. (3) When the water lowered it fell slowly. 
After that when the people were out hunting they found canoes that were just 
nothing but moss, moss and dirt. Their paddles just hung from them there wherever 



i'tc-dji-wu'xat, na'im-ga-'l-ka" ge"-dlu-'gwa tls'-q'wa'asa'dja. tsu'-we-'n-tli-tb- 
xu't'luc, "he-'de-diki'l-ga! 47 he'lt'-ha-he-'-niys digala'it'l !" tsu'-itcgi-kVu. 

5. tsu'-we-'n-gwa-na-'ni-'da tb-hi-'me. "hiYci'-qb'm-itc-du--e'hs. yu'wu't's- 
du--he-'-niye-itc ehe'ut'tsam. wi-'-tb-nigi'ldiya, wi-'-tVma tb-kwi--ha'l-uwi tb- 
'na'ma'tlgwaTa, wi / -ma-'tsi-de"-tsga'ya-ditc tb-d9k w ha'n-a-S9tc." (2) i'-wa-'sdya 
tb-hi-'me, wi-'-kwi-'-yal-7a'lyaqham. tsu'-il-kwi--qVt'sa tbtc-k w ha'n-asatc dza- 
ga'ga, he'i-ma-'tsi-qVyau-tli-kHTga. 

6. tsi'-x-we-'n kwa-'naba-'saq\ 

14. tb-ha-'p he-'wi 

tls-he-'-niye gu-s-mi'n i'l-e-'q, a'n-wa-' i'lgss, e-t'ci'li-iTgss. he-'-niye i'le'q. 
hei-ma-'tsi ba'ldi-'mas phwi-'la-'t', we'n-kwi-he-'wi tb-ha-'p\ (2) i'-ntlgwa'lss-- 
ka" wi'-ge"-ilxt'hi-'t9m, gu-'s-ka" tlgwa'licdja'ikb-yaga'da, wi-'-tb-ka'^-tca-'tc- 
naqs-'qei wi-'-gu*s-ha-'i'>kwi--ga'la / m. yu-kwr-bi-'na't's tb-ha-'p wi-'-xqe-'l-bi-'- 
na't's. wi-ga'l-ka'-gwi-'du. (3) wi'-yu-kwi-tu-'ya-tb-ha-'p' xqs'l-tu-'ya. wi-'- 
da'-qbm-ni'yu i-du--b'm-dai-da'-ka" kwi-i'l-du'-giktla-'u tb-tlgu-'s ma-'tsi-du--ha'- 
n-a-ba'nt, ha'n-a-ba'nt-itc t'lda-'ya-'s. tli-ildat'le'he ma"-x-we-'n mi'l-s-'t'i idja'u- 

47 A violent imprecation directed by the cannibal ogress at her cannibal husband. She con- 
tinues in what sounds like a queer, alien accent, using gla'it'l for M. kle'it'l. 

48 Just why severing it killed him Mrs. Peterson had not heard or remembered: perhaps the 
cord on which the pendant hung "belonged to his heart." 

49 Mrs. Peterson heard this flood narrative from mi'nkws particularly but she asserted that 
all the Coos knew and told it. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 59 

they (the canoes) had dropped (when the waters receded). (4) They never learned 
what had become of (those people who had tried to escape in the now empty canoes). 
That is the way the people tell about it. My grandfather (mi'nkws) saw one of the 
old women (survivors) who had been left alive. She had been hung up on a tree, 
and the limbs of that tree were too high up. (5) So she took her pack line and tied 
it to a limb, and then when she wanted to go down by means of that, she fell, she 
was just a girl when she fell from it. Her back was broken from it (she had a hump- 
back thereafter). That is what she told about the raised water. 



15. The sa'ganda-'s people 60 

1 . That (giant) wealthy head man lived at Chetco (River) , and their village 
(the village of the sa'ganda-'s-Miluks) was on this side (to the north) of it. The 
mother of that (sa'ganda-'s) boy came from Crescent City. The young fellow was 
always sharpening his knife. "Why do you sharpen your knife?" (2) "Oh I am 
going to go to the south to see my mother's brother." "Do not say so! There are 
giant people (at Chetco River) who do not let you pass by. Their wealthy head 
man is a person of mean spirit. Whoever goes by there he kills." (3) But the little 
fellow (said), "Oh I will rip him up with my knife!" "But do not say so! Do just 
remain here. Do not go there! He will kill you." "Oh he will not kill me." 

2. And then indeed he went, he ran as he went. "Hey ! where are you going ?" 
(The Chetco giant encountered him.) "Oh I am going south." "Humph! you will 



da-' tla-tu'wita'n-ya. (4) wi'-a'n-kwe-'ni-'m dji'-a-yadzu-'ttsam. x-we-'n i'l-du 
laga'wiyat'a-na'ya tle-x-ka'*. wi'-tfo-'nax-tsqu'lq^tc wi-'-hit'ci'-hama'q' tfe-ta'nv- 
e-t'h tla'tc-tVma-dle-'we hu-'mik. nakwi-'n'itc tsa-'-geqdi'n-u, wi'-helt'-he-gwa-'n- 
dshel-e'k w tte-ni'kin. (5) wi-'-kwr-hel-e-'gwadje ha'm-siya tta-diki'u, wi-'-x-kwi"- 
yu-du'ha'ya-pqa' 11 , wi- / -ma- / tsi-tu- , ya-tl3-t'3 / ma-gw£"ek tla-kwr-tu-'ya. wi-'-tlga'i- 
dzu-dahwa't'lhwi. x-ws'n-laga'wiyat'a-na / 'ya tla-ha-'^-he-'wi. 

15. tfo-sa'ganda-'s-ka" 

1. da'-hethe-'de dlu-'gwa tfo-tce-'t'i, wi-'-da"-di-gediu kwi'-mit'lda-'ya-'s. 
wi'-ge^-gadi'ya-da'e'ne tli'tc-gwa-di-'lu'l tte-Crescent City' i'dje. tsu'-sba'i-da'wa-'l- 
'wal tkxs-gwa-di-'lu'l. "dji^-ge'-nsba-'i-na'wa-Twal?" (2) «V ge"-wantl-la' 
q w ci'djs kla-'wi-nantl na'axi'yaxitc." "a'N-dji--ditc iTd u we! wudla'm-aq-ka" wi'- 
an-du'-dji da"-kwi--ts'a'l-du. a'N-we-'n-ka* kwi-ildshethe-'de. wi-'-du-'-da-l-a' 
kwr-du-'-tsa-'u." (3) wi-'-tlatc-gwa-de-'mal, "u y - gwa'lyi-wantl kwa-'nax-wa'l- 
'walu!" "a'N-dji-ditc ildi-'ye'ws! ma-'tsi dlu-'gwi. a / N-ge"-la / 'ya'4ai! tsu'we-- 
na'ntl." "u y - an-wa'ntl tsu'wsn." 

2. tsu'-ayu-'-la', la-'-du'hwiye-'t. "he-'i! ge'ndji me-'t'c'na?" "u-' q w cidje- 



60 This supposedly true story was told by many Coos in both dialect groups and particularly, 
as far as Mrs. Peterson is concerned, by Old Man Jackson and Cissy, the latter a Miluk. In recent 
years the natives identified the Miluk-speaking tribe of the narrative with none other than the 
Japanese because they were also short of stature and extremely smart and tricky! The Coos were 
certain about the identification because one Miluk, possibly a brother of Jim Buchanan, had been 
taken a few score years ago as sailor on a sailing ship which visited Japan; he claimed that there he 
had found a last survivor of a Miluk-speaking group and that this resident of Japan had spoken 
Miluk to him! 



60 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

not get there." (2) Then the big man seized him, he grabbed his head, and now 
he was going to kill him. But then he (the little sa'ganda-'s traveler) stabbed him 
first, indeed he split open his belly, indeed he killed the wealthy (giant) headman. 
So then he turned back (north again) and reached home. (3) "I have killed that 
wealthy headman." "Now you must have done something pretty good indeed! 
(They praised and berated him.) Now they will come and war on us." 

3. Indeed people (intermediaries) arrived, they brought news. "We will do 
you no harm, if you pay" (for our headman's death) . ' 'Very well. We will pay you. ' ' 
(They were willing to settle by taking a money payment) because they had not 
liked their (murdered) headman, because he had been mean. (2) "Now if indeed 
you reach the mountain with your money (i.e., if you pay an enormous sum), then 
everything will be all right. But if you will not pay so large a sum), then 
we will fight you." Indeed they tried (measured) their money, but their money 
was not long enough (to reach) there. (3) "If you will not pay it we will wage war 
next year." "Oh we will obtain that money by that time." Now they went back 
home. Now indeed they made large canoes, far back in the woods they made them, 
so that no one would know. (4) They finished a large number of canoes. Now 
when the appointed time of year came they went, but the length of their money did 
not reach to there. "We will give you five days, (and) if you do not come with such 
a length (of money), then we will war." (5) "Very well. We will bring it to you." 
But they did not do that. They merely took their canoes down into the water, and 
they simply fled, they went out to the ocean. And wherever they halted, they were 
driven away from that place notwithstanding. (6) Sometimes they would remain 
an entire year, and then they would be driven away, because they were mean. Then 
they went away to an entirely different ocean. 



me-'t'c'u." "hu'! an-a'ntl-ge"-dji." (2) tsu'-gala'm tte-x-wa-'-ds-'mgl, se'lu-ga'- 
la'm, tsu'-hantl-tsa-'u. tsu'-ma-'tsi-hi'dji kwi'-tga'ntlts-he'lu', a'yu'-tsxa-'-du'we'\ 
a'yu-kwr-tsa-'u tle-hethe'de. tsu'-ma-'tsi-bi-'na't's tsu'-we-'st (3) "tsa-'u'u- 
kwa-heths'de." "tsu'-da-x-dikiTe-ditc-aya-'dja! me'me-'yul-ha'ntl." 

3. a-'yu dji'ni'yam-d9-ka\ kwe-'ndjindji-nu. "a'n-tci'1-tshantl dji-'-xalta-'m, 
i-tcil-tshantl-ska't." "ke-'ls. skidi'ya-1-ha'ntl." na'im-il-a'n-du-'ha'ya tli-ilde- 
hethe-'de, na'im-a'N-we-n. (2) "a-'yu yu-ha'ntl-tla-kwe'ye'is'adje kwi-tci'lnaha- 
da'i'mas, wi-' gu-s-di'tc-hantl-ke'ls. wi'-ya-ha'ntl-a'N, wi'-tldji'ldamitcin-ha'ntl." 
a-'yu-ilka'ni tli-ildahada'i'mas, a'N-gs" dit'ci'tcdas tli-ildahada'i'mas. (3) "i'- 
tcilantl-a'n-skat ma-'-idzi-'mas wu'lmeul-hantl." "u-' ga'laml-ha'ntl tVma kwa- 
hada'i'mas." tsu'-ilwa'si. tsu-ma-'--tsiya wudla'm-aq-tlgwa'ls-ildzi-'ya, t'ci'c- 
djs-he-'n il-kwi-dzi-'ya, a'n-idax-wi'-kwi-kwa-'ni'yada". (4) ga'1-tlgwa'ls-ilhu-- 
t'su'wa. tsu'-hi-'hi'yu-dSa'idzi-'mas tsu'-il-a', ma--gu / m-an-ge /t -dji-dit'ci'tcdis 
tli-ildahada'i'mas. "gent'ci'n-si gaha-'is ima'ntl-hi's-ni'ya'mi, i'nantl-a'N-dji-na'- 
ta we-'s-dat'ci'tcdis, wi'-wuTmeul-ha'ntl." (5) "ke-'le. dza'nwaul-ha'ntl." wi'- 
an-i'l-ma"-we-'n. ma-'tsi-il-gu's-ta'ixa'ya tli-ildatlgwa'ls, tsu'-il-ma-'tsi-ne'qe, 
ba'ldimi-'cdja ilsa'lt'ats. wi'-idja / u-il-du--yu-"yu. ma-i'1-du-xge't-xwutxwi'nu. 
(6) yuwu't's-du-hi't'ci-idzi'mas-da-dle-'geq, tsu-du-xwutxwi-'nu'ume, na'im-il- 
a'N-we-'n. we- / n-ma- / --baldimicdja-kwi-illa'a / yam. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 61 

4. Now the moving people (the Whites) came to here, and they took with 
them one of the (Miluk) Indians, the moving people took an Indian to there, to the 
country where the braided hair (Japanese) people (live) . Now one old man (there) , 
an exceedingly aged man, this sa'ganda-'s man (there) spoke in Miluk to him. 
(2) This is what he said. "I am the only one left of the older generation. I was the 
child of the sa'ganda-'s." That is what that sa'ganda-'s said to him. That is why 
they know that the sa'ganda-'s stopped there in the country of the braided hair 
people. (3) The aged sg'ganda-'s man told the Indian everything. He told all that 
his parents had told him, (when) they had gone all over there. "We crossed a great 
river. But after that the ocean changed, and then it got bigger, the whole thing be- 
came ocean, when the land sank lower, the whole thing sank. (4) Now it is just 
ocean there. That is why it is impossible to cross there now." That is what the 
sa'ganda-'s told the Indian. "I am the only one left who can talk the people's lan- 
guage (Miluk-sa'ganda-'s). When I die there will be no one who can speak the 
(Miluk-sa'ganda-'s) language here. We talk differently (now)." 

16. He starved his mother's sister 51 

1. The child was brought up by his mother's sister. Now he had grown up. 
He was away spearing fish all the time, but he would come back without food. 
That is how his aunt became hungry. (2) Once, "Come here! let me hunt on your 
head (for lice)." So then his aunt hunted on his head. Then he fell asleep. Now 
his teeth were full of food. So she quit hunting on his head, and he awakened. 



4. wi'-tb-ngtsle-ne-'-kV gs'sde'^-dji ni'ya'm, wi-'-x-kwi--hit'ci yuxwu'na tls- 
ka", wi'-ge' t -kwi-dji / ya'na t tie-x-ntsle'ne-'-ka tb-ka", tfo-nt'cba'ya-ka' dat'lda'- 
ya-S9dJ9. wi-tu-"m9t'l, l9'n--wi-tu-"m9t'l, wi-'-x-miTugwi-kwi-'-kxidi'ya'yeis tle- 
x-S9'ganda-'s. (2) ws-'n-iTat. "e'n-e wu'-tla gwi'dst. tb-kwi'-yiml-hi'me tfo- 
sg'ganda-'s." x-ws-'n-gwgsgwa'i tle-x-sa'ganda-'s. wi-'-we-'n-ditc tla-gwi'-kwa-- 
'ni'yada tli-il-g£"-yu-'yu tfo-sa'ganda-'s tfo-nt'cba'ya-ka' tfo-dgt'lda'yasgdjg. (3) 
gu-'s-kwi-gwgsgwa'i tia-ka" tb-sa'ganda-'s tu^'mat'l b'n-wi tu"m9t'l. wi-'-gu-s- 
kwi-kwana-'na'ya dji'-kwi-laga'wiya-t'anidiya tli-ild9x-ma-'ni'yas, tli-il-ge" 
cyaVtcu. "wa-'ga-tVm-i'itc-ilgs'lts. wi-'-da'-qfo'mniyu wi-'-su-'du-tfo-ba'ldi-'mas, 
ma-'tsi-wugadi'ya, biTgwatc ba'ldimasi'ya, ya-kwi-'-tu-'ya-tfo-t'lda-'yas, biT- 
gwatc-kwi--wi- / du. (4) wi'-ma-'tsi-ba'ldi-'mis-gs /< -tsu-m. wi-'-x-we-'n-ditc da- 
kwi-ge' t djimi'n'niys." x-we'n gwasgwa'i-tle-x-sa'ganda-'s tfe-ka". "mi-'t'ci' 
tla-d9-ka"-'ntli's. yu-wantl-da/yau a^-ha^tl-wi^-kwi-'-ds-tli's-diu. ma-"a- 
ya--m37a'la." 

16. t'laVi'ya d9x u kwa'n 

1. x u kw9 / nd3 , -kwi--ha-'wau tli-kiTga. wi'-kwi-hs-'wi. gus-mi'n-du--£'h£ 
dlg'm-le, a^i-du-^wg^-yau-we-'st. ws^-kwi-du-lgs-'n tl9-dax u kw9'n. (2) mi'n-- 
t'ci, VdjiM ha'manan-xwoitTda-'mi." a-'yu-xwa't'H tl9-d9x u kw9'n. hei-ma-'tsi 
gs-'ql-itc. hei-ma-'tsi ngqwg'n'ya'wa tb-dgge't'sge 1 . tsu'-anya xwa't'H, tsu'- 

81 Mrs. Peterson recalled hearing this told by t'cicgi'yu and t'ligwa'ni. She believed that 
all the Coos knew it. 



62 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

"Oh aunt! I am going to go spear fish." (3) So he went indeed. Now she hid, the 
girl followed him (unseen). And she hid and watched him. "My but the salmon 
he is spearing!" Then he went housewards, and he made a fire. (4) His aunt 
watched him as she kept hidden. Hidden she looked in to there then. Now his 
house was full of food, and his aunt was hungry. "Humph! I had a sad task raising 
him, and now he does not give me a thing, and I am hungry, while he himself has 
quantities of food." 

2. Then the girl went back home. Now she packed her valuables, and then 
she went away from there, and she came to another place. "Where does the wealthy 
headman live?" "He lives there yonder." (2) The girl indeed went to there, and 
they took her in. She became the wife of the wealthy head man. Young man 
kingfisher got back home now. His aunt was nowhere, so he followed his aunt, 
he followed her tracks. (3) Indeed he went along, and then he got to there. "Where 
is my aunt?" "Go yonder to there, to where the wealthy head man lives." Indeed 
to there he went, and they took him in, and they gave him food, and there he ate. 
No little food they gave him. (4) He was not eating a long time, and then something 
burst. "What exploded?" "Hm it must be me." That is what the young man said. 
Indeed it was himself who burst (from overeating), and then he died. 

3. That is the way it was with the kingfisher in the narrative. 



dlankts. "e-'-gwe-'gwi! db'mle'-wantl." (3) a-'yu-l-a'. tsu'-x-sadb'ntc, u'mi- 
du'wa tle-x-gwe'is. tsu'-x-sadb'ntc hr'dada'ya. "hei-a-'yu nege'lyeq dza'gwi'- 
itc!" hei-ma-'tsi ye-'dzadjsda'-l-a, we-'n-t'ci'ls'. (4) sadb'ntc lu-'dadaya tb-de- 
x u kwa'n. tsu'-ge"-xi-'la x-sadb'ntc. hei-ma-'tsi flu' tb-da'ye-'ts x-d_W9'nyau, 
we'n-kwi-du--lge-'n tb-d9x u kwa'n. "ha! kwi-'ne'wet'H u-kwr-ha'wiya, we-'n-x- 
kwi wu-a'N-ditc ni-'ni-'wun, lge-'n'wu-du, wi-'-tli-hi'dji wi-'-ga-'l-dadwa'nyau." 

2. tsu'-wi-we's-i tb-gwe'is. tsu'-t'a-'mi-dahada'i'mis, tsu'-i'gei, tsu'-ma-'- 
t'lda'icdja dji". "idja'u bqle-'m kwa-hethe-'de?" "e-'ge leqle-'m." (2) a-'yu- 
ge'Ma' tb-gwe'is, tsu'-ditdji'yu. bethe-'de kwi'ye-dahu-'mis. tsu'-we-'st tle-cdji'- 
fes di-'lu'l. a'N-ditc tb-dax u kw9'n, tsu'-u'miduwa tb-d3x u kw3 / n, hagadi'dSu- 
u'midadi-'t'a. (3) a-'yu'-l-a, tsu'-gs'^-dji'. "idja'u-tb-'n9x u kw9'n?" "e-'ge-nantl- 
la, kwe-hethe-'de-dlu-'gwa'adja." a-yu'-geMa, tsu'-ditdji'yu, tsu'-^atski'nu, 
tsu'-ge"-dlu'wi-'we. a'N-kwi-'ni-datski-'nu. (4) a'N-he-'-niye dlu"wi'yam, hei- 
ma-'tsi ditc-tla-'uwa'itc. "ditca'x-a'ya etia-'uwa?" "hm- en-e-'-da." x-we'n-tli- 
tb-di-'lu'l. a-'yu-hi'dji tb-tla-'uwa, tsu'-qVyau. 

3. x-we-'n tb-cdji't'as lagawiya-'t'as. 



ETHNOLOGIC TEXTS IN HANIS 

1. Types of dances at Ya'hatc 

The people were still at Ya'hatc. At that time Cyrus Titchenor (a brother of 
lone Baker and a Gold Beach southwest Oregon Athabaskan) and Isaac Martin 
(a Hanis Coos from nti'se'itc village) came up from the coast to the south. They 
came with a dance from the coast to the south. (1) They arranged a dance (the 
evening of their arrival). The southerly people's (perhaps lower Klamath or adja- 
cent natives') song was their song (that night). Titchenor sang then. That was 
his song when he sang. No one even yet knew about dream songs (which com- 
menced there with the Thompson-Charlie ghost dances of 1878). (2) It was before 
that time that Cyrus was there at Ya'hatc. That is why that (dance) did not be- 
long to the (later) dream dance (ghost dance) . It was after that time that Thomp- 
son came with that (ghost or dream dance) song. That was the very first time I 
was present in a dance. (3) It was then that Fat Face (Minnie Jackson, younger 
sister of Kitty Hayes) was a nice dancer, and she wanted me to accompany her 
dancing out in the center (in a sims-'t dance). But I was shy. Indeed she made me 
go to the middle, and I fell down. (4) I did not know how to dance, because I had 
never danced. After that time I was familiar with any kind of dance. I was no 
longer shy. That is the way I was when I danced the first time. After that no mat- 
ter what sort of dance I danced it there. (5) They were already dancing the round 
dances then. They already were acquainted with the (round) dance of the people 
of far away. They mixed (alternate sexes) , and they called it thus when they went 
in a circle. They mixed the women (alternately between men) when they danced 



1. 

la-a'iwa ya-'xatca'-msn. le'uleu x-gu'gwis le'u-ux w heTeq W-ux w -Cyrus- 
Titchenor ta-'-leu \z-Isaac-Martin. ux w 'me'gent i-tci'-leu hala-'ga x-gu'gwis. (1) 
le'u-mege'ntime. Ia'u-gwsi"ma-"y3x mege"enu he'mege"£n. le'u-k^'li-'wa't ls'- 
%-Titchenor. le'u-msgs"en i'-megent. a'iwa-i'n-wut gwa'a't'iss-mege"en. (2) hi- 
'ni'-yi'la'hadjim h-Cyrustsix ya-'xatc-yuxwu'm-e. na-'-lau-i'n tci-'-t'le'st le'-gwa- 
'a't'is-msgs"ens-'tc. hi"ni-' yaga'ndjim le-Thompson-lm-mege" en he'leq le-'me- 
ge"en. la'-t'a'm-a x-i"wunt' msgs"eni-tc ne'e'igsxem. (3) ls'ule'u-we le-x-tla'1-a'u'e 
t'H-'wa'te-mege"en, ls'uleu-we yu-'-duwa-'ya n'ne'u ma-'nat' asdla-'tc ta'la'ts. 
le'u-'ntciTtsaxam. a'yu'-we tl'a'n ne'hs'wsx, la'u-'ntu-'yat'. (4) ni-'mit'ssi-'ya 
le'-mege"en, na'im-'ni-"mi'ls'tc me'gsnt. hi'ni'-yaga'ndjim gu-s-di-'l-mege"en na- 
'mi't'sasaNS. ni-'-asu--tci'ltsaxam. x-we'ntc ne-x-yu'wunt'-mege"en. hi'ni'-ya- 
ga'ndjim ma'i-di-l-msgs"en yege-'-lsu hi'ni-'-'nta"la'ts. (5) ma-'ntc-wentc-helms- 
gs"sn h-x-cya-'tcitc mege"en. ma-'ntc tsi-ilmi't'ssi-'ya la-aha'ndji'ya me'u-me- 
ge"en. ili'mxni, ls'u-wentc he-'-illa-'t'ci'ya yu'-we-ilcyayi-'tci'ya. limxni'-he- 

(63) 



64 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

the round dance thus. (6) (In) their sime-'t dance the women were mixed in be- 
tween (alternated also), and they named it 'mixed alternately' when they were 
mixed thus. In the mixed alternately (sime-'t) maybe two (women) would go out 
(to the middle), and then two young fellows would go out likewise. (7) Then they 
named that going dip netting. That is the way their sime-'t dance was. And their 
a'neini (another northwest Californian type) dance was danced like that too. 

2. When a wealthy head man traveled, and exchanges of 
garments upon departing 

1 . The people of long ago when they went away to somewhere or other would 
send a person ahead. He would take the news on to the people to where they were 
going. Then indeed the people at that place would make everything ready, because 
their own wealthy head man would be the one to take in the head man who was 
coming. (2) Indeed he would ask him to come in, and so then he would go to there. 
All sorts of (their best) mats would be placed for him there. So thus the others (of 
his bunch) would be taken in there too. Each day another person would take them 
in (for meals). (3) He went around (thus) to all the well-to-do people, so that in- 
deed no one would think that way (that he disliked anyone) , (or) that he thought 
too much of his own flesh (i.e., of himself). Therefore wherever asked he went to 
there. If he was good in that way then they all thought big (a lot) of him, all those 
people thought big of him when he was good (in that manner) . 

2. When they journeyed he went just like them, just as poor people traveled. 
He did not just sit. When they traveled by canoe he paddled also. That is the way 



hu'm-e-'ke yu'-we x-we'ntc-ilme'gent le-x-cya-'tcitc-mege'eni. (6) le'u-ilsi'me-d- 
e"ni la'u-hu'm-e-'lte he'tci'e-'ye"gi, le'u-wentc he'-illa-'t'ci-'ya sdli'ye'k yu'-we 
wentc H'mxni. le'u-le'-sdliyek la'u-yuwu't's-yuxwe"e tl'a'n, le'u hi's-yuxwe-"e 
tca'nTa tl'a'ndla. (7) la'u-wentc he-'-le-t'ci-'m tcdji-'ya'wa. x-we'ntc le-'lsi'me't 
mege"en. le'u-his-leTa'ncini mege"en his-le'u-wentc-ilta'Tts le"leu-mege"en. 

2. 

1. le'-he-niye'-me' yu'-we-ge'ntc-i'la yi'la'-he--me- hwithwi-'ye. le'u-leu-kwe- 
Yn-he-la'a'iwa't gendje-"it le-la'u-men. la'u-a'yu-'-he le-me-' mit'lda-"ya's gu-s- 
di-'l-he ilc'a'lctit, na'im-hantle-'we la'u-lelx-hethe-'de le'u-le"wi xe'ge hantl-didji'- 
'ya't le-hethe-'de-dji'. (2) a'yu'-ikax tci-'-gwi'gwa'-yu, a'yu' tci'-de"ditc. gu-s- 
di-'l t'cicile-'tc tci' t -dl3dlu"ge'uye. x-we'ntc-he le'u-wute'-e'stis his-le'u-tci-'-li'mx- 
lim. le'u-denk-ga-'is yega"-x-ye'a'i-me didji"ya't. (3) ni'ct'c le'-x-nu'we-'-me 
x-gu-'s tci-'-la\ la'u-a-"yu i'n-yi'xsi we'ntci-i'lwe'djas, li'nwi-djindji'n'naiwa'ti't'e't. 
ne'-he--gentc gwi"gwa-'-yu tci-'-la'. la'u-i-b'7 i x-we'ntc le'u-x-gu-'s i'lha'mis- 
di-'ya, x-gu-'s me-'-lau ha'misdi-'ya i'-teVi. 

2. la'u-i-ilyu'widi ! t la'u-his-xe-'-x-we'ntc yuxwu'm-e, dji-'tc-le-gwi-'ne'wet'l- 
me" yu'wi-dl't. i'n-hats-dlu'we'ge'ts. ye'-x-ixe-'tc ilyu'widi't le'u-his-xe'-tci'm- 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 65 

the people's wealthy head man was. He was only a leader. (2) He did not have it 
thus in his heart, "I will not mingle with poor people." That is the way the people's 
chief, no matter what it was, he too was there among them. (3) And his children 
too, and also his wives, should one of his wives be inclined to ridicule poor people, 
he did not like that, to consider herself something big because of that. The wealthy 
head man did not like that. That was the custom of the people's very wealthy head 
men. 

3. When they got ready to return home they undressed. That was the tak- 
ing-off-and-giving-clothes. The persons (their hosts) to whom they gave them un- 
dressed in their turn, and gave them their clothes. (2) They called that putting- 
the-clothes-back-on. The women exchanged clothes in the same manner. That 
was the custom of the people. 

4. The sister (Cissy) of dji-xwa'nt'e (Ned) just about every Sunday (i.e., every 
week) would come (to visit her brother's family) . Then when she was ready to re- 
turn she would take off her clothes. Now when her sister-in-law (Popeyes, Mrs. 
Susie Ned) had no more clothes (to exchange) , she could not give her (Cissy) any 
more clothes. (2) Every time she (Cissy) came she would take-off-and-give-her- 
clothes. Then Popeyes (at last) had nothing to give to put on her in return. Then 
(that time) with only a put-on-on-top (undressed except for a shawl) wrapped over 
her Cissy had to go back. (3) After that time she did not take-off-and-give-clothes 
any more, because Popeyes was out of clothes and had nothing more to give in re- 
turn to put on her. Then that is how Cissy had to return home without clothes 
(that time). 



la't. x-we'ntc le'-meu-hethe'de. tsi-helsi'kinxem. (2) i'n-wentci-i'lwe'djas, "ni'- 
ha'ntl kwi-'newet'l mehe'n-e'ditc 'e'ik." x-we'ntc le'-me'u-hethe-'de, ma'i-dil 
djitc, yaga'-his-xe hi'ni-'e'igixem. (3) his-le-'hi-'me, his-le-'hu'm-eke, i'-yixe'i- 
hehu-"mis kwi-'newet'l-me M gwa'-huwi-di-'wa't, la'u-i'n-duwa-ya x-we'ntc, we'n- 
tci-i'lwe'djas xle'tilf-nehe'm-i's-dil. i'n-wentc-du'wa-ya le-x-hethe-'de. x-we'ntc 
le'-me'u ta-'ma"lis le-'lhethe-'de. 

3. yu'-we ilbi' t biye"it le'u-ilkli'tqemhe. le'u-wentc-he-ye'qe-hi. le'-me- 
le'u-il'a'tsa le'u-helt'-he-'-leu kli'tqem, leu-a'tsa-helt' le'tetc. (2) le'u-wentc-he 
il'la-t'ci-'ya he-t'lha-'yau. yu'-we--wentc his-he-'-hu'm-e-'ke-x-we'ntc su"tdzi'meu- 
x-te-'tc. we-'ntc-le-me-' le-'lta-ma"lis. 

4. le-x-dji-xwa'nt'eu-kwe-'net'l gu-s-gwa"-denk Sunday yaga'-hebeq. la'u-i- 
bi"biye-"it lau-ma-'ntc-he-kli'ti'-tetc. le'u-leu yiqa'im-tetc letlantlcia-'tc, i'n- 
dji-tc-lau-a's-u te-tc-a'tsa. (2) denk-heTeq ni'ye'qehiye. lau-i'n-dH-a's-u t'lha'- 
dza le'-x-tcu-'wa'tcas. le'u-leu ha'ts gaxa'niyat'isa-tc me'i7i bi"bi W-Cissy. (3) 
hi'ni'-yaga'ndjim i'n-as-u' yeqe-'hiye"ni, naim-i'n-di-1-t'lha'dza yac\a'im-te-tc le"- 
tcu-wa"tC3S. le'u-wentc ke-te-'tc bi"bi h-Ci'ssy. 



66 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

3. Two groups of men discuss, and smoke upon agreeing 

When the people (men) assembled, to talk over things, so that they would be 
friends, all the good (well-to-do, wealthy) people met together then, they discussed 
all sorts of things, good things, not bad ones. (1) Then they would finish whatever 
they had been discussing. Now the head man (the wealthy leader of one side) 
would light his pipe, then he would smoke it (a few puffs). Then all of them would 
(similarly) smoke it. (2) If you did not smoke it, it would not be a good thing (you 
indicated enmity and disagreement). They would not feel well disposed towards 
him. They would watch him. (3) Should they see him alone, they might kill him, 
because he was not their friend , (or) she was not their friend. 

4. When a boy killed his first game 

1. Long ago this is how the people were when a child killed an elk (for the 
first time). When they got back home they prepared food (for feasting). Then ev- 
erybody (informed by children or women) came together there. (2) They had a 
fine time, they told all sorts of jokes. Then the shaman (H. ilxqa'in) took the 
hunting bow (of the boy), the shaman examined it, he worked-upon-and-talked-to 
the bow, he sprayed-water-with-his-mouth on it. (3) Then he gave it to another 
person, the other person worked-on-and-talked-to it also. In that manner they 
handed it round from one to another. (4) This is how they always did, whatever 
the child had killed for the first time. That is how it was. That is the way the In- 
dians did it. 

2. Had he eaten what he had killed for the first time, he would not have been 
able to kill anything again. That is why he never ate what he had killed for the first 
time. 



i'-me' hit'cu"nihi-'ye, dH-i'fya'lt, ilha'lqa'imat'i"ni ye"it, nu'we-'-me' gu-s- 
le'u hit'cu"nihi'ye, gu-s-di-'l le'i't itya'lt, byi-dH, i'n-idze"dzis. (1) la'u-t'a'm-a 
i-ilhe'wye hi'l-dH irya'Tt. la'u le-x-hethe-'de la'u t'ci'li-'ya't le'lkwe'ne"en, tsu'- 
ta'm-a-pa'ut. la'u x-gu-'s-wu't-paut. (2) la'u ye-e'n-paut, la'u i'n-ye--nu"we-- 
di-'l. la'u i'n-u'we-' djindji'nye'qhem. la'u il-u"da-'ya. (3) la'u i'-i'ni-'x ilklu'wit, 
la'u iltsxa"u'wat, na'im i'n-helxe'u-dH, i'n-hel'e'ikit'c. 

4. 

1. le-he-'-niye x-we'ntc-he le-me-' yu-we-dji'lye tsxa'u-'wa't la-x-a"la le'ule'u 
yu'-we-ilwu'txe cdlu'wawas he' c'e'lec. a'yu'-he tci-' hit'cu"nihi-'yeu-me'n. (2) 
kVi-hs'u ga-'is-a'me, tci' he-' gu-s-dji-'tc ilge'nedje"ni. tsu-' hs-x-ilxqa'in sga'ts 
le-'kwa-'xat'l, tsu' he-'-xege' t'lxi-'nit le'-x-ilxqa'in, tsu'-he-tci' c'a'lcit le-'kwa-'- 
xat'l, tci'-hs- bibci"naqX (3) tsu'-he- tVm-a ya'a'i mihe'ndetc ku'wi-'ya't, helt'- 
he-'-x-ya'a'i-me' la'u-c'a'lcit. x-we'ntc he-' i'1-a'a'iwat. (4) gu-s-mi'letc yaga'- 
x-wentc, di-l-i"la x-hi-'me tsxa'u-'wat. yege'-x-we'ntc. x-we'ntc heme-'djis le-me-'. 

2. ya'-q"m3ts lelyu'wu'nt tsxa'u-'wat, la'u i'n-as-u-'l tsxa'u-'wat. we'ntc- 
dil le'we le'u i'n-^msts b'l tsxa'u-'wat. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 67 

5. When children picked their first berries 

1. The children also went, they went berry picking with their mothers, her 
child also accompanied her when she went berry picking. When she (the child) had 
filled her basket, she covered it. (2) "What will I do now, mother? I'll eat them, 
for I have filled my basket." "Oh no you must not eat them." Her mother watched 
her then, lest she eat them. (3) When they got back home, they gave her a little 
pan. "Put a few of them in this here." They watched her constantly indeed, so 
that she did not eat a single one of them. She had to give them away. (4) Then 
the old people (said), "Hm. You will become an old old person. You feel sorry for 
the old people. May the people's father watch over this good child! Make her be- 
come an old person." 

2. "Why was it, mother? that you did not want me to eat the berries?" "Oh 
you might have had a boil." That is the way they spoke to the children. 

3. That's all of that. 

6. Conferring a name on a child 

Now a child's parents spoke thus, "We will name our child." "Good." They 
assembled all the people when they were going to name their child. (1) So everyone 
came who was invited. Then they cooked all sorts of things that could be cooked. 
Now the people came together. Now they were going to name their child. (2) 
When they finished eating, the (mit'e-'din) shaman called out its name. "We will 
give this name to the child." Then he pronounced a dead person's name. (3) Ev- 
eryone knew that that was its name, that dead person's name. That is how (it 
was done). 

5. 

1. li-hi-'me yu'-we-his-xe'-la, ye'-he-e"netc-la gu"wut, la'u-his-la"a'la wuT- 
im gu"wut. la'u i-ba"ats le-ta-'utau cdji'mt'ldze. (2) "tci'tcu-hantl naxa'lal, 
ni-'ka? hi'-hantl ndlu-'wi'wa't, na-'im ba-'ts n'tautau." "i'n en-ha'ntl-hi-'-dmats!" 
la'u luda'ya lex-e"netc, heki-'-lu-qmats. (3) i'-ilwu'txe, la'u-t'ce'il-ni'yux u a- 
tsa"tsi-m. "tsixdi-' ni'ct'ci-'tc xt'ru"de." a'yu-'-he la'u lut'i-'te-m-he, a'yu-'-he- 
i'n yixe'i-qmats. atsi"yat'-he'. (4) a'yu'-he le-ta'm-e-t'le-me', "hm---. eti-'-mil- 
hantl. ti'm-e-t'le ekwi-'na'ya. he-x-me'u-ma'a'nyas ehi"da'ya-hantl di-taVi 
a"la! t'i'mil-ha'ntl aha-'uwi'wa't." 

2. "tci-'tcu-hs'l, ni-'ka? di-le'u s'n-du-wa-'ya nigu-'t?" "s-'- le'u eWgwe'- 
l't's'e'u-'." we'ntc-hs- il'i"lt k-hi-'me. 

3. tsu'-tsi-le' u . 

6. 

tsu'-wentc 7a-'la"ni le-' ala'u ma'a'nyas, "H'nli'nsdza-ha'ntl la-a"la." "la'- 
7-i." gu-s-me-' he'-hitchit'ce'ws'yu yantle-'we le'u lili'nsu la-a"la. (1) a'yu-' he' 
yege'-x-wentc gus-wu't-he- gwi-gwa"yu. a'yu'-he q'mi"ittsu gu-s-di-'l 6 1 mi' t ya.ms. 
a'yu-'-he- hit'cu"nihi-'ye le-me'. tsu'-hantle-'we lili'nsu la-a"la. (2) i-e-'wi dlu-'- 
wawasa'men, tsu'-he- i'lx^ain le'u k'a'lt le-li'n-as. "lin'a'tsa-hantl li'yeli'n-as la- 
a"la." a'yu'-he-let'ci'm le'-eqe'u-li'n-as. (3) gu-s-wu't-le'u kwa'a'nya le'-leu 
lili'nsu, le-'li'n-as le-e'qe x-we'ntc. 



68 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

7. tla'icta — lifting the proscription on eating fresh things 

When a person handled a corpse, he did not eat fresh things. But when the 
shaman (mit'e-'dan) had placed it in his mouth, then he could eat fresh things (again) . 
(1) If he had handled a corpse, he would not eat herring. But when the shaman 
had placed it in his mouth, then he could eat it (again). 

8. Nasal discharge wealth encounter-power 

"When you encounter a dead person, who is crying, when you see it is crying, 
you go to there, you wipe its nose. You will become wealthy, if you wrap up the 
nasal discharge." (1) That is the way they tell their children. It is a very great 
thing if you see a dead person cry like that. 

9. Birds fight the moon, eclipsing it 

The great chief of the food (is) the food's father. It is moon who works for 
him. Should there be just no food at all, all the winged ones go to there (fly up to 
the moon), they war on him, they fight him, that is how (they do). (1) When they 
defeat him, then indeed that is how there is a quantity of food. When they (the 
people) see the winged ones fighting there (i.e., the birds producing the moon 
eclipse), then the people make noises and racket, they shoot upwards, they halloo 
(to the birds upon the moon), when the people see the winged ones fighting it. 
That is what they recount concerning the moon. 



yi-me-' eqe-' c'a'lcit, la'u i'n-dze'hes dlu-'wi'wa't. tsu' x-mit'e-'din tla'icta, 
tsu' dzehe's qma'ts. (1) i'-sqe' c'a'lcit, la'u i'n-k w 'e'k w dlu-'wi'wa't. tsu' x-mi- 
t'e-'din tla'icta, tsu' lu- dlu'wi'wa't. 

8. 

"ye'-eqe et'lxi'nxit, la'u ge'Lt, le'u ye'-ekwa'naiwa't ge'Lt, la'u tci-' e'l-a, ta' 
exwa'ntlat. le'u ehe'di-'ye, s'ma'iya'dza le-'xwa'ntlis." (1) x-we'ntc he-' il'i'lt 
le-hi'me. he'm-is-di-'l i-lu-e-'kwna'iwat ge'Lt le-e'qe. 



he-he'm-is hethe-'de le-kwa'n-yau he-kwa'nyau ma'a'nyas. la'u x-dkrhwa'- 
'is le'u-c'a'lcit. leu i'-ke-kwa'nyau ga-'is, la'u gus didje-'nen ntlbi'n-e-'-di-l tci-'- 
il-a, la'u ilma'ha'iwa't, la'u-illdji"t, la'u-a"yu. (1) i'-iltga'ts, la'u-a"yu na-'nt- 
kwa'nyau. la'u i-ilkwa'naiwa't le'leu ldji"t le'-x-ntlbi'ne-'-dil, la'u ilsa'Tt le-x- 
me', ilkwa'n-i'Va't, ilk'e'1-it, i'-lau-ilkwa'naiwa't le'-x-me- le'leu-ldji'^t le'-x-ntl- 
bi'ne-'-dil. x-we'ntc laga'wididi"ya le'-dlu-hwa"is. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 69 

10. When stars change position; meteors 

1. "A star changes its place," that is how the people speak of it when it flies 
over to another place. 

2. If it flies over and goes as if it has fallen to the ground, then this is how 
they speak, "Oh a headman is going to die." That is what they say, when it looks 
as if it falls to the ground. 

11. The dangerous fish which poisoned people and things and 

turned them to stone 52 

1 . Since the commencement of the land, since that time the people have seen 
those wonderful rocks. All kinds of things are imbedded there, just as if all those 
kinds of things were gathered together there. (2) Bones and people were (as if) 
gathered there, some of them in the very way (posture) in which people cook. 
Children were there also like that, (as if) in baby baskets. Their food was (as if) 
standing against the walls, their cooking stood by the fire. (3) There were some 
dogs lying there like that, some other dogs were standing up. And some people 
were (as if) lying out in the sun, some others were as if about to commence eating. 
That is the way it appeared, when they were fixed there. (4) The people had turned 
to rock, when they were there. Their canoes were beached there. Many of their 
canoes had some things in them. Some had paddles athwart them, others had some 
of their paddles hanging from the sides. (5) This is what the people said. "Maybe 
they had eaten something such as a dangerous poison fish. That dangerous poison 



10. 

1. yu-'mi su'di'tsi-t'lda, we'ntc he-' il'i"lt le'-x-me' yu'-we-xne"dits. 

2. la'u-i-xne"dits ta-'-gwa-t'lda'a-'tc tu-'yat', le'u we'ntc-he- ii7a'la"ni, "u-'- 
hethe-'de ca'ntl lege'uwe." we'ntc-he- il'i'Tt yu'-we gwa'-t'lda'a-'tc tu-'yat'. 

11. 

1. le'-t'lda-dji'^yuwetc, t'a'm-iduwetc la'u kwna'iwat le-x-me' le'-djule-'yet'l 
k w li"yix. gu-s-didje-'nen-di-l tci'-lau sg'dle-t'l, ha'ts-gwa-tsi--tci-' le'u hit'cu"ni- 
hi-'ye le'-gu-s-didje-'nen-di-l. (2) le-'-la"mak le-me-' tci-'-lau ye-t'cu-'we'ni, he- 
e'stis tci-'tcu cda'-we-da la-me'-qmiya'midu'waq. x-we'ntc tci-'-lau ta-ha'm-a 
le-hi-'me, la'u n3bi"ile. la'u tiki'ni-m le'lkwa'n-yau, le'lqmi' t yams la'u-li'm-yim 
le-'ntcwe'l. (3) x-we'ntc k w 'yu's gu-'s-le'u he-e'stis wele'xei, he-e'stis digi"ne le'- 
k w 'yu's. ta'-le-me-' la'u-gu-s-la'u he-e'stis gwa-ban-a'qai, he-e'stis gwa-ma-'ntc 
dlu'wu'dlu'wai. we'ntc e-x-kwi'nautc, i'-lau-tci--se-'t'li. (4) k w li'yi'x-ey-e-he'-me, 
i'-lau-tci-i'l-ta. le-'l'i'x tci'-lau-si'nyim. na-'-nt le-'l'i'x he-e'stis n9ga'lsa. he- 
e'stis he-tca'ma di'm-yim, he-e'stis mi'l-e-'t'i he-e'stis le-'ltca'm-a. (5) le'u-we'ntc 



62 0n the beach called Fossil Point, at the old Barker place and near the present Barview auto 
camp across from Charleston, there used to be a number of rocks curiously water worn. The In- 
dians thought them effigies of persons, canoes and other things that had been turned to rock at 
some ancient time. The whites ruined the site which had long been left unmolested by the natives. 
I am indebted to Mr. W. Egbert Schenck whose curiosity about the place induced me to ask Mrs. 
Peterson to tell what she knew about it. 



70 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

fish was the only thing that caused death, when that sort of thing was eaten. Then 
they just got stuck to it" (to this ogre fish). (6) That is what the people said. 
"That is what they must have eaten. That is why they got attached there from that 
time on." However they really did not know that it was indeed that, that (had 
caused that) the people had been fastened to there after that time. (7) The people 
explained it in that manner, when they spoke about the people who had become 
stuck there (turned to rock there) after that. "It must be that they had eaten that 
kind of dangerous poison fish. (8) The father of the people was the one who no 
longer wanted that sort of thing (poison fish), because that old man had tried to 
kill him with that sort of thing. That is why the father of the people did not want 
it. Since that time there are no more of those poison fish." (9) The people say that. 
That is why so many people adhered there with the rocks. To the people it was 
wonderful to see all those things stuck there, just as if melted there. That is the 
way the people spoke of it. 

2. Now that is all I know of that. 



he'-i'lt le-x-me-'. "di-'l-gwe'n yuwu't's stfotsa-'waq" ild/ma'ts. hi-'-tlen-we laga'- 
wa'yims le'-stfotsa-'waq, i'-hi-ma-dmi-'yu. ha'ts-dH-dje-'tc me-'-st'H." (6) we'ntc 
he'-il'i"lt le-x-me'. "lu-gwe'n ilqWts. na-'-hi'ni'-ilsdli"ye." na'im-il-i'n-lcwa- 
'a'nya le'le w -x-dji-tc, le'lau-hi"ni sdli"ye le'-me'. (7) le'u we'ntc he-' il7a-"la'ni 
le'-me-', yu'-we-lau-il7a"lt hi"ni' me'-sdli"ye. "hr-cgwe'n ikifma'ts le'-stfotsa-'- 
waq. (8) k'ule-x-me'u ma'a'nyas xege-'-hen-lau yada'im hr-ha'uwi'wa't, na'im- 
hi-we'tc duwa'ya tsxa'u-'wat le-x-tu^'mit'L ls'u-wentc-dH lsla'u i'n-duwa-ya 
le-x-ms'u ma'a'nyas. t'a'm-iduwe'tc-ke'-l-u le'-stfotsa-'waq." (9) tsi-he-ws'ntl 
il'i"lt ls-x-ms'. le-tci-'-yu-na-'nt-me sa'dle-'t'l k w li'yi'xe-tc. dju-'le-'yet'l-hen 
le'-x-me' i / -lau-kwna"ya^ham gu-'s-di-'l tci-'-S9'dletl, ha'ts-gwa-tsr-tci-'-xsa'Lda't. 
we'ntc he-' il'i'lt le'-x-me'. 

2. tsu'-tsi-le'u nekwa'a'nya. 



ETHNOLOGIC TEXTS IN MILUK 

1 . Adultery before marriage 

Long ago (this was) the custom of the people, their way of doing. If they 
thought a young woman, perhaps (with) a young man whom they thought (too) 
was doing something wrong (having illicit relations) , then the person whose daugh- 
ter it was would ask his daughter. If she said nothing, he would cut (with a knife) 
just a little on her face. Then she would say, "No one has done anything to me." 
"Do not lie! I might kill you (if you lie)." If indeed she had done nothing, she 
would continue to speak thus. (2) But other young women, if they said nothing, 
even though cut all over, they would continue to say nothing. Then they would 
know (she was guilty) because she had not spoken. That is how they would do to 
young people. (3) If she spoke thus, "He was only talking to me. He did not bother 
me," then he would send a person to the house of the youth, and tell his parents. 
Then if he (the father of the youth) would speak thus, "I will ask my child," and 
they would fetch in the youth. (4) If he said so, and his father (said) thus, "Tell 
the person whose daughter it is," (the messenger would ask) "Do you want the 
woman?" If he said, "I want her," he bought her (in marriage). (5) But if that 
was not done, if moneyless, if they could not get any money, they (the family of 
the girl) would cut off his ears and his nose. Sometimes his paternal aunt or any 
relative would pay for his life. That is why the people did not do things like that, 
because it was very big (serious) to do that. (6) That is why young people did not 
talk together alone. Sometimes if both were children of very-well-to-do people, 
and the father of the girl would go to there, and they had no money (temporarily, 



tls-he-'niys'-ka^-data-'ma-'lis, tli-ilhidji'mil-didja-'ni"was. wi'-yu-we'n-dji'n- 
djinyeqhem tli-hi'me hu'me-ke, yuwu't's hi-'me de'mil wi'-il x-ws'n-djindjina 
dji'-aN-hu-dzida, wi'-kwi--du tla-ka"-n9gwa'icdja wi'-mitcmi'n-a't'c tla-dagwa-'ya. 
(1) wi'-ya-a'N-tli, wi'-gi'gwa^-kta'-he'luda. wi'-we-'n-tli, "ma'-wu-a'n-x-wi' dji- 
xaldu'n." "a'n-hewe-senu'wiyix! tsu"wa"mi-'nax." wi'-ya-a'yu-a'N-dji-xa'ltim, 
wi'-ma'-x-we-n-i'lat. (2) wi'-tfe-e'sti'sda tli-hi-'me-hu'me-'l£s, wi'-ya'-a'N-tli, 
ma''yuk-gu-'s-idja'u-ilkta', wi'-ma-a'N-tli. wi'-kwa-'ni'yada'il na'im-a'N-tli. x- 
we-'n-il-du-wa-'tsa tli-hi-'me'-ka'. (3) wi'-i-x-we-'n-tli', "x-a-'yu-wi'-kxi'wun'yeis. 
tsi-u-ge-a'N-t'swu'li-'n," wi'-tsu-du-t'a'ma ge^-lca'-wu'lxi'yu tl9-di-'lul-d9'ye"'dz9dje, 
wi'-gwgsgu-'yu tb-da'ma-'ni'ya's. wi'-yu-ws-'n-tli, "mant'ct-wa'ntl kwa-'niki'l- 
ga," wi'-a-'yu-ditdji'yu tla-di-'lul. (4) wi'-i'-wa-"nu, wi'-we-'n-tfo-daYle, "sgu-'- 
ya'-nantl kw9-ka rt nagwa'icdja," "wi'-du-'ha'yani'i' ehu-'mis?" wi'-yu-wa^'nu, 
"du-'ha'ya'wi," wi'-tla-'wi. (5) wi'-ya-a'N-x-ws-n'name, ya-a'mi-hada'i'mis, a'n- 
x-dji tle'-hada'i'mis ga'lam, wi'-ge'-o.xe'yu tl9-dak w ha'nas tta-dafe'n-ex. wi'- 
yuwu't's at'a-'dads-'dje ma'-wucdje'u halqa'imadSa wi'-x-kwi'-sgitu'wat'a. x-we-'n 
tle-ka" tla-kwi'-a'n-x-we-n-ditc-dzr'ya, na'im wa-'ga tli-ildidja-'ni'wa-s. (6) 
ws-'n-ditc tle-x-tca'n7a tta-kwi a'N-idja'u mi-'t'ci 7a-'la-'nu tli-hi-'me-'-ka'. yu- 
wu't's-itc-mi's-a ye-hsthe-'de-ka'^-dihi-'me, wi'-il-ge'^-la'yu'wa th-x-hu-'mis-dSa- 

(71) 



72 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

perhaps from gambling losses recently), he would kill the youth. (7) Then the fath- 
er of the youth would kill the girl also. That is what the people did. That is why 
they were afraid of that. 

2. The kind of wife to select 

When you desire a wife watch out carefully for yourself. If a woman does not 
look at people, never smiles, looks down all the time, appears as if she does not want 
to see people, she will be no good as a wife. (1) She is like a channel, that is what 
she is like. (She is) tricky in all sorts of things, (she is) no good. But she who is a 
good child and going to become a good wife, she is not bashful, she jokes, she speaks 
forth when you address her. (2) She speaks and jokes, she looks you right in the 
face, not with downcast head. That is the kind you should get. She will be a good 
wife. (3) She will not be tricky even though she may joke a lot. She will be a good 
wife. A bashful one is no good and (is) tricky. 

3. Marriage negotiations 

1. When people were friends, and that one had a child, and the other one had 
a child too, and then when they came to there to their friends, they both had chil- 
dren. The one had a boy child, the other had a girl child. (2) Then this was what 
the person with the boy baby said. "Let our children be man and wife. I will give 
you this much." If he wished it that way too, he said, "Very well indeed!" (3) So 
then he paid for the (girl) child, and now the children were indeed man and wife. 
That is how the little people were married. This is why the parents remained there 



Vie, wi'-a'mi-ilhada'i'mis, wi'-i-tstr'tsu tta-diki'lga. (7) wi'-helt' tle-x-di-'lul-da- 
Yle x-kwi'-hslt'-tsa-'u tfo-gwe'is. we'n-iltsa-'wa u tle'-x-ka'\ we-'n-ditc tH-il-kwi- 
a'lqsa. 

2. 

i-nantl-hu'mas-du-'ha'ya lu-'dgda-'ya-nantl-nit'e. yu-hu-'mis a'n-ka-xi'lat, 
a'mi-xwi'yes, gu-s-mi'n gsdle-'n ka-'yim, a'N-du-'ha'ya ka"-ha'maq\ wi-' a'N- 
we-n-hu-'misi-'de. (1) dji-'xa-kwi-ci't'cdi, hs'ni-kis-gwa'-hu. ga-'l-dine-'djis t'smi-'- 
xwn, a'N-we-n. wi'-i-ke-'le-hi-'ms ke-'le-hu-'misi-'ds, wi'-a'N-djilt'sdu, negs'ne-'- 
dje, isga"-tli i-nkxidi'ya'ysis. (2) yisga n -gegs'nedje-'ni'we, wen-he / ldje--neb.£'me-- 
qein, a'n-kme-'nen. kwr-ha'ntl-kwa-naga'lam. ks-'le-hu-'mis-hantl. (3) an-ha'ntl- 
t'smi-'xwn ma'i-yu-kwi-ga-'l-dage'ne'tc. wi'-l^e-'le-hu-'mis-hantl. wi-i-dji'lt'sdu- 
wi'-aN-we-n t'smi-'xwn. 

3. 

1. i-du-e'ikit'cinu-'-ka, wi'-kwi-niki'lgadi-'yeq^ wi'-his-tli-ma-'-nilfi'lgidi-'- 
yeq, wi'-i-il-ge"-dji'ni / yam tli-ildi'e'ikit'ci'dje, wi'-masa'-nihi-'me-'de. wi'-hit'ci' 
di'lu't'l-dSaki'lga, wi'-thi-ma-' wi'-gweVl£-daki'lga. (2) wi'-we-n-tli' tb-ka' di- 
'luYl-diki'lga. "kwi-'-ha'ntl hu-msi'n-u di-'snahi-'me. we-'s-nantl-ni'ya'mi." 
wi'-his-kwi'-wen-chr'ha'ya, wi'-wa"nu, "a-'yu-hantli'!" (3) wi'-a'yii-gwa'lqns 
tb-ki'lga, wi'-a'yu-hu-'msin-u'wiye tli-hi-'me. x-ws-'n ditc-tk-s-'ki'lr-ka' hu y m- 
si'n-u. x-we'n-ditc-du tb-da'ma-'ni'yas yuwu't's adzu'-mit'i'yadis da^-dle-'geq, 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 73 

perhaps two months, the parents of the boy. (4) The children could be together, 
and they could play together indeed. That is how they grew up. Maybe the father 
of the girl stayed there at the place of the boy's parents (also). (5) They might 
stay together there perhaps for three months. That is how they had them grow 
up. Indeed they became in love with each other when they played together. The 
mother of the girl would speak to her in this manner, and likewise the boy (would 
be spoken to by his mother). (6) This is how his mother spoke to him. "She is 
your wife. When you grow up she will be your wife." That is how she spoke to 
her child. Then indeed they would not be bashful towards one another, because 
they had grown up together. (7) That is why they had them play together. In- 
deed they already liked one another. They were not bashful towards one another, 
when they delivered his wife to him, because they knew each other. That is the 
way such people got married. 

2. When the delivered girl was brought to her husband, and when the father 
of the girl was about to return home, he gave some money to the person whose 
son it was. Then he (that person) understood why the money was given him by 
the person whose daughter it was. (2) Now then indeed strongly he (the father of 
the boy) gave money (he at once presented double that quantity) , from that point 
there he gave a considerable (double) quantity of money (in return, as additional 
bride price) , because he realized that he (the father of the girl) had not been satis- 
fied at heart with the price (initially paid) for his daughter. But now indeed (when) 
it was made good that way, then he (the father of the girl) did go back home. 



tl3-di"lu / t'l-d3ma-'ni'yas. (4) hi't'cu'wi'i-'de tli-hi-'me, wi'-a'yu-alicani-'da. 
we-'n-itc-du ha-"wi'yam. yuwu't's tl3tc-gwe"ek:-d3 , 6 / le ge"-dlu-'gwa tfo-di"lu't'l- 
da'sle-'djintc. (5) yuwu't's psi'nl-mit'i'yadis da'-ilhi't'cu"wi dle'gsq. we'n-x- 
we-'n ha-'wi'yam. wi'-a'yu su-'ltdzi'meu yu-kwi / -hi't'cu"wi alica-'ni-'da. x-we-'n- 
i'ldwa tb-dex-e'ne tla-gw^'ek:, wi-'-his-tte-di'lu'tl. (6) x-we-'n i'ldwa tfo-dex- 
e'ns. "hu-'mi'sna. i-nantl-he-'wi wi'-kwi-na'hu-mis." ws'n-i'ldwa tfo-diki'lga. wi'- 
a-'yu a'N-djiTt'si-da'me 11 , na'im-hit'cu"wi ha-"wi'yam. (7) x-we'n-ditc-du tfo- 
kwi-alica-'nu'wa-'wa. a-'yu'-itc mansir'ltdi'nu. wi'-an-i'tcdji-'lt'si-'da'me 11 , i-hs'- 
hsmi'ldju tfo-dahu-'mis, na'im-itc mit'sisi'n-u. tsu'-ma^-we-n-tK-ildahu-'misasa-'- 
ni'was. 

2. i-du-he'mildjiu tle-he'miltc, yi-wa'si'i-'de tb-da'e'le tfo-gwe'is, wi-' hada'i- 
'mis du-ni'ya tfo-lca' ndb'lweldje. wi'-kwa-"niyada-du x-dji' tb-kwi'-hada'i'mis- 
ni'ya tla-x-ka'-nagwa'icdja. (2) wi'-ma-'tsi li'n-wi-du-bi'ya tb-dahada'i'mis, 
x-ge't-du-li'n-wi ga-'l ni'ya tb-dahada'i'mis, na'im-du-kwa-'ni'yada'aya tfo-du- 
kwi'-a'N gsdjs-'nen-di'lu'we tl9-d3gw9 / l-a'q w tb-dagwa-'ya. a-'yu'-du ke-'le-x- 
we'n, tsu'-du-t'a'ma-wa's-i. 



74 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

4. Imparting sexual knowledge after the marriage payment 

1. When they had purchased the girl, and when she was to be taken to her 
husband, this is what her mother would say to her. She would tell her child, "What- 
ever your husband will want of you, that is the way you are to do it. (2) When he 
will want to get on top of you, and he wants something (intercourse) of you, you 
accede to that. All people do it like that when they get wives. (3) They are all 
like that, because everybody does it. It will hurt a person the first time only. 
After that there is no hurt (pain) any more. ' ' That is the way she spoke to her daugh- 
ter. (4) Indeed that was how it was when she was delivered to her husband. Just 
as her mother had told her, so she did. 

2. "When your wife will be fetched, you must not be bashful before her. 
That is how it must be. When you go to bed with her you will climb on top of her, 
and then you will attempt copulation." That is the way a man spoke to his son. 

(2) That is how he advised him. "When you feel something queer (an orgasm) 
when you copulate with her, that is how it feels as if queer. Then you must not 
get away (withdraw), you will want to (as if) urinate, and then you will ejaculate, 
you will not quit. (3) When finished with the queer feeling, then you may quit. 
That is what you have wanted to get a wife for." 

5. Excessive sexuality caused loss of strength and beauty 

1. This is what they would tell them (to young men). "You should not be 
on top constantly (indulge in too frequent sexual intercourse) . If you desire copu- 
lating all the time, you will not be good (healthy) long, your back will become no 
good, it will always be like (pulling) strings. You will lose your beautiful-red-head- 
ed-woodpecker-scalp-feathers (your beauty and virility), if you do it like that all 

4. 

1. i-du-thrthi'yu tfo-gwe'is, wi'-i-du-hehe'mildju'wi-'de, wi'-x-en-s-du-'-du- 
we'n-i'ldwa. wi'-sgu-'ya du'-tta-dikTlga, "dji-'-nantl-du'hidu-n tla-nex-de-'mil, 
ma-na'ntl-du-x-we-'n. (2) i-nantl-gwa-'niyu-ne du-'ha'ya xi'n-i"yim, wi'-i-nantl 
ge'-dji' ndu'hidu-n, wi'-ma-na'ntl-tlqe'". gu-'s-ka'^-x-we-n i-du-ka"-hu-'msiyu. 

(3) wi'-gu-'s-i'l-x-we-n, na'im-du-gu-'s wi"-wa-ndi-da. he'le'yu-tlantl kwa-du- 
ka'-qa'la". da'-qlamniyu an-du'-da-s-xe'nwas." x-ws'n-du-i'ldwa tb-dagwa-'ya. 

(4) a'yu'-du-ma^-we-'n i-hshc'mildju. wi'-dji'-tte-dsx-e'ne i'ldwa, ma^-x-we-'n. 

2. "yantl-dji'ndji-nu kwa-nahu-'mis, an-a'ntl-djilt'sa-'ya- we-'n-ditc-du. 
i-nantl-tsu-'wi"ya wi'-xi'ndidza-'ma-nantl, wi'-heidzitc-nantl du-'ha'ya." x-we'n- 
du-i'ldwa th-x-de-'mil tla-dadtaTwe. (2) we'n-du-baha'na'naya. "ma'i-nantl- 
gw£-x-dji"-naqa / utc i-nantl-hatsha'ya, wi'-gwantt-x-ws'n naqa'utc. wi'-ma- 
na'ntl an-i-'ge', an-a'ntl pi'n-ti'mi-'de, tsi'-nantl-tlga-'t's, ana'ntl-e-wi. (3) tsu'- 
gwi-gu'mt'u, tsu"-ne'e-'wi. tsi'-du-lu'wide ku-hu-'mis-gaga'lmu." 

5. 

1. we'n-il-du-i'ldwa. "a'n-a'ntl-du-ma-'tsi-ge-xi'n-i'ymi- i-na-gu-'s-mi'n- 
hr-du-'ha'ya, gu-s-mi'nehetshe'its, wi'-an-antl-he-'niye-ke-'ls, nts'a'i-na'ntl a'nya- 
ke-'le, gu-s-mi'n-hantl-du-gwa'-t'cidjs-'tc. kxu-'nam-na'ntl-nala'gwat, i-nantl-ha' 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 75 

the time. (2) You will not be many years (of age), before you will be no longer 
able to hold (use) your back. That is why you should not be intensely fond of 
copulating all the time." 

2. They also told that to young women. "If you are not a trickster (too fond 
of sexuality) you will not lose your red-headed-woodpecker-scalp-feathers (your 
beauty). If you want your husband constantly on top of you, it will not be long 
before you will be ugly and lose your red-headed-woodpecker-scalp-feathers. (2) 
And that is why your breasts too will not stand erect, they will hang down. Your 
body will be good no more, if you have wanted too much of that all the time. " That 
is why they did not do it all the time, because that was what they feared. 

6. Character and health predictable by the time of the month when born 

If a baby was born, this is what was said. "It is born in the dark of the moon. 
Then (it will have) no strength, (it will be) always sickly. (1) And not a moon 
(i.e., when full moon), he (will) grow rapidly. When the child is born then, (it will 
be) strong, not lots of various things (i.e., not bad things like crying). (If it is born 
during) a dark moon, then you do not know that it might not be a tricky one." 

7. Baby's cradle was hung from a limb of a tree 

When they camped, wherever they were camping, when they built a fire close 
to a tree there, and the branches were low, they would hang the baby in its cradle 
from them there. Somebody would rock the cradle, (singing) (1) "Be still! don't 
cry! The wind will blow, it will shake you, and that will make you sleep." That 
is how they spoke to their baby. Indeed it went to sleep, and there it hung from the 
limb of the tree. 

gus-mi'n wen-wa"nu. (2) a'iwa-nantl-a'n ni'ct'c idzi-'mis, ma'^-nantl a'N-dji 
yuxwu'na--nts'a'i. we'n-ditc kwa-nantl-a'N-gu-s-min he'its-nals-'t'c." 

2. hi's-du-hi-'me-hu'ms-ke il-ws'n-i'ldwa. "ya-a'N-t'smi-'xwn wi'-an-lcxu-'- 
nam-dala'gwat. wi'-yu-gu-'s-mi'n de-'milda-du-'ha'ya gwa-ni-'m xi'n-i'yim, a'n- 
he-niye ma'n-aya-tsam kxu-'nam-data'gwat. (2) we'n-his-tfo-daga-'t's a'nya- 
gwa-'n-ku-'yim, gsdls-'n-kwi-mi'le-t'i. a'nya-djimrdje ke'ls, ye-he'lt-ha gu-s- 
mi'n-hr-du-'ha'ya." we'n-ditc tli-il-a'N-gu-s-mi'n wa'ndi-da, na'im-il-kwi-a'lqsa. 

6. 

i-du-ki'lga-dji hwutlhwi'yu, wi'-wen du-i-'lte-m. "he'ndlu-dimiti'yadisitc 
hwutlhwi'yu. wi'-a'N-ti'm-H, gu-s-mi'n-xs'nwas. (1) wi / -tla /t -mit'i / yadis, la-- 
de'hews. wi'-i-tVma hwutlhwi'yu tli-ki'lga, wi'-ti'm-li, a'N-gal-da'ne-djis. he'n- 
dlis-mit'i'yadis, wi / -ani / dji-kwi- / -kwa- / 'ni'yada yuwu't's t'smi-'xwn." 



i-il-du-q w li-'yi, wi'-idja'Mlq'H-'ya't', wi'-il-da^-t'cile t'cici-'mil-dSane'lt'ce, 
wi'-ya-gaTa'-d3k w si', wi'-ge^-du-tsga'ya tli-ki'lga nabi-'li'yu. x-ma-'-du-la't'si'- 
du-tla-bi-'l, (1) "ma- / tsi-qa"wi! a'n-axat'si-'yax! x-qswe-'sis-na'ntl, li't'sadu-'n, 
wi'-x-kwi-na'ntl tlxwa'dasi-'mha'wi-'n." we'n-il-du-i'ldwa tli'-ildiki'lga. a-'yu'-du 
gwatqwi-'du, wi'-da^-du-dzaga'ga tl3'-k w si'yu. 



76 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

8. The care of nursing babies 

1. Until children were about one year old they still put them in the cradle, 
they tied them in it. When they had become a year old they did not tie them in 
so much more. Then children began to go (crawling) around. (2) That is the way 
children were. No matter how big they were their mother still bathed them. When 
the woman went for a bath (in a creek), she packed her baby along. She sat it on 
her clothes (as she bathed). (3) When she finished bathing she dressed, and then 
she gave a bath to the baby. Then she packed it and that was how they went back 
home. She set it down when they returned. (4) She began cooking, she was going 
to feed the baby. When it finished eating it became sleepy, she put it to bed (in 
its flat cradle) , and it could sleep any length of time. That is the way babies (were 
cared for). 

2. When it began to walk, now they (the parents) had sexual intercourse. 
The people feared for their children until then, because the children always became 
ill (if there were sexual intercourse). The people were extremely afraid of that. 
(2) (Until then) they never bothered their wives (sexually), if they had a small 
(nursing) baby, they did not do anything to (have sexual intercourse with) their 
wives, because they were extremely fearful. Maybe the child might die, when there 
was sexual intercourse. That is what they said. (3) They got a shaman. "Oh! it 
is no pain-power! there has merely been sexual intercourse!" That is what the sha- 
man said. Then the shaman doctored with the medicine (herb) for that. (4) They 
were so very much afraid of that, because if she had a boy baby while she was preg- 
nant, and maybe there was a girl baby (in her womb), while she had a boy baby, 
then terribly ill the boy baby (would be). And if (she had) a girl baby, and the 



8. 

1. tli-hi-'me tsu'-hit'ci' idzi-'mis-du da'-d9he-'niye'eis bi-'tadje-'-du, sexsi'mx- 
e'qhem. tsu'-du hit'ci'ye-di'idzi-'mis tsu'-du-a'nya-sexsi'mxe'qhem. tsu'-du- 
tVma ge"yuxwu'medi-'we tfo-hi-'me. (2) x-we-'n-du-tli-ildihi-'me. ma'i-du-tla- 
he-'wi ma-i'l-du-dzasdla'q. i-du-sdle-'qe la'<-tl3-hu-'mis, wi'-t'a-'mi'-du tla-di- 
ki'lga. wi-'-te-'tci'tcda du-dtagwa-'q w . (3) yi'-e-'wi-dasdle-'q wi'-t'lha'ts3m, wi'- 
helt'-sdla'q tta-diki'lga. tsu'-t'a'ma-t'a-'mi we'n-w8S-i"itc. tsu'-tVma dlugwi'ya 
i-itcwe-'st. (4) tsu'-t's'ma gaqmi'yat'i-'wa, x-we-'n-du wi'-qa'tsk tkvdilji'lga. i'- 
e-'wi dadlu'wa-'was wi'-yu-gwitqwi-'du, wi'-tsu-"ya, wi'-idje-'-dghe-'niye'eis we'n- 
dahe-'niye'es-ge-'ql. we-'n-du tli-hi-'me. 

2. i-du-n'tca'a-'yaq, wi-' tsu'-t'a'ma s'ya'ikit. tta-diki'lga lu-'-du tli-il'a'l- 
qsa tle'-x-ka", na-'yi'm-du xe'nxsnu tli'-kTlga. na'u-il-kwi-'-li'n-wi-a'lqsa tle'- 
x-ka'. (2) na'u-il-du-a'n-t'swa-'l tli-ilduhu-'mis, i-du-e'k-i'ldiki'lga, wi'-an-il-du 
dji-'-xa'li tli'-ilduhu'ms-'ke, na'im-li'nwi-il'a'lqsa. yuwu't's qa'ya u thVki'lga, 
i'-s'ys'iku. x-we-'n-il-du-iTat. (3) wi'-iTaxqain il-du--ga'la'm. 'V! a'N-x-kxa'M 
tsi'-s'yeiks-'kT' ws'n-du-iTat tla-iTa'xqain. wi'-a-'yu'-du lu'nu-'-du la-'li lu y - 
dile'litc tle-x-iTa'xqain. (4) a'N-huwe tli-iH'nwi-kwi-a'lqsa, na'im-i-di'lu't'1-di- 
ki'lga wi'-yi-mu'we'li'ye, wi-yuwu't's gwe'e'lf-diki'lga'a'ida, i-di'lu't'1-diki'lga, wi'- 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 77 

mother would become pregnant, and it would be that same way too (a boy in her 
womb) , terribly ill (the girl baby would be) . (5) But if it were also a girl with which 
she was pregnant, then it would not be so ill. And similarly with a boy, if the next 
one were (also) a boy, he would not become so ill. 

3. The reason they knew what was the sickness of a child, when it was (due 
to parental) sexual intercourse, (was that) it did not want to eat. Its eyes were 
constantly shut, and it was just as if without bones, just limp. That is how the 
people knew what the child was sick from, because it was nursing its mother, and 
that is how the sickness started, from the mother's breast. (2) That is how they 
knew when they were pregnant, then they no longer nursed their child, because 
it was from that they became ill. That is why they did nothing with their wives, 
sometimes for five years, maybe for three years. (3) Then they began to do it to 
their wives. Then the children did not become ill, if they were of that age. I do 
not know what their medicine was for pregnancy sickness, (or) what kind of weed 
medicine. 

9. People called to baby's "cry" to come along 

When they camped, and when they had a little baby, they would put it on a 
tree limb, the baby would hang from it there, and they would shake (rock) it. 
Then this is what they would say, "Don't cry. (1) The wind will shake you. Shut 
your eyes. Don't cry." That is what they said to their child when they sang for 
the baby. That was the custom of the people. (2) But when they were going to go 
they would call out to the baby's "cry." "Come along! come along! we are going 



H'n-wi-du-xs'nwas tfo-di"lu't'l-ki'lga. wi'-i-gwe"ek" tfo-kl'lga, wi-'-ya'ntl mu'l- 
tit'u'wa tla-dax-s'n-e, wi-'-his-kwi'-x-we'n, H'n-wi-du-xe'nwas. (5) wi'-i'-his-kwi'- 
gwe"ek ttatc-mu-'haltit'u'wa, wi'-aN-ha-xe'nwas. his-kwi'-x-we'n tla-di"lu't'l, 
i-di'lu't'l da-qla'mni'ya'wa, wi'-aN-li'n-wi-xe'nwas. 

3. an-du'-hu'we tli-il-kwi-'-kwa-"niyada tli-ki'lga tl9-kwi--xe'nw9S, i-du- 
s'ye'ike-'k\ wi'-aN-du-'ha"ya dlu"wi'yam. ma-'tsi t'le-'lel gu-'s-mi'n, we'n-ma-'- 
tsi gwa-a'mi-la-'mak, ma-'tsi-ka'lsisa-'nu. x-we-'n-ditc tle-x-ka' tla-kwi-'-kwa-'- 
'niya-'da x-dji' tli-ki'lga xe'nwas, na'im-du e'nedi-ga't'si, x-we-'n 1'a'itgm tfo-da- 
xs'nwe"es, tb-dex-s'ne-dgga-'t'sgtc. (2) we'n-ditc i-ilkwa-"ni'ya-da'a'ya tli-il- 
mu'wel, wi'-anya-ilga't'si tli'-ildi^i'lga, na'im-xge't tb-kwr-xs'nxenu. we'n- 
ditc tli'-il a'N-dji-xa'H tli'-ildahu-'mis, yu'wu't's gs'nt'ci'nsi idzi-'mis, yu'wu't's 
psi'nl idzi-'mis. (3) tsu'-il-tVma wa-'tsan tli'-ildahu-'mis. wi'-a'N-xenxenu tli- 
kYlga, yu-we-'n-diti'mel. an-u'mit'ssi'yada-ditc tla-s'ye'his dgle-'l, ditc-b'n- 
ik" tli-ild9le-'l. 

9. 

i-du-q w li'ya'ama, wi'-i-s-'k-diki'lga-ka, wi'-t'cci-'mil-dak^si-'dje, da"-du- 
tsga'ya-tli-ki'lga, wi'-lit'sdu-'du. wi'-x-we-'n-du-i-'lte-m, "a'N-axadzi-'yax. (1) x- 
qVwe-'sis-nantl lit'sa'dun. t'la'Hye naxwa'lxwal. a'N-axadzi-'yax." x-we'n- 
il-du-i'ldwa tli-ildiki'lga i-il-du-sa-'wa u . x-we-'n-tb-ka' tli-ildata-'ma-'lis. (2) 
wi'-gisgi'nt'hi'wi-'de wi'-k'al'i'l-du tli-lfi'lga-dads'ws 1 . "'e'^dji! 'e"dji! gisgint'lu'- 



78 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

to go on, 'cry'! Come along!" (3) The reason they hallooed to the baby's "cry" 
was that if it was not called to, then the baby would never cease crying. That is 
why they called out to the "cry." 

10. An undesired wife 

If (he was) a very rich person's child, even if he did not want his wife, she re- 
mained there nevertheless with his parents, her husband's parents. He merely got 
another wife. They called that woman an undesired one. (1) Maybe it was her 
husband's older brother, she would be given to his older brother, if he desired her. 
Or maybe the boy's mother's brother, maybe he would give her to him. If he did 
not want the woman, maybe when he had so (very) many wives, she might remain 
there nevertheless. (2) If her parents perhaps took back home their child, if a 
child of very rich people, if that is what they did, then sometimes they might fight 
over it. They might kill one another because of that. That is why they never 
made mock thus of the (rich) person's child, because they feared that. (3) Even if 
they did not want her they had her remain nevertheless. But he might not sleep 
with her there all the time, he was not enamored of her, but since she was a child 
of good (well-to-do) people, that is why they did not mock her (subject her to hu- 
miliation). They were afraid lest perhaps they be killing one another because of it. 



1-hantl, de'we". e rt dji!" (3) an-du'-huwe tH-il-du-kwi' k'a'lt tli-kTlga-dade'we 1 
ina-a'n-kwi --k'a'lt, wi'-an-tsa-'-du-e-'wi aq'a'xats tli-kTlga. x-we-'n-ditc tH-il- 
du-kwi '-k'a'L tla-dade'we'. 

10. 

i-du-tle-hethe-'de ka'^-dSahi-'me, wi-ya-a'N-du-'ha'ya tfo-dahu-'mis, wi'-ma- 
du'-da'-dlu-'gwa tfo-dama-'ni'ya-'satc, tta-dade-'mil-dama-'ni'yas. wi'-ma-'tsi du- 
ma'-hu-mis-ga'lam. wi-'-we'n-du-si'n-sa-'nu k w dli-'yen tla-hu-'mis. (1) wi'-yu'- 
wu't's tle-x-de-'mil-dahe't'le, kwi--du'-ni'ya tla-dahe't'le, yi-x-kuwi' du-'ha"ya. 
wi'-yuwu't's tla-dabu-'ye diki'lga, yu'wu't's kwi-'-ni'ya. ye-a'N-du-'ha"ya tfo- 
hu y mis, wi'-yu'wut's wi-'-ya-ga-'te'lya dSahu'me-ke, wi'-yuwu't's ma^-da'-dlu-'- 
gwa. (2) ye-x-ma-'ni'ya-'sda yuwu't's bi'ya-tta-daki'lga, wi'-hethe-'de-dihi-'ms, 
x-we'n-ilwa-'tsan, wi'-yuwu't's kwi-ye-'nu wu'lme u . wi'-yuwu't's kwi-yi'ml- 
qdla' kVdzi'ms u . x-we-'n ditc-tli'-il-a'N ka' 5 -dihi-'me we-'n-hu-'da-t, na'im-il- 
'e'lqs. (3) ma' t -il-a'N-du-'ha'ya ma' , -ildb'gwa'q. tsi'-a'N-gu-s-mi'n-ge' t -tsu-'- 
tsuwa 1 , a'N-dji-yu-kwi-'-k w dli'nan, na'im-kl'le- lca"-diki'lga, x-we-'n-ditc tli-il- 
kw r i' an-hu-'da-t. e'lqs'il yuwu't's-kwi-ye-'nu tsu-'dza'me". 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 79 

11. A rejected wife and her child 

1. When a woman was unloved (not slept with) that was extremely bad, 
because the children of the other wives all had nothing to do with it (with the child 
of the undesired woman). Some of the children of the husband did not like the child 
of the unloved woman. (2) It was not at all good, because his half brothers did not 
want him. Indeed such a thing was exceedingly bad. Sometimes the person (wom- 
an) who had that child returned home. Then when he grew up with his mother's 
people, he did not like his father. (3) And when fine people (well-to-do) had such 
an unloved woman who was their child, it was a big (serious) thing. They might 
have killed her husband for that, because they made an insult of it, when it was 
their child who was unloved, for he likewise humiliated his own child (and her 
child). Then possibly they fought over that, and they killed each other, when they 
did like that to it. 

2. When she was of very wealthy (or chieftains') people they (the husband) 
did not touch her if they did not desire her. Another would take the woman. 
Some other of his own relatives, sometimes his older brother, sometimes his father's 
younger brother's child, he would be the one to marry the woman. (2) Then indeed 
it would be all right. That is why they never touched her if they did not want her, 
because it was bad if it was a very wealthy person's child. That is why they did 
not want her to be an unloved woman, because they killed one another for such a 
thing. 



11. 

1. i-du-k w dli-'yen hu'mis wi'-H'nwi-du-a'N-kile, na'im-tta-dg-ma-'-hume-^e 
tla-kwi-yi'ml-hi-'me x-gu-s-i'1-du a'N-du-'ha"ya. x-e'sti's tta-de-'mil dahi'me 
an-i'ldu-'ha"ya tl9tc-k w dli-'yen ki'lga. (2) wi-'-H'nwi-a'N-kV'le, na'im-tte-dex 
qat'sa-'ma's hat'li'yadas an-i'1-du-du'ha'ya. a'yu'-du-ge-h'nwi a'N-x-wen. wi'- 
yuwu't's-wa's-i tta-ka'-kwr-daki'lga. wi'-ye-he-'wi tla-da'e'ne-dadji'nu, wi'-an- 
du-'ha'ya tte-daYl-e. (3) wi'-yi-kTle-ka' x-we-'n k w dli-'nen tfo-dilji'lga, wi-wa-'- 
ga-ditc-du. yuwu't's-kwi-ye-'nu-tsu-'tsu tla-de-'mil, na'im-hu-'dada-'was ilwa-'- 
wa, tfe-kwi-'-d9k w dli-'yen tte-dikTlga, ma'-his-ku'wi-hidji'm-il-kTlga ma"-kwi-- 
hu-'da-t-wa'wa. wi'-yuwu't's kwi-yi'ml-qdla 1 wulme'u, we-'n-ki-'dzi'meu, i-il- 
x-we-'n-wawa. 

2. na'u-ye-hethe-'ds-ka' an-i'1-du-na'xdi i-il-a / N-du- / ha"ya. x-ma' du-ga'- 
lam tfo-hu-'mis. ma'-x-kwi yi'ml-ditc, yuwu't's-x-het'le-'da, yuwu't's tb-ds'e- 
k-'-dami'tlgwa'la-dilfi'lga, kuwi'-kwiye-'-dahu-'mis. (2) wi'-a-'yu-ks-'le. x-we-'n 
na'u-il-du-a'N-t'swa-'laL i-ii-a'N-du-'ha"ya, na'im-a'N-we-n ye-hethe'de-diki'lga. 
we-'n-ditc tli-il-a'N-du-'ha'ya kwi'-i'ld3k w dli-'yen, na'im kwi-yi'ml-qdla* tsu-'- 
dzi'meu. 



80 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

3. If a very wealthy person's child returned home, and her child grew up 
there, she never wanted to marry. But if good (well-to-do) people wanted her, 
those whom they called very wealthy people, and if her father wished him (too), 
he would go and talk with his daughter. (2) Then if she would say, "Very well," 
then they would send a person yonder to her husband, and if he would say (also), 
"Very well," then that is what would be done indeed. He would be given back his 
money. (3) And then indeed his former relative (his former wife) would be married 
again, when they had given him back his money. But a very wealthy person, even 
if he did not want the unloved woman any more, would not want (back) his money. 
He did not want it, lest that humiliate his child (by his former wife). (4) That is 
why he did not want his money (returned). It indeed was what made his child big 
(i.e., rich and on a par with other well-to-do children), if he did not take back his 
money. Indeed no one could make light of his child, if it was that kind of a child. 
(5) And sometimes it would go back to its father, it would remain there for a while. 
Then it would return again to its mother. That was the custom of the people. 

12. A wife and children belonged to the husband's family and place 

When a girl had been bought (in marriage), and when she lived there (with 
the husband), she was no longer her parents' thing. Her husband's parents were 
like her own parents henceforth, just like her own people. (1) That was the way 
they were to their daughter-in-law, because she was no longer her parents' thing. 
When she had children, they adhered to their father's (side) there, to their father's 
people, they did not adhere to their mother. (2) They belonged to their father's 



3. ye-hethe-'ds-dihi-'ms yi-wa's-i, we'n-da-he-'wi tta-diki'lga, wi'-aN-du'-da- 
mal-du-'ha"ya. wi'-i-ki'le-ka" kwi-'-du'ha'ya, kwi'tc-x-we'n-le-t'ci-'m-ka'' het- 
he-'ds, wi'-i-du-'ha'ya tta-dex-e'H, wi'-kxi'di'ya'yeis tb-dagwa-'ya. (2) wi'-yu- 
wa-"nu, "ks'le," wi'-tsu-t'a'ma g£ /t -ka'*-txwi'ya tb-dade-'milidje, wi'-yu-wa'^nu, 
"ke-'le," wi'-a-'yu me'-x-we-'n. wi'-tsu'-tVma-yu-'du-nam. (3) wi'-a-'yu de'ml- 
tsam tb-danagwi'ye, wi'-ni'ni'yu tla-dahada'i'mis. wi'-hethe-'de-ka', ma"yuk w - 
k w dli'nan-hu-'mis, wi'-aN-du-'ha'ya tb-dahada'i'mis. a'N-du-ha'ya, x-kwi"yu- 
hu-'det tta-diki'lga. (4) wi'-x-we-'n-ditc tta-kwi'-aN-du-'ha'ya tta-dahada'i'mis. 
a-'yu'-du-x-kwi"yu' wa-'ga-ditc tb-diki'lga, ya-a'N-bi'yat'a tla-dahada'i'mis. a'- 
yu'-du-a'n-x-wi' kwi'-hu-'dat tb-diki'lga, wi'-tsu'-tle-x-we-'n-ki'lga. (5) wi'- 
yuwu't's-wa's-i tb-de'ele-'djintc, ha'ni-'c-du-da' t -dlu- / gwa. wi'-da-s-bi-'nat's 

e'ndjintcda. x-ws'n-tfo-ka /t -d3ta-'ma- / lis. 

12. 

i-du-thi-thr'yu tb-gws'is, wi'-i-du-ge"-dlu'q w siM, a'nya'-du tfe-dama-'ni'ya-s- 
daditc. tb-dade'mil-dama-'ni'yas kwi-'ye-'-du heni-'kis hidji'm-il-ma-'ni'ya-s, 
dji'-x-du'wa tfo-dax-mi-'disa-ma. (1) we-'n-il-du-wa-'wa tli-ildimidu-'n, na'u-du 
a'nya' kwi'ye-'-daditc tb-dama-'ni'ya-s. i-nahi-'me-'di-'yiq, wi'-tta-d9'sle"edju-'- 
wi ge^-ilt'ls-'yim, tH-ikb'sle-'-dSa'kaS a'N-e'ndjintc'ikfo-t'le-'yrm. (2) sh'djintc- 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 81 

people, and their mother also belonged to those people, because she had married 
there. That was the custom of the people, which they followed. (3) Even if the 
husband died, they stayed there anyway, because she could not take back her chil- 
dren to her parents, for they belonged to their father's place. That is why they never 
went back to their mother's place, because they did not belong to those people 
any more, when their mother had been purchased (in marriage). That was the peo- 
ple's custom. 

13. A husband must not see his wife nude 

1. A person, a straight person (i.e., a well-to-do woman), no one may ever 
look at her skin (i.e., genitals), even other women may not look at it. Even her 
very husband may not look at her something (genitals). (2) That is why a (well- 
to-do) person, if her own husband threw her down and saw her thing (genitals), 
that was a strong (great) insult. She would go back home to her parents. She would 
be asked, "Why have you come back home?" (3) "He insulted me. That is why I 
have come back home. He threw me down without my garments (covering me), 
and then he wanted to see my thing. That is why I have returned home." (4) "Oh 
very well indeed!" They sent a person to there. The intermediary went to there. 
He came back. "Humph! he says he will not pay for it!" (5) "Very well then! 
You will tell him that if he does not want to pay for it, we will fight it out, because 
he did it as an insult." That is how it was indeed. (6) They sometimes fought over 
that sort of thing. That is why it was a big (a terrible) thing if a husband did like 
that to his wife, and wanted to see her thing. It was an insult. That is why the 



'ilda gadi'ya-ka-il, his-tla-i'lda'e'ns wi'-his-ku'wi gadi'ya-ka'a'ya, na'yim-ge'- 
de'mltsim. x-we'n tls-ka" tli-ildSata-'ma-'lis, kwi'-iltlqVya. (3) na'u-du-ma'i 
qa'yau-dade-'mil, ma"-da'-dlu-'gwa, na'im-a'N-dji tfe-dama-'ni-'cdja bi'yat'a tfo- 
dahi-'ms, na'im-tli-ildeYls gadi'ya'il tta-ku'wi-t'lda-'ya-'s. we'n-ditc tli-il-du 
a'N-s'n-e-di't'lda'cdja aN-du'-ge"-wus9si'yam, na'im-a'N-da-s-gadi'ya-ka'*, i-thi-'- 
tlu'yii tli-ilde'e'ne. we-'n-tte-ka'-data-'ma-'lis. 

13. 

1. tb-ka", tb-t'li-'n-ka\ a'n-x-wi--kwi--ha / ma'q' tb-dadze-'t'Hs, ma'i-hume'- 
ke a'n-il-kwi--hamaq. wi'-in-de-'mi'le wi'-his-gu'ma tb-dex-de-'mil a'n-ha'maq 
tta-dama^-ditc. (2) x-ws-'n tb'-ka", ye-x-de-'milda'-ta-ts wi'-kla-'wi tb-dadi'tc, 
wi'-li'n-wi-hu-'dada-'wa-s. wi'-ma-'ni'ya-sdjada-wa's-i. wi'-yi-mi'nt'ci'yu, "dji'- 
ye't'ge-sna'we-'st?" (3) "hu-'didi-n'wi. ws-'n-ditc e'u'we-'st. a'mi-u-we't'l titsu-'n, 
ws'n-kwi-du-'ha'ya-ha'maq tb-'nadi'tc. x-we'n-ditc-du-u'we-'st." (4) "ke-'le'- 
y9k w !" a-'yu-du ka"-du-gs"-w9lxiyu. a-'yu-du-gs'Ma' tb-ni'ktaha'iw9S. tsu'- 
du-ws-'st. "hu'! an-tsa'ntl-tsbdzi'ya !" (5) "ke-'k'yak^ ws'nantl-i'ldwa ya- 
an-du-'ha'ya tsla-'ts, wulme'ul-hantl, na'im-hu-'dadawa-s da'-x-du." a'yu-me'- 
x-wsn. (6) yu'wu't's i'l-hr-daqdla'' wulme' u . we-'n-ditc tb-kwi-wa-'ga-ditc i- 
de'mil x-ws'n wa-'tsan-dahu-'mis, kwi'-du-'ha'ya kla'wi-daditc. hu-'dada'was- 



82 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

people made a strong (large) fine payment for that. That is why they did not do 
that to their wives, because they were afraid. 

2. She never told it to her father. If her father's sister was there, she would 
tell her. If her mother's sister was there, she would tell her. If her sister-in-law was 
there, she would tell her. Then it was they who told her father. 

14. Children had to be inside at dusk 

1. The people of long ago did not want their children to play outside when 
it became evening, because possibly some dangerous thing might mingle with them 
(then). That is why they did not want them to play outside. Perhaps a wild person 
of the woods might steal (enslave) them. (2) That is why just as evening approached 
they took in their children at that time, for they feared various things. A pitch- 
dress-ogress might mingle with them (at that time). The children would die if a 
pitch-dress-ogress got among them then. 

2. And if the (evening sunset) sky were red, that is the reason why they also 
did not have their children outside (then), because when the sky was red a disease 
was coming. That is (also) why the children did not play outside when evening 
came. 

15. Head wives 

1. The head wife was always adorned with shell beads, and with a nose pen- 
dant, and ear pendants, and she always had a number of bracelets, she also had den- 
talia strung on her hair, and sometimes she had a dentalium hat. If she had that 



da. na'u-du-li'n-wi ska't-wa-'wa tle'-x-ka". x-we-'n-ditc tli-il-a'n-hume-'kYilda 
we-'n-wa-tsa, na'im-il'e'lqs. 

2. an-du'-els-'da-gwa'sgwa'i. wi-yi-at'a-'dSa-da", wi-kwi-'-sgu-'ya. wi'-yu- 
x u kw9'nd3-da', wi-'-kuwi'-sgu-'ya. wi'-i-tla'ntlda-'dfo'-da", wi'-kuwi'-sgu-ya. 
wi'-x-kwi-i'l-du --sgu ■ 'ya, tta-de' e'i • e. 

14. 

1. i-he-'niye'-ka' wi'-an-il-du an-i'1-du-du'ha'ya tli-ildihi-'me qa'nu-kwi-a'- 
licani-'da ya-gatda'idiya, na'im yuwu't's ma"-ditc xu-'t'hrc ge"-i'ksiM. x-we-'n- 
ditc tli-il-kwi'-an-du-'ha'ya qa'nu-alica'ni-'da. yuwu't's-x-e-'cin kwi'-paukMza'- 
me. (2) x-ws-'n ma-'tsi-gatda'idiya ma'n-lixli-'mu tH-hi-'me, na'im-il-gu-s-ditc- 
a'lqsa. yuwu't's-nu-'sgi'li ge"-i'ksiivi. we'n-kwi ku'mts-tli-hi-'me i-nu-sgi'li-ge 1 - 
i'ksiM. 

2. wi'-yuwu't's i-du-lqwa'L tla-gaha'isdja, kwi'-we-'n'net i'1-du-hi's kwi'- 
aN-qa'nu-wa-'wa tli-ildihi-'me, na'im-tsa-du xe'nwe"es dza'ne i-lqwa'L tla'-ga- 
ha'is. we'n-ditc tla-an-hi-'me qa'nu'-a'licani-'da ya-gatqVidiya. 

15. 

1. tla-siki'nen-hu-'mis wi'-gu -s-mi'n du'-kwi-na'a^da'^, hi's-du-nabi-'xa, 
hi's-du'-n97ala-'sa, gu-'s-mi'N hi's-du'-ga-'l-diltaka'l-a", we-'n-hi's du-nak w xe'ye, 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 83 

kind of hat it was called an eagle (hat). That was how a very rich woman was. 
(2) Good (well-to-do) people were also that way. They had good clothes, decorated 
with quantities of shell beads. That is how they knew (identified) a head wife. 
She was the one to supervise everything about the house. (3) She worked around 
the house only, and the other wives labored outside. It was the same way with poor 
people. The first wife was the head one. Sometimes if he married some other one, 
(and) loved her (more), she would become his head wife. That was the custom of 
the people. 

2. The head wife did not labor outside, because she was the one to look after 
everything within the house, and also their cooking. That is why whatever she said 
to the other wives, that is how (obedient) they were, because she was their head 

i 

one. (2) And also their cooking, that too the head wife supervised. She was always 
the one to cook for the husband. That was their custom. (3) Sometimes they 
(head wives) got angry if he ate of the cooking of another wife. If their head wife 
was fine, then at every (meal) time they would eat together from another wife's 
cooking. But if the head wife was mean and jealous, indeed he would (have to) 
eat only of her cooking there. (4) For such a cause sometimes her husband did 
not like her, he desired her no more. When (rejected) she went back (to her parents') 
home, her parents would not take her part, because they did not approve. That 
was their way with their daughter. (5) It was disgraceful when she was jealous. 
Because that was not the way of the people, no matter who was jealous. Her par- 
ents did not like that, even if they were head wives. If they made trouble the par- 



we-'n-yu'wut's du-hada'i'mis dibitlpe-'wis. wi'-ws-n-du-si'n-sa-'nu i-du-hr'-da'- 
bitlpV'wis mexe'ye. ws-'n-du-tta-hethe-'ds-hu-'mis. (2) tli-lfi / ls-lca t wi-'-his-du- 
kwi-'-x-we-'n. ke-'le-du-dits-'tc, na'a'sda'a-'-du ga'l-du-da'a'sda. x-we'n-du 
mit'ssi'yim tla-siki'nen-hu'mis. wi'-x-hi'dji gu-s-di'tc-du-lu'didaya idze-'wtc. 

(3) idz£ y wtc-du-didzi'y£ - ts, wi'-tla-ma-'-hume'ke wi'-qanu-dzi-'dzida. hi's-da- 
kwi"ns'wet'l-ka' t ms'-x-we'n. he'le'yu-hu-'mis du'-disiki'nen. wi'-yu'wut's i-hi'- 
t'ci'-hu-'msiye, Ixa'laL, wi-'-kwi-'ye-du-disiki'nen tla-dahu'me-'ke. x-we'n tli- 
ildata-'ma-'Hs tta-ka'\ 

2. tla-siki'nen-hu-'mis a'N-qanu-ditc-xa'H, na'im-x-hidji-gu's-di'tc hi-'di- 
da-ya idzs'watc, hi's-tH'-ildaq'mi'yat'as. x-ws-'n-ditc tb-da'ma-'-hume'ks dji'- 
ildi-'t'a, ma-i'1-x-we-n, na'im-kwi-ildisiki'nen. (2) hi's-tli-ildaq'mi'yat'as, wi'-ms- 
x-hi'dji-kwi-lu y didaya tle-x-siki'nen-hu-'mis. wi'-tla-dede-'mil wi'-gu-s-mi'n-x- 
hi'dji q'mi'ya-t'i'ya. we-'n-il-du-gum-ta-ma-'Hs. (3) yuwu't's bs'lxsim i-ma-'- 
hu-'mis-daq'mi'yat'a Idja-'t. wi'-i-ke-'ls tH-ildisiki'nen-hu-'mis, wi'-de'ngsk ma'- 
hu-'mis-daq'mi'yat'a-sitc wi'-kwi'-itcdlu"wiyam. wi'-ya-a'n-ws-n wi'-mada'lya 
tk-x-siki'nen-hu-'mis, wi'-ma-'tsi-a-'yu hidji'm-il-q'mi'yat'a-s-tla da"-dlu'wi / yam. 

(4) wi'-yu'wu't's kwi-yi'ml-qdla 1 a'nya-du'ha'ya tb-dex-de-'mil, wi'-ya-a'nya- 
du-'ha"ya. wi'-yu-wa's-i, wi'-an-du'-qdla tb-d ex-ma -'ni'yas, na'yim an-i'ldu 7 - 
ha"ya. x-we-'n-data-'ma-'Hs tli-ildagwa-'ya. (5) djilt'sa-'is-du yi'-maqa'lt. na'im- 
il-a'N-we-n-tsa-'u tle'-x-ka", tsi'-ma'i-ma- yi'-maqVHs. wi'-his-x-ma y ni'yasd9 
a'N-du-'ha'ya-x-we'n, na'u-i-il-siki'nsn-hu-'mis. wi'-il-a'n-we-'neis-dzi-'ya wi- 



84 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

ents did not like that, because her husband would not desire her any more. (They 
spoke ill of her, thus:) (6) "That person her face taut with hate!" So (usually) 
they were not jealous of one another, and therefore they had the first wife for their 
head. She did nothing outside. Some of the other women labored over the food 
(drying fish and meat), others packed back (fire) wood. (7) The girl (younger) 
wives picked berries and fruits. Those who were a little older were the ones who 
dug various roots, fern roots, wild carrots, camas, they gathered all sorts. That is 
why the (well-to-do) people had a number of wives, because all of them labored. 
(8) Not one lay on her back (lazily) in the house. They all worked. Even their 
children, even the children of the head wife, worked too. Then when the poor 
people lacked food (dried meat and fish), they would be the ones to help. (9) 
That is why the very-well-to-do (and chieftain) people wanted (to dry and store) 
quantities of food (meat and fish). That is why the head wife wanted it, because 
it was she who had to attend to everything. Still even if she were good (as head of 
the household), if she were jealous he would not want her. 

16. Poor people did not want their daughters seen by wealthy people 

The people of long ago, the reason the children of poor persons were never seen 
was because their parents did not want it. Perhaps if a good (well-to-do) person 
saw her, then they would want her. Then their parents would not have to give 
her there, because they were poor and propertyless, (and) they would not (want to) 
have such very wealthy people for their in-law family. (1) Sometimes they (poor 
girls) would just stay somewhere around there (and) there they lived, because they 
did not want very rich persons to desire their child. Their child would never be 



a'N-du-'ha'ya x-ma-'ni'yasdi-hi's, na'yi'm-du a'nya-du-'ha'ya tla-dex-de-'mil. 
(6) "da"-du-ka'< 7a / i'li / yam!" na'u-il-du a'N-ma-'qaqa'la'nu, na'u-du-kwi tli- 
ildisiki'nen tk-he'ls'yu-hu-'mis. a'N-qanu-ditc-dzi-'ya. tla-ma-'-hume'ke x-e's- 
ti'sda qw9'nya u -ildzi-'ya, we'n-esti'sda wi'-niki'n-ildamt'a-m. (7) wi'-tta-hi-'ms 
hu'ms-'^s wi-yuq w si'l-ilyu'gwa. wi'-tfo-da' gi-'gwa ta'me-'t'le wi-'-kuwi wi'-gu-s- 
di'tc-ilqa'lqa-'l, Iqwa", ha'wa"dit, ge'M, gu-s-di'tc ilhitchit'ca-'u. x-we'n-tla-ka' 
tfo-kwr-ga-'l-dahumelfs, na'im-gu -s-kwi dzi'dzi-da. (8) a'n-hit'ci idze'wtc-ts- 
'a-'naN. gu-s-i'ldzidzida. hi's-tfo-i'ldihi-'me, hi's-tfe-siki'nen-hu-'mis-dihi'me, 
his-kwi -'-dzi-'dzi-da. wi'-i-yada'im-dadwa'nya 11 tl9-kwi"ne'wet'l-ka'ama, wi'-x- 
hidji'-il kwi-i'ltsaki'nan. (9) x-we-'n-ditc tle-x-hethe-'de-ka 5 tb-kwi-'-ga-'l-du'- 
ha'ya-tta-<4wa'nya u . x-we-'n-di'tc-du tla-kwi--du-'ha'ya tfo-dasiki'nen-hu-'mis, 
na'im-x-ku'wi gu-'s-di'tc-lu-'dida-ya. tsi-ma'i-gs kV'le, yi'mada'Hs wi'-aN-du-'- 
ha"ya. 

16. 

tls-he-'niye'-ka\ aN-du'-huwe tl3-kwi-"ne'we't'l ka' ( -dihi-'me tb-du-kwi'-a'n- 
x-wi-ha'maqVma na'im-il-a'N-du-'ha"ya tla-dex-ma-'ni'yas. yuwu't's-x-l£i'le-'- 
ka" kwi-'-kla-'wi, wi'-kwi-ildu-'ha"ya. wi'-a'n-x-dji tb-dex-ma-'ni'ya-s yu-kwi'- 
ge'-ni-'da-s, na'im-il-kwi"ne'wet'l a'mi-il-ditc, ana'ntl-dji' t -kwi'-ild8he'l-£''4es 
tfe-hethe-'de-ka\ (1) wi'-yuwu't's-du-ma-'tsi-ge'ndji ma-i'1-du-idja'u, da"-il-du- 
leqlu't'tsim, na'im-il-a'N-du-'ha'ya x-hethe-'ds-ka' kwi--du-'-ha"ya tli'-ildiki'lga 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 85 

inside the house, because they gave her this sort of advice, "We are poor. Good 
(well-to-do) people should not see you." (2) Indeed children of poor people were 
never in the house. Maybe three, maybe two of (such) children would chum to- 
gether (away from the houses), and then indeed those young women never would 
be seen. Sometimes people would come from somewhere, perhaps from Lower 
Coquille River, perhaps from the north, and then they would purchase (in marriage) 
one of those poor people. (3) Then they would deliver her to there, and no one 
(else) would know that she had been taken (to there) already. It would be too late 
(for the rich people) when they learned it. That is how the people of long ago 
(were). That is why they were like that, because sometimes very rich people would 
enslave her. (4) That is why no one saw the girls of poor people, because a very 
rich person might want them, and then his first wives would ridicule her. That is 
why poor people did not want very rich people for their husband. Sometimes they 
would merely take her to do their work. (5) That is why they did not want to 
give their child to rich people, without their (having) money, without their (having) 
clothes (themselves). That is why they did not give their children to very rich 
people, because sometimes they would only ridicule her. 

17. A poor girl married any well-to-do man who wanted her 

1. When some well-to-do person wanted the daughter of poor people, this 
is what they would say to her, "They are buying you. You must go there, even if 
you do not desire that man." This is what her parents would say to her. (2) "We 
are poor people. You must do it, because we are poor people. You might be stolen 
anyway (if you rejected him), and then they would make a slave of you and take 



a'N-mi'N kwi'-idze'wtc tli-ildikYlga, na'im-il-we-'n ba'ha'n-a'na-ya, "kwi-"ne- 
'wst'1-1. ana'ntl-ljiTe-ka' khr'du-n." (2) a'yu-du-a'N-idze'wtc tb-kwi"ns- 
'wet'l-ka" tb-dihi-'me. yuwu't's psi'nl, yuwu't's a'dzu kwi'-i'l-du-e'ikit'ci'n-u 
tli-hi-'ms, wi'-a-'yu a'n-x-wi-kwi-ha'ma'qama tls-gs'ne'tc-ka\ wi'-yuwu't's x- 
ge'ndji-da'-ka\ yuwu't's-x-gu'gws, yuwu't's x-be'l, a-'yu'-du yuwu't's-il-du- 
tlu-'tru'yu x-kwi"ne'wet'l-ka'a'ma. (3) a'yu'-il-du-ge-hehe'mildju, an-du'-x-wi- 
kwi-kwa-"ni'yada ma-'n-du-hshs'mildju. tsa-du-tsu'-da'-kwr-kwe-'niys. x-we-'n- 
tl3-he-'niye'-ka\ an-du'-hu'we tfo-kwi-'-we-'nWme, na'im-il-du yuwu't's pa'u- 
k w ts tle-x-hethe-'de-ka\ (4) x-we-'n-ditc tli-kwi'-a'n-x-wi ha'maqVma tla-kwi'- 
'ne'wet'1-kV dihi-'me, na'im yuwu't's-hethe-'de-ka kwi--du-'ha'ya, wi'-tli-ildex- 
hs'le'yu hu-'mis kwi'-ilhu-'da-t. x-we-'n-ditc tls-x-kwi"ne'wet'l-ka t kwi-'-an- 
du-'ha'ya hsthe-'de-ka' Mdads-'mil. yuwu't's ma-'tsi kwi-i'ldadzi-'ya-'t'si. (5) 
ws-'n-ditc-tli-il-kwi' a'N-du-'ha'ya ^ibi'ndje-il-kwi-' ni-'das tli-ildiki'lga, a'mi- 
ilhada'i'mis, a'mi-ilte-'tc. wi'-ws-n-ditc tli-il-a'N-hethe-'de'edje kwi'-ni'na'* tli- 
ildihi-'me, na-'yim yuwu't's-il ma-'tsi-gwa-hu-'da-t. 

17. 

1. tta-kwi-"ne'wet'l-ka i-du-x-ka' kwi--du-'ha'ya tli-iktagwa-'ya, wi'-wen- 
il-du-i'ldwa, "tlu-thi-qhs'mne. gs^-nantl-la', wi'-aN-du-'ha'ya tla-ds'mil." wi'- 
we-n-i'ldwa tb-dax-ma-'ni'yas. (2) "kwi-"ne'wet'l ka-'-l. tlq£ u -na'ntl, na'im 



86 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

you far away. (3) You would be sold there, and then they would just keep you 
going along like that, you would be sold here and there and everywhere. If you 
become a slave there is no one who would want you any more, because you are a 
slave. (4) Even if you return to this country there is no one who would want you, 
because you had been a slave. So then go and take him now." Indeed then the 
girl (did so). (5) Even if she did not desire her husband-to-be, she went anyway. 
Indeed (she did so). 

2. And then this is how they advised their child. "You want to be good! 
Whatever is said to you, do it just that way." Indeed that is just what the girl did 
when taken to her husband, that is how even though they did not yet know him 
at all, maybe even though their husband was an old man, even if maybe some ugly 
thing. 

18. People of the poorer class 

1 . A person who was not a child of very wealthy people, but who was becom- 
ing that (wealthy), would buy a woman and all sorts of things. He would be getting 
to be wealthy much too rapidly. Then they would kill him for that, because they 
were envious of him, because his money had increased too much. (2) That is what 
they were envious of. Then they would hire some other person, and he would be the 
one to kill him. No matter who it was who was beginning to get rich, they would 
kill him for it anyhow. (3) They envied him. That is why the (poor) people never 
made things (and sold them), because they feared that. 



tl9-kwi-"ne'wet'l. yuwu't's ngli-'layu, wi'-pu-'k w si'ye-n9 wi--he-'ni}a-'i. (3) ge"- 
nihi-tiyu, wi-'-x-we-'n-na-ma'Ma', gu-s-ge'ndji-nahithi-'te'dhem. i-n9pu-'k w si'ye 
wi-a'nya-n9-x-wi'-du-'hidun, na'im-napu-'kwis. (4) ma'i-naws-'st di-'-t'lda'cdja 
wi'-an-e'-x-wi"-du-'hidun, na'im-n9pu-'k w si-'na. na'u-nantl-ma"-la." a-'yu'-du 
tla-gwe'is. (5) ma'i-an-du-'ha"ya tla-dade-'mili-'de, ma--du'-ge'Ma'. a-'yu'. 

2. wi'-ws-'n-baha'n-a'na'ya tli'-itcdaki'lga. "ke-'le-ey9'xtl! dji'-nantl-du- 
i'ltem, ma--na'ntl-du-x-we-n." a-'yu'-du me'-x-we-'n tfo-gwe'is ye-hehs'mi'ldju, 
x-we-'n-ditc tli-il-ma'i a'n-mit'ssi'yada, ma-il-du kwi'-ildgde-'mil yuwu't's tu-'- 
'mit'1-ditc, yuwu't's i"dje"-ditc. 

18. 

1. tls-ka" ya-ha-a'N-ha-hethe-'de-ka" dihi-'me, we'n-kwi--hedi'ye, hu'me-'^e 
gu-'s-didji'ys-tlu-'tla". hs'lt'-ha-H'n-wi-tls'-la tte-dehsthe-'de'eis. wi'-kwi'ye-'nu 
il-du-kwi-'-tsa- u , na'im-il-du-mada'lya, na'im-du-he'lt'-ha-H'nwi-la tla-dahada'i- 
'mis. (2) wi'-kwi-i'l-du-mada'lya. wi'-ma-'tsi-il-du-ma-'-ka tsldzi'ya, a'yu-du- 
x-kwi' kwi--tsa-'u. ma'i-tsi-ma-'-ka la-'-dghethe-'de'ais, wi'-ma-il-du-kwi-'-tsa-'u. 
(3) mad_a'lya'il-du. x-ws-'n-ditc tle'-ka" tb-kwi'-a'Ntc-dzi-'ya'ama, na'im-il- 
du-e'lqs. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 87 

2. The people of long ago, when the moving people (the whites) were not yet, 
when the moving people were not yet here, those people used to be that way to one 
another, to the children of poor people. They made slaves of them. (2) That is 
what the people did to poor people who had a pretty daughter. The (well-to-do) 
people never bought her, they just dragged her away. Not at all like (when they 
obtained) a very rich person's child, they did not take her in that manner, they 
just dragged her along to there. (3) That is what the people of long ago used to 
do. Then the white people (came), and then they quit doing that. Poor people's 
children always were afraid of that, because sometimes they were enslaved. (4) 
And sometimes they were dragged along like that to be made their wife. Now when 
they already had her there, then they would pay for what they already had. Chil- 
dren of poor people did not want a child of very rich people for their husband, 
because their own parents were without money (and could not reciprocate accord- 
ing to family marriage etiquette). (5) That is why they did not want them, when 
they wanted a poor (class) child for a wife. That is why they dragged them. 

3. She did not want a very rich person because his other wives would be 
jealous of her, they would mock and humiliate her. Those mean women for that 
reason, that was the reason perhaps that he whipped his wives, his jealous wives. 

(2) He did not want them to humiliate her because he was fond of his poor (class) 
wife. That is why poor (class) children did not want very rich persons for their 
husbands, because some of the wives would want to humiliate them. But others 
would take her part (and so there would be too much dissension in the family). 

(3) That is why they did not want such wealthy men for their husbands, because 
some of his wives would make fun of them. 



2. tle-he-'niye'-ka\ tla-a'iwa-a'N ntsls-'ne'-ka\ tla-a'iwa-a'N di'u tta-nts- 
le'ne'-ka', wi-'-mi'disi'na tle'-ka" kwi-i'l-an-hu-'t'su'wa, tl9-kwi-"newet'l-ka" 
tfo-dahi-'me. kwi-i'l-du-pu'kpu-'wak w . (2) we-'n-il-tle'-ka" wi'-il-kwi"newet'l- 
ka* nehe-'wu'dzin-dagwa-'ya. kwi-'-tle-x-ka" an-i'l-du-tla-'wi, ma-'tsi-il-du-ha'x- 
di. an-du"-x-wen dji-'-th^il-hsthe-'de-ka''-diki'lga, an-i'l-du--we-'n-galam, ma-'tsi- 
il-du-ge-ha'xda. (3) ws-'n-ilwa-'ndi-da tie-he-' -niys'-ka'. tsu-tfo-xa-'qa'ya-ka", 
tsu'-il'e-'wi x-we-'n-il-ditc-wa-'tsa. gu-'s-mi'n kwi-e'lqs tl9-kwi"newet'l-ka di- 
hi-'me, na-'yim il-yu'wu't's pa'uk w ts. (4) we-'n-yu'wu't's-ilha'xda hu-'misi-de- 
'i'lde. wi-'-tsu'-il-du-dlugwa-'q, tsu'-il-du--gwa'lq w ts. na'u-tb-kwi"newe't'l ka"- 
dihi-'me an-i'ldu-'ha'ya hethe-'de-dihi-'me ildide-'mil, na-'yim a'mi-hada'i'mis 
tli-ildama-'ni'ya-s. (5) we-'n-ditc-du tli-il-kwi- / -a / N-du-'ha"ya, wi / -i-ildu-'ha"ya 
tl3-kwi-"newst'l hi-'ms hu'me-lfe. wi'-x-we-'n-ditc-du tli-il-kwi-'-ha'xda. 

3. a'n-du-huwe tb-kwi-a'N-du-ha'ya hethe-'de-ka" na'im-tb-dex-ma-'-hume-- 
l£e maqa'lya"il-du, hu-'dat'il-du. wi'-kwi-yi'ml-qdla 1 tfo-de-a'N-we-n-hu-'mis, 
kwi-yi'ml-qdlai-du yuwu't's mikma'?jgi-t'a tb-dghu'me-'lje, tfo-damaqVH's-hu- 
me-ke. (2) an-du'-du-'ha'ya kwi-i'lhu-'dat na'im-du-su-'laL tb-dakwi^'newet'l- 
hu-'mis. x-we-'n-ditc tl9-kwi"nswet'l-hi- / me a'N-du-'ha'ya hethe-'de ka'Mlda- 
de-'mil, na-'yim esti'sda tta-dahu'me-lje du-'ha'ya'il-du-hu-'dat'i'l. wi'-x-s'stis- 
kwi'-daga'dli. (3) x-ws-'n-didji'yet' tli-il-du-kwi'-an-du-'ha'ya hethe-'de-ildade-'- 
mii, na'im-e'sti'sda tls-dex-hu'ms-ke wi-'-x-kwi-il-du-kwi'-hu-'da-t. 



88 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

4. When he had (other) children their father did not want them to make fun 
of his other (poor class) children, because he was fond of (all) his children. If of 
similar age, and if he saw it (the poor wife's child) was a strong child, he let them 
fight. (2) If he saw the poor woman's child, and sometimes others of his (half) older 
brothers, one of whom took his part, then if he were stronger he would let him beat 
up the other one there. Then indeed they no longer made fun of him, because 
others of the bunch had taken his part. (3) That was the way the poor person's 
child might sometimes get to be their leader, because (he was) a child of a very rich 
person, and he was so fond of him. Then he would teach him all sorts of things, and 
indeed then he would learn about all sorts of things. Then he might become their 
head man, sometimes they would all be fond of him, because good his heart (he was 
kind), good (kindly) to everybody. (4) Then the people had him for a big thing 
(thought highly of him). That was the custom of the people. 

5. The very rich parents of a child did not concern themselves when she was 
envious (was a jealous wife). They did not hold her up high (uphold her), because 
they did not want (approve of) a jealous person. Even in their own home it was 
like that too, they did not do anything to her husband on account of that, because 
that (enviousness) was not their way (custom). (2) That is why they did not in- 
terfere with him (even though he beat her), when their daughter was jealous. Even 
if occasionally her husband cared for her no longer, they did not take her part, 
because they did not want (like) a jealous person. (3) That was the custom of the 
people. For such a thing they never took their child's part, because they did not 
want a jealous person. It was extremely shameful when they were jealous. 



4. i-du-nihi-'me'da wi'-an-du-du-'ha'ya tli-ildex-eTe kwi-i'lhu-'da-t tla-de- 
x-ma-'-hi-'me, na'im-du-su'li-'t'a tla-dahi-'me. wi'-yu-wu't'inu-diti'me-'l, wi'-ya- 
ha'ma'q ti'm-i'H tla-diki'lga, wi'-ma"-wu'lms'u-wa- / wa. (2) wi'-ma-'tsi-ha'maq 
i-tle-x-kwi"ne'wet'l hu-'mis-diki'lga, wi'-yuwu't's x-e'stis'i'lda tla-dex-nahat'H'- 
yadas, x-hi't'ci' du-kwi-'-qdla', wi'-i-ku'wi'-ti'm-H wi'-ma' t -ge t qa'lutuwa-wa-'wa. 
wi'-a'yu-il-a'nya-hu-'da-t, na'im-x-e'sti'sda tla-dagala-'lis gadli"il-du. (3) x-we-'n- 
du wi'-yuwu't's-kwi'ys'-ildasiki'nen tta-kwi"newst'l-ka''-diki'lga, na'im-heths-'- 
de-diki'lga, yu-ku'wi-su-'la. wi'-gu-'s-di'tc mit'smit'sati'ya, a'yu'-gu-'s-di'tc da'- 
mi't'sis. wi'-kwi-'ye-i'ldahethe-'de, yuwu't's-x-gu-'s-wi' su-'laL, na'im kY'ls-da- 
'lu'we, gu-s-wi-i-'tc-ke-'le. (4) wi-'-kwi-i'l-du-du'wa-'ga-ditc tle'-ka". x-we-'n 
tfe-ka'* dita-'ma-'Hs. 

5. tb-dex-ma-'ni'ya-s tle-heths-'de-diki'lga an-i'l-du-ditc-wa-'wa yi-maqa'- 
1-is. an-i'l-du-gwa-'n-naqt, na'im-il-a'N-du-'ha'ya maqVH's-ka*. ma'i-tli-mi-'- 
disa-ma tli-ildabe'it'isitc wi'-his-kwi'-x-wen, an-i'l-kwi'ys-'nu dji-'-xali tfo-dads-'- 
mil, na'im-an-x-ws-'n-ildata-'ma-'lis. (2) ws'n-ditc tK-il-du-a'N-t'swa-1, yi'-ma- 
qa'lis tH-ildagwa'ya. ma^-yuwu't's a'nya-du-'ha'ya tla-dex-de-'mil, wi'-an- 
i'lqdla-'t, na / im-an-ildu- / ha"ya maqa'H's-ka*. (3) ws-'n-ildata-'ma'Hs tls-ka". 
kwi- yi'ml-qdla 1 il-tla-'-du a'N-gadli-tli-ildihi-'me, na'im-il-a'N-du-'ha'ya 
maqa'li's-ka\ H'n-wi-dji'lt'sa'is i-ilma'qa'lis. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 89 

19. Poor people who became wealthy and married well-to-do people 

Sometimes when a child of poor people became great (well-to-do), it was per- 
haps some sort of wealth-charm that made him well-to-do. Such a person maybe 
married the child of a very- well-to-do person (or one in a chief's family). And some- 
times such a very-well-to-do person might want him to do something or other, and 
if negative, he said, "If you give me one of your daughters I will do it." (1) Then 
he would do it. Thus indeed a poor person sometimes became a big shaman. 
When a very-well-to-do person (or chief) became ill, he would send a person in 
this manner, "Indeed whatever he wants, I will give him that. Tell the shaman 
that." (2) And so the news carrier would tell him that. "I do not want money. I 
want that (specified) daughter of his. If he will give her to me, indeed I will go, 
I will heal him." (3) The news carrier returned, he told that to the sick person. It 
was that way (acceptable). It was agreed, so he doctored and healed him. He re- 
covered. He gave him the woman. That is the way those people did those things. 

20. Handouts to the poor 

Whenever a poor person lacked food, he watched for where he saw smoke, and 
into there he went. He was given food indeed. When he had finished eating he 
would say, "I'll take a gift of food." (1) Then indeed he would be given food, he 
would be given a lot. He would take them back with him to his own home, he would 
gather up all the leftovers. 



19. 

yu-kwi''ne'wet'l-lca''-dil<:i'lga yuwu't's-su-'du, yuwu't's-ditc-mi'sxa we'n-x- 
kwi-hedi'ye-wa-'wa. wi'-ku'wi yuwu't's-hethe-'de-diki'lga-wa'msts. wi'-yuwu't's- 
tle-x-hsths-'ds kwi-'-du-'ha"ya dji"-ditc-aya'dja, wi'-a'N-wa-"nu, i'-nantl-hit'ci'- 
nim kw9-n3gwa y ya wi'-a-'yu'-wantl." (1) x-we-'n-ditc-wa-'tsa'nt. x-ws-'n-du 
a-'yu'-du-me-x-we-'n yuwu't's kwi-"ns'w£t'l-ka" wa-'-il-a'x^ai'niya. ye'-xe'n- 
xenu-tle-hethe-'de, wi'-x-we-'n ka"-txwudza-'t'a, "wi'-a-'yu dji'-hantl ditc-du-'- 
ha"ya, kwi-wa'ntl-niya . ws'n-antl-sgu-'ya kwi-i'l-a'xc^ain." (2) a-'yu'-du-x-we-'n 
tte-nilftaha'iwus a'yu'-du-sgu-'ya. "a'N-wu'-hada'i'mis du-'ha"ya. kwg-dgku- 
wi'-gwa-'ya-udu-'ha"ya. yu-wa'ntl-kwi-'-ni-'wun, wi'-a-'yu'-wantl la', idza'itst- 
wa'ntl." (3) wi'-a-'yu'-du-bi-'na't's tla-ni'lftaha'iwus, a-yu'-sgu-ya tla-ka'^-xe'n- 
W9S. ayu'-me-x-we-n. tsu'-a-'yu hu-'ya't, a-'yu'-dza'itst. ayu'-lha. ayu'-du- 
ni'ni'yu-tla-hu-'mis. x-we-'n-tfo-ka" tli-itc-di'tc-xa'li. 

20. 

tl9-kwi-"ne'w£t'l-ka" i-du-a'mi-dwa'n-yau, wr-lu-'dada'ya-du idja-'u gwa'- 

l-s'es-kla-'wi, ge' t -du--de-'djs. a-'yu-du qatski-'nu. wi'-i-du-s-'wi didlu'wa-'was 

wi'-wa-'nu-'-du, "di-na'ntl-ti-nt'c." (1) wi'-a-'yu-du-qatski-'nu, ga-'l-du-ditc- 

ni'ni-'yu. wi'-kwi--du-w9si-'ya-t'a tlg-dgye-'tsgdjg, hit'cuwa-'-du gu-'s ttetc- 
gwi-'du. 



90 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

21. The chiefs kept the poor from going hungry 

Everywhere in the village the chief sent the young people, young men (and) 
young women. They were the ones to take food to the poor people. Then indeed 
everyone had food. (1) That is how it was always done. The good (chiefs and well- 
to-do) people looked after the poor people, and then indeed they did not go hungry. 

22. Doctoring power appeared like a person 

Whatever their dream, that is what became their power. If a snake, not all 
kinds of snakes, but all of that kind he saw as persons, (all of) just that one kind of 
snake. That is how their day (power) was. (1) If their day was red headed wood- 
pecker, then they saw them as persons, and as persons understood their language. 
Whatever their day, they were all like that. No matter what their day, they were 
also able to understand their language like that. (2) If their day was yellowhammer, 
they knew its language too. If dog, they knew its language. If their day was some 
sort of food (meat, fish), then that food was their day. (3) Whatever sort of food 
was their day, they did not eat it, because they saw it as if it were a person. That 
is why they did not eat what their day was. They said of it thus, if they should 
have eaten their day, that then their day would take vengeance on them (causing 
their death). (4) That is why they were fearful, (so) whatever was their day they 
did not eat it. Even though other people ate their day, they (those who had it for 
a power) were afraid (to eat it) . That is why the people feared their own day. 



21. 

tla-hethe-'de gu-s-ge'ndjuwi-du wa'li'xt tla-hi-'me-ka', tca'n^a'-ka ge'ne-'tc- 
ka. kwi--du'-kwi-ge"-dwe"n-yau la'a'it'a tl9-kwi"ne'wet'l Ijibi'ndje. a-'yu-du- 
gu- / s-qw8 / n-'ya"wa. (1) gu-s-mi'n-du-x-we-'n. hr'dgda'ya tls-x-kiTe-ka tfo- 
kwi-"ne'wet'l-ka, a-'yu-il-du a'N-lge-'n. 

22. 

di'tc-du tli'-il dagwa'ns, wi-'-kwi-'-ye-ildins-'djis. ma'i-hwa'ya-'s, wi'-an-gu-s- 
dji'-hwa'ya-'s, wi'-gu-s-kwi ka'a'i-hamaq, ma-'tsi hit'ci' x-we'n hwa"ya's. x_ 
we-'n-tli-ildagaha'is. (1) ma'i-lsge'lq tli-ildagaha'is, ws-'-x-kaVi-il-kwi-ha'ma'q, 
wi'-kwi'-il-x-ka"ai qa'wa'ya-ditli-'s. di'tc-tli-ilda'gaha'is, wi'-gu-s-kwi'-x-we-n. 
ma'i-ditc tli-ilda'gaha'is, ma-i'l-his-kwi'-x-ws-'n qa'wa'ya-ditli-'s. (2) ma'i- 
gwutsgwi-'ns i'lda'gaha'is, ma-i'l-kwi-qa'wa'ya-ditli-'s. ma'i-ye'klu, ma-i'1-kwi- 
qa'wa'ya-ditli-'s. wi'-yu-dwa'nya^ditc tli-ilda'gaha'is, wi'-yu-qwa'nyaM'ldaga- 
ha'is. (3) ma'i-ditc-^wa'nyau tli'-ildagaha'is, an-i'l-du-dla' u , na'im-ka' x-ka- 
'a'i ilha'maq\ we-'n-ditc tli-il-kwi'-aN-dla-'" di'tc-tli-ilda'gaha'is. we'n-il-du- 
i'ldwa, i-il-kwi-'-ldja't tli-ildagaha'is, wi'-dbTyu"wa tb-dax-gaha'is. (4) we-'n- 
ditc tli-il-kwi-a'lqsa, an-i'l-du-dla-' u ditc-tli'-ilda'gaha'is. ma'i-ma'-ditc x-ka' 1 - 
dla' u -ditc tli-ilda'gaha'is, wi'-alqsa"il. x-we-'n-tb'-ka tli-il-kwi-a'lqsa tli-ilda'- 
gaha'is. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 91 

23. A shaman's increase of power dance 

When her dream becomes too strong for her, if she (a shaman) does not tie 
it together (dance publicly) she becomes ill. If the other shaman (watcher) does 
not put it for her (help her) she may die. (1) That is why she ties it together 
(dances) again. That is the reason why the shaman has the power increase dance 
again, because she is afraid (of becoming ill and dying). 

24. A male shaman watcher took away a bad power from a new shaman 

The person who gave a new shaman's dance, a male shaman was the one who 
watched him when he danced his new power. If he should not want the power, this 
is the way he would speak. "We do not want it ! It is not good!" Now indeed that 
was how. Then he himself took it away. 

25. A new shaman offered to doctor without pay 

"This is what my dream tells me. 'You do not want to ask compensation. If 
you take pay you will not have your power. (1) That is why you are not to take 
pay when you try to cure a person, (you are to work) for nothing for a while.' 
That is what my dream has told me. That is why I will doctor for no pay." 

26. A mit'e-'din shaman's prayer when giving fresh fish and meat to a mourner 

after a burial 

"It is not a person who is eating you. It is eagle who is eating you. It is raven 
who is eating you. It is seagull who is eating you. It is not a person who is eating 
you. (1) The person who has left us has gone to our father. Up above there he will 



23. 

i-du-gala'1-ya tla--da'gwans wi'-helt'-ha-ta'm-ildi'ye, wi'-ya-a'N-gisgi'nt'lai 
wi'-xe'nxsnu. wi'-qVyau-du-ya-a'N-x-ma'-i'la'xd,ain na'ut. (1) we-'n-ditc tta- 
du-kwi--da-'s-gisgi'nt'lai. x-we-'n-ditc-du tla-kwr-da-'s-yisye'ls tte-i'la'xqain, 
na'im a'lqsa. 

24. 

tl9-ka'M9xga / Cj, wi'-x-de-'mil i'la'xqain du-kwi-'-lu-dada-'ya i-du-ya'lst'a 1 . 
wi'-ya-a'N-du-'ha"ya tfo-da'ns'djis, wi'-nen-du--tH'. "a'N-ldu-'ha"ya! a'N-we-'n- 
ditc!" wi'-a-yu-'-du. a-'yu-du-x-hi'dji du--kwi-'-i'gei-wa'wa. 

25. 

"tfo-'nax-gwa'ns x-we-'n-wi-i'l-du-n. an-a'ntl-tsla"-du-'ha'ya. i'-n-antl- 
tsla''-galam a'nya-na'ntl-kwi'-nahi. (1) we'n-ditc kw9-nantl-a'N-tsla' 1 -galam 
ka"-nantl-lha'i, a'mi-sgi ha'ni-'c. x-we-'n-wi-i'l-du-n kwa-'nex-gwa'ns. we-'n-ditc- 
hantl ku-u-ka"-dzi-'ya ami-'sgi." 

26. 



e'na'-x-ka' dlu'wi-'n x-mexe'yen dlu'wi-'n. x-gugu'm-nadlu'wi-'n. x-wa- 
a's-nadlu'wi-'n. e'na'-x-ka'-dlu'wi-'n. (1) dH-ka"-ha-q w dzu-'n tli-imama-'ni- 






92 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

live well. He will not have a hard time any more. Our father will look after him." 

27. Mit'e-'din shamans 

When people paid a mit'e-'din (shaman), indeed this is what he said. "However 
you desire it, that is the way it will be done. If you wish him blind eyed (blinded), 
that is how it will be. (1) If you want his legs to become no good, that is how it 
will be. If you want his feet to rot, that is how it will be. (2) If his arms to be no 
good, that will be done too. And if you want him to become a forest being (e-'cin), 
that is how it will be. (3) And if you want him to shoot himself, that is how it will 
be. If you want him to injure himself, that will be done also. (4) Whatever you 
desire, that is how I will do it." And indeed it would be done that way. That is 
why (mit'e-'din) shamans were no good (evil). They were even worse than (ilx- 
qa'in) shamans. 

28. An i'1-a'xqain shaman cured a woman made ill by a mit'e-'din shaman 

1. Bi'ndi'dza-s was begging meals, he was always going around, because no 
matter what the time they would give a person who came food to eat. That is the 
way the people were. No matter if half sun (noon) , no matter what the time when 
you got to a person's place, you would be fed. (2) Now when tina't'sis came to 
the house of kwa'isi'ya, he went inside. Kwa'isi'ya was having potatoes roasted 
in hot coals. She began to eat her roasted potatoes, and she also ate elk meat. But 
she offered nothing to bi'ndi'dza-s. Bi'ndi'dza-s went back home (without eating). 



'ya-sgdjadg-kwi-'-la'. gwa-'n ga'-hantl-ki'le--dlu-'gwa. a'n-ha'ntl da-'s-kwi- 
he'udzat'se-'nu. tli-'-lne-x-ma-'ni'ya-'s ha'ntl-kwi'ye hi-'dada'ya." 

27. 

tla-mit'e- 'din-lea i-du--tshr'nam, wi'-a-'yu'-du wi-x-we'n-i'ldu-n. "dji'- 
hantl-ndu-'ha'ya, x-we-'n-wantl-wa-'wa. inantl-du-'ha'ya yaqVim-xwalxwal, 
wi'-ma-hantl-x-we-'n. (1) indu-'ha'ya dji'l-ed9-a'Nya'-wen, wi'-ma-ha'ntl-x-wen. 
indu-'ha'ya qla-'da'-kaya'li, wi'-ma-hantl-x-wen. (2) i-t'lixi'nde a'nya'-kile, wi'- 
his-ha'ntl-x-we'n. wi'-indu-'ha'ya e-'ci'ni'ye, wi'-ma-ha'ntl-x-wen. (3) wi'-indu'- 
ha'ya kxa-'-da't'e, wi'-ma-ha'ntl-du'-x-wen. indu-'ha'ya qVla u , wi'-his-ha'ntl- 
x-we'n. (4) dji"-ndu-'ha'ya, x-we-'n-wantl-wa-'tsan." a-'yu-du-me'-x-we'n. we-'n- 
tb-mit'e-'din a'N-we-'n-ditc. he'le'yu-a'N-we'n x-i'la'xdai'nitc. 

28. 

1. hitchidji'nai-du tla-bi'ndi'dza-s, gu-'s-mi'n du--kwi'-yuxwu'me, na'im- 
tfe'-ka ma'i'n9-mi'n dji' kibi'ndje ma--n9'datski-'nu. we-'n-tl9-ka. ma'i-t'li-'- 
nat-qw9'l-e"es, ma'i-ma'-min ini-kibi'ndje-dji, wi'-ma--n9'qatski-'nu. (2) wi'- 
yu-kwi-' dji' tlg-ti-'na-'t'sis tto-kwa'isi'ya-daye-'tsadje, wi'-ge'-de-'dje. wi-'-kwi- 
qwi-"mits-d9xe'lp tl9-kwa'isi'ya. tsu'-kwi--dlu'u-'nis tl9-d9qwi-"mits-xe'lp, we'n- 
his-ki'ts-d9't'e-t kwi'-dla-'u. wi'-an-^atsk tl9-bi'ndi'dzas. tsu'-wg's-i tl9-bi'ndi'- 
dza-s. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 93 

2. Now then kwa'isi'ya became ill. They fetched tsi'lxen for a doctor. When 
evening came the people went there to the house of kwa'isi'ya. (2) Tsi'lxen began 
doctoring there. Now he said thus, "Humph ! it is not a pain-power. He just looked 
at you. You were eating roasted potatoes, and you were also eating elk meat. 
(3) But you offered nothing to ti-na't'sis. That is the reason why he looked at you. 
You are not sick." So tsi'lxen worked on her. Indeed when he extracted it, it was 
only potatoes, roasted potatoes, and also elk meat that he pulled out. That is how 
tsi'lxen cured kwa'isi'ya. 

29. Shamans cured tuberculosis 

A strong shaman, when a person was continually spitting (from consumption), 
this is what they said, when he looked at the sick person. "It is just this that has 
made him ill. (1) It is like a g^'me' worm that is eating on him there inside him. 
That is what is making him cough, that thing like a gu"me J worm." (2) Then in- 
deed he worked on the person who had that sickness, and when he took it out, they 
all saw it (the worm). Indeed then the sick person got well. 

30. What shamans could see 

Whatever their dream (power) , when it becomes strong, no matter what it is 
they indeed see through it. Even though he may be staying inside he (can) see 
outside. (1) A powerful shaman even sees a pain-power inside a person. That is 
why he knows whatever sickness (it is) that has made him (a patient) ill. 



2. he'-ma-'tsi xe'nxenu'itc tls-kwa'isi'ya. tsu'-i'la'x^ain tsu'-il-kwi'-ga- 
lam tla-tsi'lxen. a-'yu ga'tcjaidi'ya ge"-la--da'-ka tla-kwa'isi'ya-daye-'tsadje. 
(2) tsu'-ge'qwa"wa'iwa tla-tsi'lxen. he'-ma-'tsi-wen-i'l-at'itc, "ha'! a'n-x-lcxai. 
tsi-nsxi-'ldu-t'u-n. xelpe'ha' qwi-"mits-nadla-'u, we'n-his-ki'ts-dit'e-t his-na'-kwi-- 
dla'u. (3) an-a'datsk tla-ti-na-'t'sis. x-we'n-ditc tb-naxi'ldu-t'u-n. an-i'-ge- 
xe'nwas." a-'yu'-dza'itst tle-x-tsi'lxen. wi'-a-'yu yu-kwi-'-xka-'t, a'yu-qwi-"- 
mits, xe'lpe'he 1 qwi-"mits, we'n-his-tla-ki'ts-dSate-'t xka'it. x-we'n tta-kwi-'- 
lha-'t tle-x-tsi'lxen tb-kwa'isi'ya. 

29. 

tle-x-wa '-ila'x4ain, wi'-tla-ka' paqaqa'yam, wi'-we-'n-il-du-i'ldwa, i-du- 
t'lxa'ini tb-ka'-xe'nwas. "tsi-x-hi' tb-kwi-'-xe'nwas-wa-'wa. (1) tlatc-gwa'*- 
gu"me* kwi-da' t -dlu'wi'yam tla-dsga'l-a'yu. wi-'-x-kwi- tle-x-luxla'ix u -wa-'wa, 
tle'-x-gwa' t -gu-'me' c -ditc." (2) a-'yu-du idza'itst tte-ka' hi-' dexe'nwe"es, wi'- 
i-du--ga'la'm, wi-'-x-gu-s-wi'-du--kla'wi. a-'yu'-du lhe' u tb-ka'-xe'nwas. 

30. 

i-du-ditc-i'lda'gwans, wi'-i-ti'm-i'lt'u, wi'-ma'i-ditc ma-i'l-kwi--ha'ma-'cl[. 
ma'i-idze'wtc-dlu-'gwa ma'-qa'nu-dja-ditc kla-'wi. (1) wi'-ma'i-kibi'ndje ma'- 
gala'yu-'dja kla-'wi tle'-kxa' 1 thi-wa-'-i'ba'xqain. we'n-ditc-du tla-kwi-'-kwa-- 
'ni'yada tla-ditc xe'nwa'es tle-x-kwi-'-xe'nwas-wa-'wa. 



94 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

31. A shaman found a pain-power hidden in a dance house 

That is why a shaman went and looked it over, he himself was first to examine 
where the people's dance house was. It was a shaman who examined it. (1) Indeed 
if a pain lay there in the dance house, then surely he got another shaman. The 
reason they knew it if it was a (certain) other shaman, the shaman shut his eyes, 
he spoke thus, "It is his! (naming him) because it (the pain-power) resembles him 
exactly." (2) That is the way they found out who was the sender of the pain. Then 
they went to get the sender of the pain-power. Indeed they watched him while he 
took it back. (3) After that the people came together there. That is why the sha- 
man examined the dance house. 

32. An Alsea shaman was forced to take back a pain-power 

The Alsea people were going to have a (dream) dance. The people came to- 
gether, and then the people danced. They went to fetch (a bucket of) water. (1) 
One (male Alsea) shaman took the bucket, and then he said, "Who put a pain-power 
in there? Come now! take it! (2) whoever you are who put it in there. There are 
many children here (who might be poisoned). Come here! take back your pain- 
power! (3) If you will not take it back, you will not live long." Indeed then that 
was what he (the guilty Alsea shaman) did. Two females (also Alseas) went to 
there (to him). (4) "You must take back your pain-power! If you do not take it, 
I myself (said one of the women) will take it" (and then you will die). So that is 
the way it was. (5) He took back his pain-power. Then those two women shamans 



31. 

x-we-'n-ditc-du tfo-du--x-i'l-a'x4ain kwr-lu-'dadaya, x-hs'lu-du hi'dji'-kwi-- 
t'lxa'ini idja' u 'wi-da mege'ntda'-lca tte-ye-'ts. x-i'l-a'x^ain-du-kwi'-t'lxa'ini. (1) 
wi'-a-'yu-yi-kxa' i -da t -tsi- / m tla-mege-'n-daye-'tsatc, wi'-a-'yu ma-'-i'l-a'xc^ain- 
ga'la'm. a'n-huwe tli-il-kwi'-mit'ssi'yada yi-x-ma-'-i'l-a'xc^am, wi'-tla-i'la'xqain 
wi-t'la-'lal-daxwa'lxwal, wi'-ws-n-tli, "hidji'm-i'1-u! na'im-ma-'tsi-gwa-hi'dji." 
(2) x-we-'n-ilkTldwa tte-ka'-nakxa'ya. wi-'-la-'dza'itc tfo-ka'-na'kxa'ya. a-'yu-du 
lu-'dadi'mi-te-m wi'-a'yu-gaga'lmu. (3) tsu'-tVma hit'cu-'nu'wi'ys-cla'-ka da'- 
qtamniyu. we-'n-ditc-du tle-x-i'1-a'xd.ain kwr-t'ixa'ini tta-megs-'n-daye-'ts. 

32. 

tsu'-hantl-mege'n-dg'-ka tfe-alsi'ya'-ka. tsu'-hit'cu-'nwiye-da'-ka, wi'-kwi-'- 
tfo-mege'n-da'-ka. tsu'-ha-'p-la-'dz9tam. (1) wi-'-kwr-tb-hi't'ci tte-iTa'xdain 
kwi-'-kwr-ga'la'm tru-x w kwe-'l, he'-ma-'tsi wa'nu"itc, "x-wi-'-kwi--ge'-giTa 
da'kxa'*? e'dji! ga'lam! (2) x-wi-na'ntl kwa-na-kwi-'-gs'-giTa. ga-'l-hi-'me-di'u. 
e'dji! ga'lam-kwa-nakxa'M (3) wi-'-i-nantl-a'N-ga'lam, wi'-an-a'ntl-he-niye dle-'- 
we." a-'yu'-me-x-wen. adzu'-hume-'lfs ge'Ma'a'yam. (4) "ga'la'm-nantl kwa- 
nakxa'M i-nantl-a'N-galam, wi-'-x-e'n-e-wantl-galam." a-'yu'-x-we-n. (5) ga'- 
la / m-tla-d8 / kxa i . wi-'-tsa-ka'n'itc tla-dalbca' 1 tle-x-hu'me-'ke-iTa'xqain, yu'-kwi-'- 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 95 

helped him with his pain, when he took it back. They were fearful of it. (6) That 
is how they found out the one who had put the pain in there, because he got it 
back himself. Had he not taken it back he would have died. (7) That is how they 
were fearful, when someone else saw their pain like that. But then other shamans 
helped them (take it back). 

33. A shaman who lost control of his pain-power 

If a shaman could not hold his pain-power, he got another old shaman. He 
was the one who assisted him when he could not hold his pain-power. Because he 
might kill his own children. (1) That is why he wanted to cool the pain-power. 
Because he was fearful lest he kill his own children with it. That is how he was un- 
able to take care of (control) it any more. (2) He might even kill himself with it 
too. That is why the other shaman helped him. 

34. At death the heart went above and the belongings of the deceased were burned 

1. When a person died and he was buried, this is what the people said. 
"It is not his skin, not his bones (that live on). His bones indeed stay right here. 
(2) But his heart, five days afterwards, that is the time that his heart leaves his 
skin (body). Then it (he) goes back up to his parents." That is what the people 
believed about a person when he died. 



galam. na'u-il-du-a'lqsa. (6) x-ws'n-il-du--ki'ldwa x-wi' tla-kwi-ge'-gi'la tla-kxa' 1 , 
na'im-yi-x-mi-'t'ci-galam. y9-a'N-dji--bi'ya wi'-c!|aya'u-du. (7) x-we'n-ditc kwi- 
il-kwr-a'lqsa, kwi-ilda'ltxa' yi-x-we-'n x-ma-'-ka'-kla-'wi. wi-x-ma-'-i'la'xq'ain- 
du tsa-'kan. 

33. 

tla-ka' i'la'xqain ya-a'nya'-tci na'qt tta-dakxa'', wi'-ma-' tg'ms-'t'k i'la'x- 
^ain-du ga'la'm. wi'-a-'yu-du-x-kwi-' tsa-'ka'n i-du-a'nya-dji'-kwi-naqt tla- 
dakxa' 1 . na-'im yuwu't's mi-'dasa-'mada hi'me ki-'ya. (1) we'n-ditc-du tla-da- 
kwi-' du-'ha'ya axi'y a tla-dakxa' 1 . na'im a'lqsa yu'wut's hi-'meda kwi"yu-ki-'ya. 
we'n-ya-a'N-dji' da-'s-lu-'dada'ya. (2) wi'-his-hi'dji qa/yau x-kwi"yvi. we'n- 
ditc-du tb-kwi-x-ma-' rTa'xd[ain tsa-'kan. 

34. 

1. i-du-ka'*-qa'yau wi'-i'bitbi'u, wi'-we-n-du-7a-'la-'nu tla'-ka. "a'n-du'- 
dze-'t'b'sda, an-du-'-la-"ma'kd9. ma--du'-da"-dlu-gwa tb-d9la-"mak. (2) wi'- 
tte-da'lu'ws, wi'-gent'ci'nsi-gaha-"ya, wi-'-t'a'ma ha'gwiya tls-x-lu'we tla-da- 
dzs't'lis. wi-'-gwa-'n-wa'si tb-dama-'ni'ya-sdja." x-we-'n-tle-x-ka" kwi--tlqa-'- 
ya tl3-ka n -4aya u . 



96 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

2. Then they burned all his garments, because they were his own garments. 
Because that was what the people's father said. "You are not to retain anything 
(of his). From it you might catch a sickness." (2) That is why the people burned 
everything of a person's garments, of a person who died. Because that is what the 
people's father told them. That is why the people burned everything of the be- 
longings of a person who had died. 



35. Seeing a person's spirit double 



1 . I went outside one evening. The moon was hanging full. I saw him (Frank) 
go down to the water to a canoe, and then there he vanished. (2) I went into the 
house. "Mother! I saw Frank. Mother!" The people all went outside and looked 
for him. But he was not there. "Aha! it must have been his spirit double there" 
(H. da'm-a-'l&s, M. da'ma-kis). 

2. The next day as I was playing I heard a baby bird. I went to there. In- 
deed it was the head of a dead person rolling along, just like 63 the way a (baby) 
bird does it. (2) I went back home. "Mother! a person's head was rolling along, 
doing it (chirping) like a bird." "Hm! A person must have been killed, and an- 
other person is going to be killed . Maybe it will be one of our relatives . " 54 

3. Now that is all of that. 



2. a'N-huwe tl9-du--kwi--gu's djict'ci-'lu tla-date-'tc, na'im-hidji'm-il-te-'tc. 
na'im x-we-'n-i'ld u wa tle-x-ka"-d9ma-'ni'ya-s. "a'n-a'ntl-du di'tc-na'qt. yu'- 
wu't's-ne x-ge't xe'nwe'es-ga'la'm." (2) we-'n-ditc tle-x-ka" ti9-du--kwi-' gu's 
t'ca-'l tle-x-ka" tte-date-'tc, tl9-ka"-qaya u . na'im-we'n-i'ld u wa tle-x-ka"-dama-'- 
ni'ya-s. ws'n-ditc-du--tl£'-x-ka" tte-kwi-'-gu-s t'ca-'l tfe-dggu-'s-didje-'nen-ditc 
tl9-ka"-qaya u . 

35. 

1. hit'ci' ga'tqai tsu'-W9si'lt'. ttel-mit'i'ya-dgs t'lu"-kwi--tsqe'. he'u-ma-'- 
tsi-u-kwi'-kla-'wi ma-'tsi-tlgu's9dJ9 kwr-ts'iyg'xeu, we'n-ge' t -a'n-ditc. (2) tsu'- 
wuds-'dje. "ni-'lca! Fraw£-wukla-'wi. ni'ka!" tsu'-gu-s-a'lt'-da'-ka' tsu'-ilwaT- 
wi. hei-ma-'tsi-a'N-da'. "ha'! ye-'gweds-x-da'-x-du." 

2. ma'-gaha-'ya-gs' alica-'nu'u'-gum hei-ma-'tsi wa'-dzgt'si-'-diki'l-ga qa- 
'wa-'ya. tsu'-wu-ge"-la. he'i-ma-'tsi e'q-da'seL gwa'lgwkr-du, i-du-we'n wa"nu 
gwa-dza't'si'i. (2) tsu'-u'wa's-i. "ni-'ka! ka"-d9S£L gwa'l-gwlai, wi'-gwa-dza'- 
t'si'i-'kwi--xa'ltsm." "m---! tsu-tsu-'-ka-"-da'-x, ma'-da-x-ha'ntl-ka"-tsu-'tsu. 
e'n • s'-fondi'tcix-ha'ntl. ' ' 

3. tsu'-tsi-kwi-'-ku-ku'wi. 



53 I.e., chirping s- s- s- like a young bird. 

"Shortly afterwards Frank was murdered by Jack Rogers and others. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 97 

36. Seeing a person's spirit double 

When I was living in Siuslau (country), and the people were having a dance, 
the next day we were sitting outside. Then the other woman went inside, while I 
stayed (outside) there alone. (1) Then indeed (another) woman went around (there) , 
she went back of some huckleberry bushes, I watched her as she went. Then I 
went into the house, and indeed there was the woman seated inside! She was a 
Siuslau woman. 

37. Thunder 

1. According to the tale, when thunder spoke they said this. "He is angry 
because they are humiliating his children." And this is how the people would speak 
to thunder. "Go on north! they are insulting your children there yonder." (2) 
Then they would leap there to where they had their tobacco, and they would throw 
it into the fire. And also a paddle, and likewise a little part of a net, various things 
they would throw into the fire. "We are compensating you. Go away ! go on north !" 
Roaring he would go indeed. That is how they did that to thunder. 

2. That was the reason why if a person saw him as if he were a person (had 
him for a power), this is the way thunder would speak to him. "When I become 
angry, you are to give that tobacco to me, and also paint. Those are the things 
I value big (highly)." (2) That is the way he would speak to the person to whom he 
talked (in a dream). That is why that person would follow (believe) that. That 
is why they threw those things into the fire. 



36. 

wi'-yxi-wu-ce'yu'ctls-dkr'gwa, wi / -msgs'nt-du--d9 / -ka M , wi-'-yu-kwi-'-gs'tem 
wi-'-qanu-dja--l-dls-'gsq. wi-'-xta'm-a tl9-ma"-hums-'!£e, wi-'-mi-'t'ci'-u-ma /t -da- 
dlu-'gwa. (1) hsi-ma-'tsi tlatc-hu-'mas da'-cya'Ttciu, da's da'Y9S9sa'adja'-kwi-- 
wi-'-du, ha'mad/wa-i'-l-a. tsu'-wads-'dje, hsi-ma-'tsi idzs'watc kwi--dlu-'gwa'itc 
tfetc-hu-'mas ! cys'yu'ctls-hu-'mas. 

37. 

1. tb-laga'wiya't'a-s, i-du-t'sa'n-a-iTat wi'-wsn-il-du-i'ld u wa. "bs'lsxsnu- 
tsa-'-du na'im-ilhu-'dat tta-dihi-'ms." wi'-wsn-du-i'ld u wa tle-x-ka" tfo-t'sa'n-a. 
"bi'ldjs-la'ya'qa 1 . gs"-hu-'dst tli-nihi-'ms." (2) tsu-'-il-du-tVma gs"-xwa'ilu 
idja'u-tli-ildida'ha 1 , wi'-hs'milt'idjs il-du-x^wa' 1 . wi'-his-t'ls'hs, wi'-his-s-'lj- 
da't'lais, ma"-ditc kwi-i'1-du-hs'milt'idjs x u kwa'it. "skida-'mi-'lin. i-'gsM bi'l- 
dje-la'ya'qaM" a-'yu'-du-la'-dagwa'ls-t. x-ws-'n-il-du-wa-'wa tla-t'sa'n-a. 

2. a'n-huws tsi-tla-ka"-kwi / ka'a'i-kla-'wi, wi / -ws-'n-i'ld u wa tls-x-t'sa'n-a. 
"yu-wa'ntl du-bs'lsxs-nu, wi-'-lu-tci'l-hantl-du-ni'm da'ha 1 , ws-'n ma'lqs. kwi-'- 
tla wa-'ga-ditc s'ni." (2) we'n i'ld u wa tie-Ka" l&i'ya'ysis. x-ws-'n tle-x-ka" 
kwi-tlqa-'ya. we'n-ditc-du tli-il-kwi' hs'milt'i'djs lu'-x u kwait. 



98 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

3. The reason they did not shame thunder, (was) because he was just like 
our own father to us, that is the way thunder was too. Thunder also took care of 
them (of the fish) in the same manner, just as our father watched over us. (2) If 
you did not believe in thunder (saying insultingly), "Ha! it is only thunder! why 
should I fear it?" then sure enough lightning would fall on such a person, and it 
would kill him. That is why the people followed (believed) that strongly. 

38. Encounter-power 

1. This is the way we always speak when we tell our children about it. No 
matter how bad it (the encounter) be, even if they are not good (encounters). 
Even then they tell their children that way. (2) "Go round about outside! Fear 
nothing ! No matter how bad (fearful) it may be, you are to go nevertheless right 
to it there, (perhaps) to the ocean, (or perhaps) to a lake, no matter how bad it 
may be. You must not fear it. (3) If there are tree snags (or stumps) at the lake, 
if there is a huckleberry bush on it, you should swim to it there. It indeed will make 
a fine hand game stick. You might become rich with it, if you encounter such a 
thing." (4) Even though (they are) young girls they will nevertheless tell such 
things to them. And indeed that is what they (girls) themselves do. That is the 
way a girl at puberty goes around, swims, (and) encounters a ('luck-power') per- 
son indeed. (5) She might obtain money (with her 'encounter-power'), she might 
obtain a husband (with it). That is what makes them become wealthy. That is 
the way the children believe their parents. 

2. Now that is all of that. 



3. a'n-huws tli-il-t'sa'n-a a'n-i'lhu-dat, na'im-his-kwi'-x-we-n dji"-tli-me- 
Vn-e ma-'ni'ya-s, his-kwi'-x-we-n tfe-t'sa'n-a. hi's-kwi'-x-wen-hr'dida-'ya tle- 
x-t'sa'n-a, x-dji' tlH-u-'didi'midu-n tlHngx-e'n-e-ma-'ni'ya-s. (2) wi'-i-na-a'N- 
tlqa-'ya tb-t'sa'n-a, "ha'! ma-'tsi t'sa'n-a! ma-'-da-wa'ntl kwr-a'lqsa?" hs'-du'- 
a-'yu"itc hidju-'wi hi'-tu-'ya tfo-lu'wa-q w , ws'n-x-kwi--tsa u . x-we'n-ditc tfo-x- 
ka" kwi- H'n-wi tlda'ya. 

38. 

1. x-we'n-du-tlH-kwi' ws'n-il-dwa-tli-ldihi-'me. ma'i-a'N-we'n'andja, ma'i- 
il-du-a'N-we'n'andja. ma'i-il-du-ws'n-i'1-dwa ildihi-'me. (2) "qa'nu-yuxwu'm-e- 
'ni-'yix! a'n-ditc s'lqse! ma'i-hantl-du-a'N-we-n-didji'nu-dja, ma-na'ntl-du-- 
ge'Ma, ba'ldi-micdja, st'li-'sidja, ma'i-hantl-du-a'N-we-n. ana'ntl-du-kwi-'-a'lqsa. 
(3) ya-ha'ntl-du-nikl'nla'ma st'H-'sitc, wi-'-na^a-'s-d^iiki'ns, ge M -nantl-du-mi'l-- 
tim. wi'-a'yu-ha'ntl-du-ke-'le-da'qsai. wi'-yuwu'dzan-kwi'yu-'-hedi'ys, i-nantl- 
di'tc-t'lxa'nxi." (4) ma'i-du-hu'ms-ke-hi-'me ma-i'l-du-we-'n-i'ldwa hi's-kwi-'. 
a'yu-du-ma'-x-we-'n. we-'ntc-du-tfe-tit'se-'was yix-u'me, dzasdla-'d.ai, a'yu-du- 
ka"-t'lxa'nxi. (5) yuwu't's-hada'i'mas, yuwu't's-de-'mal. wi'-a'yu-du-xge't- 
hedi'ye. x-we'n-du-tb-kwi-'-tlqa'ya tfo-x-hi-'me tli-ildama-'ni'ya-s. 

2. tsu'-tsi--we-'s. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 99 

39. 'Angel-bird's' eye 

They find an angel-bird's eye, when it drops onto a house during the night. 
No matter how dark the night they find it when they hear it drop. (1) They do 
indeed find it. But they do not bring it inside. They just wrap it up, they deposit 
it in the roots (stump) of a tree. That is what they call a good-luck charm. (2) If 
you bring it inside the house that would not be good, you would not get anything 
(luck) for it, you would only become poor. That is why they hide that good-luck- 
charm outside. 



40. A dream 66 

1 . We children were playing and running. It was as if I stepped on something, 
and then I fell. Those children carried me and took me home. I was sick for some 
time, I dreamed constantly, I could not sleep. 

2. (I dreamed) a person dressed in black, a fine looking man, entered. He 
carried me out. A good block of wood lay there, he placed me on it there. (2) (He 
took) a small axe from his pocket, with it he split open my leg. That is what he 
did to it. He took out of it something like an angle worm. He held it in his hand, 
there the angle worm wriggled. (3) This is what he said then. "Do you see the 
grass standing there ? Tell your mother to cut (your leg) with glass, then she may 
wash your leg with that (grass)." Then this is what he said, "Do you know me? 



39. 

ya-'gals-daxwa'lxwal hr-du'-gitki'l-at, wi'-i-du-ye'tsadje tu-'ya ma'iqbm. 
ma'i-ha'n-dliya ma-i / l-du--kTld u wa i-il-du--qa'wa-'ya tu-'ya. (1) wi'-a-'yu-il- 
du- ki'ld u wa. wi'-an-i'l-du-didza-'ya. ma'tsi-il-du--ma-'i7i, wi'-niki'n-dalibi"- 
gesadJ9 i'ltba-'ts. wi'-we'n-illa-'t'ci'yada misxu-'wi. (2) i-idzu-'dje ditdji'yu 
wi'-an-ke-'le-ditc, ani'-ditc-ge"ga / la'm, ma-'tsi-nakwi-'ne'wet'l. we-'n-ditc tte-du 
kwi-' qa'nu sdle-'nen tli-iidamisxu-'wi. 

40. 



1. hi-'me-l alica-'nida-l wi-'-xwi-'dadi'l. he'yu-ma-'tsi gwa--di'tc tsxa', 
he'u-ma-'tsi-wutu-'ya'u. wi-'-tVm-dzi-n i'l-wu-tb-x-hi-'ms wi'-wasadi-'n'i'l'u'. 
wi'-he-'niye-waxe'nwas, gu-'s-mi'n-udzit'si-'7ai, an-wa'-dji-'-ge-'ql. 

2. he / i-ma-'tsi-ka"-de- / djs hs'ndtas-date-'tc nahe-'wudzan-de'mal. he'i-ma-'- 
tsi-x-kwi'-t'i'm-dzu-'n. hs'i-ma-'tsi-kV'ls-ni'kin da'-tsi-'m, wi'-gs^-wutsu-'dzi-n. 
(2) he'i-ma-'tsi-e-'k" tb'tlt'u tfo-dex-kwa'^kwi-'nu, wi'-x-kwi'yu-'-kwi-ya'uqt tfo- 
'nd.ii'l • e. wi'-ma -'tsi-we'n-wa -'tsan . h e'i-ma -'tsi-gwa-gu'wem -ditc-ha'l -gwi'ya. 
wi'-kila'nuds-na'qt, da'-yuxu'm-e' tte-gu'wem. (3) tsu'-we-n-tli'. "ha'macini'i' 
kwitc-e'-bmi-'m-la'n-ik? we'n-antl-i'1-dwa kwa-ne'e'ne gwi-'cdu--n: 'ntl, tsu'- 
hantl-t'9 / m-a-kwi / 'yu--sdla / ^ai kwg-nadji'le." he'i-ma- / tsi-we-'n-tli"itc, "mit'sa- 



B5 Mrs. Peterson dreamed this when five or six years of age. After awakening she told the dream 
to her mother who applied the glass and grass as the dream advised. Annie recovered rapidly, 
she said. 



100 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

(4) I am the father of the people (God). I came just to help you." He just stood 
there, and then he vanished, after he had spoken thus. 

41. A dream 66 

I dreamed last night. My dream was funny (queer). Two girls were playing, 
while playing she (one of them) spoke in Miluk. She said to the other girl, "This 
is my doll!" (1) It was in Miluk that she said it. Then I (myself) said to her (also 
in Miluk), "Whose child are you?" Whereupon she replied thus, "My mother's 
name is 'One-eyed.' " (2) "Oh ! I have never known a person (named) 'One-eyed !' 
Then I woke up. 

42. Snow is the ashes from the hearth of the giant spider 

This is how the Indians accounted for it when it snowed. "Oh ! I guess the giant 
spider is throwing (shoveling) out his ashes, now it is snowing." That is how the 
people spoke about the snow. (1) "I suppose giant spider is sweeping out his ashes." 
That is the way the people spoke of the snow, when it snowed. They said it was the 
ashes of the giant spider. 



si'daina'i'? (4) ka' t -d9ma-'ni'ya-'s-u'. tsi-'-'natsa-'ki'nda-'mi." he'i-ma-'tsi- 
ma^-da-stu-'q, we'n-an-ma'tsi-an-ditc, da'-daqfe'm-ni'yu tfo-we-'n i'l-at. 

41. 

tk-'-qla'm wu'nagwa'nse. dja-ne-'wet'l-ditc nagwa'ns. adzu'-gwe'e'k" da'- 
alica'ni-'da, he'i-ma-'tsi mi'lu'gwi i'l-at i-a'lica-'nu. l^xi'ya'ye'is tfotc-ma-'- 
gwe'ek\ "di-' e'ne-'na'a'lakT' (1) x-mi'1-u'gwi kwi'-wi-'-we'n-i'lat. tsu'-wuda-'- 
W "wi'-yi'ml kTlga-"-n9?" he'i-ma-tsi-we'n-tli'itc, "hi-'t'ci-'-duxwa'lxwal da'- 
s-an tte-'ng'e'ns." (2) "u'! an-u"m9t's9si'yada kwg-ka" hi't'ci-duxwalxwal !" 
wi '-ma • ' tsi-udla'nl£ts . 

42. 

x-ws-'n-du-laga'wiyadani-'da tls'-ka" i-du-sdl'li'yam. "'a'! tsu'-da'-x-gu'm 
xt'a-'-di'ktsa-s tle-x-wa-'-wa"at'l, sdl'li'yam-gum." x-we-'n-il-du-i'ld u wa tls'- 
x-ka" tb'-sdla-'lis. (1) "tsu'-da-x-gum t'lca'-di'ktsa-s tle-x-wa-'-wa"at'l." we'n- 
il-du-i'ld u wa tb-sdla-'lis tle'-x-ka'\ i-du-sdl'li'yam. gwa-'-x-tsa-'-du wa-wa'- 
'at'lda ktsa-'s. 



56 This is a dream Mrs. Peterson had the night before dictating it. She was amused mainly 
at the circumstance that she should dream of talking in Miluk which she had used so little since 
childhood. I asked her whom she had known who was one-eyed; she responded by naming old 
Lizy and Lizy's son Pike (who was nicknamed yu-'t'se-'ni, 'one-eyed'), both Miluks and both 
lacking the use of one eye. Apparently there is no close association between the manifest dream 
content and the easily elicited recollection of one-eyed natives. In short, my acquaintance with 
Mrs. Peterson is not adequate for hypothetic analysis of the dream. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 101 

43. Anger at seeing a rainbow 

"I see a rainbow. Humph! someone must be giving birth. That is why the 
rainbow is in the form of a bow." That is what was said if such a rainbow were 
seen. (1) "Rich person's children ! (a violent oath) they are always doing something 
(having births), and then indeed it is always raining." That is how they were 
angry, when it was raining and the rainbow made a bow like that. 

44. Djixwa'nt'e 

Long ago when the moving people (the whites) first came here, the moving 
people stealthily-attacked-bef ore-dawn the (Lower Coquille) Indians (above Ban- 
don Prairie). They killed women and all. Others they did not kill. The boy babies 
the white people killed, the boy babies they killed. (1) At that time djixwa'nte 
was a child. His paternal aunt had him (after the death of his parents in the Co- 
quille massacre) . His garments were a girl-child's. That is the sort of clothes his 
aunt made for him, so then the moving people did not kill him. But both his par- 
ents were killed by the moving people. (2) He was already big when they drove 
the Indians (north) . Then he and his paternal aunt would hide. That is how they 
remained alive. He was (still) a boy when they drove the people. (3) So his pater- 
nal aunt raised him then. The name of his paternal aunt was hu-'muji'nen ('old 
woman'). That is how they were at Ya'hatc. Now some one (else) got him, and 
he grew up there at that place. When he had grown up dji-xwa'nt'e began to have 
an affair with Popeyes (whose nickname was due to an accident with a fire tong) . 



43. 

"u-'yu ukla-'wi. he'! idja'u-da-x ka' tlhwi'ya. na'u da kwi u-'yu tryi-'lel." 
x-we'n-du iTat i-du-lu' kla-'wi tta-u-'yu. (1) "he-'ds-dihi-'me! gus-mi'n-du a'N- 
hu'dzi-da, a'yu-du-gus-mi'n i'leq." x-we'n-il-du bs'le'xe-nu, i-du-i'le-q we'n- 
u'yu-da'-thi-'lel. 

44. 

tls-he-'niys tte-ntsle-'ne-'-ka' al-a'yu-kwi ge'sds'eye, wi-'-kwi- tli-il-kwi sda'u- 
q w ts tfe-ka" tk-x-ntsls-'ne-'-ka'. wi'-kwi-i'lka'i n9hu'me-'kYe"yu. wi-'-tli-i'l- 
a'n-ka-'i-da'e'stis. wi-'-tla-ti'm-li-hi'me wi-'-kwi --tla-xa-qa'ya-ka 5 wi'-tli-ilka-'i- 
tkV-ka\ wi'-tla-ti'mli-hi'me wi-'-kwi-ilka'i. (1) wi'-kwi-tla-djixwa'nt'e wi'- 
tVma-ki'lga. wi-'-x-at'a-'di-yuxwu'na. wi-'-hi-'me-hu'me-'lis-date-'tc. hi-'-di'- 
tetc-wa-'wa tla-dex-a't'a, a'yu'-il-a'N-tsa-'u tle-x-ntsle-'ne-'-ka'. ga'i-tta-dama-'- 
'niyas-ge-' wi-'-kwi'-il-misa'-illa-'ya tle-x-ntsle-'ne-'-ka\ (2) wi-'-kwi- ma'n-gigwa- 
t'su-'nis tte'-hitchit'cu-'yu-da'-ka*. x-ws-'n tla-kwi'-ilsa'dlani-'m'il-du tb-da'a'ta. 
x-ws-'n-ditc tli-il-hi'dji gwi-'du. wi-'-di"lu't'l tli-hitchit'cu-'yu-da'-ka'. (3) wi-'- 
x-we-n x-a't'a'd9-kwi--ha-'wiya. wi-'-we-n-di'saN tla-da'a't'a hu-'mil^i'nen. wi-'- 
x-ws-n tb-kwi ya-'xadja. wi-'-x-kuwi'-il-kwi-yuxwu'na'aya, wi-'-da"-kwi--he-'- 
wi. wi'-ya-he'wi wi-'-kwi--tl3-tcu-'wa"tc9S kwi-'ye da-ha'ihaya'na-'ya tle-x- 



102 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

(4) They caught the two of them within a clump of nettles. They were lying 
together there, and they found them there. They were going to kill him, but his 
two paternal aunts (and also a sister) paid for his life. So then they did nothing to 
him. (5) They (her family) did not want him to marry Popeyes (neither family 
wanted the marriage because she was from a branch of a chief's family, he was 
from poorer well-to-do people). Her brother brought her to here (to Coos Bay). 
Then a moving person married her (one Crawford purchased her) . Then dji-xwa'nt'e 
married Fat Face (Minny, sister of Kitty Hayes). (6) Now they were all living 
here at Empire. The (maternal) relatives of Popeyes all died, dji-xwa'nte and his 
aunts went to the Lower Coquille to live, and with his sisters dji-xwa'nte lived 
there too (near Prosper). (7) Now Popeyes left her (white) husband (asserting 
that he had been mean to her), her two white person (half-breed) children (with 
her) , and she too went to the Lower Coquille, because the father of Popeyes was 
there, her father bi'ndi'dza-s. Now she was beginning to consort again with her 
former lover. Then dji-xwa'nt'e left his wife (Fat Face). (8) It was her very own 
relatives who took her (Fat Face's) husband from her (the relatives of Popeyes 
were also her relatives). His wife had one child. She left there and returned to 
Empire (after giving Popeyes a thrashing), because her relatives lived there. Her 
baby died there (aged one year: they said it cried to death for missing its father). 
Now Popeyes was his wife. (9) Then his first wife (Fat Face) died too. So dji-- 
xwa'nt's continued to live on the Lower Coquille. There Popeyes and dji-xwa'nt'e 
had many children. Then dji-xwa'nts also died there (about 1924), and then his 
wife likewise died (about 1930, aged in the eighties). (10) It is not very long ago, 



dji-'xwa'nt'e. (4) wi'-kwi'-itctlxi'nxiya wa'lad^as-daga'la'yu-dja. ge /t -itctsi-'m, 
wi-'-ge'-itcgiTya. wi-'-kwi--tli-iltsantsa- / u, tsi-tte-dax-at'i-'yada-s x-kwi-'-kwi-iltsla- 
tsu'wit'a. wi'-a'yu' il-a'N-dji-xa'li. (5) an-i'ldu-'ha"ya hi'dji kwr-da'hu-mis tla- 
tcu'wa"tcas. wi'-ge'sde-dzi'nwe u x-he't'le-'da. wi'-ma-'tsi-ntsle-'ne-'-ka' kwi-'- 
ye-dihu-'mis. wi'-tla-djixwa'nt'e wi-'-tla'l-a'u'e kuwi'-wamsts. (6) we'n-ma-'tsi 
ge'sde'-ilmit'lda-'ya-'s ha-'nisa'dja. wi'-ku'mts tte-didi'tc tfo-tcu-'wa^tcas. wi'- 
q w ci'dje ge"-ildb'q w siM tli-ildji-xwa'nt'e tla-da'a't'a, we'n-kwa-dakwe-'ne't'teme 
wi-'-his-hi'dji da"-dlu-'gwa tta-djixwg'nt'e. (7) wi-'-ta--d9'ds-mil tls-x-tcu-'wa"- 
tcas, adzu-'-da'ntsle-'ne-'-ka-hi-'me, tsg-tsu'-his-hi'dji q w ci'dje'-la, na'im-da'-de'e'le 
tb-tcu-'wa'^tcas, tla-da'e'le da" dibi'ndi'dza-s. wi'-ma-'tsi kuwi'-anya hu-t'su'wa 
tla-daqe-'l-t'ci-'le. we'n-kwi--ha-'gwiya tfo-dahu-'mis tle-x-dji-xwa'nt's. (8) ma'- 
itc-didji'nu ma-'-kwr-la'ya-dade-'mil. hit'ci-'-diki'lga tla-dahu-'mis. wi-'-xget- 
i-'ge' ha-ni-'cdja-wa's-i, na / im-ge-dk- / geq-tb-d9ma- / ni"yas. wi-'-da-qVya u tfo- 
diki'lga. wi'-ma-tsi-'ya tcu'wa'tcas-dahu-'mis. (9) wi'-his-tla-dahe'lu-hu-'mis 
wi'-his-kwi'-qVya u . wi'-tla-dji-xwa'nt'e wi'-ma M -gu'gwis leqle'm. wi'-da^-ga- 
fo'lya-i'tcdihi-'me tli-itc-tcu-'wa' t tc9S tla-djixwa'nt'e. wi'-his-hi'dji da"-qa'ya u 
tb-djixwa'nt'e, wi'-his-tl9-d9hu-'mis-qa'ya u . (10) a'n-ha-he-'niye, gwa-da'-t'i-'c- 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 103 

perhaps about ten years, that they both died. Now they are all dead, (excepting) 
one woman and one man. They are the only ones living of the children of dji-xwa'nte. 
That is all I know of that. 

45. Qe'icec, 'Batter,' told about her own life in these words 

1. I was just a girl when I was bought in marriage. They delivered me (to 
my husband) there in Upper Hanis (village). My husband was good (to me), but 
my husband's wife was jealous and mean. (2) So then I ran away, but I was de- 
livered back again (to him). That was the way I lived there. 

2. When I became a fully grown woman we moved down river to Hanis 
(village). People came for a shinny game. He spoke to me, "Miluk (woman of 
mine) ! Go join them and play shinny with the women." (2) "But I do not care to 
go." "Oh do go (play) with them." He stroked my hair. My hair always had been 
(attractively) wavy. (3) So then I thought, "Humph! When I was a child that 
(game of shinny) was what I grew up with (i.e., I am an experienced player). We 
lived on the (Charleston) beach (and there we children played shinny). Indeed I 
will go anyway." Oh my husband was indeed happy then. (4) He helped me dress 
up, he put shells on my neck. Ever since I had been a child shinny was what I had 

played. They all hallooed (he-' i — applause upon my entry) when I went in to 

the game. Then the head woman (said), "Who will be the batter?" (5) I raised my 
hand. Again the people hallooed (hu'hu'hu'hu'hu'hu' — rapid, falsetto, indicating 
delight). Indeed now the people (women) began the shinny game. I was the bat- 
ter myself. (6) My husband was delighted indeed. From then on I myself was his 
principal wife. That was when they named me Batter, because I was good at that. 



dji-idzi'mis, tli-itc-misa / -6 1 a / ya u . wi-'-gu-'s-ye'-ilqa'ya u , hit'ci'-hu-'mis we'n- 
hit'ci-de-'mil. kuwi'-tla gwi-'det tla-djixwant'e'-dihi-'me. we's-wu-tla-kwa-"ni- 
yada. 

45. 

1. hi-'me'-u a'iwa thi-utlu-'thi-'yu. daga'^ha-'ni-'cdja ge'-wuhe'mildji'u. 
wi'-ke-'le tla-ande-'mil, wi'-tla-'ndji'lwe' wi'-maqa'lis a'N-we-n. (2) wi-'-kwr-du 
tlwa'ha's-wi-du, wi'-da-'s-wu-du-he'milt'cu. x-we-'n tlu-wu-da"-dlu-'gwa. 

2. he-'wi-hu-'misi'ye'u tsu-'-lga'igayu ha-'ni-'cdja. tsu'-na'uhi'nu-'dji--da'- 
ka\ tsu-'-we-n-i'ldu-n, "kwi'tc-mi'luk ! ige-'k-nantl hu'me-ke-hantl-nauhi''nu." 
(2) "a'N-wu'tke-'ye." "a' ige-'k-nantl." tsu'-tsha'i tb-'naha-'mis. be'idzets-du 
gu's-mi'N tH-'niha-'mis. (3) tsu'-we'n-'nlu'we, "huM tla-wu-hi-'me x-hi'yu'-wu- 
he'wi. ba'ldiya--lleqlu-'t'tsim. a-'yu'-la-wa'ntli." hu' gwa-a'N-kV'le tla-'nde-'- 
mil. (4) a'yu'-wudzi-'tsdu'n, qa'ldzi-wa'n'u. hi-'me'ewe-wu-hi--na'alica-ni"wa-s 
tla-na'uhiN. gu-s-wi'-k'aTa yi-wute-'ixe u . tsu'-tle-hele'yu-hu-'mis, "wi-ha'ntl- 
qa'icici'ya'wa?" (5) ku-'wi'ya'u niki'lan. asu'-da-s-ba'y-a-da'-ka. a-'yu nau- 
hi'na- / wi"wa da'-ka\ a-'yu-we-e'n-e da'icici'ya'wa. (6) a-'yu gwa-a'N-ke-'le 
tte-'nde-'mil. xge't e'n-e'-u dasiki'nen-hu-'mis x-t'i'mi-du-'we. we-'n wasi'n-sa-nu 



104 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

I had grown up from childhood (playing shinny) like that, because we lived at the 
(Charleston) beach. 

3. (That was how she told her narrative.) 

4. When my husband became medicine (i.e., when he died), I remained a 
widow a long time, and I was a widow when the moving people (the whites) (came). 
When they began to drive us around we no longer had good days (good times and 
pleasures). All my children died, and (some of) my relatives. 

5. (That was the way Batter told her tale.) 

6. After that all my relatives died. Then I married Steven (an Upper Hanis) 
and he was my husband. I lived a long time with him (and his other wives), and 
then my husband died again. Once more I was alone. 

7. That is why Batter is my name, because I never missed a ball when I 
struck at it. That is the reason they named me Batter. 

46. Annie Miner Peterson 

1. Long, long ago when they (the whites) began to drive the people (onto 
reservations), my mother at that time had an Indian husband. She had had six 
children already (three by her first husband, a Hanis Coos). Her (second) husband 
(from Gardiner, on the Lower Umpqua) had a number of wives. (2) That husband 
of hers shot her (using a shotgun) (because) the other wives had lied about her 
(being jealous of her greater favor with him). When she recovered she left her hus- 
band, because he had almost killed her for nothing. That is why she left. When she 
returned here (to Coos country) to her parents, a white man came and wanted my 
mother. 



qe'icec, na'im-u-kY'ls tta-hi-'dje. x-hi-'me'ews u-we-'n-he-'wi, na'im-1-ba'ldiya- 
leqlu-'t'tsim. 

3. (x-ws-'n du-laga'wiyat'a-'nu.) 

4. wi'-yu-kwi-'-le-'Hys tla-'nde-'mil, wi'-kwi-he-'niye-u-kwe-'ne't'l, wi'-kwe-'- 
ne't'l-u tta-ntsle-'ne-'-ka. x-kwi-'ye-'-lhitchit'cu-'n a'nya--l-da-'s kYls-'-lnaga- 
ha'is. gu-'s-kwi--ku'mts tli-'nihi-'me, we'n-tla-'nama-'ni'yas. 

5. (x-we-'n-du-laga'wiyat'a'na tla-qs'icec.) 

6. wi-da'-qlamniyu gu-'s-ku'mts tta-'nama-'ni'yas. wi-'-sti-'min wuda'm- 
Its wi--kwi-'ye-'nds-'mil. wi-hs-'niys-u-gu'M-da'^-dlu-'gwa, tsu'-gum-his-ku'wi 
qVyau tla-'nde-'mil. da-'s-u-gum-mi-t'cu-'ye. 

7. a'n-x-hu'ws tle-qe'icsc ni'saN, tsi'-u-du'-ge-a'N tsa'ltts tle-kwe-'sis yu- 
wu-du-gacqVyac. we-'n-ditc tla-u'-kwi'yu'-si'n-sa-nu qe'icsc. 

46. 

1. tle-he-'-niye kwi-'-dzatsb'n^he'mi'ys tla-ka", wi'-tfo-'na'e'ne tVma ka"- 
dade-'mil. x-we-'n-ditc tb-kwi-'-ma'n-hi't'ci'-x-ge'ye-dSahi-'me. wi-ga-'l-dahu'- 
me-'k tte-dade-'mil. (2) wi-'-kwi- tte-gum-kxa'-tb-dax de-'mil ma-'-hume-'lieda- 
hswese-'t'. wi'-i-me' u wi-'-ha-'gwiya tb-dade-'mil, nayi'm-ami'sgi kwi-ga-s-tsa'u. 
x-we-'n-ditc tb-kwi-i-'ge 1 . i'-ge'sds-we-'st tb-da'ma-'ni'ya-cdja, wi-'-ge'^-kwi-- 
dji'-tb-ba'stani wi'-x-kwi'-du'ha'ya tla-'na'e'ne. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 105 

2. Among the Indians if the husband held all her children she did not have 
to have him for her husband any longer. If she wanted another man she could take 
him. She could have another husband, because it was virtually as if she had paid 
for herself (when she gave him his own three children). (2) That is why there was 
not a thing that he could do, because he himself held all the children. That was the 
custom of the people. It was just like the way the moving people (the whites) 
erased their marking (obtained divorce papers). And that is how the people were 
when they threw each other away (separated). 

3. Now then she took him (a white man named Miner) for her husband. 
(They lived near the village of wu'le"ntc, the present Cooston). She gave birth 
to babies, her babies were twins. She almost died from that, one (baby was born) 
dead, and I myself lived. They did not tell my father that one baby was born 
dead. (2) Some one else told him, and he was angry that they had not told him. 
My mother herself was angry also, that he should scold her for that, (when) she 
had almost died. Now the soldiers came and drove the people together (north). 
(3) They took her relatives and her children (the first three, which were then grow- 
ing up in the care of her mother) . My father was never at home, he worked at a 
cutter (a saw mill). Six days, every (sixth) day then he would come back home. 
So then she followed her relatives (to Ya'hatc), and she took me along. (4) And 
indeed my father had wanted to take me there to his sister's place, but my mother 
did not want that. When my father came back (on a week end) he found no one. 
My mother had left there, she had followed her parents to Ya'hatc, to where the 
people had been moved. 



2. tfo-ka" i-du-x-de-'mil gu-'s-na'qt kwa-dihi-'me a'n-du"-da-s kwi-dide-'- 
mil. yi-ma-'-du-'ha'ya wi-'-kwr-ga'lam. ma-"aya-d9de'mil, he'ni-l£is-kwi"yu 
tsltsu'wit'a tte-dat'e'. (2) x-ws-'n-ditc tla-a'N-dji kwi--d9'didja-'ni"wa-s, na'im- 
x-hi'dji gu-'s-na'qt tla-hi-'ms. x-we'n-tla-ka'* tli-ildata-'ma-'lis. heni-'kis-x-we-'n 
dji'-tfo-ntsls-'ne-'-ka' ya'it'ct-dilt'a'ya u . his-kwi'-x-wen tfo-ka" i-t9tsi'me u . 

3. wi'-a-'yu kwi-'ys-dede-'mii. wi-'-kwi-niki'lgidi'yeq\ t'silki'n-dSahi-'me. 
wi-'-x-kwi' ga-s-tsa'u, hi't'ei'-e'q, we'n-e'n-e-udle-'we. wi'-an-i'lsgu-'ya tl9-'n9- 
Yle tb-kwi'-hi't'ei e'q hwutlhwi'yu tli-lji'lga. (2) wi-'-kwi-x-ma-'-kwi--sgu-'ya, 
wi-'-kwi-xan'u'nam tli-il-kwi'-aN-sgu-'ya. wi-'-tfe-'ngx-e'ne wi'-his-hi'dji xan- 
'wu'nam, tle-x-kwi'ys''nu kwi'-i'tctu'wa, ma-'-gas-da'yau. wi-'-kwi--tl3-su-'li's 
dji'ni'yam tlg-kwi-hitchit'cu'yu tlg'-ka". (3) wi-'-la"a tb-d9ma-'ni'ya's ws-'n- 
tlg-dgka" hi-'me. wi-'-tb-'na'e'le an-du-dlu-'gwa, ka-kti'yu du-dzi-'dzs. hit'ei- 
x-gs'ye-gaha'is, ds'ngs-da"-gaha'is du'wu'swa-'sda 1 . x-we'n u'mida-t'a tfo-da- 
ma-'ni'yas, wi-'-la'a'in'w. (4) hi's-tfo-'nex-e'ls wi-'-du-'ha'ya ge'-w u la'a'in th- 
dakwens't'ladja, wi'-a'n-x-wen du-'ha"ya tb-'nex-s'ne. wi'-yu-ws-'st tla-'na'e'- 
le wi'-a'N-wi"-ki'ld u wa. i-'ge 1 tb-'na'e'ne, u'mida-'t'a tl3-dama-'ni"yas ya-'xadja 
kwi--dzitsli-'nu tls'-ka". 



106 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

4. I did not know Ya'hatc (well) , because we were (part of the time) at Ya- 
quina, and also at Siletz. There (at Yaquina) I first began to notice things. And 
we also used to stay at Siletz with the Miluks gathered there. (2) There where the 
bridge now crosses over at Siltez, there the Lower Coquilles were gathered. Then 
my mother and numbers of the Lower Coquille people went back to Yaquina again. 
Then my mother's (fourth) husband (a Lower Coquille) became ill, and then her 
husband died. She had one child (Agnes) from that husband. 

5. I was just a little child (at Yaquina). It is as if I awakened from sleep, 
and my mother was washing me. I must have been doing something (playing) in 
the mud, and she was washing my head. (I was) just (covered with) mud. (2) That 
is the first thing I remember. (My mother also was weeping and commiserating 
me for being fatherless) . I must have been doing something in the mud, when I 
was a child, for I was never in the house, I was always doing things outside, with- 
out clothes, in brush, timber, water. But I was never in the house. Only at night 
was I in the house. 

6. Now we returned to Ya'hatc, and we lived there with my mother's own 
relatives. We never went to Yaquina again. I suppose I was about six years old 
when we left Yaquina. We stayed at Ya'hatc. (2) We lived poorly, we had nothing, 
we had no food, only just some Indian foods. That is how we lived at Ya'hatc. 
The Indians' head man (i.e., the United States Indian agent at Ya'hatc, named 
Collins) did not look after us. (3) We had no clothes, we had to wear any old thing. 
That is how I grew up. Once the Indians' head man (Collins) when I was about 



4. wi-'-an-u'mit'ssi'yada tb-ya-'xatc, na'yi'm-1-du yuqu-'ne leqlu-'ttsim, 
we'n-his-cile-'t'citc. da"-wu-hs'lu--ditc kwa"niyada'a'ya. wi-'-his-tb-ci'le-t'c- 
itc x-we-'n da-'-l-du-leqlu-'ttsim tb-miTuk hit'ce-'wi. (2) da'^-di-le' 1 qslqs'L da" 
ge-'leL kwa-ci'le-'t'citc da" tb-gwasi'ya hit'cu'we". wi-'-da-'s-gum-yuqu-'ne'edjs 
wusgsi'yam tb-'na'e'ne we'n-ga-1 tb-gw9si'ya-ka\ wi-'-kwi--xe'nxenu tb-da- 
de-'mil tb-'na'e'ns, wi-'-qa'ya u tb-dade-'mil. hit'ci'-diki'lga xgs't tbtc-ku'wi- 
de-'militc. 

5. tli'-u-gwa-hi-'me. wi'-kwi-u-gwa'*-dla'nkts, wi'-dzasdleqe'in wu'-tb-'nax- 
e'ne. tlbe'getc-da'-x-u-gum a'n-hu-t'su-'tim, wi'-dzu-t'sa'u tb-'niss'L. ma-'tsi- 
tlbe-'q. (2) x-we-'n-wu-he'lu-ditc-kila-'l. an-da'-x-u'-gum-hu-t'su-'tim tlbe-'- 
getc, tta-wu-hi-'me, a'n-u'-mi'N idze-'watc. gu-s-mi'N-u qa'nu-an-hu-t'su-'tim, 
a'mi-t'la-'ha-'was, lin-i'kitc, nakwi-'na, ha-'rMtc. da'-wu-du an-u'-mi'N-idze-'- 
watc. qli'm-tla-'-du wu'-idze-'watc. 

6. wi-'-tsu--l-ya'xatca-bi-'na't's, wi'-da'a'ya-'-l-tsu mi-'disama-didji'nu tla- 
'na's'ne. wi-'-de-'wu'n-l yuqu-'ne'dje-la'. gwa'-da-hit'ci'-x-geye' ni'idzi-'mis tli-'- 
l-ge't-i-'ge' tls-x-yuqu-'ne. ya-'xadjiya-ldle-'geq. (2) kwi-"ne'wet'l li-'ldle-'geq, 
ami-'-l-ditc, ami'-l-qwa'n-ya u , ma-'tsi-ha-ka' t -d3qw3'nya u -ditc. x-we-'n-l-dle-'- 
geq il-ya-'xadjiya a'n-lu-'didi'mi-du-n tle-x-ka'^-disiki'nsn. (3) a'n-l-nte-'tce, 
ma--du'-ditc-i'ln3t'la-'hawas. x-ws-'n la' nahe'we. wi-'-kwi mi'nt'ci tb-ka"- 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 107 

seven years of age said my father had been shipwrecked, he had died where people 
ate people, in that place (some Pacific island) my father had been drowned. (4) 
That is what he told my mother. I did not know what father meant, because we 
never called our mother's husband father. We called him father's brother. That 
is why I did not know (what they meant) when they said that my father had died. 
That is how I grew up. 

7. I became a young woman (passed puberty). I was bought in marriage by 
Thick Mouth (a Hanis), whose white name was Gammon. They bought me for 
(his nephew) my husband, whose name was tla-'pt'a (who was twenty or more years 
my senior). He beat me all the time, though I did nothing wrong. (2) Neverthe- 
less he beat me. A chaser, he consorted with (other) women all the time. At that 
time we had another head man (Indian agent), a white named Richfield, he became 
our head man. That man gave us some few clothes, and also some little food. (3) 
I had a husband already, and for that reason I did not go to school. (Annie did go 
for a few days, but the teacher held her on his lap and made improper advances; 
being married that obliged her to discontinue school.) He had a school for the 
Indians' children for a little while. After that when I was already like that (mar- 
ried), and he (tla-'pt'a) beat me, I left him. (4) I would not go back there again to 
him. That is the way I was. But they (the relatives of my husband) found out 
(why I had left him), so they bought me again, and so I had to go back there to 
him once more. Even when I had given birth to a baby he continued to beat me. 
(5) I stayed there a little while. I had a baby boy. Then I left there again, and I 
had my baby with me, he was about one year of age. That is the way the people 



disiki'nen gwa-da-a'dzu-x-ge'ye-da-'-'na'idzi-'mis wi'-we-'n-i'l-at tlbi'lya-tsa tk> 
'ne'ele, qa'yautsa ka'<-dla-'u-ka'\ di-t'lda'ctc da"-tsa'-hekhe'lku tla-'na'e'le. 
(4) x-we-'n gwa'sgwa'i tla-'na'e'ne. an-u'mit'ssi'yada di'tc-tls-e'ls, na'im-1-du- 
a'N sle-'djintc haqha'1-ao, tlims'e'ne-dade-'mil. bu-'ye'stc-il-du-haqhaTaq\ we-'n- 
ditc thi-a / N-kwi--kwa-"niyada tli-il-we'n-7ala-'nu qa'yautsa tla-'na'e'le. we'n- 
x-ws-n la-'na'hewe. 

7. wi'-u-kwi-gwe'isi'ys. wi-'-tru-thi-'yu'u na'u-'lice-daye'is, x-ba-'st9ni"i 
ws-'n-du-sinsa-'nu Common. kwi--i'l'utlu-'dzu-n we-'n-tla-'nds-'mii, wi-'-ws-'n-di- 
saN tla-'pt'a. wi-'-kwi-tlu--du-mikme'ngi gu-'s-miN, ma'u-du-a'N-dji-ditc-xa'li. 
(2) ma'u-du-mikms'ngi. tcxa'ni'kwa, gu-s-mi'N hu'me-'ke ha-'ihaya'na-'ya. tsu- 
gum-tsu' ma-"aya tb-n9siki'nen, ws-'n-du-sinsa-'nu tla-ba-'stani Richfield, kwi'- 
ys'-masiki'nen. tsu'-ku'wi gi-'lgwa-te-'tc ni'ni-'yu, ws'n-his-qwa'nya u '-ditc. (3) 
tsi-wu-gs-ma-'n-nds-'mi'le, we-'n-ditc tlu-wa-a'N-sgu-'ldje-la. x-hidji-'-tla kwi-- 
sgu-'l-ni'ya tta-ka'* hi-'me gi-'gwa. wi'-da'-qla'mniyu tsu-u-ma-'n-x-we'n, wi-'- 
menkdu'n'u-gum, wi-ha-'gwiya'wa. (4) wi'-an-u'-da-'s-ge'-wa's-i. x-we-'n-x- 
u-we'n. wi-'-kwi-ilkwa-'na"ya, wi'-da-'s-il'uthi-'dzi-n, wi'-da-s-u-ge'-bi-na't's. 
wi'-ma'''yuk w thi-wu'niki'lgidi'yiq' ma-u'-das-mikms'ngi-n. (5) wi'-da'-u-gi'- 
gwa-he-'niye dlu-'gwa-da*. di'lu't'l kwa-'niki'lga. wi-'-xgs't-u'i-'ge'-da-'s, wi'- 



108 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

were. They wanted it. So I gave it to them (to escape going back myself. The 
baby died in a few years). 

8. I was not single a long time, before I had (another) husband (xa'li-'pca'li, 
an Alsea name; he was my age). (His) Alsea people bought me in marriage (for 
him). I had to go to there (to Alsea, to live with his people). There I had a baby 
girl. (2) Then the Alsea people were moved (by the whites) to Siletz, and so I too 
went to Siletz, because they moved the Alsea people there. Now my husband be- 
gan to consort with (other) women. My mother came there (from Siuslau, about 
1877), and she said to me, "Do not live in this place." (3) I had no sense. What- 
ever my mother told me, that was what I did. "Very well then. When you return 
(to Siuslau) I will go with you." Indeed so (I did). As for my husband, his mother's 
brother was married to my very own chum (Mary, an Alsea girl), and he (my hus- 
band) was having an affair with her. (4) I told him, "When my mother goes back 
I will go with her. You can come and get me." So he replied, "All right. I will 
come and get you." My mother and I came there (to the Siuslau). (5) His mother 
did not want me to take my baby along with me, but I did not bother (to reply 
to her), because I had made up my mind to take my baby. So we got to Siuslau. 
For there our folks (the Coos) were living (excepting those who had gone further 
south to Coos Bay), because they had already (1877) left Ya'hatc to make their 
residence at Siuslau. (6) I lived there quite a while. I stayed there with my moth- 
er's brother Jesse (lu-'k). My husband never came for me. 

9. Then I went away from there (about 1880). I came back here (to Coos 
Bay) to ha-'nis (Empire). Some of the (Coos) people (including) my older sister 
(Fanny) were living there. Then my mother (came) too. (2) At the time I came 



yuxwu'na'u tla-'nilfi'lga, wi'-hit'ci'ys di'idzi-'mis. wi'-tle-ka'* x-we-'n-iltsa'u. 
wi-'-du-'ha'ya"il. wi'-a-'yu'-wuni'ya'ama. 

8. wi-he-'niye an-u'-ha-he-'niys kwe-'ne't'l, tsu-u-gum-de'mltsim. alsi-'- 
ka' utlu-'dzu-n. wi'-ge'^-u-gum-la'-we-'we. wi-'-da" wi-'-gws'e'k" niki'lga. (2) 
wi-'-tsu-gum ci'le-t'cidje gum-dzitsli-'nu tla-a'lsi-'-ka\ tsu'-u-gum his-s'n-e ci'- 
le-t'cidje"-la', na'im-gs^-dzitsli-'nu tla-alsi-'-ka 5 . wi'-ma-'tsi-ya'-gum he'iheye'nu 
tla-'nde-'mil. wi'-ge'^-dji-tb-'na'sm-e, wi-'-hidji' u-we'n-i'ldu-n, "a'n-a'ntl-diu- 
dlu-'gwa." (3) a'mi-wu'lu'ws. dji'-u-du-i'ldun tla-'nax-e'ne, ma-wu'-du-x-wen. 
"kV'le"yuk w . i-nantl-wa'si wi-wule-'l-wa'ntl." a-'yu-me'-x-we-'n. ws'n-tb-'n- 
de-'mil, mi-'disama'na e'ikit'c tla-da'axi'yaxitc kwi-'-da'hu-mis, we'n-kwi ha'i- 
haya'na-'ya. (4) wi'-wen-u'i'ld u wa, "i-hantl-wa's-i kwa-'na'e'ns wule-'l-wantl. 
wi-'-la-'dzada'i-nantl." a-'yu'-wa^'nu, "kY'le'yuk w . la-'dzsda-'mi'-nantl." 
a-'yu'-ldza'ne tta-'na's'ne. (5) wi'-tla-dsx-e'ne wi'-a'N-du'ha'ya kwi-wu"yuxwu'- 
na tb-'niki'lga, wi'-an-wu't'swa-'l, na'im-we'n-'n'lu'we la'i-wantl tte-'nilfi'lga. 
a'yu'-l ce'yu'ctle'e'djs-'-ldji. na'im ge'Meqlu-'ttsim tli-'-l'nditc, na'im-il-ma y n 
i-'ge' x-ya-'xatc ce'yu'ctle'edje ilmit'lda'ya's. (6) wi'-he-'niye-u-da'-dlu-'gwa. 
tta-'na'axi'yaxitc Jesse da^-udlu-'gwa. an-wu'la-'dzidun tfe-'nax-de-'mil. 

9. wi'-tsu'-wu-tVma xge't i-'ge'. wi'-gesde'-udji ha-'ni'sidja. ge"-gum- 
esti'sda-dls'geq tb'-ka' tla-'nahsne-'kwn. we'n-his-tb-'na'e'ns. (2) wi'-ma-'tsi- 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 109 

there the moving people (the whites) were bad, they bothered (annoyed the Indian 
girls) the people (at Empire). A white named John Flanagan did not want me to 
stay with the Indians (in their quarter at Empire), so I lived there with those old 
folks (the Flanagans). As for my child, my older sister (Fanny) spoke to me thus, 
"I will take your child, while you live with the moving people (the whites)." 
(3) And indeed from that time on I did not live any more with the Indians. Now 
I could begin to talk the language of the moving people just a little. Before that 
time I could speak only Indian languages, I did not know the language of the 
moving people. That is the way I went about when I had grown up. 

10. When I was a child I had not known the house (i.e., I had stayed little 
inside the house in the daytime) . Only at night was I in the house. When day came 
before it was quite light I would have gone outside already. I never ate (regularly). 
(2) I used to do things in the water, the mud, the woods. I would shake a little 
young tree that bent easily, and when I had shaken it long enough, it would touch 
another tree, another small young tree, and then I would take hold and jump 
(and swing) from it there, and then I would let the other one go. (3) Then I would 
shake it, and do the same way to it. A small one that I would get, when not big 
enough, would break off sometimes, and then I would fall with it. That is the way 
I did all sorts of stunts, when I was a child. (4) I would run along a bluff there, 
when there was a little path along it, and sometimes I would roll down from it, 
(and) I would lie there stunned. My feet and my skin (my body) would be all 
scratched up. That is the way I grew up when I was small. (5) I ate anything 



udji ge" tte-ntsle-'ne'-ka* an-i'1-we-n, t'ci-'fonan'i'l-du tle'-ka". wi-'-we-'n-disaN 
tla-ba-'stani John Flanagan wi'-a'N-du-'ha'ya l£ibi'na-udlu-'gwa, wi'-da"-udlu- 
q w siM tlatc-humki'n-u'wutc. wi'-tli-'nikTlga, wi'-wsn-u'i'ldun tla-'nex-he'ne-'- 
kwn, "yuxwu'na-wa'ntl kw9-niki'lga, ma-na'ntl ntsls-'ne-'-ka'atc-dlu-'gwa." 
(3) x-a-'yu x-t'i'mi-duwe an-wu'-da-s kibi'na-dlu-'gwa. gi-'-u-gwa i'ldu-nis tli- 
ikkrya'la tta-ntsle-'ne-'-ka*. tla-da'^-he'l-e'yu ma-'tsi-ha-ka" netli-'s, a'n-u'mi- 
t'ssi'yada tfo-ntsle-'ne-'-kV da7a'la. x-we-'n-uyux w u'ms yi'-wuhe-'wi. 

10. kwi-'-ge' tla-wu-hi-'me an-wu'-ye-ts mit'ssi'ya-da. qli'm-wu / -tla--du 
idzs-'wutc. du-gaha'is-dji a'iwa-du-a'n-ljils-'-ge'HM ma'n-wu-du-si'lt'. an-wu'- 
du-dlu'wi'yam. (2) wsn-we-'n-wu-du ha-'^itc a'n-hu-t'su-tiM, tlbe-'getc, nakwi-'na. 
ski'li-t'cci-'mil qasa'ntc-du-bi-'bi-na wi'-kwi-wu-du-la't'si, a-'yu yu-du-he-'niye- 
la't'si, wi'-ma-'-nilp'ndjs ge'*-du-dji, tfo-ma-'-t'cci-'milidje, a-'yu-wu-du-kwr-ga- 
la'm we'n-ge'-wu-du-hwa'ldi, helt'-wu'-du-kwi anya'-naqt tla-ma-'. (3) helt-wu'- 
du-kwi-la't'si, wi'-his-du-kwi-x-wsn. e-'k" hi'wi'ye-du, i-du-a'n-ha-wa', wi'-yu'- 
wut's tlga'idzu, we'n-na-kwi'yu'-wu-du-tu'witin-ya. x-we-'n gu-s-dji'-'n'ne-'- 
djis, yu-u-kwi-'-hi-'me. (4) we'n-tte-sdu'wa'gws wi'-da'-wu-du-hwuthwi'd, i- 
du-gi'gwa-nehe'welde, wi'-yu'wut's wi'-xget-wu-du-gwa'lgwlu, da^-wu-du-tsi-'m 
t'sse-'s. tla-'naqla' gu-s-du'-kwi tb-'ndze-'t'lis gu-s-du'-kwi-haixa'ha'. x-we-'n 
la-'na'hewe yu-we-e-'k. (5) tsli'M ma-wu'-du-ditc-dla-'u, yuq w si'L-ditc ma /f -ditc, 



110 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

at all in summer time, any kinds of fruits and berries, and when evening came I 
would eat something (of ordinary home food). I was hardly ever at home. I do 
not know why I was like that when I was a child. I was continually in the water, 
I was forever doing something or other in the woods. (6) Even when I had grown 
up I was like that for a long time. I started in to run horses, no matter if a race 
horse, I would take it anyway. That is how I grew up when I was a young person. 
(7) I had no clothes on, my poor rags of clothes just lay somewhere. I was not any 
good (I was just a wild little wanderer), but still they all wanted me (in marriage). 
My mother's sister (t'cs-'xet, Mary Miller) would not have that, and indeed they 
did not take me (until later), because my mother's sister would not do it. (8) I 
do not know why they wanted (poor, wild) me, for I knew nothing, because I was 
just outside doing things (in the woods or water). That is how I grew up. 

11. When I had left Empire my mother's sister had a white person for a hus- 
band. She it was who told me thus. "Do not stay at the village of the white people, 
because they are no good." (2) She told me that "People from the island land (false 
analogy for Ireland land) live close to where I live. You go there to live. They will 
show you how white women labor." So there I went (to the Weir family on Haynes' 
Slough). (3) A half breed man wanted me there, but I did not want him. His 
name was George Jordan. Then I guess he got drunk, and an Indian killed him 
(at Kitty Hayes' place). So then I did not marry because he had been killed. 
(4) That was the way (unmarried) I continued to live with the white people. One 
winter we moved to qalta-'t' (Coalbank Slough, above Marshfield), there we re- 
mained for that one winter. And when spring came we returned to their place 
again (on Haynes' Slough) . I lived there a long time (with them) . 

tsu-'-du-ga'tqa 1 tsu'-wu-du-di'tc-ldja-t. an-u'-min-idze-'wtc. an-u'kwani'yada'*- 
x-dji' tlu-u-ws-'n yu-wu-hi-'ms. gu-s-mi'N-wu-ha-'pitc, gu-s-mi'N-wu-nukwi-'- 
nu-an-hu-t'su-'tim. (6) wi'-yu-wuhe-'wi he-'niye'-u ma'-x-ws-n. ku-'tani'i'ya- 
u-gum hwuthwi-'yat, ma' i -ma'a- / yim hwi'yet-ku-'tan, ma-wu'-du-kwi'-yuxwu'- 
na. x-we'n-uhe'we'qhem yu'-u-hi-'ms-ka\ (7) an-u'-miN-nte-'tce, ma--du'-idja' u 
kwi-'-ha'ya-'di tfo-'na-gwa-te-'tc-ditc. ma-'-u-a'N-we-n, x-ws-'n ma-'-u-gu-'s-x- 
wi'-du-'hidun. wen-a'n-du-du-'ha'ya tH-'nsx u kw9'n, a-'yu'-du a'n-x-wi-ga'lmi- 
dzun, na'im-du-a'N-tlqY u tH-'n3x u kw9'N. (8) i-de'-x-dji' tli-il-wu'-ha-du-'hidun, 
ma-'-u-a'Ntc-mit'ssi-'yada, na'im-u-ma-'tsi qa'nu-a'N-hu-t'su-'tim. x-we-'n tta- 
wuhe-'we'qhem. 

11. wi'-yu-wu-x-ha-'niya-i-'ge 1 wi-'-x u Kw9'n'n wi-'-kwr-ntsle-'ns-'-ka-dads-'- 
mil. wi-'-x-ku'wi u-ws'n-i-'ldu-n. "a'N t'lda'yasitc-dlu-'gwi ntsle-'ne-'-ka dit'lda'- 
yasitc, na'im-il-a'N-wsn." (2) wi-'-x-ws'n-wu'i-'ldun "x-t'H'* t'lda'cdjinu-'-ka 5 
kwi-'-da'-leqlu-'ttsim neTt'cs ku-udlu-'gwa'atc. ge^-nantl-dlu'a/sim. x-kwi y - 
na'ntl mit'smit'sti-'wun kwi-nitsls-'ne-'-ka'-hume-'^ce didzi'ye-'ts." wi-a'yu'- 
wu-ge"-la'. (3) wi-'-x-qt'sa 'ma's-ka* de-'mil x-kwi-wu'du'hidu-n, wi'-an-wu'- 
du-'ha'ya. we-'n-di'saN George Jordan. wi- / -guma-gum-kwi-'-da'-x-la-"ma, ws y n- 
x-ka" kwi--tsa'u. wi'-a-'yu-wu-a'N-wi-da'mlts na'im-tsu-'tsu. (4) x-we-'n tlu- 
ntsle-'ne-'-ka'atc-dlu-'gwa. wi-'-hit'ci'-ge-'lu wi-'-qalta-'t'idji tsla'n-tsiivr, da'a'i- 
da-ldle-'geq hi't'ci'-ge-'lu. wi'-i-tsli'miys wi-'-da-'s-i-da-lbi-na't's tli-ildit'lda'c- 
dja. wi-'-hs-'niye'-u-da'. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 111 

12. (Once) I was washing clothes. That (Weir) woman said, "Leave your 
washing! You will paint the house (inside) here!" That is what she said to me. 
(2) "Not until I have finished my washing. Then I will paint." "No, leave your 
washing here anyway. Come! paint the house!" (3) "I don't do such painting. 
Even if my mother wanted me to paint her house, I would not paint it." Then I 
was angry. I threw down the washing, I went inside, I went up above. (4) My old 
trunk or thing, I put my poor clothes into it there. She came up to there. "Don't 
go away! Do stay here!" "Get away! rich-person's child! (a venomous curse) I 
might strike you. (5) Don't bother with me! Don't talk to me! you evil smelling 
person! I have labored for you for nothing (for small wages and to no purpose), 
and then you want to boss me. Child of a dog! (6) Get away! don't talk to me!" 
Just then some one knocked at the door. She went down. Some one said then, 
"They want her. Your sister wants her." (Mrs. Weir's own sister wanted me to 
come to her place to do housework.) (7) Then I went down. "Come here! Go get 
my old trunk!" So he (the messenger) went up, and he took down my old trunk. 
"I will go now." Then she did not want me to leave. "Get away! rich -person's 
child!" Then I left. 

13. After that I worked in various places. Then about that time I began to 
learn the moving people's dances. I went whenever they had a dance somewhere. 
One person (with whom I became acquainted) was a music maker (a fiddler). 
(2) After that at moving people's dances, whenever there was a dance of the (white) 
people, there I myself mingled with them too. When they danced with some sort 
of face on (had a masquerade dance), I would go too. 



12. wi-'-kwi-'-gum thi-u-gum-lha''. we'n-wen-tli-tlitc-hu-'mis, "ha-'gwiya 
kwa-n9lha'ya u ! di--na'ntl-pa'ixts kw3-ye-'ts!" x-we'n-u'i'ldun. (2) "a'N tsu'- 
wantl-gumt'i'ya di-'nilha-'wa's. tsu'-hantl-pa'ixt." "a'n-ge' ma'-da-wa-kw3-n- 
lha'ya u . e"dji! pi-'xts-di'ye-'ts!" (3) "an-wu'-lu-pixpi-'yax. ma'i-tta-'na'e'ne 
ya-a'xtla-nipi-'xe-di'ye-'ts, wi'-an-waxtta-kwi-pixpi-'yax." tsu-ube'lxsim. tsu'- 
uta"-tta-dalha'ya u , tsu'-ude-'dje, tsu'-u-gwa-'n-he'ls-q. (4) gwa'-wu-nuxwi-'- 
xwut'1-ditc, wi'-gs /f -wuxt'la u tb-'na-gwa-te-'tc-ditc. tsu'-ge' he'leq. "a'N-i-'- 
gei'i-yix! ma'<-diu!" "i-'ge 1 ! he-'de-diki'lga! tgantldza-Wnax. (5) a'N-t'swu- 
'le'M a'N-kxi'm'yeis! dlu-t'ci'-ka'-n! a'misgi-ndzi-'dza-mi, we'n-du-'ha'ya'n het- 
he-'de'a-'niW's'n. yeklu'-diki'lga! (6) i-'gsM a'N-kxi'm'yeis !" he'-ge'n-ma-'- 
tsi bi'ndjidje ka /( gwaukwa'uwi. tsu'-ge^-pqV 11 . he'-ge'n-ma-'tsi x-we'n-ka' iTat, 
"du-'hite-m tli-hi'dji. kwa-nex-gwaTa-kwi-du-'ha'ya." (7) tsu-'-upqV u . "s'dji! 
la-'dza-kwa-'naxwi-'xwut'l!" a'yu-hsTe'q, we'n-pqa'ya tb-'na-gwa-xwi-'xwut'l- 
ditc. "tsu'-wantl-la." tsu'-an-wu'lxili-dun. "i-'gsM he-'ds-diki'lga." tsu'-u- 
'iV- 

13. t'i'm-iduwe gu-s-idja'u-wudzi-'dze. tsu'-tVma ntsle-'ne-'-ka'-dame'gs-'n 
umi't'ssa-'ts. gu-s-mi'n-u-megs-'ndje yux w u'me i-du-maga'ni-da. hit'ci'-ka'a'- 
ma wi-'-kwi-mege-'n-daha-'dit'u'wi'wa. (2) wi 7 -x-t'imiduws tsle-'ne-'-ka'-damege'n, 
de'ngi-mege'nda'-ka', ma-'-wu'-du-his-e'n-e ige y k. wi'-i-du-ditc-i'lda'heL ma- 
ga'ni-da, wi'-his-wu-du-e'n-e. 



112 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

14. After that I was married again (to C, son of a Lower Rogue River woman 
survivor). From that time on I lived at a (ranch) place (above Sunset Bay). I 
never did have a good husband. My husband just ate hot water (imbibed liquor) 
all the time. (2) I lived (there) alone (almost) all the time. My husband never 
stayed there. He worked, and then he was continually drunk. He had other women 
for companions, he was always there (at North Bend) at the dance hall. (3) He 
just threw away his money. And I lived alone. When I lacked food I would sell 
various (farm) things, and then I would get food for them. Then I became ill. 
(4) I had to spend all my savings there. Now he sold the (ranch) place, he just drank 
it all up. We were without a place, we were without savings. He just kept on drink- 
ing. (5) Had it not been for his father (a pensioned white veteran of Indian wars) 
who paid (my house rent at Empire, I should have been destitute) . That is how I 
lived there with my house paid for. If it had not been for his father who paid for 
it (I should have been destitute) . Even my very own father could not have taken 
better care of me. Then his father died. 

15. Now I did become poor. I moved to his mother's house, and I had to 
live there like that, just as if I were living with the people of down below (as if 
with devils — a white conception) . He began to hit me when he came home extreme- 
ly intoxicated, and he tried to injure me. (2) If I had not taken care he would have 
injured me. And then also when in bed he would wet it there (in his drunken stupor) . 
That is how worthless he was. (3) One time he came home and he was going to 
throw a burning lamp at me where I was (in bed). Then I was (furiously) angry. 
But he just laughed at me when I said to him, "You will never want to injure me 
again. You are worthless, you child of an unpurchased woman! And you make 



14. wi-da'-qlimniyu da-'s-u-gum-de'mltsim. tsu-'-u-gum-x-ti'miduwe 
t'lda'yasitc-u-gum-dlu'q w sim. an-u'-min-kils-de'mil-ga'lam. ma-'tsi-gum gu-s- 
mi'n tlqa'lxawi-ha-'p dla'u tta-'nsx-de'mil. (2) mi-t'ci' u-gum-gu-s-mi'N dlu-'- 
gwa. a'N-min-dlu-'gwa tte-'nde-'mil. idzi-'dze, wi'-ma-'tsi gu-s-mi'n-la-"ma. ma-'- 
hume-'kVdima-'na't', tta-megs-'n-daye-'dzadje gu-s-mi'n-da\ (3) we-'n-ma-'tsi 
x u kwa-'i tfe-dahada'i'mis. ws'n-mi-t'ci'-wu-du-dlu-'gwa. yu-wu-du-yada'im- 
qwa'nya u wi'-ma-u'-du--ditc-ya'itst, wi-'-kwi'yu'-wu-du 4 W9 ' n y aU -ga'la'm. wi-'- 
xs'nxsnu'w. (4) wi-'-ge'^-u-gu-'s x^wa' 1 tb-'ngw9 / la-'q w . tsu-gum-ya'itst di'- 
t'lda'yas, tsu'-gum-ma'tsi-gu-'s-kwi-na'xqawa. yaqa'im-'nat'lda-'ya's, yaqVim- 
'n9gW9 / la- / q w . ma'-x-wen naxqa'wa-'t'si. (5) kumi'-du tb-dex-e'le x-kwi-'-du'- 
gwuqgw9 / l-aq w . x-ws'n-wudltr'gwa da n tfo-'ngys-'ts dggw9Ta'q w . kumi'-du 
tte-dex-eTe kwi-'-gwa'lq w ts. ma'i-axtlg-mi-'disa-ma ne'eTe an-ws'xtta-xge't kwi- 
x-ki'le-lu-'didu-n. wi- / -kwi--qa'ya u tfo-de'eTe. 

15. wi- / -kwi-"n£'wet'li'ye'u. tsu-'-u-gum-tsb'ntsgm tla-daVne-diye-'dzidjs, 
tsu'-u-gum-we-'n-dlu-'gwa, heni-'kis'u gwa-gadla-'na ka'atc-dlu-'gwa. ge'eye-'x- 
kwi-ya degs'ndlun'wutsan i-du-ha-H'n-wi la-"ma we-'st, wi-du-'ha'ya-du qV- 
lu-tu-n'w. (2) yu-wa'xtta-du-a'n-lu-'didaya wi'-qalu-tu-n W8'xtl3-du. we-'n-his- 
ye-'t'lis-ditc wi-'-ge"-du-dza-'qaya. x-we-'n a'N-didjinudje ke'le. (3) mi'n-t'ci'- 
gum-we-'st tsu-wutsa'n-gum t'ce-'leL kwle'is e'ni-tsa'n-gum-kwr-ta-'ts. tsu'- 
ube'lxsim. wi'-ma-'tsi-ula-"wi / n yu-u-we-'n-i'ld u wa, "an-a'ntl-da-'s e'n-e-gat- 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 113 

fun of me!" (4) I told my female chum (Mrs. Ida Wasson, a half breed Klamath 
and a widow at that time) about it. She said, "I know. I will help you. We will 
leave here." So I said to her, "Very well, if you help me." 

16. Then we did leave, we went to the Columbia (to Portland, Oregon. This 
was during the World War) . There we lived. I had no possessions, I had no money. 
Now a white man (Peterson) came to there, because we had (operated) a sleeping 
(rooming) house. (2) That is how white people came there. I had no money, I did 
not know how I would get along, I was not strong, I was ill all the time, because 
I had been cut (operated on) by a white doctor, and I had to be paying him for it. 
(3) But that one white (Peterson) wanted me. So I said to him, "I can not marry 
you, because I have not wiped off my paper" (obtained a divorce from C). "I will 
pay for it if you wish." (4) So I thought, "I am not strong (so that I can work and 
be independent). I will do it (marry) anyhow." So then he gave me the payment 
for the (divorce) papers. I returned here (to Coos Bay), I went to there to the 
person who did that sort of thing, I waited a long time for it. (5) Then I got my 
wiped-off paper (divorce). My former husband (C.) wanted me to come back, but 
I did not want to return. Not long after that my paper was wiped off (divorce 
granted). (6) It was a long long time until the day they wanted, before I could be 
married again (but he waited for me) . Then I went back to the Columbia (to Port- 
land) , and I had him for my husband. We got a place at the Columbia (in Port- 
land) . We lived there for as long as eleven years. (7) I lived there alone all the time 
he was absent, he worked in the woods (at logging camps). I was no longer poor 
then. I wanted to come back here (to Coos Bay, for temporary vacation camping), 



qa'lutai. ani'-kTle'-ditc, ha'itsa-'mis-na! we'n-hu-didai'na!" (4) tsu'-hu-'mis- 
e'iki't'cna wi-'-kwr-u'gwsgwa'i. wi'-wen-iTat, "kwa-'niyada'u. tsaki'nda-'mi- 
'nantl. i-'geil-hantl." wi'-a-'yu" we'n-i'ld u wa, "kVls, i-nantl-tsa'ki'nda 1 ." 

16. wi'-a-'yu i-'geil, ma-lu-'cidja-'-l-a. wi'-da-ldls'ge-q. wi'-a'mi-ugwa'- 
la'q w , yaqa'im'u hada'i'mis. heMna-'tsi-x-qa's-ka* ge^-dji de-'mil, nayi'm-1 tsu'- 
we-diye-'ts-ilhwuthwi-'yat. (2) x-we-'n ge /{ -kwi--dji'n-i tfe-xaqaya-'-ka\ wi'- 
a / mi-ugw3 / l-a'q w , wi'-aN-wn/'-dji, an-wu'-ti'm-li, xe'nwas'w gu-s-mi'N, na'im-u 
tsu'-ha-kta'ya" x-qa's-ka-da'iTa'xqain, wi-'-kwi-wu'tsiliru'wita. (3) he'-ma-'- 
tsi hi't'ci tb-x-qa's-ka wi-'-x-kwi-wudu-'hidun. wi'-wen-w'i'ld u wa, "an-a'xtle- 
x-dji ne'unda'mlila-mi, na-'yim a'n-hsit'cehe' ne'lta'ya"." "tsltsu'wita-wantl 
i-ndu-'ha'ya." (4) tsu'-wen-'n'lu'ws, "an-wu'-tim-li. ma--wa'ntl-tlqa-'ya." a-'- 
yu'-uni-'wun tfo-lt'a'ya^dagwa'la-gwi-'da. tsu'-ubi-'na't's-gs'sde, wi-'-a-'yu-u-ge'^-la 
tl9-ka /( ge'Mu didzi'yets, wi-'-kwr-wu' he-'niye-la-'qa-q. (5) tsu-a-'yu-uga'la'm 
ya'it'ctwu'-tb-'nlt'a'ya 11 . ga'i-tfe-'nde-'milita wi-'-du-'ha'ya'u-bi-'na't's, wi'-an-u'- 
du-ha'ya bi-na't's. wi'-a'n-hs-niys tsu-wu'y a 'rt' c t tte-'nlt'a'ya. (6) wi-'-da'-he--- 
niys tsu'-gumt'u'-dagaha'isi-da tli-il-du-du-'ha^ya, tb-'n-tsu-'-t'ama-hantl de'ml- 
tsiM-da-'s. tsu'-ubi-'na't's tla-ma-'lu-'cidja, wi-'-tsu-a-'yu kwi'-'nu'-gum-de-'mil- 
i'ys. wi'-ma-hi-'c nst'lda'ya-'s-galam. wi-'-t'i-'cdji-idzi-'mis hit'ci'-xe-'nen ws-'n- 
dahe-'niys'eis da"-'ndk- / g£q. (7) wi-'-gu-s-mi'n-du-s'he mi-'t'ci'-wu-du-dlu-'gwa, 
nakwi-'ndjs-du-dzi'dzs. tsu'-wu-t'a'ma a'n-wu-da- / s-kv\ r i-"ne'w£t'l. wi-'-ge'sde'- 



114 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

and so we got a little place here on the (Charleston) beach. Now we (have to) 
live here (after the financial depression of 1929). 
17. That is how my story is finished. 

47. Melsin 

Melsin was bothering (having an affair with) the waiqdi' (village) woman. So 
Burnt Face (Chief Jim Tyee) cut off the ears and nose of Melsin. That is what 
Burnt Face did to him, because Melsin was his relative, (by) his mother's sister. 
(1) That is why he cut Melsin's ears. After that he (Melsin) stayed all the time 
with the son of tcictci'1-u, (who) had him for his young man (i.e., for a worker or 
retainer, though Melsin was already in middle age), tcictci'1-u had two daughters, 
his son's older sisters. (2) Their younger brother got sick and died. Then this is 
what they said. They claimed that Melsin had put a poison-power into him, and 
that was why their younger brother had died. The two women asked him to go 
with them in a canoe. (3) As they went downstream they tipped over the canoe. 
The water was not too deep. Then they hit him on the head, they held and 
drowned him. That is how they killed Melsin. (4) They drowned him. They left 
there then, they fled the place. They went back south (to the Coos country) to 
where dollars (gold) were being dug (by whites at mines north of Bandon). There 
they lived. That is what they did to Melsin. 



udu'ha'ya bi-'na't's, wi'-a-'yu n-s-'k" t'lda-'yas-ga'lam ba'ldisitc. wi-'-di-le' 1 di-'- 
wun-dle'gsq. 

17. x-we-'n-hu'wa kw9-'nlaga'wiya't!as. 

47. 

tta-me'lsin wi'-kwi-a'n-hu-t'su'wa tfo-wa'iqdi'-ka 1 . wi-'-kwi-tk-x-ct'ce-'li'- 
da'heL tla-kwi'-qxa'-d59kwha'na-'s we-'n-ta'n-e-'xcta tta-me'lsin. x-ws-'n-kwi- 
wa-'tsan tle-x-ct'ce-'li'-da'heL, na'im-tle-x-ms'lsin tta-dadi'tc, x u kwanda-'di. (1) 
x-we-'n-ditc kwi tla-ms'lsin dx £ ' u k w ha'na-'sd9. wi'-da'-qlimni'yu wi-'-tla-dkr'- 
gwa'a'tc gu-'s-mi'N tfo-tcictciTu-dadlaTwe, kwi-'-du'-didr'lu'l. adzu'-dagwa-'- 
ya tcictciTu, tta-dadlaTws-dakwe-ne't'fo'ms. (2) tli-itcdamitlgwa'la wi'-kwi- 
xe'nxenu we'n-kwr-da'ya' 11 . wi-'-x-we-'n il-du-7a-'la-'nu. gwa'-x-tsa-'-ge x-me'l- 
sin tfo-kwi-'-kl-tu'wa, x-ws- / n-kwi--d_a'ya u tli-itcdahe't'ls. wi'-tle-x-hu'me-l£e wi'- 
tlgu-'sitc-itc'a'uct. (3) wi-i-ilga'ya'* wi-tlbi'H'ya tte-tlgu-'s. a'n-ha-ga'l daha-'- 
£itc. wi'-xdla"itc-ss'ldje, tsu'-itc-tVma ma'uq w ts. x-we-'n-itctsa'u-tla-me'lsin. 
(4) ma'uq w ts'itc. tsu'-il-ta'ma-i-'ge', neqe"il-xget. wi-'-q^i'dje-ilwa's-i tla-ta-'- 
'la-yugwutse-"midje. ge'^-ildle-'qsiM. x-we-'n ilwa-'tsan tb-me'lsin. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 115 

48. Cissy 

1. Long ago when the son of tcictciTu became a young man, he bought Cissy 
to become the wife of his son. But he (the son) did not like her. They went to the 
inland people (to Camas Prairie on the Upper Coquille, an Athabaskan locale). 
(2) There he saw a woman, and she was the one he wanted. That woman's name 
was Nancy, that was the name of the woman he wanted. So tcictciTu purchased 
her, because his son wanted her. (3) But Nancy did not want him. She ran away 
from him continually. At that time the moving people (the whites) fought the 
people (Indians), and after that they gathered and drove the people (north), so 
that she did not go there to him again. (4) They drove the people to Siletz. But 
the Lower Coquille Indians went on to Yaquina Bay (from Siletz, where they re- 
fused to stay), they went to Yaquina Bay, there they made their village. Now 
the husband of Cissy took (without purchasing her) a Chetco woman. (5) She 
(Cissy) had three children (by him), though her husband did not (hardly ever) look 
at Cissy. Nevertheless she stayed there, because she had children by him. That 
is why she remained anyway. That sort-of-Chetco woman (an insulting manner 
of reference) ridiculed Cissy. (6) Once she thought, "Hm! Why does such a thing 
of a woman make fun of me? I will give her a beating. I do not care if they kill me, 
the good for nothing ! to be ridiculing me like that too !" (7) Then she leaped at her, 
she grabbed her hair, "You stinking thing! you low down woman! you want a hus- 
band for nothing (without marriage payment). (You with your) cut hair! (with 
your) bad smelling crotch! and you make fun of me too!" (8) She threw her into 
the fire. Their husband was going to take his (Chetco) woman's part. His mother 
jumped up (remonstrating), "Don't you bother that poor thing (Cissy)! And this 



48. 

1. tk-hs-'niye i-de-'mili'ye tta-dadtaTwe tta-tci'ctciTu, wi'-kwi-tla-'wi tb- 
Cissy tfo-dadb'l-we-dahu-'misi-'de. wi'-ma-'tsi a'N-ha-du-'ha'ya. da'ne'yu'wu'- 
dje i'l-a. (2) wi'-da" hu-'mis kla-'wi, wi'-kuwi'-du-'ha'ya. wi'-we-'n-du-sa'nsa-'- 
nu tfotc-ku'wi-hu-'mis Nancy, x-we-'n-disaN tli'tc-du-'ha'ya hu-'mis. wi'-a-'yu- 
gum kwi--tla-'wi tle-x-tcictci'1-u, na'im-kwi-du'ha'ya tta-dex-dla'l-ws. (3) wi'- 
a'N-du-'ha'ya th-x-Nancy. wi'-gu-s-mi'n kwi--tlwa'hasa-'nu. wi'-ma-'tsi-t'a'ma 
tte-ntsle-'ne-'-ka' kwr-dlaldji'ldu-nis tfo'-ka 5 , wi'-da'-qiimniyu hitchit'eu-'yu'- 
d3-ka\ wi'-a'N-da-'s-ge'-la. (4) ci'let'cidje hitchit'eu-'yu tls'-ka'\ wi'-ma-'tsi'- 
ya wi-yuqu-'ne'dje ge'-illa'w-a tfo-mi'l-uk w -ilgw9si'ya'il, yuqu-'ne-'dje-illa'wa, 
ws'n-ge-ilt'lda'istsim. wi'-ma-'tsi-gum tce-t'i'-hu-mis gala'm tte-dsx-de-'mil tta- 
Cissy. (5) psi'nl-dihi-'me, wi'-an-du'-xi'lat t\z-Cissy tla-dsx-de-'mil. wi'-ma"- 
da-dlu'gwa, na'im-nihi-'me-'de. we-'n-ditc tte-kwi'-ma^-da-dlu-'gwa. wi'-tle- 
x-dictc-gwa'-tce-'t'i hu-'mis hu-'da-t-du t\z-Cissy. (6) mi'n-t'ci tse-x-we-'n-di'lu'we, 
"'n/ ide-x-dji' gws-x-we'n-ditc uhu-'didi-n? ma'nkt-wa'ntl. ma'i-il-wa'ntl ma"- 
tsu'ws-n, gwa-a'N ki'le-ditc! ws-'n-his-we-x-kwi-hu-'didi-n!" (7) tsu'-ayu'- 
hwu'ldadza, tsu-ha-'misidja-galam, "dlu-'t'ci! idje'e'is-hu-'mis! a'minisgi de y - 
mil du-'ha'ya. nica'^ata-'sa! dlu-'t'ci'-degeL! hi's-ne-x-ne'u hu-'didai!" (8) 
tsu'-he'milt'idje-ta-'ts. tsu'-ha'ntl-qdla tb-dahu-'mis tli'-itcdsx-de-'mil. tsu'- 
tla-daVn-e-hwa'ldi, "a'N-t'swa'al-kw3-ditc! tsu-'-x-na-kwi-'dit wa-'ga-wa-wa! 



116 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

the sort of thing (the Chetco woman) you think so much of ! You will not beat the 
poor thing (Cissy) for that. (9) Don't you bother her! Don't you think something 
of her because of her children ? and you take that one's part ! If you touch that poor 
thing (Cissy), you will have to hurt me (first)." (10) That is the way his mother 
spoke. Now Cissy tore up her (the Chetco woman's) clothes, she beat her ener- 
getically, (saying) "So that's the awful kind of thing he has wanted! with her evil 
smelling and rotten vagina ! so that is the evil smelling and rotten sort of thing he 
has wanted so much!" (11) That is the way her mother-in-law sided with Cissy. 
Then her husband did not injure her. 

2. After that time her boy child became ill. While the child was lying ill, 
her father-in-law every day sharpened his knife. He was going to cut her throat 
if her child died (which would have proven her an adultress). (2) Every day he 
sharpened his knife. Cissy thought thus, "Hu!my throat is going to be rather 
tough (to cut) ! with his sharpening his knife every day." Her child did die then. 
(3) The people came back from the burial. Now her father-in-law was going to 
leap at her with his knife. But her husband jumped up. "Don't touch that poor 
thing ! if you want to cut a neck, cut my neck." (4) That is how her husband spoke 
to his father. Then she thought, "Humph! he must think something of me, to take 
my part." That is what Cissy thought. 

3. Her husband died, and also her husband's parents, all of them died. Only 
his two sisters remained alive. Cissy then had only one child living. (2) When they 



anan-x-kwi'ye-'nu kwi--mikma'n-ak tb-ditc. (9) a'N-t'swa'al ! an-da'-x-ne hi-'- 
medidje kwi-dji'ndjina"i? na'u-na-kwi--ga'dli! tsu-'-da-x-kwi hu-'mi's-ditc, 
na'u-n3-kwi--ga / dli! i-nantl-tca'L-kwa-ditc, wi-e'n-s-nantl-qa'lauta'." (10) x- 
we'n-i'ld u wa tb-dex-e'n-e. %a,'i-tte-x-Cissy wi-pa'lst tb-date-'tc, ma'nkt-H'n-wi, 
"we'n-ditc-ix-he'me tla-ha-du-'ha'ya! dhr't'ci ka /i< lis-d3ma'ix u ! we-'n-ditc-ix 
tla-ha-H'n-wi du-'ha'ya dlu-'t'ci ka'^lis!" (11) x-we-'n tb-dex-gwa'lkdle qdla-'t 
tte-x-Cissy. a-'yu'-a'N-qa'lutuwa tb-dex-ds-'mil. 

2. wi'-da'-qlimniyu xe'nxenu tb-dadi'lu't'l ki'lga. wi-'-kwi yu-kwi-tsi-'mq 
tb-dilci'lga xe'nwas, wi-'-kwi-'-du tb-di'ya-'kda de'n-gi-gaha'is wi-'-kwi sba'i 
tb-da'wa-Twal. kwi'yu-wi-'-de q't'sa' tb-dama-'q ya-hantl-tlqa'ya u tla-di- 
ki'lga. (2) de'n-gek-gaha-'ya kwi'-sba' 1 tb-dawa-Twal. wi-'-x-we-'n-du-di'lu'we 
tli-Cissy, "hu'! he'i-x-ha'ntl gwa-a'n du--qu-'s kwa-'na'ma-'q! ku'-kwi de'nge- 
gaha'is kwi- sba'i kwa-dawa-'l'wal." tsu'-a-'yu qa'ya u tb-dikl'lga. (3) tsu-we-'st- 
da'-ka* tle-x-ege-'nu'was. tsu'-a-'yu hwa'ldadza'han tb-dex-ya'kda niwa-Twala. 
tsu'-hwa'ldi tb-dede-'mil. "a'N-t'swa"al kwa'-di'tc! i-nantl-du-'ha'ya ma-qna'- 
qxa ! , wi'-s'n-e-'na'ma-'q-na'ntl q't'sa-'t." (4) we'n-tli-tb-dade-'mil i'ld u wa tb- 
da'e'k. tsu-'-ws-'n-di'lu'we, "ha'! tca'Ti'n-da-x-wu-he'me, na'u-wuqdbdu-'n." 
x-we'n-djinhe-'n tlz-Cissy. x-we-'n kwa-'nlaga'wiya't'a-s. 

3. wi-'-kwi--qa'ya u tb-dade-'mil, hi's-tb-dama-'ni'yas tb-dade-'mil, gus- 
i'lkumts. tb-dakwe-'ne't'l tla-a'dzu"-dle-'we. wz-'n-tli-Cissy wi'-hit'ci-'-tla- 
dle-'we tb-dihi-'me. (2) wi'-tls-x-yuqu-'ne il'i-'gs 1 q w ci'dJ£-ilwa's-i, wi-'-gu-s- 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 117 

left Yaquina Bay to return south (to the Coos country), they all lived there at 
where the money digging (gold mining north of Bandon) was. Now the moving 
people (the whites) began to bother with them (have sexual relations with them). 
Again she had a boy baby, by a white man named B. (3) He was cook there at the 
money digging (gold mine). They say this child was his own child, and today he 
(the son) lives at Siletz, and he is named C. B. That is how they named her child, 
who was the white's child by Cissy. (4) After that a white named A. lived with 
Cissy, and Cissy had one more child, by the name of D. He also lives at Siletz 
at present. (5) Cissy's man (A.) died, and then she died too. She was the sister of 
dji-xw9'nt'e. That is how all those (people) became gone. 

49. Kitty Hayes 

Rogers (Chief Jack Rogers) was the one who bought (in marriage) the daughter 
(Kitty Hayes) of tle'iyal (Chief Jackson). Two sticks ($2,000) he paid for her. 
Her mother left tls'iyal. She came back south (i.e., to Coos Bay). (1) From then on 
tWiysl no longer had her for his wife. He had other wives. At the start then Kitty 
Hayes was a good wife. But her mother had spoiled her (injured her character). 
She was jealous for her mother had been jealous. (2) So from that time on she was 
no good. Then her husband began to consort sexually (with other women). Where- 
ever she found her husband, she would nearly kill that woman. He did it all the 
time. (3) Once she found a woman when her husband was there, and she burned the 
woman with a burning brand, she thrust it in the woman's crotch. That is how she 
was jealous. The people left Ya'hatc, they returned to the south (to Coos Bay). 



i'l-gs n tb-ta-''la'-yugwutse-''mitc gs"-il gu-'s dle-'qsiM. wi-'-kwi ntsle-'ne-'-ka' 
kwi'i'ye a'n-hu-'dzi-t'a. wi'-kwr-da-'s di'lu't'l-dhji'lga, wi'-we-'n disa'N tb-ba's- 
t3ni B. (3) kwi--q'mi'ya-t'a i -ditc da" tb-ta"la yu'gwutse-"mitc. wi'-we-'n il-du 
i'ld u wa hidji'm-il ki'lga-'-tsa tb-diki'lga wi-'-di-le'* wi-'-ci'le-t'citc-dlu-'gwa, wi-- 
we-'n-du-si'nsa-'nu C. B. we-'n-disi'nsa-'nu tb-diki'lga tb-daba-'stani-ki'lga 
tlz-Cissy. (4) wi-'-da'-qbmniyu wi-'-x-ba-'stani kwi'-dlugwa-'q w tte-Cissy wi'- 
we-'n-di'saN A. wi-'-da-'s hit'ci'-diki'lga tte-Cissy, wkD.-disaN. wi-'-his-hi'dji 
cile-'t'c-itc dlu-'gwa di'. (5) wi-'-tfe-CYssy wi-'-qVya u tla-dads-'mil, wi'-his-hi'dji 
qa'ya u . dji-xwant'e'-dSakws-'ns't'l. x-we-'n gu'mt'u'il-daku'wi. 

49. 

tla-tle'i7al-digwa-'ya wi-'-x-la'djas kwi--tla-'wi. adzu'-niki'n-kwi--x-we-'n- 
dagwa'la'q". wi-'-tb-da's'ne wi-'-ha-'gwiya tta-tls'iyal. q w ci'dje'-wa's-i. (1) we'n- 
ma-'tsi t'i'mi-duws kwi-an-da-'s-kwi-dahu-'mis tla-tk'iyal. ma-"aya-d9hu'me-'- 
U.z. wi-'-x-t'i'mi-du'we t\z-Kitty -Hayes ke-'le-hu-'mis-a'l'a'yu. wi'-x-e'ne'da kwi- 
a'lha'it.suwa. maqa/la na'im maqa'lt-tta-daVne. (2) wi'-x-t'i'midu'wa a'N-wen. 
we'n-ma-'tsiya-he'ihsye'nu tta-dads-'mil. wi'-idja'u-du-ki'ldwa tb-dade-'mil, 

wi'-kwi-du'-ga-s-tsa'u tb-hu-'mis. wi'-ma'-x-ws-n gu-'s-mi'n-wa-"nu. (3) wi'- 
hit'ci'-ki'ldwa-tb-hu-'mis da'^-gum-tb-dade-'mil, wi'-kwi-gu'm-t'ca-'l-tb-hu-'mis 
x-t'sa'm, x-kwi'yu'-gum-t'hiixda-'-dcge'L tb-hu-'mis. x-ws-'n maqa'1-is. wi-'- 



118 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

(4) When they left Ya'hatc she had one daughter. They came back to right here 
(to Empire) . Her husband nearly killed her, because he found out she had lied to 
her husband. When he found out she had lied he nearly killed her for that. (5) 
Had not her child saved her, her husband would have killed her that time, because 
she had told a lie. It was only her own trick (fault), to shut in his own nephew, 
Jack Roger's nephew. He took it so hard (got so angry) because she had told such 
a lie to her husband. (6) That is why he nearly killed her. Then her husband be- 
came ill, and he did not live long. He died. This is what they said. They claimed 
that Kitty Hayes herself had given poison to her husband. That is the way her 
husband died. (7) Then all her children died, and she became a bad (loose, drunken) 
woman. She lay drunken all the time. Then she became ill. She did everything 
(prostituted) for nothing (i.e., for drink). She was just completely drunken all the 
time. Then she died poor. (She was about forty at her death). 

50. Story of a slave, ma-'lu-'c 57 

1. They enslaved children long ago. There was a young fellow who was one 
of those who were taken to be slaves. 

2. "Long ago we were taken for slaves. I was enslaved, and that was how they 
kept on selling me. They took me yonder to the Columbia River. (2) I wanted to 
flee, but I could not get away, because they watched me continually. All the time 
it mattered not what sorts of things we did, they watched me all the same. Once 

kwi-tls-x-ya-'hatc i'ge'-da'ka', q w ci'dja-wa-'sdidi'yam. (4) hi't'ci'-dagwa'ya 

tli-il-xge't-i-'ge' tle-x-ya-'hatc. wi-'-g£sde"-wa- / sdidi / yam. wi-'-ga-s-tsa'u-tla- 
dex-ds-'mil, na'im-sgi-'naM tla-kwi-wutwu'ndi-t'a tla-dade-'mil. wi-yu-kwi'-sgu-'- 
nam wi'-kwi'ye-'nu-ga-s-tsa'u. (5) tsi-x-ki'lgada-ge tla-kwi-naqa-'ya, na'u-tV- 
ma-axtla-tsa'u tla-dex-de-'mil, na'im-he'we-su-tc gwasgwa'i. ma-'-hidji'm-il ne-'- 
djis, tta-kwi-'-da dla'ndisa-t'a tta-dami-'disa-ma du-'ds, tla-Zac^-la'djis-dadu-'de. 
li'nwi'-kwr-xa'n'wu'nam tl9-kwi-hs'we-s--gw9'sgwai tla-dade-'mil. (6) wi'-x-we'n- 
'ne't tla-kwi-ga-'s-tsa'u. wi'-xe'nxenu tla-dads-'mil, wi'-an-he-'niys-dls-'we. tsqa'- 
ya u . wi'-ws-n-il'i'ld u wa. gwa-'-x-tsa--gs x-hi'dji th-x-Kitty-Hayes tta-kwi-ga'- 
yuqaya u ni'ya-tb-dade-'mil. x-we-'n-ditc kwi--qa'ya u tla-dade-'mil. (7) ws'n- 
kwr-ma-'tsi-lhi'mts tli-dihi-'me, wi'-tli-hi'dji wi'-ma-'tsi-a'N-ws'n hu-'misi'ys. 
ma-'tsi-gu-s-mi / N-la-"ma. we'n-ma-'tsi-xe'nxenu. ami-'sgi gu-s-mi'n-a'n-hu-- 
t'su-tim. ma-'tsi-gu-'s-mi'N li'n-wi-la-"ma. we'n-ma-tsi-his-hi'dji kwi-"ne'wet'l 

qa'ya u . 

50. 

1. tle-hs-'niye wi'-kwi-du-pukpu-'wak'il-du tli-hi-'me. wi'-kwi-tb-di-'lu'l 
wi'-ku-ige-'k yu-kwi-pu-'kwiya. 

2. "tle-he-'niye tli-'-l-du-pu-'kwiyu. wi'-kwi-pu-'kwiyu'u, wi-'-x-ws-'n 
wuhithi-'teqhsm. wi-'-ge'* udji'ndjinu tb-ma-'lu-'cidja. (2) wi-du-'ha'ya'u-du 
ne'qhe, wi'-aN-wu'-du-x-dji-ns'qhe, na'im-il gu-s-mi'n il'u'lu-'dadi'mi-du-n. gu-'s- 
mi'N ma'i-1-gu-s-ditc-xa'li, wi-ma'^-i'l-wu-du-lu-'dadi'mi-du-n. mi'nt'ci tli-il- 

67 This man lived at Yaquina when Mrs. Peterson was a child and she recalled his telling this 
about himself. 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 119 

we were spearing their salmon. (3) They did not know my language (Coos), and 
I did not know their language (Chinook). When they came back, other young per- 
sons were playing, and they sang songs in their language. This is how they sang. 

gaya' gaya' gaya' 
semeli-'i semeli-'i, 
ehe'e'i ehe'e'i. 68 

(4) Then I thought to myself, Now I will sing too. 

'They made me go there when I was poor, 
But I am returning well off. ' 69 

They stared there at me. They talked together in their language. That is what it 
was like when I was there. (5) Then once they were not watching me. I ran away. 
I traveled at night. When it became daylight I would be beside a log. (6) When I 
reached a bay, and they had all gone to bed, I would steal a canoe, and when I 
landed, I would shove off the canoe, so that it drifted away. Then they would not 
learn how their canoe had disappeared. (7) I would throw away the paddle. I might 
have only a small stick for my paddle, with which to go across. That is the way I 
came back. I fled in summer, so I ate fruits and berries. I had Indian fire sticks. 
(8) When I was at a distance (from the Columbia River) , and I was far inland, and 
possibly a creek lay (flowed) there, I would spear trout. Then that was what I ate. 

ge'lyeq-he-ldli'm-aL. (3) an-i'rmit'ssi'yada-tla-'ntli-'s, we'n-tri-ilhidji'm-il-tli-'s 
an-u'mit'ssi'yada. wi'-ii-kwi--we-'st, wi'-ma-'-hi-'me alica-'ni-'da, wi'-kwi-ha'- 
di-da tH-irmi-'disa-ma ildimege-'n wi'-wen-ilha-'t'i. 

gaya' gaya' gaya', 
semeli-'i semeli-'i, 
ehe'e'i ehe'e'i. 68 

(4) tsu'-x-we-n-'ne'lu'we tla-e'n-e, tsu'-wi-his-e'n-e-geha't'i-'wa. 

ilki-"u i-'dje'e'i-ge'Ma, 

e'n-e t'li' du-wu-kY'le-dza'ne. 69 

ge'-ilwut'cu-'li-'du. tsu'-ilgwi-"7iyam tli-ildax-mi-'disa-ma n97a'la'. x-we'n thi- 
wu-da"-i'dje. (5) mi'n-t'ci tsu-a'nya-wulu-'didi'mi-te-m. wi'-tsu-wune'qhe. 
qli'm-wu'-du-yuxwu'me. wi'-i-ge'Hm wi'-niki'n di't'lha'wa'ya wu-du-tsi-'m. 
(6) wi'-yu-wu'-du-cit'cdi-'dje'-dji, wi'-tsu-'-du-gu-'s-wi' tsu-'m, tsu'-wu-du-tlgu-'s- 
la-'ya, wi'-yu-wu'-du-hi-'dat, wi'-t.ca'wu'-du tfo-tlgu-'s, a-'yu'-du-tlxu'. wi'-x- 
we-n an-i'l-kwa-'niyada x-dji'-tb-kwi a'N-ditc-tli-iltlgu's. (7) wi'-tb-dat'le'he 
ta-"wu'-du. wi'-yuwu't's-du-ki'yas nt'le'he, kwi-'-wu-du-ga'l-a'ts. x-we-'n-tb- 
wu'tsin'we'qhem. tsli'M-tb-wune'qhe, a-'yu'-wu-yu'k w si'L-dla-' u . ka"-di'yu-'pta 
kwi-wu"yityu-'wat. (8) wi'-yu-wuhe-'ye, wi-he-'nt'cicdje'-wu'-du, wi'-yuwu't's- 
t'i'm-i-da'-tsi-'m, wi'-t'ldji"-wu'-du-dza-'q w ts. wi'-a-'yu'-du-kwi-n9'q" w N. x- 

68 RCA Victor record 14:14603:A:1. 

59 RCA Victor record 14:14603 :A:2. He also sang this in later years at the dream power 
dances. 



120 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

That is the way I came back, that is how I returned home. That is why I was named 
ma'lu-'c (Columbia River)." 

51. Talking too much 

"Even though your tongue wiggles with ease, you make a very big thing 
(serious trouble) with it. Do you not know that it might be a very big (serious) 
thing when your tongue flops around (like a fish just out of water) all the time?" 

52. Gossips and liars 

(Among) the people of long ago, when a person was incessantly talking about 
people, (and) always telling lies (about them), if he did not pay for such a lie, then 
they would have a fight because of it. That was the custom of the people. (1) If 
a child was (also) telling (lies) about such a matter, the people would fight about 
that. And they would throw that child right into there (into the melee). Then it 
would tell tales no longer. (2) That is what they did to a child when it gossiped. 
It was a great thing (a serious offence) when a person told lies. That is why people 
did not lie, because it might be a big (serious) thing, and for that they might kill 
persons who spoke (lies) about people all the time. (3) That is why people did not 
do that, because they did not like a liar, because that was not a good thing, (it was) 
a very big thing. That is why the people did not have (do) that sort of thing. 



we-'n-wutsin'we'dhem, we'n-x-wen-u'we-'st. wi'-we-'n-ditc thi-u-we-'n si'n-sa-'nu 
ma-'lu-'c." 

51. 

"ma /i 'yuk w ku-kwr-dasa'ntc la't'sat kwa-na'le'i'le', wi'-wa-'ga-ditc x-kwi-'- 
ng'wa-'-ditc dza'itst. a'n-u'kwa-niyada'i' e-kwi- wa-'ga-ditc yu-kwi-gu-s-min- 
tla'xats kwa-na'le'i'le'?" 

52. 

tle-he-'niye-ka'\ i-du-ka" gu-s-mi'N-ka' t -i'ld u wa, gu-s-mi'N-he'we-se-'nu, 
wi'-kwi-yi'ml-qdla 1 i-du-a'N-skat tfe-dex-he'wes, wi'-kwi-yi'ml-qdla 1 du-dlildji-'lu. 
x-we-'n tle'-ka 5 tfo-data-'ma-'lis. (1) wi-i-hi-'me du-kwe-'n-da'-qdla 1 , kwi'ye-'nu- 
ka'-wu'lme u . wi'-ge'-du-titti'u tli-ki'lga. wi'-a-'yu'-du a'nya-kwa'anya-'t'l. (2) 
x-we-'n il-du-wa-'tsan tli-hi-'me yu-kwa'a'nya't'l. wa-'ga-ditc tle'-x-ka" i-ilhe'- 
we-su-tc-di'tc kwa-nana"ya'ih ws'n-ditc tli-il-a'N-ka'-hawa-sa'na'ya, na-'yim 
yuwu't's wa-'ga-ditc, kwi'yir'nu yuwu't's tsu-'tsu tle-ka"-gu-'s-mi'N ka"-i'ld u wa. 
(3) x-we'n-ditc tle-x-ka" tli-il-a'N-we-n wa-'tsa, na'im-il-a'N-du-'ha'ya tle-he'us- 
du'-ka\ na'im-a'N-we-n-didja-'ni'wa-s, wa-'ga-ditc. x-we'n-ditc tle-x-ka n tli- 
il-a'N-x-we-'n-ditc tsa-'wa u . 



1939] Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 121 

53. Sport of riding breakers in narrow play canoes 

The oceanside people had a sport which they played in this manner with their 
canoes. They were double enders. This is how they played with them. They would 
go right through inside the surf. (1) When they had gone past it (a large wave or 
breaker) they (the occupants) both stepped that way (gave the boat a jerk to the 
side), and then all the water was dipped out (of the boat). That was their sport. 
No one (not many of them) upset, and nothing ever happened to them even if they 
did upset. 



53. 

tfo-ba'ldiya-'-ka" x-we- / n-ild9'a'lica- / ni"was tli-ildgtlgwg'ls. dzu-'nugwa- 
sabs'b. we-'n-il-du-alica-'ni'da. ba'ldi-mas daga'la'yu il-du-tlhi'npiyam. (1) 
wi-'-il-du-ts'aTdu wi'-masa'-du-we-'n-tsxa-'t's, a-'yu-du-gu-'s-xt'u'-tte-ha-'fi. 
ws'n-il-du-a'lica-'ni-'da. an-i'1-du-hi't'ci-tlbi'liya, wi'-an-dudji-kwi-aya'tsam 

ma'i-du-tlbi'liya. 



INDEX OF ETHNOLOGIC TRAITS 

The analysis into traits is not exhaustive. The characterizations of traits, 
using the words herein indexed, may be somewhat arbitrary. The intent is to 
provide a tool for probing into the ethnologic content of the texts more efficiently. 



adolescence 23 

adultery. .26-8, 71, 101-2, 107, 114, 116, 117 

afterbirth, grandmother 24-5 

Alseas 108 

'angel-bird's' eye 99 

babyhood 24, 36, 38, 75, 76, 77 

bashfulness 63, 72, 73, 74 

basketry 22, 37, 49, 67 

bathing 76 

beads 82 

beauty 75, 103 

bed 37 

beings, dangerous 22, 24, 43-4 

berries 67, 84 

birds eclipse the moon 68 

birth 101 

blankets 50 

blessing a bow 66 

blood 54-5 

bow 52, 66, 67 

bracelet 82 

bride, character of a desirable 72 

bride purchase. . . .26, 35, 38, 48, 50, 54, 71, 
72-3, 74, 80, 84-5, 103, 107-8, 115, 117 

bullhead 47 

burial 91, 95 

California, culture traits from 63-4 

camas 84 

camping 75 

cannibalism 55 

canoe 38, 60, 64, 114, 121 

carrots, wild 84 

charity (see headman) 19, 89, 90, 92 

charm 99 

child 22, 23, 66, 67, 72, 79, 82 

classes, social (see slavery; poor people; 
wealthy people; headmen) 

clothing 65, 83 

commodity exchange 86 

compensation money 60, 120 

conception 50 

Coquille, villages on Lower 4 

crab 46 

cradle 69, 75, 76 

crawfish 52 

'cry,' baby's 77 

customs, text describing 3 

dance 25, 31, 36, 40, 63-4, 91, 94 



dangerous being. ...51, 54, 54fn., 55, 57-8, 82 

darkness, fear of 82 

'day' (see power) 

death. .22, 37, 41, 67, 68, 69, 90, 91, 95-6, 114 

deer power 90 

dentalia (see wealth; wealthy people) ... 82 

digger, crawfish 52 

dip net 20 

disease (see sickness) 

division of labor 49 

divorce 79-80, 104-5 

doctoring (see shaman) 

dog power 90 

doll 34, 100 

dream (see power; shaman) 56, 99, 100 

drying foods 41, 84 

eagle 91 

eagle hat, dentalium decorated 83 

ear pendant 57 

■■'can 44,92 

eclipse, lunar 68 

education 23, 24, 39fn. 

elders, treatment by children of 67 

elk 66,90,92-3 

Empire, town of 109 

encounter-power (see power) 

'father of the fish' 98 

'father of food' 68 

'father, people's' 91 

father's relation towards daughter 82 

feast 66, 67 

fern roots 84 

fines 81 

fire sticks 1 19 

firewood 49, 84 

fish, dangerous ogre 69-70 

'fish, father of the' 98 

fish, smoke-drying 84 

fishing 34 

'flirting' 27 

flood 53, 58 

'food's father' 68 

forest being (e- 'can) 92 

formulist (see shaman) 

fresh foods, taboos on 68 

fruits 84 

gambling 71-2 



(123) 



124 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 



[Vol. 8 



games 71-2, 98, 103-4 

giant 59 

gifts 45, 64, 72-3, 87, 89 

gossip 120 

grave 23 

grease 36, 38, 44 

gull 49,91 

'Hammer boy' 34, 34fn. 

Hanis dialect 4 

hat 82, 83 

headman 88, 89, 90, 92 

health 74-5 

herbs, medicinal 29, 76-7 

herring 68 

hunchback 59 

hunger 90 

hunting 28, 41, 66 

illegitimate child 48 

insult (see swearing) 78-82, 87, 115-16 

intermediary 81 

isoglosses, language 4 

Japanese 59, 59fn. 

jealousy 26, 83-4, 87-8, 103, 104, 117 

jewelry (see dentalia) 82 

joking 66, 67, 72 

kingfisher 62 

land of the dead 95 

levirate 78, 79 

lice, head 61 

lightning 98 

luck (see power) 98, 99 

marriage (see bride purchase)... .35, 38, 72-3, 
79-80, 84, 89, 102, 107-8 

massacre of Indians, white 101 

mats 64 

meat, smoke-drying 84 

meetings 66 

menstruation, first 26, 43 

messenger 64, 89 

meteors 69 

Miluk dialect 4 

Miluk villages 4 

Mongolian spot 25 

moon 68, 75 

mourner 91 

murder (see warfare) 27, 37, 86, 114, 116 

mutilation 114 

naming 67 

narratives 3 

net 97 

news carrier (see messenger) 

nudity 81 

nursing 76 



old age desired 67 

omens 96 

orphan 61 

pack rope 59 

'pain' 47, 93, 94-5, 99 

paint 97 

pendants 44, 82 

'people's father' 42, 67, 70, 96, 98, 100 

'person-who-calls-out' 24, 51 

pitch dress ogress 82 

pitchwood 57 

play 82, 109-10, 121 

poison-power (see 'pain') 114 

polygyny 38, 45, 78, 83, 85, 103-4, 117 

poor people, 19, 64-5, 71, 84-5, 86, 89, 90, 92 

'pouting' 44 

power ('day'), dream. . . .28, 29, 30-1, 32, 39, 

90, 93, 97 
power, wealth-encounter. . . .32, 41-2, 68, 89, 

98,99 

provincialisms, language 4 

quarreling 115-16, 117, 120 

rainbow 101 

raven 91 

religion (see power; shaman; sickness; dance) 

residence 19, 35, 41, 44, 45, 80-1 

ridicule 21,78, 79,87 

roasting stick (spit) 49 

rocks, people and objects transformed 

into 69 

rolling skull 96 

roots 84 

salmon 52, 61-2 

salmonberries 43 

scout, war 36 

sculpin 47 

sea crab 47 

sea lion 50 

sea otter 48, 50, 51 

sex (see adultery) 44, 71, 74, 76-7, 81 

shag 19 

shaman. . . .28-9, 31, 39, 46, 47, 66, 67, 68, 76, 
89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94-5 

shinny, woman's 103 

sickness (disease). . . .76-7, 82, 89, 91, 92, 93, 
96,99 

Siletz Reservation 106-8, 115 

Siuslau River 108 

slavery 85-6, 87, 118-20 

sleeping bag, tule mat 41 

smoke-drying salmon 41 

smoking 66, 97 

snail 54 



1939] 



Jacobs: Coos Narrative and Ethnologic Texts 



125 



snake power 90 

snow 100 

songs 63, 75, 77 

soul (see death) 41, 96-7 

South Slough villages 4 

spider 100 

spirit double 96-7 

stars 69 

storage of foods 84 

stork 42 

swearing 58, 101, 111, 112, 115-16 

swordfish 45 

taboos 66, 67 

tales 3 

test, daughter-in-law 49 

thunder 97 

tidal wave (see flood) 53 

time of day, ways of speaking of the .... 92 

tla'icta 68 

tobacco (see smoking) 97 

torch 45 

tracks, animal 23 

traveling 76 

trickiness 72, 75 



tuberculosis 93 

tule, sleeping bag of 41 

twins 105 

valuables (see dentalia) ... .38, 39, 49, 50, 54, 

57, 62 
vengeance 38, 54 

village, replenishing the decimated 

population of a 38 

visiting 72-3 

warfare 36, 53, 60, 78, 79, 81-2, 101 

wealth, acquisition of 86, 98 

wealthy people 45, 56, 59, 62, 64, 78, 79, 

80, 83, 89 

weaning 76 

whale 50, 5 1 

whale, canoe camouflaged like a 38 

widowhood 104 

wife, character of a desirable 72 

wife, head 82-3 

wife, undesired 78, 79, 83 

woodpecker, red headed 74-5, 90 

worker-retainer 114 

Yachats Reservation 4, 26, 63, 105, 117 

Yaquina Bay 106, 115 

yellowhammer 90 



c^ y 



UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLICATIONS 

IN 

ANTHROPOLOGY 



Volume 8, No. 2, pp. 127-260 



April, 1940 



COOS MYTH TEXTS 

By 

MELVILLE JACOBS 




PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON 

SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 

1940 



PREFACE 

This collection of Coos 'myths' (called in the Hanis dialect he-'djit', in the Miluk 
dialect ba-'saq) completes the presentation of texts secured from Mrs. Annie Miner 
Peterson in the summers of 1933 and 1934. At my request Mrs. Peterson rendered 
most of the myth dictations in the more nearly extinct Miluk dialect; the few 
Hanis dictations were intended to serve as a check on the published Frachtenberg 
work that preceded this research. The circumstances under which my Coos study 
was pursued, the manner of presentation here, and a preliminary discussion of the 
phonetics are provided in the companion monograph which has already appeared: 
Coos Ethnologic and Narrative Texts, University of Washington Publications in 
Anthropology, V. 8, pp. 3-18. 

I wish to express my appreciation of Mrs. Peterson's cooperativeness in her 
telling of these myths. They are most if not all of the myths she can remember. 
She is especially to be congratulated for the frank and unexpurgated form in which 
she gave them. With the spread of the Shaker faith and Christian beliefs among 
the older native survivors in western Oregon it is becoming increasingly hard to 
obtain honest portrayals of the more important aspects of the Indian cultures, and 
above all, of the myths. It is fortunate for us that Mrs. Peterson has held out, with 
a sense of humor, against the new taboos. She has also given these myths in what I 
think may be a stylistic cloak that is akin to the best traditions of the ancient art of 
myth telling among the Coos. 

Among other things in the footnotes I have taken special notice of anything 
that Mrs. Peterson had to say concerning the persons — now long deceased — whom 
she could report as having once told the myths, and the village groups in which 
the myths were common property. I hope that I am able to discuss stylistic and 
other aspects of the mythology in later papers. 

The myth titles are Mrs. Peterson's, not mine. It seems likely that myth 
titles were unstable. I suppose that all the natives would have phrased titles some- 
what differently, within certain limits which permitted intelligible reference to 
what was a myth that was perhaps equally familiar to all. Unfortunately after the 
death of Jim Buchanan in early 1933 and with the exception of a well informed 
niece of Mrs. Peterson, one Lottie, with whom I did not find it practical to work, 
there is very likely no other competent raconteur. When finishing the narration 
of a folktale about some animal being or at least a myth, the raconteur would usually 
close with a conventional phrasing something as follows: "When the people next 
to come (the Indians not yet here in the land but soon to arrive and make their 
home here) see you you will (e.g.) run, whenever you see a person." Whatever the 
animal or other dramatis personae of the myth were, their future behavior, when 
the Indian people had settled in the land, was so indicated. Stylistic components 
of this sort, which were indispensable adjuncts of story telling in early days, were 
sometimes omitted by Mrs. Peterson in the texts of this monograph. 



(129) 



A few stories told in English by Frank Drew in 1932 are appended. 

Mrs. Peterson pointed out to me that the reason she knew so many more 
stories than Mr. Drew, and could tell them as well as she did, was because she 
enjoyed going out with the older people when they went root digging, berrying, 
camping out; she liked to accompany the older people in all their out of door ac- 
tivities, during the Yachats (ya'hatc) Reservation period of Coos life. There the 
people recounted and discussed folktales incessantly when they were drying salmon, 
camas digging, hunting, or camping out during traveling. Other and somewhat 
younger people at Yachats Reservation stayed at home more and seemed to have 
less attentiveness for the stories of the older people, which is why they learned 
fewer folktales. 

In the pre- Yachats period, when the Coos were still living in their native area 
and villages, myths and possibly also narratives were told only in the wintertime, 
according to Mrs. Peterson; it was expected that the child auditors, if not older 
people, repeat in unison each phrase or sentence verbatim after the raconteur. 
"They kept on telling it until the children got it right. They wanted them to have 
it right. They did not want them to get it mixed up and 'lie' when they told it." 
When folktales were told to an audience composed only of adults, that is, of per- 
sons passed puberty, just one of the auditors repeated each sentence verbatim 
following the raconteur. But this repeating of what the other person said is only 
an aspect of conversational etiquette in general: the person spoken to usually if 
not always repeated verbatim what was said to him. 

I have judged it more accurate — and better for reproduction of some of the 
emotional tones of the original — to retain in the English translation the native in- 
terjections and ohs and ahs and ouches when they seemed untranslatable or were 
represented by no closely analogous English sounds. 

Since it may be convenient for comparative workers in mythology to find all 
the Coos stories together, the section of abstracts includes all Coos stories that 
Coos field workers have obtained: Mr. St. Clair's (JAFL, 22:27-41), the myths and 
tales of Leo J. Frachtenberg's Coos Texts (CUCA, 1, 1913), as well as the tales of 
my Coos narrative texts which precede this monograph. 

Mrs. Peterson redictated a number of the myths on pregrooved RCA Victor 
discs cut by the portable electric recorder made for me in 1934 with funds supplied 
by the National Research Council. Almost all the songs that turned up during the 
dictations were sung on Ediphone cylinders (1933) or RCA Victor disc records 
(1934) that are now deposited in the Washington State Museum in Seattle. The 
museum accession number of the record is noted in each case. At this writing neith- 
er text nor song records have been played off for the purpose of transcription. 

Melville Jacobs 
Seattle, Washington, July 1935 



(130) 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface 129 

Myths obtained in Hanis and Miluk both 133 

1. The rock point person lost his good luck thing 133 

2. Origin of death 135 

Myths in Miluk 137 

1 . The young man became a sea gull 137 

2. Bluejay shaman 138 

3. Fog myth 139 

4. The old couple and their grandson and granddaughter became ashamed there 141 

5. Ogress myth 142 

6. Dove myth 143 

7. The two loose women 143 

8. The bear woman 147 

9. The persons coon killed 147 

10. Jack rabbit man 148 

11. The wife of seal 149 

12. Dug-out-of-ground child, (and) popped-out-of-fire 150 

13. Black bear and pack basket bear (grizzly) 152 

14. Choked- with-food, or I fear the strength of choked- with-food 156 

15. The girl who had a dog husband 159 

16. The pouty children 162 

17. The white wife of mouse 165 

18. Crow girl 166 

19. The young man became an owl 167 

20. The young man who lived alone 168 

21. The girls who wished to have stars for their husbands 169 

22. I will tell you a crow myth 1 70 

23. The voung man lived with his grandmother 172 

24. Pheasant 173 

25. That whittles-his-penis old man, or The five brothers 175 

26. Myth of bluejay, (his) grandmother tied his head hair with her pubic hair 181 

27. The young man ate the thing that stank 182 

28. Butterball duck and his wife 183 

29. The trickster person who made the country 184 

30. There were many people at that place 222 

31. Myth about a trickster 224 

32. What the person who made the country (worldmaker) did 225 

Myths in Hanis 227 

1. (An additional fragment about the tricksters) 227 

2. Coyote and blue crane 227 

3. Bluejay myth 230 

4. Bluejay myth 232 

5. The walkers (animals) and winged things (birds) fought 232 

6. Myth of robin 233 

7. Crow and thunder trade languages 234 

8. Small bird hawk had his head cut off 235 

Additional versions, in English 239 

1. The ocean went far in to the land 239 

Another version 240 

2. Star husbands 241 

3. The dogs on the moon 241 

4. The seven stars 241 

5. The world fire 241 

6. Crow and thunder trade languages 241 

7. The long night and long day 242 

Abstracts 243 

(131) 



MYTHS OBTAINED IN HANIS AND MILUK BOTH 

1. The rock point person lost his good luck thing 1 

1 . The rock point person was poor, and he took (in marriage) a woman who 
was also poor. They had no house, they stayed with (other) people all the time. 

(2) Now he was always fishing from the rocks, and this is the way he sang. 

"Head man of the (water) foods! headman of the (water) foods! 
Give me food ! 
I am poor (pitiable)." 

He sang like that all the time, when it was low tide, when he was fishing there. 

(3) Now he did hook quantities of (fish) food. Once now he caught nothing, he 
went back with nothing at all. Now he arose early the next morning, and he went 
off at that time, but he could not hook a thing then. (4) It was nearly evening, the 

1. (Hants) k w li / 'yix-ku"we , st-me- / Ibtu'nam-he'mi'xsu-'wi 

1. le / -k w li'yi'x-ku"w£'et-ms- / k'u-kwi-'ne'wet'l, le'u-his-he'hu'mis kwi'ne-'- 
wet'l sga'ts. ux w -kY-yixe"wex, gu-s-mi"le'tc mehe'n-e"-ditc u'x w tila-'qai. (2) 
gu-s-mi"ls ( tc k w li'ye'xeitc tsistsu-'t'a"ai, le'u-wsntc-he-'-k w li't. 

"hs-kwa'nyau-siki'nxem ! he-kwa'nyau-siki'nxem ! 
kwa'nyau-a'tsam ! 
na-kwi'ne-'wst'l." 

x-we'ntc-h£-'-k w li't gu-s-mi"le'tc, yu'we-t'clisa-ga-'is, le'u-hi'ni / -he--tsistsu-'fa'ai. 
(3) a'yu-'-he- x-na-'ndi-tc k'u-qadu"wuts ls'-kwanyaul. ys'xen tsi-i'n-dil i'dzg- 
du-'wa't, kYsgi-bi"bi. le'u-tsxa"ya't dlu"tsxsm, la'u-la-'-we, yaga'-ws-i'nl-i- 
dzgdu-'wa't. (4) gasi'ya-qa'waha-'ya, qata'dja'ai l9-tka"lis, tsu'-han-bi"bi. 

1. (Miluk) q^a^-kwe-'u-ka* kxu-'nam-da'mixsu-'wi 

1. tte-q w la / '-kweu-ka < wi-'-kwi-"ne'wet'l, wi-ma /t -kwi-"ne'wet'l hu-'mis-ga- 
la'm. a'mi-itc'ye'ts, kibi'na-itc gus-mi'N-dle-'ge-q. (2) wi'-kwi-du q w la'- 
yu'-du kwi-gu-'s-mi'n tsistsu-'t'a', wi-'-wen-du-ha-'t'i. 

<< qw9 , nya u -disi / ki'nen ! 4w9'nya u -disi'ki'nen ! 
d i W9 / nya u -du-ni- / m ! 
kwi-"ne'wet'l-u'." 

x-we-'n-du-ha-'t'i gu-'s-mi'n, i-t'ctas-da'gahais, i-du-da^-tsistsu-fa'. (3) wi- 
a-'yu'-du-qws'nya" ga-'li-qada'n. mi'n-t'ci a'N-ditc-aya-'dja, a'mi-sgi-wa's-i. 
wi-'-qeli-"mis wi'-dl3q w S9m, wi'-la-'-gum, ma--gu'm-antc-4da'ni. (4) gasi'- 
ya-gatqa'idiya, gedle"niye tl3-qw9'l£'es, tsu'-han-wa's-i. he'-ma-'tsi di'tc- 

!Mrs. Peterson heard a Lower Coquille Miluk named t'ce-'mel recount this myth. The 'fish 
headman' who gives temporary wealth power is not described in the myth, nor does Mrs. Peterson 
recall that his appearance was other than 'queer.' The locale is at the Miluk village that used to 
be on or near the rocks where the present Coos lighthouse stands, a mile or more south of Charles- 
ton and on the ocean front. 

(133) 



134 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

sun was going down, and now he was going to return. Then something heavy was 
on his hook. So he pulled, and now a queer sort of food (fish) was fastened on it 
there. Then he was about to club it. "Ha'! do not hurt me' (5) I will pay you if 
you do not hurt me. Whatever you may be wanting, then name me, and indeed 
I will come." So then he just took it off. Then he went back home. 

2. Indeed every day that was how it (his good luck thing) gave him some- 
thing or other, all sorts of things, (such as) sea otter, fur seal, sea lion, seal. He 
found them all (on the beach). (2) And it was from that (luck thing) that he be- 
came wealthy. He no longer stayed with (other) people, he had his own house. 
Now his wife wanted more and more things. He himself did not like that (greed 
of hers). (3) Once now she spoke thus to her husband, "This is what you are to 
tell him, he is to give you ten sea otter hides. Tell him that. You want that much 
(that quantity)." He did not want to, but his wife only became enraged if he did 
not (agree to) do that. (4) So then he went, and now he hallooed (to his good luck 
power). It did not appear. He hallooed again. Then indeed (it appeared) . "What 
do you want? (5) I told you not to be constantly calling out to me. You will be- 



hsi-ha'ts tci-'lwi'q le-"n9tja-'lats. tsu'-t'cdjits, hsi-ha'ts-gwa' t -su < t kwa'nyaul 
tci'-t'le"et. tsu'-han-ma'nktit. "Ha'! i'n-qalauta-"is! (5) etsb'dzami-hantl 
yantl-e'n-qala'uta"is. di-l-ha'ntle--we e'du'wa-ya, s'la-'t'ci-wixda"is hantle-'-we, 
la'u-a'yu'-hantle'-ws nehe'bsq." a'yu'-yaga'-x-wentc dza'mt'its. ta-'-le-xe-la'u 
bi'<bi. 

2. dsnk-ga'isitc yege'-x-wentc yaga'-dil a'tsa, gu-'s-di-'l, gi'ys"we, dzu'li, 
tu'x w si, gegu-"mit. gus-ls'u-kiktlu-'wi"wa't. (2) xk'ti'k hedi-'ye. ini-'ys- 
mehs'n-e"-ditc dlu'we'gsts, x-i'ni-'xeyeu yixe"wex. ls'u-lex-hu"mis as-u'-hs-'- 
gusl-du'waya. ls'u-le-xs'ge ls'u-in-he-'-duwa-ya x-wentc. (3) yi'xsn tsu-we'ntc 
i"lt le-'de'mil, "x-we'ntc i'J'ds dlipga"ni-ha'ntl a'a'tsu le'-gi'ye'wsu-ys'q. x- 
we'ntc-hantl-e'i'lt. x-we'ntca-naha'ndis-s'du'wa-ya." i'n-yu-duwaya, tsi'-he- 
gswu'nt.sem-hel le-'hu"mis i'-i'n-yegs'-x-wentc. (4) a'yir'-la-, tsu'-we'-k'a'Lt. 
i'n-xege'ntc-itse-'m. as-u'-k'aLt. a'yu- '-x-wentc. "dilu'-s'du'wa-ya? (5) 

pt'li's tla-dad^a-'latsadja. tsu'-t'cdja', he'-ma-'tsi-gwa-su'det qwa'nyau-ditc 
ge"-t'H. tsu'-han-ttca-'ts. "ha'! a'n-qalu-tai! (5) tsldza-'mi'-nantl i-nantl- 
a'N-^alutai. ditc-na'ntl-du-du-'ha"ya, wi'-si'ndisai-nantl-du, wi'-a'yu'-wa'ntl- 
du'-dji'." a'yu'-ma-x-wen dzamt'ts. tsu'-t'a'ma-wa'si tla-hi'dji. 

2. a'yu'-ms'-x-we'n de'nge-gaha'is ma"-ditc ni'ya, gus-didjs'nsn-ditc, gi'- 
ys"w£, dzu-'li, tu'x w si, qaitsa'n-a. gu's-kwi-gitki'1-at. (2) tsu'-xgst hsdi'ys. 
a'nya'-kibi'na-dlu-'gwa, x-mi- disi'ye-di'ye - 'ts. wi'tla-dex-hu'mis da's-du-ma' 5 - 
ditc-du-'ha'ya. wi'-an-du-du'ha'ya tls-x-hi'dji. (3) mi'n-t'ci tsu-we'n-ildwa 
tla-dade-'mil, "x-we'n-ildi'ye'we, tr'cdji-na'ntl-ni-'wun gi'ye'we-didze't'lis. we'- 
n-antl-i'ldwa. we-'s-ndu'ha'ya." a'N-du'ha'ya, tsi-du-be'lxsim-ge tla-dshu-'mis 
ya-a'n-me'-x-wen. (4) a-'yu'-la, tsu'-gum-k'a'lt. a'n-xgen-a'yatsam. da's- 
k'a'lt. tsu'-a-'yu. "di'tc-endu'ha'ya? (5) gwa-ne-x-ws'n ilda-'mi'ya an-a'ntl- 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 135 

come poor, because you want too intensely quantities of things." And sure enough 
he became poor again, because his wife wanted quantities of things so very much. 
That is how that myth ended. 

2. Origin of death 2 

They were two friends. They lived there. Both of them had wives. Both had 
little boy babies. One morning that child (of one of them) became ill. (1) His 
child was not ill long. Then the child just died. He was so sad about his child, 
when it died. Then they buried it. The next day he did not eat. He continually 
looked for his child. (2) On the fourth morning he went to his friend. "What do you 
think? my friend! do you think my child will return in five days?" That is what 
he said. "Oh no friend! Just go and eat! then you will feel better." (3) That is 

gwe'-x-wentc e'i"lda'mi'ya en-ha'ntl gus-mi"ls'tc ak'aTa'is. s'kwi-'newet'l- 
i-'ye-hantl, na'im-he'lt'-yu-na-'nt-dH e^duwa-ya." a'yu-'-x-wentc kwi-'ns'we- 
t'li-'ys a'su, hslt'-yu'-na-'nt-dil du'waya lex-hu"mis. x-we'ntc hs'Vi'ye le'l- 
leu-he-'djit'. 

2. 

(Hants) ux w -sla'a-'dji'ni. le'u-ilgwe-'t'i. le'u-i-'ki-ux^na'hunve-'kYhe. i'- 
ki t'ce'y £ '' n£ h£' u x w ti'mfi-hi-'me. yixe'n geli'm-ye tsu'-watcwe'hedji la'-a"la. (1) 
i'n-he-niye le'u-xe"nis la'-a"la. tsu'-hats le'u-lege'we la'-a"la. x'a-"na'na-'ya 
le-"a"la, i"-ls'u lege'ws. tsu-'-il'a'ga-'na-'ya. his-heTmihis i'n-dlu'yam. ka- 
'na'da-'ya la"a"la. (2) hecdb'dle-'n geli'm-ye le'u la'a'da'ya le'sla'a-'tc. 
"edji'nhehe-ni'i'? da-'i s'la'M x-tci-'tcu-ye"ilwe"djas geds'misen gela'm-ye yu-'tl- 
wutxe'i' bn'a"la?" we'ntc-tl'e'xem. "in-he'1-s'la" ! ha'ts aqa'Mtsam! le'u 
nu'we'ts-hantl ye"ilwe"dJ9S." (3) x-we'ntc i"lt. tsu-' gats-ini'ye dji'tci-il- 

gu-s-min ak'ala'i. kwi-"ne"wet'li'ye-nantl, na'im-ne-he'lt'-ha-ga'l-ditc du-'ha"- 
ya." a'yu'-me-x-we-'n kwi-"ne'wet'H'ye da-'s, na'im-helt'-ha ga-'l-ditc-du'ha"- 
ya tb-dex-hu-'mis. we-'n-hu"wa tb-ku'wi-ba-'saq. 



(Mihik) sla'a'djinu-itc. kwi'-i'l leqlu-'t'tsaM. wi'-misa'-itc nahu'meke- 
he. misa'-itc e-t'ci'li-itcditi'mli-hi-'me. mi'n-t'ci ge'bm tsu-kwi-'-xenxenu tli- 
ki'lga. (1) a'n-he-niye xe'nwas tli-ki'lga. wi-'-kwi--qa'ya u tli-kYlga. xan'wi'ya- 
lu'we tli-ki'lga, yu-kwi-'-q"a'ya u . tsu-'-il'a'ga-'na-'ya. ma'a'is a'N-dlu'wiyam. 
ka'na-'ya tb-diki'lga. (2) dza'wa-gaha-'ya kwi-'-yux w u'mada-'ya tb-das'la"a. 
"djinhehe-'nuni'i'? da'i-'na's'la'! dji'-x-na'lu'we gent'ci'nsen ge'bm an-a'x- 
tte-wsst'i' tb-'niki'lga?" we-'n-i'l-at. "an-ge'-s'la'! ma-'tsi di'tc-ldjeM wi' 

2 Mrs. Peterson never heard this myth. Being interested in obtaining an especially close 
check on the phonetics of Frachtenberg's text recording, I read to Mrs. Peterson the Hanis ver- 
sion printed by Frachtenberg in the text analysis section of his Coos Grammar (BAE-B. 40, Pt. 
2, p. 419) and I recorded her pronunciation of his lines, word for word. She objected continually 
and strongly to what I gather she felt was crudity, ineptitude, or improper style and phrasing in 
the Frachtenberg version. She was made to hold to his idioms, phrases and words only with 
reluctance and upon my insistence that I needed such duplication for purposes of study of his 
material. Her reaction "to this procedure was such as to confirm my hunch that Frachtenberg's 
informant, Jim Buchanan, spoke another Hanis village provincialism; and in addition, it is likely 
that he dictated to Frachtenberg at a speed rate that may have introduced stylistic awkward- 
nesses, which Mrs. Peterson would object to, of course. 



136 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

what he said to him. He did not know what to think now. So he just figured, 
"I'll surely get even with you." Indeed it was not long before his (his friend's) 
child became ill (too). It was not sick long. (4) (Now) already it was dead. He 
was very sick at heart, when his child died. Indeed it was as if he had spoken that 
way, when he had wanted his child to return. Then indeed he (too) went there. 
(5) "Hello friend! Surely our children should come back! Our children ought to 
return after five mornings." That is what he said to him. (6) "Oh no indeed my 
friend! You just go and eat! and then your heart will feel better." That is what 
he said. (7) "I thought our children ought to come back, but you did not want that. 
So then now they will never come back, when people will die, because you did not 
want that. It was good that you said that to me." (8) That is what he thought. 
It would have been better had he spoken to him, "After five mornings they may 
return," had he said that to him. It would have been good, could he have returned 
in five days, a person who had died. Now it finished there. That is the way the 
myth was told by them. 



we"dJ9S. ha'ts x-wentc djinhe'he-'ni, "e'dla-'laha-'mi-yantle-'l." a'yu' in-yu- 
he-'niye a'yu' watcwe'hedji la-"a"la. i'n-he-'niye xe"nis. (4) ma-'ntc lege'we. 
hei-gwa'-in-tau-ilwe"dJ9s, i"-lau lege'we la-"a"la. a'yu' ci'l-ya le"lau-we'ntc 
tl'e'xem, i'VLau duwa-'ya wu'txe-la-"a"la. tsu-' a'yu' tci-la\ (5) "da'i s'la'! 
a'yu-' cu-tl wutxa'xa le-'s'a"la! geda'misen geb'm-ye ux w 'wu'txe le's'a"la." 
we'ntc i"lt. (6) "i'n-hel s'la'! ha'ts-hantl ad_a'Mtsam! k'u nu'we'ts-hantl 
ye"iTwe"djas." we'ntc tl'e'xem. (7) "ga'igwantl ux w 'wu'txaxa-'-hel le-'shi-'- 
me, ta-'-gats-lau i'n-duwa-ya x-we'ntc. hei-ya'ntlel yaga-i'n wutxe'xe ! 't, ya'n- 
tle-we me" lege'we, na-'yim e'n-duwa-'ya x-we'ntc. x-nu'we-'-ci'l-ya-da-we'ntc-e 
e'i"lda"is." (8) x-we'ntc djinhe'he-'ni. ma-'-x-nu"we le'leu-wentc-i"lt, "ge- 
di'misen geto'm-ye u'tle'-we wstxe'xe'^t," yu-'tl-we'ntc-tl'e'ts. 13'7-i-u-tl, yu-'tl- 
geda'misen gek/rrrye wutxe'xe^t, le'-me- lege'we. tsu-' yaga'i'ni hele'gexem. 
we'ntc he-dji'de'ni'yedjhem. 



ki'le-'t-nantl-lu'we." (3) we-'n i'ld u wa. tsu'-ma-'tsi a'N-dji di'lu'we. ma-'tsi 
x-we'n djinhehe'nu, "db'lyuda-'mi-nantli." a'yu' a'n-ha-he-'niye a'yu' xe'n- 
xenu tla-diki'lga. a'n-he-niye-xe'nwas. (4) ma'n-ma-tsi ^a'ya u . hei-gwa-a'N 
a'N-wen-di'lu'we, yu-kwi- qa'ya u tb-diki'lga. a-'yu x-kwi"ya tla-kwi-'-wen i'l-- 
at, tia-kwi-'-du'ha'ya we-'st tb-diki'lga. tsu'-a'yu' ge"-la. (5) "da'i s'la'! a'yu' 
x-a'xtbl wa-'sdidiyam kwi-'snil^i'lga! gent'ci'nsi gaha-'ya a'xtla-wa-'sdidiyam 
kwi-'snikTlga." we-'n-i'ld u wa. (6) "a'n-ge-' s'la'! ma-'tsi-nantl dlu'wi'yam! 
wi-'-l^ile-t-nantl-lu'we." we-'n-i'ld u wa. (7) "ga'ida-hantl wa-'sdidiyam tlis- 
nihi-'me, we -'n-kwi --ma-'tsi a'N-du-ha'ya x-we-'n. hei-ha'ntli ma"-aN-we's- 
didi, ya-ha'ntl-du ka"~4aya u , na'im na-a'n-x-we-n du-'ha"ya. ^i'le-'-x. 
kwi-ya tb-na-we-'n-i'l-dai." (8) we-'n djinhehe-'nu. ma-'-ki'le tb-kwi'- 
we-'n-i'l-d u wa, "gent'ci'nsi'ye-n ge'bm t'a'ma-axtb-du-we-'sdadi," ya-a'xtb- 
we-'n-tli. ^e-'le-axtbL, ya-axtb gent'ci'nsi gaha'is we-'sdidi, tb-ka'-qa'ya u . tsu' 
ma"-da-dje-'nen. we-'n illaga'wiyat'a-na"ya. 



MYTHS IN MILUK 

1. The young man became a sea gull 3 

1. The old woman was living alone, she was bringing up her grandson. 
"Never travel uphill in yonder direction!" It was bad there (she said), and so 
indeed he never went there. His grandmother was constantly telling him that. 

2. The child grew up, he became a young man. Now (he thought he would 
go) up above to eat salalberries. So he did go up anyway. And there were women 
(there), they were picking salalberries. "Oh nephew! it is fine that you have 
come here. (2) We have always been wanting to see you. I saw you all the time." 
Now then the young man went back home. "Where have you been?" That is 
what his grandmother said to him. (3) "Why I have not been anywhere." "You 
are lying. And I told you so, never to go (up) there, and then you went there any- 
way." Now she thrashed her grandson. The young man wept. (4) He got his play 
canoe. "Wind! blow hard!" Sure enough the wind blew, e-'- the old woman's 
house blew away, and then the old woman herself blew away also. 

3. And then the young man said (sang) thus, 

"HaV! h 9 V! 

My grandmother' 

The wind blew away my grandmother. 



1. tfo-di-'lu'l wa"asi'ya 

1. mi-'t'ci kwi-'-laqls-'m tl3-hu-"mik, wi-'-kwi--ha-'wau-d9di / msin. "an- 
tkV-du- ge'wi yux w um-e-'n!" a'N-we-'n-ge", a-'yu-du-a'n-gs"-yuxu'm-e'. gu-s- 
mi'n-du-we-'n-i'l-dwa tla-d^-u'm-na-'t'btc. 

2. hs-'-wi tfe-kiTga, di-'luli'ys. tsu'-gs-'wi kwi-ba-'mas-daTdaV me"- 
gs-'wi-la. hei-ma-'tsi hu-me'ke, ba-'mgs-ilyu'gwa. "u-'- ki'l-mu! ^i'l-e'-x- 
da-n-di'-dji. (2) gu-s-mi'n-1-du du-'ha'yal-du-kla-'wihan. krtr'da-mi'han." 
tsu'-wa'si-tte-di-'lu'L "xgs'n'wa'sna?" we-'n-iTd^a-tfo-dax-u'm-na-'t'latc. 

(3) "ma-'-u-a'N-xge'n'wasa." "he'w9S-du"n9. we-'n-ilda-'mi, an-a'ntl-du-ge"- 
yu'x-u'me, wi'-gs"-naxla'." tsu"-mankt tla-dadi'm-sin. tsu'-xga'nau ttel-di-Tu'l. 

(4) ga'lam-tfo-dakVuts. "t'le'we-'sas! la'n-wi-qs'wesi'i'ye!" a-'yu gesqYu- 
su. e'- tfo-dgye-'ts kwi-'-p'icici'yam tlatc-hu-''mik\ tsu'-his-hidji'-pc-i'" tfotc- 
hu"mik. 

3. wi-'-we-'n-tli-tb-di-'lu'l, 



"haV! ha'V 
ge'-'na'u'm-a-'ci! 
kwi-'yuk-pW u tb-'na'u'm-na-t'latc. 



3 Mrs. Peterson said that both Hanis and Miluks knew this myth. She remembered that 
two Hanis, Emily Burns and Bob Burns, certainly told it. 

(137) 



138 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

She had so hard a time bringing me up, 
And then I made her blow away. 4 

I will not remain here longer. I will go about on the ocean beach. " Indeed the wind 
blew no more, and to be sure the young man (now a sea gull) went about on the 
ocean beach. 

2. Blue jay shaman 5 

There was a girl who was always picking myrtle nuts. Once the girl became 
ill, she became extremely ill. "We must get a shaman. I wonder where there is a 
shaman." (1) "They say that blue jay is a good shaman." "Very well then you 
go get him." And so then indeed they went for the shaman. Sure enough he came, 
and then he labored over the girl. "Ha'! 

It is my own poison-power that they are talking about." 5 

And so he doctored her. "Keep watch on him. (2) That bluejay is tricky." And 
then sure enough he just flew up, packing the girl on his back. He leaped (flew) 
through the smole hole (and away). "Ha'hahahahaha (laughter) she has become 
my very own wife!" He stole the girl. 



kwi-"ne'wet'l i-u-kwi-'-he-'wudzu-n, 
we / n-kwi-u'rjca' t 'uwa-'wa. 4 

an-wa'ntl-da's-di'u-dlu'gwa. ba'ldiya-wa'ntl yux-u'me." a-'yu a'nya-qswe'- 
si, a-'yu-ba'l-diya aya"yux-u'ms tra-di-'lu'l. 

2. ye'y £ " ne i'1-a'xqain 

gwe'is gU'S-mi'n-du--kwi'-alam-yu'gwa. mi'n-t'ci tsu-kwi'-xs'nxsnu tla- 
gwe'is, la'n-wi-kwi'-xs'nxenu. "i'1-axqain-l-hantl-ga'lam. ida-idja-'u da-i'la'x- 
<Jain." (1) "hi'dji tsa-kYl-e i'la'xqain tto-Ys'yeW." "a-'i la-'dza-tcil." tsu'- 
wen a'yu-la'dzita-m tla-i'laxqain. a'yu'-dji\ tsu'-xdzi'dzunas tla-gwe'is. 
"ha'! 

ci'ct'cici'k-, di'la a'xayal'i'." 5 

tsu-" dzi'dze. "kr'dadeye-'tcil. (2) ha-du'-t'smi-'xwan-du kwa-ys'ys'n-e." 
hsi-ma-'tsi a-'yu' kwi--ma-'tsi hwa'ldi, kwi-di't'im tla-gwe'is. ha'a'n-dja-- 
hwa'ldi. "ha'hahahahaha e'n-e-'nahu-'misi'ys!" la-'ya-tla-gws'is. 



4 He cries as he sings this song. It was recorded on these records now at the Washington 
State Museum in Seattle: Ediphone record 14:14578:k; RCA Victor disc 14:14609A:c. 

5 The first person Mrs. Peterson heard tell this story was Old Dick, a Hanis; she said he did 
not sing bluejay's song correctly. Later she heard various Hanis and South Slough Miluks laugh 
and tell the story. The bluejay was a shaman who lived somewhere near the head of Coos River. 
Having no money he poisoned with his own poison power the girl he desired to have for a wife, 
and then he pretended to doctor her. Mrs. Peterson gave a Hanis version later, myth 36 below, 
p. 232. The song words are supposed by the Coos to be more or less correctly rendered Lower 
Rogue River Nadene (Sixes or Tututni) words. Bluejay is of course a great talker and so it is 
natural that he can talk a Rogue River dialect as well as many other languages. Song recorded 
on Ediphone record 14:14579:a; also RCA Victor disc 14:14609B:b. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 139 

3. Fog myth 6 

1. The old woman lived there. A certain old man had two wives, young per- 
sons (girls). They did not like their husband. The old man went to there where 
the old woman lived. "My wives are talking about going to run away." (2) This 
is what the old woman said, "Ha-' they will not run away. I will take care of it. 
I will stretch a net, and they will not be able to go through it." The old man spoke 
thus, "Very good! I will pay you for that." (3) Now one of those 'young persons 
(girls) was smart, the younger sister was the smart one. "So that is how the old 
woman thinks, that I will not be able to pass through there. But I will get through 
it nevertheless. Come ! older sister ! let us go. ' ' (4) And to be sure they went. "Very 
well. Let us go." That is what her older sister said. So then indeed they went. 
When they got to there where the old woman lived, the old woman was sleeping. 
Then the girl spoke thus, "You will just keep on sleeping!" (5) Now they went on, 
and then they got to there where the net was. Now the girl said thus, "Break off! 
net !" Indeed it broke off. They did pass by the net. And then they went on. 

2. Now the old man got back home. There was no sign of his wives. Then 
he went to the old woman there, and he spoke thus to her, "My wives have quite 
disappeared." Now the old woman leaped up. "Ha n7 how could they have gone 
through it? when they went to the net there?" (2) Then the old man became en- 
raged. "Get away, ogress! I do not want (like) you. You lie. I will go myself to 



3. tqwa'is ba-'saq" 

1. da"-kwi--dlu-'gwa tla'tc-hu^'mik. wi-'-tu-'mi't'iditc adzu-'-duhume-'- 
l£e, gsne'tc-ka. wi'-an-itcdu-'ha'ya tli'-itcdgds-'mil. ge-'-la-tl3 / tc-tu-"m3t'l 
tH'tc-hu-"mik" dhr'gwa'a'dja. "na'qaqa'yam tsa'ntl tfo / -'n9hu- /, me-"ke." (2) 
wi-'-x-we'n tli- / -tlitc-hu-"mik, "ha 7 an-ha'ntl naqaqa'yam. lu-'dada'ya-wantl. 
t'la'is-wantl da'lxa, wi-'-an-ha'ntl dji-^-da tl'i'npya." tkVtc tu-"m9t'l we'n 
tii', "kVle'! tsldza-'mi-'-'na'ntl." (3) we'n-tfe'tc-gsne'tc-ka hit'ci' nebehe-'- 
ne, ttedto-gwa'l-a nebehe-'ne. "wi- / -x-we / n-di'luwe / -kwi / tc-hu-"mik, an-wa'ntl- 
dji'-da" tsa'l-du. hi't'c-wa'nti-da /< -tsa'l-du. e'dji! he-'nukwi! la-'s-hantl." 
(4) tsu'-a-'yu' la'a'yam. "ke-'h. la'a'yams-ha'ntl." we'n-tli-tla-dahe'ne-'- 
kwn. a'yu-i'tcla'a'yam. i-itc g£ /! -dji tbtc-hu^'mik dlu-'gwa'adja, ge-'ql tlatc- 
hu-"mik\ wi-'-we-'n-tK tbtc-gwe'is, "ma--na'ntl gege'ql!" (5) tsu'-itcla'a'- 
yam, wi-'-ge'-itcdji' tb-t'la-'issdja. wi-'-ws'n-tli tla-gwe'is, "dzs'mt'u! t'la-'is!" 
a'yu-dze'mt'u. tsa'l-du'itc a-'yu tla-t'la-'isatc. tsu'-itc da-ma'-la'a'yam. 

2. tsu'-we-'st tl9'tc-tu-"m9t'l. a'N-ditc tla'-dahu^'me-'ke. tsu'^-ge'-la 
tbtc-hu^'miki'dje, tsu'-ws'n i'l-dwa, "a'N-di'tc tb / -'n9hu / 'm£ / ke." tsu'-hwg'l- 
di-tl9tc-hu"mik. "ha n -' dji'-ge kwi-'-tlhi'npya? tsu'-itc ge'-ha'a'yam tl9-t'la'is- 
gdja?" (2) tsu'-be'lxsgm "tl9'tc-tu"m9t'l. "i-'ge-nusgi'li! a'n-du-hida-'mi. 

6 This was the first text dictation I recorded (1933) in Coos; the quality of the rendering 
no doubt suffers in various respects by comparison with later dictations. Mrs. Peterson heard 
the myth told once by a Hanis man, Old Dick, and once by a Hanis and Miluk speaking woman 
named hs'mik (k is anterior palatal), resident on South Slough. 



140 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

get my wives." "Go on, if you suppose you are any smarter." Indeed he went, 
and he followed his wives. 

3. Now they saw a person, and they were enamored of him. It was a hand- 
some young man they saw. "'a n -' that man is fine looking." "He certainly is hand- 
some." "Oh I wish he were our husband." (2) They looked to the rear, they saw 
that husband of theirs, he was following his wives. "Oh what shall we do?" And 
then he (the handsome young man) spoke thus, "If you want me then follow me." 
"Very well." (3) And to be sure they followed him. Now the old man was nearing 
them. "What can we do?" And this is what he said, "I will make a fog." Indeed 
he was getting nearer. He (the old man) got closer, and then he (the young man) 
waved a little stick, and sure enough he made a fog. (4) Unable to see anything, 
indeed the old man lost his way, he could not see a thing, so thick was the fog. 
They followed their man, and they went on that far and now he stopped the fog. 
They had gone a short distance further and again they saw the old man. (5) Now 
the young man spoke thus, "If you want me, come! come follow me!" Indeed they 
followed him, and then this is what he said, "We have gotten there." Then they 
indeed went into his house. Many people were there. (6) Now the young persons 
(girls) went inside, and this is what she (their mother-in-law) said (sang), 

"My daughter-in-law has a down below (country below) face!" 

In no long time then the old man arrived. "I want my wives." (7) " I do not want 
to go (back) there again." "Get away! (said the young man to the old man) I will 



he'we-'s-e-'nuni. x-mi-'t'ci'-wa'ntl la"yuwa' tb'-'nehu'me-'ke." "la'ya'qai, 
ma-'-dax-nsu-'det." a'yu'-la, tsu'-u-'mi-t.sa-'t'a tl9-d9hu-"ms-'l£e. 

3. tsu'-itc ka'-itckla-'wi, wi'-kwi-itctlxa-'li. nehe-'wadzan-di-'lul i'tckla'- 
wi. "'a n,/ nehe-'wadzan kwa-de-'mil." "a-'yu'yuk w nahe'wadzan." "u y kwi-- 
ga-'san de-'mal." (2) qla'mindje i'tcxi-'la, he-i'tc-kwr-kla-'wi kwa-i'tcdade-'- 
mil, u'mi-dadi-'t'a tla'-dahu-'me-'lje. "u-' dji-'s-ha'ntl aya-'dja?" he'i-ma-'tsi 
we'n-tH, "i'-i's-ha'ntl du'hidai wi-u'midada'i-nantl." "kVle." (3) tsu'-a-'yu 
i'tc'u'midat. tsu'-nelt'cu-'ya tb'tc-tu-"m9t'l. "dji'tl-ha'ntl xakVH?" wi-'- 
ws-'n-tli, "t^wa'is-ha'ntl hu-t'su'wa." ayu'-nelt'cu'ye. nelt'cu'ye--tsu' s'k- 
di'ki'ya-s wi-'-we'n kwi-xwa'mt'st tla-da'lciyas, a'yu tqwa'is-hu-t'su-'tim. (4) 
a'n-dji-ditc-he'mqe'^hsm, a'yu'-kxwa't tbtc-tu^'mat'l, a'n-dji-ditc-hama-'q, 
hs'lt'-ha-mi'n-e-'ni tla-tqVa-'is. u'midat'itc tb'tc-di-de-'mil, tsu'-il-du' ha-da y - 
1-a tsu'-il-du' a'nya'-wa-wa-tb-tq'wa-'is. gi-"gwa he'-i'l-du-la' tsi'-il-du-da-'s 
kla-'wi tb'tc-tu-"m3t'l. (5) tsu'-we'n-tli' tbtc-di-'lu'l, "i's-ha'ntl du'hidai, 
edji"is! e'dji u'midgda'i'is!" a'yu-itc'u'mida-t, tsu'-wen i'ldit'a, "ge'-ldji'- 
ni'yam." tsu'-il ayu-de-'dje tb-d3'ye -/ ts9dJ3. ga-'l-ka-gs-dlu-'gwa. (6) tsu'- 
itcxb'm-a tls-gene-'tc-ka, tsu'-wen-tli, 

"gadla-'na-hel-'nax-midu-'n !" 

a'n-he-'niye tsu'-dji" tfato-tu-"mat'l. "du-'ha'ya'u-' kwa-'nahu-'ms-'ke." (7) 
"a'n-wu / duha-"ya ge-'-u-asu-'-la." "i-'gsi! gedle'n-axtitsa-'mi!" a'yu-bi-'nat's 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Tex Is 141 

hurl you down below!" Indeed then the old man went back, (weeping) "You did 
wrong to me when you left me. So now I must go back home alone." 

4. The old couple and their grandson and granddaughter became ashamed there 7 

1. A whale drifted on to the beach. All (almost all, many of) the people went 
to there, there was not a person left at home excepting the old man and his wife. 
They were (almost) the only ones to stay at home. And their granddaughter was 
hanging up (i.e., in bed upon her first mensis). Their grandson was at home too. 
(2) Now the old people were sitting outside, and then they just heard something, 
something making a whistling noise. So then the old woman went inside. "Grand- 
daughter! why that whistling noise of yours?" Her granddaughter did not speak 
(in reply). 

2. Now then they (the people cutting up the whale) started of! (for home), 
and then they went on, and all those people who had gone to cut up the whale, 
they met them (they came upon the four who had remained at home). They had 
all sat down there (at home) . The old man had placed his cane against his forehead 
(to rest his head) when he sat down, and his old woman (wife) too. (2) She (the 
pubescent girl) had stuck it on the roasting stick, it must have been a sea rose her 
granddaughter had been roasting (which whistled when roasting; to prepare food 
was a most terrible thing for a girl in first mensis seclusion to do). When those who 
were coming got near, then just all four of them (at home there) had turned to 



tbtc-tu-"mat'l, "i-dje-'Vi'u'idzadu-'n tli'-itc u-'ha-'qwdi'udun. a'yu-u mi-'- 
t'ci' bi-'na't's." 

4. tb-ta'ms-t'le we-'n-tb-dadi'm-sin tgi'dzan da-'-ildjicdzi'ldzu 

1. t'sehe'm tsada'ndan-u. wi-'-gu-'s ge'-la-da'-ka, a'mi-ka--dagaha'is ma'- 
tsi-tbtc-tu-"mat'l we'n-tb-dahu-''mik. kwi-i'tc-tla-dle-'ge'q. we'n-tgidzi'n'itc- 
da-dzaga'ga. di'msin'itcda-dlu-'gwa hi's. (2) wi-'-kwi-'-qa'mr'dja dls-'ge- 
tb'tc-tame-'t'le, he'w'tc ma- / tsi-itc-ditc-gwa-na"ya, di'tc-t'sa'nyiya'm. tsu"- 
de-'dje / -tl9tc-hu-"mik. "tga-'dzi! ditc-ni'dzan7i't'a?" wi'-a'n-tli-datgi'dzan. 

2. wi-'-ma-'tsi-hu'we'e'dzam, tsu-'-iTa, wi-'-gu-'s tb-ka'-t'sshe'm-da-ya'qt'sa 
e'hs, kwi-'-ilhi'yada-t'a. tsu'-il-ma-'tsi-gu-'s-dlu'q^am. wi y -tb-tu-"mat'l da'n- 
da-'tsan tta-datsaqu'qVn i-dlu'q w S3m, we'n-tb-d3hu-"mik. (2) tb-ls'miya-tb- 
ski'n, he'i-xkwa-dza'mya tb-deski'n tb-datgi'dzsn. wi-' ya-kwi-ne'lt'cuys tb- 

7 A11 speakers of Coos told this myth, which explains the rock (Tupper's Rock) that was re- 
moved by the whites when they constructed the Bandon jetty, at the mouth of the Coquille River. 
Lightning that seemed to strike ocean rocks there meant short life for a village newcomer or vis- 
itor. The story served among the Coos as evidence of the dire consequences visited upon a girl 
who did not give strict observance to all the rules enjoined upon her during her first mensis se- 
clusion. 



142 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

rocks (just as they were, from shame at the girl's deed). (3) Their granddaughter, 
and their grandson, and their grandfather, and also their grandmother, they had 
just all become rocks then. Now all the people saw them seated there (like that, 
transformed into rocks). 

5. Ogress myth 8 

1. All the people (many people) went there to cut up a (stranded) whale 
There were a great many children, and they were dancing all the time (often) 
Now then something (bad) entered (was about to enter). The old woman (who 
stayed at home) said, "All of you hide!" (2) Now then two ogress women entered 
(and said), "Let us dance!" She (the old woman) carried her granddaughter on 
her back, her tiny granddaughter (covered over and hidden there). Now then they 
danced, and as the ogresses danced (one of them asked), "What are you packing, 
my half (my sister)? what are you packing, my half?" (3) "It is only my back. 
I just grew that way." Now the ogress wanted to touch it. "Is there absolutely 
nobody (at home) ? Where did those children go, those children who were always 
dancing?" (4) That old woman had recognized them by their pitch dresses. So then 
she put a lighted torch to their dresses, indeed they caught on fire, and then the 
ogresses dashed outside. (When) their dresses burned, then they jumped outside. 
(5) Indeed they went like that, everything caught on fire as they went running 
along. When they burned they fell down with a sound 'boom,' both of the ogresses 
burned up. However, all those (hidden) children had already died (because they 
had peeked out from their hiding places in order to look at those ogresses), even 



ga-'dzanwi-', wi-'-ma-'tsi il-gu-'s q w la"i'ya dza'wa'-il. (3) tfo-detgi'dzan, we-'n- 
tb-dadi'm-sin, we'n--tl9-d9tsq w 9'lqwtc, we'n-hi's-tfo-de'umna-'t'ltc, ma'tsi-il- 
gu • 's-ilq w i a"i'y a. wi -'-gu ■ 's-ka-kwi • '-hama ■ 'q il-du-da'-dl e 'geq. 

5. nu-'sgi'li ba'saq 

1. gu-'s-ka"-ge-'-la-t'sehs'm-di'ya / qt'sa. wi-'-ga-'-l-tta-hi-'me, wi-'-gu's- 
mi'n-kwi-maga'ni ■ 'da. h s'i-ma -'tsi-ditc-xb'm -a. wi ■ '-wa ■ "nu-tlatc-hu ■ "mik, 

"gu-'s-tciLsdla'ntsam!" (2) tsu-'-xla'm-a tia-nu'sgi'li hu-'me-'ke, "kwi'yai- 
ha'ntl-mege'nt!" tsu-'-t'a-'mi tta-datgi'dzan, tlatc-e-'k-tgi'dzanda. tsu'-il-gs'ma- 
ga"niya, tsu'-we'n-msge'nt nu'sgi'li, "wi-'-wan-di'tc-nat'a'm nax-hi-'t'ci? kwi-'- 
n-ditc-t'a-'m, nax-hi't'ci?" (3) "tsi'-'nts'a'i. tsi'-u-we-'n-he-Wqhsm." wi-'- 
hei-du-'ha-kwr-dza'gwi tls-x-mr'sgi'li. "a / mi-ka-"-dagaha'is'i? ge'ndji gs-' 
kwi--la'a'yam kwi-hi-'me, gu s-mi'n-kwi maga'ni-'da tta-hi-'me?" (4) wi-'- 
mit'ssi'ya-da tlextc-hu-"mik s'a-'t'l-du-'-da'we-'t'l. tsu-ge' x-t'sa'm t.c-a' tla- 
da'we-'t'b'dje, a'yu-djict'ciTu, tsu-xwa-'ihi tla-nu-'sgi'li. tsu-'-ct'ci'L tli-itc- 
da'we-'t'l, tsu'-da-ma-xwa-'ilu. (5) a'yu-we'n-la'a'yam, gu's-di'tc-cu't'lu 
i-da'Ma'a'yam-da-hwi'ye-'t. i-du-'-ct'ci'l-wi-'-kwi'-du d3'm-a--du-i-tu-'ya, wi'- 



8 A11 the Coos very likely employed this story to prove how dangerous it was for children to 
play or dance after dark. Mrs. Peterson is not certain that this is a myth; it may be merely a 
historical narrative (laga'uya't'as). Another version: Coos Texts, Frachtenberg, p. 83. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 143 

that one packed by his grandmother, he died too (because the ogress touched him). 
(6) She went to where the people had gone, the old woman went to there, and when 
she had finished recounting it she herself died too. When the people got back home, 
the children were gone, those children were all dead. 

2. That is why children must never play at night, lest such dangerous beings 
get amongst them. 

6. Dove myth 9 

People went to another place (village), the people went to play shinny and all 
sorts of games. The young man (dove) went too. Ten days the people gambled. 
(1) Now the young man himself was going to sit down (i.e., he was going to take 
the hand game sticks) where they were sitting with their hand game sticks where 
they sat. Now then they brought news to that young man. (2) "Stop gambling. 
Your grandmother died." "I will not stop. At a certain time every year when the 
grass will be getting dry, at that time I will cry and mourn for my grandmother." 
(That is dove's cooing.) 

7. The two loose women 10 

1. They came from the Lower Coquille River country (from Beaver Slough 
north of the Coquille), they came canoeing up the creek (from the slough), they 

masa'-itcct'ci'l tla-nu-'sgi'li. wi'-ma-'tsi-gu-'s-kwi'-ku'mts-tta-hi-'me, hi's-thtc- 
t'a-'m tla-dax-u'mna-'t'fotc, hi's-kwi'-qVyau. (6) ge^-la'a'yam tla-ka" la'a'- 
ya'ma'dja, ge"-la tl9tc-hu-"mik, ya-a'nya-kwe-ne-'nu wi'-hi's-hi'dji-ma-'tsi-qV- 
yau. ya-we-'st-da-ka", wi-'-a'mi-hi-'me, gu-'s-kwi'-qa'yau-tla-hi-'me. 

2. we'n-ditc-du-'-tla-ga't^ai a'n-hi-'me a'lica-ni-'da, rtr'-xu- / t'iuc-ge / '-i'ksam. 

6. xa'yunti ba'saq 

la-'-da'-ka 1 ma-'-t'lda'yasadja, wi-'-na'uhi'na-'nu la'-da'-ka' gu-s-dji'-alica-'- 
ni'was. wi-'-tla-di-'lu'l hi's-hidji^-la'. t'i-'cdji-gaha'is he-ys-'nu-da'-ka'. (1) 
wi'-hidji-dlu'q w sam tlatc-di-'lu'l tri-ildle-'gegsdjs tri-iidit'si-'yeldja tii-il-du-dle-'- 
gsgstc. he'i-ma-'tsi kwe'n-djindji-'nu kwi'tc-di-'lu'l. (2) "e-'wi-nil^cu'we. 
qa'yau-tb-na'u'mna-'t'latc." "a'n-wa'ntl-s-'wi. hada'la-di'idzi'mas ya-ha'ntl- 
du'-bni / k-t'clu / 'utc, ta'ma-wantl-du-a'x-ats gaTada-wa'ntl-du tb-'na'u'mna-'- 
t'btc." 

7. 7aya-'l hu-'ms'ljs 

1. wi-'-x-gugwa's-kwi-'-dzan'wi'yam, wi-'-x-haltc-kwr-dji'ya'na'ma, wi y - 
tigu ■ 's-wudlu -'dl sqh s"m9tc , da'-itcwut 'la'ya-itcdatlgu ■ 's . wi • '-tla-tci'ha"adj a 

9 Probably known to all Coos. The awkwardness and repetitiveness in the Indian phrasing 
may be due to the artificial situation involved in fairly slow dictation. 

10 Both Hanis and Miluk told this. Mrs. Peterson especially recalled a Lower Coquille Miluk, 
Old Man Charlie, who told it. A different version is in Coos Texts, Frachtenberg, p. 173. A tabooed 
procedure, such as a girl traveling from place to place to find an attractive husband, has of course 
much romantic color if relegated to the fantasy world of the myth age. The title, translated 
variously by Mrs. Peterson as the two 'loose women,' 'fast girls,' 'chippy girls,' carries a connota- 
tion much more fetching than opprobrious or offensive. The implication is essentially that these 
myth age girls sought husbands without following the restraining conventional procedure of 
parental arranging and marriage payments. 



144 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

portaged the canoe (over some hundreds of yards between the headwaters, and into 
Kitchen Slough which flows into Coos Bay), there they portaged their canoe. 
Now they went up North Slough (Coos Bay), and they portaged from there over 
to Ten Mile Lake (between the Coos and Lower Umpqua country). (2) Now they 
reached somebody's place (there). And they thought he was the wealthy head 
man there, so they went into the house at that place. There was just a boy seated 
(inside). Now they asked him, "Is there nobody whatever (here)? "'a-'- (yes). 
My uncle (mother's brother) lives here. (3) He has gone salmon fishing." (The 
girls whispered,) "a' he does not look at all like a person." They gave him camas, 
but the boy ate only half the camas. "Is there not water at all here?" "a n -'-! 
(yes!) there is some water. I will go get it." (4) He did not return quickly, so 
then a girl, one of the girls, went to look for him. And then (she saw) his penis was 
stuck in an alder. Now the girl went back, "u-' really he is not a person at all! 
it is just speared into alder, that boy's penis is just a bone." (5) "u-' his uncle 
(mother's brother) will come home. We will see his uncle. He must be the wealthy 
head man." And then just a short (fat) ugly man entered. "I guess he must be 
the wealthy head man." (6) Now he had returned. "Go to the canoe. I have salmon 
in it there." Indeed the girls went. They did not find the canoe, there was nothing 
anywhere. Only logs lay there, and just xu-'nas grass lay on top of them, and cut 
willow limbs lay on top too. (7) So then they went back to the house. "We did 
not find anything anywhere at all." "Hu' now is not that strange that you did 
not find anything?" Then he went down to the water himself, and he brought back 
the xu-'nas grass and the little willow limbs. (8) "Ha' that is my food and I get 
fat on it. " That is what the old man said. Then the next morning that old man went 



ge'-itcha'lts, wi-'-xge't-itcwu't'li tsge-'idja. (2) he-itc kibi'ndji-itcdji. we'n- 
itcda'lu'we kwi-'-tla-hethe-'de, tsu'-itc-gs' c -ds-'djs tli-ys-'tsadja. hei-ma-'tsi- 
di'lu't'l-dlu-'gwa. tsu'-itcma'nt'ct, "a / mi-ka"-dagaha / is-i / ?" "'a-'-, axi'yaxi- 
tcin di'u-dlu'gwa. (3) pga'lis-s'hs ge'lyeq-dapga'lis." "a' ma- / --gwa-a'n-ka /t !" 
gs'm-itcni'ya, wi'-gadjya-'nas-tla-ldja' tle-ge'm he'i-kwatc-di-'lu't'l. "a'tm^ha-'p"- 
da'gaha'is-i'?" "'a n -'-! naha-'pV'yuk w . hi-wa'ntl-la-'dza." (4) a'n-tk'-kwi-'- 
we-'st, tsu'-wa'lwi-tla-x-gwe'is, hi't'ci-tla-x-gws'is. hsi-ma-'tsi-t'lwe-'xedje 

kwi'-dzagwa-'q w -tla-dapYlk w . tsu'-bi-na't's-tla-gwe'is. "u-' a'yu--x-a'n-ka'M 
ma-'tsi-na-' t'lwe-'x4rwi-'-dzagwa-'q w , la-'mak x-tla-dapYlk™ tlatc-di"lut'l." (5) 
"u-' we-'st-ha'ntl kwa-da'axi'yaxitc. kla'wis-hantl tla-da'axi'yaxitc. kwi'-da- 
kw^hethe-'ds." hei-ma-'tsi-gwa-ne'nt'c idje" de-'mal de-'dje. "kwi-'-x^kwi'ya 
tla-da-hethe-'de." (6) tsu'-we'st. "tlgu-'sidja i'cla"ya'qai. da'-'nagsTyeq 
xt'le-'weu." a'^oi-kWyam tla-gwe'isame. a'n-i'tc-tlgu-'s-klTdwa, a'n-idja'u- 
ditc-i'dje. niki'n-tla-da-tsi-'mq, we'n-ma-'tsi-xu-'nas-xini-'m, we'n-kwehe'i-dek^i' 
qxa-'yau kwi--tla-da /t -xini- / m. (7) tsu'-wusasi'yam ys-'dzadja. "ma-"na-a / n- 
idja'u-ditc-kiTdwa." "hu' hei-gwa'-an-djane-'wet'l i-na-a'n-ditc-ki'1-dwa?" 
tsu'-hidji-te-'ixsu, he / i-ma-'tsi-kwi--wa-'sdadza-t'a tlal-tla-xu-'nas we'n-tla-e'k^i- 
kwsi' tla-tlgwi'-da'kwsi. (8) "ha' kwi-'-'naqwani'yau wi'-mi'ts'u." x-we'n- 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 145 

away. (9) "I am going to go. Nephew! watch these women! If you do not watch 
these women (I will punish you)." Now they made preparations and then they went 
away. "He cannot be the husband we want." 

2. They had not gone far when they saw an inferior type house (ma'qmi). 
"'o-'- where are you going? Do you not have something? Give me something!" 
Indeed they gave him, they gave him camas. (2) "Oh we are five, and we are all 
of the same sort of appearance. Each one of us lives just so far apart from the 
other." Now the two girls went on, and then another (man, just like the first poor 
old man) called to them. "He-'-i where are you going? Give me something!" (3) 
Indeed he was of the very same appearance. Then they went on. Now the younger 
sister spoke to her, "a/ • • ha-'-- I do not believe that that is his older brother. It 
is just he (the very same old man) himself." (4) "u- you are always having some- 
thing (foolish) to say." They had seen four of them (and stopped to give alms 
each time). Now indeed her younger sister watched carefully, and then indeed he 
was dashing along. "He is packing his (grass, ma'qmi) house back of there! (be- 
hind the large dead logs lying on the bank.) Ha' look at him! (5) He is just run- 
ning along there packing his house!" (Then the older sister admitted,) "He really 
must have been that trickster person (one of that type of person before they were 
made into coyotes) himself!" So then they just went on (the fifth time), and even 
though he called out they just kept going. 

3. Now they got to the Lower Umpqua. "In which house does the wealthy 
head man live?" "He lives yonder there." So they went to that place, and they 
were taken inside. Now the head man was ill, as he lay there he just kept flowing 
because of diarrhoea. (2) Now the oldest sister disliked it, but the younger sister 
did not dislike it. She waited on him, she washed away his feces. He appeared to 



i'l-at tlatc-tu"mat'l. tsu'-gs'l-am tsu'-la'-tlatc-tu"mat'l. (9) "la-wa'ntl. de'u! 
fa-'dade--da-tla-hu'meks! i'nantl a'n-lu-dada-yaVma-ku-hu'ms-l£e." tsu'-hu'- 
we'e'tsam tsu-itcla'a'yam. "a'n-da-x-ku'wi kwa-de-'mal isdu-'ha'ya." 

2. a'n-i'tc-he-'niye-la'a'yam tsi-itc-maqmi'-kla-'wi. "'o-'- ge'ndji-me-'t'cis? 
a'mi-is-ditc-i' ? halk w di-'m!" a'yu-itchalk w di'ya, gem-i'tcni'ya. (2) "u-'--gsn- 
t'ci'nsi-1, gu-'s-ws-'n-tli-imehe'mqetc. gu-s-idja'u-hit'ci-dlu-'gwa." tsu-du-sgi'n- 
dliya'ama tla-gwe'isams, he'i-du'-a-'yu-k'a'l-a. "he-'-i ge'ndji-ms-'t'cis? ha'l- 
k w di-'m!" (3) a'yu-hi's-kwi'-we'n-dahe'mqstc. tcu-'-itcsgi'ndliya. tsu'-we'n- 
i'lat-tla-dagwa'l-a, "a-'-- ha-'-- an-wu'tlqa-'ya ku'-kwi'-het'le-'da. tsi-hi'dji." 
(4) "u- gu s-dji"-n-du--yi'lat." dza'wa'aya itckla-'wi. tsu'-ayu-lu-'dadaya 
tla-dax-gwa'1-a, he'i-a-'yu-ma-'tsi-la-'-du'-hwiys-t. "fee" t'a-'m-tla-da'ys-'ts! ha' 
kle-'wi! (5) e'kwi-'-la-' du'-hwiye-t t'a-'m-da'ye-'ts!" "a-'yu-x-kwa-hidji'ya 
tia-t'smi-'xwn!" tsu'-itc-ma' t -ge-'-l-a', ma'i'yuk w -ak'a'lai ma-i'tc-ge'-la'. 

3. tsu'-itc-ge'-dji tla-tce'le'ya'e'dje. "wucdjys'u-ys-'tsatc dlu-'gwa kwa- 
hsthe-'de?" "ge'°yu'k w -dlu-'gwa." tsu'-itc-ge"-la', tsu'-itclixla'm-i'yu. hs'i- 
ma-'tsi-xs'n-was tla-hethe-'ds, ma-'tsi t'saVi'yam kwi--tsi-'m. (2) tsu'-yaga'da 
tla-dex-hs'ns-kwn, wi'-tla-dax-gwa'l-a wi'-a'n-yaga'da. tgs'-kwi--dzi-'ya, hate- 



146 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

be ugly as he lay there. "So that is the sort of thing you like!" (mocked the older 
sister.) (3) "What if I do like him?" They were there five days. One morning he 
was not lying there ; the sick person was gone. Then a handsome young man came 
in from swimming, whipping the water out of his hair. (4) They did indeed look 
at him in surprise. He addressed the (younger) girl, "My wife ! I like you. I merely 
wanted to learn if you did indeed want me. And you really wanted me. The one 
who did not like me, I will not want her." 

4. Now he (the ugly fat man they had fled) made preparations, he was going 
to get them all (all his people), they were going to go fight. Now indeed they went 
off in a body, now they went to claim and get back his wives. And then they 
reached (the Umpqua) there. (2) "Do not (go further). Just hide here instead. 
I have my large (obsidian) war knife, I will kill him with it. But if you smell 
xu-'ngs grass, then he will have killed me." Now he went in (to the house of the 
head man). (3) "I want my wives." 11 He was swinging his knife around (threat- 
eningly). "Get out! (or) I will throw you outside!" "I will not get out. I will 
kill you, if you do not give me my wives." 11 (4) Now he (the young man) took 
hold of him, and he snatched his knife from him, and he thrust his knife into his 
anus. "Get away!" Then he threw him out. "You will fall into the lake, and that 
knife of yours will be your tail. The next people (the Indians to come) will eat you. 
(5) Your clothes they will have for their own garments. When you are frightened 
your tail will slap the water." Indeed that is the way it is. "The next people will 
eat that tail of yours. And you will be named beaver." 



ha-'yat'c tla-deYl. i'd-je tla-kwi'-da-tsi-'m. "we-'n-ditc-i'-x-he'-me-kwa-ndu-'- 
ha'ya." (3) "wi-'-x-dji-du-'ha'ya-wi'?" gsnt'ci'nsi gaha'is itc-da'. qeli-'mis 
a'n-da'-tsi-'m, a'n-ditc tl9-ka"-xenw9S. he'i-ma-'tsi-nehe-'wudzan di'lu'l de-'dje 
sdl qV'was, tlaxtla'wax-dgha-'mgs. (4) gwa-itct'cu-'la"ya. ha'lq-tla-gwe'is, 
"ngx-hu-'mis! su'la-'mi"ns. tsi'-wudu-'ha'ya i-tlg-a'yu-ndu-'hidai. a'yu-tb- 
ndu-'hidai. x-wi'-wg'igidu-'n, a'n-wa'ntl-kwi-du-'ha'ya." 

4. tsu'-hu'we'edzgm, tsu'-hantl-gus-wi'-gala'm, idje'1-hantl-la'. tsu'-a-'yu- 
ifyi-'t'itam, tsu-'-la' tlg-dghu'me-ks dgdg'msde. tsu'-il-gs"-dji. (2) "an-tci'l- 
hantl. ma-ha'ntl-tcil-di'u-sgdlgni'ygm. ngqe-'li'mgle"u, kwi'yu'-wantl-tsa'u. 
wi'-i-tcil-ha'ntl xu-'ngs si-tdza-'t'a, wi'-en-g'-hantl-tlg-wgtsu-'tsu." tsu'-de'dje. 
(3) "du-'ha'ya u-kwg-'nghu'ma-ka." 11 da'-xwutlxu'm-at'l tla-dawa-Twal. "i y - 
ge! qa'nudja'- ngxtitsa-'mi!" "a'n-wa'ntl-i-'ge. tsu'wa'mi-na'ntl, i'nantl-a'n- 
ni-'m-kwg-'nghu'ma-ka." 11 (4) tsu'-cjaqaga'l-mu, tsu-gatli'layu tl9-d9wa-'l'wal, 
tsu-mu'yus9dj e dgt.ci'yu tlg-dgwa-Twal. "la'ya'dai!" tsu'-titti'yu. "tst'li-'- 
sgdjs'-nantl-tu-'ya, kwi'-na'ntl-^a'ila's kw9-neqe / li / 'm9l. qkVmniyu-ka' 1 x- 
na'ntl dla'wi-'n. (5) wi'-kwg-ngte-'tc kwi-i'l-dantl-du-'-ildgte-'tc. dlaut'la'wi- 
ha'ntl-du tte-naqVila-'s i-ne'eqYlqsi." a-'yu-me-x-we'n. "x-qb'mniyu-ka" 
kwr-dla-'u kw9-n9qa / ila-'s. we'n-a'ntl-du-si'nsa-'nu ttci'na." 



u The word for wives is said in Coos but in what the Coos native would feel to be a sort of 
foreign twang. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 147 

8. The bear woman 12 

1. They (the bears) were going somewhere or other. They hunted food all 
the time. Now bees were flying around. She (mother bear) said to her children 
thus, "Stay right here! You might be stung by the bees. (2) Lie down, do not 
look!" That is how she spoke to her children. "When I tell you, then you may 
look." (3) "Oh let's look! let us see what our mother is doing." Then the children 
did look. She was just eating there. This is what he (one of the children) said to 
the rest of them, "Look! (4) she is only eating. She has been lying to us." So then 
they all looked, and they arose, and they shrieked (in order to deceive their mother), 
" £ g £ - '••■•! (ouch oh ouch!)" (5) The old woman, their mother, jumped up. "Dan- 
gerous beings, dangerous beings are coming (to catch us)!" (cried the children.) 
Their mother fled indeed. Then they (the children) went to there, and they ate 
up all the cake (honey). (6) Now then their mother turned back, and she flogged 
her children. And then they went back home. 

2. "You will always be bear. When the next people (the Indians to come later) 
will see you, you yourself will run when you see people." 

9. The persons coon killed 13 

Young men were making preparations to go trapping, and they were also going 
to hunt. They killed one coon, they killed various other things. Now it was be- 

8. tb'tc-ps'lsl hu-'mis 

1. wi-'-la'a'yam gs'ndji me't'c i'l'la'a'yam. gu-'s-mi'n-il-du-qVa'nya 11 
wulwa"ya. h si-ma -'tsi-gata'7 -is 1'yu'Tyam. tsu'-wsn-i'l-dwa tto-dahi'me, 
"ma--tci'l-hanti-di'u! hei-tciTaxskwdzu-'n kwe'-x-ga-taVis. (2) di'u-tci'l- 
a'ntl wele-'xe, an-tci'l-tla-xi-'la'a-'yax!" we'n-i'ldwa-tla-dahi-'ms. "tsu'-tci'l- 
antl-we'n-iTda'mi, tsu'-tci'lantl-xi-'la." (3) "xi-'la'gal! i-tla-dji'-xa'lta'm 
tii-'ma'e'ne." aVu-xi-'la-tla-hi-'ms. he'i-ma-'tsi-ge" dlu'wi'yam. tsu'-wen-iT- 
dwa tl9-d9's / stis, "xi'la'aya'x! (4) tsi-'-x-dlu'wi'yam. tsi-'-lis'wutwu'ndi-'t'it." 
tsu'-ayu'-gu-s-xi-'la. tsu'-ildlu'q w S9m, tsu'-ilk'aTa, "ege'--!" (5) tsu'-hws'l- 
di-tl9tc-hu-"mik tii'-ilda'e'ns. "xu-'t'luc, xu-'t'luc dza'ne'!" a y yu yaga'da-tli- 
ilda's'ne. tsu-'-il-he'lt'-ge'Ma, tsu'-il-gus-ldja't-tb-ha'mai. (6) tsu-'-- bi-'na't's 
tli-ildaVne, tsu'-mankda-'ta tla-dahi-'me. tsu'-il-ma-'tsi-wa'si. 

2. "ps'lcriiys--na'ntl. qla'mniyu ka'* nantl-du-he'me -qVin, wi'-naqe-'- 
nantl-du i-ng-ka'^-kla-'wi." 

9. kwa-ka" t'sxw9 r n-a7 ku'mwa-'wa 

tsu / -kwi / -hu / W£ , £ / tS9m'e / me tta-tca-'naVa t'sehs'lye^'nu, ws-'n-his-ha'ntl 
b'mdi-'da. wi'-kwi-hi-t'ci'-iltsa-'u tta-t'sxwa'n-eY, gu-'s-di'tc-iltsa-'u. wi-'-tsu y - 

12 All Coos speakers knew this. Children as well as elders narrated it. Mrs. Peterson mentioned 
these particular raconteurs, however: a Hanis, Old Dick; and a part Coos part Upper Coquille 
Nad6ne woman, Mrs. Wasson's mother t'cicgi'yu. 

13 This myth is one of several employed, supplementing mere warnings and advice, to teach 
youngsters "not to laugh at things." Mrs. Peterson pointed out that notwithstanding the serious- 
ness with which the elders told this story, the children she knew told it to one another and laughed 
and laughed because they thought it so very comical that the young fellows who died in the myth 
had turned into coons as they died ; it seemed so very funny that their lips became drawn and their 
fingers transformed into claws like coon's. All the Coos told the story. 



148 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

coming evening, and so they made a fire. (1) "u-' let us roast the coon beside the 
fire." Then indeed they put it on the spit (roasting stake). When it became hot 
it began to shrivel, and then it was all drawn and shrunk. Now the young men 
laughed at it (it looked so comical). (2) Only one of them did not laugh. Those 
who did laugh could not quit laughing, and so they died. The laughing killed them. 
Now the (serious) young man returned, he took back the news. This is what he 
said when he came home. "My comrades died." (3) Now then the people went to 
there, and they brought back the dead, and they buried them. And it is that way 
that the young men died, it was (laughing at) coon that killed them. 

10. Jack rabbit man 14 

1. "a-'- I suppose I will be traveling around now." That is what he said to 
his wife. "Where are you going to be journeying?" "I do not know where to. May- 
be I will be going to the south." That is what he said. (2) Then he went. Now 
he got to the ocean beach, and then he sang in this manner. 

"gwele-'niye! gwele-'niye! 
North wind blow! north wind blow!" 15 

And when he saw something he would dance and sing, 



kwi-gatqVidiya, tsu'-ilt'ci'lV. (1) "u-' t'sxw9'n-e7 Iha'ntl-q'ma'it'ts." tsu'- 
il-a-'yu-kwi--ilska'n-i. wi-'-i-kwi-'-gatlqVlxau wi-'-ge"t'sa'nd9di-'wa, wi-'-kwi- 
gu-s-dji-'ye-t'sa'ndu. wi-'-kwi--i'lha'la-'wau tle-x-tca'n-7a. (2) hit'ci-'-tla-a'n- 
ge'idle. wi-'-tletc-t'le'uxexei wi-'-a'n-dji-kwi-e-'wi-kitski-'yex, wi-'-ma-'tsi-il- 
ku'mts. tski-'xixi-kwi--ku'mts. tsu'-w9's-i-ti9-di-'lul, kwe-'n-bi'ya. we-'n-i'l-- 
at-i-we-'st. "ku'mts-tk-'neYstis." (3) tsu-'-a'yu'-la--d9'-ka r -ge' t , tsu'-ilwa's- 
diya-e'q, tsu'-il'e'ge-'nite'm. ma-'tsi-x-we'n-kum-tla'-tca-'naya, t'sxwa'n-a7- 
kwi--ku'mwa-'wa. 

10. la'lxwa'n ds-'mal 

1. "a-'- ha'ma-wa'ntl-yux w u'm-e." we'n-i'ld u wa-tl9-d9hu-'mis. "ge'ndji- 
ha'ntl-ge-ene'yu'x w u'me'?" "a'n-u'lcwa-'niyade-gs'ndjuwi. yuwu't's-hantl- 

q w ci'dje-ku-uha'." tsu'-wen-i-'lt. (2) tsu'-la'. tsu'-balditca'-dji, tsu-da-we'n- 
ha-'t'i. 

"gwele-'niys! gwele-'niye! 
gwali'swa! gwali'swa!" 15 

tsu'-du-ditc-kla-'wi tsu'-du-datalta'l-i, 



14 A11 the Coos told this myth. It amused them greatly because it seemed so ridiculous that 
little old Jack rabbit man should put on such airs and curse so truculently and then come to so 
petty an end. 

15 Recorded on Ediphone record 14:14578:h; RCA Victor disc 14:14607B:d. Mrs. Peterson 
laughed after singing this, gwele-'niye is untranslatable; Mrs. Peterson suggested the possibility 
that it be the name of Jack rabbit's wind guardian-spirit, but she is by no means sure. Whenever 
Jack rabbit saw something on the beach or trail — a crab, fish or some object — that interested 
him he would dance round it, singing this north wind spirit-power song of his, and then he would 
pick up the object. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 149 

"To the goal! to the goal!" 16 

Now he got to the south (probably to the Lower Coquille River), and he began to 
halloo, "Rich person's children! 16 you ferry me across!" (3) So a person went 
(across) there to get him, but found no one anywhere. And when that person had 
just gotten back again, then again that person (Jack rabbit) hallooed. And so 
again that person went (across) to get him, but he saw nothing anywhere. Now 
he was angry, and he went ashore, but he did not see anything. (4) Then he hunted 
in the grass, and only a Jack rabbit sat there, and so he killed that. Then he went 
back. No one called out again. "u'- I suppose it must have been just that Jack 
rabbit, it must have been just he who was hallooing. There was no more hallooing 
after I mashed him." 

2. Now that is all of that tale. 

1 1 . The wife of seal 17 

1 . There was a girl who lived near the (Coos Bay) bar. She swam all the time. 
And then one time (for a month or two) she did not come back. Then (once) 
when the seals were sunning themselves, now the girl was there among them. 
(2) When they saw a person (approaching them), the seals fled, and also the girl 
herself. Now her relatives wept over her. Then one morning the girl did come back. 



"haha"3nda"n3s! haha" 9 nda"n 9 s!" 15 

tsu'-q w ci'dje"-dji, tsu'-geks'le'ye, "he-'de-dihi-'me! ge'lide'itcil!" (3) tsu'-du- 
ge"-ka /! -gaTats, an-du'-idja'u-ka'"idjs. hei-du'-his-ha' ws-'s-ditc-tb-ka", hei- 
du'-ma-'tsi da-'s-kV'-k'aTa. tsu'-du-da-'s ga'lats tla-ka", an-du'-idja'utc-i'djs. 
tsu'-bs'lxsam, tsu'-he"gw9n, a'n-idja'utc-hama'q\ (4) tsu'-laniki'tc-wuTwe, 
he'i-tla-lalxwa'n da'-dlu-'gwa, tsu'-kwi--tsa-'u. tsu'-wa's-i. de-'wan-wi-'-k'aTa. 
"u y - tsi-da-x-ku'wi kwa-la'lxwan, tsi'-de-x-hi'dji e'-ak'a'lai. a'nya-wi-k'a'1-a 
ya-u-kwr-qwa't'eda." 

2. tsi'-ku-'wi ku-lagauya't'as. 

11. qaitsa'n-a-dahu-'mis 

1. gws'is daq'a'imya kwi-dle'gs-q. wi- / -gu-s-mi'n-du--kwi-'-dz3sdla-'q"ai. 
hei-ma-'tsi-mi'nt'ci'itc a'n-wsst. hei-ma-'tsi i'-il-kwi- i'l-kwr-ba'ncisam tta- 
qa'itsa'n-a, hei-ma- / tsi-da'-kwi--ige / k-tl3-gw£ / is. (2) wi- / -kwi--i-il-ka"-kla- / wi, 
wi-'--n3qaqa / yam-tl3l-qa / itS9 / na, wi-'-his-hi'dji-tls-gwe'is. wi-'-kwr-i'lkimka-'m 
tla-dex-ma-'ni'ya-s. hei-ma-'tsi-hi / t'ci-4eH-"mis tsa-kwi-'-ws-'st tb-gwe'is. "an- 



16 A most insulting and cursing accusation. A person called this is humiliated and enraged, 
and feels about the way we do when sworn at savagely. In this myth the Coos laughed especially 
about little Jack rabbit swearing so belligerently. 

17 The girl of this myth is supposed to have lived in a Miluk village that used to be where 
the present life saving station stands some hundreds of yards west of Charleston. However, 
both Miluks and Hanis told the story. Mrs. Peterson heard it from various persons; she men- 
tioned particularly an nti'se'itc village (Hanis speaking) village woman named Alice. There is a 
version in Coos Texts Frachtenberg, p. 55. 



150 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

"You must not weep about me. (3) They (seals) are people. They go into their 
houses." That is what she explained when she came back home. She brought quan- 
tities of money (large dentalia), and so (in that way) her husband paid (the mar- 
riage payment) for her (though unable to come himself). Now she went back again. 
(4) In no long time they saw her with (seal) babies. Now again she came (and ex- 
plained that the little seals with her in the water were her own babies) . Only twice 
did she come back, and then she never again came home. And they only saw her 
there when the seals were up on (the rocks), (5) there they saw her playing, play- 
ing with her (seal) children. That was the way they recognized her and her own 
children. Because that was what she had told her parents, because that was how 
she had explained it to her parents. 

2. Now that is all I know of that myth. 

12. Dug-out-of-ground child, (and) popped-out-of-fire 18 

1. A girl lived there (with her brother and grandfather). Though the girl 
slept alone, every night some person came to sleep with her. The person who came 
to sleep with her never spoke. He came to her there a long time. (2) And then the 
girl became pregnant. She did not say anything of it, she was afraid to. Now this 
is what she thought. "I will paint my hand. That is the way I will find out who 
it may be." Indeed that is the way (she did). (3) And then (in the night) she hugged 
him, she put her hand on his back. Now the people (men) were going to come out 
of the sweat house where they were sleeping. And so she watched in secret, and 



tci'lki'mi'i-'yax. (3) ka / "a / m-a'. ye-'dzedje-'-du--xta'm-a." ws-'n-kwe-ns'nu 
yu-kwi'-we-'st. hada'i'mas daga'l wa-'sda, tsu'-gwa'lq w s tfo-ds-x-ds-'mgl. tsu'- 
wa'si-da's. (4) a'n-he-'niye tsa-nahi-'mede-he'meqe'qhem. wi-'-da-'s-ws'st. 
adzu-'n-tla-we-'st, tsa-de-'wun-we-'st. ma-'tsiya-du-ge' t -hemeqe'qhem i-du-xi'ni'- 
im tta-qa'itsa'n-a, (5) ge"-du-he'm-sqs'qhem wi'-alicanu'du, tkvctahi-'me du- 
il'alica'nu. x-we'n mit'sisi-'m tta-kwi-'-hidjg'm-il-hi-'me. na'im-x-we-'n iT- 
d u wa tfe-d ex-ma -'ni'ya-s, na'im-x-we-'n gwgsgwa'i tla-dama-'ni'ya-s. 

2. tsu'-tsi-'-u-we-'s kwa-'ni'yada ku-kuwi'-ba-'saq. 

12. u-'bti'yat'a-'rrras ki'lga, tlawuxti'yat'a-'mas'itc 

1. gwe'is-da-dlu'gwa. wi'-mi't'ci du--kwi'-tsi'm-tla-gwe'is, hei-du'-de'n- 
ge-qtam ma--du'-hidju'wi-ka' t -tsu-'m. an-du'-i'l -at tla-ka"-hidju'wi-tsu-'m. 
he-'-niye ge"-kwi--tdji'yim. (2) hei-ma-'tsi mu'weldiye tb-gwe'is. a'n-dji- 
kwi--kwa-nana"ya, e'lqs. tsu'-wen-de'lu'we. "pa'ixts-kwa-'niki'lan. x-we'n- 
wantl-kiTdwa i-da-wi'." a-'yu-me-x-we-'n. (3) tsu'-x'a'li'ya, ts'a-'yu dat'la-'- 
ya diki'lan. tsu'-hantl-x w dla-'t's tl3-ka"-xuxu-'dJ9 dli-'gwsk w . tsu'-sadb'ntc 

18 This myth is supposed to have occurred near Rocky Point across from Charleston or near 
the ancient camas patch which was in former times at the point where Coos Bay now empties 
into the ocean; the bay was supposed to have had its ancient outlet across and a little north of 
where Empire is today. Though many Hanis and Miluk Coos told this myth, Mrs. Peterson re- 
called hearing it particularly from a South Slough Miluk woman named qs'icec, 'shinny ball 
batter.' 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 151 

then all those people (men) came out. (4) Indeed now (she learned) it was her 
own older brother who was doing her ill like that. Then the girl became sick (from 
shame and grief she no longer ate, and then she died), and he also died, he starved 
himself (in his shame and grief), and that is why he died too. When she died her 
father laid her upon the fire. (5) And he held an Indian blanket, 19 and the old man 
spoke thus, "Pop out on to this here!" Sure enough the baby popped out (from 
her scorching corpse). Now its grandfather brought it up. 

2. (Some) other young persons (girls) were always digging camas. There 
were (especially) large camas stuck down (growing) there. Now the (youngest) 
girl (said), "I will dig that." Then when she dug up a large camas, she dug out a 
baby indeed, a boy. (2) And then her older sister spoke thus, "Bury it! I do not 
want it. They only just gossip and say things (if an unmarried girl has a child). 
Do not bother with it!" "Why no. I will take it back, I will raise it. It is just so 
very cute." (3) So indeed she took it home, and that girl brought it up. Now 
those boys began to be chums, they were always playing the strike-the-ball game. 
The grandson of the old man, no matter how hard the ball he would split it any- 
how, every ball that his grandfather made. (4) The children grew up. "Ha'- I 
will make balls all the time. Now my own ankle bone (I will make a ball of)." 
Indeed he took it out, and then his grandson had it for a ball. (5) Once (one day) 
he hit the other (boy), "a'-- popped-out-of-fire ! you hurt me." "Oh you yourself 
you (are named) dug-out-of -ground. " Then they did not play (together) any more. 



hi'dadaya, tsu'-gus-sa'lt'-da-ka'. (4) hei-ma-'tsi-mi-'dasa'ma-dahe't'ls kwi-'- 
xkwi"y a tb-kwi'-an-x-we'n-wa-'tsa. wi'-ma-'tsi-xs'nxsnu tb-gws'is, hi's-hidji'- 
da'yau, t'laViya-da't'e, x-we'n-his-hi'dji-da'yau. wi-'-ya-qa'yau wr-he'malt'de- 
djs"-tsu-'wi'ya tb-dsx-e'hs. (5) wi'-naqt tb-daka" dat'lha'i, 19 wi'-we'n-iTat 
tb-tu"rrt9t'l, "tle'wuxte'mi-'yex!" a-'yu-ge'-tla'utim-tb-kYlga. wi'-kwi-ha-'wi- 
ya-tl9-dex-tsqw9'ld_wtc. 

2. wi'-ma-'-gene-'tc-kV gu-s-mi'n-du--kwi--gs'm yugwa'a'ma. wi'-wa-'-gem 
du--le-'mem. tsu'-tb-gwe'is, "kwi-'-wa'ntl-wa'upts." ku--wa-'-gem wi-'-yu- 
wa'upts, hei-ma'tsi-ki'lga u'biya'itc, di-'lu't'l. (2) tsu'-kwi-we'n-i'lat tb- 
dahsne-'kwn, "tbi-'ts! an-u'duha"ya. ha--du'-ditc Takyalya'qham. a'n-t'swa'- 
al!" "an-gs-'. wusa-'ya-wantl, ha'wiya-wantl. heTt'-ha-dza'ns-'wet'l." (3) 
a-'yu-wus-a-'ya, tsu'-ha-'wiya-tb-x-gwe'is. wi-'-kwi'-ya-itc'ye'ikit'ci'nu'wiye 
ttetc-hi-'me gus-mi'n-itc-du-cje'icace'nu. wr-tlatc-tu-'ma't'l dadi'nvi'sin, ma'i- 
duqu-'s du--kwe's9S ma-du'-tsxa, gus-mi'n-kwi-kws-'sas-dzi-'ya tb-dex-tsqwa'l- 
qVtc. (4) ha-'wi'yam-tfo-hi-'me. "ha y - gu-s-mi'n-u-kwe-'sas-dzi-'ya. kwa'- 
'naqVlexe-'xss." a-'yu-kr'-da'-ha'lkn, kwi'ys-dakwe'sas tb-dadi'msin. (5) 
mi'n-t'ci tsa-qlaVdzamau. "d'- tia'waxtiyat'a-'mas! qVhauta'ine." "wi'-his- 
nane'u-u-bti'yata/rms." tsu'-itc-an-da's-alica-'nu. "u'-ana'ntl-balaxa-'nidai." 



"Literally, 'Indians' blanket' or 'people's blanket.' This must be a careless modernism on 
Mrs. Peterson's part. 



152 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

"Oh do not be angry with me." (6) "a-'- if you do not want me to be angry at 
you, you will go north, and I myself will go south. If we should meet then we will 
be friends again." Then indeed that is what they did. (7) Wherever he (popped- 
out-of-fire) struck his ball, it would just go through there, and then he would go 
through there too. Each of them did like that as they went, they played ball as 
they went. And then indeed (later) they met, and then they became friends again. 

3. Now that is all of that myth. 

13. Black bear and pack basket bear (grizzly) 20 

1. People were living there. Young man panther (cougar) had two wives. 
(Once) he left his wives alone. The other one also had two children, each of them 
had two children. (2) They picked salalberries all the time, they picked them (every 
day in season), (and) they picked blackberries too. They lived like that for quite a 
long time, they were gone picking berries every day. 

2. "If I should not return, you will know that it is she (grizzly) who killed 
me. She is continually sneaking around after me. If I should not come back, you 
will understand. (2) She will have killed me like that if I do not come back. You 
should run away to the south to my older brother, you should go to there." That 
is what she (black bear) advised her children. 



(6) "a-'- in-a'n-du\ha"ya balaxa-'nida-mi, ne'u-nantl-bi'ldjuwi-la, wi'-e'n-e- 
q w cidju-'wi-wan-la'. wi-i's-hantl-hi-'dimsu wi'-yeikit'ci'n-u'wiye s-ha'ntl-da-'s- 
a's-u." a'yu-itc-me'-x-we-'n. (7) idja'u-du-kxu' tla-dakwe'sas, ma--du'-wen- 
ts'a'ldu, wi'-tsu-du-t'a'ma-da'Ma. masa'-itc-we-'n-la mi'gaka-'ni-'da. hei-i'tc- 
a-'yu-hi-'dzamsu, tsu'-itc-da-'s-a-'yu eikit'ci'n-u'iye da-'s. 

3. tsi'-ku-'wi-kwa-ba-'saq\ 

13. pele'1-itc ws-'n-kwitc nka-'wal-dat'i'm pde'l 20 

1. tsu'-kwr-dle-'geq tia-ka"ama. adzu"-dahu-'mis tla-H-'tcit-di-'lu'l. wi-'- 
kwi--mi't'ci-kwi--ha- / gwiya tla-hu'me'ks. hi's-tla-ma' adzu^-dahi-'me, mas-a'-itc 
adzu'-itcdahi-'me'sme. (2) wi-'-gus-mi'n-du-deVi ba-'mis, gus-i'tc-du--kwi-- 
itc'yii'gwa, dzu-'dzuwa gu-s-i'tc-du--kwi--yu'gwa. hs-'-niye itc-we-'n-dle-'gsq, 
de'ngi-gaha-'yas kwi--du / -ehs / 'e / me de'7"£- 

2. "yu'-wantl a'n-we-st, isga'-wantl x-hi'dji tsu'wen. gu-s-mi'n-u-du- 
xi-me'nidu-n. wi'-yu-wantl a'N-we-st, wi-'-kwa-'ni'yada'i's-ha'ntl. (2) tsu'- 
vve-n-wa'ntl yu-wantl a'N-we-'st. wi'-naq£"is-ha'ntl q^i'djs'-'nahe't'le, gs'^-is- 
hantl-la'." we-'n baha'na'na-ya tla-dihi-'me. 



20 Mrs. Peterson could not certainly recall the Miluk words for brown bear and grizzly, and 
so she used only the word for black bear (M. pe'lsl) ; she called grizzly bear (H. swa- '1) 'pack basket 
bear' (M. ka'wal-dgtim pe'lel). The Miluk title, then, is only a bad makeshift, about which she 
felt regretful. Old Man Jackson, a Hanis, and her older sister Fanny used to tell this myth, 
which very likely was common property to the Coos. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 153 

3. Once (one day) one of them spoke thus, that (grizzly) bear to the little 
black bear, this is what the big (grizzly) bear said to her, "Let us rest here." In- 
deed they sat down. (Said grizzly,) "Hunt for head lice on me." (2) Of course the 
little black bear hunted for lice on her. "Oh I am tired." "Let me hunt on your 
head." Indeed she did that to the little bear, she hunted lice on her, but then she 
bit her neck and killed her, then she killed her. And then she ate her up. (3) Now 
she lay down to rest, and there she slept. Then as it became evening now she went 
back home. Then she told her (black bear's) children, "Your mother did not want to 
come home. She will be back tomorrow." That is what she told the children. (4) 
When they went to bed they cried secretly. "Do you know, I think she must just have 
killed our mother. She is just lying to us, and she (grizzly) told us that she (black 
bear) did not want to come home!" "Tomorrow we will hide. We will follow her 
secretly." (5) Sure enough they did that, they followed her secretly, and then 
indeed from hiding the children watched her, as she ate up (what was left of) their 
mother. Then they ran back, they got home. 

4. "Now we will boil water like this, and we will throw those children of 
hers into it. Then she can eat them up too." Sure enough they killed her children, 
and then they boiled them. They cut off their feet and hands, they put them in at 
the bottom (of the pot), and then they put the flesh in on top, they fixed it that way. 
(2) Then they fled. "Let us go. We will go home to our uncle's (mother's broth- 
er's) place." So that is what they did. They ran at night (and day). 



3. mi'n-t'ci hei-ma-'tsi-we'n-i'l-at'itc tfo-hi't'ci, tlatc-pe'kl wi'-tlatc-e'k" 
he'ndlis-pe'lel, ws'n-i'ld u wa tlextc-wa' pe'lsl, "ha'magas-di'u Ihe'tsm." a'yu-itc 
dle-'gsim. "ha'ma-xwut'k'i." (2) a-'yu-xwa-'t'K'iya tlsxtc-s-'k" he'ndlis pe'lsl. 
"u- r aN-ki'nau'u." "helt'-'na'ntl xwut'ldza-'mi." a'yu-lqe'u tbtc-e-'l£-pe'lel, 
helt'-xwa't'li, ma"-geYsga y d9"ma-6; tsa-'u, tsu'-tsa-u. tsu'-ldja-'t. (3) tsu'- 
ma-tsi-we'lxsam, we-'n-da"-ge'ql. tsu'-gatqVididju-'wi tsu'-wa's-i. tsu'-ws-'n- 
gwa'sgwai tfo-dahi-'me, "e'l-iqeu tla-na'e'n-s. a'ma-hantl-ws-'st." we-'n-i'ld u wa 
tb-hi-'me. (4) wi-'-i-dli-'q w tim wi-'-sadla'ntc-ki'm-i. "kwa- / niyada-"ni-i / , we-'n- 
'na'lu'ws tsi'^-da-tsa-'u tli-isnsVn-s. tsi-'-s'wutwu'ndi-t'it, ku-kwi-'-ws'n-i'l-at 
e'lc^eu. !" "a'ma-sdb'ndisims-ha'ntl. sadla'ntc s-ha'ntl-u'mi-da-t." (5) a-'yu- 
ma'-we-'n, sadla'ntc-itc'u'miduwa, h si-ma -'tsi-a-'yu-itc sadta'ntc-itcha'm-a'q' 
tls-x-hi-'me, yu-kwi'-dla-'u tli-itcds'e'n-s. tsu'-itc yeged-i'meu, was-i"itc. 

4. "tsu'-we-n hap-3's-hantl lu'q w ta, wi-'-ge-'-s-hantl x u kwa'' kwa-dahi-'me. 
hi's-ha'ntl-kwi-'-ldjaV' a-'yu-itc kVya tb-dahi-'me, tsu'-itc a-'yu tlh^ut'a'wa. 
tli-itcdsqla'a'ma tli-itcdikH'la kwi-itc^xa-'t, kws--d9'gedle-n, tsu'-itc-tVma-t'e-'t 
gwa-'niyu-itc, kwi-wa-'wa. (2) tsu'-itc tVma ne'q'e. "la'a'yams-ha'ntl. tli-- 
sna-a'xa-'xitc d9t'lda-'ya-s ge"-s-hantl-W3's-i." a'yu-itc-ma' ! -x-ws-'n. neqfo"- 
mi"itc Ihwi-'didi. 



154 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

5. Now the (grizzly) bear woman got back home. "He--- now is not that nice ! 
they have the cooking (boiling) on." Now she began to eat, (2) and she had nearly 
eaten it all up, when she dipped up the hand of her baby, and then she dipped up 
its foot too. 

"HaV- he-'-- hg-'hghg--! 21 
My children, my children ! 
Its hand, 

that must have been it. 
My children, my children ! 
Its foot. 

I will take vengeance on them. (3) I will cook them too, and I myself will eat them 
too." That is what (grizzly) bear woman said. "Ha'—u where are you?" She 
heard her own echo. (4) She thought it was the children answering her, but she 
heard only her own echo, it was just what answered her. "Ha' that is not they. 
I will follow them." Sure enough she followed. 

6. The children were running along, and now they heard the old woman. 
"What should we do? It is becoming night now." Then they lay down in a hollow 
tree. Then the (grizzly) bear old woman reached there, but it was too small, she 
was unable to grasp the children. (2) So then she lay down outside. "Hrh you 
will be pretty smart if you get away from here !" That is what she said to the chil- 

5. tsu'-we-'st tbtc-pe'lel hu-'mis. "he— hei-gwa'-an kVle! kwi-in-tlhwu'- 
t'a'wa'ama." tsu'-ge"dlu'wi-'we, (2) tsu'-gasi'ya ki-'ya, he'i-ma-'tsi tfe-dgki'lga 
diki v lan kwi'-ha'lq w da't'a, he'-ma-'tsi his-qla-'da his-kwi'-halq w da-'t'a. 

"haV- he'- hg-'-hghg--! 21 
tla-'nahi-'me, tta-'nghi'ms! 
tig-dgki'lan, 
kwi-"ya ku-da'. 
tb-'nahi-'me tlg-'nghi-'me! 
da'qla! 

dla'lyu'wa'a'ma-wa'ntl. (3) hi's-itc-ha'ntl wutihwut'u'wa, wi'-his-itc-ha'ntl-hi- 
dji"u Idja'V x-we'n-i'lat tla-pe'lel-hu-'mis. "ha'-u idja'u-is?" wi'-mi-'di- 
sa-ma dggwe-'skws qa'wa-'ya. (4) wi-'-we'n-di'lu'we tli-hi-'me tta-qaqta'mai, 
hit'c-mi-'dasa-'ma' dggwe-'skwss tl3-qa"wa-'ya, wi-'-kwi-qaqta'm ma-'tsi. "ha' 
ma'-aN-ku'wi. u'mididza-t'a'-wantl." a 'yu u'mididza-t'a. 

6. tsu'-ye'qeqe'nu tli-hi-'me, tsu'-itc kwa-na"ya tbtc-hu"mik. "ida'-s- 
hantl dji"-xaliH"ya? tsu'-qla'm-djiye." tsu' nil^i'n diha-'la'l9S9dJ9 dli-'k w tim. 
wi-'-ge'^-dji' tla-pe'lel hu"mik, wi'-he'lt'-ha-e'k, wi'-a'N-dji ga'lmi't'a tli-hi-'me. 
(2) tsu'-ma-'tsi qa'nudjiu tsu'm. "hm su-'de-t-nantl in -anti xge"de"-ii9'qe!" 

21 Mrs. Peterson said of this mourning song, "She is really crying, she is not singing." The 
song in effect mocked grizzly's crying. Humming or singing it out of context the Coos rendered 
it with deep, throaty, basso tones. Coos girls also used the tune by making a romantic love song 
of it, and by changing the words and the mood. I recorded two such love songs (Ediphone record 
14:14579:i, j). The grizzly mourning song of the myth is on Ediphone record 14:14579:h; and on 
RCA Victor disc 14:14610B:a. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 155 

dren. Now she snored. Then the children leaped over her. "May you sleep sound- 
ly !" She just kept on sleeping. 

7. Then the children ran on, and they kept running along, and now they got 
to the river. An old man was spearing fish there. "Uncle! (mother's brother!) a 
dangerous being is pursuing us. She killed our mother, and we took vengeance on 
her. (2) That is why she is pursuing us. Hurry and get us across." Indeed the 
old man just extended his leg, and to be sure it reached clear across the river. 
Sure enough the children crossed the river there. (3) They had not gone very far 
before she herself got to there also. "Did you see them? did you not see anyone?" 
"I did not see anyone at all." "Then get me across." "Why I could not get you 
across at all! (4) If I were to put you across you might break my leg. " "You might 
try it. I will pay you. I will give you quantities of money" (large dentalia). So 
then he thought like this, "I will pretend that it (my leg) has broken, and where 
it is running swiftly she will fall into it." (5) And so that is how it was. "Give 
me your money. I will get you across." Indeed she gave him her money. Now he 
extended his leg, and then she was going to cross on it indeed. Now in the middle 
where it flowed most swiftly, (6) now he pretended that his leg had broken, and 
sure enough the (grizzly) bear fell into the water. So now she swam, but when she 
was pretty nearly out of breath, then the old man speared her, that is how he him- 
self was the one to kill her. 

8. So the children got to their uncle, and then their uncle was going to bring 
them up. 

9. Now that is all of that story of mine. 

we'n-ildi-'ta tli-hi-'ms. tsu"-gs'da'laxaya. tsu'-gwa-'niyu-da xwa'ilu tia-hi'- 
ms. "he'-ga-'xni"ya!" ma"-gsgs'ql. 

7. tsu'-yegeda'meu tli-hi-'me, tsu'-itc hwi-'didi, tsu'-itc cit'cdi-'dje-itcdji- 
tu-'mi't'l-ditc-da" dlam'li'yam. "axa-'xi! xu-'t'hic na'u'mididi-'t'it. tsa-'u tla- 
'na'e'ne, wi'-dla'HW'na. (2) wi-'-x-we'n-ditc dini'u'mididi-'fit. tie" na'- 
ga'lidei." a-'yu-tla-tu-"mit'l ma-'tsi ku'disat'a tla-dadjiTe, wi'-a'yu'-gedji'- 
min kwr-tsgu'. a-'yu-da'-ga'lya tk-hi-'ms. (3) a'N-itc-h£-'--niya-la tsu'la-'u- 
wa his-hi'dji. "ha'maqni'i'? an-u'-wiVha'maq'i'?" "ma-'-u-a'N wi'-hamaq\" 
"tsu' ge'lidei." "ma'-nantl-a'N-dji-ga'lida-'mi. (4) i'naxtli-ga'lida-mi wi'- 
tlga'idzat'a-naxtlal kwa-'ndji'ls." "ka'n-i-nantli'. tsldza-'mi-nantl. ga-'l- 
'nantl-ni-'ya'mi hada'i'mis." tsu'-ws-n-di'lu'we, "gwa / 'yut'cwa-'ntlga / idzi'ya, 
wi'-lugwa / q w s3dja / -hantl-tu- / 'ya." (5) a-'yu-ma'-x-we-'n. "ni-'m-kws-nahadaT- 
mis. ga'lida-'mi-'nantl." 'a-'yu ni-'ya tb-dahada'i'mis. tsu'-ku y disa-t'a tla- 
dadjiTs, tsu'-han-a-'yu-ge'lts. tsu'-a's-tlla ha-la'nwi-higwa- / q w tc, (6) tsu'- 
gwa-'yu'tc tlga'idziya tla-didjiTs, a-'yu ha-'pa'dja tu-'ya tla-pe'lsl. tsu'-mil'- 
mi'li, tsu' ga-si'ya kumtsda'gaya, tsu' tsgwa-'ts tlsxtc-tu-"mit'l, wi-'-x-we-'n 
x-hi'dji kwi--tsa'u. 

8. wi'-tla-hi-'me wi'-axa-'xintcda gs^-itcdji'^'yam, wi-'-x-axi'yaxitcda 
x-kwi -'-kwi -ha'udza -t'a. 

9. tsi-we's-kwa-'naba-'saq. 



156 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

14. Choked- with-food, or I fear the strength of choked-with-food 22 

1. All his people mocked the young man, they made fun of him. He would 
be hungry, and when they gave him food, he would want still more. Then they 
would always grumble at him. (2) He became a young man. Now he choked on 
food, and then they did make fun of him because he choked on food. "Oh good for 
nothing!" That is what they said to him. Once then he made preparations and he 
left there, he went away. (3) Now they followed, they pursued him, even after 
they had always been making fun of him. He went on. "I will not go back there. 
They are always mocking me." 

2. Now it became evening. He lay down beside a log, and this is what he 
dreamed. "You poor fellow! I will help you. They are following you. (2) When 
you reach the trail (that forks off this trail) you should go on that (left) side (take 
the left hand trail). When you reach a different place, you should pull up little 
trees. That will give you strength." Then indeed that was what he did. (3) (After 
that) he walked along for five days, and he got to a place of rocks. Then some per- 
son spoke to him, though he saw no one. "They are following you. You should roll 
aside that rock." Indeed he rolled it and when he rolled the rock he saw a trail. 
(4) Again the person spoke to him. "Close it! roll that rock back again to there!" 
He did roll it back to there again, and then he went on, and he camped, he camped 
by a creek. There were quantities of food (fish) in the creek, and now he did have 
food to eat, (5) because all sorts (of fish) were there in the creek. And the next day 



14. tamqa'icwa, or tamqa'icwa alqsa-'-d53bnya"wa 

1. tsu'-ttedi'lu'l gu-s-wi'-du--kwi--hu- / dat tta-dex-e'stis, kwi--i'l-du--hu-'dat. 
Ige-'ridu, wi'-i-du--ni'ni- / yu, ma--du'-g£< da-'s-du-'ha'ya. wi-'-kwi'-il-du-itctu'wa 
gu-'s-mi'n. (2) wi'-di-'lu-H'ye. hei-ma-'tsi-di'm-qYitc, wi'-kwi'-yu-i'l-du-hu-'dat 
tte-kwi--di , m-4eu. "a'N-djinu-dje-kV'le!" x-we'n-il-du--iTd u wa. mi'nt'ci-tsu- 
hu'ws'etsam i-'gei, tsu'M-a. (3) tsu'-il'u'mi-da-t, u'miduwa'il, ha'ma-il-du- 
gu-'s-mi'n kwi-hu-'dat. tsu'-l-a'. "an-wa'ntl-ge' t -bi-'na't's. gu-s-mi'n-il-wu- 
du-hu-'didin." 

2. tsu'-gatqa'idiya. niki'n-dit'lha'wa'icdja-tsu-'m, hei-ma-'tsi-we-'n-du- 
gwa'ns-itc. "kwi-'ns'wst'lns! tsa-ki'nda-mi-'na'ntl. u'mididi-'n'ilne. (2) wi'- 
in-antl he'weldidje^-dji 5 wexde'-ge"-nantl-la'. wi'-inantl ma-^-t'ldacdja'-dji', 
wi'-niki 'niye-nantl xga'i. wi'-x-kwi-nantl t3'miyel3S-ni- / W9n." tsu'-a-'yu-ma- 
x-ws'n. (3) gent'ci'nsu-ya gaha'is tca-tca'i, tsi-tsu-q^a'idja-dji". he^ma-'tsi 
ka"-tli-itc, ma-'-aN-wi-hama'q\ "u'midi-'n'i'me. kwi--na'ntl gwaTi'ya kwu- 
q w la' i ." a-'yu-kwr-gwaTi'ya he'-ma-'tsi he'wel-kla-'wi yu-kwi-'-gwa'H'ya tfo- 
q w la /! . (4) da-'s-gum-tli'-tb-ka". "dlan-i"ya! da-'s-ge'-gwa'H'ye' kwa-q'la'M" 
a-'yii-da-'s-ge" gwa'li'ya, tsu'-l-a, tsu'-du-q w li-'ya, tVm-i-itc q w li-'ya. ga'l-da- 
4w3'n-yau tla-tVm-i, a-'yu-naqwa'n-yau-dacjwa'n, (5) na'im-gu-s-didje-'nen 



22 Though Mrs. Peterson heard only Old Dick and other Hanis natives recount this myth she 
supposes that Miluks also knew it and told it. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 157 

he went on, he just kept on going. Now he thought about his dream. (6) "Oh my 
dream told me to do it like that, (it told) me to pull up small young firs." Then 
indeed that was what he did. He pulled up such ones, and then he began to be 
pulling up bigger ones. 

3. Now he reached where there were people, a great many people lived at 
that place. Now his brothers and his father caught up with him. They did not 
do anything to him because they had gotten to the place of those people. (2) Now 
they took them in, and they gave them food to eat, and then they ate. The next 
day, their repast finished, the people were going to have wrestling. "They say you 
are all to wrestle with them. They say they will bet heavily." (3) Indeed so. 
"Very good. We will wrestle." And so then the people wrestled. None of his rel- 
atives were strong, they were defeated. Now he said, "Let me try." (4) "u- 
what could you do? why you could not throw one of them." "a-' but I might try." 
To be sure the young man did so. He did not wrestle long before he threw him 
down. 

4. Then there was going to be a different game, they were going to pack rocks. 
"Let us see who can take the rock clear over (to the marker)." "I will (carry) my 
own rock." (The boy replied,) "Hm very well." (2) Then indeed (they did) so. 
The other person packed that rock of his. Now he went. Then he told him thus, 
"Now you pack my rock." Indeed that was what he did, he packed that rock of 
his, now indeed the young man packed it. (3) He took it in just one hand, that was 
the way he went with it to there, and when he got there to the mark, he threw the 



ge"i'dje tb-t'a'mi'idjs. tsu'-gwum-ge'lam tsu'-gwum-la', ma' t -ge t -la'a'qham. 

tsu'-kwi -Icla' tta-dagwa'ns. (6) "naqsi' u-x-ws-'n-iTdu-n tla-'n9x-gwa'ns, 

e-kili' t'cci-'ml wutsantl-xka'i." tsu'-a-'yu x-we'n wa"nu. lu'-xka'i, tsu'-ge'- 
e'ye wudla'm-aq hi-xka'i. 

3. tsi-tsu' dji" Itibi'ndje, ga-'-l-ka' mit'lda'ya's. he'-il-ma-'tsi gidi'udat'a 
tfe-dex-he't'le we'n-tfo-dex-sTe. an-i'l-dji'-xa'li na'im-il-kibi'ndje-dji\ (2) tsu'- 
illixli-'mu, tsu'-ilqatski-'nu, tsu'-il-ge"dlu'wi-'ws. a'ma'is, e'wi-ildadlu'wa-'was, 
hens-'nu di-tsa'ntl-ka'\ "gus-tci'1-tsantl he-ns-'nitem. la'nwi-di-tsantl-qa-'tsk." 
(3) tsu'-a-'yu. "kY'ls'yuk w . he-nc'nul-hantl." tsu'-a-'yu-gshene-'ni'we dd'- 
ka\ gu-'s-kwi-a'N-ti'm-li tta-daYstis, gatga'yu'uma. tsu y -wa"nu, "ha'ma- 
wantl-e'n-s-ka'n-i." (4) "u- di'tc-na'ntl-aya-dja? ma-'-nantl-a'N-dji' hit'ci'- 
ta'\" "a' ka'n-i'-wantli'." a-'yii-tfo-di-'lu'l. a'N-hs'niye hana'ni-da ma-'n- 
tVts. 

4. tsu'-gwum-ma-'-alica-'ni'wa-s-ha'ntl, q w la'i-l-hantl damt'a-'m. "itlex- 
wi / -kwi--e-'g£-dji / ya'na ku-q^la' 1 ." "mi-'disa'ma-'nantl-q^a' 1 ." "hm kV'le'- 
yuk w ." (2) tsu'-a-'yu. tsu'-tb-ma-'-ka t'a'mi-kwa-daq^la' 1 . tsu'-la'. tsu'- 
wsn-i'ltem, "hs'lt' x-ne'u t'a-'mi kwa-'naq^a' 1 ." a-'yu-me-x-we'n, t'a-'mi kw3- 
dgq^la'i, tsu'-a'yu-t'a-'mi-th-x-di-'lu'l. (3) ma-'tsi-hit'ci'-kila'nu kwi-gala'm, 
we'n-e-'gs-kwi-la'i, wi'-i-ge"-dji t tla-ha-'ha'a'dja, wi-'-gwa-'n-t'a-'ts tl9-q w la' j . 



158 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

rock up in the air, he caught it in the other hand. Now he threw it away there, 
(4) and he got his own rock, and he took it across, and he lay it down. "Now you 
take that rock of mine!" Indeed then (they tried), but they could not even move 
his rock. 

5. No more of that ! "Let us pull up young fir trees." Then that is what was 
done. Those other people pulled up small young firs, then they got larger and larger 
ones. (2) Now they told the young man, "Now you!" So he did. Then the young 
man pulled up the biggest one. Then they said to him thus, and they showed him 
it, (3) "Pull up one of that size there!" Sure enough he did so, he pulled it up, he 
pulled up the largest one. Nobody had pulled up one as large as that one. 

6. Then the people became enraged, and they got into a fight. Then the young 
man defeated them all. Now one of the defeated people, that one of the people 
whom he defeated cried like this, this is how he cried. 

"I fear the strength of choked- with -food. 
I fear the strength of choked-with-food." 23 

Then choked-with-food and his people returned home. 24 

7. Now that is all of my myth. 



x-ma-'-klla-'nu ga'la'm. tsu'-tVma-e'gs-t'a', (4) tsu'-he'lt'-hidji'mil-daq^a'', 
tsu'-gali"ya, tsu'-tsu-'wi'ya. "kwi'ya helt'-x-ne'u la"a ! kwa-'naq^a'M" tsu'- 
a-'yu, a'N-x-wr-kwr-la'ixt tla-daq^a' 1 . 

5. a'N-ditc! "niki'n t'cci'ml kwi-'-l-ha'ntl xka'i." a'yu-gwum-ma-x- 
we-'n. tsu'-gwum-tla-ma-'-ka'ama tsu'-il-gwum-xka'i tb-e-'t'ci'li t'cci-'mil, gs"- 
du--wudla'magaya. (2) tsu'-gwum-wu'lxiyu tfo-di-'lu'l, "he'lt'-ne' u !" a-'yu. 
tsu'-ha-'du"wa xga' tle-x-di-'lu'l. tsu'-we-'n iTd u wa, tsu'-mitsmitstaqlia'nam, 
(3) "dji / '-dantl-wudla'm-a / qdis kwr-na'ntl-xka'i!" a'yu-ma-x-we-'n, hi'-xka't, 
ha-du"wa-'-hit'ci'-xga. a'N-wr-we-n-da'wu'ga'di's lu'-xga-'t. 

6. tsu / -gwum-be / lxs3m'u'ma--tl9 / -ka\ tsu'-ildtaldji-'lu. wi-'-gu-s-kwi- 
ma'nkt tle-x-di-'lu'l. tsu'-hi't'ci tkV-lca' ma'nkt, tsu'-wen-a'xats tl3-ka"-hi / t'ci- 
mankt, tsu'-wen a'xats. 

"alqsa'ya-li / nya"wa tamqa'icwa. 
alqsa'ya-li'nya" wa tamqa'icwa. " 23 

tsu'-ilwa'si tia-tamqa'icwa. 

7. tsu'-tsi-we-'s kwa-'naba-'saq. 



23 Ediphone record 14:14580:c; RCA Victor disc 14:14612B:e. 

24 Besides developing such strength that no one dared mock him any more, he also became 
wealthy. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 159 

15. The girl who had a dog husband 25 

1. The girl was the wealthy head man's child. They all desired her, but she 
wanted no husband. No matter how much they offered as marriage payment, she 
would not concede. The girl had a big dog. She never remained at home, it was 
her dog that was her companion. (2) She dug fern roots all the time. Once when 
she was digging fern roots she came upon a young man. "Oh what are you doing 
here?" The girl became embarrassed. (3) "Oh I am not doing anything. I am 
only digging fern roots." "And why, when you are indeed so very pretty? and 
then you are all the time merely digging fern roots?" The girl said nothing more. 
(4) Now she was going to return home . ' ' Are you going to be here again tomorrow ? ' ' 
"Yes." "I will be seeing you." The girl did not speak. Then she returned. She 
just thought and thought about the young man. "That was so nice looking a young 
man." (5) She just kept on thinking about him, she did not sleep. Early in the 
morning she arose, and she ate in a hurry, and then off she went. To be sure, the 
young man was already there. "Oh I have been waiting for you so long." (6) The 
girl was embarrassed, because she also desired to see him quickly herself. "Why 
do you keep your head bowed?" "Oh I was just thinking." "u- come quick and 
dig those fern roots of yours. I will help you." Indeed the young man assisted. 
(7) They filled up the girl's basket. Now she was going to pack her load, "a-' do 
not go! let us sit down and talk. You can go back after a while." The girl did so. 
And then now they met constantly (daily), that is what they did indeed. 



15. gwe'is ye'klu'-dads-'mii 

1. gws'is hethe'de-dikVlga. gus-wi"-kwi--du / ha'ya, wi'-a'N-da'mal-du'- 
ha'ya. mai-la'nwi thi-tlu-'^hem, a'N-du'-tlqY". wi'-wa-'ga-di'ye'klu tfo-gwe'is. 
wi'-gu's-mi'n-du kwi-du'-aN-dlu-'gwa, kwi-du'-da'ma-'na't' tfo-daye'l^lu. (2) 
gus-mi'n-kwi--kjwa'-yugwa. mi'n-t'ci IqVa'-yugwa hei-ma-'tsi di'lu'lidju'wi- 
dji\ "u'- di'tc-di-n-diu-xa'li?" djicdji'lt'su-tte-gwe'is. (3) "a'n-wu'-du ditc- 
xa'li. tsi'-du-ldwa'-du-wuyu'gwa." "wi-'-x-dji, ma-'-na-ha'-nahe-'wudzan? 
ma-'-na-gu-'s-mi'N-lqwa-yugwa?" de-'wan-tli'-tla-gwe'is. (4) tsu'-hantl-wa's-i. 
"da's-nantl-di'u-i' ama?" "a n \" "khi'dami-nantli'." a'N-tli-tla-gwe'is. tsu'- 
wa'si. ma'tsi-kwi-dji'ndjina tla-di'lu'l. "he'i-gwa-a'N-nahe'wudzan kw3- 
di'lul." (5) ma-'tsi-kwi-dji'n-dji'na, a'N-ge-'ql. q"eH"mis dlu'q w sam, tsu'- 
t'ama x-mi'mtcditc-ldja, tsu'-t'ama-la'. hei-ma-'tsi a-'yu-kwi-da"itc da"-tl3- 
di'lu'l. "u y he'niye-nla'qaqa-'mi." (6) djicdjiTt'su tb-gwe'is, na'im-his-hi 7 - 
dji kwi-du-'ha'ya tle'-kla-'wi. "dj^'-ge-enekms-'nen?" "u-' tsi-wudjinhehe-'- 
nu." "u- tle'-yugwa kwa-nlqVa'. tsa-ki'nda-mi-'nantl." a-'yu tsa-'kan tle- 
x-di-'lu'l. (7) t'hi'diya'itc tb-dakha' tb-gwe'is. tsu'-han-t'a'mi tra-dat'i'm. 
"z' an-a'ntl-la! dle-'geges-ha'ntl 7al-a-'nu-s-hantl. tsi-n-antl-wa's-i." a-'yu- 
tb-gwe'is. we'n-ma-'tsi gu-s-mi'N kwi'-hi-'hyai, a-'yu-itc me-x-we-'n. 



25 Told to Mrs. Peterson by a Hanis, Old Dick; but probably generally told by all Coos. 
Another version in Coos Texts, Frachtenberg, p. 167. 



160 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

2. One time he spoke thus, "I will go back to your home (with you)." "You 
must not come to there ! (without having made a marriage payment) . My parents 
would not want you!" "Well what do you think? (2) Suppose we kill your dog, 
and I will get inside it, and I will be just like the dog." "All right. We will kill it." 
Then indeed they killed the girl's dog, and they fixed it, and then the young man 
got inside it. It became winter. (3) The young man was still inside it. Whatever 
was good of their food, she gave it to her dog. Now her brothers spoke about it. 
One time they went out, her youngest brother shot the dog. (4) The dog screamed 
as it went. The girl followed it, indeed when she reached her dog it was almost 
dead. Then her husband spoke to her thus, "Here is my (large) bow, and here is 
my fire drill, and here is my pipe. (5) Take them all, and my money (large den- 
talia) here. Take it all." Then she buried her husband. When she had finished 
burying him she started to go, and then she cried in this manner, 

"Oh I am so grieved, 26 my husband husband! 
My heart is just so sick." 

3. The girl did not go back home. She just continued to live at the head of 
a small bay. She started in trapping for food and everything. In no long time she 
had quantities of everything, of food, of hides, of all sorts of furs (of small animals, 
to use for baby clothes). (2) She became big with child. Then she was going to 
have baby clothes when she would give birth. Indeed the girl had quantities of 
all sorts of things. Then she gave birth to three boy babies. Now she sat (got along) 

2. mi'n-t'ci tsu-we-'n-iTat, "wasi'-wantl kwa-na'ye-'dzadjs." "an-a'ntl 
dii"-ge'-wa'si! aN-i'1-hantl du-'hidu-n kwa-'nax-ma-'ni'ya-s." "wi-'-dji-hinlu'- 
we? (2) tsa-'us-hantl kwa-niye'klu, wi'-ge'^wantl-gi'la-tsam, wi'-gwa'-wantl- 
ha'hyeklu." "kV'ls. tsa-'us-hantl." tsu'-itc a-'yu tsa-'u tfo-gwe'is-diye'klu, 
tsu'-itc dza'itst, tsu'-a-'yu ge'^-gi'la-'tsam tla-di'lu'l. ge' ! -kwi--gs'lu'wiye. (3) 
t'a'ma-ge'' kwi-gi'la-tsam tta-di-'lu'l. wi-di'tc-du ha-kV'ls tli-ildaqwa'n-yau, 
kwi-du'-ni'ya-tta-da'ye'klu. wi'-kwi'-il-du-iTd u wa tla-dex-hat'H'yada-s. mi'n- 
t'ci-itcsa'lt', tta-daqla'm'ni'ya'wa mitlgwa'la x-kwi-' kwr-kxa' tli-ye'klu. (4) 
wi-'-kwi--dzi-t'si- / 7a i kwi--la' tta-ye'klu. wi'-kwi-u'midat tls-x-gws'is, a-'yu ga-'- 
siya qVyau ye-ge"-dji' tta-dayeklu-'dje. tsu'-ws-n-i'hat tla-dade-'mil, "di-'nu'- 
gugwi-'l, we-'n-di'-'ni'yu-'bta, ws'n di'-'nupa'tal. (5) gu-s-na'ntl hithyu-'wat, 
we'n-di'-'nahada'i'mis. gu-s-na'ntl kwi--yithyu-'wat." tsu"-tba'-tl9-dads-'mil. 
tsu'-a'nya-tba'i tsu'-ga'lmi'i't.sam, tsu'-we-'n-a'xats, 

"ta-qa'wicdji'ya, 26 n ex-d e • 'mild s- 'mil! 
he'-gwa-a'n-xe'nwas na'lu'we." 

3. a'N-wa's-i-tla-gwe'is. ma-'tsi xla-'nik dahu'we'esadja dlu'q w S3m. wa'n- 
get'she'ye'ni-'we qVa'n-yau gu-'s-di'tc. a'N-he-'niye ma'n-gala'lya dagu-'s-ditc, 
qVa'n-yauda, hgege'ida, gu's-dadje-'nen-ditc-dadze-'t'las. (2) he'i-ma-'tsi mu'- 
wel-itc. tsu'-hi-'me date-'dji-'da ya-hantl tlhwi'ya. a-'yu-ga-'l-da gu-'s-di'tc 
tb-gwe'is. a-'yu nihi-'medi-'yiq psa'nl-datca'naTa hi-'me. a'yu-l^i'le dlu-'gwa 

26 The translation of this one word of the song is in doubt; Mrs. Peterson was uncertain about 
its meaning. Ediphone record 14:14580:d; RCA Victor disc 14:14610B:b. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts }61 

well because she had everything (well prepared). (3) In no long time the babies 
went along rapidly in their growth, it was not long at all, about a few years, before 
they began to hunt. The girl herself did not hunt any more, just her children 
hunted. They became young men. 

4. Now (one day) they came back from hunting. "Mother! why are you 
quite alone here? We have seen two old people, and they weep all the time, when- 
ever we see them. We kill something or other, (2) we place it there where they 
travel, and we hide and then sure enough they find it. We give them other things 
and indeed they find them. Maybe we kill an elk, and we give it to them. (3) They 
are so very glad when they find it. That is why we are asking you." That is what 
they said, that is what they told their mother. The girl began to cry. "Those are 
my own parents whom you saw. (4) We will go back home (to them)." Indeed 
that was what they did. She informed her children of how they had killed her 
husband. Then she took out the possessions that her husband had given her. To 
the first child she gave the pipe. (5) He was unable to light it. Both of them (the 
older brothers) tried it. Then the youngest tried it and now it was he who lit the 
pipe. Then the bow, not one of the two (older) of them could do anything with it. 
(6) Then they gave it to him (the youngest again) and it was he who did it. Now 
he had two pieces of property. Then the fire drill container, neither of them could 
do anything with it. But it was the youngest (again) who made a light (with )the 
fire drill. Now then they made preparations. (7) "My relatives (parents) are very 
wealthy people. Let us go back to there. If they do not give compensation (for the 



na'im-nagu'sdi'dje. (3) a'N-he'niye tle'-kwi-la'a'yam dshe'we tli-hi-'me, ma'n- 
ha-he-'niys, gwa-da-ni'ct'c-idzi-'mis, kwi-'-geb'mdida-du. a'nya hidji'-b'mda 1 
tb-gwe'is, ma-'tsiya tb-dahi'me kwi--b'mdida. tca'n87a'aya'il. 

4. tsu'-wa-'sdidi'yam b'mdawa'was. "ni'ka! dji'-en-e-ha-mi-'t'ci-di'u? 
ta'mst'le'-l-du-ha'macj, wi'-gu-s-mi'n-du--kwi--ki'mi, i'l-du--ha / maq'ama. wi'- 
i'l-du--ditc tsa'u, (2) idja'u-du--tli-yu-'det da-'-l-du--tsu-"ya, tsu-'-l-du-tVma 
sdb'ntu-t'tsam wi'-a'yu-itc-du-4jiTd u wa. ma"-ditc-du--kwi--mi'ya a'yu-itc du- 
kwi-ki'ld u wa. yuwu't's-1-du- ki'ts-tsa'u, wi'-kwi-l-du-ni'ya. (3) gwa-itc- 
du-a'n-ks'le i-itc-du-kwi-l£iTd u wa. x-ws-'n-ditc di-'mi'mi't'cmin-t'ca'mi." 
x-we'n gwa-na-'ni-'da, we'n-ilgwasgwa'i tli-ildeYn-e. xga'nu-tb-gwa'is. 'Y- 
n-e'na'ma-'ni'ya-s kw9-tcilha'maq\ (4) was-i-'l-hantl." a-'yu-ma-x-we-'n. 
sgu-'ya-tla-dghi-'ms x-dji'-tb-kwi-tsu-'tsu tb-dade-'mil. tsu'-kwi-hami'ya-t'a 
tb-te'tc di'tc-tb-dax-ds-'mil-ni'ya. hs'lu ki'lga kwi-'-'kwi-ni'ya tb-pa'tal. (5) 
a'N-dji-kwi-t'ci'1-i'ya. x-misa'-itc ka'ni. tsu'-tle-x-qbm'ni'ya'wa kwi-'-ka'n-i 
hei-ma'tsi-tsu'-x-hi'dji kwi-'-t'ciTi"ya tb-pa'tal. tsu'-gwum-tb'-gugwi-'l, ma- 
i'tc-du-a'N-x-hi't'ci kwi--dji'-aya-dja. (6) tsu'-il-gwum-hidji'-ni'ya hs'-gwu'm- 
tsu'-x-hi'dji kwr-a-'yu-itc. tsu'-adzu-'ya kwi- / -d9 / te-tc. tsu'-gwum-kwi-'- 
yu-'bta dakha', ma--i / tc-gwum-a / N-dji-kwi--a / yadja. ma--gwu'm-tle-x-qb'm'ni / - 
ya'wa kwi-t'ca'ltli-yu-'bta. tsu'-ilhu'we'e'tsam. (7) "hethe-'de-'na'ma-'ni'ya-s. 



162 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

murder of your father) we will take vengeance." That is what she said to her chil- 
dren. So then they fixed up a canoe, the canoe had limbs still on it (it was a large 
unfinished log). 

5. Then early in the morning they came ashore at her parents' place. Now 
they saw a person come out of the house, he came down to the water, and when 
he saw the log on the beach he ran back to the house. "Ha-'- there is a (fine big) 
log beached." (2) Now the people went down to the water, they were intending 
to cut off the limbs (to complete the log for a canoe) . Now the boys got out of the 
canoe, and their mother too, and they stepped ashore. Now the parents saw the 
girl, and then all the people wept. (3) Then they made a payment, they gave two 
women to each of her children, and so each of them had two wives. Then she ex- 
plained to her parents thus, "My husband was not a dog. My husband was a per- 
son. (4) He merely had gotten into the skin of my dog. That is why he resembled 
a dog, when you saw a dog. But it was not a dog, it was only a person inside the 
skin of my dog." 

6. Now they all continued to live there. 

7. That is all of that story of mine. 

16. The pouty children 27 
1. The children were living with their uncle (mother's brother). One time 
they just became angry at him. "We are going to get away from here." Indeed 

wasi-'i-hantl. ii-hanti-a'N-ski'nam wi-'-dlalyu'wa-'l-ha'ntl." we'n-i'l-d u wa tla- 
dahi'me. a-'yu'-il-tigu-'s-hut'su'wa, ma'-gwum-tlgu-'s ma"-ge-dahel-£'k w . 

5. a-'yu-i'l qe'H"mis i'l-ge"-da'n- i ya tla-dama-'ni'yas dit'lda'cdja. tsu'- 
ha'ma'q'if-tla-ka'-sa'lt', ge' t -kwi-t£ / ixe u , yu-kwi-'-ha'ma'q tli-ni^i / n-da"na t tsu'- 
yaga'da idzu-'dje. "ha-'- nikTn-da"na\ " (2) tsu'-ilte-'ya'xe u -tra'-ka\ tsu'-il- 
hanti-qxa'-dahe'lek w . tsu'-q'a'ltam tla-tca'na7a, tsu'-hi's-tli'-ilda'e'ne, tsu'- 
ilhe'gwan. tsu'-x-ma-'ni'ya-s di-kla-'wi tla-gws'is, tsu'-gus-ki'm-a-da'-ka'. (3) 
tsu'-ilski-'nam adzu"uma-ni-'ni-'yu tla-hu'meke tla-dahi-'ms, tsu'-il-gu-s-a'dzu- 
wi-ilduhu-'mis. tsu'-we'n-gwa'sgwai tla-da'ma-'ni'ya-s, "a'N-ye'klu tla-'nde'mil. 
ka" tla-'nde-'mil. (4) tsi'-tli-'niyeklu-'dje didzs-'t'las ge"-gi'l-a-tsam. we'n- 
ditc tla-kwi-'-gwa-ye'klu, tci'l-ys'klu-wi-hama'q\ a'N-ye'klu, ka" tsi-gs'Ma'ha 
tH-'ni'yelilu'-didze't'lasa'dje." 

6. tsu'-il-gu-'s-dluq w sam-da'\ 

7. tsi'-ws-'s-kwa-'naba-'saq\ 

16. dzu'wisame hi'ms 
1. tla-hi-'me x-axi'yaxitc da-kwi-'-dla-'gaq. mi'nt'ci tsi'-itc bs'lexe-nu. 
"i-'geis-hantl." a-'yu-itc'i-'ge', he-'nt'cicdji t'a'mi-dakda-'na'nasadja itcla', ws'n- 



27 Though a myth very likely known to most Coos raconteurs, Mrs. Peterson recalled hearing 
it from a Lower Coquille Miluk, Charley Ned, or from one of his family. The term "pouty," 
used by Mrs. Peterson when translating, does not quite render the idea of M. dzu'wis, H. dzu'wi- 's. 
A youngster was "pouty" if he went away from a relative with whom he lived, whether from 
boredom, disgust, humiliation, or anger, and took to the bush for a while. Orphaned youngsters 
residing with an uncle or relative at further remove were especially likely to become offended or 
dispirited for some reason and to take to the woods, living apart, "pouting," until they returned 
somewhat reconciled. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 163 

they left there, they went far into the interior to the end of the creek, and there 
they remained, there they lived. (2) They grew up. The girl dug all sorts of things, 
and her older brother trapped and hunted, he looked after the food, the salmon, 
which they dried. They certainly had a quantity of food, many garments, quan- 
tities of all sorts of things. (3) The girl dug skunk cabbage all the time. They 
lived there so many (a considerable number of) years. One time she did not come 
back. Night came but the girl never got back home. (4) The next day her older 
brother hunted for her, but he could not find her anywhere. Even after five days 
he had not found her. Even after seven he had not found her. He sought her every 
day. 

2. Now he saw something up above, he watched it coming, he kept on watch- 
ing it, and then it got behind brush, it went out of sight, and then he went to there. 
(2) It was some sort of winged thing (bird). 28 So he took it back home, he threw 
it into the house. Then he thought, "I will have it for my pet." (3) After five days 
it was still there, it never even moved at all, it just sat there. One morning (later) 
it was gone. Even though the door had been shut it was gone. 

3. Now then a person entered, switching the water out of his hair with his 
hand. That person must have been in swimming. Now he entered, and he sat 
down. "You suppose that I am a winged thing (a bird). I am not a winged thing, 
I am a person. (2) They sent me from up above. That is why I have come. The 
head man there has married your sister. I have come to get you. So let us go. 



ge-itcdle-'qs9m, ge'-itctaqlu-'t'tsam. (2) ha-'wi'yam'itc. gu-s-di'tc-du-yu'gwa 
th-x-gwe'is, we'n-ti9-d9he't'le wi-'-t'shs'ye'nu-du la'mdaidu, (Jwg'n-yau-du-lu-'- 
dada-ya, ge'lyeq, kwi-i / tc-du--t'c'la / i. a'yu-ga'l-itcdgqwg'nyau, ga-'l-itcdate-'tc, 
gu's-didje'nan-itcdagal. (3) gu-s-mi'n-du--ki'me-t'l yu'gwa tle-x-gwe'is. 
gwa-da-ni'ct'ci-idzi'mis da'-itcdle-'geq. mi'n-t'ci a'N-we-st. gatqVidiya a'iwa- 
kwi-aN-we-'st tla-gwe'is. (4) a'ma'is tsu-wu'lwa'ya tta-dax-he't'le, a'N-ge'n-- 
dji-kwi-ki'l-d u wa. gent'ci'nsuya gaha'is a'iwa-aN-ki'l-d u wa. adzu'-xgsye'sye 
a'iwa-aN-l£i'l-d u wa. gus-mi'n-gaha-'ya kwi-wu'lwa'ya. 

2. hsi-ma-'tsi gwa-'n-ditc kla'wi, wi-'-kwi-ha'maq dzg'ne, wi'-ma"-gs"- 
lu'dadaya, he'-ma-'tsi te'niki'dje, kwr-a'N-ditc, tsu'-ge'-l-a'. (2) he^ma'tsi 
gwa'-natlpi'ye-ditc. tsu'-kwi-wgs-a-'ya, idzu'dje kwi-'-ta'. tsu'-wen-di'lu'we, 
"kwi-'na'ntl-ci-'t'a." (3) gsnt'ci'nsu'ya gaha'is ma"-da t -kwi--dlu-'gwa, hi's- 
gu'ma-a'N-lixli-'x, ma-'tsi-da"-dlu-'gwa. hit'ci'-^eli^'mis he'-ma-'tsi-a'N-ditc. 
ma'-dla-'nan tli-bi'ndj ma'-kwi-a'N-ditc. 

3. he'-ma'tsi lca'^de'dje, tlaxtla'wax-daha'mis. sdle-'q'-da'x tfo-ka". 
tsu'-kwi--ds-'dje, tsu'-dlu'q w S9m. "x-ws'n-e'lu'we ntlpYye-ditc-u'. aN-u'-natl^i'- 
ys-ditc, ka"-u. (2) xu'gu wutxwi'ya. x-we'n-ditc du-wu-di'yu. da"-tl9-na- 



28 This tribe of myth people possessed some sort of winged canoe. To Mrs. Peterson the myth 
provides more evidence of there being nothing really new under the sun, and of the mythology's 
foretelling of the future — in this case the aeroplane of the white man. 



164 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

(3) When you get in you will lie down, and I will cover you over. You must not 
look. When I tell you so, then you may look." Indeed he did so. (4) The young 
man got into it, and then it was as if they flew, and now they went away. The 
young man became tired of it (of lying covered there), but still they continued 
going. Now he told him thus, "You may look." (5) Indeed the young man looked, 
and he saw a (large) village. "You are to go yonder, your sister is in that house. 
You are to go to there." So the young man went there, and sure enough he saw his 
sister. (6) He remained a long long time at that place. And he saw those people 
travel just like winged things (birds) when they traveled. They got into them there. 
"I guess they are their canoes. (7) When they go they fly just like winged things 
(birds)." Now the young man was going to return home. So he said to his sister, 
"I shall go back home." Indeed they took him home. (8) They put him in there, 
they took him to there again in the very same manner, they took him to his own 
place there. Now they got him back home. Again that person flew just like a winged 
thing flies. 

4. Now he returned to his own people. And he explained to his people about 
how his sister had had him brought. Now he himself settled down there, and he 
got wives, and then not again did he go anywhere. 

5. Now that is all of that myth of mine. 



kwe-'ns't'l hethe-'de kwi-'-duhu-'mis. ne'u-snala'dzida-'mi. la-'s-hantl. (3) 
i'n-antl-gi'l-a-tsam tsi-'m-nantl, wi'-dlu'k w d59dza-'mi-nantl. wi'-a'n-a'ntl-xi-'la. 
tsu'-nantl-ws-'n-il-da-'mi, tsu'-nantl-xi-'la." a-'yu'-me-x-we-'n. (4) tsu'-gi'l-a-- 
tsam tfo-di-'lu-'l, he'-ma-'tsi gwa-hwaTdi'itc, tsu-'-itcla. Ici'nau-di'lu'we tla- 
di-'lu'l, a-'iwa-itcla"a. tsu'-itc tsu'-wen-iTd u wa, "kwi'ya-xi-'la'a-'yax." (5) 
a-'yu xi'la tta-di-'lu'l, heWna-'tsi t'lda-'yasadja xi'la. "e-'ge-nantl-la, kwi'tc- 
e-ye-'dzadja da"-tb-nakwe-'ne't'l. ge"-nantl-la'." a-'yu'-^-W-t^-di-'Wl a-'- 
yu'-kla-'wi tla-dskws-'ne't'l. (6) he- / --niye-da"-dkr / gwa. tsu'-du-kwi--ha'ma'6; 
ryu"li'ya.m tla-ka" gwa'-du-ntlpYye kwi-il'yu"li'yam. ge"-il-du--giTats9m. 
"tH-iltlgu-'s-ditc-da-'-du. (7) wi'-il-du-la' wi'-gwa-du-ntlpi'ys-ditc hwa'l-di." 
tsu'-hantl-wa's-i-tfo-di-'lu'l. we-'n-i'l-d u wa tta-dakwe-'ne't'l, "was-i'-wantl." 
a-'yu he'm-i'lt'cu. (8) ge'Ma'liyu, da-'s-x-wen ge'-la'i gs"-il-a-'i'wa'wa tte- 
dat'lda'yasadja. tsu'-ge'-we-'sdu. da-'s-hwaTdi tta-ka" gwa-du-ntlpi'ys-ditc- 
hwa'l-di. 

4. tsu'-wa's-i-tls-hi'dji tla-dagala-'tasadja. wi'-we-'n-gwasgwa-'yama tla-da- 
di'tc tto-gwa-'n-kwi-wusu-'su tfo-dakwe-'ns't'l. tsu'-dlu'q w s9m tta-hi'dji, tsu'- 
nahu'me-'kYe-yio;, tsu'-de-'wan-ge'ndji'-la'. 

5. tsu'-tsi-we-'s-kwa-'naba-'sac^. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 165 

17. The white wife of mouse 29 

The young man (grey mouse) traveled around, he journeyed all over. Even 
to places far away he would go. Then indeed once he saw a girl, a pretty girl, the 
girl's dress was white, 'V- I will have her for my wife." (1) He did marry her, 
and he took home his wife. Now he told her thus, "When I am away you are not 
to cook. And when I get back home then I will do the cooking for you. You might 
get hurt." (2) So indeed his wife never cooked. Once when her husband was gone, 
"Oh I will cook. I do not see why I should get hurt. Why I would not get hurt!" 
So then to be sure she cooked mussels, (3) and then a barnacle on the mussel popped, 
it popped right in her eyes, and it killed her. Now her husband got back home. 
(4) "White one! where are you?" Nothing answered him. So he sought her, and 
then he found her dead. Now he wept, 30 

"My wife! my wife! my wife! 
I told you all the time like that, I told you, 
you must not, you must not cook. 
My wife ! my wife ! 
I did not want you to cook. 
My wife ! my wife ! 
You were so pretty, so pretty. 



17. tla-bugwi-'dlstl xqa's-dahu-'mis 

tla-di'lu'l wi'-kwi'-yux w u'm-e', gus-ge'ndji-kwi-yux^'m-e'. mai-he-'-n- 
t'ldasdja ma-ge"-kwi-yux w u'm-e. a-'yu-mi'n-t'ci tsu-kwi'-gws'is kla-'wi, ne- 
he'wudzan tla-gwe'is, xqa's-da'te-tc tfo-gwe'is. "e-'- kwi'-'nantl-hu-'mis." (1) 
a-'yu-kwi-wa'msts, tsu'-was-a-'ya-tfo-dahu-'mis. tsu'-du-we'n-i'l-d u wa, "yu'- 
wantl-du-e'he a'ma'ntl-du q'mi'yat'a 1 . tsu'-wantl-du-we-'st tsu'-wa'ntl-du- 
q'mit'tsa'm. he'-na'-x-dalau." (2) a-'yu-du-a'N-q'mi'ya-t'i tia-dahu-'mis. mi'n- 
t'ci-e'he tia-dade'mil, "u y q'mi-t'tsa'm-wantl. dji-'x-ha'nu-'ya thi-wantl-qV- 
lau. ma'-wantl-aN-qVla 11 !" tsu'-ayu-kws'lxwan q'ma'it'ts, (3) hs'-ma'tsi-tla'- 
w-a tfe-daka-'l tla-kwa'lxwan, ma-'tsi xwalxwa'ldja-da kwi-tla'w-a, we'n-x-kwi-- 
tsa'u. tsu'-we-'st-tla-dade'mil. (4) "xqa's! idja-'u-ne?" a'N-x-wi'^-qta-'mi. 
tsu r -wulwa"ya, he'-ma-'tsi-e'q kwi-kTlcl u wa. tsu'-a'x-ats, 

"nex-hu-'mis' nex-hu-'mis! nex-hu-'mis! 30 
gus-mi'n-wen-ilda-'mi, ilda-'mi, 
an-a'ntl-du, ana'ntldu q'mi-'yat'ai. 
n ex-hu • 'mis ! n ex-hu ■ 'mis ! 
aN-u'du-ha"ya ne^aq'mi'ya-t'a 1 . 
n ex-hu • 'mis ! n ex-hu ■ 'mis ! 
he'lt'-na-ha' nehe-'wudzan, nahe'wudzan. 



29 The Coos all told this. Mrs. Peterson heard it from Alice Johnson, a half breed whose 
mother was from the Hanis village, nti'se'itc; she also heard it told by a yu'gwi Nad£ne" (south- 
west Oregon Nadene, at Euchre Creek) named lone Baker. 

30 Ediphone record 14:14580:e; RCA Victor disc 14:14613B:b. 



166 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

My heart is so sick when you died. 
My wife! my wife!" 

Now that is all of that myth of mine. 



18. Crow girl 31 

The (crow) girl had one child. She gathered mussels all the time. Once she 
went to get them, and she was cooking them, she did not cease eating, everything 
was so sweet tasting to her. (1) Now the tide came in, as the tide came in she was 
still doing things there. The tide had come in strong, but she was still eating there. 
Now she thought of her baby, and she ran towards where her baby had been. (2) 
But the ocean had already taken away her baby, she could not get it back again. 
Then she wept, 

"Many more, many more babies, babies, 
there will be more such babies." 

(3) This is the way the girl cried. 

"It was my baby that drifted away." 32 

That is the way she cried when the waves caused her baby to float away. 

Now so much of that. 



hs'-gwa-a'n-xe'nwas-anlu'we i-naoja'yau. 
n ex-hu • 'mis ! n ex-hu • 'mis ! " 

tsu'-tsi-'-kwi'-kwa-'naba-'sao;. 

18. ma'qt'l gwe'is 

hit'ci-diki'lga tla-gwe'is. gu-s-mi'n-du--kwi- kwa'lxwan yu'gwa. mi'n-t'ci 
tsu'-gwum-wu'l-mi't'a', wi--kwi--gwum-q'mi'ya-t'uwa, aN-gu'm e'wi dlu"wiyam, 
gu-s-di'tc hat'cci'Hs hidju-'wi. (1) tsu'-t'hr'ni, t'hr'ni a'iwa gwum-da'-xaltam. 
fe'n-wi'ye t'hr'ni, a-'iwa-da"-dlu"wiyam. tsu'-kla tla-dakiTga, tsu'-ge"-yaga'- 
da idja'u-tla-diki'lga. (2) ma-'n-x-ba'ldi-mis kwr-hwa'ldiya diki'lga, a'N- 
dji* kwi-ga'lmi-'t'a. tsu'-a'xats, 

"gala'1-ma, gata'1-ma ehi-'me, ehi-'ms, 
ma'-ha'ntl da-'s kwa-hi-'me." 

(3) we'n-a'x-ats tb-gwe'is. 

"tb-kwi'-tlxu' tb-'nikVlga." 32 

x-we'n a'x-ats i'Mt'cdju" tb-dilfi'l-ga. 

tsu'-tsi--we-'s. 



31 Though all the Coos very likely told this, Mrs. Peterson remembered it especially as told 
by a Lower Coquille Miluk, Cissy, when they were eating mussels together at Fish Rock, near 
Bandon, at the mouth of the Coquille River. 

32 Ediphone cylinder 14: 14580 :f; RCA Victor disc 14:14610B:c. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 167 



19. The young man became an owl 33 

The young man used to journey about in the night time, he was never once at 
home, at night he was always going about. Now he grew up, and he married. Then 
he spoke in this manner to his wife, "I will make a canoe." (1) So to be sure he was 
working at it. One time he spoke thus to his wife's younger brother, "Young man 
you! go get my adze!" Of course the young man went, and then he was going to 
give him his adze. (2) Now he was sitting high up above (and he said) , "Young man ! 
get me my adze !" That is the way he was doing. "Here is your adze !" He did not 
even notice, he merely continued to do like that, (hooting) "Young man! young 
man! get me my adze!" (3) Then the young man ran back home. "He just sits 
high up above, he is sitting (up) on a limb of the tree. I could not get up there." 
That is what he informed her about. (4) Then he went on higher up on the tree. 
And now today every night he is still wanting his adze. That is why he still calls 
out for his adze at nights. The next people (the Indians of today) still hear him 
crying out for his adze. 34 

Now that is all of my myth. 



19. tla-ha-'tssi'ya di-'lul 

tfo-di'lu'l qkVm-du kwi-yux w u'm-e, aN-du' mi'nt'ci kwr-dlu-'gwa, gu-s- 
mi / N-du--kwi y -ql9 / m yux w u'm-e. tsu'-kwr-he-'wi, tsu'-hu'mstsam. tsu'-we'n- 
i'ld u wa tte-dahu-'mis, "tlgwa'ls-wantl-hu-t'su'wa." (1) tsu'-a-'yu kwi-lu'-dzi'- 
dzunis. mi'n-t'ci tra-dahu-'mis da'mi'tlgwa'la we'n-i'ld u wa, "kwi'tc-di-'lu'l! 
kwa-'ntsi-'nl-la-'dza!" a'yu-la'-tla-di-'lu'l, tsu'-hanti-ni'ya-tte-datsi-'nl. (2) he'- 
ma-'tsi-gu''-kwi--dlu'gwa'itc, "di-'lu'l! la-'dza kwa-'ntsi-'nl!" ws-'n-kwi-wa"- 
nu. "di-'-kwa-ntsi-'nl!" aN-du'-gwada-"nu, ma-'tsi-da"-we-'n-wa"nu, "di-'lu'l! 
di-'lu'l! kw9-'ntsi-'nl-la-'dza!" (3) tsu'-was-i'-duhwi'yst tla-di-'lu'l. "ma-'- 
tsi-gu'^-kwi-dlu-'gwa, he'begwatc kwi-'-dlu-'gwa. wi'-aN-wa'-x-dji" ge"-dji\" 
ws'n-kwe-ns'nu. (4) we'n-kwi--gwa-"niya-la' tla-t'cci-'mibdja. wi'-di-'ls" 
ds'ngi-qlam ma--du'-ak w 'a'i tla-datsi-'nl. x-we'ntc ma-'tsiye-qkVm kwi-ak'a'l 
tb-datsi-'nl. wi'-a'iwa qla'mniyu-ka kwi--qa'wa-'ya ak'a'l tla-datsi-'nl. 

tsu'-tsi Wc's kwa-'naba-'sa^. 



33 Mrs. Peterson never heard a Miluk speaker tell this; she believes all Hanis speakers knew 
it. She heard it told by Old Man Jackson. 
34 They say that owl hoots as follows: 

"Young man! young man! 
Give it to me! give it to me! 
My adze! my adze!" 
H. bl-di'lul! lal-di-'lul! M. kwitc-di'lu'l! kwitc-di'lu'l! 

a'ts9m! a'tsam! ni-'m! ni-'m! 

n'tsi'nl! n'tsi-'nl! kw3-'ntsi'nl! kwa-'ntsi'nl! 



168 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

20. The young man who lived alone 35 

He lived by himself far back in the woods. Every year he would go back home 
taking all sorts of things with him, and then he would return home again (to the 
woods). He trapped all the time. He put up all sorts of (smoked) food, (such as) 
elk, deer. (1) He dried all sorts of eyes. Now one time he came out from the 
woods to his relatives' place, and he obtained a wife, and then he went back home 
with his wife. When he went away to hunt this is what he told his wife. (2) "You 
must not disturb it. You must not bother with these eyes. Do not eat them." They 
had one girl child, the child was about one year of age. Now she thought, "I wonder 
why he does not want me to take it. (3) I will eat some." So indeed she did, she 
ate some of those eyes. Then she heard something making a noise dim dim dim 36 
(sound of a one-legged person walking). This is what it said. "The woman who 
ate eyes I will get." (4) The girl fastened her door tightly. But to the dangerous 
being it was as if nothing. He packed away the girl and her baby. He put it under 
his arm. So he took the girl away. (5) Then in the evening he built a fire, and he 
seized the child, and he put it on a roasting spit. The girl could do nothing, she 
was terrified. Now his fire began to crackle. "Why does my fire pop so?" (6) It 
was the young man who had followed, it was the young man who was shooting at 
him. "Fire! pop! as if it were merely crackling! In that way he will suppose it is 



20. tb-di-'lu'l mi-'t'ci bqk'm 

t'ce" kwi -mi-'t'ci bqle-'m. wi'-dangi idzi-'mis ma--du'-wa's-i gu-s-didje-'-- 
nen-ditc du-was-i'yat'a, tsu'-du-t'a'ma-da-'s-wa's-i. gus-mi'n-du-kwi-t'sheye"nu. 
wi / -gu-s-di'tc-duCjwa / n-ya u wa-na"ya, ki'ts, x w u'tsx w u. (1) wi-'-kwi--du-t'c'la'i 
gus-di'tc du-xwa'lxwal. tsu'-mi'n-t'ci tsu'-gwum-la'w-a tb-dadidji'nu-dje', tsu'- 
hu-'mis-ga'la'm, tsu-nahu-'mise-wa's-i wi'-i-du--la" b'm-da-wa wi'-wen-du-i'l- 
d u wa tb-dahu-'mis. (2) "ditc-na'-x-t'swa-'lal. an-tb / -kwi--t'swa-"al ku-xwa'l- 
xwal. ditc-na'-x Idja-'t." hit'cu-'ya dikH'lga tb-gwe'is, ga-si'ya gwa-hi't'ci 
idzi-'mis data'mel tli-ki'lga. tsu'-we-n-di'lu'we, "ida-x-dji"ya du-u-kwi-ga- 
dldi'wan. (3) lu'-wa'ntldja." tsu'-a-'yu, lu'-ldja-'t tta-xwa'lxwal. he'-ma-'- 
tsi-ditc kwa-'na"ya ditc-dimdi'mi. 36 we'n-iTat. "xwalxwa'l-dla'u-hu-'mis 
du-wula-'dza." (4) tsu'-tga'it'H'ya dibi'ndj tls-x-gwe'is. hi's-gwa-a'N-ditc 
wa-'wa tle-x-xu-'t'luc. tsu'-t'a-'mi tta-gws'is wi'-tla-diki'lga. wi'-tlpi-'qaqait'a. 
we'n-kwi-la-'i tb-gwe'is. (5) tsu'-gatqVidiya tsu'-t'ciTs, ma-'tsi-kwi--ga / la'm- 
tli-kl'l-ga, we'n-kwr-ski'n-i'ya. a'N-dji xa'ltam tla-gws'is, s'lqs. he'-ma-'tsi- 
kwi-ge'tla'wa'iwa tla-dehe'malt'. "dji-'-x-a'ya ekwi'-he-tla'wi'yam she'malt'?" 
(6) hit'c-u'mida-thi-tle-x-di'lu'l, hit'c-th-x-di-'lulhi tb-kwi-qda'l. "he'malt'! 
tlautla'wa-'n! gwa-hantl tsi'-tla'w-a! x-we'n-dantl lu'ws kwa-dahe'malt' kwa- 



35 Heard by Mrs. Peterson only from Hanis speakers, and particularly Old Dick. 

36 Mrs. Peterson gave an intriguing pronunciation to this interjection, which I have written 
merely di'm, the printer lacking a glottalized m. This m is incompleted, lacking bilabial release; 
there is very brief if any sonancy, and there is a brief concomitant glottal closure. Mrs. Peterson 
provided it with a dull, choked, thudding quality. I never heard it elsewhere. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 169 

his fire crackling." That is the way the young man wished that it be as if the fire 
were crackling. (7) But really it was the young man himself shooting at him. Now 
he was just about to eat up the baby when he (the one-legged dangerous being) 
died. Now he got his wife, and they collected their baby's bones, and they went 
home. Now they got home, and they buried their baby's bones. (8) "Let us not 
live here. Let us go home (to the village of my people)." So they did. They went 
home. Now he told his wife thus, "That was why I did not want you to eat the eyes. 
When they left and had gone away from there they lived where the people were. 

Now that is all of that. 

21. The girls who wished to have stars for their husbands 37 

1 . Young persons (girls) were always doing something (mischievous) or other. 
Now they were going to lie down to sleep outside. They looked up above, and they 
said thus, "Let us have stars for husbands!" (and then they laughed and laughed). 
There were four girls (there). (2) "I will have the evening star for my husband." 
"I will have the star that the people call the hunters, the hunter star. That is what 
I will have for a husband." "And I the one that shines so brightly, that one I will 
have for my husband." (3) "And I that very little one, it barely shines at all. It 
must be a small person, which is why it is a small star." "Oh let us go to sleep!" 
And the girls laughed and laughed then. 



tla'utla'w-i." x-we'n-t'lla'nt tle-x-di'lul gwa'yu't'c-hantl-he'malt' tla"wi'yam. 
(7) hit'c-tk-x-di-'lu'l tla-qda-'l. wi'-his-han-ha-'-ldja tli-ki'1-ga his-qa'ya u . 
tsu'-ga'la'm tto-dahu-'mis, tsu'-itchit'eu'wa tH-itcdikiTga da'la-'ma'k, tsu'-itc- 
'wa'si. tsu'-itc'ws-'st, tsu-itc'aga-'na'ya tH-itcdikiTga da'la-'ma'k. (8) "a'n- 
s-hantl diu dle-'ge'q. wasi-'s-hantl." a-'yu-itc. W9s-i"itc. tsu'-we-n-i'ld u wa 
tta-dshu-'mis, "x-we-'n-ditc tlu-u-kwi' a'N-du-'ha'ya kwi-'-nldja" tte-xwa'lxwal." 
i-itexge't i'ge' tsu'-itc dle-'qsim Ipbi'n-djY. 

tsu'-tsi- we-'s ku'wi. 

21. yu-'mi du'ha'ya hi-'me kwi-i'da-ildeds-'mil 

1. ge'ns-tc-ka" gu- , s-mi'n-il-du-gu-s-dji /< -xa'lili. tsu'-gwum-qa'nu-dja 

gum-dli-'k w tim. tsu'-gwum-gwa'n-hamgaida, gu / m-we- / n-7a-la-"nu, "yu-'mi-l- 
hantl-ds-'mil!" dza'wa'-tb-ge'ne-tc-ka. (2) "gatqa'i-yu-'mi kwi-'na'ntl-de-'mil." 
"wi'-s'ns wi'-kwextc-ka" we-'n-lat'ci'ya-da yu-'mi H'mdawas, H'mdi'da yu-'- 
mi. kuwi'-'nantl-ds-'mil." "wi'-e'ns kwatc-ha-b'n-wi dbhaha'yam, ku'wi- 
'nantl-de-'mil." (3) "wi'-s'ne kwatc-ha-e-'k, a'N-dji' ta'n-wi-dbhaha'yam. 
s-'k ka-'-dax, na'u-kwi-s-'k yu-'mi." "kwi'ya-l-hantl-ge-'ql!" tsu'-du-t'le'wa- 
xsxs'idu tk-gs'ne-tc-ka". 



37 Mrs. Peterson heard this told by some South Slough woman, probably one named he'm ■ ik 
(anterior palatal k). There is a version in Coos Texts, Frachtenberg, p. 51. 



170 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. S 

2. Now they woke up, and to be sure they each had a man. The one who 
wanted a small husband, now she had only an extremely old man, his head (and) 
hair was grey hair just like foam. (2) And the one who wanted the brightly shin- 
ing (star), she had a handsome young man. The one who wanted the evening star, 
she had a big handsome man. The other one who wanted the one with a bow for 
her husband, he was handsome too. (3) "We are lined up when we hunt." That 
is what he said to the girl. That is why the people name them that way, those 
lined up stars. 

3. Now it is so much of that. 

22. I will tell you a crow myth 38 

1. The girl-at -puberty was swimming all the time. Then once a crow stole 
her dress, and she followed him (nude). "Give me my dress! cracked-skin-on-your- 
old-foot-you ! give me my dress! (2) you-canoe-pecker ! give me my dress! you- 
eater-of -feces!" The girl almost caught the crow, but still she did not catch him. 
He went around a turning there, and there the crow disappeared. The girl went 
round the point, and now a young man was lying down there, his head rest was the 
girl's dress. (3) A fine looking young man lay there. His clothes were sea otter 
furs. "He'i! what are you ashamed about? come here! take your dress! am I a 



2. wi'-ii-kwi--dla'nkts, he'-ma-'tsi-a-'yu'-itc gu-'s-il-nde-'mg'le. tbtc-e'k" 
de-'mil du-'ha'ya, hs'-ma-'tsi tu-"mi't'l-ditc-itc, tb-dgss'L tte-daha-'mis ma-'tsi 
gwa-k w dli-'s tb-dgx-ya-'la'q. (2) wi'-tbtc b'nwi dlahaha'yam du-'ha'ya, wi'- 
nghs-'wudzgn di-'lu'l. wi'-tbtc-qawa"mis du-'ha'ya, wi'-nahs-'wudzan wa-'- 
de-'mil. wi'-tb-di'tc ma-'^du-'ha'ya wi'-nagugwi-'le tb-dade'mil, his-kwi'-na- 
he-'wudzan. (3) "he'n-e'ldu kwi'-l-du-guba'ba i'l-du H'mda-wa." x-we'n i'l- 
d u wa tb-gwe'is. x-we-'n-ditc tb-du-x-ka A kwi--we'n S9'na"na, kw9-du-tc-gwu- 
ba'ba yu-'mi. 

3. tsu'-tsi-we-'s. 

22. ma'qt'l ba-'saq-nantl laga'wiyat'a-'mi 

1. tit'se-'was gu-s-mi'n-tlg-dzgsdia-'qai. hei-ma-'tsi-mi'n-t'ci-itc tse'-x- 
ma'qt'l kwi--la'ya-d9'we't'l, tsu'-kwi-u'midu'wa. "ni'm-kwg-'ng'we-'t'l! cal- 
ta-'-daxwe-'txwt'! ni'm-kwa-'na'we-'t'l! (2) tlgwa'ls-gwaukwa'u ! ni'm-kwa- 
'na'we't'l' e-'l-daqwan!" gasi'ya-du--ga'lam tb-ma'qt'l tb-x-gws'is, ma-du'- 
an-ga'lam. wi-'-ge"-b£'i797, wi-'-ge"-wi-'-du- tb-ma'qt'l. wi'-ge's'ngi tb-gwe'is, 
hei-ma'tsi di-'lul da-tsi-'m, kwi--da'te'l£-x tb-gwe'is-da'ws-'t'l. (3) nehs-'wa- 
dzan ds'mal-da-tsi-'m. gi'ys-'we--d9te-'tc. "he'i! dji-' t -d3-ndjicdji'lt'su? e'dji! 



38 This story was well known to all Coos. Mrs. Peterson recalled a part Coos part Upper 
Coquille Nad£ne" woman, Mrs. Wasson's mother, t'cicgi'yu, telling it. The locale of the story is 
somewhere in the Hanis territory; hence it may be primarily a Hanis story, Mrs. Peterson thought. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 171 

person ? (no !) I am only a crow. I am just a canoe-pecker ! so why are you ashamed ?" 
(4) The girl had no clothes on (and crouched embarrassedly ) . Then he threw her 
garment to her there, and she took her dress, and she put on her clothes. Then this 
is what the young man said, "Come! let us go home (together)." Indeed the girl 
went, and then they reached his house. 

2. Now two old people were there. "I suppose my daughter-in-law is hun- 
gry?" Then she gave food to her daughter-in-law, and now they ate. (2) Then 
the old woman started to sing, 

"My daughter-in-law thinks her feces taste good." 

Now it became evening. Young persons (crow girls) made a noise as they came 
home, they all had on packs as they came back. (3) Then they took off their 
clothes (crow wings and garments). That is the way people may travel in the 
future. 39 Now the girl herself also went to dig clover roots with them, she also 
began to go around with them, she went about with those things (crow clothes 
and wings too). (4) When she got back her husband would take her pack. But 
now (it was so heavy a pack that) it broke her husband's legs. Ever since that time 
crows have had ugly feet. 

3. Now the girl did not go around any more (with them), because she had 
children. Then her children grew up. They were wanting arrows all the time. 
Once she told this to her children. (2) "If you go to my parents, you will go to 
that place there. You (will go) not as crows, you will get there as persons, you 



ga'la'm-kwa-na'we-'t'l! ka"-wi-i"? ma-'-u-ma'qt'l. ma'-u-du-tlgwa'ls-gwau- 
kwa'u! ma-'-nadjicdji'lt'su?" (4) a'mi-te-'tc-tte-gwe'is. tsu'-ge-ta"-tl9-d3te"tc, 
tsu'-ga'lmi-t'a tfo-date-'tc, tsu'-t'lha'tsam-tia-dats-'tc. tsu'-we-'n-tli tta-di'lu'l, 
"e'dji! wasi-'s-ha'ntl." a'yu--ia / -tl9-gW£ / is, tsu'-itc'we-'tla-di'ye'dzadje. 

2. he'i-ma-'tsi-ta'met'k-da-dk-'geq. "Igs-'nda-kwa-'na'midu-'n?" tsu'- 
qVtsk-tta-da'midu-'n, tsu'-itcge'dta'wi-"we. (2) hei-ma-'tsi-gaha-'t'i-wa ttatc- 
hu'mik\ 

"t'cci'ltunam de'e'l na'midu-'n." 

tsu'-gatqa'idya k'e / l-i-kwi-wa- / sd9di'yam tla-gs'netc-lca", gu-'s-kwi-'-ntVme- 
we-'st. (3) tsu'-ii-du-kla^-tli-ildate-'tc. ws-'n-ha'ntl-l'yu'le'nu-da-ka". wi'- 
tta-gwe'is his-hi'dji-hi'-yu'gwa'aya tl£-ye"et', hi's-hi'dji-i'yelu-'na yuxu'm-e-, 
th v -itc-kwi-yu'yu-'de-t. (4) wi'-ya-we-'st wi'-tb-dax-de-'mal ga'lam tb-datVm. 
wi'-ma-'tsi tlga'idzu-daqla' tla-dade-'mal. xtVmi-du-we a'N-wen-da'qla tfo- 
ma'qt'l. 

3. wi'-a'nya yi'x-u'me tla-gwe'is, na'im nihi-'ms'de. wi'-kwi-'-ha'Vi'yam 
tfo-dahi-'ms. wi-'-gus-mi'n du-wu'sba'ya du-'ha'ya. mi'nt'ci tsu-we / n-i'ld u wa 
tta-dahi-'me. (2) "tta-'na'ma-'ni'yasadja i'n-ant.la', ge'-is-hantl-la'a'yam. a'n- 
i'c-tla-ma'qt'l, ka'a'i-is-hantl-ge /< -dji, wr-sa'n-a'na-na'ntl kwa-'na'sa'N, we'-nantl- 

39 I do not know if this is a modernism on Mrs. Peterson's part. 



1 72 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

will speak of me by my own name, you will name me gwasagwa'sa." 40 Indeed 
they went, (but) they did not do as their mother had told them. (3) They were 
still just crows when they arrived. The girl's older brother killed one of her chil- 
dren (because he broke the taboo on naming the dead by mentioning her name 
when her relatives supposed her dead). The other got back and he informed her 
thus, "They killed my older brother." Then the girl made ready to go, she went 
back home to her parents. (4) Now she got home. Then she spoke to them thus, 
"Where do you have my child?" Now all her parents and relatives wept. Then 
they went to fetch the dead child, (5) and now they paid for the child (lest she 
be angry because of its murder) . Then (they found) it was not a crow, it was really 
a person inside its (crow) garments. Then the girl went back home (to her crow 
husband). 

23. The young man lived with his grandmother 41 

1. The young man was making an elk fur blanket. And now this is what 
the young man said, "'a n -'- I wish I could sleep with the sister of yipyibu'lai !" 
"He'i! what did you say, grandson?" (2) "Why I did not say anything!" "a'- 
I heard you say something!" "But I did not say anything!" His grandmother just 
kept on asking him. "But I did not say anything!" (3) She just kept on asking 
him. "Why do you want to know? Well I did say it. I wish I could sleep there 
with the sister of yipyibu'la'i." "'a'-- I know it. When she comes you must not 
be bashful. You should go to bed with her." 



sa'n-dasa'i gwasagwa'sa." a'yu-la'ayam, a'n-i'tc-ma-x-we-'n tla-dax-e'ne-i-i'l- 
d u wa. (3) ma- / tsi-ge'-x-ma'qt'l-i' t -dji'ni'yam. wi-'-tla-dax-he-'t'le tla-gwe'is 
hit'ci'-ilts'a-'u tla-dahi-'me. wi'-we-'st-tla-hi-'t'ci wi-'-we-'n-kwe-ne-'nu, "tsu-'tsu 
tla-'nahe-'t'le." wi'-tsu'-t'ama-huwe'e'dzam tla-gwe'is, wi'-wa's-i-tla-da'ma-'ni'- 
yasadja. (4) tsu'-we-'st. tsu'-we'n i'ldita, "idja'u-tcilwa'wa tla-'naki'lga?" 
tsu'-gu-'s-ki'm-a-tla-dama-'ni'ya-s. tsu'-ila-'dza tle-e'q-ki'1-ga, (5) tsu'-ilskidi'- 
ya-tli-ildalji'lga. hei-ma-'tsi-an-ma'qt'l, ma-'tsi-ka" tsi--x-du-ge'-la'ha tia-de- 
te'tc'a'dja. tsu'-t'a'ma-wa's-i-tla-gwe'is. 

23. u'mna-'t'latc-itc-da-dle'geq tla-di-'lul 

1. wi-'-kwi-'-t'lha'idziya tla-x-di'lul. wi-'-we'n-tli'-tla-di-'lul, "'a n/ - yip- 
yibu'lai dakwe-'net'l ge-'-utsa-'u!" "he'i! dji'-da-natli', di'msi?" (2) "ma-'- 
u-a'n-dji'-tli' !" "a-'- qa'Vwi'mda'mi dji'-netli'!" "ma'-u-a'n-dji'-tli'!" ma'<- 
ge'*-mitcmin-a't'c tla-dax-u'mna-'t'latc. "ma'-u-a'n-dji-'-tli'!" (3) tsi"yuk w - 
ma^-mitcmin-a't'c. "dji"-ge-'-ena-kwi'-du-'ha'ya ha-kwa-'ni'yada? de-'n-du-u't.- 
tli'. yipyibu'la'i dakwe-'net'l ge-'-utsa-'u." "'a-'-- kwa-'ni'ya'da-"u. ya-ha'ntl- 
dji' an-a'ntl djilt'sa-'i. tsu-'wi'ya-na'ntl." 



40 Mrs. Peterson thought this a personal name used in this myth only. She never heard of 
any other myth character, let alone any living or dead Indian, with this name. 

41 Mrs. Peterson thought this myth might be exclusively Lower Coquille Miluk in provenience, 
since she heard it told only by two natives of that group: Cissy, and a man named sa'ksi. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 173 

2. And then indeed the girl came. He did go and lie down with her. Now 
they lay down, and then the young man got on top of her. "Oh I almost have to 
urinate." (2) "Oh just keep pushing it further in, grandson !" Now the young man 
was angry, (discovering that) she was only his grandmother. The young man got 
up, and he went down below to the water. 

3. He was not there long, and then a person came downstream (in a canoe). 
"What is the news?" "The next person along will tell you." It was no long time 
before another (person) was coming downstream, and then he asked again. (2) "Oh. 
The next person along will tell you." In just the same manner they told him, five 
canoes passed by (in that manner. And then the fifth canoe told him,) "Why 
must you ask that? (3) (The news) is only that yipyibu'la'i copulated with his 
grandmother." Now then they came to war upon him and his grandmother, and 
then they killed his grandmother. The young man was ashamed, because his 
grandmother had lied to him. 

4. The people can still see her blanket, and also the old woman lying on her 
back on the rocks there. There the people still see her (turned into rock at a place 
near the mouth of the Coquille River). 

24. Pheasant 42 

The old woman had a grandson, and her grandson was growing up. Now then 
he told his grandmother, "I am going to hunt." "'a'! (very well!) grandson!" So 
then the young man went. (1) Now he came back home. "Grandmother! I killed 

2. hsi-a'yu kwi-dji"-tb-gwe'is. kwi'-a'yu tsu-'wi"ya. tsu'-itctsu-'m, 
tsuVxi'ndasa-'ma-tb-x-di-'lul. "u-'-- gasi'ya-wut'la'tc." (2) "ma"-ge-da'c-i, 
dimi'si!" tsu'-be'lxsam-tb-di'lul, hs'i-x-kwa-tb-da'umna-'t'btci'ya. tsu'- 
dlu'q w S9m tb-di'lul, we'n-gicdje'-teya'xeu. 

3. a'n-hs-'niye da-dlu-'gwa, hei-ma-'tsi kV-dji'van. "dji-'-nukwe-'n?" 
"qb'mniya ka'-nantl-sgwi-'dun." a'n-he'niys-ma'n-asu-ma-'-dji'yan, ma-du'- 
mant'ct. (2) "u-'\ qb'mniyu-ka" nantl-sgwi-'dun." ma--du'-x-we'n tb'tsi- 
ya, gent'ci'nsi-tlgu-'s ts'aTdu. "dji'-ge ena-ha'-mitcmi'nt'c ? (3) yipyibu'la'i 
tsa-ha'its-da'umna-'t'btc." wi-'-tsu-tVma-me-'me-'yu'itc tli-itc-da'umna't'btc, 
tsu-'-tsu- tfo-da'umna-'t'tetc. wi-'-djilt'sa'i tb-di-'lul, tfo-kwi-'-wantdza-'t'a tb- 
dax- umna • ' t ' late . 

4. wi'-a'iwa du--x-ka" kwi--hama / o 1 tla-dat'lha'i, we'n-his-tta-hu-'mi'k" da- 
bxe-'x q w la'yu. ge'-x-ka^-kwi'-hama'cj a'iyu'wa. 

24. he'hdc 

ndi'msindjs tl9tc-hu-"mik, wi'-kwi-hs'wi-tb-didi'msin. wi / -ws / n-i / ld u wa- 
tb-da'u'mna-'t'btc, "b'mda-'wa-wantl." "V! di'msi!" a'yu'-la'-tb-di'lu'l. 
(1) tsu'-we-st. "u'ma-'t'li! ki'ts-wu'tsa-u." "'a-'-! di'm-isi! wuls-'l-wantl 



42 Perhaps all the Coos told this myth; Mrs. Peterson recalled particularly the version told 
her by a South Slough Miluk woman named he'ldani ■ 'ta. 



174 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

an elk." "'a-'! (indeed!) grandson! I will go along with you when you pack it 
back." "Very well! grandmother! Let us go." Indeed then they reached there. 
(2) "What will you pack, grandmother?" Whatever (portion) the young man 
fixed for her, (she said) "'9' ! grandson ! it is too heavy." Whatever (part) the young 
man fixed for her, "Even that is so very heavy too." Now the young man became 
angry. (3) (He grumbled,) "She must just be wanting to pack along the penis!" 
"Ha-'- what did you say, grandson?" "I did not say anything at all." "Oh I heard 
what you said. It is that (part) I will pack." So indeed the young man fixed it 
for her. Now the young man went on along with his pack. (4) But there his grand- 
mother seemed to be having difficulties with hers. "V- grandson! I am having 
just an awfully hard time with it (it is so heavy for me!)" The young man went 
on again then, but he just found her (when he came back for another load) in the 
very same place. Then the young man went on again (saying,) "You will have to 
(manage packing it) yourself." (5) Now then he heard something. That is how 
the old woman was sounding, "hi's-dzats-la'wi hi's-dzats-la'wi." Now he hid and 
watched his grandmother, she was just doing it to herself with that elk's penis. 
Then the young man said to himself, "You will not be a person any more, you will 
become pheasant. (6) You are so nasty! The next people (the Indians to come 
later) will hear you (making that sound)." That is the way her grandson spoke 
to her. That is the reason people (hear) pheasant coo (grunt, thump), hm hip. hrn. 
That is what her grandson did to her. 



i'nantl-t'a'm-dzawa." "ke-'le! u'ma-'t'li! la-'s-hantl." tsu'-ayu'-ge'<-dji'ni'- 
yam. (2) "di'tc-na'ntl-t'am, u'ma-'t'li?" ditc-du'-dza'itst tle'-x-di-'lu'l, "'a'! 
di'msi! he'lt'-ha-pt'li's." ditc-du-'-dzaitst tla-x-di-'lu'l, "ma--du'-kwi-ha- 
pt'li's." tla-tsu'-be'lxsam tla-di-'lu'l. (3) "pi'lk w dax-k--du-'ha'ya t'a-'m!" 
"ha-'- dji"-di-nitli', di'm-si?" "ma'-wu-an-dji-tli'." "u-' qa'wa'ya'u dji'- 
kwa-nitli'. ku-'wi'-wantl t'a-'m." a'yu-dzaitst tla-x-di-'lu'l. tsu'-du-la'-tla-di-'- 
lul nt'a'me. (4) he'i-du'-ma^-da kwi--he'udzat'se-'nu tla-da'u'mna-'t'latc. "'a-'- 
di'm-i'si! ma'-tsi' wu-du-he'udzat'se-'nu." tsu'-du-da-'s-na'u-tla-x-di-'lu'l, n- 
he'-ma-'tsi-du-ma' t -da-kiTd u wa. tsu'-ts'a'ldu tla-di-'lu'l, "x-ne'u-na'ntl-x-mi-'- 
t'ci." (5) he'i-ma-'tsi-di'tc-kwa-na"ya. x-we / n-kwi-wa-"nu-tlatc-hu-"mik, "hi's- 
dzats-la'wi hi's-dzats-la'wi." tsu-'-sadlantc-hama'c^ tla-da'u'mna-'t'latc, 

he'i-ma-'tsi-kwi'yu'-kwi-hatsha'ya-dat's' tla-x-ki'ts-dapi'lgwatc. tsu'-wa'na-tla- 
di'lu'l, "ma'tsi-nantl-a'n-ka'\ da-he'hek lu"wiye'-na'ntl. (6) ma'-na-ha-a'n- 
we'n. qla'mniyu-ka" qa"wi-'mdu-'n." ws'n-tlatsa-'t'a tla-dsx-di'm-sin. we'ntc- 
du-tla-ka" da-he'hek mu'gwat, hm hm hm. we'n-t'lla'n tla-dex-di'm-sin. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 175 

25. That whittles-his-penis old man or The five brothers 43 

1. (They were) five boys, they were growing up all alone, they lived alone 
(there) a long time. Now they were growing up (to be young men). One morning 
the (youngest) young man spoke thus, "It is queer that we are living here all alone. 
Are there not people somewhere? (2) I think I will go seek people. I will get up 
early tomorrow morning, I will look for people. It is so strange that we should be 
all alone. There must be people somewhere. I will go and look for people." 

2. So the young man did make preparations, he adorned himself (in dress 
clothes and beads), and then he went away. He kept going on the beach. It was 
about straight up sun (noon) now when he (came to the end of the beach and) got 
up above onto a prairie. So he kept on going a long time, it became nearly evening, 
and then he did see smoke. (2) In no long time he reached that place. And there 
was some old man just sitting by the door, whittling (shavings from) a stick (which 
was his penis). "He' son-in-law! go inside!" Of course then the young man went 
inside. (3) "He 7 --! my son-in-law. Sit down over there beside your wife!" Indeed 
the young man sat down there. The old woman was going to give him food to eat. 
Now then a dog growled angrily, and then the dog leaped at the young man. (4) 
"Take hold of that dog of yours!" But they did not hold their dog. So the young 
man went outside, and that dog just followed him, and then the dog killed the young 
man. 



25. tlatc ct'ca / i-dapi / lk w tu'mat'l, or gent'ci'nsi hat'li'yada-s 

1. gent'ci'nsi tca'n37a, mi-t'ci' kwi--ha"wiyam, he-'-niye-kwi-mi-'t'ci-dle'- 
geq. tsu'-ilha-"wi'yam. hit'ci' 6,eli-"mis we-'n-tli-tla-di-'lu'l, "dji'ne'we't'l di- 
i-mi-'t'ci-'-l-di-dle'ge'q. an-da" idja'u-ka"? (2) ha'ma'wa'-x-tia-ka" du-wu'- 
la'wa'. a'ma-d,eK-"mis wa'ntl-dlu'q w S9m, ka"-wa'ntl-wa'l-wi. dji'ne'wet'l 
a-'l-ha-mi't'ci idja-'u-da-ka' 1 dji'i'dje\ ka"-wantl-waTwi." 

2. a-'yu-hu'we'e"tsam tla-di-'lu'l, a's-da'tsam, tsu'-t'9m-a--la'. ba'ldiya-ia 
dahwiye-'t. t'li-'nat-qwa'l-e'esi'ye tsi-tsu'-hel-eq-da'msdadja. we-'n-dahe-'niye'e'is- 
ia', gasi'ya-gatqVidiya, tsi-tsu'-gwaTe'es kla-'wi. (2) a'n-he'niye tsa-ge"-dji. 
hei-ma-'tsi tu'^i't'l-ditc bi'nictc-kwi-' dlu-'gwa, niki'n-ct'ca'i. "hs' ma-'na'gai! 
de-'djaVi-'x!" a-'yu-de-'djs-tb-di'lu'l. (3) "ha-'--! nax-mi'ngatc. e-'ge-dlu-'- 
gwi kwa-nahu-'mis dit'lha'wa'ya!" a-'yu-gedlu'q^am tla-di'lu'l. tsu"-hantl- 
qVtsk tls-x-hu-"mik. hei-ma-'tsi ye'klu' qa'ulaf'itc, hei-ma-'tsi ye'klu' kwi-- 
hwa'ldadza tla-di-'lu'l. (4) "ga'lam-kwa-ni'ye'klu!" an-i'1-kwi-gala'm-tli-ildi'- 
ye'klu. tsu"-qan-u'dja'aya sa'lt'-tb-di-'lu'l, ma"-ge"-u'midats tle-x-ye'l^lu, 
wi-'-tsa-'u-tle-x-ye'kUu tla-di-'lu'l. 



43 Mrs. Peterson heard many Coos tell this myth. She recalled that only t'cicgi'yii, a part 
Coos part Upper Coquille Nadene, told it somewhat differently. She also remarked about not 
being quite certain that it was a myth; it might be an historical narrative (laga'uya't'as). Racon- 
teurs did not tell who the five brothers were. A briefer version is in Coos Texts, Frachtenberg 
p. 133. 



176 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

3. Now the young man did not come back home. 'V my younger brother 
must have found people. I will follow him. I will go in the morning. " Sure enough 
he made ready, (and) when it was morning he too decorated himself, and then 
away he went. (2) In that same manner, it was straight up sun (noon), and then 
he ascended to the prairie, and he went on. Again in that same manner towards 
evening now he saw smoke. He saw smoke there at the end of the prairie. Now 
he ran to there, and indeed he got there. (3) "He" my son-in-law. Go inside!" 
So then the young man went inside, there the old man was just seated whittling. 
(The old woman said,) "He" my son-in-law. Be seated there by that woman!" 
Indeed the young man sat down there. (4) Now the old woman was going to give 
him food to eat. It was just the same way. The dog growled angrily, he leaped 
directly then at the young man. "Get hold of your dog!" They did not take hold of 
their dog. (5) Now the young man jumped outside. "Take that dog of yours, 
old man!" He did not seize his dog, he just kept on whittling. Now the dog killed 
the young man. 

4. Then still another one of them made preparations. "Indeed they must 
have found people." Then the young man went away also. It was the very same 
way. He went a long distance by the ocean, and then when nearly straight up sun 
he reached the end (of the beach), (2) he went up to the prairie, and he went along 
there. It had become pretty near evening when he saw smoke at the end of the 
prairie, there he saw smoke, he ran to there, and then he reached there. That old 
man was sitting there. "He-" my son-in-law. Go inside." (3) Indeed the young 



3. tsu'-a'n-we'st tla-di-'lu'l. "a 7 ka"-dax-ki'l-d u wa tla-'namitlgwa'la. 
u'midu'wa-wa'ntl. qeli"mis-wa'ntl-la'." a'yu-huwa'e'dzam, ye-ge"lam asda'- 
datY-his-hi'dji, tsu"-ha'. (2) ma--du'-x-we-'n, t'li-'nat-qwalY'es, tsi-tsu' di'ms- 
didje-du-he'1-e'q, tsu-'-du--la'. da-'s-du--me'-x-we y n gatqa'ididju'wi tsi-du-- 
gwaTe'es-kla-'wi. di'msdidja-"nani-cdja ge"-du-gwa'le'es-kla-'wi. tsu-'-du-- 
ge"-hwuthwi'd, a-'yu-du-ge"-dji. (3) "he" nax-mi'ngatc. e'di'tc-tla!" a-'- 
yu-du'-de-'dje-tla-di-'lu'l, da"-du-ma'-dkr'gwa tlatc-tu-"mat'l xaixa-'idu. "he" 
nax-mi'ngatc. dlu-'gwr-ge" ku-hu-'mi'sidje!" a'yu-ge" dlu'q w sam-tla-di-'lu'l. 
(4) tsu'-hantl-du--qa / tsk tle-x-hu"mik\ ma--du'-x-we-n. ye'klu'-du--qa'ula-t', 
ma'n-du--hwa'l-dadza-'-tla-di'lu / l. "gala'm-kwa-naye'klu!" a'n--du' gala'm 
tla-daye'klu. (5) tsu"-du-qa / nudja-hwa'l-di-tla-di-'lu'l. "gala'm-kwa-ni'ye'klu, 
tu-"ma'c!" an-du'-ga'la'm-tla-di'ys'klu, ma-'tsi-du-xaixai-'. tsu'-tsa-'u tla-di-'- 
lu'l tla-x-ye'klu. 

4. tsu'-du-ma-'-huwe'e'dzam. "a-'yu-dax-itc ka"-ki'l-d u wa." tsu"-gum-his- 
hi'dji-la' tla-di-'lu'l. ma--du'-x-we-n. ba'l-diya-du-he'-niye'-la, tsu'-du-gwa"- 
t'H-'nat-qwa'le'es tsu'-du-gikda'nu'-du, (2) he'1-eq-dtr-di'nrstidja, tsu'-du-da'- 
1-a'. gasi / ya-du--gatqVidiya tsa-du-gwaTe'es-kla-'wi di'nvstidja-'nani-cdja, 
ge"-du-gwa'le'es-kla-'wi, ge"-du--hwuthwi'd, a-'yu-du--ge"-dji. da"-du--dlu-'- 
gwa-tlatc-tu-"mit'l. "he-"-'nax-mi / ngatc. idzu-'dje-e"ditc." (3) a-'yu-du--de y - 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 177 

man went inside. "He'' my son-in-law. Sit down there by your wife!" Indeed the 
young man sat there, and then she went to get food, and then she gave it to the 
young man. Now the dog growled, and the dog leaped at the young man. (4) "Get 
hold of that dog of yours!" But she did not seize her dog. So then he jumped out- 
side. "Old man! why do you not take hold of your dog?" It was as if the old man 
had never noticed him. And then the dog killed the young man. 

5. The next day the (next oldest) young man spoke thus, "Older brother! 
I will go too. Surely they must have found people, which is why they have not 
returned." His older brother said nothing. So then he got ready, he fixed himself 
up, he decorated himself with people's (Indian) money (large dentalia), and then 
he went away. (2) He went along the beach, he saw his brothers' tracks, and so 
he followed those tracks of theirs. And indeed he went on, and he got to where he 
had to climb up, and so he ascended, and then he went on and ran along over the 
prairie. (3) Indeed in the same way he too saw smoke, and so he ran on to there, 
and then he reached there. That old man was just there whittling shavings from 
himself. "He-'-- my son-in-law. Get inside into the house." (4) Indeed the young 
man went inside, "e-'- my son-in-law. Sit down there where your wife is seated." 
That old woman gave the young man food to eat in just the same way, and the dog 
growled directly. "Take hold of that dog of yours!" (5) But that old woman did 
not seize it. "Why do you not take hold of your dog?" So then he leaped outside. 
"Old man! get hold of your dog!" That old man did not take hold of it. (6) He 
just kept on whittling. "Why do you not take hold of your dog?" It was as if he 
had not noticed, he just sat (there). Then the dog killed the young man. 

dje-tb-di-'lu'l. "he"-'n9x-mi'ngatc. e'ge-dlu'q w seq kwa-nahu-'mi'cdja!" a-'yu- 
ge"-dluq w S9m tb-di'lu'l, tsu"-du--la" tsu'-du-qwa'n-ya" la-'dza\ tsu'-du--ni'ya 
tb-di-'lu'l. hei-du'-ma-'tsi qa'ulat' tta-ye'klu, tsu'-du--hw3 / ld9dzaya tb-di'lu'l 
tle-x-ye'klu. (4) "ga'la'm-kwa-niye'klu!" aN-du'-gala'm-tb-daye'klu. tsu"-du- 
qa'nudja'-du--hwa / l-di. "tu"ma'c! dji'-ena-kwi-an-ga'lam ene'ye'klu?" gwg- 
du--a'N-da-'nu tbtc-tu-"m9t'l. tsu'-gwam-tsa-'u tb-di-'lu'l tle-x-ye'klu. 

5. a"ma'is tsg-gwum-we'n-i-Tat tla-di-'lu'l, "he't'li! hi's-wantl-e'n-e-la'. 
a-'yu-dax-itc-il-ka'-ki'l-d u wa, na'u-kwi-an-wa-'sdadiyam." a'N-tli-tla-dahe't'le. 
a-'yu-huwe'e'dzam, dzaits-da't'e, as-da'-dit'e lca"-d3hada'i'misitc, tsu-"-du--la'. 
(2) baTdiya--du--la', ha'm-a'q daha'gadi tte-dahe't'le'eme, wi'-kwi-u'midat tli- 
ildahaga'di. a-'yu-du--la', wi-'-du--dji'-ge" gikda'n-u, wi'-hel-e'q-du, tsu'-du- 
tVma-di'msdi'tc la' hwuthwi'd. (3) a-'yu-du-his-me-x-we-'n gwa'1-e'es-du-- 
kla-'wi, tsu'-du-ge"-hwuthwi-'d, tsu'-gw9m-ge"-dji. ma-'du'-da'-ct'eai-dat'e 
tle-x-tu-'mst'l. "he'-- nax-mi'ngatc. idzu-'dje-de-'dja'ei'x!" (4) a-'yu'-du- 
de-'dje-tb-di'lu'l. "e'--'n3x-mi'ngatc. ge"-dlu-'gwi kwa-nahu-'mis-dlu-'gwa'a'- 
dja." ma-du-'-we-n qa'tsk-du tle-x-hu-"mik tla-di-'lu'l, ma'n-gum-qa'ula't'- 
tli-ye'klu. "ga'la'm-kwa-niye'klu!" (5) aN-du'-ga'la'm-tlextc-hu-"mik. "dji"- 
en9-kwi-a'N-ga'la'm eneye'klu?" tsu'-hwg'ldi-qa'n-udjg. "tu-ma-'c! gala'm- 
kw9-niye'klu !" a'N-gala'm tlextc-tu-"m3t'l. (6) ma-'tsi-ma'^-ge'-xa'ixai-'. 
"dji-'xa en3-a'N-kwi-'-gala'm enaye'klu?" gw3-du-a'N-da-"nu, kwi-dlu-'gwa. 
tsu'-gwum-tsa'u-tb-di'lu'l tle-x-ye'klu. 



178 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

6. Now the (last and oldest) young man was thinking. "I wonder why not 
one of them has come back. One should have returned (to tell me the news), but 
not a one has ever come from there." Now then the young man wept. "It must 
be something (bad, wrong), because not one of them has come back." That is how 
the young man thought. He could not sleep. He just thought about not even 
one having come back from there. Now he must have fallen asleep, and then he 
had this sort of dream. (3) "Whittles-his-penis, it is his own dog that has killed 
your younger brothers (said the person who came to him in the dream). So then 
tomorrow when you should go, you should go along the beach, and then you will 
find a fur seal. You must take rope when you go. (4) When you find that fur 
seal you must take out its entrails, and then you must put inside it pieces of (vol- 
canic or pumice or some very light) stone. Then you will lace it up. And you will 
speak to it thus, you will hold a stick, "Get up! my dog!" (5) That is what you 
will say to it. You will keep on trying for a long time, and then sure enough it will 
(get up). That dog of yours will fight, that (stone stuffed) fur seal will become your 
dog. Only in such a manner will you take revenge on that old man who has killed 
your relatives. (6) In the rear of his house he piled up your relatives' bones. There 
you will find them. And you will throw those bones into the water, and then you 
will bring them back (to life)." 

7. So then indeed the next morning the young man got ready. Then he went. 
And he wept. "I wonder if that (old man) did kill my younger brothers." That 
is the way he cried. And then sure enough he found (he perhaps stunned or killed) 
that fur seal. (2) And indeed (he did) just as his dream had told. Now he made 



6. tsu'-kwi'-ge'-djinhehe-'ni'we tta-di-'lu'i. "i'dax-dji-"ya ekwi-an-hi't'ci- 
bi-'na't's. hit'ci-'-ga'-bi-'na't's, di'-ge' a'n-xge'n-hit'ci-'-dzgne-." tsu-'-xga'n- 
au-tte-di-'lu'l. "x-dji"-dax, na'u-kwi-a'N-hit'cr-we-'st." (2) ws-'n-djinhehe-'nu 
tla-di'lu'l. a / N-dji--gwatqwi-'du. ma-'tsi-kwr-djinhaha-'na'ya tta-kwi-a'N-xge'N 
hit'ci'-aya-'tssm. he'i-tsu-dax-ge-'ql, hei-ma-'tsi-we-'n-dugwg'ns-itc. (3) "ct'ca'i- 
d3pi'lk w , x-hidja'nval-ye'klu kwi--ki-'ya lanimitgwi-'dais. na-'- a'ma' inantl- 
la', in-antl-ba'ldiya--la, wi-'-dzu-'li-nantl-ki'l-d u wa. wi'-ki'yu'wa-nantl i--n9la'. 

(4) wi-'-in-antl-ki'l-d u wa kwa-dzu-'li wi-'-k'la"-nantl kwa-dagwa'k^s, wi'-hs'lt'- 
nantl-u-'bidjaya-ge-xt'la'ut wi'-tsu'-nantl-fe'ma-ge'-xlgwa-'t. wi'-nghe'uhewe- 
nantl-wa-'wa. wi y -we- / nantl-i / l-d u wa, ki-'yas-nantl-na'qt, dlu'q w S34 J-'nsx-ys'klu ! 

(5) we-'n-antl-i'ld u wa. wi-the-'niye-nantl-kinka-'n, a-'yu-ha'ntl-du. xdji'ldr-du-'- 
nantl-du kwa-nex-ye'klu, kwi-'ye-nantl-ye'klu kw3-dzu-'li x-we'nantl dkVl-yu'wa 
kwi'tc-tu-"m3t'l ku-kwi'-lfi'ya kwa-nagala-'las. (6) ye'ts-dat'cidji'u wa'ngaq.- 
wa-'wa kwa-do'la-'mak kwa-nagala'las. ge /! -nantl-ki'ld u wa'a , ma. wi'-ha^dja'- 
nantl x u kwa'i kwa-la-'mak, wi-'-ma-'tsi-wa-'sdadi'yam-ha'ntl." 

7. tsu'-a-'yu-ge'tem hu-'we'sdzam-tte-di-'lu'l. tsu"-la'. tsu'-a'xats. "a-'- 
yu-da" tb-kwi-lfi'ya tla-'nimitlgwa'la'a'ma." we-'n-a'x-ats. hei-ma-'tsi-a-'yu- 
hi4pTd u wa tla-dzu'li. (2) tsu'-a-'yu-me-x-we-'n dji-'-tl3-d9x-gw3'ns-iTd u wa. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 179 

his dog. (He did it) just that way. "Get up! my dog! follow me!" But it merely 
lay there. (3) "Why do you just lie there? get up!" Then sure enough it got up. 
"Come! follow me!" To be sure, his dog followed him. Now he fought his dog (to 
train it to fight). (4) And then his breath out (exhausted), he pulled its string 
(whereupon the dog lay down for a rest), because it was just that way in his dream. 
The young man was delighted (with his dog), surely it (the dog) would help him. 
Now indeed it was that way, he and his dog were lying on the ground, because they 
were both out of breath. (5) His dog became well trained. Then his dog journeyed 
along fine. When they got up above on the prairie he kept on practising his dog. 
"Lie down right here! now come on!" Indeed that was how (it did). (6) Not very 
far away. Then they reached there. He hid his dog. "Lie down right here! and 
when I call you then you are to come. This is how I will call you. 'Come! I am 
tired.' " That is the way he spoke to his dog. 

8. Now the young man went to the house. Just as his dream (had told him), 
sure enough that was how he saw the old man. "He" my son-in-law. Go inside! 
go into the house!" So the young man went inside. (2) He thought thus, "Really 
it is just like my dream!" Now he believed his dream. "Hg n ' I will keep watch 
on them." "He" my son-in-law. Sit down over there!" (3) Indeed so (he did). 
Then that old woman gave him (food). At once to be sure their dog growled. The 
young man got up. "Take hold of your dog!" Now he attempted to club the dog, 
but the dog jumped at him. (4) Then the young man leaped outside. "Take hold 
of your dog!" The old man was as it he had not noticed. Then the young man and 



tsu'-dza'its-tfo-dgye'klu. a-'yu'-me-x-we-'n. "dlu'q w se^!-n9x-ye'klu! u'm-i-dei!" 
ma"-da'-tsi'm. (3) "dji'-ena-ma^-da'-tsi-'m? dlu'q w seq!" hei-a-'yu'-kwi- 
dlu'q w S9m. "e"dji! u'mi-dei!" a'yu-u'm-iduwa tlg-dex-ye'klu. tsu'-ldja'ltts 
tta-dex-ye'klu. (4) tsu'-kum-da'gaya, tsu'-dza'mt'ts tta-da'laxa'lax, na'im-x- 
we-'n tla-dagwa'ns. gwa'a'ya-an-ke-'le-tta-di-'lu'l, a-'yu-ha'ntl-kwi--tsa-'kan. 
tsu'-a-'yu'-ma'-we'n, ha'ya'da'itc-du tte-daye'klu, na'im-du-mi's-a ku'm'i'tc-da- 
ga'ya. (5) tsge'^-kwi-ki'l-et tfo-da'ye'klu. tsu-'-ki'le'eye-yuxu'me tb-da'ye'- 
klu. tsu'-itc-di'msdidje-itc xi'nxinu tsu'-kinka-'n tla-da'ye'klu. "ma"-di'u- 
tsi-"mi! kwi'ya-e"dji!" a-'yu-du-ma"-we-'n. (6) a'N-hehe-'n. tsu'-its-ge"- 
dji. tsu'-sdb'n-i'ya tfo-days'klu. "ma--na'ntl-di / u-tsi- / m ! tsu'-nantl-k'aTda-- 
mi tsu'-nantl-dza'ms. x-we'n-wantl-tli'. e"dji kinaVu." we / n-i'ld u wa-tb-d9- 
ye'k4u. 

8. tsu'-ye-'dzadje la^-tb-di-'lu'l. tsi'-x-we'n tb-dagwa'ns, -a'yu-ms-x-we-'n 
kwi-kla-'wi tlatc-tu^'mat'l. "he /< -'n3x-mi / ngatc. e"ditc! idzu-'djeM" a-'yu- 
de'djs-tb-di-'lu'l. (2) we'n-da'lu'we', "a-'yu-x-kwi"ya tb-'nagwa'ns!" tsu'- 
tlqV'ya-tfo-dagwa'ns. "h9 n/ lu'dada-ya-wantl." "he / '-'n3x-mi / ngatc. e'ge- 
dlu-'gwi!" (3) a-'yu'-me-x-we-'n. tsu'-ni'ya-tlextc-hu-'mik. ma-'n-a-'yu qa'u- 
la't'-tte-daye'klu. sdu'q w S3m-tl9-di'lu'l. "ga'la'm-kwa-niye'klu !" tsu'-tluxthr'- 
wah w -tl9-ye'klu, ma'-ge'-hwuthwuT-tlg-ye'klu. (4) tsu'-qa'n-udja-hwgTdi tfotc- 
di-'lu'l. "ga'la'm-kwg-niye'klu !" g^^a-a'N-da-"nu tbtc-tu-"m9t'l. tsu'-itcwu'l- 



ISO University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

the dog fought, he kept going towards where his own dog was. The young man kept 
fighting the dog. (5) Now he was nearly out of breath (exhausted), and so he 
called to his dog, "&•'■ come now!" At once it made a tremendous roar, when the 
young man's dog growled. Then the dogs fought. Each time they leaped at one 
another they just hung (ascended) higher (up into the air). (6) That is the way 
the dogs fought, they kept on like that going higher as they fought. Now they 
could be seen no longer, the dogs had gotten so far up. High above! they could be 
seen no more. And then something came down, it fell to the ground. (7) It was 
just a dog's leg that fell. The old man and the young man went to it there, and they 
examined it. "Oh it is my own dog." "It is not your dog. It is my own dog. " The 
young man (said that because he) was fearful, perhaps indeed (it was) his own dog. 
(8) And then this is what the young man thought, "Should the (light sort of) 
stone fall, then it really will be my own dog." That is what the young man thought. 
It was not long before they saw something (descending), and (they saw) it was en- 
trails when it fell. (9) Now the young man thought thus, "a"a"a- (joy) I am so 
very glad at heart! it is his dog that my dog killed." 'V- it must have killed my 
dog. ' ' ' 'Why not at all (the boy lied to him) . It is my own dog that has been killed. ' ' 
(10) In no long time then there was a dog coming down from above, and indeed it 
was the young man's dog. And he told it thus, "Throw away whatever you are 
holding in your mouth! Quick!" The dog did throw it away, and then it leaped 
at the old man, and the dog killed him. (11) "Go ahead! kill them all!" That is 
how he spoke to his dog. And sure enough the young man's dog killed all those 
people. But one of those young persons (girls) the young man hid (from the dog), 



meu tla-ye'klu tta-di-'lu'l, ge'wi-la'a'qham idja-'u-tta-daye'klu. dtaldja'l-at tla- 
ye'klu tk-x-di-'lu'l. (5) tsu'-ga-si'ya kum-da'gaya, tsu'-k'a'lt tb-deye'klu, 
"&•'■ kwi'ye-e"dji!" ma-'n-ditc gwa-ditc tga'u da'gaha'is, yu-kwi-'-qa'ula-'t tta- 
di-'lu'l-diys'klu. tsu'-wul-ms'u-tla-ys'klu. ds'ngi-du hwa'l-dadza'meu ma--du'- 
gi-gwa-gu"-tsgaya. (6) x-we'n kwi--W£-le-'nu-tri-ye'klu, ws'n-x-we-'n-kwi- 
gwa-'n'niya kwi--ws-'k-'nu. wen-kwi'ye-itc-a'nya-itcha'ma'q, he'lt'-ha-he-'ye tli- 
ys'klu'ume'. gwa-'n! a'nya-itcha'ma'q. hei-ma-'tsi-ditc dza'ns'itc, tsu'-kwr-tu-'ya. 
(7) hei-ma-'tsi-ye'klu didjiTe-itc kwi-'-tuwitanya. tsu'-itc-ge'Ma' tl9tc-tu-"mat'l 
hi's-tb-di-'lu'l, tsu'-itc t'lxa-'ni'itc tsu'. "u' e'ns ni'ye'klu." "a'N-nsmal-ye'- 
klu. s'n-e-'ni'ye'kdu." e'lqs tla-di-'lu'l, yu'wu't's a-'yu hidji'nvl ys'klu. (8) 
tsu'^ws-'n-da^u'we tb-di-'lu'l, "ya-ntl-u-'bidja-'ya tu'wita'nya, wi-e'n-e-'ni'ye'- 
klu'-hantl." we'n-djinhehe-'nu-tla-di-'lu'l. an-gu'm-he-'niye tsi-itc-gwam-di'tc- 
kla'-wi, hei-ma-'tsi-gwa'hya's-itc i-tu'witeni'ya. (9) tsu'-we'n-di'lu'we tla-di'- 
lu'l, "a"a"a- hei-gwa'-a'n ks-'ls-9n'lu'ws! hidji'm-il-ye'kdu tsa-'u tfo-'nax-ys'- 
klu." "e-'- tsa-'u da'x tb-'na'ys'klu." "ma-'-a'n. e'ns-'ni'ye'klu kwa-tsa-'u." 

(10) a'n-he'niye tsa-tsu^-dzane'-xu'gu tli-ye'klu, hei-ma'tsi a-'yu tla-di-'lu'l 
di'ye'klu. tsu'-we'n-tbtsi-'t'a, "tH-'ts kwa-n-ditc-ya-'ya-t'sa'ga-'q! tls'M" a y - 
yu-t'a-'ts-tla-x-ys'klu, tsu'-hwa'ldadza tl9tc-tu-"mat'l, tsu'-tsa-'u th-x-ye'klu. 

(11) "la-'ya'qai! gu-'s-ki-'ye!" we / n-i'l-d u wa-tl3-d9ye'klu. ma-'tsi-gu-'s-kwi- 
^i-'ya tb-ka' ? tle-x-di'lul-di'ye'lflu. hit'ci'-tla-sdla'n-iya' tla-ge'ne-tc-ka" tie- 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 181 

(and then) he hid five of those women. (12) Now his dog would not quit. So then 
he said to his dog, "Come! bite this!" So the young man put into its mouth 
the leg of the other dog. (13) "Go on up above! you are to stay in the moon. You 
will be seen there whenever it is full moon. There you will be seen (leg bone in 
mouth)." 

9. Now he collected the bones of his younger brothers, and he threw them 
into water. "Stand up!" Sure enough all the young men arose. Then they went 
towards home. And now they made their own places, each (living) with his own 
wife. And indeed they rapidly multiplied. 

10. Now then that is all of that myth. 

26. Myth of blue jay, (his) grandmother tied his head hair with her pubic hair 44 

1. The people were making preparations, the people were going to the other 
village there to play all sorts of games. All of these people went, (as well as the) 
young persons (girls) . 

2. Now the young man came in. "Grandmother! I am going to go too. Give 
me something! (to dress up with.)" Indeed the old woman decorated her grandson. 
"Grandmother! give me something with which I may tie my head hair." (2) What- 
ever his grandmother gave him he did not want it. Now the old woman became 
enraged, (and grumbled) "He should tie it up with my pubic hair!" "'a'-- grand- 
mother! that's it! that's it! that is what I want." So then (having gotten that) he 
went. 

x-di'lu'l, gsnt'ci'nsi-sdta'n-i'ya tta-hu'me'ke. (12) tsu'-tVma a'N-e-'wi tla- 
diye'klu. tsu'-tVma-we-'n-tratsi't'a tb-diye'klu, 'Y'dji! di-'-t'sge-ts!" a-'yu'- 
ye'isadja di-gi'la-tla-x-di-'lu'l tta-ma-'-ye'klu-dadjiTe. (13) "gwa-'n-la'ya'cjai! 
mgt'i'yadasadia'-nantl-dlu-'gwa. gs"-nanti-du-hemqs / qh£m ya-ha'ntl-du wu'gadi'- 
ya ku-mit'i'ya-das. ge /t -nantl-du-hsmqe'qnem." 

9. tsu'-hit'cu'wa tfo-damitlgwi'yada-s da'la-'ma'k, tsu / -ha-'pdja /! -xkwait. 
"kwiya / -tcilsdu'q w S3q !" a-yu-kwi-gu's ildlu'q w S9m tl9-tca'n-a7a. tsu'-ilwusi- 
si'yam. tsu'-ilt'lda-'istsam, gu-'s-i'lnahu'me-'ke'a. a'yu-il-tle-i'igafoTya. 

10. tsu /t -tsi--ku / wi kwa-ba-'saq. 

26. Te'ye'n-e ba'saq" umna-'t'btc dasa'nl da-xa'luxalau 

1. hu'wi'yam-da-ka', ma'-t'ldayasadja ge's'i alica y nu-d9'-ka gu-'s-dadje-'- 
nudji'. wi'-gu-s-la'-da'-ka* Ti't'lta'm-gu's d9'-ka\ gsne'tc-ka. 

2. tsu'-de-'djY tla-di'lu'l. "u'ma't'H! hi's-wa'ntl eW-la. di'tc-ni-'m!" 
a-'yu-a'sda tl9-x-hu-"mik' tta-dadi'm-sin. "u'ma-t'K! di'tc-ni-m kwi'-yu'-wantl 
t'lda'ta-'nass'L tb-'naha-'mis." (2) ditc-du'-niya tla-dax-u'mna-'t'btc a'n- 
du'-kwi-du-ha'ya. tsu'-bs'lxsam tl3-hu / 'mik, "sa'nladja gaxa'lwau!" "'a-'-- 
u'ma-t'li! ku'wi! ku-udu-'ha'ya." tsu'-la'. 



44 A myth generally known to the Coos, who quoted from it jocularly and depreciatingly 
when hearing a bluejay nearby; they would say, "Ah you have your grandmother's pubic hair 
on your head! you!" 



182 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

3. Now the people were gambling there. They gambled four nights. The 
people were being defeated, they had no more of anything left. Now the young 
man spoke thus, "It is five nights." This is what the young man said then, "Let 
me try. (2) Give me the (hand g<°me) sticks. Now I myself will gamble. Some- 
thing might even happen (good for me), perhaps I will win." So then the young 
man did so. Sure enough he won everything, the money, everything. Now those 
defeated people were angry. (3) "Hu' hu' and (it is) that very person who has 
his grandmother's pubic hair tied on him!" That is how they spoke insultingly 
about the young man when he won. Now the people went back home. "Hence- 
forth all of you will have your hair in that manner" (they said to him, bluejay, 
and to his bluejay people). 

4. Now that is all of that myth of mine. 

27. The young man ate the thing that stank 45 

1. A young man married into another place (his wife was non-Coos). Now 
his wife became lonesome. "I will take you back home." Indeed he and his wife 
went (to her) home, to her parents. Now they reached home there. 

2. The girl's grandmother was at home. She was eating and cooking some- 
thing that stank. It was what the old woman ate. "I would like what your grand- 
mother is eating." 46 "He-' it smells badly." 46 (2) But he just kept on bothering 



3. tsu / -g£ /t -heye'n-uwi'ye-da-ka'\ dzawa'-qtom i'yehe-ye-'nu. gatga-'yu- 
da-ka f , a'nya-ditc-gwi-'de-t. tsu'-wsn-tli'-tfo-di-'lu'l, "gsnt'ci'nsiya-gaha'is." 
tsu'-wen-tli'-tta-di'lu'l, "ha'ma-wantl-kwiya-e'n-e. (2) andaqsa'ya. hslt- 
wa'ntl-e'ne-gikcu-'wi. ma-du'-x-dji"-ditc, yuwu't's-wutga'Vs." a-'yu-tte-di-'- 
lu'l. a'yu-gu-s-ditc-tga-"t's, hada'i'mis, gu-'-s-ditc. tsu'-ilbe'lxsgm tla-ka" 
gatga'yu'ume. (3) "hu' hu' tsu'-kwi- ku-ka" umna-'t'btc dasa'nl da-xa'luxa- 
lu." ws'n-gwi-'gwiyu tta-di-'lu'l i-tga-'t's. tsu'-W9S-i'-d9-ka\ "da"-ql9'nr- 
niyu gus-tci'1-antl we-'n-tcilnase'L." 

4. tsu / -tsi--ws-'s-kw3-'n3ba-'saq'. 

27. di-'lu'l dlut'ci"-di'tc-ldja 

1. di-'lu'l ma-'-t'lda'isadja hu-'mstsam. wi'-tci't'u-tla-dshu'mis. "w9- 
sida'minantli'." a'yu-itc wasi'ya tte-dahu-'mis, ma-'nicdja-'dSa. tsu'-itc- 
wa -'sdadi'yam-ge' ' . 

2. dlu-'gwa-da'u'mna-'t'btc tla-gwe'is. dlu"wi'ya'm dlu-t'ci'-ditc-da- 
tlxwa't'au. wi-'-kwi--dla-'u-tla-x-hu-"mik\ "du-'ha'ya-'u kwatc-dla-'u kw3-nex- 
u'mna-'t'btc." 46 "he-' a'N-we'n dlu't'ci." 46 (2) tsi'-ma"-t'swa-'lal tla-dahu-'- 



45 Mrs. Peterson heard this told by Hanis people, Old Dick and others, but not by Miluks. 
It was a well known story to the Hanis at least. 

46 In a whispered voice. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 183 

his wife. "Ha"-'-- I would like what she is eating." 46 "What is my son-in-law say- 
ing?" "Why he is not saying anything at all." (3) "Why did you tell her it like 
that? I really do want it." 46 "There does seem to be something my son-in-law 
wants." "Ha-'- he does seem to want the thing you are eating." (4) "u-'- u'- I 
will give it to him. I will give him it to eat." Then indeed she gave it to him, and 
he drank the broth. And then he sounded gwa-' gwa-' gwa-' (like a raven), and he 
jumped up, and then he flew upwards, crying thus, "gwa-' gwa' gwa-'." (5) Now 
they growled at the old woman. "Why did you give it to him? you just eat any- 
thing at all ! and sure enough he wanted it." (6) So then one person went to inform 
his parents. And now that was how he flew away, that is how the young man be- 
came a raven. Even today he can still be seen. He just became one of them. 

28. Butterball duck and his wife 47 

Butterball and his wife (were living there). This is what his wife (always) 
sang (about him). 

"Butterball, butterball, 
my husband is so ugly !" 

"Haha'! 
Hu-' short, short is my wife's thing on the upper side (clitoris). 
Hu-' short, short is my wife's thing on the upper side." 

mis. "ha n/ -- du-'ha'ya-'u kwatc-dla-'u." 46 "ditca'xa di-i'ldwa da-'nax-mi'n- 
getc?" "ma'-an-ditc-i'ldwa." (3) "dji"-ge-en-kwi-wen-i'l-dwa? ma /, -udu-'ha'- 
ya'." 46 "ma"-ditc-du-'ha'ya' kwa-'nax-mi'n gate." "ha-'- ma--du'ha'ya kwa- 
n-ditc-dla-'u." (4) "u'- u-'- ni'ya-wa'ntli. d.a'tsk-wa'ntii." tsu'-ay-u-ni'ya, 
tsu'-xwam-t. he'i-ma-'tsi gwa'lx w t"itc, we'n-hwa'ldi, hei-ma-'tsi hwa'ldi'i'tc 
gwa-'n, we'n-wa-'nu, "gwa' gwa-' gwa-'." (5) tsu'-itcte-'m tlatc-hu-"mik\ 
"dji'-ge-ena-kwi-'-ni'ya? gu-'s-di'tc-an-du-dla'u! a'yu-kwi-du-'ha'ya." (6) 
tsu'-hit'ci'-ka'Ma' gwasgu-'yu tla-dama'ni'yas. wi-'-x-ws'n-kwi--hwa'l-di, wi-'- 
we'nts-tia-kwi-'-gugu'mi'ye tla-di'lu'l. wi-'-dile'i-kwi--du'-hsmqe'6 1 hem. ma-'- 
tsi-hi-'ye. 

28. kwalxa"ya i'tc-dahu'mis 

kwalxa"ya i'tc-dahu'mis. wi'-kwi-du'-ha-'t'i tla-dahu-'mis. 

"kwelxs'ya, kwelxe'ya, 
i'dj£"-'nde'mil!" 

"haha'! 
hu-' ne'ni, ne'ni ditgwu'ni-'mis tla-'nahu-'mis. 
hu-' ns'ni, ns'ni ditgwu'ni-'mis tla-'nahu-'mis." 47 



47 A11 the Coos knew this little thing. It is called a myth like any myth of greater length, 
because it narrates an occurrence of the myth age. When a Coos saw a butterball duck he would 
quote the lines, sing the song, and laugh merrily. Ediphone cylinder 14: 14578 :m; RCA Victor 
disc 14:14609B:a. In the song butterball's wife calls her husband also H.M. t'se'lxs'ys, a mocking 
or teasing pronunciation of H.M. kwalxa"ya, 'butterball.' The Hanis version of the song is 

"kwalxa"ya! kwalxa"ya! 

idze"-djande • 'mil ! 

haha'!" 
"t'se • xwa'tatgwu'ni • 'mis '" 



184 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

29. The trickster person who made the country 48 

1. The trickster was growing up. Now then he began to be traveling about 
there. He was making a waterfall fish dam (somewhere in the Coos country), and 
then he made a fish trap basket. Then he set it all in place. (2) Now when he 
went down to the water his fish trap basket was already full. "Oh it fills up too 
rapidly!" His house was already full (of fish). So then he made another (house). 
"I always have too much. (3) I do not want to go down to the water again. Now 
call out (when you have become full)!" That is what he said to his fish basket 
trap. Indeed his fish basket was already hallooing (before he finished cutting the 
earlier haul). "Oh it is always calling out too much!" (4) So then he went (to it). 
He never got his fish cut to dry before his basket trap had already again called out. 
"'a' (anger) that vagina thing! that just halloos all the time!" 

2. Now he went back home up from the river. And then just all his (sliced 
smoked) food came rolling down the trail, he was hurled aside when the smoked 
salmon bales hit him. (2) And then the (salmon) hearts (too). "Oh! and you too, 
hearts?" Now he seized it (a heart), he threw the heart far away. Then he had 
no more food left there. Then he lay down hungry by the fire. 

29. kwa-ka" t'ida-'yas-dzi'ya kwa-t'smi-'xwan 

1. kwi y -he y wi tla-t'smi-'xwan. wi- / -kwi--g£ / '-yuxwu'm-e / di / we. ge'-t'la'- 
m-e-'ni-'we, tsu / -kwi--dza'its-tia-daha-'k. tsu- / -gu-s-kwi--hi'ldasa-t'a. (2) tsu'- 
du-ts'ixsu ma-'n-du-t'ru" tla-daha-'k. "u-' he'lt'-ha-tk''ei-kwi--t'lu'!" t'lu-'- 
du-tla-da'ye-'ts-ma-'n. tsu'-ma-'-das-hut'su'wa. "hs'lt'-wa'-ha-gu-s-mi'n. (3) 
an-wa'ntl-das-te'ixeu. k'a'lat'-na'ntl-du." we'n-iTd u wa tla-daha-'k. a-'yu- 
du-ma'n-k'aTa tla-daha-'k. "ha' he'lt'-ha-gu-'s mi'n ak'a'lai!" (4) tsu'-du- 
la'. a'iwa'-du-a'n-gu-s-ga'lst ma'n-du--da-'s-k'aTa tla-daha-'k. "'a' ma'ix u - 
da'x ! kwa-ha"-gu s-mi'n-ak'a'lai !" 

2. tsu'-helqeqs'qhem wa'sitc. hei-ma-'tsi-gu-'s-kwi--gwa'li'yam tla-da- 
qwa'n-yau, £-du' pa'n-a i-du^-lbta' tla-dax-ha'iwa"li. (2) tsu/-le-"we-'l£"we. 
'V! hi's-na'ne'u-i', leWle'we?" tsu'-haTmi, e-'gs ta-'ts tla-x-leW'le'we. 
tsu'-da"-ami-qwa'nyau ha-'gu. tsu'-du-daps'l-tce-tc Ige-'n. 

48 Mrs. Peterson had to give this trickster myth in installments on successive days because of 
its length when dictating. Since among her closer relatives only her mother's mother was a speaker 
of Miluk, Mrs. Peterson heard the epic more often in the Hanis dialect. But it was common 
property to all Coos speakers. The 'tricksters' (t'smi-'xwn) are apparently conceived of as a 
peculiarly powerful (supernaturally powerful) caste or type of ancient myth age people, living 
in certain villages in the Coos country. Five men of those trickster people, living successively 
in a line of direct descent from father to son through five generations, figure as the leading dramatis 
personae of this myth of the transforming of the country. It is these five whom the Coos call 
'worldmakers.' It is only the fourth trickster, told of towards the latter part of the myth, who 
is turned into an actual coyote by his son who is the fifth trickster and the 'people's father.' These 
five tricksters are otherwise not specifically identified as coyotes or pictured as closely resembling 
coyotes, nor are any other people who are referred to in this or other myths as 'trickster' tribes- 
people. Some myths are, however, told about a specific person called 'coyote,' and in each such 
case it is probably the fourth trickster of this myth who is meant and who is described in some 
episode of his life after his son had made him don a coyote garment. One such true coyote myth is 
given below (p. 224). Mrs. Peterson commented that it was bad luck to tell the long 'trickster 
myth' (H. t'smi-'xwn he-'djit, M. t'smi-'xwn ba-'saq) in the summertime. It was told perhaps 
only once during the winter, not twice. And next winter it was again told just once, at about the 
same period of the winter as during the preceding year. 



1940) Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 185 

3. "a-'- (Oh well) I will go get skunk cabbage." So he made a pack basket, 
and then he went for skunk cabbage. His pack basket never filled up. So he looked 
back, and there his skunk cabbages were stretched along in a line. It was just a 
hole in his pack basket. (2) So he sat down, and he dug large (spruce) roots, and 
he patched his pack basket. "Ha'ha'! That is the way the next people (the In- 
dians later to come) will do it, if they have such a hole in their pack basket. That 
is the way they will repair it." Now he began digging again, and then his pack 
basket filled up. 

4. Now he went back home, and he built a fire, and he fixed the roasting 
stick, and he put it into the ground beside the fire, skunk cabbage on the roasting 
stick. Now he lay down. (2) Then he awoke. His roasting stick was merely stand- 
ing there like that (the cabbage uncooked). "Oh that vagina of a thing! that is 
how it is not cooked!" So he took it and put it down under in hot coals. (3) Then 
he lay down. Now he awoke. "m'---\ I do smell something." Then he pulled out 
the food roasted in hot ashes. Oh they were just so tender when he took them out. 
Now he leaped (and sang), 

"That is how they will cook it, 
that is how they will roast it in ashes. 49 

That is the way the next people (the Indians to come later) will do it." So then 
he went to get more skunk cabbages again. (4) Now he fetched a quantity, and 
he cooked (roasted) them. He collected rocks, he piled them onto the fire, and 
they became hot, and then he fixed it (the ground roasting oven). Now he cooked 



3. 'b'- ha'ma-wantl ki'met'l-dgdg'm-e-dg." tsu'-gum-kha'-hu-t'su'wa, 
tsu-'-l-a-ki'mt'lde. an-gu'm-t'lu-'du tb-dgkha'. tsu'-gum-xi-'la qb'mindje, 
hei-ma-'tsi-s-'-kwi-K^be-'b tb-dgki'met'l. hsi-wuxa'xa tb-dgklia'. (2) tsu'- 
gum-dlu'q w sgm, tsu'-gwum-bbi-'ges yu'q w da, tsu'-gwum-t'la'idgsi'ya tb-dgkha'. 
"ha'ha-'! qb'mniyu ka" ha'ntl-du-x-we-'n, ya-ha'ntl-du waxs'uxsu ildgkha'. x- 
we / n-il-hantl-du--na / ut." tsu'-da-s-ge'ya-'gwaya, tsu'-t'lu-'du-tb-dgkha'. 

4. tsu'-wg'si, tsu'-t'ciTe, tsu'-dzaits-tb-dgski'n, tsu'-b'mdgsat'a, ki'm-- 
e't'l tb-diski'n. tsu'-tsu-m. (2) tsu'-dlankts. ma"-we-'n-l9"ma tb-daski'n. 
"ma'ix u -dax! ku'-kwi--a'N-dbTe-q!" tsu'-galmi-'t'a tsu'-ktsa-'sidja t.cidza't'a. 

(3) tsu'-gwum-tVma-tsu-'m. tsu'-dlankts. "riV----. gwa-u-di'tc-si-tdza't'a." 
tsu'-t'cdja" tl9-d9k w hi'nl. u-'- ma-'tsi gwa'tc-bdzat'si'yam i'tcdjidza-'t'a. tsu'- 
hwgTdi, 

"we'^tsgndu-'nis, 
gndaldaldu^'nis. 49 

qb'mniyu-ka"-hantl we-'n-kwi-dzi-'ya." tsu'-gwum-ma-'tsi-la'-das yayg'xt'a. 

(4) tsu'-ga-'l-wasda, tsu'-gwum-kwi'-q'ma't'ts. q w lai-gu'm-hi-t'cu'wa, wi y - 
kwi-hs'mglfedjg-wa'nqt, tsu'-gatlqa'lxau, tsu'-gwum-dza'itst. tsu'-ge-q'ma'it'ts 

49 The trickster mispronounces words, saving "dal" and "del" for a 'roast-in-hot-ashes' 
(H. t'a-'li, M. tla'L). Ediphone record 14:14579:b; RCA Victor disc 14:14609B:c. 



186 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

his skunk cabbages there. (5) While he was cooking them that was how he was 
making a (basket) pan. Now his cooking was done. Then he put them all in the 
pans, and the pans were all filled. 

5. But he was just all alone. So he was just sending and telling (thus), 
"Give this here to your mother! give this to your father! give this to your grand- 
mother! (2) give this to your grandfather! give this to your younger sister! give 
this to your younger brother! give this to your older brother! (3) give this to your 
older sister! give this to your aunt (father's sister) ! give this to your uncle (mother's 
brother) ! give this to your niece (brother's daughter) ! (4) give this to your nephew! 
give this to your uncle (father's brother) ! give this to your wife ! give this to your 
husband ! (5) give this to your former in-law ! give this to your niece (sister's 
daughter) ! give this to your betrothed!" 

6. Now he thought. "Hu'\ I am tired of living all alone. I will make some 
women, and then I will call them 'my children.' " Indeed so he did that. (2) He 
peeled alder (bark), and he took it back home, and he split it (the bark), and he 
made (cut from it) two (pieces of bark each shaped like a girl). Then he took a 
stick (pointed at the pieces of modeled bark and said), "Young persons (young 
girls) ! arise! do not be sleeping so long! (3) get up! we have much to do." Indeed 
they arose. They were quite handsome young persons (girls). 'V- my children! 
You are to name me, 'My father,' (and) 'father!' " (4) Then that is the way it 
was indeed. The young persons (girls) did work, to be sure. 



tfo-dgkime't'l. (5) idJ£-"-gum tfo-dgqmi'yat'as ws-'n-gwum-ni'yux^dzi-'ya. 
tsu'-d.le-'q tfo-dgqmi'yat'a-s. tsu'-gwum-gu-'s-galisdzat'a tla-ni / yux w , tsu'- 
gwum-gu-si'ye--t'ru- tl9-ni'yux w . 

5. ma''-gwum-mi-'t'ci. ma /r -gwum-ma-'tsi ka /t -wix'wu'lax, "di-'-ni-'ya- 
tfo-na'e'n-e! di'-ni'ya tfo-na'eTe! di-'-ni'ya-kwa-na'u'm-na-'t'latc! (2) di'- 
ni'ya-tta-tsqu-'luq"! di-'-niya-kwa-nagwaTa! di-'-ni'ya-kwa-namitlgwa'la! di'- 
ni'ya-kwa-nahe't'k! (3) di'-ni'ya-kwa-nahen-e'kwn! di-'-ni'ya-kwa-na'a't'a! 
di-'-ni'ya-kwa-na'axi'ya-xitc! dr-ni'ya-kwa-na'upa'na! (4) dr-ni'ya-kwa-n- 
du-'de! di-'-ni'ya-kwg-ngbu-'ye! di-'-ni'ya-kwa-nahu-'mis! di-'-ni'ya-kwa-nde'- 
mil' (5) di'-ni'ya-kwg-ngnggwi'ye! di-'-ni'ya-kw9-ngl£iTmu"a! di-'-ni'ya- 
kw9-n 9 t'ci-"le'!" 

6. tsu'-gwum-dja'nhehs-'nu. "hu'\ ki'nau'u e-u-mi-'t'ci dlu-'gwa. hu'- 
melfe wa'ntl-dza'itst, we'n-wantl-du--si'n-a'na ngx-hi-'me." a'yu'-gum-me'-x- 
we-'n. (2) t'lwe-'x-gmim-xa'nl^t, tsu'-gwum-a-'yu-kwi-wgs-i-'yat'a, tsu'-gwum- 
kwi'-tsxa', wi'-adzu'-wa'wa. tsu'-gwum-kVya-s ga'la'm, "ge'netc-ka'! dlu- 
q w S9'q'is! an-i's-ha-he-'niye ge-'ql! (3) dlu'q w S9'q'is! ga-Tg-fondzi'ye-ts." 
hei-a- / yu-kwi--t9 / lq'tS9m'itc. a-'yu-ge'ne-tc-ka nehs-'wudzgng'me. "s-'- n9X-hi y - 
me! we'n-antl-du-lat'ci-'dai, nex-ehe, sli-'!" (4) tsu'-gwum-a-'yu-me-x-we'n. 
a'yu-du-kwi-dzi'dzida tb-gs'netc-ka. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 187 

7. The trickster was getting up to some mischief now. "We will be going to 
the mouth (of the stream or body of water at that place), we will be drying salmon." 
So they moved to there. (2) He would just fail to return (at times). "Where do 
you go, father?" "Oh I play the marked stick game ('dice') with the crow people. 
I play that with them." Now then he returned shot in the back neck (posterior 
cervical) muscles. (3) 'u'- I am going to die. When I have died, when you bury 
me do not bury my face. You are to step right over my face. And if a man should 
arrive here, you are to take him for a husband, and then you will become many 
(have children)." (4) That is what he said to the young persons (girls). Then in- 
deed they buried him when he died, and that is just the way they did it. 50 

8. About five days, and sure enough a man arrived. The older sister was to 
have him already for her husband, but her younger sister (said), "Older sister! 
he seems rather to be just like our father." (2) "Why how could it be he? on the 
contrary he must be dead." "a- 7 - maybe he did not die, maybe he was just doing 
everything (playing a trick) like that." Now the girl (the older sister) became angry. 
(3) That (other) girl did not want to lie down with him there. "You are telling a 
lie. You are only my father, so why should I lie down with you there?" (4) "Why 
I am not your father! You are (two pieces of) alder, you are alder bark." Now 
then they got ready to leave him, and then they left him there. 51 "Oh a different 
sort of population will come here, and that is the way they will do. (5) They will 
do like that even to their children." 52 Now then he went away too. Now he was 
going to go here and there, he was going to go all over the country. 

7. hei-gwu'm-ma-'tsi-t'smi-'xwa'ni'ye tla-t'smi-'xwan. "t'a'mi daq'a'imic- 
dja-1-hanti-la', ge'lyeq-hs-iantl-t'c'la'i." a-yu'-il-gwum-ge^-tsla'ntsam. (2) 
he'i-gwu'm-ma-'tsi-daxda'nx. "ge'ndji-du-e'n-s-s'he, eli-'?" "u'- gikcu'wai'- 
wu-du ma'qt'l-ka". kwi-'-l-du-kcewe-'nu." he'i-tsu'-gwum-we-'st ma'tsi-qe-- 
qe'nu lfxe'x. (3) "'u'- qa'yau-wa'ntl. yu'-wa'ntl-qa'yau, i-ictba'dzai an- 
i'stba-'ne'heL. kwa-'nahe'l-da'gwa-niyu da' is-hantl-ka-'xaxai. wi'-yu-hantl- 
ds-'mii-gesde' t -dji, wi'-da'mliya'is-hantl, wi'-gaia'lyatcil-hantl." (4) we'n-ildi-'- 
ta-tla-ge'netc-ka. tsu'-itc-a-'yu-aga-'na"ya ya-c\a'yau, a'yu-itc-me'-x-we-n. 

8. gwa-gent'ci'n-si-gaha'ya, tsa-a-'yu-de'mil-dji. a-'yu'-gwum-he-t'le' 
tla-dsx-hs'nekwn kwi--da'd£- / mil-ha'nt}, wi'-tla-dagwaTa, "he-'nukwi! ma-'-gwa- 
tsi-ku'wi tli-isna'sTe." (2) "wi-'-x-dji-han-tla-ha-ku'wi? ma'-qa'yau." "a-'- 
an-da'-qayau, tsi-'-da-'-gus-dji'-an-hu-t'su-'tam." tsu'-be'lxsam tte-gwe'is. (3) 
a'n-duha'ya tk-x-gwe'is ge"-tsu-m. "he'we-se-nu-ne. ma-'-da-ne'u-ne'e'be, ma y - 
da-wa'ntl ge'^tsu-'m?" (4) "wi-'-a'n-e'n-s-neYl-e! t'lwe-'x-ne, t'lwe-'x-cla- 
dze't'b's-na." tsu'-ma-tsi-hu'we'edzu-'t'tsam, wi-'-xge^t-itc'i-'gei. "u-'- ma'- 
mit'lda'ya-'s-ka'* gesda / -hantl-mi / n-kwi--dji"ni'yam, wi-'-x-we-'n-il-ha'ntl-du. 
(5) hi-'me-il-ha'ntl-du-we-n-wa-'tsa." tsu'-his-hi'dji-i-'gei. tsu'-cya'-y-tcu- 
ha'ntl, t'lda'yas didja-'na'nicdja ha'ntl-cyaVtcu. 

60 He liad himself buried with his face exposed in order to see their privates when they stepped 
over him. 

51 The cause of their anger and departure was merely the insulting remark that they were 
just pieces of alder bark. 

52 I.e., a kind of people will come here later who will cohabit with their own children. Indians 
perhaps used this statement of the trickster as evidence of his knowledge of what kind of people 
the whites would be. 



188 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

9. He was going to make a waterfall. That is the way he went around. Now 
he got to the Columbia River, and he made a falls. "Hs'\ I cannot get across. 
I will make a bridge so that I can go across." 

10. Then indeed he went about. He made dams everywhere. Now then he 
returned (to Coos country). And he married. (2) Then they did have a boy baby. 
And that child of theirs grew up, and he too was a trickster. 53 He did all sorts of 
things in that manner (too). 

1 1 . Now he was going along the ocean beach, and he came to a house. There 
was an old woman who was all alone in it. The children of the old woman had gone 
to hunt. (2) It was just some person coming. "rh\ Maybe it is a trickster there." 
So the old woman thought. "Is no one at home?" (3) The old woman said nothing, 
because the old woman was fearful. So he entered (anyway). "Are you alone?" 
"m-'\" That is the way the old woman (grudgingly) replied. (4) "Why did you 
not let me in?" "Oh I did not hear you." "Ha'! you lie." (5) Then he threw down 
the old woman, and he just copulated with the old woman. Now foam was coming 
out of the mouth of that old woman. Then the trickster went outside, and he went 
into the (large, men's) sweat house. (6) And there he lay down. Now the boys 
returned, and just foam was coming out of her. Then he (one brother) went to 
the sweat house, and there the trickster was sleeping. Now he went and told his 
older brothers, "That trickster is lying down there." (7) "Good. We will take re- 
venge on him." "But how will we take revenge?" "Oh we will get even with him 
well enough. We will act as if we were going out to the ocean to fish, and we will 
ask him to go with us." 

9. kwi-'-ha'ntl-dzi-'ya tla-datla't. we'n-we-'n cyaVtcitca'qham. tsu'- 
ma-ru-'cidja"-dji, tsu'-gwum-tla't-dzi-'ya. "he-', an-u'-du-dji-'-ge'lts. qelqVl- 
wantl-dza'itst ma'-tsi'-wu-du--dji'-ge / lts." 

10. tsu'-a-'yu-cyaVtcu. gu-'s-idja'u tlat-hu-t'su'wa. tsu'-gwum-tsu'- 
we-'st. tsu'-gwum tsu'-humstsam. (2) ma'n-ma-'tsi di-"lu't'l-itc dikTlga. 
tsu'-kwi--he-'wi tla-dikiTga, hi's-kwi-'-t'smi-'xwan. dji"-du-we-'n du-ditc-xa'li. 

11. tsu'-gwum-ba'ldiya gwum-la'a'qham, he'i-gwum-ye'dzidje-dji". ha-'- 
mi'k" mi-t'ci'-kwi-dlu-'gwa. la'mda-wa-ehe'ut'tsam tli-dihi-'me tra-hu-"mi'k\ (2) 
ma-'tsi-ka"-dji. "hY. t'smi-'xwan-da"." ws-'n-da'lu'we-tra-hu-''mik\ "a'n- 
wi-dlu-'gwa-i'?" (3) a / n-tli-tla-hu-"mik, na'im-e'lqs-tla-hu^mil^. tsu'-de'dja. 
"mi-t'ci-'-ni-i'?" "m-\" tsu'-wen-tli'-tla-hu-'mik. (4) "dji'-ene-a'N-didzu-'- 
dai?" "u'- a'n-aqa'wi'nvda-'mi." "ha'! hewe'ss-'nu-na." (5) tsu"-tV- 
tla-hu-"mik, tsu'-g w um-ma-'tsi-kwi--ha'itst tlatc-hu-"mik. we-'n-kwr-ma-'tsi- 
qwadli-'s la y 7a7 tlatc-hu-"mik. tsu'-s-a'lt' tlatc-t'smi-'xwan, tsu"-ma-'tsi-qwa'- 
l-e't'ladje'-de-'djs. (6) wem-ge'^-tsu-m. tsu'-wa-sdidi'yam tla-tca'n-aYa, ma'- 
tsi-qwdli's la-^aT. tsu'-qwaTet'ladje /! -la, hei-ma-'tsi-da"-ge- / ql-itc tla-t'smi'- 
xwan. tsu'-sgu-'ya-dahat'li'yada-s, "da"-tsi-m kwa-t'smi-'xwan." (7) "kV'ls. 
dla'lyuwa-'l-ha'ntl." "dji'-l-hantl-dla'lyu'wa?" "u-' dlalyuwa-1-hantli'. gwa'- 
yu-'t'c il-ha'ntl-ba'ldi-misidja da'me-de pga'las, wi'-a-'uct'il-ha'ntl." 

63 Mrs. Peterson supposed that more episodes may have occurred during the travels of the 
first trickster, but she remembered nothing more of him. His child became the second trickster 
of this epic. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 189 

12. "Uncle! (father's brother!) Come! We are going out to the ocean to 
fish." "a/-!" That was the way he replied. (2) "Ha'-u (oh very well), nephew. 
'a 11 '-. I will go." "Hurry, uncle! (mother's brother!) we want to go in a hurry, 
because it (the tide) is running out strongly. We will have to hurry." (3) "'a n -'-, 
nephew. I will go." Indeed they went down to the water. "Get in (the canoe), 
uncle! (mother's brother!)" So he did get into it. (4) "You must lie down, uncle 
(mother's brother). You will have to be covered up." "All right, nephew." So 
then he lay down, and the young fellows covered him over. (5) Then down in 
the boat they got a small rope, which he could not see, and then they pushed out 
the canoe. Now they watched, (while) the canoe went out to the ocean. Then the 
trickster arose, but when he got up he was just (alone, far out) in the ocean, with- 
out a paddle. (6) There was a torn (ka'wal type) basket in it, as well as a (pa-'ctala 
type) basket hat in it. But no paddle, (and) not another thing. Now then there 
was a seal that approached him from out of the water. (7) "He'i! go away!" 
It would not leave. It emerged close to him again, and when it approached once 
more he threw the basket hat at it, so that it would drop right on its head. "When 
you are seen by the next people (the Indians to come) you will never do anything 
to a person. (8) And your head will be like the (pa-'ctala type of) basket hat." 
And now a whale emerged and spouted. "Get away from here ! I am afraid of you." 
(9) Then he took that (torn ka'wal) basket, the basket was somewhat rough edged 
and unfinished, and then he threw it into its mouth. "You will never bite anybody, 
you will be toothless, but it will be sticking up inside (your mouth). And you will 
never do anything (bad) to anybody." 



<( v / II) 



12. "bi-'si! e"dji! pga'lis'il-ha'ntl ba'ldi-micdja-hu'huwai." "a- 
we'n-tli. (2) "ha-'--u, de'u. 'a n -\ la-wa'ntl." "tle"-axa'xi! tle-'-l-hantl 
hu'we'e'dzam, na-'im-lqu'-b'nwi i'yelugwa-'<4 w . mi-me-'nu-l-ha'ntl." (3) "'a n '-, 
de'u. la-wa'ntl." a-'yu'-ilte-'ixeu. "gil-atsaq\ axa'xi!" tsu'-ayu-gi'l-a-'tsam. 
(4) "tsi-'m-nantl-axa-'xi. wi'-dluk w de-t-nantl." "kVle, de'u." tsu'-a-yu- 
tsu-'m, tsu'-dlu'k w da tb-x-tca-'na7a. (5) tsu'-il-e'lt-ki'yu-gala't'li, an-ha'ntl- 
dji'-kwi--hama'q\ tsu'-iit.ca" tb-tlgu-'s. tsu'-ilham-a-'q\ ba'1-dimisidja sa'lfl- 
tla-tlgu's. tsu'-dlu'q^am ttetc-t'smi-'xwan hei-ma-'tsi ba'ldi-'misitc i-dlu'q w - 
sam, a'mi-t'ls'he. (6) gwa-pVlsas ka-'wal-dala'ha, we'n-pa-'cta-la la'ha. 
a'm-i-t'k'he, ami'-ma^-ditc. hei-ma-'tsi ge^gu-'^at hi-' e'ngi x-ha-'rMtc. 
(7) "he-'-i! i-'gei!" a'n-i-'gsi. da-'s-du-ha-ne'lt'ce db'ltsam, tsu'-a's-u- e'ngi 
tsu'-ge'^-t'a'ts tla-pa-'cta-la, we'n-antl-dir-se'L. "inantl-qla'mniyu-ka' he'me-- 
Cjeidu-'n ana'ntl-du--dji'-ka" a'ya-dja. (8) we-'n-antl-se'L dji^-da-pa-'cta-'la." 
hei-gu'm-tsu-t'se'he'm pa-'uxt'. "i-'gei! alqs3da-'mi"n3." (9) tsu'-gum-kwi-'- 
ga'la'm tb-kha', gwa-di'tc-tsha'uxax da-tb-kha', tsu'-gum-kwi--ya'icdjad9-tV. 
"a'n-a'ntl-du--wi'-t'sga'\ a'mi-nantl-ge't'sgei, ma-'tsi-hantl-du-kwi-da' { sha'ixax. 
tsu'-gum-an-hantl-wi"-dji--xa'H." 



190 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

13. Now he was beginning to think. "a-' I will jump into his mouth there." 
And indeed there he leaped, and the whale swallowed him. Now those boys were 
watching. "He jumped into it!" (2) So they hauled back their canoe, because the 
rope was attached to it. The trickster was inside there now, inside there in the belly 
of the whale. He had a little sort of knife, with it he cut at the entrails. (3) "In- 
deed now it will drift ashore." So he thought. Indeed then he was rolling (pitching 
in the surf), and then it got onto ground, it was no longer tossing. Now he got 
out of it (through an incision he made) . (4) He could not see a thing. So there he 
crawled ashore, and then he felt of a log, and he kept on crawling there, and then 
behind the log there he lay down. 

14. He slept there a long time, "'a-'!" An odorous ant bit his penis. "He'---! 
what are you doing? biting the penis of your wealthy head man? (2) That is the 
way you will do to the next people (the Indians who are coming). You will bite 
them the same way. And that is the way you will also bite people from afar (who 
will come later). And in that manner you will also bite the vulvas of women." 
That was what woke him up. 

15. He wiped his eyes, and then he began to go about, and so he went towards 
the woods. When he had gotten to the timber hail stormed down. So he found a 
(hollow) tree, and he went inside it. (2) "Close up!" Sure enough the tree shut 
about him. Then he hallooed (for help), he called out to all sorts of things. But 
none of them (came). (To others that came he cried) "Not you! (3) I do not want 
you! get away from here!" And indeed they left. Then he called out again, but 



13. tsu'-gum-ge''djinhehs- / ni'we\ "a-' ge'-wantl-hwa'ldi kwa-di'ya'ic- 
dja." a-'yu-gum-ge /t -hw9 / l-di, tsu'-qVa-'ni-tle-x-t'ss'liem. tsu'-ilha'ma^-tle-x- 
tca'n-aTa. "yige'Vhwa'l-di !" (2) tsu'-ilt'cdja" tli-ikbtlgwa'ls, na-'im-nikTyu'- 
ws. tsu'-gwum-da--la'ha tta-t'smi-'xwan, da^-gwum-la'ha-t'sehe'm-du'ws-'lu. 
gwe-e-'l£-di'tc ditsi'hrtsilu, x-kwi'yu-'-du-kta' tta-dagwa'kyas. (3) "a'yu-gwum- 
t'ci'cdje-hantl-kwi--hs'gw9n." we-'n-gwum-dji'nhehe-'nu. a-'yu-gwaTe"nu, hei- 
a-'yu-da'ndan-u'itc, a'nya-la't'sa't. tsu'-he'lk w t9m. (4) a / N-dji--di / tc-ha / ma'<4. 
tsu'-gwum-da" ki-'tc-t'cicdje"-la\ tsu'-nikVn-ma'x-Mi, tsu'-ma"-ge'-la'-diki'ye, 
tsu'-nikH'n-dat'cidji'yu gs"-tsu-m. 

14. he- , niye-da' ( -ge-'ql. "'a-'!" ka-'dic kwi-t'sga" dixu-'t'l. "he'-! 
dji'-ge? da-nahethe-'de t'sga' da'pi'lk w ? (2) x-we'nantl-du-qla'mniyu-ka". 
nantl-du--x-we- / n-t'sga'\ hana'-ka" hi's-na / ntl-du--kwi-'-we-n-t'sga /t . hi's- 
nantl-du-hu'me-ke we-'n-t'sga--d9ma'ix u ." x-we-'n-dla'nl£ts. 

15. ha'it'ct-tb-daxwa'lxwal, tsu'-ge'y u ' xwume cli''we, tsu'-t'cicdje'Ma. his- 
ha"-nukwi- / ndje'-dji hi's-kwe'ye-'tlkweix tqs'u. tsu'-ni'ki'n-kiTd u wa, tsu'-gwum- 
ge^-de-'dje. (2) "dla'nd9S3'q !" a-'yu-gum-kwi--dla / n-dlan-u tfo-ni'kln. tsu'- 
gum-gek'ele'ya, tsu'-gus-di'tc-ak'a-'l. an-du'-ma--ku'wi. "a'N-'ne-u! (3) a'n- 
du-'hida-'mi! i y £si!" tsu'-du-a-'yu-i-'gei. tsu'-du-a's-u-a'k'a'lai, ma--du'-aN- 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 191 

none of them (came). Now red headed woodpecker arrived. (4) It was no long 
time before that girl had made a hole in the tree. So now he was just up to (new) 
mischief. "'e-'-hei now hasn't she a fine appearance! and those breasts of hers 
too!" Now what he did want was to touch her breasts. (5) The girl was on the 
point of leaving then, "'u'- 1 did not want to touch them. My hand merely dropped 
there." The hole was getting a little larger. So now he seized the hair of her head. 
(6) "Oh now is not her head just so very handsome!" Then he wanted to steal 
some of her feathers. So the girl leaped away, and left him. "a-'- my niece! (broth- 
er's daughter !) (7) Come here ! come here ! I was not doing anything to you. Come 
here! come back here! I was only playing with you." But the girl never returned. 
(8) So he cut himself up, he sliced himself into small pieces, and he threw them 
outside the hole. All cut up he threw himself out, because the tree hole was not 
large enough. Then he got out, and he collected those (parts) of himself. (9) Then 
raven stole his entrails, and his eyes likewise, buzzard it was who stole his eyes. 
So he went along eyeless, and also without entrails either. 

16. He could only hear children playing, so then he went to there, and he 
arrived there where the children were playing. "Hs'- children. Come here! (2) 
Do you see that yonder? u-'! that thing going over there?" So the children went 
to there (to him). "Where is it, uncle (mother's brother)?" "Come right here so 
that you can see it." (3) Indeed the children went close to the old man, and then 
he seized one, and he took out its eyes, and he put them in for his own eyes, they 
became his own eyes, the eyes of that child (did). "You will all be eyeless, and so 



ku'wi. tsu'-a-'yu-lege'lq-dji. (4) a'N-he-'niye ma-'n-woi'xat-tla-ni'kin tls-x- 
gwe'is. tsu'-gwum-ma-'tsi'iya-an-hut'su-'tam. '"e-'--hei gwa-a'n-ke-'k-dahs'm- 
ojetc! hi's-kwa-daga-'t's!" tsu'-gwum-kwi--du- / ha'ya tla-dani'xda tla-daga-'t's. 
(5) tsu'-ga-s-i-'gsi tla-gwe'is. "'u'- a'n-u'-kuwi du-'ha'ya ni'xda. tsi-ge"- 
tu-ya-niki'lan." wugadi'ya gi'gwa tla-wa'xs. tsu'-gwum-ha'lmi ha-'masadja-'- 
da. (6) "u-'- hei-gwa-a'n nahe-'wudzan kwa-dase'iJ" tsu'-gwum-du-'ha'ya 
wa'x^an tla-da'ws'tl. tsu'-hwa'ldi-tia-gwe'is, tsu'-ha-'gwiya. "a-'- nax-upa'na. 
(7) e /( dji! e"dji! ma-'-'na-an-dji-xalda-'mi. s"dji! bi-'nat'si-'yax! tsi-'na- 
maga'nidami." ma^-aN-bi-'na't's tla-gws'is. (8) tsu-gwum-baspa'1-as-dat's", 
e-'ki'li'i d.xa', tsu'-gwum-kwr-x^wa' 1 tla-x-waxe"etc. tsu'4oiTgwatc x u kwa'i- 
da't'e, na-'im-an-wa-'ga-tla-wa'xe tla-ni'kin. tsu'-sa'lt', tsu'-hi-t'cu'wa tla-dat'e". 
(9) hei-ma-'tsi x-gu'gum kwi--la-'ya tla-dagwa'hyas, tsu'-gwum-we-'n-his tla- 
daxwa'lxwal, tckwa'cle' kwi-la'ya tla-daxwa'lxwal. tsu'-gwum-da'-ba'a^ham 
ami-xwa'lxwal, ws-'n-his-a'mi-gwa'hyas. 

16. tsi'-gwum-hi-'me-qa'wa-'ya alica-'ni-'da, tsu"-ge"-la, tsu'-gwum-ge"-dji 
tli-hi-'ms-alica'ni-da'adja. "he-'-- hi-'me. ha'ma-e"dji! (2) hama-'^ni'i'-s? 
u-'! e-di'tc-la?" a'yu-ge'-la' tH-hi-'me. "idja'uxa, axa-'xi?" "ge'sde-e'^dji 
kla-'wi"-nantl." (3) a- / yu-gs /t -la'a'yam-tl3-hi- / me ns'1-t'ce tiatc-tu-"mi't'ladja, 
tsu'-gwum-hit'ci'-gala'm, we / n-k^d--gu'm-q'al-daxwa'lxwal, we'n-kwi'ye-'daxwa'l- 
xwal, kwi'ye-da-gum-xwa'lxwal, tla-lfi'lga-daxwa'lxwal. "gus-tci'1-hantl a'mi- 



192 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

they will name you snail. (4) That is what they will call you. The next of you 
will all be eyeless." That is what he said to those whose eyes he had stolen. Then 
he went on. 

17. Now he found strawberries, and he ate of them. He never got full. So 
he looked to the rear, and they were just in a line behind him. "Oh I forgot I 
lacked entrails." (2) Then he thought of wild parsnips. "Oh I will have them for 
entrails." So indeed he gathered them, and he thrust and shoved them into his 
anus. Oh they would not stay in. So then he thought of something. (3) "Oh I 
will put pitch on it." Then he put pitch on his anus, 54 so that what he had thrust 
inside there would not fall out of his anus. Now he went on. 

18. Then (he saw) children were playing, and he reached there. "He---- how 
are you playing that?" "Oh we jump over the fire." (2) "Oh let me jump too." 
So he also leaped over the fire. But the pitch melted, and then his entrails dropped 
out. "Oh dear I forgot the pitch on my anus." (3) Then he seized one of the chil- 
dren, and from it he stole the entrails. Indeed then the child lacked entrails. 65 
(He said,) "The next people (the Indians coming) will do all sorts of things in that 
manner." 

19. Then he went along, and he saw a house, and he got to there, "He-'- my 
younger sister! I will remain here a while, because I have come from so long a dis- 



tcil-hantl-xwa'lxwal, we-'n-tcil-hantl-du-le-t'ci-'m ma'tHk\ (4) we'n-tcil-hantl- 
du-sinsa-'nu. qla'm-niyu-tcilne gu-'s-tci'l-hantl-ami-xwa'lxwal." we'n-i'ld u wa 
ttetc-la-'ya-daxwa'lxwal. tsu'-g^'um-ia'. 

17. tsu'-le-'las-gi'ldat'a, tsu-gwum-kwi-dla-'u. an-du'-t'lu-'du. tsu'-qra'- 
mindje xi-'la, hei-ma-'-tsi kwr-wa'ngaq qla'mniyu-da. "u'- naqsi"u-ami-gwa'l- 
79S-t'H." (2) tsu /t -gum-qa-"y a 4-kl a ''t;s. "u/ hi-na'ntl gwa'hyas." a-'yu-gum- 
hi-yu'q w da, wi- / -mu-'yus9djed9-kwi'--t.ca. u-' a'N-dji'-dace'c. tsu'-gwum-ditc- 
k^a-'ts. (3) "u-'- s'a't'lda'-wantl." tsu'-gwum s'a't'lda tla-damu-'yu's, a'ni-- 
da-tu-'yat ttatc-ge"-t.ca mu-'yusadje-da. tsu'-gwum-la'. 

18. he'i-gum-hi-'me-alica-'ni-'da, tsu'-gwum-ge^-dji. "he---- dji'-e'-tcil'ali- 
ca-'ni-'da?" "u-'- he'melt'itci'lhwa'ldidi." (2) 'V hi's-wantl e'ne-hwa'l-di." 
tsu'-his-hi'dji-he'meltitc-hwa'l-di. wr-xaxsa'l-u tta-s'a't'l, tsu'-gwum-kwi--tu-'ya 
tla-dagwaTyas. "u-'-- naqsi' nas'a-'t'la tfo-'namu-'yu's." (3) tsu'-gwum-hi'- 
t'ci-ha'lmi-tb-hi-'me, tsu'-gwum-kwi'-la'ya dagwa'hyas. a'yu-gwum-kwi-'-ya- 
(Ja'im-gwaTyas tli-hi'me. "qla'mniyu'-ka' x-we-'n-hantl-du'-gu-'s-ditc-wa-'tsa." 

19. tsu'-gum-la'a'cjham, tsu'-gum-ye-'ts-kla-'wi, tsu'-gum-ge"-dji. "he-'- 
nax-gwa'1-a! ne-'wi-wantl-i'dje', na'im-x-he-'Wu'dzane ne-'malkluwe-'t'e." tsu'- 



64 Which is perhaps why children in play nickname a coyote 'pitch-on-his-anus' (H. s'a't'l- 
da'yau-Samu • 'yus, M. s'a't'lda'yau-u'mu'yus). 

65 Mrs. Peterson did not know who these children were. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 193 

tance in order to visit you." And so then there he stayed indeed. (2) His sister's 
children were young persons (girls). One day he built a fire outside. "Come, my 
nieces (brother's daughters), sit over here!" Of course they sat down there. (3) 
Now he kicked the fire, and the fire fell towards them. Then the young girls tumbled 
backwards, and sure enough he saw their vulvas. "That one with the fat thing (vul- 
va), he'! that is the one I will ask to accompany me." So then. 

20. "Younger sister! I am going fishing. That niece (brother's daughter) of 
mine, I would like to have that one go with me. She will make (slice for smoking) 
the salmon. We will dry (smoke) a quantity of them." (2) "Indeed she may go!" 
So then they went. Now he was getting up to mischief. They were getting close 
to where they were going, and then he did tricky things. He (spoke) thus to a tree, 
"Big ones fall down! (3) one will be to the rear, another will be ahead." Sure 
enough that is the way it was. Now he climbed up on one of them, but the girl 
could not get up on it there. (4) "Name me! I will help you if you call me by a 
(correct) name." So then the girl called him all sorts of names (kinship terms). 
"But not that way! How did your mother name your father? call me like that!" 
(5) "6-- my husband! help me (up over it)!" "Ha'hahahaha! That is the way I 
wanted you to speak." Then they went on, and they reached there where the peo- 
ple's (fishing) place was, where they dried salmon. (6) Now he made his fish dam. 
"Today I will just spear fish. That is the way I will obtain them." He speared 
quantities indeed, and the girl cut them up. (7) Then she roasted the heads by 
the fire, and she roasted the tails that way too. (She said,) "My but I will enjoy 
eating them! I am hungry!" Then it was getting towards evening, and the girl 
went inside, and she prepared her cooking. 

gum-a-'yu-da-dlu'gwa. (2) ge'netc-ka'-dahi'me tta-dakws-'ne't'l. hit'ci' ga- 
ha-'ya tsu'-gum-he'malt'-qa'nu-t'ci'H'ya. "e"dji"is, pgwa'ntl, di'u-isdle'gege 1 !" 
a-'yu-ge'-dk'qssm. (3) tsu'-gum-t'gwa" tla-dahe'malt', a-'yu-gum-ge'^-kwi-xau- 
tci'ya tfe-he'malt'. a'yu-gum-dza"antc xatdi'ya tk-ge'ne-tc-l£a, a-'yu-kwi-gu'm- 
kla'wi d9ma'ix u ma. "wi'-icdje'u-gum mi'ts di'lu, he 7 ! ku'wi-wantl-a'uct." 
tsu'. 

20. "xwa'l! pga'lis-wantl. x-kwa-'ng'upa'na, ku-ku'wi-wantl-ma'nt'dzu-n. 
x-kwi'-hantl-dzi-'ya kwe-ge'lyeq. ga'l-nantl-t'c'la-'t." (2) "tsu'-a'yu-la- 
ha'ntl-i!" tsu'-itc-a-yu'-ba. tsu'-gwum-t'smi-'xwa'ni'ye. tsu'-gwum-ga-si'ya-itc- 
ge"-dji tli-itcia'a'dja, tsu'-gwum-a'niya-hu't'su-tam. tsu'-gwum-we-'n-ni'lpn, 
"wa-'-ga-nantl-tu'witaniya! (3) his-ha'ntl-qlg'mniyu hi't'ci, wi'-his-hantl-hsle'- 
yu hi't'ci." a'yu-gwum-me'-x-we'n. tsu'-gwum-ge-heTeq tH-hi't'ci, ga"n-dji 
gaxi'nxi'nu tta-gwe'is. (4) "he'lc^de'M tsa-ki'ndami-nantl inantl-hal^da'i." 
a-'-yu-tb-gwe'is gu-s-dji'-haqha'l-aq\ "ma--du'-an-x-we- / n! dji / -du--g£- / -haqhaT- 
ad[ kwa-nex-e'n-e kw9-n8'eTe? we-'n-hald.de 1 !" (5) "6-- nsx-de'mal! tsaki'n- 
dai!" "ha'hahahaha! x-ws'n-ku-udu-'ha'ya-netli'." tsu'-itcla'a'yam, tsu-'- 
itcdjr-ge" tta-du-ka'-mit'lda"ya-S3dja, i-du-ge'lyeq-ilt'c'la'i. (6) tsu'-a-'yu- 
dzitsdu"nis tk^tatta't. "dih'i ma'tsi-wantl-db'mal. x-we-'n-wantl-hi-ga'- 
la'm." a-'yu-ga-'-l-tsgwa', tsu'-gasga'ls-tta-gwe'is. (7) tsu'-se'L-ski'ndisa-'t'a, 
we'n-his-qa'ila-s-ski'ndisa-'t'a. "hai-wa'ntl-gwa-a / n-kiTe--dlu'wi'yam ! Ige-'n'u." 
tsu'-gatqVidu, tsu'-ds-'djs-tta-gwe'is, tsu / -lu y d9da / ya-tl3-d3q"mi'ya-t'a-s. 



194 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

21. Now the trickster was getting up to (more) mischief. He took just (dark) 
salmon blood, and he threw the blood between her (legs). "Ye-'---i! You are men- 
struating. (2) You must not eat fresh salmon!" That is what he told the girl. 
"Hereafter women will menstruate. Some of them will (flow) five days before they 
cease menstruating. They will not eat anything fresh (until cessation of the flow) . ' ' 
(3) That was how he spoke, and that was how it was to be indeed. They do men- 
struate, ever since that time women menstruate. Now the girl wept furtively. 
"Ha'. So he thinks that I know nothing. (4) I will get away from him, I will 
leave him." That is how the girl thought. "I am going to bathe." "Do not be 
away too long." "'a n -'!" ("Yes!") (5) Then she got pitch, and she made a torch 
(and put it in the ground). Then she went off. Now she removed her clothes, and 
she obtained a stick, she stuck it in the ground alongside, and she placed her clothes 
on it there. (6) She also put her basket (pa-'ctala) hat on top of it there. Indeed 
it was like a person. "Stick! When he halloos, then you must reply to him." Now 
the girl leaped into the water, and she swam towards home. "He'--i! why are 
you so very long?" (7) Indeed that stick answered, "He-'--! I am still swimming 
around." That was how it answered. But the girl was no longer there, (she was) 
a long distance away. So he went down to the water there, and he seized the head, 
but it was only the basket (pa-'ctala) hat that he grasped, it was only a stick there. 
(8) "Ha n -'! she thought she would go home ! But she will not be able to go by the 
trail. She could not climb over the large logs." But the girl had not gone by the 
trail, she returned home in the water, and then the girl reached home. (9) "He 



21. tsu'-gwum-t'smi-'xwa'ni'ya tla-t'smi-'xwan. tsu'-gwum-ma-'tsi-wudi'n- 
gum-galmi't'a, tsu'-gwiim-ge'ldja-kwi-titsa-'ta tla-wu'din. "ye-'---i! hu-t'se'm- 
diyena. (2) an-a'ntl dji--dze-'s-gelye'q-ldjaT' we-'n-gum-i-'ld u wa tla-gwe'is. 
"di-'-qla'mniyu nihi-ka'mdasa'-hantl ehu-me-'lje. gent'ci'nsi-gaha'is esti'sda- 
ha'ntl-du we-'n-dahe-'niye'eis hu-t'se-'m. wi'-an-ha'ntl-du--dze-'s-dla-'u." (3) 
x-we'n-gum-iTat, a-'yu-gum-x-we-'n. a-'yu-gum-nihu-t'se-'mdisa, xta'miduwe 
kwi-'-nahu-t'se'mdasa tla-hu'me-'ke. tsu'-tla-gwe'is x-sadla'ntc axa'ts. "ha', 
x-we'n-da'lu'we a'Ntc-'nami't'sis. (4) hi't'c-wantl, i-'gei-wantl." we-'n-da'lu'- 
we-tla-gwe'is. "ha'm-a-wantl sdle-'qe." "a'N-tle'-he-niye'e'iyax." "'a n -'!" (5) 
tsu'-gele'u-ga'lmi-'t'a, we'n-kwi--t'ca'l. tsu-'-l-a. tsu'-k'la'-tla-date'tc, tsu'-ni'- 
kMn-ga'la'm, t'lha'wa'ya-kwi-lam-i"ya, tsu'-t'a'ma-ge' t -kwi-dla'idisa-t'a tla-da- 
te-'tc. (6) hi's-tla-dapa-'ctala his-kwi'-ge-xi'ni'ya. a'yu'-gwa-ka". "ni'^in! 
i'nantl-du-k'e'ldu-n, wi-'-qta-'mi-nantl-du." tsu'-hwa'l-di-hapadja tla-gwe'is, 
tsu'-x-mi'ltc-wa'si. "hs-'- -i! dji'-ge-ens-he-he-'-niye?" (7) a-'yu-du-qta'm tls- 
x-ni'k4n, "he-'--! a'iwa-udzasdla-'cjai." we-'n-du-qta'mts. hit'c-a'N-da-hi-tla- 
gwe'is, he-'--ye. tsu'-ge'-te-'ixsu, tsu'-se'ldjeda-ga'la'm, he'i-ma'tsi pa-'ctala- 
gala'm'itc, ma'tsi-niki'n-da. (8) "ha n -'! we-'n-di'lu'we we-'st-hantl. an-ha'ntl- 
dji'-he'wel-ditc-la'. wudla'm-aq-ni'l^in an-ha'ntl-du--dji"-da-wu't'li." hit'c-a'n- 
he'wel-ditc-la'-hi tla-gwe'is, ha-pa'tc-wa'si, tsu'-we-'st-tla-gwe'is. (9) "an-u'- 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 195 

did bad things to me, and he had me call him 'my husband.' And when I was fin- 
ishing my cooking, this is what he said. 'Hey! you are menstruating. (10) You are 
not to eat things (that are fresh) because you are menstruating.' That is what he 
told me, and that is why I ran away from him." That is what the girl explained. 

22. Now the trickster returned home. "Why did you run away? Why did 
you leave me?" (The mother of the girl retorted,) "Why did you do bad things to 
her then?" (2) "Why I did nothing to her!" "Indeed you did all sorts of things 
to me!" "He 7 - you lie!" "I am not lying." (3) "You are just continuing to lie." 
Then the girl wept. "9'! so now you are ashamed because you are lying. You 
yourself named me. (4) You said 'my husband.' That is the way you named me. 
Henceforth no matter how smart they (women) will be, they will become ashamed, 
and so men will vanquish them (in argument)." Then they told him to leave. 
(5) "Go away! we want you to leave here!" To be sure, the trickster departed. 
That is the way he did to those people. The girl was wood-duck. 

23. Now the trickster went along, he dug and picked all sorts of things, 
and this is what he said, "The next people (the Indians to come) will eat these." 
For whatever he ate, that is what he said. (2) That is the way he journeyed along. 
Now he made his home at a (certain) place. He built a canoe, he finished making 
his canoe. (3) "He'! I will go upriver, I will trap there, I will make blankets, 
winter food, salmon, elk meat, acorns, myrtle nuts, hazel nuts, and then I will 
have quantities of food." That is what the trickster planned to do. (4) And indeed 



hut'su-'du-n, ws'n-wutsa'n-haqha'laq' nsx-ds-'mal. wi'-yu-gum-dla'k-q tta-'ng- 
qg'miya-t'as, wi'-we-'n-gwum-i'l-at. he'i! hu-t'ss'mdiyen. (10) an-a'ntl-dji'- 
dlu"wi'yam na'im-nahut'se'mdiys. x-we'n-wi-i'hdun, we-'n-ditc-du-wg'ne'q'e." 
we'n-kwe -n e'nu-tb-gwe'is. 

22. tsu'-we-st-tlatc-t'smi-'xwan. "dji'-ge--en-e'qhe? dji'-ge'-anaha-'qsu'dai?" 
"x-dji^-gs-tb-na-kwi-an-hut'su'wa?" (2) "ma-'-u-a'N-dji'-xa'H!" "a-'yu-ni- 
gu-s-djr-an-hu-t'su'dai!" "he-'-i he'.usdu-'na!" "an-u'he.usdu." (3) "ma-'- 
na'-gs he'wese-'nu." tsu'-xga'nu-tta-gws'is. "a-'-i! tsu-'-ngdjicdzi'lt'su na'im- 
nahe'wesenu. x-ne'u-nawa'n-halqdai. (4) ngx-de-'mal da'nu"n9. we'n-ghaq- 
ha'lqa'i. di'-qla'mniyu ma'i-hantl-du-gwa-su-'det, ma-ha'ntl-du-djicdzi'lt'su, 
x-t3'mli--hantl-du-tga'\" tsu'-iltxwa'nts. (5) "i-'gei! tla-xge'de!" a-'yu-gwum- 
i-'gei-tte-t'smi-'xwan. we'n-tb-ka-we'n-wa-'tsa'ama. wi-'-wa-'tcal-gwe'is. 

23. tsu / -gwum-la"-tl9-t'smi / xw9n, gu-s-di'tc-du--yu'gwa, we'n-wen-du--iT- 
at, "qb'mniyu-ka'-hantl-kwr-dla-'u." ditc-du-'-ldja\ we'n-du--iTat. (2) wen- 
x-ws-'n-la'a'qham. tsu'-gwum-t'lda'ya-s dluq w sa-'ya. tsu'-gwum-tlgwa'ls-gum- 
dza'itst, hu-t'su'wa-tb-datlgu-'s. (3) "he'! daga'dja'-wantl-la-'ts, da'-wantl- 
t'she- / ye"nu, dlagwe'-wantl-dza'itstda'ma, ge-'lu-daqwa'nyau'wi-da, ge'lyeq, 
ki'ts^i't'et, aTa'm, cidji'ls, t'e'le"m9S, wi--ga'l-nantl-<4w9'nyau." we-'n-gum- 
wa"nu tb-t'smi-'xwgn. (4) tsu'-gum-a-'yu daga'dja'-haTats, tsu'-gum-a-'yu- 



196 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

he went upstream, and indeed there up the river he lived. He made (smoke dried) 
food, he trapped so that he would have the hides for his clothing, (and) elk hides 
for his blankets. Indeed there he lived. (5) Now one day pretty near springtime 56 
he got ready, "'a' I will go downriver, I will live down towards the ocean." But 
he was just getting up to some mischief. Now he went on downriver. (6) "He' 
tip over, my canoe!" Indeed his canoe upset. Then he drifted on down (in the 
water), and he named places. (7) "This is the way it will be named here, 'blanket- 
spread-place.' 57 That is how the next people will name that place. (8) This is 
the way they will name 'salmon-bale-drift-place,' thus will they name that place. 
'Paddle-drift-in-place,' in that manner they will name it (there). (9) 'Where-the- 
mat-drifts-in-place,' that is how they will name that. 'Bailer-drift-in-place,' that 
is the way they will name that. (10) 'Canoe-drift-ashore-place,' that is how they 
will name that." Now he was far downriver, there he himself drifted ashore, and 
he named it in this manner, " 'Man-drift-ashore-place,' that is the way it will be 
named." (11) Then he went ashore, and he built a fire, and he made a grass-brush 
house, (and) there he lived. And he labored, he prepared foods. 

24. "He' I will journey about." And so then he decorated himself, it was 
wild clover weeds (stems) that he picked. "He'hehe! (laughter) you will be just like 
money (resemble large dentalia)." (2) And he adorned himself with them. "He-'. 
I wonder what sort of thing will be my feathers ? I will pretend they are red headed 



da-leqle-'m da'gai. d^wa'nya-wa'nu, t'she-ye"nu kw-i'de-date-'tc tfo-da'ye'q, 
ki'ts-di"yeq t'lha'i-da'aida'da. a-'yu-gum-da' t -l9qle'm. (5) tsu'-gwum-mi'nt'ci 
gasi-'ya-tsta'm-i'ye tsu'-gum-hu'we'edzam. "'a' ga-ya'ts-wantl, ba'ldicdjuwi- 
wantl-dlu'q w S3m." he'i-gu'm-ma-'tsi-t'smi-'xwa'ne-nu'wiye. tsu'-gum-ga'ya'i. 
(6) "he' tlbg'ldaseq nex-tlgu-'s!" a-'yu-gum-batlba'lu tta-datlgu-'s. tsu'-gum- 
da'-dtaxe'x, tsu'-gum-sa'n-san-tta-t'lda-'yas. (7) "we'n-dantl-sa'n, t'lha'i-laxe-'- 
xetc. wa'n-hantl-du-sinsa-'nu kwa-t'lda-'yas x-qb'mniyu-ka. (8) x-we'n-il- 
hantl-du-si'n-a'na ha'iwa"li-da-'n9"nitc, we'n-hantl-du-si'n-sa-'nu ku-kuwi'- 
t'lda-'yas. t'lehe'-da-'n9"nitc, we'n-anti-du--si'nsa-'nu. (9) kwi-t'cci'L da'na'- 
nitc, ku'wi-hantl du--we'n-si'nsa-'nu. ge-'xfets da-'na'nitc, ku'wi-ha'ntl-du we'n- 
si'nsa-'nu. (10) gwa-tlgu-'s da-'na'nitc, ku'wi-hantl du'-we-'n-si'nsa-'nu." tsu- 
gum-q'a'imi'cdja, ge'^da^-danu-tH-hi'dji, tsu'-gum-we-'n-sa'nts, "de'mii-da-'- 
na'nitc, we'n-dantl-sa'n." (11) tsu'-gum-he'gw9n, tsu'-gwum-da"-t'ci'l-e, 
tsu'-gwum-mi'k-ye-'ts-hu-t'su'wa, da"-gum-l9qle-'m. tsu'-du-dzi-'dze', qwg'nya- 
wa-'nu'-du. 

24. "he' ha'ma-wantl yux- w u'me." tsu'-gum-dza'itst-da't'e, ye'e't-dala'- 
nik kwi--gu'm-yu'q w da. "he'hehe! gwa'-nantl hada'i'mis." (2) tsu'-gum- 
as-di'tsim. "he-'. ida-ha'ntl-di'tc-'n3"wetl? gwa-yu-'t'c wantl legeTeq-dgse'L, 

66 I.e., in early springtime when wild currants bloom. 

"Mrs. Peterson knew nothing about the places this trickster named; she supposed they may 
have been places where his possessions drifted onto a rock or beach. She was neither sure of their 
having been names of myth sites nor of their perhaps having been actual sites known by these 
names to the modern Coos. 



1940 1 Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 197 

woodpecker heads, as if it is my headband." (3) So then indeed he plucked wild 
current blossoms, and he made it of them, and he had that for his feathered head- 
dress. Then he made a quiver, and he put arrows in it, and he packed his quiver, 
and also his large bow (for big game). (4) Then he looked into the water, and there 
he saw himself. "Ha'-. I look fine. They will think, 'He must be a wealthy per- 
son.' " So he went on indeed. (5) He got to where there were people, a village lay 
(there). "He'-! a wealthy person has arrived." That is what the people said, 
"e'- you go into there. There the wealthy person (the village leader) lives." (6) 
Indeed he went there. The wealthy man was sitting outside. "Ha--! it is good (I 
am glad) that you have come here. Do you know where there is a (good) shaman ?" 
"'e-' I am a shaman myself!" (7) "'a n -! (Ah yes!) since you are a shaman, my 
daughter is ill. If you cure her you may have her for your wife." "'a-'." (Very 
well.") Then he went inside. (8) "I want to look at her." Indeed he went in. 
"Be seated there!" Now they (first) gave him food, then he finished eating, and 
he spoke in this manner. "You are all to go outside. (9) I do not want anyone when 
I work on a person. I am alone (then). You are to bring me water, and then you 
are all to go outside." Indeed so it was, all the people went outside. (10) The sick 
person moaned, (she ate) no food, that was just how she did, groaning, "Penis! 
penis!" 58 "Ha--! I will cure her! she is merely lusting. (11) She only wants to 
copulate. When I do it to her she will get well." And so indeed he copulated with 
the girl. Then he bathed her. When he finished copulation he washed her. (12) 
Then he spoke in this way, "Come in! give her food to eat." The people entered, 
of course. The girl was hungry, she wanted food. Indeed they gave her food, and 
she just ate it right up. (13) The shaman worked on the girl four days. Then (the 

gwa-yu't'c-hantl-ru naxu-'lu-'ti." (3) tsu'-gwum-a-'yu tiptipa'li gum-yu'q w da, 
we • 'n-kwi --gu'm-dzaitst , wi -'-kwiy e • '-da-gum-tsa'ltsa • '1. tsu'-gum-t 'cxu 'ni-hu - 
t'su'wa, tsu'-gum-wuta'm-d9-gext'la'ut, tsu'-gum-t'a-'mi-tla-dat'cxu-'ni, we'n-his- 
tta-dagugwi'l. (4) tsu'-gum-ha-'pVdja-xi-'la, tsu'-gum-ge"-kla-'wi-d9t'e. "ha'-. 
kY'le nax-he'mq^tc. we'n-dantl-da'lu'we'eme, hethe'de-dax." a'yu-gwum la'. 
(5) klbi'ndje'-dji, t'lda'yas-tsi'm. "he-'-! hethe'de-dji." we'n-Ta-la-'nu-tb- 
ka". "«•'■ ge'-nantl-de'dje. ge'-bqle'm kwe-hethe-'de." (6) a-'yu-ge"-la. 
qa'nu--dlu'gwa tla-hethe-'de. "ha---! ke-'le di-ni-di-'-dii. anu'kwa-"niyada-i' 
idja'u-ila'xdain?" "V wi'-e'n-e-u-i'la'x^ain!" (7) '"'a n -! i-n 3 -i'la'xqain, 
xe'nw9S nugwa'ya. i'nantl-lha' wi-'-kwi--nantl-hu-'mis." "V." tsu'-de'dje. 
(8) "ha'ma-wantl-kla'wi." a'yu'-de-'dje. "e'ge-dlu-'gwi!" tsu'-datski-'nu, 
tsu'-e'wi-dadb'wa-'was, tsu'-wen-i'lat. "gu-'s-tci'l-hantl-sa'lt'. (9) an-wu'-du-- 
du'ha'ya yu-u'-du-ka"-dzi'ya. mi-'t'ci-wu'-du. ha-'p-tci'l-hantl-ni-'m, tsu'- 
tcil-hantl-tVma gu-s-sa'lt'." a'yu-me-x-we-'n, gus-a'lt'-da'-ka. (10) gingi'ni 
tla-ka-xe'nwas, a'mi-db'wawas, ma'tsi-we'n-wa-"nu, gi'ngi'ni, "pi'lg w ! {biTg w !" 88 
"ha--! Iha-wa'ntl! tsi-tapge-'k\ (11) tsi'-du-'ha'ya x-wi'-haitst. yu-wantl- 
ha'idzuwa wi'-l£i'l-et-hantl." a-'-yu wa-'tsant-tl9-gwe'is. tsu'-s-dla-'q". y3-a'- 
wi'a-dax-he'idz9tc sdla'q. (12) tsu'-we-n-tli, "e'di'tctcil! qa'tsktci'l-hanti." 
a-'yu-xla'm-a-tla-ka". Ige-'n-tla-gwe'is, dlu'wa-'was du-'ha'ya. a-'yu-c^atski-'nu, 
ma'n-ma-'tsi-dlu"wi'yam. (13) dza'wa-gaha'isu dzi-'ya-tla-gwe'is tle-x-i'l-- 

58 The girl mumbled this so that only the trickster was able to understand the word. 



198 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

fifth day, when) he was going to work on the girl, and one funny-nosey woman 
(said), "(Strange that) he heals her so very quickly. I will watch on. It may be 
some different and strange sort of thing (the way he doctors). (14) Perhaps he 
is a trickster." And indeed then the woman hid, and sure enough he merely copu- 
lated with her. "So that is the way he has been doing to her! Why indeed he is 
not a shaman at all. He only does it to (copulates with) her !" (15) Now the shaman 
finished, and he merely washed the girl. "m-. Sure enough it is only that trickster !" 
Then that woman went and told them all. "He is no shaman whatever. (16) He 
is only a trickster. He has only copulated with her. He pretended that he was a 
shaman." Then they drove him away. "Get away from here! (17) You are not 
a person ! You are a trickster." And indeed they would have beaten him and killed 
him, but he leaped outside (crying out), "Ha'hahahaha she was wanting copulation, 
so that is why I copulated with her." He said that as he ran off. He fled. 

25. And then the girl became pregnant, and pregnant the girl wept all the 
time. Now she gave birth to boy children, and her parents killed her babies. They 
threw one of the girl's babies into the water. (2) The trickster was doing something 
or other by the (Coos Bay) bar. And then a baby drifted down. He got it, and he 
took it home, and he raised the baby, he raised it (by feeding it) with tallow. 

26. That woman just cried every day, all year long the woman wept. That 
youngster (her boy who lived with the trickster) began to hunt. It was her he saw, 
(and) he hid, and he thought, "I wonder why she is weeping all the time?" (2) 



a'xdain. tsu'-gwum-gedzi-'dzu-'nis tb-gwe'is, tsu'-hit'ci-tb-hu-'mis dja'ns-'- 
wet'l, "e-kwi y hs-tk' t -ma-'t. hr'dadaya-wantl. ma--du'-x-dji'-ditc. (14) yu'- 
wu't's-t'smi-'xwan." tsu'-ayu-sdle-'nan tb-hu-'mis, hei-a-'yu-itc ma-'tsi'ya- 
ha'tsha-iyats. "x-we-'n-x-kwi'ya tb-kwi--dzi-'ya! a'n-x-a-'yu-tb-kwr-i'l-a'x- 
Cjain. ma-'tsi-x-du--dji'-xa'H!" (15) tsu'-e-'wi-tb-iTa'xd.ain, hei-ma-'tsi-tsu- 
sdla-'o; tb-gwe'is. "hV. a-'yu-x-lcwa-t'smi-'xwan!" tsu'-sgu-'ya-gu-s-wi"-tbxtc- 
hu-'mis. "a'n-x-i'1-a'xqain. (16) t'smi'xwanix. tsi--x-du-ha'itst. we'n-gwa'- 
yu't'c i'la'xdain." tsu'-xwutxwi-'nu "i-'gsi xge'de! (17) a'n-x-na-ka" ! t'smi-'- 
xwanxneV a-'-yu-tsu'-han-me'n-giyu tsu-'tsu'i-'de\ wi-'-qa'mrdja-hwaTdi, 
"ha'hahahaha ha'ma-gs-he'its-duha'ya"ya\ x-we-'n-ditc ku-u-kwi--hatsha-'yats." 
la--du'-hwiys-t. ns'q-e. 

25. hei-ma-'tsi-mu'weldiye tla-gwe'is, ws'n-kwr-mu'wel gu-s-mi'n-a'x-ats- 
tb-gwe'is. tsu'-kwi--tlhwi'ya tca'n37a tla-dahi-'me, tsu'-ilki-'ya tb-dax-ma-'- 
ni'ya-s tb-dahi-'me. hit'ci-'-ha-pVdja titti'yu tb-diki'lga tb-gwe'is. (2) wi-- 
q'a'imiya gum-a'n-hu-t'su-'tam tbl-t'smi-'xwan. hei-ma-'tsi-ki'lga-dbxe-'x. 
tsu / -kwi--ga'la'm, tsu'-kwr-wusa-'ya, wi-'-kwr-ha-'wiya-tli-ki'lga, dzu-'dbtc- 
kwi--ha-'wiya. 

26. de'ngi gaha'is ma--du / -kwi-hu-'mis-du-a'xats, de'ngi-idzi-'mas-kwi-a'- 
x-ats tb-hu-'mis. wr-geli'mdi-ws tbtc-di-'lu't'l. kwi--du'-ha'ma / q, x-sadb'ntc, 
we-'n-du-di'lu'we, "ida'-di'tcya a-ha'-gu-s-mi'n-gal-a'da?" (2) an-du'-kwi-i'l-- 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 199 

But he said nothing of it, he only thought about it. The child became a young man. 
He heard the woman crying still. Once he went to the woman. "Who are you, you 
who cry here all the time?" (3) "Oh I cannot help crying. That trickster. I did 
not think he was a trickster, that he could be one of the trickster people. He it 
was who caused me to have children, pretending to be a shaman. (4) Indeed it was 
my own parents who got him, and he just made me pregnant, and so I had children. 
But my parents did not want them. I could not take my children's part. I was so 
very sick, and I did not know what they did with my children. (5) That is why I 
cry all the time. That is why you have heard me crying all the time." That is how 
she explained to the person who had come to her. "Oh maybe I myself might be 
your own child, because my father is a trickster, and I am motherless." (6) That 
is what the young man said. Now they both cried. "Oh I do not like that father of 
mine! for having treated you like that. I will return home. You will see me to- 
morrow." (7) To be sure, it was like that then. His father returned home, he came 
back in the evening. Now the young man did not eat at all, he merely went to 
bed. And then he wept. (8) Early in the morning he arose, "rh. I will kill that 
trickster! I do not like his having copulated with my mother!" And sure enough 
that is the way it was. "Father! I want you to explain something to me." (9) 
"What is it I can tell you?" "How is it that I am motherless? I want to know." 
"Why do you want to know that?" "I just wanted to know that. (10) I wanted 
to know if my mother was dead." "Hu'hu! (disdainful mirth) your mother is 
dead. Your mother was no good, she was a loose woman. She just wanted a penis, 
and so of course I copulated with her, and then I just left her. " (11) Now the young 



d u wa, ma-'tsi-du--kwi-'-dji'nhaha'na'ya. di-'luli'ys tte-kVl-ga. ma--du" kwi-- 
qa'wa-'ya a'x-ats tta-hu-'mas. mi'n-t'ci sadja'nadza' tla-hu-'mis. "wi-'-x-na, 
ena-gu-s-mi'n diu-a'x-ats?" (3) "'u-' an-wa'-x-dji-aN-a'x'ats. x-t'smi-'xwan. 
we'n-'na'lu'ws an-da^-t'smi-'xwan, hs'i-x-kwa-tta-t'smi-'xwan ka'a'ma. wi'-x- 
kwr-wu-'nahi-'mede-uhu'wi-'n, gwa'yu't'c i'la'xqain. (4) a'yu-il-kwi-'-ga'la'm 
tla-'nsx-ma-'ni'ya-s, wi'-ma-'tsi-umu'weldu-dzu'n, wi'-'nihi-'mediysd/u. wi'-a'n- 
du-'ha'ya-tla-'nsx-ma-'ni'yas. an-wu'-dji'-kwi--ga'dli' tta-'nahi-'ms. xs'nwaswe- 
he'lt'-ha, wi'-an-u'kwa-'ni'yada dji'-il'aya-'dja tla-'nihi-'me. (5) wi-'-x-we-'n- 
ditc e'-u-gu's-mi'n a'x-ats. we'n-ditc-di-naqa"wimdai gus-mi'n-a'x-ats." we-'n- 
gwasgwa'i tla-ka'-hidju'wi-di-dji. "u-'- e'n-e-da-yu'Vut's kwa-nakiTga, na'im 
t'smi-'xwan ne'sTs, wi'-ami-'ne'e'n-s." (6) x-we'n-iTat-tla-di-'lu'l. tsu'-itc- 
mas-a'-itc ki'mi. "u'-- an-wu'd-u-'ha'ya kwa-'naYl-e! kwa-da-x-na-x-we-'n- 
W9ntdzs-'t'3t. wa's-i-wantl. a'ma-nantl-klu-'dai." (7) a'yu-ma'-we-n. wi-'- 
we-'st-tta-da'eTe, gatqa'i-we-'st. tsu'-ma-'tsi-a'N-dlu'wiyam tb-di-'lu'l, ma-'tsi- 
tsu'm. we'n-ga'a'x-ats. (8) (^'"mis dlu'q w s9m. "rh\ tsa-'u-wantl kwa- 
t'smi'xwan! an-wu'd-u-ha"ya kwa-da-x-kwr-wa-'tsan tla-'naVn-e!" a-'yu-me- 
x-we'n. "eli'! du'ha'ya'u ditc-ni'sgwi-'dai." (9) "ditc-ha'ntl-ge-snantl- 
gwa'sgwiya-'mi?" "dji'^-ge-a-u-a'mi-e'n-e? du- / ha'ya'u-kwa-"niya-da." "dji M - 
gs- en3-kwi--du- / ha'ya kwa-"niya-da?" "tsi'-wi-du-'ha'ya kwi-'-kwa"niya-da. 
(10) du'hai-a-u-kwa"niya-da i-da-qa'yau ne'e'ne." "hu'hu! qa'yau-ne'e'ne. 
a'N-we-'n-tfo-neYne, tcxa'nikwa. ma-'tsi-gwum-pi'lk^du-ha'ya, a'yu-wuha'itst, 
wi-'-ma-'tsi-uha'gwiya." (11) tsu'-kxa-'t-tb-x-di-'lu'l tb-de'e'l-e. "ha-, a'n- 



200 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

man shot his father. "Ha,-. You are not to speak insultingly of my mother!" And 
so he killed his father, and then he went to get his mother. (12) Now they buried 
him, they placed him in the grave. "Mother, we will go to another place." Indeed 
they (did). They went away from there. No one knew where the girl had gone to. 

27. Now the girl and her child traveled together, and they lived in all sorts 
of places. That is how they went along. They were going to go to a place far away. 
Indeed they did so. (2) One place where they were living his mother became ill, 
and then his mother died. The young man journeyed about, alone. "He'-. I too 
will be a trickster. I am alone. (3) I myself will do the very same way, just as my 
father did. Because that was how he raised me." Sure enough that was how the 
young man (did), he was also just like that, he took to playing tricks, he looked 
like his father, and indeed he did the same sorts of things. 59 (4) Now he got to 
people, all sorts of people lived there. And they took him into the house. They 
also were trickster people, and he remained there a long time. (5) Then he married 
one, he married one of the children of a trickster. And then they moved into their 
own house, there he and his wife lived. It was not long before they had a child. 

28. Different people lived in another (adjacent) house. 60 And now it was one 
of them who entered, (and said) "Ha' ! my child died. I do not want persons to die. 

(2) We should not have graves. People should not die. I am so very sick at heart." 
"'a-'- but let persons die ! it is nothing if they die !" (3) Now the wife of the young 
trickster man gave birth. No long time after, about one year, his own child died 

a'ntl kwi'-idje'e'i-iTd u wa kwa-'na'e'ne!" tsu'-tsa'u tla-da'eTe, tsu'-la-'dza tla- 
da'e'ne. (12) tsu'-itc tba-'ts, aga-'na'ya'itc. "ni'lca, ma-'-t'ldayasadja sha'ntl 
la'." a-'yu-itc. i-'gei'itc. a'n-x-wi'* kwi--kwa"niya-da ge'ndji-a'ya-tsam tla- 
gwe'is. 

27. tsu'-itc yu-'dst tla-diki'lga tla-gwe'is, tsu'-gus idja'u-itc laqlu-'t'tsam. 
we-'n-itc la"au hs-'n-t'ldacdja itc-ha'ntl-la. a-'yu-itc-ma-x-we-'n. (2) mi'n- 
t'ci-itc laqlu-'t'tsam tse-xs'n-xenu tla-daYns, tsu-'-qa'yau tla-da'e'ns. mi't'cu'- 
ye yux w u'm-e tla-di-'lu'l. "he-'-, hi's-wa'ntl-e'n-e t'smi-'xwan. mi-'t'cu-'ye'u. 

(3) hi's-wa'ntl-e'n-e-x-we-'n-ditc xa'H, dji-"-tra-'ne'e'l-e-xa'ltam. na'im-we-x- 
kwi--he-'wudzu-n." a-'yu-me-x-we-'n tla-di-'lu'l, hi's-hidji'-x-wen, t'smi-'xwa'- 
ni'ye, gwa'-tb-ds'ele-'-dax-he'mqetc, a-'yu-his-hi'dji-we-'n-ditc-xa'H. (4) tsu'- 
kibi'n-dje'-dji", gu-'s-didje'nen-ka" gs'-mit'lda'ya-'s. tsu'-idzu-'dje-ditdji'yu. 
wi-'-his-kwi--t'smi-'xw9n-ka, tsu-'-he-'niye-da'-dlu-'gwa. (5) tsu'-hit'ci-wa'mst's, 
hit'ci'-wamst's tte-t'smi-'xwan-dahi-'me. tsu'-mi-'dasi'ye da'ye-'ts, gs'-itc dle'- 
qsam tta-dahu-'mis. a'N-he-'niye tsi-itc nikiTgidi'yeq^itc. 

28. we'n-tla-ka' ma-'-ye-'dzatc bqlu't'tsam. hei-ma'tsi-kwi'-hi't'ci-de'djs', 
"ha'! qVyau-'nikiTga. an-u'du y ha'ya kwa-du-ka^-qayau. (2) a'mi--lhantl 
aga-'ni'wa-s. an-ha'ntl-du-ka'-qa'yau. hs'lt'-ha-la'nuwi xe'nwas-anlu'we." 
"'a'- ma'-hantl-du-ka"-4a'yau ! a'N-ditc-il-ha'ntl-du--qa'yau!" (3) tsu-tlhwi'- 
ya-tb-dahu-'mis, tia-t'smi-'xwan-di-'lu'l. a'N-he-niye, gwa-da-'-hi't'ci-idzi-'mas, 

89 Note that he is the third worldmaker-trickster of the narrative. 

60 These particular neighbors were not trickster people but a type of water spider (H. ws'n- 
ges, M. mi'l • ges) called colloquially "skippers, skip Jacks, water skaters." 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 201 

too. Now he went to there to the old man (his neighbor). "Hn-'l it really is so, it 
is true that a person is so very sick at heart. (4) We should be without deaths." 
"Hu'-. But I do not want that now. It will be better if they will die. My legs are 
too long. If they (crowds of living people) were to step on them they would break 
my legs. (5) So let them die, lest the people become too numerous, if they did not 
die off. I think no more of my child. You will be like that too, you will think no 
more of him." That is why the people do die. Indeed that is how it is. He did 
not think of him again. 

29. One year more, and again his wife gave birth, her baby was a boy. Now 
the young man got up to mischief . "Oh I will be a trickster, I will be like my father." 
Sure enough that was how he did. (2) "I will stick a sliver in my baby's finger 
there." To be sure that was what he did. The baby never ceased crying on account 
of that. Now then "I will go for a shaman." (3) Indeed a shaman (cottontail 
rabbit) came, and that shaman doctored it, and he sang, 

"Da-'yadayadaya-'-, da'yadayadaya." 61 

"His nose twitches up and down, e'e, 62 
heya henei heya henei. 
His ears are big, 
he has no tail, 
heya henu." 

hidji'm-al ki'lga his-qVyau. tsu'-ge"-la-ti9tc-tu"mit'li-tc. "hn'! a'yu--x-du, 
e-du-kwi'-lca'-xe'nwgs-dg'lu'we la'n-wi. (4) a'mi--l-hantl ku'ma-'wa-'s." "hu'-. 
ma-'-u-a'N-du-'ha'ya. ke'le-hantl i-'l-hantl-ku'mi'yam. he'lt'-ha-t'cidi'm ni'la'- 
ma'k. i-ilwa'tsxidzu-'n tlga'i'i'lax-kwa-andji'le. (5) ma-ha'ntl-kw u 'mi'yam, 
ye-he'lt'-ha-gata'lya kw9 r -ka'\ ya-a'N-kw u 'mi'yam. a'nya-ukila'l tta-'niljiTga. 
his-nantl-ne'u-x-we-'n, a'nya-nanti-kila'l." x-we-'n-ditc tl9-kwi- / -kw u 'mi / yam- 
tla-ka\ a-'yu a'yu-x-we-'n. a'N-da-s-kwr-dji'n-djina. 

29. hit'ci'-idzi-'mas-a'su, tsu-gum-da's tlhwi'ya tla-dahu-'mis, di'lu't'1-di- 
klTga. tsu'-gum-t'smi'xw'ni'ye tla-di-'lu'l. "u y - t'smi-'xwan-wantl, gwa-wa'ntl- 
tb-'na'eTs." a-'yu-ms-x-we-'n. (2) "he"-ki / ya-s-wantl g £ <-t.ca' kwa-'nik^lga 
dasu'weladja." a-'yu-gwum-we-'n-wa-'tsant. we-'n-kwi-a'N-e-'wi-a'x-ats tli- 
^i'lga. tsu / -gum-"u-'-i / l-a'xqain la'dzita-m." (3) a'yu-dji 5 tb-i'1-a'xqain, 
tsu^-dzi'dzu-nas tb-x-i'la'xd.ain, tsu^-gaha-'t'i-'wa, 

" da • 'y aday aday a • ' • , da • 'yadayadaya. " 61 

"I'yu-"liyam-d9l9 / n-'£x, e's, 62 
hsya henei heya henei. 
wa'ga'-dak^'hana-'s, 
a'mi-cja'ila-'s, 
heya henu." 



61 The doctoring song of cottontail rabbit shaman. Ediphone cylinder 14:14579:c; RCA Victor 
disc 14:14610A:b. 

62 Joining in to help in the singing, the trickster tries to make cottontail rabbit appear foolish 
by giving a ludicrous imitation and by mocking him in these words. Ediphone record, 14:14579:d,e; 
RCA Victor disc 14:14610A:b. 



202 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

(4) That is how he made fun of the shaman. Now the shaman jumped up, he stole 
the baby. And even though they pursued, they could not catch him. The shaman 
leaped into a pile of brush. (5) He could not be found there. Now his mother 
cried all the time for the child. Another year, (and) she had another child, a girl 
was her child. She wept all the time during five years. 

30. But the young man (cared for by cottontail rabbit) grew up, the young 
man went hunting all the time. He heard about it, all the time he would see that 
woman packing wood, she wept continually. (2) This is what she said when she 
cried. "Ha n 'a n -'! my child! it was cottontail rabbit who stole my child!" That was 
the way the woman wept. (3) One day he and his older brothers (who were real 
cottontails) were playing, and they just told him what he was, (saying) "You are 
not my older brother. You are the trickster's child." That is how that child told 
him about himself. So then the young man lay down. (4) "Come here! son! come 
here! come and eat." "I am not hungry." (Then cottontail said to his own chil- 
dren,) "Did you say anything to my (trickster) child?" "We did not say anything 
to him." (5) "If you told him anything I would beat you." That is what he said 
to his children. Now he (young trickster) went to hunt, the young man went away. 
He saw nothing (to shoot), he walked the whole day long, he got nothing. (6) That 
was the way he went about the whole day long, he could not get a thing. Now he 
was going back towards home, and he saw just a squirrel, and he was going to shoot 
it. But he did not kill it, (he shot at it but) he did not kill it, and the squirrel spoke 
just like a person. 63 (7) " 'a ••' you are no child of cottontail. Your father is a trick- 



(4) x-we-'n-gwum-hu-'dat tta-i'l-a'xqain. tsu"-hw9'ldi tte-i'l-a'xq'ain, la-'yat'a- 
tli-ki'1-ga. ma'i-ili-"u'miduwa, an-i'lgidi'uda-t'a. ra'nik wa'ngagadja hwa'ldi 
tla-i'la'xqain. (5) ge"-a'N-gi-ki'Hdu. tsu'-du--tVma-gus-mi'n kwi--a'x-ats 
tla-da'e'n-e tli-ki'1-ga. ma-'-idzi-'mas, ma-'-diki'l-ga, gwe's'l^-tta-dikiTga. gen- 
t 'ci • 'n si-idzi • 'mas gu -s-mi'n-du -a'x -ats-tli-hidj i . 

30. wi-'-tto-di-'lu'l wi-'-he-'wi, du--gu-s-mi'n-du--fo'm-da i tta-di-'lu'l. kwi-'- 
du qa'wa'ya, gu- s-mi'n-du •-kwi--ha'm-a'q' niki'n-damt'a-'m tle-x-hu-'mis, gu-s- 
mi'n-du--kwi--a'x-ats. (2) ws'n-du-di-i'n-e'q' i-du-a'x-ats. "ha n 'a n '! nax- 
ki'l-ga! tcax w tca'x w kwi--la-ya-'t'a tla-'nikYlga!" we-'n-du-a'x-ats tla-hu-'mis. 
(3) mint'ci'-M alica-'ni-da tb-danahat'H'ya'S, hei-ma-'tsi-il-we'n-gwa'it, "a'nY- 
e'n-e-'nshe't'le. t'smi-'xwan-diki'lga-'ns." x-we-'n-gwa'it-tla-x-hi'ms. tsu'-ma-- 
tsi-tsu'm-tb-di-'lu'L (4) "e"dji! tb'l-we! e"dji! dlu'wi'ya-'mi'." "an-wu'- 
l-ge-'n." "a'n-tcil-dji<-i'ld u wa-i' s-ki'1-ga?" "ma-'-l-aN-dji-i'l-d u wa." (5) "i- 
a'xtl9-dji"-tciri'l-d u wa mank-dadza-'minaxtla." we-'n-i'l-d u wa-tl9-d9hi-'me. tsu'- 
1-amdawa, la' tla-di-'lu'l. a'N-ditc kla-'wi, hi't'ci-gaha-'ya-tca-tcai, a'N-ditc aya'- 
dja. (6) ws-'n-ix w u'm-£ hi't'ci gaha'is, a'N-ditc aya-'dja. tsu'-w3S-i'tc-la'a'4- 
ha'm hei-ma-'tsi kwi'skwi's-kla-'wi, tsu'-hantl-kwi--kxa-'t. wi'-aN--tsa-'u, a'N- 
ge'-tsa-'u, hsi-ma-'tsi ka'a'i'-kwi--tH'-tl3-kwi'skwis. (7) '"&•■' a'n-i tca'x w tcax w - 



63 It was so angered at being shot at that it revealed to him his poor parentage. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 203 

ster. Cottontail stole you, he is not your father. It is your mother who is the one 
who has been crying all the time." (8) That is how that squirrel spoke to him. 
Now the young man thought thus, "I will ask his children to go to the water with 
me. Come here! Let us go play at the water." (9) They got into a canoe indeed. 
"Let us look into the water." So they looked into the water. Indeed his appearance 
was different from theirs, the young man's appearance was different. (10) The 
cottontail children were ugly, they had big ears. But he himself had a slender 
face, indeed he himself was good looking. Then they went back home. "Truly I 
am not the child of cottontail. My appearance is different." (11) Now the morn- 
ing of the next day the young man got ready, he went out to hunt. "Ha"-'. I will 
see that woman who cries all the time." Sure enough. That woman always packed 
wood. (12) Now she was going to pack her basket. Then (from behind her) he 
placed his bow on the basket, and indeed she could not get up (because of the weight). 
The young man was hidden behind a tree. '"a n 'M why is that? (13) I have been 
packing wood from right here for five years, and my pack never got caught like 
that." Now she tried (to lift) her pack again, but again it was caught fast. And 
again she stood up. (14) "What is the matter with it? for it to be caught." Now 
she looked and she looked around, and there was merely a young man standing 
there. "Why do you weep all the time?" "Oh cottontail stole my baby when it 
was tiny. (15) Which is why I cry all the time." "It must be I. This is the way 
those children of cottontail mock me. 'a-'! child of trickster!' That is what they 
say to me. It is just I!" (16) "Oh oh my child! I have a daughter. She is having 



dikYlga. t'smi-'xwa'ne'e'he. tca'x w tca'x w -nala-'idu-n, 'a'N-ehe-'na. ne'mal-e- 
n-e ku-gu-'s-mi'n-a'x-ats." (8) we'n-i'l-d u wa tle-x-kwi'skwis. tsu'-we-'n-di'lu'- 
we tla-di-'lu'l, '"a'ucda-t'a'-wantl kwa-dihi-'ms ha-padja-'-l-hantl-la'a'yam. e"- 
dji! ha'ma-ga-l-ha-'padja-alica-'nu." (9) a-'yu-tlgwa'lsadje-xt'krt'am. "ha'ma- 
ga-l-ha-'padja ka-'yim." a'yu-il-ha-'padja-ka-'yim. hei-a-'yu-an-we-'n-dahem- 
qVtc'itc, ma'a'i dax-he'mqetc tla-di-'lu'l. (10) wi'-tla-tca'x w tcax w hi-'me wi'- 
gs'i'was, wudla'm-aq dakwha'n-a's. wi-'-tla-hi'dji wi'-e'k-ds'hel, a'yu-nahe-'- 
wudzan tla-hi'dji. tsu'-wusasi'yam. "'a-'yu aN-wu'-tcax w tcax w -diki'lga. ma-'- 
'nax-hs'mqetc." (11) tsu"-ge"lam ma-'-gaha'is tsu^-huwe'e'dzam tla-di-'lu'l, 
b'm-da-wa. "ha"-', kla-'wi-wantl kwatc-a'x-ats-gu-s-mi'n ku-hu-'mis." a-'yu. 
gu-s-mi'n-du-4rttd--ni'k^n-d9mt'a- / m tb-x-hu-'mis. (12) tsu'-han-t'a-'mi tta-da- 
kha'. tsu'-x-gugwi-'lu ga'la'm tla-dakha', a-'yu a'N-dji sdu'q w sam. tsu'-ni'kin 
qfe'mniyudja sdb'ntam tb-di-'lu'l. "VM dji-'xa'ya? (13) gsnt'ci'nsi idzi-'- 
mas u-di'u-damtVmai, wi'-an-du'-x-we-n geqdi'n-u di-9nt'i'm." tsu'-da-s-ka'n-i 
tb-dit'i'm, ma-gu'm-da-s-gsqdi'n-u. tsu'-gum-das-sdu'q w sam (14) "dji'xa'ya? 
e4cwi--gaqdi'nai." tsu'-xi-'la tsu'-xil-e"nu, h£i-ma-'tsi-dilu'l-sdu-'q w -itc. "dji"- 
du--£'n-s-gu-s-mi'n-a'xats?" "u-'- tca'x w tcax w la-'ya niki'1-ga yu'-kwi-'-e-'^. 
(15) wi-'4cwi--e-u-gu-'s-mi'n ga'1-a'da." "e'ns--da-x. x-ws'n-il'ugwi-gwi-'yu-n 
tle-x-tca'x w tcax w -dihi'm£. a'-! t'smi-'xwan-diki'lga! we'n-il'u'iTdu-n. na'u-e'- 
n-e!" (16) "u'-- nax-ki'iga! nag^^a'icdja'u. wi-'-kwi--tit's£-'wasi'ys. wi-'- 



204 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

her first mensis. In five days the people will come together there. I am going to 
fix up the house. (17) In five days, on that evening I will come to get you, because 
the people will be gathered there, and then you yourself will be there too. For they 
will do everything (have various games). That is when your sister will be raised 
(from her bed of puberty seclusion)." (18) To be sure that is the way it was. Sure 
enough she fetched her child where he was hiding, there his mother got him. And 
indeed there the people were gotten together in their house. And the young man 
himself was also there. (19) Now his sister had been raised, now they had gotten 
her up. And then the mit'e -'dan-shaman fixed her. 64 Now the girl could travel 
about. 

31. Then one day now the village people plotted. "Oh we shall war upon the 
cottontail people. We shall go there and fight them." Indeed they did that. 
(2) She never named her older brother (calling him 'older brother'), though the 
young man named her ('younger sister'). She never did as he did, she never named 
her older brother. (3) Now the people went away, and they got to the place of the 
cottontail people, they watched all the doors of the cottontail people, and then 
they killed them, and they burned their village. Now the young man went to where 
his sister was. (4) His sister simply named him, "He'i my husband! here is one 
of those cottontails getting out." Now the young man killed the cottontail. Then 
he turned back. "What did you say?" (5) This is what he said to his sister. "Say 



gent'ci'nsi-gaha-'ya t'a'ma-ha'ntl-ge-hit'cu-'na'wiye-da'-ka'. dza'itst-wa'ntl-kwi- 
ye-'ts. (17) wi'-gent'ci'nsi-gaha-'ya, ta'ma-gatqVi-nantl-la'dzada-'mi, na'im- 
hantl-ge" hit'cu'weu-da'-ka, wi'-his-nantl-ne'u-da'. na'im-hantl-gu-s-dji^-ditc- 
ha'ltam. t'a'ma-ha'ntl dluq w dlu'gwiyu tla-nakwe-'ne't'l." (18) a'yu-me'-x- 
we-'n. a-'yu-la-'dza-tfo-dikVl-ga idja'u-wr-da-sdle-'nen, ge'Ma-'dza tla-dex-e'ne. 
tsu'-a'yu'-ge'-hi't'cu'weu-da'-kV tli-ildaye-'dzadje. a-'yu-hi's-hi'dji-da^-tla-di-'- 
lu'l. (19) tsu'-dluq w dlu'gwiyu tla-dakwe-'ne't'l, tsu'-ildlugwi'ya. tsu'-x ma- 
tV'dan dza'itst. tsu'-hanti-ge"yux w u'm-e-di-'we tla-gwe'is. 

31. tsu'-mi'n-t'ci tsu'^al^a'H tla-ka"-mit'ida'ya-'s. "u' maha'tsal-ha'ntl 
kwi-tcax w tca'x w -ka'\ ge-'-l-hantl-la' idja'lt.la'i-hantl." a-'yu-me-x-ws-'n. (2) 
an-du'-haqha'laq tb-dahe't'le, ma'i-du-haqha'laq tle-x-di'lu'l. an-du'-his-hi- 
dji-x-we'n, an-du'-min-kwi'-ha'lqt tla-dahe't'le. (3) tsu'-ha-'-da'-ka^, tsu'-me'- 
me'yu tla-tca'x w tcax w -ka, gu-'s4iwi--ru-'dada / mits- / m tli-ildibi'ntc tla-tca'x w - 
tcax w -ka'a'ma, tsu'-ilgi ki-'yu, tsu'-djict'ci'lu tli-ildat'lda-'yas. wi-'-ge'-wr-la 
tla-di'lu'l tla-dakwe'net'ldju-'wi. (4) hei-ma-'tsi-kwi--ha'lcjt-itc tla-dex-kws'- 
ne't'l, "he'i nex-de-'-mil! di-hit'ci'-salt' kwa-tca'x w tcax w . " tsu'-tsa'u tla-di-'- 
lu'l tla-tca r x w tcax w . tsu'-bina't's. "dji'-enetli'?" (5) W£'n-i'ld u wa tla-dakv\^e'- 



M The girl's puberty ceremonial was elaborate and involved among other things the partici- 
pation of the mit'e'din type of shaman; after his work was done the girl was permitted to travel 
away from home at nights under chaperonage. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 205 

again what you said. Is that the way you spoke? Why did you speak like that to 
me?" The girl said nothing. (6) So he just shot and killed his sister. Then he sought 
his father, and he found his father. "I killed my sister. This is the way she 
named me, this is the way she spoke to me. (7) 'Here is one, my husband!' That 
is the way she spoke to me." Now the young man walked away, and he left there. 
No one knew, there was no one who knew where the young man went. (8) He went 
away from there, and he went about all alone. He built a home far back on the 
prairie, and there he lived. He remained there a long time. 

32. "I will seek people." Indeed he found people, he stayed there a while, 
and he obtained a wife. He took his wife back home to where he lived. They 
lived there a long time. (2) He and his wife never slept together. He just lay in 
the (large, men's) sweat house. He never slept in the living room. The girl remained 
alone in the house. (3) About five years after they were married, one day he spoke 
thus to his wife, "Work on (find lice on) my head!" Indeed the girl worked on his 
head, she even parted his hair in small strands, but she never found a thing. (4) 
One day when she was working on his head, and it was getting nearly evening, she 
found a baby louse, a cute little louse. She showed it to her husband. "Ha'-! 
that is what I want, what you have found. (5) Do not bite it ! you must just swal- 
low it." So sure enough the girl did that. She swallowed that baby louse. He never 
slept with his wife. (6) And now the girl got large, and now she was pregnant. 
Then the girl gave birth. When she gave birth to her baby the girl died. Thus the 



ne't'l. "da-'s-x-we-'n-tH'i-'yax kw9-ntli"i. x-we-'n-i'-enatli? dji"-en9-we'n-tb- 
tsa-'t'ada'i?" a'N-tli-tb-gwe'is. (6) tsu'-ma-'tsi-kxa' tb-dakwe-'ne't'l. tsu'- 
wa'lwi tb-da'e'1-e, tsu'-ki'ld u wa tb-da'e'le. "tsa'u'u-tb'-'nakwe-'ne't'l. we'n- 
wuhe'l^dun, we'n-wu'i'ldu-'n. (7) dr-hi't'ci-'nax-de-'mil! we-'n-wu'i'l-du-'n." 
tsu'-tbma-tca-'t' tb-di-'lu'l, tsu'-t'ama-i-'gei. a'N-kwa-"niyada, an-x-wi"-kwi-- 
kwa-'ni'ya-da ge'ndji t -kwi--a'ya-tsam tb-di-'lu'l. (8) xge't-i'gei, tsu'-mi-'da- 
si'ye-yux w u'm-e'. he'n-di'msdidja ge"-hu-t'su'wa da'ye-'ts, wi'-ge'-bqle'm. 
he-'niye-da-dlu'gwa. 

32. "ka^-wantl-wal-wi." a-'yu-ka' t -gilda-'t'a, da'"idje ha'ni-'c, tsu'-hu'- 
mis-ga'la'm. wusa'ya-tb-dahu'mis tb-dlu'gwa'adja. he-'niye-itc da-bqlu'- 
t'tsam. (2) aN-du'-da'-tsi'm tb-dahu-'misitc. ma'tsi-du--qw9let'bdJ9-tsi-'m. 
aN-du'-idze-'watc-tsi-'m. mit'ci'-du idze'watc tb-gwe'is. (3) gwa-da-gent'ci'n- 
si idzi-'mas tli-itchu'msdzemeu, hi't'ci gaha'ya tsu'-wen-i'ld u wa tb-dahu-'mis, 
"ha'ma-dzi-'ye nase'iJ" a-'yu-kwi--dzi-'ya dase'L tb-x-gwe'is, nict'ci'-kwi--t'b- 
xa'in tb-daha'mis, aN-du"-ditc-kiTd u wa. (4) hit'ci-gaha-'is kwi-dzi-'ya tb- 
dase'L, he'i-tsu'-ga-s gatqVidiya, tsu'-mitcl-dikilga kiTd u wa, dja'ne-'wet'l-mitcl. 
tsu'-kwi -hi'ldasiya tb-dade-'mil. "ha-'-! ku'wi ku-udu'ha'ya, kwi'-niki'ld u - 
wa. (5) a'na'ntl-t'sga'! ma-'tsi-nantl-qVa-'ni." a-'yu-me-x-we-'n tb-gwe'is. 
kwi-qVa-'ni tb-mitcl-di'ki'lga. a'n-du'-ge'-tsi'm tb-dahu'mi'cdja. (6) hei- 
ma'tsi wugadi'ya tb-gwe'is, hei-ma-'tsi mu'wel'itc. tsu'-kwi--tlhwi'ya tb-gwe'is. 
wi-'-yu-kwi-'-tihwai tb-diki'lga wi-'-qa'yau tb-gwe'is. we-'n-mi-t'ci'ye-gwum- 



206 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

husband became alone, and alone he raised his baby. So that is how it got big, it 
began to walk, and it grew up. 

33. His father made arrows for him, and the child grew. Then his father 
told him this, "Even though your arrow drop yonder there, you are not to go 
and get it." His father told him that continually. (2) Indeed he did not go to 
there. Now the child grew to be a young man. 65 His arrows constantly fell at 
that place yonder. "Hm. I wonder why he does not want me to go to the end 
of the prairie there?" (3) That is what the young man thought. "I will go there 
tomorrow." So he felt. His father again told him the same thing. (4) "You 
must not go to the end of the prairie there! No matter how many of your ar- 
rows fall at that place yonder, you must not go there." But the young man felt 
about it this way, "Oh I will go there! (5) I wonder why he does not want me 
to go there to whatever is there, which my father does not want me to go to." 
Then the young man went. As he went along he shot, and sure enough every one 
of his arrows dropped at that place. (6) So he went on to there anyhow, and he 
got to the end of the prairie there. It was merely a woman digging there, that 
woman was digging camas. "He' my husband! I have been waiting for you every 
year here, I have been collecting your arrows." (7) That is what the woman said. 
"Let us go home, my husband." Though the young man did not want to, he fol- 
lowed her anyway. 66 Indeed they went on homewards, and they reached the wom- 

tbtc-de-'mil, wi-'-x-mi-'dgs-kwr-ha-'wau tb-diki'lga. we'n-kwr-wugadi'ya, 
ntca'a'yaq, we'n-kwi-he-'wi. 

33. wi'-wusba'ya du--dzi-'dziya tb-dex-e'1-e, wi'-wugadi'ya tli-klTga. tsu'- 
du--W£-'n-i'l-d u wa tb-dex-e'i-s, "ma'i-hanti-du--e-'ge tu'wiya-ng'wu'sbaya, an-- 
a'ntl-du-la-'dza." gu-'s-mi'n-du-W£-'n-i'ld u wa tb-dex-eTe. (2) a-'yu-du-a'N- 
ge"-ia. tsu'-kwi-he-'wi-tb-dilu'liye tb-ki'lga. gu-s-mi'n-du--kwi-'-ge" qa'db- 
dli'yam tb-d9-wu'sba'ya. "hm. i'de-x-dji" s-kwr-aN-du-'ha'ya ge"-wu'l-a e- 
di'mst-didja-"nani-cdja?" (3) we'n-djinhs-'nu tb-di'lu'l. "a'ma-wantl-ge'Ma." 
ws-'n-di'lu'we. da-'s-du-we'n-i'l-d u wa tb-dex-sTe. (4) "an-tb'-du-ge"-la'yaq- 
hai kw9-di'mst-didja-"nani-cdja! ma'i-hantl-ga-'l ge^-kwr-tu-'ya kwg-ngwus- 
ba'ya, an-a'ntl-du-ge'Ma." tsu'-we-n-di'lu'we tb-di-Tu'l, "u-'- gs"-wantl-la' ! 
(5) ida-x-dji"ya. e-kwi-an-du-'ha'ya ge"-wantl-la i-tb-di'tc-i ege"idjY, e-kwi- 
a'N-du-'ha'ya ge^-wuTa e-'nax-e'he." tsu'-gwum-la'-tb-di'lu'l. qdaTyam-la'- 
a'djiam, a-'yii-du-ma /t -ge'-tu- / ya-d9 , wusba / ya. (6) tsu'-ma^-geMa', tsu^-gs"- 
dji tlo-di'mst-didja-'na'ni-cdja. hei-ma-'tsi hu-'mis-da-yu'gwa' gs'm-yu'gwa 
tle-x-hu-'mis. "he^-'nax-ds-'mil! de'ngi-idzi-'m9S di'u-'nla-'qaqa-'mi, hitchi- 
t'ca'u'wu'-du kwa-na'wu'sba'ya." (7) x-we'n-i'1-at tb-hu-'mis. "wgsi-'s-hantl, 
nex-de-'mil." ma'i'yuk w -a'N-du-'ha tb-di-'lu'l, ma" u'miduwa tb-hu-'mis. a-'- 



65 Note that the father is the fourth in this myth line of tricksters, and his immaculately con- 
ceived son is the fifth and last. It is the latter who is called by the Coos the 'people's father' 
or 'God.' He had two birds or two types of birds that worked for him; one was 'stork' (du'lak), 
the other was the monster so-called 'angel-bird' (ya'gals). Note the text on stork, p. 42 of the 
present volume, and the text on angel-bird, p. 99 of this volume. References in text to the people's 
father also may be found passim earlier in the volume. 

66 Mrs. Peterson commented, "He could not help himself. She worked a charm on him, she 
took his mind along with her." 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 207 

art's house. (8) She was cooking (a type of large) frog, and she gave it to the young 
man to eat. But he could not eat it. "He' no one else is here ! what are you jealous 
about?" However, the young man was not jealous, he just could not eat frog. 
(9) Without a garment on, she lay on her back with her legs apart. The young man 
did not do it to her (copulate). And each morning the young man went away, the 
young man went out, he tried to go back to his home, and he went along, and he 
only returned to there again. One morning he went to the creek to bathe. (10) Oh 
the creek was just full of salmon. So then he killed two of them, and he cooked 
them, and he ate them. Then the woman returned, "rh----." This is what she did 
(said). (11) "I smell a (type of) water lizard." 67 That is what she did. The next 
day she went away, and the young man also went down to the water. And he 
bathed, and when he finished bathing he again caught some of those salmon. 
(12) Then he cooked them and ate them. One whole salmon he lay outside the 
door. Now the woman returned. "He----, I am frightened. Take away that water 
lizard! (13) Take it away! I am afraid of it!" Of course the young man took it 
away. "Hu'!" (terror) and the woman jumped up and down, she was so afraid 
of the salmon. (14) "V- the awful thing! do not put that horrible thing near here." 
The young man was there a long time. There the woman lay on her back with her 
legs apart, without clothes on she lay. But that young man never noticed her. 
Then she went away. 



yu-la-wusisi'yam, tsu'-itcwe-'st tla-da'ye-'dzadja tlatc-hu-'mis. (8) he'i-ma'- 
tsi'ya xu'xwal da-qmi'ya-ta-s, tsu"-kwi--qa'tsk tla-di-'lu'l. wi'-aN-dji'-kwi-- 
idja-'t. "he' ma'-ami-ka"! ma-'-na'u-na'maqVlt?" ma'-an-maqVlt tfe-di'lu'l, 
tsi-a'N-dji--kwi--ldja-'t tla-xu'xwal. (9) a'mi-du--we-'t'l, dza'a'n-a"nu. an-du'- 
t'swa'lya tb-x-di-'lu'l. tsu'-du--de'ngi-ge'l9m du-la' tfo-di-'lu'l, tsu'-du--S9'lt'- 
tta-di'lu'l, w9S-i'i-'de\ tsu'-du--la', hei-du'-ma-tsi-da-'s-ge-we'st. hit'ci' gaha-'ya 
tsu-t'9'm-i'idje"-la sdle-'q-ha'ntl. (10) u'-- hei-ma-'tsi-t'lu tla-tVm-i x-ge'lyeq 
tra-tVm'i. tsu'-kwi--adzu-' ( -tsa-'u, tsu'-kwi--q'ma'it'ts, a-'yu-kwi'ye-dla-'u. tsu'- 
we-'st tbtc-hu-'mis. "m----." x-we-'n wa"nu. (11) "yiga-'t'sg's wusi-'didi-'- 
t'a." x-we'n wa"nu. tsu'-gum-a'ma'is tsu'-gwum-la', tsu'-gwum-his-hi'dji te'i- 
xeu tb-di-'lul. tsu'-gwum-sdle'q, tsu'-gwum-e-'wi-dasdle'd. tsu'-gwum-a'su'-hi- 
ga'lmi-'t'a tb-ge'lyeq. (12) tsu'-hr-du'-q'ma'it'ts kwi-du'-ldja'. tsu'-hi't'ci'- 
bi'n-ictc tsu-'wi'ya tle-ge'lyeq. tsu'-we-st tlatc-hu-'mis. "he----, qa'yauts'u. 
i-'geiwa dgwa-'b'mti! (13) i-'geiwa! qaya'uya'u!" a'yu tb-di-'lu'l i-'gei'wa-'- 
wa. "hu-'!" tsu' da-hwathwa'ld tbtc-hu-'mis, qaya'uya tb-ge'lyeq. (14) "'a'- 
xu't'lu-c! a'n-da-s-lu-ne'lt'ce-wa' xu-'t'lu-c." he'niye'eye-da' t -tl9-di-'lul. da"- 
du--dza'a'na'nu tbtc-hu-'mis, a'mi-du-we't'l dza'a'n-a"nu. ma--du'-an-t'swa-'- 
lal tle-x-di-'lu'l. tsu'-gwum-la'. 



67 Seeing this kind of black lizard (H.M. wa • 'lamtc, yiga • 't'sas) is evidence that you are going 
to suffer some sort of bad luck. To the woman in the myth the salmon was water lizard. 



208 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

34. Now then some person reached there, and he entered. 68 "He-. What are 
you doing here?" "I cannot get away from here." "He-- she is an ogress woman, 
ogress women are bad people. (2) Five days from now we will come here, and then 
we will take you back home. Even though she be without clothes and act wrongly, 
do not do it to her (copulate). For as long as five days we will gamble with her, 
and when we quit she will sleep a long long time, she will not quickly awaken. 
(3) In that manner we will get you away." Indeed that was how it was. Five days 
later she said to him, "Hide over here. There are many (people) coming to gamble. 
I do not want them to see you." (4) "'a-'. I will hide." That was what the young 
man said to her. Indeed that is the way it was. Now sure enough the people ar- 
rived. Indeed that ogress woman hid the young man. (5) And the people came 
together there. Now they began to gamble, and they played the hand game. "Have 
you not something hidden? I smell something." "a'- you do not smell anything. 
I have nothing hidden." (6) Now indeed they gambled five nights. And then the 
men were going to return home. The woman lay down, and of course she was snor- 
ing at once. Indeed they came back again then, and they fixed (doctored) the young 
man, (because) she had been keeping his heart. "That is why you could not get 
away to anywhere." (7) So they fixed the young man, they got his heart (from 
her). Indeed that is how it was then. All those men had packs of pitchwood. 
"Take all her money outside." 69 So the young man did that. He took outside all 
the woman's money. (8) She never awoke, she slept so very soundly. Then they 



34. hei-ma-'tsi ka'<-dji'itc, tsu'-kwi--de-'dje. "he-. di'tc-di-n-di'u-xa'H?" 
"an-wi-'-dji-i'gei." "he--- lu'dadaya-nantl! nu-sgi'li-hu-'mis, a'N-we-'n-ka'* 
nu-sgi'li-hu'mis. (2) gent'ci'nsi gaha'is t'9'ma--l-hanti-dji, wi-'-tsu-'-s-hantl- 
t'a'ma wasida-'mi. ma'i-hantl-du a'mi-we't'l a'N-hut'su-'tam, ana'ntl-du-- 
t'swa-'. gent'ci'nsi gaha'is we-'n-l9n-du--he-'niye'ais kca'wau, wi'-il-du-e-'wi 
wi-he-'-niye-du--ge'ql, aN-du"-dlankts-tle'\ (3) wi'-x-we'n-hantl-i-'gei." a'yu'- 
me-x-we'n. gent'ci'nsu-ya gaha'is tsu'-wen-i'ld u wa, "di-'-ge'-nantl-sdle-'nen. 
ga'i-hanti-ga"-dji t kcu'we. an-u'du-ha'ya x-kwi-i'miklu-'du-n." (4) "'a', 
sdle-'nen-wa'ntli'." x-we'n-i'1-at tb-di'lu'l. a-'yu-me-x-we'n. tsu'-a-'yu'-dji"- 
da'-ka\ a-'yu-sdta'ni'ya tta-di-'lu'l tle-x-nu-'sgi'li-hu'mis. (5) a'yu-hit'cu'n- 
we'ye-da'-lta'. tsu'-ilgekce'we'ni"we, tsu'-ilge'he-ye-'nu. "an-a'-ditc-sdla'n- 
'i'? ditc-u'si-dadi-'t'a." "a'- ma-'-na-a'N-ditc-si-'dadi-'t'a. an-u'-ditc-sdla-'n." 
(6) tsu'-il-a'yu-gent'ci'nsi gaha'ic iikcewe-'nu. tsu'-hantl-wusisi'yam tla- 
ti'm-H. tsu-tsu-m-tlatc-hu-'mis, a-'yu-isga-geda'laxa'ya. tsu'-a'yu da-'s-ildji'- 
ni'yam, tsu'-ildza'itst i'l-tla-di'lu'l, na'qtna'-lu'we. "we-'n-ditc en-du-a'N ge'n- 
dji-a'ya-tsam." (7) tsu'-ildza'itst tla-di-'lu'l, ga'la'm'il tla-da'lu'we. a-'yu- 
tsu-x-we'n. gu-s-kwi'-gele'u-da't'am tb-ti'mli. "gu-s-na'ntl salt'a-'ya kwa-da- 
hada'i'mis." tsu'-a-'yu-me-x-we'n tb-di'lu'l. gu-'s-alt'a'ya tla-dahada'i'mis 
tlatc-hu-'mis. (8) a'N-kwi--dla'nkts, b'nwi'-kwi--ge'ql. tsu'-ilna'ut tle-ge'le u 



68 Mrs. Peterson did not recall who this visitor was. 

69 The woman had become wealthy from the possessions appropriated from the wealthy- 
young men whom she killed when she enticed them into copulating with her: she had a 'dagger 
vagina' (M. laqa • 'ma-damai?") of two blades, one on each side, and they cut off a penis. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 209 

fixed bunches of pitchwood in the house, they stood it on the ground all around 
there, they also placed it around outside, all in and about her house. Pitchwood 
was placed all about there, and then they set it all on fire, and they fastened her 
door tightly. (9) Indeed her house set on fire, and then it burned. Now she awoke. 
She jumped and jumped at the door. "Where are you, my husband? You will be 
(burned) also, you too will be burned, my husband." Now they killed the ogress 
woman. (10) When she was burned her heart leaped out, and they caught it. 
When this child of hers (her heart is her 'child') grew up she too was no good, so 
they killed her because she was bad. She was just like her mother, no good. (11) 
Even though raised by good people, she was still no good. That is why they killed 
her (also). And now that is why there are no more ogress women, because they 
killed them all. Now they took the young man back to their village. 

35. The trickster's father, the young man's father, began to think about 
him. "Ha n '-. Something must have happened to my child. I will pull one of my 
head hairs." Now he stretched and extended it, he extended that hair of his in 
every direction. (2) Indeed that is what he did. Then he extended it in that di- 
rection. "Ha'-! fine! I heard my child! The next people (the Indians to come) 
will find people in that manner, when a person is gone like that. Each day one will 
just extend out his head hair in that manner, and indeed he will find out where his 
child is." 70 

36. Now the people made ready, and they told the young man, "We are all 
going to go to all sorts of different places, to there we will go. We will gamble, we will 

idzs-'watc, cy8 / 7tcitc-il-kw T i- / la'mdisa't'a, his-qa'nu il-kwi-'-ta'mdisa-'t'a, bi'l-- 
gwatc tb-da'ys'ts. gu- / s-kwi--ge' t -gele /u -le- / mem, tsu'-il-gus-t'ci'li'ya, tsu'-il- 
tga'it'H'ya tb-dabi'ndj. (9) a-'yu-djact'ei'lu tb-da'ye-'ts, tsu'-ilt'ca'l. tsu'- 
dla'nkts. tcuh w tcu-'h w bi'ndjidje. "idja'u-ne, nex-de-'mil? his-ne'u hantl, 
hi's-nantl-ns'u t'ciTi', n9x-de-'mil." tsu'-iltsa'u tb-nu-'sgili-hu-''mis. (10) 
wi-'-yu-kwi-'-t'ci'L wi-'-hwa'ldi ds'lu"we, wi-'-kwi--iiga / la / m. wi-'-ye-hs-'wi tb- 
dilfiTga wi-'-ma-'tsi-his-ku'wi-a'N-we-'n. wi-'-ma'tsi-iitsa'u na'im-a'N-we-n. 
ma-'tsi-gwa"-tb-d3Yne, a'N-we-'n. (11) ma'i'yuk w -kY'le kibi'na he-'wi, ma'- 
aN-ws-'n. x-we-'n-ditc tli-il-kwr'-tsa-'u. na'u-kwi-yada'im nusgi'li hu-ms'l£e, 
na'im-il-gu's-tsu-'tsu. tsu'-wusu'siu tta-di-'lul tli-ildit'lda'cdja. 

35. tsu-'-gedjinhehe-'ni'we tb-t'smi-'xwgn eTe, tlg-di-'lul-dg'sTe. "ha"'-, 
dji'^da-x-aya-'tsgrn tlg-'niki'lga. hit'ci'-wantl-xga- kwa-'naha'mis." tsu'-kwi- 
ts9 / ni"ya, gu-'s-gs'ndjuwi kwi--tS9'n-i'ya tte-dgha'mis. (2) a'yu-me-x-we'n. 
tsu'-ge'wi-tsg'n-i'ya. "ha'-! ke'le'-x! kwa-'na'ya'u tb-'niki'lga! qla'mniyu- 
ka" x-W£-'n-il-hant}-du--kiTd u wa, ya-hanti-dir-ws-'n-ka'-a'N-ditc. de-'ngiya-ga- 
ha'is ma-du'-wen tsantsa-'n tb-daha-'mis, a'yu-du--kwa- / ni'yada idja'u tl9- 
diki'lga." 

36. tsu'-mWwe'sdzam tb-ka' 1 , tsu-'-we-n-i'ltsm tb-di-'lu'l, "gu's-i'l- 
hantl-la gu-'s-ge'n-dji-t'lda'yasadja, gs'-l-hantl-yu'dst. kcu-'wil-hantl, na'u- 

70 The Coos attitude upon the introduction of the telegraph and telephone was one of matter 
of fact acceptance, "the trickster knew that long ago." These inventions were exactly what the 
trickster had been able to do himself in hearing his son over a head hair wire. 



210 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

play shinny, we will play all kinds of games." That is what they said to the young 
man. (2) Now the people went, men, women, young persons (girls), all of them 
went. And to be sure they arrived where there were people. Now the people 
played shinny. All those women there were enamored of the young man, but he 
never noticed them. (3) And when the people finished (shinny) then they were 
going to invite into the houses the visitors who had come to play. And they laid 
sitting mats. And one of these was put down just for the young man, so that he could 
sit there. Now the visiting player people entered. They watched for the young 
man, but he was not seen to enter at the door. (4) He was already seated there! 
they saw him already in the house seated on his mat. Just as if he were a ghost, 
no one had seen him enter. That is the way the young man was. For ten days the 
people danced there, and then they went back home. 

37. Then they again went off to a different place. But now when they got 
to there the people (there) were poor, lacking food, without fire, without water, 
without anything! "Ha n how is it that these people are so poor? (asks the trick- 
ster). (2) We must all get together, we will have to fight, we will have to gamble 
with him. And if we cannot win over him we will fight. You must all have your 
(large) bows when you go." Indeed that is what the people did. Then they sent 
word to the trickster's head man. 71 (3) He was told thus, "People will come and 
play, shinny, target shooting, all sorts of things. The people will play. They will 



hi'na-'nui-ha'nti, gu-s-dji-'-i-hantl-alica'nu." x-we y n i'ltem tla-di-'lul. (2) 
a'yu'-la -da'-ka', ti'mli, hu'meke, gs'ne-'tc-ka, gu-'s-kwi-iTa. tsu'-a-'yu dji-- 
du'-da'-ka kibi'ndjs. tsu'-du--ge'na'uhi'ni-'wa-d3'-ka\ x-gu-'s-hu'msks kwi-- 
Ixa-'lal tla-di'lu'l, wi'-an-du'-t'swa-lal. (3) tsu'-div-s-'wi-da'-ka' tsu'-hantl- 
du-lixli'mu tla-ga'ni'ya-da. tsu'-du-t'cci'Ldu hi'thidi'yu. tsu'-du-hi't'ci' du-- 
tsu-tsu-'yu tia-di'luii-'ds, da'a'i-da-dlu-'gwa. tsu'-du--xta'ma da'-ka' tla-ga'- 
ni'ya-da-ka\ tsu'-du--iu-'d9d9'mite-m tla-di-'lu'l, a'N-du'-bi'n-i'ctc-ds-'dje. (4) 
ma-'-tsu-du-ma-'n-dlu-'gwa! hei-du'-ma-tsi-idze-'witc gikhi-'yu dlu-'gwa-tla-da- 
t'cci'lu. ma'tsi-du-gwa-ye-'gws\ an-du'-x-wi-hama'q i-de-'dje. x-we'n-tla-di-'- 
lu'l. t'i-'cdji-gaha'yas gs^-megs'nt-da'-ka', tsu'-wusisi'yam. 

37. tsu'-il-gwum-da-'s-ma'-t'ldacdia^-la'ayam. hei-tsu^-kwi-itc kwi-'ne'- 
wet'l tta'-ka", a'mi-dwa'n-yau, a'mi-hs'malt', a'mi-ha-'p, a'mr-ditc! "ha n dji'- 
ge da-gwi- / -ha-kwi- / ne"wet'l da'-ka"? (2) gu-'s-i'l-hantl hit'cu-'nu'weys, Idjal- 
ti'1-hantl, gs-'-l-hantl Ijce-'ws'nu. wi'-il-hantl-a'N-tga' wu'bmeul-ha'ntl. gu-s- 
tci'lantl nagugwi-'le i-tcilla'." a-'yu-me-x-we-'n tta-ka". tsu'-a-yu-kwe-'n-la-'i 
tb-t'smi-'xwan deheths-'de'e'dje. (3) ws-'n-gwasgu-'yu, "hu'wi'yam-da-ka" 
alica-'nu, na'uhi'ni'was, ga'la'ni-'was, gu-'s-didje-'nu'^dji'. tsantl-alica-'nu-da'- 



71 The trickster's head man referred to is actually head man of the trickster people where the 
fourth trickster (the father of the young man) still lives. This trickster head man has so confined 
water and foods that people in other villages lack elemental necessities; he does not know that 
among his visitors will be the young trickster man (the fifth trickster). 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 211 

gamble (too) with you." Indeed that is the way it was. "Ha" very well. (4) If 
you wish it you may come." The person who took the news went back, and he 
returned. " 'Very well.' That is what that head man said. 'You may come.' " 
(5) And of course the people then were going to go. "You are all to do it well. I 
will arrange everything (that is needed). Rat, mouse (will be ready). Beaver 
will be the one to open up the water (dammed up there). Then the mice will cut 
the bow strings. (6) The rats will be cutting other things. The yellowhammers 
will be boring holes in the canoes, with the red headed woodpeckers. Everything 
(everyone) must work at all the different things (tasks). The winged ones (the 
birds) all will take care of all kinds of fruits and berries. (7) They will carry them 
all over, so that all will have them for food." 72 That is how it was indeed. Now 
then the people went off, and then indeed the people reached there. For five days 
they gambled with their eyes. 73 (8) Now he put a snail shell into his eyes, and 
indeed he appeared to be open eyed. The young man slept thus (propped up) for 
two nights. Indeed that assisted him. Then he took out the snail shell eyes. (He 
said,) (9) "Another kind of people will have that kind of eye, an artificial sort 
of eye. Indeed that is how it will be. The next people will see that kind of snail 
(shell) eye." 74 They gambled (played the motionless eye game) ten days, and they 
were still playing. (10) They made all sorts of things, flies, so that the maggots 
would get on him, on that person who had everything dammed up. And still 



ka\ hsihs'ye'nutcilsa'ntl." a-'yu-me-x-we-'n. "h9 n kY'le. (4) i-tcildu-'ha'- 
ya wi-'-dza'ne-tcil-ha'ntl." a-'yu bi-na't's tla-ka'' kwe-'n yuxwu'na, tsu-we-'st. 
"ke-'le. x-we-'n-iTat gwe-hethe-'de. dza'n-etcil-hantl." (5) tsu'-a'yu-hantl- 
la'-da'-ka\ "gus-tci'1-hantl kTle. gu-s-di'tc-wantl hu-'t'su'wa. mi-'ye-'t'se, gwi'- 
yet'lan. ttci'na kwi'-hantl hap wuxada-'t'a. we-'n-kwe-x-nggwi'ye-t'tan wi-'- 
gugwi'l diki'u-hantl qka'\ (6) hi's-ha'ntl kwe-x-mi-'ye-t'se ditc-dlca'i we-'-x- 
ma-'-ditc. x-gwutsgwi-'ne hi'-i'l-hantl wu'x-a'wa-x kwa-tigwa'ls, we'n-his le- 
ge'lq-il. gus-di'tc-hanti-dzi-'dze gu-'s-didie-'-nendji\ ntlpi'ye--ditc gu-s-ha'ntl- 
kwi--hu-t'su- / t9m wi'-gu-s-didje-'nsndji' yuq w si'L-ditc. (7) kwi'-il-gus-gs'n- 
dji-hantl-t'a-'mi, wi-'-kwr-hantl-gu-s-wi'-naqmi'ya." a-'yu-me-x-we-'n. tsu'-la- 
d9'-ka\ a-'yu-gc^-djr-da'-ka. gsnt'ci'nsi gaha'is itckcs-'we'nu xwalxwa'lyu. 
(8) tsu-'-tVma-bu-'lak-daba'L xt'la'u tb-daxwalxwa'ldja, a-'yu gwa-a-'yu na- 
xwa'lxwa'la. hi't'c-adzu" gaha'is ge-'ql tb-di-'lu'l. a-'yu-x-kwi--tsa-'ka'nt. 
tsu'-q'a'lt tla-bu-'lak-daba'L xwa'lxwal. (9) "ma-'-t'lda'ya-s-ka' x-ws'n-hantl- 
du-'-daxwa'lxwal ditc-da'ntl-du--daxwa'lxwal. a'yu-gwum-me'-x-we-'n-ha'ntl. 
qla'mniyu-ka" ha'ntl-du-kwi-'-hama'q ku-bu-'lak-d9xwa'lxwal." itcl£ce-'we-'nu 
t'i-'cdjiya gaha'is, a'iwa-itc l^cs'we'nu. (10) gu-s-didji'ya-itc hu-t'su'wa, pe- 
ye'lkwan, x-kwi-i'da yabadza-'t'a, tlatc-gu's-di'tc-dla'ni't'a. ma--du'-aiwa-a'N- 



72 The young trickster makes these birds and animals and assigns them tasks, before they all 
set out. 

"The contesting sides sat in two rows, opposite one another, watching one another — as in the 
hand game. The loser was that first person who was observed to blink, wink, roll, or close an eye. 

74 When some early white settlers were found to have artificial eyes the Coos said, "Maybe 
that is what covote meant." 



212 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

they did not beat him (at this game). So that young man made a giant snake, and 
then he made a giant lizard. (11) Now these screamed from either side. To be 
sure now they had beaten the wealthy trickster head man. 75 Then he would have 
fought, but he had no bow, nothing of any sort. 76 "Leap away with the fire!" 77 
Now they pursued the person who had stolen the fire. (12) Then the young man 
spoke thus, "Throw the fire on willows, they will be our fire drills." Indeed he 
did so. And now another (perhaps robin) dashed on with the fire, but they were 
still pursuing. So he threw the fire (on cedar). (13) "You too will be for making 
fire. From now on people will use you for making fire." Indeed the people use it 
for making fire. Then this is what the young man now said. "Winged things! 
(birds!) (14) cast the berries and fruits all over. Water! flow all over to the ends 
of the country. Flow everywhere, so that all may drink you." And so they took 
all sorts of things. (15) "Many years from now it will be like that again, there 
will be a trickster person again, from somewhere such a trickster person will come. 
Then it will be like that again." Indeed water flowed all over the land. And now 
they went home. (16) They all had something or other. None of the people were 
hungry for food. There was plenty of all sorts of things. No one was hungry any 
more. (17) Before then the younger people had had to dance, whatever food they 
had they held under their armpits, that was how they had cooked whatever foods 
they had had. And the older people had just sat on it, so that it would become warm. 
That was how they had cooked. (18) Then (when) the young man took all the 



gatga'yu. tsu'-xwa'ya-'s dama-'ni'ya-s hu-t'su'wa tls-x-di'lu'l, tsu'-gwum-dza'- 
mi'li dgma-'ni'yas hu-t'su'wa. (11) tsu'-dzu / nu-kwi--t'si- / 7at. tla-t'smi-'xwan 
hethe-'de'etc a-'yu gatga'yu. tsu'-tsan-ma-'tsi idji'1-tim, a'mi-gugwi-'l, a'mi- 
gus-ditc. "hwa'ldiye-tcil kwe-he'ma'lt'!" tsu'-u'u'midu tta-ka-he'malt'-la-'ya. 
(12) tsu'-wen-tli'-tfo-di-'lu'l, "kwehe"edje"-ti-ts kws-he'malt', kwi-'-lnanti yu-'p- 
ta." a'yu-me-x-we-'n. tsu'-x-ma'-hwaTdiya tie-he'malt', ma-du'-u'midst. 
tsu'-gwum-ge'tatti'yu tle-he'malt'. (13) "his-na'ntl-du--ne'u-yu-'bta. xge'n-ka'- 
na'ntl-yu-'bta'a'nidun." a-'yu--du lu-du'-di'yu'bta tla-ka". x-we-'n-tte-di-'- 
lu'l tsu'-gwum-a'yu-we'n tli'. "ntlpi'ye-ditc! (14) gus-ge'ndji-tcilti'' kwi- 
yu'q w sil. ha'p"! gus-ge'ndji iqu'wi-'yix t'lda-'yas dSadja'na'nicdja. gus- 
na / ntl-ge"-ld.u', gu-'s-wi-'-nantl-naxqa'uwat'si-n." tsu'-il-gus-di'tc-la'ya. (15) 
"gs'n-dji-idzi'mis-la tsu'-hantl-da-'s-x-ws-'n, da's-hantl-t'smi-'xwan-ka", xge'n- 
kwi-a'ya-dzu-t't'sam kwa-t'smi-'xwan-ka' 1 . wr-da-'s-hantl me-x-we-'n." a-'-yu 
gus-ge'ndji t'lda-'yasadja g^'-kwr-ldu' tla-ha-'p\ tsu'-ilwa'si. (16) gu-s- 
wi'-nsgu-'s-di'dja. qwa'n-yau gu- / s-ka /t -a / N-lge- / n. gu-'s-didje'nen-ditc wi-'- 
kwi-ga-'l. a'N-das-wi ige-'n. (17) tla-da'^-dehele'yu tVHdu tta-hi-'me-ka'\ 
gi'lekidje--du xt'le'weu tli-ild9 / -gwa-c5[wa / n-ya u -ditc, x-we / n-il-du-q"mi / ya-t'uwa 
tli-ilda-gwa-c^wa'n-ya^ditc. we'n-tla-ta'm-etle wi'-ge'-du-'dlu-'gwa, a'yu-du-ga- 
tlqa'lxau. x-we'n-du-da-q"mi'yat'a-s. (18) wi'-tle-x-di-'lu'l kwi--ga'la'm tb- 



76 The cries of the snake and lizard so perturbed the man that he at last rolled his eyes and lost 
the game. 

76 The rats and mice had ruined his weapons. 

"The young trickster tells this to deer, Mrs. Peterson thought. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 213 

things, then indeed they became fine, and they had all sorts of things for food. 
That was how the young man was good to them, he pitied the pitiful people. Now 
indeed water flowed everywhere, indeed everyone could drink. And then the young 
man spoke thus, "In a future day it is going to be like that again." 78 

38. Now the young man was going to return to where his father lived. And 
he took two wives, and he was given all sorts of things (by his in-laws). Then he 
returned to his father's place. He lived there a long time. (2) After he returned 
his two wives gave birth. Now his father was getting up to mischief. He went 
off to defecate. Indeed he defecated, and he examined his feces. (3) Half was 
bloody. He'i my feces! you are bloody. He'i! (tapping it) move around!" (tapping 
again). He poked at it with a little stick. And he just kept on annoying his feces. 
(4) So then it moved. "He'i! stand up!" Sure enough it stood up. "Fly up!" 
Indeed it tried itself. He just kept on doing that to it. (5) And then to be sure 
it began to fly. "Little tree! (tapping the ground there) grow up!" And sure 
enough a tree grew up. "My feces! fly up on that tree!" (6) And indeed his feces 
(now become a sapsucker) flew up. Then he was figuring out mischief. "Children! 
tell! tell your father there is good luck money (referring to sapsucker), it is pecking 
at the tree. Go get your father!" (7) So the children ran home. "Father! our 
grandfather wants you." So the young man went. "Son! a good-luck-thing is 
ascending there. You climb up it, you ought to be able to catch it. (8) Do not 



gu-'s-di'tc, wi'-a'yu-ilki'le't, gus-di'tc-ildadwa'n-yau. x-we'n-ke-'le tla-di-'- 
lu'l, kwi-'na'ya tla-kwi-ne'wet'l-ka". a'yu-gus-idje'u kwi'-lqu tla-ha'p", &•'- 
yu-x-gu's-wi'-kwi'-naxqawa't's. tsu'-t'a'ma-we-'n-tli-tla-di-'lu'l, "ge'ndji-la'-da- 
gaha'is da's-hantl-x-we'n." 

38. tsu'-hanti-wa's-i-tra-di-'lul tla-da'e'le dlu'gwa'adja. tsu'-a'dzu" 
ga'la'm tla-hu'me'ke, tsu'-t'a'ma-gus-di'tc-ni'ni-'yu. tsu'-wa's-i tla-da'ele-'- 
djintc. he-'niye-ge'-dhr'gwa. (2) yu-we'st tsu-misa'-nahi-'me'di-'yiq tla-da- 
hu"me'ke. tsu'-gwum-t'smi-'xwa'ni'ye tla-da'e'le. tsu'-gwum-tsqe'le'we'Ma. 
a-'yu'-gwum-tsqa'l'wiyam, tsu'-gwum-t'lxa'ini tla-da'e'l. (3) hei-ma-'tsi na'- 
wudi'ne dagadja'nas. "he'i-'nax-e'l! na'wu'dine-'ne. hei! li'xteq!" ge"- 
du--t'sa'it x-ki'ya-satc. ma'-gs'-a'N-hu-t'su'wa tla-de's'l. (4) a-'yu-kwi-lit's- 
da-'t's. "he'i! sdu'q^eq!" a-'yu-kwi-sdu'q^am. "hwa'l-dit'si!" a'yu-kin- 
ka-'n-dat's. ma^-ge'-x-we-n-wa-'tsa. (5) tsu'-a'yu gshwa'ladi'yaq. "t'cici y - 
mil! he'wi'i-'yix!" a-'yu-gwum-t'cici-'mil he-'wi. "nax-e'l! hwaTdi'i-'yix kwa- 
t'cici'miladja!" (6) 'a-'yu-ge'-hwaTdi tla-da'e'l. tsu'-gwum-t'smi'xwa'niya. 
"hi-'me! sgu-'ya! sgu y ya kwa-na'e'1-e hadaTmis-diki'mu-'wi, niki'n gwau- 
kwa'uwi. la'dza kwa-na's'le!" (7) a-'yu-ysge'di'meu tla-hi'me. "eli'! gs- 
ntsqulu'qwi nadu'hidun." a-'yu'-la' tla-di-'h '1. "tla'lwe! ki'mu-'wi he-he'l- 
qsqs'qhsm. ge /t -nantl-hel-e'q, kwi-na'ntl ga'la'm. (8) an-a'ntl-kxa'! ma-'- 



78 I.e., in the future there will be wealthy people again who will appropriate the foods and the 
poor will have little to eat. It is not impossible that this thought of Mrs. Peterson is taken from 
or at least somewhat affected by what she has observed of the economic situation of 1933-34, 
rather than wholly from Coos mythology. 



214 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

shoot it! just catch it." That is what he said to his child. "Climb up it!" So the 
young man climbed up. (9) He almost had caught it when it ascended just beyond 
his reach. "Grow up! my tree!" (whispered the grandfather.) "He'i! father! our 
grandfather spoke thus, (10) 'Grow up! my tree!' " "He-'--! (in a rough voice) I 
never said such a thing! you lie!" "But I am not lying. I heard you." (11) That 
is what the boy said to him. Indeed the tree continued to grow. "Keep on fol- 
lowing it!" (again whispered the grandfather.) Sure enough the young man fol- 
lowed the thing that was climbing. (12) He got to quite a height above, and still he 
kept following it. At length he got above on top, he got up to another country. 
Then the (grandfather) trickster, "Return! my tree!" (13) And to be sure the 
tree came back (down). Then he dashed to the house, and he copulated with 
both his daughters-in-law. Then the children entered, and he just wiped his penis 
on the eyes of the children. (14) "The next people will have matter (discharge) 
in their eyes, that will be its name, that semen of mine that I have wiped there, 
matter will be its name then." 

39. Now the young man went about here and there, he went on a prairie. 
And he went a distance. Pretty near straight up sun (noon), and he saw smoke, 
in the middle of the prairie. So he went to there, and he got there. (2) Just an 
old couple lived there, their heads were as if scorched, they were like charcoal. 79 
"He' grandson! what are you going around here for? A bad thing eats here, it eats 



tsi-nantl-ga'la'm." x-we-'n-i'ld u wa-ti9-diki'lga. "he'1-e-ge'yix!" a-'yu he'l-eq 
tte-di'lu'l. (9) ma-du'-di-a'N-gala'm ma-du'-hele"yu-di'-l-a'. "he-'wu't'si! 
nax-t'cici-'mil!" "he-'i! 'el-i'! x-we-'n-i-di-i'l-at kwa-'ntsqwu'lqwtc, (10) he-'- 
wu't'si! nax-t'cici-'mil!" "he-'--! an-u'-we-n-i'l-at! he'wese-nu-na!" "ma'- 
u-a'N-hewese-'nu. qa'wi'mda-mi'na." (11) we'n-i'1-at tb-di-"lu't'l. a-'yu-'-la' 
dahe'we tla-t'cici-'mil. "ma M -ga / '-kwi--u'mida-t!" a-'yu u'mida-t tle-x-di-'lu'l 
tbtc-he'lqeqe'qhem. (12) ge"-kwi--gwa-'n'niya, ma"-ge' < -kwi--u'mi-da-t. hei- 
ma-'tsi-gwa-'n-xinxi'n-u, ma-'-t'ldacdja xi'nxinu. tsu'-gwum-tb-t'smi-'xwan, "bi'- 
nat'si-'x!-'n9x-t'cci-'mil!" (13) a-'yu-kwi--bi-'na't's-tb-t'cci-'mil. tsu'-gwum- 
tVma-idzu-'dje'-yaga'da, we'n-kwi-gwu'm-mi's-a ha'idzuwa tla-da'midu-'n'name". 
tsu'-xla'm-a-tla-hi'me, ma-'tsi-gwum-kwi-hi-'me daxwalxwa'ldja ya'it'ct tls-da- 
pi'lk w tli-hi-'me daxwalxwa'ldja. (14) "qta'mniyu--ka t na'mu-"na'ya daxwa'l- 
xwal, we'n-hantl-du--sinsa'nu, ku-u-kwi--ha'it'ct-ge' t kwa-'na'ma'xgu, mu-"nai 
we ■ 'n-hantl-du --sinsa • 'nu. " 

39. tsu'-tla-di-'lu'l ge"yux w u'm-edi-'we, di'm-sditc la". tsu'-he-'niye-la'. 
gasi'ya t'li-'nat qwa'le'es, tsu'-tVma gwg'l-e'es-kla-'wi, astl-di'msdidje. tsu'- 
ge'-la', tsu'-ge' t -dji. (2) hei-ma-'tsi ta'm-et'le-dle-'geq, gwa-t'sa'nlaha'i-dese'L, 
we-'n-gwa-itcdzege'le. "he' di'm- ; si! dji"-ene-ha-idja'u yux w u'm-e? a'N-we-n- 
ditc di'u-dlu'wi'yam, t'li-'nat qwa'1-e'es tVma du--di'u-dlu'wi'yam." a-'yu-kwa-'- 



79 They are a type of large and poisonous spider, and they are scorched by the daily hot visits 
of sun girl. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 215 

here at straight up sun (noon)." Sure enough he heard it coming. (3) Something 
jingled. "You must hide." That is what the old people said to him. Indeed they 
hid him. "Sun girl is no good, she is too hot. That is why we fear her." (4) Sure 
enough she entered. She was quite a handsome girl. And now she was going to 
eat. Each time she went to put food into her mouth she just struck herself outside 
(on her face). Then she became enraged. (5) "Take out the person you have hid- 
den!" That is what the girl said. "u-'I she is so awfully hot!" That is what the 
young man thought. "He' but I myself am a trickster! (6) I will do it to her! 
and then she will not be so hot any more!" Now the girl dashed outside, she was 
angry (at being unable to find her own mouth). And she went and ran on. (7) 
Then that young man pursued her, and he caught her and threw her down. "He' 
I myself am a trickster ! I am like my father. I will copulate with her with an iced 
penis, and then she will not be so hot any more." Indeed that is how it was. (8) 
She shivered (from the cold thing) like a salmon, when that young man copulated 
with her. Then the girl said as follows, "He' my husband! I never stay at home, 
I travel all the time. (9) Go to my younger sister, go to her there, she stays at 
home once in a while." Then the girl went on. 80 She was not (any longer as) hot 
when she went on. Since that time the sun has not been as hot (as it was before 
Coyote cooled it), because the sun is (this) girl. 

40. Now the young man went back to the old people, and he went inside. 
"Grandson!" He told the old people about it. "She told me to go to there, there 
where her younger sister lives." "Ha--- those people are bad. (2) You must take 



na"ya i-dza'ne. (3) gwa'tcsa'liyam. "sdla'ndasa'm-nantl." x we'n-i'ld u wa 
tle-x-ta'm-e-t'le. a-'yu-itc sdla'n-i'ya. "a'N-we-n qwa'1-e'es-gwe'is, helt'-ha-tlqa'l- 
xa-wi. we-'n-ditc di-ni-kwi-a'lqsa." (4) a-'yu-de-'dje. hei-ma-'tsi nahe-'wu'- 
dzan gwe'is. tsu'-han-ge' t dlu'wi-'we. de'ngi-du -ye'isadje da-ditc-la-'i ma-du'- 
qa'n-u-djiu-du-tsgu'. tsu'-be'lxsam. (5) "he'm-ye kwa-na-ka"-sdla-'nan!" 
we'n-i'lat tla-gwe'is. "u-'! hei-gwa'-an tlqVlxa'wi!" we'n-djinhehe-'nu tla- 
di-'lu'l. "he' hi's-we-e'n-e t'smi-'xwan! (6) dzaitst-wa'ntl ! a'nya'-hantl tlqa'l- 
xa'wi!" tsu'-hwa'l-di tla-gwe'is qa'nudja, be'lxsam. tsu'-la-'-du'-hwi'ye-'t. 
(7) tsu'-u'miduwa tle-x-di'lu'l, tsu'-ga'la'm tsu'-ta-'ts. "he' his-we-e'n-e t'smi-'- 
xwan! gwa'-wu-tla-'ne'e'he. qwaTeu pi'lgwatc x-kwi'-yu-wantl-ha'itst, wi'- 
anya-hantl tkja'lxa-'wi." a-'yu-me-x-we-'n. (8) ma-'tsi-gwa-ge'lyeq tlaxda-'t's, 
ya-ha'idzuwa tle-x-di-'lu'l. tsu'-we-n-i'l-at tb-gwe'is, "he'-'nex-de-'mil! aN- 
wu'-du-'-mi'N-dlu-'gwa, gu-s-mi'n-wu-du-yux w u'me. (9) tte-'nsgwaTa'adja-'- 
nantl, ge"-nantl-la', hidji-'-du ha'ni'c-dlu-'gwa." tsu'-ha' tb-gwe'is. a'N-tlqal- 
xa-'wi i-l-a'. tVmiduwe an-tl^alxa'wi tla-qwaTe'es, na'im-qwa'1-e'es-gwe'is. 

40. tsu'-bi-na't's tla-di-'lu'l tb-ta'met'le'edje, tsu'-de-'dje. "di'm'si!" 
gwasgwa'i tb-data'met'le. "ge"-u'wixwi'lxi-n, ge"-tsa-dlu-'gwa du-gwaTa." 
"h&-" a'N-we-n-ka". (2) lu-'dadaya-nantl. di-'! gwatsgwi-'ne-daqa'ila-'s, 



80 Said Mrs. Peterson, "She had to go right on then, because she is the sun." 



216 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

care and watch. Here! (take) these (five) yellowhammer tails, lest he do bad 
things to you. Watch him with care, because they are bad people, and his wife 
is bad too. Do watch him. (3) If you (have to) go salmon spearing, you must 
watch him carefully. When salmon come downriver do not spear them until the 
(first) five have passed by, (lest you be dragged in and drowned) and then you 
may spear them. And when you do catch them, you are to insert those yellowham- 
mer tails (feathers) in their navels. (4) Do that to them all, to as many as you 
spear, do it thus to them all. And when he tells you like this, 'Oh there is an elk!' 
then shoot him on his ankle. (5) Then he will just become himself (become a 
person again — otherwise he will kill you). And when he will speak to you thus, 
'Let us go fix my fish trap,' then you must take care! He will drop that maul of 
his, and when you dive down for it, (you may not be able to come back up) be- 
cause he will spread ice over the top of the water. (6) But then you will break 
it with your maul." To be sure that is just what the young man did. One thing 
he did not tell, the old man forgot to tell him that a whale would be stranded. 
That was what the old man did not tell him, he did not tell the young man that, 
because he had forgotten it. 

41. Now then indeed, so the young man went on. Then he got to there. 
"He' my son-in-law. Go into the house!" To be sure the young man went inside. 
(2) "Hrh- my son-in-law. Sit down there beside your wife." So he sat there. 
Now the old woman was going to give him food. The old woman climbed above 
to get food, and then she dropped a maul, and the young man dodged it. (3) In- 
deed it dropped right beside him. She failed to hit the young man. Then she got 



a'n-a'ntl-du-hu-t'su-'dun. lu-'dada'ya-na'ntl, na'im-aN-we-'n-ka\ hi's-kwa-du- 
hu'mis-a'N-we-'n. hi'dada-'ya-na'ntl. (3) i-n-antl-ge'lyeq-dada'm-e-de, lu-'da- 
da-'ya-na'ntl-du. yantl-ge'lyeq-ga-'i a'n-a'ntl-du'-tsgwa" tsu'-hantl-gent'ci'nsi 
ts'aTdu, tsu-'-nantl t'a'ma tsgwa-'ts. wi-'-i'-n-antl-ga'la'm, wi'-dagwatsgwi-'- 
ne-dada'ila-'s kwa-daqwa-'lu'wudja nantl-kwi-ts-t.ca-'ts. (4) gu-s-na'ntl-wa-'- 
tsan, nict'c-na'ntl-tsgwa'\ gus-na'ntl-we-n-wa-'tsan. wi'-i-nantl-we-'n-i'l-dun 
wi'-i-nantl-we-'n-i'ld-u-n, e-'-ki'ts! wi'-ku'lexe-'xesadje nantl-kxa-'t. (5) hei- 
ha'ntl-ma'tsi-hi'dji-itc. wi'-i'-nantl-we'n-i'l-du-n, dza'itsti's-hantl kwa'-'ntla't, 
wi'-hr'dada'ya-nantl! ta'wi-t'ts-hantl kwa-dadji'lt'c, i-natkwi-'ltsam, na'im- 
hantl-qwa'1-eu gwa-'niyu tsdla-'t. (6) wi'-it'la't-nantl kwa-nex-dji'lt'c'itc." 
a-'yu-me-x-we-'n-tla-di-'lu'l. hit'ci'-ditc-a'N-sgu-'ya, a'nya-ljila-'l tle-x-tu-"mit'l 
tla-hantl-t'sehe'm da'ni'ya. tle-x-tu"mit'l ku'wi-a'nya-kila-'l. a'N-sgu'ya ku'- 
wi tla-di-'lu'l, na'im-anya-l£ila ■'!. 

41. tsu'-a'yu, tsu'Ma' tla-di-'lu'l. a-'yu-ge"-dji. "he' nex-mi'ngatc. e"- 
ditc idzu-'dje!" a-'yu de'dje tla-di-'lu'l. (2) "hrh-- nex-mi'ngatc. e-'ge-dhr'- 
gwi kwa-nahu'misadja." a'yu-ge"-dlu'q w sam. tsu'-hants-qVtsk-tlextc-hu-"- 
mik\ tsu'-hele'q tlatc-hu"mik dwa'n'yau-la-'dza, hei-ma-'tsi dji'lt'c-sa'mt- 
'itc, tsu'-tb'n-a tla-di-'lu'l. (3) a-'yu t'lha"waya datu-'ya. a'N-kxa' tla-di-'- 
lu'l. tsu'-gwum-ma'-ditc ga'lmi-'t'a, tsu'-gwum-tsga-'nat'l tlga". tsu'-ma-tsi- 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 217 

something else, and then she spilled on him inside-bark-splinters. But that young 
man just blew them up, and her vagina was filled with them when the young man 
blew up the bark-splinters. (4) And the old woman tumbled, she fell on her back, 
kicking there (in pain). Then the young man said, "Go wash your mother with 
water." Indeed then the (moon) girl washed her mother with water, and then 
the old woman was all right. (5) Now the young man said, "Hereafter they 
(such stickers) will be on the ocean sand, they will be seen there, they will grow 
there." Indeed that is the way it is, that thing, that sticker (bush) does grow on 
the sand beaches. "Ha-. Now he is going to be my son-in-law." Indeed so it was. 

42. Now the old man said, "My son-in-law, let us go fishing." Indeed they 
went, and then they got to there. When the (first five) salmon were to come down- 
river, the young man would certainly not spear them. Then five passed by, and 
now the next one the young man did spear. (2) And still more came downriver, 
so he speared another. And into the salmon navels he inserted yellowhammer 
tails (feathers). Indeed more in just that manner (until) he had killed five, and 
(inserted) just five yellowhammer tails (feathers). Now that was so much of that. 
Then they went home. 

43. And the next day that old man asked him to come along. "We will 
repair a place that is bad." So they went off. And then he said to his son-in-law, 
"My maul fell (in). Dive down in there (for it)." (2) The young man thought, 
"It is just as he told me. Now I believe." So the young man did dive in, sure enough 
he found the maul. Then the young man leaped up, but to be sure he could not 
get through (the ice). (3) So he dropped down again, and then he leaped again, 

pa'uli tle-x-di-'lu'l, tsu'-ma'ix w dja dg-kwi-'-t'hi-'du yi-pa-'uli tle-x-di'lu'l tto- 
tsgana't'l. (4) tsu'-tu-'ya-ttatc-hu''mik, dza'a'ntc-tu-'ya, da"-tla'xats. tsu'- 
we-n-tli-tta-di-'lu'l, "ha-'pa'tc-t'su-'t kwa-na'e'ne." a-'yu tle-x-gwe'is ha-pa'tc 
t'sa'ut tte-da'e'n-e, tsu'-ki'le tla-hu"mik. (5) tsu'-wen-tli-tb-di-'lu'l, "di-qte'm- 
niyu ba'ldisadja-ha'ntl-du, kwi'-ha'ntl-du-hemqe'qhem, da'-hantl-du-hauha'- 
wai." a-'yu-me'-x-we-n, ba'ldisidja-ha'uha-wai tla-ku-'wi, tlats-ga-'na't'l. "ha-, 
tsu'-hantl-ku'wi-kwa-'nami'ngatc . " a • 'yu-me-x-we • 'n . 

42. tsu'-gwum-he'lt' tl9-tu-"mit'l, "nax-mi'ngatc, da'm-e-des-ha'ntl." a-'- 
yu-itcla, tsu / -itc-gwum-ge"-dji. tsu'-hantl-ge'lyeq ga'i-'yam a-'yu-a'n-tsgwa' 
tle-x-di-'lu'l. tsu'-gent'ci'nsi ga'igayu, tsu'-da-'s-hi't'ci tsu'-kwr-tsgwa' 1 tle-x- 
di-'lu'l. (2) tsu'-da-'s-asu-ga-'i, tsu'-du-da-'s-hi't'ci'-tsgwa' 1 . tsu'-du--ge"-du- 
t.ca' gwatsgwi-'ne-ctaqaila's tle-ge'lyeq daqwa'luwudja. a'yu-du--da-'s-x-we'n 
gent'ci'nsi-tsa-'u, tsi-gent'ci'nsi tta-gwatsgwi-'ne-dfoqa'ila-'s. tsu"-ma'-ws-'n. 
tsu'-itc'wa's-i. 

43. tsu-gwum-a'ma'is tsu'-gwum-a'uctt tlextc-tu"mit'l. "na-'us-hantl 
kwi--t'lda-'yas tlat-a'N-we-'n." a-'yu-itcla. tsu'-we-n-i'ld u wa tta-dami'ngatc, 
"tu-'ya kw3-'naba-'qbaq. ge"-nantl tkwi-'ltsim." (2) tsu'-we-n-da'lu'we tte- 
di-'lu'l, "a'yu-x-kwi"ya ku-lavi'-wen-i'ldu-n. tsu'-wutlqa'ya. " tsu'-a'yu- 
tkwi-'ltsim tb-di'lu'l, a-'yu-ki'ld u wa tte-da-daqa-'tlqa 1 . tsu'-hWl-di tb-di'- 
lu'l, hei-ma-'tsi a-'yu l?xu"itc. (3) tsu'-da-s-tu-'ya gsdle-'n, tsu'-da-'s-hwa'l-di, 



218 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

and he struck with the hammer (maul), and the ice broke. Sure enough he (the 
old man) was already going on downriver. "He'i! why are you leaving me?" 
"Ho--- it is just my canoe that has drifted away." (4) So then the young man 
(deliberately) dropped the hammer. "You will have to. I did not get it. You will 
have to dive for it." "'a-'- son-in-law! I will dive." (5) So then indeed the old 
man dived. The young man watched him (and also made ice magically). Then 
it bubbled. Now the young man broke the ice, and he took hold of the (nearly 
drowned) old man, and he placed him in the canoe. Then they went back. 

44. Now the next day, "e-'-- my son-in-law. I saw an elk. You kill it!" "u- 
I know about that. (2) It really is just what my grandfather told me about. 
Indeed I will shoot him right there." And to be sure (he shot) at the ankle. (3) 
Indeed there the young man shot him, and sure enough it was only the old man. 
"Oh you shot me!" "Well why were you (pretending to be) an elk?" "Oh I was 
only testing you." 

45. The next day then he was going to fell a tree. Then this is what he said 
to his son-in-law, "You work on the other side of it." The young man pretended 
to do so. Now the tree was going down. (2) The young man stealthily went around 
it, and hurled a chunk of wood, and indeed he hit him so well that the old man 
fell (and thought he was pinned under the tree). "Oh a stick dropped on you." 
That is what he said (slightingly) to him. Now they went back. He had not yet 
killed the young man. 

46. So the next day, "Oh my son-in-law. A whale came ashore." Indeed 
they went down to the water. The old man had forgotten, he had forgotten to 

tsu'-kwi'yu'-tsgwa' tla-dax-qa-'tlqa'yu, a-'yu idli-'t'lu tla-qwaTeu. hei-a-'yu'- 
itc ma-'n-kwi--ga'ya'i. "he-'i! dji'xa-eneha-'gwidai?" "ho--- tsi'-tlxu' kwa- 
'ntlgwa'ls." (4) tsu'-t'sya'm-i'ya tle-x-di'lu'l tta-daqa'tlqai. "hdt'-na'ntl-neu. 
aN-u'ga'la'm. helt'-na'ntl-neu-tkwi-'ltsim." "'a'- ma'ngai! tkwi-'ltsim-wantl." 
(5) tsu'-ayu-tkwi-'ltsim tl3-tu"mit'l. lu-'dadaya-tle-x-di-'lu'l. tsu'-ge'mal'wi'- 
wa. tsu'-i't'lat tle-x-di-'lu'l tfo-qwa'l-au, tsu'-ga'la'm tfo-tu"mit'l, tsu'-tlgu-'- 
sidja gi'la. tsu'-itc wa's-i. 

44. tsu' a"ma'is, "e-'---'nex-mi'ngatc. ki'ts-u'kla-'wi. kwi--na'ntl-tsa-'u!" 
"u- kwa"niyada"u. (2) a-'yu x-kwi"ya tlu-u-we-'n-i'l-du-n tb-'nex-tsqu'lqVtc. 
a-'yu-wantl ge-'-kxa-'t." a-'yu-me-x-we-n ku"lexe'xedJ9. (3) a-'yu gs^-kxa-'t 
tk-x-di-'lu'l, hei-ma-'tsi a-'yu tl3tc-tu"mit'l. "u-'- l&ida'ina!" "dji'-ge-en9- 
ki'ts." "u-' tsi'-'nt'lxi-'nda-'mi." 

45. tsu'-gwum-a"ma'is tsu'-gwum-hantl-ni'kHn tu'wit.sa-t'a. tsu'-gwum- 
we-n-i'ld u wa tla-da'mi'ngatc, "s-'ge-di'u dzi-'dze-n." a'yu-gwa"yu't'c tb-di-'lu'l 
tsu'-la'a' tla-ni'kln. (2) tsu'-cya^tciu sadb'ntc tb-di-'lul, tsu'-xkYyasitc tskwa 
tls-x-di-'lul, a-'yu-kTle< kwi- tskwa-'t tu-'ya tbtc-tu"mit'l. "u' xlp'yas ne-'wi 
pa'n-a." W£-'n-gwum-i'ld u wa. tsu'-itc wa's-i. ma--du'-aN-tsa'u tb-di-'lu'l. 

46. tsu'-gwum-a"ma'is, "u-' nax-mi'ngatc. t'sehe'm da'n-da'n-u." a'- 
yu-gsta'ixaxayam. a'nya ^;ila-'l tie-x-tu"mit'l a'N kwi--yu' t bahan-a'naya. (2) 



/< 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 219 

tell him about this. (2) That is why the young man did not know how to watch 
out for it. Then they cut it up, and he said to him, "Go to the other side, go to the 
water side." The young man looked, the young man saw when he looked that he 
was out in the ocean. (3) He floated on the ocean five days, inside the belly of the 
whale. There was a log jutting out, and he drifted towards it, and the young man 
stood on it. Then he wept. "Oh I am just here (voluntarily) doing this !" (4) To be 
sure the young man just remained there like that. After staying there five days, 
he saw somebody, persons coming in a canoe, two persons in the canoe. 

"What are you doing, grandson? where are you from?" 

"Oh I am just here, just here!" 81 

(5) "But what are you doing there?" "Oh I cannot get back. You take me in (into 
the canoe)." "Why no. The next persons will take you in." (6) Now the young 
man wept again. He stayed there a long time, before another one came along. 
They sang in just the same manner. 

"What are you doing, grandson? where are you from?" 

"Oh I am just here, just here!" 81 

(7) "Oh what are you doing there?" "I cannot get back. Take me into your boat." 
"Why no. The next persons will take you." And they went on. (8) Then the 
young man wept. He stayed there a long time, and then another came along. It 

ws-'n-ditc tta-kwi'-an mit'ssi'ya-da tle-x-di-'lu'l. tsu'-a-'yu il ya'qdza-t, tsu'- 
ws-n-i'ld u wa, "e'gs-diu-nantl gigi'udje-nantl." tsu'-xi-'la tta-di-'lu'l, he'i-ma-'- 
tsi ba'ldi-mi-sidja xi-'la-itc tta-di-'lu'l. (3) gsnt'ci'nsi gaha'is ba'ldi-mi-sitc 
dlsxsxs'nu, t'sshe'm-da'we-'lu-la'ha. hei-ma-'tsi-ni'kin ls-'mem-itc, wi'-ge'wi 
tlxu', tsu'-ge'-dlu'q w s9m tfe-di-'lu'l. tsu'-a'xats. "hu'we-'n e'huwshuws." (4) 
a-'yu ma'-we-'n da"-dlu-'gwa tla-di-'lu'l. gsnt'ci'nsi tsu-'ya-gaha'is da"-dlu-'- 
gwa, hei-ma-'tsi ka' kla-'wi-itc, tlgwa'ls-itc ka' dji'yan, adzu-'-dSaka" tta-tlgu-'s. 

"eli-'midja'ya? aga'nyadaya?" 

"nshu'wshuwehuws !" 81 

(5) "di'tc-en-da-xa'H?" "u-' aN-wu'-dji wa's-i. gi'ladza'inantl." "aN-ge'. qkVm- 
niyu-ka' nantl-gi'ladzun." (6) tsu r -du--da y s-a'xats tta-di-'lu'l. hs-'-niye du- 
da-dlu-'gwa, tsa-du'-tsu'-da-s-hit'ei'-dji'yan. ma--du / -x-we-n-ha-'t'i. 

"di-'midja'ya? aga'nyadaya?" 

"nehu'wehuwehuwe !" 81 

(7) "u-' ditc-3'n-da-xa'H?" "aN-wu'-dji- wa's-i. gi'1-adza'itcil." "aN-ge'. x- 
qb'mniyu ka-'-nantl gi'la-dzu-n." tsu'-du-la'a'yamr (8) tsu'-du--xga'nau tte- 
di'lu'l. hs-'niys du--da"-dlu-'gwa, tsu'-du-a's-u-ma-'-dji'yan. ma--du'-ma-x- 



81 Ediphone cylinder 14:14579:g; RCA Victor disc 14:14610A:d. When singing, coyote pre- 
tends that he would not have to be there if he did not want to be. 



220 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

was the very same way again. They did not take him either. "The next persons 
will take you." (9) Four of them passed him by. Now he saw another, and they 
too sang like that, and they took in the young man. "Lie down!" The young 
man lay down of course. "Now arise!" They had brought him back to where he 
had left. 

47. He heard his wife crying, and he got to her. "What are you crying about ?" 
"I am crying about my husband." That is what the girl said. "My parents are 
not good. (2) They do all sorts of (bad) things to people. That is why I am weep- 
ing here." "It is I! They did not kill me then. I have come back." Now they 
went inside. (3) 'V- my son-in-law! a'- so you have come back. I could not get 
hold of you (to save you). That is why you drifted away on the whale." Now he 
(moon man) did not do anything further to him. 

48. Then he (the trickster) said to his wife, "I have children, I have two 
wives on the country down below. I will go back there now, I will go for those two 
wives of mine, and then all of us will live here." (2) So the young man went, 
and he got to there where the two old people (spiders) were, and he said thus, 
"Grandfather! I want to go back home. I want to fetch my wives and my chil- 
dren." "'u-' we will make you a (mi-'ge type) basket. (3) After five days we will 
go get your wives." And so it was. Five days (later) the young man got back to 
them, and indeed they (did so). They got into the basket there, and they went 
back (down) towards home. To be sure they arrived there, they got down below 
there. 



we-'n. aN-du'-la-'liyu. "qb / mniyu-ka / -hantl-du--gi / la." (9) dza'wa'a'ya--la 
ts'a'ldu. tsu'-gwum-ma-'-kla-'wi, ma-du'-wen-ha-'di'da, tsu'-x-kwi-gi'la tla- 
di-'lu'l. "tsi'm-nantl!" a-'yu tsu-'m tfo-dilu'l. "kwi'ya-dlu-'gwi!" ge"-il- 
'wa'sda th-x-i- / g£ i 'itc. 

47. qa'wa-'ya tfe-dahu'mis i-kwi-a'xats, tsu'-ge"-dji". "di'tc-danaga'- 
la'da?" "de'mil-ne'-du-ugaTa'da." x-we'n i'l-at tte-gwe'is. "a'N-we'n-'na'- 
ma-'ni'ya-s. (2) gu-s-dji'-itc-du-ka''-xa'H. ws'ntc-du-u-di'-a'xats." "wi'-e'- 
n-e! an-i'tc'wutsu"wen. we-'st' w u." tsu'-itcde-'dje. (3) "e-'- nex-mi'ngatc ! 
9-'- ws'stna. a'ni-dji'-ga'lmidza-mi. we-'n-ditc tla-ntlxi'yu nt's£ / he"mitc." 
tsu'-anya'-das-dji'-xa'H. 



48. tsu / -ws-n-i'ld u wa tb-dahu-'mis, "nihi-'mede'u, adzu-'nehu-'mis gedls'n 
t'lda'cdja. ge'-wantl-wa'si, la-'dza-wantl kw3-'nahu"me- / ke, wi-'-gusi'l-hantl 
di'u-leqlu-t'tsam." (2) a-'yu-la'-tte-di-'lul, tsu'-ge /( -dji tb-ta'm-et'le'edje, tsu'- 
wen-i'ld u wa, "tsqu-'lu'qwi! du-'haya'u wa'si. du'ha'ya'u-la-'dza tb-'nahu'- 
me-'l^s we'n-tla-'nahi'me." "'u' mige'-nantl-hu-t'su'wa. (3) gsnt'ci'nsi gaha'is 
t'a'ma-1-hantl-la' la-'dza-l-ha'ntl kwa-nahu'meke." a'yu-ma-x-we'n. gent'ci'n- 
si-ga'ha'is ta^ma-ge^-dji' tb-di'lu'l, a-'yu-il. ge'^ilt'lu-'tam tl9-kha"adja, tsu'- 
ilwa'si. a'yu-il-ge"-dji ( , tu'witaniya'il-ge". 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 221 

49. The children ran to there, matter in their eyes. The children could hardly 
see. Then he went in, both his wives wept. "Your father has humiliated us. He 
copulated with us both." (2) That is what they told him, and this is what they 
informed him of. "When he finished copulating with us he wiped his penis on the 
children's faces." That is what his wives told him. Now the young man was en- 
raged. (3) No longer did he like his father. "Grandfather! come! my father wants 
you." "Hu" oh indeed really? (4) So it is your father? why he could not get here! 
that could not be your father around here." "Oh come anyway ! you will see him." 
So sure enough the (old) trickster went. (5) And, to be sure, it really was his 
child. (The younger said to the older trickster,) "Ha' come in! you may eat." 
And he gave his father food. "But first just put this on." So he put it on (a coyote 
fur hide). (6) Then he gave him food to eat. Now he finished eating, and he spoke 
to him thus, "Go far away down towards the water, there you will attempt to dodge 
arrows." Then they made ready, and they got into the (mi-'ge) basket, and they 
started to go up. (7) Now the (old) trickster saw them (ascending). "Hu-- I 
forgot about that spider." Then he ran, and he grabbed at it, and he cut two of 
the strings. (8) Indeed their basket almost spilled down. Now this is what the 
young man said. "I do not like you any more. I do not want that kind of a father. 
(9) They will name you coyote. You will bark at the next people (the Indians 
who will come later)." That is how he spoke to his father. Indeed that is what 
he became. 

50. Now the young man returned above. It is he who is the father of us 
people. Now the young man said, "A different type of people will use this (sort 



49. yegeda'meu-ge" tla-hi-'me, naxa'la'ya-daxwa'lxwal. a'N-dji'-kwi-- 
ka-'yim'me tli-hi'me. tsu"-de-'dje, masa'^-lci'ma tla-dahu'me'lje. "hu'didi-- 
n-e tla-nex-e'be. masa"na heitsdu'n." (2) we-'n-gwa-na'ni-da, tsu"-we-'n-itc 
kwe-ne-'nu. "in-du-s'wudzun wi--dahi-'me-dahe'ldje ge"-du--ya'it'ct tla-da- 
pi'lk w ." x-we-'n-gwa-na'ni-da tla-hu'me-ke. tsu'-be'lxsam tla-di-'lu'l. (3) a'n- 
ya'-du-'ha'ya tla-da'e'1-e. "tsqu-'ludwi! e^djiM du'hidu-na tla-'nax-e'l-e." "hu'< 
kwi-ge'? (4) kwa-naYle? an-ha'ntl-dji' ! di'u-kwi-yux w u'm-e kwa-naYle." 
'Vdji"i! kla-'wi'-nantl." a-'yu'-ba tla-t'smi-'xwan. (5) hsi-a'yu-da'-itc tla- 
daki'1-ga. "ha-'-s^ditc! dlu'wi'yam-nantl." tsu'-hantl-qa'tsk-tb-daYls. "ha'- 
ma-nantl-ma-'tsi dr-t'lha-'ts." a-'yu-t'lha'tsam. (6) tsu'-t'ama-qVtsk. tsu'- 
e-'wi dadlu'wa-'was, tsu / -we-n-i'ld u wa, "e'-ge-nantl te'ixeu, da"-nantl da-'dzats." 
tsu'-ilhu'we'edzam, tsu'-xt'lu-'tam tla-mi-'geVdje, tsu'-xha'l-agaya. (7) tsu- 
kla'wi tk-x-t'smi-'xwan. "hu-- a'nya-ulfila-'l naqsi'-anhi'ws tlal-wawa"at'l." 
tsu'-yaga'da, tsu'-haTmi, wi'-adzu" adzu'-qxe'u tla-da-laxa'lax. (8) a'yu- 
gas-tlgi'lxiya tli-ildami-'ge. tsu'-wen-tli-tla-di-'lu'l. "a'nya ndu-'hidami. an- 
wu'du-'ha'ya we'n-'ne'e'ls. (9) we-'n-antl-du--si / nsa'nu ye"las. qla'mniyu 
ka" nantl-du wauwa'u." x-we'n i'ld u wa tla-da'e'le. a'yu' hi'wi'ye. 

50. tsu'-g^va-'n wa'si tla-di-'lu'l. wi-'-kwi--tli-malca' t -da'ma'ni'yas. wi'- 






222 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

of basket) for travel. (2) The (next) people will see that." 82 Now he went home. 
Our father (still) lives up above. 



83 



30. There were many people at that place 

1. Now the people were spreading this news, they said that everybody was 
going to gather there. Then this is what the trickster told his children, "You must 
go, you must attempt it. Its value (cost) is quantities of money (large dentalia). 
(2) They say it will be hanging down from the (sky) above. You must both try. 
(It is) a very big (costly) thing. If you should get it you will flee, whichever one 
of you tires, then the other one of you will dash on with it. (3) They say they will 
try to shoot down that (container holding the) medicine which will be hanging 
(suspended from a string) from above (placed there by some being or other)." "Yes. 
We will attempt it." Indeed the boys went. "We will take great care. We will 
have to do it rapidly." (4) Indeed the boys did so. They did not sleep, they arose 
early in the morning, and then they went. Sure enough people were already gathered 
there. Then the old man (the trickster himself) went too. "I will watch and take 
care of my children. (5) It is possible they might do something (harmful) to them. 
I will pretend that I am an extremely old man. Then they will not suppose I am 
there." So he did. He went too. His children did not know that he was there. 

2. Now indeed the people started to shoot at it (to break the string from 
which the container above was suspended). Now the boys (said), "We will not 

ws-'n-i'l-at tla-di'lu'l, "ma-'-mit'lda'ya-'s-ka'* lu-'nu-hantl-du-yu-'didi. (2) wi-'- 
x-ka4ia'nti-kwi--ha'ma'q\" tsu'-wa'si. gwa-'n dlu'q w S9m tli-ma'ma-'ni'yas. 

30. ga'l ka'< mi't'lda'ya-'s 

1. tsu'-x-we-'n sqws-ye'nu da-ka", gu-s-wi-'-tsantl gs'-hit'cu-'nu'weys. 
tsu'-wen-iTd u wa tte-dihi-'me tk-x-t'smi-'xwan, "la'i's-hantl, ka'n-i'is-ha'ntl. 
ga-'l-hada'i'mis d9gwu'la-q w . (2) lu-'-tsa'ntl-dzaga'ga' x-gaha'isitc. misa'-is- 
hantl-kwi--ka'n-i. wa-'-ga'-ditc. wi'-is-hantl-ga'la'm wi'-neqe"is-hantl. wi'- 
wucdje'u'is Iti'nau, wi'-hslt'-ha'ntl du-x-ma"ais is-du--hwa'ldiya. (3) q'di'l- 
c^ham-tsantl kwa-le'l kwa-'ntl 83 ° kwi-' xugu'-dzaga'ga." "a"'- ka'n-i"-nantl." 
a-'yu-la'a'yam tr9-tca'n-97a. "ki'ls-'-s-hantl lu-'dgdaya. xmi-'mtc-is-ha'ntl 
ditc-xa'H." (4) a-'yu-ma'-we-'n tb-tca'n-97a. aN-i'tcgs'ql, c^eri-'mis-itc dls'q- 
sim, tsu'-itcla'. a-'yu ma-'n-ge' hit'cu'we^dg-kV. tsu / -his-tl9-tu- / 'mi't'l la', 
"hi-'dgdaya-wa'ntl kw9-'nihi-'me. (5) yu'wu't's-i'l dji'-aya-'dja-t'a. gwa'yu-'t'c- 
wantl l9'n-wi-tu- /, mit'l-ditc. wi'-a'N-hantl we-'n-ildi'lu'we ku-wu-da'V a'yu- 
me-x-we'n. his-hi'dji la'. a'N-kwa-'ni'yada tb-dex-hi-'me tb-his-hi'dji-da". 

2. tsu'-a'yu-gaqdi'lyim-dg-ka". tsu'-thi-tca'n97a . "a'N-s-hantl ma-'tsi-dji", 
yu'-wantl du-qda'l, wi'-yi-lg'm-ya isga'-hantl-lg'm-ya. wi'-his-nantl-ns'u ge'*- 

82 This is possibly another thought introduced by the modern Coos survivors who could man- 
age to find page and line, so to speak, in their mythology, for all the inventions and queer ways 
of the white people. 

83 Known to Coos generally. Mrs. Peterson heard it from malu'c, also named ca'di. Her 
version seems fragmentary; she gave it upon my request for an arrow chain story. 
83 akwa-ha'ntl. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 223 

just do it badly (by shooting at the string), when I shoot (I will shoot rather at 
the sky itself), if it strikes in we will know that it is stuck in. And then you will 
shoot there also." (2) To be sure, that is what the young men did. Now they saw 
their arrows (hit the sky), and indeed they kept on shooting like that. Now it 
appeared as if it was (not too) high for a jump up, and so one of the young men 
leaped up to it (to the arrow chain ladder they had shot) there. (3) "Now you do 
it too." And sure enough they ascended there on their arrows. The others were 
unable to make it fall down (by shooting the string), it was too high up. Though 
many of them tried (to shoot the string) they could not get it. Now then the boys 
had gotten up there. (4) "Hit the string now!" Indeed the young man did, he 
hit it so well that the other boy seized it, and then sure enough he had it. Now they 
descended. "Take this ! step on my back !" (5) He did so, and now they had gotten 
down. Then he stepped on his older brother, and then he leaped, and so he dashed 
away with the medicine. Now they pursued him. Then the old man ran, he pre- 
tended that he fell, the old man did not really fall, he just threw himself down. 
(6) Indeed all the people tumbled there (over him). Now the other young man 
was also running. "I myself will go along with it while you rest. And when they 
have pretty nearly caught up with me, then you can (run with it)." (7) Sure enough 
that is the way they did it. And the old man ran along too. Now they had almost 
caught up to his children, and then he fell down ahead of the people (he tripped 
up a leader), and indeed the people tumbled there (over that man). And so that 
made the boys get far ahead. (8) In that manner they obtained the medicine, and 
indeed they became wealthy (by selling it) . No one knew just who had stolen the 
medicine, but it really was the trickster's children who had gotten the medicine. 
That was the way they got it, and they became rich from the medicine. 
3. Now so much of that. 

nantl-skwa't." (2) a-'yu-ma'-we-'n tfo-di-'lu'l. a'yu-itc kla-'wi tli-itcdu'wu'- 
tam, a-'yu-itc-ma"-x-ws-'n q'da'l. tsu'-gwa-'-hws'le-t d3gwa-"ni'ya, tsu'-hit'ci- 
du-hws'ldi ge" tfo-di-'lu'l. (3) "hi's-na'ntl-ns'u." a'yu-itc-da'<-he'le'q tli- 
itcdu'wu'sbaya'atc. a'N-x-wi-kwi dji" tu'wittsa-t'a, he'lt'-ha-gu'. ma'i'yuk w - 
ga-'l kwi-kinka'n wi'-an-ilga'lmi't'a. tsu'-itc-ge"-dji< tfo-tca'n-97a. (4) "kwi"- 
ya-kxi' tfo-da-foxa'lax!" a-'yu tfo-di-'lu'l, ha-tfi'le kwi-kxa' tsu'-haTmi tls- 
x-hi't'ci tk-x-tca'n-37a, a-'yu ga'la'm. tsu'-itcpcja' 11 . "di-' ga'la'm! kwa-'ni- 
ts'a'idja ge"-nantl-tsxa't's!" (5) a-'yu-ma-x-we'n, tsu'-itcgadle"ni'ye. tsu'- 
tb-dahet'le-'didje tsxa-'t's, tsu'-hw9Tdi, a-'yu nakwi"yu tfo-le-'l. ma-'n-u'u'- 
midu. tsu'-hw3'l-di-tla-tu"mit'l, gwa'yu't'c tu-'ya, hit'c-a'N tu-'ya tl9-tu-"mit'l, 
tsi-ta-'ts-dat'e. (6) a'yu-gus-ka' gs'-tu-'ya. tsu'-his-hidji yaga'da tfo-di-'- 
lu'l. "x-e'ne-wantl-la'i wi'-lhsta'm-nantl. wi'-tsu'-wantl gasi'ya gidi-'wiya, 
tsu- -nantl-du he'lt'-ns'u." (7) a-'yu-itc-ma-x-we-'n. we'n-tfo-tu"mit'l hi's-du- 
hi'dji' hwuthwi'd. tsu'-du-gasi'ya gidi-'wiya tfo-dahi-'me, tsu'-du --tu-'ya ka"- 
dahe'1-e'yu, a-'yu-du-ge'^dla'ts tfo-lca". a-'yu-du-x-kwi-ha-'ya'ats tfo-tca'n-- 
37a. (8) we'n-illa'ya-tfo-h'l, a-'yu-ilhedi'ys. a'N-x-wi-kwa-'ni'yada tfo-kwi-- 
la'ya tfo-le'l, hi't'c tle-x-t'smi-'xwsn dihi-'me tfo-kwi -'-ga'la'm tfo-le'l. x-we'n- 
itc-kwi --ga'la'm, kwi'yu'-ilhedi'ye th-k'l. 

3. tsu'-tsi--we's. 



224 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol.8 

31. Myth about a trickster 

1. Coyote 84 lived (there), he had one child. Now (when) his wife died, he 
alone raised his child, because (he) the old man was a widower. That child of his 
grew up. "Be (constantly) swimming! you should watch for wealth (for a 'wealth- 
encounter-power,' t'lxi'nxat). (2) And if you find it you should rub it there on your- 
self." But he never did find anything. "Oh you are going to be a poor and homely 
(ugly) person, because you have not done anything yet of what I have told you." 
The young fellow did do everything (he could), but he never (found) such a thing. 

2. Now he went swimming in the ocean. He lay then at the very edge of the 
water (at low tide), he lay as if dead. And then people were coming along, the 
people were shouting as they came. But the young man just lay there, he lay as 
if dead. Now they made themselves a fire. (2) Then one of the people came down 
towards the water. He lay as if he were dead. He circled around him, the person 
who came there examined him, and then he ran back. The young man looked at 
him on the sly. Now they put (hot rocks) into their bucket by the fire. (3) And 
then some other person came to him. They were going to pack him. So now he 
rolled his eyes (to frighten away this man), and the person who had come to pack 
him fled. 

3. Now then the wealthy head man came down to the water, with his dec- 
orations (the shells and beads he wore) he was like foam, his clothes were com- 
pletely (covered with) money (large dentalia). Then he got there, and the young 
man seized him. He could not pull himself loose when the young man caught 

31. kw9 / tc-t'smi- / xw3n ba'saq 

1. ye"l9s dlu'gwa, hit'ci'-diki'lga. wi'-qa'yau-tla-dahu-'mis, x-mi-'t'ci- 
kwi-ha'wau tla-diki'lga, na'yim la'kis ti9tc-tu-"m9t'l. wi'-kwi-he-'wi-tla-di- 
kH'lga. "dzasdIaqaT-nantI ! hada'i'mas da-na-na'ntl hr'dada'ya. (2) wi'- 
inanti-kwi'-l£i'ldwa wi'-ge"-nantl yu'xda-ne'wi." ma--du'-antc ki'ld u wa. "u'- 
idje"-ka"-na'ntl, na'im-na-a'n-ws-'n-we-'tsantqs'm dji'-ni'ilda'mi." guc-dji'- 
xa'ltam tla-di-'lu'l, wi'-ma--du'-an-ku-'wi. 

2. tsu'-ba'ldicdja-dzasdla'qai. tsu'-ha'p-didja'na'niya tsi-'m, gwa'yu't'c- 
gwe-e'q-tsi-'m. hei-ma'tsi-dza'ne'-da-ka', bs'.i-kwi-dji'ni-tta'-ka' 1 . ma"-da- 
tsi-'m tfo-di'lu'l, gwa'yu't'c-gwe-e'q-tsi'm. tsu'-ilt'ci'liya'il-tli'-il-tla-he'malt'. 
(2) tsu'-hit'ci'-ka"-te'ixeu. gwa'yu't'c-gwe-s'q-tsi-'m. cya-'-tcitc, t'ixa'ini-tta- 
x-ka"-ge"-dji, hei-ma'tsi-yaga'da'itc. sadla'ntc du-hama'q' tk-x-di'lul. tsu- 
ilxi'n-iya-ildakws" he'malt'adja. (3) tsu'-du-hslt'-ma'-ka'-dzans. tsu'-hantl-du- 
dimt'i'mu. tsu'-du-gwa'li'ya du--duxwa'lxwal, tsu'-du-ns'qhs tla-ka" kwi- 
yantl-du--t'a-'mi. 

3. tsu'-hethe'deda-te-'ixeu, ma-'tsi-gwa"-q w dli's tla-dax-a'sda, gu's-kwi- 
hada'i'mas tla-date'tc. tsu'-kwi'-dji', tsu'-g-a'lam-tle-x-di-'lu'l. a'N-dji-dzs'm- 

84 Like the preceding epic of the five tricksters, Mrs. Peterson heard from Hanis speakers this 
short account of an episode in the life of the fourth trickster after he had been turned into a coyote 
by his son (the 'people's father'). He is specifically referred to here as coyote because he is con- 
ceived of as wearing the coyote garment put on him by his son. Mrs. Peterson said this trickster 
episode was told by both Miluk and Hanis Coos; she heard a number of older Hanis people tell it. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 225 

him. And he just held on tightly. (2) Now they all went to there, they saw the 
young man holding their head man. "Now come on! come to our fire with us!" 
He went there. Then they simply stole the young man, they took him towards 
their home, being just crows they flew aloft, and they carried the young man 
with them. (3) Now they halted, some of them (about half) went down to the 
water to dig mussels. Now the young man pulled out his knife (and demanded 
of the rest still at camp,) "Give me your money (large dentalia). I will kill you if 
you do not give me money." Sure enough they gave him money. "I want a quan- 
tity of your money. (4) If you do not give it I will surely kill you." So indeed they 
gave it to him. Then the young man went away, and he went back towards home. 
He had a pack (loaded) with money when he returned. "$■'•■ my child! Now (you 
have) your encounter- wealth!" 

4. And that is that trickster's tale, that trickster myth. 

32. What the person who made the country (worldmaker) did 

In this manner it is the people's myth that long long ago the person who 
made the country (worldmaker) is said to have spoken thus to the people at that 
time. "You will hear ten jingles (I, worldmaker, will send ten sounds around the 
world), which will go by high above (up in the air)." (1) And he told the people, 
"You must shut your eyes (then). And when it has gone by (when the sounds 
have ceased), then you may look. But should you look (too) quickly, you will have 
no knowledge. (2) In whatever place people look (too) quickly, they will have no 



t'u ya-ga'lam tls-x-di'lu'l. tsu / -ma"-ge /t -na'qt. (2) tsu'-il-kwi--x-gu- / s-ge"-la', 
kla'wi'il tb-kwi-na'qt tls-x-di-'lu'l tli-ildehsthe'de. "tsu'-a-uct! kwi'-ilnehe'- 
malt'idja!" gs"-la'ai. tsu'-il-ma-'tsi-pa'uk w ts tla-di-'lu'l, tsu'-ilwasa-'ya, hei- 
ma-'tsi x-maqt'H'-kwi-xwa'ilu, tsu'-ilt'a-'mi tla-di'lu'l. (3) tsu'-ilyu-'yu, wu'l- 
mit's-te'ixeu de-e'stis. tsu'-t'cdja" tta-da'wa Twal tle-x-di-'lu'l, "ni-'m-kwa- 
nahada'i'mas. tsu'wa'mi-'na'x inantl-a'n-hada'i'mas ni-'m." a-'yu-hada'i'mas- 
ni'ya. "an-u-ga-'l-wudu-'ha'ya kwa-nahada'i'mas. (4) inantl-a'n-hi --ni-'m wi- 
tsu'wa'mi-na'ntl." a'yu-lu-ni'ya. tsu'-i-'gei tb-di-'lu'l, we'n-wa's-i. hada'i'- 
mas-dat'i'm kwr-we-'st. "e'-- nax-ki'lga! tsu'-nat'lxi'nxat!" 

4. tsu"-tsi--ku'wi tfo-t'smi-'xwan-dalaga'wiya't'a-s, tla-t'smi-'xwan ba-'saq\ 

32. tta-ka" t'lda'ya-s-dzi-'ya da'ne-'djis 

tls-hs'niye x-ws'n-du-daba'saq tle'-ka" tk-kV-t'lda-'yas-dzi-'ya we'n-tsa- 
gum-i'ldwa tle-ka". "t'i-'cdji sa'la-'wa-'s kwi-tci / l-hantl-lcwa-na"ya, gaha-'ya'- 
tsantl-kwi'-la." (1) we-'n-i'ldwa-tk'-ka*, "t'b'l-yimtcil-hantl. wi-tsu'-kwi- 
tsa'ldu, tsu'-tcil-hantl-xi-'la. i-tcil-th'-xi-'la, wi'-an-ha'ntl-ditc-di'mi't'sis. (2) 
wacdje^-t'lda-'ya's-ka'' tle'-xi-'la, kwi'-ha'ntl-a'N-ditc d5a"mi't'sis. gu-'s-ge'n- 



226 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

knowledge. It will go by all over the country (the world). And in whatever place 
the people of the place do not look, (3) and whatever people do not look until 
it (the sound) has gone out of hearing, and then (they) look, then such people 
will make all sorts of things, they will have knowledge of all sorts of things. (4) 
All people who look (too) rapidly will not have as much knowledge, as those people 
who will not look quickly at all, no matter where their country." That is how the 
person who made the country (worldmaker) spoke. 



dji t'lda'cdja da'-hantl-kwi--la. wi'-wicdjs /u -t'lda-'ya'sitc tb-ka"-da"-mit , lda'ya-'s 
ya-kwi'-aN-xi-'la, (3) wi'-wicdj£ /u -ka" a'N-xi'la-tsu'-gu'mtu, tsu'-xi'la, wi-'- 
kuwi-'-ka' kuwi'-hantl gus-di'tc-dzi-'ya, gu-s-di'tc-ilda'ntl-mi't'sis. (4) gu-'s- 
Ra"-tle'-xi'la wi'-an-ha'ntl ha'-ditc-di"mi't'sis, kuwi'-tlantl tfo-ka^-a'N-tk-xi-'- 
la'ama, ma'i-t'lda-'ya's-dgdje-'nenisa'dje." x-we'n-i'lat tfo-kV-t'lda-'yas-dzi-'ya. 



MYTHS IN HANIS 

1. (An additional fragment about the tricksters) 

When he (the trickster) was making the country, he went about here and there, 
he made a dam, then there he would step. Maybe he would leave only a single 
footprint. (1) Then he would speak in this manner, "The coming people will 
see those tracks of mine." That is how the trickster did, when he was going all over 
the country. That is the way the people see tracks of the trickster. 



so 



2. Coyote and blue crane 

1. Coyote was going somewhere. He said to his wife, "I am going to seek 
people." So he went, and then he was gone. Now indeed he got to where there 
were people. The house was full of food at the people where he had arrived. (2) 
Now he was getting up to some mischief. "Oh your house is too full. We will 
make another one." Indeed the young man did so. Now they (coyote and blue 
crane) were building a house. And then he was getting up to mischief. (3) "You 
hold it! I will fasten it." Indeed the young man held it. Then he tied the young 
man's hand, he tied both his hands. He could not get loose. (4) Then the trick- 
ster went inside the house, and he began to make up a pack, he packed up pretty 
nearly all of the young man's food, and then the trickster went. Now he could not 
pack all of it, it was too heavy, so then he called out, he called to everything. 

1 . (An additional fragment about the tricksters) 

le'-t'lda ha'u'ts, tVm-a le'la'a'ya'qham, t'fe'mV'ni, la'u-ge'ntc hi"ni' 
tsxi't's. yu'wu't's hats yi'xei ha'q\ (1) le'u-wentc tl'e'ts, "x-yaga'ndjim me-' 
hantl le'u kwna'iwa't na'nhaga'di." we'ntc we-'u ne-'djis le'-t'smi-'xwn, yu"we 
t'lda' cya^itci'a'qmi-'ya. x-we'ntc-we- le'we--le'u x-rae' kwna'iwa't la'haga'di 
le'-t'smi-'xwn. 

2. ux-ye-"l9S ux-ha't'l 

1. ye-"l3S tsu'-we-hu-'we'itsem. we'ntc i"lt le'-hu"mis, "mi-'ti-hanti me'- 
'nawuTwut." a'yu-' la', tsu'-le-e'he. he'-a-"yu mehe'nde-tc-he'1-eq. he-x-kwa'n- 
yau le'u ba'a'hit le' yixe"wax le'-me-'-ha'Lgait. (2) tsu'-we-t'smi-'xw9ni'- 
ye. "u-' helt'yu' ba'a-'hit li'ye yixe"w9x. ya'a'i-hantl i's ha' u< ts." a'yu'-x-wentc 
le-di-'lul. tsu'-ux'yi'xe'w9xe"ni. he'-wa'-hats t'smi-'xwgni'ye. (3) "exge'n yu'- 
xwah w ! na'xa'lwu'ts-hantl." a"yu' yu'xwa le-x-di-'lul. he'-wa'-hats xa'lwuts- 
'itc le-'&la le-di'lul, i'ki xa'lwuxam le'kila. i'n-dji-tc dze"met'. (4) ha'ts- 
ge ! ' dzu'witc de"dits le-t'smi-'xwan, tsu'-ge yu'wu't'le'ni-'we, gu's-le'u-gas yu'- 
t'bts le'kwa'nyau le-di'lul, tsu'-yeq le-t'smi'xwan. tsu'-i'n-dji-tc le'u gu-'s he- 



85 Mrs. Peterson heard her Hanis mother and aunt recount this. 

(227) 



228 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

(5) "Come here! my nephews! Come here! my nieces! (brothers' daughters !)" Vari- 
ous ones came but he did not want them. So then he called again. (6) Now the (two) 
bumblebee girls came. "Oh my nieces! You are the ones I want. Now you pack 
my packs." He made two packs, and indeed they packed them. Now they began 
to sing, m'--- (buzzing), that was their song. (7) Then the trickster became angry 
(at that song). "That vulva of a funny song of theirs! I wish they would become 
yellow jackets!" Now the two girls became angry at that, and they flew up (high 
above). "£•'■• my nieces! I was only teasing you, I was just playing with you." 
(8) That is what the trickster said. But just salmon bones fell down. Indeed they 
turned into yellow jackets, and they flew away. So he picked up the bones, he col- 
lected them, and that was all he had when he got back home. 

2. Now the young man's (blue crane's) hands were sore. Then a person ar- 
rived, and they loosened him. But the young man could not straighten his neck 
again. (2) That is the reason why they call him 'looking up' (blue crane). Ever 
since that time that has been his name. That is what the trickster did to the young 
man. 

3. Then indeed he (the trickster) was going home. He lacked food now. 
Then he wanted a drink of water, and he saw a creek, and he ran to there. But there 
was no water, and though he tried to drink there was no water. (2) So he went 
on. Now he saw water again, but in just the same manner again there was no 
water. That is the way he went along. That is how they took vengeance on him. 

yu"wet'l, helt'yu' pt'H's, tsu'-we-gek'e'lye gus-di'l we' ak'a'liwat. (5) "cin- 
Y'dji! nax-du'wude'ei! cinV'dji! nex-u'pxanacitc !" dH-he'-hsTeq i'n-he-'-du- 
wa-'ya. tsu'-he-a'su-ak'a'lai. (6) tsu' ti'xmil ge'netc-me' hala'ga. "u-'- pgws'n- 
dli! s"ns li'i'c duwa'ixda-'mi. de'i'ic yu't'ldze n9'n'yu"wet'l." yuxwa'hants 
le' yu'Vet'l, a'yu'-yu-tltsu. tsu'-uxge'lc w 'li-'we, m-'---, ws'ntc le-'mege"en. (7) 
tsu' we-ge'unet ta-t'smi-'xwan. "ma'ih w cgw3 li-yu-'su't ls'x w megs"sn! gala'- 
7-asi'yaga!" tsu-uxge'unst le-gwe'isa'm-e, tsu'-uxwa'ildat. 'V-- pgwa'ndli! 
ma-'-tsi' nags'nedje'ni, tsi-i'c maga'nyaxda-mi." (8) we'ntc-we tl'e'xem le- 
t'smi-'xwan. ha'ts-he la"mak c^adta'dla le-ge'1'yiq. a'yu' uxga-'kryasi-'ya, tsu'- 
uxwa'ildat. tsu'-hats-he-la"mak kTmstit, tsu'-leu-hi'it'cu"wa'Nts, le'wu-di-'l 
bi"bi. 

2. tsu'-le-di-'lul wutcwe'hedji le'ki'la. hats-me'-hebeq, tsu dzidzemt'u'ye. 
tsu'-i'n-dji'itc asu-t'H-'nats k-'kwa'Nts le-di-'lul. (2) le'u-x-we'ntctl lels'u 
we'ntc let'ci-'yim ha-'t'l. t'i'm-idu'wetc we'ntc-ila'nas. we'ntc-ws-tsi-'xti"yat 
le-x-t'smi-'xwan ls-di-'lu4. 

3. tsu' a"yu pi'i'yeqhem. tsu' yaqVim kwa'nyau. tsu'-his-xa-'jS duwa'- 
ya, tsu' he-xla"nik* kwna-'iwat, tsu'-h£--tcila'wuxna"at. hsi-ha'-hats ke'-xa-fj, 
tsu'-he-tci-'ci U.e-'-xa.f>. (2) tsu'-he--la. tsu'-hs asu'-xa-'p klu'wit, he'-his-hs'- 
lsu-we'ntc kY'-xa-p\ we'ntc-la. we'ntc-ildla'lahaiwat. tsu'-we-wutxs. (3) 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 229 

Now he got back home. (3) "Where is your food?" So they were hungry, they 
hungered the entire winter. And now they had just a little wood left. He (always) 
slept in the (men's) sweat house. Now she spoke thus to her children, "Go get 
your father. This is just all our wood, and so he can warm himself (too)." (4) Then 
indeed he came in, and he sat down by the fire to warm himself. Now he sat a 
long while. "Why did you want me to come in?" "So that you could warm your- 
self by the fire. Because that is just all our wood." (5) Now then he beat his wife 
(disappointed at her not having food rather than fire for him). Then spring came, 
and they made preparations. "Now we will go to my nephew there. He has quan- 
tities of food." Indeed they made preparations, and then they went. (6) "If you 
see fire you will know that I have killed something. Then I will be cooking it." 
Sure enough they saw fire, so they went to there. (7) His children ran, and then 
they reached there. Why he had just nothing at all, it was merely his quiver that 
he was cooking. Now she became angry, they really were so hungry, and he was 
only deceiving them. 

4. Now they reached there, but there was no one at all, not a person at all, 
not even a house anywhere. They had no food. Now she was at the creek, and 
sure enough she found lone salmon eggs, one lying here, another there. (2) She 
picked them up, and they ate skimpily on them. Every day she picked them up, 
and indeed they nibbled on them. Once going along she did reach a village. "Oh! 
sister-in-law! come inside!" (3) Now they gave her food, and she ate because she 
was hungry. Then they gave her food to take home. "That is why we hid from 
him, he is too tricky. When he was around here before, he tied up the young man, 
and he almost died. (4) That is why we do not want him. But you should secretly 
come here. You will not be hungry. We will give you food, and then you and your 

"qs'ntcuys-kwa'nyau?" tsu'-ws-iTgs, yixei-ge-'lu i'l-ge. tsu'-we-ni'ct'c-hei ni'- 
kin. tsu' kwa'l-et'ktc he-tsxu'. tsu'-wentc i"lt bhi-'me, "1'a'dzi-t li'ye e'k w - 
dletc. tsi-ls'u lsb'n ni'lpn, kwiltsxa'm-hantl. " (4) tsu' a"yu de'^dits, tsu' 
kwi'ltsxam. tsu'-he'niye kwi'la"at. "di-'l-tcs-'tcu de-egwa"ada"is?" "tsi-'- 
ye'it-skwi'ltsxam. na'im-tsr-le'u ls-'bn ni'kin." (5) tsu'-hats ma'nktit lehu"- 
mis. tsu'-we-tsb'mi"y£, tsu'-we-hu'ws'itse-m. "tci'-hantl-b'nla li'n'indu'wu- 
de'tc. na-'ntu-kwa'nyau." tci' a'yu'-ws ilhu'we'itss-'m, tsu'-ws i'i-a. (6) 
"ya'ntl-tcwe'l-ci'nkhi'wit ika'x-hantl di-'l n'tsxa'u-'wat. la'-wantl naqmi-'- 
t'its." a'yu'-tcwe"! ilkhi'wit, tsu-'-tci-i'la. (7) ye-qs'qe'ni k'hi-'me, tsu-'-tci- 
ilhs-Tsq. he'-wa'-hats kY-di-'l, hats-we'-he t'cu'xu-'ni le^-we-le'^mi'yams. tsu'- 
ge.u'ns't, ma'-wa-i'lgs, ma'-wa-le'u-wutwu'ndi-'t'ax. 

4. tsu'-ilhe'leq, i'n-ge'ntc-me, kVme'u ga-'is, his-gu'ma in-ge'ntc yexs"- 
wax. i'n-l-hslkw9'nyau. tsu'-he xla'ni'ljitc, a'yu'-he si-'xwas kiktlu'wi'wat, 
yixs'hitc-hs'-leu haya"di. (2) le'uleu-he-l^iMtsi-'wat, le'u-he'helk w 'ni. denk- 
ga-'is hs-le'u-he'-lu-kimtsi'wat, a'yu'-he'-le'u he-he'lk w 'ni. yixs'n la'a-'ya'^ham 
hei-ha'ts t'lda-'yas ss'tc-he'1-eq. "u-'! tla'n! e"ditc!" (3) tsu'-atsa"tsim, 
tsu'-dlu-'yam na'im-lge. tsu'-yu'wu'dla-'ni'yaqma. "i'n-hu-'we le'Mansdb'- 
na-da'ya, helt'yu' t'smi-'xwan. le'-we-tsix yuxwu'm-e, le' u -wuxa'lwuts le-di-'- 
lu'l, l£ /u -ga's lsge'uwe. (4) we'ntc-dH bk'u-li-i'n-duwa'ya. s'ne'-hsl sadla'ntc 
hanth'we sheTsq. an-ha'ntl-lgs. kwa'nyau-hantl bn's'qacdja'mi, le'u ci-i'n- 



230 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology \ Vol. 8 

children will not be hungry." That is what they said to the trickster's wife. (5) 
Indeed that is the way she did when she was out of food, she would go there, and 
indeed they would give her food. But the trickster never found anything, because 
he was so mean (bad). (6) Even the bay became dry (when he approached it). 
He never found anything. That was how the people took vengeance upon him, 
because of his too numerous meannesses. That is why they did not want him. 

5. That is all of the myth I recall. 

3. Bluejay myth 86 

1. The man and wife (they were bluejay people) lived (there), they had five 
children. Now they were out of food. Though he tried to hunt, the man never 
got anything. It became autumn and still they had obtained nothing, they had 
no food, they hungered. (2) And now only two pieces of wood bark were left. The 
man lay in the (men's) sweat house. "Hm'm, and now I will have to burn the 
bark." So she did go to get it, and she put it in to burn. Now she spoke to one of 
her children, "Go get your father so that he can warm himself." (3) Indeed he 
washed and entered, and he warmed himself, he sat there by the fire. And after a 
long time, "Why did you tell me to come in?" "That is all of our wood, so that 
you could get warmed there." Then he jumped up and whipped his wife. (4) Then 
he ceased beating her, and the woman arose and put her basket on her back. Now 
she wept. "Oh it makes me so sick at heart when I am hungry, and he beats me. 
(5) I wish something would take pity on me, I wish the sky would see me, I am 

hantl-lge li'yehi-'me." we'ntc gw3Sgwi"yeq'hem le-t'smi-'xw9nu-hu''mis. (5) 
a'yu' ya-ge'-x- we'ntc yu'-we-yecja'im kwa'nyau, le'u tci he-la', a'yu' he-kwa'n- 
yau atsa"tsi-m. ta'-le-t'smi-'xwgn i'n-di-l-ktlu"ts, na'im-yu-i'n-ta. (6) his- 
gu'ma ci't'cdi le'u-t'cb's-he'. in-he-'-di-'l ktlu"ts. we'ntc il dla-'laha'iwat le- 
x-me', na'im-helt'yu' na'nt-ne-'dJ9S we'ntc-dH. le'leu il-i'n duwa-'ya. 

5. tsu-'-tsi-we-'s nikl'HH-'wat le-he-'djit'. 

3. Ye'ye'ne he-'djit' 

1. tsu' gwe-'t'i le-me' hu'msni, get'i'mhisi-hi-'me. la'u-il-ke'-kwa'n-yau. 
ma'i-he pga'lisa, in-he'-dH idzadu-'wat le-x-de-'mil. ge'lwi-'ye a'iwa il-i'n-dil 
i'dzgdu-'wat, il-ke'-kwa'n-yau, i'l-ge. (2) la'u-yuxwe"e tla'gwi't le'-tsgwa"- 
dbs ni'km. kwa'1-et'le-tc he-'-tsxu le'de'mil. "hm'm, he'-ha'ntl nt'li"ni'yat 
1't'sxa-." tsu'-a'yu' 1'adza'ya, a'yu'-t'li'ni-'yat. tsu'-we'ntc-i'Tt yi'xe* la"a"la, 
"i'a'dzit li'ye'e'k w dletc kwaltsxa'm-hantl." (3) a'yu'-sdleqe'i'me de"dits, nan- 
tsu'-kwaltsxam, hi'ni' kw3"la'at. tsu'-he-'niye, "dil-tce'tcu de'-ekwa-'tita"is?" 
"tsi'-il-e'u le-'b'ni'kin, tci-'ye'it-epi'ctcits^am." hei-ha'ts-xne"di'tc'itc ta'-lau 
ma'nktit le-'hu"mis. (4) tsu'-e-'wi-mikma"nak, tsu'-sdu-'weq lshu"mis tsu'- 
yu-'t'litsa-ka-'wal. tsu'-^e'tu'wi-'ye. "he'-gwa-ni'xe'na'sna ilwe"djis yi'-'nlge, 
ta'-'nami'kmerigil. (5) he ! -ca'ga-l dil-'na'kwini'xdu, x-ga'yis ga' nakws'nail, 

86 Mrs. Peterson heard a Hanis, Old Dick, tell this. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 231 

so poor." That is the way she wept. Now she went along, she went alongside the 
creek there crying. 

2. She came around a bend, and now children were swimming there. "Oh 
they are having a fine time ! And young men are spearing, they are spearing salmon. " 
Now she halted there, she did not want to go on, (2) she was ashamed because she 
was crying, because her face was all swollen (from the beating). "My husband 
beat me." So she sat down there, she thought that no one saw her when she sat 
there. One of the women came to where she was. (3) "I saw you, my sister-in- 
law. I feel sorry for you. Come!" Indeed the woman went, and she took her in, 
and gave her food to eat. Then she ate. (4) Now she finished eating, and this 
is what she said, "I will go back home now." "a n/ ? give me your basket." Indeed 
she handed it to her, the woman took it, all sorts of things, just a little so much of 
each thing, she gave her for food. (5) "When you get home put each of them in 
a different place." Indeed she did. When she got back she did do that. Now she 
cooked food. "Go get your father." Indeed he went to get him, and then they 
ate. To be sure they were now all right, they now had quantities of food. (6) The 
food became swelled (magically increased in quantity). They were not hungry 
again, they now had all sorts of edibles. That is the way they became all right. 
Those people she had seen were kingfisher and bluejay people. He was a bluejay 
person too. 

3. Now that is all I know of that myth of mine. 



nakwi'ne'wet'l." we'ntc-ge'Lt. tsu-'-la"a"yaqnam, he-xla"nik" naldji'le'es 
hi-'ni' la'a"yaqham ge'Lt. 

2. bs^axe'mitc e'nek, he'-ha'ts hi-'me dzasdla'ga'ni'waq. "u y - Wyi 
hslga-'is! ta'-ls-tca'n7a dli'm li'waq, gel'yi'q ildli'mli"wa t t." tsu'-sdu-'weq 
hi"ni, i'n-duwaya tci'-la, (2) tciltsa'xam na'im-ga'xa, na'im-le-"e la'u-gu-s- 
le'u-pxw3"n3S le"s. "lsx-de-'mil le'u-ma'nktit." tsu'-hi'ni dlu"tsxem, ws'ntci- 
ilwe"djis i'n-x-wut kwana'iwat i'-hi'ni dlu'wu'gets. yi'xe' le'-hu'm-ske hsxs"- 
itc le u hsTsq. (3) "s'kwa'na-mi, nax-tla'ntlqa-tc. ekwi-'nixda-mi. e^dji!" 
a"yu'-ba h-hu"mis, tsu'-ditdji-'yu, tsu'-atsa /! tsim. tsu'-gedlu-'wi'ws. (4) tsu'- 
s'wiwu-dlu-'wa'wa's, tsu'-wsntc tl'e'ts, "kwi'yal-hantl n9bi"bi." "V? a'- 
tsam-liyska-'wal." a'yu'-ku'wi-'yat, sga / ts-le-x-hu"mis, gu's-didje-'nen-dil, 
ni'ct'citc gu-s-di'l yu'-x-wentc, la^-atsa'^tsi-m. (5) "ya'ntl-s'wu'txe gu-s-ha'ntl 
gi'ya"ni aha'wi'wa't." a'yti'-wentc. yu-wu'txs a'yu'-tsixti"at. tsu'-q'mi'- 
l'tsqam. "1'a'dzit li'ye'e'k w dletc." a"yu 1'adza'ya, tsu'-ilqa'mtsim. a'yu' il- 
nu"wet's, na'nt'u-helkwa'n-yau. (6) hats pgu-'tqem lskwa'nyau. il-i'n asu'- 
1-ge, gu-'s-didjs-'nsn-dil k'lkwa'n-yau. x-we'ntc il-nu"wet's. il-cdji't'is-ms-' 
ta'-il-Te'^ene-me-' ibu'-me- k-klu'wit. his-xe y -lu Ys'ys^ne-me 7 . 

3. tsu'-tsi-la^'nakwa'a'nya h'nhe-'djit'. 



232 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

4. Blue jay myth 87 

The girl was always picking myrtle nuts. Once she became ill and went home 
sick. Now they were going to get a shaman, a good shaman. (1) "You go get 
him." Indeed they went to fetch the shaman. He was a good one, bluejay shaman, 
and indeed they got him. Now he doctored on her, and he sang, 

"It is my own poison power that they are talking about." 

That is how it was his own song when he doctored on her. He did not doctor 
long before he flew aloft, and tea' 'tea' 'tea'', that was what he did. (2) He packed 
the girl on his back when he flew up (through the smoke hole), "'u-' I wanted you 
myself. That is why I gave you the poison pain." That is what he said to the 
girl. "I love you, my wife." 

5. The walkers (animals) and winged things (birds) fought 88 

1. The people were going to fight, on the one hand the winged things, on 
the other the walker things, (and) all sorts of small walker things. (2) All the 
winged things came to fight, all sorts of winged things. Then they commenced 
fighting, a long long time they fought. 

2. Now the bats, half winged thing and half walker thing, (they) fought 
on both sides, and they bore information to both sides. (2) They did not remain 

4. 7e'ye"ne he-'djit' 

gwe'is gu-s-mi"le'tc le"lsu ci'djils-ya-kwi-'wat. yi'xentsa-wutcws'hedji xe'- 
na's-bi'^bi. tsu'-ilxda'in-hantl atsu-'tam, laVi- ilxqa'in. (1) "cinl'a'dzit." 
a'yu'-lu-l'a'tsu-ta-m le-ilxqa'in. xe-he'ir-la'yi, ls /t -7e'ye"n£ ilxqVin, a'yu'-l 
atsu-'tsa-m. tsu'-gekwa'uya, tsu"-ge < kwli-'we, 

"ci'ct'cicilsdi-'la a-'xayal'i'." 87 

we- / ntC3-megs"en yu-kwa'wa'iwacj. i'n-he-niye kwa'wa'iwaq hei-hats-xns /t dits, 
tsu' tca'^tca^tca'', we'ntc tsi-'yaxit. (2) le' u w9-yu'w£t'l-xne"dits ls"-gwe'is. 
"'u-' tsi'-sne'-edu'wayaxda-'mi. we'ntc le'-eki'yu-'nta-mi." x-we'ntc-i"lt le"- 
gwe'is. "edu'wayaxda-mi, nsx-hu"mis." 

5. Is' ntca'ha-1 ta'-ntlbi'n-e-dH flWVni 

1. tsu'-leu mehe"idi'msu k'-me', il-ne'tlbi'n-s--dH, il-netca'ha-di-1, gu-'s- 
didje-'nen t'ce'ye''ne ntca'ha-dil. (2) x-le'u ls'u maha'iwa't ls'-ntlbi'ne-'- 
di-1, gu-'s-didjs'-nsn ntlbi'ne'-dil. le'u we'leni, hs-'niye idzi-'mis le'u we-'- 
le'ni. 

2. k'u-leu le-ba'ya"nat's, kit'sime"mis ntlbi'n-s'-dil ta- / -kt'sime"mis 
ntca'ha-dili'm-e, la'u-leu dzu-'nu-ldji-'dit, ta--dzu-'nu kws's'n il'yu'xumx. (2) 



87 The second Miluk dictation, "Bluejay shaman," (p. 138) is another version of this myth. 
The song is the same as the one of the Miluk version. 

88 Mrs. Peterson heard this told by Hanis speakers, Old Dick and waiqdi'. 



19401 Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 233 

fighting on one side, because they were half walker thing and half winged thing. 
They did not remain on one side, but fought on both sides. (3) That is why they 
do not go around in the daytime, because this is what they were told, "You must 
not go around, because the winged things will kill you, and because the walker 
things will kill you too." (4) Today now they never go around in daytime. They 
hide. That is why their heart aches, and this is the way they cry, 89 

"Why did I do that? 
I fought on both sides. 
Now I cannot go round in daytime at all. 
Indeed I feel so sad at heart, 
because I cannot go about in daytime." 

6. Myth of robin 90 

The feathered ones came to make war on one another. Then they fought. 
Oh! they killed them all. Only one was left living. This is how he cried, 

"I am ugly and I am left. 
Red prickly heat spots are on my belly. 
I am the ugly one and only I am left. 
They killed my own people." 



ii-i'n-get'i'se dlildji"da'ai, na'im-il-ki't'sime'mis ntca'ha-dil ta'-kit'si'me"mis 
ntlbi'ns'-dil. i'n-xgs'ndju"ms t'le"et, hats-dzu'nu dlildji"da'ai\ (3) k'u- 
x-we'ntc-dH du'-we-lsu-i'n dikTltc-yuwi'dit, na'im-wsntc i'i'ltem, "en-ha'ntl- 
djitc yux w u'm-s, ma'i-x-ntlbi'n-e-'-dil yaga'ntl-x-ls'u etsxe"wil, ma'i-x-ntca'- 
ha--dil ysge'-x-leu etsxs"wil." (4) a'yu-' di"dze in-he'-m-di'kiltc yux w u'nve. 
sdla'ne"st-he. le'u-wentc yi'xe'nisi-ilwe^djis, le'u-wentc he-'-le'gslt, 

"tci-'tcu-'-hel cgwa-du'-wsntc ntsi'xtsix? 89 
dzu'nu ndli'ldji-da'^i. 
a'ytr'-he'-ni-'dji-tc yux w u'm-£ diki'ltc. 
dJyu-'-hs. X£'ni's-ne'ilws"djis, 
yu'-we-ni -'-diki'ltc yux w u'm • s. " 

6. gugwi'dau he-'djit' 

ntlbi'ne-di-1 mehe"idi'meu. ls'u-lau wu'lmsu. u-'! gu-s-i'l ai'a'iwa'yu. 
la'u yixs'i tlagwi'ye't. le'u-we'ntc-lsu ge'^lt, 90 

"idzs"ts ci-'nagwi-'ye't-'nagwi'ys't. 
nugwa-'lis'a-nu'we'. 
idj e'-x-u-gugwi 'dau-gugwi -'dau. 
tb-kwi-'-gi-l^i'yu tb-'na'e'ns tla-'na'e'stis." 



89 Ediphone cylinder 14:14581 :a; RCA Victor disc 14:1461 lA:c. 

90 Mrs. Peterson heard this from Lower Coquille Miluks, Cissy, gwa-"li'ya and others. Rob- 
in's crying recitative is on Ediphone cylinder 14:14580:j. The recitative or song is in Miluk not 
Hanis words, since Mrs. Peterson never heard it given in Hanis. 



234 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

7. Crow and thunder trade languages 91 

1. Crow man hunted for food every day. The day (tide) never became dry 
(low). The water stayed up on the beach all the time. They (the crows) could 
not get anything (shellfish, etc.). (2) Now strong-talk-person (thunder), that is 
how the people named the foods' father, came to the crows' headman. "What 
do you want for your language ? chief ?" (3) "If you want my language, you will make 
it dry, you will give me (that). Then we will trade languages." "Good. You will 
give me your language, and then the day (tide) will dry (go out)." (4) Indeed 
that is the way they did. They traded languages. And so crow spoke his language, 
the language of the foods' father. He (thunder) spoke the crows' language. It was 
like a roar when he spoke, the foods' father. 

2. Now indeed the day (tide) dried. All sorts of things (fish) napped around 
in the shallow water when it became dry. Half the ocean dried up. (2) "Oh! 
(crow objected). I do not want it that way. They might die if it dries up too much. 
It must not be like that. We would only play with (destroy) them, the food would 
be dead for nothing at all." (3) So then the foods' father fetched the water back. 
Now the tide came in. Now they name it that way, incoming tide. 



7. ux^ma-'qat'l ux w -t's9'n-a su'tdzg'meu x-tii"is 

1. ma-qa't'l ds-'mil gus-mi'letc he-' lau kwa'nyau wu'lu-'wat. in-he-'- 
t'c'li'yu ga-'is. yege-'-wsntc kwa'lt'l. il-i'n-he--dji-tc i'dzadu-'wat. (2) hs'- 
ha'ts he'm-isi-tii"is me-', ws'ntc he'-let'ci-'yim le'-x-me' hs-kwa'n-yau ma'a'n-- 
yas, ls' u -he'l-9q Is-' ma'qa't'l nehsthe-'de. "di-'lu tci'-eduwa-'ya li'ye'ntii"is? 
hethe-'de?" (3) "ya'ntl edu-'waya la'ntli"is, la'u-t'c'la'ims-hantl, a'a'ts9m. 
tsu'-hantl-tym-a is-u-'tate-"ni-hantl x-tli"is." "laVi. a'a'tsam-ha'nti li'ye- 
tli"is, la'u-t'c'li--ha'ntle'we-ga-'is." (4) a'yu' ysge'-x-wentc. tsu'-uxsu'tadza'- 
me u x-tli"is. a"yu hslt'-ma-'qat'l ls-'-itc-tl's'ts, k'x-kwa'n-yau ma'a'nyas9-tK'- 
'is. hslt'-hs-'-le-itc tl'e'ts le'x-ma-'qat'i ntli"is. gwa-lgwultdze"t-ga'is i'-tl'ets, 
le-'-kws'n-yau ma'a'nyas. 

2. tsu'-a-"yu t'cli'yu-ga'is gu-'s-didje'nen-dil tlaxa'xa i'-lau-t'c'li'. kt's- 
me"mis baldi-'mis le' u t'c'li'. (2) "u-'! ni-'-wsntc-duwa-'ya. he'-u-'hats'a-'- 
ya i'-helt'yu-'-li'n-wi-t'c'li'. in-ha'ntl-x-we'ntc. ha'ts-utl-tsi'-Hn'a'lica'na-ya, 
ha'ts-uke'-skilsu a'i'wa b-kwa'n-yau." (3) tsu'-a"yu hu-tldu-'wa't k'-x-kwa'n- 
yau ma'a'nyas la-xa'fj. a'yu'-t'lu-'ni. le' u -wentc illa-'t'ci-'ya, t'hi-'ni. 

91 This myth is common property to all speakers of Coos. Note the version in Coos Texts, 
Frachtenberg, p. 14, as well as the fragment in the Appendix. The Coos judged one being to be 
controller of the fish and all the foods that lived in the water, as well as controller of the waters 
and tides. This being was called 'strong talk person' (H. he'misith"is me') and sometimes he 
was called 'the food's father' (H. he-kwa'nyau ma'a'nyas). It is he, Thunder, who came to the 
headman of the crows and asked the latter what he wanted for his noisy language. And the crow 
headman in his turn wanted low tides for his people, so that they could obtain food on the mud 
flats. In return for the low tides granted him Crow gave Thunder the crows' thunderous speech. 
Then Crow complained because Thunder had made the tide go out too far; he feared that all the 
sea dwelling foods would be stranded and die. So then Thunder brought back the tide, and in 
return for the next decently low tide Crow gave 'lightning' (H. lu'wak w , M. lu'wak w ) to Thun- 
der. Now, when fish are burned by the Indian people, or when fish are carelessly thrown on the 
ground, Thunder ('strong talk person,' 'the food's father,' 'father of the fish') becomes angry at 
the maltreatment of his children and roars and destroys things. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 235 

3. Then they traded again. "Give me another (low) tide." So crow spoke 
to the foods' father. "I will give you lightning, if you give me another (low) tide." 

(2) "Very well" (thunder replied). They traded then. Now the foods' father 
flashed, and then again there was another dryness (low tide). That is how they 
name it dzale'ts, (it is) one of the drynesses (low tides), (it is) the evening dryness 
(low tide) . (3) That is the one they thus name dzale'ts. That is the way they traded 
languages, crow and thunder. That is the people's myth of crow and thunder. 

4. Now all of that. 

8. Small bird hawk had his head cut off 92 

1 . Many people lived there. There were five brothers (small bird hawks) . Now 
one of them married, and then he had two (male) children. He made canoes all the 
time. One day he did not return. (2) Now they (his two sons) searched for him. 
He was just in that canoe, headless. Only his dog looked upward when it barked. 
No one knew why. "I wonder why the dog looks above." (3) Then one of the 
youngsters dreamed thus, "They took your father's head up above. If you want 
him do not bury your father. Just let him be lying. Both of you go, you will find 
your father's head. Now you must shoot up above." (4) So they did. "Your 
arrows will join together, and then you may climb up to there." That is what the 
young man dreamed. Indeed that is what they did. So the next day this is what 

3. tsu'-a's-u uxsu-'t9te-"ni. "a-su'-hantl ya'a'i a'a'tsam ta-dta'ges." we'ntc 
i"lt le-x-ma-'qat'l le-kwa'nyau ma'a'nyas. "lu-'wakw-ha'ntl a'atsa-'mi, ya'ntl 
as-u' ya'a'i dle'ges a'a'tsgm." (2) "laVi." a'yu' uxsu't-adza'meu. tsu' a'yu' 
lu-'gwat' le-'-kwa'nyau ma'a'nyas, a'yu' as-u' ya'a'i le'-t'c'la-'yims. le' u -we'ntc 
illat'ci-'ya dzale'ts, le-yi'xe 1 li-t'cla-'yims, qa'uwa t'c'la-'yims. (3) le"wi we'ntc- 
illa-t'ci'ya dzale'ts. x-we'ntc uxsu"t-adz9'me u x-tli"is, le'-ux-ma-'qat'l ta'-le- 
t'sa'n-a. x-we'ntc le-me'u he-'djit' ux-ma-'qat'l ux w -t'sa'n-a. 

4. tsu'-tsi-le' u . 

8. dzi'ls-'geq gwutlgwa"yu- hwu"luh w 

1. me-' na-nt-gwe-'t'i le'uleu get'i'mhis mi-tlgwi-'dji'ni. le'u yixe'i nahu"- 
mise, la'u yuxwe'u hi-'me. la'u-le'u-he gu-s-mi'letc he-' le'u tchi'wa-'yam. yi'- 
xen tsi i'n-wu'txe. (2) tsu-'-lau wul'wu'lwa'yu. he'-ha'ts he'ni'-ix la'u-la-ts, 
ke'-hwu"luh w . ha'ts-le-'k w hyu's gaxa'ntc-he- kwa'na^t yu'-we- wa"wats. tsu'- 
i'n-dji-tc-le'u kwe'e'nim. "x-dji-'tc le'we-lau ga'xantc kw9'na''t le'k w hyus." 

(3) tsu'-yi'xe' la-tca'n-7a we'ntca-gwa'a't'as, "gaxa'ntc bi'be-'ye'yu li'ye'e'k w - 
dletcu-hwu"luh w . ya'ntl- edu'wa-ya ci-i'n-hantl tbi'ts li'ye'e'k w dletc. ha'ts- 
hantl-ci'n dza'xawi-'t'ax. yuxwa'-hantl i'cla', la'u-icktlu"ts-hantl li'ye'e'k w - 
dletc hehwu"luh w . la'u-ickwa'nai-hantl ga'xantc." (4) la'u-a'yu'-hantl. "le'u- 
hantl-si- t dla"at'la le'cwu'sbaya, la'u-hi'ni'-hantl-iche'l-e'q." we'ntc-he-gw3"at'9S 
le-di-'lu'l. a'yu' ux w -x-we'ntc. a"yu hel'mi'his we'ntc-i"lt le'het'letc, "we'ntc- 



92 Mrs. Peterson heard a Hanis, Old Dick, tell this when she was about ten or twelve years of 
age. For a different version note Coos Texts, Frachtenberg, p. 149. 



236 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

he said to his older brother, "That was the way I dreamed. Let us try it." (5) 
Indeed they went to there where he made the canoe, there they went. Indeed they 
shot (up to the sky), and sure enough their arrows joined together. Now indeed 
they stood straight up (from the ground to the sky, a chain ladder), and so then 
they climbed up on it, and they ascended to a different country. 

2. Now they went along, they went over a prairie, and then they found a 
trail. Then they went along it, and now they heard a person singing. So they went 
to there, and there were girls, they were digging fern roots. (2) Now the girls saw 
the young man. Then this is what the young man said, "What is it? what are 
you digging for there ?" "Hu-'- there is going to be a big time. Our husband brought 
back a below world head, and they are dancing on account of it, they are going to 
have a big time and feast (a return-from-war dance)." (3) That is what the girl 
explained to the young man. Now this is what the young man said, "We want 
you (to be our wives)." "Very good. We ourselves desire you too." "If you want 
us you must explain to us what your people do." Of course then the girls explained 
it all. (4) "Up above on the rafter slats is where they keep the head of your father. 
And when we cross (the river here) the ferryman does not land, he comes only 
just so far to here, and then we jump into it." That is what the girls explained 
to the youths. (5) "When we have been taken across," this is how they explained 
to the youths, "And when we have gotten home, then they cook, because there 
will be a big (return-from-war) dance. People will come from all over." That is 
how they explained to the youths. (6) "And when it is getting towards evening, 



'nagw3"at'9S. iski'nt-hantl." (5) a'yu'-tci-ux w la' ge'ntc-le--he-"ix-c'a'lcit, tci'- 
ux w la. a'yu'-ux w ge'kw9'ni-'we, he i -a"yu-le'u si'dla"at'la le'x u 'wu'sbaya. tsu'- 
a"yii le'u ta'miya't, a"yu' hi'ni' ux w hele'q, tsu'-ux w xi'n-ya't ya'a'i t'lda'a-'tc. 

2. tsu'-ux w la, diMsi'di-tc u'x w la, he'-ha'ts heM'ts ux w ktiu"ts. tsu'-hi'ni' 
ux w la'a-'yam, he' '-hats me-' k w lu"waq ux w kwa-'nit. tsu'-tci-u'x w la, he ! -ha'ts 
ge'ne-tc me-' le'-hi'ni hi-'me, lkwa-u'x w ya-kwi-'wat. (2) tsu'-ux w klu'wit le-tca'- 
n-7a le-x-ge'netc-me. tsu'-wentc-tlg'tsa le-x-tca'n-7a, "di-'lu? tci-'tcu di-tsi'x- 
iclkwa"t?" "hu-'- he'm-isa-ga-'is. hexwu'nx-de-'mil qaia'nyadax hwu"luh w wu't- 
xa"i-'yat, lau'le'u il'ma'ganya'xda, he'mis-ga-'ise-dlu'wawa'sa"it." (3) we'ntc- 
ux w gwa'sgwi-"wat le-tca'n-7a le-x-ge'netc-me. tsu'-wentc 7a-"la'ni le-tca'n-7a, 
"xwu'n'e'duwa'yaxda-'mi." "laVi. his-xwu'n'ne xwun'e'duwa'yaxda-'mi." 
"ya'ntl-icdu'wayaxda-"is icsgwi'ya'is-ha'ntl x-dji-'tc-icxa'lal." a"yu gu-s- 
u'x w sgwi-"wat le-x-ge'netc-me. (4) "ga"wax pse'heitc hi'ni'-il hawi"wa't le-'- 
hwu"luh w li'ye'e'k w dletc. ta-'-da-xwu'n'ne yu-we ga"lts le-'xwungalya-'das la'u 
in-he-'-hi'ya'qat, yu'-we-hi'ni'u ehe'ndjis, la'u tci' he'-xwuntcu'xwi-t." we'ntc- 
gwusgwi"wat le'-x-gene-'tc-me le-tca'n-7a. (5) "yu'-we-xwunge'lge-'lu," tsu'- 
wentc ux w gw3'sgwi'wat le-tca'n37a, "le'u yu'-we xwunwu'txe, la'u ilq'mi"ittsu, 
na'im-hantl he'm-is mege"en. gus-xe'gentc ha'ntl tci-'-hit'cu'xe'men." we'ntc 
ux w gw9Sgwi-"wat le-tca'n-97a. (6) "la'u-yu'-we qa'umidja-'witc, la'u-gus-me-' 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 237 

we give food to all the old people, and wood similarly. But one house standing 
at the end (of the village), old people live in it there, we never give them anything. 
(7) And when we go to bed then we play (mere play) with our husband until he 
goes to sleep. Then we do not bother with him any more. Because of the (re- 
turn-from-war) dance he has nothing to do (sexually) with us then, for he is their 
chief, and it is he who got your father's head." (8) That is what they explained 
to them. And now the young men (spoke) thus, "Let us wear your garments. 
Then when we return home we will take you back with us." 

3. Indeed so it was. Now the young men put on the girls' garments, and then 
they went along. Indeed the ferryman came across, and sure enough it was just 
so far, and the (one) young man jumped, and to be sure he got into it. (2) Then 
the other one jumped too, oh, one of his feet dragged on one side of it. "'u' my 
pack is too heavy today. That is why my foot missed it. " Indeed he (the ferryman) 
said nothing (deceived by the alibi). Just the way the girls told them, they did just 
as the girls had told them. (3) Now they gave food to the old people. Oh they 
had forgotten what the girls had told them. "You should not give them food." 
Now they had forgotten that, and they gave them food. (4) Those old people 
(who were possibly storks) began to call out, "He'--i I saw a down-below face." 
That is what the old people cried out. "Oh we forgot! (about the warning to give 
them no food). But no one heard, so it is all right anyway, no one has heard them." 

4. Now the people began dancing. It was after midnight when they ceased 
dancing. Then they were going to go to bed. They went up above (to sleep on a 
bed in the house rafters). Now their husband's younger brother and their hus- 

he'-xwun'a'tsa tg'm-e-'t'le-me' gu-s-he'-xwun'a'tsa, his-ni'kin-wentc. yixe'i-yi- 
xe"w3x dja-'na'nis la'u li'me"st, t9m-e-t'le hi'ni'-ti'lq\ ls'u-tls'we xwi-i'n-atsa. 
(7) ta-'-lexwunds-'mil yu'-we-li'nt'cu la'u-xwun'a'lica'naya-hs tsu'-he-gs' u lge u . 
tsu'-he-xwu'i'n-iys t's'wu'la'iwat. na'im-me'gent xwu'i'n-he'-t'swu'lex, na'im- 
xe-'hel heths-'ds, xe'ge la'u yu'xumx li'ye'e'kMktcu-hwu''luh w ." (8) ws'ntc 
ux w gwa'sgwi-"wat. tsu'-wentc b-tca'n^a, "xwu'n'na-'-hantl le'u-he-xwunte'tc 
le'ctetc. ya'ntl-xwunbi"bi la'u-xwun'e'bi'i'dami-hantl." 

3. tsu'-a-"yu. tsu'-helt'-le'u le-tca'n-gya ls'-itc tlha'tsu le-x-gs'netc-me'- 
nts'tc, tsu'-ux w la'. a-"yu gaTyadawaq ga"lts, a^'yu'-wsntc yutcu'wahwa 
e'hsndjis, tsu'-le-di-'lul xne"dits, a'yu' la'xalx. (2) tsu'-li-ya'a'i his-xe'-xns"- 
dits, u-', gedi'si hs'xdi'ye heqla'. "'u- r hslt'-yu-'-pt'H's di"dzs hr/'yu"wet'i. 
ws'ntc-dil li'lsu ya'myat nanqla'." a'yu' i'n-djitc tl'e'ts. dji'tc-le'-ux w 'i"lt 
ls-x-ge'ne'tc-me, yaga'-ux w -x-we'ntc dji-'tc-ux w 'i"lt le-x-gs'netc-me. (3) tsu'- 
ux w 'a'tsa le-t9'm-et'ls. u y ux w 'i'niye kilili'wat ls'-x-wentc ux w 'i"lt le-x-gwe'is. 
"ic-i'n-antle'u'a'tsa." la'u-ux w 'i , niys ki'HH'wat, la'u-ux w 'a'tsa. (4) gek'e"lei- 
we le-ta'm-et'le, "he' --i gadla'ns'-hel wukla'wi." we'ntc k's'l-it ld-ta'me- 
t'ls. "u-' xwu'i'niys-ki'lili'wat. i'n-wut-leu kwa-'nit, nu'we-'ci' b'-le'u-i'n-x- 
wut kwa-'nit." 

4. tsu' gsmg'ganiya'umen. t'H-'nat kwa"lis ni'yaga'ndjim t'g'm-a e'wiyu 
mege"en. tsu'-ilt'cyu'-hantl. tsu'-hala-'gaga. la'u-le'mit'lgwi-'yatc le'x w de-'- 



238 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

band's mother (were sleeping below). (2) Now (when) they were going up above 
to bed, the boy (the man's younger brother) looked up at them as they ascended 
(and then he cried out), "Mother! my sister-in-law has testicles!" "Keep quiet! 
do not be talking every which way ! (3) Do not say such a thing about my daugh- 
ter-in-law. Don't! don't!" "Well she does have testicles!" "Keep silent!" Indeed 
then the boy ceased, he said nothing more. (4) Now they went to bed with their 
husband. Indeed they played with him, and then he fell asleep. Now they obtained 
their own father's head, and then they severed his (the chief's) head. Now they 
were going to flee. (5) But now this is what the boy said. "Mother! one of them 
(my sister-in-law) urinated (on me)." That is what the youngster said (because 
blood of his decapitated older brother dripped on him). "Keep quiet! you talk too 
much. Your older brother might hear you." Indeed the boy said no more. 

5. Now the youths escaped, and they ran, and then they obtained a canoe, 
they went across, they got ashore. Now they pushed the canoe away from the 
shore, and indeed the canoe drifted away. (2) Now they ran on, and they got to there 
where the girls were. Then they put on their own garments, and the girls put on 
their own clothes too. Now they ran on, and they went down below (on the arrow 
ladder), and they got home. (3) Then they did not put his own head on him 
(because it was too dried) , but the smaller head (of the man just murdered above) 
they put on him there. Indeed now he had a head. That is why that kind (of small 
bird hawk) has a small head now. Then their father got well. That is the way they 
became their wives. 

6. That is how the myth ends. 



mil he'e"netc le'x u de-'mil. (2) tsu'-hantl gaxa'ntc ilt'cyu, tsu'-lau-kwina'iwat 
di"lut'l i'-hala-'gaga, "ni'ka! nuq w la'ini't'ca ns'n nagwi-'hatc!" "k'a'iyix! 
i'n-gu-s-dji-'tc etlVxem! (3) i'n-dji-tc i'l'ds n"midu"m<tc. 'i'n! 'i'n!" "a-"- 
yu li'-leu naq-la'ini't'ca!" "k'a-'yax!" a 'yu' e-'wi ls-di"lut'l, i'n as-u' le'u yi"- 
lt. (4) tsu' ux w t'cu-' ls'x u 'nde'mil. a"yu ux w 'alica-'na-'ya, a'yu' tsu-ge'4geu. 
tsu'-ux w sga'ts l£ / x u 's , k w dletcu-hwu"luh w , tsu'-ux w tlgwa"atu-hwu"luh w . tsu'- 
hantl-u'x w 'nsq. (5) he'-wa'-hats we'ntc tle'ts lel-di"lut'l. "ni-'ka! yixe'igen- 
knli't'c." we'ntc-we-tl'e'xem lel-di"lut'l. "k'a-'yax! hei-ha'ts-yu etlVxem. 
he'-u-'-ekwe'ndu lex-he-'t'l." a'yu' de-'wun tl'e'ts le'-di"lut'l. 

5. tsu'-h w dla't's le-tca'naya, tsu'-tlu-wa'hait, tsu'-ix-ux w la-"it, tsu'-ux w - 
ga"lts, tsu'-ux w hi"yaqat. tsu'-ux w t.ci'ts le'-ix, a'yu' tlxi' le'-ix. (2) tsu'-ux w - 
tlu-'wa'hait, tsu'-tci'-ux w hala-'ga le-gs'ne'tc-me. tsu'-ux w tlha'tsu hex w ni"i'ni'- 
xa-'ma te-'tc, tsu'-his-le'-gene'tc-me ux w tlha'tsu le'x u 'n'te-'tc. tsu'-iltlu-'wa'- 
hait, tsu'-ila'na-ga, tsu'-ilwu'txe. (3) tsu'-il-i'n-he-ini-xa-'ma hwu"luh w , 
he-t'ce'il-m£'u-hwu"luh w helt'-le'u tci' ilt'la"i'yat. a'yu' nahwu"luhwi-'yeq. 
we'ntcl-he' le'-lsu-t'ce'ilu'-hwu'luh"' ls'-hi. tsu'-nu"wets le'x u '£'k w dletc. we'ntc 
yi'sxe' le'wiye--he'-hume-'ke. 

6. x-we'ntc he"wi"ys h'-he-djit'. 



ADDITIONAL VERSIONS, IN ENGLISH 

The following includes some hasty jottings of parts of Hanis Coos folktales — 
both myth and narrative type — given me by a Hanis speaking ethnologic informant, 
Frank Drew, aged over 60. He was visited at his home near Florence, Oregon, 
in October and November of 1932 under the auspices of the Department of Anthro- 
pology of the University of Washington. He had assisted Dr. L. J. Frachtenberg 
years before in the translation of Mr. St. Clair's and Frachtenberg's own texts 
recorded largely from Jim Buchanan. The fragments given me by Mr. Drew in 
1932 were expressed in English and did not follow native speech style; they ap- 
parently amounted to some of his memories of Hanis folktales which he had been 
hearing for years from his friend and neighbor Jim Buchanan and which he had 
translated earlier for Dr. Frachtenberg from Buchanan's original Hanis dictations 
to St. Clair and Frachtenberg. The versions given here, then, by Mr. Drew, are 
only garbled renderings of stories found elsewhere in texts; they are presented 
because they offer interesting evidence of the manner in which stories disintegrate 
when told in an English version by an informant younger and less an Indian in 
mind and manner than the other informants employed. 

Mr. Drew described myth situations as follows: he says that two adults 
invariably told stories or recounted history, the one repeating the words of the 
other. He thinks it amounted to a chant with echoed response. However, he says 
that the children sat around listening and passive — but it is likely that this occured 
only later during the Yachats period when children gave their elders relatively 
reluctant attention. Mr. Drew says that the raconteur was likely to be the owner 
of the house, or the head of the family, or some aged visitor who had come just in 
order to serve as evening's raconteur. When the narrator omitted or incorrectly 
rendered some word or phrase or motif, the person who played the role of echo 
abruptly corrected. A single word omitted was quickly interjected. When the 
youngsters nodded off and slept the group might break up for the night. But the 
elders constantly admonished the younger people to remember what had been told 
them: H. hehe-'lanV nya'gandjin la'u hantl-cin-ki'tlliwat, 'When we are gone 
(behind) you will remember these things we tell you.' 

Titles are mine, not Mr. Drew's, except in the first tale. 

1. gilu"mas hehe'ndjs t 'Ida' 'ate yukyu'kwinai, 

'The ocean went far in to the land' 

The first evil in the world was the shaman. God created the world in five 
days with the aid of some unknown power he had. Though completed in five days 
something was still lacking, it was not perfect. The ocean remained out of control, 
the fearful power the ocean has was breaking clear across in to the land. That was 



(239) 



240 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

not right. Every breaker ploughed across the land. So, people took baskets, cut 
them into many strips, and laid the strips along the shore which at that time had 
no sand beach — which was why the breakers went so far inland. The Parents of 
the People (he'me'u mg'a'nyas, 'the people's parents') did this so that the basket 
strips would act as a beach and be like sand. When the basket-beach was com- 
pleted the first breakers that hit it went through the holes in the baskets instead 
of inland to the hills. That was fine, that was why the water went right down 
through the basket-sand. The first morning after this was done it was fine, it was 
just all right. Everyone came down to the shore to watch. 

Then they saw tracks leading to the north on the new beach. One man said, 
"Who can have gone along this new ground, who was not allowed to do that?" 
They followed the tracks. Far to the north they saw a log adrift. A woman dec- 
orated with red paint was seated on the log, which had drifted now onto the beach. 
She was asked, "Who are you?" "I am a shaman." "A shaman, eh?" "Yes, I am 
a shaman." "If you are a shaman you are an evil person. This new world is not 
for anyone to trespass upon as soon as that. It is still perfect and clean, and then 
you trespass on it. We will kill you now and be rid of you." They killed her, took 
her head hair, and scattered it south towards the Coos Bay country. They took 
out her entrails, and scattered them east to the Kalapuya country. They took her 
bones, and scattered them south to the Umpqua country. That is why the Kala- 
puyas all have big bellies. That is why the Umpquas are big boned. That is why 
the Coos are small but numerous, as numerous as the head hair of the evil shaman. 
That is why the Coos outnumber the others, all three others together. That is 
why shamans are not highly regarded nowadays, and if anything goes wrong they 
are put out of the way and killed. 

(Another version) 

The earth is flat and floating on water which is underneath and on all sides. 
Every so often the earth rocks up and down and tips a little, and this is the cause 
of the tides. 

When the Creator made the earth the water came all over the earth at every 
high tide. In order to make land appear the Creator obtained 'blue earth' (tgs"en) 
and laid down a layer of it. But it was not enough because the water still covered 
it all over. He placed a second layer of blue earth down, so that the water went 
over most of it though it was no longer completely covered. When he put down the 
third layer of blue earth it was all right, it worked well, it looked fine. But still 
at each tipping the water ran too far inland. So then people placed strips of bas- 
ketry along the whole length of the ocean shore. The water ran through the bas- 
ketry and back out, and it came no further inland than where the basketry was 
placed; the basketry is now the sands along the beaches. The blue earth can still 
be seen under the ocean water. The people did not say what made the land tip. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 241 

2. Star husbands 

Two girls slept outside. They always slept outside, night after night, and 
gazed at the stars. They had heard that the stars were people. While lying out 
there they laughed about that, made fun about that. One said, "How would you 
like to have that star for your husband?" "Well, I would take that other one." 
They wished that it would be so. The younger one wished for a small but brighter 
star. The other one wished for a larger star that was not so bright. They went to 
sleep. The next morning two men were lying in bed with them. The older girl 
had a younger man, the younger girl had an old grayhaired man sleeping with her. 
So, the stars are persons. But they never said what kind of persons they were. 

3. The dogs on the moon 

There were two persons. Each had a dog. They challenged each other, argu- 
ing about whose dog would win if the dogs fought. The dogs fought, they went 
up, up, up from the earth, chewing, pawing, clawing each other, until they entered 
the moon chewing each other. No blood dropped below to tell how severely they 
were fighting or hurt. One dog was really a dog, the other was not. At length 
when blood did drop down the man who owned the false dog said, "Your dog is 
beaten." His dog was only a hide of a fisher that had been filled with pieces of 
flint, and it was his dog that won. Both dogs are up there on the moon now, in 
that black spot on the moon 

4. The seven stars 

Seven hunters go out together in the mountains to seek game. They do not 
ever find any. They are still looking for it, and there they are now, 'seven stars' 
(mali-'gwa), in the heavens, still looking for game. 

5. The world fire 

One time long ago there came from the west, in the daytime, five gusts or 
layers of fire, from the ocean; they swept acorss the land. It seems as if the people 
knew just what to do to save themselves. Everything burned. One sheet of fire 
came east quickly. Seeing it coming the people all went into the river and mud 
flats, crawling into the wet mud and water until the sheet of fire had passed over 
them. Only the mud did not burn. Four more sheets of flame were evaded the 
very same way. The people had taken sealion paunches and put into them the 
infants that could not run. The people could not explain what made the fire come 
that way, but maybe it was to purify the earth. 

6. Crow and thunder exchange languages 

Long ago the Crow people had control of the thunder, and the controller of 
the salmon was in charge of the fishes. Crow with his thunder language proposed 
exchanging voices with the controller of the salmon. He did not like to make so 



242 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

much noise every time he spoke. So they agreed to exchange languages. "If you 
give us your Crow-thunder-lightning language, then we will cause the water to 
have low tides. You, Crow, will be out on the river banks and keep your eyes closed 
every time that there is a low tide." So Crow did that, and every time the tide 
went out the fish made splashings and noise. "When you open your eyes before 
the tide goes out to its minimum, that will be as far as it will go." But Crow was 
hungry and looked before he should, and the tide stopped going out right there, 
and that is as low as it ever gets. So in that way Crow gave his thunder voice to 
the kingdom of the fishes. Now the kingdom of the fishes alone makes thunder- 
lightning. 

7. The long night and long day 

It was not perfect when the world was created. The sun, however, rose and 
set as now. One day the sun did not rise from the east. It came up in the north. 
It followed the coast slowly, going from north to south. The people did not know 
how long a time the sun was going like that, going slowly south, but perhaps it 
was for as long as a month, daylight all the time. At last the sun went down in 
the south, and than there was a long, long night. The people gathered wood by 
the light of torches. Most of the stored food was used up though they had had 
reserves from the long daylight that had preceded. Nobody could figure out what 
had caused the sun to do that. They feared famine. Finally the sun arose again 
in the east and then there was rejoicing. The people believed that the Creator 
had experimented to see whether or not the long night and the long day with the 
sun moving from north to south would prove beneficial to the people. 



ABSTRACTS 

In this section are included in the first place abstracts of all folklorized narra- 
tives, tales, and myths which I have collected in the monographs comprising the 
present volume. They are referred to below as J. 

In the second place are abstracts of the texts in Coos Texts, by L. J. Frachten- 
berg. These are referred to as F. 

The last thirteen texts of the Frachtenberg monograph were recorded origin- 
ally by Mr. H. H. St. Clair. Dr. Frachtenberg published a very free English ver- 
sion of them in Traditions of the Coos Indians of Oregon, by H. H. St. Clair 2d, 
edited by L. J. Frachtenberg (JAFL, 22 : 25-41). These are referred to as S. 

It is possible that a painstaking search in various publications, especially in 
early western Oregon newspapers and magazines, might reveal English versions 
of some additional Coos folktales. 

The left hand column notations provide the publication and page where the 
original tale can be found. The right hand column suggests occasional catch word 
titles for some of the motifs and plots. I have seen fit to devise catch word titles 
where preceding writers have as far as I know not given them. 

1 . Stories about the Father of the Foods (Thunder, Father of the Fish) 

J68 Moon works for the Father of the Foods. In famine 

times the birds go to fight the moon, eclipse and defeat 
him, and then there is food again. 

F14 ' "T741 Crow gives the Father of the Foods his noisy Thun- 

der language. There is lightning when Crow twinkles his 
eyes, so he also trades his lightning for the evening low Origin of tides 
tide. 

2. Stories about cosmology, Worldmakers, Tricksters, Coyote (the fourth Trick- 
ster) , and the Father of the People (the fifth Trickster) 

T184 The first Worldmaker- Trickster makes a waterfall Worldmaker 

^11 i r- i i 1 • 11 1 • 1 -1 teaches crafts 

fish dam and a fish basket trap; it calls him when it be- 
comes full. His sliced smoked salmon bales roll along be- J ectta s 
hind him, knocking him down. Skunk cabbages fall 
through a hole in his pack basket until he patches it; he 
roasts them in hot ashes, sends them out to persons whose 

J186 relationship terms are indicated. He models girls from Image comes 
bark. He pretends to die, is buried face exposed, the girls 
walk over him so that he can see their genitals. Disguised, 
he arrives and wants to sleep with them. They desert him. Lecherous father 

He travels making waterfalls and dams. He marries, has Transformation 

to seduce 
a baby boy who becomes the second Worldmaker-Trick- women 

(243) 



244 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

ster. The latter enters a woman's house, copulates with 

J 188 her till she foams at the mouth. Her sons take him out in 

the ocean to fish ; he lies covered over in a small canoe. He Looking tabu 
finds himself without a paddle alone on the ocean; he Abandonment 
throws a basket hat on a seal's head, a piece of pack bas- in boat 
ket into a whale's mouth, thus marking their character- 
istics. He jumps into the whale, cuts at the entrails, the Monster killed 
whale drifts ashore dead, he emerges on a beach blind, romwit in 

J190 sleeps, ants bite his penis. He shuts himself inside a hollow Ants bite 
tree to escape a hail storm. When Woodpecker makes a genitals 
hole to allow him to emerge, he fondles her breasts, head 
hair, and feathers, until she leaves. Then he slices him- Disintegration 
self into pieces which he throws out, reassembles himself, 
but Raven steals his entrails and Buzzard his eyes. He 

J 192 steals Snail children's eyes for himself. Strawberries he 

eats come through leaving a red trail behind until he in- Anus stopper 
serts wild parsnips, held in his anus with pitch. He plays 
leaping over the fire until his anus pitch melts and his 
parsnip entrails fall out. Then he steals a child's entrails 
for himself. He stays with a woman. He kicks fire at her 

J 193 two seated Wood Duck daughters, he sees their genitals Glimpses genitals 
when they fall back. He takes one girl to slice salmon, on 
the trail he fells trees magically, to impede her, until she 
calls him husband. He throws salmon blood at her geni- 
tals, and since then women menstruate. She puts her 
clothes on a stick, it responds like her when he calls to Magic objects talk 
her. He leaves, travels upstream, digs and picks foods, 
makes a canoe, blankets, smoked foods, etc. Springtime 
he goes back downstream, tips over his canoe, floats and 

J 196 names river sites. He adorns himself with imitation 

wealthy jewelry, is asked to doctor a sick girl, pretends to, Fake lecherous 
actually he copulates with her; it is curing her, until a 
woman spies on them and reveals him, when he flees. 
When the girl gives birth to babies which are killed, one is 
thrown into the water, it is caught on the bar by the World- 
maker; he raises it, and it becomes the third Worldmaker- 

J199 Trickster. The latter finds his own mother weeping, learns 

of his actual origin, shoots and kills his father (second Kills own father 
Worldmaker), lives with his mother until her death. He 
marries a Trickster girl, they have a child who dies. He 

F43, argues in vain with Water Spider — whose child had died Originator of 
J 135, 200 an( i wno had pleaded that there be no death— about death first sufferer 
death, so now people die rather than return to life. He 
puts a sliver in his next baby's finger, has Cottontail Rab- 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 245 

bit doctor on his baby, mocks Rabbit who then steals his 
baby; it grows up with Cottontail stepbrothers and be- 
comes the fourth Worldmaker-Trickster (later to become 
Coyote). He shoots at Squirrel, who angrily reveals to 
him his actual parentage. He finds his weeping mother, 

J203 approaches her from behind, weighting down her pack, Surprise approach 
then reveals himself to her. After returning to his own frombehind 
people, they massacre the Cottontail village. His younger 
sister calls him husband, so he kills her and leaves. After Brother-sister 
marrying but never sleeping with his wife for five years, incest 

J205 he has his wife find a baby louse in his head hair, he has Lousing 
her swallow it. When she gives birth from that, she dies, Conception 
he raises her baby, who is to be the fifth Worldmaker- fromeat,n & 
Trickster (and the Father of the People). He orders his 
growing youngster not to go to or shoot at a certain place. 

J206 But the lad goes, finds an ogress who has two blades in Vagina dentata 
her vagina, she takes him home, offers him frog but he 
cannot eat it; she lies naked soliciting intercourse with 
him, but he ignores her. She rejects salmon which she Fish thought 
thinks a fearful water lizard. People come to gamble five °& res 
nights with her ; when she sleeps the Trickster is doctored 
on by them to restore his heart so that he can find his way 
back home. They burn her in her house, with pitchwood; 
her heart leaps out, it grows up because it is her child, 
later they kill that child too. The fifth Trickster's father 

J209 extends a head hair, thus finds out where his child has been. 
The fifth Trickster goes where there is gambling and games, 
enters invisibly. At the next place the people lack fire, 
F39, J210 water, foods, cook food under armpits while dancing, or Cooking 

sit on it. So the fifth Trickster and his allies go to the head without fire 
man of the fourth Trickster's village, where all these foods, 
fire, and water are withheld. They gamble at the keep- 
eyes-open game, the fifth Trickster uses artificial shell Staring contest 

J211 eyes to pretend being awake. They make flies, maggots 

F41 to torture the headman into moving his eyes, he does so 

and is defeated only by magically screaming giant snakes. 

Birds dash away with fire, throwing it on willows and cedar ; Thef t of fire 

birds cast fruits and berries all over; water flows all over. Releaseof foods 

F21.J213 After the fifth Trickster returns to live with his father, 

the fourth Trickster, the latter transforms his bloody 

feces into a sapsucker on a tree, has his trickster son climb Excrement 
^ . becomes bird 

the tree to catch it, magically makes the tree grow, the „ L . . 

' ° •> ° Stretching tree — 

son is carried to the country above, the tree descends; to upper world 
then the fourth Trickster copulates with his son's two 



246 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

wives, wiping his penis on their children's eyes. The 

J214 fifth Trickster above finds a Spider couple who have 

scorched heads. They are daily visited at noon by Sun Visit to land 
F25 girl ; when she tries to eat she only strikes her face ; when 
she leaves in anger, the fifth Trickster pursues, copulates 

J215 with her with an iced penis and so he cools her somewhat. Iced penis 
The Spider couple warn him of most of Sun girl's younger 
sister Moon's tests given by her parents, telling him how 
to survive them. To kill him, Moon girl's mother drops Son-in-law tests 
a maul, then bark splinters on him; but he escapes, and 

J217 he blows the splinters back, into her vagina. Moon girl's 
father takes him fishing, he spears only the sixth and sub- 
sequent salmon, inserting feathers in their navels; the first 
five would have dragged him in and drowned him. He 

F27 shoots an elk in its ankles. He dives in water for a maul, 
breaks the magically iced surface with it; then he does 
the same to his prospective father-in-law. He escapes be- 
ing pinned under a felled tree. But he does float out to Whale boat, (or) 

J219 sea on a stranded whale he has been cutting. He pretends j^b"^ 011 " 16 "* 
indifference, to passing canoemen. At last one canoe 
takes him back, prohibiting him from looking while he Looking tabu 
is brought to shore. He leaves his Moon wife. The Spider 
couple assist him below in a basket, he reaches his (fourth Spider web sky- 
Trickster) father's place, puts a coyote skin on his father gp^'er web basket 

J221 who now becomes Coyote. He (fifth Trickster) returns 
above, to be the Father of the People, assisted by his 
helpers Stork and the Angel Bird monster. 

(The sequence of episodes in the following differs 
sufficiently from the version abstracted above to warrant 

F21, J213 some repetition:) Old trickster defecates bloody feces, Excrement 

places it on a spruce ; it is luck money which is pecked at becomes mone y 
by a red headed woodpecker. Old trickster has his son 
called by grandchildren, has him shoot at the woodpecker. 
He makes the spruce grow magically, his son is made to Stretching tree- 
climb it to get the woodpecker, but the tree only carries t0 er world 
him away into the sky country. Then his trickster father 
makes himself young and takes his son's two wives. Above, 
F23 young trickster shoots at and follows two blue cranes. 
Reaching their house, Sun girl, who eats the stomachs of 
persons, comes daily; he remains hid. He follows her, 

F25, J215 cools her by copulating with her with a penis of ice. He Iced penis 

marries two Moon girls. Their father tries to kill him by Son-in-law tests 
letting fir bark fall on him, and by freezing the surface of 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 247 

F27 a stream when he has to dive under for a hammer. He is 

let down in a basket by a spider rope to the earth below, s P lder web 
revisits his family; he deserts his old trickster father and 
returns above with his family. His father, now just heart 

F31 and bones from old age, swims in and out of a whale in Whale boat 
the ocean. He brings willow leaves as herrings to small 
hunchback whale people. After landing he eats manzanita 
¥33, 192 berries unsatisfactorily until he plugs his anus with grass. Anus stopper 
He roasts skunk cabbage roots to eat, and he names kin- Naming 
ship terms. He makes a fish basket trap and dries salmon, kinship terms 
His trap calls out when it becomes full. His dried salmon Object talks 
run back to the water. 

J225 Worldmaker tells the people that when they hear ten 

jingles high above, going round the world, then they are 
not to look lest they learn nothing. Peoples the world Looking tabu 
over now vary in knowledge, depending on how soon they 
opened their eyes when hearing the sounds high above. 

J227 Worldmaker leaves footprints where he travels. 

J224 Coyote's child (son of the fourth Worldmaker-Trick- 

ster) swims in the ocean to find a wealth-encounter-power, 
he lies beside the surf. The wealthy dentalia-encounter- 
power headman comes to him, he is carried aloft by that 
man's people, the Crows; he threatens to kill them, so 
they give him quantities of money. He becomes wealthy 
in consequence. 

J222 A valuable thing hangs by a string from the sky, 

wanted by all the people. The Trickster attempts to have 
his children obtain it. The people shoot at the string. 
The Trickster's children, however, shoot at the sky, climb 
up the arrow chain ladder, then from above successfully Arrow chain 
shoot the string and seize the suspended container of the 
valuable thing. The Trickster children dash away carry- 
ing the valuable thing one after another, the people pur- Relay flight 
suing them, the Trickster himself throwing his body in 
the path of pursuers in order to impede their efforts. 

J227 Coyote constructs a house with Blue Crane, but ties 

up Crane's hands, steals Crane's food in heavy packs 
(bales of salmon). Two Bumblebee girls help carry his 
packs, he mocks them, they fly high above, only salmon 
bones fall back down for him. He seeks water but each 
creek is dry; he runs out of food and firewood in winter, 



248 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

and then whips his wife. He cooks his quiver, deceiving Lazy husband 

r . ., ScLGlStlC 

his family into thinking he has food. People take pity on 
and feed his wife. But he never finds food, the people 
thus taking vengeance on him for his meanness. 

J230 A Bluejay couple are out of food and firewood, and 

then the husband whips his wife. Bluejay and Kingfisher Lazy husband 
people take pity on her, give her food, which increases in sad istic 
quantity magically. 

J 69 People eat a poisonous fish ogre, and are turned to 

rock, until the Father of the People (the fifth Trickster) 
puts an end to that kind of ogre. 

J42 Bad people are taken to the world below by the Stork 

helpers of the Father of the People. 

FS, J239 Two young men drop five soot disks into the ocean, 

till the land comes up from below. They split a basket 

on the beach, to hold back the waves. Eagle feathers they 

stick into the earth become firs. They also create animals. 

F49 They meet and kill a shaman, spilling his blood (or body Distribution 

parts) in all directions. One of the young men becomes of P eo P les 

pregnant, and a man from the north delivers him of a baby Miraculous birth 

girl who later gives rise to the people. The young men 

shoot up, making an arrow ladder chain, and they climb Arrow chain 
U p it ascent to sky 

F135, S40, It is dark for ten summer days before the sun rises Long day, 

J from the south. The people nearly starve because of in- lon S ni S * 
ability to hunt or fish. Then the sun stops straight above 
for one day, and only then travels again as now. 

J 69 Meteors are stars changing location. 

J 100 Snow is the ashes swept from the hearth fire of the 

giant Spider. 

F139, S37 A man and a woman die. The man (his soul-ghost) 

gets lost, follows dog tracks on a wide trail with red painted ^ our , 1 ] ey r t0 other 
sticks lying across. The trail goes over a rise, then down- Visit to the 
hill where gulls, eagles, and other birds are making noises. Land of tne Dead 
At a stream, villagers including his father come across for Styx, Charon 
him in all sorts of more or less wrecked canoes. He comes 
to his grandmother's house, she is weaving a basket; his 

F141, S38 grandfather is whittling, offers him a pan of lice, but he Lice food 
throws it in horror into the fire and will not eat them, 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 249 

which means he can still return to the land of the living. 
He bathes, eels adhere to him, he roasts them but his grand- 
parents fear such food. In the evening he crosses on a 
F145 fish fence to where new soul-ghosts are danced with for Ghosts' 
five days. As they dance the older ghosts touch the head 
of the newly arrived ghost. They also play shinny with 
grass balls at which spears are thrown. The newly ar- 
rived ghost distributes the things buried with her. Now 
F147, S39 he returns to the living world where his body is decaying. 
But it comes to life, and at first he speaks unintelligibly. 
The fish lunch he brings back with him becomes live 
flounders in the river. He lives long after. 

J241 Seven hunters who fail to find game become a con- 

stellation of seven stars. 

3. Stories about persons who marry non -human beings 

J 170 A girl's dress is stolen by a Crow while she is swim- 

ming; pursuing, she finds a man with her dress, goes to 
live with him. She wears Crow clothes and wings, flies 
to dig clover roots, her heavy pack breaks and makes 
ugly her Crow husband's feet. When her children go to 
visit her relatives, one is shot by its uncle. Her people 
pay her for the murder of her Crow child. 

F171, S36 A girl picking berries meets a man who is a Bear, ac- 

companies him to his home, gives birth to a boy by him Short pregnancy 
before even reaching his Bear people's house. She brings 
home frogs to be toys for her Bear boy. But the toys 
terrify the Bears, who flee. 

F163, S29 A girl rejects all suitors. Returning with a load of 

firewood held by a forehead packstrap, she is unable to 
lift it, finds she is being held back by a man who is a Wolf. Surprise approach 
She goes away with him to his Wolf people's house. Her from behind 
people think her dead when they find her pack. Her two 
Wolf children find her people with heads shorn and crying, 
in mourning. She visits her people with presents of meat 
and valuables. Her Wolf in-laws drive game to her people 
all the time. 

F55, 157, A woman meets a Seal man who takes her down to his Underwater 

J 149, S27 g ea i people as his wife. Later her relatives and people world 
see her among seals on the beach, accompanied by her 



250 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

own Seal children. She visits and gives money to her 
father and relatives. 

J48 A girl refuses human suitors but desires a Sea Otter Miraculous birth, 

i r>i • • •, • 1 r 1 1 r 1 (or ) Immaculate 

lover. She is impregnated m the surf and bears a lather- conception 

less son. A young Sea Otter man comes for her; one of his 
two Sea Gull assistants advise her of tests she must pass : 
to cook by putting her roasting stick where his (the Sea Tests for 
Gull's) feet are, to push his head aside to find water, to daughter-in-law 
fetch wood where he points. Then she marries Sea Otter. Underwater 
Her boys encounter her weeping parents, who are given wor 
sealion and whale food by their Sea Otter son-in-law. She 
visits her parents with valuables to pay for her marriage. 

F157 S27 A girl rejects all suitors, swims in the ocean, becomes Immaculate 

r 0/,o/ tt , , , • ■ ,-. -1 • • r -. conception 

pregnant. Her baby boy cries continually until it is found 

outside eating seal grease on a stick. A man, Sea Otter, Father test 

comes, takes her and the boy under the water to his coun- Underwater 

ii 

try. She swims, now a sea otter, back upriver to her own wor 
people's country', and she is not touched by the arrows 
they shoot at her. She keeps the arrows for her boy, and 
she gives sea otter hides to her family. The Sea Otter 
people give stranded whales to her people. She becomes 
a sea otter. 

F187, S30 A gambler tries to hook a Butterball with a fish pole, 

he dives into her Butterball people's house underwater. 
After five days his Butterball wife takes him back home 
via canoe, his eyes shut. He finds his mourning father, Looking tabu 
they find a stranded whale, given by Butterball's people. 

J138, 232 A sick girl is doctored by a Bluejay shaman who has 

poisoned her in order to steal her. He carries her up 
through the smoke hole and away, and she becomes his 
wife. 

F167, A girl rejects all suitors, meets a man, they flay her skin shifter 

J159, S30 d g ( h e p U t s on the dog's hide. When she becomes preg- Dog by day, 

nant her brother shoots and kills the dog which is her t " axl ™ n ^N h 

husband. She goes to live with her children away in the 

woods. When the boys become hunters they take pity 

on their mother's still mourning parents, giving them game. 

The youngest boy is the only one who can make use of 

his dead father's pipe, bow, and fire drill. At length she 

returns, wealthy, with her hunter sons. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 251 

F51, J 169, Sisters sleep outside and wish for Star husbands, who Star husband 

■* come down to lie beside them. The girls find their Star 
husbands there upon awakening. 

J162 A boy and a girl become angry at their uncle, go to Magic airship 

the woods to live. The girl disappears. Later a winged (or) Magic 

canoe comes; an above person takes the boy aloft in it, through air 

warning him not to look. Arrived above he visits his sis- Looking tabu 
ter among the winged canoe people in the sky country, 
then he returns below. 

J 143 Two girls travel seeking a husband. They find a boy 

who spears an alder with his bone penis. His Beaver Penis splits wood 
uncle brings salmon which are willows. The girls leave, Fish made 
encounter five poor men, actually it is a lone Coyote- from wood 
Trickster person who dashes ahead carrying his grass 
shelter, begging camas each time they halt. They reach 

J 145 a sick man loathsome with diarrhoea. He transforms into Loathly 
a handsome young man who marries the younger sister n e £ room 
who had deigned to wash him. He snatches Beaver man's 
knife and makes it beaver's tail. 

F173, S3S Two girls go to a Sea Otter hunter whose assistants 

are Beaver and Muskrat. They marry Beaver in mistake. 

His trout food is actually only gnawed salmonberry Fish made 
. . _, . ,",.,, , • T from wood 

sticks. They hunt sea otter but fail to shoot him. Later 

they go to marry him. When he becomes ill and maggoty, Loathly 

F181, the older girl still likes him and so he remains married to bridegroom 

T 1 A£L 

J her. Beaver comes with his people to regain his wives, 
but is killed and his tail is made from a knife. 

J 182 A man visits his Raven wife's people, insists on being 

served a stinking broth, and flies away transformed into 
a raven. 

F183, S34 Man after man marries Eagle woman, she flies over 

a lake of pitch, turns, tosses off each man into the lake. 
One man dreams what to do, he clings tightly as she flies, 
does not get hurled down into the pitch. He takes her 
out to the ocean in a canoe, makes big waves, she nearly 
dies from cold. 



F127, J4S A frightened young man always uses a torch at night. 

After he throws his torch away, next day he encounters 
two Pelican girls. He goes through the air in their canoe, through air 
his eyes shut, to their house. Shamans attempt there to Looking tabu 



Magic journey 



252 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

quench the torch-pain in their sick father. When the 
young man works on it he puts out the torch-pain, cures 
his father-in-law. Son-in-law carries home an entire whale 
which is actually only a salmon. He visits his own people 
again only to give money to his parents. 

j45 A man who is afraid of the dark and always uses a 

torch goes to the ocean home of two Swordfish girls. Their Underwater 

. world 
father, ill from a torch-pain, is doctored by Crab, Sculpm, 

Bullhead, Sea Crab. But only the young man is able to 

extract his own torch-pain, and so he is allowed to 

marry the swordfish girls. 

4. Stories about acquisition of spirit-power 

J39 A shaman woman's spirit-power tells her not to look Looking tabu 

at the surf lest dentalia fail to wash ashore. She looks, 
and the dentalia do not come on to the beach. 

J41 A lazy young man is deserted by his people. He sleeps 

in a mat bag and is terrified by dead people who come and 
dance all night with him. 

J41 A hunter finds a hunting guardian spirit-power. 

J43 A wealthy girl following her first mensis seclusion 

goes to pick berries. She transforms into a 'wild being of 
the woods' and cannot be caught. A young man who lives 
alone in the woods encounters her, marries her, and 
brings her back to normal life. 

F85 A girl swims, catches a tiny swimming snake, keeps 

the pet snake wrapped in moss by her bed. It grows, its Supernatural 
two horns are higher than the roof. It hunts deer, elk, Qja W tsna k e 
and whales for her, making her wealthy. It leaves. Now 
it causes rough water on the ocean. 

j 133 A fisherman obtains a good luck fishing power and 

becomes wealthy from the valuable sea animals he catches. 
His greedy wife forces him to ask his power for too much 
wealth, and in consequence his power deserts him and he 
becomes poor again. 

J 19 A woman beggar is deserted by her annoyed fellow 

villagers. She is pitied by the Shag people who give her 
quantities of fish. Therefore people no longer ridicule poor 
persons. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 253 

F181, S32 A girl during her first mensis seclusion becomes a Bear woman 

Bear. She kills all her relatives and fellow villagers ex- 
cept her brother, who had brought food and water to her. 
Later she turns into a rock. 

J 156 A gluttonous boy leaves his own people because they Glutton 

mock him. He obtains spirit power, and gradually in- 
creases his physical prowess. Though his people are de- 
feated in inter-village wrestling matches, he wins. He also 
wins in contests lifting rocks and pulling up young firs. 

5. Stories about ogres and ogresses 

F71, J56 Two pitch dress ogresses rob graves of males of their 

wealth, take away wealthy boys in their pack baskets. 

They sleep daytime, travel at night. They hang the heart Travel night, 

(life) of a stolen child on the child's ear. A boy dreams sl ee P dav 

v / J External heart 

that this is being done, leads his people to the house of (soul, life) 
the ogresses, their hair is tied together, the stolen children 
are taken out, pitch is lit around the house, the ogresses 
F75, J57 die when their house burns up and their hearts are beaten 
to pieces. However, one rescued girl dies when the heart 
attached to her ear is cut off. 

F83, J142 Pitch dress ogresses enter a house. An old woman 

hides her baby granddaughter on her back, pretending to 
be hunchbacked. She sets fire to the ogresses' dresses. 
She dies, as well as all the children who had been touched 
by or had peeked out at the ogresses. The ogresses die 
in flames. 

F83 Two pitch dress ogresses come to a house, join in 

dancing, their pitch garments are set aflame by a woman 
there, and the fleeing ogresses die in flames. Baby boys 
hidden beneath blankets there die too. 

J82 Children must be inside the house when evening ap- 

proaches, lest a pitch dress ogress steal and kill them. 

F77 A man induces an ogress to pay him money, then 

flees her. Men relay the money from one to another as Relay flight 

she pursues. People club her but cannot kill her, until 

a blind old woman cuts the foot of the ogress. Achilles heel 

J51 The being that halloos pursues a man, horns his Single horned 

.,..,«, , 1 • , • • monster 

canoe, is killed when a long pole is thrust into its anus. Anus speared 



254 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

J54 A boy tastes blood when gnawing at a snail shell 

stuck in his foot. Later, he begins to eat people. He pur- 
sues his sister and her baby. Her husband's people kill 
him by dropping him into a camouflaged pit which con- 
tains hot rocks. 

F91 Five Grizzly brothers kill all passersby. Another vil- 

lage arranges for a game wherein the player pursues money 
rolling down a steep slope — if he catches it he can keep 
it ; to get back above he has to be hauled up with a rope 
tied around his neck. As each Grizzly player is hauled up 
he is killed by the people. The fifth Grizzly escapes death 
when pulled up the slope, and rolls safely into the ocean. 
He swims ashore to the house of an old woman who lets Q <- i m s t"> 
F103 him rest beside a fire, where she pours hot pitch and gravel killed by pouring 
into his open mouth. He bites her whole, she emerges; he I^vd^ttfiroat 
swallows her again, she cuts out his heart from within, Ogre killed 
she comes out through his anus ; he dies. m Wlthin 

F105 Shadow ogres come, seize four brothers one after an- 

other, throw them into the fire, devour them. The fifth 
and last brother escapes the ogre when it leaps at him, 
and it then does not come again. This brother's hammer Object comes 
becomes a girl. The girl encounters each Shadow ogre in 

F109 turn, leaps into the fire; his mouth open because out of 
breath, she leaps into his mouth and so kills him — all five 
of them. 

Fill People see some camas lying on the ground, pick it 

up, a Grizzly ogre comes, kills them and many of their 
fellow Night Rainbow villagers, seats the corpses in his 
own house. An old Night Rainbow woman spears a Griz- 
zly ogre in the anus. Her orphan grandson hunts, has a Anus speared 
magic quiver, picks up some camas, encounters a male 
Grizzly ogre, fights, shoots, and kills it. Again the same 
way he kills the female Grizzly ogre. He finds his dead 

F121 parents seated at the Grizzly house, washes their corpses Magic 

with warm water, they come to life; he also resuscitates wTter'onife 
other dead victims there. Accompanied by his uncle he 
fights people; his magic quiver kills their enemies, it also 

F125 displays power to fell trees and smash rocks. 

J 168 A hunter warns his wife not to eat dried eyes. In his 

absence she eats some, a one legged ogre comes, takes the One legged ogre 
woman and her baby, roasts the baby on a spit, but is 
killed by the hunter. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 255 

j 175 Four of five brothers living alone travel in succession, 

each reaches an old man who sits whittling shavings from P enis shavings 
his penis. The latter's dog kills each boy after arrival. Wild animals 

J 178 The fifth and oldest brother dreams what to do. He kills ke P tasdo s s 
a fur seal, stuffs the hide with stones, laces it up, talks to Stuffed dog 
it, it becomes his dog; he trains it to fight. He gets to the 
old man, the dogs fight, ascend high above; the ogre dog Fighting animals 
is killed; the stone dog descends, kills the ogre people ascen d 

J 181 there. The boy puts the ogre dog's leg into his stone dog's 

mouth and sends him up to the moon to be seen there Man (dog) 

henceforth. He collects his four brothers' bones, throws R esu e s ™ t a°ion by 

them into the water, and they are resuscitated. assembling 

members, (or) 

F133, Two voung men have dogs, one is a Fisher, the other Water °. f Ll * e 

T241 540 • • rr^i r- Wild animals 

J ' is a sewn seal skm filled with gravel. The dogs fight, as- kept as dogs 

cend into the air, reach the moon, where the sewn dog 

chews the limbs of the Fisher dog but appears now like Man in the moon 

a man. 

6. Stories of feuds and warfare 

F135, S40 The people drive away a mean village whose inhabi- 

tants live underground, eat fish and oysters, dive distances 
under water, float stone, club each other on the head with 
impunity. They flee the country in two rafts, pouring 
seal oil on the ocean to calm the waves. 

J 59 A small man kills a large and wealthy headman of 

another people. The murderer's people, unable to amass 
sufficient compensation money, flee in large canoes, even- 
tually reaching a land across the ocean. 

F59 All of Old Spider Woman's five children die fighting 

the below people. She finds a female corpse in a burned 
house, removes a live baby boy from the womb, he grows child removed 

rapidly. He hunts beyond where his stepmother advises, from dead mother 

. . .. 11011 . Supernatural 

his arrow hits a door, inside he finds bows, arrows, pipes, growth 

beds; it is his dead people's sweat house. He becomes a 

F67 fine hunter, fighter, club dodger. He goes to gamble, 

dodges the blows of the people who try to kill him, kills 

them, takes their wealth. He becomes a great hunter, 

resuscitates with water the corpses of his massacred rela- Resuscitation, 

tives, and marries a below woman. Water of Life 

T53 A boy shoots his arrow straight up; when it descends ., 

J • i- , ■ tt , r ™ • , Multiplication 

it splits him. He becomes two boys. They marry girls, by fission 

multiply, and so avenge the murdered parents of the boy. 



256 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

J35 A wealthy girl saves herself and her baby nephew 

from a massacre of her village. She decapitates the enemy 
headman who makes her sleep with him. A headman of 
another village builds an enormous canoe to look like a 
whale. It holds many small canoes and warriors. The 
girl's enemies are killed and so she is avenged. 

F149, A man, Bird Hawk, is decapitated and his head is 

J235, S32 taken away. His dog barks upward. His younger brother 

(or sons) shoots up an arrow chain ladder, climbs to the Ascent to upper 
sky country. There, at a big river, he (or they, his sons) ™ row c j ia £ n 
learns the habits of the murderer's wife (or wives) from 
her own lips, then kills and flays her, dresses in her skin Disguised flayer, 
(or, they don the wives' garments temporarily), imper- skin shifter 

F1S3, sonates her when her husband comes. He makes only 
J 23 ? these errors: he drags a foot in the water when jumping 
in the husband's canoe, he gives fern roots to elderly 
people, he utters a cry of pain when stirring a boiling stew Poses as woman 
with his ringers. He bores holes in all the canoes except and marries man 
one, decapitates the sleeping murderer, flees with his own 
brother's head, crosses in the one good canoe, descends 

F157 on his arrow ladder. The people dance and revive the Resuscitation by 
dead brother whose head is stuck back onto him. His ^^g^ 
people become red headed woodpeckers — from the blood 
on his decapitated head. 

7. Stories with tabooed sexual implication 

J 172 A young man's grandmother disguises herself as a Lecherous 

girl and copulates with him. He discovers who she is. 
Immediately after, canoemen pass by calling out that he 
has copulated with his grandmother. They come to war 
upon him and kill his grandmother. She turns into a rock. 

j 173 A hunter's grandmother goes to assist him pack an 

elk home, but she wants to carry the penis only. When he Lecherous 
finds her copulating with it he says she will become a g randmother 
pheasant. 

J181 A young Bluejay man wants his grandmother to tie 

his hair with her pubic hair. The people he defeats in 
gambling say all the Bluejay people will have head hair 
so tied. 

J183 Butterball duck and his wife mock one another's 

genitals. 



1940] Jacobs: Coos Myth Texts 257 

J 150 A girl sleeps nightly with a man she neither sees nor Brother-sister 

speaks to. She puts a painted hand on his back. She sees Tell tale 
it is her own brother. Both die from shame. Her live hand mark 
baby pops out when her corpse is burnt, and her father Child removed 

J151 brings it up. Another girl who is digging camas digs out D^from "T^nd 
a baby, she brings it up. One of the two children makes 
a ball of his ankle bone. The children quarrel and go in 
different directions. 

8. Miscellaneous stories 

J24 Afterbirth is an old woman who scares newborn in- Old woman 

fants and causes them to grimace in fright. afterbirth 

J 34 A girl keeps a stone hammer for a doll. It becomes a Image comes 

man, later turns into a rock in the bay. to llfe 

J35 A man's feet argue with his eyes. 

J39 A disobedient child refuses to dress warmly and freezes 

to death. 

J52 Young men tease a lazy fellow by laying a salmon be- 

side him as his wife. Later a baby is borne by an incom- 
ing run of salmon; the people who look at that are car- Looking tabu 
ried away by a tidal wave. 

J61 Young man Kingfisher spears many fish but never Glutton 

comes back with any to his hungry aunt. When she leaves 
to marry a wealthy man he follows, is fed, and bursts 
and dies from overeating. 

j58 It rains a long time and those not safely in canoes are Flood 

drowned. The waters lower slowly. 

F4S The flood is a tide. Most of the people and animals Flood 

congregate on a floating island, until the water recedes. 
Many whose canoes do not remain fastened to treetops 
drift away and so the people become scattered. 

F53, J241 Five gusts of fire blow from the west, the people save World fire 

themselves by lying down in mud and holding boards 
above themselves. 

J 137 A youth disobeys his grandmother, goes in a forbid- 

den direction, finds women. Because his grandmother 
whips him he wishes for a high wind, it blows her and her 
house away. He transforms into a sea gull. 



258 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 8 

J 139 Two wives pass through a net barrier put up by an Fog barrier 

old woman to prevent their fleeing their elderly husband. 
They find a young man who creates a fog in which their 
pursuing old husband gets lost. They marry Sky Fog 
man, who refuses to return the girls to the old man when 
he finally arrives above. 

J141 A girl prepares food during her first mensis seclusion. 

She and her family become rocks. 

J 143 Young man Dove's cooing is his mourning cry each 

year for his grandmother. 

J 147 A selfish Bear mother tells her children not to look Maternal 

• scl nshncss 

lest they be stung by bees. When the children see their avenge( j 
mother eating, they shriek that they see ogres, their moth- 
er flees, they eat her honey, then she returns and flogs them. 

J 147 Hunters roast a coon, all but one laugh at its counte- 

nance as it shrivels; they die because they cannot cease 
laughing, and they become coons too. 

J 148 Jack rabbit travels, halloos and curses to a ferryman, 

hides, halloos and curses again. The angry ferryman 
catches and kills him, in spite of Jack rabbit's airs and 
truculence. 

J1S2 Panther's wives, Bear and Grizzly, each have two "Bear woman and 

children. The wives delouse each other, Grizzly kills Bear. ,^l Relatives' 
The Bear children kill and boil the Grizzly children, then flesh unwittingly 
flee. Grizzly eats the stew containing her own children, 
recognizes their paws, pursues the Bear children. While 
she snores they escape from a hollow tree, cross a stream Crane bridge 
on Crane's extended leg. When the pursuing Grizzly 
crosses on his leg he pretends it breaks, she falls into the 
water, he spears and kills her. 

J 165 In Mouse's absence his wife disobediently cooks mus- 

sels, and a mussel barnacle pops in her eye and kills her. 

J 166 While Crow girl is gathering and eating mussels, the 

tide comes in and causes her baby to float away. 
J 167 A young man who is always going about at night is 

making a canoe. He transforms into an owl hooting on 

the branch of a tree. 

J232 The birds and animals fight. The bats fight on both 

sides, and in punishment cannot go about now in daytime. 
J233 The birds fight, leaving only Robin alive. 



INDEX 

Aleut, phoneme in Atka 12 

Alsea, phonemes in 11, 12, 13, 14 

Alsea, phrase clusters in 5 

Athabaskan, phonemes in dialects 

of Oregon 12 

Atka Aleut, phoneme in 12 

Boas, Dr. Franz 3, 14 

Buchanan, Jim 3-4, 135, 239 

Chinook, phonemes in 12, 13, 14 

Clusters (word groups) 5, 15-17 

Columbia University 3 

Coquille River Indians (see Miluk) 4 

Cowlitz Sahaptin, phonemes in Upper. . . 14 

Drew, Frank 3-4, 129, 239 

ethnologic trait references, index of 123 

Frachtenberg, Dr. Leo J.. .3-5, 11-18 passim, 

135,239, 243 

groups (see clusters) 5, 15-17 

Hanis Coos Indians 3-5 

Hanis Coos phonetics 11-18 

informants, Coos 3-5, 129-30, 239 

intermediate phonemes 11-18 passim 

Jacobsen, Philip A 5 

Johnston, Orin 5 

Kalapuya, phonemes in 11, 12, 14 

Kalapuya, phrase clusters in 4 

Miluk Coos Indians 3-5 

Miluk Coos phonetics 11-18 

Molale, phonemes in 11, 14 

National Research Council 5, 130 

Peterson, Mrs. Annie M 3, 104-114, 129 

phonemic transcription 11 

recorder, portable electric 5, 130 

Sahaptin, phonemes in 11, 12, 13, 14 

St. Clair 2d, H. H 130, 239, 243 

Salish of Washington, phonemes 

in Coast 12, 13, 14 

Sapir, Dr. Edward 11 

sentence-phrases (see clusters) 5 

Shakers 129 

Tillamook Coast Salish, phonemes in. . . 13 

transcription, phonetic 11-18 

Yachats {or, Ya'hatc) 4, 129, 239 



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UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLICATIONS 

IN 
ANTHROPOLOGY 



Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 1-178 



September, 1942 



ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE UPPER 
COLUMBIA REGION 



By 

Donald Collier, Alfred E. Hudson, and Arlo Ford 




PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PRESS 
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 



PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This paper presents the results of field work carried on by the Columbia Basin 
Archaeological Survey in eastern Washington from July, 1939, through Sep- 
tember, 1940. During this period a reconnaissance was made along both banks 
of the river from Grand Coulee Dam to the Canadian boundary above North- 
port, a distance of about one hundred fifty miles, covering approximately the 
area above the dam which is to be flooded. In this region extensive excavations 
were made at thirty-five Indian sites which seemed most likely to yield signifi- 
cant results. An analysis of the finds from these sites comprises the greater 
pa,rt of the report. 

From its inception the Survey was a cooperative undertaking sponsored by 
several institutions, organizations, and governmental agencies. The heaviest bur- 
den for the support of the project and its direction fell upon the Eastern Wash- 
ington State Historical Society of Spokane and the National Youth Administration 
of Washington. The former was instrumental in the organization of the project 
and its continuance in spite of difficulties ; the latter maintained the camps and fur- 
nished from its rolls the services of Youth Workers for manual labor. The 
scientific direction of the field work was under the auspices of the Department 
of Anthropology of the University of Washington and the Department of Sociol- 
ogy and Anthropology of the State College of Washington. 

During the course of reconnaissance and excavations great practical as- 
sistance was rendered to the Survey by the officials of the Bureau of Reclama- 
tion, by the Works Progress Administration, and by the Civilian Conservation 
Corps. The cooperation of the Nespelem Agency of the Bureau of Indian 
Affairs is gratefully acknowledged. 

Preparation of the report has been facilitated by the generosity of the 
State College of Washington in providing laboratory space, technical assistance, 
and fellowship aid to the junior author. Through funds of the National Youth 
Administration the services of a draftsman for the figures and drawings were 
obtained. 

The authors are deeply conscious of their indebtedness to the many individ- 
uals who, separately and collectively, have contributed time, money, advice, equip- 
ment, and encouragement to the Survey. Particularly they wish to record their 
gratitude to Mr. Joel E. Ferris of Spokane, who personally and as Chairman of 
the Special Committee of the Eastern Washington State Historical Society, gave 
his unstinted support, enthusiasm, and effort, without which the work could have 
been neither begun nor finished. Through the efforts of Mr. Ferris additional 
financial support was given by Mr. W. H. Cowles, Sr., Mr. E. A. Shadle, and 
Mr. W W. Powell, all of Spokane. The initial interest of the Inland Empire Indian 
Relics Society and particularly of its founder, Mrs. Edith Dunning, in preserving 
the antiquities of the Columbia Basin was to a large extent responsible for the 
inception of the project. 

(3) 



Our obligations for technical and scientific aid are many. Particularly we 
wish to thank Dr. Erna Gunther and Dr. Verne Ray of the Department of An- 
thropology, University of Washington, for their professional advice and assist- 
ance, and Dean C. C. Todd of the State College of Washington for his cooper- 
ation and valuable help at all times. Special acknowledgments are due to Mr. 
Roger Kohlstaedt for his work in cataloguing specimens and preparing the 
drawings. The active participation of Malcolm Carr in both the field work 
and in the preparation of the report has made our tasks lighter. 

The names of Mr. Alex Krieger, Dr. Phillip Drucker, and Mr. Joseph 
Jablow might fittingly be included as joint authors since they have each at vari- 
ous times been in active charge of field work. Under their direction a great part 
of the archaeological evidence presented here was obtained, but they must be 
absolved from responsibility for all errors of interpretation in the final report. 

In addition to the above general acknowledgments we wish to express our 
sincere thanks to the following: Mr. Charles R. Kirk and Mr. Joseph E. Border 
of the National Youth Administration ; Mr. Hiram B. Ferris of Spokane for the 
loan of tools and equipment ; Dr. Charles D. Campbell, State College of Wash- 
ington, for identification of rocks and minerals ; Dr. H. R. Lupher, State College 
of Washington, for identification of bison bones and teeth ; Dr. George E. 
Hudson, State College of Washington, for identification of animal bones and 
teeth ; Dr. W. R. Hatch and other members of the Botany Department at the 
State College of Washington for identification of seeds ; the United States 
National Museum for identification of animal bones and teeth ; Professor L. M. 
O'Neale, University of California, for analysis of textiles; Mrs. Martha R. 
Flahaut, Washington State Museum, University of Washington, for identifica- 
tion of shells ; Mr. Robert L. Stephenson, for his work during the organization 
of the project and the preliminary reconnaissance ; Mr. Billy Andrews, who acted 
as informant to Mr. Krieger in locating sites; and Mrs. Edith Bauer of Marcus 
for her efficiency and cheerfulness as camp cook. 

Two whole classes of individuals must, because of their sheer number, 
remain anonymous, although we are acutely aware of our indebtedness to them 
all. The first includes all those residents, Indian and white, of the area studied, 
whose local knowledge, interest, and hospitality contributed to the progress of 
our work. Finally with pleasure we remember and thank the young men en- 
rolled by the National Youth Administration who shared with us the satisfac- 
tions and disappointments of archaeology. 



(4) 



CONTENTS 

Preface and Acknowledgments 3 

Introduction 9 

Geography 9 

Scope and Procedure 10 

Evaluation of Methods and Results 11 

Summary of Sites Worked 13 

Methods and Extent of Work 13 

Types of Sites 13 

Description of Sites 14 

Habitation Structures, Hearths, and Earth Ovens 37 

Pit Houses 37 

Hearths 37 

Earth Ovens 37 

Disposal of the Dead 39 

Pit Burials 39 

Pit Burial Markers 39 

Rock Slide Burials 40 

Artifacts Associated with Burials 41 

Skeletal Material 41 

Summary and Comparisons 42 

Material Culture 57 

Chipped Stone 57 

Arrow Points, Spearheads, and Knives 57 

Drills, Gravers, End Scrapers, Side Scrapers, Rough Discoidal Scrapers 64 

Quartzite Scrapers 67 

Notched Sinkers 68 

Unidentified Chipped Slate Object 68 

Articles of Ground Stone 68 

Mauls, Pestles, and Hammerstones 69 

Celts and Other Cutting Implements 70 

Pipes 72 

Girdled Sinkers 74 

Needles 74 

Chopper 74 

Mortars 75 

Whetstones 75 

Arrowshaft Smoothers 75 

Turquoise Pendant 76 

Incised Slate Fragments 76 

Ornamental or Toy Mauls 76 

Mineral Pigment 76 

Articles of Bone and Horn 76 

Arrow Points 77 

Lance or Spear Points 77 

Arrowshaft Straighteners or Wrenches 77 

Harpoon Points 79 

Harpoon or Lance Collars 79 

Whale Bone Club 80 

Antler Knife Handle 80 

Knife 80 

Awls 80 

Needles 81 

Bodkins 81 

Double- pointed Implements 82 

Antler Digging Stick Handles 82 

Antler Digging Stick Tips 84 

Possible Digging Implements 84 

Flakers 86 



(5) 



CONTENTS— (Continued) 

Wedges 86 

Flesher or Scraper 86 

Spatulate-shaped Objects 87 

Bone Whistles 87 

Horn Spoon 87 

Comb 87 

Ring 88 

Beads 88 

Bone Pendant 88 

Bone Ornament 88 

Bone Tube 88 

Miscellaneous Unclassifiable Worked Bone 89 

Miscellaneous Antler Fragments 89 

Teeth and Claws 89 

Bird Beak Bones 92 

Bear Penis Bones 92 

Articles of Shell 92 

Dentalia 93 

Olivella Beads 94 

Disc Beads 94 

Rings 94 

Pendants 95 

Marine Worm (?) Shell 95 

Unworked Clam Shells (Shell Middens) 95 

Summary and Comparisons 96 

Articles of Hide 97 

Basketry and Matting 98 

Cordage 100 

Textiles 100 

Articles of Wood 101 

Pottery 101 

Articles of European Origin 102 

Articles of Copper 102 

Glass Trade Beads 104 

Articles of Iron 105 

Techniques of Bead Stringing 106 

Petrographs 109 

Pictographs 109 

Petroglyphs 109 

Conclusions 110 

Summary of Material Culture 110 

Affiliations with Surrounding Regions Ill 

Dating of Sites 113 

Population Density and Intensity of Culture 113 

The Problem of House Types on the Upper Columbia 114 

Indian Trade 115 

Appendix A. Vertical Distribution of Cultural Material 117 

Appendix B. Distribution of Unworked Bone in Burials at Sites 8, 24, 46, and 47 125 

Appendix C. Identification of Animal and Vegetable Materials 126 

Appendix D. Correlation of Sites Found with Those Listed by Ray 127 

Bibliography 131 



(6) 



CONTENTS— (Continued) 

TABLES 

Table A. Burials containing European objects intrusive into concentrated'midden at site 24]T 26 

Table 1 . Distribution of stone markers and plank enclosures in pit burials 40 

Table 2. Distribution and description of burials 43 

Table 3. Distribution of chipped stone projectile points by type 62 

Table 4. Form frequencies of points in the Dalles-Deschutes and Upper Columbia regions. 63 

Table 5. Distribution of drills, gravers, scrapers, and knives 66 

Table 6. Types and distribution of quartzite scrapers 67 

Table 7. Distribution of pestles, hammerstones, and mauls 70 

Table 8. Distribution of celts and other cutting implements 71 

Table 9. Distribution of arrowshaft smoothers 76 

Table 10. Distribution of bone and horn artifacts 78 

Table 1 1 . Distribution of beaver teeth 90 

Table 12. Distribution of shell objects 92 

Table 13. Distribution of objects of European origin 102 

Table 14. Distribution of tubular copper beads 103 

Table 15. Distribution of copper pendants and other objects of copper 104 

Table 16. Distribution of glass trade beads 105 

Table 17. Distribution of techniques of bead stringing 108 

Table 18. Distribution by depth of chipped stone artifacts at sites 11, 24, 31, and 45 118 

Table 19. Distribution by depth of artifacts (other than chipped stone) at sites 

11, 24, 31, and 45 119 

Table 20. Contents by levels of midden at site 11 120 

Table 21. Contents by levels of midden at site 24 122 

Table 22. Contents by levels of midden at site 31 123 

Table 23. Distribution of unworked bone at site 45 124 

MAP 

Columbia River Region of northeastern Washington, showing sites worked 8 

FIGURES 

Fig. 1. General view of Whitestone Creek region 15 

Fig. 2. Sketch map of Whitestone Creek (Hellgate) region 17 

Fig. 3. Contour map of site 11 19 

Fig. 4. Profile of trench 1 at site 11 21 

Fig. 5. Profile of trench 3 at site 11 21 

Fig. 6. Profile of trench 4 at site 11 22 

Fig. 7. Plan of site 24 25 

Fig. 8. Profile of trench 1 at site 40 30 

Fig. 9. Profile of trench 1 at site 45 30 

Fig. 10. Plan and profile of site 46 32 

Fig. 1 1 . Plan and profile of site 47 34 

Fig. 12. Outlines of chipped projectile point forms 59 

Fig. 13. Incised antler digging stick handles 83 

Fig. 14. Incised antler digging stick tips and bone ornament 85 

Fig. 15. Basketry techniques 99 

Fig. 16. Techniques of bead stringing 107 

PLATES 

Plate 1. Stone projectile points and knives 135 

Plate 2. Stone projectile points and knives 137 

Plate 3. Stone projectile points and knives 139 

Plate 4. Drills, gravers, and scrapers 141 

Plate 5. Flake knives and core scrapers 143 

Plate 6. Quartzite scrapers and/or knives 145 

Plate 7. Antler digging stick handles, wedges and fiakers 147 

Plate 8. Bone points, awls and needles 149 

Plate 9. Miscellaneous bone implements 151 

Plate 10. Miscellaneous bone implements and ornaments 153 

Plate 11. Shell ornaments and beads 155 

Plate 12. Shell and copper ornaments 157 

Plate 13. Articles of copper and iron 159 

Plate 14. Stone pipes and arrowshaft smoothers 161 

Plate 15. Celts and other ground stone implements 163 

Plate 16. Pestles and mauls 165 

Plate 17. Miscellaneous ground and chipped stone implements 167 

Plate 18. General views of sites 169 

Plate 19. General views 171 

Plate 20. Types of burial markers 173 

Plate 21. Pit burials, site 24 175 

Plate 22. Petroglyphs 177 

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Columbia River Region of Northeastern Washington, Showing Sites Worked. 



(8) 



INTRODUCTION 



GEOGRAPHY 



The area covered by the Survey extends through part of two physiographic 
provinces: the Okanagon highlands and the Columbia lava plateau. The topog- 
raphy and vegetation of the two differ markedly. 

The Okanagon highlands are a northwestern projection of the Rocky Moun- 
tains; their moderately rounded summits reach heights of some five thousand 
feet. Through these hills the Columbia flows in a winding but generally north- 
to-south course. The land rises from the river banks in broad terraces, or 
"benches," toward the foot of the hills. Most sites were found on the lower 
benches, especially at points where tributary streams entered the river. 

Such tributaries, especially small creeks, which have cut narrow gulches 
across the river terraces, are numerous. The largest of these is the Kettle River 
which enters the Columbia just north of Kettle Falls. 

The country along the river terraces is generally prairie or park land over 
which extend wide areas of bunch-grass broken at intervals by groves of pine. 
The hills above are more heavily forested. 

About ninety miles south of the Canadian border the Columbia receives the 
waters of the Spokane, a major tributary. A few miles beyond this confluence 
the river turns sharply westward. It has now entered the lava plateau, a bed of 
basalt formed by successive lava flows which is in some places 4000 feet thick. 
Across this plateau the river has cut a great gorge several hundred feet deep. 
There its valley slopes are narrower, deeper, and more precipitous than along its 
course through the Okanagon highlands. In many places the river terraces have 
given way to sheer canyon walls. Vegetation is sparse. Sage-brush is the prin- 
cipal plant and trees are rare. 

Through this type of country the Columbia continues westward, past the 
mouth of the Sanpoil and out of the area covered by our Survey. 

At the beginning of the historical period, in the early nineteenth century, 
the regions of northeastern Washington included in this report were occupied by 
several Indian groups which may loosely be called tribes. The people usually 
known as the Lakes, most of whose territory lay in Canada, also occupied the 
Columbia valley south of the present international boundary approximately to 
Kettle Falls. From this point downstream to about the present town of Hunters 
was the country of the Colville. From there south to the Big Bend the Columbia 
seems to have separated Sanpoil territory from that of the Lower Spokane group. 



(9) 



10 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

The former occupied the right bank of the river and the latter the left. Beyond 
the Big Bend both sides of the river were Sanpoil country. 1 

European influence made its first impression on the tribes of the upper Co- 
lumbia basin in the early years of the nineteenth century as a result of the ac- 
tivities of fur traders, particularly those of the North West Company. The first 
white man, so far as is known, who explored the reaches of the river with which 
our Survey was concerned, was David Thompson in July, 181 1. 2 

SCOPE AND PROCEDURE 

A brief summary of the history of the Survey and the conditions under 
which it operated is relevant to a proper evaluation of its results. 

No previous accounts of archaeological work in the area covered by this 
survey have been published, although local collectors have gathered a number 
of surface finds and many burials have been disturbed by curio hunters. Our 
work links the results of previous reports of the archaeology of the lower and 
middle Columbia 3 and Snake 4 regions with those of the Fraser and Thompson 
river valleys. 5 

During the summer of 1939 a reconnaissance of the Columbia basin between 
Grand Coulee Dam and the Canadian boundary was made under the direction 
of Mr. Alex Krieger, then of the University of Oregon, assisted by several of 
his students, including the junior author. During this preliminary survey no at- 
tempt was made at systematic excavation, but a large quantity of data relating 
to potential sites was gathered from surface indications and from informants. 
On the basis of this information it appeared that the vicinity of the mouth of the 
Sanpoil River was a favorable place for further work, and a camp was therefore 
established at Hellgate in September. At this time also the National Youth Ad- 
ministration agreed to furnish labor for the project and to meet the cost of main- 
taining the camp. The University of Washington and the State College of Wash- 
ington assumed responsibility for the scientific sponsorship of the work and pro- 
vided equipment and field funds. Simultaneously, Mr. Krieger was called to new 
work in Texas, and the direction of the Survey was taken over by Dr. Phillip 
Drucker from the University of California. 

Under the supervision of Dr. Drucker, intensive excavation was carried on 
at and near Hellgate. In late autumn it became necessary to move the camp 
before winter snows should render it inaccessible to supplies. 

A new base of operations was therefore selected at Gifford, about eighty 
miles upstream from Hellgate on the opposite bank of the river. After estab- 



1 Spier, Tribal Distribution in Washington, pp. 5-11, 43. 

2 Thompson, Narrative, pp. 472-474. 

8 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region; Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima 
Valley; Krieger, A Prehistoric Pit House Village Site on the Columbia River at Wahluke, 
Grant County, Washington; Perry, Notes on a Type of Indian Burial in Mid-Columbian District 
of Central Washington. 

4 Spinden, The Nes Perce Indians. 

5 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia; and Archaeology of the Thompson River 
Region, British Columbia. 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 11 

lishing camp and commencing excavations in the new locality, Dr. Drucker re- 
signed as director of the project in order to participate in archaeological work 
in Central America. His place was taken in December by Mr. Joseph Jablow 
from Columbia University. 

During the winter of 1939-1940 progress was considerably hampered by 
severe weather and frozen ground. Work was carried on at a number of sites 
both upstream and down from Gifford. Numerous test excavations were made 
at other points with, on the whole, disappointing results. Mr. Jablow resigned 
in April, 1940, and for several weeks Ford was in active charge of the project. 

Collier and Hudson took over their duties as co-directors at the beginning 
of May, when it was immediately necessary to move camp again because of the 
rapidly rising water level. A careful consideration of possible alternatives led to 
the selection of a new base near the town of Marcus, thirty miles above Gifford. 
From here it was possible to work both sides of the river from Kettle Falls to 
the international boundary. During the early summer the results of exhaustive 
test trenching in this area were meager, but the subsequent discovery near North- 
port of two sites fully as productive as those at Hellgate gave encouragement 
and zest to the last part of the season's work. The final fortnight was devoted 
to a re-examination of certain areas possibly slighted previously, especially the 
region about the mouth of the Spokane. Field work was terminated and the 
camp broken up at the end of September, 1940, fourteen months after the first 
reconnaissance. 

The burden of classifying the material and preparing the manuscript for pub- 
lication has fallen largely on Collier and Ford. In periodic conferences all three 
authors have considered problems of interpretation, concerning which they are 
in complete agreement. 

The greater part of the material which forms the basis of this report will be 
on permanent exhibition at the Museum of the Eastern Washington State His- 
torical Society in Spokane. 

EVALUATION OF METHODS AND RESULTS 

It is obvious from the above brief history of the project that it did not 
operate under the most favorable conditions. Certainly the greatest difficulty, as 
revealed in the preparation of the results for publication, arose from the lack 
of continuity in leadership. Many of the sites worked during the first months of 
field work and flooded soon thereafter have never been seen by the senior authors. 
Even the most copious and accurate field notes seldom mean as much to a stranger 
as they would to their writer who can visualize the background for each statement. 
Of the nearly one hundred individuals who in one capacity or another were at 
some time connected with the Survey, only Ford has been with it from the be- 
ginning. The circumstances which produced such a situation were of course 
unavoidable in this case, but could they have been avoided the work would have 
benefited in plan, execution, and compilation. 

The Survey was also sometimes hampered by lack of flexibility arising from 
the necessity of maintaining permanent camps for the National Youth Admin- 



12 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

istration workers. This situation was admirably adapted to long continued ex- 
cavations in one locality but markedly handicapped extensive reconnaissance over 
a wide area. 

The steady rise of the water level back of Grand Coulee Dam put a premium 
on speed. Many places had necessarily to be slighted or only superficially exam- 
ined as the water lapped about our heels. 

A major calamity, from the archaeological point of view, arose from the 
activities of a firm of undertakers, hereafter referred to as the disinterment proj- 
ect. They were awarded a contract by the Bureau of Reclamation to remove 
recent, marked Indian graves to new cemeteries above future water level. They 
carried out this task with such enthusiasm, however, possibly stimulated by the 
piece-work basis of their contract, that several hundred prehistoric burials were 
removed in such a way as to destroy completely the archaeological evidence. 

These observations are made not with any thought of excusing possible 
shortcomings in our work but rather because of their pertinence to an evaluation 
of the validity of its results and because our experience may prove helpful to 
others. 

In spite of its deficiencies we believe our material represents a fairly reliable 
and valid sample of the archaeology of the upper Columbia. We consider it 
doubtful that further field work, had it been possible, would have materially 
modified either the character of our finds or our conclusions therefrom. 



SUMMARY OF SITES WORKED 
METHODS AND EXTENT OF WORK 

The immediate aim of the Columbia Basin Archaeological Survey was to 
obtain as much information as possible about the archaeological remains within 
the area to be flooded by Grand Coulee Dam. Pressure for time was felt through- 
out the period of v/ork, and survey plans had to be adjusted to the water level as 
it rose behind the dam. Because of these factors our procedure was to carry out 
a careful reconnaissance with extensive test excavation and intensive excavation 
at strategic sites. The work was confined almost exclusively within the high- 
water contours of the future lake. 

Every available source of information was utilized in locating sites. The 
ethnological researches of Dr. Verne Ray on the location of Indian villages 1 were 
most helpful. Much valuable information was obtained from Indian and white 
residents of the area. Location of sites by archaeological methods was difficult 
in most parts of the region. The surface is heavily sodded except in the south, 
and there were no surface indications of structures to aid in finding sites. Stone 
artifacts and chips were frequently found on the surface, but in many cases these 
were no more abundant at sites which proved to have been intensively occupied 
(this was particularly true of sites with deep occupation levels) than at other 
places along the river. Often evidences of human occupation were exposed by 
river cutting. Because of the difficulty of finding archaeological sites a large 
amount of test excavation was necessary. Both banks of the Columbia from 
Keller ferry to the Canadian border, as well as the banks of the lower Spokane 
and Kettle rivers, were examined as carefully as circumstances permitted. In 
addition to the numbered sites described in this report, a much larger number of 
locations appearing favorable to Indian habitation, or which were indicated as 
sites by various sources of information, were investigated by means of test pits or 
trenches. Those which lacked evidence of more than sporadic human occupation 
were not given site numbers. At least half of the test trenches dug yielded no 
significant results. 

TYPES OF SITES 

Three types of sites were investigated. The first of these is habitation sites. 
Large and deep deposits of refuse material indicated the location of permanent 
village sites which had been long occupied, while meager deposits of refuse ma- 
terial indicated sporadically used camp sites. No house structures were found; 
the only structural remains to throw light on domestic habits were stone hearths 
and areas of burned stones which we believe to be earth ovens. The second type 
of site is shell middens of small extent containing almost no evidence of human 
occupation. The larger shell middens are not found on or particularly near the 
large permanent village sites, although a small amount of shell is found in 
all village deposits. We believe that these larger shell middens were located 

1 "Native Villages and Groupings of the Columbia Basin," pp. 99-152. 

(13) 



14 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

adjacent to large clam beds and were visited only for short periods during times 
of famine. The third type of site is cemeteries. These were located in talus 
slopes along the river bluff, or more commonly on the sandy beaches close to 
the river. In many cases they were within a mile or less of a habitation site, 
although no extensive cemetery was found near our largest village site (site 11). 
About half of all artifacts recovered, and nearly all the more elaborate artifacts, 
were found associated with burials. 

DESCRIPTION OF SITES 2 
Site 2 

Site 2 is just east of the Keller ferry landing on the south bank of the 
Columbia opposite the mouth of the Sanpoil (lying on the line between Sees. 
8 and 9, T. 28 N., R. 37 E.). This site consisted of pit burials in the sand 
along the river bank. Trenches were sunk along the bank parallel to the river and 
eleven burials removed ; no doubt others remained. We were informed that several 
other burials had been exposed by a road crew when grading the ferry landing. 
Of the eleven burials which we found, two were marked by stone circles and 
cedar planks, two by stone circles only, two by cedar planks only, and five were 
unmarked. Probably some of the stone markers were missing as a result of dis- 
turbance by campers and picnickers. Associated with the burials were a carved 
whalebone club, maul, hammerstone, stone points and knives, a bone awl, beads 
and ornaments of shell, a copper fragment, and tubular copper beads. On the 
surface were an unidentified chipped slate object, and pestles and hammerstones. 

Site 3 

Site 3 is a rock slide along the bluff at the bend of the river just below the 
north landing of Keller ferry (Sec. 5, T. 28 N., R. 33 E.). There were formerly 
at least a dozen rock slide burials here but all had been removed by relic hunters, 
who left many fragmentary human bones scattered on the talus slope. 

Site 4 

Site 4 is a small rock shelter in the bluff above the rock slide at site 3. It is 
8 feet deep, 10 feet long, and 8 to 10 feet high. This shelter is too small to 
have been used extensively, although it is smoke-blackened. On the walls are 
two pictographs (a human figure and an arc with rays) in red pigment, and 
traces of others. 

Site 5 

Site 5 is a small rock slide at the bend of the river about three-quarters 
of a mile east of the mouth of Whitestone Creek (near S.E. corner of Sec. 16, 
T. 28 N., R. 34 E.). At least four burials here had been rifled by relic hunters. 

2 All of the sites here described will be submerged by 1942. The landmarks referred to 
are as of the summer of 1940. Site numbers for which there are no descriptions (e.g., 1, 6, 
9, etc.) were given during reconnaissance to certain localities which later failed to yield any 
results. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



15 




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16 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

We found only two undisturbed burials. They were of the usual rock slide type, 
with cedar stake markers projecting from the rock slide above the burials. No 
artifacts were associated with these burials. 

Site 7 A 

Site 7A is on a knoll on the east side of Whitestone Creek at its mouth 
and extends for 100 feet up the bank of the Columbia (Sec. 16, T. 28 N., R. 34 
E.). Several burials here had been opened by curio hunters. Eight gravel pit 
burials were removed by us. Six of these were marked with stone circles on the 
surface. No cedar plank enclosures were found above the bodies. Associated 
with the burials were side scrapers, hammerstones, dentalium and olivella beads, 
beaver tooth dice, perforated elk teeth, bone awls, a copper pendant, iron frag- 
ments, and red ochre. 

Site 7B 

Site 7B is one-half mile up the bank of the Columbia from 7 A (Sec. 16, 
T. 28 N., R. 34 E.). Thirteen burials were removed from along the river bank. 
These were of the pit type, but lacked surface stone markers and cedar planks 
over the body. The matrix here was a sand and gravel mix washed and blown 
in, which extended 30 or 40 inches down to the river gravel and boulders. Only 
a hammerstone, a few dentalium beads, a fragment of sewn matting, and glass 
trade beads were found associated with these burials. 

Site 8 

Site 8 is an extensive rock slide on the north side of the Spokane River 
one and a half miles below Detillion bridge (Sec. 11, T. 28 N., R. 36 E.). 
Originally there were possibly thirty burials in this rock slide but some were 
removed by relic hunters and others by the disinterment project. We excavated 
twelve burials here. They were of the usual rock slide type, made by excavating 
a hole 2 to 4 feet deep in the talus slope, within which the body was placed and 
then covered with rock. They were marked by cedar stakes projecting from the 
rocks above the burials. The burials near the base of the talus slope usually 
'had enough rocks piled on them to form a low mound a foot or so above the 
surface of the slope, but those farther up the slope were not so distinguished 
and could be located only by means of the cedar stakes. The artifacts associated 
with these burials were as follows : iron nails and iron fragments, catlinite 
elbow pipe of Plains type, dentalium and shell disc beads, elk tooth beads, large 
numbers of tubular copper beads, bone awls and bodkins, bone arrow wrench, 
stone points, pestle, red ochre, and a fragment of coiled basketry. A large 
tubular pipe of talc schist was recovered from a disturbed burial. 

Site 11 

Site 11 is on the south side of an island at the extreme west end of Hellgate 
Flat (figs. 1 and 2) in Sec. 17, T. 28 N., R. 34 E. This is an island during high water ; 
at other times lagoons run in from the river on the east and west but the center 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



17 







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18 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

of the island is connected with the mainland. There is a ridge running across 
the island from east to west (fig. 3). There are a few willows growing close 
to the water and the rest of the island is covered with the tall, coarse grass that 
grows in this locality. Only once in the memory of the old settlers did the river 
rise high enough to flood the island completely. The island is composed largely 
of sand deposited by river and wind. The location affords little protection 
either in summer or winter. The island juts far enough out into the river to catch 
the wind which so often blows up or down stream, and there are no trees to give 
either shelter from the wind or shade. Despite these drawbacks, the island was 
inhabited for a long time. Probably this was because of its accessibility to the 
water; it would be a convenient place to land canoes because of the slower cur- 
rent at this point, the lagoons, and the easily climbed bank, which is lower and 
less steep than at any other place along the flat. 

The river erosion on the south side of the island has exposed a steep cut 
revealing fired areas as deep as 60 inches, and animal bone, shell, and burned 
stone are numerous throughout the exposed section. 

Five trenches were dug through the site to depths of from 36 to 108 inches. 
These are shown on the contour map (fig. 3). At least three distinct occupa- 
tional levels were revealed, and large quantities of animal and fish bones, and 
specimens of worked bone, antler, and stone were found. The vertical distribu- 
tion of these is given in Appendix A. A stone hearth and areas of burned 
rocks were found but no house structures could be identified. No burials were 
found at or near site 11. The nearest burials were one-half mile away in the 
rock slide at site 13. A description of each trench follows. 

Trench 1 is 6 feet wide and 50 feet long, and runs east and west on the 
south side of the site approximately 40 feet from the river. Sterile gravel is 
reached at 72 inches. A profile of the trench is shown in figure 4. From the 
surface to a depth of 8-10 inches is fine, loose, wind-blown sand. Below this 
is a layer (mix-level 1) of compact, gray, ashy material containing fragments of 
charcoal, rock fragments, and flint chips. This layer continues to about 33 inches 
where it gradually grades without sharp break into clean yellow sand. At 40 
inches there is a transition from the yellow sand to a second layer of gray mix 
(mix-level 2) containing a considerable quantity of animal bones, flint chips, and 
a few fragmentary artifacts. This stratum extends to 46-48 inches, sloping 
slightly toward the west. There follows a layer of clean yellow sand 6-12 inches 
thick, below which is a third mix-level 12 inches thick (mix-level 3) beginning 
at 54-56 inches. Separating mix-level 3 from the sterile gravel at 72 inches is 
another layer of clean yellow sand. 

Trench 2. A triangular section of the bank 25 by 10 feet, over the fire lens 
exposed by the cutting of the river, was stripped off to a depth of 3 feet. At 30 
inches there was a burned layer containing a pile of burned rock, and bone and 
flint chips, but no house structures or artifacts were found. 

Trench 3, running east and west along the crest of the island, is 5 feet wide, 
70 feet long, and extends to loose yellow sand at 72 inches. A profile of the 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



19 



10' 

D'O' 



r . . , Site 11 -Contour 
Contour intervals: 1.0 ft 
Datum A = O.OOft. 




-^o 



Figure 3. Contour Map of Site 11 



20 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

trench is shown in figure 5. From the surface to 6-8 inches is loose wind-blown 
sand like that in trench 1. Below the sand to a depth of 44 inches is a layer of 
rich occupational debris (charcoal and ash), with greatest concentration from 
32-44 inches. This concentrated mix-level is highest in the middle of the trench 
and slopes downward at either end. From 44 to 54 inches is a layer of clean 
yellow sand. From this point to the bottom of the trench at 72 inches there are 
three thin layers (3 inches thick) of compact gray sand separated by layers of 
clean yellow sand. These gray sand layers, although the upper two are associated 
with burned areas near the middle of the trench, do not appear to have been laid 
down in connection with human occupation but rather to have been precipitated 
during extremely high summer floods. Near the center of the trench a pit intrudes 
from the upper mix-level through the first two layers of compacted gray sand. 
No refuse material or artifacts came from this pit. A test trench sunk in the 
bottom of trench 3 revealed sterile yellow sand to a depth of 72 inches. 

Trench 4, 3 feet wide and 45 feet long, runs north and south on the 10 per 
cent south slope and connects trenches 1 and 3. The trench is sunk to an average 
depth from the surface of 72 inches, and a test trench in the south end is carried 
to 108 inches. A profile is given in figure 6. The usual top layer of loose sand 
6-8 inches thick is followed by an occupational layer of dark gray mix averaging 
18 inches thick. This stratum is similar in character to the upper occupational 
layer found in the other trenches. It is separated from the next occupational 
level by a 6-inch layer of sterile sand. The second mix layer begins 36 inches 
below the surface at the south end and 24 inches at the north end, and is 12 to 
18 inches thick. Below it are thin layers of compact gray sand, like those at the 
bottom of trench 3, interspersed with layers of sterile yellow sand. There is one 
burned area at a depth of 5 feet at the lower end of the trench. The pit at the 
south end of the trench extends to 108 inches. It reveals the continuation of 
the loose yellow sand, with traces of water sorting. A fragment of a quartzite 
scraper or knife was found at 84 inches and an antler knife handle at 90 inches, 
but there was no other evidence of human occupation. 

Trench 5, 20 feet by 10 feet, runs at right angles to the east end of trench 
3. The same sequence is found here as in trench 3. 

Summary. All of the trenches except trench 2 reveal two distinct occupa- 
tion levels separated by a layer of sterile sand 3 to 12 inches thick. There is 
apparently a third and still deeper occupation level in trench 1, which appears 
sporadically in trench 4 and not at all in trenches 3 and 5. Below these strata to 
a depth of 72 inches there is evidence of temporary and scattered human occu- 
pation. It appears that during its earliest period the site was occupied only oc- 
casionally for short periods by a few people. Later there was a more intensive 
occupation of the lower, southern portion of the site. There is some confusion 
here (mix-level 3 in trench 1, and the lowest 2 feet in the main section of trench 
4), probably due to frequent flooding of this part of the site during high water. 
There followed two intensive periods of occupation of the whole site, separated 
by a period of abandonment. There is thus a favorable situation for the estab- 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



21 



Site 11 

Trench 1. South Wall 
46S, O-30E. 



Loose ^Llr.ic-e Sand 



; ' „ '. ! ."-.;■ '■'. Mix-Level 1 ,''.'. .' " , ■ .' 
•intBryraJfld Conggi _____ _ - - _ ■ • :--.„_ ' _. ' 



Yellow Sand 



Mix-Level 2 ' 



Yellow Sand 



Mix-Level 3 ■ 



- M.x- !.,■„■■ .■lA -^T 'SEa'" 




Figure 4. Profile of Trench 1 at Site 11 



LooGe Yellow Sorid__ 







Sitell-Trench3 Profile North Wall 
30*W-40'E 



Fee? 
Burned Are* 



Figure 5. Profile of Trench 3 at Site 11 



22 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 




Loose Yellow' 

fland 
Some iraces- 
of Water- Sorting 



Sitell-Trench 4 -Profile, West Wall 
5 l N.-46'S. 



Feet 



Figure 6. Profile of Trench 4 at Site 11 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 23 

lishment of a stratified cultural sequence. However, upon examining the tables 
in Appendix A it will be seen that it is not possible to discern any significant 
cultural changes from the earliest to the latest level of occupation. There was 
evidently considerable stability during the period of occupation. It should be 
noted that the deepest artifact was an antler knife handle, and the second deepest, 
a quartzite scraper. Worked bone and antler, and a few chipped points and scrap- 
ers are also deepest at sites 24, 31, and 45. Quartzite scrapers have the most ex- 
tensive distribution horizontally and vertically of any single class of implements. 

No articles of non-Indian origin were found at site 11. It was, therefore, 
probably abandoned before 1800. How much time elapsed from the earliest to 
the last occupation of the site it is impossible to say, but it may well have been 
several hundred years. 

Site 12 

Site 12 is a camp site about cne-third of a mile north of site 11 on a high 
bench at the southwest corner of Sec. 8, T. 28 N., R. 34 E. This bench is at 
the foot of the bluffs that enclose Hellgate Flat on the northwest and extend 
from site 12 westward to Hellgate Rapids, in places rising in a perpendicular 
wall from the river. The bench at site 12 is about 200 yards long and runs back 
100 yards to the foot of the cliff. Test pits were sunk revealing evidence of occu- 
pation down to 6 inches only. A few point fragments, knives, and hammerstones 
were found. There were several clam shell heaps. Evidently this was a temporary 
camp site. 

Site 13 

Site 13 is a series of rock slides back of site 12 beginning at the southeastern 
corner of Sec. 7, T. 28 N., R. 34 E., and extending one-half mile down river. A 
number of burials in the rock slide had been opened and only one undisturbed 
burial was found, containing elk teeth and fragments of a large coiled basket. 
It was marked by a cedar post projecting from the rocks above the burial. 

Site 22 

Site 22 is a sand dune, on the south side of the river just above Hellgate 
Rapids (Sec. 13, T. 28 N., R. 33 E.), containing bone, worked stone, burned 
stone, and other debris. A large amount of cultural material has been eroded 
from the riverward face of the dune. Among the specimens collected from this 
source were dentalium shells, chipped points, and worked bone. In the course 
of the migration of the dune the cultural material has undoubtedly been stirred up 
and mixed continually, and it was not thought worth while to do any excavating. 
The proximity to the rapids suggests that this was a fishing site. 

Site 23 

Site 23 is a terrace 125 yards long and 50 yards wide one-half mile above 
Hellgate Rapids on the north side of the river (Sec. 13, T. 28 N., R. 33 E.). 



24 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

There are several saucer-like depressions 15 to 30 feet in diameter. A test pit 
in one of the larger of these showed burned stone, charcoal, and a deer carpal, 
but other tests revealed no evidence of human occupation. Tests adjacent to the 
depression revealed apparently sterile sand with some river gravel. Hammer- 
stones, scrapers, knives, and points were found on the surface. The depression 
containing occupational debris may have been a pit house. It constitutes the only 
indication of this sort throughout our area. Unfortunately, the site is accessible 
only by boat, and the rising water had covered it before it was possible to return 
for further work. 

Site 24 

Site 24 is on the north bank of the Columbia extending from the mouth of 
Whitestone Creek for 200 yards down the river. The line between Sees. 16 and 
17, T. 28 N., R. 34 E., runs through the east end of the site. It consists of low 
tumuli containing great quantities of waterworn gravel and rocks, and a dark 
greasy-looking mix. At the west end of the site are low mounds consisting of 
light gray sandy mix with some stone, and burials. The sand dunes are grass- 
covered and contain grass roots down to the river gravel substratum. Five 
trenches were put down in various parts of the site (fig. 7), revealing concen- 
trated occupational debris to a depth of 47 inches in the central part of the site 
(trenches 1, 4, S), and less concentrated deposits at the east end (trench 3) and 
west end (trench 2). Thirty-eight burials were uncovered, seventeen of these being 
in the concentrated midden area in the central part of the site. The burials were 
marked on the surface by stone circles, and charred cedar plank enclosures were 
over the bodies. A very large number of artifacts of stone, bone, and shell came 
from the trenches and burials, and European trade goods came from a number 
of burials. The vertical distribution of cultural materials is shown in Appendix A. 

There follows a description of the trenches: 

Trench 1 (50 feet by 10 feet) is in the center of the site near the bank, re- 
vealing a well-defined occupational stratum extending to a depth of 47 inches 
and containing many animal bones, shells, fired areas, and worked articles of bone 
and stone. 

Trench 2 (40 feet by 10 feet) is put down through the coarse dark gravel 
mix at the west end of the site, revealing an undifferentiated deposit of animal 
bones, shell, and charcoal, extending to a depth of 33 inches, and sterile gravel. 

Trench 3 (30 feet by 10 feet) is at the edge of the bank where Whitestone 
Creek enters the Columbia. The deposit consists of gray sandy mix containing 
shell, charcoal, and a few bone and stone artifacts. The depth varies from 29 
to 49 inches. 

Trench 4 (30 feet by 10 feet) is 20 feet north of trench 1 on one of the 
higher spots of the site. The occupational deposit, extending to 47 inches, is 
similar to that in trench 1, although there is less concentration of clam shell. 
A mix-filled pit 3 feet in diameter and extending to a depth of 56 inches was 
found at the center of the trench. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



25 




26 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 



Trench 5 (90 feet by 10 feet) is 20 feet north of trench 4. It contains occu- 
pational debris of a depth and character similar to that in trench 4. 

Summary. The central part of the site consists of a concentrated, undif- 
ferentiated midden extending from the surface to a depth of 47 inches. The east 
and west ends contained similar deposits of much less concentration. No evi- 
dence of habitation structures was found anywhere in the site. Thirty-eight 
burials were found, of which seventeen were intrusive into the concentrated mid- 
den area. Thirteen of the latter contained objects of European origin (table A). 
A few non-Indian objects were found in the midden debris but none occurred be- 
low a depth of 23 inches (Appendix A, table 21). Site 24 appears to have been oc- 
cupied continuously, but more recently and for a shorter period than site 11. The 
upper 2 feet of the midden contain a small number of objects of non-Indian 
origin indicating occupation in historic times, but the lower 2 feet are prehistoric. 
The burials containing considerable numbers of European objects, all of which are 
intrusive into the lower, pre-European portion of the midden, are likely to be 
contemporaneous with the surface or immediate sub-surface of the midden and 
probably date from 1820 or later. 

TABLE A 

Burials Containing European Objects Intrusive Into Concentrated 

Midden at Site 24 



Burial 


2 


3 


4 


6 


11 


13 


15 


17 


21 


22 


23 


25 


29 


Depth (inches) 


28 


34 


27 


34 


36 


36 


30 


36 


38 


30 


27 


48 


34 


Glass beads 




X 










X 


X 


X 




X 




X 








Copper beads 


X 




X 


X 








X 


X 




X 






Other copper 










X 


X 






X 




X 


X 










Iron 


X 
















X 


X 








Rock circles 












X 


X 


X 




X 




X 


X 








Cedar planks 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 





Site 25 

Site 25 is a low sand dune one-half mile northwest of site 24 (in the center 
of Sec. 8, T. 28 N., R. 34 E.). Large quantities of chipped flint, burned stone, 
and some bone were found on the surface. It appears to have been a camp site 
similar to site 22, the surface concentration of cultural material being the result of 
wind erosion. This site is said to have been a source of artifacts for private 
collectors. There is a large spring 200 yards southwest of the site. 



Site 29 

Site 29 is a narrow sandy terrace 30 feet above the river and one and one- 
quarter miles above Whitestone Bluff on the south side of the Columbia (Sec. 3, 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 27 

T. 27 N., R. 34 E.). There was some chipped flint on the surface. Two test 
pits were sunk, yielding a few artifacts and stone chips. The first 20 inches 
showed a grayish sand mixed with charcoal and burned rocks. Below 20 inches 
was light yellow sand showing little evidence of human occupation. No burials 
were found in this vicinity. 

Site 30 

Site 30 is a small rock shelter (15 feet long, 8 feet high, and 7 feet deep) on 
a narrow terrace 60 feet above the river on the south bank of the Columbia 
one and one-half miles above Whitestone Bluff (Sec. 3, T. 27 N., R. 34 E.). The 
walls are smoke-blackened and on the floor is a shallow deposit (4 inches thick) 
of flint chips and burned rocks mixed with roof spalls. There are three faded 
pictographs in red pigment on the walls (comb-shaped design, man on horse, 
portion of bison). The shelter is too small to have been used to any extent. 

Site 31 

Site 31 is on the east bank of the Columbia one-quarter of a mile above the 
Gifford-Inchelium ferry landing (southwest corner of Sec. 33, T. 33 N., R. 37 E. 
—section marker used as datum). It is an open site at the edge of the high steep 
river bank. The bank was stripped off from the edge to a line 10 feet back for 
a distance of 250 feet, and four trenches 10 feet wide and totaling 280 feet in 
length were dug back from the bank. All of the trenches were carried down to 
sterile gravel at 60 inches. The deposit above the gravel layer consisted of reddish 
clay containing charcoal lenses (3-4 inches thick), burned rock fragments, animal 
bones, flint chips, stone artifacts, and occasional piles of clam shells (Appendix 
A). Two hearths and an area of burned rocks were found. The occupational 
layer was neither intense nor differentiated. No house structures were found. 
Five burials were uncovered. These were pit burials but lacked the stone circles 
and cedar planks characteristic of pit burials below the mouth of the Spokane. 
One burial contained a bone awl, the others had no artifacts. This site appears 
to be an intermittent camp site rather than a permanent village. The location is 
not suited to a permanent village as the site is at the end of a long flat valley 
exposed to the strong winds which blow here. The only object of European 
origin from the site is a copper pendant found on the surface. 

Site 33 

Site 33 is on a bench on the east side of the river about two miles above 
(north of) site 31 (Sec. 29, T. 33 N., R. 37 E.). Shell showed on the surface, 
and a trench was dug parallel to the river. A few artifacts and burned areas 
were found but there was no indication of extensive occupation. 

Site 34 

Site 34 is on a high bench on the east side of the river two miles above Daisy 
(700 yards south of the northwest corner stake of Sec. 5, T. 33 N., R. 37 E.). 



28 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

Considerable shell and some arti factual material showed on the surface. A trench 
100 feet long was dug parallel to the river to a depth of 40 inches. Shell, charcoal, 
burned rock areas, and other occupational debris were found. The deposit was 
not perceptibly stratified. No burials were discovered in the vicinity. Artifacts 
recovered included chipped points, knives and scrapers, point fragments, and a 
pestle. There were no indications of house structures. 

Site 35 

Site 35 refers to the pictographs in red pigment on the rocks at the southeast 
end of Kettle Falls Island (Sec. 14, T. 36 N., R. 37 E.). The island had con- 
tained a large number of burials but these were opened by the disinterment proj- 
ect, which removed about a hundred burials from the island and adjacent shores. 
There was considerable surface indication of occupation on the island, but aside 
from a few test pits we did no digging here because the soil was too shallow to 
permit finding deposits of any depth. According to local Indians, the island for- 
merly served as a camp site during the salmon run. 

Site 36 

Site 36 refers to the petroglyphs on the rocks just above the water 100 yards 
below Kettle Falls bridge on the west side of the river. The most prominent of 
these are shown in plate 21. There are also numerous circles and dots. 

Site 38 

Site 38 is on a low flat one mile below Kettle Falls bridge on the east side 
of the river (Sec. 23, T. 36 N., R. 37 E.). There was at one time a slaughter 
house here and the surface has been disturbed. A considerable quantity of shell 
and chipped points, knives, scrapers, and a pestle were found on the surface. Two 
trenches and several test pits were dug to a depth of 40 inches but only a few 
artifacts and flint fragments were found. There was no evidence of extensive 
habitation. 

Site 39 

Site 39 is on the west bank of the Columbia about one-quarter mile north 
of site 40 (southwest corner Sec. 32, T. 34 N., R. 37 E. ; 200 yards north of the 
stake on the river bank marking the north boundary of T. 33 N.). A shell de- 
posit and a depression at first thought to be a pit house were trenched. The 
shell area was shallow and contained no occupational debris. The depression 
contained small areas of burned sand and charcoal but nothing else. It was 
definitely not a house pit. Scrapers, a chipped point, and a pestle were found on 
the surface. 

Site 40 

Site 40 is situated on a sand bank high over the river 370 yards north of 
site 34 (330 yards south of the northwest corner stake of Sec. 5, T. 33 N., R. 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 29 

37 E.). Shells were scattered on the surface and burned areas showed on the 
river face of the bank where the sand had caved and washed down. A trench 
100 feet long was dug parallel to the river to a depth of 72 inches, where sterile 
gravel was reached. There were two distinct occupational levels (fig. 8). The 
first, extending from 36 to 52 inches, consisted of a mix of sand, ash, charcoal, 
and shell, and contained a few animal bones and burned areas. From 52 to 63 
inches was a layer of sterile loose yellow sand. The second occupational level 
extended from 63 to 72 inches and consisted of a mix of ash, charcoal, shell, 
and a few bones. There was one area of burned rocks. Artifacts were found 
from within several inches of the surface to the sterile gravel at 72 inches but 
were not numerous. They consisted of worked bone and antler, chipped points, 
knives and scrapers, and pestles. No burials or house structures were found. 

Site 41 

Site 41 includes two large shell middens on a low flat on the east side of the 
Columbia about a mile above the head of Ricky Rapids (Sec. 3, T. 35 N., R. 37 
E.). A series of trenches was put through the site, revealing that the shell 
middens extended from the surface to a depth of 24 inches. The middens were 
about 40 feet in diameter with the heaviest concentration of shell in the center. 
There was some ash and charcoal mixed with the shells but there were no 
hearths or burned areas. The only artifact found was a quartzite scraper. 

Site 42 

Site 42 is on the high bench on the east side of the Columbia 100 yards 
above the Gifford ferry landing (Sec. 4, T. 32 N., R. 37 E.). There are a number 
of circular depressions 20 feet across. These were trenched but nothing was 
found ; they were not house pits. Two test pits were dug at the edge of the bank, 
but except for the finding of a few points and scrapers on the surface and in 
the pits, there was no evidence of occupation. 

Site 43 

Site 43 is in the bend of the Columbia on the north side (the river runs 
from east to west at this point) about two miles above Marcus (Sec. 30, T. 37 
N., R. 38 E.). Quantities of shell, burned stone, some bone, and other debris 
were found on the surface. Four trenches were dug to determine the depth and 
approximate center of the site. The depth proved to be no more than 12 to 18 
inches, and the center of concentration was not determined. Surface material 
collected included points, scrapers, and a shallow mortar. 

Site 44 

Site 44 is a low flat on the east side of the Columbia about four miles above 
Bossburg (Sec. 22, T. 28 N., R. 38 E.). On the surface of the sandy beach below 
the eroded bank of the flat were found large numbers of chipped stone imple- 



30 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 




Site 40 Trench 1-Prof Ue. East Wall 20'N-70'N. 



Figure 8. Profile of Trench 1 at Site 40 



Site 4 5 Trench 1 
North and West Walls 







t • 



River Boulders and Gravel 



: ': - 


Yellow-grav Sand A 


GrarSindrClaY 


Yellow-grav Sand 


■steS 





Figure 9. Profile of Trench 1 at Site 45 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 31 

ments and stone flakes. Most of these were large, crudely chipped projectile 
points, and scrapers and knives of argillite. There were also some pestles and 
quartzite scrapers. It was evident that these implements had been washed out 
of the bank when it was cut away during periods of high water. Twelve test 
trenches were dug to a depth of 40 to 45 inches on the edge of the bank above 
the sandy beach where the surface artifacts were found. No evidence of in- 
tensive occupation was discovered in these trenches. There were scattered chert 
chips and a few burned areas. Two quartzite scrapers came from a depth of 10 
inches and 12 inches respectively, a chalcedony point and a pestle from 30 inches, 
and an argillite point from 36 inches. The large number of argillite chips on the 
beach suggested the presence of a workshop, but almost no argillite chips were 
found in the trenches. It is possible that the trenches were not carried deep 
enough to reach the level from which came the large number of washed-out 
argillite implements, but no such deeper occupation level could be discerned on 
the bank face. 

Site 45 

Site 45 is on the flat on the north side of the Columbia (the river runs east 
and west at this point) opposite Marcus (southwest corner of Sec. 26 and south- 
east corner of Sec. 27, T. 37 N., R. 37 E.). There is some evidence of occupa- 
tion along the river bank from the railroad bridge to the mouth of the Kettle 
River one and one-eighth miles downstream. There are scattered areas of shell 
on the surface along the bank, and a number of chipped points and other stone 
artifacts were found along the beach where they had been washed from the bank. 
Many burials (fifty or more) were removed by the disinterment project from a 
cemetery 300 yards below (west of) the railroad bridge, and another a mile 
below the bridge. No further burials were found by us. Test pits at the western 
end of the site revealed nothing but a few burned areas and shell lenses. Just 
east of the railroad bridge the bank was cut away for a distance of 50 feet to 
a depth of 30 inches. At a depth of 12 inches a large area (10 feet in diameter) 
of burned rocks was uncovered. One chipped point was found at a depth of 12 
inches, but nothing else. Two trenches (trenches 1 and 2) were dug at the 
edge of the bank 200 yards below (west of) the bridge, and a third (trench 3) 
50 yards below the first two. These trenches were 10 feet wide and extended 
18 feet toward the river from a point 5 feet back from the edge of the bank 
(fig. 9). The trenches were carried down to the level of river boulders, which 
were at a depth of 96 inches in trenches 1 and 2, and 60 inches in trench 3. No 
concentrated deposits of occupational debris comparable to those at sites 11 and 
24 were found. Chipped stone implements, flint chips, animal bones, and areas of 
burned sand and rock were scattered throughout the trenches. The greatest con- 
centration of these in trenches 1 and 2 was from 42 to 72 inches ; the artifacts in 
trench 3 extended only to 60 inches, as the river boulders were closer to the surface 
here. The vertical distribution is shown in Appendix A. In trench 1, at a depth of 
44 inches, was a well-built stone hearth A l / 2 feet in diameter, filled with ash. It 
was saucer-shaped, the center being 8 inches lower than the rim (fig. 9 ; pi. XVIIIe). 



32 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 







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A foot below this hearth was an area of burned sand and ash. At 72 inches was an 
area of burned rocks 4 feet in diameter. In trench 2 at 70 inches was found a stone 
hearth 4 feet in diameter similar to the one found in trench 1, and an area of burned 
stone was found at 60 inches. At 18 inches in trench 2 was found a circular cache 
pit 10 inches in diameter and 9 inches deep. The sides were smooth, even, and hard- 
packed. The pit was sealed with a clay stopper 3 inches thick, of darker color than 
the surrounding clay. The pit was completely filled with slightly charred pine cones 
and nuts (Pinus ponderosa). 3 No evidence of house structures was found. The 
iron and brick fragments at a depth of 18 inches shown in figure 9 are no doubt 
from the sawmill which formerly stood 100 yards back from the trench, or from 
the ranch house established at this point about sixty years ago. The top layer of 
yellow-gray sand shown in figure 9 was probably deposited during a flood about 
forty years ago when the whole flat was covered. The extent to which the river 
can change topography in a short time is evidenced by the fact that it has cut 
back the bench on the Marcus side more than 70 feet in the past forty years. 
Except for the iron and brick already mentioned, no objects of European origin 
were found in the three trenches described above. Evidently the site was occupied 
intermittently over a long period of time but not very extensively after the period 
of White contact. 

Site 46 

Site 46 is situated along the edge of a steep, sandy bank 30 feet above the 
Columbia on the west bank three-quarters of a mile above the mouth of Sheep 
Creek (Sec. 29, T. 40 N., R. 40 E.). A trench 20 feet wide and 180 feet long 
was dug along the edge of the bank (fig. 10). Thirty-nine burials were uncovered 
in this trench. These were of the pit type and ranged in depth from 24 to 36 
inches. There were no burial markers of stone or wood. The bodies were flexed 
or semi-flexed with heads pointing downstream (south). Artifacts associated 
with the burials were exceptionally numerous. They consisted of chipped points, 
knives and scrapers, celts, pestles, pipes, a few shell ornaments, and a large 
number of bone and antler implements. The only object indicating possible 
White contact was a copper fragment in burial 2. No house structures or hearths 
were found. According to a local Indian informant (Mary Augusta) there was 
formerly an important fishing camp at the mouth of Sheep Creek. 

Site 47 

Site 47 is at the south end of an island (connected with the mainland by a 
sand spit at low water) on the west side of the Columbia just north of the mouth 
of Sheep Creek (Sec. 29, T. 40 N., R. 40 E.). A trench 12 feet wide and 75 
feet long was dug along the edge of the sandy bank, exposing ten burials (fig. 
11). These were pit burials 36 to 51 inches below the surface. There were no 
markers of stone or wood. Artifacts associated with the burials were very 
numerous. There were many bone and antler implements ; stone points, knives, 

3 It was the practice of the Okanagon to roast pine nuts in the cone in earth ovens. 
(Cline, The Sinkaietk or Southern Okanagon of Washington, pp. 28-29.) 



34 



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scrapers, and gravers were numerous ; there were a few shell pendants and beads, 
arrowshaft smoothers, copper beads, and a copper bracelet. In burial 10, that of 
a child, was a small coiled basket containing a large number of whole and seg- 
mented strung dentalium beads, two shell pendants, a turquoise pendant, two 
glass beads, and a copper disc. The objects of European origin other than those 
in burial 10 all came from burial 1. A large tubular stone pipe was found in the 
trench unassociated with any burial. A large yellow pine was growing over 
burial 4 and the roots had disturbed the skeleton. This tree was felled and proved 
to be ninety years old. Areas of burned rocks were found at depths of 60 and 
72 inches. No house structures were found. Judging from the small quantity of 
European trade goods in contrast with the great abundance of other artifacts, 
these burials date from before 1810. 

Site 48 

Site 48 is on a high knoll at a bend on the east bank of the Spokane River 
about two miles above Detillion bridge (one-quarter mile west of the southeast 
corner of Sec. 20, T. 28 N., R. 37 E.). Four pit burials marked by stone circles 
on the surface and with charred cedar plank enclosures above the bodies were 
excavated. One of the bodies, that of a child, was in a matted bag wrapped 
in deer hide, and another of the bodies was wrapped in deer hide. Associated 
with the burials were large numbers of glass and shell beads, copper pendants 
and beads, and some fragments of deer hide, elk hide, and buffalo hide. 

A rock slide burial containing a child was found 300 feet northwest of the 
southeast corner of Sec. 20, T. 28 N., R. 37 E. It was marked by a cedar stake 
projecting from the rocks above the burial. The body was wrapped in buckskin 
and associated with it were glass beads and a shell bead. 

Site 49 

Site 49 is on the long flat called Evans Flat on the east side of the Columbia 
south of Evans (Sec. 21, T. 37 N., R. 38 E.). Near the middle of the flat is a 
shell area which was trenched. A thin layer of shell 8 inches below the surface 
was revealed, some of the shells from which had been brought to the surface 
by plowing. Below the shell was a small amount of charcoal, and sterile yellow 
sand was reached at 12 inches. No artifacts were found. On the edge of the 
river bank between two burned tree trunks was found a cache of forty- four 
argillite points and knives. The cache extended from the surface to a depth of 
8 inches. Trenches at the south end of the flat revealed nothing but a few frag- 
ments of burned rock. At the north end of the flat a gold dredger had stripped 
off the top 3 feet of soil, exposing six different areas of burned rocks, each about 
3 feet in diameter. 

Site 50 

Site 50 is on the second bench above the Spokane River one-quarter mile 
above its mouth on the north side (Sec. 11, T. 28 N., R. 36 E.). Some burials 
h.-.d been exposed by the high water backed up by Coulee Dam. Four burials 



36 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

were excavated. All the bodies were extended and there was no consistent orien- 
tation. These were pit burials lacking any markers. Shell beads and rings were 
associated with two of the burials. 

Site 51 

Site 51 is on a high spur about three-quarters of a mile below site 8 on the 
north side of the Spokane River. A number of burials here had been removed 
by the disinterment project. We excavated two burials. They were of the pit 
type sunk in sand but lacking rock circle markers. There was an enclosure of 
pine stakes over one of the bodies, 18 inches below the surface. Associated 
with these burials were shell beads and pendants, copper beads, copper pendants, 
a copper thimble and button, two iron axes, fragments of hide, and a portion 
of a twined bag. These burials apparently were quite recent. 



HABITATION STRUCTURES, HEARTHS, AND EARTH OVENS 

PIT HOUSES 

Because of the probability that there was a shift from pit houses to surface 
mat houses among the Interior Salish toward the end of the eighteenth century, 1 
intensive efforts were made to locate pit house remains which would throw light 
on this problem. Although a large number of saucer-like depressions were tested 
along the Columbia River and the lower Spokane, none of these proved to be a 
pit house. No evidence of pit houses was found at sites 11, 24, 31, and 45, which 
were the habitation sites with deepest and most extensive cultural deposits, and 
all of which, in their lower levels at least, date from a period considerably before 
1800. Only at site 23, one-half mile above Hellgate Rapids, was there the slightest 
indication of the existence of pit houses. Here there were several saucer-like 
depressions 15 to 20 feet in diameter. A test pit in one of the larger of these 
showed burned stone, charcoal and a deer carpal. Other test pits revealed no 
occupational debris. The rising water back of Coulee Dam prevented further 
investigation of this site. Depressions along the Columbia below the mouth of 
the Sanpoil River which may have been the remains of pit houses were reported 
to us but they were already covered with water. Since there is considerable 
ethnological evidence indicating the use of the pit house in our area, this failure 
to find any evidence of pit houses is surprising and puzzling. The problem will 
be discussed further in the general conclusions. 

HEARTHS 

The only evidence found concerning structures associated with habitation 
sites pertains to hearths and earth ovens. We apply the term "hearth" only to 
more or less circular areas of carefully laid river cobbles, about three feet in 
diameter, which are saucer-like in section and filled with charcoal and ashes, 
and not to areas of scattered burned rocks and charcoal. The hearth form is 
shown in figure 9 and plate XVIIIe. Hearths of this type were found as follows : 

Site 11, trench 2 — 1 Site 45, trench 1 — 1 at 44 inches 
Site 24, trench 1—1 (fig. 9; pi. XVIIIe) 

Site 31 — 1 stone hearth, trench 2 — 1 at 70 inches 

1 clay hearth lacking 
stones 

EARTH OVENS 

Numerous areas of burned and split rocks were found. These were 3 to 10 
feet in diameter and 3 to 8 inches thick. They were usually as high as or higher 

1 The question is discussed by Strong in Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, 
pp. 38-39. 



(37) 



38 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

in the center than on the peripheries, in contrast to the hearths. Their dis- 
tribution was as follows : 

Site 11, trench 1 — 1 Site 45, trench 1 — 1 at 72 inches 

trench 4 — 2 trench 2 — 1 at 60 inches, and 

Site 24, trench A — 2 2 at 24 inches in test 

Site 31 — 1 trench north of the 

Site 34 — 1 main trenched area 

Site 40 —1 Site 47 —1 at 60 inches 

1 at 72 inches 
Site 49 — 6 at 36 inches (exposed 

by gold dredger) 

These burned rock areas do not appear to be hearths or fireplaces, and it is 
believed they are the remains of earth ovens. Extensive use of earth ovens for 
cooking camas and other foods is reported for the region. 2 We observed the 
process of cooking camas in an earth oven at the house of Rosie Seymour, 
84-year-old Okanagon-Lakes woman living at Kelly Hill in the hills north of 
Kettle Falls. A pit 4 feet square and 10 inches deep was dug. The pit was cov- 
ered with timbers and rocks were piled on top of the timbers. The timbers were 
fired, and when they had burned down and the rocks had fallen into the pit, 
the latter were levelled and covered with green tule. The six sacks of camas 
were placed on the tule and covered with tule and damp grass, then with a layer 
of earth, and finally with a carefully laid layer of sod. Over the resulting 
mound was piled wood, which was in turn covered with green willow branches 
and leaves to prevent rapid combustion. The top fire was kept going nearly 
forty-eight hours and then the camas bulbs were removed. The remaining pile 
of burned and cracked stones resembled precisely the burned rock areas described 
above. Mrs. Seymour stated that in her childhood her mother had roasted as 
many as fifty sacks of camas at one time in a large pit. 



2 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 106 ; Cline, Southern Okanngon, pp. 26-28. 



DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD 

A total of 150 burials was found. These fall into two types. The first 
and most prevalent type, which we call pit burials, consists of inhumations in 
sand or gravel near the river banks. The second, called rock slide burials, 
consists of inhumations in talus slopes along the base of cliffs usually near 
the rivers. The distribution of burials by sites, as well as the descriptive data 
pertaining to them, is shown in table 2. No evidence of cremation burials was 
found. 

PIT BURIALS 

A total of 134 pit burials was found at sites 2, 7A, 7B, 24, 31, 46, 47, 48, 
and 51. Large numbers of disturbed pit burials were observed at site 7A, 
along the lower Spokane River, in the vicinity of Kettle Falls and on Kettle 
Falls Island, and on the lower end of site 45. Some of these had been opened 
at various times by relic hunters but the majority of them were removed in 
the fall of 1939 by the disinterment project under contract with the Reclama- 
tion Service. This work was done in such a manner as recklessly to destroy the 
archaeological evidence. Several hundred burials were removed in this way. 

Characteristically, these pit burials are found on the edges of the low sandy 
benches along the Columbia River. Generally the burials are grouped close 
together in an area running along the bank for 100 feet or so and back from the 
bank about 10 feet. They are \}A to 4 feet below the surface. Of those whose 
positions could be determined, 72 were flexed, 38 semi-flexed, and 9 extended. 
These proportions do not vary significantly from site to site, except that the 
four burials at site 50 were all extended. Site 50 was further atypical in that 
the orientation was not consistent. With the exception of sites 2, 7B, 48, and 50, 
orientation at a single site is consistent, with the body parallel to the river 
and head downstream. 

The bodies in three of the pit burials were wrapped in deer hide. These were 
two child burials at site 48 and an adult burial at site 51. One child was first placed 
in a matted bag and then wrapped in hide. The deer hide around the other child 
was sewed in place with sinew. 

PIT BURIAL MARKERS 

At sites 2, 7A, 24, and 48, from the Spokane River westward, most of 
the burials were marked on the surface with stone circles (pi. XXc). These 
consisted of a circular pile of river cobbles 5 to 7 feet in diameter, one layer 
thick, although occasionally piled up somewhat at the center. Most of the 
graves so marked had a circular or oval enclosure of cedar planks placed ver- 
tically above the body (pi. XX a-b). The excavation sequence was as fol- 
lows : Below the stone circle at the surface were 2 to 10 inches of clean, un- 
burned sand or earth. Next came the upright planks 3 to 12 inches long and 



(39) 



40 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 



charred at the upper ends. Separating the bottom of the planks from the 
burial below were 8 to 10 inches of unburned earth or sand. Evidently the 
body was covered with earth to the depth of about 2 feet, the planks were 
driven in to a depth of about a foot, and set afire. They burned to the earth 
level over the burial. Later the filling of the burial pit was completed with 
unburned earth or sand, and the fill was covered with the circle of stones. 
The planks, some of which are several inches thick and six inches wide, prob- 
ably came from drift wood, as no cedar grows near the Columbia south of the 
mouth of the Spokane River. The distribution of stone markers and cedar 
planks in pit burials is shown in table 1. 



TABLE 1 

Distribution of Stone Markers and Plank Enclosures in Pit Burials 



Site 


No. of burials 

with stone 

circles & planks 


No. of burials 
with stone 
circles only 


No. of burials 

with planks 

only 


Total 


Total no. of 

burials at 

site 


2 


2 


2 


2 


6 


11 






7A 


4 


2 





6 


8 


24 


14 


3 


11 


28 


38 






48 


3 








3 


5 


Total 


23 


7 


13 


43 


62 



The correlation between stone markers and planks is probably higher than 
shown in table 1. Site 2 is at the Keller's ferry landing, and the surface has 
been disturbed by being used for a camp and picnic ground. It is highly prob- 
able that some of the stone circles have been removed. There has been some 
surface disturbance at site 24 also. The matrix at site 7 A is porous gravel, 
and some of the planks may have decomposed beyond recognition. 

No stone circles or cedar planks were found associated with burials north 
of the mouth of the Spokane River. 



ROCK SLIDE BURIALS 

A total of sixteen rock slide burials was found at sites 5, 8, 13, and 48. 
There were several disturbed rock slide burials at site 5, about twenty at site 
8, fifteen or twenty at site 13, and a number about a mile above the mouth of 
the Spokane River. Most of the disturbed burials at site 8 were removed by 
the disinterment project. Rock slide burials were made by excavating a pit 
2 to 4 feet deep in a talus slope, placing the body in the pit, and covering it 
with rocks. These graves were usually a few feet apart along the bottom of the 
talus slope. Orientation was consistent, with head downstream. Of those whose 
position could be determined, fourteen were flexed, one was semi-flexed, and 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 41 

one was extended. Most of these burials were marked by upright cedar stakes 
projecting above the rocks (pi. XXd). 

No rock slide burials were found north of the mouth of the Spokane River. 
Since no suitable talus slopes exist near the Columbia north of the Spokane, 
the absence of rock slide burials is probably the result of environmental condi- 
tions rather than a difference in burial practices. 

ARTIFACTS ASSOCIATED WITH BURIALS 

Numerous artifacts and worked materials were associated with 90 of the 
150 burials found. These are listed in table 2. Richest in artifacts were the 
burials at sites 24, 46, and 47. All the copper articles, articles of hide, glass 
beads, and basketry, and nearly all of the worked bone, shell beads and pendants, 
and celts came from burials. Except for the uneven site distribution of European 
trade articles, the associated artifacts do not indicate any geographic or strati- 
graphic difference of significance. European trade articles (glass beads, trade 
copper, and iron objects) were associated with burials at sites 2, 7 A, 7B, 8, 
24, 29, 31, 46 (one copper fragment only), 47, 48, and 51, and were most 
abundant at sites 8, 24, 48, and 51. It has already been pointed out (p. 26) 
that the burials at site 24 were intrusive into the lower part of the midden, which 
contained no evidence of White contact. It may be inferred that burials con- 
taining European trade objects in any abundance are post-1800, and those with 
large amounts (i.e., at sites 8, 24, 48, and 51) are probably post-1820 (beginning 
of intensive fur trade on the upper Columbia). From the general condition 
of the burials at sites 8, 48, and 51 we believe that these are more recent than 
1820, and possibly not more than fifty to sixty years old. It will be noted that 
there is no significant correlation between burial type and presence or absence of 
European trade objects, since the burials at sites 8 and 48 (one burial) were 
of the rock slide type, while those at sites 2, 7A, 7B, 24, 29, 31, 47, 48, and 51 
were of the sand pit type (cf. table 13). The rock slide burials at sites 5 and 
13 contained no European trade objects. Of the sites containing the greatest 
number of European trade objects, one (8) was a rock slide cemetery, and three 
(24, 48, 51) were sand pit cemeteries (with the exception of the single rock slide 
burial at 48). 

SKELETAL MATERIAL 

Skeletal material was recovered from 89 burials, as shown in table 2. The 
bones in the other 61 burials excavated were too decomposed to be saved. No 
measurements have yet been made on this material, which is deposited in the 
Eastern Washington State Historical Society Museum in Spokane, Washington. 



42 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

SUMMARY AND COMPARISONS 

Two types of burials are found in the upper Columbia region, namely, sand 
pit burials and rock slide burials. The former far outnumber the latter. Bodies 
are generally flexed, although a few extended burials are found. Burial orien- 
tation is generally consistent, the body being placed parallel to the river with head 
downstream. Along the Columbia from Keller ferry to the lower Spokane, 
sand pit burials are associated with circular stone surface markers and charred 
cedar stake enclosures above the body. These two features are not found along 
the Columbia north of the mouth of the Spokane. Rock slide burials, which are 
found from the lower Spokane to Keller's ferry (and farther down the river) 
are generally marked with cedar stakes projecting from the rocks above the 
burial. Both types of burial were practiced before White contact (ca. 1800), 
and afterward until very recently. No evidence of cremation was found. 

The archaeological data confirm, on the whole, the ethnological information 
for our region on burial practices, which has been summarized by Ray. 1 In- 
humation in talus slopes and in sand, gravel, or earth is reported for the San- 
poil, Nespelem, Spokane, Southern Okanagon, and Lakes. Wooden stakes or 
piles of rocks as grave markers are reported to have been in use in recent 
times in our region. Flexed burials are reported to be general, and the prac- 
tice of cremation absent. 

Archaeologically, the upper Columbia shows both similarities to and dif- 
ferences from other parts of the Plateau. Although in recent times the Thomp- 
son Indians disposed of the dead above ground in wooden boxes or structures 
and practiced some cremation, 2 according to tradition and the archaeological 
evidence from Lytton and Kamlcops, 3 the earlier practice was inhumation in 
sand or gravel and in rock slides. The rock slide burials in that region were 
marked with upright branches or stakes, while the sand pit burials were marked 
with wooden posts, or slabs of wood or stone. Bodies were flexed. Along the 
Columbia in Grant County, Washington, Krieger 4 found rock slide burials, in- 
humations in knolls of volcanic ash, and cremations. In the Yakima Valley, 
Smith 5 found rock slide burials, inhumations in knolls of volcanic ash marked 
by circles of river cobbles or basalt fragments, and rings of stones containing 
cremation burials. In the first two types the bodies were flexed. In the Dalles- 
Deschutes region 6 were found rock slide burials with split cedar plank markers, 
sand pit burials marked with piles of basalt fragments and sometimes lined with 
boards, and cremation burials. Bodies were flexed. Along the Snake River in 
Nez Perce territory, Spinden 7 reports finding rock slide burials, and inhuma- 
tions in sand or earth marked by piles of stone and upright cedar stakes. Bodies 
were either flexed or extended. Along the middle Columbia Perry 8 found a "cedar 
ring" burial type with body flexed and without surface markers. Unlike our cedar 
enclosure, the "cedar ring" is placed around the body rather than above it and the 
planks are uncharred. 

1 Cultural Relations in the Plateau of Northzvestern America, pp. 61-67, table 1. 

2 Teit, Thompson Indians of British Columbia, pp. 327-336. 

3 Smith, Archaeology of the Thompson River Region, pp. 402-407, 431-432. 

4 Prehistoric Pit House Village Site, pp. 9-10. 

5 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, pp. 138-142. 

6 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalle s-Deschutes Region, pp. 43-50. 

7 Nez Perce Indians, pp. 151, 181, 251. 

8 Perry, "Notes on a Type of Indian Burial." 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



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46 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 



[Vol. 9 



T3 

c 

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Deer hide fragment, iron ob- 
ject, 198 copper beads, 14 oli- 
vella beads. 


CD 

rt 
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2 


6 elk teeth, 4 fragments of 
coiled basket. 


Hammerstone, incised bone 
tube bead, worked bone frag- 
ment. 1-SAa. 


14 shell disc beads, maul, iron 
fragment, 14 dentalium seg- 
ments, 24 copper beads, 45 
dentalium beads. 


Twined basketry fragment, cop- 
per button, glass bead, 2 den- 
talium beads. 


Sewn matting fragment, 6 
whole dentalia, 3 copper beads, 
copper pendant. 


in *d 
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Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



47 



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bones, 28 dentalium segments. 


7 woodpecker beaks, awl, bone 
needle, 396 dentalium beads, 
2 copper beads, 1-SBa. 


4) 
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Worked bone fragment, 3 
muskrat teeth, 4 awls, bone 
bodkin, red ochre fragment. 


Copper bracelet, maul, 52 den- 
talium segments, 67 elk teeth, 
2 shell pendants, 3 copper pen- 
dants. 


Matted fibers, anthophyllite 
celt, 2 bone awls. 


2 copper pendants, dog skull, 
28 dentalium segments, 40 oli- 
vella beads. 


15 bear claws, 4 dentalium seg- 
ments, tubular bone bead, shell 
pendant, abalone pendant, 4 
glass beads. 


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48 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 



c 
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66 dentalium segments, min- 
eral pigment, 4 perforated bear 
claws, flake knife. 


Worked bone fragment, skin 
pouch and cap, buffalo hide 
fragment, notched sinker, 380 
glass beads, hide bag contain- 
ing 5 decorated sticks, 327 cop- 
per beads, 78 dentalium seg- 
ments, red ochre fragment, 
flake knife. 


43 

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380 glass beads, 184 dentalium 
segments, 172 copper beads, 
digging stick handle, string of 
55 copper beads. 


201 olivella beads, 1-NAa, 
1-NAbi. 


.2 

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+-> 

43 

43 

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Twined basketry fragment, 
buckskin fragment, 118 copper 
beads, 3 copper pendants, cop- 
per button, 6187 glass beads, 
iron sword blade, segment of 
rifle or pistol barrel, 1045 den- 
talium beads, 3 antler digging 
stick handles, 2 toy wooden 
boats, 3 beaver-tooth dice. 


03 43 
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0-,-jj 

-Si 
Oco 


43 

a 
o 


03 

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In 
CO 

*a 
43 

u 


03 

■a 

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l-H 

CO 
43 

o 


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a 

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03 

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CO 

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Vh 

co 

43 
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43 

a 

>> 

H 


C0_ 

rrt 43 

03 i_ 
CO M 


•a.-s 

a Oh 
^ 43 

IS 

CO u 

CO bO 


•a .-a 

c a 

co^ 

— i 43 

5 oj 

CO u 

CO bo 


•a .a 

a Oh 
co^ 

_. 43 

5 03 
CO i_ 

CO bo 


T3.a 

C Oh 
rrt 43 

5 03 

CO u 

CO bo 


T3.tn 
C Oh 
0J_h 

rn-f 43 

5 03 
03 i_ 

CO m 


•o.-a 

C Oh 
OJ^h 

n-l 43 

5 03 
CO bO 


a 

43 




CN 
CN 


c*3 


i— 1 


00 
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00 
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CO _£) 


1— 1 


i— i 


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1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



49 



•a 
co 

3 
C 

c 
o 
U 



CM 

W 

pq 
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tn 
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o 
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+3 
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rt 

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d 
S 

S 

to 
Co . 

£ Co 

c>co 

u 1 

h- 1 tH 


15 olivella beads, 26 glass 
beads, 6 copper beads, 3 beaver 
tooth dice, 3 copper pendants. 


Red ochre fragment, shell pen- 
dant, 80 elk teeth, bone arrow 
point, 3 bone beads, 3 copper 
bells, 53 whole dentalia, 5 
beaver teeth. 


CO 

a 
o 


tn 

13 
cd 

CO 

B 

3 
cd 

a 

CO 

13 
vO 


d 
o 


267 dentalium beads, 1950 glass 
beads. 


tn 

13 

s 

"3 
> 

o 

CN 


CO 

d 
o 


CO 

d 
o 


8*8 

O cd 

pqco 


1 


+ 


+ 


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+ 


+ 


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co 
to 
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cd 


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3 
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ca 

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in 

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cm 

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cd co 

'0 £ 

co .£ 
a cd 
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CO to 


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5 cd 
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co to 


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50 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 



[Vol. 9 



T3 
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3 

a 

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eq 
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H 



U1 

o 
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y 

3 

o 

o 

w 
to 

<! 


0) 

d 
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Bone awl, 11 worked bone 
fragments, 4 beaver tooth frag- 
ments, graver, end scraper, 
flake knife, antler wedge, bone 
arrow point, bear penis bone, 
bone harpoon point, bone 
spear point, 2 arrowshaft 
smoothers, 1-NAa, 3 worked 
bone fragments. 


0) 

d 

O 


0) 

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55 


4) 

d 
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55 


4) 

d 
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4) 

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55 


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d 
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55 


4) 

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y 
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PQCO 


+ 


+ 


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CO d 


+ 


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3 

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1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



51 



•a 
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3 



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cn 

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u-> 

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t/3 
CO 

< 


a 

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Anthophyllite knife, bone awl, 
copper pendant, 2 bone spat- 
ulates, bone flesher, 3 unworked 
bone fragments. 


a 

o 

2 


03 
3 

o 

2 


Worked bone fragment, 2 
worked antler fragments, bone 
harpoon point, bone spear 
point, bone arrow point, 2 bone 
spatulates. 


03 

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o 

2 


u 

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to 

u 
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CN 


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52 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 



T3 
<L> 

3 

a 

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U 



W 

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tn 
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CO 
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a? 

CO 


2 bone harpoon points, har- 
poon collar fragment, 2 antler 
flakers, bone tube, 3 antler dig- 
ging stick tips, worked bone 
fragment, 4 worked antler 
fragments, triangular antho- 
phyllite knife, awl, 5 bone spat- 
ulates, 2 bone arrow points. 


4) 
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55 


4) 

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4) 

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3 

Of 


Tubular pipe fragment, bone 
bead, digging stick handle, ant- 
ler flaker, 2 small pestle- 
shaped stones, slate needle, 
slate pendant. 


2 bone harpoon points, bone 
digging stick, 2 beaver teeth, 
10 bone arrow points, bone 
spear point, 2 spatulates, dig- 
ging stick tip, 4 worked bone 
fragments, double pointed bone 
object, bone arrow point, 
worked bone fragment, 2 bone 
awls, 2 toy mauls, graver, tu- 
bular pipe, end scraper, 1- 
NAb 2 . 


M —1 

G £ 

° £ 
CQ CO 

w CO 


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1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



53 



T3 
<L> 

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2 gravers, 3 end scrapers, 2 red 
ochre fragments, 3 bone awls, 
horn digging stick tip, digging 
stick handle, 6 worked bone 
fragments, bone spear point, 

3 worked antler fragments, 7 
spatulates, 2 flakers, slate nee- 
dle, 5 beaver teeth, tubular 
pipe fragment, 6 dentalium 
beads, arrowshaft smoother, 2 
shell pendants, bear tooth, 9 
bone arrow points, 2 hematite- 
chalcedony mixture fragments, 
1-NAbt, 1-NAb,, 2-SCb 8 , 
1-SCb,, 1-NBa, 1-NBb,. 


3 




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3 

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ca 

CO 


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54 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 



[Vol. 9 



3 

d 

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Bone digging stick, digging 
stick handle, horn wedge, 3 
antler fiakers, bone fiesher, 
graver, 1-NAbi, 1-NC. 


03 

G 
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55 


03 

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55 


Harpoon collar fragment, flake 
knife, spatulate, tubular cat- 
linite pipe, bone arrow point, 
2 bone awls, anthophyllite celt. 


03 

G 
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55 


88 olivella beads, 625 denta- 
lium beads, copper pendant, 
4 shell pendants, bone comb, 
23 double-pointed bone objects, 
worked antler fragment, 2 bird 
bone whistles (swan ulna) , bone 
harpoon point, bone arrow 
point, 4 bone spear points, 2 
arrowshaft smoothers, bone ar- 
row wrench, steel knife with 
bone handle, 12 copper beads, 
copper bracelet, graver, 3- 
NBb 1( 20-Nb 2 , 1-SCbi, 1- 
NAb 2 . 


03 

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1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



55 



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4 cougar claws, unworked beav- 
er tooth fragment, bone whis- 
tle fragment, carved bone or- 
nament. 


Flake knife, olivella bead, 2 
worked antler fragments, 1- 
NAb 2 . 


Turquoise pendant, circular 
copper object, 2 glass beads, 
2 shell pendants, whole and 
segmented dentalium beads — 
all in coiled basket. 


0) 

3 
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57 dentalium beads, buffalo 
hide fragments, 8 disc shell 
beads, matted bag fragments, 
1 1 glass beads, 2 olivella beads, 
32 elk teeth, 3 copper pendants, 
270 copper beads. 


Fringed buckskin fragment, 4 
buffalo hide fragments, elk 
hide fragment, deer hide around 
matted bag, 3 copper pendants, 
158 copper beads. 


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56 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 



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fragment, copper knife-like or- 
nament, 58 copper beads, body- 
wrapped in deer hide. 


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5 copper pendants, shell pen- 
dant, 206 dentalium beads, 50 
copper beads, iron axe, copper 
thimble, copper button. 


String of copper and 50 den- 
talium beads, 2 copper pen- 
dants, deer hide fragment, 
twined bag fragment, rawhide 
fragment, iron axe. 


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MATERIAL CULTURE 

In the following pages is a description of the artifacts found, classified ac- 
cording to materials. The number of specimens of the various materials is as 
follows : 

Chipped stone 1,134 

Ground stone 137 

Mineral pigment 11 

Bone and horn 255 

Animal teeth 272 

Animal claws 15 

Shell (including 5,971 beads) 5,992 

Wood (not including grave markers) 7 

Copper (including 1,253 beads) 1,302 

Iron 22 

Glass (beads) 8,928 

Total 18,075 

CHIPPED STONE 

Chipped stone objects comprise the most numerous class of artifacts in the 
upper Columbia region. More than one-half of all specimens found, exclusive of 
shell, copper and glass beads, belong to this class. The class contains a variety of 
types, such as arrow and spear points, chipped knives, flake knives and scrapers, 
drills, gravers, crude core scrapers, quartzite hide-scrapers, and notched stone 
sinkers. The number of these specimens is as follows : 

Arrowpoints, spearheads, and/or knives 284 

Drills, gravers, knives, scrapers, flakers 367 

Quartzite scrapers 476 

Notched sinkers 6 

Unidentified object 1 

Total 1,134 

These implements vary widely in care and skill of workmanship. Most of 
the arrow and spear points are beautifully retouched by pressure flaking on all 
surfaces. The side and end scrapers have retouched edges from which have been 
removed extremely minute flakes. On the other hand, some of the larger spear 
points or blades and the core scrapers are crudely chipped by percussion flaking 
and lack finer retouching. Also crudely chipped by percussion only are the quart- 
zite hide-scrapers and the notched sinkers. 

Arrowpoints, Spearheads, and Knives 

About one-fourth of the chipped stone artifacts recovered fall into the class 
of projectile points and/or knives. The names arrowpoint, spearhead, and knife 
which are generally applied to this form of point imply a differentiation of func- 
tion which it is usually impossible to distinguish in tools of archaeological pro- 
venience because too little is known of the relation between form and function. 
No attempt will be made here to classify the points according to the uses to which 
they were put. 

(57) 



58 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

Material. The material most often used for points was chalcedony, a class 
of mineral which includes a number of closely related types such as jasper, chert, 
and flint. These vary according to the number and kinds of mineral impurities 
they contain. The chalcedony of our region varies from translucent white to 
gray, tan, dark brown, red, or black. The next most common material is argillite, 
a partially metamorphosed clay. Only the larger, more crudely chipped speci- 
mens are of argillite, which is much inferior to chalcedony for making points. 
The frequency of occurrence of the different materials is as follows : 

Chalcedony 118 42 per cent 

Argillite 107 37 per cent 

Basalt 53 19 per cent 

Obsidian 5 2 per cent 

Quartzite 1 

284 100 per cent 

Outcroppings, boulders, and river pebbles of chalcedony, argillite, basalt, and 
quartzite are common in the upper Columbia region. Obsidian does not occur 
there. Our obsidian points are of a banded type of obsidian characteristic of the 
volcanic region of southeastern Oregon, and the material probably came from 
there. That only one point is of quartzite is to be explained by the fact that 
quartzite is not suitable for fine chipping and fractures too easily to make an 
efficient projectile point. 

Form. For descriptive and comparative convenience we have used, with 
slight modifications, the scheme of classification of point forms employed by Strong, 
Schenck, and Steward for the Dalles-Deschutes region. 1 This scheme is based 
on Gifford and Schenck's classification 2 which was adapted from one proposed by 
Thomas Wilson in 1899. 3 

In figure 12 are shown the principal forms recognized for our region. Below 
is given an outline of the classification. The primary basis for classification is 
the presence or absence of stem, and the secondary basis is the form of the base 
or stem. The classification takes no account of variations in size or the uses to 
which the points may have been put. 

N. (Not stemmed) S. (Stemmed) 

A. Leaf-shaped A. Contracting stem 

a. Pointed at both ends a. Shouldered 

b. Pointed at one end b. Barbed 

1. Convex base B. Parallel sided stem 

2. Straight base a . Shouldered 

B. Triangular b. Barbed 

a. Straight base C - Expanding stem 

b. Concave base a. Shouldered 

1. Edges unnotched 1. Convex base 

2. Edges notched 2. Straight base 

c. Convex base b. Barbed 

C. Pentagonal 1. Convex base 

2. Straight base 

3. Concave base 

1 Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, pp. 77-84, fig. 11. 

2 Archaeology of the Southern San Joaquin Valley, p. 81, 1926. 

3 Arrowpoints, Spearheads and Knives of Prehistoric Times, pp. 887-944. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



59 





to 
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60 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 



[Vol.9 



Description of Points by Type 



NAa (PI. I j-m) 
Material : 
Size: 

Workmanship : 



NAbx (PI. I a-e) 
Material : 
Size: 

Workmanship : 



NAb 2 (PI. I f-i) 
Material : 
Size: 
Workmanship : 

NBa (PI. II a-d) 
Material : 
Size : 
Workmanship ; 



NBb, (PI. II e-h) 
Material : 
Size: 
Workmanship : 

NBb 2 (PI. II i-o) 
Material : 
Size : 
Workmanship : 

NBc (PI. II p-s) 
Material : 
Size: 

Workmanship : 



NC (PI. II t-u) 
Material : 
Size: 
Workmanship : 

SAa (PI. Ill a-b) 
Material : 
Size: 

Workmanship: 



Chalcedony, 2 ; basalt, 7 ; argillite, 2. 

9 specimens from \ l / 2 inches to 2]/ 2 inches long, 2 argillite specimens 
$y 2 inches and 6y 2 inches long. 

Fine flaking and retouching all over on small specimens ; argillite speci- 
mens uniform but show very large flakes by percussion and no pressure 
flaking. 

Argillite, 75 ; chalcedony, 14 ; basalt, 7. 

34 under 2]/ 2 inches long, remainder 2y 2 -7 inches long, of which only 2 are 
not argillite. 

All specimens of chalcedony and basalt are finely chipped and retouched 
all over ; some of the smaller ones of argillite show small uniform chip- 
ping, but the larger ones are very crudely chipped by percussion. 

Argillite, 3 ; chalcedony, 7. 

6 under 2]/ 2 inches long, others 2]/ 2 to 7y 2 inches long. 

All specimens show fine flaking and retouching all over. 

Argillite, 7 ; chalcedony, 6 ; basalt, 2. 
13 under 2y 2 inches long, other two 2>y 2 inches long. 

All small specimens and one large specimen show fine chipping and re- 
touching all over ; other large (argillite) specimens show fine chipping on 
edges only. 

All 5 specimens of chalcedony. 

All specimens under \y 2 inches long. 

Fine chipping and retouching all over on all specimens. 

Chalcedony, 22 ; basalt, 6 ; obsidian, 3. 
No specimens longer than \y 2 inches. 
Very fine retouching displayed by all specimens. 

Argillite, 13; chalcedony, 4; basalt, 1. 

5 under 134 inches long, remainder (those of argillite) 2y 2 inches to 

5 inches long. 

Small specimens show fine retouching all over ; some argillite specimens 

have been finely retouched all over but others show cruder percussion 

chipping only. 

Chalcedony, 2. 

One 2J4 inches long, the other 1^4 inches long. 

Both specimens show excellent flaking and retouching all over. 

Chalcedony, 11 ; basalt, 1. 

All specimens under \y 2 inches long. 

8 specimens show fine flaking and retouching all over ; 2 are retouched on 
one face only, the other face is the natural smooth surface of the original 
flake ; 2 are chipped on edges but both faces are the smooth faces of the 
original spall. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



61 



SAb (PL III c-d) 
Material : 
Size: 
Workmanship : 



SBa (PL III e-g) 
Material : 
Size: 

Workmanship : 



SBb (PL III h-j) 
Material : 
Size : 
Workmanship : 

SCat (PL III k-1) 
Material : 
Size: 
Workmanship : 

SCa 2 (PL III m-o) 
Material : 
Size: 
Workmanship : 



Chalcedony, 2. 

Both V/ 2 inches long. 

One specimen is chipped and retouched all over, the other retains the 

natural surface of the spall on the concave face, while the convex face is 

chipped ; the edges are finely serrated. 

Chalcedony, 10; basalt, 4. 

All under 2 l / 2 inches long. 

11 show fine chipping all over; one has a very uniform serrated edge; 

one is chipped only on one face, the other face being untouched ; two are 

chipped on edges only, both faces being untouched surfaces. 

Chalcedony, 4; basalt, 1. 

All less than V/ 2 inches long. 

4 show chipping and retouching all over ; one is chipped on one face only, 

the other face is untouched. 

Chalcedony, 1 ; basalt, 2. 

All less than \y 2 inches long. 

2 have been chipped and retouched all over ; 1 has very crude chipping on 

one face, the other face showing the natural surface. 

Chalcedony, 6; basalt, 4; quartzite, 1. 

All less than \y 2 inches long. 

All except the quartzite specimen show fine chipping and retouching all 

over ; the quartzite specimen is chipped on the edges only, the faces being 

natural cleavage surfaces. 



SCbt (PL III p-r) 

Material : Chalcedony, 4; basalt, 3. 

Size : All less than 2 inches long. 

Workmanship: All have been finely chipped and retouched on all surfaces. 



SCb 2 (PL III s-y) 
Material : 
Size: 
Workmanship : 



Argillite, 5; chalcedony, 16; basalt, 13; obsidian, 2. 

Ranging from Y\ inch to 2 inches long. 

All except 5 are finely retouched all over ; 4 are chipped and retouched 
on one face only, their other face being the natural smooth surface ; 1 
is chipped on the edges only, both faces being the natural smooth surface 
of the original spall. 



SCb 3 (PL III z-cc) 

Material : Argillite, 2 ; chalcedony, 2 ; basalt, 2. 

Size : All less than 2 inches long. 

Workmanship : All are finely retouched all over. 



Distribution. The distribution of point forms by site is shown in table 3. 
The distribution by depth for sites 11, 24, 31, and 45 is given in table 18. The 
largest number of points (50) of all forms came from site 44. Unfortunately 
almost all of these came from the surface (cf. pp. 29-31), so that nothing can 
be said of their relative depth or association. It is significant, however, that 35 



62 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 



[Vol. 9 



are large NAb x blades of argillite. This is more than a third of the total number 
of NAb x points and nearly half the NAb x points of argillite. Seven NAb x blades 
came from site 45, of which six are argillite. Eighteen argillite NA^ blades 
came from site 49 (surface). From sites 44, 45, and 49 together came 63 per 
cent of all NAb x points and 79 per cent of argillite NAb t points. 



TABLE 3 
Distribution of Chipped Stone Projectile Points by Type 



Type 


Sites 


Total 


2 


7 


8 


11 


22 


24 


25 


29 


31 


34 


38 


39 


40 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


49 


50 


51 


China 
Bend 


Misc.* 


NAa 












5 






1 


















2 




2 








1 


11 
















NAbx 


1 






5 




8 


3 




6 


2 










1 


35 


7 


7 




18 






2 


1 


96 


NAb 2 












1 












1 








2 




3 


2 




1 








10 
















NBa 








2 


1 


1 






5 














3 


1 


1 












1 


15 












NBbj 


















1 




















4 












5 


NBb 2 


1 




2 


1 


2 
























1 


1 


22 










1 


31 


NBc 








4 


1 


1 






1 










1 


1 


1 


4 






3 






1 




18 












NC 




















1 
















1 
















2 


SAa 


1 


1 




1 


2 


5 




1 


1 


































12 


SAb 












1 






1 


































2 
















SBa 


1 










3 


1 




2 


1 












2 


1 


3 
















14 


SBb 








2 




1 






1 
















1 


















5 












SCa x 








1 










1 
































1 


3 












SCa 2 


1 






3 










2 




1 










1 


1 
















2 


11 


SCbi 








3 


















1 








1 


1 


1 














7 












SCb 2 








13 


1 


2 






6 




1 










6 


2 


2 








1 






2 


36 












SCb 3 








3 










1 






1 










1 


















6 














Total . . . 


5 


1 


2 


38 


7 


28 


4 


1 


29 


4 


2 


2 


1 


1 


2 


50 


20 


21 


29 


23 


1 


1 


3 


9 


284 



* Surface finds, to which no site numbers were given. 

No other significant site differences are shown by the distribution of point 
forms. This may be due to the fact that the number of points from most of the 
sites is too small to bring out significant differences. However, it is probable 
that the material culture varied only slightly throughout our region. This con- 
clusion is confirmed by our other types of artifacts and by ethnological data. 
We do not believe that any of our sites is more than a few hundred years old, 
so the time span represented by our material is not great and the relative uni- 
formity is therefore not surprising. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



63 



Comparisons. It would be of interest to compare our projectile point forms 
with those found in the Dalles-Deschutes region. Unfortunately, more than two- 
thirds of the points described by Strong are from the Gammon Collection, 4 which 
was secured in the general region but is undocumented as to site provenience. 
A private collection of this type is probably not completely representative of the 
region because of the selection exercised by the collector. However, if the Gam- 
mon Collection be included, the following differences between the Dalles-Deschutes 
and our region may be noted (table 4) : 

TABLE 4 
Form Frequencies of Points in the Dalles-Deschutes and Upper Columbia Regions 



Form 


Per cent of total points 
Dalles- Deschutes * 


Per cent of total points 
Upper Columbia 


NA — (leaf-shaped) 


14 


42 


NAbi 


10 


34 






SBa 


20 


4 


SBb 


24 


2 


N — (non-stemmed) 


19 


66 


S — (stemmed) 


81 


34 



"Compiled from table 4, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region. 



It is seen that stemmed points are preponderant in the Dalles-Deschutes region, 
while on the upper Columbia non-stemmed points outnumber stemmed points 
two to one. The most abundant single form in the Dalles-Deschutes region is 
SBb (24 per cent) ; in our region NAb x blades are the most numerous (34 per 
cent). It is of interest that many of the Dalles-Deschutes NA- blades exhibit 
crude workmanship, 5 as is the case with our blades of this form. 

Strong's form NAb 3 (leaf-shaped with concave base), also described by 
Krieger 6 for Grant County, Washington, was not found by us. Strong did not 
find our NC form (pentagonal; pi. II t-u) but Smith 7 illustrates one from the 
Yakima Valley. 

The meager descriptions of point forms and the lack of form frequency data 
by Krieger 8 for Grant County, and by Smith for the Yakima Valley, 9 Lytton, 10 
and the Thompson River region, 11 make detailed comparisons with other parts 
of the Plateau impossible. 



4 There are 657 points from the Gammon Collection, while other points total 305. {Archae- 
ology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, table 4.) 

5 Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 78. 

6 Prehistoric Pit House Village Site, pi. 2, nos. 4, 12-14. 

7 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, pi. 11. 

8 Prehistoric Pit House Village Site. 

9 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley. 

10 Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia. 

11 Archaeology of the Tliompson River Region. 



64 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol.9 

Drills, Gravers, End Scrapers, Side Scrapers, Rough Discoidal Scrapers 
These classes comprise more than one-fourth of the total chipped stone 
artifacts. 

Material. As in the case of the arrowpoints, chalcedony is the most fre- 
quently used material. Basalt, argillite, and opal are used to a slight extent. The 
frequency of occurrence of these materials is as follows : 

Chalcedony 307 84 per cent 

Basalt 31 8 per cent 

Argillite 27 7 per cent 

Opal 2 1 per cent 

Total 367 100 per cent 

It is of interest to note that all of the ten rough discoidal core scrapers are of 
argillite, and that nine of these came from site 44, from which came the large 
number of NAb x blades of argillite. 

Description by Class 

Drills (PI. IVa-d) 

Material : Chalcedony, 9 ; basalt, 2. 

Form: Usually described as having a definite bore or pile, forming a parallelo- 

gram in transverse cross section, being long and pointed with a more or 
less definite base. The base varies from a tang-like projection to one 
that is broad and fan-like. 

Size : Ranging from \ z / 2 inches to 2 l / 2 inches long. 

Workmanship: All specimens chipped and retouched all over. 

Gravers (PI. IV e-k) 

Material: Chalcedony, 48; basalt, 1 ; opal, 1. 

Form: Resembling end scrapers in being made from conchoidal flakes chipped 

on one side only but differing in that they are pointed like a drill, whereas 
end scrapers have a broad cutting edge ; graver points form a semicir- 
cular transverse cross section, whereas drills form a parallelogram or 
rough circle. Base is irregular, usually fan-like, fitting conveniently be- 
tween the thumb and index finger. 

Size : Ranging from 1 to 2 inches long. 

Workmanship: All are made from flakes with concave sides unretouched, but in most 
cases the top side and point are finely flaked and retouched. 
End scrapers (PI. IV 1-q) 

Material : Argillite, 2 ; chalcedony, 50 ; basalt, 4. 

Form : Made from conchoidal flakes thickened at one end ; the concave sur- 

face is unworked but the convex side is chipped at the edge of the 
thick end; the other edges are usually unretouched. Occasionally the 
end opposite the chipped end extends into a definite handle. 

Size : All less than 2 inches long. 

Workmanship : The concave surface is smooth and unworked ; the convex side is 
chipped and the cutting edge is finely retouched. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



65 



Side scrapers (PI. IV t-x) 



Material : 
Form: 



Size: 
Workmanship : 



Argillite, 7 ; chalcedony, 26 ; opal, 1 ; basalt, 20. 

Similar to end scrapers, except that they are made from longer con- 
choidal flakes and retouched on a cutting edge made on one or both 
long sides instead of the end. 

From 1 inch to 2 l A inches long. 

The concave surface is unretouched ; the convex side is usually flaked 

and retouched, and the cutting edges are finely retouched. 



Note : Combination side and end scrapers are shown in pi. IV r-s. 



Flake knives (PI. V a-p) 

Material : Argillite, 2 



Form: 



Size: 
Workmanship : 



chalcedony, 44 ; basalt, 1. 

Usually thin conchoidal flakes (much thinner than those used for scrapers 
or gravers), with concave surface unretouched but occasionally with con- 
vex side retouched slightly. Some are retouched on one edge only, making 
only one cutting edge ; others are retouched on two edges and occasionally 
on three edges. No particular shape is characteristic; usually the shape 
is determined by that of the original spall. 
Ranging from 1 inch to 2 l / 2 inches long. 

The concave surface is unretouched, the convex side is occasionally re- 
touched ; the cutting edges are very finely retouched by removal of minute 
flakes. 



Unclassifiable retouched flakes 

Material : Argillite, 6 ; chalcedony, 130 ; basalt, 3. 

Form: This class includes all unclassifiable flakes that show retouching. Some 

may be fragments of points, knives, scrapers, or other chipped implements. 
Fine flaking and retouching characteristic of points or knives are shown 
on some while on others the workmanship is not so fine. Since all pieces 
are fragmentary, size ranges are inconsequential and are not given. 

Rough discoidal scrapers or cores (PI. V q-s) 



Material : 
Form: 



Size: 



Workmanship : 



Argillite, 10 (none of other material). 

These are rough, flat, generally circular cores, chipped by percussion 
method. Usually one surface is chipped more than the other, which may 
be unchipped. The edges are chipped all the way around. These may be 
unfinished scrapers or rejected cores ; a few are sufficiently well finished 
to be used as scrapers. 

Varying from 1^4 inches to 3 inches in diameter, and Y% inch to 1 inch in 
thickness. 

Crude percussion chipping on all edges and on one surface to a greater 
extent than on the other. 



Distribution. The distribution by site of drills, gravers, scrapers, and the 
like, is shown in table 5, and the distribution by depth for sites 11, 24, 31, and 45 
is given in table 18. They were most numerous at sites 11 and 24, where they 
came primarily from the rich, deep middens. There is no significant variation in 
the occurrence of these different classes at different sites, with the exception of 
the rough discoidal core scrapers of argillite. Nine of these came from site 44 
and the tenth from site 34. This distribution seems to be correlated with that 
of the large rough NAb x blades of argillite, most of which came from the northern 
part of our region, and more than a third from site 44 alone. 



66 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 

TABLE 5 
Distribution of Drills, Gravers, Scrapers, and Knives 



[Vol.9 





Sites 




Type 


2 


7 


11 


12 


24 


25 


29 


31 


34 


38 


39 


40 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


49 


Mouth of 

Stranger 

Creek 


Misc.* 


Total 


Drills 






4 




3 




1 


2 














1 














11 










Gravers 


3 




5 




9 


1 


2 


10 


3 


2 




1 






2 


3 


6 


1 


1 


1 


1 


50 


End Scrapers. . 


1 


1 


14 




6 


1 


2 


10 


2 


2 




1 




4 


2 


1 


7 








2 


56 


Side Scrapers. . 


1 


1 


13 


1 


3 


1 




22 


2 










2 


2 


3 


3 










54 


Flake Knives . . 


3 




12 


2 


8 


1 




3 




1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


6 


5 


1 






1 


47 


Unclassifiable 
retouched 
flakes 


2 




63 




21 


5 


1 


24 


9 






1 


1 


2 


2 


4 


2 








2 


139 


Discoidal 
rough core 
scrapers 


















1 












9 














10 


Total .... 


10 


2 


111 


3 


50 


9 


6 


71 


17 


5 


1 


3 


2 


9 


19 


17 


23 


2 


1 


1 


6 


367 



* Surface finds, to which no site numbers were given. 

Comparisons. Drills and gravers similar to ours are reported by Strong for 
the Dalles-Deschutes region. 12 Most of his type G scrapers 13 seem to correspond 
to our end scrapers, although a few 14 we would call side scrapers. His RA 
scrapers with concave chipped edge 15 we have classified as flake knives. His 
throwing stones 16 and one of his special scrapers 17 appear to be similar to our 
discoidal core scrapers, although not made of argillite like ours. Smith reports 
drills, end scrapers, and side scrapers similar in form to ours from Lytton 18 and 
the Thompson River region, 19 and similar drills, end scrapers, side scrapers, and 
rough discoidal core scrapers from the Yakima Valley. 20 Spinden 21 found sim- 
ilar drills and irregularly shaped plano-convex scrapers in the Nez Perce region. 
The data for Wahluke do not permit comparison. 



12 Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, pp. 85-86, pi. 15. 

13 Ibid., p. 86, fig. 12. 

14 Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, pi. 17 b,c,g. 

15 Ibid, p. 87, pi. 16. 
™Ibid., pp. 89-90, pi. 19 a-h. 

17 Ibid., pp. 105-106, pi. 19p. 

18 Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, p. 148. 

19 Archaeology of the Tlxompson River Region, pp. 118-119, fig. 352. 

20 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, pp. 66-70, figs. 47-52, 54. 

21 Nez Perce Indians, p. 185, figs. 23-25. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



67 



Quart zite Scrapers 

A large number of quartzite scrapers were found on the surface and in 
trenches at every site. The distribution of these, as well as the form, size, source 
of material, and position, is shown in table 6. The distribution by site is not 
shown, since this type of scraper was found at every site worked and, in fact, 
was the most abundant type of implement at every site. 



TABLE 6 

Types and Distribution of Quartzite Scrapers 







Whitestone 
Creek region 


Gifford-Kettle 
Falls region 




No. 


% 


No. 


% 


Form 


Definitely shaped; round or oval; 
edges chipped all or most of the 
way around. 

Not shaped ; one or more 
edges chipped 

Total 


19 

95 
114 


17 

83 
100 


71 

291 

362 


20 

80 
100 


Size 


2 inches or less in diameter 
2 to 6 inches in diameter 
6 to 10 inches in diameter 

Total 


26 

80 



114 


23 

77 



100 


32 
310 

20 
362 


9 
86 

5 
100 


Source of material 


From river boulders 
Plates from outcroppings 

Total 


17 

97 

114 


15 

85 
100 


4 
358 
362 


1 

99 
100 


Position 


Surface 

Below 6 inches 
In burial 

Total 


62 

47 

5 

114 


55 

41 

4 

100 


211 

143 

8 

362 


58 

40 

2 

100 



There appeared, however, to be some differences between the northern and 
southern parts of the area worked, so for the purposes of tabulation the terri- 
tory was divided into the region below the mouth of the Spokane (Whitestone 
Creek region) and the region north of the Spokane (Gifford-Kettle Falls re- 
gion). It will be noted that these scrapers are about three times as numerous in 
the north, that they tend to be larger in the north, and that river boulders of 
quartzite are a much less important source of material in the north than in the 
south. Probably these differences can be explained largely, if not entirely, on 
the basis of available supplies of quartzite rather than as a reflection of regional 
cultural differences. In the Kettle Falls region there are abundant outcrop- 
pings of quartzite which break off in planes or plates well adapted to the man- 
ufacture of scrapers, while such outcroppings are absent or at least very scarce 
to the south, where river boulders were used more frequently as a source of 
material. 22 This difference in the availability of material probably accounts for 
the greater abundance and size of the scrapers to the north. 



22 In the archaeological culture at the mouth of the Thompson River, quartzite scrapers 
were made largely from boulders, although plates from outcroppings were also used (Smith, 
Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, pp. 146-147, figs. 60-63). 



68 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

About four-fifths of these scrapers from both regions are not deliberately- 
shaped but merely chipped on one or two edges to form a blade that could be 
used as a knife or scraper (pi. VI g-j). The majority of these do not appear 
to be suitable for hafting. The remaining fifth consists of deliberately shaped 
scrapers or knives with edges chipped all or nearly all the way around, the 
majority being round or oval in shape (pi. VI a-f). 23 Probably most of these 
were hafted. Similar scrapers hafted in two- to three-foot wooden handles to 
serve as hide fleshers or scrapers were seen by the authors being used by Mrs. 
Rosie Seymour, 84-year-old Lakes-Okanagon Indian woman of Kelly Hill, near 
Boyd's, Washington. They are also reported for the Sanpoil and Nespelem, 24 for 
the Okanagon, 25 and for the Thompson. 26 The distribution of these scrapers ac- 
cording to depth and occurrence in graves is very nearly the same for the northern 
and southern parts of our region. 

Notched Sinkers 

Six of these were found, one at site 7, one at site 24, and four at site 25. 
They are usually made from a flat, roughly circular river cobble, ranging in 
size from 2 to 7 inches in diameter and ^ to 2 inches in thickness. Notches are 
chipped on opposite edges (pi. XVII i, 1-m). One, however, is ham-shaped 
and notched on the end (pi. XVIIf). Notched sinkers like these are reported 
as being very abundant in the Dalles-Deschutes region (about 250, most of them 
from the surface, were found by Strong). 27 Smith found them in abundance on 
the surface at Priest Rapids, on the Columbia in central Washington. 28 According 
to Ray, the Sanpoil made seine sinkers by fastening an unnotched flat pebble into 
a loop of willow. 29 

Unidentified Chipped Slate Object 

A serrate-edged slate object 11^ inches long, 5/4 inches wide and VA inches 
thick (pi. XVIf) was found at site 2 where it had been washed out of the bank. 
No particular use for it can be suggested. 

ARTICLES OF GROUND STONE 

Ground stone artifacts of the upper Columbia divide into a variety of types 
but are not impressive in total number (137) or in quality of workmanship 
and, with the exception of celts and a Plains type pipe, there is nothing partic- 
ularly outstanding. 

Artifacts which occur in greatest abundance are hammerstones, pestles, and 
mauls. Others which occur with less frequency are celts, arrow smoothers, pipes, 
sinkers, mortars, whetstones, and needles. 

Basalt, granite, and river-worn cobbles are the materials most frequently used. 



23 At Lytton, Smith found both carefully shaped and carelessly made quartzite scrapers cor- 
responding exactly to the types described here (Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, pp. 
146-147). 

24 Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 95, pi. 2f . 

25 Southern Okanagon, p. 67. 

26 Thompson Indians of British Columbia, p. 185, fig. 127. 

27 Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, pp. 88-89, pi. 18 a-j. 

28 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, p. 30, fig. 13. 

29 Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 69, fig. 13. 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 69 

Mauls, Pestles, and Hammer stones 

Distinction between pestles and hammerstones is difficult to make in the case 
of the specimens found by us. Mauls, because of their characteristic form and 
workmanship, are easiest to classify. 

Following the method of distinction used by Strong, 30 we refer to a maul as 
having a distinct handle with an enlarged base giving it a bulbous or bottle-like 
appearance. The handle end is commonly flaring or hat-like. The tools show 
considerable care in workmanship, being well finished and highly polished. The 
handle end seldom shows evidence of use but the base and sometimes the sides 
indicate extensive usage. Supposedly the most common use for mauls was for 
driving wedges in splitting timber. 

Implements which have been shaped but without bulbous bases are called 
pestles. Pestles are generally very long in comparison to diameter, one end being 
larger than the other and showing more grinding or pecking. They seldom show 
any indication of having been used for heavy pounding. 

Pieces which do not show a characteristic form or detailed working are 
called hammerstones. Even though they lack a definite form they are usually of 
such size and natural shape as to make them very convenient tools. They are 
usually somewhat longer than they are wide and show more use on a particular 
end or side. This type constitutes the greater part of our ground stone imple- 
ments. 

Mauls and pestles are usually made of granite or basalt ; one pestle is of 
sandstone. Occasionally pestles are made of long river cobbles. Any available 
rock, it seems, was used for hammerstones. The larger hammerstones usually 
show battering caused by heavy work, whereas small ones apparently were used 
for light work. 

Description 

Mauls (PI. XVI g-m) 

Material: Basalt, 11 ; granite or diorite, 1. 

Size : Ranging from 6 inches long and 3 inches in diameter to % l / 2 inches long and 

3^4 inches in diameter. 
Form : These have a distinct handle, a flaring base, and a smaller but also flaring 

head. One (pi. XVIg) has a head carved to represent an animal head. All of 

the mauls are well finished and some are highly polished. 

Pestles (PI. XVI a-e) 

Material : Basalt, 17 ; granite or diorite, 5 ; river cobble, 2 ; sandstone, 1. 
Size: Ranging from 4 inches long and \ l / 2 inches in diameter to \2y 2 inches long 

and 3 inches in diameter ; some are fragmentary. 

Form : Usually long in comparison to diameter, one end being battered or abraded 

more than the other. The majority of pestles are well finished and usually 
polished. One has what may possibly be a phallic head (pi. XVId), another 
is long, flat, and shaped roughly like a fish (pi. XVIe). 



30 Archaeology of the Dallcs-Deschutes Region, p. 94. 



70 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 



Hammerstones (PI. XVII a-e) 

Material: Basalt, 19; granite, 3; river cobble, 31. 

Size : Ranging from a round river cobble 3 inches in diameter to one piece 25 inches 

long and 5 inches in diameter ; typical size from 5 inches to 12 inches long. 

Form : No characteristic shape, although usually longer than wide. They seem to be 

chosen for convenient size and shape. Some are perhaps unfinished pestles. 
This may be the case with the specimens shown in pi. XVII a-b, which have 
been roughly shaped by grinding on the sides. Plate XVIIb in particular is 
definitely shaped, and grooves on the sides indicate that more grinding was 
to be done. The large stones are battered while the small ones are only pecked. 

Distribution. The distribution of mauls, pestles, and hammerstones is shown 
in table 7. The greatest number of both pestles and hammerstones from any site 
came from site 2 (5 pestles and 8 hammerstones), while the greatest number of 
mauls came from site 46 (4). The majority of hammerstones and pestles came 
from the surface, whereas mauls were commonly found with burials. The prob- 
able explanation for this is that the mauls represent more work and care in 
making and were for this reason more valued and thus buried with the dead. 

The distribution shows no significant variation in type from one part of our 
region to another. The forms most closely resemble those found at Lytton, British 
Columbia, 31 and at Wahluke, Washington, 32 and less so those forms reported 
for the Yakima Valley 33 and the lower Columbia. 34 

TABLE 7 



Distribution < 


>F 


Pestles, 


Ham 


MERSTONES 


, AND 


Mauls 








Sites 


2 


7 


8 


11 


12 


23 


24 


25 


29 


31 


33 


34 


35 


38 


40 


43 


44 


45 


46 


49 


51 


Misc.* 


Total 


Pestles 


5 




1 








1 




1 


1 




2 




1 




1 


4 


3 


2 






3 


25 


Hammerstones 


8 


1 




3 


1 


1 


5 


4 




4 


1 


2 


1 




2 


1 


6 


3 


3 


1 




6 


53 


Mauls 


1 






1 






3 
















1 




1 




4 




1 




12 






Totals 


14 


1 


1 


4 


1 


1 


9 


4 


1 


5 


1 


4 


1 


1 


3 


2 


11 


6 


9 


1 


1 


9 


90 



* Articles under this column were collected on various survey trips and exact locations were not given. 



Celts and Other Cutting Implements 

Twelve ground stone cutting implements were found. With the exception of 
one celt made of soft talc schist mixed with actinolite, these are of anthophyllite 
or nephrite, with a hardness of 5 to 6. The distribution, type, and material are 
shown in table 8. 

Eight of the twelve cutting implements found are celts (pi. XV a-d, f ). These 
have the form of a long narrow blade with one end ground to a sharp, even, and 
(with one exception) straight edge. In profile this edge is beak-shaped, being 
ground down much more on one side than the other. The form is identical with 

31 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, figs. 22-27. 

32 Krieger, Prehistoric Pit House Village Site, pi. 1. 

33 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, figs. 21-37. 

34 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, fig. 14. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 

TABLE 8 
Distribution of Celts and Other Cutting Implements 



71 



Site 


Location 


Implement 


Size 


Color 


Material 


24 


Burial 12 


celt 


Sy 2 "x2H" 
H" thick 


jade green 


anthophyllite 


31 


Trench 1 
Depth 17" 


fragment 
of celt 


2" wide 
Y 2 " thick 


nearly black 


anthophyllite 




Trench 3 
Depth 11" 


celt 


3K"x2j^" 
7/16" thick 


black 


mixture of talc 
schist and actinolite 


43 


Surface 


unfinish.chis'l 


2^"xlH" 
5 A" thick 


gray-green 


nephrite 


46 


Burial 2 


triangular 

flake 

knife 


blade 1 " 
altitude %* 
thickness %" 


gray-green 


anthophyllite 




Burial 17 


triangular 

flake 

knife 


blade 1 " 
altitude 1 " 
thickness 3/16" 


dark green 


anthophyllite 




Burial 28 


triangular 

flake 

knife 


blade 1*4" 
altitude 1J4" 
thickness x /i" 


dark green 


anthophyllite 




Burial 38 


celt 


11 13/16"x2^" 
W thick 


jade green 


anthophyllite 


47 


Depth 48" 


celt 


5"x2" 
%" thick 


dark green 


anthophyllite 




Burial 4 


celt 


6H"x2V 8 " 
V 8 " thick 


nearly black 


anthophyllite 




Depth 43" 


celt 


9"x2y 2 " 
y 8 " thick 


nearly black 


anthophyllite 


Little 
Dalles 


Surface 


celt 


4 l A"x2y 8 " 
H" thick 


jade green 


anthophyllite mixed 
with nephrite 



that of the celts described for the Thompson Indians, 35 and those found in graves 
at Lytton. 36 A specimen of gray-green nephrite, apparently an unfinished chisel, 
came from the surface at site 43 (pi. XVe). This chisel, as well as a number 
of the celts, shows remains of the grooves made in cutting out the implement. 
The method was to cut grooves from both sides until a core about % inch 
thick remained between the grooves, and then to break the core. In some cases 
the broken core has been polished smooth or obliterated ; in others it has been left 
rough. 37 According to Teit, 38 the Thompson Indians cut the grooves with grit- 



35 Teit, Tliompson Indians of British Columbia, fig. 122; Smith, Archaeology of the Thomp- 
son River Region, figs. 349, 350. 

36 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, figs. 40-42. 

37 Smith illustrates nephrite and serpentine boulders from which pieces have been cut by 
this method (Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, figs. 44-47). 

38 Tliompson Indians of British Columbia, p. 182. 



72 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

stone or beaver teeth, 39 and according to Smith, 40 the grooves were started with 
horsetail rush, continued with beaver teeth, and finished with quartz or sandstone, 
with or without the use of sand as an abrasive. 

Three triangular ground flake knives of anthophyllite came from site 46. 
They are sharpened on one edge only. 

The provenience of the anthophyllite and nephrite is of some interest. None 
is known to occur along the banks of the middle and upper Columbia. Serpen- 
tine occurs near Waits Lake in Stevens County, Washington, but no anthophyllite 
or nephrite is found here. Evidently serpentine boulders are found at Kamloops 
on the Thompson River. 41 The celts found at Lytton were made from serpentine 
(hardness 3) and nephrite (hardness 5 to 6). There are outcroppings of these 
materials on the Thompson and Fraser rivers in the vicinity of Lytton. 42 A 
deposit of anthophyllite similar to that in our specimens exists on the Skagit River 
in western Washington. 43 It is perhaps significant that 9 out of the 11 specimens 
of anthophyllite and nephrite came from the mouth of the Kettle River north- 
ward. This distribution suggests the possibility that this material is from the 
Thompson River region, or came from the west coast via Cascade Pass and the 
Okanagon country to Kettle Falls. 

Pipes 

Six complete and two fragmentary stone pipes were found (pi. XlVa-g). 
With the exception of one elbow pipe of Plains type (pi. XlVg), all are of 
the tubular type. The elbow pipe and one tubular pipe (pi. XlVe) are of cat- 
linite; the others are of talc schist with some intermixture of actinolite. Talc 
schist is similar to steatite but more schistose. 

Description. 

No. 1783 (pi. XI Vb), from site 8, disturbed burial. Tubular, Sy 2 inches long, bowl ?4 
inch in diameter, tapering to Yz inch at stem. At the end of the stem is a flange 1 inch in diameter, 
in the edge of which is a small hole which no doubt served to attach the pipe by means of a 
thong or cord to the secondary stem of reed or wood which was probably added. This pipe 
is very similar to one of steatite found by Smith at Lytton 44 and somewhat less like sandstone 
pipes from the Dalles-Deschutes region. 45 

No. 1967 (pi. XI Vd), from site 46, burial 7. Tubular, \y 2 inches over all, bowl 1 inch 
long and 1 inch in diameter tapering to Yz inch at the stem, which was probably inserted into 
a secondary stem of reed or wood. This is fairly similar to a sandstone pipe shown by Strong. 46 

No. 1998 (pi. XlVf), from site 46, burial 22. Fragment of a tubular pipe consisting of 
lower portion of bowl and part of stem. The bowl is decorated with incised, spiralling, verti- 
cally hatched bands, and there is a small broken ridge circling the stem at its junction with the 
bowl. 



39 More likely beaver teeth were used for softer stones, such as steatite (Smith, Archae- 
ology of the Thompson River Region, p. 146, n. 2). 

40 Archaeology of the Thompson River Region, p. 416. 

41 Smith, Archaeology of the Tliompson River Region, p. 417. 

42 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, pp. 132-133. 

43 Personal communication from Dr. Charles Campbell of Washington State College. 

44 Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, fig. 104. 

45 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, pi. 24, a,b,l. 
™lbid., pi. 24f. 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 73 

No. 2005 (pi. XIVc), from site 46, burial 23. Tubular, Z]/ 2 inches long; the bowl is V/ 2 
inches long and tapers from 1 inch at the mouth to J / 2 inch at the stem. The stem is slightly- 
tapered at the end as if to fit into a secondary stem. There is a narrow incised band at the 
junction of stem with bowl. This pipe is very similar in form to ones from Lytton 47 and 
Kamloops 48 , and is probably like a broken specimen illustrated by Strong 49 for the Dalles- 
Deschutes region. 

No. 2109 (pi. XlVa), from trench at site 47. Tubular, 7]/ 2 inches long; bowl 1 inch in 
diameter and gradually tapering to 54 inch near the stem end, there being no pronounced stem. 
At the stem end is a collar Y± inch wide and 1 inch in diameter. The pipe appears to have 
been burned. The base of this pipe is similar to that of a fragmentary pipe from the Dalles- 
Deschutes region. 50 

No. 2162 (pi. XI Ve), from site 46, burial 38. Tubular, 2% inches long, of catlinite. The 
bowl tapers from 1 inch at the mouth to ¥& inch at the base, there being no appreciable stem. 
A groove has been cut three-fourths around the base. This pipe is very similar to a steatite 
specimen from Lytton. 51 

No. 1782 (pi. XI Vg), from site 8, burial 1. Plains elbow type, 6y 2 inches long, of cat- 
linite. The bowl is 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches long, at right angles to the stem. Flange 
on top of and parallel to the stem at the stem end is perforated, no doubt for fastening the 
pipe to the secondary stem. Decorated with parallel incised lines on top of the flange and on 
top and bottom of the part projecting beyond the bowl. 

No. 2034, site 46, burial 24. Fragment of stem of tubular pipe probably similar to No. 2005. 

In form these pipes resemble most closely the pipes from graves at Lytton 
and in the Thompson River region, and they are similar to the pipes of the 
Dalles-Deschutes region. They are unlike the disc-shaped pipes found by Smith 
in the Yakima Valley 52 and mentioned for the Nez Perce by Spinden, 53 and 
unlike the elbow pipes used in historic times by the Sanpoil and Nespelem, 54 the 
Okanagon, 55 and the Thompson. 56 The pipes from Lytton are of "steatite or 
nearly allied material" ; 57 those from the Dalles-Deschutes region 5S are of mica- 
ceous sandstone and a few of steatite ; those from the Yakima Valley 59 are of 
steatite; those among the Okanagon 60 are of steatite and soapstone; and those 
among the Thompson 61 are of steatite, soapstone, and occasionally sandstone. 

The occurrence of catlinite as a pipe material in our region is of consider- 
able interest, as it indicates contact with the Plains. The elbow catlinite pipe 
from site 8 is of typical Plains form and undoubtedly originated in that region. 
However, the tubular form of the other catlinite pipe, from site 46, is typical of 
the Plateau but not found in the Plains. No catlinite is known to occur west 
of the Rockies, so the raw material must have been traded from the Plains. 



47 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, fig. 111. 

48 Smith, Archaeology of the Tliompson River Region, fig. 374. 

49 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, pi. 24e. 

50 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, pi. 24k. 

51 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, fig. 105. 

52 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, figs. 107-109. 

53 Nez Perce Indians, fig. 6, pi. XX. 

54 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 168. 

55 Cline, Southern Okanagon, figs. 34, 35. 

56 Teit, Thompson Indians of British Columbia, figs. 171-174, 306-309. 

57 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, p. 155. 

58 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 104. 

59 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, pp. 107-116. 

60 Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 65. 

61 Teit, Tliompson Indians of British Columbia, p. 300. 



74 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

The Okanagon are known to have traded catlinite from the Shuswap 62 who were 
in contact with the Blackfoot and Sarsi and probably acted as intermediaries be- 
tween the northwestern Plains and the Plateau. 

The occurrence of only the tubular pipe in our sites (with the exception of 
the intrusive Plains pipe), as well as at Lytton and in the Dalles-Deschutes region, 
tends to confirm Smith's conclusion 63 that the tubular pipe was the only form in 
the Plateau in prehistoric times, and that it was supplanted in recent times by 
bowl and elbow forms from the east. Tubular pipes are still remembered though 
no longer made by the Sanpoil and Nespelem 64 and the Thompson. 



65 



Girdled Sinkers (pi. XVI Ig, j-k) 

These consist of globular or oblong spheroid pebbles or rocks encircled by 
a transverse groove. Such articles are generally supposed to have been sinkers for 
fishing, both for nets and lines. 66 The possibility that they were for use as ham- 
merstones or weapons has been suggested. 67 One specimen (pi. XVIIg) has 
been battered on either end and the groove is deeper than those generally found, 
suggesting its possible use as a hafted hammerstone. 

Of the five sinkers found by us, two were of basalt, one of granite, one of 
river cobble, and one of shale. One was girdled by two parallel grooves but the 
others had only one. 

Needles (pi. XV g-h) 

Two pointed needle- or awl-like objects of slate, 3^> inches and 5 inches long, 
respectively, were found at site 46, one in burial 22 and the other in burial 24. 
The smaller one (pi. XVg) is oval in cross section while the larger (pi. XVh) 
is flat. A groove encircles the butt of the smaller one, while the larger has notches 
cut opposite each other on the edges at the butt. A similar slate needle was found 
in the Dalles-Deschutes region. 68 

Chopper 

A flat hatchet-shaped object (pi. XVIIh) of granite 6 inches long and 5 
inches wide at the blade was found on the surface about ten miles south of 
Colville, Washington. The handle has been ground smooth ; the blade, which had 
been chipped to an edge, is considerably blunted by use. 



62 "Red catlinite pipes were traded ready-made from the Shuswap, since the Okanagon did 
not know how to work this stone." (Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 65.) 

63 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, p. 110. 

64 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 168. 

65 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, p. 110. 

66 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, p. 30, figs. 14, 16; Strong, Archaeology of the 
Dalles-Deschutes Region, fig. 25 a-b; Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, fig. 38. 

67 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 111. 

68 Strong, ibid., p. 99, pi. llf. 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 75 

Mortars 

Only two of these were found. One from the surface at site 22 is made of 
basalt. It is 8 inches square and 3 inches thick with a saucer-like depression 5 
inches in diameter and 5/16 inch deep at the center. The depression seems to 
have been made by pecking rather than grinding. The other one came from the 
surface at site 43. It is made from an irregular-shaped granite boulder 16 by 11 
by 5 inches with the depression 8 inches in diameter and J/2 inch deep. 

The scarcity of mortars seems to bear out the statement by Ray for the 
Sanpoil and Nespelem 09 that mortars were seldom made of stone but were usually 
of wood or hide, in which case they would not be preserved. Baskets lined with 
heavy neck leather and placed inside a slight cavity in a stone were used by the 
Southern Okanagon. 70 This would account for the shallow bowls of the mortars 
described above. 

Whetstones 

Two objects whose form and appearance suggest their use as whetstones 
were found. One of slate from the surface at site 23 is 7 inches long, rectangular 
in cross section (1% by }i inches), and tapers toward one end. The broad 
sides show striations and grooves caused by abrasion (pi. XVi). The other is 
of argillite from the surface at site 31. It is also rectangular in cross section 
(1/4 by Ya inches) and is 7y 2 inches long. 

Arrowshaft Smoothers 

Ten of these were found, all of sandstone, varying in texture but of the 
same general form. All except two came from burials. The two not from burials 
came from a burned area 26 inches deep along the edge of the bank at site 46. 
Three from site 51 came from burials removed by the disinterment project. 

The general form for all specimens found by us is long, hemi-cylindrical, 
and sometimes tapering toward the ends. A groove the approximate size of an 
arrowshaft runs along the center of the flat side (pi. XIV h-j). 

Strong 71 found arrow smoothers of this type in the Dalles-Deschutes region 
but they were made from basalt, none from sandstone. 

Smith found similar implements of sandstone in pairs in graves at Lytton 
and he believes they were used in pairs with the grooved faces together forming 
a hollow cylinder. "Held in such a position, with grooves fitted to an arrow shaft 
they would serve well, not only to smooth the shaft in the same way as when 
sand paper is used, but also to straighten it." 72 

It may be significant to note that all except those from site 51 and one from 
site 46 came in pairs that could easily be fitted together in the manner suggested 
above. 

Table 9 shows the distribution and size of the arrowshaft smoothers. 



69 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 41. 

70 Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 58. 

71 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 91, pi. 20b. 

72 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, p. 146, figs. 57-58. 



76 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 

TABLE 9 
Distribution of Arrowshaft Smoothers 



[Vol.9 



Site 


Burial 


Number 


Size 


24 


Burial 35 


2 


Both 3x1 J^ inches 






46 


Burned area in bank cut 


2 


5x1% inches and 4^x2 inches 








Burial 24 


1 


2MxlM inches 


47 


Burial 1 


2 


Both 4x2 inches 






51 


Previously opened burials 


3 


6x2 inches 




Fragment 1 % inches wide 
Fragment \ h /% inches wide 



Turquoise Pendant 

A turquoise pendant was found in the coiled basket in burial 10 at site 47 
(pi. Xli). It is Y-2. inch long, y% inch wide at the base, tapering to 5/32 inch at 
the top, 1/16 inch thick, with a hole 1/16 inch in diameter at the top. The pen- 
dant is symmetrical and highly polished. No turquoise deposits are known to 
occur nearer than Nevada. 

Incised Slate Fragments 

Two irregularly shaped fragments of slate decorated by incised cross hatching 
were found at site 31. No suggestion of their use can be made from their frag- 
mentary condition. 

Ornamental or Toy Mauls 

Two small (2 inches long) maul-shaped stone objects were found in burial 
23, site 46. One has a notch around the top which suggests it was used for sus- 
pension. There is a possibility that they could have been used as sinkers for 
fish lines. 

Mineral Pigment 

Red ochre (turgite) used for paint was found at site 7 A (burial 3), site 8 
(burial 8), site 11 (trench 3, 24-36 inch level), site 24 (trench 4, depth 40 
inches, and burials 10, 16, and 25), site 34 (trench 2, depth 10 inches), and site 
46 (burial 24). From burial 24 at site 46 also came two pieces of dark red 
hematite-chalcedony mixture (a jasper high in hematite) which was probably alsc 
used for paint. 

ARTICLES OF BONE AND HORN 

A total of 248 articles of worked bone and horn was found. The types of 
implements and their number and distribution are shown in table 10. Most nu- 
merous are arrow and spear points, awls, double-pointed objects (possibly bas- 
ketry tools), spatulate tools, harpoon points, flakers, and digging stick handles. 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 77 

The ribs and long bones of deer and elk are the most common sources of material ; 
deer and elk scapulae are used to a less extent. Deer and elk antler are used for 
flakers, wedges, digging stick handles, and harpoon points, and one artifact is 
probably made of moose antler. Bird bones are used for beads, tubes, and whistles. 
One whale bone club was found, as well as a spoon of mountain sheep horn and 
a finger ring of mountain goat horn. Pendants and beads are made from animal 
teeth of various kinds, particularly elk, and dice from beaver teeth. 

Arrow Points (pi. VIII d-1) 

Twenty-nine bone arrowheads were recovered, of which 20 came from graves 
at site 46. They range in length from 1 to 4 inches. In cross section they are 
generally rectangular with slightly rounded corners. The points are rounded in 
cross section and gradually tapering, while the bases are flattened in cross section 
and wedge-shaped, although a few have a rounded base or a tang. These arrow 
points have been cut or scraped rather than ground, for the marks of the scrapers 
are still visible. These points are very similar in form to those found by Smith 
in the Thompson River region 73 and the Yakima Valley, 74 but they are unlike 
those found by Strong in the Dalles-Deschutes region, 75 which, with one exception, 
are shouldered and have a stem like a stone arrow point. 

Lance or Spear Points (pi. VIII a-c) 

Five complete and five broken bone lance or spear points were found, of 
which all but three came from sites 46 and 47. These are similar in form to the 
bone arrow points but longer (4 to 5^/2 inches) and considerably heavier. For 
this reason they have been separated from the smaller arrow points, although 
it is by no means certain that they could not have been used as arrowheads. The 
spear points show more evidence of having been carefully ground than the arrow 
points. The base half of one (pi. VHIb) is lighter and less decomposed than the 
point and shows evidence of having been tightly bound with some narrow ma- 
terial, perhaps sinew. Evidently this point was inserted into an arrow or spear 
shaft and held in place by binding. This appears to have been the method of 
attachment used for all of the bone arrow and spear points. Similar lance points 
were found in the Dalles-Deschutes region. 76 

Arrowshaft Straighteners or Wrenches (pi. IX b-c) 

Two arrowshaft wrenches were found, one at site 8, burial 1, and the other 
at site 47, burial 1, 7 inches and 8 inches long, respectively. Each is made from 
the first true rib of an elk, a hole Y% inch in diameter being drilled at an angle 
of 45 degrees to the flat surface of the rib about 1 inch from the distal end. 
The specimen from site 47 has a second hole drilled in the same manner x / 2 inch 



73 Archaeology of the Tliompson River Region, pp. 409-410, fig. 336. 

74 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, figs. 7-8, 11-12. 

75 Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, pp. 54-55, pi. 6 a-e,g. 

76 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, pi. 8 e-f . 



78 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 



TABLE 10 
Distribution of Bone and Horn Artifacts 



Site 


2 


7 


■ 


i 11 


24 


31 


40 


43 


45 


46 


47 


Total 










2 


2 










20 


5 


29 












Spear points 












1 




1 




1 


3 


4 


10 








Arrow wrenches 










1 














1 


2 








Harpoon points . . 












1 










5 


2 


8 








Harpoon collars 






















2 




2 








Whale bone club 


1 
























1 
















1 
















1 


Knife with iron blade 
























1 


1 


Awls, long bone 


1 


1 




4 


4 


1 


2 






11 




24 










1 






6 










4 




11 








Needles . 










3 














3 








Bodkins 




1 




1 1 


6 














9 








Double- pointed implements 










1 












1 


23 


25 


Digging stick handles 












5 










3 




8 


Digging stick tips 






















5 




5 








Digging implements 






















2 




2 


Flakers 












1 










8 




9 








Wedges 












1 




2 






1 




4 








Flesher 






















1 




1 








Spatulates 




















14 


6 


20 








Whistles 
























3 


3 








Horn spoon 
















1 










1 








Comb 
























1 


1 








Ring 












1 














1 








Beads 












5 










1 




6 










Pendant 




1 




















1 








Incised ornament 






















1 


1 








Bone tube 




















1 




1 








Miscellaneous worked bone 








1 4 


14 










16 




35 


Miscellaneous worked antler .... 








1 3 


2 




1 


1 




11 


4 


23 


Total 


2 


4 




5 15 


52 


1 


7 


1 


1 |109 


51 


248 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 79 

proximally from the first. The articulation surfaces at the proximal end of these 
wrenches are smoothed off to form a convenient hand hold. An arrowshaft to 
be straightened was inserted into the hole, and the tool used as a lever or wrench 
to straighten the crooked portion. Arrow wrenches of wood, horn, and bone are 
mentioned for the Southern Okanagon. 77 

Harpoon Points (pi. IX h-1) 

Eight harpoon points were found in burials, one at site 24, five at site 46, 
and two at site 47. These are here called harpoon points rather than fish spear 
points because they are detachable from the shaft and possess an eye or flange 
for the attachment of a line. These harpoon points fall into three types: (a) large 
(7% to & T / 2 inches long), single barb, with a hole drilled J4 i ncn t0 1 mcn from 
the base for attachment of a line (pi. IX h,j ) ; (b) large (8 inches long) , single barb, 
with 34 -inch flange on the barb side 1 inch from the base for attachment of a 
line (pi. IXi) ; (c) small (4y 2 to 5 inches long), double barb, with a hole about 
1 inch from base for attachment of a line (pi. IX k-1). All of the specimens 
are of antler except one of type (c) which appears to be of bone. The point 
shown in plate IXk and another not shown have been broken. The latter (from 
site 24, burial 35) was broken off just above the hole for line attachment, and 
has been notched in order to make the point still usable. The two identical type 
(b) points came from burial 23, site 46. Two of the type (a) points (pi. IXh 
and one quite similar to it) came from site 47, burial 1, while the third type (a) 
point came from site 46, burial 17. A type (c) point also came from burial 17 at 
site 46, another from burial 5, and the third from site 24. 

In graves at Lytton, Smith 78 found 2 double-barbed antler harpoon points 
practically identical with our type (c) specimen shown in plate 1X1. He found 
single-barbed bone points in the Thompson River region, 79 but it is not certain 
whether these were detachable, as there is no apparent way of attaching a line. 
However, they are decomposed and may originally have had flanges like our type 
(b). Harpoon points like ours are not reported from other parts of the Plateau. 

Harpoon or Lance Collars 

Two bone fragments were found which appear to be halves of rings or col- 
lars serving as couplings between the shafts and heads of lances or harpoons. 
They are similar to objects found by Strong in the Dalles-Deschutes region and 
are so classified by him. 80 However, both our specimens are so decomposed that 
the identification cannot be positive. One specimen from site 46, burial 38, ap- 
pears to be the middle portion of a half of such a collar; the ridge or solid portion 
separating the shaft from the head is still present. 81 The other fragment, from 
burial 17 at site 46, is one of the halves of a collar. One end flares outward and 
ends in a projecting rim which may have served to lash the collar to the shaft. 82 

77 Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 53. 

78 Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, p. 137, fig. 20. 

79 Archaeology of the Tfiompson River Region, p. 411, fig. 337. 

80 Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, pp. 60-61, pi. 6 j-n. 

81 Similar to the one shown by Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, pi. 6j. 

82 In profile similar to those shown by Strong, ibid., pi. 6 1. 



80 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

Whale Bone Club (pi. IXa) 

A carved club made of a whale rib was found in burial 12 at site 2. It is 
22^4 inches long, 2^ inches wide and 24 inch thick, and was originally highly 
polished, although it is now much decomposed. The handle is elaborately carved 
on both sides with an animal head (bilaterally symmetrical) which is possibly 
the two-headed serpent of the Northwest coast. A hole is drilled below and 
back of the eye of the figure at the point where the ear opening would be. This 
hole was probably used for attaching a lanyard, a common practice on the North- 
west coast. The style of carving appears to be that of the coast of British Co- 
lumbia rather than of the Washington coast. This suggests trade via the Fraser 
River rather than up the Columbia. Similar whale bone clubs are reported for 
the Thompson River by Smith 83 but the handles are carved with anthropomorphic 
rather than animal heads. Although this was the only specimen found by us, 
others have been found in the region by local inhabitants. The county engineer 
of Ferry County is said to have found a similar club while excavating for the 
bridge over the Columbia at Kettle Falls. Strong found fragments of polished 
whale bone carved in coast style which were probably the remains of clubs. 



84 



Antler Knife Handle 

At a depth of 90 inches in trench 1 at site 11 was found an antler handle 
which was probably used to haft a stone knife. It is made from a section of 
antler 65^ inches long and 1^2 inches in diameter, being somewhat flattened in 
cross section. The blade of the knife, or possibly some other tool, was inserted in 
a hole at the end of the handle. Such handles were used by the Sanpoil and 
Nespelem. 85 A similar antler handle was found by Smith at Kamloops. 86 

Knife (pi. IXg) 

In burial 1 at site 47 was found a knife made by inserting an iron blade into 
the split edge of a deer rib. The bone handle is 6 inches long and the metal blade 
is 2 inches long and projects % inch from the handle. 

Awls (pi. VIII s-z) 

We have classified the awls of our region into two types: (a) those made 
from scapulae of deer and smaller mammals (pi. VIII y-z), and (b) those made 
of split and unsplit long bones (pi. VIII s-x). Scapula awls are made by sharpen- 
ing the spine and using the vertebral end of the spine and part of the vertebral 
border as a handle. They range in length from Zy 2 to 6 inches and vary in the 
amount of superior and inferior fossae that have been cut away in shaping the 
awl. This type was found in burials at sites 7A, 24, and 46 only. 



83 Archaeology of the Tliompson River Region, p. 422, fig. 359. 

84 Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 57. 

85 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 43. 

86 Archaeology of the Thompson River Region, fig. 348. 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 81 

Awls made from split or unsplit long bones are more numerous and widely 
distributed than scapula awls, and vary more in size and form. In length they 
range from 4 to 7 inches; some are long and slender while others are short and 
thick. The more slender awls are made of the unsplit long bones of a small 
animal or the long bones of a deer split and ground sufficiently to obliterate the 
unevenness of the split surface and traces of the marrow cavity. Awls made from 
unsplit long bones have the point on one side of the marrow cavity, which causes 
a depression or groove in an otherwise smooth point. On some of the split awls 
there has been no attempt to smooth out the marrow cavity. 

Two of our awls are made of a split half segment of a large long bone, 
forming an instrument like a hollow drill or apple corer. On most of these awls 
the epiphysis or nubbin of the bone has been left to serve as a handle or knob. 
One awl (from site 46) has been made from the proximal end of a deer ulna. 
A similar one is reported by Smith from Kamloops. 87 An unsplit awl from site 
46 and another from site 47 have incised diagonal cross hatching near the base. 
Smith found at Kamloops an awl-like bone implement similarly decorated which 
he calls a headscratcher. 88 Headscratchers are used by Thompson girls during 
puberty ceremonies. 89 

Needles (pi. VIII q-r) 

Only three bone implements that could be definitely classified as needles 
were found. All came from site 24, two from trench 1 at depths of 28 inches 
(pi. VHIq) and 34 inches, and one from burial 6 (pi. Vlllr). They are 2^4 
inches, 3% inches, and 3}4 inches long, respectively. The first of these had been 
broken off at the eye and a new eye drilled. Similar bone needles are reported for 
the Dalles-Deschutes region, 90 the Thompson River region, 91 and Lytton, 92 but 
they do not appear to be common in the Yakima Valley 93 and none were found 
by Krieger in Grant County. They were used by the Sanpoil and Nespelem 94 
and the Southern Okanagon. 95 Teit fails to indicate whether or not they were 
used by the Thompson Indians. 

Bodkins (pi. VIII m-p) 

Such articles could be classed as pins or small awls as well as bodkins. 
Four came from trenches at site 24 (11 inches to 29 inches deep), one from 
burial 10 at site 24, one from a depth of 12 inches at site 7, one from a depth of 
24 inches at site 11, and one from burial 4 at site 8. They are 1% to Z% inches 
long, with a long, slender, very sharp point. Some have been broken and may 
have been needles. They could have been used as pins. 



87 Archaeology of the Tlwmpson River Region, p. 420, fig. 457a. 

88 Ibid., p. 424, fig. 362. 

89 Teit, Tliompson Indians of British Columbia, p. 312. 

90 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 62, pi. 7 k-m,q,s. 

91 Smith, Archaeology of the Thompson River Region, p. 421, fig. 358. 

92 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, pp. 148-149, figs. 76-78. 

93 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, pp. 72-73. 

94 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 44. 

95 Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 60. 



82 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

Double-Pointed Implements (pi. X a-d) 

This term is employed since no certain use can be attributed to these im- 
plements. They are long and quite slender, having a sharp point at each end. 
Twenty- three of these objects were found in one burial at site 47, the longest being 
10 inches and the shortest 5% inches. All specimens are ground and highly pol- 
ished. They average }£ inch in diameter at the point of greatest thickness, which 
is nearer one end. These implements must have been made from split sections of 
long bones of a very large animal, for they are solid bone, the cellular structure 
of the inner side having been completely rubbed away. In some cases the point 
at the larger end is rectangular in cross section instead of round, while at the 
opposite or smaller end the point is somewhat wedge-shaped. Only two specimens 
other than those mentioned from site 47 were found, one from site 46 and one 
from site 8. Two implements of this type were found by Smith in the Yakima 
Valley. 96 Three similar implements were found by Strong in the Dalles-Deschutes 
region. 97 He refers to their occurrence in California archaeological sites and 
mentions that their use as needles, pins, skewers, parts of fish hooks, awls, and 
game counters has variously been suggested. Dr. Verne F. Ray, who has ex- 
amined our specimens, is of the opinion that they are probably awls for basket- 
making or skin work, and that they are unlike the game counters of our region, 
which are sharpened only at one end. 

Antler Digging Stick Handles (pi. VII a-b) 
Eight curved antler digging stick handles were found as follows: 

Site 24 

Fill over burial 5 1 

Burial 18 1 

Burial 21 3 

Site 46 

Burial 22 1 

Burial 24 1 

Burial 35 1 

Total 8 

These were used as cross-handles on wooden digging sticks. For insertion of 
the digging stick shaft a hole T /z inch to 1 inch in diameter is drilled through the 
antler about a third of the way from the base to the tip. The hole is tapered, 
so that when pushing down, the handle jams more tightly on the digging stick 
shaft. The three handles from burial 21 at site 24 bear incised designs at the tip; 
two have fan-like figures (fig. 13c; pi. Vllb), the other has a "V" and parallel 
lines (fig. 13d). Two specimens from site 46 are decorated with incised lines. 
The one from burial 22 bears parallel transverse rows of diagonally hatched 
designs at base and tip (fig. 13a; pi. Vila). A remarkably similar antler digging 
stick handle having parallel rows of hatching on base and tip was found by 
Smith at Lytton. 98 The handle from burial 35 is decorated with a series of 



96 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, figs. 9-10. 

97 Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 58, pi. 7 n,p,r. 

98 Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, pp. 137-138, fig. 21. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



83 





d^^> 



Figure 13. Incised Antler Digging Stick Handles 



84 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

incised hourglass figures (fig. 13b). It is probable that these ran the entire length 
of the handle, but if so, they have been obliterated by the decomposition of the 
bone. 

The two largest specimens (12 and 13 inches long) appear to be elk antler 
and the smaller specimens are deer antler. 

No digging stick handles were found by Strong in the Dalles-Deschutes 
region. Handles of wood, horn, and antler are reported by Smith for the Yakima 
Valley." Antler handles were found at Lytton 100 and on the Thompson River. 101 
The Thompson Indians use handles of wood or horn. 102 The Southern Okanagon 
use digging stick handles of antler, 103 the Sanpoil and Nespelem handles of wood 
or antler, 104 the Nez Perce handles of wood or horn, or an oblong stone with a 
transverse groove in the middle lashed at right angles to the digging stick shaft. 105 

Antler Digging Stick Tips 

Five two-pronged or bifurcated pieces of antler were found. These are 
grooved or split at the base for hafting, and it is supposed that they were used to 
tip digging sticks, although this is not certain. All of these were found at site 46, 
three being from burial 17 and two from burial 24. The largest of these, 6^4 
inches long and 3 inches between tips, is made from a two-pronged antler, prob- 
ably of moose. The lower end is split for a distance of 1 inch for hafting. 
Both faces have decorations consisting of incised chevrons, parallel straight lines, 
and rows of small triangles (fig. 14a; pi. Vllf). Another specimen is a small 
two-pronged deer antler 3^4 inches long and 2 inches between the points, and is 
unworked except for the deep groove in the lower end for the purpose of hafting. 
The other three specimens are not pronged antler tips but have been cut from 
sections of antler so as to have bifurcated tips. They also show evidence of 
hafting, but are less certainly digging stick tips. These specimens might be 
thought to be fragments of netting shuttles if the bases did not show evidence of 
having been hafted. The largest of these is 4J^ inches long, \% inches wide, and 
the tips are ]/z inch long. One edge near the tip bears five shallow notches with 
parallel lines running from them diagonally across the tip (fig. 14b). The second 
(3% inches long, tips % inch long) bears incised interlocking V-shaped figures 
on one face. The third (3*4 inches long) is badly decomposed but appears to be 
undecorated. 

Possible Digging Implements 

Two antler objects possibly used as digging implements were found. The 
one from burial 23 at site 46 is 10 inches long, 1 inch wide and Y% inch thick. 
One end curves and the tip is flattened and rounded like a spatula. The other 

99 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, p. 35, fig. 126. 

ioo Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, pp. 137-138. 

101 Archaeology of the Thompson River Region, p. 411. 

102 Teit, Tliompson Indians of British Columbia, p. 231, fig. 212. 

103 Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 58. 

104 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 98. 

105 Spinden, Nez Perce Indians, p. 200, fig. 33. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



85 







Figure 14. Incised Antler Digging Stick Tips and Bone Ornament 



86 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

end is narrow and thicker with the edges squared as if to fit into a cross handle. 
The other specimen, from burial 35 at the same site, is 12 inches long, % inch 
wide and Y% inch thick at the thickest section. In form it is similar to the first 
specimen. 

Flakers (pi. VII g-i) 
Nine flakers made from sections of elk or deer antler were found as follows: 

Site 24 (pit A, depth 36 inches) 1 

Site 46 

Burial 17 2 

Burial 22 1 

Burial 24 2 

Burial 35 3 

Total 9 

Five of these are made from the base of deer antlers, cut off 3 to 6 inches from 
the base, and ground on one side to a point. The base diameter varies from Y\ 
inch to \y 2 inches. The mushroom-like attachment or button of the base is left 
to serve as a base to rest in the palm when using the implement. Another flaker 
is cut from a large antler near the tip, and one is from the tip of a small antler 
prong. Two others are made from split sections of antler or possibly bone. The 
tips of all of these flakers are flat in cross section and the flaking edge is straight. 

Wedges (pi. VII c-e) 

Four antler wedges were found. These were probably used for splitting 
wood. A specimen 5 inches long and 1% inches in diameter at the base, made 
from a deer antler base, was found at site 46, burial 35. The distal end is ground 
down on both sides to an edge wedge-shaped in profile. A wedge cut from a 
section of antler and ground on both sides to an edge was found at site 24, 
burial 35. It is 3y 2 inches long, % Inch wide, and has a maximum thickness of 
\ l /4 inches. These two wedges are very similar to ones found by Smith at 
Lytton. 106 Two thinner wedges ground from a split section of antler (probably 
elk) were found at site 40 at depths of 46 and 58 inches, respectively. The edge 
of one comes down to a blunt point ; the edge of the other is flattened. The former 
is 3 inches long, 1% inches wide, with a maximum thickness of y 2 inch. The lat- 
ter is 3 inches long, iy inches wide, with a maximum thickness of yi inch. Antler 
wedges are also reported for the Thompson River region, 107 the Yakima Valley, 108 
and the Dalles-Deschutes region. 109 

Flesher or Scraper (pi. IXf ) 

A bone flesher or scraper was found in burial 2 at site 46. It is 9 inches long, 
\ l / 2 inches wide at one end, and tapers to y 2 inch at the other. It is made from 



106 Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, p. 141, figs. 36-37. 

107 Smith, Archaeology of the Tltompson River Region, fig. 345. 

108 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, fig. 39. 

109 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 70, fig. 10 a-c. 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 87 

a split section of deer tibia, the proximal end being broader than the other, prob- 
ably to serve as a handle. The distal end is ground flat, giving a sharp edge, 
suggesting the form of a paper knife. Smith found two similar implements at 
Kamloops which he believes are sap-scrapers. 110 

Spatulate-Shaped Objects (pi. IX d-e) 

Fourteen of these objects were found at site 46 and six at site 47. All ex- 
cept two are made from deer or elk ribs. They range in length from 5 to 9 
inches. They are made by splitting a rib and grinding down the split surface until 
the marrow cavity is obliterated on the distal half. The proximal end, which is 
much thicker, is left unground, forming a handle. The two specimens not of 
ribs are made from long bone fragments, and are similar to the others in form 
except that they are straight while those made from ribs are curved. These 
spatulate objects resemble in shape the two antler objects suggested above to be 
digging implements, but the former are smaller, thinner at the pointed end, and 
thicker at the blunt or proximal end. Possibly these implements were used for 
fleshers or sap-scrapers. 

Bone Whistles (pi. IXm) 

Three bone whistles were found at site 47, two in burial 1 and one in burial 
8. They are made from the ulna of the whistling swan (Cygnus columbianus). 
The bone is cut off about 1 inch from the proximal end, and the whistle notch 
is placed about 1 inch from the resulting open end. One of the whistles from 
burial 1 has a shallow incised groove running from the notch to the distal end. 
The specimen from burial 8 is broken off just below the notch. The two whole 
specimens are 8 and &y> inches long, respectively. 

Horn Spoon 

A fragmentary spoon made probably from mountain sheep horn was found 
at site 40 (trench 4) at a depth of 30 inches. It has the form of a sugar scoop, 
being 2 inches wide, 4^4 inches long and 1 inch deep. The handle is missing. 

Comb (pi. Xe) 

In burial 1 at site 47 were found 11 small pieces of carefully worked bone 
which are evidently the teeth of a comb. The over-all length is Zy 2 inches; the 
teeth proper are 1% inches long, and the base is 1^ inches long. The base is broader 
and thinner than the tooth, the former being 1/32 inch thick and the latter % 
inch thick. Evidently the bases were placed together and bound, giving a fan- 
shaped comb. Similar combs were made by the Thompson, 111 Southern Okan- 
agon, 112 and Sanpoil and Nespelem, 113 but of wood rather than bone. 

110 Archaeology of the Tliompson River Region, p. 412, fig. 340. 

111 Teit. Tliompson Indians of British Columbia, p. 224, figs. 201, 202, 203. 

112 Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 49, fig. 15. 

113 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 54, pi. 2e. 



88 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

Ring (pi. Xg) 

A horn finger (?) ring was found at site 24 in trench 3 at a depth of 19 
inches. Its outside diameter is 1 inch, and it is % inch thick and Y^ inch wide. 
The material is compact, jet black horn, and probably comes from a cross section 
of mountain goat horn. It is evenly finished and highly polished, especially on 
the inside surface, which suggests that it was worn as a finger ring. 

Beads (pi. X i-k) 

Five bone beads came from site 24. One from burial 1 is a segment of a 
wing bone of a large bird, 1^ inches long and y% inch in diameter (pi. Xi). 
It is decorated with longitudinal rows of incised chevrons in alternating directions, 
and double incised lines around both ends. Three smaller (1 inch long and 3/16 
inch in diameter) tubular beads of bird bone came from burial 25. A tubular bead 
of bird bone \%. inches long and %. inch in diameter came from burial 15 (pi. 
Xk). From burial 22 at site 46 came a bird bone bead ]/?. inch long and 5/16 
inch in diameter (pi. Xj). It is tapered at the ends, giving it the shape of a 
barrel. 

Bone Pendant (pi. Xh) 

From burial 3 at site 7A came a bone pendant resembling an elk upper 
canine tooth in size and shape. It appears to have been made in imitation of an 
elk tooth. Two holes are drilled near the upper or thinner end. It is 1 3/10 inches 
long, 11/16 inch wide and % inch thick. 

Bone Ornament (fig. 14c; pi. Xf) 

From burial 8 at site 47 came a carved bone ornament, probably used in the 
hair. It is 6^2 inches by 1^ inches and 1/16 inch thick. It is decorated by 
four transverse rows of filagree, interspersed with transverse rows of incised 
dots within circles, similar to the circular markings on beaver teeth and bone 
dice. According to Ray, 114 these dots and circles were made by twirling a stone 
fragment with two points, one acting as a pivot. One end of the ornament is 
carved to give the effect of two tongues, each bearing two dots within circles at 
the end. The other end was probably finished in the same manner, but is missing. 
One face of the ornament is well preserved, showing the incised decorations 
mentioned. The other face is spongy and decomposed, but still shows traces of 
the dots and circles arranged as on the other face. 

Bone Tube 

From burial 32 at site 46 came a bone tube 3 inches long and y 2 inch in 
diameter from the ulna of a large bird (eagle or swan). 



114 Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 159. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 
Miscellaneous Unclassifiable Worked Bone 



89 



This category includes 35 pieces of worked bone not classifiable as any of 
the types already described. Many of the specimens are broken implements too 
fragmentary to be identified. These include possible arrow or lance points, needle, 
and awl fragments. A few bear incised decorations consisting of parallel lines 
and hatching. 

Miscellaneous Antler Fragments 

Twenty-three fragments of antler, nearly all showing evidence of having been 
worked, were found at various sites. Eight are antler tips (six from site 46, two 
from site 24). The remaining pieces consist of fragments of deer and elk antler, 
and one is possibly a portion of moose antler. 

Teeth and Claws 

Elk Teeth. Two hundred and twenty-two upper canines and one upper 
incisor of elk, perforated at the root end for suspension, were found. The dis- 
tribution was as follows : 





Location 


Canine 


Incisor 


Decorated 


Site 7A 


Burial 8 


12 










Site 8 


Burial 9 


23 




3 






Site 13 


Burial 1 


6 










Site 24 


Burial 1 1 
Burial 25 


67 
80 


1 


3 




2 


Site 45 


Trench 2 
(Depth 71 in.) 


1 










Site 48 


Burial 2 


32 










Site 51 




1 












Total 




222 


1 


8 







A few of the teeth, as shown in the above table, are decorated with parallel 
incised lines on the lower or biting edge. One tooth from site 24, burial 25, has 
a rectangular figure incised on the outer face. The teeth from site 24, burial 11, 
and site 48, burial 2, have been stained green by copper salts from copper objects 
in these burials. The former are well preserved, retaining the smoothness and 
high polish which undoubtedly are the result of long wear in the form of a 
necklace. All the other teeth are less well preserved, showing pitting and flaking 
of the outer enamel layer. 



90 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 



[Vol.9 



Beaver Teeth (pi. X p-u). Forty-five whole and fragmentary beaver in- 
cisors were found. Five of these were decorated on the medial or flat side with 
incised dots, and nine similarly with incised lines, for use as dice. The distribution 
is shown in table 11. 

TABLE 11 
Distribution of Beaver Teeth 





Location 


Incised 
Upper Incisors 


Not Incised* 




Dots 


Lines 


Upper 
Incisors 


Lower 
Incisors 


Site7A 


Burial 3 


2 


3 


1 




Site 24 


Burial 21 


1 


2 












Burial 23 


1 


2 








Burial 25 


1 


2 


2 






Burial 35 








4 


Site 46 


Burial 17 






2 










Burial 23 






7 


7 




Burial 24 






5 




Site 47 


Burial 5 






2 










Burial 8 








1 


Totals 




5 


9 


19 


12 



"Some of the fragmentary and apparently undecorated teeth have lost the medial face, which is the 
one used for decoration, and hence they may have been decorated originally. 

The pattern of dots is shown in plate X t-u. The dots were originally filled 
with red pigment. Designs of incised straight lines are of two types: (a) 4 or 
5 groups of parallel lines running transversely and at right angles to a tangent 
to the curve of the tooth, each group containing 2 to 4 lines (pi. X r-s) ; (b) 4 or 
5 irregularly arranged groups of parallel lines each group containing 2 to 5 lines 
and alternating diagonally across the tooth to give a chevron effect (pi. X p-q). 
The distribution of these types is as follows : 





Location 


Dots 


Lines (type a) 


Lines (type b) 


Site 7A 


Burial 3 


2 


2 


1 






Site 24 


Burial 21 


1 


1 


1 






Site 24 


Burial 23 


1 




2 






Site 24 


Burial 25 


1 




9 







1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 91 

It is thus probable, although not certain, that a set of dice consisted of three 
or four teeth, one with dots and the others with type (a) or (b) lines. The 
sample is too small to determine whether there was a patterned combination of 
types (a) and (b) in a set of dice or whether the differences noted are merely 
fortuitous. Three fragmentary undecorated beaver teeth were found in Wakemap 
mound in the Dalles-Deschutes region. 115 No beaver tooth dice were found by 
Smith in the Yakima Valley, 116 nor by Krieger at Wahluke. Dice similar to ours 
were found at Lytton, but made from woodchuck teeth. These were decorated 
(a) with incised dots and (b) with incised transverse or diagonal lines, and 
were often covered with red ochre. Sets consisted of four dice. 117 Beaver tooth 
dice with similar markings were found by Smith at Kamloops on the Thompson 
River. 118 Teit describes the beaver tooth dice used by the Thompson Indians as 
follows : a set consisted of four dice, one with incised dots, two with incised 
diagonal lines forming a zig-zag pattern (our type b), and one with incised 
transverse lines (our type a) and bound in the center with sinew. 119 It is im- 
possible to tell whether our type (a) teeth have been bound with sinew. Beaver 
tooth dice are also reported for the Southern Okanagon, although bone dice 
similarly marked are more common. 120 Both beaver tooth and bone dice, in sets 
of four, were used by the Sanpoil and Nespelem. They are described by Ray as 
follows : 

One side of each of the bones or teeth was incised with four concentric-circle or dot and 
circle designs . . ., the other side with one to three groups of stripes. . . . The incisions were 
filled with red or black pigment. The dots and circles were made by twirling a stone frag- 
ment with two points, one acting as a pivot. 121 

It is seen that the Sanpoil and Nespelem practice of decorating beaver teeth on 
two sides and their arrangement of dots and lines on the teeth are different from 
the methods of making dice found in archaeological deposits in what is now 
Sanpoil and Nespelem territory (sites 7 A and 24) and on the Fraser and Thomp- 
son rivers, and also differ from the practices of the Thompson Indians. 

Muskrat Teeth. Three muskrat upper incisors were found in burial 10 at 
site 24. These are similar in shape to beaver teeth but much smaller. They show 
no evidence of having been decorated. 

Bear Tooth (pi. XI). In burial 24 at site 46 was a bear canine tooth notched 
at the root end, probably for suspension. 

Lynx Tooth (pi. Xm). In a test trench at the old Dobson ferry landing 
one mile below and across the Columbia from Marcus was found an upper 
canine tooth of lynx, perforated at the root end for suspension. 

Bear Clazvs (pi. Xo). In burial 15 at site 24 were fifteen bear claws per- 
forated at the base for suspension. 

Cougar Claws (pi. Xn). From burial 8 at site 47 came four claws, probably 
of cougar. These are not perforated but could easily have been suspended by 

115 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 58. 

116 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, p. 105. 

117 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, p. 153, fig. 100. 

118 Archaeology of the Thompson River Region, p. 428. 

119 Tliompson Indians of British Columbia, p. 272, fig. 256. 

120 Cline, Southern Okanagon, pp. 187-188. 

121 Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 159, fig. 21. 



92 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 



tying a cord around the knobby bases. At site 24 in trench 1 at a depth of 3^ 
inches was found a feline claw, probably of bobcat, perforated for suspension. 

Bird Beak Bones 

Seven bird beak bones from the Western pileated woodpecker (Ceophloeus 
pileatus picinus) were found in burial 6 at site 24. From the position of these 
in the burial it is probable that they were strung through the nostril openings and 
served as a necklace. There was no evidence that these specimens had been worked. 

Bear Penis Bones 

Five bear penis bones showing no signs of having been worked were found, 
three from burial 5 and one from burial 35 at site 24, and one from burial 10 
at site 46. Such bones were used for making awls among the Southern Okan- 
agon. 122 At Kamloops Smith found two bear penis bones decorated with incised 
lines and with eyes, similar to the eyes in bone needles, drilled in them. 123 It is 
possible that the unworked penis bones in our burials have some magical sig- 
nificance. 

ARTICLES OF SHELL 

Large numbers of shell objects of several types, made from different kinds 
of shell, were found throughout our area. These consist of dentalium and olivella 
beads, disc beads of shell, abalone pendants, shell rings, and great quantities of 
river clam shells. The distribution of shell objects is shown in table 12. A de- 
tailed description of methods of stringing shell beads is given in a later section. 

TABLE 12 

Distribution of Shell Objects 



Type 


Site 




Total 


2 


7 


8 


11 


22 


24 


46 


47 


48 


50 


51 


Kettle 
Falls Is. 


Misc. 


Whole 
Dentalia. . . . 


5 


26 






2 


862 


6 


112* 






20 


94 


13 


1140 


Segmented 
Dentalium 
Beads 




463 




2 




1467 




1925f 


57 




236 






4150 


Olivella 
Beads 




13 


22 






263 




173 


2 


29 


21 


18 




541 


Disc beads. . . 




2 








14 






9 


109 




6 




140 


Pendants. . . . 


2 


1 








5 


2 


7 






1 






18 


Rings 




















3 








3 


Total. . . 


7 


505 


22 


2 


2 


2611 


8 


2217 


68 


141 


278 


118 


13 


5992 



*Of these 100 were in basket from burial 10; the number is an estimate. 

tOf these 1300 were strung in coils in the basket in burial 10; the number is an estimate. 



122 Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 60. 

123 Archaeology of the Tliompson River Region, p. 430, fig. 375. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



93 



Dent alia 

Whole Dentalia (pi. XI g,n). Dentalium shells 24 inch or longer are clas- 
sified as whole dentalia, even though many of these have had a small section of 
the small end or tip removed to permit stringing. Altogether 1140 whole dentalia 
were recovered. Their distribution is as follows: 



Site 2 Site 46 

Burial 12 — 5, unstrung. Burial 

Site 7 A 

Burial 3 — 6, unstrung, of which four are 
incised with transverse lines. 
Burial 4 — 1, incised with transverse lines. 
Burial 5 — 19, strung with dentalium 
segments. 

Site 22 

2 in sand blowout. 

Site 24 (total of 826) 

Burial 2 — 45, strung with dentalium seg- 
ments on fiber cord; one in- 
cised with transverse lines. 

Burial 6 — 126, strung on fiber cord with 
tubular copper beads ; one in- 
cised with transverse lines. 

Burial 11 — 5, unstrung, associated with 
dentalium segments. 

Burial 20 — 9, unstrung. 

Burial 21 — 338, strung in double strands 
on buckskin (type 4a, fig. 
16b) ; associated with dental- 
ium segments and glass beads. 

Burial 25 — 53, probably type 6a or 6b 
stringing (fig. 16 f-g). 

Dentalium Segments (pis. XI f,j ; Xlld) 
A total of 4150 dentalium segments was found, ranging in length from 
1/32 inch to % inch, the majority being 1/16 inch to J / 2 inch long. Some were 
strung alone, others with whole dentalia, tubular copper beads, or glass beads. 
Their distribution was as follows : 



4 — 6, unstrung. 

Site 47 

Burial 3 — 12, unstrung. 
Burial 10 — small coiled basket containing 
100 whole dentalia and 1300 
strung dentalium segments ; 
types 6a and 6b stringing 
(fig. 16 f-g) for the whole 
dentalia. 
Site 51 

Burial 1 — 20, unstrung. 

Kettle Falls Island 

Disturbed burials — 94, unstrung. 

One mile below Detillion bridge on the north 
bank of the Spokane 
Disturbed burials — 13. 



Site 7 A 

Burial 4 — 453, strung on fiber cord with 
tubular copper beads. 
Site 7B 

Burial 5 — 10, unstrung. 

Site 11 

Trench 4 (depth 48 inches)— 1. 
Trench 5 (depth 34 inches) — 1. 

Site 24 

Burial 2 — 151, strung with tubular cop- 
per beads. 
Burial 3 — 2, unstrung. 
Burial 5 — 28, unstrung. 
Burial 6 — 270, unstrung. 
Burial 13 — 28, unstrung. 
Burial 15 — 4, unstrung. 
Burial 16 — 66, unstrung. 
Burial 17 — 78, unstrung 



Burial 21 — 707, unstrung. 

Burial 27 — 16, unstrung. 

Trench 2 (depth 14 inches) — 11, strung 
on fiber cord. 
Site 47 (total of 1925) 

Burial 1 — 625, strung with copper tubu- 
lar beads. 

Burial 10 — coiled basket containing 100 
whole dentalia and 1300 den- 
talium segments strung alone 
on fiber cord. 



Site 48 




Burial 


2 — 57, unstrung. 


Site 51 




Burial 


1 — 186, strung with tubular cop- 




per beads. 


Burial 


2 — 50, strung with tubular cop- 




per beads. 



94 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 



[Vol. 9 



Olivella Beads (pi. XI o-q) 

In all, 541 olivella shells with the spires ground off for stringing were found. 
No strung olivella beads were found. As shown in plate XI, there is considerable 
size range, the beads varying in length from Y% inch to 1% inches. Their dis- 
tribution was as follows : 



Site 7 A 
Burial 



13, small. 



Site 8 

Burial 2 — 8, small. 
Burial 11 — 14, small. 

Site 24 (total of 263) 
Burial 13 — 40, small 
Burial 19—201, small. 
Burial 22 — 5, large. 
Burial 23 — 15, large. 
Burial 30 — 2, large. 

Site 47 (total of 173) 
Burial 1— 88, large. 



Burial 
Burial 
Burial 

Site 48 
Burial 

Site SO 
Burial 
Burial 



3— 81, large. 
6 — 3, small. 
9 — 1, large. 



2, small. 



3— 
2— 



2, small. 
27, small. 



Site 51 

Disturbed burials- 
Kettle Falls Island 

Disturbed burials- 



-20 small ; 1 large. 



-18 large. 



Disc Beads (pi. XI k-m) 

In all, 140 disc beads of shell were found. River clam and olivella and other 
marine shells are the materials used. 

River Clam (Margaritifera margaritifera faleata). Two beads from site 
7 A (burial 3) and six from a disturbed burial on Kettle Falls Island are made 
of river clam. They are ^ to y 2 inch in diameter and 1/32 inch to 3/32 inch 
thick. 

Olivella (pi. XII). In burial 3 at site 50 were 53 very small disc beads which 
appear to be made of olivella shell. They are 5/32 inch in diameter and 3/64 
inch thick. They are ground very smooth and are uniformly round. 

Unidentified marine shells. From burial 2 at site 24 came 14 disc beads of 
unidentified shell (pi. Xlm). They are 5/16 inch in diameter, % inch thick, 
smoothly ground, and uniformly round. Possibly they are made of rock scallop. 
In burial 2 at site 50 were 56 disc beads ^ to ^ inch in diameter and 1/16 inch 
thick (pi. Xlk). Their surfaces are very irregular and they are not uniformly 
round. The material is much harder than river clam shell and does not foliate 
in the same manner. In texture it is like olivella, but the shell is thicker. 



Rings (pi. XI a-b) 

Three shell rings were found in burial 3 at site 50. One has an outside 
diameter of 2^4 inches, an inside diameter of 2 inches, and is y% inch thick. The 
other two have an outside diameter of 1% inches, an inside diameter of 1 inch, 
and are 5/16 inch thick. They are made from the purple-hinged or rock scallop 
(Hinnites giganteus) which is found along the Pacific Coast from Alaska to 
Mexico. 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 95 

Pendants (pis. XI c-e,h ; Xlla) 

Eighteen shell pendants were found. A few are of river clam (pi. XI d-e), 
one is probably a section of salt water clam, and the remainder are of abalone 
(Haliotis) (pis. XI c,h ; Xlla). They vary in size from 1 inch by Yz inch to 
5 inches by 3^4 inches. The most common shapes are oval, triangular, rectangular, 
and trapezoidal, and generally but not invariably the hole for suspension is 
drilled on the shortest side or narrowest end. The distribution was as follows: 

Site 2 Site 46 

Surf ace— 1, abalone. Burial 24—2, abalone ( ? ) . 

Burial 2 — 1, salt water clam (?). 

Site 7 A Site 47 

Burial 4 — 1, river clam. Burial 1 — 4, abalone. 

Site 24 Burial 3 — 1, abalone. 

Burial 11—2, river clam (?). Burial 10 — 2, river clam 
Burial 15 — 1, abalone. 

Burial 23 — 1, river clam. Site 51 

Burial 25 — 1, material uncertain. Burial 1 — 1, abalone. 

Marine Worm (?) Shell 

A tubular shell 2^4 inches long and yi inch in diameter was found in burial 
1 at site 8. There are two short, shallow incisions on one side, as if a cut had 
been begun. There is no other evidence of its having been worked. It appears 
to be the shell of a marine worm. 

Unzvorked Clam Shells (Shell Middens) 

Varying quantities of river clams [Margaritifera margaritifera faleata 
(Gould)] were found in the occupation deposits at sites 11, 12, 24, 31, 33, 34, 
38, 40, 41, 43, 45, and 49. The most extensive deposit was at site 41, where there 
were two shell middens 2 feet thick and 40 feet in diameter. Evidently the in- 
habitants of these sites made considerable use at times of river clams for food. 
Similar river clam shell deposits have been reported along the Okanagon River, 124 
at Wahluke, 125 in the Yakima Valley, 126 and smaller deposits have been found in 
the Dalles-Deschutes region 127 and along the Snake. 128 River clams were used 
as food to some extent by the Sanpoil and Nespelem 129 and Okanagon, but were 
not eaten by the Thompson. 130 The following information on the Okanagon 
practices is pertinent. 

Mussels . . . were of first importance [as a starvation food in winter]. Large beds of 
these were found in the Okanogan River every three or four miles. . . . Starving people would 
camp by these beds and gather them with a forked stick through holes in the ice if wading 
was impossible. They were easily opened and were boiled. Some few people liked them so 
much that they gathered and baked them in times of plenty, though never in hot weather. 
Shell heaps have been reported all along the Okanogan River. 131 



124 Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 29. 

125 Krieger, Prehistoric Pit House Village Site, p. 13. 

126 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, pp. 34-35. 

127 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 71. 

128 Spinden, Ncz Perce Indians, p. 177. 

129 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 58. 

130 Teit, Thompson Indians of British Columbia, p. 231. 

131 Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 29. 



96 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

Such a lack of intensive use of river clams for food would account for the gen- 
erally sporadic occurrence of shell deposits at our larger habitation sites (e.g., 
sites 11 and 24). This would explain the larger shell middens, like the one at site 
41, which lack evidence of intensive occupation, as temporary habitation sites 
located near large clam beds and usually occupied only for brief periods during 
times of famine. 

Summary and Comparisons 

In the upper Columbia region shells were used for a variety of ornaments. 
Beads were made of whole and segmented dentalium shells and olivella shells. A 
few of the dentalium shells bear incised designs. Probably some of the den- 
talium shells were used for nose ornaments and ear pendants. Disc beads were 
made from river clams, and from olivella and other marine shells. Pendants were 
made from river clam shells, abalone, and possibly salt water clams. Large 
rings were made from the rock scallop (Hinnites). 

Extensive use of shells for ornaments is found throughout the Plateau and 
along the whole Pacific Coast. Dentalium beads are abundant in archaeological 
deposits at Lytton, 132 along the Thompson River, 133 and in the Yakima Valley, 134 
and are present in small numbers at Wahluke, 135 , the Dalles-Deschutes region, 136 
and the Nez Perce region. 137 Incised dentalium shells are reported for Kamloops 
on the Thompson River, 138 Wahluke, 139 the Yakima Valley, 140 and the Nez 
Perce country. 141 In recent times dentalium shells were used by the Thompson 
Indians, 142 the Okanagon, 143 and the Sanpoil and Nespelem. 144 According to 
Smith, 145 dentalium shells in British Columbia were imported not up the Fraser 
River but from north of Vancouver Island across the mountains through the 
Chilcotin country and thence down the Fraser. Teit 146 states that the Lower 
Thompson Indians traded dentalia to the coast tribes, by which he probably means 
the tribes at the mouth of the Fraser. The Okanagon traded extensively with the 
Thompson, 147 and no doubt got their dentalia from them. Smith 148 is of the 
opinion that dentalia did not reach the Yakima Valley from the Fraser River 
but were probably brought from the south. 



132 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, pp. 134, 153. 

133 Smith, Archaeology of the Thompson River Region, pp. 425, 427. 

134 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, pp. 90-91. 

135 Krieger, Prehistoric Pit House Village Site, p. 19. 

136 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 72. 

137 Spinden, Nez Perce Indians, p. 181. 

138 Smith, Archaeology of the TJwmpson River Region, p. 427, fig. 379. 

139 Krieger, Prehistoric Pit House Village Site, p. 19. 

140 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, p. 91, figs. 117-118. 

141 Spinden, Nez Perce Indians, p. 181. 

142 Teit, Thompson Indians of British Columbia, pp. 222-223. 

143 Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 45. 

144 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 50. 

145 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, p. 134. 

146 Teit, Thompson Indians of British Columbia, p. 259. 

147 Teit, Thompson Indians of British Columbia, p. 258. 

148 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, p. 91. 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 97 

Olivella beads were common at Lytton, 149 absent in the Thompson River 
region, 150 and present in small numbers at Wahluke, 151 in the Yakima Valley, 102 
and in the Dalles-Deschutes region. 153 They are not reported for the Thompson, 
Okanagon, or Sanpoil and Nespelem. 

Shell disc beads are reported from Kamloops, 154 the Yakima Valley 155 and 
Wahluke. 150 A few disc beads of olivella shell were found in the Dalles- 
Deschutes region. 157 The Okanagon made beads and ear rings from river clams. 158 
The Sanpoil and Nespelem made ear rings but not disc beads from river clams. 
Beads were ground from salt water clams imported from the coast. 159 

No large shell rings like ours have been reported from other parts of the 
Plateau. 

Abalone pendants are reported from Lytton, 160 the Thompson River Region, 161 
Wahluke, 162 the Yakima Valley, 163 the Dalles-Deschutes region, 164 the Nez Perce 
region, 165 and among the Thompson Indians. 166 This wide distribution of abalone 
shells is evidence of the extent and effectiveness of Indian trade in prehistoric 
times, since the shell is marine and in this species does not occur north of the 
south coast of Oregon. 

ARTICLES OF HIDE 

A few objects of hide were found in burials at sites 8, 24, 48, 51, and in a 
disturbed burial on Kettle Falls Island. 

Site 8 

In burial 1 1 was a fragment of deer hide with the hair left on. 

Site 24 

In burial 17 were found the following : 

1. A small pouch (about 5 inches long) made of the very thin skin of a small 
fur-bearing animal. Fragments of the soft brown hair still adhere to the skin, 
which is probably from chipmunk or ground squirrel. The decorated sticks 
in this pouch are described under Articles of Wood (see p. 101). 

2. A piece of heavy hide with the hair removed, probably of bison. 

3. A piece of thin skin about 1 foot square consisting of three pieces sewed 
together with sinew. Wisps of soft brown hair adhere to the skin. This is 
probably rabbit skin, and the object might have been a cap or bag. 

In burial 21 were some fragments of buckskin with the hair removed. 



149 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, p. 153. 

150 Smith, Archaeology of the Tliompson River Region, p. 427. 

151 Krieger, Prehistoric Pit House Village Site, fig. 5. 

152 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, p. 96. 

153 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 72. 

154 Smith, Archaeology of the Tliompson River Region, p. 427. 

155 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, p. 90. 

156 Krieger, Prehistoric Pit House Village Site, pi. 5. 

157 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 72. 

158 Cline, Southern Okanagon, p. 49. 

159 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 50. 

160 Smith, Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia, p. 151, fig. 94. 

161 Smith, Archaeology of the Tliompson River Region, p. 426. 

162 Krieger, Prehistoric Pit House Village Site, fig. 5. 

163 Smith, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, figs. 90-92. 

164 Strong, Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes Region, p. 73. 

165 Spinden, Nez Perce Indians, p. 220. 

166 Teit, Tliompson Indians of British Columbia, p. 222. 



98 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

Site 48 

In burial 2 were two large pieces and several fragments of buffalo hide, including 
straps 94 mcn wide. Several seams are sewed with sinew. Buffalo hair ad- 
heres to parts of the hide. This may have been a bag. 

In burial 4 were the following : 

1. A piece of fringed buckskin without hair, probably a fragment of a bag or shirt. 

2. Four fragments of buffalo hide with hair on. 

3. A small fragment of heavy hide (elk?) with hair removed, sewed with sinew 
and having a two-inch fringe on one side, probably a bag. 

4. Wrapped around the matted bag enclosing the body of a child was a deer or 
elk hide with the hair on. 

A deer hide with hair on was wrapped around the child's body in burial 5 and sewed 
in place with sinew. 

Site 51 

In burial 2 were the following : 

1. Deer hide with the hair on wrapped around body. 

2. A piece of rawhide with the hair off. 

3. A. fragment of fringed buckskin with the hair off, probably a shirt or bag. 

Kettle Falls Island. 

In a disturbed burial was found a small piece of buffalo hide with the hair on. 

BASKETRY AND MATTING 

Fragments of baskets, bags, and mats were found in burials at sites 7B, 8, 
13, 24, 47, 48, and 51. The techniques of coiling, twining, and matting are repre- 
sented, and there is one example of imbrication on coiling. The materials used 
appear to be spruce and cedar root, cedar bark, and Indian hemp. 

Coiling 

No. 2299, site 47, burial 10. Round coiled basket with flat bottom, Zy^, inches in diam- 
eter and 3 inches high; coiled counterclockwise (viewed from the outside); single rod and 
welt foundation (fig. 15a) ; stitches (of cedar or spruce root) 3/16 inch long and 18 stitches 
per inch, only a few stitches being split ; decorated on outside with series of imbricated designs 
(fig. 15c) in a darker material, which may be cedar root but is more likely dyed spruce root. 167 
This basket was buried with a child and was filled with whole and segmented dentalium beads 
(fig. 16f-g). 

No. 1795, site 8, burial 3. Small fragment of coiled basketry; splint foundation, the 
stitches passing under two splints of the coil beneath ; apparently split stitch, at least in part, 
stitches Z/& ' nc h l° n S an( l 12 per inch. 

Nos. 2284-2287, site 13, burial 1. Fragments of a large coiled basket, probably round with 
flat bottom and coiled counterclockwise; splint foundation, stitches passing under one splint of 
coil beneath (fig. 15b) ; split stitch throughout; stitches 3/% inch long and 10 per inch. 

Twining 

No. 780, site 24, burial 21. Fragment of open twine basket (fig. 15d) ; foundation of 
flat splints (probably cedar bark) y 2 mc h wide and 3/32 inch apart; 2 rows of twining per 
inch. 

No. 2209, site 51, burial 2. Fragments of twined bag; on fine, single element foundation, 
elements i^ inch apart ; 7 rows of twining per inch ; appears to be made of twisted cedar bark. 

167 Cf. Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 35. 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



99 






wuuK^Mfei;«fttmM 



HEfEiiifwitt-feii^fccipi 




^JLJfcu-V. x 




T"^ 




Figure 15. Basketry Techniques 



100 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

No. 697, site 24, burial 3. Fragment of twined basket or bag ; foundation elements almost 
completely decomposed but appear to be single-ply and are y 2 mcn apart; 7 rows of twining 
per inch; twined strands may be cedar bark, although this is uncertain because of the effects 
of rotting and impregnation by copper salts from copper in the burial. 

Matting 

No. 2190, site 48, burial 2. Fragment (7 by 10 inches) of bag made in matting technique; 
7 twisted (clockwise) fiber foundation elements per inch sewed every Z/^ inch with two-ply fiber 
thread twisted clockwise. The fiber appears to be cedar bark. The technique is shown in figure 
15e, and a diagram of the stitch in figure 15f. A similar piece of matting, but made of twisted 
rush instead of cedar bark, was found by Smith in a burial near Ellensburg, Washington. 188 
He speaks of it as a new type of matting, and states that it has not been found elsewhere in 
archaeological deposits, and was not made by the Indians of the Thompson River region. Dr. 
Verne F. Ray was kind enough to examine our specimen and made the following comment: 

. . . this combination is not at all rare in the [upper Columbia] region, although in my 
opinion it was becoming neglected even before white contact. Eventually the so-called 
corn husk bag almost entirely displaced it. What surprises me, however, is the probability 
it is cedar bark, not rush. Even so, the bag is not out of context, for cedar bark was 
used in the area to a limited degree for such purposes. 

No. 2199, site 48, burial 4. Portion of matted bag similar to No. 2190 except that the 
cedar bark foundation elements are not twisted ; 6 fiber foundation elements per inch sewed every 
inch with 2-plj r fiber thread twisted clockwise. The small child in this burial was placed inside 
the bag and the bundle tightly wrapped in a deer or elk hide with the hair still on. Also in the 
burial were fragments of what appears to be a fringed buckskin shirt, and copper beads and 
a pendant. 

No. 2260, site 7B, burial 7. Fragments of sewn matting; very decomposed, but the ma- 
terial appears to be rush ; the nature of the thread cannot be determined. 

No. 701, site 24, burial 4. Matted fibers, probably fragment of matting but too decomposed 
for determination. 

No. 734, site 24, burial 12. Small fragments of matted fiber. 

No. 2216, site 48, burial 5. Matted fibers suggesting matting. 

CORDAGE 

Many cords and strings were found in burials, most of them having been 
used for bead stringing. These are of three types: single stranded buckskin, 
twisted 2-stranded sinew, and twisted 2-stranded fiber. The twisting is always 
clockwise. The fibers used are cedar bark and Indian hemp. For distribution and 
methods used in bead stringing see pages 106-108, table 17, figure 16. 

TEXTILES 

In burial 12 at site 7B were found some fragments of black, tan, and dark 
brown textiles and some fine black hair, probably human hair. The burial con- 
tained 30 glass trade beads. Since the burial dates from the period of White 
contact and since no aboriginal textiles like these specimens have been reported 
from the Plateau, it is probable that they are of White origin. The specimens 

168 Archaeology of the Yakima Valley, pp. 85-86, fig. 71. 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 101 

were submitted to Professor Lila M. O'Neale of the University of California for 
analysis. Her report on them follows : 

1. Black textile of vegetal fibres. 

Single-ply yarns both warp and weft wise. 
Yarn count : approximately 28 x 28 to the inch. 
Weave : plain over-one-under-one. 

2. Tan textile of vegetal fibres. 

Single-ply yarns both warp and weft wise. 
Yarn count : approximately 16 x 16 to the inch. 
Weave : a 2 and 1 twill. 

3. Dark brown textile (two different fragments of same color). 

Single-ply yarns both warp and weft wise of the cloth. 

Yarn count : approximately 20 x 20 to the inch. 

Weaves : 2 forms of twill : 2 and 1 (as above) ; and 2 and 2. 

The three textile fragments (dark brown, tan, black) are woven of spun vegetal fibres. 
They appear to be bast fibres similar to flax, hemp, etc. . . . 

The black hair is much darker but not perceptibly coarser than that on some of the 
Peruvian skulls. Your specimen does not seem coarse enough for dog's hair although it is 
stiff er than the human hair to which I compared it. 

ARTICLES OF WOOD 

Cedar stake markers over rock slide burials, cedar plank enclosures over pit 
burials, and charred wood in fire places have already been mentioned. The only 
other objects of wood came from burials at site 24. In burial 17 was a small 
pouch containing five small decorated sticks. They are 6 l /i inches long, 3/16 inch 
in diameter, and tapered at the ends. Attached with sinew wrapping to one end 
of each stick are three feathers which extend to the middle, the tips of the 
feathers pointing toward the end. They thus have the appearance of miniature 
arrows. Possibly they had some religious or magical significance. Two toy dug- 
out boats of wood were found in burial 21, a child burial. One is 4 inches long, 
1% inches wide and }i inch deep, with both ends pointed and one end perforated, 
probably for attachment of a cord. Only half the other boat remains. This is 
6 l / 2 inches long, 2 inches wide and 1 inch deep. The remaining end is pointed 
and perforated. 

POTTERY 

No objects of clay were found. A special effort was made not to miss ma- 
terial of this sort because of the fact that the Sanpoil and Nespelem used clay 
to a limited extent to make rings for the hoop and pole game and for unfired 
pots. 169 There is a possibility that the Colville also made clay vessels, and a 
clay sherd is reported to have been found in a plowed field at Inchelium. 170 No 
evidence of the use of clay was found by us. 



169 Ray, "Pottery on the Middle Columbia." 

170 Ray, Sanpoil and Nespelem, p. 40, n. 6. 



102 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 



ARTICLES OF EUROPEAN ORIGIN 

Considerable numbers of glass trade beads and tubular copper beads, smaller 
numbers of other objects of copper, and articles of iron were found at some sites. 
With one exception, all such articles came from burials. A summary of their dis- 
tribution is given in table 13, and the distribution is shown in detail in tables 
14, 15, and 16. 

TABLE 13 
Distribution of Objects of European Origin 



Type of Object 


Site 




2 


7A 


7B 


8 


24 


29 


31 


46 


47 


48 


51 


Glass beads 




X 


X 




XX 








X* 


X 


X 








Tubular copper beads 


X 


X 




XX 


XX 








X 


XX 


X 


Other copper objects 


X 


X 






XX 


X 


X 


xt 


X 


X 


XX 


Objects of iron 




X 




X 


XX 








X 




X 









x — present. 
xx — present in large quantities. 
* — two glass beads in burial 10 only. 
t — one copper fragment in burial 2 only. 



Articles of Copper 

Copper Beads (pis. XIj, Xlld, XIII a-d,f). A total of 1203 tubular copper 
beads was found. These are made by rolling into cylinders thin sheets of copper 
which are undoubtedly of European origin. They vary in length from ^ inch 
to S% inches and in diameter from ^ to ^ inch. The beads are strung on buck- 
skin or twisted fiber, often with one or more segments of dentalium between each 
two copper beads (pis. XIj, Xlld). The methods of stringing are discussed in 
detail under Techniques of Bead Stringing (pp. 106-108). At site 24 (burial 17) 
copper beads were strung with small, white glass trade beads, in one case on 
twisted sinew and in another on twisted fiber. At site 48 (burial 4) were found 
copper beads strung with large, blue glass trade beads on a single strand of buck- 
skin, with large green glass trade beads on a single strand of buckskin in burial 2, 
and on twisted fiber in burial 5. Two large cylindrical red glass trade beads were 
strung with the copper beads from burial 1 at site 51. 

The number and distribution of copper beads are shown in table 14. The 
largest number are from site 24 and site 48. 

Copper Pendants (pis. XII b-c,f ; XIII e-f,h,m). Twenty-seven copper pen- 
dants were found. They consist of sheet copper cut to various shapes, with one 
or more holes drilled for suspension. Many are roughly triangular, rectangular, 
or pear-shaped, suggesting shapes characteristic of the shell pendants (pis. XI 
c-e; Xlla). Four are circular or oval. Two from site 51 are made by removal 
of the eyelet of a flat copper button and by drilling a hole near one edge (pi. 
XHIh). 



1942] Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



103 



TABLE 14 
Distribution of Tubular Copper Beads 





Location 


Number 


Site total 


Site 2 


Burial 12 


1 


1 






Site 7A 


Burial 4 


18 


18 






Site 8 


Burial 1 1 


198 


198 






Site 24 


Burial 2 


24 










Burial 4 


3 






Burial 6 


2 






Burial 17 


327 






Burial 2 1 


118 






Burial 23 


6 


480 


Site 47 


Burial 1 


12 


12 






Site 48 


Burial 2 


270 










Burial 4 


158 






Burial 5 


58 


486 


Site 51 


Burial 1 


8 










Burial 2 


50 


58 



Total. 



1253 



Copper Bracelets (pi. XIII k-1). Three copper bracelets came from burials 
at sites 7A, 24, and 47, respectively. These are made by bending rectangular 
sheets of copper into the form of an open cylinder, the ends being */£ to 1*4 
inches apart. These strips are 2% inches by 6% inches, \~% inches by 6 inches, 
and Y% mcn by 6 inches respectively, two having rounded ends and one straight 
ends. 

Copper Buttons (pi. XIII g-h). Three flat, plain, circular copper buttons 
came from burial 1 at site 51. Two of these have been converted to pendants by 
removal of the eyelet and the drilling of a hole (pi. XHIh) and for this reason 
have been listed as pendants in table 15. 

Copper Thimble. A copper thimble came from burial 1 at site 51. It is 
24 inch high and Y% inch in diameter at the base. The top and sides bear the 
usual indentations of a thimble. The top has been perforated at the center, pos- 
sibly for suspension of the thimble as an ornament. 

Copper Bells (pi. Xllli). Three copper bells came from burial 25 at site 24. 
These have the shape of a flattened sphere 9/16 inch in diameter and yi mcn 
deep, with a metal eyelet on the top and two small holes on the bottom. It is 



104 



University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 



[Vol. 9 



impossible to determine whether the iron clapper within was originally free or 
attached to the top by a loop, as it is now nearly rusted away. 

Knife-like Ornament of Copper (pi. Xlle). A knife-like ornament of cop- 
per came from burial 5 at site 48. It is 6% inch long and 2 inches wide, the 
blade being 5 inches long and the constricted handle 1% inches long. One side 
of the blade is ground to a fairly sharp edge but the other is blunt. There is a 
hole at the end of the handle and three pairs of holes on the blade. A buckskin 
thong remains on the upper set of blade holes, indicating that the object was 
sewn to something. It probably served as an ornament rather than a knife. 



TABLE 15 
Distribution of Copper Pendants and Other Objects of Copper 





Site 






2 


7A 


24 


29 


31 


46 


47 


48 


51 




Type of Object 


o 
u 

3 

pq 


C5 

a 

u 

- 


u 
3 

m 


a 

3 

m 


i-H 

3 


T-H 

CM 

U 

3 

pq 


CM 

*3 

u 

3 

pq 


CM 

u 
3 

pq 


a 

u 

3 

cq 




4J 
CJ 

3 
CO 


CM 

t-c 

3 

cq 


15 

i-H 

3 

pq 


o 

u 

3 

m 


CM 

*c3 

u 

3 

pq 


3 

pq 


U1 

3 

pq 


3 

pq 


Disturbed 
Burial 


Total 


Pendant 




l 


l 


3 


2 


3 


4 




1 




1 




1 




2 


3 




7 




29 








Button . 




































1 




1 








































Thimble 




































1 




1 








































Knife-like ornament 


































1 






1 


Bracelet 






l 


1 


















1 














3 










Bell 
















3 
























3 




















Miscellaneous fragments 


1 










1 


2 






1 




1 




1 


1 






1 


2 


11 


Total 


1 


l 


2 


4 


2 


4 


6 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


l 


3 


3 


1 


10 


2 


49 


Site Totals 


1 


3 


19 


2 


1 


1 


3 






7 


12 



































Glass Trade Beads 

Glass trade beads were found in burials at sites 7A, 24, 47, 48, and 51. By 
far the greatest number came from site 24. The number and distribution are 
shown in table 16. 

Most of these beads are tubular with slightly rounded edges, and are white 
or blue. This type runs 8 to 9 per inch when strung. These are strung together 
in solid alternating sections of blue and white. In burial 21 at site 24 the pro- 
portion was 2800 white beads to 3350 blue beads. A few green, red, coral, and 
black beads of about the same size and shape were also found. Blue or green 
globular beads 3/16 to y% inch in diameter were found in small numbers at sites 
24, 47, and 48, two of these being the only glass beads from site 47. The two 



1942] 



Collier, Hudson, Ford: Upper Columbia Archaeology 



105 



glass beads from site 51 are red and cylindrical {y% inch in diameter, y 2 inch 
long). They are strung with dentalium and copper beads. 

Many glass beads were noted in association with the disturbed burials on 
Kettle Falls Island and on the north bank of the Spokane River one-half mile 
below Detillion bridge, but they were not collected. 

Apparently all of the glass beads were strung to be used as necklaces; there 
is no evidence that they were used for beading skins or cloth. The smaller beads 
are strung on two-stranded sinew twisted clockwise, and some of the larger 
beads on fine cord of two-stranded fiber twisted clockwise. A fuller description 
of bead stringing techniques is given on pages 106-108. 

TABLE 16 
Distribution of Glass Trade Beads* 





Location 


No. of beads 


Site total 


Site 7A 


Burial 4 


33 


33 






Site 7B 


Burial 11 


50 










Burial 12 


30 


80 


Site 24 


Burial 3 


1 










Burial 15 


4 






Burial 17 


380 






Burial 21 


6187 






Burial 23 


26 






Burial 29 


1950 


8548 


Site 47 


Burial 10 


2 


2 






Site 48 


Burial 2 


11 










Burial 5 


202 






Burial 6 


50 


263 


Site 51 


Burial 1 


2 


2 


Total 






8928 



*Note: Large quantities of glass trade beads were noted but not recovered in the back dirt from 
disturbed graves on Kettle Falls Island and on the north bank of the Spokane River a half mile below 
Detillion bridge. 



Articles of Iron 

A total of 12 objects of iron was found at sites 7 A, 8, 24, 47, and 51. 

Site 7 A. In burial 5 were found several irregularly shaped pieces of iron. 
One of these showed wood impressions at one end. as of a handle, indicating its 
possible use as a knife. 



106 University of Washington Publications in Anthropology [Vol. 9 

Site 8. In burial 1 were found two 16-penny iron nails with round cross 
sections. These are possibly intrusive in the burial. There are modern houses a 
few hundred yards away and several recent planks on the talus slope nearby. A 
plank containing nails might have rotted, allowing the nails to drop into the 
crevices above the burial. In burial 11 was a large object made of sheet iron. It 
is 31 inches long and bent in the middle to form a "U," although it was probably 
straight originally. One end is 3 inches wide, and tapers to ^ inch in width 
12 inches from the other end, which bifurcates to form a "V." The inside edges 
of the "V" appear to have been sharpened. No use for this object can be 
suggested. 

Site 24. In burial 2 was an iron object resembling a double-bladed axe. 
It is 4yz inches long, 3^4 inches wide and %. inch thick. The ends flare like an 
axe blade and are sharpened. It could have been used as an adze or axe. It would 
have been hafted like a grooved stone axe. 

In burial 21 was a sword blade 19^4 inches long, \y§ inches wide at the 
base, and tapering gradually to the point. It is straight, unlike a cavalry sword. 
From the same burial came a wedge-shaped piece of iron 6%. inches long, \y 2 
inches wide, 54 i nc h thick, sha